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Ir.^« 



liiA^h 



A 



\ 



T A 7JJJ 

NEW AND IMPROVED 

SPANISH GRAMMAR, 

DS8IGNBD FOR 

EVERY CLASS OF LEARNERS, 

BUT BSPBCIALLT 

FOR SUCH AS ARE THEIR OWN INSTRUCTORS. 

PART I.— AN EAST INTRODUCTION TO THE ELEMENTS OF THE 
SPANISH LANGUAGE. 

PABT II.— THE RULES OF ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX FULLY 
EXEMPLIFIED: WITH OCCASIONAL NOTES AND 
OBSERVATIONS. 

WITH AN APPENDIX, 

COVTAININO A U8XFUL VOCABULARY — DIAIOQUKS WITH MUIIBBICAL 
BXFBRXNCB8 TO THB RULES IN THE GRAMMAR— A FXW SPICIMBITS 
OP COMMERCIAL DOCUMENTS— AN EXPLANATION OF TBX RULES 
▲ND PRINCIPLES OF SPANISH POETRY— AMD SOME RULES FOR 
DERIVATION. 



By L. J. A. M'HENRY, a Native of Spain. 



CORRECTED AND IMPROVED. 

LONDON : 
PRINTED FOR SHERWOOD, GILBERT, AND PIPER, 

PATERNOSTER-ROW : 

•OLD ALSO BY J. WACEY, OLD BROAD-STREET; DULAU AMD CO.;' 
AMD TREUTTBL, WURTZ, AMD RIOBTER, SOBO-SQURAS. 

1833. 



\ 



[ENTERED AT STATIONERS' HALL.] 




London i Prinitdhy W, ChuJ€$f ^amford^treet. 



TO HIS EXCEIXENCT 

Su RAJJH JAMES WOOmOSBi B«&t. 

OOySRlfOR OF TBX ISUUVn OTTBIffDADi 



GRATITUDE hemg^ mmetimeat allowed to occupy, 
thai. 9£bmiiim. in lUerary pro^iiiioTiSy which in not 
^ddom,, usurped h^ adulation^ Tarn encourugedt to hope 
I mc^; forfftoui cermirey S'^^ifif '"^ fsdHnge h^ prefixing 
your name tb a work which tntradwcedftne to the honow^ 
ef yaw^fiiefMg rtgattd, 

Ths Uber^ opproiaUonL tn^tai. yM* were pboMd id 
bestow on thejirst edition of these pages, arid the favour^ 
mUe moMJier vi which £b^, have been received by the 
puMSc^ naiimM/'melkw me ie tmmder tbemt noi Mo* 
gether unworthy of being thus offered as a smalt testimony 

cfmy g^aUfai^stmccf your'tamnarom dfoiUtiee smd kind 
attentions* 

Bnigmai emisi theiotumr wBieh J cxmfeT on mysdj^ 
Wy presttming^ id nt^mifr this bumblBi: volume ta sa 
respectable a^ name^ permit me ta asmee you, thai it ie 
eeL kasi equal&d by the deference: audi sinoerii^ wi&t 
whiah I hasoe thepHeasswAj^dedLarvag, mysdf^ 

Sip, 
Yow^ EMdknonfis fsMhfid 



a2 



^ 



JUST PUBLISHED. 
EXERCISES on the ETYMOLOGY, SYNTAX. 

IDIOMS, and SYNONYMS of the SPANISH LANOUAOB, 
adapted to any Spaniih Grammar, but more especially to that of the 
Antnor. 

**Mr. McHenry ia adTantaseoosly known to the public m author of <me of 
the moflt complete, and unquestionably the most modern, Spanish ^rammara 
extant ; and ue present small bat instnictiTe volume is admirably adapted to 
the Grammar, and cannot fail of being peculiarly useful to those, persons who 
direct their inquiries to the accurate diitinetion of words apparently, but not 
really synonymous.**— jDtteniyy Fanorama, March 1814. 

** The author has produced unquestionably the best book of Spanish Exerciaea 
which has hitherto been published ; and his addition of the Synonrms is a Tery 
▼aitiable and very necessary appendage.** — Oeat. Mag» Smp, 1814. 

** This is an accompaniment to a Spanish Grammar by the same author, and 
does credit to his metnodizing powers. The exercises are well chosen, and tiit 
grammatical rules both aocurate and clear. We can recommend it to any one 
who is desirous of attaining with ease an ao(}uaintanee with the idioms and 
syntax of the Spanish language.**— Sn'tiM Critic, 

** In our 17th Volume we noticed Mr. M«Henry's Gnunmar of the Spanish 
Langaage|, and we cannot gire a better character of the present work than to 
say, that it is excellently Mapted to aoconpany the former one in ftacilitating 
the acquisition of the Spanish Language." — VfAvervd Magojane^ March 1814* 

SYNONYMS of the SPANISH LANGUAGE 

explained, and elucidated by copious Extracts from the most approved 
Spanish Poits. Intended as an Appendix to English-Spanish 
Dictionaries. 

** The author of this work gires proof of much ability, many fine distinctions 
are here pointed out. and the examples are so tastefully selected, from excellent 
authors, that the book forms a very pleasant medley of Spanish literature."— 
Literary Oaxette, Oct. 1836. 

<* The perspicuous brevity and talent apparent in the Grammar and Exercises 
of the author are not for^tten in this work, nor ia the more abstruse part of 
the treatise deficient in mterest. The various Synonyms are alphabeticaJly 
arranged, their meaning clearly made knoim, and the diatinctnesa of eaea 
pleasingly devebped.**— Zriterafy ChronieUt Oct. 18S6. 

** To facilitate the attainment of a critical as well as grammatical know- 
ledge of the Spanish language is the object of the present work, and whoever 
knows the difficulty of accurately distinguishinff the various shades of differenca 
which prerail in words, which, by common minds, are often esteemed as entirely 
sadpezfectlT synonymous, wiU, we are persuaded, accept Mr. MeHenry*sworK 
as a valuable aid in this department of learning. The high character gained 
by his former works cannot be injured by that, which the value and merit of 
the ipesent volume must confer on him. — Ladled Muteum^ Oct. IffiMS. 

** This is a most useful little work not only to beginners, but to those who. have 
made the Spanish language for some time tneir study, and deem themselvies ita 
masters. No student of the Spanish language should be without this work.**— 
New MonMjfMagasime, Dec. 18S6. 



<«' 



Mr. M'Henry appears to be fully competent to the task which he has hero 
nndertakoi. The student will not only learn from hts book how to distinraisk 
between expreaaiona, which are translated into nearly the aame worda in £ng- 
lish ; but he will also gain from it an acquaintance with many weUkhoaen 8p»> 
eimeoa of the beat poet^ which the Peninanla haa produced.**— JfoiltA/y Revhw, 
Dee. 1886. 



PREFACE. 



In introducing the present work to the notice of the 
public, some reasons will naturally be expected for the 
appearance of another Spanish Grammar, especially at 
a time when the number has recently been so much 
augmented by new editions as well as fresh productions. 
It has been a matter of frequent complaint, that there 
is no English-Spamsh Grammar capable of affording the 
necessary assistance to those persons who are obliged 
to be their own instructors ; for although several of the 
Grammars in circulation possess great merit, yet most 
of them are written under the disadvantages which 
inevitably arise from an au thorns attempting to explain 
in a language with which he is but very imperfectly 
acquainted. 

' The present work, therefore, is respectfully submitted 
to the candid notice of the public, with the humble hope, 
that it will be found less exceptionable in several parti- 
culars than some of its predecessors ; its author being 
a native of Spain, in which country he had the advantage 
of a liberal education, and having, by a residence of 
several years in England, acquired a considerable know- 
ledge of the pronunciation, genius, idiom, and general 
structure of the English language. 
^ Anxious as the author has been to render this Gram* 
mar peculiarly useful to those persons who cannot con- 
treniently have access to a master^ he has devoted par- 
ticular attention to the subject of pronunciation. Not 
contenting himself with minutely describing and eluci- 
dating the different powers of the letters, he has also 



"Vl PREFACE. 

exemplified, by a reference to English words, not only 
the simple sounds which they represent, but almost every 
variety of sound reaultiiig* from poiltioa and combina- 
tion ; a novelty which, he would hope, may prove of 
very considerable utility to all classes of learners. 

The total ignorance of the common principles of lan- 
guage, and even of thefmport of the usual granunaticaK 
terms, manifested by many persons doairouB of aequirii^ 
a grammatical knowledge of the Spanifh language, haa. 
induced the writer to attempt to ranedy the evily as 
concisely, and with as little of deterring or rspukhts 
parade and formality, as was possible, in his ekmentary 
introduction to the language. This eipcumstance, how* 
ever, has compelled him. by developing several of tiia 
properties or accidents of words^ as* they result from. 
mutual relation and connexion, rather than aceording to. 
a dry, mechanical analogy, to imitate the example of some: 
modern grammarians of deserved repute, and occasion- 
ally to intermix, among the rules of Sy-ntax, remarks and 
observations, which, he is fully aware, belong, in strict 
propriety, to the province of Etymology. But this devi- 
ation from the more common mode of arrangoBent*. he 
trust? win be compensated on the seore of utility or exr 
pediency, by a diminution of the intemiptioBSi naialip 
occasioned by tedious prelinraiary definkionflr and 
explanations. 

The authorhas attempted t» introdiuui ionfteleami9» 
and simplicity in thedeclensiouof nouns^ and(the.c«BJ9fe- 
gation of irregular rerbfi ;. He ha»^ paid conandeeahla 
attention to an elucidation of the »&^iecturaiiBporta and 
uses of the Spanish substEuitive' vvrbs- aar? and «itar « 
and has endeavoured to reraov« someof t]Mrobaeaiit|f i« 
which the nature^ and nse 9i the Spanirii wihjuactwia 
mood, espectalTy iii* its Inperfeeti tense, hav% httlwBtO 



^MifVTi til 

faMBLinoBt or lasa iiifvoLr^d. Bat these aad simflar par- 
Hcalao tape no4». peiJiaps^ sufficiently imj^xtaut to be 
artitled to fl^pecialeBiiiiiaratiaai* 

Throughout the whole work it has been the author's 
poiticQlar aintD lay dawn the rules of Spanish Grammar 
as concisely as possible ; and he trusts that they will, at 
tile sam« ti&mei.he ftnad to be stated by him with not less 
pvecawofl and. perspicuity than they have generally been 
IB. wQxka of a similar description. The prejudicial 
and petpl^dn^ praetice adopted by some writers. 
oppareMU^ to (Hminish the number of their rules, of 
blending into on^ two or more in their nature perfectly 
distinct fiom each c^her, he has been so careful to avoid, 
that heir not without sowe apprehension of havingfalleii 
wia the other ^Eiceme ; acBreumstance, however, which 
he prcsamsa will be found far less injurious to the 
learner's clear conception of the various shades and 
modifications of one general principle. 

The Appendix to the Grammar contains a brief expla- 
nation o£ the. principles of Spanish Prosody, and of the 
rules, nature^ and different kinds of Spanish Verse ; — 
Dialog;ues.with numerical references to the Rules in tite 
Grammar ; — a few specimens of Letters and other Com- 
inercial Documents i and a summary account of the 
more common analogies by which several classes of 
Spanish words are regulated in their derivation from the 
Latin; with a short abstract exhibiting the intimate 
relationship and resemblance subsisting between the 
Latin and the Spanish, as well as several other modem 
languages. 

However great, the respect of the author for the 
Spanish Academy may be, yet conscious that a strict 
ai&erence to the system of that enlightened body would 
have proved inimical to the peculiar purpose of this 



Vm FIIEPACE. 

Grammar, lie has occasionally ventured on a few inccm* 
siderable deviations from their decisions ; which it is 
presumed will not be ascribed to any other motive than 
h wish to add to that simplicity and facility in self-in- 
struction, which it has been his particular aim uniformly 
to promote. 

In a word, a perusal of the table of contents will, it is 
hoped, evince that the author has some little claim on 
the notice of the public. He trusts that the inaccuracies 
or misconceptions of a foreignef will be treated with 
some degree of lenity ; and that, as he has exerted his 
best efforts to elucidate the principles and rules of the 
language, — not, he would hope, without some success,— 
his failures will not excite illiberal animadversion, but 
that the sincerity of the wiU may in some respects tend 
to compensate for occasional blemishes in the deed. 



The rapid sale of the former editions of this Grammar 
affords evidence highly gratifying to the author, that his 
humble endeavours have received a liberal portion of the 
public approbation. For such encouragement, and par- 
ticularly for the flattering reception with which the work 
has been favoured by our most enlightened critics, he 
feels duly grateful ; and begs leave to assure the public, 
that no pains have been spared to render the present 
edition as correct as possible, and still more worthy of 
an extended patronage. 

LONOOII, 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PART I. 

ORTHOGRAPHY. 

Page. 

Cbabactebs of the Spanish alphabet, with their names 1 

Of the different sotmdt of the letters • 3 

Power of the Spanish consonants in their various combinations 

with' the vowels, exemplified by similar sounds in English 

words..;. 7 

Of monosyllables, polysyllables, and diphthongs • 10 

Of the sound of final consonants . • 12 

Modertf orthography • • • • • • . . ib. 

Remarks on spelling 13 

A list of words which resemble in sound but differ in spelling. . ib. 

Observations ori syllabification 14 

On some of the marks used in. punctuation, with rules for the 

position of the accent 1&' 

A list of the common abbreviations 18 

PROSODY 23 

Observations on the acute or emphatic syllable in verbs 25 

ETYMOLOGY. 

Of the Noun 28 

Of augmentative and diminutive nouns 29. 

Of collective nouns ••.;...••. 30 

Of gender, number, and case ib. 

Observations on the impropriety of allotting more than 

two cases to Spanish nouns^ 32 

O/ikeArHde 33 



X CONTSNTS. 

Cf tht A4J€dio€ 34 

Of comparatives and superlatives ••• 36 

Of cardinal numbers •••• -87 

Of ordiQ&l ■uiiuiofBt* •••«««-•»,«*•«•• i>.* •«»«••<••»••• So 

Of Profwmu ....•••••.... 40 

Observation on possessive and demonstrative pronominal 

aojecti ves • • • • • ■» i n ■!»■■.• «miii« i>^««^»— .^t^^— «» ••••>••••••• 4 a 

Of the Verb 43 

Of number, person, tense, and mood 45 

Of conjugations 47 

Conjugation of the a usiliarieft sad regular verbs, with the 
emphatic syllable of each person accented, pointing out 
at the same time -when the aooent is to be written or 

Of verbs used interrogatively and negftiveljn^ •« 4^»«» .. 73^ 

\j^ *turjitifut^»,^tj^ • •.» •«•.•.•.«.« « ■ ^« •.€»•»• •^.a.*),^* •••<*.•«•«>• • • • *ft*. iv4i 

OfAcbferbg. , . • •« • • %.«.4..^ ^.^ « >«•.«•.•,•.• ^^^ • w^-m^^ •«^.* • 74 

Of Prejtontioru .^ 76 

Up Cor^unctions . . • • »..»^^,^m* •#«.«k»44.«M • «p««a.*«««i««« •««*»*i«.«.«Hb' 7*^ 

Qf Interjectiont • ..9^ •*«•<•••« m*.*.*.*.*.-**^^^^. 79* 

SYNTAX ^^.^.^,>>>. 8fl^ 



PARTir. 

AgTeesmit or tns^itttine ^*. • •••. •>««^« • • »««•. « •«« «*•*• •i«ia«» •<• «*• oHT 

Rkdes to form the plural o£ nouns .^ « . ■•^. •.«•>...>.'. ..• »*« i^« 

list of nouna which da not augmentio tfat.phumL....... .. . • ^« • .. 84r 

list of nouns wanting the singular •••• • •(. 

Rules for ascertauoing the gpn<ter of natns . • 85 

XJ6C 01 es^ceptiotts •>« • ■•••.•«•«•!>•»>••.••»•••• •••^•«« »< • r- •• •••/•••••• nv 

Application of the article : 92 

Syntax of nouns •»....,... ,., 95 

Boles to form the feminine termination of adjectives. . • • .^ •*>« • ^ 

Bfliles to form the plural. o£ adJACtivea . » •»>*« -^ ..•.•.*^...— .^a 97 

Place of adjectives ... •. •.«;«<,.........,..mi*«<m •••• <&• 

Agceement of adjectives ..••.... •«.«• •.«.••'..« »•«(,. •> ..m^* •*«• ik 
Observatjen on ihA^maonei* iawliifilvadliectsiies agjPattioiBBtiBiM 

with a noun plnral .......... -•«. ««•<.,« v*.*.*.^ ..«.«• . . 99 

. which b«com& defisptiye b«foi^ their nouns . «^.« ..« •. si*. 



Page. 
&m&n0ilMtmm:Ammm •£ UMSttMMMl^JMtnw.MMJtfAsab- 
vdtnteJor the JEsgUsh indefinite article.,., ^ ••• ..^ . ••«.... 100 

Bytttax of comparatiTes and sapcdatif«a.« .m. •.••«#••«'• ••«••••* lOS 

Gh>veiMMn4'0vwi|BetMree« •«••••••(•<••• •••»**»»«.««ar»-««t*>»»»M»wft*.. MS 

fipfttasnf {leraonal pronouns •• . . .«.«.«^« «•!••,• b>i»»^ •*•••■>•■•• III 
flyates of peeaaedve ipbobdwm .. .«..«..,••« ..,.« »««*•. .^. .^. .*• Il€ 
Msertetioas on the cases wherein the definite .eitiole it used 
-instead of the :poasituixe pronoun .... .^ •••.«. . m**.^* •■•' .« 1<M 

^utez ef Hi eiWiftpf e n on n s .^ . ^«.>»w» * »■•>»,««•««• *«« «^ «4 »«• •» •• •«• «• *« ImO 

%Bta:( of interrctgative pronouns ^^^, ... ».• .^ IM 

%ntuc of demonstrative pronenns. ...».• ^^ .• .«^^.«« ..^..^«.. IdS 
Obsenstien on tbe idiifonMit iwpert^.eiw end 4fHf/ toexpsass 

the demonstrative, pronoun thai in English. . . ..«« ... ^* . .. .*« 126 
fiyntas of iadefinile piwieiMSr«.*«» .^^•*.»«*.«.w«.^«. • •« . ■, «..,m 126 
Qi the. manner of addressing persong in Spanish . ..^.^ -.,.•.• •. .« IM 
Of the difierent import of the Ytrhs ser and e*lar .. ..m^..^ ^^^..^ -135 
Of the difference between M^r and feii«r. ....•.• i*»»*^ « ..«. « • • « 14(V 
^MsenAtion on the.peculiar manner of constmi^g lo^ehy tmtr LH 

A view of the inflections of the regular verbs 142 

Observations on such of the regular verbs as require a change in 

the root; 144 

Of the formation of the passive voice • 145 

Of the three dassed ftkto which IrraguhorteriA are iftivided ib. 

Paradigms of the irreguhn^Terbs.. 1^ 

An alphabeticatlUt of all the irregiflar ^erbs numbered according 

to the paitdligm to which they r€fhr lT7 

An alpha1)etical Ibt c(f verba having un iireguhit participte* • . . . 186 

View of the conjugation of impersonal verbs 188 

Observation on such of the personal verbs as are sometimes con- 
jugated impersonally • . . 193 

Of defective verbs 194 

Of the use of the tenses of the indicative 195 

" subjunctive 204 

Observations on the imperfect and pluperfect of the subjunctive 207 
On the different import of the preterimperfect and the imperfect 

future of the subjunctive in denoting a future action 213 

Of the use of the tenses of the infinitive. 214 

Agreement of verbs 215 

Goftrnmcnt of verbs • 217 



Xii CONTENTS. 



Paffs. 

Observation on the necessity of placing the preposition a before 

theobjective case of a verb 218 

Of verbal regimen • 231 

Observation on the different import of /wr and/Mim before a verb 

governed in the infinitive ^ . . 234 

Directions for placing the verbal regimen in the subjunctive. • . 233 

Syntax of the gerund 239 

Of the participle 241 

A list of passive participles having likewise an active signification 242 

Syntax of adverbs r. * . 243 

Observation on Jamas, nunca, no, and muy 244 

A list of prepositions which are always used in conjunction with 

other prepositions 245 

A list of English prepositions with a corresponding one in Spanish 247 

Syntax of prepositions 250 

— ^— ^-— conjunctions • 251 

■ interjections 254 

Of the figures, of Syntax 255 



APPENDIX. 

A practical vocabulary • • 258 

Familiar dialogues • • 270 

Commercial documents • •• 295 

Of Spanish versification • •. . 309 

On derivation • • 316 



PART THE FIBSTt 



AN 



INTRODUCTION 



TO 



SPANISH GRAMMAR 



Spanish Grammar is the art of speaking and 
of writing the Spanish Language according to cer- 
tain established rules. It is divided into Ortho- 
'grafht^ Prosody,^ Etymology, and Syntax. 

ORTHOGRAPHY. 



Orthography treats on letters, and shows their 
sound, power, and proper combination, in order to 
form syllables or words. 

A letter is the least division of a word. 

The Spanish alphabet is composed of the follow- 
ing characters : 

A, B, C, CH, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, LL, 
M, N, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, X, Y, Z. 

* This is generally reckoned the fourth division of grammar ; but 
as what will be observed concerning it will materially assist begin- 
Din, it has been thought expedient to introduce it before Etymology. 

B 



J ORTHOGRAFHT, 

Letters are divided into vowels and consonants. 

Vowels are those letters which contain a perfect 
sound in themselves. 

Consonants are those lelterB whose soimd cannot 
be uttered without the assistance of the vowels. 

The Spanish vowels are A, E, I, O, U ; and the 
rest are consonants.^ 

Consonants are divided into Mutes and Semi- 
vowels. 

The Mutes are those the sound of which be^ns 
with themselves, that is to sajr, when their sound 
is exhibited in writing, the vowel is placed last. 
They are B, C, CH, D, G, J, K, P, Q,T, V, Z.— 
See names of the letters. 

The Semivowels are those consonants, whose 
sound begins with the vowel ; or, in other words, 
those letters, the sound of which cannot be shown 
in writing without placing the vowel before. They 
are F, H, I^ LL, M, N^ N, R, &, X. — See names 
of the letters.. 

ji Key to sound the Names of the Letters. 

art, acre, even, tdiom, obey, oozy, cAarm, Aam, 

tksjAi. 



Characters. 


Names. 


Characters. 


Names. 


A, 


a. 


\ '» 


e. 


B, 


ba. 


J, 


hota. 


c. 


tha. 


K, 


ka. 


CH, 


ehd. 


L, 


ola. 


o. 


da. 


LL, 


oUia* 


E, 


&. 


M, 


ama. 


F, 


^ am. 


N, 


ana. 


G, 


ha. 


N, 


cpinta* 


H, 


OcbS. 


o. 


o. 



* The letter Y is sometimes a vowel and at others a consonant. 
In general it is a vowel when it follows another vowel^ and a con- 
■oaant when it precedes k. 



O&TBOaaAFHT. 8 

Characters. Names. Characters. Names. 



P, pcL 

Q, koo. 

Miy era i^<irns« 

, aasa, 

T, to. 



V, TO. 

.A, OJCIB. 

Y, e. 

Z, Mates. 



Mxplantttton of the Key, 
The Italic characters of the key comprise the 
sound of the vowels^ as well as the power of the con- 
sonants, which are employed to utter the namen of 
the Spanish letters ; therefore, by a correct reference 
to the key, the letters may be easily named. Ex- 
ample : suppose the name of h is required ; by com- 
paring the letters acAa,descriptive of its name„ with 
the same letters in the key, it will be found that the 
first a sounds as in arty that ch has tlie same power 
as in the word charm, and that the last a has the 
sound which is heard in ocre. Again^by comparing 
kotttj the name of •/, in the same manner, it will be 
perceived that the A is aspirated as in ham^ the'4> 
long as in obey, and the last a as heard in or/. 
Those consonants which are not in Italics in the 
column of names^are to be sounded as in English. 

On the Sound of the Letters,, 

A. 

A, as before observed, sounds as in the word art / 
as amuy nata. 

B. 

B always preserves th^ same sound that it has 
in English ; as bata, bala. In sounding this letter 
the Spsmiards do not press the lips hard, but only 
join them close 5 see also V. 

C (1.) sounds as k where it does so inBngUsh; 
as cabo, cola, cutis, clara, ctclso, 

(2.). When in Enf^sh it has the sound of e^ it 
sounds in Spanish like th in thanlus as ed^^^tfioo* 

b2 



\ 



4 ORTH06RAFHT. 

CH. 

CH has the sound which it has in English in the 
words charity, cheruby chilly, choke ; as chalan, 
cherna, china, cheque. See Modern Orthography, 
page 12. 

D. 

D preserves the same unvaried sound which it 
has in English ; as dado, dedico. 

E. 

E, as has been mentioned, has the sound of a 
in acre ; as edecan, elemento. 

F. 

F keeps the same sound as in English ; a&fardo, 
forma. 

G. 

G (1.) before a, o, u, or a consonant, has the 
isame sound as in gap, gone, grace, &c. in Eng- 
lish ; as gana, gota, grado. 

(2.) Before e, i, y, it sounds like the English h 
when aspirated ; Rsgente,giro. N.B. G is silent in 
the words gnomonica and giiomonico. See letter U. 

H. 

H is never heard except when it precedes the 
diphthong ue, and sometimes when placed between 
two vowels : in the first instance its sound resem- 
bles the hard sound of the English g, and in the 
second that of an English h aspirated ; but in both 
cases the aspiration is exceedingly weak. 

I. 

/ was noticed in the alphabet as sounding like 
the e in even ; as ida, indivisible. 

J. 

J always sounds like an aspirated h in English ; 
as jamon, jardin. 

K. 

K always sounds as it does in English, See 
Modern Ojrthography, page 12. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. O 

L. 

L always retains the English sound; as lomo^libro. 

LL. 
LL is sounded by placing the tip of the tongue to 
the palate, and dropping the tongue whilst emitting 
the breath. No sound, in English, resembles it 
exactly ; a slight resemblance of its sound may be 
heard in the word million ; but the French // in the 
word^lle, the ^Zof the Italians, and the Ih of the Por- 
tuguese, are the best examples which can be given of 
the sound of this letter ) as llama^ lleno. lloro, lluvia. 

M. 
M has always the same unvaried sound which it 
has in English ; as mctdre, medio. 

N. 
N retains always the sound which it has in Eng- 
lish in the word net or ten ; as nacfa, don. 

N. 

N has a peculiar nasal sound, like the French 
gn : the English have no sound like it, except in 
the last four letters of the word minioft^ which bear 
some resemblance to the last three of the word 
rinon in Spanish : as nino, pina. 

O. 

O preserves always the sound which it has in 
obey ; as odttj olor. 

P sounds always as it does in English ; as pan^ 
pino, N. B. It is silent before n, s, or t ; and when 
followed by h it has the sound of/. See Modern 
Orthography, page 12. 

Q. 
Q, which is uniformly followed by ti, always 
sounds as in English; as quatro, quota. See 
Modem Orthography, page 12. 

R. 
. R has a rough sound, as in JRonie, rage : ex- 
ample, Roma, rabia ; and a smooth sounds as in 



o osmoGJiAraY. 

Arabia^ cart : example^ arado^ carta. Double r 
has always the same sound as in English ; as j^err^. 
R has a rough sound only in the foUowhig in- 
stances: 

1. At the beginning of a woid ; as Bomay 
rabia, 

2. After /, ny s: as nmlrotar^ Aonra, desreglado. 

3. After b, in words composed of the preposi- 
tions aby oby sub : as abrogary obrepciony tubrep- 
dan ; but if aby oby or suby be not preposidcms, tiie 
r. becomes liquid, as abrazoy obrUy &c. 

4. In the second part of words composed either 
of two nouns^ or with the prepositions pre ot pro : 
as manirotOy cariredondoy prerogativOy prorogar. 
Sometimes these words are divided by a hyphe::! : 
as mani-rotOy cari-redondOy &c. 

S. 
S sounds like ss in English ; as salay dos. 

T. 
T always retains the sound it has in English in 
the words takey tetiy &c. ; as tahuy tema. 

V. 
U sounds like the English oo in oozy ; as umdoy 
uncion. It is silent in the syllables gucy guiy qucy 
quiy unless it is dotted thus ic« [See Modem Or- 
thography, P^g6 12.] Observe, that although in 
the syllables gucy guiy the u is silent, the g retains 
the hard sound it has in guess and guilt; as 
guerruy guia, and aguero^ argHir. 

V has the uniform sound heard in English in 
the word vain ; as vanoy vivo. In pronouncing 
this letter the Spaniards join the lower lip to the 
upper teeth as the English do ; but the pressure 
is very slight ; hence ^ises the errooeous opinion, 
that the Spaniards pronounce b and v alike, be- 
cause as the pressure in both instances is hut 
sUgltt, the distinction yvbiclk eidsts between the 



two sounds cannot be easily p4VC€i?edL See 

Modem Orthography^ page 12. 

X (1 .) It has. the guttural sound of an English b 
aspirated, when the following vowel is not marked 
with the circumflex accent ; as xabon, xergon. 

(2.) It is sounded as in exit^ exercise, experience^ 
whenever it precedes a consonant, or a vowel 
marked with tne circumflex accent ; as exdcfo, ex* 
presso, N.B. The circumflex is sometimes omitted 
if the nature of the word require the acute accent, 
in order to mark its pronunciation; as in hexdmetro^ 
exdmeUy &c. See Modern Orthography, page 12* 

Y. 

Y,as a vowel, sounds like the English e in everim 
As a consonant, it has, before all the vowels, a sound 
rather stronger than that which it has in English 
before the word year : example, yerro, yugo, &c. 

Z. 

Z always soands like th in thanks , thick, &c. ; 
as zalea, zona* 

Power of the Consonants, in their various Com^ 
binations with the Potvels: exemplified by 
nearly similar sounds, heard in English words. 

ba sounds like ba as heard in /barbarian. 

be ba bacon, 

bi bee beeiie, 

bo , bo AoreaL 

bu boo booby. 

ca ca calm, 

ce fha thalisL, 

ci thie . thievish. 

CO CO cocoa. 



cu 
cha 


coo 
cha 


cooler, 
charm. 


che 
chi 


. cha 
chee 


chasing, 
cheese. 



8 


ORTHOORAPBT. 


cho sounds like eho as 


heard in choke. 


cha 


choo 


choosing. 


da 


da 


darling. 


de 


da 


daring. 


di 


dee 


deedless. 


do 


do 


doleful. 


da 


doo 


doom. 


fa 


fa 


father. 


fe 


/« 


famons. 


fi 


fee 


feeble. 


fo 


fo 


folio. 


fu 


foo 


foolery. 


ga 


£ 


garb. 


ge 


hating. 


g» 


hee 


heedlesu. 


go 


8^ 


going. 


g« 


goo 


goose. 


J* 


ha 


hardy. 


je 


ha 


Aating. 




hee 


heedleuB. 


jo 


ho 


holy. 


j«i 


hoo 


hooting. 


ka 


ca 


calm. 


ke 


ca 


cadence. 


ki 


kee 


keeper. 


ko 


CO 


COCOA. 


ku 


coo 


cooner. 
larder. 


la 


la 


le 


la 


lady. 


li 


lee 


leering. 


lo 


lo 


lotion. 


la 


loo 


loosen. 


ma 


ma 


margin. 


me 


ma 


making. 


mi 


me 


meteor. 


mo 


mo 


motive. 


mu 


moo 


moony. 


na 


na 


narcotic. 



ORTHOGEAPHY. 



9 



ne sounds like 

ni 

no 

nu 

pa 

pe 

pi 

po s 

pu 

qua 

qfke 

que 
••• 
qui 

qui 

quo 

ra 

re 

ri 

ro 

ru 

sa 

se 

si 

BO 

su 

ta 

te 

ti 

to 

tu 

va 

ve 

vi 

vo 

TU* sounds 

xa sounds like 

xe 

xi 



na as heard in 
ne 



no 

noo 

pa 

pa 

pe 

po 

poo 

qua 

qua 

ca 

quee 

Jcee 

quo 

ra 

ra 

re 

ro 

roo 

sa 

sa 

se 

so 

soo 

ta 

ta 

te 

to 

too 

va 

va 

ve 

vo 



name, 
negxo. 
noted. 



noon. 

party. 

patience. 

/?eriod. 

jooker. 

pool. 

qualmish. 

quaver. 

cadence. 

queerlj. 

keei^er. 

^notation. 

rasp. 

radiance. 

regent. 

robe. 

roomy. 

sarcastic, 

sapient. 

secret. 

sober. 

soon. 

fardy. 

faper. 

fedious. 

/open 

/ooth. 

2;amish. 

vagrant. 

'vehement. 

vote. 

voo; the 00 to be sounded as in/ioo/« 
ha as heard in Aardy. 
ha Aatred. 

hee heedless. 

fi3 



10 

xo sounds ISce ho as heard iii htAj. 

xu hoo /looting. 

x& ora examination. 

x6 OTff eoremption. 

xi ori enguous. 

xd oro exonerate. 

xd* sounds xoo; theootobeaoundedasin/iDof 

za* Ma; the a to be sounded as in art. 

ze sounds like tha as heard in /Aalla. 

zi thie MtVvish. 

zo Mo /Aorax. 

zu* sounds /Aoo ; the oo to sound as in pooL 

Sounds marked thus {*) are not heard in any 
English word. 

N. B. For the different pronundation oigue and 
gue^ or of gui and gui ; and also for that of the 
sounds formed with the consonants II , n, and j/; I 
refer the learner to the Observations which have 
been already made concerning these Letters. 

On MonosyllubleSy Polysyllables, Diphthongs, &c« 

Words are often named according to the numb» 
of syllables f which they contain: thus, a word of 
one syllable is called a monosyllahle ; oftwosylla* 
bles, a dissyllable ; of three syllables, a trisyllable; 
and a word containing more than three syllables is 
named n, poly pliable, which last expression is ge- 
nerally used also to describe any word of more 
than two syllables. 

If two vowels come together in the same syllable, 
they are cailed a diphthong; andif the combination 
consists of three vowels, it is termed a triphthongm 
The following are the diphthongs and triphthongs 
which the Spanish Academy have decided shall be 
8o called. 



f A syllable ii mmmplete sound, sometiiMS represented with^inlf 
one rowel ; bnt gcMn^y consisting of mora than o»e letter. 



u 

aij AS in d&bais, ye gave. 

ay, hayle, (a) dance. 

au, pa?/sa^ (a) pause. 

ei, veis, ye see. 

ey^ Pi^jmej (a) comb, 

eoi lin^a, (a) line. 

eOy virgineo, virginal. 

eu^ det^da, debt. 

ia, grac^a^ grace. 

fe, cielo, heaven. 

io, precto, price. 

iUf cmdad^ city. 

oe, hevoe, hero. 

ot, sms, ye are. 

<^f voy, I go. 

ua, fragua, (a) forge. 

ue, diieno, owner, 

a^ty Tuida, noise. 

ny, bwvtre, vulture. 

uo, Arduo, arduous. 

THphthangs. 

iai, as in pcectcrts^ ye value. 

idj Tactetfl^ ye may empty. 

ttm, sant^ots^ ye bless. 

neij averiguesB, yemayinvestigateu 

meyy huqf, ox* 

Diphdiocigs have been also divided into proper 
and improper; calliag the first those coinbinatioDS 
wherein the sound of each vowel is distinctly heard ; 
and apf^ng tbe secooMiterm to tikt cominnatiotta 
in whidli the two vowels fcnm <^ne sonmd ooly be- 
tween them, or wberdjti one of the vowels is n^ot at 
all. heasd. In J^aaish we have no imyoioper difribn 
&angg^ vselem we rank under iflnfc nane the ue 



12 ORTHOORAPHT, 

and ui in those instances wherein the u is ttlent 
after g or o. See letter U. 

In regara to diphthongs it must be further ob- 
served, that whenever one of the vowels is accented, 
there is no diphthong ^ because each voWel belongs 
then to a separate syllable, and therefore must be 
divided and pronounced accordingly ; as W, brio, 
varia, e/eciua, temib, &c. that is, fe-<, irt-o, va- 

JO f * 9 

ri-a, &c. 

Of the Sound of final Consonants. 

The only consonants which can terminate a 
Spanish word are d, l^ n, r, «, x^ z, thev are all 
sounded at the end of words ; but cf, r« and x must 
be particularly noticed. 

d final has the sound of th in the word than, 

r at the end of words has the smooth sound. 

X sounds like ss in English. 

Modern Orthography. 

The Spanish Academy have in a late Treatise 
introduced the following alterations : 

C : see Q. 

CH has no longer the power of K, its place being 
supplied by qu before e or t; and by c before a, o, ti, 
or a consonant; as car deter , coro, Cristiano^ gueru^ 
biny quiloy character, choir,Christian, cherub, chyle. 
It is still preserved in some few names derived 
from the Hebrew; but they may be always known, 
because the vowel following the ch is uniformly 
marked with the circumflex accent. 

K is dishiissed from the alphabet, but its use is 
allowed in the spelling of proper names. 

P is never to be followed by A, an/ being substi- 
tuted ; 2Lafalangej farmacia, phalanx, pharmacy; 

Q. Only the syllables gueyqui^BLre to be spelt with 
f ; as quemOy quicio: qua^ ^llfr, ^t, quo, are to be 
written with c; as cual^ cuatro, cuestion, cuoia. 

X. TheguttilrallBound of this letter is discontinued, 



OaxaOGAAPBLT. 



13 



its place being supplied by j before a, o^ u, and ge- 
nerally by g before e or i; as jabon, gebeque, j^- 
eara^jorgolinjjugo. When jrprecedes a conscmant^ 
its place may be supplied by « ; as estremo, esiraito, 
esirangero. N.B. The Vowel following xis no longer 
to be marked with the circumflex accent. 

V. The striking distinction which ought to be 
observed betwixt this letter and B^ and which has 
been so long neglected, is strongly inculcated in 
pages 24 and 51 of the said Treatise. 

Remarks on Spelling. 

Words are to be written as they are pronounced. 

Every letter in a word is to be sounded; ti^bow* 
ever^issometimeSj and A, generally, silent. 

When pronunciation is insufficient to fix the 
spelling, regard must be had to Etymology ; as 
g&fiero^ generadan, gimndstico, Jesuita, zelo, 21- 
zana, ceniza, ciego. 

When the Etymology is uncertain, J is to be 
preferred to G, and C to Z. 

ji List of Words which resevnble in Sound but 

differ in Spelling. 



Acerbo, harsh 


Halal 


hallo! 


Acervop a heap 


Ala, 


awing 


Ahiy there 


HedoUf 


a halo 


Ay I alas ! 


Alon^ 


a pinion 


ITay, there is 


Hasta^ 


until 


Corbeta, a sloop 


Aita^ 


ahaa 


Corveta^ a curvet 


Haiajo^ 


a herd 


DeahcjaVf to deprive of leaves 


Atajo^ 


a cross-path 


Desojavt to deprive of eyes 


HayUy 


a beech-tree 


Envestir^ to invest 


Aya, 


a governess 


JEmbestir^ to attack 


He, 


I have 


Envestidura^' an investment 


E, 


and 


EmbeBHdurOi an attack 


Herrar, 


to shoe horses 


Grabar^ to engrave 


Errar, 


to err 


Gravar^ to oppress 


Hktica, 


a phthisis 


Hot he has 


EHea, 


eihies 


A, to 







14 



flomiaGiLAniT* 



ZincfTV^ iron 

Yerro, eiror 

Hiim^ a biad-nail 

Z^o, €ta 

HojeaTf to turn over the 
leaves of a book 
to glance at 



Ojear^ 
OgeoTy 
Hola! 

HondcUf 
Ondas^ 

HtUOy 

USOy 

Revelarse^ 

Rivera^ 

SugetOy 

Valar^ 

Balar^ 



to start game 

hallo ! 

a wave 

slings 

billows 

a spindle 

usage 

to rebel 

to reveal 

a shore 

a rivulet 

subjected 

a person 

t^ hedge round 

to bleat 



Vabm^ a Waiiooa 

Baion^ alai^bale 

VaqudAt sole leather 

Baqueta, a ram-rod 

Vuron^ a male human be- 
ing 
BaroUf a baron 

Varonia^ descent by male 

issue 



Baronia^ 

VtutOy 

BasiOy 

VendicioTit 

BendidoTif 

Veneficar^ 

Beneficar^ 

VauficOy 

Beaaejkoy 

Veto, 

Betay 



a barony 

extensive 

coarse 

a sale 

a blessing 

to envenom 

to benefit 

venomous 



beaefioent 
a mineral vein 
a rope's-«nd 
VoladUy the flight of birds 
Bolada, the act of bowling 



Observations on the manner in which Words that 
cannot be contained in one line are to be divided. 

Compound words are to be divided into their 
two component parts : as ab-nega^ony con-cavi" 
dadf pre-dmbuloy mal-rotar. 

When the second comp<ment part of a word be- 
gins with s followed by another consonant^ the s be- 
longs to the first part; as eans-iruir, ins-frir€ur, 
pers-p4caz. 

Two vowete coming together must be parted ; 
as Sa-avedra, le-er, pi-isimo, co-operar. 

A consonant coming between two vowels be- 
longs to the vowel by vrhich it is followed j as 
a-'tnoTf pe-na, le-che^^ ga-llo/^ Jlu-xion. 



* Ch and //are deemed only tiogle consonanta 



oKmoGftArmr. 15 

Twt> consoixa&tB oondng between two Towets 
are divided : as aUzar^ cas-toTf mdr-tir. 

But should the first consonant be the semivowel 
/, or any of the mutes, and the second l^xr^ both 
the consonants are then joined to the ¥owd bj 
which they are followed : 9A«zunfirey t€t'bla,€0^iu^p 
la-cre, an-drajo. Except at-letUy and at^lanie. 

When s is preceded by by I, my tiy or r, and fol- 
lowed by another consooai^ at the same time, s 
must be joined to theconsonant by which it is pre- 
ceded : as Ams-terdam. 

Four consonants comin|; between two vo web are 
equally divided between them : as trans-cribir. 

Of some of the Marks used iM Punduatum. 
Note of interrogation (?). 

This mark is noi only used at the coodnsion of 
anintenogatory; but also placed, inverted, at the 
beginning, in order to warn the reader, unless the 
precedii^ words amvey a sufficient if aming $ as 
iQu4 es l& que vm, ac^tumira oomef" f pregunt6 
ai €M/erf9Mu— Gil Bias, b. ii. c« 2« 

Ahfyra bien me pregunto friamente el chidtm^ 
quoMto pide vm. par su mula f — Ibid* b. i« c !• 

Note of admiration (1). 

This note is also inverted at the beginning of 
gaculations, when the preceding words are not 
sufficient to prepare the reader : as, JMirandome 
con temura exclamabuy O gu^gradoso eres y que 
Undo ! (Ibid. b. i. c. 5.) / Pastas dukes y viandas 
suculentasi exclamd suspense y 4uimirado el 
doctor^ — Ibid. b. ii. c. 2. 

Diffiresis (-^). 
^ This is used only over the ti of tie and m, when 



16 ORTHOGRAPHT. 

the u is to be sounded^ after g or q : aa argUir, 
question. , 

Circumflex ("). 

The only use made of this mark is to denote 
the soft sound of x, and the harsh sound oichy. by 
placing it over the following vowel ; as Jluxion^ 
exdctitudf Melchisedech. 

The Accent 0- 

Accent^ in orthography, is the mark which is set 
over some letters to denote the manner of their pro* 
nunciation. In Spanish it is commonly placed over 
that vowel on which the stress is laidin pronouncing 
a word, if it cannot be ascertained without it. 

(1.)' Monosyllables having only one signification 
are never accented ; as cal^ pan^ coz, mat. 

(2.) Monosyllables having more than one sig- 
nification should be accented when they are more 
slowly pronounced : as mi, me ; mi, my ; tu, thou; 
tu, thy ; St, he ; el, the, &c. 

(3.) The vowels d, S, 6, (t, when used either as 
prepositions or conjunctions, should always be ac- 
cented : as voy d Londres, padre 6 h%jo,cruel Sin^ 
grato. . 

(4.) Dissyllables and polysyllables ending in a 
vowel, may be accented on any vowel (the penul- 
tima excepted) whereon the stress is laid ; as cdn- 
tico, espiritu, santisimo, Bercebd, alia. 

(5.) But if to some person of a verb ending in 
an accented vowel the case of a pronoun should 
be added, the accent naust be continued although 
it fall on the penultima : as temi, temile, enseno, 
ensenolttf miro, mirome, 

(6.) Dissyllables ending in a diphthong are 
never accented ; as indio, Julio, agua, gloria^ 
mutuo, frague. 

AH \Yords which end iny must not be accented \ 
as Paraguay, Rey, Comboy. 



ORTHOGRAFHT. 1/ 

(7.) Trisylkbles and polysyllables ending in two 
TOweis must be accented on whichever of the two 
Towels the stress happens to be laid ; as akgria, 
puntapi^, ganzua, continue : see No. d. 

£xcept the first and third persons singular of 
the imperfect of the indicative^ and of the sub- 
junctive ending in ia^ which are never accented ; 
as temid, amaria^ sufria^ &c. 

(8.) Trisyllables and polysyllables ending in any 
of these diphthongs, ia^ ie, io, ua, ue^ uo, must be 
accented on any vowel (the penultima excepted) 
whereon the stress is laid. 

(9.) Words ending in ae^ aoy au, ea, eo, oa, oe^ 
ooy (not being diphthongs,) must not be accented i 
a^ petea^ Sarao, albacea : see Prosody, No. 7* 

Dut should these two vowels form a diphthong, 
the word must be accented on whatever vowel the 
stress is laid ; as h^oe, linea, €t4rea. 

(10.) Words ending in a consonant may be ac- 
cented on any of the vowels (except the last) 
whereon the stress is laid ; as drbol, virgen, meta" 
morfosis, alf&ez. 

Except the second pisrson singular and third 
plural of the future inaicative, which are always 
accented on the last vowel ; as amardsy vendrdn, 
and surnames ending in ez, which never are ac- 
cented ; as Sanchez, Fernandez^ Martinez. 

(11.) Verbs or nouns which require to be ac- 
cented in the singular generally retain the accent, 
on the same syllable, in the plural ; as vendr^, 
vendr4mo8y salio, sali&onj drboly drboles. 

Except caracter, which changes into caract&es 
in the plural number. 

(12.) If to an unaccented person of a verb, con- 
sisting only of two syllables, we affix one or more 
pronominal cases, the first vowel must be then ac*- 
cented ; as oye, oyeme, compra, compramelo ; but 
if the person of the verb consist of more than two 



18 ORTHOQKAnR; 

syllables^ its penultima should be then accented ; 
as entrega^ entr^gatoy entr^gaseloy comuniquemoSj 
eomuniquimoslo. 

(13.) If an adverb ending m mente be formed 
from an unaccented adjective^ the adverb remains 
unaccented; as felizy felizmente, humildey hu" 
tmldemente ; but should the adjective be accented, 
the accent continues on the same vowel m the ad- 
verb; as fadly fdcilmente, dificily difidlmente^ 
inutil, inutilmente. 

(14.) If a drssyllabic word ending in two vowels 
be increased by the prefixing of a monosyllable, 
the penultima is then generally accented ; as via, 
desvia, lia, desUa. 

The other marks used in punctuation are em- 
ployed in the same manner as they are in £nglish« 

lAst of the Abbreviations used in WHting^ 



A.C. 


Ano Christiano 


Christian year 


a». 


arrobas 


25 pounds weight 


A. A. 


autores 


authors 


Adm«'. 


administrador 


administrator 


Ag*o. 


Agosto 


August 


Am*. 


amigo 


friend 


Ant*. 


Antonio 


Anthony 


App*^*. 


apostolicG 


apostolic 


Art*. 


articulo 


article 


Arzbpo. 


arzobispo 


archbishop 


R 


becUo 


blessed 


b. 


vuelta 


turn over 


B'. 


baehiller 


bachelor of arts 


B. L. M. 


beso las manos 


kiss the hands 


B. L. P. 


beso las pies 


kiss the feet 


B°»*. pe. 


beatissimo Padre 


most blessed Father 


C. M.B. 


cuffos numos beso 


whose hands I kiss 


C. P. B. 


cuf^,pies beso 


whose feet I kis« 


Cdm". 


camaara 


diamber 



Ifl 



Cap. 
Cap". 
Capp". 
Col. 

Comp*. 

Corr*«. 

Cons°. 

D». 

D*. 

D'. 

D.D. 

Dho. 

Dro. 

Diz". 

Ecc*. 

En^ 

Ex°*°. 

Ex*^^ 

Fho, fha. 

Feb^ 

FoP. 

Fr. 



c&pitulo 

caption 

capelltai 

colmta 

comisario 

compaiUa 

corriente 

consefo 

don 

dona 

doctor 

doctores 

dvtho 

derecho 

Diciembre 

Domingo 

ecdesidstico 

Enero 

excelentUimo 

essiclenciu 

fechoyfecka 

Fehrero 

folio 

fray 



Fran*^® Francisco 
Frnz. Fernandez 
G^' or gue .guards 
Q.D. G. que Dios guarde 



Gra. 

Gerf. 

Ills 

I11»S 

Inq**'. 

Jhs. 

Jph. 

Jn». 



gra^a 

general 

iltistre ^ 

ilustrisimo 

inquisidor 

Jesus 

Joseph 

Juan 

Juan 



chapter 

captun 

chaplain 

column 

commiMaty 

company 

current 

council 

Mr. 

Mrs. 

doctor 

doctors 

ditto or said 

right er duty 

December 

Sunday 

ecclesiastic 

January 

most excellent 

excellency 

dated 

February 

folio 

brother of religious 

orders 
Francis 

a Spanish surname 
preserve 
whom God preserre 

grace - 

general 

aiustrious 

most illustrious 

inquisitor 

Jesus 

Joseph 

John 

John 



:S9 


ORTHOORAPHT. 


Lib. 


libro 


book 


Lib*. 


libras 


pounds 


Lin. 


linea 


line 


Liz^ 


licenciado 


licentiate 


M. P. S. 


muy poderoso senor most powerful lord 


M*. 


madre 


mother 


M'. 


monsieur 


monsieur 


M**'. 


mayor 


eldest 


M". A-. 


muchos afios 


many years 


Mag*^. 


mag€st€ul 


majesty 


Man*. 


Manuel 


Emanuel 


May"***. 


mayordomo 


steward 


Mig*. 


Miguel 


Michael 


Minro. 


ministro 


minister 


Mrd. 


merced 


grace 


Mrn. 


Martin 


Martin 


Mrfiz. 


Martinez 


a Spanish surname 


Mro. 


maestro 


master 


Mrs. 


maravedis 


maravedis 


M.S. 


manuscnio 


manuscript 


M. S. S. 


manuscritos 


manuscripts 


N. S. 


nuestro Senor 


our Lord 


N. S'% 


nuestra Sefiora 


our Lady 


Nro. 


nuestro 


our 


Nov'«. 9" 


'. Noviembre 


November 


Obpo. 


obispo 


bishop 


Oct'*. 8". 


. Octubre 


October 


On*. 


onzas 


ounces 


Orn. 


orden 


order 


P.P. 


posdata 


postscript 


P-. 


para 


for 


P*. 


padre 


father 


P». 


Pedro 


Peter 


P'. 


por 


for or by 


P^. 


plata 


silver or plate 


F*. 


parte 


part 


P*». 


puerto 


port 


Tig. 


pagina 


pag« 



' ORTHOGRAPHY. 3 


plana 
publico 


public 


principal 


principal 


procurador 


solicitor or procUff 


provisor 


vicar-general 


que 


that 


quando 


when 


quien 


who 


quanta 


how much 


reat^ reales 


royal 


reales 


rials 


reverendisimo 


most reverend 


reverendo 


reverend 


recibi 


I received 


san or santo 


saint 


san 


saint 


santo 


saint 


su mqjestad 


his majefety 


su santidad 


his hoUness 


senor 


sir 


Sebastian 


Sebastian 


^secretaria 


secretaryship 



PI. 
Pp*^. 

Priii: 

Pror. 
Prov. 

Q*. 
Q*^ 
Q\ 

R\ 

Rev"«. 
R'*^ 
R^. 

S. 

s». 

S.M. 

s.s<». 

S^ or S«'. 

Seb». 

S^» •^ 

Secret*, v 

Secret'**.J 

Secret®. ^ 

S****. \.secre(aria 

Secref^^J 

Se'^ 7". Setiembre 

S™®. serenisimo 

Serv°. servicio 

Serv**'. servidor 

Sig**. siguiente 

SS"*®. P*. santisimo padre 

SS°**. escribano 

S. S. S. su seguro servidor 

Sup*^*. suplica 

Sup^. suplicante 

Super^®, superiniendente 



secretary 

September 

most serene 

service 

servant 

following 

most holy father 

notary 

your faithful servant 

entreaty or petition 

petitioner 

superintendant 



22 



oKnuMAArar. 



Ten*«. 


teniente 


Tom. 


iotno 


Tpo. tiempo 


V.A. 


vuestra alteza 


V.B*. 


vuestra beatitud 


V.E. 


vueceleucia 


V. G. 


verbigrada 


Vm. Vrnd. nuesamercedov us- 




ted 


Vms. 


ustedes 


V.P. 


vuestra patemidad 


v.s. 


vueserknia or usia 


V. s. 


pue$tra santidad 


V. s. s. 


vueseHorias 


V. S. I. 


vueseHoria ilustrisi" 




ma 


V. 


vellan 


Vol. 


voUtmem 


Vf-o. 


vuestro 


x»«. 


diezma 


Xptiano. 


Cristiano 


Xpto. 


Crisio 


Xptobal. 


Cristobal 



lieutenant 

Tc^ume 

time 

▼enerable 

your highness 

yoiu: blessedness 

your excellency 

for example 

atide similar towof* 

ship in Englirii 
your worships 
your paternity 
your lordship 
your holiness 
your lordships 
your gnu!e 

boQion 
Tolnme 

your 

tithe 

Christian 

Christ 

Christopher 



PROSODY. 



Pbqsopt treats on syllables ; ^efnmies their 
quantity, accent^ and emphasis ; and establishes 
the laws of versifiMa^tion. 

In modern language the tenn accent is employed 
to denote the stress which is laid on one syllable 
in every word^ in order to distingnish it from the 
rest; and the accented or emphatic syllable is 
genmlly acute and long. 

Every Spanish word contains one acute syllable 
only, the vowel of which sometimes is marked with 
the acute accent, but oftener it is not : niien the 
▼owel is so marked, the word can offer no dif&culty 
as to its pronunciation ; but in order to assist 
learners in discovering where the stress should be 
laid when there is no visible mark to direct them, 
the following rules may be attentively considered.* 

]» Monosyllables are long : as pan, mdL 

2. Dissyllables and polysyllables ending in a 
vowel have commonly the pennltima long; as 
panoy Aort^UanSy Cmstchittnaplay dmero. N.B. In 
the termination ishno the antepenult is long ; as 
amabiRsimo, eonstanSdbno^ 



• The Spanish Academy not having yet fixed the rules of Spanish 
Prosody, this division of grammar can be but very imperfectly dis- 
cussed here. 



24 PROtODT. 

3. DiBsyllables ending in a diphthong have gene* 
rally the first syllable long ; as senOy feridj mutiio, 

4. Dissyllables ending in two vowels generally 
have the first syllable long ; as nQo, veo, rto, mto* 

5. Words ending in y always have the penultima 
long : as rev^ comb&y. 

b. Trisyllables and polysyllables ending in any 
of these diphthongs, ia^ ie, io, ua, ue, uo, have 
generally the penultima long : as concordia. impe- 
rto, aesdguo. 

7* Words ending in ae, oo, au, ea, eoj ia^ ie, to, 
oa, ocy oOf (these letters not being diphthongs^) 
have the penultima long ; as deca^y bacalao, &rca» 
imceOf filosoflaj desafio. 

8. Words ending in a consonant have gene- 
rally their last syllable long ; as caridddy almacmiy 
albamly borrddor. N.B. Among the exceptions 
to this rule may be noticed those days of the week 
which end in s, as they have the penultimate long ; 
as MarteSj Viernes ; and all surnames in ez^ which 
have also the penultima long ; as Perez, SdneieZj 
MdrHnhiy Fhnandez. 

9. Adverbs ending in mente have the same aylfai- 
ble long* that the adjectives, from which they aw 
formed, have ; as facily facihnente, muttl, tntUt J- 
mhit^, santmmd, sdntmmdmente,* 

10. Nouns in the plural have generally the same 
syllable long* that was long in tilieir singular num<* 
ber ; as drbol, arboles, dlmdcen, almacm^y albdla, 
alb&ldes, hero^, herois. Except cardcter, which 
changes into caracteres, 

N. B. Most of the foregoing observations seem 
but a repetition of what was said when treating on 
the accent : they will, notwithstanding, be found 
particularly useful ; for by consulting what is said 



Reckoned from the first syllable of the word. 



PROSODY. 25 

on prosody learners will discover on what syllable 
to lay the stress ; and by referring then to accentj 
they will find whether the said syllable should be 
accented or not. 

For the branch of Prosody which refers to ver- 
sification see the Appendix. 

Observations on the Long or Actite Syllable 

in Verbs.''' 

1. If the termination of a verb is an a, e^ or o, 
either alone or followed by n or s^ the last syllable 
in the root is long; as conslder-o, consider-as, 
consider 'hi. 

Except the first and third persons singular of 
the perfect indicative^ which always have the accent 
on the termination ; as consider-e^ constder-o. 

2. Verbs have the accent on the first vowel of 
the termination if it consists of more than one 
Towel; Qj&consider-dbaf considSr-dbamoSy considSr^ 
aramos, consid^-asemos, am-drdn, 

£xcept the future indicative^ which always has 
the accent on the second vowel of the termination ; 
as constder-are, correspond-eremos, suprtm-trets, 
mUtipUc-ardny amardn, 

3. If the termination of a verb contains an i, either 
alone or immediately followed by an a or an «, the 
accent is on the i ; as corrhpond-i^ correspond-tan, 
persever-af^dmos, dtorment-dricnSf sufr-xs ; but if 
the t precede an e or an o, the accent falls on the 
following vowel ; as correspond-to, corrhpond- 
teseis. 

4. Terminations of verbs ending In ef or r are 



* These obBervations are applicable to all the re^lar verbs, to 
the irregulars of the first class, and to many belonging to the 
third clus. 

C 



] 



26 



PROSODY, 



always long ; as constder^ddf cSrritpSnd-ed, mpnm'' 
td, cansider^dr^ cSrrespond-ery suprtm-ir, 

5. When one or more pronominal cases are 
affixed to a verb^ the accent falls on the same 
ayUable that it did before j as hitr^ga, enir^gale^ 
entrego, entregomelo. 



k 



27 



ETYMOLOGY. 



SIttmologt treats on words and their derivation ; 
ennmerates their different species; and shows their 
various modifications. 

Words are distinct, articulate, significant sounds. 

Words are either primitive, or derivative. A pri- 
mitive word is that which is formed from no other 
word in the same language ; thus in Spanish, cielo, 
heaven ; ciudad, city ; viento, wind ; are primitive 
words. 

A derivative is derived from some other word; as 
celeste, heavenly; ciudadano, citizen; ventoso, 
windy. 

The Spanish language is composed of ten dif- 
ferent species of words, commonly called parts of 
speech : namely, Noun, Article, Adjective, Pro- 
noun. Verb, Participle, Adverb, Preposition, Con- 
junction, and Interjection. 

A Noun expresses the name of an individual, as 
rey, king ; hombre, man. 

An Article is a word prefixed to a noun to deter- 
mine the extent of its signification ; as el rey, the 
king ; el hombre, the man. 

An Adjective is a word which is joined to nouns 
to describe their qualities ; as rey sabio, wise king; 
hombre humilde, humble man. 

A Pronoun is a word often substituted for a 
noun, as vi al rey, pero mi hermano no le vio, I 
naw the king, but my brother did not see him^. 



c2 



\ 



28 ETYMOLOGY. 

A Verb is that part of speech which serves to 
affirm something concerning the noun ; as el rey 
viene, the king comes, 

A Participle is a part of speech derived from the 
verb, and which resembles the adjective in some 
of its properties , as la reyna viene coronada, the 
queen comes crowned; la han coronado, they 
have croivned her. 

An Adverb is a word, which, being joined to a 
verb, serves to qualify the affirmation; as el rey 
gobierna sabiamente, the king governs wisely. 

A Preposition is a word generally prefixed to 
nouns, to denote their various relations ; as la co- 
rona de la reyna, the crown of the queen. 

A Conjunction serves to connect words and sen- 
tences ; as el rey y los vasallos, the king and the 
subjects ; la reyna 6 la princesa, the queen or the 
princess ; yo iba y tu venial, I was going and thou 
wast coming. 

Interjections are words which express some 
emotion ; as ay ! alas ! 

The parts of speech are divided into Declinable 
and Indeclinable. 

Declinable are those parts which can vary the 
manner of their signification. 

Indeclinable are those which admit no variation. 

Of the ten parts of speech, the following only 
are declinable : namely, fiowi, article, adjective, 
pronoun, verb, and participle. N. B. The declen- 
sion of a verb is usually termed conjugation. 

OF THE NOUN. 

A Noun, or as it is" commonly called a Substan- 
tive, is the name of any thing whatever that can 
be made the subject of discourse ; as casa, angel, 
konra, house, angel, honour. 



I 



ETYMOLOGY. 29 

There are two kinds of liouns, proper, and ap- 
pellative or common. 

A proper noun is a particular name exclusively 
applied to a particular individual; as ZfOndres, 
Pedro, luna, London, Peter, moon. 

An appellative is a name descriptive of a class, 
and applicable to every individual of it ; as ciudadj 
Iwmbre, planeta, city, man, planet. 

Of Augmentative and Diminutive Nouns, 

There are In Spanish some derivative nouns, called 
as above from their expressing a large or a small one 
of the kind denoted by their primitive ; as hombron, 
which signifies a large man ; and hombrecito, a little 
man. They are formed by adding various termina- 
tions to the primitive noun, dropping generally the 
vowel if it end with one. The terminations which 
are used are very numerous ; but those which are 
most frequently adopted are, azo, on, and ote, to 
express increase j and ico, illo, ito, and uelo, to 
denote decrease. The manner of applying these 
terminations admits of so much variety that prac- 
tice seems the only means of acquiring the proper 
use of them : for some nouns will admit one termi ^ 
nation without undergoing any alteration, and will 
require perhaps additional letters when another ter- 
mination is applied to them; ascooron, a drawer; 
caxonazo, alarge drawer ; caxonctVo, a small drawer; 
and others will have sometimes two terminations 
joined to them ; as hombre^ a man ; hombra^;^, or 
hombron, or homhvonazoy a large man ; muger^ a 
woman ; mugera;sa, mugerona, xawgexonaza, a 
large woman, &c. — ^v 

The terminations azo, on, or ote, are indiscrimi- 
nately used to denote increase ; but although de- 
crease may be equally expressed by tco, illo, ito^ 
or u^loy . it is to be observed, that ico and ito are 
endearing expressions ; but that illo sometinies, 
and uelo always, denote contempt and disgust 



s 



30 BTYMaLOGY. 

The foregoing terminations do not always de- 
note increase or decrease ; thus abanico, thou^ 
ending in ico, signifies a fan only ; and the termi- 
nation azo is not unfrequently added to a weapon 
in order to express the injury which it is capable 
of inflicting; j3ls pistoletazo, a pistol-shot; zapa^ 
tazo, a blow with a shoe ; marHllazOf a knock 
with a hammer, &c. 

I shall conclude this article with observing, in 
regard to the gender of nouns ending in any of the 
terminations which have been mentioned, that 
augmentative or diminutive nouns are of the gen- 
der of their primitives ; and that the nouns ending 
in azo in the last-mentioned signification follow the 
rule of their termination : therefore ptnrdzo, a 
blow with a club, is masculine, although its pri- 
mitive parra, a club, is feminine. 

Of Collective Nouns. 

Nouns which in the singular signify many are 
cedled collectives. They are divided into definite 
and indefinite. 

Definite collective nouns are those which define 
the individuals of which they are composed ; as 
regimiento, many soldiers ; arboleda, many trees. 

Indefinite ones denote a multitude of indeter* 
minate individuals ; as turboj a crowd ; in/inidad, 
infinity ; muchedumbre, multitude. 

Of 6e7ider, Number, and Case. 

Gender is that accident or property of a noun 
by which we are enabled to distinguish the sex. 

There are two genders, the masculine and the 
feminine; as rey, reyna, hombrCy rauger, kingj 
queen, man, woman. 

In Spanish, all nouns are deemed either male or 
female, and consequently belong to one of these geu- 



BTTMOLOGT. 31 

ders : thus Hniero is masculine and pluma femi- 
nine^ although they denote an inkstand and a pen 
only ; whilst in English they are both neuter. 

N.B. This last-mentioned term is applied in 
Spanish to those things only which are so inde- 
finitely used^ that their gender cannot possibly 
be discovered. 

Number is that property of a noun by which we 
point out one or more of the same class. 

There are two numbers : the singular which sig- 
nifies only one ; as ciudad^ rio, city^ river ; and the 
plural^ which denotes more than one ; as ciudadeSy 
HoSy cities, rivers. 

Case is that prqperty of nouns by means of which 
they can be exhibited in different relations. 

In Spanish, nouns have two cases ; the noiiiina- 
tive or subject, and the accusative or objective 
case of the verb. 

The nominative is the case wherein nouns are 
used when we simply name them, and when we 
affirm any thing concerning them ; as O hijo ! O 
child ! el rey escribioy the king wrote. 

The objective is the case in which nouns are 
placed when they have a preposition prefixed, or 
when nothing concerning them is affirmed ; as con 
la pluma escribio el rey la carta, with the pen did 
the king write the letter. In this last sentence the 
nouns pluma and carta are both in the objective 
case ; pluma, because it has the preposition con 
prefixed ; and carta, because it is not the subject 
of the affirmation, but the object, to which passes 
the energy of the verb. It may be nevertheless 
changed to the nominative, and become the subject 
by varying the mode of the affirmation ; as la carta 
fu4 escrita por el rey con la pluma, the letter was 
written by the king with the pen ; and here both 
rey and pluma are in the objective case, on 
account of the prepositions con and por. 



32 



BTYMOLOGy. 



Examples of proper Names declined. 

Singr. Norn, Pedro^ Peter. 
Object, d Pedro, Peter. 

Sing. Nom. Juan, John. 
Object, d Juan, John. 

Sing. Nom. Maria, Mary. 
Object, d Maria, Mary. 

Sing. Nona. Ana, Ann. 
Object d Ana, Ann. 

Sing. Nom. Londres, London. 
Object. Londres, London. 

Sing. Nom. Madrid, Madrid. 
Object. Madrid, Madrid. 

Observations on the Cases, 

In allotting here but two cases to Spanish nouns 
I have deviated from the arrangement of the Aca- 
demy, which has given them six cases ; and, in con* 
formity to the Latin language^ has declined the 
nouns as follows : 

Nom. Pedro, Peter. 

Gen. de Pedro, Peter's. 

Dat. d or para Pedro, to or for Peter. 

Ace. d Pedro, Peter. 

Voc. O Pedro ! O Peter ! 

Abl. de, por, Sfc. Pedro, from^ by, &c. Peter. 

The Spanish Academicians have no doubt con- 
sidered this arrangement the best calculated to in- 
struct Spaniards, for whom only their grammar is 
intended : but as these cases are not affected by 
any variation in the termination, as in Latin, but 
formed, as in English, by the prefixing of certain 
prepositions, I have thought it expedient to follow 
the example of late writers on English grammar; 
conscious that the more the Spanish language can, 
without altering any essential arrangement, be 



ETYMOLOGY. 33 

made to resemble the English in structure, the 
greater will be the facility with which Englishmen 
will acquire it. Were we to consider inflection an 
indispensable requisite in the formation of a case, 
it would be difficult to prove that the Spanish sub* 
stantives have more than one case ; but as the very 
language which the Academy has imitated, proves 
that there may be a difference of case without any 
change of termination, it cannot be deemed incon- 
sistent to say, that our nouns have two cases, 
called a nominative and an objective case ; the for- 
mer to denote when the noun is the subject of a 
verb, and the latter when it is not. The piersonal 
pronouns, however, are an exception, their ob- 
jective case being formed by inflection. See Pro- 
nouns. 

OF THE ARTICLE. 

An Article is a word prefixed to nouns to deter- 
mine the extent of their signification. 

Articles have, like nouns, the variation of gen- 
der, number, and case. 

The masculine article in the singular is e/, and 
in the pltiral los ; the feminine is la in the singular, 
and las in the plural ; and the neuter article is fo, 
and has not a plural. 

Examples of Nouns declined with the Article, 

Masculine Nouns. 

Sing. Nom. d rey^ the king. 
Object. *al rey^ the king. 

Plur. Nom. ha reyes^ the kings. 

Object, d lo8 reyeSy the kings. 



* To account for the omission of ths e belonging to the artidey 
see note b to Rule 1, in Part II. 

c3 



34 ETYMOLOGY. 

Sing. Nona. d autor, the author. 
Object, al autor, the author. 

Hur. Nom, los autores, the authors. 

Object, d los autores, the authors. 

Sing. Nom. el palaciOy the palace. 
Object, d palacio, the palace. 

Plur. Nom. los palacios, the palaces. 
Object. lospalacioSj the palaces. 

Sing. Nom. d libroy the book. 
Object, d librOf the book. 

Plur. Nom. los libros^ the books. 
Object, los Ubros, the books. 

Feminine Nouns, 

Sing. Nom. la reyna^ the queen. 
Object, d la rtyna^ the queen. 

Plur. Nom. las reynas, the queens. 
Object, d las re^nas^ the queens. 

Sing. Nom. la monjay the nun. 
Object, d la monjay the nun. 

Plur. Nom. las monjaSy the nuns. 
Object, d las TnonjaSy the nuns. 

Sing. Nom. la casa, the house. 
Object, la casOy the house. 

Phir. Nom. las casasy the houses. 
Object, las casaSy the bouses* 

Sing. Nom. la cartUy the letter. 
Object, la cariay the letter. 

Plur. Nom. las cariasy the letters. 
Object* las cartasy the letters. 

OF THE ADJECTIVE, 

An Ai^ective is a part of speech, which being 
applied to nouns points out their qualities ; there- 
fore the name of the quality ascribed to the sub« 



BTTMOLOGT. S 

stantive is always implied in the adjective ; and 
from the name of this quality the adjective is ge* 
nerally derived. Grammarians technically call the 
name of the quality the abstract , that is, the quality 
by itself ; and the adjective the concrete^ that is to 
Bay, the quality conjoined to some thing; thus 
valor, valour, is the abstract; and valeroso, 
valiant, the concrete ; and, when joined to a noun, 
invests it with the possession of the quality im- 
plied ; as ttn ge/e valeroso, a valiant chie^ or a 
chief possessed of valour. 

Adjectives, like substantives, have Uie variation 
of gender, number, and case. 

Examples cf Nouns declined witk Adjectives* 

Sing. Nom. d homhre hdhiU the clever man. 
Object, al hombre hdbil, the clever man. 

PJur. Nom. los hombres hdbiles^ the clever men. 
Object, (i los hombres hdbiles, the clever men. 

Sing. Nom. la muger virtuosa^ the virtuous woman. 
Object, d Uufnuger virtuoso^ the virtuous woman. 

Plur. Nom. las mugeres virtuatasy the virtuous women. 
Object, d lasmugeresvirtuosa8,ihe\iTUioMa'wanien, 

Smg. Nom. la ley severa^ the severe law. 
Object, la ley scvera^ Uie severe law. 

Plur. Nom. las ley es secerasj the severe laws. 
Object, las leyes sever as ^ the severe laws. 

Sing. Nom. d prado fertile the fruitful meadow. 
Object, d prado fertile ' the fruitful meadow. 

Plur. Nom. los prados fertiles^ the fruitful meadows. 
Object, los prados fertiles, the fruitful meadows. 

From the definition of the adjective which has 
been already given, it is evident that it never can 
be used in a sentence without having a substantive^ 
either expressed or understood, to which the qua- 



litoy implied in tbe adjective is applicable. If the 
gender of the noun understood can be defined, the 
adje^tire is preceded by the article that the noun 
would require ; as el sabio ama la virtud, a wise 
man loves virtue ; but if the adjective qualifies 
some thinff to which we cannot ascribe a genderi 
the adjective in that case is preceded by the neuter 
aarticlej as el medico le dixo que no canitera 
came, pero ella hizo lo contraria, the physician 
told her not to eat meat, but she did the contrary. 

On Comparatives and Superlatives, 

Adjectives admit a variation in the manner of 
iheir stgniftcation almost peculiar to themselves ; 
for by the addition of certain words the adjective 
may be made to express its quality, as possessed in 
a greater or less degree by the noun which it quali- 
fies ; and this variation is called a degree of com- 
parison. 

There are two degrees of comparison, termed 
the comparative and the superlative. 

The simple form of the adjective is called the 
positive. 

The comparative is used to compare one part of 
a class with another part of the same class : as 
The sun is brighter than the moon, El sol es mas 
brillante que la luna; or one portion of a class 
with a portion of a different class ; as The moon 
is brighter than diamonds. La luna es mas bril- 
lantequedos diamantes ; or a portion of a class 
with the iihole of a different class ; as The sun is 
brighter than precious stones. El sol es mas 
hnllante que las piedras preciosas. 

The superlative is used to compare a certain por-» 
tion of a class with the whole of the same class ; 
ad llie sun is the brightest of all the planets, El 
sol es el mas brillante de todos losplanetas ; Dia- 



WrXHOUOGY. 



V 



laonds are the brightest jewels, Lo^dkmumtesson 

i^ J<V^ ^^ brtlkmtes.X 

Sometimes the adjective is raised to its saper]»<- 
tive degree without forming any comparison ; m 
The sun is a very bright planet^ Ml sol e$ um 
planeta muy brillante ; Diamonds are very bright 
jewels^ Los diamantes sonpiedrcu muy bnllantesf 
in this case the superlative means no more than 
that the quality of brilliancy is possessed by the 
sun and diamonds in an eminent degree* 

Some adjectives are named according to their 
signification; as ordinal ^ or adjectives denoting 
order^ such as first, second, third, &c.^ primero, 
secundoy terceroy Sfc; and cardinal or numeral^ 
that is adjectives expressing numbers; as oiie^ 
two^ three^ &c.^ uno, dasj ires, Sfc, 



Cardinal Numbers. 



doB 

tres 

quatro 

cmco 

seis 

side 

oeho 

nueoe 



ones 
d^oe 
irece 
catoroe 



one 

two 

three 

four 

five 

six 

seven 

eight 

nine 

ten 

eleven 

twelve 

thirteen 

fourteen 



quince 
diez y seia 
diez y Hete 
diez y ocho 
diez y nueve 
veinte 
vdnte y uno* 



fifteen 

sixteen 

seventeen 

eighteen 

nineteen 

twenty 

twenty-one 



veiivte y dos, &c. twenty-two, &c. 
treinta thirty 

treinia y uno* thirty-one 
treinta y do» thirty-two 
quarenta forty 

dnciunta fifty 



X We may also use the comparatiTe to compare a part with the 
whole of the same class ; but then some words must oe introduced 
to denote that the whole of the class is taken into the comparison ; 
«a The son is brighter than any other planet, El §oi es mm$ briUamte 
fuemMgmn otro pkmeta ; Diamonds are brighter than all other pre- 
cious stones, Los diamantei mm ma$ brilUmtea que tothu In Hrm 
fnedroM preckmn. 



EtTMOIjOGT. 



cincuenia y wna* 

sesenia 

sesenta y imo* 

setenia 

^denta y uno* 

ochenta 

ockenia y uruo* 

noventa 

noventa y uno* 

ciento 

ciento y uno* 

dodentos* 

trecientos* 

qtuxtrocienios* 

quinientos* 

teucienioa* 

aetecientos* 

ochocientos* 

novedentos* 

mil 

dos Tnil 

veinte mil 

den mil 



dodentos* mil 
un millon or cuenio 
dos miUones or cuenios 
tres millcmes or cuenios 
un cuenio de cuenios 
dos cuentos de cuenios, Sfc, two billions. 

Numeration, 



fifty-one 

sixty 

sixty-one 

seventy 

8eventy-(me 

eighty 

eighty-one 

ninety 

ninety-one 

a hundred 

a hundred and one 

two hundred 

three hundred 

ibtfr hundred 

iiye hundred 

»x hundred 

seven hundred 

eight hundred 

nine hundred 

a thousand 

two thousand 

twenty thousand 

a hundred thousand 

two hundred thousand 

a million 

two millions 

three millions 

a billion 



Unidad 

decena 

ceniena 

miliar 

decena de miliar 

centena de tnillepr 

cuenio 

decena de cuenio, Sfc. 



Primeto^ 
segundo* 



units 
tens 

hundreds 
thousands 
tens of thousands 
hundreds of thousaads 
million . 
tens of millions. 
Ordinal Numbers, 
first 
second 





BTTMOLOQY. 


tercero* 


third 


quarto* 


fourth 


quinto* 


fifth 


sexto* 


sixth 


septimo* 


seventh 


odtavo* 


eighth 


nono* or noveno* 


ninth 


dedmo* 


tenth 


undedino* 


eleventh 


diLodecimo* 


twelfth 


dScimo* tercio* 


thirteenth 


dSdmo* quarto* 


fourteenth 


decirno* quinto* 


fifteenth 


dkdmo* sexto* 


sixteenth 


decimo* septimo* 


seventeeth 


dedmo* octavo* 


eighteenth 


dedmo* nono* 


nineteenth 


vigSsimo* 


twentieth 


vigesimo* primo* 


twenty-first 


vigSsimo* segundo* 


twenty-second 


fngS8imo*terdo*, &c. 


twenty-third, &c. 


trigS9im4>* 


thirtieth 


quadragesimo* 


fortieth 


quinqtmgksimo* 


fiftieth 


sexdgesimo* 


sixtieth 


septuagesimo* 


seventieth 


octogSsimo* 


eightieth 


nonagSsimo* 


ninetieth 


centesimo* 


hundredth 


docentesimo* 


two hundredth 


trecentesimo* 


three hundredth 


quadragentesifno* 


four hundredth 


quingentesimo* 


five hundredth 


sexintesimo* 


six hundredth 


septcTigentSsimo* 


seven hundredth 


octogenthsimo* 


eight hundredth 


nonagentisbmo* 


nine hundredth 


miledmo* 


thousandth. 



30 



N.B. Every word, either in the cardinal or ordinal 
numbers, which is marked thu8(*), has the last 6 changed 
for an a whenever applied to a feminine noun. 



40 



BTYMOLOGV. 



Isamitad 
d tercio 
d quarto 
un par 



Nouns denoting Quantity. 



the half 
the third 
the fourth 
a couple 



media docena half a dozen 
una decena half a score 



una docena a dozen 
una veintena a score 
una centena 
un miliar 
un cuenio 



a hundred 
a thousand 
a million 



OF PRONOUNS. 

A pronoun is a word which prevents the necessity 
of repeating the noun^ by supplying its place. 

There are five sorts of pronouns: namely. Per- 
sonal, Possessive, Relative, Interrogative, and De- 
monstrative, 

Personal. 

The personal pronouns are peculiar in having 
two objective cases, one of which never can be 
used with, nor the other without, a preposition. 



Sing. Norn. 
1st Obj. case 
2d Obj. case 

Plur. Nom. 
1st Obj. 
2d Obj. 

Sing. Nom 
1st Obj. 
2d Obj. 

Plur. Nom. 
1st Obj. 
2d Obj. 

Sing. Nom. 
1st Obj. 
2d Obj. 



or to me. 



Example. - 

Yo, I. 

met *) 

nosotros,* we. 

no8, 1 . 

, . M, J-us, or to us. 
a no8otros*J ' 

M, thou. 

te 1 

dti fthee, or to thee. 

vosoiro%^* ye. 

kU he. 

&hl J-him, or to him. 



BTTMOljOGr. 



41 



Pltir. Nom. dlosj they. 

1st Obj. lo8 and fe»,* * them arid to them.* ♦ 
2d Obj. d dloa, them, or to them. 

Stag, Nom. ella, she* 

Ist Obj. la and fe,* * her, imd to b«r.* ♦ 
2d Obj. d dla, her, or to her. 

Hur. Nom. ellcu, they. 

1st Obj. ^a« and les^* * them, and to them.* * 
2d Obj. d eUaa, them, or to them. 

Sing. Nom. dlot it. 

^. /"himself, herself, itself ihem- 

"'?*1 1st Obj. case «c, J selves ; or to himself, to 

■^° J 2d Obj. case ^ ji, | herself, to itself, to them- 

^"^ \ selves. 

Terminations marked thus .(*) have the last o changed 
into a when they represent feminine nouns. 

N.B. Where the first objective case has two termina- 
tions/the one marked with the double asterisk corre* 
sponds in English with the one only which bears the 
same mark : thus the English for los is them ; and for 
les, to them. This second termination might be pro- 
perly termed the dative of the pronoun, and I should 
have adopted the expression had it more frequently oc- 
curred; but it is distinguishable only in the plural of the 
third person masculine ; and in both numbers of the 
.bird person feminine. 

Possessives. 
Nom. and Obj 



Sing. 
Plur. 
Sing. 
Plur. 
Sing. 

Plur. 



Nom. and Ob 
Nom. and Ob 
Nom. and Ob 
Nom. and Ob 
Nom. and Ob 
Nom. and Obj. 



mio^^ my or mme. 
nuestroy* our or ours. 
tuyoy* thy or thine. 
mtestro* your or yours. 
9uyo^ his or its. 
my€^ her or hers. 
miyos^* their or theirn. 



Those marked thus (*) change the o into a when 
they relate to a feminine noun. 



4Si KrrMOJLOGr. 

Jlelafives. 
Sing. Nom. quieriy who. 

Obj. d quien, whom or to whom. 
Plur. Nom. quienes, who. 

Obj. d quieneSj whom or to whom. 
The other relatives are, 

Nom. "J Sing, qualy Plur. qudles,'\vfho, which, and 
and > que^ que, ) that. 

Obj. case J cuyo,* cwyo*,* whose or of which. 

Those terminations marked thus (*) change the o into 
a when relating to a feminine noun. 
The noun to which a relative refers is called its 
antecedent. 

Interrogatives. 

When the relative pronouns are used in asking a 
question^ they are called Interrogatives ; as guien 
estd ahi ? who is there ? qual de los dos ? which 
of the two ? &c. 

Demonstratives. 

Masc. Fem. Neut. 
Sing. Nom. C este^ esta, estOt this, 

and < ese, esa, eso, \th t 

Obj. case (^ aquel, aqueUa^ aqueUo, j 
Plur. Nom. f estos, estas, these, 

and -< esos, esas^ *) ., 

Obj. case {jaquellos^ aquellasy j 
There are some words to which grammarians have 
given the names of indefinites, or indefinite pronounSt^ 
See Rules on the use of these pronouns, in Part II. 

Observation, 

Possessives and demonstratives^ are used in Spanish 
both as adjectives and as pronouns : when they are used 
adjectively, they are joined to some substantive with 
which they must always agree ; as Tvuestro rey, our king ; 
nuestra patria, our country ; mustros enemigos, our ene- 

X The neuter terminations esto, eso^ and aqttello, are never used 
adjectively. 



imnfoiooT. 48 

mies; mtedrat hazaSuu^ oar exploits ; ofe atnU^ iSkm 
army; aa baiaUa^ that battle ; abuinptn 
etot soldadM, tiiose woMkrs. When osed 
they represent a Doan, which either is umki st ood or 
been formerly mentioned in the period, and whose 
der and number they always assame; as JBrfa (bahiiidad) 
et una de las tuyas (habUidadaJt This is one oftJky tridts; 
Occupards la plaza de un mozo que murio quince diae ba^ 
porqueera de delicada complexion^ la tuya/Nzracr nuu ro^ 
husta, y no morirds tan presto. Thou wilt fill the place of 
a lad, who died a fortnigfat ago, because he was of a de- 
licate constitution ; thine seems more lobost, and thou 
wilt not die so soon. Gil Bias, book L chap. 4. 

OF VERBS. 

A verb is that part of speech generaDy used to 
affirm something concerning the nouo, which is Uie 
subject of discourse, or, as it is commonly called, 
the subject of the verb ; as soy, I am ; ella duerme, 
she sleeps ; el escribio^ he ^vrote.* 

A verb may make three different species of 
affirmation concerning its subject; and hence 
there are three different sorts of Tcrbs, called 
active, passive, and neuter^ 

An active verb affirms that its subject is acting 
or doing something; as el mange predica, the 
monk preaches ; el nino lee, the child reads. 

A passive verb describes its subject as being 
acted upon, or suffering; as el xefe fu4 herido^ the 



* Affirmation is the general characteristic of a verb ; and th«refa% 
as I shall have occasion to speak of Tcrbs being negatively used, it is 
necessaiT to observe, in order to reconcile the seeming contndictioiiy 
that veibs always retain their affirming property, even in a negative 
fantenoe, and that to nse a verb negative^ means to place sack 
vords either before or after it, as may counteract the impression pro* 
duced on the mind by the affirmation ; as am6, he loved ; fut ami 
he loved not ; a^funo rendr6y some one will oome ; mmgtmo vemdrd, ao 
one will come. By these examples we may see that the verbs mmir 
and venir remain unaltered, for the negatives no and nu^fumo makm 
no part of either of the verbs. 



4A BTYMOLOOY. 

chief was wounded ; el reo estd encarceUxdOi the 
culprit is imprisoned. 

A neuter verb denotes neither the one nor the 
other ; but merely affirms the existence of its sub* 
ject, in a quiescent state ; or describes the con- 
dition^ posture or situation of its subject : as fu^j 
he was ; vivimos, we lived ; moramos^ we dwell : 
ella estd sentada^ she is seated. 

An active verb may denote two different kinds 
of action ; and therefore active verbs have been 
divided into transitive and intransitive. 

An active transitive verb describes an action 
which its subject may exercise upon something 
else, called generally the accusative or object of 
the verb ; es el cazador mato la liebre^ the sports- 
man killed the hare ; el criado asepillo el vestido, 
the servant brushed the suit. 

An active intransitive denotes an action by 
which the agent only can be affected ; as los ninos 
jiigaron, the children played. 

When the agent and the individual upon whom 
the action is exercised are represented by the same 
person, the verb is called reflective ; as el soldado 
se matoy the soldier killed himself. N.B. Almost 
all active transitive verbs may be changed into 
reflective in Spanish. 

Active intransitive verbs are sometimes changed 
into transitive by adding to them the objective 
case of some noun which is generally formed from 
them ; as baylar un bayle, to dance a dance ; 
sonar un suenoy to dream a dream ; saltar un salto, 
to leap a leap, &c. 

In order clearly to distinguish the transitive 
from intransitive verbs, the attention must be 
wholly directed to their meaning ; for the same 
verb may be transitive or intransitive, according 
to the meaning in which it is employed. Thus 
the verb pasear is an active intransitive verb^ 



BTYMOLOGY 46 

when it signifies to walk one's self^ and actire 
transitive when it denotes to make another walk, 
or to lead him, in which sense it is frequently used 
when speaking of horses, mules, &c. Gil Bias, in 
speaking of the exhibition of his mule before the 
jockey, uses the verb pasear as active transitive, 
when he says, Pasearonla y repasearanla delante 
del mulaieroy they walked her to and fro before 
the jockey. 

OF THE ACCIDENTS OF VERBS. 

Number, Person, Tense, and Mood. 

Number. 
A verb may have more than one subject : that is, 
it may affirm something concerning one, or more 
than one, individual : hence verbs require like nouns 
a singular and a plural number; as elpdxaro vuela, 
the bird flies ; los pdxaros vuelan, the birds fly. 

Person. 

There are three different classes of indiidduals 
that can be the subjects of a verb; namely, the 
speaker ; the individual to whom the discourse is 
addressed ; or an individual who neither speaks nor 
is addressed; and to point out this distinction, 
verbs have three distinct persons; the first yo, I, 
stands for the name of the speaker; the second tu^ 
thou, is equivalent to the name of the individual to 
whom the speaker addresses himself ; and the third 
^Ij he; ella, she; ello, it; represents any other indi- 
vidual whatever : asyo leo, I read ; tu escribes, thou 
writest ; ^Ipinta, he paints; ella bay la, she dances. 

It has been already observed that verbs may have 
more than one subject ; it therefore follows that any 
of the three abovementioned persons may be the 
subject of a verb alone or accompanied ; and in 
order to represent them when accompanied, verbs 
have three other persons, called also first, second, 
and third, in their plural number. The first person 
is nosoiros, or we : with this person the speaker 



4A £tTHLOU96Y. 

affirms any thing concerning himaelf and others at 
the same time; as nosotros caminamos^ we tra-. 
yelled : the second is vosoirosj ye ; this person the 
speaker makes use of when he addresses more than 
one individual ; as vosotros sois espiets, ye are spies : 
the third person is ellosy or elleiSy they ; and this 
person is used hy the speaker, when he affirms 
any thing concerning more than one individual 
not addressed ; the speaker not being one of the 
number; as ellos pelearofi, they fought; ellas 
cantaroUj they sang. 

Tense. 

The action, passion, or state of existence de- 
scribed by a verb, may be limited to three different 
periods of time, for it may be described as having 
taken place ; as Ae visto^ I have seen ; or taking 
place ; as veo^ I see ; or as being to take place, as 
ver^j I shall see ; and for this purpose verbs have 
another accident called tense, 

Spanish verbs have seven tenses ; namely, the 
presenty imperfect^* perfect inde/tnite^* perfect 
de/initey* pluperfect^* future imperfect^ future 
perfect. See Observations on the Tenses, Part 11. 

Mood. 

Moods are certain forms of the verb, which, it 
may be said, serve to modify the affirmation. 
There are four moods ; namely, indicativey impera^ 
tivCy siibjunct%vey\ and infimtive. 

The indicative affirms the execution of the 
action denoted by the verb, in a positive and un- 
conditional manner ; as nosotros ddmoSy we give ; 
vosotros vais^ ye go. 

The imperative orders or entreats the execution 
of the action ; as id vosotros, go ye ; concedednos, 
grant us ; perdonamey forgive me. 

* Thrny &re also named Preterimperfecty Preterperfect indefinite^ 
Preterperfect definite^ Preterpluperfect. 
t Inis is sometimes called the potential aood.- 



xmfOLOGT 

The Bubjmictive always speaks of the aetion as 
contingent ; sifu4remos mancaria^ if we happen to 
go to-morrow ; si viniera aqui^ were he to coaie 
here ; aunque lo concedaj though he may grant it. 

The infinitive denotes the action or energy of 
the verb in a general unlimited and indefinite man- 
ner, without any distinction of tense or of person ; 
as venivy to come ; ir, to go; conceder, to. grani } 
percionar, to forgive. 

OF CONJUGATIONS* 

To conjugate a verb is to repeat it throngh all 
the variety of number, person^ tense, and mood^ 
of which it is susceptible. 

In Spanish there are only three conjugations^ 
which are distinguished by the vowels a, e, i^ 
which regularly precede the last r of the infinitive 
mood : therefore verbs belonging to the first con- 
jugation have their infinitive in or; those of the 
second, in er; and verbs of the third, in ir ; as, 
hablavy to speak ; leer, to read; escribirj to write. 

Verbs sometimes are named according to their 
perfections or their imperfections, and therefore all 
the verbs of which we have been speaking may be 
regular or irregular, personal or impersonal, per- 
fect or defective. 

Irregulars are those verbs which deviate from 
the regular form by which all the others are con- 
jugated. See Part II. 

Impersonals are verbs which cannot be conjit- 
gated through all the persona. See Part 11. 

Defectives are such verbs as want some of the 
tenses. See Part II. 

The verbs ser and Aaber are, from the nature of 
their service, styled auxiliary or helping verbs, be- 
cause they are used to form what are called the 
compound tenses of all verbs ; and also their pass- 
ive voice ; as, habiamos escrito, -we had written ; 
fueron heridos, they were wounded. 



48 BTYMOIiOGT. 



^ 



N. B. In the following examples all the terminations of the ¥eibs 
have been accented, in order to assist beginners in pronouncing \ but 
t is to be observed that the accent is to be written on the letters 
which are printed in Roman only. 

