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C^ EORGE the Second, by the Grace of Qod. 
■w King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, Defender of 
-' the Faith, &c. To a!l towlioin t^^ic Prefcnts Ihall coiner> 
Greeting: Whereas William Owbn, an4 William John- 
ston, of Our City of London, Bookfelien, have, by their 
Petiiion, humbly reprefented unto Ut, That, they have with 
great Care, Ltboqr and E^pence, compleated a Worlc, intituled, 
A NEW and 6eNERAL 

Biographical Diftionary, 


The Lives of the tnoftlllaffriotts Ferfons, who have 'floarilhed fit 
' all Nuioas, from (be eSirliefi Period to the Frcf^st fims. 

And have moft humbly prayed. That Wc would erant Theti| 
Our Royal Licence, for the fole Vending of their faid DiAionary, 
for the Term of Fourteen Years, according to the Statute in that 
Cafe made and provided ; We, being willing to give all due En- 
couragement, to a Work of this Natnre, which may be of public 
Ufe and Benefit, are gracioofly pleafed to condefccnd to Their . 
Recjueft; And We do, therefore, by thefe Prefents.(fofarasmay 
be agreeable to the Statute in that behalf made and provided), 
grant unto Them, the faid Willi au OwsM, and William 
Johnston, Their Heirs, Executors, and Affigns, Oor Royal 
Privilege and Licence, for the fole printing, pubtifhlng, and vend- 
ing their faid Diaionary, for the Term of Fourteen Years ; to be 
computed from theDate hereof, Ari^ly forbidding and prohibiting 
all Our SubjeAs within Our Kingdoms and Dominions, to reprint, 
abridge, or tranHate the fame, eiiher in the like or any other Vor 
Inmeor Volumes whatfoevcr; or, to import, buy, vend, utter, or 
diflrlbuteany Copies ihercof, reprinted, beyond the Seas, during 
the aforefaid Term of Fourteen Years, without the Confent ana 
Appmbation of them, tbefaid William Owex and William 
JoHKSTow, their Heirs, Executors, or Affigns, by Wjiring 
under their Hands and Sea!, firfl had and obtained, as they and 
every of them ofttnding' herein will anfwer the contrary at 
their Peril. Whereof the Qoinniiffio tiers and other Officers of Our 
C(iftoms, the Matter Wardens and Company of Stationery of 
Oiir City of London, «nd all other Our Officers and Miniflers 
whom it may concern, are to take Notice, that due Obedience 

\be rfiKjefe'djtfejJur Pleafure herein fignified. 
: l3iV6B si-QMcCourt at Kenfington, the Twenty-third Day of 
- ..J^ftoUr 1755, in the Twenty-nintii Yearof Our Reign. 
:-••:: :"-: By His Maiefty's Command, 

-.;-'■;/:..■. HOLDERNESSE, 






OF T H^ 

Moft Eminent Perfons 



from the Eailieft Accounts of Time tP (he prefej^t F^riod^ 

WHf R £ J M 

. Ttieir remarkable Action? and SufferinqS| 
Their V:fRTups, PaRtj, and LearninC| 


With a Cataloque of their Literary Productions* 


Hn ■^ n .ii i g '■ ■ ' ■■■ . I ■ ' ■ % » 


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To the Former Edition, 1761, 

-, . ' • ■ r 

« » - . • 

AS it is unneceflary to fhew the ufefulnefs 
of an accurate hiftorical account of fuch 

perfons and fads as have been the objedts of 
public attention in all ages and nations ; no- 
thit^ more can l^c expeded in a preface to 
this ipv^oit;, tTian an account of the. manner 
in which it is executed, and the reafons why 
it was not thought to be precluded by, any 
other work of the fame kind that is already 
extant. - ' . • 

The principal of tltefe works are Bayle's 
Hiftorical and Critical Dictionary; the Gene- 
ral Di(3:ionary ; the Biographia Britannica ; 
the Athenae Oxonienfes, and Mr. Collier's Hi£- 
torical Dictionary, 

Bayle's work is in five large volumes in. folio : 
yet there are many perfpns of great eminence, 
both ancient and modern, Vhom Bayle has not 

Vol. I. a ^ fo 

vi P R E JF A C E T O 

fo much as named, though he has mentioned 
others of whom nothing is known, but that 
they were the occafion or the fubjeft of foneie 
ufelefe controverfy, th« very terms of whfcl>iew 
underftand, and the merits of which a Tmall 
part eveil of thofe few are difpofed to examine* 
Bayle's hives are indeed nothing moire than 4 
vehicle for his criticifm j and his work fcctn^ tQ 
have'befen ehiefly the tranfcript of a yolumlnoua 
common-place book, in which he had ififerted 
his owii remarks on the various authors he had 
read, and gratified his peculiar turn of n\in4 
by difciiflihg their opinions and eorredting, 
their miftakes* , It is therefore rather ^ .mifcel-^ 
lany qf critical and tnetaphyfiQal fpeculations, 
than ^ a fy wm of Biography, 

The General Didionary, as it includes^ Bayle, 

IS fo far liable to the farfie ebje(3:ions : it is in-r 

deed aucrhiented with other articles j but they 

^ * - ■ *' • 

alfo are written in ^ayle^s manner, and for 

that re^oft the work upoij the whole is not 

iniich better adapted to general* life. There ar^ 

many reduiidances, and yet there are ta^tij 

defers .; and there is befid^s an objection of more 

weight though of another kjnd, the woyk confi{l-f 

ing of np lefs than ten volumes in folio, foj: which 

the purchafer muft pay more than fp md^y pounds. 


The Bio^phia Britjiapica is iiick^ much 
ixiom m hiftoiieftl i¥Qrk than BayU's, but i$ 
written upon ^ miicjbi I^^ exteai^veplaa* It con^ t 
t^jli8 th« Liires of thof«nm|nCttt p«frfdnsi otily^ who 
w«re hatn in Gr?a| Britain and Ireland ; and 
of thefe the eWef ajone art fele<9ted^ though 
many odiers have a degree of eminence fufficient 
to render them objeAs of general curiofity* 

The Athense Oxonieufes is written upon a 
pla» ftill more contraded, for it contains an 
account of fuch authors only, as received their 
SLCSLdctoic education at the Univerfity of Oxford. 

Mr. Collier*^ Great Hiftorical, Geographical^ 
Genealogical, Poetical Didionary may poffibly 
feem, by the pretended univerfality of its plan, to 
have anfwered every purpofe which can be pro- 
pofed from any new work : but this DiAionaiy is^ 
as its title fhews, filled with Geographical and 
Poetical defcriptions, which are no part of our 
defign ; and with tedious uninterefting Genea- 
logies, which have neither ufe nor entertainment 
in tSiem. It is exceedingly defedive, both as to, 
the number of the lives, and the fuUnefs <?f the 
aocounts : that is, its accounts of men are too 
general, too fuperfidal, and indeed too fliort, to 
pre fatisfa<lion. We would i^ig^^^h&xx: tite reader 

a 2 to 

• •• 

Tiir : P R E F A C E T O 

to conclude from this, that it is any part of oiir 
intention to be more than ordinarly nice and ori-- 
tical : on the contrary, we have for the moift: 
part purpofdy avoided mere criticifm, minute 
enquiries and difcuflions, and all thofe trifling 
points which coiiftitute the dry part o£ Bio- 
graphy ; but then we have endeavoured to be at . 
leaft fo particular and fo accurate ift our ac* 
counts, as to convey a fufEcient knowledge of 
the perfons we have recorded ; which certainly 
can by no means be faid of Mr. Collier. So that, 
upon the whole, neither any nor all of thefe per- 
formances, however voluminous and cxpenfive, * 
contain what ought to he found in an Univerlal 
Biographical Diftionary ; and fugh is the Work 
which we now offer to the public,. 

This contains fome account of every Fife that 
has been fufficiently diftingvufhed to be record- 
ed ; not indeed a lift of all the Names which are 
to be found in chronological and regal tables 
(for of many nominal rulers both of the Church 
and State it can only be faid that they lived and 


4ied) ; but a judicious narrative of the adions 
or. w^ritings, the honours or difgraces, of all thofe 
whofe Virtues, Parts, Learning, or even "Vices, 
have prefer ved them from oblivion in any records, 
• of whatever age,^ and in whatever language. 



This* work" will, therefore, naturiJly iitdiade a .^ 
isAoFfcdi the mcrfl .remarkable and tnteceQiiigft 
ttaniadions, an hiftoirical account of the pro- * 


grefs' of learning, and an abftra£t of all opi^.\ : . 
nions and principles by which the world has 
been influenced in all its extent and duration. 
We have beeii particularly careful to do juftice 
to the learned aind ingenious of our own coun-- 
try^ whofe works are juftly held in the higheft 
efleem ; and we have alfo been attentive to 
the ijiftrudion and amufement of the ladies, not 
only by decorating our work with the names of 
fliofe who have done honour to the fex, but by 
making our account of others fufficifently parti- 
cular to excite and gratify curiofity ; ancf, where 
the futjed would admit, to intereft the paflions, 
without wearying attention, by minute prolixity 
or idle fpeculations. 

In the execution of this plan, we have not had 
recourfe merely to . dictionaries, nor contented 
ourfetves with fupplying the defeds of one 
diaionary from another^ and cutting off the 
redundances of all ; but we have collected from 
every performance in every language what had 
. any relation to ,^ur defign. For the lives of 
authors, we have had recourfe to their works j 
and for the lives of others, to the beft memoirs 

7 th^ 

I» R IE F A C E. 


tlittittflxtAt&tconcermngfiim* We Hiall^ KoW*- 
cnvj nDtvrtdifiainding the extent of oilr mider^ 
takkigy and die Idboar and expeace necefi&fy C^ 
the execution, of it^ comprize this work within 

Twelve volumes in oftavo, 

. In ^ work So various, the materials of whichv^ 
are fo numeraus, diffiifed and diflimilar^ we h^ve 
endeavoured to feledi in every ii^ace, what 
was in itfelf 100ft eligible ; we hope, therefore^ 
that, wheaoiu* Readers ^onfider what we havtf 
done, they will not withhold their app^ohatioa, 
upon a m©re fuppofition tjiat we might hav/e 
done more. Thofe who are acquainted with 
the pains and attention wquifite for the com- 
piling of great works^ will readily excu^ ftay 
iinall defeds that may have efcaped iia« Th^ 
authors hope for fucce& from the candid an4 
judicious only, whofe recommendation it is 
their mmoft ambition to obtain, as ft has been 
their earneft endeavours to merits 


f« r 





V •» 


THE nature of the BIOGRAPHICAL 
DICTIONARY having been fufficiently 
* explained in the foregoing Preface ; it remains 
only to mention, that the interval of time iince 
the former publication has been in no fmall de- 
gree employed in preparing the prefent edition. 
With this view, the whole work has been atten- 
tively revifed j fome fuperfluities retrenched ; not 
a few of the former articles new written j and 
inore than six hundred New Lives added, 
without increafing the number of the volumes. 

The lofs of feveral amiable men of letters dur- 
Ing the fhort period in which this work has been 
pacing throu^the prefs, and the occafional in- 
formations tliat have been very recently received, 
whilft they fiirnifli an apology for deBcieucies 
that may be obfervcd in an undertaking which 
from the nature of it can never be complete, 
\vill fuggeft to our Readers the expediency of 
9 loQking 


looking forward to future improvements ; to 
which end, communications will be thankfully ! 
received by the publifhers^... . 

An Appendix is now given, of fuch lives as 
hate ,come to hand too iate\to be inferted in 
jdphabetical order. * 

, ;y.. 

« ■• * 

. ♦ 


C «ii! ] 















< .. \> 


A : 

o ..A 
• 'A 

1 T f>;. ft 


^<»* ?Jr Lx?£8 marked with an Afterifil^l are eitbflr now firft added^ 

or entirely new written* 

AAltSEliS, Fnmcif 
• Atf (§sii 

Abbot, George 

* Abbot, Mtmkt 
Abbot, Robert 
Abelardy P«}ber 

* Abcll» |ob0 
AWACtby, John 
AWtaco^rt. S«c Perra|, 
Able, Thonifs 
AbrabaivsJ, ifaaf 
Abftemiof, Laoreatiat 
Abul Faregint, Gregory. 
Acciaioli, D«'n^ii« 
Accio^ ^iiciui 
Accofdi, Stephen Ta^ 
Acoiitiiif» James 

AcropoUta, Gforgf 
Adtoi, MeklMtfr 

Adaa/oiiy Patrick 
Addiforiy Lancelot 
Addifony Jofeph 
Adrian, PoblMt 
AdraaQ IV. Pope 
Adrian de CaftcUo 
Adrianti Jaaoni Battifta 
Adricbomiua, CknAiin 
/^gineta, Paulua 
Alberoniy Jalin^ 
Alfred the Grtat 
^lian, Oaudiat 
iCmilius, PaolttS 

* i£neas, Oaseve 
i^neas, Sylviwa 
JECch\nt9, philofophtfr 

* jfifduAes, orator . 


JEfop, the hiiloriaa 


* iEuQS 
Afcr, Domitiut 

Aga^i Arthur * 

• Agathias 
Agrippa, H. CorneKat 
Ainfworfhf Henry 

'^ Ainfwortfa, Robert 

• Akenfide, Maiif 
Alain, Chartier 
Alamanni, Letviti 
Alamos, Balthafat 
Alan, William 


'Albani, Frane^s 
Albertua, Magaut 

Alciat, A^rew 
Alcock, John 
Alcuinus, Flaccut 
AlcyonitJf, ^*cter 
AldheliDj St. 

• Aldrich, Ffmry 
Aidrovaadat, Ulyilet 
AleandfT, aicfabsfto 



LIST of the LfVES in the 

Alrander, JerAme 
illegainbe, Philip 

.AVuA^t JuUui 
Ales, Alexander 

* Alexander the Great 
Alexander^ Neckam 
Aiekander ab Alexiin^ro 
Alexander, Noel -^ 
Alexander, William 

Aleyn, Charles 
Alfred. See iClfred 

* Algarotti, Count 
AllatiuSj Leo 
jlHciu, Thomas 
Alleiu^, Richard 
AUeftrr, Jacob 

-Alleyni Edward 
Ailix, Peter 

* Almelovecn 
Alphonfus. See CaiUle 
Alpini, Profpero 

* Alfop, Anthony 
AlftediuB, J. Henry 
Altilius, Gabriel 
Alting, James 

* Alvares de Luna 
AVraret^^FMncis ^ 
Ai^ma,' ^xtiput ^ 
Amand, M. A. Gen 

L- ^ ^ 

Annat, Francis 
Annefley, Arthur 
- An^cloi^ «rtbhiAop ' 
Anfon, lord 
Antoniano, Silvio 
Antopides, V. G. J^ 
Antombus Philorophis, Mar- 

ett Aurellus ^ 
Ahtonioy Nicholas 

* Antonius, Marcus, orator 
AntcntoSi-'Marcutt fttumvir 

* Apicius 

* Apion 

* ApoUinarik^ C, Snip. 
ApoUinarii* 6ee Sidonius 
Apoltodorus, Athenian 

* Apollodorusy arc^iteft 

1 1 Apollonius,' oiP Pei^t ^ 
Apollonius, Pythagorean 
Apono, Peter d* 

Aprofio, Angelico 

ApuleiuSj Lucius 

Aquinaa> St. Th^^qift 


Arbuthnot, Dr. John 
^rcj loan of. • Se^ Joan - 
• Architothut >. 



Ambrofe, St. 
- A^iio.^-NSec Plotiaaj' Aretin» Gny. 

^ AmeTut3«lVplounai>Nicholas Aretin, Leonard 

Amelot, Denis 
Ames, William 

* Ames, Jofeph 

* Amhurft, l^icholas 
Ammirato, Scipio 
Ammooius* Andrew 
Amontons^ William 

* Aino^, Thoilnas 
Amyot, Jatnes 
Amyraut, Mofes 

* Anacharfia 
AnciUon, t)iy\d 
Ancourt, Florent-dartond* 
Anderibn, Sir Edmund 

* Anderfon, Adam 
Andrada, Piego 
Andreas, James 
Andreas, John 

Aretmv Francis > 
Aretin, Peter 

* Argens, J. B. de Boyer 

* Argyropylus, Joannes 
Arians. ^eeAciui . 
Ariofto, Ludo?Jco 

* Ariflir€kus,«philofopher 

* Ariftarchus, grammarian 

* Ariflaenetu^ 

* Ariftides, JElim 
Arminius, James 

* Armftrong, John' 

* Arnald, Richard ■ 
Arnaud de Meyfreilh 
Arnaod de Villa Nova 
Arnaud, Anfhony 

Andreas, John, of Valenda Arnaud, d'AndiUi, Robdt 

. Andretni, Ifabelta 
Andrelmus. P. P. 
Andrews, Lancelot 
Anello, Thomas. 
Aogelis, Dominicode 
Angelus, Chriftophcr 
Aogluff Thomai 

Arnsud, Anthony 

Arndt, John 

* Arne, T; Attguftine 

Arnif«os, HcAaingut 





Arpinas, Joseph Carfat 

Arulis,-Jofe|ii " • 
Afcbam, Roger 

* Afconius, Pedianut 
Afgill, John 
AfhmoTe, Elias 
Afler, A(r, Menevenfif 
AfteU, Mary 

* Aftruc, John 
Athanafius, St* 

* Athenagorai 

* Athenspua 
Atherton, John 
Atkina« SirRoHert 
Atterbury, Lewis 
Acterbury, Dr. Lewis 
Atterbury, bifhop 

* Atticus 

* Aubigq^. T. Agrippa 
Aubrey,' John 
Aventin, John 

Augyftin, St. ■ ' 
AoguftSne, St. 

Angoftut Caefar. <See 0£ta^ttfl 
Avicenna ' '" 
Autelianus, See Coelittf • 
Aufonius, Decimus Magnus 
Aylmer, John 
**«Aykiffe, Sir Jofeph 

* Ayfcoogh, George Edwairi 


OABINGTON, Gervafe' 

♦ Baccio, Andreas 
Bacon, Rogdt 
Bacon, Sir Nicholas 
Bacon, Vi(cr«St. Albans 

* B<>gford, John 

* Baglivi, George 
Bailier, Adrian 
Bainbridge, John 
Bakei, Sir Richard 

Baker, Thomas^ mathematiciaa 

* Baker, Thomas, antiquary 

* Baker, Henry 

* Balamio, Ferdinand 

* Baldinucci, Philip 
Bale, John 

* Bales, Peter 
Ballanden, Sir John 
Ballard, Gdorge 
Baloze, Stephen 

Balaac, John Lewis Cutt de 
Banter, Anthony 
^aaiftcr, John 



Banks, John 

* Baratier, John Pliilip 
Hsrbarus, Hern^olaua 
Barberioi. Francii 
SarWyraCy Joha 
Barclay, Alexander 
Barclay, William 
Barday, Joha 
Barclay, Robert 

* Rarkham, Dr. John 
Barlans, Gafpardat 
Barlowe, Thomas 
Barlowe, William 
BarnaKdy Sir John 
Barncf, Joihaa 
Baro, peter « 
Baronios, Cit/ar 

* Sarrlngton, John lord vifc. 
Barrow, Ifaac 

Barthios, Cafpar 
Bartholin, Cafpar 
Bartholin* Thomai 

* Barton, Eliasibeth , 
Bafil, St. 
Bafnage, James 
Bafnage, Henrj 
Baffan, James du Podt - 

* Baftwick, Vtl John 
Bats, Gdorge 

* Bate, Jolina 
Bates, waiiam 
Bachorft, Ralph 

* Bathurft, Allen, earl . 
« Battie, Dr. William 
Baudios, Dominic ' 

* Bantru * 
Baxter, Richard 
Baxter, William* . 

* Baxter, Andrew 
Bayle, Peter 

* Bayly, Lewis 

* Bayly, Thomas 

* Beale, Mary 
Beaton, David, archbp. 
Beaomont, Sir John 
Beaomont, Francis 

* Beaufobre, Ifaac de 
Becket, Thomas 
Beda, or Bede 
Bedeli, William 

* Bedford, Hilkiah 

* Bedford, Thomas 
Behn, Aphara 
Bek, David 
Bckker, Balthafar 

* Bell, Beanpr^ 
Bellai, William du 
Bellannin, Robert 
Belleao, Remi 
Belleforet, Fraodi de 
BdliB, GcntU 

Bellini, Laurence • 
Bembo, Peter 
Benedia, St. 
Brnefield, Sebaftian 
Beni, Paul 
Ben net, H;bry ^ 
Beonet, Dr. Thomts 
Bennet, Chriftopher 
Benferade, Ifaac de 
Benfon, George 
** Bentham, Edward 
Bentivogiio, Guy 
Bentley, Richard 

* Berkeley, Dr. George 
Bernard, St. 
Bernard, Edward 
Bernard, James 
Bernardioe, St. 
Bernier, Francis 
Bernini, John Lawrence 
Be^nooHi, James 
Berriman, William 
Berquio, Lewis de 

* Bertins, Peter 

* Bei&Tion, archbp. 
Betterton, Thomas 
Beveridge, Wiliiam 
Beverlaod, Hadrian 
Besa, Theodore 
Biddle, John 
Bidloo, Godfrey 
Bignon, Jerome 
Bilfon, Thomas 
Bingham, Jofeph 
Bion. See Mofchus 

* Birch, Thomas 
Birkenhead, Sir John 
Biackhall, OfFsprtng 
Blackmore, Sir Richard 

* Blackilone, Sir William 

* BUckwali, Anthony 

* Blackwell, Thomas 

* Biackwell, Alexander 

* Bladen, Martin 
Blagrave, John 
Blair, James 

* Blair, John 
Blake, RobeH 

* Blake, John Bradly 
Blanchard, James 

Blondely David 
Blondel, Francis 
Biondus, FlaviQS 
Blount, Thomas 
Blount, Sir Henry 
Blount, Sir T. Pope 
Blount, Charles 

* Blow, Dr. Joha 
Boccace, John 
BoccaliAi, '^rajaa 

b % 


Boccont, Sylvto 
Bochart, Samuel 
Bochius, John 
Bod in, John 
Bod ley. Sir Thomsi 

* Boeder, John Henry 
Boehmen, Jacob 
Buerhaave, Herman 
Boethius, Fl. An. Manltns 

Torquatos Severinas 
Boethius, ReAor * 

* BoffVand, Germaia ' 
Boileau, Nicholas 
BoiiTard, John James 
Boleyn, Anne 
Bolfec, Jerome 
Bolton, Bdmond 
Bona, John 

Benaveoture, John Fidautt - 
fionaventare, of Padua 
Bond, John 

Bonet, Theophilna 
Bonfadius, James 
Bonfinios, Antheoy 
Bon gars, James 
Bonner, Edmund 

* Bonwicke, Ambrofe 
Bootb, Barton 

* Booth, • Henry, of War-^ 

Bordone, Paris 

* Borelli, John Alphenfd 
Borgaratitts, Profper 
Borgia, Caefar 
Borlace, Dr. Edmund 

* Borlafe» William 
Borri, Jofeph Francii ' 

Bos, John Baptift du 
Boflu, Rene le 
Bofliiet, James- 

* Bott, rhomas 

* BoucbaKton, Edmund - 
Boucher, ]<ytHi 
Bouhours, Dominick 
BouUi, Cxfar Eg^ilb dif 
Boulainviltiers, Henry de 

* Boulanger, Nic. Aathonj 
Boulter, Hugh 
Bourdclot) J^hn 
Bourdon, Sebaftian 
Botirignon, Amtoinettt 
Buurdaioue, Louis 

* Boutmri Vmccnt 

* Bowytf, William 

* Boxhorn, Mark ZuerUtf 

* Boyd, Mack Akxandtt 
Boyer, Abel 

Boyle, Richard 
Boyle, Roger 
Boyle, Rgbeit 



tl8T of tiis LIVES in the 

.Boyfe, Charl« 
'^ Boyle, Tolin 
Boyfe, Jona 

• Boyfr, Tofeph 

• Boyfe, Sftmiiel 
Bra£loii, Henry 4t 
Bradley^ J^mce 

« Brady, Dr. Nichokt 
Brahe, Tycha 
Bramhall, John 

• Braodfy G<nrd 
Bray, Sir Rcgiii«ld 
Bray, Thomas 

• Brebeuf, George de 
Brent, Sir Nathanael 
Brerewood, Ed«vttid 

• Breval, }oha Dorant ^t 
Breogel, Peter 
BfMgel, John 
Brevinty Daniel 

• Brietius, Philip 
Briggs, Heary 
Brjggt, William 

Bril, Mattbow and Taol 
Briflbniot, Painabj 

• Brindley, Jamea 
FriiTott, P«er 
Britannicus, John 

• BtHtogi, ThoaMs 
Brocardaty James 
BrodeaU| John 

• Brokeiliy, Fraotcis 

• Brome, Alexander 

• Brooke, Richard 
Brooke, Sir Robert 

• Broome, WilUan^ 

• Brofieite, Claude 
Broffier, Martha 
Brottghtop, Hugh 

• BrougLton, Thomss 

• Brokhufius, lonoa 
Brouneker, William 

• BrQiiflnn» Cljiudn 
Bronwer, Adriaa 
Brown, Rnhert 
Brown, Thomas 

• Brown, John 
BiDwnes George 

• Browne, William 

• Browne, SirTbomat 
Baowne, Edward 

• Browne, Simon 

• Browne, Peier 

• Browne, Ifaac Havkina 

• Browne, Sir William 
BmwnHg, Ralph 

• toey«» Dand Aug:iifliii 
Bmin, John de 

• Bramoy, Peter 
Bnin, Charlea In 
Bruno, Jordann 

Brufchins, Cafpar 
Brutui, fohn- Michael 
Bruyere, John de In 
Buc, George 

* Buoer, Martin 
Buchanan, Georgn 
Budaeat, William 

* Buffier, Claude 
Bodgcli, Euftace 
Bufalmaco, Bnnamico 

* Bull, John 
Bull, George 
Bullialdus, Ifaiat! 
Bulleyn, William 
Bollinger, Henry 
Bond, Peter 
Bunyan, John 

* Burgh, James 
Buridan, John 
Burkttt, William 

* Borlamaqui, John JsmtS 
Burman, P«ter 

Barnet, Gilbert 

* Burnet, Thoo^as, tU 9. 

* Burnet. Thoma^ M.p« 
Barton, Henry . 

* Burton, William 

* Burton, Kober^ 

* Burton, John 

* Buibequiua 

- Bofty, Richard 

* Bufly, R. Rabutin 
Butler, Samuel 
Butler, Jofeph 
Buxtorf, John 

• Buxtorf, Johm (the Ton) 
Byng, G, lord Toriing^ 
Bsoviuf, Abrshsns 

r^ABOT, Sebaftian 

Carlius, Ayrelianttt 
CKfalpinui, Andreas 
Ceefar, Caius Jnltop 
Caefar, Sir Julius 
Cagliari, Paul 
Cajetan, Cardinal 
• Caille, N.JL. deln 
Caius, John 
Cslamy, Edmond, /en* 
Calamy, Benjamin 
Calamy, Edninad, }un» 
Calafio, M«rius 
Calderwood, Pavid 
Caldwall, Richard 

Caiiiftut, J. Andamiam 
Callot^ Jamei * 


* Calmet, Aagnftin^ 
CaUert»< ^Sjeorge 

* Calvin, 'John 
Calvifius, &thnt 
Camden, Will^m 
Caraerariu^ Joachamnt 
Camoeni, Lf wis 
Campanella, Tli^naiM 
^ Campbell, John 
Camptan, Edmund 

* Canits, Baron ff 
Cantaeuxenu>, Johannct 

* Cantemir, Dan^^rit»s 

* Cantemir, Anttochus 
Canteros, William 

* Canton, John 
Capelluf, Lewia 

* Capperonier, Clgiidf 
Caracci, I.fwis 
Csracci, Augndine 
Caracci, ^Haonihal 
Caracdoli, John ; 
Cardan, tariHik , . 
Carew, George 
Carew, Tbomff 

* Carew, Ri<;b«:i 

Carew,, CMfti^ . 

* Carey^ H^Tor 
Carletoo, , Sir Dndli|; . 
Carleton, Geonn * 

Caro^ Hannil)i|l 
Carte, Th«sg#s 
Cartes, Rcnfi^s 

Cartwright, WUli44i 

Gary, Robert <• 

Cary, Lodus, loud Fnlji^^ipil • 

* Caryll, John 

* Cafa, Jol^ndn 

* Cafas, Bartholomew 
Cafaubon,. Ifagc 
Cafaubon, Mer;ic ■ 
Cafimir, M. SarbicwfiU 

* Cadona WtUiam 
Caffini, J, PuMnininns . 
Caffiodorns, Mji^us Jlnrelifn 
Caftalio^ Seblftian 

* Caftell, £4mmNl 
Caflelvetro, Lnnn 
Caftiglione, Qslthscir 
CaftiU, Alphnnfns X. n| 
Caftrucci<^ Ciiftracani 
Catharine, of Sififi^ 
Cato, M, Portiua 

* Catrou, f mncis 
Catullur, Caiys V^tyrinn ^ 

* Cata, Jatnes 
Cave, WiUUm 

* Cave, Edward 
Cavendii)i^ Thmnas 
CsTendiOi, Sir Wmun^ 



CStfCo^tOi, WtDiattf flttke of 

CtvendiA, Charl^ 
Cavcadifli, Williatn^ §t^ 

dak€ of Devoniure 
G^nffia, Nichdbr 
Ctatoa, WiUftA 

* Caylus» count de ^ 
^ Cebes 

Cecil, WiBiamy Lord Bur* 

Cedrentst^ Geoffib ' 
Cellarittty Cbriftophirr- 

* CeJIinif Bcnveiktfto 
CdfBs» AofenutCorHKlial 
CelfiM Che E^Uufcia 

CesUtfte, Sofiitoftk 
Ctida, Jofaii tti/k 
Cenriaut. -See SlMtV^tdft 
CUilc, F. delft 
CSutcondylH, Dl^oietrial 
Chaloncr, SirTlldttai 
Chaloner, Sir Tfaomai, juo, 
ChambcrliyACy Bdwafd' 

* Chambcra, B|)hraiin 
Gbaoucr, Dani^ ^ 
Cbaaifagae^ Philip of ' 
Cbaadicr, Matfy 

* Cbafldkty $ailut^ 
€bapeUio> 'jofib 
Chapdle, (^S. 
Cii«pmaa^ GlorgH 
Cbappel, Witliatti 

* Cbardio, Sir Johtt 

* Cliarfft ' 
Charke, ChartdkKt ' 

* Cbarlea Xlt.VSWedcn 
Charlctofii ^iMt 
Charpeauerf Prancia 
Chanooy Pettr 
Chaftel, JiAtn ' 

* Chattertob, TfadmM 
Cfaaacer/ C^lTrey 
Cli»^llea, John Mattbew 
CbekCy Jdhft 
CbcmaiUy MifMfi' • 

* Chereldeir/'Willtem ' 
^ Cbefne, Andte du ' 
Chefter6e{d. SdS Stanhope 
Cherreau, (tr^an 
Cheyae, George 
ChejneUy Francii 

9 Cbiabrera, Oabrialo 
Cbicbley, Henry 
Cbifflet, Joha jainet 
Cbilliogworth, 'Wilitam 

* Chilbull, Edrnqod 
Cbriftiaa, <^t9n 
Cbniio^hfcnroy JtftAQ 

Chrjfoloraa^ Efnanciel 
Ctyfoftonn, John 
Cbubb, Thomas 
Chudleigh, lady Mary 
Cburchil), Sir Wioilon 
CbBrcbill, John, dukt of 

* Chorchill, Cbarlel 

* Ciacconius, Petrut 
Gibber, Volley 
Ctbber, TheophUQt 

' Gibber, Sufdnaah MarU 
Cicero, Marco* TulKua 
Cicero, Mamn -' 

Cimaboe, Giovaoat 
Giofani, Hercalei 
Clagett, WiUiaili 
Clagectf Nicholat 

* Clairaoit, Alexia 
Clarke, Sait^ue) 
Clarke, Dr. Samael 

* Clarke, Winiam 
Claude of Lorraia 
Claude, Joba 
Chudianuty Claudiut 

* Cllvius, Cbri^opher 

* Claycoi), bp. 

« Cieivelaad, John 
Ciemeni, Romanui 
Clemeoa, fitui Flatius 
Clerc, John Le 
Cliiverius, Philip 

* Cobdeo, Edward 
Cockburn, Catharine 
CodriagtoB, Chriftopher 
Coke, Sir Edward - 
Colbert, John Baptift 

'« Cole, William 
"Colet, £li(ha 

Colec, Joba 

Collier, Jeremy 

Collins, Joha" 

Collins, Anthooy 

Collins, Williams 

* Coliinfoo, Pciejr 

* Colomies, Not 

* Colrane, Henry, lord 
Colfton, Edward 
Columbus, Chriftopher 

* Columella 

* ColuthuB 

^* CombeHs, Francis 
C(Hnber, Thomas 
Comenius, John Amoa 

* Comines, Philip de 
Commandious, Frederick 

* Commodianus 
Comnena, Anna 
Comptoa, Spencer 

'Compcoo, Htnry 

Conaot, Joha 

* Concanen, Matthew 
Coagre?e, Williadu 
Connor, Bernard 

* Cooringius, HermaaAui 

* Conftantin, Robert 
Conftantine the Great 
Cooke, Sir Anthony 
Cooke, Thomas 

Cooper, Aath. /lAley, gft 

earl of Sbafteibttr| 
Cooper, jd earl 
trooper, fhomai 
Cooper, Samuel 

* Cooper, John Gilbert 
Copernicus, Nicolaui 

* Coram, Thonftaa 
Corbet, I(.ichard 

* Corel li, Arcangel* 
Coraaro,' Lewis 
Cornaro, Heleaa Lucrctit 
Corneille, Peter 
Cofneiile, Thomas 
Coraeille, Michael 

* Corradus, Sebaftiaa 
Corregio, Antonio da 

* Cortes, Ferjiaad 
Coryate, Thomas 
Cofin, Joha 

* CofiarJ, Geoige 
Cotelerius, Joha Baptift 

* Cotes, Roger 

* Cotin, Charles 
Cotton, Sir Robert Bruc< 
Cotton, Charles 
Couel, Dr. Joha 

* Courayer, Peter Fraocia 
Coufin, Joha 

Cowell, John 
Cowley, Abraham 

* Cowper, William 
Cox, Richard 

* Coxeter, Thomas 

* Coypel, family ofj 

* Coytier, James 
.* Craig, John 

* Cramer, John Frederic 

* Cramer, Gabriel » 
Cranmer, Thomas \ 
CraHiaw, Richardj 


* CrebiHoB, Profper Joliot dt 
Creech, Thomas 

Crellios, John 

* Crefdmbeni, John Maria 

* Qrevicr, J. Baptift Lewia 

* CrinituSt Pctras 
Croft, Heibeit 

* Croft, WiUiam 




LIST of the LIVES lA the 

^ Croir, F. Petii de la 
CroinwdJ, EarlofEflex 
Cromwell, Oliver 
Crofs, Michael 
Croufaz, J. Peter dc 

• Crovyne, John 

• Croxal!, Samuel 

• Crotc.M. Veyffiere l« 

• Cruftus. or Kraos, Martin 
CuH worth, Ralph 

Cuff, Henry 
Cujaciu$. James - 
Cumberlao^, Richard 
Cunaeusy Peter 

• Cuperus, l^iibert , 
Carcelijpot, Stephen 
CuTtitwi', Quintus 

Cufa, N'cholai de 

• Cufpinian, John 

• Cutts, John, Lord 
Cyprianusi T. Ceciliui 
Cyrai^, ^ergerac 
Cyrill'of Jerufalem 
Cyrill of Alexandria 

TNACIER, Andicw 
"■^ Dacier, Anoe . 
Daili£, Juhn 
Belechampcy Jamet 
DaltOD, John 
Pamafcenus, John 
Pamian, Peter 
Panipier, William 
Panehet, Anthony 
Pandioi, Jerome 
Panet, Pc^er 
Paniel, -Samuel 
Paniel, G/ibriel 

Pjnte, Ignatius 
pante, John Bapttfl 

* Darp, Ceunt 

* Dargcnne, pom* Qonaven* 

l^ati. Carlo 

* DavaJ, Pfter ^ 
Pavenant, John 
Pavenant, ISirWilliain 
Pavenant, Charles 
Pavenant, William 
Pavenport, ChrtftopMr « 
Pavftnpoit, John 

pavid,' George . 
Pavies, Sir John . 
Pa?ics, Pr^JpIvn 

Pavies, John 

Pa Vila 


Dawes, Sir William 

Pawes, jElichard 

Pechales, Ciau, Fr. M. 

Pecker, Thomas 

Pee, John 

De Foe, Daniel 

Pelrio, Martin Antony 

Pemerrius; Phalereut 

'^DeNJIfly, Cjefar 


f Demoivre, Abraham 


I)<;mpfter, Thomas 

Penham, Sir J:}hA 

Pennis, John 

Perham, Wjlliam 

* Derrick^ Samuel 
Pefaguliers^ John Theop. 
Pes Barreaux^ J. dt Vallec, 


* De8 Maizeaux, Peter 

* Deflouches, cardinal 

* Deftouches» Phil Nericaut 
Pcvcreux, Rob earl of EiTcx 
P'Bwes, Sir Symonds 

Pe Witt, John 
Piagoravthe Atheift 
picicinfon, Edmund 
Pi£tys, Cretenfis 
Pidymus of Alexandria 

* Diemerbroek, Ubraod 
Dieu, Lewis de 

I Pigby> Sir Everard 
Di^by, Sir Kenelm 
Pigby, Lord Qeorge 
Pigby, carl of Briilol 
Pigges, Leonard 
pigges, Sir Dudley 
Pio Caffius 
Djo Chryfoilom 

* Diodati, John 
Piodorus Sic u I us 
Diogenes the Cynic, 
Diogenei, Laertius 

* Dionisy Peter 
Dionyfius the Periegetic 
Pionyfius HalicarnafTenfis 
-Pionyitus Areopagita 

Pionyfiiviy Bp. of Corinth 
Pionylius, Bp. of Alexandria 
Piofcorides, Pedadm 
Pobfon, William 

* Dodarty D|inys 

* Poddi Willina 


Poddrid^Cy Philtp 

• Dodfley, 'Robert 
PoHw^ll. Henry 

• DogC«t, Thomat 
^olet, Stephen 

Pomat, John 

Pominic, de Gozoian 


Pominisy Mark Anthony dl# 


Pooattts, ^Iius 

Ponatus, Jerom 

ponne, Jpfan 

Poufa, Janus 

Drabicius^ Nicholas 

Praise, Sir Francis 

Drake, James 

• Drake, Ffancis 
^ Drake, Samuel 

• Dr^kenborcfa, Araoldi^ 
jDrayton, Michael 
-Drelincoort, Charles 
PreiTeros^ Matthew 

prummond, Wtlliaoi 

Drufius, John 


Pry den, Johii 

Puaien, Fsancia • 

• Duareni(8, FranciiJ 
Duchal, James 

• Dttchaty Jacob \% 
Puck, Arrbur 
Duck, Stephen 
Dudley, Edmund 
Dudley, John 
Dudley, Ambroft 
Podley, Robert 
Dudley, Sir Robert 

• Duffett, Thomas 
Dugard, William 
Pugdafe, Sir William 

• Daguft 

• Duncombe, WtUiatti 
DunSf Jo. $cotus 

Du Pin, Lewis Sllif 
Du Port, James 
Puppa, Bnan 
DureH, John 
Purer, Albert 
P'Urfey, Thomat 
Pury, John 
Pyer, Sir Jamet 

• Py^«i John 

gACHARD, John 

* Ecpard, J«hn>George d^ 
^fe> Mary 




EccbcUcnfis, Abraham 
Bcbard, Laurence 
Eckius, Joba 
lEdmondes, SirTbonus 

* Edwardi, Richard 
Edwards, Thtfmaa 
Edwards, Jonathan 

* Edwardty George 

* EdwacdSy ThoooM 
Egertojiy Tbonjas 

fignatiosy John Baptift 
Elichiii«n, John 
Elizabeth, Queen 

• Ellys, Afitbonf 
Elnuiciaos, George 
El&eisner, Adam 

• Elflob, WilUam 

• £Mob, ^iitabeib 
£)iynge, Henry 
Eljrot, SirHiomat 

Emlys, Thomas 

Emmlus, X7bbo 

Ennint, Quintus 

Ennodios, Magnut FsliK 

£nt» George 

Ephrcm^ Sc« 






Epifcopiusy Simon 

Erafmusy Defideriut 

EraihiSy Tbonias 

Ereaita, Daniel 

Xrigeaa, Joba 

Erpeniasy Tbomat 


Sftampes, duchcis of 

* Eftcouit, Richard 
Etherege, George 
£tmoIler> Michael 
Evagrius Scbolafticst 
Evanf, John 

* Evans, Abel 

* iTans, Thomas. See Prior 



Efelyn, Jobs 

Evelyo, Jobit. }i|b. 

Eagene, Prince 



fupbranor . 

Eupoiit. S«e Cratinut 

Evcemond, Charles St. 


Eufden, Lawrence 
EufebiuB « 
Eutropiot, FllTios 

pABER, Jacobus 
•^ Faber, Nicolios • 
Faber, Tana^Utl 
Fabian, Robert 
Fabretti, Raphael 
Fabriciui, Jerome 
Fabridus, Geo'^ 
Fabricius, Vincent 
Fabricins, Job ir Albert 
Fabricius, Baron 
Fabrot, Charles Haambal 
Faernios, Gabriti 
Fagitts. Paul' 

* Fairfax, Edward 
Fastborne, Witliam 
Falle, Philip 
Fallopiufy Gabriel 
FalftafF. Se^ Faftolf 
Fanftaw, Sir Richard . 
Fare!, William 
Faria, Emmanael 
Farinate, Paul 

* Farioelli, Carlo Bfvfcbi 
Faringdon, Anthony 
Pamai^y Thomas 

* Farneworth, Ellis 
Farquhar, George 
FaftoUr, John 

* Faulkner, George 

* Fawkes, Francis 

* Fayette, Marie Magdaleine 
Featly, Daniel 
Fecl^cnhamj John de 
Feichtur, Bverard 
Felibien, Andrew 

Felix, Minotius 

Fell, Dr. John 


Fenton, Sir GeoiTiey 

FentoB, Elijah 

* Fergufon, James 
Fernelios, John 
Ferrand, James 
Ferrari, 0£lavian 
Ferrari, Franc, Benardino 
Ferrari, Odavio 
Ferrars, George 

* Ferreras, Den Jdhhof 
Eerti, P«ul ' . 
Ferri, Ciro 

Fernery Araold de 

Ferrier, Jeremy 
Feftua, Pompeitts • 
Fctti, Domenieo 
Fevardentios, Francis 

• Fe«iUlee, Lewis 
Feuret, Charles 
Ficiaus, Marfilint 
Fiddes, Richard 
Field, Richard 
Fielding, Henry 
Fiennos, William 
Fiennes, Nathlmael 
Fienus, Tborfias 
Finaeus, Orostsns 

Fincb, Hen. earlof KottiAgham 
Finet, Sir John 
Firmicus, Matemus Julius 
Firmtn, Thomas 
Fifh, Simon ' 
Fiiher, John 
Fittherbert, Sir Anthony 
Fitsherbsrt, Thomas 
Fitxherbcrt» Nicholas 
Flacous, Caius Valerius 
Flamfteed, John 
Flatraan, Tttomas 
Flechier, Efprit 
Flecknoc, Richard 
Fleetwood, WiUiam 
Fleetwood, William, biihop 
Fletcheri John 

* Fletcher, Richard 
Fletcher, Giles 
Fleory, Claude 
Florio, John 

Florus, |.ucios AfiBaue • 

Fludd, Robert 

Foefias, Anutius 


Folard, Charles ' 

Folietu, Hubert 

* Folkes, Martin 
Fontaine, John de la 

* Fontaines, Peter Franeis 

• Fonranioi, Jufte 
Foffte> Mode rata 
Fontenay, Jo. Baptift Blaia 4« 
Fontenelle, Bernard de 

* Foote, Samuel 
Forbea, Hatrick 
Forbes, John 
Forbes, Wiiliam 
Ford, John 
Fordjpce, Darid 
Fortefcue, Sir John 
Fofter,! Dr. James 
Fofter, Samuel 

• Fofter, William 
^ Fofter, Mark 
Fothergill, George 

• Fothergill, Jphft 

* Fottntftlae]^ 


List tf AttlV^S klfhe 

* Fnttttufte, Sir Aadfew 
Fouquier, Jamei 
Fourmonty SrepJieii 
Fournont Michael 

* Foamier, Pmct Stmoo 
Fowlcfy John 
Fowler, Chri#o^ef 
Fowler, Edward 

Fox> EHwArd 
Fd«9 John 
Fosy George 
Fracaftor, Jcrooif 
Frachetta, Jerome 
Fraguier, CUudc-Ffao^ 
Franctrcai Petcf 
Ftancia» FranceicQ 
Fraoeii* Simpn 
Francis otAffiB 
« Fraocif, PhiJip 
Freeke^ Wi)|iam 
Freher, Marquard 
FrdgiuSy John Thomat 
Freind, John 

* Freind, Robert 

* Freind, waitam 
FreinlhkoitiS, John 
Frefne, Charlei de 
Frefnoy, C. Alphooie da 
Freiny, C. Riviere 
Frilchlioy Nicodemot 
Frobeniusy John ' 
Frobifer, Sir Martitt 
Froiflard, John 
Frootiousy Sextus JuUm 
Frowde, Philip 
Frytbf John 

Fogger, H^Hrie 
Fnlgentiut, St« 
Folk, William 
Fuller, Nicholat 
Fuller, Thoroal, 
Fuller, Ifaae 

Furltiere^ AaUay 

#>ACOfM, Francit 
*^ Gaffarell, |ainei 
Gagmer, John 
pagaioua, Rober| 
Gale, Jo^p 
Gale, Th^ophiluf 
Gale, Thomas 
^ Gale, Roger 
** Gale, Charlef 
P Gale, Samuel 
.• Oaleapo, Jofcj^h 

G^len, Claudiaii 

• Galilei, Galileo 
■Gailand, Ao^ony 
Galligai, LeonflCB 
Gallois, John 
Callus, fJoroeliut 

♦ Gaily, Henry 
^ Gambold, Jo^Hi 
Caramon r, Clao't 
GaralTe, Francis 
Qarcil^le . 
6ar4incr, |teph«ft 
O«roet, Hcory 
Qarnier, Robert 
Garrard, Mark 

^ Garrick, David 
Garth, Sir Samuel 
Gafcoigai^ Sir Wtiasfla^ 

♦ Gafparini 
Gaifemit, Pettf 
GaUrel, Francis 
Gataker, ThomM 
Gataker, Chttltt 
Gaoden, John 
Gay, Johtf 
paia; Theodora 

• Gcd, William 

♦ Gedoyn, Micbolit 
Geldenhaur, Gerard 
Gelenioi, iStgifmu«4' 
G«l!ibrand^ Henry 
Gelii, John BapCiift 
Gelliua, Aulos 

* Geminia&i, Fraaccftci- 
f Gemiftoti Gcoigff 

^ Gennadiua 
Gentilefchi, Horatio 

* Gerard, Balthazar 
f Gerbelius, Nicolaof 
Gerbier, Sir Balthafar 

♦ Ger|bn« John 
Gefner, CoArad 
Gethin, Lady Gra^« 
Gevartiofl, John Gafpar 
Ghllini, Jerome , . 
Gbirlandftto, 0ofl|«iufi0 
fviblbn, Edmund 
Gibfon, Richard 
Gibroo, William 
Gibfon, Edward 
Gifamus, Hobertof 
Gilbert, William 
Cilpin, Bernard 
Gildon, Charhi 

' Giorgiott'e 

Giraldi, Lllio Gregorio 
Giraldi, John Baptift Cillti^ 
tSirJildvs, Siiveaer 

• Gltti^ Hi. Stiiil 

Glandorp, IMMAmM 
Oianvil, Jolepll 
Gliflbn, Francit 

<poddard» Jouthaa 
Godeau, ADtho«y 
Godolph II, Jobft I 
God wo, Thomat 
Godwin, Franeis 
^odwb, Dr. Thomat 
Goee, Damiande 
GofF, Thomas 

• Goguct* Aothoflf-Vvet 
Goidaft, Melchior Haifiut^ 


• Gold^iil^ Olivn 
Goliut, Jamts 
Goltaias, Henry 
Goltsiuf, Hubert 
Gombauld, John Q^ HfJ 
Goad], John Paul 
Gongora, Lewis de 
Coosaga, LocietiA 
Gordon, I homes 

f Gordon, Alexandltr 
Gorl«u8- Abraham 
Oothofiped, JDtnis 
Cothofred^ TheodOM; 
Cotfaofrtd, Jamet 
Gothofred* Denis 

* Gothofred, John 

# Ooi^et, ClaudcPctCf 
Ooulart, Simon 
Gournay, M. de Jait, lady of 
Gower, Jobn 

Craaf, Regnier de 

Grabe, John Brneft 

Graham, George 

Grain, JohnBaptiftIt 

^ Gmmaye, fobnBapCtil 

Grandier, Ifrbin 

Grant, lord CuUen 

Granville, GiVIfcLandfiowit 


Gravefande, WUUJtm* 

Gravina, John Vincent 

^ravinsy reter 

Graunt, John 

♦ Grsy, Thomas 

^ Greatrakesy Valentine 

Greaves, John 

^ Green, Robert 

f Green, John • " 

* Greene, Madrice 
Greenbiil, John 
Gregory the Great 
Gregory, James 
Gregory, David 
Gregory, John 
Gregory, Nasiajneil 
i^ifgtry, IfyOta 


GfC9affy,Tbc«d.Tb'a«ttfttnrgMH«il» J«frpli 
Gidnm, Sir Thoflis Hall, lohn 

Oictlcr» r«iMtr 
Crevilk» Full^ 

Oiewy Ncheniah 
Gffey» lac < Jaac 
* Otey, Zachatf 
^ Grey, Rjchara 
Gribaldus, Matthar 
Onerfoii, Conftamla 
GrimaMi; f ot»« Ff aacit 
Gflisdal, timnU 
Grocyn, William 
Graiovtut, Mn-JMnlc 
VIM, Jamet 

9 Huh 
Grove, Hemy 
GraiffMia,- U*M 
CtjAsotp aiaMA 
Giypbioty S^flJMi 
G«a4agoo]o, Philip 
Gttariniy BattiAs 
Godiut, Marqaard 

Goevan, Amoof ^ 
Gaerara, Loiiii» Veltt f|e 
Gaicciardinif FrajMcft* 
Giiyiy Alexaiuifsr 
Giiido, Eeni 
Guiftnardy J«iu| 
OoiUiilH John 
Gttife, William 
GmiaiiiCi Ptter 
Giijiter« Som«fld 
* Guy» Themaa 
G«yet, Francia 
Ga]roa> Johanna- Maiy lIcM* 

viert de la Mothe 


HABlkfeTON^ tiriUia« 
Hacker, William 
Hacked J bn 
Hadrian VI. 
HaiUan, de GNrd * 
^ Haines, Jofepb 
HakewilJ, Qaoit« 
Haklujt, Ricbani 
taaldc. John Eaptift da 
Hale, Str Matthev 
Hakt, John 
Halcty Stephen 
flalifu. S«cltftnt«|«ff 

HaU4 Pncr 

^ Haller 
Hailcy, Edmund 
Hamel, JohvBap^ftcdV 
Htmmoad, Hanry 

* Hammond, Aathonf 

* Hammond, tames 
Hampden, JoUi 
Handel, George FredeHe 

* Hanmer, 9h Thomu 
^ Harding, Thomas 

* Ha^dinge, Nicholat 
Hardonin, John 

* Hanlwicke, Philip, carl of 
Hara^ Dr. Francis 
Hare» iteary. SeeColnme 
Harriot, Thomas 
Harley, Itotberc 
Harpoeratkm, Valerina 
Harrington, Sir John 
Harrington, Jamet 
Harris, William 

* Harris, Jamts 

* Harriibn, William 

* Harriioa, John 

* Hartley, Datid 
Harvty, WiUiam 
Hartey, Cidcon 
llavercamp, Sifebeft 
^ Hawkcfwortbt Jahn 

* Hawkwood, Sir John 

* Hay, William 

* Hayes, Cbarka 
Hayward, Sir John 
Hearne, Thomaa 
Heath, James 

* Heath, Thomu 

* Heath, Benjamin 
^ Heidegger, John James 

* Heiooccius, John-Gotlteb 
Heinfios, Daniel 
Heinfius, Nicoiaa 

Helrr ont, John Baptift van 

* Helvetius, Adrian 

* Helvetioi» John Claude 
Helvicus, Chriftopber 
Hemelar, Jobo 
Hemfkirk, Martin 
Henanit, Charier John Fr« 
Henaut, John d* 

* Heoley, Anthony 

* Henley, John 

* Henry, Pit i lip 
Henry, Matcbetr 

Heraldus, De6derio8 
fierbefot, Baftholomcw d* 

♦ Herbert, Wary 

Herbert, Ed«urd 
Herbert, George 
Herbert, WiUiani 
Herbert, Thomas 
Hcrn/as, Paftof 
Herring, archhiftop 
Hcrvey, James 

* Hervey, Augttfitiijohft 

Hevaliai, John . 

* Heurnius, John ^ 

• Hewfon, Wiltiaa, 

Keylin, Dr. Peter 
Heywood, John 

• Heywood, JaQwff 

* Heywood, tlisn 
Htckes, GeoTfB 

* Higgons, SirThimmg 
^ Higgons, Bevil 

* Highmonr, Jofepk 
HildeOer, Mark 
Hill, Aaron 

• Hill, Sir Jdin 
HiiUard, Nicholas 

• Hinckley, John 
Hire, Philip dels 

* Hoadly, bi(hop 

• Hoadly, Dr. Benjamui 

♦ Hoadly, Dr. John 
Hobbes, Thomas 
Hodgesl Nathaniel 

• Hodgfon, John 
H)dy, Humphrey 
NoefcheliuB, David 
Hofl^man, Maurice 
Hoffman, John l^aurwt 

• Hoffman, Frederic 

* Hogarth, William 
Holbein, John 
Holder, William 

• Holdfworth, ZAwni 
Holiday, Barcen 
Holinihed, Raphad 
Hollar, Wentsel 
Hoilis, Thomas 

* Holmes, Ceofgt 
f JolOcoiut, Lucas 



LIST of the LIVES in the 

Holt, Sir John ^ .. 
Holyoake^ FntuS^ 

* Hoogftrateh, David wtn 
Hooke, Robert 

« Hooke, Nathtnicl 
Hooker, Richard 
Hooper, Dr. George 
Hooper, John 
Hoorobeec]^ John 
HopkiA*. Ezekiel 

* Hopkins, Charles 

* Hopkioii Joba 

Horatiut, Quiotui Fliccut 
Hofneck, Dr. Anthony 
^ Hornim, George 
Horrex, Jeremiah 
^orAiut, James 
Horfttusy Gregory' 
Yiofpioian Rodolphua 
Hofpiul, Wm. Ft. Anth. 
Hotman^ Francit 
Hottinger, John-Henry 
Hough, John 
Houlieres, de la Garde 
Howaitfy SirRebert 
Howard Henry 
Howe, John 

* Howe, John 
Howell, Jamci 
Hoarte, John 
Hodfoni Capt. Henry 
Hudlon, Dr, John 
Huet, Peter-Uaniel 
Hughes, John 

* Hughes, Jabes 

* Hughes, Jabes 

* Hume, David 
Humphrey, Lawrence 

* Hunter, William 
Hontiagton, Robert 
HuntorA, Gerard 
Huff, John 

Hutchefon, Dr. Francit 
HotcbiDt, John 
Hutchsnroo, John 
Hotten, 171 ri« de 
Huygens, Chriiban 
Hyde, Edward 
Hyde, Dr, Thonu 
Hyde, Henry 
Hyginus, Caiut-JnliM 

« tAAPHAR Ebn Tophail 
J Jablon(ki,Damel«£i^jieft 

Jabloolki) Theodek 

Tc^lius, F. de Cataneit 
Jackfon, Thomas 

* Jackfon, John 
Jacob, Ben Naptati 
Jacob, Bea.Hajim 
Jacobfeus, Oliger 
Jaeger, John Wolfgang 

* Jago,' Richard 

James, Thomai , 
James, Richard 

* James^ Dr. Robert 
Jamyn, A madia 
Janfeo, Cornelius 
Janfon, Abraham 
Jaquelot, Ifaae 

Jardins, Mary Catherine des 

arry, L. Juiliard dii 
Ibboty benjamin 

* Jebb/ Samuel 
Jeffeiy, John 
Jeflfery «f Monmouth 
Jeffreys, Lord George 
Jeffreys, George 

* JenkioV Robert 
Jenkins, Sir LeoUne 
^ Jennens, Charles 
Jerom* See Hieronymut 
Jerome of Prague 
Jefua, Leirita 

Jewell, John 
Jew Errant . 

* Hive, Jacob . 
Ulyrius, Matthias Flacias 
Imperial iy John Baptift 
Incbofen, Mckhior 
Joan, Pope 

Joberty Levis 
odelle, Stephen 
John of Saliibory 
}ohnfon, Samuel 
Johnfon, John 
fohnfon, Cornelttti 
Johtifen, Martin , 

* Jobnfbo, Charles 
^ Johnfon, Mauriee 

* Johnfton, Arthur 
Jainyille, John Sire de 
Joly, Claude 

* joly, Guy 
Jonas, Anagrimos 

Jonts, Joftus 
onee, Inigo . 

* Jones, William 

* Jones, Henry 
Jonfius, John 
Joofon, Benjamin 
Jonftnn, John 

* Jordan, Charles Stephen 

Jordanoy Loci 
Jordans, James 

* Jortin, Dr. Johit 

* Jofepbus, Flavins 
Jouberty * Laurence 
Jovian. Secjiiiiaa 
Jovius, Paul 

* Jouvency, Joft^ 
Joavenet, Jonn 

* Joyner, WtUiam 
Iremeus, Stint 

Ifaacy XLtm 



Ifidoiv, Stint 


Ittigiosg Thomee ' 

T)da, Hakkadoft 

Judeif Matthew 


* Ives, John « 
Julian * 

J Julio Remeae 
Julius It. 
Junius, Adrian 
unios, Francis 
unins, Francu 
-Jurieu, Peter - 
•• Turin, Dr. James 
Juiiieu, Jofeph de 

iuftel, ChriAe^ber. 
ufte], Henry 
Juftin Martyr 

Juftiniani, St. Lawrence 
Juftinianif Bernard 
Juftini^m, Auguftin 
Javenalf ' D« Junius 

I^EBLE, Jofeph 

**• Keckermanmus, Barth* 

• Keene, Edmund 
K«U, John 
Keill, James 
Keith, Jantes 
Kelly, Edward 
Keoppis, Thomas n 
Ken, Thomas 

^ Kennedy, John 

• Kennct, White 
Kennet; Bafil 
Kepler, John 
Kettlewell, Jx>hn 
Keyfler, John George 

• Kbera/icof, Michael 

• Khtlkof, Friocc 



Kidder, Dr. Richard 
Killigrevr, 'Cathtnitc 
Kiltigrew, William 
Kitligrcw, Henry 
Kilhgrew, Anae 
Kimchiy Rabbi«>Dtvid 
Kin^, John 
Kiagy Henry 

* Kiofy Edward 
Kingy Dr. William 
Kinfy archbiikop 
King, lord chaocellor 

* King, Dr. WiUtaa 
Kircher, Atbanafiai 
Kircber, Conrtd 
Kircbman, Johw 
Rirfteniuf, refer 
Knciler, SirOodfrcy . 

* Knight^ Stmuel 
Rnolks, Richard 
Knott, Edward 

* KBowler, Willtam 
Knox. Joho 
Kouseo, Matthiai 
Rampfer, EngelberC 

* Roeoigy Daniel 

* Koenigf Saaioel 
Ronig, George Matthias 
Koitbolt, Cbrifttan 
Rotterut, Chri/Vopher 
Rouli Kban, Thaoiai 
Rrantxias* Albertoi' 
Ryblnianf Quirinuf 
Kjlbniui, Joachim 
Rufter. Lodolf 

* KynaAon» John 

Labat, John-Baptift 

* |«aberioa 
Labooreuri John le 

* Lacarryi Giles 
La^antiuf, Firmian 

^ Ladvocat, John-Baptift 

* Laety John de 
Lcviooty Torrientloui 

* Lafirao 

La Fontaine. Sec Fontaiot 
Lainea, Alexander 
^trtffe, Gerard 

LamhecioSy Peter 

* i«mbcrt, Anne Thcrefe^ 

Marquife de 
IfBiBdiny Deftjt 
Xiambnin, Margaret 
tsmpdioi^ ^ll«f 

Lampridio»| Benedict 
I.anny, Bernard 

* Lancaller, Kathanael 

* Lancelot, Claude 
Lancifi, John-Marca' 
Lanaet, Nichohi ' 
Lancnnk, Profp^ Heiificaa 
LanfraoCy arcbbiAop' 
Lanfraoco, Giovanni 
Langbaine, Gemd 
Langbaine, jun. 
Laogelande, Roberta 

* Langhoroey John 

* Laogioa, John 
Langton, Stephen 
J«anguer^ Hubert- ' 
Languet, John Baptift Jofeph 
I«anierp the painter 

* LargiUiere, Nicholas dft 

* Lafcarifl, CooftantiAe 
Laiki, Johnde 

La Sena, Pater 
Latimer^ Hugh 
Laudt archbiihop 

* Laoder, William 

* Launoi, John de 
Laur, Fillippo 

* La wee, Henry 
Leake, Sir John 

* Leake, Stcpbaa« Martin 
Lee, Nathsnael 
Leibnitx, G. William de 

* Leigh, Sir Edwajd 
Leigh too, Robert 
Leland, John 

Leland, JohOy o/Dublio 
Lely, Sir Peter 
Leoieiy, Nicholas 

* Lendos, Ninon dc 

* Lenfant, James 

* Lepglet, N. du Freihoy 
Leo X, 

* Leoni^enos, Nicholas 

* Leontium 

* Leowicq, Cyprian 
Lefley, bifibop of Rofs 
Leilie, bifliep of Cioghar 
Leflie, Charles 
L*Eftrsngey Sir Roger 

* LethieuUier, Smart 

* Leti, Gregorto 

* Leuoclavius, Joannes 

* Luefileo, John 

* Leowenhoeky Antony de 

* Lhuyd, Edward 
Lhvyd, Homphrey 

■ * Libanjos 

* Licetos 
Lightfoot, John 
Lilburne, John 
1411^9 QcorfQ 

Lilly, Joho. See Lyily 

JUilly, William, aaroT^er ' 

Lily, William, grarnqmnaB 

Lily» George 

Lily, Peter 

Ltmboch, Philip 

Linacre, Dr. Thomaa . 

^ Lindlay, John 

Lingclback, John 

^ L'nnseus, Charles Vmi 

Lipfiui, Jaftos 

* tiilc^ Gitilhmmeds 
Lift-T, H*nm 
i«itrletoa, Thomas 
Littleton, Adam '^ 
f«ittleton, Edwari 

Livitti, Titos 
Lloyd, William 

* Lloyd, Robcft 

Locke, John ' ' 

* Lockofy Johtt 

* Lockman, John 

* Lodge, Thomas 
Lokman, «h« Waig 

Loir, Nichoba 
Lollard, Walter 
Lombard, Peter 

* LomoBosof 

* Long, Jamea le ' 
•, Long, Roger 
Longin«4s« Dionyfiva 

* Longomontftoufy.CJwiftaM^ 

* Longoerue, Looii <de 

* Longus 
Lorit, Henry 
Lorme, Philibertde 
Lorme, John dc 
Lofme, Charles de 
Lorrain, Rliibertle 
Loten, John 

* Lote, James 

* Lovelace, Richard 

* Lower, Dr. Rt€har4 

* Lower, S^r William 
Loyola, Igoatiosef 
Lubienietiki, Staniflaus , 
Lubin, Nicholas 
Lubin, Eilhard 
Lucan, Marc«s Annsens 
Lucai, Richard 

* Locat> Paul 

* Lucilius 

Lucretius, Titos Caivs 
Ludlow, Edmund , 
Lodolph, Job 

* Ludolph, Henry William^ 
L«gO| ft hn 

Logo, Francia 

• LoJly, 


LISToftht LtVfiS in the 

• LalljT) Jolte-BaptSU 
IfUtber^ Martin 
]«oitt, Btnedltto 

lijde* See Joiner 
Lj^te, loAA 
Lydiatf Thamaf 
Lylly, •! Lilly, Toba 
Lyndcy Sir HniiifAtfjf 

* Lyonti Ifrati 

• Lyfias 
l«ytte)ton, lord-kMptl 

* Lyttelton, lord 
^LjtUltOB, Bp, 

*^^ • Mace, Th«m«i 
Macer, EmiltiM 
]4achiavel, Nkholfe 
Mackcneie, Sir Georgff 
Maciaorijii, Colin 
llacrobtufy. Adib* Anretivi 

• Madden, Dr. Samval 
« Maddox, bf . 

« Madox, Tboaai 
Mccenai, Caiur Oihiiai 
JMaeAHnM, Micb«l 
MaffaeaH VagiOy «»• 
Maictlaa, Ferdinaad 
Jtf agtiu, Jerome 
Magliabecbi, Afttoliy 
Mahoiqet !!• 
Maigaaa. EAaaisel 
Itaimbonrg, Lewis 
MaiQBonidety Mdfea 
Maintenod, Madam 4t 

• Maittaire, Michtel 
Maldonat, Joba 
Malebraoche, Nicbobtt *^ 
Malherbe^ Pranei^ de 

« Mallet, David 
Malpigbi, MareelhM -^ 
Malveaxi, Virgil 
Mambrttti, Peter 4V - 

Mandeville, Sir JobA \ 
Maodevilk, BerMltf^de 
Manetbo -^ 

Maofredi, £oftadiio 

* MaogMMk J»bn Jamet 

* Maagey^ Thomea 
Muniliaa, M«K«ii 
Manley, de la Riviere; 
MaAtuao* Baptift 

Maoutio*f AldM 
Manatias, Paul 
MaaatfOi, AldM 
Mapletoft, Dr. Jofan 
Marca, PAcr <!• 
Marcellioos, AtttflHieiiui 

* MMebnd, Profper 
Merctlias, Tbtodore 
Mareta, Jobnle 
Maretiy Samuel dei 
Margaret, C(MiiMt6 «f R!eh« 

Margiret, dutclieft of Ne#«» 

Mariana, Jollft 
Marldella, Lucrcdt 
Marino, JohA Bapiift 

* Marlvaos, Peter Caifet It 
MarkbMi, Oetvalb 

« Marklaod, JifeHtitk 
Marloe, CbrlftopbeP 
« MaroUee, MkM d« 
Marot, Jobn 
Marot, CUmmit 
Marracei, LdfHo 
Marft, Narciffutf 
Mariba], TboMit 

* Marflial, Nlfbtfaaet 
Marftami SiVjoba 
Marfigli, Lewia fMinaAd 
Marftofl, Jobn 
Martialis, MarvMi Vaktioi 
Martianay, JobA 

* Martin, Tbotfias 

* Martin, Benjamin 
Martini, Raymond 
Martyr, Pettr ' 
Marveli, Andrew 

Marullus* M* Tarcbanlftit 
Mary, queen of England 
Mary, qyeob of Sicott 
^try, qoeen of En|laftd^ and 

Mafcardi, Avgnftin 
MafcafoA, Julius ^ 
'Maffiea, Guillaulfeie 
Maffiogtfr, Pbilip 
Maflbn, Paxils 

* Maffoo» Jdblf 
A^afliiffli Rene 
Matber, Dt, Cbttofl 

* bla](y, Matthew 
Maugin, John 

* Maopertitiiy Peter-Le'wit 

* Maurkeau, Francia 
Maximut of Tyre 
May, Tbomas 

» Mayer, Tobias 
Mayerae, Sir Tbtoderc it 


• Mayaard, f rihtxg . 
Mayne, Hr. Jai^ief 
Maynwaring, Artlwr^ 
M^xarine, JnlitU 
Mead, Ricbard 
Mede« ^d&ph 

• Medtcis, Cofmode 

• Medias, LmrcAce #f' 
Mela, Poi^^f m 
Melanabon, PbtUp 

Mclmotb, l^^atQ 
Melvilj Sir Tames 
Menage, GUea 

MenaadrxnOf MarfiUoft 
Menckei O^o 
Meneke, Joba 
Meades Gonxiiei^ Tttst 
Mendes Gontaler, John 
Mercator^ Gerard 
Mercator, Nicholas 
Mercorialii,' Jerome 
Merfennai, Martin 
Merula, George 
Morula, Paul 

Menrfiui, Jdbn 
Mescray, Ffintii Bodes dd 
Mcxiriac, Claud« GSifptf 

Bacbet, Sf^ttr de 
Micbael Angeld BuonlrrtiOt} 
Michael Angelo da Caraf^^ci 
Micrelius, John 
Middleton, Sir Hufb 
Middleton, Dr. Conyeft 
' Mignard, Nicholas 
Milbourn, LulM 
Mill, John 

• Mill, Henry 
Miller, Jamei 

Milletiere, Theopblfn» Bi^ ' 

chet, iltear di la 
Milton, John 

Mirahdula, J. Picut, eirl bt 
Mirandula, Jahn-TraJkcit.PI<u% 

prKite of 
^ Mirzjis, Aubertos 
Mitlbn, Francis MaximUIiilft 
Mitchell, J6i^ph 

• Modrevius, Andreas Prfc^f 
Moine, Stephen le ' 
Moiae, Francis le 
Molefwortb, Robert 
Molinaeus,Car6las| orCbitl«i 

do ymiin 

Molinaeos, Peter j or Ptler 

dy Moolif 



IfofiaM, Mi(|i. SeeQaleOiU 
* MoUoy, Charles 
Mold, Fnnq« Maria 
Molfiiy Tarquinia 
Motynewcy Willuua 
Idonardcty NichoUf 
Monsault, Nkholat Hobett 
Monfey George 
Moaky t|i« hoo« Mrs. 
Mooaoycy Bernard de la 
Moafoa, SirWilUaai 
M oatagoe^ Dr. Richard 
Mootagne, Ch»rlfB 
If oiit»|(«e, Edward 
MoQtaigne, Michael de 
Moataoos, Benrdi^ Ariaa 

* Mootanusx J^^n Baptsft 
MoBtefpan, Madaai de 

• Morttoriy Lewis ^mh9»j 
Maretosy Mare Anthooy 

• Mufchenbrpek* Peter dt 
MafcnlBt, Wolfraogoa 
Mufirjite, Dr. WUtiam 
Miiforufly Maravt 


l^AYIUS* Caeiuf 
^^ Nani^ John Bi^uft 
Kantneil. Robert 
NaOi, Richard 
Naode, Gabriel 
* Naugeriat^ Aadreu 
Naylor, James 
Neander, Michael 

Horrify Heofj 
Norrts, John 
North, Francis 
North, Dr. Joha 

* North, Geofge 

* Norton, Tfaomat 
Noflrad^maty Michel 
Norat, or Novataa 

Vof, Wilfia« 
N/e, PhiUp 

•;• *■ 

Moatei^oieo, Charles de Se- Needbam, Marchamo^t 

eooda^ baron of 
Mootfaucoo, Bernard de 
Bfootfaillard, Bernard de 
Mootmaor, Pefier de 

* Montpcatfior, Aone Marie 

LoujCr d^Orlcanf 
« Morant Philip 
If erau, Qlympia Fulvia 

* Mofdaont, Charles 
More, Sir Thomas 
More, Dr. Henry 
More, Alficander 

* Moore, Jaid^ 

Merely Andrea^ ' 
Moreri, tiewia 

* Moifs, fidward-RojRPe 
Morgoes, Matthefrde 

Sorhoff, Daniel George 
orin, JohnBaptilk 
Morin, John 
Morin, -Sinooa 
Moriaas, S(ephan«t 
Morifoo, Robert 
Morkf, Dr. George 
Moro^, Philip de 
Morton, Tbomat 
Moichat and Bion 

* MoiKim, John lAvrenoe 
Mofs, Or» Robert 

. 1 

Neefa, Peter 
Nelfon, Robert 
NemefiaoQs, Aw, Qlym* 


* Nemours, Marie d* Oricaas 
Nepoii Cornel MM 

* Neftor, monk of RoiHa 
fNetfther, Gafpard 

* Nerc, Tsmothf 

* Newcomb, ThMnas 
Newton, Joba 
Newton, Sir Ifaae 
^ NeVtoa, Richard 

* Newton, Thomas 
.Nicaife, Clavde 


Nicephoros, Gregaras 
Nicepborot, CaliAua 
Nicephoras, Riemmidas 
Niceroo, John Franicia 
Niceroo, John Peter 
Nicctaa, D#vid 
Nicetas, furnained S^rron 
Nicetas, Arhomiaates 
« Nichols, William 
Nicole, Joha 
Ni^e, Claadi 
Nicole, Peter 
NicoUon, Wil^HB 

Mothele Vaytr, FrancUdela Nieuyrencyt, B«rn?rd 
Mothe, Antoiqtt Qoodart deja Ni|[idius Figulns, P4»>li«f 
Mottcttx, Peter Anthony * Niaoltus, Marivs 
*. Mottetilic^ Frances Bert- Noailies, Louis Anihoay de 
and, madame de Noldius, Chriftiaa 

* Moctiey, John Noonius, Lewis 
Monotforc, Wiiliam Nonniui, a Greek po^ 
Movie, Waltj^r Nonnius, Peter 

* Mupjlsyf Antboay Noodt, Gerard 
Muafier, S^aiUaa Mordea, Fredfcick i.€wi# 


fvBRtCHT, Ufrie 
^^ Obrc^oenSj JvJaoV 
Obibpcus, John 
Occam, WiUiaoi 

Ochinui, Bern^rte 
Ockiey, Sunmi 

• OdeU, Thomia 
Odo, Saint 
Odo, Cantiaaua 

OecolampadiQe, Joha 
OgUby, Joha 
Oldcaftlc, Sir /ofa« 
Oldenburg, Henry 
Olderman, )^ba 
Oid6eld, Arine 
Oldham, Jeha 

* Oldifvortb, WaiiMl 

* Oldmiion, John 
» Oldys, William 
Olearios, Oodfiey 
Olearios, Godfrey 
Okarius, Adam 
Oliva, Alesaailcr 
Oliver, lUac 

• Olivet, Jofcph 

* OUveyra, Fraacii.da 
Oleofffki, Andrew 
Oovphrias, Paaviatof 

• Opitfuf, Heai^ 
' Ofits, Martia 

Oporians, Jioh* 
Optatot ' 
Orgaaa, Andrea 

* Orleans, Patcfwj#(apl^ 
Orobio, IX>n Ba|;he£ir 
Orofius, Paul 

Orpheus '*» 

• Orfato, Serl^ 
Ortelius, Abraham 

• Orville 


LIST of the LIV£S in the 

• Orville, Jtmci-Philip 
Oiborne, Francit 
Oibrio^ Jerome 
Oiorto, Jeronrfc 

Oifat, Aroaud de 
Ollade, ^lifrian Van 

• Ofterv^W, John Fred, 
Otho, VenhiB 

Ott, Henry 
Otway, Thomai 
Oudin, Calimir 
Overal, John 
Orerbury, Sir Thomas 
Oughtrrd» Wi!!iain 
OtFidius, Publius Nafo 
Oiwen, Dr. John 
Owen, f uhn 
Osanham, Jimet 
OzelJ, John 

pACe, Richard 
■* Pachymefos, George.. 
Pacuvioe, Marcos 
P«gan, Comtede 
Pagi, Anthony 
Pa^i, Francit " 
Pagoinof, San£hs 
P^Ismon, Q^llhemmiui 
Palaprat, John * 
Paif ariut, Aomut 
Palfin, John 
Palingenius^ Marcellui 
PalladiOy Andrew 
Palladius > 
Pallavicinif Ferrante 
Paliaviciniy Sforsa 
Palfgrave, John 

* Pameliuty James 

* Panard, Charles Francis 
Psncirollufl, Guy 

PanvtnMis. See Onuphrius 

* Papias 
Papin, I/aac 
Pappus * 

Papyrius Maflbn, John^ 


Pardius. Ignatitos Gafton 

Pare, David 

Pare, Philip 

Pare, Daniel ' 

Parent, Unfoine , 

Paris, Matthew 

Parker, Matthew 

Parker, Samuel 


Parr, Catherine 


Parrhafius, Janva, * 
Parry; Richard 
ParCbns, Robert 

• Parfons, lames 
Parthenay, John de 

.Parthenay, Catherine de 

• Paruts, Piul 
Pafcal, Blaife 
Pafor, Matthias . 
Paffirat, John 

Pafqoier, or Paquier, Stephen^ 

PatrrcuUis, C. Velieius 

Patin, <3uy 

Patin, Cbarfes 

Patrick, Simon 

Patru, Oliver 

Pattifon, William 

Paul, Fathec 



• Pearce, Zacbary 
Pearfon, John 

• Peck, >ranc)i 

• Peele, George 
Peirefc, N. C. Fabri 

PeliObn, Paol 
Pell. 'John 
Pellegtino Tifaldi 
'Peilegrino, of Modena 
Pembroke, Thomas 
Penn, William 
Penni,' Giovanni Frsncifco 

• Pepoichf, J.Chriftopher 

• Pcrefixcf, Beaumont de 
Perironius, James 
Perrault, Claude 
Perrault, Charles 

• Perrier, Francis 
Perrier, Charles 

] Perron, James Davy da 
'Perrot, Nicholas 

• Perry, Captain John 
Perfids, Auius Flaccus 
Petavius, Dionyfius 
Peter the Great 

* * Petis de la Croix, Francis 
Petit, Peter 

* Petit, Peter, matbematiciaa 
' Petitot, John . 

Petrarch, Francis 
I-etroniui Arbiter, Titos 
Petty, Sir William 

• Peyrere, Ifaac 
P^sron, Paul 

*^* PfeiFercorn, John 

Phsedros, Thomas 



Philips, Fabiaa 

Philips, .Cstheriatf 
Philips, John 
Philips, Ambrose 
Philo , 
Phfloftratos, Flaviot 

• Picird, John 
Picart, Bernard * 
Pierce,' Edward 
Pierino, del Vaga 
Piertus, See Valerianas 
Pighius, Stephanos 
Pignorios, Lsurentine 
Piles, Roger de 
Pilkington, Lsetitia 
Pinaeus, Severinos 

Pintorrichio, Berna'rdin0 
Piper, Francis le 
Pitcairne, Archibald 
Pichoeus, Peter ,, 

Pitifcus, Samuel 

Pits, or Pitfeus, John 
Pict, Chriftopher 

* Placette, Jean de la 
Piantin, Chriftopher 

.Planudes, Maximus 
Platina, Bartholomew 
Plaotus Mirebs Accius 

• Playford, John 
Plinius Secundus, Catus 
Pliniixs, CseciSus Sec. Caiue : 
Plot, Dr» Robert 


* Piuche, Antoine 

Pococke, Dr. Edward 
Poggius Bracciolinus 
Pole, Reginald 
Polidoro, de CarsvagiQ 
Polignac, Mclchior de 
Politian, Angelo 
Pollux, Julius 

. Polvbius , , 

Pomfrer, Johj) 
Pomponatius, Peter 
Poole, Matthew 
Pope, Alexander 

* Poree, Charles 

• Poteoger, John 
Potter, Dr. Cbriftopher 
Potter, Dr. John 
Poorbus, Peter and Fraocie . 
Pouffin, Nicholas 

• Powell, 


• Powell, JXr, W. Samod 

* Pradoa, ^icholat ^ 

* Prcfton, Tbomai 
Pricaeuf,^ John 
Pride auxy John 
Prideaux, Humphry' 
Prinrraticcio, f raocdfc* 

• Pringltf, Sir John 
Priolo, Benjamin 
Prior, Mat^iew 
Prokopovjtch. See Theo- 

Propercios, SeztHS Aur. 

Pfttdeotiui, Quintus Aortl. 
Prynne, William 
Pfalmana^ar, George 
Pcolemcos, Claudittt 
Poffinidorff, Samael dc 
Pog^ct, Peter Paul 
Pulteney, Wiiliam 

• Purcell, Hertry 
Puteanui, Er^cias 

• Puy, Peter de 
Pyle, Thomas 

^^<^ Qaakers 
iQoarles, Francis 
<^eilina8» Erafmut 
Quemo^ CamilJus 
Quefoel, Pafquief 
QuevedOf Francifbo dc 
Quicn, Michael Ic 

QuiUet, Claudlas 
Qttin, Jamet 
Quinaoiy Philip ' 
Qoincilianos, M. Fabi»t 
Quintin Matins 
Quintinie, John de la 
Qiiiaus Calaber 

n ABELAIS, Francit 
'^ Racan, Marq. of 
Raeine John 
• RadcUffe, Alejufidcr 
Hadcliffe, Dr. John 
Raii^ldty Joba 

. Ralph, garnet 

. Raoiacini, Bernarrfin 

* Rameauy John Philip 
Ramfajr, Andrew Michael 
Ramus, Peter 
Randolph, Thomas 

Rapin, Renataa . 
iCapin de Thoyrat 
Rawleigh, Sir Walter 

* Rawley. William 
Ray, or Wray, Jobn 
Ray, Benjamin 

Real, C. V chard de St* 
Reaumur, R. A* F* 
Redi, Francis 
Regis, Peter ^yWtln 
Regnard, John Francis 
Regnier, Mathurin 
Regnier^ Serapbin 
ReineBut, Thomas 
Reland, Hadrian 
Rembrandt van Rein 
Reoaudot, Etifcbius 
Retz. S^ Gondi 
Reuchlin, Jobn 

* Rhenamos, Beatus 
Rhodoman, Laurenttus 
Ricaur, Sir Paul 
Ricciolus; J. Baptifta 

* Richardfon, Samuel (and 

Richlet, CaeVar Peter 
Richelieu, J. A. du PleflSs 
Ridley. Dr. Nicholas 

* Ridley, t>u Glofter 
Ricnsi, fT. 
Rigaltius, N'chclas 
Ritterihufius, Coniadus 

* Risxio, David 
Roberifon, Dr. William 
Robins, Benjamin 
Rochefoucau t, duke of 
Rochefter, earl of 

Roe, Sir Tbotras 
Roemer, Olaus 
Rogers, Dr. John 

* Rohan, Henry 
Rohault, James 

.Rollin, Charles 
Roir, Richard 
Romano, Julio 
Ronfard, Peter de 
Rooke, Sir George 

* Roome, Edward 
Rofcommon, earl of 
Rofinosj John 
Roufleau, John Baptift 

* Rooffcao, John James 
Rows, NuMu 

R«-AC, Elisahetk | 

* Rowning, John 
Rubens, Sir Peter Pa«l 
Rue, Charles de la 
Ruioart, Thierry 
Rufliworth, John 
*.Rutherforth, Th 
Ruyfch, Frederic 

* Ruyfdaal, Jacob 

* Ryan, Lacy 
Ryer, Peter da 

* Rymer, Thomas 

CAAVEDRA, M. de Cer- 

, v^ntes 
Sabinos the poet , 
Sabinus, F. Floridas 
Sabinua, Gcorge 
Sabliere« A« de RambovBitt 
Sacchi Andrea 

* Sacheverell, Henry . 
^ Sacicvill^earl of Dorfet ' 
'SacloriUe, earl of DorfcC uji, 


* Sadleir, Sir Ralpk 
Sadler, John * 
Sadolet, James > 
Sage, Alain Reaelc 

Sage, David le ) 

fee, Saiote-Aldfgonde 

* Srfint-Andre, Nathanael 
Saint-Aulaire, mar^oia de 

de Saint-Cyran, abbot of 

Saint- John, lord Bolingbroke. 
Saiote-Marthe, Gaucher de > 
Sainte- Marthe, Charles 
Sainte-Marthe, Scevole 
Sainte-Martbe, Denis 
Sainte-Marthe,^ Peter ScevoW 
Saiote-Marthe, Abel Lewis] 
.Sainte*Marihe, Claude 
' * Sale, George 
Saileogre, A. Henry de 
Sallo, Denis de 
Salluflius, Caius Crifpas ' 
Salmafius, Claodius 

* Salmon, Nathaaael 

* Si Iter, Dr. Samuel 
Salvator, Rnfa \ 
Salvian, or Salvianus 
Salviati, Francefco 
Salviad, Giofeppe 
Sammarthanus. See Saiatc 

Sanadon, Noel-Stephcft 
Saaches, Thomas 

* Sancho, Ignatius 
Sancroft, Abp. 


• •• 


tI$T 9f tht tlV^S iA tk» 

Sanderfoiif biAop 
Sanderfon, RoturC 
Sandrat, Joachim 
Sandy;, f dwia 
Sandys, Sir Edwin 
Sandyi, George 
ftannasarius, Janef 
Sanfon^ Nicholat 

Saraftn, John Fraacit 
Sarisftory, John of 
Sarto, Andrea del 
Savage, Richard 

* Savage, Joha 
Savary, Taoiet 
SaviTe, Sir. Henry 
Savile, Sir George ^ 
Saundcrfon, Nicholas 
Savonarola, Jerom 
Saurin, JanMs 
Saoveur, Jofeph 
Saxpy Conjptede 

* Say, Samuel 
Scala, BarthelemI 
^ali^, Julius Cflpfinr 
4Bcalfger, Jofepb Joftut 
Schaaf, C;)drlM 
Schefler, John 
Scbeiacr, Chriftoj^her 
Schiavonei An^r^a 
Schmidt, Erafmus 

' Schmidt, Sebai^ian 
Schmidt, John Andrea 
Scboepflin, Toha Daotd 
Schore), Jobn 
Sci>on>berg, duke of 
SHbottos, Andreas 
ftcbreveiius, Cornelius 

* Scbultenf, Albf^rC 
Shurman, Anna MarU. 
Scjoppiut, Gafpar 
Scot, lUyaolde 
Scott, Dr. John 
Scodery, George de 
Scudery, Magdeleiae de 
Search* See Tucker 

tebaftiano, called del Pio|nb» 
eckcndorf> Gui-Louii de 
^ Seeker, arcbbiihop 

* Second ttSy John 
Sedleyi Sir Charles 
Sc^rais, John Renaud d^ 
Selden, John 

Seed, Jeremiah 
Seneca, Lac^ot Ana|eo|k 
Sennertos, Daniel 
Sennertuf| Andrew 
Serranoi, Joannss 
Servetna, Michael 
Servioi, M. Honoritot 
tevcmtf Ceraeiitti 

Sevigney Marqoifikdc 
• Sswcll. WiUtem 
Sewell, George 
Sextui Empirkai 
Shadwell, Thonae 
Shakfpeare. W>Uiam 
Sharp, archbiihop of 3t« An- 
Sharp, Dr. John 
Shaw, Thomaf 
Sheffield, dukeofBuckji 
Sheldon, Gilbert 
Shenftone, William 
Sherboracy Sir Edward 
Sheridan, Thomu 
^ Shendan, Frances 
Sherlock, Wilitam 
Sherlock, Thomas 

Shirleyi Jan 
Shovel, Sir Cioudedey 
Sidney, Sir Phihp 
Sidney, Al^ernois 
Sidoaiuir, C. S. ApoUifltris 
Signotelli, Luca 
Sigonior, Caiolus 
SUius Italicus, Ca^at 
Siffion, Richard 

* Si<nplicius 
Simpfon, Thomaf 
SirrDOfid, J'aes 
SixtusV. pope 
Skinner, Srephea 
Sleidan, John 
Sloan, Sii Hans 
Smalridge, biihop 
Smith, Sir Thoaat 
Smith, John 
Smith, Dr. Thomas 
Smith, John 
Smith, Edmund 

* Smollett, ToUss 
Smyth, James. See Moore 

* Smyth, Robert 
Snyders, Francit 
Socinus, Marianue 
Socinui, Laelius 
Socinut, Fauftus 

Socratei, Scholafticoe 
Solimene, Francis 

* Solinos, Caiui Julias 
Solii, Antonio de 

* Solomon, Benjobjalla 

Somert, John Lord 

* Somervile, Willisfli 
Soraner, WiUiai^ 

Sorbieie^ Ssffittel 
ftottth, Dt, Robert 
Sovther^,* Thomas 
Sosomenus, Ifernyitt 
Spanheimi^ Frederick 
Spanheiqi, Ezekiel 
Spanheim, Frederick 
Speed, John 
Spelman, Sir tfenry 

* Spenee, Jo/eph 
Spencer, John 
Spenfer, Edmund 
Sperone, Speroa 
Spinckes, Nathaoael 
Spinoso, BeoediA do 
Spon, Charles 
Spen, Jaipes 
Sponda&uf, Joanoet 
Spoodaant, Henricug ' 
Spotfwood, John 
Sprangher, Baujiolpmtlf 
Sprat, Thomas 

* Squire, biflxop 

* Stackhoufe, Thomst 
Stanley, Thomas 
Stanley, Thpmaf 
Statins, Papinius 

* Staveley, Thomas 
Steele, Sir Richard 
Stella, Jsmes 
Stephanos Bycandavi 
Stephens, Henry 
Stephens, Robert 
Stephens, Francis 
Stephens, H^nry, Ke^ert,^!^ 

Francis, fons of Robert 
Stephens, Robert, the antir 

Stepney, Gevorge 

* Sterne, Laurenic^ 
Sternhpld, Thqmas 
Stillingileer; Edward . 

* StiUmgflre;, Braj^mla 
Stobaeus, Joannes 
Stone, Joha 

Stow, Joha 


Strada, Faiataaus 

* Straight, J.)ha 
Streaier, R bcrt 
Strypc, John 
Stubbe, Henry 

* Stubbs, George 

* Stuke^cy, Willisin 
Sturmius, Jam,ea 
Sturmius, Jofao 
Suckling Sit John 
Suetoniuv, C. ^etofiips TfSfl^ 




tiie«r« EafiaceJe 

* Soicer, Joka Gafpvel 

Sully, Duke of 



* Somorolcoff Alexander 
3uttoa, Thomas 

Suze, Henriette de CoH£;pi 
SwammenUniy J^kn 
Svipft, Dr. Jonathan 
Sybiechty John 
Sydenham, Thomas 
^ylborgitis, Fredcricu« 
Sylvias^ Jamea 
$yoge» Edwar4 
Syrusy Ptiblius 

♦pACJTUS, Cains Corn, 

Tanner, Thomaa 
Turgioni. Stfe TouUto 
Taflb, Torqnato 
Tate, Nahum 

• Tarifichef, Vaffili 
Tadus, Achilles 
Taubman, Frederic 
Tavernifr, JohnBaptl^ 
Taylor, Dr, Jeremy 
Taylor, the water poet 
Taylor, Dr. John 

♦ Taylor, Dr. John 
Tempie^.^r William 
Temple m«i>, Peter 
Teniersj David 
Teniroii^ .archbi(liC{r 
Tcrentius,. Publius- 
Tertullian, (^S. Florettt 
Theobald, Lewis - 

Theodore, kingofCorfiea 


* Theophanes, ProkopoFitch 

Tbevcnof, Mekhi&dee 

• Thirlby, Styan 

• ThomB^ WUliam 

* Thomas, WiUiam . 
Thomas, Mrs. 
Thomfon, Jimes 
Tboreiby,r Kalph 
TbernbiUy Sir, James 
Tbbanos, JaC| At3{uftiil 

Thurloc, John 
Tibullus, Albins 
Tickell, Thomas 

• Tillemont, S. le Vain de 
Tillotfoo, archbtfbop 
Tindal, Matthev^ 

• Tindal, Nicholas 

• Titley, Walter 

• Todd, Dr. Hugh 
To^and, John 
ToUius, Jacobus 
Tqoke, Andrew 
Torrentius, Lsevintis 

• Torrentius, John- 
Torricclli, Evaagelii^e 
Tourenefort, J. Pittoti de' 

• Tozzetti, John Targioni 
Trallian, Alexander 
Trapezuntias, Qeorgiut 
Trapp, Jofepb 
TremeJiiuff, Immanuel 
Trenchard, John 
Trtffino, JobnGco>ge 

• Tmmbull, Sir William 

• Tucker, Abrab^ov 

• Toll, Jethro 

• Tunftall, Jjimes 
Turnebus, Adrian 
Tyndale, William 

• Tyrtaeus 

• Tfitjtes 

•y ATLLANT, John Foy 
^ VaillAnt, J« Francis Foy 
Valerianosy Pierivs 
Valerius Maximuf 
Valeiius, Henricat 
Vaieliuf, Adfis^n 
Valla, Laorentius 
Valla, George 
Vanborgb, Sk^Joho 
* Vandale, Antony 
Vander. Linden 
Van Dyck, Sir Aflthopy 
Van Hayfum, John 
Vane, Sir Hemy;^ 
Vaniere, James- 

Varillas, Antoine 
Varro) M. TerentUs 
Vafari, Georgto 
Vavaffbr, Francis 
Vaugelas, Claude Fayrede 

7 . 

Vayer, See Mothe'k Vayef 
Veg4« Se« Garcilafr(» 

• Vegeffius, flf Rfti4tiJf 
Velferas, Marcos 

• Vergil, Pdiydore 
Verrochio, Andrdai 
Verfchnre, Henry' 
Veriot, T^^e Aubek in 

• Vertue, George 
Vefalius, Andrews' 
Victor, Sextns Aordio^ 
Vidorius, Peter 
Vida, M. Hieronymtts^ 
Villierr, duke of Buckhighiili 
Villiers, Geo. duke of fi^u^V 

Vinci Leonardo dt 

• Vines, Richard 

Vitruvius; M. V. Pollio 
Vives, Joannes Hodovicm 

• Voetius, Gilbert 
Voitore, Vincent 

• Volkof, Feodof 
Varftitts, Conrade 
Voffiys, J« Qerardnt 
Voffius, Ifaac 
Vouet, Simon 
Urceus, Codrus 
Urfus, Nic. Raimarat 
y/her, archbifiiop 


XX7AGENSBIL, T.Clryffti 
^^ Wagftaflfe, ThodiM 
Wake, Dr. William 
Waller, Edmand 
Wallis, John 
Walpole, Sir Robert 
Wallb, William 
Walfyngham^ Sir Franeif 
Walton, Brian 

• Walton, Ifaac 

* Wanley, Humphrey 
Wanfleby John Michad 

* Warburton, biflMp* 
Ward, Seth 

Ward, John 
Ware, Sir James * 
Warham, arcbbiftop^ 

* Warner, FerdinaAd«<. 
Waterland, Dr. Daniel 

• Watfon, John 
Watteau, Aiitlway 
Watts, Dr. Ifaac' ' 

• Webb, ,Philit>.Cvttfet 
Wechcl, Chriflian 
Wechtl. Aadrcif 

• WeUei, 

List of the LivE§, kti 

• Wellfif, StiBMl 

• Wcldcdy Leonard 
IVcDtworth* earl of Strafltord 

• WeAejr» Satnael 

• Welley, ^amiie]^ j«U 

• Weft, GUbett 

• Weft« Jamet 
Wetfteiiii John jamel 
Whartoa« Henry 
Whartoflf jdiikeof 
Wbeare^ Dcgory 
WheeJer, Sir Georgia 
Whlchcot^ Benjamiil 
Vrj^iibo, William 
iyiiitby« Daniel 

^ Whitehead. Pant 
Whitlocke, Balftiod^ 
Whitgift, John 
Wickli^, John 
Wicquefort* Abrakamde 
Wilkind. Johft 

• Windns, David 
Williamsy John 

• WiUiamiy Anni 
Willis, Thomas 

• WilHt, Browne 
WilloQghb/, Francis 
Wilfon, Arthur 

« Wilfofl, biffliop 

f Willbo^ Thomas 
Wiachelfta^ Aane^ cbiia- 

• teftof 
Wiowobd, Sir kalph 

* Wife. Francis 
Wifliog; WilHam 
Wltfiut, Hermiui 

* Wofiington, Margaret 
y^tAfti general 
yrM^ Chriftito 
Wollaftoo, WiUiaoi 

* Woliele3r» llobert 
Wolifey, Thomas 
Woody Anthony 

f Wood, Robert 

* Woodford, Samnel 
Woodward, 'John 
Woolfton, llioinas 
Wormitts, Olaus 

* Worthington, Williaiii 
Wottoil, Sir Henry 
Wotton> William 
Wovtrermeh, Philip 

* Wrayj^ Daniel 
Wren, Chriitophe^ 
Wreo^ Matthew 

* Wright, Samuel 
Wycherley, William 
Wykeham, William of 




* YAf-MM, Thomii 

Votings Edwdrd 

• ^ACtTTliS 

, Zeuxis 

Zint endorf. See Moravian* 

* Zonaras, John 

Zuccheroy Taddeo 
Zucchero, Frederick 
Zuinglius, Ulricm 

A P 

E N D 1 :Jc. 

* ANSTIS. John 

• A ftjton, Charles 

* AAton, Thomas 
^ Bacon, Phanuel 

* Bernoalli, Daniel 

* Betham, Edward 

* Bleteric, J. P. Rene dc la 

* Bour|ec, Dom.John 

* Burrow, Sir James 

* Capell, Edward 

* Carter, Francis 

* Cervetto 

* Chamberlayne, John 

* Chetwode, Knightly 

* Davis, Henry Edwards 

* Defefch, William 

* D*Alem&ert, Monf, 

* Dodrw4rth» Roger 

* Duke, Richard 

* Euler, Leonard 

* Fancourt, Samuel 

* Fofter, John 

f Fran^kho, Thomat 

* Furnesttx, Philip 

* Qeddes, James 

* GifFord, Andrtiw 

* Gmelin, Samuel 

* Goadby, Robert 

* Grame, John 

* Guidenftaedtf JohnAnthony 

* Hall, Henry 

* Haynes, Hopton 

* Haynes, Samuel 

* Immyns, John 

* Kelly, Hugh 

* Kennicoct, Benjamin 
« Kenrick, William 

* Lowe, Thomas 

* Miller, Lady 

* Milles, Jeremiah 
^ Moore, Philip 

* Nares, James 

* Ogdeo, Samuel 

* Oldys, William 

* Piazsa, H. Bartholomew 

* Pocock, Richard 

* Rawliofi>n, Sir Thomas 

* Rawliaiba,' Thomas 

* Rawlinfon, Dr. Richatd 

* Rawlinfon, Chriftopher 

* Riciiardfon^ Samuel 

* Robinibn. Anaftafia 

* Rogers, Charles 

* Sanches, A. N. RibeirO 

* Sharpe, Gregory 

* Swift, Deane . 

* Tailis^ Thomas 

* Tooke, George 

* Tooke, Thomas 

* Tye, Chriftopher 

* Voltaire, M. F, Arouet de, 

* Wargentin, Peter 

* Weft, Thomas 

* White, Natbanael 

* Winkelman, Abbe Joha 

* Wirley, William 

* Woodward, Henry 

* Worfdale, James 

« Wright, Sir Natkan 


t i 3 

A N 

Universal, " Historical, arid LiteRarV 


AARSENS (Francis), lord of Someldyck and Spyck, 
was one of the greaceft niini(ters for negociation, the 
United Provinces could ever boaft of* Cornelius 
Aarfens his father was regifter to the States j and being ac-^ 
quainied with Mr. du Pleffis Mornay at the court of WiTliaoi 
prince of Orange, he prevailed Ijpon hiiti to take his foa 
Under him^ with whom he continued fome ye^rs. John Olden fjo M^to* 
Barnevelt,' who prefided over the affairs oFHoUand and all therierjiM*. 
United Provinces, lent him afterwards agent into France ; "*•**"• 
ivhcre be karned to' negociate under tbofe profound politi-^* * 
cians, Henry IV. Villeroy, Rofny, Silleri, Jeannin, &c. ; and 
be acquitted himfelf fo well, as to obtain their approbation^ 
Soon after he wad invefled with the chara£)er of ambaiTddor^ 
being the firft who was recognized as fuch by the French 
court ; at which time Henry IV, declared, that he (hould 
take precedence next to the Venetian minifter* He refided. 
in France fifteen years ; during which time he received greae 
marks of efleem froth the king, who created him a knight and 
baron ; and for this reafon he was received amongil the nobles 
of the province of Holland. However, he became at length foibiili 
odious to the French court, that they dedred to have him re- 
called. He was afterwards deputed to Venice, and to feveral 
German and Italian princes, upon occaiion of the troubles in 
Bohemia: this was in 1620, and it is to be obferv'ed, fays vTirqoe. 
Mr. Wicqucfort, ** that the French king ordered the duke of fort's Treat, 
^ Aneouleme, the count of Methune, and Abbe desPreaux,?"^^^" 

* A A R S E, N S. 

** his three ambalTadors, not to receive viflts from Mr. Aar(eitdf^ 

** who came from the States of the United Provinces to ne- 

, ,• . ... ..... ••• • 

^ gociftte wkh feme German and Italian princes, upon rte 
^< fame affairs of Bohemia for which the ambaflTadors of 
^* France had been deputed. The order fcnt for this purpofe 
** (ignified, that it was not. intended as any indignity to the 
^^ States, with whom the king was defirous' to live always in 
** friendihip, but entirely upon account of Mr. Aarfens, for 
i^ his having a£l?ed »n a manner tnco^fi^l^nt Mfuh the iritpfej!^ 
Wicquefort, *« and dignity of his majefly [a]/' Mr. Aarfens was the lirft 
6*0'' o*' ^f ^^''^^ extraordinary ambafladors, fent to England in 1620 9 
^ and the fecond, in 1641. In this laft embafly his colleagues 

were the lord of Brederode firft ambaiTador, and Heemfvliet as 
third } they were to treat about the marriage of prince Wil- 
liam, fon to the prince of Orange. He was alfo ambaflador 
DuMaurier, extraordinary at the French court in 1624; and cardinal 
p* 336. Richelieu having jiift taken the adminillratton into bis hands, 
and knowing he was an able man, made ufe of him to ferve 
his o\yn purpofes. 

Aarfens died in a vety advanced age ; and his fon, who 
ftirvived him, was reputed the wealthielt man in Holland. 

He Ijas left very accurate and judicious memoirs oC all thpfe in which he was employed ; and it mud be ol>-- 
feryed^ that the various inflru£tions given him by the States, 
and all the Credential letters he carried in his later eihbaf&es, 
were drawn by himfelf ; whence we may conclude, fays Mr* 
Tol. H. p. Wicquefort, that he was the ableft perfon in all that country, 
♦35- not oiily for condtr&ing of negotiations, but for indrufting 

ambaiTadors what to negotiate upon. 

Xlemoirf»p. Du Maurier, ih his memoirs, fays, << that he was of sr 

a7^ « fpirit the moft dangerous which ever arofe in the. United 

** Province?, and the more to be dreaded, as he cpncealed all 

" the malevolence and artifice of foreign courts, under the^ 

*^ appearance of Dutch bluntnefs and iimplicity ; that he was 

** vehement and perfuafive, could advance arguments in JFa- 

^ vour of the worll caufes, had an intriguing genius, ancf 

>^ had kept a fecret correfpondence with fome great men in 

•* France, whofe conduS was not only fufpec^ed, but highly 

•* 6ffenfivc to the. king j and that, having bribed the Frenchf 

[a] This pafla^e in Wicquefort any ** libel, written, figned, and publifbe^ "! 

te iiloftrated by the following in Dn «' by Francis AarfenS } to the grea^ 

Maurier, *< lo the year 1618/* fays « feandal and diflkonour of the iBein« 

he, f< the king commandp«i Mr* De " bera of his inajefty*a council} foi; . 

'^'Boiflife, to complain in his natre to << which no fatisfadion could then bcT \ 

•< the 9utc» CcacFsU^ of va dcfacmtoiy '« obuitied,** 

« wnbafiador'a 

A A R S E N 3. 1 

^< ambaflador's kcrctsiJrj at the Ba|;tfe, he thereby difcovered 
*^ the mod fecrec defigns of the French coart." Bj this 
accdunt we maj fee, that Aarfens was a mslh of great abilU 
ties, aod had an excelieht turn for political negotiations : but 
whilft Dii Maurier inveighs fo warmly againft this ftaterman, 
he lets us itito a circuniftance, which may tbach u^ not to givd 
tD6 much credit to his inveSives; for he informs us-, that 
there was an irrecontileable enmity betwixt his father and 

AARSENS, or AERSENS (PfiTfiR}^ called by the fialdinntd 
Italians Fiaro Lengo from his tallnefs, was a celebrated J^^jj*'^ 
paoilcr, and born ftt Amfierdam in 15194 His father, who fori/see.' 
was a ftockin^- maker, m^ant to train hind rn his own conik i^ 
ways bur the mother, finding in him an incltYiation towards P"""^" 
painting. Was refolved thai h&r fon thould purfue his gtniuk, |.^^^ 
e?en though fli^ alwd^s wer^ forced t^ fpih for hei- liveliho6d : 
and to this Ihe good itian her hiifbahd, we fut>{>ofe i^or t)eace^i 
Bike, at length confented. His firft mafter was Alart Glaefier^ 
an eminent'painter in Amfterdam $ under ^boni he (o dillin* 
guiibed himfelf, that he foon engaged the Attention of the great. 
When he was about eighteen; he went to Bofluih HaihauU^ 
ioiiew the pieces of feverdl rti^fters: thence to Ahtwerp^ 
where he married, and entered liito the comt)any 6f pointers* 
He excelled very f»ar(iculatly in reprefehting a kitchen : but 
indeed be excelled iipbn all kinds of fubje£ts. Ah alt^r-pledi^ 
ofhis^ vift. a craeifixj fetling forth an Executioner breakiii] 
with id iron bar the kgs df the thilfves, Ht, was prodigibiifl] 
admired. This noble piece was deftrbyed by the rabble in tb^ 
imt of the infufredion ^ho ij66, although the lady dt 
Sonnereldt in Alckmaer diFered 200 clowns fbr its redemp-^ 
tioD, ai the furious peatailts w^r6 bringing it out of tbd 
church ^ but- they tore it to pieces, and trod it undef fboi. 
What pain to an artift, to fee hk.made^r-piice demolifiied! 
aod indeed he afterwards complained bf it to the populace iii 
t^tms 6f fuch fevcrity, that more than.dnce tb^y were going 
to murdeir hJtn, He died in i$8j,* leaving three fobs, wh^ 
ftttce^^d in his profefflofi. He had ^ mean afp^A, which 
he.did not stnMnfd by aAy attention to the exterior 5 fot li& 
klwayd ap^ared very mtanly drefied. 

AARTGEN, of AfiRTGfEN,^ i |>dint^r of ftierk, wai B.Winucci, 
the fon of a wbol-condber, and borii at teyden in i49^.w«*>^«» 
He worked at his father's trade till he vtris eighteen, and 
then, having difcovered a genius for defigning, he was 
j^accd with Cornelius Engelhechtz, under whom he made 

B 2 a con- 

A A R T G E N. 


a confiderable progrefs in painting. He became fo ii&ln^ 
guiihedy that the celebrated Francis Fiori^ went to Leydect » 
out of mere curiofity to fee bim. He found him inhz- 
biting a poor half-ruined but, and in ^ very mean fty]e 
of living: he folicited him to go to Antwerp, promifing 
him wealth and rank fuitable to his. merit; but Aartgen re- 
fufedy declaring that he found more fweets in his poverty^ 
than others did in their riches. It was a cuftom with this 
painter, never to work on Mondays, but to devote that day 
with his difciples to the bottle* He ufed to ftrull about the 
fireets in the night, playing on the German flute $ and in one 
of thofe frolics he was drowned in is^^» 

A6BADIE (James), an eminent Proteftant divine, born 
at Hay, in Berne, in the year 1658, as Niceron affirms in 
his Hiftory of illuftrious men, though fome fay he was born 
in 1654. He (ludied at Saumur, at Paris, and at Sedan ; at 
which laft place he took the degree of D. D. Thence he 
went to Holland, and afterwards to Berlin at the deiire of 
count d'Efpenfe.; where he was made minifter of the French 
church, lately efiabliflied by the eledor of Brandenbourg. He 
refid^d in this city for many years, and was always in high 
favour with the elector. The French congregation at Berlin 
was at firft but thin $ but, upon the revocation of the ediSt of 
Nantes, great numbers retired to Brandenbourg. They wtfre 
received with the greateft humanity, fo that Dr. Abbadie had 
in a little time a great charge; of which he took all poffible 
care, and by his intereft at court did many fervices to his 
dt^j&d countrymen. The eledor dying in 1688, Abl^die 
aaSepted of marfhal Schomberg's propofal to go with him^ 
firft to Holland, and then to England with the prince of 
Orange. In the autumn of 1689, ^^ ^^'^^ ^^^^ ^^^ marfhal 
to Ireland ; where he continued till after the battle of Boyne 
in July 1690, in which his great patron wa$, killed. This 
occaiioned his return to London, where he was appointed 
minifter of the French church in the Savoy; and fome time 
after he was promoted to the deanry of Kilkloe in Ireland^ 
which he enjoyed for many years. Having made a tour to 
Holland, in order to publilh one of his books ; foon after his 
return, he was taken ill in London, and died in the pariih of 
Mary-le-bon, Sept. 23, ^727* He was ftrongly attached tQ 
the caufe of king William, a^ appears by his elaborate defence 
of the Revolution, and his hiftory of the Afiaifi nation- plot. 
He had great natural abilitiesi, which he cultivated with truet 
and ufeful learning. He was a moft zealous defender of the 
jprimuive doctrine of the Proteftants^ as appears by his writings; 


A B B A D 1 E. 

Und that ftrong nervous eloquence, for which he was (o re« 
markable, enabled him to enforce the dodrines of his pro- 
feffion from the pulpit with great fpirit and energy ^aJ* 

[aJ The account of his wridogs, in the knowing one*i felf, or an inqairy into 

order they were pobliihed, is as follows i the iborces of morality. 

1, ** Sermons fur divers textes it 6t ** Defenfe de la nation Britanni* 

*' l*£critUTe J Leiden, i68q.** Ser- '< qoej oii les droits de Diea, denatoro^ 

inons on feveraJ texts of Scripture, Svo*- " & de la fociete lont claireoient etablis 

at *' Panegyrique de Monfeignenr '< an fojet de la revolotion d'Angleterre^ 

^' TEiedeur de Brandebourg ; Rotter- " contre Tauteor de Tavis important aux 

** dam/ 1684 ** A Panegyric 00 the " refugies.** A defence of the Revo* 

£Iedor of Brandenbourg. lotion in England, , 

. 3. •* Traitc dc la veritc de la Reli- " 7, *• Panegyrique de Marie reine 

** gionCbreiienne} Rotterdam, 1684.** " d'Angleterre, decedee le Dccembre 

A treatifeof the truth of the Chriftian " a8, 1694$ Haye, 1695.** A pane« 

teligion. This has gone through feveo gyrick on Nfary Queen of England, 
editions. The Abbe HouteviJle fpeaks 8. ** Hiftoire de la confpiraticn der* 

•fit in thefe terms : *' The moft fhiniog ^ niere d*Angletetre, avec le detail det 

'< of theie treatifes for defence of the '* diverfea entreprifes contre le roi et U 

" Cbriftian religion, which were pub* " nation, qui ont precede ce dernier 

** li/hed by the Proteftants, is that writ- ** attentat; Londie«, 1696." An ac- 

** ten by Mr. Abbadie. The favourable count of the late confpiracy in England, 

** reception it met with, the praife it This piece was written by order ot kin^ 

^t received^ almoft without example^ William III. and the materials were 

<* immediately after its publication, the furniflied by the earl of Portland, and fir 

** univerfal approbation it ftili meets William Truniball, fecretsry of ftate* 
■* with, render it unneceifary for me to 9. *' La veritede la religion reformee; 

** join my commendations^ which would '* Rotterdam, 1708.*' The truth of the 

" add fo little to the merit of fo great reformed religion. Dr. Henry |«ambert« 

** an author. He has united in this Bifliop of Dromore, tran dated this piece 

** book all onr controverfies with the into EngliHi, for the ini^ru£tion of the 

** infidels. In the firil part, he com- Roman Catholics iu his drocefe. 
*< bats the Atheifts ; the Deifts in the 10. *' La triomphe de la providence 

** fecond $ and the Socinians in the " et de la religion, ou Pouverture del 

*< third. Philofophy and theology enter '* fept fceaux par le fils de Dieu; Am- 

** happily into his manner of com pofingy " flerdam, 1723." The triumph of 

** which is in the true metiiody lively, providence and religion, or the opening 

<* pore, and elegant, efpecially in the the feven feais by the fon of God, &c« 

<* firft books.** Difcours hiftoriqtie et M. Voltaire fpeiks tontemptuouHy of 

critique fur la methode des principaux this performance in his lift of writers in 

aoteurs, Sec, p. 187. the age of Lewis XIV. He was ceie* 

4. *< Reflexion fur la prefence re<?lle brated, fays that author, for his treatife 

** do corps de Jefus Chrift dans TEu- upon the Chiiftian religion ; but he 

*<^ ch^riftte, comprifes endiverfeslettres; afterwards difcredited that work by hia 

*<. Haye, 1685.** Reflections on the '< Opening of the feven feals.'* 
real prefence in the facrament. Befides what we have mentioned, he 

5« '* L* Art de reconnoitre foi-metne, publifhed *feveral fingle fermoas, and • 

<* 00 la recherche des fources de la mo<- fome other little piecer, which met with 

**, lalej Rotterdam^ 1692.** The arc of general approbation. 

ABBOT (George), archbifliop of Canterbury, was bom 
0(t» ^g^ 1^62, at Guilford, iu §urrey [a]. He received 


*f a] His father Maurice Abbot was a . means a£ Dr. Story, who was a gfeat 

dothworker, and fettled at Guilford, perfccufw of fuch perfons in the reigo 

where he married Alice Marfh j he fuf- of Queen Mary. The conclufion of their 

fefcd a great deal foir hii ftedfaftnefs in dayr, however, was more fortunate. 

dite Prdteftant jeiigioD, through the Tlkcy lived togcihor 58 years, and en - 

N B J joyed 




4 • I 

th^ rudiments of his education at the place of his n2}\vlty^ 
under the care of Mr. Francis Taylor, mader of the fir^C 
fcbool at Guilford, founded hy Edward VL From thence h^ 
was removed to Baliol Coljege, Qxford. Nov. zg, 1563^ be 
was eledted probationer fellpw of his college ; ax^ having 
foon after entere4 Wp b.ply orders, be became a celebrated 
preacher in the univerfky. In 15939 he took, his degree, Q^' 
B. p.'and proceeded do^or in tbit. faculty iii MaKy, 1,597 > 
andj in the mopth of Septerpber of the fame year, be wasi 
HeyllnH life cleded mader of Univerfity College, About this.tinie it was^ 
1^ ^A^} I ^^^^ ^^^ differences began. between him and Dr. Laud, whipfl 
xlsslp. 53. fu^fi'l^d as long as they lived*. Jn March 6, 1599, he wa(| 
inftallcd dean of Winchefter : the year following, he, wa3 
chofen vice-chancellor of the univerfuy of Ox^rd^ andl. a 
Ant. Wood, fecqind time in 1603. In 1604, that tranilation of the Bible. 
FaftiQjton. „Q^ in yfg ^3s begun by the drrc£Hbn of king James ; ancf 
157. iV65. Or* Abbot M^as the fe«?:pnd .of eight divines, of Oxford^ to^ 
T r r's ch ^"^^^"^ ^^^ ^^^^ of tranflating the whole N^ew Teftameni; 
hift! lib. X. (excepting the Epiftles) was committed. The year fojlpwing^ 
f»). 46, 57, hp. was a third tiiT>e vice-chancellor. In. 1608, di^d his great 
'^' ^^^hlrJ patron Thomas Sackyille, earl of Dorfet, lord high treafurei^ 
pfthetra'nff, of^ England, a.nd chancellor of the univerfity of Q^^ford. 
of the Bible Xfter his dece^fp, pr, A»bbot became chaplain to George- 
i"^^*^-jj H^me, earl of Dunbar, and treafurer of Scotland; witi|^ 
' whom %e went, to that kingdom, tp afllift. in el^ahlifhing ai\> 
union hcuvixt the kirl^ of SjzotJand and the church of bLng- 
Hcylin*« land; and in this affair he behaved with fo much addrefs and' 

^'\«^ moderation, ' * ' • ' ' "^'" ' " ' ' 

thru, f. ferment [b.j- 

'^7» p« commenced 

3^3» ... '' ' 

JQyed .a. very fiogular felidty in the fuc* that the whole affair was in the utmpft 

ccfs .cif tbeir children. Both difid in the danger of being overthrown; bat, by the 

done year, i6q6, within ten days of |ood management of Dr. Abbot, many 

e«ch. ctber, be at. the age of 8^ and Ihe dtffitohies were reninved, and the clev^y 

Sp« They left behlad thetn fixfonsj df Scotland were 'brought to a better^ 

sivong which were George, afterwards temper; for the cari of Dunbar, who* 

the archblfliop; Roliert their eldcft,' wa« wholly guided !h this, matter by the* 

aad' Majsrice the youngefi^, who will be advice of his' chsfplain, procured an a^ - 

thp fttbje^s of th e ^wo following artides. in the general >iifeitib)y ; ** That the kiiig 

M .King James had fuffered fo much «* (hoolil havtf the indiaion, (v calliiY^)!* 

by the fpirit and power of 4he Pfe&yte- «^ of all general aflemBPHei/ Tha! the'* 

tian» in Scotlaod, that he was very de^ " bifliops, or their depoties, ihould bf 

firous of refforing the form of govern- ** perpetual moderators' of the '^ioce%n 

ment by bifbops in that kingdom j the ** fyno<J?. Tha| no e^ccommunicatioa or ' 

cak« of which woli cntrofted to the earl «• abfcdudon fhoiild be pro^oubctfd Wilh- 

ofJP|i|nbar* This noble lord had pro- ** oat their approbation* ' That all 'prt« 

fl> r moaeranon, that it laid the foundation of.all.his future pre— 
r :• J r-*^^ When he was at £dinhurgh^ a profecution was 

., , , , takt 

hdwcvcf; had made fo ft«ut a i^eiiilance^ ** the oath, of fupr^oiatcj and canonical 


A fi fl b t. \ 

lomrtencefl agamft one Qeprge Sprot, for bavTng BeeYi con- \ 

terned in Gowry*s cohfpiracy eight years before. A long 
account of this affair, with t narrative prefixed by DK Abbot, 
was pubUfiied at Londoii, to fatisfy the public about this mat- 
f ttr^ which had bithierto appeared doubtful and myftcjioiis. 
Abbot's behaviour in Scotland fo much pleafed king James, CaWeiw 
that he tvct after paid great deferepce to his advice and coun- rood's Hlft, 
fcl: there is extant ^ letter from his majefty to him, relating s^lj*^**^ 
to the convocation, which he,had confulted about the lawful- ^,44^. * 
nefs of efpou&ng the caufe of the States [cj. Upon the death 

■ of 

f< obedience* That the ^fftitlon of the ** cbnevr to afliftliis nelghboufs to (halqe 

« dioceCie ttioM be performed by the ** o(f their obedience to th«ir town fov^'. 

** bifhopor his deputy onlj: and finaHjr^ ** reign, upon account, of op^reffion, tf- 

<* that the bifhop i^puld be moderator of ** raony, or what elfe you pleafe to 

'* ill convrntions, for exerciftogs^ or " minne it. tu the late queert*t time, 

** propliefyii|g9> lyhkh Aodd beheld '' this kingdom wtt^cryfrte in aflMiii|; 

ff witiiin their booiidi,** All which " the Hollanders both, with arms v^ 

articles were ratified by (he parliament " advice ; and none of vou|r coat ever 

of that kingdom. " told me^ that any fcruiiJed at it in hetr 

[c] Her*, follows a copi^ of th« let- << reign. UpOa my coming to England, 

ter, tranfcribed from thie New Obfei;va*> " you may know that it . came froM 

tor, Tol. iii« No. iz. the author of *' fome of yourfelves to raife fcruplet 

which tella us, the original is in the ** about this matter j and albeit I hatt 

hands of an eminent perfon; the four ** ofien told my. mind concerning j^t 

laft lines in the king*8 own hand, and '* reg'iftm injubditos^ as in May Uft,.ii& 

d^e reft in the iecretary*s. '''the flar-chamber, upon the occafioa 

«< Good Dr. Abbotv ** of Haies^s pamphlet ; yet I never 

• " I cannot abftain to give yion my " took «i^ notice of thefefciuplee^ till 

** judgment on the procrediogs in the '* the af^-'airs of Spain and Holland forced 

** convocation, as you Will call it; and <* me t6 >r«. Ali my neighbours call 00 

" both as rt» Iff /0/i«, and untis gregU'in ** mft tO^auiWir ih fhe treaty betwetb 

^ eccl^i I am doubly concerned. My *< HolIao^«Sd^ Spain j and. the JboiMof 

" title to the crown nobody calls ip *' of (be nation will not fifffer the Holi» 

** queftion, l>ut they that love neither ^^ landers to be abandoned, efpecially 

*' V9n nor me, and yt>o nraygUe&whom *f after fo much money andT nieri fpent 

'< i mean t all that you an4 your ^ bi«» f ' in their quarrel { therefore I inrat ct 

'< thren have faid of al^mg in poiTe^ipo, ** the ipind to call my clergy together, 

f* (for that word, I tell you, is no mofe ** to fatisfy not (o much me, as the 

** than that yoo make ufe.of in yoat ** world about oft, of the juftnefs of my 

** canon) concerns not me at all* lam f< owaiogth^ Hollanders at this time. 

^ thie next heir, and the crown is mine- ** This I needed not to have done, and 

f by all rights yoo can name, bot that " you have forced qje Jo f»y, I wiih f 

** of conqoe/l ; and li/lr. Solicitor has *'. had not ; you have dipped too <leep iA 

f* fufficientlyexpreiTed my own thoughts « what all kings referve among the ar» 

'< concerning the nature of kingffiip, and « catia imperii ^ and whatever' aver fion 

'* concerning the nature of it u( in mea " you may profefs againft God^s being 

'< ftrfoM ; and I believe ydu were all of ." the author of fin» you have Abmblea 

** his opinion { at leaft, none of you ** up6n the tbfefhotd of that opinion, iii 

^ *■ faid any thing contrary to ic at the '* faying upon the matter, that even 

*f time he fpoke to you from me: but *^ tyranny is God*s authority, and fliouU 

•* you know all of ypo, as I think, tha£ ** be rememhr<?d as fueb. If the king 

*f my reafon of calling you together wH ** of Spiin (hoald return to claim his 

'* to give your judgments, how far a ** old p<mttfical right to my kingdom| 

*f ChriHian an4 a Froteftanc king may ** yon le^ve roe to f«ek for others to 

B 4 •* H\^t 


of Dr. Overton, bllbop of Litcbfieid and Coventrj, the kin§( 
named Dr. Abbot for bis fucceflbr ; and he was according!)^ 
confecrated bifhop of ihofe two united fees, in Dec. 1609^ 
'About a month afterwards, he was tranflated to the fee of 
London,' vacant by the death of Dr. Thomas Ravis. Upon 
Ithe deceafc of Dr. Richard Bancroft, archbi(hop of Canter* 
bury, on Nov. 2, 1610, his majefty had a new opportunity 
of teftifying his eftcem for Dr. Abbot, and accordingly raifed 
Ittgift. him to the archiepifcopal fee. He became now in the higheft 
ij>6Qf,fol.x. favour both with prince and people, and was concerned in all 
the great affairs both of church and ftate. However, he 
never appeared over- fond of power, nor did he endeavour to 
carry bis prerogative as primate of England to any great 
height ; yet he ftewed a fteady refolution in the maintenance 
of the rights of the high-commiflion- court, and would not 
Winwood'i fubmit to lord Coke's prohibitions. Being a man of modera- 
toMII*^'' tion in his principles, he greatly difpleafed fome of the high 
p.aSz.* churchmen ; but he had as great concern for the church as 
any of them, when he thought it really in danger. His great 
zeal for the Proteftant religion made him a ftrenuous pro- 
moter of the match between the EIc6lor Palatine and the 
princefs Elizabeth, which was accordingly concluded and 
fotemnized Feb. 14, 1612^ the archbifhop performing the 
ceremony on a ftage ereded. in the royal chapel. On the 
lOth of April,. his electoral highnefs fet out for Germany: 
before his departure, he made a prefent of plate to the arch- 
bifbop, of the value of a thoufand pounds ; and as a mark of 
his confidence, he wrote a letter to him from Canterbury, in- 
forming; him of the grounds of that difcontent with which he 
tb.p.^l^. IcftlShglaQd. About this time, the famous Hugo Grotius 
*^^^^ame over to England, to endeavour to give h:s majefty 9 
. ^" ^' '/better opinion of the Rcmonftrants, as they then began to be 
I . called: we have a very fingular account of the man, and of 

his negotiation, in a letter from the archbilhop to fir Ralph 
'' 'Jkrpf459. Winwood. In the following year happened the famousf cafe 
''^' of divorce betwixt the lady Frances Howard, daughter of 

the earl of Suffolk, ^nd Robert earl of EfTex : this affair has 
I been by many confidered as one of the greateft blemifhes o( 

** fight for it ; for you tell us fipon the '^ are edge tools, or rather like that 

s «* matrer beforehand, his authority is 'f weapon that is faid to cot with one 

« God*s authority if he prevail. " edge, and core with the orher. I 

*^ Mr. D.)^or, ( have no time to ex* <* commit you to God^s proteflion, 

« prefs my mind further on this theory ** good Dr. Abbot, and reft your good 

' ** bufinefs; I fliaU give >ou my orders '* friend, 

M about it by Mr. Solicitor, and until T James R,'* 

** (heo, meddle no morp in it ) for i^tj , 


A B R O T» 9 

kkig James V feigii) but the part aded therein by the arch*' 
bifliop add^ much to the reputation he had already acquired 
for incorruptible integrity [d]. In 1618, the king publiihed a 
declaration, which be ordered to be read in all churches^ per- 
flsitting fports and paflimes on the Lord's day : this gave great 
^meaiinefs to the archbifhop; who^ happening to be at Croy* 
don ,when it came thither, had the courage to forbid its 
being read* On April 5, 1619, fir Nicholas Kempe laid Heylin*f 
the firft ftone of the hofpital ^t Guilford; the archbifhop, *!^^' °^ ** 
who was prefent, afterwards endowed it with lands to the * P**93* 
value of three hundred pounds per annum ; one hundred of 
which was to be employed jn fetting the poor to work, 
and the remainder for the maintenance of a mafter, twelve 
brdthers, and eight fifters, who have blue cloaths, and 
gowns of the fame colour, and half-a-crown a week each. 
0&. 29, being th^ anniverfary of the biftop's birth, is com- 
memorated here, and' the archbifhop of Canterbury for the 
time being is the vifitor of the hofpital. Towards the end Aubrey*s 
of this year, the £le6ior Palatine accepted of the crown of •^"^9* ^^ 
Bohemia, which occafioned great difputcs in king James's ni"? jjV 
councils: fome were defirous that his majefly fhould not in- 
terfere in this matter, forefeeing that it would produce a war 
in Germany; others again were of opinion, that natural af- 
fedion to his fon and daughter, and a juft concern for the Pro- 
teftant intereft, ought tb engage his majefty to fupport the new 
eledion. The latter was the archbifhop's fentin^eot ; and not 
Singable at that time to attend the privy couri^)| he wrote 

r»] This *iFa»r was by the king refer- when fentence was pronounced, the court 

1^ to a court of delegates. It was drawn was divided in the following manner : 
Out into a great length, and many acci- The commiflioners who gave fenteojce 

ikots happened in the courfe of it, which in the Iady*s behalf, were 


pve the archbifhop difqaiet. He faw Winchefter, '\ 

P'»inlf, that the king was very defirous Ely, / 

tfce la(^ fliould be divorced ; hot he was, Litchfield and Coventry, ' f 

is hit own judgment, dire^iy agafnft Rocbefter, J 

the divorce. He laboured all he could Sir Julius Caefar, •% 

I* extricate himfelf from thefe diffi- Sir Thomas P»rrey, I Doctors of UW^ 

cities, by having an -end pat to the Sir Daniel Donn» j 

eaofe fome other way than by frntence ; The comml/Tioners diflenting, 

i>ut it was to no purpose j for thufe who ArchbiHiop of Canierbury, 

drove on this affair had got too great oifhop of London, 

P^wer to be retrained from bringing it to Sir John Bennet, j 

tbe condofion they defired. He prepared Francis James, ( Doflors of law. 

* fpeech, which he intended to have Thomas Edwards, j 

Wen, sgatnft the nullity of the mar- The Icing was very delirous the. lady 

^Htt in the court at Lambeth ; but he (hould be divorced: the archbi/hop, being 

^>d not make ufe of this fpeech, becaufe againft it, drew up his rea(on$, which 

tfce king ordered thena to deliver their the king thought fit to anfwer himfelf. 

opinions in few words. He continued, See Saunderfon's lilflory of Icing Tame|» 

wvi(svir| inflexible ii^ his opinion | and p. 390* 


15D •' A B R O T, 


bit nrimf with- ffent- bbtdhefs and freedom to the fecitfttry of 

Heylin't (tee- [rji Tho arcttbHbcip beiYi^g; n »w in a declining (tat© q# 

^^^°^^gP' healthy ofcd in. the fufiimcr to »/i .o Ham for the fake. 

'^' of r^crcfttioft ^ and inring iiivitcd by !or ' Z }uch 'ohunc inhiv^ 

p»4c at BranzJiil, he met there with tne gr jteft* misfbrtune 

thae ever bcfeil hiaii^or ht accidentally killed my lord'* 

[s] The ktter ia as followi. ^* and the fligbtlag ^ his emfaff t gc ib^ 

<^ Good Mr. Secretary., '< wU'ch cannot but toucli Qpon ovtr. 

^* liiave never moredtHred to be pre- " g^eat m H^i, who did fend him ; an^ 

'* (kht at any con*uUa iqn than that " rhe<rfo<e I «oo)d oever have a mrftle 

** wllich is this d9^ to be handlfd, for *f fon Uttuken for refoe^t of tHm, Wfaor 

*' Biybearr, and all myheart^goetlxwiih <* truly lim at uqlbing but their osra 

••^ it'; but my ftiot ts worfe tban it was !* purposes. 

<* OR Frrda^t fo that by advice^ of mf *' Oui' ilriiting in wUt comfort the 

**> pi^ficiaAs I ha,ve fwe^t thji whole << Buhemians, will honour t|ie Palf* 

" night paft, and am direded to keep " grav«, will ftrengthen the union^ wiU 

*^ my bedthjt day. •* bring on the ftates of the Low Coun- 

** B«t for the- matter; vny bumble ** triet, will ftir up the king of De&« 

* << advice it, that tb^reia no going- back* '* mark, «nd move hts owo uneloo thmt 

*' but a countenancing it agaiaftallthe ** prince of Orange and the duke de 

' •* world ; yea, fd fir as with ringiAgof '* Bouvi Ion, toge.her with TrcmoviJItf 

**' bella, ui^ .making ol bofi6rei IvLoo* ** (a :rioh prince in France) to' cUfc iir 

*< doa» fa foon as it ihaU be certainly *' their ibores; and Hungary, aa Ifaoptf 

" underftood that the coronation is paft. .'* (being ip ^hat fame caufe) will run 

'*~I am fatiified in my confeience, that " thtf fame fart one, FVr ihe means to 

** th/B cai]£e is jnft^ whuefore they have <* fvpp^rt the war, 1 hope pnvidebiB 

** reje£^ed.that pioud and bloody m^n i ** Deui t the parliament is the old andf 

" and fo much rather, becaufe he hath ** hooourablr way, but how a/lured at 

*^ taken *> coarf<^ to- make that 'kingdom ** this tinte 1 know nor; yet V will' 

'* noteleAive, but to take it from the *^ hope the heft t centeiv^y, if cooisCe<» 

<* donation of another man. And when '* nance be given to the aAipo, niany^ 

•• Ood hath fet up the prince that i^ *' brave fpirits will volimi'ariljf go. Our 

** choCkntobea maikof haoeor thru* ** great nrafhr, in- fuffiiiient waot of 

'< all Chriftendom, to propagate bis go- ** money, gave feme aid to the duke of 

'•* fjiel apd to. pro;e<S.tbe opi^re^^d, I •* Savoy, and furni(he4 out a pretty 'army 

** dare not for my part give advice, but •* i» the caufe o£ Cleve. "Vyc muft try. 

'* totoUow where God leads« *\ once againj, what can. be done in. tkia. 

** It IS a great honour to the king our 'f bufinefs of a higher nature j and all 

^' mafter, .that he hath fuch a. fon^ " the money that may be fparcd is to be 

*' whofe virtues have made htm thought '' turned th^t way. And perhaps God 

*< fix. to^be.made a king $ and meth'nks- *' provided the jewels that were laid up 

'* I do ir^ this and that of Huogsry, " in the Tower, to be gathered by the' 

•* fore fee the work of God, that by - ** mother for ilie prefervatiqn of haf. 

'• pjQoeand piace-thK kings of the earth. ** daughter; whq, like a noble'princefi, 

*• \h at gave their ^pvkr onto the hepft. ** had profefl«d to her huihand, not to! 

" (allthe word of God muft be fulfilled) " leave herfelf one jewel, rather thai^ 

■* ihairnow tear the whore and make- •' not to maintain fo religious aad right- 

<< her defolate, as St. John in his. R eve- " eous a caufeu Vou fee that lying .on my. 

** lation has foretol4# 1 pray you there- ** bed I have gone too far j hot if t werQ 

•* fore with all tbe»fpir1ts you have, to ** with you, this ftould be pny languagei 

** {)0t liffe into this' bufinefs; and kt a ** which ? pcay you humaly anilbcartily^ 

** return, be mJid? iii'o f'-ermany with "to reprefe/ic to the king my maftcr," 

*«^"fpftcdj' and with comfort j and let it *^ telhng him, that when I can ftand,, 

•*5*b«/eal]y profecotcd, that it may ap- ** I hope to dp his majefty fome (ervlce, 

«<'pear'to'(he worId» that .we are awakft . " herein,. So commending' me uaCQ. 

