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The Yolmne here presented to the American publio is one of a series of Dlctio9- 
aries prepared under the editorial supervision of Dn William Smith, aided bj a 
«iiun1>er of learned men, and designed to present in an English dress the valuable 
historical and archaeological research^ of the scholars of Germany. For'it is a 
fact not to be denied, that classical learning has found its proper abode in the 
latter country, and that whatever of value on these subjects has appeared in 
England for many years past, has been, with a few honorable exceptions — ran 
tumies in gurgiU vcwto— derived immediately or remotely from German sources. 
For inatance, an English " Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge " desires 
a •* History of Greek Literature; " none but a German can be found competent to 
prepare it, and when death removes him in the midst of his noble efforts, a 
continuator can not be found on English soil, and the ablest history of Greek 
literature (as fiur as it goes) remains a fragment. Turn over the pages of the most 
elaborate and valuable English histories of Greece, and how few names are there 
quoted as authorities out of the limits of the land of antiquarian research. Thirl- 
wall's and Grote's splendid superstructures rest on Teutonic foundations. The 
text-books used even in the Universities, which daim a Bentley and a Porson 
«aiong their illustrious dead, and where Gaisford still labors in a green old age, 
ibe Nestor of English sdiolarship, are mere reprints from, or based on, Grerman 
recensions. The University press sends forth an Aristotle, an iEschylus, a 
Sophocles, and what English alumnus of Oxford or Cambridge performs the critical 
revision — ^we read ol the title-page the Teutonic names of Bekker, Dindor^ &c 
As in every other department of classical learning English scholarship is indebted 
to German labors, so, until the appearance of the present series of dictionaries 
(mostly the result of German erudition), she had nothing to put in comparison 
with the valuable classical encyclopaedias of Germany but the miserable compen- 
diums of Lempriere and Dymock — compilations in which the errors were so glaring 
and so absurd, that when the American editor of the present work prepared a 
revised edition of Lempriere, pruning away many of its &ults, oorrecthig many ol 
its misstatements, supplying many of its deficiencies, and introducing to his coun- 
trymen the latest results of German scholarship, his work was immediately 
reprinted, and found extensive circulation in England. Though he had to work 
iingle-handed, and amid many discouragements and disadvantages, yet his labors 
seemed to meet with favor abroad, and this approbation was distinctly manifested 
in the fact that his last revision of Lempriere was republished in its native land in 
several different forms and in abridgments. What he sought to do unaided, and 
in the intervals of laborious professional duties, has now been undertaken on a 
more extended scale by an association of scholars, both English and foreign. The 
increased attention paid to this department in Germany, the recent discoveries 
made by travellers in more th'^rough exploratipns, the vast amounj; of literary 



material collected in separate works, or scattered through the publighed proceed 
ings of learned societies, at length suggested to these scholars the propriety of 
exhibiting in one body the latest results of German learning. An able and useful 
guide was found at hand in the learned and copious '^ Real-Encjdcpadie der Alter 
thumswissenschaft von Aug. Paulj." Following in the footsteps of Pauly and hii 
fellow-laborers, and using freely the materials and the references of these writersi 
as well as other works of standard excellence not otherwise accessible to English 
students, Dr. ITHlliam Smith, aided by some twenty-eight collaborateurt, English 
and German, prepared, 

Ist.* A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, London, 1842, in one vol. 
8vo., of 1121 pages; reprinted in a new edition, London, 1850. 

2dly. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, in 3 vola. 
8to., of about 3600 pages ; to be followed by, 

Sdly. A Dictionary of Ancient Geography, now in preparation. 

After the completion of the second of these works. Dr. W. Smith and hu 
brother, the Rev. Philip Smith, from that work, from Pauly's Encyclopadle, and 
other works, drew up a ^'Classical Dictionary for Schools" (of Greek and Roman 
Biography, Mythology, and Geography), which should by its size and price be 
accessible to all students, and present in a brief and oonyenient form the latest and 
most reliable results in these departments. The plan and detul of the work are 
stated at length in the preface of the English editor, subjoined to this, on p. xiiu- 
ST., to which the reader is referred. When the printing of this work commenced, 
the publishers of the American edition immediately made an arrangement with the 
English publishers, and purchased at a considerable cost the sheets in adrance, to 
be revised and edited for circulation in this country ; and the two books were to 
appear nearly simultaneously. The present work is the revised edition of the 
English one, and will be found, the editor believes, greatly improved, as well as 
much more complete. It is not, however designed to, and, in the editor's opinion, 
will not supersede his own ^' Classical Dictionary" published in 1841, since the 
articles are purposely brie^ and results only are stated, without that fullness of 
detail which is desirable to the more advanced scholar and the educated man 
of leisure ; but it is intended for the use of those whose means will not allow a 
more expensive, or their scanty time the use of a more copious work ; in other 
words, it is meant to take the place, by reason of its convenient size and low price, 
of Lempriere's old dictionary, which, with all its absurd errors and defects, still 
has a lingering existence in certain parts of our country on account of its cheapne&s. 
On this head the English editor speaks strongly ; in point of literary or scientific 
value, Lempriere's dictionary is dead — " reguiescat in pace^^ — and to put it into a 
boy's hands now as a guide in classical matters would be as wise and as useful a^ 
giving him some mystic treatise of the Middle Ages on alchemy to serve as a text' 
book in chemistry. The present work contains all the names of any value to a 
schoolboy occurring in Lempriere, and a great many not in that work, while the 
information is derived from the fountain-head, and not from the diluted stream cf 
French encyclopedias. 

As regards the plan pursued in revising the work, the editor has been guided bj 
ihe wants of the class for whom it is specially designed ; he hai therefore inseited 

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I tuily than in the origioal the names occurring in the authors most frequently 
read by younger students, as Ceesar, Sallust, Virgil, Cicero, Ovid, Xenophon, Hero- 
dotus, Homer, ^ea, and has endeavored to give briefly such information as a boy 
meeting with any of these names in his author would seek in a classical dictionary. 
For this purpose he has used freely the most recent and most reliable authorities ; 
be has added brief notices from Dr. Smith's Dictionary of Biograi^hy and Mytho- 
logy, and from his own Classical Dictionary, of course, abridging to suit the 
diaracter of the work ; he has also, among other works less frequently consulted. 
and single books on special topics unnecessary to be enumerated, derived material^' 
from Ersch and Gruber's AUgemeine Encydopadie (A-F, H-Italien, 0-Phokyl 
ides), 97 vols. 4to, from Kitto's and Winer's Bible Cyclopssdia, from the indexes 
and notes to the best editions of the classic authors, especially the valuable index 
to Groskurd's translation of Strabo, and the Onomasticon Ciceronianum and Pla- 
tonicum of Orelli, from Gruber's Mythologisches Lexicon, 3 vols. 8vo, from Man- 
nert's, Ukert's, and especially Forbiger's Alte Geographic, from Oamer's Andent 
Greece, Italy, and Asia Minor, from numerous recent books of travel in classic and 
sacred lands, from Grote's and Thirlwall's Greece, and Niebuhr's Rome and Lec> 
tores ; but particularly would he acknowledge, in the most explicit terms, his obli- 
^ons to Pauly 's Real-Encydopadie der Alterthumswissenschaft (A-Thymna), and 
to Kraft and Muller's improved edition of Funke's Real-Schullexicon (of which, 
unfortanately, only the first volume, A-K, has appeared) : from these two works 
he has derived many of his own articles^ and has been enabled to correct many of 
those in the English work taken from the same sources. In this connection, the 
editor regrets to find that Dr. W. Smith and some of his coadjutors have studi- 
ously avoided, in all their dictionaries hitherto published, making any direct 
acknowledgment of their indebtedness to the former of these two works. Although 
the plan and much of the detail of the works in question are taken from Pauly's, 
there is no indication of the existence of such a book in the preface to the Diction 
ary of Antiquities, or to the Dictionary of Biography and Mythology, and this 
omission has led a distiuguished German scholar, in a notice of the latter work in 
the Leipziger Repertorium for February, 1846, to complain of this conduct as 
unscholarlike and reprehensible : he says, " Under this head the editor (Dr. W. 
Smith) ought not to have omitted stating of how great service to him and several 
of his coadjutors the *Encydopedia of Classical Antiquity,' begun by Aug. Paul^ 
and continued after his (Pauly's) deat^ by Chr. Walz and W. TeufTel, has been, 
and especially since we can show that the above-named production of German 
sdiolars has been actually adopted as the basis of the English Dictionary, although 
the plan of the latter is considerably altered." . . . . ^4n regard to its (Smith's 
Dictionary of Biography and Mythology) relation to the Stuttgard (Pauly's) Ency 
dopedia, we have still further to remark, that the articles which have been bor 
rowed from it, namdy, by Dr. Schmitz and the editor, have been revised, and ic 
•time respects considerably enlarged." * 

* ^ Hier hatte der Herausgeber nidit verschweigen sollen, von wie grossem Nutaen iha 
and mehreren seiner mitarbeiter die von Aug. Pauly begonnene und nach dessen Tode vqb 
Ob. Walz and W. TeufTel forgesetzte ^ Real-Encydopadie der Glassischen AUerthum8wi» 

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The pres^it edition is called an enlarged and corrected one, and the editor thmka 
he may justly claim to hare improved as well as enlarged the woik. his own addl* 
tions are inclosed in brackets, and amount to more than 1400 independent articlea, 
while the additions to articles already in the work, but either too briefly or inoor- 
reotly stated, or omitting some important matter, are net a few. The editor has 
bestowed considerable care on the department of bibliography, and under this head 
many additions will be found. Dr. Smith has been content in most cases to copy 
the statements in the Dictionary of Biography and Mythology, without noticing 
many valuable books which have appeared since the publication of that work. 
Many corrections of names, or erroneous statements too short to be marked in the 
text, will also be found on a comparison of the two editions ; we have kept a list 
of these, and subjoin some of the more important of them here, that the public may 
see that the revision of the work has been pretty thorough. Many mere verbal 
alterations and corrections of oversight or carelessness in reading the proofs might 
also be adduced. 

\b« 18 said to be in Plioois, on the boundaries of Eubcea ! 

Mskcus ! Thetis is used for Tethys, and the error is very frequently repeated, in moBl 
eases copied from the Dictionary of Biography and Mythology, in the present instance 
adopted by Dr. Schmitz from Pauly, s. v. 

Ai.KXANDRfA : oftener !a, rarely da, a statement just the reverse of the fact, and for oor- 
reetion, vide the article in the Dictionary. 

Akcxus: the Greek quotation is wrong ; the line as given by us from the scholiast ia a 
hexameter verse, as it is also given by Thirlwall in the Fhihlogkal Museum, vol. i., pafs 
107, quoted by Dr. Schmitz for his authority, though he copies the altered Greek Gcova 

Anius : Dryope is copied erroneously from the Dictionary of Biography and Mythology^ 
and the aoeoont of the daughters of Anius is taken incorrectly from Kraft and Miillei 
ihottgh right in the Dictionary of Biography and Mythology. 

AvTONiA 1 is called httsband of L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, and Antonia 2, the husband 
of Drusus ; where the editor, copying from the German of Kraft and Miiller, has taken Gt' 
maMin (wife) for Gemahl (husband) ; and so again under 

Orethxus, by way probably of compensation, Kraft and Muller's (xemahl (husband) in 
translated wfe^ and Gretheus is made ^' wife of Tyro," 

ApsaoniToroLis, No. 3, 1, from Kraft and Muller, Aphroditopo/u Nomos for -lites, 

Apm (theeity) is said to be 10 stadia west of Par»tonium for 100, which erroneous 
statement, pp^ably a typographical slip in the German work, is copied from Kraft and 

Assus . ruim near Berani. a typographical error from Kraft and Muller for Beram or 

AaciniA (p. 70), the greatest river of Pcloppnivesus is said to be the Achelous ! ! 

AaaoNAVTJE {p. 76) : ^^ And when Pollux was slain by Amycus," copied from an article 

se&scSnaft,^ gewesen ist, und zwar um so weniger, da wir diese Arbeit deutscher Grelehrtea 
geradezu als die Grundlage des englischen Dictionary bezeichnen diirfen, obschon der Plaa 
dorselben vtelfach anders angelegt ist." * * * " Ueber das Verhaltniss zu der Stuttgartei 
Encjpldopidie ist noch zu bemerken. das die Artikel, welche daher entlehnt sind, uamcnttioK 
▼on Sohmitzuud dem Herausgeber. aufs Neue durchgesehen und zum Theil schatzbar erwoi 
tart sind." 

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Ib ih» DielMMiary of Biography and Mythology by Dr. L. Schmitz, who has compiled 
Uie w^onnt from Grotefend's in Patily, and falls into Grotofend's unaeooontable blun 
der of making Amyous slay Pollux, though Apollodorus, whose narratire both profess to 
IbUoiEr, says plainly enough the reyerse (lIoAvdevxf r 6i, inoaxSfievci mncreveeiv vpdc aifr6p, 
tA^^oc icord rdp abx^^ drfxrecve, i., 9, 20^ \ 2), and yet Dr. Sehmitz, at the end of his artido, 
quotes Sckignemannj de Geogr. Argonaut. ; Vkert^ Geographie der Griech. und Rbmer ; Jftui* 
kr, OrehomenoB, &c., but says not a word about Pauly's Encyolopadio or Grotefend. 

Oiher instances of similarity to Pauly's work are frequent in the articles of this oontri- 
hmtor, but this is not the place to point them out. 

Auus: a strange fatality seems to hang over this unfortunate place: the editors, 
infected with the American spirit of annexation, transfer it, port and all, from the main 
land to the island of Eubma ! ! 

BEButCBs, after Graft and Miiller, for Bebryoes, or, at least, Bebryces ) and in the 
account of their king, the editor, copying hastily from Pauly, has mistaken the German 
Iknn for Ikrer. Pauly has '^ Ihren Konig Amycus ersehlug Pollux,'' the termination of 
the aeeasative indicating sufficiently the object ; but Dr. Smith, in following tho same 
Older in English, has made quite a difference in the result : " whose king, Amycus, slew 
PoUux !" 

C.XBAR, No. 5 : L. Csesar is called the uncle^ and afterward nephetp, of M. Antony in 
the same article. 

Chabes (at the end), the colossus, overthrown B.C. 224, and removed A.D. 672: of 
eoune it could not have remained on the ground 923 years, as stated. 
Chioh : thirteen letters for seventeen. 

CocALUS : it is said that he received Dttdalus, and afterward killed him, when Mmoi 
came in pursuit of him. It was Minos that was killed ; the error is taken from Dr. 
Sehmitz, in the Dictionary of Biography and Mythology. 

Ceatos : " Uranus and Ge " for << Pallas and Styx ; " taken from Dr. Schmits, in tlie Die 
tionary of Biography and Mythology. 

Crme, in iEolis : it is said to have been Hesiod's birth-place ! though, under Hesiod, it 
IS correctly stated that " we learn from his own poem that ho was born in the village of 
Aura, in BcBotia." 

EaiKKTEs: reference is made to Eamenid^.' for a feminine plural; and so again. 
onder Phaethon, his sisters are called Heliada ! the same error occurs under Tisiphone 
(Enmenidtf /) and imder Yalens (the islands Stoschada ! for des), in part from the Diction 
try of Biography and Mythology. 

HAI.ESU8 : he is said to have been slain by " Evander" for " Pallas," copied from Dr 
Sehmitz in the larger dictionary. 
Halm TRis : we have 'A^ftvptf, sol ^njv for A^ivv. 

Halostdne : Ihetys (or Thetis), as usual, for Tethys; from Dr. Sehmitz, in the Diction- 
ary of Biography and Mythology. 
Helios: Phaetusa, and, under Heliades, Phaeton, for ^^fA." 

Hercules (p. 310) : he ii said to have taken Pylos and slain Periclymeniis, a son of 
NeleuB ; elsewhere, all tfae sons of Neleus, except Nestor. 
Ithome : "last " Messenian war for " first." 
Leaxder: "Herois" is made the genitive of " Hero." 
Leoittudes : Spartan" exiles for '• Theban." 

Levcippvs : his birth-place is inferred to be Elis ! ! because he was of the '' EUatit ^ 
ichool, instead of *^ Elea," in Italy ! copied from the Dictionary of Biography and 
Maximus No. 2 : Dionysiue is sty'cd Halicamasjuj / r^ \ 

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Mtckn jc : the treasury of AtreuSj in MyoenaD, is called the treasury of Athen$ f 
'<«me error is repeated under Pelasgi (near the end). 

Mtronibbs : Megara is used for Megarij. 

(^XRVus : just as Proteus, in the story of Ulysses, for Menelaus, 

NiTBTJC : vofidc has the feminine adjective Nirpiortcl agreeing with it. 

Oasis : al 'Oofflrai is used for ol 'Ooff, 

OoTRis : 2000 stadia — 20 geographical miles for 200. 

PiDrs : Mount Vesu^ for -lua! 

Panda : the Sirace5 for Siract, as used by Tacitus. 

Pasitigris : it is said to be now Karoon, which name is given to the Eulseui, #. w. 

Pauljnus (p. 531) : " Nero's" for " Otho's." 

Peloponnesus : in the enumeration of its provinces, Argolis is strangely omitted. 

Phocis : Daphnus is placed on the Euboean Sea, between the Loch Ozolm ! I and 

Pbocis : The Crissman plain is placed in the southeast^ on the borders of Locn Oxolse ! 
and antt-historical for ante-historical. 

PiCEMUM : along the northern ! coast of the Adriatic for western. 

PiRiTHOus : Theseus is said to have placed Helen at " JEthra ! " under the oare of 

Poseidon (p. 610] : Pasiphae is made '^ daughter /" of Minos. 

Sassula: Tib«r for Tibar .' 

ScoPAs, No. 1 : he is put to death B.C. 296, though alive in B.C. 204 ; copied from tliii 
larger dictionary. 

SiLANUs, No. 6 : the dates refer to B.C. for A.D. 

Tavium : now Boghaas-Kieni for Kieui is a typographical error copied from Pauly. 

Thxophrastus (p. 763) is said to have presided inih& Academy! (for Lyceum), 35 yean 

TcRENi lA, the wife of Cicero, is called TulliOj and this error is copied from the Dietioii- 
ary of Biography and Mythology. 

In somo instances references are made to articles which are omitted ; these the 
•ditor has been careful to supply, while in other cases important names have been 
passed over altogether : a few of these are given in the English work in the 
addenda, and many others not there supplied might be quoted, but any one rumiing 
over the additions marked with brackets can judge of the extent of this improve- 
ment in the American edition for himself The editor ought to add on this point, 
that, before receiving the page of addenda, he had already inserted in their proper 
places the only important articles there given. The biographical and mythological 
notices in the present work, which have been chiefly taken from the Dictionary of 
Biography and Mythology, have been compared with the corresponding ones in 
that work, and several errors are found to have been made in the process of 
abridgment, e, ^., 

FxaoNu (p 263) is said to have had her chief sanctuary at Terracina, near Mount 
?oracte ! ! Now Terracina is in Latium, southeast of Rome, while Mount Soracte was in 
. £truria, somo distance north of Rome : the larger dictionary says, '* Besides the sanctua 
ties at Terracina and near Motmt Soracte, she had others at," &c. 

Other errors from the same cause will be found (in the English work, corrected in this') 
aader Octavius No. 8, Masinissa, Orestes, Tissaphemes, &c. 

Another great blemish in the English work is the utter carelessness exhibited io 

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tin aooentuation of the Greek names. If it be desirable to have the Greek 
acoented at aU, it should be done correctly. The editor has carefully revised thifl 
portion of the work also, and hopes no gross error will be found uncorrected. In 
the historical and mythological names the errors are copied from the Dictionary 
of Biography and Mythology, which exhibits the same carelessness in this respect^ 
and these errors are not of that nature that they might result merely from haste, 
or a disinclination to turn to the pages of a lexicon or an author to find the place 
of the aooent, but such as the slightest acquaintance with the principles of Greek 
aooentuation would indicate to the eye at once ; e. //., dissyllables with long penult 
and short final syllable having the acute on the penult ; the circumflex placed on 
the antepenult ; the acute placed on the penult of feminine adjectives in is and o^; 
or final syllable long by nature, with circumflex on the penult, <Ssc. ; as instances 
almost at random, BoZQcufng^ KKiavAvig, KrijO'to^, 'Apr^rlag, Fsvsralo^, FXajxo^, KaX. 
Xff&c^cjv, *I<r(fri7voc, *'IXo^, MtSoLgj Kpijvai, MoipoxXif^, 0aXarra, TLsk'ntSsg^ &c. ^c. In 
the English edition the Greek names of the Greek divinities are commonly given, 
but with considerable inconsistency ; e. ff,, Ge is usually employed, though it does 
jot occur in the work as a separate article at all, Gssa being the form in the alpha- 
betical order, and this is frequentiy used instead of Ge ; Pluto or Aidoneus some, 
times instead of Hades, Bacchus interchangeably with Dionysius ; while, on the 
other hand, J^ulapius and Hercules, Ulysses and Pollux, Ajax, and other heroes, 
are uniformly written afler the Latin form of the name ; these the editor has 
allowed to stand, and so, too, he has retained the Greek names of the divinities, 
hot has placed by the side of this form the more usual one inclosed in parentheses, 
or has placed the parentheses around the former. The change, familiar enough to 
the Germans and those well acquainted with German literature, seems yet, among 
ns, too great and radical a one to be made at once. Time may effect this, but at 
present, as a matter of expediency, ^^suhjudice lis est^ 

To impart additional value to the work, and render it still more complete as a 

classical guide and book of reference, the editor has appended from the Dictionary 

of Biography and Mythology the " Chronological Tables of Greek and Roman 

History" subjoined to that work, and which have been drawn up with great care 

from the Fasti Hellenici and Romani of Clinton, the Griechische and Romische 

Zeittafeln of Fischer and Soetbeer, and the Annales Veterum Regnorum et Popu- 

lorum of Zumpt, and in addition to these, the " Tables of Weights, Measures, 

and Money," from the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. With these 

various improvements and additions, the editor now presents the book to the American 

public, and ventures to recommend it as a reliable guide to those, for whom it is 

designed, in the various departments which on its title-page it professes to comprise. 

In conclusion, the editor would be guilty of great injustice wore he not to 

acknowledge in the warmest terms the obligations which he is under to his learned 

and accurate friend Professor Drisler, whose very efficient co-operation has been 

leeored in the revisal and correction of the entire work. Every article has been 

read over and examined in common, and a flrank interchange of opinions has been 

made wherever any point occurred of sufficient miportance to warrant this. And 

it is on this account that he ventures o recommend the present volume with mora 

confidence to the young student, than if it had been the result merely of his own 

•ndividnal exertions. C^ r\r\n\o 

^ ^ , Digitized by VjOOQLC 

CoLUHBU GoLLKGK, December, 1850 ^ 

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Tm great progress which dassical studies have made in Europe, and more espe- 
oisUj in Germany, during the present century, has superseded most of the works 
QsuaLj employed in the elucidation of the GredL and Boman writers* It had long 
been felt by our best sdiolars and teachers that something better was required thau 
we yet possessed in the English language for illustrating the Antiquities, Litera- 
ture, Mythology, and Geography of the ancient writers, and for enabling a diligent 
student to read them in the most profitable manner. It was with a view of sup- 
plying this acknowledged want that the series of classical dictionaries was under- 
taken ; and the very fiivorable manner in which these works have been received 
by the scholars and teadiers of this country demands from the editor his most 
gratefiil acknowledgments. The approbation with which he has been &vored luu 
enooaraged him to proceed in the design which he had formed from the beginning, 
of pteparing a series of works vrfaich might be useful not only to the scholar and 
the more advanced student, but- also to those who were entering on their dassical 
studies. The dictionaries of- "^ Greek and Boman Antiquities " and of *' Greek and 
Boman Biography and Mythology,'' which are already completed, and the *' Dio> 
tioiiary of Greek and Boman Geography,'' on which the editor is now engaged, 
are intended to meet the wants of the more advanced scholar ; but these works 
are on too extended a scale, and enter too much into details, to be suitable for th;.' 
ose of junior students. For the latter class of persons a work is required of the 
nine kind as Lempriere's well-known dictionary, containing in a single volume 
the most important names, biographical, mythological, and gec^praphical, occurring 
in tike Greek and Boman writers usually read in our public schools. It is invidious 
t>r an author to speak of the defects of his predecessors ; but it may safely be 
said that Lempriere's work, which originally contained the most serious mistakes, 
has long since become obsolete, and that since the time it was compiled we 
have attained to more correct knowledge on a vast number of subjects comprised 
in that work. 

Hie present dictionary is designed, as already remarked, chiefly to elucidate the 
Oredc and Boman writers usually read in schools ; but, at the same time, it has 
not been considered expedient to omit any proper names connected with classical 
antiqoi^, of whidi it is expected that some knowledge ought to be possessed by 
every person who aspires to a liberal education. Accordingly, while more spaos 
has been given to the prominent Greek and Boman writers, and to the more di» 
tioguished diaracters of Greek and Boman history, other names have not been 
omitted altogether, but only treated with greater brevity. The chief dif&cultj 
whidi every author has to contend with in a work like the present is the vastnesc 
of his sahject and the copiousness of his materials. It has therefore been neces 
nry in all cases to study the greatest possible brevity, to avoid all discussions, 
nd to be satisfied with giving simply the results at which the best modem scholan 


have arrived. The writer is fully aware that in adopting this plan he has frc^ 
quentlj stated dogmatically conclusions which may be open to much dispute ; but 
he has thought it better to run this risk, rather than to encumber and bewilder the 
junior student with conflicting opinions. With the view likewise of economizing 
Rpacc, few references have oeen given to ancient and modem writers. In &ct, such 
references are rarely of service to the persons for whom such a work as the pre- 
sent is intended, and serve more for parade than for any useful purpose ; and it 
has been the less necessary to give them in this work, as it is supposed that the 
persons who really require them will be in possession of the larger dictionaries. 

The present work may be divided into the three distinct parts, Biography, Myth 
ology, and Geography, on each of which a few words may be necessary. 

The biographical portion may again be divided into the three departments of 
History, Literature, and Art The historical articles include all the names of any 
importance which occur in the Greek and Roman writers, from the earliest timep 
down to the extinction of the Western Empire, in the year 476 of our era. Very 
few names are inserted which are not included in this period, but still there are 
some persons who lived after the fall of the Western Empire who could not with 
propriety be omitted in a classical dictionary. Such is the case with Justinian, 
whose legislation has exerted such an important influence upon the nations of 
Western Europe ; with Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, at whose court lived 
Cassiodoras and Bo^thius ; and with a few others. 'The lives of the later Western 
emperors and their contemporaries are given with greater brevity than the lives 
of such persons as lived in the more important epochs of Greek and Roman his 
tory, since the students for whom the present work is intended will rarely require 
information respecting the later period of the empire. The Romans, as a general 
rule, have been given under the cognomens, and not under the gentile names ; but 
in cases where a person is more usually mentioned under the name of his gens 
than under that of his cognomen, he will be found under the former. Thus, for 
example, the two celebrated conspirators against Csesar, Brutus and Cassius, are 
given under these names respectively, though uniformity would require either that 
Cassius should be inserted under his cognomen of Longinus, or Brutus under his 
gentile name of Junius. But in this as in all other cases, it has been considered 
more advisable to consult utility than to adhere to any prescribed rule, which 
would be attended with practical inconveniences. 

To the literary articles considerable space has been devoted. Not only are all 
Greek and Roman writers inserted whose works are extant, but also all such as 
exercised any important influence upon Greek and Roman literature, although thdr 
writings have not come down to us. It has been thought quite unnecessary, how- 
ever, to give the vast number of writers mentioned only by AthenaBus, Stobaeus, 
the Lexicographers, and the Scholiasts ; for, though such names ought to be found 
in a complete history of Greek and Roman literature, they would be clearly out 
of place in a work like the present In the case of all writers whose works are 
extant, a brief account of their works, as well as of their lives, is given : and at 
the end of each article one or two of the best modem editions are specified. As 
the present work is designed for the elucidation of the classical writers, the Chria^ 
tian writers are omitted, with the exception of the more distinguished fathers, who 
form a constituent part of the history of Greek and Romai^^ literature. Tha 

gitized by V 


Bjcantiiie historians are, for the same reason, inserted ^ though it their case, hk 
irell as in the case of the Christian Fathers, it has been impossible to give a com- 
plete account, either of their lives or of their writings. 

The lives of all the more important artists have been inserted, and an aooount 

has also been given of their extant works. The history of ancient art has received 

90 little attention from the scholars of this country, that it has been deemed advi 

aabie to devote as much space to this important subject as the limits of the work 

would allow. Accordingly, some artists are noticed on account of their celebrity 

in the history of art, although their names are not even mentioned in the ancient 

writers. Tlus remark applies to Agasias, the sculptor of the Borghese gladiator, 

whic^ is still preserved in the Louvre at Paris ; to Agesander, one of the sculptors 

of the group of Laoeodn ; to Glycon, the sculptor of the Famese Hercules, and 

to others. On the contrary, many of the names of the artists in Pliny's long list 

^re omitted, because they possess no importance in the history of art. 

In writing the mythological articles, care has been taken to avoid, as far as pos- 

able, all indelicate allusions, as the work will probably be much in the hands of 

yoong persons. It is of so much importance to discriminate between the Greek 

and Roman mythology, that an account of the Greek divinities is given under their 

Greek names, and of the Roman divinities under their Latin names, a practice 

whidi is universally adopted by the Continental writers, which has received the 

MDCtion of some of our own 'scholars, and which is, moreover, of such great 

utility in guarding against endless confusions and mistakes as to require no apology 

lor its introduction into this work. 

For the geographical articles the editor is alone responsible. Hie biographical 
and mythological articles are founded upon those in the " Dictionary of Greek and 
Boman Biography and Mythology," but the geographical articles are written 
entirely anew for the present work. In addition to the original sources, the editor 
has avuled himself of the best modern treatises on the subject, and of the valua- 
ble works of travels in Greece, Italy, and the East, which have appeared within 
the last few years, both in England and in Germany. It would have been impos- 
nUe to give references to these treatises without interfering with the general plan 
of the present work, but this omission will be supplied in the forthcoming '* Dic- 
tkxiary of Greek and Roman Geography." It is hoped that in the geographical 
portion of the work very few omissions will be discovered of names occurring in 
the diief classical writers ; but the great number of names found only in Strabo, 
Pliny, Ptolemy, and the Itineraries, have been purposely omitted, except in cases 
where such names have become of historical celebrity, or have given rise to 
important towns in modem times. At the commencement of every geographical 
artide the Ethnic name and the modem name have been given, whenever they 
could be ascertained. In conclusion, the editor has to express his obligations to 
his brother, the Rev. Philip Smith, who ha') rendered him valuable assistance bj 
vritang the geographical articles relating to Asia and Africa. 

Unos Ai-gnrt IStb, 188a 

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\^An*g8rB (JKapaaa6c)t a city of Pisidia ; more 
eorrecUy, perhaps, Arassus, as giveo in some 
1IS3.; the old lAtin yeriion of Strabo having 
ilao Arasiim.1 

[Aba ('A6a), daughter of Zenophaoes, made 
heTHlf queen of Olbe in Oilicia ; ner authority 
^•i QDofinned by Antony and Cleopatra: she 
Vis subsequently deposed and driven out] 
[Aba CA6a), more usually AbeSj q. v.] 
ABAcmux {^ABoKaivov or rd 'JiStucaLva : *A6a- 
%at9ivoc : ruina near 7Vipi)t an ancient town of 
fte Sieuli in Sicily, west of Messana, and south 

Aeb CA^: 'ACcuoc: ruins near Exareho\ 
ID suaent town of Phocis, on the boundaries 
oC Ba»atia, said to have been founded by the Ar- 
gire Abes, but see Abante& It possessed an 
tneiait temple and oracle of Apollo, who hence 
MTed the samame of Abceui, The temple 
WM destroyed by the Persians in the invasion 
•f Xerxes, and a second time by the Bosotians 
m tke saered war : it was rebuilt Dy Hadrian. 

[AiAun, an ishind in the North or German 
Onsq, where amber was said to have been 
vidieid up by the waves^ and used by the in- 
bsUtants for fuel The more usual name was 

[AiAi5iB or ABAxnOf a people of Kauretania, 
tioqght into subjection to the Eoman power hy 
Ibeodosius, father of the Emperor Tlieodosius.] 
(AiAvrBB {'ASavTtcX the ancient inhabitants 
of EulHsa. (HoDL, K iii 586). They are said 
to have been of Thracian origin, to have first 
settled in Phocis» where they built AbsB, and 
afterward to have crossed over to Kuboda. The 
AbsQtes of Eubosa assisted in colonizing several 
^ the boie cities of Asia Minor. 

AiAsnlois {*A6avTidd7ic), any descendant of 
Abst, but especially Perseus, greatgrandson of 
Absi, and Acrisius, son of Abas. A female do- 
NodsDt of Abas, as DanaS and Atalante, was 
Idled iltfon/tVu. 
AiARus. Vid. Abantxadu. 
AuniDAS CA£avTidac\ son of Paseas, be- 
^iBi SfrsDt of SioToo, after morderiDg Olinias^ 


the fjEkther of Aratus, B.O. 264^ but was suuo 
after assassinated. 

[Abantib {'ASavTig), an early name of EubcBi^ 
from the Abantes.] 

[Ababbajska ('ASapSapiii), name of a Naiad, 
mother of .£sepus and Pedasus.] 

[AbIais ('A6apt{:\ son of Seuthes, was a Hy- 
perborean priest of Apollo, and came from the 
country about the Caucasus to Greece, while 
his own country was visited by a plague. In 
his travels through Greece he carried with him 
an arrow as the symbol of Apollo, and gav4 
oracles. His history is entirely mythical, and 
is related in various ways : he is said to have 
taken no earthly food, and to have ridden on 
his arrow, the gift of Apollo, thropgh the air. 
He cured diseases by incantations, and delivered 
the world from a plague. Later writers as- 
cribe to him several works ; but if such works 
were really current in ancient times» they were 
not genuine. The time of his appearance in 
Greece is stated differently: he may, perha{», 
be placed about B.C. 670. [Abaris occurs b 
Nonnus, Dionya, 11, 182, but the short quantity 
seems preferable. — 2. A Latin hero, who fought 
on the side of Tumus i^ainst JEaetm : he was 
slain by Euryidus. — 8. Caued Caueasiua by Ovid, 
a friend of Phineas, slain by Perseus.] 

JAbarib {'ASapic or Aiapic), a city of I^gypt^ 
ed, also^ Avaris. Manetlio places it to toe 
east of the Bubastio mouth of the Nile, in the 
Saitio nome, while Mannert identifies it with 
what was afterward called Peluaium.] 

Abawtib ('A6apvic or 'ASapvo^ : 'ACapvevc), a 
town and promontory close to Jjampsaeus oo 
the Asiatic side of the Hellespont [AbarmU 
was also the name of the country lying around 
and adjacent to the city.] 

[ Ababtos ('ASaproc), one of the Codridas, ehoaen 
king of the PhociBans.] 

Abas ('A6af). 1. Son of Metanira, was ehang 
ed by Ceres (Demeter) into a lizard, beeauM 
he mocked the goddess when she had oome oa 
her wanderings mto the house of his mother 
ani drank eagerly to quendi her thirst — % 

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Twolth kiog of Argos, bod of Ljuceus and Hy- 
perniDestra, grandson of Dauaiis, and iatber of 
Acrisius and Proetua. When he informed his 
father of the death of DanaiiB, he was rewarded 
with the shield of his grandfather, which was 
sacred to Juno (HeraV This shield performed 
various marvels, and the mere sight of it could 
raduce a revolted people to submission. He is 
described as a successful oonq^ueror and as the 
founder of the town of AbsB m Phocisi and of 
Ihe Pelas^c Argos in The8saly.~[8. A centaur, 
■on of Ixion and Nephele, a celebrated honter, 
one of Uiose who escaped the fury of the Lap- 
thsB in the fight that arose at the nuptials of 
Pirithoiis and Deidamia. — 4. A follower of Per- 
seus, who slew Pelates in the eont«st with Phin- 
eus. — 6. A warrior in the Trojan army, son of 
Eurydamas, slain by Diomede. — Others of this 
name occur in Virgil and Ovid, who probably 
derived their accounts of them from the Cyclic 

[Abasitis CA6aaiTic)y a district of Phrygia 
Major, on the borders of Lydia.] 

[Abatos ('A^arof ; now Jaiggefi), a small rocky 
i&laud near PhilsB in tlie Nile, to which priest 
alone were allowed access, whence the name.] 

[ABDAofisES, a Parthian nobleman who revolt- 
ed from his king Artabanus, and aided Tiri- 

Abd£ra (rJ 'A6di7pa, Abdera, ce, and Abdera, 
rrum : 'ACdrfpinjCt AbdCrites and Abderita). 1. 
(Now Polystilo), a town of Thrace, near the 
mouth of the Nestus, which flowed through the 
town. According to mythology, it was founded 
y Hercules in honor of his favorite Abderus ; 
ut according to history, it was colonized by 
Timesius of Clazomens about 6.0. 666. Time- 
si us was expelled by tlie Thracians, and the 
town was colonized a second time by the in- 
habitants of Teos in Ionia, who settled there 
dftcr their own town had been taken by the 
Persians, B.C. 644. Abdera was a flourishing 
town when Xerxes invaded Greece, and con- 
tinued a place of importance under the Romans, 
vrbo made it a free city. It was the birthplace 
of Democritus, Protagoras, Anaxarchus, and 
other distin^ished men ; but its inhabitants, 
Qotwithstanding, were accounted stupid, and an 
•* Abderite" was a term of reproach, — 2. (Now 
Adra), a town of Hispania Bsetica on the coast> 
founded by the PhoBnidans. 

ABDfixns {'A66rfpoc), a favorite of Hercules, 
was torn to pieces by the mares of Diomedes, 
which Hercules had given liim to [guard while 
he himself] pursued tiie Bistones. Hercules is 
Mid to have built the town of Abdera in honor 
of him. 

Abi>$l5n^icus or AbdXl$n!mu8, also called 
Ballonymus, a gardener, but of royal descent, 
was made king of Sidon by Alexander the Great 

Abella or Ayxlla {'ACeXht : AbellAnus ; now 
Avella VecchiaY a town of C&mpania, not far from 
Nola, founded oy a colony from Chalcis in £u- 
boea. It was celebrated for its apples, whence 
Virgil {-/Sn^ vii, 740) calls it mmi/ira, and for 
tts great hazel-nuts, nuees Avellanee. 

Abellinum ( Abellinas : now AvelHno\ a town 
of the Hirpini in Samuium, near the sources of 
Ihe Sabatua. — [2. (Now Martieo Vetere^ a town 
of Lucania, near the sources of the Acins, called, 
ibr distinction' sake, Abelh'num Marsicum ] 

AboIrub, Acbarus, or AuoXrai {'jL6yapu^ 
'Ax^opof, Avyapo^)j a name common to nioaj 
rulers of Edessa, the capital of the district of 
Osrhoene in Mesopotamia. Of these rulers, od« 
is supposed by Eusebius to have been the autlior 
of a letter written to Christ, which ho fouud io 
a church at Edessa and translated from the 
Syriac The letter is beUeved to be spurious. 

Abia {ff A6ia : near Zamata), a town of Me» 
senia on the Messenian Gulf It is said to 
have been the same town as the Ire of the Iliad 
(ixn 292), and to have acquired the name o^ 
Abia in honor of Abia, the nurse of Hyllus, a 
son of Hercules. At a later time Abia belonged 
to the Achiean League. 

Abii ('A^<oe), a tribe mentioned by Homer 
(//., xiii., 6), and apparently a Thradan p<v>ple. 
This matter is discussed by Strabo (p. 296). 

Abila (r<i 'ASiXa: 'A6iAi7v6f, probably Niebi 
Abet), a town of Coele-Syria, afterward called 
Olauaiopolis, and the capital of the tetrarchj of 
Abilene (Luke iii., 1). The position aeema 
doubtful A town of the same name is men 
tioned by Josephus as being sixty stadia east of 
tlie Jordan. — [2. A mountain of Maurctania: 
Vid. Abyla.] 

[ABILE.VE ('AfitX»7M7), tnd. Aiitla No. 1.1 

Abisares ('A5i(Tapi7f), also called Embisaioia, 
an Indian king beyond the River IJydaspee, sent 
embassies to Alexander the Great, who not only 
allowed him to retain his kingdom, but increased 
it, and on his death appointed his son his 8u&> 

[AsLtRua ('Atf^jypof), a Trojan, slain by An- 

Abn5ba Monb, the range of hills covered by 
the Black Forest in Germany, not a single 

[Abobrica (now Bayonne\ a city of Gallfficia fai 
Hispania Tarracooensis, near the mouth of the 
Mini us.] 

[Aboocts (now Aboo Simhel), a city of ^thi- 
opui, on the western bank of the Nile, with very 
remarkable ruins.] 

AbOnitichos (*A5wvot; rf?;jfOf), a town of Paph 
lagonia, on the Black Sea, with a harbor, after* 
ward called lonopolis ('IwvoTroA/j'), whence its 
modem name Ineboli, the birth-place of the pre- 
tended prophet Alexander, of whom Lucian lias 
left us an account 

AadRiGixEs, the original inhabitants of a 
country, equivalent to the Greek avroxOoveg. 
But the Abori^nes in Italy are not in the Latin 
writers the onginal inhabitants of all Italy, but 
the name of the ancient people who drove the 
Sieuli out of Latium, and there became the pro- 
genitors of the Latini 

Aborrhas {*A66fifiac: now Khabur), a branch 
of the Euphrates, which joins that nver on the 
east side near Arcesium. It is called the Arax- 
es by Xenophon {Anab^ it 4. § 19), and wai 
croBScd by tne army of Cyrus the Younger in 
the march from Sardis to the neighborhood of 
Babylon, B.O. 401. A branch of this river 
which rises near Nisibis, and is now called Jakb 
jakhah, is probably the ancient Mygdonius. Tb« 
tGiabur rises near Orfah, and is joined near thi 
Lake of Ehatuniyah by the Jakhiakhah, after 
which the united stream flows mto the Eo- 
phrates. The course of the Ehat ar is very i» 
correctly represented in the^mapa^ f 




AaaADAiJia ('A^«kiracX f^ ^og of Susa, and 
B ally of tbe ABsyriaoB agaiiut Cyros, aooord- 
^ to XenoplioD'B Cjropedia. ^s wife, Pan- 
>ft&» 'was taken od the conquest of the Awjrian 
kmp. In OQDBequence of the honorable treat- 
ment vlucb die reeeiy^d from Cyrus, Abrada- 
«aa joined the latter with his forcea He fell in 
tb« firat fasttle in whieh he fought for him, while 
^g^tkag agminst the Egyptians in the army of 
OraBMis at Thymbrana, on the Pactolna In- 
•oaaolable at her loss, Panthea put an end to 
her orvn lile. Cyras had a high mound raised 
in lidoor of them. 

£A»BTTTgwa {'ASptrnprii), a region of Mysia, 
cm tlie borders of Bithynia, said to haye been 
■o called from the nymph Abretia.] 

AaKDRGATih, a people of Oallia Lugdunen8i^ 
in the oeigfaborliood of the modem Avranehes. 

ABBdodius ('A6poK6/tac)t one of the satraps 
•f Artazerzes Mnemon, was sent with an army 
to oppose Ornm on his march into Upper Asia, 
BlC. 401. Me retreated on the approadi of Cy- 
nm^ bat did not join the king m time for the 

[ AnooSMEs {'ABpoKofiTfCf -^l), son of Darius 
■DO Fhratagune, aooomnanied the army of Xerx- 
es to Greece, and was slain at Thermopylae.] 

[ AaaoN {'A6pav\ son of the Attic orator Ly- 
eugiia — 2. Son of Callias, of the deme of Bate 
m Attica, who wrote on the festiyals of the 

AsaOirf CBD8 ('ABp^wxo^), an Athenian, who 
■erred in the Persian war, B.C. 480, and was 
nbseqaently sent as ambassador to Sparta, with 
nienuBtocles and Aristides, respecting the for^ 
tificatioDs of Athena. 
Aaa&rdKinf, mother of TniEinfiTOCLxs. 
AaadrSKinc (*A6p6T<nfov : now Sabart or Old 
Tripoli), a aty on the coast of Africa, between 
the Syrtes, founded by the Phoenicians ; a colony 
mder the Romans. It was also called Sabrftta 
and Neapolis, and it formed, with (Ea and Lep- 
lis Magna, the African Tripolia 

[AaaoKim Silo, a Latin poet of tlie Augustan 
age, papU of Porcius Latro. According to Vos- 
■iaa, there were two of this name, &ther and 

[AaaosELMES {'ASpot^iXftijc'y a Thracian, inters 
preter of the Thracian king Seutbes, mentioned 
B the Anabasis of Xenophon.] 

AaanniDis or AnTatiDEs, sc insulie ('A^p- 
ride^z now CkertOf Oiero, Feronna, and Chao'j, 
the name of four islands off the coast of JUyn* 
com, [the principal one of which was AasdauB, 
with a town of the same name.] According to 
cod tradition, Absyrtus was slain in these isl- 
ands by his sister Medta and by Jason. 

Aaarainn or Areiai-ut {'AifrvpToc), son of 
iEetes, king of Colchis, and brother of Medea. 
When Me4M« iled wi^ Jason, she took her 
bfotlier Abeyrtua with her ; and when she was 
nearly orertaken by her father, she murdered 
Ahsyrtoa, eut his body in pieces and strewed 
them oo tLhe road, that her father might thus be 
detained by gathering the limba of his child. 
Tomi, the place where this horror was com- 
nitted, was beiieyed to haye deriyed its name 
from liftvu, " to cut* According to another tra- 
dlAion, Absyrtus did not accompany Medea, but 
^sa aent rmt by his father in pursuit of her. He 
nertook her m Coreyra. where she bad been 

kindly reoeiyed by king Aldnous, who refuses 
to surrender her to Abeyrtns. ^hen he oyer* 
took her a second time in certain islands off th« 
lUyrian coast, he was slain by Jasoa The M>n 
of .^i§tes, who was murdered by Medea, is calW 
by some writers iEgialeus. 

AstTilTEs ('AdavHrtf^), the satrap of Susiann, 
surrendered Susa to Alexander. The satrapy 
was restored to him by Alexander, but ho anc 
his son Oxynthres were afterward executed by 
Alexander for the crimes they had committed 

Abuknub Yalens. VuL YAi.KKa 

Abob (now IIianber\ a riyer in Britain. 

[ Abdb ('A^ : now Affhri-Dagh), a mountniu 
chain of Armenia Major, and beUeyed by tbe 
natiyes at the present day to be the Ararcii of 

AbtdSndb {*ACvdijv6c), a Qrbek historian, who 
wrote a history of Assyria. Hij date is uncer 
tain : he made use of the works of Megasthe- 
nes and Berosus, and be wrote in the Ionic di- 
alect. His work was particularly yaluable for 
chronology. The fragments of his history haye 
been ptmlished by Scaliger, De Bmendationt 
Jhnpwum; and Richter, Berosi Cfialdasontjn 
Hittoria, dtc, Lips., 1825. 