Conjugation of the Auxiliary Haber. 

Indicative. 

Present, — ^have. 
Sing. 1. Fo Ae, I have. 

2. Tu hcu, thou hast. 

3. El ha^ he has. 

Plur. 1. NosdtroM hSmos or hahkmoaj* we have. 

2. VosStros hab&is, ye have. 

3. Ellos harij they have. 

ImperfecU — had . 
Yo habia, I had. 
Tu hablas, thou hadst. 
El habia^ he had. 
NosStros habiamoSf we had, 
Vosbtros habiais^ ye had. 
EUos hahlan^ they had. 

PerfetA. — had. 
Yo hube^ I had. 
Tu hubiste^ thou hadst. 
El hubo, he had. 
NosStros hubimos^ we had. 
VosStros hubisteiSf ye had. 
EUos hiibiiron, they had. 

Future, — shall have« 
Yo habri^ I shall have. 
Tii habr&s, thou shalt have. 
El habrk, he shall have. 
Nos6tro8 habr&nuos, we shall have. 
VosStros habriiSf ye shall have. 
BMos habriai, they shall have. 

Subjunctive. 

Present — may have. 
Yo hdyay I may have. 
Tu hdyas, thou mayst have. 
El hdyOf he may have. 



• See ffaher, No. XXV. Part II. 



STTMOLOGT. 40 

No96hros haydmoSf we may have. 
Fo$Strot hayd$M^ ye may have. 
Elios hdf/an^ they may have. 

Imperfect. — should, might, would ba^e. 

To httbiSra^ hubiese^habrla^ I should, might, would have. 
Tu hvbikrcts^ hubikses^ habrlaSf thou shouldst, mightst, 

wouldst have. 
lEl huhiera^ huhikse^ habrla, he should, might, would have. 
No86tro8 huhi&ramos^ kuhiisemos^ habriamog, we should, 

might, would have* 
Foi6tro8 htibiirais, hubUseis, habriais^ ye should, 

might, would have. 
EUo9 hubiiran^ kuMiten, hahrlanfi^ they should, might, 

would have. 

Future. — ]£ should have. 

8i yo hubiSre^ if I should have. 

Si tu hvhiereBy if thou shouldst have. 

8i 61 hubiere^ if he should have. 

8i nosStroB hvbiiremos^ if we should have. 

8i vosdtros hubUreUj if ye should have. 

Si SUos hubieren, if they should have. 

Irifinitive. 

Present. Haher^ to have. 
Gerund. Hahihndo^ having. 

As an auxiliary, this verb is employed in the foregoing 
tenses only ; but when it is used either impersonally or 
as an equivalent to teTur^ (which latter use is nearly ex- 
ploded,) it has habldo for its participle, and is conju- 
gated through all the compound tenses. See Impersonal. 
Verbs, Part' II. 

Conjugation of Tener^ To have, or To hold. 

Indicative. 

Pre$enL — have. 



Yo tengo^ 1 have. 
T'& tiines, thou hast. 
El tiene, he has. 



Noidtros ienimoi^'we have* 
VosStTTOs tenets^ ye have. 
EUos tienen^ they have. 



Yo tenlcty I had. 

Tu UniaSy thou hadst. 

El tcnla^ he liad. 

To iuve, I had. 

Tu tuchUe^ thou hadst. 



Nbtdiroi texiamoi, we had. 
VoMroB teniauy ye hiA, 
Elioa Uaian^ they had. 

tniie, — ^had. 

NosStros tuvimos^ we had. 
Vea6tr98 tuviiteis^ ye had* 



El titvo^ he had» [ EUoa tuvUron^ they bad 

Perfiet Definite. — ^have had. 

To ht tenido, I have had. 
Tu has tenidoy thou hast had. 
El ha ienido, he has had. 
Nosotros hemos tenidoj we have had. 
VosStros habSis tenido, ye have had. 
EUos han tenido, they l»?ehad. 

Pluperfsci, — had had. 

Yo hube, or habta^ UnJtda, I had had. 

Tit huhiste^ or babias^ tenldo^ thou hadsi had.. 

El huhoy or hahia, tenido^ he had bad. 

Nosotros kubimos, or habiamos, tenido, we had had* 

Vosotros hubisteisy or kabiais, ienidOy ye had had. 

EUos hubiiron, or habiariy tenidoy. they had had* 

Future Imperfect — shall or will hare 

Yo tendriy I shall have. 
Tu tendr^y thou shalt have. 
El tendrky he shall have. 
Vosotros tendr6mos^ we shall have 
VosStros tendriiSy ye shall have. 
EUos tendrkriy they shall have. 

Future Peifiei. — shall or wiH hdire had. 

Yo hahnk tenidOy I shall have had. 
Tu habria tenido, thou shalt have had. 
El habrk tenido, he shall hare had. 
Nosdtros heUn^mM tenido, we shall bavtf had. 
VoMros habniM ie»ido, ye shall have. had. 
EUos hdbrkn tenido^ tkey shall have had. 



TVn ^ bave thou* 
Tkmgati^ leihiaib«rc 
Tcng^imof wo96tro9^ let us have. 
Tenid votdtrm^ have ye. 
Tengitit ^Om^ lei them have. 

Subfunetive. 

TraenL — may have. 

Yo tinga^ I may have. 
Tu tSmgoMt thou mayst have. 
El tenga^ he may have. 
NosStrM ioigdmoB, we may hava* 
VosStros tengdis^ ye may have. 
Elkm tSngoMf they may have. 

JmipafBd* — should, w might, op vmM have. 

Yo tuxiktttt tumege^ Undria^ I should, might, would have. 
Tu tudenu^ tuvikta^ teadAtm^ thoa shooldst, mightst, 

woaldst have. 
El iumira, tuo^te^ tendrUi, be should, might, would 

have. 
Nosoiroi tuMramos, tum&semo9^ iendriamo9y we should, 

might, would have. 
VosSirostuMrais^ tttoihd»^ tendriaky ye should, might, 

would have. 
EU08 tuvikrany tuoiigcny tendrian, they should, might, 

would have. 

Perfed. — ^may have had. 
Yo hdya ienidoy I may have had. 
Tu hdycu tenidoy thou mayst have had. 
El hdya tenidOy he may have had. 
Nosotros haydmos tenidoj we may have had. 
VosStros haydis tenldo, ye may have had. 
JB0O9 hdyan ienido, Uiey may have had* 

Pluperfid, — should, might, would have had. 

^hubiera tenido^ should have had, 

I or I or 

Yo < hvHise Untdo^ I< might have had, 

I or I or 

hahHa tenidOy ^ would have had. 

d2 



62 



KTTMOLOGT. 



Tu 



,hubiira$ tentdo, shouldst have had, 

or (or 

hubieses tenido, thou< mightst have had, 

or I fir 

habrlas tenido, ^wouldst have had. 

,hubiera tenidOf should have had, 

or (or 

hubiSse tenido^ he < might have had, 

or I or 

habrla tenidOy ^ would have had. 

.hubiiramos tenido^ should have had, 

.or i or 
NosStros •{ hubUsemos tenido, we < might have had, 



Bl 



ye- 



or 
habriamos tenido, 

{hubv^raU tenido, 
or 
hubi^seis tenido, 
or 
kabriais tenido, 
.hubihran tenido, 
or , 
EII08 Z hubiesen tenido, they 

or 
habrlan tenido. 






or 

would have had. 
should have had, 

or 
might have had, 

or 
would have had. 
should have had, 

or 
might have had, 

or 
would have had. 



Future Imperfect. — ^if should have. 

Si yo tuvikre, if I should have. 

Si tu tuviires, if thou shouldst have. 

Si Si tuviere, if he should have. 

Si nosStros tuviiremos, if we should have. 

Si vosbtros tuwkreis, if ye should have. 

Si ellos tuviSren, if they should have. 

FtUure perfect. — if should have had. 

Si yo hubikre tenido, if I should have had. 

Si tu hubieres tenido, if thou shouldst have had. 

Si el hubiere tenido, if he should have had. 

Si nosbtros hubiiremos tenido, if we should have had. 

Si vosbtros hubiirds tenido, if ye should have had. 

Si ellos hubiSren tenido, if they should have had. 



ETYMOLOGY. 53 

Infinitive* 

Present, 
Tenkvj to have 

Perfect, 
Haher tenldo, to have had. 

Gerund, 
Tenikndo, having. 

Compound of the Gerund. 
Hahiendo tenldo^ having had. 

Participle, 
Tenldo, had. 

Conjugation of ^S*^ and Estdr. 
Indicative. 

Present, — am. 

Yo sSy^ or est6y, I am. 

Tu ertSj or estds, thou art. 

El eSf or eMy he is. 

NosStros sSmos, or estdmos, we are. 

VosStros s6is, or eddis, ye are. 

EUos son, or estdn, they are 

Imperfect.^^yras. 

Yo bra, or estdha^ I was. 

Tu krasy or estdbas, thou wast. 

El era, or estdba, he was. 

NosStros iramos, or est^amos, we were; 

Vosbtros 6rais, or estibais, ye were. 

£^o« ^ran, or estdban, they were. 

Perfict Indefinite. — ^was, 

Yojui, or es^ure, I was. 

Tufuiste, or estuviste, thou wast 

Elfu^, or es^uvo, he was. 

NosStros fuimos^ or estuvimos, we were* 

Vosbtros fuisteis, or es^uvi^^m, ye were. 

Ellosfu^ron, or cj<ttt?i^ro7i, they were. 



64 



BTYMOXX>OT. 



Perfect Definite. — have been. 
Yo he sCdOj or esiddo, I have been. 
Tu hn8 sidoy or estddo^ thou hast been. 
El ha Hdo, or estddo^ he has been. 
NosStros hSmos sido, or estddo, we have been* 
Vosbtros hahhU sido, or ettddoj ye have been. 
Ellos han sido, or estddo^ they have been. 

Plvperfect, — had been. 
hube sido, or esiddo^ 

or 

hahia sido^ or estddo, 

Chuhiste sido^ or estddoj 



Yo 



Tu 



Chub 
IJiab 



I 



-I had been. 



or 



-thou hadst been. 



El 



Nosbtros 



Vo^6tros 



Ellos 



-he had been. 



-we had been. 



-ye had been. 



-they had been. 



habtas sido, or estddo^ 
^hubo sldo, or atddo^ 

or 
hdbia sido, or edddo^ 
hubimos sido^ or estddo, 

or 
habiamossido, or estddo, 
^hubisteis sido, or tstddo,' 

or 
habiais tid% or esiddo, 
ChubHron sido, or estddo^ 
•< or 

(jiabian sido, or estddo. 

Future Imperfect, — shall be. 
Yo ser^, or estari, I shall be. 
Til serkSy or estar&s, thou shalt be. 
El ser&, or estark, he shall be. 
Nosbtros ser6mo8, or estarimos, we shall be. 
Vosbtros seriis, or estar^is, ye shall be. 
£//o5 serdTi, or estarkn, they shall be. 

Futvre Perfect, — shall have been. 
Yo habr^ sido, or estddo, I shall have been. 
Tu habrks sido, or estddo, thou shalt have beeB« 
£Z Aa6rd 9ido, or estddo, he shall have been. 
Nosbtros hahriiTnos ndo, or estddo, we shall have been. 
Vosbtros habriis sido, or estddo, ye shall have been* 
£Z/o9 habrkri sido, or edddo^ tliey shall have been. 



65 



Jnipertiiiv€. 

Se, or eM, tu, he thou. 
Sea, or a^^ el, let him be. 
Sedmos^ or estemos^ nosSiroB, ki us biw 
Sec?, or es^oc?, vosotros, be ye. 
S^on, our &Un, eUoit let them be. 

Subfunctive. 

Pment. — may be. 

Yo f^a, or estS, I may be. | 

T-it %kas, or esth, thou maysl be. 

El sittj or esf ^« he may be. 

Nosdtros sedmos, or estemos, we may be. 

Vosotros sedis, or e;»^^i«^ ye may be. 

EUos siam, or es^en, they may be. 

Imperfect — should, nught, would be. 
fiara,fiii»e,jH:ria, \id,onld.nright. 

estimkray estuMse, estaria^ j 

"fuiroMf juerns, serlas, ^ thou shouldst* 

or > mightst, 

estuviSras^estumeseSyestarias^J wouldst be. 
rfiuruj Juese, sertu, ^ he should, 

J or >raight, would 

{edumera,estuviksey€dar*ay J be. 

!fu(draHioe,Jk^aemos, aetiamos^ \ v. \a 
ettariamos, ) ^' 

''Ju6rais, fiii^seis, seriais, ") ye should, 

or Vmight, would 

t8tuviirms,estuvi4seiSyestaricn»J be. 
^fiiirariy fuesen^ seriany "^ they ^ould, 

or >might» wouU 

tdvviSran,esiuvie9en, estaricmj be. 

Perfect, — may have been. 

Yd hdjfa sidoy or esidd% I may hate been. 

Tu hdyas Sidos or estddo, thou mayst have been. 

El hdya siio, or estddo^ lie au&y hiive beeo. 



Yo 



T^ 



El 



VosStros 



EUos 



66 



BTYMOLOGY. 



NoBStros haydmos sido, or edddOf we may have been. 
VosStros haydis sldo, or estddo^ ye may have been. 
EII08 hdyan aido, or estddo^ they may have been. 

Pluperfect. — should, might, would have been. 

sidoj 

or 

estddo, 

sido, 

or 

estddo, 

sldo, 

or 

estddo, 

aido, 

or 

estddo, 

sido, 

or 

estddo, 

sido, 

or 

estddo. 

Future ImperfecU — ^if should be. 
Si yo fiikre, or estuviere, if I should be. 
Si tu fueres, or estuvikres, if thou shouldst be. 
Si klfulre, or estuvikre, if he should be. 
Si nosStros fidremos, or estuMremos, if we should be. 
Si vosbtros fidrds, or estuMreis, if ye should be. 
Si kilos Jukren, or estuviSren, if they should be. 

Future Perfect. — if should have been. 
Si yo huHkre sido, or estddo, if I should have been. 
Si tiL hvhikres sido, or estddo, if thou shouldst have 

* been. 
Si kl huhibre sldo, or estddo, if he should have been. 
Si nosStros huhiirerms sido, or estddo, if we should have 

been. 

Si vosStros hubUreis sido, or estddo, if ye should have 

been. 
Si kUos hubierm sido, or eMdo, if Uiey should have been. 



Yo huhikra, hu- 
biese, hahria, 

Tu hubieras, hu- 
bikses, habrias. 

El hubiera, hubiise, 
habria, 

Nosotros hubiera- 

mos, hubiidsemos, 

habriamos, 
Vosbtros hubiircds, 

hubidseis, habrU 

ais, 

EUos hubieran, hu- 
bi&sen, habrian. 



I should, might, would 
have been. 

thou shouldst, mightsty 
wouldst have been. 

he should, might, would 
have been. 

we should, might, would 
have been. 

ye should, might, would 
have been. 

they should, might, 
would have been. 



«7 

Ser, or eUdr^ to be. 

Perfid* 
BaUr tido^ or etiddo^ to haye Imoi. 

Cnticfuf. 
Sihndo, or eddndo, beui^. 

Compound of the Genmd, 
HabUndo Hdo, or edddoy haviiig been. 

Participle, 
Sldo, or eUddo, been. 

With the following verbs the pronouns are omitted $ 
but they may be used, if so required. 

First Conjugation. Anusr^ To love. 

Indicative^ 

Present — love. 

Amdmatj we love. 
AtndiSf ye love. 
Aman, tbey love. 

Jwipcr/trcf.— loved, or was loving* 

AwdbUy I Icved, or was loving. 
Amdbas^ thou lovedst, or wast loving. 
Amdba, he loved, or was loving. 
Afn&bamoSf we loved, or were loving. 
Am&bais^ ye loved, or were loving. 
Arndbauy tiiey loved, or were loving. 

Perfid Indefinite. — loved. 



Amoy 


I love. 


Amas^ 


thou lovest. 


AmOy 


he loves. 



Am&mo%^ we loved. 
AmksteUf ye loved. 
Am&ron, tiiey loved. 



Amij I loved. 
Amdste^ thou lovedst. 
^m6, he loved. 

Perfed Definite. — have loved 

He amddOy I have loved. 
Heu amddOy thou hast loved. 
Ha amddoy he has loved. 

d3 



BVYIiaJUMiy 



Hkmos amddo, we have lo«e<L 
HabSis amddo, ye have loved. 
Han amddo^ they have loved. 

Pluperfect, — ^had loved. 
Huhe, or hahia^ amddo, I had loved. 
Hubiste, or ^a&;a9, amddo, thou hadst loved* 
HubOy or hcbiay amddOj he had loved. 
HubimoSy or Aa&iar/tot, offt^t^, we had loved. 
Hvhisteis, or habiais^ amddo^ ye had loved. 
Hubi6ron, or ^o&ia.u, amddo, they had loved. 

Future Invperfeet, — shall or will love. 



Amar€y I shall love. 
Amwp^y thou shalt love. 
Amar§i, he shall love. 



Amarimos, we shall love. 
Amar6iSf ye shall love, 
^marfin, they shall love. 



Future Perfect. — shall or will have loved. 

Habrk amddo, I shall have loved. 
Habris amddo, thou fihait have loved. 
Habrk amddo, he shall have loved. 
Habr6mos amddo, we shall have loved. 
Habriis anddo, ye shall have loved. 
Habr&n amddo, they shall have loved. 



Ama til, love thou. 



Imperative. 

Am^mmnosStros, let us love. 
Amdd vosStros, love ye. 



Ame il, let him love. Am^n illos, let them lore, 

SubfuncHve* 

PreKR^.— may love. 

Am>e, I may love. I AmSmos, we may love. 

Am£S, thou mayst love. 1 Ameis, ye may love. 
Awje, he may love. ] Amen, they may love. 

Imperfect. — should, might, wovM love. 

Amdra, amdse, amaria, I should, might, would love. 
Amdras, amd8e8,aniaria8, thou shouldst,mightst,wouldst 

love. 
Amdra, amdse, amaria, he i^ould, might, would love. 



AmkramMj uniAMmiOB^ mmGgAamia% ^we ahoald, might, 

would love. 
Am&rau^ amkuu^ anutriais^ fe should, mig^ht, woidd 

love. 
Amdran, umdaen^ amcuricm, they should, might, would 



love. 



Perfect — ^may have loved. 

Hdya amddoj I may have loved. 
Hdyas amddo^ thou mayst have loved. 
Hdya amddo, he may have loved. 
Haydmos amddo, we may have loved. 
Haydis arnddo, ye ms^ have loved. 
Hdyan amddo, they may have loved* 



P/ii;per^c^— should, m^ht, would have loved. 

Hiibiera^ hvhikse, hahtia^ iunddo^ I should, might, would 

have loved. 

Huhi&r(i8jhtibU8e8ju^ias,amddOtthoushou]dst,mighisU 

wouldst have loved. 
Hvhikra^ hubiese, habrla^ am4(fo,he should, might, would 

have loved. 
Huhi^amoSy hubihemos^ habAamos^ amddo, we should, 

might, would have loved. 
HvhihraUy hubi€msy hahriaU^ amddo, ye should, might, 

would have loved. 
JSttbiSran, huhie^en, kabrian^ amddo^ theyshould^mightf 

would have luvedr 



Vutwre Imperftct. — if should love, 

Bi amdre^ if I should love. 
Si arrvdreSy if thou shouldst love. 
Si amdrey if he should lore. 
Si amikrtmoBy i£ we should love. 
Si amArdf, if ye should love. 
Si amSteth if tktj AoniH love. 



' 60 BTYMrOLOGY. 

Futyirt Perfiet. — if should hare loved 

8i kubikre amddo^ if I should have loved. 
8i kiMkra amddo^ if thou shouldst have loved. 
8% hvhiire am&do^ if he should have loved. 
8i htdn6remoa arnddo^ if we should have lored. 
Si hubiireM amddoy if ye should have loved. 
8i kubiSren amddOt if Uiey ^ould have loved. 

Infinitive. 

Present 
Amdr^ to love. 

Perfia. 
MMr amddo^ to have loved. 

Gerund. 
Amdndo, loving. 

Compound of the Gerund, 
Hahiendo amddOt having loved. 

Participle. 
Amddo^ loved. 

Second CoDJugatioo, Fend&^ To selL 

Indicative. 
Present, — sell. 



VSndo, I sell. 
Vendes^ thou sellest. 
VSnde, he sells. 



Vendimoa^ we sell. 
VendeU, ye sell. 
Vhnden, they sell. 



Imperfect, — sold or was selling 



Vendia^ I sold. 
Vendios^ thou soldest 
Vendia, he sold. 



VendiamoSg we sold. 
Vendiais^ ye sold. 
VendiaUf they sold. 



Perfect Indefinite. — sold. 



Fendi, I sold. 
Vendisie^ thou soldest. 
Fendidf he sold. 



Vendlmos^ we sold. 
VendiOeis, ye sold, 
they 



Perfid D^hdU. — hftve sokL 

He vendido, I h«¥e 8<^d. 
Has vmdtdo, thoa hast sold. 
Ha vejtdidop he has sold. 
Hemo9vendid0f we hare sold 
HabiU vdndido, ^^ye hare sold. 
Han vendidot they hate sold. 

Pluperfixi. — had sold. 

HubCj or habia^ vendldo^ I had sold. 
Hubisie^ or habias, vendido^ thoii hadst sold. 
Hubo, or habla^ vendidOy he had sold. 
Hublmos^ or Aa6iismM, vendido^ we had sdd. 
Hubisteis, or Aa6iaif, miididoy ye had sold. 
Hubv^ron^ or Aa&lan, vendido, they had, sold. 



Future Itn^peffect* — ^shall or will sell. 

Fender^moSj we shall sell* 
VenderUsy ye shall sell* 
FeTuier&n^ they shall sell. 



Vender^, I shall sell. 
Venderia, thou shalt sell. 
Venderk^ he shall sell. 



Future Pcr/^^.-^— shall or will have sold. 



Habri vendido, I shall have sold. 
Habr^LS vendido^ thou shalt have sold. 
Habrk vendido, he shall have sold. 
Habrimos vendido^ we shall have sold. 
HahriU vendido, ye shall have sold. 
Hahrkn vendido^ they shall have sold. 

Imperative. 

VSnde ti, sell thou. 
Vknda SI, let him sell. 
VenddmoM nosStros, let us sell. 
Vendid vosdtrosj sell ye. 
ViiuUm iWa, let them sell. 



BB wrmmjocw. 



Smbjunetwe. 

Present. — ^may sell. 

Vhnda^ I may sell. VenddmoB, we may mIL 

VSndas^ thou mayst selL , Vemddi^ ye may seU. 
Vinda, he may sell. 1 VendoMy they eoay sdl 

Imperfect, — should^ might, would sell. 

Vendiera, vendiiMef wndaria^ I diould, mighty would 

sell. 
Vendiiras, vendihes^ venderias^ thou shouldst, mightst^ 

wouldst sell. 
VendUrOf vendiise^ vejideria^ he * uld, mighty would 

•1. 
Vendi&ramoSy vendi^wmos^ rr:r\r.ujnos, we should^ 

might, would sell. 
Vendiirais, vendi^eisj venderiaU, ye should, mighty 

would sell. 
Vendikran, vendiesen, venderian, they should, might, 

wnnildselL 

Perfitst. — may have soldL 

Hdya vendido, I may have sold. 
Hay as vendido, thou mayst have sold* 
Hdya vendido, he may have sold. 
Haydmos vendido, we may ha^e sold. 
Haydis vendido, ye may haye flold. 
Hdyan vendido, they may haT« sold. 

• 

Pluperfect — should, nighty vould h«ve jSoU. 

Hvbiera, huhiese, hahAa, vendido, I should, might, 

would have sold. 
Hubieras, hubieses^ habriaSy vendido, thou shouldst, 

mightst, wouldst have sold. 
Hubikra^ hubiese, habr'ia, vendido, lie should, might, 

would have sold. 
Hubi6ramos, hubHsemos, hahrimnos, vendido, we Elioidd, 

migtit, would feave sold. 



wrruiH/oQr. 6B 

Hubiirait, hubh^KU, AoMm, vendldo^ ye should, 

might, would have idd. 

HubiSrjm, huMseUj kabrian, vmdido, they shoald« 

mighty would Inve told. 

Future Imperfict. — ^if should sell. 

8i vendiire, if I s^ouKl sell. 
Si vauUSm, if thou shouldst selL 
Si vendiSre, if he should sell. 
Si vendHremoB, if we should sell. 
Si vendiireis, if ye should selL 
Si vendieren, if they should sell. 

Future Perfect — if should have sold. 

Si hubiere vendtdo, if I should have sokL 
Si hubieres vendido, if thou shouldst have sold. 
Si hvbikre vendido^ if he should have sold. 
Si hubitremoa vendido, if we should have sold. 
Si hubi^reis vendido, if ye should have sold. 
Si hubieren vendido, if they should have sold. 

Infinitive* 

Present. 

VendSr^ to sdL 

Perfect. 
Haber vendidoy to have sold. 

Gerund, 
Vendiendoy sellitig. 

Compound of the Gerund* 
Hdbihndo vendido^ having sold. 

Pcurticiple, 
Vendido, sold. 

Third Conjugation. Unir^ To unite. 

Indicative. 
Pretent, — ^imiite. 



Uno, 1 unite. 
Unes, thou unitest. 
Une, he unites 



Unknos, we unite. 
UniB, ye unite, 
l/nen, th^y unite. 



64 BTTMOU>OT. 

Imperfict, — ^united, or was uniting. 



Unia, I united. 
Uni<u, thou unitedst. 
TJniay he united. 



Uniamof, we united. 
Uniais, ye uuited. 
Unian, they united. 



Perfect Indefinite, — united. 



Uni, I united. 
Uniste, thou unitedst. 
Uni6f he united. 



Unimos, we united. 
Unisteis, ye united. 
Uniiron^ they united. 



Perfect Definite. — ^have united. 

JTe unido, I have united, 
/fas unido, thou hast united. 
jFTirz unido, he has united. 
Hemos unido, we have united. 
Habeia unido, ye have united, 
j^a/i unido, they have united. 

Pluperfect — ^had united. 

Huhe, or kabia, unido, I had united. 
Hubiste, or kablas, unido, thou hadst united 
Hdbo, or habia, unido, he had united. 
Hubimos, or habiamos, unido, we had united. 
JlubUteis, or Aa6iaz«, unido, ye had united. 
Hubikron, or habian, unido, they had united. 

Future Imperfect, — shall, or will unite. 



Uniri, I shall unite. 
Vnir&s, thou shalt unite. 
UniriL, he shall unite. 



Unir^mos, we shall unite. 
Uniriis, ye shall unite. 
Unirkn, they shall unite. 



Future Pc^jferf.*— rfiall or will have united. 

Habri unfdo, I shall have united. 
Habrks unido, thou shalt have united. 
Ilabrk unido, he shall have united. 
Habr^moB unido, we shall have united. 
Hahriis unido, ye shall have united. 
Habrkn unido, they shall have united. 



Une ti&j unite thon. 
Una Sit let him unite. 
Undmos nosdtros, let us unite. 
Unid vosotroa, unite ye. 
Unan ellos, let them unite. 

Subjunctive. 

Present. — may unite* 
Una, I may unite. 



Unas, thou mayst unite. 
Una^ he may unite. 



Undmos, we may unite. 
UndiSy ye may unite. 
Unan, they may unite. 



Imperfect. — should, might, would unite. 

Umera, uniSse, uniria, I should, might, would unite. 
Uniiras, uniises, unirias, thoU shouldst, mightst, 

wouldst unite. 
Unikra^ uniSse, uniria, he should, might, would unite. 
UnUramos, uniAsemos, uniriamos, we should, might, 

would unite. 
UnUrais, tmi&seis, uniAais, ye should, might, would 

unite. 
Umeran, uniksen, unirian, they should, mighty would 

unite. 

Perfect. — ^may have united. 

Hdya unido, I may have united. 
Hdyas unido, thou mayst have united. 
Hdya unldo, he may have united. 
Haydmos unido, we may have united. 
Haydis unido, ye may have united. 
Hdyan unido, they may have united 

Pluperfect. — should, might, would have united. 

Hubiera, hubiSse, habrta, unido, I should, might,would 

have united. 

Hubiiras, hubiSses, habrias, unido, thou shouldst, 

mightst, wouldst have united. 

Hubiira, hubiSse^ habria^ unido, he should, might. 

would have united. 



Hubiiramo9, hubi^teimm^ JkaMamos, unido, we should, 

might; would have imitaL 
Hvhi^raUt hubi^seis, habriais, unido, ye should, migii^ 

would have united. 
Hubiiran^ htibiisen, habrlan, unido, theyshould»migh^ 

woidd have unitedL 

FvJbwrt Imperfect. — if should unite. 

8i unikre, if I should unite. 
8i uaiSre$f if thou shouldst unite. 
Si unikre, if he should unite. 
Si vM&reaio», if we should unite. 
Si uniireis, if ye should unite. 
Si uniSreHj if they should unite. 

Ftiiure Perfect. — if should faaye united. 

Si hubiire vnido, if I should have united. 
Si kubiSres unido, if thou shouldst have united. 
Si hubikre unido^ if he should have united. 
Si hwbiiremos unido, if we should have united. 
Si hubii&reit unido, if ye should have united. 
Si hubiiren unido, if they should have united. 

Infinitive. 

JProtnt* 
Unfrf to unite. 

PerficL 
Hdbkr unid^j to hare nmted* 

Gerund. 
Unitndo^ uniting. 

Compound of the Gerund. 
Habikndo unido, having wdled 

Participle. 
Umido, united. 



BrrifouooT. ^ 

&r heridot lo lie wounded. 

Freient — am wounded. 

8inf herUh, I am wounded. 
Eres kerido, thou art wounded. 
Es keridoy he is wounded. 
SSmos heridoSf we are wounded. 
iS^M herldos, ye are wounded. 
iSoTt heridos, they are wounded. 



Invperfid, was wounded* 

£ra hertdOf I was wounded. 
£ra« heridoy thou wast wounded. 
J^ra hendo^ he was wonaded. 
Ermmm keridoi, we were wounded. 
JSraiff Aerltfot, ye wei«e wounded. 
. J^nsR heridoB, they were wounded 

Perfect Indefinite. — ^was wounded. 

FuY kertdo, I was wounded. 
FuUte hertdOj thou wast wounded* 
Fu^ heridOy he was wounded. 
Fuimos heridos, we were woMocUd. 
Fuisteis heridos, ye were wounded. 
Fwkron heridm^ they were wounded. 

Perfect Definite. — haTe been wounded* 

He stdo kerido^ I have been wounded. 
Has sido herido, thou hast been wounded. 
Ha sido herido, he has been wounded. 
HSmos sido heridos^ we have been wounded. 
HabSis sido heridos, ye have been wounded. 
Han sido heridos, they have been wounded. 

Pluperfect, — ^had been wounded. 

Huhe, or hahia^ sido herido, I had been wounded. 
Hubiste, oxhahias, sido herido, thou hadst been wounded. 
Hubo^ or habia, sido herido^ he had been wounded. 






iS8 ETTMOJLOOT. 

HtMmoi, or habiamos, sido herido$, we had been 

wounded. 
Htdfisteis, or habiais, tido heHdoB, ye had been wounded. 
Hubiiron, or hahian, sido her{do8, they had been 

wounded. 

Future Imperfect. — shall be or will be wounded. 

Ser^ her(do, I shall be wounded. 
Ser^ herido, thou shall be wounded. 
Serk kerido, he shall be wounded. 
Serimos heridos, we shall be wounded. 
Serais heridos, ye shall be wounded. 
8era.n heridos, they shall be wounded. 

Future Perfect. — shall or will have been wounded. 

Habri sido herido, I shall have been wounded. 
Habr&s sido herido, thou shalt have been wounded. 
Hahrk sido herldo, he shall have been wounded. 
Hahrirrws sido heridos, we shall have been wounded. 
Habr^is sido heridos, ye shall have been wounded. 
Hahrkn sido heridos, they shall have been wounded. 

Imperative. 

Se tu herido, be thou wounded. 
Sia il herido, let him be wounded. 
Sedmos nosStros heridos, let us be wounded. 
Sed vosStros heridos, be ye wounded. 
Sean Silos heridos, let them be wounded. 

Subjunctive. 

Present. — may be wounded 

SSa herido, I may be wounded. 
SScu herido, thou mayst be wounded. 
S&a herido, he may be wounded. 
Sedmos heridos, we may be wounded. 
Sedis heridos, ye may be wounded. 
SSan heridos, they may be wounded. 



/ 



BTTMOJLOGT. 6BL 

Imperfect — should, might, would be wounded. 

Fukra^fiiktf serlOf herido^ I should, might, would be 

wounded. 
FukrcUj fvkuMy serias^ herido^ thou shouldst, mightst, 

wouldst be wounded. 
Fuira, Jukse^ aerla^ heiidbf he should, might, would 

be wounded. 
Fu^ramoSj fuAsemos^ geriamos, herldos^ we should, 

might, would be wounded. 
Fidrais, fit^seis^ ser\ai», heridos, ye should, might, 

would be wounded. 
FueraUj fmiieny seriariy kertdos^ they should, might, 

would be wounded. 

Perfect, — may have been wounded. 

Hdya sldo heridoy I may have been wounded. 
Hdyas sldo herido^ thou mayst have been wounded* 
Hdya sido herido, he may have been wounded. 
Haydmos sido heridosy we may have been wounded. 
HaydU sldo heridos, ye may have been wounded. 
Hdyan sido heridos^ they may have been wounded. 

Pluperfect, — should, might, would have been wounded. 

Huhiera sido '\ I should have been ^ !g 

Hubiese sido y-heridoy I might have been V g 

Hahria sido J I would have been j g 

• 

Hubiiras sido '^ thou shouldst havebeen'^ ^ 

Ilubieses sido >herld0y thou mightst have been > g 
Habrias sido J thou wouldst have been J o 

■ 

Hubiera sido '^ he should have been 

Hubiese sido y-herido, he might have been 
Hahria sido j he would have been 

Hubi^ramos sido^ we should have been 

Hubiisemos sido >Acrl o?, we might have been 
Habriamos sido J we would have been 





1 



n 



HiM^raU atdo *1 ye should have been 

JfuhiimmsUh >kiridot^ ye migbt b«fe beta 
HahAais Hdo J ye would have been 




HuMran8§di> '\ they should have been "^ ^ 

HubU$en Hda >ktrido8, tbcy might have been V g 
Habrian sldo J they would have been J g 

FviuTt InvperfecL — If should be wounded. 

Sifiiire kerido^ if I siMMild be wounded. 
Sifuere$ htrlS^ if thou shouldst be wounded. 
Sifuere herids^ if he should be wounded. 
I^fwhranoi keridotf if we should be wounded. 
Sijwkreis heridos^ if ye should be wounded. 
SiJuSren heridoa, if they should be wounded. 

Future Pafect. — ^if should have been wounded. 

Si kuhiert sldo herldoj if I should have been wounded* 
Si hubiira Mo ketido^ if tbon shooldsi have beeu 

wounded. 
Si hulnireMo herido^ if he should have been wounded. 
Si hubukr€mo9 tido heridosy. if we should have been 

wounded. 
8i kuhiiLreia tido keridos, if ye should have been 

wounded. 
9i ktdfi&ren, ildo herldot, if they should have benn 

wounded. 

Injirntive. 

Present 
Set herido, to be wounded. 

Perjkct, 
Habir sldo herldo, to have been wounded. 

Gerund, 
Siindo htrido^ having been wcKinded. 

Compound of the Gerund, 
HabUndo sldo kerido^ having been wounded. 

Participle. 
HerldOy wounded. 



wwwmoiomt. 



71 



VISW OF A VERB COKJCGATBD AS BBPLSCTIVB. 

Alaharse^ to praise ones seIC 
Indicative. 



To me aldbOf 
Till te aldbas^ 
El se alabtty 



Me alahdba, 
TeaUdxibas, 
Se aldbdhay 

Perfed IndefiMie^ 
Me alabe, 
Te alabdste^ 
Se aLab6y 



myself. 
NosStros n(» alabdmoi 
VosStros 08 cUabdiSf 
Ellas se aldban. 

Imperfect — upraised myself. 

Nos alabibamoSf 



Se alabdbtau 

—praised mjie^ 
No$ alakdmoBf 

Se aUMron, 



Perfect DefiTtHe, — ^harc praised myselfl 



Nos hemos alaJbddo^ 
0.9 habkU alabddOf 
Se han alabddo. 



Me he alabddo, 
Te has aJabddoy 
Se ha alabddo, 

PluperfecL—hsA praised myself. 
Me hube^ or habia, alabddo, 
Te hubistef or habias, alabddo^ 
Se huboy or habia^ alabddo, 
Nos hubimos, or habiamos, alabddo^ 
Os hubisteisy or habiais, alabddo, 
Se hubvkron, or babian, alabddo. 

Future Imperfect. — i^all praise mys^f. 



Me cdabariy 
Te cUabariSy 
Se alabar^ 

Future Perfict, — shall have praised mysel£ 



iVcw alabmrimtm, 
Os alabar6is, 
Se alabar&n. 



Me habnk alabddo, 
Te habrks alabddo, 
Se kabrk alabddo. 



Nos habrimos alabddo^ 
Os habriis alabddo, 
Se habr^ alabdda. 



Imperative. 
AldiaU t^ pxaise thou thyself. 



J^2 BTYMOLOGT. 

Aldbese 41, let him praise himself. 
Alabemonos notStros^ let us praise ourselves. 
Alabdos vosStroi^ praise ye yourselves. 
Aldbense Sllos^ let them praise themselves. 



Subjunctive^ 

Present. — ^may praise myself. 

No8 eUabetnos, 
Os atabiis, 
Se aldben. 



Mealdbe^ 
Te cMbeSy 
Se aldbe. 

Imperfect, — should, mi^ht, would praise myself. 

Me edabdraj alabdse, alabarla, 

Te (dabdras, cUahdsea, alabarias^ 

Se alabdra, eUabdse, cdabaria, 

No8 alabi,ramos, akzb&semos^ cUabaAamos, 

Os alabkrais, cUab&seiSf alabariaU, 

Se alabdran^ alabdseriy alabarian, 

. Per^—may have praised myself. 

Me hdya alabddo, Nos haydmos alabddo, 

Te hdycLS alabddo, 
Se hdya alabddo. 



Os haydis alabddo^ 
Se hdyan alabddo. 



Pluperfect — should, mighty would have praised mysdf 

Me hnhiira, hubiese, kabria, alabddo^ 

Te hubiSraSy hubieses, habrias, alabddo^ 

Se hubibra, hubiese, habria, alabddo, 

Nos hubiiramos, hubiisemos, habriamos, alabddo, 

Os hubi^raisy hubieseis, habriais, alabddo^ 

Se hvbieran, hubiesen, kabrian, alabddo. 

Future Imperfect,— if should praise myself 



Si me alabdre. 
Si tealabdres. 
Si se alabdre. 



Si nos alabtremos. 
Si OS alab^Lreis, 
Si se dtahdren. 



Future Perfect. — ^if should have praised myself 



Si me hubikre alabddo. 
Si te hubieres alabddo, 
Si se hubikre alabddo. 



Si nos hubv^remos alabddo^ 
Si OS hubiireis alabddo. 
Si se hubieren alabddo^ 



BTTMOLOGT. 7^ 

Infinitive^ 

Present, 

Alahdrset tp praise one's self. 

HabSrse alahddo, to have praised one's self. 

AlahdndosCy praising one's self. 

HabiSndose cUabddOj having praised one's self 

AlabddOy praised. 

On Verbs used Interrogatively or Negatively. 

When we ask a question^ the subject comes after 
the verb ; as ^ Ftvia tu padre entonces ? Was your 
father then alive ? But the subject sometimes ele- 
gantly follows the verb^ when no question is asked; 
^a^Vivia entonces mi ahuelo matemOy My mother's 
father was then alive. — Gil Bias, ch. v. 

N.B. When the verb is negatively used, the no 
must precede it ; as, Yo no como^ I do not eat ; 
^ No ayunard tu padre manana f Will not your 
lather &st to-morrow ? ^ No ha visto vm. al rey ? 
Have you not fieen the king ? Si^ pero mi hijo no 
le ka visto, Yes^ but my son has not seen him. 

OF THE PARTICIPLE. 



A Participle is a word derived from a verb, and 
resembUng m its properties both verbs and adjec- 
tives. 

A Participle (so called from its participating of 
the nature of the verb from which it is derived) re- 
isembles its primitive^ because it denotes beings 
action, or suffering; as, He sido pobreylhsLve been 
poor ; TU has escnlo los nombres. Thou hast writ- 
ten the names; Se han impreso varias obras. 
Several works have been printed. And it has also 
the properties of an adjective, because it qualifies 
the noun to which it is applied with the variations 
of gender, number, and case : as, Los nonibres 

B 



74 wryuouoGYm 

jtscritos, The written names ; JEn las obras trnpre- 
sas^ In the printed works, 

Spanish verbs have two participles^ called the 

{)resent participle, and the past participle. The 
atter, from its being use^l to form passive verbs, 
has obtidned the name of the passive participle. 

All verbs have not a present participle, and in 
many verbs it retains only its adjective property. 
The present participld^ ends in ante for the first^ 
and in iente for the second, or third, conjugation. 
The passive participle for the first conjugation 
ends in ado, and for the second or third in ido* 
Those which end otherwise are called irregviwt 
participles. 

OF ADVERBS. 

An Adverb is a part of speech which, being joined 
to verbs, serves to modify their signification ; a% 
Habla concisameniey He speaks concisely. 

Adverbs are also joined to an adjective, or to a 
mbstantive used adjectively, or even to another 
adverb, in order to express some circumstance^ 
degree, quality, or manner of its signification ; as. 
El juez es mvy severo, The judge is very severe ; 
El es muy ninoy He is very childish j Lo digo 
muy seriamentey I say it very seriously 5 ma^ des- 
pacioy more slowly, &c. 

Adverbs formed from adjectives, or from other 
adverbs, by the addition of a word or syllable, are 
called compound ; and those adverbs from which 
others are formed are termed simple : thus the ad- 
verbs facilmentey easily; felizmentey happily; are 
compounds of the adjectives fdcily easy ; feliz^ 
happy ; and from the simple adverb masy more^ 
is formed the compound ademasy besides ; &c. 

Adverbs are divided according to their meaning 
into several classes. Their chief divisions are into 
adverbs of placcy timcy manner y or quality , quan- 



JBTXMOJLOOy. 



75 



i 



iity^ comparisonj order^ qffirmationy negation, 
and doubt. The following are some of those whidi 
belong to each of the foregoing classes. 



• 


Of Place. 




Acd, 


hither. 


Dentro, 


within. 


AquU 


here. 


FuerOf 


withoat* 


AhK 


there. 


Arriba^ 


up. 


AUU 


thither. 


AhaxOy 


down. 


AUd, 


yonder. 


Ddantej 


before. 


Cercay 


near. 


Detra^ 


behind. 


LSjos, 


far. 


Encifna, 


upon. 


DoTtdCf 


where. 


Dd>a3K), 


under. &c. 


Adonde^ 


whither. 








Cf Thne. 




Hey, 


to-day. SiemprCy 


always. 


Ayer, 


yesterday. Nunca^ 


never. 


JMfanafuZf 


to-morrow. 


JamdSy 


never. 


Ahoray 


now. 


Ya, 


already. 


LuegOy 


presently. 


AmenudOf 


often. 


Tmrde, 


late. 


ArvteSy 


before. 


TetnpTonoif 


soon. 


Despuea,^ 


after, ftc. 




Of Manner. 




Bien, 


well. 


DapaeiOy 


slowly. 


Mai, 


badly. 


Alto, 


loudly. 


jaSly 


thus. 


BOJM), 


lowly. 


Pront&,f 


readily. 


PrestOyf 


quickly. 


Reehy 


strongly. 


Fuertemente, strongly. 


Apriesay 


hastily. 






N.B. To iiiis elaas bdopg almost all the adverbs 


which end i 

t 


Ktnente. 

Of Qiumtiiy. 




Muchoy 


much. 


Bastanie, 


enough. 


PoCOy 


fittle. 


Harto, 


sufficiently. &e. 


Dematiado, 


loo much. 







* To'tiMie nwy be added «na vex, once ; dos vecetf twice; tres 
veeesy thrice ; fmtro vecet, four times. &c. 
t See A« Mwbor s Synonynie) page 31. 

B 2 



'6 



KTYMOLOGY. 



Mas, 
Menos^ 



PrimerOt 



Aun, 



No, 



Of Comparison, 

more. Peor, 

less. Muy, 

better. Casi, 

Of Order. 
first. I Despites, 

Of Affirmation. 
eyen. | Si, 

Of Negation. 
no. I Tampoco, 



nor. 



I 



worse* 
very, 
almost. &C. 



afler. &c. 



yes. &c. 



neither. &C 



Of Doubt. 

Acaso, perhaps. | Pro&a&Zemenfe,probably.&c. 

There are also many expressions which^ from 
their having the same import as adverbs, have ob- 
tained the name of adverbial moods or expres- 
sions; such as hacia allij towards there, or towards 
that place ; despues de mananay after to-morrow ; 
^';i duday indubitably. &c. 

PREPOSITIONS. 

A Preposition is a part of speech which serves 
1» show the relation which one word bears to 
another ; as, En el pais de Iqs enemigos^ In the 
enemy's country. 

The following are the principal prepositions in 
Spanish : 



A, 


to or at. 


HdciOt 


towards. 


Ante, 


before. 


Hasta, 


till. 


Con, 


with. 


Para, 


for. 


Contra, 


against. 


Por, 


by or for. 


De, 


of or from. 


Segun, 


according to* 


Desde, 


from. 


Sin, 


without. 


En, 


in. 


Sobre, 


upon. 


Entre^ 


between. 


Tras, 


behind. 



VTYMOLOGir. ^^ 

OF CONJUNCTIONS. 

A Conjunction has been defined to be that part 
of speech which connects words and sentences 
together ; as, La justicia y la misericordia son 
atfibutos divvnosj Justice and mercy are divine 
attributes ; Ir^ d verle^ y se lo preguntar^, I sliall 
go to see him, and will ask him about it. 

The Spanish Academy has distributed conjunc- 
tions into the following classes : 

Conjunctive :— as, y,* and ; ni, nor ; que, that. 
Example, Pedro y Juan, Peter and John ; No sali- 
eron ni Pedro ni Juan, Neither Peter nor John 
went out. N.B. When the sentence begins with 
no. the first ni may be left out. 

Disjunctive : — as, o,* or, either ; as Vendrd el 
hombre 6 la mtiger, The man or the woman will 
come. 

Conditional : — ^as^ si, if ^ como, as ; con tal que, 
provided that. Example, Si aspiras d ser docto, 
estudia. If thou dost aspire to be learned, study. 

Causal : — as, porqtce, because j pues, puesque, 
since. Example, Nopuedo ir, porque estoy coxo, 
I cannot go, because 1 am lame ; Pues me lopre^ 
guntas, te lo contar4. Since thou askest me about 
it, I will relate it to thee. 

Continuati ve : — as, pues, then ; puesto que, since. 
Example, Digo pues que salio de aquel peligro, I 
say then that he came out of that danger. 

Comparative : — as, como, as ; asi, so ; asi como, 
as. Example, Blanco como la nieve. White as 
snow ; Asi como lo digo, asi lo aprendi. As I say 
it, so I learned it. 



* ^ is substituted for y when ihe word following the conjunction 
begins with t, or with hi / as, moHcia 6 ignorancia, Padre 6 hijo.'yfe 
also exchange 6 for u, when the word foUowing begins with ano .* w, 



78 BTyMOU>OY, 

Adversative: — ^as^ masy pero, but; aunque, 
though. Example, Quisiera ir^ mas no puedo, I 
should like to go, but I cannot ; Ms rico^ pero no 
dichosoy He is rich, but not happy. 

Objective : — aB^para que, that, or in order that 5 
qfin de que^ to the end that; Example, Te to 
digo para que se lo escribas, I tell it thee that thou 
mayst write it to him. 

Those conjunctions which contain only one 
word, as, como, pero, &c. are called simple ; and 
those which are formed with different words, as, 
OM comoypara que, &c. are denominated compound 
conjunctions. 

OF INTERJECTIONS. 

An Interjection is a part of speech which ex- 
presses some emotion of the mind; ei,s,ola! hoUai 
cMto ! hush ! 13^ / oh 1 &c. 

Observaiunu 

The ten parts of speech which have been .explalnedy 
comprise all the different species of words of which the 
Spanish language is composed : every word therefore in 
the language must necessarily be referred to some one 
of these ten divisions : but as words are always attached 
to these ten classes according to their import in <he 
sentence, a word may be made to vary its class accord- 
ing to the various manners in whidi it is used : hence 
d and iik (the and thoUj the one an article and the other 
a pronoun) may both be made to stand In the place oi 
nouns ; as is the case in the following sentences : No 
puedo pronundar el bien, I cannot pronounce the well; 
No s6 d accusativo de tA, I do not know the accusative 
of thoum The same word may be also found as an ad- 
jective or adverb according to the manner in which it is 
employed : thus, in un homhre baxo de cuerpo^ a man 
low in stature, lotv is in both languages an adjective ; 
but, in hable vm. baxo, speak low^ the adjective becomes 



ISTYMOLOGY. 79 

an adverb in both lan^ages. In the same manner 
mananOj to-morrow^ which, in Vendrk manana, I shall 
come tO'tnorroWy is an adverb ; in Manana e» dia de 
ayuno. To-morrow is a fast day, is used as a substantive. 
Many more instances might be adduced of the variation 
in class which some of the parts of speech are capable 
of undergoing ; but the foregoing examples are suffi- 
cient to convince learners that, without a strict atten- 
tion to the import of ^e word in the sentence, the 
class to which it belongs can seldom be accurately 
aacertaiDiMl. 



80 



SYNTAX. 



Syntax treats of sentences, fixes the proper 
arrangement of their component parts, and shows 
how the various modifications of words are to be 
correctly employed, 

A sentence has been defined to be an assemblage 
of words forming a complete sense. 

Syntax is divided into two parts. Concord and 
Government. 

Concord is the agreement of one word with an- 
other, in number, gender, case, or person ; as, Yo 
escriboy I write. Here yo is the nrat person of the 
singular number, and escribo is also the first person 
of the same number : these two words, therefore, 
are said to agree in number and person. 

Government or Regimen is the power of one 
word over another when it determines its case, 
tense, or mood ; as. La matard. He will kill her. 
Here matard is an active transitive verb, governing 
the pronoun in the objective case. 

There are four species of concords. 

1st. Between the article and noun. These agree 
in number, gender, and case ; as, £1 valor de las 
tropasj The valour of the troops. N. B. This is 
likewise the agreement of two nouns used in 
apposition. 

2d. Between the noun and the adjective. These 
also agree in gender, number, and case ; as, Xa 
victoria gloriosa de los valerosos patriotas. The 



SYNTAX. 81 

glorious victory of the valiant patriots. N. B. Pto- 
ticiples adjectively used have also this species of 
concord. 

3d. Between the antecedent and the relative. 
These always agree in gender and number^ and 
sometimes also in case ; as, Entregu^ las cartas 
k las senoras para las quales se escribi^ron, I de- 
livered the letters to the ladies for whom they were 
written ; JEstas son las senoras para las quales se 
escribi^on las cartas, These are the ladies for 
whom the letters were written. The second ex- 
ample exhibits the relative as agreeing in gender 
and number only with its antecedent, the relative 
being in the objective case, whilst the antecedent 
is in the nominative. 

4th. Between the subject and the verb. These 
agree in number and person ; as, Yo soy, I am ; 
nosotros somas, we are ; ^llos vienen, they come. 



b8 



I 



PART THE SECOND. 

[Having emunerated and defined the different species of words of 
which the Spanish language is composed, I shall in this Part lay down 
the necessary rules to learn how to produce the correct agreement 
and right arrangement of words in a sentence.] 



RULES 

OF 

ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX. 



AGREEMENT OF THE ARTICLE. 

RuLJB 1. The article agrees in geiukr^ number, 
and case^ with the noun to which it is prefixed 5 ^ 
El libro contema los eo- The book contained the 
mentarios de los doc^ commentaries of the 
tores deh^ universidad doctors of the univer- 
sobre las profe(nas de sity on the prophecies 
los prof etas. of the prophets. 

Hote a. — Feminine vouQS, beginning with a or Aa, and having th^ 
accent on the iir*t syllable^ take in the singular the masculine article ; 
as, Motel area aniiabasobre las QgtuUy But the ark moved upon the 
-waters. 

Note hj^^Tkmt article e/ iosep the e after the nn^iositions de Cf4, 
to whicb pnepositions the ooffsooant of the article is then joined ; ai^ 
dei autor, of the author ; al libro, to the book ; instead of de ei sut^ 
tor, 4 el Ubro, N. B. El preceding an epithet does not lose the et 
al^ 9»gr6 ei dictaSe de «1 BataUador, he obtained iSoB svraamf of 
tke fi^Uier ; dienm a eu rqf tt dictsuU lie A Dnaada^ tbe^ g»v0 
their iu^g the surname 0/ tke Desired. 

Plural Number^ 

Rule 2. Nouns ending in a vowel which is not 
marked with the accent^ take an s in the plural ; ns 
Met/nOy reynosy Kingdom, kingdomji* 

Corona^ eormkOMy Cxowii, €ix>wAfi. 



84 



BULBS OF BTYMOLOGT 



RuLB 3. Noons which end in an accented vowel^ 
or in a consonant^* take es in the plural ; as 
Alholiy alholies, Granary^ granaries 
Arboly drboles, Tree^ trees. 
Imdgen, imdgenes, Image^ images. 
FloTyfloreSf Flower, flowers. 

Note a. — Nouns ending in ay or ey take et in the plural ; as^ r«y, 
rejrn; «jr, aye«. 

Nouns which do not increase in the Plural. 

Cortaplumas^ penknife; iocamudas^ toothdrawer; 
sacatxapoB^ corkscrew ; brindis^ a drinking toast ; Ldnes^ 
Monday; Mdrtes, Tuesday; MihrcoUsy Wednesday , 
Jueves, Thursday ; Viimes, Friday. 

Thefollovnng Nouns are used only in the Plural 



Albricias f, 
alicates 
angarHlas f. 
bofes 
calendas f. 


a giftt 

pincers 

hand-barrow 

lung^ 

calends 


completas f. 
degpabUa- 
deras f. 


complin 
snuffers 


efemerides f. 


ephemeris 


exequias f. 
fasces f. 


exequies 
a bundle of 


fauces f. 
idtis 


twigs 
gullet 
ides 


largas f. 
livianos 


delays 
lights 



Uare$ f. 
maytines 


pot-hanger 
matins 


moddles 


manners 


nonas f. 


nones 


pechugas f. 


the breast of 
birds 


preces f. 
puches f. 
serrujas f. 
tenazas f. 


prayers 
pap 

similitude 
tongs 


tercianas 
tinieblas 


ague 
darkness 


trtbedes f. 


trevet 


visperas f, 
viveres 


vespers 
provisions 



Nouns which from the nature of their meaning 
are used in English in the singular only, do not in 
general admit the plural in Spanish ; as, trigo, 
wheat ; oro, gold, &c. 

* If the final consonant be a «, it must be changed into e; as, but, 
luces, light, lights ; Hariz, narices, nu60 noses ; idpiz, idpieee, pen- 
cil, pencils. 

f The reward bestowed on a messenger of good newa. 



AVD SYNTAX. 86 

OF THE GENDER OF NOUNS 

There are two methods of distinguishing the gen - 
der in Spanish nouns ; first by their meanings 
and secondly by their termination. 

Rule 4, Nouns which signify males^ or which 
denote dignities^ professions^ employments^ &c. 
applicable to men^ are masculine ; and those which 
signify females^ or the dignities, professions^ &c. 
generally applied to women, are feminine; as^ 
hombrej man ; caballo^ horse ; emperador, em- 
peror ; monge, monk ; stzstre, tailor, &c. and 
muger, woman ; gallinay hen ; emperafris, em- 
press ; monja, nun ; costurera, sempstress, &c* 

N.B. Hactty a pony, is always feminine. 

Rule 5. Nouns ending in e, t, or y, (, o, Uy n, 
r, Sy ty Xy aud Zy are generally masculine ; as, talley 
shape; aleliy jilly-flower; clavely pink; cuelloy 
neck ; espirittty spirit ; patiy bread ; collar y collar ; 
mes^ month ; cenity zenith ; reloXy watch ; bamix, 
varnish. 

are ge- 
salud. 



Note a. — ^The nameB of the alphabetic characters^ as well as of 
the figures of rhetoric, poetry, and grammar, (except metaplatmo^ 
pi^onaamo, hyperbaton,) are feminiDe. 

.Wote b. — ^The uameis of sciences, arts, rivers, mountains, ynmia, 
and seasons, follow the rule of their termination : hence Dibuxo, 
Tty'Of Helicon, Norte, Lwiemo, are masculine ; and Teologia, Escui- 
tura, T<xim$a, Thmumtana, Primavera, are feminine ; except Etna, 
which is masculine. 

Note c, — ^Nounsy which are used in the plural only, are of the gen- 
der to which they would belong according to their termination, had 
tbey a singular number : thus, v(vere$, provisions, is masculine ; and 
tenazai, tongs, is feminine, being the genders to which invert and 
ienax^i '•utorM be referred, had the said nouns a singular number: 
except efemiridet, fatcea, fBttiee»f Uaret^ precttf tribede; which Wf 
feminine. 




86 



RUUM OF STTMOLOGT 



Noie tk-^Thm names of the muical Dotei which eompoM (he 
octave are masculine ; 9a el re, el mi, el la, el fa, &c. 

Note e.-^-Proper names of kiogdoms, ciciesy towns, villages^ &c. 
are generally of the same gender as the common came to which 
they belong : thus Toledo is feminine, although it ends in o, because 
ciudad, the common noun to which it is referred, is of that gender : 
but as there are some proper names which, contrary to this rule^ 
»re, when used alone, of the gender of their termination; and as 
the knowledge of these names cannot be obtained without consider** 
able practice, I should recommend learners in particular to mention 
Hie common as well as the proper noun, by which means the gender 
will be. unirersaUy fixed : thus, although we say el Ferrol and ia 
Eapana, when mentioned alone, we express them la ciudad de Eerrolg 
«f reytio de Etpe^a, when preceded by their eomnon nouns. 

Oender of Nouns. 
Exceptions from Rule & 

Femiuine Nouns ending in e. 



corambrt 

corrienie 

corte 

costumbre 

crasicie 

creciente 



crencke 

cuT/tbrf 



AgtiacMrle sUpsIop 

alaehe shad 

aUine chickweed 

ave a fowl 

azumhre a measure 

harharie barbarity 

hose basis 

ccUvicie baldness 

calle street 

capdardenie a funeral pile 

caridtide caryatides 

ceame ^sii 

coidtitrofe catiotropfae 

certidufnhrc eeartalntj 

churre grease 

dme elaef 

daoe key 

,i„„^l^ f dimber r« \Mimgt 

4^ pUmtJ fame 

cohorU cohort fam 

compages a joint f^ 



hide 

stream 

court 

custom 

plumpness 

flood tide 

{the parting of 
the haix 
summit 



dtdceaumhre sweetness 



ekUine 
enante 

tpipdcHde 

esfenyd^ 

especU 

estirpe 

dibpide 



waterwort 
a herb 

{bastard heUe* 
bore 

spheroid 
i^ecies 



{■eiarea. (a 
plant) 
phalanx 
luiQger 



faith 



AMOCTHVAX. 



V 



JUm>t 

fuenU 

gtnie 

hamhre 

helice 

hdxine 

hemionite 
herrumbre 



fever 

forehead 

fountaui 

people 

hunger 

helix 

pellitory of 

the wall 
hemioniiiB (a 

plant) 
rust of iron 



hojaldrt a kind of cake 

incertidwmbre uncertainty 



indole 
ingle 

intemp^He 
kmde 

landre 

laringe 

laude 

leehe 

legumbre 

lente 

liehre 

liendre 

lite 

Uave 

lumbre 

mansedumbre meekness 

mengtumte ebb tide 

mente mind 

mole mass 

molide efieminacy 

miichedumbremvliitud^ 

muerte death 



temper 

groin 

intempetate- 

ness 
a species of 

acorn 
a glandular 

swelling, 
larynx 
praise 
milk 
pulse 
lens 
hare 
nit 

iitigation. 
key 
fire 



mugrt 

nave 

nieve 

noche 

nube 

paralaxe 

paraadene 

parte 

pcUenie 

pkplide 



pesadumbre grief 



muck 

naTe 

snomr 

night 

cloud 

parallax 

mock-mooii 

portion 

patent 

wild punCids 



peste 

piranUde 

pixide 

planicie 

plebe 

podre 



plague 

pyramid 

pix 

plain 

rabble 

pus 



podredumhrt rottenaeM 
progeaie progeny 
issue 
quietus 
oxide of aalt* 

{the Salve Be- 
gina 
sangre blood 

sede see 

serie series 

eervidumbre serV^itude 



prole 

guide 

salumbre 

salve 



serpiettte 

sirte 

mierte 

iuperficie 

tarde 

teame 

techunibre 

temperie 

tilde 

torre 

trabe 

tripode 



serpent 

quicksand 

chance 

superficies 

aflemoon 

a kind of stone 

roof 

temperature 

tittle 

tower 

beamorgiider 

tripod 



* Akiadolnitwhichatit«oq»reibyexpoMnto 



88 



RULES OF BTYMOLOGY. 



iraxe 
ubre 

urdiembre 
varice 

JMced 
graciadei 



Agumniel 

ccU 

capital 

edrcd 

col 

decretal 



Arrumazon 
harhechazon- 

binazon 

cargazon 
davazon 
din or crin 
demzon 
imdgen 

Mano 



granary 
udder (^ 
warp 
varix 



vdambre /certain nup. 

(^ tial rites 
vislufnbre glimmering 
xiride xirysfaplaTitJ 



Feminine Nouns in i or y. 



diocese 

{gratiola fa 
herb) 
flock 



ley law 

meirSpoli metropolis 

palmacridi palmachristi 

pardfrcui paraphrase. 



Bezoar 

fiOT 

labor 



Feminine Nouns in I. 



hydromel 

lime 

metropolis 

prison 

cabbage 

decretal 

Feminine 

stowage 
fallowing 

time 
the second 
ploughing 
cargo 
. row of nails 
mane 
uneasiness 
image 

Feminine 
hand 

Feminine 

bezoar 

flower 

work 



hiel 
mid 



sal 

senal 

vocal 

Nouns in n, 

phmazon 

razon 

sarten 

sazon 

segazon 

sien 

fdnrazon 

trabazon 



Nouns in o. 
I nao 

Nouns in r. 

segur 
zoster 



gall 

honey 

skin 

salt 

signal 

vowel. 



{the gilders^ 
cushion 
reason 
frying-pau 
season 
reaping-time 
temple 
wrong 
splicing. 



Feminize Nouns in s. 

Anagiris bean trefoil t apoteSsis 
aniiperUtasis antiperistasis ( bacarie 



ship. 



axe 

shingles. 



apotheosis 
flea-bane 



AND SYNTAX. 



89 



colapitciB 

critiB 

diaperisia 

diartrSsis 

diesis 

enfithms 

epiglStis 

elites 

galiSpsis 

hematites 

Mpostasis 

hipStesis 

lis 

mods 



bile 

isinglass 

crisis 

diapedesis 

diarthrosis 

diesis 

emphyteusis 

epiglottis 

fetites 

dead-nettle 

haematites 

hypostasis 

hypothesis 

flower de lys 

mace 



metainSrfO' C metamorpho- 
sis \ sis 



meiemsicO' 



mtes 

pardUblts 
paraUsis 
parenesis 



{metempsy- 
chosis 



crop 
parallax 
palsy 
paranesis 



raquUis 

res 

seUnites 

sindSresis 

sinSresis 

sirUdxls 

tSsls 

iisis 

tos 



X 



rickets 

head of cattle 

selenites 

remorse 

synseresi 

syntax 

thesis 

phthisis 

cough. 



See also feminine nouns in s which are used in the 
plural only^ page 84. 

Feminine Noun in u, 
Tribu I tribe. 

Feminine Nouns in «r. 
saxifrage ] irox granary, 

sardonyx | 

Feminine Nouns in 2. 



Salsifrax 
sardSnis 



Cermz 

cocatriz 

codomiz 

C02 

crux 

fax 

haz 

hez 

hoz 

luz 

fmUriz 

nariz 

N. B. All nouns ending in ez, and denoting qualities 
in the abstract, are feminine ; as, estrechez» narrowness; 
palidezt paleness. 



cervix 


ninez 


childhood 


cockatrice 


nuez 


nut 


quail 

kick 

cross 


paz 

perdiz 

pez 


peace 

partridge 

pitdi 


visage 
bun&e 


pomez 
raiz 


pumice 
root 


dregs 


sobrehaz 


surface 


sicUe 

light 

matrix 


sobrepeUiz 

tez 

vez 


surplice 

complexion 

time 


nose 


voz 


voice. 



90 



RULBS OP BTTMOtjOGT 



Adema 
albacea 
(dcavala 

anagrama 

aneurisma 

antipoda 

aporisma 

apotegma 

axioma 

carisma 

clima 

cometa 

crisma 

dia 

digama 

dUema 

diploma 

dogma 

drama^ 

ed&na 

enigma 

entimema 

epigrama 

esperma 

Etna 



Exceptions firom Rule 6. 
MasciiKne Nouns in u, 

guarda-' T custom-house 

cotta (^ cutter 
guardaropa wardrobe 
guardavda maintoptadde 



prop 

executor 

per-centage 

storax 

ana^am 

aneuriem 

antipode 

echymosis 

apophthegm 

axiom 

divine ^fl 

climate 

comet 

chrism 

day 



diagram 

digamma 

dilemma 

diploma 

dogma 

drama 

oedema 

enigma 

enthymeme 

epigram 

sperm 

Etna 



idioma 

largomira 

lema 

mand 

m^pa 

paradigma 

paragaa 



idiom 

telescope 

lemma 

manna 

map 

paradigm 

umbrella 



pentagra- Tthe musical 
X staff 
planet 
poem 
prism 
problem 

|- essay 

symptom 
system 
sofa 
sophism 

{slap on the 
mouth 
theme 
theorem 
cheer or huzza; 



ma 
planeta 
poemxi 
priifna 
problema 
progim^ 

Tuuma 
sintomu 
nstema 
sofa 
so/isma 

tapaboca 

iema 
teorema 
I viva 



and all those nouns which by their meaning denote 
males ; as» Jesuita, Jesuit ; anacoreta, anchorite ; ana^ 
baptiata, anabaptist, &c. N.B. Although gloria is 
feminine, its compounds, as, gloria patri, gloria in tae- 
ceUis^ &c. are masculine. 

Masculine Nouns in d. 



Adalid 
aJLanvud 



{ 



the chief of a 
band of war- 
riors 

a door bar 



aknvd 
archHav/d 
ardid 
ataud 



a measure 
species oflute 
wile 
coffin 



* And its compounds ; as, mehdrama, Sec. 





AND SYNTAX* 


91 


ceaped 


mtfor sod 


Mid . 


aouth 


huemed 
laud 


^eet j 
lute 


talmud 


iafanud. 


• 


Masculine Nouns in ion. 


Avion 


marten 


morrion 


murrain 


emhrion 


eiubryo 


aluvion 


alluvion 


gorrion 
guion 


sparrow 

standaid 


ehirrion 


ftumbre! or 
\ cart 


sarampion 


meades 


antuvion 


sodden shock; 


and all Uie anj^B^entative noun* which end in ton. 


• 


Nouns of doubtfid gender. 


Album 


certificate 


dote 


dowry 


anMtema 
cisma 


anathema 
sdism 


puenU 
canal 


brid^ge 
canal 


emblema 
hermafrO' 
dita 


emblem 
f hermaphro- 
\ dite 


mdrgen 

Srden^ 

cutis 


margin 

order 

ddm 


nepia 


seal of a letter 


marl 


sea 


TCU7MI 

arte* 


rheum 
art 

Obser 


pringue 
hipSrhak 

vation. 


drippiug 
hyperbole. 



In addition to masculine and feminine noons, there 
are two other species called epicene and common nouns; 
the first comprehends those nouns which, without vary- 
ing tlie article, denote either the masculine or feminine 
of a class ; as, d raton^ the he or she mouse ; la rata^ 
the he or she rat ; d paJto, the duck or drake. To dis- 
tinguish them, it is necessary to add some word descrip- 
tive of tlie sex ; as, d raion hembra^ the she mouse ; la 
rata macko^ the he rat. Common nouns are those 
whidi vary the artielo to show the distinction of gen- 
ders; as, diettigo^ the male witness; la testigo, the 
female witness ; d homicidal the homicide (nan) ; la 
komidda^ the homicide (woman) ; &c. 
•.— — ^— ^— — — ^— — ^— — ^— ' 

* In the plural it is almost always feminine ; as, c/ 4irU diaboikia, 
or e/ arte diaboUeaj the dialxdic ait; iiot artet atectmhtu, mednnie 
arts. 

f When synonymous with command it is fieminine, 

^ All th» commands of mar, a^ Uueamar^ ftc ace kmomm* 



92 RUJJS8 OF BTYMOLOGT 

Use of the Definite jirticle. 

RuLB 7* Nouns taken in a definite sense require 
the article; as 

JEl hombre viene. The man is coming. 

Las virtudesdelossantos, The virtues of the saints, 

RuLB S. Nouns used in their most general sense 
are preceded by the article j as 
JEl hombre peca, Man sins. 

La virtud es amable. Virtue is amiable. 

RuLB 9. Names of empires, kingdoms, coun- 
tries, provinces, mountains, rivers, winds, and sea- 
sons, generally take the article ; as 

Xa Alemania, Germany. 

Iai Inglaterra, England. 

El Pamasoy Parnassus. 

El Otono, Autumn. 

Noie a. — Empires, kingdoms, countries, and provinces, when pre* 
ceded by a preposition, are not usually found with the article^ 
unless they are personified ; as 

ElcUma de Inglaterra^ The climate of England. 

ZfOf etfuerzoa de la InghUerra^ The eiforts of England. 

Note b. — ^Kingdoms bearing the same name as their capital do not 
admit the article; aty Ndpolety Naples. 

Note c«— Custom has assigned the article under all circumstances 
to thik names of some distant empires, &c. ; as, ias catas del Japon^ 
the houses of Japan ; la» collet de la China, the streets of China. 

Rule 10. Nouns of measure, weight, &c. when 
preceded by the indefinite article in English, as an 
equivalent to each, require the article ; as 

Cinco duros la vara, ' Five dollars a yard. 

Dos reales la libra. Two rials a pound. 

Ochenta guineas la bota, Eighty guineas a butt* 

Dos veces al dia, Twice a day. 

Noie a. — If the preposition por be used, we omit the article ; as| 
dnco dutot por vara, five dollars per yard ; dos reakt por libra, two 
rials per pound. 

Nfrie h. — ^It is to be observed, that whenever in similar instances 
/he indefinite article may be changed into the numeral adjective in 
English, it IS to be expressed by the same adjective in Spanish ; at 
He sold a pound for fourpence the first day, and the following day 



AND SYNTAX. 68 

twenty pounds at eight pence a pound. Fendid una iihra par 
quatro peniquet el primer dia, y el dia tigtnenie veinte lihrat d och» 
peniques la libra. 

Rule 11. Senor, senora, senorito, senoritUy 
when used in the third person of both numbers^ 
require the article ; as 
El senor Don Juan, Mr. John. 

Ml senor Pacheco^ Mr. Pacheco. 

ZfO senora Dona Catalina Gomez, Mrs. Catherine 

Gomez. 
La senoriia Perez, Miss Perez. 

Note a. — Don and Dofia must be placed immediately before bap- 
tismal names, but cannot be preceded by tbe article nor used in tne 
plural : as, Doti Juan / Doika Maria; lot te^oref Don Juan Romero 
y Don Luis Gomez* 

Note b. — When a common noun is immediately placed before the 
proper name of an individual, (to denote hts dignity, profession, &c.) 
It 13 generally preceded by the article ; as, iS/ rey Jorge^ King 
George \ Y me envio al Doctor Godinez^ And he sent me to Doctor 
Godinez; Lldmome el Capitan RolandOflam called Captain Ro- 
lando : except Santo; as Santo Tomaa, Saint Thomas. 

Rdlb 12. Numerals, when denoting either the 
day of the month or the hour of the day, generally 
take the article ; as 

Ml sets de Mnero, The sixth of January. 

Ml catorce de Mayo, The fourteenth of May. 
£a una, - One o'clock. 

JLas onze, Eleven o'clock. 

JLas (res y quarto, A quarter after three 

Ims ocho menos quarto, A quarter to eight. 
Zms diez menos veinte Twenty minutes before 

minutos, ten. 

Rule 13. The article is generally repeated be- 
fore every noun enumerated, especially if they 
differ in gender ; as 
Xa F^, la Esperanza,y Faith, Hope, and 

la Caridad, Charity. 

Los dias y las noches, The days and nights. 



* See page 133. 



94 RULES OF STVMOL06Y 



NoU Cp—Whett the noous eaumerated tie followed b^r a word 
which seems to contain them in the aggregate, the article la usually 
omitted; as^ Africanoiy Anaticotf Americanos , y Europeo$ iodoj, 
§on hombret, AfricaoSj Asiatics, Americans^ and £uropeanS| are all 



RuLB 14. Two or more nouns used in apposi- 
tion*^ admit the article only before the first ; as 
Xa ciudcui de Lmidres^ The city of London^ the 
capital de Inglaterra capital of England and 
y residenda del sobe- the residence of the 
ratio, sovereign. 

Jupiter yhijo deSatunio, Jupiter^ the son of Saturn. 

N. B. Two nouns eoming together and denoting the 
same person, admit the article sometimes before each 
of them. See ruott b to Rule 17. 

RuLB 15. Proper names of persons^ places, and 
months, take no article ; as 

Socrates, Socrates. 

Roma, Rome. 

Avrilf .April. 

Note a. — The days of ttie -week aroTery seldom found without the 
article ; as, ei Lunes, Monday ; el Ftimesy Friday. 

Note b, — ^Custom has establisbed the uniform use of the articlo 
before the proper name of some places ; as, ia Corma, Corunna j. el 
Ferroi, Ferrol. 

Note c. — CatOy when preceded by a preposition, and used in the 
sense of Aom«, is seldom found with the* article ; as, Famot a cata, 
let us go heme ; estoy en casa del conde, I am at the count's ; viene 
de catOy he comes from home ; el amo de cam, the neater of tile 
house. 

Note d. — ^Nouas adverbially used are not preceded by the article \ 
asy de coraton, heartily ; con paciencia, patiently 

Rule 1& Nouns taken in a partitive sense are 
never preceded by the article ; as 

Dame pan. Give me bread 

Dale vino. Give him some wine. 

Danos miel^ Give us honey. 

Nate Qf^Bamt waif be also expressed by algun, algutm^ in tlw 
* See observation after Sule 25 



AMD STMTAX. 06 



riagnlMy and by mlgmo§, digmum, and tiiH% imm^ m (k» ploMl; an^ 
mlgmta tmiMf some iak ; wuu p lwm m t^ some pen*. 

J>^e b.-'^Amif interrogatively used is eitker snppraased tntinlyy 
or expressed like xome ; as | hay tUgmuta piumm t or ^kajfpkmumf 
are tbero any pens ? 

Note c. — iSmnc belbre a singular Bonn it eAea «i|nreMed l»y m 
yeco lie^ a littk ; as, dmme tm poc» tit ptm j mm poa^ de sm wuei. 

Note </.— The article is omitted before adjectives^ cilker of Boa* 
ber or of order, when they are preceded by tbe boub to which they 
Ttfiu ; asy Jorge Primero, George the Fint ; OemenU Cmioree, Cle- 
ment the Fourteenth ; Capituh devhnot Chapter the tealb ; Tbaio 
fMMic*, Vohime the fifteenth. N.B* Nameials eBlyaia, g e ae n dly, 
used after twenty ; as JS/ Papa Juam Fcinie jr doe^ Pope Jobm the 
Twenty-second ; Tom» tremia p cmeo, Volunw the thirty-fifth. 

Noie e^— The artide is omitted before the titki of books, cbapten^ 
paragraphs, &a when they aru not the subject or objective case of a 
verb ezpresseil, or the r^^imen of some prepesitioa ; as, Ormmi^ca 
JSipewo/e, diaemrm prcHminar, eapUiUo omce, p&rrafo o^ftrndOf fterm 
ftmrio J and, La Gramatioa BtponHola $e tUmde^ iemM tl diuju w 
freUtniMar, H capUulo once empieea aai^ ei parra/0 eegunda ee Biaiy 
largOy en elp&rrafo tercero del eapitulo veinte y gaiaire dkx el aeder^ 
&C. N. B. When the title of a ho3k relates to a particular indiTidual, it 
may be expressed with or wHhont the article ; as, Aventurat or lae 
Aventuraa de Telemaco ; Obras or las Obras de Cieeron ; Car tat or 
lae Cartas de Plimo. It is however improper to use the article if all 
the adventures, the works, or the letters be not understood. ^<Ti:^. 



NOUNS^ 

RiTUS 17- When two nouns sigmfying different 
things come together in English^ their order is re- 
versed in Spanish^ and the preposition de prefixed 
to the second ; as 

Xa naturaleza del hombre, Man^s nature. 
Cuchara de t^y Tea-spoon. 

Columna de mdrmol, Marble pillar. 

Ml camino de Londre^ The London road 

Note a. — K the second noun is preceded in English by the pm- 
positions of or Ip, the order is preserved ; as. The cathori^ ol tho 
prince, la autoridad del prindpe; brother to the duhe, kerwua» del 
daique. N. B. To, after the words journey, voyage, walk, &c. is aot 
altered in Spanish ; as. Journey to London, vioffe d Lamdresi a walk 
to the Parh, tm pateo al Parftie. 



96 RULBS OF BtYkOLOGT 

NUe 6.— ^Two 8abitaiitiv«9 tSgnifyiiig^ tbe same things admit .£e 
between them when the first seires as a species of epithet for the 
other ; as. El tomto dei amo, the fool of a master ; el p(caro'del criadog 
the rogue of a aerrant. 

Note c. — If the second noun be preceded by of and followed by 
the sign of the possessive case, ('#,) we place the preposition and 
article before botn nouoe ; aa, Two xegiments of the king's^ JPot 4$ 
io9 regitmentoe del rey. 

Note d, — Some compound nouns in English are translated by a 
simple one; as, tetera, tea-pot; moHnilh, chocolate-miU ; cmrtera^ 
letter'Case. 

. Note e, — ^The sign (*«) of the English possessiTe case is rendered 
by <2% even when &e. noun to which it refers is not expressed afWr it 
in English ; as. This house is the ambassador's, esta casm e» delem^ 
basador f Oo to the consurs, ve d eata del comulg He was buried 
at St. Paurs,,^ enterradom la iglesta de Sam Pabh. 

Note/, — ^When the noun which has the mark of the possessive 
case is preceded by the indefinite article in English, it admits of two 
conatractiens in Spanish : thus, a kin^a palace may be transteted 
c/ paiacio de u» rey, the palace of a king, or, vn palado de rcy, a 
palace fit for a king. 

OF ADJECTIVES. 

Their Feminine Dsrmination. 

Rule 18. Adjectives which end in o, an^ or on, 
have their feminine termination in a. Those termi- 
nating otherwise are common to both genders ; as 

El muchacho holgazan. The idle boy. 

La muchacha hoJgazana, The idle girl. 

El hombre ruin, The mean man. 

Lftt muger ruin. The mean woman. 

Ml diafeliz, The happy day. 

ZfU horafeliz. The happy hour. 

Note a.— Adjectives in o change it into a in their feminine ter* 
mination : as, eanto, eanta, holy ; bueno, buena, good ; tabic, sabta, 
wise. 

Note (.-^Adjectives derived from the names of countries, king^ 
doms, provinces, &c. ending with a consonant, admit an a in their 
fBmiaine termination ; as, Etpmwl, EeptaHolaf Spanish ; Saaam, Saxo" 
na, Saxon ; Jndalux^ An€UUuza, Andalusian. 

Note e.*-The last^mentioned species of adjectives are genenlly 
•zpressed by the name of the country, with the preposition de pre- 
fixed^ when the adjective serves to qualify articles of commerce, &c. 
aS| tmmteca de Jrtanda, Irish butter ; cervexa de Inglaierrog English 
beer ; wno de Eepaha, Spanish wine. 



ANP SYNTAX, 9/ 

Nide d. — ^The same construction often takes place when the ad- 
jective is applied to persons ; as^ Ei ambaxador de Etpantif the 
Spanish ambassador ; e/ cdnsui de Inglaten-a, the English consul. 

Plural of Adjectives. 

RuLB 19. The plural of adjectives is formed 
like the plural of substantives ; as, santo, santos, 
Saxon, Saxones, holgazan^ holgazanes, haragana, 
haraganas, ruin, mines, feliz, felices. See Rules 
2 and 3. 

Place of Adjectives, 

Rule 20. Adjectives, and participles used adjec- 
tively, are generally placed after their nouns; as 

Operaciones diflciles. Difficult operations. 

Generates venddos. Conquered generals. 

Soldados heridos. Wounded soldiers. 

Agreement of Adjectives. 

Rule 21. An adjective agrees with its noun 
in gender, number, and case ; as 
Argujnento ridiculo. Ridiculous argument. 
Conclusiones falsas. False conclusions. 

N.B. Adjectives are always put in the masculiue 
when they qualify the feminine noun nada ; as^ nada es 
tan cierto como la muerte, nothing is so certain as 
death. Nouns common to both genders vary the ad- 
jective ; as, d komicidaJuS castigado^ la homicidafiiS 
casOgada^ the homicide was punished. 

Note a. — ^Adjectives are generally prefixed in the tiiree following 
instances : 1st, When they denote the inherent property of the sub- 
ject ; as, tobre el duro mdrmol, upon the hard marble. 2d, When 
used as epithets ; as, el eanbicioso Alexandra^ the ambitious Alexan- 
der. 3d, When they are accented on the antepenult ; as, tm intri' 
jtido gefe, an intrepid chief : hence all superlatives in Uimo are gene- 
rally prefixed ; as, atrociaima maldad^ most atrocious wickedness. 

Note b, — Mttcho and poco should precede their noun ; as, miicho9 
enemigotj many enemies ; poeae tropeu, few troops. 

Note c. — Cierto when not meaning indubitable is placed before ; 
as, derttu propuestat, certain proposals. 

Note i{.---Cardinal numbers, not used to translate ordinal numbers, 
are prefixed ; as, doce diaty twelve days ; el dia doccy the twelfth day. 

Note e. — Adjectives may be either prefixed or postponed when & 
verb intervenes ; as, di/icilea eran las opcracioncSf lot emmiffo* eran 

F 



98 RULES or HrrVMOLOGY 



ifmian jKwot. — N. B. Some adjectives vany tkcir ngK&caAou wiii 
their pUce ; as, buena nidm, \mxnn99& }iSm ; vida hmamn, ▼irtttOTtt lilr; 
papeles varioSf papers oa various subjects ; varioM papeles, sundry 
papers; habitacitm nmeWM^ dwettiii^ newly bmilt; nueva Aabitacion, 
new habitation ; marUU kericUr, dtaa^gttons wo«nd ; Mertda wmrUU, 
mortal wound, &c. 

Note f.-^Todo shoutd precede the nottn ; as, /9(& AomBrt ha iw- 
efVA» para morir, vrvtj man iis l)*nr to die; ^dm tUKmmdebt nmmmi 
none tU hien de la wieefytd, «v«ry aetun ooght to hs diiected t» tbt 
welfare of society. — N. B. If the noun be in the plural, it oaght to bt 
immediately preceded by the article ; as, todot lot hombret han futddbt 
&c. iodas las accionew d^en, Six:. 

Rule 22. Two of more nouns in the singidar 
require their adjective in the phiral ; and in the 
masculine termination if they (fifier in gender; as 
JSl palacio y el templo The magnificent palace 

magnificoSy and temple. 

La torre y la easa derri' The tcrwec and house 

bttdasy overthrown* 

La iglesia y el hospital The chuveb and hoofAtal 

edi^ciuhs par ily buill by him. 

Note a. — An adjective prefixed ta two n«uns singnfar agrees^ 
generally, with the nearest ; as, fhe intrepkl valour and resistance of 
the patiicts, el inir^pido valor y resistencia^ la intr^pida resiatencia y 
vahr de los patriotas. 

RuLB 23. An adjective agrees wkh ibe nearest 
of two OF more pluial nouns, whkh dif&r in gen. 
der ; as^ los efe^tos y riguezas precwsoi, lasTtque^ 
zas y e/ectos preciososj los preciosos efectos y 
riqit€Z€t9, las preciosas riqutzas y efectoSy. Hit 
invaluable riches and effects. 

Note a. — An ae^ectiTe cf two termtni^ons is trnproper to quaKlf 
two nouns which differ bt>th in gender and in number ; as, /a mtrt*^ 
pidez y ht etfHerzo* erwi ettttpemha, riie intrepidity and efibrts were 
wonderful. It is better to use an adjective of one terofitnatioK for 
both, or a distinct adjective for each noun; m, ki inirepideiP f hm 
ea/verros erem cedmirahtef, or Ai iiUrtpidez erm maranUamt y A»t 
tiftierzos ettupendos. 

Note 0. -'Adjectives wheir eonneefiB^ by a veH^ to«» ikW ^ not 
igree with it, but with the individual to whon it is given; as^ tm 
mayeifad Saxona ha estadei mahy his Saxon majesty has been iU ; M 
txcelleneia estd indisjniestOj his excellency is unweM ; fw ^eSSofww 



AlfD SYNTAX, 99 

iam fi A nmf^mehs, tlierr lonhihfps fiaye been appointed ; / eitS vnu 
buenoy »enor f are you well, sir P 

Nate e. — The adjective which follows the reflective pronotro agrees 
tfttb the Bona which the pfonoim represents ; as, el »evi6 ei^^efiiathj 
In saw bhxM^ (ieeeived ; iu rmtgeret se emffaHan i H mitmaty women 



Observation. 

What two or more adjcetive» sonre to qualify a noun 
sabstantire ivhich is in the plural, they do not agree 
with ft in number, provided the plural of the substantive 
be composed of nouns of different species^ and yet in* 
dudiBg^ faiit one of eadi speeies ; asy dicdmrnrio de las 
lenguas Espanola, Inglesa^ p hatma^ a dictionary of the 
Spanish, English, and Latin languages ; here lenguca 
is in the plural, and yet the three adjectives by which it 
fa qaalifi«drem»n iD the »i>sul«r.and cannot be changed 
without destroying^ the sense. Fearfbl that this disthic* 
fion will not be readily understood, because EIngltsh 
a^ectives are always indeclinable^ I shall endeavour to 
illustrate the remark by stating a ease. Suppose I waot 
to describe three dresses, a black, a blue, and a white, I 
should say, descripcion de losvesiidos, negro, aztd, y bianco r 
cbangethennmber of the adjectives, and sayt detcnpeion 
de lo$ vesHdot^ ft^gret^ azules^ y blaneos ; it then implies 
that there are more than one dress <^ each colour : alter 
the number of the substantive, and express it, descripeiau 
del vestido negro, azut, y bianco ; the meaning then is, 
thai there is only one dress, in which the three colours, 
black, bhie, and white, are blended together. 

Jldfeeiives whieb become defective when placed 

before their Nouns. 
Rd lb 24» Primero^ terceroy poeirero, uno^* al^ 
gwm^nvftgunoj bueno, and ma/o^ prefixed^ loae the 
o in the singubr ; a8> el primer homhre^ the firai 
man ; el postrer dia^ the last day; ningunjuez, no 
judge ; un buenpoeta^ a good poet; un mal lector, 
a bad reader. 



Vn i» adso placed before all tbase UxakMm nown, w)iicli re- 

tbe 

lat.. 



miire the masculine article^ as, «» area^ un hambre. See Note a to 



p2 



100 RULES OF ETYMOLOGY 

Note a.— -With tercero the rule is immaterial ; as, c/ tercet tiglo^ 
or el tercero sig/o, the third century. 

Note b, — Ciento immediately preceding a noun loses the to; as, 
cirn hombrea. a hundred men ; ciento y vetntCy a hundred and twenty. 

Note c. — Santo loses the to before the proper names of men i a«, 
San Juariy St. John ; San Francisco, St. Francis : except before the 
names of Domingo^ Tonuu, Tomi^ and Thribio ; as, Santo Domingo^ 
St. Dominick, Santo Tomas, St. Thomas, &c. 

Note d. — Qrande frequently loses the de; but more especially 
when preceding a consonant, and when not conveying an idea . of 
size ; as, «n gran maiemdticOf a great mathematician ; un grande 
ocUo, a great hatred ; un grande cabcUlo, a large horse i un gran 
cabaUOf a famous hurse. 

Note e, — ^The adjective uno, una, is used for the indefinite article, 
aoTon; as, un autor etcrihid em un dia una obra, an author wrote in 
one day a work. 

Note/. — ^llie adjectives alguno and ninguno must always precede 
the nonn, when the verb is not accompanied by the negative tio : as, 
he eeerito algunas cartas, I have written some letters ; ningun amigo 
tiene, no friend has he ; but when no accompanies the verb we use 
generally ninguno, which must then be placed after the verb ; as, no 
Ae eecrito ningunae cartas, I have written no letters ^ no tiene ningun 
amigo, he has no friend. — N. B. Alguno in the singular, and placed 
after the noun, is often used instead of ninguno ; as, no tiene amigo 
alguno. 

Rule 26. Adjectives, or Participles employed 
as substantives, require the neuter article, if such 
words as how^ how muchy wAaty or that whichy can 
be prefixed to the English adjective, and, in other 
instances, take the masculine or feminine article 
freeing with the noun understood ; as, Losjovenes 
noconocen bien lo ventqfoso que les sera prepararse 
para lofuturoy The young do not well know how 
advantageous it will he to them to prepare them- 
selves for the future ; Muchas son laspenas verda-^ 
derasy pero las iniaginarias son fnaSy Many are th^ 
real troubles^ but the imaginary ones are more. 



Observation. 

On the use of the numeral adjective uno as a sub- 
stitute for the English indefinite article a or an. 

The English indefinite is sometimes expressed by the 




AND SYNTAX. 101 

same article in Spanish ; at others it is translated by the 
definite article, and in many instances entirely sup- 
pressed. 

] . The indefinite is used in both languages, when a 
or an denotes the idea of unity in a very vague and in- 
determinate manner ; as, a friend told me that, un amigo 
me dixo eso ; he wrote an excellent work, escribiS una 
obra excelente, 

t 2. It may be used in both languages, when the noun 
is taken in a general sense ; that is to say, when the Eng- 
lish noun can be put in the plural , without an article, or 
the Spanish noun in either number with the definite arti- 
cle ; as, a man without honour is contemptible ; or, men 
¥dthout honour are contemptible; un Aom&re sinhonra 
€S despreciable ; or, el h&mhre sin honra es despreciable ; 
or, los kombres sin honra son despreciables. See Rule 8. 

3. The indefinite article, used before nouns of mea- 
sure, weight, number^ bulk, &c. is translated by the 
definite. See Rule 10. 

4. When a verb connects two nouns, one of which 
denotes the country, dignity, profession, employment, 
&c. of the other, the indefinite is generally suppressed in 
Spanish; as, the governor was an Englishman, elgober- 
nador era Ingles ; the duke is also a bishop, el duque es 
tambien obispo ; the son is a better physician than the 
father, el hijo es mejor mkdico que d padre. 

5. When two nouns come together, used in apposi- 
tion, the indefinite is not expressed in Spanish ; as, 
Lonl Wellington, a commander in Spain, Lor Wei" 
liTtgton, comandanle en Espana, — ^N. B. Nouns which 
are used in apposition may be readily discovered, be- 
cause they will generally admit a relative and the verb 
io be between them ; as, my brother a banker at, &c 
that is> my brother who is a banker at: the Thames a 
.river of England^ that is, the Thames which is a river of 
England, &c. 