** 'when God. in this fort calleth us. " yo*>> I remain 

•'• If I had time to cxpfefs it, I could •* Vour very loving friend, 

<* b^ very angry at the (huffling wh^ch " Gsorge CAfTT," 

«'^w*iulcd towards my loid Doncafter^ pihaja, 3<^a/.^.i*2. 


:f « B Q 7. If 

\m^Jr by ^ arrpw from a prqff-bows, w)iifJi. bp fbot 4^ 
of the djcer. This accident threw bjin( mxo ^ ip^ nv^- 
cboly.; and he ever afterwards, k^gif a, qioatjbly.fafton "Xu/d^ 
day, the day on whjct^ this (dsH fnifpha^M^ t^ppeo^sd. Qe 
fettled an anpuity of 20 1. on tjie. widow. There were f(8-5*?!J*^**^^ 
veral perfons^ whp.topk an a^Jyantagf^ of thi& misfsH^tuoey ^^xvin,b.ji« 
leflen him in the kjng^s. favour; but his nxajefty £ai4^ ^^ Aap. 87. 
M angel might; h^ve mifcarried in thia fort/^ Hia.epemie^ alt- 
leging; that he had incurred an irregulacityy s^nd w<a9i thereby 
incapacitated for perfo^fping the offices pf a prima^^i tJ:i« king" 
4ireded a commiffipn tptenperfons, taenqyirc iatotbii natr 
ter. The points referred to t^eiriieciiion, \if^^9 i. Whether 
the archbilbqp was irregular by the fafSt of i^yolmi(fi^y booii^f 
^ide. X* Whether, tha^ad; mkhttend to fca^df) ip^churchr 
man. 3^. How his^ grac^ fhQujd be. reflprfu!, ip qaf^..t)i^ com«* 
miflsoners Ihpuld find \^\a^ ii;regular. AH agreed^, that it 
could not be otherwife 4oae, than hy reniiution from the « 
king ; but they varied in the manner. The biihop of , Win«^ 
qhefter, the lord chief, jui^ice, and Dr» &fewarfl» t:hougbt it 
{houl^ be done hy the king^ and by hint alone. The lor4 
~:eeper^ and, the bi(bo{)s of Loindon, Rocheiftery Exeter, atu) 
!t. DayicTs, were for. a^cQpnliflion fjrom tbe^kingidirededito 
fome bi(hpps/ jMdge, Doddervlge and fir Henry M«rtii| 
W^re defuQus it fliQuld done: bot^ w^y^, hy wafy./Qf<iatitiQii4 
The l^ipg apcotrdingly. pa^eda pardoci.apd. difpeofation-; by; 
which he alibied. tbear^cbbiiliop of all irregutarltyi fcandal 
9^ infaipatian, and declared him capable of al) the. authority; ^ 

of a prinia(e. The archbi (bop .thence forward :feldpn^ affifterfSaunderfon> 
at the council, being chiefly hjiqdered. by. his infirmities*! l»*^of*Rfme^8 
in the king's laf( illnefs he was fent for, and attendee}, with i^«dera» vol. 
great conftkpcy, till his majefty expired on -the 27th>of'March,.^^''« ?• 
1 625. fle performed the ceremony, of ^he. coKO^a^ieo of kjngj^^'* 
Charles I. though very, infirm aisd much troubled- with th«^ 
gout. He was never greatly in this kiti^*s favour. ;s and ^bet 
jTuke 0/ Buckingbam> being his .declared enemy, watched art 
ppportunity of making him feel the weiight.of his difpleafure*; 
This, be at lafl accpmp|ii(hec]) upon the arch^iO^'s refufingt 
to.licenfe a fertnon p/eached by- Dr. Slbthorpe, to juftify a^ 
Idan which the king had de^atided^. This . fermon wasi 
preached at Nprtbacnptori^io t^e Le^jt aifiates,, i6,tff>i bef^er 
tEe judges; and was tr^ the :archbi0JK]|>:withr^^^ 
kiiig's .dirc£lion to licenfe it, whfcji; $^fcrefufed.;t4uJ©» and^ 
gave bis reafons for it : iieverthelefs, the fermon was licenfed 
by the bii^pp ,of I>oiidoii, On July 5, lord ^Gbaway^ ^h^ Rufhworth't 
^as.then fecretary of ftate, made* him a vifit; and intimated ^<^^^«^«*«^' 
to him, that the k;ing expedted b^;lhpu].d withdrav\i Jo. Carter- ^'*^ * 


bury. 'This the arcbbifliop declined, beCaufe he had at that 
time alaw-fuit with that city; and defired, he might rather 
have leave to go to his houfe at Ford, five miles bevon^ Can* 
J"*J!J^'*^'*terbury. This was granted ; and, oh 0&. 9 followiiig, the 
p.438/ * * king gave a commiffion to the bifhbps of London, Durham, 
. Rochefter, Oxford, and Bath and Wells, to execute the 
arcbiepifcopal authority; the caufe afligned being no more 
than this, that the archbifbop could not at that time in his 
own perfon attend fhofe fervices, which wereothcrwife proper 
lb, ▼ol.l. p.fQj. hjg cognizance and diredion. The archbifbop did not rc- 
^^^* main long in this fituation; for, a parliament being abfolutely 

Deceifary, his grace Was fent for about Chriftmas, and reftdred 
to his authority and jurifdi£^ion» The intereft of bifhop Laud 
being now very confiderable at court, he drew up inflriiSions $ 
which, having the king's name, were tranfmitted to the arch- 
bifbop, under the pompous title of** His majefty's inflru£(tons to 
** the mofl reverend father in God, George, lord archbifbop of 
I <^ Canterbury, containing certain orders to be obferved and put 
*' in execution by thefeveral bifhops in his province." His grace 
conimunicated them to his fuffragan bifhops ; but in feveral 
refpe£ts he endeavoured to foften their rigour, as they were 
contrived to enfbrce the particular notions of a prevailing 
party in the church, which the archbifbop thought too hard 
for tbofe who made the fundamentals of religion their fludy 
Heylin*! and Were not fo zealous for forms. His conduft in this and 
Life of abp. other rcfpe£ts made his prefence unwelcome at court ; fo that, 
^"^*P''55'upon the birth of the prince of Wales, afterwards Charles IL 
Laud had the honour to baptize him^ as dean of the chapel* 
The archbifbop, being worn out with cares and infirmities, 
died at Croydon, Aug. 5, 1633, aged 71 years; and was 
buried in the chapel of our lady, within the church dedicated 
to the Holy Trinity at Guilford. A flately monument was 
erefled over the grave, with the efEgy'of the archbifbop in his 
robes. Hefhewed himfclf, in mott circumflanccs of his life, 
a man of great moderation to all parties ; and was defirous 
that the clergy fhould attraft the efteem of the laity by the 
fanftity of their manners, rather than claim it as due to their, 
function. His notions and principles, however, hot fuiting 
the humour*of fome writers, have drawn upon him many fe- 
ver^ refledions. Heylfn alTerts, ** that maiks of his benefac- 
•* tions we find none in places of his breeding and preferment;'' 
an afperfion which is totally groundiefs [fJ. Fuller, in hi§ 

{p] Se? along lift'of bit 'bei%fa£lioi\s hoTpita! at Gurlfotd, with his cbaraAer 
in tDipBiugiaphiaBtitannica, vol.J. p.zi. by;the l>T«,R1ght Hdii^. Atthur OnfloWf 
The 'arch biihop's ii ill, and the AatulM were publifliefl in iy;^^, 
niadc b) htm for the regulatiofn of hii ' 

9 Church 

A B B O T. 13 

Church Hiftory, fays,. *<that he forfook thc.birdaof hisown Cent.xvii.. 
" feather to fly with others ; generiilly favouring the laity more **•**•?• **^- 
'* than the clergy, in caufes that were brought before him." 
Mr. John Aubrey, having tranfcribed what is faid of the arch- ' * 
bifliop on his monument, adds, .^^ Notwithflanding this moft 
*' noble charader tranfmitted to pofterity, he was, though a 
" benefa£lor to this piacej no friend to the church of Eng-* 
" land, whereof' he wa$ head; but fcandaloufly permitted 
^* that poifonous fpirit of Puritanifm tq fpread over the whole 
*' nation by his indolence, at lead, if dot connivance and enr 
*' couragement ; which fome years after broke out and laid a 
*' flouri(htng church and ftarte in the moft miferable ruins, an4 
'* which gave birth to thofe* principles which, unlefs rooted 
** out, wilJ ever make this nation unhappy." The earl ofOa- Amiqait. of 
rendon fpeaks of him thus : ** Abbot confidered the Chriftian'J|7*''JJ*| 
•* religion no otherwife^ ,than as it abhoned and reviled Po- '*\ 
" pery; and valued thole men moft, who did that moft furi- 
*' ouily. . For the &r\& obfervation of the drfcipline' of the 
^' church, or the conformity of the articles or canons efta* 
'* bliflied, he made Httfe enquiry, and took lefs care ; and,hav- 
** ing.himfelf made very Uttle progrefs in the ancient and 
'^ folid ftudy of divinity, he adhered only to the dodlrine o£ 
*' Calvin.; and^ for his fake, did ^ot think fo ill of thedifci- 
*^ pline as he ought t«> have done. &ut if men prudently for- 
^ bore a publick reviling and railing at the hierarchy and ec« 
^* clefiaftijcal government, let their, opinions, and private judg« 
*^ ment be what it would, they were not only fecure from an^ 
<< inquifition of his, but acceptable to hiDfi|«^xfd at leaft equally. 
'*' preferred by him : and though many other biihops plainly 
*^ difc^rned the mifchiefs which daily broke in, to the preJM- 
*' dice of religion, by his defers and remiffnefs, and prevented 
<* it in their own diocefes as much as they could, and gave all 
*^ their countenance to men of other parts and other principles;' 
^* and though the bifhop of London (Dr. Laud) from the time 
*^ of his authority and credit with the king, had applied all the 
^* reiQ^iei he could to thofe defe£lions, and from the time of 
*^ his being chancellor of Oxford had much difcountenanced. 
*^ and almoft fupprefled that fpirit, by encouraging another 
'^ kind of learnmgand pra^lice in that univeVfity, which was' 
^' indeed according to the do^rine of the church of England; 
*^ yet that temper in the.archbiOiop, whofe haufe was a fanc- 
*^ tuary to the moft eminent of that factious party, and who, 
*^ licenfed their moft pernicious writings, left his fucceftbr a. 
« very difficult work to. do, tO; r^forn> aoc^ Teduce a church 
^' into order, that had been fo-long negleded, and that was fo' 
** ill filled by many weak and more wilful churchmen.'' Dr. 

• " . .... Well wood' 

U A b 6 6 T. 

]^(^ pf the Wellwbo'^ tias 3one more juflice to the merit and abilitiet 

^^*^'j**°» gf our prelate : *' Archbjlhop Abbot, ifays he, was a perfon of^' wonderful temper and moderation ; . and in all his condud 

*?• ** {hewed an unwillingnefs to firetch the aA of uniformity be- 

** yohd Wli'at was abiolutely neceflary for the peace of the 

^' diurcl), or the pi'erc^ative of the cro,wp, any farther than 

^' conduced to the good of the ftate. Being not well turned 

^^ for a court, though otlierwife of confiderable learnipg and 

^^ genteel education^ he either could not, or would not ftoop 

^^ to the humour of the times ; and now and then ^ by an anrea<*> 

^ fohable ftilFnefs, gave occafion to his enemies to reprefent 

^^ hidias not well inclined to the prerogative, or too much ad-^ 

^^ diStcd to a popular intereA j and therefore not fit to h^ efn<* 

MffiiMM^ ^^ ployed in matters of government." As to the archbiihop'^ 

av#.ifDO« learning and afiiUties as a writer, pofterity may judge thereof 

^3^* from bis writings upon various fubjeds, of which we Ihail 

give, in a note> aliift as they were publifbed [g]. 

TcA I. ** Qaaeifliones fex, tot'idem prie- '* treaAfier of England, bh Ifaiah xl. '€h 

•* ItSie'nihti in fchola thfeologica Qjito- '< tonddn; i6oS.** 
^ pMe pn> lorma habitis^ difeuitse et dif- ft '* TV&n/latlon of part of tfie t^eA 

f^ c^ptatar, anno i (^7* in i^ui^us e facra *^ T'efta^eiit, with the teSt of tlie Ojti^oM 

" fcripturaet patnbiis qmd ftatucDdum ** divines, l6il.** 
^'lit definttiir; Oi^iiia^, '5^^» 4^0. S. ^' Soiiie mefnbrials toiichrhg iht 

V TtwkfonU rCfiBi ifto, *^ niiUity bbti^ixtl the Mirl o£ £^x aod 
If ** ExpofitioQ on ^ the prophet Jo- << hi; ladyi . pronounced Scptemhef %^ 

^ liab, in certain iermons preached in '* 1613, at Lambeth|and the d(fii<:ultic« 

« St. Mary's diiiwhin 'OiSfbrdj Lon- ** endiired In the fame." To this is 

¥ don, t6sit. idded, •< SodHfe olifervslVIe things ^ait 

3, "Wis anfwcr to the qiieftions of •* September 25, 1613, wh«n. thfc. ieil^ 

'" thecitiseds of London, in'january, ^< fence was given in the cjivfe of tho 

*^ i(^ cdpceriiiiig Cbea)>(i4e ctb'fs | '* eatl of ElTex, continued tinfb the day 

V .twidon, ii4Mi*\ Thsjervff in Cheap. •* of theniimoge, December iB, i6i$f* 
fide was takei^ down in the year ito^ which, appears al(b to have been wvoM 
in ordtfr td b^ f(ipafred ; and upan this by his grace i and to it is joined, tho 
cbcafibn the citiztns ofLoVdon 4^M fpe^ch iritcndtf^ tb be fpokeii zt Lam* 
the Advice of both uuiverQ^et, Whetheir both, Septciftber 15, ]€i}, bf the a^H- 
^e crofs ihould be re-ere6led or not? biftiqp, came to hi»t«r1iito.dd<^ 
"nf, Abbdr, as vic^'chancelloir of Ox- clare his mind concerning the, nullity 
ft^, iitid, thdttKfecrueiiix ^ithr the dove of the marriage. 

^n it (hould Act be agajn /et op,.bot ^9. *f A btief deicriptibn of thi whofe 

uproved rather of a pyramid or fome " world ; London, i6j4.** 

clfeif filtopte brnanieiit. Thrs determi- 10. ''.A ihort apology for archbiihoA 

Ifttion wai conHftent vtiih bis own prac- << Abbof, tbochin^ the deatH of Peter 

tfce,, when in bis faid ofiice h« caofed fe^ *• Hawkins^ dated Odobcr 8, i6it.** 

veral foperftitious pictures to be burnt in 11. *' Treatife of perpetual vifibility 

tie market-place in Oxford; ^' and^fucceif-on of the true church in all 

•4. " The relirona which Di?. Hill hath *«agetj London, 1624, 4to." 

«« brcugh; for the upboldisg ,of Japiftry, 'Xt^ A narrative eontaining the trvi 
<^ unma/ked and fhewed to bevery weak; acaofe of his fequefiration and difgnide af 

•' Oxdn. r6o4.** ^ - court, 1617. 

5» " A picface to thi teaniiriatidii of 13. «• fliftory of the maffacre in the 

«< George Sprot." ^ « VjltoJioe,". 

6. *' A fcrmoii preached at Weflmih- 14 Hi« •' Judgment of bowing at the 

««» iWr, May «6, if t>«-, ar the ftinfcral of •' oamcofjiiurj Ha'mborgh. i6i»,*» 
« r ThoffiiM cari of Dorfet, late loxd high 


A B B df f . ijj 

AMbDT (Mavrice), youngcft {brother m tbtf ^ncM)tiik>ty, Biographu 
and born at Guiyford, aod bied to trade )« London, where ^"***"**^ 
he iwcaine an cmiAent merchakit, and dNKfigitiiict hioyfetf iti 
the dtre6bian of the %€tLm of the EaA India compftnjr, and iii 
the moft fiublic-iptrked extetifion of the national dfrmcAefC^i 
ke was eniplcfyed as a cotnmi£one» in the treaty ccuidtided 
Jiiijr 7^ i6i9) wixii th« Dutch Eaft I»dva «<imi!>«iny rcfpe^ng 
theconomerce to the Molucca iflands, on^ of the Mbft metno^ 
nMc tFaf»fa£tioiis of that reign, and in ponfeijueiide of that 
treaty acooMpaiiied fir Dudley D1gg» t^oHoitatid ih 1I620, td 
liegoti^e^ihe recovery of th«egood> of fotne EngliA merckants^ 
In 162^, be was one of the formers of the cuAorhs; aiiA 
hi 1624 one of the couficil for fettling ahd eftabH(hfng 
Virgitiia^ When Charks I. aibeaded tt^ thro^e^ Mn' Ah^ 
hot was liie firft perfen tliat wa» k>tioui^ Wi^h Mttlg^Vthoodi 
In 1625 he was elefied idto parliaanent for the city of Loit-^ 
fcn ; and Ito 1627 Was chofeA iberiflP. lit 1^35 he'^r^ded M ^ 
UMe monmnent at GuiU^rd to the rtx^moty of h«9 brotlle^ 
theanchttifliop. In 16^ he wa»}of4 rtiay^r^of ItOiidofi,- and 
died Jam la, iftjSj living one fotr^ George^.of^hom'fifd 
beiow [a }. He Wa$ a tMiti of an amiabk chairafter ; and that 
his love for trade was rewarded with proportioi)&te fueeefs,- ap- 
fcm from a decttcatiofi [B>j to him, whtd goV«iffidf of th^ 
£aft Iniki conipamy* 


(Act/dl^wQf MertoQ CollC9^ ^4, and; of Cald^te-Hall^ Wvwi«]UkM«^«4iote 
a^inkte4 LL.B. 1636. Wood, io htl nPe houf(i be gallant^ ddRended, bjr the kel^ 
oTaittibiiliop Abbot, mentioiis zibiri* bfthe femntt oetty, agiinn' the attacks 
Qcorsr.i bat theijp it r«al<iQ toiapptfey of thnBnaoe»Rif^rcani MM»fle^.#ittt 
that tbe.two Gcorgei he (pea^ qf wc^e'. 18 trooj^ of bMicb. 9e died Feb. 4^ 
the £iQie pcr(bn, wb» appears ta haW^'!f;i^jJii3'lm 441)1 year, ^et Kit Spitapb, 
bten author qC; t. <* The whole Bot)6^Ss^ fome furthtv pankotaiVf in' the 
«<<i{Jo4>pa4ipbn49d,&i^Uo<l.iHo»«' ^< Hif^orr of Hitckltf,. b^ Jlkkoh; 
a,-«VindiciapSabb.athi,i64i'*4to. jp *' 17W* 4to. p. M* 
•*^ Brief Nbtca iipon t^e whole Book of * [*b] l^^x^d to a Dool^,"' intituled, 
** F&l«iaii65i,'*andioiiieotheriMflg»i *' CbchinChina^ &C. 16^3/* 410. 

ABBOT (RoMR'r},eUeft bvoiber tothelii(yiM(hopi watf 
bomalfo in the town of Girilford^ \f\ if^b^^'t^^^fiaixxpunAet 
the fame fcboofahafler. thei:^} atid^ afterwanis (ent to BaKoF 
college, Oxford. Jo 1582^ he took his diegrett'0^^4fc A% and" 
loofl bttaiiaac a celebrated preacher ^ and to thiitaiont he chidl/ 
cniwd his preferment. Upon his firft fennon at WorceAei'; 
Ae was chofen kdurer in that city, and ib^n arft«rre^r of 
AU Saintf in the fame place. John StaobopOr cf^i t>appenitigf 
^bear htm preaofa at PaulVcrofs, was fo pleafed witb him^ 
that he inm^iately prefented hitn to the ricb living of Bing^^ 
^9 in f^pttinghamfiiipe* Ii^^ 15979 ho took bis d^ree^ o9 

4 D. D. 

i$ A B ff O T, 

D. D. and in the begioniog of king James^ reign was appoint^ 
ed chaplain in ordinary to his majefty ; who had fuch an opi- 
nion of him as a writer, that he ordered the doctor's book^ 
*« De Antichriflo/' to be printed with his own commentary upon 
partpf the Apocalypfe. In 16099 he was eledied mailer of Baliot 
college ; which truft he difcharged with the utmoft care and 
aiTiduity, hy his freq.uent leAures to the fcholars, by his con-^ 
tinual prefence at public exercifes, and by promoting teoi- 
perance in the fociety. In November, 1610, he was made pre- 
bendary of Normanton in the church of Southwell; and in 
i6i2, his majefty appointed him regius profefibr of divinity 
at Oxford; in which ftation he acquired the charader of a 
profound divine^ though a more moderate Calvinift than either 
of his two predeceflbrs in the divinity-chair, Holland and 
Humphrey: for be countenanced the fublapfarian tenets con- 
Athen. Oz.cerning predeftin^tion. In one of his fermons before Che 
'7*«'»o*.i«univerfity, where he was profeflbr, he thus points out the 
430- . oblique methods tften pra^ifed by (bme perfqns, who fecretly 
favQured Popei;y, to undermine the Reformation. ^^ There 
f* were men,. fays he, who, under prejtence of truth, and 
« preaching againft the Puritans, ftruck at the heart and root 
'* of that faith and religion now eftabliflied amongft us^ 
^< wbich was the very pra^U:e of Parfons' and Campian'» 
*^ counfel, when they came hither to fed|ice young ftudents ; 
*^ who, afraid to be expelled if they (hould openly profefs 
*< their converfion, were direded to fpeak freely againft the 
*^ Puritans, as what would fuffice ; fo thefe do not expert to 
^^ be accounted Papifts, becaufe they, fpeak only againft Pu-* 
*^ ritans, but becaufe they are indeed Papifts, they fpeaJt^ 
^' nothing againft them : or if they do, they beat about the 
*< bufli, and that foftly too, for fear of difquietin^ the bird^ 
^' that are. in it." Dn Laud, then prefent, was fo much 
fufpedled to be one of thofe perfons here hinted at, that the 
whole auditory applied tbefe refle£lions to him ;.r;ay. Laud- 
bimfelf wrote a letter to the bifliop of Lincoln, coinplaining, 
«< that he was fain to fit patiently at the rehearfal of this fer- 
** mon, though abufed almoft an hour together, being pointed' 
*^ at as he fat ; yet would have taken no notice of it, but that 
*< the whole univerfity applied it to himj and his friends told 
«* him he ftiould fink in his credit, if he anfwered not Dr. 
*^ Abbot in his own : nevertheiefs, he would be patient, and* , 
'< deftred his lordftiip would vouch&fe him fome diredion.'* 
But as Laud made no anfwer, it is likely the bifliop advifed. 
liuibworth,M«n againft it. The fame of Dr. Abbot'a ledures became 
woUi, p. e%. very great ; and thofe which he gave upon the fupreme power 
of Kings againft fiellarmine and Suarez fo much pleafed bis 



niajefly, that when the fee of Salilbury became vacanf, he 
Aamed him to that bifhoprick; and he was confecrated by his 
own brother at Lambeth, D^c^ 3, 1615. When he came toFuUer'i 
Salifbury, he found the cathedral running to decay, throus:h?^**"^*f',**^ 
the negligence and covetournefs of the clergy belonging to it : Sarrey, 
however, he found means to draw five hundred pounds from 
the prebendaries, which he applied to the reparation of thisP<:«(Iey*sl>^« 
church. He then gave himfelf up to the duties of his funflion °^ ^f**^^^"' 
with great diligence and afiiduity, vifiting his whole diocefe in 
perfon, and preaching every Sunday^ whilft health would per* 
xnit, which was not long ; ' for his fedentary life, and clofe ap- 
plication to ftudy, brought upon him the gravel and flone, of 
which he died March 2, 1617, in the 58th year of his age* 
He did not fill the fee quite two years and three months ; and 
was one of the five bifhops^ which Salifbury had in fix years* 
He was buried oppofite to the bifhop's feat in the cathedral, p^jji^^ .^ 
Dr. Fuller, fpeaking of the two brothers, fays, *' that George j^^j^ 
*' was the more plaufible preacher, Robert the greateft fcho- 
'^ lar; George the abler flatefman, Robert the deeper di« 
** vine ; gravity did frown in George, and fmile in Robert.** 
Robert had been twice married, and his fecond marriage 
gave fome difpleafure to the archbifhop* He left one fon, and 
one daughter j Martha, who was married fo Sir Nathaniel 
Brent, warden of Merton College in Oxford [a ]. 

^ [a] Dr. Abbot wrote the following 6. " The true ancient Roman Ci* 
picc.'i : '< thoHc, being an apology agaioft Dr. 

, ^ — _j — p^ _g _ — 

t. '* The mi rroif of popifh fubtiltiei : ** Bi{hop*6 reproof of the defence of tht 

concerning the " pro 
".iacramcnts, .&c. 1594. '^ *« tore, 1613." 

2. " The exaltation of the kingdom ' 8. '* Oe gratia & perfeverantia fanflo- 

" and prieflhood of Chrift, a fermon on '* rum, exercitatIone« habitae in acade- 

•' the iibth pftlm." <« mU Oxonienfi, 161S " 

.3*** AntichriOi demonftratio} contra 9. *< In Ricardi Thomfoni, An^H- 

" fabulas pontiAcia?, & inrptam Bell- ** Bclgici Diatribam, dr amiffione & in- 

*' larmint, &c. dedicated to king James, •' terceHione juflificationis & gratijB« 

'* 4603." «« animadveifij brevis, 1618," 

4« ** Defence of the reformed catholic 10. " De fuprema poteftate regia, 

"of Mr, W. Perkins, againft the baf- « exercUacioneshabitsei^iacademiaOxo- 

** tard coonteir-catholic of Dr. William «« nienfi contra Rob. Bellarmine, 1619. *• 

" BilKopt feminary pricft.** He atfo left behind him feveral ma» 

5. •* The old way, a feraion, at St. nufcripts, which Dr. Corbet made a pre- 

** Mary*f, Oxen. 1610.** . fent of to the Bodltian library. 

ABELARD (Peter), one of the mofl celebrated dolors 
of the twelfth century, was born in the village of Palais, fix 
mflcs from Nantz, in Britany, Being of an acute genius, he 
apjplicd himfelf to logic with more fuccefs than to any other 

Vol. I. C ftudyj 

iS ABE Jf^ R D. 

ftudy ; and travelled to feveral places on purpofe to exerctfe 
himfeJf tn this fcience, difputing wherever he went, difcharg'- 
Ipg his fyllogifms on all ftJes, and feeking every opportunity 
to Ttgnalize hinjelf in difputation. He finifhed his ftudies at 
Paris } where he found that famous profeflbr of philofophy 
William de Champeaux, with whom he was at firft in high 
favour, but did not continue fo long ; for this profeflbfy being 
puzzled to anfwer the fubtle objedions ftarted by Abelard, 
grew at laft out of humour, and began to hate faim. The 
fchool foon ran into parties ; the fenior pupils, out of envy to 
Abelard, joined with their matter: which only heightened the 
prefumption of our young philofopher, who now began to 
think himfi^If completely qualified to inflrud others, and for 
this purpofe ereSed an academy at Melun, where the French 
court then refided. Champeaux ufed every method in hrs 
power to hinder the eftablifhment of this fchool ; but his op- 
Abdtt^. pofition only promoted the fuccefs of bis rival. The fame of 
epifttp. S' this new logical proftflbr fpread greatly, and eclipfed that of 
Champeaux ; and Abelard was fo much elated, that he re- 
moved his fchool to Corbeil, that he might harafs his enemy 
theclofer in more frequent difputations : but his excefiive ap- 
plication to (ludy brought upon him an illnefs, which obliged 
him to remove to his native air. After two years fiay in Bri- 
tany, he returned to Paris; where Champeaux, though he had 
refigned his profefTorfhip, and was entered amongft the canons 
regular, yet continued to teach amongft them. Abelard dif- 
puted againfl him on the nature of univerfals with fuch ftrength 
of argument, that he obliged him to renounce his opinion^ 
which was abflraded Spinozifm unexplained. This brought 
the monk into fuch contempt, and gained his antagonift fa 
much reputation^ that the lectures of the former were wholly 
deferced ; and the profefTor himfelf, in whofe favour Cham<^ 
peaux had refigned, gave up the chair to Abelard, and became 
one of his hearers. But no fooner was he raifed to this dig« 
nity, than he found himfelf more and more expofed to the 
darts of envy. The canon-regular got the profefTor, who had 
given up the chair to Abelard, to be difcarded, under pretext 
of his having been guilty of fome obfcene pradlices ; and one, 
who was a violent enemy to Abelard, fucceeded. Abelard, 
tipon this, left Paris, and went to Melun, to teach logic as ^ 
formerly; but did not continue there long : for as foon as he 
heard, that Champeaux was retired to a village with his whole 
community, he pofled himfelf on mount St. Genevieve, and 
there erected his fchool like a battery againfl the profeflbr, 
who taught at Paris* Champeaux, finding his friend thus 
* befieged in his fchool, brought back the canons-regular to 


A B E L A R D. 19 

their convent t but this, inftead of extricating him» was thtf 
caufe of bis being deferted by all his pupils 5 and foon after 
this poor philofopher entered into a convent. Abelard and 
Champeaux were now the only antagonifts, and the fenior 
was far froai having the advantage. Before the conteft was 
finilhed, Abelard was obliged to go to fee his mother; whd^ 
after the example of her hufband. Was about to retire to a 
doyfter. At his return to Paris, he found his rival promoted 
to the bi(hoprick of Chalons; fo that now having it' in bis 
power to give up his fchool without the imputation of flying 
from the field, he refolved to apply himfelf wholly to the ftudy 
of divinity ; and for this purpofe removed to Laoh, where 
Anfelm gave lectures on theology with great applaufe. Abe- 
lard, however, upon hearing htm, conceived no opinion of 
bis capacity [a] ; and therefore, inftead of attending his lec- 
tures, he refolved to read divinity to his fi^llow-ftudents. He 
accordingly explained the prophecies of Ezekiel in fuch a fatis- 
h&ory manner, that h.e foon had a crowded audience : which 
raifed the jealoufy of Anfelm to fuch a degree, that he ordered 
Abelard to leave ofF his ledures. Abelard upon this returned 
to Paris, where he explained Ezekiel in public with fo much 
fucceft, that in a ihort time he became as famous for his 
knowledge in divinity as in philofophy ; and his encourage* 
ment was fo confiderable, that he was enabled to live in great 
affluence. That he might enjoy all the fweets of life, he 
thought it neceiTary to have a mifirefs ; and accordingly fixed 
his af£e<^ions on Heloife, a canon's niece, preferably to a num- 
ber of virgins and married women, into whofe good graces., he i 
'%s, he could eafily have infinuated himfelf (b). The canon^ ' 

[a] « I went to this old man,** fays ^' meaning. His difcourfe refembled a . 
be, ** who had acquired a reputation " fire, which enlightens not the houfe, 
'* note from his long praQice and ex* *^ but fills it with Ahoke j a tree abaun- 
*' perience, than from genius or me- ** ing wholly in leaves, and appearing 
" irory. If any one confulted himupon '* beautiful at a diftance ) buc thofe.' 
" a doubtful point, he was fure to come *' who came near and examined it nar* 
** away more dubious and perplexed. «• rowly, found it barren. Accordingly 
*' He appeared wonderful in the eyes of " when I went up to pluck of its fruity 
" foch as were only auditors, but con- " I found it like the figtree which our 
" temptiUe to thofe who put queftfont '* LordcUrfed, or that old pak to which 
" to him. He had a furprifing fluency ^' Lucan comparct Pompey,*' Abtelardi - 
*' of words, but thofe without fenfe or opera, p. 7. 
'< Still feemed he to poflTefs and fill his place 1 
" But flood the fhadow of what once he was. 
*< So in the field with Ceres* bounties fpread» 
" Up-rears fome ancient oak his reverend head.** 
Rowe*s Locan* book I. ver. 256, &c. 
f 1] Abelard had a good deal of vanity, are his own words s '* Tanti qnippe tunc 
Bang handfome, and in the bloom of ** nominiseram; etjuventutis, et forms ' 
life 5 having a .genius for poetry, and *« gratia prieeniinebam j ut quarocunque 
•boaoding in money 5 he flattered him- «« feminarumnoftrDdigaareramore,nul- 
fclf every woman he addraffed would re- <• lam vercrer fcpulfem,** , Abselardi 
^n hin f»TOurahly« The following operS| p. iq. 

C 2 ^hofe 

oz ABEL A R D. 

whofe name was Fulbert, had a great paffiori for raoney» and 
vehemently defired to have Heloife a woman of learning: 
which difpofition of the uncle Abelard contrived to make fub- 
fervient to his deGgn. '* Allow me (faid Ke to FuJbert) ta 
•' board in your houfe j and I will pay you whatever Aim 
•* you demand in confideration thereof." The fimple uncle, 
thinking heihould no^ furnifh his niece with an able precep* 
tor, who, in(lead of putiing him to expence, would pay largely 
for his board, fell into the fnare ; and requeued Abelard to 
]n(lru£t her day and night, and to ufe compulfion ini cafe (he 
Ihould prove negligent [c]. The preceptor gave himfelf na 
concern, to fulfil the expe£ta:ions of Fulbert; he foon fpoke 
the language of love to his fair dtfciple ; and, inftead of ex* 
plaining authors, amuf^d himfelf in ktfTing and toying with 
AbcUrf. bis lovely pupil. *' Under pretence of learning (fays he) we 
epift.p. II. »i devptedourfelves wholly to love ; and our ftudies furniflied 
«< us with that privacy and retirement, which our paflion de-. 
*^ fired. We would open our book, but love became the 
** onlyleflbn; and more kifies were exchan^ed/thanfentences 
^^ explained. I put my hand oftner to her bofom than to the 
<^ book ; and our eyes were more employed in gazing at each 
<< other, than looking at the volume. That we might be the 
<* lefs fufpe£ted, I fometimesbeat her, hot out of anger, but 
** love ; and the ftripes were fweeter than the mod fragrant 
<« ointments^* Having never tafted fuch joys before, they 
gave themfelves up to them with the greateil tranfport ; {o 
that Abelard now performed the fun£lions of his public office 
^ with great rcmifihefs, for he wrote nothing but amorous 

verfes. His pupils, perceiving bis leSures nvuch altered for 
theworfe, quickly guefi'ed the caufe.j but the fimple Filbert 
Was the laft perfcn who difcovered Abelard's intrigue* He 
would noc at* fuft believe it ;' but hb eyes being at length 
opened, he obUged his boarder to quit the family. Soon after,, 
the niece, finding herfelf pregnant, wrote to her lover, who 
advifed her to leave Fulbert. She complied with the advice of ' 
Abelard, who fent her to his filler's houfe in Britany, where 
(he was delivered of a fon ; and, in order to pacify the ca,non, 
Abelard offered to marry Heloife privately. This propofal 
pleafed the uncle, more than the niece ^ who, from aflrange 

[c] Abelard makes the foliowiog re- " if ntceflfary, wliat wa»<thii but yield' 

flection on the canon*8 iimpUcity t *' I ** ing ber to my wiflies> amid giving oi 

" was greatly furpri led,** fays he, <* no '<^.«n opportunity, whether we wouU or 

*' leCs than if he had. delivered up a ten* ** not ; fince he gave me a power to af» 

" der lamb to a famiflied wolf. And aa ** threats, and even ftrtptt^ if geatls* 

*i he not only defired me to teach her, ^^ tuk fiiHcdr* lb« p« >!• 

*' but to ufe the moft compulfi? c meant, > 


A B E L A R D. at 

Cngularity in her paffion, chofe rather to be the miftrefs than 
the wife of Abelard [d]. At length, however, flie confented 

: tea private marriage; but even after this would, on fonre 

* occafions, affirm with an oath that ihe was filll unmarried. 
Fulbcrt, being more defirous of divulging the marriage, to wipe 
off the afperfion brought upon the family, than of keeping his 
promife with Abelard not to mention it, often abufed bis niece, 

> when (he abfolutely denied her being Abelard's wife. Her 
bufband, thereupon fent her to the monaftery of Argenteuil ; 
where, at his defire, ihc put on a religious habit, but not a veil. 
Heloife's relations, looking upon this as a fecond piece of 

, treachery in Abelard, were tranfported to fuch a degree of re- 
fencment, that they hired ruffians, who forcing into bis cham- 
ber by night, deprived him of his manhood f e]. This in- 
famous treatment forced Abelard to acloyfter, there to conceal 
his confudon ; fo that it was (hame, and not devotion, which 
made him put on the habit in the abbey of St. Dennis. The 
diforders of this houfe, where the abbot exceeded the reft of 
the monks in impurity as well as indignity, foon drove Abe- 
lard from thence; for, having taken upon him to cenfure their 
behaviour, he thereby became fo obnoxious, that theydefired 
to get rid of him. He retired next to the territories of the 
count of Champagne, where he gave public ledures ; and 
irtw together fuch a number of hearers, that the other pro- 

[9] Mr. Pope makes Eloift thoi exprefs hctMi in her fetter to Abelard 1 
" How ofc, when prefs*dto marriage, have i faid, 
'* Corfe on ail laws bot thofe which love hi^B made ? 
*' Shoulo at nny fret the world's great mader tail, 
*' Himrdf, his throne, his world, I*d fcorn them alls 
" Not C£efar*8 emprefs would 1. deign to prove t 
'* No, make me miftrefs to the man I love. 
"If there be yet another name mote free, 
*' More fond than minrefs, make me that to thfe ! 
" Oh I happy ilate 1 when fouls each othei draw^ 
•* When love is liberty, and nature law," 


[e] This cruel misfortune is alloded to in the following lines of the fane epiftle's 
" Alas, how cbangM ! what fuddeo horrors rife 1 
" A flaked lover bound and bleeding lies ? 
** Where, where was Eloife ? her voice, her haad> 
" Her poDtard had opposM the dire command, 
*' Barbarian, ftay ! that blocdy (^roke reftrain ; 
*' The crime w«8 common $ common be the paip. 
^ I can no more, by ihame, by rage fuppref$*d, 
. " Let tears aad burning bluChts fpcak the reft . ' ; 

" Still on thatbreaftenaAour*d let me lie, 
'* Still drink delicious poifon frfitn thy eye, 
** Pant on thy iip, and to thy heart be prefs*d, 
: ^ Give all thoo cwift^i ■ and levm* dream the Rd*^* 

. C 3 fcflbrs 

ZZ A B E L A R D. 

feflbrs, whofe pupils left them to go to Abclard, being dung 
with envy, began to raife perfecutions againfi: him. He had 
two formidable enemies in Laon, who perceiving the p/eju- 
dices done to their fchoois in Rheims by his great reputation, 
.fought an opportunity to ruin him ; and they were at Idft fur- 
niflied with one by his treatileon the Trinity, where they pre- 
tended to have discovered a moft dreadful herefy[F]. Upon thi» 
they prevailed on their archbifhop to call a council at SoifTons, 
in the year Ji2i : which, without allowing Abelard to make 
bis defence, ftntenced him to throw the book into the flames, 
and to (hut himftlf up in the cloyAer of St. Medard. Soon 
after he was ordered to return to the convent of St. Dennis : 
where happening to fay, that he did not believe their St. Den- 
riis to be the Areopagite mentioned in fcripture, he expofed 
hirr.felf to the abbot ; who was overjoyed with the opportunity 
of blending a flate crime with an accufation of faife doArine* 
The abbot immediately called a chapter; and declared, that 
he was going^to deliver up to the fecular power a man, who 
had audaciouHy trampled on the glory and diadem of the king- 
dom. Abelard, knowing thefe menaces were not to be de- 
fpifed, fltd by night into Champagne ; and, after the abbot's 
death, obtained leave to lead a monadic life wherever he 
pleafed. He now retired to a folitude in the diocefe of Troies, 
and there built an oratory, which he named the Paraclet; 
where great numbers of pupils reforted to him. This revived 
that envy, by which he had been fo often perfecuted ; and he 
now fell into the mod dangerous hands : for he drew upon 
himfelf the fury and malice of St. Norbert and St. Bernard, 
who had fet up for being reftorers of the ancient difcipline,' 
and were entbufiafts whom the populace followed as new apo-r 
files. They raifed fuch calumnies againft him, as hurt him 
greatly with his principal friends ; and thofe, who fiill con- 
tinued to efleem him, durft not (hew him any outward niarks 
of their friend(hip. His life became fo uneafy to him, that he 
^^lird. was upon the point of (lying to fome country where Chrifii- 
Epift. p. 32.ajnity was hot profefled j but fate determined otherways, and 
he wa$ brought anew amongft Chriftians, and monks worfe 
than Turks. The n^onks or the abbey of Ruis, in the diocefe 
of Vannes, ^avi^g.cbofen him their fuperior, he now hoped 

[r] It was alleged that Abelard 9,i» to three ; and yet he is not accnfed of 

snitted three Ood«, though it is certain Sabellia^tim* but of Tritheifm. Thisjt- 

he was othodox with regard tp this inyf. hh comparifonf As the thsee propofitions 

tery. Tht comparifon he drew from logic, of a fyllogifm are but o9e and the fame 

tends rather to make the divine perfona truth ; fo> the father, .Son, and' Holy 

foe, than to multiply t^e eflcjue of Ov^ Cho^ are one and the fame cfl*en€f« 

A B E L A R D- 23 

he was got into a quiet afylum ; but it Toon appeared, that he 
had only exchanged one evil for another. He endeavoured' to 
reform the corrupt manners of the monks, and took the re- 
venue* of the abbey out of their hands ; (o that they were now 
oWiged to maintain their concubines and their children at their 
own expence. This ftrid though laudable behaviour raifed 
a great fpir it againft him, and brought him into many dangers 
[o]. About this time the abbot of St. Dennis having expelled 
rtie nuns from Argenteui), Abelard, in pity to Heloife their 
priorefs, made her a prefeni of the Paraclet; where (he took 
up her refidence with Tome of her fifter nuns. After this he 
made feveral journeys from Britany to Champagne, to fettle 
Hrloife's affairs, and to relax himfelf from. the cares and un- 
cafinefs he met with In his abbey ; fo that, notwiihftanding the 
horrid ufage he had received by means of Heloife's relation*, 
they ftill fp^read malicious calumnies againft him [h]. In 1 14.0, 
he wa« accufed of herefy before the archbifliop of Sens. He 
defired he might be permitted to make his defence; and a 
council was accordingly fummoned for that purpofe, at whicln 
king Lewis the feventh was prefent, and St. Bernard appeared 
as bis accufer. They began by reading in the aflembly fevera] 
propofitions extrad^ed from the works of Abelard, which fo 
alarmed him, that he appealed to the pope. The council ne- 
verthelefs condemned the propofitions, but determined nothing 
in regard to his perfoo ; ^nd they fent an account of their pro- 
ceedings to pope Innocent II, praying him to confirm their de- 
termination. The pope complied with tbeir requeft ; ordered 
Abelard to be confined, his book to be burnt, and tliat he 
ftould never teach again. His Holinefs, however, fome time 
after, foftened the rigour of this fentence, at the interceffioa 
of Peter the Venerable; for Peter had not only received this 
heretic into his abbey of Clugni^ but had even brought about 
a reconciliation betwixt him and St. Bernard, who had been 
the chief promoter of his perfecution in the council of Sens. 
In this fanduary at Clugni, Abelard was treated with the ut« 
moil htimanity and tendernefs ; here be gave lectures to tht; 

{g] The monks uttempted feveral pnrpefe ; for at laft he was more afraM 

timet to poifoa him ; but not being able of a dagger than of poifon s\ fo that be 

toeffefithat by hit ordinary food (for nfed tp compare himfeif to the man^ 

ht wai aware of their deiign) they tried whom the Sicilian tyrant placed at table 

to poifoQ him with the facramental bread with him under a drawn fword, fofpended 

>ad wioe. One day he abftained from a enly by a thread. Abelard. £pt(^. p. 39. 
diA which bad been prepared for him, [h] Thouch hit eoemiei knew his 

*oi hit companion who eat it died in- incapacity, they yet afBrmed that fome 

Aaotly, Abelard excommunicated the remains of fenfual dclig}it ftiU engaged 

99ft rebieUioui ^hi^ aonkt | hot to no him to his miftrcft. 

G 4. monies s 

24 A B E L A R D. 

monks; and his whole behaviour (hewed the grqateft humility 
and induftry. At length, being grown infirm from the preva*- 
Icnceof the fcurvy and other diforders, he was removed to tbe 
priory of Sr. Marcellus, a very agr^able place on the Saon, 
near Chalons; where he died April 21, 1142, in the fixty- 
third year of his age. His corpfe was fent to Heloife, who de- 
pofued it in th^ Paraclet, 

Hifto of ABELL (John), an Englifti Mufician, was celeorated for 
Mufjc, by 21 fine counter-tenor voice, and for his flcill on the lute. 
Sir John Charles* II. of whofe chapel he was, and who admired his 
i!a \"'' finging, had formed a refolution offending him to the Carni- 
^5. * * val at Venice, in order to fhevi' the Italians what England 
. could produce in this way ; but the fcheme was dropped*. 
Abel continued in the chapel till ihe Revolution, when he was 
difcharged as being a PapiO^, Upon this he wcntabi^oad, and 
diftinguiihed himfelf by finging in public in Holland, atHam-' 
burg, and other places ; where, acquiring plenty of moriey,. 
he fee up a fplendid equipage, and affected the man of qua-, 
lity: though at intervals he was fo reduced, as to be obliged 
to travel through whole provinces, with his lute flung at his 
back. In rambling he got as far as Poland, and at Warfaw. 
met with a very ex:raordinary adventure. He was fent for to 
Court; but, evading to go by fome fligKt excufe, was com^ 
manded to attend. At the palace he was feared in a chair, in 
the middle of a fpacious hall, and fuddenly drawn up to a 
great height ; when the King with his attendants appeared jn 
a gallery oppofite to him. At the fame inftant a number of 
wild bears were turned in; when. the king bid him chufe, 
whethtr he would fing, or be let down among the bears ? 
Abell chofe to fing, and declared afterwards, that he never 
fung fo well in his life. 

After haying rambled for many years, it feems that he re- 
turned to England; for, in 1701, he publiflied at London k 
coUedlion of fongs in feveral languages, with a dedication tp 
King William. Towards the end of Queen Anne's reign he 
was at Cambridge with his lute, but met with little encourage- 
ment. How long he lived afterwards, is not known. ThijJ 
artift is faid to have poITefled fome fecrets, by which he pric- 
ferved the natural tone of bis voice to an extreme old age. 

ABERNETHY (John^, an eminent dilTenting minifter 
in Ireland, was born 0&. 19, 1680: his father a diffenting 
minifler in Colraine, his mother a Walkinfhaw pfRenfrew- 
fhire in Scotland. In 1689, he was feparated fcom his parents; 

A B E R N E T H Y. 25 

his father being obliged to attend fdme public affairs in Loti" 
don; and his mother, to avoid the tumult of the Irifli infur- 
redion, withdrawing to Derry. He was at this time with a 
relation, who ni that general confufion determined to remove 
to Scotland ; and having no opportunity of conveying the 
child to his mother, carried him along with him. By this 
means he efcaped the hatdfhips of the iiege of Derry, in which 
Mrs. Abernethyloft all her other children* Having fpent 
fome years at a grammar fchool, he was removed to Glafgow 
college, where he continued till he took the degree of M. A* 
His own inclination led him to the ftudy of phytic, but he was 
diverted from this by the advice of his friends, and turned to 
that of divinity ; in purfuance of which he went to Edinburgh, 
and was fome time under the care of the celebrated profeilbr 
Campbell. At his return home, he proceeded in his ftudies 
with great fuccefs, and was licenfed to preach by the prelby- 
tery before he was 2i years of age. In 1708, having a call 
by the diflenting congregation at Antrim, he was ordained* 
His congregation was large, and he applied himfelf to the 
paOoral work with great dilit^ence. His preaching was much 
admired ; and as his heart was fet upon the acquifition of 
knowledge, he was very induftrious in reading. In 1716, he 
attempted to remove the prejudices of the native Iri(h in the 
neighbourhood of Antrim, who were of the popifh perfuafion* 
and bring them over to the ProteAant faith. His labours were- 
Bot without fuccefi, for feveral were prevailed upon to re- 
nounce their errors. 

About the time that the Bangorian controverfy was on foot 
in England, and a fpirit of Chriflian liberty prevailed, a con* 
fiderable number of minifters and others, in the north of Ire- 
land, formed themfelves into a fociety, in order to their im- 
provement in ufeful knowledge ; and fm* this purpofe, to bring 
things to the reft of reafon and fcripture, without a fervilc re- 
gard to any human authority. Abernethy went into this de- 
lien with much zeal, und conilantly attended their meetings 
at Belfift, whence it was called the Helfaft fociety. Debates 
foon grew warm, and diflenfions high aniong them, on the 
fubjedt of requiring fubfcriptions to the Weftiriinfler confejfim^ 
This controverfy, on the negative fide' of which Abernethy 
was one of the principal leaders, was brought into the gene« 
ral fynod, and ended in a rupture in 1726. The fynod de- 
termined, that thofe miniilers, who at the time of this rup- 
ture, and for fome years before, were known by the name of 
ppn-fubfcribers, (bould be ho longer of their body : the con- 


26 A B E R N E T H Y. 

fcqufnce of which was, that the minifters of this denomina- 
tion found every where great diiHcuhies arifing from jealoufies 
fpread among their people. The reputation which Abernethy 
had. acquired, and which was eftablifbed by a long courfe of 
exemplary living, was no fecurity to him from thefe* Some 
of his people fbrfook his miniftry, and went to other congre* 
gallons : and in fome time the number of the fcrupulous and 
difTatisfied fo increafed,that they were by the fynod erected into a 
diflind congregation, and provided with a Minifier. There hap- 
pened about this time a vacancy in the congregation of Wood- 
Strcet in Dublin : to this Abernethy had an invitation, which 
he accepted. When he came to Dublin, he applied himfelf 
tofiudy and compofing of fermons with as great induftry as 
ever. * He wrote all his fermons at full length, and conftantly 
made ufe of his notes in the pulpit. Here he continued his la- 
bours for ten years with much reputation : and while his 
friends, from the (Irength of his conditution and his peife(5l 
temperance, promifed themfelves a longer enjoyment of him, 
be was attacked by the gout, to which he had been fubjeft, in 
a vital part, and died, Dec. 1740, in the 60th year of his age. 
His works are, a few occafional Sermons, papers publiQied 
in the controverfies in the north,- and trads relating to the re- 
peal of the teft a£l. After he came to Dublin, he preached a 
fet of fermons upon the divine attributes : and in his own 
lifeiime publiflied in one volume 8vo. all upon the exifience 
and natural perfeSions of the Deity. After his death the fe- 
cond volume was publifhed by his friends, on the moral attri- 
butes. They were printed in Dublin, and reprinted in Lon- 
don ; and have been fo well received in the learned world, 
that there is no occafion to fay any thing more of them. He 
left behind him feyeral volumes of mifcellany fermons in MS. 
a fpecimen of which was publiflied in London in two voIs.Svo. 
1748* To thefe the editor has prefixed fome memoirs of hiji 
Ufe, from which the above particulars are e]^tra(3ed« 

ABLANCOURT. Sec Perrot. 

Wood^Fafti ABLE, or ABEL (Thomas), was admitted B. A. at Ox- 

Oxt n. vol.1. fQr^j^.jyly ^^ isi^j and took his degree of M. A. June 26, 

Ib.'p. 44, 15^6. He was afterwards appointed chaplain to queen Cathe- 

H i^.^ccicf. rine, wife to king Henry VHL Mr. Bouchier thus fpeaks 

4e Martyr, ^f j^jm . c( Vir longe doSiffimus, qui reginae altquando in 

" muficarum tacftu & Unguis operam fuam navaret;" a man 

of great learning, who ufed fometimes to teach the queen 

iQuiic afi(| the languages. He greatly diftin^uiihed himfelf by 


ABLE. 27 

oppofing the divorce of the queen [a], and was a violent 
enemy 10 the king in aK his unlawful proceedings. He wrote 
a treaiife, ^^ De non diilblvendo Henrici et Catherine matri* 
" monio." In the year 1534, he was attainted of mifprifion,^ 
for taking part and being a^ive in the affair of Elizabeth Bar- 
ton, the holy maid of Kent [b]. He was afterwards fen- 
tenced to die for denying the king's fupremacy, and was ac- 
cordingly executed July 30, 154O. It is thought that he wrote 
fever^l pieces: but they have been loft. When in prifon he 
was confined very clpfely ; and the keeper of Newgate was 
Qoce fent to the Marihalfea for allowing him and Dr. Powel 
to go out upon baiU 

[a] The lawfulnefs of thif divorce " FiHier bifhop of Roche fter, and Sir 
has been matntainrd by feveral eminent ** Thomas Moore, gave fome belief to 
perfoos, whofe opinions have been fully ** her: fo that notwitbftanding the dan* 
lefoted in bi(hop Burnetts *< Hiftory of " ger that was to give ear to a preJt£)i«n 
'* the Reformation/* and in feveral *' of hers, that Henry VIII. ihould not 
oth( r books, '* live one month after his marriage with 

[b] Lord Herbert of Cherbury gives ** Mrs. Bolen, (he was cr,cd up with 
the foUowing account of that i;npo,ftor s " many voices ; Silvefter, Antonio, Pol« 
<* Elizabeth Barton bad almoft flirred ** licari, and Darius, the Pope*8 agents, 
*' up more than one tragedy; for being ** giving credit and countenance there- 
** foborned by the monks to life fome ** unto. But the plot being at laft dif- 
** ftrange geiliculatioAS, and to exhibit *' covered, ihe Vfd$ attainted of treafon, 
" divers feigned miracles, accompanied '* and executed, with her chief accom- 
'^ with fome wizardly unfooth^fayingf, ** plices ; at which time fhe confefled 
** ihe drew much credit and concouife ** thenr names, who had infligated her 

* " to her, infomuch that no mean per- " to thefe pra^ices.** Lif:and letgaof 
*' has, and aroongft others Warbam Heory V|II. 
*' late archbtAop of Canterbury, and 

ABRABANEL (Isaac), a famous rabbi, born at Lifbori 
in 1437, of aTanPiily who boafted their dcfcent from king Da- 
vid. He raifed himfelf confiderably at the court of Alphonfo 
V, king of Portugal, and was honoured with very high offices, 
which he enjoyed till this pritice's death ; but, upon his de- 
ceafe, he felt a ftrange reverfe of fortune under the new king. 
Abrabanel was in bis 45th year, when John II. fucceeded his 
father Alphonfo. All thofe, who had any (hare in the ad* 
ntiniftration in the preceding reign, were difcarded : and, if 
we give credit to our rabbi, their death was fecretly refolved^ 
under the pretext of their having formed a defign to give up 
the crown of Portugal to the king of Spain. Abrabanel, 
hpwever» fufpe£iing nothing, in obedience to the order he re-* 
ceived to attend his majefty, fet out for Lift)on with all expe-* 
dition ; but having, on his Journey, heard of what was plot- 
ting againft his life,^ he jled immediately to his Cafti'ian ma^ 
's dominions, A party of foldiers were difpatched after 
im, with orders to bring him dead or alive : however he made 
^i; j^fcape^but a}I his poflipigops wer^ co|)iifc9ted« Onthjsocca*p 




fion, heloftall his books ; and alfothebeginoingof his'^Com- 
"*incntary upon the book of Deuteronomy," which he much 
regretted. Some writers [a J affirm, that thecaufe of his dif- 
griace at this time was wholly owing to his bad behaviour; and 
they are of the fame opinion in regard to the other perfecu- 
tions, which he afterwards fufFered [b]. But however this 
may be, upon his fettling in Caftile, he began to teach and 
write. In 1484, he wrote his Commentary upon the books 
of Jofliua, Judges, and Samuel. Being afterwards fent for 
to the court of Ferdinand and Ifabel, he was advanced to pre- 
ferment ; which he enjoyed till the year 1492, when the Jews 
were driven out of the Spanifii dominions. He ufed his ut* 
mod endeavours [c] to turn off this dreadful ftorn^ ; but ail 
proved inefFeflual, fo that he and all his family were obliged 
to quit the kingdom, with the reft of the Jews. He retired 
toNaples; and, in 1493^ wrote his ^^ Commentary on the books 
•* of the Kings." Having been bred a courtier, he did not ne- 
gle6l to avail himfelf of the knowledge he had acquired at the 
Courts of Portugal and Arragon, fo that he foon ingratiated 
himfelf into the favour of Ferdinand king of Naples, and. af- 
terwards into that of A)phonfa. He followed the fortune of 
the latter, accompanying him into Sicily, when' Charles VIII. 
the French king, drove him from Naples. Upon the death 
of Alphonfo, he retired to the ifland of Corfu, where he be- 
gan bis *^ Commentary on Ifaiah" in 1495 ; and, about this 
time, he had the good fortune to find, what he had written on 
the book of Deuteronomy. The following year, he rcturne4 
to Italy, and went to Monopoli in Apulia, where he wrote 
feveral books. In 1496* he finilhed his ** Commentary on 
•' Deuteronomy ;" and alfo compofed his •• Sevach Pcfach," 
and his <^ Nachalath Avotb.*' In the fucceediog year, hQ 

[a] They afBrm^that Abrabanel juAly dfpire at the moft illuftriout tirlcs, Tnch 
deferved the ufage he met with; and m the nobleft houfes in Spain couli 
that be would have been treated with hardly attain ; and that, being a fwora 
greater feverlcy, ' had not king John, oat enemy to the Cbriftian teligion, he wat ' 
of bis wonted clemency, contented him* the principal caoie of that ftorm, which 
felf with banifliing him. They a'id far- fell upon him and the reft of his nation* 
ther, that be left Portugal from a con- Ibid. p. 530* 

fcioufoefi of guilt. A£l.Lipf. Nov, 1686. [cj He himfe}f mentions, in one of 
!»• 9x9, hit performances, what he did po thi» 

' [b] They alfo fay, that by negotiating cccafion. Solomon Ben. Virga relates it 
bills of exchange (which was the buftnefs alfo in hishiftory of the),ewt ;' where hf 
he followed in Czftile) he got introduced g'vcs a defcrtption of the dreadful caia* 
at the court of Ferdinand and Ifabelj that mities which befell the joOfOoo Jews, 
he ama(!ed prodigious wealth, by pra£ti- ' who were all obliged in one day to icz^t 
6ng the feveral arts and frauds of the ^ the dominions of his Catholic maje^y* 
Jewiih peoplej that he oppreffird the * Comment* in .librps xefipm apod NicaL 
poor, and by his ufury made a prey of Antoa* Bibl* Hifi. turn. I. p. 627* 
cveiy thing \ that he had the vanity t9 ' 



mote his <* Majene Haj€fchua,"and, in 1498, his '^ Mafcha«^ 
*^ nia Jefchua/' and his *^ Commentary on Ifaiah/' Some 
time after he went to Venice, to fettle the difputes betwixt 
the Venetians and Portuguefe relating to the fpice trade ; and 
on this occafion he difplayed fo much prudence and capacity, 
that he acquired the favour and efieem of both thofe powers. 
In 1504, he wrote his " Commentary on Jeremiah ;" and, ac- 
cording to fome authors his '^ Commentary on £zekiel,and the 
*' twelve minor prophets." In 1506, he compofed his '* Com- 
^' mentary on Exodus;" and died atVenicein theyear 150S, 
b the 71ft year of his age. Several of the Venetian nobles, 
and all the principal Jews, attended his funeral with great 
pomp. His corpfe was interred at Padua, in a burial-place 
vvithout the city. Abrabanel wrote feveral other pieces, be- 
fides what we have mentioned, the dates of which are not 
fettled ; and fome have not been printed [dJ; He was a man 
of fo great a genius, that mofl: perfons have equalled him, and 
fome even preferred him to the celebrated Maimonides. The 
Jews fet a high value upon what he has written to refute the 
arguments and obje£lions of the Chriftians ; and the latter^ 
though they hold in contempt what he has advanced upon tbia 
head, yet allow great merit in his other performances, whereifli 
he gives many proofs of great genius, learning {and penetra- 
tion. He does not blindly follow the opinions of his fuperiors, 
but cenfures their miftakes with great freedom. The perfecu- 
tions of th^ Jews, under which he had been a confiderable 
fufFerer, affcfted him to a very great degree; fo that the re- 
membrance thereof worked up his indignation againft the 
Chriftians, and made him inveigh againft them in the ftrongeft 
terms. There is hardly one of his books, where he has omit- 
ted to (hew his refentment and defire of revenge ; and what- 

*[d] The fcllo^»ing are mentioned in 9. " Sep^ier Schaxnaim Chadafchim/' 

the Leipfic journal, viz. 10. " Labakath Nebhiim.** 

1. '* Coi»inent4ries on Genefis,Le?io Hit '* Commentary on Haggai*' was 

ticui, and Numbers/' tianflated into Latin by Adam Sherseruf^ 

». " Rach Amana,'* *' and infcrfcd in the Trifolium Orien^ 

3* *' Sepher Jtfchaoth Mofchici, a " talc/' publiflied in Leipfic in i66}y 

'*. (rcatifb on the traditioAt relating to where his '* Ccmmentary on Jofhua, 

*' the Mefliab.** " Judges, and Samuel,** was alfo printed 

4. '* Zedek Olammimy upon fulurc in fulio in 1686. In this fame year hit 

" rcvardt and puniihrocAtt.*' *' Annotations on HofeafWitb a preface 

5* '< Sephor Jemoth Olam, a biftory ** on the twelve minor prophets/' were 

*' tfom the time of Adam.** ' tranflated into French by Francis ab Ha- 

6. « Maamar Machafe Scbaddai, a fen» and publiflied at Leyden. InxfiS], 

" treatife on ptophe^ -and the vifion of Mr. de Vei^, a converted Jtw, publifted 

** Eaekiely againll rabbi Maimonides.** at London Abr«baners pre^e to Lcvi- 

7* " Sepher Atcreth Sekenim." ticut, 

I. *« Mi^baiothElobim works of God.'* 


30 * A B R A B A N E L. 

ever the fubjcia may be, ,hc never fails, fomehow or other^ 
to bring in the diftreffcd condition of the Jews. He was a 
moft afliduous man in bis ftudies,. in which he would fpend 
whole nights, and would faft for a confiderabic time. He*had 
a great facility in writing $ and though be difcovered an im- 
* placable hatred to the Chriftians in his compofitions [e ] yet, 
when in company with them, be behaved with great politcncfs, 
and would be very cheerful in converfatton* 

[e] Hii comnaentaries on the Scrip- that father Bartolocci was defirous th« 

tores, efpecially thofe on the propheu, Jews fhouid be forbid the perufal of them* 

are filled with fo much rancour againd /\nd he teils us that they were accord- 

our Savioar, the church, the pope, the ingiy not allow<;d to read or to keep ia 

cardinals, the whole clergy, and all their houfes >ibrabanel*s commentaries 

Chriftians in general, but in a particu- en the latter prophets. Biblioib. Rabbi, 

lar manner agaioft the Roman Catholics, torn. III. p. S;^. 879. 

ABSTEMIUS (Laurentius), an Italian writer, born 

at Macerata, in La Marca de Ancona, Who devoted himfelf 

, early to the (tudy of polite literature, and made a furpriiing 

progrefs therein. He taught the Belles Lettres at Urbino, 

Crutert, where he was librarian to Duke Guido Ubaldo ; to whom he 

Th'cfauf. dedicated a fmall piece, explaining fome dark paflages ia 

iJ^pTzizT' ^^^ ancient authors. He publiftied it under the pontificate of 

Alexander VI. and another treatife alfo, entitled ** Hecato- 

^•^ mythium," from its containing a hundred fables, which he 

infcribed to 0<Slavian Ubaldini, count de Mercatclli. His 

Fables have been often printed with thofe of JE{op, Phaedros, 

Gabrias, Avienus, &c. He has thefe ancient mythologifts 

generally in view, but does not always ftrifily follow their 

manner; fometimes intermixing his fable with a merry ftory, 

and now and then fomewhat fatyrical upon the clergy [a j. 

Some of his conjectures on particular paflages in the ancients 

are inferted in the firft volume of Gruterus*s Thefaarus Cri* 

ticus, under the title of Annotationes Variae ; but they arefevir 

in number. He wrote alfo a preface to that edition of Aure* 

lius Vidor publifhed at Venice, 1505. 

[a] His 104th fable of the Talentt a perfidious facrilegious villain, for hav* ' 

Multiplied i< a proof of this. A prieft, ing thus defiled the temples of the Holy 

as we are there told, was ordered by his Ghofi^. " Lord," faid the prieft,'* thoa 

biftiop to fuperintend a monaftery, where ** delivercdft-unto me five talents ; b«- ' 

there were five nuns, by each of whom " hold I havegained^ brfides chem; fite 

he had a fon before the vcar was out. " talents more.'* The prelate watfo ' 

The biOiop, heaiing of this, was highly taken witii this faceiions aofwer, that be 

enraged ; and, fending for the prieft, gave tke prieft pleaary abfolution. 
reprimanded hirn ievercly, calling him 



* • 




ABUL FARAGIUS (Gregory) [a], fon to Aaron, a .' ' f ^ 
; phjfician, born in 1226, in the city of Malatia, near the 
fourceof the Euphrates ir^p^rmenia. He followed the pro- ^ 
feilion of his father, and pradifed with great fuccefs ; num- 
bers of people coming from the moft remote parts to afk his 
advice. However, he would hardly have been known at this . * 
time, had his knowledge been confined to phydc; but he ap- 
plied himfelf to the fludy of the Greek, Syriac, and Arabic 
languages, as well as philofophy and divinity ; and be wrote 
a biftory, which does honour to his memory. It is written 
in Arabic, and divided into dynaAies. It condfts of ten 
parts, being an epitome of univerfal hiftory from the creation 
of the world to his own time. Dr. Pocock publifhed it, with 
a Latin tranilation in 1663; and added, by way of fupple- 
ment, a fhort continuation relating to the Hiftory of the 
Eaftern Princes. 

Abul Faragius was ordained bifliop of Guba at twenty » 

years of age, by Ignatius, the patriarch of the Jacobites. In SeehisSjr- 
1247, he was promoted to the fee of Lacabena, and fome "". ^^^'®'*- 
years after to that of Aleppo. About the year 1266, he was ^' ^' *^^** 
eleded primate of the Jacobites in the £aft [bJ. As Abul Aa*em. Bib. 
Faragius lived in the thirteenth century, an age famous for Orisnt. 
miracles, it would feem ftrange if fome had not been wrought p^*^^.' 
by him, or in his behalf: be himfelf mentions two. One 
happened in Eafler holidays, when he was confecrating the 
chrifm or holy ointment i which, though before confecfation 
it did ndt AH the veflel in which it was contained, yet in- ^niertpurte 
creafed fo much after, that it would have run over, had they ^'*'^g°'^'» 
not immediately poured it into another [c]. The other hap- ' ^* 
pened in 1285. The church of St. Barnagore having been 
deftroyed by fome robbers, Abul Faragius built a new one, 
with a monaftery, in a more fecure place, and 4edicated it to . 
the fame faint; and, as he defired the relics of tiie faint fhould 
be kept in the new church, he fent fome perfons to dig them 
out of the ruins of the old one : but they not finding the re- 

[a] Pocock mentioni two paflages, maltis Biblioth. Orient, torn. 11* p* , 

vherctA our author is called Mar. Gre- 344* 

forivi, aad another where be has the [c] AfTefnanus endeayoars to ac* 

name of Mor Gregorius. Others have count for this miracle in a natural ways 

CiUed him M«rk Gregory. Mr. Bayle " The temple being Htile, fays he, and 

fays, they have miftaken Mar, a full of people, this, with the wax tapers 

title of honour anlwering to Sir, for and burning of incenfe, might heat rhs ' 

Mark. air to fuch a degree as to dilute and rarify 

(bJ The Aflyrians called Chaldea the balfam, that it might run over the 

Bad Alfyria the Eaft, and Syria veflel without any miracle/* AfTeman. 

ud Mefopotamia the Weft* .AlTe- Biblioth. p« %$Q^. 


lies, the faint appeared t6 fome Chrifiians, and told them, if 
the primate himfelf did not come, they would never be found. 
Abul Faragius, hearing of this, would not believe it; and, 
feigning to be fick, (hut; himfelf up in his cell from Friday till 
the Sunday evening ; when a glorified boy [d] appeared to 
him, and told him, the relics were depofited under the altar 
of the old church. Upon this the primate went immediately 
with his brother and two bifhops in queft of thofe holy re- 
ttiains, which they found according to the boy's direction. 
Ittint.iHirte The eaftern nations are generally extravagant in their ap- 
^**2^*'» plaufe of men of learning j a circurnftanre, which is cither 
f,s6^a ''owing to the few learned men tl\ey have amongft them, or to 
the particular turn of their minds. They have accordingly 
beftowed the highcft encomiums and titles upon Abul Fata-** 
gius [eJ. 

[d} Nor win ACmanus 'How th<s « fufTultiis Mar Grcgorius^ Abul Pharai, 

miracle t •* This," fays hr, ** muft have ** fiiiue exceUentis fapientis Aars&ts 

"been a dream of Abul Faragius, or a «* Medici Malaticnfil." That it, ••Thus 

•« ftory invented to ratfe the piety of the *« fatd Mar Gregory, AbuIPharagui^ 

«* people/* Ibid. «• fon to the (kilfut Aaron» phyfician of 

[e] Dr. Pccock foond what follows ** Malatia, our lord, our holy excelleAt 

prelixed to a manorcript of Abul Fara- *< farh^r, famous for his learning and 

glus*S9 written in the 900Ch year of the ** erudiuurTy the printe of the learne<f| 

Hegirah : <* Dixit Dominua nofttr pat r <* the mod'excellsnt of thofe who moA 

*' f«o£iosy eximius, dod^rina et erudi- *' excel, the example of his tifloes, the 

•• tione infignis, doftorum rex, excel- «< phoenix of his age, the gloty of wife 

•* lentium excellen'iiHmus, temporum " men, the doQnr fuftaitied by the di* 

<* fuorum ezeroplar, faeculi ph«nix, fa- *< vine affiftance.**! 
*' pientam gloria, Dofior divina ops 

ACCIAIOLI (DoNATUs), a Florentine of great learnings 
m^ho lived in the fifteenth century. He was honoured with 
many confiderable employments in his native country ; but 
xiotwithftanding his public engagements, he found means to 
devote part of his time to ftudy. He bad been a difciple of 
Argyropylus the Byzantine ; and he publifhed commentaries 
on this profeflbr's Latin tranflation of Ariflotle's Ethics. He 
acknowledges, in his epiftle dedicatory to Cofmo de Medicis, 
that he coileiSed thefc coi*meniaries from the le£lurea of 
Si. Argyropylus; and that he had only enlarged the explications 
Com- which he had heard. Simon Simonius and Gabriel are therc- 
AriAvt^Eth. ^^^^ '" ^^^ wrong, after fuch a declaration, when they accufe 
Kaodei bi- him of publifliing in his own name a work of Argyropylus. 
Wwgraph. Hc tranflatcd the lives of Alcibiades and Demetrius from 
tf*^h^ • Plutarch; to which were alfo added thofe of Annibal and 
Scipio, which fome have imagined to be likewife from Plu- 
tarch ; but this muft be a miftak^ fince we find neithqir of 
thcfe.two generals in this author. Hc wrote an abridgement 


ACCikiOhh 33 

bf Ihe life of Charlemain s and fome othef work^ are alfo 
ftfcribed to him [a]. 

He was fcnt to France by the Florentines, to fue for fuc- 
rour from Lewis X(. againft pope Sextus IV. but died on his 
journey at Milan; his body was carried to Florence^ and 
buried in the chufch of the Carthufians. The fmall fortune JoviuiJii. 
he left his children is a proof of his probity and difinterefted- ^o8'i»»ca«, 
nefs. His daughters, like thofe of Ariftidcs, wefe married 
at the public ex pence, as an acknowledgment of his fer vices. 
His funeral eulogium was fpoke by Chriftopher Landini ; Ibidk 
and the following epitaph> by Politian^ was infcrrbed on 
his tofib^ 

^' Donatus nomen, patria eft Florentla^ gens itii 

*^ Acciajoia domus ; clarus eram eloquio. 
^' Francorum ad regem, patriae dum orator abirem; 

*' In ducis Anguigeri moenibus occubui. 
*< Sic vitam impend I patris ; quae me inde relatum 

^^ Inter majorum nunc cineres fepelit." 

Donatus was my name, my country Florence, tftorwdegll 

And frc^ the fam'd Adciaioli I fprung, ^ ^"'"^'* 

By eloquence I gain'd immortal Wreaths : 

Going on an embaffy to France, *»*» Negri in 

Within the walls of farti'd Milan I dy*d* ^f^^]' ^'•*' 

My life I thus devoted to my country, 

Which kindly bringing itiy remains frocti thence, 

Here buried them amid my kindred aflies. 

[a] The following arc ihentiorted by 4.. «* Rei familiaris cora.'* A trea- 

ihe agthor of the Hiftory of the FlOren- tife on private oeconoiny^ dedicated til 

tine writers : Joho Oriceliarius; 

I. *' Libri trei de anima*** Three 5. ** TrA^tatus de bono et maid 

booki treating of the fool. " opere.** Concerning good and bad 

2. " Laudatio ab ipfo hlbita in funfire works : addrfeffed likewife 10 J>hn Oii* 

** Franctfci Vaivodaei qui in bello con- cellarius. 

** traTurcas obierat.^ A funeral elo> He alfo trandated into his native Ian* 

|iutn oa Francia Vaivoda, whr) wai gUage Leonardo Aretino^s twelve booica 

killed in the war againft the Turks, of the hiftory of Floi-enc^ | which wat 

3. ** Oratinfies eloqasntilliqiari quas dedicated to the migiftratcs of that city^ 

^* ingentx aoditorum plaufu, habuit ad and printed at Venice in 1476. In the 

*' Paolttm Jl. ad Sixtum IV. ad Fran- librarjr belungirig to the Stroxai family 

** comm regeaSf &c.** Orations which in Florence, there is prere|ved a ifianu- 

be delivered at «mbafrador from hia re- fcript folio volunne of oxigioal LatmleC* 

pobl c to Paul II. Sixtus I \^. the French ters, by Acciaiolit 
kiflg, ftc. 

ACCIUS (Lucius), a Latin tragic poet, the fon ofa freed- 
Wan, and, according to -St. Jerome, born in the confulftiip 
of Hofttlius Mancinus and Attilius Serranus^ in the year of 

Vol; 1. D Rome 

i>el P. Gul- 

34 - A c c r u s. 

Rome 583; but there appears fomewhat of confafion ana 
perplexity in this chronology. He made himfelf known be-^ 
(ore the death of Pacuvius, a dramatic piece of his being ex- 
hibited the fame year that Pacuvius brought one upon the 
(iage, the latter, being then eighty years of age^' and Accius 
Cicerftin only thirty. We do not know the name of this piece of 
Bruto. Accius, but the titles of fieveral of his tragedies arc mentioned 
Nonioi by various authors. He wrote on th^ mpft celebrated ftories 

V^'^^^aJi. ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ reprcfented on the Athenian ftage, as An» 
lu8 oiius,' <^»'oniache, And/omeda, Atreu«| ClytCRineftra, Medea, Me* 
ftc* leager, Philocletes, the civil wars of Thebes, Tereus, the 

Troades, &c. He did not always, however, take hisJ^bje£b 
from the Grecian ftory ; for he compofed one dramatic piece 
wholly Roman : it was intituled Brutus, and related to the 
expulfion of the Tarquins. It is affirmed by fome, that be 
wrote alfo comedies, which is not unlikely, if he was the au- 
thor of two pieces, the Wedding,x and the Merchant, which 
XaSTna de have bcen afcribed to him. He did not confine himfelf to 
poet. Lafin. dranaatic writing, for be left other prodqdions, particularly 
'' ^' his Annals, mentioned by Macrobius, Prifcian, Fcftus, and 

Nonius Marcellus. Decimus Brutus, who waa conful in the 
year of Rome 6.15, and had the honour of a triumph for feve- 
ral vi6lories gained in Spain, was his particular friend and 
patron. This general was fo highly pleafed with the veifes 
which Accius wrote in his praife, that he had theoi infcribed 
at the entrance of the temples and monuments raifed out of 
the fpoils of the vanquifhed, . Though this might proceed 
from a principle of vanity, and may not be fo much a proof 
of his aiFe£^ion for the poet as his love of applaufe^ yet it is 
thereby evident, that Brutus had an opinion of Accius's poetry^ 
and Brutus was far from being a contemptible judge. He has 
been cenfured for writing in too harlh a ftyle, but in all other 
KoAes refpe<Sls efieemed a very great poet. Aulus Gellius tells us, 
Atuc. xiii. ^j^^j. Accius, being in his way to Afia, pafled through Taren- 
tum, where he paid a vifit to Pacuvius, and read, to him his 
play of Atreus ; that Pacuvius told him hts verfe was lofty 
and for.orous, but fomewhat harfla and crude« ** It is as 
«* you obferve," faid Accius, '« nor am I forry for it, fincc 
** my future productions will be better upon this account ; for 
*' as in fruit fo in geniufes, thofe which are at firft harfh and 
*^ four, become mellow and agreeable; but fuch as are at firft 
** foft and fweet, grow in a fliort time not ripe, but rotten." 
Accius was fo much ei^eemed by the public, that a comedian 
Cic. Rhe- was puniflied for only mentioning his name on the flage. 
teric, Ub.ii. Cicero fpeaks with great derifionof one Accii» wbohad writteo 

a .biftory. 

A C C I U S. 35 

aliiftory, and, as our author had wrote annals, fome infift 
that he is the perfon cenfured 3 but as Cicero himfelf, Horace, 
Qaiotillan, Ovid, and Paterciilus, have fpoken of our author 
with fo much applaufe, we cannot think, it h he whom the 
Koman Orator cenfures with fo much feverity. 

There was alfo in this age a good orator of the fame name, 
againft whom Cicero defended Cluentius. He was born in 
Pifaurum, and perhaps was a relation of our poet* 

ACCORDS (Stephen Tabourot, feigneurdcs), advo- - 
cate in the parliament of Dijon in France, and king's advocate 
in the bailiwic and chancery of that city, born in the year 1 549* 
He was a man of genius and learning, but too much addicted 
to trifles, as appears from his piece, entitled, << Le€ Bigar- 
" rates,** printed at Paris in 15^2 [a]. This was not his 
firft produ6lion, for he had before printed feme fonnets. 
His work, intituled, '^Les Touches,'* was publifhed at Paris ia 
1585 [b] ; which is indeed a coile£i:ion of witty poenis, but 
mod of them upon obfcene fubjeds ; and worked up rather in 
too Toofe a manner, according to the licentious tafte of that 
age. His Bigarrures are written in the fame drain. He was 
cenfured for this way of writing, which obliged him to pub- Bibliothe- 
liih an apology. La Croix du Maine fays in one place, that9«5 ^"""ic 
Accords wrote a di6iionary of French rhimes; but he after- ^'^'^ ' 
wards corredled himfelf, having found that John le Fevre of 
Dijoti, ieoretary to cardinal De Givre, and canon of Langres, n,. p.^i. 
was the author thereof. Accords himfelf mentions him as 
the author, and declares his intention of compiling a fupple- 
ment to bis uncle Le Fevre's work ; but, if he did, it never 
appeared in print. The lordOiip of Accords is an imaginary 
fief or title from the device of his anceftors, which was a drum, 

[a] The firft book of the *' Bigar- concludet with a difconrfe on wizards 
" rurei" it 'divided into twenty-two and their inpoftures. 
•hapten, whieh trtat, amongft other f b] This piece is divided into three 
things, of the rehiis*8 of Picardy, of booki ; the 6rft being dedicated to Pon- 
double entendres, of antiftrophe$, of re- tutdeTyard', lord of Bifly, and bllhop 
trograde Yerfes, or fuch as read the fame' of Chalons. The author boafts he wrote' 
'backward and forward, of a11u6onSy of* it in two months at Verdun upon the 
■croftici, of the echo, of leonine verfes, Soane in 1 58 5. It confiflt chiefly of 
•f other forts of verfe waggiftly and in- epigrams, which may with propriety be 
gentoufly contrived, of epitaphs, &c. called Twckes : '* Becaofe,** fays the ' 

The fourth book is of a more ferloui ' avthor, <* it is a flight kind of fencing, 
turn than the three firft, and is divided ' '< in which, by parrying with the file,' 
into three chapters 1 the firft contains <* I git e fuch a touch or throft as fcarce 
vfrfiil inftrudions for the eddcation of " raifes the /kin, and cannot pierce deep ' 
tUldren} the fecond relates to altering^' *' into the fleih.** Dedication to thft 
•■e*s fumame $ the third, fev«<al obfer- Touches, 
vations on French ?erfe j and the work 

Da vUh 


36 " ACCORDS. 

With the motto a tous accords^ chiming with all [c]. Ht died 
Jltly 24, 15611 in the 46th year of his age. 

[c] Rehadienta fooncttoa daughter ** nicknamed me, in her anfwer, Seig^^ 

of Mr. Begat, the great and learned pre- " 0ekr tUs Aceordi \ by which title her 

fidect of Burgundy^ *' who, "fays he, '* father alfo called me feveral timra* 

*' did me the honour to love me.<*-And " For this reafon 1 chofe this furnamei 

** inafmuch,*' continoes he, « I had " not only in all my writings compofed 

'' fubfci^hed my fonnet with only my ** flt that time, but even iftthefe hooka/* 
^* device, a torn oKordi^ this lady firft 

ACONTJUS (James), a famous philofopher, civilian^ 
and divine, born at Trent in the fixteenth century. He em- 
braced the Proteftant religion ; and going over to England in 
the reign of Elizabeth, he met with a very friendly reception 
frotlfi that princefs, as he himfelf'has teftified in a work dedi- 
cated to her [a]. This work is his celebrated Colleflion of 
the Stratagems'of Satan, which has been fo often tranflated^ 
and gone through fo many different impreifions. . It was firft 
printed at Bafil, in 1565; and the author died foon after in 
?pfft*ad* England. James Gralicrus publifbed another edition of it in 
leaoremini. 1610, at the fame city. In this we meet with Acontius's let-* 
tio Stratage- ter *' Dc ratione edendorum librorum,'* wherein he gives moft 
Sn«.™ ^*" excellent advice to authors ; but his treatife of Method [b], a 
valuable piece, and publiflisd as an eflay, is not inferted. He 
Wrote alfo a work in Italian, on the Manner of fortifying Ci- 
ties, which he tranflated into, Latin during his refidence m 
. ^ . England ; hut we believe it was never publifbed. He w4s alfo 
Spift. ad about a Treatife of Logic ; but death prevented his bringing 
Wolftum, it to a concluiion, which was certainly a public lofs ; for, be- 
Ibid.'p.4ii i'Jganoanof a juft apprehenfion, and endowed with great pe- 
'netration, he had formed the moft rational idea of this work ; 
and thought hlei was obliged to be the more careful in writing 
Jtj as he faw the fucceeding age would be more enlightened . 
than that wherein he lived [cj. His religious principles dif- 

[a] He gives her the following titles: [c] Our author, after having, in htft 

** Di-vinaeElizabetbaetAngliae, Francis, epiftles, touched upon the other reafons 

, *^ Hiberniae, Regime,** He declates, which rendered the execution of his plan 
^C he dedicates it to her as a maik of vaAly difficult, goes on to the following 

his gpatitude \ ** In iignum memoriam- purport: " lamfeniiblr,** fays he, <* that 

*'* que grati gnimiob partum ejus libera- *' 1 live in a more than ofually enlight- 

« Utate, quum in Angliam propter e van- *' ened age; yet 1 do hot fo much 

<* gelicae veritatis profeflionem extorris *' dread thejudgtnent of tbofe who are 

*< appuliflet, humaniifimeque ex«eptus *' now the reigning critics, as the rising 

« elTct, literarium'olium.** *' light of a nnore refined age than the 

{s] This piece, which Is intitled, " prefent. For though the age we now 

'< Methodos five reda inveftigaodarum *' live in has produced, andftillconu-' 

<< tradendarumque Artium & Scienti- ** nues to produce, many great men : 

«< arum ratio,** was inferted in a col- " yet methinks I perceive fomcwhat 

lc£lionofdiffertatioos, « De ftudtis bene '< greater will arife,** Acob. £p, ad 

** inaituendis/' printed at Utiecht io. Wolfi p. 412. 


A C O N T I U S. 27 

fered in fome particulars from thofe of Calvin ; for he wai a 
great friend to tolerakion, and maintained certain maxims 
which drew upon him the odium of feveral Protefiant divines 
[d j. We meet with few particulars relating to his life. He 
himielf informs us tranfiently, that be had fpenta confiderable 

> partofliis time in (ludying^BartoIus, Baldut, and fuch like 
barbarous authors ; and that he had been feveral years atcour^ 
His letter, publifhed in 1696, (hews that he had an acute ge» 
nius, and that he was a great mader in true logic. It is dated 
from London, June 5, 1565, and ferves to clear up an afler- 
tion of his, whici? had been cenfured, in regard to Sabellius. 
It mud be obierved, that notwithflanding moft Proteftant di** 

I vines hold him in the utmoft deteftation, yet by fome be has 
been highly applauded [£]• 

[d] a Proteftant mtnifter at the daft with Socinnsmd the remonftrantfi 

Hagae, (Saldenot dcLibda, ftc. p. 337.) he coofidered him as a man who was for 

I fpeaking of AcondoSy affinns, that what reducing all feAs into one, and including 

I was faid of Origsn may be juftly applied them in one arky as Noah fliut up all 

to him» viz. ''where he is rights nobody fort of animals in hii, where they were 

" better ; aj^ where he ia wrong, no* preferved^ though they lived on different 

** body worie :** That he was a tmly food. (In Examine Apologiae Remoo- 

\ teamed man, of a quick geoinsy but of firantium, p. 45.) Peltius faid (in De- 

too much boidaefs and freedom : That dicatiooe Harmonise) thst Acontius, by 

I he was too much inclined to produce a reducing the points neceiHry for falva- 

> ktod of icepticifm into divinity itfelf, tion to fo fmail a nnmbery thereby 
I as appears evident from his Treatifc of opened a door to every herefy« 

the Stratagems of Satao« which> accord- He has, however, been highly com* 
ingto Simon Goalar, (Triglaod, Hift, mended, not only by Arminiui and Gre- 
ZccleC p. x^a.) is the worft of all bad vinchovius, but alfo by Amefius and . 
books that ever were written. And Voe- George Pauli. Arminius fays, " Acon<» 
tint declares, (Polit. Ecplef* part. iii. in *' tiuseftdivinom prudcntiae acmodera- 
lodice & p. 31. 39S.)that heignorantly <* tionis lumen.'* Amefius fpeaks of 
or defignedly attempted a confeflion of him in tfiefe words : '* Idem Acontius 
faith, which the very Arians might have ** t^ hrinrdraTo; h rate yftifaXf, qui 
fabfcribed. " feVeptem ecclefiae Anglicanae caLre 

[b] Ifaac Junius, mloifter of Delft, " ct rore csicfli fovit fedulo/* 
looked upon Acontius as in the fame • 

ACOSTA (Uriex), a Portugueze, born at Oporto to- 
wards the clofe of the fixteentb century. He was educated in 
theRomifli religion, which his father alfo fmcerely profefTed-,* 
though defcended from one of thofe Jewifh families, who had 
been in a manner forced to receive baptifm. Uriel had a liberal 
education) having been inftruAed in feveral fciences; and at 
)aft he ftudied the law. He had by nature a good temper and 
difpofition ; and religion had made fo deep an impreflion on 
his mind, that he ardently defired to conform to all the pre- 
cepts of the church, in order to avoid eternal death, which he * ^ 
greatly feared. He applied with great ai&duity t;o reading the 

D 3 ScripiOfes 

38 A C O S T a: 

Scriptures and other fpiritual books, carefully confulting alfb 
the creed of the confeflbrs ; but the more he dived into thefe 
matters, the more difficulties occurred, which perplexed bin 
at length to fuch a degree, that, being unable to foive tbem^ 
• he fell into the moft terrible agonies of mind. He looked upon 
, it as impoffible to fulfil his duty, with regard to the conditions 
required for abfolution, according to good cafuifts ; fo that he 
4^fpaired of falvation, if he could find no other means of at- 
taining it ; and it proved difficult to abandon a religion in 
which, he had been bred up from his infancy, and which had 
been deeply rooted in his mind by the force of perfuafion. 
However he began to enquire, whether feveral particulars men- 
^fioned about the other life were agreeable to reafon ; and, 
upon enquiry ^nd deliberation, he imagined that reafon fug-* 
gefled many arguments agaihft them. Acofta was about two 
and twenty, when he was thus perplexed with doubts ; aad 
the refultof his reflexions was^, that he could ifiot be fayed by 
the religion which he had imbibed in bis infancy. Nevertbe- 
lefs he profecuted his ftudies in the law ; and at the age of five 
and twenty, was made treafurer in a collegiate chufcb. ^e- 
ihg naturally of a religious difpofitiou, and now maae uneafy 
by the popifli dodrines, he began to ftudy Mofes and the pro* 
phets ; where he thought he founc] more fatisfa^tion than in 
thegoTpel, and at length became convinced that Judaifm was 
the true religion : and, as he could not profefs it in Portugal^ 
herefoWed to leave the country. He accordingly refigned bis 
place, and embarked for Amfterdam with his mother and bro- 
thers ; whom he had ventured to inftrud in the principles of 
the Jewifh religion, even when in Portugal [a]. Soon after 
their arrival in this city they became members of the fynago- 
gue, and were circumcifed according to cufiom ; and he 
changed his name of Gabriel for that of Uriel. A little time 
was fufficient to (hew him, that the Jews did neither in their 
rites nor morals conform to the law of Mpfes, of which he 
could not but declare hi^ difapprobation : but the chiefs of the 
fynagogue gave him to underftand, that he muft exadly obferve 
their tenets and cuAoms ; and that he would be excommuni- 
cated, if he deviated ever fo little from them. This threat, 
however, did not in the leaft deter him ; for he thought it 
would be a moft mean behaviour in him, who had left the 

[a] He himfelf relT» us, that be gave tion being permitted to leave the king- 

up an honourable and profitable employ- dom withouc the king*8 fpecial leave, 

ment, and a fine houfe which his father ^Ib. p. 347). He fays, had it been known 

had built, in the beft part of the city, he difcour led with his mother and brother 

(Acofta in Exempla^i Vtts ^umanse, p. io faVour of the Jewi(h religiofly it muft 

346), He mentions the danger of his haTC proved his tuio* 
ctobarkauooj no oae of Jewiih extrac- 

/ fweets 

A C O S T A. 39 

« • 

fweets of his native country purely for liberty of confcience, 
to fubmit to a fet of Rabbit without any proper jurifdii^ion ; 
and that it would fhew both want of courage and piety, if b^ 
ihould fiifle bis fenttments on this occafion. He therefore per- 
fifted in his invedives, and ih confequence was excommunr- 
cated : the eifed: of which was fuch, that his own brothers 
durft not fpeak to hinriy nor falute him when^hey met him iti 
the ftreets. Finding himfelf thus fituated, he wrote a book in 
his juflification J wherein he endeavours to fliew, that the 
rites and traditions of the Pharifees are contrary to the *wri« 
tings of Mofes, and foon after adopted the opinion of the Sad- « 
duces : for he had worked himfelf up to a belief, that the re- 
wards and puniihments of the old law relate only to this life; 
and thjs, becaufe Mofes no where mentions the joys of hea- 
ven, or the torments of helL His adverfaries were overjoyed 
at his embracing this tenet ; forefeeing, that it would tend 
greatly to jufiify, in the fight of Chriftians, the proceedings 
of the fynagogues againft htm. Before his book was printed, 
there appeared a piece upon the immortality of the foul, writ- 
ten by a phyfician, who omitted nothing he could fuggeft to 
make Acofta pajTs for aii Athfeft. The very children were even 
fpirited up to infult him in the ftreets, and to batter his houfe 
with ftones; all which however did not prevent, him from 
writing a treatife againft the phyfician, wherein he endea« 
voured to confute the dodrine of the foul's immortality. The 
Jews now made application to the magiftrates of Amfterdam ; 
and informed againft him, as one who wanted to undermine 
the foundation of both Jewiih and Chriftian religions. Here- 
upon he was thrown into prifon, but bailed out within a week 
or ten days after; however all the copies of his pieces were 
feized, and he himfelf fined 300 florins, Neverthelcfs^ he 
proceeded ftill farther in his fcepticifm. He now began to 
examine, whether the laws of Mofes came from God ; and he 
fuppofed he had at length found reafons to convince him, that 
it was only a political invention. Yet, inftead of drawing 
this inference from thence, *' I ought not to retuf*n to the 
*• Jewifli communion,*' he thus argued with himself, ** Why 
*' ihould I continue all my life cut off from the communion, 
^* expofed to fo many incon¥enienees, efpecially as I am in a 
'* country where I am a ftranger, and unacquainted with the 
** language? Had I not better play the ape amongft apes?*' 
He accordingly returned to the J^w Kb church, after he had : 
been excommunicated 15 ye^rs; and, after having made are- 
<;afltajtioQ of what he had written,- fubfcribed every thing as 

D 4 , they 

1 1 

4<i A C O S T a: 

they dire£led. A few days after, he was accufed by a nephe 
who lived in bis houfe, that he did not, as to his eating and 
many other points, conform to the laws of the fynagogue. 
This accufation was attended with very bad confequences i for 
a relation of Acofia, who had gbt him reconciled to the fyna-* 
gogue, thought he was in honour bound to perfecute him with 
the utmoft violence [p]. The Rabbis and the reft of the Jews 
were animated tvith the fame fpirit; efpecially, when they 
found that Acofta had difTuaded two Chriiiians, who bad come 
front London to Amfterdam, froni turning; Jews. He was 
fummoned before the grand council of the fynagogue ; when 
jt was declared to him, that he muft be again excommunicated, 
if he did not give fuch fatisfa£iion as fliould be required. He 
found tlie terms fo hard, that he could not comply. The Jews 
* thereupon again, expelled him from their communion ; and he 

afterwards fufFered various hardlhips and great perfecutioos, 
even from his own relations. After remaining feven years in a 
moft wretched fituation, he at length declared he was willing 
to fubmit to the fentence of the fynagogue, having been told 
that he might eafily accommodate matters ; for, that the 
judges, being fatisfied with his fubmiffion, would fofien the 
jfeverity of the dicipline. Acofta, however, was caught in a 
fpare ; for they made him undergo the penance in its utmoft 
ligour [e], Thefe particulars, relating to the life of Acofta, 
2ire taken from his piece, intituled, *^ Exemplar humanae Vitae^^' 
publilhed and refuted by Limboich [fJ. It is fuppofed that he 

[p] Acoftii was jqft going to marry a thefe crimes, he was ready to foffer what* 

fecond wife ; he h<id great part of his ef- ever they ihould command^ ^nd promife4 

fe£ls in the hands of one of his brothers ; never to be guthy of the like offerices. 

and it was his intereft, that the trade Being come down from the pQ'pit, he 

carried on betwixt them fliould continue, was ordered to retire to a comer of the 

The relation above-mentioned hurt him fynagogtie \ where he firipped himfelf 

greatly in thefe particulars 3 for h« got to the waift, and pulled off hi&.fhoes and 

the match to be broken off; and he per- Aockings. The door-keeper th^p fafien- 

fuaded Aco(la*s brother rq keep all the his hands to the pillar, and the mafter- 

goods in his pofTe/iioOi and to trade no chanter gave him exa£\ly 39 la/hes with 

longer with him, a whip ; for in the<e cafcs they are aU 

[x] The penance h^ underwent, as ways careful not to exceed the numbef 

he himfelf defcribes it, was as follows} prefciibed by law. Then the preachet 

(Exemplar VitxKumans, p. 349, 35P.) came, who, making him fit upon the 

Avail crowd of men and women being ground, declared him abfolved from the 

a(rcmbled at th^ fynagogue, Aco^a en- excommunication \ fo that th^ gates of 

^ered ; and, at a time appointed, afcended Paradife were no longer (hut aga^oft 

the pulpit. Here he read aloud a writ. him. Acoila after this put go hia 

ing, wherein he confeffed hehad defervcd cioath$, and laid himfelf on the, ground 

^ thoufand deaths for not keeping the at the door of the fynagogue, where all 

iabbath-day, pr the prorinife he had who came out walked over him. 
made 5 and for having difluaded fome [f J Mr. Limborch has placed it at the 

p«rfons from embracing the Jewlfli reli- end of his •* Arnica collatiacum Judxa 

^ip|l : and that^ as an atonement for <• Vciitate Religionis Chriftians.** 

AC o s T a; 41 

tompofed it a few days before bis deatb, after having; deter« 
mined to lay violent hands on himfelf. Re executed this hor- 
rid refolution, a little after he bad failed in his attempt to 
kill his principal enemy | for the piftol, with which he in- 
tended to have {hot him as he pafled his houfe, having milled 
fire,^ he immediately (hut the door, and (hot himfelf with ano» 
ther piftol. This happened at Amfterdam, but in what year 
15 not exaSly known [g]. 

[6]Itii highly probable that he kill- the BiUioth^e Univerfelle, that he 

-Yd hiafeif foon after the cereinooy of his killed himfelf about the year 1^47 1 

abfolotioiiy being exafperated at the ueat> but, aeeordingto othen^ it was in i640» 

iBcnt he had received, Jt it fappoied in torn, VII. p. 317* 

ACROPOLITA (George), one of the waiters in the ^y-^^^'^i^\ 
zantine Hiftory. He was born at Conftantinople, in the year^^. 
1220, and brought up at the courtof the emperor John Ducas, 
at Nice. He ftudied mathematics, poetry, and rhetoric under 
Theodorus Exapterygus, and learned logic of Nicephorus 
Blemmidas. In his one*and-twentieth year, he maintained a 
learned difpute with Nicholas the phyiician concerning the 
eclipfe of the fun, before the emperor John. He was at length 
appointed great Jogotbete, and employed in the oiofi import- 
ant aiFairs of the empire. John Ducas (ent him embafiador 
to LariiTa, to eftablifh a peace with Michael of Epirus. He 
was alfo conftituted judge by this emperor, to try Michael 
Comnenus for a fufpicion of being engaged in a confpiracy. 
Theodorus Lafcarus, the fon of John, whom he had taught 
logic, appointed him governor of all the weftern provinces of 
his empire. When he held this government, in the year 1255, 
being engaged in a war with Michael Angel us, he was taken 
prifoner by him. In 1260, he gained his liberty by means of 
the emperor Palaeologus, who fent hjm embafiador to Con- 
fiamine prince of Bulgaria. After his return, he applied 
himfelf wholly to the inftru&ion of youth, in which employ* 
ment he acquitted himfelf with great honour for many years ; 
but being atlaft weary of the fatigue, he religned it to Holo^ 
bolus. In 1972, be fat as one of the judges upon the caufeSeeDuPin, 
of John Vecchus, Patriarch of Conftantinople. The year];[^^;;^;Jj^[- 
following he was fent to pope Gregory, to fettle a peace andtom. v. p. ^ 
reunion between the two churches which was accordingly 93* P*'^ 
concluded ; and he fwore to it, in the emperor's name, at the'^^^* 
fecond council of Lyons, in 1^74. He was fent embafiador 
to John prince of Bulgaria in 1282^ and died foon ^fter his 
rUurOf He left bfhin4 i|im ftveiral works in the Greek 


^2 A c R o: p o L I T a; 

tQOgve. Gwgoiy Cypri^p, patriarch of Conft«ntiApplc» iit 
his enccmium upon i^iaii prefixed to Acropolita'a hUlory^ is 
perhaps foroewhat extravagant in his praife, when he fays he 
was equal to Ariftotle in philc^opl^y, ;|nd to Plato in th9 know* 
Ifsdge pf divine things and Attic eloqiieocf?* 

ADAM (Melchior) lived in the 17th century. He was 

born in the territory of Grotkaw in Siiej[ia« and educated ia 

the college of Briee, where the dukes of that name, to the 

i^tmoft of their po^r, encouraged learning and the reformed 

*ani*inepiftJ^^'S*°" ^ profefled by Calvin. Here he became a firm Pro- 

4e6kMt Geriteftant, and was enabled to purfue his ftudifs by the liberality 

Theolog, ofaperfon of quality, who had left feveral exhibitions for 

ToacMpi. 7<>u"g ftudents. He was appointed reAor of a college at Hei- 

Bei^enii} delberg, where he publiihed'his firft volume of illuftrious men 

dka?*^'to''" ^^^ y^^ ^^^5' '^^^^ volumes, which confided of philofo- 
hU^GennanPb^f'* poets, writers on polite literature, hiftorians, &c. 
pbiiofo- was followed by three others ; that which treated of divines 
fhat. ^2s printed in 1619; that of the lawyers came next ; and 
finally, that of the phyficians : the two laft were publi(hed in 
1620. All the learned men, whpfe lives are contained in 
thefe four volumes, lived in the i6th, or beginning of the 
17th century, and are either Germans or Flemings ; but he 
publilhed in 1618 the lives of twenty divines of other countries 
in a feparate volume. All his divines are Proteftancs. He 
has given but a few lives', yet the work coft him a great deal 
of time, having been obliged to abridge the pieces from whence 
he had materials, whether they were lives, funeral fermons, 
eulogies, prefaces, or memoirs of families. He omitted feve- 
ral perfons who deferved a place [a] in his work as well as 
Morhofua ^^0^ ^^ ^2is taken notice of. The Lutherans were not pleafed 
^lyhiftor. with him, for they thought him partial ; nor will they allow 
P''9*«*<^*hi8 work to be a proper flandard, whereby to judge of the 

[AjThiahehimieirconfeffiN, <<QuK- <* fore to be wholly filent about manf 

<< dam mihi moneadiis aut fogandvt rs, ^ «xcelleot pcrfooa, rather thao fay a 

, ** mi le£lor. Prknum, &g. i. c ** Reader, ** very littl/:, oc ufc tboijc tcite e^prtC- 

•« I moft acquaint you with fomethuigs, *• fions ; He was Urn, be died. Yet this 

«' orKqueftthem of yoo« Firft» that <*' deficiency may be fupplied, if good' 

•^ joo wqald.not cotnylaji^of «i|[ lui«i«g «' «ieJi andf lovecs of their coontry will 

*( pafTedoveror omitted m^iy perfona, *' contribute their afliftafvceia the ^ood 

** who were not unworthy of a plaee in ** volume of this work. The fame Ide- 

** thia work* The &uU, my good r«der» <* fire may be underftood concerning the 

«* mnft not be imputed to rof, bat tQ the *' live* of the Uwy-ers, ftatefmen, phyli- 

« Scarcity of materialjiy whic^ I could '< ciant, and philofophers/* Meich« 

** by no meant prpcure. Ichofethvt- Adam pxxfat. Thcolog. Gerroanorum. 

lea^niog . 

^ AV AM, 43 

karDJog pf Germany. He. wrote other works beCdes hv9. 
lives [b]^ and died in 1622. 

fs] Vir. I. « Apo^phom npnii- lathe caulogae of tbeBodleiio li- 

", mentoniin Heidelbergenfiuoa.'* Brary, kc it iaid to have been the author 

1. *' No!x in Oratiooeo) JuHi CsfaiM of " Hifioria £€de6>ftica Hamburgenfii 

*' Scaiigeri pro M. T. Cicerone contra M ctBremenfisT^but this wot k, accord- 

** Ciceronianum Erafmi.** sng to Mr. Bajrie, was written by One 

3. ** Parodic et Metapbrafes Horati- Adam, a cancp of Bremeoy who liffd ia.* 

" ftoje. Diarium 3iogr«ph. pcnoingi the iith century. 

ADAMSON (Patrick), a Scottifli prelate, archbiihop of 
St. Andrews. He was born 1543s in the town of Perth^ 
where he received the rudiments of his education, and after- 
wards ftudied philofophy, and took his degreeof M. A. at 
the univerfity of St. Andrews;. In the year 1566,' he fet out 
for Paris, as tutor to a young gentleman. In the month of 
June in the fame year, Mary queen of Scots, being delivered 
of a fon, afterwards James VL of Scotland, andFirft of £ng«^ 
land, Mr. Adamfon wrote a LaAin poem on the occafion. 
This proof of his loyalty involved him in ibme difficulties, 
caufing him to be arretted in France, and confined for fix 
months; nor would be have got ofFfo eafily« had not queen 
Mary, and fome of the 'principal nobility, interefted tbem- 
felves in his behalf. As foon as he recovered his liberty, he 
retired with his pupil to Botirges. He was in this city during 
the maflacre at Paris ; and the fame bloody perfecuting fpiric . 
prevailing amongft the Catholics at Bourges, as at the metro- 
polis, be lived concealed for 7 months at a public houfe, the 
roafter of which, upwards of 70 years of age, was thrown 
from the top thereof, and had his brains dafhed out, for hisPnefat. «t 
charity to heretics. Whilft Mr. Adamfon lay thus in his fe- J*^*** 
pulchre, as he called it, he wrote his Latin poetical verfion of 
the Buck of Job, and his Tragedy of Herod, in the fame lan- 
guage. In 1573, he returned to Scotland, and, having eQ-(*|il^r. 
tered into holy orders, became minifter of Paifiey. In i575,wood*8 Hif- 
he was appoioted one of the commiiiioners, by the general af-5?'' ^f *^ 
fembly, to fettle the jurifdidion and policy of the church j and scotUnd * 
the following year he was named^ with Mr. David Lindfay, tofel. 1680. 
report their proceedings to the earl of Moreton, then regent. ^ 55» 
About this time, the earl made him one of his chaplains, and, 
OQ the death of biihop Douglas, promoted him to the archi- 
epifcopal fee of St. Andrews, a dignity which brought upon 
him great trouble and uneafinefs ; for now the clamour of the 
prefbyterian party rofe very high againft him, and many in* 
^onfiftent abfurd ftories were propagated about him. Soon 
after his promotion, he publiihed his Catecbifm in I/atia 


44 ADAMS 0^. • 

verfcy a wori^ highly approvetl, even by his enetxiioB; hnU 
Kevertbelefs, they ftill continued to perfecute him with great 
violence. In 1578, hefubmitted himfdf to the general aflem-^ 
bty, which procured him peace but for a very little time i for,* 
the year folio wing, they brought frefh accufations againfb 
him* In the year 15829 being attacked with a grievous dif-. 
cafe, in which the phyficians could give him no relief, he 
happened to take a fimple medicine from an old woman, 
which did him fervice. The woman, whofe name was Ali- 
fon PearfonCf was thereupon charged with witchcraft, and 
committed to prifon, but efcaped out of her confinement ; 
however, about four years afterwards, (he was again found, and 
burnt for a witch. In 1583, king James came to St. An- 
drews ; and the archbifliop, being much recovered, preached 
before hirti, and difputed with Mr. Andrew Melvi), ip' pre- 
fence of his majefty, with great reputation, which drew upon 
him frefli calumny and perfecution. The king, however, 
v^as fo well pieafed with hinll thst be fent him embalTAdor to 
queen Elizabeth, at whofe court he refided for fome years*' 
His conduft, during his chibaiTy, has been varioufly reported 
by different authors. Two things he principally laboured, 
viz. the recommending the king, his mafier, to the nobility 
and gentry of England, and the procuring fome fupport for 
the epifcopal party in Scotland. By his eloquent preaching, 
he drew after him fuch crowds of people, and raifed in their 
minds fuch a high idea of the young king, his mafter, that 
queen Elizabeth forbad him to enter the pulpit during his ftay 
▼k.Pat. in her dominions, jln 1584, he was recaliedf and fat in the 
SitmSQM, parliament held in Auguft at Edinburgh. The preibyterian 
party were ftill very violent againft the archbifhop. A pro- 
vincial fynod was held at St. Andrews in April 1586; the 
archbifliop was here accufedand excommunicated ; he appealed 
to the king and the ftates, but this availed him but little ^ for 
the mob beiilg excited agatnft him, he durft fcarce appear in 
Csl^rweod,public ju the city of St. Andrews. At the next general af* 
f> '99* fembly a paper being produced, containing the archbifhop's 
fubmiffion, he was abfolved from the excommunication. In 
1588, frefli accufations were brought againfl him. The year 
following, he publifl>ed the Lamentations of the prophet Je- 
remiah, in Latin verfe, which he dedicated to the king, com- 
plaining of bis hard ufage. In the latter end of the fame year, 
he publiflied a tranflation of the Apocalypfe, in Latin verfe, 
and a copy of Latin verfes, addrefled alfo to his majefty, when 
, be was in great diflrefs. The king, however, was fo far from 

^iying him a(}iftance, that he granted the revenue of bis fee to 


A D A M S O N. 

the duke of Lenox: (o that the remaining part, of this prelate^^ 
Mfe was- very wretched, he having hardly fubfiftence for his 
family. He died in 1591. A Volume of this Prelate's works 
has been publiihed in 410* 

ADDISON (Lancelot), fon of Lancelot Addifon a cler- 
gyman, born at Mauldifmeaburlie in the pari(h of Crolby Ra- 
venfworth in Wefimoreland, in 1632, was educated at the 
grammar fchool of Appleby, and afterwards fent to Queen's 
College, Oxford, upon the foundation. On Jan. 25, 1654^ 
he was admitted B. A. and M. A. July 4, 1657. As he now 
bad greatly diftinguifhed himfelf in the univerfity, he was 
diofen ont of the terr^ filii for the zA which w-^^s celebrated, 
in 1658 ; but, his oration having been very fatirical upon the 
pride, ignorance, hypocrify, and avarice of thofe then in 
pQwer, he was compelled to make a recantation, and to a(k 
pardon on his knees. Soon after he left Oxford, and retired 
to Petworth, in Saflex, where he refided till the reftoration. 
The gentlemen of Suflex having recommended him to Dr. 
ICin^, biOiop of Chefier, as a man who had fufFered for hts 
loyalty and attachment to the conditution of church and fiate, 
the biOiop received him kindly; and, in all probability, would 
have preferred him, had he not accepted of the chaplainihip at 
Dunkirk, contrary to his lordfliip's approbation. Mr. Addi- Woort A- 
fon continued at Dunkirk till the year ,1662, when, the P^3k:c*^^*j5^^ 
being delivered up to the French, he returned to England. ^^o. 
The year following, he went chaplain to the garrifon at Tan- 
gier, where he refided fome years. He came back to England 
in 1670, with a refolution to return to Tangier. He was ap- 
pointed chaplain in ordinary to his majeily, (bon after his 
coming over; he had no thoughts, however", of quitting his ' 
chaplainihip, at Tangier; neverthelefs it was conferred upon 
another, whereby Mr. Addifon became poor in his circumftan* 
ces. In this fituation of his aiFairs, a gentleman in Wiltfhire 
bcftowed oil him the redlory of Million, in Wilts, worth about 
i?ol. per annum. Soon after he was alfo made prebendary of 
Minor pars altaris, in the cathedral of Sarum; and, July 6, 
^675, took the degrees of B. and D. D. at Oxford. His pre- 
ferments, though not very confiderable, enabled him to Jive • 
in the country with great decency and hofpitality; and he dif- 
charged his duty with a moft confcientious diligence. In 
1683, the commiffioners for ecclefiaflical affairs, in confider- 
«tion of hi$ former ferviceat Tangier, conferred upon him the 
^leanery of Litchfield, in which he was inftalled July 3. Dec. 

81 1684, ^^ ^^^ collated to the archdeaconry of Coventry, 

8 and 

46 A i> D Is O N. 

utid held It witb his deanery in comn[>endani. In the con 
tion, which met Dec. 4, 1689, dean Addifon was prefent^ 
and was one of the committee appointed by the lower houfe 
to acquaint the lords, that they had confented to a conference 
on the fubje^l of an addrefs to the king. He died April 20» 
1 7031 in the 71ft year of his age, and was buried in the 
church-yard of Litchfield, at the entrance of the weft door^ 
with ihe following epitaph on his tomb ftone ; *' Hie jacet 
** Lancelotus Addifon, S.T.P. hujus ecclefiae Decanus, nee 
•* non Archidiaconus Coventria;, qui obiit 20 die Aprilis, 
•^ ann. Dom. 1703, jctatis ftiaB7i." 

Dr. Addifon wrote many learned and uTefuI trcatifes^ of 
which we fhall give an account in a note [a j. 

[a] 1. •* Weft Bartary : or, sl (hort " dofVnne of that impofture, hondoo, 

•* narrative of the rcvolotioiw of the «« '11678.'* 

*« kingdoms of Fes and Morocco, with 6. *' An Introduftion to the Sacra- 

*' an account of the prefent cuftotns, *' ment; or, a n)ort;, fafc, and plain way 

" facred, civil, and domcRic, by Lance- *' to the communion-table, colleded for, 

*? lot Addifon, chaplain to his majefly " and rendered familiar to, every parti- 

'^inordinary. Oxford, 1671.** This <* caiatcommonicanr, 1681.** 
piece is dedicated to Jofeph Wiiliamfon, 7. " A Difcoorfe of Tangier, under 

e(q, Jt contains many curious particu- << (be government of the earl of Tiviot^ 

lars, related by the author on his own <( London, 1685.'* 
knowledge, agreeably to what he fays in 8. *' The Catechumto ; or, an ac* 

bis preface, that this book was not com- ^< count given by the young perfoo to the 

pofed from the accounts giv<;n by others, ** minifter, of his knowledge in religion, 

but was the fruit of diligent obfervations << upon ^is 6rft admiffion to the Lord's 

and many years enquiries. « (able. Recommended to the pi efs 1^ 

z. " The prefent State of the Jews, •« two emiAent divines of the church of 

*' oiore particularly relating to thofe in « England. London, 1690.*^ 
** Barbary> wherein is codtained an exa& 9. <• XPI2T0Z ATTOaSDZ ; or, an 

<' account of their cuftoms, fecular and « hiftoricar account of the herefy, de- 

<' reli^oos; to which is annexed, a ** nying the godhead of thrift. London, 

/ «• fommarydifcourfeofthe Mifna,Tal. "1689." 

€s xnud, and Gemara. London, 1675.*' ' 1^^^* ^ook comprehends, in a narrow 

This is alfo dedicated to his former coropafs, the hiftory of various hereticS| 

patron, under the title of the right ho- clearly ftated from origins] authors, for 

nourable Sir Jofeph WilliatDfon, princi* the ufe, probably, of fuch as wrre onablitf 

pal fecretairy of ftate. to read thofe authors in Greek and Latin. 
.5. « The primitive Inftitution; or, 10. « The ChriftianV daily Satrifice 

'< a feafonable difcourfe of catechifing, <> duly performed j or, a practical dif- 

'''wherein is Aiewn the 1intiq^*ity, be- «< courfe, teaching the right perform-. 

'* nefit, atid neceffity thereof; together '* aiice of prayer. Printed for Robert 

*« with its fuitablenefs to heal the prer " Clavcl, 1698/* 
<* fent diftempcrs of the church of £ng- 1 1 . "An Account of theMilennium, 

j «.Iani.*' *« the genuine Ufe of the Two Sacra- 

i .4. ** A modeft Plea for the Cl^gy, ** ments, viz. Baptifm and the Lord*i ' 

I <( wherein is briefly confidered the ori* <* Supper, with the Chriftian*8 obliga- 

\ ''ginal, antiquity, and neceffity of that <* tion frequently to receive the latter.** 

<< calling; together with the fporious Thefe three laft books, with the Ca- 
** .and genuine occafioos of their prefent ttfcbnmeo, are afcrlbed to Dr. Addifon 
** cooteinpt. London, 1677.*' in a catalogue printed at the end of his 

5* « The firft State of Mahometan- Chriftian*s Daily Sacrifice, publiihedia 
<( i£m'; vr, an account of the author and the year 16^ 8. 



A D D I S d N. 


ADDISON (Joseph), foii of Dr. Addifon mentioned inThcgreateft 
tbeFaft article, was born May i, 1672, at Miffton near Am- J'^^jf'**" 
breibufy, Wiltffiire, whore bis father wasre£h>r«, Appear- abridged 
ing weak, and im^ikely to live, hie wzs cbriftenedtbe fame from Dr. 
dsy. Me received the firft* riidfments of his education at the J?*">^> 
place of his nativity, under the rtverend Mr. Naifh; but was 
fcon rennoved to Saliibtfry, under the care of Mr. Taylor; 
and thence to Litchfteld where his father placed him for fbme 
time, probably riot long, under Mr. Shaw then matter of the 
febool there, father of the late Dr. Peter Shaw. From Litch* 
field he was feni to the Cttarttr^houfc, where he purfued his 
jiivenile ftudies under the care of Dr. Ellis, and contraSed 
that intimacy^ with fir Richard Steele, which their joint 
labours have fo effedually recorded. In 1687 he was'entered 
into Queen's College ht Oxfbrd, where, in 1689, the acci- , 
dental perofa! of fome Latin verfes gained- Him the patronage 
of Dr. Lancaffer, by wbofe recommendation he was defied 
into Magdalen College as Demy; Here he took the dtgree 
of M. A. Feh. 14, 1693; continued to cultivate poetry 
and criticifih, and grew firft eminent by his Latin com* 
pofitibns, which are intitled to' particular praife, and feem 
to have had much of his^ fondnefs; for he colleded a 
fecond volutpe of the " Mufae Anglicana," perhaps for a 
convenient receptaclie, in which all his Latin pieces are in- 
fertedi and where his poem on the Peace has the fif ft place. 
He afterwards prefented the colledion to Boileau, who from 
that time ** con(?eived,'* feys Tickell, ** an opinion of the 
" EngliA genius for poetry.'* In his 22d year he firft'fliewed 
bis power of Englifh poetry, by fome verfes addrefled to Dry- 
den ; and foon afterwards puUiihed a tranflation of the greater 
part of the Fourth Georgick upon Bees. About the fame time 
he compofed the arguments prefixed to the feveral books of 
Drjden's Virgil ; and produced an Effay on the Georgicks, 
juvenile, fuperficial, and uninftrudive, without much either 
of the fcbolar's learning or the critick's penetration. His next 
paper of verfes contained a charafter of the principal Engtiih 
poets, infcribed to Henry Sachevercll, who was then, if not 
s poet, a writer of verfes ', as is (hewn by his verfion of a fmall 
partof Virgil's Georgicks, publiflied in the Mifcellanies, and 
a Latin encomium on queen Mary, in the << Mufae Angli- 
•* caoae." Thefe verfes exhibit all the fondnefs of friendfliip 5 
W, on one fide or the other, friendfcip was too weak for the 
malignity of fadlion. In this poem is a very confident and 
^ifcciminaWe ' charader of Spenfer, whofe work he htid 
7 then 

t X 

48 A D D I S O 1^. 

then never read. It is neceflary to inform the reader, that 
about this time he was introduced by CongreVe to Montaguei 
then Chancellor of the Exchequer i Addifon was then learn-k 
. ing the trade of a courtier, and fubjoincd Montague as a po- 
etical name to thofe of Cowley and of Dryden. By the in^i- 
fiuence of Mr. Montague, concurring, according to Tickell, 
with bis natural modefty, he was diverted from his original 
defign of entering into holy orders. Montague alleged the 
corruption of men who engaged in civil employments without 
liberal education ; and declared, that, though he was repre* 
fented as an enemy to the Church, he would never do it any 
injury but by withholding Addifon from it. Soon after, in 
1695, he wrote a poem to king William, with a kind of rhym- 
ing introduAion addrefied to lord Somers. King William had 
no regard to elegance^or literature ; his ftudy was only war ; 
yet by a choice of miiiiders whofe difpofition was*very dif- 
ferent from his own, he procured, without intention, a very 
liberal patronage to poetry. Addifon was earefled both by 
Somers and Montague, in 1697, he wrote his poem on the 
peace of Ryfwick, which he dedicated to Montague, and 
which was afterwards called by Smith *< the beft Latin poem 
*^ (ince the iEneid." Having yet no publick employment, 
he obtained in 1699 a penfion of 300!. a year, that he might 
be enabled to travel. He ftaid a year at Blois, probably to 
learn the French language $ and then proceeded in his journey 
to Italy, which he furveyed with the eyes of a poet. While 
he was travelling at leifure, he was far frodi being idle ; for 
he not only colledted his obfervations on the country, but 
found time to write his Dialogues on Medals, and four ads of 
Cato. Such is the relation of Tickell. Perhaps he only col- 
leded his materials, and formed his plan. Whatever were 
his other employments in Italy, he there wrote the letter to 
lord Halifax, which is jufily confidered as the moft elegant, 
if not the moft fublime, of his poetical produSions. fiut in 
about two years he found it necefTary to haften home } being, 
as Swift informs us, " diftreffed by indigence, and compelled 
** to become the tutor of a travelling Squire." At his return 
he publiflied his travels, with, a dedication to lord Soiners« 
This book, though a while neglected, is faid in time to 
have become fo much the favourite of the publick, that before 
it was reprinted it rofc to five. times its price. When he re-» 
turned to Eilgland in 1702, with a meaitnefs of appearance 
which gave teftimony of the difficulties to which he had 
been reduced, he found his old patrons out of pow^r, but be 


Addison. 49 

remained not long neglefied or ufelefs. The viAory at Blcn- 
heim 1704 fpread triumph and coafidence over the nations and 
lord Godolphin lamentii^g to lord Halifax chat it had not been 
celebrated in a manner equal to the fubje^i, 4efired hioi to 
propofe it to fooie better poet. Halifax named Addifon; 
who, having undertaken the work* communicated it to the 
Treafurer, while it was yet advanced no further than the 
fimile of the AngeJ, and was immediately rewarded by fuc- 
ceeding Mr. Locke in the plate of Commiffioner of Appeals. 
In the following year he was at Hanover with lord Halifax ; 
and the year after was made under-fc'cretary of (late, iirft to 
Sir Charles Hedges, and in a few months more to the earl of 
Sunderland. About this time the prevalent tafte for Italian . 
operas inclining him to try what would be theeiFe£t of a mufi- 
cal Drama in our own language, he wrote the, opera of Ro-^ 
famond, which, when exhibired on the ftage, was either hifT- 
cd or negleded ; but trufting that the readers would do him 
more juftice, he publiihed it, with an infcription to theduchefs 
of Marlborough. His reputation had been fomewhat ad^ 
vanced by the ** Tender Hu(band," a comedy which Steele 
dedicated to him, with a confeHion that he owed to him feve- 
ral of the moft fuccefsful fcenes. To this play Addilbn fup^ 
plied a prologue. When the marquis of Wharton was ap- 
pointed lord- lieutenant of Ireland, Addifon attended him as 
bis fecretary; and was made keeper of the records in Berming- 
ham's Tower, with a falary'of gool.a year. The office was 
little more than nominal, and the falary was augmented for 
his accommodation.. When he was in office, he made.alavir 
to himfelf, as Swift has recorded, never to remit his regular 
fees in civility to his friends; ** I may have a hundred friends;. 
^ " and if my fee be two guineas, I ftiall by relinquiChing; my 
*^ right lofe 200 guineas, and no friend gain more than two. 
Re was in Ireland when Steele, without any communication 
of his defign, began the publication of the Tatler ; but he was 
not long concealed : by inferring a remark on Virgil, which 
Addifon had given him, he difcovered himfelf. Steele's firfl: 
Tader was publifhed April 22, 1769, and Addifon's contri- 
bution appeared May 26. Tickell obferves, that the Tatler 
began and was concluded without his concurrence. This is 
doubtIe(s literally true $ but the work did not fufFer much by 
his unconfcioufnefs of its commencement, or his abfence at 
its ceiTation ; for he continued his affiftance co Dec. 23, and 
the paper flopped on Jan. 2. He did not dillingullh his pieces^ 
by any fignature. 

Vol. I. K T» 


To the Tatler, !n about two ndooths, fucceUed the Spec- 
tator ; a ferres of tflayl, of rhe fame kind, but written wi(k 
lefs ]evit/» upon a more regular plan, and pabliibed daily [a]. 
The next rear, 1713, in which Cato came upon the ftage^ 
was the grand climai^erick of Addifon*s reputation. Upon 
the death of Cato, he had, as is faidv planned a tragedy la the 
time of his travels, and had for feveral years the four firft afls 
finiihed, which were (hewn to fneb as were likely to ifread 
their admiration. By a requeft, which perhaps he wiflied to 
be dented, he deftred Mr. Hughes to add a fifth a&. Hughes 
fuppofed him ferious; and,- undertaking fhe fupplement^ 
brought tn a few days feme fcenes for his examination i but 
he had in the m^an time gone to work himfelf, and produced 
half an a£^, which he afterwards completed, but ftith brevity 
irregularly difproportionate to the foregoing parts. The great, 
the important day came on, when Addifon was to ftand the 
hazard of the tlteatre. That there might, however, be left 
as little to hazard as was poffible, on the laft night Steele, ai 
himfelf relates, undertook to pack an audience. The danger 

[a] The author of the Diflertation writer! for the thcftte ate excepted, 
far la Poefie Angloife, in the Journal England bad' no mafters of common lil'e. 
Literaire, (peaking of this work, fays. No writers had yet undertaken to fefbrtil 
.*' The fi reft geniufes in England have cither the favagenefs of heglieSy orth^ 

** exerted in the Spectator all the force impertinence of civility>{ to teach when 

** of their reflexions, all the delicacy of to fpeak, or to be Hient ; how to refufe, 

*' ftyle, and all the fire of imagination or how to comply. We wanted l»oc booki 

" that can be conceived. It is an admi- to teach us more iiwipoitantdotief, and to 

*' rable work} and it has preferved a fetileppinioniio philofcpby orpolitickft} 

<* great part of its original graces and bat an Arbiter elegantiariuroy a judge of 

** beauty in the French tranil^tion. propriety v/m yrt want^irg, wh\> (hooM 

** Thaxtic fach a prodigioua variety in furveythe track of daily converfation, 

** it» both whh regaidto the ftyle and apd free it from thorns and prick]eS| 

^ the fubje€is which it treats of, that which teaze the pafTsr, though they do 

^' we juftly affirm* the French natton not wound him. For this pnrpoie no* 

^* baa ncthingtO oppofe fo this work, thing is (b proper as <he^ fteqo«nt pobH- 

*' that can be coafidcred cqaal to it.** ca>ion of ihort papers, wliich we readftdt 

Tom. IX. p. 159, I Go. as fludy but amufemint. If the fubje£l 

To teach the minuter decencies and be /light, the ireatife iS'kewife is (hott. 

Inferior dutiet^ to regufttc rhe pra^ice The bufy n>ay find rime, and the idfe 

of daily coaverfation, foconef^thofede- maV 0nd patience. 
pravitfes whrch are rather ridiculona than The Tatler and Spe£^ator reduced, like 

crimioal, and remove thofe grievances Cafa, theunfettled pni£lice of daily in- 

which, if they produce no laftingcaUmto tercuorfe to propriety and poltenefs| 

jricf, imprefa hoofly ^xation, was firft and, like La Bruyere, exhibited the 

iittempted in Italy by Caia In his " Cook '^ Charadlers and Manners of the Age/* 
• M of Manners,'* and Caftiglibne in bis But to lay that they irnited t'h^ plans 

' " Courtier," two books yet celebrated o^rwo or three ertinent wtitera, it to 

io' Italy for purity and elegance. give them but a fmall part of their due 

Thisfpecies of ioftru^^ion was con- praife; tbey fuperadded literature and 
tinued, ani) perhaps advanced, by the critkifm, and fomettmei towered far 
French; ^mong whom La Bruyere*s above their piedecr (Tort, and tayght* 
** Manners of the Age,** though written with great juftnef^ of argument and dig- 
without cooneAion,deferve« great praiie« nity of language, the moft important 
Before the Tatkr and Sprdacorj if the duties and fublime truths. Jo^)^«om. 

A n iy i S d N; 51 

was foon oven Tte whol^ n^ttbii was at thalt time on fire 
with fadion. The Whigs applauded every line in vrhich Li- 
berty was mentioned, as a fatire on the Tories j ari4 the To- 
ries echoed every clap, to {hew that the fatire was linfelt. 
When it was printed, notice was given that the Queen wouJ4 
be pleafed if it was dedicated to her; *< but as he had defigned 
*' that compliment elfewhere, be found himfelf obliged; " fays 
Tickell, << by his duty on the one hand, and hts honour oii 
*' the other, to fend it into the world without any dedication/* 
At the publication the wits feemed proud to pay their at^^ 
tendance with encomia&ick verfes. The bed are from an un« 
known hand, which will perhaps lofe fomewhat of their praife 
when the author is known to be Jeffreys. Cato had yet other 
honours. It was cenfured as a party-play by a Scholar cr , 
Oxford, and defended in a favourable examination by pr, 
Sewel. It was tranflated bySalvini into Italian, and adled at 
Florence; and by the Je&|its of St. Omer*s into Latin, and 
played by their pupils. While Cato was upon the ftage, ana* 
ther daily paper called the Guardian. was publiflied by Steele i 
to which Addifon gave great affiftance. Of this paper nothing 
isneceflary to be faid, but that it found many contributors^ 
and that it wasa continuation of the Spe£lator, with the fame 
elegance, and the fame variety, till feme unlucky fparkle froo^ 
a Tory paper fet Steele's politicks on fire, and wit at oncie 
blazed into fa(5tion. He was foon too hot for neutral topicks^ 
and quitted the Guardian to write the Englifhman. The pa- 
pers of Addifon are marked in the Spectator by one of the let*;- 
ttv^ in the name of Clio, and in the Guardian by a Hapd. 
Many of tbefe papers^were written with powers truly comick^ 
with nice difcrimination of chara&ers, and accurate obferva* 
tion of natural or accidental deviations from propriety ; but ic 
)vas not fuppofed that he had tried a comedy on the (lage, tiU 
Steele, after his death, declared him the author of ** The Drum^* 
** mer ;" this however he did not know to be true by any co- 
g^i|tteftimooy ; for whenJVdJifon put the play into his hands^ 
he only told him it was the work of a Gentleman in the Com- 
pany \ and when it was received, as is confefled, with cold dif- 
approbation, he was probably iefs willing to claim it. Tickell 
omitted it in his coUe^lion; but the teilimony of Steele, an^ 
* the total iilence of any other claimant, has determined thp 
publick to affign it to Addifon, and it is now printed with hi^» 
other poetry. Steele carried •' The Drummer" to the play- 
houfe, and afterwards to tbe prefs, and fold the copy for fifty 
g^iioeas. To ilic opinion of Steele may be added the proqf 

E a fup- 


fupplicd by the play itfeff, of which the chara£}er8 are fachas 
Addifon uoiild have delineated, and the tendency fuch as Ad- 
difon wo'Jld have promoted* • lie was not ail this time an in- 
diftercnt fpedUtof of puhlick affairs. He wrote, as difFerenC 
exigences required, in 1707* ** The prefent State of the War, 
•' and the Ncccffity of an /Xugmcntation ;" which, however 
judicious, being written on temporary topicks ; and exhibit* 
ing no peculiar poweis, has naiu tally funk Dy its own weight 
into negledl. This cannot be fa-d of the few papers entitled 
*• The Whig Examiner," in which is exhibited all the force 
of gay malevolence and humorous fatire. Of this paper, 
which juft appeared and expired, Swift remarks, with exulta- 
tion, that ^^ it is now down among the dedd men.*' His 
'* Trial of Count Tariff," written to expofe the Treaty of 
Commerce with France, lived no longer than the queiiion 
that produced it. 

Not long afterwards an attempt was made to revive the 
Spe£^ator, at a time indeed by no means favourable to litera« 
ture, when the fuccei&on of a new family to the throne filled 
the nation with anxiety, difcord, and confufion ; and eithei* 
the turbulence of the times or the fatiety of the readers put a 
ftop to the publication, after an experiment of 80 numbers, 
which were afterwards collected into an eighth volume, per- 
haps more valuable than any one of thofe that went before it: 
Addifon produced more than a fourth part, and the other con- 
tributors are by no means unworthy of appearing as his aflb- 
ciate^. The time that had paiTed during the fufpenfion of the 
SpeSator, though it had not leiTened his power of humour, 
feems to have jncreafed his difpofition to fcrioufn-fs : the pro- 
portion of his religious to his comick papers is greater than in 
the former feries. The Speflator^ from its recommencement, 
was publifhed only three times a week, and no difcriminative 
tmxi.5 were added to the papers. To Addifon Tickell hasaf- 
cribed twenty-three. The Spc£lator had many contributors ; 
and Steele, whofc negligence kept him always in a hurry, 
when it was his turn to furnifh a paper, called loudly for the 
Letters, of v^hich Addifon, wbo'e materials were more, made 
little ufe; having recourfeto (ketches and hints, the produd 
of his former ftudiesi which he now reviewed and completed: 
among thefe are named by Tickell the ** Eflays on Wit," thofe 
on the ** Pleafures of the Imagination," and the" Criticifoi 
" on Milton." 

When the Houfe of Hanover took poiTeflion of the throne, 
it was reafonable to expe<a that the zeal of Addifon would 
be fuitably rewarded. Before the arrival of king George 



he was ixiade fccretary to the regency, and was required 
by his office tb fend notice to Hanover that the Queen was 
dead, and that, ihr throne was vacant. To do this would 
not have been difficult to any man but Addifon, who was h 
overwhelmed with the greatnefs of theevent, and fodiflraAed 
by choice of exprelfion, that the lords, who could not wait 
for the niceties of criticifm, called Mr. Southwell, a clerk ia 
the houfe, and ordered him to difpatch the meflage. South- 
vreli readily told what was necefTary^ in the coiimon ftyle of 
bufinefsy and valued himfelf upon having done what was too 
hard for Addifon, He was better qualified for the Freeholder^ 
a paper which he publiQied twice a week, fro^n D^^c. 2j, 1715) 
to the middle of 'the next year. This was undertaken in de- 
fence of the eflablifhed government, fometimes with argu- 
ment, fomctimes with mirth. In aroum^nt he had many 
equals; but his humour was fingular and matchlefa*. 