AstDOS ( *A9v6oq : 'A5wdi;v6f). 1. A town of 
the Troad on tbe Hellespont, and a Milesian 
colony. It was nearly opposite to Sestos, but a 
little lower down the stream. Tbe bridge of 
boats which Xerxes constracted oyer the Hel- 
lespont, B.C. 480, commenced a little higher up 
than Abydos, and touched the European shore 
between Sestos and Madytua The site of Aby- 
dos is a little north of Sultania or the old castU 
of Asia, which is opposite to the old castle of 
Europe. — 2. (Ruins near Arahat el Matfwm and 
El B%rbeh\ a city of Upper Egypt, near the west 
bank of the Nile ; once second only to Thebes, 
but in Strabo^s time (AJ). 14) a small yillage. 
It had a temple of Osiiis and a McnvHoniumy both 
still standing, and an oracle. Here was found 
the inscription known as the Table of Abydo9^ 
which contains a list of the Egyptian kinga 

Ab$la or Abila Mons or Odlumna {^A&Chi or 
'Atikfj anjXif or 5poc: now Jebel Zatout I e, 
Apei^ Hill, aboye Ceuia\ a mountain in Maure- 
tania Tingitana, forming the eastern extremity 
of the south^ or African coast of the Fretum 
Gaditanum. 'This and Mount Calpe {Gibraltar), 
opposite to it on the Spanish coast, were caUed 
the Columns of fferculee, from the fal ^e that they 
were originally one mountain, whicl was torn 
asunder by Herculea 

AcAOALLis ('AxaxaAA<V)» dauf^hter of Minoi^ 
by whom Apollo begot a son, Miletus, as well aa 
other children. Acacallis was in Crete a com^ 
mon name for a narcissus. 

AoAofisiUM {'AxoKijaiov : * AKOKfjaio^)^ a town 
of Arcadia, at the foot of a hill of die same name. 

AcAcSahTB ('A/cax^aiOf), a surname of Mer 
cury (Hermes), for which Homer uses the form 
Aeaeetet, Some writers derive it from tbe Ai- 
oadian town of Acacesium, in which he was be 
lieyed to haye been brought up ; others from a 
priv, and kokoc, and suppose it to mean " the 
eod who does not hurt. The same surname 
IS given to Prometheus, whence it may be in- 
ferred that its meaning is that of beneuctr r oi 
deliverer from eyil. 

.AoAOBTKa. Ffd AcAcisxua. ^-^ . 

Digitized by VJOOQIC 



LAaXcRiB Ciuuucoc), mo of LyeMO, a kin^ in 
Areadia, who brought up lierouiy (Hermee), 
vid Ibunded Aoaoetium: vtdL Acuamus.] 

AolDfiuU CAjcadiifteta or 'AxaKi^fiia: alBo 
Aeademla in tiie older Latio writen), a pieoe of 
land OD the Cephissos^ mx, afeadia from Athens, 
originally belonging to the hero Ao4iinnja» and 
raUe^uently a gymnaaiom, which vaa. adorned 
by Cunon with plane and oliye pUintatiooa, 
•tataea, and other worlca of art Here taught 
Plato, who noaaeaaed a piece of land in the 
oeighborhooo, and after him hia foUowera^ who 
were hence called the Aeademiei, or Academic 
philoaophera When Solla besieged Athena in 
B.O. 87, he out down the plane treea in order to 
construct hia militaij maehinea; but the place 
was restored soon afterward. Cicero gave the 
name of Academia to hia Tilla near Puteoli, 
where he wrote hia ** QosBationea Academic^.* 


AoADticuB ('Aicd%iof\, an Attic hero, who be- 
tra^red to Oastor and PciUuz, when they inyaded 
Attica to liberate their aiater Helen, that ahe 
was kept concealed at Aphidnie. For this the 
TVndanda always showed him gratitude, and 
wheoeyer the Lacednmoniana invaded Attica, 
they spared the land belonging to Academu& 
Via, AoAnzMiA. 

AcALANDaca (now B<dandMa\ a river in Lu- 
cania, flowing into the Oulf of Tarentum. 

[AoALAKiHia {^kKoXaaf&i^), daughter of Pierus. 
changed by the muaea into a thisUe finch. Vid, 

fAoAicAimB (^ KKOftavTio), one of the Attic 
iribea, so named from the hero Acamas L] 

AoImab {'KKOftac). 1. Son of Theseus and 
PhcBdra, acoompaoied Diomedes to Troy to de- 
mand the aurreuder of Helen. Duriug hia stay 
at Troy he won the affection of Laodice, daughter 
of Priam, and begot by her a son, Munitua. He 
was one of the Greeks concealed in the wooden 
horse at the takmg of Troy. The Attic tribe 
Aeamantis derived its name from him. — 2. Son 
of Antenor and Theaoo, one of the bravest Tro- 
jans, slain by Meriones. — 8. Son of Eusaorus, one 
of the leaders of the Thracians in the Trojan 
war, ahiio by the Tekmonian Ajax. — [4. Son of 
Asius, foofiht on the side of the Trojans, slain by 

[AoAMAB {'Ajcufuic '• now Cape Saliiano or 8t. 
Ptfano\ a promontory at the northwest end of 

[AoAXPSia ('Aica/i^tf : now T^Jtorak or Bilu- 
•nt), a river of Asia forming the boundary be- 
tween Pontus and Colchis, and so named from 
its impetuous course, a priv. and Kuurrro. It was 
called by the natives themselves JSoa».] 

AcAMTmn ('Akov^o^: 'kxdvdtoc). 1. (Ruins 
near JSrso), a town on the lethmua, whioli oon- 
BMcta the peninaula of Athoa with Chalcidice, on 
Ifae canal cut by Xences {vid, Arrioa). It was 
founded by the mhabitants of Andros, and con- 
tinued to -be a place of considerable importance 
(rom the time of Xerxes to that of the Komana. 
—2. (Now J)<uhur\ a town on the west bank of 
the Nile, 120 stadui aouth of Hemphia, with a 
temple of Osiris. 

[AoAMTBua {'AkovBoc), a Lacedssmonian, victor 
%t Olympia in the dittvXoc, waa aaid to have been 
tiie first who ran naked at theae gamea.] 

AoaNAN ('Affo/yrav, -avoc), one of the £|dgo- 

ni, aon of Alcmason and Callirrhod, and c r &h«i 
of Amphoterus. Their father was murderc d "ky 
Phegeoa when they were very young, and Collir- 
rhoe prayed to Jupiter (Zeua) to midce her sons 

grow qu^Bkly, that they might be able to awen^« 
le death of their lather. The prayer was grant- 
ed, and Acaman %ith hia brother alew PbefC^*>4» 
hia wife, and hia two aona The inhabitants of 
Pkophia, where the aona had been alain, poivned 
the murderers aa far as Tegea, where, how«wer« 
they were received and reaoued. lliey aftoi> 
ward went to I^irus, where Acaman foacded 
the atate called after him Acamania. 

AoabnXnIa ('Aftoovavfa : 'XxapvaVt -dvofX tlje 
moat westerly province of Greece^ waa bound- 
ed on the north by the Ambracian Quit on tli» 
west and southwest by the Ionian Sea, co tfa« 
noitheaat by Amphilochia, which ia sometimea 
included in Acamania, and on the eaat by JEto- 
lia, from which at a later time it waa aeparated 
by the Acheloua The name of Acamania does 
not occur in Homer. In the moat ancient timea 
the land waa inhabited by the Taphii, Teleboae, 
and Leleges, and subsequently by the Curetea^ 
who emigrated from .£tolia and settled Uiercv 
At a later tmie a oolony from Argoa, aaid to 
have been led by Acaanan, the aon of Alcmjeoo, 
aettled in the country. In the aevcnth oentury 
B.O. the Corinthiana founded aevend towna on 
the coast The Acamaniana &nS emerge frona 
obscurity at the beginning of the PeloponneaiMn 
war, B.C. 481. They were then a rude people, 
living by piracy and robbery, and thejr alwavv 
remamed behind the rest of ttie Greeks in dviJio 
lation and refinement '^^7 were good aling- 
ers, and are praised for their fidelity and conragcu 
The different towns formed a league with a 
strategus at their head in time of war: the mem- 
bers of the league met at Stratoa, and aubse- 
quently at Thyrium or Leucaa Under the 
Romans Acamania formed part of the province 
of Macedonia. 

[AcASTE (*XKu(mf), a daughter of Oe^anus snd 

AcASTt'S ('Aicaffrof^ son of Pelias, kiig of 
lolcus, and of Anaxibia or Philomache. He 
was one of the Aigonauta, and also took part in 
the Calydonian hunt His sisters were induced 
by Medea to cut up their father and boil him, 
in order to make him young again. Acaaku, 
in consequence, drove Jason and Medea from 
lolcus, and instituted funeral games in honor 
of his fiither. During these games Astydamia, 
the wife of Acastus, also called Hippolyte, first 
saw PeleuSyWhom Acastus had purified feom 
the murder of Eurytion. When Peleus, fiiithftil 
to his benefactor, refused to listen to her ad- 
dresses, she accused him to her husband of im- 
proper conduct Shortly afterward, when Acaataa 
and Peleus were huntuig on Mount Pdion, and 
the latter had fallen asleep, Acastus took hia 
sword from him, and left him alone. He was, in 
conaequence, nearly destroyed by the Centaurs ; 
but he was saved by Chiron or Mercury (Heraies), 
returned to Acastus, and killed him, together 
with his wife. — [2. A king of Duliohium, men- 
tioned in the Odyssey.] 

AoBAaua. Vid AaoABua. 

[AoGA, a companioD of the Yoladan berobs 

AooA JjamMmAA or LiUMoniA, a raythiea 

Digitized by 




»ti«Ban ic «!ftrij Romao story. Aooordioe to 

voe aoemmt, ihe was the wife of the shepherd 

F«iiitiili]a» mod the nurse of Romulus and Remus 

ttftcr the^ bad been taken from the she-woU 

AjDother aeixiant cooneete her with the ]egeod 

aC Heroule^ by wlioee advioe she suooeeded in 

■nmVmg OantouB or Tamitius, an Etrosoan, 

loTe and nuurnr her. After his death she in- 

b«ritMi his huge property, whieh she left to the 

BoBtjn people. Aneus llaroius, in ffratitude 

Car thi% allowed her to be buried in the Yela- 

faran, and insMtuted an annual festiTtl, the 

I^rentAlia, at whieh eaerifices were offered to 

thre LaresL Aoeording to other aoeounta, again, 

•he was noi the wife of Faustulus, but a proa- 

tifeute, who, from her mode of life, was called 

Inpa b]r the shepherds^ and who left the property 

ahe gamed in that way to the Roman people. 

lliDs much seems eertain, whatever we may 

think of the stories^ that she was of £trusean 

origin, and oooneeted with the worship of the 

Lara, from whidi her name Larentia seems to 


L. Aodhos or Anfua, an early Roman tragic 
poet and the son of a freedman, was bom EO. 
170, and lired to a great age. Cicero, when a 
yooag man, frequentl^r couTersed with him. 
us tragiadiea were cmefly imitated from the 
Grsik, bat he also wrote some on Roman sub- 
jects (PrwteclataV, one of which, entitled Brutus, 
«as probably in honor of his patron, D. Brutus. 
We poasesa only fragments of his tragedies, 
bat they are spoken of in terms of admiration 
tj the aooxent writers. Aoeius also wrote An^ 
Bales in yarse, oontaining the history of Rome, 
like thoaa of Ennius; and a prose work, Libri 
DidatealuMf which seems to have been a his- 
tory of poetry. The frsgments of his tragedies 
are giTen by Bothe, Poet. Sceniei Laiin^ vol t., 
lipa, 18S4; and those of the Didascalia by 
Ibdrig, D* L, AUii, DidatealiU OomnunL, Hal 
Diss. 18S1. 

Aoooi, a diief of the Senones in Gaul, who in- 
dnoed his countrymen to revolt against Casar, 
RC. ftS, bywhom he was put to death. 
Acs. VuL PioUEMAia. 
[AoaalTna ('Aic^paro^-), a priest and prophet 
at Delphi, who with sixty men alone did not 
ahandoo the place on the approadi of Xerxes and 
Us army. — 2. Apoet of the Oreek anthology.] 

Affaaaaa, a Tynan priest of Hercules, who 
qurried EliMa, the sister of Kio^ Pygmalion. 
fie had ooooealed his treasures m the earth, 
allowing the aTarioe of Fyflrmalion, but he was 
aiurdered by Pygmalion, who hoped to obtain 
his treasures through his sister. The prudence 
of EUssa sared the treasures^ and she emigrated 
from Phasuieia. In this account, taken from 
Jostin, Acerbaa is the same person as Sichssus» 
and RUasa the same as Dido m Viigil {^n., i, 
M4t, Bag.). Hie names in Justin are undoubtedly 
man eonaet than in Viigil: for Yiigil here, as in 
other casea» has changed a foreign name into one 

i cooTcoient to him. 

utRM (Acerrftnus)L 1. (Now Aeerra), a 
in Campania on the Clanius, recared 
the Roman frsndiise in B.O. 882. It was de- 
sfroyed by Hannibal, but was rebuilt 2. (Kow 
Ocm), a town of the Inaubres in Oallia Trans- 

Apollo, ezpressive of his beautiful haii whici 
was never cut or shora 

[Aon {'AjcTfc), a river in the io^^^or of Asia 
from which the country of the Hyrcan'^^ns, Par^ 
thians, Chorasmians, Ao, was watered oy meonr 
of canals. On the conquest of this r^on by 
the Persian king, the stoppage of this irrigation 
converted many fertile landa into barren wastes. 
This river has been supposed to be the same 
with the Ochus or Ozus, and Wilson {Ariana, p, 
129), following Gatterer, inelines to the hitter.] 

fAcBsXidiNUs {*XKeaafuy6f:\ a king of Thrace^ 
father of PeriboBa, and said to have founded the 
city AcesamensB in Macedonia.] 

[AGB8AMDXB {'Ajdaavdoof), a Greek historian, 
who wrote an account ot Oyrene.] 

AoftsAa CAjceadc), a native of Salamis in Oy- 
prus, frmed for his skill in weaving cloth with 
varimU^d patterns {polynUiarius), He and his 
son Helicon were the first who made a peplna 
for Minerva (Athena) Polias. They must have 
lived before the time of Euripides and Plato^ 
who mention this peplua 

[AcBiMBadToa ('AxeoifiBpoTO^), an admiral o'« 
the Rhodians, and a delegate to the conference 
between T. Flamininus and Pfailippus.] 

AcialNis {^kKtaivfi^: 'AKealvoc). 1. (Now 
Chenaub), a river in India, into which the Hydaa> 
pea flows, and which itself flows into the Indus. 
— 2. (Now Alcantara), a river in Sicily, near 
Tauromenium, called also Onobalas. 

[AoEsiUB ('Ax^^oc), an appellation of Apollo, 
** the healer,* from iKioftaiA 

[AoxBTA. Vid. SaoxtTA.] 

Aonrss ('Ax^ffr^f), son of a Troian woman 
of the name of Egesta or Segeeta, who was sent 
by her father to Sicily, that she might not be 
devoured by the monsters which iufested the 
territory of Troy. When Effeeta arrived in Sio- 
ily, the river-god Crimisus begot by her a son, 
Acestes, who was afterward regajrded as the 
hero who had founded the town of Seeeata. 
JBneas, on his arrival in Sicily, was hospitahly 
received by ACestes. 

[AoB8TOD6auB {*AjceaT66opoc\ a Greek histo- 
rian from whom Piutareh quotes some iucideoti 
relating to the battle of Sabmiis, in his Life of 

AoEBToa {^AKioTup). 1. Sumamed Saecu, on 
account of his foreign origin, was a tragic poet 
at Athens^ and a contemporary of Aristuphanea. 
— 2. A sculptor of Cnosus, who flourished about 
KG. 452.] 

[AoBBioaiDis {*AKeoTopldiff\ a Coriothtan 
chosen general by the Syracusans, but biiniahed 
from Syracuse by Agathoclea.] 

AcRMA (jAxaia, from uxo^t "grief"), "the 
distressed one," a surname of Ceres (Demeter) 
at Athens, so called on acooimt of her sorrow £nr 
the loss of her daughter. 

AoHiBi ('A;t^oi), one of the chief Hellenic 
races, were, according to tradition, descended 
from Achieus, who waa the son of Xuthus and 
Oreusa, and grandson of Hellen. The Adun 
origin^y dwelt in Thessaly, and from thence 
migrated to Peloponneaus, the whole of whidi 
beoume subject to them, with the exception 
of Arcadia, and the country afterward caUed 
'Achaia. As they were .the ruling nation ia 
Peloponnesus in the heroic times, Homer froi 
quently gives the name of Acltcl^to the oollM>h 

Digitized by VoC)OQIC 



ivo Greeks. Oo tbc conquest of the greater 

girt of Peloj)! >nQC8i i by the Hemclids aud tbe 
orians eighty years after the Trojan war, 
many of the Aehiei under Tisamenus, the son 
of Orestes, left their country and took poeses- 
tion of the northern coast of Peloponnesus, then 
called iEgialaat and inhabited by the loniuis, 
Tvhoin they expelled from the country, which 
was lienoefortii called Achaia. The expelled 
onians migrated to Attica and Asia Minor. The 
Achiei settled in twelve cities : Pellene, ^^gira, 
£g», Bura, Helice, .^Igium, RhypsB, Patrte, 
Pharas, Olenus, Dyme, and Tritasa. These 
titles are said to have been govenied by Tisa- 
menus and his descendants till Ogyges, upon 
whose death a demooratical form of govern- 
ment was established in each state; but the 
twelve states formed a league for mutual de- 
fence and protection. In the Persian war the 
Achsei took no part; and they had little mflu- 
ence in the ai&irs of Greece till the time of 
the successors of Alexander. In B.C. S81 the 
Achffii, who were then subject to the Macedo- 
nians, resolved to renew their ancient league for 
the purpose of shaking off the Macedonian voke. 
This was the origin of the celebrated Acninan 
League. It at first consisted of only four towns, 
Dyme, Patraa, Tritsa, and Pharte, but was sub- 
sequently joined by the other towns of Achaia, 
with the exception of Olenus and Helice. It 
did not, however, obtain much importance till 
RG. 261, when Aratus united to it his native 
towp., Sicyon. The example of Sicyon was 
followed by Corinth and many other towns in 
Greece, and the league soon became the chief 
!X)litical power in Greece. At length the AchaBi 
declared war against the Romans, who destroyed 
the league, and thus put an end to the independ- 
ence of Greece. Corinth, then the chief town 
of the league, was taken by the Roman general 
Mummius, in B.C. 146, and the whole of south- 
em Greece made a Roman province under the 
name of Achaia. The different states composing 
the Achaean League had equal rights, llie 
assemblies of the league were neld twice a year, 
in the spring and autumn, in a grove of Jupiter 
(Zeus) Homagyrius near JBgium. At these 
assemblies all the business of the league was 
conducted, and at the spring meeting the public 
functionaries were chosen. The&e were : 1. A 
strategus {oTpartfyoc) or general, and a hipnar- 
ehus {inirofixoi) or commander of tiie cavalry ; 
2. A secretary (ypcLfifiarev^;) ; and, 3. Ten demi- 
urgi {dfjfiiovpyoiy also called upxovrec), who appear 
to have had the right of convening the assembly. 
For further particuUrs, vid. Diet, of Ant^ art 
Aehaicum Factum 

AoHiBMl^NKs {'XxatfiivTfi:). I. The ancestor of 
(he Persian kingrs, who founded the family of the 
Achcanenidce ('Axcufievi6(u\ which was the no- 
blest familv of the Pasargadae, the noblest of the 
Persian tribes. The Roman poets use the adjec- 
tive Acfuemeniua in the sense of Persian. [Some 
writers identify him ttith the Djemtehid of the 
Oriental historians.]— 2. Son of Darius L, gover- 
nor of Egypt, commanded the Egyptian fleet in 
tbe expKMiition of Xerxes against Greece, B.C. 
480. He was defeated and killed in battle by 
InaruB the Libyan, RC. 460. 

Ac&AMftKloBS or AoHSMiNfncB, son of Ada- 
nastus of Itlinca, and a companion of Ulyssea, 

who left him behind in Sicilj \vh«-n lie fl sd ititn 
the Cyclopes. Here he was fuuml I y* ASin^^m. 
who took him with him. 

AcBMCS ('kxaidg). 1. Son of XutktM» CIm 
mythical ancestor of the Aooju. — 2. Gk>v<»riiot 
under Antioehua III. of all Asia west of Mount 
Taurus He revolted against Antioeliizit, hut- wiu 
defeated by the latter, taken prisoner at Sardia. 
and put to death B.C. 214.-8. Of Bretria in 
Euboea, a ti-agic poet, bom B.C. 464. In 447, iie 
contended with Sophocles and Euripides, anH 
though he subsequently brought out many dra 
vaai, according to some as many as thirty-four 
or forty, he nevertheless only gained ths prixe 
once. In the satyrical drama he lyaaeseed 
considerable merit The fragments of hia piecea 
have been published by Urlichs, Bodd, 1834; 
[and by Wagner in his Fragmenta TVoffiearum 
GrcBCOTum (in Didot's Biblioth. Gra»c.^ jx 8d-d2. 
The saljric pieces have been publiahed sepa- 
rately in Frieoers Grneorum Satyrographorum 
FragmentOy Berlin, \%Z*l.'-A. A Greek tragic 
poet of Syracuse, who flourished at a later period 
than the foregoing, belonging to the Alexandrine 
period : he was said to have writUa ten or four- 
teen tragedies.] 

AoHliX ('AjtOAOf : *kxaid), 1. The northern 
coast of tbe Peloponnesus, originally called JE^-^ 
al6a (klytaXtta) or iEgialua {KlyiaXb^\ i. e. the 
coast land, was bounded on the north by tbe 
Corinthian Gulf and the Ionian Sea, on the south 
by Elis and Arcadia, on the west by the Ionian 
sea, and on the east by Sioyoiiia. It was a nar- 
row slip of country sloping down from the mouo* 
tains to the sea. The coast is generally low, and 
has few good ports. Respecting its inhabitants, 
vid. AcUiKL — 2. A district in Thessaly, which 
appears to have been the original seat of the 
Acnffii. It retained the name of Achaia in the 
time of Herodotus. — 3. The Roman province in> 
eluded Peloponnesus and northern Greece south 
of Thessaly. It was formed on the dissolution 
of the Achaean League in B. C 146. and Lenoe 
derived its name. 

[Achaia, ('A;i;aia), a city and harbor on the 
northeastern coast of the Kuxiue, mentioned by 
Arrian in his Periplua] 

[AcoA&XcA ('A;(apaKa), a village near Nysa in 
Lydia, having a celebrated Plutonium, and an 
oracular cave of Charon, where intimations were 
given to the sick respecting the cure of their 

[ AoRABDSUB {'Xxapdeog : row Sgorlik\h, river 
of Asiatic Sarraatiia, flowing from the Canoasuf 
into the Palus Mseotis.] 

AcHARNJE ('Axapvat 'Axapvevcy pU '^opvn<\ 
the principal demus of Attica, belonging t» tbe 
tribe (Eneis, sixty stadia north of Athens, pos* 
sessed a rough and warlike population, who wen 
able to furnish three thousand hoplitie at tbs 
commencement of the Peloponnesian war. Their 
land was fertile, and they carried on eousiderahU 
trafiio in charcoal One of the plays of Aristo- 
les bears the name of the inhabitants of thb 


AoHABEiB, a town m Thessaliotis in Thessaly, 
on the River Pamisus. 

[ AoHATBs, a friend and companion of JSneaa 
so remarkable for the fidel'"7 ot his attachmeol^ 
that « fidus Achates ** be< ue subsequijntlr • 

Digitized by 




ActuatB (cA/v Dirillo\ a river in southern 
llieilj, betweeo Camarioa and Qela, in which the 
first Agate is said to have been found. 

AcHKiA>ii>E8» a sumame of the Sirens, the 
daughters of Achelous and a Muse ; also a sur- 
aame of water nymphs. 

Acaii^OB {^kxt^4*^ ' 'A;('AiMbc in Hona. : now 

AmfTo Polamo\ more anciently called^ Thoas, 

Ajcsooc, and Thestius, the laivest river Id 

Qraeee. It rises in Mount Pindus, and flows, forming the boundary between Acar- 

cania and ^tolia, and falls into the I«>nian Sea 

opposite the islands called Echinades, [which 

were supposed to have been formed in part by 

the depoations of this very rapid river.J It is 

aboot one hundred and thirty miles in length. 

The god of this river is descritfed as the offspring 

of Oeeanus and Tethys, and as the eldest of their 

three thousand sons. He fought with Hercules 

Ibr BcSamra, but was conquered in the ooiAest 

He then took the form of a bull, but was again 

overeome by Hercules, who deprived him of 

ooe of his homsi which, however, he recovered 

by giving up the horn of Amalthea. According 

to OTid(ire<.,iz.,87), the Naiads changed the 

bom which Hercules took from Achelous into 

the horn of plenty. Achelous was, from the 

earliest times, eonsidered to be a great divinity 

throughout Greece, and was invoked in prayers, 

verificcfl, ^ On several coins of Acamania, 

the god is represented as a bull with the head 

of an old man. Achelous was also the name of 

a river in Arcadia, and of another in Phthiotis 



AcHiaoN Ckxipov)^ the name of several riv- 
en, all of which were, at least at one time, be- 
lieved to be connected witli the lower world. — 1. 
[Now Gurla, or Biver of Suli.] A river in Thes- 
protia in Epirus, which flows through the Lake 
Adierusia into the Ionian Sea^ — 2. A river in 
EUa, which flows into the AlphSus. — 8. [Proba- 
bly Lete or Arconit'] A river in southern Italy, 
in the country of the Bruttii, on which Alexan- 
der of Epirus perished. — 4. The river of the 
fewer world, round which the shades hover, and 
nto which the Pvriphlegethon and Cocytus flow. 
In late writers the name of Acheron is used, in 
ft general sense, to designate the whole of the 
lower world. The Etruscans were acquainted 
with the worship of Acheron (Acheruns) from 
reiT early times, as we must infer from their 
A^eruntici librij which treated of the deification 
of souls, and of the sacrifices (Aeheruniia tacra) 
hj which this was to be efiFected. 

AcHftaoiniA. 1. (Now Acerema\ a town in 
Apulia, on a summit of Mount Vultur, whence 
Uoraee (Cartit, illj 4, 14) speaks of eeUce nidum 
Atkerontia. — 2. A town on the River Acheron, 
ia the country of the Bruttil VuL AcHEaosr, 

AoiicaC^ (^kxeoovaia Tufoni or ^Axfpovaic)* 
the name of sevenl lakes and swamps, whi^ 
libe the various rivers of the name of Acheron, 
were at the same time believed to be connected 
with the lower world, until at last, the Acho- 
runa came to be considered to be in the lower 
Yorid itself The lake to which this belief 
teems to have been first attached was the Ache- 
naia in Thesprotia, through which the Acheron 
kved. Other lakes or swamps of the same 

name were near Henuione in Argolis^ l>etwef( 
I Cumie and Cape Misenum in Campania, and 
I lastly in EgypC near Memphis. Acheru$ia was 
I also the name of a peninsula, near HeradCa in 
Bithynia, with a deep chasm, into which Her- 
cules is said to have descended to bring up the 
dog Cerberus. 

AcHETUH, a small town in Sicily, the site ol 
which is uncertaia 

Achilla or Aoholla {'AxoXXa : *kxo?.?Lalo% 
Achillitanus : now £1 Aliahf ruins), a town oa 
the sea-coast of Africa, in the Carthaginian ter- 
ritory (Byzacena^, a little above the northern 
point of tne Syrtis Minor. 

Achillas (^Axt^^-fk)* oo^ o^ the guardiani 
of the Egyptian king Ptolemy Dionysius, and 
commander of the troops when Pompey fled to 
Egypt, KC. 48. It was he and L. Septimins 
who killed Pom]3ey. He subsequently joined 
the eunuch Pothinus in resisting Cesar, and 
obtained possession of the greatest part of Aler 
andrea. He was shortly afterwards put tc 
death by Arsinoe, the youngest sister of Ptolemy. 
RC.47. ^ 

[AoHiLLfiis, a poem of Statins, turning on the 
stoiy of Achilles. Vid Statiub.] 

AcHiLLXs (^kxi^Xev^), the great hero of the 
niad. — Homeric story, Achilles was the son ol 
Peleus, king of the Myrmidones in Phthiotis^ in 
Tbesf>aly, and of the xfereid Theti& From hii 
father s name, he is often called PeHde^f Peleia^ 
dea, or Pellon, and from his grandfather's, jEaei' 
de9. He was educated by PhoBuix, who taught 
him eloquence and the arts of war, and accom- 
panied him to the Trojan war. In the healing 
art he watf instructed by Chiron, the centaur 
His mother, Thetis, foretold him that his fate 
was either to sain gloi*y and die early, or to lire 
a long but inglorious life. The hero chose the 
former, and took part in the Trojan war, fiom 
which he knew that he was not to retunL In 
fifty ships, he led his hosts of Myrmidones, Hel* 
lenes, and Achseans, against Troy. Here the 
swift-footed Achilles was the great bulwark ol 
the Greeks, and the worthy favorite of Minerva 
(Athena^ and Juno (Hera). Previous to the dis- 
pute witn Agamemnon, he ravaged the country 
around Troy, and destroyed twelve towns on 
the coast and eleven in the interior of the coun- 
try. When Agamemnon was obliged to give 
up Chryseis to her father, he threatened to take 
away Briseis from Achilles, who surrendered 
her on the persuasion of Minerva (Athena), but 
at the same time refused to take any further 
part in the war, and shut himself up in his tent^ 
Jupiter (Zeus), on the entreaty of Thetis, prom- 
ised that victory should be on the side of the 
Trojans, until the Aohoeans should have hon- 
ored her son. The aflairs of the Creeks de- 
clined in consequence, and they were at last 
pressed so hara, that an embassy was sent to 
Achilles, offering him rich presents and the res- 
toration of Briseis ; but in vain. Finally, how- 
ever, he was persuaded by Patrxlus, his deai 
est friend, to allow him to make use of his men, 
his horses, and his armor. Patioclus was slain 
and when this news reached Achilles, he wa 
seized with unspeakable grieU Thetis consoled 
him, and promised new arms, to be made by 
Vulcan (HephflBstus), and Iris appeared to rouss 
him from ms lamentations, and exhorted hiia 


izedb^ Google 



to Ktcue the body of Patroelus. Achilles now 
rose, and his thimdering voice alone pat the 
Trojans to flight When his na^f armor was 
brought to him, he hurn'ed to the field of battle, 
disdaining to take any drink or food until the 
death of his friend should be avenged. He 
wounded and slew numbers of Trojans, and at 
length met Hector, whom he chased thrice 
around the walls of the city. He then slew 
him, tied hia body to his chariot, and dragged 
him to the ships of the Greeks. After this, he 
burned the body of Patroelus, together wich 
twelve young captive Trojans, who were sao- 
rifioed to appease the spirit of his friend ; and 
Bubeequently gave up the body of Hector to 
Priam, who came in person to beg for it Achil- 
les himself fell in the battle at the SciBan gate, 
before Troy was takea His death itself does 
not occur- in the Iliad, but it is alluded to in a 
few passages {xxiu, 858 ; zxi., 278). It is ex- 
pressly mentioned in the Odyssey (rxiv, 86), 
where it is said that his fall — ^his conqueror is 
Dot mentioned — was lamented by gods and men, 
that his remains, together with those of Patro- 
elus, were buried in a golden urn, which Bac- 
chus (Dionysus) had given as a present to The- 
tis, and were deposited in a place on the coast 
of the Hellespont, where a mound wiis raised 
over them. Achilles is the principal hero of 
the Oiad : he is the handsomest and bravest of 
all the Greeks; he is affectionate toward his 
mother and his friends: formidable in battles, 
which are his delight ; open-hearted and without 
fear, and, at the same time, susceptible of the 
^doUe and quiet joys of home. His greatest 
passion is amhition, and when his sense of hon- 
or is hurt, he is unrelenting in his revenge and 
anger, but withal submits obediently to the will 
of the gfds. — Later traditions, lliese chiefly 
consist in accounts which fill up the history of 
his youth <c&u death. His mother, wishing to 
make her son immortal, is said to have con- 
oealed him by night in the fire, in order to de- 
stroy the mortal parts he had inherited from his 
&ther, and by day to have anointed him with 
ambrosia. But Peleus one night discovered his 
child in the fire, and cried out in terror. Thetis 
left her son and fled, and Peleus intrusted him 
to Chiron, who educated and instructed him in 
the arts of riding, hunting, and playing the phor- 
minz, and also changed his original name, li- 
gyron, i. e^ the "whining," into Achilles. Chi- 
ron fed his pupil with the hearts of lions and the 
marrow of Dears. According to ocher acoounta, 
Thetis endeavored to make Achilles immortal 
by dipping him in the River Styx, and succeed- 
ed witn the exception of the ankles, by which 
she held him. When he was nine years old, 
Calcbas declared that Troj could not be taken 
without his aid, and Thetis, knowing that this 
war would be fktal to him, disguised him as a 
maiden, and introduced him among the daugh- 
ters of Lycomedes of Scyros, where he was 
sailed by the name of Pyrrha on account of his 
golden locks. But his real character did not 
remain concealed long, for one of his compan- 
ions, Deidamla, became mother of a son, Pjr- 
rims or Keoptolemus, by him. Ulysses at last 
discovered his place of concealment and Achil- 
les immediately promised his assistance. Dur- 
vag the war against Troy, Achilles slew Pen- 

thesilSa, an Amazon. He also fought vriti 
Memnon and Troilus. The accounts ot iiu 
death differ very much, though all agre« in 
stating that he did not fall by human hands, or, 
at least, not without the interference of the ^od 
Apollo. Acoordmg to some traditions, he ivskb 
killed by Apollo himself; according to otl^cro. 
Apollo assumed the appearance of Paris in kill- 
ing him, while others say that Apollo merdjr 
directed the weapon of Paris against Achillea 
and thus caused his death, as had been Biig^- 
gested by the dying Hector. Others, again, ro- 
ute that Achilles loved Polyxena, a daugliter of 
Priam, and, tempted b^ the promise that lio 
should receive her as his wife, if he would join 
the Trojans, he went without arms into the 
temple of Apollo at Thymbra, and was assas- 
sinated there by Paris. His body was rescnec) 
by Ulysses and Ajax the Telamonian ; his ar- 
mor was promised by Thetis to the braveet 
among the Greeks, which gave rise to a con- 
test between the two heroes who had rescued 
his body. Vid. Ajax. After his death, Achil* 
les became one of the judges in the lower world, 
and dwelled in the islands of the blessed, where 
he was united with MedSa or Iphigenia— {2. A 
son of the Earth {yfryevijc), to whom Jimo THera) 
fled for refuge from the pursuit of Jupiter (Zeusj^ 
and who persuaded her to return and marry that 
deity, Jupiter (2^U8), grateful for this service^ 
promised him that all who bore this name for 
the time to come should be illustrious person 
ogea — 8. The preceptor of Chiron, after whom 
Chiron named the son of Peleus. — 4. The in 
ventor of the ostracism in Athens, according 
to one account — 5. Son of Jupiter (Zeus) and 
Lamia, so beautiful that Pan awarded to him 
the prize of beauty over every competitor. Ve- 
nus was so offended at this, that she inspired 
Pan with a fruitless passion for the nymph 
Echo, and also wrought a hideous change m his 

Achilles Tatius, or, as others call him, Achil 
les Siatius, an Alexandrine rhetorician, lived iir 
the latter half of the fifth or the beginning of 
the sixth century of our era. He is the author 
of a Greek romance in eight books, contoinine 
the adventures of two lovers, Clitophon and 
Leucippe, which has eoms down to us. The 
best eaition is by Fr. Jacobs, Lips., 1821. Sui- 
das ascribes to this Achilles a work on the 
sphere {irepl a^aipac), a fragment of which, pro- 
fessing to be an introduction to the Fhsduomena 
of Aratus, is still extant But tliis work was 
written at an earlier period. It is printed in 
Petavius, Uranotogia, Paris, 1680, and Amstei^ 
dam, 1708. 

AoHiLLtUM {^kxikXeiov"^, a fortified place near 
the promontory SigSum m the Troad, [founded 
by the Mytileneans, and in the neighborhood of 
which Achilles was supposed to have been 
buried.] There was a place of the same name 
on the Cimmerian Bosporus, Straits of Kaffa^ on 
the Asiatic side. 

AcHiLLEim assumed the title of emperor un- 
der Diocletian, and rei^^ed over Egypt for some 
time. He was taken by Diocletian alter a siege 
of eight months in Alexandrea, and put to death 
A.D. 296. 

AoHiLLtLUS DadiEoe ( A;if«)Aeiof dpofio^: now 
Tendera or 7htdra)y a narrow4ongiie o£ land is 

igitized by VjOOQ IC 



&« Eaadne Sem not &r from the mouth of the 
8»TKfaeiic9^ -where Achilles is said to have 
side A Taee^oarse. Before it lay the cele- 
bnted Isbod of Achilles {Tntuia Aehillis) or 
Lecee (Acckt), where there was a temple of 

AcBnxfin Pdstub {'AxtXketo^ ^tfjt^v), a har- 
bor in Laeooia, near the promontory Tsenartim. 

AcHixxix«s» a patronymic of Pvrrhus, son of 
AcHiLus l9sih.A. Vid Achillsus Dromob. 
AcRi&dx {^AxipoifX daughter of Nilus and -wife 
of Belcs. hy -whom she became the mother of 
.feyptosuid Danaus. 

AcHiTX, the name of the Aehiei in the Latin 
irritefs^ aod frequently used, like Achsei, to ei^f- 
oify the whole Greek nation Vtd. Achmi. 
AcsoLZJu Vid. Achilla. 
AcsoLdft. Vid, Ha&ptljl 
AnfaAPfXA or AgeXdixju Vid Steacusa' 
AdCBGaiOB {*Aiux^piog\<mQ of the leaders of 
fteGankyWho inyaded Tbrace and Macedonia 
IB R C. S80. In the following year he accom- 
panied Brennas in his invasion of Greece. Some 
vTTters suppose that Brennus and Acicborius are 
Ad same person, the former being only a title, 
lad the lad^r the real name. 

AdtDAilA (mater), a surname of Venus, from 
the well Acidalius, near Orchomenos, where she 
JMG to bathe with the Graces. 

[Aaj>AS {'Ajcidac), a small river of Triphylian 
EuL which ran into the Anigrus.] 

Adc^^.-^ L. MaklIus. 1. One of the Roman 
nncrala in the second Punic war, prstor ur- 
maa, B. G. 210, served against Hasdrubal in 
207, and was sent into Spain in 206, where he 
fcmaioed liU 199. — 2. Sumamed Fulvianvs, be- 
flUBe he originally belonged to the Fulvia geus, 
pneior R C. 188 in Nearer Spain, and consul in 
179 with his own brother Q. Fulvius Flaccus, 
Thieh is the only instance of two brothers hold- 
K the consulship at the same time. 
[Aojosf {'AKiOiJv), same as the Acidas, q. v.] 
AcxlIa Geks, plebeian. Its members are 
meotioood under the family names of Aviola, 
Balbob, and Glabsio. 

[Acilisexe {'AKiXimfv^), a district of Armenia 
Hum-, between Antitaums and the Euphrates.] 
[AcmixcuM or Acuicinccm (now PeterwarJ- 
ml a town in Lower Pannonia, on the Danube.] 
[AciNCUM or Aquikcum (now Buda or Ola 
Cfen^) a strongly fortified town of Pannonia, on 
die Danube.] 

[AcDOPO (ruios near Ronda), a town of His- 
paoia Baetica, of which some remarkable remains 
itQl exist] 

[Adais ^Axipic : now Agri\ a river of Lu- 
euoa, flowing into the Sinus Tarentinua.] 

Acxs (^Afcig) son of Faunus and Symsthis, was 
beloved by the nymph Galatea: Polyphemus 
the Cydopa, jealous of him, crushed lum under 
a tige roes. His blood, gushine forth from un- 
der the Tt>ck, was changed by ttie nymph into 
the River Acis or Acinius (now Fivme di Jaci\ 
It the foot of Mount i£tna. This story, which 
J related only by Ovid (ife/., xiu., 750, Beq.\ is 
perhaps no more than a hAPpy fiction suggested 
t); the manner in which the little river springs 
fsrth from under a rock. 
[^icB (' Utf), a river of Sicily. Vid. the f >i e- 

[AciiON (^AKftuv). 1. A companion of D^ 
medes, wlio was changed into a bird lor disr* 
spect to Venus. 2. Son of Elytius of Lyrue» 
SOS, a companion of iEneas.] 

AcmSnia {'AKfiovia : ^AKfiovirrjc : AemofjentUi^ 
a city of the Greater Phrygia. 

Acm6n!de8, one of the three C;f elopes In Ovi4 
is the same as Pyracmon in Virgil, and as Argef 
in most other accounts of the CydopeSb 

AcorrEs ('Akoitjjc)* K>n of a poor fishermar 
of HsBonia, who served as a pilot in a ship 
After landing at the Island of Naxos, the sailon 
brought with them on board a beautiful boy 
asleep, whom they wished to take with them ; 
but Accetes, who recognized in the boy the god 
Bacchus, dissuaded them from it, but in vain. 
When the ship had reached the open sea, the 
boy awoke, and desired to be earned back to 
Naxos. The sailors promised to do so, but did 
not keep their word. Hereupon the god dis- 
closed himself to them in his majesty ; vinen 
began to twine round the vessel, tigers appear- 
ed, and the sailors, seised with madness, jump* 
ed into the sea and perished. Accetes alone 
was eaved and conveyed back to Nazos, where 
he was initiated into the Bacchic mysteries 
This is the account of Ovid {Met, iii., 682, Ac.) , 
Other writers call the crew of the ship Tyrrhe- 
nian pirates, and derive the name of the Tyr- 
rhenian Sea from them. 

Acoinrus ('A/covT«of ), a beautiful youth of tlie 
Island of Ceos. On one occasion he came to 
Delos to celebrate the annual festival of Diana, 
and fell in love with Cydippe, the daughter of a 
noble Atihenian. In order to gain her, he had 
recourse to a stratagem. While she was sitting 
in the temple of Diana, he threw before her 
an apple, upon which he had written the words, 
*• I swear by the sanctuary of Diana to marry 
Aoontaus." The nurse took up the apple and 
handed it to Cydippe, who reaa aloud what was 
written upon it, and then threw the apple away 
But ^e eoddess had heard her vow, and the 
repeated illness of the maiden, when she wai 
about t© marry another man, at length compel- 
led her father to give her in marriage to Aeon- 
tius. This story is related by Ovid {Heroid, 
20, 21), who borrowed it from a lost poem of 
Oalliraachus, entitled " 0^ Jippe." 

Acdais ('A/copf f), king of Egypt, assisted Evag- 
eras, king of Cyprus, against Artaxcrxes, king 
of Persia, about B. 0. 886. He died about 87^ 
before the Persians entered Egypt, v hich was 
in the following year. 

[AoaA (*AKpa\ a name of many places sitp 
ated on heights and promontories. 1. A vil 
lage on the Cimmerian Bosporus.--2. A town 
in Euboea. — 8. A towii in Arcadia^ — 4. Ao&a 
Ledob (^cv/cv), a town in Hispania TarracoMO- 
sis, founded by Hamilcar Barcas.] 

AoB^ ('Axpot), 1. (Ruins near Palazzalo^tk 
town in Sicily, west of Syracuse, aod ten stadia 
from the River Anapus, was founded by the Syr 
acusans seventy years after the foundation Oi 
their own city.— 2. A town in iEtolia. 

[Aoa^A (*AKp(ua\ a daughter of the river-god 
Asterion (near MycenaB), one of the nurses of 
Juno. A mopntaiii in Argolis, opposite to th4 
HeriBum, was named after her AeraaJ] 

Ac&JiA {*\Kpaia) and Aca^us are SLrnamea 
given to various gi>dde8ses and gods w)>os#> 



icmpiea Were situated upou hi lis, such as Jupi- 
tci (Zeus), Juuo (Hera), Venus (Aphrodite), 
&liuerva (Pallas), Diana (Artemis), aud others. 



^a, *XKpai(^aif 'AKpai^iov: *AKpcu<pt.oc, 'Axpai- 
fuiio^: DOW Kardhitza), a town in Bcetio, on 
the Lake Copais, said to have been founded bj 
Awflepheus, the son of Apollo. 

[AoiLfiUS. Vid. ACEJBA. I 
AcRAOAS {'Ajipuya^ : now Girgenti or Fiume 
ii S. Biagio), a small river of Sicily, on which 
was the celebrated citj of Acragas or Agrigen- 


AorXqas. Vid. AoaiGENTUH. 

[AC&ATHOS ('A/Cpd^Wf UKpOVt t. €., 'A/CpOf 

Auctg: DOW Cape Afonte Santo), the uortheast- 
em promontory in the peninsula Acte in Mace- 

Aoratus, a freedman of Nero, sent into Asia 
and Achaia (A.D. 64) to plunder the temples 
and take away the statues of the gods. 

AcRLS {*AKpiai or *AKpaiai), a town in La- 
fonia, not {&r from the mouth of the Eurotas. 

AcRiLLiE, a town in Sicily between Agrigen- 
tum and Acrse. 

AcRisidNK {*AKpunuv^\ a patronymic of Da- 
CJie, daughter of Acrisius. Perseus, grandson 
of Acrisius, was called, in the same way, Acris- 

AcRisius (^Anpiaiog), son of Abas^ king of Ar- 
gos, and of Ocalia, grandson of Lynceus, and 
great grandson of Danaus. His twin-brother 
was Proetus, with whom he is said to have quar- 
relled even in the womb of his mother. Acris- 
fus expelled Proetus from his inheritance ; but^ 
supported by his father-in-law lobates, the Ly- 
cian, PrcBtus returned, aud Acrisius was com- 
pelled to share his kingdom with his brother by 
giving up to him Tiryns, while he retained Ar- 

S>s for nimsolf An oracle had declared that 
anae, the daughter of Acrisius, would give 
birth to a son who would kill his grandfiither. 
For this reason he kept Danae shut up in a sub- 
terraneous apartment^ or in a brazen tower, 
but here she became mother of Perseus, not- 
withstanding the precautions of her father, ac- 
cording to some accounts by her uncle Prcstus, 
and according to others by Jupiter (Zeus), who 
visited her in the form of a shower of gold. 
Acrisius ordered mother and child to be ex- 
posed on the wide sea in a ches'^ ; but the chest 
floated toward the Island of Seriphus, where 
both were rescued by Dictys. As to the man- 
ner in which the oracle was subsequently ful- 
filled, vid Perskub. 

Agritas CAKpeiTog: now Cape Oallo\ the 
most southeny promontosy in Messenia. 

Aor5osraunia (toe ^AKpoKcpavvia, sc opfj: 
BOW Cape Lingtietla), a promontory in Epirus, 
jutting out into the Ionian sea, was the most 
westerly part of Uie CsRAUNn Montes. The 
coast of the Aoroceraunia was dangerous to 
•hips, whence Horace {Carm. 1, 8, 20) speaks 
tttnfatnes tcopulos Acroceraunia. 


AoRdLissus. Vtd Lispns. 