6. When the indefinite precedes a noun seemingly 
taken in part only, it is also suppressed ; as, I have an 
inclination, tengo iiiclinacion ; he had a mind to go, 
tenia gana de ir; have you an objection? ^ tiene vm. 
reparo ? she has a memory, ella tiene memoria. 



102 RULES OF STYUOLOi. Y 

7. It 18 also emitted ia Spanish in die tittle-page of 
a book ; ta,A New DictioJiary, Diccionario Nuevo ; 

8. Likewise before the numbers one hundred, oqa 
tiiousand ; but it is not omitted before one million alone ; 
as, a inisdred men, ckn bombrea ; a thousand pounds^ 
mil Ubras; he owes million, d^ im mUlon. 

9. It is also suppressed before the word ha^; aa, 
three yards and a half, trea varas y media : it is likewise 
omitted before the integer which pKoedes the half, if it 
coataiiis bat one unit; as, a yard and a hal^ vara§f m^ 
dia y u miilioa and a half, mUion y f»&dio» 

10. The indefinite is not translated in ejaculations^ 
■BT when placed between the eubetantiTe and adjective ; 
as, what a pity \ / 4^ua katima I so famous a victory, im 
fiunota Victoria; such a man, iai hombre. 

11. It is omitted after the adv^b Uke ; as, he 4kcted 
like a man, ohrd come homhrt ; like a hero, conso heroe^ 
But if the word following the adverb be connected with 
the following part of the sentence, the indefinite nuj 
be used ; as, like a man who valued virtue, oomo >k»n« 
^re, or oomo u» kotmbre^ qite upreci^bba la virtrnd, 

COMPARATIVES. 

Rule 26. Adjectives are compared with die 
adverbs mas^ more ^ tn^os, less; and tan^ so or 
as; example. 

Mm ricoy Hicher. 

Mas virtuMOj More virtuoas. 

Minos vano. Less vain. 

Tan saddoj So (or sbs wice. 

Note a. — If the English adjedtive Toach be preceded krfwo arm^ 
the Spanish adjective ianto ts emploqred ; «b, ioitf* dmen^ asawch 
«K>!iey ', tamtat pentu, so away troitblefi. 

RuLfe 27- man after comparatives in £ngGgh h 
que in Spanish, unless it precedes the pnmmin tc^Aaf, 
expressed or understood, and then it is de ; as 
Richer tAau I, Mas rico que yo. 

Less rain than thou, Minos vano que tu. 

More them they, or than Mas de loquepensarmu 

what tliejr, thought. 



AND SYNTAX. 103 

iVbfr a. — 13b«ft1>efore ^at k ■ometimes tmulated fue^ when the 
verb in the •nitettce is ne^'five; ««, no /tear W /riro mag que ili» f«fe 
Jkemot rxtrttetad^, ^ bMl; ooBtaiiw «• more Mow what we Jmi'# 
cxtntcied. 

JVofe h. — T%an t^^ eomparativvs, and preceding a noun «f Dum- 
ber or quantity^ is que or de; the latter eeems preferable when the 
Terb IS not accompanied by a negative ; as, tememot mat de dot lihratf 
-we bare -more Ihan two pounds ; no temia mat que dM Atjof, he had 
no more than two daugfhters ; ma» de m* tercio^ oaore Men one third ; 
no mot que un iercioj not more-#^it one third. 

ViuiJs2&, ^s after comparatives is romo? example. 
As beairtif al as vain, Hz/i hermosa como vuna^ 
As nmch money as po wer^ Tanio dinero como poder^ 
1 read as much 05 1 wnte^ Tanto ieo como escriba. 

Note a, — ^Instead of cofiw we may use quan after tan before ad. 
jeetiveB, aad fiumto after tanio before verbs ; as^ tan hermoaa quan 
vana ; tanto Ieo quaniB ncribo. 

Note h. — The English definite article before comparatives is not 
translated into Spanish^ and tlie expression frequently receives u 
different turn ; as, the better day Ibe better deed, mtyer dia mejor 
iobra ; the more money the less wit, moM dinero menot ingenio ; .the 
more we play the less we learn', man jug amo§ menot aprendemot, 
or mientras mas jtigamot menot aprendemot^ er ^pumto mat jugm' 
mot tatdo menot aprendemotj &c. 

Note c. — Jit after to, and followed by a verb in the infinitive, is 
rendered que, and the second verb is put in the same tense as the 
first : ExamjAe, he was so impioas at not to believe in God, era taa 
impio que no creia en Diot. 

Note d^ — ^If there be two comparativM, diffiefienfly formed, the 
conjunction should correspond with the last ; as, sm ealiet^ttun tan 
Hen 6 ntgor empedradat que lot nuettras, their streets ape a« well 
paved as, or better paved than, ours ; tttt navios ton mat fuertet 6 a 
io menot tan fuertet como lot laiettroty their ships are stronger than, 
ot at least as Arong a^ ours. 

SUPERJLATIVBS. 

Rule 29. English superlatives ending in est or 
formed by most are rendered by prefixing the de- 
finite article to tiie Spanish comparative ; as 

The wisest^ El mns sabio. 

The most imgrateful^ La mas ingrafa. 

Note a. — ^The definite article is omitted before the comparative, if 
It is already expressed before the -stdntantive ', as, /« muger mas in- 
grata^ the most ungretefui woman : unless a verb intervene ; as, e/ 
feon at fiwmikfMe de «mCm tM<»nmMdet, '^ Jacm is the nobleet of aU 
animals. 



104 RULES OF ETTMOLOGT 

Note b. — Most, or mott of, when followed by a singular noun^ is 
translated la mayor parte ; as, most of the larmy, la 7nayor parte del 
earercito ; but if the noun be in the plural, mott may :dso be trans- 
lated moif with the corresponding article ; as, most of the soldiers, 
la mayor parte, or lot mat, de lot toldadot / most causes, la mayor 
parte^ or las mat de lot cautat. 

Note c. — ^The preposition in after the English superlative is trans- 
lated de in Spanish ; as, the best house in the stree^ la mejor cata de 
la calU s the soul is the greatest wonder in the world, el alma a la 
mayor maravilla del mundo. 

ft 

Rule 30. Superlatives which in English are 
made with very, are formed in Spanish by prefix- 
ing muy to the adjective^ or by afi&xing to it the 
termination iaimo ; as 

Very clever, Muy habile or halnltsimo. 

Very easy, Muyfdcily or facilistmo. 

Note a, — If the adjective ends in a vowel, it is suppressed ; as, corfo, 
short ; cortitimo, very short ; aiegre, cheerful ; aleyrithno, very 
cheerful ; iritte, sad ; trittisimo, very sad ; famoto, famous ifamoti' 
MtmOf very famous. 

Adjectives which change their final termination before they admit 
the termination itimo : 

Final changes into Example. 

CO qu, rico riqufsimo. 

go qu, largo largu(simo 

ble oil,' afable afabilisimo.^ > 

z c, feliz felicfsimo. 

Superlatives in itimo irregularly formed : 
Bonisimo, very good, from bueno, good. 

fortisimo, very strong, fuerte, strong, 

novitimo, very new, nuevo, new. 

tapientitimo, very wise, tabio, wise 

tacratitimo, very sacred, tacro. Sacred. 

Jidelitimo, very faithful, Jiel, ^ faithful. 

Irregular comparatives and superlatives : 
From Comparat. Superlat. 

Bueno, mejor, dptimo. 

malo, peor, p6timo, 

gtande, mayor, mdsimo* 

pequefio, menor, minimo* 

alto, tuperior, tupremo, 

baxo, im/erior, 

mucho, mat. 

poco, mHu$t, 



' This is often compared^ for greater energy, as. 
Mime reparo, I have-not the slightest objectioa. 



mimimo reparo, ' ' 



AND SYNTAX. 105 

All thoM form a raperlativt in dimo aecording to the ndes already 
given ; as, malitimoj poquUimOf basUimOf &c. 

Note b. — ^These positives admit also a comparative formed with 
ma* or mtnot ; and a superlative with wuy, as, ma$ hueno^ better 
m£jM§ nuUoy less bad ; lot mat g^randes, the greatest ; muy pejuiViMf 
very small. 

Note c. — Substantives used adjectively admit the degrees of com- 
parison $ as, c« mat caballero que tit, he is more of a gentleman than 
thou ; eiet muy hombre, he is very much of a man^ or very manly ; 
eate hombre ee nmif nUfiOf this man is very childish. 

Government of Adjectives. 

Rule 31. Adjectives generally require de be- 
fore their regimen^ if it is pnrt of the noun with 
whieh they agree ; as 

Un saco ancho de bocOf A sack wide at the mouth. 
Uh cuchillo boto depun- A knife blunt at the point, 

tQy 

Un vestido largo de A suit long in the sleeves* 

mangaSy 
Un hombre baxo de cu- A man low in stature. 

erpo, 
Una muger acre de ge^ A woman of a sour tern* 

nio, per. 



The following adjectives belong to this rule : 

Agudo de ingeniOf Sharp or keen. 

AUo de euerpOf Tall. 

Blanco de cava. Of a fair complexion. 

JUando de corteta^ Of a soft rind. 

Chico depermmaf Short 

Crecido de cuerpo^ Overg^wn. 

Duro de entendimiento. Hard of comprehension. 

Fuerte de condicum. Of a rough temper. 

Gordo de talle. Thick in the waist. 

Largo de cuerpo^ Long in the body 

Ligero de pies. Of light feet. 

Mediano de etitaiura^ Of a middle height. 

Redo de complexton^ Of a strong constitution. 

f3 



106 RULBS OV BrYMOLOGY 

Tanido dt cmerpo^ IWisted in ike body. 

Mayor de cuerpo. Taller. 

MeJior de edad^ Xiess in ag^. 

Manco de una mano^ Liame of one hand. 

Pdlido de semblante. Having a pale face. 

Rule 32. Adjectives require en before their regi- 
men^ if it denotes that wherein the quality of the 
adjective is conspicuous ; as 

Un hombre dspero en las h. man harsh in his words, 
palabras^ incansable en unwearied in his labour, 
el trabafo^exdctoen sits exact in his payments* 
pagoSy constante en sus constant in his devo- 
devociones, y devoto en tions^ and devout in his 
ms oraciones, prayers. 

^ote a. — ^If the regimen is an infinitive, it is also preceded by 
<fi ; as, Los reyes deben ker lentos en catHgaryjpronto* en recompeB" 
Mr, Kinfs ought to be^ewte panisfa and leady to rewurtd. 

The following adjectires belong to this rule : 

DUigente en siis negocios, Dilig:ent in his business. 
Es^^rU en lea Jej^, Sldiful in the laws. 

Jncesante en sus tareoff Constant in his business* 
Indefatigable en la giierra. Indefatigable in war. 
J^imio en el proceder, Nice in his proceedings. 

Tareo en kt conddoy Sparng im ius meals. 

Pesado en la conversacion. Tiresome in his conversi^ 

tion. 
Hdbil en sus negocios^ Clever in his business. 

Impropio en «k edad. Unbecoming at his age. 

Inconstante en m> proceder. Wavering in his actions* 
Inflexible en su dictamen. Inflexible in hk i^inions. 
Superior en luces^ Superior in uiu~ 



Rule 33u If the regimen of the adjective is 
the noun to which the quality of the adjectire 29 
directed^ it is generally preceded by 4 : as 

La tirania es nborrecible a T3rranny is hateful to 
las genteSf the peoplcr 



AMD SYNTAX. 107 

Ettafirukt e$ t^gradabie al This fruit is agreeable 
paiadar, to the palate. 

Zfos limones son dgrios al Lemons are sour to 
giztio, the taste. 

KuLE 34. If the noun which forms the icigiaMn 
is also what produces the quality implied in the 
adjectlre^ it is generally governed with de j as 
Etla eaUAapdlida de miedo^ She was pale nith 

fear. 
Eleraiemerosodelamuertey tie was feaifai of 

death. 

The feOowing adjectives belong to this rule : 

^hockomado de ia freguntm. Hurt tit l^e question* 
ji hmrri do dt las dc&grxtcicLs, 'Worried by misCor- 

tunes. 
AUgre de las noUdoB, Joyfitl «n Acooant of 

the news. 
Avergonzado dd ecaidgo, Ashamed of the jw- 

nishment. 
Jmpelido de la neeendadj Compelled by neces* 

aaty. 

Note a. — ^If the regimen of Ibe foregoiDg a(]|jQctives is aa iafiat- 
tive, it abo requirts de before it j as, canaado de trabajar, tired of 
working. 

JB«JLB SSl Mmmeral adjeetires go ver n with I3n5 
fffepoaitaojBfCifea Donii43f 4iixnension; as 
Dm voTOB 4e iorgo^ Two yards in length. 

Trdnta pies de alto, Thiftf ledb high. 
Seupvlgaddmdeffrutw^ Sasl isdMS duck. 

JVble «•— 4t iawot feqwsite 'that the numeral adjective should pv 
.fieiie Ihe B0im of 'diiaaMiifli:; XLt la ^wrti, Hene veho ^vmrae de aito, or 
la pared tiene de aitodtdo vaaas, the wall is eight yanda irig^ i 

Note b. — If the ouantity Iw .oKpressed with the verb cer^ at wiii* 
out any ve^ (A A, the jramend iidjective must also be preceded hf 
de; as, eif^m m dmteiekenta Arazat A& pw/ m tdo , the wdl is eighty 
fathAffls in deph ; id taUa et .de guatro pulgmdm <ie gnteeo, the pikaak 
It four indhes thick ; and unpozo de ochenta braxae de pro/undo^ a 
well eighty fathoms deep, ftc. 



103 RULES OF ETYMOLOGY 

N9te e. — ^The difference in the measure most be also preceded %j 
de; as, d et mas alio que tu de ires pulgadat, he is taller than yon 6y 
three inches. ■ 

RoLB 36. Adjectires denoting plenty or scar^ 
city, care or negligence^ govern their regimen 
withde; as 

Unjarro Iktio de agua, A jug full of water. 
Un vaso vcuAq de vino^ , A glass empty of wine* 
Un hombrefalto dejuicio, A man void of reasoiH 
Un hombre cttidadoso de su A man careful of Ijifi 

iRnero, money. 

Un enfermo descuidado de A patient careless of 

susalud, his health. 

I- • r . . 

Nbte.a^ — Abimdanlf admits m as well as <fe/ as, iA^miamtii 4e or 
eii ri^taSf abounding in riches. Fertil and fecwtth beloiig to 
Role 52. 

The fdlowing adjectives belong to this rule 

Ageno de verdad^ Foreign to truth. 

E9oatd demedioi. Nearly bereft of means. 

Infecto de hengia. Tainted with heresy. 

Inficionado depeste^ Infected with the plague. 

l»imik^d» deMmtoB, Straitened in talents. 

Apwrudo de diner»^ Exhausted of money. 

RuLB 37* Adjectives denoting desire or dif- 
d^ny.lmowhdge ot' ignorance j capacity or titca« 
pacityy worthiness or unwartUnesSf innocence or 
guilt J require also de before their regimen ; as 

Deseoso de lavida^ Desirous of life. 

XHssdenosi^ desus /{wares, Disdainful of his favours* 
Ci&PtQ de las noticias, CerUdn of the news. 
Imierto de .. las c0nse<- Uncertain oi the coose* 

quencias, quences. 

•B^ef de una corona, Worthy of a crown. 
Indigno de alabanzas. Unworthy of praise. 
^IflytMM del empleo. Capable of the employ- 

- ' ^ ment. 



/ 



' -AND SYNTAX, 109 

•Jbipcente del asesinaio. Innocent of the murder, 
Iteo de muerte, Guilty of death* 

lioie a. — ^If these a«yectiTee be foUowed by an inflBilLve, (he iame 
preposition must be osed ; M| bueiio de comeTf good to ^t, 

Rule 38. Numeral and ordinal adjectives, su-- 
pertaHveSy relatives, interrogoHves, aiid inde/lnites, 
as Well as nouns usedpartitwefy, requite also their 
regimen ^th de;' wi 

Jbos de los regimientos, Two of the regimeutci. 
JEl primero de los dos, The first of the two, 
JEl mefor de todos. The best of all. 

No sabiendo quien de Not knowing which of 

Wfo9 hablaba, them was the speaker, 

/ Qual de las ires Vende Which of the three do 

vm. f you sell ? 

Q^al^iera de las hijas^ Any one of the daugh- 
ters. 
Muchos de los presentee, Many of those present. 
jilgunos de los AHfentes, Some of the hearers. 

Note a.<^^Tbe pftpotitioa de may be often dnnged into mUtt ^ 
de etUre; as, hw> de, or eiUref wde eiUre, elio9, one 9(, or moaf^ Or 
from amoBg^y them. 

RuuB 99. Adjectives denoting fiinese ift unfti-- 
nes9 gov«m their regimen with para /as 

Apto para el entpleo. Fit for the employment; 

Jmpropiopara su edad, Improper for his i^. 

Benito para su salud, Beneficial to his health, 

Util para la patria. Useful for the country 

Idtnteo para todo. Fit for every thing. 

Note a.— If these adjeeiivet be followed by an inftDitive, it mmt 
be preceded by the preposition jMni; as, btten^ para ecmer^ fit to be 
catfiL 

tHUe b.'^Csmpatible and mcompaiible re4{ntre their regimen tnlb 
COM ; as, eompatibie eon lajmUda, conitstent with justice; ineompm* 
tihle eon ei mamdo, inconsistent with the command. 



no RULBfi OP CTTMCNLOGT 

RviM 40. Adjectives d^nitkig fodJRiig or 
cully require 6, before their regimen; «« 

Incrtible d muchoSf Incredible to many. 

ComprektnMthle a pocoSy Compn^heaBiUe to iew» 

Inaccessible a todos, Inaccessible to alU 

Jiiertbie 4 Ut rm»9», Yteiding to reaaon. 

Note a. — Fdeil^ dificil, tqMtruble, and inteparabie, have alwigft 
iheir regimea v/i(b de ; v^yfaciX de digettiony easy of digestion; £me^ 
parable de la virtttd, inseparable from viit«e. 

Noie b. — ^If tbe regimen of any of the foregoing adjectives be an 
infinitive, it must also be preceded by the same preposition: v&^Wiite 
puet predaaA a prntermu ha99 ia ferutm de am preeepior^ (GU Bim^ 
ch. 1.) He asw himadf then compelled to place me under the tad 
«f a precf{>tor. F&cil de digerir^ easy to be digested. 

RuLS 41. Adjectives denoting fm^t or dis- 
profit y likeness or unHkeness, require d before their 
regimen ; as 

Provechoso d la salud. Advantageous to healtb. 
Pemicioso d lajuventud. Pernicious to youth. 
Seynejante a su padre. Like his father. 
Igual a otroSy Equal to others. 

Inferior d su hermano. Inferior to his brother. 
Superior a sus hifos, Superior to his children. 
Conforme d su dictameny Agreeable to hifi opiiuoii* 



. Kaie a, — Mayor and meaor require de befi»re their xegimen. See 
Rule 31. 

Note b. — ^Adjecfivei impI^Bg eqtnlity lave wmetinws thdr la^ 
men with canj as^ (gual com oir% conforme con tu opinion^ &c. 

RuLB 42. Adjeetivei denoting prorimUy ,ge- 
nerally have their regimen with d; ac 

Cercano d la muerie^ Appttmchifig ikatii. 

Inmediuto d^lla. Close to her. 

Vecvno 4dpalaciOj Adjacent to the palace. 

Jmvto 4 la eam^ Ad jiMoiag the house, 

Contiguo d la heredad. Contiguous to the 



' JVbfe a;-4ri!he9e a dje rt iw ha>m «■ ij^Mtiitt ior^hev 

^he fame prepoiitten H -enflo^ ; w^ prtrnkmrn d flHtv, «ear 4fm§, 



A9»> tTNTAX. Ill 

RuLB 43. Adjectives denoting disimHce hare 
generally de before their regimen ; as 

Distctnte de la Corte^ Distant from Court. 
Ifdfos de LondreSy Far from London. 

Note a. — If the regimen be an infinitive^ the same preposition must 
be used ; a^ L^og de mpadentanne con las proHxat relacknes de mi 
amof far mm beooming impatioit widi the tedious Darrations ef mf 
ter. Giifita^ii.iv.ck.2. 



KuLE 44. Adjectives denoting behaviour ge- 
nerally govern the noun to which it is directed with 



con; as 



Amoroso con los suyos, Affectionate to his rela * 

tions. 
Ateuto c<m sus mcq^es. Respectful towards his 

elders. 
Ingr4Xio con ka ttmigos^ Ungrateful to his friends. 

CAservtBti(m. 

Many of the foregoing species of adjectives have 
their regimen with prepositions difTerent from fhose 
which have been allotted to them in the foregoing ex- 
amples, according to the sense in which they arc taken : 
thus, for instance, the adjective dspero may have its 
regimen with (i, £2e» en, or ^on ; as 

Una fnita dspera de sabor, A fruit with a rough (or 
luBsh) taste. SeeSLoieSl. 

Un ho m b rt dipero en ams cosUtmbreB^ A man rough 
(or blunt) in his manners. See Rule 32. 

Una piedra dspera al tacto, A stone rough {or un- 
even) to the touch. See Rule 33. 

Un amo dspero con sus criados, A master rough (or 
rigid) with his domestics. See Rale 44. 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 
istPervoit. — Sa^« Ul Person. — Plur. 



jKoib. ^JfO. 



1st OIh. case me, 1st Obj. case jtos. 



2d Obj. case ml. 



Nom. wMObv^ 



2d Obj. case nostdros 



112 RULES OF ETYMOIX)OT 

2d Penon, — Sing. 2d Persoju — ^Plur. 



Nom. Ui, 

Ist Obj. case U. 
2d Obj. case tL 



Nom. vosotro$ 

1st Obj. case ot. 
2d Obj. case vosatrot. 



3d Perscm, — Sing. 3d Person, — ^Plur. 



Nom. eZ, eUa, dlo, 
] st Obj. case le, la, lo, se. 
2d Obj. case Si, ella, dlo, si. 



Nom. ello», 
1st Obj. case hs, las, les, se, 
2d Obj. case dli^^ <i. 



N. B. Nosotros, vosotros, and ellos change the last o 
into a for the feminine termination. 



Observation. 

The second person had formerly the termination voi 
also, which is now nearly exploded, being employed by 
Spaniards only in their addresses to persons in very ex- 
alted stations, or by those persons in their official docu- 
ments ; as. El rey vuestro tio dexard presto de tdvir^ y 
oof ocuparSis su lugar. The king your uncle will soon 
ceaae to live, and you will occupy his place. Gil Bias, 
b. iv. ch. 4. Por qvunio vos Don Francisco Ximenez 
habeis execuiado, &c. Forasmuch as you Don Francis 
Ximenes have executed. 



Place of the Pronouns, 

Rule 45. The subject or nominative case pre* 
cedes verbs whicli are not in the imperative^ nor 
used interrogatively ; as 

Yo leo, /read. 

Td hablaSy Thou speakest. 

Fengan ellos, Let them come* 

^ Fiene ella ? Is she coming ? 

Note a. — The subject is seldom expressed except when emphasis 
or the distinction of persons seems to require it ; as, haUo, I speak ; 
/«o,-I read; taidr^, I shall go out; and yo leeri^ y fu eteribirag, I 
will read, and thou shall write ; No era yo aolo el que habia de eammmr 
CMS el arriero, I was not the only one who was to travel with tfa« car* 
rier. Gil Bias, ch. 3. 



AND aTMTAX. 113 

Note h. — Verbs are placed before their subject when they are used 
to introduce a quotation, or when the transposition adds to the energy 
of the sentence ; as, IMtray hija^ (/« decia cAi,) Uwa i^do qtionto 
fuedatf Weep, child, (said she to her,) weep as much as you can. 
Gil Bias, ch. 10. No tohia yo quepetuar de tai encuentro, I did not 
know what to think of such a meeting. Ibid. ch. 3. 

Not^ c. — ^The English pronoiita it is never translated before im- 
personal verbs; as, it .rains, Uueve; it will snow, nevard; it is im- 
jXMsible to believe it, e# imponbie creerlo / it will concern many, 
. nnportard a tmichot, 

KvLB 46. The objective case^ when not pre- 
ceded by a preposition^ is affixed to infinitives, im- 
peratives, and gerunds ; as 

Amarlsky To love her. 

Amemos\2L, Let us love her. 

Amanddleif Loving her. 

IfabiendoldL amado, Having loved her. 

jDales algo. Give them somethiifg. 

Habiendoles dicho, Having said to ihem. 

Note a, — ^The terminations of the first and second persons plura4 
of verbs lose their final letter when they are followed by i^m orot; 
as, fevon/^nonof , let us rise ; ttnt&M, sit ye down. 

Rule AJ. Verbs which are not in the infinitive, 
imperative, or gerund, have generally the objective 
case prefixed ; as 

El me ensena. He teaches me. 

7% le instruyes, Thou instructest him. 

Yo lo digo^ I say it. 

Ella nos ve,\ She sees us* 

Nosotros los oimos^ We hear them. 

Fosotros la amais. Ye love her. 

Ella les dixo, Sh^said to ihem. 

Note a, — ^The objective 6ase may sometimes elegantly follow, but 

■ never when the sentence does ^ot begin by the verb ; as, Uevdmt d 

■' fu caaa quando, he carried me to his house when, &c. ; amdbam% 

. tiemamente entdncet, and entdnces me amaba tiemamente, he loved 

me tenderly then. 

. Note b* — jWhen one verb has another in the infinitTve for its regi* 
men, the objective case referring to the second verb may be always 



1 14 RUXJ96 OV VTYMOLOGT 

pkeed either htton 4b« ^mnenHBg ▼£!&, ^r sdler fte r e gtow ; aa^ 



Variety in Ihe use of the Objective Case^ 

RvLB 48* Prepofiitions when expressed always 
govern tlie second objective case ; as 

Para ml. For me. 

Sin tl. Without thee. 

Centra eflos^ A^nst them. 



Note a. — Mif ti, $i, when pmcedel bj «oii, taike ffo sfier 
and are joined to the preposition ; as, conmiffo, contigo, cons{ff(K, 

Note b. — Entre ts med witk the subject case of *&» ^tdt and 
second persons jingiUat, im tUs expression, entre t6 |r yoi l»etween 
thee and me; but in every instance besides it governs the second 
objective case; as, entre ti, between themselves; entre notoirotf 
between us. 

Nate c, — ^Tbe moaad dbyvAwe case is always used after cempara- 
tives ; as, iequiero mtta gue 4 ^, I love thee better than Am; me dan 
minot qne k ti, they give me less tlian thee ; nos did tanto dinero 
como a ellos, he gave us as much money as them, 

B0LB 49. When in English the objective case 
of the first or second person is the regimen of the 
verb, or of tbe prefftositioii to expressed or under- 
stood, we use the first cacte ;* as 

I exhorted thee, Yo te exhorts. 

He cooquered mte, El me vencio. 

She £poke to ue, Ella aos hahl6» 

He will tell me, El me diri. 

Rule 50. If the cJgective case of the third 
person be the regimen of the English verb, vre 
translate it by le, los for the masculine, la, la6\ for 
the feminine, and loX for the neuter ; as 
He killed kim. El le mato. 



* Except after comparatives. See Rule 48, note e. . 
t Exce^ aAer eomfiaradvies. See finle 4&^ Bote e. 
{ Seedse^AileSlyaofeee. 



AVD STSTAX* 115 

Sbe saw them, 'Ella los vi6. 

They heard U, JSllos io oy^ron. 

RuLs51, If the third person ia English is 
governed by the preposition to expressed or under- 
stood^ we render it by le, les^ for both genders; as 

We spoke to Awn^ No9otroB le hMamot^ 
I wrote to her. To le escrihi. 

She told them^ JElla les dixo. 

Natem. — ^The tfaiid pnson beia|^ §[oveni«d by ia, 'm Saglitli, 
■mAer ezpreised or undenatoad, is cxpceatecl bf te if the Kgimen of 
the veri) he a pronovi of the ihifd person ; «■, he brongnt her a 
jewel, and sent it to her, te comprd unajoyOf ye se la mando ; I shall 
write them three letters, and will send them to them, let etcribiri 
ire* carta*, y se im» MMmdmr^j I «ent them six liaes, and she read 
them to them, yo te* mandS sett renylaneSt y etla se lot ityd; mj 
servant will give it him, mi criado se lo ttard, 

N. B. For the masBer i« w^Ncii adjeotives are niada to agiee-vith 
Jibe wMaMUve fiaonoiui ^^ see note c to Rule 23. 

jNote 5.— Wlien two first objective cases occur in the sentence, one 
of which is the regimen of the verb, and the other is gonnmd ia 
English by the preposition to either expressed or understood, the 
MgtiDc«k of ihe "verh is io l»e |)laced last; as, she told it me, eflb me 
lo {Uxo; I mas goo^ io ieU ai 4o Hioe, ibm a ileoirtelo ; I ^a*e it Jo 
him, yo selo di. JBut if the regimen of the verb be the reflective 
pronoun, it must T>e |Aaced first ; as^ he discov>ered himself imme- 
diately te me, fmeyo ae me detcubrid. 

Note c» — Both 4ie okfeetwe cases beloagisg to the same person 
are sometimes aised together in Spanish, to j^lve more energy to 
the expression, and then the second must always be preceded by 6, 
Example, mi madre me ama k mi, my mother loves me ; tu her- 
inana te aberrece k tf, his lister hates ^ee ; €t m lo mamdS & ella, he 
oent -it l» ier ; dTs se mmm i sf, ifee loves henelf; ^selo amto k 
ellas, he related it to them ; yo les dixe la* noticias & •ellos, I toM 
them the news; yo se las dirt k vms., I will tell them to you. 

Note 4. — ^Tbe second dhjective case of stay of the pensons ought 
not to be in the aonteiice fnwcedcd bj «, as Che regimen of the verb, 
without being accompanied by the first :t therefore such expressions 
as Ai9m^ d 61 fuiero, d ti omo, are faalty ; they shoidd be a ^/ te 
quiero, dti te amo. The place of the second objective case in simi- 



* Except after comparatives. See Rule 48, note c. 

t Except after a «omparative ; as, T aiempre me creian A mt ma» 
^ekkXi and ihey always t>crievefl me more than %im. €1 Bla«> 
cb. 8l 



116 RULES OF ETYMOLOGY 

lar cases is restricted to the following rules : Ist, If the first objectiTe 
case should precede the verb, the second may be placed either before 
the first, or after the verb ; as, & tf te amOf or te amo & ii, I love thee. 
2dly, If the first objective case follow the verb, the second must be 
placed after the first ; as, omaitdole & €\, loving Mm. 

Noie e. — >To construe the English pronoun t/, when it represents 
a noun of the masculine gender in Spanish, by the neuter pronoun 
iOf is incorrrect. Xo can never bt properly employed, unless the 
object to which it refers be one to which we cannot ascribe either the 
masculine or the fejiinine gender ; as, the book I bought I will send 
{it) to thee, el libra que compri te le mcmdar4; no : promise that thou 
wilt bring it to me to-morrow, no : promeie que me le traeraa mana^ 
na; I promise 1/ to thee, te \o prometo It in the first two examples 
is rendered /e, because it refers to libro, which is masculine, but 
in the last it is construed /o, because the English pronoun does 
not refer to the book, but to the action of bringing it the following 
day. 

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS 

Are mio, tuyo, suyo, nuestro, vuestro. 

N.B. The o is changed into a for the feminine 
termination. 

Rule 52. Possessives always agree in gender^ 
number, and case, with the possession } as 
Nuestro jarditij Our garden. 

De nuestros jardines, Of our gardens. 
Vuestra quinta, Your villa. 

JSn vuestras quintasy In your villas. 

Rule 53. Possessive pronouns, when used as 
pronominal adjectives,* precede the noun with 
which they agree ; as 

Nuestros empenosy Our endeavours. 
Vuestras virtudes. Your virtues. 

Rule 54. Mio, tuyOy and suyo^ lose their last 
syllable when placed before the noun ; as 



* That is, when they represent my, Mjr, Asr, Aer, itt^ oiir, jfoiir, 
/Aeir, in English. See Observation &fter Iliemonstrattvts^ p. 42. 



AND SYNTAX. 117 

JUi conducta, My conduct. 

Mis palabraSy My words. 

Tu valor. Thy valour. 

Tus hazanas, Thy exploits. 

Su temeridadn His temerity. 

Sus acciones, Her actions. 

Sus ramasy Its branches. 

Su silenciOf Their silence. 

Sus pasiones, Their passions. 

Rule 55. Mio is placed after^ in our addresses, 
that is, when it agrees with the second person 3 as 

• ; AcuerdatCy hijo mio ! Remember, my son ! 

/ VenzamoSy paisanos mios ! Let us conquer, iny 

countrymen ! 
J Querida patria mia! solo My dear country! for 
por ti mueroy thee alone I die. 

Rule 56. When possessives are used as pro* 
nouns,* they agree in gender, number, and case, 
with the noun which they represent, and are pre- 
ceded by the definite article 3 as 

Tu casa y la mia. Thy house and mine, 

JDe mis esfuerzosy los tuyos,Of my efforts and thine. 
Su enemigo y el nuestro. His enemy and ours. 
Para sus enemigos y los For his enemies and 

nuestros, ours. 

JVuestra data y la suya. Our gown and hers. 
Sus batas y las nuestras, Her gowns and ours. 
Vuestro ingenio y el suyo, Your genius and hers. 
Fuestraspalabrasy\2iS8uy^SyYouT words and his. 
Su inocencia y la mia, Their innocence and 

mine. 
Tlis delitos y los suyos. Thy crimes and theirs. 

* That is, when they are equivalent to minef ihine, hit, hers, it*, 
uur$y yourtj theirs. 



118 KULBS QW WXYMOLOGY 

N. B. PofKseesirea am preceded by the neuliar article, 
when they are indeiinitely used ; as^ lo mio no ea tuyo^ 
ni lo tuyo m^, mine is not thine, nor thine bis. See 
Rule 25. 

RuLB 67. When the posiessive pronoun is 
connected with the noun by a Terb, the article is 
omitted; as 

JEste libro es xxAo, This book is mine. 

JEsa carta es tuya. That letter is thine. 

JEl palacio es suyo^ The palace is his. 

La casa era nuestra. The house was ours., 

Noi€ Ad — ^Tbe verb need not be expressed wfaen the tssertion is. 
an answer to a foregoing question ; as, ^ jDe qmen es esa casa f nua. 
I De quien ton estos libroa f nuettm, &e. 

RuL£ 58. When 7niney thine^ &c* are preceded 
by off we omit the preposition and article^ and 
place the possessive after the noun ; as^ 

A friend cfmine, Un cumgo iiiio» 

A servant of his, Un criado suyo. 

An author of ours, Un autor uuestro. 

One of pour houses, Una casa vuestra^ 

Two servants of mine, Dos criados mios. 

Observation. 

Th€ English possesmve adjectire, when it a^ees 
witb any part of the body, is chan^d into the Spanish 
definite article in the following instances : l»t» After all 
refiectire verbs: as^ she washed her handsydZa 9t Uko^ 
las wumot^ i. e. she to herself washed the haadSk 2d9. 
When the ]>art of the body with which the adjective 
a^ees in English is not the subject of a verb ; as,, in 
vain I entreated pardon with tears in my eyes» en vano 
pedia perdon con las Idgrimas en los ojos ; he gave me 
his hand, d me did la mano. If the part of the body 
with which the possessive adjective agrees does not be- 
long to the subject o^ the verb^ the iadividaal to whom, 
it belongs must be represented by the corresponding 
personal pronoun in its first objective case ^ aa^ I washed 



AHH 8TNTAX«. 119 

ker baiidby Yo It kmt ks mawcw/ u t. 1 wsshed to 
icrlkefaaiids. I thveirth* bridle on Act seek, JBcsMed 
freMQ mtkrt eft pezatezo / t» e^ I ilurew to ber tke bridle 
0m the neck. Gil. BIsa> ch. 2. 3d. Whem the. p«»l of 
tfie body is the snbjeet of tine verb ta^cBckt; aa^ my head 
aches^ me ditele la cabeza; i. e. to me aches the heads 
ftw teeth acbe^ ^ duehm hm mueim ; t» e. ti» them 
aefae die teeth. N.B» The possesaire a^^eelWe k i»* 
tnned in. att esses wheie the use c^ the aitide night 
oeeaflooB ambigiiit j ; as, Dost thou come to take p]e»-> 
flmre in. the wodc of ikyfhsjuA^? ^Vunes A oompiaeerU 
en la obra de tns mutnM? Gtt Blas^ eh. 14. And my 
■Bother wished to rear me with her own milk, Y mi 
madre quiso criarme com su propria leeke^ And until I 
was seren years oid they held me always in their arms* 
y hasta los side anos me tuvieron siempre en sus hrazoa. 
Ibid. ch. 5. Many of the most distinguished gentlemen 
in Spain solicited my handy Mucho9 ca^alleros de los 
mas principales de Espana solicitaron mi mano. ibid, 
ch. II. 

The possessive adjective is also chao^ed sometimes 
for the definite article, although it does not agree with 
any part of the body, if the person to whom the pos- 
sessive refers is sufficiently denoted in some other part 
of the sentence ; as. Throw down your purse quickly 
OB the ground, otherwise I will kill yon, J£eft< projUa- 
menie la btdsa en d mdoy hainole mato. Ibid. ch. 8» 

Your is not translated miestro in Spanish, nor yours, 
d vuestro, except when we address persons in very ex- 
alted stations ; as, Alt yonr power, Sire; will be useless^ 
answered Sifredo's daughter in a faint voice, Jwitiii 
serd^'Senorytodo \vtdsUo2)oder,respondi6y con. desmxiyada 
vox, la hija de Sifredo. Ibid. b. iv. ch. 4. 

Instead ofrmestro we place the definite article, or the 
possessive adjective, (referring to the third person,) be- 
fore the noun, and the words de vm, or, de vm>s. after it ; 
as, these are your books, esios son fos, or, sus bbro» de 
vm. Gentlemen, your beds are ready, SenoreSj las, or, 
SOS Ga$naA de vmt^ esUuu protUaa.. Madam, I cannot 
answer your question, Senora^ no puedo responder d la, 
or, & snj^egunta de- vm, N.B. The words de vm. or 



120 RULES OF ETYMOLOGY 

de vnu, are frequently left out in asking a question (in 
fiuniliar discourse) when the noun is preceded by «u 
or nta; as, How is your father? ^ Como estd sM.padrr 
de vm. ? or, Como estd su padre ? Are your daughters 
in the country ? ^ Edan sus hijas de vm. ? or^ Estan sus 
hija$, en d campo ? 

Instead of d vuestrOy &c. we prefix the article (which 
the possession would require, wer6 it expressed) before 
the words de vm, or de vtns, ; as. Gentlemen, my coach 
and yours are at the door, Senorea, mi cache, pel (coch^) 
de vms. estan d la puerta. Madam, I shall sell my 
house and also yoursy Senora^ venderb mi casa^ y tarn- 
hien la (casa) de vm. Sir, the wind has destroyed our 
garden and yours, (i. e. your gardens,) Senor, d viento 
ha destruido nuestro jardin y los (jardines) de vm. 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS 



Are^ 



Singular. 


Plural. 


Quien, 


Quienes. 


Qualy 


Quales 


Que, 


Que. 


Cuyo^ 


Cuyos. 



N.B. Qucti must always be preceded by the definite- 
article ; que but seldom ; and quien and cuyo never. 

Rule 59. Quien-f relates to persons only, and 
is always preceded by the preposition d when 
governed by the verb ; as 

JEl rey es quien lo manda. The king, (it) is^who 

commands it. 
JB/ hombre con quien fui- The man with whom 

mos, we went, 

La niuger £ quien amas, The woman whom 

fhou. lovest. 



* The o is ciianged into a in the feminine termination. 

j- llie corresponding word to quien in English is wko only. 



AlTD SYNTAX. 121 

RuLB 60. Qual and que refer to persons and to 
things ;* as 

jB/ cricuio que v{no,y por ♦The servant who came, 
elqwiilmand^lacartay and by whom I sent 

the letter. 
La Have que medioyycon The key which he gave 
la qual abri la puerta, me, and with which 

I opened the door. 

RulbGI. Cuyo also relates both to persons 
and things^ but agrees with the word by which it 
is immediately followed; as 

La nacion cuyo rey es llie nation whose king 

sabioy is wise. 

La calle cuyas casas The street the houses of 

son altos, which are lofty. 

Its equivalents in English are whose and of which. 

N. B. Cuyo is a pronoun which partakes of the na- 
ture both of a relative and of a possessive pronominal 
adjective ; as the former it relates to an antecedent, the 
possessory and like the latter it agrees in gender and 
number with the possession. 

Rule 62. fFhOy having its antecedent expressed 
in English, is generally rendered by gue, espedajly 
if placed close to the antecedent and agreeing witn 
it in case ; as 

A king who governs Un rey que gobiema 

well, rewards the bien, premia & los 

men who defend the hombres que defien- 

country, den lapatria. 

Every thing was en- Todo fu4 sufrido for 

dured by Ingunda, Ingtmda, quien se 

who had retired to habia retirado a 

Africa, Africa. 

Note a.^-U it be required to repeat who in the sentence, it may 
be tranalated ^ue, or qvai: as, a kio^ who governs well, and who 

^•■■•^^aa^— •■•— ^B^n^^Bi^_vK^BaiBa«a>>asa— iaiM^^iaB>_^^i^iaia»^>— •^-•_^i_i^i^aB_ia^Biaia>^MMHBBVi* 

* Tbeir equivalents in English are who, which, and that, 

6 



122 RUL1I6 OV BTTMOLOGT 

1qv«s bis subjects, tM r^ que gMmita hitt^ff que ««« « mtt ntuat'* 
hs; the Go(rtt>Ao created us, an(} «;Ao punishes sinners, ei DioM que 
no« crtii, y el qual ccutiga a log pecadores ; the men toAo came, and 
who saw her, /m hombret que vimertn^ y que /« twerMw; the women 
tcAo went, and t&Ao will return no morp, Itu vmgcret que futron^ y 
las quales no voiverdn ma*. 

RuJUE 63. fFhom is generally translated quien;* 

as 

The man whom we saw^ JEl hombre & quien 

vimos. 
The women wkom I sent^ Las mugeres 4. qui- 

enes envuf. 

Note a. — If whom be repeated we may use either quien or quaff 
aa^ tbe man whom we saw, and with whim we spoke, ei kombre k 
qnien vimaOj y con quien hablamoe ; the women whom we sent, and 
with whom they quarrelled, lag muyeres k quienes enviamoSy y con 
\m& quale« rmeron. 

Note b. — ^When whom is not preceded by a prepoeitioBy it may 
also be translated que; as, el hombre que vtmos, las mugerei que 

Rt7LB 64. If tbe English antecedent be a pcr- 
Bonal pronoun agreeing in case with the relative, 
H is generally* suppressed, and the definite article 
prefixed to the relative ; as 

He who spoke to me^ £1 que me hablo. 
She who wrote, La que escribio. 

We who are friends, Los que somas amigos. 
They who endeavour, Los que se empencm. 

See Demonstratives, Rule 75. 

RuL^ 65. Yo and tu must always be expressed 
before the relative ; as 

Yo que te amabCy I who loved thee. 

Td que me aborreces^ Thou v;ho dost hate me. 

RuUB 66. Thai or which i9 translated que ; as 
La hacienda que compramos^ The ^tate thai we 

bought. 
La espada que tenia. The sword wMch 

he hftd. 



* SeeKak59. 



Aim «rNTAK, 133 

JVWe a.— To repetitions we may use qtte or quai; as, la hacienda 
que eompratnoSf y que vender^mosj the estate which we bought, and 
Ufhich we shall sett; ta ttpada-qii»i«Mia^ y csn la qual te hirio, the 
sword which he had, and tcrt/A which he wounded thee. 

Rai£ SJ. fFkat k iramlaited fe qme /« as 

When «« • cttHwt iibtem QiMvicb noprndemos 
wAatwe desife, "we oogjht Aa^§7«r lo que 4/^- 
to content ourselves with seanum, deianos 
whai we Jbave. cordentarnos crni la 

que tencmos. 

Note a. — 19^ai repeated Im ^nerally que, but sometimes gmal may 
be introduced ; tu, lo que te di ee lo que /tene, vAe/ I gave Ami i» 
«^A<i< he has; !• que &ifi, lo qual /e debia, ea ie>ftte Heme, ti/kat I 
gave him^wbich was lerAa/ 1 <owed him, is wAat he baSt 

IU7i.B S8^ The velative fice is, geoeraUy, placed 
close to its antecedent^ unless the words which in- 
tervene form a parenthesis to the sentence ; as 

Xai dicha espada cortaha The said sword cut like 

como una navaja^ yno a razor, and there ne- 

habia amiadura (por ver was an armowr 

fiterteyeneantndaqme (so hardened or so 

fuese) que $e leparase powerfaMy endumt- 

deiante^ ed) thai could witlh- 

DonQuiiQote^b.iii.ch.lS. stand its edge. 

Rule 69. Relatives must immediately follow 
the preposition by which they are governed 5 as 

JEl kfnnbtre con quien ha^ The uum whom we 

blamoSf spoke wit/i. 

JSl liitv> eu qae leisao$. The book wJuch we 

read in, , 

RuLB'70- Relatives must be expressed, aldMugh 
mdy understood in English ; as 

The woman I leve^ Lta muger que amo. 
The house we Rre in, La casa en que vwimos. 
The pen I write with^ Lapluma con que escribo, 

* Bxcq^ wben cannpplfid. with an a4JeclHrs bj the verb Up he. See 
Bale 25. 



124 RULB8 OF BTYMOLOOT 



INTERROGATIVES. 

The four relatives^ quietly qualy que, and cuyo^ are 
also used as interrogatives ; and correspond to 
the English interrogatives, whoy whichy whaty 
and whose. 

Rule 71* Interrogatives do not admit the arti- 
cle \ as 

I Quien viene f fFho comes ? 

{ Qual tengo ? fFhich have I ? 

{ Qm€ lenemos f What have we ? 

I Cuyos son los librosf Whose are the books? 

Note a. — Whose is frequently translated de quien ; is, ^ de quien 
ten ios iibros f ^de qmen era la cam f 

RuLB 72. If the interrogation is governed by a 
preposition, it must also precede the answer ; as 

I Con quien vino ? With whom did he come ? 

Con mi padre^ With my father. 

{ Con quien se casa ella ? Whom doth she marry ? 

Con el marques, The marquis. 

I En que gasta su di- In what does he spend 

nero ? his money ? 

En nada. In nothing. 

I De que murio ? What did he die off 

De calentura, A fever. 

I De quien es este pala- Whose palace id this ? 
do? . 

Del rey. The king's. 

I A como estamos hoy ? What day of the month 

is to-day ? 

A doce. The twelfth. 

Note a. — Questions asked with cuyo or de quien require de before 
the answer, unless it be a pronoun possessive ; as, cuya or de quten 
€9 e»a boita f de nU padre^ wkoee purse is that ? my father's ; i cuyas 
or de quien son las Uavet f ndaSf whote are the keys ? mime. 



AND SYNTAX. 



125 



DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 

The First. 
Sing, este. 



Masculine 

Feminine 

Neuter 



esto. 



Plur. estos. 



Masculine 

Feminine 

Neuter 

Masculine 

Feminine 

Nei^ter 



Plur. esos, 
eau. 



Plur. aquellos. 
aqiiellat. 



The Second. 

Sing, ese^ 
esOy 

€80, 

The Third. 

Sing, aquely 
aqueUOy 
aquello. 

N.B. Demonstratives are never preceded by the-, 
articles. 

When these demonstratives precede the adjective olro^. 
the first and second form with it one word, and lose the 
final vowel ; as 

First. 

Sing. estotrOy 
estotra^ 
esiotro. 

Second. 

Sing. esotrOy 
esotra^ 
esotro. 

Third. 

Masc. from aqudj Sing, aquel otroy V\\a,aqudlo9otro$. 
Fern. aquellat aqueUa otrOy aqitelUuotras. 

Neut. aqueUoy aquello otto. 

Demonstratives have sometimes, like adjectives, the 
noun (to which their demonstrative property is applied) 
expressed in the sentence ; and, at other times, they re- 
present, like pronouns, a noun already mentioned : as, 
este jareftn, esos drboles, this garden, those trees; and, 
tnijardin es nuu largo que cste, my garden is longer than 



Masc. from estCy 
Fem. esta, 

Neut. esto. 



Masc. firomese, 
Fem. esa, 

Neut eso. 



Plur. estotros, 
estotras. 



"Plwc.esotros. 
esotras. 



126 RUi.E»0¥ KTYMOl^OCr 



ikis; ius drbolet mm mas cdtos que eaos, thy trees are 
loflier than those. See Observation, p. 42, Part I. 

Rule 73. This is translated by the first ; as 

I shall gain this lawsuit^ Ganar^ este pleyta, 

I shall send these gbods^ Mandar^ estos gineros. 

We shall see this play, Ferimos esta comedia. 

These troops will con- Tencerdn estas tropas. 

quer. 

We shall take this, Tomar^mos esto. 

KuLB 74. That may be rendered by the second 
or third ; as 

That letter, Esa or aqnella eerta. 

T/w*^ papers, Aqttfllos or esosptpefes. 

Observation. 
To point out exactly when the English demonstrative 
that is to be translated ese, and when aquel, is attended 
with much difficulty, since even the rules, which are 
^iven by the Spanish Academy for the application of die 
demonstratives, are insufficient. The Academy says that 
este denotes an object nearer to the first than to the 
second person ; ese, one exactly the reverse, in point of 
situation ; and aqud, an object very distant from both the 
persons. However clear this explanation of the Spanish 
Academy may be, yet it does not remove the difHcuIty ; 
because it is possible to vaeesie, ese, and aquely with ob- 
jects whiehy Botwithstandiag their relative distaoeeSy 
may dififer among thenselves, yet not in refiuMAce 
to the first and second peisons. For instance, if I 
wished to tell a person who is close to me, that the 
house in which We are, the one facing us, and one in St. 
John's Street, are all three mkie ; I should serf, Esta 
easet en que estamos^ esa que estd enfrtnis, y aquMi que 
esid en, la caUe de San Juan, son todas tres mia*, Now 
it is evident that the houses in question are, at the time of 
my remark, equally distant from the person addressing; 
and the persfin addressed* Perhaps their different uses 
may be more readily found, by considering that, in re- 
frrence to the speaker, este denotes proximity, ese mo- 
desate distance, woAaquel remoteness y and therefore we 



JMGD STBTUX. 137 

8ii9nM employ them with ofejccts, scoofdm^ to the sdU 

verb, which would describe in English their local sito* 
ottoQ ; in. which view e$te will represent here ; ese^ there; 
and aquel, yonder; a% etda cam en <[ue ettamo^ this 
boose fherrj in which we are ; esa que edd enfrente^ 
that (there) opposite; y aquella en la ctdlede San Jvam, 
and that (yonder) ift St John's Street, &c. 

When these demonstratives relate to time, este de* 
notes time present^ ese time lately past, and aquel time 
still fufther removed from the present ; as, este hombre 
que vesy ese hoinbre que has visto hoy^ y aquel homBre que 
vimos la semana pasada, son parientes mioSy this man 
whom you see, that man whom you have seen to-day, and 
that man whom we saw last week^ are relations of mine, 

RiTLB 7&* Ei^Ush personal pronouns^ followed 
by a relative not agreeing in case^ are generally re* 
solved by the demonettrative in Spanish ; as 

We ought to reward Dehemos premiar d aquel 
. At 9m who kiboiws for qae trabitfa por la pa- 
the country^ tria. 

Rule 76. That, used twice in the sentence, is 
generally translated by aquel the second time, if 
the objects differ in their distance^ and by es^ if 
they do not ; as 
!rhat man who is there, Eae komhre que estd ahi, 

and thai that is yon- y aquel que eatd allL 

der, 
2%at man, and thai ^sehombreyt/esamuger 

woman who goes with qne va con 41, 

him. 

^iote m. — The Utter is generally translated estct and ike former, 
ese, in the corresponding gender and number ; as, f rrtwe and vice 
pre d ttce Miffcrent effects, fke former makes men hapfPf, the kinBr 
makes them miserable, itiwrtitdif el tficio producen efecioe (^erenieff 
esa hacefelices a lot Aombret, este los have deedichadoe. 

Note 6.— When that (followed by q^or which, expressed ormider- 
steed) refer* to a im»u« already mentioned, tke English de»enstraftive 
is generally rendered ky tii*^Sfpanisli article va tbe correspoodiag 
finmbep ami gender; aa, in bis^koose a»d in ihml of tbe earl, eu su 
casa y ei» la del conde; from this beek sad Mfl# I bougbt, de ttie 



128 



RVLES OF BTTMOlJOGy 



iitro y d«l fue evmpri ; to this mas and to ih«i I saw, A eaU homkn 
9 al ftt« «i. 

^Me e. — ^Tbe expression that it, used in the sense of mr m dy , is 
translated e$io er; as. He made us alight at an inn, which is at the 
entrance of the village, that is, a little way out of it, Hixomot apear 
em u» memn que ei/<C d la enirada dei It^ar, esto es, un poeo fwtra. 
de 61. Gil Bias, ch. 3. 



INDEFINITES. 



Singfular* 

TJno* 

alguien 

alguno* 

nadie 

ninguno* 

mucho* 

algo 

nada 

todo* 



Plural. 
uno$ 

cUgunos 

ningunos 
machos 



todos 
ambo8* 



Singular, Plural. 

entraTnbos* 

varios* 



coda ■ 

tal tales 

otro* otros 

quienquiera 

qualquieraf qiudesquiera 

qualquiera 

CQsa 



The use of the Indefinites, as far as they correspond 
with words of similar import, in English, may 
be generally ascertained by the following rules : 

RuLB 77* One is rendered by uno ; as 
One does not know what No sabe uno que pen^ 



sar. 
lie visfo a las senoras, 
pero habl^ con una 
solamente. 



to think, 
I have seen the ladies, 
but I spoke with one 
only. 

Rule 78. Somebody ^ some one, anybody, any 
one^ are rendered by alguien, or by alguno in the 
singular; as 

Has anybody said it ? ^ Ia> ha dictio alguien ? 
Some one may have Alguno puede haberlo 
said it, dicho. 



* These, properly belonging to the class of adjectives, form their 
feminine termination like them. See Rule 18. 

f This indefinite is sometimes used without the last letter in botli 
nambers. See Note a to Rule 84. ' 



AND SYNTAX. 129 

Somebody s^d it^ but I Alguno lo dixo, pero no 
know not who^ s^ quien. 

If anybody come to seek A^t viene alguien d bus- 
me, say that I am not carme^ di que no estoy 
at iiome^ because I ai casa, por que femo 
fear that some one of que ha de venir d hor- 
my creditors will come cemie visita alguno de 
to pay me a visit^ mis acreedores. 

Note a. — ^When anybody or any one means anybody whatever, we 
translate it the same way as whoever. See Rule 84. 

Note b.-'-Some one or any one being followed by o/y must never 
be translated aiyuien, but aiguno ; as, alguno de eiioe, tome one of 
them* 

RrjLB 79- Nobody, no one, not anybody, or 
not any one, is construed nadie, or ninguno in 
the singular; as 

He fears nobody, A nadie teme. 
I see no one, A ningimo veo. 

Rule 80. Something, or anything, is algo$ as 

Hast thou anything ^ Tienes algo que decirme f 

to say to me ? 
I bad iomething to Tenia algo que contarte, 

tell thee. 

Note a. — ^Tliey may also be literally translated, especially in their 
plural ; as^ vi algunas cosas que me dUgu^aron, I saw aome thinye 
which disgusted me. 

Rule 81. Nothing, or not anything, is trans- 
lated nada; as 

Not cofiything he said Nada de lo que dixo la 

convinced her^ convencio. 

His entreaties availed Nada importaron sus 

nothing, suplicas. 

Note a.'^jifyo and nada, when used as substantives, admit a noun 
after them preceded by de; as,- 1 hay algo de nuevo f is there any 
thing new r »u her mono de vm. tiene a/go tie poeta, your brother ii 
•omething of a poet. See Hule 21. 

g3 



ISO RULBft Off STYifOLOGT 



N*Bw For an^fUmig as syiuHi7m0«» with w i fafeixr , 
see Rule 85. 

Rule 82. Somcy or any>is rendered by alguno 
in both numbers^ or by unos; as 

I want books^ have you Mefaltim^ Ubro9y ^time 

any ? ^ vm, algnnos? 

Do you know any of ^ Cimoct vnu a algunas 

these ladies ? de estas senoras ? 

I know mme^ Ctmozco d nnas. 

"RuiM 83. JVtme, or not any^ is translated 
ninguno; examples: 

Ninguna de estas senoras None of these ladies is 
es la hija casada, the married daughter. 

^ninguno leocurrioque It did no^ occur to any 
podia ser aquello una that the whole might , 
3feaon,(GilBlas,ch.3.) be a fiction. 

Rule 84. Whoever^ whosoever y whichever ^ or 
whichsoever J are translated quienquiera que, or 
quBlquiera que, in both numbers ; as 

Whoever thou mayest be^ Quienquiera que seas. 
Whoever may come, Qualquiera que vemga. 

Tlo whomsoever yovLvaeti, A qualquiera que vm* 

eficueHtre, 

Note a, — Qualquiera very frequently loses th« last yovrai in Vo1& 
numbers, but this never happens unless when it is followed by some 
noun with which it agrees; as, gualftder iemkre, pnifuur to§a, 
qualesquier medioSf qualetfuier causas. 

Rule 85. ffhaiet^ry or whatsoetw, must be 
expressed by qualquier cosa que; as 

Whatever I say, Qualquier cosa que <Sgf^. 

Whatsoever thoaimjest Qualquier cosa que t^of. 
see, 

Thie a^^-Wkatever when used in the sense of aU wkkk is gene* 
nlfy expressed by todo b que; as, he did wheUever they bid him, 
Mmo todo lo que le manddron. 



iUID SYKTAX. 181 

RoLS 86. Another^ other ^ or otherSy is rendered 
by otro in both nooibers ; as 

Send me another, Mandame otro. 

These books are dear^ Estos libros son caros, 

but I have others pero tengo otros moM 

cheaper, haratos. 

liote a. — When their possessive case is very vaguely used, that is^ 
iHkcn it is empiojed u in opposition to •««'# •um only, it is tbea re- 
solved into the Spanish adjective ageno ; as, tio codieie* lot bienet 
agenos, do not covet another* 9 wealth ; me exoriaron a que no tomam 
h ageno contra la voluntad de eu ducnoj they exhorted me not to 
take the properly •f vmther^ t^gakst the wiB of its owner. Gil Blas^ 
cfa. 1. 

Rule 87* Eath other is translated uno otro; 
and one another y unos otros ; with or without the 
article, and with the corresponding preposition 
placed between them ; as, of each other, el uno 
del otrOy or uno de otro. 

The husband and wife El marido y la muger se 

love each other, but aman uno d otro, pero 

the- sons and daugh- los hijos y las hyas se 

ters hate one ano- aborrecen los unos £ 

ther, los otros. 

HuLB 88. Both is amboa, and several is varios ; 
as 

Hare you any opportu- ^ Tiene vm, ocasiones ? 
nities ? 

Yes, I have several^ Si, tengo varias. 

Neither of them has Ni el una ni el otro ha 

wrkten, because hoih escritOyporquewnhoB 

are ill, estan malos. 

Nofe a. — Bbth may be also rendered un9 y otro ; as, nno ▼ otro 
mmgmkm^ I lilwllem Aa/A. 

R€rjLE89. JfecA is construed i770cAo, and many, 
muchos; as 

Hast thou any money ? ^ Tienes diner o ? No tengQ 
I have not much^ mucho. 



132 



RVLB9 OF BTYM0L06T 



You think I have no Piensa vm. que no tengo 
troubles^ but I have pesadumbres^pero ien^ 
many, go tnucbas. 

Rule 90. Each when alone is cada qualy or 
cada unp; as 

He comprado seis libroB^ 
cada uno en un idioma 
diferente, 

Serdn premiados^ cada qual 
segun su merito. 



I have bought six 
books, each in a 
different language, 

They will be reward- 
ed, each according 
to his merit. 



The daily bread de- 
notes the bread of 
each day. 

He accompanied every 
interrogatory with a 
very low bow, 



RuLB 91. Each, or every, if, when joined to a 
noun, they are synonjnnous, is expressed by cada; 
as 

El pan quotidiano quiere 
decir el pan de cada 
dia, 

Cada pregxmta la acom^ 
pafiaba con una pro-- 
funda reverencia. 

In such examples as these, cada may be properly 
termed a distributive adjective indeclinable. 

Rui.£ 92. Every, when not denoting the same 
meaning as each, is translated by todo in both its 
genders and numbers ; as 

Every one lighted his Encendi&on todo&sus ve- 

las, y cada uno se reti- 

ro d su quarto. 

Examine a cada una de 

por si, hasta que la* 

hubs, examinado d to- 

das. 



candle, and each 
retired to his room, 

I examined every one 
(tbat is each lady) 
separately, until t 
had examined every 
one. 

He gave them every 
thing he had. 



Les dio todo lo que tenia* 



AND SYNTAX* 133 

RtjiM 93. jill is translated todo in both its gen- 
ders and numbers ; as 

jiU that glitters is not Todo lo que brilla no es 

gold,. oroy 

I invited many, but they Convid^d muchos, pero 

did not all come, no vinieron todos. 

We have received many Hemos recibido muchqs 

letters from you, but cartas devm.jpero no 

not all those that you todas las que vm* eS" 

wrote, cribio. 

On the Manner of Addressingy Sfc. Persons in 

Spanish. 

To the names of individuals in the second or third 
person is prefixed, as a token of respect, the word Seiior 
or D<m,*'^^8enor has a feminine termination, Senora^ 
and gives derivation to two diminutives, Senorito and 
Senorita, applicable to young people ; and all the four 
bave a regular plural. See Rule 11. 

Don admits the feminine termination Dona^ but nei« 
ther of them is used in the plural. 

Senor is used only with surnames ; as, el Senor Castro^ 
los SeHores Garcieu^ la Senora DoranteSy la Senorita 
Mo7iiero8f &c. 

Don can only be prefixed to baptismal names; as, 
Don AntoniOy Don Francisco de Solas, Dona Maria 
Pina, 

Senor Don is the most respectful 'title, and Don alone 
holds the next rank ; as, el Senor Don Evgenio Izquierdo^ 
d Senor Don Pedro Cevallos, la Senora Dona Catalina 
Romero, la Senorita Dona Isabel, and Don Diego Gar- 
cia, Don Luis Gomez, Dona Maria, Dona Anionia, &c 

To persons who are deemed beneath the appellation 
of Don we prefix the word Senor to their baptismal 
name ; as, Senor Pedro, Senora Maria Martinez, 

9 

* These words are only used in the first person by ceitiin in« 
dividuals in their official docamenti ; as, Yo Dm Frmeiaea JPtrn 
€krr€gidor ftt^sotf^ &€• 



134 RULES or mmitoiJOGY 

Instead of th* definite avtidebelbve the word Mkr^ 
we substitute sometimes the posseasive jpranoiia; bb, 
mi Senora Dona Jsubd, Sec. but this variation ought to 
be sanctioned by some intimacy. 

In speaking of persons who have a title, the general 
way is to form froni it an adjective in the superlative 
degree, in the first member of the sentence, and ase the 
title in some subsequent one ; as, El Excelentisimo Se- 
nor Don Francisco Palafox pas6 ayer por aqui, y 8u 
Excelencia voherd manana. The Mast Exedleni Lord 
Don Francis Palafox possed yesterday through here, and 
His Excellency will return to-morrow ; El Ilustrisimo 
Senor Don Alonzo dd VaUe^ Arzohispo de SemlUh UigS 
oyer, y todo el dero fue d reciinr d Su Iliistrisima, The 
Most IlltLstrious Lord Don Alonzo del Vallej Archbishop 
of Seville, arrived yesterday, and all the clergy went to 
receive His Cfrace; El Santisimo Padre CUmentelSJN, 
escribiS varias cartas, que han sido impresas deapues de 
ia muerte de Su Santidad, Tke Most Hoiy Father Cl^ 
ment XIV. wrote several letters, which have been printed 
since the death of His Holiness, — If we areunacquaiated 
with the baptismal name^ it is common then to say^ El 
Senor General, El Senor Obispo, &e. 

N. B. Magestad, Majesty ; Alteza, Highness ; and Se- 
fioria. Lordship, are never changed into an adjective. 

The use of the second person singular being entirely 
confined to menial servants, or very intimate iriends> re- 
course is had to the words nsied and usUdes, when per- 
sons are addressed ; and to su merced and sus mereedea^ 
when they form the subject of discourse; all which go* 
vem the verb in the third person of the number reqused 
as, Senor, usted esnaqfurbana. Sir, you are very potite; 
Senores, nstedes JU) Uenen que temer, OentlemeD, you have 
nothing to fear ; He visto d las seBoraSy y sua mercedes 
mc han dado una carta paraxss^ML^ I have seen the ladies, 
and they have given rae a letter for you; Mi padre mo ka 
podido venir, porque su merced eaid malo ; pero mananm 
le eserihird d vm. sobre la materia. My father has not 
been able to come, because he is ill ; but will write to 
you to^nwRow on the sukject. Usiei (a corrupticm of 
ViteUra merced) cannot be literally trankaled ; the title 



ifhidfi most resemUes K in EagliBii t» Tour JT'nnkifi 
and S» meroed mnsi b« eonstnied tftt er htr Wbtrskip^ 
In writing they are abridged thus ; ust«d». vok i "HHfM,, 
vms. ; an BMrced, mnd* $ sua Hieiccdes, «mds. 
For the pecnliar manner in which adjectives are made 
agree with. Titles^ see Note 6 to Rule 23. 

On the Verbs Str and EstarJ* 

Among the difficulties which Englishmen en- 
counter in the study of the Spanish language^ there 
is, perb^s, none greater than the one attending 
the proper choice of these verbs. A Spaniard, no 
donbt, perceives a very striking difference between 
them ; yet he finds it almost impossible to make 
an Englishman sensible of the distinction, because 
the English language has but one word to express 
their different meanings. Ser and esiar equally 
ttgnify in English to be; but ser denotes an abso- 
lute, and estar a relative existence: might I be 
allowed the definition, I would say that ser ex- 
presses the kind, and estar the manner of being; 
and therefore we find tihat estar is employed when 
the existence is connected with, and as it were 
modified by, some circumstances either of time or 
of place. If I say, este hombre es valienie, this 
man is valiant; I niean that this man possesses 
that certain portion of natural courage requisite to 
lovoi what is meaat by a valiant man : but if estar 
be sttbstitiftted, esie hombre estd vali&iie, will then 
mean, that the man is at that time inspired with 
valour by some existing circumstance. In the same 
manner, esta naranja es agria, this orange is sour, 
denotes that the orange belongs to a species of 
which the acid taste is a characteristic : change the 
verb into estar^ and esta naranja estd dgria, will 
then convey the idea that the orange might have 

* See tite autSror^ Synosyms, page M/. 



Id6 RULES OF BTYMOLOGY 

been sweet had it not been gathered too soon, or 
some other circumstance prevented its reaching the 
necessary degree of maturity. 

From the foregoing remarks may be draM^ the 
following general rule : viz. That when the attri- 
bute is inherent in, or essential to, the subject, we 
express it hy^er^ and when it is only accidental or 
contingent, we make use of estar : thus, if we saw 
a man with a wooden leg, we should say este hom- 
bre es cosOy this man is lame ; hut a man walking 
with crutches only, might be expressed by este 
hombre es, or estd, coxo : with es we should denote 
that his lameness was deemed permanent, and with 
estd that we considered it as temporary only. This 
however will be more clearly shown in the follow- 
ing rules* 

RuLB 94. General truths and the qualities of 
the mind are expressed with ser, and emotions 
with estar ; as 

Lftt muerte es terrible. Death is terrible. 

Soy humilde, I am humble. 

Ercs sober bio y Thou art proud. 

Es infelizj He is unhappy. 

Estoy ejifadado, I am angry. 

Estas triste. Thou art sorrowful. * 

Est£ contentOf He is pleased. 

Rule 95. The natural beauties of the body, 
and its defects .when deemed permanent, are de- 
noted by ser ; as 

La mucha£ha es bonita. The girl is pretty. 

JSl hijo er'dfeoj The son was ugly, 

Xa madre es coxa. The mother is lame. 

El padre es ciego, The father is blind. 

RuL£ 96. The physical changes in the animal 
body are expressed with estar; as 



ANI> SYNTAX* 187 

JSU nmo e%tA frioy* The child is cold (to 

the touch.) 
Yo estaba ciego, I was blind. 

Estuv4 coxo la semana I was lame last week. 
pasatlaj 

RuLB 97* The natural qualities of substances^ 
when taken in a general sense^ are expressed by 
ser; as 

El yelo esfrio. Ice is cold. 

La miel es dulce, Honey is sweet. 

La lecke es bianco. Milk is white. 

Elplomo es pesado. Lead is heavy. 

Rule 98. The chemical and mechanical changes 
in substances are expressed with estar ; as 

La leche estd dgria, The milk is sour. 
JEl plomoestAderretidOy The lead ts melted. 
£/ agua estd caliente. The water tf warm. 
Z^a caTvte estaba asada, The meat uf6»^ roasted. 

RuLB 99. Wlien to be connects two nouns, 
two pronouns, two infinitives, or one of each, it is 
translated «er; as 

The fear of God is the El temor de JHos es el 
beginning of wisdom, principio de la sabi" 

duria. 

To forgive injuries is to Perdonar las injurias es 
act like Christians, obrar como Cristianos. 

Who am I ? ^ Quien soy To ? 

Remember, man, that jicuerdate, hombre, que 
thou art dust. tu eres polvo. 



* See obiervation after Rule 107. 



I3B 



RUL£» 409 Kmf aiOGT 



RcTM 100. The materials of which bodm are 
formed are dcaoled by ser; as 

El vestido es de pano. The suit is of clothe 

Xflw merftflw eran de seda, The stockings were 

I.OS candeleros son deplata, The candlesticks 
- are of silver. 

X^ m»« es rfe cwoA^y, The table is of ma 

hogany. 

RuLB 101. To Be forming tbe pasmve toIcc, or 
used imperaonaUy, is, generatty, translated «r; as 

Man was created,^ JEl hombre i\x€ criado. 

Sins will he punished. Las pecados ser^n casti- 

. gctdos. 

Is It not to be won- ^iVbes de maraviUarse 

dered at that virtue que la viriud sea tan 

dcs • d? ^^ ^^^^ omenudodespreciada? 

RtJLB I^. Possession or destination is ex- 
pressed with ser; as 

La corona es del rey. The crown w the 

Kimr's 
meahallo era fnM>, The hors'e mis mine. 

Este vtno ^a de B»pmiia, This wine »s from 

•Brfo. n*«fa> son para TbeS^heefe an for 

«M cache, a coach 

Xa>r «, ^«rra ella The flowe; m for her. 

La carta enjmra JEs- The letter wat for 

^,';''"«', , Scotland, 

^to maymMffl es para This machine ts to 
coptarcartm, copy letters. 



AXB SVNTilJU 1S9 

RcTLB 109. Locality is denoted hj esimr; as 

SI estaba en la ealUy He was in the street. 

Yo estar6 d lapuerta, I Matf 2»tf at the 

door. 
El dtsertar ettaba entrt The deserter wcu be* 
cfo« noldadosy tween two soldiers. 

jEl rea est^ deloMte del The culprit is before 

jw«», the judge. 

Tu e&tabas con ta cnnigOy Thewi w€Lst with thy 

_ friend. 

Rule 104. JEstar is employed always to con- - 
jugate a verb in (he gerund; as 

Estoy escTthiendOj I am writing. 

Ella estaba leyench^ She was reading. 

El estard predicandoy He will he preaching. 
Semos estsido arguyendoy We have been arguing. 

Rule 105. Before adverbs or adverbial expres- 
sions denoting manner^ we generally use estar; as 

JEst^ de modOf He is in the fashion. 

Estaba de rodillcUy He wcls on his knees. 

JSstoy depriesay I am in haste. 

lS,&toydelmismoparecery I am of the same opi- 
nion. 

Naie a. — The last of these sentences is often found with ser; but 
the observation already made on the different meaning oF th« twm 
▼erbs is equally appHcabl* in this insdiiKe ; aad if wc exanine th« 
expression, we shall £nd that ier denotes my way of thinkiai^ in a 
more general, and estar in a more limited point of view ^ and that 
soy de ette pmreeer, means, this is the way i have aiways thought ; 
and estoy de este parecer, this is my present opinion. 

Rule 106. A^er requires the same ease before 
as after it; as 

Si yofuera td, If /were thoiu 

Si t6.fueras ella. If thou wert she. 



Nole a. — ^The objective case of tbe neater ^u u mnm 9lh it 



140 RULES OF ETYMOLOGY 

qacDtly used with ser, and then it is generally translated jo ; as^ 
vm. dice que et vifjo, pero m vm. ni yo lo 9omo9y you say that you are 
old, but neither you nor I are «o; vm, piema que eiia et rtco, per9 
no lo esj you think that she is rich, but she is not $o ; cr^e que t»to$ 
euojadot y d la verdad lo eatoy, he thinks that I am angry, anid m 
indeed I am. Sometimes' it may be omitted ,* as, vm. e$ rico, pero 
yo nOf or pero yo no lo aoy, you are rich, but I am not^ or but I am 
not ao. 

Note b. — ^Althougli the verbs ser and estar, as has b?en obsenred, 
may be used sometimes with the same adjective ; yet this cannot 
always be done, therebeing some adjectives which vary their meaning 
according as they are coupled with ier or etiar; as, ser bueno, to 
be good ; estar bueno, to be wt>ll ; ser malo, to be wicked ; esiar 
malOf to be ill ; ser cansado, to be tiresome ; estar cansado, to be 
tired; ser vivo, to be lively ; estar vivo, to be alive or living, Sfe. 

Observation 

» 

The verb estar is oflen followed by infinitives, which 
are preceded by the preposition para or por : with para 
it denotes that the action or energy of the verb, which is 
in the infinitive, is about to take place ; as, estaba el 
irazo para descargar el golpe^ the arm was ready or was 
about to strike the blow : with por it describes the said 
action, &c. as not having taken place, or expresses an 
inclination on the part of the agent to execute it; as, la 
casa estd por acabar, the house is to finish, or is not yet 
finished ; estoy por ir d vSrle, I have a mind to go and 
see him. 

Tetier and HabeVj To have. 

Both the above verbs imply possession ; but the 
employment of the latter is now limited to that of 
an auxiliary, in order to form the compound tenses 
of other verbs. 

Rule IO7. To havcj used as an active verb, is 
translated tener ; and, as an auxiliary, haber ; as 
To have friends, Tener amigos. 

I have relations, Tengo parientes. 

To have said, Haber dkho. 

PTe had spoken, Habiamos hablado. 

Note. — The verb tener is sometimes found appareutly used as an 
anxiliary. See Rule 13B, nott a. 



AND SYNTAX. 141 



Observation. 

When in English the verb to be precedes the adjec- 
tives hungry f thirsty, afraid, ashamed, it is changed into 
the Spanish verb tener^ and the adjective into a corre* 
sponding substantive : as, are you hungry ? ^ tiene vm. 
hambre ? i. e. have you hunger ? we were thirsty, teni- 
amos sed, i. e. we had thirst ; he was not ashamed, no 
tilivo verguenza, i.e. he had not shame ; art thou afraid ? 
^ tienes miedo ? i. e. hast thou fear ? The adjective old 
when equivalent to of age in English is also changed 
into a substantive ; as, he was eighty years old when 
he died, tenia ochenta anos de edad quando murio. It 
may also be omitted in Spanish: as, Hark ye, Gil Bias, 
you are seventeen years old, ; Ola ! (hi Bias, tienes 
diez y siete anos. The adjectives hot and cold admit 
also the same construction provided they are applied to 
a sentient being; as, we shcdl be hot, tendr^mos color i 
he was so cold that he could not move himself, tenia 
tanto frio que no podia moverse. But if the being be 
supposed insensible, we use estar instead of tener; at, 
he was so cold (to the touch) that I thought he was 
dead, estaba tan frio que pense que se habia muerto. — 
N. B. See To be in the right, and To be in the wrong, 
in Colloquial Idioms, Exercises, p. 107. 

RuLB 108. When the auxiliaries to have and 
to be, followed by an inftnitive, denote some future 
action, the former is translated tener que, and the 
latter haber de ; as 

We had to write, Teniamos que escribir. 
He was to come, Habia de venir. 

Note a, — ^The verb haber when used impersonally requires alto 
fue before tVie following infinilive ; as, no hay que tenner, there is 
Bothing to fear. 



143 



RT7LBS or STYMOCOGY 



o 

< 

S 

< 

D 



H 
98 

(SI 

O 
> 



O 

o 




l: P ^ •"? ^ 



e ^ 2f 



c$ 9 «^ Q cs 



Q 



82 




9S «il'i 

b Is c g S 



^ 9 (u 



I 







*2^ 'S ^^ 
Q td Q 






i 



Q 8 «' 

tO <^ t-O 

Q Q Q 



d § Q* 

• • • 
i-i C9 00 

ho 

a 



i . 



{Si 



§ 



i-i <N eo 






*• ?• «• I -s' s* 

£ 2. C *> k ill 

C V V '^'^ **^ V 
•«S *«• *«• *•<> *«• *A 

4f « « « » • 



g 



i 



S9 «t %» £ A^ 

S ^ « s 2^ 
•s •«* •** •*» ••• 



03 h 
bfi <M 

'5* 

o 



3 






a 
o 

o 



Q 



<^ V- ^ lb <^ 

••» ••« •«• ••• •««» 

« ♦ 4F « » 

i 

<3 CS § S g 



«} Q 



s 

•I '8 



I 



O 






g •} g 

^3 ^* ^§ -5S ^ 

is ^ I; t ^ 









Q 8 Q § Q § 

•«* ••• '^ «M "^ '^ 



oi ^ 


u 


i 


• • • 

•I'M 00 


• • • 

p.; C4 00 


a 







QQ 



X9D SYNTAX. 



M4^ 



I :sJ 



1 ^ 



I? 






J..= 



IS I 



1 5 'S 



P I 

81 ■ 






I'll 



144 BULE8 OF BTYMOLOGT 



Explanation of the foregoing Table^ 

In order to understand the use of the annexed 
view of the terminations^ it is necessary to observe, 
that all those letters which precede the termuiation 
of the infinitive, in all verbs, are called the root of 
the verb, and that these radical letters are invari- 
ably preserved in the conjugation of regular verbs 
through all their tenses and persons ; as, am-ar, 
am-aron, am-anan ; vend-er, vend-ian, yend-erdn; 
8ufr-tr^ sutr-i^ren, sufr-tV^emo^, &c. 

Observation. 

There are some regular verbs which require a change 
in their radical letters^ in order that the final consonant 
of their root may retain, in all the tenses, the harsh or 
soft pronunciation which it has before the infinitive : 
this alteration cannot occur unless the root of the verb 
end in c, in g^ in gu, and in qu, and the changes which 
then take place are as follow : 





before tenmna' 






c 


changes 
into 

qu 


tiona begin- 
mng wilA 

e 


Conjug, 
I. 


Examples. 
buscar, busquemos. 


c 


z 


a or 0, 


II. III. 


veneer, venza, zurcir, 
zurzo. 


e 


fftt 


e 


I. 


Uegar, lleguen. 


s 


• 

J 


a or 0, 


II. III. 


coger, cqjan, Jingir, 
Jinjo. 


qu 


c 


a or o, 
a or o. 


III. 
III. 


seguir, sigo, aigan. 
delinquir, delinco, de- 
lineamos. 



The first column points out how the root of the verb 
must end to require the alteration ; the second, the let- 
ters substituted ; the third, what letters must begin the 
termination to admit the change ; and the fourth, the 
coDJugationswherein these several deviations are found. 



AND SYNTAX. 145 

PASSIVE VOICE. 

This voice is supplied by adding the past parti- 
ciple of the active verb to the auxiliary sevy through 
all its moods^ tenses^ and persons^ making the said 
paiticiple agree with the person in gender and num-' 
ber ; as, ella es amadoy she is beloved ; ser^mos 
premiados, we shall be rewarded ; las mugeres han 
sido alabadas, the women have been praised. 

The passive voice, in English, is very frequently 
expressed in Spanish, by prefixing the pronoun se 
to the third persons of verbs, in their active voice j 
as, se ot/6 una voz^ a voice was heard ; se han man- 
dado tropa^y troops have been sent, 8fc. Great at- 
tention is requisite not to employ this method with 
such nouns as would render the verb reflective, in 
lieu of expressing its passive voice: for example; 
Pedro es amado, means Peter is beloved ; but Pedro 
se amay signifies Peter loves himself ; but where no 
ambiguity can arise, either of the methods may be 
adopted ; as, la virtud es amaday or se ama la 
virtudy virtue is beloved. If the agent be men- 
tioned, the latter method can seldom be employed ; 
therefore. Virtue is beloved by the good, should be 
rendered. La virtud es amado por los buenos. 

ON IRREGULAR VERBS. 

These verbs may be divided into three classes. 

First, Irregulars in the root: this class comprises 
verbs which in some tenses increase, diminish, or 
exchange, radical letters ; as, ca-er, to fall ; cayg-o^ 
I fall ; dec-tr, to say ; c/-ir^mos, we shall say j 
ped-tr, to ask ; pid-o, I ask. 

Secondly, Irregulars in the termination. To this^ 
class are referred all such verbs as have the lettem 
of their termination either increased, diminished^ 
or exchanged ; as, d-ar, to give ; d-vy, I give, &c^ 



V 



146 RULES OF JBTTMOtOGY 

Thirdly^ Irregulars in the root and termination* 
Under this class are comprehended all those verbs, 
which^ in the course of their conjugation, are sus- 
ceptible of any of the variations above mentioned, 
both in their radical letters and in those of the 
termination: as, tra-«r, to bring; trax-Oy he 
brought ; sab-cr, to know ; s-^, I know ; quer-«% 
to be willing ; quer-r^, I shall be willing ; quns-Oy 
he was willing ; yim-imos, we were willing. 

N.B. In the following examples of the Irregular 
verbs, that part of the verb wherein the irregularity 
occurs, will be printed in italics ; as, CLCtert-o, est- 
oy, v-oy. 

It is to be observed, that when any Irregular 
verb is used reflectively, it retains its irregularity. 
The letters L p. being marked after any of the fol- 
lowing verbs, denote that it has an irregular par- 
ticiple^ which must be looked for in the List whict 
is given after the Irregular Verbs. 



AND STNTAX. 



W 



« 8-3^ 8 

V a> a> Q> 
t^ t-* u u 
u u c^ o 



to 'rs ■** T* 

*S * «» 5t 

01 O U O O 

£ 2 2 2 

u o o- o 



!0 



4> 



o ^ ^ 

2 <5 



CO O 

S 9 CO P 

O fl a » 

0j B 1^ 

Si S^ "^ ^ 

o c; OJ o 

M l-i t-t ti* 

o a CI u 



01 

o 

a 

I 

o 



CO 






> 



g § S g s § 

N U O O 

^ Qj OP QJ 



CO 09 GO 

CO •'2 "^ '2 

•v4 flS Q^ CO 

68 (h 09 -*<^ 



9J 



a is 



... 0) 
o u o 

V V Q^ 



a 



9J '^ 
CO 

CO 
«> . 

••1 ••* 

o 



03 QO CO 

2 o o o 

5 03 0) 
d >N CO 

I vu *^ 
N O U 



^ *^ 53 

o o o o 

41 <U « O 

fc* tU M S>k 

o o o o 



O O C» Q^ 

»« ki s. s 
a o a C2 



I 

o 

!4 




tr & & & & 






s 



oo 



3 o 3 

^ CO •{-• 

JUS z 

o o o 
» o o 



i 2 

«^ 

^ OS 

2 =* 

"S ST 

> *^ 



i« u a o 

S <u U tt 



GO 






03 



h2 



I 

&< 
u 



CO 



a V ci 

Ih CO •— 

« a> S; 

o o o 

4> a> V 

^ tH »4 

o o u 



-8 



>5 



{ 



148 



ROT.BS OF ETYMOtOGT 



-*» 


















9 


a 
















JS 










ilil 

•S a> 0) a» 


g 

i 


s 


S g fl 
4) 0/ Oi V 


a 


^* 








^ fi a a 


Si 


si 


a (3 


w 


c 

4> 
















•1 


t 








BB "• ^ 

"3 *53 .2 




m 


CD 
CO 00 '^ CQ 
•5 'BTJ Co •?! 




0k •• 








TJ 


•^M 
« 


2 |-c 2 


o 


o « 

2^ 








^^ bo W) W) bo 


S) 


g> 


ti.'S,a)'& 











0) a> a> o 


« 


0* 


0) a> 0) a> 


9i 


S a 




« 




fl a a fl 


{:: 


fi 















SS w 

O o 
« g 00 r 

o 5 o c 

rj w Q Hi) 

, bp bo bo bo 


o 
B 


CO 

O 

a 


w 22 o DO 

2 2 0® 
S E s S 

3 |.g S 

vea ^ cd ^ 


5§ 

8-3 


6\ /"^ 








d 


s 


'^ o 


ore the last < 
See page 25. 








bo 


bo bo bo bo bo 




• 


II 

o .. 
nj o 


C 9i V <U <lf 

a fi ^ fi a 

§« bo bo bO 


1 




at O Qi Qi 


flS CS Cu ^w 

bo bo bo bo 


s « 

3 « 


*ti ^-^ 


•» 


C! iv4 


•^ a> a> oj 


•«* 


*<4 


0) a> V ^ 


^ o 


a; 


g 
I 


1 


■ ■ 


s: fi fl fl 


e 


Si 





«i 


M o 


bo bo bo 
0) 2> o 
d fl 










Oz3 


e lette 
minati 






0) 

Cli 

•s 


g 1 «5 

<M J^ cu 03 efl 

90 bo bo bo 
•)!« a> 0) 0) 


OS 

1 


egaras 
egases 
egarias 
legares 


22 


es th 
e ter 




^ G a ei 


Si 


S 


n n B 




«^ M 
















'^ ^ 


h requi 
lot on t 








C2 a a 






9i 


V 4) a> IP 
000 


4; oS 
& 

-2 'So 


ing ver 
falls n 








Sing. 
Present 
Imperfect 
Preterite 
Future 








II 


^ 










«s 


"" s 


1 












<i; 


ft »^ 


8^ 








1 


1 

1 


1 




CQ 










J 


s 


t 

i 


s 




g 



■s . 



AND STTfTAX. 

?'sll r?ii|i'|.l 
'fill I l-ili-iii 

iS88 8 iSSS 8-£| 
I 9 S S 9 eS ? 



Illl 



.2 c « g 

■a -, . . ■■22a 

*.:iN„|l.il 

S «J ■BtS'S 3 3 = 3 



11 



5? 

S8 






„.5 3 3 3 



jS » ffl « = S "i 



ItSfi 



- s';3 ^3 



a a s s § 

S %.M » bo 



■3 " 



t mi 

•§ ell 

R g S 



150 



ROI^S 






O 

.a 
§ 

:S 

fl 

o 

o 
c 

% 




-: r! c • 
O c S a 

«4 M %i S 

3 « p e3 
bo be bo he 

O 3 P 3 



W.2 » 

Sd "So 'Sibp 
3 3 3 3 



80 '2 

9* 



.2 



a> 



^ s 

5^ ^^ 






rt OB M 

cSc eic lac 

3 3 3 



V 





s s 




s § s s 


PHI 

• 


ilil 

te&tt) be 

5 3 3 3 


3 




1 '^ 


• " J* ••' 




?|jr^ 




g" bo 6c be 


eo 




,8 3 3 3 




•^ ••-»••-»•'-» 



1 


1 


bo be 

3 3 


»^^ 


*** 


09 00 


CO 


00 


o o 


s 






1 

9 


3 


ii 

3 3 



•^ 03 

bo 
3 3 






1 ® 

bo te 
3 3 



^ 03 g ^ 

be be » be 

3 3 3 3 



4 fil 



0J 

•tS 3 O 
a V S 

mOPh 



.^ « 



A a CO 

bete bo 

3 3 3 



^ 
•^ 



^ ss ? 3 



be ^ bo ^ 











1 

3 



a 



I 

3 

? 



1. 



I 



>4 

e 

4) 



o 

CO 

03 
0) 

«-i 

0) 

4» 
O 

3 

2 



.58 


O 

J5 



A.17D SYNTAX. 



151 



^ 



"fill 



• • a a a a 

9 §g|-cg 

ij « « K « 
» P- >• > 5* 



OEl CO «» 

•'^ •'^ .s 

> 9>> > 






09 en w 00 

MQ CM aaM "l^ s^^ 

•S S 0) 9 4> 
rt M 00 N{H M 

» > > > > 



03 

o 



OD 

o 



e 




Jt 




«l 




« 




o 


• 


•:S 


^ 


♦* 


Oi 


.s 


a 


;» 


X 


9 


^ 


■3 


13 


a 


X 



^i^ 



s § s a 




S 




to 



>• » > 



•» 



^ 09 ••»*c9 



fl i S 



CI 



2? A 00 K 






£ 



> > 



o 

§ 

i 



09 CO M 0) 

09 O O O O 

S § s § s 

a Qj V OS u 

CO IH « T! >« 






8 •? -p ► ► 



03 



0> 



^ Q> 8 E « 

S» >• P >• >» 



0) 



09 CD n at 

09 00 4> 09 4) 

I V V R V 

$ t». >> >. i> 



a 
o 

a 

o 
o 

09 
•f4 

9 



& & k P» 



*%» 



6 b E 



2S 



ft^KS; 









es Q) 03 a> 

■rt M 03 •f-i Ui 

I a> 0^ J^ a> 



od 

1 



I 

I* 




152 



RULBS OF BTTM0L06Y 



ce 
a 

o 

u 

o 

.a 

a 

a 

'Sd 

4) 



•I 

.s 









CO 



S.S23.S 

n CQ 6Q CO 

w cd flB od 



s s 



s s e' a 

& s s s 

rfc#v « *» C 3i 

^ <0 CD CO n 

Q oS 09 sS n 



CO V .£ 

(N 80 03 CO jS 

•H ^rs ^"^ '^^ 

S S S 3 



09 

00 O 



a § $ 



o 

"Si 



09 

O e o B 
•^ 6 S S^ 



9 



M CO (O QQ 

Co g9 OS oS 



• •» s^ , 



3 09 09 ^ 
OS rt CO 






09 

o 

§ 



ip 

<3 



09 



09 QD 



09 



w OP VJ 

2 -a 'Si •- 'S 

fio^ rs .53 rs 
8 S S S a 



S S S s S 
I g § i S 
j.^ "4) t: •« 

OP"^ •r^ av^ »pm 

CO 09 « -~ 



Q cis a al ra 



^ ••* ••» ••«. ••* 

IT ^ 4^ 03 9> 

fc' 2 «* fa ^ 

f 3 § s. a 



4) 

•s 

oo 



I 



9 

S BO 

S S'-P 



^^ 8 * « »^ 

AS V •li^ •1-4 'fS 

2 2 2* 

CO 09 00 OS 



09 09 



"^ a OS 




fti^5;(i;&, 



0> 

•I 



? 



s 



I g « « - 



09 09 



c? S S « S 
h* 4> V C S 

8 S S 8.S 



1 






> 
o 

g 

CO 






I- 



AND SYNTAX. 



163 



S 



••i 






• 


• 

s 






CO 




1 


e 






cd OS OS ci3 
o o u o 


§ 


ja 










■^ 










•M 










^ 










bo 






.2 2 




.5 

^4 




C4 




T3 


s 






OO CS 33 flS 


V 


G 






es 


•^« 






V o o o ■ 


O 


bO 










0) 










*o 






00 


a) 

O 


09 






«, «0 ® 


i 
1 


o 


3 -J J 


• 


o 2 § S 

ti 09 ^ ^ 

u u u o 


4) 


















a^ 


1 

<1> 


o 

iT S O 


eo 






J 


fe ?i.3 




o o o u 


S 


^ 


(2i (& C& 

o o « 








V 










quir 




09 




0) 


2 

OQ 


»Sopi 




SS3S 


C8 





















o 






o 




B 




r-( 






o 














Q U O O 





S S fl d c3 

w 03 Q; S O 

^ ^ « 'E S 

Q CO ra cd ed 

u u u o u 



BO 09 eo Ml l» ^ 

•• >i4 U3 ^ 21 t?' 