On the 26 of Auguft 1716^ he married the countefs dowa- 
ger of Warwick, whom he bad folicited by a very long and 
anxious courtfliip. He is fafd to have fir^ known her by be- 
coming tutor to her Ton • The marriage, if uhcontrad idled 
report can be credited, made no addition to his happinefs j it 
neither found them nor made them equal. Sh^ always re- 
membered her own rank, and thought herfclf entitled to treat 
with very little ceremony the tutor of her ion. It is certain 
tbat Addifon has left behind him no encouragement for ambir 
tious love. The year after, 1717, he rofe to t>is higheil eleva- 
tion, being mads fccretary of (late : bgt it is univerfally cod«- 
fefled that he was unequa] to the duties of his place. In the 
houfe of commons he could not fp^ak, and therefore was ufe- 
lefs to the defence of the government. In the office He could 
not if^ue an order without lofing his time in queflof fine ex- 
preffions. What he gained in rank, he loft in credit : and, 
finding by experience bis own inability, was forced to folicit 
his difmifiiofl, with a penflon of 1500I. a year. His friends 
palliated this relinquifhmenr, oF which both friends and ene- 
mies knew the true reafon, with an account of declining 
health, and the neceffity of i^ecefs and quiet. He now re- 
turned to his vocation, and began to plan literary occupations 
for his future life. He purpofed a tragedy on the death of So- 
crates ; a ftory of which, as Ticketl remarks, the bafjs is narrow, 
and to which love perhaps could noteafily have been appended. 
He engaged in a nobler work, a defence of the ChriAian Re- 
ligion, of which part was publi(hed after his death ; and he 
^efigned to have made a new poetical verfion of the Pfalms. 
}t is related that he had once a defign to make an EnglilhDic* 

£ 3 uonarji 


tionary, and that he conGdcred Dr. Tillotfon as the 'wittret 
highefi authority. Addifoxi however did not conclude his life in 
peaceful ftudies ; but relapfed^ when he was near his end, tea 
. political queftion. It fo happened that, 1718-19, acontroyerfy 
Was agitated^ with great vehemence, between thofe friends of 
. long continuance, Addifon and Steele, The fubje£l of their dif- 
pute viras the earl of Sunderland's memorable a(^, called ** the 
f * Peerage Bill," by which the number of peers (hould be fixed, 
and the Icin^ reftrained from any new creation of nobility, unlefs 
^hen an old family fhouN be extind. The bill was laid afide 
during that felTion, and Addifon died before the next, in which 
. its commitment was rcjefied. Every reader furely muft regret 
ihat thefe two illufirious friends, after fo matiy years paft iti 
confidence and endearment, in unity of intereft, conformity 
of opinion, and fellowihip of ftudy^ (hould finally part in 
acrimonious oppofition. The end of this ufeful life was now 
approaching. — Addifon had for ibmc time been opprefTed by 
fhortnefs qf breath, which was now aggravated by a dropfy; 
and, finding his danger prefUng, he prepared to die conform- 
ably to his own precepts and profeiHons. During this linger- 
ing decay, he fent, as Pope relates, a mefTage'by the earl of 
Warwick to Mr, Gay, defiring to fee him: Gay, who bad 
not vifited him for fome time before, obeyed the fummons, 
and found himfelf received with great kindnefs. The pur^ 
pofe for which the interview had been folicited was then dif- 
covered : Addifon told him, that he had injured himj but 
that, if he recovered, he would recompenfe him. What the. 
injury was he did not explain, nor did Gay fever know ; but 
fuppofed that fome preferment defigncd for him had by Addi- 
fon's intervenion been withheld. 

Lord Warwick was a young man of very irregular life, and 
perhaps of loofe opinions. Addifon, for whom he did not 
wantrefpcd, had very diligently endeavoured to reclaim him;' 
but his arguments and expoftulations had no efFcft 5 one ex- 
periment, however, remained to be tried. When he foqnd 
his life near its end, he direfted the yOung Iqrd to be called ; 
and when he defired, with great tendernefs, to hear bts laft 
injun^ions, told him, f* 1 have fent for you that you may fee 
•* how a Chriftian can die." What efFca this awful fcen«J 
had op the earl's behaviour I know not: he died himfelf ina 
Ihort time. Having given diredions to Mr. Tickell for the 
puSlicafion of his works, and dedicated them on his death- 
bed to his friend Mr. Craggs, he died June 17, 1719, at 
Holland houfe, leaving no child but a daughter who is ftll 
Jiving (1783}. •• - : . ^ - ? . .. 


Of the courfi; of Addifon's familiar day, before his mar« 
riage. Pope has given a xletaiL He had in the houfe with him 
Budgelly and perhaps Philips. His chief companions were 
Steele, Budgell, Philips, Carey, Davenant, and Col. Brett. 
With one or other of thefe be always breakfafied. He ftudied 
ail oiorning ; then dined at a tavern, and went afterwards to 
Button's. Fronii the coiFee-hoMfc he went again to the tavern* 
where he often fat l^te, and drank too much wine. Dr. 
Jobofon's yaoft admirable ddiaeation of the charafier of Ad«- 
difon concludes by obferving with Tjckeli, that he employed 
wit GO tjie lide of virtue and religion. He not only made thp 
proper u£s pf wit himfelf^ but^aught it to others ; and from 
his time it has been generally fubfervient to the caufe of rea* 
foo aad triub. He has diffipated the prejudice that had long 
coooe&ed gaiety with vice, and eafinefs of manners with 
laxity^ of principles. He htis reftored virtue to its dignity, and 
taugbt i^iK^ence not to he alhamed* This is an elevation of 
Viterary charafier, *^ above all Greek, Mhovc all Roman fame/^ 
No greater felicity can genius attain than ^bat of having puri- 
fied iateile<Shial pJeaf4jre, feparated mirth from indecency, and 
wii from Ucentioufneff ; of having taught a fiicceffion of wri* 
t^rtto bring elegance and gaiety to the aid of goodnefe ( 
and, if I riiay ufe exprefiions yet more awful^ of having 
** turned many to' righteonfnefs." As a defcriber of life and 
manners, he^muit be allowed to ftand perhaps the firft of the 
firilrairk; His humour, whicl^ as Steele uUerves^ is peculiar 
to himfelf, is fo happily diifufed as to give the graceof novelty 
to domeftick fcenes and daiiy occurrences. , He never ** our* 
*^ ftcps the modefty of nature/' nor raifes merriiiient or won- 
der by the violation of truth. His figutes neither divert by 
diftortton, nor amaze by aggravation. He copies life with fo 
much fidelity, that he can be hardly faid to invent; yet his 
exhibitions have an air fo much original, that it is difficult to 
fuppofe them not merely the product of imagination. As a 
teacher of wifdom he may he contidentiy followed. His reli« 
gion has noting in it enthufiaftick or iuper/htiou^ ; he ap- 
pears neither weakly credulous nor u aixtonly fceptical ; his 
Morality is neither dan^roufiy lax, nor.impraiaicahly rigid. 
Ml the enchaotmeiit of fat^cy and all the cogency of argu* 
*^t are employed to recommend to the reader his real inte- 
"cft, the cafeof pleafing the Author of his being. Truth is 
ibewn ibmetimes as the phantom of a vifion, fometimes ap-r 
pears half-veiled in an allegory; fometiqies attracts regard in 
^ tobts pf faacy, and fometimes fteps fo:th in the confi* 

$, ^ dence 



dcncc of rcafon. She wears a thoufand dreffes, and in allii 
pleafing— "Millc habet ornklus, mllle decenter habet." 

His profe is the model of the middle ftylc ; on graveTulycas - 
not formal, on light occafions not groveling; pure without 
fcrupulofity, and exact without apparent elaboration; alwayi 
equable, and always eafy, without glowing words or pointed 
fentences. Addifon never .deviates from his track to fnatcht 
grace; he feejcs no ambitious ornaments, and tries no ha- 
zardous innovations. His page is always luminous, but never 
blazes in unexpcSed fplcndour. It feeros to have been bis 
pnncipal endeavour to avoid all harflinefs and feverity of dio- . 
tion ; he is therefore fomctimes verbofe in his tranfitioos and 
connexions, and fometimes defcends too much to the lan- 
guage of converfation ; yet if his language had been Jefs idio" 
matical, it might have loft fomewhat of its genuine Anglicifm, 
What he attempted, he performed j he is never feeble, and 
he did not wiih to be cnergetick; he is never rapid, and he 
never ftagnates. His fentences have neither ftudied amplitude, 
nor affefied brevity : his periods, though not diligently 
rounded, are voluble and eafy. W hoevcr wiflics to attain an 
EnghQi ftyle, familiar but not coarfe, and elegant but not of- 
lentaiious, ntuft.givc his days and nights to thp volumes of 

■ ADRIAN, or HADRIAN. (Pusiius ^tios), .the Ro. 
tmn eipperpr, was born, at Rome Jan. 24, in the year of 
|-luilt76. His father Jeft him an orphan, at ten yearsof age, 
wndcr tbe gfiardianfljip t)f Trajan, and Calius Taiianus, a 
K-oman kiHghr. . He began to ferve very early in the armies, 
having been tribune «f a legion before the death of Domitian. 
Me was the perfon chofen by the army of Lower Msefia, to 
carry the news of Nerya's death to Trajan, fucceflbr to the 
empire. The extravagant expences which Adrian ran into in 
his youth, made him lofc this emperor's favour : but having 
recovered it by arefbrmation in his behavjour, he was married 
to, a grand niece of Trajan's, and the emprefs Plo- 
tina became h.s great friend and patronefs. When he wa^ 
quaftor, he delivered an oration in the fenate; but his lan- 
guage was then fo rough and unpoliflied, that he was biffed: 
this obliged ^,m to apply to the ftudy of the Latin tongue, in 
T^7a ^^'^''^^i' became a great proficient., and made a 
confiderable figure for his eloquence. He accompanied Tra- 

i^LZT Jr^'^^P'^'^'^^''' '""^ particularly diftihguiflied 
hlTn 1 "a^" ^'""*' 7" 'Sainft the Daci ; and.haviog before 
been quxftor, as well as tribute of the people, he was now 


AicceSvely prsetor, governor of Pannonia, and confuL After 
the fiege of Atra in Arabia was raifed, 7>ajan, who had al- x 

ready given him the government of Syria, left him the com- 
mand of the army; and at length, when he found death ap^ 
proaching, it is faid he adopted ham. The reality of this adop- 
tion is by fome difputed, and is thought to have been a con- 
trivance of Plotina ; hut however 'this may be, Adrian, who 
was then in Antiocbia, as foon as he received the news thereof, 
and of Trajan's death, declared himfelf emperor, on the nth 
of Auguft, iiy. No fooner had he arrived at the imperial 
dignity, than he made peace with the Perfians, to whom be 
yielded up great part of the conquefts of his predecefibrs [a] ; 
and from generofity, or policy, he remitted the debts of the 
Roman people, which, according to the calculation of thofe 
who have reduced them to modern money, amounted to 
twenty -two millions five hundred thoufand golden crowns $ 
and he caufed to be burnt all the bonds and obligations relating 
to thofe debts, that the people might be under no apprehenfioa 
of being called to an account for them afterwards. He went **-^'''''?^ 
to vifit all the provinces, and did not return to Rome till thej^*°£ ' 
year ii8, when the fenate decreed him a triumph, and ho-toin.Il. ^ 
noured him with the title of Father of his country ; but he re-^.^»+°*p 
fufed both, and dcfifed that Trajan's image might triumph. BrVfl^l,. 
The following year he went toMxfia, tooppofe the Sarmat^e. Notes on tha 
In his al^fence feveral perfons of great worth were put to death ; Wi''p''v of 
and though he protefted he had given no orders for that pur-g '^ l^ 
pofe, yet the odium thereof fell chiefly upon him. No prince AdrUoo. 
travelled more than Adrian; there being hardly one province ^^°'^'**-^ 
in the empire which he did not viflt. In 120, he went into 
Gaul, and from thence to Britain, where betook care to have 
a wall or rampart built, as a defence againft thofe who would 
pot fubmic to the Roman government [bJ. In 121, here- 

(a) Eotroptus 18 of opinion, tb^ttfae ♦* ever as far at York, whet he was 

I'leUirg opof thefeconqad|t, proceeded " diverted from his iniendec^ conqueft 

''oin <\drian*s envying Trajan's -glory, ** by the dekription fome oU foldiers he 

. lib. viji, p. go. But Spartian fuppofes, ** found there, who had ferved under 

that the impoflibility or difficulty of ** ^gricola, gave him of the country, 

keeping the conquered provinces deter* *^ In hop«s, thercforf, of keeping them 

niined Adrian Co refign th^m. In Adri- ** quiet by enlarging their bounds, he 

a»o. , <« delivered up to the Cilrdnnians ail 

fl] '* In the menfi time,** fays Mr. ** the lands lying between the two Friths 

Rapin, •• the Caledonians continuing «« andtheTyne^ and al the fame tirn**, 

^Mheir inroads, the emperor Adrian re- " to fecure the Konr>an pTovi^ce frrai 

" Golfed to go over in perfoo, and fub« *< rhetr incurfton$, threw up a ran p-trc 

" due chrie fierce and trooblefomtt pco- ** of earth, covered with a grren turf, 

** pK Upon his arrival, they retired <• fronn the mouth of the 1 ync to bol- 

** toward! the north : he advanced how« <f way^fitbj eighty mJvS in length, a-^d 




turned into France; thence he went into Spain, to Mauri* 
lania, and at length into the eaft, where he quieted the com- 
motions raifed by the Parthians* After having vifited ali the 
provinces of Afia, he returned to Athens in 125, whereby 
pai&d the winter, and was initiated in the nayderiesr of £leu^ 
fmian Geres. Hewentfroooi thence to Sicily, and faw Moa9i 
.£tna. He returned to Rome the beginning of the year iZQi 
and, according to fooie, he went again, the faine yesir, t# 
Africa ; and, after his return from thence, to the Eaft* Hf 
was in Egypt in the year 132, reviflted Syria the year follow* 
log, returned to Athens in 134, and to Rome in 135. The 
perfecution againft the Chriflians was v^ty violent under his 
reign ; but it was at length fufpended, in c^fequencvi of the 
remoni^rances of Quadratus bifbop of Athens, and AriAides, 
two Chriftian philofopbers, who prefented the emperor with 
fome books in favour of the Chriftian religion. He cooquere^ 
the Jews; and, by wayofinfult, ertded a temple to J^ipiter 
SreTUIe. on Mount Calvary, and placed a flat ue of Ad^njs in the man* 
2**^^^j"^'**gcrof Bethlehem : he caufed alfo the ioiagea of fwine to be 
engraved on the gates of Jerufalem. 

Adrian reigned 21 years, and died at Baise in the 63d year * 
of his age. The Latin verfes, he addrefled to his foul on his 
death* bed [c], (hew his uncertainty and doubts in regard to { 
the other world. He was a prince adorned with great virtues, 


" quite crofs the country from eaft to " Rr ftorer of Britain, as appean hf 
" weft. Having thus fettled matters in " fome nri'-dals. Hiftory of England, 
«' Britain, h* return?d to Rome, where «* vol. I. Irb. i. p. 60. Tindol^a tranfia* 
" he was honoured with the title of *« tion, oAavo edition*** 
[c] The verfes aie thefe : 

Anlmula vagula, blandula 
Hofpcs, conr>ef^ae corporis , 
Quae oonc abibisin loca 
Pailidula, rigida, nudula, 
Kec, ut folesy dabis jocos ? 
Thus tranflated by Pope : 

Ah ! fleeting fpirit ! wand'ring fire, | 

That long haft warm'd my tender breaft, 
Moft thou DO more this frame infpire ? 

No more a pleafing cheerful gueft ? 
Whither, ah whither art thou Hying? 
* To what dark undifcoverM o;efh? 

Thou fcem*ft all trembling, ihiv'ring, dying. 
And wit and humour are no more I 
The fame excellent pcet having received «« defired of xne. You have It (at Coirley 
a letter from Stee'e, defiring him to «« calls it) juft warin from the brato. It 
vrritc an ode, asof a cheerful djiog fpi- « came to me the firft r>omenr J iraW 
rit, confilting of two or three ftanzas, •« this morning : yet, you* H fee, »tw*s 
f .r mufic, he complied with his requeft *< not fo abtblutely infpicat^oa, but that 
in the following letter : «* I had in my head not only the verfn 

*« IdoBOC fend you word I will do, " of Adrian, but the fiac f»81!n«»'*^ 
** but have already done the thing you ** Sappho^** 



bat they vircre minglfed with great vices. He was generous, 
indiiftrious, polite; and exa£l; he maintained order and dif- 
cipiine; he adminifteredjuftice with indefatigable application, 
and punilhed rigoroufly all ihofe who did not faithfully execute 
the offices with which they were entrufied: he had a great 
fliare of wit and a furprifing memory ; he was well ver/ed in 
moft of the polite arts and fciences, and is faid to have written 
feYeral works [d J. On the other band, he was crud, en- 
vious, lafcivious, fuperflitious, and (a weak as to give bim--^ 
ftlf up to the fludy of magic : and what can he more infamous 
than his paflron for Antinous ? 

Adrian having no children by Sabina,* adopted Lticius Au- 
i!clitt8 AnntusCeioniuis Commodus Verus; but Lucius dying 
the ift of January 138,. he then adopted Titus Antoninus, on 
condition that he (houid adopt Marcus Annius Verus, and the 
fbfl of Lti^ius Vertis. 

The Dyiof ChrUUan to bit SouL Ooc. 


Vital fpark of heav*fily flame t 

Quit, oh quit thic mortal frame ; 

Trembling, hoping, lingVing^ flyiogy 

Oh the pain, the blifs of dyiog ! 
Ceafe, fond Nature, cfiafe thy Atitc, 
And let me languUh into life, 


Hark. J they whifper; Angels fa y« 

Sifter Spirit, come away. 

What ta tfaii abforba me quite ? 

Steals my fenfofy (huts my fight, 
prowns my fpirits, draws my breath ? 
Tell me, my Soul, can this be death i 

III. ' 

The world recedes { it difappears ! 
Htfaven opens on my eyes 1 my eari 
IVith foofids feraphic fing : 
Lend, your wings ! 1 mount I I fly ( 
O grave ! where is thy vidory ? 
O Death ! where is thy Siing f 

ffe] Tbcte arc- fome fragments of his and a very learned perfon. Spart, p. 1 50, 
tao poems exunt. See Spartian. Ste- He compofcd fome books in imitation 

^rote I'kfwife fome difcourfes and but Vo«^.os pro^s this to be a miftake. 

fcri ^**".* II quotations out of them De Hift. Grarc. p.* 1 5. And iomt pre- 

,^"^J"'"'*»MP*!**tius, p.»760Bot trnd, that the work of Urbicjus upon 

Hi Aort f k *^" 'mpcror was the Taftics was Adrian*s, excepting only 

chu ^VL. L?*" ^*^* ' *^* ^•<* not TJrbicius's addltioas. Salmaf. in Spart. 

' ^^ Jo£ ^" **^" "»™« fo ir. but p. 85, 

^^^ ofPMegon,oneofhi.fre«d.mcD, ^ ^ ' 



trfan(!. , ADRIAN IV. (PpPE), the only Englifhrnan who ever had 
Sc*^T.*BrtU *^^ honour of fitting in the papal chair. His name was Ni- 
voi. 1. p. cholas Brekefpere ; and he was born at Langley, near St. Al- 
»zc. Mat. ban's, in Hertfordfhire. His father having left his family, 
j^hh^t. s! ^^^ taken the habit of the monattery of St. AIban*s, Nicholas 
Aibaniedit. was obliged to fubniit to the loweft offices in that houfe for 
i64(».Tol.l. ^aily fupport. After fomc time, he defired to take the habit 
^ * ifl that monaftery, but was reje£^ed by the abbot Richard: 
** He was examined," fays Matthew Paris, *' and being found 
V infufficient, the abbot civilly enough faid to him, Wait, my 
*^ fon, and go to fchool a little longer, till you are better 
*' qualified [a]". But if the charadcr given of young Breke- 
fpere by Pitts be a juft one, the abbot was certainly to be 
blamed Tor rejefiing a perfon who would have done great ho- 
nour to bis houfe : He was according to that author a hand- 
fome and comely youth, of a fharp wit and ready utterance ; 
circumfpefi in all his words and actions, polite in his beha- 
viour, neat and elegant; full of zeal for the glory of God, and 
that according to fome degree of knowledge; fo pofl'efled of 
all the mcft valuable endowments of mind and body, that in 
him the gifts of Heaven exceeded nature : his piety exceeded 
his education ; and the ripenefs of his judgment and his other 
qualifications exceeded his age [bJ. Having met with this 
repulfe, he refolved to try his fortune in another country, 
and accordingly went to Paris ; wh^re, thqugh in very poor 
circumftances, he applied himfelf to his ftudies with great af-* 
fiduity, and made a wonderful proficiency. But having dill 
a ftrong inclination to a religious life, he left Paris, and re- 
moved to Provence, where he became a regular clerk in (he 
monaflery^of St. Rufus. He was not immediately allowed to 
take the habit, but paflTed fome time by way of trial, in re- 
commending himfelf to the monks by aftrid attention to all 
their commands. This behaviour, together with the beauty 
of his perfon, and prudent converfation, rendered him fo ac- 
ceptable to thofe religious,, that after fome time they intreated 
hjm ip take the habit of the canonical order [c]. Here Jw 
diftinguifced himfelf fo much by bis learning and ftrifl obferv? 
^nce of the monadic difciplihe, that, upon the death of the ab- 
- ^ W)ot, hp was chofen fuperior of that houfe ; and we arp told 
ijipnu * " * 'i^*' ^^ rebuilt that convent. He did not long enjoy this abi* 

f a] •* Qui cum ezaminstus eft infuf- ▼ol, I. p. B6» 

" iicieni inveniretur, dixit ei abbas latis [b j See Pitts, Dp lUuft. Angl* Script* 

** cWiliter; Expe£)a, isliy'etadhuc fcho- ann. 1159. 

■•« lam e^erce, ut aptior habearit.** Mat. [cj Sec Gul. Neubr. de Reb. AngU 

I^^ris Vit. Abb. St. Alban. edit. 1640. lib. n. c. 6. 



bicy : for the monks, being tired of the government of a fo» 
reigner, brought accufations againft him before pope Eugenius 
III, who after having examined thtir complaint, and htard the 
defence of tJJicholas, declared him inpoctnt : his holinefs^ 
however, gave the monks leave to chufe another fuperior [d] ; 
but. being fenfible of the great merit of Nicholas, and thinly- 
ing he might be ferviceable to the church in a higher ftatiun, 
he created him cardinal.biflinp of Alba, in 1146. " 

In 1 148, Jb-ugenius fent him legate to Denmark and Nor- 
way, where, by his fervent preaching and diligent inftruc- 
tions, he converted thofe barbarous nations to the Chriftian^rig'iiJdT 
faith ; and we are told, that he creiSled ihe church of Upfal Cav* Hill. 
into an archiepifcopal fee. When he returned to Rome, he''^-^**^ 
was received b>' the p-pe and cardinals with great marks o\^^^^^^^^ 
honour : and pope Anaitafiuv-, who fucceeded Eugenius, hap- 
pening to die at this time, Nicholas yvas unanimoufly chofcn 
to the. holy fee, in November, 1 154, and took the name of 
Adrian. When the news of his promotion reached England, P^^'.^^T 
king Henry II. fent Robert abbot of St. Aiban's, and three "**' 
bifbops, to Rome, to congratulate him on his eleSion [e] ; 
upon which occafion Adrian granted very confiderable privi- 
leges to the monaftery of St. Aiban's [f]. Next year, king 
Henry iiaving foiiciied the pope*s confent, that he might un- 

\xi\ The pope ptoufly and r^'odently vileget of his abbey, which had been in» 

CAoiiilting the good of both parties, faid, vaded by the bjfliop of L nfoln, Iieha4 

^ I know, brethf en, where Satan /ixeti^fs brought with him fevfrai prelenis for 

«bode} I know what has raifed the late his holinefs, and amopoft the refl three 

^m aifiongft you t go, chufe a fupe- rich niitrei> and fome fandals, the work«> 

tior, with whom you may, or rather man^ip of Chriftiana priorefs of Mark* 

^iUy Jiye in peace ^ as for this man, he gate : Adrian accepted of the mitres and 

ftall be no longer a burden to you." Qui. fandal^, on account of their excellent 

Neubrig.ib. workmanffaip, but refofed the other pre% 

[k] Hm holinefs received the embaf. fents, faying, in a jocular manner, "I 
fadort with great marks of rcfpefti when •* will not accept of jour gifts, becaufr^ 
they had executed their commiHion, the " when I defited to take the habit in 
three bilhopB returned home, leaving ah- '* your monaftery, you rejeQed me.** 
hoc Robert behind them. King Henry '< Sir/* faid the abbot, •< we could by 
fent the pope a letter by thofe embafla- " no means refeive you, it being re- 
dors, expreiling his good wiHies, and how ** pugnant to the will of God, whofe 
drfirous he was, that this prelate might '* providence referved you for great^ 
anfwer the expefiatioflS of his ftation, ** things," The pope replied/' 1 iha&k 
»od that be m-ght ad vigoroufly forthe •* you for this polite and cbliptng an- \ 
intereft of Chriflendom, and fo govern ** fwcr :** and added, < Deared abbof, 
the churches of God, that all fucceeding " afk boldly wharever you delire; I fhall 
Cencrations might eflerm him an honour ** always be ready to fcrve St. Albao, 
10 the country which gave him birth, " who am myfelf his difciplc.** Some 
Matt, Paris, ubi fupra, days afier, abbot Robert, being in pri- 

[r] Abbot Robert being left at Bene- vatc converfation with the pope, made " 

vrntum with the pope, thought he had grievous com plainti concerning the v 

ROW a favourable opportunity of endea- rious oppreflions of the bi(hopofLIn. 

vovring to recover fome dignities and prl- coin ; which fo zdo? cd his holinef^t thst 




dertake the conqueft of Ireland, Adrian very readily complied^ 
and fent him a bull for that purpofe, of which the following i» 
a tranflation : *' Adrian, bifliop, fervant of the fervants of 
*^ God, to his moft dear fonin Chrift, the illuftrious king of 
*< England, fendeth greeting and apoftolical benedidion. 
*' Your magnificence is very careful to fpread your glorious 
** name in the world, and* to merit an immortal ciov^n la 
** heaven, whilft, as a good catholic prince, yoi> form a de*- 
*' fign of extending the bounds of the church, of inftrufting 
*< ignorant and barbarous people in the Chriftian faith, and of 
*' reforming the licentious and immoral ; and the more cfFec- 
'^Jually to put this deOgn in execution, you defire the advice 
** and affiftance of the holy fee. We are confident, that, by 
'* the blefling of God, the fuccefs will anf^/tr the wifdom and 
** difcretion of the undertaking. You have advertifed u^y 
<* dear fon, of your intended expedition into Ireland, to re« 
<* duce that people to the obedience of the Chriftian faith ; 
«< and that you are willing to pay for every houfe a yearly ac- 
^* knowledgment of one penny to St. Peter, promifing to 
*' maintain the right of thofe churches in the fulleft manner.' 
«^ We therefore, being willing to aifift you in this pious and 
laudable defign, and confenting to your petition, do grant 
you full liberty to make a defcent upon that ifland, in or« 
*< der to enlarge the borders of the church, to check the pro* 
^' grefs of immorality, and to promote the fpiritual happinefs 
^* of the natives : and we command the people of that country 
<^ to receive and acknowledge you as their fovereign lord 2 
^^ provided the rights of the churches be inviolably preferveo, 
'< and the Peter- pence duly paid: for indeed it is certain 
<* (and your highnefs acknowledges it) that all the iflands^ 
<< which are enlightend by Chrift, the fun of righteoufnefs, 
^^ and have embraced the dodrines of Chriftianity, are un<- 
*' quefiionably St. Peter's right, and belong to the holy Ro- 
man church. If, therefore, yourefolve to put yourd^figns 
in execution, be careful to reform the manners of that peo- 
•* pie; and commit the govdrnment of the churches to able 
«* and virtuous perfons, that the Chriftian rtligioii may grow 
*< and flourifli, and the honour of God, and the prcfervation 
of fouls be efFjftually promoted ;' fo (ball you deferve an 
^verlafting reward in heaven, and leave a glorious name t^ 
«* ail pofterity." His indulgence to this prince was fo great, 

he granted to the cbarch of St. Alban ing that of the fee of Rome, *uh ipaay 
the Angular privilege of being exempt other valuable liberties «j)a iminumuef. 
from all cpifcopal jvri(4i€iioj>,^ except- Matt. Fitfis^ iiblfupra. 



tbaiC he even confented to abfolve him from the oath he hadSeeRvmet't 
cakeiii» not to fet afide any part of his father's will [g]. . ^**^'^/*» 

Adrian, in the beginning of his pontificatey boldly with*ed.t. lyi;,' 
ftnod the attempts of the Roman people to recover thei^r an- 
cient liberty under the confuls, and obii-ged thofe magiftratcs 
to abdicate their authority, and leave the government of the 
city to the pope. In 1 155, he drove the heretic Arnold of 
Brcfle, and his followers; out of Rome. The fame year he 
excommunicated William king of Sicily, who ravaged the 
territories of the church, and abfolved that prince's fubjetSts 
from their allegiance. About the fame time, Frederic king 
of the Romans having entered Italy with a powerful army, 
Adrian met him near Sutrium, and concluded a peace with ' 

him. At this interview, Frederic confented to hold the pope's 
ftirrup whil/lhe mounted on horfeback. After which, his ho- 
Knefs conducted that prince to Rome, and in St. Peter's church 
placed the imperial crown on his head, to the great mortifica- 
tion of the Roman people, who aflcmbled iti a tumultuous 
manner, and killed feveral of the Imperialifts. The next year putina <!« 
• reconciliation was brought about between the pope and thcV»^- Ponttf. 
Sicilian king, that prince taking an oath to do nothing far-*^*^"*"^ * 
thcr to the prejudice of the church, and Adrian granting him 
the title of King of the Two Sicilies. He built and fortified 
feveral cafiles, and left the papal dominions in a more floarifh- 
ing condition than he found them. But notwithftandingaif 
bis fuccefs, yet he was extremely fcnfible of the difquietudes 
attending lb high a flation, and complained thereof to his 
countryman John of Salifbary[Hj. He died Sept. i, 1159, 
in the fourth year and tenth month of his pontificate, and was 

[g] Ceoffry Plantageoet, late earl of buriH^ he at laft took the oath with 

Anjoti, had) by the emprefs Maui, three great relu£}ance. But after hisacceflioa 

feoSf Heniyy Gcoft'iy^ and William, to ihe throne* up'>n a coiu^laint to pore 

This prince, being fenfible that his own Adrian, that the oath was forced upon 

^ominioiTS would of courfe defcend to, hit him, he procured a difpenfation from h^s 

ddeft fob Henry, and that the klagdpm holinefs, abfolving him from the ob!i- 

of En^fand, and. duchy of Normandy, gation he had laid himfelf under: and 

would lilcewife fall to him iA right of his in confequsnce thereof, he difpodtiTtd 

Aotfaer, thought fit to devife the earl* hit brother Geoff^ry of the dominions Qf 

dom of ^njou to his fecond Ton Geoffry j Anjou, allowing him<on!y a yearly pen- 

<nd to render this the more vaii-i, he fion for his maintenance. Gui. Neub.ig* 

cxa^ed an oath of the bifhops and nobi- de Reb. Angi. lib^. i^ cap. 7« 
l<ty» not to fod'tt his corps to be botied, [h] He aflTored him, *^ that all the 

lill his fon Henry had fworn to fulfil " former hardfliips of his life were mcer 

wery pare of his will. When Henry ** amufement compared with thq mif- 

«tne to attend his father's funeral, the " fortunes of the popedom; that hs 

^th was tendered to ihiin, b«t #or fome ** looked upon St. fetor's chair to be 

^<ne be teftsiied to Avear to a writijig, the << the nftoft uneafy feat in the world, and 

COQteats of which he was unacquainted *' that his crown Teemed to be clapped 

^'•'h. However, being reproached with **' burning on his bead." Baronius, An- 

^e fnndal •£ letting his htker lie ua* oal* toca. xii* ul. x i J4t 

J buried 


buried in St. Peter*8 chilrcb, near th^ tomb of bi5 predefeflcrr 
Eugenius [i j. There are esicant feveral letters, and fome hxy^ 
milies written by pope Adrian. 

[i] Matthew Paris telh us (Vit. Ab- '* tory of SL Peter, had noplace but 

bat. b. Alban. p. 74.) he was poifoned ** hit throat to get into ; but fiace a By 

by the Rotnant, becauie be refufed to " (lopped his breath, fear (hall (lop my 

confecratc a citisen^i fon a bi(hop, who ** rrourhy not to ni..'ke uncharitable con- 

was unworthy of that dignity. Joannes ** clofions from fuch cafualtiet.** Wot* 

Funcios fays, Baleo9, de Scripr. Brit, thiet of England, Hertford(hire; p. so* 

Centur. s« n. 64. in Appendtcr, that It is remarkable, however, that Platini 

as Adiian was one day waJking with his and Leland are fileht as to the manner 

attendantf, a Ay got into his throat, and of his death, which, in all probability^ 

the furg'-uns not being able to extract it, they would not have been, bad it been 

he was CufFocared* <* As he was drink- attended with fuch extraordinary circom^ 

** ing,** fays Fuller, ** he was choaked (lances. 
" with a By, which, in the large terri- 

ADRIAN (de Castello), bifliop of Bath and Wells in 
AoberyHtft.the Feigns of Henry VII. and VI IL was defcended of an ob- 
^j^nuiT fcure family at Cornetto, a fmall town in Tufcany ; but foon 
Paris 1645. diftinguiflidd hicnfelf by his learning and abilities, and pro- 
410. ton.iii* cured feveral employments at the court of Rome. In 144.8, he 
^^ ivas appointed nuncio extraordinary to Scotland, by pope In- 
nocent VIII. to quiet the troubles in that kingdom ; but, 
upon his arrival in England, being informed that his prefence 
VfSiS not neceflary in Scotland, the conteOs there having been 
ended by a battle, he applied hintifelf to execute fome other 
commiffions with which he was charged, particularly to col- 
lect the pope's tribute, or Peter- pence, his bolinefs having 
appointed him his treafurer for that purpole. He continued 
fome months in England, during which time he got fo far 
into the good graces of Morton archbifliop of Canterbury, 
^ that he recommended him to the king ; who appointed him 
his agent for Englifh affairs at Rome, and, as a recompence 
for his faithful fervices, promoted him firil to the bifhopric of 
Polyd.Verg. Hereford, and afterwards to that of Bath and Wells. He was 
Hift. Angi. enthroned at Wells by his proxy Polydore Vergil, at that 
ifb'xVvf** ^*"^® the pope's fubcolleflor in England, and afterwards ap- 
736,737. pointed by Adrian archdeacon of Wells. Adrian let out his 
biCiopri.c to farmers, and afterwards to cardinal Wolfey, hioi- 
felf refiding at Rome, where he built a magnificent palace, 
on the front of which he had the name of his benefactor 
Henry VIL infcribed : he left it after his deceafe to that 
prince and his fucceflbrs. Alexander VI, who fucceeded In- 
nocent VIII, appointed Adrian his principal (ecretary, and 
Aubery WiMcsLT-gcncta} in fpirituals and temporals ; and the fame pope 1 
p. 77* created him a cardinal-prieft, with the title of St. Chryfogo- 
nuS| the 3 1 ft of May, 1503. Soon afier his creation) faenar^ 
_ rowly i 

A 1) R i A N« 6s 

toiAyefczpci being poifoned [a] at a feaft, to which he was Aubery, ii>. 
idvited with fome other cardinals, by the pope and his fon ^' ^^* 
Caefar Borgia. 

In the pontificate of Julius II. who fucceeded Alexander, 
Adrian retired fji^m Rome, having taken fome difguft, or 
perhaps diftrufting this pope, who was adeclared enemy of 
his predeceflfor : nor did he return till there was a conclave 
held for the eledionof a new pope, where it is likely he gave 
his voice for Leo X. Soon after, he was unfortunately privy ib.p.yS^rg, 
to a coYifpiracy againft Leo [b]. His embarking therein is 
faid to have been chiefly owing to his crediting and applying 
to himfelf the predidion of a fortune-teller, who had amired 
him, *< that Leo i^ould be cut off by an unnatural death, 
and be fucceeded by an elderly man named Adrian, of ob- 
fcure birth, but famous for his learning, and whofe virtue 
and merit alone had raifed him to the higheft honours of the 
church.^* The confpiracy being difcovered [c], Adrian 
was condemned to pay twelve thoufand five hundred ducats, 
and to give a folemn promife, that he would not ftir out of 
Rome. But being either unable tb pay this fine, or appre« 
hending ftill farthter feveritieis, he privately withdrew^ from 
Rome; whereupon, in a confif)!oi*y, held the 6th '6f July, 
1518, lie was declared excommunicated, and deprived of 

[a] C«flirBdrg2a,liadrerolvedtotake of ingratitude, ih thuV ' re^Witin^ the ' 

thit opportunity to cut ofF fuch of the alliance he had pven hiol in bit elee- * 

cardinals as be chiehy enyied $ for which tion t he publicly erprefled hii detefta- 

pofpofe be prepared fome poifoned wine t tion of that pontiff and imprecated a 

but the cupobearer, miftakiog one flag- thoofand deatha on him. Me happened 

son for another, gave the poifoned liquor to vent his rage in the hearing of the 

to the wicked contriver of this de6gn, cardinals Adrian and FmicisVoIatertaB, 

who drank it of^^ without fufpediog and this furnifhed a pretence for an ac- 

the miilake. Adrian having ioadver- cuiation againft them. The pope was 

tently tailed the poifoned wine, was fo exafperated at Perrucci, that be order- 

feized' with the moft tormenting pains >ed him'to be apprehended^' and thrown 

in his bpwehj which brought on frequent lotp prifon, where he foon after died* 

contttifionsy and afterwards a kind of Hift. AngU lib. xxvii. p. 45. edit. I.Ogd« 

lethargy, Aubery, ib. p. 78. Bat. 1651. 8vo. 

[i] Mr. Aubtfy fays (p. 79.) that [c] Dr. Aubery fay«« that the three 

cardinal Petmcci was tbt chief of the principal confpirators having been arrefi- 

eonfpiratora» and Adrian one of thofe ed» it was found fron^ their depofitions, 

to whom be ifaipiK^ hls'defign, Ae- that the cardinals Sodetini' and <feCaf{elIo 

cording to Polydore Vergil, the pope were their accompIic.ev»' having been 

had taken under his protedien the inha- prefent at their fecret conferences. A 

hitanrs of Sienna, and deprived cardinal conftftory being held thereupon, thofe 

Alfonfo Pctrucci,' and his fafnily,-of two . cardinals, with gr^at .difficolty, ' 

the principality they bad long enjoyed were induced to make a public confeflioii 

there, in order, as his^holinefs declared, of their fault j and Adrian ovined he 

entireiy to root out the feeds of h&ion bad heard Petruccifay, that, he would * 

with which that city was difturbed, kill the pope ; but that be paid no re« 

Thisbeha«iot|r liigfaly enra^?d the car- gard to what he faid, on account of bit 

dinal againft the pope, i^hom he accufed youth. Xbid, ubi fupra* . 

Vol. I. F I . all 


66. A D R J A N. 

Aubery, ib.all hh bcnefices> as well as his ccclcfiaftical orders* About 

^' four ye4rs before, he had been removed from his office of th& 

pope's colleflor in Enolaiid, at the rcqueft of king Henry V 111,,, 
and through the inftigatlon of cardtnal VVolfcy [d]. The 
heads of his accufation, drawn up at Rome, were,..*' That he 
** had abfentcd himfelf from that city in th^ Umc of Julius II. 
•* without the pope's leaver that he had never. refided, 
, ** ought to have done, at the church of *St,;.Chryfogonus, 
** from which he had his title,;, that he had agaiit^ withdrawn 
** himfelf from Rome, and bad. not appeared to« legal cita- 
tion ; and that he bad enga2,ed in the confpifacy of cardi- 
nal Pctri4cci, and had figned the league of Francis Maria, 

lb* ibid. " duke of Urbino, againft the pope," He, was at Venice 
when he received the news of his condemnatipp ; what be- 
came of him afterwards is uncertain : Aubery fays, he took 

Ibid, p,8i, refuge ampngft the, Turks in Afia, Polyidore Vcrgil tdls us, 
there is to be fe.en at Riva, a village in the diQcefc of'Tfent, 
a Latin infcription on one Polydorus Cafamicus^ the pope's 
janitor, writteh by cardinal Adrian ; in t^'hich he laments . 
his own wretched condition, extolling the happinefs of his 
friend, whofe death had put an end to his raiferies, Polydore 
Viergil* gives Adrian a high . charadler for Jvis^-juncpminon- 
learning, his cxquifite judgment in the choice of the piopereft 
words, and' the truly claflical {lyle of his writings ; in whicb 
he was the. fifQ^ fays that aut^or^ fince the a^e of Cicero, 
who revived the purity of the Latin language, and taught 
men to draw their knowledge from the fources of the beft and 
mott learned authors. ^ 

[o] Wolftjr, afpiring at a cardinal^ from king Henry. Th? pope tells hJni, 

ft*p, foitcited Adrian to ufe his intercft ** That he had condefccrided to remove 

for him at the court of Rome; but '** the cardinal from the office of coJiec- 

finding that, loftcad of fer viog him, he " tor, for no other reafon hot becaufd 

did him ill offices, he got hinr> turned " the king had de£irei^4.t ; and that be 

oucof his place, by bis infinTcc witfc" " would do even n>ore for him, if it was 

Heniy Vlilb Itt Rymer's Fedbra we *< not plab that he aflcd only at the in- 

have a letter from Leo X. dated at Rome, ** ligation of another, and not of hii , 

O^obcr 31,* 1514, in anfwcr to one *« own a<Jcord." Vcl-Tiiii. p. 467. ^ 

J • • . *• 


ADRIANI (Joanni Batt ista), born of a patrician fa- 
mily at Florence in 1511. He wrote a hiftory of his own 
times, in Italian, which is a continuation of Guicchrdlnef 
beginning at theyear 1536. [aJ, The work is executed with 

[a ] Adriani** Hiftory is carried down Adrian!, the author's fon, publiflied this 

to 1574* It confifts of twenty-two books. Hiftory, and dedicated it to Francis de 

It was printed in folio, at Florence^ by 'Medids grand duke of Tafcany. Spond, 

the CiuBti, In 1583 : and at Venice, in Ann, ad ana. f53f. num. aviii. p. 426. 
two volumes, in i^^J* ^arccU(^ 

I great 

A b Jl I A fr I. . 6j 

• » ' ' ' 

great judgment, candour, and accuracy ; he was furnifiiea 

with feveral memoirs by Cofmo duke of Tufcany, a prince 

nolefs confpicuousfor his great eenius, than his confummate 

pnidcnce. Thuaniis acknowledges he was much indebted to 

hishiftory, and that no work of this kind had furnifhed him 

with more materials. Befides this hiftory, there are fix fu- 1!*?*?.; 

neral orations compofed by Adriani, viz. one on the emperor ixviU, 

Charles V. another on the emperor Ferdinand : a third on 

Eleonora of Toledo, the wife of Cofmo duke of Florence; 

a fourth on Ifabel queen of Spain ; the fifih on Cofmo the 

grand duke of Tulcany ; and the laft on Joan of Au(lria,Rilli, conr 

wife o( Francis de Medicis. He is thought alfo to havef,^'"^?^ ^^^ 

been the author of a Jong letter on ancient pamters , and Men of the 

fculptors, prefixed to the third volume of Vafari. He died 4ca«Jcmy of 

at f lorence in 1579. - . Florence, 

ADRICHOMIUS (Christian), born at Delft In Hol- 
land, in the year i553. He v^as a zealous advocate for the 
leligion he profeffed, and applied himfelf to his ftudies with 
great affiduity. He was for fome time diredlor of the nuns 
of St. Barbara ; but the civil wars which broke out on the 
account of religion, having obliged him to quit his .country, 
be withdrew to Brabant, ar>d afterwards to, Cologne, where 
•he began a confiderable work, which was printed after his death* 
It is entitled " Theatrum Terras Sandae," and was primed in 
with geographical maps, at Cologne, in the year 1593. He 
gives a defcription of the Holy. Land in general, and of the 
city of Jerufalem in particular, h contains likewife a Chro- 
nicle of the Old and New Teftament, which is pretty much 1 
cftcemed ; but he is thought to rely too much on the Ma-» 
lietho, the Borofus, and fuch other writings of the monk 
Annius of Viterbo. Adrichorriius fometimes alTumed the 
Aameof Chriftianus Crucius ; and under this title he publifh- 
Cd^ at Antwerp, the life V Chrift, arid an oration De Chrif- 
tiana Beatitudine, which he had fpoke in a general chapter^ 
He died at Cologne, in the year 1585, in the thirteenth year Viler, ^ni. 
of hts exile, and was buried in the convent of the canonsffes ®'''^' ^^^^ 
itf Nazareth, where he had been Director for fome years, ^* *^^* 

^GINETA (Paulus), a native of the ifland Agina, 
whence he has bis name. According tg he Clerc, he flou- 
j"i(hed in the fourtli century ; but with itiore truth he isi placed 
W Abulpharagias, 'who is allowed to give the beft account of 
^ofe times, in the fcTenth. Yet he could not live late iii 

Fa it, 


68 iE G I N E T A. 

ity as is plain from his own writings ; where, fpesking of 
Collyriums, he mentions one, which he happened upon in 
Alexandria. That he had been in this/:ity is paft all doubt^ 
(though not as a ftudent, as Dr. Freind would have it) and 
probably before it was taken and plundered by Amrou, which 
happened no later in the feventh century than the year forty* 
For it is not likely that he would vifit Alexandria afcer it had 
been facked, and all the libraries and other monuments of 
learning burnt by order of the Caliph. ^ And as a farther 
proof of this, Abulpharagius places him feme time before 
Othman was made caliph, which was in the year6439 two 
years after Heraclius's death : fo that he does well to make 
him flouriOi fome tiitne in the reign of Heraclius, as about the 
year 620. His works are defervedly famous, and it appears, 
that his knowledge in furgery was very great ; for Fabricius 
sib Aquapendente, one of the beft chirurgical writers now 
extant, has thought fit to tranfcribe him in an infinite num- 
ber of places. Indeed the doctrine of Paulus iCgineta, togef 
ther with that of Celfus and Albucafis, make up the whole 
text of this author. His inferences and obfervations confift 
Freind*! chiefly in explaining thefe two writers ; and thefe are the 
PK^r « * triumvirate^ to whom he principally (lands indebted for the 
f. ail. . afliltance he received m compoung his excellent book. In 
fhort, the furgery of Paulus has been the fubjeS-mattev of 
moft of the books of that profeffion down to this time. And 
yet this author, valuable as he is, is one of thofe, which Le** 
Clerc and others, for want of being better acquainted with, 
have been pleafed to condemn as worthlefs writers. He is 
the firft author that takes notice of the cathartic quality of 
rhubarb. He begins his book with a defcription of women s 
difeafes, and treats profefledly of diflempers incident to tba^ 
Letter to Sir fex ; and, according to Dr. Mil ward, he is the (irft in all an<» 
"™^^*^»"*tiquity that deferves the title of man-midwife. His writinga 
^' '* and the various editions of them are as may be feen below (a j., 

. fx] I. "tibritiL De re Mcdica, « tcrii Andomaci, Vcnet. 154*." Sfo* 
«« Cttx .Opera, omnia, Gr»t^, Yienetiif^ 3. The fame, to which arc iddedi^ 

** 15*V foh « Aonotitionea< JtcoW Goupyli, ex 

1. The fame, •« tx Interpretatione " EditioneetcumSchoIiis Jo B«ptiA«. 

*< ctcumAnnotatiombutJoaDmtOttin- *• Camotii, Vcnet; 1553." 8vo. 

ALBERONI (JuLiua), Cardinal, was the fon of a gardener 

in the fuburbs of Placentia, born. May 31, ibb^. Vroav 

, this low original, by his good fortune, hisiaddrefs and. MU" 

ties he rofc to be the firft minifter of (iate to the king of Spain. 

The poet Campiftron, a domeftic of the duke, of Vtndomtsr 

^ happened 

A L 6 E R O N I. 69 

liaplientd to be robb^ and ftnpped, as he was making a tour 
of pleafur^hrough Italy, in a place near Parma, where Albe- 
roni was curate. The ftranger found relief in his diftrefs 
from the charity of the prieft, and received both cloaths and 
money to carry him to Rome, Campiftron afterwards attend- 
ed Vendome to the wars in Italy as his fecretary : and the ^ 
duke wanting to be informed where the country people had 
concealed their corn, and being at this time near Alberoni's 
parifli, the fecretary took this opportunity of mentioning his 
benefaftor to him. The curate was fent for and examined, 
and entirely anfwered the charader which Campiftron had ^ 

given of him. The fervices he did the French army by his in- 
formation, rendered his ftay in his own country uneafy and 
infecmre, any longer than the gentleman was there to protect 
him. When Vendome was recalled, he therefore followed. ' 
The cure of Anet, in the duke's nomination, foon became 
vacant, and was offered to Alberoni ; who refufed it, and 
chofe rather to go in his train to Madrid. The great influ- 
ence which the princefs of Urfins had over Philip V. obliged 
Hbe Duke de Vendome to have great conne£lions with her. 
He chofe Afberoni to manage their correfpondence, while he 
was gone to command the army. The princefs took a great 
liking to him, and he did every thing to ingratiate himfelf in 
her favour. After the death of Vendome, he devoted himfelf 
to her fervice, and had the greateft (hare of her confidence. 
By her recommendation he got to be agent for the duke of 
Parma at the court of Madrid. His fovereign had great re'a« 
Ibn to be pleafed with his appointment, as by his management 
a princefs of Parma was fixed upon for a fecond confort for 
the king of Spain. The princefs of Urfins could do every 
thing in this important affair. He well knew the jealoufy of 
this ambitious woman, and her fears that a new queen might 
leflen her influence. He therefore feprefented the princefs as 
young and artiefs, as* incapable of attending to any thing but 
pleafure and gaiety, and fo far prevailed upon her as to fecond 
bis views, and to prefs the king to begin the negotiation. As 
there was reafon to fear, that the favourite might be undeceiv- 
ed with regard to the princefs, whofe wit was equal to her^ 
beauty, and influence the king to change his refolucion, the 
duke and Alberoni made whatdifpatch they could to bring the 
affair to a conclulidn. But notwithflanding their diligence, 
the princefs of Urfin|» had like to have prevented it. A cou« 
rirr was fent from Madrid to put a ftop to the, negociation, 
tbe evening before it was to have been concluded. When 

F 3 the 

fhe coyner came, Aiberoni was not difconcerted ;- he g^v^ 
him his choice to die, or not to appear for a week. 1 h^ 
^rcaey was finifhed, the marriage concluded^ and the courier 
never appeared at all -, becaufe it was not for the honour of 
the king to let his difpatches be feen. The new queen came 
to Madrid. By the advice of AJberoni, the firft favour £he 
afked of the king w^s, not to fee the princefs of Urfins at court $ 
and flie was gratified. Aiberoni availed himfelf of the. infla* 
ence which her virtue and beauty gave her over the king;. 
He was made privy couhfellor, and afterwards prime minifler, 
and raifed to the purple. He roufed that kingdom out of , the 
^ lethargy it had been in for a century pad, and awakened the 

attention, while he raifed the aftpnifhment of all Europe, 
(ie came with ^reat willingnefs into the propofal of fetting 
the pretender on the throne of England. However, as he was 
but jufl come into the miriiftry, and Spain was to be fettled 
before he could pretend to overthrow other kingdoms, there 
. was no great likelihood of his being able to put a hand to the 
work for a great while; yet in lefs than two years he had 
done fo much for Spain, that (he made quite another figure i 
and they fay, that through him the'Turks were engaged to 
fall upon the emperor, meafures taken to depofe the duke of 
Orleans from the regency of France, and George the $rft 
HlHory of. ^^^^ '^® throne of Great Britain : fuch danger there is, fays 
rhaa) ^xii. Mr. Voltaire, in afingle man who has abfolute power in' any 
pf Sweden, country, and has likewifc tne fcnfe and fplrit to qaake ufe of 
^' ' '* it. ' He was afterwards, through the influence of a powerful 
prince, deprived of his dignity, and banifbed to Rome ; but 
flill p'eferyed his credit with the coiut of Spain, for the ad- 
vantage of >ybich he had formed . feveral great projedls. He 
died at Placentia, June 26, U:^, in the S9th year of his age. 
He left his eilates in Lombaroy to the college of St. Lazarus, 
and the revenues of thofe in Romagne to his nephew during 
life, and afterwards to the fame college. The " Teftamcnt 
poJiticjue" of cardinal Alberpni,colleded from his naemoirs and 
letters, was publiihcd at Loufanne, ^753' 

iELFRED, or Alfred (the Great), the youngeft fon of 

/Eihel wolf king of the Wefti^Saxons, was born in the year 

849, at Wannating, or Wanading, which is fuppofed to be 

^naal.Rcr. Wantage, in Berkftiire. ^thelwolf having a great regard. 

Sfag/Autf^^'*^ rpli^jon, and being extremely devoted to the fee of Rome, 

Affcrio Mc- fent ^Ifiied to that city at five years of age; where pope 

pejrcij. p. 7. Leo IV. adopted and anointed him, as fome think, with a 

regal undion, though others arf of opinion he was only con* 

M L F R E D. yi 

firmed [a^.* Soon after his returrt, his fiither being in the 

decline of life, and going to viQt the holy fee, took his fa* 

vourirefon along with him ; 'where he had art opportunity of 

feeing and hearing' many thing*; which made fucq ftron^ im- 

preffipns on him, as remained 'during his whole 1 Fc. ^thel AfTer.Mtnf 

wolf had -five fons, and a da-ughter; of whom^ iEthelftan,^* 

the cldeft, was king of Kent, in" his father's life -time, and 

died before him. ^thelbald, thb' Tecond fon, raifed a rebellion '^***^' P- "• 

againft his father, when he fettirned from Rome; who, to 

avoid any cffufion of blood, cdnfented to divide his dqtmnions 

with him. ./Ethel wolf did not long furvive this; but, before Ibid. p. 8, 9. 

his death, he, by a full and diftinft teftament, endeavoured 

to fettle all the claims of his children. By this will iEthcl- 

bald and .£rhfelbert had his kingdoms divided betwixt them ; 

and he Mi his private cftnte, with all the money in his cof- 

f^rF, to his younger fon^, .Sthelred and iEIfred. iEthel wolf Ibid. p. 12. 

died in 85S, and was fucceeded by ^thelbal^, who reigned 

bat two years and a half. On his demife, yE'helbert feized 

the crown, which he held for fiye years,, and died in 866.Chron. Sax, 

He was fucceeded by his brothfer iEthelred ; who, while heP'7*» 

was a private man, had folemnly promifed iElfred to do him 

that juftice which had been denied by the two former kings, 

by giving him what his father had bequeathed him. On bis 

accefiion, Alfred demanded a performance of his promife j 

but the king excufed himlelf on account of the troublefome 

times, and allured him, that at his death he would leave' 

bim all. Alfred having given proofs of his courage in the 

former king's reign, jSthelred would never part with him, ' 

m ^ 

{a] Th«*e trc many retfons why the- Leo IV. then pofTcfTel the apoAolic fVe, 

ajisioting /&1\tcA lo be ktQg 11 fcrupled. yirho appointed rSr falH infant VElfr«rd 

(See Leiandj p. 145.) i* He was hh as a king, confirmed h m, and adopted 

father's younger Ton, and had three, at him aS his own Ton." /Ethelrrj, a 

kaft, if not four brethren between him monk of the royal fjnnilv, who lived 

and the crown. %. He was but five very near tHefe timeSf fays, (Chronic, 

years old, and therefore it is unltkely his Jib. iii. fol. 473.) that at'ter Lro bad 

tatherfliiuld intend him for a vice king, confecratedlitm kint;, he, from that a6l, 

3« Soch an uoAion could have had no f^yled him his Ton ; as btfhops, at the 

other confequence than that of making time of coi>firmation, are wont to call 

kitn obnoxious to his brethren. But thofe little ones their chiSvJren. Robert 

nocwiihftanding thefe obje^^ionn, tranv of Olocefter fay*, (Chronicle, p, 264. ) 

authors fpeak of i£lfred*s journey to that b<e was cowned kio);, and anointed. 

Romcyand of hisundtion. Aifer bifliop Sjr Henry Spelman, after rn?ntioning 

of Sherborne, who was intimate with fpme authoriii-^, caxtclud<>.s that he was 

king i£lfred, in the memoirs he ^ rote anointed kin^, (i^ife of hUtcA, p. 20.) 

of that prince, hath thefe wor<1s t iDe ' All^i>rd, thejeiu't, allp'g-?'? he was both 

&ebu< ^eftis idfred. p. 7 ) ''Th^fame anointed king, and cnnl^rme^, by pope 

year king iCchel wolf fent bis foni£lfred Leo; and that in re(pec> to this laft 

to RLomCy, attended by many oi the no- ceremony, the p^pe was hii god •father* 

biiity aai psrfoai of the iojver unk. Anna), torn, it i. p. C^. 

F 4 but. 


but employed him as his £rfi.miniftcr ^d general of bly 

, armies. 

In the year 866, a great fl^t.of the Danes, under the com<» 
mand of Hinguar and Hubba, fons of Lodbroch, a Daaiib 
king, invaded England : in 871, they marched to i^eading iit 
BerkfKire, where they recelve.d a confiderable reiipforcemeiHty 
and took that town aad faftle. ^tbelred and.his brotb^ 
Alfred came with an army to Reading, a week ^fter it j^99 
taken: he divided his forces into two bodies, oneofwhipti fajr 
affigned to Alfred, and the other he kept under hi? own con^* 
mand. ^Ifr.ed raflily engaged the DaniCb army, which bein^ 
very numerous, he was in great danger of being totally 
defeated, bad not the king come to his affiftance with a frcib 
body of m^n; this changed the fortune of the^ay fo far, tbaf 
Afe .Mrn (he Danes were defeated, and loft great numbers of their men. 
^/.^^' Soon after, however, the Danes atttacked and routed the tWQ 
broihers at Merden, near the Deviates. In this engagement 
Spelmao, ^:hrlred received a wound, of-which b^ died, after baving 
>• 44? reigned five years. 

Upon his death, Alfred fucceeded to the crown, agreeably 
to the will of king iSthelwolf, and the appointment of ^thel«' 
red [bJ, This happened in the year Sjj, and the twenty^* 
fecond of Alfred's age. He bad fcarce time to attend toe 
funeral of his brother, when he was obliged to fight for tbes 
crown he had fo lately received. He engaged the Daniil) 
army at Wilton, and at the beginning of the b^tlle h^d the 
advantage; but, in the purfi;iit, the Danes difcovering ht9 
^(Ter. Men-weakneis, rallied, and drove him out of the 6eld» Soon ^ftec 
I" 25* there was a treaty, but the Danes paid little regard to it ; 
roaming up and down the country, and pillaging wherever 
they came. They at laft put an end to the kingdom of Mer- 
cia, and obliged Burrhed, the king, not only to quit his do- 
Joan, minions, but the i/land* \£lfred fitted out a fleet to guard 
Brompt. ^{^g coafts ; and a fquadron of five D^nifh (hips ^oming on 

[b] Before iSthelred came to the wfaeii the crown fell to ^thelie^, imttfi 

crown^ there had been a treaty between required to t>erfArtn hb agreemenCy he 

him and iCIfred, concerning their le* refufed^ alleging he could not divide bit 

fpe£ltve eftates; and /Schelred, in pre* dominionSj, but would leave them entire 

fence ot divers of the nobility, ackaow- to Alfred, if heihouldfarvive. ^ifred, 

hedging i£lfred*8 right to certain demef- though kept from his right, gave his 

^es let( him ^y . his fatl^er, which were brother all the affiftance in his power ; 

then, as it appeaiiS, witheld from him» and, upon his death, was defired, by the 

^ promifedin a r6len>nm^ner,'if ever he archblfliop, nobles, and commona of 

^ame to be kihg» he ytfoaM not only Weft>Saxony, to take the government 

permit i^lfred (oenjpy quietly the lands upon himfelf, which he accordingly didj 

bequeathed to him, but likewife give and was crowned at y^incheftera Spel- 

him a /hare of all the territories which man, p« 44* 
. • they ihould (ain fropi the enpmyt ^ut 

Ibe eoaft) one of tbem was takeo. However a coilfideraUe 
army of Danes haviog landed, marched as far as Grantbridgc, 
and quartered tbcreaboucs. Next fummer tbey advanced to 
Werbam ; here w£lfred oiet tbem with all the forces he could 
raife ; but not finding bioifelf ftrong enough to engage tfaeniy 
he concluded a peace, and the Danes fwore never to invade 
his dominions. But in a little time they broke their faith [c] ; 
for. being on the road to Mercia, they met a body of £nglilh 
herfe, advancing in a earelefs manner, by reafon of the trea^ 
bi»ag concluded; of whom they flew the greateft part, and 
ibcm after furprized Exeter. The king marched againft them 
with wba^t forces he could coUeA, and befieged them in that 
city. While things were in this iituation, his majefty's fleet 
having engaged a numerous one of the enemy, funk many, 
and diiperfed the reft ; which, attempting to gain fome of the 
Englifti ports, were driven on the coafts, and all miferably 
periihed* This fo terrified the Danes, that they were again A(rer.p.t9; 
pbb'ged to make peace, and give boftdges. However, in 
877, having obtained new aids, they came in fuch numbers 
into WiltQiire, that the Saxons giving themfelves up to de«- 
4>air, would nbt make head againft them ; many flod out of 
t^ kingdom; not a few fubmittcd, and the reft retired every 
man to the place whece he could be heft concealed. In this 
diftrefs, J£lfred, conceiving himfelf no longer a king» laid 
afide all marks of loyalty, and cook flielter in the boufe of 
one wLo kept his cattle [d]. He retired afterwards to the 
ifle of ^thelingey in Somerfetfliire, where he built a fort for 
the fecuf ity of himfelf, his family, and the few faithful fee* 

[o] AU the ancient biaori^ne tgnt dnced dreadful famines s and thefe, mt 

in charging tl|e Danet with numerous ufual^ were followed with confamiog 

afts of perfidy* ** Their want of faith, plagues, as we read in Aflerius and other 

(fays the anthor of the Biographia Bri- ancient writers.** Afler. Menevt Chron* 

tanoica} feems to have been the tikSt of Sax. 

dieir barbarifffly from making it their [d] While he remained in this re* 
conibnt prafiice to burn and deftroy treat* a little ad?enture happened,' of 
whatever they could not carry away. 8y which moft of oor hiftories take notice* 
thismeajis they were quickly ftraitned in The good woman of the hottfe, having 
their quarters ; and thus being obliged one day made fome cakes, put them be- 
to (hift them often, they foon found fore the fire to toaft ; and feeing Alfred 
themfelves in fuch a fituation, as t« fitting by, trimming his bow and arrows, 
have no meaos of fobfiftiDg witboot ob« ihe thought he would of coarft take care 
tunbg it by force from tho& with whom of the bread; but he^ it (eems, intent 
they liad lately mode peace. To this 00 what he* was about, let the caket 
was owing the wretched condition, in burn $ which fo provoked the woman, 
which this whole ifisnd then was} all that ihe rated him roundly, teUing him 
its beft towns, many of its fincft mo* he would eat them faft enough, and 
nsieries^ and the far greateft pltfts of ought therefore to hsve ktoked after 
its villons bring bet fo many heaps of their toaitog* Afler* p« )•• 
ttt«s, The waatofcul^YatifliialfQ^po- • " 




'74 J&LF RTin. 

vants who repaired thither to him. When he had ht^h 
about a year in this retreat, having been informed that Ibffilff 
of his ^ubjeds had routed a great army of the Dane^, kil)«d 
their, chiefs, and taken their magical ftandard [e], he iiTaed 
bis letters^ gtviiig notice where he was, and inviting his no- 
bility to come and confuh with him. - Before they came to a 
£^al determination, iElfred, putting oil the habit of a harper, 
went into the enemy's camp ; where, without fufpicion, tie 
was every where admitted, and h<id the hol^our to pla^ Ise* 
fore their princes. Having thereby acquired an exa£t knowr- 
ledge of their fituation, he returned in great fecrecy to his ^nO" 
biiity, whom 4ie ordered to their refpeftive homes,-* there to 
^ draw together each man as great a force as he could ; ^nd 

Vpon a day appointed there was to be a general rendezvous at 
the great wood, called Selwood, in Wiltfhire. This afFair 
was tranfaded fo fecretly and expeditiodfly, that in a Htcie 
timethe kin^, at the head of an army, approached the Danes* 
before they had the lead intelligence of his defign. iElfredv 
taking advantage of the furprize and terror they were in, felt 
upon them, and totally defeated them at i^thendune, no^ 

eiiron. SaX'Eddington. Thofe who efcapcd fled to a neighbouring caflJe, 
^ ^ ' where they were foon befieged, and obliged to furrender at 
difcrerion. Alfred granted them better terms than they could 
exped : he agreed to give up the whole kingdom of the £aft* 
Angles to fuch as would embrace the Chriftian religion ; oa 
condition that they fhould oblige the reft of their countrymen 
to quit the ifland, and, as much as it was in their power, pre« 

md. veat the landing of -any more foreigners. For^the perform* 

ance thereof he took hoftages ; and when, in purfuance of the 
treaty, Guthrum, the Dantfh captain, came, with thirty of 
his chief officers, to he baptized, ifelfred ^nfwered for him at 
the font, and gave bini the name of iEthelftan i and certain 
laws were drawn up betwixt the king and Guthrum for the 
r^gylation and government of the Danes fettled in England. 
In 884^ a frefli number of Dafies landed in Kent, and laid 
fiege to Rochefter 5 butj the king coming to the relief of that 
city, they were obliged to abandon their defign, Alfred 

f«] ."Thii{fays Sir John Spelman) " Ky the Danes to have carried great 

** was a banner with the image of a ra» *• fatality with if, for which it waa 

*• *Cft magically wrought by the three " highly eft^etned by them. It is.pit- 
*f fitters of Hinguar and Hubba,onpur- • '< tended, that being carried in battle, 

' •« pofe for their expedition, in revenge *« towards good faccefs it would always 

«• of their father liodebroeh's murder, ** feem to clap its'wingi, and make as if 

«» made, they fay, almofk in an inftant, «• it would fly 3 hot towards the approach 

<* being by. t)}Cf) at once begun and " ofmiihap, it would hang down and 

« fioiihed i» a noontide, and bdicTcd « oQt move.*^ life of i£lfred, p. 6i. 

- feac} 


ZiELFRErD. ft 

had now great luccefs, which was chiefly owing to'his fleet, 
an advantage of hi$ own creating. . Having Tecurbd th& Tea- 
coafts, he fprjtified the reft of the kingdorn with, caftles and 
walled town^l and he befieged and recovered fron^.^he Danet 

. the city of Londpp) which he refolved to repair^ and 4^eep a» 
a frontier [f]. 

. After fome years refpite, Alfred was again calLad into the 
field ; for a -body of Danes,, being wocfted in , the weft of 
France^ cao^e with a fleet of twp hundred and fifty fail on the 
coaft of Kent; and having landed, fixed thenr)felves at Apple- 
tree. Shortly after, another fleet of eighty vefTels coming up 
the Thames, the men landed, and built a f6rt at Middleton. 
Before i^lfred marched againft the enemy, he obliged the 
Danes, fettled in Northumberland and fifTex, to give him. 
hoftages for their good behaviour. He then moved towardsChron.SaxA 
the. invaders, and pitched his. camp between their armies, to^'^** 
prevent their junSion. A. great body, however, ndoved ofF 
toEflex^ and crofling the river, came to Farnham in Surry, 

. where they were defeated by the king's forces. Meanwhile XWd, 93. 
the Danes fettled in Northumberland in breach of treaty; 
and, not wijth (landing the hoftages given, equipped two fleets; 
and, after plundering the northern and fouthern coafts, failed 
to Exeter, and befieged it. The king, as foon as be receiv- 
ed intelligence, marched againft them; but, before he reach- 
ed Exeter, they had got poftsifion of it. He kept, them, 
however,, blocked up on all fides, and reduced them at laft to 
fuch extremities, that they were obliged to eat their horfes, 
and even ready to devour each other. Being at length ren* 
dered defperate, they made a general fally on the beHegf^rs, 
but were defeated, though with great lofs on the king's fide. 
The remainder of this body of Danes fled into Efl'ex, to thelbid« 
fort they had built there, and to their ibips. P^forQ iEIfred 
had time to recruit himfelf, another Danifh leader, whofe 
name was Laf, came with a great army out of Nofthumber- 

[r] The Danes had poflefTed them- Danes, ^yftored it ta its ancient fplendor* 
felves of London in the time of his father. And obferving that through the confufioa 
auid had held it titl now as a convenient . of the times, many, both Saxons «nd 
place for them to land at, and fortify Danes, lived in a loofe diforderly manner, 
themfelves inj neither, was it taken without owning any xgovefoment, he 
from them but by a dofe fiege. How- oflFeredtheni now a comfortabieeft«bfi/h* 
ever, when it came ioto the king's^ ment, if they would fubmit, and become 
hands, it was in • miferabte condition,' his fubje£ls. This proportion was better 
fcarce habitable, and all. its fortifications received than he expected; for multi- 
ruined* The king, moved by the im«. todes, growing weary of a vagabond kind 
ppruace of the placey and the defire of. of lite, joyfully accepted fach an offer* 
tbcogtfaeBtng hit frontier againft the Chron. S)is« p. 8S. 

" lane}, 

2$ At FRED: 

land, tnd deftroyed %\l before him, mgrcfa i ng on to the crtf 
of Werhenl in the weft, which is fappofed to ht Chefler^ 
where they remained the reft of that year. The yeaf foltow- 
ing chey invaded North- Wales ;: and, after having {^Idndered 
and. d«roy>ed every thing, they divided, one body returning^ 
to Northumberland, another into the territories of the Eaft- 
Anglei) ^ropa Whence they proceeded to Efiex, and topk poC- 
Cbrom Stt.feffion of a fmall ifland called Merefig. Here they did not 
^S^* long reanin} for having parted, fome failed up thie river 
Thanes, and others up the Lea-road ; where drawing up 
fbeii*. fl>}p9, they butk a fort hot far from London, whic^h 
proved a great check upon the citizens, who Went in a body 
tnd attacked it, bat were repulfed with great lofs. Ac harveft- 
time the king biikifeif was obliged to encamp with a body of 
troops in the neighbourhood of the city, in order lo cover thef 
reapers from the excitrfions of the Danes. As he was one 
day riding by the fide of the river Lea, after, fpme obfrrva- 
aion, he began to think that the Danith fhrps might be laid 
quite dry; whic^i he attempted, and fo Succeeded therein, 
diat the Danes deferted their fort and {hips^and marched away 
to the banks of the Severn, where they built a fort, and 
t . wintered at a place called Quatbrig [c]. Such of the Daniih 
fiiips as could be got off, the Londoners^ carried into their 
own road ; the reft they burnt and deftroyed. The Danes in 
a little time began again to invade the terrrtories of the Weft- 
Saxons, both b}rland and fea; but they did more mrfchief as 
pirates than as robbers ; for having built long and large fbips, 
they became mafters at fea, and depopulated all the cosift. 
JElfred built fome large gallies, and fent them to cruize on ' 
the coafts of the ifle of Wight and Devonfhire, the fea there- 
abouts being greatly infefted by fix piratical veflels, which 
were all taken or deftroyed, except one: and fuch of the 
Danes as landed when their (hips ran alhore, were taken pri- 
foners, and brought before the king at Winchefter, who fen- 

ii>id.p. ogy^^'^^^^ ^^^^ ^P ^^ hanged as piratical murderers and enemies 
ff. ' to mankind. * 

^fred enjoyed a profound peace during the three laft years 
of his reign, which be chiefly employed in eflablifhing and re* 

[o] Thekiog't contrif aace u tkonght agreed at to the method the king' porAi* 

to nave produced the meadow between ed, inlaying dry the Daoilhihipti Dug* 

Hertford and Bow; for at Hertford waa dale iuppofet that he did it by ftraitning 

the Danes fort, and from thence they the channel f but Henry of Huntingdon 

made frequent cxcuriions on the inhabit* allegef, that he cut feveral caaalty 

ants df London. Dugdal^*s Hift« of which ezhaofted its water. Flor.Wigorm 

Iffibanttiogf p. 14* Authon ace jiot Hen«Hanciogd,HiftiUbt ?.p« 351* 


{ttlating Iris government for the fecurity of hinftfelf and his fud« 
ceilofs^ as well as for the eafe *and benefit of bis fubje^ ia ' 
general* Before hUreigp, though there were many kiogsi 
who took the title^ 3^t none couki properly be caUed oaonarcll: 
of the £j3gU(h nation ; foe notwitfaftanding there was.always« 
after the tim^ of Egbert, a prince who held a kind of pre- 
eminence over the reft, yet he had. no dominion over their * 
fiibje£ks9 as Alfred had in the )at(:er piart of his reign ^ fo« toi 
hiiu all parts of England^ not in the poffeffion of th^ X)ases» 
fiibmitted, vrisich y^as greatly owing lo the fame of bis wif- 
dom, 4nd miid^eis of his govermnent. He is faid to have Chnon. Sax. 
drawn up an excellent fyflem of laws, which are mentioned^* ^' ^^ 
in the ^< Mirror of Juftke,'' publiihed by Andrew Honie^ in the 
reign of Edw^d I. a&.alfqa co)le0if»n' of judgements; and^ if 
we may csedit Harding's Chronicle [h], they were ufed ia 
Wefiminfter-jiall in the reign of Henry IV« In the Cbro*. 
nide faid to be written by John Brompton^Ve meet fo«i^ lat^t^scol. Stfii 
afcribed to king^lfr^d. They are in number fifty-One i and) 
before thiem> is a prefacejK wherein t)ie. king rjeiiites maflby .tbingsi 
concerning the exceUency and ufe o£ kws* , In tb^ clofe be- 
iaya, he coUe^^ from, the laws, of his anceflor :king Sni3|i 
fuich as iee^ned to. Him mpijr rea^nable ; andf having eoitomu«' 
nieated them to the learned m^n of bis kingdom, be,- with, 
their aflent, publiihed them, to be tb^ rale of bU pciople^9 
ai^ions. ThcCe laws borrowed from lung^ loa' W^^ if we . 
believe himfelf, many of them talcea from theBritifbl caoftitu^ 
tions} and. tbofe^ if credit is to be given tQ theii^ authors, v 
were excer,pts-^from< the Orede and Trojan laws* itithougli 
there remain bi^ few laws which csn be pofitively afcribed 
to Alfred; yet we are well infoi^isd, that to him we owe 
many of thofe ad^ntages, which render our conftit^tion fo 
dear ai^d valuable. We* are indebted to hire foe trials by 
juries (i) ; and if we rely on fir John Spelman's conjedure^Spelman't 


£^] King Alii^:ede the laws of Troy^and Bme,, Worki, ^ 

Laws Moluntynes and Mercians coDgregate, «'* 

With DanifKlawes, that were weil conftftute^ 
An4>Or«)4i/bf-«iro, well made and apprpbatfe^ 
In EngUibe tongue he 4id them all tranflatc. 
Which yet bee called the lawei of Alurcde, 
At WefidiynAer remcmbred yic indede, 

^aiiding^s Chron. fol* jk hk 
fi] Tliit is rnfentd from a law of vifed tb^ holding men to gqod bebaviour 
iElffed*!^ which oblrge'doifeof the ktng*a by obliging' them to pat in furecies ; at 
tMaoet to porge-bimUrlf byitwelve of hia alfi^tlie calllbg'a vbticher to prove a pro* 
pe«r&i as the purgHioa^ofaootber thane- peit^4it.giQdBatthetimeofralOt JS^» 
wa$ by eleven of his peers and one of the ||aa*a loft of iSlfrcd^ ^ ioS^ IC7W 
kiog't ihtfica. Haital^faidtobiKTcde- 


7*. iE L P R E D. 

his inftitutions were the foundation of what is called the comr 
mon lawtfo ftyled eitheron account of its being the comtxiotT 
llw of alt the Saxons; or becaufe it was common both to 
Spelman*t Saxori^an^ Danes, ft is faid alfo, but this i$ a difput^d 
LifeofAlfr. point) that he was the firft who divided the kingdom ititd 
f. 107. fhircs : what is afcribcd to him is not a bare divilion of the 
«^*Briri(h * ^^"^/y» ^Mf ^^^ fettling a new form of judicature ; for after 
Antiq.p.29. having divided his dominions into {hires, he fubdivided each 
44* 47» 4S. flkire into three parts, called tythings, which though novr 
grown but of date, yet there are fome remains of this ancient 
divifioii in the ridings of Yorkfliirc, the laths of Kent, and 
thethree parts of Lincolnfliire. Each tythihg was divided 
into hundreds or wapentakes, and thefe again into tythings 
or dwellings of ten houfehoiders : each of thefe houfeholders 
flood engaged to the king, as a pledge for the good behaviour 
of his family, and all the-teii were mutually pledges for each 
..^ . otherf I9 that if^any one. of -the tytbing was fufpefted of an 
offence, if the h6adbdroughs or chiefs of the tything would 
not be fecurity for him, he was imprifoned ; and if he made his* 
escape, the tything and hundred were fined to the king. Each 
ibrre was under the government of an earl, under whom was 
the reive, Jiis deputy, Ance, from his pifice, tailed ihire-reive, 
Seiden,Ana. or iheriff.' iElfred alfo framtd a book called the Book of 
cap. 5*« ' "* Wincheflfcr, and' which contained a furvey of the kingdom j 
Le * Edv in ^^ ^^ which the Doomftlay Book, ftill preferved In the Ex- 
praeketcap. chequer, is no more than a fecond edition. '- 

t» . '■ " .In the management of affairs of Rate, after the cuftom of 
his anceftbrs the kings of the Wefl Saxons, he madeufe of 
the great council of the kingdom, coniiflingof bifliops, earls, 
chftking's aldiermen^ and his chief thanes or barons. Thefe,- 
in the firft part of his reign, he convoked as occafion ferved $' 
but when things were better fettled, he made a lav^, that twice 
in the year a'tleaft, an ailembly or parliament (hould be bel^. 
'"^ at London, thereto provide for the well-governing ofahe 
'"■ commonwealth: from which ordinance his fucceflbrs varied 

a little, holding fuch afTemblies not in any place certain, but 
wherever they refided, at Chriflmas, EaiVer, or Whitfuntide. 
As to extraordinary affairs; or femergences which would not 
admit of calling great councils, the king ade4 therein by tbtf 
advice of thofe bifbop^, earls, and officers in the army, who 
happened to be about his perfon. He was certainly a great 
and warlike, prince ; and though the nation could never boaft 
A^er Men. ^ * greater foldier, yet he never wiUingly made wir, or re- 
p, 70, fufcd peace when dclired. He fccuied his coafta by guard-' 

^ L F R E p. 7j 

Ihips, making the navy his peculiar care; and he coreredhts 
frontiers by. caftles well fortified, which hjeforp his time the 
Saxons h^ never raifcd. In other affaires he was ro iefs adite 
and- induftripus ; be repaii;ed the cities derdoliihed . by tkus 
Danj^s; )>e er^died n^v^ on^s, and, ador.ned and embeliOied 
fuch as were in a decayed condinon^^K]* \t is aifiraisd that 

I one fixth part of his revenues was app]jed-^o the paymejit ch6 
bis workaien*^ wages, who had befides mes^t and drink at the 
king's expence* In refpe(3: to religious foundations, as &\hei -Afler 
was remarkable for. l>is piety, fo he exc^.lled rnoft of his predc^ P* .^ 

'celTorsiii this particular J for,, helide$ Fe<-^difyipg and reftor* 
ing almod every monaftefy in his dominions,, which. the po*. 
vcrty ofi^he times <^r . the fujy of the Danes nad brought to: 
ruin, he built many, 4ind improved piore« b^fid^s pthe<: a^s of 
manificence towards the church £l].: Heis faid by fome to have 
founded the university .of Ojf ford ; y^c thip matter is wamljr. 
difputed, and has employed ieveral learned pensi, but the^eie-l 
brated AnihopyWopd .l^as^ infiftedf.iiit)^ fully upon*vi<:. fo> 
much however is, cetiiin. 4bat ^l&ad fettled and re(tonMl 
that univerfity, eudqw.ed iij with.r^evepues, and plite^d the/* 
the moft famous profeiQrorsJ[.MJ.,,ThokV(gh he* badailwiiyS' a« 

.7 . ' . ' 

[kJ He h tl)ought to K^ve hfcn the %\h fever?l Ert^lli^ youtlts«« (WilU '_ 

founder of iShaftcfbary ; foj ^"William Maltn/b. Jib. ii.) The next religiaii 

of M«l«e{byr{ informs u^, tiete vw^e hovHeWfoiittdfcf wala nunneif, ^tx the 

<i«gfut of ruins a Aene with this in- town of Snafteibury, at the caft.gate 

fcriptton : " Anno Dominica? incar- thereof; this he filled with nons, all of 

** nationis S8oi£i^redus rex fecit hare nobje defcen^ and he made. tu« dau^h-. 

'^'iirbeinregDifui^*. inttte^ear 8^0, ter'j*:the!geot their abbefs.^R.Higrf, 

"bente the 8'h of hrt reign,^ king Polychr. 257.) 'In conjun£tion Vith 

''*j£}fred> founded thttcit^.*' DeGtfft. hij queen; iElfwith, he founded a nun- - 

I^oat. Aagl. p. 251. "Hr isWIfofaid to neryat Wlncheftfr ; and a little before 

have been the founder of MiddletOn hf?d6ath, he dt?figned and laid the found- 

aadBalford, in Kent 5 of dtft Dcvite?, a^n of a new tnonaftery, called the 

i* Wtllfljirc 5 a»d of iElfreton, in New MonaffeVy, in the fame ciy'. He 

I)cdlyihtjre. ' He reAonred ihd rehu^ilt confirmed the grant made by Guthrum 

MiliQ^ary, which had been burnt king of Northumberland to the bifhopr'c 

and dcftroyed by the Danea : and there of Durham, of al! the country between the 

iva ceia whi^ feems. to tntinistey that Tine and Ti^. He likewife granted mucli 

he did as moch for' the city of Nor* to the abbey of GUnonbury^ and fent 

^ch» Hearne*a Notoeoo- Spe4man^ -p, to the cathedral church of Shcrburn f^* 

164. Speed'a Chroaidei p. 384. . veral precious ftonef« brought'.to him from 

[l] He demoliflted the caAle which the Indies. The abbry cf Wilton was at 

he had bulk in the ide . of Atbelney, firft for an abbefs and twelve nmis \ he ' 

and with the materiab reAMed an an- increafed theit number to twenty, fix, on 

V cient monaftery, which he adorned and the accoOnt of a v\€tory he oKtainsd dver 

beautified. fWhen he bad 'fifliflied it, th^ Danes near tliat place. LeIandV Col- 

bdogata lofa for periods to refide there* let!, vol. ii^ p.'T95. 
in, he feat for an abbot froih Saxony, [m] Thefchools erefied by v^Ifred 

and iofited federal monki from France; at Oxford, were the Great Ha!l^ the 

a«d to make vp the nombtr> he added Lefler H&1I> and the Little Hall. In 


very nunierous ^ourt^ ^Hfd t<>ok particular pTeaf tire in fedlng fiir 
nobility about him, ytt he fpund out a method of doing this 
without prejudice to the public. He formed three different 
boufeholds, each under a feparatelord ch&mberlain : and theft 
waited in their turns, a month every quarter ; fo that during 
the year, each of the king's^ lervants was four months at 
courts and eight at home. 

In private life, Alfred was the moft amiable man in bis 
dominions ^ of fo equal a temper, that afiter he had once taken 
the crown^ he never fulFered any fadnefs or unbecoming gaiety 
to enter his mind ; but appeared always of a calm, yet cheer-* 
liil difpofition, familiar to his friends, juft, even to his ene- 
mies, kind and tenderlo all. He was a reu^arkable ceqonomift 
of his time; and Aflerius has given us an account of the 
/ method he took for dividing and keeping an account of it« 
He caufed fix wax-candles to be made, each of twelve inches 
long, and of as many ounces weight: on the candles the in- 
ches were'regularly marked; and having found that 6neof them 
bttrnt juft four hours, he committed them to the care of the 
keepers of his chapel, who from time to time' gave him nbtice 
bow the hours went: but as in Windy weather the candles were 
wafted by the impreffion of the air on the flame ; to remedy this 
^g^ ji^^^ inconvenience, he invented lanthorns, there being then no 
deGeft.Reg! glsA in his dominions. When Alfred came to the crown, 
Ang* p.45« learning was at a very low ebb in his kingdom [n] ; but by 


tilt Gre«t Hall wu ungbt divimty «ily» built tt once, but by degreet, •• the ' 

and on this fonndation there were.tweaty- king*! finances would allow. /EAfred iv 
fix fcholart ; in the Lefler Hall they onWerfally acknowledged the fooodcr of 
taught logic, aiofic, arithmetic^ geo* Uoiverfity Colleger at Oxfordy, and. tbeiV 
roetiy, and aftronomy, and on this fouo« is fiill a very ancient piAure of this 
dation there were alio twenty-fix fcho- prince intheniafter*sapartroeott i thete 
lars: in the Little Hall there was no- is alfo a very old boft cif him. in thtfVe* 
thing taagbt but grammar ; however fe^ory in Braien»nofe College. In- 
there were twenty-fix fcholars alfo enter- gulph. Hifl* p. xy. Annal. Wint. A, D. 
tain(!dhere. The firft divinity- profef- 886. . . 
ibrs were St. Neotus and St. Grim- [n] Thia appears from his letter to 
bald. At the re^ueft of the former, it bi&op Wulfeig, prefixed to bis trsnfla* ' 
ia faid, Alfred ere£led thefe fchools; tion of Sc. Ore|gDry*t Paitoral. In this 
and the latter heient for from abroad, to letter he tellt tbe biihopy <* that both 
prefide in them. The firft reader in *' the clergy and laity of the CngKA 
logic, muficy and arithmetic, W4S John, ** were formerly bred to letters, and 
a monk of St David's ;' the reader in " made great imivovementa in the va-' 
i;eometry and ^flrooomy wa» another *' loable parts of learniog ; that, by the 
monk of the fame name, who waa com- ** advantageof fuch a learned edocaiion, 
panion to St. Grimbald i Affes the ** the precepts of relig'on and loyalty 
monk read in grammar and rhetoric. ** were wellobfe0ved,the fiatefionriA- 
As to the time in which thefe fchools <« cd, and the g^civctmnient was famons 
were founded, ic is not eafily determin- « for its condo^ rn foreign countries. 
tij very probably they were not all « And with regard to the clergy, they 
. . t were 

M li. F R ED. 

his Sample and ehcouragement,, he ufed his utmoft endea- 
vours to cxcitfi a love for letters amongfthis fubjefls. He him- 
ielf was a fcholar y and had he not been illuflrious as a king, 
woald have been famoiis as an author [o J. W)ien we con- 

' , .* . I .•'... fider 


*' weitt particularly eminent for their In- 
'* ftra^ions,for ading iip to their charac-^ 
" tcTyand difchargingall t-fae partt of their 
** fun€tlon i fothat ftrangersufedto cotne 
** Bitber for learning, difcipline, and itrif 
** provement. But now the cafe is mlftt- 
** ably ahered, an^ we have need of tra- 
** Telling to learn what we gfed to teach ; 
** in ihorty knowledge it fo entirely loft 
"'among the l^nglifh, that there 'are 
** very few oh this fide the Humbef^ who 
'* can either tran/l4te a pirce of Latin, or 
** fo much aa underftand their common 
** prayers in their mother-toAgue s thete 
** werefo few who could do thii;tkatl do 
'* not remember one on'the foutl^de of 
*^ the Thames, when J came io the 
« Crowtu** Praef.i£lfredi regit, pd^liihed 
la Mr. "Wife's edition of.AlT^rius Me« 
nevenfisy Oxon. 1712. p. S7. — 

[o] Alfred 4fl faid to have . beeit 
twelve yeara old bofore he could read his 
inother-tongue, and then he was allur- 
ed to it by the quCsn. She had a book 
of Saxon poons, b^utifully adorned, 
which happening to fticw to l^er fons, . 
and perceiving them mightily pleafed 
therewith, <he promifedto beftow them 
en him wAo Ihould fi>ft get it hiy heart ; 
this talk i£lfred undertook, and, with<^ 
oat inftrodor or afliftant, applied liim* 
lelf fo vigoroufly to the book, that he 
never Itfc oft'tiU he could re«d and repeat, 
it to his mother, and thereby gave an 
early proof of, his indoftty in ac^iriog 
knowledge. (AflTcr, Men. p.,i6f) He 
afterwards arrived at a great proficiency 
10 all forts of learning i for he was a 
fiood grammarian^ an excellent rhetori:^ 
cian, an acute philofopher, a judiciogf 
hiftorian^ a /kilful muilcian/andan able 
architect. (Marianus, A, D. S84.} 
Of all this he left aroplei teftimony to 
P^fterity, by. many admirable works and 
elegant ttanilatioos^ of which we (hall 
give an account : 

I. The firil b^bk' mentioned by Bal^ 
is^Breviariuin quoddam' colledupi. et 
" Legibos Trujanprum, l;b. I. A pre? 
*' viary colle^^ed o.ut of the Laws oT the 
*' Trojans, Greek^) Britons, ^aifons^ 
" and Danes, in one Book.** Lelahd fiir 
this book in the Saxoa^ tongue, at 

Vox. I. 

at Chrift-churcli in damplhire. Com^ 
ment. de. Script, p.i^o. 
' 2. " Vifi-Satonum Leges, lib, !• 
" The Laws, of the . Weft-Saxo^t, in 
•« one Book." Pits tells us, that it ia 
In Benet College Library, at. Cam- 
bridge. . • . . , 
. 3, " Inflituta quaedam, lib. I. Cer- 
" tain inftituies.". . This is mentioned 
by Pit?, and fecnls to be the fecond capi- 
tulation with Gnthnun* Brempt. Ch*. 
CoL 819, 

4, •* Contra Judices iniquos, I'rb. i; 
*' An Inve6)ive againft unjoft Jtidgef, 
** in one Book." ' j 

5, " Afta Magtilratuum fttorum» Hh* ' • 
«< J. Aas of his Magiftrates, in oite 

<« Book.*' This is fuppofed to be the'-- 
book of judgments mentioned by Home a 
and was, in all probability, a kind of re-« ' - 
ports, intended, for the aCe of fucceed- 

6, •* Regum Foftunae variae, lib. !• 
«< The various Fortunes of Kings, in 
•« one Boote.*' 

, 7. «« Di^a Sapientum, lih. I. The 
*« Sayings of Wife Men, in one Book." 

8. « Parabolae et Sales, lib..t. Pa- 
" rabloft and pleafant Sayii^gs, in one 

9. <* Collefliones Chronicortim. Col- 
" leaiofis of Chronities." 

10. *«.EpifttJae ad Wolfsigium Epi- 
'* Icopum. Epiftles to Biihop Wulfsig, 
*' in one ^oqk." 

11. *f Manuale Meditationn'm. A 
«» Manual of Meditatlens." * 

As, to his tranHattons, they were thefes 
• II. 'f Dialogue D. Gregorii. A Diai 
«Mogue of St. Gregory." ^ * 

13. ** Paftorale ejufdcm Gregorii. 
" ThsPaftoral of Gregory." 
■ 14. •• Hormeftam Paiili Orofii, lib. 
L'* Of this work an Englifli tranfli^ 
tion was publi/hed by Mr. Barringtoo, i>t y 
1772, with iElfred*s Anglo-Saxon, .i 
' t^. '* Boetios de Conrkdatione^ lib^ 
*• V. Boetios's'Cohfolafcidnsof EHiilo^ 
lVf<«a>hy^.i<i^ye,^9al^K".. Dr. Plot 
tells us, king, i^lffed tranflated it/ at 
^O^^ock^ as.he,fq^((ih a* MS. ifl the 
Cotton Library., ^at'. 'Hiftj of OxTord- 
ihire. chap, x,§ zi8. 

x5. *^ AfTcrii 


• • 


^ L- P R E a 

Cl)ron. p: 


Bat, P..Z5X* 

fider the qoaliikations of tbi^ prince, and ttie many t'Trtiiei 
he poflfefled, we need not wonder that he died univtrflilty to* 
Rented, which happened after ft reign of abe>ire twenty-^ight 
years, and on the 28th of OSlob^f, A. D. l)oa, as fome 
Writers inform us; though there is a difagreement in thh 
particular^ even annongft our beft hiftorians. He was buried 
in the cathedral of Wincheffcr ; but tHe cation^ of that ch arch 
pretending they were drfturbed by bisgbofi, his Ton and fiie^ 
Ceflbr Edward caufed Ms body to be removed to the ne^ tno* 
PcGcft. naftery, which was kft unfiniflied at his death. Here it rc^ 
p/ikf "^' mained till the difTdlutian of mooafterics, when Dr. Rich^r4 
Fox, biihop of Winchefter, caufed the bones of ^aH ^ur S*xon 
kings to be colle£ted and put into diefts of lead, Wlrh/infcfip- 
tions upon each of tbem^ ihewing whofe bones tbeycontair>- 
cd ; tbeie cbefis be took care to have placed on the top of a 
wall of exquifite workmaTiQiip, built by him to indole the 
prefbytery of the cathedral* Henry of Huntingdoalhonour* 
ed the memory of this prince wiw the foliowing ce[>y of 
LekmdCom. Latin vcrfc^: , , 

de Script. 

Nobilitas innata tibi probitatis honorem^ > 

Armipotem ^Ifrede, dedit ; probitafque laboremvj 

Perpetqumque labor nomeft ; ctii mneta dolore 

Gaudia femper erant, femper fpes mixta timori. 

$i modo vidor eras, ad ^raAina bdia parabas ; 

Si modo vi3us eras, adcraftinah^lb parabaa* 

Cut vefles fudorejugi, cui ficca cruore 

TmStz }ugi, quantum (it onua regnare probarunt^ 

.Non fuit immenfi quifquanr per climata mulidi. 

Cui rot in adverfis, vel refpirare liceret ; 

l^ec tamen aut ferro «ontritu« ponefc ferrum, | 

.16. ^AflctiiSeBtenti», 1ib..L Tke 20. *' MCof FaKuTa?. JE(6p\ 

f Sayings of Afleriusy in one Book.'* / " Fables j'* which he is Aid to have 

If, **Mvti9nx Leges, lib. I. Tke tranflated from the Greek both into Latin 

** .Uiws of queen Marthia^ widow of and Saxon, 
<« Guithelinos, in one Book." ai. " Pf^tcrium DaVrdicum, lib. f. 

18. "NfolmtttxozUgeSylib, I. The '< t)avid*s Pialter, in one Book." This 

*< Lawa of Malmutios, in one Book.** was the laft work the. king attempted^ 

. 19. " Geflae Anglorum Bedav lib.. V. death fufptlfing him before he had finifli- 

<* The Deeds of the £ngU(b, ijy five edit; it was however completed b^an»- 

«< ^«okt, by Bede:** fcopy of which 19 ^her ha<^d^ and pubtifHed at London lit 

in the piibtxc library at Cambridge, with 1640, in quarto, by filr John Sptffnfian. 
the fqlJowlag^ifticb thereupon. (SpeU Befides all. there, MalmefbuYy n^en- 

■un*« Life of iSlfred^ f>« 21s.) . tipns his tranflating many Laltfi authcrs; 

„.« • ^ * '. s.^t^ *"** *^* ®^** Hiftory of Ely alflerts, that 

Hiftoricus qupnaam feat ne Beds* U* ^ trandated the Old and New Tefta- 

JElfred rex Sazo trinftelit iHc ftl». 45, Hift. EUen. lib, Ji. y ^ ^ 


>E L F iL E D. 8j 

Aut gladio potuit vitae finifle labores. 
Jam poft tranfados vitse, r^gnique dolores^ 
Chriftus )ei fit vera quies, fceptrumque pereni^e^ 

Thu5 Jtrapflat<:d by Gr John .5pelman : 

Thy true nobility of rnind and blood 

(O warlilce -^Elfred !) gaye thee to be gfood. 

Good nefs induftrious made thee; induilry 

Got thee a name to'all pdfterity. 

'Twixt fuixed hopes and fears, *twixt joy and grief. 

Thou ever felc'ftdiftrefs, and found relidf/ 

Viflor this day, next day thou doft ne^erth'Icfs 

r the field difpute thy fbrnier day's fuccefs* 

0*ercome this day, next day, for all the blow, 

Yhdu giv'ft ortak'A aqother overthrow. 

Tby brow$ from fwear, thy fword from Wood n,e>r dryi 

What 'twas io rejgn, fo tp us fignify : 

The world caDnojt pr.Qdiice Xo much as ope, 

That Jthjoiigh the MJce adv.crilties has gon^. 

Yet fouml'ft tbou notthereift thou foughteft here. 

But with a crown Chriil glvgs it thee dfevrher^e, 

JELIAN (CxAupius), b9j;n atjprsenjefie in Italy. HeSuidaim 
taught rhetoric at Rj^m^, accOrdi^ig to Peri^ionius, under the^^***^°* 
emperor Alexander Sev.erus. Jie was furnamed M€A*j'Aw(r(r©^, 
Uoney*xnouth, on accouxit of the fwqernefs of his ityle. He 
.was likewife.honoured with the title of fophift, an appellation . 
in his days given only to Oien of jparning and wifdom. He loved 
retirement, ^nd devoted hin^f^^lf^P flMriy.; apd.bis^\jirQrksil3ejy ^ 
•him to have been a man 6f ^x^pUent principles and ftri(S int^r 
grity. He greatly admixed an4 t^Mdi^d f Jatp, Arijlotle, Ifo- 
crates,* Plutarch, Jloroer, Ao^crepn, Archilochus, &c. and, 
'though a Roman, gives the. preference t,o- the visiters of tb^ 
^rcek nation. His iwo moft celebrated works are his ** Vad- Var. Hift. . 
ous Hiftory/'and jhat.*« Of Animals/' He wrote alto* an Invec- !»*>•«• c 3<« 
tiveagainft Heliogabulus, or, as fome think, Domician; but 
this is not certain, for he gives the . tyrant, whom he lafhes 
thefiftitious nameof Gynnls. He cdmpofed likewife a book 
** Of P/ovidence,'* mentioned byEuftathius; and another on di-innf/nuy^cr* 
vine appearances, or the declarations of providence. SomeDionyfii, 
afcribe to him alfo the work intitled " Tallica, or De Re MiJi- 
tari ;'^ byt Perizonius is ^of opinion,, that this piece belonged ^*^'^^*^"- 
to another author of the fame, a native of Greece. "** ^^ ' "' 
There have been feveral editions of his ** Various Hiftory." [a] 

G 2- [a] The 

84 JE L I A N. * 

fA] The Greek text was pubtifhed at Leyden, lyoi* He followed the 

at Rome in 1545, by CamiHus Peruf- tranflatjonof Vuiteius, which he re£ti- 

cut. Juftat Vulteius gave a Laiin tranf- fied in many placet, together with the 

latioD, which was printed frparately in Greek text, illafi rating the moft intri* 

J548; and joined to the Greek text in . cate patTages iNrith learned notes. Tht 

, a new edition, by Henricas PetruB, at nexteditiooof this workis that of Abra- 

Bafil, 1555. '^ contains likewife the bam Gronoviut, -who hat given the 

works of ieveral other authors, who b>ave Greek text and fcrfion of Vulteius^ ai 

treated on foch fubjefls ^s i^lian. John correfied by Perizonios, together with 

Turoxftus publiihed three feveral edi- the notci of Conrade Gef^er^ John 

tions at Lyons, in 1587* 1610, and SchefFerus, Tanaquil Faber, Jo«cb* 

16x5. All thefe were eclipfed by that Kuhnius, and Jac. Perizonius ; to which 

of Jobn ScheiFeruSy in 1647 and 1662 1 he has added ihort notes of his own, and 

he rectified the text in many places, and the fragments of /BKan, which Kuhniui 

illaftrated the whole with very learned colieAed from Suidas, Stobimis, and 

notes and animadverfions* Perisonxus EaftathiuSe 
gave a new edition in two volumes odiso, 

^MILIUS (Paulus), a native of Verona. The repota- 
tion he had acquired in Italy, made Stephen Poucher, bilhop 
of Paris, advife king Lewis X It. to engage him to write a 
Latin hiftory of the kings of France. He was accordingly 
invited to Paris, and a canonry in the cathedral church was 
Lannotus given him. He retired to the college of Navarre, to com- 
Hift.Gymn. p^c^ this work ; but though he fpent many years at it, yet he 
p,,j, ' was not able tofinifli the tenth book, which was to include 
the beginning of the reign of Charles VIII. He is faid to 
have been very nice and fcrupulbus in regard to his works', 
having always feme corre^ion to make: hence Erafmus 
imputes the fame fault to him that was objeded to the painter 
Protogenes, ^vho thought he had never iiniflied his pieces: 
** [a] That very learned man Pauius ^milius (fays he) gave 
** pretty much into this fault ; he was never fatisfied with 
*^ himfelf, but as often as he revifed his own perfornfiances, 
*< he made fuch alterations that one would not take thcfo 
<' for the fame pieces correded, but for quite different ones ; 
** aild this was his ufual cuflom. This made him fo flovir, 
^ that elephants could bring forth fooner than he could pro- 
•< duce a work ; for he took above thirty years [b] in writing 

« hi« 

' fx] Haic vitio afHnis foit vir exintie [b] Mr. Bayle thinks it was an error 

do^us Pauius idnilius Veronenfis, qui inErafmu^, to aHert that ^milius was 

fibi nunqoam fatisfacieLat, fed qiiotiea thirty yeais about hi^ hiftory, " There 

recognofcebat fua, xnutabat pleraque : *< is (fays he) in the king of France^ 

diceres non opus corre£luaa fed aliudj '* library, an edition, coataining the 

idque fubtnde faciebat. Quee ret in caufa " 6rfl four books i>f Pauius ^Smilius, 

fuit, ut citius elephant! pariant quam *< printed at Paris, without a date j boc 

iUe quicquaip edere poflet. Nam hi do* ^* it muft have been before the year 

riatnquamedidit plufquamtrigintaannis " 1520^ and in the beginning of ibe 

habuic prs manibos. Et fufpicor hue ** reign of Francis I. this copy havfog 

ada^lum utevulgaret. Erafmus, Apopb, '< been prefented to him before he woie 

lib, vi. p. ixi. 514a , << the clofe ciown^ ^milius was in- 

*• ?iied 

iE M I L I U S. 85 

^ bis hiflory." Lipfius was mightily pleared With this per- 
formance : '* Paulus ^milius (fays that author) is almoft the 
only modern who has difcovered the true and ancient way 
of writing hiftory, and followed it veryclofely. His man- 
ner of writing is learned, nervous, and concife, inclining 





** to points and conceits, and leaving a ftrong imprefTion on 
*' the mind of a ferious reader. He often intermixes maxims 
** and rcniimcnts not inferior to thofe of the ancients. A 
** careful examiner, and impartial judge of fafts; nor have! 
*^ met with an author in our time, who has lefs prejudice or 
*^ partiality. It is a difgrace to our age, that Co few are 
*' pleafed with him ; whence it would appear that there are 
*' but few capable of relifhing his beauties. Among fo many ' 
" perfections there are however a few blemifhes ;.for his ftyle 
is fomewhat unconne(5)ed, and bis periods too Diort, This ^ 
is not fuitable to ferious fubje£ls, efpecially annals, the 
ftyle of which, ac.cording to Tacitus, (bould be grave and 
unafFedled. He is alfo unequal, being fometipies too 
ftudied and corred-, and thereby obfcure ; at other times 
*' (ibis however but feldom), be is loofe and negligent. He 
** afFedls alfo too much of the air of antiquity in the names 
** of men and places, which he changes and would reduce to 
the ancient form, often learnedly, fometimes vainly, and 
in my opinion always unbecoming fc]." -^milius's hif- 
tory is divided into ten books, and extends from Pharamond 
to the fifth year of Charles VIII. in 1488. The tenth book 
was found among his papers, in a confufed condition ; fothat 
the editor, Daniel Xavarifio, a native of Verona and relation 
of ^millus, was obliged to collate a great number of papers 
full of rafures, before it could be publilhed. He has been 

" VTted into France, in ordrr to compofe aevi eft, quoj minus i!Ii placeaf, quafi 

" this work, by Lewis XII. Now the pauci tint qui capiant hxe bona. In tad- 

** reign of this prince began butia 1498} tis Utotn tirtutibus etism hae Ubecukp, 

" and had he tent for this author im- quod fiilum p^rum ne^lt, et fp'r^it,' di« 

" mediately after his acceifion to the vidique eum in minuOa quaedam mem- 

** CToiA'n, /^miHuscouId not have em- bra. Hoc cum in omni feriofa oratione 

" plojred above eighteen years at moft parum«ongruum,'tom in annalibua mi- 

** in writing the hiliory of Fraace." nime, quorum eft, ut ille ait, tarda qua* 

^c] Paulus ^milius, ut rem dicam, dam etiuers fcrtptura, Deindequod inse- 

"^Dfi unos inter oovo8» veram et vrte- qualis. Alibi nimiom aoxiot et caftl- 

Ttm Hlftoriae viam vidit, eamque firmo gatus ideoque fubobfcuruf, alibi (fed raro 

ptde calcavit. Genus fctibendi ejus ut<-r) laxus et fclutus. Vetuftatis etiam 

dodum, nervcfam, prsflum ; ad fubtili- nefcio'quid affcdlat in nominibus homi* 

tatero et argutias incllnars, et relinquens num^ locorum, urbium immutandisi ec 

deBgenfque nl'ud in animo feni ledlotis. in veterein formam redigendit ; (aepe 

Scfitentias et dl^fla faspe mifcet, paria erudite, in'erdum v9ne ; fed, ut ego ju- 

antiquis. Rcrum ipfAram feouluft dico, femper indecoie. LipHu', Kof. 

I^tor, leverus iu<iex : necirgi noArosvo, ad lib i. Politicorom, c4^. g, p.m. aiy, 

)ui iLagis Ub£r ab aHcdu, Dedecus tom. Iv. Ope^um edit« Vefal. 1675. 

G 3 cenfured 


86 ^ M I L I U S. 

cenfured by feveral of the French writers, particufarly by M. 
Sorel : "It docs not avail (fays this author) that hfs orsltorfal 
** pieces are imitations of thofe of the Greeks and RomaVis : 
*' all are not in their proper places ; for he often makes bar- 
^< bariaris to fpeak in a learned and eloquent mannen To 
<* give one remarkable circumflance ; though our moft au* 
** thentic hiftorians declare, that Hauler, or Hanier» the coun- 
** fellor, who fpoke an inveQive, iq prefence of king Lewis 
" Hautin, againft Enguerrand de Marigny, came ofF poorly, 
*^ and faid many filly things; yet Paulus i^miliiisy who 
*' changes even his name, calling him Annalis, makes hioi 
*' fpeak with anaiFe£led eloquence. He alfo makes this En- 
*^ guerrand pronounce a defence, though is is faid he was not 
*^ allowed to fpeak ; fo that what the hiftorian wrote on this 
Sorel Bib- " occ^fioh, was only to exercife his pen." He has been felfo 
Kotheque animadverted upon, for not taking notice of the holy vial at 
Francoifc, Rbeims. *' [d] I fliall not (fays Claude de Verdier) pafs over 
• ^*"» c( Pauliis ^milius of Verona's malicious filfencfe, 'who omit- 
•* ted mentioning many things relating to the glory oiF the 
" French nation. Nor can it be faid he was iaiiofant of thofe 
** things, upon which none were filen't before hlmfelf ; fuch^ 
'^ as .that oil which was fent from heaVen for anointilig our 
" monarchs ; and alfo the lilies*^ And even thbugli he bad 
*' not credited them himfelf, he ought to have declared tde 
•* opinion of mankind.*' Julius Scaliger mentions a book 
containing the hiftbry of the family of the Scaligers, as tr^rif- 
^ lated iilto elegant Latin by Paulus i£milius} and in his letter 
about thieintiquity and fplendor of the family, he has the fol- 
lowing paflage: "By the injury of time, the malice of ene- 
<* mies, attd the ignorance of writers, a great number df Wfe- 
** moirs relating to our family were loft ; fo that the name 
** of Scaliger would have been altogether buried in obfcurity, 
*'*had it not been for Paulus iEmiiius of Verona, that moft 
•* eloquent writer and preferver of ancient pedigrees; who 
*' having found, in Bavaria, very ancient annals of our fa* 
♦* mily, written, as he himfelf tells us, in a coarfe ftyle, po- 
•* liflied and'tranflated them into Latin. From this book my 
*« father extrafled fuch particulars, >$ feemed to refledl the 

[n] Patilj /^milii Veroncnfis ma- gum caclitot dcmlflum et lilia fimtlitcr; 

ligniJm filentiunri ron filebo, qui jnul- quibus fi fidcm non*adhibuit, earn faliero 

torum. ,non ir.cminit qiiie ad Gallorutn bominum mentibua opinionem inntam 

gloriam, pcrtipcrent. Ncc ea ignorafle eire dicere oportuit. Claud, Verdieriut 

dici poicft, qux nullus ante eum prae- in Au^. cenf. p. 88, 
terilt, ut oleum iUud ad un^ioncoi Re- 



JE M 1 L I U S. * f I 

^^ greated botiouF onour ffiaiily [e]" Scaliger fpeaks al(b of 
iXi^i the firft editioo of his Conimentary on Catullus, in 1576; 
and in the fkcond, in 1600, but in fuch a manner, as diSers 
fotncwhat {"rooi the paflage above cited. Scioppius has fcverc- 
ly attack^ Scaliger on account of thefe variations ; he ob- 
ferves, that no mention being maife of the place, where tills 
maaufcript was pretended to be found, nor the peifon who 
poflefied it, and Uich authors as had fearched the Bavarian Schftppms 
Ubrarijes with the utmoft caTCj having met with no fuch JJ ^'fjj^*'? 
annals ; he therefore aflerts, that whatever the Scalis:ers ad- m^fol.40. 
vanced concerning this work, was all impofture. ^milius^verfe.' 
as to his private litCf was a rn^n of exemplary condufl and un- 
tainted reputation. He died ia ^529, and was buried in the 

cathedral at Purkn 


t^l Injuria temporam, malevolentia fapic noftrae vetuftiflimos, pingui ftilop 

KoftiniDy impcritia Anrlprofom, eestuni- ut ipfe air, conceptos, edotavit cos et La* 

<iiio8 hi groans' Aoftri d)eiD«ria egeruat, rior loqui docuit. Ex to iibro parena 

otde totiua nomtiiis Scaitgeri^uinime- meus ea excerpfit, qus ad noftri geaerif 

tuendum eflet, nrfi prxfto fuifTet elo- ctaritaiem przcipue pertinere vifa funt* 

^nentiflimus vir, et antiquarnm origt- Jofeph Scalig. hi Epiftola de Vetuftate 

«am vinilex Paulus ^miiiiis Veroneofis, %t Splti^ore Oeatis Scdigerar, p. %, 9. 
i^ui tu^Xufi Ia Norico a^a et annales pro- 

^NEAS (Gazeus), or -^NEAsof Gai&a, a fophiftby pro- 
feflion, was ori^inally^ a Platonic philofopher, but afterwards 
became a chriSian, and floufifbed about the year 487. His Fabric. Bill, 
tge is afcetiatned from bis afturing us, that he faw the Afri-^'«c, lib. 
<an confeffors, whofc tongues were cut out by Hunneric k:ing Qj|^^;/^^^ 
of the Vandals, in 484, under the reign of ihe Emperor Zeno : Literar. 
and in this -we may believe him* But can we fofafely believe 
him, when he affirms, that he heard thefe confeflTors fpeak very 
plainly and diftin£lly, after their tongues were indeed cut out f 
He wrote a dialogue, intitled, *' Theophraftus," concerning 
the immoftality of the foul, and the refurreflion of the body j 
which he has enlivened with many curious enquiries ihto 
thcfentimen^s of the philofophers, and with many agreeable 
ftories. This dialogue was ^rft tranflated into Latin,, and 
publiAied at Bafil, in 1516: afterwards in Greek and Latin^ 
at Bafil, in 1560, with other pieces: afterwards at Leipfic, 
165B, with a tran'flation and notes, by Barthius, in quarto. 

^NEAS f Sylvius), or Ptus II, was of the family of the 
Piccolimini, born in the year ,1405, at Corligny in Sienna, 
where his father lived in exile. He. was educated at the 
grammar fchool of that place; but his parents being in low 
circumftajKes, he was obliged, in his early years, to fubmit ta 

G 4 many 

I t 

«8 . JE N E A S. 

♦ • • • 

many fervile employments. In 1423, by ihe affiftance of hit 
friends, he was enabled to go to the uniVerfity of Sienna, 
\yhere he applied himfelf to his fiudies with great faccefs^ and 
in a fhort time publilhed feveral pieces in the Latin and Tuf- 
Append. td can languages. Jn 1431, he attended cardinal Dominic Ca- 
Cave Hift. pranica to the council of Bafil as his fecreiary. He was likc- 
cdhi/colon!^^*^'^ in the /an^e capacity with cardinal Albergoti, who fent 
y^iiobrog. him to Scotland to mediate a peace betwjxrthe EngliQi and 
>7*o- Scots; and he was in that country" when king James I. was 
^m-ljlib^jt, murdered. Upon his return from Scotland, he was made fe- 
ji. cretary to the council of Bafil, which he defended againft tbc 

iauthority of the popes, both by his fpeeches and writings, par- 
..^ ticularly in a dialogue and cpiftles which be Wrote to the re<5ilor 
Com. dc '^nd univerfity of Cologn. He was likewife made by that 
Script. Ec-coiincil clerk of the ceremonies, abbreviator, and one of the 
cieCtom. juodecemviri, or twelve men, an oiBce of great importance^ 
****^ He was employed in feveral embaffies ; onjce to Trent, another 

time to Francfort, twice to Conftance, and as often to Savoy, 
and thrice to Strafburg, where he had an intrigue with a 
lady, by whom he had a fon ; he has given an account of this 
affair in a letter to his father, wherein he endeavours to vin- 
dicate himfelf with a good deal of humour and gaiety [a3» 


Ja] The /olJowing If a copy of tbe ** hang about your neckband ftfcw his 

letter: <* ^neas Sylvius the poet to " little fond oets for you? But you fay 

** hif father Sylvius. You uritefo me ** you are forry for my crime, h^caufe { 

" that you are doubtful whether you <* have got this child in an unlawful 

<« ought to rejoice or to be fotry, be- '• wayj 1- cannot imagine, fir, what 

*' caufe God has given me a foo : for my *' opinion you have formed vf me; it it 

V own pait, I fee reafon for joy» but ** certain that you, who partake of £le/h 
*• none for forrow j for what greater ** ^nd blood, did not beget me of a rigid 
^* pleafure is there in life than to beget ** infenfible conflitution ; you are con« 
** another -like one's felf, to extend " fcious to yourfeif what a man of gal- 
** one^s CA\n blood» and to leave a per- ^' lantry you was. For my part, I am 
*' fon who may furvive you ? what is •* neither an eunuch* nor impotent ; 
*' more agreeable than to fee one's fon's ** nor an hypocrite, in chufing to fcem 
** fons ? To me it is the higheft fatisi. " good, rather than really be fo : 1 
*' fa£lion that ipy feed is propagated, ^* frankly own my fault, becaufe I am 
** and that } have produced fomething ** neither more holy than king David, 

• *' before I die, which may furvive me ; " nor wifer than Solomon. This il a 

V apd I return thanks to God, who has '' crime of very ancient fiaoding,. and I 
f* formed the foetus into a male, that '* cannot tell who is exempt from it, 
" the little boy may divert you and my " This plag;ue is very extenfive (if it be 
" mother, and afford you that comfort ** a plague to ufe one*s natural powers}; 
•^ and afliftancf , which it was my duty " fo that I cannot fee why this appetite 
'* to do. If nriy birth was any pleafure *^ fliould be fo much condemned. fJncc 
•* to you, why ihould not the bi^th of •' nature, which does nothing amifs, hat 
•• my fon be fo likewife ? will jiot the •* implanted it in all creatures, in order 
** fight of the little infant give you fome •* to prcferve the fpeciet. But y©u fpcm 
«< fatisfaftion, when you ih^ll fee my " to fay, that there gre pertain lin^its 
« image in bis countenance? will it " within which this is lawful 5 and that 
** not be agreeable to you, to have hiii» << this appetite ihould never be indulged 

•• beyond 

iE N E A S. ^9 

Ih 143^9 he was employed in the fcrvice of pope Felix } 
and being foon after fent embaflador to the emperor Frederic, 

be was crowned by him with the poetic laurel, and ranked 
amongft his friends. In 1442, he was fent for from Bafil by 
the enfperor, who appointed himfecretary to the empire, and 
raifed him to the fenatorial order* He could not at firft be 

" beyond ' the juft bonnduiet of mar- ** recommended to onr landlord by Me- 

** li^r* This is veiy true $ and yet even *' linthas the father^ and the lady wia 

" in the married ftate there are frt' ** very fearful left our landlord fiiould 

" qoent crimes committed. There is '* perceive fomethiog of the afFair, and 

** accstain rule and meafure for eating^ ** turn the child out of doon, becauie 

*< an^ drinking, and fpeaking j but who " ihe might follow her mother's ex- 

** obferves them ? who is fo righteous " ample. The night came on, and Ihfi 

*' as not to fall feven times a day ? Let '* was to go away the next day | fo that 

** the hypocrite fpeak, and declare him- " I, apprehenfive left I dioold Jofe my 

'* felf t» be confcious of na fio : J know *' prey, defired her not to bolt the door 

'* there is no merit in me, and only de- ** atnight, and told her I would come at 

^ pend upon God'*s goodpefs for mercy, " midnight i flie denied me, and gave 

** who knows that we are liable to fail^ " me no manner of hopes s I urged her, 

'' and to be harried away by irregular " but ihe ftill pcrfifted in her denial. ' 

^ pleafnres ; he wall never ihut up from ** She went to bed i J refolved with my- 

" me the fountain of pardon, which is " felf to fee whether (he had done as I 

** open to all. Bot Ihave faidfafficient " defired her. I recoU^fled the ftory 

^ of this point. And fince you aik my '* of Zima the Florentine, and imagined 

*' reafisos, why I think this child my *' /he might follow the example of his 

** own, left you ffaould maintain another ^* mifirefs. Upon this I wasdetermin- 

** man's inftead of mioe, I will give you " ed to try : when I found every thing 

** a ihort account of the whole aflPair. ** filent in the houfe, J went to her 

** It is not two years fince I was ^mbaf- <' chamber $ the door was ftiur, but not 

' ** fador at Stra/burgh. While I was '* bolted ; I opened it and went in, and 

" there at leifcre for feveral days, a lady, *' obtained the lady*s favour, and from 

*' who came from England, and had ** hence came this fon: the mother^t 

" beauty and youth about her, lodged in *' name is Elizabeth. From the ides of 

" the fame boufe with mes fhe being *' February to the ides of November there 

** very weU (killed in the Italian tongue, ** is juft the number of months which it 

*' addrefled roe in the Tufcan dialeft ; " the ufual term from a woman*s firft 

" which Was fo much the more agree- " pregnancy to the birth ; ibe told me 

** able to me, as it was very uncommon *' this when ft;e was afterwards at Bafil i 

** in that country^ I was charmed with ** and though I had procored'her favour 

" her wit and gaiety, and immediately '* hot by gifts, but by the utmoft folici- ^ 

** recol'.eded that Cleopatra had engage *< tation and courtfliip* I imagined flie 

** ed Antony, as well as Julius Caefar, '' faid this with a defign to get money 

'* bv the elegance of her converfation : *< from me, and I did not believe her s 

'* 1 faid to myfelf, who will blame me, ** but fince I fee /he fiffirms this now, 

" inconfiderate as I am, for doing what " when /he can have no hopes of obtain* 

" the f>reateft men have not thought be- <* ing any thing of me, and the cireum- 

** neath them ? 1 fometimes thought *' ftance of the name and time agree, I 

*< upon the example of Mofes, fome- *< believe the child is mine } and 1 defire 

" times that of Arlftotle, and fome- " you to take him, and bring him ip . 

** times I hat of chriftians themfelves ; *' till he is capable of coming under n>y 

** in flinrt, plea fure overcame me, 1 grew ** care and inftru£tion s for you have no 

** fond of the lady, and aridre^ed her in <* reafon to fuppole that a rich lady 

*• the foficft terms j but /he rcfi/lcd all <* would tell a falfity in the cafe of her 

'^ ray applteattons as firmly as the rock "fon.** Wharton's Append, to Dr. 

'* repels the waves of the fea, and for Cave*s Hift. Litcraria, p* )I4» anno 

'^ three days kept me in fufpence : (he I4sS* 

^ hid a dtfughier fiveycarsoldi who was 


^ N p A S. 

prcYaiied on to condemn the council of BafJ, por -to gd orrt 
abfolutely to Eugeniu$'s party, but remained neut-er. How 
ever, when the emperor Fxederic began to favour £lugeaii;s^ 
J£nea8 likewife changed hisopinion gradually. He afterwards 
Tcprefented the emperor, in the Jiet of Nurembj&rg» when 
they were .confulting about methods to put an end to the 
fchtfm, and was fentambafTador to Eugenius : at, the perfua- 
j^on of Thomas Sarzanus, the apoftolical legate in Gexaw^y^ 
ht fubmitted to Eugenius entirely? and made the following ' 
fpeech to his holinefs, as related by John Gobelin, in hys 
Commentaries of the life of Pius II. ** Moft holy father 
** (faid he) before I declare the emperor's commiffion, ^ivc 
** rhe leave to fay one word copcerning royfclf. I do not | 
*'' cjueiVion but you have heard a great many things which are | 
** ncrt to my advantage. They ought not to have been men- '• 
*' tioned to you ; but 1 muft confefs, that my accufers h^ve \ 
*^ reported nothing but what is true. I own I have faid, and i 
*^ done, and written, at Bafil, many things againft your inie- , 
** refts; it is irtipoflible to deny it : yet all this has been done 
*^ not with a defign to injure you, but to ferve the church* I / 
** have been in an error, without queftion ; but I have b«ett | 
*' in juft the fame circumftanccs with many great men, as I 
'* particularly with Julian cardinal of St. Angelo, with Nicbo- 
** las archbifliop of Palermo, wtth Lewis du Pont (Pontanus) j 
U the fccretary of the holy fee; men who are eflecmed the 
•* greateft luminaries in the law, and dotSlorsof the truth ; to 
•* pmic mentioning the univerfities and colleges which are | 
•* generally againil you. Who would not have erred with j 
** perfons of their eharafter and merit ? It is true, that when 
** 1 difcovered the error of thofe at Bafil, I did not at firft go 
*^ over to you, as the greateft part did ; but being afraid of 
falling from one error to anrvtber, and by avoiding Charib* 
dis, as the proverb exprefles it, to run upon Scylla, I joined 
myfelf, after a long deliberation and confli£t within myfelfi 
** to thofe wiio thought proper to continue in a ftate of neu- 
trality. 1 lived three years in the emperor's court in this 
fituation of mind, where having an opportunity of hearing 
** conftantly the difputes between thofe of Bafil and ycae 
** legates, 1 was convinced that the truth was on your fide: 
^* it was upon this monve that when the emperor thought fit 
** to fend me to your clemency, I accepted the opportunity 
*' with the utmoft fatisfadlion, in hopes that I (hoold be fo 
ContTn. *' happy as to gain your favour again : I throw myfelfthere^ 
Annai. Ba- * ' foce ttt your {ect ; and fincel finp'ed out of ignorance, I in- 
ronii, i44j.'^ ireat you to grant me your pardon. After which I (hall 


^ N E A S. §t 

<>pen to you tlie emperor's Intentions." This was the pre- 
ludetothe fanioas retradion which i£neas Sylvfusmade aftef- 
5*^^*. iThe popfe {>ardohed every thing that was paft ; and 
«a ftort tiinc made hioi his fecrctary, withbut obliging hirti 
toqliit the poft Which he had with the emperor. 

fie w^s fent a fccond time by the emperor on an embafl]^ - 
to £i^eniu$, on the following otcafion : The pope hav^rr^ 
dftpofed Thierry and James, archbiflicJps and eleflors of C<J- 
tegrie and Tfeves, becatife they had openly declared for Feliaf! 
*nd thecoundl of Bafil, theeledlors of the empire wei1& highly 
offended at this proceeding ; and at their defire the eiriperot 
fent ^neas Sylvius to [Prevail on the pope to revo]ce the fen- 
tenceof depojidon. 

Upon the deceafe of pope Eugehius, -flEneas was ehofen by 
the cardinals to prefide in ihe conclave, till another pope fliouM 
DC eleifted. He was made bifhop of Targeftum by pope Ni- 
thoias, and went^igain into Germany^ where he was ap- 
pointed counfellor to the emperor, and had the direction of all 
the important affairs of the empire. Four years after, h€ 
J[to mide archbifliop of Sienna 5- and in 1452, he attended 
'rederic to Rohie, when he Wtmt to receive the imperial # 
ctown. ^neas, dpon his retiirtt, was named legate of Bo- 
hemia and Auftria. About the year 1456, being fent by the 
tniperor into Italy, to treat wift pope Callixtus III. about 
i war with the Turks, he was hiade a cardinal. Upon the 
deceafe of Callixtus, in the year 1458, he was eleded pope, 
by the name of Pius II. After his promotion to the papal 
chair, he publiihed a bull, retracing all he had written in 
defence of^ the council of Bafil ; and thus he apologizes for 
Ws former condud: ** We are nlen, (fays he) and we have 
** erred as men ; we do notdeny^ but that many things which 
} we have faid or written, may juftly be condemned : we have 
I ** been fcduced, like Paul, and have perfccuted the church of 
** God through ignorance ; we now follow St Auftin's exam* 
** pie, who, having fufFered fevtral erroneous fcntiments to 
•* efcape him in his writings, retraced them ; we do juft the , 
* fame thin^^ z ^e ingenuoufly confefs our ignorance, being 
" apprehcnfire left what we have Written in our youth, (hould 

*^^3fipn fdmc error, which may prejudice the holy fee. 

*^ rorifit is fuitable to any perfon's chara£ler to maintain the 

" eminence andglorf of the firft throne of the church, it is 

ccna'mly fo to ours, whom the merciful God, out of pure 

II goodnefs, has raif<rf to the dignity of vicegerent of Chrift^ 

^j ^^^^^^^ *"y ^merit on our part. For all thefe reafbns, we 

exhort you and advifeyoU- in the Lord> not to pay any re- 

9 •• gard 

9a JE N E A S. 

** gard to thofe wrttings,which injare in any manner the autho- 
^* rity of the apoftolic fee, and aiTert opinions which the holy 
*' Roman church does not receive. If you find any thing eoli- 
th trary to this in our dialogues anddetters, or in any other of 
*^ our works, defpife fuchnotionSfrejedthem, follow what 
l^be^sO)!- ct, ^e maintain now ; believe whatlaflert now I am in years, 
CwndU, *' rather than what I faid when i was young : regard a pope 
torn. xiii. f< lather than a private man ; in ihort, reject ^neas Sylvius, 
p. 1407* it juj receive Pius IL Nee privatum hominem pluris 
^^ facit^, quam fummum pontificem } ^neam rejicice, Pium 
f' accipite.^' 
^ Pius behaved in his high office with, great fpirit and aQivity. 

He fuppreflfed the war which Piccinus was raifingin Umbria ; 
and recbvered Ailifi and Nucera. He ordered a convention 
of princes at Mantua, whefe he was prefent himfelf ; and a 
.war was refplved upon againft the Turks. Upon his return 
to Rome, he .^yent to Vicerho, and expelled feveral tyrants 
from thi^ territories of jthe ^cclefiaftical {late. He excommu- 
nicated §igifmund dukeof Aufiria, and Sigifmund Malatefta ; 
the for/ner for imprironing the cardinal of Cufa, and the lat- 
ter becaufe he refuf<;d to pay the hundredths to the. church of 
Rome : aivd he deprived the archbi(hop. .of iVJentz of hi$ dig- 
nity, ijt confirmed Ferdinand in thje^ kingdom of.rNaples, 
and fent; cardinal Urfiini to C;rown him king. He made a treaty 
with the icing of Hungary ; and comm.anded.Pogebraq.king^of 
Bohemia to be cited before him. During hi$ popedom he 
received embafladors from {the patrijirths of the Eaft : the 
chief of bis ernbafly was one Mofes archdeacon of Auftria, 
a man well verfed in the Gr^eek and Syriac languages, and of 
a diftinguifhed cbarader. He appeared before hi* holinefs in 
the name of the patriarchs of Antioch, Alexandria, and Jeru- 
falem ; be told his holirefs, that the enemy who fows tares, 
liaving prevented them till then from receiving the decree of 
the council of Florence, concerniog the union of the Greek 
and Latin churches, God bad at laft infpired them with a 
jcfuliition of fiibmitting to it.; that it had.been folemnly agreed 
to, in an .afi'eii«bly called together for tha]t purpofe ; and that 
for the future they wpuld unanicnoufly fubmii to the pope as 
vicegerent of Jefus Chrift; Pius commended the patriarchs _ 
for their obedience, and ordered I^lofes's fpeecb to be tranf- 
FXiury, l;ited into' Latin, and placed amongft the archives of the Ro- 
|! uS?!^.^^". church. A few days after thearrival of thefe amb-ffi- 
dors froip the Eaft, there came others alfo .from Monobaffe, 
qr^Monembuifle, a city in Pelopont^efus, Tituated upon a 
m,Qumain near the fca : thefe offered, the. obedience pt their 
■ . ' city 

JENEA'S. 53 

city to the pope, who received -thenvin the name of the church ^^^^^^ 
of Rome, and fent them a governor. PiiiMib.m. 

Pius, in (he latter part of his pontificate, made great pre* 

paraiions againft the Turks, for which purpofehe fummoned 

the afilftance of the feveral princes in Europe ; and having 

raifed a cbii(id«r able number of crbiiTcs and others, he went 

to Aacona to fee them embarked, where he was feized with 

a fever, and died the 14th of Ayguft, 1464, in the 59.1(1 

year- of his age, having eiijoyed the fee of Rome fix years, 

eleven months, and twenty-feven days. His body was carried 

to* Ronne, and interred in the Vatican. Spondanus, WAd^miu 

his Eccleiiaftic Annals, fays, that he was inferior to none in i43<«^«C' 9 

learning, eloquence, dexterity, and pi-udence. The cardinal'^* 

of Pavta, in his fpeecb to the conclave concerning the choice 

cf.a fucceflbf, gives this elogium to Pius II, that he was a 

pope who had all the virtues in hjs character ; and that he 

had deferved the utmoft commendation by his zeal fpr religion, 

his integrity of manners, his folid judgment, and. profound 

learning. His /ecretary, John Gobelin, publifhed a hiflory 

of his life, which is fuppofed to have been written by this 

pope himfelf : it was printed at Rome in quarto, in 1584 and 

1589; and at Francfort, in folio, in 1614. We have aa 

edition of ^neas Sylvius's works, printed ^t BafU, in folio, in 

Pius was famous for his wife and witty faying^, > fome of 
which are as follow : That there were three perfons in the 
Godhead ; not proved to be fo by reafon, but by confidcr* 
ing who faid fo« That to &nd out the motion of the fiars, 
had mor&pleafure |han profit in it. That as a covetous man 
is never fatisfied with money, fo a learned man fhould not be 
with knowledge. That. common men (hould cfleem learn- 
ing as iilver, noblemen prize it as gold, and princes as jewels. 
That the laws had power over the commonality, but were 
feeble^ the greater ones. A citizen fliould look upon his 
family as fobje<ft to the. city, the city to his cgjuntry, the 
country to the world, and the world to God. That the 
chief place with kinas wais flipptry. That as all rivers run 
into the fea, fo do all vices into the court. That the tongue 
of a fycophant was a king's greateft plague. That a prince 
who would truft nobody, .was good for nothings and he who 
believed every body, no better. That it is necefTary that he 
who governs many, fhould himfelf be ruled by -many. That 
thofe who went to the law were the birds, tfeftcouit the field, . 
the judge the net, and the lawyers the fowlers, T'hat men 
ought to be prefcnted to dignities, net cJigniiies to men. 


94 iE N E A B. 

That a covetous man never pleafea any bodj, but by 
death. That it was a flaviQi vice to tell lies. That luft 
fullies and ftains every age of man, but quite eytinguiihes 
old age. 