AoRON. 1. King of the C<BnincnseS) whom 

Romulus slew in battle, and whose arms he 

dedicated to Jupiter Feretrius as Spolia Opina^ 

•-2. An eminent physician of Agrigentuir in 


Sicily, is said to have been in Atheas ilurin^ 
the great placJia (B.C. 430) in the Peloponoe- 
sian war, a:.a to have ordered large fires to b« 
kindled in the streeta for the purpose of pui'ifjr- 
ing the air, which proved of great service to 
several of the sick. This fact, however, in nol 
mentioned by Thucydides. The medical sect 
of the Empirici, in order to boast of a gren tet 
antiquity than the Dogmatici (founded about H 
C. 400), claimed Aoron as tbeir founder, tbou^li 
they aid not really exist before the third ceu 
tury B.O. — [8. An Etrurian of GoryUms, an all^ 
of jfineas, slain by Mezentius.] 

AcRON, HxLENius, a Roman grammarian, 
probably of the fifth century A.D., wrote notes 
on Horace, part of which are extant, and rIbo, 
according to some critics, the scholia which we 
have on Persius. 

[AcRONius L.VOUS. Vtd Briqantinus Lagcs.] 

AoRdroLis. Vid Athena 

AgropSlita Georoius (Ffup/tOf ^KKpOTZoXt 
T^f), a Byzantine writer, was bom at Oonstaa- 
tinople in A.D. 1220, and died in 1282. He 
wrote several works which have come down 
to us. The most important of them is a his- 
tory of the Byzantine empire, from the taking 
of Constantinople by the Latins in 1204, down 
to the year 1261, when Michael PaUeologus de- 
livered the city from the foreign y^oke. Edited 
by Leo Allatius, Paris, 1651 *, reprinted at Yen* 
ice, 1729. 

AcrOrka {ij ^AKp6peia\ a mountainous tract 
of country in the north of Elis. 

AcadTATua ('A/cporarof). 1. Son of Cleome- 
nes II., king of Sparta, sailed to Sicily in B.0 
814 to assist the Agrigentines against Agatho- 
des of Syracuse. On his arrival at Agrigen- 
turn, he acted with such tyranny that the in- 
habitants compelled him to leave the city. He 
returned to Sparta, and died before his father, 
leaving a son, Areus. — 2. Qrandson of the pre- 
ceding, and the eon of Areus L, king of Sparta ; 
bravely defended Sparta against Pyrrhus, m RO. 
272; succeeded his father as king in 266, but 
was killed in the same year in oatUe agaiost 
Aristodemus, the tyrant of Megalopolis. 

AcRdrudUM or AcRdTHOi (*AKp6doov, *Axp^ 
diioi : *AKpod(oiT7fg : now Lavra), afterward call- 
ed Uranopolis, a town near the extremity of the 
peninsula of Athos. 

AoTiBA ('Aicr(ua), daughter of Nereus and 

Acr.£ON ('AxrcuW). 1. A celebrated hunts- 
man, son of ArisfOBus and Autono<$, a daughter 
of Cadmus, w as trained in Uie art of bunting by 
the centaur Chiron. One day as he was hunt- 
ing, he saw Diana (Artemis) with her nymphg 
bathing in the vale of Qargaphia, whereupon 
the goddess changed him into a stag, in whioh 
form he was torn to pieces by his fifty dogs ou 
Mount Cithnron. Otners relate that he pro- 
voked the anger of the goddess by boasting 
that he excelled her in hunting. 2. Son of Me- 
lissus, and grandson of Abron, who had fled 
from Argos to Corinth for fear of the tyrant 
Phidon. Archias, a Corinthian, enamored with 
the beauty of Actoon, endeavored to carry him 
off; but m the struggle which ensued between 
Melissus and Archias, ActsDou was killed. Ftdl 

AtfSMOB VAKTaiof), BOD oj^ ErisichtLoD. an! 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Ibe earliest king of Attica. He bad three daugh- 
ten» A^rauloe, Hcrse, and Pandroeus, and vaa 
■oeeeeded by Cecrops, who married Agrauloa. 

Acrrs^ the cooeubiDO of Nero, was originallj 
A slave finom Aaia Minor. Nero at one time 
tboaglit of manjiDg her ; whence he pretend- 
sd tfaafe she was descended from King Attains. 
She surviTed Nero. 

Acts (^AiCT^)» properly a piece of land run- 
«r:^ into the sea, ana attached to another larger 
piece of Luxi, but not necessarily by a narrow 
neck. 1. Ad ancient name of Attica, ased eepe- 
cialljr by the poets. — 2. The eastern coast of 
PelopoDZMsuSi near TroBxen and Epidaurus. — 
S. The peninsula between the Strymonic and 
SiDgttie gulft^ OQ which Mount Athos is. 
AcnlcoB. VuL Aonuic. 
lAcxia, one of the Heliadae, who, according 
Co I>iodoru6^ migrated from Rhodes to Egyp^ 
fofmded Heliopcms, which he named after his 
fiUher, and taught the Egyptians astrology. The 
same writer states that the Greeks, having lost 
by a deln^« nearly all the memorials of previ- 
OQs events, became ignorant of their claim to 
the izAveotiai of this science, and allowed the 
Egyptians to arrogate it to themselves. Wesse- 
ling considers this a mere fable, based on the na- 
tiooal Tanity of the Greeks.] 

AcnalKKS CAKTiodvTfc)^ a king of Ethiopia, 
who oonquered Egypt and governed it with jus- 
tice, io the reign of Amasis. This Amasis is 
cither a more ancient king than the contempo- 
lary of Cyrus, [or else we must read Ammosis 
fcr Ainaaia] 

AciiuM ('Ajct^ov : 'AjcrtOKof , 'Ajctio^ : now 
La Punta, not Axio\ a promontory, and likewise 
a place in Acamania, at the entrance of the 
Ambracian Gulf^ off which Augustus gained the 
celebrated victorr over Antony and Cleopatra, 
CD September 2, 6.C. 81. At Actium thero was 
ofiginaUy no town, but otily a temple of Apollo, 
who was hence called ActiacutBud Aetius, This 
temple was beautified by Augustus, who estab- 
lished, or rather revived a festival to Apollo^ 
called Aetia (vid. Did, o/Ant^ a, v.^ and erect- 
ed NioopoLiB on the opposite coast, m commem- 
ofatioD of his victory. A few buildings sprung 
op aroDud the temple at Actium, but the place 
was only a kind of suburb of Nicopolis. 

[AonuB ('AirrcocX an appellation of Apollo 
from bis temple at Actium!] 
AcTics. vuL Ainus. 

Acroa ('ApcTwp). 1. Son of Deion and Dio- 
mede, frither of Mencetius, and grandfiither of 
Platroelos. — 2. Son of Fhorbas and Hyrmine, 
and husband of Molione, — 3. A companion of 
iBneas, of whose conquered lance Tumus made 
a boast This story seems to have given rise 
to the proverb Actoru tpolium (Juv, ii, 100) 
for any poor spoil. 

Acrdainn or AorSaio!! (*AKropi6jjs or 'A«to- 
aicfv), patronymics of descendants of an Actor, 
such as Patroclus, Erithus^ Eurytus, and Ctea- 

AotuabIob, JoAxntEB, a Greek physician of 
Constantinople, probably lived in the reign of 
Andronieos it Palseologus, A J). 1281-1828. 
He was the author of several medical works, 
which are extant, [and most of which have been 
published by Ideler in bis " Physici et Medici 
arsBci Minorca," Ilerlin, 1841, aeq.] 

Acxjl£o, C^ an eminent Roman la\ryer, wtn 
married the sister of Helvia, the mother of Oie* 
ero : his son was C. Visellius Varro ; wheuw* it 
would appear that Aculeo was only a surnuma 
given to the father from his aou^nees, and that 
his full name was C. Visellius Varro Aculeo. 

[AcuMSNCS (*AKovfiev6^)t a celebrated phyM- 
cian of Athens, who lived in the fifth century, l)e> 
fore Christ, a friend and companion of Socrates] 

AcOsilIds (*AKovaiXaog\ of Aigoe, one of th« 
earlier Greek logographers, flourished about B 
C. 525. Three books of bis Genealogies art 
quoted, which were, for the most part, only a 
translation of Hesiod mto prose. He wrote in 
the Ionic dialect. His fragments are published 
by Sturz, Lips., 1824, and m Didot's Ftagmei.L 
HUtoT, Qrcee^ p. 100, aeq. — [2. An Athenian, 
who taught rhetoric at Kome in the time of 
Galba, and having amassed there great wealth, 
left it at his death to his countrymen.] 

[An. This preposition was often prefixed by 
the Romano to some natural object on the line 
of their marches, to indicate their stopping-place, 
especially when encamping in any quarter where 
they did not find any habitation or settlement by 
which the spot might be designated. Sometimes 
the preposition was prefixed to the ordinal num- 
ber, designating the distance in miles. Thus, 
Ad Aqu€U indicated a spot near which there was 
water, or an encampment near water ; Ad Quar* 
tunif ** at the fourth mile-stone :" supply lapida% 

AuA ("Ada), daughter of Hecatomnus, king ot 
Caria, and sister of Mausolus, Artemisia, Hi- 
drieus, and Pixodarus. She was married to hec 
brother Hidrieus, on whose death (B.C. 344) she 
succeeded to the throne of Oaria, but was ex* 
pelled by her brother Pixodarus in 840. When 
Alexander entered Caria in 334, Ada, who was 
in possession of the fortress of Alinda, surren- 
dered this place to him. After taking Halirar- 
nassus, Alexander committed the goveinmcut 
of Curia to her. 

Adamant£a. Vid. Ahalthea. 

Adamantius {*AdafiuvTiog\ a Greek physician, 
flourished about A.D. 416, tne author of a Gro^k 
treatise on Physiognomy, which is borrowed in 
a great measure from Polemo's work on tlie 
same subject Edited by Franzius, in JSctip 
tores Phyhiognomim Veteret, 1780, 8vo. 

[Adamas {*A6ufias)f a Trojan hero, slain by 

[Adamas ('Adufiac:), a river of India, where 
diamonds were founid. It is now the Soank, 
but near its mouth is called JSrammi. 

[AdIna {tH 'kdava : ^kdavev^ : now Adana\ 
a city in the interior of Cilicia, on the west side 
of the River Sarus, in a fruitful district of coun- 

Annt^A (now Adda), a river of Q alba Cisal* 
pina, which rises in the RsBtian Alps, and flows 
through the Lacus Larius (now Lago di Oomo) 
into the Po, about eight miles above Cremona. 

AnoxaBAL ('Ara/>oaf), son of Micipsa, asd 
giundson of Masinissa, had the kingdom of Nu- 
midia left to him by his fiither in cooiunctioi 
with his brother Hiempsal and Jugurtba, B.O. 
118. After the murder of his brother by Ju- 
gurtha, Adherbal fled to Rome, and was restored 
to his share of the kingdom by the Romans is 
117. But he was again stripped of hi3|domio 

Digitizer n )gle 



Euos by Jugurtba, and besiesed iu Clrta, where 
he was treacherously killed by Jugurtha in 112. 
[AcoordiDg to Geseuias, the more Oriental form 
of the name is At herbal, signifying " the wor- 
ihipper of Baal;" from thla the softer form Ad- 
hernal arose.] 

AniABfiNX ('A6ia67pfn)i a district of Assyria, 
east of the Tigris, and between the River Lycos, 
mlled ZabatuB in the Anabasis of Xenophon, 
and the Caprns, both of which are branches of 
the Tigris. 

AniMANTDB (*AdeifzavTog). 1. The commander 
of the Corinthian fleet when Xerxes invaded 
Greece (B.C. 480), vehemently opposed the ad- 
vice of Themistocles to give battle to the Per- 
sians. — 2. An Athenian, one of the command- 
ers at the battle of iEgospotami, B.C. 405, where 
he was taken prisoner. He was accused of 
treachery in this battle, and is ridiculed bv Aris- 
tophanes in the "Frogs." — 8. The brother of 
Plato, frequently mentioned by the latter. 

Adis {*A.6iQ: now JRhadesf), a considerable 
town on the coast of Africa, in the territory of 
Carthage (Zeugitana), a short distance east of 
Tuais. Under the Romans it appears to have 
been supplanted by a new city, named Mazula. 

Adm&te (*A6/iijT7i). 1. Daughter of Oceanus 
and Tethys. — 2. Daughter of Eurystheus and 
Antiniache or Admete. Heraules was obliged 
by her father to fetch for her the girdle of Mars 
(Ares), which was worn by Hippmyte, queen of 
the Amazons. 

AdmStub (JASujiTog). 1. Son of Pberes and 
Periclymeoe or Clymene, was king of Pherie in 
Thessaly. He took part in the Calydonian hunt 
and in the expedition of the Argonauts. He sued 
for the hand of Alcestis, the daughter of Pelias, 
who promised her to him on condition that he 
should come to her in a chariot drawn by lions 
and boars. This task Admetus performed by 
Ihe assistance of .Apollo, who served him, ao- 
cording to some accounts, out of attachment to 
him, or, according to others, because he was 
obliged to serve a mortal for one year for hav- 
ing slain the Cyclopes. On the day of his mar- 
riage with Alcestis, Admetus neglected to offer 
a sacrifice to Diana (Artemis), but Apollo recon- 
ciled tlie goddess to him, ana at the same time 
induced the Moirffi to grant to Admetus deliver- 
ance from death, if at the hour of his death his 
fother, mother, or wife would die for him. Al- 
cestis died in his stead, but was brought back 
by Hercules from the lower world — 2. King of 
the MoloBsians, to whom Thexistoclxs fled for 
protection, when pursued as a party to the trea- 
son of Pausanias. 

AdOnis {'Aduvig), a beautiful youth, beloved 
by Venus (Aphrodite). He was, according to 
Apollodorus, a son of Cinyras and Medarme, or, 
according to the cyclic poet Panyasis, a son of 
Theias, king of Assyria, and Smyrna (Myrrha). 
The ancient story ran thus : Smyrna had neg- 
lected the worshir of Venus (Aphrodite), and 
was punished by the goddess with an unnatural 
love for her father. With the assistance of her 
Durse she contrived to share her father's bed. 
When he discovered the crime he wished to 
fill her ; but she fled, and on being nearly over- 
taken, prayed to the gods to make her invisible. 
They were moved to pity and clumged her into 
t t**Aa aalled ofivpia. After the lapse of nine 


months the tree burst, and Adonis was 
Venus (Aphrodite) was so much charmed -witii 
the beauty of the infant, that she concealed It to 
a chest which she intrusted to Proserpina (JPer- 
sephone) ; but the latter refused to give it upi 
Zeus decided the dispute by declaring that dor 
JDg four months of every year Adonis should be 
left to himself, during fuqr months he shoald 
belong to Proserpina (Persephone), and durio^ 
the remaining four to Venus (Aphrodite)^ Ado> 
nis, howefer, preferring to hve with VfintM 
(Aphrodite), also spent with her the four months 
over which he had control Adonis aftoi*wajnd 
died of a wound which he received from a boar 
during the chase. The grief of the goddess at 
the loss of her favorite was so great, that the 
gods of tbe lower world allowed him to spend 
six months of every year with Venus (Aphro- 
dite) upon the earth. The worship of Adouis, 
which in later times was spread over nearly all 
the countries round the Mediterranean, was, as 
the story itself sufficiently indicates, of Asiatic^ 
or more especially of Phoenician origin. Thence 
it was transferred to Assyria, Egypt, Greece, 
and even to Italy, though, of course, with vari- 
ous modifications. In uie Homeric poems no 
trace ii it occurs, and the later Greek poets 
changed the original symbolic account of Ado- 
nis into a poetical story. In the Asiatic religions 
Venus (Aphrodite) was the passive or vegeta- 
tive principle of nature. [Adonis represented 
the sun as the fructifying principle, whUe the 
boar, said to have killed him, was the emblem 
of winter, during which the productive powers 
of nature being suspended, Venus (Aphrodite) 
was said to lament the loss of Adonis until he 
was again restored to life.] Hence he spends 
six months in the lower and six in the upper 
world. His death and his return to life wers 
celebrated in annual festivals {Adonia) at By- 
blos, Alexandrea in Egypt, Athens, and other 

AndNis V'ASuvtc : now iTaAr Ibraliim), a waxaSi 
river of PhoBnicia, which rises in the range of 
libanus. [At the anniversary of the death of 
Adonis, which was in the rainy season, its wa ■ 
ters were tinged red with the ochrons particles 
from the mountains of Libanus, and were hence 
fabled to flow with his blood] 

ADRAimnuic {'Adpauvrreiov or *AdpafivTTiov : 
'AdpoftvTTffvoc : now Adramyti), a town of Mys- 
ia, near the bead of the Gulf of Adramyttium, 
and opposite to the Island of Lesbos. 

Adrana ^now Eder\ a river in Germany, 
which flows mto the Fulda, near Casscl. 

Adeanum or HadrInum (*A(5pavov, 'Adpavov, 
*A6paytTfic: now Ademo), a town in Sicily, on 
the river Adranus, at the foot of Mount Jstna, 
was built by Dionysius, and was the seat of ths 
worship of the god Adranus. 

AdrInus ( *Adpav6g). Vid. Adramvil 

AdrastIa CAdfidareta). 1. A Cretan nympL, 
dauj^hter of Mehsseus, to whom Rhea intrusted 
the infimt Jupiter (Zeus), to be reared in the 
Dictsan grotto. — %. A surname of Nemesis, de* 
rived by some writers from Adrastus, who is 
said to have built the first sanctuary of Nemesis 
on the River Asopus, and by others from a, pHv^ 
and diSpdoKeiVf t. e^ the goddess whom none 
can escape. 

[ADUAVtU CAdoaffTeia\ a/distriot afrMTSl^ 



tiemg the FropoDtit, throofffa wfaiok tli« Graoieus 
AofveJ, flooUiniQg a city of the siune oame, said 
2o hare been founded by a King Adrastua, in 
whieh were a temple and oracle of Apollo and 

AsnMnm ('kSpturrof). I. Son of Talau% 
king of Aigi% and LyninaoLe, or LyBianaesa, or 
Enryoome. Adrastua tma expelled from Argoa 
Ir^ Amphiarftua, and 6ed to Polybus, king of 
Sicjon, whom be tueoeeded on the throne of 
Siejoo, and inatitiited the Nemean gomes. Af- 
terward he became reconciled to Amphiarans, 
and retnrned to hia kingdom of Argoa. He 
married hia two daughters, Deipyle and Aigia, 
the Ibrmer to Tydeus of Calydon. and the latter 
to Polyitfees of Thebes, both fugitives from their 
natire eomitrieSb He now prepared to restore 
PolTnioca to Thebes, who had been expelled by 
hia brother Eteocles, although Amphiaraus fore- 
loJd that all who should engage in tne war should 
perah. with the exception of Adraatus. Thus 
arose the celebrated war of the " Seven against 
niebcfl," in which Adrastus was joined by six 
other heroes, viz., Polynices, Tydeus, Arophla- 
raua, Gapaneus, Hippomedon, and Partheno- 
pasua. Inat^wd of lydeus and Pol^nices other 
tcKenda mention £te<>cle8 and MeciAteua. This 
war coded as unfortunately as Amphiaraus had 
pi^dicted, and Adrastus alone was saved by the 
awiftoesa of his horse Arion, the gift of Herou- 
ka Creon of Thebes refusing to allow the 
bodies of the six heroes to be buried, Adrastus 
went to Athens and implored the assistanoe of 
ttie Athemans. Theseus was persuaded to un- 
dertake an expedition agaiost Thebes ; he took 
the city, and delivered up the bodies of the fallen 
heroes to their friends for burial Ten years 
after this, Adrastus persuaded the seven sons of 
the heroee who had fallen in the war to make a 
new attack upon Thebes, and the oracle now 
promised success. This war is known as the 
war of the "Epigooi" (*Emyovoi), or descend- 
anta lliebee was taken and raaed to the 
groond. The only Ai^ve hero that fell in this 
war waa iEgialeus, the son of Adrastus: the 
latter died of grief at Megara, on his way back 
to Aigos, and was buried in the former city. 
He waa worshiped in several parts of Greece, 
as at Megara, at Sicyon, where nis memory was 
celebrated in tragic choruses, and in Attica. 
The legends about Adrastus^ and the two wars 

r'ust Thebes, furnished ample materials for 
epic as well as tni^c poets of Greece. — 2. 
Son of the Phrrgian kjog Gordius, having un- 
intentionaUy Idli^ his brother, fled to Croesus, 
who received him kindly. While hunting, he 
accidentally killed Atys, the son of Croesus, and 
ia deapair put an end to his own life. — [8. Son 
of Merops, an ally of the Troians, probable 
foooder of the city Adrastia, g. trj 

AnaU or HinaiA. 1. (Now Adria)^ also call- 
ad Atria, a town in Gkillia Cisalpina, between 
the months of the Po and the Athesis (now 
Adiffe\ from which the Adriatic Sea takes its 
name. It waa originally a powerful town of 
the Etmscana— 2. (Now Atn), a town of Pice- 
■nm in Italy, pmbably an Etruscan town origin- 
ally, afterward a Roman colonv, at which place 
the Ismily of the Emperor Hadrian lived. 

Anala ('A^pta^, Ion. *A6pirfc: 'A6piav6c) or 
Maeb Ai>ai4Tia7M. also Maek SuFxaiuf so call- 

ed firom te town Adria [Nc. 1], was, m lU 
widest signification, the sea between Italy oa 
the west, and Illyricum, Epirus, and Greece ou 
the east By the* Greeks the name Adrias i«aa 
only applied to the northern port of this sea, tht 
southern part being called the Ionian Sea. 

[AnaiANOPOUB. Vid. HAnaiANOPoua.] 

AnailNua. Vid. HAnai&Nus. 

AdeiAnub ('A.Spiav6c)t a Greek rhetoriciai^ 
b )m at Tjp'e in Phoenicia, was the pupil of He> 
rodes Atticus, and obtained the chair of philoe 
ophy at Athens during the lifetime of his maa- 
ter. He was invited by M. Antoninus to Rom^ 
where he died about A.D. 192. Three of his de 
clamations are extant, edited by WaJz in Ji^i- 
tores Oraei, vol. L, p. 626-88, Stuitg, 1832. 

[AnauTicuM Marx. Vid AniiA.] 

AnauxSruic Vid Hadet7]ui\til 

AduatOoa, a castle of the Eburrnes in Gaui 
probably the same as the later Aiuaca Tongro 
rum (now Tongem), 

AnuATt^GZ or AnuA'rifci, a powe^iLl people of 
Gallia Belgica in the time of C:w! «*/were thi 
descendants of the Cimbri and Teutoni, aivi 
lived between the Scaldis (now bc*^lde) antf 
Mosa (now Ma(u\ 

AdCla Mons. Vid Alpe& 

AdCle or 'AnCus ('AdovA)/, 'AdovXtc, and ala^ 
other forms: 'AdovXtn7f, Adulitftnus: ruina a^ 
Zula\ a maritime city of ^Ethiopia, on a ba> 
of the Red Sea, called Adulitauus Sinus ('Ados 
TuTixb^ KoXnoCt Annetley Bay). It was boUeve^ 
to have been founded by slaves who fled from 
Egypt, and afteiward to have fallen into the 
power of the Auxumitas, for whose trade it 
became the great Emporium. Cosmaa Iidicih 
pleustcs (A.D. 685) found here the Monumtntum 
AdulHantufif a Greek inscription recounting the 
conquests of Ptolemy If. Euergetes in Asia and 

ADYaMACHlDiB (*Advp/Mxtdai)y a Lybian peo- 
ple, who appear to have once possessed the 
whole coast of Africa from the Cunopic mouth 
of the Nile to the Catabathmus Major, but were 
afterward pressed further inland, in their man* 
ners and customs they resembled the Egyptian!* 
to wboni they were the nearest neighbors. 

JEa (Ala), sometimes with the addition af 
the word Uolchis, may be considered either a 
part of Colchis or another name for the country. 
(Herod, i^ 2.) [According to the scholium on 
ApolL Rhod^ the royal city of iEetes, on the 
Phasis, in Cholcis.] 

.^Aosa {AluKi}^ son of Syloson, and grand- 
son of JEsLsMAt was tyrant of Samos, but was de- 
prived of his tyranny by Arista^oras, when tlie 
lonians revolted from the Persians, B.C. 600L 
He then fled to the Persians, who restored him 
to the tyranny of Samoa, B.C. 494. 

JElo&ou (AluKeiov). Vid, MouiA, 

.^Xoinxa (Aiox^dvc), a patronymic of the d» 
scendanta of .^cus, i^ Peleus, Telamon, and 
Phocus, sona of JBacus ; Achilles, Bon of Pdeut, 
and gprandson of iEacus ; Pyrrhus, son of Achil- 
les, and gr^t^randson of i£ac3s •, and Pyrrhui, 
kiiig of £pirus, who claimed to be a desoecdant 
of Achilles. 

■^Aofpxa, son of Arymbas, king of Epimi, 
succeeded to the throne on tie death of his 
coua'o Alexander, who was slain in Italy, KG 
826 JSacides married Phthia, by whom he htul 




me celejniteti Pykrhxts. He took an actiye 
part in favor of Ol^mpias against Oassaoder; 
out his Bubje^ts disLked the war, rose against 
their king, and drove him from the kingdom. 
He was recalled to his kingdom by his subjects 
in L.C. 818 : Cassander sent an army against 
him under Philip, who conaucred him the same 
year in two battles, in the last of whi«h he was 

JEacvs (Aloirof), SOD of Jupitcr (Zens) and 
JESgina, a daughter of the nver-gcNd Asopus. 
He was bom m the Island of CEoone or (Mio- 
pia, whither iEnaa had been carried by Ju- 
piter (Zeus), and from whom this islandf was 
afterward called iE^a. Some traditions re- 
lated that at the birth of .£acus, JBgiua was not 
yet inhabited, and that Jupiter f Zeus) changed 
tlie ants (jivpftriKec) of the island mto men (mjr' 
midones), over whom .£acus ruled Ovid (ifet, 
viL, 620) rektes the story a little differently. 
iEacus was renowned in ail Greece for his jus- 
tice and piety, and was frequently called upon 
to settle disputes not only among men, but even 
among the gods themselves. He was such a 
favorite with the gods, that, when Greece was 
fisitcd by a drought, rain was at length sent 
upon the earth in consequence of his prayers. 
Respecting the temple iv^ich JBacus erected to 
Jupiter (Zeus) PanhcUenius, and the iEacSum, 
where he was worshiped by the ^Eginetana, see 
£gixa. After his death, u£acus became one of 
the three judges in Hades. The iEginetans re- 
garded him as the tutelary deity of Sieir island. 
^ .^Lea (A/ai'a). 1. A surname of Circe, the 
titter of iEetcs. Her son, Telegonus, likewise 
bore the surname .ASceus. — 2. A surname of Ca- 
lypso, who was believed to have inhabited a 
•mall island of the name of iEsea in the straits 
between Italy and Sicily, 

[i&ANss (AluvTjc), a Locrian, slain by Patro- 
duB, to whom a grove (Aluvetov rifievog) near 
Opus, in Locris, was consecrated.] 

[^AKiB (Aiavic), a celebrated fountain near 
Opus, in Locris.] 

[^ANTBUV {hlavTtLov\ a tomb and temple of 
the Telamonian Ajax, on the Rhoetean promon- 
tory in Troaa.1 

^amtIdbs \klavrl6rj^\ tyrant of Lampsacus, 
to whom Hippias gave his daughter Arcbedice 
in marriage. — 2. A tragic poet of Alexandrea, 
one of the tragic Pleiades. He lived in the time 
of the second Ptolemy.] 

[Mja (Alof-), more commonly Aocs, q. v.] 

iEiBCaA (now CxieTva), a town of the Carpe- 
tani, in Hispania Tarraoonensia. 

.^butIa Gens, patrician, was distinguished 
in the early ages of the Roman republic, when 
many of its members were consuls, viz., in B.C. 
4V9. 463, and 443. 

.£oA or JEcM (iEcSnus), a town of Apulia, on 
tfie road from Aquilonia in Samnium to Vcnusia. 

iEciTiJLNiTM or i£cLA.NUic a town of the Hir- 
pini in Samnium, a few miles south of Bene- 

^DEFSCs (AMi^of: Ald^io^: now DiptoY 
% town on the western coast of EuboBO, north 
>f Chalcis, with warm baths (still famous), sa- 
cred to Hercules, which the dictator Sulla used. 

AfiDOir ('A^<5uv), daughter of Pimdareua of 
Gphesus, wife of Zcthus, king of lliebes, and 
4uotber of Itylus. Envious of Niobe, the wifs 

of her brother Amphion, who had six ectna ai 
six daughters, she resolved to kill tH i oldest <| 
Niobe's sons, but by mistake slew her own bc 
Itylus. Jupiter (Zeus^ relieved her grief h 
changing her into a mghtingale, 'whose znelai 
choly notes are represented by the |K>etfl a 
Addon's lamentations about her child. Aedon^ 
story is related differently in a later tradition. 

iUDi^i or Hfindi, one of the moat powerfu 
people in Gaul, lived between the JAgei (oo^ 
Jioire) and the Arar (now 8aone\. Thej wen 
the first Gallic people who made an alliance 
with the Romans, by whom they were calleti 
"brothers and relations." On Caesar^B arrival 
in Gaul, RO. 68, they were subject tc Ariovis- 
tus, bnt were restored by Caesar to Ueir former 
jwwer. In B.C. 62 they joined in the ins urreo- 
tion of Vereingetoriz against the Romans, but 
were at the dose of it treated leniently by Cm- 
sar. Their principal town was BiBRAfrrK. 'Their 
ehief magistrate, elected annually by the priests, 
was called Vergobretus. 

JEAtes or jEkta (Ai^rj/f), son of Helios (thf 
Sun) and PersSis, and brother of Circe, Pasi* 
pha$, and Persea His wife was Idyia, a daugh* 
ter of Oceanus, hj whom he had two daughtera^ 
Medea and Chalciope, and one sod, Absyrtus. 
He was king of Colchis at the time when Phrix- 
us came thither on the ram with the golden 
fleece. For the remamder of his history, see 
Abstrtub, AaooNAUTiB, Jasox, Medea, and 
Phkizus. — [2. This name was also borne by 
later kings of Colchis, as mentioned by Xeno- 
phon in the Anabasis, and Strabo, who savs it 
was a common appellation of the kings of* Col- 

iEfiTis, iESrf AS, and -fifirixE, patronymics of 
Medea, daughter of JE&tes. 

iEoA (Alyj;), daughter of Olenus, who, with 
her sister Ilelice, nursed the infant Jupiter 
(Zeus^ in Crete, and was changed by the god 
into tne constellation CapeUa. 

.^QM {klyat : AiyaTof). 1. A town in Arhn 
ia on the Crathis, with a celebrated templt of 
Neptune (Poseidon), was originally one of thi 
twelve Aduean towns, but its inhabitants sub- 
sequently removed to JSgira. — 2. A town io 
Emathia, in Macedonia, the burial-place of tb« 
Macedonian kings, was probably a different 
place from Edxssa. — 3. A town in Euboea with 
a celebrated temple of Neptune ^Poseidon), who 
was hence called JEgmvta. — i. Also Momm (At* 
yaZai: A/yeorj/f), one of the twelve cities of 
ifiolis in Asia Minor, north of Smyrna, on the 
River Hyllus : it suffered greatly from an earth- 
quake in the tune of Tiberiua — 6. (Now Ayas\ 
a sea-port town of Cilicia Campestris, at the 
mouth of the Pyramus. 

[Mqmk (A/yoto), an appellattou of Venu 
(Aphrodite), from her bemg worshiped in tli 
isles of the iEgean.] 

JRqmotx [Alyaiuv), son of Uranus by Gm. 
.^gieon and his brothers Gyges and Cottus an 
known under the name of the Uranids, and are 
described as huge monsters with a hundred 
arms (iKaroyxetpec) and fifty heada Most writ- 
era mention the third Uranid under the name 
of Briareus instead of ^gmon, which is explain- 
ed by Homer (//.. i., 408), who mjs that men 
called him ifigson, but the gods Briareus. Ac 
cording to the most ancient tradition. JSgwon 
Digitized by VjOC 



tad hb Vrotfaere eanquerod tlie Titans whcD 
tbej made war upon toe gods, and secured the 
TietorT to Jupiter (Zeua), who thrust the Titans 
mto 'AularuB^ and placed ^g»on and bis broth- 
ers to guard them. Other legends represent 
.£gfBOQ as one of the giants who attacked Olym- 
pus ; and manj writers represent him as a ma- 
rine god living in the j£gean Sea. .^ason and 
his brothers must be regarded as personifica- 
ti^f» of the extraordinary powers of nature, 
ucb as earthquakes, volcanio eruptions, and the 

J^OJBJU Mare (rd Alyatov Tr^Aa/of, 6 Myaioc 

a-osrrof)^ the part of the Mediterranean now 

railed the Archipelago. It was bounded on the 

north by Thrace and Macedonia, on the west 

by Greece, and on the east by Asia Minor. It 

contains in its southern part two groups of 

islands, the Cyclades, which were separated 

from the coasts of Attica and Peloponnesus l^ 

the Myrtoiio Sea, and the Sporades, lying on 

the coasts of Caria and Ionia. The part of the 

JBgcan which washed the Sporades was called 

the Icarian Sea, from the Island learia, one of 

the Sporades. The origin of the name of ./Egse- 

an is uncertain; some derive it from iEgOBus, 

the king of Athens who threw himself into it ; 

others m>m JEgsBO, a queen of the Amasons, 

vho perished £ere: others from JEgsd in Eu- 

bitt; and others from alyi^f a squall, on account 

sf its storms. 

MoMm {AlyaiocX Vid. Mq^ Ko. 8. 

iEGlLioa {Alydicto^t rd klyuXeov opof : now 

Skarmanffa)^ a mountain in Attica, opposite Sal- 

tmi^ from which Xerxes saw the defeat of his 

fieet, B.C. 480.--[2. (rd Aiya/iw, now J/o/i), 

t mountain of M< 


t mountain of Meseenia, extending to Cory- 

.£oAT£B, the goat islands, were tliree islands 
off the west coast of Sicily, between Drepanum 
and Lilybasara, near which the Romans gained 
a Daraf victory over the Carthaginians, and 
thus brought the first Punic war to an end, 
6.C, 241. The islands were iEgOsa {Alyovaaa) 
or Caprftria ^now Favignanay, Phorbantia (now 
Lnanzo), ana Hiera (now Maretimo). 

iEoialA or EoialA, one of the Camen» in 
Boman mythology, from whom Numa received 
lus iostmctions respecting the forms of worship 
vhidi he introduced. Tne grove in whidi the 
Inog had his interviews with the goddess, and 
io which a weU gushed forth from a dark re- 
(««, was dedicated by him to the Cameme. 
The Roman legends point out two distinct 
places sacred to iEgeria, one near Aricla, and 
the other near Rome, at the Porta Capena, in 
the valley now called Caparella. .^fferia was 
regarded as a prophetic divinity, and also as the 
gwer of life, wnence she was invoked by preg- 
QBut women. [Niebuhr places the grove of 
Egeria below 8. Balhina, near the baths of Car- 
ittUa. Wagner, in a dissertation on this sub- 
jectk is in favor of the valley of Caffardla^ some 
WW miles from the present gate of S. Sebastian.] 


jEgestds. Vid. Acestes. 

^Ein (Aiyftf). 1. Son of Pandion and king 
o( Athens. He had no children by his first two 
^▼ca, but he afterward begot Thbseds by 
^hra at Trcesea When Theseus had erown 
^5 V) maQb»d. he went to Athens and defeated 

the fifty sons oi his uncle PalliiSt wb;> had uiwM 
war upon iEgeus, and had depo^d Liin. i£g> 
eus was now restored. When Theseus went to 
Crete to deliver Athens from the tribute it had 
to pay to Minos, he promised his father that on 
his return he would hoist white sails as a signal 
of his safety. On approaching the coast of At* 
tica he forgot his promise, aud his father, per 
ceiving the black sail, thought that his son had 
perished, and threw himself into the sea, which, 
according to some traditions, received from this 
event the name of the i£gean. ^geus was on« 
of the eponymous heroes of Attica ; and one of 
the Attic tribes (i£geis) derived its name from 
him. — 2. The eponymous hero of the phyle 
called the iEgioie at Sparta, son of (Eolyoua, 
and grandson of Theras, the founder of the col 
ony in Thera. All the iEgei'ds were believed 
to be Cadmeans, who formed a settlement at 
Sparta previous to the Dorian conquest 

iEoIiB {Alyeiai, AlyaZai), a small town in La- 
conia, not far from Gythium, the Auglo) of Ho 
raer (7/, ii., 688). 

-^liLE or ^giXlka {Alyid?,ijj AlyidXeta), 
daughter of Adrastus and Amphithea, or of 
ifigialeus, the son of Adrastus, whence she ia 
caUed Adrastine. She was married to Diome- 
des, who, on his return from Tiw, found her 
living in adultery with Cometes. The hero at- 
tributed this misfortune to the anger of Venus 
(Aphrodite), whom he had wounded in the war 
against Troy : when Mgitile threatened his life, 
he fled into Italy. 

^GIALEA, MqiXlOB. Vid. AcUillA : SiCTON. 

^oIXleus {Alyia}.evc). 1. Son of Admstuf« 
the only one among the Epigoni that fell in the 
war against Thebes. Vid. Adrastctb. — 2. Sob 
of Inachus and the Oceanid Melia, fram whom 
the part of Peloponnesus afterward called Acha* 
ia [was fabled to have] derived its name uEgia* 
lea : he is said to have been the first king of 
Sicyon. — 3. Son of iEetes, and brother of Medea, 
commonly called Absyrtus. 

iEolDES (AlyeidTfc), t& patronymic from JRg- 
eus, especially his son Theseus. 

iEoiLA {rd AlyiXa\ a town of Lacciiin, with 
a temple of Ceres (Etemeter). 

iEoiLf A {Alyi?ia : AlyiXievr), 1. A demus 
of Attica belonging to the tribe Antiochis, cele- 
brated for its figs. — 2. (Now GerigoUo\ an island 
between Crete and Cythera. — 8*[iEgilia (Aiyi- 
TitLOt Hdt).^ An island west of Eubcea and op- 
posite Attica. 

Mahilvf^ {Alyifuoc\ the mythical ancestor of 
the Dorians, whose king he was when they were 
yet inhabiting the northern parts of Thessaly. 
Involved in a war with the Lapithffi, he called 
Hercules to his assistance, and promised him 
the third part of his territory if he delivered 
him from his enemies^ The Lapith» wei*e con- 
quered. Hercules did not take the territory fitr 
himself, but left it to the king, who was to pre- 
serve it for the sons of Hereulea ^gimiiu 
had two sons, Dymas and Pamphylui, who mi 
grated to Peloponnesus, and were rtgardcd as 
the ancestors of two branches of the Doric race 
(Dymanes and Pamphylians), vhile the third 
branch derived its name fh)m Hyllus (Hylle- 
ans,) the son of Hercules, who had been adept* 
ed by iEguiius. Inhere existed in antiquity an 
epic poem called jEmmiut, which dcscribed|t}i« 


W^r of i£gif iiu6 imd Hercules i^iunst the Isr 

and probably the Ar» of Viiv^ u£n^ l, 108; 
DOW Zowxmour or Zembra), a lofty laland, aiu> 
rouiidcd by clifis, off the Afrifiao ooaat, at the 
inouth of the Guli of Carthage. 

^<{yA (Alyiva : KlyivnTiK : now Eghina), a 
rooky idland in the middle of the Saronio GuU 
about two hundred stadia in circumfereooe. It 
was originally called (Ecooe or (Eoonia, aod is 
laid to haye obtained the name of i^ina from 
figina, the daughter of the river^oa Asopua, 
vho was carried to the island by Jupiter (ZeusX 
tnd there bore him a son, .£aeua As the island 
had then no inhabitants, Jupiter f Zeus) changed 
the ants into men (Myrmidones), over whom 
iSaeus ruled. Vid. Maoob, It was first oolo- 
nized by Achsans, and afterward by Dorians 
from Epidaurus, whence the Doric <ualect and 
customs preyniled in the island. It was at first 
closely connected with Epidaurua, and was sub- 
ject to the Argiye Phidon, who is said to haye 
tstablished a suyer mint in the island. It early 
became a place of great commercial importance, 
^d its sifyer coinage was the standard in most 
of the Dorian states. In the sixth century B.C. 
iEffina became independent, and for a century 
betore the Persian war was a prosperous and 
powerful state. The ^ginetans fought with 
thirty ships against the fleet of Xerxes at the 
battle of SaUmis, B.C. 480, and are allowed to 
oaye distinguished themselyes aboye idl the 
>ther Greeks by their brayery. After this time 
ts power dedined. In B.O. 429 the Athenians 
took possession of the island and expelled its 
inhabitants, and though a portion of tnem were 
restored by Lysander in KO. 404^ the island 
neyor recoyered its former prosperity. In the 
northwest of the island there was a city of the 
same name, which contained the iESaoSum or 
temple of iEacus, and on a hill in the northeast 
of tne island was the celebrated temple of Jupi- 
ter (Zeus) Panhellenius, said to haye been built 
by uEacus, the ruins of which are still extant 
llie sculptures which occupied the tympana of 
the pediment of this temple were discoyered in 
181 It and are now pi^eseryed at Munich. In 
the half century preceding the Persian war, and 
for a few years afterward, JSgina was the chief 
seat of Greek art : the most eminent artists of 
the iEginetan sdiool were Callom, ANAXAOoaAS, 
Gladcias, Sdion, and Onatab. 

[JSoxNA (Aiytva), daughter of Asopus, and 
mother of JSacus» q. v. and foregoing article.] 

jfianifiTA Paulus. Vid. Paulub Mqikwa. 

JSomIjju {Aiytviov: Alyivuvt: now 8tagus\ 
a town of the Tymph»i in Tbessaly, on the con- 
fines of Athamania. 

J&Qi6omoB (Alyioxoc\ a surname of Jupiter 
(Zeus), because he bore the SBgis. 

J&QirAV (Alyiirav), that is, Goat- Pan, was, 
according to some, a being distinct from Pan, 
while others regard him as identical with Paa 
nis story appears to be of late origin. Vid Pan. 

JEoiFLxscrcs Momb (rd Alytir^KTOv 6poc), 
a mouutain in Megaria 

iEoIaA {AXyetpa: AlyetfiuTtfc), formerly Hy- 
iieresia (Tn-e/M/ata), a town in Aohaia on a steep 
hill, with a sea-port about twelve atadia from 
the town. Vid Mqm, No. I 


[iEaians {Alyeipoc), a yillage iu tl:*' iaUnd of 
Lesbos, supposed by some scholars to be thk 
town of iEolis alluded to by Hei'odotus undef 
the name .^giruasa, but Herodotus saye expli- 
citly that the towns there mentioned were on Um 
main land.] 

jfioi&CaaA (AlyipSeacOy AiytpnUaaa), one of 
the cities of .^ohs in Asia Minor. 

iEoiaTHm (Alyia0oc\ son of Thvestes, larho 
unwittingly be^t him by his owo daughter Pe- 
lopia. Immediately after his birth ho was ex- 
posed, but was sayed by shepherds, aud sucklea 
oy a goat (al^ whence his name. His uncle 
Atreus brouffht him up as his soa When Pe- 
lopia lay wiui her fitther, she took flrom him his 
sword, which she afterward gave to .^^sthus. 
This sword was the means of revealing the 
crime of Thyestes, and Pelopia thereupon put 
an end to ner own life, ^figisthus murdered 
Atreus, because he had ordered him to slay his 
fiitber Tbyestea, and he placed Thyestes upon 
the throne, of which he had been deprived by 
Atreus. Homer appears to know nothing of 
these tragic events ; and we learn from blm 
only that iEgisthus succeeded his lather Thj- 
estes in a part of his dominions. According to 
Homer, JS^sthus took no part in the Trojan 
war, and during the absence of Agamemnork. 
the son of Atreus, JSgisthus seducca his wife 
Clytemuestra. .^^thus murdered Agamem- 
non on his return home, and reigned seven 
years over Mycenae. In the eighSi, Orestes, 
the son of Agamemnon, avenged the death of 
his father by putting the adulterer to deatL 


iEoiTHALLUS {AlyiOaXh)c : now 0, di S. Teo 
doro\ a promontory in Sicily, between lily 
bseum and Drepanum, near which was the towi 

iEolTiuif {Myiriov : near Vamakowi, Leake) 
a town in ^toha, on the borders of Locris. 

^oIuM (AZytov: Aiyitv^i now Vostitza), a 
town of Achaia, and the capital after the de- 
struction of Helice. The meetings of tht 
Achaean League were held at JSgium m a grove 
of Jupiter (Zeus), called Homarium. 

iE0LE(AlyA7), that Vd. " BriKhtness" or " Splen 
dor," is the name of at-. /end mythological fa 
males, such as, 1. The daughter of Jupiter (Zeus) 
and Neera, the most beautiful of the Naiads.-^ 
2. A sister of Pbagthon. — 3. One of the Hesper 
ides. — i. A nymph beloyed by Theseus, foi 
whom he forsook Ariadne. — 5. One of the daugh 
ters of JSsculapius. 

MojAieb (AiyAi7r9f), that is, the radiant god 
a surname of Apollo, 

.^oddBua (Ai/dccpuf), a surname of Paa 
descriptive of his figure with the horns of a 
goatt out more commonly the name of one of 
Sie signs of the Zodiac, Uapricornut. 

iEooa-PdTljiOB (Al/df irorcmdc [jiiore usuall) 
in good authors, Alydg noTOfioi ; in Latin writers 
.j£lffOS Flvmen : Alyoc iroro/ur^s |), the ** goalf 
river,** a small river, with a foTtn of the sami 
name on it^ [now probably Oal€Ua]^ Jn the Thra 
dan Chersonesus, flows into the Hellesponi 
Here the Athenians were defeated by Lysandei 
B.C. 406. 

i£oo8TBiiCA (AlySadeva : AlyoaOeveuf : Alyo 
ff^evtrw), a town in M^^ris, on the borders o^ 
Bceotia, with a sanctuary of Melampi^ 

Digitized by 




.Aeus mud Rascoxin, tvo chi«£B of the Allo- 
«og«a, who had flerred Oewr with fidelity in 
Oie Gallic war, deserted to Pompey io Greece 
(aC. 48). 
^fioCftA. Vid. JEGK-m. 
^Bqtfsos or JEo?8U8, a town of McBsia on 
die Danube. 

[.^GTFTioB {Aiyv7rrttK\ ao Ith&ean hero, of 
Boole desoeot and much experience, who open- 
ed the firat auembly of the people called after 
he departure of Ulyaees for TroyJ 

JSgtftib {AlywcTo^X a son of Selus and An- 

dihwe or Aehiroe, ana twin-brother of Danaus. 