^ ;»^ ^ « >-» V 

^ oi a a a. t^ 

o o o u u Q 



CO CO OQ 

2 o o 

§ s s 

C^ 00 0) 

I fc4 CO 

;j o o 



o 2 ^ 



o» 



a 

OS 



'S •" '"^ .^ ••* 8 



§0 « « 'S « 

g) >-» ^ V >«, Q 

^8 ^. 



§08 oj 01 03' 
o o o * 



09 OQ Ml 09 

. s? s 3 ? 

^ >» ^ s ** 

S flS o8 id o8 

u o o u o 



Q oS eS oS 
o o o u 



CO 






ho 









1 1" 



mmt 

1 



I 
•I 





»5 



8 
£ « 

3 ^ 



154 



RULS$ or BTirifOJ/>6T 



o 
o 

u 

I 

a> 

•I 



CO 

J 



9f> 



a 

I 



o 






I 



3 ^iiii 

a I »^ CO 03 >4 

5^ 5* o o o o 



." 'S -^ 

^^ "ff ".^ -^^ .a 
o o o o 



1 






•<M 




• •s 



a> 




5 o o o 



t 
? 



GO QO <0 ^ OB 

? g S -3 2 
S^ o o o o 



2 «J w — * 

o o o S o 

§ S S i 6 

Ql e« V H a> 

i »M CA 03 tX 

c» o o O O 



oJ ea « "T a> 

J |« W CO »« 

o o o o o 



• mm 

"S 

SI 

s 




91 



jL ti CO C 



§>o 



o s 






.1 (.4 



o8 S# 



o O O O 



• iH 



S V ^ 



.0 



eS e8 V ^ V 

I u> <fi a Zi 
o o o o 




0) 

S 



I 

-§ 

CQ 



AND rrMTAX. 



153 



d 
o 

8 

OB 



3 'o'o o 
u > > > 



g § s s g 

§ o o o o 



V 

:S.. 

G lA 

^ S 

CO 

o 

o • 

« § 

OB g 



a 

Q 









C4 



•2 '3 .2 



CO CO '^ 00 



p o o d 

>• > ► ► 



1 

> 






09 

c 

s g s a 

od >cO fid 

.'p *© 'p 'o 
^ >• k p- ► 



00 

O 



1 



CO 

O 

6 



p c o o o 

CO CO o 09 

_ o o a o 

Si § i § 

g 03 ^ «»H V 

'p'p o 'o 'o 
> > > > > 



o 






CO 






1 



I 



»4 

► >■ ^ 



0) V 



o e o 






cd 03 fls 



« g 

> > > >- 




3 2 

a o o o 
s i> >• »*■ 



S > ^ >- 



1 



0) M n S « 
V cd $ .S S 

" s 



*^ 






CO M 

ee 0j 



p p O O 

► ► > > 



C8 



0) flS $ •? 9 



'^ od o3 c3 03 

'o 'o 'o 'o 



a 






.Si 

I 



•■o 
6 

S 



I 






9 
GO 



156 



RULBS OF BTYMOLOOY 






o 

8 

a 
o 

£ 


CO 



2 >< 

O Qi 



CO 



o 
a 

on 
bO 

•S 

on 



a . 
• ^ S fl 

g S-S« 

*•* »r^ ••-• •li^ 

8 o 8 § 

s s ^ s 

o p o o 

U O Q u 

SB C0 OC C 

• 1^ ^^ *^ •pM 

^^ JQ ^ p£} ^ 

o o u o 

a a d d 
o o o o 
u o o u 



^88 



.2 - 
C a-n 

5 S ^ 
o § o 
» Q <j 



.t: d'S 
5 2'^ 

e V 3 



CO 

CO o 

§ I 

l-H ^ rO 

o o 

. d d 
boo 
Poo 

S 

ir.2 

s d 



o a 
o o 



■ o 

d 
o 
o 



09 

o 
S 

03 
I 

•8 

8 



1! 



8 8 8 









X 



8 .2 .2 .fe 

g d d d 
5 o o o 
S o o o 

•fi **^ •« 

^ S S S 
c o o o 

^. S « o S 
bo "8 

> 
e 



0) 

I 

.6 



^4 



d 

8-c 



« £ 




rS :© -<3 'S "O 

8 8 '8 S '8 

g 8 e d S 

8 8 8 S 8 

GO CO Mj BQ 

- « « S 5 

? -7 -7 :3 -7 

fO r* "O oj pO 

8 8 '8 '8 

K ss 8 d s 

8 8 8 8 8 



00 CO 

O O 

» s s 

00 rt « 
(-1 M 

03 •!-< «Fi4 

lO <-o i-O 

'8 '8 :8 

8 8 8 
u C o 



'" ••» mts ••» 

03 0) «• V 
•" ^ GO .S ^ 

-, V V C a> 

W •»-• •("» •p^ •^^ 
I • I _Q I 

»0 t^ -^ "fli -^ 

•8 8 '8 8 '8 

I 8 8 d ^ 

8 8 8 u 8 

M CO H) 00 

rt V cS 9^ 

n Cfi^ »mm *^ 'l^ 

p^ <> -^ 'S r^ 

- -g 'C 8 -8 

^ ^ S S 

o o O O 

Q G o o 

•8 '8 8 8 -s 

8 8 8 d s 

^ 8 8 S^ 




u 

d 
d 

f 

QQ 



AND SYNTAX. 



167 



& 

o 



CO 



a a 2 i 
? 3:33 tJ 

«S *-• tl ^ 



•^ 
•s 



• S a> a V 

C CO 3 *M 

^ -T '7 .h '7 






•■o 

as 

-^ 

a -^ 

o ^ 

ci u 
fl « 

iS CD 

on 

•s 



Hi 

s^ s^ g 



^ d 3 



o 

J I fL 






« zs ia 



a 2i.« 



^ 



X 



cn a} ••>« 
QA CO a CO H 

^ -c ^ ^ -a 

V « S a> 



(» O 00 c3 

o a o a 
« 4> a> Q) 









I n QB K 

fe -c -c -c 

<.a^^ 



9 rt^'S 

•2a 0) V « 

•«s,a .£S^ 




8 

1 



CO 00 00 

•a ■« .§ '55 

CO E 00 eS >•« 
^ •a •« •» *S *^ 
*C I I I 'rj J 

S 'h •«* 'M V 'M 



09 CO 

o o 



09 

o 



•i 



09 

o 



oo 

O 



i 



s s s 1 a 

2 « a» 5 4> 

a K 09 cd ^ 

a ■*« *^ ""C "^ 

W crN •—• ^J[J •«-« 
•«» •!» 'M 4) •«* 



*«« *«« *«« V •«• 



is 



S 



i 



goo 

« 09 ^ 

'Ji gS *■* 

CO 4) a> ••-( 4> 

*«« •«« •«« V *«<« 



^ »i4 S 08 S 

OS d) Qj 'r* Q> 

.1 '^^ •!■< M *fii4 

fe > / *S i 

rcs kcs ><^ ^a <i 



•M 



I 






2! 



4) 

a, 

a 






158 



RULES f39 KTYte&OGT 






O 

o 




13 fl 



•§'§'XI'§ 



•f^ en 
w ?i IS 
w a OS H 

»mt «^ •'^ 'f^ 

s a a a 

S o o 

•T3 TJ '^ "^ 




O B 



> 


OB 


••w 


a 


b 


4^ 
0) 


^ 


a 


oT 


s 




8 


bO 








'S 




o 




p:4 




tS 




« 




j:a 




H 





a a s 
;^ s 8 8 

■XJ "O -O "O 



gi 

'18 'O 'O "^ 




bo 



s 



(^l(S;i^ 



o 

1 



•§ 



03 

o 

§ 

I 



•I 



Oi 



S- cd a> a «> 
>^ (*> S &! 




cQ CO « n 

« *^ «» 3 -S 
•s "^ -^ »S "2 




a s js b a 

00 OS CO 

O O n O 

s a a s a 
2 OS V a g> 

S vfli •'li 03 *D 

cd .^ .;±4 X ■? 

I • I •^N A 

a a a S^ 

• •« •* art 

tj til -- t-1 

Qj a> 0) .S o> 

a o a 




09 



^ S S 2 
5J .2 .g .2 




a 



a a a o a 



a 9) 

(0 & S 



*^ "7 

a g 

^ s a ©a 

•tJ -XS -^ HD tj 




I 

•43 
o 



QQ 






§? 



AKD StWTAX. 



(59 



•-J 

-8 3 

•TO 3 
h 4) 

o 



00 



(K 



S'S? s 

no 10 IBI "^3 



.2 ^ 4S 2 
*3 "^s ^ 3 

nfl "^ no 'X3 




i g g I 

d d* ^ .^ 'C .S 
TS TO tO TsJ no ^0 



_j n •^ «Q> oH •.^ 

Co V • I 03 I 

^O no 'w T3 ^O ^O 



«» 09 S 

O ^ 



oT 



I si * 

d « 
o <u c 

"S "5 o 

•s "I 

V 0> d 



Cm 

o 




^rt HCJ ^Cr Tj ^3 T3 



••fc 



i 

CZ3 



a: 



(Si 
-< 

D 
O 
H 
si 






j*^ s s 



c^ 



on 2 

§^ 

u ^ a 
'S oj d 

■ fi OB 

•el 

too 
c <a 

•r on 

S s 



T3 Q CO 



Q> 



'Tj 'T^ T3 ^0 



••» ..« ••* 

93 



« _« *2 13 * '»' 

no nj nO no no ^o 



••« o p 
^ p bo 
oa C « 

,£} C4-1 .^ 
Hr» O ** 

OQ SS "^ 

g* rt * 4) 
'fe -g -5 . 






d _, 



"^ 3 W 00 

g -g no "TJ TJ no 



03 



I ^ S ^ 

2 •? -I *S •- 

•T3 "73 »;3 1^ 



CO 



^§» 



01 



"2 



T3 '^ 'O 'O 



1 



^ £ CS ^ 
Is * •£ .« 

V I • 09 I 

nO 'O '^O n3 no 



be 

d 

03 






o 






«fO 






"8 



>^ 



1 



4> S 
kHQQ 



d p 2i 

« Js <^ 

^ d. 

S * JS 

O Q ^ 

o ^ ^ 



CO 

ot 






160 



BULBS OF BrVMOLOOr 



.8 

eg § H 
TJ 13 *9 "O 

9 OS Q 9 



s 



I 



en 

CO 

O 

Q 

a 



o 

H 
OS 

m 

H 

» 

< 

EC 
H 



10 

-< 
»^ 
D 
O 
M 



on 



bo 

bO 



OQ 



i 



40 *B OB 

•sill 



a 8 

00 08 



Q OS 






a s « 

na 13 tJ 

A s i 

00 rt a 



»m* ^ •fH 



09 

o 



OB 

o 
B 



sl 

nc no ^ "XJ 

. « s s e 

Kn 00 rt vs OB 



kt 



Wo9 c8 _g 00 
t3 na tJ 'O 

00 00 Q n 



OQ 00 00 ^ a 
13 'd ^ '« 

00 S ^ S 



ssis 




ml 



a 

9 



00 

s 



OQ 

O 
00 



Is I 

^ « s i 

. •? •? 3 •; 

fl g » "C § 

•tJ ^ ^ 'O >5 

Q s Si c s: 
3 Q Q S Q 

s§§i§ 



s 



ii 

en •'^ -^ 

o ••*••? 
S ^ g 

S Si S 

i0 Q <d 



® s a 

10 13 "XJ 

d s {:; 

S Q <3 



o 

OB K 

a ^ 

J'? 
00 Q 



•c s 



00 



9 9 



I 

«> § 
^1 



I 



I OB I 

•^3 n3 ~ 
«: C Si 
Q 00 Q 



I 



I I CO I 

d> «3 «3 flj «S 

fl Si Si S s: 

09 Q ;$ S Q 



0> 

1 

a 




o 

a 
I" 



Attp SYNTAX. 



161 



oQ CO s; m 
« « « « 



«» -i I » 1 

03 09 S OO 
V 4> S 0) 






«0 

o 




o 
S 



03 OQ S 00 
• Q^ qj IQ g) 



oo 



I 

OQ 



o 

I 

03 



Ph 






C05 



09 
08 



il 



I 



TT Mia 

OQ cn og 
0) v « 



00 



00 



»« 

5 

^ 










09 
4) 



5>i 2 * ^ 

^^ .tJ ♦- s -** 

09 OQ OQ 00 

0> V « Q> 



09 



IF 












I 
a 



q ^ ^ 

S 8 8 




SO -S .S OS ••? 
-V ^ •> a *> 

S S 8 8 « 



fe 1 IT fe 

"" ;^ & b & 

09 "S *S 00 *S 

V V U Q> Q 



I 8 g 

n & & s & 




i 



00 






I 



Ifll 



RULBS IMP nTMOiOGT 



4> 



OS 
0) 

CO 

p 
a; 

bo 

s 

o 

•2 

> 
QQ 

C 
O 

a 

o 

CO 



'T3 

I: 



g 



^ 4 <^ K 



•7 b. 



9 

to 



a I I Si 
? .S .2 I 






a 



a 




« « J2*7 1: 

,£3 J3 < i<* 



-« « ^ 59 

no O <n O 

§ i p s 



130 






so d q; 'S 0) 
•3 i^ JO « .¥• 

' .0 i 2 i 

< < < <• 



1 



« si 
>^ 

O OQ 

ns S 

• • 

. * 




<S<5»<*c» 



6* -Si 






CQ 



<M 



8 o ^ V 



w S « ^ 



68 



69 



fi 



00 



^ ^ 



o U Jt 
<» < »^ <„«» 



2 
6 






«■§ 



a 
o 
o 



a 
o 



as 



03 






09 W OQ 

cd O) te V 

(14 QQ g »^ 

^.^ ^ t ^ 



s 

I 

bo 



•s 



P4 

s 



IfX s 



o 

I 






-^ 




63 9i 
i? CO Q 






aP o i J, i 



s 



§ 



•M 









I 



I 



01 



g; 



«> 

a 

•«4 

»(3 



"a, 



I 



o 
fli 

B 

8 



8 

i 



AMD mnXTAJU 



163 



s 

a 

o 



s 



a 



• _5 • 

. a d c: 

9* es V § Oi 
»M tn Q ft« 

i i S3 o 

5, 5, Si, a. 



CO 

o o s o 

a, o^ 6^ p4 



« g « ° 



fl S ^ 






o o a o 

P4 




e 3 rs ^s 3 

o ^ ;3 o 



1 13 




P^g^PVi 



03 
1^ 



CO 






^ & 






i*iiliS- 



a 



?sl1 



o ^ o 

O4 H« P« 



OQ 



09 n to 

g g 8 * 





^ ® M <0 
g. *r« on td C 

pA *>rl *rm hm »m4 







I 

s 

a 



I 












164 



RUI^S OF BTTM0L06T 



n 01 

« J3 



o o c o 



#H ^ 0} S ^ 

CO CO Q^ ^ *|A 

• • 'F* •Pi* »• 



01 



CD 

o 

CO 

C "M <*•» ^ 

C St .R qo 

S *55 J -S u 

{3 "A rO O 



So .*§ 6 

g fe.f s 

m oS ^ cd 

I: 



& ^ o 
got 

pQ « 

Is 



Oi ^ o o u 



09 

US ^ 
CO CO 



" i 






g g 






n 

n 






en 00 ^ 
w ca « 2 

CI. I I I 



Oh 



C0 CQ 

«■«» 2 2 8 

o o g B 2 

S 6 § <» I 

S S (H CO Q 

gi 8^ ^ ^ • 

O^ & 5 o u 






•9 



2 * i* 
O 0) K 

IE 

Oh5v,^ SiO 



i 

5^ 




09 






cd oO aS cO 

o o ^ o 



** 



.2: Ts ,s-^ i^-e &i-9 









> 

X 









09 



.8 



••*••' S* S M 

.^ ^ 1^ O vS 

CO w <X) Q> *^ 

• •N "p^ »k 

• • I 



3 09 
S >" to Q 

1 1ll's 



eS tt M 

^ »-i oa Q 

OS 9) ^ '9» 

g,g g S 



-^"^ 

•7 S 3 

.« V 03 

8 fr • 

§ «l 

•9 8 



•« **^ ••- 

OJ V T3 CD 

>. CO 4> a 

-^ Mt OS V 

8,3 Jo. 

4> w S nfl 

.o gts 2 



4) 



09 



Q> 



Q> 1*3 



nq g „• 8 

-*- 0) 

GO .£3 






^^ CO 'XJ 






C3 '^S 

• §3 e Big 
o - y 



o 
CO 






s 



(O S 



o 






> 
a 




§52 ei'S^ flS 

^ ^ -F*^ I -S ^ « a 

•S .s S ft) ^5^ K 's 
»• S 5 -o o . _5 o 



AND SYNTAX. 



165 



OB 

s 
o 

m 



a 

as 

C 

bo 

a 

2 



• fl >- K 

a* .2 •? T 

CO S d ee P 

o o ;:i o 

CLi Pi S^ P4 



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« -5 J2 ^ '? 

fi c » d 

O O Ss O 

P:^ Pi ^ ^4 



CD o 

d s 
.^ -s § >: g o 



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s- o 



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a 

a 
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o 



d 
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d 



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S o s <5 



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Si 

3 






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o 

d 



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C9 »irt CC k Ih 

^ oa fio d o» 

O i Si O S 



i g * I §. 

Pi ^. P< en ■*-' 




CO en 
WOO 

S § S 
d 03 a> 
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§ I § 



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s.g§- 



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^ 




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cs »H 00 K 5< 

PO I I J. J. 

K *o ^ d ^ 

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le 




en 

o V d (/3 
X en E 



u 



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"^ l-S-^-S 



M6 nULBS «T KTYHOLOGY 

.fill I |i^i| 

1 



I 



;a W:S fe S.4 ft 



iii ssll f aim 
B " " " i I i g -S i i i 4 :* 



1-J =, -£ I fSIIS 
tg.|g. I 5.ll.g.l. 






AND SYNTAX. 



167 



tt tt C (A 



& 



€ E^ se A 

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e 0) V 't' V 

rt-T-T 7*7 



en 
o 

CO- 



m m *t m 



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ssll 



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n OB 6 B 



* ^ V 

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8 



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168 



RUI.BS OF BTYMOLOGir 



.8 a 

s.s g s 






lA 

bo 

b 

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H) (A 

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£ & 
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AND BTMT&X. 



160 




09 •? 



.. 09 QO Bft QQ 

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^ *22 pd ^ * p22 f<a^;S *^ * ^ 

o8c9cSCB03C3fl3nnoB 



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d n CO 68 00 



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170 



RULE* OF STYMOLOGy 






d 5^4 
«.S2 J .5. 

« o ^ o 

. »i4 K. »^ 



.2 1 -2 



CO 

« o 3 o 

•O no "^ *^ 

2 S 2 g 

•M -1^ "M -M 




03 

o 



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^4b4s 



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fa g g ^3 



S 

o 

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lull 

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« I -2 .5 -3 

?* «• 2 ** 



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I *^ ** *ri ^^ 
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i: S i: 5 S 

•M •«•» <M •«>» ti* 




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s p I s i 

S «• «» c8 S: 

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09 






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lull 




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171 



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s « S -i ^ 

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to •§ «"*> 

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172 



RULES OF STTMOL06Y 




09 to 

fl g a 

a> a> ^ V 

4^ 4.* •«» ^ 



CO S 
W '2 60 



o) s J3 






00 



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g 3|^ 

a d g d 
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>* 



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QD 



>» ■** •♦■a 






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0> 




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09 a « 






<? "^ -^ 4s "^ 

•T "7 y "7 

& g a ^ 

09 CO S 09 

sliii 

S 2 % ^ ^ 

J :2 rs '§ 3 



a 



•s •§ *3 

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O Q O 
•4^ ^ *« 




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09 



d 



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08 c8 o 

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AND STIilTAX. 



173 



ii 




OD 



• • S B § C3 

5 9 2 g T g 

A)4)T*T ■ -T 

6 K e Si » e 

(S ^ 9 Sd >• s 

.S « V ^ S 

■ S tZ 00 T« S 






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M O V 

4> U *€ 




09 OQ 
09 OQ O O 

° § § i ^ s 

1 •« *© "Tj •«> 



e8 eO i; QQ «« >H 
I 7 » 0) •« « 

^ ^1 ■§ 1 1 



09 -M 



.2 '7 T 
P S B 




i 




S SR ^ OB 
>i 09 I; S 

1 1 g I 



S) ^ k S 



09 






•♦* +5 *S 




174 



RULB» air BTTMOLOGY 



00 

'U 
b 

bo 

'$ 

1 






Sir B fi e 



_ G 8 i) 

•« TS •« x> -S -w •§ -S -i -^ 



.a 

ea M 






(B 9 u 10 6 




'$ g..^ 



^U^ 




iiii 

i-f .5 .2 -7 •• 

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^ ns "O 'Q -o 

9 




s s 

i § ^ - 
.^ipi i ^ .^ 




•^ 



•m 



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.i § ^ •« i^ ^ i .fc i 



93 



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§ 



V «B V *a} 



« ^ S cA fc 






^ s S bM 

^ = g «; g <f 
•g 2 8 fl c« « I 

^ "^ -*- Jg .§ 'g ^ 

CO ►^ '^.•* •» 'W 

fl|S 

d Qj 2 g 








1 




3 « 



« «.§<2 



53 o B 2 rf 

. ^ ^ d 









<a 



•8 'i ^ g SJ « 

^ « « 2 CUfe» 



tti 



AND SYNTAX. 



175 









m 

I 

bo 

i 

r3 

a> 



^ 

^ 



en 



•a (" S 

S o Q '^ 



i^ 



^2^ 



m 00 oQ 



fl Si * 
mOPh 






09 



••» Q J» »-• 

8 b<€,« 



« y S § "g 



•a 



CQ 

o 



i 



tf 

« 



Is fe«g,g •« 



« S^ qS *s ^ 

•2 *Q3 ^qj W ^qj 




C (n «e 

5 *>^ •'Q) 



rt - - -* 







I 



m P 

.S te 






-^831 







•0m 



08 

I 



s 

a. 

B 






g 



a 



is 

>§ Si 



176 



RCUM OF BTTMOIiOeT 



eo 






s 



.•0 -M 



C4 



•11 ll 



{& «f«i 






8>t 




m 

m 

o 

i 




hil I l«4'^J'4 









•a i^»f* 












« 



"ill I 



••s 

S3 






a* 

B 




-§ 




'^ I 

I- 

i| 
•1 



AND SYNTAX. 



177 



Abastecer i 



A List of all the Irregular Verbs y numbered ac» 
cording to the Examples which have been 
given for their Conjugation. 

When any verb belonging to the first class is not of 
the same conjugation as the example by which it is to 
be conjugated, the terminations must be borrowed from 
the View of the Regular Terminations, page 142 : hence 
the verb volv-er must be conjugated thus ; vuelv-o, midxh 
es, vuelv-e, volv-emos, volv-eis, vudv-en^ sdthough t9oZ-ar, 
the example to which it is referred, is conjugated thus, 
vttd'O, vu>el'Si3, mid'SL ; vol-amos, vol-ais, vud-SLU. 

amolar ix to whet 
andar xiv to walk 
anochecer i to grow dark 

^fl . >-to prefer 
XIX. 1. p. J *^ 

antever v. i. p. to foresee 

apacentar ii to feed cattle 

aparecer i to appear , 

apercebir x to provide 

apetecer i to long for 

„^^^^^ ,^ r to cover with 
aporcarfix^ earth 

{to arrive at 
a port 
to lay wag^s 



{ 



to furnish 

provisions 
to hate . 



aborrecer i 
abrir i. p. to open 
absolverix.i.ip. to absolve 
abstraer xxii to abstract 

to happen 



acaecer i 
acertar ii 
acordar ix 
acordarse ix 
acostarse ix 



to guess 
to agree 
to remember 
to lie down 



adestrar ii 

adherir xi 
adolecer i 
adormecer^ 
se I 



{' 



acrecentar ii to increase 

tomakedex 

terous 
to adhere 
to sicken 

{to grow 
drowsy 
adquerir* xi to acquire 
advertir xi to advert 
agorar ix to augur 
agradecer i to thank 
^j;«v^« ; « r*o overload 
^ (^ the stomach 
alentar ii to encourage 
almorzar ix to breakfast 
amanecer i to dawn 



aportar ix 



apostar ix 
apretar ii 
aprobar ix 
arguir iii 

arrecirse x 

arrendar ii 



to tighten 
to approve 
to argue 
to become 
numb with 
cold, 
to hire 
arrepen^mc XI to repent 
aseniar ii to set down 
asentirxi to assent 
aserrar II to saw 



{ 



asestar ii 



to take aim 



* Adqmrir takes an e after the i; 9&, adquiero^ Sec 
f A tenn used among garclene.*8 



178 



RULBS or STT]f01X>6T 




(wokarxx 
asoldarix 

amnar ix 

atender n 
atenerse xxvi 
aUntar ii 
aierrar 11 
atestar* ii 
atraer xxii 
atravesar ii 
atribtdr iii 
ofronirrix 



toadn 
loimie 

keep troops 
in pay 

sounds agree 
to attena 
to stand to 
to attempt 
to terrify 
to cram 
to attract 
to cross 
to attribute 
to thunder 



avenirH xxvii to agree 



aventar n 
avergon- 
zarse tx 
bendecir u p. 

XXVIII 

bregar il 
caber xnii 
caer vil 
cahnttzr li 

ca»eoeri 

carecet X 
cegar ii 
emir % 
cemer ii 
cerrar ii 

cimentixr ii 

cocer IX 
cofar IX 
colegir x 



to&n 

to be asham- 
ed 

■to blesft 

to contend 
tocontftui 
to fall 
to wiu'm 

{to become 
grayt ^ 
to be deprived 
to blind 
to gird 
to sift 
to shut 

{to lay foun- 
dations 
to eook 
to strain 
to collect 



cerse i 
compare- 



C9lgar IX to haxtg up 

t derate 
comenstar u to commence 
oompade. \^^^ 

to come be* 
ccri J for« 

compder i. p. to compel 
competir x to contend 

•^ (^ sure 

IcTTJ. }*« compose 

comprobanx to corroborate 
concebirx to conceive 
concertar ii to agree 
conc^mV ni.i.p. to conclude 
co7icor«{«r ix to agree 
condescen" \to conde- 

rfer II J scend 
condoter ix to condole 
condudr xxiv to conduce 
coTi^V XI to confer 
confescpt ii to oonfess 
conykmffri. p. to confound 
conmover jl to excite 
IX J commotions 

f to be ac- 
«"«^' X quaintcd 
consegnir x\ to obtain 
C07i5en2£r§ xt to consent 
consolarix to console 

coTi^i/irfr in to constitute 
camtreHirx to constrain 



■I 



* Whefft it signififes l» «d(lto/, it is 

$ Sec tbe ftttt)wr'sSyme«|riM^ (pag* 19& 

$ See Colloquial Idioni% JBfeereiiav ftgi lid» 



AKD SYNTAX. 



179 



eoTutrmr ni to construe 
contar xx to relate 
contender ti to contend 
coTvtener xxvi to eontain 

— ™, : « r*^ contradict 
XXVIII. 1. p. J 

eontr€thacer 1 to eoanter- 

XTi. i. p* } feit 

contraer xxii to contract 

XXYII 1*^ ^PP°*^ 
eon^rt&mV iii to contribute 
contrcvertirxi to controvert 
convale-' ") to recover 

cer I J from sickness 

convencir i. p. to convince 

coTtvenirxxvii to suit 

converiir xi 1 . . 

,• « }-to convert 

corregtr x to correct 

costar IX to cost 

crecer i to grow 

cubiir i. p. to cover 

dar xiti to give 

deeaer ni to deeay 

^ . rto make the 

decerdaru | ^^^^ 

dedr^^nr 

1. p. J ^ 

dedudr xxiv to infer 

defender ii to defend 

defarir xi to defer 

dqg'o^r IX to behead 

demoler m to demolish 

cZemof^rorix to demonstrate 

denegmr u to refuse 

denodar ix to revUe 

deponer xix "> . j 

i p. s^ ^^^^^^ 

^,^^„„^ „ f to break the 
d^en^arn^ back 



derreUr x to melt 
descusertar ii to mistake 
desacordar f to be discor* 

IX "4^ dant 

descUeniar ii to discourage 
deic^arecer i to disappear 
desc^etar ii to loosen 
desaprobar ix to disapprove 
desasosegar ii to disturb 
desatender ii to neglect 
desatentar ii to perplex 

xxvn J *^ disagree 



descaecer i 
descender ii 
descetiir x 



descolgar ix 
descoUar ix 



to droop 
to descend 
to ungird 

{the reverse 
of CO^flW 

{to be a neck 
taller 

descomedirse x to grovrrude 
deMCompcTier^io discom- 
' XIX. i. p. J pose 

desconcertar^ . ,. 

vtodisarranga 

desoonsentir 1 . ,. 
— >-to dissent 

XI J 

descoTweer i to disown 
descomolar ix to afflict 
descontar ix to discount 
cfescteMr i. p. to disco'ver 
desdecirse ") , , . 
i. p. KTinl*" '^t^^ct 
dcBempedrd^ ii to unpave 
desencerrar ii to let loose 

to diminish 
in thickness 
to leign ig- 
norance 
to take up a 
corpse 



deBengrosar 

IK 

desentett' 
derse II 

desenierrar 
n 



180 



RULES OF BTYMOLOOT 



desentorpe-' 

ceri 
desenvolver 

IX. i. p. 
deafaUecer i 
dei/iaque' 

cerse i 
daflocar ix 
desfogarse 

IX 

desgiiame" 

ceri 
deshacer 

XVI. i. p. 
deshdar n 



to free from 
numbness 

•to unroll 

to pine 

}to become 
emaciated 
to ravel out 
to give vent 
to passion 
to take off 
trimmings 

■to undo 



daherrar 



ii{*» 



to thaw 
unshoe 
^ horses 
desldr x ^to dilute 
deslucir i to tarnish 
desmemhrar ii to dismember 
desmen tir xi to give the lie 
desobedecer i to disobey 



to desolate 
to flay 
to spawn 
to dismiss 
take off 



deaolar ix 
desoUar ix 
desovar ix 
despedir x 

despemar ii -J , ^ 

de^ertar ii \ ^^^^ 

1. p. J 

desplacer i to displease 
deiplegar ii to unfold 
d^pohlar IX to depopulate 
destenir x to discolour 
desterrar ii to exile 
destorcer ix to untwist 
destrocar ix to re-exchange 
destruir iii to destroy 
desvanecerae itovanish away 
desvergoTV- 1 to grow im- 

zarse ix J pudent 



detener xxvi 
deoolver ix 
dezmar ii 
difirir xi 
digerir xi 
discordar ix 



to detain 
to restore 
to tithe 
to differ 
to digest 
to disagree 



dimdnvir iii to diminish 
disolverix, i.p. to dissolve 

*f p"«" "^}to dispose 

distraer xxii to distract 

dUtribuir iii to distribute 

divertir xi to divert 

doZer IX to ache 

donnir xii to sleep 

e/e^'r x. i. p. to elect 
embestir x 
cwifiravcccr- 
se I 

I 
emendoT ii 
empedrar ii 
empezar ii 
evTipZumecer 

I 



to assail 
to become 

furious 
to become 

brutal 
to amend 
to pave 
tobegm 

}to become 
fledged 



empobrecer i to impoverish 
emporcar ix 

ejicalvecer i 



encaUecer i 

encarecer i 

encender ii 
encensar ii 
encerrar ii 



to soil 
to become 

bald 
to render 

callous 
same as ear 

necer 
to become 

dearer 
to light 
to cense 
to shut up 



encomendar f to recom- 
II \ mend 



AND SYNTAX. 



181 




enconirar iz to find 

{to string mu- 
sical instru- 
ments 
encrudecerse i to become raw 
encruele" 

cer I 
encubertar 

II 
encuhrir i. p. to conceal 
endenteceri to cut the teeth 
endurecer i to harden 
eji/iaquecer 1 to gprowlean 
enfurecerse ") to become 

I J furious 

engrandecer i to aggrandize 
engreirse x to grow vain 
engrosar ix to engross 

erdoquecer i -< ea)me 

enlucir i to white-wash 
enmohecerse ") to grow 
I J mouldy 

{to become 
dumb 
to blacken 
to ennoble 
to rarefy 
to enrich 

{to break on 
the wheel 



enmudecer i 

ennegrecer i 
ennoblecer i 
enrareeer i 
enriquecer i 

enrodar ix 



ensangren* 

tar II 
ensoberbe' 

cersei 
eniaUecer i 
entender ii 
entemecer i 
enterrar ii 
entomecer i 



to stain with 

blood 
to become 

haughty 
to sprout 
to understand 
to Roflen 
to bury 



to swell 
mtreoiryin^ stinctly 
enirden^ tto entertain 

XXVI J 

entristeoene i to become sad 

to become 
crippled 
same as en" 

tomecer 
to grow old 
to grow green 
to invest 

>-to wrap 

to dry 

to be equi- 
valent 

hold up 
the head 



enivUecer i 

eniufneoer i 

envefecer i 
enverdecer i 
envestir x 
envolver ix 

i. p. 
erunigar i. p 
equivcder 

XXIII 

erguir* xi 
errarf ii 



> 1 

rto 



to err 

escarmentar \to learn by 
II J experience 



*' All the irregular persons of this verb most b« written with an A/ 
as, hiergOy hierga, &c. 

f The irregtilar persons of this yerb are sometimes found written 
with an A, as^ Merro, hierra ; and at others with ^ ys as> ycrro, 
yerra ; the latter way seems preferable^ because it prevents ambiguity 
by forming a distinction between the irregular persons of errar, to 
err ; and herrar, to shoe horses ; and mo^e especially as the Spanish 
Acaidemy always write hierro, for iron ; and yerro, for error. 



182 



RULES OF ETTMOX.06T 



escamecer i to scoff 

escocer nc to smart 

escribir i. p. to write 

J, f to make ef- 

erforMar$eix^ forts 

eriahlecer i to establish 

edar xy to be 

estregar ii to scour 

ettremecerst z to shudder 



{to produce 
as 



^. Ito 
:. 1. p. J 



expose 



e»<rc»«r x ^ astringency 
eM2usriil«Lp. to exclude 
expedir x to expedite 

expeliT i. p. to expel 
cxponer 

XIX 

expresar i. p. to express 

extender ii to extend 
ejpHngiiir i, p. to extinguish 

extraer xxn to extract 

faUecer i to die 

favoreoer i to favour 

fmecer i to terminate 

^ar i. p, to fix 

^KiV III to flow 

foTtahcer i to fortify 

forzar ix to foroe 

fregar ii to scrub 

^czV X. i. p. to fry 

^emiT X to moan 

gohemar n to govern 

guarnecer i to garnish 

hober XXV to have 
Aac6r XVI. i. p. to make 

toT^&zr i. p. to saiiate 

heder ii to stink 

kdar II to freeze 

kender u to cleave 

herir xi to wound 

kcrram to shoe horses 

hervir xi to boil 



> , _ rto rest fiom 
*^"'" i labour 
hollar IX to trample 
Au2> in to flee 

h^medeeer i to moisten 
indmir in to imbue 
impedir x to impede 
imponer ") . . 

ia. i. p. 1*° »"!«*» 
imprimir i. p. to print 
induir iii.i.p. to include 
incurrir i. p. to incur 

indudr xxiv to induce 

t'yt^nr xt to infer 

infcmar u to damn 

insertar i. p. to insert 

inkrvemr j.toiBter«»e 

to institute 
to instruct 



xxvn 

insHtuir in 
instrtcir in 

XXIV 

inccmar n 
inoertir xi 

i. p. 
invesHr x 
inxerir xi.i. p. to graft 



1-toi 
toi 
^- }toi 



introduce 
to winter 

invert 
to invest 



tr XXX 

jngar rr 
juntar i. p. 
/tectr I 

luir in 

Z/orcr IX 
ffuUdecir 

XXTIII. i.p 

manifitstar 
u. L p. 



fto 



to go 
to play 
to join 
to shine 
wear by 
friction 
to rain 



-to curse 



•to manifest 



AND SYNTAX. 



163 



mainiain 



frurendar 



■■{' 



mohecerse i 



XXVI J" 

manMtarup. to fade 
medir x to measure 

mentar il to mention 
Tjienttr xi to lie 
matecxT \ to ment 

to take a 
kmeheOn 

{to grow 
motddy 
moler ix to grind 

morder ix to bite 
morir xn.i.p. to die 
mostrar rx to show 
mowr IX to move 

fnmr* in- to milk 
nacer t to be bora 

negar iz to deny 

negreoer 1 to grow black 
net^r it to snow 

obedeoer i to obey 
ohscwreoer i to darken 
obstruir m to obstruct 
obtener XXTI. to obtain 
ojrecer i to oflfer 

otr Yiii to hear 

okrt IX to smell 

omiUr u p. to omit 
o/707ierxix.i.p. to oppose 
oprimir i. p» to oppress 
|7acer i to graze 

padeoer i to sufik* 
parecer 1 to seem 

^^eiiir x to demaiid 

pensmr n to thtek 
perder u to kise 



toperidi 

to perfect 

to break logs 
to p^:seGUte 



to belong 
to pervert 
to plait 
to people 
to be able 



perecer 1 
perfeeciO' 

nar i. p. 
pemiquie- 

brant 
pfTsegwkr X 
perteneoer i } 
'pervertirxi 
plegar 11 
poblar IX 
poder xvit 
p07ierxix.i.p. to place 
prededr 1 . ,. , 

prefsrir xi to prefer 
prender i. p. to seize 
jprgpoTwrxix") to place be- 

i. p. J fore 

prescribiri. p. to prescribe 

-'^ 1^ sentiment 

presupontt *l to presnp- 

XIX. i. p. / pose 
preualecer 1 to prevail 
preoenir ") . . 

xxvn J*^ P^^^^* 
prrver v. i. p. to foresee 
prohar ix to prove 
|7roc^«ctrxxiv to produeo 
jpro/fenr XI to utter 
proTMver ix topcoBiote 
orofloner ") . 

ix. i. p. S^ f^'^o^ 
prcmcrihir 1. p. to pnoscribe 
proseguir x to prosecute 
prostiiuvr m to prostitnte 
proveer L p. to provide 



* A term peouliaf 4e the pta natt t»f Airagon. 
f The irregvlar penons id tin vtfb «re wzlttfli ^fiMi «n 11/ aa^ 
kueh, huela, &c. 

t See Synonymsy by the author, page 171. 



184 



RULBS OF BTYIf OIX>OT 



reconocer i 

reconvaU' 

ear I 
reoordar ix 
recostar ix 
recrecer x 



pfwmirTXYii to originate 
queltrar ii to break 
querer xx to like 
recaer vii to relapse 
recluir iii. i.p. to cloister 

«^Mvuw ,_ /to boil over 

(_ again 
reoomendani to recommend 

{to acknow- 
ledge 
same as con- 

to remind 
to recline 
to grow again 
reducir xxiv to reduce 

to refer 
Tto blossom 
(^ again 
to reinforce 
to water 
to rule 
to belch 

}to do over 
again 
to laugh 
same as lucir 
to remain 
to mend 
clothes 
to bite re- 
peatedly 
to remove , 
be bom 
again 
to yield 
to abjure 
to renew 



referir xi 

reflorecer i 

reforzar ix 
regar iz 
regir x 
regoldar ix 
rehacer xvi 

i. p. 
rdrx 
rducir x 
remaneceri 

remendar n 

remorder ix 

remover IX 

renacer i 

rendir x 
renegar ii 
renovar ix 



{" 



renir x to quarrel 

repetir x to repeat 

rqdegisr li to fall badt* 

"^ «- }to «,place 

nprobar ix to reprove 
reproducir \ to produce 

xxrv J afresh 
requebrar ii to cajole 
requerir xi to require 
reseniirseTX to resent. 

(^ accounts 
resoUar ix to breathe 
revolver ix. i.p. to resolve 
reaonar ix to resound 
restahlecer i to reestablish 
restUuir iii to restore 
retemblar ii to vibrate 
reiener xxvi to retain 

«fe«terii /to threaten a 

(^ relapset 
retenir x to dye again 

retorcer ix to twist 
retraer xxii to retract 

retrotraerl 1 . ^ . , , 
3.JJJ * Vtobnngback 

re^!6iMriii to compensate 
rei^eTttor ii to burst 
rever v. i. p. to review 
reverdecerJ^ Srov/grtm 

(^ again 
reverter ii to overflow 
revestir x to revest 

reooiar ix to fly again 
revolcane ix to wallow 
revolver ix \ 



I.p. 



•to ) evolve 



* Speakiiig of the former positkm of aa anny. 
t Alluding to illness. 
t See [wge 168. 



AND SYNTAX. 



185 



rodjar ix 

Togat IX 
romper L p. 
saber* xxi 
salir XXIII 



{to move on 
wheels 
to pray 
to break 
to know 
to go out 
satirfacer \^^^^^ 

XVI. 1. p. J ^ 

seducirxxjv to seduce 

to reap com 
to follow 
to sow 
to sit 
to feel 
to saw 
to be 
to serve 

■to place over 
to surpass 

to happen 

to sole 
to solder 
to be wont 
ioUar ix. i. p. to let go 
nondr ix to sound 

to dream 

to smile 

f to become 



segar ii 
seguir x 
sembrar ii 
sentarse ii 
ieiUir xi 
serrar n 
aerxxix 
servir x 
sobreponer 
XIX. i. p, 
sobresalir 

XXIII 

sobreoenir 

XXVII 

solar IX 
soldarix 
soler IX 



sonar ix 
sonreirse x 

sostener JOLYi to sustain 
soterrar ii to bury 



substituir iii to smbstitnte 
sugerir xi to suggest 
svhstraer xxii to subtract 
suponer xix. 

i. p. 
suprimir i. p. to suppress 



-h 



suppose 



temblar ii 
tender ii 
tener xxvi 
<cwir X 
tentar ii 
torccr IX 
tostar IX 



to tremble 
to spread out 
to hold 
to dye 
to tempt 
to twist 
to toast 



traducir xxiv to translate 
traer xxii to bring 
transcendar n to transcend 
trascolar ix to percolate 
trascordarseixto forget 
trasegar ii to decant 
irasonar ix to dream 



to barter 
to thunder 
to stumble 
to be worth 
to come 
to see 
to shed 
to clothe 
to fly 
to overset 
volver IX. i. p. to return 
zaherir xi to upbraid 



trocar ix 
troTUtrtx 
tropezar ii 
vcder xxiii 
venir xxvii 
ver V. i. p, 
verier ii 
vestir x 
votor IX 
voZcar 



N. B. Most of the verbs inserted in the foregoing 
list have other meanings than the one annexed to them ; 
but the verb atestar only (as has been observed) loses 
its irregularity when it varies its signification. 



* See Colloquial Idioms, Bxerciies^ p»ge 112. 



186 



RUr.E8 OF STTM0IX>6T 



A List of Verbs having the Participle trregukarkf 

formed. 

Infinitive. Meaning. Inreg. Particip. Reg.Particip, 
Abrir to open abierto ■ 

absolver to absolve dbsudto _— 



(^ stomach 
anteponer to prefer 



ontever 

bendecir 

compder 

componer 

concluir 

conjundir 



to foresee 
to bless 
to compel 
to compose 
to conclude 
to confound 



contradecir to contradict 



antepueato 

antevisto 

hendiio 

compulso 

compuesto 

conclvAO 

confuso 

contradicho 



contrahacer to counterfeit contrahecbo 



convencer 

convertir 

cubrir 

dedr 

deponer 



to convince 
to convert 
to cover 
to say 
to depose 



convicio 

conoerso 

cubierto 

dicho 

dqmesto 



descuhrir to discover 
desdecirse to retract 
desenvolver to unroll 



descomponer to discompose deseompuesto 

descubierto 
desdicho 
desenviceUo 
deshecho 
despierio 
dimelto 
disptLexto 
electo 
encubierto 
envuelto 
enxuto 
escrito 
exdvso 
expulto 
expu^to 
expreso 



deshacer 

desperiar 

disolver 

dispoTier 

ekgir 

encubrir 

envclver 

enxvgar 

escribir 

exdtdr 

escpdet 

exponer 

expresar 

extinguir 

fixar 

frdr 

hacer 



to undo 
to awake 
to dissolve 
to dispose 
to elect 
to conceal 
to wrap 
to dry 
to write 
to exclude 
to expel 
to expose 
to express 



to extinguish extindo 

to fix fixo 

to fry frito 

to make hecho 



bendecido 
compelido 

concluido 
confundido 



convencido 
convertido 



despertado 



elegido 



enxugado 

I I ^ 

excluido 
expelido 

III n 

expresado 
extinguiod 
fixad'o 
fireido 



AND STKTAX* 



187 



Infinitive. 

hartar 

imponer 

imprimir 

incluir 

incurrir 

indisponer 

imertar 

invertir 

inxerir 

juntar 

maldecir 

manijhtar 

marchitar 

nnxyriv 

ormtiT 

oponer 

oprimir 

perfecdonar 

poner 

predecir 

prender 

preponer 

prtacribir 

preauponer 

prever 

proponer 

proKribir 

prweer 

reduir 

rehacer 

reponer 

resoher 

rever 

revolver 

rofnper 

satisfacer 

sohreponer 

soltar 

mpomer 

supnmir 

trasponer 

ver 

volver 



Meaning. Iiteg. Particip* Beg.^utkipi 



to satiate 
to impose 
to print 
to include 
to incur 
to indispose 
to insert 
to invert 
to grafl 
to join 
to curse 
to manifest 
to fade 
to die 
to omit 
to oppose 
to oppress 
to perfect 
to place 
to predict 
to seize 
to place first 
to prescribe 
to presuppose 
to foresee 
to propose 
to proscribe 
to provide 
to shut up 



hartado 



incluido 
incurrido 



harto 

impuesto 

impreso 

irtduso 

incur^o 

indispueUo ■ 

ijiserto . insertado 

inveno invertido 

inxerto* inxerido 

junto juntado 

mcUdito maldecido 

manifiesto manifestado 

marchito marchitado 

muerto _— _ 

omi9o 

tfpuesto 

opreso* 

perfscto 

pwesto 

predicho 

preso* 

prepuedo 



omiitdo 

oprimido 
perfeccionado 



prendido 



prescrito* prescribido 

presuptieUo ■ . 

previsto ■ 

propuesto > 

proscrito 

provisto* 

reduso 



to do over again rehedio 



proveido 
recluido 



to replace 
to resolve 
to review 
to revolve 
to break 
to satisfy 
to place over 
to let go 
to suppose 
to suppress 
to transpose 
to see 
to return 



repuesto 

remelto 

reviHo 

remtdio 

roto* 

iatisfecho 

sohrepuesto — — 

nuUo soldido 

tuptusto 



rompido 



wpreso* snprimido 

traspuato — ■ — • • 

visto ' 

vudio ■ 



I8S EULBS OF BTTM0L06T 

Obiervaihn on wch oftheforegoing verb$ a» have two 

participles. 
The irreg^ar participles belonging to these verbs par- 
take more of the nature of verbal adjectives than of that 
of participles ; and therefore are never made use of to 
form the compound tenses of the said verbs ; as, d suelo 
eitd enxuio por que d sol le ha enxugado^ the floor is dry 
because the sun has dried it. The participles marked 
thus * are excepted, as they are often foimd forming the 
compound tenses of their verbs, especially the participles 
pre»o, preacrito^ promdo^ roto, the latter of which the 
Spanish Academy observes ns oftener used to form the 
compound tenses of romper than its own regular parti- 
ciple, 

Inwersonal Ferhs^ or Verbs which are canfugaied 
tn the Third Person Singular of each 2hue 
only. 

Amanec-er^ To grow light, 

Indicat Present amanece, it grows light. 

Imperfect amanecia, it did grow light. 
Perf Indef amanecid, it grew light. 
Perfi def ha amanecido, it has grown light. 
Pluperf. habia or hubo amanecido, it had 

grown light. ' 
Fut. imp. amaneceri, it will grow light, 
perf. habr& amanecido^ it will have grown 

light. 

Imperative amanexc-s^ let it grow light. 

Subjunct. Present aunque, &c. amanezc-s,, although 

&c. it may grow light. 

{amaneciera, rshould^ 
amaneciese, it < could ?-f •'"^ 
amaneceria (^mightj ^ ' 
Perfect aunque, &c. haya amanecido, though 

&c. it may have grown light. 
(^hubiera'l fshoidd have") 

Plupeff.-{ hubiese t^^»°«- u J could have VfT^ 
Ihabria J^'^^' \might have)^'^^* 



AMD SYNTAX. 189 

Subjunc. Fut. imp. A amaneciere, if it ahouid grow 

light, 
per/, si hubiere amanecido, if it should 

have grown light, 
Infinit. Present amanecer, to grow light. 

Perfect haber amanecido, to have grown 

light 
Gerund amaneciendo, growing light. 
Comp. ofger. habiendoamanecido, having groton 

light. 
Participle amanecido, grown light. 
N.B. AnocheceTj to grow, dark, ih conjugated in the 
same manner, and has the same irregularity : example; 
anochezc-SL^ it may grow dark, &c. 

Observation. - 

These two verbs are sometimes used with, all the par- 
sons, and in such instances they may be considered as 
neuter-passive verbs, denoting merely the situation or 
condition of their subject at the time ; as, anochedmos 
en d campoy that is, night closed in upon us whilst we 
"were in the country ; or, we were in the country when it 
g^ewdark: amanecimos en Londres, that is, the day 
broke upon us when we were in London, or, we were in 
liondon when it grew light, or, at break of day : amO' 
neciS el campo de bataUa cubierto de heridos, the wounded 
were seen covering the field of battle at break of day. 
In some phrases amanecer may be properly translateid 
to awake> or, to arise ; and anochecety to go to sleep, or, 
to lie down ; as, anxicheci bueno, amaneci maloy I went 
to sleep well, I awoke ill ; mi padre anocheciSy pero no 
amaneciS, my father lay dowoy but he rose no more. 

Nep-ar. 

Indicat. Present nietva, it mows. 

Imperfect nevaba, it did mow. 
Perf. indef. neviS, U snowed. 
Perf. def. ha nevado, it has snowed. 
Pluperfid habia or hubo nevado» it had 

snowed. 



190 RULBft OV SR1I0L007 



JFW. imp, nentikt ii wUl mom. 

Futpe^, habr&neTado, it unll hone gnowed. 

Imperatiye niev-e^ let it snow. 

Subjunc Pfesen/ aunque, &c. nieo-e^ though^ &e. 

it may snow, 
/'nevara, rthotdd^ 
Imperfecta nevase, it < might >9now. 

(^nevaiia, \jDoidd J 
Terfed aunque, &c. haya nevado, although 

&c. it may have snowed, 

piubiera"^ nera- T**^"^^ Aflwc"^ 

Pluperf.< hubiese V , it< might have >9nowed. 

(^habria J * (jDoidd have) 

Fut, imp, si nevare, if it should show* 

p^, Bi hubiere nevado, if it should 

have snowed, 

InfiniL Piresent nevar, to snow* 

'Perfect haber nevado^ to have snowed. 
Gerund nevando, snowing, 
Comp. of the ger, habiendo nevado, having snowed. 
Participle nevado* snowed, 

N. B. Hdar^ to freeze, is conju^ted in the same man- 
ner, and has the same tenses irre^ar : example ; Aief-a, 
it freezes ; Aie^e, it may freeze, &c. 

Tron-ar. 

Indkat. Present frteen-a, it thunders. 

Imperfect tronaba, it did thunder, 
Paf indef, tron<5> it thundered. 
Perf def, ha tronado, it has thundered. 
Pluperfect habia or hubo tronado, it had 

thundered, 
Fut, imp, tronari, t^ wiU thunder. 

perf, habr& tronado, it wUl have (hun- 
dred. 
Imperative ^rtien-e, let it thunder, 

fittbjunc. Present aunque, &c, truen^t though^ &c. 

it may thunder. 



AND SYNTAX. 191 

^tionara, rshoiUcTk 
ImpetfiU < ironase, it< might >th$inder, 

(^tronaria {jvotddj 
PerfeU auDque, &c. baya tronado, thottgh^ 

&c. it may have thundered, 
rhubiera"^ tro- fshotUd have"^ thun- 
Pluperf. < hubiese >iia- it< might have Vcfcr- 
(^habria J do (juxndd hanej ed. 
FiiL imp, si tronare, if it should thunder. 
perf, si hubiere tronado, if it should 

have thundered. 

Infinit. Present ironar, to thunder. 

Perfect haber tronado, to have thundered. 
Gerund tronando^ thundering. 
Comp. of 1M get. habiendo tronado, having thun^ 

dered. 
Participle tronado. thundered. 

N. B. Llover, to rain, is conjugated like this verb, and 
changes also the o into ue in the same tenses : example ; 
ihtev^et it rains ; Uuev-a^ it may rain, &c. Escarchar, to 
freeze ; granizar^ to hail ; Uoviznary to mizzle ; and 
rdampaguear^ to lighten, are all regular. 

Hab^er 

Indicat. Present ha-y^ there is, or there are. 

Imperfect habia, there was, or there were. 
Perf indef huh-o, there was, or there were. 
Perf defin. ha habido, there has or have been. 
Pluperfect habia or hubo habido, there had 

been. 
Fut. imp. hab-r^, there wUl he. 

perf. hab-r^ habido, there wiU have been. 

Imperative hay-^ let there be. 

Subjunc. Present aunque, &c. hay-^ though, &c. 

there may be* 

{Au6-iera, there should be. 
hub-ie^e, there might be. 
hab-na, there would be. 
Perfect aunque, &c. hay-n. habido, though^ 

&c, there may have been. 



192 RULKS OF ETYMOLOGY 

rhuh-ienTk |^ . ._ f there dundd have'\ 
PlupeifA Aud-iese > , '< there wight have Vheen. 
(^hab-ria j ' (there wmdd havej 
Fut. imp. si Au^iere, if there should be, 
perf, si hubiere habido, if there ^uld 

have been. 
Iflifiiiit. Present baber.* 

Perfect haber habidc* 
Gerund babiendo, there being. 
Comp. of the ger. babiendo habido, there having been. 
Participle habido, been. 

Examples ; there is an authcMr who says, hay un autor 
que dice; there are philosophers who deny it; hay 
JU6$ofb9 que to megan ; there have been men who have 
believed it, ha habido hombres que lo han creido. 

Hacker. 

Indicat Present hace, it is. 

Imperfect hacia, it was» 

Perf indef hiz-o, it was. 

Perf. defin. ha hecho^ it has been. 

Pluperfect habia or bubo hecho, it had been* 

Put. imp. ha-rd, it vnU be, 

perf. habr& hecho^ it loill have been. 

Imperative hag^SL, let it be. 

Subjunc. Present aunque^ &c. hag-a, though, &c. U 

may be* 
TAic-iera, it should be. 
Imperfecta Aic-iese, it might be. 

(jutria, it woiUd be. 
Perfect aunque, &c. haya fiecho, though^ 

&c, it may have been* 
r'hubiera"^ C should have'\ 

Plupeff.-< hubiese VAecAo, it< might have >been. 
([^habria J {u>(ytild have J 

Fut. imp. si Ato-iere, if it should be. 

perf. si hubiere hecho, if it should have 

been 

* These two tetjses cannot be constraed in English without cir- 
cumlocution. 



AND SYNTAX. 193 

Infinitive Present hacer, to be. 

Perfect haber hecko^ to have been. 

Gferund haciendo, being. 
Comp. of the Ger. habiendo hecho^ having been. 

Partidp. hecho, been. 
N. B. This verb is used with nouns of number, in 
chronological calculations ;* as, Is it ten years since his 
father died ? ^ hace diez anas que muriS su padre ? it 
will be ten years to-morrow, manana hard diez ano8. 
It is also employed to express the state of the weather ; 
as, it is, cold, hace frio; though it may be warm to* 
morrow, aunque haga color manaria ; it has been very 
windy to-day, ha hecho mttcho viento hoy. 

Observation. 
There are several personal verbs which are frequently 
conjugated impersonally : example ; From this instant 
I receive this young man, it suffices that thou present 
him to me, Desde luego recibo d este mozoy basta 
que tumele presented, Gil Bias, b. ii. ch. 1. The verb 
aer is also conjugated impersonally, and very frequently 
employed with ^e noun menester, &c. or with the adjec- 
tives ^eciso, n^ceasario^ to denote necessity ; as^ it must 
be granted, efmeoes^erf concederh : to melt wax it must 
be warmed, para derretlr la vera eaprecis6\ ccdentarla. 
When the second verb has its subject eipreised or un* 
derstood in English, the said verb is put in the sub- 
junctive with que ; as, it will be requisite for us to see 
him, or, it will be requisite that we should see him, 9erd 
necesaario que le veamos. The same construction takes 
place when the verb must has its subject expressed ; as, 
we must go, es predso que vayamos. N. B. When to be 
(being used impersonally) is followed by a noun or pro- 
noun, the verb ser must agree with the said noun or 
pronoun in number and person ; as, it is I who wrote, 
yo soy quien escribl ; it is riches I hate« son las riquezas 
las que aborrezco. 

" • • ■ ■ ■ •— i. m II I ^ 1 I — ■— 

* Tbe impersonal kaber is sometimes found used in these species 
of calculations s at^ And thai it wot fifteen months since he had 
retired to marry a girl of Castropol, Y que se hahia rettrado qitmee 
wuua habia por casarse con una moza de Castropoi, Gil Bias, ch. SL 

f See the author's Synonyms^ page 115. 

K 



Jnvperf, 4 ' 



jtSli Rui^ps OP sriGMoijOGir 

DEFECTIVES. 

The IbRomng vofte "are found used in those 
tenses and persons only noticed in the annexed 
examples. 

.Todrir. 

IwspeanL Mfferaou j^val podri4> rot ye, 
tSAjtfMT. imp, •3d j7«r<. sing^ podrku^ Ae looi^ rot. 
lafink. Praacn^ podrir, io roL 
JPurBOfprn ysaiacto, roKflo. 

Indicat. Pre*. 'M. pen. mng. place, iZ fizoKt, 

Imptrf. pflacia, U did please, 

Perf. ind, ■■ ^higo, it phased, 

Pruent plc^e,* it map pletue, 

plugiera,* itwalddpleami, 

piogiese,* Umigkt pleaae, 

FuL imp:, phigieKe,* it skauM pieate. 

^ l!lie Spanish Aeademy ebserves that these persuns 
«fe dset m i^e ^feUowng expressioBB <m\f ; fiegue, or 
yitigieraf or plugiete d Dice, 'wmAd to CK^d ; «k1 « -tii^ 
'fik^iere^ if it i^^M please me. 

Tacer^ ToJIiedaad* 

No pait of ihis -vrerb k ixade use ^ esoept :tiie idnrd 
pessoas of tlie present indicative, ytsoeMul |iwaBit»' wUoh 
jBse goBersIly inBcabed <on tonxhstoaes. 

Sdl-er, 

Tndicat. Present md-o, I am wonL 

sud-es^ (hou art tooni, 
sud-e, he is vxmL 
solemos^ we are wojtL 
fioleis^ ye are word, 
sud'tent they are wovL 
Imperf, sella, 7 was word, 

snlins^ ihou wast wonL 
nolia, iiem>as4WBmL 
o rtfa imos, ''We'wwe'Wmdt 
soUiab, ye were wonL ' 
soIiAfl, . they wsjre^uxmL , 



JWB .SYHVAX. 105 



CSE OF THE TENSES. 

AH {he tenses of ^erbs are said to denote actioa 
or existence^ as going on ; as being completed ; 
or as not yet begun : this is done by means of 
the three principal tenses of the Spanish verbs ; £he 
present^ die preterite, and the futnre ; as, yo "sqy, 
yo fxdyj/o ser^, I am, I wasy I shall bej ^oescribo, 
yo escribl, yo escribirS, I write, I wrote, t ahaU 
write, ^ain, vedbs are capable of describing more 
minutely the fime at which an action was, has'been, 
or win be present ; and this tliey do by pointing 
OHt the state of one action at thecommencemertt 
of another ; and for this more circcimsiantial de- 
scription we make use chieBy of what some gram- 
marians call the compound tenses of verbs ^ ^^^^yo' 
habia escrito antes que ella llegase, I had written 
before she arrived ; yo habr^ escrito antes que ella 
Hwue^ I shall have written before &he Arrives. 

This is the definition of tenses in general. It re- 
mains now to show the peculiar purposes to which 
the tenses of the Spanish vefbs are applied. In 
doing this I shall adopt as much as possible the 
same phraseology with every tense, believing that 
this method will render the distinction of each 
tense more conspicuous as well 41s mpore easily 

1. This tense denotes the actaal state of exist- 
ence ; as, eiftoy malo, I am ifl 5 or that an adt3on 
is going «»n ; as^ haiio^ or estoy hablando, I am 
ipeakkjg. 

2. Customs oriiabits still existing are expressed 
mMsk Ifais teasel 4mb, las JEspoMeftdxiermen Hespnm 
lit tmmar, ^e Spanifirds ^deep alker dinnier^ tSim 
embargo se Mtfe wn^ffBorifme son mms tkumunm 

k2 



106 RULES OF STVMOLOGT 

que nasotros / porque nosotros muchas veces por el 
dinero quitamos la vida a los inocentes, y ellospar 
41 mismo no pocas se la perdonan d los culpados. 
It must howe7er be acknowledged that they are 
more humane than we ; because we often for lucre 
take away the life of the innocent^ and they for the 
very same thing often spare that of the guilty. Gil 
Blas^ ch. V. 

3. The present character^ disposition^ or occu- 
pation, is also expressed by this tense; as> Ne- 
cesita lacayo el Capitan Torbellinoy hombre coU- 
ricoy fantdstico y brutal; gruiie sin cesar^ jura, 
patea, y suele estropear d los criadosy Gil Bias, b. 
1. ch. VJ. Capain Torbellino wants a footman ; he 
if a choleric, fantastic, and brutal man, scolds in- 
cessantly, swears at, kicks, and is apt to maim, his 
domestics. 

4. Axioms or general truths are declared in this 
tense ; as, h que es indivisible es incorruptible, 
what is indivisible is incorruptible ; todo es vanidad 
en este mundo, all is vanity in this world. 

Observation. 

The present tense which is formed with the gerund 
always, denotes in a more forcible manner, an action or 
event as passing at the time it is mentioned ; yet even 
this tense is sometimes employed when the action is con- 
sidered only as in a state of progression, and therefore 
we often say el est& eacribiendo un libro, he is writing a 
book ; meaning only that the action of writing the book 
is in a state of progression, although the individual at 
the time might be walking about. 

Historians often use the present tense in order to give 
animation to their relations, by representing the events 
as happening at the time ; as, Detenido por la primera 
guardia, insiste en ver cd Tnonarca ; corren d obtener m 
Ucencia^ y vuelven d conducirle d su presencia^ Being 
stopped by the first guard, he innsts on seeing the 
monarch ; they run to obtain his permission, and return 
in order to conduct him into his presence. 



AND SYNTAX. 197 

This tense is sometimes joined to expressions denot- 
ing futurity ; as, (1st,) n yo salgo manajui^ If I go out 
to-morrow ; (2d,) hi ae va esta semana^ he goes this week ; 
(3d,) me voy el mes que viene, I go away next month. 
But if we examine these sentences deliberately, we shall 
discover that the verb in these instances denotes present 
intention or resolution, and not future execution, and 
that the meaning is this,*(Ist^) If my present intention 
of going should be realized to-morrow ; (2d,) he intends 
(now) to go this week; (3d,) I am (now) resolved 
to go away next month. See Observation after the 
Future Perfect. 

IMPERFECT OF THE INDICATIVE. 

1. This tense denotes former but progressive 
state of existence ; as^ yo estaba malo entoneeSy I 
was ill then ; or that an action was going on at the 
lime that another took place; as^ yo escribia 
quando entro, I was writing when he came in. 

2. Former customs or habits are expressed with 
this tense ; as^ veniamos amenudo aquiy we often 
came here ; that is, we were wont to come, or we 
were in the habit of coming, often here. JEn Atena^ 
Uoraban los ninos quando los azotaban, At AthenB 
the children used to cry when they were whipped. 
Gil Bias, b. ii. ch. 9. 

3. The character, disposition, or occupation of 
individuals no longer living, or which formerly be- 
longed to persons now alive, is described in this 
tense ; as, mi padre era teniente general quando 
murioy my father was lieutenant-general when he 
died ; su abuela era muy honita en su mocedad, 
his grandmother was very pretty in her youth. 

PERFECT INDEFINITE. 

1. This tense also denotes former, but not pro- 
gressive state of existence ; as, estuve malo, I was 
ill ; or that an action took place at a certain period 



1S& K ULKft ftir BITVU0LOGY 

o£ tiane, of wfakk the pnesei^ mahefr no part ; as« 
ui«« /a M9iMBMa fmsmdm^ I came lafit wedc / escrtbf 
oyer^ / wrotte yesterday; Aa&/^ anochcj I spoke 
last mgkt : wherein it i^ evident that the time at 
which the affirmation is made forms no part of the 
period' within which the aeveral actions took place; 

Observation. 

HisiiNnanii gonerally make use ostitis' twee^ which haa - 
occasioned its heing called by some graomarians' Hie 
historical preterite ; as, yo le vi morir, I saw him die ; 
atravesdZe elpecho d darda de un.Fmdoiay the dart of a 
Phoenician ^ierce<2 his breast; fut^ronte/fi ku.rimvdcu de 
la manOf the reins dropped from his hand ;. jif oayd dU 
carro d los pies de los cahallosy and' he ^/ from the car 
at the horses' feet. (Telem. b. ii.) 

The difference between this tense and the imperfect 
consists in this, that the imperfect describes an action^ 
&c. in a state of progreslsion^ at some period of time 
prior to the present moment, necessarily impl^ng its 
oommeneament before* the said penod of tinie, and lea?>» 
iog the auad generally uneonseious whedier; the pro- 
gression does oir does' not contimue siill.; whemae the. 
perfect, indefinite, on the contraryv deacdhea^ an aatkAi 
as having commenced at a former padod; ofi timfiie asA 
implies its having ceased before the present moment : 
thus, if we say hi la amaba entonces^ he loved-her then ;- 
we point out with the tense the affection of the man as« 
in a state of progression, and which, for aught we know*, 
maystfn be going on ; for we may add, y el /b.ama 
i^davia, and he loves her sttTI'. Let us^ now ehang^ the 
iniperfeet for the perfect inde^ite, and say, ^ la: anKS" 
entonosa^ ke' loved her then ; the idea is- not the sanie^ 
for the probability of the man's affections continuing still 
is entirely done away: again, if I. say^^o iba ayer al 
campo, I was going yesterday into the country, the per- 
fecting q£ Ite' actteoL ra»ain» doubtful ;- f&r T may add 
pom vti agUasepe me lo estorvS^ bat a show«r pFevented. 
ma: hat i£I say^^ M ayer cU campa, htvmt yttstev*^ 



jam svwTMsx.. 19S 

day intfii^ Um cohb4I7« no doubt xcmaim respseliBi^ thcir 
aodon-beiBgr coiiif>lefted.witfaiii the period of yeatendft^ 

It ift necessary to understand deacly the distinetioo. 
which we make between these two tenses, in order not 
to misapply them, especially as this distinction is not so 
striking in Uie English as in the Spanish imperfect, unless 
the English tense be formed with the imperfect of the 
anxHiary Uk be;, aad the peesenl psurticiple of the verb ; 
afl) I Utrndj orwa^hmng ; Ipreachedj or wcu preaching j 
ihtltMev of which expressions a{>proaches more than the 
f«Kmeet»'tke m<^ <>»i«g of the imperfeot tense in. Spamsh^ 



PERFECT DEFINITE, 

1. This tenfle describes a state of existence. a& 
beusg pBotractedt to the tiosie of the affiraaation ; as^^ 
ba estado mal^hastaah&ray he has-been iliitill now ;: 
or as havingterminated within a period bounded by 
the present ; as^ ha estado malo ho^, he hoe been. 
ilf to-dayr in like manner it denotes that an action 
which took place some time agp has continued un- 
interrupted till now ; as^ la he querido desde que la 
vi^ 1 have loved her ever since I saw her: or that 
aa actioja. took place within a certain period of 
whichb the psesent instant forms a part ; as^ hemoa 
vislyo miichm! m<waviila» en^ este siglo, we hcuve seen 
many wondefs this century ^ n« hallovido rmusha 
«fiA?amr5. these haa^ ttot failen mmch rain this year; 
€bpem bs estade eoroes^ m«^^bx»ad ha» been deair 
this month; ne^ hemos ayunado esta semema^ we 
have-not fasied' this^ week ; le he oido hoy^ I have 
Reard it to-day ; — wherein it is evident the words 
century^ year, month, week, ami day, must include 
the present instant*. 

2. It is. also used to describe former actions of 
uuHviduals now living, which were not reiterated or 
halAJtnal ; as,. haviaj[ado mucho^ he ha^s travelled 
a.gr0at.deal ; hdieocvit^muchas (Aras^he^baauiritf* 
ten many wovka^^ haslddo mueh^f-em. sdhraocedmd^ 



300 RULES OF STTMOLOGT 

he has read a great deal in his youth. N.B. As a 
particular season of life is here mentioned^ the 
indefinite might be used, as^ leyo mucho, " ^' 
read^ &c. 




Observaiion» 

In some instances the English perfect is translated by 
the present in Spanish ; and whenever this happens, the 
action or the state of being which is described as having 
commenced some time back is supposed to be gfoing on 
at present ; as, hcux dos horas que est& Ihviendo, it htu 
been raining for these two hours ; hace do$ anos que estoy 
en Londres, I have been in London these two years, desde 
que \\\imo8Juntos^ since we have lived together. It is not 
necessary that the progression of the action shall have 
been uninterrupted, provided there has been some regu- 
larity in the repetition kept up to the present time : as» 
hace dos mesea que yo escribo d mi hemiana todos hs 
dias^ I have wrUten to my sister every day the two last 
months. 

The distinction which exists between this tense and 
the indefinite, should also be particularly noticed : be- 
cause although, in almost every instance wherein the 
definitive is used, the indefinite may be employed, yet 
the reverse is never admissible, and therefore the former 
never can be a substitute for the latter. It is a charac- 
teristic of the perfect definite (as may be seen by the 
foregoing examples) to describe an event as having hap- 
peneid within a period of which the present instant always 
forms one boundary; whereas the present instant is 
never included in the time denoted by the perfect 
indefinite : hence, though we may say Aoz /e/, or he leido^ 
un lihroy to«day I have read a book ; escrihiy or he escrito^ 
una carta esta semanay I have written a letter this week ; 
because both the abovementioned periods reach to the 
present time ; yet we can say only lei un libra ayer, I 
read a book yesterday; escribi una carta la semana 
pasada^ I wrote a letter last week ; because the present 
is excluded, both fi-om yesterday and from last week. 
See Observation after the Future Perfect. 



AND SYNTAX. 201 



PLUPERFECT. 



1. This tense denotes that a state of existence 
lerminated before a certain period of time, which 
now is elapsed, had commenced ; as, habia estado 
malo, antes f he had been ill before; or, that an 
action was completed previously to the commence- 
ment of a former period ; or before another action, 
which is now also finished, was begun ; as, yo ha- 
bia leido el libro antes que le compr^y I had read 
the book before I bought it; yo le habia escrito 
antes que llego, I had written to him before he 
arrived. 

Observation. 

The English pluperfect is translated by the imperfect 
in Spanish, whenever the first action, &c. is described as 
still going on at the time when the second took place ; as, 
habia dos horas que yo estaba escribiendo quando IkgS 
mi padre^ I had been writing two hours when my father 
arrived : in which example, the verb being in the imper- 
fect tense denotes that I was actually employed in 
writing at the time of my fathei^s arrival. 

When we wish to express not only that an action was 
completed before another, which now is finished, was 
begun, but also that they rapidly succeeded each other, 
we use generally the termination hube ; as, Quando loa 
hube d todos oidOy no me admire de verlos juntos. (Gil 
Bias.) When I had heard them all, I did not wonder at 
seeing them together ; wherein the opinion of Gil Bias 
respecting the highwaymen is described as being formed 
immediately upon hearing their several historiies. This 
termination is never employed except after the words 
despues que, a>si que, luego que, quando, no bien, Sfc. ; as. 
No bien lo hube dicho, quando todo el pueblo exclamS^ Sfc, 
I had no sooner said it, than all the people exclaimed, 
&c. (Telemach. b. i.) 



k3 



202 BULBS OF ETYMOLOGY 

FUTURE IMPERFECT. 

1. This tense expresMS tbat a state of existence 
will commence when the present time shall be past ; 
$», entfmcee ser^ yof^z, I 9hM then b^ happy; 
or- that ail aetion will be- going on at a- fiitae 
period : as^ cenard 6 taa oeho^ I 9kaU sup at eight 
o'clock ; or that an aetion will eoimniffieej or witt 
be going on^ at the time tliat another aetion will 
take place; as^ cenar^moe- lu^9 que vm. vengm^ 
we shnU sup immediately on your arrival^ that iB> 
we shall begin supper ; estaFteos ecmudofiMVMto 
tfiR. Utgue, we shedL beat «icj9|Mr*w(i«^yoa aniwf 
Aat £9^ supper will be gokig on. 

FUTURE PERFECT. 

1 . This tense denotes that a state of existence 
wtU. be teorminatedaloE before a. future period.; as^ 
liabf^mo» sido foUcesy we skali fua» heen^ ^^py * 
or that an actioo will be perfected at. maxat fiotuift 
thne^ or bef€we another' actios will b« oemplcted: 
in other words, this tense generally indudeS' two 
futtrre actions^ denoting at the same time^ that the 
completion of the first will precede Aat* of tiEie 
other ; as, yo le habr^ escrito antes de ese dia, I 
shall have wHtteii to him before that day ; A ha- 
br£ comido antes que Ueguemos a su casaj^ he will 
hitve dined before we reach his bouse. 

Observation. 
This English future is in some instances rmdeved bj 
the present tense in Spanish, when the completion c^ 
thfi first action, &c. seems to take place at the Yerypomi 
of time which is mentioned in tile sentence ; as, to^ 
morrow I shaUhave lived in London two years, m a nana 
hard dos anos qtte y[o vivo en Londres ; that is, the com^ 
pletion of my two years' actual residence in London wiH 
take place to-morrow : el ano qtte viene hard cinco ano8 
que estan casados, next year they will have been married 
five years. 



.MW- ftYNTAX^ SOB 

of the jBUVtett^, aQcktbej^UlMfie j9cr/%0li instead oC 
the perfect definite, whett tlibsy affirn^. sosoHiihiiig'^ ekJ^en 
a9 ^esentor past^ of which, they are not quite certain; 
as, -4^onDP vendt*d de cenar con su Bdica, donde el y el 
gue h gma se habi6n emborraohadik, Hifr comes iiow 
(poitaps) from snpping with his Bfctsey^^ezc be and: 
tlw onet that condacts him have (pjCohaUy) ^o^ dnm^, 
{&i BlaB^hibr. ch« 6«) Had the pArson who made tha 
nsMrtioo been quite certain, he would have exparessed 
himseif thus, Ahora yiene de cenar con m Bdica, donde 
ilfl^ d que le guia se han emborrachado. The same con- 
struction takes place in asking & question, when the 
miiid is as it were persuaded that the interrogatory is 
almost unnecessary ; thus, Gil Bias, conceiving his situ- 
aiiou to be one of the most unhappy, puts the question 
with the fatiure instead of the present ; as, / Q Cieh I 
emdamky i babr& situtmon mum iivfkliz que la mda ? O 
HiaasveB i I exclaimed, iff. there a coaditiun mme wretdued 
tbanL xnbte? flhid^, 

PAESSNT IMFERATIVB. 

This tense is used first to command ; as^ cou* 

Jiesako^ acknowledge it ; secondly, to entreat ; as, 

c&nt4dem» el favor, grant me the £aTour ; thirdly^ to 

exhort 1^ ais> v^tmamosy let us conquer; fourthly^ to. 

permit ; as^ veng(», or guevenga, let him o^sne. 

O&ser^ution. 

P^ is neeessary to observe that this tense cannot be 
used vnib a veib- ^vhidi is preceded by a. negative ;: but 
thatfift' such €0889 the. ptesent subjuneiive is employed: 
as^ mmcef. lo ^igjmr T^^oer aay it ; rttk vayais^ go ye noL 
1.W seesAd persem m both mimbeKs is the only oner 
wheveiiv this- deviation is. conspicuous ;. for. the third per- 
muL e^batb; jmmhesm^ as well as the first person plural, 
are i^ke ibf* be^ tenses: in iaet^ the Spanish Acadeeay^ 
^stTy considering the latter as ihconsiscent in an impeni^ 
Uxe mood,, have imifbrmly rejected it in their Grammar. 

N. B. The future of the in^kative is sAmetimea used 



204 RCLBS OF BTYMOLOGT 

ibr this tense ; as, quien hubiere haUado un manqfo de 
Uaves acudir& al Correo, let whoever has found a bimcfa 
of keys, apply at the Post-office. 

SUBJUNCTIVE, OR POTENTIAL MOOD * 

The tenses of this mood have the same import 
as the tenses of the indicative ; but as the sub- 
junctive is always connected with, and dependent 
on, some verb generally expressed in the sentence, 
its tenses cannot, like those of the indicative, de- 
note action or existence as certain and positive, 
but only as doubtful and contingent For example, 
OMnque viene manana no le ver^, although he 
comes, shall come, or is coming to-morrow, I will 
not see him: here the verb vienej being in the 
indicative, denotes that the action of coming will 
take place positively on the following day; but if, 
changing the verb to the subjunctive, we sayatin* 
que venga manana no le hablard ella^ although he 
may come, or he should come, to-morrow, she will 
not speak to him : the verb being here in the sub- 
junctive marks his coming as more doubtful and 
contingent. Again, aunque mi hermano ha leido 
mttchOf sabe muypoco^ though my brother has read 
a great deal, he knows very little : here the verb ha 
leido being in the indicative, affirms positively ray 
conviction respecting the extent of my brother's 
reading 3 and although the two sentences are con- 
nected, yet they are not dependent on each other; 
for, dismiss the connexive word aunque^ and they 
will form two distinct complete sentences : that is, 
my brother has read much ; he knows very little ; 
but if we say, aunque tu hertnano haya leido m«-' 

* When the second form of the verb is interpreted by such words 
as mighiy amid, taoutd, Sic, the mood, strictly speaking, is poten- 
tial. When, on the contrary, it is similar in signification to the indi- 
cative, the mood is then said to be subjunctive. But, as in both cases 
the form of the mood is one and the same, the^e two terms are com- 
monly employed indiscriminatebr. 



AND SYNTAX. 205. 

ehoj sabe muypoco, although thy brother may have 
read a great deal, he knows very little ; we point 
out with the subjunctive, the doubt or suspicion 
which we entertain respecting his reading; and the 
last sentence is so dependant on the first, that it 
can scarcely form without it any sense. 

PRESENT. 

1. This tense marks a contingent action as going 
on now, or at some future time, and therefore in 
many instances it is used for the future imperfect of 
this mood ; as, aunque est^ leyendOy como vm, dice, 
yo quiero hablarlcy although he may be reading, as 
you say, I wish to speak to him: yo le hablar^ 
manantty aunque esih ocupado, I will speak to him 
to-morrow, though he may be busy. 

N. B. Another use of this tense has been already 
noticed when treating on the imperative. 

IMPERFBCT. 

1. This tense denotes a contingent action as 
going on now, or as going on some time ago, or 
as going on some time hence ; as, aunque yo la 
amara ahora, though I were to love her now; 
queria que su hermano viniera, I wished that his 
brother should come; that is, I wished (at that 
time) the arrival of his brother ; le agradeceriamos 
que viniera manana^ we should thank him if he 
would come to-morrow. See Observations iilserted 
after the Future of this mood. 

PERFECT TENSE. 

The perfect denotes a contingent action as com- 
pleted some time ago, or as being finished some 
time hence ; as, aunque me haya escrito tanfas 
cartas como dice, yo no he recibido ninguna, al* 
though he may have written to me as many letters 
as he says, I have received none ; examinar^mos. 
las cuentaSf y admitir^mos a todos los que hayan 
pagado entonces, we shall examine the accounts. 



BULE» •r BW1M&06T 

waA we wilL adnkc all those/wiM: vwyihma^ hmmt 



Theploperittet leprcaeaate a CQBtmg«nliHl)i0naa 
completed b«foM some period of tunealrcudy paal^ 
or before Bome other action which is now also com- 
pkted;. or which would be now completed had it 
taken place ; as, yo /« hubiera escrito dntes, I 
would have writlen to him before ; te hubiera Te- 
nido d ver dntes que scUi de aqui^ pero no tuvA 
Hempo, T would have coine to see you before I 
went from here, but I had not leisure ;-. si me. la 
hubiera preguniado, ae lo hubiera contado, had. he 
asked me^ Iwovid have related, it to him. 

• 

FUTURB IMPBRFECT. 

This tense represents a contingent action as 
taking place some time hence ; as, le €scr%bir4 d 
vm. lo que me dix6re, I will write to you wtat he 
may (happen to) say to me ; le perdonardn todo 
lo que hioiere, they will forgive him every thing^he 
Tnay do (in future) ; si escribiere quandb llegue- 
mosy if he im/e, or should write, or be writingj^ 
when we arrive. 

N.B. Except after the coD^unctioit s4 the present of 
the suljjjunctiTe may, Ia most instances, be used fov this 
tense ; as, le escribirS d vm. h qm diga^ le perdonardn 
lo que haga. 

¥4iTiniM: PBRFB€T. 

Tke^ perfect futiire denotes- a contingent actioa 
or ev«nt as barvitig taken plaee^ or been completed 
some time btnee-; as^ si kiibiere mandado su carta 
ani(Nfi que rectAa la mia, se enofinrd mueho, shmtld 
A* Aaiw Mn^ his*lefiter b^ore he receives mine, he 
wili be very angsry ;- aunqne htibiere Begado ayer^ 
aithoaiifh' he may k€m&eomejesteriBjrn0 obstwsiB. 



que 41 lo hnbiefe ecmipvadb^ natfwi^tan Aug ^ 
may hcpve bought it. 

N. B. This tense may he changed for the perfect of 
the subjunctive, except after the conjunction si; a9» 
aunque haya UBgado ceyer; no obstcmbe qia lb hay» 
oomprado. 

ObservatioHa on the Tenser of tha Subfum^ve 

er Paiential Mood. 

The definition which ha^ been afa-eady grren of thifi 
mood must be attentively observed^ in order to avoid the 
error of substitotrng, for these tenses, those of the indl* 
cative ; an error to which we are sometimes liable, be- 
cause the English verb is not always s«dfideot to direct 
us in the choice of moods. 

Neither can English conjunctioits assist uss ctt ae>i> 
count of their not being restricted to any moodr m par- 
ticular. For instance, when I say, if he had gamed a 
suit, be alsor AodZoA^a friend, aad tiberefbre Ae had rea«> 
son to complain C'^theEngHshphipeffect of the indica- 
tive iis' preceded by the conjunction if; but as it denotes 
no contingency* the sentence is expressed with the like 
tense and mood in Spanish; and we should say, n ha^ 
bia ganado d'pleyio, tambien babiaperdido un am^, y 
asi tenia razon de quexarse. On the contrary, in this 
sentence, if he had gained (that is, had he gained) the 
suit, he wotdd ha^ce lost a ^end, and therefore he had no 
reasou to be sorry,— ->the English pluperfect is in^ the 
subjunctive mood, and preceded by the same conjunction 
as in the last sentence ; but it denotes a contingent 
events as may be seen by the context, and is come* 
quently resohred inta the pluperfect of the subjune* 
tive in Spanish: thusj si hmbiera ganado d pleyio, 
hnbiera perdido ttn amigOj y asino tenia razon de ^i 
girse. Again, a^ough I had been there often, 1 had 
never seen her ; here a conjunction is again joined to the 
indicative, but the verbs contain two positive assertions : 
first, that I frequently visited the place ; secondly, thai 
I never sow the person* r therefore the Spanish construc- 
^n requires both verbs in the indicative; as, attnqwe 
babisestado amenude alH, nuncala habia visto. Change 



206 RULBS OF ETYMOLOGY 

the verb to the subjunctive mood, and iiay, although I 
had been (or had I been) there oflen, I never should have 
teen her ; the certainty of my having been at the place 
is done away» and resolved into a mere supposition ; 
and hence both the verbs must be expressed with the 
subjunctive in Spanish ; as, aunque hubiera estado cUli 
amenudoy nunca la hubiera visto. — Having sufficiently 
guarded the learner against % misconception of the sub- 
junctive, I shall proceed to show those tenses wherein 
greater difficulties are encountered. 

No part of the subjunctive or potential mood is, un- 
questionably, more puzzling or perplexing to foreigners, 
or even to Spaniards, than are the imperfect and plu- 
perfect tenses, on account of their triple termination. 

The terminations ra, «e, and no. belonging to these 
tenses, cannot always be indiscriminately used; for, 
although in the examples given of the conjugations, 
&c. in Part I. it was found expedient to allot only one 
English sign of the subjunctive to every Spanish termi- 
nation, we must not therefore conclude that ra is always 
the only equivalent to should; se to might; or ria to 
would : this is so far from being the fact, th&t every* one 
of the three terminations may be made to correspond 
to any of the signs, according to circumstances. 

Concerning the import of the three terminations ra, 
se, and n'a, I shall observe, that in general se is used to 
denote ability, and ria inclination; and that ra may be 
occasionally made to express either ability or inclina- 
tion, according to the framing of the sentence in which 
it is employed : thus, I may say, le di dinero para que 
comprara or comprase el libro^ y meprometio que U com- 
praria (but not compraraj I gave him money that he 
might buy the book, and he promised me that he would 
buy it 3 yo comprara or compraria el libro, pero no iengo 
dinero^ I would buy the book, but I have no money : in 
the first sentence, as may be seen, would can be ex- 
pressed by the termination ria only, whilst in the second 
either ra or ria may be used. 

The Spanish Academy remarks, concerning the ter 
minations ra, «e, and ria^ that the first may, in most in 
stances, be substituted for either of the others ; I shal 



AND SYNTAX. 209 

therefore confine my observations chiefly to the second 
and third terminations, believing that the remark of the 
Academy sufficiently denotes the extensive uses of the 
first, and warning the reader at the same time, that 
in the subsequent examples the termination ra must 
always be deemed implied, unless the necessity for its 
rejection should be pointedly noticed. 

Of the terminations ra, se^ ria. 

Oira. 

This termination is generally used in ejacula- 
tions; as, / quien lo hubiera pensado 1 who would 
have thought it ! / Dichosa yo si el exceso de mi 
dolor me hubiera quitado la vida! Happy me if 
the excess of my grief had taken away my life 1 
/ Que depenas y tormentos me hubiera ahorrado! 
How many afiSictions and torments it would have 
spared me 1 (Gil Bias, ch. 11.) 

Of se and ria. 

1. If the imperfect or pluperfect of the sub- 
junctive be preceded in English by a conjunction, 
se should generally be employed ; as, although he 
might come^ aunque viniese ; unless he would have 
come, amenos que no hubiese venido ; provided he 
would come, con tal que viniese, if he would come, 
si ^l viniese. 

2. When instead of expressing the conjunction 
if, in English, the order is inverted, the same ter- 
mination must generally be used ; as, were we to 
practise (or if we were to practise) virtue, si noso^ 
iros practicasemos la virtud; hcid she (or if she 
had) written, &c. si ella hubiese escrito, &c. 

N. B. For if^ when it means the same as whether^ see 
the remarks on the termination lia^ No. 8. 

3. If the imperfect or pluperfect be preceded by 
a relative, we generally employ the termination se; 
as, we sent money for all those who might want it. 



3I# RULB& «mnf0U67 



dimer9 pmrm t9dm§ Itm que laiiftce»t»^ 
sen ;; hr atiil mmwtf fiMr*sll- diose win nmgiht hente 
arrived b c fot ' o last montb^ mand6 4iner»pmrm tth- 
dos lo8' que htMesen Hegtidof anits defines paeado^ 

4, Ai much asy or as many asy pmcedtng' tba 
subjunctive in English, likewise generally requires 
the termination se; as, I gave you money to boy 
as many as we might wauiy U di a tnn. dinero 
para comprar quantos necesitasemos ; I gave them 
leave to eat as much as they wouldy les di licencia 
para c&mer qnanto quisiesen. 

5. If any of the pneterites of theindicali^ego^ 
vern the imperfect or pluperfect .of the sabjuactivv 
in English, with the sign'mfg'A^, the terminatibii' 
se ought generally to be used ; but if the sign be- 
would, we must use the termination rta; a% l 
wrote to hfm innnediately^ m order thati he m^M 
arrive in time, and he answered that> be* wmM 
set out last night, le escvibi inmediatamente para 
que llegase d tiempoj y me respondio que partiria 
anoche. 

N. B« In this sentence ria could not be changed tora. 

ObservcUion.. 

The Spanish. Academy says^that^ if the govemihgverb 
be deczV, ox any other of like import, the terminations 
96 or ria may be used*. This is certainly true, but theur 
use is by no means arbitrary ; their meaning, as be^re- 
observed, being widely different : thus, d rey discS* qw& d 
emdojrador viniese, means* the king- said thai? the amliafi^ 
sador mi^hi oomBf or* he ordercMl .tht aaibasBMbbr W 
come ; but d rey dixa que d embaxoi(m vendriai tin 
king said that the ambwnndog- wmM emte^ den^tsii 
merely an, asBUiaBoe* eta the part of his- mi^est^ im]|lf-' 
iu^ atthe same time> inclination, oik the part of the am- 
bassador. N» Qu In this last seatenee the taraunatiiiii 
ra could not be substituted for na» therefore we. could 
not have said viniera for vendria. 

The Spanish Academy further adds, that IF the go- 
▼eming verb denote to wish, or the like, the termihatiov 



««?iniMk.W us8(L This is. obfioii» ; icM^ ASk tlm temmn. 
tioB) no. implies intdinalioiii. a»ia»'tb» gmnmkugTeA 
aliea^ expresses thai mcliBfiii0D,.«rBiust }» emptoyed 
tft deaote tiftB- d)Mitj or po0«l»H%) wihkh §ums th* 
object of the wish : thus, if I say, mi mad»e qfumu qvm 
U esenbiese> my mother- wished nw ta writ» to her (or 
ifished thai I migki write i& her;) tbe verb qutria ai- 
innesaes that my mother had ar wirii ;. and thetatninatiMfr 
96 the object of that widi: tiz. ^»t I shonid possess 
2d>ility to writei. 

N. B. SM is aJ»o for the same feasoir used wkfa the. 
expres6ii)a.oj?d^, would, ta Godl as,, would to God he 
might come, oacUd viniese. 

6* Wben the imperfect or pluperfect of the sub- 
junctive is not preceded by any conditional con- 
junction^, the termination na should generally be 
employed; aa^. I would ^o^but I am afraid^ yo 
ina^pero tenga miado; we wotUd pay ous debts^ 
but. we hai^e^no money^. pagarlamosi rmestras deur 
dasy^pero no tsnemos (Unera,. 

7* If the nature of the. sentence shauld. require 
that. the. imperfect or pluperfect.be again used; in 
the.context) we do not in general reyeat the same. 
ternaixiatiQa ; as>.r.wauldg0j^ if I were not afraid^^ 
f/Q ipia, si no tumese mieda; though I were, not, 
afraid^ I would noti gp. there^ aunque. na txwiese. 
tnieduy no iria alia.. 

K.B. Ra may be. repeated. in the context;, SiS^pagfCr 
ramo9QT.pagariamos,si tumkramos or tuviesemo9 dinerO%^ 
we would pay, had we money. 

8. It i» necessary to observe that whenever the. 
conjunction i/^ in English, is used in the sense of 
whether^ the termination ria is the only one that 
can be employed ; as, I asked him if his father, or 
whet&er^ his^ fether, would come toHnomyw^, te 
pregitnitf'si su padre vendrFa nutnana ; ^\m wrote 
to us to know if we would buy the house, ella nos 
eterihiS para sober si compmlamos- /«» cava. 