' ^SCHINESy a Socratic pbilofopher, tbefon of Char in ua 

a faufage-maker. He was continually with Socratea, which 
occafioned this philofopher to fay, that the faufage-jnaker'a 
fon was the only perfon who knew how to pay a due regard to 
him. It is fatd that poverty obliged htm to go to Sicily^ to 
Dionyfius the Tyrant, and that he met with great contempt 
from Plato. We are informed of this by Diogenes Laenius, 
in his Life of ^fchines, who repeats the fame in his Life of 
'^•^'^"^."PlatOi This however is inconitftent with a pafiage of Plu* 
lliot.iQDiog^tarch^in his book ^'Concerning the Difference between a Friend 
Laert. Vit. and a Flatterer^" where this author introduces Plato rccpoir 
JEkhia. mending ^fchines to Dionyfius ; who, upon Plato's recom- 
mendation, treats him in the mod cfrieudly and honourable 
manner, ^fchines was extremejy well received by Artttip.- 
pus ; to whom he (hewed fomeof-his dialogues, aqd received 
a handfome reward from him. He would not venture to 
profefs philofophy at Athens, Plato and Ariftippus b^ipg i/i 
fuch high efteem ; but he.fet up a fcboolto maintain him/elf. 
Laert. He afterwards wrote orations for the Forum. Laertius telU 
HcfycK. ys, that Polycritus Mendaeus affirmed, in his firft book *'*Df 
lI" s? * *^^ Hiftory of Dionyfius," that -ffifchines lived with the tyrant 
Vit. ^ich. till he was depofed upon Dion's coming to Sy racufe; and 
there is extant an epiftleof his to EHonyfius. Fhrynicus, in 
Photius, ranks him amongft the beft orators, and mentions 
Photii his orations asthe ftandard of the pure Attic ftyle. Hermo- 

fod^'ur!' 6^^^* ^^^ ^Ifo fpoken very highly of him. 
DeForinis ^fchines had fo faithfully copied the doSrines of Socrat^, 
Orationis, and his dialogues were (o exadly agreeable to the genius and 
ca^'ii manner of that great philofopher, that Ariftippus fitfpeAed, 
and Menedemus accufed him of having affumed to himfelf 
Photies, what had been written by Socrates. According to Suidas, 
ecu. civiii. ^fchines wrote the following dialogues, Miltiades, Callias, 
Khinon, Afpafia, Axiochus, Tclauges, Alcibiades, Acepha*. 
li, Phaedon, Polsenus, Eryxias, Erafiftratus, Scythici, and 
one Concerning Virtue. Of tbefe there aie only three ex- 
tant : I, *^C6ncerning Virtue," whether it can be. taught, a. 
"** £ rixtas or Erafiftratus, concerning riches, whether they ace 
good." 3. «« Axiochus, concerning death, whether it is to be 
feared." They were tranflated into Latinby Rudolpjius Agri* 
cola^ Sebafii^n Corradus, and John Serranu$i but thejr 


^ S e H I N E S, 95 


Verlioos lieing, ^ccdrdiog to Mr. Le Clei^, too i«inote^(>:P*'*^*^- 

frmn the.origiful meftnifig, he uOjdertodk a new tranfladQO,nr!i ^^r.k 

which He publwed tn 17x1, m actjtvo, VKith no:tes, and fe^ 

veraUMTettatioQS, intiricd^^'SilvasPhilQlc^c&e;" in thefecond 

chapter ivhcrcof he ejc^cnines the cloSriae of ^fchines' firft 

diialogufi. • I21 the Axiocbus there » an exoeUent paflage con- 

ccrmngttoe imtnortality of the foul ; the fpeakers ate Socrates, 

Clinbs^ and Axtochtis. Clinias had brought Socrates to his 

father AxtocbMSys who was Tick, aod a|)pr<ebenfive of death, 

iniM-der to fui^rt him againft the fears of it. Socrates, /Bfchiir. 

after & vatriety pf ai(guJaf>e«>9, proeeeds as follows : ** For Jiu-i>iai,nLde 

•* ittan.^o3lture (faysbe) could not have itrrived at jQich a pitch ^^g|^jj 

*^ la executing the greateft affairs^ fo- as to defpife oren the j* cierici, "^ 

" ftreugth of hrute creatuf es, thoughfupe^ior to our ownf'7«J- 

" to;pa(s over feaS) b^ild cities, and found commoniKealths ; 

" contemplate the heavens, view the revolutions of the ftar^^ 

" thecourfes of the fun and moon, their rifmg and fetting, 

*^ their eclipfes and immediate retloration to trheir former fl;,ate« 

" the equinoxes and double returns of the fun, the winds and 

" defce»t9 of {howerd ; this, I fa)<, the ftwl could never do, 

*' Ainlefs p^QefTed »of a divine fplrit, whereby it gains the 

^' knowledge of forttajiy great things. And therefore, Axio- 

'^ chMs^ fy<m wi^lfl not ibe.chsHnged to a Aate of dea'th or annihi- 

*' latio0, bwtof imn>ortality ; nor will ydur delights betaken 

" frOfn,yQll,.but y0ii (WtU.eAJpy.them rnore perfedly ; nor will 

" yotirplcaftHres hav^'iaiiy fci^flure of this mortal body, but 

" be f rj^ /|D9m pvery . kiiid of pai n . When you at c d ifengaged 

" from this prifon, you will be tranflated thither, where there 

?' is'^no labour,! nor 'forrow,.nor old age. You will enjoy a 

** &ite of tranquillity, af)4 freedom from evil, a ftate perpe<* 

" taaHy ferine and eafy.*—*^Axioch." You have drawn roe over, 

" Socfiatev^o your opinion by your difcourie ; I am now no 

*' Johg^r fcar.fij (ff death, bat ambitious of it, and in-patient 

*' ferjit-; cpy mind is traTvfported into fublime thoughts, aad 

^* Itl^*n::the.-cterjjal'aRd djivme circle. . .1 have difengaged my- 

" felf^frjom 'my- former weatoaefs, and am now become a new 

** "^^2^" Pbiloftratesj'inibit epiftles to Julia Augufta, fays, 

tbftt ^fchines wrote an oration concernisg Tbargelia, and 

^Mheimit^fied Gorgia^in it. Menage tells us, that Athcnaeus 

n>cmiotis-a dialogue -oif'^^fchines, which he entitled noXiltM^*, ^at. jn 

*^ttt'Mr, Le Clerc could not find any fuch paflage in Aihe*Laert. Vfr. 

•',"', ^ p. 8. 

•fiSQHlNES^aicetebr^l^d orMor, eofltemporary with Dc-- 
Wofthffifift, aijdiMifcjilfthisinferiour. Some jay that Ifocrates, Fabric. Bibi, 
"*' fomeCr. 1. 929,; 

p ^ S C H I N E S. 

ibmefay that Socrates^ fome that Gorgias, was his itia/ler; 
Being overcome byDemofthenes,ht went to Rhodes, andopcn- 
edafchool there; and afterwards recpoved to Samos, where he 
died at the age of fevcnty-five. There are only three of his ora«* 
tions extant, which however are fo very beautiful, that Fabriciua 
compares them to the three graces. One is againft Timarchus 
hisaccufer, whom he treated fo fevcrely^ as to make him weary 
of life ; and fome have faid, that he did a^aally lay violent b^nds 
upon himfclf., Anofher is an ** Apology" for himfelf againft 
Demofthenes, who had accufed him of perfidy in an *• Eni- 
♦' bafly" to Philip. The third ^ againft Ctefiphon," who 
had decreed the golden crown to Demofthenes. This excel- 
lent oration, together with that of Demofthenes againft ft, 
wastranflated by Cicero into Latin, as St. Jerome and Sido- 
nius inform us* The three orations were publifhed by Aldus, 
J513, and by Henry Stephens among other orators I575f in 
Greek. Wolfias has given them, in his edition of Demofthe- 
nes, with a Latin verfion and notes. 

^SCHYLUS, the tragic poet, was born at Athene. Au- 
thors differ in regard to the time of his birth, fomie placing it 
in the 65th, others in the 70th Olympiad ; but according to 
Stanley, who relies on the Anindelian nvtrblesy he was borii 
in the 63d Olympiad. He was the fon of Euphorion, and 
brother to Cynegirus and Aminias, who diftinguiftied them- 
Scboliaf^es felvesin the4>attTeof Marathon, and the fea- fight of Sal am is, 
inVitaiEf-at which engagements ^fch)l US was likewrfe prefent. Irt 
^,^^„ this laft a£lion, according to Diodorus Siculus, Aminias, th^ 
•"•c«a7»youngerof the three brothers, commanded a fquadron of (blpS, 
and behaved with fo much conduft and bravery, that he funl^ 
the admiral of the Perfian fleet, and fignalized himfelf abov6 
all the Athenians, To this brother our poet was, Upon a 
Var. Hift. particular occafion, obliged for faving his life 5 ^liattrehtes^ 
^***'''**^*'5*that iEfchylus being charged by the Athenians with' ctrtain 
blafphemous expreiHons in fome 6f his pieces, was acCafeJ of 
impiety, and condemned to be fl?ohed to death : they were juK 
^ going to put the fentence in execution, when* Aminias, witb 
^ a happy prefenceofmind, throwing aiide hiscloak^fti^wedhis 

arm without a hand, which he had loft at the bkttle of Salamls^ 
in defence of his country. This fight made fuch an imprcf- 
fionon the judges, that, touched withuhe remembrance of his 
valour, and the friendship he ftiewed for his brother, they 
pardoned ^fchylus. Our poet however refented the indig- 
nity of this profecution, and refeHwl t6:)leave a place where 
' bis life had been in danger. He became irttote dete¥tnteiBiii 




this refolution, wb^n he foiuid bis pieces lefs pleaftog to the Plot. \n cu 
Athenians t|^an thofc ojf Sp^bocliQs, though a much younger "*'**>P*4*S 
writer. .Sioionides had Jikewife won the priz^ from him in 
aneleey upon the h;»ltt]^ o^ Mafajthoo. Suiiias haying faidte Pe^re'f 
ibjtt ^fcl^lus retired into Sicily, bccaufe the feats broke ^^^* °^ ^^* 
down during the reprefentation of one of his tragedies, fome ^ " * 
hsve taken this literally, without confidering that in this fcnfe 
fuch an accident did gceat honour to iEfchylus ; but, ac* 
cprdJDg to Jofeph ScaTiger, it was a phrafe amongft the ep- 
ipedii^s i and he was faid to break dawn ibefioti^ wbofe piece 
jCOttld not fi^nd, but fell to the ground [a]« Some affirm^ 
ibat £(chylu6 npver fat down to compofe but when he had 
drank liberally. Tliis perhaps was in allufion to bis ftyle 4^^5°*°'» 
M niannqr of writing, wherein he was fo hurried away by *• ^' **' 
the excefliv^ tranfporrs of his imagination, that his difcourfe 
i^igbt ieetn to proceed rather from the fumes of wine than 
folid reafon. H? wrote a great number of tragedies, of whiciji 
there are but feven remaining [b] : and notwithftandiag the 
ibarp cenfures of fome critics, he mud be allowed to have 
been the father of the tragic art. In the iime of Thefpis 
.t)iere.^asiio public theatre .to aS u(H)a ; .the ilrollers drove 
idk)ut from place to place in a cart* ^fchylus furntfhed his 
actors with naafques, and drefTed them fuitable to their cha* 
raders. He likewife introduced the' bufkin, to make tbeoii 
app^ir more like heroes. ^ 

Ignotum tragic^ genus inveni& camenfle 
Dicitur, et plauftris vexiile poemata Thefpis, 
Qui canerent agerentque, perunfli faecibus ora^ 
Poft huncperfonae pallasque refertor honeflse 
^fchylijs,' et modicis inftravit pulpita tignis, 
Etdocuit magnumque Joqu! nittque cothurno* 

. * Hon Art. Poet.* ver. 7^^* 

Thefpis, inventor of the tragic ^rt, 

Carried his vagrant players In a cart ; 

High o'er the crowd the mimic tribe appearM, 

And played and fung, with lees of wine befmearM, 

[a] SuhftllyifraMgfre dicebatur % qui, 
«t comici l©^uunt»r, non ftctit, fed e«- 
nditJ hoc eft, oon plicoU, ficutaviro 
4')aiffiino Jofepho ScaUgeto jamdiu mo- 
wtum eft. Sunleiui In itfchyluro, p* 
707. ' *^ 

[a] TJiey ate m follow t 
IwitA^^^ *«^/«*«T9y, Prometheus 

Vol. L 

2. t'jfla tm 0«Cak, Seven sfaiaft 

j. nefff-ai. The Perfiani. 
4. \yafA9f4,far9, Agaisemnon. 
* 5. Xon^f 01, The Infernal Regiqat^ 
0. £i;/(Aiu^C(y The Furies* 
7. iii&thi, The SuppiJanti. 



^i iE S C H Y D U S. 

Then ^fchy Ills a decent vizard us*d. 
Built a low i^age, the flowing robe diffused ; 
In language more fublrrhe his a£tors rage. 
And in the graceful bu(kin tread the fiage. 

Franc i«^« 

Dacier fur . The ancf^ts give ^fchylus alfo the praVfe of 'having been 
Hor.t6m.T.()|e firft who removed murd era and (hocking fights from the 
^i*f°' ***'*eye8 of the fpeftarors. He is faid likewife to have leflcned 
the number of the chorus ; or rather this reformation wal 
owing to an accident : in his Eumenides, the chorus which 
confifted of fifty perfons, appearing on the ftage with fright- 
ful habits, had fuch an efKed on the fpedlators, that the wo^ 
^tanleia8,p.^c>^ With child mifcarrted, and the childt^n kil into fits; 
7o». 707. this occaiioned a law to be made* to reduce' the chorus -to df^ 
In hit Life tccn. Mr.X.e Fevfc has'obfervcd, that ^fchylus never re- 
l^^^^^y' prefented women in love, in his tragedies, ' which, he fays, 
was not fuited to his geniuis ; but in- reprcfenting a wp-*- 
man tranfported with fury he was incomparable. Longi- 
jius fays^ that ^fchylus has a noble boldnefs of ^xpref- 
fion; and that his imagination is lofty and heroic. It 
muft be owned, h'owever, that he afFefted pompous wordff, 
and that his fenfe is too often obfc'u red by.figures : which gave 
Sal mafi us. pec ail on to fay, that he was more- difficult to be 
^ , ,. A underftood than the Scripture itfelffcl. But not with (landing 

Scholiatt. , r • r o • • • 111* • 

Ariftopha- thele imperfections, this poet was held m great veneration 

yiisapud by the Athenians,^who made' a public decree* that bis trage- 

Stani. p. j-g3 fhouldibe pfayed after his death. Wheti iEfchylus 

retired to thC' court of Krero king of Sicily*, th'isprince was 

then building .the city df iEtna, and our poet celebrated 

the new city .bji a tragedy: of the fame namer. > After having 

Jived fomec years at Gela, .we. are told- that be died of a 

fra&ure:' ofvhfs .fkull, caufed by an eagle's letting fall a 

Vai. Man. tortoife on his head: .apd the manner of his death is faid 

W 7'b* ^^ ^^^'^ ^^^" predicted by an oracle-, which, had foretold 

ci^. 3. that he (hould die by. ./oniewha; from the. heavens. This 

happened,^ According ta Mr. Stanley, in the 69th year of his 

age. He had the honour of a pompous funeral from the 

SieiliafiJ&^fwha buried him near the river Geb; dnd the 

tragedians of the country performed plays and theatrical ex-^ 

[c] Quis -^fctylum poffit adfirntarc crorum com fuis Haebraifmis, et Syriaf- 

Cr^ce nunc fciehti wagis patcre expli- mis, cr tota Helleniftica fupellectile »ej 

cabitem quam evaogelia aut e^iftolas farragioe. DeHcUcAXitiGa^ p* ^7* £pift« 

apofioljcas ? unos ejus Agafncmnon bb- Di^icst* 
icDritfte fuperat quantum eft librorum fa- 


.^ S C H Y L U S. ^9 

ercifei at his tomb ; upon which was infcrlbed iht fdlowiDg 
epitaph : 

^fchyjus, Euphorion's {on^ whom Athens borCy 

Lies here interr'd, on Gela's fruitful (hore. 

The plains of Marathon his worth record. 

And heaps of Medes that fell beneath his fword [dJ. 

[dJ- Ai^xpT^f I.vpo^iani 'A^mieuot ro^t xst/Oi 


-3ESOP, the Phrygian, lived in the time of Solon, about 
the 50th Qlympiad, under the reign of Crcefus the lad king 
of Lydia. As to genius and abilities, he was greatly indebt* PUtarclr^ 
ed to nature} but in other rbfpeds not fo fortunate, being 
born a flave, and cxtrenaely deformed. St. Jerome, fpeaking 
of him, Tays, he was unfortunate in his birth, condition, aild 
death; hinting thereby at his deformity, fervile ftate, and ' 
tragical end* His great genius, howeyer, enabled him to 
fupport his misfortunes;' and in order to alleviate the hardv 
(hips of/fervitude, he compofed thofe entertaining and in- 
firuftive fables, which have acquired him fo much reputation* 
He is generally fuppofed to have been the inventor of that 
kind of writing: but this is come (led by feveral, particularly 
Quintilian, who feems to think that Hefiod was the firft au- Quint. <nft* 
thor of fables, ^fop, however, certainly improved this art ^"^v*^*** ^^ 
to a very high degree ; and hence it is that he has been ac-?'*^' "* 
counted the author of this fort of productions : 

^fapus aii£lor quam itiateriam reperit^ 
Hanc ego polivi verfibus fenariis. 

Phafid. Proi. aid. lib. I. ! 

Jf any thoughts in thefe iambics (hine, 

Th' invention's ^fop's, and the Terfe is mine. 

The firft mafter whom MCop fcrved, was one Garafius De- Mc^iriac*! 
marchus, an inhabitant of Athens ; and there, in all proba-l'^^e of 
bility, he acquired his purity in the Greek tongue. After hinx^^^^l^ ^^ - 
he had one or two more mafters, and at length camcBourgea' 
under a philofopher named Xanthus. It was in his fer-Srefam 
vice that he firft difplayed his genius: Xanthus being onfe'^^^* 
day walking in the fields, a gardener afked him why thofe 
plants^ which he nurfed with fo much care, did not thrive fo 

H % weli 


|oa JE S O P. 

well as thofe which the earth pr^ucod without atiy c^ilfi^st^ 

lion ? The philofophcr afcribcd all to Providence, an^ con- 
tinued his walk: but ^fop, having flopped with the gar- 
dener, ccraipared the earth to a woosian, who always regarda 
her own children more aflFe£tionateiy than thofe whom by a 
fecond marriage ihe may become a ftepmother to : the earthy 
faid he, is the ftepmother to laboured and forced ptodu^ions, 
but the real mother to her own natural produce. JEfop was 
afterwards fold to Idmon, or ladmo^, the phtloropher, who 
(^nfranchifed him. After he had recovered his liberty 9 be 
foon acquired a great reputation amongft the Greeks $ fo 
that, according to>Meziriac, the report of his wifdom having 
reached Croefus, this king fent to enquire after him, and en- 
gaged him in his fervicc. He travelled through Greece, ac- 
cording to the fame author j whether for his own plcafitre, 
or upon the affairs of Crcefus, is uncertain i and paffing by 
Athens, foon after Pififtratus had ufurped the fovercign 
power, and finding that the Athenians bor^ the yoke very 
impatiently, he told them the fable of the frogs who peti- 
tioned Jupiter for a king. Some relate, that, in order td 
fhew that the life of man is full of miferies, ^fop ufed to 
Aieziriac ex fay, that whcH Prometheus took the clay to form man, be 
Themjftio. tempered it with tears, The images made ufe of by -^fop 
are certainly very happy inventions to inftru£t mankind ^ 
they have all that is neceflTary to perfed a precept, being a 
mixture of the ufeful with the agreeable. •* -/Efbp the faba- 
*« lift (fays Aulus Gcllius) wasdefervedly efieemed' wife, finec 
♦* he did not, after the manner of the philofqphers, rigidly 
** and Imperioufly diflate fuch things as were proper to be 
*' advifed and perfuaded, but, framing entertaining and agree- 
• *^ able apologues, be thereby charms and captivates tbehu«» 
.«' man mind [a]," Apollonius of Tyana, talking of the 
Philoftra^ut fables of ^fop, greatly prefers them to thofe of* the poets : 
jn the Life they, he fays 60 but corrupt the ears of the hearers ; they re- 
^^^P^°^|^ prefent the infamous amours of the gods, their incefts, quar- 
cap/5. rels, and a hundred other crimes. Thofe who find fuch 
things related by the real fadls, learn to love.yice, and 
are apt to believe they fin not in gratifying the moft irregu- 
lar appetites, feeing they do but imitate the gods. JEJibp^ not 
contented with rejedting fables of this nature, in favour oF 

[a] ^fopas file e Phrygk tabulator rot dcIeQabilefqOe apolcgos aemn»nto9, 
haiMi imfnerito haptens exiftim»tus cftj res falubriter acprofpiciehteranimadrer- 
quum quae utilia monitu fuafoque erant, fas, in mentes aoimofque kominum cum 
non fcvcre, noji impcriol'e praccepit et aodiendi quadam illecebra indudt. A. 
ccAfait, lu phiJofopkis i&ot th, fed MU Gellius, Koaea AUicx, lib. ii, cap. %6, 


JE S O F. tQC 

wifdom has inv^ntsed a nerw method* ApoIfooiiM', contiiiiiing 
bis parallel, ihews^ by fev^ral other reafons, bow miich ike 
fables cf ^fop furpafB thofe of the poets : after which he tella 
a ftory that be had leafiit of bis mother in his infancy, ^fopv 
it feemS) being a ihepherd, and feeding bis flock near a temfdc 
of Mercury, often befought this god to grant him the pofief-* 
fion of wifdom. Mercury had a great number of fuitors, who 
all entered the temple with their hands full of rich offerings i 
^vhile ^fop, being, poor,^was the only one who made no 
precious offerings, having prefented only a little milk and 
honey, with a few flowers. When Mercury came to make 
a dtftribution of^ wifdom, he had regard to the pric? pf the 
offerings : he gave accordingly, philofophy to one, rhetoric 
to aiTother, aftrooomy to a third, and poetry to a fourth. 
He did not remember ^fop, till after he had flniflied bis 
diflribution ; and at the fame time recollefling a fable, which 
the Hours had told him when at nurfe, he beftowed on JEhp 
the gift of inventing apologues, which was the only one left 
in Wifdom's apartment. 

JE{op was put to death at Delphi. Plutarch tells us, thatP^^^.^a. 
he came there with a great quantity of gold and fdvcr, being Ji^'p^V^^ 
ordered by Croefus to pfFer a facrifice to Apollo, and to give 
a confiderable fum to each inhabitant ; but a quarrel arifing 
betwixt him and theDelphians, he fent back the facrifice and 
the money to Crcefus ; for be thought that thofe, for whom 
the prince defigned it, had rendered them&lves unworthy of 
it. The inhabitants of Delphi contrived an accufation of fa- 
crilege againft him, and pretending they had conviAed him, 
threvir him headlong from a rock. For this cruehy and in- 
juftice, we are told, they were vifited with famine aojd peftt* 
Jence ; and confulting the oracle, they received for anfwer, 
that the god defigned this as a punifliment for their treat- 
ment of i^fop. They endeavoured to make an atonement . 
by raifing a pyramid to his honour* 

^SOP, a Greek hiftorian, who wrote a romantic hiftory 
of Alexander the Great : it is not known at what' time he 
lived. His work was tranilated into Larin by one Julius Va- 
lerius, who IS not better known than iSfop. Freinlhemiua 
has the following pafiage concerning this work : *^ Julius 
^* Valerius wrote a fabulous Latin hiftory of Alexander, 
•* which by fome is afcribed to -^fop, by others to Callift- 
'^ henes. Hence Antoninus, Vincenttus, Ufpargenfis, and 
•* others, have greedily taken their romantic taks. It niay 
^ not be amifs to quote bere the opinion of Barthius, in bis 

H 3 *• Adv^rlaria; 

J^% JE S O P. 

** Adrcrfaria : ** There trc nwiny fudh things (fays this au« 
** thoi^) in the learned monk, who fome years ago pubtiflied 
•* a life of Alexander the Great, full of the moft extragrant 
** iidipns ; yet this romance had formerly fo much credir, 
*• that it is quoted as an authority even by the beft writers. 
•* Whether this extraordinary hiftory was ever publifhed, 1 
*< know not; I have it in dianufcript, but I hardly think it 
^' worthy of a place in my library. It is the fame author 
** that Francifcus Juretus mentions under the name of 
*' -ffifop." Thus far Barthiut [a]. Freinlhemiuis tells us» 
that this work .was pubjiihed in German at Strafburg, in 
1486, • » 

' . . . / . 

f a] Julius Valerius Latinim fecit Giraldns, qui ncm dubitavit ejus oeilionit 

Isifloriam fabblbfam de Alexandro, quae au£toricate uu. An ea egregia biftoria 

t ab aliis i^opo, ab aliis CalliflheDi ad* edita unquam (it oefcio, nos in charta 

fcripta fuit. Unde fibulas fuas certatlm fcriptum habemus fed tantt vix aeftima- 

^ bauferuptAntonius, Vincentius, Urfpcr- mut^ utin bibliochccam recipiamui : eft 

^ geofis, aiii, Pretiuai videbatur adfcri- idem aador queno ySfopum vocat> et ui- 

%tre b9C loco judicium Barthii ex Q^X. terpretatuiti a Jalio Valerio Francifcus 

Adverfariorum. Talia muka in npn in- Juretus ad Symmacbt, lib* i. epift. 54. 

cradftomonjrcho funt, qui vitam Alex- editiiuie quidem priore. Ego vero ne- 

andri inagoi prodigiofis mendaciis fardam que de ayc^ote oeque dc interprete credo 

edidic ante aliquatn malta fascula quae Roman! Grseclve bomiais eHe, niaxima 

, fabula taotum oiim ftdei habuit; ut a enim in^oGrarci fermofiis ignorantia, 

prndentibos etiain fcrtptoribus fit tefti- nee ulU Romani notitia eft, ^Hadenus 

IDo'nio citata, qualis fane ante plufqiiani Bartbius, Frein(hemius*8 Preface to his 

quatuor fscula fait in Anglia Silveder Commentary on QuintuVCurtius. 


I \ 

JESOP (Clodius), a celebrated aftor, who flouriOied 
about the 670th year of Rome. He and P^ofcius were co- 
temporaries, and the beft performers who ever appeared upon 
the Roman ftage ; the former excelling in tragedy, the latter 
l>lutarcb, in in comedy. Ciceroputhimfelf under their di reft ion to per-^ 
Cicer. Vita^ feft j^jg aflion. jSfop lived in a moft expenfive nianner, and 
^* ■^' at one entertainment is faid to have had a difli which coft 
above eight hundred pounds: this difh we are told was filled 
with Tinging and fpeaking birds, fome of which coft near 
fifty pounds. Pliny (according to Mr, Bayle) feems to re- 
fine too much, when he fuppofes that ^fop found no other 
delight in eating thefe birds, but as they were imitators of 
ihankind : and fays, that iEfop himfelf being an acEtor was 
but a copier of man 5 and therefore he fliould not have been 
lavifli in deftroying thofe birds, which, like him felf, copied 
mankind [a]. The delight "which ^fop took in this fort of 

[a] Maxime infignis eft in hac me- emptast nulla alia indudius fuavicate 
' tnoria Clodii J^(ppi tragici hiilrionis nifi ut in bis imitationem bomin^s man- 
patina feftertium centum tazata ; in qua deret, ne quaefVus quident fuos reveritus 
pofuit avts'^cantu aiiquo aut humano iiioroptimosft v(^e meritoft PJini ii9« 
fjirmpne footles feftertia fex fingulas co- ^. c9p. 31. pag. m. i^43« 

y95 $ €> P. ;j.oj 

birds proceeded, ^ Mr. Bayle olbferves, (torn H^^exptnce^ 
He did not make a diib of .(hem becaufe they cpuld fpeak, 
this motive being only by accidcn^t, but becaufe of their ex- 
traordinary price. If there had been any birds that could 
not fpeak, and yet more fcarce and dear than thefe, he would 
have procured fuch for his table., ^fop'e foil >^as no lefs 
luxurious than his father, for he diflblved pearls for his guefts 
to fwallow. Some fpeak of this as a commoi^ j>r^£iice qfva}. M». 
. his, but others mention his falling into this excefs only on a ''*^'***^*P*** 
particular day, when he was treating his friends. Horace ""*" 
fpeaks only of one pear] of great value, which he.diflblved i^ 

ylnegar, and drank* 


Filius -ffifopi detraSam aureMetellae 

(Scilicet utdecies folidum exforberet) aceto 

JDiluit infignem baccam' : qui fanior, ac fi 

Illud idem in rapidum flumen ja'ceretve cloac^m? 

Hor. Sat^III. lib. ii. ver, 232. 

An ador's fon difiblv'd a wealthy pearl 

^The precious ear-<ring of hisfav'rite girl) 

In vinegar, and thus luxurioqs quaff'd 

A thoufand folid talents at a draught.. 

Had he not equally his wifdom fliewn, 

into the fink or tiver were it thrown ? Francis. 

iEfop, nbtwithftanding his expenses, is faid to have dTedJ^"'<>^* 
worth above a hundred and fixty thoufand pounds. W^hen jj* ^g^p' ^p/ 1 
he was upon the ftage, he entered into his part to fuch a de- 
gree, as fometimes to be feized with a perfeiS extafy. Plu- 
tarch mentions it as reported of him, that whilft he was re- 
prefenting Atreus deliberating how he fhould revenge himfelf \ 
on Thyeflcs, he wasfo tranfported beyond himfelf in the hea^t 
oi aSion, that with his truncheon he fmote one of the fer- ^Jj»*« "» ^'*« 
vants crofling the ftage, and laid him ^ead on the place. ^*^' P* * *• 

AETION, a celebrated painter, who has left -us an ex- 
cellent picture of Roxana and Alexander, which he exhibited 
at the Olympic Games : it reprefents a magnificent chamber, 
where Roxana is fitting on a bed of a moft fplendid appear- 
ance, which is rendered flill more brilliant by her beauty, , 
She look^ downwards, in a kind of confufion, jbein? ilruck 
wirn^ the prefence of Alexander {landing before heV, A 
number. of little Cupids flutter about, fome holding up the 
^Milain, as if tolhew Roxana to the prince, whilft others are 
ouiicd ijj undrelfn^ the lady J Tome pull Alexander by th^e 

n 4 • cloaK, 

rff4 A fi t f O K. 

km him to his m^ftrefs : h6 lays his cfdvrn at Mer fee^, 6^*ci«^| 
akrcbmpani^d by Epheftion, who hold^ a torch in hh hand, and 
leans upon a youth, who reprefenta HymeA. Se^veral o^r 

Jittle Cupkis ar6 reprefen ted, playing W'lih bis arms; fy&nt 
carry his lance, ftoopkig ufider fo h'eavy a weight ; dVhers 
bear along his buckler," upon which one of them i» f<^red, 
whom the ttR carry i'n triampb ; another tiea m ambufli in 
bis amour, waiting to frighten the reft as they piafs by. This 
pidure gained Aetion fo much reputation, that the prefittent 

yOf the games gave htm hrs daughter in marriage. 

^TIUS, an ancient phyfician, was born at Amtda^ a town 
Fabric.Btbl.ofMefopocamia; but at what time be lived medi^rat hii^orians 
^^'^ ****•'•*• are not agreed. Someplace him in the year 3.50, others in 
437* ^^^ others in 455 : to which laft opinion Merklin Teems 
LindeB. Re* to fubfcribe. But Dr. Freind will have him to be much later : 
novit. p.iS.he fays, '* it is plain, even from his own books, that he did 
Hift,ofPhy.c« n^j ^fi^g jjjl (j,g y^,.y ^jjd ^ t|,e jiftK Q|. ^1^^ bcgrniving of 

^, «• the fixth century; for he refers not only to St. Cyril, 

<< Archbiihop of Alexandria, who died iln 444, but to Petru^ 
** Archiater, who was phyfician to Theodoric, and therefore 
^< muft have lived ftiti later." He ftudied at Alexandria, and 
in feveral places of his wofks agrees with the pharmacy of 
the Egyptians. His *^ Tetrabiblos," as it is called, is a 
colledlion from the writings of thofephyficians who went be- 
fore him, chiefly from Galen ; but contains neverthelefs fome 
new things, for which we are entirely indebted to this author. 
His work confifts of ftxteen books, eight of which were pub- 
lifhed in Greek only at Venice, 1534, in folio; but Janus 
Cornarius, a phyfician of Frankfort, made a Lafin verlion of 
the whole, and publifhed it with the Greek at Bafil^ '54^» 
in folio. Henry Stephens afterwards printed it among bis . 
** Medici Principcs" at Geneva, 1567, in folio. 

Bufeb, AFER (DoMiTius), a famous orator, born at Nifmes; 

ChroB, fJc flourifhed under Tiberius and the three fucceeding' cfnp6- 
aum, to P«|.Q^5^ Hg ^as elefled to the Prastorfhip ; but not being after- 
wards promoted according to his ambitious expectations, and 
defirous at a^y rate to advance himfelf, he turned informer 
Jacit« againft Claudia Pulchra, coufm of Agfippina, and pleaded, 
A""*'* "**' himfelf in that aflPair. Having gained this caufe, he was 
'»»•« P*5 « thereupon ranked amongft the firft orators, and got into fa- 
vour with Tiberius, who had a mortal hatred to Agrippina: 
but this princefs- was fo far from thinking IXoqiicius the au- 

. thor 


A F E R, 


tbor of Aiift procrft)^ that (he did not eritertain the kaft rcCtnt^ 

tbtnt agkicvCt htm oa that account ; fo that one da}s when \M 

WZ9 trkely to^meet her m theftrcers, and had turned away^ (btf 

tfii»ginrng lie badddiie this from a prmcipte of fbame, or-* 

d^red him fo be called back, and bidding him not be afraid^ 

repeated a IhM from a Homer, impbrtmg that ifae looked notOton.Cafl; 

%ip0n btm Irtit Agafnemnon as the caufeof the larte aflSnr^^^''* ^^f* 

The encoiniirtii» pafled by the emperar oit the eloquence of***^^*' 

Dcrmjciue, made him now eagerlj purfae the profeffion of an 

orator; fe that he was feldom without fomc accufarion or 

defence^ ^htftifykc aiequired a greacer fepu.t^tior> lor bis clo« 

qucQce tb^afi- his probrt/r In the 779th yeai of Rome^ he 

carried on an accufation againft Claudia Pulchra ; and theyeaf •^^^ 

following, Quintilius Varus her Ton was impeached by him Anna!. IIK / 

and Pfxh^i'riis Dolabclla. Nobedy was? farprifcd that Afer»*'- «P» ^^ 

^ho haiJ been poor for many years, and Iqoandered the money 

got Iry former kDpeachmc^ts, fbotild return io this pra^ice ; 

but it was matter of great furprize that one who was a re- 

ktio^ of Varus, and of fuch an iUuRriocrs famiFy as that of 

PbbtiuS^ Do^abelta, fhooid afibciate with tl\is infortner. Afer 

had a high reputation ais an orator for a confiderable time^ 

b<it tbis he Idft by continuing to plead when age bad impair-^ 

ed the faculties of his mind. ** Knowledge, (fays Qwintilian) 

*^ which mcfeafes indeed with years, docs not alone form 

** the orator, fittce he muft have a voice and lungs; for if 

*^ thefe are broken by age or ficknefs, there is reafon eo fear 

*^ the greateft orator may then be deficient ; that be ftop 

'"^ through wearinefs, and, being fenfible that he is not fuffi- 

•* ciently heard, complain firft of himfelf. I myfelf faw the 

** greateft oratdr I ever knew, Do^nitius Afer,- in his old age 

'* daily tofing the reputation he forrtierly acquired; for when 

'* he was pleading, thougt) known to have betn once the 

*^ greateft man at the bar, fome would laugh, wiftic h was ex- 

** tremely ind€cei>t« othiers would blufti ) hence people took 

<< occafion to fay, that Domttius would rath^'r fal) ihan de* 

" fift: nor arc thefe evils, in comparifon ofothefS, but of the 

*^ leaft kind. The orator, therefore, to prevent hijs fallltig into 

'< thefe fnarea of old age, ihouh) found a retrear, and br:ng his 

♦* veffel tight and found into the harbour." Q«intihxu, 

Quintilian, in hi^ youth, cultivated the friend Mp of Do-"* 
mtlius very affiduoufly. He tells us that his pleadings 
abounded w»tA pfeafant ftories, and that there were publi^Ub.v.cap 7. 
collections of his witty fayings, fome of which he quotes. He^^^***«<^*i"3- 
alfe mentions two books of his, *^OnlViineJ/es." D^mitius Was 
once in.^rcat danger from an infcrlption he put upon a ftatue 


10^ A F E R- 

erefled by bim in bonour of Caligula, wherein he declared^ 
that this prince was a fecond time a conful at the age of 
twenty^feven.' This he intended as an encofniuai, but Ca^- 
Dion. CafT. ligula taking it as a far ctifm upon his youth,. asd his infringe* 
lib. Vix. ad pjcnt of thc Jaws, raifcd a procefs againft him, and pleaded 
»^?'79*« bimCelf in perfpn. Dotnitius^ infteaci of making a defencct 
repeated part of the emperor's fpeech, with the higheft marks 
of admiration ; after which he fell upon his knees, and beg- 
ging pardon declared, that he dreaded more the eloquence of 
Caligula than his imperial power.. This piece of flattery 
fucceeded fo well, that the emperor hot only pardoned; but 
^Ifaraifed him to the confulihip. Afer died in the reign of 


AGARD (Arthur), a learned Englifh antiquary, -born 
at Tofton in Derbyfliire in 1540, was bred to the Uw, and 
in a little time made a clerk in the exchequer office. la 
157^9 ^c ^^s appointed deputy chamberlain in the exche« 
quer, which he held forty- five years, under the following 
Kicoiron's chamberlains, fir Nicholas Throkmorton, fir Thomas Ran- 
J;;^;^i^^°'- dolph, fir Thomas Weft, George Youngi efq. fir Wdtcr 
». 208.' Cope, fir William Kiliigrcw, and fir John Poyntz. His 
fondnefs for Englifh antiquities induced him to make many 
large colle£iions, and his office gave him an opportunity o{ 
•■ acquiring great fkill in that fiudy. A conformity of tafte 
brought him acquainted with the celebrated fir Robert Cot* 
ton, and mod of the learned and eminent men in the king* 
Athen, dom. In his time, as Mr. Wood informs us, 9 moft illuftri- 
O«on.vo).i. ^^g affembly of learned and able perlons was fet op foot, vvho 
• ftyled themfelves a Society of Antiquaries, and Mr. Agard 

was one of the moft cohfpicuous members [a]. Mr, Hearne 
publiflied the efiays compofcd by that fociety ; thofe of Mr. 
, Agard, printed in that colleSion, are as follow* i. Opi- 

nion touching the Antiquity, Power, Order, State, Manner, 
Hearne's Pcrfons, and Proceedings of the High Court of Parliament in 
^ol.p.i9. England. 2. On this Quefticn, Of what Jntiquity Shires 
were in England ? In this elTay various antient manufcripts 
are cited ; and Mr. Agard feeros to think king iElfred was 
the author of this divifion : it was delivered before the {o* 
Ifcid. p. 70.ciety in Eafter term, 33 £li». 1591, 3. On the Dimenfions 
of the Lands in England. In this he fettles the meaning of 
thefe words, foliny hida^ carucatay jugum^ virgata^ fe^lingaia^ 

^ [a] See a pnticular account of this thc ihtrodudioo tq thc " A»«h«oIa|i8,'* * 
isfiituticDj and its early members, in vol. 1. 

: . * firlihges^ 

A GAR D. . %o7 

JirSngesT^ from antient manufcripts and authentic records in 
the exchequer. 4. The Authority, Office, and Privileges of 
I Heraults (heralds) in England. He is of opinion, that thisHearne*t 
; office is of the fame antiquity with the inftitution of the Gar-^®'* P- ^^* 
tcr. 5. Of the Antiquity or Privileges of the Hoyfes or inns ibid. p. 105. 
of Court, and o( Chancery. In this he obferves, that in 
more antient times, before the making of Magna Charta, our' 
lawyers were of the clergy : that in the time of Edward I.. 
I the law came* to receive its propeV form; and that in an old ' 
i record, the Exchequer Was f^yled the mother*court of all 
I courts of record. He fuppofes that at this time lawyers be* 
I gan to have fettled places of abode, but affirms. he knew of 
' no privileges* 6. Of jhe Diverfity of Names of this Ifland. 
In this we find that the firfl: Saxons, landing in this ifland^ jbld.p« 157* 
came here under the commandofone Aelleand his three fons, 
in 435; and that the reafon why it was called England rather 
than Saxonland, was becaufe the Angles, after this {)art of 
the ifland was totally fubdued, were more numerous than the 

Mr. Agard made the Domefday-book his peculiar fiudy ; 
he compofed a large and learned work on purpose to explain 
it, under the title of Tractatus de vfu et obfeurioribus verbis 
Ubri de Domefday^ u e. A T reatife on the Ufe and true Mean- 
ing of the obfcure Words in the D»')mefday-bcok ; which was 
preferved in the Cotton library, under Vitellius N. iX. He 
fpent likewife three years in compiling a book for the be* 
nefit of his fucceflbrs in office: it confided of two parts, the 
firft containing a catalogue of aI4 the records in the four trea* 
furies belonging to his majefty; the fecond, an account of ^11 
leagues, and treaties of peace, intercourfes, and marriages 
with foreign nations. This he depofited with the officers ofNic. Libr« 
his majefty*s receipt, as a proper index for fucceeding offiP* *^^' 
cers. He alfo dire6ted b/ his will, that eleven other manu- 
fcript treatifes of his, relating to exchequer- matters, (hould, 
after a fmall reward paid to his executor, be delivered up to 
the office. All the reft of his coliediions, containing at leaii: 
twenty volumes, he bequeathed to his friend fir Uobert Cot- 
ton. After having fpent his days in honour and tranquillity, 
he died the 22d of Auguft, 16 15, and was interred near the 
(bapter-door, in the cloiller of Weftminfter-abbey. 

• • r 

AGATHlAS, a Greek hiftorian, who lived in the fixth 
century, under the emperor Juftinian, was bom at Myrina in ^^ . . .... 

nfia Minor, borne, have co'^ciuded from buidas, that he was cr hh. v.c, 
#0 advocate at Smyrna, as Voffius : but f abricius denies that 5 — Vofliof, 

*"/ GrKC. 

io» A G A T H I A S. 

any ftich Conclufion can be drawn from Suidas*s aceouflt^ 
only tfiat Yke was in general an advocate, or *' Scholafticus, 
as he is called, from having ftudied the taw in the fchoob ap<- 
p6inted for that purpofe* In his you(h he was ftrongfy in- 
clined to poetry, and publiflied fome fmali pieces of the gay 
and timorous kind, under the title of Daphniaca : he tells us 
likewife, that he was author of a colleftion of epigrams writ- 
ten by divers hands, a great part of which are prefumed to be 
extant in the Greek '• Anthologia,** where however he calls 
himfelf Jgatbius^ There have been doubts about h is religion : 
Voffius and others have fuppofed him a Pagan ; and thejr 
have concluded this chiefly from a paflTagc in the third book 
of his hiftory, where, giving a reafon wjiy the fortrefsof Ono- 
goris in Colchis was called, in his time, St Stephen's F$rt^ he 
feysi that this firft Ohriftian martyr was ftoned there, but uffs 
the word px<r\^ they jay \ as if he did nothimfelf believe what 
might think it neceuary to relate* But this is by no means 
Conclufive; and Fabricius fuppofes. him, upon much better 
grounds, to have been a Chriftian, becaufe he more than once 
^ives very explicitly the preference to the dodlrine of Chrift- 
ians: and in the (irftbook he fpeaks plainly of the Chriftians 
as embracing the mofl reafonable fyftem of opinions, ti 
ipiurclrii ^oofXviot So^v. 

He wrote an hiftory of Juftinian's reign in five books, tt 
the defire of Eutychianus, fecretary of ftaie, who was his in- 
timate friendy and probably furniflied him with many rare 
ind important materials for the purpofe. It begins at the 
5t6th year of Juftinian's reign, where' Procopius ends; and> 
t«il>.vi« Evagrius fays, was carried down to the flight of Cofrojes 
the younger to the Romans, and his reftoration by Mauritius; 
but the famtf Evagrius adds, that the work was not then pub- 
liihed. It was printed in Greek with Bonaventure Vulca- 
Jiius's Latin verfion and notes nt Leyden, 1 594, in 4to i and . 
at Paris in the King's printing houfe, 1660, in folio, 

Agrip.Bpift. AGRIPPA (Henry Cornelius), a man of confiderable 
5cxvi.Ub.vii. learning, and a great magician according to report, in the 
J,*ugJ*^'g*^'fixteenth century, was born at Cologn, the 14th of Septem- 
'ber, i486, of a noble family. He was very early in the fer- 
vice of the emperor Maximilian : hSed at firft as his fecre- 
tary, but being no lefs formed for thefword than the pen, he 
^terwards took to the profeflion of arms, and ferved that em- 
r peror feven years in Italy, where he diftinguifhed himfelfift 
feveral engagements, antl received the honour of knighthood 
for his gallant behaviour. To his; mitiiary honours he was 


A G R I P P A. 109 

^roiJi$ iikewife to add thofe of the aniverfities, tad accord- Agrip.Cpift. 

iagly took the degrees of dodor crflaiii^ and phyfic. He was "*• ^^' *"' 

a man of an extenfive genius« and well flulied in many parts n 

of knowledge, and a variety of languages; as he hioi&lf 

tells US9 thotigh not perhaps with fo much modefty as couU 

bedefired : <M am (fays be] pretty well {killed in eight Ian* 

*' gu^es, and fo complete a mafter of iix, that I not ooly 

" underftand and fpeak them, but can even make an elegant 

^^ oration, di date and tranflate in thefe iangua^s. I have 

" befides a pr'Ctty extenfive knowledge in fome abftrufe ftudies^ 

^^ ^ a general acquaintance with the whole circle of fd* 

'^ ences." * His infatiabk curiofity, dbe fireedofii of <his'lbi<!. Ep. 

pen, and th^ inconftaocy of his temper, involved bim in many"'' q*' *"* 

misfortunes : he was continually chaugisg his imiation ; al* ' 

vajfs engaging himfelf if) fome difficulty or other; and, to ^ 

complete his troubles, he drew upon himielf tbe hatred of 

tk ecckfiaflica hyjiis writings. According to bis lettersyibid. Ep.i« 

be .i^a$ iji FraocQ before tbe year 1507, in Spain in 1508,% I* 

wd at Dole in i^o^. . At this laft .place be read public lcc-|p;';|L^*** 

lures on the myiioFious work of ReucUin, Dt verbo mixifiaf lib! u 

which engaged hia in a difpute wtthCatilinet^ a Fcancifcan* 

Tittfe tenures,, though they drewnpon him the refentmeot 

of the monks, yet gained him general applaufe, and theoper. tom. 

counfellorsof tbe parliament went themfclves to hear them*^<* P* S<^« ' 

In order to isgfatiate bimfelf into the favour of Margaret of , 

Aufiria, gov^rnefsof the LoW; Countcies, .hecompofed a trea«' 

tife**Oniihe Kxcelienoe of Women;" but the perfecutipn- 

hem/etwilh from the monks prevented him from publifliing 

it, and obliged him to gp over to flngland, where he wrote a 

Commentary upon St. Paul's Epifliles. Upon his ritfturn to 

Qologn, he readpubltc ledures upon thefe queftions in divU. 

oi^y which are called ^wdiibetaks. He afterwards, went to 

^^Ah ^o join the army of the emperor Maximilian, and 

ftaid there till he was invited to Pifa by the cardinal de SaintoEp. tiu. lU. 

Croix, i»b.i, 

:I{i (he.year 15159 he read leduces 4ipon Mercurius Trif^ 

megiftus at Pavta. He left this city the fame year,, or the 

year following J but his departure feemed rather like a flight 

than a retreat. By his fecond book of Letters we find, that 

his friends endeavoured to procure him fome hqnourable fet- 

tlcment at Grenoble, Geneva, Avignon, or Metz : he cbofe 

the laft of thefe places ; and in 1518, was employed as fyndic,^p. ,», 

J advocate, and counfellor for that city. The perfecutionaJib. ii. 

Tftifed againft liim by tbe monks, becaufe he4iad refuted a 

viilfir notion about St. Anne*8 three hufbands, and becaufe 

8 he 

sio A G R I P P a;. 

be protefied a countrywoman who was accufed of witch** 
craft [b], obliged him to leave the city of Metz. The abufe 
which his friend James Faber Satuleriiis had received froin 
Ep: xxT, the dcrgy of Mcta, for affirming that St. Anne had but one 
p 74t. hirfbandy had ratfed his indignation, and incited him to main- 
tain the fame opinion* Agrippa retired to Cologn in the 
year 15209 leaving without regret a city, which thofe turbu- 
lent inquifitots b^d- rendered averfe to all polite literature' 
and real merit. He left his own country in 152I, and i^enC 
to Geneva : here ^his income muft have been incDniiderable, 
for he complains of not having enough to defray his expences 
to Chamber], iii order to folicit apenfion* from the duke of 
Savoy. In this however his hopes were difappointed ; and ia 
1523, he removed to Fribourg, in' Switi&erland. The year 
fdlowing he went to Lyons, and obtained a pendon from 
Francis I. He was appointed phyfician to the king's imother ; 
but this did not turn out ib much to his advantage as might 
be expeded, nor did. he attend her at her departure from 
Lyons, in AuguA 1525, when ibe went to condu(9r her 
daughter to >the borders of Spain. He was left behind at 
Lyonsv and was^ obliged to implt)fe the affiftance of his fiiends 
in order to obtain his fatary ; and before he' received it, bad 
the mortification of being informed that he was flruck oiF the 
XFiii«Ub.iv.]if(^ Xjjg caufc of his difgrace was^ that, having received or- 
derf from his miftrcfis. to examine by the rules of aftrology^ 
wbatfuccefs would: attend' the ^aiFairs of France, he too freely 
exprefi'ed his diflike that (he fhould 'employ him in iuch'idld 
ouriofities, inftead of things of confequence: at whi^hlthe 
lady was highly offended ; and beoami^ yet more irritkted 
againft him, when (he underfiood that his ailrplogical calcu^ 
lations promffed new -fucccffes to the conftable of Bourbon. 
Agrippa finding himfelf thus abandoned, gave way to the ut- 
mofi rage and impetuofity of temper : he wrote feveral me* 
nacing letters, aod threatened to:publi(h' fome-bookils, wherein 
he would expofe the fecret hiftory of thofe courtiers who had'' 
worked his ruin : nay, be proceeded foi f^ as to^ fay, th^t^be 
would for the future> account that priniefs, to whom be had* 
. '.(... . . • 

[b] This coantrywomanTwas of Va- philofophy/ that Agrippa girrs the citjr 

fey, a village fituated n«f the gates of oV Mei2 the'charjrfter of being " om- 

Metz, and belongiog to 'thcf chapter of '* nium (onaruioA litertrum Tlrtotumqu^ 

the cathedral. There appeared in the •' noverc*," the ftepmother of all iro« 

clergy of Mew, who were the accufers learning and virtue, Agrippa'fi Let* 

of that woman, fo much prejudice, and ter, June 2; 1519 
^cb igaoraBce of all pohiekisoiiig aji4 


' AG R i;p.P a; . n 

been counfellbr and phyfician,'^ as a cruel and perfidious Je* 
sebel [c]. ^ ' 

He aoMT refolved toremove to the Low Countries ; this he 
could not do. without a paflporr, which he at length obtain- 
ed, after many tedious delays, and arrived at Antwerp in 
July 1528. The dukede Vendotne was the princrpal caufe 
of thefe delays.; for he, inilead of figning the paflport, core itEp. xxx, 
in pieces, in a pafiion, protefting. he would never fign it for a ^*^* ^* 
conjurer^ In 1.529J Agrippa had invitations from Henry P'^^** 
king of England, from the chancellor of the emperor, from an Ep. Utxlu 
Italian marquby and from Margaret nof Auftria^ governefs*^^*^* 
of the Lrow Countries : he preferred the laft, and accepted of^*^^ * 
fbeing hifloriographer to the emperor, which was offered him 
by that princefs. He publifhed, by way of introdudion, the 
ii\ftory,of the Government of Charles V. Soon after, Mar- 
garet of Au&ri^idteii, and he fpoke her funeral oration. Her 
death is faid in (bmcmeafure to have been the life of Agrippa, 
for great prejudices bad been infufed into that princefs againft 
him: '^ I have nothing to write you (fays he in one of- his 
•* letters) but. that 1 am likely to flarve here, being ecftirely 
•' for/aken hy. the deities of the court; what the great Jopi- 
" tcr htmfeif (meaning Charles V.) intends f know not. I 
" now underfland what great danger I was in here: the 
*' monies fo far influenced 'thyjrincefs, who was of a fuper- 
*' (litious turn,, as^ women generally are, that, had not her 
^^ fudden death prevented it, Lfhouldundoulvtedly have been 
*^ tried for offences againft the majefty of thexowl and the fa- 
'' cced honour of the monks ; oiimes for which 1 fliould have^p.xv. 
*^* been accounted no lefs guilty, and no lefs punifhed, than if*'^*jy 
'' 1 had.blafphehied.the Chriflian region." His treatife " Of^' ^ 
** the Vanity of the Sciences (d],V which he publifhed in J 530V 
. ' greatly 

fc] Nee ultra. lib m ego pro prtncipe f* ths 'Bainds ani confci^ces of Qiair- 

mea (jam eninn e/Te dc/iicj, led pro £tro- ** kincj* They wrre ignorant and yo- 

ciffiroa ct pcifidVquadam Jcfabele raihl " luptuotts: they propagated the weak^ 

babendam decrevi. - £p. lxu. lib. iv, '^ eft and moftabfurd fuperftitioiiB, and 

p, 8S4* ~~ <c 4ifcou/aged all polite Icarofng: tbpy 

[d] Agrippa Tpsaka in'feverer tertni << would not themfelves endeavour to 

of Luther in this work than in his Ier<* ** rife from barbarity and ignorance, nor 

t«rt; ' « When hi Wrote this treatife ** permit others to do fo; fo that a man 

** (fayi Mty Bay Ic^ht! certainly did not ** of genius a^d harning was fare to be- 

**' entertain thofe'lrop«s whlvh he had at **' come the perpetual obje^ of their 

^' firft conceived o^ Luiher: f believe *< violent declaoiations. Agrippa, £raf. 

" that he> as wrlias Erafmus, at iirfl " mus, and feveral other men of diflir)- 

** confidered this reformer as a hero, •• goift'ed abilities were exrremely glad 

" who would put an end to that ty'-* ** that Luther had broken the ice : they 

'* ranny which the mendicant friai's and ** waited for an opportunity to deliver 

" tha reft of the clergy exerdfed over << mankind froin this opprt-fiion^j but 

•* whf» 


gf€ft|I]r enragedUs enemicsi and thatwhich iie/ofifi after prltii* 

cd at Antwerp, *« Of the Occult Philofophy,*' afforded them 

frcfh pretexts for defaming hisrepmation* it was luckjr for 

Xp. n. )^^ 1)3211 Cardtfial Caoipgus, the pope^s legate, and the c:ar«> 

P*^ 975- ^^^' ^^ ^ ''^^^^ '^'^^P ^^ ^^S^' ^i'^^ '" 1^^ favour. 
Tbeix kind offices, however, coilld not procure htm his pen- 

iioo as hiftoriographer, nor prevent him from hetng thrown 
into prifon at Brufleb, in the year 1531* Butfceipon Fe- 
g^ioed bis liberty, and the year following paid a viiit to cbe 
arQbbilhop of Cologn, to whom be had dedicated his *^ Oocult 
^^ Philofophy/' Jind from whom be bad received a very obliging 
letter in return. The inquifitors endeavoured to binder the 
iinpteOion of his ** Occvrit Pbilofopby," when he was about to 
print a fecond edition with emendations and additions; how- 
ever, notwtthftanding all their oppofition, be finilhed it JA 
J 533. Heftaid at Bonne till 1535; when he returned to 
Lyons, he was imprrfonedfor what he had written againft the 
job.wiertt«ixiotber of Francis I. but he was fodn releafed from his con- 
w **▼?'*' fio€wient,.at the defirc of feveral perfons, and went to Gre- 
p. iiu noble, where hp died the fame year. Some authors fay that 
he iiei in the bofpita), but Gabriel Naude affirms tt wa^ 
Kana^Apol^j^t the boufe of the receiver general of the province of 

Hom'r^t Diuphiny. J ^ - 

p.427« * Agrippa bad been twice macried i fpeaking of his firft wife, 
in bis Xiix^ letter, lib. ii. . ' I have (fays be) the greateft 
*^ feafoo:to return thatiks to Almighty God,' who has given 
**' 9ie a wife after my own heart, a virgin of a noble familf, 
^^ well behaved, young, beautiful, and fo conformable to my 
^< di^ofition, that we never have a harfi> word with each 
<^ other } and what completes my bappinefs is, that in what- 
*' ever fituation my affairs are, whether profperous or adverfe,, 
*^ flue fiill. continues the fame, equally kind, affable, con* 
*^ ftant, fincere, and prudent, always eafy, and miftrefs c^^ 
*' heifeU.** This wrfe died in I'^it.fUe married hts f^^^ 
cond wife at Geneva, la 1522. The Matter furpafled tb^ 
fortTier very much in fruitfulnefs ; he had but one fon by 
the former, whereas th« latter was brought to bed tbripe in 

*' when they faw that things took a ** fofretincesof greater copUxifitera thM 

** di^^ereot turn than what tbey wifhed *' choice, and his Ayleratl\er redundant 

** for, they were the firft to throw t ^< than CQnctfe and ftle^nt* Upeaetery 

. ** ftone »t tuther.** Bayle, remark (N), *' fubjed he ceji(tiret what. is bad, an! 

in the Life of Agrippa. <« pralfcs what it good. Biu there are 

'* I hnd (fays EraGnus) by reading t << Tonne people «vhoc»Abear nothiogbaC 

** little of the Vanity of Scieaces, that «* appiaufe*** Erafoi. £p. lib. ijtvii* p< 

" Agriptpa was a m^n of a lively faaqr* .1^33* 
** £i:eat leading, aad vail mu&cfv j but 


A fe R I t P A. tl| 

tW6 y^ars, anc! a fourth time the year followmg. The thir^TEp.lx.lib. 
fcn by this marriage had the cardinal Lorrain for his godfa.*^*^***^' 
ther. She was delivered of her fifth fon at Antwerp, in 
March 1 5 29< and died there in Auguft following. Sqme fay 
that he married a. third time, and that he divorced his laft 
'Wife; but he mentions nothing thereof in his letters. Mr. 
Bayle fays that Agrippa lived and died iti the Romifb com- 
munion, butSexius Senenfls aflerts that he was a Lutheran. 
Agrippa, in fome paO'ages of his letters, does indeed treat 
Luther with barfh epithets; however, in the nineteenth 
chapter of his Apology, he fpeaks in fo favourable a manner 
of him, and with fuch contempt of his chief adverfaries, » 
that it is likely Sextus Senenfis's aflertion 'was founded 
upon that paflage, ' Bifliop Burnet, in his Hiftory of the Re- 
formation, fpeaks of Agrippa, as if he had been an advocate 
for the divorce of Henry VIII. Mr.,BayIe refute? this, and Book ly 
fays that the ambafladbr of the emperor at London wrote to 
'^c''»PP35 <Jefiring him to fupport the in'trcft of the queen : 
Agrippa replied that he would readily engage therein, if the 
I emperor would give him orders for that'purpofe ; and de- 
clares that he detefted the bale conloliance of thofe divines 
' who approved of the divorce : and with regard to the Sor- . 
J bonne, " I am not ignorant (fays^e) by what arts this afFatr 
" was carried on in the Sorbonne at Paris, who by their 
•* rafiinefs have given fand^ion to an example of fuch wicked- 
** heft. Whett I corifider it, I can fcarce contain myfelf 
*' from exclaimiilg in imitation of Perfius, Say^ ye Sorbonnijis^ 
• *^ 'ivhat has gold to Ho with divinity ? What piety and faith 
" fliall vve imagine to be in their breafts^ whofe confciences 
*• are more venal than fincere, and who have fold their judgc- 
** ments and decifions, which ought to be t;evered by all thtf 
** Chrifti^n world^ afid have now fuilied the reputation they t^, tt» . 
^ ** had cftablifhed for faith and fxnccrity by infamous avarice/'*'*^-'*- 
Agrippa was accufed of having been a magician and fortereri***''^ 
ind in corhpacl with the devil ; but we {hall not offer fuch 
an affront to the underfiandings of pur readers as to aim at 
clearing him from this imputation [e]. However* as Mr. 


[t} Pauloi Jo«iui tfcllt us, that ^< beaft, which art the canfd of lAy total 

Agrippa had always a devil attending '* de(^ru£tion/* The dog pii away to 

him, in the fli»pe of a black dogs thac the river Soane, and leaped in, apd was 

«ben be was dying, being advifed tore- never feen more. In Elogiit, cap. xci. 
p^t, he pulled from the dpg*s fiectc i Martin del Rio fays, that when he 

Cullar, ftudded wiih n^tils which fotmtd tra^elle^^, he ufed to pay money at the! 

fome necromantic infcriprion, and faid inni, which feemed very good, but in a ^~ 

tp h\ih, '* Get awaji thou «v hatched few dayi ic Cppeired lo be pieces 9/ horn 

Vol. I* I ^1 

«I4 A G R I P F A. 

Bayle fays, if he was a conjurer, his art availed him little, for 
he was often in danger of wanting bread. Beiides the work$ 
already mentioned of Agrippa^ he wrote alfo a Comqientary 
upon the Art^of Raimund Lulii, and a DifTertation on origi- 
nal Sin, wherein he afTerts, that the 6aII of our firft parents 
was owing to their immodefty and lufl:. He promifed a piece 
againft the Dominicans, who being the chief diredors of th« 
inquifition, it is no wonder that he was exafperated againft 
them: '* Do not imagine (fays he, addre£Sng himfelf tothq 
** magiftrates of Cologn}that thisistheon)y heretical article 
*' in that order; there are many more, which I (hall give a 
*^ particular account of in another book, which I have iii- 
*? titled J Hiflory &f the Crimes and Herefies of the Predicant 
*^ Friars. Here I (baij expofe the wickednefs of that order ; 
** how often they have^polfoned the facraments, what fi<9i- 
*' ttous miracles they have invented, how many kings and 
*< princes they have deftroyed, how many cities and zotnmon- 
^< wealths they have betrayed, how many nations they have 
•' feduced, with many other of their enormities." Wemuft 
not omit mentioning the key he wrote to his *' Occult Philo- 
fophy,'* which he reierved only for his friends of the firft rank> 
and he explained it in a manner not very dinercnt from the 
do£lrines of the Quietiits. There was an edition of bis 
works, printed at Lyons, 1550, in three volumes 8vo* 

. AINSWORTH (Henry), a famous Englilh noncon- 

formifl divine, who flourifhed in the latter end of the fix- 

teenth and beginning of the feventeenth century. In the 

year 1590, he joiticd the Browniils, and by his adherence to 

Near* Kiij. jj^at fcft fiiared in their perfecutions. He was well verfed in 

tanVvoU.*^® Hebrtw language, and wrote many excellent commenta- 

p. 543. 577. ries on the holy Scriptures which gained him great reputa- 

or fhells. DifquiC Magic, lib. ii. quarft. gave him no anfwer, he ftrangM Mn 

lal. n. iO( The i'aire author telia us, upon the fpoc. A^itppa^ ac hi? return 

that Agrippa had a perfon who boarded home, faw the devrls leaping and' dan* 

with him at Louvain*. that one day, cing upon his houfe; he called to tfaeoir 

when he waf goitog out of town, he or- And UAderdood from them what had hap- 

d^edhis wife not to let any perl'on into pened. Upon this he commanded the 

his ftudy ; however, the boarder got the devil, who had killed the man, to eoter 

key of it, and went in, where he lyiet into his dead body, and to w«Ik feveral 

with a book of conjuratioa, which he torns in a pbce. Which was much fre* 

began to read. He heard a knocking at quented by the ftiidents, and then todc- 

the door once or twice, without inter- part : which b-;ing done, the boarder, 

ropting'hia reading : the devil wanted to after three or four turns in the walki 

know who called for him, and upon fell down dead. Ibid, lib, ii. quaeft. a?* 

what accounts and becaufe the man § i. , 



Ai N S W O R tt. 11^ 

tlon [a}. The Brownifts .having fsAkn inta great ditcrcdit 
ki England, they were involved in many frefh troubles and 
diiiiculties ; fo chat Ainrworth at length quitted his coun- 
try, and fled to Holland, whither moft of the noncon- 
fbrmitts, who had incurred the difpleafure of queen Elissa^ 
beth's government, had taken refuge. At Amfterdam Mr. 
Johnfon and he erected a church, of which Ainfwrorth was id, vpi. ;ii 
the mini fter. In conjuntftion with Johnfon, he publilhed,p. 47- 
.in 1602, a Confeilion of Faith of the People called firownifts; 
but beiiig men of violent fpirits, they fplit into parties about 
ibme points of difcipline, and Johnfon excommunicated his 
onm father and brother : the prefbytcfy of Amfterdam offered 
their mediation, but he refufed it. This divifded the congre- 
gation, half whereof joining with Ainfworth^ they excom* 
municated Johnfon, who made the like return to that party. 
The contelt grew at length fo violent, that Johnfon and hia 
followers removed to Embden, where he died foon after, and ' 
his congregation diflblved. Nor did Mr. Ainfv^orth and hi^ 
adherents livei long in harmony, for in a (liort time he left 
them, and retired to Ireland ; but when the heat and violence 
of his party fubfided, he returned to Amfterdam. His learn- 
ed produdlion^ were efteemed even by his adverfarie/^, who, 
while they refuted his extravagant tenets, yet paid a proper 
deference to his abi!iti)es \ particularly Dr. Hall, bifiiop of 
Exeter, who wrote with great ftrengih of argument againft 
the Brownifts. But nothing could have efFcfl: upon him, 01* 
roake him return home : fo he died in exile. His death was 
i^ddeo, and not without fufpicion of violence : for it is re- 
ported, that having found a diamond of great value, he adver- 
tifed it ; and Mrhen the owner, v/ho was a Jew, came to de- 
n»and it, he offered him any gratuity he Would defirei Ainf- 
worth, though poor, rcquefted only of the Jew, that he would 
procure him a conference with fome of hts rabbis, upon the 
prophecies of the Old Teftarr.ent relating to the Meffiab, 
wh*5ch the Jew promifed ; but not having intereft to obtain 
^uch a conieience, it was thought that he contrived to get 

r^l They were printed in i^ij, and Cfdinancfs, the Sjlcri^ces and other le- 

»«p«intedin- 1659. The tile runs thu?, gal Ceremonicj heretofote cointnanded 

Annotnioni upon the five Book of Mo- by Gbd ta the Church of Ifrapl, are «x« 

'^t th« Book of Pfalms. and the Song of plained ; with an Ad venilea>cnt touch-* 

^B« <Hf Canticies; wherein the Hebrew ibme Objedlions made agttnft the Since* 

^ordj and Sentence a are compared with, rity of the Hebrew Text, and AUegatiori 

aod PKpUined by, the ancient Oreeic »nd of the Riibbins in thcfe Annotations ; as 

Chalice Verfions, and other Records al To, Tables, direfting unto fuch ptinci- 

^ Monnaicats of the Hebrews 5 but pal things as arc obferved in the Anao^' 

^>ffly by conference with the holy tationa upon each fcveral Book, 
'^ripiiira, Mofei hii Words, Law?, and 

I 2 Ainfworlh 

# • 

ii6 A I N S W O R T H. 

AinfWortb poifoned. He was undoubtedly a perfon of pro« 
Ibid. p. 48. found learning, an^ deeply read in the works of the rabbis. 
He had a ftrong underftanding» quick penetration, and won-* 
derful diligence. He publifhed occafionally feveral treatifes, 
many of which niade a great noife in the world [bJ* 

AlNSWORTH(RoBERT),2in Engl iihman, who has greatly 
ferved his- country, by conDpiling the mod ufeful Latin Dic- 
tionary that has yet appeared, was born at Woodyaie, four 
miles from Manchefter, in Lanca(hire, September i66o. He 
Prefac«'t* ^^^ educated at Bolton in that county, and afterwards taught 
the fecond ^ fchool in the fame town. Some years after he went to Loa-'> 
edition of tion, and became mafter of a confide rable boarding- fchool at 
Thcfeuros '^^^""*' iGreen, where, in 1698, he wrote and publifhed a 
Sk. ' (hort treatife of Grammatical InBitution. From thence he 
removed to Hackney, and afterwards to other places near 
London ; where teaching with good reputation for many 
years, and acquiring a competent fubfiftence, he left off, 
and lived privately. He had a turn for Latin and Englifii 
poetry, as well as for antiquities i and fome (ingle poems of 
his have been printed in each of.thofe Kanguages. About 
1 7 14, a propofal was made to certain eminent bookfellers in 
London, for compiling a new compendious Englifh and Latin 
Didiipnary, upon the fame plan with Faber's Thefaurus ; 
when Mr. Ainfworthbeing pitched upon, as a proper perfon 
for fuch a defign, foon after undertook it. But the execution 
of it was attended with fo many difficulties, that it went on very 
flowly for a long time, and for fome years was entirely fuf- . 
pended : however, beipg at length refumed, it was finifhed, 
and publiftied with a dedication to Dr. Mead, in 1736, 4to# 
The title will fufHciemly explain the nature and contents of 
it; and therefore we will give it at full length, as it fiands in 
the fecond edition^ with additions and improvements by Sa- 

f b] ** A Cottnter-poifon a^infLBer- 3. <^ A Treatife of the Gommttoioaof 

liard andCralhaw, 1612/* quarto. Saints.** 

*. •• An Animadvcrfion'to Mr. Rkh- 4. ** A Treatife of tlic Fellowfliip thaC 

ard Clyfton^s Advertifement, who, under the Faithful have with God, his AngelSf 

Pretence of anfwrribg Charles Lawne's and one with another, in this prefeflt 

Book, hath publiAed another ina»*s life: X615/' odlavo. 

private Letter, with Mr. Francis John- -5. •* The trying oat of the Truth be- 

fon*s Anfwer thereto \ which Letter is tween John Ainfw«)rth and Henry A>nf- 

bere juftified, the Anfwer hereto rctoted, worth, the one pleading for, and the 

and the trae Gaufes of the lamentable other againft Popery :'* quarto. 

Breach that has lately fallen out in the 6. " An Arrow againft Idolatry/* 

English exiled Church at Amsterdam, 7. ** Certain Notes of Mr, Ainlworlb's 

iranifefted. Printed at Amfterdam, by laft Sermon on 1 Peti ii. 4, 5. Prin'*'* 

^iies Thorp. A. P. 1613," <3^u4rto, in 163©," o6UfO, . 


A I N S W O R T a 

muel Patric]^, LL.D. and Uiher of the Charter Houfe 

School. *' Thejaurus Lingua Latina Compendiarius : or a 

^* Compendious Dictionary of the Latin Toiigue; defi^ned 

** for the Ufe of the Britiih Nations : In three Parts, Con- 

*' taining !• The Engl ifh appellative words and forms ofex« 

*^ preflion before the Latin ; in which will be found fome 

'* thoufand Englifli words and phrafes, feveral various fenfes 

*' of the fame word, and a gr^at number of Proverbial fex*. 

*^ prei&ons, more than in any former dictionary of this kind, 

*' all carefully endeavoured to be rendered in proper and claC- 

** ileal Latin. To which are fubjoined, i. The proper 

^' naaies of the more remarkable places rendered into Latin. 

** 2.* The Chriftian names of men and women, IL The 

*^ Latin appellatives before the Englifii^ in which are given 

*' the more certain etymologies of the Latin words, their 

*' various fenfes in Englifh ranged in their natural order, the 

*^ principal idioms under each fenfe explained and accounted 

*' for, all fuppqrted by the beft authorities of the Roman 

** writers ; with references to the particular book, chapter, 

*^ or verfe, where the citations may be found.- IIL The 

^ ancient Latin names of the more remarkable perfons and 

^' places occurring in claffic authors, with a (hort account of 

*^ them, both hiftorical and mythological; and the more 

*^ modern names of the fame places, fo far as they are known^ 

•* colleflied from the moll approved writers; To which arc 

*^ added, r. The^ Roma^ calendar, much fuller than any 

*' yet publifhed. 2. Their coins, weights, and meafures. 

" 3. A chroirology of th^ Roman kings, confuls, and more 

** remarkable events of that ftate. 4. The notes of atbre- 

^' viation ufed in ancient Latin authors and infcripti^ns. 

*« 5. A (hort diftionary of the more common Latin words 

•' occurihg in our ancient laws." 1746 [a], 

Mr. Ainfworth died at London the 4th of April 1743, 
3ged 83 years, and was buried, according to his own defire, 
jn the Cemetery of Poplar, under the following monumental 
infcription, compofed by himfelf ; 

Rob. Ainfworth et uxor ejus, admodum fenes 
Dormituri, veftem detritam hie exuerunt, 
Novam primo mane furgentes induturi, 

f a] Mr. A!ofworth*s other pablica* tione Ifidis Delubriam repertum, 1729,** 

tfons were, i. '*- A Aort Treatife of 8vo« 4. " De Clypeo Camllli antiquo^ 

Grammatical Inflitutions, Jkc, i6^8,*\ &c. 1734,*^ 4to. Of ail thefe, fee a 

8vo. i, ** Monumenta veioftatis ICem- more p^rticuUr account in the Anec- 

piana, &c. I7a9>** 8vo. 3. •* X2E1CN, doicj of Bowycr, by Nichols, p. loX. 
five e& vctcris monumenti Iliaci dcfcrip- 

8 I 3 Dum 

Htf A I N S WO R T He 

Dum fas, mortalis, fapias, & rcfpicc fin^m : 
JToc fuadbat Manes, hoc canit Amramides, 

To thy reflediion, mortal frien4f 
Th* advice of Mofes I commend: 
Be wife and meditate thy end. 

AKENSIDE (Mark), a phyfician, who bath publi(he4 
in Latin a trcatife upon ^^theDyfentry," in 1764, and a few 
pieces in the firft volume of the ** Medical Tranfaftions** of thp 
College of Phyftcians, printed ifi 1768 [a] ; but far better 
known, and to be diftinguifbed only hereafter, as a poet. 
He was born at NeWcaftle upon Tync, November 9, 1 721 $ 
'Advertife- educated at the grammar-fchool in Newcaftle, then fent to 

. 3 


mtntta " jjje univerfities of Edinburgh and Lcydcn ; and took his de- 

gree of do£lor in phyiic at the latter. He was afterwards ad- 
mitted by mandamus to the fame degree at Cambridge ; eleS- 
^d a fellow of the College qf fhyficians, and one of the phy-? 
ficians at St. Thomas's Hofpital; and, upon the cftablifli- 
ment of the Qiieen's houfehold, appointed one of the phyA- 
cians to her Majefty. He died of a putrid fever, June 23, 
1770 ; and is buried in the parifh church of St. James's^ 

His poemSf publifl^ed foon after his death in 410 and SvOf 
ponfift of •* The Pleafures of Imagination," two books 
of " Odes," a ** Hymn to the Naiads," and fome 
•' Infcriptiops/' ** The Pleafures of Imagination," his 
capital work, was firft publiftied in 1744; and a very ex- 
Ibid. traordinary produSion it was from a mlan who had not 

readied his 23d year. He was afterwards fenfible, how- 
ever, that it wanted revifion and corre£tion,and he went oq 
revifing and correfling it far feveral years j but finding this 
taik to grow upon his hands, and defpairing of ever executing 
it to his own fatisfadlion, he abandoned the purpofe of cor- 
redling, and refolved to write the poem over anew upon i 
fomewhat different and enlarged plan. Hefinifhed two books 
of his new poem, a few copies of which were printed for the 
life of the author and certain friends ; of the firft boi)lc ii\ 
1757, of thefecond In 1765. He finiftied alfo a good part of 
a third book, and an introduftion to a fourth » but hi$ moft 
Tnunificent and excellent friend, conceivif)^ all that is exe- 
cuted of the new work, too inconfiderable to fupply the plac<?, 

[aJ Thefe pieces are, i, ** Obferva- alfo, when he comnncnced do^or of 

*f tions upon^ Cancers.** 2. 'VOf the phyfic, '* Diflcrtatjonefn Inauguralem 

•* ufc of Ipecacoanha in Afthmas/* *' de orlu et incrcmento fxtus humani.** 

3. *< A metiT'od of treating white fwelt Lt\69, 1744* 
•< ings in Uie joints.*^ He publifbfd 

9 ^nd 


' ^nd fuperfcde the repablication of the original poem, and jret 
; too valuable to be withheld from the public, hath caufed theon 
both to be infertcd in the colleiftion of his poems. Dr. Aken- 
fide, in this work, hath done for the noble author of the 
•' Charadleriftics," what Lucretius did for Epicurus formerly ; 
that is^ he hath difplayed and embellilhed his philofophic 
fyftem> that fyftem which hath the firji-beauii/ul md the/r/^ 
good for its foundation, with all the force of poetic colouring. 

He had very uncommon parts and learning, a ftrong and . 
enlarged way of thinking, and no inconfiderable portion .of 
that lioical enthufiafm, which his Archetype Shaftelbury 
makes the ground- work of every thing that can be .great and 
good in us. He was, in fhor t, one of innumerable inftances td 
prove, that very fublime qualities may fpring from very low 
iituations in life ; for he had this in common with the moft 
high and mighty cardinal Wolfey, that he was indeed thefoa 
of a butcher* 


ALAIN (Chartier), fecrctary to Charles VII. king of 
France, born in the year 1386. He was the author of feveral 
works in profe and verfc j but his moft famous performance 
"was his Chronicle of King Charles VII. Bernard de tiirard^ 
in his preface to the Hlftory of France, ftyles him '' an ex- 
** ceilent hiftorian, who has given an account of all the 
" affairs, particulars, ceremonies, fpecches, anfwers^ and 
*' circumftances at which he was prefent himfeUV or. had in- 
^^ formation of." Qiles Coroxet tells us, that Mar^aretiHUCoI- 
claughter to the king of Scotland, and wife to the daUphin,/*^*""*^^ ^ 
paffing once through a hall where Alain lay afleep, ftopped Expreffitnt 
and kiiTed hiiti before all the company who attended: fome df of noble and 
them telling her, that it was firange ihe.fliould kifs a maii*^^^^'«^«'^ 
who bad fo few charms in his perfon, (he replied, ** I did 
** not kifs the man, but the mouth from whence proceed fo 
** many excellent fayings, fo many> wife difcourfcs, and fo 
V many elegant expreffions.'* Mr. Fontenelle, among his 
Dialogues of the Dead, has qne upon this incident, between, 
the princefs Margaret and Plato. Mr. Pafquier compares 
Alain to Seneca, on account of the great number Of b^Utiful 
fentences interfper fed throughout his writings. 

ALAMANNI (Lewis), born at Florence, the aSth of 
October, 149.5, ^^^ ^' ^ noble family, of the party of theBibllotb. 
Pa|efchi, who were in the interell of the Medici, againft the'*'** '*^'"*** 
Poppoloni, or Aflertors of Libcny. He ftudied in his own^'* ^* 
country^ aod^ as fome authors ailert, under James Diacetto. 

1 4 The 

jia A L A M A N N I. 

The friendfliip which he contraded with him and Buondrf* 
' monte proved very nigh fatal to him, for hC' entered witi 
them into a confpiracy againft Julius de Medici, and the plol 
being dtfcovered, Diacetto was beheaded, but Alamanni andj 
Buondelmonte faved themfelves by flight } however they wen 
' profcribed, and a fum of money piit upon their heads, Theyl 
went by different roads to Venice, where they were very! 
kindly entertained by Charles Capello, a gentleman of fena^-i 
torian rank. Julius ^de Medici having been elected popes 
next year, under the name of Clement VII. they refolved to| 
retire into France ;' as they paiTed through Brefcia, they Were\ 
arre/led and thrown into prifon, but Capello having ufed his 

Ij^l^ intereft in their favour, they were again fet at liberty. Ala* 
manni wandered from place to place, living fometimes in 
Fratice, fometimes at Genoa, waiting for fome happy change 
which might reflore him to his native country : this change 
happened in the year .1527, when, Charles V's army having 
taken Rome, the pope was obliged to retire to the cadle of 
St. Angelo. The Florentines ieized this opportunity to re- 
ftore the public liberty ; and having driven the Medici out of 
the city, recalled Alamanni and Buondelmonte, with many 
others who hadbeen exiled. But the emperor's army having 
been very fuccefsful in Italy, Nicholas Capponi, one of the 
chief magiilrates of Florence, being apprehenfive of fome 
new misfortunes^ propofed entering into an agreement with 
his imperial majedy. Several perfons were of his opinion j 
and a council of theVity being called, Alan[\anni made a long 
fpeech in fupport of Capponi's thotion : but the oppofite party 
having prevailed, Alamanni became fufpicious to the Abettors 
of Liberty ; fo. that now he appeared feldom at Florence, and 

ki^troQ. lived moflly at Genoa. However, thb commonwealth having 
raifed an army in 1526, theyappointed AlamannicommifTary'- 
general, and his cominiflion wasfent to him at Genoa. The 
affairs of the French being reduced very low in Italy, he once 
more endeavoured to draw off the Florentines from the inte- 
refl of France ; but all bis endeavours proved ineffectual, and 
rendercfd him odious to the people, fo that he w^s again 
obliged to leave Florence. ^ ' 

A truce having been concluded betwixt the emperor and 
Francis I. the Florentines now thought proper to fend deputies 
to foHcit peace with his imperial majefiy ; but he fefufed to 
'' treat with them, unlefs they reftored the fovereign power to 
the Medici; and upon their refufal to comply with this de- 
mand, the emperor's and the pope's armies entered into Tuf- 
cany,' took great part therepf^ and befieged Florence. The 



ALAMA'NNI. ^ tai 

rlofeiHtncs applied to Francisl. but 4iot finding hitn^ifpofed 
to give ihem any relief, they had recourfe to their citis^ens in 
exile: Alamanni, who had a true love for his country, for-* 
getting the ill treatment he had received, r^iifedall the«4iioney 
he pofiibly could, in order to aflift his fellow- citizens; but it 
was too late, the Florentines were obliged to furrender their 
city on the loth of Auguft, 1530, and Alexander de Medici 
was in veiled with the fovereign authority. The leading menibu^ 
of the popular party were put to death, and Alamanni, among 
others, was baniih'ed to Provence j but not conforming to hi^ 
fentence, was fumihpned tp appeaf, and upon his non-appear«- 
ance, declared a rebel in 1532, He now went again to 
France, where- Francis I. from a love to his genius and nierit, 
became his patron. This prince employed him in feveral im- 
portant affairs, and honoured him with the collar of the order 
of St. Mtchael. About the year 154O, he was admitted a Ibii. 
member of the Inflam^mati, an academy newly erefled at 
Padua, chiefly by Daniel Barbaro and Ugoliri Martelli.ibid. 
Peace having been concltideci in 1544, between the emperor *®™« *^ 
and the king of France, Ajamanni was fent ambaflador to the^^^* 
.imperial court. Among the feveral poems which \\e Had com- 
pofe^in the praife of Francis I. there was one pretty fevere u^oa 
the emperor, wherein, amongft feveral other fatirical ftrokes^ 
ihere is the following, where the cock fays to the eagle, 

AquiU grifagna 
Che per piu divbrar due becchi porta^ 

Two crooked bills the ravenous eagle bears. 

The better to devour. . , ^ 

The emperor bad read , this' piece ; and when Alamanninow 
appeared before hUii, and pronounced a fine fpeech in his 
praife, beginning, every period, with the word Aquila, he 
heard him with gre^t attention, and ^t the concludon thereof 
pade no reply, but repeated 

Aquila grifagna 

Che per piu divorar due becchi porta, 
This. however did not difconcert Alamanni, who immediate- 
ly made .the folio wing an fwer : *' Sir, when I compofed thefe 
•' lines. It was as a poet, who is permitted to ufe fidions ; but 
*' now I fpealc as an ambaflador, who is bound in honour to 
" tell the truth. I fpoj^e then as a youth, 1 fpeak now as ji> 
*' man advanced in years : I was then fwayed by rage and 
V pafBoD, arifing from the defolate condition of my country; 
f* but now I am calm and free from paffion.*' The emperor 
Vas highly pleafed with this anfwer^ and treated Alamanni . - 


122 A L A M A N N I. 

lUd. with great fnen4(hip and civilit3r. Aft^r the death of FranrlL 
Henry duke of Orleans, who fucceeded him in I537» ibcweq 
no le6 favour to Alamanni; and ia the year 15519 tent hi«| 
as his ambaflador to Genoa : this wds his laft journey to Italy;! 
Bibl. itaT. and being returned to France^ he di«d at Amboife on the iStki 
**"*/*^ of ApriU 1566, being'in the (ixty-fixth year of his age. Hc| 
left many beautiful poems^ and oiher valuable perform^ 
gnces [.a], in the Italian language., | 

[a] I. " Opere TofcaiWy vol. L rourfe which be made to the mUitia i^ 

Lyons, 1532.** A fecond was pubii/hed Florence, in 1529. 1 

at the fame p'ace, the yt-ar following. 8. •• Rime:'* Printed ia /cv«/| 

2. «* La Coltivaiione :" whithwtnt Italian cMle^ ion*. 

through various editions. 9. " 1$ itcra aVi| Matchefe dc Pefcl»i 

3. " Gyrone Cortefc J*' a tranflation "laj" and"Leticra a Pietro AretiW' 
in Italian verfc from a French romance, 10, *• Drazionc." Tbia is inferred in 
then in great tfteem. Varchi's Hiftory, being tUe difcoorfc 

4. ** La Avarcbide/* ThefubjeO of which he had made to engage the Fi<h- 
this poem is taken from the ancient town rentines to enter inu> ais agreement wi^li 
of Avarlcum, mentioned by Julias Charles V. 

C«f*rs the author endeavours to imi- ii. ** Canione.'* Printed in tie, 

tate Homer's Iliad, and the iocid^mts do Journal of Venice, torn, xxxii* pi 364*, - 
indeed much refegiiblethofe in the Greek 12. We have alfo fome notes of his! 

poem. upon Homer^s Iliad and OdyfTry, tjfe 

5. " Flora, a comedy,** former of which was printed in theCsnj- 

6. ** Epigrammi :'* in the tafle and bridge edition of Honacr, 101689; »(4 
fpirit of Martial. JolhuaBarncs has al.oinferted them ioliil 

7. <( Orazione et SyWa." A dif- line edition of HonTiery in 171 1, tliceioh, 

ALAMOS (Balthasar) a Spanifli writer, born at Me- 
dina del Campo in Caflile,. After having ftudied the law at 
Salamanca, he entered into the fervice of Anthony Perez, fc- 
cretary, of ftate under Philip II. He was in high efteem and 
confidence with his matter, upon which account he was im- 
prifoned after the difgrace of fhis minifter; he was kept ifi 
confinement eleven years, when Philip III. coming to tht 
throne, fet him at li berry, according to the orders givfcn by 
bis father in his will. Alamos continued in a private capa- 
city, till the duke of Olivarez, the favourite of Philip IV. 
called him to public employments. He was appointed advo- 
cate-gene/al in (he court of criminal caufes, and in the council 
of war. He was afterwards chofen counfellor of the council 
of thfe Indies, and then 6f the council of the king's patri- 
mony, and a knight of the order of Sc James. • He wzs^thzn 
of wit as well as judgement, but his pen was fupcrior to bis 
tongue. He died in the eighty-eighth year of his age, ti'^^ 
Spanifli tranflation of Tacitus, and the aphorifmis which he 
added in the margin, gained him great reputation : the 
aphorifms however have been cenfored by fomc authors, par* 




feufttly bf Mr. Aiwlot, who fays, <* that they tire' qait^SeehitDire. 
'^ different fi«m what one would exped ; that inftead of^^'Ju '^ 
^ i>?iAg more concife and fententioos than the text, theTraoiUt. o^ 
^ words of the text are always more fo than die aphorifai«"*I*«ntos*t 
nis work Wat publiflied at Madrid in i6i4» and was to'^''°^* 
lave been followed, as mentioned in the king's privilege^Bibi.Sciipn 
rith a Commentary, which however 'has never yet ap.^i<*panue« 
eared. The audior cdmpofed the whole daring hi? impri«^^^' '* 
Mmbnt. He left feveral other works which have never yet * 
!8en printed £a j« • 

[a] I. "AdvertkiBcmtoaal govieroo }** 9. *' Ponfos politicpf ode eftado/* 

idrtOed to the duke of Lerma, abi>ot the Don Oarcias Tello dt ^ SaadoTal. 

legiooiogof the reign of Philip III* knight of Calatratra, /bn-in*hw to 

2. '* £1 Conqotftador ;** containing Alamos, gate information of thefeoifc 

ainiAjoni reUtuig to the conqdefta to Aufcripts to dooNkhoUt Aoloaio* 
fpmade in the new «orid« 

ALAN, AhhEiXf Allyn (William), cardinal-prleft ofwood*t 
oe Roman church, was born at RoiTal in Lancamire, in^then. Ox. 
l^yin In 1547, he was entered at Oriel coflcge, Oxford,^ J^' 
(inhere be had for hi3 tutor Philip Morgan, a very famous 
[i^aQ, and a zealous papift, under whom he ftudied philo- 
bphy with fuch fuccefs, that he was unanimoufly eledled 
fellow of his .college in 155OJ andthe fame year alfo took 'bid. 
(he degree of bachelor of arts. In 1556, he was chofcn prin'**'** *^J* 
Jipal of St. Mary's hall, and one of the proftors of the uni- 
»fcrfity, being then but twenty- four years of age. In I55if, 
be was made canon of York. But on queen hlizabeth'a ac- 
ceffion to the throne, he loft all hopes of preferment ; and 
tHcrefore, in 1560, he retired to Louvain In the Spanifli 
Ntthcrlaftds, where an Englilh college was ereScd of which 
h« became the chief fupport. Here he began to write in de-lb.iWdrf 
fence of the catholic religion ; and his firft production was 
sgainft a piece written by bifhop Jewell, on the fubje6l of 
purgatory and prayers for the dead. 'The great application 
be gave to hi«i (ludies, foon brought him into a bad ftate of 
bcahh; and the phyficians being of opinion that nothing 
would recover him but his native air; though his going to 
l^ngland was attended with p,reat danger j yet be embarked 
^wit in ic6c. He went firft, as the doctors advifed him. in- 
10 Lancafliirej and there, withput any regard to his fafety„ 
^laboured to the utmoft of his power, to propagate the 
catholic religion. For this purpofe he wrote and difperfcd 
feveral little pieces ; but fo ftri6t a fearch was made aftfer him^ 
^^at bp wa^s forced to retire from that county into the neigh- 

124 ALAN. 

- • - 

liburhood of Oxford, where he wrote an apology fcnr h^ 
party, under the title of Brief Rtafofiscoacerning the CaUbd 
^y?^^"^ lie Faith. He was obliged to fly from hence to Ix>Ddon ; ai^ 
Altai! ^ot Joiig after, with fome difficulty, mad£ bia^efcape to Fiai|| 
ders, in 1568. He went to Mechlin, in the duchy of 3rd 
bant, where he read;le£lures on i^Kvinity with great applaufd 
thence he removed' tonDoway, where he was£ior ci 
)d» ibU. divinity : he hjd alio the caisonry of Cambray beftotved upo^ 
him as a reward for his zeal in. the fervice of the catholj 
church. Not long after, he was appointed canon of Rheixnij 
through the intereft of the Guifes, and thither he removd 
the feminary which had been fettled at .Do way ; for doo 
Lewis dc^Requerens, governor of the NetherlahdSj had oblig- 
ed the Englifh fugitives to withdraw out of his government. 

Dr. Alan having written various treatifes in defence of tlM 

doctrines and pradices of the Romifh church, was noW 

efieemed the. champion of bi$ party. In his own countryi 

however, he was repjjted a capital enemy of the ft ate j aU! 

correfpondence with him was deemed treafon, and Xhomal 

Alfield was executed for bringing certain books of his iatiii 

England [aJ. It was thought to be owing to the inftigation; 

Watfon's of Dr. Alan, and fome fugitive Englifli noblemen, that Phi- 1 

Suvo ^^* "P ^^' undertook to invade and conquer England. In order' 

9. 940I .to facilitatef this, pope Sixtus V. was prevailed upon to rcncvt 

Camdca^t njjg excommunication thundered againft queen Elizabeth by 

• [aI There is ftill among the papers of ** neither oweth the inrocent partyi nw 

the lard treafurer Burletgh, a brief of '' can the other }«wfuJly cldim »ny coo* 

the treaibnabls expre>TioDS extracted out ** jug^ duty or debt in this caie. Tbe 

of Dr. Alan*s books, in order to giou/id '* bond-Have, which is xa another kind 

his indidiment. Thefe exprf Hions are '* no lef's bound to his lord and mafter^ 

jnoft of them contained io a t/eatife ** than tbe fabjje^ tQ> hit fovereigo, m'T 

written by Dr, Ahoj^imitiiled. ♦' The ** alio, by theanciem imperial lawS|dc- 

Defence of the twelve Martyrs in one ** part, and refufe to obey of fervc hiO| 

Year." In order to give the reader feme •* if he become a heretic j yea, ip^ 

notioj) of his ftyle and manner of writ- " faf^o, he is made free. Finaily, ti 

ing, we Hiail tt^nfciibe a par?g;aph or •• parents that become heretics, lofe tl 

two from this jndi£lment : ** The bond ** fuperiority and dominion they havel 

f and obligation we have entered into, •* by the law of nature, over their owl 

•* for the fervice of Chrift- and the ♦* children ; therefore let no man tau* 

** church, far cxcccdeth all other duly ** vel, that in cafe of herrfy, the fovci 

•• which we owe to any crca- •* reign lofcth the fupericiity over bil 

** ture J and therefore, whefc rhe obe- •' people and kingdom,** The indift 

•5 diencc to the ioferior hindeieth the ment.charges, that the author did bete 

«* fervice of the other, which is luperior, by intend, that queen Elizabeth, by rea«| 

** wemuO, by law arid order, dilcharge fen of her heiefy, had fallen from hef I 

•* ourfelves of 'the inferior. The wife, foveretgnty: and it charges Thomall 

t* if ike cannot live with her own huf. AJfield with bringini; the faid traiteroufl 

•* band» being an iiifidcl, or an heretic, books of William Alan into berow*! 

•• without injury or difhonour to God,, jefly*s dominions, and there publifli'^lM 

?' /he may depart from him; or centra- them, on the lorh ot Sept«mbei, io'thfl 

t? fiyiiPa bfl f"na her for the like caufej 916th year of her icign, that is, in I5*4«j 


ALAN. 125 

Phis V. About this time too fir William. Stanley bafely b6« 
prayed the town of Daventer to the Spaniards, and went. 
With his i^hole regiotent of 120a men,, into ihieir fcr-^^^'P'SS^ 
l^ice. Ro'wland York, who had been entrufted with a ftrong 
fort in the fame country, acied in the like infamous manner* 
|xe't Alan ^vrote a treatifip in defence of this fcandalous pro«^ 
bceding : it was printed in Englifli, in form of a letter, and af- 
terwards in Latin, under the title of *' Epiftoia de Daventriae 
i^itione." For this, and other Services, be was created Cardi- 
pal on the 28th of July, 1587, by the title of St. Martin ia - 
^ontibus ;' and foon afcer the king of Spain gave him an ab* 
i)ey of great value in the kingdom of Naples* 

In April, 15S6, Alan publilhed the work which rendered 
bim fo infamous in his own country. It conrificd of two parcs^ 
'the firft explainfng the pope's bull for the excommunication 
and deprivation of queen Elizabeth \ the.fecond, exhoftingr 
tbe nobility and people of England to defert her, and take 
tip arms in favour of the Spaniards. Many thoufand copies 
were printed at Antwerp, to be put on board the armada, 
that tbey might be difperfed all over England; but on the w«tr«nv «lt 
failing of this cnter^prize, all thefe books were dcftroyed.^**^'*' ' ' 
One of them, as foon as printed, having been tranfmitted by 
fomp of the lord treafurer's fpies to the £ngli(h council, 
queen Elizabeth fent Dr. Dale into the Low Countries, toCamdfA^i 
complain thereof lo the prince of Parma. After the armada ^°'^*' 
was defiroyed^ Howard earl of Arundel, who had been three ^*^ - 
years in piifon, under a charge of high treafon, was brought 
to his trial ; and it being proved that he held acorrefpondence 
with cardinal Alan, he was found guilty by his peers. This ibid p«395« 
fame year the king of Spain promoted Ahn to the archbi- 
ihoprick of Mechlin. The remainder of his life he fpent at 
Rome. The Englifli miniftry had always fpies upon him;Tabteof 
for it appears by Burleigh's papers, that he had exaft accounts ^^"^'"J*^ 
of every ftep the cardinal took. In the laft years of his hfe, he^J„^'^ 
is faid to have altered his fentiments, and to have been ex- 
tremely forry for the pains he had taken to promote the inva- 
fion of England by the Spaniards. Mr. Watfon tells us, that Qttod}it>et«4 
when he perceived the Jefuits intended nothing but the de-P**4o- 
iiruiSion of bis native country, he wept bitterly ; and this 
behaviour drew upon him the ill-will of that powerful ro<*> 
ciety. He died on the 26th of October, 1594, in the 63d 

I ear of bis age, and was buried in the Englifh college at 
Lome, where a monument is erefled to his memory, with an 
infcription preferved by Godwin. He is generally fa id to 
bavedicd of a retention of urine > but It is ihrewdly fufpe£led 



%26 A L A Ni 

that he Vva» poironed by the Jcfuits, who, afCcr his death^ 
ured to fay, that he was weH gone, and that God had taked 
htm away in good time. Befides the works of his already 
mentioned, he wrote alfo feveral other pieces; one, in parti^ 
cular, *' Of the Worfliip due to Saints, and their Relics ; ^ 
" true, fincere, and' modeft Deffenc© of Chrifttan CatboKcjTf 
<* that fufFered f6r their Faith, at home and abroad, againft k 
" ialfe, feditious, and flanderous Libel, intitled, «' The Eyecu- 
*' tion of Jpftice ih England j". wherein it is declared how un- 
•* juftly the Proteftants do charge the CatboKcs with TreafoJi j 
** how untruly they deny their perfecution for Reh'gton ; and 
** how deceitfully they ftek to ^bufe Strangers about thcf 
«* Caufe, Greatnefs, and Manner of their Sufitrings : with 
** divers other matters pertaining to this purpofe." 

The book to which this was an anfwer, was penned by 
lord Burleigh himfelf ; and the original, under his own hand, 
as Strype tells us (Annals, vol. iii. p. 48i.)» i^ yet preferred. 


joan.Magn. ALARIC, a famous general of the Goths. He entered 
j^^^^^^'g**' Thrace at the head of 200,000 men, and laid wafie all the 
p. 486. * country through which he pafl'ed. He marched next to Ma- 
Secr^fes; cedonia and Theflaly : the Thcffalians met him hear the 
jibft^r*^^'*"^"^*^ of the river Peneas, and killed about 3OG0 of his 
cap. 10. army ; neverthelefs he advanced into Greece, and after hav- 
ing ravaged the whole country, returned to Epirus, loaded 
Petav^Rat. with immenfe fpoils : after (laying here five years, he refolved 

tow"!^ii. *° ^^^^ ^^s ^^^^ towards the Weft. He mslrched through 
part.jj. Pannonia; and, finding little refiftancc, entered Italy, under 
f* »»*• the confulfhip of Stilicho and Aurelianus, A. D# 400, but 
'did not perform any memorable exploit for two years. In 402^ 
being encamped near Polenzo, Stilicho came againft with a 
powerful army, and made a fudden attack upon hi$ troops on 
£after-day, being in hopes that the Goths, would not defend 
themfelves on that day: but he was difappointed ; for thottgH 
many of the Goths were (lain in the beginning of the* battle^ 
yet at laft they took to their arms,* and AWic made fo vigor- 
ous an attack upon the Roman army, that, according toCa/^ 
C!aadi»n fiodorus as well asjornandes and Orofius, he routed them, took 
*P"*Vf^son.j|,gjj. ^.^j^p^ 2nd got an immenfe booty: but Claudian and 
^ * Prudentius fay, on the contrary, that the Goths were defeat- 
ed. Certain it {3, Alaric foon after engaged Stilicho j^ and it 
was not till after feveral defeats^ and when many of his Goths 
Sigon. ibid, had defer ted, that he was obliged to retire into Pannonia. 

Whilft Alaric was in Pannonia, Stilicho concluded a peaeift 
with him, on condition that he iboirid retire into Epiru^? 


A L A R I C. ity- . 

yhich he accordingly did, expedtng that Stilicho, purfuant 
to his promifCy would endeavour to add JUyricum lo' the 
ilfeilern eoipire. But finding that Stilicho did not ke^p his 
promife, be returned to Pannonia, and fent atnbaffiidors lo 
Scilicho at Haven na, demanding. money for the time he had foft 
iu Epirusy- and threatening to invade Italy again if he was not 
fatisfied. Stilicho left the ambaffadors at Ravenna, and went 
immediately to Rome, to confalt what was proper to be done. 
The fenate being aflembled, ihe majority were of opinion 
not to comply with Alaric^s demand, but to make war againft 
hiOT. Stilicho and his dependants were of a different opinion, Zofioiut, 
Vfhich prevailed ; and accordingly it was refolved to give forty **^* ^' P* 
tfaoafaiid pounds, and conclude a peace. Stilicho being ^^^' ' 
killed Toon af^r, the Roman foldiers murdered all the wives 
and children of the Goths they could find. The Goths, upon 
this, went to Alaric, and prefTed him to make war againfi the 
Rornans; but being defirous to maintain peace, he fent am- 
b^ifadors to the emperor Honorius, demanding fdme money 
tfld hoAages, promifmg that he wo^ld alio fend fom^ nobJe- 
ipe/i as hbfiages to the emperor, upon which conditions he 
would preferve the peace, and return with his army to Pan- 
nonia. The emperor refufing, he prepared to invade Italy, 
again, and fent to Ataulphus^ his wile's brother^ who was in 
Upper Pannonia, to advance with all the Huns and Goths an* 
der his command. However, without fl^aying for him, he 
marched with his own army as fxiras the Po,. without meeting 
any obftrudlion ; and after palling that, he went dire£liy 
towards Rome» taking all the forts and towns in the way^ 
He befxeged^Rome very clojfely ; and after having made him- 
felf matter of the Tiber, prevented any provifions from being 
carried to the city. The inhabitants, though in want of the 
neceflaries of life^ refolved to iland out the fiege, being in 
hopes that the emperor, who was then at Ravenna, would 
come to their relief; but finding that he ned;le<E)ed them, and 
being reduced to the !aft extremity, they fent ainhaffadors tor 
the enemy. The ambafladors told Alaric, that the Romans 
^cre ready to fubmir, provided they could obtain tolerable 
terms ; but that if once they took up arms, nothing could de- 
ter them from fighting. Alaric anfwered to thefe lafl words,. 
tbat ^^ the ciofer hay was prefixed, the eafier it would be cut;" 
mtimating thereby, that when the Romans* joined all in sl* 
l>ody, they would fall an eafier prey to him : and he treated the 
Ambafladors m an in^fulting manner* , He faid, he would not 
f^fe the fiege, unlefs the Romans delivered to him all their 
gold and filyeci the hQafhoMrgoodSji wearing apparel, and all 


j28 A L A R I C 

the barbarian flaves they had : when the ambaflaJors afk^Si * 
what he was refolvcd to leave them ? he anfwered brifkly^ 
J*»^»P»»54'i« their lives/' The ambafl'adors having procured a ceffa<* 
tion of arms, returned to Rome, and declared the term^ 
which Alaric. offered. The Romans fent back the arfibafTa- 
dors^ ^o Alaric, who at laft confentcd to the following con-» 
didons: that the city (bould pay him five thoufand pounds 
'' > of gold, thirty thcufand of fiiver, four, thoufand filk waift- 
coats, three thoufand fcarlet fleeces, three thoufand pounds o( 
pepper, and that fome of the fons of perfons of the firft rank 
ibould be delivered up as hoftages : on thefe conditions, be 
promifed to make peace with the Romans, and enter into an 
alliance with them againft whoever (bould attack them. Thd 
Romans having acquainted Hotiorius with this, he fubmitted, 
and a peace was concluded* Abric then withdrew his army 
. to Tufcany, where he encamped. 
16«rf.p»j47> Some trmc after, Ataulphns arrived at the head of htf 
**• troops; of which Honorius being informed, and refolvcd to 

prevent his joining with Alaric, collefied all the forces he 
could, and fent therr^to attack Ataulphus. Alaric looking 
upon this as a breachof the peace lately concluded^ advanced 
. within thirty miles of Ravenna, where Jovius met him, to heat 
the conditions he required^ which were, that a certain fo'rri 
of money (hould be paid him. and a certain quantity of pro- 
vifions fent yearly ; and that he fliould be permitted to^fettle 
with hts Gothsi in V^enetia, Dalmatia, and the country no>^ 
called Bavaria.^ Thefe conditions were rejcASed by the cat" 
peror. Alaric afterwards abated fpmewhat of hispretenfions j 
he gave up the tribute he had aflced, and would now be fatis- 
fred with that part of Bavaria which borders upon Iftria ; but 
this being alforefufed^ he marched with all his troops again(l 
Rome, and having made himfelf mafter of the poft upon rhii 
Tiber, he cut ofF the city from all neceflary provifions ; thi^ 
obliged them at laft to fubmit, and to receive Mm into the city. 
A peace was foon after concluded, the conditions whereof, id 
regard to Alaric, were, that he fhould be in alliance with the 
emperor; that he fhould fettle in Gaul with his Goths, and 
there make war againft Honorius's enemies. But this peace 
did not laft long; for one Sarus attacked the Goths unawares^ 
the peace with them not being favourable to his ambftioul 
Sosrdmen. proje^Js. Alaric, to revenge this injury, returned to Rome, 
Hift. EccJef, jqqIj it by treachery, and permitted his foldicfs to plunder it f 
• **• ^' ^'this happened A. D. 409, Alaric, having laid wafte great part 
of Italy, intended to pafs intb Sicily, but a ftorm obliging 
)um to land again^ he befieged the city of 4^ofens^a | and hav- 

A L A R I C. 129 

ing took it, he died there in 411, eleven years after he firft 
enteied Italy. 

ALB AN (St.) is faid to have been the firft perfon who 
fuflFeied martyrdom for Chriftianity in Britain ; he is there- * 

fore ufually ftyled the protomartyr of this ifland. He was 
born at Verulam [a], and flourifhed towards the end of the 
third eentury. In his youth he took a journey to Rome, in 
company with Amphibalus'a monk of Caerleon, and ferved 
feven years as afoldier under the emperor Diocletian. At his 
return home, he fettled in Verulam ; and, through the ex- 
ample and inftrudions of Amphibalus, renounced the errors Bede,Hift. 
of paganifm, in which he had been educated, and became a^^[*^"J^y* 
convert to the Chriftian religion. It is generally agreed that 
Alban fuffered martyrdom during the great perfecution under ^ 

the reign of Diocletian ; but authors differ as to the year when 
it happened : Bede and others fix it in 286, fome refer it to id. ibid; 
296, but Ufher reckons it amongft the (vents of 303. The uffer.Brit. 
flory and circumftances relating to his martyrdom, according Lo^Jj^* 
to Bede, are as follows : being yet a pagan (or at leafl it not p. 77! 
being known that he was a Chriftian) ho-entertained Amphiba* ^^^^ ^^^ 
lus in his houfe; of which the Roman governor being inform- "^'^ 
ed, fent a party of foidiers to apprehend Amphibalus; but 
Atban, putting on the habit of his gueft, prefented himfelf in 
his {lead, and was carried before that magiftrate. The go* 
vernor, having afked him of what family he was f Alban re- 
plied, *• To what purpofe do you enquire of my family ? if 
" you would know, my religion, I am a Chriflian." Then 
teing afked his name, he anfwered, ^< My name is Alban, 
^' and I worfhip the only true and living God, who created 

[a] This town was ancientljr called Nero*i tune it wai eileeined a mon&i* 
WciUincefter, or Watliogaccfier,' the pium, or a town whofe ijihabitaots en- 
former naine being derived from the river joyed the rights and privileges of Ro- 
Warlacne, which ran on the eaft fide ) man citiseos* It was entirely ruined by 
the latter, from th« Ronian highway the Britons, during the war between thd 
tilled WaUing-flrecCy whicb lay to the Romsnsand Boadicea queen of the Iceni* 
Weft. (Mat. Weftm. Flor. Hift. an* 313.) Afterwards Verulam flouriHied again, 
Tacitas calls it Verulamium ; and Pto< and becarr.e a city of great note. About 
)eo>y, * Urolamium. .The fituaiion of the middle of the fifth century, it fell 
this ftlace was clofe by the town of St. into the bands of the Saxoos $ butUther 
Alban's in Heirtfordfiiire. There is Pendragon, theBriron, lecovered itwith 
nothing now rertiatning of old Verulam much difficulty, after a very long fiege* 
bat miAS of wsUs, chequered pafements, After his death, Verulam fell again into 
ind Roman coins, which are often dug the hands of the Saxons ; but by fre- 
^p. tt ii conjeduredy from the fitua- quent war8> it was at laft entirely mined, 
tioo, that this was the town of Caflite* Camden's Britannia, by biihop pibfbny 
Isonoi/fo well defended by woods and vol* 1, col* 355* 
narftcf, vbiph was taken by Csf^r* In 

Vol. I. K *ll 

r^ A Is B A N. 

«* all things/' Th» magiftrare replied, <* If you would en- 
_ ^< joy the happinefs of eternal life, delay not to facrifice to the 
*' great gods,** AlBan anfwered; *• The facrifices you oficr 
^* are made to devils ; neither can they help the needy, nor 
• <* grant the petitions of their votaries^" Hk behaViour fo en- 

raged the governor, that he ordered him imaiediately to be 
beheaded. In his way to execution,, he was flopped by a river, 
over which was a bridge fo thronged with fpedtatora, that it 
was impoffiblc to crofs it ; when the faint, as we are told, lift- 
ing up his eyes to heaven, the ftream was miraculoufly divide!, 
and afforded a palTage for himfelf and a tboufaBd more periMS. 
Bede does not indeed give lis the name of this river; but not* 
withftandlng this omifilon, the miracle we fuppofe will not 
beithf lefs believed. This wonderful event converted the 
' execvtianer-upon theipot, who threw away bis drawn fword, 

and, faUkng at St Aiban's feet, defined he might have the ho* 
BOUT t^ die with him : and thusi the execution being delayed 
til) another perfeA cj>ttld be got to perform the office, St. 
Alban walked up to a neighbouring hill, whece he prayed for 
WJ^er to quench his thifft, and a fountain of water fprangup 
luider hifs feet: here he was beheaded, on the 23d of June, 
The executioner is fatd to have been a fignal examine of di- 
vine vengeance ; for as fooa as he gave the fatal ftroke, his 
eyes droptiout of his head. Milton^ in his hiftory of Eng- 
land, fpeaks of St, Albaa, ^^ l^e ftory of whofe martyrdom, 
«^ (he faj^s,) £9tled and worfe martyred with the fabling seal. 
^* of fome idle fancies, more fond of miracles than apprehen« 
^' five of the truth,* deforves no longer dtgreffion/' fietween 
fQur and five hundred years after St. Alban's death, Oft, 
king of the Mercians, built a very large. and ftately oipnaftery 
to his memory ; and the town of St. Alban's in Hertfordibiie 
^ takes its name from our protomartyr. 

ALBANI (Francis), a celebrated painter, born in Bo- 
logna, March 17, 1578. His ^her was a filk merchant, 
and intended to bring up his fon to that bufinefs ; but Albairr 
having a ftrong inclination to painting, when bis father died, 
4evoted himfelf entirely to that art, though then btft twelve 
Frefnoy*! years of age. He firft ftudied under Denys Calvert ; Guido 
pliiuLp, ^heni being at the fame time under this reader, wkh whoai 
cngjiOiedby Albani contracted a very great friendfhip. Calvert dtew but 
Pryden, one profilb for Albani, and afterwards left him eiitil^ly to the 
P' S4S* care of Guido ; under whom he made great improvemeAt, h» 
fellow- difciple inftruding him with the utmoft humanity and 
good humour. He followed Qoido to the fchool of the Ca* 


A L 6 A N f , 131 

Tacbes, but a Httle after thdrmiendfliip for each other began 
xo codl ; \v1iich W^ ovt^Tng perhaps td the ptide of Ai^an'r, vc ho » 
cOttU not b^r to fee Guidd furpafs him, or to the je^louTy 
ofGoido ai fiiiding Albani make fo fwift a progrefs. They 
certainly endeavoured to ctlipfe one another 5 for when GuicJo 
had fet up a bt^utiful altar-piece^ Albani Wo\Ad oppo(% to itP*»n''n8 »'• 
foxtit &x\efk6k\ite of his : <bus did they behave for fome tf nrie, ^gi'^^^J^ ' 
and yet fpsakc of each other with %c htgheft efteem. Albani, p. g9»q«'arto 
after having greatly improved himfelf liiidet- the Caraches,**^"* 
iMntto Rome, where he continued many years, and njarried 
in that city ; kmt his wife dying in childbed, at the eirneft 
tequeft of his relationsi he retiirned to Bologna, where he 
entered agaVn into the ftate of matrimony* His fbcond wife 
(Doralioe) wa^ well deCcendtd) but had very tittle fortune; 
which he pfcrfe£t)y difregarded^ fo flrbngly Was he captivated 
with ber beauty and good fenfe. Albant, befides the fatis{ac-> 
fion of pof&lling an accompliflied wife, reaplcd likewife the 
advantage df having a nioft beaottful hiddel ; fo that he had 
- m>w no occafioh to make ufe of any other woman to paint a 
VfcauSi the Graces, Nymphs, and other deities, whom bit 
took a particular delight in reprefenting. His wife anfwered 
ihis{)urpofe admirably well; for befides her bloom of youth, 
and the beauty of her perfon, he difcovered in her fo much 
aodefty, fb many gracea and perfefttt>ns, fo well adapted to 
painting that it was impoffible for hint to meet with a morb 
finifhed woman. She afterwards brought him feveralboys, 
all extrehidy beautiful and finely proportioned; fo that (he 
and her children were the oiiginals of his moft agreeable and 
graceful compoficions. Doralice was fo conformable to his 
intentions, that ihe took a pleafure in fetting the ch?ldren in 
diii^rent attitudes, holding them naked, amd ibraetimes fuf- 
pended by ftrings, when Albani would draw thern in a thpuhFetibien, 
* land different ways. It was from ihcm too, that the famous ^o"'*'". 
fculptor^ Flamand and Argaldi modelled their little Cupids. \ ^' ^^^' 

Albani was well verfed in fome branches of polite literature, 
but did not underAand Latin, much to his regret ; he endea- 
voured to fupply this deki\ by carefully perufing the Italian- 
tcanflations of fuch books as could be him in 
his profeflion. He excelled in all parts of painting, but 
was particularly admired for his fmall pieces ; though he 
himfelf was much difl'atisficd that hh larg,c pieces, many df 
vhteh he painted for altars, were not equally applauded. He 
delighted much in drawing, the fair fex, whom he has reprc- 
fcntcdwitb wonderful beauty; bu,t has been retkoned nc^ihid.tbm.ifl, 
fo happy in his imitation of men. He fomctimes reprefentedp. 5*5. 

K a divine 

lax ALBANI. 


iivint dories, but his<:oinpo(iflbns on love fubjefls were fnoft 
Fjifiot Pijtrcagcrly fought after. ♦* He did not" fays Malvafia, ** feign 
^"Tiz?**"*" Cupid heavy and fleeping, as Guido did,, but reprefented 
'* * •* him fea^d majefticaily on a throne ^ now direding the 
*^ fporttve exercifes of the little Loves, (hooting at a heart 
^^ fixed on a trunk of a tree; now prefiding over their 
^* fprightiy dances, round the mnrble monunnent of Flora 
, «« crowned with a chapl^ of blooming flowers ; and now 

** furveying the conqueft of the little winged boys over the 
*^ rural fatyrs and fauns. If he reprefented a dead Adonis> 
'* he always introduced a band of lovers, fome of whicfa^ 
<^ viewing the wound, drew back in the utmoft horror; 
*' while others, exafperated, broke to pieces their bows and 
*^ arrows, as being no longer of ufe to them, fince Adonis 
*^ was no more } and others again, who, running behind the 
*^ fierce wild boar, brandiihed their darts with an air of v^n- 
** geance." Albani was of a happy temper and difpoution, 
bis paintings, fays the fame author, breathing notbiog but 
content and joy : happy in a force of mind that conquered 
.every uneafinefs, his poetical pencil carried him through the 
mod agreeable gardens to Paphos and Citherea : thofe de- 
tightfu) fcenes brought him over the lofty Parnafius to the 
delicious abodes of Apollo and the Mufes; whence what 
Da Frefnoy fays of the famous Giulia Romano may be 
juiHy applied to Albani : . » 

Taught from a child in the bright Mufes* grots. 
He opened all the treafures of ParnafTus, 
And in the lovely poetry of painting. 
The Aiyfteries of Apollo has reveal'd. 

He died the 4th*of Oftober, 1660, to the great grief of aM 

his friends and the whole city of Bologna. Malvaiia has pre- 

ferved fome verfes of Fiancifco de Lemene, intended for hiS 

monument, the fenCe whereof is, ** That the mortal remains 

*^ of the iliuflrious Albani, he who gave life to fhade, lie in- 

V terred in this tomb: ihe earth never produced fo wonderful 

'*' an artift, or a hand equal to his immortal one, which gave 

- ** colours to the foul, and a foul to colours. Prometheus 

<< animated dead clay, and gave life by means of the fun; 

•« but Albani animated merely by the affiftance of made." 

He was very famous in his life-time, and had been vifited by.the 

Acadtmu greateft painters : feveral princes honoured him with letters, 

Piaafs^ and amongft the reft king Charles I. who invited him to Eog" 

f • ***• land, by a letter figned with his own hand. 


A L B E R T U S. tjj 

ALBERTUS (Magnus), a learned Dominican friar, born ^ 

at Lawingen on the Danube, in Suabia, in 1 265, or, accord* 
Ing to feme, in i 193. He received his education at Latxrin- 
gen, and thence was fent to Pavia ; where having heard fa* 
therjourdain the Dominican preach, he was fo taken with 
him, that hfe put on the religious habit of his order, in 1223* 
After the deceafe of Jourdain, he was vicar* general^ then 
provincial of the Donvinican order, and was fent to teach at 
Cologn, tvhere he acquired great reputation, and had a v'aft 
number of fcholars. In 1245 he made a journey to Paris» 
where he taught for thre# years ; and, in 1248, was admitted 
a doGtor of divinity. Soon after he returned to Cologn ; but 
being fent for to Rome by Pope Alexander IV. he taught 
there, and for fome time had the office of mafler of the holy 
palace : it was about this time too that he difpured with Wil« 
liam de Saint Amour. In 1260, he was chofen bifhop of 
Ratifbon ; but fo great was his love for folitude, that he foon 
rcHgned this dignity, to enter again into the monadic life. He 
is faid to have a£led as a man-midwife; and fome have ^^^n S*^!**?^** 
highly offended, that one of his profeffionlhould follow fuch an f„m]^ jj, 
employment. A book entitled ^' De natura rerum," of which cap. lo. 
he was reputed the author*, gave rife to this report : in this 
treattfe there are feveral inftrudlions for mid wives, and fo 
much (kill fliewn in their art, that one would think the au- 
thor could not have arrived at it without having himfelf prac* 
tifed ; but the advocates for Albert fay he was not the writer 
thereof, nor of that other piece, ** De fecretis mulierum," in 
which there are many phrafes and expreffions unavoidable on 
fuch a fubje£l, which gave great offence, and raif d a clamour 
againft the fuppofed author. It mud be acknowledged, how- 
ever, that there are, in his Comment upon the Mafter of Sen* 
tences, fome queftions concerning the practice of conjugal 
duty, in which he has ufed fome words rather too grofs for 
chafte and delicate ears:; but they allege what he himfelfia.ibid. 
ufed to fay fn his own vindication, that hec^me to the know- 
ledge of fo many monftrous things at ronfeffion, that it was 
impoflible to avoid touchifig upon fuch queftions. Albert 
was certainly a man' of a moft curious and inquifitive turn of 
mind, which gave rife toother accufations brought againft 
him : they fay, that he laboured to find out the philofopher's 
fione; that he was a magician; and that he made a machine 
in the (hape of a nian, which was an oracle to him, and ex- 
plained all the difficulties he propofed. He had great know- 
l^edge in the mathematics, and by his (kill in that fcience 
might probably have formed a head) with fprings capable of 

K 3 articulate 

134 A L B E R T U S. 

Lib. i. Vsr.^rticulalc founds ; like to the machines, of Boeti^» of t^bich 
%ifl.45. Caffiodorus ba3 faid, " Met^h lovi/e^ the biccjs of Diomedc^ 
*^ trumpet in brafs, the brazen feipent hiilibs^ counterf^ued 
*' fwallows chatter, and fuch as hay^ no prQpi;r note, froni 
^' brafs fend forth harmonious. mu£c," John ft^^ttb^us 4e 
Cap. XII. - Luna, in his treatlfe** Dq rerum inveatoribps^" h^ attributed 
the invention of fire- arcQs to Albert; ^M^. ip ^>s he is con- 
Annaiiof futed^y Naude, iabis " A j^ologiedcs. grands hptftmc^/* Wc 
vou"'' are told, that Albert was naturally very dull, and (o incj^<* 
ble of in(lru£)ion, as to be upon the point of qHitcIng the 
cloifler, from de(|>air. of leartJSng^ yhat, his habit required; 
but that the holy Virgin appeared to him, and afked him 19 
which he chofe to excel, philofopby or divinity ?. that haviog 
chofen the former, (he aflured hith he ihould becqqji^ inqom- 
parable therein ; but that, as a punifliment for not p9*ef^rring 
divinity, h^ fliould fink, before he died, into hi^ forager flu- 
pidity. It is added, that after this apparition he had m in- 
:^nite deal of wit, and that he advanced in ali the fcienjces 
with fo quick a progress, as utterly aftoniihed his mailers ; 
but that three years before his death, he flopped (hojjt ffbet^ 
reading a div.inity4Q<3ure at Cok>gn, and haying in vain en- 
deavoured to recal hUidd&s, he foahd that the Virginjs pre* 
didiion was aqcoropliih^d. ** k would be vety unnecefTary," 
iays Bayle, after relating thefe pacti^lars,. " taobftrve that 
^^ they are fables ; thpfe who would believe me, need not be 
f ^ told this, fmce they would judgo in the fame manner of 
«^ their own accord;, and as for fuch as think othejcwiGe, they 
• «< would npt s^l^r their opinjoa by reading here, that I aiAof 
• " a diflFerent way of thinking,'' Alliert died at CologHi 
November*! 5^ iz8o, brei,ug about 87, or» at:cozding tof (ome, 
75 years of age. He wrote fuch a. number of books, that 
they make twenty-one volumes i^ folio, in the LyoQs edition 
of i6i»5. 

ALCiEUS, a.famous ancient, iyric poet» born at Mijtylene, 
in the iila>nd of t^tfboa, Horacei ^ems. t^ think be was the 
author of lyric poetry. ^ ■ . ^ 

He flourifbed in the Olympiad, at.the fame time witfi 
Eiifcbiuj inSapptoi who was lik^wifc of Mitylerte, In Ariftotlc's Rhe* 
Chionic. ^fyf'iQ^ Aleaeus is introduced, req^ueftin^a favDUF of that lad/t 
in thefe words : 

Al^<v$. . '. . 

Fain would Ifppak^ but muft,thro*'ihame, conceal 
The thought niy eager ton^e would foon reveal. 


A L C iE U S. . 135 

Sappho tkoa anfwere : 


IVere your requeft, O ban)'! on honour built, lib. t, cap. 9. 

Your cheeks would not have worn thefe marks of guilt : 
But in prompt words the ready thoughts had flown. 
And your heart's honeft meaning quickly (hewn. 

In..the time o£ Alczus, Mitylene fuffered under the oppref- 
fion of Fittacus. He beaded a ftrong party for the deliver- 
mce of his country ; but in this proved unfucccfsful, and 
was taken prifoner by Pittacus^ who gave him his liberty, a^• 
thougli he had been treated by him in a moft abufive man- 
ner : for he had inveighed againft Pittacus in very coarfe 
terms, having called him, as Suidas tells us, SpIay-f<K>t, Fat* 
guts, and other opprobrious names* But, notwithftanding 
tbi& clemency, ftill caballing and railing at^im, he was no 
longer ufed with favour. 

Alcaeus was prefent at an engag;ement> wherein the Athe- 
mms gained a vifiory over theLefbians ; and here, as he him* 
ielf is (aid to have confeiled, he threw down hts arms^ and* 
faved htmfelf by (tight, k was fome comfort to him, how- Herod.u^.n 
cvm^, in his difgrace, that the conquerors ordered bis arms to^^P*95* 
be hung up in the temple of Minerva at Sigseum. Horace, 
who, of all the Latin poets, moft refembied Alcsus, has 
made the like confeffion. 

Alcaeus was much addicted (o the Greek vice, the love of 
boys. The name of his favourite was Lycas, of whom Ho- 
race ^eaks} and who is probably the boy whom Cicero notes odeji.Uba. 
jfbr having ^ mole upon his finger^ which, in the poet's eye,cicero« De 
was a beauty. Alcaffu6 was fo amorous, (ays Scipio Gen* ^>V ^^^^' 
tills-, that he compares' hi mfelf to a hog, who, whilft he js "^^-^-^P^f- 
tatvng one acorn, devours another with his eyes; *' to is K Apology of 
•« with me, fays he; whilft I enjoy one girl, lam wi(hingApi)ieaus» 
w fpr another." P- ^S« 

The poetical abilities of Alcasus are indifputed ; and 
though bis writings were chiefly in the lyric ftrain, yet hisHo"t. Ode 
roufe was capable of treating the foblimeft fubje£b with j|«"*-*>^'*» 
fdhable dignity. Nothing remains of him but fcraps* 

ALCIAT (Andrew), a great lawyer, was the fon of a 
rich merchant of Milan, according to Pancirolus, and born De dans 
in tfaaC city in 1492. After having ftudied the liberal fciences Leg. imerp. 
vndcr Janus Parrhafius at Milan, he attended the law-[!|*" *jV 
kAures of Jafon at Pavia, and- ibofe of Charles Riiinus 

K 4 at 

136 A L C I A T. • 

at Bologna. Then taking a degree in law, he follbwed his 
profeffion at the bar, in the city of Milan, till he was call<rd 
14jtBet,in to the law-ch^ir by the univerfity of Avignon. He dif- 
*'* ***"*charged hi^ office with fo much capacity^ that Francis !• 
tbonght he would be a very proper perfon to promote the 
knowledge of the law in the univerfity of Bourges, and ac- 
cordingly prevailed on him to remove thither in 1529 : and 
the next year he doubled his faUry, which before was fix 
hundrod crowns. Alciat acquired here great, fatpe and repu* 
tation : he intcrfperfed much polite learning in his explication 
of the law, and abolished that barbarous language, which bad 
hitherto prevailed in the ledures and writings of the lawyers. 
Francis Sforza, duke of Milan, thought himfeif obliged to 
bring back to his native country a man, who could do it fo 
much honour ; and this he compaiTed at laft, by giving him a 
large falary and the dignity of a fenator* Alciat accordingly 
went to teach the law at Pavia, but foon after removed to the 
univerfity^ of Bologna, where he continued four years, and 
then returned to Pavia ; from whence he went to Ferrara* 
being folicited thither by duke Hercules d'Efie, who was de- 
firous to render his univerfity famous. It refumed its repu- 
tation under a profeflbr fo much followed ; but at the end of 
four years Alciat left it, and returned to Pavia. Paul III. 
gave him an honourable reception as he pafled by Ferrara, and 
oflFered him ecclefiafiical preferment ; but Alciat was con- 
tented with that of prothonotary, and would not give up his 
profeffion of the law. He feems to rejoice that he had re* 
fufed Paul's offers, in a letter he wrote to Paulus Jovius, 
whom the pope had a long time amufed with fallacious pro- 
Epift. ad P. mifes : ^^ I am very glad (fays he) that I did not AiiFer myfelf 
Jov.oa, 7, u to be deceived by this pope's offers, who, under the promife 
'5^9* (c Qf a great recompcnce, wanted to draw me to Rome." 
The emperor created Alciat a count*palatin and a fenator ; and 
Philip, afterwards king of Spain, prefen^ed him with a golden 
chain, as he pafied by Pavia. 

Alciat died at Pavia, on the lath of January,. 1550, being 

then in the fifty-eighth year of bis age. After the death-df 

bis mother, who died in a very advanced age, he intended to 

have employed his wealth in the foundation of a college j but 

having receixed an affront from fome infoient fcholara, he 

• dropt that defign, and chofe for bis heir Francis Alciat, a 

very diftant relation, though a promifing youth, and one 

whom he himfeif had brought up at his houfe. Mr. Teiffier 

A Letter fays, that Andrew Alciat paffed his life in celibacy $ but this 

TwT "^ ^ * miftake, as m?y be fcen from a pafTagc of ai letter he 


A L C I A T. 


^ote to^his friend Francis Calvus, after he had withdrilwa 
Irom Nf ilan to Avignon, He publiifhed many law-books^ 
land ibme notes upon Tacitus : his Emblems have been much 
pfteecnedi and many learned men have thought them worthy 
to be adorned with their commentaries. Scaliger the elder, 
who was not lavifli of pratfes, fpeaks thus of them : '^ I have 
'< not happened (fays he) to fee any thing of Alciat but his 
*' £nriblems, and they are i'uch as may be compared with any 
•* work of genius; they are fweet, they are pure, they arc 
** elegant, and not without ftrength, and the fentiments l>e Poetic. 
*^ fuch as may be of ufe in lifip.'* Thefe Emblems have been'***' "• • 
tranflated into French, Italian, and Spanifli. In his *' Parerga,'* 
a work he pubiiffaed in his latter days, he retraced many 
things which the fire of youth had made him utter precipitate- 
ly ; and when his ^* Difpundiiones" were reprinted in 1529, he 
£gnified, that 19 retouching that book, he had not pretended 
to give his approbation to all he had inferted there in his 
younger year^. In 1695, they printed at Leyden a letter, 
which Alciat did not intend for the public ; it was addrefied 
to hts colleague Bernard Mattius, and contained a (irong de- 
feription of the abufes of the monadic life, 
' Francis Alciat fucceeded to the chair as well as fortune of 
Andrew, and foon made himfelf famous for his law^ledlures 
I at Pavia* Cardinal Borromeo, who had been his fcholar^ 
fent for him to Roiiqe, and brought him into fuch favour 
with po^. Pius IV. that he procured him a biihopric, the 
office of datary or chancellor of Rome, and a cardinal's hat. 
There are fome treatifes of cardinal Alciat, who died at 
Rome in April 1580, being about fifty year$ old* 

ALCMAN, a lyric poet, who flouriifaed in the 27th Olym- 
piad. Some fay that he was of Lacedsmon, others that he 
was born at Sardis, a city in Lydia. He compofed feveral 
poenas, none of which are remaining, but fragments quoted by 
Athenaeus and other ancient writers. He was a man of a 
very amorous conftitution, is accounted the father of love- Athen. 
verfesi and faid to have firft introduced the cuflom of finging '^^•J^*^ 
them in public. Megaloftrata was one of his miilrefles, who^* ' 
likewife wrote fome poetical pieces. Alcman is reported to 
have been one of the greateft eaters of his age ; upon which 
Mr. Bayle remarks, that fuch a quality would have been. ex- 
tremely inconvenient, if poetry had been then upon fuch a 
footing as it has been often fince, not able to procure the poet t 

bread. He is faid to have died a very finguUr death, viz. 
bay# been eaten up with lice, M^p<474« 



A L C O C K. 

ALCOCK (JraR), dodor of laws and bifliop ofBij in *m 
reign of king HcnpyTII. born atfievedy in Ybrkffliire, amdj 
educated at Cambridge. He was fiiA made deanx^f- Wcrft- 
Qiinilcr, and afterwards mafter of the coUs*^ In w^ji^ b€ 
Godwin^ dewas confcrattd bifliop of Rochefter $ in 1476, tnanflaced t9 
fn't^rE'tfcf"** ^^ ^ Worcefter; and in i486, to that of Ely, in tbe 
£iienf.ajiiioi^o<>n of Dr. John Morton, preferiied to the fee of Center-: 
148^* bury. He wa» a prelate of great learning and piety-, and fo 
highly efteeraed by king Henry, that be appointed him lord 
prefident of Wales, and afterwards lord chancellor of £ng- 
Id. Ibid. land. Alcock founded a fchooi at Kingfton upon Hull, ancf 
b.uilt the fpacious hall belonging to the epifcopal palaee at 
£ly. He was aHb the founder of Jefiis college in Cambridge^ 
for a mafter, fix fellows, and as many fcholars. This ho^e 
was formerly a nunnery, dedicated to St. Radegund ; and, 98 
Godwin te)l», the buiiding being greatly decayed, and cbe 
revenues reduced almoft to nothing, the nuns h^ all fbriaken 
it, exifept two ; whereupon biihop Alcock procured a g«uit 
Ibid. ^ (rom the crown, and converted it into a college. But Caai- 
Britannia, ^^^ ^j^^ others tell us^ that the nun» of that i^oufe were fo 
col.' 483. notorious for their incontinence, that king Hem y VIL aud 
pope Julius II. confented to its diflbluiion : Bale accord ^ogiy 
Baleos, de calls tht^ nunnery ^^ fpiri4uali4im meretricom CGDoobi.uni, a 
Script. Brit. tf comnninity of fpiritual harlots." Biihop Alcock wrote 
«»P^*57'' feveral pieces, amongft which are the f(dlowiag» foar: 
1. " Mons perfe^onisv" a. **' I» pfalnvos penja^rtriales/' 
5. *' Homiiiee vulg-^tfes." 4. ** Medimtiones pi«9." He 
died 0£baber i, 1^500, and was buried in the chapel he built 
at Kingdon upon Hull. 