Belua assigned Libya to Danaus, and Arabia to 

JSgyptoa, but the latter subdued the country of 

the Melampodes, which he called Egypty after 

his own name. Msj^Xmb by his several wives 

had fifty sooa, and his brother Dauaus fifty 

daoghtera Danans had reason to fear the sons 

of lus brother, and fled with his daughters to 

Aigos in Peloponnesua. Thither he was fol- 

loved by the sons of jfSgyptos, who demanded 

MS daughters for their wives, and promised 

■ilhfiil allianoe. Danans complied with their 

request, and distributed his daughters among 

them, but to each of them he gave a ftasger, 

with whkdi they were to kill their husband in 

Ihe bridal nigbc^ All the sons of i&gyptus were 

\hiB murdered, with the exception of^ Lynoeus, 

who was saved by Hypermnestra. The Danaidb 

honed the heads of their murdered husbands in 

heraa, and their bodies outside the town, and 

were afterwards purified of their crime by Mi- 

■enra (Athena) and Mercury (Hermes) at the 

•ommand of Jupiter (Zeus) 

^EoTPTQS (ii Alyvm-o^ : Alyvimo^f .£gyptius : 
•ov £ffypl\ a country in the northeastern cor- 
ser of Africa, bounded on the north by the Med- 
iterraoean. on the east by Palestine, Arabia Pe- 
tma, and the Red Sea, on the south by Ethiopia, 
tie division between the two countries being at 
the First or Little Cataract of the Nile, close to 
Sjcoe (now Aasowm : hit 24^ 8'), and on the 
vest by the Great Lybian Desert Thia is the 
ateot nsoally assigned to the country; bat it 
would be more strictly correct to define it as 
Ibd part of the basin of the Nile wliich lies be- 
low ths First Cataract 

1. Pkyncal I>eteription of Egypt4 — ^The River 
ITik, tbwing firom south to north through a nar- 
row nlley, encounters, in kt 24^ 8', a natural 
livner, composed of two islands (PhilsB and Ele- 
phs&tiae), and between them a bed of sonken 
roeb, by which it is made to fiill in a series 
of catanets, or rather rapids, {rd, Karddovna, 6 
w>P^ KaralifidKniCy Catarrhaotes Minor, com- 
pve CATAaEHACTEs), whjch have always been 
f^Rvded as the southern limit assigned by na- 
Vve to Egypt The river flows due north be- 
tween two ranges of hills, so near each other 
« to leave scarcely any cultivable land, as far 
isSilaiUs (now Jebel 8eUeUh\ about forty miles 
Wow Sjene, where the vaUey is enlarged by 
^ western range of hills retiring from the 
^«r. Thus the Kile flows for about five hun- 
dred mileB, through a valley whose average 
vesdth is about seven miles, between hms 
wUdi in one place (west of Thebes) attain the 
^(%^ of ten or twelve hundred fe«t above the 
MSfWaptibt some few miles below Mem^ik^a, 
*^ tfas western range 'if InUs nins to the 

northwest, and the eastern range strikes off li 
the east^ and the river divides into branches 
(seven in ancient time, but now only two), which 
flow through a low alluvial land, calleu, f^m its 
shape, the DeltHy into the Mediterranean, xv 
this valley and Delta must be added the coun 
try round the great natural lake Moeris foow 
Birket-tl'Keroun^ called Komos Arsinoites (dc w 
Fai»um\ lyinff northwest of Herncleopolis, an 
connected with the Valley of the Nile by a break 
iq the western range of htlls. The whole dis 
trict thus described is periodically laid under 
water by the overflowing of the Nile from April 
to October. The river, m subsiding, leaves be 
hind a rich deposit of fine mud, which forms 
the soil of Egypt All beyond the reach of the 
inundation is rock or sand. Hence Egypt was 
called the " Gifli of the Nile.** The extent of the 
cultivable land of Egypt » in the Delta about 
4600 square miles, in the valley about 2265, b 
Faioum about 840, and in all about 7096 square 
miles. The outlyine portions of ancieut Egypt 
consisted of three cultivable valleys (called Oa- 
ses), in tlie midst of the Western or Libyan 
Desert a valley in the western range of hills on 
the west of the Delta, called Nomos Nitriotes 
from the Natron Lakes which it contains, some 
settlements on the coast of the Red Sea, and in 
the mountain passes between it and the NUe, 
and a strip of coast on the Mediterranean, ex- 
tending east as fiEU- as Bhinooolura (now EU 
Arith), and west as far (according to some of 
the ancients) as the Oatabathmus Magnus (lon^. 
about 26*' 10' E.). The only river of Egy]>t is 
the Nile. Vid, Nilus. A great artificial canal 
(the Bahr-YusMu/y i. e^ Joseph's Canal) runs 
parallel to the river, at the distance of about six 
miles firom Diospolis Parva, in the Thebais, to 
a point on the west mouth of the river about 
half way between Memphis and the sea. Man}* 
smaller canals were cut to r<^ulate the irriga 
tion of the country. A caiud from the eastert 
mouth of the Nile to the head of the Red Sea 
was commenced under the native kings, and 
finished by Darius, son of Hystaspes. Thero 
were several lakes in the country, respectmg 
which vid, Mixais, MAaxons, Buros, Tamie. 
SuBONis, and Laoto Amarl 

2. Ancient History, — At the earliest period tc 
which civil histoir reaches back, Egypt wu 
inhabited by a highly civilixed agricultural peo 
pie, under a settled monarchical government, 
divided into castes, the highest of which was 
composed of the priests, who were the minis 
ters of a religion based on a pantbeistio worship 
of nature, and having for its sacred symbols not 
only images, but also living animals and even 
plants. The prieets were tdso in possession of 
all the literature and science of the country, and 
all the employments based upon such knowl 
edge. The other castes were, second, the bc2 
diers; third, the husbandmen; fourth, the art 
ificera and tradesmen ; and last held in greal 
contempt the shepherds or herdsmen, i^oultor 
ers, fishermen, and servants. The E^ptiam 
possessed a written language, which appears tc 
have had affinities with both the g^reat fiunilies 
of Language, Uie Semitic and the Indo-Euro 
pean; ana the priestly caste had, moreover 
the exclusive knowlege of a sacred system of 
writing, the characters of which are known bj ^ 



Ui« Dame of Hieroglyphic*, in oontradistinetico 
to which th« common characters are called Bn- 
ekarial (le^ of the country). They were ac- 
quainted with all the proccBses of manubcture 
which arc eeaential to a highly civilized com- 
munity : they had made great advances in the 
fine arts, especially architecture and sculpture 
(ior in paintine their progress was impeded by a 
want of knowledge of perspective) ; they were 
deterred from oommeroial enterprise by the poli- 
cy of the priests, but they obtained foreign pro- 
(tiictions to a great extent, chiefly through the 
Phcanicians, and at a later period they engaged 
m maritime expeditions ; in science they do not 
seem to have advanced so far as some have 
thought) but their religion led them to cultivate 
astronomy and its application to chronology, and 
the nature of their country made a knowledge 
of geometry (in its literal sense) mdispensable, 
and their application of its principles to architect- 
ure is attested by their extant edifices. There 
can be little doubt that the origin of this remark- 
able people and of their early civilization is to 
be traced to the same Asiatic source as the 
early civilization of Assyria and India. The 
ancient history of Egypt may be divided into 
four great periods : (1.) From the earliest times 
to its conquest by Cambyses ; during which it 
was ruled by a succession of native princes, into 
the difficulties of whose history this is not the 
place to inquire. The last of them, Tsammen- 
itus, was conquered and dethroned by Cambyses 
in R.C. 526, when Egypt became a provmoe of 
the Persian empire. During this period Egypt 
waa but little known to the Greeks. The Ho- 
loerio poems show some slight acquaintance 
with the country aud its river Twhich is also 
ealled AlyvTrrc^f Od^ xiv., 25), ana refer to the 
wealth ana splendor of " Thebes with the Hund- 
red Gates." In the latter part of the period 
leained men among the Greeks began to travel 
U> Egypt for the sake of studying its institu- 
tions ; among others, it was visited by Pythag- 
oras, Thales, and Solon (2.) From the Persian 
oonquest in B.C. 626, to the transference of their 
dommion to the Macedonians in B.C. 382. This 
period was one of almost constant struggles be- 
tween the f^yptians aud their conquerors, until 
B.O. 840, when Nectanebo II., the last native 
ruler of E^pt» was defeated by Darius Ochus. 
[t was dunng this period that the Greeks acquir- 
ed a considerable knowledge of £^ypt In the 
wars, between Egypt and Persia, the two leading 
states of Greece, Athens and Sparta, at different 
times assisted the Egyptians, according to the 
state of their relations to each other and to Per- 
sia ;. and, during the intervals of those wars, 
Egypt was visited bv Greek historians and phi- 
losophers, such as Hellanicus, Herodotus, An- 
azagoras, Plato, and others^ who brought back 
to Greece the knowledge of the country which 
they acquired from the priests and through per- 
sonal observation. (8.) The dynasty of Mace- 
donian kings, from the accession of Ptolemy, 
the son of Lagus, in B.C. 828, down to B.C. 80, 
when Egypt became a province of the Roman 
empire. When Alexander invaded Egypt in B. 
C. SS2* the country submitted to hira without a 
struggle ; and while he left it behind him to re- 
turn to the conquest of Persia, he conferred upon 
it the greatest benefit that was in his power, by 

giving orders for the building of Alexandres. Xb 
the partition of the empire of Alexander aflt«r 
his death in B.G. 828, Egypt fell to the ebikr^ 
of Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, who assumed the 
title of Emg in B.C. 806, and founded the dynas- 
ty of the Ptolemies, under whom the country 
greatly flourished, and became the chief sent ot 
Greek learning. But soon came the period ot 
decline. Wars with the adjacent kingdom of 
Syria, and the vices, weaknesses, and diasexi> 
sions of the royal family, wore out the state 
till in B.C. 81 the Romans were called upon to 
interfere in the disputes for the crown, and in 
B.O. 65 tiie dynasty of the Ptolemies came to 
be entirely dependent on Roman protection, and 
at last, after the battle of Actium and the death 
of Cleopatra, who was the last of the Ptolemies. 
Egypt was made a Roman province, RC. SOL 
(4.) Egypt under the Romans, down to its con- 
quest by the Arabs in A.D. 688. As a Roman 
province, Egypt was one of the most flourish- 
mg portions of the empire. The fertility of ile 
soil, and its positiun between Europe and Ara- 
bia and India, together with the possession of 
such a port as Alexandrea, gave it the full bene- 
fit of the two great sources of wealtli, agricul- 
ture and commerce. Learning continued to 
flourish at Alexandrea, and the patriai'chs of the 
Christian Church in that city became so powers 
ful as to contend for supremacy with those of 
Antioch, Constantinople, and Rome, while a 
succession of teachei-s, such as Origen and 
Clement of Alexandrea, conferred real lustre 
on the ecclesiastical annals of the eoimtry. 
When the Arabs made their great inroad upoo 
the Eastern empire, the geographical position 
of Egypt natuiidly caused it to fall an imme- 
diate victim to that attack, which its wealth 
and the peaceful character of its inhabitants in- 
vited. It was conquered by Amrou, the lieu- 
tenant of the Calif Omar, in A.D. 688. 

8. Political Geography. — From the earliest 
times the country was divided into (1.) The 
Delta, or Lower Egypt (rd AcXro, v kotu x^P^ 
now El-Bafiari, El-Kebit) ; (2.) The Heptanomisi 
or Middle Egypt CEwravofiig,^ fisra^ ;(cSpa, now 
Mesr Afoitani) ; (8.) The Thebais, or Unper Egypt, 
(Qijtalc, h ^vo x^P^^ now Said) : and it was foi^ 
ther subdivided into thirty-six nomes or govern- 
ments. [Under the Ptolemies the number of 
nomes became enlarged, partly by reason of tho 
new and improved state of things in that quar- 
ter of Egypt where Alexandrea was situated, 
partly by the addition of the Greater or Lesser 
Oasis to Egypt, and partly, also, by the altera- 
tions which an active commerce had produced 
along the borders of the Sinus Arabicus. A 
change also took place about this same period 
in the three main divisions of the country. 
Lower Egypt, now no longer confined itself to 
the limits of the Delta, but had its extent en- 
larged by the addition of some of the neighbor 
ing nomea In like manner. Upper Esypt, or 
the Thebais, received a portion of what Imd 
formerly been included within the limits of Mid' 
die Egypt, so that eventually but seven noroei 
remuned to this last-mentioned section of tlio 
country, which, therefore, received the nami 
of Heptanomin, The number of nomes became 
still further increased, at a subsequent pcrioti 
by various subdivisions of-4hc oldeu ones Al 

Digitized by VjOOQI 



« still later period w« hear litUe more of the 
aomea A new diTuion of the oountry took 
pUee under the Eastern empire. An iinpeiial 
prefect ezereised sway not only over E^ypt^ 
but also OTcr libya as far as Cyrene, while a 
Comet MiiiiariM bad charge of the forces. From 
this time the whola of luddle Egypt, preyions- 
ly named MepiaiuntU, bore the name of Arcadia, 
x honor of Areadius, eldest son of Theodosius. 
A new prorinoe had also arisen, a eonsiderable 
tiaie bewre this^ ealled Auffuttamniea, from its 
lyng ehieily along tiae Nile. It eomprised the 
esatem ludf of the Delta, together with a por- 
tion of Arabia, aa far as the Arabian Qulf, and 
slso the dties on the Mediterranean as far as 
the iroQtiera of Syria. Its capital was Pelu- 
siuBL] Respecting the Osses, vid. Oasis. 

Msn (Aiyw?, Alyvrtfc* Alyvev^: near Ohior- 
gitza), a town of Laoonia on the borders of Ar- 

J&sJjuk. {AlXaifa : AiXovcr^f : now Akaba\ a 
town on the northern arm of the Red Sea, near 
the Sakr^'Akaba, which was called by the 
Qreeks .^ianMtes, from the name of the town. It 
is the Elath of the Hebrews, and one of the sea- 
ports of which Solomon possessed himself, to 
cairf on trade with Ophir and the remote East 

axIa Ob3C8» plebeian, the members of which 
ore given under their surnames, Oallub, Lamia, 
Paqs, Sbjahgb, Stilo, Toasaa 

.£i1a, a name given to Jerusalem niter its 
rK'oration by tiie Roman emperor u£lius Ha- 

r^iiA, a name of females of the i£lia gens. 
1 wiie of SuUa.— 2. Pietlna, of the family of 
Ike Tab«ro3, and wife of the Emperor Claudius, 
fibe wss repudiated by him in order to mske 
vay for Messalina.] 

.AUlBva, Claudicb, Was bom at Prseneste 
is Italy, and lived at Rome about the middle of 
the third century of the Christian era. Though 
an Italiui, he spoke and wrote Greek as well as 
a Dative Athenian. He never married, and lived 
to the age of sixty. Two of his works have 
mne down to us: one a collection of miscel- 
hacona history (Ho KtXri . aropia\ in fourteen 
\Mta, commonly called Varia Uistoria; and 
tiie other a work on the peculiarities of animals 
(Ilepj Zuuv 16i6tjitoc\ in seventeen books, Oom- 
mooly ealled I>e Animaliwn Natures The for- 
mer work contaius short narrations and anec- 
doUa^ historical, biographical, antiquarian, Ac^ 
idttted fr<Hn various authors, generally with- 
<nit their names heing given, and on a great 
nriety of subjects. Tlie latter work is of the 
lame kiDd, senappy and gossipping. It is part- 
It eoUeeted from older writers, and partly the 
KBdt of his own observations both in Italy and 
(^braad. There are also attributed to him twen- 
tj jctters on husbandry {'AypotKucal *EirurroXai), 
vritteo in a rhetorical style and of no valu& — 
SAtUmt : Of the Varia Hitteriay by Perixooius, 
I^ydeo, 1701 ; by Oronovius^ Leyden, 1781 ; 
MM by Kiihn, Leipsio, 1780. Of the Be Ani- 
■oftam Natura, by Oronovius, London, 1744; 
bf J. Sdmeider, Leipsic, 1784; and by Fr. Ja- 
^ Jena, 1882. Of the Letters, by Aldus 
Kanatiusi in tiie Colleetio JSpietolarum Gfceea- 
»K. Venice, 1499. 4to. 

[AoAxruB, LootCB, one of the thirty tyiants 
uner the Roman empire, about 267 A.D^ who 

assumed the imperial purple iu Oaul, but was 
killed by his own soldiers.] 

wfiuANUS MiociuB, an ancient physician, who 
must have lived in the second century after 
Christ, as he ia mentioned by Galen as the 
oldest of his tutors. 

MuLvm TAorifcm, a Greek writer, who lived 
in Rome and wrote a work on the Military Tac- 
tics of the Greeks (Uept Irparnyucuv Tu^€uv 
*EXX^iKuv)t dedicated to the Emperor Hadriaa 
He also gives a brief aooount of the constitu 
tion of a Roman army at that time. — Editions . 
By FranciBcns Robortellus, Venice, 1662 ; and 
by Elsevir, Leyden, 1618. 

AJEULo, one of the Harpies. Vid. Habptml 

AsLL^FUB ('Ae^AoTTOvf), a surname of Iris, the 
messenger of the gods, by which ^e is described 
as swift-footed as a storm-wind 

^iciUA. 1. The third daughter of L. ^Emil 
ius Panlus, who fell in the battle of Cannse, was 
the wife of Scipio Afrioanus I. and the mother 
of the celebrated Cornelia, the mother of the 
Gracdil — 2. .^Emilia Lepida. Vid Lkpida. — 
8. A Vestal virgin, put to death B.C. 114 for 
having violated her vows upon several occa- 

.^mIlIa Gens, one of the most ancient patri- 
cian gentes at Rome, said to have been descoud- 
ed in>m Mamerous, who received the name of 
^milius on account of the persuasiveness of 
his language (di* alftvXlav ^yav). Thfs Mamer- 
ous is represented by some as the son of Py 
.thagoras, and by others as the son of Numa 
The most distinguished members of the gene 
are given under their surnames, Babbula LK^ 
IDU8, MAMKaous or MAMEaciNVB, Papus, Pac* 
LUB, Rsoiuus, SoAuans. 

MiAiAK Via, made by M. iBn/ilius liepidos, 
COS. B.C. 187, continued the Via Flammia from 
Ariminum, and traversed the heart of Cisalpine 
Gaul through Bononia, MuUna, Parma, Placen- 
tia (where it crossed the Po) to Mediolanum. It 
was subsequently continued as far as Aquileia. 

JBicnjlNrSb 1. The son of L. ^mihus Pau 
Ius Macedomcus, was adopted by P. Cornelius 
Scipio, the son of P. Cornelius Scipio Africanns, 
ana was thus called P. Oomelius Scipio i£mil- 
ianus Africanua Vtd SoiPio. — 2. The govern- 
or of Pannonia and MoBsia in the reign of Gal* 
Ius, was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers in 
A.D. 263, but was slain by them after reigning 
a few months. — 8. One of the thirty tyrants 
(A.D. 269>268)» assumed the purple in Egypt, 
but was taken prisoner and strangled by order 
of Gallienus. 

iGlCIUUB PBOBU& Vid, Nxpos, CoaMiLiu& 

[JRnhjiJE. Insuljl Vid Hamodjl] 

^MdNA or EmOna (now Laibach\ a fortified 
town in Pannonia, and an important Roman 
colony, said to have been built by the Argonauta 

JEMkBAK, also called PiraftoOsA and IkXrIxk 
(now Jtchia)y a volcanic island off the coast of 
Campania, at the entrance of the Bay of Na- 
ples, under which the Roman poets represent- 
ed TVphoeus as lying. 

MniA {^Alveia: Aivetfvf, Alveidnjg), a town 
in Chalcidioe, on the Thermaic Gult — [2. J&stA 
Vetdb, a city near the Achelous, in Acamania, 
in Strabo's time destroyed: further south was 
jffnia Nova, now in ruins, near Palceo Catouna,'] 

iEKsIoBS {KlvnudtK)t a patronymic from 



£ueaB» g'lf im (o hia bod Ascaoiat or lulu^ sukI 
to those who were belieTed to be deeoeiided 
from him, such a§ AagintuS) aod the Romiuw 
in general 

^NfiAS (Mveiac). 1. Bbmerie Sioiy. JE^Ui 
was the son of Anchises and Venus (AphroditeX 
and bom on Mount IdiL On his iifither's side 
be was a greatgrandaon of Troe, and thus near- 
ly rekted to the royal house of Troy, as Friam 
lumsslf was a grandson of Tro& lie was edu- 
eated from his infimev at Dardanus» in the house 
of Alcathous, the husband of his sister. At first 
he took no jaii in the Trojan war ; and it was 
not till AcniUes attacked liim on Mount Ida, 
and drore away his floeks, that he led his Dar- 
danians against the Greeks. Henceforth be 
and Hector are the great bulwarks of the Tro- 
jans asainst the Oreeks, and i&neas appears 
beloTed by gods and mea On more than one 
ocoasion be is saved in battle by the gods: 
Venus (Aphrodite) carried him o£f when he was 
wounded by Diomedes, and Neptune (Poseidon), 
when be was on the point of peiishing br the 
bands of Achilles. Homer makes no allusion 
to the emigration of JBneas after the eapture 
of Troy, but^ on the contrary, he eyidently con- 
ceives .^eas and his descendants as reigning 
at Troy after the extinction of the house of 
l^riam. — Later Stories, The later stories pre- 
vent the greatest variations respecting the con- 
duct of JElneas at the capture of Troy and in 
the events immediately following. Most ac- 
counts, however, agree that after the city had 
fallen, be withdrew to Mount Ida with his friends 
and Uie images of the gods, e;*pecially that of 
Pallas (the Palladium); tjv\ that from thence 
he crossed over to Europe, and finally settled in 
Latium in Italy, where be became the ancestral 
hero of the Romans. A description of the wan- 
derings of j£neas before he reached Latium, 
and of the various towns aod temples he was 
believed to have founded during bis wander- 
ings, is given by Dionysius of Halicamassus 
(L, 60, Acl), whose account is, on the whole, tlie 
same as the one followed by Virgil in bis .^neid, 
although the latter makes various embellish- 
ments and additions, some of which, such as 
bis landing at Carthage and meeting with Dido, 
are irreconcilable with mythical chronology. 
From Pallene, where i£ueas staved the winter 
after the taking of Troy, he sailed with bis com- 

E'ons to DeloSk Cythera, Boia in Laoonia, 
rnthus, Leucas, Actium, Ambracia, and to 
ona, where he met the Trojan Helenus. 
From Epirus he sailed across the Ionian Sea to 
Italy, where be landed at the lapygian promon- 
tory. Thence he crossed over to Sicily, where 
he met the Trojans, Elymus and i£Jgestus ( Aces- 
tes), and built the towns of Elyme and ^£gesta. 
From Sicily be sailed back to Italy, landed in 
the port of Palinurus, came to the Island of 
Leuoasia, and at last to the coast of Latium. 
Various signs pointed out this place as the end 
of his waMenngs, and he and bis Trojans ac- 
cordingly settled in Latium. The place where 
they bad landed was called Trov. Latinus, 
king of the Aborigines, prepared for war, but 
afterward concluded an alliance with the stran- 
gers, gave up to them part of bis dominions, and 
with their assiitance conquered the Rutulians. 
Accas Icunded the town of Lavinium, called 

after La vinia, the daughter of laitii^vm, wli«>ni b« 
married. A new war then followed betweer. 
Latinus and Tumus, in which both ehieft fell 
whereupon iEoeas became sole ruler of tb« 
Aborigines and Trojans, and both natiooa were 
united into one. Soon after this ufioeas fell io m 
battle with th» Rutulians, who -were aaaiated 
by Mezentius, king of the EtruscaoSb As bis 
body was not found after the battle, it was be- 
lieved that it had been carried up to bsafec, 
or that be had perished in the River Kumiciua 
Hie Latins erected a monument to him, wHb 
the inscription To the father and fiutiv9 god, 
Virgil represents .£neas landing in Ital;^ esven 
years after the fall of Troy, and. comprises al/ 
the events in Italy from the landing to the death 
of Tumus, within the space of tweoty days. 
The story of the descent of the Komaos horn 
the Trojans through ifineas was believed at an 
early period, but probably rests on no historieal 
foundation. — 2. MsiA» Silvius, soa of Siiviu% 
and grandson of Asoaniua, is the third iu Uie list 
of the mythical kings of Alba in Latium : the Sil- 
vii regarded him as the founder of tlieir house 

ufiMJEAs Gaz^evb, so Called from Gaza, his 
birth-place, flourished A.D. 487. Ho was at 
first a PUtonist and a Sopbistk but afterward 
became a Christian, when he composed a dia- 
logue, on the Immortality of the Soul, called 
Theophrastut, — £dUion$ : By Barihiusy Lipa^ 
1655 ; By Boissonade, Par., 1836. 

^if£A8 Taoticus, a Greek writer, may be the 
same as the ^oeas of Stympbalus, the geaeraJ 
of the Arcadians, B.G. 862 (Xen., IleU^ vii, 3 
6 1); and be probably lived about that period 
Me wrote a work on the ai't of war, of whieb t. 
portion only is preseiTed, commonly called Com. 
mentariut PoliorceticuB^ showing how a siege 
should be resisted. An epitome of the wholt 
book was made by Cineas. (Cic, ad Fam^ ix, 
'ih.)— Editions: By Emesti, Lips., 1768; by 
Orelli, Lips, 1818. 

.^assiDEMUs (Kivfjaidnfio^)^ a celebrated skcp 
tic, born at Cnosus in Crete, probably lived a 
little later than Cicero. He differed on many 
points from the ordinary skeptics. The grand 
peculiarity of bis system was the attempt to 
unite skepticism with the earlier c^osopby, tc 
raise a positive foundation for it oy accounting 
from the nature of things for the never-ceasiitf 
chauges both in the material and spiritual world 
None of the works of i£nesidemus have come 
down to u& To them Seztus Empiricus was 
indebted for a considerable part of bis work.— 
[2. (Dor. Alv7jui6a/ioc\ father of Theron, tyrant 
of Agrigcntum. Vui Thsron.] 

[MniA. Vid. uEkSa.] 

.^IniInes {Alviaveg, loa *Evu^€g), an ancient 
Greek race, originally near Ossa, aifterward ia 
southern Thessaly, between (Eta and Othrj% 
on the banks of the SperchSus. 

[Mni Pons (now Innsbruck), a town of RsBtia» 
on the .^lous.] 

Mmjs (Alvoc: AlvioCf klviunj : now Eno\ 
an ancient town in Thrace, near the mouth of 
the Hebrus, mentioned in the Iliad. It was oo|- 
onised by the JSolians of Asia Minor. Vir^l 
{u£n^ iii, 18) sunposes iEnoe to have been built 
by iEneas, but he confounds it with JBitba iu 
Cbaloidioe. Under the Romans ?^t<>6 wai i 
free town, and a place cif impQ^tau<«^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



( (ncir Inn), a river iu Rntia, the bound- 
tfT between Rstia and Norieum. 

'JB&IMB or .£dui (AioXeZcX 0°® of tho chief 
hraw^kes of the Hellenie race, auppoeed to be 
dMoeoded from JEolm, the loo of UeUen. VuL 
JBouJB, Ha 1. They originallj dwelt in Thea- 
salj, from wfaeoee they spread over rarioas 
parts of Oreeee, and also settled in JEolis in 
Aaia Ifkior, and in the Uland of Lbbo& 

JS6iIm histLM, (al AIS^jov v^oi : now Zipari 
blmtuUy, m group of islands northeaat of Sioily, 
where Jt4i»» &e god of the winds, reigned. 
Hosier (<Ad[, x., 1) mentions only one ifiolian 
island, and Virgil {j£n^ i, 62) accordingly 
•p«a\B of ooly <me jEdia {te, insula), where 
.fiolus r^ffoedv supposed to be Strongyle or 
Lipara. flieae islands were also called Sephtn- 
OAdea or Fv/cAnte, because Hephaestus or Vul- 
can was snppoaed to hare had his workshop in 
ooe of them, called Hiera. (Virg^ jEn^ yiii., 
41 &, M^.) They were also named lApdrentWy 
from Dpftra, tilie laigest of them. The names 
of these islaoda were lip&ra (now LipaH\ HiSra 
(now Volcano), Strongyle (now Stromboli), Phoe- 
nidlsa (now ^eiieudi), EricQsa (now Alieudi), 
Eoonymns (now PanariaX Didyme (now i8<z- 
Iiaa)'Hiee8ia (now JAtea iia$tea)t Basilidia (now 
BariUao\ Osteodes (now Uttiea). 

MSunm {AloXid^c), a patnMiymio giyen to 
the sons of .^Bolus, as Atnamas, Cretheus, Sis- 
jpboi^ Salmonens, <fcc^ and to his grandsons, 
as Cephalos, Ulysses, and Phrizus. [The name 
AoUdes, applied hw Viigil (^n., 6, 164) to Mi- 
Koos, is supposed oy some to haye arisen fipom 
^ legendary eooneetion between the .£olian 
lod Oampaman CunuB ; others suppose that, as 
Ifiienas played upon a wmd-instrument) the 
po«t, by a figuratiye gffiftalogy, makes him the 
«» of the wind-god .^Bolns. It is much more 
probable, boweyer, that Virgil calls him jEclidM 
as indicating merely his descent from a mortal 
&th€r named JSolus, the same, probably, with 
tlie ooe slun id battle with the Latins (^n., 12, 
S42, la^.).] iKoUs is the patronymic of the fe- 
ottU descendants of .£olus, given to his daugh- 
tcn Osoaoe and Alcyone. 

^LB (Aio^f), or ^dLiA, a district of Mysia 
in Alia Mmor, was peopled by JBolian Greeks, 
vbo«e cities extended from the Troad along the 
i^wni of Uie iEgean to the Riyer Hermus. 
Id esH.y times their tweWe most important 
^es were independent^ and formed a league, 
^ meroberB of which celebrated an annual fes- 
tml (the PoMiiAitaiC) at Gyma The tweWe 
aties comprisii^ this league were Cyme, La- 
™He« NeootSd^ Temnus, Cilia, Notium, 
^gurOsa, Pitane, uEgste, Hyrina, OrynSa, and 
Smrnia; but Sittilna subsequently became a 
p«inber of the Ionian oonfederacy. (Herod^ 
U 149, «^.) These cities were subdued by 
9™*iM. sod were incorporated in the Per- 
«■& empire on the conquest of Crcesus by 
SXnus^ (AIoAor). Son of Hellen and the 

rOraeiB) and brother of Dorus and Xu- 
He was the ruler of Thessaly, and the 
^vx]«r of the iBolio branch of the Greek na- 
^ Hii diildren are said to have been yery 
^■»«nH]g; but the most ancient story men- 
^ odj four sons, yiz., Snyphus, Athamas, 
^^'^ttiroi lod SalsMftsus. The great exten* 

of country which this race occupied piobablj 
gave rise to the yarying accounts aoout the 
number of bis children. — 2. Son of Hippotes, oi; 
according to others, of Neptune (Poseiooo) aud 
Ame, a descendant of the preyious JSolus. His 
story probably refers to the emigration of a 
bnmch of the .^Eolians to the west His motb«t 
was carried to Metapontum in Italy, where ehis 
gaye birth to ifiolus and his brother BoBotus. 
The two brothers afterward fled from Metapon* 
tum, and .^olus went to some islands in th« 
Tyrrhenian Sea, which receiyed from him the 
name of the ^olian Islands Here he reigned 
as a just and pious long, taught the natiyes th4 
use of sails for ships, and foretold them the na- 
ture of the winds that were to rise. In these 
aceounts JE^sXva, the lather of the iKolian race, 
is placed in relationship with .£olus, the ruler 
ana god of the winds. In Homer, however, 
.^Eolus, the son of Hippotes, is neither the god 
nor the father of the winds, but merely the 
happy ruler of the iGolian Island^ to whom Ju- 
piter (2^us) had given dominion oyer the winds, 
which he mi^ht soothe or excite according to his 
pleasure. (Odl, x., 1, neq^ This statement of 
Homer, and the etymology of the name of ^o- 
lus from deAA<^, led to iEolus being regarded in 
later times as the god and king of the winds, 
which he kept inclosed in a mountain. It is, 
therefore, to nim that Juno applies when she 
wishes to destroy the fleet of the Trojans. 
(Virg., jEn^ L, 78.) The iEolian Island of Ho- 
mer was in later limes bdieyed to be Lipara or 
Stron^le, and was accordingly regardea as thp 
place in which the god of the winds dwelt V\d. 
iEoujE Insuljel 

i£p£A (AlTTcto: A/Trear^f). 1. A town in 
Messenia on the sea-coast, afterward TnuaiA, 
[as Strabo says, but, according to Pausaniaa, 
the later Coronx.] — ^2, A town in Cyprus, after- 
ward SOLL 

^P7 (Al^rv), a town in Elis, situated on a 
height, as its name indicates. 

-SSpi^TOT (AlTTt/roc). A mythical king of Ar- 
cadia, from whom a part of the country was 
called iEpytiSb — 2. Youngest son of the Hera- 
cUd Orespbontes, king of Messeoia, and of Mer> 
ope, daughter of the Arcadian king Cypselus 
When his father and brothers were murdered 
during an insurrection, ifipytus alone, who was 
with his grandAither Cypselus, escaped the dan- 
ger. The throne of Cresphontes was, in the 
mean time, occupied by the Heraclid Pol^-phon- 
tes, who also forced Merope to become his wife. 
When ^pytus had grown to manhood, he re- 
turned to his kingdom, and put Polyphontes to 
death. From him the kings of Messenia were 
called iEpytids instead of the more general 
name Heraclids. — 8. Son oC Hippothous, king 
of Arcadia, and great-grandson of the i£pytus 
mentioned first — [4. Son of Neleus, grandson 
of Oodrus, founder of Priene.] 

j£qdi, ^Quio^Li, iEgtricdLAE, ^QurofLANi, 
an ancient wariike people of Italy, dwelling m 
the upper yalley of the Anio, in the mountains 
forming the eastern boundary of Lal'um, and 
between the Latini, Sabini. Hemici, and Marsi 
In conjunction with the Volsci, who were of the 
same race, they carried on constant hostilities 
with Rome, but were finally subdued in KOL 
802. Gnc of their chief seats was Mcudl 
Digitize gi 


llWilue, 'roDi which they were accustomed to 
twSie ihtfir niaraudiog expeditions. 

.£qx:i Faliscl Vid. Falkrii. 

iEQUixiEiiuM. Vid, Mjtuu& 

Abeia (now M<mt Venteux), a city of Gallia 
Karhonensis, haying an elevated and airy sitna- 

[AieaiAS, an aocicDt king of Oypru8» who is 
■aid to have founded the temple of Venus (Aph- 
lodite) at Papbos.] 

A2bops (*Aep6irv), daughter of Catreus, king 
of Crete, and grand-daughter of Minoa. Her 
father, who had receiv^ an oracle that he 
shouli lose bis life by one of his children, gave 
her and her sister Olymene to Nauplius, who 
was to sell them in a foreign land. Aerone mar- 
ried Plisthenea, the son of Atreus^ and oecame 
by him the mother of Agamemnon and Menelaus. 
After the death of Plisthenes, Aerope married 
Atreus; and her two sons, who were educated 
by Atreus, were generally believed to be his 
sons. Aerope was faithless to Atreus, bemg 
seduced by Thycetes. 

[Asaopua {^Aiponoc), brother of Perdiccas, 
who was the first Macedonian king of the race 
of Temenus, B.C. 670. — 2. Aeropus I^ king of 
Macedonia, great-grandson of Perdiccas, father 
of Alcetas. — 8. Aeropus 11^ king of Macedonia, 
guardian of Orestes, tlie son of Archelaus, whom 
he murdered, after reigning jointly with him for 
four years; after this he ruled for two years 
alono, and was then succeeded by his son Pausa- 

[mEm6rVB Moxs (now TVcSusin), a mountain 
range of Illyricum, at the base of which flows 
the Aous.] 

.£sXcc8 {AlaoKocX son of Priam and Alex- 
in-hoe. He lived &r from his father's court, 
in the solitude of mountain forests. Hesne- 
ria, however, the daughter of Cebren, kindled 
love in his heart, and on one occasion, while he 
was pursuing her, she was stung by a viper and 
died. .£sacus in his grief threw himself into 
the sea, and was changed by Tethys into an 
aquatic bird, 'iliis is the story related by Ovid 
(ife^ zi., 761, seq.), but it is told differently by 

.^AR, the name of the deity among the 

iEsAR or iEsXauB (now F9aro\ a river near 
Croton, in the country of the Brutti, in Southern 

JEacmxEs {AlaxtvTf^)' 1. The Athenian ora- 
tor, bom B.C. 889, was the son of Atrometus 
aud Glauoothea. According to Demosthenes, 
his political antagonist, his parents were of dis- 
reputable character, and not even citizens of 
Athens; but .£schines himself says that his 
lather was descended from an honorable family, 
and lost his property during the Peloponnesian 
war. In his youth, iEschines appears to have 
assisted his father in his school ; ne next acted 
as secretary to Aristophon, and afterward to 
Eubulus; he subsequently tried his fortune as 
an actor, but was unsuccessful ; and at length, 
after serving with distinction in the army, came 
forward as a public speaker, and soon acquired 
great reputation. In 847 he was sent, along 
with Demosthenes, as one of the ten ambassa- 
ifors to negotiate a peace with Philip : from this 


time be appears as the friend of tlie UooedcauiA 
party ana as the opponent of Demoetheo^a^ 
Shortly afterward .fschines form«d one of tHc 
seooncf embassy sent to Philip to receive the 
oath of Philip to the treaty whidi had been ooki- 
duded with the Athenians ; but, as the delay 
of the ambassadors in obtaining the rattficatio» 
had been fSavorable to the interests of Philips 
iEschines, on his return to Athens, was ao- 
cused by Timarchus. He evaded the dangler by- 
bringing forward a counter-accusation against 
Timarchus (346), and by showing that the moral 
conduct of bis accuser was such that he had do 
right to speak before the people. The speech 
in which iEschioes attacked Timarchus is atili 
extant: Timarchus was condemned, and JS^^ 
chines gained a brilliant triumph. In 848, D» 
mosthenes renewed the charge against .^^Bchi- 
nes of treachery durmg his second embassy t« 
Philip. This cnargo of Demosthenes {irepl 9ra- 
fKLirpeaSeiac) was not spoken, but published as a 
memorial, and j£schine9 answered it in a sim- 
ilar memorial on the embassy {Trept vapavpea-- 
6etac)* which was likewise published. Short- 
ly after tlie battle of ChsBrooea, in 888, which 
gave Philip the supremacy in Greece, Ctesipbon 
proposed that Demosthenes should be rewarded 
lor Lis services with a golden crown in the the- 
atre at the great Dionysia. EsohineB availed 
himself of the illegal form in which this reward 
was proposed to be given to brine a chaiigc 
against Ctesiphon on that ground, but he did 
not prosecute the chai^ge till eight years later 
880. The speech which he delivered on the 
occasion is extant» and was answered by De- 
mosthenes in his celebrated oration on the 
crown (irepl (rre^vw). .£schines was defeat- 
ed, and withdrew from Athens. He went to 
Asia Minor, and at length established a school 
of eloquence at Khodes. On one occasion he 
read to his audience in Khodes his speech 
against Ctesiphon, [and, after receiving mueh 
applause, he was desired to read the speech of 
his antagonist When he had done this, his 
auditors expressed great admiration ; " but," 
exclaimed iEschincs, ** how much greater would 
have been your admiration if you had heard (De- 
mosthenes) himselfP] From Rhodes he went 
to Samos, where he died in 814. Besides the 
three orations extant, we also possess twelve 
letters which are ascribed to .^)schines, but 
which ai*e the work of late sophists. — Editumt, 
In the editions of the Attic orators (vid. Demos- 
THENxa), and by Bremi, Zurich, 1828. — 2. An 
Athenian philosopher and rhetorician, and a 
disciple of Socrates, After the death of his 
master, he went to Syracuse ; but retunaed to 
Athens after the expulsion of Dionvsius, and 
supported himself, receiving money for his in- 
structions. He wrote several dialogues, b::t 
the three which have come down to us unda 
his name are not genuine. — £dUiotu: By Fi^ 
cher, Lips., 1786; by Bockh, Heidel^ 1810; and 
in many editions of Plato. — 8. Of Nea polls, a 
Peripatetic philosopher, who was at the head 
of the Academy at Athens, together with Char 
madas and CUtomachus, at)out B.0. 109.^. Of 
Miletus, a contemporary of Cieero, and a diip 
tinguished orator m the Asiatic style of elo- 
quence. — [5. A distinf^uished individual among 
tne Eretrions, who disclosed to the Atheniaiu 

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he traacberors desij^us of some of hta country- 
VKU, when the former had coiii«» to their aid 
■gaiost the Pere'ana. — 6. An Acamaniao, oom- 
maoder of a eoaipany of light-armed troopa in 
ctae retreftl of the ten thooaand under Xeno- 

JRaauM3cji(AloxfMtv), 1. Of Syracnre, whose 
vifb Pippa waa one of the mistresses oi Verres, 
md who vaa himself one of the scandalous in- 
itnimeflts of Verres. — 2. An iambic poet, a na- 
tirc of Samoa. There was an epic poet of the 
nme iiam«, who was a native of Mytilene and 
a pupil of Aristotle, and who accompanied Alez- 
Boder oo some of his expeditions. He may 
perhaps be the same person as the Samian. — 
8w A native of Pergamus, and a phfsician in 
Uie seeond oeotury after Christ, vrpfi one of 
iialen's tutors. 

JBacaYU» {AlaxvTLo^). 1. The celebrated 
tragic poet, was bom at Eleuais in Attica, B.C. 
(26, so that he was thirW-five years of age at 
the time of the battle of Marathon, and contem- 
porary with Simonides and Pindar. His father 
buphorioa was probably connected with the 
irorship of Ceres (Demeter), and JSschylus 
lumsen waa» according to some authorities, ini- 
tiated in the mysteries of this t^oddess. At the 
•ge of tweoty-fiye (B.C. 499), he made his first 
tppearanoe as a competitor for the prize of 
Ingedy, without being successful He, with 
hit brothers Cyiueginis and Aminius fought at 
Ihe batUe of Marathon (490), and also at those 
of Salamis (480) and Phitiea (479). In 484 he 
gainod the prixe of tragedy ; and in 472 he gain- 
ed the prize with the trilogy, of which the Per- 
nio the earliest of hi^ extant dramas, was one 
picee. In 468 he was defeated in a tragic con- 
test by his younger rival, Sophocles ; and he is 
asid in consequence to have quitted Athens in 
(iiagust and to have gone to the court of Hiero, 
^D^ of Syracuse, where he found Simonides, 
&e lyric poet In 467 his friend and patron 
King Hiero died; and in 468 it appears that 
^sebylus was again at Athens, from the fact 
ibat tbe trilogy of the Oresteia was produced 
b tbat year. In the same or the following 
year he again visited Sicily, and he died at 
Q«U m 456, in the sixty-ninth year of his age. 
It is said that an esu^le, mistaking the poet's 
biid head for a stone, let a tortoise fall upon it 
*o bresk the shell, and so fulfilled an oracle, ac- 
cording to which .dBschylus was fated to die by 
t Uow from heaven. The alterations made by 
^^ylos in the composition and dramatic rejp- 
meotatian of Tragedy were so great, that he 
vu eoosidered by the Athenians as the father 
<'' itt just as Homer was of Epic poetry and 
Herodotus of History. Even the improve- 
DeQts sod alterations introduced by his suo- 
KKors were the natural results and sugges- 
tioQa of those of i£echylus. The first and priu- 
^^Ml alterati m which he made was the intro- 
MrtioQ of a lecond actor (6evTepaYovi<rnjg)f and 
^^ eooBequeit formation of the dialogue prop- 
vly so cidled and the limitation of Uie choral 
putt. Tbe iuiovation was of course adopted 
«J bii oootemporaries, just as .£schylus him- 
wf followed the example of Sophocles, in sub- 
Nqneatly btroduciog a third actor. But the 
iBBproTements of iEscltylus were not limited to 
^ ttnnpositioQ of tragedy - he added the re- 

sources of art in its exhibition, lliub he u 
said to have availed himself of th>4 skill of Ag- 
atharchus, who painted for him tte first scenes 
which had ever been drawn according to the 
principles of linear perspective. He also fu^ 
nished his actors witn more suitable and mag^ 
nificent dresses, with significant and variooi 
masks, and with the thicksoled cothumiiSy to 
raise their stature to the height of heroes He 
moreover bestowed so much attention on the 
choral dances, that he is said to have invented 
various figures himself, and to have instructed 
the choristers in them without the aid of the 
regular ballet-masters. With him, also arose 
the usage of representing at the same time a 
trilogy of plays connected in subject^ so that 
each formed one act, as it were, of a great whole, 
which mi^ht be compared with some of Shak»- 
peare*s historical plavs. Even before the time 
of iSSschylus, it had been customary to contend 
for the prize of tragedy with three plays exhibit- 
ed at the same time, but it was reserved for him 
to show how each of three tragedies might be 
complete in itself^ and independent of the rest, 
and nevertheless form a part of an harmonious 
and connected whole. The only example still 
extant of such a trilogy is the Oresteia, as it 
was called. A satyrical play commonly follow- 
ed each tragic trilogy. .£schylus is said to 
have written seventy tragedies. Of these only 
seven are extant, namely, the Feraians, tha 
Seven against 77tebeSf the Suppliants, the Pro- 
metheus, the Agamemnon^ the Choephori, and Eu- 
menides; the last three fonuing, as already re- 
marked, the trilogy of the Oresteia, The Per- 
sians was acted m 473, and the JSeven againsi 
Thebes a year aftei-ward. The Oresteia was rep- 
resented m 468; the Suppliants and the Pro* 
metheus were brougbi cut some time between 
the Seven against ThJ^es and the Oresteia, It 
has been supposed from some allusions in the 
Suppliants^ Uiat this pla^ was acted in 461, 
when Athens was allied with Argos. — Editions : 
By Schiitz, third edition, Hal. Sax., 1808-21 ; by 
Wellauer, Lips, 182S: by W. Dindorf; Lips., 
1827, and Oxon., 1832; and by Scholefield, 
Camh, 1830. [The best edition, so &r as it 
goes» is that by Blomfield, which unfortunately 
was never completed, containing only five of 
the seven remaming tragedies. — 2. of Cnidus, 
a contemporary of Cicero, and one of the most 
celebratea rhetoricians of Asia Minor. — 8. Of 
Rhodes, was appointed by Alexander the Great 
one of the inspectors of the governors of that 
country after its conquest, in B.C. 832.] 