N. R ynmx the verb by* whidie l^e ivperfect of Ito 



312 RULES OF BTTMOLOGT 

flubjunctiTe is goTerned denotes promite or asturance^ 
the termination ria is the only one which can be used ; 
as, fne prometiS que vendria, he promised me that he 
would come ; te euseguri que saldria, I assured ihee that 
he toould go out. 

The termination ria is the only one used to denote m 
supposed action, &c. done within a period of time not 
including the present moment ; as, Pero le pareceria^pve 
dandome m mtda gaataria menot en d viage. But (I sup- 
pose) it seemed to him, that by giving me his mule the 
journey would cost him less. Gil Bias, ch. 2. 

9. When were is used in English for would be, 
and had for would have, the former is expressed 
with ria, and the latter with ra ; as, it were (that 
is, it would be) the greatest folly to believe all that 
is said, seria la mayor locura creer todo lo que di- 
cen ; many crimes which had been (that is, which 
would have been) punished at other times, were 
then committed with impunity, muchos delitos que 
hubieran sido castigados en otros tiempos, se come" 
Han impunemente entonces. 

10. It is almost unnecessary to observe, that 
when in English, would, should, might, are not 
employed as signs of the subjunctive mood, but as 
verbs, they must be translated by querer, debet, 
poder / as, he would not go, that is, he was un- 
willing to go, no quiso ir ; we should forgive our 
enemies, that is, we ought to forgive, debemos per- 
donar a nuestros enemigos; I know he might have, 
that is, he had it in his power to have, written 
before, s4 que pudo haber^ escrito antes. 



Different Significations of the Preterimperfect 
and the Imperfect Future of this Mood. 

Having observed that both the above tenses are 
capable of expressing a future contingent action 



ANJ> SYNTAX'. 213 

or event ; in order that they may not be^ as too 
frequently they are, misapplied, the following 
distinction must be attentively preserved. 

1st. That all future actions or events^ denoted 
with the imperfect tense, are future only in refer- 
ence to some other time, either expressed or only 
implied in the sentence; but always past with 
regard to the present moment, that is, to the time 
at which we make the affirmation. 

2dly. That the imperfect future expresses the 
contingent action or event, as future with regard 
to the present moment. For example ; the general 
ordered that all those who might (happen to) desert^ 
should be shot. In this sentence the act of desert- 
ing is certainly future with regard to the period at 
which the general issued his orders ; but preterite 
or past in reference to the present time : therefore 
the future desertion of the soldiers must be ex- 
pressed with the imperfect of the subjunctive : 
thus, el general mando que todos los que deserta- 
ran, fuesen arcabuceados. On the contrary the 
general has ordered that all those who may desert^ 
(that is, may happen to desert,) should be shot, 
implies that the act of deserting is future, as to the 
present moment, because it extends beyond it; 
and consequently the future imperfect must be 
employed, el general ha mandado que todos los 
que desertaren, sean arcabuceados, 

N. B. The same distinction must also be noticed 
in the use of the pluperfect and the future perfect 
of this mood; as, the general ordered that all 
those who might have deserted, should be shot, el 
general mando que todos los que hubieran deser- 
tadoj fuesefi arcabuceados, the general has ordered 
that all those who may have deserted, be shot, el 
gefieral ha mandado que todos los que hubieren 
desertado, sean arcabuceados. 



WUl rcuk <tn wmmLOQY 



INFINITIVE MOODL 

This tense denotes an action as present^ xnOi" 
out any distinction of persons, and at an indetinite 
time, which time is defined bv the rerb that gene- 
rally governs this mood ; as, le oi^aufar; lecf^o 
cantar; le oiri caniar, I heard him sing; I hear 
him sing ; I shall hear him sing. 

niRFSCT. 

TJbss tease denotes an^actioa as past^ witlieut 
distiACtion of persons, and indefinitely in rc^^dto 
time.; as, me acord^de haber cun ia da, me aaserde 
de haber cantadoy me acordar^ eiempre de baber 
cantadOjl xemeinbered to have sui^ ; I remember 
to have sung; I shall always remember t0 have 
suag. 

Observixtion. 

The infiniiive partakes so much cif the nature of ayer- 
bal noun in Spanish, that it admits even to l>e declined 
with the definite article ; as, d veces e» fortuna d ser po- 
hre, sometimes it is iucky to be poor ; al volver de Xoti- 
Srea wte enconirS eon ttu dot eartasy on my return from 
Loudon I found your two letters, llie infiiiitive is also 
vsed in an absokrte'mamier, (cbieij at t^e b^ttniug of 
a HMtea ce,) and tiwn itis equhaleat to some tense ef the 
rerb with die oonjanc^n ti; rn^d Mober yo ^fue no hu^ 
hieravenida, had I known that he would not hanre oeme>; 
which is the same as, nyo kubiera sabido qm^ Sk^ if I 
had known tba^ A c. 

GSRUND. 

The gerund describes aa action in a state of 
progression at a certain time^ defined either by 



jinD isinfViVX. ftIS 



BOBfte fiwfb wkidi f9^rns tiie:^ei9iild,i«r jby soim 
circumfltaaces eKpressed in the vscnfteace.; VB^^^ba, 
va, or ird cantando por las calles^ he went, goes, 
or wdi go, «Bgtii^ tkren^h the streets ; iewiSmdo 
f/ue se lo T^msen,nose atreverd n pedirlo, fearing 
that tliey will refuse it to liim, he will .not dace to 
mAfmit. 

. The 4xn^pouDd of Ibe :geriuid denotes the action 
iB'^'piei'tfaeted j as, hc^endo &fcr4i9 i» e&rta^ 4a ^mpm- 
Mcy having written the letter, I sent ft; hcMendo 
leido el libro, se le volviy having read the book, I 
vetimieRd it to hm, 

PASSIVE PARTICIPLE. 

This participle when joined to the verb haber 
denotes time past ; as, hahiamos e9crito, we bad 
written :^ when joined to the verb ser^ in order to 
form what is called the passive rdice, it denotes 
€he time represented by the tense of the verb : as, 
era, es, or sera amaday she was, is, or will be, 
loved; but in all cases it denotes the action as 
perfected. 

AGREEMENT OF THE VERB WITH 

ITS SUBJECT. 



]Q9i« The verb and ks subject agree .in 
number and persotl ; as i 
El maestro ensena^ The master teaches. 

JV6s9tros 4>bedecemo^ We obey. 
Las soUadm felearouy The^dlevs-foiigM* 

Rule 110. If the subject of the verb be a col- 
lective Bonn, the verb maybe put in the plural; as 

* Bee what lias l>eeii said on (lielTse oT {he Compoun^ Tenaeii 
page 195. ^ 



S16 



RUUU OF MTYMOLOGY 



Una mulHiud entrdroin, A muhitade entered. 
Una tropa sdU^ron^ A crowd went out. 

NoU c— It if to be dbMrr«d that ail coUectiTe nouns do not adnit 
the verb in the plorai ; regnid most 'be had to the nature of dieir 
•iffnificatioii, coneerning which the Spanish Academy has giren tiie 
IbTlowing directioos. 

CoUectiTes Definite,* or nouns which denote a number of deter- 
minate persons or things, must have the rerb in the singular ; as, d 
exereUo vendd, the army conquered ; eireMio pereeerd, the flock 
will perish ; ia mrboleda no§ ahrigd, the gTOve sheltered us. 

CoUectiTes Indefinite, or nouns which signify a number of iMie- 
terminate persons or things, may haye the verb in the plural, as may 
be seen in the foregoing examples. 

Rule 111. A verb having different persons for 
its subjects^ agrees with the pronoun understood \ 



The king and queen 
(they) came in. 

Thy sisters and I (we) 
will go there to- 
morrow. 

It is necessary that 
his daughters and 
you (ye) may go 
there. 



Elreyy la reyna (ellos) 

entraron 
2W hemianasy yo (no-) 

sotros) irdmos alia 

tnananaf 
Espreciso que sus hijas 

y tu (vosotros) vayais 

alld, 



RuLB 112. If a verb has several subjects not 
connected by a conjunction^ it agrees generally 
with the last; as 



Esguadra$,es4rcitos, di- 
neroy todo sesacrt/ico, 

HumillacioneSf condes- 
cendenciaSf todo se 
mfrio, 



Fleets, armies, money, 
all was sacnficed.^ 

Humiliations, subinis- 
sions, every tbi^J 
was endured. 



* Seie oage 30. 



AND SYNTAXf 217 

Hue a.-"If a verb has two or more subjects, and the said sub- 
jects be connected by any other conjunctiYe conjunction than y^ the 
Terb generally agrees in number with the last; as, no aolamenie la 
madre y ku A(;a#, tmo tambifn el pctdre habia muerto enionceey not 
only the mother and daughters, but the father also wat then dead ; no 
aolamenie el padre y la madre^ eino iambien lae iUjat habian muerto, 
not only the father and mother, but also the daughters were dead. 

Nate b. — ^If a verb has two subjects, joined by the conjunction y, 
and postponed, it is commonly put in the singular; as, l/unca me ha 
eido mas necetario tu auxilio y tu anetencia. Never have your assist- 
ance and help been more necessary to me. If the subjects are in dif- 
ferent numbers, the verb agrees with the one which is nearest to it ; 
as, la entrada solo la conozco yo y mis camaradoi, only I and my 
comrades are acquainted unth the entrance. 

Note c. — Verbs agree with the first person plural when their sub« 
ject is a common noun in which the speaker is included; as, lo§ 
Jtomanot amamot la libertad, we Romans love liberty. 

Observation. 

When the verh to like is rendered hy gustar^ or to want 
hj faUar^ the objective case of the verb in English be- 
comes the subject of it in Spanish, and the subject of the 
English verb is changed into the first objective case of 
the corresponding personal pronoun, according to Rules 
49 and 51 ; as. The congregation did not like the 
preacher, no le gudd al auditorio el predicador : they do 
not like his style, no les gusta su estilo : children like 
better to play than to study, mas les gusta d las ninos 
jvgar que estudiar: she will never like novels, nunca le 
gustardn d ella las novelas : the poor always want 
riches, and the rich often want charity, d los pobres les 
faUan siempre riquezas, y d los ricos les falta amenudo 
caridad. — ^N. B. The verb gystar may be made to re- 
tain sometimes the same subject, as in English, but then 
the regimen must be preceded by the preposition de ^ 
as, los nines gusian mas de jugar que de estudiar. See 
also Observation afler Caber, page 164 ; and to fancy i 
Colloquial Idioms, Exercises, page 109. 

GOVERNMENT OF VERBS. 

Rule 113. An active transitive verb governa 
the noun to which its energy passes^ in the objec- 
tive case ^ as 

El la mate. He killed her. 

L 



21{| RULBft or VraOLOGT 

Mlk^ desprecia ias riquezas^ She despises riches. 

RcTLB 114. Active rerbs govern their objeetive 
case with the preposition a, if it is a person ; as 
Fencio al esft^Migi^ He conquered the enemy m 
Maimtm ml gefe. They kiiied the chief. 

JUandS al ambaxadvr^ He sent the ambassador. 
JEmpko a su mimstrOf He employed his ministec 
Eldeip r e e im 4 sufodre. He deqpises his fatheg. 

The tonegomg rde is given here asit is staked by ihm 
Spanish Acadesay, and as it has been copied by aH iHite 
writers on Spanish grammar with whom I am acquaint- 
ed. It seems to me» nevertheless, that the preposition 
d is not introduced, because the objective case does 
represent a person ; but in order to point out the objec- 
tive case of the verb, because it cannot in general be 
discovered in Spanish by its place in thie sentence ; thns^ 
Hercules killed Ardev^^ may correctly be expressed in 
the six following ways ; (1st) Hercules matS & Anteon ; 
(2d) Mats & Anteon Hbrcitles ; (3d) & Anteon Herctdai 
maid ; (4th) Maid Hercules & Anteon; (5th) Hercules 
fi Anteon mato ; (6th) k Anteon math Hercules. It is 
evident that In this sentence^ were it not for the prepo- 
sition d, the objective case of matctr could npt possibly 
be discovered. 

This being, in my opinion, the only reason 4br intrcK 
ducing the said preposition, it necessarily follows ; Firsi, 
that the preposition d may be dispensed with before 
persons whene^i«r the objective case of the verb is suffi- 
ciently conspicuous without it ; as, Acabd diseiendomc- 
que si queria vender mi mula. Si conocia un mulatero 
qu/e acaso la comprariOj He concluded, saying, that if £ 
wished to s^l my mule, he knew a jockey who perhaps 
would buy it. (Gil Bias, eh. 2.) Secondly^ That the 
preposition d ooght to be used when the subject and 
objective case represent inanimate substances, aadboth 
are in the same number ; as, la preposicion rigt 9k noo^' 
bre, the prepositioa governs the noun ; hs verbos rigen 



Baar of the Aeodemy.) 3%tnlfy, That it ought likewisft 
to be used when Uie subject of the verb is a person, and 
the objectire case an inanimate substance, provided they 
•re both in the same number^ and the subject is only 
understood in Spanish ; as, respetaba en aqueUa Jugtk 
al sagrado derecho, que la hacia licita y aun neceaaria, 
I respected in that flight ^ sacred rigfU, whieh made it 
hrwfti] and even necessary. (Gil BK cb. 14.) FourMg^^ 
That in order to prevent ambig«ity it is better to oimi 
the said pseposltioo, when the sentence contains two 
objective cases of persone in the same number, one of 
which is governed in En^ish by the verb, and the other 
by the preposition to ; as, we shall introduce the earl to 
the marchioness, introdudxemos el conde d lamarquesa; 
we shall introduce the marchioness to the earl, introdu^ 
ctrkmos la marquesa a/ conde. Al etr semejanie tetsa 
di d todoe hs Diablos la Sobrina del CFQbemador da 
FUipmas. (Gil Bt. cfa. la) 

RujLE 115. Passive verbs require the prepositjDn 
de or por* before the noun which denotes the 
agent; as 

j3ios es temido de otpor God is feared by the 

los maioSy vricked. 

1m virtud es amada de Virtue is beloved by the 

or par los buenos, good. 

Ella es estimgda de or She is esteemed by her 

par su bermanoy brother, 

El es aborreddo de or He is detested by all. 

por todos, 

Elfu4 heHdoporsuan^ He was wounded by his 

tagimieia^ antagonisii 

El reo fue sentencittdo The culprit vaa «!»• 

poT eijuezj teiiced by the judge. 

La ca^a fu4 derribada The house was over- 

por el vientOy thrown by the wind. 

IVb^9 «.—«Tbe prepMitiooai </<«r por cannot he iadiscrioiinatelj^ 

* Sec page 145, 

l2 



230 RCTLB8 OF BTYMOlOGY 

iLpplted to the agent of a passive rerb, as maybe seen in tbe foregoing 
examples : regard must be had to the nature of the action sigoiBed 
by the verb. If the action implies simply an effort of the mind^ tbe 
preposition de or por may in general be indifferently used ; See 
the fint four examplee ofthit rule : bat in all other ca^es the prepo^ 
sition por only should be generally employed ; See the laet thre€ 
examplee. 

Rule 116. Neater verbs^ active intransitive, as 
well as some reflective verbs^ have a regimen with 
de^ which denotes what causes their effects ; as 

JBramar de coragCy To roar with passion. 

Enfermar de calentura^ To sicken with a fever. 

Corrersedelapreguntai To blush at the ques- 
tion. 

Perecer de hambre. To perish with hunger. 

Meventar de risa. To buistwith laughter. 

Saltar de gozo, To leap for joy. 

Tiritar defrioj To shiver with cold* 

To these the following may be also added : 

Adolecer de enfermedad^ To be seized with illness. 

Agravidrse de algo^ To take offence at something. 

Alegrarse de leu nuevas. To rejoice at the news. 

Avergonzarsede la reapuet' To be ashamed at the an- 
/a, swer. 

Calarse de agua. To be wet through. 

IHsgustarse de alguna cosa^ To be disgusted at somethings 

Fastidiarse de algo. To be cloyed with something. 

Morir de dolor^ To die of grief. 

C<mvencersede lo contrario^ To be convinced of the con- 
trary. 
. Comerse de envidia^ To be gnawed with envy. 

Bt{far de tra. To swell with rage. 

Aiemorizarse de algo. To be frightened at some- 

thing. 

Confimdirse de lo que ae To be confounded at what 
oe, one sees. 

Espantarse de lapregunta, I'o be astonished at the 

question. 

Airarae de la respuesta^ To be angry at the answer. 



AND SYNTAX. 221 

JJevarse de alguna pasion. To be led away by soin« 

passion- 

Cfenderse de la canducta^ To be affronted at the con- 
duct. 

Ahochornarse de la convert To blush at the conversa^ 
sacion^ tion. 

j^o/tf a. — ^If the regimen of these verbs is an infinitive, the same 
preposition is placed before it ; as, cansante de trabajar, to tire one's 
self with labour ; me alrgrar^ de saberhf I shall rejoice to know it. 

yiote b. — ^The verb sentinc as well as the impersonal petar may 
be added to this rule ; as, eUa te aintio mttcko de »ti modo de pensoTy 
she was exceedingly hurt at his way of thinkiag : le pes6 mucho de 
la muerte de au marido, she was much afflicted at her husband's 
death ; me peM mucho de haberteh dicho, I regret greatly that I told 
it to thee* 

Rule II7. Verbs implying motion to, towards^ 
or from, a place, govern the noun denoting whence 
the motion proceeds with de^ the noun which points 
out its direction with d, and the noun expressing 
the space through which it passes with por : 
example ; 

Fueron de Londres d They went from London 
Chelsea^por elParque, to Chelsea, through 

the Park. 
V<^ngo de la comedia, y I come from the play, 
vhe voy adonde* estuve and am going whither 
anoche^y donde^pien^ I was last night, and 
so quedarme hcLsta where I think I shall 
manana, stay till to-morrow. 

Note a. — When we mean to denote the place to which the moving 
body seems directed only, we use hdda or para instead of a; as, 
vd hdda el Parqw;, pero no creu que llegue alia, he is going towards 
the Park, bat I do not imagine he will reach it j talio para Londret^ 
he set out for London 

Note b. — Verbs of motion have their regimen governed^ in Spanish 
by the preposition en or por, when it implies the space within which 
the motion is repeated ; thus we say, volar por el ayre, to fly through 
the air ; and columjnane en el ayre, to swing in the air, &g. 

The following verbs belong to this rule : 
AbcUanzarse d los peligros^ To rush on danger. 

,. — , . — 

* See the author's Synonyms, page 11. 



m RULB» OP WtYmOtJOGY 

JSofdar uma moH d tira^ To brii^ one ikip aloi^Esids 

of another. 

ApeUur d otro iribvnal. To appeal to another court. 

Apropinquarse d algunOf To draw nigh any one. 

JrrQ^tuMdlmbaUMm^ To dart forwards at tha bat- 
tle. 

Atueniarse de Madrid^ To quit Madrid. 

Balancear d ialparte^ To vibrate towards such a 

side. 

Caminar por d monte. To travel the momtsin. 

Ladearse d ial parte. To incline to sudi a side. 

AoercarH d la hmtbre^ To draw oigfa the fire. 

Canoerliru d Dim, To turn to God 

Concurrir d la junta^ To attend the meeting; 

MandarlacartadEapanaf To sead the letter to Spain. 

Traer vinos de Franoia^ To bring wines from France* 

Emhiar d las lihdias^ To send to the Indies. 

Ob»en)QiiQn. 
When verbs implying motion to or j^om a place hare 
an infinitive for their regimen, this is always preceded by 
the prepositions deord; examples, ire d verlity I shall go 
and see her ; vaya tmi, d buscarle, go and find him ; 
vengo de ver d mi padre, I come fi*om seeing my father ; 
volvi d preguntarselo, pero ya se hahia ido d vintar sus 
enfkrmos, I came back to ask him about it, but he was 
already gone to visit his patients. N.B. llie verb vol'* 
ver is also used before an infinitive, wften we mem to 
denote the repeating of the action implied in the infini- 
tive ; as, 9»lvi d leer la carta, I read the letter ov«r once 
more; fooloeTd d pedirlo^ he will ask for it again; 
volvimos d ektrar en ia oaea, w« re-«itered the bouse. 

Rule 1 18. Verbs of demanding, and of grani^ 
ing, or refusing, generally govern the person to 
whom their energy is Erected witli tiie prepoakioii 
4; as 

Pideperdsn i, Dioa^ Ask pardon /rom God. 

El amo nego ia lioenda The master denied leave 

al €riado; to the servant, 

Los mil ducados, no me The thousand ducats^ do 

los pida vm. A mi, iu)t ask them of me. 



fMaae ias al Tmdor ask them </ /Ae livt* 
Don Rafael. Gil Bias, tor Don Jiaphael. 
bookxi. 

Under this Rule are comprehended verbs of ior- 

rowing and lending ; as 

Pidio prestado d dinero & sa He borrowed the money 

tio, yrom his unde, 

PreUari mi boUa k tu hijo, I will lend my purse to th^ 

90TU 

Verbs of buying and selling, 

Camprk la casa & su mari- I bought the house of her 

do, husbands 

Vendib el cortijo & su cuE»- He sold the farm to his 

do, brother in law. 

Verbs of promising and ofering. 

Prometid su hija al conde. He promised his daughter 

to (he earl, 
{}freci6* sucasaalevabajLSL'- He oflfered his house to 
dor, the ambmsador. 

Verbs of giving and taking away; as 

Did d fnemorial al rey^ He gave the memorial to 

the kin^. 
LegS una manda & la her- He bequeathed a legacy 

maadad, to the society, 

Ao5^ todas sus pedrerias & I stole all the jewels ^7*097^ 

lamuger de Doa Rodrigo, the wife of Don Roderic. 

Verbs of owing and paying ; as 

Ddfo mttcho 4 mi amigo, I owe a great deal to my 

friend, 
Fagd la deuda & los a!ba- He paid the debt to the 

c<ias, executors, 

Veiverh-d dinero al banque- I shril return the money 

ro, to the banker, 

* 0/recer is often used in the sense of promising; as, Te ofrezc9 
£uardmrle^ me retpondU eUa prontmmeHtc, I promlM tkee to lONp ||^ 
«he answered me inuBtdkitely, Gil Bias, b. iv. ch. 5. 



224 RULB8 OF ETYMOJLOGY 

VerbB of questioning, declaring^ recommending^ 

and thanking ; as 

Pregu/ntk al mesonero <i I asked the innkeeper whe 

tenia algun pescado^ ther he had any fish. 

Eljuez dedard lasentenda The judg^e pronounced the 
• al reo, sentence on the criminaL 

Escribi & mi madre lo que I wrote what he said to wy 

dixOf mother. 

Encomendard mi negodo He will recommend my bu- 

fi un amigo suyo, siness to a friend of his, 

Agradezco i vm. este favor, I thank you ibr this favour. 

ybte a. — If the person to whom the energy of the verb is directed 
is represented by a pronoun of the third person, it is translated le, 
lei, for both genders ; as, el le did vn iibro, he gave to her a book ; 
«//a les concedid el favor, she granted the favour to them. See 
Riile 91. 

iV'o/e 6. — ^When the person represents not only to whom the actioa 
is directed, but to whom the advantage or disadvantage accrues, we 
use Tpara instead of a ; as, mandi ellihro para ella, I sent the book 
for her ; entregeari al criado lot cartae para su amo,, I shall deliver 
the letters to the servant /or hie maeier. 

Note c. — ^When the verb preguntar is used in the sense of to 
inquire for, or to inquire after, it requires por before its regimen ; 
as, pregunt^ al h{jo por su padre, I asked the son for his father f 
preguntar£mot por £1, we shall ask after Aim. 

JVo/e d. — Verbs of antwering and replying govern with d the noun 
to which their energy passes, whether it be of a person or thing; as, 
repUqut a) juez, I replied to thejydge ; responder6 k su carta, I shall 
answer hie letter. 

Note e. — Hahlar has its regimen either with con or &; as, he ha- 
blado al or con el si\jeto sobre el asunto^ 1 have spoken to or with the 
perton on the eul^ect. 

Notef. — Diitribmr is followed by entre; as, distribuj/6 m caatdom 
entre los pobres, he distributed his wealth among the poor. 

The following and similar verbs belong to this 
Rule: 

Comunicarluzdotra parte. To give light to another 

place. 
Inspirar la venganza dal- To inspire some one with 

guno, vengeance. 

Pariicipar algo d muchos. To impart something to 

many. 
Permitir mucho d edguno. To allow a great deal to 
^ some one 



AND SYNTAX. 



226 



'RegUtuiT lo robado dsu To restore what was stolen to 

duenoy its owner. 

Consagrarse d Dio^^ To consecrate one s self to God. 

Rule 1 19. Verbs implying yielding , or resist- 
anccy generally require d before the regimen to 
which their energy is directed; as 

Aunque declare ella su Although she may dc- 



parecer,* j/o no soy 
uno de los que some* 
ten su opmion* al die- 
tdmeu* de otros^ 
Me opondr^ i, las leyes. 



clare her opinion^ I am 
not one of those who 
submit their opinion to 
the opinion of others. 
I shall oppose the laws. 



Under this Rule the following and similar verbs 

may be comprehended : 
Abandonarse d su suerte. 



To abandon one's self to 

one's fate. 
To accede to the proposal. 
To have recourse to some- 
body. 
To conform with the reg^^ 

lation. 
To become used to labour. 
To adhere to the same 

opinion. 
To aggregate one's self to 

others. 
To conform to reason. 
To adhere to something. 
To regulate one's self by 

what is just. 
To yield to the entreaties. 
To limit one's self to little. 
To condescend to the en-? 

treaties. 
To humble one's self to 

somebody. 

To yield to reason. 

^ ^ 

* Sm the mtfaoi^s Synonynui pi^ 177. 

l3 



Acceder d la propuesta, 
Acogerse d alguno^ 

Acomodarse al regla/merUo, 

Acastumbrarse al trabajoj 
A dherir al mismo dictdmen, 

Agregarse d otrosy 

Ajustarse d la razon, 
Apegarse d algo, 
Arreglarse d lo justOy 

Ceder d los ruegos, 
Cenirse d poco^ 
Condescender d los ruegos^ 

HumUlarse d algunoy 

Rendirse d la razan. 



fS6 RrJLBS OP MTWM01JOGY 

laws. 

RULE ISO. VeriM <if oomparmg gnendSy in- 
quire d* before the noun with which the comparison 
is made ; as 
El hijo se parece al pa- The son resembles tke 

dre, father. 

La hija se semeja &, la The daughter Is Tike tic 

madre, mother. 

Se ha condor ado el The world has been com- 

mundo d uu teatro, pared to a stage. 

Note a, — Con^arar reqaim eon when the reiemblance is tried ; 
M, CompmrtmM i/ tieropo con la eteroidad jr ventmot la difgremeim, 
let us compare ^tme wiik eternity aad we shaU see the difference, 

RuLB 121 . Verbs implying to ielong, to con-' 
eerily to happen, to plajfy to suit, as well as most of 
the impersonal verbs^ generally require d* before 
the noun to which their energy is directed ; as 
Pertenecemosf £ la tlerra, We belong to the earth. 
Los bienes de un deudor The property of a debtor 

correspondenf £ sus belbngs io kia ermii 

acreedoreSj tors. 

Imp^rta i. los Cristianos, It concerns CMsHmtm, 
Setgracias acontecen A Misfortunes hi^pen to 

los incautos, the unwary. 

Jngard i los nidpes, He will ptay at cards. 

Todo leparecia i. ella un Every thing seemed to 

sueuo, her a dream. 

Le convenia d ella la pro- The proposal was ad- 

puesia, vantageous to her. 

Nate «. — Ser, wken used in the sense of to kftemg^ reqniaes 4r tB^ 
ataad of A before the possessor ; as. Ax casa e» de ioi tic^ ^ beoia 
belongs to my uncle. See Rule 95. 

The following aad similar verbs are comprised in 

this Rule : 
Aparecerse d muebos, To become suddenly visible 

to mi 



* See Rule Ua^ wm m, f Saitha aiher^a ri|«piiyiin, page 171. 



algo tf ^tfv To arrog;ale sonwrthing to 

one's self. 
Atrihuirh d otros^ To attribute it to others. 

KuLB 122. Verbs of condemning require the 
punishment preceded by the preposition a; as 

Condenardn al Teo 6. gdk" They will condemn the 

lerasy culprit to the galleys* 

Sentenciaron al desertor They sentenced the de- 

£ ser arcabuceado^ serter to be shot. 

Rule 123. Verbs imflymg plenty or want, re^ 
tnembrance or oblivion, have & regimen generally 
preceded by cfe ; as 

Lleno la casa de gente^ He filled the house with 

people, 
jtcuerdate de tu Criador, Remember thy Creator* 
St, ha olvidado de ml,* He has forgotten me* 

To tiiese the following may be added : 

Abundar de riquezas. To abound in riches. 

Ahitarse de manjares^ To be surfeited with meats. 

Apercibirse de armas^ To provide one's self with 

arms. 
Armar$e depadeneiOf To arm one's self with pa- 

tieaee. 
Bordar de oro. To embroider in gold. 

Cargar de trigo^ To load with wheat. 

Abatenerse de la fnda^ To abstain from fruit. 
Ahorrar de razones^ To spare words. 

Descargarse de algo. To exonerate one's self fron 

something. 
Deshacerse de la cam. To get rid of the house. 
Desnudarse del vestido^ To pull off the suit. 
Despoblarse de genie^ To depopulate. 

RuLB 124. Verbs implying /^atitn^, blaming. 



* iVaer 4 la memoria, to rtmind, and oltidary to forget, do not 
«dmit de with their regfhnen ; as, le traxi d la memoria la 



mua, I remiiided him of the |ri«aiise; oMAf Im n m pt m tu, he §otgH 



228 



RULB8 OF BTTMOL06T 



absolving, uxing, repenting^ jeeringy and piiying^ 
generally have a regimen sJso with de ; as 



No te alabes de valiente, 
JSl se gloria de sabio, 

Se arrepentiS de sas de- 
litos, 

Por la noche nosjunta- 
bamosy y nos relamos 
de lo8 que se habian 
compadecido de noso- 
tros por el dia. Gil 
Bias, ch« 5. 



Do not extol thy cou- 
rage. 

He makes a boast of his 
wisdom. 

He repented his crimes. 

At night we met, and 
used to laugh at those 
who had pitied us in 
the course of the day. 



Note a. — ^When the rej^iroen of the above verbs is an infinitive, it 
requires the same preposition before it ; as, «e arrepentio mucho de 
no haberme pedido mtu, he repented greatly not having asked me 
more. (Oil Bias, ch. 15.) 

Rule 125. Verbs implying distance or separa- 
tion generally require de befr.*re the noun which is 
not their own direct regimen ; as 

Me alejar4 de mi tierra, I shall remove far from 

my country. 



Apdrtate de la ocasion, 
Quando desperto del 

sueiio, 
Escaparon de la prision^ 



Avoid the opportunity. 
When he awoke from 

his sleep. 
They escaped from the 

prison. 

N. B. All verbs denoting molion from a place are 
also comprehended here. See Rule 117. 

The following verbs may likewise be added : 



Apearse del cabcUlo, 
ApearH de «u opinionf 
Apdar de la aaUenda^ 



To alight from the horse. 
To alter one's opinion. 
To appeal from the sentenoek 



AND SYNTAX. 229 

Aiegurarae ddpeligro^ To shelter one's self from 

the danger. 

Baxar de su atdoridad. To recede from one's autho- 
rity. 

Convalecer de etifermedad. To recover from sickness. 

Degenerar de su nacimien- To degenerate from one'a 
to, ancestors. 

Deponer de un empleo. To depose from an employ* 

ment. 

Derivar de otra autoridad, To derive from another's 

authority. 

Descansar del trabajoy To rest from labour. 

Descender de buen linage. To come from a good family. 

DescoTifiar de cdguno. To mistrust any one. 

Desertar del regimiento. To desert from the regiment. 

Desembarcar de la nave. To disembark from the ves- 
sel. 

Extraer una cosa de otra. To extract one thing from 

another. 

Mudarse de casa. To change one's dwelling. 

Salir delpdigro. To come out safe from dan- 

ger. 

Zafarse de alguno To g^t one s self away from 

any one. 

RuLB 126. Most verbs admit a regimen with 
en, denoting wherein the meaning of the said verbs 
is conspicuous ; as 

JLos condenardn en las They will be condemned 

costas, in the costs. 

Ella crece en virtudes. She increases in virtue. 

Dividio el sermon en He divided the sermon 

tres puntos^ into three parts, 

Siemprepensar^ en ti, I shall always think on 

thee. 

The following verbs may be included : 

AhrasoTse en deseos. To bum with desires. 

Almndar en riquezas,. To abound in riches. 



MO RULB CV BTTaWLOOT 



JJoTwrm mk «i cfMum^ To be 

opinion. 

Jndmr en pU^ioi, To be engaged in ktwsnita* 

Barar m tierra^ To run aground. 

CotmnUr en ia propueda^ To ooment to the pioposeL 
Dor en mumuM, To be seized with eooM 

mania. 
JSnoffMf one en eiciot» To waUow in vice. 
Etmerane en algo^ To exert one's self in any 

thing. 
HaUane en laJieUa, To be present at the feast. 

Imponer en aigo. To instruct in nay thing. 

Prwrttmpir en lAgrimmt To burst into tears. 
Redundar en ben^fieio deTo redound to anothe/s 
Ura, benefit. 

Note a. — ^If these veibs have for their regimen an infinltiTe, it 
most be preceded eleo by en ; ai, dekytane en oir^ to take deligbt 
lb kemrimgi oca^mrse ea leer, to employ one't self in retuSuff; Hit' 
mot mmetter petttar ea syediite, We must think am helping tktt^ 
(GU Blas» h. i. oh. 1.) 

Rule 127. Verbs denoting behaviour generally 
require con before the persons towards mHboni it is 
directed ; as 

Ella se ha air ado con She is affronted with her 

an hermaiio, brother. 

El M eoid con su prima, He married his couHm. 

Me desahogard con mi I will unbosom myself 

padie, to my father. 

Ajustarae con algnno^ To settle with ang one. 

UTeAra.— Wliea the teil) meterte is used in the sense of /o meddlgf 
•r to Mfoi/orv, it lequins con before the noan if it be a perMn, aad 
en if it be a things as, Aeomt^ote, amigo BItu, qm «• mdol«mt9wo U 
vueivm d meter con frayles, I advise thee, friend Bias, not to meddle 
in lutwe mkhftrian, (Gtt Bias, cb. S.) No te metar en negocioe 
ajftnot, Do not interfere wOk the affain of others. 

ObservuHon* 

When there is a noun m the sentenee denoting ^he 
means nbueby the nctia&of the vevh isfeifeoled, it may 



Img&wemnA wiih con, de, 4ff d,mo6mdmgi»tbit MkMrw^ 
mg rales :— Ist, If the noan sonifies the iBSteameiit m 
wei|>wi with 'v^icb the aetion was 4(Hi^ it requires oon 
before it ; as, M la matS con el pi«S, he JdUed her vHik 
the foot ; oon un punal, wiih a pojnard ; con un mar* 
tillo, wUk a hammer, 2d, If the noun is the name of 
the injury or blow given with the weapon or instrument^ 
it requires to be preceded by de or con when used in the 
singular number, and by d when in the plural ; as, hi la 
tnato de, or, con un pantapie, he killed heruri^ a kick; 
d puntapieB, with kicks ; de, or, con tma punalada, with 
a «to6 of a poniard ; & punaladas, hy several sttibs with 
a poniard; de, or, con vn maitillazo, wUh the blew of a 
hammer; & martillazos, bp giffiTig several blows with a 
hamaner ; Opes, Gil Bias, trata de hacer tu deber, por 
que te advierto que si te aoohardas con un |Hstoletazo, te 
levanto la tapadelos sesos. (Gil Bias, b. i. ch. 9.) Decia 
el que d Cid Ruidiaz habia sido muy buen caballero,pero 
que no tenia que ver con el cabaUero de la ardiente espada, 
que de solo u& reves hMa pariido por medio dosfieros y 
descomunales gigarUes, He used to say that Cid Ruidiaz 
had been a very brave knight, but that he was not to be 
compared to the knight of the burning sword, who with 
a single back stwke had cut in hutves two fierce and 
monstEOUfl gimt«. (Doa Quixote, b. i. eh. L) 



ON VERBAL REGilMEN. 

Government, as has been already defined, is the 
pcnrerifiiidi one wxhxIIms over another, when it 
detemunes its case, teme, or mood : therefore, 
when one verb requires another in any mood in 
particular, the second verb is said to be the R^i«- 
men or Government of the first verb. 

A verb may have its regimen in the infinitive, 
indicative, or suhgunctive mood ; as, No m^ podia 
nd tio proponer cosa mas de mi gusto, My uncle 
could not propose to me any thing more to my 
(GilAlM^xki^} IDfiMK^/eqaepeiuaba 



282 Ruuia or bttmqjlogt 

pmriir antes de amanecer, The latter iaid io me 
thai he meant to set out before daybreak. (Ibid., 
ch. 2.) Pen84 que nunca acabase, I thought thai 
he never would havejinished. (Ibid.) 

The regimen of a verb sometimes admits a pre- 
position, whether it is governed in the infinitive or 
subjunctive mood; as, Apliqu^me despnes d la lo^ 
gica, que me enseiio 4 discurrir y d argumentar ^ 
^^mt'no, I applied my self afterwards to logic, which 
taught me to reason, and to argue without bounds. 
(Ibid. ch. 1 .) Y me did tantcus gracias como yo 
espolazos a la mula, para que quaiito antes me 
alejase de el. And he gave me as many thanks^ as 
I kicks to the umle, that she might ranove me from 
him as soon as possible, (ibid.) 

REGIMBN IN THE INFINITIVE. 

Rule 128. If two verbs come together in Eng» 
lish, and the second is in the infinitive, this mood 
is in general likewise used in Spanish ; as 

Quiero aprender^ I wish to learn. 

Dehemos obedecer, We ought to obey. 

N.B. If the English infinitive can be resolved with a 
conjunction into another mood, the Spanish infinitive 
should seldom be used. See Observation afler Rule 
132. 

Rule 129. Verbs denoting to dare^ to begin, 
to tectchy to learn, to compel^ generally require i 
before the infinitive which they govern ; as 

No me atrevo i. salir, I dare not go out. 

Mmpezo d Hover, It began to rain. 

Sepuso ii hacerlo, He set about it. 

Aprenderd A escribir. He will learn to write. 

Me ensena d baylar. He teaches me to dance. 

Rule 130. Verbs implying /o «ti6mtV, fo ojspof* 



AND SYNTAX. 



233 



to exhort, or invite, to prepare, to assist, to be 
destined^ and to accustom one's self^ generally 
require d before the infinitive which they govern ; 
as 

Me consider^ obligado & I considered myself ob- 

responder. liged to answer. 

Gil Bias, ch. 1. 

Yasi le convidd a cenar And so I invited him to 

conmigo, sup with me. 

Ibid. ch. 2. 

Exhortaronme i, vivir They exhorted me t6 

Cristianamente, live like a Christian. 

Ibid. ch. I. 

Yo segul al capitan, y I followed the captain^ 

mientras le ayudaba & and whilst I helped 

him to undress. 

And disguising my feel- 
ings, I prepared my- 
self to wait on such 
honourable folks. 



desnudar. 
Ibid. ch. 5. 
Y disimulando mi sen^ 
timiento, me dispuse 
& servir a una gente 
tan honrada. 
Ibid. ch. 5. 



Note a. — ^Many verbs govern with the preposition & an infinitive, 
ivhen it denotes the means whereby is effected whatever the govern- 
ing verb signifies ; as, ^/ »e mata k trabajar, he kills himself with 
working ; eUa te detfriza & Uorar^ she wears herself out with weeping. 

RuLB 131. Verba signifying to abstain, to 
cease, to deprive, to finish^ govern the infinitive 
with de ; as 



Se abstiene de beber vi^ 

no. 
Me hasprivado de ver- 

la, 
AcabarS de escribir d la 

una, 
Cesaron de atormentar- 

me. 



He abstains from drink- 
ing wine. 

Thou hast deprived me 
of her pight. 

I sl'iall leave off writing 
at one. 

They ceased to torment 
me. 



284 KULBB or ■nMou>OT 

J^««f ow— The TCfk oetAar ii ahraft uiad to triwlat* liwbgiUb 
•ipreuions to kmejuii, or to heJuMt; as, I have just read your iettcr, 
dca6o de Uer tv cor/a ife «m. / his father is just arrived, aeaba de 
ilegur wm p€idr9. 

Note b. — ^The verb tervirae in the sense of to be pietued, or to «■»- 
tktcend^ requim de before the inSnitive fullowing ; as, 9irva9evm.de 
§nkm tdgmmm redk9 em ewe wmkrere^ Be pleased to throw sone rank 
into that hat. Gil Bias, b. i. ch. 1. 

Note e. — The verb gnardarte requires de before the feliowmy in- 
finitive, and has the peculiar property of imparting a negative quality 
to Uw said ininitive : as, jfv me gwurdaf^ 6m» de Mm c erto, I sbau 
take care not to do it ; Yyo me guardi bien de quexmrme^ Uw. And 
I took good care not to complain. Gil Bias, ch. 10. 

Note d. — ^When the infinitive follows a noun which It serves aa it 
were to qualify, it requires to be preeeded by the prepeskion de^ ns^ 
do me the iavoar to send bm, Adgame rm. elfetoe/r die mmmhnnei n» 
tenia gana de reir, I had no inclination to laugh ; two la mrioeidad de 
freguntarmelOf he had the curiositv to ask me about it ; «t tenia la 
dicka de ilegar d apiei imgar^ if I had the happiness to raadi Unt 
place. For other infinitives requinnf 4 eg de befisro tfacfs, see 
Observation after Rule 117. 

Note e. — ^When, in Spanish, the verb which governs Che infimtive 
is a reflective verb, the Spanish infinitive generally reraams in the 
active voioc^ although in English the aeBtenoe may teqeire a passive 
construction ; as, SSientrae iot diaponitm trabi converoadon con la 
meoonera, que haeta enloneee no ee habia dexado ver. Whilst they pre- 
pared them I entered into conversation with the landlady, who until 
then had not suffered herself to be oeen. (Gil Blas^ ch. 2.) But a 
reflective verb may have another reflective verb for its government 
in the infinitive ; as, Yaai no me atrevi d exponerme a una acdon 
tan pooo tegura. And so I did not dare to expose myself to an action 
ao little safe. (Ibid. ch. 8.) N. B. The infinitive when governed bv 
mandoTf or kaoer, is also generally left in the active voice f as, JG/ 
meooncro, que no deteaba otra coea, hittd oocer luego la trucha^ &c. 
The landlord, who wished for nothing better, ordered the trout to be 
dreeeed immediately. (Gil Bias, ch. 2.) 

Verbs ofien have their regimen in the infinitive with 
the preposition jMms or jpor;* and aUhongliin idinost 
every instance these prepositions are uniformly trans- 
lated to in English, yet they oaa by no mnmri be iiidS> 
ferently applied in Spanish. 

Verbs require para before their regimea when k de- 
notes the effect or consequences resulting from the action 
contained in the governing verb ; as» muevo los pies para 

* See the author's Synonyms, page 1. 



jam nmtAiu 986 

ajidar, I move mjfeBi &> walk, or, inwdtr A> mwJik; «nd 
por when 4he regiittieA denotes both the ^ause «nd efifect, 
that 19 lo imf^ when we wish to express that the sulxject 
of the goveming verb was stimulated to the perfonn- 
aace of the action by the effect or consequence result- 
ing from it; as, corro por calentarme tospiex, I ran to 
warm my feet, or for the sake of warming my feet. Dias 
nos ha dado la lengua para hablar, God has given ns 
the tongue to speak, or^ in order to speak ; hay tnuchos 
que por hablar dicen disparates, there are many who to 
speak, or, for l9)e sake of speaking, talk noneense. Para 
reparar estaftdta detennmk vender mi nvuiOj To Mp«iT 
this error I deten^ined to sell my mole. <Gil Bias, ch. 
2.) Senora, d Cieio es ha eiwiado un iibertador; /#- 
mmtttos para seguirmey Madam, Heaven has sent yoa m 
del ivB i ei ; rise to follow me, (Ibid. ch. 10.) Yme 9en^ 
tark d la mesa solo por kescer compania d om. ooimeTzcIo 
atgunos bocados merwmente por complaoerk, $ por mos^ 
trar ijuanto aprecio susfinezm. And I shall sit at table 
only to keep you company, eating some mouthfuls 
ner^ly J^o please yon, and to slww how much I valne your 
attentions. ^Ibki. ch. IS.) Me mnero por mereoer d honor 
it *er ufto dt ««« €tompttnero8, I long to merit tfie honour 
of being one of your companions. (Ibid. ch. 7,) 

The vei4)s estar and ^^dar require por befof« the 
hi(initive whidi they govern, when we mean to express 
tfafCt the action denoted by the said infinitive has not 
been completed ; as, la carta estaba por escrihir, tkt 
letter was not written ; nos quedan dos leguas por trndar, 
walutve yet six miles to^o. See Observatioii, p, 140. 



HBGIMEN IN THE INBICATIVB OR SUBJUNCTIVB. 

RuLis 132. When two verbs come together in 
English, and the latter is govenied in the indica- 
tive or subjnnctive with a conjunction, the Spanish 
verb will in general admit the same mood ; as 

JHwmte este fue penstt- The latter told ne ifarit 
ba partir iMes dt a^ he meant to set out 



390 RUUBS OF ETTMOtOGT 

maneccTj y que^l ten- before daybreak, and 

dria cuid€ulo de dU* that he would take 

pertarme, care to awake me. 
Gil Bias, ch. 2. 

N. Bt The conjunction must always be expressed in 
Spanish, thoug^h in English it may be only understood : 
fts» me dixo que escribiria hoy^ he told me he would 
lirrite to-day. 

Observation. 

When the verb which is governed in the infinitive in 
Eng^tish may be changed into another mood» the last 
construction should generally be adopted in Spanish; as. 
At the same time he took a light and commanded me to 
follow him, or, commanded that I should follow him, Al 
mismo tiempo tomS una luz y me ordeno que le siguieae* 
(Gil Blas» ch. 4.) 1 know her to be (or, £ know that 
she is) your friend, sS que ella es su amiga de vm. In 
general it may be taken for granted, that when the 
action, &c. denoted by the verb governed, does &ot 
immediately refer to the subject of the governing verb, 
the regimen ought not to be in the infinitive : thus, we 
say quiero estudiavj I wish to study; and quiero gue 
estudien, I wish them to study ; in the first example 
the person who wishes, and the person who is to study, 
are the • same, and therefore the regimen is in the 
infinitive ; but as in the second example the person who 
ought to study is changed, the infinitive cannot be 
admitted. 

Rule 133. Verbs denoting^fiMf^^ or necessity^ 
command' or permission^ desire or /oy, wofider or 
doubty and impersonals used interrogatively or 
negatively, generally have their regimen in the 
subjunctive; as 

Conviene que venga It is proper that he should 

manana, come to- morrow 

jBff menester que vay~ We must go there, 
amos alldy 

Mandd que rindiesen la He ordered the place to 

pkusOf be given up« 



AND STMTAX« 997 

No hay ninguno que There is no one to go. 

vaya, 

Quiero que aprendas^ I wish thee to learn. 

Me alegro que se divier- I am glad that he amuses 

ta, himself. 

Me espanto que no lo se- I wonder at his not 

pa, knowing it 

Dudo que venga hoy, I doubt his coming to«^ 

day. 

Note a, — ^The subjunctive sbonid be used after tbe following con- 
junctions or conjunctive expressions ; dado que, granted that ; con tai 
^UBf provided that ; d m^noa que, unless that ; no sea que, lest ; dtttet 
que,nn que, tea que, &c. ; as, dado que me escriba, no le re»ponder£, 
granted that he should write to me, I will not answer him ; con tdJ 
qve restituya ei dinero, provided he restores the money ; d m^noi que 
MO me pagae, unless he pay me ; para que fnese ai/d, in oid^r that 
ho might go there, &ۥ 

Observation. 

It is hardly possible to enumerate the verbs which re- 
quire their regimen in the subjunctive, because tbe use 
of this mood generally depends on the nature of the 
phrase : regard must therefore be had to what has been 
already said concerning the indicative and the subjunc- 
tive or potential mood.* In addition to this it ought 
to be observed, that the rules which have been given for 
the prefixing of certain prepositions before the verbal 
regimen in the infinitive, will generally apply in other 
instances ; for those verbs which require a prepo« 
sition before their infinitive will sometimes require it, 
and generally admit it, when they are governed with a 
conjunction in another mood ; as, Exh^)rtdron me & que 
todos los dias encomendase d Dios d mi tio. (Gil Bias, 
ch. 1.) See Rule 130. . Tuve particular gusto de que 
huviese retrucado con tanto ayre las ultimas pcUabraa 
delmesonero, &c. (Ibid. ch. 2.) See Ru.e 131, note d* 
No me admiro de que sea tan esHmado en la corte y en- 
ire el puebh^ ni de que muchos Senores le hay an senalado 
pemiones. (Ibid. b. ii. ch. 7.) See note a to Rule 116« 

* See page 195 to 213. 



9K %viam mr MfjPMuuoGT 



xurpladng the Verhai JRegimen m the 
Sulfjunctive. 

1. The goverahig verb being in the preseni or 
the fithire imperfeet of the indicalirey the Ferfc 
governed o«ght to be in the present or per/ed of 
the sabjunctire ; m, le suplko d fnrn. fue venga 
agui manana^ I entreat you to come here to-mor- 
row ; le dir6 d mi hermano que no saiga hasta las 
treSf I shall tell my brother not to go out till three 
o'clock ; dudo que haya Hegado mum, I doubt his 
having yet arrived ; celebrarl; que haya logrado el 
mnpUoy I shall be hi^»py to know that he has 
obtained the sitnatioD. 

2. If the governing verb be in the imperfgci^ 
the perfect indefinite, ovihe pluperfect of the indi- 
cative, the regimen ought to be in the imperfect or 
pluperfect of the subjunctive, with the termina- 
tions ra or se ; as, mi hermana queria que vini^ 
ramos todou los dias, my sister wished us to come 
every day ; el gobemador le permitid que saliese^ 
the governor permitted him to come out; temf que 
httl^se venido la semana pcaada, I was afraid 
that he would have come last week. 

3. If the governing verb be in th&perfeet definiU 
or 1^ future perfect of theindieativeythe regimea 
must be in the present or t\k% imperfect of the sub- 
junctive with the termination ra or se ; as, el rey 
ha mandado que el emhaxador vuelva inmediaiet' 
mentCf the king has ordered that the ambassador 
should return immediately ; ya le habr£ dicho su 
padre que no la vuelva d ver, bis father has no 
doubt already told him not to see her again ; le 
babrd dicho que viniese para dedrselo^ he (most 
likely) told him to come in order to tell it hjxxu 

These directions are not equally applicable in all 
cases ; regard must be had to the meaning of the 



governing rerk t thas, for eaaunple, Terim of com*- 
manding and oS promising can never govern tbeir 
regimen in the perfect or pluperfect of the sub- 
junctive ; because an order or a promise must 
necessarily precede ita performance. N. B. If the 
governing verb implies promise or assurance^ the 
termination ria is the only one that can be used. 
See page 211^ No. 8. N. B. 



ON TH£ GERUND. 

Ruus 134. The English participle present n 
construed by the gerund in Spanish ; as 

The news being certain^ Siendo ciertas las nO' 

itCtttSf 

I mxk wrttiBg, Esto§ escriJUendo^ 

Wafting, or bring walk- Pcueenda, .or esimub 

ing, paseando. 

I met diem reading Z^os enumtri leyenda, 

Nate a. — When the present pasticiple expresses some circuin<* 
sttRce rcfenrmf to the objective caai ^i the veibt to 9ee, or to Amt) 
it ia auHtraed witk tba present kkfioitive ; as, I hear her tm^mg, Im 
a^o eantar ; I never saw that play actingj, or being acted^ nutica vi 
representar eaa comecRa, 

NoUf 6. — The pafticipie of the verbs t» ^, or to tome, being pt«- 
Gtsded la Eaglish bjr any tenafe o£ the auxiliary to be^xs resolved in 
Spanish into the tense in which the auxiliary verb is ; as, she %» 
oomingj etta viene ; we wen goings ibamos. 

Rule 135. Gerunds admit the same preposi- 
tion before their regimeii as tbe verbs from which 
they are derived ; as 

Arrepiniiendme de sun Bepentiag his crimefi^ 

culp€u^ 
Na aireiimdQse £ stdvr. Not daring to go oi^ 
Mimendo coaiodos, QsarceUiBg wiih alL 

Bulb 136. The present participle^ when used 



240 AaLXS OP BTTMOLOGT 

in Erigliah as a verbal noim^ is resolved into tke 
present of the infinitive in Spanish ; as 

The pleasure of speaking El gusto de hablarle, 

to him. 
Without seeing her. Sin verla. 

He went a walkings El sefu4 d pasear. 

Ncie a, — If the English participle follow the preposition hjff \re 
naj use either the gertind, or the infinitive preceded by con j as, the 
memory is increased by exereimng \i, la memoria §e mamtnta ezerci- 
tindola^ or con ezercitarla. 

Noi€ h. — ^When the participle is used in En^ish as a verbal noun, 
and there is a substantive of the same import in Spanish, this snb- 
stantive should be preferred to the infinitive ; as, the fear of God 
i# the banning of wisdom, e/ temor de Dia§ et ei principio de k 
mbiduria ; his going is the cause of my coming', nt id^nla cauta d* 
mm fenida. 

COMPOUND OF TH£ GERUND* 

What has been said in the three foregoing rules^ 
and in the first note of the third rule, is also appli- 
cable to the compound of the gerund ; as, having 
written, habiendti escrito ; having repented his 
crimes, habiendose arrepetitido de siis aelitos ; the 
pleasure of having spoken to him, el gusto de ha- 
berle hablado; by having represented, hahiendo 
representadoy or con haber representado. N. B. 
Instead of the compound, the simple gerund pre- 
ceded by the preposition en is elegantly used ; as^ 
en diciendo esto se fu4^ or habiendo dicho esto se 
fu6^ having said this he went away. 

Observation, 

As the gerand is sometimes liable to occasion much 
ambiguity in a sentence, it is better in such instances to 
resolve it into a corresponding tense of the same verb; 
as, we met her coming from home, la enconiramoa vi- 
fdendo de ciua. In this sentence neither the English par- 
ticiple nor the Spanish gerund denotes sufiiciently who 
was coming from home ; it is therefore preferable to 



Aia> SYNTAX* 2fki 

express it thus, la emxmiramos quando venia de casa^ 
that is, we met her as she was coining from home ; or» 
quando ventamoa de casa^ as we were coming from 
home. 

ON THE PARTICIPLE. 

Rule 137- The participle is indeclinable when 
it is employed to form the compound tenses of any 
verb; as 

Mi padre habia venido^ My father had come. 

Jhi hermana habia es- Thy sister had written. 

crito, 

Ellos han comprado la They have bought the 

casa^ house. 

N. B. The participle ought to be generally close to 
the auxiliary Iwher. 

Rule 138. When the participle is not preceded 
by the auxiliary hafferj it assumes all the properties 
of a verbal adjective^ and is consequently declin* 
able; as 

Los hombres serdn pre- The naen will be re- 

miados^ warded. 

Slla ha estado muy di- She has been very 

vertida^ much amused. 

LoiS hazanas celebradas The extolled exploits 

del ex4rcito vencido^ of the conquered 

army. 

Ella parece afligida. She seems afflicted. 

Note a, — ^The verb tener sometimes governs the participle as its 
alijectlve case, and then the participle admits of no variation ; as, 
tenffo escrito d mi madre, I have written to my mother ; ienffo, ha- 
blado sobre el antnto, 1 have spoken on the subject : but when there 
isaaouo or pronoun in the sentence governed by /ener, the participle 
becomes an adjecihe and agrees with it ; as, tengo escrito un pliego 
enieroj I have written a whole sheet j iengo escritas irea cartas, I 
have written three letters. N. B. In the choice of participles the 
regular ope should be generally employed ; as, ya /a teniamot cuh- 
yencida, we had already convinced her. ^ 

Note bi — ^The participle is elegantly used as a case abeolwte, and 
then it generally precedes, and always agrees withy some noun whicb 



342 



RULB8 OP BTTIiOUMSr 



i% wrmemm to ki, inMptBdwi adl^ i <— i ctrf im tfat ^,w^.w ». 
as, mtaimHm iv wmi, uoaj^iiwuui A paaear^ supper \imvag oyer, we went 
••wailung ; Tommda nta rtrndudtm, me kvami^^ qwando tme parecvS 
mm Lnmrdk y Dommgo podiam jfo- aiv dmmuh r. This resofvtiott 
Offing taken, I vote, when it appntred to me that Leonarda and D^' 
miugo might already be asleep. (Gil Bias, ch. 6.) Hecha ette Jura-^ 
mtemtOt que eeiaba bien teameltb 4 ne ywtr nii iir, me/mi d bmtcar aigum 
■UMfi, This oath being taken, which I was well resolved not to brnk, 
IwMttokMkfecaeBtiank (nnA.ch.14.) 



Peculiar Properties of some Participles. 

The foUpwing participles are also vsed as 
adjectives having an active signification. 



jtjpradeeido^ 
Atremdo, 

Catuado^ 

Comedido^ 

Deusperado^ 

Dintnulado^ 

JSntendido^ 

EsforzadOf 

Fingido, 

LeidOf 

MedidOf 

Mirado^ 

Moderado^ 

OcasionadOy 

OsadOf 

Parado^ 

Partiehf 

ParfiadOy 

Preciado^ 

PresunMo^ 

BecatcfdOf 

Sahido^ 

SentidOy. 

SufridOy 

Trmtmeatdidoy 

FaUdOf 



tliaaked and thmkibl or gmtelbL. 
dared and daring or hpld. 
unmeationcd and silent or reserved, 
tired and tiresome or fatiguing, 
mused and mild or gentle, 
despabed and desperate or despatring. 
dSssemlMed mid sly or ctakf^ 
uaderstood amd iateliigtiiC. 
encouraged and courageous or lesolate^ 
feigned and hypocriticaL 
read and learned, 
measured and unassuming. • 
looked at and circumspex!t. 
moderated and moderate, 
caused and provoking, 
the same as atrevido, 
stopped and inactive or idle, 
cbvided mod munifieeni or lii>era2. 

contended and pertinfteioiH or obstinates 
valued a?id valuable or precious, 
presumed and presumptuous or arrogant. 
ecMicealed and eaatious or prod^it* 
known and knowing or clever, 
felt and sensible or feeling, 
suffered and patient or forbearing. 
traaeoNkled and acule or keeiiw 
availed and mighty and canfiteit. 



AIfI> 9TN7AX. 243 

Yo estaha ccmsado de oirle, por que es muifcansado en 
la conversaciany I was tired of hearing him,. Because he 
!s very tiresome in conversation ; nosot^os le habiamos 
caUado la verdady por que sahitmios que no era hombre 
caUadOy we had concealed the truth from him, because 
we knew that he was wM} a reserved man. N. B. To the 
fiiregoiBg! paotieiples may be added those of the verbs 
«en«r„ corner, and hMenfy, wkea preeeded by the adveuba 
HejL at m»L; a&, im^bornktre mail eenado^ a-natan that bos 
not supped weU ; una muger mu^ hien hableda^ a very 
wel]r«poke& womaiih. 

N. B» PaFticiple» wheaused as mch, admit the saiDc 
stgimbtti' as the verbs to- lidlich tbey belong. ; and wbm 
they ase employed as adjeeiives> they, fallow the rules 
which have bee& given for the gpovemmeni ef adjectives ; 
thus we say, toao* ebgrad^tdda lot benefidost^ and «Mnat 
a^admdj»A Im ben^^fktM, 



ADVERBS. 

Oh the Mcemwr of forming some Spanish Adverbs. 

McKt of the adverba wfaicli' kit Englkh end in 
fy,. axe fbrmed in Spanish by adding mente to 
iMl§«Gtive»; ai^ happily^ feUzmenie; humbly, Am- 
mUdememfe. N, B. If the Spanish adjective 
admit two termination?^ the feminine must be 
selected' for tihe forming of the adverb; as, santo^, 
santa, santamente, holily 3 piadoso, piadosa, 
piadosamente, piously. 

Rule 139. When two av more adjeetives are to 
be fiormed ii^ adverba to modify the same verb, 
dM adverbial termtnatk)!! is added to the last 
flcgeetive only j as 

HdUa clara i/i coneisM^ He speaks deailf anii 
Biente^ eondselj, 

m2 



344 RULES OF KTYMOLOGT 

Cesar escribio dara^ Ciesar wrote dearly, 

concisa, y elegante- concisely^ and ele- 

mente, gantly. 

Piensa sabiaraente y se Bethinks wisely aridex- 

explica claramente^ presses himseli clearly. 

Observation. 

No rules can be given to direct learners where to 
place the adverb, because its situation in the sentence 
depends greatly on the manner in which it is employed: 
nevertheless, it may be observed that adverbs of man- 
ner, especially those ending in menie, are generally 
placed after the verb, unless the sentence begins for the 
sake of elegance with the adverb; as, llegue felizmente 
d Penetflor^ I arrived happily at Penaflor; le habkt 
dicho freqiientemente, I had frequently said to him ; no 
hemo9 hecho bien, we have not done well ; inmediata- 
mente mofile en mi mu/a, y ioli de la ciudadf I imme- 
diately mounted my mule, and went out of the city; 
mal conoces la caridad de loa BspanoleSj thou art badly 
acquainted with the charity of the Spaniards. The ad' 
verb no is always prefixed to the verb which it modifies; 
as, no vendemoSf we do not sell ; no habias comprado, 
thou hadst not bought. Mas and menosy when they do not 
begin the sentence, should follow the verb which they 
modify ; as, queria mas, he wanted more ; tengo m^nos, 
I have less. Si and no^ being used as an objective case 
to some verb, require que before them, unless they are 
preceded by an article; as, you say yes, and I say 
no, vm. dice que si, y yo digo que no ; he answered not 
a word, 7u> respondid un si 7ii un no. 

Observation on JamaSy Nunca^ No, and Muy. 

Jamas and nunca have both the same import, and 
may therefore be indifferently used for each other ; as» 
jamas or nunca le hahia hablado^ I had never spoken 
to her: \mi jamas has the peculiarity of being coupled 
with nunca^ never, and with siempre, ever, in order to 
give more energy to the expression ; as, nunca jamas fo 
JiwSf never, no never, shall I do so ; que vtves y rmX» 



kifD SYNTAX. 245 

por ffiiempre jamas, who livest and reignest for ^ver and 
ever. 

No is sometimes used redundantly afler comparatives, 
in order to render the contrast hiore striking ; as, mejor 
€8 el trabajo que no la ociosidad, labour is better than 
idleness ; mas vale ayunar que no enfermar^ it is better 
to fast than to be ill. N. B. In both these, sentences no 
might have been omitted without impairing the sense. 

When a verb is preceded by nOy ano&er negative 
word may be placed afler, and the two negatives will 
serve to strengthen each other^ contrary to the practice 
of the English language : we may therefore say, no 
tengo nada, I have nothing; no he viato d nadie, I 
have seen nobody ; no lo hark nunca^ I shall never do 
it : but if the negative word be prefixed to the verb, no 
must be omitted: as, nada tmgo, d nadie Ae vuto^ 
nunca lo hark, &c. 

Muy is the equivalent to the English very or very 
much ; as, very humble, muy humUde ; very early, muy 
tempranof very heartily, muy de corazon; very much 
yours, or, wholly yours, muy de vm,; very much at your 
service, muy a/ servudo de vm, &c. but muy can never 
qualify a verb ; as, I like that very much, eso me gusta 
mttchUimo ; he very much resembles his father, separece 
fnuchinmo d m padre, 

ON PREPOSITIONS. 

In addition to the prepositions inserted at page 
76^ Part I., and which in point of &ct are the only 
ones that the Spanish Academy esteems as such, 
we employ several adverbs and adverbial moods 
or expressions as substitutes for prepositions ; and 
whenever they are so used^ the noim or pronoun 
by which they are followed must be preceded by 
the preposition dear a; as, cerca del palacio, near 
the palace ; dl rededor del jardin, round the gar- 
den \ junto & la casa, close to the house. It is not 
possible to enumerate all these species of words 
within the limits of a book of this nature ; but the 



94S RUUM OV Sraf OL06T 

collection for leamen. 

Words r^qiuriog deii&toxe the following noun. 

JkotTcmdej as* Aserca 4fe loife ti^ogm), oonoemkig Ifais 

ibusiiiefa. 
A ottbierle dei m^ A aiMerto de ia ^kmpeBimd^ vndsr 

flhaltar from tbe ^Iobiil 
Ademt»de$ a^jadBmaadCihqmevnu <iupo»he8id£8<what 

y«tt mid. 
M lado de«* ■&, mnMt al ktdo de dla^ «it dmrai hcnde 

her. 
Antes de; ai, dnto de las MuaXf befoie aine o'clock. 
A pesar de; a^ djpMor de tm ruegH, mbl «pile of iiis 

entieaties. 
Cerca de ; aA» oerca de la ant^ near one o'cloeik. 
Debaxo de ; as, dehaxo de la me»a^ under ifae tdide. 
Delante de ; afi» ddrniAe deljuez, before 4he judge. 
Dentvo de ; as, deatro^la mua^ within (Ae house. 
Despues de ; as, dotpmn dd semnm^ after ^Ahe iwnnem. 
iDetEas de^* as, de^rof de ia iglena^ behmd ihe •ohiircfa. 
£ncinia de; aa, enmmotdd^fp^o^AyMKifiiblhi^lQtM^g'sgl^m. 
ymffenle de; as, ^7£^^&;de JaiBaZsa^toppeaite tibite£K- 

change. 
Fueta (2e ; as, fiiera de las muraUa^ wislhaut Ihe andk. 
Lejos de ; as, /e/o« de la dudad^ far from the city 
Mas ac& de; as» mue acddd So^xiUi^ on this side of 

the Hospital. 
Mas aM& ^; as, ifiiae olid dfl2Piarfiie,l>^o]id the Park 

He fc31owing reqmre d after thfexn. 

Conforme d ; as, coi^rme & las leyes del reino^ accord- 
ing to the kiws of -the reahn. 

Junto d ; as, junto d la TWre, close io ^le Tower. 

TcKrante ^ ; as, foc«mle 4 to re^oB se «&9ero0ftf» -fo. 
(concenung tiie rules at <wi)l l>e observed, 4S^. 

Observation, 

Aides and despues isetain thepreposiUoa de when Hieg 
are followed by a verb in the infinitive, but take <que in 
any other mood ; as. Antes de corner^ before <finner; 
dntes que comamosy before we dine ; despues de cenar. 



lifter supper ; degpues que vm, hay a oenadoj after jaa 
have supped; enfin dapitet 4e hG^er>emiMo y hebidoy&c. 
afler having" eaten and drunk, despuetqne d etqdtan 
de bandoleroB hizo ^esfta ape^^a^ Airier 4he captain of 

highwaymen made this apology. 

• 

jdUst ^/ jEngluh Prepositions wUh a eorreyHmd^ 
ing Preposition in Spanisb^ 

Above, encima de; above the door, tncima de la puerim^ 

N.B. Above, meBniiig beyond^ cannot berenderedby 

a preposition in Spanish; ns^ tibove *two hours, 

mcK de des horas. 

About, cercade; as, about one o''elodc, cema ^ la una. 

About, for within, en ; as, he is about i3be house, 'estd en 

la coBa, or, en casa. 
Abatd^ for through, por ; as, he went sing^g nbont iflie 

streets, iha cardamdo par las coRes, 
About, for on, sobre ; as, a treatise about *6he kmg^de, 

tratado sobre la longitud. 
Afler, despues de ; as, after the sentence, despues 4t la 

sentendia. 
After, for according to, d orsegwi ; as, after the %»nish 

fashion, d la tnoda Espanota ; tifter his masuxr of 

teachings segun su modo de en»enar. 
Against, contra ; as, against her, eontfVi tflKs. 
Against, for fronting, e7rfren!k ^e; as, we live «gwnst 

the church, vivimos enfirente de la i^esia. 
Among or between, entre; as, among M, ^etvtre to4o8^ 

between fhe two, entre §os -dos. 
At, ^ ; at the door, d la pueria ; Beaited«tl tadbfk, mnlbado 

d la mesa ; at irine o^elodk, d las nuent. 
At, for in, en; at church, en laighsia; sA ts&aiMn, ^ 

Londres; at home, en casa. 
At, for on, .en ; the best dish at table, d mefor pUeU en 

la mesa. 
At, for through, por; as, we went out at ilie window, 

saUmjos por ia ventana. 
Before, as opposed to after, dntes de ; bs, he w«lks before 

the king, viene dnies dd rey ; I shall arrP9« befone 

Christmas, UegarS dfdes de Na/eOad. 



248 RULBS OF BTYIIOIjOGT 

Befort^ opposed to behipd, ddanU cfe; as» sbe was «n 

her knees before the image, ella estaba de rodiUcu 

ddante de la itndgen* 
Behind* ddrat de } as, behind the Exchange, detrcu de 

la BoUa. 
Beneath, debaxo de; as, beneath the heavens, dd^axo 

dd cido. 
Beside, al lado de ; as, she was seated beside the queen. 

edaba sentada al lado de la rtyna. 
Between, or, betwixt. See Among. 
Beyond, moM aUd de ; as, beyond the temple, mas olid 

del t&nplo. See N. B.^ afler Above. 
By, par or de; as, he was sent by the captain, /u^ enm- 

ado par. el capitan ; virtue is beloved by the good^ j^ 

virtud es amada por or de hs buenos. See note a to 

Rule 115. 
By 9 for in, de; as, by day, de dia ; by night, de noche. 
By, for. close to, junto d ; as, the house is by the Tower, 

la casa eatd junto d la Torre, 
For, para ; as, this flower is for her, esia Jlar es pifra 

ella ; I have bought two horses for my coach, he 

eomprado doa cabaUoa para mi coche ; it cannot be 

denied, that for a man who has never been instructed 
• be explains himself well, ruo sepuede negar que para un 

hombreque tio ha sido instruidojamcts kl seexplicabien. 
For, meaning for the sake of, por ; as, he died for his ' 

country, murio por eu patria. 
For, in behalf o( par ; he pleaded for his father, abog& 

por iu padre. 
For, on account of, por,' he died for our sins, muni por 

nuestros pecados ; for this reason, por esta razon, 
:For, during, por ; as, I shaU go there for two months, 

irS aUd por dos meaes. 
For, in the room of, por ; I am here for him, estou qqui 

Li ■' 

por eL, 
For^ in exchange {or, por; I will give thee nly watch fer 

thy sword, te darb mi mv^strapor tu espeula ; I shall 

sdl the house for five hundred dollars, vendere la oma 

por quiiiienioa pesos. 
For, meaning to fetch, por ; he gfoes for bread, and I 

come for ^ine, vapor pari, y yo vengo por vmow 



AND SYNTAX. 249 

From, de; 1 come from Spain, vengo de Ettpana. 
N. B. From in computing distances is rendered by 
deade; as, there are six miles from London to Green- 
' wich, hay dos legtuis desde Londres d Greenwich; 
jQrom his birth antil now, deade su ncunmiento hcuta 
ahora. 
Id; or, into, en or por; as, in the summer, en el verano ; 
in the morning, por la manana ; put it into the closet, 
ponlo en d gavinete. 

N. B. Into after verbs of motion (except to enter) is 

rendered by d ; to go down into the cellar, baxar 

d la bodega ; he entered the church, entrS en la 

iglena. See also Rule 29, note c. 

Near, or, nigh, cerca de ; near the altar, cerca del attar,. 

Of, de; as, the seal of the letter, el seUo de la carta, a 

crown of gold, una corona de oro. 
On^ or, upon, sobre;* as, on, or, upon the chair, «o6re to 
siUa ; we spoke on, or, upon the subject, hablamos 
iobre la materia. 
On is also frequently rendered by en ; as, the dish is on 

table, el plato estd en la mesa. 
On^ after the verbs to subsist^ to feed, &c. is translated 
de ; as, he feeds on hopes, and she subsists on air, il 
Be alimenta de esperanzas, y ella se sustenta de ayre. 
N.B. O/i is never translated before the names of the 
days of the week, or of the month ; as, you came 
on the twenty-second, and I came oii Tuesday, 
vm. rtno d vdnte y dos^ y yo vine d Martes, 
Over, encima de ;* as, over the window, encima de la 
ventana ; the cloud is over the mountain, la ntUfe 
estd endma de la montana. 
OocTj through, jK>r; we travelled over the whole coun- 
try, viajamo$ por todo dpais. 
^und, or, around, al rededor de ; we walked round the 

town, nos paseamo» al rededor de la ciudad. 
Through, por; I passed through the Park, pose por d 

Parque. 
Through^ denoting the cause, is de ; he died through 
hunger, murid de hamhre. 

* See the author's Synooyms, page 86. 

m3 



ttO RULES or WtVMOLOGY 

nil, ot, «ii(il, ktuim ; kemUlt^oi'CmoewM to-floo«Ml^ 

no vendrd kada mumana. 
I^ 4 ; as, I delivered it to the owuec. Iq enikj^gui iU 

dwmo s he goes to Lo&doii, vmd LmAntL 
2*0, after fivm, and having the fiaae vegiisei^ 49» ; as, 

from door to door, de puerta en pueria. 
Towaida, kdci» ; towards the east; kdda d oarimie. 
Ujider,«fe6a0o* ^eor koMOi* «a, imder the luidge,4elMEJ» 

ddpuente; under this governmeiitv teapfl^^ego&Mwto* 
Wit^ «o» ; as, wiik tiw sword, con Ja etpadas with 

tnUdaess, con didxura, 
Wttiiin, den/ro de; aa, lie is viiim 4fae hoas^ es^ 

dentro de la coia* 
WMiottt, Hn ; as, he came without Ubb« t^me «i» . JiL 
WUkovJ^ as oppcMiite to within, fmara de;he was seated 

without the church, edaba .^eniado Jua^ dela i^etia. 

Ifi the foregoing list no notice has been taken -of the 
prepositions by whidi tibe English verbs are someliWies 
followed, and which seem as it were insepasable fiom 
Item i as, togd at^ io aid «^ io look for^ Mm, because 
in general these verbs and ^repoaitioiiB ai» eonstraed in 
Spanish by a verb akuie; as, okamurt mimar^ tooar« 
&C. Neither has any thhig been said iiespectiiig Eng- 
lish prepositions before the infinitive or partieiple, be- 
cause that has been already discussed in speaJoing of 
Verbal Eegimen aaid of the Spanish Gerund. 

Rule 140. PrepoBitims goverai tfie ofayective 
caHe;t as 

Me qnexo de tl^ I complsdn of l3iee. 

No puede vivir sin mi, He cannot live without tne. 
2% quieres ir conm\go^\T)io\x wishest to go witk 
pero yo no quiero ir me, but I do not wisli 
, contigOjt to go with thee. 

Note a. — The prepCKBitioHi m^ioi has the pecaliadty of beiiig jned 
«lone with a verb in its indicative or jubjuoLCtive mood ; a^^ ly 
creo, according to what I believe ; teyun hayan respondido, accotdiiig 
as they may have answered, &c. Entoncet el arnero, tegmt sope 
•on et Hempo, &c. Then the carrier, as f wai «ftera9xds ' ' 
(OU Bias, ch. 3.) 

* See the author's Synonyms, pu[e 5. 
t Sw KetOT « and & to &iile 48. 



jum «vwrAX« j2Sl 



ON CONJUNCTIONS. 

Having desmbed in the first part of this work 
the nature, properties, and distribution of Spanish 
eonjiaQctions, sxid eninnersted in note n to Rule 
. 133, those conjunctive expressions w'hich require 
the subjunctive mood after them, I «hall offer be^m 
a few obeenratiotts on some conjaactksfMi, it^at, <m 
account of the various meanings under which they 
fuee used in English, cannot be al^rays resolved 
ibto tiheir equivalents in Spanish. 

On But. 

Bui, it IS said, belongs both to the conjunc- 
tive as well as to the exceptive class of English con- 
junctions, its import as a conjunctive being " add" 
or *^ moreover^ QJiA as an exceptive ** unless'* or 
*^ without.*' Considering but in this light only, I 
should say that its equivalents in Spanish are in the 
first instance pero or mas, and in the second sino 
mr memos; nereitheless ^fi this, however, is not 
always liie case, it will be necessary to examine 
jDOire minutely tbe -dilEerent words for which htU is 
often substituted, giving previousiy two rules for 
the construing of Airf, either as a conjunctive or 
•exceptive €0iij>uactii0B, accocdiag to Uie imparts 
above meHtk)iied* 



Rule 141. The conjunction but^ mA bdng 
preceded by a negative, is expressed by pero or 
mas ; and a£b» aiiega4ive k is <xiBStndied sixH>^ as 

I am rich, but I am not To soy rico, pero, or, 

^PF7' ™^^ ^^ ^^ dichoso. 

He ia joat happy^ but ^» es dich^so^ smorico^ 

rich. 

They all wetit tinlikerj Ibdosjfueran aIld,jfcro, 



S62 RVLBS OF BTYMOIiOOT 

ill/ his brother arrived or, mas su hermano 

the first, Uegd el primero. 

They did not go on Mon- Nofueron el Lut^es, siiio 

day^ but on Tuesday^ elMdrtes, 

JWite «.-^t !• to be obierved, that ilthou^ m» is the moit pro- 
per to be uted after a negative, jpero or mat is preferable when the 
verb is repeated ; as, they did not go on Monday, Am/ they went on 
TVietday, no fiienm el lAmety pero or mas fitenm el Mariee. N. B. 
PefQ H someCiinct used as a substantive, and then it signifies defect ; 
as, c//a MO tiette pero, she hss no biemitk. 

RuLS 142. The exceptive but being preceded 
by an interrogative pronoun , or by a negative, is 
expressed sino ; ana not following a negative Is 
rendered m4nos : as 

Who said it but you ? ^ Quien lo dixo%\novm.f 

She eats nothing but Ella no come Bino/hUia. 

fruit,* 

She eats all but the rind^ Elia come todo m^nos la 

corteza. 

They all went thither TodosJueronaUdtniooB 

but his brother, su hermano. 

Note a.— ¥rhen the word bui is nsed as a sobstitnte for some other 
words, it is generally rendered in Spanish by the words which it 
itpreseats.-^l^xainple : 

He was hardly gone out hut (when) the house fell down, Jlpeitm 
kubo salido quando «e cap^ la case. 

But {if ii were not) for mo, he would die with oold, si no fueia 
par fnfj il ee nwriria de /Ho. 
. Bnttliatl mnk (if Idid ml thMikmt) it would vex thee, I wontd 
tell it thee, si yo no pensara que te moteetoMe^ le h dhria. 

There is no one but is (that ia not) a sinner, no Aoy itt j y M no que no 
tittkpeetuhr. 

He went no day into the country but he returned (tkalkerehamed 
mot) loaded, mit^riM iiAfui tU campo que no mlvi^ cargaJk, 

{have but (on/y) one servant, tengo solo mm eriado. 
came but {lc€me nal till) yesterday, no vine hasta 



... » Ith afmott needless lo observe that.niany of the fer^obf 
examples admit a different turn in the Spanish as well as in the 
English : thu? we might say, ella no come nuu, or no come nmda AAm^ 
quefruia^ she eats no' more, or she eats nothing more, than fruit, 4^e, 



AND SYNTAX. ' jtSS 

lliat meani no moM but (tkem) to tell me to go vmy, em *e qmirt 
their mas aue decirme que me vaya. 

I juii well aware that, in the last, as well as in some oAen, of the 
Aliegoing examples, but is veiy improperly used : nevertheless, the 
frequency with which such expressions occur in common discoune 
leems sufficient to sanction their introduction here. 

At is como : example ; black as pitch, negro oomo la 
pez. 

A9 being followed by to is expressed atl oomo : exam- 
ple ; lu he rewards yirtue, so he punishes vice, as! 
como premia la virtud^ asi casHga d vicio, 

vf# meaning when is quando : example ; we met her as 
we were going home, la encontramos quando ihamoe 
dcasa. 

N. B. For a$ and so used like adverbs, see Rule 26. 

Neither and nor are rendered by ni: example ; he will 
neither sell it nor give it, no quiere ni venderh ni darh. 

McUher at the end of a sentence is translated tampoco; 
as, nor I neither^ ni yo tampoco. N. B. When either 

; comes accompanied by a negative, it is translated like 
neither : example ; I will not see them, nor she either, 
yo no-quiero verlos, ni eUa tampoco. 

ttather* This adverb when used as an adversative con- 
junction is resolved into dnies or dntes hien: example ; 

^ ;I owe him. nothing, rather he owes me something, yo 

' ttD le dAo mtdOf Antes or dntes bien 61 me debe tdgoJ^ 

Whether is si : example ; tell me whether he will come 
or not, digame vm, si kl vendrd 6 no. 

Whether in phrases like the following is expressed que: 
example ; whether he come or not, I do not care any- 
thing, que venga 6 que no venga^ no seme da nada. 



ON INTERJECTIONS. 

Aniiiteijection^ as has been already observed^ is 

^hat part of speech which serves to express the 

different emotions and affections of the mind. The 

awards which may be considered as inteijedions in 

* See GoUoqeial Idiems^ Szeveisci^ page H2. 



\'. I 



9M aUJLBS OV BmMt^GT 



dU^oa^ ca, ^^s/u, Aa, he^ ho^ hola^ % /m^ ta^ taie. 

indigiJtttioD, and admiration^ and iSierefore maj be 
said to correspond with the English hey ! ah f 1 
Ito 1 bah 1 Dec. Ce, Ae, ha, he, bala, are nsed to 
call the attention, and are similar to hem, lo, Kp, 
bolla, &c. in English : hola is also used to express 
wonder, and he to demand a repetition of some- 
thii\g tliat bas been told us from a distance^ aiid 
which we ba^e not heard distinctly. The latter is 
sometimes denoted in English by the word what ! 

Ckii9, akiteiare the equivakats of ihucii^ jnum. 
Mm aerTeatoeiicomnigei/Wifiibeftimejttpfibaiwi 
pu it used like fob 1 imd to aad trnte toot cnpioyed 
like bait, bold, &c. Ilwre are also many cpcula- 
tory expressions, which are canmdered by some as 
inteijectiions^ such as^ quiia! awayl vivai bcma ! 
vcdgame Dios f Mess me 1 

KuLB 143. Adjectives employed as interjections 
require de before the noun to wHcb they are 
applied; as 

; Pebre de mi pmdr£ J Oh 1 my poor father ! 

/ Desdiehmda 4e n» maine ! Ohl my unhappy mo- 
ther 1 

J^/e a. — The interjection ay when used Eke the 'EogHsh woe, 
re^nires de before the fclUowing noun ; as, woe to tbeel woe to Ibem 
wbo4ie m Ibeir eint, fiie. ^ uy d»4if / oyAe nfmeihe que mm ertn 
en #Mf pecadot, &c. 

Note b. — ^The interjection ^te is used with the personal pronouns 
only, and always joined to the first objective case : as, ^/ela que vtene, 
lo she comes! Etetue'OqMi ^ fuerm de Oviedo, Behold me here,or» 
Lo here am I, already out c(f Oviedo. (Oil Blasy ch. 2.) 



JLHD STNITAX. fi56 



ON THE FIGURES OF SYNTAX. 



Figures of Syntax are a name given (to certaa& 
deviations from the strict observance of Ute rulea 
of syntax^ "Tirhicli aire sometimes allon^ed^ in order 
to enhance thebeantyor enei^ofthe expvessioo. 
These figures are eaUed Hypet^ton, JElUpsU, 
Pleonasm^ and Syllepsis. 

Hyperbaton is the figure by leliich we are per- 
mitted to invert the syiztaotlcal arrangement dl 
words : this figure admits of great variety, as may 
be seen by the following examples : Oustabanme 
mucho las dispntus, instead of. Las disputas me 
gustahan mucko. Here, as may be seen, the enb- 
ject foHows in lieu of precet^ng its own verii. 
Uievome a su x^asoj for, me UevS 4 sh cc^a: here 
the pronomined obJeetJiFe case m placed irfter the 
Terfo, instead of being put before, aooording to 
Rule 47. ISee also note 4X to this rule. 

Son tan felices tas prontitudes del ingtmo^ Ac, 
for. Las praniitudes del mgemo sen tan /e{ic£»-* 
Pa^earonla y repasearoida dekmie del mmlmimm 
iqne con grande atemeien la es4min4 4c pies d 
eabeza, m lieu of, Hekmie det mtdaiero qme hk 
exdmino con grande atendom^ 

Numerous othear examples wight he giv^ea t0 
-fifhow tiie vari(»is manner in wiaich the hyiperiutoa 
is used. It ought howevier to be abserved, iiiat m 
mLbcrtantive is never followed by its artiefe, aor is 
a pn^eaition e^er preceded by its regimen. It is 
aamisaible in poetry' to place a noun governed 



256 RULBS OF KTYlffOLOGT 

before the noun which governs it ; bat never in 
prose: as^ 

De ianta can/usian, no las arenas 
Del padre tajo oyrdn los tristes ecos 
iVt del Famoso Betis las ottvas. 

Don Quixote^ b. ii. ch. 14. 

Ellipsis is a figure which permits the suppres- 
sion of one or more words. It may affect all the 
parts of speech : as^ no me hartaba de verle (de) 
tocarle y (de) retocarle ; (here the preposition is 
twice omitted) : y me did tantas gracias como yo 
(dl) espolazos 6 la mula ; (here the verb is under- 
stood) : si J este maravilloso secretOy queyo iecomu* 
nico y (que) la naturaleza no pudo ocultar. ( Yo) 
orden4 que le sangrasen sin misericordia y (que) 
le diesen de beber agua caliente en abundancia. 
In the first of the two latter examples the rela- 
tive is omitted ; and in the second the pronoun 
and the conjunction are suppressed, 
. Pleonasm allows the introduction of some redun- 
dant words : as, lo vipor mis ofos, for^ lo vi only ; 
fo escrihi de mi mano, for only lo escribi. Yo nds^ 
moy tu propiOf instead of sayings yo, tu only. The 
double introduction of the objective case used in 
Spanish is through this figure : as^ Ml me quiere & 
mi ; yo te di el libro d ti; nosotros le hemos escriio 
d /l, &c. instead of^ ^l me quiere ; yo te di el libra i 
nosotros le hemos escrito. 

Syllepsis permits a species of false concord, 
enabling us to make words agree not according to 
their real import^ but according to what we make 
them represent : thus any title, which by its ter- 
mination is of the feminine gender, whenever it is 
applied to a man, will have an adjective, &c. in its 
ma;s(;uline termination : as, vuestra majestad es 

* Thiti figure teems to be a species of the ellipsis. 



AND fiTNTAX 



257 



justo; vuestra alteza sea sermdo; Jestan vms. 
buenos caballeros ? — See note b to Rule 23. In like 
manner a collective noun in the singular is some- 
times coupled with a verb in the plural: as, entraron 
en la ciudad una mulHtud ; una trapa salieron al 
eticuentro. See note a to Rule 1 10.- 

These are the figures which are admitted in the 
Spanish language. It is hardly possible to lay 
down any rules for their application. Observation 
seems the most effectual means of acquiring the 
right use of them : and they have been introduced 
here in order only that learners may not be misled, 
in the course of their reading, by supposing inac- 
curate or imperfect any sentence wherein some of 
the figures are employed. 



APPENDIX 



A CONCIfifi JkNO USEFUL VOCABUUUir OF 
TBE MOST NECaSfiBA&Y MTOfififi. 



Of the Universe in general. 



The universe, d univeno. 
the world, d mundo. 
the elements, lot dementoa, 
the sky, djirmamento, 
a scar, una estrdla. 
a planet, unplaneta.* 
a comet, un comda. 
a constellation* una conde^ 

lacUmm 
the sun, e/ «o/. 
the sunbeams, 2b« ra^o« dd 

the moon, 2a luna, 
moonlight^ daro de luruh 
new moon, luna nueva, 
full moon, luna Uena. 
first quarter, hma credente, 
last quarter, /una men* 

j^Kante. 
an eclipse, un edipse. 
a storm, una horra&ca, 
a tempest, una tempestad. 



the thunder, fo» truenot. 
a clap of thunder, un ^ru« 

eno. 
the lightning, los rddrnpa- 

gos. 
a flash of lightning, un re- 

Idmpago. 
a thunderbolt, un rayo. 
a fog, una nie6Za. 
a mist, una neblina. 
the rain, la Uuvia. 
the rainbow, d arco »m« 
a shower, un aguacero* 
the snow, to fiieoe. 
the hail, eZ granizo. 
the ice, e2 j^e/o. 
a frost, una hdada* 
a hoar frost, una &carcha. 
the morning dew, d rocto. 
the evening dew, d sereno, 
mankind,e/g:^nero humano, 
a creature, una criatura. 



TOCABVUUIT. 



SB9 



Terms rdatmg 

A globe, un globo, 

a sphere, una etfera. 

a hemisphere, un AemufH^ 

ria, 
the horizon, d borizanie. 
a degree, un grado. 
the longitude, la longUud. 
the latitude, la laiitud. 
the cardinal points, lo9 vi" 

eiUos cardinale^. 
the north, d norte, 
the south, dsur. 
the east, d este, 
the west, d oeste. 
a dimate, un dima. 
a region, una region. 
a continent, axn canismenie, 
an island, i^rui ts/a. 
apeninsDila, itnapeninmila. 
an isthmus, wn it^mcu 
a eape^ t<n ca6o. 
an empire f tm Hmperio. 
a kingdom, ten reyno. 
a republic, «0r» n^tfrficff. 
a colony, una ooltonia. 
a country, unpo/g^s, 
a province, una provmcia, - 



to the JSariL 

a shire, un condado. 

ttmountain, una montaSom 

a mount, un moait, 

a hill, un coUado. 

an acclivity, una cwatOm 

a valley, un voile. 

An abyss, un abitmo, 

a desert, un desiertou 

a plain, una llanura, 

m to, i£tta laguna. 

the shore, /a ribera. 

the coast, ^a cos^c;. 

a rock, unapena, 

a stone, unapiedra. 

a bridge, vti puenie. 

a causeway, una cdlzada* 

a ford, im voclo. 

the highway, eZ camtno 

710m* 
a path, una wnda, 
a ditch, mnfm. 
gravel, xxuoe^o^ m* 
sand, arena, f. 
dust, pic^vOj m. 
clay, 'iMnvo, m. 
mire, ciejw^ m* 
mud, /o(fo^ m. 



Terms relatimg to the fFater^ 



IRie -ocean, el ocecmo, 

a sea, unmar, 

an arm ef Ihe «ea, tm 

^giM,tmgolfi. 

a bay, vna6aAfa. 

« TOftd Cfor-i^hips), «BfM r«- 

a ehamiel, un canal, 
ft strait, un egtrecho. 



the tide, ^0 marea. 
high water, pleamar 
low water, bajeamar. 
the current, /a 
a wave, i^tus onAf. 
the billows, ku «te. 
a harbour, tm pua%o 
a lake, -»n la^o, 
a river, t«n no. 
a broQ^, itfn wnroy^m 



200 



APPXNDIX. 



a pond, un edanque. 
a spring, un mananiial. 



a well, un pozo. 

a fountain, unafiufUe 



Tenm relating to the Fire. 

the ashes, hu cemzcu. 
the embers, el rescoldo. 
. the soot, d koUin. 
a firebrand, un tizon. 
a rocket, un cohete. 
a bonfire, una hoguera. 



Fire, dfiugo. 
the blaze, la llama. 
a spark, una chispa. 
the smoke, el humo, 
live coals, brasas or oc- 
cuas. 



Terms relating to the Air. 

The air, dayre, 

the atmosphere, la atmos^ 

fera. 
the wind, el viento. 
a gale, un viento fresco. 



a vapour, un vapor. 
a cloud, UTia nube. 
a whirlwind, un torbdlino 
a hurricane, U7i Aurocan. 
a calm, una ccUma. 



Of Time and its Divisions. 