- ALCUINVS, or Albinits (Fiaccus), a £armo«s Englifli 

Baieos, de Writer of the eighth century, born in York&ire^ or, as others 

Script. Brit, telt us, not far from London. He had his ed^icatfon firft 

mJij. ^dcr Venerable Bede, and was afterwards under the tuition 

of Egbert arehbifhop of York, who made him> keeper of tl|e 

' Kbrary which he founded in that city. Alcuinus flouriflied 

about the year 780, was deacon of the church of York,- and 

at hft abbot of the monaftery of Canjqerb^ry. In 793, be 

went to France, being invited, tiiithcr by Charktn^gaey to 

confute the her«fy of Felix btihop of Urge!. He was highly 

efteemod? by that prince, who- not only honoured hnn with 

his fi>iendftrp and confidence,, biit becaove his pupii^ and wai 

i . infltu^Sietlvby him i a rhetoric, logic, mathematics^ and divi^ 

»ity. The year foltewing he attended Charlemagne tottlie 

. cotflcU 


fomitil of Frandbrt, and* upon hh recominrndaHea was ad- 
mkifd a niember thereof; this prmce gave bim Hkewtfe the 
aMfya of Fenrara, Sr. Jodocus, and St. Lupus. In 796, kc 
deftitKl leave to rehire fronv fecubraffMri, but )fis4«queftwa8 
HOI granlted* In 798, he wrote againft the bifliop of Urgd^ 
aod coQjfuted his errors in feves hooks, in 799, be was in- 
vitod by Ckarlemagne to accompany^ him in bis jouraty to 
Ronve, but excufed himfelf on actcdunt of old age and in^ 
Snnities. In 801, Charlemagne being retufned ftom Italy^ 
wd n^\frif declared emperor, Alculnu« vfcnV to congratulate 
' bini upon this occafion i and he importuned hioi -fo warmly 
for kave to retire from court, that he at leftg^h obtained his 
Yequdtk, and went to the abbey of St. Martin at Tours, * 
which tbe emperor had lately given him. Here he fpent the 
lemainder of bi& life in devotion and ttodfi and inftraded 
tbe youth to tbe fchoo) which he bad founded in that city, 
Iboi^h the, emperor in vain endeavoured to recall him to court 
by rcqpeated letters^ He died at Tours, on Whitfiinday, 9oJ^^Cvft\ 
and was buried in the chutcb of St. Martin, where a ^(i°^^^£^!«iit 
epitapb, of twenty-foar verfes, of his own compoikion^ was^uuujSo. 
tnfrribed upon his tomb. This epitaph is prieferved by father 
Labbe, in his ** Tfaefaurus Epitaphiorum/' printed at Paris 
16&6. He uflderftood tbe Latin, Greek, and Hebrew lan- 
guages extremely well ; was an excelknt orator, philofopher, 
Biatheihatician ; and, according to Willvam of Malmefl>ury, 
thti befl: £ngK& divine after Bede and Adhelme. France was 
greatly indebted to h«n for her flburifhing fiate of learning ia 
tbat and the following ages, as we learn ffooia German poet^ 
cited by Camden, in his Britannia : , 

Quid non Akutno, facunda Lutetia,' debes ^ 

Inilaurarebonas.ibi qui feiiciter artes, 

Barbariemque procul folus diepellere c^pit. 
He wrote, a great number of books, moft of which are cxtanj. , 
H'isftyle is elegant and fprightly, and his language very pure, 
confidering the age in which he lived. His works were col- 
leded and puWiflied in one volume folio, by Andrew du 
Chcfne, at Paris, in 1617. They arie divided into three parts: 
the firft contains his trafts upon fcripture; the feCondy thofe 
^upon do£trine, difcipline, and morality ^ and. the third^ bis 
biftorical treatifes, letters, tod poems,, 

ALCTONIUS CPetbr), a learned Italian, whoflourilhed 
in the i6th century. He was well verfed in the Greek and 
Latin tongues, and wrote fome pieces of eloquence which 
met with great approbation. He was correflor of the prefs a 


,40 A. L C Y O N I U S. 

COnCxicfMt time for Aldus Manuttus, and is entitled to a 
fliare in ibe praifes given to the editions of that learned prihter*- 
He tranflated into Latin feverai trcatifes of Ariftotle: Sepul^ 
veda wrote againft thefe .verfions, and pointed out (o many 
errors in them, that Alcyonius had na other remedy, but 
buying up. as. many copies as he could gee of Sepulveda's 
work* and burning them. The treatife which Akyonius 
publilhed '^ Concerning Ban ilhment^" contained fo many fine 
paflages, with others quite the reverfe, thattc was thought fae 
bad interwoven with fomewhat of his own feverai fragments 
of Cicero's treatife, '* De gloria/' and that afterwards, in 
JoTiiisE]og.0rderto fave hioifeUfrom being detefted in this theft, he burnt 
*^*"^* the manufcript of Cicero, the only one extant* Pauius Ma« 
nutius, in bis commentary upon thefe words of Cicero, '' JLi* 1 
*^ brum tibi. celeriter mittam De gloria," has the following 
paiT^ge rei^tine to thisafiair : *^ He means," fays he, ^^ his two 
V books On Glory, which were banded down to the age of our 
*^ fathers ; for Bernard Jufiinianjn the index of his books, men- 
** tipns Cicero De gloria. This treatife however, when Bernard 
*^ had left his whole library to a nunnery, could not be founds 
^* though fought after with great care: nobody doubted but 
f ^ Peter Alcyonius, who, being phyfician to the nutfnery, was 
*^ intruded with the library, had bafely ilcien it* And truly* 
^* in his treatife Uf Banifliment, fonne things are found in« 
*< terfperfed here and there, which feem not to favour of Al- 
^^ cyonius, but of fome higher author." The two orations 
^ he made after the taking of Rome, wherein be reprefented 
very (Irongly theinjuftice of Charles V. and the barbarity of 
his foldiers, were two excellent pieces. There is another 
iKd. oration afcribed to him, on the knights who died at the fiege 

of Rhodes. 

Alcyonius was profelTor at Florence in the pontificate of 
Adrian VI. and, befides his falary, had ten ducats a month 
from the cardinal de Medicis, to tranflate Galen " De' parti- 
bus animarum.'* As foon as' he underftood that this cardinal 
Was created pope, heafked leave of the Florentines to depart; 
and though he wds refuifed, he went never thelefs to Rome, in 
great hopes of raifing himfelf there. 'He loft all his fortune 
during the troubles' the Columnas raifed in Rome; and fome 
timcf after, when the emperor's troops took the city, in 1527, 
he received a wound when flying for (helter to the caftle of 
St. Angelo : he got thither notwithftanding he was purfucd 
by the foldiers, and joined Clement VII. He was aftervvards 
guilty, of bafe ingratitude towards this pope; for, as foon as 


A L G Y ON I U S. f4i 

fiege was railed, he deferted him, tnd went over to cafdihattPtenus Va- 
, Pooipeius Columna, at whofe houfe he fell fick and died, ^^^l^^i^J^ 
£ew months after* Alcyonius might have made greater ad-fdic/p. 6> 
varices in learning, had he not been too much puffed up with 
vanity and felf-conceit, which hindered him from taking the 
, advice of his friends. He was like wife too much addidled to 
detra£lion and abufe» which raifcd him many enemies: yee 
there have been learned men, whohave highly praifed Alcy* 
oatus and his tranflations* 

ALDHELM. or Adelm (St.) an.Englifli divine, who 

was bifliop of Shireburn jn the time of the Saxop heptarchy, 

WiUiain of Malmeibury fays that he was the fon of Kenred, 

or Kenter, brother of Inaking of the Weft-Saxons. He y^as 

[ bora at Caer Bladon, now Malmefbury, in Wiltfbire, He 

I had part of his education abroad in France and Italy, and w. Mai- 

I part at home under Maildulphqs an Irifli Scot, who had b"i'^^*j5dhem^ 

a little monaftry where Malmefbury now ftands. Upon the 

death of Maildulphus, Aldhelm, by the help of Eleutherius 

bilhop of Winchefter, built a fiately monaftery there, and 

was hioiielf the firft abbot thereof. When Hedda, bifhop of 

I the Weft Saxons, died, the kingdom was divided into two 

I diocefes, viz. Winchefter and Shireburn, and king Ina pro* 

^ moted Aldhelm* to the latter, comprehending Dorfetthire, 

Wiltftiire, Devonlhire, and Cornwall : he was cdnfecrated 

at Rome by pope Sergius L and Godwin tells us that he had Inter £pire« 

the courage to reprove his holincfs for having a baftard. Ald-^**"^°'*'' 

helm, by the diredions of a diocefan fynod, wrote a book**^'' ^' 

againft the miftake of the Britons concerning the celebration 

of Eafter, which brought over many of them to the catholic 

xifage in that point. . He likewife wrote a piece, partly in 

profe and partly in hexameter vcrfe^ in praife of virginity^ ^ 

. dedicated to Ethelburga abbefs of Barking, and publilbed 

amongft Bede's Opufcula, befides feveral other treatifes, 

which are mentioned by Bale and William of Malmefbury, 

the latter of whom gives him the following chara£ier as a 

writer : ** The language of the Greeks,'.' fays he, ** is clofc 

^^ and coQcife, that of the Romans fplendid, and that of the 

^* Englifli pompous ^nd fweliing : as forAldhelm^ heismo« 

^^ derate in his ftyle ; feldom makes ufe of foreign terms, 

*[ and never without neceffity; his catholic meaning is 

'^ cloathed with eloquence, and his moft vehement afTertions 

*^ adorned with the colours of rhetoric : if you read him with 

'* attention, you would take him for a Grecian by his acute- 

*' nefsj a Roman by his elegance^ and an Engliflinian by the 

*' pcmp 


a:l d h e l m« 

aef* M 


of bis lati|iiage/^ The monkilh untbors, accorilihg 
tocHftom, jiave afcrihed feverat miracles ro Aldhelm ; ana 
BUeufi de they teH as, tbat^ tn order ro put bis virtue to trial, he vfci 
^^^ j'^^j firc^ently toiay all night with a young woman, ami yet 
'without violatiiig his chaftity. He is faid to have been tlie 
firft Englifliman who ever wrote in Latin, and, as he hihsfelf 
tells us in one of his treatifes on metre, the firft who intro- 
duced poetry into Enghuid : " Thefe things,** fays he, ** have I 
** written concerning the kinds and aieafure^of verfe, coHed* 
*< ed with much labour, but whether ufeful I knoiv not ; 
<^ though I am confcious to myfetf I have a right to boaft as 
" Virgil did [a] : . 

I firft, returning from th' Aonian hiH, 
. Will lead the Mufes to my native land.** 
William of Malmefbury tells us, that the people in Aldhelm*s 
time were half-barbariarts, and little attentive ^o religious 
difcourfes : wherefore the holy man, placing himfelf upon a 
bridge, ufed often to ftop tbem, and fing ballads of his own 
eompofition: he thereby gained the favour and attention of 
the populiice,and infenfibly itiixing griveafnd religious things 
with thofe of a jocular krnd, he by this means fucceeded 
better than he could have done by auftere gravity. Aldhelm 
lived in great efieem till his death, which hs^pened'May the 
25th, 709, 

[a] Race de mttroram generibm et fftiQtKKet conefla, qttamvii miB! con* 
fchefflatibiis pro tidiitate tngeAif mei fcitn fotn ne illoa Viiniliahtton pefle 
habcs, multum Uborios^i nefcao £ y^StuCf 

Primus ego 19 patriam aaeaum, mode «iip fo^rBt, 

Aonio rediens dcdocam vertice Mufas. Gal. Malmdb. ibid« 

ALDRICH (Henry), an eminent fcholar and divine,, 
was fon of Henry Aldrich of Weftminfter gent, and born 
there in 1647. He was educated at Weftminfter under the 
famous fiufby, and admitted of Chrift Church, Oxford, in 
2662* Having been ele£ted ftudem, he took a mafter of 
arts degree in April 1669; and, entering foon after into 
orders, he became an eminent tutor in his college. Feb- 
ruary l68r, he was inftalled canon of Chrift Church; and, 
May following, accumulated the degrees of bachelor and 
dodor in divinity. In the controverfy with the Papifts, un- 
der James 11. he bore a confiderable part ; and Burnet ranks 
him among thofe eminent clergymen, who ^' examined all 
** the points of Popery with a folidity of judgriaent, a clear- 
^ nefs of argalngi a depth of learning, and a vivacity of 
• ' ^* writingf 



^ VBTi^ng^ ikr beymd any thuig which had before that time 
^ mppeared in our laognage/' . Io<fbort, be Hkd rendered J^ift. of own 
hkniaU €o ofm^cuAua, that* atlhe RevoJution» when ^f.^<>^* 
kf^ {he Popi!& dean of Ckrift Chtif ch, fled beyond fea, the 
deanery vrae canferfed upon him, and he was ii>ftalkd ip if 
Jane the i ^th^ 1689.. In this ftation be behaved in a mod 
exemplary nxanner, and zealoufly promoted learningi religion^ 
and virtue in the college where he prefided. In imitation of 
hb predeceiTor Bi(hop Fell, he publilhed generally every year 
ibnae Gveek claffic, or portbn of ont> as a gift to the ftudenta 
of his houfe. He wrote alfo a fyfbem of logic^ eiititled^ 
^ Artf8 Logicse Compendium ;" and many other things^ 
which fi9 more than his editions of the Greek authors we are 
able to fay precifely. The publication of Clarendon's Hif- 
lory of the Rebellion was committed to him and Bi&op 
Spratt; and they were chirgcd by Oldmixon with having al- 
tered and interpdated that work; but the charge was fuffi- 
etently refuted. 

Befides mitainiiKnts in ietterSj^ be poflefTed alfo very great 
fkSil in archite^ure and m^fic; fo great, that» as the oonr 
Aoiileurs iay» bis excelience in either would alone have made 
bilii famous to pofterity. The three ftdes of the i^xiadrangleHawkint, 
of Chri* Church, Oxford, tailed Peckwater-fqaare, vw^jJ^'/L. ' 
dfiigned by hinfi ; as was alfo the eiegant Chapel of Trinity ^^ ^ao. * 
Co)>lege, and che Church of AlUSah^in the higb<»ftreec; tQ ' * 
tiie eredlion whereof Du Ratcliff, at his folicttatton, was a 
Kberal coiftribiit»r4 Be cultivated aifo trntiic^ that braiH^h of 
it particularly whidi related both to his profeffion and hia 
office^ To this end he maxb a uoble colk(3:ioft of cburcb 
muiic, and formsd alfoadefign of writing a liiftory oftb& 
fciefice^ having colleded materials, which are ftill extant ii^ 
the librarv of his own college. In truth, his abilities as a 
mxifician have caufed him to be ranked aoiong the grealeft 
nuifters 0^ the fcience : he compafed many lervices for the 
churchy which are well knowii ; as are a^llo his anthems, to 
the number of near twenty. In the *'^ Pleafant Mufical 
Otmipanion/* printed 1726, are two catches of bis ; the oae» ' 
•• Hark the bonny Chrift Church Bells/' the other, iiHitled ' 
^ A Smoaking Catch j*' for he himfelf vvas, it feems^ a great 

' fiefid^s the preferments already mentioned^ he was reSto€ 
cyf Wem in Shropihire. He was prolocotor of the convoca* 
tion in 1702. He died at Chrift Church, December 14, 17x0. 
The tra^s he publiihed in the Popiih controverfy were two, 
!' Upen the Adoration of our S.aviaur in the Eucharift/' 

9 primed 

144 A L D R I C H. 

p'rinted in 1687, and 1688, 4to. We have not been able td ^ 
' - gcic an accotfht of the Greek authors he pubiifhed^ except | 

tbefe following: i. *< Xenophontis Memorabnium^ lib. 4. 
1690/' 8 vo. 2. ^< Xenophontis Sermo de Agefilae>9 iSgi^** \ 
8vo* 3 ** Afiflcx Hiftoria 72 Interpretum» 1692,** 8va# 
4. '^ Xenophon de re equeftri, 1693," 8vo. 5. ** £pidetu& 
et Theophraftus, 1707," 8vo. 6. ** Platonis, Xenophontis, i 
I Plutarchi, Luciani, Sympofia, 171 1/' 8vo. This laft u^ , 

publiihed in Greek only, the reft in Greek and Latin ; and 
all printed at Oxford. I have mentioned his Logic ^Ireadjt 
He printed alfo Elements of Architedure in Latin. He had 
a hand in Gregory's Greek Teftament, printed at Oxford \ri 
1703, folio ; and fome of his notes are printed in Havercamp's 
edition of Jofepbus. 

ALDROVANDUS (Ulysses), profcffor of philofoph/ 
and phyfic at Bologna, the place of his nativity, v^as a molt 
, curious enquirer into, natural hifiory, and travelled into the 
moft diftant countries on purpofe to inform himfelf of their 
natural produdions. Minerals, iBetals, plants, and animals, 
were the objeds of his curious refearches ; but be applied { 
himfelf chiefly to birds, and was at great expencc in having i 
Mir^as de figures of them drawn from the life. Aubert le Mire fays, | 
Scriptoii- that he gave a certain painter, famous in that art, a yearly fa- | 
"*' *^'*^** lary of two hundred cywns, for thirty years and upwards; ! 
Merckiinus and that he employed at his own expence Lorenzo Bennini 
Linden. ^viA Comelius Swintus, as well as the famous engraver Chifto- i 
p.'iof?. P^^*^ Coriolanus. Thefe expences ruined his fortune, and at 
length reduced him to the utmoft neceffity ; and it is faid 
that he died blind in an hofpital at Bologna, at a great age, 
in 1605. Mr. Bayle obfervesy that antiquity does not fur- 
ni(h us with an indance of a defign fo extenfive and fo labo- I 
rious aa that of Aldrovandus, with regard to natural hiftory; 1 
rha^ Pliny indeed has treated of more fubjeds, but only 1 
touches them lightly, whereas Aldrovandus has coUeded all 
he could meet with. 

. His compilation, or what at leaft was compiled upon his 
plan, confifts of feveral volumes in folio, fome of which were 
printed after his death. He'hicnfelf publifbed his Ornitbo* 
logy, or Hiftory of Birds, in three folio volumes, in 15991 
and his feven books Of Infe£i8, which make another volume 
of the fame fize. The volume Of Serpents, three Of Q^ia- 
drupeds, one Of Fifties, that Of exfanguineous^ Anilnals^ 
the Hiftory of Monfters, with the Supplement to that Of 
Animals, the treatife Of Metals> and the Dendrology or 
7 Hiftory 

*.• . < 

A L 15 R O V A N D U S. J43 

Ififtory of Trees," were pubfiflied at fcvcfal litnc^Mifter hid' 
|}eath, by the care 6f different' perfons. 

The volume " Of Serpenis*' put in order, aad fenito the 

prefsby Bartholoma&us AinbrormiJ5 ; that '^ Of Quadrupeds 

fwbicb divide the Hoof," was'firft digefted by Job6 Cornelius 

tJterverius, and afterwards by Thomas Demfter^jand pub*- 

lifhed by Marcus Antonius Bernla and Jerome Tamburini r 

that '< Of Quadrupeds ;wbich do not divide the*Hoof, j smd that 

•^ Of Filhes," were digcffccd by Utervexius, akid publiibed by • 

Tamburini ; that " Of Quadrupeds with Toes or Claws^," was 

compiled by Ambrofinus; the ^' Hiftory of Monfter^/' and the . 

I Supplements, were colleded by the fame author^ aod pioblifh- 

ed at cbe charge .of Marcus Antonius Bernia ; the-^ Dendro* 

logy" is thejwork of Ovidius Montalbanus. ^ Mercklinus, in 

Lindenio renovato> p. 1047. — ^* Aldrovatidus," faysf M. PAbbe 

Gallois, ^^ is not the author of feveral bboks publiflied undei^ 

his name ; but it has happened to the coIie£tion .of natural . 

biftory^ of which thofe books are part, as it dpe^to thofe great 

I rivers -which retain during their whcle courfe tbe.oame they 

bore at their firft rife, though in the end the greateA part of 

i the water which they carry into the fea does not belong to tbem^ 

but to other rivers which they receive. : for as the firft fix 

volumes of this great work were Aldrovandus's^ although the 

others were compofed fince his death by different aRthors^ 

they have ftill been attributed to him, either beeau:fe .they 

were a continuance of bi3 defign, orj becaufe the writers 

of them ufe his memoirs, oc becaufe his method was fol-j 

lowed, or perhaps that thefe laft volumes might be tho 

better received under fo celebrated a name;" Journal des 

£avans, Nov. 12, 1668, p. 425. 

ALEANDER (Jerome), archbifliop of Brindifi and a car- 
dinal, was born at a little village oh the confines of Iftria,, 
the 13th of February, 1480. His father, Francis Aleander^. 
a phyfician, educated him with great care, ?md fent him to 
Venice, where he made confiderable proficiency in all bran- 
ches of learning : he fludied the mathematics, natural philo- 
fophy, and phyfic. He alfo applied' with great aff^tjuity to. 
<he Greek and Hebrew languages, in- which he*great 
a progrefs, with the afiifiance of an excellent memory, that 
befpoke and wrote them with fluency. Pope Alexander VI.^ 
being informed of his great abilities9 intended to, have made 
him fecretary to his fon, and had afterwards fome thotights 
of fending him his nuncio to Hungary : but Aleander^ being 
taken ill, could not at that time leave' Venice. In 1508, ac 

Vol. I. L the 

pfi . il L E A N D B R. : 

the iin^itbrioti ^t Lewis XIL he went to Frande, where^a 
taught the belles lettres in the univerfity of Pirn* He Entered 
afoer#4rd6 tlMb the fcrvice of Eferard de la Mark biihop of 
Ltege^ VfYib fent him to Rome) to £iu:ilitate bis pitnnof 'too to 
tfcardffva}'^ hf^t. Leo X. foutid him a toMH oi fueh capaociiyf 
tMt be was ckfirous to retain him in his fin-vice ; to wlitcbf 
the bifliop of Liege confented« His holinefs fent Um fiuacio! 
tfr Germany^ in 15 19; and in 152O1 tfaoagh abfeiit', b^ 
wa^apt)Ointed 'librarian of the Vatican, upon the death of 
MUtidiii Acciaoli. He ^ned a confiderabie character as nuncio, aed' 
Hift. Cone, made ft gre^t figure for his eloquence in the diel of Wwms^ 
Tridtiit, ^here be bararvgired three hours againft the dodrine t>f Lir- 
ther: he CbnM nor^ however^ prevent Luther froaa being 
beard in that diet; attd thougb be reftifird to difpute with 
Ibid. lib. 1. brrh, he <>bfa{ned an order that bis books fltooid be burnt, and 
^«F' aS- fajii perfbn plroferibed s and he hiiftCBtf drew up the ediA 
a|fainft hitti. 

•Upon hh fetnrn to Rome, Clement VIIL itiadb him arck-^ 
bifhopof Brindrii, and appointei) him r.iiffdo ^ France; 
andhewi^in thi& capacity with FrancisL wben he befieged j 
Pavia, Vlhere We M\ into the h'andfr of fome i^dfier^^ vrho ufti 
him pretty roughly. He was fene nuncio a feoond tifinc ijifo ; 
Germany, in 15319 where he foand a great change'in afiairs > 
the people in the proteftant cities, as He fays, were no longer 
, aKtiimaced agaiiirft the holy fee as formerly; the reafoo cf I 
which waS) that haviiyg hoped for greater liberty by {baking! 
off the papal yoke, they now foui^ by experience ttett that ! 
of the fecunr power, tinder which they were obliged* to live, 
prov^ no }efs heavy. Aleander exerted his utmofb endea^ 
vours^ but without fuccefs, to binder Charles V. from nsak-" ; 
ing a truce with the proteftants in Germany. In 1536, he , 
went to Rome, where he was created a cardinal by Paul IIL | 
and was intendied to be prefident at the council of Trent; 
but %i» death, which happened the 1 ft of February^ 154a) 
prevented this » fome fay that he died by a miftake of his 

Luther «hd bfs followers have thrown great reproaches 
agamft AieaAder : ttaey have alfo aiferted that he was a Jewf 
but this we believe to bea mi^ake, efpeciallyas tJlric HutteD> 
Who puUifbed ati inveSive againft him, fpeaks as if there w«i 
no troth in this matter. Erafmus has freqtiently made tfi^n- 
tfon of him, and in feveral places to his difadvantage: in 
one he fays, thit he Was not only of a warm and fimple, but 
alfo of A credulous difpofition s m another he gives^bim the 
* titte ' 

A L EA N D RR; i^i 

title of bulKcarrler : Jie %8 aUo^ that be ^^ not a HUn 
too much addidiLed tp truth. . . 

ALEANDER (Jerome), k learned man of the f?vco- 
tieenth century, born in the principality of F^riuli^ of th^ fagjc 
family with the preceding. When he went to Rome, he was 
iemployed as fepre^ary \]r cardinal 0£tavio Bandini, and 
he dilcfa^rged this <Mc^ with great honour for almoft twen;/ 
years. He |)eg9n b^time? to Vjctiture his reputation as an au- 
tfior ; fpr no fooner had'^e receive^ hi^ degrees in law, ihan 
he pu^li^ied *' A Commentary on the Inftitutions of Caius/' 
jje w^s one of the firil mcrpber? qf the - j\cademy of ^M- 
|PQrijBs,and he wrotp a l.earnefj.tre^tife in rcaliaa on^tne deyite 
of the fociety. i^e filipiaye^ his Renius on many ^iffereht 
|;i||>je<^s. He publiflscd a treatife on tyi'o antiques f a j : Ije 
yrtofe alfo on the quefjion of the fuburbian churches ; aqd 
be yiras the author q[ a piece againil an ^ixonympus writer pp, 
tb^]tfu^je£t ^p favour pt ihe prote.llaVjtS, He printed alfo a 
yolume .of mfes, which ^a? follojyed with a vindication 6f^*^*'"' ^T* 
XhQ ^4om pf tb^e ciy<iJiei: J^Jarino, .ag^irift the violent attacjcspif^^^lj. j; 
bf the cavfi;li,er Stili^i>i. 

pfttk^n yijll.h^d f grf^at efte^ip fpr Aljeander, and tpok 9,11 
inas^ginable pains to. ^ra.y</ bim from the (ervide of cardinal 
Biandini', and bp engage^im with the B^rberii)!} in which 
be at len^tjh fucceeded) and Aleander ^eca<;he feicretary to 
cardinal Frinncis Bafberini. He acqompani.e.d hl^i tp Rom^^ 
.wJien Jhie wexvt there in .the charafter of legate i, latere ;' and 
bore the fatigues of this long journey with gr^at alacrity, not* 
^itbftanding his delicate conftitution atid mfirm (fate of 
health, tie did not ^cape to well fiom good cheer : ht h|d 

ejjjitered into an agfc;eeinen^ wltlti ibme of his intimate fr^endS) Bj^lletfose* 
)uld trieat one anqther ^tv turns every three daJys ;*^* "»' ^* 
jaqd at qne qf thefe enf;ertaijQmeQts he indulged to an exce(i,,i^'i.^£ 

.that they 0iould 

tvbich ^hrew him into a difbcder, of which he died. Cardinal 
Barberint gave blm a ^aghiitcent funerali at the Academy of 
.Hiunprifts : the academiSs carried bis cprpfe );b the j;raye: 
^^d Gafpar fie Siptiqpnibus ma,,de.bis funeral oration there t^e 
^ift of December, 1631. Alc^ricJer ha4 (q neat and eaQr a 
ipa^pner of writing, that (be .qooiplimeht vyhich Nidus Erf^ 

Ia] Thfefe were two narblet, a table ** foils eiggle i^mboUrque at(ca1ptcs*iM. 

tnd a ftatue, the former cbrtuiaiiig the *' plicatio figillorum ions vetereifi ftatu- 

fig^ure and fymboti of the fun, the latter ** am marmoream eingentb^^* It wu 

girt with a sonc full oiT fculptdrei. The printed ih qukrto at Home ia a6g6« 

title of Aleander^t work is as follows, and at Paris in i6i7« 
f* Expllcttio anttqva tabulz mamiDreXy 

La thrfstti 


lis A L E A N D E R., 

thraeus often paid him on this account, may not improperly 
be ntentioned : ** When I read your works/' faid he, " I- thinJc 
•* myfelf a learned man 5 but when I read thofe of fomc 
** others who affecSt to be eloquent, I think myfelf very ig- 
•* norant, for I underftand not what they write." 

ALEGAMBE (PHrLip), a Flemifh Jefuit, born at 
Bruilels the 22d of January, 1592, was trained in polite lite* 
rature in his own country. He went afterwards to Spain, 
. and entered into the fervice of the duke of OfTuna, whom he 
attended to Sicily, when the duke went there as viceroy. 
Alegambe, being inclined to a religious life, took the habit of 
a Jefuit at Palermo, the 7th of September, 1613, where he 
went through his probation, and read his courfe of philofophy. 
He purfqed his ftudy of divinity at Rome, whence he was 
fent to Auftria, to teach philofophy in theuniverfityof Gratz. 
Having difcharged the duties of this fundiion to the fatisfac- 
tion of his fuperiors, he was chofen proftflbr of fchool-divi- 
nity, and promoted in form to the doSorfhip in 1629. About 
this time the prince of Eggemberg; who was in high favour 
with the emperor Ferdinand II. having refolved that his foh 
{hould travel, and being deiirous he ihould be attended by 
fome learned and prudent Jefuit, Alegambe was judged a 
proper perfon ; and he accordingly travelled with him five 
years, vifiting Germany, France, Spain, Portugal, and Italy. 
In 1638, the young prince with whom he travelled, being 
appointed by the emperbr Ferdinand III. embaflador of obe- 
,dience to the pope, invited Alegambe to go with him, who 
•accordingly accompanied him to Rome, in quality ofiiis con- 
- • feflbr. After he had difcharged this office, the general of 
the Jefuits retained him as fecretary of the Latin difpatches 
for Germany. Alegambe, having fpent four years in the dif- 
- - charge of this laborious office, was obliged to refign it, the 
. continual application to writing having coniiderably weaken- 
^hr\ ^^ his fight. He was now appointed prefident of fpiritual 
Script! Soc. affairs in the profeffed houfe, and had the office alfo of 
Jefu, Roms hearing confeffions in the church, in which capacity he 
'^^5» ^o^io» acquitted himfelf with great honour. He died of the dropfy 
P-70 , c. ^ Rome, the 6th of September, 1652. He was reputed an 
excellent writer, though he wrote but few books [a J. 


• [a] ah the Jefuit Sotocl aUowi to 2. «' Viu P. Joannis Cardin, Lufita- 
be hii, arc thcfe C, ^ ,. •«. ni, ex focietate Jefo, Romae 16491 

I. ^'fiibliothecafcriptoritm focietatia <^ in itmo.*^ 
.fljeiii^ Aotwcrpiae, 1643," "» ^»'io% 3. <« Heroes et viaima chantaijj 

•• fodetftii 

A L E G A M B E. 142 

<< Ibeietatis Jefu, RonsK iSS^i*' ia " Ac focietate Jefu, qui In odium fidei 
fto. *' ab haereticis vel ^liis occid funtj Ro- 

4* " Mortes illuftres et gefta eorum *' mac 1657/* ia folio. 

ALKNIO (Julius), a Jefuit, bom in Brefcia, in* the re- 
public of Venice. He travelled into the eaftern countries, 
and arrived at Maca in 1610, where he taught mathematics. Sotoel, 
From thence he went to the empire of China, where he con*|^^'*"^^' 
tinued to propagate the Chriftian religion for thirty-fix ^^^^ ^' 
3^ars. He was the iirft who planted the faith in the province 
of Xanfi, and he built feveral churches in the province of 
Fokien. He died in Auguft, 1649 [aJ. 

^a] He' left feveral works in the *' of ^t. Bernard betwixt the 5oal an(! 

Chinele language: \, « The Life of « Body, in Chinefe Verfe.'^ p. V A ' 

** Jefus Chrift,*' in eight volumes, a. <* Treacife on the Sciences of Europe/* 

** The incarnation of JefusChrlft.** 3. 10. "Practical Geo«netry, in four 

•* Of the Sacrifice of the Maft." 4. •* bookf/' 11. «• The Life of P. 

•* The Sacrament of Penitence." " Matthew Ricci." i«. «« The Lif« 

5- •• The Original of the World." " of Dr. Michael Yam, a Chinefe Con- 

6. "Proof of the Exiftence of a Deity." ** vert." 13. " The Theatre of the 

7- •* Dialogues/*. 8. " The Dialogue " World, or Colinography," 


ALES (Alexander), a celebrated divine of the confef- 
fion of Augibourg, was born at Edinburgh April, 23, 
• 1500. He foon made a confiderable progrefs in fchopl-divi* 
nity^ and entered the lifts very early againft Luther, thi$. 
being then the great controverfy in fafliion, and the grand^ 
field wherein all authors, young and old, ufed to difplay their 
abilities. Soon after he had a (hare in the difpute^ which 
Patrick Hamilton maintained againft the ecciefiaftics, in fa- 
vour of the new faith he had imbibed at Marpurgh ^ he en- 
deavoured to bring him back to the catholic religion, but 
this he could not elFed, and even began himfelf to doubt 
about his own religion, being much afFe<^ed by the difcourfe 
of this gentleman, and more ftill: by the conftancy he fhewed 
at the ftake, where David Beton,archbi(hop of St. Andrew's, 
caufed him to be burnt. The doubts of Ales would perhaps 
have been carried no further, if he had been left unmolefted 
to enjoy his canonry in the metropolitan church of St. An- 
drew's 9 but he was perfecuted with fo much violence [a J^ 

. that 

[a] This perfecution was raifed very fevere ffrinon againft priefis who 
tgainft hiffl, becaafe lie had pre^ch^d , «ye$e.g9ilty of fpniicnlofi* ' The pi^voft 
b<^«the provibciat fyncd^ in 1520, «' 'of St. Andrew*6,,whofe lewd iatriguet 

iio ALES. 

that he was obliged to retire into Germany, where he becamf 
at length 9 perfedt coiivert to th^ |>rocefl^nt religioti , and 
perfevered therein till his death. In the different parties 
which were rornried, he fecnetimes joined with thoie that 
were leaft orthodox ; for, in 1560,. he maintained the doc- 
trine of George Majors concerning , the neceffity of goo4 
works. The change of religion, which happened in Eng* 
land after the .marriage of Henry Vill. with Ainna Boleyn^ 
Induced Ales to go to London, in 1535 : he w^s highly 
efieemed by Cranmer, archbi^iqp of Canterbury, Ls^timer, 
and Thomas Cromwel, who were at that tiibe in Wgh favouJr 
with the king. Upon the fali of thefe favourites, he was 
<^bliged to return to Germany, where the elector of Branden- 
burgh appointed him prpfeflbr of divinity at Francfort upon 
the Oder, in 1 540. Two ) eats afterwards he had a dif^ 
J,ute Vhere upon the queftion, ** Whether the maglKlratc c^n 
and ougl^t to puni(h. fornication ?V and he fnai-ntained theaf-^ 
firmative', whh Me!4n£lhon. He wa$ gi'eatly 6ffended at 
their not drecid'ing \his dVipute; and/perhaps his difcontent 
was the reafon of his quitting F.rancfort in a hurry ; and it is 
certain that the court of Brandenburgh complained of bim^ 
and vrt-ot'e to th6 uriiverfity of WfttemBerg to have him pu- 
nithed. i4e rbtirisd to Letpflc ; iind ^hi\t he was there, he 
rrfufcd .a profe^or*s chair, which Albert duke of Pf uffia m- 
tfendcd tO'crea at Konjnfberg, and Whi<^ w^ ereScd the 
jfear foHo^ihg;. Soon after, he ^as Chdfeft prdfeflbr of divi- 
ilfty kt Leipfic, arrd enjoy eki it till bis tteath, vv^hidh happened 
cfh Yhfe iyth of M^rch, 1565 [bJ. 

were bj»o\vn to efvery body, knew that 'tiStit%ef6ieiht{yncB. Jitob. ThoJO^* 

lie himfelf \vas ^l^flied in this difcourfe, 0us ii^ Oratjobe dis AIe6,o. 
aVd imaVme'd that it was on purpofeto [^j] The following arc the titles of 

t^poU hirtj 'to the andTer*cc ; he there- his pridcipa] Works t i. ** Oe irecefiitate 

ispte rel'olved (o avea^q himielf the firft <« et thervtb bonorum operum, difpuutio 

a|>poxtuniry, and HeiA'^ ioformed that " propcpta in c«lebri ajcademia Ug^^ 

trie chapter was aitembVtd to fend com- '♦ a^ 39 "Nqv, 1560.** a. ** ConimenT 

plaihts'a^ai'nfthrrn taking James V.^ m farii in evari^eliufti 'Joannis, ct in 

ije{]«ir<;4 ibitKeV \vjth"» body of sttatd " utramqbe epMolam ad Timotbeuffi.** 

men, and ordve4 th^m to feiz^ Ales, 3, " ExfJpfjtw in Pfalmoa Davidis." 

wno, vvith th'eotlier cinpns, was thrown 4, '* 6e juf^ificatione, contra OiSan- 

JntW'priroii. ' 'All the icU however Were ** druth.*' 5. « De i&sx&z Trihitare, 

difc^ja'rge^; ^ut Alc5 . was. confined in « com coafucatidhe erroxia Vjlentini." 

a dun|roa for twenty days, and the pro<^ 
v6Tt reprcifented him to the bifiiop as a 
inan wbo^had broached bis heretical qo 

6. '' Refpo'nfio ad triginta et duos arti<Y 
ep'rKented him to the bifiiop as a ** culos theologoruza LoyanicDfuiD/* 

{jjs Curtius, and Arrian, Plutarch, and Diodorus,for his htf- 
IQiians^ anil if what they ^v>i laid of hicn be tti^e^ he may b^ 


A LgX AN D E R. IsJ 

. deemed, as Biylp ,c?g?cpffw it, « of ^H ma<i.kmd the g*'*?^^^^' M^jf • 
prodigy ;" but it ia both reafonable and neccflary to make^^j^^^^^" 
fome abate«)ents in theif accoui:its. Bis extradition was asil- 
luftripus as it could be, his father Philip having bee^i ^efceo4- 
cd from Hercules, and Ijiis mother Olympias from Achijlc^, 
He was born at Pella thefirft year of thie io6th Olympiad, 
the 398th from the building of Rome, and the 356th befoiie 
the birth of Chrift. On the night of his birth, the temple pf^«tavii R«^ 
plana at Ephefus was fet on fire, aed buri\t tp the ground i^^^^'o^. 
a^^htcb latter circufn^s^fic^ faid Tisp^eus an hiflorian^ ^* yiras 
^^ not to \>c wondered at, iuoce the goddefs ^as fo engaged at 
*' Olympias's labour, jtbat i^^e could not be prefent at Ephe* 
•* fus to extingulflj the flames." This Qcero praife^ ^ aa 
^ute and elegant faying; but in our gpinipn, Plutarch a^dDeNat. 
Xoiijginus condemn it, with better reafon,^a^ ^^ainit ^5l4^^* '**•** 

At fiftc£;n yearsof%ge, Alexander was delivered to the tui- 
tion of Arifftotle. He drfcovered very jearjy a iTMghty fpiri^, 
find fymptoms of that vaft and immoderate ambicion, 'which 
wjets after waijds ito make him the fcour^e of mankind, and the 
peft of the world. One day, when it w^s^told him thiit I^hUjp : 

had gained a battle, inftead of rejoicing he laoked inucn 
chagrined ; and faid, that ^^ if hisfat^her went on atthisratey 
** there would be nothing left for him.tO(lo/' Upon Phi-Plttta'ch 
! lip's Shewing fome Ifttje wonder, that Alexander did not ea-'?ij**- ^• 
^age in tlje 01ympip.g?JDQes, ** Give mq," f^i,d the youtbi "*" ^ 
! *^ ki^gs for my aqtaggpifts, and I will prefpnt myfelf at 
• f* once.'' The taming ^nd nxanaging of thp fafnous Buc^- 
.pha3.^s i^ always mentioned among the exploits of his early 
afge. This remarkable horfe was brought from TheDCUy, . 
and pprcbafed at 9, vpry great price ; biit upgn trial he W4s^ 
found fq wikl.and vicious, that neither Pl^ilip nor juny of his 
iDomrpers xould 1^Q^nt or maiia^e bim. In Oior^, he wa^ 
upon the point of beingXent back as «n intracSlable f rid ufelefs 
.fc/iaft, when Ale;^ander,.exprc<5gg bis gjjici^ U)at fo nobJe,a 
,ac3l;Mi:c'{hap}d be reje£M »ad fet at nowgbtj vtr^^rely becauje 
npbody Jiad the dexterity tO'Oianajgp l^jm, ,vas atlepgth per- 
^initted to itry what hecppM do. Now AJe^^der ha,d j)^r-x 
ceived, t^at ,the fcolicfooie fpirit and wiJdnefs.of BucephfilMS. 
proceeded folely frotn the frlgtit v^^bi^h tjie auimfl had ^tak^n 
j^'bis.Qwn{ibad,QW : whereupon, turning hisihe^d dijff£ltly to 
. the iui;^,*^nd gently i4>prx)achii(^ him with addref^ and fktlU 
.be threw bim(e)f at Jeqgth uppn4;ki^.2 and .though Philip at 
.;^r&.Viifas extremd^y diftcejSTed and alatoied for his fpn» yet when 
;^.(a^ bir^ (a£f,.and .pffrfedly ma^ef qf b^s iftqed. received 



him with fears of joy, faying, " O, my fon, thou muft feck 
*' elfewhcre a kingdom, for Macedonia cahnot contain thee." 
One more inftance of this very high fpirit ftiall fuffice* 
When Philip had repudiated Olympias for infidelity to his 
bed, the young prince felt a moft lively rcfentment on the 
' occafion ; yet, being invited by his father to the nuptials virith 
, bis new vvjfe, he did not refufe to go. In the midft of the 
entertainment, At'tal us, a favpurite of Philip, had the impru- 
dence to fay, that the Macedonians muft implore the gods to 
grant the king a lawful fucceflbr. •* What, you fcoundrel ! 
** do you then take me for a baftard ?" fays Alexander ; and 
"threw a cup that inftant at bis head. Philip, intoxicated 
*with wine, and believing his fon to be the author of the 
. 'quarrelj rulhed violently towards him with his fword ; buft, 

flipping with his foot, fell proftrale upon the floor. Upon 
' which, faid AlexanxierinfuUing, *^ See, Macedonians, what a 
*« general you have for the conqueft of Afia, who cannot 
'■*• tike afingleftep without falling j" for Philip had juft be- 
fore Wn named for this expedition in a common aflembly of - 
the Greeks, and was preparing for it, when he was murdered 
m"^^' ;ty Paufanias at a feaft. 

* '* Alexander, now twenty years of age, fucceeded his father as 
"icing of Macedon : he was alfo c^hofen, in room of his father, 
generaliflxmo in the projefled expedition againft the Perflans 5 
. . buttheGreeka, agreeably to their ufualficklenefsjdeferted from 

him, taking the advantage of his abfence in Thrace and Illy- 
ricum, where he began his military enterprifcs. He haftened 
"immediately to Greece, when the Athenians and other ftates 
returned to him at once ; but, the Thebans ftanding out, he 
dir'e£led his arms againft them, flew a prodigious, number of 
them,' and deftroyed their city; fparing nothing but the de- 
fcendants and the houfe of Pindar, out of rcfpeft to the me- 
mory pf that poet. This happened in the fecond year of the 
3d Olympiad. It was about this time that he went to con- 
Xiiit the oracle sft Delphi ;» when, the prieftefs pretending that 
it was not on fome account lawful for her to enter the tempfe 
then, he being impatient^ hauled her along, and occafioned 

* her to cry out, " Ah, my fon, there is no refifting you:** 
iipdn which' 'Alexapder, feizing the words as ominous, re- 
|)Tjisd, '*« I de'fire nothing ' farther : this oracle fuflices.** It 

* lyis alfo probiibly at this time that the remarkable interview 

* pafled betweeti our hero and Didgenes the cynic. Alexander 
had th^ curiofity to yifit this philofopher in his tub, and com- 
plimented him with afking, « if he could do any thing fo 

'♦' fcrvehim ?** " Nothing" faid the brute, *« but toftand from 

^t b^twixc 


^ betwixt me and the fun." The attendants were cxpeftingpiog. u^n. 
what refentment would be (hewn to this favage behaviour ; *"'^'* 
when Alexander fuprifed them by faying, ** Pofitivelj, if I 
** was not Alexander, I would be Dioi'cnes/' 

Having fettled the affairs of Greece, and left Antipater as 
his viceroy in Macedonia, he pafled the Hellefpont, in the 
third year of hjs reign, with an army of no more than 30,000 
*foor, and 4,500 horfe; and with thefe forces, brave and ve- 
teran it is true, he overturned the Perfian empire. His firft Petavlof, 
battle was at the Granicus, a river of Phrygia, in which thc"*^*** 
Perfians .were routed. His fecond was at Iffus, a city of Ci- " ^ 

licta, where he was alfo viflorious in an eminent degree : for 
the camp of Darius, with his mother, wife, and children, fell 
into his hapds ; and the humane and generous treatment 
which he ihewed them, is juflly reckoned the nobleft at)d 
Jnoft amiable paifage of his life. While he was^ in this coun- 
try, he caught a violent fever by bathing when hot, in the 
cold waters of the river Cydniss-; and this fever was made 
more violent from his impatience at being detained by it. 
The army was under the utmoft confternation, and ho phy- 
sician durft undertake the cure. At length one Philip of 
Acarnan defired time to prepare a potion, which he was fure 
would cure him ; and while this potion was preparing, Alex- 
ander received a letter from his moft intimate confident Par- 
meaio, informing him, that this Acarnan was a traitor, and 
employed by Darius to poifon him, at the price of athoufarnd 
- talents and his fiAer in marriage. What a fituation for a fick 
prince ! The fame. greatnefs of foul, however, which accom* 
panied him upon all occafions, did not forfake him here, HeCurtius.liW 
did not fccm to his phyfician under any apprthenfions ; but,"'**^* 5»6- 
after receivirig the cup into his hands, delivered the letter 
to Acarnan, and with eyes fixed upon him drank it ofF. The 
medicine at firft aded fo powerfully, as to deprive him of his 
fenfes, and then without doubt all concluded him poifoned: 
however, he foon came roi^nd, and by a cure fo fpeedy, that 
it might almoft be deemed miraculous, was reftored to his 
army fafe and found. 

It was at Anchyala, a town of Cilicia, that he was fhewed 
a monument of Sardanapalus, with this infcription : J' Sar- 
*^ danapalus built Anchyala and Tarfus in a day: paflenger, 
" eat^drink, and enjoy your felf: every thing elfe is* nothing.** 
This no doubt would move his contempt very ftrongly, by 
l^ing compared with what he projed^ed.— 'From Cilicia he 
nvarched forwards to Phoenicia, which all furrendercd to him, 
except Tyre ; and it coft him a fiege of fevcn^ months to re- 



duce this city* The vexation of Alexander, at being URij 
feifonably detaiiud by this obftinacy of the Tyrians, occa^ 
fione4 a mighty deftru£lion and carnage ; and the cruelty hi 
pioa. Arr. exercifed here is quite inexcufabk. After bcfirsging a 
Cttit Plot; ^j^icjng Gaza, be went to Jerufatem, where he was received 
the high prieft ; and, making many prefents to the Jews, fa 
crificc^ in their temple. He told Jadduas, for that viraB Ul 
ptieft's name, that be had fecn in Macedonia a god» in ap^ 
pearance exa^y refembjing him, who had exhorted him d 
this expedition againfi: die Per&ans, and given him the ()rme(| 
jofijpljuf, ^arance of fuccefe, Afcerwards, entering -flBgy pt, he went (| 
lib. \u c. ?• j|^ oracle of Jupiter Ammon,.and upon his return built tbi 
city of Alexandria, it was now that be took it into hi^ 
bead to aflume divinity, and to pretend himfelf the fonof tbi 
faid Jupiter Atnmon, for which his mother Olymtpias wouU 
fometimes rally him not unpleafantly : ^' Pray," (be would fiify 
^^ ceafe to be called the fan of Jupiter; you wUl.ceritainlf 
<* embroil me in quarrels with Juno." PoKcy, bowever|| 
Vims et the bottom of this ; it was impoiiible that any ^uch' 
belief (hoak) be really ivooted in his breaft ; but be fciund ^ 
experience that this opi/iion inclined the barbarous nations 
to fubmit to him ; and therefore he was •content xs^ pafs iot a 
l^od, and to admit {as he did) of divide adoration. §9 ivi% 
indeed, was be from believing this of himfelf, that be uft4 
among his friends to make a jeft of it. Thus afterwards^ 
vhen he was bleeding from a wound he bad recrivedf 
f See h^re," fays he, ^^ this is your true genuijiie blood, aQ4 
^} not that \x^^% or thin £ne liquor, which ifliies, ^according 
*^ to Homer, from the wounds of the immortals/' Nay, evea 
bis friends did fometimes make free ;with this opinion^ wMd^ 
ihews that he did not fadld it fecred ; for once, -when t 
thundered 'horridly loud, and fomey^hat terri^ed the com*' 
pany, the phHofopher Anaxas^chus, wlho was ipxefem^iiaidita 
Alexander, '^ And when >will you, fon :of Jupiter, do the 
** like V '•* Ob," feys Alexander, ^< I wpuld :iiot)frig4rtBnin| 
♦• friends." 

His objedl now was to overtake and aUacktlDariiis inafio- 
ther battle; and this battle was fought at Arbda, wbon viC". 
tory, granting every ''thing to Alexander, put an end to ite 
Pcrfen em^pire. 'Rams had »offered.his daughter ioiaBar* 
riage, and part '<>f^bis dominioiMi to Atexander, and ParflMiH<' 
advtTed bim t^'aifceptfhe terms : « I would,'' lays he, ♦* 'f^ 
^* was Alexander;" ^\ iaind : fo would I/' iq^Ued the co»! 
giieror, « if I was Parmcnio.'t' The fame Parmenio, «oitf^ 
ftUing-the prince tp t;a^c.tb^ a<hfanta|cof ttee ni§bt in ajt^*^ 



bg Darius, ** No,'* faid Alexander, " 1 would not fteal a vic- 
F tory.*' Darius owed his efcape from Arbela to the fwift- 
fs of his jhorfcj and while he was collefting fofces to re-- 
ew the war^ was infidioufly flajn by Befius, governor of th^ 
afirians. Alexander wept at the fate of Dariiis; and after- 
ards procuring BeAus to pe given up to him, punifhed thi^ 
iihuman according to his deferts. r rom Arbela Alexander 
urfued his conquefts eaitward ; and every thing fell into 
is hands, even to the Indies. Here he had fome trouble 
4th king Porus, whom however he fubdued and took, 
pjPorus was a man of fpirit, and his fpirit was not deftroyed 
tyen by his defeat; for, when Alexander a(ked him, *< how 
^ he would be treated," he anfwcred very intrepidly, *' likfe 
r a king :** which, it is faid, fo pleafed the conqueror, that 
•he ordered the greateft attention to be paid him, and after- 
Wards reftored him to his kingdom. Having ranged over all 
the Eaft, and made even the Indies provinces of his empire, 
be returned to Babylon, where he died in the 33d year of his 
age, fome fay hy poifon, others by drinking. 

The character of this hero is fo familiar to every hody, 
that it is almoll: needlefs labour to draw it. All the world 
knows, fays Mr. Bayle, that it Was equally compofed of veryDia, Art. 
great virtues and very great vices. He had no mediocrity inMActDO«r. 
any thing hut his ftature : in his other properties, whether 
good or bad) he was all extremes. His ambition rQfe even to 
madnefs* His father was hot at all miftaken in fuppoHng the 
bounds of Macedon too fmall f6r his foh: for how could 
l!vlacedon hounid the amhition of a man, who reckoned the 
Whole world too fmall a domiriion ? He wept at hearing the 
philoCbpher Anaxarchus fay,'that there was an infinite num- 
ber of worlds; his tears were owing to his defpair of con- pjutarcb, d^ 
^uering them all,, fince h^ had not yqt be^n able to conquer i^nqwUi- ' 
pne, Livy, in a fhort digrreffion, has attempted to enquire'*^ ■'^^^il^ 
into the events which might have happened, if Alexander, after Lib. iz. 
the conqueft of Afia, had brought'his arms into Italy ? Doubt- ^- »^• 
^ lefs things might have taken a very different turn with him ; , 
and all the grand brojeds, which fycceeded fo well againft 
an effeminate Peffian monarch, might eafily have mtfcarried 
if he had to do with rough hardy Kohnan armies. And ydt 
the'vaft aims of this mighty conqueror, if feen under another 
point of view, may appear 'to have been confined in a very 
parrow compafs } fince, ^as we are told, the utmolfl with of 
that great heart,' for which the whole earth was not big 
enbu^, was, after all,, to bepralfe^ by the Athenians : for it 
IS related, that the difficulties which ^he encountered^ in order Plataidi 


156 A L E X AN D E R. 

to par» the Hydafpes, forced him to cry out, " O, Athenian* 
** could you believe to what danger's I e;/pofc myfelf for thl 
«* fake of being celebrated by you ?" But Bayle afErms, tht 
this was quite confident with the vail unbounded extent d 
his ambition, as he wanted to make all future time his own 
and be an obje^ of admiration to the lateft poflerity ; yet di^ 
Dotcxpefl this from the conqueft of worlds, but from books 
He was perfc£lly in the right, fays Bayle; ** for if Greec 
*' had not furnifhed him with good writers, he woul^i loii 
** ago have been as much forgotten as the kings who reignc 
** in Macedon before Amphitryon." . ^ 

Alexander has been praifcd upon the fcore of continencyji 
yet his life could not furely be quite regular in that rerpe(9a 
Indeed,' the (ire of his early youth appeared fo cold towardtl 
women, that his mother fufpeSed him to be impotent ; andj 
to fatisfy herfelf in this point, did, with the confent of Philip, 
procure a very handfome courtezan to lie with him, whofe* 
carefles, however, were all to no purpofe. His behaviour af-< 
terwards to thePerfian captives (hews him to have had a great 
command over himfelf in this particular. The wife of Da- 
rius was a finiihed beauty ; her daughters likewife were all 
beauties ; yet this young prince, who had them in his 
power, not only beftowed on them all the honours due to 
their high rank,* but managed their reputation with the ut« 
moft delicacy. They were kept as in a cloyfter concealed 
from the world, and fecured from the reach of every difho* 
nourable (not only attack, but) imputation. He did not 
give the leaf! han^dte to fcandal, either by his vifits, his looks, 

riutarch. or his words: and for other Perfian dames his prifoners, 
equally beautiful in face and (hape, he contented himfelf with 
faying gaily, that they gave indeed much pain to his eyes. 
In the mean time, what are we to conclude front his caufing 
his favourite miftrefs Pancafte to be drawn naked by ApeJles, 
though it is true he gave her to the painter, who fell in love 
with her ? What of that immoderate love of boys, which 

Dcipn'of. Athenaeus relates of him ? What of that prodigious number 

hb. xiii. ^f wives and concubines which he kept ? 

His exceffes ,with regard to wine were notorious, and be- 
yond all imagination ; and he committed, when drunk, a 
thoufand cxtravagartces. It was owing to wine, that fie 
killed Clytus who laved his life, and burnt Perfepolis, one 
bf the moft beautiful cities of the E aft : he did this laft indeed 
lat the inftigaiioh Of the courtezaii Thais j but this circuiii- 

^CurthjB, ftan,,^ y^ade it only the more heinous. It is generally be- 
iteved, ihat^ he died by drinking immoderately : ^nd even 



jJutarch, who affefls to contradtft it, owns that he did^»<xJ'S;c. 
ftthiog but drink the whole day he was taken ill* Scn/ca' 

^In fliort, to fum up the chara6lerof this prince, we cannot Epift. gj. 
eof opinion, that his good (jualilies did in any wife com- 
enfate for his bad ones. Heroes make anoife: their a6lions 
'are, and ftrike the fenfes forcibly ; while the infinite dc- 
^uQion and mifery they occafion lies more in the fhade^ 
lul out of fight. One good legiflator is Worth all the heroes 
^tever did or will exift. 

; After his death, his conquefts were broken into a great 
i^any pieces ; but the fragments were valuable : they con-» 
pted thofe of his generals into kings, to whofe lot they fell 
8the divifion ; and made the Greek nation a long time re- 
lowned.and powerful in Afia. 

ALEXANDER (Neckam), an eminent Englifli writer 
n the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, born at St. Aiban's 
H^rtfordihire. After having finiihed his ftudies in hts 
latlvc country, he went abroad to the univerfities of France^?"*'' "'*• 
md Italy, where he applied with great affiduity. He refided 
ihiefly at Paris, which was at that time the moft celebrated 
iniverfity of Europe, where he greatly diftinguifhed himfelf 
be his genius and learning, being confidered as an excellent 
)bilofopher, a profound divine, and a good rhetorician and OudinCom- , 
wet, for the age wherein he livedw In the year 1180, he^*"'^'**^^^^ 
cad ledures at Paris with great applaufe. About the year 
n86, he returned to England ; and the yaar following, at 
lisdeiire, Guarinus abbot of St. Aiban's entrufted him with 
he care of the fchools belonging to that abbey. He was 
ifterwards made canon of Chichefter, whence he foon after 
tmoved to Exeter, and there became a canon regular of the 
)nier of St. Auguflin*. In 1215, he was made abbot of 
Exeter, and died in 1227. He wrote feveral works, which 
were never publifhed [a] ; but they are to be found in ma- 
nufcript in the libraries of England and other countries. 

[a] They ue as follow : large poetical work, and treats of 

!• " Commentaria fupra quatoor varioos lubje£^s, as well profane a^ fa- 

" Maogelia.** cred ; of angels, the heavens, of natural 

1. ** Ixpofitio fuper EcclefiaAen.*' things, particulaily birds, beafts, trees, 

3. ** Ezpofitio fuper Cantica.^* and plants, which are dikcyrfed of in a 

4« *< Laudes divinse fapientiae." This phyfica! and moral way. It was intitled 

^wi i» the fame with that " De na- ** Of the Nature of Things," becaufe 

'urit rerooQ)**, as Oudin aflures us it treats for the moft pait of. the nature 

^wn his own reading (Comment, ^e of created things 9 it was I ike wife called 

Soipt. Ecdct torn, iii.) It is a ** The Praifcs of Divine Wi.doro," be- ' 


,58 .Alex AN J?JER. 


(aoTe the cxpl^catioo qf the natural a||;e in which they w^fe wfUtcn. 'I 

world ihewsthe tofioite Mdrdbm of the this piece the author gives a large* 

Deity. This (iayt Mr. Bayle) coniills coimt of the three cities which we ^ 

of a great many y rrPeVi which h^ve nq moft eoiinenf f^r ieariUQ^y A^^ 

fmall ihare of elegance and harmony, if Roine| aad Pari** j 

Ive coofider the barliarout and Gothic 


ALEXANDER ab AIbxANdro, a Neapolitan lawryd 
of great karnihg, who flouriflied towards the end of the H 
teenth and beginning of the Cxteenih century. He followd 
the profeffion of the law, firft at Naples, afterwards at Romej 
but he devoted ail the time he could fpare to the ftudy of po- 
lite literaturcji and at length eatirely left the bar, that h^ 
might lead a more eafy and agreeable life with the Mufes 
Alp»nd. abtt When J fa w," fays he, ** that the counfellors could notdci 

Diwuro " ^"^"^ "°'' ^^^^ *"y °"^ againft the power or favotir of the 
lib. ii. * •' nlighty, I faid it was in vain we took fo much pains, and 
cap. I. «« fatigued our&lves with fo inut;fa fiudy in controverfief d 
f* law, and with learning fuch a variety of cafes fo exadlf 
^' reported; when ^ iaw the judgements paiTed accordingHc 
** the temerity of every remiis and corrupt p^rfoo who prcf 
*' fided over the laws, and gave determinations nat accord/ 
•* ing tofquity, but favour and afFeflion/' Tbe particulars 
of his life are to be gathered f^'om his work intitled '* Genia* 
lium dierioi :" we are there informed that he lodged at Roia^ 
^ in ^ hoiife that was hauhced ; and he relates^ many furprizifljl 
lMl.lib,Ti.pj|j.ti^ui^$ about theghoft. He fays alfo, that when hewal 
^*^' very young, he vtrent to the le£l|jres of Philelphus, who ex- 
plained atRome-the **TufculanQucflioh8" of Cicero 5 hew* 
there alfo when Nicholas Per^ and Domitiu^ Caldejinus read 
their public lectures upon Martial. Some fay that hea&cd 
as prothonotary of the kingdom of Naples, and that lie dif* 
charged this office with great honour; but thi^ is not meO'* 
tioned In bi$ work. The particular time when he died is sot 
known, but he was buried in iki^ tnonafterjr of the Olivets. 
Tiraqueau wrote a learned commentary upon his work, whidi 
tvas printed at Lyons in. 1 5E7, and reprinted at Ley^^n iA 
1673, with the notes of Denis Godfrey, Chriftopher Cole- 
rus, and 'Nicholas N^erceriis. • 

^orci'vU ALEXANDER (N6el), an indefatigabje ^rm d the 
raftoUe" "7^^ century, born at Roan in Normandy, 1639. AftCf 
desHoromcsfinilbing his ftudies at Roan^ he entered into the order of 
?i!?"f? Dominican friari^ and was profefied the^e in [1655. Spon 
*""" *" after he went to Parisj to go through a courfe of philofopbf 

and divinity in the great convent^ where he diftingw^'^^ 


toni. 11 J* 

A L E X A N B g k. ?59 

fJbiflAfelf ib^ thiithe waffappointe^ to teach pfaalofopby. there,, 
^ which be did for twelve years. This however did not iq 
^SBuch engage hi^ attention as to make hhn^egle£l preach- 
.ing, which is trho Cjbfef bufiaefs of the order he profeiTed. 
His fi^mon 9 were elegant and folid : hut at he hadnottfaa( 
^eafe atid fluency of fpeech requifue in a preacher, he foon for- 
fbok the pulpit ; and his fuperiors being of opinion that he 
Ihottld apply himfelf wholly to the fludy of the Scriptures and 
ecclefiaftical hiftory, he followed their aidyice, and was created 
/a doctor of the aorbonne, fn 1675* Mr, Colbert (hewed 
hioA many marks of bis efteem ; and being determined tp 
! omk nothing to perfe£^ the education of his fon, afterwards 
archbifhop of Roan, be formed an aiTembly of the moil 
learned perfons, whofe conferences upon ecclefiaflical hiftorjr 
\ .might be of advantage to him. Father Alexander was invited 
I to this aflembly, ^w^here he exerted bimfelf with fo mucl^ 
gieniits and ability, tbat be gained the particular friend- 
[ Aip of yoting Colbert) who (hewed hita the iKmoft regard at 
long as he lived. Thefe conferences gav^ rife to Alexandt^r's 
de&gn of writing an ecGlefiailical biftory ; for, being deilred to 
; reduce what was material ia thefe conferences to writing, he 
<iidit with fo much accuracy, that the learned then who com* 
pofed this afiembly$ advifed him to undertake a complete body 
of chBrch-hi(iory. This he executed with great alliduity^ 
toUefting and digefiing the materials himfelf, and writing 
even the tables with his own hand. His (lift work is tha^ 
wherein he endeav^ours to prove, againft Mt de Launoi, that 
St. Thomas Aquinas is the real author of the Sum^ afcribed 
to him : it was printed in^ Paris 1675, in 8vo. The yeai 
following he p«ibli(h6d the firft volume of a large work i^ L^ 
tin, apon the principal points oi ecpleTiaftical hiflory : thitf 
comainscwenty-fix volumes in 8vo« The firft voltame treaty 
of the hifibry of the firft ages of the church, apd relates the 
perfecutions which it fufFered, the fucceifion of pdpes, the he* 
refiea which arofe, the councils which condemned them, tte • 
livriters in favour 4>f Chrifiianity, and the kings and Ai^pcrors 
who reigned during the firft century : to this ^re ^^^^^^^^^^v'*'l! m * 
AHTertations «ipon fuch points, as have been the oicca^a ^AuteuV 
difpute in biftory, chronology, criticifm, or dodrine. TheEcdef. 
biiiory of the fecond century, with fome dilTertatian^, Was^o"^- ***• 
publtflied in two voltNries, in the year 1^77. The third cea* 
lury came out in 1678; in this he treats largely of public 
penaiKte, and examines intio the origin afid progrefs of the la- 
fkious diipcite between pope Stephen and &t. Cyprian, concern- 
ing the reba^icbiiig of thofe who had been baptiz^rd by here*- 

tics i 


. tics ; and he has added three diflertations, wherein he hsf 
(roIIe£>ed what relates to the life, manners, errors^ and de- 
fenders of St. Cyprian. The hjftory of the fourth century 
is fo very extenfive, that Alexander has found matter for 
IbW. three volumes, and forty-five differtations j they werfe printed 

at Paris in 1679. In the three following year? he pabli(bed 
his hiftory of the fifth, fixth, feventh, eighth, ninth, and 
tenth centuries; and that of th^ eleventh and twelfth cen- 
turies in 1683: in thefe volumes are feveral differtations 
againft Mr. Daille, and Tn fome of (hem he treats of the dif- 
putes between* the princes and popes in fuch a manner, that 
a decree from Rome was ilTued out againft h<s writings in 
1684. However he publilhed the fame year the hiflory of 
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, in which he con- 
tinued to defend the rights of kings againft the pteteniions of 
that court. He at laft completed his work in 1686, by pub- 
liflirng four volumes, which contained the hiftory of the 
fifteenth and fixteenth centuries. In 1689, he publifhed a 
work, in the fame method, upon the Old Teftament, in fix 
volumes 8vo. In 1678, he publifhed three differtations, the 
iirft concerning the fupcriority of bi(hops over prefbyters, 
againft Blonde! ; the fecond concerning the celibacy of the 
clergy, and reconciling the hiftory of Paphnutius with the 
canon of the council of Nice ; and the third concerning the' 
Vulgate verfion of Scriptures. The fame year he printed a 
diflertation concerning facramental confefllon againft Mr, 
Darlle, in 8vo. In 1682, he wrote an apology for his difler- 
tatioh upon the Vulgate trandation, againft Claudius Frafien. 
He publifhed likcwife about this time, or fome time before, 
three difiertations in defence of St. Thomas Aquinas; the 
firft againft Henfchenius and Papebroch, to (hew that the 
office of the holy facrament was written by him ; the fecond 
was inform of a dialogue between a Dominican and a Fran- 
cifcan, to .confute the common opinion that Alexander of 
Hales was St. Thomas Aquinas's mafter, and that the latter 
borrowed his ** Secunda Sccuridae" from the former : the third 
is a panegyric upon Aquinas. In 169 ^, he publifhed his 
** Theologia dogmatica," in five books, or ''*Pofitive and mo- 
ral Divinity^ according to the Order of the Catechifm of the 
Council of Trent/' This Laiin work, confiftingof ten oftavo 
volumes, was printed at Paris and at Venice in 1698 : in 1.701 
he added another volume i and they were ail printed together 
at Pans, in two volumes folio, in 1703, with a collection of 
Latin letters, which had been printed feparately. In 1703, he 
publifhed ^' A comniieatary upon the four Gofpels,'' in folio; 

3 and 

A L E X A iSl ET E Ri ijSi. 

Ind in I7I0» he*pubU(hed another at Roan upon St. Paul's 
and«tbe (even canonical epiftles. He wrote alfo a commen- 
tary upon the prophets Ifaiah, Jeremiah^ and Baruch, which 
was never printed : we (hall mention the reft of his works in a 
note [aJ« In 1706, he was made a provincial for the province 
of Paris. 'Powards the latter part of his life, he was afflided 
with the lofs of his fight ; a moft inexpreflible misfortune to one 
lirhofe whole pleafure was in ftudy, yet he bore it with great 
patience and reflgnatipn. He died merely of a decay of na-lbld. p.54)« 
ture^ 1 7249 in the 86th year of his age. 

Ta] 7. << Statotii facultatis artium •' Father Telliet the Jefuit, intituled # 

^ ThomifticaecoUegio Par .fieafi fratnim <« Defence of the new Chriftians; and 

^' predicatorum inaitqra, Fahf. 16^3/* *' to an Explanation publiOied by Fathie^ 

in iftoio. X* '* Inftituiio concionato- *< O obie a of the fame Society^ concern* 

" xum tripartita, feu praecepta et regula ** ing the Honours which the Chineic 

" ad prdidica tores informandos, cum ideis <' pay to Confaciai and to the Dead» 

" fea rudimentis concionum p«r totum " printed at Cologn, 16^9*' io ]2mo; 

** annual.** 3* ** Abrege de la foy ct 8. " I>ocomenta controverfiarum mtffid« « 

"* de la moral deTegltfetiree de 1* Ecri- ** nariorum apodollcorum imperii Sinic! 

'* tore fainte, Paris, 1676/* in ztmo. << decultupra^fertimCoafaciiphilofophi 

4* '*Sclairci0ement dies pretend uesdifli- " et progenitorum defun£torum fpec* 

" ciiltes propofecs a inonf« I'atcheveque ** tantia> ac apologiam Doroinicanorum 

" de Rooen^ fur plofieura points impor- ** miffionis Sinicae miniftrorom adver-* 

" tans de la morale de Jetus Chrift, ** fus RR. PP. le Tellier et le Gobiea 

" x^gy,'* in timo. 5. *«A Letter to a *• focieiatis Jefu confirmantia." 9. «« A 

** Dodor of Sorboone, upon the Dif- *' Treatife on the Confofmity between 

** pute concerning Probability, and the *' the Chinefe Ceremonies^ and the 

** Errors of a Thefis in Divinity main- " Greek and Roman Idolatiy, in otdti 

^ tained by the Jefuits in their college " toVonfirm the Apolojgy of the Domi- 

^ at Lyons, the 26th of Auguft^ printed " nican Miffipoarles in Chins, lyoo^** 

", at MonSy 1697/' in i2mo. 6. *' A in i2mo. Tranflated intoIcaHao> and 

** fecond letter upon the falhe fubjedV, printed at Cologn, in 8vo» He wrote 

" 1697,** in i2mo« 7, «* An Apology likeMrife feven letters to the Jefuits fe 

** for the Dominican Miffionaries in Comte and Dcs> upon the fame fubjed* 

5' China^ or an Antwer to a Book of 

rf » 

ALEXANDER (William), an emlhcht ftateftnan anc! 
lK>et of Scotland, was born in 1580, and lived in the reigns of. 
lung James L and king Charles I. After having received ^ 
liberal education, he travelled with the duke of Argyle as hid 
tutor oV cbnapanion. Upon his return from foreign parts, he 
y^'ttit to Scotland, and betook himfelf for fome time to a 
rural retirement^ where he finifhed his *< Abrora," a poetical 
^ttiplaint oh the unfuccefsful addrefshehad made to his mif- 
, trefs; for before he weiit abroad, when he was but Eft»ii 
years of age, fomb beauty, had fmitteh him fo deeply, that. ,. 
ivWthcr ahiurcmeht , of travbllihg, nor the fight of io many™ ^^.f^^ 
f^r foreigners, as hie calls the river Loire to witnefs he had in quarto af 
tBcremet with, could remove his affeftioh. Upon his return, ^•'«^-'*?!*<* 
te renewed his cbyrtQiip) arid Wrote above an hundred Iqyc- '"' 
Vol. L M ioAAecsy 

i52 A L E X A N D E R.' 

fonnets, till matrimony dlfpoting of his miftrefa to anothef* 
pcrfon, he aifo married, as a remedy for bis palSon. The lady^^ 
who proved (o cruel to him, was, it feems, married to an old- 
man ; for Alexander tells us that (he had matched her inorn<^ 

lb. Soa.c* ing to one in the evening of his age: that he himfelf would^ 
now change the myrtle tree for the laurel, and the bird of 

lb. Son. evi. Venus for that of Juno: that the torch of Hymei> h^d- burnt 
out the darts of Cupid ; and that he had thus f|^ent the 
fpiing of his age, which his fummer mud redeem. He now* 

lb, SoD^x. removed to the court of king James VI. where he applied' 
himfelf to the more (oVui and ufeful fpecies of poetry : he 
endeavoured to form himfelf upon the plan of the ancient 
Greek and Roman tragedies, and accordingly we find a tra- 
gedy of his publifhed upon the ftory of Darius, at Edinburgh, 
in 1603. The year following it was reprinted. at London,.. 
wlth^Qmeverfes prefixed in praife of the authpr, by T. Mur- 
ray and Walter Quin : at the end of this edition ar^ alfo', 
added two poems of his, one congratulating his majefty upoA. 
his entry into England, the other upon the inundation of s 
Doven, where the king ufed to recreate himfelf with* the di- 
verfion of hawking. The fame year his " Aurora*' was printed 
in London^ dedicated to Agnes Douglas cour^tefs of ArgyJs;' 
and his '* Paraenefis," to princfc Henry. In this laft piece he. 
gives many excellent inftru£li.ons, and il^ews that the happj'-« 
nefs of a prince depends on chufmg trulywottby, difinteceft-" 
cd, and public- fpiriied cbunfellors : he fets forth* how the, j 
lives of eminent men are to be read to the great^ft advantage r ! 
he lays open the chara£lers of vicious, kings, difplay^ the* 
glory of martial atchievements, and hopes, if the prince 
fliould ever make an expedition to Spain, that he might at- 
' tend him, and be his Homer to iing his ads^ther^.^ 

In 1607, ^'^ dramatic performances, intituled ** The Mo» 
narchic Tragedies/* were publiflied, containing ibefidiea Da- 1 
rius already mentioned, Cfocfus, the Alexandraean, and. Julius | 

CrawfoM*» Gaefar: they are dedicated to king Janpcs, in a poeai..oi tbir- 

sT/^V^ teen ftanzas; and his majefty is Taid to havcf.beejj'.pleafed. 

p. 463. * with them, and to have called him his phi)ofoph(cal poet.. 
John Davies of Heieford, in his book of Epigrarns, publifhr . 
ed in 161 1, has one to our author, in praife.of his tragedies; i 
in this he fays, that Alexander, the Great had ;iot gained. / 
more glory with his fword, than this Alexander. Had acquired 
by his pen/ Michael Drayton (peaks of himjoo with gre|^t 

Ibid, afFedion^and efteenn. Not long after Alexander is fafd to. 

have wrqtci '^ fupplement to complete the ihird part of fir ^ 
Philip Sidney's Arcadia, lni6i^y he wrote' a poem calW 
*' ' *' Doom'd 

A i: E x\a N D E R. 163 

♦* Doom s Day, or the great Day of Judgement ;** it is divide4 
into twelve hours, as the author calls them, or hoolcs. . Thi^ 
fame year he was fworn in one of the gentlemen-ufhers of 
the prefence to prince, Charles j and the king appointed him 
mafter of the requefts, and conferred upon him the honour 
of knighthood ; fo that he now appeslred more in the cha* 
raSer of a (latefman than a poet. He proje&ed the fettU-^ 
ment of a coloay at Nova Scotia, to be carried on at -the ex- 
pence of himfelf, and of fuch adventurers as would be -en* 
gaged in the undertaking. His majefiy gave h^pi a grant of 
that country in 1621, and did intend to have created an ordec 
of baronets, for encouraging and fupporting fo grand a 
work, but died before this vi^as put in execution. His foa 
Charles I. was fo fond of the fcheme, that foon after his ac- 
ceffi<Jn to the throne, he appointed fir William Alexander 
Ueutenant of Nova Scotia, and founded the order of knights 
baronet in Scotland, who were to contribute their aid to th^ 
faid plantation and fettlement, upon the condderation of each 
having a liberal portion of land allotted him there.* The" 
number of thefe baronets were not to exceed one hundred 
and fifty, and they were to be endowed with ample privi- 
leges and pre-eminence to all knights called Equites Aurati : 
but none of them were to be created baronets, either of Scot* 
land or Nova Scotia, till they had fulfilled the conditions dc^ 
figned by his majefty, and till the fame were cbnfirmed to the 
king by his lieutenant thei-e. The patents were ratified in. 
parliament; but after fir William fold Nova Scotia to the 
French, they were made fliorter, ^and granted in general 
terms, with all the privileges of former baronets ; and it is 
now an honourable title in Scotland, conferred at the king*9 
pteafure, without limitation of numbers. This fcheme and 
. enterpfize of fir William Alexander's was inveighed againO: 
by many jerfons : fir Thomas Urquhart, his own country- 
man, has particularly cenfured him upon this account [a]. 
The king, however, ftill continued his favoui^ to fir Wil- 
liam, and in 1626, appointed hiiii fecretary pf State for 

[a] '*1t did not fatisfy his ambition/* ^* be a poett had he fiopped there^it 

fays he, ** to have a laurel from the ** had b$eii well ; but the flame of bif 

^ Mufes, a^d be^fleened a king among ** honour niuilt have fomeoil wheievich 

" poetc; but be mod be a king of fome *' to nouri/h it; like another king 

" oew.fowi&, and^ like another « Arthur, be muft have h^s Xnight?; 

" Alexander.iadeed, Searching after ne\sr ** though nothing limited toi/o fmaU A^ 

" worlds, have the fovereigniy of Nova ** number.** ''The Difcovery of a molt •• • 

.'• Scotia ! He was born a poet, and aim- exqu'sfite jewel, &C. found in the kenrtel 

. •* cd to be a kings therefore would he of Worcefter- ftreets, th^' Day sifter the • • . . 

'•'have bis royal title fxom king James, fight, 8?o/' ^652, p. 207, 
** who WAS bora a king, ajid aimed to 

M a Scotland i 



Scotland ; created him a peer of that kingdom io 1630, l>y 
• the title of vifcount Stirling ; and in lefs than three years 

after m.ade him earl of Stirling, by his letters patent, bearing 
date the 14th of June, 1633. He difcharged the office of 
fecretary of flate with great reputation near fifteen years, to 
' the time of his death, which happened on the 12th of Fe- 
bruary, 1640 [bJ. 

[fi] About t^ree years before Mr, 3. ** The Ptraoaefis, to prince 

AJrx<iiMier*sdeceafe, a aewediticn of his " Henry.'* 

poetical works, ^r the greateft part of 4. *' Jonathan,** an heroic poem in* 
them, was poblnhed, containing the tended, thefirftbook, now firft pubiiA- 
four Monatfch ic Tragr dies', ed. The author** ftyle and yerfificarioa 

2. '* Doonnfday ;*' with feme ver(ei are piuch poliihed io this editioo, efpe* 

prefixed by William Drummond, cially of the playi. • 

ALEXIS, a Piedmontefe. There is a book of ** Secrets,'* 
Mercklimia ^hich for a long time has gone under his name; it was 
nofSiV.P"^^«^ at Bafil 1536, fn 8vo, and tranflatcd from Italian 
'into Latin by Wecher : it has alfo been ti*anflated into 
French, and printed feveral times with additions. There is 
a preface to the piece, wherein Alexis informs us, that be 
was born of a noble family; that he had from his moft early 
years applied himfelf to fludy ; that he had learned the Greek, 
the Latin, the Hebrew, the Chaldean, the Arabian, and 
feveral other languages; that having an extreme curiofity to 
be acquainted with the fecrets of nature, he had colleded. as 
much as he could during his travels for fifty* feven years ; that 
he piqued himfelf upon not communicating his fecrets to any 
perfon: but that when he was eighty -two years of age, hav- 
ing feen a poor man who had died of a ficknefs which might 
have beeit cured had he communicated his fecret to the iur- 
geon who took care pf him, he was touched with fuch a re* 
morfe of confcience, that he lived almoft like a hermit ; and 
it was in this folitudethat he ranged his fecrets in fuch an order, 
as to make them fit to be pubiilhed. 7'he hawkers generally 
carry them, with other books, tp the country fairs ; thefe 
however coiitain only the fe]e<St remedies of feignor Alexis of 
Piedmont : the entire colledion would make too large a vo*r 
lume for them. 

ALEYN (Charles), an Englifli poet who lived in the 
reign of Charles L He received his education at Sidney col- 
lege in Cambridge ; and going to London, became affiflant 
Wood't iQ Thomas Farnaby the famous grammarian, at his great 
^,^,n^^^j5,fchool in Goldfpiith's-rents^ in the parifh of. St. Giles's 
Cripple-gate, In 163 1, he publiQied two poems on the 


A L E Y N. i6s 

fknious victories of Crcfci and Pointers, obtained by the 

£ngii(h in Framre, under king Edward III. and his martial 

fon the Black Piince ^ they are written in ftanzas of fix lines. 

Leaving Mr. Farnaby, he went jnto the family of Edward 

Sherburne, efq. to be tutor to his fon.; who fucceeded his 

father as clerk of the ordnance, and was alfo commiflkry- 

general of the artillery to king Charles I. at the battle of 

Edgehill. The next piece which our author produced, was 

a poem in honour of king Henry VII. and that important 

battle which gained him the crown of England: it was pub- 

lilhed in 1638, uoder the title of ^^ The Hiftorie of that wife 

*' and fortunate prince Henrie, of that Name the feventh, 

^' King of England ; with that fanred Battle fought between 

.*' the faid King Henry and Richard III. named Crook-back, 

" upon Redmore jjear Bofworth.*' There are feveral poetical 

eulogiums prefixed to this piece^ amongft which is one by 

Edward Sherburne, his pupil. Befides thefe three poems, ^ 

there are in print Tome Iittie copies of commendatory verfes 

afcribed to him, and prefixed to the works of other writers, 

particularly before the earlieft editions of Beaumont and 

Fletcher's plays* In 1639, he publiflied the Hiflory of Eu* 

rialus and Lucretia : this was a tranflation : the flory is to be 

found among the Latin epiflles of ^neas Sylvius. The year 

after he is faid to have died, and to have been burled in the 

pariih of St. Andrew's Holborn, 

• * 

ALFRED the Great, fee ALFRED. 

ALGAROTI (the Count), a celebrated Italian, waa 

born at Padua ; but the year isnot mentioned. Led by cu- 

riofity, as wejl as a defirc of iihprovement, he travelled early 

into foreign countries ; and was very young when he arrived 

in France in 1736. -Here he compofed his *' Newtonian 

" Philofophy for the Ladies," as Fontenelle had done his 

Cartedan Aftrbnomy, in the work intituled, ** The Plurality 

•* of worlds," He fell under the notice of the king of Pruffia^ 

who gave him marks of theefteem he had for him. He died 

at Pifa the 23d of May, 1764, and ordered his own maufo* 

leum, writh this infcription to be fixed upon it : <^ Hie jacet 

** Algarotus, fed non omnis," He is allowed to have been 

a very great connoifTeur in painting, fculpture, and architect 

ture. He contributed much to the reformation of the Italian 

9pera« His works, which are numerous, and upon variety of 

fubjcfls, abound with vivacity, elegance, and wit : a collcc- 

6on of them has lately been made, and printed at Leghorn. Noov.Dia. 

M 3 ALLATIUSHtft- ^°^*- 

i66 A L L A T I U S. 

f . 


ALLATIUS (Leo), keeper of the Vatican, library, anJ 
' a celebrated writer of the feventcenth century, was born In 
the Ifle of Scio, 1537. At nine years of age he was removed 
from his native country to Calabria ; fome time after fenc to 
Rome, and admitted into the Greek college, , where he applied 
himfelf to the ftudy of polite learning, philofophy, anddivi- 
■ nity. From thence he went to Naples, and was chofen great 
horento vicar to Bernard Juftinianibifhop of Anglona. Frcrn Naples 
ril'de pocti ^^ returned to his ov^n country, but went foon from thence 
Crseci, to Rome, where he ftudied phyfic under Julius Caefar Lagalla, 
p. 406. and took a degree in that profefBon. He afterwards madrthe 
belies lettres his objed, and taught in the Greek college at 
Rome* Pope Gregory XV, fent him to Germany in 1622, 
in order to get the eleflor Palatine's library removed to Rome'; 
hut by the death of Gregory, he loft th^ reward he might 
have expedted for his trouble in that affair. He lived fome 
time after with cardinal Bichi, arid then with cardinal Francis 
Barberini '^ ,and was at laft, by pope Alexander VH. appointed 
keeper of the Vatican library. Allatius was of great fervicc 
to the gentlemen of Port Royal in the controverfy they had 
with Mr. Claude, touching the belief of the Greeks in regard 
. to the Eucharift : Mr. Claude often calls him Mr. Arnaud'^ 
great author, and has given hini but an indifferent charac- 
ter [a], . No Latin ever (hewed himfclf more incenfed againft 
the Grpek fchifmatics than AJlatiiis, or more devoted to the 
fee of Rome. He nevefr engaged in matrimony, nor was 
Mabjllon he ever in orders ; and pope Alexander having afked him 

itaLtortilu ®"^ ^^y* ^^y ^^ ^*^ not enter into orders? " Becaufe," 

p. 6i, ' anfwercd he, " I would be free to ^marry.'*- ** But if (0," 

replied the pope, *' why don't you marry?" ** Becaufe 

« 1 would be at liberty," anfwered Allatius, *^ to take 

' Ja] <* Allatius," fays he, "was a *• bonnd to obey his commands, ercrt 

^' Greek, \i'ho bad renounced his own *^ when he governs unjuftly; be gives 

** religion to embrace that of Rome | '* laws without receiving any ^ be 

** a Greek whom the pope had chofcn " changes tnem as he tbioks f\t^ ap« 

*< his librarian; a. man the mod de- *' points magiftratrs ; decides all que« 

'* voted to the interefts of the court of ** {Worn as to.mtttjers of faith, and ar- 

^' Rome; a man extremely outrageous " ders all sffatrs of importance in the ' 

** in his difpofuion. He /hews his at- '** church as feenns to him good. He 

**- tachment to the court of Rome Jn the «* cannot err, being out of the power'of 

*' very beginning of his book *.De per- «* all herefy Sand illufion j- and- as hv 

*' petoa confenfione,' where he writes «' is armed with the authority of Cbriil-, 

**' in favour of the pope tbus ; ** The •' not even an angel from heaven could 

**f Roman pontiff," fays be, ** is qaitc '* make him alter his opinion.** iCf# 

** independent, judges the world with- Claude*s AofwertO M« Arnaod's book# 

f^ out bei/tg liable CO be jtxdged} we are I)b«iii«cap« |2# 

«« orders/^* 

, AlsL XT lU S. 167 

^ xyritrs [fi]." It i/vt diufelo believe John Patrkiug, Alia- 
rius had a veryiextraordinary pen, with which, and no other, 
be wrote Greek for forty years ; ^ and we need not be fur- 
priced^ that when he loft it, he was fd grieved, that he could 
fcarce fbrbeir crying. He publiftecT feveral manufcripts, fe- , 
veral tran^ations of GreeJc authors, and feveral pieces of his 
own compofing [c]. In his comp&iitions he is thdught to, 
flicw fnr>re erudition than judgement : he ufed alfo to make 
frequent digreniotis from one fubje^ to another, Mr. de 
-Sallo has cenfured him upon this account. This author, af- 
ter having noted a lamentation of the Virgin Mary, as a re- 
markable piece inferted in one of Allatius's works, goes on * 
thus : *^ This lamentation was compofed by Metaphraft, and journal 49$ 
•* that was fufficicnt for AUatius to infert a panegyric uponS»vaiu, 
*« Metaphraft, written by Pfcllus. As Metaphraft's namej|g^^**^* 
*^ was Simeon, he took an opportunity from thence of 
** making a long diflertation upon the lives and works of 
^^ fuch celebrated men as had borne the fame name. From 
•* the Simeons he pajSes to the Simon J, from them to the 
^* Siffionidefes, and laftly to the Simona£lides." Allatius 1 
died at Rome in 1669, aged 82. He wrote feveral Greek 
poems, ortc upon the birth of Lewis XIV. in which he in- 
troduces Greece fpeaking : he printed this poem, and prefix- 
ed it to his book '^ De perpetua confenfione," which he de- 
dicated to this prince. 

][b] ^ Tbas he pafTed bis whole life/' tz. " Salluflii philofophi opufculam, de 

lays Mr. Ba|le, " waveriog betwixt a ** diis et irundo.** 13. *< De patria 

*• pariih and a wife | loiry perhaps at ** Homeri." 14. *• Philo Dyzantin, • 

*• ills death for having chofe neither of •• de fepfem orbrs fpeftacuHs," 15, 

" them: hot had he fixed upon either, ** Excgrpta varia Graecoruoi fophiAa* 

•* he might perhaps have repented bis •• rum et rhctorum.** 16. "De libris 

••* choice for thirty or fortf years t6- *' ecclcfiaft. Gaecorum," 17, *• De 

gcther.** , ** menfura , temporuni anti^uoniu).^ 

«* Euilatbius Antiochenos in hexame- vol. »o. '• Symmi£lion.** ix. " Vrn- 

** ff>ii,etdeei]giift7imytbo.** 3. "Mo- *♦ diciae fynodi Ephefinae.'* zz» Niii 

" namentumAdulitinumPtolomailll.'* ••opera.'* ij. ** Appendix ad opera S, 

4. '* Confutatio fabulx de Joanna pa. << Anfelmi.** 24. '* Concordia natio-^ 

*« piff*.*' 5. " Libanii orationes." 6. '* num chriiHanarum Afiae, Africs, et 

<« Apes Urbanae," 7. " De PfeUis.^' " Europae, in fide catholica," 25% 

8. •• De Gcorgiis." 9. •* De Simeoni- ** De octava fynodo Phoiii.'* 26. ** De 

«« bos,'* 10. •* Prodi Diadochi para- ** inter ft'itiis Graecorum ad ordincs,'* 

•< phrafis in Ptelevnaei lib. iv.** ix. 17. " De tensplis Graecorum/* 
^ SocrMisi ^tkill^henit, Sea . epiftolsr.** 

ALLSN (Thomas), a famous mathematician, born at 
tJ(toxtter> in Stafibidihire, 1 542, was admitted fcbolar of 

M4 Trinity 


Trinity college, Oxford^ in 1561; and, in 1567, tookliia 
degree of mafter of arts. In 1570, he quitted his collego 
^ ^nd fellowfhip, aqd retired toGlocefter hall, where he fiudied 

. very clofely, and became famous for' his knowledge in anti- 
quity, philofophy, and mathematics. Having received an 
invitation from Henry earl of Northumberland, a' great 
friend and patron of the mathematicians, he fpent fome time 
at the earl's houfe, where he became acquainted with thofe 
celebrated jnathematiqians Thomas Harriot, John Dee, Wal- 
ter Warnec, and Nathaniel Torporley. Robert earl of Lei** 
cefter h^d a particular efteem for Mr. Allen, and would have 
Wood'f conferred a bifhopric upon him, but h^is love of folitudc and 
Cxon^ vol j/c^irement made him decline the offer. His great Ikill in the 
* mathematics made the ignorant and vulgar look upon him 
4ts a magician or conjurqr : the author of a book, intituled 
•* Leicefter's CommonweaUh,*' has^ accordingly accufed him 
with ufing the art of figuring, to bring about the earl of Lci- 
cefler's fcheme^, and endeavouring, by the black art, to bring 
about a match betwixt him and queen Elizabeth. But 
waving the abfurdity of the charge, it is certain the earl 
placed fuch confidence iq Allen, that nothing material ia 
the ftate was traxifadled without his knowledge; and the 
earl had conftant information^ by letter from Allen, of what 
^^'^' . pafied in the univerlxty. Allen was very curious and inde<p 
fatigable in cojleding fcattered manu(cripts relating to hi(r 
tory, antiquity, aftronomy, philofophy, and mathematics : 
which colledions have been quoted by feveral learned au- 
thors, &c. and mentioned to have been in the Bibliotheca 
AUeniana. He publiffaed in Latin the fecond and third 
books of Ptolemy, ** Concerning the Judgment of the Stars,'* 
or, as it is commonly called, of the quadripartite conftruc- 
•tion, with an expofitjon. He wrote al(b notes on. many of 
Lilly's books, and fome on Jbhn Bale's work *• Dc fcriptori- 
bus Maj. Britanniap.*V Having lived to a great age, he died at 
^^^* Glocefter hall in 1632. Mr. Burton, the author of his fu- 

neral oration, calls him not only the Coryphaeus, but the 
very fgql and fun of all the mathematicians of his time. Mr. 
ijiDotisad Selden mentions him as *^ Omni eruditionis genere fum- 
tAit'^lelZ '* nf)oque judicio ornatiffimus, celeberrimae academic Oxo- 
p. 200. *^ nienfis decus iniigniflimum : a perfon of the moft extenr 
•* five learning and confummate judgement, the brighteft or- 
" namentofthe univerfity of Oxford." Camden fays, he 
was ". Plurimus optimifque artibus ornatiffimus : (killed in 
•« moft of the beft arts and fcienc^." Mr. Wood has tran- 
scribed part of his charaftcr frpni a inanMfcript in the libraiy 

ALLEN, i^ 

of Trinity college, in tbcfe words: •* He ftudied polite lite- 
•** rature with great application ; he was ftri^ly tenacious of 
♦* academic difcipline, always highly efteemed both by fo^ 
^^ reigners and thofe of the univerfity, and by all of the 
<< higheft flarions in the church of England and the univer- 
' ** fity of Oxford. He was a fagacious obferver^ an agree- 
*♦ able companion [a]/' &c. 

^ f a3 Virfislt'elcgaiitittfn Utemnim ftu« Oxonienfi pro mentis fuis ad digoitatet 

^ioliiiimas, academicae difcipliox tena* aut prsefeQurat fubinde prove^i fuerunt. 

cil!imas» apud exteros et academicot fem- Fuit fagacifilmus obferfatofi Camlliariffi- 

per in magnopretioycorumque qiiiinec- mua conviva» dec* 
ciefia Angjicana 3^t(|ue . in univerfitate 

ALLESTRY, or Allestree (Richard), an eminentwood^ 
Englifli divine, born in March 1619, at Uppington near the^***«"« 
Wrelcen in Shrop(hire. He was at firft educated at a free- ^""•"^'^ 
fcbool in that neighbour hood, and afterwards removed to one 
zt Coventry, taught by Philemon Holland. In 1636, he was 
fent to Oxford, and entered a commoner in Chrift*churcb, 
isnder the tuition of Mr. Richard Buiby, afterwards mafterof 

, Weftminfler fcbool. Six" months after his fettlement in the 
univerfity, Dr. Fall, dean of Chrift-churcb, having obferved 

' the parts a^nd induftry of young AUeftry, made him a ftudent 
of that college, where he applied himfelf to his books with 
great affiduity and fuccefs. When he had takeii the degree 
of bachelor of arts, he was chofen moderator in philofophy, 
sn which office he continued till the difturbances of the king- 
dom interropted the ftudies and repofe of the univerfity. In 

' 164.1, Mr. Aileftry, amongft other of the Oxford iludents, 

, took arms for the king, under Ar John Biron, and continued 
therein till that gentleman withdrew from Oxford, when he 
returned to his ftudies. Soon after, a party of the parliament 
forces having entered Oxford and plundered the colleges, Mr. 
Aileftry narrowly efcaped being feverely handled by them [a J. 

'[a] Somd of the parliament forcei felv^i di/appointed and every thjog re- 

having attempted to break into the trea- movedout of the chamber. Upon exa« 

fQryofChrift.€hurcb, and having forced mination it was dlfcovered, that Mr. 

a paflage into it, met with nothing but Aileftry had a key to the lodgingt, and 

a fijigie groat and a halter, at the bottom that this key had been made ufe of lipoa 

of a large iron che(^. Snraged at their this occafion; whereupon be'wasfeia. 

difappointment, they went to the deanry, ed, and would probahly have been very o 

where having plundered as much aa feverely handled, had not the earl of 

they thought fit, they paf it.altogether EfTez called away the forces on a foddeoy 

IB a chamber, locked it up, and retired and by that means refcned him from 

to their quarters, intending next day to their fury. Preface to Dr, Allefiry^a 

morn and difpofe of their prize 1 but. Sttmons^ptiated at Oxford, 1684* 
Vh(n they C4me, $hey fouad tl^m« 

• III 

Jfe^O A :Jt- t. E S T R r. 

In October fpl(o»wing, hetoqk ar^ns again, ant! was at Ifcl 
battle fought betwixt the king and the parliament's forces Uti^ 
ider the com.mand of the earl of Eflex upon Keinton 6eU hi 
WaiTwickQ^ire : af^er ],.Ufidjerftanding that the king dei 
/figlied immediately to -iparch to Oxford, and take up his re^ 
.fidence at the deaory of Chjrift-church,he baftened thither tq 
make preparations for his m^jefty's reception, but in Ms 
way was taken prifoner by a party of horfe from Boughton* 
houfe, which was garrifoned by lord Say for the parliament: 
his confinement, however, was but (hort, foir the garriforil 
furrendered to the king. . And now Mr. AUeftry fettled agaia 
yfooiU to his ftudies, and the fpring following took his degree od 

▼o] ii. coU'"^^^'^ ®^ ^^^^' ^^^ fame year he was in extreme danger of 
31.' ' bis life by a pefttlentiai dlAemper, which raged in the garrifoitl 
at Oxford* As foon as be recovered, he entered again inU^ 
bis majefty's fervice, and carried a mufquet in a regiment | 
formed out of the Oxford fcholars. Nor did he in the meaa 
time negledl bis ftudies, '' but frequently (as the author of 
*« the preface to Dr. Alleftry^s Sermons exprefles it) holding 
** the mufquet in one hand and the book in the other, 
** and making the warchfulnefs of a foldier the lucubrations 
<< of a fiujdent." In this fervice he continued till the end of 
the war: then went into holy orders, and was chofen cenfor 
of his college. He had a confiderable fhare in that tefi of 
loyalty, Ivhich the univeriity of Oxford gave in their deaee 
. and judgenaent againft the Solemn League and Covenant. In 
1648, the parliament fent vifitors to Oxford, to demand the 
lubmiffion of that body to their authority : tbofe who refufed 
to conapily were immediately profcribed ; which was doiie by 
writing their names on a paper, and alExing it on the door of 
St. Mary's church, fignifyiog that fucb perfons were, by the 
authority of the.vlfitor<s, baniflied the univerfity, and required 
to depart the precinds thereof within three days, upon pain 
q£ bjeiAg ta^en for fpies of war, and proceeded againft as fucb. 
deface to ^f. AUeftry, amongft many others, was accordingly expelled 
toy'tSeriD. ^^* univerfity. He now retired into Shropfliire, and was 
entertained as chaplain to tb.e honourable Francis Newport, 
efq ; and upon the death of Richard locd Newport, that gea* 
tJeman's father, in France, whither he had fled to avoid t^e 
y\Q\cnf;e of tjbe prevailing party, was fent over to France, 
to take care of that nobleman's efFeds. Having difpatcbed 
this a^ir with fuccefs, h.e returned to his employment, in 
y(hich h^ cpnli^iied ti)l the. dpfca^ of king Charles II. at 
Worixfte/. At this iifnc the royalids wanting an intelligent 
aod faithful pcrfon to fend over to his majcfty, Mr. Alle^^y 


giras (Qlicited to undertake the journey, which he accotdjng^ 
^ id ; and having attended the king at Roan, and received his 
^f/patches, retorned to England. In 1659, he went orer 
Igain to his majelly in Flanders; but upon his return was 
^ized at' Dover by a party of foldicrs : he, had the addrefs, 
dwevfer, to Tecure his letters, bv conveying xhcj^ti to a faithful 
and. T*he foldiers guarded him to London, where fie was 
Examined by a committee of the council q( fafety^ and fei\t 
f*pri{bner to Lambeth- houfe, where he contrafled adangierovis 
itcknefs. After fix or eight weeks.confinemcnt, (ie was fet at 
liberty : and this enlargement was perhaps owing to the pro- 
ypeft of an approaching revolution ; for fome of the heads qf , 

'^e republican party, feeing a tendency towards his majefty's 
restoration, we#e willing by kindnefles to recommend th?m- 
fclvesto the royal party, in cafe things (hould take that turn. 

Soon after the refloration, Mr. Alleftry was made a canp^i 

of Chrift-church : at the fame time he qndertook one of the 

Icdurefbips of the city of Oxford, but never received any 

part of the falary, for he ordered it to be diftributed ambngS: 

\hc poor. In Odlober 1660, he took the degree of dodlor 

of divinity, and was appointed one of the kings's chaplains ia 

ordinary, and foon after regius profeflbrof divinity, ia 

1665, ^^ 'was made provcft of Eton college. In 1679, fin^f- 

ing his health and fight much impaired, he r^figned his pro- 

feUbrQiip of divinity to Dr. Jane. And now the decay of 

his conftitution terminating in a dropfy, he removed to Lop- 

^pn, to have the advice of phydcians ; but medicines proving 

inefie^ual, he died in January 1680, and was buried in Eton 

chapel, where a marble monument, with a Latin iiifcriptionp 

was erected to his memory. 

There are extant forty fermons of Dr. Alleftry's, wjiereof 
the greatv:ft part were preached before ihe king, upon fplenr^n 
occaf&ons. Mr. Wood likewifes mentions a fmal) tradl^writ- 
tcn by him, intituled, •* Ihe Privileges of the Univerfity of 
Oxford in point of Vifitation," in a Letter to an honoyrabie 

ALLEST^Y (Jacob), an Engllfli poet of the laft cen-Nichols's 
tury. He was the fon of James Alleftry, a bookfeller of coHef^i(rn #f 
London, who was ruined by the great fire in 1666. Jacob f!?^*""*' ^* 
Was educated at Weftminfter fchool, and entered at Chrift- "* ■ 
church, Oxford, in the a£t-term 1671, at the age of 18, and 
Was eleSed ftudent m 1672. He took the degree in arts ; 
Was mufic-reader in 1679, and terras fiUus in 1681, both 
V)>icb oiSces he es^ecuted with great applaufe^ being efteem- 

* ' ' cd 


ed a good philologift and poet. He had a chief hand In w 
verfes and paftorals fpoken in the theatre at Oxford* May 2f>j 
1681, by Mr. William Savile, fecond fon of the marquis of| 
• Halifax, and George Cholmondeley, fecond fon of Robert; 
vifcount Kells (both of Chrift-church) before James duke ofi 
York, his duchefs, and the lady Anne ; which verfes and 
paftorals were afterwards printed in the ** Examen Pocti- 
cum." He died Oaober 15, 1686, and was buried in St. 
Thomas's church-yard, 

ALLEYN (Edward), a celebrated Englifh player ia the 
reigns of queen Elizabeth and king James, and founder of the 
MS. paperi college at Dulwich in Surry, was born in I<ondon, in the 
B i*"'h P^*'^ of St. ]^otolph, Sept. i, 1566, as appears from a me- 
coUege! morandum of his own writing. Dr. Fuller fays, that he was 
Fuller*! bred a ftage-player; and that his father would have given 
Worthiet ofhim a liberal education, but that he was not turned for a fe- 
fcj^*66' ^^^^^ courfe of life. He was, however, a youth of an ejtcel- 
. ' * lent capacity, achearful temper, a tenacious memory, a fwcet 
elocution, and in his perfon of a ftately port and afped ; all I 
which advantage^ might well induce a young man to take ta 
the theatrical profefiion. By feveral authorities we find fee I 
inuft have been on the ftage fome time before 1592; for at i 
this time he was in high favour with the town, and greatly 
applauded by the beft judges, particularly by Benjonfonj 
who thus addrefles him in the following lines : 

, If Rome fo great, and Jn her wifeft age, 
Fear*d not to boaft the glories of her ftage^ 
A fkilful Rofcius and great ^fop $ men, 
Yet crown'd with honours, as with riches then. 
Who had no lefs a trumpet to their name. 
Than Cicero, whofe very breath was fame : 
How can fo great example die in me. 
That, Alleyn, I (hould paufe to publifli thee ? • , 
Who, both their graces, in thyfelf haft more . 
Outftrip'd, than they did all who went before : 
And prcfent worth, in all doft fo contrail. 
As others fpake, but only thou doft zSt ; 
jonfoD^a Wear this renown : 'tis juft that who did give. 

n«to6. S9. So many poets life, by one fliould live. 

Haywood, in his prologue to Marloc's Jew of Malfa, cziU 
him Proteus for ihapes^ and Rofcius for a tongue. He ufually 
played the capital parts, and was one of the original aSor* 
in Shakefpearc's plays 5 in fopic of jjen Jonfon's he was affo 

A L L E Y N. i^j 

i principal performer: but what charaders he perfonated in. 
neither of tbefe poets, is difHcultnow to determine. This isow- 
HDg to the inaccuracy of their editors, who did not print the ^ 
[names of the players oppofite to the charaders they perforno* 
led, as the modern cuftom is, but gave one general lift of 
afiors to'the whole fet of plays, as in the old folio edition of 
Shakefpeare; or divided one from the other, fetting the dra- 
matis perfonae before the plays, and the catalogue of per- 
formers after them, as in Jonfon's. , 

It may appear furprizing, how one of Mr. AUeyn's pro- 
|!eQion (hould be enabled to ere£l fuch ati edifice as Dulwich 
; College, and liberally endow it for the maintenance of fo 
many perfons. But it muft be obferved that he had fome ' 
paternal fortune, which, though fmall, might lay a founda- 
tion for his future affluence ^ and it is to be prefumed that 
the profits he received from afting, to one of his provident 
and managing difpdfition, and one who by his excellence in 
playing drew after him fuch crowds of ipedators, muft have 
confiderably improved his fortune : befides, he was not only 
an af^or, but mafter of a playhoufe, built at his ownexpence, 
by which he is faid to have amafied confiderable wealth [a ]• 
He was alfo keepei: of the king's wild beafts, or mafter of the 

[a! This was the Fortune pTay-houfc, *^ half as populous, yet then the prices 
Kar white-crefs-ftreet, by Mooriields. *< were facially there being no fcenes } 
There is a tradition in the neighbour- '< and better order kept amongft the 
hood of this place, that in digging the " company that came, which made very 
feondation of this houff, there was found " good people think i play an innocent 
a canfiderable^ treafiire; fe that it is *' diverfion for an idle hour or two, the 
Ppbable the whole or greateft part of it '* plays themfelvea being then more in- 
nightfall to Mr* Alleyn. At this time ** ftruflive and moral t whereas of lace 
they always aAed by day-light, and they '* the ptayhoufes arefo extremely pefier- 
had neither icines nor adrefles. Sir ' ** ed with vizard ma/kt, tod their trade 
^Uiam Davenant opened the duke of *' occafioning continual quarrels and 
; York's theatre in 1662, with his play " abufes, that many of the' more civi« 
cf the Siege of Rhodes, and then it was << lized part of the town are oneafy in 
tlucfcenet firft appeared. About the '< the company, and Oiun the theatre as 
6aie time two women-players were fir/l *' they would a houfe of fcandal. It is Sit 
iatroduced, 'who grew (o expert, not '' argument of the worth of (he plays aa4' 
n^yin their own parts, but thofe of the " players of the laft age, and eaAly in- 
tAors, that before the end of king '* iPerred that they wece much beyond 
Charles irs reign. Tome plays (particu- *' ours in this, to confider that thcf 
Itfly the Paribn*s Wedding) were a£^ed '* could fopport themfelves merely from 
wholly by women. At the time of the *' their own merit, the weight of the 
^«tuK playhoufe, there were four ^' matter, and the goodnefs of the adlioiiy - 
companies more, who all got money, " without fcenes and machines ; where- ' 
>ad lited in repvcatibn* Mr. Lang* *' as the prefent plays, with all their 
^^ioci in aniwer to the qucflion. How " fliow, can hardly draw an audience^ 
five companies could then be maintained ". unlefs there be the additional invUa- 
hy the town, when in his thne two could ** tion of a fignior Fideli, a moofieur ' 
BuMyfabfiftf has^made the following ** TAbbe, or fome fuch foreign regale ' 
J^Ji I. ** That though the town was " expreffed in the bills.*' .Langbaiae*« 
^ ^vk f erfaaps not nnich moie than Hifioiia Hifirionicay oQaTO, i^Zt 

• royal* 


A L L E y N. 

royal bear-gaf den, wliich was frcquientcd by vaft crowds ot| 
fpedlators ; and the profits arifing from thefe (ports are faiaj 
to have amounted' to five hundred pounds per annum. Hp ! 
was thrtce married ^ and the portions of his two firft wivesj^ 
tftey leaving him no ilTue to inherit, might probably contri- 
bute to thls*benefa£lion. Such kind of donations have been 
frequemly' thought toproceed more from vanity and oftenta- 
tion th^n'real piety \ but this of Mr. Alleyn has been aA^rib- 
ed to a very fingular caufe,' for the deyi! has been faid to, be 
Nat. Hift. the firft promoter of it. Mr. Aubrey mentions, a tracHtion^ 
of Surry,'^* ** ^^^^ ^'"« Alleyn playing a demon with fix others, in one 
wl.i.p.190.** of Shake fpeare's plays, was^ in the midd of the play, fur- 
•* prized by an apparition of ihe devil ; which fo worked on 
*♦ his fancy, that he made a vow, which he performed by 
*' building Dulwich College." He began the foundation of* 
this'college, under the direction of Inigo Jones, in 1614 j 
arid the buildings, gardens, &c. were finilhedMn ibiy^io^ 
which* he is faid* to have expended about 10,000 1. After 
the college was'biiilt, he met with fome difficulty in obtain- 
ing a charter ifor fettling' his lands in nidrtmain'; fotr be 
pofed to endow it with 8000 1. per annum, for the mainte- 
nance of one maft'er, one warden, and four fellows, three 
whereof were to be clergymen, and the fourth a flcilful or- 
ganift; alfo. fix poor men, and as many, women, be/ides 
twelve poor boys, to be educated till the age of fourteen or 
fikteen, and then piit out to fome trade or calling. The ob- 
firu£lion he met with, arcfe from the lord ch&ncellor Bacon,* 
who wilhed king James to fettle part of thofe lands for the 
fiipport of two academical' le£iures ; and he wrote ajetter to 
the marquis of Buckingham^ dated A^guft 18, 1618, entreat* 
ing him to ufe his intercft with his majefty for thatpiir- 
pofe [b]* Mr. Alleyn's rollicitation was' however at lad co(n<* 

Annals of 

[b] The letter it ai follours? «« X 
*• now write to give the king an account 
of a patent 1 have i^ayed at the feal : 
it 13 o^ licence to give in mortmain 
eight hundred pound land, though it 
be of tenure in chief, to Allen that 
was the p!ayer, far an hofpitai, X 
like well that Allen playeth the laft 
zOl of hia life fo well ; but if his ma- 
'< jefly give away thus to amortize his 
tenures, his couit of wards will decay j 
which 1 had well hoped ibould im- 
pruve. Bu^ that which moved me 
chiefly, is that his majeAy now lately 
" ^d. abfoluteiy deny fir Henry Saviie 
'* for two hundred pounds* and fir £d« 
'* ward 'Sandys for one huji4ted pounds. 





to the perpetoating of two leflowij 

the one in Oxford, the other in Cum* 

bridgi*, foundations 'of fingolal* h<>- 

nour to his majefty, and of which 

there is great want ; whereat hofpi- 

tals abound, and beggars abound nerc^ 

a whit the lefs. It his ma|efty d« like 

to pafs the book at all, jet if 1»« 

would be pleafed to abridge the eigbt 

hundred ponnds to 6ve hundred 

pounds, and then give way (o- t^e 

other two books for the univerfityi it 

were a princely wotk j and I WOoi<l 

*< make an h«mhle fuit to the king* *^ ' 

•* defire your lordihip to join in it, t&»^ 

.« itmightbeffri" The Wprks^^f Fran* 

cis Lord Bacooi vol* iv« fol. 1740* P* ^'5* 

' plied 




A L L E Y Nl j^ 

^ied with, ani) he obtained theroyUIiteikre, giving hitM* ftill 

power to.lay his'foun'dation, by bis nrajeftyVletters- {Mitent^ 

bearing date the '2ift^of Jimr, i6l^; by virtue" wbctcof^ her 

iidy in Che chapel of thcfard new bt^fftital at Duiw1ch,> call^d^' , 

'* The CoUegc^of Gt)d'>s:Gift," on the 13th of Sept^nrbef 

Following, publicly read and.publiihed aquadripartiti wriffng^ 

in parchment, whereby he created aiid eflabliflied the faid''*»^F«7^5« 

college ; he then fubfcribcd-tt with his name, and fixed -hia" 

Teal to. Several pa?ts thereof, in prefence of fcveral hcvnoiir^bl^' 

perfonsy and ordered copies of the writings to four diffbfeht* 

pariflies [c]. He was himfeif thefilrft mafirer of h1^ college^ ' 

fot that to niake^ufex>f the words of Mr. Haywood, one of his * 

cootemporariesy ** He was fo mingled with humility aifid'^ 

** charity, .tha» he became his own' penfioner, humbly fub- 

[c] Tfaofe hcnourablfl perfons w«re provide a dinner for the coRegeo^o hii 

Fiancis I«rd VeruJaiDy lord chancellor; ele£lion« 17* The form of admitting 

Thomas earl of Arundel, earl mar(hal th,e fellows. 18. The manner of ele ft- 

of BngUnd ; fir Edward Cecil, ^ frcond -in^ tKe fcKoUrt. 19, Eledton of't^ie 

foQCothe earlof BxeteH) fir John How- poor of CambenweU. ao« The maftcf' 

land, high iherifFof SufTex and Surtyj. and, warden*^ oath. ii. The fellows 

fir Edward Bo wye r,' of Camberwell j {\t oath. az. The poor brothers and fifters' 

Thomas Grymet;- of Peekhrani ( fir* oath. 93. The afliftantt oath. . 24^ 

Joba Bodly» of' Stretham j fir John The pronunciation of admiifion. x^ 

Tonfta]^ of Carlhalton ; and divers other The mafier^s office. 26. The warden's 

perfons of great worth and fefpcd; The" offitfe, 2^. 'The fellows office. 2?/ 

pariihes in whkhr .xfae lai(d writings were The pbor brothers and? fiAers office. 29* > 

dnofited, were -St. ^Botolph^s without That of the matron of the poor fcholart* 

Biihops.gate,St.Giles*8 without Cripple* 30. The porter*s office. 31. The office 

gate^ St. Saviour'a in Southwark, and of the thirty members; 32. Of reG- • 

the^parlOiofCatoberwcil in Surry. The dence. 33. Orders <of the poor and'tfaeir' 

contcnta or heads of the faid fiatutes, or |oods. 34. Of Obedience. 35-. Orders * 

quadripartite writings containing {the for the chapel and burial. 36. Orders 

lawk and^rules of this -foundarioD, areas for the fchool and fcholars, and putting^ 

folbw a I. A 'recital of king' Jadies't them forth apprentices. 37.- Order of 

Ictttra patent. txRscital of thefouo*' diet. 38. The fcholars furpUces and 

de/'s deed quadripartite. 3. Ordina* coats. 39. Time for viewing expences* 

tion of the mafter, 'warden^Z&c. 4. Or* 40. Public audit and private fitting days* 

diiiMaon of thp afil^ntt-nembcrs, Sea 41. Aoditandfittingehamber. 42. Of 

5.:The maAer .and warden«^to be un- lodgings, 43. Orders for the lands and * 

narriedy. and always to be of the name woods. 44. Allowance to the mafler 

of >Al(tyn or Allen. 6* The mafter and aAd warden of diet for one man a piece, * 

vrsrdrit to be twenty-one years of age at with the number and wages of the coU.- 

kaA. 7. Of what degree the fellows to lege fervants. 45. Difpofition and divi* 

be. 2. Of what degree the poor brothers fion of the revenufs. 46. Difpofuion of 

and fiflers to be. 9. Of what condition the rent of the Blue-houfe. 47. The' 

the poor feho^s are to be. 1 o^ Of what poor to be admitted out of other places, 

P«uiJ9ies the afliftants are to be. ii« in cafe of deficiency in the pariflies pre- 

From what par:ihes tht poor' are to be fcribed. 48. The difpofuion of for-* 

cbofen, andtkomembersof this college, feitures. 49. The fiatutet to be re*d ' 

lis The form 0/ their eletiion* 13. orer four fcveral times in the year. 50* 

'^he warden tofopply v>htn the mailer's The difpofitions of certain tenements in 

pl>ce h void. 14. The ele<riion of the St. Saviour^s parifh Southwark. Stowe^t 

viideir. 15* The waiden to be bound Surrey, p. 759, 760. 
^.mpioi^aocci 1 6* The warden (• / 

* « mitting 

176 ALLEY N. 

TbeAaor*8ci D^illiifg hithfelf to thit proportion of diet and cloltlil^; 
^"'*^^?'" which be had beftowcd on others/* Wc have no rcafon id 
^^ * think he ever repented of this diftribution of his fubftancej'_ 
but on the contrary, that be was entirely fatisfied^ a» appears - 
from the following memorial in his own writing, found 
amongft bis papers : *' May a6, i620> my wife and I ac^* ' 
*^ knowiedged the fine at the common pl^as bar, of all our 
*' lands to the college : blefled be God that he has given us 
** life to do it." His wife died iit the year 1623 : and about 
two years afterwards he married Conftance Kinchtoe, who 
furvived him, and received remarkable proofs of his afieSion, 
if at leaft we may judge of it by his will, wherein he left her 
conliderabiy. He died Nov* 25, 1626, in the 6ift year of 
bis age, and was buried in the chapel of his new college, 
where there is a tomb-ftone over bis grave, with an Infcrip^ 
tion. His original Diary is alfo there preferved. 

tteovetfefl . ALLIX (P^ter), an eminent proteflant divine^ born iii 
^tww""! France, at Alen^on, 1641, where he received a liberal edu- 
P.2S6I cation. He became minifter of the reformed church at 
Ilouon, where he~ published, many learned and curious pieces. 
His great reputation induced the reformed to call hitn from 
Rouen to Charenton, which was the principal church they 
li(ad in France; the village lies about a league from Baris, at 
theconflueAceof'the rivers Seine and Marne, and to this 
place the moft confiderable perfons in France, of.tliepro- 
teflant religion, conftantly reforted. Here he preached 
many excellent fermons in defence of the proteftant religion^ 
which were afterwards printed in Holland. Upon the revo- 
cation of the edid of Nantes, he found himfelf oUi^ td 
I quit France : he had prepared a moft pathetit dlfcburfe^ 

I which he intended to have delivered as a farewell to his cdri- 

I gVcgation, which however he was obliged to omit; but th^ 

! fermon was afterwards printed. In 1685, by the advice of 

'1 his friends, hi retired into England, where he met M^ith a 

i, inoft favourable reception, on account of his extenfive learn* 

\ ing, and fingular knowledge in ecclefiaftical hiftory. Upon 

his arrival here, be applied very clofely to the fiudy of the 
£ngli(h language, which he attained to a great degree of 
perfection, as appeared by a book he publifhed in defence of 
the Chriftian religion, dedicated to king Jaole^ II. acknoW-^ 
ledging his obligations to that prince, and his kind behaviour 
to the dillrefled refugees in general. He Was footi compH^ 
snented with t\ie degree of do£tor in divinity, and ia 1690 
bad the treafurerlkip of the ehurch of Sali(bury given bim* 

A L L i Xi tjf 

Ke irrotii in Engll& (bveral treatifes relating to eotk(tal}ictl 
Uflory, which proved very ufefai to the proteftaat caufe \ 
liid in a ihort time became as famous in England as he had 
keen \a France, for his ingenious and (olid defences of thtf 
teformed religion. Hedi<sd at LohdoO) Feb, ai, ly^iji ill 
the leventy-fixth year of his age. 

His works are very nutiierous iind entirely theologicah 
rbe aioft ufeful of them perhaps is, '^ The Refie£lions upoti 
^ the books of Holy Scripture, to eftablidi the ttuth of the 
^« Chriftian Religion,'' pub)ifhed at London, 1688, in t#d 
rols. 8vo. This is the treatife that was dedicated to king 
fames. Healfo publiihed, in 1690, ** Some Remarks upon 
'^ the Ecclefiaftical Hiftory of the ancient Cburch<*s of Pied« 
^ mont,^' 4to. He dedicates this work to king William^ 
indpays him very high compliments on his seal tor the Pro- 
Icftant Religion : *< to fupport and dei^nd wbith,^' he tells 
kim, *' Gcd had raifed his majefty tip in that critical coh^ 
^ junaurc.*' 

ALMELOVEEN, (Theodorus JansoniOs a6), a 
ktrned man, whofe name ought to be preferved for tht 
fervices he hath done to gOod letters^ was prdfeilbr of the 
preek lahguage, of hiftory, and of phytic, at Hardei-wick 
in Hollahd, He hath written notes upon foihe of the 
mcient authors, and among the reft hath given ati edi- 
tion of CeifuSi He was the atithdr of feveral other works, 
the chief of which are, ii**De vitis Stephatiorum." ^•N^oatbld 
" Onomafticon rei»uni invtritarum/* 3, ** Amcenitates/'Hift. Amft* 
4* *^ Fafti Confulares,*' &c. He died at Amfterdam in 1742* i774« 

ALPHONSUS. Set Castile^ 

ALPINI (PROSt^Btto)^ a fartious phyfician and botatiift^ 
born the a3d of November, ISS3» .at Maroftica, in the re- 
pttblic of Venice. In his earl/ years he was inclined to th# 
profeffion of arms, and accordingly fervcd in the Milanefei 
out being at length perfUaded by his fathisr, who was a phy- 
fician, to apply himfelf to learning, he went to Padua, where 
itt a little time he was chofen deputy to the Vector, and fyndicMemoTwt 
to the ftudents, which offites he dtlcharged with great pru-desHomiiMa 
dence and addrefs« This, however, did not hinder him from *'*^'**]^*» 
purfuing bis ftudy of phyfsc, for he was admitted dodor^'^'^^^J' 
thereof in 1578. Nor did he remain long without pra£i;ice^ 
for he was (boh after invited to Campo San Pietro, a little 
^ovn in the territories of Padua. But fucb a fituation was 

VoXt !• N too 

178 A L P I N 1. . 

too confined for on6 of his exteofive views; he was defiroif^' 
of gaining a knowledge of exotic plants, and thought the be(t 
way to fncceed in his enquiriesy was, after Galen's examplet : 
to vifit the countries where they grow. He foon had an op- 
portunity of gratifying his curiofity; for George Emo, or 
Hemi, being appointed conful for the republic of Venice in' 
Egypt, chbfe him for his phyfician. They left Venice the 
1 2th of September, 1580 ; and, after a tedious and dangerous' 
voyage, arrived at Grand Cairo the beginning of July the' 
year following. Alpini continued three years in this country, 
where beooaitted no opportunity of improving his knowledge 
in botany. He travelled along the banks of the river Nile, 
and went as far as Alexandria, a|)d other parts of Egyp^, 
qonfulcing every perfon who could give any account of what^ 
]bU.p.x77,he was delirous to know. None of Alpini's contemporaries 
underftood properly the dodirine of the generation of plants; \ 
but he fettled the matter beyond difpute : he allures us, ^^ chat 
AlpinsDe " the female date-trees, or palms, do not conceive or bear J 
P'*°|'* '^** fruit, unlefs fome one mixes the branches of the male and 
' */ female together ^ or, as is generally done, inilead of mix- 
^ ing the branches, to take the duft found m the malefiieath^' 
*' or the male iJowcrs, and fprinklc them over the females." 
Upon Alpini's return to Venice, in 1586, Andrea Doria, 
prince of Melfi, appointed him hia phyfician ; and he diftin- 
guiflied himfelf fo much in this capacity, that he wasefteem- 
ed the firfl: phyfician of his age. The republic of Venice 
began to be uneafy, that a fubjedi of theirs, of fo mu^cb merit 
sis Alpini, fliould continue at Genoa, when he might be of 
very great fervice and honour to their Oate : they therefore, 
recalled him in I593> to fill the profeflbrfhip of botany at 
Padua, and he had a fatlary of two hundred florins, whkh 
was afterwards raifed to feven hundred and fifty. He dif- 
charged this office with great reputation ; but his hcaJth he- j 
came very precarious, having been much broke by the voy- 
ages he had made. According to the regifters of the univer-' 
fuy of Padua, be died the 5th of February, 1617, in thp 
facty-fourth year of bis age, and w^s buried the day after, 
without any funeral pomp, in the church of St. Anthony [a]. 

[a] Alpini left the following works: " apud ^gyptios frequeotloribas elo- 

1, ** De incdicina ^gypfiorum, libri " cefcunt." 
•** iv. in quibus multa cum dc vario 2. *• De plantlf iBgypti- Hber, is 

\. ** ii»tt«ndi faogiiinis ufu per venaf, ar- " quo iion paoci, qoi cirta herbartjof 

" terias, cucurbituias^ ac fcaiihctioijes " niaieriam mepl'rrunt, eriofcs deprc- 

•'' Doflns inuHtatas, deque inurtionibus ** bemiunrur, , quorum caufa hade/iufr 

*' et alKs chirorgicis opdrationib % •* mufta medicamenta' ad ufum meii* 

^. IMB ic quampluiimis liiedtcaaientis ** cinss ^dxaodom eipeiend^y pleriff*'^' 

A L P i N f . . ij9 

•* thedicoriim non fine artif ja£^ura oc- 5, " De medicina inethodica \Vdji 

*• culta atqucoHfoleta jacuerunt." Vc- ** tredecim, in quibus mcdcndi ara me- 

Bicf^ 1592^ qttanto, " thodica vocaU oHoi maxinne Celebris, ^ 

3. *" De b^i'fjiiTio ciialogus, in quo ve- *< qtis hac aeta^e non fine magno ftudio• 
*' rifljma b**Iidmi plantsp, opobalfami ** fo;um med'cinse et dedecoreet 'iamno 
** carpobaUami^ ft xytobaifamf cognifio ** plane defitfte vifa eft, dMioo rcftkui- 
** pletilijue antiqiM>rum aicjue }unior(im. " tur, . atque in medicoraro commodo'oi 
" medicoruro occulta, nunc eiucdfcit*** *^ quadaoteous ad medicinam dogmati* 
"Venice, i 592,10 quarro. ** cam conformatur.** t^adua, 1611, fo- 

4. *• De prtefagienda vita et niOfte lio ; Leyden, 17I9, qustrto. 

" a?groCantium iibri vii,.in quibus art 6, ** De rspbootico d'lfputAtto itt 

" tora Hypocratica pfsedicendi in vgrotis '< gymnafio Haravino habi;a, in qua 

** varies ir.orb >runn evenius. Cum ex ve- " raphontici planta, quam ha£lenui 

*' terum medicortim dogm^tis, tthn ex *' null! viderimt, inedicihae ftudiofis '6b 

" looga accurat-que obfe^vatioi^ nova " oculos potiituc, ipfiuii^uc cognitio adU 

" metbodo elucelcit." Venice, .1631, ** curanusexpeDdiluratqueproponitur." 

^narto, Padua, 1.^12, and 1619, quarto. 

The vpr Iters of the" Ada crdditorUm'* 7. «* De plantis exoticii libH doo.*' 

at Leipfic are of opinion^ that this is the Vv'^nice, 1699, in qtiartOj This work 

beft book vihich phyficians can read, ia was not publiihed, till about twelve 

order to qualify them for the p'radlice years after the death of the author, by 

of phyfic. W« ar6 not altogether of his fon Alpiho Alpin!. 

this opinion; however /hail content oar. Alpini Mi ieveral other wnrlc«, 

felves wi'iiobTervlng, thafhis prrTiging whi:h have never been printed, parti^M- 

fpirit upon thfe living and dying 6f /Ta- Jarly, 

ttents fhould be exercifed, in the way of ' i. **De -tnedicina ^gyptiorutn libe^ 

cooimuxxication at l«aft, with wondetful *• quijitus.** •, 

icfcrve and caution j fmce it is notori- 2, '* De natufali rerum in i^^gyptd 

•us, that thfe want of prudence in this *^ obfervatarum hiftoria ilbri v. variia 

regard hath occftfioned many an eminent ^* ptantarum, lapidum, ee animalittni 

pHyHcian to look exiremcly fi&alt) as is " icorjlbus exortiati^*' .. 
Vulgarly fdld, 

ALREDtJS, Alfredu's,. or Aluredus, an ancient pits, tje i(j 
Enolifli hiftorian- was born at Beverley in Yorkfhire, and*"^'^'-AngI. 
ieceived his education at Cambridcje* He returned after-i^ f'P . p. 

A 2^?MHa 

wards to the place of his nativity, where he betame a fecular. 
prieft-, one of the canons^ and treafurer to the church dedicated 
to St. John of Beverley. According to Bale and Pits, ha^^i^l* 
flourifhed* under king Stephen, and continued his annals to 
the year \ I 36. Voflius is fuppofcd to come hearer the truth* 
^ho tells us that he flouriftied in the reign of Henry I. and 
died in 1126. in w|iich fame year ended his annals. His hif- 
tbry, however, agrees with honeof thefe authorsj and it f^PniJvoflias De 
probable ffOfh thence, that he died in 1 128 or i 129. He in-Hi/i. Lat. 
tended at firft flo more than an abridgment of the hiftory ofedit- 1674^ 
the ancient Britons ; but a defire of purfuing' the thread of 
his ftory I^ him to add the Saxon, and then the Norman 
hirtory^ and at length' he brought it down to his own times* 
This of our .hiftory from Brutus to Henry I. is m 

adeemed a valuable performance; it is written in Latin, iii 
a cbncifeapd elegant ftyle, with gre^t perfpicuity, and a ftriSE 
attention to dates and authorities : the authch- has been nof 

* N 2 improperly 

iSo A L R P P U S. 

iQPproperly ftyled our ^xigliih Florus ; hJs plan and executiott 
very much refeoibling ihat of tjhe Roman hiftorian. It h 
ibmewhat furprizing that Leiand has not givm him a^ace 
amongft the Britifli writers : the reafon feems to have fa^eeil 
that Leiand, through a miAakc, Gonfiders him only as the 
author of an abridgment of GcofFrev of Monmouth's hiftory; 
but moft of the ancient writers naving placed Geoffrey's 
hidory later in point of time than that of Alredus, we have 
reafon to conclude that Alredos compofed his compendium be- 
fore he ever faw the hiftory of Geoffrey. We have alio the 
authority of John Withamfted, an ancient wriier of the 
fifteenth century, who, fpeaking of our author, fays, that be 
wrote a chronicle of what happened from the fettlement of 
Brutus to the time of the Normans, in which he alfo treated 
of the cities anciently founded in this kingdom, and men- 
tioned the names by which London, Canterbury, and York 
were called in old times, when the Britons inhabited them* 
^id» This teftimony agrees exafily wi|h the book, as we now 
have it. Some other pieces have been afcribed to Atredus ; 
))ut this hiftory, and that of St* John of Beverley, fcem to 
have been all that he wrote. This laft performance was 
never printed, but it is to be found in the Cotton liBraiy, 
though not fet down in the catalogues, as being contained lit 
a volume of trads : it is intitled M Libertates ecclefise S« 
^* Jobannis de Beverlik, cum privilegiis apoftolicis et epifco« 
*^ palibus, quas magifier Alueredus facrifta ejufdem ecclefiar, 
*' de Analico in Latinum trahftulit : iji hoc tradatulo dantur 
'< cartas Saxonicae RR. Adelitani, Eadwardi Confeflbris, et 
<* Willeimi, quas fecerunt eidem ecclefiae, fed iihperito ex- 
*« fcriptore mendofe fcriptx. The Liberties of the Church 
** of St. John of Beverley, with the Privileges granted by 
<< the Apoftolic See, or by Bifhops, tranflatecTout of Saxon 
*• into Latin, by Matter Alurcd, Sacritfof the faid Church," 
|n this Treatife is contained the SaxOn Charters of the Icings 
Adelftan, Edward the Confeffor, and William the Con- 
queror, granted by them to this Churchy but, through want 
of ikill in the Tranfcriber, full of miilakes. Mr, Hearqe 
publlfhed an edition of Alredus's Annals of theBritiih H^lory, 
at Oxford, iri 1716, with a preface of bis own. 

Anecdotet ALSOP ( Anthony), was educated at Weftminfter fchoof, 

S^ICcho/* ?ncJ thence elefled to Chrift-church, Oxford, where he too<f 

^ ^"^ the degree of M. A. March 23, 1696, and of B. D, Dec* 

|2, 1706. On his coming to the univeriity, he was very fooq 

diftin^uilhed by Dean Aldricb^ and publiibed ^« Fabularum 

*' wEfopicaruoi 

• AL sd F. lit 

• ^^pitarumf Deleftils, Oxoh, 1698,** 8vo. wiih a poe- 
tical dedication to Lord Vifcount Scudimore, and a preface 
ifi wht^h' h^ toolc paVt agalAfl: Dr. Qentley in the famous dir- 
fifte with' Ml". BoyliE<. Hepafled through the ufu^I oAces ih 
W College to that of Cenfor, with confiderablfe reputation ; 
ij^d fol*' fome years.hadthe principal noblemen and gent1em*en 
belonging^ to the fociety comibitted to his care. In this ufeful 
enij^loyment he contiiiuiid till hrs merit recommended him to 
fir Jonathan TrelaT^neyi Bi(hop of Wincheftcr, who appointed 
him his chaplain, and foon after gave him a prebend in His 
own cathedral, together with the redory of Brightvt^l, in 
the county of Berks^ which afforded him ample provifion for 
a learned retirement, from which he could not be drawn by 1 

the repeated follcitations of thofe Who thought him qualified 
for a more public character and a higher ftation* In the year 
1717 an aflion was brought againft him by Mrs. Elizabeth 
AArey of Oxford, for a breach of a marriage contrail ; and 
^ verdid obtained againft htm for loool. which probably 
occasioned him to leave the kingdom for fome time [a]. How 
long thb exile lafled is unknown 4 but his death happened, 
June ID, 1726, and was occafioned by bis falling into a 
ditch that led to his garden-dbor, the path being narrow, 
atid part of it giving way. A quarto volume of his was pub- 
Vilhcd in 1^52, by the late Sir Francis Bernard; under ihfe 
title of »* Antourii Alfopi, Mdis Chrifti olim Alumni, OdaVdrri 
" libri duo." Four EngliQi poems of his arc in Dodfley's 
CoU^&ion, one in Fcarch's, feveral in the early volumes of 

[a J In «n Ode toDr, Kcill, on that ftanzat arc fotnewhat cfcxang^d in " Th« 
S^mleiDAii^ marriage, of whkh the ^< Student,'* he fay;, 

** I, who, bard fate ! am forc'd to rove 

'^ True to my nuptial vows, 
'* And Jeave my country out of love^ 

*< An f xile for my fpuure ; 

«' Fain would J hrar the jeftsvthat paft, 

** The m^rch that's made on me| 
** Fain would partake the circHng glaG, 

** And vent my wit on thee. ^ 

** But I, by Heaven's detiee, remain 

*• Bleft on a foreign ftiore, 
*< And hourly focb dcl'.ghts obtain^ 

<' I nred not wiHl for more* 

*< Me a kind wife*e embraces chear, 

'* A lonely creature ttie ; 
" Nor can the fun find out a pair 

•• More bap*iy joln'd than we*'* 

N 3 thc^ 

>5a . ALSO P. 

thp Gentleman's Magazine [b], and fome in ** The 9tu^ 
•* dent.*' He feems to have been a pleafant and facetious 
companion, not rigidly bound by the cramo^els of his pro* | 
fellion I and docs not appear to have publidicd any Ser- 
mons, — Mr. Alfop is refpcfifully mentioned by the facetipus 
Dr. King of the Commons (vol. L p. 236.), as having. en- 
riched the commonwealth of learning, by *' Tranflations of 
** Fables from Greek, ficbrew, and Arabic;'* and not le(s 
detradtingly by Dr. Bentley, under the nait;e of " Tony 
** Alfop, 9 late editor of the^fopcan Fables," 

(p] Particularly in 1735, p. 384, an «• years.*' In the fannc volume is a 

Ode (with a tian(1-tion) to the Rev., fine Latin Verfion of the'* Te Deum." 