./Esct^lApiub {*kaKXTi7Ti6g)t the god of the med< 
ical art. In the Homeric poems ./fisculapius ig 
not a divinity, but simply the ** blameless physi- 
cian*' (Ivfijp dfivfujp), whose sons, Machaon and 
Podallrius, were the physicians in the Qreek 
army, and ruled over Tricca, Ithome, and (Eoha- 
lia. Homer says nothing of the descent of JSs- 
culapius. The common story relates that h« 
was a son of Apollo and Ccrouis, and that wbM 
Coronis was with child by Apollo, she becaiiM 
enamored with Ischys^ an Arcadian. Apollo^ 
informed of this by a raven, which he had set 
to watch her, or, according to others, by his owd 
prophetic powers, sent his sister Artemis to kill 
Coronis. Artemis accordingly destroyed Co- 
ronis in her own house at Liicenab Thessalf 
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oo the shore of Lal:e Dnbia. Aooording to Ovid 
{Met^ ii^ 606), it wm Apollo bimBolf Who killed 
Corouis and iBcbya. Wben the bodj of CoroDU 
was to be biunod, either ApoUo or Mercary 
(Hermes) saved the child JSsculapius from the 
flames, and carried it to Chiron, wbo iDstructed 
the boy in the art of healing and in bunting. 
There are varions other narratiyes respeetmg 
his birth, ac«>rding to some of whidi he was 
a native of Epidanrus, and this was a common 
opinion in later timesw After he had grown 
up, reports spread over all countries, tlut he 
not only cured all the sick, but called the dead 
to life again. But while he was reetorinff 
OUucus to life, Jupiter (Zeus) killed him with 
a flash of lightning, as he feared lest men might 
contrive to escape death altogether, or because 
Pluto had complained of JBscuUpius diminiah- 
ing the number of the dead. But on the 
request of Apollo, Jupiter (Zeus) placed JSscu- 
lapius among the stars. .£sculapius is also 
said to have taken part in the expedition of the 
Argonauts and in the Calydonian hunt He 
was married to Epione, and besides the two 
sons spoken of by Homer, we also find mention 
of the following children of his: laniscus, Alex- 
enor, Aratus, Hygieia, .£gle, laso, and Pana- 
oeia, most of wlTom are only personifications of 
the powers ascribed to their &ther. JBscula- 
pius was worshipped all over Greece. His 
temples were usually built in healthy places, on 
nills outside the town, snd near wells which 
were believed to have healing powers. These 
temples were not only places of worship, but 
^ere frequented by great numbers of sick per- 
sons, and may therefore be compared to moaern 
hospitals. Tlie principal seat ot his worship in 
Greece was Epiiaurus, where he had a temple 
surrounded with an extensive ^ye. Serpents 
were everywhere connected with his worship, 
probably because they were a symbol of pru- 
dence and renovation, and were believea to 
have the power of discovering herbs of won- 
drous powers. For these reasons, a peculiar 
kmd of tame serpents, in which Epidanrus 
abounded, was not only kept in his temple, but 
the god himself frequently appeared in the form 
of a serpent At Rome the worship of i£scu- 
lapius was introduced from Epidanrus at the 
command of the Delphic oracle or of the Sybil- 
line books, in B.C. 293, for the purpose of avert- 
vog a pestilence. The supposed descendants of 
iEsculapius were called by the patronymic name 
Atclepiada (*A<JKXrfiriadai), ana their principal 
seats were Cos and Cnidua They were an order 
or caste of priests, and for a long period the 
practice of medicine was intimately connected 
with religion. The knowledge of medicine was 
rc^^rdcd as a sacred secret, which was trans- 
mitted from father to son in the families of the 
Asdepiadss. Respecting the festivals of iEscu- 
apius, vid. Diet, of Antiq. 

[iEsftPus (Aori/Troc), son of Bucolioo and the 
nymph Abarbarea, slain by Euryalus before 

iEsftpvB (klajfizo^ :) [now Boklu according to 
Leake, but usually considered the modem &Ud- 
itr0\ a river which rises in the mountains of 
Ida, and flows by a north \r\y course into the 
fVopontis, whidi it enters west of Cyzicus and 
MMt of the Graaictts. 

JSsxENiA (JSsemlnus: now /«erRt<r). a I 
in Samnium, made a Roman 'x^ony in the j 
Punic war. 

JBsis (now Enno or FiumexiHa), a H ver wi 
formed the boundary between Picenum 
Umbria, was anciently the soutliero boun^ 
of the Senones» and the northeastern bci^ 
of Italy proper. 

JEaia or iEsiUM (JSainas: now J«*i\ a ft 
and a Roman colony in Umbria, on tJtie Ri 
iEsis, celebrated for its cheese, jEslnaa ca^u 

.£60N (AZacjv), son of Cretheus, the foun 
of lolcus, and of Tyro, the daughter of Sal 
neus, and father of Jason and Proinacbus. 
w»s excluded from the throne by his balf-brul 
Pelias, who endeavored to keep the kiogdont 
himself by sending Jason away with the A 
nauts. Pelias subsequently attempted to 
rid of uEson by force, but the latter put an 
to his own li^« According to Oyid {Jlet^ 
162, 8€q)^ i£son survived the return of the Ai 
nauts, and was made young again bj Medea. 

[^6nides (klcovWfii), a patroojmic ^ 
to the sous of .£son, especially Jason.] 

.£b6pd8 (Aiauiroc). 1. A writer f>f fab] 
lived about B.C. 570, and was a coQtempi>i 
of Solon. He was originally a slave, aLd 
ceivcd his freedom from his roaster Tadmon 
Samian. Upon this ho yisited Cncesus, wi^ 
sent him to Delphi, to distribute among the citi^ 
sens four minsB apiece ; but in cousequenoe of 
some dispute on the subject he refused to gir* 
any money at all, upon which the enraged Del- 
phians threw him from a precipice. Pla^nM 
were sent upon them from the gods for the o^ 
fence, and tney proclaimed their willingness to 
give a compensation for his death to any one who 
could claim it At length ladnion, the grazKisac 
of iEsop's old master, received the oompeiMa- 
tion, since no nearer connection could be found 
A life of iEsop prefixed to a book of fables pu^ 
porting to be nis, and collected by Maximal 
Flanudes, a monk of the fourteenth centuir, 
represents .£sop as a perfect monster of ugu* 
ness and deformity ; a notion for which there is 
no authority whatever in the classical authors. 
Whether Jbsop left an^ written works at slit 
is a question which afiords considerable room 
for doubt ; though it is certain that fables, bear- 
ing JSsop*s name, were popular at Athens in its 
most intellectual age. We find them frequeotlv 
noticed by Aristophanes. They were in pruse, 
and were turned into poetry by several writers. 
Socrates turned some of them into verse during 
his imprisonment, and Demetrius Phalorem 
(B.C. 820) imitated his example. The only 
Greek yersifier of .£sop, of whose writings any 
whole fables are preserved, is Babrius. VtA 
BABaiva. Of the Latin writers of i&opMi 
fables, Phssdrus is the most celebrated. Hd 
Phju>eus. The Fables now extant in prots 
bearing the name of iEsop. are unciuestioimMy 
spurious, as is proved by Bentley in his disMP* 
tation on the fables of IEao^ appended to hii 
celebrated letters oil Phalaris. — Ediiion*: B^ 
Emesti, Lips., 1781 ; by De Furia, lips., 1810 
reprinted by Coray at Paris, 1810; and by 
Schaefer, laps., 1824.— 2. A Greek historisn, 
who wrote a life of Alexander the Great Tbi 
original is lost, but there is a Latin tnuulstitis 
of it by Julius Valc&iub. 

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JSsoi'US, CLAiTPhm, or OlodIus, was the ^eat- 
tsi tragic actor at Rome, and a cootemporary 
of RoeciuB, the greatest oomio actor; ana boui 
of them liTed on iDtimate terms with Cicera 
.£aopuk appeared for the last time on the stage, 
at an advanced age^ at the dedication of Sue 
theatre of Pompaj (6.C. 56), vrhen his Toice 
biled him, and be oould not go through with the 
qiecch. .^laopns realized an immense fortune 
y his profesBion, which was squandered by his 
•DO, a foolish spendthrift It is said, for instanoe, 
that this soo dissolved in Tineirai* and drank a 
pearl worth about £8000, which he took from 
the ear-ring of Cscilia Metella. 

JEam, Mean, or Msscit a people dwelling 
on the sea-eoaat, in the northeast of Germany, 
probably in the modem Kurlandt who oollectra 
amber, which they ealled gle^ttum. Their cus- 
toma, says Tacitus, resembled the Soevic, and 
their fau^^oage the British. They were proba- 
bly a Siumatian or Slavonio race, and not a 

iEs&LA (iEsfilfinns), a town of the .£qui, on a 
mountain between Pneneste and Tibur. (^uIsb 
d^tM arvum, Hor., Carm^ iiL, 29.) 

[iEBt1^^ES (AioMTTiyf), a Trojan hero, whose 
WD Alcathoua married a daughter of Anohises. 
His tomb is alluded to by Homer, acoordinff to 
whom it served as a post of observation, and is 
nid by Strabo to have been five stadia distant 
from Troy, on the road leadii^ to Alexandrea 
Trmmw a conical mound is still pointed out in 
that vicinity as the tomb of .^Isyetcs, and bears 
the appellation l/dJek-T^fe.^ 

[JtETKKtTKs {Alovftvt/Tric), au appellation of 
Bseehue (Dionysus), which means '*Loi'd,*' 
''King,'* and tmder which he was honored espe- 
eiidiy at Aroe in Achaia.] 
[J&raMA {AWaia), a dtv of Laconia.1 
j£thal!a {AWa^ia, AlddXif), called Ilva (now 
JiMa) by the Romans, a small island in the Tus- 
•sn bea, opposite the town of Populonia, cele- 
brated for itB iron mines. It had on the north- 
east a good harbor, " Argous Portus" (now Forto 
Rrrmoy in which the Argonaut Jason is said to 

ifirHAxiinEs (AlOa^dtfA son of Mercuiy (Hei^ 
mcs) and Eu]>olei\{ia, the herald of the Argonauts. 
He had received from his father the faculty of 
rememberine every thing, even in Hades, and 
VIS allowed to reside alternately in the upper 
sod in the lower world. His soul, after many 
migrationB, at length took possession of the body 
of Pytha^ras, in which it still recollected its 
imner migrations. 

JEtbea (Ai^p), a personified idea of the 
Mythical oosmogooiefs m which ^ther was con- 
siiered as one of the elementary substances out 
of wfaiefa the Uniyerse was formed. JStber was 
regarded by the poets as the pure upper air, 
the residence of the gods, and Jupiter (Zeus) 
M the Lord of the iEther, or jEther itpelf; per- 

iEralsn {AldtKec\ a Thessalian or Epirot 
people, near Mount Pindus. 

iBrBioDB, Hiarnt or Istkr, a Roman writer 
o< tiie fourth century afte* Clbrist, a native of 
biria, the author of a geographical work called 
^bkUi (^tmograp/tia, which appears to have 
UcQ efaiefly drawn up from the measurement 
«f th» vbole Roman world ordered by Julius 

Cesar, RO. 44, and from other oiiicial doci.mealt 
Edited by Gronovius, in his edition of Pompo 
nine Mela, Leyden, 1722. 

MmiLLA (AldtXXa or AlBvXhi), daughter oi 
Laomedon and sister of Priam, became after the 
fall of Troy the captive of Protesilaus, [according 
to a late legend, for the Homeric account makes 
Protesilaus to have been the first Greek slaio 
before Troy. Vid. PaoTEsxLADS.J 

[.dSrHfON, a seer and friend of Phineus, slain 
at the nuptials of Perseus and Andromeda.— 
2. Son of a Heliconian nymph, fell in the expe- 
dition of the Seven against Tbebeal 

JBfrai^rvi (AWioireCt said to be worn al9u and 
&rp, but perhaps really a foreign name corrupt- 
ed), was a name applied, (l.)most generally to 
all black or dark races of men ; (2.) to the inhab- 
itants of all the regions south of those with 
which the early Greeks were well acquainted, 
extending even as far north as Cyprus and Phcn- 
nicia; (S.) to all the inhabitants of Inner Africa, 
south of Mauretania, the Great Desert, and 
Egypt) from the Atlantic to the Red Sea and 
Indian Ocean, and to some of the dark raot s of 
Asia ; and (4.) most specifically to the inhabi- 
tants of the land south of Egypt» which was 
called .^THTOPiA. 

^THidpfA (AWioma, AW. vn^p Alyvnrov : Ai- 
Ounfff Aldtoirev^t Hom., fern. AWtoiric'- ^thiops: 
now Nubicty Kordofan^ Sennaar^ AbyMinia\ a 
country of Africa, south of Egypt, the boundary 
of the countries beiog at Syene (now AMmian) 
and the Smaller Cataract of the Nile, and extend- 
ing on the east to the Red Sea, and to the south 
and southwest indefinitely, as far apparently as 
the knowledge of the ancients extended. In 
its most exact political sense the word JBthio- 

Sia seems to have denoted the kingdom of 
[KRoit ; but in its wider sense it included alsc 
the kingdom of the Axomtfjc, besides several 
other peoples, such as the Troglodytes and the 
Ichthyophagi on the Red Sea, the Blerumyes 
and Megabari and Nubss in the interior, 'rhe 
country was watered by the Nile and its tribu- 
taries, the Astapus (Banr-el-Azrek or Blue Nile) 
and the Astaboras {Atbara or Tacaxxe), The 
people of Ethiopia seem to have been of the 
Caucasian race, and to have spoken a language 
allied to the Arabic. Monuments are found m 
the country closely resembling those of Egypt, 
but of an inferior style. The religion of the 
^Ethiopians appears to have been similar to that 
of the Egyptians, but free from the grosser su- 
perstitions of the latter, such as the worship of 
animals. Some traditions made MeroS the 
parent of E^ptian civilization, while others 
ascribed the civilitation of ^Ethiopia to Egyptian 
colonization. So great was the power or the 
^Ethiopians, that more than once m its history 
Egypt was governed by Ethiopian kings ; and 
even the most powerful kings of Egypt, though 
they made successful incursions into ^tb'opia, 
do not appear to have bad auy extensiye ox 
permanent hold upon the country. Under the 
Ptolemies Grssco-E^yptian colonies established 
themselves in i&thiopia, and Greek manners 
and philosophy had a considerable influence oo 
the upper classes; but the country was never 
subdued. The Romans failed to extend theii 
empire over Ethiopia, though th«y made expe 
ditions into the country> ha one of \\'Ivub C r« 


Ib^y Google 



troiiios, pKftct of Egypt under Augustiw, id- 
voQced aa far aa Napiita, and defeated tbe war- 
rior qm«n Candace (B.O. 22). Chriatianity very 
«arly extended to Ethiopia, probably in conse- 
^fuence ol the oonveraioD of tbe treasurer of 
(4ueeQ Candace (Acta, yiii., 27 X The mstory >f 
Uie downfidl of the great Ethiopian kingdom 
of Meroe ia very obacure. 

AisTHiius ('A^^A^orX firat king of Elia, father 
»f Endymion, vaa aon of Jupiter (Zeus) and 
Protogenia, daughter of Deucalion ; acoordiDg to 
bthera, a aon of ^olua. 

[i!E}THON (kWuv from aldt^), father of Tantalus. 
*-2. Appellation aaaumed by Ulyaaea to eacape 
detection on his return to Ithaca. — 3. Name of a 
horae of the Sun ; alao of one of Pluto'a ; and 
of Aurora (Eos), of Hector, and of aeveral other 

.^THSA (Al^pa). 1. Daughter of Pittheua of 
Troezen, waa mother of Theseua by iEgeua. 
She afterward lived in Attica, from whence ahe 
waa carried off to Lacediemon by Gaator and 
Pollux, and became a alave of Helen, with whom 
die waa taken to Troy. At the capture of Troy 
ahe was restored to liberty by her grandaon 
Acamaa or Dcmopbon. — 2. Daughter of Oceaniia, 
by whom AUua begot the twelve Hyadea and n 
■on, Hyaa. 

[.^thCsa {Aidovaa\ daughter of Neptune and 
Alcyone, and mother by Apollo of Eleuther.] 

[^THTiA {Aldvia)j on appellation of Minervu 
(Athena), aa tbe inventreas of shipbuilding or 

AKiioN ('Aeriuv). 1. A aculptor of Amphipo- 
lia, flourished about the middle of the thinl cen- 
tury B.O. — 2. A celebrated painter, whose beat 
picture represented the marriage of Alexander 
and Roxana. It is commonly supposed that he 
lived iu the time of Alexander the Qreat; but 
the words of Lucion (IlerocL, 4) show that he 
must have lived about the time of Hadrian and 
the Antonines. 

AsTiua 1. [Son of Anthas, king of Troezen, 
whose descendants foun-led Halioamassus and 
Myndua.] — 2. A celebrat '.d Roman general, de- 
fended the Western em p. re against the barba- 
rians during the reign of Valeutinian III. In 
A.D. 451 he gained a great victory over Attila, 
near Chalona, in Gaul ; but he waa treacheroualy 
murdered by Valeutinian in 464. — 3. A Greek 
medical writer, bom at Aniida in Meaopotamia, 
lived at the end of the fifth or the begmning of 
the aixth century after Chriat Hia work Bi6Xla 
'ioTpiKii, 'Exxa/(5/»xa, *^ Sixteen Booka on Medicine," 
ia one of the most valuable medical remains of 
antiquity, as being a judicious compilation from 
many authors whose works are lost The whole 
of it has never appeared in the original Greek, 
but a corrupt translation of it into Latin waa 
published by Comarius, Basil, 1642, often re- 
printed, and in U. Stephens's Medicce Artis Prin- 
dpet, Paris, 1667. 

JEtva (Atrvj7). 1. (Now Monte Gibello\ a 
▼olcanic mountain in the northeast of Sicilv, 
between Tauroraenium and Oatana. It is said 
to have derived its name from iEtna, a Sicilian 
nymph, a daughter of Uranua and Giea, or of 
Briareus. Jupiter (Zeus) buried under it Ty- 
phon or Enceladus ; and in its interior Yulcau 
(Hepbiestus) and the Cyclopes foiled die thun- 
derbolts for Jupiter (2^us). There Irere seve- 

ral eruptions >f Mount J£tna iu aouquitv. Okit 
occurred in B.C. 475, to which JEachjlxM pnd 
Pindar probably allude, and another io B.C. 426, 
which rhucydidea aaya (iii., 116) \tras the third 
on record aince the Greeka had settled iu Sicily. 
The form of the mountain seems to have been 
much the same in antiquity aa it is at present 
Its base covera an area of nearly ninety miles 
in circumference, and ita highest poiut is 10,874 
feet above the level of the sea. The circum- 
ference of the crater is variously estimated 
from two and a half to four miles, and the depth 
from six hundred to eight hundred feet — 3. 
(^tnenses : now B. Maria di lAcodia or S. Nie- 
olaa di Arenit)^ a town at the foot of Mount 
^tna, on the road to Oatana, formerly called 
Inessa or Inneea. It was founded in B.C. 461, 
by the inhabitants of Catana, who had been ex- 
pelled from their own town by the SiculL They 
gave the name of i£tna to Ineaaa, because their 
own town Catana had been called ^tna by 
Hiero I. 

J^TKjam (AirvaZof), an epithet of several gods 
and mythical beings connected with Mount ^tna ; 
of Jupiter (Zeua), of whom there was a statue 
on Mount ^tna, and to whom a festival waa 
celebrated there, called AL\ne&; of Vulcan (H^ 
phsatua) ; and of the Cyclopes. 

.^^liA {klruXia: AiruXoc), a division of 
Greece, was bounded on the west by Acama- 
nia, from which it was separated by tbe River 
Achelous, on the north by Kpirus and Theasaly, 
on the east by the Ozolian Locrians, and on toe 
south by tbe entrance to the Corinthian Golf 
It was divided into two parts, Old uEtolia, £c>:>m 
the Achelous to tbe Evenus and Calydon, and 
New ^tolia, or the Acquired (Hixnjroq'y, fnm 
the Evenus and Calydon to the Ozolian Locri- 
aiia. On the coast the oouutry is level and 
fruitful, but in the interior mountainous and 
unproductiva The mountains contained many 
wild beasts, and were celebrated in noythology 
for the hunt of the Calydonian boar. The coun- 
try was originally inhabited by Curetea and 
Lelegea, but was at an early period colonised 
by Greeka from Elis, led by the mythical .^Eto- 
LV8. The ^toliana took part in the Trojan 
war, under their kinff, Thoas. They continued 
for a long time a rude and uncivilized people, 
living to a great extent by robbery ; and even 
io the time of Thucydides (EC. 410) many of 
their tribes apoke a* language which waa not 
Greek, and were in the habit of eating raw fleah. 
Like the other Greeks, they aboliehed, at an 
early time, the monarchical form of govern- 
ment, and lived under a democracy. They ap- 
pear to have been early united by a kind of 
league, but thia league first acquired political 
importance about the middle of the third cen- 
tury B.C., and became a formidable rival to the 
Macedonian monarchs and the Achcean Leagua 
The ifitolian League at one time included not 
only /Etolia Proper, but Acamania,part o( Thes- 
saly, Locris, and the Island of Cephallenia ; and 
it also had close alliances with Elis and several 
towns in the Peloponnesus, and hkewise with 
Cius on the Propootis. Its annual meetings, 
called PanatoHoMt were held in the autumn at 
Thermus, and at them were chose*n a general 
{<rrpaTfty6^\ who was at the head of the Jeagn^^ 
an hipparehua or master of the horsoi a " 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Ury. and a nelect committee called apocleti 
(dnotiXsfToi). For further particulars respecting 
the ooDBtitutioo of the league, vid Diet, of Ant., 
art .^soucoM Faroes. The ifitolians took the 
side of ArtioehuB IIL against the Romans, and 
OQ the defeat of that monarch B.C. 189, they 
beeamo Tirtoally the subjects of Rome. On 
the eooqiMst of the Achaeans, RC. 146, iEtoUa 
was ioeloded in the Roman proyince of Achaia. 
After the battle of Aotium, EC. 81, a consider^ 
able part of the population of i£tolia was trans* 
planted to the eitj of Nioofous, which Augus- 
tus built in eommemoration of his yictory. 

Mtoum (Air»Aoc)b son of Endymion and 
Nds, or Iphlanassa, married Pronoe, by whom 
he had two sons, Pleuron and CalyJon. He 
was king of £lis« but was obliged to leave Pel- 
oponnesus, because he had slain Apis, the son 
of Jason or Salmoneus. He went to the coun- 
try near the Aehelous, which was called ^tolia 
after him. 

.£zdirE (Ai^c^ and Al^ovrfic : Al^wvevf : now 
Aianif\ an Attic demus of the tribe Cecropis 
or Panaionis. Its inhabitants had the reputa- 
tion of being mockera and slanderers. 

Area, I]^Mi'nua, of Nemausus (Nitmet) in 
Gaul, was the teacher of Quintilian, and one of 
the most distinguished orators in the reigns of 
Hberius^ Caligula, Claudius, and Nero, but he 
fiserifieed hia character by conducting accusa- 
tioos for the goTcmment He was consul suf- 
fe^us in AJ). 89, and died in 60. Quiutrlian 
mentions seTcral works of hid on oratory, which 
ore all lost 

[Apkakia Oaia or Caxa, the wife of the sen- 
itor Lidnioa Buccio, a very litigious woman, 
vho always pleaded her own causes before the 
prator. Hence her name became proverbial 
lor a litigious woman. She died 48 B.C.] 

AraliriD& 1. L^ A Roman comic poet flour- 
iiljed about RC. 100. His comedies described 
Boman scenes and mauuers (Comcediee togat<x\ 
vbA the subjects were mostly taken from the 
life of the lower classes (Comcedia tahemaria). 
Tl>ey were frequently polluted with disjs^raceful 
amoors ; but be depicted Roman life with such 
i«oearacy that he is classed with Menander 
(Hot, Ep^ ii, 1, 61). His comedies continued 
to be acted under the empire. The names and 
fragments of between tweuty and thirty are still 
p^erved: [these fragments have been pub- 
liihed by Bothe, in the 6th vol. of his Poetce See- 
Kici Lat^ and by Neukiroh, De Fabvla to^ata 
'RosxaauLl 3. L., a person of obscure origin, 
«cd a faithful adherent of Pompey. He served 
ooder Pompey against Sertonus and Mithra- 
dfitea, and was, through Pompey's influence, 
made consul, B.C. 60. When Pompey obtained 
the provinees of the two Spains in his second 
eoQsuUhip (B.C. 55), he sent Afranius and Pe- 
treicB to govern them, while he himself remain- 
ed in Rome. In B.C. 49, Afranius and Petreius 
vere defeated by Cssar in Spain. Afranius 
thereupon passed over to Pompey in Greece; 
vas present at the battle of Pharsalia, B.C. 48 ; 
and subsequently at the battle of Thapsus in 
Airica, BO. 46. He then attempted to fly into 
Mauretania. but was taken prisoner by P. Sit- 
ting and killed 

AraioA {^K^fiKfix Africftnus), was used by 
^ ancients in two senses, (I.) for the whole 

continent of AfHea^ and (2.) for the porticn of 
Nortiiem Africa which constituted the territory 
of Carthage, and which the Romnus ereeteo 
into a province, under the name of Africa Pro* 
pria.^-1. In the more general sense the nama 
was not used by the Greek writer »; and its 
use by the Romans arose from the extension 
to the whole continent of the name of a part of 
it The proper Greek name for the continent 
is Libya (AiAvri). Considerably before the his- 
torical period of Greece begins, the PboBUi- 
cians extended their commerce over the Medi- 
terranean, and founded several colonies on the 
northern coast of Africa, of which Carthage was 
the chief. Vid. CAaTHAOo. The Greekd knew 
very little of the country until tlie foundation 
of the Dorian colony of Ctrens (B.C. 620), and 
the intercourse of Greek travellers with Egypt 
in the sixth and fifth centuries ; and even then 
their knowledge of all but the part near Cyrene 
was derived from the Egyptians and Phoeni- 
cians, who sent out some remarkable expedi- 
tions to explore the country. A Phceoician 
fleet, sent by the Egyptian king Pharaoh Necho 
(about B.C. 600), was said to have sailed from 
the Red Sea, round Africa, and so into the 
Mediterranean : the authenticity of this story 
is still a matter of dispute. We still possess 
an authentic account of another expedition, 
which the Carthaginians dispatched unuer Han> 
no (about B.C. 510), and which reached a point 
on the western coast nearly, if not quite, as iax 
as latitude ten degrees north. On the opposite 
side of the contineut, the coast appears to have 
been very litUe known beyond the southern 
boundary of Egypt, till the time of the Ptolfr 
mies. In the interior, the Great Desert (5aA<zra) 
in£erposed a formidable obstacle to discovery 
but even before the time of Herodotus, th« 
people on the northern coast told of individuals 
who had crossed the Desert and had reached a 
great river flowing toward the east, with cro4- 
odiltts in it, and black men living on its baoka^ 
wbich, if the stoi-y be true, was probably the 
Niger in its upper course, near Timbuctoo. That 
the Carthaginians had considerable intercourse 
with the regions south of the Sahara, has been 
inferred from the abundance of elephants they 
kept Later expeditions and inquiries extena- 
ed the knowledge which the ancients possessed 
of the eastern coast to about ten degrees south 
latitude, and gave them, as it seems, some 
farther acquaintance with the interior, about 
Lake Tchad, but the southeru part of the oonti 
nent was so totally unknown, that Ptolemy, 
who finally fixed the limits of ancient geograph- 
ical science, recurred to the old notion, which 
seems to have prevailed before the time of He- 
rodotus, that the southern parts of Africa mtit 
the southeastern part of Asia, and that the In- 
dian Ocean was a vast lake.. The greatest fft- 
ographers who lived before Ptolemy, namely, 
Eratosthenes and btrabo, had accepted the tri^ 
dition that Africa was circumnavigable. Tbf 
shape. of the continent they conceived to be Iha 
of a right-angled tiiangle, having for iti hypot- 
enuse a line (drawn from the Pillars of Hercules 
to the south of the Red Sea : and, as to its ex- 
tent, they did not suppose it to reach nearly so 
far as the equator, rtolemy supposed the wf st- 
em coart to stretch north and south from Jhi 




FfUan of Hercules, and be gnve the oontiJMni 
an indefinite extent toward the aouth. Tliere 
were also great differences of opinion as to the 
boundaries of the continent Some divided the 
whole world into only two parte, Europe and 
Asia, and they were not agreed to which of 
these two Lybia (i. e^ Africa) belonged; and 
those who recognized three oivisions differed 
■gain in placing the boundary between Libya 
and A«iia either on the west of Egypt, or alone 
the inie, or at the Isthmus of Sues* and the Red 
Sea : the last opinion gradually preyailed. As 
to the subdivision of the country itself^ Herodo- 
tus distributes it into ifigyptuSi JBthiopia (t. e^ 
all the regions south of f^ypt and the a€ihara\ 
and libra, properly so ouled; and he subdi- 
vides Libya mto three parts, according to their 
physical distinctions, namely, (1.) the Inhabit- 
ed Country alona; the Mediterranean, in which 
dwelt the Nomad Libyans (ol napadaXdaaiot ruv 
pofidduv A.i6vcw : tJu Barbary aiates) ; (2.) the 
Country of Wild Beasts {^ '^pi66rig\ south of 
the former, that is, the region between the Little 
and Great Atlas, which still abounds in wild 
beasts, but takes its name from its prevailing 
vegetation (Beled-el-Jeridt i e, tlte Country of 
Palms), ana, f 3.) the Sandy Desert (i fdfiuo^ ; 
the Sahara)^ that is, the table-land bounded by 
the Atlas on the north and the margin of the 
Nile valley on the east, which is a vast tract of 
sand broken only by a few habitable islands, 
called Oases. As to the people Herodotus dis- 
tingc'shes ibur races, two native, namely, the 
Libyans and Ethiopians, and two foreign, name- 
ly, the Pbosnicians and the Greeks. The Lib- 
yans, however, were a Caucasian race: the 
^Ethiopians of Herodotus correspond to our Ne- 
gro races. The Phoenician colonies were plant- 
ed chiefly along, and to the west of, the great 
recess in the middle of the north coast, which 
fonned the two Strtes, by far the most im- 
portant of them being Carthage ; and the Greek 
colonies were fixed on the coast along and be- 
yond the east side of the Syrtes ; the chief of 
them was CYREys, and the region was called 
Cyrenaica. Between this and Egypt were Lib- 
yan tribes, and the whole region txitween the 
Carthaginian dominions and Egypt, including 
CyreDaica, was called by the same name as the 
whole continent, Lybia. The chief native tribes 
of this region were the AdyrmachidjB, Mar- 
MJLBIDJE, FsYLLi, and Nabamonis. The last ex- 
tended into the Carthaginian territory. To the 
west of tlie Ciirthoginian possessions, the coun- { 
try was called by the general names of NuaciniA 
and Mauretania, and was possessed partly by 
Carthaginian colonies on the coast, and partly ! 
by Libyan tribes under various names, the chief I 
of which were the NuMiDiS, Massylii, Has- , 
ajBSYLii, and Mauri, and to the south of them ' 
Iho GcTULi. llie whole of this northern re- ' 
gion fell successively under the power of Rome, i 
and was finally divided into provinces as fol- ' 
lows: (1.) Egypt; (2.) Libya, including, {a) 
Liby® Nomos or Libya Exterior; (6) Marma- 
rioa; (c) Cyrenaica; (3) Africa Propria, the • 
former empire of Carthage (see below. No. 2) ; * 

S4.) Numidia ; (5.) Mauretaoia, divided into, ' 
a) Sitifensis; (b) Cmsariensis; (c) Tingitana:! 
these, with (6.) iSthiopia, make up the whole 
of ^Jfiica, according to thA divisions reoognixcd ■ 

by the latest of the ancient ffeog^raph«ra. Hm 
northern district was better known to the Ro* 
mans than it is to us, and was extremely pcf 
nlous and flourishing; and, if we may judgs by 
the list of tribes in Ptolemy, the interior of the 
country, especially between the Little and QrcAi 
Altars, must have supported many more inhab- 
itants than it does at present Further infoi^ 
mation respecting the several poi^iona of the 
country will be found in the separate articles. — 
2. Aprxga Propria or PaovnroiA, or eiinply Af- 
rica, was the name under which the Korminfl, 
after the Third Punic War (B.O. 146), erected 
into a province tlie whole of die former territory 
of Carthage. It extended from the River Tub- 
ca, on the west, which divided it from Numidia, 
to the bottom of the Syrtis Minor, on the south- 
east. It was divided into two districts (regio- 
nes), namely, (1.) Zeugis or Zeugitana, the dis- 
trict round Carthage, (2.) Byzacium or Bysa- 
cena, south of Zeugitana, as far aa the bottom 
of the Syrtis Minor. It correspoDds to the mod- 
em regency of ISmii, The province was full 
of flourishing towns, and was extremely fertile, 
especially Byzaoena: it furnished Rome with 
its chief supplies of com. The aboye limits are 
assigned to the province by Pliny: JPtoJemy 
makes it extend from the River Ampsaga, on 
the west, to the borders of Cyrenaica, at the 
bottom of the Great Syrtis, on the east^ so an 
to include Numidia and TripK)litana. 

AyalclNua a surname given to the Scipios 
on account of their victories in Africa. Vid 

Afb!oAnu& 1. Sex. C^fiaLTus, a Roman ju- 
risconsult, lived under Antoninus Pius (A.D. 
138-161), and wrote Zt6rt IX. Quceationum, from 
which many extracts are made in the Digest 
— 2. Julius, a celebrated orator in the reign of 
Nero, is much praised by Quintilian, who speaks 
of him and Domitius Afer as the best orators 
of their time. — 8. Sex. Julius, a learned Chris- 
tian writer at the beginning of the third cen- 
tury, passed the greater part of his life at Km- 
maus m Palestine, and afterward lived at Alex- 
andrea. His principal work was a Chronicon 
in five books, from the creation of the world, 
which be placed in 5499 B.O., to A.D. 221. This 
work is lost) but part of it is extracted by £use- 
bius in his Chronicon^ and many fragments of 
it are preserved by Georgius Syncellus, Cedre- 
nus, and in the Paschale Chronicon. There 
was auoiher work written by Africanus, enti- 
tled Cesli (Keoroi), that is, embroidered girdles, 
so called from the celebrated Cestut of Venus 
( Apliroditel. It treated of a vast variety of sub- 
jects — meaidne, agriculture, natural history, 
the military art, Si. The work itself is losti 
but some extracts from it are published by The 
venot in the Maihematiei VeUres, Paris, 1698 
and also in the Geoponica, 

AFaicuB {XLyp by the Greeks), the southwest 
wind, so called because 'it blew from Africa^ 
frequently brought storms with it {creherqut pro- 
cellit AfrieuA, Virg, -dEn., i., 86.) 

fAoAOLEs { ^Aya/cAf/f) a Myrmidon hero, father 

[AoALLis ('AyoT^'f). of Coroyra, a femaw 
grammarian, who wrote upon Hoiner : but from 
two passages in Suidas some huve fupi)o»sil 
that toe true name is AnagaUU^ i 




AoXMli>K {'A '/afi^&^\ daughter of Auglaa aod 
vife of MuUittk wbo^ aooordi^ to Homer (i/^ zi, 
7391 was argminted with Uie healiDg powera 
•f all the plaots that grow upoQ the earth. 

AttlifftDai ('A^d^fS^f X commonly called son 
«f SrgiiMiflk king of Orchomeooi, aod brother of 
Tropbooioi. though hiB Detmily coimectioDa are 
rclatal diffireDtly by differeDt writers. Agame- 
dea and Trophooios dietinguiehed themaelves 
aa arehiteflta : they built a fomple of Apollo at 
Delphi, and a treasury of Hyrieui^ king of Hyria 
in Bmnlia. The story about this treasury re- 
Mmbles the ooe which Herodotus (ii^ 121) 
relates of the treasury of the i^ptian king 
Bhampsiiiitiia. In the constructioD of the treas- 
uij ot Hyrieua. Agamede» and Trophonius ooo- 
tnved to place one stone in suoh a manner 
thai it eoold be taken away outside, and thus 
(bnned an entrance to the treasury, without 
any body perceiving it. Agamedes and Tro- 
plkonios DOW constantly robbed the treasury 
and the Idiig, seeing that locks and seals were 
uninjnred, while his treasures were constantly 
deereasiog, set traps to catch the tbiet Aga- 
medes was thus ensnared, and Trophonius out 
tuff his head to avert the disooverr. After this 
Trophoniua was immediately swallowed up by 
the earth. Oo this spot there was afterwara, 
in the groTe of Lebad^ the cave of Agamedes, 
with a eolumn by the side of it Here was also 
the oracle of Trophonius, and those who oon* 
suited it first offered a ram to Agamedes and 
invoked him. A tradition mentioned by Cicero 
(Tiuc Qumtt^ L, 47) states that Agamedes 
snd Tivphoiuus, after buildiqg the temple of 
Apollo at I>elphi praved to the god to grant 
them in reward for their labor what was best 
he men. The god promised to do so on a cer- 
tsin day, and when ue day came the two broth- 

AoamMiroif (^XyofUfivuv), sod of Plisthenes 

sod Adrope or Eriphyle, and gprandson of Atreus, 

king of My eensB ; but Homer and others call him 

1 son of Atreus and grandson of Pelop& Aga- 

menmoD and his brother Menelaus were brought 

op together with iEgisthus, the eon of Thyes- 

tes, in the house of Atreus. After the murder 

of Atreus by iSigisthus and Thyestes^ who sue- 

eeeded Atreus in the kiugdom of Mycenie {vid, 

iEeiBrouBY, Agamemnon and Menelaus went to 

Sparta, wniere Agamemnon married Glytemnes- 

tn, the daughter of T)iidareus, bv whom he be- 

esme the father of Ipbiansssa (Iphigenla), Chry- 

wthemis, Laodice (Electra), ana Orestes. The 

manner in -which Agamemnon obtained the 

kingdom of Myceno is differently related. 

froat Homer, it appears as if he had peaceably 

sneeeeded Thyestes, while, according to others, 

he expelled Thyespes, and usurped bis throne. 

He now became the most powerful prince in 

Greece. A catalogue of his dominions is given 

ia the Diad (ii., 669. 4fcc) When Homer attri- 

botes to Agamemnon the sovereignty over all 

Aigos,the name Argos signifies Peloponnesus, 

« the greater part of it, for the dty of Aigos 

vss governed by Diomedes. When Helen, the 

wife qI Menelaus, was carried off by Paris, and 

ths Qfeek diieJb resolved to recover her b^ 

Ives of arms, Agamemnon was chosen theur 

tunmsnder-in-ehief After two years of prepa- 

the Greek armv imd fleet asM»nbi<»ri in 

the port of Aulis in Bceotia. At this place Aga 
memnon killed a stag which was sacred to Diana 
(Artemis), who in return visited tJie Greek army 
with a pestilence^ and produced a calm whioa 
prevented the Greeks from leaviug the port lo 
order to appease her wrath, A^imemnon con- 
sented to sacrifice hie daughter Jphigenla; bat 
at the moment she was to he sacrific^, she was 
carried off by Diana (Artemis) herself t^> Tuuria^ 
and another victim was substituted in her plaoa 
The ealm now ceased, and the army sailed to 
the coast of Troy. Agamemnon alone had one 
hundred ships, independent of sixty which he 
had lent lo the Arcadians. In the tenth year 
of the siege of Troy we find Agamemnon in> 
yolved in a quarrel with AchilTes respecting 
the possession of Briseis, whom Achilles was 
obliged to give up to Agamemnon. Achilles 
withdrew from the field of battle, and the 
Greeks were visited by successive disasters. 
The danger of the Greeks at last induoed Pa- 
troclus, the friend of Achilles, to take part in 
the battle, and his fall led to the reconciliation 
of Achilles and Agamemnon. Vid. Achiller. 
Agamemnon, although the chief commander of 
the Greeks, is not the hero of the Biad, and in 
chivalrous spirit, bravery, and character alto- 
gether inferior to Achillea. But he neverthe- 
less rises above all the Greeks by his dignity, 
power, and majesty: his eyes and head ai-e 
likened to those of Jupiter (Zeus), his girdle to 
that of Mars (Ares), siid his breast to that of 
Neptune (Poseidon). The emblem of his power 
is a sceptre, the work of Vulcan (HephsetusX 
which Jupiter (Zeus) had once given to Mer- 
cury (Hermes), and Mercury (Hermes) to Pe- 
lops, from whom it descended to Agamemnon 
At the capture of Troy he received Cassandra 
the daughter of Priam, ns his prize. On his 
return home he was murdered hj iEgisthus, who 
had seduced Clytemnestra during Uie absence 
of her husband. The tragic poets make Cly- 
temnestra alone murder Agamemnon : her motive 
is in ^schylus her jealousy of Cassandra, in 
Sophocles and Euripicfes her wrath at the death 
of IphigenSa. 

AcAMEMNdiffDES (*Ayafi€fivovi67i£)y the son of 
Agamemnon, t. e^ Orestes. 

[AoAMica ('AyaviKJf) or Aglaoniob (*Ay?Mo- 
vUrj)^ daughter of the Tfaessalian Hegetor : she 
was acquuinted with the eclipses of the moon, 
and gave out that she could draw down the 
moon itself from the sky.] 

Aganippe ('A^ovi^r^i/), a nymph of the well 
of the same name at the foot of Mount Helicoi^ 
in BoeoUa, which was considered sacred to the 
Muses (who were hence called Apanippides), and 
which was belieyed to have the power of inspir- 
ing those who drank of it [The nymph is caUed 
a daughter of the river-g(xl Permessus.] Thit 
fountain of Hippocrene has the epithet ^oaAi/>pt« 
f Ov, Fast., V, 7), from its being sacred to the 
Muses, like that of A^ippe. 

AoapSkoe ('Ayairivup), a son of Ancovie, 
king of the Arauiians, received sixty ships from 
Agamemnon, in which he led his Arcamans to 
Troy. On his return from Troy he was cast by 
a storm on the coast of Cyprus, where, aeoord* 
ing to some accounts, he founded the town o» 
Paphus, and in it the famous temple of Venui 
(Aphrodite). ^r-^ t 

Digitized b^^OOgle 



[A6APr5iJifU8 ('i.yajrToX«/iof), a 0OD of 
JESffvptus, BlaiQ by the Danaid Pirone.] 

[AoAE, a city of Byzadum in Africa Propria. 
Bhaw regards it as the modern Boohatfjar, wnere 
ruins of a destroyed city are fonud.] 

[AoABA (now Agra), a city of India intra 
Oangem, on the southern bank of the lomanes 
(now Dtehtanna).] 

[AoAaiODS Sncus (now Gulf of Artingeri\ a 
gruf of India intra Gangem.] 

AoARisTA i^Kyapiani). 1. Daughter of Clis- 
thenes, tyrant of Sicyon, wife of Megacles, and 
mother of Clisthenes, who divided the Athenians 
into ten tribes, and of Hippocrates. — 2. Daugh- 
ter of the aboye-mentioned Hippocrates, and 
grand-daughter of No. 1, wife of Xanthippus, 
and mother of Perides. 

Agasias (^Kyaaiac\ a son of Dositheus, a 
sculptor of Ephesus, probably a contemporary 
of Alexander the Great (B.O. 830), sculptured 
the statue known by the name of the Borghese 
gladiator, which is still preserved in the gwlery 
of the Louvre. This statue, as well as the 
Apollo Belvidere, was discovered among the 
rums of a palace of the Roman emperors on the 
site of the ancient Antium (now Uapo (TAnzo). 
From the attitude of the figure, it is clear that 
the statue represents not a gladiator, but a war- 
rior contending with a mounted combatant Per- 
haps it was intended to represent Achilles fight- 
ing with Penthesil^a. — [3. Another Ephesian 
tuulptor, son of Menophilus, who exercised his 
art m Delos, while it was under the Roman 
■way. — 3. Of Stymphalus in Arcadia, an ofiicer 
in the army of the ten thousand, often mentioned 
by Xenopfion in his Anabasis.] 

AaA8ioi.ES, A0E8ICLE8, or Hegesiclbs {^kyaa- 
iK^^f 'kyrjaixXnCt 'HyijatKXf/c), king of Sparta, 
succeedea his fiitber Arcfaidamas I., about B.G. 
600 or 690. 

[Agasthenxs {'kyaadSvTfc), son of Augias, and 
king in Elis: his son Polyxeuus is mentioned 
among the suitor: of Helen.] 

|^Aoa8Tb5phub fAycfffrpo^f), son of Paeon, was 
slain by Diomedes before Troy.] 

[Agasus PoaTUS ^now Porto Greco), a harbor 
of Apulia on the Aariatic] 

AoATHAacHlDES {' Ayodopxi^c) or AoATHAa- 
0HU8 {*Ayddapxoc\ a Greek grammarian, bom 
at Cnidos, lived at Alexandrea, probably about 
B.0. 130. He wrote a considerable number of 
geographical and historical works ; but we have 
only an epitome of a portion of his work on the 
Erythraean Sea, which was made by Photius: 
it is printed in Hudson's Oeogr. Script. Gr. Mi- 
nor cb : [of his works on Europe and Asia some 
fragments are preserved in Atnenaeus and other 
wnters, which nave been published by MiUler in 
Pidot's Firagmenta Histortcorwn Oracorum, vol 
di, p. 190-197.] 

AoATHAacHUs {*Ayd$<ipxog), an Athenian art- 
ist said to have invented scene-painting, and 
to have painted a scene for a tragedy which 
iEschylus exhibited. It was probably not till 
toward the end of iEschylus's career that scene- 
painting was introduced, and not till the time of 
Sophocles that it was generally made use of; 
which may account for Aristotle's assertion 
{Poet., iv., 16) that scene-painting was intro- 
nuccd by Sophocles. — 2. A Greek painter, a na- 
LivA of Samos, aud s>o if Eudemua He was 

a ooDtempomry of Alcibiades and Zeuxis, at^ 
must not De confounded with the contemporjiry 
of iEscbylus. — [8. A Syraeusan, who was lUaoed 
by the Syraeusans over a fleet of twelve sb'ipa io 
B.O. 418, to visit their allies and harass th« 
Athenians. He was one of the conimandera, in 
the same year, in the decisive battle fought in 
the harbor of Syracuse.] 

[Agatha ('Ayofty : 'Ayadatoc : now Agdey^ fc 
cit^r of Gallia Narbonensis on the Arauria] 

AGATHfiMiaus (*Aya$jjftepoc)t the author of 
" A Sketch of Geography in Epitome" (r^f jec» 
ypofpiiac iiroTviruaeic tv iTcirofiy), probably lived 
about the beginning of the thircT century after 
Christ The work consists chiefly of extracts 
from Ptolemy and other early writers. It ia 
printed in Hudson's Oeogr. Script, Or. Minor^s^ 
[and by Hoffinan with Arrians Perfplui, Acl. 
Lips., 1642.] 

Agathias fAya^zof), a Byzantine writer, bom 
about A.D. 686 at Myrina in ^Eolis, praeticed 
as an advocate at Constautbople, whence he ob- 
tained the name Scholastiau (which word signi- 
fied an advocate in his time), and died about 
A.D. 662. He wrote many poems, of which 
several have come down to ua ; bat his prin- 
cipal work was his History in five books, which 
is also extant, and is of considerable value. It 
contains the history from A.D. 668 to 668, a 
period remarkable for important events, such 
as the conquest of Italy by Narses and the ex- 
ploits of Belisarius over the Huns and other 
barbarians. The best edition is by Niebubr, 
Bonn, 1828. 

[AoATHiKus {*Aya$lvoc)j an eminent Greek 
physician, bom at Sparta, and flourished in the 
first century after Ohrist: he was a pupil of 
Athenaeus of Attalia in Cilicia, the founder of 
the Pneumatie sect: he did not follow strictly 
the tenets of his master, but united with them 
those of others, and thus became himself found- 
er of a new medical sect called Hectici or Epi- 
9yntheHei.—2. Of Elis, son of Thrasybulus, ac- 
cording to BoBckh, an lamid, whose father was a 
seer among the Mantineans in the time of Ara- 
tus : he was a celebrated athlete, and gained the 
price at the Olympic gamea — 8. A Corinthian 
naval commander, who had charge of a fleet in 
the Corinthian Gulf.] 