Eternity, la etemidad. 
time, dtiempo. 
a date, unafecha. 
a century, un sigh, 
a year, an ano, 
half-year, fnedio*aRo. 
a quarter, un trimestre. 
a month, un mes. 
January, Enero. 
February, Fehrero, 
March, Marzo. 
April, Abril. 
May, Mayo. 
June, Junio. 
July, JvUo. 
August, Agosto. 
SeptepDiber, Setiemhre. 
October, Octubre. 
November, Novienibre. 
December, Diciembre. 
a fortnight, quince dias. 



a week, una semana. 
a day, un dia, 
Monday, liunes. 
Tuesday, Mdrtes. 
Wednesday, Mikrcoks. 
Thursday, JuMves. 
Friday, Vikmes, 
Saturday, Sdbado. 
Sunday, Domingo. 
an hour, una hora. 
half an hour, media-^ora. 
a quarter of an hour, wn 

quarto de hora, 
one o'clock, la una. 
three o'clock, las trts, 
half afler six, ku seis y me* 

dia. 
a quarter after nine, las 

nueve y quarto. 
a quarter to eleven, las once 

mSfios quarto. 



VOCABULARY. 



261 



a minute, un minuto. 
a second, un segundo, 
the dawn, d cUba. 
morning, manana. 

Remarkable Days and 

Ncwyear's Day, Dia de 

Ano Nuevo. 
Twelfth Day, la Epifanta, 
Twelflhtide, la Pascua de 

Reyes. 
Shrovetide, d CamavcU. 
Shrove Tuesday, Mdrtes 

de Carnestolendas, 
Ash Wednesday, Miircoles 

de Ceniza, 
Palm Sunday, Domingo de 

Ramos, 
Good Friday, Vikmes San- 
to. 
Easter Sunday, Domingo 

de Remrreccion. 
Easter time, Pascua de 

Resurreccion. 



noon, medio-dia. 
aflemoon, tarde, 
night, noche. 
midnight, media-noche. 

Seasons of the Year. 

Whitsuntide, Pascua de 

Espiritu Santo. 
the Dog-days, la Canicula, 
Christmas Day, Dia deNa- 

vidad. 
Christmas time, Pascuas de 

Navidad. 
the Seasons, las Estaciones. 
the Spring, la Primavera. 
the Summer, d Verano. 
the Autumn, d Otono. 
the Winter, d Hibierno. 
a holiday, un dia de fiesta. 
a working-day, un dia de 

trabajo. 
a fast day, undiade ayuno. 
Lent, la Quaresma. 
the eve, la vlspera. 



Of the Human 

The body, d cuerpo. 
a limb, un miembro. 
a bone, un hueso, 
a nerve, un nervio^ 
a vein, una vena. 
an artery, una arteria, 
the bloo^ la sangre. 
the skin, d pdl^o. 
the head, la cabeza* 
the brain, d cdebro. 
the brains, los sesos. 
the hair, d pdo. 
the forehead, lajrenie. 
a temple, una sien. 



Body and its Parts. 

an eye, un qjo. 

an eyebrow, una cefa. 

an eyelash, una pestana» 

an eyelid, un pdrpado, 

the eyeball, la nina dd ojo, 

the nose, la nariz. 

the nostrils, las ventanas de 

la nariz. 
an ear, una orefa. 
the mouth, la boca. 
a lip, un labio, 
the tongue, lalengua, 
a front tooth, un diente. 
an eye tooth, un colmiUo. 



APFBKIMX. 



a back toodl* fnwuiiida. 
the cheeks* te» memilm^ 
the jaw, la quiafoda, 
the gwnMf im emcitm^ 
the chin, la barba. 
the bcatdt Ab 6«r6ou 
the neck, d cueUo. 
the bosom* e2 9ena, 
the breast, dpecko. 
tha stomach* e2 estSmago^ 
the pit of the stomaeh* /a 

&4ioa dd eatomago. 
the shoulders, /m Aombros. 
the back, /a« espaldas^ 
aa arm, «» brazo. 
the elbow, «2 co(fa. 



the handy^ Im iiuino* 

the wjrist*. to maBfL'ta^. 

the thumb* d deda- pmiigtui 

a finger, icn. cfedfe. 

the nails, Uu unas, 

the toes^ lot AdoM de lo$ 

pie$, 
afoot* unpie. 
a leg**, una piema. 
the knee, la rodUCa. 
a thigh, un mttdo, 
the heart, d corazoru 
the liver, e^ kigado. 
theFungff, los pulmonet. 
a rib, una oostiUa, 
the joints, Aar* cojfuniuraM. 



Of the Skmt and its feseulties^ 



The soul* d alma^ £ 
the memory, lamemoria. 
the understanding* d en-- 

tendimienio. 
the will, la voltmkuL 
desire, el deseo, 
gprief, la peacDdumhre, 
hope^ la etperanza. 



hatred, d odio, 
jealousy, los zdot, 
Joy» d gozo. 
toye, d amor. 
pride, la soberbia, 
vanity, la vantddd. 
anger, la cSlera. 
knowledge, dconodmierUo^ 



2%e Illve Senses. 



The sigM, kz vkta, 
the hesriiig; d oido. 
the smeHttig, el oifatf^^ 



the tasHhig, dguzio. 
the feeling, d iacto^ 



Of 

A snt, wn 
a coat, una ctuoea. 
a waistcoat, loui clii^ns; 
breeches, ccdzimefk 
stockings, mediiem, 
garters, ligca. 
shoes, zapetiM. 
buddes, hebUlast, 



Afparel worn hy Meru 

boots, hcfku^ 
leather gaiters, h^tmm. 
cloth gaiters^ palamtm^ 
stock, cQfikriin, 
cravat* eorftate: 
ruffles, los vuelbsi, 

a poeS»l, ujut fidtrifumrm 

a shirty 



VOCiBU&ABSr. 



do. a snuff-box, tmO' eaxa> de 

a hat, un sombrero^ Mmeo, 

a jgmorAy, un eaptuiau. a cane, un boston, 

gloves, lo8 guantes^ an* vmlto^ia, wtpatugmaBi, 

a cocked ha^ wt iombreraf a purse^tma bolm^ 

detT€9pioo8^ 

Of the fPeariiag Apparel worn by Women.- 

Tbe- unefer petMcoat, el zoh lace, enecuBe: 

galefo, pins, al/ileres, 

a white npptir petticoat^ a pincnshion, tm mxrko. 



iinmwKgwBBS^ 
a black petticoat, una soya* 
a silk pettiooat, tm guar^ 

dapiegi 
a hoop^ peifticoftt, un ton^ 

a plain cap, wt gorro^ 
a dw8» ei4p, una eaaojuu 
false hair, j^eZo postkta^ 
the stays, /a coMUa^ 
the lace, e^ corcfon^ 
the tag^ d harrde, 
a gown, una bidets 



earrings, los zarciShs. 
bracelets, los brazukter. 
a ring, un aniUo» 
a guferd , t»MB wr^a. 
a ^Mi, un <3^<s7ivbo* 
abomiet,. un 6oiie#Ui9w 
a spenecs,, vnjubon, 
a shawlr «a c^« 
a mantle, uneapaUlk^ 
a ttppety una paiaiiina^ 
a veil, t£n vdo. 
a muff, M» man^iviiou 
clogs, los ckapineak 



an aproB» un ddaniat^ 

N.B. The rest of women's apparef bears the same 
name as that of men. 



Cf Mankind 

A man,. ii9t kombre. 
an old man, un vi^o* 
an elderly man, un anda^ 

no,* 
a woman, una muger* 
a baehelor, un soltero^ 
a maid, una donzella* 
a boy, un muchacho,* 
a lad, un mozito.* 
a male child, un niSo,* 



in general* 

a sucking child, un mno 

de Uta,. 
the husband, d maridom, 
the wife, la muger^ 
a widower,, %m taudb.* 
a male orphan, un huirfi 

now* 

an heir, un heredero,* 
the heir at law, d mofforoi 

go.* 



9B4: 



APPSMDIX. 



the great grandfather* el 

Maofrtiefo.* 
a great grandson, un bit- 

nieto* 
a grandfather, un ahudo.* 
a g^ndson, un nieto.* 
a father, un padre. 
a mother, una madre. 
a son, un hijo.* 
a stepfather, un padrcU' 

tro, 
a stepmother, una mO' 

drastra, 
a father-in-law, un sue- 

gro. 



the son-in-law, el ycmo. 
the daughter-in-law, la 

nuera, 
the hrother-in-law, el cufSa- 

do* 
an uncle, un tio,* 
a nephew, un tobrino.* 
a brother, un AermaTio.* 
a cousin, unprimo,* 
first cousin, primo* per» 

mano* 
god-father, padrino, 
god-mother, madrina, 
god-sou, ahijado.* 
a relation, un parienU.* 



N. B. The names which are marked thus* change the 
last letter into an a when they are applied to females. , 

Names of Individuals according to their Ranky 

Profession^ or Employment. 
The Pope, el Papa. a marchioness, una mar^ 

a cardinal, un cardenal. qiuza. 

an archbishop, un arzo^ a lord, un lor. 
bispo. a lady, una senora. 



a bishop, un obispo, 

a dean, tm dean. 

a canon, un canSnigo. 

a vicar, un vicario. 

a rector, un cura. 

a curate, un teniente de 

eura. 
an emperor, un empera' 

dor. 
an empress, una empera- 

triz. 
a king, un rey. 
a queen, U7ia reyna. 
a prince, un principe. 
a princess, unaprincesa. 
an earl, un conde. 
a countess, una condeaa. 
a marquis, un marques. 



a gentleman, un cabaUero, 

a lady, ima dama. 

the mayor, el corregidor. - 

ajudge, iinji'z^ez. 

a justice of the peace, un 

alcalde. 
a coimsel, un ahogado. 
a solicitor, un procurador. 
a notary, un escrihano. 
a physician, un mSdico. 
a surgeon, un cirujano. 
an apothecary,un boticario. 
a chemist, U7i quimico. 
a druggist, un droguiata. 
a merchant, un annerciante^ 
a mercer, un mercader, 
^n exchange broker, un 

corrcdor. 



VOCABULARY. 



265 



a shop-keeper, un tendero, 
a clerk, un escribiente. 
a tailor, un sastre. 
a shoemaker, un zapatero,, 
a hatter, un sornbrerero, 
a butcher, un carnicero, 
a baker, un panadero, 
a grocer, un especiero. 
a brewer, un cervezero. 
a carpenter, tm carpintero, 
a. mason, un canter o. 
a bricklayer, un albanU. 
a locksmith, un ce'rragero, 
a faiTier, un albeiiar. 
a watchmaker, un rdoxero. 



a pastrycook, un pastdero, 
a confectioner^ un corifitero, 
a hairdresser, un pduquero, 
a glazier, un vidriero, 
a pajnter, un pintor. 
a bookseller, ^n librero. 
a printer, un impresor, 
an engraver, un grabador, 
a cobbler, un zupatero de 

viejo. 
a porter, un mandaderp, 
a letter-carrier, un cariero, 
the crier, el pregonero, 
the executioner, el verdugo. 



Names given to Persons according to their Native 

Place, 



An European, un Europeo, 
an Asiatic, un Asiano, ' 
an African, un Africano, 
an American, un Amen- 

cano. 
an Englishman, un Ingles, a native of Malaga, un 



aValentian,M/i Falenciano, 
a Catalonian, un Catalan 
a Biscayan, un Vizcaino. 
a native of la Mancha, un 



Manchego. 



a Scotchman, un Escoces, 
an Irishman, un Irlandes. 
a Spaniard, un EspanoL 
a native of Cadiz, un Ga- 

ditano. 
a native of Seville, un Sc' 

vUlano. 
a native of Madrid, un 

Madrileno, 
a native of. Xerez, un Jfe- 

rezano, 
a native of Port St. Mary, 

un Porteno, 



Malagueno, 
a native of Granada, un 

Granadino, 
a Castillian, un Castdlano. 
e native of Asturias^ U7i 

Asturiano, 
a native of Gallicia, un 

Gallego. 
a native of Navarre, un 

Navarro, 
a native of Arragon, un 

A rr agones, 
anAndalusian, unAndcUur, 



a native of Rota, un JRo- a Voriug;vLeseyUnPorivguez^ 
ieno. a Frenchman, un Frances, 

a native of Estremadura, a native of Flanders, un 
un Estremeno, Flamenco. 

N 



M9nMBlX. 



WK ftftUan^ nil MkdioHo. 
a Neafolitut^ un NapcU- 

a Genoese, fi;t Gijuhrmo* 
a native of Geneva, un 

Gtno9§8, ' 
a Swias^ »» Suizo^ 
m German, un Akman* 
OH Aastnaii, if a Auatriam. 
a Saxon, un Saxon. 
a Bavarian, un Edvaro. 
a Dutchman, un Holandes, 
a Bohemian, «;i Bokemio. 
a Hungarian, 7tn Hungaro, 
a Prussian, u?i Prusiano, 
a Pole, M/i Polaco, 
a Dane, un Dinamarquea. 
a Swede, t^n iSi£eca. 



a MaacomteyUnMuwmaiUik 
a Ruanaa^ urn &iso. 
a Greek, un Griegq^ 
a Turk, un Turco, 
a Persian, un Perttu 
a Chinese, un China, 
a Carthaginian, «n Corto* 

gines,, 
an Arabian, un Arahe. 
au Egyptian, k» Egipdo^ 
an Algerine, un Algdmo, 
an Indian, un Indio^ 
a Moor,'un itforo. 
a Negro, «n Negro. 
a Creole, «n CfioLUi. 
a Mountaineer, un Monta* 

nes, 
a Highlander, un Serrano, 



Of a City and its Parts. 



A city, una ciudad. 

a town, una v'dla. 

a village, un lugar. 

a hamlet, ?£na 0^ea. 

the suburbs, los arrabalea. 

a street, una caUe. 

a lane, un callejon. 

a square, una plaza. 

the kennel, eZ cfl«o. 

Ite market, d mercado* 

the fish-market, lapescade" 

ria» 
the flesh-market, Za cami' 

€erug. 
the bread-market,iaj9ana- 

deria. 
the riaughteriiouse, e^ mo- 

teiffro. 
a buUdlngr un edificio* 
a palace, tin pakmo. 



a bottse, una casa. 

the townhou&e, /a casa con^ 

ndoriai. 
a parish.. unapmrrSguia. 
the playhouse, to coms de 

mMnedias. 
the stage, e/ teairo. 
the scenes, Zo« ftaa^'^fenrar. 
the pit, la luneta. 
a box, unpalco. 
amoaHiteffy,un monasierio^ 
a convent, un connejiJkK 
an university, una unaiwM* 

dad, 
a college, un €d&^^ 
an academy, unaaoitdesnia^ 
aa hospital, un AespttoL 
a madhouse, una casa de 

hcoi. 
a prison, una edyetL 



VeCABl7I.A]IY. 






a hotels unafbnda. 
a eook-shop, umjlgon, 
ait ran, uue^ po9€tda, 
the Exchange, la Boka. 
the Cttstomhonse, ImAdn- 

CLnct, 
the Admiralty, dAlmiran' 

tazgo, 

a shop, t^na tienda, 
a ehnrch, u»€9 igksia. 



achapelftfea8t»«iM iayi« ig 

cfe parrSqMm* 
th^ PiMst-office, fil CufTfiow 
SB office, mMi^^Seuuk. 
a countinghooae, im. cvri- 

a warehouse, un akmaceau 
a nianufiMHMNry,i£fta/SI&rtcc. 
a woffk^op^ un taMer. 
a bey Vschool, tma eacuda, 
a girFs-schoel, una escueha 
denina9 



Of a House and iU Divisions. 



The ground-^oor,^/ cpiario 

a story, un alto, 

the first-floor, el primer 

piso, 
the porch, elportoL 
the court, eLpaiio^ 
the stains, /a^ escalercB^. 
a step, t^n esccdon,. 
the gditerieS) /«» corredores. 
a room, un quarto^ 
the dining-room, c^ come- 

cftw, 
a parlour, una uda. 
the drawing-roooi,, e2 ev- 

a bed- room, t^na alcoba, 
an ante-chamber^ auM ca- 
ticdmara. 



a dressing-room, un ^ca» 

dor, 
a closet» U7Z retreie, 
the pantry, /a despensa^ 
the kitchei^ Za cocina, 
a cupboard, t/n^r cdhacencL 
u garret, 2£a dessan, 
an observatery,tt/imira(2of ^ 
a tiled roof, te/i texado. 
a wkidow, u»a t?ento7U2. 
a balcony^ ua batcon. 
a door, wna puerta, 
the knocker, e2 aldabon. 
the threshold, eZ um5ra^ 
the cellar, la bodega. 
the 8table> Za cabaUeriza. 
the coach-house, Za cochera, 
the garden, eljardin. 
the park, cZ parque. 



Of Household Furniture^ 

A bedstead, imep ornMRdK- a Hock-mattress, %n eoi* 

ra de cama. chon de lana, 

a feather-bed, wn phemon. a pillow, tma aknohadm^ 
a mattres?, tm xergon, a sheet, una Ml6«na; 

n2 



268 



APPENDIX. 



a pillow-case, una funda 

de ahnohada. 
the blankets, las Tnantas, 
the counterpane, la colcha. 
a chair, una silla. 
a table, una mesa, 
an easy chair, un sillon, 
a sofa, un canapS, 
the curtains, las cortinas, 
the carpet, la alfbmbra, 
a bookcase, un estante. 
a bureau, una papelera. 
a writing-desk, un escritorio. 



the sideboard, el aparador 

a mirror, un espejo. 

a chandelier, una arana. 

a pianoforte, unfortepiano, 

a .wardrobe, guardaropa, 

a cabinet, un gabinete, 

a screen, un hiomho, 

a trunk, un bahut. 

a box, una cojca, 

a bureau drawer^ una gave* 

la, 
a table drawer, un caxon. 



Of the TahUy Sfc. 



The table, la mesa. 

the tablecloth, el mantel. 

a napkin, una servilleta. 

a knife, un cuchillo. 

a fork, un tenedon 

a spoon, una cuckara, 

a saltcellar, un salero. 

a plate, un plato. 

a sauce- tureen, una salsera. 

the cruets, Za« ampolletas. 

the pepper-box, c/ pim^n- 

tero. 
the mustard-pot, eZ mjosta- 

zero. 
a glass, 1^71 V£»o. 
a decanter, una botella. 



a jug, unjarro. 

a table-service, «a servicio 

de m£ca. 
a tea-service, izti servido 

de te. 
the teapot, la tetera. 
a coffee-pot, wwa cafetera, 
a chocolate-pot, «w chocO" 

latero. 
the mill, eZ molinillo. 
a sugar-basin, cZ azitquero. 
the milk'pot, Za Zcza cZc Za 

leche. 
a cup, t/na Za.fff. 
a saucer, un platillo. 



Of Meat and Drink. 



Flesh, came. 

boiled meat, came cocida. 

roasted meat, came asada. 

fish, pescado. 

beef, vaca, 

mutton, camera, 

bacon, tocino. 



veal, temera. 
venison, venado. 
Iamb, cord^ro. 
ham, jamon. 
game, caza. 
a chicken, un poUo, 
a fowl, una gaUbuu 



VOCABULARY, 



269 



a turkey» un pavo. 

a pig^eon, un pichon. 

a partridg^e, una perdiz, 

a pheasant, unfaymn, • 

a duck^ unpato. 

a goose, un ganso, 

eggs, hueoos, 

sauce, salsa. 

the vegetabl es, las verduras. 

the pickles, los escabeckes, 

salt, sal, 

pepper, pimienta, 

mustard, mostaza, 

oil, azeite, 

vinegar, vinagre. 

pudding, pudiii, 

the first course, el primer 

cuhlerto, 
the second course, el segun- 

do cuhierto, 
bread, pan. 
new bread, pan fresco. 
stale bread, pan duro. 
wine, vino. 
red wine, vino tinto, 
white wine, vino bianco. 
salad, ensalada. 
cheese, queso, 
butter, maiiteca. 
beer, cerveza. 
table-beer, cerveza floxa. 
water, a^ia. 
a meat-pie, un pastel. 
a fish-piC; una empanada. 



a mince-pie, una costrada, 
a fruit-pie, u?ia torta. 
the dessert, los postres, 
grapes, uva^^ f. 
melons, melones, m. 
^'mes, pinas, f. 
oranges, naranjas, f. 
pears, perasy f. 
apples, manzanasy f. 
peaches, melocotones. 
apricots, damascoSy m. 
walnuts, ?iueces, f. 
filberts, avellanasy f. 
almonds, almendras^ f. 
raisins, pasas, f. 
blanc manger, manjar blan»- 

CO. 

jellies, jaleas. 

tea, ^^. 

coflfee, cfl/tf. 

chocolate, chocolate. 

cream, na^a. 

milk, /ecAe. 

loaf-sugar, azucar depilon. 

moist-sugar, azucar terda' 

do. 
toast, tostada, 
brandy, aguardiente. 
rum, ron. 
punch, ponche. 
ntgixs^ Sangria. 
orgeat, orchaia. 
lemonade, limonada. 



870 



USEFUL FAMILIAR DIALOGUES. 



Explanation of the Marks of Reference employed 
in the following Dialogues. 

metDs obtervation; R, ruk; the small italics Rfer to the boIm ; 
figures after R. denote the n umber of the nile^and after any other 
letter they refer to the page. 

N. B. Where figures are parted by a star, those on the left refer to 
the page, and those on the right correspond with a similar figian 
printed in the body of the page, 

I. To accost y inqidre after healthy and take lem^e. 

Good morning, gentlemen. Buenos dias, cc^aUeros^ R. 

21. 
A good morning to you. Tengalos, vm. muy 5«eno», 

R. 46. 
Madam, I wish you a good Bue7ias iardes tenga vm., 

afternoon. senora^p, 134. 

Good nigh^ sir. Buenasnoches,5e»or,ft.di. 

1 wish you a good night. Buenos se las di JOm & 

vm. R. 51, c. 
How do you do ? . 6 Como estd vmf 

Very well, at your service. Bueno, paraservir d vm. R. 

39, a. 
And you, how do you do ? ^ Y vm,y como lopoM? 
So so, or, But BO so. Asi asi, or, Talqual. 

How is your mother ? ^ Como estd su maire ^ 

vm. ? O. lis. 
She is not very well. No est& mvy buena^ R. 96. 

She is rather indisposed. "EhiAalgoindispuesta^ R.96. 
How is all your family ? ^ Como estd su familia de 

vm.? O. 118. 
They are all well except Todos buenos m^nos mi her^ 

my sister. mana. 

What ails her ? <J Que tien^ ? 



She has a cough. Tiene tos. 

She has a yiolfi»t oold. Est& mnnft^friada^ R. 9§. 

I am exceedk^ly sorry Ibr Lo siento infinito^ R. 5l« «• 

it. 
Does she keep hep bed ? i Est& en cama ? R. 103. 
No, sir, she is ki the par- No, ^mor, esid en la sala^ 

lour. ibid. 

She is just gone out. Acaba de saUr, R. 131, a. 

I should be happy to see Me alegraria mucho de ver- 

her. la, R. 116, jA. 

She win return presently. Volverd pronto,* 
I have no time to see her No tengo tiempo de verla 

to-day. hoy, R. 131, d, 

I must go to SL Jameses Es precko que vaya d l» 

Square. Plaza de Santiago, R. 17. 

Do not go so soon. No se Vcaya vm. tanproiUat 

O. 203. 
Stop awhile. Quedese vm. un ra to, p. 1 1 , 

*1. 
Indeed I cannot. Deveras no puedo. 

Are you in great haste ? i Estd vm. muy depriesa ? 

R. 105. 
Yes, sir, I have a great deal Si, senor, tengo mucho que 

to do. Aacer, R. 108. 

I came only to inquire how Solo vine parapregun^arci)«> 

you all were. mo estaban vms», 0. 234 

I thank you for this visit. Agradezco d vm. esta viaiia, 

R. 118. 
Gentlemen, your most obe- Senores, 6. la obedienciia d^ 

dient. vttw., R. 1. 

Madarr, your most humble Senora, a los pies de vm^ 

servant. ibid. 

Your servant* sir. Servidora de vm,. cabaUertu 

Give my respects to your De vm. muchas expresiones 

mother. de mi parte t su uiadr^ 

R. 118. 
Remember me to your sis- Muchas memoriasd su her* 

ter. mana de vm., p. 119.. 

Good-by. Quedese vm. con Dios. 



^tf-^m-m^ 



Ste theanUuff*! Synonyms, page 3 L 



272 APPENDIX. 

Good-by to you. Vaya vm, con Dios. 

Till we meet again. HaUa la vuta^ 

Farewell. Que vm, h pose bien. 

Adieu* Adios, 

IL To ask a Favour. 

Somebody knocks at the Algimo llama d la pueria, 

door. R. 78. 

See who knocks. Ve quien llama, R. 59. 

Who is there? ^ Quien est& ahl ? R. 103. 

A friend. Ge?ite de paz, 

Sir» it is a gentleman. Senor^ es un cabal lero^ R. 

99. 
Whom does he inquire for ? i Por quien pregunta ? R. 

lis. c. 
For YOU. Por rwi., R. 72. 

Show him in. Que pase adelante, p. 203. 

Your serN'ant, sir. Servidor de vm , caballero. 

Sir, I am yours. Senor^ yo lo soy de vm., 

R. 109. 
I come to solicit a favour. Vengo & solicitar una gra- 

da, O. 222. 
You may command me. Mande vm. quanto guste, 

p. 205, *1. 
Do me the favour to send Hdgame vm. el favor de 
this letter to your bro- mandar esta carta a 9u 
ther. Aermano (Zevm., R. 131, 

d. 
I will do it with pleasure. Lo hare con mucho gusto^ 

R. 51, €. 
You may rely on being Cuentc vm. con que. sera 

obeyed. obedecido, R. 23, b. 

Sir, I am very much obliged Senor, viva vm. muchos 

to you. anos, R. 21, 6. 

You are very welcome, sir. Para scrvir d vm. cahcd- 

hro^ O. 234. 
When will your brother re- ^ Quando volverfi. & Lon- 
tum to London ? dres su hermano de vm. ? 

O. 222. 
Has he been long gone to 6 Ha mucho que se fa^ & su 
his villa? quinta? R. 117. 



DIALOOUBS. 



273 



He has been there three 
months. 

He will not come back till 
the end of November, 
or the beginning of De- 
cember. 

I shall come and see him 
ailer I know that he is 
in London. 

I will send you word imme- 
diately after he arrives. 

I shall be much obliged. 

UI. Concerning the 

What o'clock is it ? 
Do me the favour to tell 
me what it is o'clock. 

It is very near twelve. 
It u one o'clock. 
It has not struck two. 
It is a quarter after three. 
Half an honr past four. 
A quarter to- six. 
Twenty minutes after eight. 
Fi ve-and-twenty minutes to 

nine. 
It struck ten just now. 

It is about eleven. 
It is striking eleven. 

The clock strikes. 
I don't hear it strike. 
Look at your watch. 
It goes too fast. 
It goes too slow. 
It does not go. 
It is down. 
Wind it up. 



Hace tres meaes que est& 
alld, O. 200. 

No volverd hasta fines de 
Noviembre 6 principios de 
Diciembre, p. 202, *J. 

VendrtJ a verle *despues 
que sepa que estd en Lon.' 
dres, O. 222. 

Luego* que llegue se la 
mandare d decir d vm. 

Lo estimare mucho. 

Time of the Day. 

^ Que horaes? 

Hdgame vnu el favor de 

decirme que hora e«, R. 

131, d. 
Van k dar las doce^ O. 222. 
Es la una. 

No han dado las dos. 
Son las tres y quarto. 
Las quatro y media, 
liojs seis menos quarto. 
Las ocho y veinte minutos. 
Las nueve menos veinte y 

dnco minutos, 
Acaban de dar las diez^ R.. 

131, a, 
Cerca de las once^ p. 246. 
Las once estan dando, R., 

104. 
Da el reloXy p. 195, *1.. 
No le oygo dar. 
Mire rmi. su relox, 
Adelanta, 
Atrasa, 
No anda. 
Estd parado. 
Delevm, cuerda. 



* See the aulbor's Synonyms, page 165. 

n3 



274 



A#PMM1M9L 



IV. Concerning the Sinte (f H^ fFeaiher. 



^ Que Uem^ hace ? 1^. B. 

198. 
Hace huen Uen^^ ibid. 
Hcux mal tiempo, IL 24. 
jHocc cafor, N.B, 193, 
Sace mtuihoJriOf ibid. 
J7a nevado, 
Hida, 
Deshiela. 
Lltieve. 
Lhviena. 



How is the weather ? 

Jif 19 fair weather. 

It Is foul weather. 

It is hot. 

Tt is very cold. 

It has snowed. 

It freezes. 

It thaws. 

It rains. 

It mizzles. 

The rain poured down in Llavid d cdfUaros. 
torrents. 

It thunders. Truena. 

It lightens. Rdampaguea. 

The lightning struck the El rayo cayb en la casa^ 
house. 

I saw but one flash. Solo vi un reldmpago, R. 

142. «. 

I heard two claps. Oi do9 trumos. 

There is a sleet falling. Cae agucmieve. 

Ttiere is a very thick mist. Hace una neblina mv^ et- 

iputL. 
8e levania uom niMa, 
Corre mucho viento, 
Hace mucho ayre, 
Viene el viento muy frio^ 

R. 109. 
Amanece. 
Anochece. 
Es dedia. 
Es de noehe. 
El sol sale. 
El sol se pone. 
El delo estd estreliccdo. 

« 

Hace luna. 



A fog rises. 
The wind is high. 
The wind blows hard. 
The wind blows cold. 

it begins to grow light. 

It begins to grow dark. 

It is* day. 

It is night. 

The sun rises. 

The sun sets. 

It is a starlight night. 

The moon shines. 



V. jtt rising in the Morning 

John! I Juan! 

Sir. iSiemnr* 



Drmrlhe eurtaiiis and op«n Cone lot aorUnoBy abre la 

the window. ventana, p. 203. 

2s there aiire ? <$ Aa^ lumhre ? 

Yes, .eir, a vei^ good one., ^i, smor, muy biiena, R.80. 
Air me a ^irt, and bring CaUenlame una camiaa^ y 

it to rae. ^raemela, R. 51, 6. 

Here it is, sir. Aqid cstii, €enor^ .R. 103. 

Give me my gown and Dame mx hata y mis chine-- 

slippers. icu, R. .54. 

Give me my pantaloons. Dame mis pantalones. 
The tailor has not brought ^^ sastre no los ha traido, 

them. R. 47. 

Handme, then, my kersey- Vengan pties mis calzones 

mere small clothes and de casimiro y las medias 

silk stockings. de seda, R. 17. 

They have, two holes and a Tienen dos pimtos y una 

stitch down. canrera. 

Give them «to the maid to Ddselas d la criada para 

take them up, and give que los coja, y dame un 

me a pair of thread stock-^ P^r de medias de hilo y 

ings and the leather small l^s calzones de cuero^ 

clothes. H. 51, a, 

Jiring me mme warm wa- Trdeme un poco de a^uta 

ter, caZfewie, R. .16, c. 

Shall t help you to dress? d Quierevm, que le ayuded 

vestir? R. 130. 
No : whilst I dress myself, -^Vb ; mientras *que me visto, 

sharpen my razors. a^la mis navajas. 

Shall I shave you, sir ? i Quiere vm. que le qfeiie, 

senor ? O. 236. 
No : go and get breakfast No : ve d aprontar el aU 

ready. miberzo, O. 222. 

What will you have £br ^^ Que quierevm, almorzar? 

breakfast ? 
Will you have cojQTee and ^ Quiere vm, cafe con moUe- 

XQ&f or tea and toast ? teSt 6 te con tostadas? 
No : ^ive me .chocolate^and No: dame chocolate con 

bread and buttei;, and a pan y m^nteca, y un 

bolkd c|{g. huevo pasado por agua* 

Bring me. my boots. Trdeme mis botas 

— ■— il^M^— — ^.—— — ^■— — — I 11 I —————^11— 

-* See tbe wia!dwfn. S jnooyms, page 140. 



27G APPBNIMX. 

You have not cleaned them No las htxs limpiado 6te7i, 

well. R. 137. 

Black tliem again. Vuelved darlestiitte^O. 222. 

Go to the stable, and tell Ve d la cabaUeriza, y dile 

the groom to saddle my a2 mozo que ensille mi 

horse. caballo^ O. 236. 

Sir, your horse is at the 8u cabalio de vm, senor, es- 

door. i& dla puerta^ R. 103. 

Here are the spurs, but the Aqul* estan las espuelasj 

whip is mislaid. pero el Idiigo se ha eixira- 

viadOy ibid. 

Give me a switch then. 'DvjnepuesttnavariUiy^A^ 

I shall return at four to Yo volvert^ d las qucUro d 

dress ; and so take care vestirm^ conque cuidado 

to have every thing que lo tengas todo pron- 

ready. , to, 0. 222. 

VI. ^t Dinner. 

Dinner is on the table. La comida estd en la mesa, 

p. 249. 

Gentlemen, if you please^ Caballeros, si vms, gustan^ 

let us go into the dining- vamos al comedor. 
room. 

The proposal pleases me Muchisimo me agrada la 

very much. propuesta^ p. 245. 

Walk in. Pase vm, adelajUe. 

1 will follow you. Voy d seguir d vm.j 0. 222. 

No, sir ; after yoo. No^ senor ; despues de wn., 

p. 246. 

Gentlemen, whilst you Smores, mientras que vms. 

spend the time in com- gastan d tiempo en cum- 

pliments the dinner gets plimientos se enfria la 

cold. comida, R. 126. 

Madam, do me the favour Senora, hdgame vm. el fa- 

to take the first place. vor de tomar d primer 

asientoy R. 131, c2. 

Mr. James, be pleased to Senor Don Diego^ slrvase 

take the next seat to the vm. de sentarse junto d 

lady. la Senora, ibid. b. 

Who likes soup ? ^ Quien quiere sopa? R. 71. 

* See the author's Synonyms, page 123. 



PIALOGUES. :j^7 

Madam, will you allow me ^ Smora^ gtuta vm, que le 
to send you a slice of the ikande una tajada del 
salmon ? salmon? R. 1, 6. 

Do you like shrimp-sauce ^ Le gusta a vitu la salsa de 
or anchovy. camarones 6 la de ancho- 

vas? O. 217. 

Boy, take the soup and fish Muchacho^ quita la sopa y 
away. e\ pescado. R. 13. 

Gome, gentlemen, let us Fama^, «e7»ores,echemosii7i 
take a glass together. trago juntos, p. 203. 

Will you not take a glass of ^ No quiere vm, tomar'un 
wine with us ? vaso de vino con noso- 

' tros ? R. 48. 

No, sir, I shall content my- iVb, senor^ por ahora me 
self with a glass of beer contentare con un vaso 
for the present. de cerveza, R. 24. 

Brhig us the decanters and Trdenos las botellas y las co- 
glasses, and give the gen- pitas, y dalealsenorunva- 
tieman a glass of porter, so de cervezajuerte, R. 13. 

I like small beer better. M{is me gusta la cerveza 

jloxa» 

Gentlemen, your healths. Senores, d la salud de vms., 

O. 118. 

I thank you, sir. Buen provecho le haga d 

vm., R. 24. 

Give us new bread, this Danos pan tierno, este pan 
bread is stale. cs duro. 

Cut some slices of home- Corta unas rehanadas de 
made bread. pan casero, R. 16, a, 

Mr. Peter, will you dcf me Senor Don Pedro, ^quiere 
the favour to carve that vm. hacerme el favor de 
fowl ? trinchar esa gallina ? R. 

131, d. 

You are a better carver than Vm, es mejor trinchante que 
I. yo, R. 27. 

Madam, I am going to send Sen&ra, voy k mandarle d 
you the breast. wn.laspechugas, 0.222. 

Do you like the wing or i Le gusta k vm. el alon 6 
the leg? lapiema ? R. 51, c. 

Is there any one who likes ^ Ha^&quienle guste el hi- 
the liver and gizzard ? gado y la moU^a P 0. 2 17. 



98 

Whishdo }Mi|»efiHr*lioilcd .^ Qualle,^utia d vnu inas, 

orroMt? d eoddoddamido? 

I will out yon a ilioe of the Xie cortarh d vm. una taja- 

nr4oiii. da del lomo de vaca, JR. 

1,6. 
No^ I thank you, I like this No, viva vm. mil anos, me 

hash better. guda i mi mas bien €de 

guisadOf R. 51, c. 
Do me the £iTonr to help Hdgame vm.d favor deMor" 

yourself. otrse k si miimo, R. 51, d. 

Eat some potatoes, greens. Coma vm. pataUu^ herzm, 

or pidcles. 6 escaheokts. 

The stuffing of this fowl is El rdleno de esta gallina 

very insipid. eat4 muy zonzo, R. 98. 

Put pepper and salt to it. JSo^le vm, »al y pimienta^ 

R. 51, e. 
What dish is that you have g Que plato es ese que iiene 

before you ? vm. ddante ? O. 126. 

I have two, and I will tell Tengo dot, y le dire d vm. 

you lohat they are. .lo que «on, R. 67. 

The one is minced veal, and El uno es un gigote de ter^ 

the other is stewed mutton nera, y d otro tin eito/udo 

with forced-meat balk. decarnerocon albbndigas. 

Bring me the melted but- Trdeme la Molsa demanUca. 

ter. 
I am sorry I have no game Sienio mucho que no tengo 

to offer you. ninguna casta que praen- 

tarlea d imu., p. 245. 
I prefer, a good pullet to all Yo prefiero ima huenapoUa 

the partridges and hares & todas las perdioes y lie 

in the world. bres del mundo, R. 120. 

.1 am going to cut you a Voy d cortarh d vm, una 

small slice of the neat's tajadita de la Ungua de 

tongue. Yoeff, p. 89. 

No, sir, no more. No, senor, no mas, 

I have eaten sufficiently. Me camido badantc 
Thatladyhasscarcelyeaten Esa senora no ha comido 

anything. can-Ttocto. 

I beg your pardon ;youkBve Perdone vm, ; vm. me ha 

helped me to every tiling servido de quanto htdda 

there was on table. tnlamemu 



I hope, gentlemen, you Stpero, samarmy ^que no ^me 

will not suffer me to e^t dexardn vms. comer stolo, 
alone. 

*Come, colonel, What «hdl i 'Vamos, vefior tor^md. Be 

I help you 'to? que quiere vm. quehnr- 

wtf p, ♦•I'Te. 

Hand me over a ^mall slice Venga una tajadita de jo- 
of ham^ only to keep you mon, «ofo<port hacer com- 
company. pmma*d vm.j O. 384. 

Will you have fat or lean ? ^ Quiere vm. magro 6 gordo ? 

I like both very well. Ambos me gustan bien^ R. 

88. 

Madam, will you allow me ^ Gusta vm, aenoray que la 
to help you to some ap- drva del pastel de man- 
pie-pie or to some plum- zanas 6 del de cirudas ? 
pie? 

Do you like crust ? i,Le gusta d vm. la costra ? 

Yes, sir^ but do not give Si^ senor^ pero no m^ de vm. 
me too much juioe. mucho zumxK 

That is enough. JSasta, 

I will thank you to^aeBd.me &timare me mande vm. un 
assmall piece of cheese. ^pedazito de queso. 

Cut yourself some bread. Cortese vm. pan. 

What! do you like ccumb / Oa^/ £ le gusta & vm. el 
better than . crust ? J^jgcj on ^las que la eor" 

teza? O. 217. 

I have not dressedthesakd^ Nohauderezado la ensaloAi 
in order that tevery one para que cac^ai^noZaade- 
may dress it to his taste. -reoe^tfi^fus^, R. I38,iau 

Roy, bring the ciuets which MuahaebQ^i$rae.la8anqaolle' 
are on the sidehoerd. tas que estan Mn id mpa^ 

tUncork that Jbottle. Medqpa^mJimda, O. l£fi. 

I have losing eopbMfmo. He ^mdido axd Jtiraimaon, 

R^M. 

Take^mintf. ToTna el mio, R. 56. 

This is -SoaiGb beer* and I JSttazee Jtnvtg^'dt fiocoda, 
should like yoa :to .taste y quiero que la prmben 
»*• vms., R 18, c. 



t Bee the auUior*«:j|jWM)7Bu,:f«ge.l. 



280 APPBNmx. 

We wiU give you our opi- Le diremat & vm. nuettro 

nioiL parecer^ R. 51, c. 

Well, what do you think ? Puea, ^quetal? 

It is very g^od, but very Es muy bttenOy pero fortisi- 

heady. ma, R. 30, a. 

Boy, rinse those glasses. Muchacho^ lava esos vcuos^ 

O. 126. 

Set the wine on the table, Pon d vina en la mesay y 

• and bring U9 the dessert. trdenos losposires, R. 46. 

VII. ^t retiring to Rest. 

John, is my bed made ? ^ Juan, esikhecfiami cama ? 

R.98. 
The maid has just made it. Acaba de hacerla la criada, 

R. 131, a. 
Then tell her to warm it. Pues dile que la ccUiente. 
Light a candle. Enciende una vela. 

Open my drawer, and take Abre mi gaveta, y saca un 

out a clean night-cap. gorro limpio. 

Has the washerwoman g Ha traido la lavanderami 

brought my clean linen? ropalimpia? 
Yes, sir, there is nothing Si, senor, no falta nada, 

wanting. 
Then pay her the bill when Puespdgalelacuenta quan- 

she comes for the foul do venga por la ropa su- 

linen. da, p. 249. 

Help me to pull off my Ayddame & quitar la casa- 

coat. ca, R. 130. 

Now you may go away, and Ahorapuedea irte, que yo to- 

I will ring the bell when I cark la campanula qttan' 

want you. do te haya menester. 

Draw the bed-curtains. Correlascortinasdelacama. 

Awake me to-morrow as Deapiertamemananaluego* 

soon as it is daylight. que sea de dia 

1 must rise very early, Esmenesterfgi^ me levan- 

te muy temprano, 0. 1 93. 
Put out the candle, and go Apaga la vela, y vete & 

to bedk acostar, 0, 222. 



* See the author's Synonyms, page 165. 
f See the author's Synonyms, page 115. 



DIAL06UBS. 281 

VIIL To write a Letter. 

Is not to day post-day ? ^ Noes hoy dia de correo ? 

R. 17. 

Why do you ask ? ^ Porque lo pregitnta vm. ? 

Because I have several let- Porque tengo varias cartas 

ters to write. que escribir, R. 108. 

Give me a quire of paper. Deme vm, una mano de 

papeL 

Open my escrutoire, and Abra vm. mi papelera, y 

you will find there pen, alii encontrard vm. reca- 

ink, and paper. do de escnhir. 

There are only three sheets Aqui no hay two* que tret 

here. pliegos^ p. 191. . 

There is half a ream in the En la gaveta hay media res^ 

drawer. ma. 

The ink is very thick. La tinta estd muy espesOt 

R. 98. 

There are two inkstands. Hay dos tinteros, p. 191. 

The pens are good for no- Las plumas no valen nada, 

thing. p. 245. 

You are very difficult to Senor^ vm. es muy dificil de 

please, sir. contentar, R. 40, a. 

Try them yourself. Pruebelas vm.y R. 46. 

I do not complain without No me quexo sin razon, R. 

a reason. 15, d. 

Can you make pens ? <j Sabe vm. cortar plumas? 

R. 128. 

I make them my own way. Las corto dmi modo^ R. 47. 

I will lend you my pen- Le prestare d vm. mi corta- 

knife, and I will g:ive you plumas, y le dare unpar 

a couple of quills. de canones. 
Have you finished your ^ Ha acabado vm. sus car- 
letters } tas ? 
I am going to sign the last. Fo^4/^rmar la ill tima,p.36. 
There is no sand in the NohayarenUlaenlasalvct- 

sand-box. dera. 

Here is half a sheet of blot- Ahi* tiena vm. m/ediopUego 

ting paper. de tdeta. . 



See tbe author's Synonyms, page 122. 



I have not puilbB late te Jkafl no \bb he puesto la 

them. ficha^ R. 51. 

What day of the month k A como e^amca hafi 

to-day? 

THie twenty-fifth. A vdnte y emco, R. 72. 

Wliilst I fold up this letter Mierttrialf cmro etSa rxifia 

make me a packet of the hdganie vm, tm pliego de 

other four. Ua otras quigtro, ft. 06. 

Seal them, and then I will SiUelas vm. y luegoX Its 

write the direction. pondre d sobrescrito. 

Will youhave me put sealing i Quiere vm. que les ponga 

wax or wafers to them ? lacre u obleas? R. 133. 

Seal the packet with red 8dle vm. d pliego con lacre 

wax, and die letter with encamado, y la carta con 

black. negro. 

Are you in mourning? i Estd vm, de luto? R. 105. 

No, air, but this is a letter iVb, smor^ pero a carta de 

of condolence. phame. 

Will you have me seal ^ Quiere vm. que las sdle 

them with the arms or con las armas b con la 

with the cipher ? dfra ? 

It is immaterial. Ifo importa. 

If you like, I will send them Si vm. gusta^ las mandari 

by my servant. con mi criado. 

i shall be much obliged, Lo estimar^ muchoy y di- 

and tell him to pay for gale vm. que las pague, 

them. R. 51, e. 

Take these letters to the Lleva estas cartas al correo, 

post, and do not forget y no se te olvide de pa- 

to pay the postage. gar d porte, R. 128. 

IX. To hire a Lodging. 
Will you come with me to ^ Quiere vm. venir conndgo 
hire a lodging ? d cdquilar un alqjamien-' 

to? R. 48,0. 
1 will acccHiipaay you with Le acoompanar^ d vm. con 

much pleasure. mucho gusto, 

b w^at^qaannr vf *tiie town ^ JEDn i^ue barrio jguiare 
do you wish to ilodge ? cdojar? 

■^ "Seethe author's *Syiwnyiii8, -page W. 
f .See the author's Synonyms^ ]^9ge 1 40. 
I *S8e^e'«uth«^*s'ti^noiiyins, pa^165. 



Near tlie Admirally. CJerca del Abmk'ffMtaMg9^ p. 

246. 
Tbca let us go iMs iray. Vsiiios jwes fM>r Mfofi, -p. 

♦1T6. 
What is the name* «f this ^ Como seUamm^eBtXLcaile? 

^reet? G. 106. 

Broad Street. {«a ccdle aruska. 

Here is a bill. Aqui hw^ oarteL 

Knock at that door. Llame vm. d esa puerttL 

Who IS there ? <s Qtnm «std aA4 ft & lOS. 

A friend. 6^^^ ^e fmz^ 

I wish to speak to the mas- Quiero hablar con el amo 6 

ter or mistress of the el ama de esto ctua, O. 

house. 1^6. 

Have you any rooms to let? ^ Tienevm. qtuirtoa de (d- 

qtdier? 
Yes, sir. Will you have the Si, senor, ^ Quiere vm, el 

first floor or the gpround quarto prmc^al .^ d 

floor? quarto haxo? 

Neither. I want apartments Ni uno ni otro, Qmero una 

on the second floor. vivienda en el quario «e- 

gwndo. 
Be pleased to come up, Sirrase vm. de sobur, y le 

and I will show you the mostrark d vm. hs quar- 

rooms I have. tos que tengo^ A. 13 L, h. 

How many do you want ? g Quantoi quiare vm, ? 
I want a parlour snd bed- Necmto sola y alcoha con 

room with a closet for %in retrete para mi, y un 

myself and a garret for desvanpara mi criado* 

my servant. 
Mast they be fumidied ? i Es meaester que sean al" 

hajados? O. 193. 
No, i have furniture. ^^o, teiig-o97uie6Zes, R. 107, 

These apavtraeots suit me Me quadran bien edos apo^ 

very weH. sentoSf R. 121. 

How mwitk do you ask for ^ Qitantof}Ae.vm,^OTellot? 

them ? p. 84fi. 

How long will you (take ^ Por quanto Uenypo quiere 

theoi ibr ? vm. alquUarlos? 

t S«e te aMtiior^ flyiiiniyia«» page 122. 



284 APPENDIX. 

For a fortnight or three Por do8 6 iris semanoM, 

weeks. 
It is not worth my while to Name vale lapena el (xlqtti- 

let them for less than larlos por m^nos de un 

one month. mes^R, 27, 6. 

And how much am I to ^ IT quanta he de pagar ai 

pay a month ? mes ? R. 108. 

At the rate of forty doUaf s A razon de quarenta duro9 

a year. al ano, 

I think that is too much. Me parece demasiado, 
I cannot let them for less. No mtedo alquUarlos por 

menos. 
Let us see the garret ^ Veamos el desvan ? 

Here it is, and very roomy. Aqui esiii, y bastante capaz, 

R. 103. 
Can I board with you ? ^ Puedo yo comer aqut* con 

vm, ? 
As you please. Como vm, guste, p. 205 *!• 

And how much do you ask ^ Y quanta quiere vm. por 

for board and lodging to- quarto y comida j untos ? 

gether ? R, 22. 

Thirty dollars a month. Treinta pesos dimes. 
Well, I shall begin on Mon- Pues^ empezare el Liines 

day next. que viene^ p. 249. 

When you please. Quando vm. gu^stare. 

X. To hire a Chaise, Horse, or Boat. 
I want a travelling coach. Necesitaun cache decamino. 
How many mules do you ^Quanttismtdiu quiere vm,? 

want ? 
Six. Seis. 

Very well, whither are you Muy bien estdt 6 adondef 

going ? va vm. ? 

I am going to Seville, and Voy d Sevilla^ y es menester 

it must be at ray door que estS d mi puerta esta 

this afternoon. • tarde, R. 1 17. 

At what o'clock ? ^A que hara ? R. 72. 

At six o'cock precisely. A las seis enpunto, R. 72. 
Where do you live ? ^ Bonded vive vm, ? . 

Opposite the Park. Enfrente del Parque» 

* See the author*s Synonyms, page 122. 
f See the author's Synonyms, page 11. 



DIALOGUES. 285 

You sh al I be attended to, sir. Serd vm, servido. 

Do not you want horses ? ^ No lefaltan d vm, cabal' 

los? O.p. 217. 

I have no objection to take No tengo reparo en tomar 

one, if you have some unoy si los tiene vm. bue^ 

good ones. nos» 

There are no better. No los hay mejore^, p. 191. 

Well, saddle me one, and I PueSy ensUleme vm. uno, y 

will take it away with me. me le llevarS conmigo. 

Put no housings on him. Nolepongavm.gualdrapa, 

Girt him tight. , Aprietele v?n, las cinchas. 

Put him on a martingale PSiigale vm, una gamarra 

and the bridle. y elfreno, 

I do not like these stirrups. No me gustan los estribos, 

they are too small. . son muy pequenos. 

These are larger. Estos son mayores. 

I want to hire a vessel. Quierofletar un barco. 

Here is the master. Aqui* estd el patron. 

Whither do you wish to go 2 ^ Adonde quierevm, ir ? 

To Cadiz. How much do A Cadiz, ^quanto quiere 

you want j^r the hire ? vm, por elj^ete? p. 249. 

You shall give me forty Me dard vm, quarenta rea^ 

rials. les. 

Very well, but I must go En hora buenay pero es me- 

instantly. nester que vaya xnmedia^ 

tam,entey O. 193. 

We will set sail immediately Luegof que venga vm, 

you come on board. abordo nos haremos d la 

veUiy R. 133^ a. 

Where is your vessel ? ^ Donde estd su barco de 

vm. ? O. 118. 

Out yonder. Alii* fuera, 

I must take a boat in order Es preciso| que tome una 

to go there. lanchapara ir aUd\ 0.193. 

Here is a waterman. Ahi* tiene vm, un barquero, 

XL On setting out on a Journey, 
Sir, I come to take my Senor^ vengo d despedirme 



* See the author's Synonyms, page 122. 
See the author's Synonyms, page 165. 
See the author's Synonyms, page 116. 



I 



leave of ywr, bamiw I 4c ym^p^r^pie me vo^ m 
«■ gMg to Madnd. Madrid^ R. 125 

When do you s«t owt ? ^ Quando parte vm. ? 



ia 
^re yoa going ui a oaach ^Ya vm, en cache 6 en ea~ 

or in a chaise? Um? R. 134, 6. 

No^ suev I go OK horsebadr. No, senor^ voy 4 cabaUo, 
I regvet cxceedinglj you? Siado fnucko que nos dexe 

Ico^ing^ OS 8o soon. vm. tan pronio, 

Sit^ yoa fwrmn Btr. Estimo d favor de vm. 

We nrast takeaglass tog^ f!s menester* que eckemoe 

iher before yon go. unirmgojmitos ^tes que 

t?m. se vayft> R. 13^, a. 
Cone, here is wisdung^ yoa Faya d su buen viage. 

a good journey. 
Many thanks. Muchas graei€t$m 

Is this tbe road £» Madrid? ^ Ea eaie d canino de Ma- 
drid? R. 17,0. 
Go straight on tiU you Taym vau en dereehwra 

cone to the first public^ hada fice llegwe d im 

house on die road. primeru veida. 

How many miles are tiiere ^ QmoTdas legttas ka^ desde 

from this place to Ma- aqui d Madrid ? N. B. 

drid? 24d. 

Thirty miles. Diez leguas. 

Do you think I can travel ^ Le parece d vm. que pue- 

so much to-day ? da coimnar taxd^ kojf f 

R. 133. 
You have plenty of tiiae to Tiene vm, bastante tiempo 

get in before sunset. para Ue^r dMte» qne d 

solseponga. 
Is the road good^ ^ Hay buen camuie ? 

Yery good. J&jf kmena^ 

Whicli waiy am J to take? ^ Que camino h« de tomar? 

R. 108. 
When you come to the Quando Ueguevm.d la en^ 

cross roads turn to the erucixada tome vm. d la 

right. d^rwdka. 

Must I ascend the hill f ^Espreei90*9vMrd monte? 
Leave it on yonr }ie^ Dijsek wn. d la izquierda. 

* fc« to author^ SvnoBjau, ptgn llA. 



May one ford ikt tirer ? j 8e pweie 9<Bdmr d rio ? 

They ferry it oven Se pasa con baraa* 

Good by, sir. AdioSj smor. 

I wish you a good jommcy. Dio3 le dh d vm, buenviage* 

XII. On arriving at an Inn. 

Are you the ostler? g Erea d mozo de caballos ? 

Yes, sir, what is your plea^- Siy senor^ ^que gusta vm» ? 
stsre? 

Take my horse aad rub him Tomei mi cabaUo y estriegale 
down welly give him a bien, dale unbue?i pienso, 
good feed, but do not pero no le des de beber^ 
give him drink. O. 203. 

Are you the landlord ? ^Es vm, d mesonero ? 

Yea» sir, at your service. Si^ senovy para servir d vm., 

O. 234. 

I wish to lodge here to- Quiero hospedarme aqul* 
night. Have you good esta noche, ^ Tiene vm* 
rooms ? buenos quartos f 

Yoci can see them, and Puede vm. verlos^ y escoger 
ahoose that which you el que le parezca m^or, 
. like best. R. 76, 6. 

There is no occasion; give Nohay para que; dime vm. 
me a good bed, and let una cam^a buena^ y que 
the sheets be clean and las sdbanas aean Jimpias 
well aired. y esten enjcutas, 

Let me have some supper. Dema vm. algo de cenar. 

What will you have dress- ^ Que quiere vm. que le ode- 
ed ? rece ? 

A eiHiple of pigeons* Un par de pichones. 

Send IB the boy to take «ff Mande vm. ok mozo pam 
my boots. que me quite las betas, 

R. 133, a. 

Bring in the su[^r as soon Trae la cena luegof que esti 
as' it -is ready, because I prowtOf por que quiero 
wish to go early to bed mcoetarme tesv^ano. 

What an I i&debted to ^ Quanto le debo d vm. ? 
SOU? IL118. 



* See the author's Synonyms, page 123. 
^ Soe Ui*aatibQc'iil^n«fi2U^faffft 165. 



S88 APPENDIX. 

The expenses come up to El gcuto mhe d cincuenia 

fifty rials. reales. 

Here they are. Aki los time rm. 

Count them. Cuentelos vm. 

They are very right. Estan cahales. 

XIII. On consulting a Physician, 

I have sent^r you, doctor, He mandado por vm. senor 

because I feel myself doctor, porque me siento 

very ill. muy malOj.p. 249. 

Indeed you do not look A la verdad no tiene vm. 

well. huen semblante, 

I have an inflammation in Tengo inflamacion de gar^ 

my throat, a pain in my ganta^ dolor de costado^ 

«ide, and my head aches y me duele mucho la ca« 

agreatde^il. beza, O. 118. 

Do you cough ? ^ Tose vtn. ? 

Yes, sir, in the night. Si^ senor, por la noche. 

How long have you been ^ Quanto tiempo ha que 

ill ? esik vm. malo ? O. 200. 

Since the day before yes- Desde dntes de ayer, 
terday. 

Tell me in what manner Digame vm, de que modo le 

this illness came on you. sobrevino esta indispoai^ 

cion, R. 121. 

At first I felt some shiver- Al principio me sentl con 

ings, then a fever came escalofrioSy y luego me 

onwhich lasted all night. entro una calentura que 

me durS toda la noche. 

Have you taken any thing ? <; Ha tomado vm. algo ? p. 

199, *1. 

Some wine whey only. Un poco de suero de leche 

solamente. 

Have you any appetite ? ^ Tiene vm. apetito? 

On the contrary I feel & Al contrario tengo mucho 

loathing against food. hdstio d la comida. 

Did you sup well the night ^ CenS vm. bien lanoche 6n- 

before you were taken iesdecaermalo?0.2^7. 
ill? 

I felt great appetite and Me scnti con ganas, y comi 



biaxjoqubs. 289 

ate rather more than unpoco mcu de lo regu^ 

usual. lar. 

Give me your arm, that I DSme vm, d hrazo para to- 

may feel your pulse. mar/e dpulso, O. 234. 

Do me the favour to put Hagame el favor de sacar 

out your tongue. la lengua, R. 131, d. 

TVhat do you think of my ^ Que kparece d vnu de mi 

illness ? enfermedad ? 

Do you think it dangerous? l Cree vm, que sea depdU 

gro ?R. 133. 
No, sir, there is no danger No, ienor, no hay riesgo 

at present. But you jpor ahora. Pero es pre- 

must take good care of ciso* que vm, se cuide 

yourself. bien. 

Hiere is no doubt but you No' hay duda de que se le 

have overheated yourself. hay a reccUeniado d vm. 

la sangre. 
You have likewise caught Tambien le ha cogido a vm. 

a cold, and consequently un resfriado^ y por consi- 

the perspiration is ob- guierUe eaid obstruida la 

structed. transpiradon. 

In addition to this, your Ademas de esto^ vm. se ha 

stomach is overloaded. empachado. 

Do you tliink it will be ne- ^ Cree vm. que sea preciso* 

cessary to bleed me ? sangrarme ? 

By no means. De ningun modo. 

But a blister would relieve Pero un vexigaiorio le o/i- 

you. viaria d vm. 

I had rather put on leeches, Mas bien quiero echanne 

sanguijuelas. 
They would not do you so No le harian d vm. tanto 

much good. provechoy p. 211, *6. 

What am I to drink ? for I ^ Qy^k he de beber? porque 

am dying with thirst. me muero de sed, R 

116. 
Drink plentifully of mint Beba vm. en abundancia tS 

or balm tea, or barley de yervabuena * 6 de to^ 

water. rongU^ 6 agua de cebada, 

I am going to prescribe for Foy d recelarle d vm, 

yo^' \ 

* See the author's Synonyms, page 115. 

O 



aCBAJbr tncw niecDcliics* JMMcte^wn. por arfw 

cainento8^ p. 249. 

And take tlieni ftceordini^ T i&muh9 m:gitm Urn dinOi' 

to the directkns. cionef. 

I will mentioii it to the Sis lo dirt d la rarfenmofm^ 

nvrae. R. 51, e; 

Retire early to bed. R&e6jms* em. iemprmma. 

Put your feet in warn water. Dkse vm, un bono depict 

Keep in bed, and keep Qukdeu vm. en girta, y 

yourself warm. tibriguese bien. 

Are mymedicines brought? g Htm ^nsufo Mtt 

meniim? 

Here they are. Aqtdedamm 

Read the labels. Lea vm. los rStukm 

Tlie emetic to be taken im- 8e to/mard d «omiAtM» tl 

mediately. medkttamaKU. 

Two pills to be taken at Se tomardn dos pildoras ai 

bedtime, and the draught tiempo de reoogtnt, p Im 

in the morning. hebida pot lamtmmtt. 

Two table spoonfuls of the 8e tomardm Soicuokarmdas 

emulsien to be taken de la emuUUm siemgnre 

when the cough is trou- qne ia toi molester p. 

blesome. »>5, *1. 

The other label says, the IS 06*0 rdiuh dice waU^ 

gargle only. meidt la gdrgmia, 

XIV. On speaking to a Tail&r. 
Sir, I want to get a suit of Senor maestro, qniero h(^ 

black made. cerme un vestido negro. 

What will you have it made g De que le qwiere vm. ? 

of? 
The coat of French cloth. La casaca de pMro de Fnin- 

the waistcoat of silk, and da, la chupa de ^eda, y 

the small-clolhes of kcr- los calzones de casimiro, 

seymere. R. 18, c. 

Here are some patterns. Aqui tiene vm» muestras. 
How mapiy yards do I want ^ Qnantas varus neoetii» 

for the coat and waist- para casaca y ehupa f 

coat ? 
Two yards and a half for D05 vuras y media pafu la 

the coat, and a yard and casaca^ vara y media ptf- 

a half for the waistcoat. ra ia chuipa^ p. 102, *9. 



1 



Wmi inll fovL have the ^DequSte ha de aforrm 
coat lined widi? /<z cf»aais P 

Wkh the saneu 1^^ ^ mumo. 

Make me a suit to fit well. Hdgame tan. fin ve$U4o que 

me vengahien. 

I shall giveyou satisfaction. Quedardvm. coniailh. 

When will leubriB^i^ me? ^Qtumdomeletraerdvm.? 

R. 51, e. 

As soon as possible, sir. Senor, quanto dntes. 

WUl yoa be {leased to try ^ Quiere vm, probarse d ves^ 
on your suit ? tido ? 

That suit becomes you well. JSce vesHdo le cae* ^ tm, 

bien. 

I like this suit very well. Me giulamucbo edeveUidiK 

Make me a blue cloth coajt Hdgame vm. i^nacasafcade 
with gilt buttons, a pair pano azul con boianea do- 
of pantaloons of the same rudosy un parde paadcL' 
colour, and three pair of lone» del mismo eoior, y 
nankeen trowserjs. tres pares de calzo&es de 

mariaero de mahon, 11.17. 

XV. On speaking to a Shoemaker, 

Make me a pair of shoes. Hdgame vm, unpar de za^ 

patos. 
When do you want them ? ^ Para quando los fioere 

vm.? 
On Sunday without fafl. Para el Domingo einfidta. 
The last were good for no- Los uUimoa no valiannada, 

thing. 
They did not last a fort- No me durdron quince dkia, 

night. 
This shoe hurts me. Este zdpato ma ladioicL v 

Your foot is not quite home Vm. no ha enirado d piitO' 

yet. davia. 

This shoe does not fit me. No me viene bien ede zapa- 

to. 
It fits too close. Eatd muy ajvstado. 

It presses on my instep. Me aprieta «n poco «k tl 

empeine, O. 118. 



See Colloquial Idioms, Ezerebe^ yu 107. 

o2 



1292 APPSNDIX. 

It will widen in a few days. 8e enaanchard dpoco» diaa^ 
Well, make me another pair Bim^ hdgome vm. otro par 
like this, and a pair of como estCj y un par de 
boots, and bring me the boias^ y trdygame las bo^ 
boots as soon as they are tas luego que eaten nca^ 
finished. badas. 

I will bring them to you La$ tr<ierk d vm, la iemana 
next week. que viene, 

XVI. On some of the most frequent Topics of 

Conversation. 

Do you know any thing ^ 8abe vm. aigo de nuevo ? 

new? R. 81, a. 

What news is there ? ^ Q^e noticias hay ? 

Have you read the Gazette? ^ Ha leido vm. la GcLzeta ? 
Jt ur0porttf<2 that the Turks Se dice que los Turcos han 

have defeated the Rus- derrotado d los Rusos^ p. 

sians. 145. 

Say the contrary ^ for it is Diga vm. lo contrario.por- 

the Russians who have que son los Rusos los que 

defeated the Turks. Kan derrotado d los Tur- 

cos, p. 36, and R. 25. 
I have heard so, but I be- He oido decir que si, pero 

lieve not. ereo que no, O. 244. 

There have been many De una parte y otra ha ha- 

killed on both sides. bidomucha gentemuerta. 

It has not been a general No ha sido funcion general, 

engagement, but of one sino de un destacamento 

detachment against ano- con otro. 

ther. 
Do you know the number ^ Sahe vm, el numero de 

of wounded ? heridos ? 

It is not yet knoum, Ann no se sabe, p. 145. 

The enemy has retired very hos enemigos se^n retira^ 

severely handled. do muy maltratados. 

They have lost all their ar- Hanperdidotodala artiUe- 

tillery. ria. 

Whom do you know it ^De quien lo sabe vm.? 

from ? R. 69. 

I have heard it related by Loheoidocontardpersonas 

persons of great veracity. Jidedignas. L 



DIAI^OGUBS. 398 

What says ihe Spanish ^ Que dice la Gazeta deEs^ 

Gazette ? pana ? 

It brings the intelligence of Trae d siHo de Alicante por 

the siege of Alicant by los Franceses, R« 25. 

the Frendi. 
The besieged have made a Han hecho una salida loa 

sally. sitiados, R. 45, b. 

They have demolished the Han demolido las obras de 

works of the besiegers. • los sitiadores. 
They have spiked the can- Han clavado la artilleria, 

non. 
The Kin^s Regiment has £1 Regimiento del Key ha 

done wonders. hecho prodigies^ R. 17. 

If the place be taken by as- Si la plaza se ioma por 

sault, they will give no asalto^ no dardn quarteL 

quarter. 
The governor will never Nunca capvtidard el gober" 

capitulate, if the garrison nador, si la guamicion 
: be to remain prisoners of ha de quedar prisionera 

war. de guerra. 

liCt us talk of something Hablemos de otra cosa. 

else. 
Do you know^ gentlemeu, ^ Saben vms, senores^ como 
•that the governor's daugh- la hija del gobemador ae 
.ter is going to be mar- casa? 
ried? 
To whom? ' I Con quienf 

To the son of the mayor. Con el hijo del corregidor^ 

R. 72. 
Ah ! that is a good match. / Hola I es buen casamiento. 
Her sister is fust married. Su hermana acaba de ca- 

sarse, R. 131, a. 
And who is the bride- ^ Y quien es el novio ? 
' groom? • 

A very rich merchant. Un comerdante muy rico. 

How much has been the ^ Quanto lleva dedote? 

portion? 
Thirty thousand pounds. Treinta mil libras. 
It is a large sum. Es un dineraL 

The husband deserves it, he Lo merece el marido, es muy 

is a very worthy man. hombre de bien^ R* 30. c. 



And th« girl is rery wdl Ihim la mudkadka iegnMm 
brought up. €$id muy bien enadm, 

Qkt wiU make an excellent £Um terd may naiger de m, 
iamtly woman. ccua, R. 30, c 

Her mother did never in- La madre no le conscntia 
dulge her. nada^ p, 197, *9. 

Her daughter will thmk her Su hija se lo agriiiAcii'if 
for it some day. algun dim^ R. &1» «. 

You knowy no doubt, that Fa sabrto tww. cMn» Aa 
the king's phyaician Is fPiiMrto e{M^4itci9«i8/ nf, 
dead. O. 202. 

That is the reasoB I have P&r eao he wuto td < » i i m a 
seen the nephew in de luto, 
mottraing. 

li it natural to suppose that "^ rtgtdar qua h katfm d^ 
he has lefl him some- xado algo,porqtmiM9le 
thing, because the uncle queria mudh^ R. 45^ e; 
was very fond of him. 

They say that he has left Dken q«e h deam fkwg Men 
him very well ofL acomodado. 

The boy haa talents. M mvckach^ Uene Udeah 

■The minister patfonises Leamparamuchodmims* 
him greatly. A^ 

He has had the good for- Ha tenido ladkhade eaerfe 
tavL^oitaking his family* en gracia^* y orf Aa lo- 
and thus has obtained^ a gradof un empleo may 
very good situation. bueno. 

That is more than the un^ Eao ea ma» de h qnejamm 
de could ever obtamyf pudo conseguirf d iio, 
dithcmgh{ one of the noobstante^ guetnto ife 
prniees interested him- lo9 prineipef fe empdh 
self much for him. mu^ por Si, 

I do noi wonder at it, that J^ h extrmnoy ese pHndfB 
prince and the minister y d ministro no son muy 
are noi Tery great friends; amigot; y 90 ioy de pa- 
and I am of optmm, that recer que aunqnel S. A. 
aUhottghl H. R. H. had R. se huUese arrodShdOt 



* See- Colloquial Idioms, Eserdses, page 112. 

{See the author's Synonynifl, page 1/2. 
See the astb«r^ Synonymy p«g«r Wi. 



DiAustmms. 295 

• 

I knelt, he would not have no hubiera alcanzado* 9U 

^ obtained* his petition. suplica, 

fi Here comes the fortunate Aqui viene el afbrtunado 

Don Anthony. Don Antonio, R. 21, a. 

g We congratulate you. sir. Senor^ le damos d vm. la 

enhora buena. 

^ On what, gentlemen ? ^Y de.quS^caballeros? 

It is said that you have Dicen que ha sacado vm, 

drawn something in the aigo en la ultima loieria, 
last lottery. 

I have gained a trifle. He gamado unafriolera. 

How much ? ^ Quanto? 

About two hundred pounds. Unas docientas librat. 

I tc^e a small share in each Yo echo mi cedulita en ca^ 

lottery, but I never get datotena^perommcasO' 

any thing. co nada^ p. 195, *2. 



•f^ 



See the autfaot^e Synonymy page 172. 



DOCUMENTOS DE COMERCIO. 



CARTAS DE COMERCIO. 



Cadiz, 24 Enero, 1827. 
A las Senorea Preiwick, Jffermanos, y Companion 

en Londre$. 
Muy Sefiores nuestroi, 
C0NTESTAM08 d la muy apredahU de vms. con 
fha dd \% dd corriente, y viendo que tegun m parecer 
los generos de ahl que ofrecen aqui un despacko pronto 
y ventajoto ton las lencerias, estimaretnos que nos man-- 
denvnu, porla primera emharcaxiion que saiga para esta^ 
20 pUzas de cotonia, 40 diehcu de hatida, y 30 dichoM 
de muselina, todas de la mefor calidad y d predos 
equitoHvos. 

Quedamcs reconoddos d ms atenias expresiones de laa 
quales nos valdrimos en las occurrencias. 

Cdehramos mucko que se nos presente esta oeasion de. 
ofrecemos d la obedienda de vms. quienes podrdn 
ordenamos todo lo quejuere de^su agrado. 

B. L. M, de vms, 

s, s, s, 

LOPEZ k Hijo. 



LondreSt 2 de Febrero, 1827. « 
A los Senores Lopez i Hijoj en Cadiz. 
Muy Senores nuesiros, 
SEGUNlas Srdenes de vms, ensumuy apredabledd 
24 dd pasado. Us incluimos factura y conodmiento de 
ires caxas de lencerias, que de su cuenta y riesgo kemos 
embarcado en d navio nombrado-El Nq)tuno, al mando 



297 



COMMERCIAL DOCUMENTS. 



COMMERCIAL LETTERS 



Cadiz, January 24th, 1827. 
Messrs. Preswick, Brothers, and Company, London. 
Gentlemen, 
WE acknowledge the receipt of your favour of the 
ISth instant ; and observing that, according to your 
opinion, there is no igrticle in your market which pro- 
mises so advantageous and speedy a sale here as linen, 
you will be pleased to send us, by the first vessel which 
sails for this place, 20 pieces of dimity^ 40 ditto of 
cambric, 30 ditto of muslin ;. the whole of the best 
quality and at reasonable prices. 

We beg to express our thanks for your attentive offers, 
of which we shall avail ourselves on every occasion. 

Happy in having this opportunity of tendering you our 
services, we request you to command them with free- 
dom. We are, gentlemen, 

your most obedient servants, 

LOPEZ and Son. 



London, February 2d, 1827. 
Messrs. Lopez and Son, Cadiz. 
Grentlemen, 
AGREEABLY to the orders contained in your 
esteemed favour of the 24th ultimo, we enclose the in- 
voice and bill of lading of three chests of linen, which 

o3 



298 APPsmMx. 

dd CapUan Romero^ quien mediante tenet etui toda la 
earga abordo »aldrd muy pronto para eta. 

Not luongtaanoi que la$ lenceriaa serdn de mi gutto^ 
nendo gknero9 iodot e»cogido9 y we nit if a mm mai €H la 
calidad como en d predo. 

Esperatido recibir de un correo d otro nu eeHmadatt 
nupendemos ampUar nuettrm noHciM tobre d etdado de 
mte mercado, 

B. L, M. devnu. 
8. 8.8. 

PRESfFICK, BERMANOS, y CompaSia. 



FACTURA. 



FACTURA de ires caxas de lenceria^ que con la marca 
y loa numeros dd mdrgen van emharcadag en d 
navio nombrado Ei Nepitmo, eu Capitan Mamtd 
Romero, por lo9 Senores Pirexwickt Hermamm, y 
Companiat y d cuenta y riesgo de los Senoref Lopeg 
6 Hffo. A taber^ 

Idbrm, 
P.H. ')No 1,20 PteeatdeCbUmmyi 9 ISU 9^ 
C. ^->2. 40iXeAMife>BaA'jta,<£5 200 

380 

Derechos y ffa9i08 18.4.6 

398 . 4 . 6 
Common, 62 lib, por titiUo 7.19.S 

£406 . 3 . » 



nf¥OfCB. 999 

we have shipped on your account and risk, on board The 
Neptune, Captain Romero, who will very shortly sail 
for your port, having already nearly the whole of his 
cargo on board. . 

We flatter ourselves that the linen will give you 
satisfaction, being choice goods and advantageously 
selected both in quality and in price. 

Being in daily expectation of your favours, we shall 
defer giving further advice respecting the state of this 
market. 

We are, gentlemen, 

your obedient servants, 

PBESWICK^ BROTHERS, and Company. 



INVOICE. 

# 

INVOICE of three chests of linen, marked and num* 
bered as per margin, shipped by Messrs. Preswick, 
Brothers, and Company, on board The Neptune, 
Emanuel Romero master, for the account and risk 
of Messrs. Lopez and Son. To wil^ 

£. 
P. A. INo. 1. SOIHecetof Dimity.&tS/. 60 £. «. dL 
C. > «— 2. 40 Ditto of Cambric, at 5/. 200 
Mo. 1 te 3. J -* 3. 90 Ditto of Muslin, at 4/. 120 

380 

18.4.6 



398 . 4 . 6 
Gomaiiaoa at 21^ per oent • • « • 7.19.3 

£406 .3.0 



300 AnmmvL. 



CONOCIMIENTO. 




To Manuel Romefo, maedrtqueMoy dd navia, que Dun 
ioke^ nombrado El Neptimo, de porte de 
docientas tondadoM^ que al pre&enie edd 
9urto y andado en d puerto de Liondres» 
para^ con la huena ventura^ teguir ede pre- 
ienU viage al puerto de Cadiz, conozoa 
haher rect&ido, y tengo cargado deniro dd 
dUfhQ mi navio debaxo de cubierUg, de vot 
P* H. los Senores Preswick, Hennanos, y Com- 
C. paEia, tres caxas de lencerias, enjwtat y hien 

No. Ids, acondicioncLdiu^ y marcadas de la marca de 
fitera^ con la» quales promelo^ y me obligo^ 
Uevandome Diog, en buen scUvamento con d 
dicko mi navio, al dicho puerto^ de acudir 
por vo» y en vuestro nombre d los Senores 
Lopez 6 Hijo, pagandome dejiete, & razon 
de do8 libras sterlinas por cada caxa, y sus 
averias aoodumbradas, y^ para lo qual ttssi 
tener y guardar, obligo d mi persona y 
biene$, y d dicho mi navio Jletes^ y apare- 
joe, y lo mejorparado de el. Enfe de lo 
qual, OS di tres eonocimientos de un tenor^ 
Jirmado9 de mi nombre por mU 6 por mi 
Escrivano, d uno cumjdidOf los otros no vol' 
gan. Fecha en Londres, d V de Febrero, 
1827 

MANUEL ROMERO. 



BIIX OF tABIKG. 801 



BILL OF LADING. 



SHIPPED, by the grace of God, in good order aii4 
weB-condKioned, by Mestrs, PrenmcXr, Bro^ 
therSf and Company , in and upon the good 
ship called The Neptune^ whereof is mas- 
ter, under God, for tiiis present voyage, 
Manud Romero, and now rkling at anchor 
in the port of London, and by God's grace 
bound fbr Cadiz, that is to say, three chat9 
P. H, of Unen, being marked and numbered as 
C, in the margin, and - - to be defivered in 

No. 1 to 9. the like gobd order and well-conditioned, 
at the aforesaid port of Cadiz^ (Uie act of 
God, the king's enemies, fire, and all and 
every other dangers and accidents of the 
seas, rivers, and navigation, of whatever 
nature and kind soever, excepted,) unto 
Messrs, Lopez and Son, or to their assigns, 
they paying freight for the said goods 
after the rate of two' pounds sterling for 
each chest, with primage and average ac- 
customed. In witness whereof, I the said 
master (or purser) of the said ship have 
affirmed to thriee bills of lading, all of this 
tenour and date : the one of which three 
bills being accomplished, the other two to 
stand void. And so Qod send the good 
ship to her desired port in safety. Amen. 
Dated in Lcmdon, February \st, 1827. 

MANUEL ROMERO 



LETBji DE CAMOIO. 



P9rJAk. 406 . 3 « 9 

A irtinia diat de visla^ mandardn vnu. pagar par 
tdm prwura (no habiendolo hecho par la segunda y ter^ 
eeraj de eambio qucUro cienias y »ei$ Sbrcn sterlincu trex 
cketiM£M y nuevepeniqueat d la Srden de los Senores Brick- 
dale y CcmpamOf valor redbido^ que oargardn vnu. d 
amnUa 09mapor aoieo^ 

8» o. i9. 

PRESWICK. HERMANOS, y Compa^ia. 

A he Sfiree Lopez k 
en Cadiz. 



Londree^ 9 de F^threro^ 182r. 

A loe Senoree Lopez e Hyo^ 
en Cadiz. 

Muy Semlrezfmetirm^ 
MEMOS lihrado contra mae, key una hbra de eambio 
(d treinia diae de viataj^ por lik. 406 .^,9,dla orden 
de loe SenoneeBridkdale y Compaiaa, laque esHmarSmoe 
que vms, konren y eargmm d eaemiat coma por aviso. 

Q, 8, M. B. 
PRESWICK, HERMANOS, y Compafiia. 



BIIX OV SXCJBANGB. 3M 



BILL OF EXCHANGE. 



liondon, February 9» 1827 

For £406. 3ff. 9cf. 
AT thkty days tight, pay this our first of exchange, 
(aeeond and third of the aame tenonr and date unpaid,) 
to the ovder of Messrs* Brickdale and Company, four 
bmidred and six pounds three shillings and mnepence» 
Tiltte received, and place to account as per advice. 

PRESWiCK» BEOTHERS, and Company. 

Messrs* Lopez and Son» 
OadwTi 



London, Fdoraaiy 9, 182Y. 

Messrs. Lopez and Son, 
Cadiz. 

Ctentlemeut 

HE have this day drawn on you» at thirty days sight, 
fcr the sum of .£406. 3i. 9d. to the order of Messrs. 
Bnckdale and Con^pany ; which we beg you to honour, 
■ad ptaee to account aa per advice. 

Your obedient Servants^ 

VKESmCK^ BBOTHERS, and Company. 



304 APPBNDIX. 



FORM OF A SPANISH PROTEST. 



■« 
«t 
•• 
•« 

«« 
«( 
<« 



EN la dudad de Cadiz^ d quatro dd me$ de AvrU^ de 

mU oehocieniot vdnte y rieie, Ante ml, CfU Perez, Eieri^ 

bono Piihlico dd Numero de eHa Cvidctd^ y la TesHgoa 

ahcuDo nombntdosppareciS Don AmhrodoLamda^ Vecino 

y Comerdante de dicha dudad, d quien doyfe, conozco, y 

quien para efecto de protesto me exhibib una Letra de 

Cambio cuyo tenor es d nguiente: *^ Londres, Febrero 

•* I*, 1827, jp'. p^. 2300. d dos imo», mandard vm, pagar 

por esta primera de Cambio d la Srden de Don Juan 

Sahgredo, Dos mil y tredentos pesos, en oro 6 plaia, 

al curso conoddo aqui hoy, que sentard om. en cuenta 

como por aviso de Pedro Sedillo. Al Sehor Don 

Manual Pena, en Cadiz, Endoso, Pdguese d la Srden 

de Don Ambrosio Lamela, Cadiz, 26 de Marzo, 1823, 

Juan Sangredo.** Y despues, de copiada, mepidiS la 

preseniase original d Don Manuel Pena, d cuyo cargo 

estd librada, requiriendole, que mediante cumpUrse su 

plazo en d dia de hoy, con los dias de cortesia que son 

de estilo, la pague luego al punto, y en su defido, se la 

proteste con todos stis CamMos, Recambios, Interesei^ 

Costos, y Gastos, para repetirlos y cobrarlos del susodidu> 

Don Pedro SediUo, como Labrador, 6 dd dicho Don Juan 

Sangredo, coma Endosador, y de quien mas hay a htgar^ 

y que todo se lo diese por testimonio. En virtud de lo 

qual, yo, d referido Escribano Publico, past d la casOf 

morada del mtndonado Don Manud Pena, y habiendo 

preguntado en ella por Si, se me respondio, por un sugebi 

que, manifesib llamarse Don Antonio BoUones^ y mr 

caxero de Don Manud Pena, que este se hallaba ausenJbs 

en la dudad de Sevilla. Y habiendo hecho d Don An^ 

tonio Bolsones d requirimiento, y protestas flrriba et- 

plicadas, y enteradole de sus ejectos, para que lo noOdate 



FORM OF A SPAMUH-PaOTEST. 905 



TRANSLATION OF THE PROTEST. 



^m 



<« 
« 



IN the City of Cadiz, on the fourth day of the month 
of April, One thousand eight hundred and twenty-seven. 
Before me, Gil Perez, Notary Public, Member of the 
Society of Notaries of this City, and the undermentioned 
witnesses, appeaared Don Ambrose Lamel% Resident and 
Mercb»it in this City^ wJiom I certify to know» and who 
exhibited to me a Bill of Exchange in order to have the 
same protested, the tenour whereof is as follows : " Lon- 
don» 1st February, 1827. For 2300 dollars, at two 
usances, you wiU be pleased to pay this first of Ex- 
change, to the order of Don John Sangredo, Two 
thousand three hundred dollars, in gold or silver, at 
the exchange known here this day, which you will 
** place to account as per advice of Peter Sedillo. To 
'* Don Emanuel Pena, Cadiz. Indorsemmt^-Fsiy to the 
** Order of Don Ambrose Lamela, Cadiz, >26th of March, 
" 1823, John Sangredo.'* And which being first copied, 
he requested me to present the original to Don Emanuel 
Pena> on whom the same is drawn, to require of him 
immediate pajrment thereof, its term as well as the cus- 
tomary days of grace being this day elapsed, and in de- 
fault thereof, to protest the same against him for all its 
Exchanges, Re-exchanges, Interests, Costs, and Charges, 
in order to reclaim and recover the same from the afore- 
said Don Peter Sedillo as the Drawer, from Don John 
Sangpredo as the Indorser, or from whomsoever else it 
might concern, and to grant him a copy thereof , by 
virtue of which I, the aforesaid Notary Public, did repair 
to the dwelling-house of the aforementioned Don Ema- 
nuel Pena, and having there inquired for him, I was 
answered by a person, who represented himself to be 
Don Anthony Bolsones, and cash-keepar of Don 
Emanuel Pena, that the latter was absent in the city of 
Seville; and having made the above-mentioned demand 
of, and signified the protest to Don Anthony Bolsones, 
and acquainted him fully with the consequences thereof 



a08 AFPSXDIX. 

al cUada Don Manuel Pena, dixo que no »e haUabacon 
Srden m providencim para kaur d pctgo ic dicka letra, 
Esto diS por respueata, y mediante dUt^ yo el referido es- 
cribano, y d pedimetU» M memeUmado Don Ambrodo 
Lamela^ he protestado, como por el presente solemnemente 
proiuiOt mna^ doi, trea^ y maa veces en derecho neceaarioB^ 
tania eontra ei Sfieado^ y eonira dEndoaadordelanuo^ 
dicka Leira de Cambw^ coma^ contra todoa los dema» que 
c»n9eaga amA% de la eantidad principal de su in^orte^ 
por tedoeloa CanMoc^ Reeambioa^ Cojfoa, Ga$loe^ DoMoe, 
Memoecaboe^ Perjfieicioa^ S InUreaeey que enqualquiera m»- 
nera «e hayam ieguidoj 6 cauaado^ y en adelante aesiguM^ 
rea^ 6 eauaareit^porfiUiadelpagamemio de la referidm 
Jjiiara de Camhio. Hecho y FivUitado en CadiZt d qua- 
tro del me$ de AvrU^ de mU oehocienioM veiitU y nke. L^ 
firmb Dfim Ambrodo Lamda^ eiendo TeiUgQe Don Jttanr 
Manmd Romuro^y Don JLuis Gomez^ Antemiy GU Perez^ 
Omeuerda c#ii nt origimal en mi Regidro, d que me re^ 
mitOy y para eniregar d Don Ambroeio Lamda, ydsv 
pedimenk^ mmndi emear esta t»piaquesipmyj^^ma ew 
Cadig, en d 4ia dn Mi^fieiA 

GUi PEREZ. 

Los que ahajo firmmmoe EscrUmnoe P^tkee^ de eeia 
Ciudadt certifieamo$ en quanto podemos, que GU Peres^ 
de qmen va dmda^ aignaday y Jhrmada^ la precedeide 
copiOy como te tOtda, es Escribano PukHea, dd Numeric 
deeOa Ctwdad^Jid, l^ul^ydeenteracon^umsut^ydsu^ 
eemejanies dempre te ha dado^ y da^ enterafi yeredOo^ 
en juicioe y fuera de dUM, y para que comfe damo9 I* 
presente en tita didka CHudad de Cadh, ficha vi sh^hts, 
Andres Corrados^ FlaMcio Nunez^ Fernando Ar«ar 4e 
la FuenUf Eseribanoe PikbHeoe* 



FORM OF A SPANISH PROTEST. 907 

in order that he might communicate the same to the 
aforesaid Don Manuel Pena^ he answered that he was 
without orders or effects to make the payment of the 
said Bin. This he gave lor an answer ; and on account 
thereof, and at the request of the ahove-mentioned Don 
Ambrose Lamela, I the aforesaid Notary have protest- 
ed, as by these Presents I do sofemnly protest once, 
twice, thrice, and as oflen as by law is requisite, as well 
against the Drawer and Indorser of the said Bill of Ex- 
change as against all others whom it may concern, in 
addition to the principal amount of its value, for all 
Exchanges, Re-exchanges, Costs, Charges, Damages, 
Deficiencies, Loss, and Interests, which in any manner 
whatsoever have accrued or been occasioned, or that 
may hereafter accrue or be occasioned, for want of pay- 
m^it of the aforesaid Bill of Exchange. Done and 
Protested in Cadiz, on the Fourth . day of April, One 
thousand eight hundred and twenty-seven. This Don 
Ambrose Lamela s^ed, the witnesses being Don John 
Emanuel Romero and Don Lewis Gomez. Before me, 
Gil Perez. Coi^rmable to its ordinal in my Register, 
to which I ref^ myseH^ and in order to deliver to Don 
Ambrose Lamela, and at his request, I caused this copy 
tobeextraeted, which I s^ and snbBcribe in CacBz, on 
the day of the date thereof. 

OIL PEREZ. 

We, the mderwnftten Notaries Public of this City, do 
certify as far as- w« are able, that €Si Perez, by whom 
tile foregofng copy is granted, signed, and subscribed, is, 
as he styles himse)( a Notary Public, Member of the 
Society of Notaries of this City, feithful, legal, and of 
entire confidence^ and thai to all his similar acts fM 
faith and credit ever have been wad are given in judg- 
meml and thereout. In witness whereof we have 
granted these Presents in this said City of Cadiz, dated 
ui nipra, Andrew Corzuelos, Fabrice Nunez, Ferdinand 
Perez de la Fuente, Notaries Publia 



306 APPBNDIX. 



THE ENGUSH FORM OF THE PRECEDING 

PROTEST. 



On this Day, the Fourth of April, One thousand eight 
hundred and twenty-seven, at the request of Don Am* 
brosio Lamela, bearer of the First Bill of Exchange, 
whereof a true copy is on the other side written, I, Gil 
Perez of Cadiz, Notary Public, by Royal Authority duly 
admitted and sworn, exhibited the said First Bill of Ex- 
change to Don Antonio Bolsones, Clerk of Don Emanuel 
Peiia of this City, upon whom the same is drawn, and 
demanded payment of the same, (the time limited for 
payment since the presentation thereof by me the said 
Notary having elapsed,) whereunto the said Don An- 
tonio Bolsones answered, that Don Emanuel Pena was 
absent in the City of Seville, and that he the aforesaid 
Don Antonio was without orders or effects to pay the 
said Bill. Wherefore, I the said Notary, at the request 
aforesaid, have Protested, and by these Presents do 
solemnly Protest, as well against the Drawer of the said 
First Bill, as all others whom it may concern, for Ex- 
change, Re-exchange, and all Costs, Charges, Damages, 
and Interests, Suffered and to be Suffered, for want of 
payment of the said First Bill. Thus done and Pro- 
tested in Cadiz, in the presence of Don Juan Manuel 
Romero and Don Liewis Gomez. 

Quod AUestar^ 

GIL PEREZ 



OF VBRSIFICATIOK. 309 



OF VERSIFICATION. 



Haying in a former place explained the nature of the 
prosodial accent, and its service in pointing out, for the 
current pronunciation, the emphatic syllable in every 
word of more than one syllable, I have now merely 
to notice its peculiar service in Spanish poetry, syllabic 
emphasis being the chief standard by which the Spanish 
metrical feet are regulated. 

It has been already observed, that every Spanish word 
of more than one syllable contains one accented or em- 
phatic syllable ; but, in order more fully to understand 
the principle upon which Spanish verse is constructed, 
a few observations seem necessary. 

Firstf Monosyllables cannot be said, strictly speak- 
ing, to have, per «e, any syllabic emphasis. But in as- 
sociation in verse vnth other syllables, they may, accord- 
ing to the nature of the line, be either emphatic or un- 
emphatic ; some of them, however, seem more inclined 
to be emphatic than others, and vice versd ; and some 
are altogether tractable or pliant. 

Secondly^ Besides the common prosodial accent, it 
is often necessary to use another not equally strong, 
sometimes called the poetic accent, in order to preserve 
the measure, especially with polysUyables : thus, in pro- 
nouncing the word fortunddamente, which has the pre- 
dominant accent on the third syllable, we are compelled 
to lay an inferior degree of stress on the first and fiflh, 
forming thereby three trochees, and in the word afortu- 
nddamente^ which is accented on the fourth, we lay the 
inferior stress on the second and sixth, and by these 
means produce a line or rather word of three iambuses, 
hypermeter. 

Thirdly y It may be observed, that, through the natu- 
ral drift of the rhythm, the prose accent is sometimes 
compelled to bend to the poetical ; syllables naturally 
emphatic being passed over rather remissly, and unem- 



SIO 

phatic lyllables recemng* greater stress than their real 
nature strictly autboruBes. 

And, Lcudy^ Aithougfa Spanish Terse be regulated 
by emphasis, a certain balance of quantities essentially 
contributes to its general harmony. Where gravity 
and solemnity are intended in the measure, it will be 
ibund that long or important syllables pveponderate, and 
where the moYement is intended to be quick and liyely, 
there will be found to be a surplus of short or unimpor- 
tant syllables. 