Sir John Dolbrn, which drdarethis love In 1737^ p. 631, feme coi»jplif»ent« a»e 

iqr tobacco and a iru? poetical inc'o- paid tohimin" Ode ab Amico Percivalli 

Jcnce ; Sappho rfpro?ching him , as "a " con^cripta, qua noperis Aiiopi ixiep- 

'* truant bard, who had fcarcfly paid ♦* tii^refpondetiir.*' 
** fpi^r cSieriogs to the Mufes in three 

ALSTEDIU3 (Johk-Henry), a German proteftant di- 
vine, fome tima proteflbr of philofophy and divinity at Her-' 
born in the county of NaiTau, afterwards profeiTor at Alba 
^itte,D:ar.j^jjjia in Tranfylvania, where he continued till his death, 
foarHi^ ' which happened 163^, in hjs fiftieth year. He applied him-- 
felf chiefly 10 compofe methods, and to reduce the feveral 
branches qf arts and fciences into fyftems. His " Encydo- 
*« paedia" has been much efteemed even by Roman catholics ; 
it was printed at Lyons, and fold very well throughout all 
France. His ** Thefaiirus Chronologicus" is by fome efteemed 
one of his heft works, though others fpeak of it with con- 
tempt. VoUlus mentions the** Encyclopaedia" in general, but 
De Sclent, fpeaks of his tfeatife " Of Arithmetic" more particularly, and 
p. 3^6.'"' allows the author to have been a man of great reading and 
univcrfal learning, Baillet has the following quotation from 
a German author, in regard to this writer; *' Alftedius Im 
*« indeed many good thing?, but be is not fuf^ciently accu- 
** rate ; neverthelefs his '' Encyclopsedia" was received with 
** general applaijfe, when it firft appeared ; and may be of 
" ufe to thofe who, being deilitute of other helps, and no| 
** having the authors, are defirous of acquiring fome know- 
** ledge of the terms of each profeilion and ftience. Nor can 
♦* we praife too much his patience and labour, his judgement, 
*f and his choice of .good authors j and the abftrafts he has 
made are not merefcraps and unconncdled rhagfodies,fincc 
he digefts the principles of arts and fciences into a regular 
?* and uniformorder. Some parts are indeed better than other5, 
If (o^nc being infignificant anfl of little value,as his hiftory and 
' ' ' ** chronolo^Jf* 

A L S T E D I U S. iSi 

** chronology. It mull be allowed too, that he is often con^ 

*' fufed by endeavouring to be too clear ; that he is too full of 

*^ dtvilions and fubdividons ; and that he aiFedts too con- 

** firained a method." Lorenzo Braflb Cdys, ** that though 

*^ there is more labour than genius in Alfledius's works, yet 

*' they are efteemed, and his induftry being admired, has 

** gained him admittance into the temple of fame." Alfte- 

dius, in his " Triumphus Biblicus," endeavours to prove, 

that the materials and principles of all the arts and fcienc^s 

may be ft)und in the Scriptures j but he gained very few to his 

opinion. John Himmelius wrote a piece againft his " Theo- 

•*• logia Polemica," which was one of the bed performances 

of AUtedius. We muft not omit, that he was a millcnarian, 

having publifhed in 1672, a trcatife iniitled " De mille 

*' annis," wherein he aflerts that the faithful (hall reign 

with Jefus Chrift upon earth a thoufaod years; after which 

will be the general refurre<Stion, and the laft judgement ; and 

he pretended that this reign would commence in the year 


ALTILIUS (Gabriel), a Neapolitan of the 14th cen- 
tury, was chiefly efteemed for his Latin poetry, which con- 
tributed to his advancement at the court of Ferdinand king 
of Naples: for at this court there ftill remained fomewhat 
of the good tafte, which had been introduced there in the 
leign of Alphonfo^ He was appointed preceptor to the 
young prince Ferdinand ; and was employed alfo in ftate 
affairs^ having accompanied Jovian Pontanus to Rome, upon 
a negociation of peace between king Ferdinand and popexraftaf. de 
Innocent VIII. fontanus had a great friendfhip and affec- Magnificenr, 
lion for Altilius, as appears from his works: Sannazarius hasEleg. u. 
alfo given him marks of efteem in his poems. Bafil Zan-I.*''.' '7- .. 
chius and John Matthaeus Tufcanus have likewife paid him P'6'a«)-v"» 
feveral compliments in their works. The poem called 
•^ Epithalamium," which Altilius compofed on the marriage 
of iiabelia of Arragon, is accounted one of the fineft of his 
poems, though Julius Scaliger thinks there is too great a 
profufion of thought and cxpreflion in this performance : 
*' Gabriel Altilius," fays he, *^ compofed an excellent epi-Poeticet, 
** thalamiuniy which would have been ftill better had be re-^^**- ^'• 
" ftraincd his genius; but by endeavouring to fisy every^^^ ■ 
** thing iippn the fubje<3, he difgufts the reader as muchiii 
•* fome places, as he gives him pleafure inVbthers : he fays 
•* too much, which is a fault peculiar to his nation, for in all 
" ihAt tra£t of Italy fhey have a continual defire!of talking.^* 

N'4 IK 

|84 A L T I L I U S. 

It may fPP^^r fomewbat Airprizitig, thit his Latin po< 
(hould have rai/ed hiqii to the dignity of a prelate; jet it cer« 
tainly did, in a grcat'cneafure, to the bifliopric of Po{fcaftr( 
Some have reproached him for neglecting the Mufes afcei 
bis preferment^ thdqgh they had proved fo fervfceabte u 
bim in acquiring it: *^ When he was made bif&op/* Taj 
Paulus Jovius, ^^ he foon and impudently left the muies,. b/i 
** whofe means be had been promoted : a mod heinous in«^*' 
9* gratitude, unlefs we excufe him from the conrideratton at 

Paol jov. ** his order, which obliged him to apply to the ftudy of the 

f log. cap. « holy Scriptures [a]." 

f#p. 155. The abbot Ughclli fays that Altiltus died in the year 
1484 ; but Mr. Bayle proves this to be a miftake» and that 
he did not die till about the year i^qu The ^ Epithaia-' 
mium'' is only to be met with in the colledion of Gruterus, 
intitled, ^^ Dtlicise C C. Italorum poetarum/' and the 
^^ Carmlna iliufirium poetarum Italonurn" of John Matthseus 
Tufcanus : mod of bis ocher verfcs arc fuppofed to be loft. 

[a] Bayleis of opinion, that Paul ** that A'nlius it guiltj of the defer* 

Jovius wai mii^sken in preteodrng that " tipn with which be it cbergtd.** He 

Al'ilius left off writing upon his pro- wai madea bifliop in 1471, and'tbebeft 

motion to the bifhopric, fiace his *' £pi« of all htf poems wat compofed after tbii 

** thalamtom** on IfabeiU of Arragoot time 9 oogbt y/e then to eoqDplaia tbe> 

tbefincftof his poems was written after the mitre ii^ede him abandon Pvoa^nt, 

hit advancement. '* I mtke no doobt/* He wrote thit ** EpithalamiuiOy** not 

fays be, ** but this Ifabella is (be who at the time of thecontraA, bvt upon the 

** was centra£led the i(k of November, nuptialtof Ifabella of Apragpii» that si^ 

<* X473» ^^ J^hn Galeas Sforaa Dulie in the year 1489. This is pravcd from 

f 0f Milan t I cannot therefore believe the firft Unci of the p^e^ii 

Porpvreos jam Iieta fines Tithonla eonjax 
Extolerary rofcoque diem patefecerst orto t 
Cterulaeum tremolo praecorreos lumlne poncomi 
Qoi copido fua vote viyo defponiaqae dodum 
Connubi optatofqne locot et gaodia ferre^ 

Her purple breaft Aorora did difplay. 

And with her rofjr fingers gave the day | 

The trembling light danc*^ o*tr the curling wafe. 

And to your longing fpoofe new ttanfport gaveg 

For now hit promisM bride be wat to meet» 

A|m1 long-expe£Ud joys receive complete* 

ALTING (James), fon of Henry Altingi aa eminent 
German divine, who died in 1644, aged 61, was born at 
Heidelberg the 27th of September, i6|8, at which time his 
father was deputy at the fynod of Dort* He went through 
his ftudies at Groningen with great fuccefs; and being de- 
firous to acquire knowledge in the oriental langoagesi remov- 
fsd to Embden in 1638, to improfe himfelf undtr the rabbi 
paipprechjt Ben Abraham. Ho cape over to England in 


A L T I N G. igg 

16409 wh^i« be becvmtf acqu^ntdd with many i^erfdns of 
tHe grcBvelk no^y he preached' htte^ atid wa^ ordained t 
piett of rlie shurcN of England by fhe karned ]>• Prideaux, 
Whop of WoreeOer. He had once refolved to pafs his. life; 
krEffgSarffd, but afterwsrds accepted the BebreW prokffotih'ip 
at Groninge^n, offered hkn upon the death of Gortiarog. Hd 
•nfejaed urpon this office the J3th cf Januaity, 164J, the very 
4dff tha^ Samuel des Marera was inftalled in the profefTorfhi^ 
0t fliirinity, which had been held by the fatiie Gomarus. 
Alting W99 admrrtred dcSor of phllofophy the 21ft of Oflober, 
r645, preached tb the academy in 1647, ^^^ do£tor ancf 
profelTar of divinity in 1667. ^* vifited Heidelbcrgf in 
(662) where he received many maiks of efteem from the 
eleAcr Palatine, Charles Lewis, who often folicited him to' 
accept of the piofefibrihip of divinity, but he dedlined this^ 
oflSrr. In a little time a mifunderftandingarofebetfwixt him and' 
Samuel des Marets, his colleague, which indeed could hardly 
be avoided, fince they differed as to their method of teaching, 
and in many points as to their principles. A i ting kept to 
the Scriptures, without meddling with fcholaftic divinity:' 
the RrOt fedures which he read at his houfe upon the cate- 
chifm, drew fuch vaft crowds of hearers, that, for want of 
room in his own chamber, he was obliged to make ufe of 
the unriverfity hall. His colleague was accuftomed to the 
method and logical didi nations of the fchoolmen, had been a* 
long tkne in great efteem, had publifhed feveral books, and 
to a fprightly genius had added a good fiock of learning : the: 
fiudents who were of that country adhered to him, as the' 
fureft way to obtain church-preferment ; for the pariifaer 
were generally (applied with fuch as had fludied according 
to hts method. This was fufficient to raife and keep up a 
mifuiiderftanding betwixt the two profefTors. Alting had 
great obftactes to furmount : a majority of voices and the 
authority of age were on his adverfary's fide. Des Marets 
gave out that Alting was an innovator, and one who endea* 
voured to root up the boundaries which our wife forefathers 
had placed on the confines of truth and falfehood : he ac- 
cordingly fet up as bis accufer, and charged him with one- 
and-thirty erroneous propofitiond. The curators of the uni- 
verfity, without acquainting the parties, fent the information 
and the anfwers to the divines of Leyden, defiring their opt* 
nion. The judgement they gave is pretty remarkable : Alting 
was acquitted of all herefy, but bis imprudence was Uamed 
in broaching new bypothefea 1 on the other hand, Des Ma* 

3 'ftt 

i86 A L T I N G. 

vit- Jacob! rets was ccnfured for af^ing contrary to th.e laws of charily j 
Ailing. j^j^^ nooderation. The J.^tcer would notfubmit to thisjudge^ 
ment, nor accept of the filence which was propofed. He 
infilled on the caufe being heard before the confiftories, the 
claHTcs, and the fvnods ; but the heads would notconfenc to 
tSis, forbidding all writings, either for or againft the judgement { 
of the divines of Leyden : and thus the work of Des Marets, 
intitled, •* Audi et alteram partem)," was fupprefied. TTbi* 
conieft made a great noife, and might have been attended 
with bad confequences, when Des Marets was called to JLey- 
den ; but he dieJ at Gronitigen before he could take poffef- 
Ibld. fion of that employment. There was fome fort of reconci- 

liation made betwixt him and lAIting before his death : a 
clergyman of Groningen feeing Des Marccs pafb all hopes of 
r/ecovery, propofed it to him ; and having his confent, made 
the fame propofal to Alting, who anfwered^ that the iilencc 
he had obferved, notwithilanding the clamours and writings 
of his ad^erfary, flieweJ his peaceable difpofition ; that he 
X/tis ready to come to an agrtea^ent upon reafonable terms, 
but that he required fatii.fu<5tion for the injurious ^ reports 
fpread' again (l his honour and reputation; and that be 
could not conceive how any one fbould dcfire his friendOiip, 
whilft he thought him fuch a man as he had reprefented him 
to be. The perfon, who acted as mediator, fome time after 
returned, with another clergyman, to Alting, and obtained 
from him a formulary of the fatisfa<Stion he defired; This 
formulary was not liked by Des Marets, who diew up ano- 
ther, but thi$ did not pleafc Alting : at iaft, however, 
after fome alterations, the reconciliation was effcfled ; 
the parlies only retraced the perfonal injuries, and as to 
the accufations m point of dodirine, the accufer Jeic 
them to the judgement of the church. Alting however 
thought he had reafon to con)plain, even afier he was deli- 
vered from fo formidable an adverfary. His complaint was 
occafi( ned by the laft edition of Des Marets^s fyftem, in 
vyhich he was very ill treated : he (aid, hts adverfary fhould 
have left no monuments of the quarrel ; and that his rtcf)n- 
ciiiation had not been fincere, fince ,hc had not fupprefled 
fuch an injuripus book The clergy were continually mur- 
n^uring againft what they called innovations; but the fecu- 
lar power wifely calmed thofe (iorms, which the convoca- 
tions and fynods would have raifcd, threatening to interdicl: 
tl^ofe who fliould revive the quariel. Ahing enjoyed but 
little health the laft three years of his life; and being at 
Itpgih feized with a violent ffvcr, was carried off in nine 


A L T I N G. J87 

i^ys^ in Auguft 1679. He recommended the care of an edj«* 
tion of a'l his works to his coufin Menib Alting, burgo^q^ufier 
•f Groningen ; and they^ were accordingly printed ac Amiler- 
dam^ in 1687, in five volumes in folio: they contain feveral 
analytical, exegecical, pradlicJ, problematica!, and philofo* 
phical trsk&s, 

ALV ARES Di^ LUNA, or as fome call him Alvaro, is a 
char after too edifying to be omitted in this colledlion. HeMirlana, i?e 
was the favourite of John IJ. king of Caftile: was famous ^^^"'^^j'^jj* 
for the prodigious afcendancy be gained over this prince, andjib.19. fdit! 
for the punilhment which at length overtook him. He was^"8^"t»a» 
natural Ton of Don Alvaro de Luna, lord of Canete in Ar- {) ^^j , , 
ragon, and of a woman infamous for unbounded luft : Dr. Trafts. vol. 
Geddes caUs her a common ftrumper. He was born in 1 388, **"• 
4nd named Peter; but Pope Btnedidt XIII. who was charm- p^^^'j^'^^J^^ 
cd with his wit, though yet a thild, changed Peter to Alva- 
les. He was introduced 10 court in 1408, and made a gen- 
tleman of the bedchamber to king John, with whom he grew 
into the higheft favour. In 14^7, he was obliged to retire: 
the courtiers exerted all their erideavours to ruin him : they 
complained, that a man of no military (kll, of no virtues 
>ybatever, (hould, by mere artifice and diffimulation, be ad- 
vanced to the higheft authority j and they could not bear 
that, by the affiftance of a few upftart men, whom he had 
raifed and fixed to his intereft, he ihould reign as abfolutely 
as if he were king. 

Xhey prevailed againft him, and Alvares was banifhed 
from court a year apd an half; but this was the grcateii: 
affliction imaginable (o the king : the king (hewed all marks 
of diflrefs ^he moment he was removed from his prelence; 
and now thought and fpoke of nothing but Alvares. He 
was therefore recalled ; and, being invefted with his ufual au- 
thority, revenged himfelf feverely upon his enemies, by per- 
fuading the king to banifh them. This was furtly very im- 
politic ; he had better have gained them by civil and gene- 
rous offices. Of the five and forty years he fpcnt a: court, 
he enjoyed for thirty of them fo entire an afcendancy over 
^ihe king, thgt nothing could be done without his exprefs 
orders : nay, it is related by Mariana, that the king could 
not change an officer or fervant, or even his cloihty or diet, 
without the approbation of Alvares. In fhort, he wanted 
ijothing to complete his grandeur, bat the. name of king : he 
had all the places in the kingdom at his difpofal ; he 
Vas mafter of the treafurj^, and by bounties had fo gained the 
)}earcs of the fubjefls, that the king, though bis eyes now 


lit A L V A R E.S. 

were Opened, and hii zfkStions rufficicntty (timed a^gaipft 
him,* durft not complain. I 

^r the ddj of reckoning wa» approaching^ and at lengrii 
Ke waf^ fcii^ed : yet not dire6Hy, openly, and violently, bo^ 
with fome of that n?anagcmcrit« which upon a fimiiar occa^; 
fion was formerly employed by Tiberius againft Sejanus'^, 
During his' confinement, he made feveral attempts Co fpeakj 
^o the king in perfon^ but not being able to tf[e& this, hoi 
lent trie following lettei", from which furely, as w^U' 2s froiii^. 
tlie red: of Alvares*s hiftory, all court*favouriies may drav^ 
abundant matter for edification and ihftruflion. ** S'yr^ itiH 
^^ five-and forty years fince I was admitted into yoUr ferviceV 
1 do not complain of the rewards I have received : they 
iVere grearer than my merits or^xpeAation^ as i fhail not 
deny. There was but ohe thing wanting to complete my' 
** happinefs; and that Was to have fixed proper lioiits in' 
*** lime to this great fortune of mine. While, inftcad of 
** chufing retirement after the example of the grcateft mcir/ 
•* I ftill continued in the employment, which I thought not 
** only my duty, but neceffary for your intereft, I fell into 
*' |his misfortune. It is very hard that I (hould be deprived' 
^^ of liberty, when I have rifked life aod fortune more than' 
•* once to reftore it to you. Grief prevents me from faying 
** more. I know that the Deity is provoked againft me by 
** my fins : but it will be fufiicient for me, if his anger is 
appeafed by the calamities I now fuflPer* I can no longei' 
bear that prodigious mafs of riches, which it was wrong in' 
"^ me to have heaped together: I (hould Willingly refign 
** them, but that every thing I have is in your po^er ; ahd f 
*' am denied the opportunity of (hawing mankind, that you 
** h4ve raifed a perfon to the height of greacnefs, who can • 
*'* contemn wealth as well as procure it, and give it back to • 
** hifti from whom he receive\l it. But I defire you in thd 
•* flfonge'ft terms, that, as I was obliged, by the lownefs or 
*^ the treafury, to raife ten or twelve thoufand crowns by 
^* methods I ought not to have taken, you will reftore them 
to the pel'fons from v/horti they were extorted. If yo^ 
will not grant this on account of the fervices I have done, 
yet I thinjc it neceffary to be done from the reafon ofithc 




*« thing. 

This letter, however, produced no cffe£l in his favour : 
Alvares was tried, and condemned to lofe his head. An a(?- 
cufation was formed againft him full of the moft' fliotking 
crimes j as, that he had madly invaded the rights of )cinglr 
majefty, reduced the whole court into his power^ and made 

A L V A R £ S. 1S9 

lamfeir mafter of ihe ftate in general; and that, having raifed 
"limfelf above the condition of a private man, he aAed with 
le utmoft haughtinefs, and by a {bameful perverfion of juftice 
id committed innumerable crimes, mifcliiefs, aad tyrannies^ 
Ifcc. His execution was attended with all the circumAancct 
;0f infamy imaginable : after eondemnation, be was removed 
to Valladolid ; and, having confefied himfelf", and received 
the facramenf, he was carried upoo a mule to jthe marlcet^o 
||ace, in the middle of which a large fcaffbld was created. 
Mourning the fcaffbid, he paid reverence to the crofs, and 
prefently gave his hat and fig^et to his page, faying, ^* Theiie 
*^ are the laft gifts you will ever receive from nie." Barrafa, 
^ho belonged to prince Henry's fiables, being there, be called 
him to him, and defired him to tetl the prince from him, that 
be ^< ihould not follow the example of the king, in rewarding 
** his fervants." Obferving an iron hook upon an high pole, 
he afked the executioner, what the ufe of that ^was ? who told 
btm, that it was to fix his bead upon, after it ihould he fevered 
from his body. << Oh !*' fays Alvares, " after I am dead^ 
^' you may do with my body what you pleafe : death cannot 
^*^ poffibly be difgraceful to a man of courage, or immature 
** toon/e who hath palled through fo many honours.*' Havv 
ipg faid this, he fubmitted himfelf to the axe with the utipoft 
iocrepidity : Dr. Geddes relates, that be was executed the 
^tbof Jpne, others the 5th of July, 1453. 

Such is often the conclufion of favouritifrnt fuch the fate 
and end of favourites* 

ALVARES (Francis), a Pqrtijguere prjeft, who «^s 
chaplain to Emanuel king of Portugal, and embaifador from 
^bat prince to David king of ^Ethiopia or Abyffinia. David 
^^i fent an embaflador to Emanuel, who in return thought 
proper to fend Alvares and Galvanus to David, but the latter 
liied before he arrived in ^thiopis). Alvares continued fix 

!^W9 in this country; and, when he returned, brought 
ittersto king John, who fucceeded Emanuel, and to popeNIc Aaio* 

^ount of bis embafly, with 9 defcription of the manners 
*«^d cuftoms of the -Ethiopians, Jt was printed at Liibon 
joe fame year in which the author died, tranflated into 
^«nch, and publilhed at Antwerp in 1558, The work was 
bridged by Ramufius. Bodinus fays, that Alvares was the 
M« .wto gave ^ true and accMfate account of Ethiopia ; ^5^**^.* 


190 A L V A R E 5. 

^ being approved by the beft writers, and read with the grea(e0: 

facisfaaiun. *! 

■ J 

AMAMA (SixTiNus^, profeflbr .of the H>ihrew tonguts 
in the univerlity of Franeker, was bdrn in Friefland, and had 
fiudied under Drufius. The uftiverfity of Leyden endea* 
voured, by offering him a larger falary, to draw him frorrf 
the univerfiiy of Franeker, in order to Aicceed ErpeniusS 
Amama did not abfolutely refufe this offer, yet would nol 
accept of it unleft he obtained permiffion froiti his fuperiorf 
of Friefland ; which they refiifed, and no doubt gave hint 
fuch additional encouraoement, that he had no reafon to re- 
pent of nor going to Leyden, The firft book he publiined 
was a fpecinrien of a great defign he intended, viz to cenfurfll 
the Vulgarc tranflation, which the council of Trent had de- 
clared authentic; but before he had frnifhed this work, he 
pubirftied a criticifili upon the tranflatiori of the ** Pen:a- 
♦' teuch," which made him.firfl known as an author. Whilft 
be was carry tng on this criticifm, he was obliged to engage in 
another work, which was, to collate the Dutch tranflation of 
the Scripture with the originals and the exad^eft tranflations; 
this Dutch tranflation had been done from Luther's verfion. 
He gave the public an account of this labour, in a work which 
Sixf. Ama- appeared at A mfterdam, intituled, *' Bybelche conferentie.^i 
^^^^jj^g Bj.This employment of' collating fo much engaged Amama, that 
wicus. he was hindered for a confiderable time from applying to the 
f. 160. ccnfure of the Vulgate. However he refumed his work uport 
hearing that father Merfennus had endeavoured to refufe /iw 
critical -remarks en the firfl fix chapters of Gtnefis': and he 
gave himielf up entirely to vindicare his criticifms againft tbat^ 
author. His anfwer is one of the pieces contained in th^, 
** Anti-barbarus Biblicus," which he pubiiflied in J628; the 
other pieces are^ his cenfure of the Vulgate on the hiftorical 
books of the\ Old l^ftam^nt, on Job, the Pfalms, and the 
Books of Solomon, with fome particular difiertations, one of 
which is on the famous pafTige in the proverbs, •' Th6 Lord 
•' created me in the beginning of all his way?," wherePn he 
fbews that thofe who accufed Drufius of fjvoiifing Arlanifm 
were notorious calumniators. The " Anti-barbaru'S BiW/- 
cus" was to have confifted of two part*^, each containing 
three books ; the author, however only publifhed the firft 
part. It was reprinted after his death, and a fourth book 
was added, containing. the criticifm of the Vulgate uponKa^^" 
and Jeremiah. It is impoiTible to anfWer the reafons, by 
ivhicb he (hews the neceffity 6f confurting theorigtoafi. Th^^ 

A M A M A. $^i 

jhc rccottimended fo earneftly, that fome fynods, httng if>- 
'fiueoced by his reafons, decreed that none (hould be admitted 
intojtbe miniftry, butfuch as had a compeient Icnowltdge of 
the Hebrew and Greek text of the Scripture. When Sixti- 
ijius came to Franeker, drunkennefs and debauchery reigned 
In that univerfity to a very great degree : he telJs us that all 
the new fiudents were immediately enrolled in the fervice of 
Bacchus, and obliged to fwear, with certain ceremonies, by 
a wooden ftatue of St. Stephen, that they would (pend alt 
their money : if any one had more regard to the oath he had 
taken to the re(5^or of the univerfity than to this Bacchanalian 
oaih, he was fo perfecured by the other ftudents, that he was 
obliged either to leave the univerfity, or con^ply with the reft. 
Sixttnus contributed greatly to root out this vice, and he in- 
veighed againft it with great energy in a public fpeech made 
in 1621. He was fo much beloved by the people of Frief-* 
land, that after his death, which happened in 162Q, they 
ihe wed themfelvcs very generous to his children; as Nicholas 
Amama, who was one of ihem, acknowleges in the epiftie 
dedicatory to his " Diflertatjonum marinarum dccas." 

AMAND (Mark-Anthony-Gerard, fieur de St.), a 

French poet, was born at Roan in Normandy in "159 4.. In 

the epiiUe dedicatory to the third part of his works, he tells 

us, that his father commanded a fquadron of ihips in the 

fervice of Elizabeth queen of England for two-and- twenty 

3^ars, and that he was for three years prifoner in the Black 

Tower at Conftantinople. He mentions alfo, that two 

brothers xyf his had been killeiJ in an engagement againft the 

Turks. His own life was fpent in a continual fuccefiion of 

» travels, which was of no advantage to his fortune. There 

are mifcellaneous poems of this author, the greateft part of 

which are of tht comic or burlefque, and the amorous kind. 

The firft volume was printed at Paris in 1627, the fecond in 

1643, ^^^ theihitd'in 1649 : they have been reprinted feve<- 

ral t'imes. ** Solitude, an ode," which is one of the firft of 

ihe/n, is hi) beft piece in the opinion of Mr. Boileau.R«ft.r. cnt. 

Though there are many blemifhes in his poems, yet be hadfu' longin. 

the talent, of reading them in fo agreeable a mariner, that 

every, one was charmed with them* In 1650, be pub li (bed 

** Stances fur la grolTefle de la rcinede Polognc ctde guede." 

There are fix ftanzas of nine verfes each. In 1653, he 

printed bis ** Mpife fauve, idyle heroique." This poem had 

at fir0 many admii:^rs : mx^nfieur Chapelain called it a fpeak- Frrfice t» 

JU^piilurCi but it has fi;ice fallen into coatempt. . Amand^"""** 


192 A M A N D. 

wrote al(b a T€ff]t.Jevout piece, intitled *^ Stances i M* Cot^ 

neille, Atr foif imitation de Jefus Chrift," which was printed at 

Paris in 1656. Mr. BroflTette fays that he wrote alfo a ooem 

upon the moon* wherein he paid a compitment to Lewis aW* 

upon his flcill in fwimming, in which he ufed often to cxer- 

cife biafeif when he was young, in the river Seine ^ but the 

king could not bear this poem to be read to him, which is 

faid to have affeded the author to fuch a degree, that he did 

* not furvive it long. He died in 166 f, being fixty-feven 

fitffoire ae years of age. He was admitted a member of the French aca-* 

rAcadenii demy, when it was firft founded by cardinal Richeiicu, in the. 

I'lot. y*^ '^33 ^ ^^^ ^* P^'^^'^o" informs us, that, in 1 637, at his 
own deure, he was excufed from the obligation of making a 
fpeech in his turn, on condition (hat he would compile the 
comic part of the didionary. which the academy had under- 
taken, and coUedi.the burlefque terms. This was a talk well 
fuited to him ; for it appears by his writings that he vbas ex« 
tremely converfant in thefe terms, of which he feems to hsve 
«iade a complete collefifon from the markets and other places 
where the lower people rcfort. 

AMBROSE ($T»), bifliop of Milan, an eminent father of 
the fourth century^ born in Gaul in the year 333, according 
Rift. Lit. to Dr. Cave ; or in 340, as Mr. Du Pin affirms. His father 
ike. IV. ad ^^g 2( (iijs ijiuig prasfe£liis prsccorio in Gau), and refided af 
•■»• 374» j^f Jes, the capital of Gallic Narbonenfis. The birth of Am- 
brofe is faid to have been followed with a remarkable prefage 
of his future eloquence ; for we are told that a fwarm of 
bees c^me and fettled upon his mouth, as he lay in his cradle* 
He foon made himfelf mafttr of the feveral parti of Acular 
learning,' and pleaded caufes before Probus with fo much elo* 
^ quence, that he was appointed his aflefibr, and foon after go^ 

vernorof the provinces of Liguria and iEmilia. He fettled 
at Milan $ where, in the year 374, upon the death of Auxen- 
tins bifliop of that city, there was a great conteft between the 
Catholics and Arians, concerning the choice of a new bifliop. 
Ambrofe thought it 'his duty^ as governor, to go to the 
church, in order to compofe the tumult ; and accordingly 
addre&d the people in a genile pathetic fpeech, exhorting 
them to proceed to their choice in a calas and friendly mtrt* 
ner. While he was fpeakine to them, the whole ailembif 
cried out with one voice, ** Let Ambrofe be bifliop t" Such 
a fudden and unexpeflcd incident furprifcd him extremely* 
fo that he retired immediately, and ufed every method to Ah 
vert them from their refelution of chufing bim i but si hi 

^as bbligedl to icompty; He. was tl^cn baptite^, t>eing. 6ut a 
catechumen before ; and ordained biihop towards the latter 
end of the year 374, or beginning of 375. About the yeal: 
3^7^ the barbarous 'nations making an incurfioti into the Ro- 
man Empire, he fled to Illyricumt and afterwards' to Rooie. 
In the year 384, he was fent to the tyrant Maximus^ whbll>i^.p«it6* 
had ufurped the eitipire^ and prevailed upon him not to pi& 
over into Italy^ The heathens^ being encoursksed by tbefo 
inteftine commotrons in the qmpire, attempted to reftore 
their religion, and employed Q^ Aiirelius Symmacbus^ pre- 
fer of Rome, a map of great eloquence^ to plead their caiife. 
This gave rife to tbe famous conteft between St. Ambrofc 
and hiraj about repairing the altar of Vidtory :,but Symnia- 
chus having loft his caufe^ was ea^elled tbe city, and con»- 
manded not to approach within an hundred miles of it* The 
petition which he prefented to the emperor Valentinian th^ 
Younger^ is* fiill extant ; and we find in it the ftrongeu 
figures of rhetoric and the ^fc^teft force of eloquence. St« 
Ainbrofe wrote a confutation of this petition, but he ha^hi^ 
been thought guilty of many paralogifms : yet he protefts, 
^' that he aimed lonly at folidity of reafoning, leaving 
^' Symmachus all the glory of eloquence and politenefs, it 
** being," fay's he, ** the peculiar privilege of the pagan phi- Fiechier.Vic 
** lofophers to amufe the mind with colours .as falfc as their dc Theodoft, 
•* idols 5 and to fay great things, ©01 being capable of f^iy- '^'^J|*' ^ 
*^ ing true ones*" Ambrofe met with a good deal of oppo<f 
fition from the 'Ariaris, againft whom he a^ed *with great 
fptrit and intrepidity. Juftipa the emprefs, and mother of 
Valentinian, who was ian Arian, refolding to reftore Atia<* 
nifm at Milan, begaii with demanding of St. Ambrofe one 
bf the churches, which was called the Portian church ; but 
he refufedit: and the people furrounding the palace in a 
body, (he was obliged to leave hitnin pofleffionof his church, 
and even defire him to pacify the people. Some time after, 
the emprefs fent and required of him, in the emperor's name, 
not only that church, but the new church like wife : he re«> 
fufed to obey this order, and anfwered with fuch fpirit and 
refolutioa as afionifhed thofe who came with, the emptor's 

Ambrofe was a fecond time fcht to the ty^ant Maximus, 
fcr Valentinian found no perfon fo proper to negotiate with 
him. He fpoke to him ^vith great courage and boldnefs, but 
could obtain nothing, for Maximus foon after marched inta 
Italy, and made himfelf mafter of the weftern empire j fo 
that Valentinian was obliged to retire, with his mother jufti- 

VoL. I. O oa 

19+ AM B ROSE. 

na and his Jifter Gtlla; to Theflfalonica in Jllyricum, in or 
der to defire Theodofiiis's afliftance, who defeated Maximas. 
and refiored Valentinian to the empire. 
' While Theodofius continued in Italy, after the defeat o) 
Maximus, an infurredion happened at Theflalonica, upon 
the following occafion : there was a charioteer, who had a 
violent affection for the butler of Buthericus, the emperor's 
lieutenant in Illyricum ; and having foliciced him to the gra- 
tification of his defires, he was thrown into prifon. Soon 
after there being to be a race, the people demanded that the 
charioteer (hould be at liberty, becaufe he was a neceflary 

EcckC^Hm P^'^^^" "P^^ '^*^ occafion. This being refufed, they raifcd a 
lib.v,cap.i7/<?dition, wherein they killed Buthericus himfelf, ftoned feve- 
ral of the magiftrates, and dragged them along the ftreets. 
Thf^odofius being informed of this, commanded a certain 
number of the inhabitants to be put to death promifcuouflyj 
by which means the city was filled with the blood of many 
innocent perfons, and amongft the reft feveral ftrangers i^ho 
were but juft come to the city : no regard was had to any 
diftindion of perfons, no form of trial was obferved, but they 
were cut down like corn in the harveft, as Theodoret exprelT^ 
it, to the number of feven thoufand [a j. At this time an 
aflembly of bifhops was held at Milan, who all exprefied an 
abhorrence of fuch cruelty in the e'mperor : Ambrofe wrote a 
letter to him, in which he reprefented the enormity of hi$ 
Crime, and exhorted him to make fatisfaflion by a fincere fub* 
miffion and repentance. Theodofius, upon his arrival at 
Milan, was going to perform his devotions in the great 
church, when Ambrofe met him at the door, and denied him 
entrance in thefe terms:' ** You do not, I believe, confidcr, 
** O emperor ! the guilt of the maflfacre which you havecom- 
• •' mitted ; and tho^jgh the violence of your paflion be now 
** over, yet your reafon has not fuggefted to you the full 
** extent of your crime. Pei haps your imperial dignity may \ 
•' prevent you from perceiving it, and caft a cloud over your 
•' underftanding; however, you ought to refle£l upori the 
<' conftitution of human nature, which is very weak and ob* 

[a] S^toitoen tellt a remarkable both, becaafe tbey wanted to fill op 

f^ory which happened in this maffacre. their number. The father ftood io t 

A merchant eamf and offered himfelf to dreadfal fafpeoce, locking fometiroesat 

de^th, to fa^e bis two Tons who were one, and fometimet at the other, with 

feizerl, and promifed aU the gold that he all tne agony that can be inaaginedi aad 

bad in reward for the favour. The fol* incapable of determining which to chalky 

diers, being touched with pity, gave him till they were both put to death before 

leave to chufe one of his fons ; for they his eyes. Hiil« EccleL lib. vii. cap* 

dedaMA chaithey could not difm'ifa them 25. 

. . •« noxious 


*' noxious to' mortality, and that we are derived ffom duft, 
** and muft'neceiTarily be refolved into duft again. Be not' 
^ deceived fo far with the fplendor of the purple which in« 
" vefts you, as not to conlider the infirmity of the body 
" which it covers. They are men of the fame nature with 
" yourfelf, nay they are your fellow- fervants, whom you 
•* govern ; for there is one Lord and Sovereign of all, he 
** who created the univcrfe. With what eyes will you, there-* 
•• fore, view the temple of our common Sovereign, and with 
** what feet will you tread the facred floor? How can you 
^* ftretch out thofe hands, which have been defiled with fo 
*' much innocent blood ? how can you receive the holy body 
** of our Lord in fuch polluted hands, or touch Vith your 
" mouth his precious blood, when you have commanded in \ , 
** youi- paffion the blood of fo many perfons to be unjuftly 
** flied ? depart, therefore, and do not aggravate your former 
** guilt by new provocations : receive the bond which God 
" himfelf, the Lord of all nature, approves and recommends,. 
*' for it has a falutary power in it." The emperor, ftruclclbid.c.ivitl. 
\^ith theffe words, returned to his palace in great uneafinefs of 
mind^ faying he was extremely unhappy, that when the 
church Was open to the loweft orders of men, it fhould be* 
Ihut to him. About a year afterwards however he was ad- 
mitted into the church by Ambrofe, but not till after he 
had made atonement for his cruelty, and given ^rparjcs of a 
fincere repentance. 

- In 392, Valcniinian the emperor being aflaffinated by the 
contrivance of Argobaflus, and Eugenius ufurping the em- 
pire, Ambrofe was obliged to leave Milan, but returned thi 
year following, when Eugenius was defeated. He died at , 
Milan the 4th of April, 397 ; and was buried in the great 
church at Milan. He wrote feveral work§, the moft con-* 
fidcrable of which is that*' De officiis" [b]. He is concife 
and fententious in his manner of writing, and full of, turns 
^f wit; his terms are well chofen, and his exprcffions noble;" 
he diverfifies his fubjed by an admirable copioufnefs of 
thought and language. He is very ingenious in giving an', 

[b] This iff a difccuife divided in*o of Cicero's piece " De officUs." He 

tntee books, upon the duties of the confiims, fays Mr^ Du Fin, the goo4 

clergy, ]t appears to have been written maxims which 'that orator has ad* 

ft^eral years after he had been bifhop, vanced, he corredls thofe which arc 

^nd very probably about the year. 390 or imperfed, he refutes ihofe which are 

2$^f when peace was reHored to the falfe, and adds a great many others 

^urch, after the death of the tyrant which are more excellent, pure and ele* 

Maximus.^ He has imitated, in thefe vated. Bibi. des Auttuii Eccief. 
ibree book's, the defi^n and diSpoCnion . , . 

O a eafy 

196 A M B R 0:S E. 

ea(y and natural turn to every thiog he tre^^ts off an4 U i^rt 
without (Irength and pathos when there is occafipn fpx it. 
This is part of the charader which Du Pin giyes him as a 
writer: but Erafmus tells us that be h^s many quaint apd 
aSe<^ed fentencest ar.d frequently very ohfcure ones ; and it 
ia- pertain that his writings are intermixed with many ftraagt 
and peculiar opinions. He maintained, that all men indiffe- 
rently are to pafs through a fiery tris^l at the laft day ^ t^at 
even the juft are to fufFer it, and to be purged from their fins, 
b.ut the vmuft are to continue in it for ever ; that the faithful 
will he railed gradually at the laft day, according to the degree 
of thtir particular merit; that the bow which God promifed- 
Noah to place in the firmament after the deluge, as a fign that 
Da]!aut,Dehe never intended to drown the world again, was not to be 
JJ^"*^"?*' under flood of the rainbow, w.hich can never appear in the 
^a7o• night, but fome vifible token of the Almighty. He carries 
the efteem of virginity and celibacy fo far, that be ieems to 
regard i^rimony as an indecent thing. Paulinus wrote bii 
lifcii ^nd dedicated it to St. Auguflin : it is prefixed to St. Am* 
brofe's wor)cs, the beft edition of which is reckoned to be 
that publi£hed by the Benedictine monks, in two volunaea ia^ 
folio, at Paris, in 1686 and 1690. 

AM^LIUS, feePtoTiNus. 

AMELOT DE LA HoussAi (Nicholas), bqrn at Or- 
leans in 1634., was much efteemed at the court of Fran€;|C, 
MtjU, and appointed fecretary of an embafly which that court feti( 
Nmrvei.^e to the commonwealth of Venice, as appears by the title of 
!k» tS^, ^»« tranflaUon of father Paul's Hiftory of the Counql of 
1684. ' Trent ; but be aftewards pubij(hed writings which gave fucb 
tMfi. u ofFence, that be was imprifoned in the Baflile. The firft 
P«457* works i?c printed were ^he *' Hifl.ory of the Governnnent of 
- Venice,** and that of the V Ufcocks," a people of Croatia: 
in 1683, he publifhed his tranflations into French of *^ M^* 
chi/ivers Prince," and father Paul's ♦* Hiftory of the Council 
of Trent,*' and " Political Difcourfes" of his own upon Ts* 
cltus. Thefe performances were well received by the public. 
He did not prefix his own name to the two laft mentioned 
works, but concealed himfelf under that of La Mothe Jofievah 
His tranflation of father Paul was attacked by the partizanS 
of the pope's unbounded power and authority. In France, 
. however, it met with great fuccefs ; all the advocates for the 
liberty of the Gallican church promoting the fuccefs of it to 
the utmoft of their power, though 9t the fi^me cin^e there 


A M E L O T. 197 

were tfcrcc memorials prcfenicd to have it fuppreflcd.iWd. 
When the fecond edition of this iranfl-iiion was publiflied, "^/^',!^' * 
^as violently attacked by the abbe St. Real, jo a letier he 
wrote 10 Mr. Bayle,. dated October 17, 1685 : Amelot dc* 
fended himfelf, in a letter to the fame genileniad. In i6S±y 
he printed^at Paris, a French tranflation oCBaltafar Gracian s 
Oraculo manual, with the title of *^ THomme de Cour." Ih 
hJB preface he defends Gra^ran againft father Bohours' Cri- 
tique^ and tells us why he afcribes tilis book to Bahafar and 
not to Laurence Gracian. He alfo mentions that he hath 
altered the title, becaufe it appeared too oftentatious an hy« 
perboiical i that of *' rHomrne de Cour^" the Courtier, being 
more proper to exprefs the fubjeA of the book, which contains 
a coUedion of the fineft maxims for regulating a courc-life. 
lo 1686, he printed ^* La Morale de Tacitc de la flaterie :" in 
which work hecoHeded feveral particular fadt^ and maxims, 
which reprefent in a Ihcng light the artifices of court-flat- 
terers, and the mifchievous cScA of their poifonous tlifo 
courfes. In 1690, he publifhed at Paris a French tranflationDifrourfri 
of the firftfix books of ** Tacitus's Annals," with his hifto-Pf«fi«^«» 
rical and political remarks, fome of which, according to Mr, J^J^f"^*** 
Gordon^ are pertinent and ufeful, but many of them^i*, 
and trifling. Amelot having employed his pen for feveral ?•**• 
years on hiflorical and political fubjeds, began now to try 
bis genius on religious matters; and, in 1691, printed at 
Paris a tranflation of Palafbx's *^ 7'heological and moral Hor 
milies upon the Paffion of our IfOrd/' Frederic Leonard, a 
bookfeller at Paris, having propoied, in the year 1692, to ^ 
print a collediion of all the treaties of peace becween tl^e 
kings of France and all the other princes of Europe, flnce , 
the reign of Charles VII. to the year 1690, Am'^lot publiihed . 
a fmall volume in duodecimo, containing a preliminary dif* 
courfe upon ihefe treatifes ; wherein he ci^deavours to (hew, 
thiit moft princes, when tney enter into 3 t:caty, think more 
how to evdde, than how to perform, tjie terms they fubfcribe 
to. He publiflied alfo an edition pf cardinal d'Oflat's Let- 
ters in -1697, ^'^^ feveral obfervatioiis of his own ; which, 
as he tells U5 in his advertifemept, may ferve as a fupplc ment to 
the hiftory of the reigns of H^nry III. and Henry IV, kings 
of France. Amelot died at Paris in 1706, being then alinoft 
feventy-three years of age. 

AMELOT (Dekis), a ctrlebrated French wiiier, was 
born at Sainton ge in 1606. He maintained a clofe corre- 
fpondence with' the fathers of ihe Oraiorj', a congregarion of 

O 3 pncih 

ij8 A M E L O T- 

priefts founded by Philip of Neri. He wrote' the life oi 
Charles de Gondren, fccond fuperior of this congregationi 
and pubiiibed ii at Paris in 1643. In this piece he fai< 
fomeching of the famous abbot of St. Qyran, which great!] 
difpleafed the gentlemen of Port.Royal,'who, to be revengec 
of him, publilhed a libel againil him, intituled << Idee gene- 
rale de Tefprit et de Hvre de P. Amelote." He was fo mud 
provoked by this fatire, that he did all in his power to injere 
them. They had finiflied a tranilation of the New Tefia* 
ment, and were defirous to have it publiQied ; for which pur« 
pofe they endeavoured to procure an approbation from ih 
dodors of the Sor bonne, and a privilege from the king. 
They had fome frienf^s in the Sorbonne, but at the famej 
time very powerful enemies 5 and as to the privilege, it was] 
impoiEble to prevail with the chancellor Seguier to grantf 
them one, for he hated them; fo that father Amelot, wbofc 
advice the chancellor generally followed in matters of reli*" 
gion, eafily thwarted ail their meafurcs, not only out of zeal 
for what he thought the true dodltine, or out of averfion to 
the Port Royalifls, biit alfo from ^a view to his own interef^i 
^. . for he was about to publifli a tranilation of his own of the 

Critiqle,' ^^^ Teftament. Amelot's tranflation, with annotations 
torn. Hi. in four volumes o<5tavo, was printed in the years 1666, 1667, 
chap. 16. and 1668. It is not very exaft, according 10 F. Simon, 
who tells us that it contains fome very grois blunders. It 
was dedicated to M. de Perefixe archbifhop of Paris ; and the 
tranflaror ufes the gentlemen of Port Royal very ill in his de- 
dication : *' You will be confirmed," fays father Amelote to 
this prelate, *' in that zeal, which obliged you to take up the 
*' holy arms to defend the true grace of GoH, and the de- 
** crecs of the holy fee, againft the new herefy : you will 
• " daily flrengthcn yourfclf againft thefe blind rebels, whofc 
*' fury, impollures, and calumnies, add n?.w fplendor to your 
*' glory, which they endeavour to blemfh. They place you 
** in the fttme rank with the Athanafiufes and Hilarys, when 
** they sbufe you in the fame manner as the Arians 6\d t\\o(c 
ibid, ch, 17," great and holy bifliops/' In this traitflation he has been 
at great pains to find expreffions more proper and elegant than' 
thofe of the former verfions ; for which reafon he committed 
his work into Mr. Conrart's hands, to polifh and correct 
whatever he (houlJ judge inelegant or improper. A.mciot 
wrote alfo an ** Abridgment of Divinity," a '* Catechifra 
** for the Jubilee," and a kind of *^ Chriftlan Manual for 
«* every Day, (Journee Chretiene.)*' Though :he had' al- 
ways been a very zealous Anti-Port Royalift, yet be was but 


A M E L O T. 195 

poorly rewarded for all his labour and trouble ; fince towards 
the end pf his life he fued for a^ very fmall biihopric, and met 
with a refiifal, though he had all the qualities requifite to a 
bilhop. He could not forbear complaining of this ufage to 
fats friends, telling them that thofe, whom he had often ferved 
very efFedually, had been very cold to him on this ocjQar 
fion. He entered into the congregation of the Oratory in 
1650, and continued amongft them till his deatb^ which 
happened in 1678. 

AMES (William), an £ng1i(h divine, famous for his 
controverfial writings ; but much more fo abroad than in his 
native country, for he lived many years in foreign parts, and 
there ended his days. He was defcended from an ancient 
family in Npifolk, where he was born in 1576. He was 
educated at Chrift's college, Cambridge, under the famous 
Mr. William Perkins ^ from whom probably imbibing fome 
Calviniftical principles, he became a flrenuous aiTertor of the 
fame tenets, which gave fo much difguft, that, to prevent an 
expulfion in form, he forfook his college, went abroad, and 
was chofen by the ftates of Fricfland, profeflbr of their uni- 
verfity. In 1613, his difpute with Grevinchovius, miniilerKearsHtft. 
at Rotterdam, appeared in print. He was at the fynod of<*^ **** ^^^^ 
Dort, in 1618, and informed king James's embaffador from^"**^ p^J* 
time to time of the debates of that alTembly. 
• When he had been twelve years in the doflor's chair at 
Franeker, he reftgned his profeflorfbip, and accepted of an 
invitation to the £ngli{h congregation at Rotterdam, the air 
of Franeker being too (harp for him, as he was troubled with ^ 
a great difficulty of breathing. Upon his removal to Rot- 
terdam, he wrote his ** Frcfh Suit againft Ceremonies," but 
did not live to publi(h it himfelf, for his conftitution was (b 
(battered that the air of Holland did him no fervice : he had 
determined to remove to New England, but his afthma re- 
turning at the beginning of the winter, put an end to hrs life 
at Rotterdam, where he was buried in November, 1633. He 
was a very learned divine, a Oridl Calvinift in dodlrine, and 
of the perfuafion of the Independients with regard to the fub- 
ordination and power of the clafTes and fynods. His writings 
were volurninous, chiefly cOntroverfial, and confequently as 
much difregarded and forgqtten as the cofitioverfies which 
occafioned them. 

' AMES (Joseph), the celebrated typographical hiftorian^ 
and fecretary to the Society of Antiquaries, was originally 

O 4 ^ 

4 M E S, 

^^.,, _ . . h0 

pubii£^ ^ lift in JBvp. QfEngliilii h^a4f epgraved :|ttd ipe2aK>-» 
t^nio, ^|id drpy up tl|c *« Parentally" from Mr. Wrcn% 
papery. He? (|ied OcEt 7, 1759 ; an4 his 90109, medals, (hellst 
foflils, ores, min^r^'^y natural and artificiaj CMriofities, infcrip^ 
iions, and antiqiji(i^,. >^erc fold by (^angford, Feb. .20 aoi| 
21, 1769 ; his library and prints by the fame, M^y 59 &c« 
1760. Mr, Ames's daughter, fiiice d^ad, was married to. 
Paptain Dampier, late a captain of s|n ^aft-Indian\an, npw 
^n o$cer in the £)a(|-India l^oure, and we belj^vc; defc^danf 
^r relation of the voyager C|f that nam^^ ^^ — 

[a] •• Tvpoiriphici! AntiqnitJcj j « time, 1745/' Qf thif uleful boflc^ 

«* i^ingao Hlftoric«l Recount of Priiic* which hat h>og been fcarcc, a new eiU 

^^ log in England ; with ibme memoirs tion has been fome tiniie in the preffj^ 

*' of 00^ ancient printert, and a regifter with large improvements by Mr. Her- 

•* of the books printed bjr them, Ifom bert, from whom more ample tnemoirs 

'* theycarT4^i, to theyeaM6oaWitli of Mr. Am^ may be expe^ed,. with 

*' an Appendix, concerning printing in his portrait, 
^^ Scotlatad and Irelapd Co the prefeot 

Clppli AMHURST (Nicholas), wa? Wn at Mardep in Kent, 

|i^, Brit, jjyj |j^ what year is uncertain; Under the prote^ion an^ 
care of his grandfather, a clergyman, he. received his 
grammatical education at Merehant-Taylor's fchool iq 
*ondon i apd thence was removed to St. John's CoU^gej^ 
Oxford, but e^^pelled for the libertinifm of his principles, 
the irregularity of his conduct, and fome offence which 
he had given to the head of the college. From his owi| 
account of the matter, in the dedication of his poems to 
Dr. Delaune, preiident of St. John's, and in his •* Terrae.Fi- 
lius," we may collecSt that he wifhed to haye it underftood, 
that he wa$ folely perfecuted for the liberality of his fenti* 
ments, and his attachment p the caufe of the Revolution 
and of the Hanover fucceflion ; but he had probably beei^ 
guilty of real miftehavioqr. Whatever were the caufes of 
ills expulfipn, his refencment, on the account of it, was very 

frreat. {Be made it therefore his bufinefs to fatirize the 
earning and difcipline of the univerfity of Oxford^ and to 
expofe the qh^raciers of its moft refped^able paembers. This 
he did in a ppem, pubjiflied in 1724, called *'X)culus Bri- 
tanniae," and in his ** Tcrrae Filius," a work in which there 
is aconfiderable portion of wit, intermixed with much abufe 

'•••■ ■ ■ ■•■ : •■■ ■ mi 


A M H y R S Tt 991 

Ud fcurfility [a]. Soon after Mr« Amhurft quitted Oxford^ 
tfi feems to have fettled in London as a writer by profeffiont 
Pm publifhed a volume of Mifcellanies (principally written 
Iftcbc univerfity), on a variety offubjciEb; partly originalst 
and partly parapbrafes, imitations^ and tranflationsj and 

ginQfting of tales^ epigrams, epifiles, lovc-verfes, elegiesj and 
tires. Xbey begin witb a beautiful parapbrafe on the Mo* 
is^Q account of the Creation, and end with a very humorouv 
ts|le upon the difcovery of that ufeful utenfil, a bottle-fcrew* 
Mr. Amhurft was the author, likewife, of ^< An Epiftle to 
3ir John Biount, Bart«" one of the diredora of the South* 
Sea company in 1720 ; of <^ the Britifb General, a Poem fa» 
crc;d to the memory of his Grace John Duke of Marlbo* 
rough i" and of ^' Strephon's Revenge, a fatire 00 the Ox* 
Cord Toads." Our poet, who had a great enmity to the ex* 
orbitant demands and doi&ineering fpirit of the high-church 
clergy, and who had early, at Oxford, difplayed his zeal 
againft prieftly power, difcovered this particularly in a pocmt 
intituled **' The Convocation," in five cantos ; which is % 
kind of fatire againft all the writers who had oppofed Bi(hopk 
Hpadly, in the famous Bangorian Controvcrfy* He tranfla* 
ted, alfo, Mr. Addifon's ^' Refurredion," and fome other of 
bis Latin poems. But the principal literary undertaking of 
Mr, Amhurft was, his conduflinTg « The Craftfman,*' which 
was carried 00 for a number of years with great fpirit and 
fuccefs, and was more read and attended to than any produc* 
tion of the kind which had hitherto been publiflied in Eng- 
land. Ten or twelve thoufand were fold in a day ; and the. 
eiFed which it had in raifing the indignation of the people, 
and in controlling the power of adminiftration, vims very con- 
fiderable. This effe& was not entirely, or chiefly, owing to* 
the abilities of Mr. Apburft. He wa& affiled by Lord Bo- 

[a] The whole title of the work U, verfity of Oxford, at public a£)9, for 

" Terrc JF'iHus ; or, the fecret Hiflory fome perfon, who was called Terras Fi« 

** of the Univertity of Oxford ; in fe- liut, to mount the roftrum, and divert a 

f vera] ElTays. ' To which are added, large crowd of fpe£tator», who flocked to 

" Remarks u^on a late book, inittled, bear him from all parti, with a merry 

'* UniverSty Education," by R. New- oration in the Fefcennine manner, inter-* 

" too, D.D, Principal of Hart Hall.*' fperfed with fecret hiftory, raillery, and 

2 Vol. ixmo. printed for R. Francklin, f^rcafm, as the occafions of the times 

1716. Amidft all the malignity and fupplied him with matter. Wood, in 

exaggeration with which thc'ierrae Fi- his Athenae, mentions feveral indances 

Has abounds, it certains fome curious of thiscuftom; and hence Mr. Amhurft 

anecdotes relative to the principles, took the title of his work. Itwasori- 

JiMoners, andconduf^, of feveral mem- ginally written in lys I, in a periodical 

hin of the Univerfity, for a few years paper, which came oat twice a week, and 

after the acceffionof K ing George I. It eoafiftt of fifty oungbcrs. 
M hew an aBcieut cui^om in the Uoi- 


ao2 AM HURST. 

Hngbrokc and Mr. Pulteney, and probably by other leaders 
of the oppolition. Their fame, and their writings, were the 
grand fupport of the ** Craftfman.'* Neverthelefs, Mr. 
Amhurft*s own papers are allowed to have been compofed 
with ability and fpirit; and he condudted the " Crafcfman," 
in the very zenith of its profperity, with no fmall reputation 
to himfelf. July 2, 1737* there appeared in that publication 
an ironical letter, in thenameofColley Gibber, the defignof 
which was to ridicule the ^St that had juft pafled for licen- 
fing plays. In this letter, the laurett propofes himfelf to chc 
lord chamberlain to be made fuperintendant of the old plays^ 
as (landing equally in need of corredlion with the new ones\ 
and produces feveral pafiages from Shakefpeare, and other 
poets, in relation to kings, queens, princes, and miniAers of 
Itate, which, he fays, are not now fit to be brooght on the 
ftage. The printer, &c. having been laid hold of by order 
of government, Mr. Amhurft voluntarily furrendered himfelf 
in their ftead ; and, after, having been kept in cuftody ten 
days, was obliged to bring his Habeas Corpus for his liberty, 
before he could obtain it ; becaufe he rcfufed to give bail for 
his good behaviour^ as w^ell as his appearance. The miniflry, 
we believe, prudently dropped the profecution. Notwith- 
ftanding Mr. Amhurft's merit with his party, he was totally 
jnegleSed by them, when they made their terms with the 
crown ; and he died foon after, of a fever, at Twickenhamg 
His death happened April 27, 1742 ; and his diforder was 
probably occafioned, in a great meafure, by the ill ufage he 
had received. Mr. Ralph, in his «* Cafe of Authors," fpeaks 
with a juft feeling and indignation upon the fubjeft. ** Poor 
*' Amhurft ! after having been the drudge of his party for 
*' the bcft part of twenty years together, was as much for- 
** gotten in the famous compromifeof 1742, as if he had never 
*' been born ! And when he djed of what is called a broken 
** heart, which happened a few months afterwards, became 
'^ indebted to the charfty of a bookfeller for a grave; not to 
*' be traced nowy becaufe then no otherwife to be diftinguifti- 
*' ed, than by the freChnefs of the turf, borrowed from the 
*' next common to cover it.'* Mr. T. Davies the bookfeller, 
in the charadtcr of Mr. Pulteney, exprclfes himfelf concerning 
the treatment of Mr. Amhurft in the following terms : "But 
** if the earl of Bath had his lift of penfioners^how comes it 
" that Amhurft was forgotten ? The fate o^ this poor tnan 
*' is Angular: He was the able aflociate of Bolingbrokc and 
** Pulteney, in writing the celebrated weeklv paper called 
" The Craftfman. His abilities were unqucftionable; bs 

" bad 

A M H U R S T. 20^ 

^ had almoft as much wit, learning, and- various knowledge, 

M as his tivo partners ; and when thofe great mafters chofe 

^ not to appear in public themfelves, he (upplied their places 

** fo well^ that his eflays were often afcribed to them. Am- 

*^ hurft furvived the downfal of Walpoie's power, and had 

<' reafon to exped a reward for his labours. Ifweexcufe 

^ Bolingbroke, who had only faved the ihipwreck of his 

^^ fortunes, we (hall be at a lofs to juftify Pulteney, who 

** could virith eafe have given this man a comfortable income. 

*' The utmoft of hit generofity to Amhurft. that I ever heard 

'* of, was ahogihead of claret ! He died, it is fuppofed, of 

*^ a broken hearty and was buried at the charge of his honeft 

** printcr,RichardFrancklin"[B]. Mr. Amhurft was probably p,. KSpyi^ 

one of thofe imprudent and extravagant men, whofe irregu- 

Urities, in fpite of their talents, bring them at length, into 

general difefieem and negled. £ut this does not excufe the 

condud of his employers. His want of purity in morals (if 

fbat was bis real chara£ter) was no obje£lion to their con* 

nexion with him; when he could ferve their purpofe. And 

they ought to have fo far provided for him, as to have placed 

bim above neceflicy, during the remainder of his days. The 

ingratitude of the great to Che ingenious perfons whom they 

make ufe'of as the inftruments of their ambition, (hould fur« 

nifh an inftrudion to men of abilities in future times; and 

engage them to build their happinefs on the foundation of 

iheir own perfonal integrity, difcretion, and virtue^ 


^B^ Lord Chenerfield*8 CharaQers the pobliiher of all Mr. Afflhntilli 
reviewed^ p. ^t,-^-^^, Francklin wu workif 

AMMIRATO, or Ammirati (Scipio), an eminent 
hiftorian, born at Lecca, in the kingdom of Naples, the 27th 
of September, IS3I. He fludied firft at Poggiardo, after- 
wards at Brundufium ; and, in 15474 he went to Naples, in 
order to go through a courfe of civil law. When he was at 
Barri with his father, he was deputed by that city to manage 
(bme affairs at Naples, which he executed with great fucceis. 
Some time after, he determined to enter into the church, and 
was accordingly ordained by the bifhop of Lecca, who con- 
ceived a high elleem for him, and gave him acanonry in his 
church ; but not meetine afterwards with the preferment he 
expefted, he formed a dcfign of going to Venice, and entering 
into the ferviceof fome embaffador, in order to fee the feve- 
rs) courts of Europe. Alexander Contarini however per- 


ao4 A M M I R A T O. 

Mem. poorfuaded bio) to change bis refolution of traveUIdgp, &nd tn* 
'•'T''**'^*- gaged him to continue with him at Venice, wber« he badatt' 

Smme?il-*^PP^^^**"'^y ^^ contrafiing a friend(hip with many learned 
luftrcv, men* But fortune, which had been hitheno very, unfavour^ 
tovf m able to him, would not permit him to concinue long in that 
eafe which he enjoyed with his patron: the wife of the latieri 
who ufed to take great pleafure in Ammirato's converfatioBi 
having fent bim a prefent as a token of her friendlhip, fome 
ill-natured perfons went to the bufband, and represented ibis 
civility of the lady in fuch a light, as was fufficient to excite 
the refentment of a jealoiis hulband. Ammirato was obliged 
to fly away immediately, in order to fave his life. He re* 
turned toLecca, and his father being then at Barri, he went 
thither to him, but met with a very cool reception ; the old 
gentleman being extremely angry to find bim in no probabJtf 
way of making a fortune, becaufe he bad negledled the ftudy 
of the law, which he reproached him with very frequently* 

Marcellus Marcini being cbofeii pope in 1S55> under the 

name of Marcellus IL Ammirato, who knew that Nicolao 

Majorano biihop of Molfetta, a city near Barri, had been 

formerly a friend of the pope's, perfuaded him to go to Rome, 

and congratulate him upon his eleflion, being in hopes thsitf 

by attending the bifliop in his journey, be might procure 

fome place under the nephews of that pope: but as tbey 

yfcte preparing for this journey, the death of Marcellus put 

aftop to their intended fcheme, and. deftroyed their hopes: 

ypon which Ammirato retired to a country-feat of his father's» 

y^here he applied himfelf clo&ly to his ftudies. At laft he 

was determined to return to Naples, in order to engage again 

in the ftudy of the law, and to take his degrees in it : his re- 

lifh for this profefiion was not in the lead increafed, but he 

thought tha( the title which he might procure would be of 

advantage to him in fome refpedts. However,* be had. not 

been fix months at Naples before he grew weary of it, and 

entered fucceflively into the fervice of feveral noblemen as 

fecretary. Upon his return to Lecca, he was appointed hf 

this cicy to go and prefent a petition to pope Pius IV. in their 

favour, which office he difcbargcd with fuccefs. Upon bis 

return to Lecca, be wa§ invited by the city of Naples to fettle 

there, and write the hiftory of that kingdom : but the cold 

reception he met with from the governors who had Tent for 

him, foon difgufted him ifo highly, that he left the city wi(^ 

a refolution to return no more. They repented afterwards 

of the'ur negled of him, and ufed all poffible means to brin^ 

bim back, but he continued inflexible. He went therefore 



A M M 1 R A T O. ±05 

\o RonDe, where be procured a great tnan^- friends ; 9ni 
ki^ving travelled ov«r part of Italy, viiited Florence, where 
he M^as refolved tofisttle, being engaged by the kind reception 
94»ich the gnand duke gave to men of letters. He was ap* 
poinMd to write the hiAory of Florence, and received many 
ieCtaMcices of that prince's bounty, which was tncreafed after 
his ivork was publiibed, for he was prefen ted with a canonry 
in the cathedral of Florence. The eafy (icuation in which' 
be y^as now placed, gave him an opportunity ofappiying him-'iVid^ 
felf more vigoroufly to his ftudies, and writing the greateft 
p^rc of the works we have of him [a]. He died at Flo* 
rencc the 30th of January, 1600, in the 69t^ year of his 

[a] Hit woiks are »t follow: t. '* hero rt f!oria dclU famiglia de Coat! 

** Arguments in Italian verfr, of the " Goi^i, coll* agiunte de Scipione 

•* Cantot of Ariufto^s Orlando Fu- " Ammiratogiovane.** Florence, 16404 

*< riofo/* whicfa were Hrft publtflifd in and 1650. 8. *' Delle Fam glie Fio- 

the editinn of that poem at Venice, in " rentioe, Florence, 1615,** folio. 9. 

■54^» ID quarto. ». *' [1 Dedalione ** Vefcovl de FiefoU di Volterra, e d* 

" dialogo del poeta, Naples, 1560,'*. " Arczzo, con Tageiunta di Sc-piontf 

o^avo* 3. '• l(\or\e Florentine dopo la ** Ammirtco il giovane, Florence^ 

•* ofndationediFierenieinnno air anno •* 1637," quarto, 10. *« Opofcoli 

7 1574-** Pfinted at Florcn.e, 1600, « varii, Florence, 15S 3/* In o6)tvo. if. 

in two volvmet Mio. 4. *<Dtfcoifi. ** Rime vane,** Printed in a colledlioa 

•• fopra Cornelio Ta^ito, Difcouifei of poems by different authors, Venice, 

*• upon Cornelius Tacitu*, Florence, 15^3, in octavo, ix. '* Poefie fpntaaU4 

1598.** quarto. 5. <« Dcile fan iglie •• Venice, 1634/* in quarto. 13, 

** AobiK NapoUonr.** Part I. at Flo- ** Annotaziooi fopra la feconda parte di 

lence, J5S0, in folio ) part II. at Fin. ** Sonetti di Bernardino Rota fatci in> 

veoce^ 165 T, folio. 6. *< Difcorfi delle *' norte di Porzia Capece fuainoglia«. 

** Famighe Paladma et rAntoglietta,** *< Naplea, 1360/* in quaxto« 
Florence, iSog, in quarto. 7. " Al* 

AMMONfUS (Andrew), a native of Lucca, who came 
and fettled in England, He lived fome time in fir Thomas 
More*s houfey and afterwards in St. Thomas's college ; forErif«4 
he was not in circumftances fufficient to hire or keep a houfeBpift.ii- 
of his own. There fubfifted a ftrong friendfliip and clofe*'**'^!*!^ 
correfpondence betwixt him and Erafmus, The advice which''** 
Erafmus gives him, in regard to pufhing his fortune, has 
a good deal of humour in^ icj and was cercainljr intended as a 
fatire on the artful meihods generally pra£lifed by the felfHh 
and ambitious part of mankind : *' In thefirft place," fays he, 
** throw off all fcnfe of fhame; thruft yourfelf into every 
*^ one's bufinefs, and elbaw out wbomfoever you can ; net* ' 
•* ther love nor hate any one ; meafure every thing by your 
*< own advantage; Iqt this be the fcope and drift of all 
«< your adiiuns. Give nothing but what h to be returned 

*« with 

iS06 A M M O N I U S. 

** with afur^t and be compUiTant to tvery bodf. Have tlU 
** ways two firings to your bow. Feign that you are foli- 
*' cited by many from abroad, and get every thing ready for 
•• your departure^ Shew letters inviting you elfewhere, 
•* with great promifes [a J," Fortune at length began? to 
fmile upon Ammonius» for he was appointed fecretary to 
Henry VIII. and honoured by pope Leo X. with a public 
cbarader at the court of this prince ; and in all appearance 
he would have foon rifen higher, had not death carried him 
IU(!.Ep,?i,ofF when he was but of a middle age : he died of the fweat- 
f*>^ ing ficknefs [b], in 1517* Erafmus thus laments his death : 

** how 

f A JTrincipio perfrica frontem oequid " Caiut refided^ it broke ovt id a tctj 

nfquann podear, Deinde otnnibot om- *' furiout manner ; the defcHption te 

siom negotiis te mifce, protrude qaem- " gives of it is terrible, like the plagoe 

cumque potes cubito. Neminem nee '* at Athens. He very properly calls it 

ames, nee oderis ex animo, led omoia " a peftileutial contagious ftwer, of ope 

tuo compeadio metiare. Ad hunc fco- ** natural dav : the fweat itfelf He 

pool omnis vitx ratio fpe^et. Ne quid ** reckons only asafymptom or criiis of 

des nifi unde fperes fsenus ) aiTent^re ** this fever. The manner of its fcizttre 

omnibus omnia. Duabus fe'ieto fellis* '* wasthas: firft it affeded £omc pif' 

Suborna diverfos procos qui te ambiant* " ticular pait, attended with inward 

Minare etapparadifceCb'Vf. Oftende ii- " heat' and burnings unquenchable 

teras quibus magnis pollicitis avocaris. ** thirft, reftieflnefsy licknefs at the 

Erafm. Epift. xiii.llb. viii. p. 414. '' fiomach and heart (though feldom 

[b] The learned Caius, as quoted by " vonniting)^ bead-ach^ deliriom* then 

Dr. Freind, gives the following account " faintnefs. and exceilive drawfint/f)* 

of the fwreating ficknefs : '* It began at *' the pulfe quick and vehement, and 

** fifft in 14S3, in Henry VJrs army. ** the breath fcort and labouring. Cbil- 

** upon hie landing at Milford-haven, *' dren, poor and old people, lefs fubj:^ 

** and fpread itfelf in London from the. '* to it. Of others, fcarce any efcaped 

** ziftof September to the end of Odo- " the attack, and mod died: in that, 

*• her. It returned here five times, and " town, where it lafted feven moDths, 

** always in fummer s firft in 14S5, " peri/hed near a thouiand. Even by 

*< then in 1506, afterwards io 15 17, ** travelling into France or Flanders 

*' when it was fo violent that it killed '* they did not efcape $ and what is 

•• in the fpace of three hours ; (0 that •* fi ranger, even the Scotch were free, 

•' many of the nobility died, and of the ** and abroad the Engliflionly afieded, 

" vulgsr ibrt, in feveral towns, half *' and foretgners not affeded in Effg- 

" often periflied. It appeared the fourth " land. None recovered in lefs than 

•* time in 15x8, and proved mortal *• twenty. four hours. At firft the phy- 

" then in the fpace of fix hours ; many *' ficians were mocb puxzled how to 

•• of the courtiers died of it, and Henry ** treat it : the only cure was to carry 

•* VIIL bimfelf was in danger. In ** on the fweat, which was necei&iy 

•* 1519, and only then, it infefted the *• for a longtime, for if flopped, itwif' 

*' Netherlands and Germany, in which " dangerous or fatal 1 the way there* 

« laft country it did much mifchiff, and " fore was to be patient and lie ftiU| 

*• deftroyed many, and particularly was ** and not to take cold. If nature vas 

•' the occafion of interrupting a confe- ** not (troog enough to do it, art flwuld 

«« rence at Marpurgh between Luther «* aflift her in promoting the fweat by 

« andZuinglius about the eucharift. The ** cloaths, medicinci, wine, &c, Tbe 

" laft return of it with us was io 1551 1 «< violence of it was over in fiftcea 

*' in Weftminfter it carried oif one bun- «« hours j bot 00 fecurity till tweijty- 

<« dred and twsenty in a day. At Siircwf- «• four hours were paft. In fome there 

" bury parlicuhrlyi where our author « wasaneceflity torepeatthefweatiiigi 

' • . id 

A M M O N I U S. fLOf 

** how many of my old companions have I loR*' fays be I 
** in the firft place, Andrew Ammonius of Lucca: good 
** God ! what a fprightly genius ! of what a faithful memo* 
^^ ry ! how noble was his foul, how free from envy and 
*^ every meannefs ! When his own qualifications, and the 
*' applaufe of princes, had opened him a way to the greateft 
** affairs, he was fuddenly fnatched ofF, before be was forty 
*< years of age : the lofs of whom I cannot but lament, as 
*' often as I reflect how delighted I was witli his acquaint* 
" ance." Epift. 5. lib. 23. 

AnnnDonius wrote fome Latin poetical pieces, , In the 
Epitome of Gefner's Bibliotheca, the following are mentionr 
ed : I. " Scotict conflidlus hiftoria, lib. i." 2- ** Bucolica^ 
feu Eclogae, lib. i." 3. " De rebus nihili, lib. i." 4, 
** Pancgryicus quidam, lib. i." 5. ** Epigrammata, lib. i." 
6. •* Poemata diverfa." 

'* in ftrong conftitutions, twelve times. ** means. It appeared 1>y experience^ 

** Great daflger to remove out of bed ; ** as the lord Bacon obfervet, that this 

'* fome who had not fweated enough, *' difeafe was rather a fnrprize of nature, 

** fell into very ill fevers. No flcfh in *' than obft mate to remedies, if it were 

*' all the time; nor drink the firft five *' in time well treated ; for when proper 

^* hours; forin the fevenththediflem- " care was taken, the patient generally 

** per iDcreates j abuut the ninth deli* *' recovered.*' Dr. Freind's Hift. FhyL 

" rium; ileep to be avoided by all vol. ii. p. 333, 

AMONTONS (William), was born in Normandy the 
laft day of Augufl; 1663. His father having removed to Pa-^ 
ris, William received the firft part of his education in this 
city. He was in the third form of the Latin fchool, when, 
after a confiderable illnefs, he contracted fuch a deafnefs as. 
obliged him to renounce almoft all converfation with man- 
kind. In this fltuation he began to think of employing bim- 
fclf in the invention of machines : he applied therefore to the 
ftudy of geometry ; and it is faid, that he would not try any 
remedy to cure his deafnefs, either becaufe he thought it in- 
curable, or becaufe it increafed his^ attention. He ftudied 
alfo the arts of drawing, of furveying lands, and of building; 
and in a (horttime he endeavoured to acquire a knowledge of 
thofe more fublime laws which regulate the univerfe. He 
ftudied with great care the nature of barometers and thermo- 
meters ; and, in 1687, he prefented a new hygrofcope to the 
Royal Academy of Sciences, which was very much approved. 
He communicated to Habin, a famous enameller, fome 
thoughts he had conceived, concerning new barometers and 
thermometers ; but Hubin had prevented him in fome of his 
thoughts, and did not much regard the reft, till he made a 

9 voyage 

aoS A M O N T O N S. 

FoBtenelle^ voyagt into England, where the fame thoughts ^ere meti« 

Mun'^e ^^*^^"^ ^^ ^^^ ^y ^^"^^ fellows of the Royal Society. Amoiir 
r Acad, det tons found out a method to acquaint people at a gjreat A'lU 
Sciencet^ tance, in a very little time, with whatever one pleafed* Tl)f 
'^^^* method was as follows : Let there be people placed in feversj 
ftations, at fuch a diftancefrom one another, that by the help 
of a tetefcope a man in one ftation may fee a fignal made ia 
the next before him ; he muft immediately make the fame 
fignal, that it nnay be feen by perfons in the ftation next af« 
ter him, who is ta communicate it to thofe in the following 
ftation, and fo on, Thefe flgnals may be as letters of the at* 
t)babet, or as a cypher, under ftood only by the twp perfoiu 
who are in the diftant places, and not by thofe who make 
the fignals. The perfon in the fecond ftation making thtf 
fignal to the perfon in the third the very moment he fees Ttin 
the firft, the news may be carried to the greateft diftance in as 
little time as is necelTary to make the fignals in the firft fta* 
tion. Thediftanceof the feveral ftations, which muft be as 
few as poffibic, is meafUred by the reach of a telefcop^i 
Amontons tried this method in a fmall trsi£t of land, before 
feveral perfons of the higheft rank at the court of France* 
In 1695, he publifiied a book intituled, <« Remarques etexpe^ 
^^ riences phyfiques fur la conftru(3ion d'une nouvelle clep<* 
*' fydre, furies barometres, thermometres, et hygrooiet res;'' 
and this is the only book he wrote, befides the pieces whkb 
we have of him in the Journal des S9avans. Though the 
hour-glaftes made with water, fo much in ufe amongfi: the 
ancients, be entirely laid afide, becaufe the clocks and 
watches are much more ufeful, yet Amontons took a great 
deal of pains in making his new hour-glafs, in hopes that it 
ftright ferve at fea, as being made in fuch a manner^ that the 
ffloft violent motion could not alter its regularity ; whereas a 
great agitation infallibly diforders a clock or watch. When 
the Royal Academy was new regulated in 1699, Amontons 
Was admitted a member of if j and read there his *• New 
Theory of Fri£lion," in which he happily cleared up a very 
important part of nfiechanics. He had a particular genius for 
making experiments : his notions were delicate and juft: ht 
knew how to prevent the inconveniences of his new inven- 
tions, and had a wonderful (kill in >executing thfem. rie en- 
joyed a perfeft health, and, as he led a reauUr life, wais not 
fubjeft to the leaft infirmity 5 but was fuddenly feized with an 
inflammation in his bowels, which Toon tiioitifying, occa- 
fiancd his death, upon the nth of 06iober, J 705. 


A MO R Y. ;iP9 

AMORY (Thomas), a dUTcnttngmmiftcr gf conWer-Blofr. Brit. 
Hble note, was the fon of a grocer at Taunton in Spmerfet- 
ihire, where he W9S )>oi'n, Js^n. 28, 1701 ; antl^at that pUce 
acquired his c|affical learning* under the care of Mr. Chad- 
wic]& From Taunton he was femoved to Exeter, ^h^ihe 
might be inftruded in the Frenph language by Mr. It^ajeQdie, 
a Refugee minifter in that city. After young Ampry.had ob« 
'tained the knowledge of the French language, be ret^rQeqto 
Mr. Chad wick, where h^ had for his fcbpol^feIlq>w M^*" 
Micaiah Tqwgood, the ableft advocate among (be,' diijlent* 
ers, in the points of controverfy which pccaiion tbeir fepa« 
ration froni the church of England* At, I< 17171 
they were both put und^r the academical inltrudipn of Mr. 
Stephen James, and Mr. Henry Grpve, who during the rejgn 
of Queen Anne, had been joint tutors at Tauntpn,..fQr bring- 
ing up young perfons to the miniftry ; but upon the paffing 
of the fchifm bill, had dcfifted from that jemployinent, till 
George I. was well eftabliflied in the throne, un4cx thefe 
Preceptors, Mr. Amoiy went through the ufiial pjrepainafory 
learning ; and in the fummer of 1722, was approved of as a 
candidate for the miniftry [a]. Being defirous of.improve* 
ment, he removed, iq the November following, ia ttiondpn, 
and attended a courfe of experimental philoCopny, upder Mr. 
John E.ames* Upon his return to Taunton,, he preached 
alternately at feveral places in the neighbourhood, till, upon * 
'Mr* James's death in 1724 or 17:^5, and Mr. 'Grove's being 
chofeo to fucc^d him as P,a/lor of the congregation i% Full- 
wood, Mr p. An^ory was fix^d as a. Aated affiant preacher to 
Mr. Darch of Hiall Qiihops } befide which,, he h,|id one 
monthly tnrn at Lambrook near Sputh^^Petherton, andanofher 
at .Weft Hatch, four miles from Taunton, ^t the fame time, 
he was requefted by^is uncle, Mr. Grove, to take a part in t^e 
Jnftruflion of the, pupils, in the room of Mr. Jame$ ; With 
which rcqueft: he complied. The buftnefs ^aiSghed. bitii he 
difcbarged.with grpat' ability s^d diligence ; being well qua- 
lified .for it by bis knowledge in, an4 j^Ue for, the 'fineft 

- Ta]^^^^ yovnS.incAi strong |b« If their oualiflcations »nd moral chi- 

/Di^QUr»^havep»flcd'tbreugh, or nfar- rasters be approved , of, they rtci^iVe a 

^ ly'finnM their acadeinirk\ courfe, they tt()imoniai bgmfyiiig tHat apiM>littM>o, 

oad^o ah csaminatloit eifller of the ac'com^iiied ^ith « reCommcntiadflfti of 

biurets Mi4 tiitors of the iemiaarief in . them to thofe fodeues among ^nrhom 

^^hich ciiey jiave been edncitedj or of they may be called Vo officiate. ' This 

^^mt other miniften fixed h^on for that method of 'p^i)cae£hg^may be confidered 

pvrpofe. ypan tbeie dbcifionti they as aof«crtn^ <1» a gfisat roeadure, to the 

9fo*l\f .ilfljvv * fiamooy itfcinuin a coiiferrioe of. Deacon's orderi in the 

thi^s, and fobmit to fuch tterfifes be. Church oi* England. * -"''..' 

Idd ia are thoaght occdf^i atod*iA^|«r* 

Vol. !• P Qxccm 

410 A M O R y. 


Grecian and Roman daffies, and by his thorough acquaint^ 
ance with the beft and lateft ^improvements in found phWo* 
fdpby. ' In 1730, be was ordained at Paul's meeting ia 
.Taunton; and from this time was united^ in the congrega* 
tion at Taunton, with Mr. patfen; but that gentleman 
keeping the whole falary to himfelf, feveral 6f the principal 
p^rfons in the fociety were fo difpleafed with him, that, early 
in the fpring of 1732, they agreed to build aqother Meeting- 
Houfe, and to choofe Mr. Amory for their paftor. In the 
' beginning of 1738, on the death bf Mr Grove, he became 
chief totOr to the academy at Tiiinxon^ and condufiedthe 

*'* bufinefs of it' wuh,th^ fame abilities, and the fame candid 
iind enlarged views, Mfhich had been difplayed by thatemi- 

' he'nt man* He had the advantage of the ledurds ^nd expe- 

riei)ce of his excellent uncle, added to his own; and be 

fvas anihiated by an equal fpirit of integrity and ^eal, and an 

Vls^^xidl/it^tfidfcuhivzXing and improving every intcHcflual 

'^'^ktid tnxstsi qualifieation in the young perfons committed to 
tiis charge".' Many pupils were formed Under him, of gfeat 

' %orth dnd diftingui(hed literary improvements.* In 174I) 
lie married a daughter of Mr. Baker, a diflenting minifterin 

* Southwark; an excellent lady, who furvived him, and with 
' Whboi he lived in the greateft aiFe<Slion and harmony. By 

this lady he had feverarchildren, four of whom furvived him. 
Duting hi$ refidence in Taunton he .was held in the greatelt 
efleerh, ridt only by his own' fociety; but by all the neigh- 
bouring congregations 'and minifters ; and even tbofe who 

^ ' differed tht molt from him in private opt^nion^^ could not 
^ livbid ftyitig a tfihuic of refpe£l to the integrity and excel- 

' * knee of his trharaflen He was much refpeQed, likewife^ by 
the gdntleifieti atid clergy of the eflfabliflied church-; was 

8 articulirly honoured, when very young, with the friend* 
n'p of Mrs. Rowe, and kept up a correfpondence with her 
by letters^ One inftance bf the refpe^ entertained for binif 
and of hisowri liberal and hononourable condtif^, cannot* be 
blnhted. When foihe of the principal perfdns of the Baptift' 
Society in Taunton, owing to the difguft they had received 
^ ,^t their then pafior^ Would:haive deferted him, an4 cbmmu- 
cintcated to Mr. Amory their intention of becoming bis flatted 
J hearets, he generoufly difiuaded them Jrom the execution of 
'" iiheir defigh, as a ftep vt^hich would pfoire highly Injurious toi 
' -^thereputationt, in,embers9.and liiteri^ of the congregation 

• th^y tfttfeiided 10 Acave. Mr. Amory was fo happy with bis 
peopte af Tauhtbnj aitd fo generally refpeSed and beloved 
both inihe towri and tlie neighbpjurhoo^dj^Jthat, perhiips, It fp^y 

AMOR V. 2 It 

{>e deemed (Irange that he (hould be induced to quit his Citui* 
iion. This, however, he did, in Odober 17599 at which 
time he removed to London, to be afternoon preacher to th6 
Society in the Old Jewry^ belonging to Dr. Samud Chand- 
ler. But the grand motive, befides (he hope pf more exten* 
five ufefulnefs, feems to have- been^ that he might advanta- 

feoufly difpofe of his children, in whibh refpeA he fucceeded. 
t muft, indeed, be acknowledged, that he did not,' in the 
metropolis, meet with all that acceptance and popularity, as 
a preacher, to which he was entitled by his real merit. • His 
delivery was clear and diflinfl, and1)is difcourfesexeeHenti 
but his Jbice was not powerful enough to roufe the bulk of 
mankind, who are (truck with norfe and parade : and bis 
fermons^ ^hovgh-pradticalj ferious, and afieding to the at- 
tentive hearer,^ were rather too clofe, judicious and phtlofo- 
phical f6r the (Common run of congregations. To this it mijft 
be added, that the liberality of his fentiments was not cal- 
culated for the vulgar,' Who are, for the moft pskrt, devoted 
to bigots and enthufiafls. But Mr. Amory had, what he vs^- 
lued much more, the attention and regard of the intelUgeut 
and rational diflenters ; be enjoyed a general refpe£l; and he 
received every mark of diftin£^ion which is Ufually paid, in 
^ndon, to the tnoR eminent minifters of the preib^erian 
denomination. . In 176^, he was chofea one of thetruftees 
to the charities of Dr. Daniel Williams. In 1768, theUni- 
verfity of Edinburgh conferred upon him, by diploma, thd 
degree of D. D. and in the fame }'ear, he was elected dneof 
the fix Tuefday Ledlurers at Salter's Ifall, in the room of 
Dr. Jabel Earle deceafed. It ought to have been mentioned, 
that, previous to thefeUaft events^ he was chofen^ 4it the 
' death of Dr. Chandler,' in 1766, a paftor of the foc^ety at 
the Old Jewry ; and the Rdv. -Mr. White, from Leeds hi 
Vorkfliire, was fbon united with him as joint paftof. In 
this fituation Dr. Amory continued till hisdeceaie. In 1776^ 
he became morning- preacher at Newington Greeny atid 
colleague with the Rev. Dr. Ricba'rd Pricie. WheittTre dif- 
fenting minifters, in 1772, formed a defign of endeavouring 
tb procure an enlargement of the toleration a£l,< Dr« Amcff^y 
was one of the committee appointed for that purpofe; and 
tione coutd be more iiealous for the profectition of the fchem^ ; 
none could be lefs diverted from political confidecacioas^ 
or artificial- reafonings« He thought that the petition to- par- 
liament was right in itfelf ; that it v/as founded 6n t)i6 pfib- 
ciples.of natural juftice, and of tru« Cbxiftianity i and« there- 
fore^ he was for having it urged withp a miliily Vigoilr' aiAd 

P a • foriJtudft 

iiz A Si ft Y. 

fortitude [b}. Dr.Amoryhad the felicitj of having hit 
ufefjttlnefii, and his capacity for public fervice, continued 
nearly to the laft. June i6(h, 17749 he was feized with a 
fudden diforder which left him nearly in a ftate of Infcnfibility 
till his death, which happened on the 24th of that month, 
,and in the 74th year pf his age* . He was interred in BunhiU 
Fields,^ pi> the fifth of July ; and his funeral was attended by 
a refpei^ble number of minifters and gentlemen. The dii- 
^ourfe, on the occafion of his death, was preached in tlie Old 
^ Jewry, on the loth ef the fame month, by the Rev. Dr. 
Roger Flexman of Rotberhithe, . who had been cdnneAcd 
with him in an intimate friendlbip for more than 40 years; 
.which friendlhip. Dr. Flexman afliires us, had never once 
hetn interrupted by diftafie, or darkened with a frown. 
Dr. Kippii^ Dff Amory's charaAer was excellent in every vievf. It 
.feems to have been formed upon that of. his uncle, Mr. 
Grove, with whom he had been clofely conneded from his 
.infancy, and bis connexion* with whom he confidered as the 
•principal felicity of his life. His piety was equally rational 
.Slid fervent. It was founded on the moft enlarged fend- 
ments concerning the Divine Providence and Government; 
.and wa^, therefore, difplayed in a fpirit of cheerful devotion, 
lovp, an^ confidence. It was a principle that influenced hit 
.whole behaviour; a principle which rendered him firidly 
.virtuous in every refped, and peculiarly amiable in all the le* 
latioDS of life. None could excel him as a hufband, a father, 
'. a matter, and a friend. He was diftinguifhed for his general 
^ benevolence and humanity ; and as ai companion he was re- 
• markably pleafing and engaging. He abounded with a num- 
ber of fliort ftories, drawn from an extenfive knowledge 
of books and men, which, while they were entertainiog^ 
i.were calculated and defigned to convey inftruAion. In 
ihort, takidg him in the whole of his private charader, be 
..was allowed by hif intimate acquaintance to have been one of 
the wpf thieft men tbey had ever known. 

Ifi his public chara£lerA,as a teacher of religion. Dr. Amory 
was greatly refpcSahle. The devotional part of worihip wflu 

[a] Pr« Anor)phtd frQoi hit jponth icribeagreat nomber of do^oalf^ 
btcn aterfe to every degree oif impoCtron ticlei, he had not fubmitced'to thedoiog 
iipoa the amfciencet of *Wo. He of it/and Was leiermtaed Aevert»do 

. corally, dtlapproved of ftiWferiptSDOt to « fo. ' Hence he wat nahirftUjr folicit«os 
hnioaa forpl^Iaa• The re|^oij^tv>n of thatbimfelf and hit brethren /Iwoldvb* 
them by the chukchof jtngland wat one ' tiiaalegal exemption from the pdi^' 
of the priafclpat parent of hii ftpAkktins tiet to which they Were Ibljeft for dxir 

l.fcemilipe. Thoiigbbytlieteriiitpfthe aM-c^ptiataec^ 
tolencioa ad> he wit le^uied to fab- , 


A M Q R, X* aij 

condufked by him with admirable proprietary ferioufnefs, and 
fervour. His fermona were clofe, accurate, folid, and affec- 
tionate. The topics he chiefly infifted upon were the per« 
fe&iom^ and provMence of God ; the veneration, love, truft,' 
and obedience we (hould ever exercife towards him; die 
evidences of a future ftate; the truth and excellency of the 
gofpel ; the great duties of the Chriftian life; the account 
we muft give hereafter ; and the important confequeiices of 
that account. He never devoted the pulpit to trifling fub* 
jeds. If any thing difputable was ever introduced by litm, it 
waa to expofe the dodrines of rigid Calvinifm, which he , 
tnuch difapproved, as giving very narrow and unworthy 
ideas of the Suprenae mind. His fentiments, with regard 
td both natural and' revealed religion, nearly sgreed with 
thofe of Dr. Samuel Clarke, and of the eminent divines who 
were coadjutors with that great man. Dr. Amory did not, 
therefore, fall in with theSbcinian principles, which, of lat^ 
have been fo warmly defended : neither did he reject the na» 
tural evidences of a life to come, or the notion of a feparate 
ftate, as feveral ingenious modems have done. How fiur liia 
general fyftem of opinions was right, we pretend not to de« 
termite ; our bufinefs being only, as hiftonans, to relate the 
matter of fad. Whatever his fentiments were, he maintain- 
edikem with the utmoft candour, and retained the fincereft 
regard for thofe who difFered from him. As to his learning, 
it was folid, judicious, and extenfive. He was well acquaint- 
cd with every part of theology, and diligently ftudied the 
Holy Scriptures. He was, likewife, much conyerfant with 
ethics, natural and experimental philofophy, and the beft an- 
cients, efpecially their moral writings. Nor was he above 
amufing himfiplf with hiftory, books of travels, poetry, and 
Other entertaining fpecies of coiiDpofition. But his general 
application was to thofe more ferious and important parts of 
ftudy, that were immediately fuited to his profeffion. This 
will appear from his works ; the account of which, as given 
by Dr. Flexman, at the end of his Funeral Serinon for .Dr. 
Amory (together with an addition or two by Dr. Kippis, to 
render it more complete), tnay be feen at large in the Biogra* 
phia Britannica, vol. I. p. 178^ 

AMYOT (James), bifhop of Auxerre and great almoner 
of France, was born' of an obfcure family at Melun, the 30th 
of October 1514; and ftudied philofophy at f^aris, in the 
college of cardinal L.e Moine. He was naturally dull and 
heavy ; but diligence and application made amends for thefe 

P 3 natural 

414 A M ^ O t. 

ISttural defcQs* Ifaving taken the degree of Mafter of Arts at 
oioetecQ, he purfued his ftudies under the roval profeiforj 
cftablifticd by f^rancis I. viz. James Tufen, who explained 
tkn Gre^k poets i Pet«^ Dones,, profefibr of rhetoric ; and 
Oronce.Fine, profcilbr of aiatbematics. He left Paris at thQ 
age of tw^nty^'three, and went to Bourges with the fieur Co- 
Jin, who had the abbev of St. Ambrofe in that city. Attht; 
recommeiidatioh of this abbot, a fecretary of Aate took An>- 
yot into his houfe, to be tutor to his children* The gre^t 
iinproven>e|its they made under his direction induced the fe- 
cretary to repomipend him to the princefs Margaret duchef^ 
pf Berry, only fitter of Francis I. and by means of this re- 
commendatioi^ Amyot was made public profefibr of Greel( 
and Latin in theuniverfity of Bourges : he read two ledlures 
ft day for ten years^ a Latin le^ure in the morning, and a 
;Gr<;ek one in the afternoon. It was during this time h^ 
tranflated into French the ^^ Amours of Theagenes and Cha- 
riclea," which Francis I, was fo pleafed with, that he confer* 
red upon him the abbey of. ^ellofane. The death of thi^ 
prince happening foon afcer, ^n^y^^t thought it would be bet« 
|; try bis fortune elfewhere, than to expe<^ 9ny . prefer- 
ment at the court of France ; he therefore accompanied Mor^ 
yillier to Venice, on his embafly from Henry 11. to that re- 
public. When Morviliier was recalled from his eaibail/i 
ilmyot would not repafs the Alps with him, choofmg rather 
jto go to Rome^ where he was kindly received by the bifhop 
of MirepoiX) at whofe houfe he lived two years. It was 
here, that, looking over the manufcripts of the Vaticap, h; 
difcover^d that Heiiodorus, bifliop of Tricca, was the author 
of the *' Amours of Theagenes :" and finding alfoa manufcript 
inore correal and complete than that which he had tratiflatedj 
)ie was enabled thereby to give a better edition of this work. 
His labours^ however, in this way did not engage him fo, as 
|to divert him from puibing his fortune : h^ infinu^ted himfelf 
fo far into the favour of cardinal ,De Tournon, that the car* 
.dinal recommended him to the king, to be preceptor to his 
jwo younger fons. While he wa« iri this employment b? 
finifiied his tranflation of Plutarch's Live^, which he dedica- 
ted to the king; arfd afterwards undertook that of Piutarch^s 
Alorals, which he ended in the reign of Charles IX. and de- 
dicated to that prince. Charles conferred upon him the ab- 
bey of St. Cornelius de Compiegne, and m^de him great al- 
moner of France apd bifhop of Auxerrej and the place of 
gJreat almoner and that of curator of the univerfity of Paris 
.{^^PPfiiiing to be vacant at the f^e time, he was alfo inveffe^ 

A M r O T. 215 

in both thete employments, which Tbuanus greatly com*^»*-'"** 
plains of. Henry III, perhaps would have yieldej^ to the 
prefling folicitatioDs of the bifhop of St. Flour, who had atr 
tended him on his journey into Poland, and made great inte- 
reft for the poft of great almoner ; but the duchefs of Savoy, ' 
tSe king's aunt, recommended Amyot fo earnefily to him^ ' 
when he paiTed through Turin, on his return from Poland, 
tfiat he was not only continued in' his employment, but a' 
new honour was added to it for his fake : for when Henry 
Iir. named Amyot commander of the order of the Holy 
Cjhoft, he decreed at the fame time, as a mark of refpe^ to - 
him, that all the great almoners of. France ihould beof courfe 
commanders of that order., Amyot did not neglect his ftudies 
ifi the mid ft of his honours, but revifed all his tranflatioiis 
with great care, compared theni with the Greek text, and al- 
tered many paiFages : he defigned to give a more complete 
edition of them, with the various reading of divers manu-' 
fcripts, but died before he had finilhed that work* He died 
tKe 6th of February, i^9Jj in the feventy-ninth year of* 1 
his age, ! 

AMVRAUT (MosEs), an eminent French divine, w^i 
born in September 1596, at BourgueiU a fmall town of. 
Xouraine, of an ancient farhily originally from Orleans. 
Having gope through his courfe of philofophy, he was fent 
to Poi&itti^ to read law, to which he applied bimfelfwith 
great* afliduity, and (s faid to have fpent fourteen hours a day , 

in that ftudy. At the end of his firft year, he took the de- 
gree of licentfate : but Mn Bouchereau, minifter of Saumur^ 
advifinghim to ftudy divinity, and the reading of Calvin's Jn« 
6itution» having ftrongly incHned him to follow (his advice, 
he acquainted his father that he earneftly defired to be a 
clergyman, and obtained his ailent, though not without a 
good deal of difiiculty. He went to. ftudy at Saumur, where 
he continued a confiderable timeas ftudent of divinity. Upon 
his admiffion into orders, he was prefented to the church of 
St. Agnaq; in the country of Mayne; .where after having, 
lived eighteen months, he was invited to Saumur, to fucceed ^ 
Mr. Daille, appointed minifter of Char^nton. About the 
fame time that the church of Saumur defired him for their mi*^ 
niiler, the academic council fixed upon him for profeftbr of 
divinity. Hrs admiffion to the profeftbrfliip, with his pre- 
vious examination, and bis inaugural thefts *< De facerdbtiQ 
^^ Chhfti," redounded much' to his reputation, 

• .. ? 4 ?*» 

aid A Kl y R A U T. 

Id i,63l| he was fent deputy to the national council at 
Cbarenton ; anci by i^ik ^Heinbly wak appofnted to'addrefs 
the king,' and'lay' before bis mnefty tbeir complaints <x>n* 

' cerning. the irifradton of the/ecfid^: He w«8 particularly 
charged^ not to deliver hisTj[iee(;h upon his knees, as the dt^ 
piitiesof the former national' (y hod hitddone. He managed 
this aifair with fo miicb addrefs, that he was introduced to' 
the king according to the ancient cuftpin', and in the ofianner 
tl^at wa^ agreeable to the afttrmbly : and it was on this occa- 
fiiOn that he became acquainted with carc^iiiaV Richelieu, vi^Ho' 
conceived a gres^i efteem' for Kim [a 1. Al>otit this tiipe hV 
piibli^eci a piece, wherein he explained fbe nfiyftery of |}rcl«> 
d^ttwfiiiori 4nd grace, according to tlie hypothefis of CAnero^ 
which occafioned a kind of civil war amoiiigft the protefiant 
divines of France f b]. Thofe who difliked the hypothefis^ 

. derideij it as a novelty, efpecially when they faw theinfclves 
joined by the great Du MoMlin, who acculed Aniyraut o( 
Ariahifm* The authority of this famous divine, to wbom 
I t6e people paid a great refped:' and veneration on account of 
the. many books of controverfy he had publiihed, made fo 
deep an impreffion in the. minds of many mtnifters, ihatt 
though Aniyraut had pQblilh<^^ a piece, wherejri he maintained 
CiUvin to have held uriiverfal grate ; yd maAy dep^tteflf^ at 

[a] CaieiiMrl Riditllni impaitei to dared, wh^n Mr, Ainyraot tooclie^ 

hiA &e.dciiin .Jie bid formi^ of fe* ti(k>B tbe (kMElrinea of tfat edchariftt thtt 

I uttitio^ %ht two chaichca* Tlio Jcfitit no^altdratiOn wooid be admhted there | 

vrho conferred with Mr. Amyraat opon whereupon the other atafwered, that then 

tbit fnhjtB waa father Audeiert. Mr. th^ would come to no agreement. Thif 

De Villeneov^ lord licotcfiaat of Saui^ cdnference lafliediabftut foor iotin i thf 

ipor, baying iA%ited then both to di^. Jefoil reqttired. <ecr^y $ but Mr. Amy- 

ner, look care they /hbyld confer in pn- raiut prote/ied^ according to the ^eclara- 

vete after dinner. It it true tdr, Jimy» tion he had made firft to Mr. ViHeaeuve/ 

« rAitpfotcfted^tbathrcdoUaotforbeaii thai he wo^ld communicate the whole 

point of religion s aAd be dec|aic^,that re^fion on thefe difputet t ** If nei« 

the Roman caihofice were ready to f^ «• thcf party,** jbys he, «' apprebendf 

Ciificc to tjfc j^oblic tranqoilUty tbe ib- «# the Opinions tfiey rejeft,' to be perai- 

vocation pf faints^ purgitory^ and the «« clous; wbyflioold they cartyon the 

Vieritof good workfj th?t they would «• difpute9farthi;it}ian itconfiftcatwitb 

fet bounds .to the pope's power, and in »< the peace and tranquillity of the pub., 

eafe they^et with oppofittoh froin the «• lie , and^t father iefift,- as ibonai 

court of Bomci they woulii lyy hold po ** tjljcy perceive that they foment diri- 

thatV:caftnn 10 create a patriarch} t}ut !• (ions in ^milies, or |iv>e life to par^ 

the laity fliodld be ^Uo'wfd the coinma. '* ties ? wilt not their obtlinacy roeze a 

Aioawbothkindai and that they wooM •* tboofand miJ^hievotii pafBoas, that 

inre ^p fcveral other poip^s, jyov^ed <* ought to be chained up HKe to maoy 

tfcjry found m the proteflants a fincere «' wild beafts ? and woe to the mantbat 

f ellre of peace and oaion, Bot be dei. f» aakci ihem get loole.** 



tte ilationatiVtod of AieofDn came charged with infinite 
ckms againft him, and fome were even for depofiog hiai. 
The depaties of the provintes beyond the Loire were the- 
iMft vf<ri4etit a^inft him : ho#evcr» the fyood, after having; 
heard Atnyraot exjrfain his opii|jon« in feveral feffions, and 
alifwer tbe otgeftioha made thereto, honourably- acquitted 
bifti, amd enjoined filence in refpeA to queftions of this na* 
tore : but this warnot juftly obferved by either fide^ for com* 
plaints were made againft Amyraut, in the national fynodof' 
Charentod, for havinga&d contrary to the legulations con»sioalc^ 
ceming that filence;' and he, in his turn, complained of in- AatiMofte 
fta^iofis of the fame nature. The aflemblyy by an Holy.^^M^ 
Amoefty, fupprelled thefe mutual complaints; and luving 
i^dewed thd injundion of filence, fentback Amyraattohia 
^liipl^liieijt, and permitted him to oppofe foreignera who 
flkHiid attack him, in what manner the fynod of Anjouihottkl 
tbthk proper. This fjfnod allowed him tb publifli an anfwep 
f6thc^ three Vbl^m^ of Spanhemiuis upon univerCU graotgilil^ 
^hieh occafioh^ the writing of feveral others. 

Atnyraot, being a man well acquainted with the worlds 
i^as Very entertaining in converfation, which contributed nm 
. )efs than the reputation of bis learning to render him efteeok* 
dtf' by fd many pierft>ns of quality, though of oppofite priA* 
ciples in religioas matters: among tbofe who particulaiff 
diftinguiflied him, were the marihals De Breze and De la 
MeiUeriac, Mr. Le Goiix de la Berchere, firft prefident of the 
parliament of Burgundy, and cardinal Masaria, What 
gained him the favour of this cardinal was, in all probability^ 
his openly declaring in favour of the obedience due to fove* 
reigns, which proved very advantageous to the court of France 
during the troubles of the league againft cardinal Mazarin^ 
called de h Fronde. In his <* Apology,*^ publiibed in 1647, 
in behalf of the Proteftants, he excufes as well as he can, the 
civil wars of France ; but he declares at the (ame time, thatp -^ 
he by no means intends to juftify the taking up of arm^ 
againft one's lawful fovereign upon any pretence whatfoevrr | 
and that he always looked upon it as more agreeable to the na- 
ture 0/ theOdfpel and the practice of the primitive church, to 
ufe no other airms but patience, tears, and pi^ayers, * But not* 
ii(^ttb (landing his attachment to this dodrine,, he was not fof 
bb^^itig in matters of cqnfcience, which plainly appeased 
when the feilef<^bal Of Saumur imparted to him an order from 
the council df ftate, enjoining all thofe of the reformed reli« 
don tb bang the outfide of their houfes on Corpus Chrifii day. 
The fenefchal notified this order to him the ev( of this holi* 


t^ .':AM y It ATI T. 

^,4iitfe8fiiig-t^im «t thu fame time to pcrfu^de.the Prote^<# 

a^s ta comply ^with it. To this Aoiyr^ut. iiiadc anrwer«> 

tliat, on the coimary, he wduld go diredlyjind exhort his 

^aftfiifoners not' to comply with it^ ashe-himfelf w;is refolved 

Dot to obey Ttich orders 4^ that in all his fennons he had en* 

deavoured to infpiFe his hearers with obedience and fubmiffion 

tD'Aiptrior'pd\¥er&) but not when their confcienc^s were con- 

cerned; Having thus acq^iainted the fenei'chsil with his refo- 

Itftion, he webt from houfe to houfe, laying before his pa- 

~ rift formers the r^fons why He thought they ought not to obey 

/ ^^^ pi*dcfof the eounoil. > The king's lieutenant, however^ 

* not thinking 11 -proper to fupport the Xenefchali no tumult 

afx>fe <ki thk occafidQ. 

- AoiyratJit ^i£ i man of fuch charity and compaffion, that 
he be{K>wed<ift the poor his whole falary during the laft tea 
years of his life, without diftindionof Catholic qr Proteflant. 
Hedied the^h of February, 1664, and was interred with 
«»''tbe ufual ceremonies of the academy* He left but one {oitf 
who was one of the ableft advocates of ,th^ parliament of 
Paris ; but fled to the Hague after the revocation of the edidl 
of Nantes : he had alfo a daughter, who died in 16459 a year- 
and a half after (be had been married:. His works are chiefly 
thieologicaU and verv voluminous.^ Mr, Du Bofc wrote tb< 
fallowing diftich under Mr. Amyraut's print : 

. A Mofead Mofem par Mofi non fuit iillus^ 
More* ore, et calamo, mirus uterque fuit* 

» From Mofes down to Mofes, none 

Among the Tons of men. 

With equalluftre ever (hone, 

|n manners^ tongue, apd. pen* 


ANACHARSIS, an illuftrious Scythian philofopher, 
, ,. : whofe life is written ' by Diogenes Laertius. He travelled to 
Athens in the time of Solon, with whom he contraAed an 
* intimate friend(hip; and Solon not only inftruded him, bat 
fought all opportunities of doing him honour. Anacharfis 
ivas kindly received alfo for his own fake, and was the only 
(Granger the Athenians had ever incorporated into their city. 
He had a quick and lively genius, a ftrong and mafterly elQ<* 
iqaence ; and there was fomething fo determined and refolutc 
in his manner, that thofe who imitated him were faid to 
fpeak in the Scythian ftyle^ He was extremely fond of 
poetry, and wrote upon certain laws of the Scythians and 
C^reeks.- Crcefus invited him to Senilis, a|id: oipfered hipi 


A N AC H A R S IS. fjy 

ftioney: but the philbfopher anftifcred, that he was " cottic 
" to Greece to learn the laws and manners of that country ;' 
'* that he had no occafion for gold or filver ; and that it 
•* would fuffice for him to return to Scythia a wifer and mortf 
** intelligent man than he came from thence.** After flay- 
ing long in Greece,' he prepared to return home : and* paffing 
ihrbugh Cyzicum, ' he found that city celebrating very. 
folemnly the feaft of Cybele, and yowed to do the ifamd, if 
he fhould get home in fafety. Upon his arrival in Scythia^ 
Be attempted to change the ancient cuftom's of his country^ 
and to eflabliQi thofe of Greece ; which proved extremely 
diiagreeable to the Scythians, and at length defiru£)ive to 
hicnfelf. For, enterihg' one day a thick wood, to perform 
his vow to.Cybele as fecretly as might be, he was difcovered 
in the midft of the folentinity, and {hot dead with an arrow 
by the king hitnfelf. *Laertius fays, that he was (hot by hia 
brother as he was hunting, and expired with thefe words : 
** I lived in peace and fafety in Greece, whither I went for 
*' inftrudion ; and envy has deft royed me here at home."Her©dot» 
Such is but too often the fate of men, who are zealous to*^'** H* 
reform the manners, and amend the laws and euftops of 
their c6untry. 

There are rt)any beautiful apophthegms of this philofopher, 
preferved by Laertiu<!, Plutarch, and other writers. He 
ufed to f^y, that *' the vine produced three forts of grapes^ 
*' the firft of pleafure, the fecbnd of drunkennefs, the third 
*' of repentance^' Struck with the Demagogical fyftem of 
government at Athens, he exprefled his furprife, that " in 
'^ all their public afiemblies wife men (hould debate matrers, . 
•* and fools determine them.'* One would fufpedl from 
this, that he would not have liked our £nglifli juries. He 
pfed to compare laws to cobwebs, and to ridicule Solon, w^o 
pretended to reftrain the paflions of men by pieces of writ- 
ing. . He was afloniibed at the Greeks, for ufing fmall 
glaffesat the beginning of their entertainments, and large ones 
towards the clofe of them. He of^ten re^ ^ated, that every man 
ihould labour particularly to make himfelf pafter of his 
tongue ^nd his belly; and he himfelf pra61ifed mod rigidly 
what he thus prefcribed to others, being both prudent in 
converfation, and temperate in diet. An Athenian one day re-? 
proachinghim with being a Scythian,** 7>ue," fays he, '* my 
•* country difgraces me; but you, Sir, are a difgrace to 
H your country." &c, &Cf 


luO^ A N A C R EO N« 

ANACREON, a Gredc poet, born at Teps, a fea-port 
of Ionia. Madam Dacier codeavoors to prove from Platq, 
that be was a kinfman of Solon's, and confcquently allied 
to the Coiriim^ the nobleft family in Atbeps ; but this ia not 
fiiflictently fupported. The time when be flouriChed is un- 
certain ; ^ufebius placing it in the dad, Suidas in the 5id, 
mnd Mr. Ijc Fevrc in the 7 ad Olympiad* He it faid to have 
Wen about eighteen years of age, when Harpagus, the gene- 
tal of Cyrus, came with an army, againft the confederate ch 
ties of the lonians and .£olians. The Milefians imme- 
diately, fiibmitted.themfelves; but the Phocaeans, when tbcy 
fimnd themfelves unable to witbftand the enemy, chofe ra- 
ther to abandon their country than their liberty ; and getting 
a fleet together, tranfpor ted themfelves. and families to the 
^ coaft. of France, where, being hofpitably received by Nanous 

Pevt^Mr the king of the country, they built Marfeilles. The Teians 
ibon followed their example ; for, Harpagus having made 
bimfelf mafter of their walla, they unanimoufly went on 
board their ihips, and failing to Thrace, fixed themfelves in 
the city Abdera. They bad not been there long, when the 
Thracians^ jealous of their new neighbours, endeavour^ tQ 
give them difturbance ; and in thefe conflids it feems to be^ 
that Anacreon loft thofe friends whom he celebrates .in his 
epigrams. This poet had certainly a moft delicate wit, but 
was certainly too fond of pleafures, for love and wine bad 
the difpofal of aU his hours : Ovid himfelf, though fo great 9 
libertine, cenfures Anacreon for devoting bis miife entirely t<| 
ipacchus and Venus : 

Quid, niii cum multo Venerem confundere vinQ» 
Prxcipit lyrici Teia mufa fenis ? 

Anacreon left Abdera, and went to the court of Polycrates at 
SamoSy where he was received with great marks of friendihipi 
and it was here he became enamoured with the handfomi 
Bathyllus,whom Horace mentions in the following pafiage: 

Non aliter Samiodicunt arfifle Bathyllo 

Anacreonta Tcium, 
Qui perfxpe cava teftudine fievit amorem. 

Epod. xiy. ver. 9. 

>T»x.T3fr. He is faid alfo to have loved the fair Cleobulus, whom 
Ofjit. iir he had like to have killed when a child, in the arms of bi> 
nurfe, by rudely running againft her as he reeled one day 
through the flreets in liquor ; and not content with thif« h( 
abufed the child with fcurrilous language. But the nurfe 
wiOied he might one day commend him as much as be bad 


A N A C R EON. ztt 

then abufed hihi/ and her wiflies were fulfilled ; for Cleobtt* 
lu8 growing col>e a beautiful youth, Anacfeon fell in love 
,vith hicn, and. wrote feveral verfcs in his praife* iEltaa baa^iias^HHI. 
endeavoured to dear Anacreon from the fufpicion of eiiter-^b.uuc,4« 
taifiuig ^ny diihonourable paflion for thefe youths; but the 
general charge againft him in this refpefl is ftrong. Hour 
long Anacreon continued at'Samos is uncertain, but it is 
probable he remained tfiere during the greatdd j[)art of the 
reign of Polycrates ; for Herodotus afTures us^ that Anacreon Lik. iil» 
was with that prince m his chamber, when he receive a<«P» >JU« 
mellage from Oraetes governor of Sardis, by whofe treachery 
' Polycrates was foon after betrayed and inhumanly crucified. 
It feems to have; been a little before this, that Anacreon left 
Samoa and removed to Athens ; haviqg been invited thither 
by Hipparchus the eldeft fon of Pififtratus, one of the moft 
virtuous and learned princes of his tjhie, who, as'PIato alTurtsPlttoItt 
us, fent an obliging letter, with a veffel of fifty oara to con-"*PP««^» 
vey him over the ^geap fea. After Hipparchus was flain 
• by the confpiracy of Harmodius and Ariflogiton, Anacreon 
returned to Teos, where he remained ttlK the revolt of Hif* 
tiaeusy when he was obliged once more to remove to Abdera, 
where he died. . The manner of his death is faid to have 
been very extraordinary $ for they tell us he was choaked PHay, 
' with a grape-ftone, whrchlie fwallowed as he was regaling *^^'**^ 
on Tome new wine. A fmall part only of Anacreon's works **'* ^* 
remain. Befides odes and epigrams, he xompofied elegies, 
hymns, and iambics : the poems which are extant confifl 
chiefly of Bacchanalian fongs and love-fonnets* They have 
been frequently printed : but the principal editions, are, tbatv 
of Madame Dacier, with a French verfion, at Paris, 168^^ 
in,i2mo| and that of Jo(hua Barnes at Cambridge, 1705, 
in i2mo. The odes of Anacreon, fays Rapin, are flowers, 
beauties, and perpetual graces : it is familiar to him to write 
what is natural and to the life, he having an air fo delicate, 
foeafy,and fo graceful » that among all the ancients there is 
nothing comparable to him. He flows foft and eafy, ev^ry 
where difFuflng the joy and indolence of his mind through 
his verfe, and^tuning his harp to (he fmooth and pleafant tern- 
. per of his foul.. To the fame purpoie the little god of Jove, as 
taught to fpeak by Mr. Cowley : 

All thy verfe is fofter far 
Than the downy feathers are s 
" Of my wings or of my arrows. 
Of my\ mother's doves and fparrow8> 
« . 9 Graceful 


Graceful, cleanly, fmooth, or round| 
All with Venus' girdle bound* 

; ' ANCILLON (David), aminiflcr of the reformed church 

at M^t^s where be was born the i ;^tb of March, 1617. He 
, iludied from the ninth or tenth year of his age in the Jefuits 
college, where he gave fuch proofs of genius, that the heads 
of' the fociety tried every means to draw him over to their 
Difconn for religion arid party | but he continued iiim agairift their attack^i 
|*^*^^^'and. thereupon took a refohition of ftudying divinity. He 
Went to Geneva in 1633, and purfued a courfe of phitofopHy 
under Mr. Du Pin, and his divinity ftudies under Spanheim, 
'DiWatf, and Trpnchin, who conceived a Very great efteem 
^forhina. He left Geneva in April 1641, arid offered hi m- 
;/elfto.the fynod of Charenton in order to take upon hidi 
, the ot&ct of a tninifter : his abilities were greatly ddmir^d ' 
by the exatniilers, and the whole aflembly Was fo highly 
pleafed with him, that they gavfc him the church of Meaui:, 
* the moft confiderable then unprovided fof. Here he acquired ' 
[ a vaft reputation for learning, eloquence, and virtue, and 
'was even highly rcfpeSed by thofe of the Roman catholic 
' communion* He returned to his owt\ Country in 1 65*39 
where he rettiained till the revocation of the edi^ of Nantes 
^i^* in 1685. f^^ retired to Francfort after this fatal blow} 
and having preached in the French church at Hanau, the 
uhole aiiembly was fo edified by it, that they immediately 
' called together t)ie heads of the families, in order to propcfe 
that he might be invited to accept of being m in ifter thei'e# 
' The propofition was agreed to, and they fenC deputies to him« 
who obtained what they defired. He began the exergife of ; 
his miniftry In that church about the end of the year 1685* 
His preaching made To great a noife at Hanau, chat the pro- 
ftfTors of divinity and the German and Dutch miolAers at- 
tended his fermons frequently ; the count of Hanau htmfelfi 
who had never before been feen in the French chufch,' came 
thither to hear Mr. Ancillon i they came fr6m the neigh* ; 
bourlng parts, and even frorA Francfort ; pefople virho und^r- ! 
flood nothing of French, flocked together with great eager** ' 
Ibid. p. 356. nefs, and faid they loved to fee him fpeak. This occafioned 
a jealqufy in the two' other miniOers, who were piqued at. 
the efteem and afFe£lipn (hewn to their new colleague j thty. 
Were difpleafed at it, and obliged him, by a thoufand uneafy 
circumfiances, to abandon voluntarily a place which tbcy' 
could not force him from. He returned to Francf6rt, where. 
. >e would have fixed, if tH^ cireumftances of higfamlly, wbicft 

Was very nomerous/had not obKged'hun to^go to ibnfe^Sfcr 
frface "where be might fettle bimfelf; he chofe Beriio^ wkere 
he received a kiod reception from his higlineis theeleflbrof 
: Brandenburg : be was raade^minifter of lieriin, and had the 
pleafure of feeing his -eldeft.fon made judge and diredbr -bf 
the French in that city^ and his other Ton rewarded witfta 
penfion, and entertained at the umverfity of. Erancfort upba- «i -^^l . 
the Oder. He had likewife- the fatisfadion of feeing his bro* 
thcr made judge of all the French in the ilaoes ofdBrsinden- 
^urg ^ and Mr. Cayarty hisfuiuin-law, ehgineds to. bis 
eledtoral highnefs. He enjoyed thefe agreeable circumftaocfes ibid.p.397^ 
and fe vera] others till his death, i^hich happened<;rKn 
the 3d of September, 1692, -when he was fevcnty^fivr-years 
of age. . ' 

Mr. Ancillon having got a good deal of money by mar- 
riage, wasenabldd thereby to gratify his pafiion for books: 
bis library was accordingly very curious and large; and. fo- 
reigners, as they paiTed through the city of Metz, ufed tovi- 
fit it as the moft valuable curiofity there.. He publiflied fb- 
veral works ; and we cannot fcrm a tru^r idea of the variety 
o/* learning which enlivened his converfation, than from. ^ 
book entituled ** Melange critique de litterature recuilli desjoQ^nalde 
converfations de feu M. Ancillon :" it was publiffied atteipacjuDs 
Balilin 1698, in. two volumes in duodecimo, by Charfes'^^^' 
Ancillon thie advocate, the eldeft Ton of cbe minifter : a gen- 
tleman well known in the republic of letters, and who died 
at Berlin in 1715. ^ * 

ANCOURT (Florent-Cartom d') an eminent French 
aiQor and dramatic writer, born at Fontainbleauj Ofitobbr 
1661. He ftudied in the Jefuits college at Paris, under fa- 
ther De la Rue, who, difcovering in him a remarkable viva- 
city and capacity for learning, was extremely defirous "of cti- j^^^j^. ^ 
gaging him in their order ; but Ancourt's averfio'n to a reli-pourferviri 
gious life rendered all his efforts ineffeSual. After he Imd^'Wi^^re 
gone through a courfe of philofophy, he applied himfelf ^to^,!^^^""** 
the civil law, and was admitted advocate at (eVenteeri yeirstom. xvi. 
of age. But falling in love with an z&rcfsi thfs induced himP* ^^7* 
to go upon the ftage ; and, in 1680, he married this woman. 
As he had alf the qualifications neceffary for the theatre, he 
foon greatly diftinguiihed himfelf: and not being fatisiied 
witH the applaufe only of an a<Slor, he began to write 
pieces for the ftage, many of which had fuch prodigious fuc- 
ge(sp that moft 6f the players ^rew rich from the profits^ oC 
' * ' • thcfm* 

0S4 -A^N C:0 U R T. 

liNnrf a}, fiitmcritin tbU way procured himavcry fiivoudUtf 

•iccoptjon i«t court } m^ LewtriXl V# (Ibeved him maay loafjcs 

-of lus ' fanaur. rHjs>/prighclyconvcriktion.«nd poUccbebt* 

# ; mour fludcbis company, agreeable to all . tbe jtic n of figure 

botb at court.and .in the city» and the mod confideraUe per* 

<: Cant were extremely, pleafcd to have him at their boufes* 

|lil!^il|*iia;ving.takea a journey, to Dunkirk, to fisehiscldcft daugh^ 

- ter who lived there, be .took the opportunity of . paying bis 
compliments to tho dodor of Bavaria, who was then at fimA 

' fidls : this prince received him . with ibe utmoft civilifyi a&d 

hairing retained bim a confiderahle time, ^fmiflfcd him, witk 

> aprele&t ot a diamond valued at a tboaland ptftoles: he 

: Kkewife rewarded him in. a very generous manner i.^wbcni 

upon his coining to Paris, Ancourt compofed an entertain- 

- ment for his diverfion* Ancourt began Ist leng!th to gro\r 
. weary of tbe theatre, which be quitted in Lent 1718, and le-, 

- tired to bis eftate of Courcelles \e Roy, in Berry ; .where be 
•applied bimfelf wholly to devotion, and compofed a iranfla- 

- tion of David's Pfalms in verfe, and a facred tragedy^, wbicb 
^ were never printed. He died the 6tb of December, 1726, 
'■ being fixty*five years^ of age, 

[a} The playi which he wrot^tre afterwards colte^ed lAtp ^ve^fotniBCSf 

fifty-two U all, moft of which were then into fevepV an^ at ^laft into «»* 

printed fegarately at the time when This laft edition if the moft cofflplete< 
Chey were firft reprefenttd | tiiey were 

ANDERSON (fir Edmund), a yoj^ngcr brother, of a 
good family in Lincolnfhire, defcended originally from Scot* 

, land. • He received tbe firil part of bis i^ucatipn in the 
country, and went afterwards to Jl#incpln cojIegc| in 0^fQti '* 
from thence he.removed tothe Inner Temple, v^hcre bcr^ad 

. law with great affiduity, and in due time was calM to ;^e 
bar ; and in the nineteenth year. of tbe.rqign^pf q.ii<|cn Ef\i^ 
beth, be, was appointed one of the queen's .r<frj<eaQt^,>t,l9W. 

: Spme time after, be was made a j.udge | and| in ^S^^f^H 

upon. tbe Norfolk circuit, at fiuryV bc^eii^erjted hifnkV .9g^^ 

Ib^ famous. Browne, the author of||bpfc.,opiAion$ whicb "^jlf^ 

-afterwards maintained by a,feft..p^il^d,,1^9mhim,Bf9W^»P^ 

Stry^e't foT^^is condu£i of judge An^crfon, tbe btihop of N9{^P 

Annals, .wrpte a letter . to treafurer Burleigh, dcfiwg the fold jf^g« 

voi.ii».p.i6.jj^jg,^^ receive the queen's thanks. Iq b92, .be mf^ 

lord chief }ufticc of the commoq pleas j and the y^w f?"^^' 

ing received tbe bqiiour of Jknigbthgod. .In isS^^beW^* 

., appointed one of the commifBonefs for tiryuig &iary^ 9"?^ 

, qf Scots : on the 12th of October, the ia'mc year, he ut » 

A N I) E R ^ 6 f^. 445 

judgement iipon her; and on the 25th of the (arrle moDt1i»^amdeii*a 
he fat again in the ftar-chambcr, when fentence was pro- ^"g"g*' 
bounced againft this unhappy queen; In 1587* he fat tn the 
flar-chamber on fecretary Davifon, who was charged with 
jiTuing the warrant for the execution of the queen of Scots, 
contrary to queen Elisabeth's command, and without heir 
knowledge : aftet the caufe had been heard^ fir Rogbr Man- 
wood, chief baron of the exchequer, gave his opinion firft^ 
wherein he extolled the queen's clemency^ which he the faid 
Davifon had prevented ; and therefore he was for fining hioi 
ten thoufand pounds and imprifonment during the queen's 
pleafure. Chief juftice Anderfon fpoke next, and faid that 
Davifon had dcneju/ium^ nonjujie ; that is, he had done what 
was ric^hc not in a due manner. 

In the proceedings againft thofe, whoendeaVoured toiet u(i 
the Geneva difcipltne, Anderfon greatly diftinguiibed him* 
. ielf ; and as he (hewed great zeal on thefe occafions, foin the 
cafe of Udal, a puritan minifter^ who was confined in 1589, 
and tried and condemned the year following, we find thisvindicatida 
judge feverely cenfured by Mr. Pferce. It is probable thri J^****^^^- 
judge himfelf was fenfible of the ill-will which his proceed- j^^^j"* 
ings againft the diffenters froni the eftablifhed church drewi7i7.Svoi 
upon him; but it does not appear to have given him anyp*"9' 
great pain, fince in 1596 we have an account of his going 
the northern circuit, where he behaved with the fame rigour; 
declaring in his charges, that fuch perfons as oppofed th6 
efiabllQied church, oppofed her majefty's authority, and 
Were iil that light enemies to the ftate and difturbers of th6 
public peace $ wherefore of fuch he direded the grand juries 
to enquire, that they might be punifhed. He was indeed a 
. Very flriS lawyer, who governed himfelf entirely by ftatutes 2 
this he (hewed on many occafions, particularly at the tridl of 
Henry CufFe, fecretary to the earl of EfTex, where the attor- 
ney general charging the prifoner fyllogifticsllly^ and CufFd 
aofwertng him in the fame ftyle^ lord chief juftice Anderfon 
laid fmartly, ** I fit here to judge of law, and not of logic s" Cam^eii^s 
and direded Mr. attorney to prefs the ftatuteof Edward IILAnnaU, 
*>n which Mr. CufFe was indidled. He was reputed fcvere, ^'^^ '^•*'* 
and ftriji iii the obfervation of what was taught iii courts^ 
and laid down as la\V by reports ; but this ought to be cpnfi* 
dered as a vulgar opinion, for we have his e^pftfs declaration 
to the contrary, and that he neither expcfSed precedents in 
all cafes^ nor would be bound by them Where he faW they 
were not founded upon jtjftice, but Would a£t as if there were 
«no fuch precedents* Of this we have a proof^ frotti ihe ^e- 
VojL* I. Ci, ports 


ports in bistime, publiChed by Mr, Goldeftorougb : << The 
*^ cafe of Refceic W9a moved again ; and Shtutlewortb faid, 
*' that he cannot be received, becaufe he is named in. the 
<^ writ; and faid, that be had fearched all the books, and tbera 
^< is not one cafe where he which, is named in the wnt^mf 
" be received." ** What of that ?" faid judge Aoderfoo, 
^^ ihall we not give judgement^ becaufe it is not adjudgdJa 
*^ the hooks before i we will give jiidgiement according to 
^^Pf"**' <*® ** reafon j and if there be no reafon in the booker: ^ ^»'^ ^^^ 
» 55- P- 9 • « regard thepi," His fteadinefs was fo great, that he would 
not be drjvfn from what he thought right, by any authority 
whatever. This appeared in the cafe of CavendiOi, a crea* 
ture of the earl of Leiccfter; who had procured, by his inte* 
reft, the queen's letters patent for making out. writs of fuper* 
fed^as utpton exigents in the court of common pleas, and a 
Ibid. me/fage w^as fent to the judges to admit him to that oHice: 

part I. ^jjjj vv;ijiQh^ as they conceived the queen had no right to, 
P*'5*»»5 'giraHt aoy fuch patent, they did not comply. Upoajhis^ 
Mr. Cavendifh, by the affiftanceof his patroiv, obtained 9 let- 
tier from the queen to quicken them, which yet did not pro^ 
duce what was expelled from it. The courtier again pur- 
fued his point, and obtained another letter under thequeeo's 
£gnet and fign manuali which letter was deliveced iapre* 
fence of the lord chancellor a^d the earl, of IkreiQeiUi:^ in the 
be^^inning of Eader te?m. The* judges defired lipie tocoa- 
fider it» and then anfwered, that they could not comply with 
the letteit becaufe it was inconfiftent with their duty and 
th^ir oaths of office. The queen upon this #ppwnted ths 
chancellor, the lord chief juftice of the q4ie6n*s bench, and 
the mafter of the rolls, to hear this matter j and th?. queens 
ferjeant having fet forth her prerogative, it w^isih^wn by the 
judges, that they could not grant offices by virtue of the 
queen's letters, where if did not appear to them that (beb^d a 
power to grant; that as the judges were bound by their oatha 
of office, {o her roajefty was reftrained by her coronation- 
oath from fuqh arbitrary interpofitions : and with this h€f 
.majefty was fatisjS^d. He concurred alfo with his brethren 
•** • in remonftrating boldly agajnft feverala£is of power pracliieu 
in Elizabeth's reign* On the.acceffion of ki»g J^"*^* . 
was continued ia his office, and held it to the time of hH 
deaffe,. which happened Auguft 1, 1605. The printed works 
of this great lawyer, befides his " Readings," which are ItjJI jn 
ijiar^ufdript, are, i. " Reports of many prin<;ipal "Cafes af- 
^* gued and adjudged in the Time of Queen Eli^abeib,^itt 

•* the Common Bench;" Itoncion, 1644, iolio. ^:'.\ 

«5 ioW^^^ 

A N D £ R S O », • ta? 