AoATHdoLSA ('A/o^oKAeia), mistress of Ptole- 
my IV. Philopator, king of Egypt, and sister of 
his minister Agathodes. She and her brother 
were put to death on the death of Ptolemy (B. 
C. 206). 

AgathScles {*Aya0oK2^c). 1. A Sicilian raised 
himself from the station of a potter to that of 
tyrant of Syracuse and king of Sicily. Bom at 
lliermae, a town of Sicily subject to Carthage, 
he is said to have been exposed when an infant 
by his father, Oarcinus ot Rhes^ium, in conse- 
quence of a succession of troublesome dreams, 
portending that he would be a source of much 
evil to Sicily. His mother, however, secretly 
preserved his life, and at seven years old he 
was restored to his father, who had long re- 
pented of his conduct to the child. By him he 
was taken to Syracuse, and brought up as a pes- 
ter. His strength and personal beauty recom- 
mended him to Damas, a noble Syraeusan, who 
drew him from obscurity, and on whose death hi 
I married his rich widow, a^ so beeamc on% 



<f \hb irealikieei citizens io Syracuse His 
■mbittoiu schemes then deyelopM themselves, 
and he was driveD into exile. After several 
dianges of fortone, he cciUected an army which 
oTcrawed botii the Syracusans and Oarthaginians, 
and was restored under an oath that he would 
not interfere with the democracy, which oath he 
cept by munlering four thousand and banishing 
fix thousand citizens. He was immediately 
declared sovereign of Syracuse, under the title 
of Aatocrator, RO. 817. In the course of a few 
years the whole of Sicily which was under the 
domimon of Carthage, submitted to him. In 
BO. SIO he was defeated at Himera by the 
(^uthaginians, under Hamilcar, who straightway 
laid siege to Syracuse; whereupon he formed 
the bold design of averting the rum which threat- 
ened him, by carrying the war into Afnca. His 
suoeesses were most brilliant and rapid. He 
eoDFtantly defeated the troops of Oartnage, but 
was at length summoned from Africa by the 
afiidrs of SicUy, where many dties had revolted 
from him, B.O. 807. These he reduced, after 
making a treaty with the Carthaginians. He 
had previously assumed the title of King of 
Sicily. Ho afterward plundered the Lipari 
Isles, and also carried his arms into Italy, in 
order to attack the BruttiL But his last days 
▼ere embittered by £imily misfortunes. His 
grandson Archagathua murdered his son Aga- 
thoeles, for the sake of succeeding to the crown, 
and the old king feared that the rest of his family 
voold share his fate. He accordingly sent hjs 
vife Tezena and her two children to Egypt, her 
oative country; and his own death followed 
tlaost immediately, B.C. 289, after a reign of 
twenty-ei^ht years, and in the seventy-secoud 
jear of his age. Other authors relate an incre- 
dible story of his being poisoned by Mssno, an 
tssociate of Archa^thus. The poison, we ore 
kid, was concealed in the quill with which be 
cleaned his teeth, and reduced him to so fright- 
ful a condition, that he was placed on the funeral 
pile and burned while yet living, being unable 
lo give any sicts that ne was not dead. — 2. Of 
PeIh^ father of Lysimachus. — 3. Son of Lysima- 
dina, was defeated and taken prisoner by Dro- 
mii^tis, king of the Get®, about B.C. 292, but 
was B^nt back to his father with presents. In 
t67 he defeated Demetrius Poliorcetea At the 
instigation of hia stepmother, Arsinog, Lysima- 
chus cast him into prison, where he was mur- 
dered (284) by PtolemfiBUS Ceraunus. — i. Brother 
«if Agathoglxa. — 5. A Greek historian, of uncer- 
tain date, wrote the history of Cyzicus, which 
WAS extensively read in antiquity, and is referred 
to by Cicero {De Div. u 24). 

Agathodjcmon {'A.ya0oddifiuv or *Aya$dg i^eof ). 
L The " Good Deity." in honor of whom the 
Greeks drank a cup of unmixed wine at the ^nd ! 
of every repast— ^3. A name applied by the | 
Qreeka to Uie Egyptian Knepk, and also to a ' 
qieeiea of snake as his symbol — 8. A name given | 
by the Greek residents to the Canopic arm of | 
the Nile.]— 4. Of Alexandrea, the designer of, 
•omc maps to accompany Ptolemy's Geography. 
Copies of these mapa are found appended to 
several M3S. of Ptolemy. | 

AuATHOX i^Kyuduv), an Athenian tragic poet, ^ 
horn about B.C. 447, of a rich and respectable ' 
Ciriily, war a friend of Euripides and Plato. 

Ld gained his first nccory in 413: in honor oi 
whidi Plato represents the Symposium to hava 
been given, which he has made the occasion of 
his dialogue so called. In 407 he visited the 
court of Archelaiis, king of Macedonia, where 
his friend Euripides was also a guest at the 
same time. He died about 400, at the age of 
forty-seven. The poetic merits of Agathoo 
were considerable, but bis compositions were 
more remarkable for elegance and flowery oroar 
ments than force, vigor, or sublimity. In the 
TAetmophariatutcB of Aristophanes he is ridi- 
culed for his effeminacy, being brought on the 
stage in female dress. [The fragments of Aga- 
thon have been published by Wagner in Didot*« 
Pragmenta Tragicorum Grcee^ p. 62*61. — 2. A 
son of Priam. — 3. Son of Tyrimmas, oommandei 
of the Odrysian cavalry under Alexander the 

Agathtbva, Agathy&num {'Ayddvpva^ -ov: 
* kyaBvpvaXo^ ', now Agatha), a town on the 
northern coast of Sicily, between Tyndaris and 

[AoATHTBNUS {* Ay(i&vf}voc)y son of ^oluB, and 
founder of the city Agathyma, q. v.] 

AoATHTRSi (*Ayddvpaoi), a people in European 
Sarmatia, on the River Maris (now Maroacn) in 
Ti-ausylvania. From their practice of painting 
or tattooing their skin, they are called by VirgU 
(-dFw, iy, 146) picti Agathyrai. 

Agave ('Ayav^), daughter of Cadmus, wife of 
Echiou, and mother of Pentheus. When Pentheus 
attempted to prevent the women from celebrat- 
ing the Dionysiao festivals on Mount Citkeron, 
he was torn to pieces there by his own mother 
Agave, who in her phrensy believed him to be 
a wild beast Vid. Pentheus. — One of tlie Ne- 
reids, one of the Danaids, and one of the Ama- 
zons were also called Agavse. 


Agdistis ("AyJiartc), an androgynous deity 
the offspring of Jupiter (Zeus) and Earth, con 
nected with the Phrygian worship of Attes or 

Ageladas i^AyeXd6a^\ an eminent statuary 
of Argos, the instructor of Ihe three great mas- 
ters, Phidias, Myron, and Polycletua. Many 
modem writers suppose that Uiere were two 
artists of this name: one an Argive, the in- 
structor of Phidias, bom about B.C. 540, the 
other a native of Sicyon, who flourished about 
B.C. 482. 

Agelaus ('Ay^^-oof). 1. Son of Hercules and 
Omphale, and founder of the house of Crcesus. — 
2. Son of Damastor and one of the suitors of 
Penelope, slain by Ulysses. — 8. A slave of Priam, 
who exposed the infant Paris on Mount Ida, in 
consequence of a dream of his mother. — [4. Son 
of the Heradid Temenus. — 6. A Trojan, son of 
Phradmon, slain by Diomedes.] 

AoENDiouM or AoEDicuM (oow Sen9\ the diief 
town of the Senones in Gallia Lugdunensis. 

AofiNoa (*Ayijvup), 1. Son of Keptune (Po- 
seidon) and Libya, king of Phoenicia, twin-bro- 
ther of Belus, and father of Cadmua, Piiosoiz, 
Cilix, Thasus, Phineus, and, according ts some, of 
Europa also. Virgil (^n., i. 888) calk Carthage 
the city of Agenur, since Dido was descended 
from Agenor. — 2. Son of lasus, and father of 
Argus raooptes, kin^ of Argos.— 8. Son and 
successor of Triopas, m the kingdonuofL Aiiwa 



«^ 8oa af Pleiij-oD and Xanthippe, and grand- 
HOQ of JBtolufl. — 5. Son of Phegeus, king of 
PbopUis, in Arcadia. He and bia brother Ftoa- 
ona slew Alcmfflon. when be wanted to give the 
celebrated necklace and peplut of Harmonia to 
Lis eeoond wife Callirrboe. Vid. Phkgku& The 
two brothers were afterward killed by Ampho- 
leniB and Acaman, the sons of Alcniaon and 
Callirrboe. — 6. Son of the Trojan Antenor and 
Theano, one of the bravest amoug the Trojans, 
engaged in smgle combat with Acliilles, bat waa 
reaoaed by Apollo. 

AofiNduDxs CXyrjvopiitic), a patronymic de- 
aotiog a descenoant of an Agenor, such as Oad- 
noB, Phineus, and Perseus. 

Agbbanoeb, a sculptor of Rhodea. who, in 
conjunction with Polydorus and AthenodoruB» 
feiuptured the group of Laocoon, one of the most 
perieot specimens of art This celebrated group 
was discovered in the year 1506, near the baths 
of Titus on the Esquiline Hill: it is now preserv- 
ed in the museum of the Vatican. The artists 
probably lived in the reign of Titus, and sculp- 
tured tlie group expressly for that emperor. 

Agesilaus ('A/^fftXaoc), kings of Sparta. 1. 
Son of Doryssus, reigned forty-four years, and 
died about B.C. 886. He was contemporary 
with the legislation of Lycurgus. — 2. Son of 
Archid&mus II., succeeded his half-brother Agis 
IL, B.C. 898, ezcludiog, on the ground of sou- 
rious birth, and by the interest of Lysander, nis 
nephew Leottohioes. From 396 to 894 he 
carried on the war in Asia Minor with great 
tuoeeae, and was preparing to advance mto the 
heart of the Persian empire, when he was 
•ummcned home to defend his country against 
Thebes, Corinth, and Argos, which had been 
induced by Artazerzes to take up arms against 
Sparta. Though full of disappointment, he 
promptly obeyed; and in the course of the 
same year (894), he met and defeated at Coro- 
nCa, in Bceotia, the allied forces. During the 
next four years he regained for his country 
much of its former supremacy, till at length the 
fatal battle of Leuctra, 871, overthrew forever 
the power of Sparta, and gave the supremacy 
for a time to Thebes. For the next few years 
Sparta had almost to struggle for its existence 
amid dangers without and within, and it was 
ohiefl^ owmg to the skill, courage, and presence 
of mmd of Agesilaus that she weathered the 
storm. In 36 1 he crossed with a bod v of Lace- 
dfismonian mercenaries into Egypt Here, after 
displaying much of his ancient skill, he died, 
while prei^aring for his voyage home, in the win- 
ter of )161--860, after a life of above eighty years 
and u reign of thirty-eight His body was em- 
balmed in wax, and splendidly buried at Sparta. 
In person Agesilaus was small, mean-looking, 
ftnd lame, on which last grouud objection had 
been made to his accession, an oracle, curiously 
fulfilled, ha rine warned Sparta of evils awaiting 
her under aflame sovereignty." In his reign, 
indeed, her fall took place, but not through him, 
for he was one of the best citizens and generals 
that Sparta ever had. 

^AoKaiMBadTus, admiral of the Rhodian fleet 
which aided the consul P. Sulpicius in the war 
rgainst Philip, king of Macedonia, B.C. 200.] 

AG^sipdLis {^XyrjcrinoXig), kings of Sparta. 1. 
Bueeeeded his father Pausanias, while yet a 

minor, in B.C. 894, and reigned faurtfen ytsaim 
As soon as his minonty ceased, he took iin active 
part in the Wat's in which Sparta was then en- 
gaged with the other states of Greece In 390 
he invaded Argolis with success ; in 885 he took 
the city of MantinSa; in 881 be went to th^ 
assistance of Acanthus and Apollouia against th* 
Olynthians, and died in 880 during this war ia 
the peninsula of Pallene. — 2. Son of Cleombrotusw 
reigned one year B.C. 871. — 8, Succeeded Cleo 
menes in B.C. 220, but was soon deposed by ba* 
colleague Lycurgus: he afterward took refugee 
with we Romans. 

AoEToa ('A/i^rwp), " the leader,**, a sumami* 
of Jupiter (Zeus) at Lacedaemon, of Apollo, vad 
of Mercury (Hermes), who conducts the souls oi 
men to the lower world. 

AoQENUB Uebicus, a writer on the science of 
the Agrimensores, may perhaps have lived at 
the latter part of the fourth century of our era. 
His works are printed m Qoesius, Jiei Agrarict 

AoGHAiCMES or Xan'dbames {Zavdpafiric\ the 
ruler of the GangaridsB and Prasii in India, when 
Alexander invaded India, B.C. 827. 

Agias ('Aytaf), a Greek epic poet erroneously 
chilled Augias, a native of Troezeo, flourisheci 
about B.C. 740, and was the author of a poeni 
called Nosti {N6<ttoi\ i. e^ the history of the re- 
turn of the Achsean neroes from Troy. 

Aginxum (now Ageii\ the chief town of the 
Nitiobriges in Gallia Aquitanica. 

Aois (^A/tf), kings of Sparta. 1. Son of 
Eurystheues, the founder of the family of the 
Agidae. — 2. Son of Archidflnus II., reigned B,C. 
427-898. He took an active part in the Pel- 
oponoesian wai*, and invaded Attica several 
times. While Alcibiades was at Sparta he was 
the guest of Agis, and is said to have seduced 
his wife Timsea ; in consequence of which Leo- 
tvchides, the son of Agis, was excluded from the 
throne as illegitimate.— -8. Son of Archidflmua 
III, reigned B.C. 838-880, attempted to over- 
throw the Macedonian power in Europe, while 
Alexander the Great was in Asia, but was de- 
feated and killed in battle by Antipater in 880 
— 4. Son of Eudamidas II., reined B.C. 244-- 
240. He attempted to re-estabhsh the institu- 
tions of Lycurgus, and to effect a thorough re- 
form in the Spartan state ; but he was reraated 
by his collea^e Leonidas II. and the wealthy, 
was thrown into prison, and was there put to 
death by command of the ephors, along with 
his mother Agesistrata, and his gi'andmotber 

Agis, a Greek poet of Argos, a notorious flat 
terer of Alexander the Great 

[Agizymba, the name applied by Ptolemy to 
the part of Africa lying under the equator, the 
southernmost portion of that country with which 
the Greeks were acquainted.] 

AqlXia fAyXofo), ** the bright one." 1. One 
of the Oha&xtks or Graces. — 2. Wife of Charopui 
and mother of Nireus, who came from the Island 
of Syme against Troy. 

[AoiAONiOE. Vii. AoanIgs.] 


AglaSphon VkyTuQo^y 1. Painter of Tha- 
sos, father ana instructor of Polygnotus and 
AristoplMxi, liTed about B.C. 500. — 2. Pabter 
lived abimt B.0. 420, probably grandson of No. 1 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



[AflfUTracw. Vid, Aoraulo&J 
AsLlis {*AyXa6c\ a poor citizeo of Psophis in 
iicauiia, wbom the Delphic oracle declared hap- 
aier thaQ Ojm» kio^ of Lydia, on aooount of 
iu eontente<l oBposiboD. Paoaanias places him 
■ the time of Craesua. 

[ Aomn ('Ayvwc), fiither of the Argooaat T^- 
fkkj^ the {tthut of the Arga] 

AwfSmm ('AyvodUif), tax Athenian maiden, 
was the fint of her sex to learn midwifery, 
vhieb a lav at Atliens forbade any woman to 
teun. Dreascd as a man, she obtamed instrue- 
tk» from a phvsician named HierophiloB, and 
■fterward praetTeed her art with saeceas. Sum- 
(Boaed before the Areopagus hv the envy of the 
siher |»aetitioDer8, she was obliged to disclose 
her tex. and was not only acquitted, but obtain- 
ed the repeal of the obnoxious law. This tale, 
tho)Qjh odeo repeated, does not deserve much 
credit^ as it rests on the authority of Hyginus 
ikaie. • 

AmOxiDjas {'Ayvidiidijc)* an Athenian dema- 
gogue, induced the Athenians to sentence Pho- 
030 to death (RG. 818X but was shortly aftei> 
ward pot to death himself by the Athenians. 

\Qa9A€MiTVs{*AyopaJCfUTOc), a statuai-y of Pa- 
ras, flMirished B.O. 44(M28, and was the fiivorite 
popil of Phidias. His greatest work was a 
itstae of Veaos (Aphrodite), which he changed 
bto a statue of Nemesis, and sold it to the 
pei^d of Rhamnns, because he was indignant 
that the Athenians had given the preference to a 
taiae by Aleamenes, who was another distin- 
jeiah^l pupil of Phidias. 

Aooa^A and AcoRiKUs (^Ayopaia and 'A70- 
^JCl epithets of several divinities who were 
ajoskkred as the protectors of the assemblies of 
tk p<ople in the agora, such as Jupiter (Zeus), 
)iinerv-a (Athena), Diana (Artemis), and Mer- 
CET (Hermes). 

[Agsa ('A/pa) or Agne (^Aypai), an Attic de- 
mos south of Athens on the Ilissus : it contained 
& temple of Diana (Artemis) Agrotera, and a 
Umple of Ceres (Demetcr).] 

AcxjEX (^Aypdwi\ a people of .^tolia, on the 

Ageacls {^Aypav'kri and 'AypvAj/ : *Aypv\ev^\ 
m Attae demus of the tribe Erechtheis, named 
aft«r AoaACidOe, Ko. 2. 

Agsaulqs ('A/povAof, also 'AyAovpof), 1. 
Daughter of ActSBus, first king of Athens, and 
vife of Cecrops. — 2. Daughter of Cecrops and 
Agrsulos, is an important personage in the le- 
Seids of Attica, and there were tlu«e different 
Kones about her. 1. According to some writ- 
en, Minerva (Athena) gave Erichthonius in a 
ebeftt to Agraulos and her sister Herse, with the 
Mmmaod not to open it; but, unable to control 
thar eurioeity, they opened it, and thereupon 
vere seized with madoess at the sight of Erich- 
tbdoias, and threw themselves down from the 
Aeropolia. 2. According to Ovid (Met, iL, 7J0), 
Agrsolua and her sister survivea opening the 
mst, but Agraulos was subsequently punished 
bf being chamged into a stone by Mercury (Her- 
bm), because she attempted to prevent the god 
from entering the house of Herse, when be had 
hikn in love with the latter. 8. The third le- 
|nd relates that Athens was once involved in 
ftkoff-protracted war, and that Agraulos threw 
Wivif down from the Acropolis because nu 

oracle had declared that the Athenians wouia 
conquer if some one would sacrifice himself fbt 
his country. The Athenians, in gratitude, bnilt 
her a temple on the Acropolis, m which it ne- 
came customary for the young Athenians, on re- 
ceiving their first suit of armor, to take an oath 
that they would always defend their country to 
the last One of the Attic demi (Agraule) de 
rived its name from this heroine, and a festiva 
and mysteries (Agraulia) were celebrated at 
Athens in honor of her. 

Aossns ('AypevrX ^ hunter, a surname of Pan 
and AristiBus. 

AoEi DeodmItes, tithe lands, the name given 
by the Romans to a part of Germany, east oi the 
Rhine and north of tne Danube, which Uiey took 
possession of when the Germans retired east- 
ward, and which they gave to Gauls and subse- 
quently to their own veterans on the payment of 
a tenth of the produce {dedbna). Toward the 
end of the first or beginning of the second ee» 
tury after Christ, these lands were iocorporated 
in the Roman empire. 

[Agrianes {'Aypidvtf^, now Ergene), a river of 
Thrace, joining the Hebrus.] 

[Agrianes ('A/pwvec), a Thracian race dwell- 
ing around Mount Hiemus, in the vicinity of the 
River Agrianes, a rude and warlike people, and 
excellent archera] 

Agric^la, Cn. JOiIus, born June 13th, AD. 
87, at Forum Julii {Frejus in Provence), was the 
son of Julius Gnecinus, who was executed by 
Caligula, and of Julia Procilla. He received a 
careful education; he first served in Britain, 
A.D. 60, under Suetonius Paulinus ; was quesstor 
in Asia in 63 ; was governor of Aquitonia from 
74 to 76 ; and was consul in 77, when he be- 
trothed his daughter to the historian Tacitus, ani 
in Uie following year gave her to him in map- 
riage. In 78 he received the government of 
Britain, which he held for seven years, during 
which time he subdued the whole of the country 
with the exception of the highlands of Caledo- 
nia, and b^ his wise administration introduced 
among the inhabitants the language and civiliza- 
tion of Rome. He was recalled in 85 through 
the jealousy of Domitian, and on his return lived 
in retirement till his death in 98, which, accord- 
ing to some, was occasioned by poison, adminis- 
tered b^ order of Domitiaa His character ii 
drawn m the brightest colors l^ his son-in-law 
Tacitus, whose Life of Agricola has come dow^. 
to us. 

AaaiQENTUu VkKpdyoQ : *AKpayavTlvoCf Agrl- 
gentiuus : now Girgenti), a town on the southern 
coast of Sicily, about two and a half miles from 
the sea, between the rivers Acragas (now Munu 
di S, Biagio) and Hy^sas (now Fiume JDrago), 
It was celebrated for its wealth and populous- 
ness, and, till its destruction by the Cartnagini- 
ons (B.C. 405), was one of the most splendid cit- 
ies of the ancient world. It was the oirth-place 
of Empedocles. It was founded by a Doric col- 
ony from Gela about RC. 579, was under the 
government of the cmel tyrant PhalSris (alx>u4 
560), and subsequently under that of 'HicrfO 
(488-472), whose praises are celebrated by Piy 
aar. After its destruction by the Carthagmianat 
it was rebuilt by Timoleon, but it never regained 
its former greatness. After undergoing many 
! vicissiti des, it at length came into the powei. 

33 ,oogle 



of toe Uomana (210), in whose hands it remain- 
ed. There are still gigantic remains of the an- 
dent city, especiallj of the Ohrmpieum, or tem- 
ple of the Olympian Jupiter (!^ns). 

Ao&iNtuM {^kypivtov% a town in iEtolia, per- 
haps Lear the sources of the Thermissus. 

AOEIPPA, first a pnenomen, and afterward a 
ODgnpmen among the Romans, signifies a child 
presented at its buth with its feet foremost 

AaaiPPA, HKRdDBS. L Called "Agrippa the 
Qreat,** son of Aristobulus and Beremce, and 
grandson of Herod the Great He was edu- 
cated at Rome with the future Emperor Clau- 
dius, and Drusus, the son of Tiberius. Haying 
given offence to Tiberius, he was thrown into 
prison ; but Calig^ula, on his accession (AD .87), 
set him at libeity, and gave him the tetrar- 
eldes of Abilene, Batamea, Trachonitis, and 
Auranitis. On the death of Caligula (41), Agrip- 

Sk, who was at the time in Rome, assisted Olau- 
us in gaining possession of the empire. As a 
reward for his services, Judaea and Samaria 
j^ere annexed to his dominions. His govem- 
ment was mild and gentle, and he was exceed- 
Agly popular among the Jews. It was probably 
to mcrease his popularity with the Jews that 
ae caused the Apostle James to be beheaded, 
and Peter to be cast into prison (44). The 
manner of his death, which took pUce at Cssa- 
rea in the same year, is related in Aett, xii By 
bis wife Cvpros ho had a son, Agrippa, and three 
daughters. Berenice, Mariamne, and DrusiUa. — 
2. ^n of Agrippa L, was educated at the court 
ot Cladiusi and at the time of his father's death 
iras pcventeen years old Claudius kept him 
at Rome, and sent Cuspius Fadus as procurator 
of the kingdom, which thus again became a Ro- 
man proyince. On the death of Hcrodes, king 
of Chalchis (48), his little principality was given 
to Agrippa, who subsequently received an ac- 
oession of territory. Before the outbreak of 
the war with the Romans, Agrippa attempted 
in vain to dissuade the Jews from rebelling. 
He sided with the Romans in the war ; and ni- 
ter the capture of Jerusalem, he went with his 
sister Berenice to Rome, and died in the sev- 
enty-third year of his age, A.D. 100. It was 
before this Agrippa that the Apostle Paul made 
his defence, AD. 60 (-dc/», xxv., xxvL). 

AoBiFrA, M. VifsAnIus, bom in EC. 63, of 
an obscure fimuly, studied with young Octavius 
(afterward the Emperor Augustus) at ApoUonia 
in niyria; and upon the murder of Caesar in 
44, was one of the friends of Octavius, who ad- 
vised him to proceed inmiediatcly to Rome. In 
the civil wars which followed, and which ter- 
minated in givinff Augusti:s the sovereignity of 
the Roman world, Agrippa took an active part ; 
and his military aoilities, combined with his 
promptitude ana energy, contributed greatly to 
that result In 41, Agnppa, who was then prae- 
tor, eonmianded part of the forces of Augustus 
in the Perusinian war. In 88 he obtained great 
successes in Oaul and Germany ; in 37 he was 

)nsul; and in 86 he defeated Sex. Pompey by 
■ea. In S3 he was ssdile, and in this office ex- 
pended immense sums of money upon great 
pubUi3 works. He restond old aqueducts, con- 
structed a new one, to which be gave the name 
of the Julian, in honor of Augustus, and also 
erected several public buildings. In 81 bo cnm- 

manded the fleet of Augustus at il .battle 
Aotium; was consul a second tiitio iti 28, a 
a third time in 27, when he built the Puxithci 
In 21 he married Julia, daughter of August 
He had been married twice before, first tu Foi 
ponia, daughter of T. PomponiuB Attieua, ai 
next to MiurccUa, niece of Augustus.^ He co 
tinned to be employed in various xtnUUury co£ 
mands in Gaul, Spam, Syria, and Pannonia, ti 
his death in B.C. 12. B^ his first -wife Pomp 
nia, Agrippa had Yipsania, married to Tibenm 
the successor of Augustus; and by^ his thir 
wife, Julia, he had two daughters, Jmia, morrio 
to L. iEmilius Paulus, and Agrippioa, ntBTn& 
to Germanicus, and three sons, Caius Cssar 
Lucius Caesar {vid Os&ar\ and A^ppa Pofi 
tumus, who was banished by Augustus to tin 
Island of Planasia, and was put io death by Ti 
berius at his accession, A.D. 14. 

AaatppfNA. 1. Daughter of M. Vipsaniur 
Agrippa and of Julio, the daughter of Augustus, 
married Germanicus, by whom she had niov 
children, among whom was the Emperor Cnlig 
ula, and Agrippina, the mother of Nero. Sbs 
was distiuguisned for her virtues and heroism, 
and shared all the dangers of her hushandi 
campaigns. On his death in A.D. 17, she re 
turned to Italy ; but the favor with which 6h« 
was received by the people, increased the hntred 
and jealousy which Tiberius and his mother 
Livia had long entertained toward her. For 
some years Tit^rius disguised his hatred, but «/ 
len^l^ under the pretext that she was forming 
ambitious plans, he banished her to the Island 
of Pandataria (AJ). 80), where she died f)ir<< 
years afteiward, (AD. 83), probably by volu^ 
tary starvation. — 2. Daughter of Gcrmanieu.« aii<i 
Agrippina [No. 1.], and mother of the Empcrof 
Nero, was bom at Oppidum Ubiorum, afterward 
called in honor of her Colonia Agrippina, nov 
Cologne. She was beautiful and inteiligcot, but 
licentious, cruel, and ambitious. She was fir?i 
married to Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus (A.D. 2H). 
by whom she had a son, afterward the Empemr 
Nero; next to Crispus Passienus; and thinllv 
to the Emperor Cladius (49^ although she wiu 
his niece. In 60, she prevailed upon CJfutiiiw 
to adopt her son, to the prejudice of Im ovu 
son Bntannicus; and in order to secure the 
succession for her sou, she poisoned tbo cm- 
peror in 64. Upon the accession of her »*« 
Nero, who was tten only seventeen vcar.i of 
age, she foverned the Roman empire fur a f^v 
years in his name. The younp^ emperor 6'>w 
became tired of the ascecdency of his motlicr. 
and after vuildng several attempts to shske cfi 
her author ty, he caused her to be asaasslaatd 
in 69. 

AaaiprlxExsEB. Vtd. Colonia Aobiptini 

Agrids fAyptof), son of Porthaon and Eurjt*. 
and brother of CEneuS; ting of Calydon in Ma 
lia : his six sons deprived (Eneus of his \ang 
dom, and gave it to tiieir father ; but Agrius &"• 
his sons were afterward slain by Diomedcs, tl4 
grandson of (Eneus. 

AoEOcIus or AoBOTius, a Roman g.'&nim* 
rian, probably Uved in the fiftlt ccntu'y aftei 
Christ, and wrote an extant work, De Orm 
graphia et Proprietuft el Differentia Seimi^mt 
which is printed in Putschius, Orammattca U 
tince Aiictores Antima.h, 2266-227/). > 



lAoKoiAS (*Axp6Aaf), of Sicily, an nrchiteet, 
sbo, with Hyperbina, surroandeTl the citadel of 
AtbeoB wiUi waUs, except that part which was 
afterward builft by Cimoo.] 

AoBOv {^iLypuv), I. Son of Nidus, the first 
of the Lydiaii dynasty of the Heradida. — 2. 
Boo of menntns. king of niyria, died B.O. 281, 
aod waa sueeeeded by his wife Teuta, though 
he left aeon, Piooes or Pinnem, by his fint 
vifep T^iteota, whom he had diTorced. 

AjomMtMA {'kyporipa)^ the huntress, a sur^ 
flame of Diana (Artemis). VitL Aoba. There 
was a featiTal celebrated to her honor at Athena 
onder this name VuL Diet, of Antiq. 
AoaTLE. VuL AoaAUU. 
r Agobis T^ a iuthful friend of Cicero, who 
adhered to him in his banishment, and was the 
sharer of all his labors and sufferings during 
thai period] 

AoTDECB {'Ayvtevc\ a surname of Apollo, as 
the proCeetor of the streets and public places. 

Agtua CA^vXAa), the ancient Greek name 
of the Etroecan town of Cjkrx. 
^ AOTmivM CAyvpiw : 'Ayvptvaloc, Agyrinen- 
n: DOW iSL FUipo ^Argiro\ a town in Sicily on 
the CyanKMoraa. northwest of GenturipiB and 
i»Tlheast of Enna, the birth-place of the histo* 

AoTmaBioB ('A^v/I^ioc), an Athenian, after be- 
iu( in prison manjr years for embeszlement of 
pobhc money, obtained, about EC. 896, the res- 
U)rstioa of Uie Theoricon, and also tripled the pay 
faf atUodine the assembly; hence he became 
M popular, that he was appointed general in 889. 
AalLA, SssTiLiDB, the name of se'^eral dis- 
lifQMhed Romans, who held varioua high of- 
fiees in the atate from B.C. 478 to 842. Of 
ihete the best known is C. Servilius Ahala, 
■igiaier equitum in 489 to the dictator L. Cin- 
cioDatos, when he slew Sp. ILblius in the 
{c^rom, becaoss he refused to appear before the 
iMtator. Ahala was afterward brought to trial, 
■od only escaped condemnation by a voluntary 
oile. VmISatiui. 

Abarsa [now Bargiano /], a town in Etruria, 
aortbeast of Volainii 

A^xoBABBUB, DoMlTlim, the name of a dis- 

lioguiahed Roman family. They are said to 

hare obtained the surname of Ahenobarbus, t. 

ft. •Braxen-BeanT or "Red-Beanl," because 

Ibe Dioscuri announced to one of their ances- 

wn the victory of the Romans over the Latins 

At Lake Regillos (B.C. 496), and, to confirm the 

iruth of what they said, stroked his black hair 

■od beard, which immediately became red — 

1. Ci, plebeian mlile RC. 196, praetor 194, and 

CHHol 193, when he fought against the Boil 

—1 Ck, fon of No. 1, consul suffectus in 162, 

^8, C»., Bon of No. 2, consul 122, oonauered 

li>e AUobroges in Gaul, in 121, at the confluence 

>f the Sulga and Rhodaous. He was censor in 

U5 with Caecilius Metellua The Via Domitia 

in Gaol was made by him. — 4. Cn., son of No. 

S- tribone of the plebe 104, brought foi*ward the 

^^ {Iax Dmnitia\ by which the election of tlie 

pnetta was transferred from the collegia to the 

J»ple. TTie people afterward elected him Pon- 

TOMs Mazimus out of gratitude. He was con- 

"u ia 96, and censor in 92, with Licioius Cras- 

*■ the orstor. In his censorship he and his 

*«<tK^ that up the schoolB of the Latin rhet- 

oricians; but otherwise their censorship wal 
marked by their violent disputes. — 5. L., broth- 
er of No. 4, praBtor in Sicily, probably in 96 and 
consul in 94, belonged to the party of Sulla, jind 
was murdered at Rome in 82, by oi*der of th* 
younger Marina. — 6, Cn., son of No. 4, marrieo 
Cornelia, daughter of I*. Cinna, consul in 87 
and joined the Marian party. He was pro 
scribed by Sulla in 82, and fled to Africa, where 
he was defeated and killed by Ca Pompey in 
81. — 7. L, son of No. 4, married Poreia, thf 
sister of M. Cato, and was a stanch and a com 
ai^eous supporter of the aristocratical part^. 
He was iBoile in 61, pnetor in 68, and consul m 
54. On the breaking out of the civil war in 49 
he threw himself into Corfinium, but was com- 
pelled by his own troops to surrender to Caesar. 
He next went to Massilia, and, after the sur- 
render of that town, repaired to Pompey in 
Greece : he fell in the battle of Pharsaha (48), 
where he commanded the left wing, and, accord- 
ing to Cicero's assertion in the second Philippic, 
by the hand of Antony. — 8. Cn, son of No. 7, 
was taken with his father at Corfinium (49), 
was present at the battle of Pharsalia (48), and 
returned to Italy in 46, when he was pardoned 
by Caesar. After Caesar's death in 44, he com 
roanded the republican fleet in the Ionian Sea 
He afterward oecame reconciled to Antony, 
whom he accompanied in his campai^p against 
the Parthians in 86. He was consul m 82, and 
deserted to Augustus sliortly before the battlo 
of Actium. — 9. L, son of No. 8, married An* 
tenia, the daughter of Antony by Ootavia ; was 
CBdile in 22, and consul in 16; and after his 
consulship, commanded the Roman army in 
Germany and crossed the Elbe. He died A. D. 
26.— 10. Ck, son of No. 9, consul A.D. 82, mar 
ried Agrippina, daughter of Gcrmanicus, and 
was fiither of the Emperor Nero. Vid. Agrip- 


Ajax (Aloe). 1. Son of Telamoo, king of Sal- 
amis, by Peribcea or Eriboea, and grandson of 
.^cus. Homer calls him Ajax the Telamo- 
nian, Ajaz the Great, or simpler Aiaz, whereas 
the other Ajaz, son of Oileus, is always dibtin- 
guished fi'om the former by some epithet He 
sailed aeainst Troy in twelve ships, and is rep- 
resented in the luad as second only to Achilles 
in bravery, and as the hero most worthy, in the 
absence of Achilles, to contend with Hector. 
In the contest for the armor of Achilles, he was 
conquered by Ulysses* and this, says Homer, 
was the cause of his death. {Od. zi, 641, teg.) 
Homer gives no further particuhirs respecting 
his death ; but later poets relate that his defeat 
by Ulysses threw him into an awful state of 
madness; tlmt he rushed fi*om his tent and 
slaughtered the sheep of the Greek army, fan- 
cying they were bis enemies ; and that at length 
he put an end to his own life. From his blood 
there sprang up a purple flower bearing the let 
ters al on its leaves, which were at once the 
initials of his name and ezpressive of a sigU 
Homer does not mention his mistress Tegmessa. 
Ajaz was worshipped at Salamis, and was hon 
ored with a festival (Alavreia). He was alsc 
worshipped at Athens, and one of the Attic 
tribes {.^Eantu) waa called after him. — 2. Soc 
of Oileus, kmg of the Locriaos, also called th« 
lesser Ajaz, sailed against IVoy in forty ships ^ 




B« m deMTibea «ti imall of stature, and wean 
a Imen cuiraM {^MfoGopif^ but is brave and in- 
trepid, skilled in throwing the spear, and, next 
to Achilles, the most swift>footed among the 
Greeks. On his return from Troy his vessel 
vas wrecked on the Whirling Rocks (TvptU iri- 
Tpai) ; he himself got safe upon a rock through 
the aidstance of Neptune (PoseidonV, but as 
be boasted that ho wbuld escape in aefianoe of 
file immortals, Neptune (Poseidon) split the 
oek -with his trident^ and Ajaz was swallowed 
up bv the sea. This is the aooount of Homer, 
but lus death is related somewhat diflferentlj by 
Virgil and other writers, who also tell us tiiat 
the anger of Minerva (Athena) was excited 
against him, because on the night of the cap- 
lure of Troy, be violated Cassandra m the tem- 
ple of the goddess, where she hod taken refuge. 
The Opuntian Loeriane woishii^ped Ajax as their 
national hero. 

Amis ('Atdtfcy y*d, Hadxb. 

AmdNKDS {'AJdavevc). I, A lengUiened form 
of Aide$, Vid. Hadxb. — ^2. A mvUncal king of 
the Molossians in Epnu, husband of Proeerdna 
(Persephone]^ and father of Core. When The- 
seus and Pinthous attempted to carrv off Core, 
AidoneuB had Pinthous killed by Cerberus, and 
kept Theseus in captivity till he was released by 

AiUB LooOTioD or Loquxkb, a Roman divinity. 
A short time hefnre the Oauls took Rome (B.C. 
890), a voice was heard at Rome in the Via 
Nova, during the silence of nighty announcing that 
the Gauls were approaching. No attention was 
\t the time paid to the warning, but the Romans 
^erwards erected on the sfjot where the voice 
had been heard, an altar with a sacred indos- 
ire around it^ to Aius Locutius, or the " Announc- 
•qg Speaker." 

Alabanda {ff 'AJidRavda or rd 'AXu6av6a: 
AWa6av6ev^ or *AXd6av6oc ' Qo*^ Arabistar)^ an 
inland town of Caria, near the Marsyas, to the 
«outh of the Mseander, was situated between two 
hills : it was a prosperous place, but one of the 
most corrupt and luxurious towns in Asia Minor. 
Under the KomaQS it was the seat of a conven- 
tus juridicus. 

[ALABAsrrRON (*A?.a6a<rTpuv n6Xtc\ a city in 
CTpper or Middle Egypt, in the Arabian mountain 
enam, and famed for its artists, who, from the ahi- 
baster dug m Mons AlabattrinuBf carved all 
kinds of vases and ornaments.] 

Alabon (JAXaSuv), a river and town in Sicily, 
laoTth of Syracuse. 

ALAGdioA (*AXayovla\ a town of the Eleuthe- 
r» Laconians on the frontiers of Messenia. 

AujJo6uivM (*AXa2xo/teval : 'AXa^oftevaloc, 
AXahcofuviev^y 1. (Now BtUinari)^ an ancient 
town of BcBotia, east of Coronfia, with a temple 
if Minerva (AthenaX who is said to have been 
)om in the town, and who was hence called 
AlaUomeniit (*A}aXKOfitvijtc, t^or). The name 
of the town waf derived either from Alaloome- 
nia, a drugbtor of Ogyges, or from the BoBotian 
hero Alaloomenes. — 2. A town in Ithaca, or in 
tiie Island Asterio, between Ithaca and Cephal- 

AlaiIa. Vid, Alxxia. 

AlInt (*A^avot, *AXavvotj l e., maufUaineerij 
from the Sarmatian word ala\ a great Asiatic 
people, included tuider the general name of 

Scythians, but probably a braiich of the 
sagetse. They were a nation of warlike 1 
mea They are first found about the etu^t^M 
part of the Caucasus, in tiie eountiy caU«<l ^ 
tiania, which appears to be only another £c9r^ 
of the same name. In the reign of Veap a i nfrt 
thev made incursions into Media and AraM^flxia^ 
and at a later time they pressed into £nrop«« il 
far as the banks of the Lower Danube, wl^ex^ 
toward the end of the fifth century, thej -^o« 
routed by the Huns, who then compelled t^^a 
to become their allies. In AJ), 406, some of tku 
Alani took part with the Vandals in their in-vxp 
tion mto Gaul and Spain, where they gradusUiJ 
disappear from history. 

AukBlODB, in (German Al-rie^ t. «., ** AU-ricK,* 
elected king of the Visiffoths in AJ>. 898, liAci 
previously commanded the Gothic auxiUaz^es of I 
Theodosius. He twice invaded Italy, first in .A..r>< 
402-406, when he was defeated byStilicho al 
the battle of PoUentia, and a second time in 40B- 
410 ; in his second invasion he took and plundered 
Rome, 24th of August, 410. He di^ shortly 
afterward, at Consentiain Bruttium, while -pr^ 
paring to invade Sicily. 

Ai^flTox ('A?MiaTop). 1. A surname of Jupi- 
ter (Zeus) as the avenger of evil, and alao, in 
general, any deity who avepges wicked deedBw-— 
[2. Son of Neleus and Chloris, was slain, toge- 
ther with his brothers, except Nestor, by Hercu- 
les, when that hero took I7I0S.J — S. A IjyciaB, 
and rampanion of Sarpedon, slam by UlyeaeEL-— 
[4. A Greek who rescued Teucer, the brother of 
Ajax, when wounded, and also Hyps«K»r wbco 
struck down by Deiphobus.] 

Alba SilvIus, one of the mythical kingv of 
Alba, son of Latinus, reigned thirty-nine yean. 

Alba. 1. (Now Abla)^ a town of the Basbtaci 
in Spain. — 2. (Now Alvanna\ a town of the Bar- 
dull m Spaia — S. Auqusta (now Atilp*, near Ds^ 
ranee), a town of the Elicoci in GaUia Narbon- 
ensis.— 4. FCokntia or Fucintis (Albenses : now 
Alba or Albi), a town of the Marsi, and subse- 
quently a Roman colony, was situated on a lofty 
rock near the Lake Fuclnus. It was a stroog 
fortress, and was used by the Romans as a state 
prison. — 6. Lonoa (AlbAni), the most ancient 
town in Latium, is said to have been built by 
Ascanius, and to have founded Rome. It was 
called lionga, from its stretching in a long line 
down the Alban Mount towards the Albao 
Lake, perhaps near the modem convent of Pai- 
azzolo. It was destroyed by Tullus Hostilins, 
and was never rebuilt: its inhabitantB were 
removed to Rome. At a later time the surround 
ing country, which was highly cultivated and 
covered with vineyards, was studded with the 
splendid villas of the Roman aristocracy and 
emperors (Pompe/s, Domitian's, Ac), each of 
which was called Albanum, and out 0^ which a 
new town at length grew, also called Albanmn 
(now Albano\ on the Appian Road, ruins of 
which are extant — 6. Pompeia (Albenses Pom- 
peiani : now Alba), a town in Liguria, foimded 
ty Scipio Afrieanus L, and colomxed by Pom- 
peius Magnus, the birth-place of the ]^pcnir 

AlbInIa {*A7.£avca: *A}£avoi, AlbOtii : now 
Sckinoan and part of Dagheitan, in the south* 
eastern part of Otorgia), a country of Asia or 
the western side of the Caspian, ext^ndicff fnjir 



tbe Rivers Gynit and Arues oo th€ aoatb to 
Mooot C^rauntos (the eastern part of the Gau- 
dBSoa) OQ the north, and botmaed on the west 
hf Iberia. It vas a fertile plain, abounding in 
PMtuie and vioeyards ; bat the inhabitants were 
aaree mod wariike. Thej -were a Scythian tribe, 
praliably a braneh of the Massagetie, and identi- 
cal with the Alami. The Romans first became 
afli|DBinled with them at the time of the Mithra" 
daftie war, when they encoontered Pompey with 
alar^pe anny. 

AjLMJjnoL VuL Alea, Ko. 5. 

AiMJixm Lacob f now La^o di Albano\ a small 
lake abootfire miles in orcamference, west of 
the Moos Albanoa, between Boyillie and Alba 
LoDga. is the crater of an extinct Tolcano, and is 
oumj hondfied feet deepi The emissarium which 
the Romans bored throogh the solid rock during 
the aieige of Veil, in order to carry off the sup<M^ 
flnouB water of the lake, is extant at the present 

AiAASUB HoKS (now Monte Cavo or Albano)t 
waa, in its narrower signification, the mountain 
io Latiam oo whose declivity the town of Alba 
lionga was situated. It was the sacred mountain 
of the Iatio8» oo which the religious festivals of 
the latio Lea^e were celebrated {Ferite LaiinagX 
and oo its highest summit was the temple of 
Jupiter Latians, to which the Roman generals 
iBceodod in triumj^ when this honor was denied 
Ihcm in Rome. The Mons Albanus in its wider 
■gnifieatioD included the Mons Alguhjs and the 
ttooDtaios about Tuscolum. 

ALU MoxTBB, a lofty range of mountains in 
Ihs west of Crete, three hundred stadia in length, 
wTered with snow the greater part of the year. 
AMMa('A?^iotK0t,*JUi6telc\B, warlike Gallic 
people, inhabiting the mountains north of Mas- 


ALBOiOTAjraa, C. Pxdo, a friend of Ovid, who 
aidresses to him one of his epistles from Pontus 
(ir.. 10)l Three Latin elegies are attributed to 
A IbiaoTanua, printed b^ Wemsdorf^ in his PoetcB 
Ladui Minoretf voL lii^ iv^ and by Meinecke, 
QoedliDbaig, 1819. — [2. Albl Celsub, a Latin 
poet, fricDd of Horace. J 

AiMKHOYAiKUSt P. IvLLnTS, belonged to the 
Marian party, was proscribed in B.C. 87, but 
was paraooesd by Sulla in 81, in consequence of 
his putting to death many of the officers of Nor- 
banoB, wbcmi he had invited to a banquet at 

AxafanxB or Albob, Poaxuidus, the name of a 
yatrirtan family at Rome, n^any of the members 
of which held the highest offices of the state 
from the oommeneement of the republic to its 
downialL — 1. A., sumamed Jieffillennt, dictator 
&C. 498, when he conquered the Latins in the 
great battle near Laks Regillus, and consul 496, 
a which year some of the annals placed Uie 
battle — 2. Sp., consul 466, and a member of the 
first deoemvirate 451.^8. Sf., ooosul 844, and 
i^aui 821. In the latter year he marched 
sgainat the Samnites, but was defeated near 
Caodium, and obliged to surrender with his 
vfa>]e army, who were sent under the yoke. 
The Senate, oo the advice of Albinus, refused 
to ratify the peaoe which he had made with the 
Hainrntpa, and resolved that all persons who 
hail swcin to the peacf fhould be given up to 

tie Samoites, but they refused to accept tlient 
— 4. L, consul 284, and asain 229. In 216 bs 
was prsBtor, and was killed in battle by the Boil 
^-5. Sp., consul in 186, when the senatus consul- 
tum was passed, whidi is extant, for suppress- 
ing the worship of Bacchus in Rome. He died 
in 1'79.~6. A., consul 180, when he fought againsi 
the Ligurians, and censor 174. He wss subse- 
quently engaged in many public missions. Livy 
calls him Luscus, from which it would seem 
that he was blind of one eye. — 7. L, prastor 
180, in Further Spain, where he remained two 
years, and conquered the Vaccsei and Lusitani 
He was consul in 178, and afterward served 
under ^milius Faulus in Macedonia in 168.— 
8. A., consul 161, accompanied L Mummius 
into Greece in 146. He was w^l acquainted 
with Greek literature, and wrote in that lan- 
guage a noem and a Roman historv, which is 
censured oy Polybius. — 9. Sp., consul 110, car- 
ried on war against Jugurtha in Nimiidia, but 
effected nothing. When Albinus departed from 
Africa, he left his brother Aulus in command, 
who was defeated by Jugurtha. Spuriua was 
condemned by the Mami&a Lex, as guilty of 
treasonable practices with Jugurtha. — 10. A., 
consul B.C. 99, with M. Antonius, is said by 
Cicero to have been a good speaker. 