Of the JDivisicn of Fme tteeording to the Feet. 

Verses are divided into lumbic^ Trochaic, and Anapet 
He, 80 named from the prevailing foot in each of them. 
The iambie consists of two syllables, tiie latter of which 
is eB^>hatie; at, iemSr^fdiz, U^mUtr^ft liz. The trockaic 
has its first emphatic and second unemphatic; as, tkmo, 
hikil^ ti-mo, hd'bU. The anapesUc has two unemphatic 
syllables followed by one emphatic ; as, oariddd^ corazon^ 
ca^ri-dddf oo-rO'xdn. 

Other feet might be mentioned, but they do not often 
occur. Iambics and trochaics are said to be in common 
time, anapestics in triple time ; the two former indeed 
may be considered as kindred measures, both belonging 
to the even cadence. Feet of three syllables are seldom 
introduced in the even cadence, or cadence in common 
time. 

In the iambic measuro, the syllabic emphasis is ge- 
nerally on the even syllables; in the trochaic, on the 
n&even or odd syllables ; and in the anapestic, on every 
third syllaUe. 

The unemphatic syllables will be distinguished by 
the mark of a short quantity ( "), and the emphatic hj 
(hat of a long quantity (')• 

The shortest ieardnc measure is an iambus hypermetei; 
or with double rhyme : 

Si tmtel^e. 

La fm\v€, 

Mas /e|ve, 

iiue &nm^ 



OF VBBBIFXCAaiON; Sil 



Spumdi keroicB we m Isxa^c measiaie, touarndBg of 
Ive ^t, aad, htmg generally m ckrajUe rhyioes, coataui 
eleren syllables; 

Pastd\re8 que \ <R$rmi»| en Ui \ mll^\4m, 
A Trochee is often introduoed as the first foot in Iam- 
bic verse ; and L<^de Vega frequently places a trochee 
in other parts of the tine ; but k never can -eonKCtly 
jfarni the last foot ; 

Graves | fmTn\M9 ^ \ mtmr { «&a|t»t 

Y qum\to el mar | Uuy\reU ««e|l9 ^nder|f» 

Si me \ qaieres j ifret\co & tu \ Mlle|2». 

The shortest Trodiaic measure consists of a trochee, 
and half a foot, with double rhyme; 

Claros I n[b«. 

In Trodiaic measure «& iambus scMaetioies is lalro« 

duced ; 

Nl me I ^&xa U\U£m\to 
Decir I (xmio \ que\do. 

Trochaic verses never exceed five foet, and seldom 
contain so many : the followii^ is an example of three 
feet yrith double rhymes : 

Hombre \ que nnlasco | 8or\ha, 

Antipe&tic verses are of different dimeasions ; but do 
not exceed four feet. The first syllable of the first §i^ 
is generally omitted : 

Los d|mmo5 dr\c^n en Dios \ dbriisd\dos. 

Of Rh^me. 

Rhymes may be either in couplets, the first and second 
line rhyming together, or they are alternate, the first and 
third, and the second and fourth, lespectively rfiyming. 
There are, too, other varieties, especially in irregular 
compositions. In rhymed verses the boundary of the 
line is easily observed in recitation. Where there is no 
rhyme, it must be distinguished chiefly by the final 
pause, which, wiien it does not eoin^de widi the sen- 
tential, is a pause merely of siispmsioa, there being no 
depression in the tone of die voice. 



SIS AFVBMDIX 

The Spaniuds have two sorts of rhyme* the cofuo" 
nanie or full rhyme; and the OKnumU or imperfect 
rhyme. The contonanU requires a similarity of letters^ 
from the last accent in both lines ; 

Puet de/mded d reyno roUroi b^Uos 

Que yo pondri la planta en vuestroe cu^Uos. 

The OBonante allows greater latitude, requiring a n- 
milarity of vowels only, while the consonants may be 
different ; thus, ligiro forms an oMonantt with cuhierto y 
amorei with noches ; mdones with azotet^ &c. 

The same word may be also used at the end of both 
lines, without infringing on the laws of rhyme, if it be 
taken in different meanings ; thus, sagrado^ sacred, may 
rhyme with iogrado, an asylum, &c. 

Of the Division of Verse according to the Rhyme. 

Spanish verses are arranged into three different 
classes, called Agudos, UanoM, and Eidruxolos. 

Agudoa or single rhymes have the accent on the last 
syllable; as, 

Mas aunque muerapor ti 
No U lo dare d entendSr: 
Por que no me quiero vSr, 
Como ie vt9te por mi, 

lAanoi or double rhymes are accented on the penul* 
timate) as. 

No mas, Ninfa cruel^ ya estas vengdda^ 

No pmebes iu furor en un rendidOf 

La culpa d casta mia estd pagdda^ 

Ablanda ya ese pecho endurecido^ 

Y resucita un alma sepultdda. 

En la tiniebla escura de tu olvido, 

Que no cabe en tu ser valor y suerte^ 

Que un pastor como yopueda ofenderte. 
Most of the Spanish verses belong to this class. 

Esdriixolos or triple rhymes have the accent on the 
antepenultimate; as, 

SUvano mto, tma c^ficion rarisima^ 
Una beldad^ que ciega luego en mendola^ 
Un seso y disarecion e^ekniisima. 



OF VBRiilPICATION. 313 

■ Con una didce hahla que en ayindola, 

g La8 duras peHas- muefoe enterneciendolas, 

t ^ Que seniiria un amador perdiSndola? 

There are also a few compositions in blank verse, of 
Mrhich the following lines from Boscan may serve as a 
specimen : — 

Canta con vox niave y dolorosa^ 
'- O musa, lo8 amores lastimeros, 

f Que en suave dolor fiteron criados : 

' CuTiia tambien la triste mar en medio, 

Ya Sesto de una parte, y de otra Abyde, 
I Y amm aod y olid yendo, y viniendo, 

Y aqueUa diligejUe lumhrecUla 
\ Testigo Jidl y dulce mensagera 

De dosjkles y dulees amadores. 
O mereeiente lux de «er estrella, 
lAidente y prinjcipal en las eatrelkUy 
' Que fiteron desde acd al cielo emnadoi^ 

Y akanzaron alld notables nomJbres, 
Pero comienza ya de cantar, Musa, 
Elproceso y el Jin de estos amantes: 
El mirar, d hablar, d mtenderse. 
El ir dd una, d esperar dd otro. 
El desear y d acudir conforme^ 

La lumbre muerta, y d Leandro nmerto. 
But the most curious of all the Spanish poetical com- 
positions, are certain species of verse^ wherein the conso' 
nanie falls about the middle of the next line, of which 
the following is a specimen, taken firom Garcilazo : 
Pastores que dormis en la majdda. 
En la cerrdda noche d sueno sublto^ 
Mirad resueUo el ayre tenebrSso 
En luminSso, alegre, y claro dia. 
La sombrafiia huye, d orizonte 
Dd alio mSnte bianco y encamddo 
Con d dorddo rayo respl/indSce : 
Ya no parkce esirdla en todo el cielo. 
El duro ySlo su rigor quebrdiUa : 
La tiema pldnta alfofares derrdma, 
Bcda d oordhro^ y d noviUo brama. 
Probably these lines may formerly have been arranged 
differently. 



9lt MPBNItUU 



To scan a verse is io divide it into its cons^tltuent feet. 
• The princlpa] difficulty attending^ the measuring^ ^f 
Spanish verses is experienced in words containingii com- 
bination of two vowels: this difficulty may, however^ be 
diminished by attending to the following remarks. 

When the prosodial aooent does not &11 xm either 
of the two vowels, ihej are reckoned a diphthoi^ : 
Dicho\90M v6id\trQ9 a qu^ J Jos jcm^\dot. 

When ^mo ^vowiek oone Ic^pether. and the fvosodial 
accent falls on the seoond, tfaef are then ako generally 
counted a diphthong: but if the accent is 4m die first, 
each vowel is generally reckoned. 

Los d\ntm68 ar}dea en Dide I 

Marila V%r\gett heWa fna\dryB hpe\i 

If the first ef two adjokinq^ vowels is a €««, they 
are generally counted separately : 

Que en vijda 5b qnem&|l« mfitelgo-amarvlw, 

N. B. 17 being the first, and preceded Isj g or g, is 
never counted unless marked 'vnlb the disresis: see the 
last example. 

Ue is also generally reclconed a diphthong in deriva- 
tives from a primttive, the first syllable of vr Mch con- 
tains one vowel ; as, ruego from rogtar ; mietto from 
soUar ; tnuero from morir ; wuevo from novedadj &c. 
IJfe San\ tos Varolnes al mim|do -yu muerltoff. 

When one word ends with a vowel, and the following 
begins also with a vowel, the first vowel is elided : 
Entro I con e|lla aquel | qiie tcm\to8 da\no^ 

If the accent falls on the final vowel of a word, it is 
in general not elided : 

Entro I 671 tt/i I jarcRn | Aeri|do de | amor. 

When the first word ends in a vow^ and the second 
begins with an A, the elision is optional : 
Ni al I terror \ 4e horreajiAa §ue\rra, 
8u dmory | puss no \ se hAn | htibld\do^ 
Yverls^hiax \ p6di\ds ^\naa, 

A vowel, in •geneFal, is not elided when it ie Ibllowed 
by 'y, used as a consofniMt : 

Do estdn\do 16% cuer\po8 cay |d6s e yhr\to9. 



OF VBMrFICATION. Sr]& 

When y is preceded liyai Towel^ it ia counted sepa- 
rately, if the accent falls on it. See the third foot in 
the last example, and 

Yqucm\1b el mar \ &§ty\ireel m|&» eneie\rra. 

The Spanish and Fdrtugaeae epic, or heroic, vwse, 
differs not from the English and Italian. But the dra* 
matic verse of the Spanish poets, whose dramatic works 
are abundant, is greatly different. It is the truncated, 
four-footed iambic verse, t e. an acephalous or headless 
iambic, which is in reality what is termed a three-footed 
trochaiCf called by the Spaniards Versos de pik quebrado 
or of a broken footy a &vQurite lyric measure of the 
Italian poets, but never used by them for dramatic 
dialogue : 



Quie 



damar\ga Id I verdad, 
ro ec?idr\lade ] la bo 
Y\Hal m\ma ^ | hml to 
E^cmdBr[la e» nijceciacL 



cas 

COt 



The- Spaai^ poets use it also commonly aa a lyric 
aeasur^, generally in stanzas of four verses, with imr 
p^aet or afon^aai^ rhymes; of which Bishop Percy has 
tlMr following specimen towards the end of hia Relics of 
Mamaat Eofglish Poetry : 

Bi^o i»r|<fc, rijo iwr|dfi^. 

Quan\tacvihf\po eni^\ se Im\na;^ 

De I Crt8tia\nos g | de Md\ro8y 

Mbier\iD9 por J la. dv\ra &spd\da» 
The imperfttetion of the rhyme» common among the 
Spanish poeta should apparently be atteibuted nfflther 
to negKgence nor unskiliulness in the poet, nor to a de- 
fect in the language : indeed, so far perhi^s from im- 
Joying imperfeetron, it mi^ rather imply perfection^ as 
it incBieates that the Spanish lyrical poetry wants less 
assistance from the adventitious ornament of rl\yme 
than other modem European languages 



f2 



316 APPENDIX. 

ON DERIVATION. 



Thb Spanish is a language which owes its origin 
to the Latin, with some mixture, however, of other 
languages, left either by the first settlers in the coun- 
try, or by subsequent invaders. That the Latin has 
principally contributed to its formation is manifest 
from the analogy between both languages, which is so 
close that it has enabled some Spanish authors to com- 
pose, in verse as well as prose, works which may justly 
be styled biUngues, 

As the knowledge of a language which claims so 
close an affinity to the Latin may be a desideratum with 
the classical scholar; and since, therefore, . whatever 
may tend to accelerate its acquisition to him, will not 
prove wholly unacceptable, the following remarks are 
submitted to his consideration. 

In attempting to trace Spanish derivations to the 
Latin origin, such words will be first noticed as have 
their terminations still preserved in its primitive form , 
next, the changes which the Latin vowels are apt to 
undergo ; and lastly, the consonants which are esteemed 
equivalent and commutable. But as several of thede 
deviations have been indispensably requi'site, conform- 
ably to the pronunciation of the Spanish language^ the 
following preliminary remarks seem to be not altogether 
unnecessary. 

Firdy t is always exchanged for c or 2 when the sound 
of either is equivalent ; as, gratia, gracia; ratio, razon. 

Secondly y ch before a or o is exchanged for c, and 
before e or i for qu ; as, charui;, caro ; chorus, euro ; 
cherubim, querubin; chirurgicus, quirurgico. 

Thirdly y Latin words beginning with a folio nred by 
another consonant have the s preceded by e ; but the 9 
only is suppressed when it precedes a soil c; as» 
spirit us, espiritu; scientia, ciencia. 

Fourthly^ No' other consonants than rf, I, «, r, », «r, ar, 
can end a Spanish word. 

Fifthly, No word can end with a double consonant. 

Sixthly, No consonants are duplicated except c,^9t, r» 



ON DBEIVATION. 317 

Of Words preserving the Latin termination. 

Spanish substantiyes and adjectives are frequently 
Latin ablatives in the singular, and in the plural Latin 
accusatives : as, missa, misaj misas ; modus, modo, mo^ 
do8 ; ars, arte, artes; caro^ carne^ carries; spiritus, 
espiritu, espiritus ; species, especie, espedes; molestus, 
moleato, molesta, molestosy mokstas ; prudens, prudente^ 
prudentes, 

N.B. If the noun is neuter, the Spanish plural takes 
the general inflection, or terminating consonant, of the 
declension to which the neuter noun belongs ; as, tem- 
plum, temploy templos ; auxilium, aua^flio, auxUios ; 
crimine, crimen, crimenes. 

Exceptions, 

^ Nouns of the fourth declension change the u into o in 
both numbers ; as, manu, manx), manos ; except spiritu 
and trfbu. 

Adjectives of two terminations exchange the i for e 
in the singular ; as, tristi, triste, tristes ; lev!, leve, leves. 

Adjectives in bUis drop the first i in both numbers ; 
as, amabili, amable, amables ; terribili, terrible, terribles. 

The last e or i of an ablative is often suppressed in the 
singular, when preceded by a single consonant which can 
end a word ; as, sale, sal, sales; pane, pan, panes; amore» 
a/m/or, amoves ; vili, vil, idles ; docili, dScil^ dSciles, If 
the remaining final consonant is r, it is sometimes ex- 
changed for I, especially when the accent does not fall 
on the last syllable ; as, arbore, drbol, drboles; carcere, 
cdrcel, cdrceles; marmore, mdrmol, mdrmoles. 

If, after the suppression of the final e, the consonant 
is inadmissible as final, it is necessarily changed ; 
hence ce is exchanged for z ; as, pace, paz, paces ; cer- 
vice, cervix^ cervices; ge for y, in both numbers; as, rege, 
rey, reyes ; lege, ley, leyes ; and te, when it is preceded 
by ta or tu, into d, in both numbers ; as, potestate, 
potestad, potestades; virtute, virtud, virtwies; and if 
the antepenultimate syllable of a noun ends in a vowel, 
the penultimate t is often likewise exchanged for d ; as, 
pietate, piedad, piedades ; caritate, caridad^ caridades ; 
humilitate, humildadt humildades. 



Iiilin laSaMrem,* partk«l«iiy thASA of the first eon- 
Jngatioiiv often become Spanish infinitives, by only 
deopping the last vowel ; as, amare, amar ; dare« dar$ 
stase, mUw ; ponere^. jKULer ; dormire, dormir. 

Of the ^eeamomal Ch€mgfia of the Fowek 

The following are the changes in the vow^ most 
finequently oibservAble : 

Of a fiw e; as, tiacto,, IraeAo ; ku$, Uobe. 

Of 4m iSat q; 9% auroi, •roj Uiiro» taro; maura, 

VtOFOm 

Of e for a, for i, or for m;i aa^ fremere,. bramar; 
equalis, igiuU ; scribere, etcribir^ terra^ tierra; dente, 
diente ; meta^ miedo. 

Of i for e ; as; infirmo, enfirma / tiinev, iemmr; ilia. 

Of for c, or for mc; .as, fronte, frenie; forte, fiarte; 
nostro, nueitro; absolvo, abnteho. 

N. B. When an hiitiar o is thus changed, the word 
must be preceded by an h ; as, os, hneso ; oro, kueBO. 

Of ufoT o ; as, musca, mosca ; unda, onia ; dieto, 
dichtr; lecto, ^cho. 

When one of the vowels of a diphthong is retafaaed, 
ft is generally the second; as, eetate, edad; tttdio, ioih^ 
setemo, eterTio ; coelo, cido. 

Of the CmwertibiUty of Cofisonants, 

With respect to the changes which consonants mnSer- 
go in derivation, the following general remarks are- not 
undeserving of notice : 

(1.) 5, Vj f, p-^ are consicfered as equivalent ; as, ntdh, 
napo ; ahiertOy aperto ; ahrUj aprilf ; hrwrnido, fremtta ; 
xsiboray vipera ; rohar^ rapere ; setbovy sapore ; saber^ 
sapere ; soplar, sufflare ; trebol, trifolio, 

(2.) c, ch, g, y, g, y, are considered equivalent and 
commutable. Amigo, anuco; arcUla, argilTa; Utgo^ 

• The other parts of a verb m^ be se«n in the Table of regotar 
inflections at page 142; or fn the Paradigms of tfae-iiregufiu^vertai 



ON DBRIYATION. S19 

\&co ;fuego, foco; agua^ aqua; «oA«r, ejiceie; techa^ 
te^a ; techo^ tecto ; arquUlo, arculo ; calidad, quali- 
late ; cocer, coquere ; cotidiano^ quotidian o ; queso^ 
caseo ; gritar, quiritare ; monge, monacho ; pregon^ 
preconio ; jatda, caula ; ayudar, adjuvare ; ayunar^ 
jigonare ; yo, jam ; ytuier^ jacere ; yefo, gelu ; yema 
gemma; y^s ego; yugo^ jugo ; TnajadOy magalia; lentefa^ 
I^nticulo. 

(3.) (2, U z, ace considered equivalent and commut- 
able: Agudo^ acuto;. hondady bomtate ; nrndar^ mu- 
tare ; medir, metire ; red, rete ; aalud, salute ; cabeza^ 
capite ; pozOy puteo ; razon, ratio ne ; juzgar, judicare. 

(4.) I is conyerted into j and g, Cons^'o, consilio ; ' 
tibeja, apicula; nuyar^ malleare; ajo, qcuIo; orela, 
auricula ; mugtry mulier. 

(5.) c, fi pf are eonyerted into I when they precede 
that letter ; as, Uanutr, clamare ; UavCy clave ; llama, 
fiamma; Uaga, plaga; Uanto, plancto ; Uorar^ plorare; 
Unwia^ pluvia. 

(6.) / is conyerted into h ; as, hahcb^ iaba ; kacer, 
facere ; hcidx), fato ; heno^ foeno ; herir, ferire ; kid, fel ; 
higo^ fico ; huir, fiigere; hurto; furta. 

(7.) m ia converted into »; as, linfa^ lympha; tan, 
tarn. 

(d.) gn, 7i7», 97171, are converted into »; as, hrh^ 
ligno ; ano, anno ; otono, autumno ; sueno, somno. 

It may likewise be added, that in derivation words 
are sosietimes ibund leagtbened, aAd at other times 
abridged ; ain esperanzett spes ; eorazmiy cor ; aptamente, 
SLptk ; optimameniey optime ; comer, comedere ; tos, 
tussis; oir, audire; velar, vigilare; ya,}axa; mcLS, magis. 

]V(any otlaes peculiarities of the language might have 
Wen noticed ; but these are the BiASt important to any 
one wha is solicitous to gain a knowledge of the 
Spanish. 

The tbUowing' abstract is aanexed to exhibit the inti- 
omt* pelaftioBship and resemblance subsisting between 
the LaChfr and tilo Spainsft* as wdl as sevwul other 
modem languages. 



320 



APPENDIX 



LUKE, Chap. XV. 



LATIN. 



11 Homo quidam 
[w/iiit] kabuit duo$ Ji" 
iiott 

12 Ei dixit adolet' 
MM/iorri|Mttor] ex ilU$ 
patri, Paier, da miAi 
portionem wbttantia 
fitm me eontingU. Et 
aivitit iUittmUtetntiam, 

13 Et non pat mtd" 
tat diet, congregatit 
[eoHJUHCtit] omnihutf 
adoteioentiorJUiutper' 
egri profectut ett in 
regionem Icnginquam, 
et ibi dittipavit ttf6- 
ttantiam tuam vivendo 
iuxurioti. 

14 Etpoitquamom* 
ma [^tottmi] cotumnp' 
iiieetf/actaeet [tupef' 
venit^ /amet valida 
Lgrandi»\ in regione 
tlld, et ipte eeenit egere 
[eMe indigewt\, 

15 Etabiitetadhm' 
nt uni civium regionie 
iiiiuis et mitit [man" 
dsot/j Uhan in viliam 
mam ut paeeeret par- 



SPANISH. 

1 1 Un hombre bu- 
bo dos bljos : 

12 Y el menor de 
ellos dixo k su padre, 
Pfedre, dame la por- 
cioa de substaocia que 
me toca [touehet E.l : 
y dividi6 & ellos la sub- 
staocia. 

13 Y Qodespues de 
muchos dias, juntan- 
dolo todo, el hijo me- 
nor peregrin^ & una 
region Icjana, y alU 
dissip<) stt substancia 
viviendo luzuriosa- 
mente. 

14 Ydespues quelo 
bubo consumido todo, 
sobrevino una hambre 
grande en aquella re- 
gion, y a empez6 & 
estar iodigente. 



f. 



16 Et cupiebatlde^ 
tidereAat] implereven* 
trem nmm de utiquie 

CI pmrci manduca* 
[comedeUmt'l » ^' 
nemo Hii dabat, 

n ^ »e autem r«- 
verfMf, dixit, Quanii 
m^reenarii m domo 
[oaM] patriiimei a6iai- 
dant panibut, ego om- 
iem Me/amepereof 



15 Y fu£ y recurri6 
se adhiri6] & uno de 

OS ciudadanos de a- 
quella region; y le 
mand6 k su villa para 
que apacentase puer- 
cos. 

16 Ydeseaba llenar 
su Tientre de las gar- 
robas que los puercos 
comian; y nadie le 
daba. 

17 Y Tuelto en sf, 
dizo, \ Quantos mer- 
cenarios en easa de 
mi padre abundan en 
pan, mas yo aquf pe- 
rezco de bambre ! 



PORTUGUESE. 

1 1 Hum bomem tin- 
ba dous filhos ; 

12 E Qisse o mais 
mo9o delles a sea pay, 
D&me a parte da fa* 
zenda aue me perten- 
ce ; e elle Ihes reparti<S 
a fazenda. 

13 E despois de nao 
muitos dias, ajuntan- 
do filho mais mo^o 
tudo, parti68e a hu& 
terra muy longe, e alt 
desperdi9ou sua fazen- 
da, vivendo disoluta- 
roente. 

14 E des que j« te- 
ve tudo desperdi9ado, 
veyo hua grande fome 
naquella terra, e co- 
me^ou a padecer ne- 
cessidade. 

15 £ foi e ache- 
gouse a hum dos cida- 
daos daquella terra ; o 
qual o maadou a sua 
quinta para que apa- 
centasse os porcos. 

16 E desejava en- 
cber seu ventre das 
mondaduras que co- 
miao OS porcos; mas 
nioguem Inas dava. 

17 E tornado em 
si, disse, Quantos jor- 
nalaros de mea pay 
tern abuBdanda de 
pam, e en aqui pere- 
90 de fome 1 



a 

I 



ON DERIVATION. 



321 



ITAUAN. 

\i Un uomo 
due tlgUuoli : 



FRENCH. 

avea 11 Un homme avoit 
deux fils: 



12 Ed il pill gio va- 
ne disse al padre, Pa- 
dre dammi, la parte 
dell' avere la quale 
mi tocca. II padre 
dunque sparti loro le 
facolta. 

13 E pochi giorni 
ftppresso, il figliaolo 
piu giovane, raccolta 
ogni cosa, se ne andd 
in viaggio in paese lon- 
tano ; ed ivi dissipd le 
sue facolU, vivendo 
dissolutamente. 



12 Et le plus jeune 
dit H son p^re, Mon 
pere, donne-moi la 
part du bien qui m'ap- 
partient: et il leur 
partagea ses biens. 

13 Et peu de joun 
apres, quand le plus 
jeune fils eut tout ra- 
mass^j il s'en alia de* 
hors en un pays 6Ioi- 
ga€ ; et U il dissipa 
son bien en vivant 
prodigalement. 



ENGLISH. 

1 1 A certain 
had two sons : 



12 And the younger 
of them said to his 
father, Father, give 
me the portion of 
goods that falleth to 
me. And he divided 
unto them his living. 

13 And not many 
days aher, the younger 
son gathered all to* 
gether, and took his 
journey into a far 
countiy, and . there 
wasted bis substance 
with riotous living. 



' 14 E, dopo ch'egli 14 Et apres qu'il 14 And when he had 

ebbe speso ogni cosa, eut tout d6pens^, une spent all, there arose a 

una gran carestia ven- grande famine survint mighty famine in that 

ne in quel paese ; tal- en ce pays*U : et il land ; and he began to 

che egli comincio ad commen9a d'etre dans be in want, 

averbisogno. ladisette. ' 



15 Ed andatoj si 
mise con uno dc* ter- 
razzani di quella con- 
trada; il quale io 
mando a' suoi campi, 
a pasturare i porci. 

* 16 Ed egli deside- 
rava d'empiersi il cor- 
po deile silique, che 
1 porci mangiavano : 
ma niuno gliene dava. 

17 £ ritornato a 
se medesimo, disse, 
Quanti mercenaj di 
mio padre hanno del 
pane largamente, ed io 
mi muojo di fame ! 



15 Alors il s'en alia 15 And he went and 

et se mit avec un des joined himself to a ci- 

habitans du pays ; qui tizen of that country ; 

I'envoya dans ses pos- and he sent him into his 

sessions pourpaitre les fields to feed swine, 
pourceaux. 



16 Et il d^siroit de 
remplhr son ventre des 
carouges que les pour- 
ceaux mangeoient ; 
mais personne ne lui 
en donnoit. 

17 Or, ^tant rehtr^ 
en lui-m^me, il di^ 
Combien y a-t-il de 
mercenaires dans la 
maison de mon pere, 
qui ont du pain en a^ 
bondance, et moi je 
meurs de faim ! 



16 And he would 
fain have filled his bel« 
\j with the husks that 
tne swine did eat ; and 
no man gave unto him. 

17 And when he 
came to himself, h« 
said. How many hired 
servants of my father 
have bread enough and 
to spare, and I perish 
with hunger ! 



LATIN. 

18 Smymm.^me le* 
vabol et wo t^Ptitrem 

_ J _ ^« • 1^ 

itr,peccmmmm, [ mm t^' l 
eaimn et coram [anie] 

\^ Etjmm 
Jifmismomiii 

mi mmm^dt 




Simm9mm[mi^ 
1} vemi ad. pattern 
Cttm iittt^m iiirfi 
kae temge ouat^viditii*' 



mricai'did moiua ct^ctf 
foecidit. 

tffuSf 9t 

21 DixUque eiJUiut, 
Pator, poeomm.m OSor- 
kam e^ coram to;.Jmm 
mom Mvr di^fmar vocani 



SPANISH. 

18 Me levantar^ € 
ir6 & BIT p«dre, y le 
4M,. Pidre^ pequ^ 
contra el Ci^ y aate 
ti, 

IS Yyanoioydi^r- 
■ode aer Uumido tu^ 
je tttjo.: hauote como 
Luao de tus nutfcena.- 
rios. 

20 Y levantandose 
vino- & an padre Como 
aiia eaUiviest: lejo% U 
i«6 ■& padrt, y mwl* 
^de la aoistriconUa) 
eomendo & 61 cayd 
aabra su. ontifl^ 7 Itt 



PORTUGUESE. 

18 LeraDtarme het 
e irme' fier a* men pay; 
• dirlhe hei, ny, 
contra o Gfl« « pOTwte 
ti pequei, 



21 Y el hijo le dixo^ 
6iMbre» p«%u^ cMtra 
el Gielok y aoto il; ya 
no scfT ai9&» d6 



19 JanaoAoiL 
de ser chamado teufil- 
bo: fioerae comaa bua 
de tens jpmaleiBiM. 

20 £ levantandoM 
hiaaseapay. X oomo 
auuda eatiTcsse d* Job* 
gs, vio*o Sftu pay ^ « 
moveui-fle dfr intinta 
compaixao, e cormado 
para eike desnboii-M 
wbre aeu peica^o, • 
beijoa-o. 

21 £ o filbo Ihe dis- 
m, Pof^, GOBtra (X Ceo 
ft peraate ti paquei^ 
jai nao Boii>digB4»>de sm 
cbamadA taaflttKV 



22 Disd autem pa- 22 Mas el padM 22 Mas o-W dint 

ier ad aervot muob, CHto dixo fi sus 'siervos^ Sa- a sens servos, llrai o 

p9>^hii» atof — 1. [var/i- cad «l optuno vestido^ principal, vatido,. e 

OTM^Mfn] pmanam [op» y vitatidlfty, y pon«d v6sti-«; e ponde aael 

li»MMit>] otUtduito MMt* dnillo eoi aa aHUMky y em. suaimaio^ e fapaUw 

Ui^ iUmm^ otdrnti^jMOf cakada^ea-aaspiatir em vnapes,. 
niu^ ammdamn. in. mo*- 



num ejus, et caicea- 
menta in pedeo lyus : 

29:Etiaddmoite[am- 23^ Y coodttctd: la 23 £ tiaBeir a be. 
claatia] Minims oagA- vilela.gorda, y autadv larro gordo^ a mataio.; 



[ 



et ooeidito lai; y eemambs y teokr a conuunoiy « ^iegftr 
] /' et mamduf lemmot [regaie £.} j 
[oomodammlot 
epulemur : 

24 quia Mk fiUue 2A Poiqua esta hijo 
mneui moetuuo faerai, mvD estaha Bwerto, y 
otreviofU^porieralfOt rnvvti^; sahabia pei> 
moomtmest, IStoape^ (fido^yeshaUado* Y do, e he achado. £car 

•..enuno t ngf. m.f»o5^«,«l«6rM.. 
larseb 

A feitr trhfiai aiteratiom Aovr Bee» made Jn the old Spanish 
trantiaiion, the more to a mmik dO'tke two iemffuages* 



24 PoEqiieesternea 
filha morto eia» e cft- 
viveo ; tinha se penfip 



ON DBRIVATION. 323 

ITALIAN. FRENCH. ENGUSH. 

18 lo mi lererd e 18 Je me leverai et 18 I will arise and 
me ne juidrC a mio m*cji icai vers mon go to my fattier^ and 
padre, e ^li diro. Pa- pere, et je lui dirai, will say unto him, Fa- 
dre, iu ho peccato con- Mon pere, T-ai p(§ch^ ther,. 1 have shmed 
tra il Cielo e davanti a contre le 'del et de- against Heaven and 
te, -vaiit toi, be£one tliee, 

19 fi iioa sone ^« .19 £t je ne suis plus 19 And am Jio jnonB 
degno d' .esaer cliaa- digne d'dtte appall^ worthy to be called thy 
mato tuo figKufldo: tcnfils: fai»*moi com* son : onake me as . one 
fammi come uno de' me ft Pun de tes mer- of thy hired servants, 
tuoiniencenij. cemmfes, 

SO £gli dunqve le- 20 11 «e 4eva dsae 90 Jknd ht mnm 

vatosi, venn^ a suo et vint vers son pere. and came to his fttfaer. 

padre. Ed, esseado .£t coiiMne il 6toit en- But when he was yet 

egli aacera lontanoy flore loin, son ,pere le a great way off, his 

RUG padre Uo vide, jb ne vit^ et fut touch6 de father saw him, -and 

fu mosso A gran pie- conyiassioa, et cou- had compassion, and 

tft; e, corse, gU «i rant ft lui, se jett^ ft son ran, and fell on his 

getto al collo, e k> ba- cou, et le balsa. necl;;, and kissed him. 
cio. 

dl fid U ^liadD ai Mate le fils .lui 21 And the simsaid 

gU disse, Padve, io riio di^ Mod pere, i'4d unto him. Father, I 

peccato ooatra il Cis^ .p^&6«oontre le Cielet have sinned against 

to e davanti a te; e devant toi: et je ne Heaven and in thy 

non sono pin degoe d' ^mda plus digne d'^tne sight ; and am no more 

esser ohiamato too£- appeili tan.fils. worthy to he called thy 

gliuolo. son. 

22 Ed il padre diaas 122 Et le pdre dit ft 22 But the father 
a' suoi servitori, He- ses serviteurs, Appor- said unto bis servants, 
cate fiiori la principal tez la plus belle robe. Bring forth the best 
veste, e vestitelo ; e et I'en revStez, -et robe, and put it «n 
inettetegli un anello mettez lui un anneau him ; and pat a ring on 
in dite, e delle acarpe au doigt, et des sou- his hand, and shoes on 
He* piedi : liers ft ses pieds : his feet : 

23 E conducete il 23 Et junenez-moi 23 And bring hither 
vitello ingrassato, ed le veau gras, et le tuez; tne fatted cdlf, and 
ammazzatek); e mm- et lesens beaiie chdz» kill it; and let >« eat 
giamo, e nllcjgriamoci. en le maiigeant j and be merry : 

24 Perchd qnesto ^24 CirnionillSique* 'M Sor 'thta iny son 
Inio figliaolo era mor- voici 6toit mort, mais was dead, and is alive 
to, ed e tomato a vita ; il revit ; il 6toit perdu, again ; he was lost, and 
era perduto, ed d sta- mais il est retronv6. is found. And they 
to ritrovato. £ si mi- Et ils commencerent ft began to be merry, 
•ero a rallegrarsi. faire bonne chere. 

THB Ein>. 



'* Jcstice compelc us to. say, that this is the most complete Spanish 
Grammar extant for the use of EngUshmeo. It fully performs the 
promises in the title-page." — British Nepfune, Aug. 18i2. 

*' We think this Grammar decidedly preferable, in its arrange- 
ment, to the one commonly used ; nor is its arrangement only su- 
perior, its contents are likewise more valuable and more suited to the 
wants of a learner.*'-^ C^Verja/ Magazitte, Maif I8l2. 

" So far as a cursoiy inspection may be supposed to enable us, we 
think favourably of this performance.'*— -i^t/erary Ptmarama, Jtme 
1813. 

" The author has paid more than ordinary attention \f^ the subject 
of pronunciation. The rules are laid down with brevity and distinct* 
ness, and sufficiently illustrated by examples ; and in short we think 
that this work of Mr. M*Honry will be a useful guide to those who 
wish to form an acquaintance with the language of Spain." — Critical 
Jieview, July 1812. 

'"Hie author is eminently qualKled for the task which he has 
undertaken, and which he has performed with equal ability and sue 
cess. He has certainly produced the most generally useful Grammar 
of the Spanish language which we have seen. His rules are plain 
and easily intelligible ; his method is simple and perspicuous ; and bis 
explanations are such as greatly to facilitate, the acquisition of the 
Spanish tongue to those who have not the means of procuring the 
assistance of a master." — jintijcuiohin Reviewy Biatf 1612. 

" Considerable pains are taken in this Grammar in stating the rules 
by which the construction of Spanish sentences is governed \ and we 
think that some of the author's ehicidations, particularly those in 
which he discriminates between the use of the verbs Ser and E^ar^ 
p. 135, and of the tenses of the subjunctive, p. 240, will prove 
satisfactory and useful."— >3fon/A/y Review, July 1815. 



The Author, having' been frequently soHdted by 
strang^ers to direbt them in the choice of an English 
SpaniRh Dictionary, has no hesitation to declare, that 
Neuman's Dictionary is, decidedly, entitled to tb 
preference. 



LONDOH : PRXMTXD BY W. CLOWXS, STAMrOBO tTKIBT. 




WORKS ON EDUCATION, 

FUBUtHBD BT 

OLIVER & BOYD, EDINBURGH : 

SOLD ALM BY 

SIUFKIN & MARSHALL, STATIONERST-HALL-COURT, LONDON; 

WILLIAM CURRY, JUN. & CO. DUBLIN; 

WILLIAM GRAPEL, LIVERPOOL; DAVID ROBERTSON, GLASGOW; 

W. BLACKWELL h CO., SYDNEY; W. JACKSON, NEW YORK; 

C. H. BELCHER, HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA; 
AND ALL OTBBR BOOKSBLLEBS. 



The high character which many of the School-Books contained in the follow- 
ing List have acquired in every part of the United Kingdom, has induced the 
PublisherB to exert themselves still farther in im^roving^ their selection, both 
with respect to matter and style. The preparation ot such Manuals as ap- 
peared to be desiderata in the great business of Education was committed to 
individuals not only of established reputation as authors, but whose experience 
in teaching at the same time fitted tnem to produce works which could not fail 
to be higmy useful. Although the School-Books tlms furnished were irom the 
first arranged according to the most approved methods, the Publishers have 
nevertheless at all times kept steadily m view the possibility of improvement ; 
and while no means for that purpose have been neglected, the sug^stions of 
practical men have, above aO others, invariably met with the most attentive 
consideration. The works subjected to revisal nave been carefully accommo- 
dated to the advanced state oTknowledg^ ; the most authentic sources have 
been examined ; and no change has been admitted, nor any event recorded, that 
was not stamped with undoubted accuracy. While acting under these ira. 
pressions, the Publishers have at the same time preserved such a neat and 
correct style of typography, as will at once gratify the Teacher, and be of no 
little advantage to the Leuner. 



A MANUAL of ENGLISH GRAMMAR, Philosophical and 

Practical; with Exerdses; adapted to the Analytical Mode of Tuition. For 
the Use of Schools, or of Private Students. By the Rev. J. M. MCulloch, 
A. M., Minister of Kelso ; Author of ^ A Series of Lessons, in Prose and 
Verse^ progressively arranged," ^ A Course of Elementary Reading in Science 
atad Literature,** ftc Just published* ISnuv l8» 6d. bound. 

TbU Work Is an attempt to ftimish a SchooUGrammar of the English tongue suffi- 
cientlj scientific in its principlet, and comprehensive in its details, to meet the exl- 
gendes of the present advanced and daily improving method of Elementary Teaching. 

The Jlrtt great otaleet has been to exhibit Grammar as a science rather than an art. 
The student who takes the present Manual as his guide, will be led to perceiveb that 
Grammar is a digest of facts, not a system of rules ; that the usages of speech are to 
the Grammarian what the phenomena of nature are to the philosopher ; and that, as 
it is the business of the latter not to prescribe laws for the goTcmment of the pliysical 
world, but simply to deduce them fh>m existing appearances, so it is the province of the 
former not to dictate what usages ought to be, but simply to discover what they are. 



WORKS ON EDUCATION. 






The Author** next obj«ct hu been to present the variouf dWItiont of the sufanect in 
their due and relative proportiont. Ortfaographf, DerlTation, and Arrangement, 
which In the common elementary books are either wholly omitted or very briefly dis- 
cussed, have liad that prominence assigned to them which their place in the aystem 
requires I while some other branches, as Construction and Prosody, which are in ge^ 
neral needlessly expanded, have been reduced to their proper dimensions. Derivation, 
In particular, has been Illustrated with that fulness of detail, to which its vaat import- 
ance, as wen as the attention it has of late attracted from Teachers, entitles It. 

In thus endeavouring to malie the Work somewhat more exact in point of principle 
and arrangement than roost of those which have preceded it, the necessity, howwer, 
has never l>een oMrlooked of combining practical utility with scientific precision. 
The Definitions and Rules, designed to be committed to memory, have l>een studious- 
ly expressed with brevity and simplicity ; and the Grammatical Exercises appended to 
each separate branch have been made as copious and varied as was compatil>le with the 
restricted limits of a cheap School-book. 

The Author has dissented ftx)m the opinions commonly held by Grammarians as sel. 
dom as possible, and In no case without being convinced that philost^ical accuracy 
would havel)cen compromised by a difft>rent procedure. The rejection of the Article 
as a separate Part of Speech can scarcely be considered an innovation, as this distinc- 
tion has rarely been claimed for it on any other ground than that of praeHpth/e right. 
The transference of a few words, commonly arranged under the head of Pronouns, to 
the class of Numeral Adjectives, is a bolder change; yet it will scarcely be coisured 
as uncalled fbr, by any one who has either reflected maturely on the principles which 
regulate the classiflcation of Words, or perused with attention the reasonings which 
Dr Crombic has urged In its vindication. The Author's view of the Verb is supported 
by the very high reputation of Dr Hunter of St Andrews, from whose profound and 
beautiAil speculations on the Tenses it is in substance borrowed. 

That the Author has not relinquished received doctrines flrom any afftetation of ori- 
ginality, will be apparent fVom the liberal use which he has made of the labours of his 
predecessors. In particular, it gives him pleasure to have an opportunity of recording 
his ol>lig8tions to the able works of Crombie and Webster, and especially to Dr Hunter, 
to whose admirable lectures on Universal Grammar he holds himself indebted fbr nearly 
all that is philosophical and comprehensive in his ideas on this interesting subject. 

CRITICAL NOTICES, 

" This Is a very praiseworthy attempt to place the prindplcs of Grammar before the pupil, 
in pnefsrenoe to its arbitnuy rules. Mr M'Culloch's Covrae of Elementary Readings and bis 
Leuotu in Prose and Verte, have already distinguished him among the teacfaen of the riniu 
Keneration. We have no less reason to be satisfled Avitb the little work befiore us than wito 
those of which we have long since expressed a favourable opinion."— iirlos. 

" No school-book has of late been more wanted than a Manual of English Grammar, adapted 
to the improved methods of teaching, and treating the subject not as an art but as a sdence. 
Most of the text-books in common use are either so meagre as to be in a great measure unintel- 
ligible, or so full of erroneous vlewa as to have a tendency rather to perpetuate inaccuracies of 
language than to preserve' its purity ; while all of them have been compiled on the false princi- 
ple, that it is the business of the Grammarian to prencribe arbitrary rules for the expresaien of 
thou|^t||ifiStead of merely collecting the usages of speech and writing, and from these dedocfaig 
their general principles. It was therefore with the greatest pleasure that we saw tfaeuiiMKum- 
ment of this little work by Mr M'CuUoch, whose experience as a public teacher, success as a 
compiler of school-books, and varied and extensive learning, were the surest pledces that he 
would bring to the composition of it the necessary practical and philological knowledge. We 
regard this Manual of English Grammar as decidedly the best hook of the kind in the language ; 
and if we arc not greatly mistaken, we shall soon see it supenede the defective and inaocozatc 
abridgments at present used in our schools."— IVeiCyttfrian Raoiew, 

" This is without exception the beat English Grammar that has yet been pobUshed. For 
brevity of expre{«ion, and cothprehensix'eness of plan and arrangement, it is superior to every 
othor woric of the kind. We have not the least doubt that it will entirely supersede, not only 
Lennie's Principles of English Grammar, but Lindley Murray's more respectable work itself; 
and become the standard Manual for dementaiy teaching in all schoola.^— SMipAan's JUia- 
burgh Eedeaitutical Journal* 

" We hare not the least hesitation in saying, that this Is by fkr the best Manual of English 
Orammar at this moment extant. It is decidedly at on«e move full, more oomidete, and moie 
judicious thanany similar work with which weareaoquainted.— Into each of thedepartmenti nc\r 
modes of illustration have been introduced, and in every instance these are singularly happy and 
judidous. Those that embrace Etymology and DeriAration, in partlcttlar, areoxecuted in a most 
masterly manner.— We have no doubt whatever that Mr M'Cullocfa's little Manual will sup- 
plant every other treatise of a similar nature now in use hi the schools."— Scotsman. 



WORKS ON EDUCATION. S 



" We have no doubt tbat it will raconunend Itadf and become popular as a tchool-book 
whcrevtf it Is known.*'— JfiHfibUf^ Advertiser, 

" In this valuable little work we have a clear and aatisfkctorjr exposition of the rules of gram- 
mar, illustrated by their practical application. The author ia evidently deeply vened in the 
philosophy of languafe, and his opinions respecting disputed points are both original and just. 
The definitions and rules are chanu:teriied by a brevity and perspicuity which render them in- 
tellixible to the most ordinary understanding, and the work is at once so philosophical and prac- 
tical, that it may be perused with equal advantage by the teacher and by the student. It is 
altogether the mast able and satiaikctory of any elementaiy production of the kind with which 
we are acquainted.*!— jBdM&ut^ Obterver* 

" We have seldom perused a school-book with more pleasure, and certainly never with more 
pnAt. than the Manual ofBnglUh Grammar, The rules are distin^ished for brevity and 
simplicity, and the illustrations are obvious to the dullest comprehenMon. To teachers, and 
private students, we recommend it as the only woilc of the kind which gives a complete and 
phUosophicai view of the English language."— iBdtnfrurgft Evening Poet, 

** This is a clever little work, and seems well calculated to serve the purposes ibr which it is 
intended. It posiessea several advantages over the elementary grammars in common use, in 
the pen^cuity of itt arrangement, and the deameas of ite lulea. It is well worthy the atten- 
tion of all who are employed in the tuition of youth.'*— G/oqeou; Courier. 

** Without being a mere copyist, the author has availed himself of the labours of previous 
Grammarianf, and in many instances he has thrown out new and striking views of portions of 
Grammar, which appear to have been hitherto misconceived or neglected. The Manuai, there- 
fore, merits, and we asva no doubt will enjoy, extensive popularity."— Scots Times. 

" We recommend the present Manual for public teaching or private study, as snpeiior to any 
treatise of the kind that has pieeeded it. It ought to be in the hands of every person who at- 
tempu to write the English language."— Gtosgoco J^Vee Preu* 

** After a caretol examlnatkn, we are fully convinced of the molt of this new attempt to fa- 
cmute the studv of English Gnunnuur.— The copiousness of the department which treats of the 
llerii^tion of Words, u to us one of the strongest recommendations of the volume."— Greenoc* 
mMltgeneer, 

" This little work will be found to contain every thing requisite to enable an Englishman 
to obtain a complete knowledge of his native tongue. The rules are remarkably penpieuous 
and weU-defined, and the exercises are copious and admirably fitted fox the present advanced 
nate of education. We are particularly pleased with the author's method of simpfifying the 
Verb, and of freeing it from the obscurities which have hitherto defaced our SchooHnam- 
mars ; and we are glad to see that that part of the work which treau of the Derivat&im of Words 
has received the attention so JusUy due to its importance."— I>un0-<«« Courier. 

" This is another and a very valuable contribution to what may be called the system of rs- 
ttonal education— meaning by this, that method of teaching which reasons with the pupil, and 
compels him to learn nothing that he does not comprehend— which is not satisfied with burden- 

iOg the fnfmtnnr %tAth*a%* Mnnulvkntn^ »h<> ln».11o<^ .Ka* •».*<nvi (n .km-* ii<hl«h /Ia>I« with the 




disciple „ 

M'Culloch has already i-..«««»« ^.„i.. ..«.<>.». „...». ....|~. .»..^, — , 

opinion, can be compared vrlththe present Manual.— In this little yet comprehensive volume, 
the author has conveyed. In plain and pleasing language, an epitome of the principles of Eng- 
lishGranunar, as accurate and philosophical aa it is simple and easily intelligible. He has pro- 
duced a work which must divest Grammar of much of the repulsive character that it usually 
presents to the learner, and which will, we do not hesitate to predict, very soon become widely 
popular, and supersede all the impcrfea Grammar-books now In use. '1 hese it surpasses alike 
in literary as in typographical merit— in comprehensiveness as in cheapness."— ^berdsen Observer. 

" The clearness of the arrangements, and the excellence of the rules and illustrations, render 
it at once easy of comprehension and complete. We may congratulate the learned and Indefa- 
tigable author on having composed the best introductory Manual of English Gramnyr^iax at 
present exists."— JntFemei* Cburier. ^ 

'* We entertain no doubt that this Manual will, as we think It deserves to do, sopersede in 
our schools every other compendium of English Grammar hitherto published."— /Mio Mail. 

** We have much pleasure in recommending this Improved, and, in a great degree, original 
little work, to all preceptors and guardians of youth ; and we can assure them, that it ii admir> 
I ably adapted to the analytical mode of tuition, and well suited for the ux of schools and of pri- 

vate tutors. Sufllciently scientific in its principles, and abu ndantly comprehensive in its detuls. 
It meets the exigencies of the rapidly improvmg method of elementary teaching."— /<X/SMMre 
Journal. 
f 

f '* We can with oonfldenoe bestow on this elegant little volume our best recommendation. 

f The author has an intimate acquaintance, not only ^vith the constructton, and the peculiar laws 

I of our language, but with the phltosophical principles on which these laws ai« founded, and 

hence he has been enabled to introduce into his work a great variety of knporunt imnrovemenu 
In the dassificatiou and arrangement of the various parts ; and in fact so to r^'model the whole 
y scienoe of Grammar as to present It in an original and highly advantageous form. The improve- 

f ments introduced by Mr M*Culloeh Into the Etymological and Syntactical divisioos are m> pal- 

f pable as to strike, even at first ngbt, every person in any degree acquainted with the subject; 

f !^"' ^^ ^^ other departments ot his subject he has carried out the same hapidly phiioso|ihic 

4 wpttit, and has concentrated within a small space a vast quantity of tiselul and Interesting in- 

[I foaaaltkm,''^Be{fi^ Newe Letter, i^ h / 



^ I 



WORKS ON EDUCATION. 



A SERIES of LESSONS in PBOSE and V£BSE« progressively 
•rmnged; iotoiided as im Introduction to the ^ CouiUSE of Bbiuc^irTAKT 
RsADiyo in Science and Literatubb.** To which is added, a Lmt 
of Prefize«i AfiUes, and Latin and Greek Primitives,. vvhich ent«r into the 
C<NnpQsition of the Words occurring in the Lessons* By the Rer. J. Af. 
MC0LLOCH| A* M.y Minister of Keiso^ and formerly Head-Master of Circns- 
Place School, Edmbart^h. Third Edition. 12mo. 28. fUL bound. 

Tbii Utile work, in common with the aqibor*! ** Ccmne of Elementary Reading/*.— 
to which it it mMnt to l>e introductor7,--ha8 been prepared in adi4itatl(Mi to the Inw 
proved SjKtem of Teaching, which hat of late Tears been lo generally introduced into 
our initiatory school*. Being intended for •wnUuriei where the preceptor makes it liis 
btuiness to instruct his pupils in the tneaning of what Is read, as well as in the ari t^ 
reading, such lessons only have been Introduced as appeared wtil fitted to stimulate 
youthful curiosity, and enrich the mind with the knowledge of useful and interesting 
Hurts. Simple extracts, relating to Natural History, Elementary Sdenoe, Religion, 
and the Duties of the Young, have been preferred to Dramatic Scenes, impassioned 
?oetry, and Parliamentary Orations. And. while no pieces have been adipittod but 
sueb as seamed likely to inform and entertain, c^re has been taken to abrid^- and 
otherwise alter them, so as to adapt their style as well as their sentiments to the juto* 
alle capacity. 

It may be mentioned, as new features in this work, that the estiaets an progrws 
Ively arranged according to their slmpltctty,— that each Secti<» is preceded by Exer. 
cises on the more difficult words that occur in it,— and that, besides the ordinary sfr. 
lections, there is a series of Elliptical Lessons, or what have been termed, by the inge> 
niout author of the ** Diversions of HoUycot," BaUonal Readings, The list of Pre. 
fixes, Afllxes, and Latin and Greek Primitive^ given in the App^dii^ is, sinoe the 
publication of the author's « Course of Elemoitary Reading," no longer a novelty la 
works of this description. 

" A very excellent elementary book, which we cannot reoommend too strongly to tuton 
and pwents."— wtoutfic JoumaU 

** These Lesnni are Intended for the young, for whose instruction they are admirably adapted ; 
hut, containing extnctt firom very many celetarated anthork the sentimeDts owomunicatsd 
will be found valualile by those of riper years. Hais boolc Is deserving of a place In cveqr 
respectable Kminary."— imfMiria/ Ma^sina. 

" This is an excellent little work for teadiing the dements of reading to youth, and we can 
honestly recommend it for that purpose."— Mamvo^jTon MagasUu* 

" This is the best selection we have yet met with. It is meant as an Intraductiott to the 
anthoi's Course of Elementary Reading in Science ami lAterature, which it is wcU fitted to 
prove. There is not an exceptionable line in the work, not a passage that does not breattie a 
proper spirit, or Introduce something highly worthy to be known."— JIffas. 



A COURSE of ELEMENTARY READING in SCIENCE 

and LITERATURE, compiled from Popular Writes, for the Use of Circus. 
Place School ; to which is added, a Copious List of the Latin and Greek Pri^ 
mitives which enter into the Composition of the English Language. By the 
Rev. J. M. MCCULLOCH, A. M. Fifth Edition. I2mob 3b. 6d. bound. 

The compiler has admitted into his pages only such lessons as he considered fitted to 
stimulate Juvenile curiosity, and enrich the mind with uaeftil knowledge. Great space 
has been allotted to Natural Philosophy and Natural History ; but not more, he feels as- 
sured, than the clunis of these sciences and the taste of the present age justify. Those who 
have not attended to the subject, can have no idea of the delight with which children 
listen to details of natural history and explanations of comm<Mi i^enomena ; and/tis 
surely impossible too early to introduce young persons to studies which tend more than 
any other to form habits of observation and reflection, and to inn>ire Mn ^Tn ti on of 
the power and wisdom manifested in every part of creation. 

The list of Latin and Greek Primitives, given in the Appendix*— a novelty in a 
work of this description,— offers advantages too obvious to requix« any lengthoMA ub- 



WORKS ON EDUCATION, 



planation. Betides betaig Indispensable to enable tbe pupil to understand the meaning 
df wliat he reftds, it will serve as a preparation for the study of the learned languages. 
If not as a partial substitute for them. 

" M'Culloch's Course of Elementary Reading Is compiled on an admirable plan ; for he has 
sought to make ' readhig lesson^ the vehicle of many entertaining facts and much useful know- 
ledge, while be has not excluded eloquence and poetry flrom his sdections. The execution of 
the book is as good as its p\an.''—New Monthly Magazine, 

** From the complexion and character of this work, every one will percdv« that its primaiy 
deflSgn is for the use of schools, and, we may add, for young persons of every description wlw 
are anxious to have their taste refined and their minds imbued with exalted sentiment and 
useful knowledge. The articles are both el^ant and instructive ; and, in a particular man- 
ner, those which belong to the classes of * Natural Science' and ' Natural History' will be read 
tdth a eonadenhk degree of interest and advanf age.''--Imj7eHa/ Magazine* 



A PRONOUNCING SPELLING-BOOK, with Reading 
Lessons in Prose and Verse. By G. Fulton and G. Knight. Sixteenth 
Edlticm. 12ma Is. 6d. bound. 

A PRONOUNCING VOCABULARY : with Lessons in Prose 
and Verse, laid a fetr Grammatical Ezerdses. By Geo. Fultok. Second 
Editioik 12iiio, 28. bound. 

** This tok tMB-axcafiged liftlehotA, evidentlr proeeetfng ftom a perMm «f practical expe- 
ricBoe : we recommend it cordially.*— literary (kizette* 

" Although the author is too well known to be in need of our recommencUudon to his work, 
we have loeat pleasure in thus announdng it witii approbation aA&prtSae,*'— Edinburgh Th&i- 
Wgieal Magazine, 

An ANALYTICAL SYSTEM of ENGLISH GRAMMAR; 

arranged apon a new and an improved Ptan, an^ iltustrated by appropriate 
Rules, Examples, and Exercises, whidi are so explained as to render every part 
of the Grammar intelligible to the Learner. By Peter Smith, A.M ., Author 
or« A PrM^Cfeal Guide to English Cnnposition," &c iSmo. Is. tkl. bound. 

" This work is wdl executed, and will, no doubt, supersede many publications of a similar 
nature, whidi ai« without its advantas^es of clear ana systematic arran^rement, variety and 
simplification of Grammatical Knowledge, and, more important than allj Its appropriate int^ 
fiffibility."— Lilerary Chronicle, 

** In its general trnthne the trramthnr before, us Is well arr a nged, and sevend of the devift- 
dons fifom comraon practice are real improvements."— Imf^erto/ Magazine, 



An OUTLINE of SACRED GEOGRAPHY; with Refer- 
ences to the Passages of Scripture in which the most remarkable Places are 
mentioned; and Notes, chiefly historical and descriptive. For the Use c£ 
Schools. B^ ALEXAin>SR Reii>, A. M., Head^Master of Circns-Place 
School, Edinburgh. Second Edition. ISrao. 6d. sewed. 

** This Is an esDodlent elementary work."— XM'aftc Joumd, 

" The names of places mentioned in Holy Writ too often convey no meaning to chUdieOj who 
tire made to rfepeat them by rote ; but by udng this little book in the manner rteomniended by 
its author^ they wUl soen acquire a clear notion of Scripture Geography, without which thcbr no* 
tion of SacMd History must ever remain indistinct."— Oourf Magazine, 

'• The plan of giving the names of two or three places, with references to the texts of Scrip- 
ture where ^e names occur, and compelling the pupil to master the historical facts in con- 
nekion with the idaces, is excellent."— Spectator. 

" It contains references to the passages of Scripture in which the most renuurkable places an 
mentioned, wHh notes chiefly historical and descriptive. It is well tdB^icd tor initiating youth 
into * knowledge <tf Sacred Geography.**- Iioe»7x>o/ Albion, 

•* No school, nor any private flunUy, should be vrithout this instructive little tteatise, which 
describes most minutely and agreeably all the remark&ble places mentioned in the Scripture* 
together with every striking historical event connected with them.*'-^Bei(;k KtrsM. 



WORKS ON EDUCATION. 

ubOefttloa. at die bumII priot of ti tp m u e, bat wn 
UM of Khooli* bat for bibUod raaoen gcaenllj. 



for the utfllt jr of (hit unpretendlnf Uttle icfaool-book ; and, fin- ounelve^ we can lafuv affirm, 
after a canftil ponual of iti oontentSt that we know of nrnie on the azne lubject ao adapeBd to 



Chr9nid§, 

*' Mr Rctd*! wdl'knowtt expoience and luoceas at a imbllc teacher, aie luffldent gumrmn 

■afuv affij 

. . JoadapeBdi 

con^Yv initrucClon and tntereit to the younf In the reading of the Sacred Volume." — Aissdyft 
rian Review, 

** An exoeUent Uttk book for ichools.— In the hands of a skJlfUl teacher, this little volume of 
ftftf pagei ^rfll lehre admirably as a text-book. Tlie note* at the end are goo.i, and ealdilateit 
to connect In the mind of the pupil the namei of the places with their historical aasodatkms— 
Che onljr proper object of ancient geography."— Edinbur^ WeOcly Jounua. 

'* Brief ai thli manual Is, we know of no system of Sacred Geogra^y, even ineoinNHAted in 
.ai«r works, in flaUowing which the teaclier may oonveidently cmnbine so much of the histcuy 
and ireogmphy of the Scriptures. The notes whirh are appended to the Outline are foJl of in- 
terest, and admirably executed."— Scolfiafe Cfuart^at^, 

** It contains the only wellHurranged coarse of Scripture Geography in small compaas that we 
have seen i and it has inis advantaffe over all the other treatises on the same subject, that bv 
supplying references to the passages of Scripture in which the most remarkable places are men- 
tioned, it put* It in the power of the tcadier to examine his pnolls on Scripture Histtny, at the 
same time that he makes them familiar with geographical detaus ; and so to onnblne a know- 
ledge of pUoes w\th their historiciil recollections— a method of teaching geography admirabiy 
fitted at once to interest and profit the student."— liCeto> MaU, 



A COMPENDIUM of MODERN GEOGRAPHY; with 

Remarks on the Physical Peculiarities, Productions, Commerce, and Go?era- 
ment of the Tariooa Countries ; Questions for Examinatioa at the end of each 
Division ; and Descriptive Tables, in which are g^ven the Pronunciation, and 
a concise Account of every Place of importance throughout the Globe. By the 
Rev. Alex. Stew abt, Author of " The History of Scotland," &c Fourth 
Edition, thoroughly revised and considerably enlai^jed. Illustrated by Ten 
New Maps constructed for the Work, and an Engraving showbg the H«ghts 
of the principal Mountains in the World. IGma 3s. 6d. bound. 

The general approbation with which the former Impressions of this work w&e re- 
ceived, has encouraged the Publishers to use every exertion to render this New Edi- 
tion still more deserving of preference ; and it is Iwlieved that, in arrangement, ia 
accuracy, and in extent of information, this Compendium may be confid^itly pn>> 
nounced the must complete, as well as by fkr the cheapest. Elementary Work on Geo- 
graphy that ever issued from the press. 

CRITICAL NOTICES of FORMER EDITIONS <if this Work. 

" What an admirable elementary book— how elaborate, and yet how simple ; how predsefjr 
exact, and stiU how abounding ; how superfluously crowded* we had almost said, with details 
interesting as they are important."— MonfMly RevteWm 

** The Rev.' Alexander Stewart's Compendium of Modetn Geograpktf abounds with useful 
information, and is ingeniously arranged."— Gent/tfman'e Mttguztne, 

" This Compendium is the best and fullest we have seen.— The work seems scarcely suscep- 
tible of further improvement in the same bulk."— MonM^y Magaeine, 

** We cannot speak in too favourable terms of the admirable anangemcBt of this work, which 
does infinite credit to Mr Stewart."— Anatic Journal. 

** We are happy in adding our testimony to that of the many journalists who have expressed 
their approbation of this little work. It is extremely well arranged, and very neatly got upw 
We think it unqucstiDaably supolor to either Ooldsmitn's or GufuT'-Neio Monthty Butgu&ine. 

" We trust that we shall no more see the aggrandiiemonts of conquest and the spoliations 
of ambition making necessary new works upon Geography : for the one under our notice is so 
good, that it would be hardly worth the whib to create new wars to spoil it. Then are seve- 
ral no\'el features in this book that render it very superior : the descriptive tables at the end of 
each country are a great improvement. Considering the price, omy three shillings imd sixpence, 
the goodness of the maps, the clearness of the type, and the excellent binding, we should not do 
our duty to the public did we hesitate to recommend it for general use."--%9<r^)o/i<an Jlis- 
gatine. 

*' This third edition of an excellent and popular schoolrbook has been rendeted stOl more 
worthy of patronage by the care that has been taken to introduce all the political changes ia 
states, the geographical discoveries, and other things that have occurred within the la.«t (e\r 
years.— We recommend it to all elementary schools and fanoiUes. and to young peoole «•• 
nenl\y.'''-Omrt Magasine, * -• r- r » 



WOBKS ON EDUCATION. 



** For the UK of tdioolt. itindades neariy all that can be either expected or desired ; aad 
«ven vrhm the pnpD has left the wmlnaryt he may occasionally consult its pages, with much 
advantage, to nfxesh hli memory.— Utility is its (Ustinguithinff characteristic; but Its elq^aut 
awcanuMe cauMt fall to oommand reqiect."— Imperui^ Magatine* 

" It is but justice to add« that the inteUigcnoe wtiich it fumlahea is the moat recent and no- 
vel ; that it contains a larger portion of matter than is to be found in any work of a similar 
sise : and that the maps with wlikfa it is accompanied are remarkably well executed."— N«t<> 
Baptut MiteeOanV' 

** A more oompaett earsAiUy oomidlcd* and useful volttme has sddom. fallen under our ob. 
lervation. It is iUustimted by ten maps, exoellently executed, conddering their tize ; and, wkh 
itsjudidous descriptive tables, oombiiies, in some measure, the advantages of a Gazetteer wUh 
a Geographical Grammar.**— £Mimi»i«r. 

" A aeoond edition of an exodlent das»>book« carefully revised and improved."— Ltt«rciry 
GoMffe. 

" Written in a clear and simple style, it is well calculated to interest the youthful mind ; 
and the materials that torm tlie volume are selected with much care and judgment. It is not 
so dry or meagre as the smaller Geogruhy of Goldsn^th, and is fitter for U^giuners than the 
useful work of Guy.*— London WeMv Review, 

** We are glad to see a second edition of this excellent school-book, which contains as much 
accurate and valuable taiformatkm as many wdumes of twice its size and price. Indeed, in the 
latter respect, it is matched by ftw productions of the prms, even in this age of cheap books. A 
handsnne volume of upwards of three hundred very closely-printed pages, Wrongly bound, and 
containing ten well-executed maps, has never before, we think, been ofiieied to the public for so 
small a sum. It is a work, moreover, which, while its explanations are well adapted tb the cap 
pacity of youth, bears throughout the marks of patient aind careAil research in a venr superior 
degree to most school-boolcs. We would particuhirly recommend to attention the descnptive 
tables appended to the general account of every country, which are drawn up with extraordi- 
bary neatn ess, and in sodi a manner as to comprehend rcHlly a wonderful quantity of informo. 
tion in a very small space. Taken altogether, they berve the purpose of a Oasetteer of all the 
principal places in the world, induding, as they do, between two and three thousand names of 
Kingdoms, dtles, ooountains, rivers, &c., with a short description of each, and, what is extreme- 
ly useful and important, the correct or customary pronundation in all cases in which anv doubt 
or difficulty can be felt. Teachers as wdl as pupils will feel grateful to the author for this part 
of his labours. Upon the whole, the book well deserves the popularity it has acquired, and 
which we have no doubt this new impression will both maintaui and txtfaul"—Athenatum» 

'* It is a oompleCe multum in parvo, and contains, in a small compass, and at a small ex- 
pense, more inrarmation than any volume of twice its size with which we have ever met. — ^As 
a school-book, therefore, and indeed as a book of occasional reference by adults thembdves, this 
little iNide mecum strongly recommends itself to nctiee."— Liverpool Albion, 

** for neatness and portabHity of form, compactness of arrangement, extent of geographical 
information, and* what is a most important it«n in the catalogue of merits, its cheapness, tills 
fa one of the most attractive dementary books we have seen. — Ba£A Herald. 

** We know of no work lietter caloUated for schools, as wdl as pivate individuals who wish 
to become thoioui^y aoquunted with an interesting branch of liberal educaUon."— Froo/m^rTs 
Enter Gazette* 

" The disjunction of Bdgium from Holland— the appointment of a sovereign for Greece— 
the indepeiKiencc of Afghanistan— the discoveries of the Landers in Africa— a better classifica- 
tion of the South Sea. Islands, and the last population returns— are most dearly brought into 
notice ; and form, together with the other meritorious contents of the volume, one of the most 
perfect and useful publications of the lUnd tliat has ever issued Cram the TprtM,"— Taunton 
Courier. 

** Among the numerous works which have been published fiur fkdlitating the acqtiirement 
of seograpmcal knowledge in our schools, we have no hesitation in pronoundng the one whose 
titiepage we fciave just quoted as claiming a very hiffh place.- Hie author has evidently had re- 
course to the very best and approved souroes of information, as wHI auKar e\'ident to any one 
conversant in matters of geographical research."— Dtt6/in Vnieernty Magasine. 

" The most recent information Is uniformly, and, as flu- as we examined, aocuratdy given. 
The book is illustrated by ten maps, and is a very cheap as wdl as exoellent Compendium of 
Geography.*— DiiMiA Li^srory Gaaette. 

** In a word, we hesitate not to say, with the fullest confidence and most perfect sincerity, 
that, in all those respects which ean confer value on a work of the kind, the volume under con- 
sidoaticm is the best and cheapest Compendium of Geography e\'er published in Europe."— 
Bdivbm^ lAterary Journal* 

** Having examined the present edition of Mr $tewartfs School-Geography with no small 
degree of attention, we can with the utmost confidence afflmi, that it Is at once the most va- 
luable and cheap work of the same ase on the subject ever offered to the British public*— 
MHiMifmgh Uterarp Oautte. 

** This little volume really seems to tts to possess In perfection every requisite of a School- 
Geography.— Tlie exerdses are wdl selected, and must be exceedingly convenient for the 
teacher^— Whether we consider the great bnportance and utility of the information which it 
contahis, or the manner in which it nas been executed, it deserves unqualified pruse, and the 
most extensive public patronage.' —Edinburgh Weehlp Chronicle, 



8 WORKS ON EDUCATIOK. 



«« W« hftw anlr timt to aatfot Mfaool^woka. tat thto^-- _ 

■ddom foond camUiicd. It li chMDi iMMlr got up, wdl writm, 

a crcAt d«l of utaum withlii a ■niul comiiiMi. Utcrarjr taknt Is netcr betters 

In pNpArinff food dcmenurr woriu Uko tUo ftnr the inHnieckm of Mie^ 




•* rnm tto lacnoMd and ttU tocnodnc fanportanoe of GeogxaphT ai a hnuk^ oT fiWnl 
odttcstloQf and from tbo imrinatc exccUcnoe or the praaeat treatiae itvlf, thera cannot 
doubt that tt will, as hdcwiresyineiyioonboooaM one of our moit popular teaks 
jact."— ^Tfeuvow PVm Prsafc 



of dlfcnMcd KSHPdiy whOe lbs ludd onlcr 
I stinpUdty and purity of the-itfle, and the general 
_ _ _ ipaadnun ooatalm, plaee H immeasttraUr tamre moat 

of the kind. We have compared It with Ave contemperacy manwalt of Oeqp«|di7 j and 
have no haittatkn In awarding to It the palm of cxceUcnce.*— fibolv Timeik 



« Almost evair paeefturnisbes pfoofc 
la arnradDg the okaterials, with the shn 
of the InlbraiatWn whldi ttds Cempead 



Lessons in reading and speaking ; being an ImpioYe. 
■Mnt of Seolt*s Leasms in Elocuiwn* By William Scott, the ongiBal 
Compiler. Twenty-fleventh Edition, enlai^g«cL To which is prefixed^ Ao 
Ootline of the Elements of EiocnticM^ Ukstcatad hy ottmeroiis Rules mad. Ex- 
amples, directing the proper Application of Rhetorical Pauses and TnflivtirtM 
«f the Voicfr By J. JoHVSTOWE. ISmo. 3s. bonnd 

The very eR-tcnaive patvanage which has been be s tow ed en the woik in its knpsuww l 
atatc, has induced the Publishers still further to increase Its vahicby endchiqgitasith 
an Elementarff Treatise on Elocution, in which the rules aoe laid ^kiwn ais miiillim to 
the roo^t apfwoved systems, and illustrated by earefttlly-aelected and appn^riate < 
pies. This addition, they trust, will be found to merit the approbation of 
while it cannot Aiil to benefit the pupiL 



ScOTT'S BEAUTIES of EMINENT WRITERS (CMiverA 

Boyd^s improved Edition ;) containing an Ontline of the Elements of Elocn- 
tion, illustrated by numerous Rules and Examples, directing the psoper Ap> 
plication of Rhetorical Pauses, and the Inflections of the Voioe ; with Bio> 
graphical Notices of all the Authors from whose works Seott^s Beauties are 
selected, and a variety of Striking Passages from the most celebrated Modem 
Poets, adapted for Recitation. By J. JoHNStONE. In 2 vols ISmeb 

VoL I. 2s. 6d. bound ; VoL II. 2s. ; or both Tolnmes bound togetiier, 48. 

<« Tills work, in its mesent Imvrovad state. Is much superior to Enfield's Spesker, or any other 
compilation of the kind with which we are acquainted.— The introduction contains a very j 
abridfment of Walker's Elocution ; indeed we think, it prtfcnLbk to the originaL''— JT ~ 

Review, 

<« This Is an old acquaintance very greatly improved, whidi we should like to i 
into all our English academies."— flvan^tooJ Magutine* 




The ENGLISH LEARNER; or, a Selection of LessonB in 
Prose and Verse, adapted to the Capacity of the Younger Classes of Readers. 
By Thomas Swing, Teacher of Elocution and Geo^fiuphy, Edinbnigk 
Ninth Edition, improved. 12mOb 2s. bonnd. 

'* Amonir the eeadicn who have sttcoessftilly devoted their talenta to the imfvovement of 
education we may fairly claas Mr Ewhig. Taking up his pupils after they have toiled thieogh 
the Spdling-Book, he ftimlshes them in his Learner with some plain and useful ObservatlaBS 
on pronunciation, pauses, and the management of the voice; while, by th^ judidous sdectioo 
and arrangement of his extracts, he conducts ihem, in gradual protress, fkom ibnple aad caqr 
lessons to such as are cooidderably difficult and complicated. These cxtmcts have another faQ- 
portant recommendation. Most oi them have never wpeared in any former oonudlatioo. To the 
teacher, therefore, they afford in some delete the reUefof novelty^— saviflg himfiom that nons* 
tonous repetition which diigusted the ancient teachers with the choicest passages 4rf thdr fioHt 
Boecs. The intrinsic beauty of many of these eactraets is iwell ealculated to form the taste <a 
JuvenOe readers ; and Mr Ewing, we think, has jud^ profierly in intredudng them ts an ao* 
miaintance with some of the most admired speomcns w cootcmpoeary doquenoe and poetiy. 
The Learner is intoided as an introduetioa to a lunr '^"*Tfli»*im. sntatM * Pl^daksof El» 
cutioa: '^Edinburgh ffeekfyJoumaU ' 



WORKS ON EDUCATION. 



Pll'iNClPLElS of ELOCUTION ; containing numerous Rules, 
ObseiratioHs, atfd Exercises, on Pronnndation, Pauses, Inflections, Accent, 
and Emphasis ; also, copious Extracts in Prose and Poetry ; calculated to as- 
sist the Teacher, and to improye the Pupil in Heading and Recitation. By 
Thomas Ewiko, Teacher of Elocution and Geography, Edinburgh. Seyen- 
teenth Edition. i2nio. 48. 6d. bound* 

" Ewing't < Principles of ElocutSon' anwan to us to bt an cxoeUcnt book of Its icind. tt» 
materials are gathered with a tastefUl hand from every period of our Uteratore, and comprehend 
a wide range of authors, from Shakspeare to the Pqets whom we are sUll aUe to number 
amons the avingk There is afan a great and jdeasing variety in the subjects didsen— their da»> 
siticaaon is good: and we are not surprised at perodving from the dtlepage now before us, that 
a thirteenth, edition has been called for in five years man the first publicatfon.'^— ^marlerijy 
Journal o/Bdueation, piMuhed undBr the Superintendence qfthe Society fitr the iHt^wion 
of Ue^i Khowledge. 

** Mr Ewing's rules an very 80od« and his cxtmets form an agreeable and judMous adeiS 
tlon.*'— JlonMu(y Review* 

" Weknow not a work of the same extent better ada|>ted tlian tlds to the parpoees of both 
teachers and students of the art of speaking. The principles of this degant art are laid down 
ia rules at once cootous and concise: every difficulty arising from the anomalies of English 
Orthoepy Is removed ; tlie etron of pronundadon, to which the inhaMtants of the three luu^ 
doms are respecthndy liable, are pointed out and corrected ; and the whole is illustrated by a 
great varie^ of weU-edected examines. To the Prindples, thus deariy and f^Uy explained* 
succeeds a ifch collection of passages ftom the most dassRal authorii <iil the last and the present 
a^e-na collection which does condderable credit to Mr Swing's taste. We were particuUutjr 
pleased to observe, amcng his spedmens of pulpit dooueuce, some glowing and elegant passages 
ifom the most recent publicatfons of contempolrary dnines ; knd, among ills extracts In vcn^ 
some of the most sublime productions of our living bards. ThejMetical department Is prricedfA 
by a few judieious rules for the reading of verssb**— JBd»n6tfrgA We^Uy Journal, 



Rhetorical exercises; beingaSequeltothePHnctp£t» 
of Elocution, and intended for Pupils who have made considerable Pn^res^ 
in Reading and Recitation. By Thomas RvikO} Teacher of Elocution and 
Geography, Edinbuigh. Second Edition. 12kno. 3s. 6d. bound. 

This volume completes the seriet of Mr Swing's Elementary Books on Elocution, 
adi^itod to the various stages of the pupil's progress. In the Learner, he has confined 
himself to a few of the most obvious and simple rules ; and in the arrangement of the 
lessons, he has studied a natural and an easy gradation. In the Principles of Elocu- 
tion, he has given. In pretty tail detail, the best directions for pronunciation, pauses, 
inflections, and the various modulations of the voice, illustrated by appn^iate exam, 
pies, and accompanied with a suitable variety of exercises. The rapid and extensive 
sale of these worlts, and their introduction into many of the moat respectable semhia. 
ries in the kingdom, afford the most grattiying proof of their utility, and of the esti- 
mation in which they are held. 

To form an accomplished reader or speaker, however, many other directions appear- 
ed necessary ; some of which are of a nature so refined and complicated, that to un- 
derstand and to follow them requires considerable maturity of judgment, as well as a 
cotain proficiency in the luiowledge and practice of elocution, lliese directions are 
contained in the present volume ; and though much must still remain to be learned 
fkom the voice of a teacher, and Arom the study of the best living models, the Publishers 
would gladly flatter themselves, that, Arom the rules laid down in tbetfs several putrtl- 
cations, with the diligent practice of the accompanying exercises^ those who are desir- 
ous of acquiring this necessary accomplishment may derive ail the benefit which 
written instruction can impart. 

The Publishers entertain the hope, that these wQl be found the most m^/W works 
which have yet been publUhed, in a similar form, for both the teacber and the student 
ef Elocution. They contain all the moat valuable rules that the Ingenuity or expe- 
rience of preceding rhetoricians has suggested. These rules are exemplified hi a veiy 
copious selection of extracts trom the most approved authors. 

a2 



10 WORKS ON EDUCATION. 



A SYSTEM of GEOGRAPHY, for the Use of Schools and Pri- 

TAte Stvdente, on a new and easy plan ; from the latest and best Aixth<nrities : 
including also the Elements of Astronomy, an Account of the Solar System, 
and a variety of Problems to be solved by the Terrestrial and Celestial Globes; 
and a Pronouncing Vocabulary^ containing all the Names of Places which oc- 
cur in the Text By Thomas Ewino, Teacher of Elocution and Geogrrapfay, 
*EdinbQrgh. Fourteenth Edition, improved. 12mob 4s. 6d. bound ; or with 
Nine Maps, dmwn and engraved for the Work, fis. 6d. 

CRITICAL N0TICK8 nf FORMER EDITIONS of fhi» Work, 

«* W« think the phm of Mr Eirinir'a Otognftiy b Judidou* ; and the inlSarmatioa, wliicfa 
with much Indcutry he hat collected in Mm Notes, cannot fall to be extiundy uarful, both in 
flxlni the namcfl of idacei more deeply on the pupili^ memory* and in itorin^ their minds whh 
uwful knowledge t while, by directing their attention to the proper objecu of c^rlosity, it lap 
a hroMl fiiandation fbr thdr Aiture improvement. The account oT the Solar Systein, given lu 
the Introduction, ii correct and penplcuoui, and is well elucidated by the accompanying Notes. 
This part of the work ve think particularly valuable. We know the difficulty of imparting 
ta fouiig pupils any accurate klca of the relative magnitudes, distances, and revalutiotts of the 
planets ; yet without some knowledge of these Geography cannot be properly understood.^— lo 
remove every difficulty out of the way of teachers who may not have had much experieoo^ 
Mr Ewlng has sketched out a method of instruction, which, being varied of ooorK aoooidSng 
to circumstances, may be found of considerable advantage^ We approve highly of the plan of 
having a Vocabulary at the end of the work, oomprebending sucn names as are UaUe to be 
crroneoiislyjuronounced, dlvUed and aooentod acoonluig to the usual mode of pronon ci a tl oD."'-- 
Biaekwooag Magutine* 

" The bestjKMdble praof of thli book being a good book is. that it has come to a twdfth 
edition. Mr Ewing is an active and able teacho', and all his works are excellently adapted 
for public schools and private wminarlcs."— £din{»urgA Litermy JoumaL 

** This b one of the best school-books that we have seen. It is clear and methodical, ampk 
In point of style, copious in its details, correct and recent in iu information. Wc learn that it 
has been adopted as a class-book In many large seminaries in Britain and America ; and, what 
can be said of few publkaituns of the kind, it may be recommended as an excellent manual fbr 
l^rown-up persons, who want money to purchue or time to peruse more bulky ivorks."— 
Scotaman, 

" It Is a moflt Jtullcloos Compendium of Geography, being stored with fkets and infivma- 
tfain : the whole skilfully arranged and adapted to the capacity of the learner, 'lite style k 
simple and pleasing, so that the work cannot Ikil to be popular as well as useAil."— -OoMbnten 
mefxury, 

" The man who is master of this treatise, needly hardly repair to more volnminous aouroa 
of knowledge in dvil and natural Geography."— GKcu^w Free Pren. 

y Hardly any book of a similar deaoiptwn can be found, whteh contains so mudi solid 
informadon within the same oMnpass."— &o<« Timet, 

. " We can hancstly recommend this volume for fidelity, neatness, and completeness.**— Dmm- 
firiee Courier, 

" We can recommend Mr Ewlng*! book to the Geographical student. He first g-'ves the 
Historfcal Oeogrsphy of the Countifas, and subsequently the Political, Civil, and Natural Geo- 
graphy. Under the Chronologkail article we have a general account of the various popukOlan of 
every couotrv, traced to the most remote antiquity, and brought down to the present time. To 
these particulars are added a Series of useful Problems on the Terrestrial and Celestial Gtobei, 
with a Vocabulary of such names of places of whldi the urthoepy is doubtful, and whkrh are 
divided and accented according to the most usual mode of pronundadon."— CWMooJ Review. 

** We have examhsed this work with care, for the sake of our children, and can speak with 
decision both as to Its plan and execution. It has reached a sc^Tnth edition, and we doubt not 
will always remain a standard work."— ANH^tea/ Magnssine. 

" A very judkkms and useftil elementaiy wwk, furnished with nine maps neatly OBBcattd,' 
^Weeleifan Methodiet Magaaino. i- ' 

«' Laudable pains have been taken to correct and modernise this work, which compressei 
a very large quantity of Informatton into a small compass. The maps are neat, distinct, and 
apparently accurate. We believe there is no other book of the kind which aflbrds so much h». 
struction at so low a price."— Neur Baptist MieeeHany, 

"The fact of this work having abeady passed through twelve editions is a sufficient proof of 
the favour with which the publfc regard It. Our only duty, therefore, is to assure those of our 
12^^^!^^* ^^2. *" *■"*»" to become acquainted with minute as wdl as gweral Gee- 
r^f I* ***5* the book now on our table contains aU modem variations, as well as a useful pro. 
nouncing Vocabulaiyj and many Interesting Problems for both Globes."— BHfisA Magathte. 



WORKS ON EDUCATION. 1 1 



" This work having mchcd the twelfth editloii» brings with it a belter recommendation 
I than the language of orltlGal prdR can bestow. Its renutation is honourably established in 

. many of our most celebrated seminaries ; and command i6g a rapid and an extensive sale, the 

' editor of each edition has an opportunity of introducing into his maps and pages the discoveries 

I and changes which time brings to light, and of thus augmenting and perpetuating its claims 

' to future fame."— Imperial MagasiM, 



(* An attentive perusal of this System of Geography has convinced us that it far excels anv 
I contemporary publication on the aame scale. The whole work is arranged with much perspi- 

t cuity, and every department evinces talent and industry. With these claims, it is not surpns- 

I ing that Mr Ewlx^s work diould have passed through several editions— a circumstance of 

\ which that geatleman has availed himself to enUu^ and greatly improve iW—Literaty 

Cfuvnide, 

" This work bean its merit on its titlepage; we need say no more of it than that it has 
passed through eleven editions. It is a remarkably cheap book, containing 509 pages, with 
nine maps, and is neatly bound."— ^A«iMeum. 

** Mr Ewing is the author of a very excellent School Atlas, which has been pretty generally 
< adopted. His * System of Geograj^y' also has been deservedly successful.**— EducattonoJ 

' Review- 

, ** Mr Swing's Geography, occupying a middle place between mere outlines and the ponder- * 

ous works of some otner authors, neither disgusts the learner by a barren detail of names, nor 
perplexes his memory by too great a variety of infismation. We highly approve of his plan of 
I reserving for a second course the part of the work printed in a smaller type. The valuable 

j Snibimation which he has collected respecting the History, the Institutions civil and military, 

, together with the natural Geography of the various countries, will prove of much advantage to 

, the advanced student ; and as these are all classed under separate heads, they may be commu- 

nicated to the pupil with neat effect, particularly in private instruction, during the course of 
his studies. The inquisitive student will not rest satisfied with the knowledge on these various 
subjects which so sniall a compendium can impart ; but he will here have the advantage of 
hannghis attention directed to the most important objects ; and by pursuing the plan to which 
he has been thus accustomed, will find himself materially aided in his future researches.— In 
the Introduction Mr Ewing has eiven a succinct but perspicuous account of the Solar System, 
illustrated by co|nous and useful Notes. Among the Improvements made on the new edition, 
we are happy to observe that he has introduced the Problems to be performed on the Celestial 
Globe, the Tables of the Constellations, with the Latin and English luunes, the number of the 
stars in each, and the names and magnitudes of the most important. To these are added an 
Alphabetical List of the Constellations, whh the right ascennon and declination of each, and a 
Table of the mean right ascensions in Time ; the declination and magnitudes of 40 remarkable 
stars, with their names and literal characters. By means of these, with the assistance of the 
celestial globe, the learner may easily acquire a competent knowledge of the heav«ily bodies."— 
* American JoumaL 

" Amongst the works we have seen on the subject of Geography, printed either in Europe or 
America, we have met with none comprising so nearly what we have considered a useful 
Compesdium of Geography for all ages as that of Mr Thomas Ewing of Edinburgh. We were 
so inipressed with the value of this excdlent work, that, after perusal, we concluded to add it 
to the number of our School Class-Books. In conformity to what we have already premised, 
we do not offer this work to the world in the common acceptation of a book for Schools ; we 
present it also as it Is, a work calculated for every age of man ; an epitome of Geography » 
Higtory, and Ctironologjft arranged in a perspicuous manner, well calculated to impress upon 
the memory the facts and events it recoras."— Neu; York Aeadetnieian. 

CRITICAL NOTICES of the FOURTEENTH EDITION. 

" We rejdce to find that an extensive and increasing sale justifies the praise which we be- 
sto\ved on a former edition (the twelfth) of this useful work.*'— Athenaum, 

** We may perhaps be going too far, though we think we are not, in saying that, for its sise, 
this volume contains a greater quantity of information connected with Geography than any 
other published on the subject." — Newcastle Courant. 

** We have examined this work with particular attention, and we owe It in justice to the 
author to declare, that we have been unable to detect in it a tingle error of the slightest import- 
ance. All the historical information is well selected and admirably condensed. The work is not 
only adapted for the rising generation, but would form a fitting appendage to any library or 
study. The Vocabulary of names of places is an excellent feature of the book, and cannot but 
prove very generally acceptable."- Brtj'Afon Herald. 

** This is a new and Improved edition of one of the most useful and popular school-books that 
has been compiled in modem times."— Sundertond Heraid. 

*' The whole arrangement of the work is simple, and, at the same time, effective ; and as the 
Information it contains is new, fttll. and authentic, we can safely recommend it as an exceed- 
ingly good compendium of Geography."— ^bentosn Journal. 

** E wing's Geography— a name nearly as familiar as a household word— combines to a con- 
nderable extent the advantages of a Gazetteer and regular system of Geography ; is dictionary- 
like in some things, and general in others ; and withal so condensed, and of such easy refer- 
ence, that it may be consulted with advantage by persons who have ceased to bear the name of 
Eupils, but who, uotwitiistanding, require to learn, revise, and extend to the end of theh- lives* 
f they have any curiosity. The nnsps seem well constructed, and the price is cheap, in con- 
I sequence of the siae of repeated impressions, and an unusually extended circulation.^'— Dum* 

fries Courier* 



A I 



12 WORKS ON EDUCATION. 



•* No teidier ti Otogruhr, difaer at jnVOe tdutott or pilvtte i\%mm, Aonld want thia a^ 
■dr^Ua oompcndlniik'*— ParmaMrv Cbwriar. 

^'ThaaxtiaoriiaarrniooHiof lfrKirlB|fibookii,lii our jodtamt. Jutwliat iCi meritB 
kad a riichfe to cxpwt. It fa one of tb* wy bat miemi of Geogiaphy 1w the adult as wdl as 
tfie yoaog that «« evar saw coostncted. Tbe plan is desr, shkafc, and eomprehemrive; the 
ff Hif4^ portion of it espedallff so fiur from bcins set fSorward In that dif&cole fonn which 
uii4it deter the borinncr. Is adnuiabbr cakaktodto attract his a ttenttoa and reward his pains." 
ZlSiMm UnipenU^ Magnint, 

<* In tiw presmt wognsriTa etats of tha geograBUoal dlsooveriesi iriddi arapenetratlnflrtoal] 
parts of the f lobe, tbere has been great room— Indeed, great nooess i ty , for a edMol-book n^ieh 
would eatend tha pttpOi^ knowledge beyond the old bounds of our ^ementair mannals, and cm- 
bcaoe all the results of modem travdleni The work before us fvuly supplies this want ; it is 
wdl ftimished with maps, and to the same objects of instruction, we can truly ny, is tbe best 
■ehool-book which we have yet seen. We strooi^y recommend it to the preoepton of youth, 
wlMthcr Inpublic or domcsoc education. Adults also may refiv to H with no less adnuitage.* 
^JktbUnfrard$r. 



£ WING'S NEW GENERAL ATLAS; oontdiung distinct 

Maps of all the principal States and Kingdoms throoghout the Woiid; in 
which the most recent Geogra[diical Discoveries are accoFately dritneeted. 
An entirely new Set of Plates, and Price much reduced. In rojal Mo, 
price 148. half-bound ; oc^oared outlines, ISs. ; or, fiill coloured, ISs. 

There is perhaps no branch of Icnowledge which is ccUcuIated to aflbrd so much 
i«luable inatruction, combined with so large a portion of enUghtcned enjoyment, ai 
that which treats of the fbrm, structure, and divisions of tbe earth, and iUustrates tlie 
nannert and inatitutiooi of its yarious nations and kingdoms ; while, unquestionably, 
thefe ii no department of science which has partaken more largely than Geography 
in the impulse recently communicated to education In generaL 

The growing taste for this study cannot be better illustrated tban by the increasing 
demand for works devoted to tbe subject,->on which account tbe Tehicles for commtv- 
riicating such instruction, whether elementary or otherwise, ought to exhibit adegree 
ef improvement proportioned to the interest thus excited. 

Among works of this description no Atlas has eojoyed a more distinguished popular 
rlty, or had a more extensive sale than Che present ; and the Publtohers have coiiae> 
<iuently been induced to prepare a new edition,— resolved to spare no expense nor 
trouble in bringing it to the utmost possible perfection. 

AVith this object in view, they have, under tbe superintendence of the author of the 
Oeogmphy, caused the whole series of Maps to be re<«tgraved ; and they trust it vrill 
be found that, for beauty of execution and distinctness of delineation, they may chal- 
lenge a comparison with the most esteemed and costly productions of the present day. 
But while they have thus been careful to secure aeUmal embeUUhmaU, they venture 
with no less confidence to state, that in another respect still more important, that of 
Mcurofy, this Atlas can scarcely be siurpassed. 

On this head it may be stated, that it was an ob}ect of particular solicitude with lir 
Ewing in preparing for the press the last edition of his GeogFaphy^— which has alwaya 
formed a very close appendage to the Atlas, and which has obtained a decided prefies. 
ence, not only in Great Britain, but in many parts of the United States, British Arae> 
rica, and other foreign settlements,— to incorporate into that work, under the appro- 
priate sections, the substance of the extensive information diffhsed through the many 
valuable narratives of Voyages and Travels which the unwearied seal of modem en- 
terprise has recently accumulated. The most diligent research has accordingly lieen 
employed in collecting and arranging the important materials derived from these iiw 
teresting sources. Particular mention may Iw made of Parry, Franklin, RichardBoa» 
and Hall, for North America ; Humboldt, Mollien, Head, and Cakteleugh, for South 
America ; Denham, Clapperton, Campbell, and the Landers, for AfHca ; BurckbardC, 
Moorcroft, Cochrane, and Crawford, for Asia; with many others whose adventurous 
footsteps have of late so much enlarged the boundaries of geographical knowledge. 