<*' fi>lift4oflS s(nd Jud'gemehtii on the Cafes 9nd Matters agi- 
*« lared in afll the Courts of Wcfttoiriftcr, in the lattfer End 
" ofthtf Reign of quccri £liaabeth :'* publifhed by Johrt 
Golddborough, efq. (kothonotary of the' conlmon pleas, 
London^ t6^2^ quarto* 

ANDEkSON (Ao^AM), d tiative of Stocland^ was^ejitiemi 

brother tb the Rc^v. Jamcfe Ahdetfon, D. D. editor of^'/"*°** 

the' «' DipJtiwnata ScotisB'* and «• Royal Genealogies," many'^^'****^' 

years fince minifter of the Scots Prefbytertan church in SW9.U 

low ftreef, Ptc^cadilly, and well known in thofe days among 

the people of that p^rfuafion refident in London by the namt 

of Bifliop Atiderfon, a learned but imprudent man, who loft 

a cofifid^rabl<E! patt of his property in the fatal year j'fio'i h6 

tiiarried, and had iiTueaTod, and a daughter^ Who was the wif6 

of art Gfffider in the' army. Adam Anderfon wasfor*40 yeafl 

ia clek-k ih the So^th Sea Hbufef, and at leDgth sffrived to his 

^acme there, being appoiht^d chief clerk ofthe8f6ckand New 

'ArtntHtfe^, which ofHce hd retained till his'deathk He waft 

appointied ofie of the truftees for eftablifliing the colony of 

Georgia iri America'^ by ch^i'tfer dated Juhe 9, 5 Geo, II. H« 

was al(<t:f'ofte of the court of' aOiftants of the' Scot^ corpo^ 

ratiott in' London* The time of the publication of hw -^ 

" Hift^icat aird Chronological Dedufiion of Trtfdtf ahd 

CoifitAetct^/' a work repl^t^ with ufeful inforoiatioif, wii§ 

abouir the year ijbit He was twite married', bythe'flrft 

wife he had iflue' a daughter, married to one Mr. Hardy, A 

druggiftor apothecary ih Southampton ftreet in the Strand) 

who are-b6th dead^ without iOtie; he afterwards became* th^ 

rhird huibahd of' the widow of Mr« Coulter, formerihr 1L 

whofefale linen-dVapek' in Cori>hiIi; by whom he had tioifiutf) 

Ihe was, lik^ him, t^Tl and graceful, and her faice has bieetl 

fh^ctght to' have fome refen^biance to that of the iter-lMng 

cbUnrcls of Dfcfmortd, gifen* iff Mr* Pennant's firft Tour in 

Scotland. She had by Mr; Coulfer a daughtt)-^ Who w^s as 

meagre and puny zs/h was hale and ftrong* Mr. Anderf<Mtf 

died at his houfe in Red Lion ilreet, Clerkenwell, Jan. 10, 

1^75.^ He had a -good' library of^books, which were fold by 

his widow, who furvived him feveral y^ars, and died in i78ii 

as her daughter alfo did within a few days after her« 

ANDRADA (DiEeo de PaVva p*), or AHliJl AHiufi, % Ptib^r. . 
leiirned (^rtuguefe, born at Conimbiria, who di(Klrig«fflkd HiA. Coac* 
himfdf at the council of Tr*nt, wherfe king S^ba^iao fern 2^^^^^- 
hioi as one of his divines. He preached WoiRs-the aJKmbly cap. t^ 

^2 the 

m8 • A N D R A D A. 

the fecond Sunday after Eafier, in 1562 : nor was be con- 
tented with the rervic& he did in explaining thofe points 
upon which he was confuhed, but he employed his pen in 
defence of the canons oT the council in a treatife intitled 
*^ Orthodoxarum explicationum* lib. x." This is a reply to a 
/ book publifhed by Chemnitius, againfi the dodrine of the Je* 

fuits before the clofeof the council of Trent; and as Cfaem- 
nitius took this opportunity of writing a very iarge work^ in* 
titled *^ Examen conciiiiTridentini," Andrada thought him* 
felf obliged to defend his f*rft piece flgaiuft this learned adver- 
fary. He compofed therefore a book, which his two brothers 
publiihed after his death, at Lifbon, in 1578, intitled ** De- 
** fenfio Trident inz lidei c^tholicae quinque libris compre* 
** henfa, adverfushacfeticorumcalummas, et praefertim Mar- 
*^ tini Chemnitii." Thefe pieces of Andrada have been 
printed feveral times, yet they are difRcult to be met with* 
There is fcarceany catholic author who has been more^uoted 
by the proteftants than he, becaufe he maintained fome opi- 
nions a little extravagant concerning the falvation of the 
heathens* Andrada was efleemed an excellent preacher: 
his fermons were publiihed in three parts, the fecond of 
which was tranflated into Spanifli by Benedift de Alarcon^ 
The Bibliotheque of the Spanifh writers does not mention 
all his works ; the book he wrote concerning the pope's au- 
thority, during the council, in the year 1562, is omitted. 
The pope's legates being very well pleafed with this work, 
fent it to cardinal Borromeo. The court of Rome liked it 
extremely, and the pope returned the author thanks in a very 
obliging manner. Many encomiums have been beftowed 
upon Andrada : Oforius, in his preface to the ^< Orthodox 
>* Explanations of Andradius," gives him the charader of a 
man of wit, vaft application, great knowledge in the lan« 
guages, with all the zeal and eloquence neceflary to a good 
preacher ; and Rofweidus fays« that he brought to the coun- 
cil of Trenc the underftanding of a moft profound divinCi 
and the eloquence of a confummate orator. 


. ANDREAS (James), a famous Lutheran divine, 
|>orn at W^ibting) in the duchy of VVirtcmbetg, on the 
Melchtor 25th of March, 1528. His parents being poor, intended to 
^^^* ^^*'' bring him up to fome mechanical bufinefs, and had agreed 
Thcoiog. * with a carpenter for that purpofe ; but fome perfons of 
P*.<3^-. diftindlion having difcovered in hitn the marks of a promifing 
^r^ii^»^'^^^^^^ contributed to fuppprt him in the profecution of 
ttHUf^, his ftudies: he. was accordingly educated under Alexander 



Marcoleon, and in the fpacc of two years made himfelf 
tnafter of the Latin and Greek, and of logic. In 1541, he 
was fent to Tubing, where he took his degree of bachelor 
of arts two years after; and having finifhed his courfc: of 
philofophy in i>45» he became matter of arts. In 1546, 
he was appointed minifter of the church of Stutgard, the 
metropolis of the duchy of Wirtemberg ; but upon the pub- ' 
lication of the Interim he was obliged Co return to Tubing, 
where he performed the office of minifter. In 1553, he topic 
bis degree of doSor in divinity, and was appointed paftorof 
the church of Goppitig, and fuperintendant of the neigh- 
bouring churches. In 1557* he went to the diet of Ratifbon 
v/hYi Chriftopher duke of Wirtemberg, and was appointed 
one of the fecretaries at the conference at Worms between 
the papifts and the divines of the Auguftan confeffion. Th^ 
fame year he publifhcd his firft work, *' De ccena Domini, 
•* Of the Lord*s Supper." In 1558, he wrote a reply to Sta- 
phylus's hookagainft Luther. In 1559, he was fent to Augf- 
burg, where the diet of the empire was held. In 1561, he 
was fent to. Paris, to be prelent at the conference of Poiffij 
but it broke up before he came thither [a]. Upon his re- 
turn, he was appointed chancellor and reftor o^ the univer- 
fity of Tubing. In 1565, he was invited toeftabliflia church ibid. p. 645^ 
at Hagcnaw, an imperial city, where he preached feveral fer- 
mons upon the principal points of the Chridian religion, 
which were afterwards printed. In 156b, he aflifted Julius, 
duke of Brunfsvick, in reforming his churches. In 1569, be 
took a journey to Heidelberg, Brunfwick, and Denmarl^ 

f a} This conferrnee wtt difTolveJ fubfcribed this conftflion, there would 

on account of a fptech of Beta, who, have been a Ufring tranquitlity with rf- 

difcoarfing in that afTembly bcfire the fard to reii^,ion m t^e kingdom of 

king and the nobilhy, concerring the France. But this being refufed by therr» 

Lord's fupper, made ufe of ihtie words : all the confuhations about teligion weie 

'* At far as the hiuhcA heaven is dittant broken oft*, and the afliemhU tnnineflidirly 

*' fr.»m the ioweft e^rth, fo far is the diflblvcd, Tfte king of Navarre was 

** body of Chrift eiftaot from the bread f Jttcnnfly forry that the conference ended, 

•* and wine in the euchnrift," Asfuon before the divines of Wirtemberg were 

as^tbe papifts bad heard this, they rofe arrived: however,. Andiea* and Biden^ 

up and would not bear him fptak any bach fent a writing to htm, at his re- 

looger. But filcnce being ordered by queft, concerning the true and genuine 

the king's command, Beza was per- meaningof the Augxi^anconrriTion, ta 

imttrd to finifb his fpeech. The car- the article concernipg t^je Uqra'js fopLcrj 

dinal of Lorrain is laid to have pro- but they received r.o a nfwcr. Howrver, 

pof^d at this conference, that the Au- being fent for lo the queen -mother, 

guAanconfeflion, which had been eshi- they were difmifl'ed' ^priVh the iitmoft 

bited tso the emperor Charles in 15^0, civility, and returned horn?* Meich, 

ihouid be the ground of peace and apr^e- Adam, Vit* Germ. Fhiiof. p. 6f^ 

went between both parties. If Beza 645. 

<berefoi« and 1m< friends would ha ye 

ago * ANDREAS. 

In 157^1 lie svent to Mifni» and Prag|i^« wh^fip the em* 
peror Maximilian II. had a converfation wi(h blip upon an 
^idip* 647. agreement in religion. In 15739 be wasfent to Meminingt 
**^* an imperial town, to ftop the progrefs of the ^uingHan 

doflrinp, propagated by Eufebius Cleberj who being ad- 
moniflied by Anareas, before the fenate, ^ad continuing in- 
flexible, was removed from his miniflry. In .15S6, he was 
engaged in a conference, at Mompeigard, yykh Theodore 
Be^a, concerning the Lord's fupper, the perfoo of Chriff, 
prpdeftinatioOjbaptifm, the reformation. of the popifb churches, 
and other things; but this had the u^ial event of all other 
Niftor. conferences, which, though defigoed, as Thoanus obferves, 
^b. xxxw, to put an end to difputes in divinity, are often the occafion of 
ilill greater. In 1587, be was fent co Nordlin^, as he had 
been to feveral other places, on cburch-aflFairs, and faUing fick 
on his return, publiihed his *' ConfeQion of Faith,*' to obviate 
the imputations of his adverfaries : but he afterwards re- 
covered, and was fent fpr again to Ratifbon, and then to 
Onplfbacb, by Frederick n[iar()i)is of Brandenburg. Upon 
the publication of the conference at Mompeigard above-men- 
tioned, be was accufed of having falfely imputed fpme things 
to Beza, which the latter had never aflerted , he therc;for.e 
went to Bern, to clear hjmfelfof the charge. Hi^ 1^ public 
9& was a conference ac Baden, in November 1589, with 
John Piftorius. Whpn he found death drawing near, he | 
made a declaration to feveral of his friends, of his conftaocy ' 
in the faith which he had aiTertcd, and (he^ed the moft un<> ; 
•doubted figns of a finceic devotion till he expired, on the 7th 
of January, 1590, being fixty-one years and nine months old. . 
He wrote a great number of books, the moft remarkable of i 
which was ♦' On Concord." I 

ANDREWS (John), a famous canpnift of the fourteenth 
century, born at Mugello, near Florence. Ke. was very 
young when he went to Bologna to purfue his ftudies. Here 
he would have found gceat difficulty to maintain himfcif, had 
he not got a tutor's place, by which means he was enabled (o 
apply himfelf to the fludy of the canon law, in which he 
made great progrefs under the profelTor Guy de Ba'if. H? 
bad always a particular refpe^t for this profeiror, paying; ai 
great deference to his glofles as the text itf'elf. Guy deB/if 
perceiving that Andreas, for want of nioney, cou\d not de« 
mand his do£)or's degree, procured it htm gr^is, which 
Andreas himfelf acknowledges. The fame profefTor puftied 
him on to ftand for a profe(lbrIhip> which he obtained. An- 


ANDREAS. .23f 

dress was profeflbr at Padaa about the year 1330 ; but hePand'oiDe 

was recalled to fiologha, where he acquired the greatcft re-^^*"'p^J{ "* 

putarton. We are told wonderful things concerning the au- lib. w. 

fieri tjr -of his life, thit be macerated his body with prayer and «»?• >9* 

fafttng, and lary upon the bare ground for twenty years toge- 

llier, covered only with a bear-flcin : this is attefted by very y^^***f'» 

good authors ; but if the ftory which Poggius tells of him, 

in his Jefis^ be true, he muft afterwardis have relaxed much 

of this continency : " Joannem Andrcam," fays he, *' doc- 

*' torem Bononienfem, cujus fama admodum vulgataeft, fub* 

** agitantem ancillam domefticam uxor deprehendit : re ift- 

" fueta flupefai^a mulier in virum verfa, Ubi nunc, ait, 

^* Joannes, eft fapientia veftra ? iile nil amplius locutus, fn 

<^ .vulva iftius, refpondit, loco admodum fapientiae accom- 

" modato[A].** 

Andreas had a' beautiful daughter, named Novella, whom 
he loved extremely ; and he is laid to have intruded her fo well 
in all parts of learning, that when he was engaged in anyCice de« 
affair, which htndred him from reading l^dures to his f<^^ola^*>ch^Ji^*dc 
he fen t his daughter in his room: when, left her beauty pjfe,parr.ii. 
ihould prevent the attention of the hearers, (he had a little cap. 36. 
curtain drawn before her. To perpetuate the memory of 
fhis daughter, hcintitled his commentary upon the Decretals 
of Gregory IX. '♦ the Novella." He married her to John 
Calderinus, a learned canonift. The firft work of Andreas 
was his *^ Glofs upon thefixth Book of the Decretals,*' which 
he wrote when he was very young. He wrote alfo *• Glofles 
** upon the Clementines," and a ** Commentary in regulas 
" Sexti," which he intitlcd •*Mercuria1es,'*becaure he either 
engaged in it on Wednefdays, diebus Mercurii, or becaufe 
he inferted his Wednefday's difputes in- it. He enlarged the 
•* Speculum of Durant," in the year 1347. This is all 
which Mr. Bayle mentions, though he wrote many more 
things. Andreas died of the Bologna in 1348, after 

^a]' a learned cMioniA of fame 

(John AnoreM was the dolor's nagne) 

Once on a time in b:d was laid^ 

Solacing it wirfa madanf*i maid { 

When chanee,. t^arfivwcrof all ftrife, 

Brougtu in, curft luck^ the do^or*a wife* 

And is it you f the lady cries j 

Blefs me ! I fcarce can truft my eyes i 

Inconftant wretch, of fhaiteleft brow \ 

Where is your b<Mfte4 wiCdom now ? 

'*Ti8 here, the doctor, bluflitng. cries, 

'Tis here, dear wife, my wifdomliesf 

A ptoper place (thq pUce he Aows) ~ 

Fur wearied wifdom to repofe. 

0.4 he 


be bad been a profciTor five- and- forty years, and was buried 
in the churqh of the Dominicans. Many eulogiums have 
been bellowed upon him : he was called archidodor deqre^p 
(orum : in bis epitaph he has the title of ^^ Rabbi doAorum, 
** lux, ceofor, Dormaque morum ;" that is, rabbi of the doc« 
tors, the light, cenfor, and rule of manners : and it i$ 
faid, that pope Bon ifec9 called him ^* lumen mundi,". the 
)ight of the world, Mr. Bayle fays it was pity Andreas 
followed the method of the Pyrrhonifts fo much ; that he 
proved his own opinion very folidly when he had a mind to 
it, but that he feldom did this, chufmg rather to relate the 
ientiments of others, and (o leave his readers in the midft of 
f he difpiit^. 

ANDREAS (John), was born a Mahometan, at Xativa 
in the kingdom of Valencia, and fucceeded his father in the 
dignity of alfaqui of that city. He was enlightened with the 
knowledge of the Chriftian religion, by being prefent at a 
iermon in thp great church of Valencia on the day of the 
Affumptipn of the blefled Virgin, in 1487. Upon this he 
deflred to be baptiled, and in memory of the calling of St. 
John and St. Andrew, he took the name John Apdreas, 
fct }iii pre- u Haying received holy orders," fays he, •< and from an 
Confofionac*' alfaqui and a flave of Lucifer become a prieft and-minifter 
hfe£iede f' pf Chrift, I began, like St. Paul, to preach and publifli 
^fhi^mcd. (( jhe contrary of what I had crroncoufly believed and 
f* aflerted; and, with the aififtance of Almighty God, I 
f^ converted at firfl'a great many fouls of the Moors, who 
** were in danger of hell, and under the dominion of Lucifer, 
<< and conduced them into the way of falvation. After this, 
** I was fent for by the mod; catholic princes king Ferdinand 
^' and queen Ifabella, in order to preach in Grenada to the 
Moors of that kingdom, which their, majefties had con- 

Suered; 0nd by God's bleffing on my preaching, an iqr 
nite number of Moors were brought to abjure Mahu(ned| 
** and to turn to Chrid. A little after this, I was made a ca- 
^^ non by their graces ; and fent for again by the moil: Chrif- 
f^ tian queen Jfabella to Arragon, that I might be employed 
^^ in the converfion of the Moors of thofe kingdoms, who 
f ^ ftill perfifted in their errors, to the great contempt and 
** diOionourof our c|;ucifi.ed Saviour, and the prodigious lofs 
f* and danger of all chriftian princes. But this excellent and 
u pious defign of her majefty was rendered inefFedlual by her 
^? death." At the defxre of Martin Garcia, bifhopof Barce- 
lona^ he {indertoo^ to tranilatt from the Arabic, into tb$ 



language of Arragon, the whole law of the Moors ; and after 
having finiihed this undertakings he compofed his famous 
work of ^^ The Confufion of the Sed of Mahumed :*' it con- 
tains twelve chapters, wherein he has collected the fabulous 
ilories, impoftures, forgeries, brutalities, follies, obfcenities, 
abfurdities, impoffibilities, lies, and contradiflions, which 
Mahumed, in order to deceive the fioiple people, has difperfed 
in the writings of that fed, .and efpecially in the Alcoran. 
Andreas tells us, he wrote this work, that not onlythe learned 
amongft Chriftians, but even the common people might know 
the different belief add doctrine of the Moors ; and on the 
one hand might laugh at and ridicule fuch infolent and brutal 
notions ; and on the other might lament their blindnefs and 
dangerous condition. This book, which was publiflied at 
iirft ill Spaniih, has been tranflated into feveral languages ; 
^11 thofe who write againft the Mahometans quote it very 

ANDREINI (Isabella), a native of Padua, and moft 
celebrated adrefs towards the beginning of the feventeenth 
century. This was not her only perfeAion, for {he was alfo 
an excellent poetefs ; as appears from the eulogiums many 
learned men and great wits have beftowed upon her, and 
from the works (he publiihed. The Intenti of Pavia (fo the 
academids of this city are ftyled) were of opinion, they did 
their fociety an honour by admitting her a member of it; 
and (he, in acknowledgement of this honour, never forgot to 
mention amongft her titles that of " Academica Infanta }*• 
her titles were thefe, ** Ifabella Andreini, comica gelofa, aca- 
** demica infanta, detta I'acceiTa." She had one advantage 
which is not frequent amongft the moft excellent aftreffes, 
which was an extraordinary beauty ; and which, added to a 
fine voice, made her charm both the eyes and esrs of the au- 
dience. Under her pi(5lure the following infcription is writ- 
ten : *' Hoc hiftricae eloquentias caput le£lor admiraris, quid 
** fi auditor fcies ?" If you admire, reader, this glory of the 
theatre, when you only fee her, what would you do if yott 
heard her ? 

Cardinal Cinthio Aldobrandini, nephew to Clement Vllf. 
had a great efteem for her, as appears by feveral of her poems. 
When (he went to France, ftie was kindly received by their 
majefties, and by the higheft perfons at court : (he wrote fe- 
veral fonnets in their praife, which are to be feen in the fc- 
fond pare of her poems. 

^ ' She 

C|4 A N D R fi I N I. 

Sh« died of a mircarriapje, at Lyoirs, the rot^ of JynCf 
t6o4, in the forty-fiPcond year »of her age. Her huiband, 
i^rancis Andreini, had her interred in the fame city, and ho- 
noured her with the following -epitaph : 

** Ifabella AndreinaPatavinai mulier'magpa vktute prasdka, 
honellatis ornameotum, maritiiliftjue pudicittae decus, ore 
facuoda, mcnce foecunda, religiofa, pia, Mufts ^mica, ct 
artii ktnicx caput, hie Kefurre^iionem expe^lat. 

Ob gbortum obik iv Id. J^ivii^ mdciv. annum agens jclii. 
Fraj;u:i/cus Andrinus inoefii&»iu« pofuic. 

The death of this aSrefs being a matter of general con- 
cern and lamentation, there were many Latin and Italian ele- 
gies printed to her memory; feveral of which were prefixed 
to her poems in the edition of Milan, in 1605. ^^^^des fonners, 
• madrigals, fongs, and eclogues, there is a paftoral of hers 
intitlcd " Mirtilla/' and letters, printed at Venice in 16*10. 
i>he fung extremely well, and played admirably on feveral 
infiruments; nor was (he unacquainted with philofophy, 
axid (be underflood the French and Spanifh languages. 

A^tfMv'tYu ANDRELINUS (Puri^ius Faustus) born at Forliin 
Italy. He was a long time profeiToi of poetry and philofophy 
in the univerfuy of Paris: Lewis XII. of France made him 
his poet laureate ; and Er^fmus tells us he was likewife poet 
to the queen. His pen was not wholly employed in making 
veriest for he wroie alio moral and proverbial letters io 
profe, of which there is an edition printed at Strafburg in 
1571, and another revifcd by the author in 1519. fieatus 
Rhenanus added a preface to them^ wherein he commends 
the epiftles *^ as learned, ivicty, and ufeful ; for though," 
fays \)c, *^ this author, in fome of his works, after the man- 
** ner of poets, is a little too loofe and wanton, yet here he 
** appears like a modeft and elegant orator." John Arbo- 
reus, a divine of Paris, wrote comments upon theni. An- 
drelinus wrote alfo feveral poetical diOichs in Latin, which 
were printed with a commentary by Jofle Badius AfcenfiuSi 
and tranflated verfe for verfc into French by one Stephen Prive, 
John Paradin had before tranflated into French flanzas of 
four verfcs, an hundred di&ichs, which Andrelinus had i/d^ 
dreffed to John ELuze, treafurer general of the finances of king 
Charles VIII. in pfder to thank him for a confidtrable peo^ 


rent. 2. 
chiliad. %, 


h 573- 

A N D il £ L I N U S. , 215 

The pQems of Andrelinus^ which are chiefly in Latin, are 
iafcrted in the firft toipe of the ^^ Delici^e .poctarum [talo- 
jum/' Mr. de la Mopnoie teUs us, *^ that Andrelinbs, 
when he was but twenty- two years old, received the crown 
of laurel. That his love-verfes, divided into four books, in^ 
tituled ^^ Livia," from the name of his miftrefs, wereeftcem* 
ed fo fine by the Roman Academy, that they adjudged the 
prize of the Latin elegy to the author. It is upon this ac«* 
count, that when be printed his " Livia," in quarto, at 
Paris, in 1490, and his three books of ^\ E!egies^' four years 
9f(]er« in the fame city, he took upon him (he title of poeta 
]durea.tus, to which be added that of poeta legius et regineus« 
a$ be w^s po^.t to Charles VIIL Lewis XIL and queen Ann« 
IV. The diftichs of Fauftus (continues the fame author) 
^re not above two hundred, and confequenily but a very 
fmall part of bis poems, iince, befides the four books of 
Love, and three books of Mifc^llaneous Elegies, there are 
twelve Eclogues of hjs printed in oi^avo, in 1549, in th/e 
colle£lion of thirtyii>eight bucolic poets, pubillbfd by Op.o- 
linus." Thedfath of Andre^inus is placed under the year 
1518. The letters which he wrote in proverbs have been 
thought worth a new edition at Helmftadt in 1662, accord- 
ing to that of Col ogn of 1509. The manner of life of this 
author waa not very exemplary; yet he was (o fortunate, Epif^.xs. 
fays Eraftnus, that though he took the liberty of raillying the^i^* ">• 
divines, he was never brought into trouble about it. ^' '^°* 

ANDREWS (Lancelot), an eminent Englifli divine, 
biChop of Winchefter in the reigns of James 1, and Charles L 
born in London, in 1565. He had the rudiments of his edu" 
cation in the Coopers free-fchool at RadciiftV, and was af- jfajcfon't 
terwards fenc to Mtrchant-taylors ; here he made a great Life of Bp. 
J proficiency in the learned languages ; and Dr. Watts, refi- •'^"^'1!*'?» 
dentiary of St. Paul's and archdeacon of Middlefcx, who had*c7, Abel 
lately founded fome fcholarihips at Pembroke hali in Cam- rcdivivus^ 
bridge, fent him to that college for the firft of his exhibitions, ^^"*^""'* 
After he had taken the degree of bachelor of artb, he was ^ ' 
chofen fellow. of the college: when he became m^ficr of 
arts, he applied himlelf tj the ftudy of divinity ; and being 
chofen catechifl: in the coUege, he read a lecture on the Ten 
Commandmrtitfe every Saturday and Sunday, to which great 
numberaout of the other colleges of the univerfity, and even 1 
out of the country, reforted as to a divinity- kidture^ His 
repqtatlon encreafing daily, he began to be taktn notice of 
b) fir Fr;tncis Wainnghatn^ fecre^^ry of flate tq queeu. Eliza* ^id. 



beth : who being unwilling To fine a genius fhould be buried 
in the country, procured him the vicarage of St. Giles's 
Cripple-gare, in London ; and got^him afterwards chofen a 
prebendary and reftdentiary of St. PauPs, andalfo prebendary 
of the collegiate church of Southwell. Being thus preferred, 
be diftinguifhed himfelf as a diligene and excellent preacher, 
and read divinity ledures three times a week at St. Paul's in 
term-time. Upon the death of Dr. Fulke, he was chofen 
maimer of Pembroke ha)), to which college he became a con' 
fiderable benefa£lor. He was alfo appointed one of the chap- 
lains in ordinary to queen Elizabeth, who took great delight 
in his preaching. He was in no lefs efteem with her fucceSbr 
king James I. vi/ho gave him the preference to all other dl« 
vines as a preacher, and made choice of him to vindicate his 
fovercignty. His maiefty having, in his " Defence of the 
Rights of'Xings," afierted the authority of Chriftian princes 
over caufes and perfons ecclefiaftical, cardinal Bellarmine, 
under the name of Matthew Tortus, attacked him with 
great vehemency and bitternefs. The king employed An- 
drews to anfwertbe cardinal, who did it with great fpiritind 
judgment, in a piece entitled *^ Tortura Torti," &c. His 
majcfiy upon this promoted him to the bifhopric of Chichefter, 
to which he was confecrated November 3, 1605 ; and at the 
fame time made him his almoner, in which place Andrevirs 
behaved with great honour and fidelity, not even making 
thofe advantages to himfelf which he might legally have 
done. Upon the vacancy of the bifliopric of Ely, he was 
advanced to that fee, and confecrated September 22, 1609* 
He was alfo nominated one of the king's privy counfellors of 
England, and afterwards of Scotland, when he attended hi J 
majefty to that kingdom. When he had been nine years in 
the fee of Ely, he was advanced to the bifhopric of VVIn» 
cbeficr, and dcanry of the king's chapel, which two laft 
ii«r»ner*s preferments he held till his death. There is a pleafantftory 
Ufcpte. related of him, while he was bifhop of Wincheftcrv in the 
" Wofk?. ^^^^ of Waller the poet: who going to fee the king at dinner, 
overheard a very extraonfinary converfation between his 
roajefly, the bifhop of Winchefter, and' Neale bifiiop of 
Durham. Thefe two prelates ftanding b hind the kin'g*s 
chair,, his majefty aflced them, " My lords,** faid he, *' can- 
not I take my fub}e£ls money when I want it, without all 
this formality in parliament r" The biflbop of Diithani 
readily anfwcred, " God forbid, fir, but you (hould; yo^ 
•• are the breath of our noftrils." Whereupon the k'w§ 
turned, and faid to the biihop of Winchefter, " Well, mf 


ANDREWS. 1237 

« lord, what fay you ?'* " Sir," replied the biihop, " I 
*f have no fkill to judge of parliamentary cafes." The king 
anfwered, *• No put-oiFs, my lord ; anfwer me prcfcntly/* 
** Then, fir," faid he, '* I think it lawful for you to take 
*• my brother Nealc's money, for he offers it/' Mr. Waller 
fays the company was pleafed wkh this anfwer, but the wit 
of it fetrmed to affed the king ; for a certain lord coming 
fooa after, his majefly cried out, *' O, my lord, they fay 
** you lig with my lady." •* No, fir," fa\s hislordfliip, in < 
conFufion, *^ hut i like her company, becaufe (he has fo much 
*' wit." ** Why tt^en," fays the kinir, «< do not you lig 
*' with my lord of Winchefler there?" This great prelate 
was in no lefs reputation and efleem with king Charles I. 
than he had been with his predeccflfors. He died at Win- 
chefter-houfe in South wark, Sepieniber 27, 1626, and was 
buried in the parifh-church of St. Saviour's ; where a very 
fair monument of marble and alabdfter, with a Latin infcrip- 
tion upon it, was ercdied to him. Milton has written alfo a 
beautiful elegy on his death, in the fame language. In the 
dedication of his fermons, publilhed under the iiifpeflion of 
Dr. Laud, we have the following chars^dler of this prelate : 
*' The perfon whofe works thefe are, was from his youth a * 
^' man of extraordinary worth and note; a man as if he had 
** been made up of learning and virtue, both of them fo 
'* eminent in him, that it is hard to judge which had pre- 
*• cedency. His virtue (which we muft ftill judge the more 
*^ worthy in any man) was comparable Co that which was to 
^' be found in the primitive bifhops of the church ; and had 
" he lived amongft thofe ancient fathers, his virtues would 
*' have (bined even amongft thofe virtuous men. And for 
*^ his learning, it was as well if not better known abroad, 
** than refpe^ed at home: and take him in his latitude, we^ 
** which knew him well, knew not any lort of learning to « 
** which he was a ftranger^ but in his profefHon, admirable. 
*' None ftronger than he, where he wreflled with an adver- 
** fary ; and that Bellarmine felt, who was as well able to 
** (hift for himfelf, as any that flood up for the Roman party. 
** None more exa£t, more judicious, than he, where he was 
** to. inftrud and inform others | and that as they knew 
" who often heard him preach, (o they may learn which 
'^ will read thi^ which he hath left behind him. And yet 
** thU fullnefi of his material learning left room enough in 
'* the temper of his brain for almoft all languages, learned 
•* and modern, to feat themfelves : fo that his learning had 
** sill the helps hnguage could afFord| and his languages 

•• liCdrninsf 



^ learning enoogh for the beft of them Co ^srprefs ; hit 
*' judgment, in ttie mean time, fo commanding over both, 
^^ as that BCHher of them was fuiFered idly or curioufiy to 
** ftarc from or fall Qiott of theit intended fcope^ fo that we 
** may better fay of him, than was fomeCiroes faid of Clau^' 
P«t^ffol«»* »« ^jius Drufus, • He was of as many and as ffreat virtues^ 
••'as mortal nature could receive, or induftry make perfcKft.*' 
fiefides the •• Tortura Torci," already mentioned,, bttfhopr 
Andrews published ** A Manual of private Devotions and' 
♦* Meditations for every Day in the Week;" and •' A Ma« 
** nua) of Dire6lions for the Vifitation of the Sick*/' there 
were like wife feveral fermons and tra^s in Engllfli and Laciir 
of his, publifhed after his death [a}. He had a (hare in 
the tranflation of the Pentateuch, and the htfiortcal books 
from Jofliua to the firft fiook of Chronicles e^cclufively* 

[a] I. *' Rerponfio ad Apologiam " theoldgicadeferiDtnatiohabitaifl poli« 

** t9riiiu\h Belijrmini quam naper cdU ** lica kbola rheologica Cantabrigiie.** 

'f dit contra Prarfaiionem ihonitoriam 10. ^ Refponfiones ad Petri Molinxt 

" fertatfTunx ac potentiffimi principis ** Epiftolaa tret, uoa cum Molilnei Epi^ 

** Jacobi, &c, omnibus ChMftianii mo- ** flolia.** il. *< Stri^urs } qt, Ahritf 

** narchisprincipibas itqueorJinibusin- *< Aofwer to the eightsenth Chapter of 

•» ffflpiam.'* 14 ** Tortora Torti.*' 3. <«' the flrft Book of Cardinal Perron*t 

** Concio ad clenimi pro gtadir do£lo- " Reply,*' 8ce. 11. ** An Anfwerid 

« ris/* 4. ** Concio ad clerum, to « the twentieth Chap, of Cardinal Peru 

** fynodo provinciali CiJltuarienfis pro- ** ron's Reply,** &c. 13, ** A Speech 

" vinci^y ac divi Pauli.*' j. *« Concio •• delivered in the Star-chamber again^ 

<* Latina babifa coram regia n>ajeftate <* the two Judaical Opioiont of Mr« 

** qdtnto AugoftI, 1606, inaolaGren- " Trafhe.*' 14. *' A Speech delivere<i ia 

1' yfKif quo tempore venerat in Ang- " the Star chamber, concerning vows, 

'* liam legem noi^rum invifurus fere- '* in the Coontefs of ShrewJbuiy*9 

*< Diffimut poteotiffimnrque princept *< Cafe.** Tbefe piecei were printCvi at 

« Chriftianos IV. Dantaeet Norvegiae Loildon, after theauthor*sdeatb» by Fc 

•• rex.** 6. **ConrioL3tina habita CO* lIxKyngfton, in quarto, 1629. an-i dc» 

*^ ram rwgia iivajcftate dec«mo tertio dicated to king Charles I. by the bifhopi 

•* Aprilts, X6-13, inauU Grenvici, quo of London and Ely. Be^dei wliicb cJiett' 

«^ tempore com le^iiiima fua conjoge are.extantof his, 15. « The moral La«r 

<♦ difcclfurus erat gcner regis fervnilTi. " expounded, or, Lcflorcs oo the Ten 

•f morpotentiirinfofqueprinceps Fsedc' ** Commandmenta; .whereunto is an-, 

** rictis cornea Palatinut ad Rhenunu** ** nexed nmeteen Sermona upto'Prayef 

7*. '*Q^eflionisyOunquidper jusdivinum " in general, and upon the Lard*» 

•• magiftratui liceat a reo jusjurindum •* Prayer in particalar. Publiflied by 

'< exigereP et id quatrnos et qaoafque < John Jackfon, and dedicated totbtf 

** liceat f tbeologiica dcterminatio ha. " parliament, London, 164}, foUo.** 

** biia in publica fchola theologica C4n> 16* ** Airo:r7taa'fMlM facra j or, A Col« 

*< rabrigi«, metife Julii< anni 1591."' *' Icftirn of podhumoui and orphan 

Si «' De ultiris, theologicaf dcterm^nario ** Le^bres delivered at St. Patit*s and 

" habita in publira (chola theologica <' St. Oiies^t Crippli-gate cboidty Loik 

•' Cantabrigiae.'* 9. •* De decimis, don, ids/i" folio. 

Giriffi. ANELLO (Thomas), vulgarly called Maffaniello^ was i 

fifhciman of Naples, born in 1623. The kingdom of Na- 
ples was fubject to the houfe pf Audria, and goYcrned by a 

8 viccioy* 

A NELL C. 239. 

viceroy.. The Neapolitans had fupportcd the government in? 

this houfe with great loyalty and liberality, and fubmitted 

thenrifelves^ to many voluntary impofltibns and- burthenfome 

taxes, in fuppurt of it« . But in 1646) the neceflicies of the 

king requiring it» a new donative was thought of^ and a 

hew dcfign was formed to lay a frefh tax upon fruits, which 

: compreb^aded all forts as well dry as green, as far as muU 

berries,, grapes, figs^ apples, pears, &c. The people, J>€ing 

•thus deprived of their ordinary fubfifience, took a refolulioii 

to. dtXburthen th^mfelves^not oi^ly oC this,.but of all other in«- 

fuppor cable exa^ions fornierly impofed. They made their 

grievances. known to the vice;oy by the public cries and la,- 

mentatiors of women and chi'.dren) as he pafled through the 

market place; and petitioned him, by means of the cardinal 

' Ftloinarino,the ar^hbifhop and others, to take off the faid tax^ 

He. promifed to-redrefs the grievance, and convened |)rQper 

perfons to find out fome niethod to take ofF tlv& tax on fruics«« 

But the farmers., becaufe it was. prejudicial to their iotereft,^ 

found fome fecret means to hinder/ the h^appy effc<9 of this f 

bufinefs, and difTuaded him from performing his prorxiife to. 

the people ; reprefenting- to him, that all the clamour yfz$* . 

made, by a wretched rabble only, not worth regarding, ; 

Thomas Anelio,. or MafTdniello, in the. 24,th year of his, 

agf, dwelt at. this time, in a corner of the great market 

p{ace ai Naples* He was (tout, of a good countenance, and 

a middle fiatare. He wore linen flops, a blue waidcoac, and' 

vi^enc barefoot, with a mariner's cap. Hi& profeifiun was to 

; angle for Tittle fi/h with a cane,, hook,.. and line, as alfo to 

buy. fiibva^d.tQ retail: them> This man, having obferved 

the.naurmucihgs up and down the city, went one day very 

' angry towards his houfe,. and me; with t^e famous BanditO' 

Ptrrrone and his comfxanion, as he paffed by a church where 

they had fied for refuge. They aflced him-^ what ailed him* 

He anfwer.^d id great wrath, I will be bound to be hanged^ 

but 1 will right this cky. They laughed at his words, fay- 

[ iog, A proper fquire to right the city of Naples ! Maflaniello 

replied. Do not laugh : 1 fwear by God, if I had two or three 

' of my humour, you Ihould fee what I could do. Will you 

join with me ? They anfwered,. yes. Plight me then your 

' faith : which they having done, he departed, A little after 

he fell into a great paiCotn, upon his fifh being taken from 

him by fome of the court, becaufe he had not paid the tax* 

He then refolved to make ufe of the occafioji of the murmur- 

ings of the people agajnft the tax on fruit. He went among 

the fruit Ihops that were in that quarter, advifing. them that 


540 A N E L L a 

the next day, they (hould come all united to market, witfl i 
refolution to tell the country fruiterers, that they would buy 
no more taxed fruit. 

A number of boys ufed to aflemble lit the market place 
to pick up fuch fruit as fell. MafTaniello got among thefe^ 
taught them fome cries and clamours fuited to his purpofci 
and enrolled fuch a number of them between i6 and 17 
years of age, that they came to be 500, and at I aft 2000. 
Of this militia he made himfelf general, giving every one 
of them in their hands a little weak cane. The (hopkeepers 
obferving his inftruiSions, there happened the next Jay 2 
great tumult between thenl and the fruiterers, which the re* 
gent of the city fent Anaclerio, the eleS of the people, id 
quell. Among the fruiterers was a coufm of Maflaniello'Si 
who, s^cordina to the ihdruflions given him, began mote 
than any to inflame the people. He faw that he could fell his 
fruit but at a low price, which, when the tax was paid^ 
would not quit coft. ' He fell into a great rage, threw tv0 
large bafketson the ground, and cried out» God gives plenty^ 
and the bad government a dearth : I care not a ftraw for this 
fruit, kt every one take of it. The boys eagerly rzti to 
gather and eat the fruit. Maflaniello rufhed in among them^ 
crying. No tax, no tax. But Anaclerio threatening him with 
whipping and the gallies, not only the fruiterers, but all tbcf 
people, threw figs, apples, and other fruits with great fury iH 
his face. Maflaniello hit him on the breaft with a ftone, and 
encouraged Jiis militia of boys to do the fame : but Aok* 
derio faved his life by flight. 

Upon this fuccefs, the people flocked in great numbers to 
the market place, and exclaimed aloud againft thofe ioto^ 
lerable grievances under which they groaned ; proteSiog 
their refolution to fubmit no longer to them. The fury 
ft ill increafing, Maflaniello leapt upon the higheft table 
which was among the fruiterers, and harangued the crowds 
comparing himfelf to Mofes, who delivered the Egyptians 
from the rod of Pharoah ; to Peter, who was a fimerman 
as well as himYelf, yet refcued Rome and the world from the 
ilavery of Satan ; promiflng them a like deliverance from theit 
oppreflions by his means, and protefting his readinefs to la/ 
down his life in fuch a glorious caufe. Maflaniello repeat* 
ing often thefe and fuch like words, wonderfully inflamed tht 
minds of the people ; who were difpofed in their hearts to co^ 
operate with him to this purpofe. 

To begin the work, there was fire put to the houfc (hat 
was next the toll houfisj for fruit, both which were burnt 

J 'to 

A N E L L O. 841; 

ta the ground, with all the .boolp and accounts, aed goods 
fuid furniture. This being done, every one ibuc up his 
(hop; and, the numbers increafiog, many thoufand people 
imicing themfelves, went to other parts of the city, where all 
the other toll-houfes were :. them they plundered of all their 
writings and books, great quantities of money, with many 
rich moveables ; all which they threw into a gre^t fire of 
ftraw, and burnt to aflies in the ftreets. The people, meet- 
ing with no refiftance, aflumed more t)o]dnefs, and made to- 
wards the palace of the viceroy. The firft militia of MafTa- 
niello, confifting of 2000 boys, marched on, every one lifting 
up hia cane with a piece of black cloth on the top, and with 
doleful and loud cries excited the companion, and intreated 
ibeaffiftance of their fellow citizens. Being come before 
the palace, they cried out amain, that they would not be 
freed of the fruit tax only, but of all others, efpecially that of 
corn. At lafi they entered the palace and rifled it, notwith- 
fianding the refiftance of the guards, whom they difarmed. 
The viceroy got into his coach to fecure himfelf within the 
church of St. Lewis ; but the people fpying him, flopped the 
coach, and with naked fwords on each fide of it, threatened 
him, ualefs he. would take off the taxes. With fair promifes, 
and all aflUrances of redrefs, and by throwing money among 
the multitude, which they were greedy to pick up, he 
got at lafl fafe into the church, and ordered the doors to 
be ihat. The people applied to the ' prince of Bifignano, 
who was much beloved by them, to be their defender and in* 
tercelTor. He promifed to obtain what they defired; but 
finding himfelf unable, after much labour and fatigue, to re- 
ftrain their licentioufnefsor quell their fury, he took the firft 
opportiuiity of difengaging himfelf from the labyrinth of that 
popular tumult. 

After the retirement of the prince, the people, finding 
themfelves without a bead, called out for Mafianiello to be 
their leader and condu^or, which charge he accepted. 
They appointed Genoino, a prieft of approved knowledge, 
^mper, and abilities, to attend his perfon j and to him they 
added for a companion the aforenamed famous Band i to Per- 
rone. MafTaniello, by his fpirit, good fenfe, and bravery, 
^on the hearts of all the people, infomuch that they became 
^iUing to transfer unto him folemnly the fupreme command, 
and to obey him accordingly. A ftage was eredted^in the 
middle of the market place, where, clothed in white like a 
mariner, he with his counfellors gave public audience, receiv- 
ed petitions, and gave fentence in all caufes both civil and 
Vol, L R criminal. 

242 A N E L L O. 

criminal. He had no lefs than 150,000 men under his cam^ 
tnand. An incredible multitude of women alfo appeared | 
v^ith arms of various forts, like fo many Amazons. A\ltft| 
was made of above 60 perfens, who had farmed the taxes, or 
been anjr way concerned in the cuftomhoufes ; and, as it 
was faid they had enricbed themfelves with the blood of tbe 
people, and ought to be made examples to future ages, an 
order was iflued, that their houfcs and goods Ihould be burnt, 
which was executed accordingly, and with fo much regularr* 
ty, that no one was fufFered to touch the leaft thing or carry 
it away. Many, for dealing but very fmall trifies from the 
flames, were hanged by the public executioner in the market 
place, by the command of Maflaniello. 

While thefe horrid tragedies were afiing, the viceroy 
thought of every method to appeafe the people, and bring 
them to an accommodation. He appKed to the archbifhop, 
cf wbofe attachment to the government he was well af« 
^ fured, and of whofe paternal care and aflFeSfcion for tbem tbe 

people had no doubt. He gave htm the original charter of 
Charles Vth (which exempted them from all taxes, aitd 
which they bad all along infifted upon) confirmed by lawful 
authority, and likewife an indulgence or pardon for all of- 
fences whatfoever committed. The biihop found means to, 
induce Maflanielk) to convoke alt the captains and chief 
commanders of the people together, and great hopes were; 
conceived that an happy accommodation would enfue. laj 
the mean time 500 banditti, all armed on horfeback, entered! 
the city, under pretence that they came for the fcrvice of 
the people, but In reality to defiroy Maflaniello, as it appear^ 
cd afterwards ; for they difcharged feveral (hot at him, fome 
of which very narrowly miffed him. This immediately put 
a ftop to the whole bufmefs, and it was fufpeded that tbe 
viceroy had fome hand in the cohfpiracy. The ftreets were 
immediately barricaded, and orders were given that the aqufc- 
' dufts leading to thecaftle, where the viceroy and family ztid 
all the principal officers of (late were, (bould be cut oflF, and 
that no provifions, except fome few roois and herbs, ihouW 
be carried thither. The viceroy applied again to the arch- 
bi(bop, to alfure the people of bis fmcere good intentions «>• 
wards them, his abhorrence of tbe defigns of the banditti, and 
bis refolution to ufe all bis authority to bring them to du« 
puni(hment. Thus the treaty was again renewed, and foon 
complcated ; which being done, it was thought proper that 
Ma(raniello ihould go. to the palace to vifit the viceroy. He 
^ave orders that all the ftreets leading to it ihould be cl^aa 


Ai^ELLd. 143 

Twept^ ah^ tliat all maflcrs of families fhould Karig tb^Ir Win- 
dows and balconies with their richeft (ilks and tapeftries. 
He threw oiF.his mariner's habit, and drefled himfeif in cloth 
of filver, with a Hne plume of feathers in bis hat; and 
qpounied upon a prancing fieed^ with a drawn fword in his 
hand, he went attended by fifty thoufand df the choiceft of 
the people. 

While he Was in conference with the viceroy in a bal* 
cooy, he gave him furpriftng proofs of the ready obedience 
of the people. Whatever cry he gave outj it was imme- 
diately echoed ; when he put his iingei' upon his mouth, there 
was a profound univerfal filence, that fcarce a man was feen 
to breathe. At laft he ordered that they (hould all retire^ 
which was puniSually and prefently obeyed, as if they had all 
Vani(hed away. On the Sunday following the capitulations 
were figned and folemnly fworn to in the cathedral church to 
be obfervcd for ever. MaiTaniello declared, that now having 
accompliflied his honed; defigns, he Would return again to his 
former occupation, if he had kept this refolution, he might 
juftly have been reckoned one of the greateft heroes that any 
age or country ever produced. But as it is diverfely report- 
ed, either through the iniligations of his wife and kindred, 
through fear, or allured by the tailed fweets of rule and 
power, he ftill continued his authority : and what is worfe, 
excrcifed it in a very capricious and tyrannical manner, info- 
tnuch^ that bis beft friends began to be afraid of him. 

He feems indeed to have fallen into a phrenzy, which 
hiight naturally enough be occaGoned by his fudden eleva- 
tion, his care, and vigilance ffor he feldom either eat or flepc 
during the whole tranfadion)^ and by his immoderate drink- 
ing of ftrong wine, which excefs he gave into on the^ happy 
event. Four hardy gentlemen took an opportunity of aflaf- 
finating him. As fie fell, he only cried out, •' Ungrateful 
traitors !'* His head was thrown into one ditch, and his body 
into another* 

ANGELIS (DoMiNico de), author of feveral pieces re- 
lating to the hiflory of literature [a], was born the 14th of 


[a] They an as follow t i. " Dlf- " 1706." 4, •« Vita dl Antonio Ca- 

•* (ertazione^intorna allapatria di Ennio. ••"raccio daNardo.** 5. ** Vita di An- 

« Rome 170]/* 2. «<Vitadimon(ig- << dreaPcfchiuUidaCorigliano/* Thefe 

" Dor Roberto Caracciolo vefcovo two are not printed feparately, but in a 

•* d*Aquino e di Lecce, 1703." 3, collcdtion. 6. ** Vita di Giacomo An- 

*' Delia vita di Sci^ione Ammirato, «« tonio Ferral, Lecce, . »7i5,*' 7* 

*' patrisio Leccefe, libri tret Lecce, •< Viu di Giorgio Baglivo Leccefo.** 

U^ 2 8. "Leticrt 


844 A N G E L I S. 


OAober, 1675, at Lecce, the capital of Otranto in the king- 
dom of Naples, of one of the nobieft and mod confiderable 
families in that city. He began his ftudies at Lecce, and at 
feventeen years of age went to fini(h them at Naples, where 
he applied very dofeiy to the Greek language and geometry. 
He went afterwards to Macerata, where he waa admitted 
dodor of law. His defire of improvement induced him alfo 
to travel into France and Spain, where he acquired great re- 
putation. Several Academies of Italy were ambitious of pro* 
curing him as a member : accordingly we find his name not 
. only amongft thofe of the Transformati and Spioni of Lecce, 
but alfo in that of the Inveftiganti of Naples, in the academy 
of Florence, and in that of the Arcadians at Rome, tlie lafi 
of which he was admitted into the 8th of Auguft, 1698. He 
. received holy orders very early, and was afterwards canon 
and grand penitentiary of the church of Lecce, vicar general 
of Viefti, Gallipoli, and Gragnano, firil chaplain of the troops 
of the kingdom of Naples and of the pope, auditor of M. 
Nicholas Negroni, and afterwards of the cardinal his uncle. 
Whilft Philip V. of Spain was mafter of the kingdom of 
Naples, he was honoured with the title of principal hiftorio« 
grapher, and afterwards became fecretary to the duke of Gra- 
vina. He died at Lecce the 9th of Augufi, 17^9, and was 
interred in the cathedral of that city. 

a. " Lettera diicorfiva al March. GTo- ** nebre recitata in occafione della.morte 

*< vani Giofeftb Orfi,' dove fi tratra dcU* '< dell* imperadore Giufeppe net vefco- 

'< origioe e progrefii de fignori accadc- ** val domo di Caliipoli, Naples, 1716." 

** mici Spioni, e delle varie loro lode- 12. '* Scritto iftorico legale fopra le ra« 

'* vuli appiicazioni, Lecce, 1705,** ** gtoni della fofpeofioni del* interdetto , 

oAavo. 9. *< Difcorfo hiilorico, incui ** locale generale dclla cbiefa di Lecce e I 

*< fi tratta dell* origine e delle fonda. ** fua dioceiiy Rome, 1716.** 13. 

*' zione della citta di Lecce e d*alciioe *' Tre lettere legale.*' Thefe thitt 

** migliore e piu priocipali notizie di letters were written io defence of the 

«« ffla. Lecce, 1705.** 10. " LcVire right of the church of Lecce. 14. He 

** de letterati Salentinii parte 1, The wrote iikewife feveral poemt, partico* 

" Lives of the learned men of Terra larly feven fonnets, which are publiihei 

*• d*Otranto, part L Florence, 1710.** io the (tcoD^ part of the '• Rimo fcelie 

The fecond part was pubii/hed at Naples, * ' del fign. Bartoloiameo Lippi,** printed 

1713, in quarto. 11. '^Oraaione fu. at Lucca, 1719. 

ANGELUS (Christopher), a learned Greek of the 
fevemeeth century, author of ieveral works [aJ» He was 

[a] Thejr are as follow: i. *< Of '* miom on the Kingdom of Great Bri« 

** the many Stripes and Tof meats io- ** tain, and the two flourifbing iifier 

<' fliffced on him for the Faiih he had in *' Univerfities, Cambridge and Oxford* 

" Jefus Thrift, Oxon. 16 17,** in Greek «« Cambridge, 1619,'* 4. " De apof- 

and Englif*.. a. ** £cchiridion de in- *' tafia ccclefis, et de homine peccatf^ 

•< ftitutisGrBcoiUTi.CambridgetJdlg,** •* fcil. Antichrifto, Load Tj 162^/* 

in Greek and Lat n. j. ** An Eaco- Greek aad Latin. 


A N G E L U S. 245 

born at Peloponnefus in Greece, and obliged by the Turks to 
abandon his country on account of his religion, after having 
iuffered a variety of torments. He came afterwards to Eng- 
land, where he was fupported by the bi(hop of Norwich and 
feveral of the clergy. By this prelate's recommendation, he 
vrent to Cambridge, and ftudied about three years in Trinity Wood'i 
college. In Whitfuntidc 1610, he removed to Oxford, 3"^o«*nT'il 
fludied at Baliol college, where he did great fervice to thccoi. e'lS. * 
young fcholars of the university, by inftru£iing them in tberecond edit. 
Greek language ; in which manner he employed himfelf till '7»»« 
his death, which happened on the ift of February, 1638. 

ANGLUS (Thomas), an Englifli pricft, well known 
for the iingularity of his opinions, and feveral little trads 
vrhich he wrote in the feventeenth centuk'y, was born of a 
good family. He went by feveral names: Mr. Baillet faysVieD^s 
his true name'was White, but that he ufed to difguife itJ^^JJ^^f? 
under that of Candidui^ Albius, Bianchi, and Richworthip.245/ 
buc be was moft known in France by the name of Thomas 
Angtus. Des Cartes generally called him Mr. Vitus. He 
palled fome time in moft countries of £uro^e ; but his longeft 
ftay was at Rome and Paris. When he was in England, he 
lived a confiderable time in the family of (ir Kenelm Digby, 
and feems tohavr bad a great efteem for the opinions of this 
gentleman, as may be feen in his writings, particularly in ' 
the preface to his Latin work, ^^ Concerning the Inftitutions 
^* of the Peripatetic Philofophy, according to the Hypochefis 
•* of Sir Kenelm." He was a great advocate for the peripa- 
tetic philofophy. He attempted even to make the principles 
of Ariftotle fubfervient to explaining the moft impenetrable 
myfteries of religion ; and with this view he engaged in the 
difcufiion of predeftination, free-will, and grace. Mr. Bail- 
let fays, ^^ What he wrote upon this fubjedl refembles the an- 
** cient oracles for obfcurity." His anfwer to this accufation 
brought againft him by feveral authors, may not perhaps be 
improperly mentioned here, as it gives an idea of the peculi- 
arity of his temper and genius : ** I value myfelf," fays he, 
^* upon a brevity and concifenefs, which is fuitable to the 
*^ teachers of fcience. The divines are the caufe that my 
•^ writings are obfcure, for they rcfufe to give me any oppor- 
c* tunity of explaining myfelf : in (hort, either the learned 
^< underftand me, or they do not : if they do underftand me, 
*< and find me in an error, it is eafy for them to refute me ; 
*< ]f they do not underftand me, it iii unreafonable for them 
" to c'xclairai againft my doflrines.'* In fuQh abftrufc points 

R 3 as 

246 A N G L U S. 

us we have mentioned he was much embarrafTedt aiid by giy^ 
ing too great fcope to his own thoughts, he pleafed neither 
the Molinifts nor Janfenifts. He is allowed, however, to 
bave been a man of an extenfive and penetrating genius ; but 
haying no talent at diftinguilhing the ideas, which fhould 
have ferved as the rule and foundation of his reafoning, be 
could not clear up the difficulties wherein he involved himfelf. 
On the loth of June, 1658, the coi>gregation of the Index 
expurgatorius at Rome condemned fome treatifes of Thomas 
Anglus [b]« The dodors of Douay cenfured alfo two-and- 
twenty proportions extraded from bis Sacred Inftitutions, 
He publiihed his ^' Supplicatiopoftulativa juliitise," in oppo- 
fition to their cenfure, wherein he complains that they ha4 
given him a vague undetermined cenfure^ without taxing any 
particular propofition. He died fome time after the i^&orsLr 
tion of Charles II. but in what year is uqcertsUti. 

f b] The decree of this congregation father Macedon. Befidei the pieces 

condemns the four following treatifes, which wf have mentioned of Anglos* 

fit* I, *' Inftitutioncs peripar^tica?.** we have alfo his ** 3tAtera morom/* *o<l 

2. *' Appendix theologica de origine his treatife " De medio animarum da- 

•« mu'ndi." 3. " TabuU fuffragialis •« tu 5" and Mr. Bayle fays he had been 

f* de rerminandis fidei lirlbus ab ecclcHa informed, that he wrote alfoa^'Pe- 

f« catholica fixa/* 4. •• Tefferae Ro- «• f«nce of the Doarine of ihc Chunl^ 

** .manae evolgatio/* The two laft *' of £ng(and, concerning pailiTC Obe- 

|>ificct were publiihed againfl the famoui " dience.*' 

ANNAT (Francis), confeflbr to Lewis XTV. born 9t 
'Kouergue, in 1590* He becamea Jefuitin i6q^, and profeire4 
the fourth vow in 1624* He taught philofophy at Touloufe 
iTix years, and divinity (even } and having difcharged his duty 
in e^chof thefe capacities with great applaufe, he was invited 
to Rome, to a£las cen for- general of the books publiihed by 
the Jefuits, and theologili to the general of the fociety. Upon 
his return to his own province, he was appointed reSorof 
the college of Montpellier and of Touloufe. He afllfted as 
deputy of his province at the eighth congregation general of the 
Jefuits held at Rome in 1645, where he diftinguifbed him- 
felf in fucb a manner, that father Vincent CarafFa, genera) 
of the Jefuits, thought no perfon more fit to difcharge the 
office of affiftant of |^rance, which had been vacant for fome 
nine. The ninth congregation general gave him the fame 
poft, under Francis Picolitnini general of the foci'ety, upoil 
whofe death he wa^ made provincial, of the province of 
Jfrancp. Wbilft he was engaged in this employment, he 
1/vas chbfen confeflbr to bis moft Chrlflian majefty in 16541 
afid after having difcharged this office fixteen years^ he was ob- 

. cc 

A N N A T. - 247. 

tged to folicit his difmiffion, bis great age having mach im* 
aired his hearing. Father Sotueil, from whom thcfe parti- 
ulars are taken, gives him the charader of a perfon of great 
irtucs, perfed difintereftednefs, oiodefty, and humility; 
jexad in praAifing the obfervances and difcipline of his or- 
der i extremely cautious in ufing his intereft for his own ad- BiblSotfa. 
vantage, or that of his family; and of uncommon «sal fo' wlf^,^* 
religion. ^* He was the hammer of herefies, fays he, and he ' * 
** attacked particularly, with incredible zeal, the new herefy 
^ of the Janfenifts. He ftrenuoufly endeavoured to get it 
condemned by the pope, and reftrained by the authority of 
*' his moft Chriftian majrdy. Befides which, he confuted 
^^ it with furh ftrength of argument, that his adverfaries had 
*^ nothing folid to reply to him** There are many (fays 
Mr. Bayle) whom father Sotueil will never convince in this 
iaft point ; biic he feems to agree with him in the character 
of dilintereftednefs which he gives to Annat, who ftirred fo 
little for the advancement of his family, that the king is re- 
ported to have faid, he knew not whether father Annat had 
any relations ; contrary to the praSice, fays Mr. Bayle, of 
many other dignified clergymen, who endeavour to heap 
every thing they can procure on their own relations. 

Father Annat wrote feveral books, (bme in Latin, and 
others in French [a]. What he wrote in anfwer to the 
Provincial Letters has been much commended. *^ But with Eatretieade 
** regard to the Jefuits (fays the author of a Dialogue be-Cleandrect 
** twixt Cleander and Eudoxus, written alfo by way of reply ^"^•**» 
^< to thefe letters) vi ho ventured to write agatnft Mr. PafchaU HolUnd 
« what do you think of Mr. Annat, to whom the feventeenth edit. 
«* and eighteenth letters arc addreflcdf* ** Father Annat," 
anfwers Cleander, ** was, in my opinion, a man of great ge- 
^* niusi the Jefu its wrote nothing fuperior to what he pub- 
^ liihed upoq^the points then in difpute. This good man 
<^ (fori knew him to be fuch, and he was even modefty itfelf), 
<< bad an excellent talent at writing. He has very often 
<^ ftrokes fo fine, and lively, and agreeable, that I have feen 
«* nothing equal to them any where." *' I am of your opi- 
^^ nion," replied Eudoxus ; ^' and without mentioning his 
'< virtue, which 1 have heard commended even by thofeof the 
«* contrary party ; I find in him, as you do, a great exadnefs 
^^ of judgement^ and fosietimes fuch a delicacy of expreffion 

' £a3 Hit LatiA tn&; pobli/hed it His French treatifes are moflly upon 
divert cimcfl^ were colleaed in three vo- the difpntet bctairixt tht Je6ittt Aod Jan- 
liunci vtno, and arin .ed at Pawy s666. £ciutt$^ 

R 4 «* and 

«4J A N N A T. 

*^ and raillery, as is feldom to be met with in a fchool-dt^ 
•* vine. This Jcfuit died at Paris in 1670. 

ANNESLEY (Arthur), carlof Anglcrey,and lord privy 
feal in the reign of king Charles II. was born July 10, 1614, 
at Dublin, and continued in Ireland till he was ten years old, 
when he was fent to England. At fixteen he was entered 
fellow commoner at Magdalen college, Oxfordh, where he 
puifued his (Indies about three or four years. In 1634, he 
removed to Lincoln's Inn, where he ftudied the law with 
great affiduity till his father fent him to travel. He made the 
tour of Europe, and continued fome time at Rome, whence 
he returned to England in 1640, and was ele£!ed knight of 
the (hire for the county of Radnor, in the parliament which 
fat at Weftminfter in November of the fame year ; but the 
election being contefted, he loft his feat by a vote of the . 
Lift of tbe boufe that Charles Price efq. was duty eledted. In the be- 
mnt^ie' ol8*""^"g ^f ^^^ ^*vil war, Mr. Annefley inclined to the royal 
'caufe, and fat in the parliament held at Oxford in 1643 ; but 
^5'**'*^j^* afterwards reconciled himfelf fo efFeflually to the parliament, 
of Ormoji/^^^' ^^ ^'^ taken into their confidence, and appointed to go 
voJ.i«p.535rasacommiffioner toUlfter in 1645. There he managed af- 
fairs with fo much dexterity and judgment, that the famous 
Owen Roe O Neil was difappointed in his defigns ; and the 
popiih archbi(hop of Tuam, who was the great fupport of 
his party, and whofe councils had been hitherto very fuccefs- 
ful, was not only taken prifoner, but his papers were feized, 
and his foreign correfpondence difcovered, whereby vaft ad- 
IIM,. vantages accrued to the proteflant intercft. The parliament 
had fent commiffioners to the duke of Ormond, for the de- 
Clarendon's Jivery of Dublin, but without fuccefs ; and the ftate of af- 
Rebdiionin^^i''^ making it neceflary to renew their correfpondence with 
ireiaod, him, they made choice of a fecond committee, and Mr. 
P* 7i« Annefley was placed at the head of this commiifion. The 
commiflioners landed at Dublin the 7 th of June, 1647$ '^^ 
tbey proved fo fuccefsful in theif negociations, that in a 
few days a treaty was concluded with the lord lieutenant, 
which was figned on the 19th of that month, and Dublin 
was put into the hands of the parliament. When the cono' 
miilioners ^ot the fupreme power into their hands, they 
were guilty of many irregularities: Mr. Annefley difapprovcd 
of their conduct, but could not hinder them from doing many 
things contrary to his judgement ; being therefore difpleafcd 
with his fituation, he returned fpeedily to Epgkuid, where 
he fvund all things in coofufion. After the death of Crom- 


A N N E S L E Y: 249 

Well, Mr. Annefley, though he doubted whether the parlia^ 
ment was not dlflblved by the death of the king, refolved to 
get into the houfe if it was poflibie ; and he behaved in 
many refpefls in fuch a manner as (hewed what his real fen* 
timents were, and how much he had the refettltng of the 
conftitutibn at heart. In the confufion which followed he 
had little or no (hare» being trufted neither by the parliament 
nor army. But when things began to take a different turn, 
by reftortng the fecluded members to their feats, February 
2i» 1660, Mr. Annefley waschofen prefident of the coun-- 
cil of ftate, having at that time a correfpondence with bis 
majefty king Charles II. then in exile. 

ooon after the refioration, Mr. Annefley was created ear!^«M»'e*« 
of Anglefey : in the preamble of the patent, notice is taken^^[^^ 
of the fignal fervices rendered by him in the king's reftora*p.474» 
tion. He had always a confiderable (hare in the king's fa- 
vour, and was heard with great attention both at council 
and in the houfe of lords. In 1667, he was made treafurer 
cf the navy ; and on the 4th of February, 1671-2, his ma- 
jefiy in council was pleafed to appoint the duke of Buckings* 
bam, the earl of Anglefey, the lord Holies, the lord A(hleyccniiN*t 
Cooper, and Mr. fecretary Trevor,* to be a committee toP«»ne» 
pcrufe and revife all the papers and writitigs concerning the^®'"*^ 
fettlement of Ireland, from the firft to the Ia((, and to make 
an abftra£t thereof in writing ; and accordingly, on the 12th 
of June, 1672, they made their report at large, which was 
the foundation of a commii&on, dated the ift of Auguft, 
1672, to prince Rupert, the dukes of Buckingham and Lau- 
derdale, earl of Anglefey, lords Alhley and Holies, (ir Joha. 
Trevor, and fir Thomas Chichel«y, to infpe6l the fettle* 
ments of Ireland, and all proceedings thereunto^ In 1673, 
the earl of Anglefey had the office of lord privy feal conferred 
upon him. In October 1680, his lordlhip was charged by$eebtti¥fr. 
one Dangerfield in an information delivered upon oath, afracive, pub* 
the bar of the houfe of commons, with endeavouring to ftM^^'^ff^h"'* 
evidence concerning the popi(h plot, and to proinote the be-hoofe of 
lief of a prefbyterian one. The uneafinefs he received fromcoounowu 
this attack, did not hinder him from fpeaking his opinion 
freely of thofe matters in the houfe of lords, particularly in 
regard to the Iriih plot. In 1680, the earl of Caftlehaven 
wrote ^' Memoirs concerning the Affairs of Ireland,*' where* 
in he was at fome pains to reprefent the general rebellion in 
Ireland, in the lighteft colours poffible/ as if it had been ^tf^emoht^ 
iirft far from being univerfal, and at laft rendered fo by theLond.i68o. 
Ajeafures purfued by fuch as ought to have fuppreffed the in-'*"'^« 


»50 A N N E S L E Y. 

The earl of Anglefey having received thefe Memoirs from 
tbeir author, thought fit to write fome anicnadverfions upoa ' 
tbeoiy in a letter to the earl of Caftlebaveny wherein he de- 
livered his opinion freely in refped to the duke of Ormond' 
and his management in Ireland. The duke expoftutated 
/ with the lord privy feal on this fubjeA, by letter, to which 
the earl replied.. In 1682, the earl drew up a very parti- 
cular remonftrance, and prefented it to king Charles IL it 
was very warm and loyal, yet it was far from being well re- 
ceived [a], it was not ho«^evcr thought proper to remove 
him from bis high office on this account; but the duke of 
Ormond was prevailed upon to exhibit a charge againft him, 
on account of his Refiedlons on the £arl of Caftlehaven*s 
Memoirs. This produced a (harp conteft betwixt thefe two 
peers, which ended in the earl of Anglefey's lofing his place 
cf lord privy feal, though his enemies were forced to con- 
fefs, that he was hardly and unjuftly treated. After this dtf- 
grace, he remained pretty much at his country*feat at Ble- 
chingdon in Oxfordshire, where he devoted his time to his 
ftudies, and meddled very little with public afFaixs« How- 
ever he got into (avour again, in the reign of king James II. 
and it is generally believed he would have been appointed 
lord chancellor of England, if not prevented by his death, 
which happened April 6, 1686, in the 73d year of bi$ age, 

[a] This metoorUI was intitlrd, <* yetthe Uwisyour mafterand iiWIrvCT 

*■ The Account of Arthur Earl of An- " tor how to govern; and that joor 

** f}eCeyf Lord Pnvy Seal to youf ** fubj^dif afi'ure themiclTcr, you will 

** rtioft excellent Majeftv» of the true *< never attempt the enervating that 

** State ot your Majefty's Government " law by which you are kinp, and 

** and Kingdoms, Ai>riT 27, 1 6S2.** In *' which you have not only by frequent 

«'ne part whereof he fays, ** the fiial ** declirttions, but by a lolenm oath 

«* cauie of all owrmifcbieft, prefent or *< upon > our throne, been obliged, inf 

** apprehended, and which may raife a ** mof^ glorious pre fence ef your peoplci 

** 6rt, which may burn and confumt to ^ to the maintenance of| and that 

** the verf foundations, is the unhappy ** therefor« you will look upon any that 

*• peryeriion ^f the duke of York (the « ihall propofe or advife to the coa« 

" t}pxt heir to the crown) in one point f* tijarf, ai unfit prrfons to be near you | 

*< of religion; which naturally raifesjea- ** and cTn thofe who (hall perfoade you 

•* loufy of the power, defigns, and prac* ** it n lawful as fordid dAttercrs, ajid 

*- ticca of the f>ld((nemies of ouf religion *Mhe worft and mod dangerous enemies 

f* and liberties, and undermines and '* you and yuur kingdoms have. >Vbat 

*' e;nafculates the courage and contlancy ^* I fct before your majtllyy 1 haft 

f* even of thofe And their po^rity, who *< written freely* and Kke a fworn faith* , 

** have been as faithful to, and fuffered '< ful counfellor ; perhaps sot like a | 

f^ as much for the crown, as any the '** wife man, with legard to myfelf, ai | 

f* mod pleafed or contented in our ^* they ftand t font I have dtfchiarged my : 

** impending mifeties can pretend to ** ^uty, and will account it a reward, if 

, *^ have dotie/* H6 concludes with " your majedy vouchfafe to read, what 

ihcfe words, ** T^o* your nfajeAy is in ** I durft not but write, ai«d which C 

U your 6wti perfon above the reach of ** befiecch God to gt«e aUdCng to.** 
ff laW| and fovercigoofaU your people^ 


ANNESLfiY. 9$i 

|ffe was perfeflly verfed in the Greek and ' Roman hiftoiy, 
pind well acquainted with the fpirit and policy of thofe na« 
ti'ons. He had ftudied the laws of his country with fuch 
(dtligence, ^ as to be efteemed a gre^t lawyer. His writings 
which are extant [b] are proofs of his learning* and abilities j co!tim> 
but the largeft and moft valuable of all his works was ]oft,Peerace, 
or, as fome fay, deftroyed. This was •' A Hiftory of the '°^* '*• 
•* Troubles in Ireland from 1641 to 1660/' He was one^'^*** 
of the firft Englifh peers whodiftin^ui(hed himfelf by collect- * 
ing a fine library, which he did with great care, and at a 
large expence. But after his deceafe, all his books were ex- 
pofed to fale. At this fale the difcovery was made of the 
earrs famous memorandum, in the blank leaf of an EiKch 
^a((r»AfXYi ; according to which, it was not king Charles 1. 5^ ^^^ 
but bi(hop Gauden who was the author of this performancejOAuojc^ 
which produced a long controverfy, 

[b] His lordfhip publtihed in his life- quarto. Befidcsthefe, be wtote HMfiy 

^me the following pieces: i. "Truth other things, fome of which were pub- 

** UDTciledy in bebilfof the Church of lifted after his deceafe; as, 5. "The 

** England ; being a Vindication of " Privileges of the fioufe of Lords and 

** Mr, John Standi(h*8Sern)ony preached ** Connmons, argued and ftate4i in two 

f* before the King, and publiflied by ** Conferences between both Hoofes^ 

**. his Majefiy*8 Command, 16764 *' April ip and zx, 1671. To which 

** qnarto« To which if adde:^, A fhort " is added, A Difcoorfe, wherein the 

^* Treatife on the SubjeQ of Tranfub- " Rights of the Hoofe of Lords are 

" Aantiation.** 2. " A Letter from a ^* truly aiTerted ; with leartaed Remarks 

** PerCon of Honour in the Country, *' on the feeming Arguments and pre« 

*' written to the Earl of Caftlehaven { " tended Precedents offered at tha(, 

" being Obfervations and Refleftiona ** Time againft their Lordihips/* 6. 

** oohia Lordflitp*8 Memoirs concerning ** The King^s Right of Indulgence, in 

•* the Wars of Ifcland, i68i,*' o^avo. «« fpiritual Matteis, with the Equity 

3* *' A true Account of the whole Pro- *< thereof aiTerted, 16SS,** quarto. 7. 

*' ceedinga between James Duke of Or* " Memoirs, intermixt with moral, po- 

** mood and ^tthw Earl of Anglefey, f* litical, and hiftorical Obfervations, 

" before the King and his Council, &c. ** by way of Difcourfe, in a Letter ta 

^ i68»,»' folio. 4. " A Letter of " Sir Peter Pett, 1693," 8 vo. 

. f* Remarks upon Jomn^ l^!^3*** 

ANSELM (archbiib^p of Canterbury in the reigns of 
William Rufus and Henry I.), an Italian by birth, born in 
^he year 1033^ at Aofiy a town belonging to the duke of Sa» 
voy. After having travelled for fome time in France, he took the 
monaftic habit | n the abbey of Bee, in Normandy, of which 
Lanfranc, afterwards archbifliop of Canterbury, was then 
prior. Three y^ars after, when Lanfranc was made abbot 
pf Caet), Anfelm fucce^dcd him in the priory of Bee ; zn^ 
when Herluin, abbot of that monafiery, died, Anfelm was 
promoted to the abbacy. • In 1092, Anfelm came over tOcant^r! 
f ngland« and foon after his arrival^ WiUi^m I^ufus nomi- Hift. Loi^jI. 
^ " ' natcd'^^3.iib.if 


A N S E L M. 

Iiatcd him to the fee of Canterbury* which he was wit& 
much difficulty prevailed upon to accept ; he was confe* 
crated with great folemnity on the 4th of December, JOQ3» 
Soon after bis confecration, the king having a defign to cake 
the duchy of Normandy from his brother Robert, and endea<» 
vouring to raife what money be could for that purpofe, An« 
felra made him an offer of five hundred pounds, which the 
king, thinking too little, refufed to accept, and the archbifbop 
thereby fell under his majefty's difpleafure. The next year, 
the king being ready to embark for Normandy, Anfelm wait- 
ed on him, and defired leave to convene a- national (ynod; 
but the king refufed his requeft, and treated him very harfh- 
ly, whereupon the archbilbop and his retinue withdrew^ from 
Aid. f. sft. court. Another caufe of the mifunderftanding between the 
king and the archbilhop, was Anfelm 's defiring leave to goto 
Rome, to receive the pall from pope Urban II. whom the 
king of England did not acknowledge as pope, being in the 
iiKerell of bis competitor Guibert. Soon after, the bifiiops, 
being influenced by the court, threw up their canonical obe- 
dience, and renounced Anfelm for their archbifhop [a]. An- 
felm thereupon defired a paflport to go abroad till the prefent 
mifunderftandings could be made up; but the king refufed 
this requeft: be confented, however, that there (hould be a 
fufpenfion of the affair from March to Whitfuntide. But 
before the expiration of thi^ term, he broke through ^this 
agreement, and baniflied feveral clergymen who were in the 
intereft of Anfelm. The bi(hops having in vain endeavour- 
ed to foften Anfelm into a compliance, the king, by the ad- 
vice of his great men, at length received him into favour 
upon his own terms ; and becaufe Anf<?im perfifted in re- 
fufing to receive the pall from the king's hands, it was at 
laft agreed, that the pope's nuncio, who had brought the 
pall into England, (hould carry it down to Canterbury, and 
Jay it upon the altar of the cathedral, from whence An- 
felm was to receive it, as if it had been put into his hands by 
St. Peter himfelf. Anfelm accordingly went to Canterbury, 
iWner, and received the pall with great folemnity. Some time after, 
!'**!»"■ however, the king having marched his forces into Wales, 
took an opportunity of quarrelling again with Anfelm, pre- 

[a] The king would have had them the kjog applied to the temporal ocM- 

to have brought bim to his ttia], and de- lity, to follow the example of thcbi/bops, 

fsofed him in the council ; but the and difclaim Anfelm, they onanimoufly 

bifliopt would not carry their refentment refufed to do it» Eadmer^ obi fupra, It it rpmarkablei that when p. 30, 

... tcndin| 

P- 3$- 


A N S E L M. as3 

tending not to be fatisfied with the quota the arcfcbifliop had 
furnifhed for that expedition. 

Anielm finding himfelf too weak to oppofe the comipttons 
of the times, refolved to go in perfon to Rome, to confute 
the pope ; but the king, to whom he applied for leave to go 
out of the kingdom, refufed his requeft : the archbiihop^ 
however, being determined upon the voyage, embarked at 
Dover. As foon as the king heard Anfelm had crofled the^y^^^^^ 
Channel, he feized upon the archbifliopric. Anfelm got 44. 
fafe to Rome, and was honourably received by the pope, 
whom he accompanied to his country feat near Capua : and 
here he ^vrote a book concerning the incarnation of our Sa- 
viour. The pope wrote to the king, cnjolnrng him, by hit 
authority, to reinftate Anfelm in all the profits and privileges 
' oF his (ee. Anfelm was very ferviceabie to his holinefs ti| 
the council of Bari, held to oppofe the errors of the Greek 
church, with refpe^ to the proceffion of the Holy Ghoft. In 
this fynod, he anfwered the objeftions of the Greeks in fuch 
a manner, that he filenced them, and gave general fatisfac- ^ 
tion to the wefiern church. The pope upon this occaiion 
gave hirn the title of " alterius orbis papa," i. e. pope of the 
other world, meaning England, After the fynod of Bari 
' was ended, the pope ^nd Anfelm returned to Rome, where 
an embaflador from England wa^' arrived, in order to difprove 
Anfelm's allegations and complaints againft his mafter; and 
partly by prefents, and partly by promifes, he got the court 
of Rome to defert Anfelm [b]. The archbilbop, perceiving ibid. p. 5*. 
how matters ftood, would have gone to Lyons, but the pope 
would not part with him ; and in order to footh him after l 
his difappointment, he lodged him in a noble palace, where 
he made him frequent viftts ; and a council being fummoned 
about this time to fit at Rome, Anfelm had a very honour- Maim/b. 
able feat afligned him and his fucceffors, this being the firfttieGcms 
time of an archbifhop of Canterbury's appearing at a Roman. ^^°V^*^"*' 
fynod. When the council broke up, Anfelm immediately p.j,'. 
left Rome, and returned to Lyons, where he (layed till he 
heard of the death of king William and pope Urban, which 
happened not long after his removal to that city, 

[2] This aft'iiir is briefly mentioned his holinefs hang in fufpence between 

byEadmer) hot WilUam uf Maloieibury confcience and inierei^, but wasatlaft 

eniarges with more freedom on the be- over > balanced by the confideration of a 

haviour of the court of Rome : he tells good prefent. De Geilis Poatif* Angl* 

us, the pope was under fome <iiffi'*>I^y lib, i. p. 223* 
ibout the maicer | that for fome time 


954 A N 3 E L i^; 

Anfeim*t Henry I* having fuccwled to the throne of Ectgiaiid, ii^ 

L^Jtert' ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ Canterbury, Winchcftcr, and Salifbury^ 

lib. iii.* which had been feia^ by his predeceilbr, and invited Anfeldl 

cptM'*>nd(o return to his archbifliopric. Upon his arrival in England^ 

Accost ^ ^^ ^^* received with extraordinary refpefi by the king asd 

p. 14. at the people ; but when it was required that he (hould be re-inveft* 

end of his cd by the kipg^ and do the cuftomary homage of his prede« 

1^*!^ "'^'ccifors, he refufed to comply, alleging the canons of the late| 

fynod at Rome about invefiitures [cj- The king was not.aj 

little difjgutted at Anfelm*s non-compliance : it was agreed,! 

however, that the difpute ihould reft till the Eafter foUowings 

and in the mfan time Come perfons were to be fent to Rome, 

to try if they could perfuade the pope to difpenfe with ibtf 

canons of the late fynod, in relation to inveftitures. About j 

this time Anfelm fummoned a fynod at Lambeth, on occafios 

of the king's intended marriage with Maud, or Matilda, i 

eldeft daughter of Malcolm king of Scotland 1 and here it 

was determined, that the king might lawfully marry that 

BadmlTy princefs, notwithftanding (be was generally reported to be a 

lib. 111. ^^^^ having worn the veil, and having bad her education in a 

^ ^' religious houfe. 

The perfons deputed by the king and the archbilhop to 
Rome, when they returned, brought with them a letter to 
his majefiy from the pope, wherein his holinefs abfoluteljr 
refufes to difpenfe with the canons concerning inveftitures* 
The king, on his part, refolved not to give up yirhat had 
hitherto been accounted part of his prerogative $ and tbo9 
the mifunderfianding .ftill continued between the king and 
Anfelm. The majority of the biihops and npbility were oa 
the king^s fide, and fome of them prelTed his majefty. to break 
entirely with the fee of Rome. However it was not thought 
advifeable to proceed to an open rupture without making a 
further trial for an accommodation : the king accordingly 
fent deputies to his holinefs, to try to. prevail with him to re* 
cede from his declaratibn ; but he protefted th^t he would 
fooner lofe his life, thap cancel the decrees of the holy fa- 
thers ; and he fignified bis refoiution by letters to (he king 
and Anfelm. The ne;ct year a national fynpd was held up« 
der Anfelm at St. Peter's, Weftminfter, at which the king 
Ibid. p. 64. and moft of the nobility were prefent. The year followingi 

[c] This fynod excommuntcated all tenure of bonaagc for any ccdcfiaiHai 

lay pcrfojiB who fliouM give inveOitures promotion^ were put under the fante 

for abbeys or cathedrala ; and all ecdf* cenfure. Williahi of Milmeftniy, obi 

fiaftics» who ihould receive iaveftltores fepra* 
, from Uy hands^ or come under the 


A N S E L M 255 

-the king relented fomewhat in favour of An&lm, and he de- 
iired him to take a journey to Rome, to try if be could per-li»id« p* 7^9 
/uade the pope to relax. Tne pope, however, perfifted in^^* 
refufing the king the right of invefttture'; but at the fame ^ > 
time he wrote a very refpedful letter to the king, earnefiiy 
detiring to wave the conteft, and promifing all poffible corn- 
pliance in other matters, Anfelm having left the court of 
Rome, returned to Lyons, and daring his ftay here, the king 
fent another embaiTy to Rome, to try to prevail with the 
pope to bring Anfelm to a fubmiflion. But the pope could 
HOC be gained ; and he excommunicated fome of the Englifli 
court, who had diiTuaded the king from parting with the in« 
veftiturej, but declined paiSng any cenfure againft his ma- 

Anfelm perceiving the court of Rome dilatory in her pro* 
ceedings, removed from Lyons, and made a vifit to the coun- 
tefs Adela, at her caftie in Blois. At this lady's interceffion» 
the king, when he came to Normandy, agreed to have a 
meeting with Anfelm, who accordingly waited upon his 
majefty, at a cafile called TAigle, where the king reftored 
to him the revenues of the archbiihopric ; but would not 
• permit him to come to England, unlefs he would comply in 
the affair of the inveftitures : which Anfelm refufing to do, 
he continued in France, till the matter was laid again before 
the pope. And now the EngliQi bifliops, who had taken IbU. p. te 
part with the king againft Anfelm, began to change their *'*''*•*''*• *^- 
minds, as appears by their letter directed to Anfelm in Nor- 1[^, c Jii^*, 
mandy, wherein they prefs htm to come over with all fpeed,Coiieaioaof 
promifing to ftand by him, and to pay him the regard due to ^^^o/^'* 
his character. Anfelm expxefied his fatisfadion at this beha- a^Oieendof 
viourof the bifhopsy but acquainted them it was not in hishitEcde- 
power to return, till he was farther informed of the proceed-^**' .****• 
ings of the court of Rome. At length the embafladors re-seethit af. 
turned from Rome, and brought with them a decifion more fair of the 
favourable than the former ; and though his hojinefs would JJJ**^^^^"^^ 
not give up the point of inveftitures, yet he difpenfed fo far a«e4 m Ra. * 
to give the bifhops and abbots leave to do homage for their pin'sHift.of 
temporalities. The king, being highly pleafed with this con- 5",'' '^J\r: 
defcenfion of the pope, fent to invite Anfelm to England ; church, 
but the meiTenger finding him fick, his majefty himfetf went 
over to Normandy, and made him a vifit at the abbey of 
Bee, where all differences were perfcflly adjufled. When 
Anfelm recovered from his ficknefs, he embarked for Eng- 
land, where he was received with extraordinary marks of ci- 
vility and kindncfs. After his arrival^ nothing remarkable 


2s6 . A N S E L M. 

happened in the life oF this great prelate, excepting his dif- 
pute with Thomas archbiihop of York, who, in conjund^ion 
with the chapter of York, endeavoured to throw off the de- 

*• *^* pendency on the fee of Canterburjr* 

Before the determination of this difpute, Anfelm died at 
Canterbury, in the 76th year of his age, and 17th of his pre- 
lacy, on the 2ift of April, 1109. He was author of many 
pieces. The largeft edition of his works is that publiih^ 
by father Gerberon : it it is divided into three parts ; the (irft 
contains dogmatical tra£ts, and is intituled ^^ Monologiaj'' 
the fecond, practical and devotional tracts ; the third, his let- 
' ters, in four books ; but we (ball give a particular lift of his 
works in a note [d]. Malmefbury tells us, ^' that Anfelm 
*^ was a perfon of great flricStnefs and felf denial : and bis 
^ temper and fedatenefs fuch, that he was never heard 
*^ to utter the leaft reproachful word." He was the firft 
archbifhop who retrained the Engliih clergy from marry- 

Hearyof j^g . j|jjg ^gg Jqj^^ jjj ijj^ national fynod, held at Wcftmifl- 

vu^bl^^ * ft^t- in 1102, the fourth canon of which provides, that no 
lib. svtii. archdeacon, prieft, deacon, or canon ihould be allowed to 
cLi*'^* marry, or live with his wife already married. Anfelm was 
Maimf. canonized in the reign of Henry VII. at the ioftance of 
lib. i. cardinal Morton, than archbt(hop of Canterbury. 

p. a»3, 

f d] I. " Epiftolanmiy Kbri if.* s. •* num Vtht'i x.'* 22. *' L'bcr dc Uh*t 

** Mooolflginm, ieu foliloqttium.** 3. f< aiums.'* 23. ** Mcditatio 41! foro- 

«« Profologium, feu aUoquium.** 4. ** rem de beueiiciis 0et." 24. "Me*^ 

** Liber incerti autori^ pro i4)fipient« ad* ^* ditatto 4e pafirone Chrifti.** -a^' 

** vcrfus Anfelmi PT<>fologtaiii.** S« ** Alloqala caeleftia, five faculx piornm 

** Liber contra ioiipien^eniy feu apolo' " aifedtuooiy &c.'* 16. '* Mantlflt 

** geticus adverfus libmm precedentem.'* <* tncditationum ec orationum in qwn* 

6. *■ Pialogof de veritatf. 7, '* Dia- *' que parte* tributa. 27, *<Hymjiiet 

^ iogusdeliberoarbitrio.** 8. '^ Dia* <* pfalierium in coinmemoratiooe Dei- 

" k>gu8 de eafu diaboli," 9. " Dif- *•- parae." «S. •* Liber de excelleatia 

«• putat'o dialeAica de gracnmatica." " %\otiofx Virginis Maria?," 29. 

SO. " Tra€tatttS de facramento altaris, *' Liber de quataor^trtutibu;B.ManVf 

■< feu de corpore et fanguine Domini.'* *' ejufque fublimitate. 30. '' PaflioSS* 

jr. « Liber de fide, feu de Incarnatione *' Guigneri five Fiogatis, Plala, etSp-^ 4| 

•• Verbi.*" 12, *• De nuptiis confan- ** ciorom." 31. •• Liber exhortation* 1 

*' guineoruo).** 13. *' Libri ii. contra <' num ad conteofptiini temporaljum, ec .{ 

•* gentiles, cur Deos hoiT>o.** 14. ** De *' defiderium stejrnorum/* 32. *< -Ad« | 

•• proceiTione Spiritds San£li, contra " monitiopromcribundo/* 33. Pare* j 

•* Graces." 15.'« Deconccptu Virg-- ** nefis ad virginem lapfam." '34# 

** hali adtifo, et peccato originaji.** " Serino five liber de beatttudinc.** 35* 

t6« '* Fiagmenta variorum Atittlmi *< Homilta in illod, Introiit Jefut ia 

■* tra^atuom de conceptu Virginali p^f- " quoddam caftellum.** 36. ** Homilin , 

«* fjvo. 17. *• De tnbua Walkrannt ** in aliquot Evangeiia.** 37. *• C*r- 

" qoeftionibus ac prftferttm de fermento " nienne contempto mundi« et alia car* 

** et asymo.** iS« ** De facramentc. '< mina.'* There are feme other pieeri 

''rum diverlitate."* 1 9. *' Concordia afcribed to -Anfelm in the ediii«iof 

*< prefcientiae» praedeitinatioois, etgra- Colrgn^ 1612; and in the editiiM of 

•* ttiecum libertate.** so, "Liber de Lyop«, 1630: bat they are generally 

'* tQlunute Dei»** %i, '< Mcditatio* thoukht fappoficittoDs, 


A :n S O N, 257 

-AN^ON (George) Lwd, #hiofe merit s(s a naval com^ 
fnander raifed him to the rank of Mobility, w^s the Ton of 
XVillikm Anfoh, Efq; of Huckborough, a very ancient and 
vrorthy family i^ Sraffbrd(bire* -Difcovering an early pafHoti 
fbr. naval glory, and ukrhgthe greateft delight in readhig and 
hearing the (lories of our mod diftingiii&ed voyagers and ad- 
niirais,. his father gave him an education fuiiarbte tahisge- 
xiius; and in 1722 he was made captain of the Weazle 
Hoop', aiici the year foMowing o£the Scarboi-oug-h man of war; 
in which fiatldri he^behaVed'^ith the greate({ intrepidity and 
Valouh ; - ' 

On the breaking out of the Spahifh war, he was appoint- 
'ed tb com'iband'a fleet of five fiiips deftiried to^'aiino^ the 
enemy in thait dangerous and unfrequented fea,- Whkb lies 
beyond Ameri<^ii^ and in that unexpe<5led quarter to' attack 
them with, vigour. *Hi^ departure; being unaccountably de- 
layed fome mohths b^y'qiid the proper feafon> he failed abpot 
the middle of September 1746 ; and about the vernal equinox, 
in the mod tempeftuous weather,' arrived in the latitude of 
Cape Horh. He doubled that dangerous cape in March 
1741, afte^a bsld paflage cf 40 days, in which he loft two 
Ihips; aiid by the fcUrvy four 'or five men in a day. He ar- 
rived ofFJ'uanFernan()es sin June, with only two fi^jps, be- 
fides two attendants on the fquadron, and 335 men. He left 
it in September, took fome- prizes, aod burnt 'Paita; and 
ftaid about the coaft of America till May 1742. He then 
crofled th« fouthern o^ean, proceeding with thfc. Centurion 
only, the other Ihips having been deftroyed in Auguft. 
. Having refreihcd his crew at Tinian, he failed in October 
for China ; ftaid there till tbe beginning of 'i'743 5 waited 
for the galliepn at the Philippine iflands, met heron the 
• 20th of June, and took her. Having fold the prize 4ri 
'China, he fct fail for England, December 1743, and* on the 
15th of June 1744T arrived at Spithead, having failed in afog 
through the midft of a French fleet then cruifihg ip^uhe chaix<* 
nel. I- 

Soon after his return, he was appointed rear admiral of 
the blue; and one of the lords of the admiralty, in April 
'1 745 he was made rear admiral of the white^. and in July 
• 1746, vice admiral of the blue. He was alfo chofen to re- 
prefent the borough of Heydon in parliament. That winter 
be commanded the channel fquadron in a long and tempeftu-* 
0U8 cruize. The following fummer, being then on board 
the Prince George' of ninety guns, in company wiih admiral 
Warren and twelve fliips more, he interrupted off C?pe Fi^ 

Vol. U S nifterre 

^58 ANSON- 

niftorfe a -pBvwiul fleet, bound from France to the Eail and 
Weil Indies « aiutby. his valour and condu.<5^ again enrich- 
ti hxwMf and his officers,, and ftrengthened the Britifh navjr, 
b/ t«1cfng jix men qf w^r.and four £aft Indiamen, not one of 
:tioicm:A(cs^'\ng» The French ^dnural M. Jonquiere, on prc- 
£&nting htft fword to the conqueror,, faid, ^^ Monfi^ur, vous 
^^ 9ive^ valncu rinuincible, & U OWire vpus fuit," poiptug 
•to .rhe'two (hips fo named* r : 

, Kisig Gf^orge IL for his fignal fervices, rewarded bim with 
Ji peex^^^.by the title of Iprd Anfon, baron of Spbertpn jn 
Hants. In the fame year he was appointed vice adn^jral of 
the red ; «^ -on the d|?ath of Sir Jo^n Norris, yice T^minl 
c£ £j»g)and> . In 1748, he was apipoipt^d admiral of the 
. b]^Q;>i04 cpn^manded the fquadron th;it convoyed, tb^ late 
:kiflg tOiand froip Holland i »nd, pyerafter oppft^ptly. attend- 
ed hiS'majefly in h's fpreign.^^peditiprts. Jn 17SU bp wfis 
;«pfJiiil3klftdififft Wrd ©f the adrolr^i^yj.i.n wbifh fiction b^ ^pn- 
tiauied|i>^i<)h 4 v/9ryi'ihort*intef^,( p^I his death* 
,v in 17^8^ bei<\gr5be;i admiral of thp \vbite, bayJlMg W^d 
.fcis flag .on board the Roynl Georgt .of ogp hun^c^ll g^nh 
Jic fiaiiltdlrom. ijpitihead on ih/? i,(t of ji^ije, wUb a fpr«iid|iyc 
fcet. Sir iEd.v«Arid H^wke comi|iaip4iog qniUr bipfn ; and>y 
cduizin^cpatinMa^ly before Biei\y hf^ C9y?«e4 {be/J^ftismj 
that wcrt^ made th^t fuipm^ ^t S;:. Malge',?, a,Qd Chef burg. 
jAfcer this'^pp0int^d admiral aiid con^mander i/i ^ipf 
laf his. majafty's fleets. .Ti?e laft fervice h? perforoied ^as 
convoyii>g!io £t)g'Und pur prefent queen Charloue. (Is j^d 
.been for Bimt time in a languiihing (late^of^heal^h, but dkil 
liiiddf nly JMft afcer having.bepn walkii^g i^ bis jg^r^en. ^t W 
£-at at MoortPafk, in Hert/ordihirei June 6, 176^. He mar* 
-jned the eldeQ daugbter ^f the la^e earl fjar.dwickp^, WbQ difd 
before him wkbput ifluc. . . ^ 

t .'As to his ^n^tural difpofition, he was p.^Ims coqU an4 
.-ileady : but it is reported, that our honeft undefigDing ft|- 
•iman. was frequently % dupe at j>lay : and it was .wittily o^- 
ferved of him, that he had been round the world, but never ] 
"tn'it* ' No peffotnanc^ ever met with ^ ipoce. favopr^Ie re- 
ception than: ?* Lord. A nfon's Voyage round the /World;" | 
/oiir large impreffions •were fpid qIF in a twelven^QiUb ; U Ms j 
■been ucanflated.'in^ moft ofj,!^ f i^rope^^n langyjiges, ,'#ind { 
:fiiU fupports i^ reputation. It .was compofi^d n^der hiji 
•lord(hip'fi own infpe£lion, and from the fn^terijil$ ytrhicji hp 
.*funii(bed, by Mr. Benjamin Robins,, who defigne^l, 9^ fvill 
i appear under ills article, to have. favoured the v^orld with ft 
^cond part of it. ^ . 
. -.: : ANTONIANO 


A N t O N I A N O. 2S§ 

ANTONIANO (Silvio); a man of grcit learning, who 

raifed htmrelf from a low condit;ion by his merit ; his parents 

being fo far from able to fupport him in his ftudie^, that they 

themfeives flood in need of charity. It has been faid that he 

was not born in wedlock, but Jofeph CaftaliOf who wrote hisNic. Cr^h; 

life, has proved the contrary. He was borA at Rome in i54o.P>n»coth.i, 

He made a quick and moft furpizing progrefs in his ftudies^^*^*-' ^* 

for when he was but ten years old, he coutd make verfes upon 

any iubjeA propofed to him ; and thefe fo excellent, though 

pronounced extempore, that even a man of genius could not 

compofe the like without a good deal of time and painitf 

There was a proof given thereof at' the table l:>f the tardinslt 

of Pifa, when* he gave an entertainment one clay to"(bvefat 

other cardinals. Alexander Farnefe taking a nofegay^ gaVe 

it to this youth, deiiring him to prefent'ii to htrh of the cbifi^ 

pany 'whom he thought moft likely to be pope :' he prefent^ 

it to the cardinal of Medicisj and. made an (ulogium upon 

bin^ in verfe. This cardinal, who Was pope fome yi^artt 

afterwards, under the name of Pius IV. imagined this was all * 

a contrivance, and that the poem had been prepared before** 

hand with a great deal of art, by way of ridicule upon blm : 

he feemed extremely nettled at it, but the company protefted, 

lh.9tJt was an extempore perfornianc^ ^nd requeftc^d hioi to 

A)^e a tri^ of the boy ; he did fo, apd \t^^s convinced of 

%c«Xtr^ordinafj^ talents, of the youth, who .co9jp«>Mfd.elj:^ ,>: ■j- 

gant vcffes i^pon loy fubjefl propofed to him [/^]^ TJ^^ 

duke dc. Ferrslra coining to Rome, to cpngratuli^lle Marc^)- 

lus IL ' upon bis being raifed tQ the. ppptificate, was* fq 

cbarme^ with the geniiia of Antoniaji^^,^ that he carried him 

loFerriura, where he provided able matter? to in(lru<£i him in 

aJt the;fotences. From thenf:e he ^as fent.fpr by Pii)s ly^ 

wio reconciling the Mdyismure q( ?be,r?p/ggay, i^tbparhe w^.^ 

raifed to St. Peter'^ chw, made enquiry £91: .the yoi^ng p^et.^ 

^dbaiPing found bim out,, brought hii;p to^j^on\ei and gav,e 

biooran hoaour^le poftio his; palace. Some* time afjteT) he 

Qiaide h'lm frpf^fibr of the belles letues in the college at 

&ccns4> I Afitopiano filled this pUce with fo mqcl) reputation, 

thatr.oin the day. when be began tp explaip (be oration pro 

MittCD MarcellO) he ba,d avaftcrowdof auditprs^and apiong 

theCe noiefs than five-and^twenty cardinals. He was after* 

waids choTen re&or df the icoUeg^ ; and after the death of 

Ptua JV. being feize^ with a fp^it of devotion, he joined 

(a] Father .Strfds telU qt, tH^t as the occaHcin of bit propoHng a clock 

^e c»,rdi|)al of Medicit was thinking for the fub]e£l of Ms veifcf* Froluf* 

open a fubjed to propofe to him, the Acad, iii. lib. «• 
^o(k in the haU fiTOck; which wat 

S 2 bimfeif 

fiSa . A N T P N. I A N 0. 

j^^fn.rdf to Philip Neri, and accepted the office of fecretary 
to.thcfacred college^ ofFered him by Pius V. which he exe* 
cuted for (ive*and- twenty years whh the reputation of an 
lioneft and able map. He rcfuTed a biibopric which Gre- 
gory XIV. would have given him, but he accepted the 
office of fecretarj' to the briefs, ofFered him by Clement VIII. 
wbo made him bis chamberlain* and afterwards a cardinah 
It is reported^ tl^at cardipal Alexander de Montaho, who 
had. behaved a jictle too haughtily tp Antoniano, faid, when 
lie fa w bim.pFOJn<<'ted to the purple, that for the future he 
^puld oo^defpifc a man of the cafTock and little band, b(>w« 
^ver.lowand defptcable hemi^ht appear, fince it might hap- 
]^n. that he whooi he haJ defpifc^d, .might not only become 
^ijs^jeq^I, but even his fupe/ior. Antorfiano Icillcd himfelf 
by- too great fatigue, for he fpent whole iiights in writing 
If^lters, which brought on a ficknefs, whereof he died^ in the 
(ixty-third year .of his age. He wrote with fu ch eafe ard 
fluency) -that he fcarcely ever made a blot or rafure ; and it 
Ibid. p. 36. is faid of him, that he pre ferve^ the flower of , bis virginity 
during his whole life, ^e was the author of many pieces ia 
Ycrfp aad profe. ',-..-> 

I I " ». . , 

Hoogflrta. ' ANTONIDKS Vander Goes (John), ao eminent 
An^^Lf^^^'^ l)oet,^Ofn at Goes in Zea!artd,= Apiil 3, i647» ^ Hi* 
pirents^ were AiVabaptifts, people 'df good charafier, but of 
tew circutnftances; They went to live at Amfterdam^\^eQ 
Antonides was aboUt'four years old ; and in the ninth year 
of his age he began his ffudies^ under the diredion of Hadriaik 
Junius and James CoCceius/ ^Anldnides took great pleafuiV 
fri, reading the Latin poets, and carefully compared r theitf 
tvnth Gnotius, Heinffus, &€. By this metans he acquired^* 
fade for- poetry, and enriched hi^s mmd with tmble iM9* 
He firft attempted to tranfl^ate fome pieces x>f Ovid, Horace^ 
and othjer ancierks' ; ^nd having formeti his^ tafte an ibel^ 
excellerit models, he at at kngth vindertook one of chemoA 
difficult tafks in poetry, to write a tfagedy ; this ^asthiitM 
♦^'Trazil, or The InvaAon of China." Antonides however 
was fo modeft as not to permit it to be publilbed^ Vondd, 
who was then engaged in a dramatic piece, which was taken- 
alfo from fome event that happened in^ China, read Ante- 
nides's tragedy, and was fo well pfcafed with it, that he^e- 
WA. clared, if the author would not print it, he would take foioe 

pafTagesoutof it, and make ufe of them in his own tragedy^ 
which he did accordingly; and it was reckoned much- to ihe 



A N T O N I D E S. 261 

honour of Antonides^ to have written what might be adopted 
by (6 great a poet as Vondel was ackno\^]edged to be. 
Upon thfe concJufionof the peace betwixt Great Britain and 
Holland, in the year 1697, Antonides wrote a piece, intitled 
** Bcliona aan band," i. e. '• Bellona chained," a rcry ele- 
gant poem, confifting of fcveral hundred vcrfes. The ap- 
plaufe with which this piece was received, excited him to try 
his genius In fomething more confiderable : he accordingly 
wrote an epic poem, which he intitled ** The River Y." ^ 
The defcription of this river, or rather lake, is the fubje£t 
of the poem, which is divided into four boolcs ; in the firft 
the poet gives a very pompous defcription of all that is re* ' 
markable on that bank of the.Y, on which Amderdam is 
built. In the fecond he opens 10 himfelf a larger field ; he 
begins with thepralfes of navigation, and disfcribes the large 
fleets which cover the Y, as an immenfe foreft, and thence 
goto every part of the world, to bring ho ne whatever may 
fatisfy the neceffity, luxury, or pride of men. The third 
hook is an ingenious fidtion ; which fuppof-s the poet all of * 

a fudden carried to the bortom of the river Y, where he fees 
the deity of the river, with his demi-goods and nymphs, 
adorning and drefling themfeives to go to a feaft, which was 
to be celebrated at Neptune's court, upon the anniverfary of 
the marriage of Thetis with Peleus. In the fourth book he 
defcnbes the other bank of the Y, adorned with feveral cities 
of North Holland ; and in the clofe of the work addrefl'es 
himfelf to the magiftrates of Amfterdam, to whofe wifdom 
he afcribes the riches and flouriftiing condition of that power- 
ful city. 

Antonides's parents had bred him up an apothecary ; but 
his remarkable genius for poetry foon gained him the efteem 
atid friendfhip of feveral perfons of diftindiof) ; and particu- 
ly of Mr. Buifero, one of the lords of the admirality at Am- 
fterdam, and a great lover of poetry, who fent him at his 
own expence to purfue his ftudies at Leyden : where he re- 
mained till he took his degree of do^Slor of phyfic, and then 
his patron gave him a place in the admiiHlity. In 1 678, 
Antonides married Sufanna Bermans, a minifler's daughter, 
who had alfo a talent for poetry. In the prcf ire to his heroic 
poem, he promifed the life of the apoflle Paul, which, like 
Virgil's iEneid, was to be divided into twelve books ; but 
he never finiflied thatdefign, only a few fragments of it hav- 
ing appeared. He was afraid of theological iubjeiSls. After 
marriage, he did not much indulge his poetic genius ; and 
within a few years he fell into a confumptiQn, of which he 
I S 3 died 

%€% A NT ON IDES. 

Ibi4. died on the i8th of September, 1684. He is eAeeroed the 
tnoft eminent Dutch poet« after Vondel, whom he ftudied 
to imitate^ and is thought to have excelled in fweetnefs of 
expreffion and fmootbnefs of fiyle, but in accuracy and loftt* 
nefs he is greatly inferior to his original. His works have 
been printed feveral times, having been colleded by his father 
Anthony Tanfz. The laft edition was printed by Nicholas 
Ten Hoom, at Amfterdam, in the year 17 141 in quartoi 
under the diredion of David Van^Hoogftraaten, one of the 
mafters of the Latin fchool of that city^ who added to it alfo 
the life of the poet, 

ANTONINUS Philosophus (Marcus Aurhlius), 

the Roman enijKror, born at Rome, the 26th of April, in the 

l^ift year of the ChriiUan srra. He was called by feveral 

names [a3> till he was admitted into the Aurelian familyt 

^ when he took that of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. Hadrian, 

upon the death of Cejonius Commodus, turned his eyes upon 

Marcus Aurelius ; but as be was not then eighteen years of 

TillcmoBt age, and confequently too young for fo important a ftation, 

H)ftoire desjig j^^d upon Antoninus Pius, whom he adopted, on condi- 

tm^ii!^ * t>oi^ ^^^^ ^^ (hould likewife adopt Marcus Aurelius. The 

P-.559' year after this adoption, Hadrian appointed him quaeflor, 

Broff*/^* though he had not yet attained the age prefcribed by the 

tjiu ' laws. After the death of Hadrian, Aurelius married Faufti* 

na, the daughter of Antoninus Pius, by whom he had feveral 

children. In 139, he was invefted with new honours by 

the emperor Pius, in which he behaved in fuch a manner, as 

endeared him to that prince and the whole people. 

Upon the death of Pius,- which happened in the year 161, 
he was obliged by the fenate to take upon him the govern- 
ment, in (he minagement of which he took Lucius Verus as 
X^ib. hxl. his colleague. Dion C^ffius fays, that the reaibn of doing this 
was^ that he might have leifure to purfue his ftudies, and on 

[a] When be w»s ailopted by bit came emperort he Yett the name of Ve- 

fraodfather by the fathei*! fide, he re* rui to Lucius Commodot. his adopted 

ceived hit name M. AnniutVerui; and brother, and took that of Antoninus, 

HadrUn the cmperory inftead of VcrnSy under which he it generally known in 

vftA to call him Vrridimosy oo account hiflory. Bot he it diftinguidie^ from 

of hit reditude and veracity. (Dion hie ptedeceflbr Tittis Antoninut, eirher 

CaC lib. Ixiv. f. 779* edit. WecheU by the name ot Marcos, or by the name 

1606.) When be vaa adopted by An^ of Phtlofopfaus, which is giveti him hj 

toninos Pius, he aifumed the name of the general confent of writers $ but we 

M. /^litts Aoretios Verus, becaufe An- do not find this title to have been given 

Fcfim was the name of Aotonnius*s fa- him by any poblk ad m- antherity «f 

mily, and i^liut that of Hadrian's the fenate. Tilleilieiit HilU des £ops- 

liito which he entei^* "When he be* rears, tom* i?« p, 559. 


A N T O.N I N US. A<| 

^ccountpfbi^ inflate of health ^ Lucius being of a Oroog 
vigorous conftitution, and confcquently more fit for the fa- 
tigues of war. The fame day he took upon hiiti the nanke of<^apitoi. ia 
Antoninus, which he gave likewife to Verus hi* colleague, ^.^\*p4."'"' 
and betrothed his daughter Luqilla to him* Tb« iwi> em* c^p. 7. ' 
perors. went afterwards to the camp, where,' afier leaving 
performed the funeral rites of Pius, they pronounced each uf 
tbcfn a panegyric to his memory. They difcharged the.go* 
vernment in a very amicable manner. It is faid} that foonoac'er'sLire 
after Antoninus h«»d performed tKe apotheofis of Pius, peti^ofM.Amo. 
tions were prefented to him by the pagan priefts, philofophTs, **"*"*• 
and governors of provinces, in order to excite him ,to perfe-* 
cute the Chriftians, which he rejeded with indignation ; and 
inter pofed his authority to their protection, by. writing a 
letter 10 the common aiTembly of Alia, then held at £phe* 
fus [bJ. The hdppinefs which the empire began to enjoy 
under thefe two emperors, was interrupted in 162 by a dread* 
ful inundation of the Tiber, which deftroyed a vail, number TUlemonc, 
of cattle, and oecafioned a famine at Rome. This calamity ?• ^^9* 
was followed by the Parthian war ; and at the fame time the 
Catti ravaged Germany and Rhaeua. Lucius Verus went in 
perfon cooppofe the Parthians, and Antoninus continued at 
Rome, wbeie his prefence was neceiTary. 
- Duting this war with the Parthians, about 163 or i64,'An'«' 
toninus /ent his daughter Lucilla to Verus, fhe having been 
betrothed to him in marriage, and arteoded her aa far as 
Brundufium: he intended to have conducted her to Syria; 
but it having been infmuated by fome perfons, that his deiign 
of going into the Rail was to claim the honour of havingl<). p 55^1 
finifbed the Parthian war, he returned to Rome. TheRo-^^^^ 
mans having gained a vi&ory over the Parthians, who weie 
obliged to abandon Mefopotamia, the two emperors, triumphed 
over them at Rome in 1669 and were honoured with the title 
of Fathers of their Country, This year w^s.fatal^ on ac- 
count of a terrible peftilence which fpread itfelf over the 
whole world, and a famine alfo under which Rome- laboured : 
it was likewife in this year that the Marcomanni, and many 
other people of Germany, took up arm^ againft the Ron>ans ; 
but the two emperors having marched in perfon againft them, 
obliged' the Gf rmans to fue for peace. The war, however, 
was renewed the year following, and the two emperors nurcb'- 

[s] Eufcbiot has preTerved this let- whereas it was wrote by Marnif An* 
ter, H2ft. Ecclef, lib. hr. cap. f 3. b»t he teninatr as Valefius makfs it appear in 
fatfBly afcribes it (• Aatmuftut Pius, his aanowionioaihe place. 

4 '. S 4 ed 

fttf4 A N T O f^ 1~N U S. 

ed agftin in perfon ; but Lucius Verus was feized with an 
apople<Slic fit, and died at Altinum. 

In 170, Antoninus made vaft preparations agatnft the 
Germans, and carried on the war with great vigour. Dur- 
ing this war, in 174 a very extraordinary event is faid to 
have happened, which, according to Dion Caifius, was as 
Lib. Ixxi. follows : Antoninus's army being blocked up by the Quadi, 
in a very difadvantageous place, where there was no .poffi* 
bility of procuring water ; and in this fituatton, being vi^orn 
cut with fatigue and wounds, oppreflfed with^beat and chirft, 
and incspable of retiring or engaging the enemy^ inflantly 
the iky was covered with clouds, and there fell a vaft quan- 
tity of rain. The Roman army were about to quench their 
thirft; when the enemy came upon them with fuch fury, that 
they muft certainly liave been defeated, had it not been 
for a fhower of halt, accompanied with a fiorm of thunder 
and lightning, which fell upon the enemy, without the ieafi: 
annoyance to the Romans, who by this means gained the 
vidory [c]. In 175, Antoninus made a treaty with feveral 
nations of Germany. Soon afier Avidius CaiRus, governor 
of Syria, revolted from the emperor; this infurr«3ion, how- 
ever, was fuppreiTed by the death of Caffiqs, who was killed 
by a centurion named Anthony. Antoninus behaved with 
great lenity towards thofe who had been engaged for 
Caffius : he would not put to death, nor imprifon, nor even 
fit in judgement himfelf upon any of the fenators engaged in 
Dion. CaiT.this rcvolc ; but he referred them to the fenate, fixing a day 
f' 7>7- for their appearance, as if it had been only a civil affair. He 
wrote alfo to the fenate, defuing them to a6^ with indulgence 
* rather than feverity ; not to (hed the blood of any fenator or 
perfon of quality, or of any other perfon whatfoever, but to 
allow this honour to his reign, that even under the misfor- 
tune of a rebellion, none had loft their lives, except in the 
firftheatof the tumult; *« And I wi(b,*' faid he, '* that I 

[c] The pagani as well ss Chrifli- tht MeHtene legion ; and, as » mark 

ans, accordingtoM^Tillemom p. 6ai. pf diiHodiop, wc; are told, that thrj 

art. xyt. bave acknowledged the truth received the (hie of the To uoderi^ Le« 

of this prodigy, but have greatly differed gion fiom Antoninus. (Eufcb. jZccH 

pstothecaiifcoffuch roifKulousevepr, Hift.lib. v. cap, 5.) Mr. Moyfe, in 

the former afcribipg it, fome to one the (kcond volume of his- woiks, ;hai 

'magician and fome to another ; In An- endeavoured to explode ihis.ftojy of the 

toninus*8 Pillar, the glory is afcribed to Thundering Ltgion, which'' occafTohed 

Jupiter the gf)d of rain and thunder. But Mr. Whifton to pubtiffi an anfwer, in 

the Chriftians affirmed, that God grant- fyafi, xntttled " Of the Thund^rihg Lc- 

ltd this favour at the prayer of theChr:ft. « gion ?" or, of the miraculous EWJiver- 

ian I'oldiers in the Roman army, who anceofMarc.tifAnfeomnus and his Army, 

Iff ftijj to have coinpofcd ihc twelfth 9? jipon ihc Prayers of the Chri^ians'. 

'* coyld 



could even recal to life many of thofe who have beeii^ 

killed ; for revenge in a prince hardly ever pleafes s for* 

even when juft, it is coofidered coo fevere." In 176^ 

Antoninus vifited Syria and £gypt : the kings of thofe coun-| 

tries, and embafladors alfo fjcom Parthia, came to vifit him.. 

He fiayed feveral days at Smyrna ; and after be had fettled- 

the affairs of the Eaft, Wenf^to Athens, on which city he 

conferred feveral honours, and appointed public profeflbra 

there. From thence be returned to Rome with his fon Com«> 

modus, whom he chofe conful for the year foUowingt 

though he was then but fixceen years of age, having obtained 

a difpeniation for that purpofe. On the 27th of September, 

the fame year, he gave him the title of Imperator ; and on^ 

the 23d of December, he entered Rome in triumph, with 

Commodus, on account of the vidories gained over ibeGer«i.-|^ 1^^ 

mans. DionCaflius tells us, that he remitted all 'the debts, 

which were due to himfelf and the public treafury during 

forty-fix years, from the time that Hadrian had granted the' 

fame favour, and burnt ail the writings relating to thofe 

debts. He applied himfelf likewife to corre£l many enormi* 

ties, and introduced feveral excellent regulations [oj. In 

171, he left Rome with his fon Commodus, in order to go 

againft the Marcomanni, and other barbarous nations ; and 

the year following gained a confiderable vidory over them: 

he wotjld, in all probability, have entirely fubdued them in 

a very (hort time, had he not been taken with an illnefs, 

which carried him off on the 17th of March, 180, in the 

59th year of his age, and 19th of his reign. The whole 

empire regretted the lofs of fo valuable a prince, and paid 

the greatefl regard to his memory : he was ranked amongft 

the gods,' and every perfon almoft had a ftatue of him in 

their houfes. His book of Meditations has been much ad« 

mired by the heft judges [eJ. 

[d] He moderated the ezpf nces laid Yinces. He renewed the law made by 

out 00 gladiators ; nor. would he faft'er Nerva, that no foit thoold be ctrrsed on 

them to fight but with iwords which againft the dead, but within five yeart 

were blunted hke foils, fo that their after their Heceafe. He n^-ade a decree, 

/kin might be Acwn without any danger that ail the fentton /hould have at leaft 

of their liver* He endeavoured to clear a fourth part of their eftate in Italy* 

op many obfcuritiei in the laws, and Capitolinus gives an account of ieieral 

ttitigat^d by new decrees the fcverity of other regulations which he rftabliihed* 
the. old laws;,' . He was the firft, accord- [a] it is wiitteo in Greek, and con- 

inj^^^Of Capitolinus (Vit, Anton, cap. fifts of- twelve books t .there have been 

xxyuy who appointed the names of all feveral editions of it in Creelf and JLa* 

theAftuitren, bom of Roman citizens* tin, two of which were c'nnted before 

to be regiaired within thirty days after the year itf^S, when the learned Merit 

their bir(h^ and this save bim occafion Cafauboo| pre^c^^^Hy. ^of Cantirbory, 

to eUabliO) public regifters in the pro- publiihed a lecond ediuoa'of hit tranfla- 
* '' tioii 

l65 A IC T O N I N U S. 

liM«ft1riiwiirklaloEBsltA»dalicattd. •* pctftnne4wlMtk«€Kiwrled^b«ff Mti 

taDr* W« Laud archbiihop of Canter- ** Be it therefore fpoken to the inxnertal 

bury. ** Of aI2 books** (fiys Cafaubon, " praifc and commendatipn of Antoni- 

•* la hii preface, p. 5, lee.) that hate ^ mil, tbift at he did #nte^ fi» he did 

M ever beea wr)ttca by aojr headien« I " five* Netcr did wrtttnga fe e^nipin 

*' know not any* which either in regard <' tonTC all poffi|)leteftimony of good- 

•• of kfelf, (for the bolk thereof) or in •* nefi, oprightnefi, Innocency, and 

^ regard of the aatbor, detfertea oiore ** whateter could, amoAgft heathensi be 

•• iefpe€k than tbia of Marcui Antonx- ** more commendable, as they bare 

** not. The chiefeft fubjed of the « done to commend this ones they 

•• book it the vaoity of the world, and •• commend him, not as the befl prince 

•* ill worldly thingi^ at wealth and <* only, but abfolottly a« the bei^ man 

*' boaonr, life, <tc« and the end and '< and beft pbiUfopher that ever waf« 

*' fcope of it, to teach a man how to " And it' it his proper commendation^ 

<" fobmit himfelf wholly to God's pro- ** that, being fo commanded, he xa com. 

*' vidtoce, and to litre content and ** mended witboat eicaplion, V any 

^ thankful in what cftate or calling fo« «« thing had ever been talked againft 

•* ever. In the author of it, two main *« him, thehiftoriant mention it but as 

** things I conceive very confiderable j « a Ulk $ not credited by them, nor by 

, . ** firft, tlntf he wat a very great man, " any that ever were of any ertdSc. 

** one that bad had good experience of << Hit Meditations were bit aaions 1 

^ what he fpake ; and fecon Jly, that he *< hit deedt (if you confider him a man 

f* was a very good man j one that bad " and a heathen) did agiec with hii 

** Jived at he did write, and eiaaiy (at «< fenttnoet.*' 
'* £is at Was poffibio to a natural mux) 

, ANTONIO (Nicholas), knight of the order of St. 
James and canon of Seville, did great honour to the Spanifli 
nation by his Bibliotheque of their virriters. He was born at 
Seville, in 1617, being the fon of a gentleman, whom king 
Philip IV. made prefident of the admiralty eftabliflied in that 
city in 1626. After having gone through a courfe of pbilo- 
fopby and divinity in his own country, he went to ftudy law 
at Salanaanca, where heclofcly attended thele<aures of Fran- 
cifco Ramos del Manzano, afterwards counfcllor to the 
king, and preceptor to Charlei II. Upon his return to Se- 
ville, after he had finiflied his law-ftudies at Salamanca, he 
fliut himfelf up in the royal monaflery of Benediaines, 
where he employed himfelf feveral years in writing his 
** Bibliothcca Hifpanica," having the ufe of the books of 
Bennet dc la Sana abbot of that roonaftcry, and dean of the 

ai oet "••■ * j*-t ?^ . o . » ^ 

Jfi97. - r ».....«... ..w» U.H ,u- 

?; U^-i.. ^"'""on °f Spain, the viceroys of Naples and Sicily, and 
P.tchc4.t. the governor of Milan, to ncgociatc tiieir affairs at Rome. 
The cardinal of Arragon procured him, from pope Alexan- 
der VII. a canonry in the church of Seville, ihe ineoffle 
whereof he employed in charity and purcbafing of 6oi»ks'; 
toe had above thirty thoufand volumes in his librwy. By 
tills help, joHwd to a continual labour and indefetigable ap, 




plication, be was at Uft enabled to fiotih his *^Btbliothecaibta.p.4si» 
Hifpanica,'* in four volumes folio, two of which he publiihed^*^* 
at Kome, in 167^. After the publication of thefe two vo- 
llimes, he was recalled to Madrid by Charles II. to take 
uponhitn the o£Bce of counfellor to the cru fade, which he 
difcharg^d with great integrity, till his death, in 1684. Hq 
left nothing but his vaft library, which he had brought 
from Rome to Madrid ; and his relations being unable to 
publiih the renvaining volumes of his Bibliotheca, fent them 
tQ cardinal d'Aguifne, who paid the charge of the imprefKon, 
and committed the care thereof tom'onfieur Marti, his libra- 
rian, who added notes to them, in the name of the cardinal. 
Antonio had been alfo engaged in a work, intitled ^^ Tro-> 
phaeum hiftorico-ecclefiaflicum Deo veritati ereSum ex 
manubiis preudo-biftoricorum» qui Flavii Lucii Dextri, M« 
*^ Maxtmi, Helecse, BraulioniSyLuitprandiyCt Juliani nomine 
** circumferuntur ; hoc eft, Vindiciae verse atque dudumnotae 
** Hifpanarum rerum hifioriae, Germanarum noftrae gentis 
*' laudum non ex Germano-Fuldenfibus chronicis emendica- 
^* tarum in libertatem et puritatem plena aflertio." He had Bi1>liot1i» 
projeiSed fcveral other works in his mind, but we muft not ""P"*^** 
omit that which he publiihcd at Antwerp in 1659, " Dcp.jig^g,^ 
*^ cxilio, five de poena exilii, exiliumque conditione et juri- 
** bus," in folio. 

ANTONIUS (Marcus), a famous Roman orator, highljr 
celebated by Cicero, after rifing fucceflively through the fe- 
veral preparatory offices in the Commonwealth, was made 
conful in the year of Rome 653 ; and foon after governor of 
Cilicia, in quality of proconfu), where he performed fo 
many great exploits in the military way, that he obtained 
the honour of a triumph. We cannot omit obferving, that 
in order to improve his talent for eloquence, he became a 
fcholar to the greateft men at Rhodes and Athens, in his 
way to Cilicia, and on his return to Rome. Afterwards he 
was appointed cenfor, which office he difcharged with great 
reputation: be carried his caufe before the people againft 
Marcus Duronius, who had preferred an accufation of 
bribery againft him, in revenge for Antonius's having erafed 
his name out of the lift of fenators $ which this wife cenfor 
had done, becaufe Duronius, when tribune of the people, 
had abrogated a law, which reftrained immoderate expence 
in feafts. He was one of the greateft orators ever known at 
Rome ; and it was owing to him, according to Cicero, that 
£ome might boaft berfelf a rival even to Greece itfelf in the 


z6S A N T O N I U S. 

^.deOrat«3i-t of cloqucncc. Hc defended, amongft many others, 
'"'**^'*^* Marcus Aquilius; and moved the judges in fo fenfible a 
lb.inBnjto.niannery by the tears he Ihcd and the fears he ihewed upon 
**^^*^^"*the bread of his client, that he carried his caufe. Cicero 
CicifiOrat. has given us the charader of his eloquence, and of his a£)ion. 
pioCiiicAtio. He never would publilh any of his pleadings, that be might 

Vai.Ma*. ^^^* ^^ ^^ '^'^^ ^ proved to fay in one caufe, what might 

lib«Vu. * be contrary to what he ihould advance in another. He 

•*P* 3* afFeded to be a man of no learning [a]. His modcfty and 

•on f. jjj^^y Qther qualifications rendered him no lefs dear to many 

perfons of diltin£lion, than his eloquence made him univer- 

fally admired. He was unfortunately killed, during the 

difturbances raifed at Rome by Marius and Cinna; and his 

head was expofed before the roftrum, a place which he had 

adorned with his triumphal fpoils* This happened in the 

year of Rome 667. 

He left two fons, Marcus and Caius; of whomBayle fays, 
Dia.iii Art. that they ** were more wprthy to be the father and uncle of 
*' Antonius the Triumvir, than fons of the great man who 
Plutarch. jo4( gave them life," The elder Marcus, furnamed Crcticus, 
^fttooio. i^gyer raifed himfelf beyond the prstorfliip, but executed 
that office with a prodigious extent of authority ; for he had 
the fame commiilion which Pompey had after wards^ for 
importing corn and exterminating the pirates, which gave 
him the whole command of the feas. He committed great 
extortions in the provinces, particularly in Sicily, Hc in- 
vaded Crete without any declaration of war, on purpofeto 
enflave it ; and with fuch an aiTurance of vi£^ory, that he 
Likiii.e. 7. carried with him, fays Floru«, more fetters, than arms. 
But he met with the fate that he deferved : for the Cretans 
totally routed him in a naval engagement, and returned 
triumphant into their ports, with the bodies of their enemies 
hanging on their mafts. He died foon after this dtfgrace, 
infamous in his charafter, '* nor in any refpedl a better man,*' 
iiys Afconias, ** than his fon." 

(a1 Mr. Bs^^einaginea he diJ this he thought noth'ng more proper to pro* 

not fo much out of modcfty as policy j <*uce a good cft'e^, than to make them 

that finding himfelf cAabliibcd in the beltf ve that be pleaded without any 

rtpotatton of' a great oratpr, he thought preparation, and to conceal from tbca 

the woild would udmiie him more, if all the artifice of rhetoric. But yet he 

rficy fuppoted this eloquence owing en- was learned, and not unacquainted with 

tifoly to the ftrength 'bf his natitral the beft Grecian authors, of which 

pntttt, rather than the fruit of along there are, proof* in fcvcral paflagei of 

a4>plicaiion to the ftudy of Greek au- Cicvxo, 
ihof s, Tiiat with regard to the judges, 

'7 . - Hii 

AN TON I U S/ 26$ 

His brother Caius bore. arms under Sjlh in the wrar againft 
Mithridatest and raifed fuch difturbances in Achaia, that 
for this and other crimes he was afterwards expelled the 
fenate by the cenfors. Hawej^er he was. raifed by Craflus 
and Csefar to the confu!(hip with Cicero -, when the Catili-* 
narian confpiracy breaking out, he was appointed to head the 
forces againft Catiline. He did not go in perlon, being either 
really or pretendedly fick : fome fay, he pretended ficknefs, Did. lik. 
apprehenfive left Catiline* if be appeared, (bouid make dif-xjuTU. 
coveries againft him. He afterwards governed Macedonia 
for three years with fuch extortion and violence, that the fe- 
nat«xQcalled, tried, coqvi(3ed, and baniihad him. "^ 

ANTONIUS (Marcus), thf Triumvir^ was fon of An-* 
tonius CretUuSf by Ju(lia« a noble lady of fuch merit, thai 
Plutarch affirms her to have been " comparable to the wifeft 
*• and moft virtuous ladies of that age." , Toobfervc it ^laAntoirfo* 
paj/antf fbe was by no. means happy in her hufbands ; for, .1 

after the death of Antonius^ {he married P. Cornelius Len- 
tulus, who was an accomplice in Catiline's confpiracy, and 
punifl^ed With death for that fcrime. She was alio as little 
fortunate in her fons, w.ho were three; for Caius and Lucius have had (Lucius efpeciaUy) ail the Vices of their 
brother Marcus, without his virtues* 

Anthony, lofing his father whtfn- young, launched out at . 
once into all the excefs of riot and debauchery, and wafted 
his- whole patrimony, before he had put on the manly.gowti.. 
His comely perfon, lively; wit, infinuating addrefs, madet 
yooiig Curio infinitely fond of him, who involved himfeif o» 
hb account in a debt of.5Q»cool. which greatly affiidling old 
Curio, Cicero was c^Ued in to heal thediftrefs of the family :, 
who advised the father to difcharge the debt of the fon, Jbut ta 
inflft upon it as a condition, that he (hould have no farther 
comffierce with Anthony. , Afterwards Anthony went abroad 
to learn the art of war under Cabinius, who gave him th« 
commanfl of his.horfe in Syria; where hefignalized hit 
cotrrage in .the Yitftoration of Ptolemy king of Egypt. An»^ 
thony<fbewedy oi),thisocca(ion, that he had a tender andconr«> 
paffioiiate difpofition : for Ptolemy was fo enraged at the in* 
habitants' of Feluiium -for their revolt, that they had all been 
put to death by his order, if Anthony's interceflion had not 
faved them. He perforiBcd afterwards fome noble exploits^ 
which gained him high reputation as a commander. 

From Egypt, inftead of coming home where his debts very 
probably might not fuffer him ta be eafyi he went to Csfar 


^7a A N T O N I U S. 

. into Gaul ; and after ibme ftay there, being furntfted with 
noney and credit by C^far, returned to Rome to fue for the 
queftoifliip* In this futt he fucceeded, and afterwards ob* 
taincd the tribunate; in which office he was amazingly 
aftive for Csfar* Nevcrthelefs, finding the fenators exafpe* 
rated againft ibis general, be fled in difguife to Caefar't: 
camp; complaining) when he arrived, that fhere was no fafety 
at Rome, nothing right done there, "^slnd that the tribunes 
could not perform their office, but with danger of their lives. 
Caefar upon this marched immediately into Italy; which 
made Cicero fay, that Antony was ** as much (he caufe of 

Mljpp. II. ^* the enfuing war^ as Helen was of that of Troy." But this 
was faid in a pofefled inveSive, which muft not be inter- 
preted too literally: the flight of the tribunes gave Caefar a 
plaufibie handle tv begin, and feemed to fandify hTs attempt; 
but his *< real motive, as Plutarch faya, was the fame that ani- 
^ mated Cyrus and Alexander before himtodifturb the peace 

laAntom ** of mankind: the unquenchable third of empire, and the 
*^ wild ambition of being the greateft man in the world, 
^ which was not poffible till Pompey vitas defl:royed.*' 

Caefar, having ms^e himfdf mafter of Rome, gave Anthony 
the gQvernment«f> Italy, with the command over the legions 
there, in whtoh pofl he gained the love of the foldiery ; wKich 
is not very furprifing, if we confftder, that he ufed to exercife 
and eat with theni, and make them prefents when his circum- 
^ances permitted. But what was more to his horionr, be 
aflifted Caefar ib fuccefsfully on feveral occaflbn'sj'that twic^ 
particularly, when Ca;far*s army bad been put to flight, he 
laliied the fcattered troops, and gained the vidory : this 
taifed his reputation fo, that he was reckoned the next bdl 
general to Cacfar. After the Me^t of Pompey af -Fharfalia, 
Caefar; as an acknowledgment of Anthony's great fcfrvitesj' 
made him mafter of the horfe : ' ih which office he behaved 
with violence* For though he aflertibled the fenate, ftnd 
maintained a- fhadow^ of liberty, yet he ^xercifed 'himielf 
upon all occafions arbitrarily and tyrannically \ ikhd this 
behaviour, together with his diflblotelife, (for he W2(s drunken 
and debauched to the laft degree) was the reafon^ as FiiitarcK 
fays, why Casfar the next year did not admit him^^'his col- 
league tn the confuKbip: he did however adniif him' two 
jears after. 

Upon the death of Cacftr, Antony was terribly frighted, 
and hid himfelf during the night under the difguife of a flave ; 
but hearing that the confpirators were retired to the- Capitol, 
he afiembled the jG^nace as conful, to deliberate upon the 

3 prefent 

A N XA>N I US. ^t 

pnefent fiti|9tion of the commQnsvMldi. Here Cicero u^ti 
for a decree of a^ general noiiiefty, or a£i of obIivioii» for «H 
that ^as pafied ; to which tbey unanimoufly agneed* An^ 
tbbny dificmbled w«ill, foric was nothing but diffimuUcioa': 
he feeiped to be all goodnefs.; u^lk^d of nothing but healing 
ineafures ; and, for a proof of. l^s (tfiQt^Hy^ f|iOve<i» that tht 
confpir^tor^ (bould be invited to taJk^e paf t iq their delibera*> 
tion^, and kot his Ton as an hoftagc for their iafety. Upon 
this, they 9II (;ame down from the Capitql }• «ndf to crowa 
thepyc^ th^day^ Brutus' fupped with Lepiduf, as Caffim 
did with An;hof>y. .Anthony is ^id to hatwafloed Caflius, dur* See Art. 
ing fupper, *' whether he ftill wore a dagger uader his gown ?**Caia«« 
^^ Y^^iV repli^ C^ffius, <^ and a yejry la^g€ onCt in cafe you 
** invade the fovcreign power," 

This W99^ what Anthony ail tibe while simed at ; aad^ as 
the tv^p (b^dved, bp puriue^ ^bU meafur^ Wttb (the greacefl: 
addrefs. Hf artfully pr.Qpi0ftid adi^cxec for .th« jConiboiatioA 
of Cse(ar'$ a^s 1 and getting CaM^r's r^gifier inio his power^ 
be pfQppC^4 s|s Cp^far's a^s whatever fuiced his purpofe* He 
piQcijrfd » pMhiip funeral for C^4r, and took that opportift- 
nity vf h^raagtiing |the fplfli^rs and populace in his favmir ; 
ajod he inSa^tpeid theip to againft the copfpiraiiou, that.Brutoa 
jipd Ca^i|;s ffpjp fojc^d |o teay^ the city. He sude a pro*> 
gfeffi through Italy, tp fpli^it the veteran iibMiers, having 
firft fepuf/ed JLQ>ldi:rP» who had the army to his ioterefis : be 
fpifLti (he piibljc treaAif^; and he. treated Odavius upon his 
^riyal w^hfupf^rciliQufnefs mi contjetDpt»,thoygh the adopted 
^an^ h/eifipf JuliMa C^efgr. Thfi patriots however, with 
f^iUm ^ (heir be^dj ofp^ufiug Qdaviu^, in order to de&oy 
Anthony, the latter wa$ forced to change his meafures, an4 
J9^)c ^ litt^ ^ibrpad : h^ endeavoured to exlort the provinces 
g)f' M^ced4?nifi and Syria, from Brutus and CaiSus, but tu^ 
fiicc^edingr ^^folves tp poflefs himfelf of QUalfine* Gaui, and 
t^Gi^e^ D^ciipus Brutus in Mutina. This iiege is one of 
td^e fiqjd fm^orable thjij:igs of the kind in hiftory, and in coa<^ 
^^iJ9igwhi#ch Anthony, though defeated, gained prodigious 
^^^t^tipo i th? eonfuls Hirtius and Panfa were both flain : 
^4 noiihiilg but iup^rior forces could have left 0£lavius 
ipafter^of the fipW. 