ALBiNiTB ('AA^iVOf), a Platonic philosopher, 
lived at Smyrna iu the second century after 
Christ, and wrote an Introduction to the Diet' 
logues of Plato, which contains hardly any thing 
of importance. — Editions. In the nrst edition 
of Faorioius's JSibl, Orae^ vol. ii., and prefixed 
to Etwall's edition of three dialogues of Plato, 
Oxon., 1771 : and to Fischer's four dialogues of 
Plato, Lips., 1788. 

AlbIxus, ClOdIds, whose full name was D& 
citnnt Clodiut Ceionius Septimius Albinus, was 
bom at Adruroetum in Africa. The Emperor 
Commodus made him governor of Gaul and 
afterward of Britain, where he was at the death 
of Commodus in A.D. 192. In order to secure 
the neutrality of Albinus, Septimius Severus 
made him Caesar; but after Severus had de- 
feated his rivals, he turned his arms against 
Albinus. A great battle was fought between 
them at Lugdunum (L^oos), in Gaul, the 19th 
of February, 197, in which Albinus was defeated 
and killed. 

Albion or Al£bion {'A?.6iuVf *AXe6iuv), son 
of Neptune (Poseidon) and brother of Dercynus 
or Bergion, with whom he attacked Hercules, 
when he passed through their country (Liguria) 
with the oxen of Geryon. They were slain by 

AlbIon, another name of BarrANNiATthe vhite 
land, from its white cliffs ;>pposite the coast of 
Gaul: [more correctly, perhaps, the hiph land, 
from the Celtic root Alb or Afp, high, in refer- 
ence to its lofty coasts, as it lies facing Gaul] 

Albu (now Elbe\ one of the great rivers io 
Germany, the most easterly which the Romans 
became acquainted with, rises, according tc 
Tacitus, in the country of the HermundurL The 
Romans reached the Elbe for the first time in 
RC. 9, under I>ruBus, and crossed it Ibr the first 
time in B.C. 8, under Domitius Ahenobarbua 
The last Roman general who saw the Elbe was 
Tiberius, in A.D. 6. 


Digitize ^^9 rS*-^ 



Ungo), u town of tho Ingauni on the coast of 
Ldgiuia, and a municipium. 

AlbIum iNTEMiLiuM or Albintemelium (dow 
Vtntimiglia), a town of the Intemelii en tiiie 
coast of Liguria, and a municipium. 

[ALBUOXujk or AaaooALA {*Ap6ovKaXtf, Poljb.: 
now VUla Fa9Ua\ a city of Hispama Tarraco- 
nansia, southwest of PaUantia : according to Poly- 
hius, it was the largest city of the Vaccaei, and 
was taken by Hannibal after a brave and long 

ALBOoira or AlbOtiob, T^ studied at Athens, 
and belonged to the Epicurean sect; he was well 
acquainted with Greek literature, but was satir- 
ued by Ludlius on account of his affecting on 
every occasion the Greek language and philoso- 
phy. He was pnetor in Sarainia m B.O. 105; 
and in 103 was accused of repetundsa by 0. 
Julius Oasar, and condemned. He retired to 
Athens, and pursued the study of philosophy. 
[2. C. Albucius Silus. Fidl Silds.] 

ALBt^LA, an ancient name of the Kivor Tdeb. 

ALBt^LiB Aqujl FtdL Albunxa. 

AxB^NiA or AlbOna, a prophetic nymph or 
Sibyl, to whom a grove was consecrated m the 
neighborhood of Tibur (now ITtvo/t), with a foun- 
tain and a temple. This fountain was the 
Urfi^est of the Albuhe acjus, still called Ac^ 
AWuUy sulphureous springs at Tibur, which 
flow into the Ania Near it was the oracle of 
^aunus FatidicuB. The temple is still extant at 

Albubnub Moxs, [now M<mle di Pottiglione], 
a mountain in Lucania, covered with wood, be- 
hind PffistuoL— {2. PoETDS, a harbor near Psbs- 
tnm, at the mouth of the Sil&rus (now Sele)], 

[Albus Poetus ("the White Haven," now 
Algeiirat)^ a town on the coast of BoBtica in 

[ Albcs Vious (^ AevKjf Kufitj : now lambo f\ a 
harbor in Arabia, from which Gallus set out on 
his expedition into the interior.] 

[ALBunus. Vtd. Albucius.] 

AlcjBUS (*khcal:c)y son of Perseus and An- 
dromeda, and father of Amphitnron and Anaxo. 
—[2. Son of Hercmes and a female slave of 
Jardanus, from whom the Heraclid dynasty in 
Lydia, e. g^ Candaules (Myrsilus), Ac, were de- 
scended. Diodorus gives to this son of Hercules 
the name of Cleolaus. — 8. Son of Androgeus, 
grandson of Minos.] 

AxCiBus. 1. Of Mytilene in Lesbos, the earli- 
est of the iEolian lyric poets, began to flourish 
about EC. 611. In the war between the Athen- 
ians and Mytilenmns for the possession of Sigdum 
(RC. 606), he incurred the disgrace of leaving 
his arms otf the field of battle : these arms were 
bung up as a trophy by the Athenians in the 
temple of PaUas at Sigeum. AJcffius took an 
active part in the straggles between the nobles 
and people of Mytilene : he belonged by birth to 
the nobles, and was driven into exile with his 
brother Antimenidas, when the popular party 
got the upper hand. He attempted, by force of 
anns, to regain his country ; but aU his attempts 
were frustrated by Ptttacus, who had been 
chosen by the people iEsymnetes, or dictator, 
for the purpose of resisting him and the other 
exfles. AlcKus and his brother afterward tra- 
vellod into various countries : the time of his 
death is uncertaia Some fragments of Us poems 

which remain, and the excellent imitatijiia 
Horace, enable us to understand aomotlilaff i 
their character. Those which have rece: reJ ^ 
h^est praise are his wat'like odea, an ^faieh ] 
tried to rouse the spirits of the noblea^ tto A/c{ 
minaeet Camenm of Horace (Oann^ 17. 9, 1 
In others he described the hjudahipi of exi] 
and his perils by sea {dura novt^^ dur:r fuffi 
mala dura belli, Hor., CamL, il 18, 27). AIO0U 
is said to have invented the well-known Alcaj 
metre.— .fi^Vtofu : By Matthiie, Alctmi MytiJ^tuk 
religui<By Lip&, 1627 ; and by Berg^k, in I^oeii 
Lyriei Ormei, Lips., 184S.*-2. A oomio poet s 
Athens, flourished about B.G. 888, and exhibited 
plays of that mixed comedy, which fonned tb^ 
transition between the old and the middle 
[Some fragments remain, which have beeojpubj 
Dshed by Meineke, FragmerUa Oomicorum Oral 
eoruniy voL l, p. 467-461, edit minor.] — 8. Of 
Messene, the author of twenty-two epigrams Jo| 
the Greek Anthology, written between B.C. 219 
and 196. 

ALOAifiNxs {'Xhcofihfffc)- 1. Son of Teledor, 
king of Sparta, from B.O. 779 to 742.-2. A 
statuary of Athens, flourished from RC. 444 to 
400, and was the most fiunous of the pupils of 
Phidias. His ^eatest work was a statue of 
Venus (Aphrodite). 

Aloandxb ('AXKavdpoc), a young Spartiin, who 
thrust out one of the eyes of Lycnrgoa, when his 
fellow-citizens were disccmtented with the laws 
he proposed. Lycurgus pardoned the outrage, 
and thus converted Alcander into one of his 
warmest friends. — [2. A L^rcian, shun by Ul^fi»«s 
before Troy. — 3. A companion of iEneas, elaio hr 
Tumus in Italy.] 

[Alcakdra ('A^dvSpa), wife of Poljbus, :i 
wealthy Egyptian of Egyptian Thebes, by whom 
Helen was kindly received and entertuned cu 
her arrival in Egypt] 

[AlcJLnob, a Troian, whose sons Pandarus soil 
Bitias aocompaniea iEneas to Italy. — 2. A wa^ 
rior in the army of the Rutulians, wounded bj 

Aloath5x or AlcithSx ( 'KXicadotf or A >aci06ti), 
daughter of Minyas, refused, with her sisters 
Leucippe and Arsippe, to join in the worship of 
Bacchus (Dionysus) when it was introduced into 
BcBotia, and were accordingly changed by the 
god into bats, and their work into vines. Vid 
j)iet. 0/ AtU.^ art AQKioiOA. 

AlcXth5ub ('AA*a(?oof). 1. Son of Pclops 
and Hippodamla, brother of Atreus and Tby«s- \ 
tes, obtamed as his wife Eumchme, the dsi^ 
ter of Megareus, by slaying the Cithsronian lioi^ 
and succMded his fatheiMn-law as kiog of Me- 
gara. He restored the walls of Megara, n 
whidi work he was assisted by Apollo. Tb« 
stone upon which the god used to place he lyre 
while he was at woric, was believed, e>en io 
late times, to give forth a sound, wbeu euuek, 
similar to that of a lyre (Ov., Met, viiL, IS^" 
2. Son of JSsyetes and husband of Hippodsmb, 
the daughter of Anchises and sister of .£d6s>i 
was one of the bravest of the Trojan leaden 
in the war of Troy, and was slain by Idom& 
neus. — [8. Son of Porthaon and Euryte, killed b; 
Tydeus.— 4. A companion of .^Eness, sUin \rf 

ALonrns or Alceste CXXKPtrrtc or 'A>Tf«JT^J 
daughter of P-lias and A^axibia, .wife :^ Ad 
Digitized by VjOOQ IC: 



netOB, lie J id place of her husbam Vid. Ad- 

Aijoiris ('AZjcfrac), tvo kines of EpiniB. 1. 
Soo q€ TliarypGs* was ezpelied froi i nh king- 
docD, and was restored by the elder Dionvsius 
•f SyracueeL He vas tbe ally of tbe Auieoi- 
■OS in EC. 37Si. — 2. Sod of Arymbas, aod graod- 
■oo of Alcetas I, reigoed KC. 318-303, aod 
VAB pat to death b^ his subjects. 

AucttAS. 1. KiDg of MacedoDia» reigoed 
twenty-ohie years, aod was father of Amyotas 
L — 2. BK>ther of Perdiocas aod soo of Orootes, 
waft ooe of Alezaoder's geoerals. Oo the d'iath 
of Alexander, he espoused his brother's party ; 
and upoo the murder of the latter io Egypt in 
lis 1, he joined Eumeoes. He killed himself at 
Termessos in Pisidia io 320, to avoid folliog 
ioto the hands of Antigoous. 

AvaaiAVws {*AyiKi6iudricl—[h Of Atheos. 
fiUber of CliniaSk and graodiatber of the cele- 
brated Aidbiades, deduced his desceot from 
Earysaccs, the eon of Telamonian Ajaz. He 
joiiied Clisthenes in an attempt to procure the 
banishment of the PisifitraUda ; but was ban- 
ished with him B.C. 612.]— 2. Son of Clinias 
and Dinomache, was bom at Athens about B.C. 
4fiO, and on tbe death of his father in 447, was 
faroDgfat up b^ his relation Pericles. He pos- 
seased a beautiful person, transcendent abilities, 
and great wealth, which received a large ac- 
session through his marriage with Hippar^te, 
the dasKbter of Hipponlcus. His youth was 
diagra38u by his amours and debaucheries, and 
BoenteA^ who saw his vast capabilities, at- 
tempted to win him to tbe paths of virtue, but 
in vain. Their intimacv was strengthened by 
mnfcoal services. At the battle of Pgtidiea 
(B.C. 432) Lis life was saved by Socrates, and 
at that of Delium (424) he saved the life of Soc- 
rates. He did not take much part in public af- 
&tn till after the death of Cleon ^422), but he 
(ben beciuiie one of the leading politicmns, and 
thfC heail of the war party in opposition to Nic- 
iaa Enraged at the affront put upon him by 
tbe Laoedsmonians, who had not chosen to 
jnploy bis intervention in the negotiations 
which ended in the peace of 421, and had pre- 
ferred Nicias to him, he induced the Athenians 
to fonn an alliance with Argos, Mantin^a, and 
Ells, and to attack the allies of Sparta. In 415 
he was foremost amongst the advocates of the 
Sicilian expedition, which he believed would be 
a step toward the conquest of Italy, Carthage, 
aod Peloponnesus. While the preparations for 
the expedition were going on, there occurred 
the mysterious mutilation of the Hermes-busts, 
which "the popular fears connected io some un- 
accountable manner with an attempt to over- 
throw the Athenian constitution. Alcibiodes 
was charged with being the ringleader in this 
attempt He had been already appointed along 
with Nicias and Lamachus as commander of tbe 
expedition to Sicily, and he now demanded an 
ioTCstigation before he set sail This, however, 
his enemies would not grant, as they hoped to 
ioereas^ the popular odium against him in his 
slsenoe. He was, therefore, obliged to depart 
iut Sicily ; but he had not been there long, be- 
Sore be was recalled to stand his trial On his 
retoni homeward, be managed to escape at 
Thurii, and thwce proceeded to Sparta, wliTe 

he acted as the avowed euenr. y of Iiis cojouj 
At Athens sentence of death was passed upoc 
him, and his property was coonstiated At 
Sf^ta he rendered himself popular by the fa- 
cility with which he adopted the Spartan man- 
ners ; but the machinations of his enemy, Aan 
II, induced him to abandon the Spartans and 
take refuge with Tissaphemes ^412), whose fi^ 
vor he soon gaiscd. Through his influence Tin- 
saphernes deserted the Spartans and professed 
his willingness to assist the Athenians, who ac 
oordingly recalled Alcibiades from banishment 
in 411. He did not immediately return to Ath 
ens, but remained abroad for the next four years, 
during which the Athenians under his com- 
mand gained the victories of Cynossema, Aby- 
doB, and Cyzicus, and got possession of Chal- 
cedon and Byzantium. Id 407 he returned to 
Athens, where he was rdccived with great en- 
thusiasm, and was appointed commander-in- 
chief of all the land and sea forces. But the 
defeat at Notium, occasioned during his absence 
by the imprudence of his .lieutenant, Antiochus, 
furnished his enemies with a handle against 
him, and he was superseded in his command 
(RC. 406). He now went into voluntary ex- 
ile to his fortified domain at Bisantlie in the 
Thracian Chersonesus, where he made war on 
the neighboring Thracians. Before the fatal 
battle of i£gos-Potami (406^, he gave an inef- 
fectual warning to the Athemaii generals. After 
the fall of Auens (404), he was condemned tc 
banishment, and took refuge with Phamaba- 
zus ; he was about to proceed to the couit of 
Artoxerxes, when one night his house was sur- 
rounded by a band of armed men, and set oi 
fire. He rushed out sword in hand, but fell 
pierced with arrows (4041 llie assassins were 
probablv either employed by the Spartans, or 
by Uie brothers of a lady whom Alcibiades had 
seduced. He left a son by his wife Hipporete, 
named AlcibiadcA, who never distinguished him- 
selt It was for b'^i that Isocrates wrote the 
speech UepH tov Zei .wf. 

AlcidImas ( 'AAxtJc^ac), a Greek rhetorician 
of Ehea in JSmis, in Asia Minor, was a pupil of 
Oorgios, and resided at Athens between B.Cf. 
432 and 411. His works were characterized by 
pompous diction, and the extravagant use of 
poetical epithets and phrases. There are two 
declamations extant which bear his name, en- 
titled LlyssfBt and On the Sopftists^ but they 
were probably not written by liim. — Editions : 
In Reiske's Oratotet GrcBci^ vol viii., aiid io 
Bekker*s Oratoret Attici^ vol vii 

AlcIdas ('AAxaJoc Dor = 'AAicf tdjyf), a Spar- 
tan commander of the fleet in tlie Peloponnesion 
war, B.O. 428-427. In tlie former year he was 
sent to Mytilene, and in the latter to Corc^'ra. 

Alcioes {^Ahceidrfc), a name of AmphitiTOi^ 
the son of Alcceus, and more especially of Her 
culcs, the grandson of AIcsus. 

AlcImSde (*Ahcifiidr}\ daughter of Phylacus 
and Clymenc, wife of iEson, and mother of 

rALCiMEDON {*A2.KifLed(jv), an Arcadian hero, 
fatLer of Phillo. From him the Arcadian plain 
Aldmfdon derived its name. — 2. Son of Laeices, 
one of the commanders of tbe Myrmidons un- 
der Achilles. — 3. One of the Tyrrhenian sailors^ 
who wished to carry off from Naxqs the god 
Digitized Sl^OOgle 



Batchufl. wbo bad taken the form oT an infant) 
and for this was metamori^osed into a dolphial 

[Alcimxdon, an emboeser or chaser, spoken of 
bj Virgil {Edog.^ iil, 37, 44), who mentions some 
goblets of his workmacship.J 

Alcimus (AvItub) AlethIos, the writer of 
seven short poems, a ihetorician in Aqultania, in 
Oaul, is spoken of in terms of praise by Sidonios 
Apollioans and Ausoniua. — EaitioM : In Meier's 
Anthologia Lalina^p. 254>260, and in Wemsdo- 
ri's PoetcB Latini Mtnorea, vol vl 

AlcIn5us {'Ahcivooc). 1. Son of Nausithous, 
and grandaoB of Keptune (Poseidon), is celebra- 
ted in the story of the Aigonaots, and still more 
in the Odyssey. Homer represents him as the 
happy ruler of the Phieacians in the Island of 
Scneria, who has by Arete five sons and one daugh- 
ter, Nausicaa. Tne way in which he received 
Ulysses, and the stones which the latter related 
to the Idng about his wanderings, occupy a con- 
siderable portion of the Odyssey (books vl to 
xiii.). — 2. A Platonic philosopher, who probably 
lived under the Osesars, wrote a work entitled 
Epitome of the Doctrines of Plato — Editions : 
By Fell, Oxon, 1667, and by J. F. Fischer, Lips., 
1788, 8vo. 

Alciphron {*Ahcu^p{jv), the most distinguished 
of the Greek epistolary writers, was periiape a 
contemporary of Lucian about A.D. 170. The 
letters (one hundred and thirteen in number, in 
three books) are written by fictitious person- 
ages, and the language is distinguished by its 
purity and elegance. The new Attic comedy 
was the principal source from which the author 
dmved his information respecting the characters 
nd manners which he describes, and for this 
r,fason they contain much valuable information 
abi)ut the private life of the Athenians of that 
time. — Editions : By Bergler, Lips., 1716, and by 
Wagner, Lips., 1798* 

[ALCirrE CAhcimrr/), a daughter of Mars and 
Agraulos. rtd. Halirruothius.] 

ALciTHdc Vid Alcathok. 

ALCMiEON {'AXKfiaiuv). 1. Son of Amphiarilus 
and Eriphyle, and brother of Amphilochus. His 
mother was induced by the necklace of Harmo- 
oia, which she received from Polynlces, to per- 
suade her husband Amphiaraus to take part in 
the expedition against Thebes ; and as he knew 
he should perish Uiere, he enjoined his sons to kill 
their mother as soon as they should be grown up. 
AlcnuQon took part in the expedition of the £pi- 
goni against Thebes, and on hb return home 
after the capture of tibe city, he slew his mother, 
according to the injunction of his father. For 
this deed he became mad, and was haunted by 
the Erinnyes. He went to Phegeus in Psophis, 
and being purified by the latter, he married 
his daughter Arsinoe or Alphesibcea, to whom 
)ie gave the necklace and peplus of Harmonia. 
But as the land of this country ceased to 
bear, on account of its harboring a matricide, 
be left Psophis and repaired to the country 
at the mouth of the River Achelous. The 
j;od Achelous gave him his daughter Callirrhoe 
m marriage ; and as the latter wished to possess 
the necklace and peplus of Harmonia, Alcmfeon 
went to Psophis and obtained them from Phe- 
geus, under the pretext of dedicating them at 
Delphi ; but when Phegeus heard that the trea^ 
9ax^ were fetched for CalUrrhoii. he caused his 

sons to murder Alcnifeon. Alcinieon «raa wor 
shipped as a hero at Thebes, and at Psoph^ hii 
tomb was shown, surrounded with eypresae^ — 
[2. Son of Sillus, and great grandeoii of Nestor, 
founder of the celebrated fomily of the AljOmmos- 
iDJB. {g. V.) in Athens.] — 8. Son of Megacl«a, -wom 
greatly enriched by Croesus.— 4. Of Crotom in 
Italy, said to have be<m a pupil of P^rtha^raa^ 
though this is very doubtiuL He is aud to 
have been the first person who diaeooted ani- 
mals, and he made some important diaooveries 
in anatomy and natural philosophy. He wrote 
several medical and philosophical works» which 
are lost 

ALdLsOMfDjE (^AXxfiaiuviSai), a noble CumYy 
at Athens, members of which fill a space in 
Grecian history from EC. 750 to 4O0. They 
were a branch of the family of the Nelldae, who 
were driven out of Pylus in Messenia by the Do- 
rians, and settled at Athens. In consequence of 
the way in which Megacles, one of the family, 
treated the insurgents under Cylon (B.O. 612}, 
they brought upon themselves the guilt of sacri- 
lege, and were in consequence baniahed firom 
Athens, about 596. About 660 they returned 
from exile, but were again expelled by Pisistra- 
tus. In 548 they contracted with the Amphio 
tyonic council to rebuild the temple of Delphi 
and obtained great popularity throughout Greece 
by executing tibe work in a style of magnificooce 
which much exceeded their engagement. On the 
expulsion of Hippias in 610, they were again re- 
stored to Athens. They now joired the popular 
party, and Clisthenes, who was at tiiat tune the 
heacf of the &mily, gave a new constitution tc 
Athens. Vid Clisthenes. 

Alcman {*Ahcfiuv, [Doric form of the name 
which was properlyj *A2.Kfjitiiuv), the chief lyrie 
poet of Sparta, oy birth a Lydian of Sardis, waa 
brought to Laconia as a slave, when very young, 
and was emancipated by his master, who dis 
covered his gemus. He probably flourished 
about B.C. 681, and most of his poems were com- 
posed after the conclusion of the second Messeuian 
war. He is said to have died, like Sulla, of the 
morbus pedicularis. Alcman*8 poems were com- 
prised in six books : many of them were crotia 
and he is said by some ancient writers to have 
been the inventor of erotic poetry. His metres 
were very various. The Cretic hexameter was 
named Alcmanic from his bcin^ ite inventor. His 
dialect was the Spartan Done, with an inter- 
mixture of the .£ohc. The Alexandrean gram- 
marians placed Alcman at the head of their 
canon of the nine lyric poets. The fragm^ti 
of his poems are edited by "Welcker, Giee- 
sen, 1816 ; and by Bergk,in Poetis Lyriei Or act, 

AlcmEnx {*A2xfi^), daughter of Electryon 
king of Mycenie, by Anaxo or Lysidice. The 
brothers of Alcmene were slain by the sons of 
Pterelaus ; and their father set out to avei^ 
their death, leaving to Amphitryon his kingdom 
and his daughter Alcmene, whom Amphitryon 
was to marry. But Amphitryon having unin* 
tenticnally killed Electryon before the marriaff^ 
Sthenelus expelled both Amphitryon and Alc- 
mene, who went to Thebes. But hero, instead* 
of marrying Amphitryon, Alcmene declared that 
she would only marry the man who sboxjla 
avenge the deaUi of her brewers. Amnhitn<* 
Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



flMiertook the task, and invited Creon of Thebes 
to assist hiin. Daring his absence, Jupiter (Zeus), 
n the disguise of Amphitryon, visited Alcmene, 
ud, haying related in what way he had avenged 
the death of her brothers, [finaUy persuaded her 
to a nmon]. Amphitryon himself returned the 
next day ; Alcmene became the motlier of Her- 
cules by Jupiter (2^us), and of Iphides by Am- 
phitryon. Vtd. HEacDLEB. After the death of 
Ampliitryon, Alcmene married Rhadamanthys, 
It OcaHa in Boeotia. When Hercules was 
raised to the rank of a god, Alcmene, fearing 
Eorystheus, fled with the sons of Hercules to 

[Aixx>x ^A^uv), son of EBppocoon, a Calydo- 
man hunter, slain by Hercules. — 2. Son of the 
Athenian King Erechtheus, so skillful an archer, 
that he dwt a serpent which had entwined itself 
around his son, without wounding his child. 
In Virgil {Scl^ 5, 11) an Aloon is mentioned, 
whom Servius calls a Cretan, and a companion 
of Hercules, and relates of him nearly the 
story just given. — 8. A statuary, who made a 
itatae of Hercules at Thebes, of iron, to 
symbolize thereby the hero's powers of endur- 

Alcyone or Halc^Snb ('AXkvovjj). 1. A 
Fldad, daughter of Atlas and Pleione, and be- 
loTed by Neptune (Poseidon). — 2. Daughter of 
jEolos and Enarete or JE^ale, and wife of Ccyx. 
They lived so happily that they were presump- 
tooos enough to call each other Jupiter (Zeus) 
■od Juno (Hera), for which Jupiter (Zeus) me- 
tamorphosed them into birds, alcyon and ceyx, 
Others relate that Ceyz perished in a shipwreck, 
lai, Alcyone for gnef threw herself into the 
4ea, and that the gods, out of compassion, 
dttiiged the two into birds. It was fabled that 
during the seven days before, and as many after, 
the flhortest day of the year, while the bird ' 
i2ryon was breeding, there always prevailed i 
eaLms at sea. — [2. Daughter of Idas and Marpe8t>a, | 
wife of Melea^er, called by her parents Alcyone^ ' 
from the plamtive cries uttered by her mother 
Haipe»a when carried off by Apollo.] 

Aldi'dNEUS i^KTjcvovtv^X a giant^ kiUcd by 
Hercules at the Isthmus or Corinth. 

[Alctonia Palub {^kkKvinfia \iiivij\ a lake 
b Aigolis, of small size, but unfathomable depth, 
by Which Bacchus descended to the lower world, 
when he sought to bring bock Semele. It is re- 
garded by Leake as a part of Lerna.] 

ALoidxiuM MXax (7 *A.7iKVQvlQ -dakanaa), the 
Mstem part of the Corinthian Gul£ 

AiJU ('AAla), a surname of Minerva (Athena), 
uder which she was worshipped at Alea, Han- 
tbea, and Tegea Her temple at the latter place 
vas one of the most celebrated in Greece. It is 
aid to have been built by Aleus, son of Aphldas^ 
tiDg of Tegea, from whom the goddess is sup^ 
posed to have derived this surname. 

AiIa ('AAe'i : 'AA^vf), a town in Arcadia, east 
of the Stpiphalian LsJce, with a celebrated tem- 
ple of Mmerva (Athena), the ruins of which are 
•ear Pio/f . 

Alk^on. Vtd. Albion. 

Aizcra Vvd. Furia 

lALEcroa ('A/i/crup), son of Pelops, and fa- 
ther of Iphiloche, who married Mcgapenthee. son 

o( Menetaus. — 2. Svn of Anaxagin-as, father of 

\(/ta^ King >f AiK^s.] 

[AiJECTEYON (' A.AeKTpv6v\ a youth statioited 
by Mars, during his interview wim Venus, at the 
door to guard against surprise. Having fallen 
asleep, he was changed by Mars int«« a «>ek 
(iXtKTpvuv) for his neglect of duty^ — 2. Ths 
father of the Argonaut Leitus, called by Apollo 
dorus AUctar.'l 

AlSios CAMPtm or AlSii CiJiPi (r^ *kXiif»0 
TTcdeov), an extensive and fruitful plain of Cilicia, 
not far from Melius, between the Rivers Pyra* 
mus and Sarus (in Homer's Lycia, 11^ 6, 201). 
It derives its name from the circumstance that 
Bellerophon in his old age fell into melancholy 
and madness, and wandered about here (from 
dXi7, wandering). Another legend makes Bel- 
lerophon to have been thrown from Pegas>is when 
attempting to mount to heaven, and to have wan* 
dered about here lame and blind.] 

Alxmanki, or Alamannt, or Alaicani (from the 
German alle Manner^ aU men), a confederacy of 
German tribes, chiefly of Suevic extraction, be- 
tween the Danube, the Rhine, and the Main^ 
though we subsequently find tliem extending 
their territories as mr as the Alps and the Jura 
The different tribes of the confederacy were gov- 
erned by their own kings, but in time of wat 
they obeyed a common leader. They were brave 
ana warlike, and proved formidable enemies to 
the Romans. They first came into contact with the 
Romans in the reign of Caracalla, who assumed 
the surname of Alemannicus on account of a pre- 
tended victory over them (A.D. 214). Tney 
were attacked by Alexander Severus (234), and 
by Maximin (287). They invaded Italy in 270, 
but were driven back by Aurelian, and were 
again defeated by Probus in 282. After this 
time they continually invaded the Roman d'^mi- 
nions in Germany, and, though defeated by 
Constantius I., Julian (357), Valcntimanr and 
Gratian, they gradually became more and 
more powerful, and in the fifth century were 
in possession of Alsace and of German 

ALfialA (*A/1ep/a : *k7ialia in Herod.), one of 
the chief cities of Corsica, on the east of the 
island, on the southern bank of the Rivnr Rhota- 
nus (now Tavignano\ near its mouth. It waa 
founded by the Phoc<eans B.C. 564, was plun- 
dered by Ik Scipio in the first Puni'* war. and 
was made a Roman colony by Sulla. 

AlSsa. Vtd, Halfaa. 

Alksia ('AAea^a), an ancient town of the Man 
dubii in Gallia Lugdunensis, said to have been 
founded by Hercules, and situated on a high hill 
(now Auxoit, [at the foot of which is a village 
called Ali8e\\ which was washed by the two 
rivers Lutosa (now Oze) and Osera (now Ozet' 
ain). It was taken and destroyed by Caesar, in 
B.C. 52, after a memorable siege, but was after* 
ward rebi:ilt 

Abibls ('AAeatat), a town in Laconia, west of 
Sparta, 01. the road to Pherse. 

ALfifiXUM {^k7s,tiowv)y a to-^n in Elis, not far 
from Olympia, afterward cal dd AlesioBum, 

Axfiaius M0N8 (rd ^ATJjaiov Bpo{\ a mountain 
in Arcadia with a temple of Neptune (Poseidon) 
Hlppius and a grove of Ceres (Demeter). 

ALftTKS ('AA^r^f), son of Hippotes, and a de- 
scendant of Hercules, is said to nave taken pos- 
session of Corinth, and to have expelled the^ 
Sisyphids, thirty y^ws after the firgt invaiuQo' 




oT ?elo}yiiu)es w by th« Ueradida. His fiimilj, ' 
called the Aletidie, maiutained themftelyeB at 
Coriuth down to the time of Bacchis. — [2. A 
oompanion of .£nea8, who -was held in veuera- 
tion on aooomit of Lis age and wisdom.] 

ALfiTiuM (AletSuus), a town of Calaoria. 

Aletkiuic or Alatbium ( Aletrinas, fttis : now 
Alatri\ an ancient town of the Hernici, subse- 
quently a municipium and a Roman colony, 
west of Sora and east of Anngnia. 

ALEUADiB. Vid. Aledas. 
' Alkuab, ('AAevaf) a descendant of Hercules, 
n as the ruler of Larissa in Thessaly, and the 
reputed founder of the celebrated family of the 
Aleuadie. Before the time of Pisistratus (B.C. 
560)> the family of the Aleuada3 appears to have 
become divided into two branches, the Aleuad» 
and the Soopadse. The Scopadse inhabited Cran- , 
non and pernaps Pharsalus also, while the main 
branch, tne Aleuadie, remained at Larissa. The 
Bifluence of the fanulies, however, was not con- 
fined to these towns, but extended more or less 
over the greater part of Thessaly. They form- 
ed, in reiuity, a powerful aristocratic party in op- 
position to liie great body of the Thessalians. 
in the invasion of Greece by Xerxes (480), the 
Aleuade espoused the cause of the Persians, 
and the family continued to be the predominant 
one in Thessaly for a long time afterward. But 
after the end of the Poloponnesian war (404), 
another Thessalian family, the dynasts of Pherse, 
gradually rose to power and innuence, and gave 
a gi 3at shock to the power of the AlcuadsB. 
lite most formidable of these princes was Jason 
3f rkerse, who succeeded, after various strug- 
glt«, in raisin? himself to the dignity of Tagus, 
or supreme ruler of Thessaly. VicL Jasox. 

Ai^s. Vid. Alea. 

Alex or Halsx (now Alece), a small river in 
Southern Italy, was the boundary between the 
territory of Khegium and of the Locri Epi- 

[Alexak2xu8 {*A?.e^afiev6c), an iEtolian lead- 
er, sent by his countrymen with one thousand 
men to Sparta, who slew Nabis the Spartan 

Alexandeb ('AXe^ai/(5/)0f), the usual name of 
Paris in the Iliad. 

Alexander Sev£bus. IHd. SEVEaL'& 

Alexander. 1. Minor Hittorieal Ptnon^. 

1. Son of iEaoPUS, a native of the Macedoni- 
an district called Lyncestis, whence he is usually ' 
called Alexander Lyncestis. He was an accom- ' 
plice in the murder of Philip, B.G. 836, but! 
was pardoned by Alexander the Great He ac- 
companied Alexander to Asia; but in 884 he 
was detected in carrying on a treasonable cor- ' 
respondence with Darius, was kept in confine-' 
ment, and put to death in 880. 2. Son of An- > 
T0NIU8 the triumvir, and Cleopatra, bom, with 
his twin-sister Cleopatra, B.C. 40. After the 
battle of Actium they were taken to Rome by I 
Augustu«, and were generously educated l^ 
Octavia, the wife of Antonius, with her own 
childrea — 8. Eldest son of Aristobulus IL,! 
king of Judea, rose in armp m B.C. 57, against 
HyrcanuB, who was supported by the Romans. 
Alexander was defeated by the Koma » in 56 
nod 55, and was put to death by Pomp€f at An- ! 
tioefa in 49. — (. Third son of Casbanibb, king | 
•f Macof^onia, by Thcs^alonica, sister of Ales- 

i.nder th^ Great In his quairel witli hiB eltfei 
brother Autipater for the govormneDt (vtdL Ak- 
tipateb), he called in the aid of Pyrrliua oi 
Epirus and Demetrius Poliorcetes, by the lai cer 
of whom he was murdered B.C. 294. — 5. Jan- 
sjBOBy the son of Joannes Hyrcanus, and broti2< 
er of Aristobulus I, kipg of the Jews B.C. 104- 
77. At the commencement of his rci^ be was 
engaged in war with Ptolemy LathyriiB, king of 
Cyprus ; and subsequently he had to carrpr on lor 
six years a dangerous struggle with his oun 
subjects, to whom he had rendered himself ob- 
noxious by his cruelties and by opposing the 
Pharisees. He siffnalised his victory by the 
most frightful butehery of his subjects. — 6. Sur^ 
named Isius, the chief oommander of the ^to- 
lians, took an active part in opposing Philip of 
Macedonia (B.C. 198, 197), and in the various 
negotiations with the Romans. — ^7. Tyrant of 
Phebjs, was a relation of Jason, and succeeded 
either Polydorus or Polyphron, as Tagus of 
Thessaly, about B.C. 869. In consequence of 
his tyrannical government, the Thessalians ap- 
plied for aid first to Alexander II., king of Mace- 
donia, and next to Thebes. The Thebans sent 
Pelopidas into Thessaly to succor the malcon- 
tents; but having ventured incautiously within 
the power of the tyrant he was seized by Alex- 
ander, and thrown into prison B.C. 868. The 
Tbebaus sent a large army into Thessaly to 
rescue Pelopidas, but they were defeated in the 
first campaign, and did not obtain their object 
till the next year, 867. In 364 Pelopidas again 
entered Thessaly with a small force, but was 
slain in battle by Alexander. Tlie Thebans 
now sent a large army agaiuBt the tyrant and 
compelled him to become a dependent ally of 
Thebes. We afterwards hear of Alexander 
making piratical descents on many of the Athe- 
nian dependencies, and even on Attica itself 
He was murdered iu 367,. by his wife Thebe, 
with the assistance of her three brothers. — 8. 
Son of PoLYSPEBCiioN, thc Macedonian, was 
chiefly employed by his father in the commend 
of the armies which he sent against Caesander. 
Thus he was sent against Athens in B.C. 818, 
and was engaged in military operations during 
the next year in various parts of Greece. But 
in 815 he became reconciled to Cossander, aod 
we find him in 814 commanding on behalf of 
the latter He was murdered at Sicyon in 814. 
— 9. Ptolemjeus. Vid. Vtoijm jevs. — 10. Ti* 
BEBius, bom at Alexandrea, of Jewish narents^ 
and nephew of the writer Philo. He aeserted 
the faith of his ancestors, and was rewarded 
for hiB apostacy by various public appointments 
In the reign of CUudius he succeeded Fadui as 
procurator of Judaja (A.D. 46), and was ap- 
pointed by Nero procurator of Egypt He was 
the first Koman governor who declared in favor 
of Vespasian ; and he accompanied Titus b th« 
war agamst Judiea, and was present at tt * tak 
ing of Jerusalem. 

XL Kings of Epinu, 

1. Son of Neoptolemus, and brother of Ohm 
pias, the mother of Alexander the Great Phu 
ip made him kii^ of Epirus in place of liis oousis 
JOacides, and gave him his daughter Cleopatra 
in marriage (B.a 886). In 882, Alexander, al 
the reqaest of the Tarentmcs, crossed avermtc 
^ lOOgle 



It&iy, to lidthtim against the Lucaniaos adq 
Brattii After meeting witii considerable sue- 
eew, he iras defeated and slain in batUe in 826, 
Dear Pandotia, on the banks of the Acheron in 
Sontheni Italj. — ^2. Son of Fhjrrus and Lanas- 
^ daughter of the Sicilian tyrant Agathocles^ 
%aoee«ded his &ther in RO. 272, and droTe An- 
i%oa'=s OonatuB out of Macedonia. He was 
«boTtJY afterward deprived of both Macedonia 
vid Epiros hj Demetrius, the son of Antigonus ; 
bat he recovered Epirus ij the aid of the Acar- 

IJL Kingt of Macedonia, 

1. Son of Amyntaa L, distinguished himself 
•a the lifetime of his fi&ther by killing the Per- 
qan ambassadors who had come to demand the i 
submission of Amyntas, because they attempted i 
to offer indignities to the ladies of the court, atx»ut , 
B.C. 507. He succeeded his father shortly ! 
tfterward, was ob%ed to submit to the Per- 1 
iian<, and accompanied Xerxes in his invasion 
of Greece (B.C. 480). He gained the confidence | 
of Mardonius, who sent him to Athens to propose | 
peace to the Athenians, which was rejected, i 
He was secretly inclined to the cause of the 
Gredcs, and informed them the night before the 
battle of Platsae of the intention of Mardonius to ' 
fi^ oD the following day. He died about B.C. ' 
4&i, and was succeeded by Perdiccas II — 2. 1 
tfoQ of Amyntas II, whom he succeeded, 
rdgned B.C. 269-367. A usurper of the name ■ 
of Ptolomey Alorites having risen against him, ' 
Pek^daa, who was culled in to mediate between ' 
them, left Alexander in possession of the king- 1 
dom, but took with him to Thebes several hos- ' 
ti^es ; among whom was Philip, the youngest ' 
brother of Alexander, afterward King of Maco- 
doQB& Alexander was shortly afterward mur- | 
dered by Ptolomey Aloritcd. — 3. Suruamed the , 
OaEAT, son of Philip II and Olympias, was bom | 
at Pella, RC. 356. His early education was 
committed to Leonidas and Lysimachus ; and | 
he was also placed under the care of Aris- 1 
toUe, who acquired an influence over his mind ^ 
and diaraeter which was manifest to the latest 
period of his life. At the age of sixteen, Alex- 
ander was intrusted with the government of 
Uaeedonia by his father, while he was obliged 
to leave his kingnlom to march against Byzan- 
tium. He first oistinguished himself, however, 
at the battle of Clueron&i (338), where the vic- 
tory was mainly owing to his impetuosity and 
eoorage. On the murder of Philip (336), Alex- 1 
ander ascended the throne, at the age of twenty. I 
sod found himself surrounded by enemies on \ 
every side. He first put down rebellion in his 
own kingdom, and then rapidly marched into 
Greece. His unexpected activity overawed all 
oppwtion ; lliebes, which had been most active 
against him, submitted when he appeared at its | 
1^ ; and the assemUcd Greeks at the Isth- | 
mnB of Corinth, with the sole exception of the 
Laeedsmooiaos, elected him to the command | 
against Persia, which had previously been 
bestowed opoo his father. He now directed his 
arms againsl the barbarians of the north, marched 
(early in 386) across Mount Hsmus, defeated the 
Triballi, and advanced as far as the Danube, 
vbich he crossed ; and, on his return, subdued 
^ UlyriaiiB and Taulantil A report of his 

death having reached Greece, the ThcUuis uUtit 
more took up arms. But a terrible punish 
ment awaited them. He advanced into Boaotir 
by rapid marches, took Tliebes by assault, de»- 
troyed all the building with the exception of 
the house of Pindar, killed most of tho inhahr- 
tants, and sold the rest as slaves. Alexander 
now prepared for his great expedition againit 
Persia In the spring of 384, he crossed ths 
Hellespont with about thirty-five thousand mea 
Of these thirty thousand were foot and fiv« 
thousand horse, and of the former only twelve 
thousand were Macedonians. Alexander's first 
engagement with the Persians was on the River 
Gramcus in Mysia (May 834), where they were 
entirely defeated by him. This ba*tie was fol- 
lowed by the capture or submission of the chief 
towns on the west coast of Asia Minor. Hali 
camassus was not taken till late in the autumn, 
after a vigorous defence bv Memnon, the ablest 
genend ox Darius, and whose death in tho fol- 
lowing year (388) relieved Alexander intm a 
formidable opponent He now marched along 
the coast of Xycia and Pamphylia, and then 
north into Phrygia and to Gordium, where he cut 
or untied the celebrated Gordion knot, which, it 
was said, was to be loosened only by the con* 

3ueror of Asia. In 333, he marched from (Jor- 
ium through the centre of Asia Minor into 
Cilicia, where he nearlv lost his life at Tarsus by 
a fever, brought on by his great exertions or 
through throwing himself, when heated, into the 
cold waters of 3»e Cydnus. Darius, meantime, 
hod collected on army of five hundred thousoic 
or six hundred thousand men, witii thirty thou 
sand Greek mercenaries, whom Alexandei 
defeated m tiie narrow plain of Issus. DarioA 
escap^ across the Eupnrates by the ford of 
Thapsacus; but his mother, wife, and childrei 
fell uito the hands of Alexander, who treateo 
them with the utmost delicacy and respect Alex- 
anJer now directed his arms a|:ain8t the cities 
of Phoenicia, most of which submitted ; but Tyre 
was not taken till the middle of 832, after an 
obstinate defence of seven months. Next fol* 
lowed the siege of Gaza, which again delayed 
Alexander two months. Afterward, according 
to Jo8ephus,he marched to Jerusalem, intending U 
punish the people for refusing to assist hun, 
but he was diverted from his purpose by 
the appearance of the high-priest, and par 
doned the people. This story is not mentionej? 
by Arrian, and rests on auestionable evi- 
dence. Alexander next marcned into Egypt 
which willingly submitted to him, for the %yp 
tians had ever hnted the Persians. At the b^in- 
ning of 331, Alexander founded at the moutl- 
of the western branch of the Nile the dt} 
of Alexandrea, and about the same timi 
visited the temple of Jupiter Ammon, in th« 
desert of Libya, and was saluted by the pri<«t« 
as tiie son of Jupiter Ammon. In the spring 
of the same year (331), Alexander set oul 
to meet Darius, who had collected anothei 
armv. He march^ through PhrBuicia and 
Syna to the Euphrates, which he crossed 
at the ford of Thapsacus; thence he pro- 
ceeded through Mesopotamia, crossed the Tigicw 
and at length met with the immense hosti 
of Darius, said to have amounted %■> more than* 
a million of men, in the plains of Gauga 




cnela. The battle was fought in tho month of 
Octobei, 831, and ended in the complete defeat 
of the Persiana. Alexander punned the fugi- 
kives to ArbeU (now JSrhil), which place luia 
given its name to Uie battle, though distant about 
fifty miles from the spot where it was fought 
Duriusi who had left the field of battle early in 
the day, fled to Eobatana(now Hamadan\ in 
Media. Alexander was now the conqueror of 
Asia, and b^an to adopt Persian habits and cus- 
toms, by which he conciliated the affections of 
his new subjects. From Arbela he marched to 
Babylon, Susa, and Persepolis, all of which sur* 
renaered to him. He is said to have set fire to 
the palace of Persepolis, and, according to some 
aocouafes, in the revelry of a banquet, at the in- 
stigation of Thais, an Athenian courtesan. At 
ihe beginning of 830 Alexander marched from 
Persepolis into Media, in pursuit of Darius, 
whom he followed through Rhagas and the passes 
of the Elburz Mountains, call^ by the ancients 
the Caspian Gates, into the deserts of Parthia, 
where tha unfortunate king was murdered by 
Bessus, satrap of Bactria, and his associates. 
Alexander sent his body to Persepolis, to be 
auried in the tombs of the Persian kinga. Bee- 
»is escaped to Bactria, and assumed the title of 
King of Persia. Alexander was engaged during 
the remainder of the jear in subduing the 
uorthcm provinces of Asia between the Caspian 
And the Indus, namely, Hyrcania, Parthia, Aria, 
lite Drangas, and Saraiigad. It was during 
this campaign that Philotas, his father Pabjie- 
irioN, ana other Macedonians were executed on 
a chaige of treasoa In 329 Alexander crossed 
tlie mountains of the Paropamisus (now the 
Hindoo Koo8h\ and marched into Bactria 
Against Bessus, whom he pursued across the 
Oxiis into Sogdlana. In this country Bessus 
was betrayed to liim, and was put to death. 
From the Oxus he advanced as far as the Jax- 
artes (now the Sir\ which he crossed, and de- 
feated several Scythian tribes north of that 
river. After founding a city, Aleiomdrea, on the 
Jaxartes, he retraced his steps, and returned to 
2^riaBpa or Bactra, where he spent the winter- 
of 820. It was here that he killed his friend 
Clitus m a dnmken revcL In 32S, Alexander 
again crossed the Oxus to complete the subjuga- 
tion of Sogdiana, but was not able to effect it in 
the year, and accordingly went into winter- 

auarters at Nautaca, a fjlace in tlie middle of 
le province. At the beginning of 827, he took 
a mountain fortress, in which Oxyartes, a Bao- 
trian prince, had deposited his wife and daugh- 
ters. The beauty of Roxana, one of the latter, 
captivated the conqueror, and he accordingly i 
made her his wife. This marriage with one of | 
his Eastern subjects was in accordance with 
tlie whole of his policy. Havins completed the 
conquest of Sogdiana, he marched south into 
Bactria, and m^e preparations for the invasion 
of India. While in Boctna another conspiracy ' 
was discovered for the murder of the king. I 
The plot was formed by Hermolaus with a ' 
number of the royal pages, and Callisthenes, ' 
a pupil of Aristotle, was involved in it All < 
the conspirators were put to death. Alex-| 
ander did not leave jBactria till late in 
tlie spring of 827, and crossed the Indus, pro- ! 
Uibly near the mc dcm Attock. He mat with 

no resistance till he reached tlie XljdiM^^ 
where he was opposed by Poms, an TrKJmn kii^ 
whom he defeated after a gallant reustaiMy, 
and took prisoner. Alexander rostored to hina 
his kingdom, and treated him with diBtiiiguitfhed 
honor. He founded two towns, one on each 
bank of the Hydaq)e8 : one called Bucephala, ia 
honor of his horse Bucephalus, who died here^ 
after carrying him through so many Tictorietf; 
and the other Nioasa, to commemorate hia vie- 
tory. From thence he marched aorofis the 
Acesines (now the Ckinah) and the Hjdraotes 
(now the Ravee\ and penetrated ae far as the 
Hyphasis(now Garta). This was the furthest 
point which he readied, for the Macedonians 
worn out by long service, and tired of the war, 
refused to advance further ; and Alexander, not- 
withstanding his entreaties and prayersy waf 
obliged to lead them back. He returned to the 
Hydupes, where he had previously given orders 
for the buildiog of a fleets and then aailed down 
the river with abont eight thousand men, while 
the remainder marched along the banks in two 
divisions. T\a& was late in the autumn of 827. 
The people on each side of the river aubmitted 
without resistance, except the Malll, in the con- 
quest of one of whose pUces Alexander was 
severely wounded. At the confluence of the 
Acesines and the Indus, Alexander founded a 
city, and left Philip as satrap, with a ooosidera- 
ble body of Greeks. Here he built eome fresh 
ships, and continued his voyage down the Indus, 
founded a city at Pattalo, uie apex of the delta 
of the Indus, and sailed into the Indian Ocean, 
which he reached about the middle of 820. 
Nearchus was sent with the fleet to sail along 
the coast to the Persian Gulf {vid. Nsarchtb)^ 
and Alexander marched with the rest of faif 
forces through Gedrosia, in which country lira ar- 
my suffered greatly from want of water and provi- 
sions. He reached Susa at the beginning of 826. 
Here he allowed himself and his troops some 
rest from their labors ; and anxious to form his 
Europeiin and Asiatic subjects into one people, 
he assigned to about eighty of hb generals Asia- 
tic wives, and gave with them rich dowries. 
He himself took a second wife, Barsine, the 
eldest daughter of Darius, and, according to 
some accounts, a third, Parysatis, the daughter 
of OchuB. About ten thousand Macedoniazis 
followed the example of then: king and generals, 
and married Asiatic women. Alexander also 
enrolled large numbers of Asiatics among his 
troops, and taught them the Macedonian tactics. 
He, moreover, directed his attention to the in- 
crease of commerce, and for this purpose had 
the Euphrates and Tigris made navigable, by 
removing the artificial obstructions which lad 
been made in the river for the purpose of irrigtr 
tioa *The Macedonians, who were discontented 
with several of the new arrangements of 
the king, rose in mutiny against him, which 
he quelled "wiih some difficulty. Toward the 
close of the same year (826), he went to 
Ecbatana, where, he lost his great favorit€v 
HEFHiBsnoif. From Ecbatana he marched to 
Babylon, subduing in his way the Cossei, 
a mountain trilM*, and before be rescfaed 
Babylon he was met bv ambassadors from al- 
most eveiy part of uie known world. Al 
exander pntAr^d Babylon jn^tho spring oi 
Digitized by V^jOC 



SM.. about a year befave his death, notwithstaiid- 
aafg the -wams^pH of t&e ChaldawMs '^bo pre- 
«fieted e^il to hua if he entered the city at Uiat 
lima. £[« ioteDded to make BabTlon the capital 
«f his empire^ aa the best point of oommunication 
between tk eastem and weetern dominionB. HU 
fhrmca were nmnerons and gigantic His first 
ob*ecit 'was the oonqnest of AraUa, which was to 
ba ft>]]f3rwed, it was said, by the subjugation of 
Italy, Ontiiage» and the West But his yiews 
were no^ eootiiied merely to conquest He or* 
<la^sd a Heet to be built on the Caspiaji, in order 
U> explore that sea. He also intended to im- 
prove the distributkm of waters in the Babylon- 
ian plain, and lor that purpose sailed down the 
Enpfantes to inspect the canal called Palla- 
Qn his return to Babylon he was at- 
by a £eTer, probably brought on by his 
eacertioas in the marshy districts around 
Babyki^ and aggravated by the ijuantity of 
wine he had drunk at a banquet given to his 
poncipal officers. He died after an illness of 
eler^en days^ in the month of May or June, B.C. 
223* at the age of thirty-two^ aner a reign of 
twelTe years and eight months. He appointed 
Qo ooe as his successor, but iust before his death 
be gave his ring to Perdicoas. Boxana was 
with efaQd at the time of his death, and after- 
vard bore a son who is known by the name 
of Alexander .^Igoa, The history of Alexander 
taatm an iimportant epoch in the mstory of man- 
faad. Unlike other Asiatic conquerors, his pro- 
was marked by something more than 
* I and ruin ; at every step of his course 
the Greek language and civilization took root 
and flomnshed ; and after his death Oreek 
ioma were formed in all parts of Asia, whi< 
doatinued to exist for centuries. By his con- 
qneets the knowledge of mankind was increased ; 
tne sciences of geography, natural history, and 
others, reedved vast additions; and it was 
throng^ him that a road was opened to India, 
nd that Europeans became acquainted with the 
products of the remote East— 4. .^ous, son of 
Alexander the Great and Roxana, was bom 
shortly after the death of his father, in B.C. 828, 
nod was acknowledged as the partner of Philip 
Anhideus in the empire, under the guardian- 
^p of Perdiccas, Antipater, and Polysperchon 
in succession. Alexander and his mother Roxana 
were imprisoned hj Cassander, when he ob- 
tained possession of Macedonia in 816, and re- 
mained in prison till 811, when they were put to 
death by Cassander. 