These emendations, suggested by tbe progress of Discovery, as wdl as much addi- 
tional information and many valuable improvements, are now transferred to the pceu 



Works on education. 13 



sent Maps ; the whole of which have been revised with a dehberation, exactness, and 
closeness of collation, which, they trast, have rendered it a work on which tlie utmost 
reliance may b^ placed. 

The Publisher!, having thus briefly enumerated the grounds on which they rest the 
superior claims of the present edition, would also observe that, with all these additional 
improvements, it still preserves unimpaired the peculiar feature which has attracted so 
much favour to the worli Arom the beginning, namely, that, as an aooompaniment to 
the Geography, it can be used with the greatest advantage, since the name of every 
pTace* mountain, river, lake, bay, cape, he. mentioned in the Geography, is to be found 
in the Atlas. Thus the labour both of the teacher and pupil is very much diminished ; 
while, as a Consvlting Atlas, it is equally well adapted for the Library or for general 
reference ; care having been taken to give prominence to the most important and is- 
teresting names, and to exhibit them with such a degree of clearness and precision as, 
it is hoped, will still more amply justify the eulogium passed on the first edition, that 
on this Atlas '* places can be traced with greater facility than on any other that has 
yet appeared." 

The Publishers have only farther to mention that, in acknowledgment of the prefer- 
ence bestowed on this Atlas, and in order still more to extend ib: already great circu- 
lation, they now offbr it in its present improved state, at such a reduced price, as, 
compared with the tonaer editions, will give it, they trust, an additional claim to 
public favour. 

CRITICAL NOTICES* 

** We can very oonfldently recAnmend Mr Swing's Atlas as by flur the most ekgant and ac» 
curate which we have seen on a similar scale. One decided advantage It possesses over all other 
Atlases now in use— the advantage of having the boundaries of the European Territories itccu- 
zately delineated."— J3/acXra<rood*f Magazine, 

** This is a new edition of the best School-Atlas with which we are acquainted. The maps 
have been re-engraved by those clever artists — the Messrs Menzles <X EdinburRh ; and, so far as 
we have bad an opportunity of judnnf, both for external embellishment and internal accuracy , 
it will not be easy to surpass thfxdr-'-Edinimrgh IMerary Journal, 

** The maps which it contains are executed with great skill, neatness, and taste. Altogether, 
it must be an excellent appendage to the library of the private student, as wdl as an important 
text-book for the use of ficbools." — (^aagow Free Press, 

** This Atlas is well and clearly executed, and contains the discoveries of the most recent 
travellers, as Parry, Franklin, Hall, Humboldt, Head, Denham, Clappaton« and Burck- 
hardt."— DuMtn Literarjf Gazette, 

" As a oompsAion to his Geoeraphy, Mr Ewing has published an Atlas, which, for elegance, 
accuracy, and distinctness, we do not hesitate to pronounce superior to any we have seen on a 
similar scale. This preference we do not give lightly. It is warranted by the experience of se- 
veral respectable teachers on this side of the Atlantic, who have uniformly found that their pu- 
pils can trace places on the Atlas with greater fadlity than on most of those in common use, 
which far exceed Mr Swing's in price. Owing to tiieir recent publication, too, both the Atlas 
and Geography possess the advantage of having the boundaries of the American, as well as of 
the European States, described and delineated aconding to the latest arrangements."— ilmeri- 
can Journal, 

"As school-books, Swing's Atlas and his Geography are entitled to a decided preference over 
all the works that have appeared on the same subject. They are by much the best that we have 
seen. In combination, they arc well and wisely adapted to each other. Every place mentioned 
in the Geography is to be found in the ^tlas : an advantage of the highest consequence both to 
the teacher and the scholar ; as every one will readily acknowledge who has been obliged either 
to teaeh or to learn from the text-boolcs commonly employedf-In short, all possible care seems to 
hai'e been taken to render them, both in point of extent and accuracy of information as well as 
of external embellishment, superior to every similar production. Perhaps we ought also to add, 
tiiat the maps of the Atias have been re^ngraved ; and that, from the peculiar eanness of refers 
ence, nothing could be better fitted for a Consulting Atlas. It is with the utmost sincerity that 
we thus bear our testimony to the merit of these publications, and recommend them to our 
readers, other for the education of their cfaiUren, or for a place on the tables of thdr library."— 
Edinburgh Literary Gazette, 

" In oomnundatiMi of the Atlas and Geognqphy of Mr E^ving, it is almost unnecessary for us 
to say a word. The celebrity they ha^'e acquimt, and the extendve sale which they have met 
with, are the best proofs of their merit. Notiiing, in truth, could be better adapted toKhe ob* 
jects they have in view. In particular^ the clearness, distinctness, accuracy of inrormation, and 
beauty of execution, render the Atias peculiarly valuable for the purposes of education, and,' 
even as a Consulting Atias, give it the superiority to many far moi-e ponderous and expensive 
publications; while the improvements of the Geography, and the additions which it has 
received, bring it as near as possible to what a manual of science ought to Xte*"— Edinburgh' 
Evening Post, ^ 



14 WORKS ON EDULATIOJN. 



FuLTON's improved and enlaiged Edition of JOHNSON s 
DICTION ABY, in Miniature : To which are suhjoined, Vocabularies of 
Classical and Scriptural Proper Names ; a concise Account of the Heathen 
Deities; a Collection of Quotations and Phrases from the Latin, French, Ita- 
lian, and Spanish Languages ; a Chronological Table of Remarkable Events 
from the Creation of the World till the present Time ; and a List of Men c€ 
Genius and Learning ; with a Portrait of Dr Johnson. FifteMith Edition. 

18mo. Price only 3s. boond. 

The PttbUtfaen haye ipsred neither pains nor expense to render this work in all re. 
ipects socurate and complete } and they aniicipate with confidence, that its superioritj 
to all other abridged editions of the large Dictionary will speedily be acknowledged. 
With all these advantagsif it if oflfered to the public at a price as low as the most eom- 
mon editions. 

Illustots* 

The history of Scotland, from the Roman Invasion 
till the Suppression of the Rebellion in 1745 ; with Exercises ; for the Use of 
Schools or of Private Students. By the Rev. Alex. Stewart. 

In one thick vol. 12mo. 6s. boond. 

*' A History of Scotland by the Rev. Alexander Stewart Is a very able woilc, and poss es s es 
much hif her didms to the favour of the public than historical works of far loftier preCensioDS. 
It is ndtner an abrid^rment nor a compilation, but a careful and excellent digest of Scottish 
Story, in whkfa elder students will find much force, originality, and researdi, and yoonger ones 
a rimpUdty and perspicuity of style admirably fitted to thdr yearSi Questions on eadi dumpier 
are appended to each."— Areu; Monthltf Magazine* 

<* Of Mr Stewart we had cause to speak in very Ikvounble terms for his edition of Nepos; 
and we now owe him a higher obligation for this wiell-written history, than which one more ril- 
giblc could not be put into the hands of youth. — Mr Stewart has merited the thanks of both old 
and yoong by die aide manner in which he has performed bis well-meant task.''—j;^«rarr 
Gaeette. 

** This is a work of great labour and merit, and well deserves the patronage of all enlightened 
instquton of the riling gtaentiotu"— Evangelical Magazine. 

** Mr Stewart's Continuation of Goldsmith's History of England, and the woric now before 
us, are evidently the result of reading at once extendvc and cutbdt—JSdinburgh ThtoUgieal 
Magazine* 

** This is roally a valuable publication. As a compendiom «f historical details. It seems to 
have been formed anxiously, and with mndi judgment ; whik the style is elastic and attsae- 
Uve."— Scotsman. 

'* This work is distinguished by deep research, moderation yet fearlessness of opinion, and 
emhient ability."— JEdinbwrg'A Weekly Chronicle, 

" We certainly think that Mr Ste^vart has acquitted himself very ably In his task, and pro- 
duced a HistOTy of Scotland that may be allowed to stand beside our Goldsmith's History of 
England. The volume comprises nearly as much reading as Dr Robertson's two octavo volumes, 
which sell for four times the price."— Azrftcu/ar Baptitt Magazine. 

** This is a very able. Impartial, and well-digested narrative. The author has had reco ur ss 
t« the most authentic sources of information, and has displayed much judgment in r^ecting 
what is obscure and unoertidn, in giving a rapid sk^n of unimportant occurrences, wid 
In laying before his readers an ample detail of all impartant and interesting events."— £diia»» 
tional tUvieuh 



Stewart's improved Edition of Dr GOLDSMITH'S Abridg- 
ment of the HISTORY of ENGLAND; from the Invasion of Julius Cassar 
to the Death of George II. ; with a CONTINUATION to the Commence- 
ment of the Reign of George IV. To which are subjoined, copious Exercises. 
Seventh Edition. In one thick vol I2ma 6s. bound. 

** " Dr Goldsmith's History of England Is allowed, as far as it goes, to be the best in use for 
s<4iools. The Continuation of it by Mr Stewait to the present time is accuratelv and impartially 
written ; and the value of the work, as it now stands, ia greatly increased for t^\ the purposes of 
education, by the copioas Tables of Exemiees, in the form of questions, on the events of cadi 
reign, which he has added at tiie end of the volume."— ^eu> Monthltf Magtusine, 



WORKS ON EDUCATION. 1 5 



The history of Scotland, from ^e EarUest Penod tiU 
the present Time. To which is prefixed, an Outline of the British ConstitH- 
tion ; with Questions for Examination at the End of each Section. For the 
Use of Schoob and of Priyate Students. By Robert Simpsok. Twentieth 
Edition. 12nio. 3s. 6d. bound. 

Simpson's improved Edition of Dr GOLDSMITH'S HIS- 
TORY of ENGLAND, from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Death of 
George II. ; with a CONTINUATION till the present Time ; and Questions 
for Examination at the End of each Section. To which is added, a Chapter 
on the British Constitution. Eleventh Edition. 12mo. 3s. 6d. bound. 



Simpson's improved Edition of Dr GOLDSMITH'S HIS- 
TORY of ROME ; with Questions for Examination at the End of each Sec- 
tion. To which are prefixed, Outlines of the Geography of Ancient Italy, and 
Introductory Chapters on Roman Antiquiti(>s, containing an Account of the 
Origin, Pr(^ess, Institutions, Manners, Customs, Government, Laws, and 
Military and Naval Affairs of the Romans; and a Vocabulary of Proper 
Names accented. With a Map of Ancient Italy. Tenth Edition. 

12mo. 3s. 6d. bound. 

Simpson's improved Edition of Dr GOLDSMITH'S HIS- 
TORY of GREECE ; with Questions for Examination at the End of each 
Section. With Introductory Chapters on the Geography, Manners and Cus- 
tomsy Religious Institutions, and Military and Naval Affairs of the Greeks ; 
and a Vocabulary of Proper Names accented. With a Map of Ancient Greece. 
Sixth Edition. 12mo. 3s. 6d. bound. 

«' Thew are neat and cleverly-edited reprints of very popular school-booka. The questions at 
the end of each chapter appear to be well chosen, and the introductory ncatter to the History of 
Rome cannot fail of being remarkably useful to the young stadaiW—AtheruBunu 

'* The whole Series merit the notice and patronage of the masters of English seminaries, and 
therefore we can cordially recommend them ; and not merely as school-books, but as works 
which will be found exceedingly instructive and useful to those who possess neither the means 
of procuring, nor the time that is requisite for exploring and digesting larger treatises."— 
Netv BaptUt Magazine* 

** These works contain much important matter never before introduced into books of this de- 
scription.— We recommend them most cordially as decidedly superior to the general order of 
school-books, contidning no one sentiment, either religious, moral, or political, to the influence 
of which on the youtbral ntind the most sedulous and serious tcadur woukl think it necessary 
to furnish an antidote."— ^0u; Baptist Mi*cellant/» 

** These books are all designed for the use of schools, for which purpose they are admirabty 
adapted ; each paragraph containing some subject to exereise the memory of the pupil, whose 
attention is thus recalled at the end of every section. These volumes are neatly printed, and 
the price is moderate."— Imperial Magazine* 

** T%eae are admirable school-books, and the Success they have already met with is a suffi- 
cient pnxif of the general estimation in which they are held. The questions are marked by 
great clearness and good sense, and are well calculated to strengthen Mid refresh the memory, 
even of adults."— London Wtekly Review. 

** To the master who wishes his pupils to be readily acquunted Trith what all should know, 
and to the parent who is anxious that nis children should learn history through an lionest and 
imputial medium, we recommend Simpson's editions of the Histories of Greece, Rome, Eng- 
land, and Sootlftod."— Ififerat:^ Chrwiiele* 

** In Smpson's editions of Goldsmith's Histories of Greece and Rome, the historical and geo- 

Gphical inaccuracies, which existed in former editions of these pojHilar school-books, have 
n corrected ; introductory cliaptera on Greek and Roman Antiqmties tiave been mneflxed* 
and Exerdaes added* Botjh work* seem to have been revised with great care."— Ntftc iMontA/y 
J/a|fa2me. 



16 



WORKS ON EDUCATION. 



BuTTERWORTH's COPY LINES, or SLIPS, aU the different 
ktadsy 35 Sortf* Each 6d. sewed. 



BESCiaPTION OF THK UNE& 



So, Btgin»>^ 

1. Admlmtion 

Amendment 

AccountADts 

AmanuensU 

Ammunition 

Admeasurement 
7* Attend to InttnicUoa 
8. Avoid intemperance 

Admire viituow deedi 

Ambition rulni manjr 

Abitaln from vtdoui haUti 



S. 
3. 

5. 
6. 



9. 

10. 
11. 
If. 
13. 
H. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 



Acquire command over 
Avoid whatever is 
A morning's Joy proves 
Application commonly 
Amendment commonly 
Attend to instruction 
A food contnt hand 



Large Text 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 

Text 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 

Half Text 

ditto 

ditto 

Small Hand 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 



No. Begins, 

19. Avoid lifting the pea 
'iO. Admiration 
31. Admonish with caudon 
SS. Acquire food manners 

23. Specimrai Pieces 

24. Penmanship, &c. 
15, Cards aiid Letters of Adviee 

26. Promissdiv Notes, Ac. 

27. Reeei|ft8f sc 

28. Writlnf: (ornamental) 

29. Dissolution (ornamental) 

30. Believe t}i£ Muse (ornamental) ditto 

31. German Text and Old English 

32. To Parents and Teachers ditto 

33. Amendment. Bonum magnum ditto 
31. Initiating Alphabet, && ditto 

3Su Aocxunulatioa New Text 



Sizes, 

SmaUHand 
4 Sixes 
3 ditto 
3 ditto 
Half Text 
Small Hand 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 



BuTTERWORTH's YOUNG WRITER'S INSTRUCTOR; 

containing his Method of Teaching, by which one half' of the Paper is saved, 
and the Pupil greatly benefited; with a variety of Specimens, calculated to in- 
spire a true Taste for useful and elegant Writing. Done up in a neat printed 
corer. 4to. Js. 6d. 

BuTTERWORTH's NEW UNIVERSAL PENMAN; dis. 
playing, in a Tariety of elegant Specimens) the Beauties of Plain and Omsonenta) 
Writing. Folio. 218. sewed. 

BuTTERWORTH'b YOUNG ARITHMETICIAN'S IN- 
STRUCTOR; combining accurate Writing, correct Figures,- and judicions 
Arrangement : designed for the Use of Schools and Private Families. Done 
up in a neat printed cover. 4to. 56. 

For beauty of design and correctness of execution, these works of Mr Butterworth 
are admired by every competent Judge of Penmanship. A decided preference is accord- 
ingly given to them by the most eminent teachers in the United Kingdom. They are 
the production of an indefatigable genius in his profession, exercised and improved by 
the ex{)erience of above forty years. The demand for them continuing to increase* 
the Publishers have spared no expense in bringing them out in the superior style in 
which they now appear. 

Introduction to penmanship; or. First Book for 

Children. By J. Weir. 9d. sewed. 

If simplicity at all tends to improvement, this Introduction claims no small share of 
praise. The first principles of writing are therein explained and exemplified with the 
utmost plainness. Teachers, as well as pupils, will find in this Introduction many 
useful hmts, which, if duly attended to, must very much conduce to their improve- 
ment in Penmanship. ^ 

Rankine's round text specimens of writing. 

_______^,^^______ ^» sewed. 

Rankine's small hand specimens of writing. 

6d. sewed. 

FiNDLAY's COPY LINES, or SLIPS, Round and SmaU 
Hand, 3 sorts. Od. each, seweii 



WORKS ON EDUCATION. 1 7 



Lessons in arithmetic for Junior Classes ; wiUi Tables 
of Money, Weights, and M easure?, according^ to the Imperial Standards. By 
James Trottek, of the Scottish Naval and Military Academy; Author of 
« A Key to Ingram's Mathematics," &c. 18mo. Price 6d. sewed. 

This little work was originally composed for the use of the Author's Junior Classes, 
and is now submitted to the public in the hope that it will be found worthy of being 
introchiced into Public Schools and Academies, and that, firom the numl>er and variety 
of the Exercises, it may prove a useAil auxiliary to Governesses and Private Families. 



The principles of arithmetic, and their Application 

to Business explained in a popular Manner, and clearly illustrated hy simple 
Rules and numerous Examples : to which are prefixed. Tables of Monies, 
Weights, and Measures, according to the Imperial Standards. By Alex- 
ander Ingram, Author of « A Concise System of Mathematics," &c. 
Eleventh Edition, thoroughly revised and considerably enlarged. 

ISmo. Price only One Shilling bound, 

" This is a neat little volume, which oontains much valuable matter, and promises to be ex- 
eeedinely useful both in schools and for private students. The rules are laid down with great 
dmpliaty, and may therefore be easily comprehended.'*— Imj^eriol Magazine* 

'< Ingnun's Principles of Arithmetic deserves attention, as betnir at once a good teaching 
book, and explaining and applying the New Imperial Standard of Weights and Measuxes."— 
Uteraiy Gazette. 

** The object in the elementary treatise before us, is to render arithmetic as familiar and as 
easy of acquitttion as possible ; the rules are much rimplificd, and the examples are well selected^ 
so as aptly to illustrate each rule."— Ltferary Chronicle. 

" No other initiatory book with which we are acquainted possesses so many and such ctroac 
claims upon aH who are employed in' the business of educatirai."— JS(f<n6urjrA WeeMtf Jownal. 

" In this age of cheap publications, we see no work more deserving of the patronage of the 
publk than TngranCt Prindplet of Arithmetic. The rules are clear, and the examples num(>- 
rous ; besides. It contuns every thine reouiidte to fit a young man for the ooantiag^oom^ and 
the into is extremely modemte.*^- JEuftn&urgA Weekly Chronicle. 

** The arrangement is sdentiflc, — the rules arc penplcuons and rimpic, — the numerous ex- 
erdses are well chosen to ducidate those rules, and to exemplky the arithmetic of actual life,— 
the results are renuulcably accurate,— and last, though not least, the price is so trifling aa to 
place it within the readi of all classes of the communHy."— £(Un!>urgA Eoen^g Poet. 

" We find this work fully realises the high expectations we had fonaed as to its merits, from 
the cdcbrity of its author as a profound scholar m the various biinches of mathematical sdence." 
^-Glaetfow Free Prete. 

'* In this small volume there are more than eleven hundred examples, and many of these 
so judiciously chosen as to call forth the learner's thinking powers, and thus improve his mental * 
llu!ulties as well as fit him for the active business of life. — It possesses all that an introductory 
worit should have, and at the same tiipe has nothing redundant."— Dufi^ries Cburior. 

Also, 

A KEY to this Work^ containing Solutions of all the Questions 
performed at length. By the same Author. 18mo, 2s. 6d. hound* 



Elements of arithmetic; with an Appendix on Weights 
and Measures. By Elias Johnstok, Editor of an improved Edition of 
« Hamilton's Merchandise.** &c. l8mo. 2s. bound. 

The plan of these Elements is in several respects new. Every diflbrent operation is 
illustrated by an appropriate example ; and every example is ascompanied by such sim* 
pic explan&tioni as are sufficient, it is presumed^ to enable the pupil to perform it 
himsel£ B 2 



1 8 WORKS ON EOUCATIOK; 



Melrose's concise system of practical arith- 
metic ; ffffTt""'"g the Fundamental Rules and thrar Applicatioo to Mer- 
cantile Calculations ; Vulgar and Decimal Fractions ; Exchanges; InTolutioa 
and Evolution ; Pr<^;re8sions ; Annuities, certain and contingent ; Artificers* 
Measuria(^ &c. Revised, greatly enlarged, and better adapted to Modem 
Practice. By Alex, Ino&am. Thirteenth Edition. 18mo. 2s. bound. 

The Publisher! again submit this work to public notice, not merely as an intioduc- 
tlon, containing the most simple and useAil Principles of Arithmetic, but as a complete 
treatise, comprehending every thing necessary for enabling the pupil to l>eo(Hne mas- 
ter of this valaable scioice. The various rules are so arranged as to reflect light on 
each other. Many new and easy methods of calculation are introduced, not to be 
found in any other work ; and the unprecedented number and variety of questions 
subjoined to each section will afford a singular fhcility to the teacher in ctmducting bis 
scholars, and to the pupils themselves in understanding and applying the rules. 

Every attention has been paid to the accuracy and neatness ot' the work; and the 

Publishers confidently hope, that it will be found po s s es s ed of every quality requisite 

In a text-book. 

Also, 

A KEY to the above Work. By Alex. Ingram. 18mo. 4s. 6d. bd. 



HuTTON's COMPLETE TREATISE on PRACTICAL 
ARITHMETIC and BOOK-KEEPING, both by Single and Double Entry. 
A New Edition, adapted to the Imperial Standards of Weights and Measures, 
with a New Set of Books by Double Entry, exemplifying the Modern Prac- 
tice of Book-keeping, and many other important Additions and Improvements. 
By Alex. Ingram. 12mo. 36. bound. 

A N'Ew Edition of 

A KEY to BUTTON'S ARITHMETIC ; containing Solu- 
tioos at full lengtli of all the Questions proposed in that Work. 12nio. 4s. bd. 



A CONCISE SYSTEM of MATHEMATICS, in Theory and 
Practice, for the Use of Schools, Private Students, and Practical Men ; coijt- 
prehending Algebra, Practical Geometry, L(^arithms, Plane and Spherical 
Trigonometry, Mensuration of Surfaces, Solids, Heights, and Distances; Land- 
Snrveying, Gauging, Mensuration of Artificers* Works, &c. With a copious 
Appendix, containing the more useful Propositicms of Geometry, Conic Sec- 
tions, Fluxions, and Demonstrations of the Rules in the Body of the Work. 
The Second Edition, thoroughly revised, with many im^rtant Additions and 
Improvements ; besides, an accurate Set of Stereotyped Tctblesy comprisii^ 
Logarithms of Numbers, Logarithmic Sines and Tangents, Natural Sines and 
Tangents, and Areas of Circular Segments. By Alex. Ikorabi, Author of 
« Elements of Euclid," &c, containing idZpages, and illustrated by upwards 
qf200 toood'Culs. 12mo. 7s. 6d. bound. 

*' This is perhaps, taking every thing Into the account, the best book of its kind and extent in 
our kmguage— at least, we are not acquainted Avith a better. It contains every thing esaentiai 
for the student of elementary Mathematics, expressed most luminously, and with tnat proper 
medium of exposition, equally removed frooo verbose amplification and obicuie brevity. The 
arrangement too of the subjects merits praise, and the tables annexed to the end are beautifVilly, 
and, as far as we have been able to examine them, correctly printed. It is high, but hardly ex- 
aggerated praise, to say of this little manual, that it comprehends nearly as mudi mathematics, 
that IS, as many useful mathematical facts, as the three ndume course of Dr Hutton. Ik has 
our entii-e approbaUon."— JVa« Monthly Masazine, 



WORKS ON EDUCATION. 19 

'* This woA appearSf as fkr m we have been alile to examine it, to be one of the dearest and 
matt perspicuous, as well as suodactest, systems of Mathematics ever pubBshed. We must 
confine our character of it to this general statement ; its contents, and we may add its merits, 
are too varioos to be particuhuized. The Tables of Logarithms, Sines, Tangents, Areas of 
Segments, &&, are of infinite use* and were hardly to be expected in a work so condensed at 
this."— ^«iaMc Journal. 

" We have formerly had occasion to notice Mr Ingram's Elements of Euclid, which we have 
always considered as one of the best of our English translations of that work : and we aie glad 
tobe able to sav, in the present instance, that the author lias by no means given us reason to 
think more lightly of his talents for concise and accuitite illustrations.— The author has found 
the means of oaroprisin«r, in a small compass, much Chat is useful and valuable to the practical 
mathematician.'*— Ifon/ft/y Rsoimo, 

" It embraces the theory and practice in such a manner that they may be tauipht dtber separ 
ratdy or conjointly ; and the several rules are expressed in language remarkably clear and intel- 
ligible, and ulustrated by very appropriate examples, so that the volume presents, in a very small 
compass, a complete system of toe sdence."— Jfontfti^ Magtui$u, 

** The character of the whole work is that of clearness ; and, as it contains a compilation of 
the dements of so many useful and connected sciences, it l> better as a school-book than so many 
separate introductions upon each srience, provided at least that the scholar is intended for a pro- 
fession which requires ueometrv. Trigonometry. Algebra, and Logarithms, to be followed by 
Mensuration, Surveying, Gauging, and Measuring the Work of Artificers."— ^urojwan MvgO' 
»(»«. 

" Mr Ingram's compnatk)n Is one of much merit, and has evidently laid hcwry eontcibHtions 
on his time and talents."- Im^peHo/ Mt^^azine, 

*' Mr Ingram is the author of several mathematical works of considerable merit. Heposseases 
a happy talent of rendering abstruse subjects intdliglble, and by thus smoothing the hills of 
sdence, enabling students to pass down them, not only with rapidity but with case. Tht pre- 
sent work is an excellent elementary treatise, whidi cannot b« too stnwgly reoommended. — 
JJttTwy Chnmide, 

** It is certainly one of the most oomprdiendve manuals which have ever been drawn up 
either for schools or ,pri\'ate students ; none of the latter of whom, we appvehend, although even 
left without a master, will find any thing wanting in it which the title authorizes him to ex- 
pect. We have, indeed, met with no other work of the kind whidi is at the same time so com- 
plete, various, and accurate, on the one hand-«nd so dicap, and in every way commodious^ on 
the other."— ^AeiwBum. 

*' Upon tlie whole, we condder this book to be, in point of practical utility, unrivalled, and 
earnestly recommend It to the notice of our numerous readers, as the fittest work we have seen 
for bdog put into the hands of students in Meiuuretion."— Mechanic/ Magazint' 

** Ingram's Concise Svstcm of Mathematics, is an enlaified and greatly improved edition of a 
work which was formerly recdi'ed with deserved fiivour, under the less apinropriate titie of A 
Condse System ef Mensuration. The work condenses a vast deal of matter into a very small 
space : the nature of which matter will be fiilly expressed by the present title of the volume; 
and it performs its task with much of that clearness and predslon which are so difficult to attain 
in attempts of this kind, and yet so indispensable to any useful end."— Cbtirf Jdtfmo/. 

"^ We have carefully examined this valuable work, and find it throughout excellently calcu- 
lated for the purposes stated in the title. The matter is well selected, and judicioudy arranged ; 
the practical rules are given ivith great clearness, and the illustrations prove the thorough 
knowledge of the late excellent author in all the practical details of this impontant branch of edu- 
cation. It is neatly and correctly printed, and, what we condder of importance in a work of this 
description, is remarkably f±sK^**'— Edinburgh New Phihtophical Journal* 

"The first editton of this work, published under the tide of A Condse System of Men«ai»> 
tion, met with very great success.- A number of important additions ha\'e now been made, es- 
nedally in the departments of Algebra, Land-Surveying, Gauging, Mensuration of Artifioefs' 
Work', the Limits of Ratios, Fluxions, and Fluents, and Spheriod TYigonometry. An accu- 
rate set of Logarithmic Tables has also been added, and the whole has undergone a cai^k 
rigwous, and minute revision.''- £dinfr«rgA Literary JoumaL 

** In practical utility it will, we believe, be fonnd without a rival ; and to Mechanio^ Inatt- 
tntcs, and Sdiools of Art in particular, it will prove an invaluable class4x)ok— being superioi- ki 
plainness and dmplidty, and less cosdy too. than the treatises published under the sanction of 
the Society for Useful Knowledge, and which were intended to conununicate useful information 
in an easy form, and at a trifiing expense^ We predict that its circulation will be as extensK'e 
as its merits.''->JiiUn6tir«A LUerarp Gaaette. 

Also, 

A KEY to INGRAM'S CONCISE SYSTEM of MATHE, 

MATICS, containing Solutions of all the Questions prescribed in that Work. 
With an Appendix on Gunnery. By James Teotter, of the Scottish 
Naval and Military Academy. 12bio. Ss. 6d.' bound. 



so WORKS ON EDUCATIOK. 



Mathematical and astronomical tables, for 

the Use of Students in Mathematics, Practical Astronomers, Surreyors, £n- 
gineers, and NaTigators ; preceded hy an Introduction, containing the Coo- 
struction of Lc^rithmic and Trigonometrical Tables, Plane and Spherical 
Trigonometry, their Application to Navigation, Astronomy, Surrejring, and 
Geodetical Operations ; with an Explanation of tjie Tables ; illustrated bj 
munerous Problems and Exampties. By William Galbraith, M. A.., 
Teacher of Mathematics, Edinburgh. Second Edition, greatly enlarged and 
improyed. 8to. 98. boards. 

CRITICAL NOTICES </ the FIRST EDITION, 

<* This porUbla «id cheap volume ii well worthy of the attention of the practical nMii 
alluded to In the UtlcM{(e ; and we have no doubt that, when Its merits come to be suffi- 
dentlr known. It will superseiie the use of every other with which we are acquainted."— 
BMnbur/^ New mioeophicai Journal. 

** We fSiel much pleaaure in dcclaHng that the expeetationi it hold* out are ampl^ ftil- 
fliled ; and we recommend it to every person engaged in practical science, as a collection of 
rabki suj^iying a gap, which, from the serious mconvenienoe that has hitherto arisen, they 
alone can ^ntnaate."— Mon<M^ Magazine. 

CRITICAL NOTICES of the SECOND EDITION. 

*' A valnable woric of real practical utility, in which the compiler has kept the medium 
course, a^'oidlng the two extremes of bulk and too great compression, so that his tables are 
available for all readers, and within the reach of alL The methtid pursued in the work, the 
Jndidous selection of the materials, and the care and accuracy with which the tables are dmwn 
up and printed, cannot fail to recommend Mr Galbraith's book, and introduce it into very gene- 
ral use. — .<lria«<e Journal. 

** These tables will be found very uselUl to practical mathematicians, but espedally to those 
engaged in the naval service. The formula of calculation have been very skilfully selected, 
whfle none of the improvements of modem adence have been neglected ; and the compiler has 
gm«ra!ly chosen thuee rules whkb will be found most easy to reduce to practice."— ^tA^fueum. 

" Mr Galbraith's work is not new to us. i¥e are mudh pleased to see it in a sectmd edition, 
and hope shortly to find it in a third and a fourth. It has always been matter of surprise to us* 
how Mr Galbraith has contrived to get so much useful matter, as he has done, into the small 
space of about three hundred jMges, sufficient to meet the wants of the classes he enumerates in 
MS title. And when, In addition to this, we And all the tables requisite for its appUcatkm 
comprised in one hundred and twenty pages more, these are sterling recommendations. We 
need not touch any of the multitude of subjects in this work, but may briefly assure those who 
are in search of a work of iu kind, that they will find their wants amply supplied in Mr Gal- 
braith's valuable book. It is one that we should oertidnly plaee in the hands of a naval eUee." 
'^Nautical Jfo^aintf. 

— ^' By far the best selection of tables, much improved in their use and construction, accom- 
panied with more valuable matter than any other work of the same sise and price with wlcich 
we are acquainted ; and as such confidently recommend it to the notice of the pubUc"— 
Quarter^ Journal qf Agriculture, 



Eattn uxCti Steelt. 
CORDERII COLLOQUIA; a New Edition, carefully corrected, 

with the Quantities marked; and containing a Vocabulary of all the Words 
that occur in the Text, By the Rev. Geo. Milligak. 18mo. 2s. bound 

" In this edition much industry and accuracy are perceptible : every important quantity is 
marked ; and a cofdous Vocabulary appended."— Ntfu; Monthlj^ Magaeine, 

" A very good edition of this elementary work of instruction. We know not that it calls for 
any farther remark, than that the type is good and clear, and the siae convenient.''— lfo<ro- 
politan. 

" A neat edition of our old friend, the abridged Coisdcrius, with a good Vocabulaiy. It is 
perhaps better than any other first book in Latia."- Spectotor. 

** Mr Milligan has subjected the text to a critical examination, and has rectified not a few er* 
rors which had escaped the notice, or at least had not received the correction, of former edi- 
tors. The quantities are marked on such syllables as are likely to be mispronounced by begin- 
ners, who are thus prevented from forming habits of inaccuracy, whidi it is difHcult afterwards 
to correct. The VoceU/ulary is executed on a very judicious plan. Instead of a collection of 
vague and general meanings, the scholar will here nnd what is necessary f«r the interpretation 
of the T^jftf while the derivation and oxnjposition of the words are presented in a very distinct 
aad perspicuous manner. We have no hesitation in recommending the present edition of Cor- 
dcry as the best that haa yet appeared f or the uae of schools."— £iMn6i*r^ Literary Jvumak 



WORKS ON EDUCATION. 21 



SaLLUSTII OPERA; with copious Marginal Notes, and an 
Historical and Geographical Index. By John Dymock, LL. D. Fifth 
Edition. l8mo. 2s. 6d. bound. 

In forming the Text, the editor has consulted the latest and best editions of that 
author, and has introduced ttom the German critics several New Readings, by which 
some difficulties are removed, and the study of the learner b greatly facilitated. The 
Notes at the foot of the page are intended to assist, not to supersede the exertion of. 
the scholar. The Index is very complete, and will be found to contun more minute 
information on Roman Antiquities than is supplied by the treatises written solely for 
the purpose of illustrating that subject. The Critical Remarks on the style of Sallust 
will be of considerable use in directing the attention of the reader to the character, 
istic peculiarities of that eminent historian. These improvements, it is presumed, will 
render this the most complete school edition of Sallust ever offered to the British 
public. 

" C. Crispl Sallustii, &c. Studio Jdannis Dymodc, is a small stereotype edition of this early- 
read aod entertaining dasaic, on an admirable plan, and excellently adapted for instruction, as 
2t Is formed to attract and gratify the curiosity of the youngest leemen, as well as to please ty- 
ros more advanced. Dr Dymock is, by his publications, proving himself a great friend to the 
rising generation ; and they well deserve the populariiy and publis &vour they have received." 
IMercay Gazette. 

«* To the text of Sallust is added a very copious historical and geographical index, to the ex- 
tent of 150 pages, containing an account of every individual or pLsce mentioned in the work. 



The index is itself very valuable, and may be referred to with advantage, not only by students, 
but those of mature age, whose classical recollections are somewhat rusty.*— Ltferaiy C 



'Chronicler 



An introduction to latin syntax; containing, 
1. The Rules of Syntax, as delivered in Mr Ruddiman^s Rudiments, with a 
brief lUnstration. 2. Explanatory Notes. 3. Examples taken, for ihe most 
part, from the Classic Authors. 4. English Exercises. To which is subjoin- 
ed, an Epitome of Ancient History, from the Creation to the Birth of Christ; 
with a Collection of Historical and Chronological Questions. By John Maia, 
A.M. — ^A New Edition; with improved English Readings, Additional Notes, 
an English and Latin Vocabulary, and a Vocabulary of Proper Names. By the 
Rev. Alex. Stewart. 1 8mo. 3s. bound ; or without the Vocabularies, 2s. 

In the present edition, it has been the editor's endeavour to render it still more de- 
serving of its established popularity, by replacing some of its antiquated or vulgar 
phrases with others more adapted to the refinement of modem taste *, by introducing 
corrections of several errors discovered on tracing the sentences to thar original 
authors ; by adding a few Notes, illustrative of particular remarks, or peculiarities ot 
construction ; and by compiling an English and Latin Vocabulary, for the assistance 
at the pupil in translating into Latin the English Exercises on each Rule ; with a 
Vocabulary of Proper Names, explanatory of every word that occurs in the work con- 
nected with Ancient History, Geography, and Mythology. These additions will be re. 
ceived, it is hoped, as considerable improvements. They can scarcely fail to facilitate 
materially the labours of the scholar j and it is hoped they may likewise be found of 
some use in assisting the exertions of the teacher. 

" Mr Maii^ Introduction to latin Svntax is a school-book, the merits of which are pretty 
generally known ; and the improvements made by Mr Stewart render it one of the best wdtIb, 
If not the best, of the laja±r—jUkaic Journal. 

"The additions and corrections of the weseot editor Increase the vame of one of our most 
vseral school-books, and one which will now probably be as wdl reoedved on this side of 
the Tweed, as it has been extensively patronised on the other."— ^^^or. . 

'* Upon the whole, we can safdy recommeod the present as the most nscAil editkm yet pab- 
lished of this long-established school-book. We mav add, that it is printed in a very convenient 
form, and with great accuracy and neatness."— iCdin6««rgfl IMerary JoumaL 



«2 WORKS ON EDUCATION. 



CORNELII NEPOTIS VITiB, with Marginal Notes, a Cbro- 

nological Table in Englishy oomprisiii};' the priDdpal Events related in the 
Ltrea; a RfMnan Colendari with an Explanation of the Method of reckonii^ 
Dates by Calends, Nonets and Ides ; a Vocabulary) containing all the Words 
that occur in the Work, with their yarious Significations, and an accurate R«- 
lerenoe to the Passages in which any Peculiarity of Translation is required ; 
and an Index of Proper Names. By the Rer. Alexakder Stewakt, 
Author of « A History of Scotland," ftc Eleventh Edition. 18mo. 3s. bound. 

'* What hM attracted our attentkni, and deserved our imite, in this neat litde ^Ukatioti, 
is 41m plan on which It It constructed. Maivinal notes are added to the text, admirably calcu- 
lated to hdp the tyro to the full understanding of his task ; and a Chronological Table oom- 
irietcs thisjnrtlMn of useful Infonnation. There are also an Index of Proper Names, and in- 
structive 'ntbles, which explain and apply the Roman method of reckoning by Calends, Nones, 
and Ides ; but the peat and peculiar recommendation to us is one of a typical kind, namely, the 
Minting of the accents very accurately over the text.— We have only to repeat our perfect appR>> 
badon of this edition, for its ample intelligence, correctness, and farm/'—IMerary Gazette. 

*' An cnlai^ed edition of Cornelius Nepos, by the Rev. Alexander Stewart, merits, on seveni 
sooounts, a deckled preference over any former one^ It contains marginal notes ocplaining any 
diAculties of phraseology which may occur, and also the marks of the long and short syllables 
placed over most of the words. At the conclusion of the Lives is placed a Chronolwieai TaUe 
of Evaot^and the mode of computing Time by Olympiads, together with a complete Romajt 
Calendar.*— Mow<A<y Magazine. 

" Beshka the Lives of eminent Commanden by Comeliua Nenos, with notes, this little vo- 
lume contains a Chronology, Calendar, Vocabulary, and Index of Names.— The text is through* 
out accented, to denote the quantity of the syllables, and the work bs* on the whole, worthy of 
genenl •noouragement.''— Nno Monthfy Magazine- 

" Mr Stewart's is a neat and useful edition, and we have particulariy to commend the Index 
of Proper Names, which Is rendered more useful by tha geographical^ historical, and mytholo- 
gical infonnation which it contains."— Geftf/mum'a Jf agoeine. 



1 



The tyro's dictionary, Latin and English : compre- 
hending the more nsoal Primitives of the Latin Tongue, digested alphabeti- 
cally, in the order of the Parts of Speech. To wliich are subjoined, in a 
smaller character, on the lower part of the pages, Lists or Catalogues of their 
DeriTatives and Compounds. Designed as an easy and speedy method of in- 
troducing Youth to a general acquaintance with the Structure of the Language, 
and preparing them for the use of a larger Dictionary. By JoHK Mais, 
A* M* Eleventh Edition, corrected. 12mo. 6s. bound. 



Edinburgh academy edition of ruddiman's 

RUDIMENTS of the LATIN LANGUAGE, with Alterations, and an 
Appendix. Third Edition. 12mo. 28. 6d. bound. 

To this edition has been added a copious Appendix, containing Tables of Irregular 
and Defective Nouns and Adjectives ; a List of Verbs, with the Compounds which 
differ fVom the Simple Verbs in Conjugation, subjoined by way of Notes ; also Ruddi- 
man's Rules for Gender and Quantity, with Explanations ; so as entirely to supersede 
the use of a separate Latin Grammar. 

'* This edition exhibits many useful improvements on the original. To the Syntax seversl 
new rules have been added, and the style of others has been considerably simplified. The 
Prosody at the end of the work is short and plun, and likely to be serviceable to beginnwa."— 
London Weekly Review, 



Edinburgh academy latin delectus; witii a. 

copious Vocfibulary. 12mo. Ss. bound. 

<* This is a great improvement on the common IMeettu in respect to arrangement, as well 
as the number and aelectk>n of examples. The excellent Vocabulary, or rather Dictionary, 
adapted to the Delecttu, is a very useful auxiliary to the \mtnst*''^MUaie Journal* 



II 



WORKS ON EDUCATION. 







n 1* praX, tnrl we fuvt no bBdUtioq In 
itat"— BrflnSwi!'! fXeK&g Purt. 

iKcallla dT (be ieunrr'—Duff^/riBt awtw. 






and lAat aft/v MiUniHifgh Ac 






Edinburgh academy rudiments of the greek 

I.ANGDAGB. Third EttilioB. ISmo. iB.bmmd. 

fOrmpTlf piinfcd an ii iniqlleT type and tnlenpened thTDU|houl tlic Tt>1unK» wljl now 
be riHjiid with tmat new mitta In a lepAnte Apfvncllx. The valiuble BUffgHtloni, 
wilh which the coicpller ha> been rAvoated iljie* the flrtt njfieimiKe af the work, 
indue* bim le hop* [bit b* hu bow In BDa monin Mtainol hit orlgUuil g(i)tn nT 



24 WORKS ON EDUCATION. 

combining within reMonabto limiti the requiaitMof a flnt and lecond Greek Oram* 
ntar. The alteotioo of the ichoUr is particularly called to the l&it of Aoomaloua Verba, 
which may now be ragarded aa complete. 

*« Thb It a naefnl Uttle woik, and compriMa a great deal of valuabla Inftmoatlon in ■naU 
^njmiHi**- It hai alio the ad^'antace of bdnf written in Enclish, and thus affords a gradf jixw 
prutifthat common wnte is getting the bctier of oid-fashloned customs and pr^udieca as anci- 
liuaccd as hurtful. Wc regard this Grammar as one of the nuwt uaeful that we have latdjr 
Men.*— I«fidon Weekiif Rtvimo. 

** The Grammar before us has the merit of being condse in Its rules, distinct in its arTangie^ 

._at. correct in its typogimphT, and ftiU in f*" — ' — **— «* - — *»»* *- -»- 

young student.'*— Edin^urgi^ »ening AMf. 



•* To such of our readers as know or derfrs to learn the Greek language, we oonlldeattf r«- 
mmmend a very useful elementary publication that has lately issued from the Edinburgh press. 
It is entitled * RudiiiienUof the Greek LanguaKCi' and hasafaeady passed through two editioDs, 
published under the auspices, and for the especial benefit, of the New Edinbttzxh Academy. It 
vxhiblto some of tboaa more recent improvements in the mode of teaching the languages which 
the directors of that flourishing institutiim have adopted with so great success."— Znvemeas 
OMirtar. 

" TiiaexoeDsacy of this Onunmar chiefly condets In the oondaiseil fnm in whidi many of 
the rules axe given,— in the iudiclous arrangement of these rules,— In the distinct and amide 
manner in which they are Ulustrated by examples,— and In the original matter interspersed 
dirotighout the work in the last edition, but now thrown together in the Appendix. In short, 
the whole forma such a complete, yet compendkras manual of Greek Gnnunar, as cannot fail 
to Kcommend itself to very extennve circulation, and justly claims for itt author the thanks of 
those persons particularly, wbo are, like him, engaged in the important and arduous task of 
ooodiicting the studies of the rising generation.''— £«<n6ifrgh ObserMr. 



Edinburgh academy greek extracts^ chiefly 

from the Attic Writers ; with a copious Vocabulary. Second Edition. 

12mo. 3s. 6d. bound. 

" TUs nttie oollcctlon, comidled for theose of the Edinhoivfa Academy, contains a dOeehu 
from the Greek classical writers, in prose and poetry. It exhibits the pnncipal dialectic varie- 
ties of the language ; and, with the additional recoinmendattons of good paper and neat typogra* 
pliy, stands aflftir chance of becoming popular."— Se/0ct<c Aev<eio. 

*' Although thees < Extracts' profbss to be principally from the Attic writers, the little vo- 
lume contains a few specimens of tlie other dialects auo. llie distiogulabing feature of the 
^ook is the clasdUlcatwn according to the dialects. The sdectkms are judidoualy madcb"— 

** It is one of the best specimens of Oi:eek typography that has latdy issved from the Scottish 
press : and this circumstance, in connexion with the skilful arrangement of the extracts, and 
the copiousness and accuracy of the Vocabulary, which is accommodated to the latest diKove>- 
ries of the Greek grammarians, and, we may add, with the cheapness of the work, renders it 
better adapted than any other we have seen for the purpose of elementaiy instruction in the 
language.*— Edinburgh fVeekly Cbronide. 

** The editor of the present Extracts wrote a Greek Grammar, whidi is one of the best that 
we have seen for Initiating beginners into the study of that difficult and neglected language. 
The present publication also reflects honour on his editorial talents. The extracts are judiciou*' 
ly selected. There is also a correct and useful Vorabulary of all the words contained in the 
text, and the whole is concluded with some references, by way of facilitating the researches of 
the learner, which are wisely thrown to the end. Altt^ther we can strongly recommend it as 
an excellent first book for b^inners."— Edinburgh Evening Pott* 



Edinburgh academy edition of the gramma- 
tical EXERCISES on the MOODS, TENSES, and SYNTAX of the 
LATIN LANGUAGE (originally composed by the late Mr Tl7fiNER> 
Carel'ully reyised and improved : with Notes, and a Vocabulary containing all 
the Words that occur in the Work. By George Ferguson, A. M., of the 
Edinburgh Academy. Second Edition. 18mo. 2s. bound. 

" A new and improved edition of an excdlcnt school-book. The improvements greatly en- 
nance it« value."— ^Miiie Journal. 

** We have looked over every part with great pleaanre, and with some astonishment, in which 
we must Include the beauty and accuracy of the printing. We have no heritation in saying, 
that the book nuty be sdfely and profitably used by every student of the Latin tongue.**— Gmfla- 
man's Magazine. 



WORKS ON EDUCATION. 25 



«' Fran the wdl-kiMma loennxy and Uteikus dffl^ 
commcsid thb edition to the faubructon of youth."— JBdteMir^ ObMfoer, 

» We have greavpleasan In bring^ thii work under the notice of the public* bdng one of 
the most compiBte of the kind we ever enmfaied."— ^i&ercteew Jimmtd, 

•* This is one of theoraiteat fanivovements in a very valuable tehoeMKwk wlddi hal artt 
Allen under our notloe.'w)iifVHw Cowritr, 



RUDDIMAN's LATIN GRAMMAR : edited by John Hun- 
TEB, LL. D., Professor of Humanity in the University of St Andrews. 

12mo. 48. bound* 

PUBLII VIRGILII MARONIS OPERA: carefiiny revised 

according to the best Readings, and illustrated by English Notes. By John 
HuNTEB, LL. D. Fourth Edition, improved. 18mo. Ss. 6d. bonnd. 

TiTI LIVII PATAVINI HISTORIARUM BELLI PU- 

NICI SECUNDI LIBRI QUINQUE PRIORES : carefully revised. By 
JOHV HuKTXB, LL. D. Fourth Edition, improved. 12mo. 48. 6d. bound* 

• 

The long experience and justly-merited celebrity of the editor, as an acute philelo- 
gist, a profound classical scholar, and a Professor of Humanity, suocessftil for upwaxdi 
of fifty years to a degree aknost unprecedented in this country, enable the Publishers to 
recommend these works with the utmost confidence. 

QfJ> Hunter's Virgil the BtXbAurgh Jbfaiew epeaJu in thete ternu .•^ 

" The Preface, whidi may be conslderad as a qwchnen of Dr Hunteifs talents of annotation, 
contains a conridenible number of very interesting dUscusslons.— The punctuation of this edition 
appears to be peculiarly judicious. — ^We may safuy recommend this as one of the most comet 
editions of ViiiB:il that has vet been offiired to the pubUc— We do not know, indeed, that itooi^ 
tains a single typographical error; and, in the reading and punctuation of the text, it is suJB- 
dent to say, that Prottssor Heyne has publicly dedued it to be superior to any that he had 
previously examined." 

Of the other Classics it is only necessary to say, that they are edited with equal ikiD 
and care, and that the notes now added to them are peculiarly valuable. 



A NEW PRONOUNCING FRENCH PRIMER ; or, Rwt 

Step to the French Language : containing a Vocabulary of Easy and Fami- 
liar Words, arranged under Distinct Meads ; and a Selection of Phrases on 
Subjects of the most frequent Occurrence. The whole intended as an Intro* 
duction to « The New French Manual" By G. SUBEKKE, F. A. S. E., &c. 
Third Edition. Royal 18mo. Is. 6d. 

This little work is intended to initiate young persons in the elements of a language 
which is deservedly considered an indispensable part of modem education. 

It contains a copious and useflil VoeabuUry, with a selection of Rich lArases of 
common occurrence as, by readily laying hold of the memory, are best adapted to for- 
ward the improvement of the young scholar. These phrases and short sentences sU 
relate to subjects of general interest ; and the pronunciation of the phraaet as well as 
of all the words in the Vocabulary being marked, will, it is hoped, tend to remove i 
maindiiBcalty in the aequisltkm ofthe language. 



26 WORKS ON EDUCATION. 



The new French manual, and traveller's 

CX)MPANION: containing an Introduction to French Pronunciation; a 
oopHHis Vocabulary ; a Selection of Phrases ; a Series of ConTersations, on a 
Tour to Paris by Four different Routes, through France, through Holland, 
thnmgh Germany, and through Switzerland; witli a Description of the Pub- 
lic Ruildings, Institutions, Curiosities, Manners, and Amusements, of the 
French Capital, fcc. ; also Models of Epistolary Correspondence, and Direc- 
tions to Travellers. To which are added, the Statistics of Paris, and Tables 
of Piench and British Monies, Weights, and Measures. Illustrated by Tliree 
Maps. By G. SvbEMNE, F. A. S. E., &c Fourth Edition, revised and en- 
larged. Royal I8mo. 4s. half>bound. 

" TIm Ides of eonblning • dMs^xwk fbr instmetlon In tiie Ftcndi language with * guide to 
the twvdls In Fnmce, b original.— Every one who wishes to be concct in the pronunciation and 
wrttlag of the French lanfuage, and every one who intends to tnyA in France, and to acquire 
easily an acquaintance with whatever is most worthy of being known in its capital, will do well 
to avatl ta^idf of the Important attistancc which this work will afford haxu^—EoRnburgh 
Theologkai MagaziM. 

'* This to one of the most compreheniivc little books of its kind that ha* ever fUlen under our 
notlcv. It comMnw the advantafpes of a guide to the travdkry with the useful qualities of a 
claaa-book to the student."— l':din&«r^ Obfcrver. 

** We know no work better fitted to initiate the young into the elcgaBt art of French conver- 
Mitton, or to give them a relish fbr a language with which every one having the smaliest preten- 
aions to a liboml education must neoeasatlly be familiar."— £din&urg-A Evening Pott, 

** TO the timveller but little acquainted with the French Unniage It is indispensable ; and to 
thegWMnl Ficndi aeholar, who wishes to acquire a stock of phrases, and a knowledge of the 
lifeetics of French convenation, it Is one of the best little books he oould pitch oa."—Kdmburgh 
lAteratry Oatette. 

'< This nally devcr Uttte woik eomblnes the advantaces of a guide to the trareUer with the 
useful qualities of a clas>»book for the student: and by it a person may gabi a knowledge of 
France and its language at the same time.- The pronunciation of the French language is exhi- 
bited in a way whica must be of infinite advaritage to a scholar or traveller."— Llteraiy 
ChronU^ 

** M. Sureonefs New French Manual will be found a very uaeful pocket compankm for con- 
tlnental traveUan.'— Gmf/eman'^ Magasine. 

«' M. Suvepnc'a work Is the best of the kind that we are acquidnted with. It is almost en- 
tirely a new composition, consisting of useful and interesting matter."— fifucationa/ Review* 



A FRENCH, ENGLISH, and LATIN VOCABULARY ; 

intended to facilitate the Acquisition of these Langnages in general, and of 
Latino-Gallic Nouns, with tlieir Genders, in particular ; and also to show how 
essentially a Knowledge of Latin and French conduces towards a correct Un- 
derstanding of English. For tlie Use of those who have made some Progress 
in the Latin Tongue. By T. A. Gibson. 12mo. 2s. bound. 

** This !s a very Ingenious little work, well calculated to sow the seeds of etymological science 
in I'oung minds. It exhibits the gender and declension of nouns, the nouns themselves, adi<c- 
tivcs, vert>s, kc, arranged so as to show at once their reqiective afhuities in the French, Englbh, 
Latin, and occarionanv the Greek languages. It is a Qumual which will be useful even to the 
aJuit scholar."— ^iidanc Journal* 

<< The design of this little work is to combine the study of French and Latin. It Is compiled 
with great care, and Is well worthy the attention of teachers.*— ^^keturum. 

" This iittle manual of about seventy pages is calculated to show the afRt.itv of the three lan- 
guages almost at a glance, in verbs, nouns, andadjectivea, and consequently to expedite the pro- 
gress of the learner in the acquisitlun of the tongues, and to aid him in philol<kical inqiury. 
The words are classed with that lucidiu ordo by which instantaneous reference is effected."— 
SotA Herald, 

** This b a very curious book. It Is in fact a vocabulary of words in French, with the eor- 
iceponding Latin words — one of the most interesting collections of derivatives that ever was pro- 
duced, with many excellent notes and explanations. This book will not only add much to the 
Mudcnt s knowledge of the EngUsh language, but it will greatly improve him in Latin and 
French, and in the most pleasing wfty* by means of the amusement it cannot fail to «^naii»iiiiii. 
eate."— 2V«« Mercury, 



WORKS ON EDUCATION. 27 



A GRAMMATICAL COLLECTION of PHRASES and 

IDIOMS, systematically arranged, so as to impart a Progressive Knowledge 
of the Practical and Critical Parts of the French Language. For the Use of 
the Edinburgh Academy. By C. P. Buquet. 12mo. 4s. bound. 



NOUVEAU COURS de LITTERATURE ; ou. Repertoire des 
Chefs^^OSuvre de Comeille, Racine, Voltaire, Moliere, La Fontaine, F^d6- 
Ion, Barthelemy, &c. ; suivi des Commentaires de Labarpe, et preci6A6 d'un 
choix des plus beaux Morceaux, en Prose et en Vers, des plus ci^lebres Ecrivains 
Fran^ais ; ayec des Notes et un Appendice tr^s 6tendu, contenant toutes sortes 
'de Details Biographiques, Chronologiques, Historiques et autres sur tons les 
Fersonnages,. les Peuples et les Evenemens dont il est fait mention dans Tou- 
vrage, prc^nres a fournir une foule de sujets int^ressans de Lecture, de Conver- 
sation et de Composition, a T Usage de PAcademie d'Edimboui^. Par C. P. 
BUQUET, Professeur de Langue Fran^aise a rAcad6mie Navale et Militaire 
d*Eoo6se (ci-devant de TAcademie d*Edimbourg). Third Edition, revised 
and considerably enlarged. l2mo. 7s. bound. 

'* Thii is another of those works most admirably calculated for the use of young people. 
Considerable judgment has been displayed in the choice of pieces ; and from this manv advan- 
tages are derived. Not only is a knowledge of the language gained, but the taste is cultivated, 
and ideas as well as words acquired. It is a most useful volume to all students of a language 
now almost abaolutdy necessary."— Xrtf«rary Gazette, 

" We most cordially recommend this book to the notice of all who mav be engaged in French 
instruction, as wdl as to all whose time or means ^vill not allow them to explore the original 
mines from which these gems are obtained."— JLifera;y Chrvnide* 

•* We have here a collection of specimens, chosen with great care, of manv of the most cele- 
brated French writers, prose as well as poetical, which, without reference fo its utiMtv as an ele> 
mentary work, is extremely \'aluable and instructive in itself. It is in fact to French what the 
Scrap Book is to English literature— the best and most taBteful selection from any foreign lan- 
guage extant."— LifM'arV Magnet, 

" The selection appears to us to have been made with great judgment, with respect both to 
litcmture and to moiaiity, "—Editcaiional Review, 

** This Is a useful addition to our stock of class-books. It is a judicious and pleasing RfctieU. 
The youthful student will ftnd in it bbth instruction and amusement ; whilst the novelty <>f 
many of the selections must give the book a value even In the eye of those who are profidents m 
French literature. It is not a Recueil made up of other Rectieile, M. Buquct has judged for 
himself, and he seems to have been entitled to trust to his own taste« for he has translated 
into his repertoire nothing that is not deserving of being generally known. The whole is 
Ailfutly arranged, and very accurately printed ; and we highly approve also <rf the pretty fre; 
quent introduction of biogTapbical« hutoriaU, and chronological notes, iUnstntive of the text. 
Edir^urgh Observer, 



Petit DICTIONNAIRE des DIFFICULTES de la 
LANGUE FRANCAISE. Par H. Cobnillon. Second Edition. 

18mo. 3s. 6d. half-bound. 

" The author has gathered his materials from the best authorities in the language, and his 
own duties of arrangement and connexion axe ably fulfllled."— Lontion Weekty Review, 

•' This A a neat and comprehensive little volume, and will, we are convinced, move a vh^- 
useful assistant towards acquiring a thorough knowledge of the peculiarities of the French lan- 
guage.**- Edin^wrgA Obeerver, 

" In this smaX volume, M. ComiUon has condensed the substance of whatwer li inost 
intenstingwitb respect to the beauties, the difficulties, and refinemenU of the Frenca iui- 
guagc."— CEdinfttirgA Evening IW. 



WORKS 

or 

INSTRUCTION AND ENTERTAINMENT. 



Diversions of HOLLYCOT; or. The Mother's Art of 
Thialdfy. By th» Amthor of Claa Albfai, Elizabeth de Btaoe, Nif^hta of the 
Boond TabUi ftc. 18mo. 3e. 6d. neadj faalf-bouiid. 

ONiMMfM- tttOMertte. QolHhir-'n* BoMt «r KBO«iedge->-ItaUonal Heading. Tte 
NntlliV Bxcunlon. SMuidAjr Night tit HoUjreot Mcowlr of Oiiadl Btaile. Saaiaf at 
Hfii)l]r«ot* lif^tM And SlMdowi of Juvenik Ufe. SQrle and Vulgarity— Courage and Hiuna- 
nity. The Ship Laundb IVue Cbarltir— Inatinct of fflrdi. Punctuality— Vfak to a Cottage 
llM Jmrajfia Deha l^-P e au ty or Utilily. Itiflmdty of Parpoi»— PhlIo«ophf of Daily Ti% 
Tho G«rMr»— Tha Catfk4aiH-KiM«rkdga U Pinreiu.Toung Qun Bbaca. Chriatmaa^A 



«< Thla h a f«ry ddWitAil piw l urt hm la that moat dUBeuIt bmarti of atMng^mtealle BM^ 
laturar-The itory ia Tntercitingf hut nuulc lubacrvicnt to instruction ;->-litae ^i^ecdota «f 
anrand history are admirably Introdnced* and the diildren are drawn ai ao fe«r can draw tbcm 
—clflvw* w«U-dli|Mwed. but ttlU chUdraa. The moral kumia-oonvcyedaie not la* ahulaUiaa 
•trUdng."— Ktcrtny Qazetts, 



Nights of the round table ; or, Stoneg of Aunt Jane 
•m). her Fiiands. FlEST SERIES. By the Author of Diyeraions of Hotty- 
oot, ftc Small 8td. 08. bound m doth. 

OMKmCfc->WhenIwaiaUttilaGirl— MltaHardingff TiJOi The Spittalflelda Widow;. Hie 
Royal Chapd of Wlodior. The Magic Lantcr&^ltie Three Wcatmlnetcr Boyi. TheCuntirf 
TUc;' or« Practical Joking. The Mafic Lantern— Faihkm and Femoal Ornament. Mia 
HanMng^s TUe eoaduded-Hlgh Life. 

** Tbe aairftdTai an vorv wdl ezacnted: itoriei of grave wid gay tuooeed each other In plea*' 
Ing alternation— and over the whole is thrown that charm of graceful riin]^licit7« in whidi «c 
at once raeogniae the tnctincdve power of the female heart."— ilbfUA/y Review. 

" 1U« if a modeic, unpretending book, of very considerable merit ; we have read It with 
great delight, and have no hesitation in recommending it, as certain to give some Lours of^ieik 
aura to the aged, and taU at instruction, agreeably conveyed, to the young. * Tbe Three West- 
minaHwr Boys/ an cochibition in the mag{o4antern style, following Thurlow, Hastings, aad 
C»W|m <eontcmpoea«lM), through thefar several careers, and marking the striking stages. Is a 
p erfo n aanoe of eaoeilent effect, and suggesting an admirable moral lesson. The second part of 
* High Llfe^ la, however, the production to whidi we should refer as the best aamide of tae a«- 
Chon powers : for Miss Edgeworth might be proud to acknowledge it. Wlien we saj that it 
Is in tile best style of her Moral Tides, we wiu add that none can rate that exodlenoe higtaer 
wado.*— r 



« This is a venr handsome volume, and, what is far better, a very valuable one. It oondsis 
d seven instructive stories, which the young will read with pleasure and profit : nor are we 
sure that they would be tbro\vn away upon the old and the wise They are \'ery cbaractoistk^ 
and wevthy of the aooomplishetl authoress ; good sense and good feeling everywhere abound ; 
there li modi knowledge of human nature, and that nracttoal wisdom which seeks to be uaeftil 
and elegant. We have seldom met with a work, aimmg only at instnacCion, in wliich there are 
so many attractions. The writer unites the afllectien oTa mother, tbt vigilance of an aunt, ud 
the sUll 9t a gttvemess, with the grace and eUgance of a well-bred lady."— ..diAefMeufn. 

** Intended for the use of the young, thb book may be read with advantage and ddight by 
persons of nuture afe. The character of its contents, and the skill exhibited in the treatiAeiU 
of the subjects, confer the greatest credit upon the judgment and ability of the author, wluae 
fonner work, * Diversions of Hollycot,' stands high in the opinion of the read^g public 
This volume may be said to be a continuation of the phm laid down in that publication ; but it 
Is addressed to readers of a more advanced class, and the matter it contains is more divendficd 
and ambitious. It is really a very delightful volume, in which lessons of wisdom, and manlier, 
and practical truth, are insinuated in the most agreeable and fasdnating manner. The stones 
of the Magic Lantaii, particularly * The Three Westminster Boys,' present a oomUaatlaa of 
pictorial and living interest, that will prove more fascinating to our younger friends than any 
panorama of real colours and actual motion. We earnestly desini to see each psoductiaBM as 
(his heartily encouraged. Its simplicity of plan, and the natural style in which its nanatives 
are conveyed, will ensure it a wdoome wherever a Just taste and a seal in the tttentCoxa «f 
youm an to be found.*— ilMM. 



WORKS OF INSTBUCTIONy ftcu 29 

Nights of tihe round table ; or, Stories of Aunt Jane 

and her Friends. Ssooiri) and concluding Sekies. 

Small 8vo. 5g* bound in doUk 

Otm^snto.— Til* Qnaker Family. Ilie Two Scotch WQUamt. Hie Lltde Fenynuttw 

" The itoiy of * The Qneker Fttuily;* which ooeupiei tbeprlndpel part of tfali irtdnme, haa 
moie ehuaeter, natoie, and truth, iban nauaUygocitotheeoinpoiltlQQof awhoteihelf of the 
drculattiig Ubnry.*— -AnsmlfMr. 

" The nndae we have to bestow on ' The Quaker TaxoSly/ a story which ooenoles neariy the 
whole of tbe present Series* is not less than that deserved by ttie former one. It has eonVinced 
us that the authoress is a person of genius.— We make no extract : why ? the vacant smoe of thft 
basts of Brutus and Casdus was the greater honoar. There is no passB||;e that would not suf<r 
fer from being taken out of the effect of the light scattered upon it from all tlie rest of the story. 
The defect is, however, easQy supplied : send to your bookseuer— the pilce of a bottle of vine 
viD put you in possession of ' The Quaker's Lot.' "—^^ectator, 

" With many graces of style, and felldties of bought, Mn Johnstone excels la the ddtaie*. 
tian of charaetar. Her ideal personages are painted with so mncb Individual truth, tb«t 
they live in tiie memory, as if they were our flumUar and hmg^^nown acquaintanosai'*— 
SeoUmcuu 

** The writer has searched deeply into the human nature that adorns, and that which dia* 
graoes, the lower ranks ot society ; and with a power in prase equal to Cnbbe in poetry, has 
sketched scenes of sadness and truth."— Liverpoo/ Journal* 



Letters from a lady to her NIECE ; containing Practical 
Hints, intended to direct the Female Mind in the Pursuit of Attainmoits 
oondnciye to Virtoe and Happiness. With a Frontispiece^ designed by Uwins 
and engmved by Horsburgh* Third Edition. ISmo. 2s. boards; 

"Tlie anonymous writer of Letters fnm a Lady to her NIeoe is more justly entitled to the 
pnlse of the judicious critic, and the thanks of her own sex, than many others who haive been 
eager to avow thdr cl^m to their productions. The style is easy and elegant; the maxims in- 
cutanted are those of sound piudence and ^oere virtue ; and, to any ftonale entering into hSt, 
Che perusal of this little volume will be attended with manifold advantages, in strengthening 
the intellectual powers, and indieatinc the most digible path to the attainment of tranqulUky 
of mind and true hapfaneas."— JHontMy Magasine, 



Specimens of the lyrical, descriptive, and 

NARBATIVE POETS of GREAT BRITAIN, from Chaucer to tlie 

Present Day: With a Preliminary Sketch of the History of Early English 

Poetiy, and Biographical and Critical Notices. By John Johnstone, Editor 

of Specimens of Sacred and Serious Poetry. With Frontispiece and Vignette^ 

eograred by Horsburgh, from Paintings by Thomas Stothard, Esq. R. A. 

24too. 58. 6d. boards* 

'* In fine, this Is a little volume whldi seems to us calculated to diCFose modi bo^ of enjoy- 
ment and of refinement of Ceding among the families of our land, with the rising portion of 
whose members espedally we have no doubt it will soon become a fkvourite manual.*— 
MowMy Review. 

*' Not only has Mr Jdmston sdected well and amply, but he has accompanied his sdectlona 
with brief biographical and critical notices, replete with juit observation and the fruits of vigi- 
lant research. We are not acquainted with any publication so admirably calculated to awaken 
a true sest for genuine English lore; nor do we think that the larger and mote cosdy corap&ai. 
Uons possess half the merit of this nnaasnmlng little vohnne.'*— Xtfafc 

" In intrinsic value the volume Is literallf worth a great deal more than its weight in gold, tot 
te ooataina the meat pncksu p(»tiaa of the moat pradiinis Ihemture in «xisteix«."^^^ 



AUL and VIRGINIA, from the French of St Pierbe; and 

ELIZABETH, from the French of Madame CoTTiX. New Translations. 

With Pra&tDry Remarks by John M'DiAAMio. 24mo. 38. boards. 

" This New Translation of tiie two most beantlfiil and interesting tales in the Frendi lan- 
guage is executed in a style of densnce* sweetness, and stm^didty of cBction, that lenden It a 
valuable addition to thelihraryof the man of taate and the lover of whatever is ^axhetfc in stoi^ 
or sentimental in feeling. From the translator's Prefatory Observations, he would seem topoe- 
sess a soul as ductile and tnaoq;itible of all the finer impulses of our nature as St Pierre himadf^** 
'^European Magazine* 



so WORKS OF INSTRUCTION, &c. 

Stories from the history of Scotland, in the Manner 
of Stories selected from the History of Enf^d. By the Rev. Alexaitder 
Stewart, Author of The History of Scotland, &c. Secodd Edition, greatly 
enlaiged, wiih a Froiitis|Meoe. ISmo. 4a. half-boand. 

•• TIm wluiMi wUeh bar the title of « Tiatf of a Gimdlklher,' it la almoBt luuMoenur to 
lntomfittrMMltn,SiBb]r8irW«lt«rSaitt; but,tfaouchfraini<Bqiwtto tlMiriUuMxuMuauthar 
\»c b«vc j>Uo«i them flnt. they did not appear tiU dx moaths aAer the pnblfcetioa of tbe inte- 
rwdnff Imlc voluma \)f toe Kev. Mr Stewart. The hunters for 'curious oohicidencea' (a pestW 
Imteum) would And one in the almost ihnultaneous appearance of two worics so simiUr in de- 
lifa and In the mode of execution; and were not the name of Sir Walter Scott sufficient ^rar- 
rant against such a suspicion, those who love to impute pla^arism to all eminent persons would 
find that Sir Walter Soott had taken not only tbe idea but the plan from Mr Stewart. "KLt S. 
makei his personans unfold their own characters in their own language, as far as chronicles and 
tradition aUowednim ; and be has thus given an air at once dramatic and real to his portraits, 
which must be very attractive to juvenile readers, and in this Sir Walter Scott has followed him. 
Howwer » m !S f *''c Sir Waltci's longer tales may be to readers of a more advanced age, we think 
Mr Stewart's better calculated, from their condsaness, to amuse younger students who are un- 
tnfluumtii by ttM magic at a name. Mr Stewart has rejected every thing in the Scottish annals 
that holds a doubtful place betwixt history and fkble, and by judicioudy avoidinc long details 
(as In the case of Queen Mary, whose story occupies far too much space in Sir Walters book), 
fie has succeeded in bringing his intovsting perfiHtnance within the limits of one volume, fonn> 
Ina an admhrable companion to Mr Crokers ' Stories from the History of EIngland."*— Net* 
ifontM^ Magaain$* 

** We know no volume that, either as to style or matter, we would sooner put into tlie hands 
of youih.'— AUnbwrgft Eoening IHut, 



The tour of the holy land ; in a Series of Conversa. 

tions : with aa Appendix, contaiiiiiig^ Extracts from a MS. Journal of Travds 

in Syria. By the ReY. Robert Mo&ehead, D. D., F. R. S. E., &c., with 

a Map of Palestine. 18mo. 8s* 6d. cloth boards. 

. *' The pious and learned author of these dialogues, having had his attention called to Fsle- 
•tlne, turned over a vajiety of books on the subject, and with a praiseworthy regard to the wants 
of the riidng generation, arranged the most interesting facts and descriptions that occurred to 
him in the coune of this volumiuous reading, into the form of a series of oonversations, inter- 
mixed with reflections of a grave and religious character. The execution of the work is worthy 
the design ; and the result '\% a little volume, which parents and guardians of youth will do well 
to present to their charges."— ^<<a«. 



GUIDE to the L0RD*s TABLE, in the Catechetical Form : 
to which are added, an Address to Applicaats for Admission to it, and some 
Meditations to aid their Devotions. By Henry Belfrage, D. D. Second 
Edition, improYed. 18mo. Price only 6d. sewed. 

" By the publication of the ' Guide to the Lord's Supper in the Catechetical Form,' Dr a has 
added another to his numorous and powerful daims on public gratitude. We heartily reoon>> 
mend Dr B.'s work to our reader^, as at once an aiftctionate and faithful guiile. He has cer* 
tainly succeeded in no common degree in his avowed objects."— CArwfion Monitor, 

" We offer our sincere thanks to Dr B. for his ' Guide to the Loid's Table ;' it is worthy both 
of his talents and piety, and furnishes a most comprehensive and scriptiual view of the solonn 
ordinance to which it relates."— JBoan^/ioa/ Magazituu 



My early DAYS. With a Frontispiece, designed by Wright 
and engraved by James Mitchell. Second Edition, improved. 18mo. 28.6d. bds. 

" Done for /uniors on the modd of the dever school, which hath delighted in Adam Blair. 
Maigaret Lyndsay, &c. : and a publkation displaying talents far above Its humble pretendons 
In bulk and manner. At first we thought that the children were too much men, and that this 
must be in the Modern Athens, since no usefUl lesson can be taught where a pedagogue tries to 
b« a child of six, or a youth of fourteen years old ; but when the narrative proceeS to adole- 
oeiioe and maturity, this is really one of the best littie vdumes of its dass whi(» wc have ever met 
'•w\ih.**—lAtenry Gasette. 

" It is beautifully written, and were we to speak of it as warmly as we felt disposed to do un- 
dcr the fresh Impression of the perusal, we might be suspected of partiality or extArasancc."— 
iSclectie Review* 



IN COURSE OP PUBLICATION : 



OLIVER & BOYD'S CATECHISMS 

OF 

ELEMENTARY KNOWLEDGE; 

ELUCIDATINQ TUB MORE SIMPLE PRINCIPLES OF 

LITERATURE, SCIENCE, AND THE ARTS ; 

n'Uh appropriate Eimbettiahments by Eminent Artiste •' IVt'ce qfeach 9d. reived, 

or le, neatly hound. 



The object of the present undertaking is to prodace a series of ^lementarr 
Works, which to comprehensiveness of design shall unite clearness of method 
and ability of execution. With tliis view it has been thought adyisable t« 
adopt the Catechetical form, as the one most likely to attract and make a last- 
ing impression upon the youthful mind. The different subjects have been ia- 
trustea to veriters eminent in their respective departments ; and the Publishers 
have resolved to spare neither trouble nor expense in order to bestow on these 
Catechisms a higher degree of excellence than is usually found in works of a 
similar description. Independently of their claims as a collection of elemen- 
tary treatises, cdculated to simplify the business of education, and to facili- 
tate the labours of Teachers and Parents in the mstruction of youth, — whether 
domestic or conducted in public seminaries, — it is hoped that these works will 
also contain information not unworthy of the attention of the general reader. 

The following are already published, and may be considered as specimens of 
the manner in wlucli the whole Series will be conducted: — 



I. VL 

The works of crea-i Greek grammar. 

TION ; intended to assist Parents or the Rev. Geo. Mi|.lioan. 
Tutors in conveyii^ to the Youthful 
Mind a General Knowledge of the 
Objects of Nature, with suitable Re- 
flections. By Peter Smith, A.M. 
3d Edit enlarged. Seven Engravings. 



By 



II. 

Christian instruc- 
tion. Bythe Rev. Robert More- 
head, D. D., F.RS.E. With a Map 
of Palestine. 

III. 

E?^GLISH GRAMMAR? 

witli Select Exercises. By the Rev. 
Geo. Milligak. 

IV. 

English composi. 

TION. By Robert Conkel. 
V. 

Latin grammar. By 

tlie Rev. Gsa Milligak. 



VII. 

French grammar. 

James Lokomoor. 



By 



VIII. 

GeOGRAPH Y ; comprising 
all the leading Features of that impor- 
tant Science) and including the mo«t 
recent Discoveries; with a Vocabu- 
lary of Geographical Terms. 4th Edi- 
tion. By lIuGu Murray, Esq., 
F. R. S. E., &c Eight Engravings. 

IX. 

The HISTORY of Eng- 
land ; from the Earliest Period to 
the Accession of William IV. To 
which is prefixed, a Concise Outliae of 
its Geography. By Peter Smitu, 
A.M. adE'dition. With a Map. 



82 



OLIVER k BOYD^S CATECHISMS. 



The history of scot- 
land ; from the Earliest Period to 
the Present Thne; preceded by a 
Concise Outline of its 6eo|praphj, and 
followed by a brief Description of the 
British Constitution. By W. Mor- 
msoir. Third Edition, thorenshly 
revised and considerably enlarged by 
a Pnusticai Teacher. With a Map. 

XI. 

Drawing & perspec. 

TIVE; coroprehendinff the lieading 
Facts and Principles oF the Art By 
E. Lawrence. 

XIL 

Natural historv of the 

EARTH. By William Rhikd. 
Sevaa Engnvuigs. 



xm. 

Botany ; or, Nataral His^ 
tory of the Vegetable Kingdom. By 
WiLLlAX Rhind. Seren Ettg;raT« 
ings. 

XIV. 

Zoology ; or, Natmal ffis- 
tory of the Animal Kingdom. By 

WlLLIAX RhIND. 

XV. 

Natural philoso. 

PHY ; in which the general Doc- 
trines of that Science are explained in 
a popular Form. By George Lees, 
A. M., Mathematical Master m the 
Scottish Naval and Military Academy 
and Hig* School, and Lecturer on 
Nataral Philosophy, EdinbttTgh. Part 
I. Fifty-dx Wood-cuts. 



THE FOLLOWIKO A&E IK ^ROOAESB ; 



XVI. 

Natural philoso. 

PHY : Part IT. The Doctrinee of 
the Eonitibilnm and Motion of Fluids, 
the Pnenomena resulting from the 
Pi etie we aad Motion of Air, and the 
interesting Disclosures of Optics. By 
George jLeeB) A. M. With nume- 
rotts Engravings. 



XVII. 
A STRONOMY , — cmbTadm 

both a Description of the Cele^tiid 
Phenomena, and an easy Exposition 
of the Physical Canses upon whidi 
these depend. By G. LcES, A. M. 

XVIIL 

Music. By h. p. btchakam. 



The following Opivioks of the Press are selected from the nume- 
rout Teatifiumiahwith which the Leading Joumah of Great Britam 
and Ireland have honoured tfUt Series of Caieehisms : — 

<< They embrace almost every subfect that is connected with the fimdamoi- 
tal parts of a liberal education, for either sex. — To the schoolmaster as well 
as to the private tutor, they must, we should think, afford invaluable assistance." 
— Monthip Review. 

^ These are a series of little works adapted to elementary instruction, en- 
tirely new, and upon a plan which combines conciseness, precision, and accd- 
racjy-. — ^The Catechetical form admits of many advantages, which are not over- 
looked in these excellent little treatises, wliich are illustrated where necessary 
with cuts. The price of each is only 9d. I** — Aeiatio Journal. 

*^ Hiese ure useftil little books tn their respective departments ; they are all 
intended for learners, and to them they will communicate the elementary prin- 
ciples of scientific knowledge.'* — Imperial Magazine. 

^ Exceedingly useful publications, compiled for the purpose of renderii^ in- 
formation easy of access, by men who, with high talents, are satisfied to appear 
In the humblest garb for the benefit of such as cannot easiJy procure introduc- 
tioB to loftier or more pretending personages. We have read them with plea- 
sure, and, we are not ashamed to confess, with much profit ; our readers may 
do the siwwj . a nd what, in this age of necessary econon^, is of some impor- 
tance, procure them for ninepenoe each."— ^jairi/ and Manners of the Age. 



OPINIONS OF THB PRESS. 33 

<* These are natful Iktle wotks^ aot merely far the rising genentioB, btitf(>r 
grown up persons who have not received instmction m the subjects of whkk 
Uiey treat* They are published in ninepennv numbers, and are thus accessi- 
ble to all classes. There is a good deal of practical knowledge in some of 
them, in that of Drawing and Perspective for example ; and we have not the 
smallest doubt they will most materially accelerate the progress of information 
among the people^ than wMch we cannot g^ve them hig^her recommendation."-.. 
MetropolUan. 

^ These works convey highly useful instruction in an inviting form ; and, 
while they are written withm the compass of tlie vouthfiil mind) they are ne- 
vertiieless free from the slightest approach to frivolity.** — Royal Lady^s 
Magazine* 

<< Unpretending works, but all got up with the care tliat distinguishes eveiy 
thing issued to the public by Oliver & Boyd, and all excellent in their several 
ways. — ^We venture to predict that they must soon find their way, generally, 
into nurseries and our niU;ional schools, where they may be made the vehicles 
of much usefnl instruction both to the children of the ndi and poor.** — A the" 

^ A complete treatise on a science for ninepence, is what the world has not 
often seen ; but Messrs Oliver & Boyd have published several and announce 
more. — They contain each from 70 to 100 pages of close print : thev are well 
got up ; they bear the names of known and responsible authors ; and thev ap» 
pear to be decidedly superior to any which we have hitherto seen. The Cate- 
chism of Geography is on the plan of Goldsmith's, but it is greatly superior in 
g^int of execution, and contains as much mattter at a fourth of the price. — The 
atechisn on English Grammar is a good abridgment — quite as clear as Mur- 
ray's, and better, oecause- shorter.** — Examiner, 

^ We are no friends to tlie system of publishing, treatises in question and 
answer ; but it is impossible to object to receiving reaUy very ample, and, in 
many cases, sufficient instruction in a branch of learning for ninepence* For 
instance, we think the Catechisnis of French and of l^atln Grammar contain 
every thing that needs to be in a Grammar, and that with them no other gram- 
mar will be wanted ; and they may be htui for ninepence each.** — Spectator. 

^ We have just seen a collection of Catechisms on various literary and 
scientific tomes under the above head, which display much ingenuity and no 
Uttle research. They are perfectly simple in their plan, and well entitled to the 
approbation of the public, which no douot they will receive.^'— iS'un. 

M These Catedusms are admirably adapted to the capacity <^ chiMr^, and 
are likdy to become popular in schools. — ^Grentlemen of literary eminence have 
Qontributed their valuaole aid to this useful publication, from which an infinity 
of valuable knowledge may be gained with little labour and scarcely any ex- 
pense.** — Sunday Times, 

^ Several little usefuUy-instructive and aUv-edited works have lately isf^ed 
from the presses of Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh, and Simpkin & Marshall, Lon- 
don, at very low prices, which are eminently calculated to forward the educa- 
tion of youth in various necessary branches of knowledge, laey are separate- 
ly and distinctly presented, and are in the form of Catechisms.** — Morning 
Post. 

^ << The variety of subjects which they embrace are explained in an extremely 
simple and familiar manner, and they appear peculiany calculated to enga^ 
the youthful mind by their happy combination of instruction and entertain- 
meat.** — Liverpool Courier. 

** Theyarejg^ up with great taste uid great care, and will no doiAt super- 
sede works ofnigher prices and greater bulk, but which are fieur less valuable^ 
They are in fact very superior to any similar work that we have seen."— 
Literpool Journal, 



34 OLIVEH & BOYD*S CATECHISMS. 

** To parents and teachers these little works mint be quite inTaluable ; 
they will piore no less useful in refreshing the memory of the adult thai 
laying the feiindati<nis of knowledge in the mind of the young.** — L^iver^ 
Chronicle, 

*^ We can recommend them as the best elucidatiotta of the more Sim 
principles d'scieDce. literature, and the arts, we hare ever met with ; and tl 
cheapness places them within reach of even the mechanic."--^^/Mr Farle 
Bristol Journal. 

** Messrs Oliver & Boyd, of Edinburgh, have published a series of Ca 
chisms for the instruction of children in various branches of knowiedgne. Tli 
are remarkably cheapo selling for only 9d. each, and some of them ^hich ' 
have been able to look at) are very ably compiled. The Catechism of Gc 
g^aphy, by Hugh Murray, Esq., is exceedingly clear and accurate, and cc 
tains a* large amount of information within a small space." — Leeds lifercw 

*^ The copious instruction in these little books, conveyed through the intf 
rogative system, loses aJl the repulsive and forbidding character of prelimina 
learning in general — The Catechisms are every way calculated to seduce tl 
learner into the love of science, by rendering the UtSor ipse voluptas.^ — JSa 
Herald. 

^ They may be safely recommended to those who have the chai^ of youtl 
for the facilities which they aiFord in the communication of elementary kno« 
ledge." — Newcastle Courant, 

'* These little works appear well adapted for the use of schools and younj 
persons. They contain much information^ communicated in so sensible, 
manner that the adult student may acquire much information from their pe 
lusal.** — Tyne Mercury. 

'< In schools, and on the tables of rooms in which young persons assemble 
these litile works must be of great value ; as, by their means, tlie mind will 
insensibly acqnire knowledge, and become impressed with facts, which, undei 
other circumstances, might not be obtained until later in life, and then per< 
haps imperfectly, because under less favourable circumstances.'' — TrevomatCi 
Eveter Flying Post, 

'* These Catechisms will be found really useful and instmctive works, well 
calculated to inform the young mind on subjects which, in another and less 
simple form, might be irksome, and weary tHe attention instead of attracting 
it" — Lancaster Gazelle. 

<< We have been favoured w:th a series of Catechisms at present issuing 
from the press of Messrs Oliver & Boyd of Edinburgh. They are printed in 
the ttsnal style of neatness and accuracy that characterize all their works; and 
are adorned with plates, maps, wood-engravings, &c., to illustrate the subjects 
on which they respectively treat, and will form useful works for either juvenile 
classes or adults. The iowness of the price allows every one an opportunity 
to procuie them." — Sunderland Herald. 

'' The information is conveyed in concise but clear language ; and dpon ail 
subjects on which they treat tne very best authorities appear to have been re- 
ierred to. — We heartily recommend these little manueus, as conveying much 
usefid information to the old as well as the young.'* — Carlisle JoumaL 

'^ As a collection of treatises eminentiy calculated to simplify the business of 
education, and to facilitate the labours of teachers and parents, in that de- 
lightful task, * to rear the tender thought,* they possess tne highest claims to 
attention.*' — Carlisle Patriot. 

** These Catechisms seem very well calculated for the purpose of impressing 
on the memories of the young, or of grown up persons whose education has 
been n^lected, the leading facts of the history, art, or science to whkh they 
relate.*' — CeUedonian Mercury. 



OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. 35 

^ These are decidedly the best works of their kiftd that have come under our 
inspection. They will form, when completed, an excellent cydus ok' instruction, 
adapted to the Juvenile comprehension. The names of more than one of their 
authors guarantee the excellency of their compositions* We know that the 
scientific Catechisms have been submitted to the inspection of authors eminent 
in their respective dmartments, and highly approved of by them. We recom- 
mend them to the difrerent societies for the promotion of Education."— i>£!(f«n. 
burgh Literary Journal* 

<< To.all who ming^le more or less in the education of children these small 
volumes will prove admirable helps. We hope to hear of them forming* part of 
the furniture of every room in Scotland, inhaoited either wholly or in part by 
cliildren from six to fifteen years of age." — Edinburgh Weekly Chronicle* 

^ We have no hesitation in recommending them as clear, condensed, and in- 
teresting summaries, well adapted for the instruction both of the rising gene, 
ration, and of individuals more advanced in years whose opportunities have not 
enabled them to lay up a sufficient stock ofideas in early meJ*.-i~Scotsman» 

^ Of these works it is enough to say, that they are the very best of the kind 
that we have ^et perused. We know of no similar productions equally adapt- 
ed for conveying to the youthful mind such a store of useful knowledge with 
such directness and perspicuity. We recommend them to the atteation of the 
heads of families ana the teachers of youth." — Edinburgh Observer* 

« Of several of the writers the names speak for themselves ; but let any of 
the Catechisms be compared with works or a similar character, and we hesitate 
not to say that their superiority will be universally acknowledged."— E^tn- 
burgh Evening PosU 

<< Altogether, these are very useful and instructive elementary compilations, 
and well fitted to answer the purpose for which they were written. To teachers 
of youth and the heads of families we can recommend them, as of eminent 
service in their arduous duty of storing the youthful mind with useful and in- 
teresting knowledge." — Glasgow Courier, 

^ We r^^ard them as cheap and efficient means of inculcating the leading 
principles of all the various branches of knowledge of which they treat, to aU 
classes of learners. — Indeed, it is rare to find so much useful knowledge compre- 
hended within so narrow a compass ; and it is seldom that books, so unassum- 
ing in their character, are written in so plain, so pure, and so appropriate a 
style." — Glasgow Free Press. 

^ They are much superior to any similar Catechisms we have seen. The 
names attached to them confer a degree of respectability we have not been 
accustomed to meet with in such pubucations." — Aberdeen Observer. 

<< Not only have these compilations outstripped all competitors in the same 
track, but they have left nothing to be desired, in the amount of information 
tliey profess to communicate, and in their periect adaptation to the youthful ca- 
pacities it is their object to awaken and instruct* — No parent, whonas himself 
received an ordinary education, can fail, with these little wqrks in his hand, 
aided by moderate exertion and perseverance, to make his Juvenile family 
masters of their contents." — Greenock Advertiser, 

** Whether we regard their subjects, or the manner in which these subiecte 
are treated, we conceive them entitled to our highest approbation* Indeed, we 
have been astonished at the extent of the inrormation which most of them 
contain upon their respective subjects ; and we venture to affirm, that an equal 
quantity of interesting and accurate information is nowhere to be found upon 
any subject in the same compass and for the same price. — We know that the* 
above Catechisms have been introduced into several schools^ and uniformly 
with the greatest success. "i^Per^A^Atre Advertiser, 



CATECHISMS. 



it all to be C(_, 

. TobBdaorfiuDiiiHiDtbeia. 

■d aehodhMialen nBunltT, m ooo- 
BMj, asd beacficial mode at craa- 
MhM BUBd." — Dtm^friet Weeklg 

" We have actdofii seen bo moch valuabU metier broogbt W<v^ the Ttew in 

« Pitinoek'l Calfthiimi wen deserredly edmired s» elenieiitaiy assistanta 
to ednntiin ; but they ere g™''^ improTal on bj tkose oT OUier & Bojd, 
BOW oHeiHi to the pnElic — Tlia kqowfwfga thej impart u, in many retpects, 
not lees TalnaMe to the adult and edacated than to the iuveiiite Btndent. Tber 
embrvfAf and render ploiO) difficulties too oi^eo ovei^ked io the ordinary 
nodea of echool iiutructioii, and are elso emiDeodj oloilated to fix on the 
mMBoiT the moct itapoiiaut pcdnti of the aeTerel solnecta twon which ther 
tnM.'—Dvbli« WardtT. 



These are admirable initia 
mnch, without teniTjing it in I 
jliiaiic Journal. 

"The; are written with thai ooaelMnen and perspicaity which ennire their 
being comprehended, and to ooDnre to the reader knowMge aad improreiineit 
in every line." — Rogal Lady'i MagaMine. 

"Theee two CatediianiB appear to be valuable little worta; (he airai^^ 
mot judickHis, the facte Btriluu);, tba style clear and populHr." — Spectator. 

"TTiey are desorvingof cipreBS notice, not only on accoont of the jqdicioos 

Terj numerons illuBlratioiis, which, comrared with tlie price of the book, ap- 
pear out of all payable proportion."— jl Am. 

" We conoder them as well calculated to faci^tale the acqniHtion of an ao- 
cnrate and comprehenaive acquaintance irith the history of the vegetable kii^ , 
dom,aDd the general doetiiaea of natural philoeophy." — Sheffitlil Jria. 

" Thej cannot hut amplify the bnaness of education ! for while they assist 
the tutor, they will instnicl alike the young and old, and, in reUeving the niiiid 
from the irksome idea of drudgery, impart a. chenn auch as in the coune of 
tuition wa» presioisiy unknown to tlie scholar."— Eieter fli/iag PoaU 



" These little works are teiy h^pl; adapted lor imparting instmctioD to 
the youthfiii mind. They compriee a great amount of elemental knowledg« in 
a ooDipsratiTel^ small spara, and are particnlarly well fitted for the use of 
BChoois."— £dinfrurpA (JAuntsr. 

" These Uttle books contain a veiy considerable fond of ioibrmatioD, ex- 
pressed in ainpTe and iatelligible langioge, and possess, wliat hee hitherto been 
much ntviected in treatiaes of theirltiiMf a very usefttl supply of eiplandtory 
wood.*u&."— JJuifia Univeraiis Magaaine. _^ 



V 






*?lp' 



^T^ 



\.:.:^ 





1