Af>thQPy M in great confufioo, wanting even the neceflariet 
^ Ufej an4 this very niap, who had hitherto wallowed in 
^y^^ry .9nd inteqnpecance^ wa^ obliged to live for fotne days 
I^HHiTQot^ and water. He fl^ the Alps, and wasxeceived 
t>y Lepiduf: with wh^on aiid 06tavias, he formed the 
fccpnji iiiuinvir^ie, ha3 ufually been called. When 


37* A N Y O N I U S. 

tbefe three conferred, they Would eafily be perfuaded » th^t 
the patriots wanted only co<teftroy them all, which could 
not be done fo effefiually, as by clafliing them againft one 
another : they therefore co<nbined» and profcribed their 
refpcdive enemies, and divided the empire among themfelves, 
Cicero fell a facrifice to the refentment of Anthony, who in*- 
deed was chairged with moft of the murders then comnnitted : 
but they were rather to be charged to the account of his 
IKMi«L.47«f'wife Fulvia, who, being a woman of avarice, cruelty, and 
revenge, committed a thoufand enormities of' which her 
hufband was ignotant : infomuch that, his foldiers once 
biinging to hin» the head of a man killed, as fhey ' fuppofcd, 
•by his order, be faid, jtias / po^r man^ I did not khinv^ nor did 
Jevirfiihim. ' - 

Upon the defeat of Brutus and Caffius by Odavius and 
Anthony at Philippi, which Wis d'Witig chiefly to the military 
ikilland bravery of the latter, A nthonyi obtained the fovereiga 
dominion; and furely he prefent^ us 'with a tnoft uncommoa 
ptdure of hunian nature, wben^ we confider, how he was 
fwifed at once by Csefar's death from the itiidft of pleafure 
and debauch, formed the true plan of his intereft, andpurfued 
it with a moft furprifing vigour and adJrefs, till, after many 
sndalmoft infuperable difficulties, he accomplifhed at length 
what he all along aimed 'at. ' After the battle at Philippi, 
Anthony went into A(ia ; where he had thl^ moft fplendid 
court that ever was feen. The Icings and princes of Afia 
came to his levee, and acknowledged no other fovereign in 
the £aft but him. Queens and princeflTes, knowing him 
doubtlefs to be a man of amour and gallantry, ftrove who 
ihould win his heart ; and the famous Cleopatra of Egypt 
Succeeded. The reft of Anthony's hiftory, his moft luxurious 
and effeminate manner of living with this princefs, and his 
ignominious death, (for fuch it may be juftly called) areali 
minutely and copioufly related in the article of CUopatra^ to 
which we refer the reader. We {hall only add a fmall 
account of Marcus Julius Antonios, his fon by Fidvia. * 

This Antonius, after the death of his father, and the con* 
queft of Egypt, was fo favoured by Odavius, now Auguflus^ 
that from one office to another he was raifcd to the conful- 
ihip, in the year of Rome 744.. He married Marcella, 
daughter of 0£iavia, the fifter of Auguftus, by which he 
became next in his favour to Agrippa : but proving ungrate- 
ful to the emperor, for he was one of the iirft who debauched 
his daughter Julia, and being alfo fufpeded of a confpiracy 
^, ,;o?*"-againft him, he killed himfclf, as is faid, to prevent the in- 

A N T p 1* I U S. »73 

6my of bBtng coodemned. It is tphim, that Horace ad- 
^rcfies ih^ 2d ode of the 4th hook ; and the ancient fcholiaft 
lipon thipode relat^^, that Antonius wrote a poem of twelve 
books in heroic verfe^ intitled *< Diomedea." He Uft one foa 
very young, named Julius Antonius, in whomfeemsto have 
ended this aacieot family : an iiluj^riQua one, fays TacitU9^ 
but unfortunate : multd ckritudine genmsj fed imfrofferd. 

AP£LL£S| one of the mbft celebrated painters of anti^ 
quity, was horn in the ifle of Cos [a], and flouriihed in 
the tiase of Alexander the Great. He was in high favour 
vith this prince, who made a law that no other perfon (hould 
firaw his pi6lure but Apelles: be accordingly drew him, 
holding a ihunderbolt in his band: the piece was fihiflied 
Wftith fo much (kill and dexterity, that it ufed to be faid there PIof*t)e for- 
were two Alexanders J one invincible, the foo of Philip, the^^°*J^^ 
^tber inimitable, the produ£Hon of Apelles. AlexanderMagni 
gaye biai likewife another remarkable proof of his regard 4 "^1^*^°^'^ 
for when he employed Apelles to draw.Campa^pe, one of his 
iniftrefles, having found that he had conceived an affe£lion fo|-^^°y> 
ber, hecefigned her to him; and it was from her that Apel-{jJ*'^J* 
jks is faid to have drawn his Venus Anadyomene. This 
prince went often to fee Apelles when at work ; and one day, 
srben he was overlooking him, he is faid to have talked fo 
abfurdly about painting, that Apelles defired him to hold his 
tongue 9 telling him that the very boys iwho mixed .the co« 
Jours laughed at him. Freinihemius, however, thinks itibid. 
iocredM>le that Apelles would make ufe of fuchan expceffion 
' 10 Alexander.; or that the latter, who had fo good an educa^Sop^lement. 
jtioat and fo fine a genius, would talk fo impertinently of {?|j ."["""• 
painting: nor, perhaps, would Apelles have expreffed him* cap. 6« 
"kif 'to this firtnce in fuch a manner upon any other occafion. 
Alexander, as we are told, having feen his pidure drawn byi^lian.Var. 
Apelles, did not commend it fo much as it .deferved : a little "^*/^* ^^^* ^* 

FaJ ?ljny feems to have been of i0e of Coi (lib. xxxv. cap. 10.'} aiid 
f^ioioA^ that Apelles was born in the Oyid has the following lines; 

Uc Venus artlScis labor eft et gloria Cpi, i ' 

j^quoreo madidas qute premit imbre com 49. ^ 

De Ponto, lib. W. eleg. J. Ver, ft9« 

As Venus rifing from the ocean's wave. 
Is the chief work of the great Coan artift. 

l*htfl tiowever is a 'dtfptited point ; for EpheAis. Suidas makes hun a native 

:I«citA (De Calumiiia), ^iian (Hift. of Colophon \ and adds, that he vtftS 

«IUitmal. Ub. iv* cap. 50.}| and Strabo adopts by the city ^fEphefus* 
(lib* xiv.).affir]ii2 that he was boxaat 

yph. I. T ^ . after. 

274 A P E L L E S. 

after, a horfe happened tobe brougntt whicB neighed at fignt 
of the horfe painted in the fame piAure: upon which Apellel 
is faid to have addrefled Alexander, *< Sir, it is plain tfiis 
*' horfe underftaods painting better than ycur majefty [b]." 
^ One of Apelles's chief excellences was the making his 
piAures fo exadly refemble the perfons reprefented, that the 
phyliognomifls were able to form a judgement as readily front 
his portraits, as if they had feen the originals. His readinefs 
and dexterity at taking a likenefs was of fingular lervice, in 
extricating him from a difficulty in .which he was tATolvedat 
the court of ^gypt : he had not the good fortune to he io 
favour with Ptolemy : a ftorm forced him, hpweverj to take 
(belter at Alexandria, during the reign of this prince; 
where a mifchievous fellow, in order to do him a difkiiMJ- 
t\t{%^ went to him, and in the king's name invited him to 
dinner. Apelles went; and feeing the king in a prodigious 
paflion, told him, by way of excufe, that he ihould not 
have come to his table but by his orden He was commanded 
to jQiew the man, who had invited him ; which was iin* 
poffible, the perfon who had put the trick upoa him not 
Pimy, being prefent : Apelles, however, drew a iketch of his image 

i'J^i V^^' "P^'^ ^^^ ^^ ^'^^ ^ ^^^^» ^^ ^^^ '^^^^ ^f which difcoveied 
htm immediately to Ptolemy. 

Apelles left many excellent pictures, which are mentioned 
with great honour by the ancients ; but his Venus Anadyo- 
mene is reckoned his mafier-piece. Hii Antigonus has alfo 
been much celebrated: this was drawn with a,(ide-face to 
hide the deformity of Antigonus, who had loft an eye. His 
pi£iure of Calumny has alfo been much taken notice of fc}. 


[a] 'f To rpeak freely my fenti- cufed biih of being im accomplice in tbe 

<' ments/* fays Mr. Bayle, <* I think confpiracy of Theodotus, governor of 

<' this is too rude and unmanneriy to Phoenicia: he affirmed that he had ieea 

*' be afcribed to a painter, who is re< Apetles at dinner with Theodotui^ ao^ 

'< presented to have been a man of an whifpering to him all the time of bis 

" eafy, complaiianty and polite beha* entertainment. Ptolemy was alfo ifl- 

' *\ viour; ]^e muft either have been a formed by the fame perfon, thatbjtbt 

*' court- buffoon, or a perfon of fuch an advice of Apelles, the city of Tyre bid 

c< odd capricious humour, as we often revolted, and that of Pelufium^ wai 

*< meet with in the moft eminent taken* However, it was certain tbat 

<•» artifts \ I fsy, we muil have recourie Apelles had never been at Tyre, aod 

*< to one or other of thefe fuppofitions, tbat he was not acquainted with 7 beo* 

*' to give credit to what is related of dotus. Ptolemy however was {f> eii- 

** Apelles with regard to Alexander/* raged, that, without examining into the 

[c] Luclan gives the following ac- affair, he determined to put to' deift 

count of the fad, which gave occafion .the perfon accufed< anc if one of the 

to this pifiore. Antiphilus the painter confpirators had not convinced Ptolesif 

!)eiDg piqued at the favour which Apel- that this was a mere calumny of koXi^ 

Jcs was in at the court of Ptolemy, ac* phllusi Apelles maffc undoubtedly bave 

cap. io« 

A P E L L E S. t7$ 

' IttflTeitd death upon this accufation^. Alexander the Gf^at ; and f&r what he 

Bat as ibon as Ptolemy knew the truth aflerts, be quotes the authority of Poh 

of this affairt he condemned Antiphilus lybius (lib. iv. and v.) *< We mUft 

to be a ilave to Apelles, and gave the ** therefore,*' fays he, <* fappofe one 

latter an hundred ulenti, Lucian, Pe « or other of thefe two things ; either 

calomnia. *< chat Lucian fpeaks of Apelles, differ 

Mr. Bayle remarki upon this account ** rent from him who was in foch re« 

of Lucian, that he had fallen into a ^* putation at Alexandita ) . or that he 

peat anachronifm ; for the confpiracy " has confounded fome plot which, was 

of Theodotiis was in the reign of Pto- ** contrived undeir Ptolemy Pfailadel* 

lemy Philopat(Br> which' did not begin *' phus, with the coni^iracy of Theo- 

tiU an hundred years after the death of *< dotos." 


APICIUS. There were three ancient R.omans of this 
name, all very illuftrious ; not for genius^ for virtue, for 
great or good qualities^ but for gluttony : or, if we niayg«y]e«iDlft<i 
foften the term in complaifance to the growing tafte of the times 
we write in, for the art of refining in the fcience of eatings 1776 
The firfl lived under Sylla, the fecond under Auguflus and 
Tiberius, and the third under Trajan. The fecond how- 
ever is the moft illuftrious perfonage of 'the three, and is 
doubtlefs the fame of whom Seneca, Pliny, Juvenal, Mar- 
tial, &c. fo much fpeak. Athenaeus places him under Tibe- 
rius, and tells us, that he fpent immenfe fums upon hisoeippoi, 
belly, and invented divers forts of cakes, which bore his L. Land ir« 
Dame. We learn from Seneca, that he lived in his time,DeCoB^ 
and kept as it were a fchool of gluttony at Rome ; that he^^^^'.^^ 
fpent two millions and an half in entertainments; that, ^^^J^^*"* 
finding himfelf very much in debt, he was forced at length * 
to look into the ftate of his affairs ; and that» feeing he had 
but 250,000 livres left, he poifoned himfelf from an appre- 
faenfion of being ftarved with fuch a fum. Dion relates the 
fame thing, and adds a particular, mentioned alfo by Ta-Lib. 57. 
citus, that Sejanus, when very young, had profiituted him-Annal,if.i« 
felf to him. Pliny mentions very frequently the ragoos h^ 
invented, and calls him the compieteft glutton that ever ap- Lib. Tiii. 
peared in the world : nepotum omnium altijjimus gurges. The"?* |'" 
third Apicius lived under Trajan : he had an admirable fecretx'l8.j[i^,S^ 
to preferve oyfters, which he (hewed by fending Trajan 
.fome as far as Parthia, very frefli wheii they arrived. 

The name of Apicius was applied long after to feveral 
ibrisofmeat: it made alfo a fedl among the cooks. There 
is extant a treatife-, ** de re culinaria," under the name of 
Cslius Apicius, which is judged by the critics to be very 
ancient, though they do not iuppbfe it to be written by any 
of the above three. A fair edition of it was given by Martin 
Lifter j with the title of ^*de obfoniis et condimentis, five de 
^^ arte coquinariai*' in odavo, London, 1705, and re«- 

T 2 printed 

47* AVIO N. 

^ ■ 

'printed sit Artfflerdiitn, 1769, in ramo. It was liBiiiMult/ 
rMlcuted Vy Dr. King in Ms «* Art of Cftol^ry." 

A'PION, a 'ffliribiis gnm^mariaii^ iK>rn at Dafis in Egfpt, 

Ba;le*tDia.*^|as a prdfeflorla't Itome in I'ibcrius's reign. He waa Ujd^j^ 
niably a man of karBiog« faaB made the moft diligent 

qujyics ijhtb the abflrlifVf ft rtrt>|vdls of lantiqoitv, mi was 

m^itcr of all ihofe poiiita, whkl). give 't6 erddMofi 'fte ch5>- 

A. Celli8s,f3£i^f Qf accuracy arid variety. But be appears to have bad 

^' '^ withal the prime chara(£^ertitics of a downright pedant : for 

f^ ^s 'ai;r6gant, & great b«a{tei\ and moft thipdttahtly Ibufied 

ih dtS(:uUllridihiignificant eiiqairies/ Bayle quotes Jati«» 

,'A{nidB«fci>.Africahi/^, is cfaHing bifti ^^*i^T«Te< y^otfMfitxnxwf^ "the 

iftM^jo." *^1^ hlluiitely tuiioiis of atl ^tammarians ;'* tod I wbft- 

*dcr tha*t he'drd not ap)>ly^o bim, what Str«b6 has applied to 

a^pedant'he hid to do with, i^ fdiii^XoiyHrm fA»rnif in^ Tirp 

h\h,i.p,s^:fpx<^^ *<>h^ vainly^tfifte^ about the reading of a pafikge," 

'A»ft-i707-'4hough the fenfe "Was e^Ofdlythe fartie, is far as 'they woe 

toncerued with it, wbictieirer wsty k was read* An idea. 

Inby be formed of this man^ fVorn his maghiing tbat he had 

doiie f6m6fhing er)^ti'ior'dinary, vihttk he difcciver^d thst the 

fWo firh letters of ti)e Umd, tiken nudbricaliy, rtiade up 48; 

Uvkh "^^^ t^^t Corner chbfe t6 b«gin his Iliad with a word, the 

iWblirft letters of ^hkh woufd fli6w, that bis tUro^poem^ 

Vbuld contain fdirty-^tightbodka. 

ApFon aftd to'boaft, with rbegreateftalTufaiieb^ that 4ic 
€«l]S«^t«gaveimmbrralityto tbofe to Whom ^be dedicated his w6rto» 
aiK»ve. ii^yf would his Vanity be ttiortified^ If he knewthar none bf 
thefe' wot ks remain, and'tbat hrs riamv ^d perfon bad Mg 
'ago baen l^ur(ed in dbiivioti, if other Writers bad not made 
mrinitioh of them 1 Oflcof his chief works was *« The-tfmi- 
*f quities of Egy0t," fn which be takes occdfion to atmfe flie 
Jews I and not cdritcrit .with this. He ' eortipofed -a ^wrork 
cxprcfsly againft them. He h^d before i&ewn his malice 
jrgainft this people: for, berrig'at the head of^an ^embafl}', 
Which the Alcxandrlartsr'hadfent to Calculi, ^to compiainiof 
the JeWs in their city, he accufed them of feveral crimes ; 
'a'nd iiffifl&d principally upon a point, the moft likely to pro- 
voke the'£rhpcror, which was, that, while all other people 
'6fthe'^ifS|>ire dedicated temples and attara to him, the. Jews 
refufed. With regard to his writingsag^ft them, Jofeplftis 
thought himfblfobHged to confute the calumnies contained in 
them. He dkl ntit however write, on purpofe to cotifute 
Apicin ; but, fevefar critics 'having attacked hia << Jewifli 
** Antiquiries," he ddtnds himfelf agaiaftthem>4nd^gainft 


A R I ON- ^Ji 

AfRTO?"^^ ^^ ^cft» HaU his apology (^93 ^Q^^Wg to d^ 
^litb ^pipn; t^u)U5h it bas^oftcp bt^ip^ S^9^^i ?W *f ^'^S 
If bole w^s lip YcUed againft bioj^. Apipii \^a3 D9t ltv^g« wb^o 
tbif co^^tation ^^^ p^bli^e^, fipr it rclate3 t^c qiaqne^ 9|f 
||i9 d^»(h( wbirt wfs CngAilar f^CfUgh: Tingijl^r, I ipfan, 
«ri|h regard (p Agi^^^t wba, baviag g^f^tjir i;\iifi\kd Jcwiflj 
ceremonies, a^d circumciiiQir iq particular^ was ieized af 

•'privy parf^ ^ aod w^icb, tboygb fubJOoUted ^o* cohI^ notice- 
vent him from dying under t^e fnoh agoo^ing tortures. 

^pjon tjoafted, that he bad routed tl^e fouf of Homer ffom 
t)|^ ^eadji to enquire coQceping bis country ^nd fapr^rfy; ^ndPHji.nx.a« 
ifre leafn frqm Seneca, tba^t h^ impofed yery'raucb itp-jp £pift, ss, 
Ore^^ fiflcf be was received in every city s^s a f^fKfnd 
Homer : which (hews, as fiayle obiferves, that ** a man, 
*< »(itb fom^ learning, and ^ good ihsfre of jmpud^ pp^ and 
f f ^^nity, Kuy eaiiiy deceive tbe people In general*'* 


^fP|!^LINARI^ (C. SpLPiTiyi^), ^n efriinept graof^ 
flij^ian^ ^8 hprn (as is faicj) at Caitb^ge, aqd lived undef: 
^e Aqtonj»c3« Hclyjus P^i^rtinax, jvbp ha«j tj^n his |c|)o)^j, 
]^af bt§ fuccelTof in the pfofeflion of gramn()ar, ap4 9^ If^g^^ 
))ccaq>e j^pperor. He is fyppofcd fhe aufljpr of the ver(cs,J«l-C«pt- 
jn^e^ed to tbe cf^m^dies qF Terence, and containing tbpp^iia^e* 
^gUBKOt pf t|)f^m. T|i9 following ^iiljch by him w^ Vffifr 
feo i^ppn tbP order Virgil g?ve to bu^p Ifi? ^ncw) ; 

In/clix alio cepidit prope Pprgamon igse, 
£t pene ei); alio Trcya cremata r ogQ ; 

which makes us, fays Bayle, regret theioft of other things of oia. ia 
bis. Aulus Oellius, who ftudied- under him, gives the voce. 
iMgheft idea of his learning; but he gives him another quaU* 
fication, which is more valuable than learning: namely, 
chat he had nothing of that pedantic arrogance, nothing ' of 
that magifterial air^' which but too often makes learning fo 
very difagreeable, and even raifes emotions of contempt and 
anger towards men, even in the moment when they are in- 
'itruAiJng us. See what Geliius fays of Apollinaris in many 
places, and particularly in the ^tb chapter of the 18th bookJ 


APOLLODQRUS the Atheniaiii a famous grammiiriaj^i 
was th^ foQ of Aiclepl^es, and difciple of Ar9larchut, ' pa 
Buidas in&rms us. He w;otj; leyeral wprk$« wbich ar^ not 

T 3 ' extant: 


iyS A P O L L O D O R U S. 

his moft famous produdion was his <* Bibh'otheca/* concerning 

the original of the gods ; and of all his writings, only three 

Fabrie.Bibl. books of this workhave come down to our hands, though it 

Wt.^^' confiftcd of twenty-four. He wrote a chronicle, or hiftory, 

in iambic verfe, from the deftruSion of Troy to his own 

timesy which comprehended the fpace of one thoufand and 

h.fhii» forty years. He wrote alfo i treatife concerning the famous 

]egiflators ; and another, relating to the different feds of 

^•]' y- philofophen : befides many other pieces, which may be fccn 

p. 666. &cj^ Fabricius*s « Bibliotheca Grjeca." . 

There were feveral other famous perfons of this name: 
$cipio Tefij, a Neapolitan, has written a treatife of the 
^poUodorufes, which was printed at Rome in ISSS* ^* 
Thomas Oalc publiflied a work of the fame kind in 1675. 

APOI^LODORUS, a famous architea under Trajan and 
Adrian, was born at Damafcus ; and had the dire£iion of that 
inoft magnificent bridge, which the fprmer ordered to. be built 
over the Danube, in the year 104. Adrian, who always va- 
lued bimfelf highly upon his knowledge of arts and fcienccSi 
and hated (very one of whofe eo^inence in his profeffion he 
. had reafon to be jealous, conceived a very early difaffeSion 
to this artifl^ upon the following occafion : As Trajan was 
one day difcourfing with /\pollodorus irpon the buildings be 
had raifed at Rome, Adrian gave his judgement ; but fliewed 
Jtlphilia.inhimfelf ignorant: upon which the artift, turning bluntly 
^fiaAo. ypQn IjJ^^ jjjj j|j,„ cc go paint Citruls, for that he knew 

*' nothing ofthefubjed they were talking of :" now Adrian 
was at that time engaged in painting Citruls, and even boafted 
of it. This was the nrftflep towards the ruin of Apollodo- 
rus ; which he was fo far from attempting to retrieve, that be 
even added a new offence, and that too after Adrian was 
advanced to the empire. T^ ihew Apollodorus that be M 
no abfolute occafion for him, Adrian fent him the plap of 
a temple of Venus; and, though he aiked his opinion, yet he 
did not mean to be dire^ed by it, for the temple was adually 
builti Apollodorus wrote his opinion very freely, and found 
f)icb effential fauks with it» as the emperor could neither 
deny or remedy. He'fbewed, that it was neither high no> 
large enough ; that the flatues in it were, dtfproportione^ to 
its bulk : for, faid be, << if the goddefTes^ fliould have a mind 
JJ^lii ^* to rife and go out, they could not do it.** This put 
Adrian into a mighty paifion, and prompted him to get rid of 
Apollodorus. He banifhcd him at firft, and at lafl had hitff 
pilt t9 death ^ not fetting fprt^ the Xr^^ c^nfc, of which he 



vroflcild have been alhamed, but under the pretext of fevend 
crimes^ of which he got him accufed and convided. 

Xhis arttft did not deport himfelf with the g&od fenfe and 
polkry of the orator FavorinuSy who was pr^cffely in the 
iame fituation towards Adrian with hioifelf, Favoriniis being See Fa t«* 
blamed by his friends, for fubmittipg in his own profeffion *'"*'* 
to the inferior judgement of Adrian^ ^^ Shall not I eafily fufier 
** him, fays he« to be the moft learned and knowing of all 
^^ men, who has thirty legions at his command?" 

APOLLONIUS, a Greek writer, born in Alexandria, Fabric. Bjfc. 
under the rci^n of Ptolemy Euergetcs king of Egypt, was a^'* Lib.Ui. 
fcholarof Callimachus, )vhom he is accufed of haviag treated * 
ivith ingratitude ; whereby he drew upon himfelf the indig- 
nation of this poet, who gave him the name of Ibis, from a 
bird of £gypt> which ufed to purge itfelf with its bill. Apol* 
lootus wrote a poem upon the expedition of the Golden 
Fleece ; the work is flyled ** Argonautica," and confifts of four 4 

books* Quintilian,' in his^* Ini^itutionesoratoris/' faystb^^.zt 
this performance is written ^* sequali quadam mediocritate :" 
that the author obferved ap exa6l medium between the fub- 
limeaod low ftyle in writing. Longinus fays alfo that ApoUi.o„^n. ^ 
lonius never finks in his poem, but has kept it up in anSabtiim • 
uajfqrm and equal manner : however, that he falls infinitely ^'P**7* 
ihort of Homer, notwithftanding the 'faults of the latter; 
becaufe the fublime, though fubje£fc to irregularities, isalways 
preferable to every other kind of writing* Gyraldus, fpeak-Hift.of the 
ing of this poem, commends it as a work of great variety^^^'g^ 
and labour : the paffion of Medea is fo finely defcribed, that see aifoT«« 
Virgil himfelf i; fuppofed to have copied it alrooft entirely, ""q"** F»- 
and to have woven it in the ftory of Dido [a]. Wvt« ^ 

A^olloniiis, not meeting at firft with that encouragement Poetet 
which heexpefied at Alexandria, removed to Rhodes, where C^^^^* 
b^ fet jup a fchool for rhetoric, and gave ledlures for a con*'* '^^* 
fid^rable time ; thence acquiring the naiiie of khodius. Here 
it was that he correded and put the finifbing hand to his 
Argonautics, which being publicly recited, met with univer* 
fal applaufe, and the author was compliniented with the free* 
dom of the city* He is faid to have written a book <* Con* 
• • . ' 

|[a] Rapin, in bis << RefleAiont upon only that the catalogve of the . Argo* 

Poetry/* feems to have no great opinion nauts has nothing of that variety which 

of thii performaace of, ApuUonius $ he the fahjed was capable ofy and that the 

fays, the ftyle has no manner of elcva* poem is extremely flat from the begin*- ' 

Jtionor (ubiimity, that the* ftrbdure of ning. Part ii. Refled* 15. 
the hbk 9S the po^n » ^^try iAJadicai* " ■ • 

T 4 , •• cerning 

<K cemiog Anchiloehvt," utritttlh <<Of tbe Origtfl 6f AfejN 
<< andria/^ «<Cnido6," And olhcf works. He publiilied bil 
poem of the ** Argoiiainks'* at Alexandria^ upon his return 
t&ither, when fent for by Pcclenly Euergetes^ to fucceed 
Eratofihenes as keeper of the public library. It is fappofiid 
that he died in this office^ Mi that be was buried in the fame 
tomb with his mafter Clltimachas. The ancient fehoKA 
^''*«^ lipon bis ** Argonautics'* are ftill extant : they ttt ihottgbt 
^ ^** to be written by Tatrhssus, Thcon, an<l others. Henr^ 
Stephens publifliedan edition of this poem in quarto, 1574* 
with the '■ Scholia" and biii owil annotations^. There was 
likewife an edition paUifted, with a Latin verfion^ ^t Ley^ 
deft J 1641, by Jeremiah Hoeleiiih 

P;^P«Vn APOLLONIUS of Pcrga, a city of Pamphylia^ a hmcftA 

liK^ii!* geometrician, who lived iinddF thfe reign of Ptolemy Eocr-. 

]i^4themat. getes. He fludred a long time at Alexandria, nfider the 

CoUea. difciples 6f Euclid, and compofcd fcteral w^rks, 6f wWch 

only his '* Cdnics" remain. This ie iftach vfdeed; tfdA 

many authors, ^th ancient and modern, hsfve tranSated and 

commented upon it. There is excaiit the ** Comment of 

** Eutocius of Afciaion/' on the four firft books of this work, 

Maflienntf. with (cftnie lemfftias and cot-dkries of his e^W)). We have 

CoHe^, alfoto the number of fi\ty-five lemmas by Pappus, on fh* 

lib. m. „ Conies" of ApoHbnius. Frederic Comtodfadin gavfe a new 

Verfion of this work, which he printed at Boilogna, in 1566, 

With ft verfioh of the «* Commentary 6f Eutocius** and feverd 

notes. There were alfo fey^al other verfiofis and comfments 

on ^his irdrk [a]. 

APOLLONIUS, a Pythagoreiin philofo|)ber, bwn at Ty* 
aiTain Cappadocia, about the beginning of the fxrft century, 
rhiioftr. in At fiXteen years of age he became a ftrift obfervcr of Pytba- 
lib • S<'^'2s*s rules, renouncing wine, women, and all forts of 

llefli ; not wearing (hoes, letting his hair grow, and wesrrif^ 
f!Otbir)g but linen. He foon after fet up for a reformer et 
mankind, and chofe his habitation in the temple of iEfcttla- 
piu^ where he is faid to h^ve performed many ntiracuiooS 

^a] Dr. Halley publtflied ai) excel- comment of Eutocius/in Greek and La- 
lent /edition of Apollonitts, in 1710* tinjwhileDr. Halley wattotranflatethe 
It waa printed at the Theatre in Oxford^ three kft o«t of AniHC into Lattin, ttA 
tn foHo, with the Lemma, of Pappdt to endeavour to reftoK the cishthy 
, and Comments of Butodos. This work which was loft tbroogh the injury of 
was begun by Dr. Gregory, who. had time: but by the death of Dr. Gregorys 
undertaken to prepare the firft four books ^ nork ffU y^olkf^jKmfDg, lUHf • 
5s Of Cooicsy** for the prcfs, with the 


A P O L L O N I U S. m 

iMlts* Pbiloftffttos has written the «^ Life of ApoHoiiiiif,'* 
HI which there are numberlefs fabulous ftories recounted of 
him. Wc are toW that he went fiirc years without fpeakkig ;m, ifci^ 
d^d yet, during this time, that he flopped many^ feditions in 
' Citffcia and Pamphylia : that he travelled, and fe^op for a 
kgiilator 3 and that he gave out he underflood all hmgasget, • 
Without having ever learned them ; that he could tell the 
thoughts of tnen, and underftood the oracles which birds 
gave by t^eir finging. The heathens were fond of oppofing 
the pretended miracles of this man to thofe of bur Saviour: 
and by a tseattie which Eufebius wrote againft onie Hierocles^ 
we find that the drift of the latter, in the treattfe which Eu« 
febnis refutes, had been So draw a parallel betwixt Jeftie 
Chrift and Apollonius, in which he gives the preference tm 
this phHofopher. 

Mr. Dii Pin has written a canfuUtion of ''Philoftratws'i 
•« Life of Apollonius," in which he proves, i. That tbiJ 
hiftory of this pbik>ropher is defUtuteof fuch proofs as can 
be credited, a» That Pbiloflratus has not written a hiftory^ 
btrt a romance; 3. That the miracles afcribed to Apollo* 
nios carry (Irong marks of fallbood ; and that there is not 
one which may not be bnputed to chance or artifice. 4. That . 
the doftrloe of this philofopher is in many panicolars oppo- 
fi[te to right fcnfe and reafon. 

Apollonius wraJe fooie wwrLs, which are now loft [a J. - 

TaI He trad wrktcti'ftfiir booVi of he ^ratealfo a .great a«mber«f lettorai 

** judicial aAr»l(^y 'y" aod ^ a Treatife Pkiloftratiw in Viu apollooii, lib. mtf^ 

«* upon the faenfices," Aewing what cap. 13. 
wai proper to te offered to each deity s 


APONO (Peter d'), a famous philofopfcer and phyfi- 
cian of his age, born 1250, in a viHage near Padua. Ha 
fiudied fome time at Paris, and was there promoted to this 
degree of doibor in philofopby and phyfic. When he came 
to praflife as a phyficiati, he is faid to have infAed on very 
large fums for his vtfits: we are not told what his demands MofcfdiBia 
were in the place of his refidence, but rt is affirmed that hej-j°^^^ 
vould not attend the fick in any oiher place binder an hurt- p. ^yg. * 
dred and fifty florins a day; and when he was fenrt for byCamerariot 
pope Honorius IV. he demanded four hundred ducats forJJ^**"/^^*^ 
each day's attendance. He was fufpefied of magic, and pro* Hv. i, Jh, 4, 
fecuted by the inquifition on that account. "* The common • 
** opinion of almoft all authors,** fays Naude, " is, thatlie 
** was the greatcft magician of his age : ^hat he had acquired , 


a«a A P O N O. 

?ar**ljr^* " knowledge of the fevcn liberal arts, by means of the kxtms 

Imiun^ae-** familiar ipirits, whiqh he kept inclofed in a cryftal ; that 

cafe^acMa-'' be had the dexterky (like another Pafetes) to make the 

^ ch,i4.(c money he had fpcnt, come back into his purfe." The 

fame author adds, that he died before the propefs againft 

bim was finiihed« being then in the eightieth year of his age % 

and that after his death, they ordered him to be burnt ia 

effigy, in the public place of the city oF Padua; defigning 

therel)y ta terrify others, and alfo to fupprefs the reading pf 

three books whith he had written. The firft is the " Hcp- 

'* tameron/' which is printed at the end of the firft volume 

of Agrippa's work ; the fecond, that which is called by Tri- 

themius, *' Elucidarium necromanticum Petri de Apono;" 

:ind thelaft, intitled by the fame author, " Liber experi- 

** mentorum mirabilium de annulis fecundum xxviii. man* 

|M.p.}8o.** fiones lunae." .His body being fecretly taken up by his 

friends, efcaped the vigilance of the inquifitors, who would 

have burnt it; It was removed feveral times, and was at 

Tomafini laft placed io the church of St. Auguftin, without any epi- 

^i«g. Tiror. taph or any mark of honour. The moft remarkable booic 

v«i/iie**^ which ApoBO wrote, was that which procured him the fur- 

Scicn. Ma* name of Conciliator; he wrote alfo a piece intituled ^' De 

tWmat. (c medicina omnimoda." There is a ftory told of him, that, 

Tomaso having no well in his houfe, he caufed his neighbour's to be 

Oarfeni cacried into the ftreet by devils, when he heard they had for- 

^*"* ""*- bidden his maid fetching water there. He had much better, 

tttttiprofeir.^^' Bayle, h^ve employed the devils to make a well in his 

4i&:orro,foi.own houfe, and have flopped up his neighbour's ; or, at leaft,* 

'e^' ""' ^^^^^P^^^^^ 't into his houfe, rather than into the ftree^ 

Fabric. Bib. APPIAN, an eminent hlfiorian, who wrote the Roman 

^'jjI**^' *^' hiftory in the Greek language, flouriflied under the reigns 
Fhot.* Bibl. ^^ the emperors Trajan and Adrian; and fpeaks of the 
Cod. 57. deftru^lionof Jerufalem, as of an event which happened in 
DebeJi.Syr. ijig Htn^, He was bom of a good family in Alexandria, from 
^J{.Stcpli. whence he went to Rome,* and there diftinguifhed himfelf 
159^. fo much at the bar, that he was chofenoneof the procurators 
|bia.ioprcf. of the emperor, and the government of a province w^s com- 
mitted to him. . He wrote the Roman hiftory in a very pe- 
culiar method ; he did not compile it in a continued ieries, 
after the nianner of Livy, but wrote diftin£l hiftories of all 
the nations that had been conquered by the Romans, and 
placed every thing relating to thofe nations in ope conneSed 
and uninterrupted narmive. It was divided into three vo- 
lumes, which contained twenty-four books, or twenty-two 

7 according 

A P P I A N. 88 j. 

sccofding to Charles Stephens, VoIaterranuSy and Sigonivs. 
Photitts telbt there were nine books concerning the civil 
wars, though there are but five now extant. This per* 
fermancc of his has been charged with many errors and im« 
perfedions ; but Photius is of opinion, he wrote with the ut* 
moft regard to truth, and has (hewn greater knowledge 
of military aflfairs than any of the hiftorians; for while we 
read hini^ we in a manner fee the battles which he defcrtbes. 
But his chief talent (continues that author) is difplayed in hia 
orations* in which he moves the paffions as he thinks proper^ 
either in reviving the refolution of thofe who are too flow, or 
repreffing the impetupfity of thofe who are too precipitate. la 
the preface he gives a general defcription of the Roman 

He tells us this empire was bounded on the eaft by the 

river Euphrates, mount Caucafus, the Greater Armeniat 

and CoIchiSt and on the north by the Danube $ beyond which^ 

however, he obferves, that the Romans pofleiled Dacia* aa 

well as feveral other nations beyond the Rhine. They Were 

mafters of above half of Britain ; but negleded the reft, as 

he inforois us, becaufe it was of no ufe Co them, and they 

received but little advantage from what they polfeiled, Thero 

were feveral other countries, which coft them more than 

they gained by them, but they thought it diflionourable tp 

abandon them. This occafioned them to neglefi the oppor«» 

tunttles of making themfelves matters of many other nations, 

and to fatisfy themfelves with giving them kings; as they did 

to the Greater Armenia. He aflures us likewife, that he 

faw at Rome, embafladors from feveral countries of the Bar<r 

barians, who defired to fubmit to the Roman empire, but 

were rejected by the emperor becaufe they were |ioor, and 

confequently no advantages could be expe£led from them^ 

Appian. praef. p. 4. 

Of all this voluminous work there remains only what treats LiMotheW 
of the Punic, Syrian, Parthian, Mithridatic, and 'Spanifh^^y^'yP'S^^ 
wars, with thofe againft Hannibal, the civil wars, and thi 
wars in Illyricum, and fome fragments of the Celtic or 
Onllic wari. Appian was publifhed by Henry Stephens, 
with a Latin verfion, at Geneva 1592*. in folio; and by ZoU 
lius at Amfterdam 1670, in two volumes, 8vo. 

APROSIO (Angblico), born at Ventimiglia, in there- 
public of Genoa, 1607, was a man of great repotation 
among the learned, and wrote feveral books. At fifteen 
fpars of age he entered into the order of the Auguftins, where 


4U A P R O S I O. 

><><^I«/*helHaMiie h mucdi eiecnic4« thai ho wa% app«c»ited yicui 

^^^^general of the congrcgatmi of oqf Ltdy^ of CpafoiatioA a 

Phil. EUiut^^*"o** As foon M he had iniflied his fttfdieis^ he t^nghs 

EncomiaiKcphilolbfby, which he continQ^ lo do for five yeava ; ater 

'^*v>ft>u«: which be (ravelled into fever^l parts of Italy, aad firtctcd at 

tin'unamll ^^>^*^ ID the ytaf 163^9 III the eoiHTeiMf of St. Stephea* 

p. 63. What rendered hian moft ^aious, was the Ifbravy ^f the An* 

Rsffael So-guftins at Ventioiiglia which being chiefly colle^d by hia>y 

ScHu^gu-^^^ a proof of hit love for books, and his exceUeal taife. Ha 

fiif p. %i. piihliflied a hook concerning this lihrasy, whidi is oioch 

fought after hy the curious [a}. He ufed to 'difgmfe btoH 

felf onder fiAitious names in the title-pages #f hi^ bookf ; 

which conduA might, perhaps, be owing iq the fabjci^s he 

wrote upon ; they not being always fuitcd to a religious life: 

ftieht for inftance, as the Adonis of the cavali^ Marino, &c« 

j^'^^lj^* And if we confult |the authors who have given us a catalogue 

sa 16^7. of the writers of Ligaria, we find that heaflbffked (bmelioKS 

Ai^.Oidoi.|)ie name of Ma(bto GaKAoni, fometimes that of Carlo Ga^ 

aim 1680. {i^^oi^ Scipio Glareano, Sapricio Sapricii Oldauro Scioppio, 

£{c. [b]. His life is wriuen in the book intitaled ^* La Biblio- 

Greg.tetiia»< theca Aprofiaoa.'* Several authors have beftowed upoa 

"^^v^'^^'hini very gteat eneooiioms, fomeof whom have been perhaps 

lib. lit. . rather too extravagant in their pratfes. He was admitted as 

P'377; a member into feveral academies, particularly that of gli in* 

Moirhofilj cognici of Venice, as appears by the book inti^led ^^ Le gio-* 

p. ^L ** riede gli inqogniu, overo gli huomini iHuftri deU' acadc* 

[a] Morhof fliiatiOBt tbfl work ia Speftacles broktn, kf Scipio OUntao, 

ievcral pJ^ot of bi» Polyhiftor, ppb* laetof «o AxUmtt to p$nf^r caval^r ftf 

lUhtd in 1688, (p. ^8^ ^.) ana iilwayp To.mafo Sttfliant* . '' ,1*9 Sfena ^oeti^ 

as if 'he thought it had not been yet ** di Sapricio $aprici, \o (cantonata ac- 

pubtiihcd; qeVcichclels Mr. Bayie of- *' cad^mioo heteroolito ptr rifpoSa alU 

fiures 11^ thax the *' Bibliotheca Apro- ** priqu Qc^i^ra d^lV ^ione 4el caur 

- ^'fiana*' was printed;at Bologna in 1673; <' lier Marino, fatta del cavalier tp- 

and that Martin Fogeliui, orVogelius, ** mafoStigliani/'ThepoeticalScoiiriie 

pfttfrabr «t Hamhttrgfa, had a cbpy iof of Saprieto Sapnci, being an Aof^o 

>t, A> app^^^ ^y t^ ^U^gttf of th}^ to tba fir4 pcnlure of ike X'avalitf 

^rpre0br*s books. • • . . 'f^^^j^'*^ Adonis, by jC«fancr Tomsw 

(«] Ther cavalter Stigliani having StigHani. V Del Vcratro.' apologia * 

f obli&ed ^ bof ic of V ItOchaole/' 4r ** ^apruao S^paci por iiipoaa aU* ^ 

thf SpefUdesy ^icb is, a fer«(e,fen- ,^< C9^ cyEofi^r? dell' A^one^deji (9?^ 

fure.ctfi thie '< Adonis," be was attacked '* Her Marino, fatta del cayaller To- 

fMi all 4det; hut amon^ ail the advo- '* mtfo Sti^liani »'* Hellebore, or tii 

catcs for cavalier Mwno, oobody ilbw Apok>gy pf ST^prifiiP ftipriia. \bfipg W 

cd more seal for the Adonis than Apro- Anfwer to the fecond Cenfure of Cav>- 

fio ! the pieces he wrote in defence H^ Marino*s A^io^ih,- hy Ca|alicr 

thereof «aaK«hro«id with the following TpmaTo SttgUani. ^Hiis treatife coo* 

titlai, «<0^i|U $iritql^o di Jcipi^ lifted ^^ X^o p^^ft 9«c of yirbiciJ tf^ 

« CUcea^o per riTpoOa »1 Signpr.qav;^- ^rjntad in l^A^, and Xhs ^^fx ,J? 

^ here Ffa Tomafo Sti^li^ni:'' The ^647! . » ^- ^ ^ ""^ 

" f '■ 44 0iia 

A p R o 6 I o: fr^ 

'^ miaiie' i figneri Ifleo^Aiii di VenetW^c], where tlitre ii « 
'▼cry high etklogiuan upon bioi. 

^c] thU Vai priiidi at Viftice \ii rB'47, ill qdkrtb. 

AfPULEWS "(Lucius), iiPhtcmic phtlbropher, lived tnntfam 
the ^fccbrtd -tthttif y, •uiKkr the Antonfnes, and viras'bbm at.^^J^^*"**'' 
-MJiflWriifA], iiRolMhwlorty in Africft. He fttidifcd ^rft,^""'"*" 
Sit'Cantegie, tbeh aft Athens, fmd afterwards nt 'Romfe, i¥here 
•he Icarnfed die ^Latiti ton^e iMthwt the -help oF « ^^rfki*. 
tie was t iiiVh t^T a idurious and iiHQuifi^ve diipdlh?orry efpecf- 
ally in Yeli^icms th^itto's, whkh prdmpted hiiti ^o take feveral 
' jdbrififf^s, ^ftd^t6 entei-irtto feVeml focietics of Vfellgion. He 
■bail A flrc/ng defitv tbbe acqiiainied ti^ith tfa^ir preteiidcd lii^- 
%erk?y '^dYor thiis ^eaibn'got himfdf initiated ihto ihtHlx. 
'Hef^ht tfMloft'his Dv^hole fdrHine in travelling ; To th^t, *c 
*hf8 ttttfrn t6*Ratte, ^vhen he iVas about 16 dedicate hhnfelf 
to *e f©Hrfiee*or6firfs, he^aAl hot ihohey enou^^tb defray 
ihe^xpcticc atftendiilg the ecfelAonies bf his reception, artdApulnot 
'wasdbli^ed to Jia^h Hisclo^ths coraife thettcceffzryfiim.^^fF^ 
'He fiippohed -bittifrff afterwards by pleading caufe9;'afnd*asp,»7i, _ 
he Vfzs^ ^itfhaft^ir'df etoqtiehOe, and of a fobtte genius, 
manyconfidi^rabTe cauTes tedre trufted to him* Bat he availed ^i<()^ 
htihfelf riWr'eby^'good rtiafrfage, than by hi? pleadings': a 
widow, nsithed 'Ptidentillay who *ii^as >neither young nor 
bandfoine, ^btit^m^ahtcd a hiilbahd, -^nd was Vei'y 'Yi<5h, took 
■a gt^t fency^to hirti. This iharriirge drew upon *him a 
troiibfefdme faw-ftiit : the rehition? of the lady pretended he. 
made ufe of fdfcery to gain her heart and moneys 'and accord* 
ingly ^^ccufcd him of being a magician before CTaUdius 
Maximus, procotlful of Africa. Apule^us tvas under no 
gVea^ dlfficnlty, in miking his defence ; for as Pudentlila 
v^as deterniiited, from con fiderations of health, to enter upon 
afecondlmrrrsge, even before Ihe had feen this pretended 
inagician, the youth, deportment, pleating coverfation, vi- 
'vaclry, ind othei- agreeable qualities of Apulcius, were^charms 
iufficientco §og?^e her heart. 'He had the moft favourable 
epportunhies too of gaining her friendlhip; for be lodged 
*ft>n1e time '^ her houfe, and was greatly beloved by Puden- 
tilla's eldeft fon, ^ho was very defirous of the match, andApul.Aporf 
'fid{dt<!d h'fpn 4» favour of 'hi^ 'mother. *' Do you make aP* 3*^» 
•* wonder,** faid Apuleiiis, in his defence, ** that a woknan 
*^ ihould marry -a^ain, aft«r having lived a widow thirleea 

I a} This city » vHch* belonged to Rofflaai» ApuU Af olpgia^ p. aSf« 
Syp haxy WUs siveii to'Mafiiiiira by tlvc 

V ycarf? 



> << yeirs ? it is much iiioit Wonderful (he did not marry 'tfgalA 
** fooner. You think that magic muft have been employed 
** 16 prevail with a widow of her age, to marry a young 
la. Ibid. ** man : on the contrary, this very circumftaoce fliews hrpw 
p. %$u. . •« little occafion there was for magic/' He offered to prove 
by bis marriage-contrad^ that he got nothing of Pudentilla 
but a promife of a very moderate fum, in cafe be furvived 
her and had children by her* He proved, by feveral fads, 
U. ibid, how difinterefted his conduA had been, and how reafonable 
'' ^^'* it was for him to exad of his wife the fum ihe had promtfcd^ 
He was alfo obliged to make fuch cohfeffions in court^ as 
Pudentilla would gladly have excufed. He faid fiie« was 
neither handfome nor youngs nor fuch as could any way 
tempt him to have recourfe to enchantments 2 moreover, he 
added, that Pontianus her fon propofed the mariylng :his 
mother to him only as a burthen, and coniidered it as the 
lbi4.p.32o,adioAof a friend and philofopber [b]. His apology ia fiill 
extant : it is reckoned a very fine piece, and contains ex- 
amples of the (bameful artifices, which the fallhood of an 
. impudent calumniator is capable of pra&ifing; There were 
many perfons who took for a true hiftory, all that he relates 
AttgnftSn* in the ^* Gplden Afs :" St. Auguftin was even doubtful upon 
Dei^iib.^^'^'^'^ bead, nor did he certainly know that Apuleius had only 
xvUi. ' given this book as a romance* Some of the heathens have 
cap. iS. fpoken of this performance with great contempt. In the 
juLCapitoi. letter which the emperor Sever us wrote to the feoate, where- 
Albino'^ in he complains of the honours that bad been paid to Qodius 
cap. 1%. , Albious, amongft which they had given him them the title 
of Learned, he expreffes great indignation, that this title 
ihould be .given to a man, who had only fiuffcd his head with 

f'^'"rk • ^^'^ ^^'^' ^"^ rhapfodies taken frooi Apuleius* Macrobius 

lJ,pT;;*** has allotted the "Golden Afs," and all fuch romances, to 

the perufal of nurfes* Apuleius was extremely indefatigable 


[a]^ Apuleius alfo takes notice of ** mind to be under no oUigatioBta 
many inconveniences which attend the '*' her: that alone cannot be reftofcdi 
narrying of widows^ and fpeaks highly ** it remains in the poflTeffion of tbe 

** portioned: ihe brings to her hui- Apolog. p. 35^. - Mr. Bayle makeia 

** band a heart quite new, together very coarle remark upon this paflTage of 

** with tbeHower and iirft fruits of her Apuleius, vis. « That this go.d which 

** beauty. It is with great reafon, that " is never taken back out of the hands 

' ** all hu {bands fet fo great a value upon ** of j^ ho(band, is very chimerical ; 

** the flower of virginity : all '.the other *^ and that there is never a baker nor a 

'* goods which a woman . brings her ''.biytcher, who would lind fii penes 

'**hulband, are of fuch a nature, that he «< upon this unperiihible poffefiJioA**' 
V may rfturn them againi if he has a 


APULfilOS. tif 

hi his*ftudies, and c'ompbfed feveral '^books, fome In v^rfe^ 
and others in profe ; but moft of them have been loft [c]. 
He took great pleafure in cleclaiming, and was heard gene* 
rally with great applaufe: when he declaimed at Oeca^ the 
audience cried out wRh one voice, that they ought to cbn« 
fer upon him the honour of citizen. The citizens of Qar* 
thage heard him with great fatisfadion, and ereded a flatue 
to himi and feveral other cities did him the fame lionour. 
The works of Apuleius have many of them been printed fe- 
parately, under the infpedion and with the notes of learned 
and able critics, Priceus in particular : and they have alfo 
been printed feveral times in a colleSion, the beft edition of 
which is that of Paris, 1688, in tWo volumes 4t6. 

[c] See the diOeit^tion '* De vtta et his '* Letters to CeKllia," hU << Pfou 

f* fcriptis Apuleiy*" which Wower has *< verbsy** his « Hermagoras/* hit 

prefixed to his edition. .Apuleius tranf- ** Ludicra:^ we have ftul left hia 
fated Plato's Phsedo, and Nicomachus*t ' treatifes '^ De philoibphia' naturali/* 

Arithmetic. He alfo wrote, a treatife « De philofophia morali,** <* De fyllo- 

^ De repttblica,** one ** De numeris/* *< gifnso categorico/* *^ De deo Socra* 

ind ''Demufica.'* We meclf with quo- «< tis,*' <»De mundo/* and his "Flo- 

tatioiis Ottt of his M Table quefttona,** ^ rida.'* 

. AQUINAS (St. Thomas), commonly called the Ange-DuPio, 
lica] DoAor» of the ancient family of the counts of Aquino, Biblioth. 
defcended from the kings of Sicily and Arragon, was born in *^"* *• 
the caftle of Aquino, in the Terra di Lavoro, in Italy, about edit^Parit 
the year 1224* ^^ ^^^ 7^^^^ ^^ ^S^ ^^ ^^^ commited to theiyo** 
care of the monks of Mount Caffino, wjth whom he remained 
till he was fent to the univerfity of Naples. In the year 
1241, he entered into the order of the preaching friars at 
Naples, without the knowledge of his parents. His mother, 
being informed of this, ufed her utmoft efforts to make himi 
leave this fociety ; to prevent, the Dominicans re- 
moved him to ^Terracina, and from thence to Anagna, and 
atlaft to Rome. His mother followed him thither, but could 
not obtain leave of the monks to fee her fon : however, ^by. 
theaffiftanceof her two elder fons, (he felzed the youth in 
.his journey to Paris, whither he was fent by the monks of 
his order, and ordered him to be (hut up in her caftle $ from 
whence, after having been confined two years, he made his 
efcape, and fled firft to Naples, and then to Rome. In 1244, 
•he went to Paris with John, the matter of the Teutonic order, 
and from thence removed to Cologn, to hear the ledurcs of 
Albertus Magnus. Here he remained till ' he was invited 
again to Paris, to read leAures upon the «« Book of Sen- 
'*J tences;*' which he did with great applaufe, befgreavery 


f II A QJJ I N A S. 

large audietiee. J« the year 1355, ^ ^^* crested So0t^ 

in divinity at Parii. He returned to Icaljr abotit lh<c jx»f 

ia63t and wasajppointed definkor of Ua order, for ibe pr«« 

^ vinceof Rone $ aad havtag taught ibUool d^vinj^y um^oft of* 

the uoiverfities of Italy, be refettied ac4aft at Napks, wheft 

he received a peofidn frooa king Charka* Here he fpee-t Ina 

aioieiBftudyy reading ^fledLurcv^ and the ex^rcifes^ piety; 

aad was fo far from tbe views of ambition or profit, ih^cc be 

jefttfed the archbiihpprlc of that city when it wasofteredihieri 

by Clement IV. In ia74)» he was fent (qr ^ the fecoa^ 

J09undi ofLyonfi^ by pc^ Gre;^ry X* -fhat be :iiii^t iiead 

i>e£acetbem the book wdsich he had wriuen a^inA t^e^jire^^ 

Cave^ the conuaand «kf Urban IV. ; but be f^i) fHck'On bis §oiiCr 

lit. p. 63^'ntyy at the monafiery of FofTanova, near Terracina, where 

Jie died on the yah of Maroh, aged fifty yeafs. 

Btbliotb. Siittos Senenlis give« Aquinas a very great charader : be 

^'^ ^V 'tcl^ ^» ^^^ he^F^Gached .io jiearj^ xq&i. h^giAin im ifae 

^' ^^ jDnowkdgeof^f ue diMititty, and penecraiMd fo deeply into tbc 

moft abftrtire fenfe of that father, that, a^r^e^Iy to tbe ,P}'« 

fhagorean metempfychofisj it^was a canvuoQexprieffian.;aaKing 

all the men of learning, that St. Thomas Auguftin's foul had 

SeebUCom-traniiinigratediato-fit* Thomas Aquinas. lUpin fpeaksvsdfoof 

parlTon be- [^Ijj^ y^[th high honouT^, and;rq)rerent6 him as one of the gceat 

*nd*" ^^improwers of fchooMivinity. The lord Herbert of Ct\erh^ry,. in 

Aritoiif^ his '• Life and Reign.ofiHenry VIIL*' tells us^ that one pf the 

chap. 5. nrincipalreafoni, which .induced .this king to write ^^gaijoft 

Marxin Luthej;5 wa$, that^be lalter had ^pots^n -contemptu^ 

iui% of Aquinas* The authority of Aquinas has been always 

.vei,y gseat in^befchools of the Roman catbolica. 'He m^fi 

canonized by^pqpejohn XXII. in the year 1323; .and 

Pius V. who4Kas»f the .fame-order with, him* gave bioi, in 

1567^ the title fof the Fifth Dodor,ofth,e chufCh, .apd^p^ 

pointed iiis feftival tp he kept with the ifiafne .folemnUy ai 

Oiidia, thofe of the other iour do£lors [ aJ. 
col. z$$» 

[a] Aquinas Icfta^aft snmber of .fonr books* .Xbe teAtb, e]ev€iitb,,aM 

-WOfkB : they were pirntdd iii 'fevcnteen twejfcb, the Sum ^f Divinityy with the 

MlmetiafoUoy at 'Vemce, iai490j Comncatarkt of Cat^dUal CajetatMit* 

* atlUrenbergf 1*^*^9^% Rofne^i-syoj Thelt»ir^mth.<ii|Biift«of feTeiahCsin- 

'Vtmot, 1594$ and Co1q(ii> x6ia} oieiicaiifa upon jrine QW Tcf^twitf^ 

^•Bii many iimeB after. particularly a 'Coqtai^njtary upon the 

SPba iiw firft Mlinnea ooDftain ibis -BoqIc af Job, *a<HteMl ^fHid »aa|agicri 

Conoaeaiaiiaa ^an the Wotka of fExpoitaon (fpoiff ^t lirft -^fy^^^Iptt 

.Ariftotle* Tbe.fixth and feTenth a «an£]|po(sticu\y]20f|];^e,Ca,pticlef,.yrbi^ 

^Oommentary apon the'foQT Eo«ksof he d?^Ud lipon his deajh-bed, totjie 

iaememsBS. flr<be easbth oonfiaaiAf Q^df- aionki of FoAanova; 'CooBHoeiitaiNS 

ciuna iii.Dtvlnity. Tbe^iiiilh'Valosie vp<ia t^OrP^of^^ies. of Ifaiah ,ai4i{^ 

contains the Sucn of. .the CathoIidFaithy remiaby and upon the LMneo^afioaf. 

^gaii^ ^4k« Geadks} laimded iato The fbtateeach tont^ni ibe Coirnnen- 

\ tarica 

A Q^U iU AS, a«9 

Q^ii tbe Gofj^driif St. Mattbew niet ; upon tbe Boolti of tlie Matca%eefl> 

•nd St. John: the^meris f«iMitohave Paris, 15969 o^avo. tJpon all the 

1>een written by Peter Scaliger, a Dooii- canonical Epiftlei, Paris, 154^, o^lavok 
niean friar and biffiop of Venma. Ttre We have Hkewife a Commentary 

fifteenth volume conuina the Cateof* upon Boethiut'r^Confoiatioo of Philo- * 

tapon the four Gofpels, extradcd from fophy^ pobliihedander^quinaa'iname, 

the fathers, and dedicated to pope^'Ur- at Louvain, in 1487, in folio* 
Baft IV. TKe fixteentb coniifts of the Several difficohies have befen raifed 

CcMnmefitary upon St. Paura Bpiftlef» in* regard to his '* Summa Theolo|(iie/' 

•nd tbe Sermons of Aquinas preached on which have occafiooed fome authors to 

Snil^aytf and the Feftilvals of Saints, doubt whether he was really the author 

Tbit feventatt)thl contains divei% Tracts of ir. There is a very accurate exami- 

in Divinity. nation of thcfe difficulties in Cafimir 

There have been alfo publiflied fe^ Oudio's << Commentarius de fcriptori- 

parately, under his name^ leveral other *< busecdefiaeantiquiseorumque fcrip. 

Commentaries upon the Scriptures, par- « tis;'* wherein be determines, that 

ttcularJy upon Genefie, Lyons, i5Sr3« Thomas Aq«iioaa is the real author of 

in o^avo. Upon the prophecy of Da- the '* Summa Theologize.'* 

ARATUS, a Greek poet, born at Soli, or Solae, a town 
in Cilicia, which afterwards changed its name, and was called 
Pompeiopolis, in honour of Pompey the Great. He flou- 
riihed about the 124th Olympiad, under Ptolemy Pbiladelphus 
king of Egypc,^ who reigned near 300 years before Chrift, 
He difcovered in his youth a remarkable poignancy of wir« 
and capacity for improvement ; and havin^r received his edu- 
cation under Dionyfius Heracleotes, a Stoic phiiofopher, be 
efpoufed the principles of that fe£t'. Aracus was phyfician 
to Antigonus Gbnatus^ ' the fon of Demetrius Poliorcetes^^ 
king of Macedon ; who; being a great encourager of learned 
men, fent for him to court, admitted him ,to his intimacy, 
and encouraged him in his (ludies. The '* Phaenomena" of 
Aratus, which work is flill extant, gives him a title to the 
charadler of an aftronomer, as well as a poet; for in this 
piece he defcribes the nature and motion of the flars, and 
(hews their various difpofitions and relations. He wrote this 
poem in Greek verfe : it was tranflated into Latiii by Cicero, 
who tells us, in his firft book "De Ora'ore," that the verfes 
of Aratus are very noble, but that the ^uthor did not 
thoroughly underftand aftronomy ; and it is faid that he bor- 
rowed his materials from Eudoxus. Qiiintilian obfcrves, thatlnftit.Qrat. 
his fubjedl has nothing of the pathos, no variety, no ficliiious***'' *• 
pftiTons introduced fpeaking,, with the other ornaments, c*P* j, 
which have fo great an eflFeS in other kinds of poetry 5 how-' 
ever, that he was very capable cf executing the defign he 
undertook. Aratus's piece was tranflated by others as wJl 
as Cicero; particularly by Germanicus Cn;f<ir, and alfo by 
Fcftus Av^enus. Our poet was intimately^acquaintcd with 
Theocritus, who is faid to have addrcflcd his fixth Idyllium 

Vol, 1. U 'to 

zgo * A R A T U S. 

to him. There is an edition of the ** Phaenoilicna'* putrfiflic* 
by Grotiust at Leydeny in quarto, 16009 in Greek and La- 
tin, with the fragments of Cicero's verfion, and the tranfU- 

• tions of Germanicus and Avtenus; all which the editor has 

• illuftrated with curious notes. He was certainly much 
efteemed by the ancients, Cnce we find fo great a number of 
fchbliafis and commentators upon him ; atoiongft whom are 

• Ariftarchus of Samos, the Aryflylli the geometricians, the 
Evsdeti, Crates, Numenius the grammarian, Pyrrhus of 
Magncfia, Thale^, and Zeno« Suidas afcribes feveral other 
works to Aratus. VirgiU in his Gcorgics, has imitated or 
tranilated many paflages from this author ; and St. Paul has 
quoted a paflage of Aratus. It is in bis fpeech to the Athe- 
nians (Ads xvii. 28.) wherein he tells them, that fome of 
their own poets have faid, Tbfj^af kJ yip(^ itri/lv : ** For we 
*' are'alfo his offspring." Thefe words are the beginning of 
the fifth line of the Phaenomena of Aratus. This author was 
publifbed by Henry Stephens at Paris, 1566, among his col- 
leftion of poets, in folio ; but th6 very neat and correft 

Fabric. Bjb.cdition (fo Fabricius calh) of Aratus is that of Oxford^ 1672^ 
in ivoy with the Scholia. 

Gr. lib. iii*: 

ARBUTHNOT (Dr. John.), a celebrated wit and phy- 
fician in queen Anne^s reign, was the fon of an epifcopaf 
clergyman of Scotland, nearly allied to the noble family of 
that name. He had his education in the univerfity of Aber- 
deen, where he took the degree of do£lor of phyfic. The 
revolution deprived the father of his church preferment s and 
though he was poflefled of a fnnll patevnal eftate, yet nece(- 
ilty obliged the fon to feekhis fortune abroad* He came to 
London, and at firft, as it is faid, for his fupport taught the 
mathematics. About this time, viz. 1695, Dr. Woodward's 
*^ EiTay towards. a Natural Hifiory of the Earth" was pub- 
Kfhed, which contained fuch an account of the uriiverfal de- 
luge, as our author thought kiconfiftent with truth r be 
therefore drew up a work, iiitituted *^ An Examination of 
•* Dr. Woodward's Account of the Deluge, &c. with a 
<^ compartfon between Steno's Philofophy and the Doctor's, 
^ in the Cafe of Marine Bodies dugup out of the Earth, &lc.*^ 
^* 1 695, 8vo. which gave him no fmall ihare of literary fame. 
His extenfive learnings and facetious and agreeable cohver- 
fation, introduced him by degrees into practice, and he be- 
came eminent in his profeffion. Being at Epfopi, when 
prince George of Denmark was fuddenly taken ill, he was 
called in to his affiflancc. His advice was fuccefsful, and 

5 bis 


llis highnefs recovering' ettiplo}^d him a]wa)rs afterward%as 
his pbyfician. In confequence of this, upon the indifpofi- 
tion of £>r. Hannes, he was appointed phyfician in ordinary 
to queen Anne 1709, and admitted a fellow of the college, as 
he had been feme years of the. royal focic^* 

His gentle manners, polite learning, and excellent tslentt 

entitled, him to an intimate correfpondence and friend(hip 

with the crelebrated wits of his time. Pope, Swift, Gay, and 

Parnell, vrhom be met as a member of the ScribUrus Club* 

In 1 714 he engaged with Pope and Swift in adefign towrite- 

a fatire on the abufe of human learning in every branchy 

which was to have been executed in the humorous manner 

of .Cervantes, the original author of this fpecies of fatire» 

under the hiftory of feigned adventures. But' this projed 

was put a ftop to by the queen's death, when they had only 

drawn out an imperfeS eflay towards it, under the title of 

I the firft book of the ^< Memoirs of Martinus Scriblerus. [A]"Warbiir- 

^ Thefe Memoirs," fays Dr. Johnfon, "extend only to thej^"';?^'* 

*^ nrit part of a work, projected \n concert by Pope, Swift, moirs. 

^^ and Arbttthnot. Their purpofe was to cenfi/re the.abufes 

*^ of learning by a fidlitious life of an infatuated fcholar* 

^* They were difpetfed, the defign was never completed; 

• ^' and Warburton laments its mifcarriage, as an event very 

** difaftrolis to polite letters. If the whole may beeQimated 

** by this fpecimen, which feems to be the produAion of Ar- 

*^ buthnot, with a few touches perhaps by Pope, the want 

^' of more will not be much lamented; for the folliesrwbich. 

^ the writer ridicules are fo little pradifed, that they are not 

** known j'norcan the fatirebe underftood but by the learn- 

'* ed ;■ he raifes phantoms of abfurdity, and then drives them 

*' away. -He cures difeafes that were never felt. . For this 

*^ reafon, the joint produ^ion of thefe great writers has ne« 

*^ ver attained any notice from mankind.'^ ^ 

The queen's death, and the difaftcrs which fell upon his ^ ' 

friends on that occafion, deeply affeded our author's fpirits ; 
and to divert his melancholy, he paid a vifitto his brother, a 

[a] Dr. Warburton tells at, that the employment for that they all had ia 

trareb of Gulliver, the treatife of the common. Arbothnot wai ucilled in 

profound, of literary criticifm on Vir- every thing which related to fcience, 

gil, and the memoirs of a paridi clerk. Pope was msAer of the fioearti, an4 

are only fo many detached parts and fra|- S^ih eacelied in the knowledge of tht 

nents of this work. The fame writer world : wit they had all in equal mea* 

declares^ that polite letters never lofl fare, and that fo target that 00 agtt 

nore than by the defeat of this fcheme, perhaps ever pTodaced three men to 

in which each of this illuftrious criom- who^i nature had more bountifully be- 

virate would have found exercife for his (lowed it, or art brought it ti^ higher 

OVA peculiar talent^ befides conftant pcrfe^ioa. 

U 2 bankojc 


backer at Paris. His ftay there, however^ was but vecfl 
fliort I he returned ta London, and having loft his foraaec rcr 
fidence at St. James's, took a boufe in Dover ftreet. la 
17 27, he puJbliflied '^ Tables of ancirot Coins, Weightt* 
*^ and Mca(ures," in 410. He cominued to praAice phyfio 
with good reputatioa, and diverted hi^ leifure hours in writ- 
ing papers of wit and humour*. He conirihtited in 17 3X top>. 
wards detcding and puniflitng the fcandalous. fraiuis and 
abufes that had. been carried on^ under the fpecioua namcoC 
^ The Charitable Corporation." The fame year. b^« pub^ 
liflied his ^^Eflay. concerning the. Nature of Alim^nt^^ cbe 
^ Choice of them, &c/' which was follow.ed the year afiec 
by the *•* Effefis of Alt on Human Bodies."- . He was ap« 
parently led to the fubjeds of tboTe treatifesby the conjQde- 
ration of hit own cafe, an afthma* which gradually iiurroa^ 
ing with his years;, became. (hortly after defperate and incurs 
able. In 1734 he retired to Htmpfiead, in hopes of finding- 
. fomc fault relief for this afflt^ion ; but he died at his houfe 
in Cofk-ftreet, BurKngton gardens, Feb. 1735* He wa^ a 
married man and had children, particularly George and- 
Anne; t be former enjoyed a place of confiderable profit in 
cbe exchequer office, and was one of tbe executors to Pope's 
Will, and the other a legatee. • 

Pope, in a letter to Digby, dated Sept. i, 17229 tel la. him, 
that the firft time, he faivthe di>£ior. Swift obftrved to him, 
chat he was a maq who could dQ every thing but walk. He 
appears^o have been in all refpe£ls a mofl: ac^ompliflied and' 
amiable per ion. He has ihcwn himfelf equal to any erf: his 
contemporaries in humour, vivacity and learning; and he was 
foperior to moft men in the. moral duties of life, in a^^Sjof* 
biimanity and benevolence* His letter to Bope, written, as . 
it-were uponbis death-bed^ and which nq one can read with- 
out the tendereft emotion, difcovers. fuch a noble fortitude 
of mind at the approach of^hiadiflblutiot), as could be inspired 
anty by ^.clear conference, aod the calm retrofpedk of an un* 
interupted feiies^fivictue» la 1751, came out, in two vols». 
8vo. printed at Glafgow, *'*' The mifceliaoeous works of the 
** late Dr. Arbu(hnot," which are faid to comprehend, with 
what is,inferted in Swift's hiifcellanies, all his pieces of wit 
and humour : but the genuinen,e& of ma/iy pieces in that: 
colledion is more than slprocryphal; and a coileiSion of the- 
works of Dc, Arbuthnot is ftill a dcfideratum in literature,, 
which^ we arc happy to perceive bv the fecond edition of ther 
Btagraphia Britajnnica^ will probably be foon fupplied, 

' ■ ARC 



ARC (JoAM op). S«e JOAN. 

• • ■ ' 

ARGHILOCHUS, a GrcA pcfet, hotn in the Me «^P«-Herodotut. 
TOs, was the fon of Teleficles ; and, accordin«| to Mr.Bayle, lib. i, 
flourifhed in the 29th Olympiad,' or about 6^ years before «>?• tt» 
Chrift. His poetry abounded ^ith the moft poignant fatire, 
t^ which Horace fpeaketh thus : 

Archilocbum proprio rabies armavit lambo. 

Ars poetica, ver. 79. 

Archilochus, with fierce refentment warm'd. 

Was with his own fevere iambicis arm'd. Francis. 

His Tatirica] vein had fuch an efFedt on Lycambes, that he 
hanged himfelf. The indignation of Archilochus againft 
Lycambes arofc from the latter's not ktepimg hh ^ord with 
regard to his daughter, whom he firft ptomifed and after* 
wards refufed to Archilochus; It is hot litiKkely that he 
attacked the whole family of Lycambes in his lampoon, fot 
it tsfaid by Horace, that the daughter followed the example 
of her father ; and there are fome who affirm, that three of 
Lycambes' daughters died of defpair lit the fame time. In thii 
piiece of Arcbifochus, m^ny adventures are mentioned, iiiU of 
defamation^ and out of the Ipnowiedge of the public, There 
«vere likewife many indecent paflages in the poem | and 
it is fuppofed to have been on account of thk fatire, that thi 
Lacedaemonians hid a prdhibition on hri vtrfes. **TfaeLa« 
f« cedsemonians,'* fays Valerius AfaximuSi^ ^^ commanded the 
*f books of Archilochus to be carried out of their city, he»,^ ^ 
f* c^ufe they thought the reading of them not to be very dp! 3/ 
** modeft or chafte : for they were unwilling the minds of 
!• their children Oiould be tin£lured with fhem, left they 
^* fhould c)o more harm to their manners than fervipeto their 
«* genius. And fo they bahifhed the verfcs of the greateft, 
** or at leaft the next to the greattft poet, bfecaufe he had 
*« attacked a family which he hsfted, n^ith dbfcenfe abufe." It 
has been affismed by fomf,.that he himfelf ivas bariiflied from 
Lacedasmon ; and (he ma^im inferted in one of his pieces, isLacon. ^ 
afiigned for the reafon thereof^ "That it was better to flingp, »39, 
f» down one's arms, than,to lofeofie's life :'* he had v/rittcn 
fhis ih vindication of hinnrfelf [aJ, 


[a] In the war witlf the Safant, aisnle t#o Terfes vpofi him on occafion 
Ar^hilochoB, to fave hit life, threw of this itdventure, which Plutarch re* 
ctyaj bit arms, and (led, ArUlophanet cit^s, and (omet^ing more 1 

^94 A R C: H I L O C H U S. 

Archilochus was fo much addi£led to raillery and'abufe, 
that he did not even fpare himfelF [b]. He is faid, however, 
to have been much in favour with Apotlo : for when he had 
been killed in a combat, the oracle of Delphi drove the murr 
derer out of the temple, and was not appeafed without a 
multitude of excufes and prayers i ^nd even after this the 
oracle ordered him to a certain houfe, there to pacify the 
ghoft of Archilochus, This poet excelled chiefly in iam- 
bic verfeSf and was the inventor of them, as appears from 
the following pafiage in Horace : 

Parios ego primus iambos 

Oftehdi Latio, numeros animofque fecutus 

Archilochi* £pift. xix. lib. i. ver. 2jw 

To keen iambics I firft tun*d our lyre. 
And warm'd with great Archilochus's hre, 
His rapid numbers chofc. 

He is one of the three poets, whom Ariftarchus approved in 

this kind of poetry. Quintilian puts him, in fome refpe&s, 

below the other two. Ariftophanes the grammarian thougbt, 

that the longer his iambic poems were the finer they were, as 

Ip. ii. Cicero thus informs us : *' The longeft of your epifHes," fays he 

lib. ]6. to Atticus, ^* feem to me the beft, as the iambics of Archilo* 

<' chus did toAriftophanes." The hymn which he wrote to 

Pindar, Hefcules and lolaus was fo much efteemed, that it uled to be 

Olympic, f^^g i\^xtt times to the honour of thofe,* who had gained the 

Dio**Laert^'^^'^y at the Olympic games. There are few of his works 

In HeracUd!«xtanr > and this^ fays Mr. Bayle^ is rather a gain than a lofS) 

'E^^tw i^avBi^zlno-OfAM a Kctziu* Plut. ia Inftitut. Lacoo. p« 239^1 

Rejoice, fomeSaiany who ny ftleld may find, 
' Which in fome hedge, junburt, I left behind* 
Farewell, my (hield ; now I myfelf am free, 
Y\l buy another, foil as good as thee. 

^b] " Wefhould not have known, '* and enemies; that he was extremely 

<< had it not .been for himfelf,'* fays Cri- ** addicted t» the 'debauching of wo* 

tias, " that his mother Enipone was a <* men, and very infolent i and, wba| 

*' fla:ve$ that he was forced, by his mi- '* is worfe than all, that, to favebis 

'< ferable condition, to quit the ifle of " Hie, he threw away his fbield, and 

Faros, and go from thence to Tha- *« fled." [/Elian. Var, Hift, lib. Xi 


' *' fus J that' he made liimfelf hated cap» I3[* 
*< there $ that be abufed both friends 


A R C H I L O C H U S. 295 

^tli regard to mordity [a]. Heraclides compofeil a dialogue 
upon the life of this poet ; which, if it had remained, would 
in ail probability have furniflied us with many particttUrs 
concerning Archilochirs. 

[a] We ihould "find, iays he, liot but ^simde it degenerate into a perm- 

■arery ill examples in the verfes of Archi- cious inaxtm^ namely^ that iie would 

lochus. He had expreiTed great concern ieek for confaUtion in wine and other 

for the lofs of his fifter^s hufbandy w'ho fenfual pleafures, feeing his tears could 

^ied at fea« Here waa a tendernefs, do no good to his brother-in-law, and 

•chat might, have been rendered ufefiil 3 hts diverfions could not injure him* 

Plutarch* De audiend. poetis, p. 33, 

For my dead brother tears would flow in vain, 
^or can my pleafores give hin paifs« 

ARCHIMEDES^ a celebrated geometrician, born at Sy- Fabric. Bib. 
Tacufe in Sicily, and rehted to Hiero king of Syracufe. He^^- lib.ui. 
iviras remarkable for his extraordinary application to mathe-*'"* 
matical ftudies, in which he ufed to be fo much engaged, 
that his fervants were often obliged to take him from them 
by force. He had fucha furprifiitg invention in mechanics, 
that he affirmed to Hiero, if hehad another earth, whereon 
to plant his machines, he could move this which we inhabit* 
A«j [jt>o7 'urifta (fays he) ?^ rriv yrjv Xi'vutrw. He is faid to have 
formed a glafs fjpbere, of a moft furprifing workman(hip, 
wherein the motions of the heavenly bodies were repre- 
sented. Claudian has an epigram on this invention, which 
^ac been thus tranflated : 

When in«aglafs*s narrow fpaceconfinM 
Jove faw the fabric of th^ Almighty Mind, 
He fmird, and faid. Can mortals' art alone. 
Our heavenly labours mimic with their own ? 
The Syracufian'is brittle work contains 
• Th* eternal law, which through all nature reigns. 
Fram'd by his art, fee ftars unnumber'd burn. 
And, in their courfes, rolling orbs return : 
Hts fun, through various figns, defcribes the year ; 
And every month his mimic moons appear. 

Our rival's laws bis little planets bind, ^ 

And rule their motions with a human mind* 
Salmoneus could 'Our thunder imitate. 
But Archimedes can a world create. 

He fell upon a curious method of difcovering the J 

deceit, which had been pradifed by a workman, employed 
by king Hiero to oiake a golden crown* Hiero^ having 

U4 ' a ' 



a miod to make an offeriog to the godi of a goldcaj 

crown, agreed for one of great value, and weighed oui 

the gold to the maker, who b/ought one home the ful 

weight ; but it was afterwards difcovered, that a quantity o2 

the gold was ftolen, and fupplied with a like weight of filver, 

Hiero, being angry at this impofition, defired Archimedes t( 

take it into confidcration, by what method fuch a fraud' 

might be difcovered for the future* Whilft he was engaged 

in the folution of this di£culty, he happened to go into the 

bath ; where obfervtng, that a quantity of water overflowed, 

•equal to the bulk of his body, it immediately occurred to him, 

that Hiero*s qucfiion might be anfwered by a like method : on 

which he leaped out, and ran homeward, crying lu^niut! 

tv^nxa ! He then made two mafies, each of eqiial weight 

wkh the crown, one of gold and the other of filver : when 

be bad done this, he filled a large veflel to the brim with 

water, and put the filver mafs into it, upon which a quantity 

of water overflowed equal to the bulk of the mafs ; then 

taking the mafs out, he filled op the veflel again, meafuriag 

the water exa£)ly, which he put in : this (hewed bim what 

meafure of water anfwered to a certain quantity of filver. 

Then he tried the gold in like manner, and found that it 

caufed a lefs quantity of water to overflow, the gold being 

lefs in bulk than the filver, though of the fame weight. 

Then he fiUed the veflel a third time, and putting In the 

crown irfelf, he found that it caufed more water to ovec^ 

vitrav. lib. flow thitn^ he golden mafs of the fame weight; whence he 

'"?• 3« computed the mixture of filver with the gold, and fo mani* 

feftly difcovered the fraud. 

But he became' moil famous by his curious contrivances, 

whereby the'ciiy of Syracufc was fo long defended, when 

befieged by Marcellus. ** The vigorous eff'oits made to carry 

*' the place, had certainly fucceedcd fooner," fays Livy, " had 

** they not been fruftrated by one man : this was Archie 

** mcJes, farrous for his fkill in aftronomy, but more fo for 

his fijrprifing invention of warlike o^xhine^ with which 

in an inftant he dtflroycd what had coft the epemy vaft 

Lib. XXIV. *' labour ro creA. Againft the vefl'els, which caov upclofe 

cap. 34. c( to I he walls, he contrived a kind of crow, projected a Hove the 

** wall, with an iron grapple fattened to aflrong chain. This 

" was let down upon the prow of a (Kip, and by means of 

•* the weight of a heavy coumerpoife of ie^d, rttifed up the 

«* pn.w, and fet the veflel upright upon her poop: then 

•' dropping it all of a fudden^ as if ft bad fallen from the 

•* walls, it funk fo far into the fea, that it Jet \ti ^ great deal 

" of wafer, even when it fell 4ir^&\j on iu keel." How- 




ev^s Botwithftanding all bis art, Syracufe was at length 
taken by Marcellus, who commanded his foldiers to have a 
particular regard to the fafetyof Archimedes ; but this tnge- 
tiious man wa5 unfortunately flain by a fold ier, who did not 
know him. *^ What gave Marcellus the greatefl concern/' fayslnMarcello^ 
Plutarch, ^* was the unhappy fate of Archimedes, wha was 
^ at that time in his mufeum ; and his mind, as we)] as eyes, 
** (b fixed and intent upon feme geometrical figures, that he 
^^ neither heard the noife and hurry of the Romans, nor per«- 
** ceived the city to be taken. In this depth of ftudy and . 
** contemplation, a foldier came fuJdenly upon him, and 
*^ commanded him to follow him to Marcellus ; which he re- 
*^ fufing to 6oy till he had finifhed his problem, th^foidier, in a 
•* rage, drew his fword, and ran him through." Others write^ 
that Archimedes, feeing a Toldier cbmrng with a drawn 
Tword to kill him, entreated him to hold |iis hand one mo- 
ment, that he might not die with the regret of having left* 
liis p^roblem uniinifhed ; but that the foldier, without paying 
any regard, killed him immediatdly. Others again write, 
that as Archimedes wai carrying feme mathematical inftru-^ 
ments ih a box to Marcellus, as fun-dials, fpheres, and 
angles, with which the eye might meafure ihe magnitude of 
the fun's body, fome foldiers met him, and believing there 
was gold in it, flew him, Livy fays he was flain by a fol-I'ib. xxv. 
dier, who did not know who he was, whilfl he was drawing^*'' ^'' 
fchemes in the duft: that Marcellus was grieved at hisdeaih, 
and cook caie of his funeral ; making his name at the fameVitruv. 
time aprotediion and honour to thofe who could claim a re-****'**' 

CAD 9 

lationfliip to him. Archimedes is faid to have been killed in 
the 143d Olympiad, the 546th year of Rome, and about 208 
years before the birth of ChrKh We have feveral of his 
works ftill extant, but the grcatcft part of them are loft [a]. 
When Cicero was queftor for Sicily, he difcovered the tomb 
of Archimedes, all over-grown with buflies and brambles: 
there was an infeription upon it, but the latter part of theTufcal. 
verfes was quite worn out, as he himfelf informs us, QuaftJ:b.T, 



[a] His piece! ^htch remain are. Of the Number of the Sand, %» ntgt 

l« nf^t TnC^ii^aifA^KK' iet;>»^(*: 0ii*aU^. tSm IxJ^fAVtarn* Of Bodies that float on 

Tw.' Bo* ksot the Sphere and Cylndcr. Fliudi. Tbefe were firft publifhed to« , 

*• XM»yj (xCl^r.Ti^ The Dimenfion of gerher at Bjfil, 15^4, in fo'io ; and 

• Ciicle. 3, *f<ri«l?«.>4i-'.p^'iji* ^ jii»Tja afterwards at Paris, 1615, by RitaltOT, 

^(•» «ir«9£^«n Ul Cenirrso* ('favity in folio. 

o>' i^quip(;0dtrants. 4. n.^i Mxmtihti^ Among the works of Archimedes 

*•• ^♦ai;0€4 3 •»». Of "Spheroids and which are I -A^, we may reckon the de- 

Coaoid>>. |;»nif( lA«ft»«n'« Of Ipiral^ines. icri pt ions of the foUowing iqvc^rtions, 

^< Tkl'tfanV/u^ cra^aCoXnc. The which we may gather frpm himfelf and 

^t^^ature of a Parabola. 7. YA/u^Mirnff* other ancient authors. 

lit nr{2 


I. ni^2 rqff ri*«>^ft or h'n account by means of which (aecordiog to Atln 

t>f the method which he ufed to dif- nzus, ^tiinoa; lib. v.) he laanch< 

«0Terthe mixture of gold and filver in Hicro*« great fliip. 4. TheT^tmiii 

. •cbe crows. ». His defcription of the or T^7ir«-c*yt of the f>ower of whic 

K^x^M or Kp^Xtov, aD en^ae to draw Tzetzei gives a hyperbolical relatioi 

water out ot places where it is flag- Chi!, ii. hi(V. 35. 5. Themachicesi 

nated. Athenaeus, fpealcing of tiie pro- ufed in the defence of Syracofe agiifl 

.^igiciis ihip built by the order of Hieroy Marcellii. Of thefe we have abai 

telliusy that Archimedes invented the . coum in Polybius, Livy» aod Pit 

cochlioQ, by means of which the hold, tarch. 6. His burning-gUif<^S| *'^ 

notwitl)^aading its depth, could be which he is faid to have fet fire to ti 

4lraioed by one man. {^titeto^^fSt^ Roman gallies. . Galen, Ilil^' «(cVi» 

lib. V.) Diodorus Siculns informs us lib. iii. 7. His pneumatic and hydm 

(lib. V.) that he contrived this maciiine lie engines, concerning which bewnM 

€0 drain Egypt, and that by a wonder- bojkfi, according to Tsetces, Chil i 

/ul mechanifm it would empty the wa- hiiU 35. 
$er from any depth. 3. The *£Xt(| 

* ARETiEUS, a.phyfician of Cappadoda, but In whal 

time he flourifhed authors are not agreed ; fome placing fa'ff 

under Augudus Caefar, others under Trajan or Adrian, 

However, his works are very valuable. Xhc beft cditiooi 

were publifhed by Dr. Wigan and Dr. Boerhaave. Dr. 

Anecdotes Wigan's was elegantly and correfily printed in folio, at Ox- 

lb ^ichoS ^*°^^» '7^3 • ^^bis preface he gives an account of all the pre- 

'ceding editions. To this are fubjoined, diflertations on iba 

9ge of Aretaeus, his fe(^, his ikill in anatomy, and his method 

of .cure* At the end is a large coUefliop of various rcadingi with note^ on them ; a treatife on the author's Ionic dialedf 

and a Greek index by the learned Mr. M^ittaire. Dr. Boer- 

haave's was publifhed at Leyden, i/S^t ^\^^ maoyemea- 

dations and improvements. It has been faid of AretseuSf 

aifd we fuppofe, very truly, that he fiudied nature more thiA 

* kooks, 


ARETIN *(GuY% a BcnediSine monk, who Uvei i* 
the eleventh century. He rendered himfelf famous bydij* 
covering a new method of learning mufic. He publilhejl 
book upon this fuSjcd, in titled " Micrologus," and a leita 
which has been inferted by cardinal Baronius in his AnoaU 
under the year 1022. It was under the pontificate of John XS 
that the *' Micrologus" appeared, the author being then foi 
and-thirty years of age, and having' been thrice invited 
Rome by pope Benedi<a VIII. His holinefs had exaniir 
the ** Antiphonaire" of Aretin, and admired fcveral thit 
P. 694. in this author. PofTevin tells us, in his Apparaitos, G-, 
Aretin was the inventor of the fix notes in mufic, •* Ut, R^ 
" Mi, Fa, Sol La i" and fome will have it, that the nafflci 
of thefe fix notes were borrowed from a hymn, containio} 
the following Sapphic verfes : 

A R E T I N. 999 

UT queant laxis REfonare fibris 

Mira geftorum FAmuli.tuorum v f d m f 

SOLve pollutis . Labiis reatum. ■. p° ' * "^ 

The firft and fixth fyllables of each verfe muft be taken for 
ibis purpofe. Some pretend chat the word Gammut, fo. fre- 
quent in mufic, came from Aretin's having ufcd the £rft 
letters of the alphabet to mark his notes, and taking the let- 
ter G, which the Greeks call gamma j and that he did it toFaretiere,at 

Ihew that mufic came from Greece, . the word 


ARETIN (Leonard.) This name was given him from 

his being of Arezzo ; and he is better known by it, than by 

that of Brunus, or Bruni, his family-name. He was one of 

the ableft men of the fifteenth century [a j. He fludied 

Greek under Emanuel Chryfoloras, and was afterwards 

appointed fecretar/ of the briefs to pope Innocent VII. of 

which office he acquitted himfelf honourably under this pope JoviasEloi, 

and the four following ones ; and was afterwards fecretary ^P* 55* 

to the republic of Florence. He tranflated fome of Plutarch's 

Lives into Latin [b], and the Ethics of Ariftotle. He com- 

pofcd three books " Of the Punic war,'* which may ferve as 

a fupplement to thofe wanting in Livy : the two firft treat of 

the firft Punic war, the third of the diforders into which the 

Carthaginians fell, by the mutiny of the foldiers and the re* 

Volt of the people; asalfoofthe waragainftthe Gauls, and 

againft thofe of Illyria [c]. He wrote likewife the Hiftory 

of Italy during his own time, beginning with the fchifm 

againft pope Urban VL in 1378, and ending with the victory 

obtained by the Florentines in 144JO. He has alfo given us 

the ** Hiftory of the Republic of Florence," and that of 

*^ ancient Greece from the command of Tberamenes and 

** Thrafybulus among the Athenians, to the death of £pa- 

** minotidas." He was reputed to be the author of a 

*^ Hiftory of the Goths," which gained him a good deal of 

[a] Paalos Jovius fays, £Iog. cap. Demoflhenes, Mark Antony, and 
IX. p. 17, that Aretin was the firft re- Cato of Uiica. 

ftorer of the Greek language in |caly. [c] Mr. Bayle fayc, Aretin has done 

Phildphos (Conviv. lib. i.) afcribca to nothing but tranflated the Greek of 

him a great deal of eloquence, and a Polybius, though he has denied it ia 

»iBC^ fund of genius and erudition, his preface } and from thence it comes 

rog^us has fet him above all h^ con- that Badius Afceofius has put the name 

temporaries in point of eloquence and of Poly bi us at the beginning of this 

fcience. In Philelph. invedV. *. work in his Paris edition. VoflT, dc 

[b] The life of Paulus iCmilius, Hiftor. Latin, p. 559. 
wc two Gracchi, Pyrrhus, Scrtoriui, 


9» A R £ T i N. 

Ibid. cap. 9. reputation, tiU it was known he bad tranflafl^lllt fromdic 
•niiix6. Qj-cek of Procopiiis : this drew fome infa<ny upfon his mei 
mory, for he had appropriated the work to hifnfelf} but 
Chriftopher Perroqa with s^ good deal of pains reftored it tof' 
ttit real author. Aretin left feveral other works, tl^e catt* 
iogutt of which tpay be feen in Gefncr's ^' Bibliotheca." He 
dred about 1443, being then feventyrfour years of age, at 
Florence; where there « a marble rtionuiiient ^fieded tftj 
htm, in the church of the Holy Crofs, with an infcriptiioi 
to the following purpofe: ** Since the death pf Leonanl|" 
** hiftory is in mourning, Eloquence is become mute, the 
** Greek and Latin Mufes cannot forbesir (bedding' teats.'' 
Poggitts made hie funeral oration, wherein he informs ui^ 
that he lived forty years in fuch conftant friendihip fjridi 
Aretin, that it never fufiered the Icaft interruption. 

ARETIN (FkANcxs), a man of great reading, and well 
IKqoainted with the Greek language. He traoflated into La«> 
tin the f* Commentaries of Si Chryfoftom ^upon St. John," 
«nd about twenty homilies of the fame father : he alfo traQf* 
Jcced the ^* Lecters of Phaiaris'\ into Latin, and Wrote | 
treatrfe ^' Debalneis Puteolanis." Heftudied at Sienna, about 
the year 1443} and afterwards taught law there with fuch I 
vivacity of genius, that they called him the Prince df Subtle- 
ties, and bis wit became a proverb. He dif()layed his taletit 
thiefiy in difputcis, in which nobody could -withftand hiak 
He ^ave his optnioiis in law with fo much confidence, as ta. 
ftiTure thofe Who confulced him, that they (hould carry their 
caufe I nor did ^experience contradid him, for it was a com- 
mon faying at the bar, fuch a caufe has been condemned by 
Aretin, it muft therefore be loft. He taught alfo in the uni* 
verfity of Pifa, and in that of Ferrara. He was at Rome 
under the potitiiicate of Sixtus IV. but did not ftay here lohg^ 
for he foon perceived that the great hopes which he had built 
Upon ^is reputation would come to nothing. This pope^ 
however, declared he would have given him a cardinal's hat, 
had he not thought he (hould have done a public injury, by 
depriving the youth of fuch an excellent profeflbr. When 
old age would not permit him to go through the duties ofhii 
office, they difpeafed with his reading of le£^ures, and his 
falary was continued^ He continued, however, fometimes 
to mount the chair; and althouglFhis ledures had now but 
little fpirit in them, yet he had ftill many hearers on account 
of his reputation. One day, when the ftudents were gone 
to fome public (hews, there were but forty perfons ih hif 


A R E T I N- $d» 

pijitory;! whioh fo mortified him, that hct thre«5 awaf hii( 

r>lQ9 Mid cried out, <* Aretin Qi^l never expj^io- la.w tu at 
few perfons :" he retired in a pailiiDn, and would tpach ne- 
||Km;c« He wa6 fevere in his temper,, apd nevet kept a Tor-* 
^Ht longer than amonth or two; for ic wa» a imminr of Ms| 
* T*hat n&w- hired (ervaots always ferv^ beft^" He w<9s ho^ 
ipMred withithe tixlftofknight^ atulfpcotaii hisjifo inc^lii^. 
I^y s ^nd bis. way of living w«is fo parfifnoiitou^) thatvheir 
l^s thereby efiabk4 to amafs a g^rea^ de^il of wealths Hex 
l^is no lefs hpAQtured on account of his. can/tineiice than his» 
{j^arning* ijk h^d defigned his wealth far the main tenaQC«* 
It a college, hut^.he altered bU. re£61utiom afid left it to bifc 

ARETIN (Peter), a native of Arezzo, who lived in 
^hefixteenth century. He was famous fpr his fatjrical writ- 
^ngs« aad was,fQ,t)old as to carry;, his, invectives. even^agftinA 
fovereigns ; whence he got the title of theScourge of Princes, 
^fancis I. the emperor Char]es V. tnoft of the princes o£ 
tjaly^ feveral. caridjpais,.. and many npble:nieo coHrted; hisk 
friendibip by pMfents, either becaufe they iifced' bis* compo* 
fittons^f or pcrhaps/roni an apprehenfipn of falliqa unilcrthe, 
|a(b of bi^ fatir^ A/etiq became; thereupp-n fa'inroleni, tba^ 
ha faid to havo got a^nnedal (iruck^ on one fide- of which "is re«> 
pi'efented with thefe words iL Diviffo. AjiExiKO.i afldon. 
the reverfe, fitting upon a/throne, reeeivi-n^ the^ pbefentfl of* 
princes, with thefe words, i PR 11*01 WTWBO'rATf i>a po- 
Poi*i, TRiBUTANO IL sKKViDpn, LOVkQ, SycuiKe imagine 
he gave himfelf the title of Divine,. (}§oifyiiigf thereby thatJacGatiglay ^ 
he performed the fun<9ions of a God. upon earlh by the***^ ^^J^'P^ 

ihunderbplts, with which he ftrucfcihe heads of the higheftfiaflich, 
perfonages. He ufed to boaft, that hi* lampoons die) moretom. i. 
fervicc to the world than fermons ;.and' it was h\d of him,P' 3«' 
that he had fubjeded more princes by J)i« pmMbAO the greateft 
had ever done by their arni^ [a]. Aret4o wroie^many irre- 
ligious and obfcene pieces ; fuc/i are his . dialogues, which 
were called '* Ragioaamenti" [bJ. We haye aUb fix vo- 

[a] See a letter written to him by " It waj a^ont the yc«^ 1525/' fdyi 

Baptifta Tornielli, in a coUeftion pub- Mr. Cbeviiiirr, <* th«t fiiiio Romani^ 

lifted in 1558, at Vc^icet appreflb Do' ** the jnoftfaovous paijitcfof Italy, in- 

minico Gigiiu, in o£tavo, p. 12$ verib " fiig<ited by the ejieipy of the faUa- 

oftbeficA book. " tion of ma.okin4» invented drawings 

[a] There i» liltewife impoted to " to engrave tM^enty plates: the fub« - 

him another very ub<cene performance, '< jefls are fo immodeiV, that I dare only 

** Oct omnibus Veneris fchematibui,** « name them. Peter Aretin compofed 

* V fun nets , 

302 A R E T I N. 

Itimes of Letters written by him, but they are not in modi 
Menagiaoa, cftccm : ** I have read," fays Mr. Menage, " all Peter Arc* 
p. 396. «« tin's letters, without finding any thing that I could tnfeit 

Dutch ^dk ** ^^ *"y ^^ ^y ^^^^^ 5 ^^^^ *s nothing but the ftyle of them 
*" worth regarding/* Some fay that Aretin changed bn| 
loofe libertine principles ; but however this may be, it is cer*j 
tain that he compofed feveral pieces of devotion [c] : be 
wrote a ^' Paraphrafe on the Penitential Pfalms," and another 
on ** Genefis :" he wrote alfo the « Life of the Virgin 
•• Mary/' and that of ** St, Catherine of Sienna,*' and of 
<^ St. Thomas Aquinas/' He was author likewife offome 
comedies, which were efteemed pretty good of their kind. 
He died in the year 1556^ being about fixty-five years- 

*i ibnnets for each figure. George Va- *< altematdy, being always amaaof 

** fari, who relates this in hia Lives of <* iU principles, and plunged ia cor* 

<' the Painters, iays, he does not know ** niption'; and if with regard to nen, 

** which would be the greateft impu- ** he was left pernicious when he eier- 

** rity, to caft one*& eyes upon the " cifed hixnfelf upon the fonnsr, he 

** drawings of Julio, or to dip into the " was more criminal in the 'fight of 

■* verfesof Aretim.** Origin' de Tim* " God^ thaftawhen he wrote (he latter, 

primerie departs, p. 224. ^< It did not bebogto fuch a profant 

[c] Hence, it was faid of him, '< peribn to touch upon holy things) 

** Ubi bene, nemo melius ; ubi male, <' he did them more hurt in explaining 

** aerao pejus.** ^< They are miftaken, ** them with m depraved heart, lod 

lays (Mr. Bayle* *< ,who preteiid that he <* upon bad motiYes,* than if be had 

M compofed hia books, after having re- « openly infnlted them i and to him 

<< nounced his libertine life, by a fe- « the following words of the Pfalioift 

** rious repentance. He compofed books '' may be applied. 
!*.of piety, and books of debauchery 

But to the wicked, thus faith God, 
How dar*ft thou teach my laws abroad. 

Or in thy mouth my covenant take ? 
For ilubborn thou, confirmed in fin. 
Haft proof againft inftru£tion been. 

And of my word didft lightly fpeak. 
When thou a fubtle thief didft fee. 
Thou gladly didft with him agree, 

And with adult*rers didft partake* 
While fiander is thy chief delight. 
Thy tongue by envy mov*d, and fpight^ 

Deceitful tides does hourly fpread : 
Thou doft with hateful fcandals wound 
Thy brother, and with lies confound 

The offspring of thy mother's bed. 
Thefe things didft thou, whom ftill I ftrove 
To gain with filence and with love. 

Till thou didft wickedly furmife, 
That I was fuch a one as thou ; 
But ril reprove and fbame thee noW| ^ 

And fet thy fins before thine eyes* Brady and Tate* 


A R E T I N. 30 J . 

M ^J^J* It 18 faid by rome» that be fell into fuch a fit of 
daughter, on hearing feme fmutty converfation, that heAnuLw- 
overturned the chair upon which he iat, and that falling he"" F*^^^]*' 
l^tsrt bis head, »nd died upon the fpbt. Aretin wrote fomc2crifu,p.7i^ 
rerfes againft Peter Strozzi, but he heartily repented ofthis^Reinig.Fio. 
for StFOZzi, being a refolute man, threatened to have hioi"*^"**^?"^; 
ftabbed in his bed ; which To frightened the poet, that hefopra Cuic- 
durft not allow any body to come into his houfe, nor had he/ciardini, 
the courage to go out of it himfclf, as long as Strozzi ftaid J^f J'* ^^ 
in the Itate of Venice, . 

! • • • • 

[dJ Mr. Moreri iaysy that Aretiadied at Venice^ siod gives ihe following 
tiA<^s as his epitaph : 


C6ndit jAretini cineres lapis ipfe fepultosy 1 

Mortales at^o qui fa^e -perfricuit. 

Jnta£tus Deus eftilli, caufamque rogatos 

Hanc dedir, << Ilk, inqutt, non mihi notui crat.** • ■ 1 

Here Aretin the bitter Tufcan lies, 
' A man who never ceased to fatirize 
The whole human race ; Gold alone was free. 
He gave this reafon, '^He*8 unknown to me.*' ' 

ARGENS (Jean Baptiste de Boyer, Marquis de), 
a French writer, famous rather for the number than weight 
of his produ£tions, was born at Aix in Provence, I704» 
His talents difcovered themfelves early, and his father in- 
tended him for the magiftracy ; but a gallant and voluptuous 
humour difpofed him rather to the military, in which he 
fcrved fome time. Difgufted however with this profeffion, he 
. pafled ii)to Holland, and devoted himfetf to the exercifc of 
the pen ; when the king of FrufTia gave him an invitation^ 
and attached him to him in quality 6f chamberlain. After 
having fpent about five and twenty years with this monarch, 
he began tolook towards his native country, and returned to 
Aix, where he lived like a philofopher, and died at the end 
of 1770. He had an ardent defire of knowledge, and knew 
agreatdeal. He wasmafter of many languages: he painted 
very well ; and was a confiderable proficient in anatomy and 
fhemiftry. His works are very well known to the public, 
the principal of which are, " Lettres Juives," <* Lettres Chi- 
" noifes," " Lettres Cabal i ft iqucs," *« Philofophie du boil 
" fens," &c. &c. He tranflated alfo from the Greek into 
French, ** Ocellus Lucanus," and ** Julian's difcourfeupon 
" Paganifm." There is learning, knowledge, and good 
fenfe, fcattered through all his writings ; but they are very 
Utde favourable to religions on the contrary, they are 


. jp4 . A k G E N S. 

ftrntigl/ dndurad yttrnh libertinifm, and the'woril (art of fireit'- 
tbinlong. His ftite is very diffufe, and vokt df nerves. 

ARGYROPYLUS (JoAKNE»), one of die fiVft of ehoA 
learned perfdns, who fled inta Italy upon* the taking of Con- 
ftantinope by Mahomet IL in 1453, ^^^^ contributeii to the ' 
revival of the Greek learning in the weft. Cofimo de Medi* 
cis, Duke of Tufcatiy, made him profeffor of Greek at Mo- 
rence, and appointed him preceptor to his* fon Peter^ and tb 
Modioi^e his grandfon Laurence. He had feveral illuAr tons- pupils aft 
^'^'h ^'^''cnce, to whom he read ledi^ures in the Greek language 
iJJ j" "** and philofophy ; and among the reft Angelus Politianas. 
%wo* In 14569 he went into France, to implore the affiftance of 

Charles VII. in behalf of fome friends and r^ations, whom 
he wanted to redeem from Turkifh flavery^ He continued 
many years in his profefibrfliip at Florence } but the plague 
at length obliging him to quit it, he went to Rome; where he 
publicly read ledures upon the Greek text of Ariftotle. He 
. was carried off by an autumnal fever, which he got by an in- 
temperate eating of melons, in the 70th year of his age, and 
.(as is believed) foon after his fettlement in Rome; but the 
time or his death is uncertain, only that it muft have been 
after 1478, becaufe he furvived Theodorus Gaza^ who died 
in that year. He was allowed to be prodigioufly learned, but 
it does not feem to have civilized or fofcened his manners 1 
for he is. reprefented as having been very capricious and very 
morofe. He affirmed, that Cicero underftood neither the 
Greek language nor philofophy : he is fuppofed to have con* 
ceived a peculiar prejudice againft Cicero for faying, that the 
Greek was a language verborum invps^ poor and fcanty in 
words. He was a great epicure, and fpent all his (alaries, 
though very confiderable, in good eating and drinking. He 
lyas not fo ferious about his latter end, but that he bequeathed 
his debts in form to his richer friends, almoft in the very ad 
of dying. He tranflated feveral pieces of Ariftotle into La* 
tin, which language he alfo underftood very well. He left 
Ibme learned fons. 


ARIOSTO (LoDovico, or Lewis), a celebrated Italian; 
poet,.defcended of a good family, and bornf at the caftle of* 
Re^io, in Lombardy, in 1474. He foon gave marks of 
his great genius^ for when very youngs he^comppfed feveral' 

I excellent 

A R I O $ T 0. 30J 

fexceliehi poetical pieces, one of the moft remarkable ofHarring- 
which is the ftory of Pyramus and Thifbe, which he formed ^]^l^^^^ 
into a play, and had it a^ed by his brothers and fiflers. ThishisTnoilat. 
performance gained him great applaufe, all who faw it pre- ^^ ^^^ 
faging he would prove one of the greateft poets of the age. p u,io^ 
His father, however^ being a man of no tafle for learning, 
regarded more what fludy would be moft profitable for his 
ion to follow, than what fuited his genius and inclination t 
lie obliged him therefore to apply to the law, which he did 
for fome years, though with great reluSance; but upon his 
father's death, he returned to the more agreeable purfuits of 
poetry. He was left but in indiiFerent circumftances, either 
becaufe the efiate was divided amongft all his brothers, or 
becaufe his father's income confided chiefly of places of pro-^ 
fit, which determined at his death. When Ariofto was 
about thirty years of age, he was introduced to HippoIitO 
cardinal of £(le, a great patron of learned men, who enter* 
tained him in a very honourable planner. The fuccefs 
wbich he had hitherto had in the little poetical pieces he had 

£ubiifbed, infpired him with the ambition of diflinguifliing 
imfelf by fome nobler work. Sanna^arius, Bembo, Nau-* 
gerius, and Sadolet, had rendered themfelves famous for the 
beauty of their Latin poems : and Ariofto had likewife written 
fome in this language^ but finding, as fir John Harrington 
obferves, that he could not raife himfelf to the higheft rank P« 417* 
amongft the Latin poets, which was already pofiefled by 
others, he applied himfelf chiefly to the cultivation of his na- 
tive tongue ; being defirous to enrich it with fuch works as 
would render it valuable and important to other nations. He 
read Homer and Virgil with vaft careful nefs ; and having in 
view thefe great originals, began a poem on the loves of 
Orlando, taking the fubjedt from Bojardo's** Orlando Inamo* 
rato,'' upon whofe model he proceeded. He began this poem 
when he was about thirty years of age ; it is the moft cele- 
brated of all his works, though there have been many difFer- 
ent opinions) concerning it [aJ* But his attachment to 


[a] Murctus, Paulus JoviuS| and His ** General Refleftions upon Poetry.'* 

tbe gentlemen of Port Royal have be- It is objected by fomcy that he (peaks 

flowed great encomiums on this poem, too much in his own perfon by way of 

James Peletier, of Mons, in the firfl digreJTion, which is faid to be contrary 

book of his" Art of Poetry," has how- to the laws of poetry, becaufe neither 

ever cenfured many things in it ; as has Homer nor Virgil did it. *' Methinks,** 

Mr. Balzac, in his" Critical Difcourfe fays fir John Harrington, in anfwer to 

** upon the Herodes Infamicida of Da- this^ ** it is a fufficient defence to fay, 

** niel HeinfiuB,** and father Rapin in ** .Ariodo doth it, Sure I am, it is 

Vol. I. X "both 

306 A R I O S t O. 

|;)odtry did not hinder him from engaging in pubitt affatri^t 
for he was employed in embaflies and negociatiohs in drfFer- 
ent parts of Italy [bJ. The cardinal of Efte wanted to have 
carried him to Hungary, with fome other illuftrious perfons 
who attended him ; but Ariofto refufed to go, and loft all 
his intereft with his patron. 

Upon the death of Hippolito he engaged in the fervicc of 
Alfohfo duke of Fcrrara, who treated him with great efteem 
Ibid. p. 4x9. and alFedion, and appointed him governor of Grafligriana, 
which office he difcharged with great honour and fuccefs. 
After hisreturn home, he dedicated the reft of his life to re- 
tirement, profecuting his fludies in a houfe which he built 
forhimfelfat Ferrara [c]. He tranflated fevcrai pieces out 
of French and Spanifh into- Italian ; and wrote alfo feveral 
fatires, which, according to Mr. Menage, are efleemed by 
the heft judges. There are likewife five comedies of his 

'* both delightful and profitable^ to [b] When pope Julitit II. fntended 

*^ have a feat or refting- place for the to make war upon the duke of Ferrara, 

*< reader: and even as if a man walked cardinal Hippolito *t brother, Arioilo 

^ in a fair long alley, to have a feat or was cbufen as a proper perfon to go open 

<* refting-place here and there, is eafy an embaiTy to him. He tran(a£^ed this 

*' and commodious. But if at the fame affair with fo much fuccefs, that he 

^' feat were planted fome excellent tree, gained a great charadler at his return. 

<* that not only with the ifiade (botild He went a fecond time to the fame pope, 

** keep us from the heat, but with fome at a very difficult and dangerous jonc* 

« pleaf Bt and right wholefomc fruit tare, when nobody would undertake 

« ihould allay our thirft and comfort the commifiion : he accordingly per- 

** our Aomach, we fiiould think it for formed his journey, and prefentcd him- 

'* the titne a little paradife; So ate felfto the pope;' but finding, by foms 

'* ArioAo's morals and pretty d'gref* fecrct intelligence, that his embalfy 

^ iions fprinkled through his long woric, would be to no manner pf purpofe, but 

** to the no lefs pleafure than profit of expofe him only to the utmoft danger, 

'* the reader.** There were feveral edi- he returned home through all the diffi- 

tions and franflation? of .this poem: it cutties and hazards imaginable, and was 

was tranflated into Englifh by fTr John highly honoured for his refolution and 

Harrington, the third edition of which couragein this affair. 
was pubiifhed at London, in folin, 1634, [t J It was but a fmall, though con- 

with the foliowing title, *' Orlando verient houfe : being afked^ why he 

<' Furiofo, in Englifli heroic verl'e, by had not built it in a more magnificent 

^* Sir John Harrington of Eathe mannef, flnce he had given fuch noble 

'< Knight) now thirdly revifed and defcriptions of fumptuous palaces, beao- 

** amended, with the Addition of the tiful porticos, and pieafant fountains, in 

«* Author's Epigrams.** And an ele- his Orlando Furiofo ? He replied, That 

gant verfion has been given by Mr, words were cheaper laid together than 

Hoole in xySj. ftones. Upon the door was the folloi^<* 

ing infcription ; 

Parva, fed apta mihi, fed nulli obnexia, fed nbri 
Sordida, partameo (ed tamen tere domus. 

Which Harrington thus tranflate^ 

This boufei9 fm^ll, but fit for me, but hurtful onto none^ 
But yet not lluitiih, as yoii feC; yet paid for with toine oWir; 



A k i 6 s t 0. 


fxtant [d], which the du£:e of Ferrara was (6 pleaPed With, 
that he eiedled a magnificent ftagein the hall of Ferrara, for 
the reprefentation of them, and made the author feveral con- 
fiderable prefents. At his defire, Arioflo tranflated the 
Adsene'chmiof Plautus into Italian, which was exhibited with 
great fucbefs ! all hik other comedies were frequently a£led 
by perfons of the higheft quality ; aiid when his Lena was 
firft repr^fented, Ferdinand of £fte, afterwards marquis of 
NlafTa, ib far honoured the piece, as to fpeak the prologue* 
Ariofto ufed to read his vertes to his friends aiid the ladies of 
his acquaintance ; his manner oJT reading was excellent, fo 
that he thereby gave a peculiar grace to eveiy thing he pro- 
nounced [bJ. He Was honoured with the laurel by the em- 
peror Charles V. in the year 1533. 

Arloffo wa§ of an amorous difpofitioD, and left two natu- 
ral fons. He was aifFable, eafy, and condefceiiding in his 
temper. He enjoyed the fri'endQiip of the mod eminent 
ifcholars of his time, mod of whotn he mentions with great 
refpedt in the lad canto of his Orlando Furiofo. His condi- 
tutioh was but weakly, fo that he was obliged to have recourfe 
to pbyficiahs the grieated part of his life. He bore his laft 
ficknefs with great refolutioh and ferenity, and died at Fer- 
i-ara the 8th of July, 1533, according to fir Johh Harrington, Lifeof Arl- 

oftOy p* 42a* 

[d] They ikre intituled, t. << La Cat- fpeaky tiie thought cartie into his hlbad, 

*< faridj'* in profe and verfe t printed to obferve him with the utmoft atteii- 

m 1536. . 2. ^' La Lena)** in profe tion, in order that he might draw th^ 

and verle. 3. '< H Negro'mante }** in reprefentation after nature; fo that he 

profe and verfe. 4- " ^'i Suppofiti ;** Only regarded hit tone of v^ice^ ahd 

In profit and verfe^ 5. <' La Scholaf- geftures, and ezpreifions, without any 

** jtica ;*• in verfc. concern to defend himielfl 

Ladovico kiccoboni, in his '« Hi^ [k] He is faid likewife to have been 

^< toire de Theatre Italian,** gives a extremely vexed, if he hearil his owit 

▼cry high charafier of thefe comedies ; writings repeated with an ill grace and 

and we find in his boolc a very agreeable accent. As he was paffing one day by 

ffory' relating to Arioflo (p. 137). His a potter's iJiop, it happened that the 

father one day w^s in a violekit paflion potter was tinging a ftanza out of the 

with him, and talked to hihi for a con* Orlando Furiofo | which he pronounced 

fiderable ti ire with vaft feverlty 3 the in fo bad a manner, that A riofto, being 

ion heard him with great attention, in an ezceflive paflion, with a little 

without 'making any anfwer, and flick he bad in bis hand, broke feveral 

they parted without Ariofto''s jfpeak- of the pots which flood ex pofed to fale« 

iDg one word to defend himfelf agaiuft The potter expoflulated with him in very 

the ireproachrt which were made to him. feve're tehns^ for injuring a poor man . 

When his father was gone, Arioflo** who had never done htm the lead barm 

brother afked him, what.was the reafon in his whole life ; '• Yes,'* replied 

that he did hot fay Any thing to his fa- Ariofto, *' I have not yet lufficienriy 

thfcr in his own defence ? He replied, ** revenged myfelf upon you, for the 

that he was then a£lualhr compolinga ** injury which you have done me to 

tomedy, an^ had (lopped fhort at a fccne, •* my face.**' Sir John Harringloa'* 

in whirh an old man was reprimanding Life of Arioflo, p. 4'20j 421. 
his fon I tbftc whco hit father beg?n ^ 

X 2 ^ - hcing 

3o8 A R I O S T O. 

being then fifty- nine years of age. He was interred in the 
church of the i^cnedidine monks, who, contrary to their 
cullom» attended his funeral. He bad a buft ercdol to him, 
and an epitaph, written by himfelf, infcribed upon his tomb. 
His death was much regretted by all bis acquaintance, and 
particularly by the men of letters, who honoured his memory 
with feveral Latin and Italian poems, 

ARISTARCHUS, a Grecian philofopber, born in Samo% 
is delivered down to us as the principal perfon, if not the 
fir{l, who. maintained the earth to turn upon its center, and 

Bayle* defcribe a circle yearly round the fun: an opinion, revived 
and eflablifhed by Copernicus and Galileo, and now univer- 
fally received. Vitruvius, fpeaking of certain mathemati- 
cians who had niad^ difcoveries, places Ariftarchus in the firft rank: he mentions a kind of fun-dial of his inventing. 

Uu!!!^q It is not certain whenhe lived ; but from the mention m^ii 
* *^ ' 'of him by Archimedes, be muft have flouriibed before bia 
death. None of his works remain> except a treatife '^ UpOD 
<* the greatnefs and diftance of the fun and Moon :" it was 
tranftated into Latin, and commented upon by Frederic Com* 
mandjne, who firft publtQied it with '^ Pappus's ExfJana* 
*' tions" in 157a. Do£lor Wallis afterwards publiflied it 
in Greek, with Commandine's Latin verfion, in 1688, 
and by him inferred again in the third volume of his '* Ma- 
*< ihematical works," printed at Oxford, 1699, in folio^ 
Ariftarchus did not fufl^r perfecution and imprifonment, as 
Galileo fince c)id, for ren^oying. the ftability of the earth; 
though, as we learn from a corrected paflage in Plutarch, he 

De fiicie ia was thought by foQie to be guilty of great impiety, and to 

orbc Luaae. have defer ved it^ 

ARISTARCHUS, a celebrated grammarian, was bow Ja 
Bayle,Dia.Samothracia« but chofe Alexandria to refide at. He was 
much efleemed by Ptolemy Philometor, who conimitted to 
him the education of his fon. He applied himielf exceed- 
ingly (o criticifm, and made a revifal of Homer's poems witb 
great exadlnefs, but in a manner too magifterial ; for fuch 
verfes as be did not like he treated as fpurious. He rm(^^ 
Crcero». them with the figure of a dart, dSsxUe : whence XtXl^tiv was 
F^m "** ^^^ ^^^ '* condemn in gcncrah Some have faid, that he never 
'would publiih any thing, for fear of giving others an oppor- 
tunity of retorting upon him % but others fay, that be pub- 
liflied a great deal. Cicero and Horace have u fed his name 

loxxprefs a very rigid critic j and it is ufed to this day for th« 



fittne purpbfe, but not without opprobrium, derived partly 
from himfelf, yet more from the manners of. modern verbal 
critics* Growing dropfical, he found no other remedy, than 
to ftarve himfeif (o death. Suidas relates, that he died in 
Cyprus, aged 72. 

ARIST^NETUS, an ancient author, to whom are 

afcribed certain Greek epiftles upon the fubjeA of love and 

gallantry ; but who he was, or when he lived, cannot be 

fettled with any degree of certainty, as it does not appear 

that any one writer of antiquity has mentioned him. Some 

have indeed imagined that the name is fiditious; and that« 

as the letters appear to be only a compilation of the moll 

beautiful pafTages from different writers, fuch as Plato, Lu- 

cian, Philoflratus, and others, they are the work of fome 

fophift, who meant to (hew thereby the ufe which might be 

madeof fuch writers : but this is all an uncertainty. A very 

fieat and elegant edition of thefe cpiftles was publifhed by 

Cornelius de Pauw at Utrecht, 1736, in i2mo; to which is 

prefixed the, prefaces, and with which are accompanied the 

' notes of former editors as well as his own. 

ARISTIPES (iEnus), a very fanfious fophift of antiquity, 
i^as born at Adriani, a town of Myfia, and flourifhed under 
Adrian and th? two following emperors. He received lectures q^^ Lib. w.' 
in eloquence from the beft mafters ; from Herodes Atticus ate. 30. 
Athens, and Ariftocles at Pergamus. He fpent his life in 
travelling and declaiming. He went all over Egypt four 
times, and penetrated even to Ethiopia. He was averfe to 
extemporary harangues : he called it vomiting orations. 
When Smyrna was deftroyed by an earthquake in the year 
178, he wrote fo afFe6iing a letter to Marcus Aurelius, that 
the Emperor ordered it to be rebuilt immediately : upon which 
the inhabitants ereded a ftatue to Ariftides, as to the reftorer 
of their city. Notwithflanding the high reputation of this 
Sophift, he appears to have been very fuperflitious and very 
vain. He gives us to underftand, that he thought himfelf 
inferior to no orator that had lived before him ; and that this 
pre-eminence of his was as it were a fpecial obje£t with the 
gods, who had directed him in dreams to the Rudy of elo- 
quence. He paid a wonderful deference to his fleeping ideas, 
which be often believed to be divinely infufcd ; and tells you 
particularly how he was dire£led by ^fculapius to feme- 
diingy which cared him of a long and inveterate illnefs. He 

X 3 ^'e^* 

310 A R I S T I D E 8. 

4ied about tbe age of fixtjr. His works were publifh^d witt} 
f Latin verfion, and notes by Dr. Samuel Jebb, at Oxford^ 
172 J, in two volumes 410. 

ARISTOPHANES, a celebrated comic poet of Athens. 
His place of nativity, however has been contefied, for his 
enemies endeavourec) to reprefent bim as a (Granger ; but b^ 
fully confuted this fuggeftion, repeating on this occafion 
the two following lines from a fpeech of Teiemachus in the 
Odj fley : 

MfiTfp (aU r If^i ^11 (Ti T8 ifAfjLsyaiy air dp iyuk 
Ou* op', V ydp Sii Tig lov yovoy auVoc avjyvw. 

My mother told me fo : 'twas here, (he faid ; 

I know not : and, pray, who has more to plead ? 

• • • 

He was contemporary with Plato, Socrates, and Euripides) 
and moft of his plays were written during the Peloponneiiaii 
war. His imagination was warm and lively, and his genius 
particularly turned to raillery : he had alfo great fpirit and re* 
folution, and was a declared enemy to flavery, and to ail 
thofe who wanted to opprefs their country. The Athenians 
fufFered themfelves in his time to be governed by men, who 
had no other views than to make themfelves mafters of the 
commonwealtb. Ai'ifiophanes expofed the defigns of thefe 
men with great wit and (eyerity, upon the ftage. Cleo was 
the iirft whom he attacked, in his comedy of the ^' Equites:'* 
but none of the comedians venturing to perfonate a man of 
See Madam bis great authority, Arifiophanes played the c)iara£ier him- 
Dacier*s felf- and with fo much fuccers, that the i)ithenians obi ige(i 

herTran*it.^'^!^ ^° P^X ^ ^^^ of five talents, which were given to the 
of Arifto- p^et [a}. He defcribed the affairs of the Athenians in fo 
jhaoef. exadl'a manner, that his comedies are a faithful hiftoryof 
that people. For this reafon, when Dionyiius king of Syra- 
cufe defired to learn the (late and language of Athens, Plato 
fent him the plays of Arifiophanes^ telling him thefe were 
the bcft reprefentation thereof. He wrote above fifty come- 
dies, but there are only eleven extant which are perfed ; 
thefe are •* Piutus, the Clouds, the Frogs, Equites, the 
•* Acharncnfes, the Wafps, Peace, the Birds, the Ecclcfia- 


[a] This freedom of his was fo well decree, that he fliould be honoured with 

received by the Athenians that they a crown of the facred olive-tree in the 

«ft haadfali of flowers upon the head citadel, which was the greateft bonoar 

•fthe poety and carried him through that could be paid to a citi 2013 • Dacier'l 

ttie city in triumph with the greatcft preface to Ariftophanes. 
Icclamation. They made alfo a public 

* zufae 


^ zufae pr Female Orators, the Thefmophoriazufae or Pricft- 
** efles of Ceres, and Lyfiftrata." The « Clouds,'^ which 
he w^rote in ridicule of Socrates [b], is the moft celebrated 
of all his comedies : madam Dacicr tells us, (he was fo much Ibid. 
tharcned with this performance, that after (lie had tranflated 
it, and read it over two hundred times, it did not became 
the leaft tedious to her j and that the pleafure fhe received 
from it was fo exquilite, as to make her forget all the con* 
tempt and indignation which Ariftophanejs deferved, for em- 
ploying his wit to ruin a man, who was wifdom itfelf, and 
the greateft ornament of the city of Athens, • Ariftophanes 
having conceived fome averfion to the poet Euripides, fatirizes 
him in feveral of his plays, particularly in his *^ Fro^s" and 
his ** ThefmophoriazufjgB." H^ wrote his ** Peace'* in the 
tenth year of the Peloponnefian war, when a treaty for fifty 
years was concluded between the Athenians and the LacedsB" 
fnonians, though it continued but feven. The*' Acharnen-Thucydi^ef, 
•• fes*' was written after the death of Periclesj and the lofs*^''- ^' 
of the battle in Sicily, in order to diffjade the people from 
intrul^ing the fafcty of the commonwealth to fucb imprudent 
generals as Lamachus. Soon after, he reprcfented his '' Aves^^ 
or Birds, by which he admoniflied the Athenians to fortify 
Decelaea, which he calls by a fiftitious name Ncpheloccoccy- 
gia. The " Vefpae/' or Wafps, was written after another 
lofs in Sicily, which the Athenians fuffercd from themifcon- 
duft of Chares. He wrote the ** Lyfiftrata" when all Greece 
was involved in a war; in which comedy the women are in* 
troduced debating upon the afFahrs of the common wealth, 
jvhen they come to a refolution, not to go to bed with their 
hufbands, till a peace fhould be concluded* His ^^ P\a* 
** tus [c]/* arid other comedies of that kind, were written 
after the magiilrates had given orders, that no perfon ihould 
be expofed by name upon the flage. He invented a peculiar 
kind of verfe, which was called by his name, and is mentioned 
by Cicero in his *' Brutus;" and Suidas fays, that he alfp 
was the inventor of the tetrameter and odame^^r verfe. 

[b] Socrates had a contempt for the exprcfled to the cqmic poets, was the 

comic poets, and never went to fee their ground of their averfion to him, and the 

plays, except when Alcibiades or Cri- motive of Ariftophanes's writing the 

tias obliged him to go thither. He was " Clouds'* againft him. iEliaUk Var. 

ihocked at the great licentioufnefs of Hift. lib. ji. cap. 13. 
fhe old comedy; and as he was a man [c] Thedcfigii of Ariflophanes, in 

of piety, probity, candour, and wif- this comedy, was to reproach the Athe« 

^om, could not bear that the characters nians with tbeir avarice, which had oc- 

of his fellow citizens fhould be inf'ulted cafioned th<^m to commit very greaf 

and abufed. This coniempt which be txrott in the moA important aifairs. ' 

X 4 Ariftophanes 

lib. iii. 


Ariftophanes was grbatly admired amoi^ the ancieiitt* 
cfj^eially for the true Attic elegaoce of his ftyje: *' It is,^ 

^^ lays madam Dacier, *< as agreeable as his wit ; for befides 
*< its purity, force and fweetnefs,, it has a certain barmonfy 
** which foMods extremely pleafant to the ear : when he has 
«« occafion to ufe the common ordinary ftyle, he does it 
** without ufuig any expreffion chat is bafe and vulgar s and 
** when he has a mind to exprefs himfelf loftily, in hta 
** higheft flight he is never obfcure/' ** Let no man," fays 
Scahger, ^< pretend to underftand the Attic dialed, who' has 
^* not Ariftophanes at his fingers ends : in him are to be found 
*< all the Attic ornaments, which made Su Chryfoftom (b 
*< much admire him, that he always laid him under his pil- 

Pe Po«t «« low when he went to bed/' Mr, Frifchlin obfervcs, that 
Plautus has a great affinity to Ariftophanes in his manner of 
writing, and has imitated him in many parts of bis plays [o], 
Frifchlin has written a vindication of our poet, inanfwer to the 
objedions urged againft him by Plutarch. How great an opt* 
nion Plato had of Ariftophanes, is evident even from Plutarch'^ 
acknowledgement, who tells us, that this poet's <^ Difcourfe 
*^ upon Love" was inferted by that philofopher in his *' Sym- 
^^ pofium:" and Cicero, in his firft book '* De legibus," 
ftyles him ^^ the moft witty poet of the old comedy/' There 
have been feveral editions and tranflations of this poet [sj. 
The time of his death is unknown; but it is certain he was 
living after the expuliion of the tyrants by ThrafybuIuSi 
whom he mentions in his Plutus and other comedies. 

t»] « The addrofiiof Artftophaoes," the fixteentb century^ tranflated '< Plu- 

lays Mr. Rymer, <• is admirable : be << tus, the Ciouds> the Frogs, the 

** would make the truth vifiMe, pal- ** Equites, and the Achameafes'* intb 

** pable, and every way fenfible. His latin verfe. (^iatus Septinius Fl#- 

^ art and appHcatioo, his firange fet- rens rendered into Itatin verCe tlie 

** ches, his IttcSty ftarts^ hisoddinven- <' WaTps, the Peace, and Lyfiftrata;*' 

<< tions, his wild tarns > returns, and but his tranflation is liiU of oblbUK^ 

f< coantenusns, were never matched, words and phrafes. Madam Dacier 

** nor are ever to be reached again.-— publiilied at Paris, in iSfi, a French 

'' Amongft the moderns, our ^* Re* verfion of ** Plutus, and the Clouds,** 

** hearfal * is iome refemblance of his with critical notes, and an examination 

*^ Frogs/* The virtuofi's cbarader, of them according to the rules of the 

** and Ben Johafoii*s Alchemift, give theatre. Mr, Lewis Theobald likewiie 

** fome ^adow of his Clouds. But no tranilatcd thefe two comedies into Eag* 

<^ where, peiadvfoture^ wanders fo lifli, and publifiied them with remarksL 

^* much of his fpirit, as in the French A noble edition of this author was pub. 

^' RabeLis.'* Short View of Tragfuly, lifhed by Ludolphus Kufier, at Amifer. 

p. 2^, London edit, 1695. . The Ipirit dam, in folio, in 171O1 and dedicated 

of AriAophanes has been £nce more to Cbarlei Montague earl of Halifax \ 

iiappiiy caught by Foote. and'Peter Burman the younger has fiace 

CbJ Nicodemus Frifchin, a German, publiibed another at I^yden, X76X, li^ 

famous for his cU0ic^ k«QwMge, in two f gk. 410. 



ARISTOTLE, the chief of the Peripatetic philoTophers, FabiicJiiu. 
born at Stagyra, a fmall city in Macedon, io the 99th Olym-^'* l^^*^ 
piad, about 384 years before Chrift, was the fon of Nicho-^ 
roach us, phyfician to Amytitaa, the grandfather of Alexaa* 
der the Great. He loft his parents in his infancy; and 
FroxeneS) a friend of his father's, who had the care of bis 
education, taking but little notice of hioi, he quitted his 
fludies, ^tti gave htmfelf up to the folli^es of youth. After 
he had fpent moft of his patrimony, he entered into the , 

army; but not fucceeding in this profeiSon, he went to 
Delphi, to confult the oracle what courfe of life he (hould 
follow ; when he was advifed to go to Athens^ and fiudjr 
pfailofophy. He accordingly went thither when about eigh- 
teen, and ftudied under Plato till he was thirty-feven. By 
this time he had fpent his whole fortune ; and we are told 
that he got his living by felling powders, and fome receipts 
in pharmacy [a J. He followed his ftudies with rooft extra- 
ordinary diligence, fo that he foon furpafled all in Plato's 
fchool. He eat little, and flept lefs ; and that he might not 
over fleep himfelf, Diogenes Laertias tells us, that he layinvit.Arift. r 
always with one hand out of the bed, having a ball of brafs 
in it, which, by its falling into a bafon of che fame metal, 
awaked him. We are told, that Arifiocle had feveral con* 
ferences with a learned Jew at Athens, that by this means 
he in(lru£led himfelf in the fciences and religion of the 
^Egyptians, and thereby faved himfelf the trouble of travel* 
ling into Egypt [bJ. When he had ftudied about fifteen 
years under Plato, he began to form different tenets from 
thofe of his mafter, who became highly picjued at his beba- 

^a] Francis Patrici us is of opinion fo learned a Jew, could he haye believed 
that Ariftotle was a hearer of Plato till what he fays of the origin of the Jews f 
the age of forty ; and that be pradifed^ would be have faid, that they were de- 
pharmacy and phyHc all that time, in fcended from the Calami, a people of 
order to get a livelihood. He adds, that India; and that they took upon them 
formerly phyficians were alfo apaihe- the name of Jews in Syria, from a 
caries ; and ihat we have three reafons province they vyere poiTefled of, named 
to make us believe thatAriftotle was a judsea? which is what Ariftotle pre- 
pbyfician, via. (le was of a race of phy« tends in the pafTage of Clearchus, <]uoted 
jficians ^ he compofed a book on health by Jofephus* is it to be imagined his 
and difeafes j and he trained Alexander Jew would have left him in fo childiih 
to the ftudy of phylic, into which that an error ? and hiight we not have ex- 
monarch gainod a great infight, as well pedVed to find more traces of Judza, 
> in theory as practice. Patricii Oifcuff. and the Jewifli nation, in the writiogf 
I'eripattt. tom« i. p. 3. of Ariftoile, after fomany difco^eries as. 

[9 J If it is true, fays Mr. Bayle, that the Jew is faid to have made to him ? 
Ariftoile had To many ponfercoces with 



viour [c]. Upon the death of Plato, he quitted Athene, and 
retired Co Atarnya, a little city of MyHa, where his old fntnd 
Afidoeiet* Heroiias teigned. Here he married Pythias, the fitter of this 
V^xpmtf^* P^^^^^* whom he is fatd to have loved fopaffionatciy, that he 
lib. XV. pis* offered facriiice to her. Sometime after, Hermias having 
been taken prifoner by Meranon, the king of Perfia's gene- 
ral, Ariftotle went to Micylcne. the capital of Lefbos ; where 
he remained till Philip, king of Macedon, having heard of 
his great reputation, fentfor him to be tutor to hisfon Alex- 
ander, then ^bout fourteen years of age. Aridotle accepted 
the offer ; and in eight years taught him rhetoric, natural 
philofophy, ethics, politics, and a certain fort of philo- 
fophy, according to Plutarch, which he caught nobody eife. 
Philip ereded ftatues in honour of Ariftotle ; and for his 
fake rebuilt Stagy ra, which had been almoft ruined by the 

Ariftotle, having loft the favour of Alexander by adhering 
to Califthenes, his kinfman, who was accufed of a confpiracy 
sgainft Alexander's life, removed to Athens, where he fct 
up his new fchool. The magiftrates received him very 
kindly, and gave him the Lycaeum, fo famous afterwards for 
the concourfe of his difciples : and here it was, according: to 
fome authors, that he compofed his principal works. Plu- 
tarch, however, tells us, that he had already written his books 
of ** Phyfics, Morals, Metapbyfics, and Rhetoric.'* The 
fame author fayt, that Ariftotle being piqued at Alexander, 
becaufe of the prefents he had fent to Xenocrate$, was moved 
with fo much refenrment, that he entered into Antipater's 
confpiracy againft this prince. The advocates for Ariftotle^ 
however, maintain this charge to have been without founda- 
tion I that at leaft it made no impreilion on Alexander, fince 
about the fame time he ordered him to apply himfeif to the ftud/ 
of animal's ; and fent him, to defray his expences, eight hun- 
dred talents, befides a great number of fiftiers and huntfoien 

[c] Diogenes Laerlios relates, (Vit, •* from his mai^ery fporned at him wi:h 

Ariftot.) tbac Plato finding AriOotle " hia heels, and opened a fchoo] in 

had broke off from him, ufed to fay, " oppofition to Plato.** Helladius 

'* He has kicked againft us, as colts are varies the image a tittle: *A^t^o!ixns 

** wont to^ do againft their dam.** o t5 ^s^tvale Wfcj-arjic t'To TlXal^sy^^ 

JEtWsiii explains at large this expreffion ttrir^ ivot OfAa^O^, ht\)iSa-BM ^9x<vv t^ 

or Plato : ** The colt,'* fays he, (Var. ^i^aa-nSXw* xal yap 6 iTtv^ rw Uvii 

Hift. lib, iv. cap. 9.) ** kicks at his <l>tXiX ^aliea idxyin, " Ariftotle, the 

♦* dam, after being filled with her •* prince of the Peripatetic fchool, was 

** milk: in like manner, Ariftotle, '* called a horfe by Plato, becaufe he fct 

** after he had imbibed from Plato the '* up in oppofttion to his mafter^ for 

*^ milk and nourifiiment of t>hilofophy, '< the hcrfe takes a pleafure in biting 

** finding himfclf we