IV. Ktnfft of Syricu 
1. Samamed Balas, a person of low origin, 
pr^ended to be the son of Antiochus IV. Epipb- 
anes, and reigned in Syria B.C. 150-146. He 
deleated and slew in battle Demetrius L Boter, 
oat was afterward defeated and dethroned by 
Demetrius H l^icator. — 2. Sumamed Zebina or 
yuTwus, son of a merchant^ was set up by 
Ptolemj Physoon as a pretender to the throne of 
&|pfia, shortly after the return of Demetrius IL 
hicator from his captivity amouf the Partbians, 
EC. 128. He defeated Demetnus in 125, but 
was afterward defeated by Antiochus Grypus, 
bj whom he was put to death, 122. 
V. Literary. 
1 Of JRqa, a peripatetic philosopher at Rome 

in the first centuiy after Christ, was tu(oi tb t^r* 
Emperor Nero.— 2. llie -AiroiJAi*, (»f rkurow 
in iEtolia, a Greek poet> lived iu tLe reign of 
Ptolemeus Phikdelphus (B.C. 285-24H At 
Alexandrea, where he was reckoned one of the 
seven tragic poets who constituted the tracio 
pleiad. He also wrote other i)oems, besiaes 
tragedies. His fragments are collected by Ca> 
pellmann, Alexandri uEtoU Fragnumia, Jkna, 
1829. — 3. Of Afheomsias, in Caria. the must 
celebrated of the commentators op Arittotle^ 
lived about AJ). 200. About half h.4 volumin- 
ous works were edited and translated into Latin 
at the revival of literature ; there are a few 
more extant in the original Greek, vhich have 
never been printed, and an Arabic version is 
preserved oi beveral others. His must impor- 
tant treatise is entitied J)e FatOt an itiquiry mto 
the opinions of Aristotie on the subject ot Fate 
and Free-will: edited by OrelU, Zurich, 1824.— 
4. CoamcLroB, sumamea Polyhistoe, a Greek 
writer, was made prisoner dui^Ing tlio war of 
Sulhi in Greece (B.C. 8^-84), and sold as a slave 
to Cornelius Lentulus, who took him to Rcme, 
made him the teacher of his children, and iib- 
sequently restored him to freedom. The lor- 
name of Polyhistor was given to him on account 
of his prodigious learning. He is said to have 
written a vast number of works, all of vthich 
have perished, [with the exception of a few 
fragments] : the most important of the;n was 
one in forty-two books, containing lustorical and 
geographical accounts of nearly all counti ies of 
tiie ancient world. [A list of his works b gives 
by Miiller, who has collected and published the 
fragments of his writings in ihe third volume of 
Fragmenta Hutorieorum Oracorum^ p. 206-244 j 
— 5. Sumamed Ltohnits, of EphesuB, a Greek 
rhetorician and poet, lived about B.C. SO. A 
few fragments of his geographical and astro 
nomical poems are extant — 6. Of Mtndus, in 
Caria, a Greek writer on zoology of uncertoir 
date.--J7. NuMENiuB, a Greek rhetorician, who 
lived in the second century of the Christian era. 
Two works are ascribed to him, one De Figurit 
SenterUiarum et ElociUionU^ from which Aquila 
Romanus took lus materials for his work on the 
same subject; and the other On Show-speechea, 
which was written by a later G7*ammarian of the 
name of Alexander. Edited in Walz's Jihet<rret 
Gracij vol viii — 8. The Paphlagonun, a cele- 
brated impostor, who flourished about the be- 
ginning of the second century after Christ, of 
whom Lucian has given an amusing account^ 
chiefly of the various contrivances by which he 
established and maintained the credit of an ora- 
cle. The influence he attained over the popu- 
lace seems incredible; indeed, the narrative cf 
Lucian would appear to bo a mere romance, 
were it not connrmed by some medals of An 
toninus and M. Am-elius. — 9. Sumamed Pxio- 
PLATON, a Greek rhetorician of Seleucia in 
Cilicia, was appointed Greek secretaiy to M. 
Antoninus, about AD. 174. At Athens, he 
conquered the celebrated rhetorician Hercdea 
Atticus, in a rhetorical coiu-est All persons, how- 
ever, did not admit his abilities ; for a Corinthinn 
of the name of Sceptes said that be had found 
in Alexander " the day (Il^Aof ), but not Plato,* 
alluding to lus surname of " Peloplaton." — la 
PmLALfiTHEs, an wicient (4rcok physician, liveJ 




ptol&bly toward the end of the first ce^tory 
JB.O., and Buooeeded Zeuxis aa head of a cele- 
brated HerophUean school of medicine, estab- 
lished in Phiygia between Laoiicea and Carura. 
— 11. Of Tealleb in Lydia, an eminent physi- 
eian, liyed in the sixth century after Christy and 
is the author of two extant Greek works: 1. 
LiLri Duodeeim de Re Medica ; 2. De LumhricU, 
AlexandrSa, [sometimes -dria» though, as 
Madyig says (Cic^ De Fiu^ y^ 19, 64), the Latin 
writers always preferred the e, and this was al- 
ways the form on coins and inscriptions; c£ 
Fea, ad Hor., Od, ir, 14, 86] ('AAc^ovd/oeto : 
'kXeiavSpevc, Alexandrlnus^, the name of sev- 
eral cities founded by, or m memoiy of Alex- 
ander the Great-^1. {Alezandrea, Arab. Iskan- 
deriajf the capital of Eg^t under the Ptolemies, 
ordered b^ Alexander to oe founded in RC. 882. 
It was built on the narrow neck of land between 
the Lake Mareotis and the Mediterranean, op- 
posite to the Island of Pharos, which was joined 
lo the city by an artificial ^e, called Hepta- 
stadium, which formed, with the isUnd, the two 
harbors of the cily, that on the northeast of the 
dike being named the Great Harbor (now the 
New Port\ that on the southwest Ennostos 
[edvoarii^^ the Old PortX These harbors com- 
municated with each otuer by two channels out 
through the Heptastadium, one at each end of 
it ; and there was a canal from the Eunostos to 
(he Lake Mareotis. The city was built on a 
regular flan, and was intersected by two prin- 
^upal stnaelB, above one hundred feet wide, the 
one extending thirty stadia from east to west, 
the otlier across this, from the sea toward the 
lake, to the length of ten stadia. At the east- 
em extremity of the city was the royal quarter, 
called Bnicnium, and at the other end of the 
chief street) outside of the city, the Ifecropolis 
or cemetery. A great light-house was buiH on 
the Island of Pharos in the reign of Ptolemy 
Philadelphus (6.C. 283> Under the care of the 
Ptolemies, as the capital of a great kii^dom 
and of the most fertile country on the earth, 
and commanding by its position all the com- 
merce of Europe with the East, Alexandrea 
soon became the most wealthy and splendid 
city of the known world, Greeks, Jews, and 
other foreigners flocked to it» and its population 
probably amounted to three quarters of a mil- 
lion. But a still greater distmction was con- 
ferred upon it through the foundation, by the 
first two Ptolemies, of the Museum, an establish- 
ment in which men devoted to literature were 
maintained at the public cos^ and of the Library, 
which oontamed mnety thouRond distinct worlcs, 
and four hundred thousand volumes, and the in- 
crease of which made it necessary to establish 
another library in the Serapeum (Temple of 
Sorapis), which reached to torty-two thousand 
eight hundred volumes, but which was destroyed 
by the Bishop Theophilus, at the time of the 
general overthrow of the heathen temples under 
rhpodosius (A.D. 389). The Great Library suf- 
fered severely by fire, when Julius Cffisar was 
besieged in Alexandrea, and was finally destroy- 
ed by Anux)u, the lieutenant of the Calif Omar, 
in A J). 661. These institutions made Alex- 
andrea the chief centre of literary activity. 
Wbcji Egypt became a Roman province {vid 
^Gvrrus), Alexandrea was made the residence 

of the Prssfectus Egypti. It retabed ils <90iii 
mercial and literary importance, and b€eain< 
also a chief seat of Christianity and theolcigicaJ 
learning. Its site is now covered by a maas of 
nuns, among which are the remains of the cis- 
terns by which the whole city was supplied -with 
water, house by house ; the two obelisks (walg: 
CUojiatra^e Needlet\ which adorned the gate- 
way of the royal palace, and, outside the waUa^ 
to the south, the column of Diocletian (vnlg^ 
Pompej/'t Pillar). The modem city stands oo 
the dike uniting the Island of Pharos to the 
main land.— 2. A. Troas, also Tboab simplv, 
('A. ^ Tpuuc : uow Etkittambwd, i. e^ the Old 
City), on the sea-coast, southwest of Troy, 'WBM 
enlarged by Antigonus, hence called AntigoiiI» 
but afterward it resumed its first name. It 
flourish^ greatly, both under tlie Greeks and 
the Romans ; it was made a colonia ; and both 
Julius Caesar and Constantine thought of estab 
lishing the seat of empire in it — ^8. A. An JaauM 
('A. xar^ 'laaSif: now hkenderoon, Scanderoun, 
Alexandretie), a searport at the entrance of Syr- 
ia, a little south of tssus.-— 4. In Susiana, after- 
ward Antioehia, afterward Cluirax Spanni {Xd- 
pa^ Uaaivov or ZTraff.), at the mouth of the Ti- 
gris, built by Alexander ; destroyed by a flood ; 
restored by Antiochus Epiphanes: birth-place 
of Dionysius Periegetes and Isidorus Cnarar 
cenus. — i. A. Akls ('A. ^ tv *Apioig : now Ifs- 
rat), founded by Alexander on the River Aria% 
in the Persian province of Aria, a very flourish- 
ing city, on the great caravan road to India. — 
6. A. Abaohosia or Alexandaopous (now Kan- 
dakar t\ on tiie River Arachotus, wus probably 
not founded till after the time of Alexander. 
— ^7. A. BAOiaiANA (*A. «ard Buictoo : probably 
K/ioohom, ruios), eaat of Bactra {Balkh). — 8. A. 
AD Caucasum, or apud Paropamisidas ('A. h 
Hapoiraftiaudai^), at tbo foot of Mount Paropam- 
isus (now Hindoo Koosh), probably near Ca 

bool, — 9. Au UtTniA or ALKXANDaESCHAXA ('A. 

if iax**'"i ' Q^*^ Kokand f), in Sogdiana, on the 
Jaxartes, a little east of Ch^polis or Cyrescha* 
ta, marked the furthest point reached by Alex- 
ander in his Scythian expedition. These are not 
all the cities of the name. 

AlexigIcdb ('AAe^/coxof), the averter of evil, 
a surname of several deities, but particularly of 
Jupiter (Zeus), Apollo, and Hercules. 

Alxxzndb ('AAe^vof), of Ells, a philosopher 
of the Dialectic or Megarian school, and a dis- 
ciple of Eubulides, lived about the beginning of the 
third century B.C. 

Alexis CAXe^ic)- 1. A comic poet^ bom at 
Thurii in Italy, and an Athenian citusea He 
was the uncle and instructor of Menander, was 
bom about B.C. 894, and lived to the age of 
one hundred and six. Some of his plays, of 
which he is said to have written two hundred 
and forty-five, belonged to the Middle, and others 
to the New Comedy. [The fragments of hi^ 
plays have been published by Mcineke, Froff- 
menta Comicor^im OraeeorwH, voL iL, p. 688-768, 
edit minor.] — % A sculptor and statuary, one of 
the pupils of Polycletus. 

ALFfiNus Varus. Vid VARtJs. 

Aloiduh or AlgIdus ^ruins near Gavaf^ a 
small but strongly fortified town of the iEqm oo 
one of the hills of Mount Al^dun, of which alf 
trace h«, now di«^f)«J^GoOgle 



AxqIdcis Moss, a range of momitaiiis in La- 
aon, eTtoiding south fi^m Prieneste to Mount 
41baDua) cold, but coTered with wood, and oon- 
csiiUDg good pasturage {geUdo Algido; Hor^ 
Oarm^ i, SI, 6 : wigrm feraei froti^ in Algido; 
id^ iv^ 4, 58). It was an ancient seat of the 
worship of Diana. From it the i£qui usually 
nuide their incursions into the Roman territoiy. 

AuJbrcs CiBCiKA. Vid. CjEcnrA. 

Aluqentub, L. CiMaiiB, a eelebrated Roman 
lanalist, aotiquaiy, and jurist^ was prastor in 
Sicilr, RC £09, and wrote several works, of 
which the best known was his Afinalu, which 
eoDtiiined an account of tiM second Punic war 
[His fragments have been published in the 
JSeripiores BtMioriei JRomani of Popma, 1620, and 
mere reecntlj by Krause, in his VUa et Frag- 
maUa veUnan UitL Lot, Berlin, 1883.] 

AuxoA (r^ 'AJUvda: 'AXivdevf), a fortress 
and email town, southeast of Stratonice, where 
Ada, queen of Caria,. fixed her residence, when 
she was driyen out of HaUcamassus (EG. 840). 

AupHXRA {'AAi^etpa, 'AXi^pa : 'AAt^tpoZof , 
'AXi^pevc' ruins near Nenmtza^ a fortified 
town in Aircadia, situated on a mountain on the 
bordere of Elis, south of the AlphSus, said to 
have been founded by the hero Alipheros, son 
of Lycaon. 

AuPHKBUS. Fid Alipheba. 

[AxisiUM ('AAe/atoy), a town of Elis, the same, 
probably, with that called AiJslauu by Strabo, 
Slid placed by him between Elis and Olympia] 

Aiiso (now EUeH\ a stropg fortress built by 
Drnsus B.C. 11, at the confluence of the Luppia 
(now lAppe) and the Eliso (now Altne). 

AusoNTiA (now AlHtx)t a riyer flowing into 
the Mosella (now Mosel), 

Allectcb, the chief oflicer of Carausius in 
Uritain, whom he murdered in A.D. 293. He 
then assumed the imperial title himself, but was 
defeated and slain in 296 by the general of Con- 

Allla, or, more correctly, Alia, a small river, 
which rises about eleven miles from Rome, in 
the neighborhood of Omstumerium, and flows 
ibto the Tiber about six miles from Rome. It 
is memorable by the defeat of the Romans by 
tiie Gauls on its banks, July 16th, RC. 890 ; 
which day, diet AUiensi^j was hence marked as 
an unlucfy day in the Roman calendar. 

Alllkojs, a. 1. a friend of Cicero, was the 
legate of Q. Cicero in Asia, B.C. 60, prsBtor in 
49, and governor of Sicily on behalf of Cffisar m 
48 and 47. — 2. A legate of DolabdOUi, by whom 
he was sent into Egypt in 43. 

AiiIrjB or Alif^ ( Allifanos : now AlUfe\ a 
(own of Samnium, on the Vultumus, in a ^rtile 
eoimtry. It was celebrated for the manufacture 
of its large drinkingHJups (AUi/ana sc poculoj 
Hot, Art, ii, 8, 39> 

AxLOBadaia (nom. sing., AUdbrox : 'AAXo- 
6poyec, 'AXX66pvyec, 'AAT^ptyef : perhaps from 
the Celtic aHl, "rock" or "mountain," and brog, 
** dwelling," consequently "dwellers in the 
mountains"), a powerful people of Gaul dwell- 
ii^ between the Rhodanus (now Rhone) and 
t£ Isara (now lKre\ as far as the Lake Leman- 
Bos (now Lak» of Oeneva)^ consequently in thA 
loodera Dauphin^ and Savoy. Their chief town 
was Vii OA (now Vienne) on the Rhone. They 
•re firs! u«eoticne'l in Haunibars invasion, B.C. 

218. TLey were oooauered, in B.C. 121, I17 
Fabius Maximus Allooroeicus, and made suH 
jects of Rome, but they bore the yoke unwill- 
ingly, and were always disposed to rebellioDL 
In the time of Ammianus tne easteni part of 
their country was called Sapaudia, i. e., Savoy. 

Almo (now AlmofUjy a small river, rises near 
BovilUs, and flows into the Tiber south of Rome, 
in which the statue and sacred things of Cybek 
were washed annually. 

AlmOpes {*A^ftJirec)y a people in Macedonia, 
inhabiting the district Almopia between EordMi 
and Pelf^niiL 

AlOeub {'AXuevc)t son of Neptune (Poseidon) 
and Canace, married Iphimedia, the daughter 
of Triops. His wife was beloved by Neptune 
(Poseidon), by whom she had two sons, Otus 
and Ephialtes, who are usually called the AloV- 
da, from their reputed father Aloeus. Thev 
were renowned for their extraordinary strengtii 
and daring spirit When they were nine years 
old, the body of each measured nine cubits in 
breadth and twenty-seven in height At this 
early age, they threatened the Olympian gods 
with war, and attempted to pile Ossa upon 
Olympus, and Pelion upon Ossa. They would 
have accomplished their object, says Homer, 
had they been allowed to grow up to the age of 
manhood; but Apollo destroyed them l^ore 
their beards began to appear (Odl, xL, 805, «^.)l 
They also put the ffod Mars (Ares) in chains, 
and kept him imprisoned for thiileen months 
Other stories are related of them by latei 

Aloidjl Vid, Alosus. 

[Alone {'AXuvai : now Benidorme or Torre A 
Salinas)^ a town of Hispauia Tarracooea<«is, a 
colony of the Massilians. — 2. A towu of Britain, 
somewhat south of Kenoick ; by some Kiipposad 
to correspond to Ambleeide.] 

Alomta ('AXovra : now Terek)^ a of M 
bania, in Sarmatia Asiatica, flowiug iiico ths 

Alope {*A.'K6nrf)f daughter of Corcyon, hc- 
came by Neptune (Poseidon) the mother of 
HippoTuous. She was put to death by h^r fa- 
ther, but her body was changed by Neptune 
(Poseidon) into a well, which bore the sums 

AlSpe {*AX6mi : 'AAo;revf, *AAo:rm/f). 1. A 
town in the Opuntian Locris, oppoeite Euboeo. 

2. A town m Phthiotis in Tnop^aly (i?., ii., 

Alop£ce ('AAwn-cic^ and 'A?M7reK(u : 'AAwttb 
Kcvg), a demus of Attica, of the tribe Antiochifl^ 
eleven stadia east of Athens, on the Hill An 
chesmus. [Here the pai'ents of Socrates dwells 
who therefore belonged to this demu6, as did 
also Aristides.] 

Al6p£oia {'AXuireKia) or Alopece (Plin.), an 
island in the Palus Mieotis, near the mouth of 
the TanaJis.] 

AxopscoxNEsus (JAXuvcKowTjao^: *A?.uTZ£Kcn^ 
i^aLoi: now Alexif\ a town in the ThraeliLi 
Chersonesus, founded by the uEoliafiS. 

Alp£nus ('AATri^i'of, 'AXTn/vot), a tjwn of the 
Epicnemidii Locri at the eotracco \>t Uic pass of 

Alpes (oI "AATTCif , rj 'Aat^lq, rif * A Xrmv^ Borj, 
Tii *AX'ir€La opTj ; probably from ^jbo Celtic Alb or 
Alpf "a height"), the moiinta"|^/mr^;jd^>< 



Demudary of Noi-tbcm Italy, are a part of the 
great mountaiu chain which eztrada from the 
Giilf of Genoa across Europe to the Black Sea, 
nf which tiie Apennines and the mountains of 
the Grecian penmsula may be regarded as off- 
shoots. Of the Alps pro]Mr, the Greeks had 
Tery little knowledge, and included them under 
the general name of the Rhipiean Mountains. 
The Romans first' obtained some knowledge of 
(hem by Hannibal's passage across them: this 
knowledge was gradually extended by their va- 
rious wars with the inliabitants of uie mount- 
ains, who were not finally subdued till the rei^n 
oi Augustus. In the time of the emperors the 
different parts of the Alps were distinguished 
by the following names, most of which are still 
retained. We enumerate them in order firom 
west to east 1. Alpis MABimLs, the Mart- 
time or lAgwrian Alp9^ firom Gknua (now Qenoa\ 
where the Apennines begin, run west as far 
as the River Varus (now Vat) and Mount Cema 
(now La CaiUole)^ and then north to Mount Ve- 
sulus (now Monte Viao\ one of the highest 
points of the Alps. — 2. Alpbs CorriiB or Cot- 
TiAN^ the Cottian Alpe (so called from a King 
Cottius in the time of Augustus), from Monte 
Viso to Mont Cenis, contained Mount Matrona, 
afterward called Mount Janus or Janua (now 
Mont Otnevre), across which Cottius construct- 
ed a road, which became the chief means of 
communication between Italy and Gaul : this 
road leads from the Valley of the Durance in 
FVance to Segusio (now /Stua) and the Valley 
>f the Dora in Piedmont The pass over Mont 
Oenis, now one of the most frequented of the 
Alpine passes, appears to have oeen unknown 
m antiquity. — 3. Alpeb Graiji, also Baltue 
Oraiue (the name is probably Celtic, and has 
nothing to do with Greece), the Otaian Alps, 
from Mont Cenis to the Little St Bernard m- 
dusive, contained the Jugum Cremonis (now Le 
Cramont) and the Centronics Alpes, apparent- 
ly the Little St Bernard and the surroundinjOf 
mountains. The Little St Bernard, which is 
sometimes called Alpis Graia, is probably the 
pass by which Hanmbal crossed the Alps ; the 
i-oad over it> which was improved by Augustus, 
led to Augusta (now Aotta) in the territory of 
the SalassL— 4. Alpes Pennhv^ the Penmne 
Alps, from the Great St Bernard to the Simplon 
inclusive, the highest portion of the chain, in- 
eluding Mont Blanc, Monte Rosa, and Mont 
Cervia The Great St Bernard was called 
Mount Penn&ius, and on its summit the inhab- 
tants worshipped a deity, whom the Romans 
lulled Jupiter Penninus. The name is proba- 
\Aj derived from the Celtic pen, "a heiAt" — 
5. Alpbs Lepontiorum or IxBovriMt the l/epon- 
tian or Helvetian Alps, from the Simplon to the 
St Gothard. — 6. Alpes RiEnoo, the Raetian 
Alp% from the St Gothard to the Orteler by the 
pass of the Stelvio. Mount AdQla is usually 
supposed to be the St Gothard, but it must l>e 
another name for the whole range, if Strabo is 
right in stating that both the Rhine and the 
Adda rise in Mount Adula. The Romans were 
Boq^zainted with two passes across the RiBtian 
Alps, connecting Curia (now Coire) and Milan, 
one across the Spliigen and the other across 
Mont Septimer, and both meeting at Clavcnna 
'new C7tfavenna).—1 Alpbs TbidejitIwjb, the 

mountains of Southern Tyrol, in whieu tli« 
Ath&is (now AdAge) rises, with he iiass oi tJtM 
Brenner.— 8. Alpbs NoaiCiB, tl e NoHc jA.lpM, 
northeast of the Tridentine AJps. oomprisI^gT tbc 
mountains in the ndghborhood of Salzbixrig^.—- 
9. Alpbs Cailnigls, the Camie Alp^ east of th« 
Tridentine, and south of the None, to Mouni 
Terglu. — 10. Alpes Juu^b, the Julian ^Ipt^ 
from Mount Terglu to the commencement of 
the Blyrian or Dalmatian Mountains, which ars 
known by the name of the Alpes DalmatioaB» 
further north by the name of the Alpes Pazt- 
nonicsB. The Alpes Juliss were so called be- 
cause Julius Caesar or Augustus oonstmcted 
roads across them : they are also called Alpea 

[ALPHSiBA ('AX^eo/a). Vid, AlphetBi xieajr 
the end.] 

[ALPHENoa ('AA^uo), a son of AmphioD and 
Niobe, slain by ApoUo.] 

AlphSnus V AaDB. Vid. Varus. 

Alphesibcea ('AA^ea<6o£a). 1. Mother of Ado- 
nis. Vid. Adonis. — 2. Daughter of Phegeua, 
married AlcmsBoa Vid. Alcilson. 

AlphSub MTTiLfiNiEUS ('AA^£/dc MvnX)7va«of ), 
the author of about twelve epigrams in tbie 
Greek Anthology, was probably a contemporary 
of the Emperor Augustus. 

AiPHfius ('AA^etoc : Doric, 'AA^eof : now Al 
feo, Rofeoy R^o, Rufea), the chief river of Pel 
oponnesus, nses at Phylace in Arcadia, sbot-t- 
ly afterward sinks under ground, appears agaio 
near Asea, and then mingles its waters witb 
those of the EurOtas. After flowing twenty 
stadia, the two rivers disappear imder groimd : 
the Alpheus again rises at Pega9 in Arcadia, 
and, increased by many aflluents, flows north- 
west through Arcadia and Elis, not far from 
Olvmpia, and faUs into the Ionian Sea. The 
subterranean descent of the river, which is con- 
firmed by modem travellers, gave rise to the 
story about the river-god AlphSus and th« 
nvmph Arethusa. The latter, pursued "by Al- 
pheus, was changed by Diana (Artemis) into 
the fountain of Arethusa, in the Island of Orty- 
gia at Syracuse, but the god continued to pur- 
sue her under the sea, and attempted to mingle 
his stream with the fountain in Ortygia. Hence 
it was said that a cup thrown into &e Alpheus 
would appear again m the fountain of Arethusa 
ID Ortygia. Other accounts related that Diana 
(Artemis) herself was beloved by Alpheus : the 
goddess was worshipped, under the name of 
Alpheaa, both in Elis and Ortygia. 

AlphIub AvItub. Vid. Avrub. 

AlpInub, a name which Horace givos^ in ridi- 
cule, to a bombastic poet He probably meam 


[Alsa (now AuMa), a river of Italy, in tht 
territoiT of the Veneti, just west of Aquileia 
Here the younger Oonstantine lost his life in a 
battle against his brother Constantius.] 

AlsIum (Alsiensis: now Palo)^ one of the 
most ancient Etruscan towns on the coast neai 
CsBre, and a Roman colony after the first Punif 
war. In its neighborhood Pompey had a ooun 
try seat {Villa jMeiMtf). 

[Altes ('AXn7f), a lon^ of the Lcleges, at 
Pedasus, father of Laotho§.ji 

ALTHiEA ('AA^o/a), daughter of the iEtoliai 
Eiqg Thestius and (hirythemis, married (Eneua 



9tag ol OalydoQ, by whom she became the 
mother of seTeral children, and among others 
(tf Mkleaqeb, apoo whose 4^th slie killed her- 

Althjea (now Orfftu f\ the chief town of the 
Oleadee in the ooontry of the Oretaoi, in Hie- 
pania TarraooDeasiBw 

ALTHSidbm (*A^&rffiivtic or *jL)ddaiftivHQ\ son 
of Catreos, king of Crete. In consequence of 
an orade, that Catreus would lose Iiis life by 
ooe of his children, Althemenes quitted Crete 
and went to Khodea There he unwittingly 
killed his fiithcr, who had oome in search of his 

Altcotm (Altinas: now AUino), a wealthy 
municipium in the land of the Yeneti in the 
north of Italy, at the mouth of the Hirer Silis 
and on the Voad from Patayium to Aquileia, 
was a wealthy manufacturing town, and the 
^lief emporium of all the goods which were 
vent troia Southern Italy to the countries of the 
Dorthu Goods could be brought from Ravenna 
to Altinum through the Lagoons and the nu- 
neroos canals of the Po, safe from storms and 
pirates* There were many beautiful villas 
aroimd the town. (Mart, iv^ 25.) 

Altis {'AXtic)i the sacred grove of Jupitek* 
(Zeoa) at Oltmfia. 

AuTzrriiTii or Halunticm ('AXowrwv), a town 
CQ the north coast of Sicily, not far from Caloc- 
la, oo a steep hill, celebrated for its wine. 

Alto or Halcs ('AXof, 'A2.og: 'AAriJj- : ruins 
near Kefaloti), a town in Phthiotis in Thessaly, 
at the extremity of Mount Othrys, built by the 
bcT3 A.f.hama«. 

Alt^ttes (*AXwarrj7f), king of Lydia, B.C. 
617-660, succeeded his father Sodyattes, and 
was himself succeeded by his son Cr<BSUs. He 
earned on war with Miletus from 617 to 612, 
ind with Cyaxares, king of Medio, from 590 to 
585 ; an eclipse of the sun, which happened in 
585, during a battle between Alyattes and Cy- 
sxares, led to a peace between them. Alyattes 
drove the Cimmerians out of Asia and took 
Smyrna. The tomb of Alyattes, north of Sar- 
dis, near the Lake Gygasa, which consisted of 
a huge moimd of earth, raised upon a founda- 
tion of great stones, still exists. Mr. Hamilton 
■ays that it took him about ten minutes to ride 
round ita baae, which would give it a circum- 
ference of nearly a mile. 

Altba ('AAi/mj), a town on the south coast of 
the Eoxuie. (Hom., IL, IL, 857.) 

Altpics fAAviriof), of Alexondrea, probably 
lived b the fourth century of the Christian era, 
sod is the author of a Qreek musical treatise, 
CfeUed ''Introduction to Music" (tlaayuy^ fiov- 
etx^ printed by Meibomius in Antiqiui Muncm 
Awdara Septem, AmsteL, 1652. 

Altzia or Alyzea, {*AXvCia, 'AXv^eia : 'AAv- 
{iatof : ruins in the Valley of Kandili)^ a town in 
Acaniania, near the 8ea> opposite Leucas, with 
s harbor and a temple both sacred to Hercules. 
The temple contained one of the works of Ly- 
KpnnB^ representing the labors of Hercules, 
woieh the komans carried off. I 

Am1]>$c>78 ('Aud^Kog)^ or MSdocdb (Mi/doicof). ' 
1. King of the Odrysaa in Thrace, when Xeno- 
^^»a visited Ibe country in RC. 400. He and 
ratiieS) who were the most powerful Thracian 
kiof^ were frequently at variance, but were 

reconciled to one another by TLiasybidus, Um 
Athenian commander, in 890, and induced by 
him to become the allies of Athens. — 2. A ruler 
in Thrace, wlxs b conjunction wiUi Berisades 
and Cersobleptes, sncce^ed Cotys in 358. 

Amaoetob&ia. Vid MAOxroBaiA. 

[AxALCHivs OcEANua, a part of the Xorthem 
Ocean, extending, according to HecatsDus, along 
the coast of Scy thia.] 

[AMALLOBBioA (now probably Medino del Rio 
Seco), a city of the Vaccaei, in Hispauia Tarra 

AmalthSa ('AfiuXBna). 1. The nurse of thfi 
infant Jupiter (Zeus) in Crete. According to 
some traditionB, Amalthea is ^e goat which 
suckled Jupiter (Zeus), and which was reward 
ed by being placed among the stars. Vid. -^a. 
According to others, Amalthea was a nymph, 
daughter of Ooeanus, Helios, ILemonius, ot of 
the Cretan king, Melissous, who fed Jupiter 
(Zeus) with the milk of a goat When this go it 
broke off one of her horns, Amalthea filled it 
with fresh herbs and gave it to Jupiter (Zeui), 
who placed it among the stars. According to 
other accounts, Jupiter (Zeus) himself broke off 
oDe of the horns of the goat Amalthea, and gave 
it to the daughters of MeUsseus, and eudowed 
it with the wonderful power of becoming filled 
with whatever the possessor might wish. This 
is the story about the origin of the celebrated 
hom of Amalthea, commonly called the Hom of 
Plenty or Cornucopia, which was used in later 
times as the symbol of plenty in general — 2. 
One of the Sibyls, identined with the Cuxnttic:! 
Sibyl, who sold to King Tarquinius the c(l< 
brated Sibylline books. 

Amaltbkcic or AjcalthSa, a villa of Atticti 
on the Kit er Thy amis in JBpirus, was perhapf 
originally a shrine of the nymph Amalthea, 
which Atticus adorned with statues and bass- 
reliefs, and converted into a beautiful summet 
retreat Cicero, in imitation, constmcted a 
similar retreat on his estate at Arplnum. 

Amamtia ('AftavTiai Amantinus, Amantiftnus, 
or AmantcB, pL : now Nivitza)^ a Greek town 
and district in Dlyricum : the town, said to have 
been founded by the Abantes of Euboea, lay af 
some distance from the coasts east of Oricum. 

Ahanus {6 *AfiavoCt rd *Afiav6v: *AfiaviTfff, 
Amanieusis : now Almadagh)^ a branch of Motmt 
Taurus, which runs from the head of the Gulf 
of Issus northeast to the principal chain divid 
log Syria from Cilicia and Cappadocia. There 
were two passes in it ; the one, called the Syr- 
ion Gates {ai 2vp/<u irvXaif Syrise Porta : now 
Bylan^ near the sea; the other, colled the 
Ajmonion Gates i^Aftavideg or 'AfiaviKol inf?Mi . 
AmonicsB Pyhe, Portce Amoni Montis: now 
Demir Kapu, \.^ih$ Iron Oate), further to Uie 
north. The former pass was on the road fr:»m 
Cilicia to Antioch, the latter on that to the dis- 
trict Commagene ; but» on account of its great 
difficulty, the latter pass was rarely use<i until 
the Romans made a road through it The in 
habitants of Amanus were wild banditti 

Amardz or Maodi ('Afiapdoi, Mapdo£),apower 
ful, warlike, and preaatory tribe, who dwelt on 
the south shore of^the Caspian Sea. 

Amardub or Makdus ('A/^apdoc, Mc^do^ : now 
Kigil Ozien or 8efidRud\ a river flowing through 
the country of the Maroi into the Caspian Sei^' 


* AMARi L/C US. 


[Aiiliii LA.CU8 {al viKpaL "kifivai : now Seheihi), 
in Lower E^^ypt^ derired their name from their 
bitter, brae^sh taate, which was subeeqaentiy 
changed and rendered sweet by the Canal of 
Ptolemy, letting into them tiie water of the 

AiCARTNCEDS ('A/copu/xevc), a chief of the 
Eleans, is said bj some writers to have fought 
against Troy : but Homer only mentions his son 
Diores {AmarvnMet) as taking part in the Tro- 
jan war. 

Amartkthcs (*AfAupwOoc: *Afuipvv6ioc), a 
town in Euboea, seven stacUa from Eretria, to 
which it beloc^ed, with a celebrated temple of 
Diana (Artemis), who was hence called ^nta- 
ryrUhia or AmaryHii, and in whose honor there 
was a festival of the name botii in Eubcsa and 
Attica. Vid Diet of ArUiq^ art Amartnthia. 

AMisftNUB (now Anuueno^ a river in Latium, 
rises in the Volscian Mountains, flows by Pri- 
vemum, and after being joined by the Ufeus (now 
UferUe\ which flows from Setia, falls into the 
sea between Circeii and Terracina, though the 
greater part of its waters are lost in the Pontiae 

AmIsia or -Sa ('A/idaeia: 'kfiaaev^x now 
Anuuiah)y the capital of the kings of Pootus, 
was a strongly fortified city on both banks of the 
River Iris. It was the birth-place of Mithra- 
dates the Great and of the geographer Sti*abo. 

AmIsis ('A/MUKf). 1. King of Egypt^ B.C. 
970-626, succeeded Apries, vfhom. he dethroned. 
During his long reign Egypt was in a very pros- 
perous condition, and the Greeks were brought 
into much closer intercourse with the Egyptians 
than had existed previously. Amasis married 
Ladice, a Cyrenaic lady, contracted an alliance 
with Gyrene and Polycrates of Samos, and also 
sent presents to several of the Greek cities. — 
2. A Persian, sent in the reign of Cambyses 
(B.C. 525) against Cyrene, took Barco, but did 
not succeed in taking Gyrene. 

Amastris {'AfiaoTpi^f Ion. ' KfiTiarpiQ), 1. 
Wife of Xerxes, and mother of Artaxerxes L, 
was of a crud and vindictive character. — 2. 
Also called Anuutrine^ niece of Darius, the lost 
king of Persia. She married, 1. Craterus; 2. 
Dionysius, tyrant of Heraolea in Bitliynia, B.C. 
822; and, 8. Lysimacbus, B.C. 802. Having 
been abandoned by Lysimacbus upon his mar- 
riage with Arsinoe, she retired to Heraclea, 
where she reigned, and was drowned by her 
two sons aboat 289. 

Amast&is ('Xfiaarptc: * kfiaxjTpiavoi '. now 
Amaterajt a large and beautiful city, with two 
harbors, on the coast of Paphlagoma, built by 
Amastris after her separation from Lysimacbus 
(about B.C. 800), on tine site of the old town of 
Bes^mus, which name the citadel retained. The 
new city was built and peopled by the inhabit- 
unts of Cytorus and ^Sjmna. 

AicIta, wife of kin^ Latinus and mother of 
Lavinia, opposed Lavmia being given in mar- 
riage to ^neas, because she hiui already prom- 
ised her to Tumus, When ahe heard that Tur- 
uus had fallen in battle, she hung herself. 

[AmXtuIa <*kfidQeia\ one of the Nereids 

.KmathCs, -UWTI8, {Wfiado^Ct 'OUvTog : 'Afiadov- 
vufc: ttow Limcuiol)^ an ancient town on the 
nonth coast of Cyprus, with a celebrated tern 

pie of Venus (Aphrodite), -who wo. neboe "jdW 
AnuUhikfia, There were copper mines iu the 
neighborhood of the town {yevuiulatn Atnal/uuUa 
metaUi, Ov, 3£et^ i., 220). — [2. (Now AmataX), 
a fortified town of Peraa or PalcHtine, beyon.] 
the Jordan.] 

AmatIus, suinamod Psettdofitaritts, pretended 
to be either the son or g^randaon of the great 
Marius, and was put to death by Antunj 'm B.C 
44. Some call lum Hcropliilus. 

AmA.z$ns8 {*Afta(6veg\ a mythical race of war- 
like females, are said to have como from the 
Caucasus, and to have settled in the oountrr 
about the River Tliermodon, where they found- 
ed the city Themiscyra, west of the modert 
Trebizond. Their country was inhabited only 
by the Amazons, who were governed by a que'.ai ; 
but, in order to propagate their race, they met 
once a jear the Gaivareans in Mount Oaucasua 
The children of the uimale sex were brought up 
by the Amazons, and each had her right breast 
cut off; the miile children were sent to the 
Gargareans or put to death. The foundation 
of several towns in Asia Minor and in the id 
ands of the .^ean is ascribed to them, e, g^ of 
Ephesus, Smyrna, C^me, Myrina, and Papho*. 
The Greeks believed in their existence as a real 
historical race down to a late period ; and hence 
it is said that Thalestiis, the queen of the Ajus- 
zons, hastened to Alexander, in order to bo- 
come a mother by the conqueror of Ajsia. This 
belief of the Greeks may nave arisen from the 
! peculiar way in which the women of some of 
' the Caucasian districts lived, and performed 
the duties which in other countries devolve 
upon men, as well as from their bravery and 
courage, which are noticed as remarkable even 
by modem travellers. Vague and obscure re- 
ports about them probably reached the inhabitr 
ants of Western Asia and the Greeks, and these 
reports were subsequently worked out and em- 
bellisbcd by popular tradition and poetry. The 
following are the chief mythical adventures with 
which tlie Amazons are connected : they are ^d 
to have invaded Lyciain the reign of locates, but 
were destroyed by Bellerophontes, who happen- 
ed to be staying at the king's court Yid. Bel- 
lerophontes, Laomedon. They also invaded 
Phrvgia, and fought with the Phrygians and 
Trojans when Priam was a young maa ITie 
ninth among the labors imposed upon Hcicule* 
by Eurystheus was to take from Hippolytc, the 
queen of the Amazons, her girdle, the eusjgu 
of her kingly power, which she had received ae 
a present from Mars (Ares). Vid. H£bcdle& 
In the reign of Theseus they invaded KiiictL 
Vid, Theseus. Toward the end of the Tromn 
war, the Amazons, under their Queen Pentne- 
silea, came to the assistance of Priam ; but sb« 
was killed by Achilles. The Amazons and their 
battles are frequently represented in the re> 
mains of ancient Greek art 

Am£z5nici or -fus Mons, a mountain nuigt 

^ parallel and near to the coast of Pontus, con 

I taining the sources of the Thermodon and othei 

streams which water the supposed country of 

the Amazons. 

AMB4B.BI, a people of Gaul, on the Arar (now 
Saxme) east of the -fidui, and of tho same stock 
' as the latter. 

AifBiiifi, a Belgic peopkf4)etweeiajth<» BeU* 
Digitized by VjiOOQIC 



nm. and Atrebatc^ conquered by CdBsar in K 
CL 67. llieir diief town was Samarobrtra, aft- 
erward called Ambiaoi : nojr Amient, 

AMmASiifUB YicDB, a place in the couotrj of 
the TreTui near ColtUniMf where the Emperor 
Caligula was torn. 

Awwiia^ an Armoric people in Oaul, near 
the modem AmbHrw in Normandy. 

JAjibio1to8» a kuw of the Celts in Oanl in the 
mgn of Tarqninina Priscua.] 

AmbiuXti, a Gallic people, perhaps in Brit- 

Amidaix, a chief of the Ebarones in Ganl, 
cot to pieces, in conjunction with Cativolcus, 
the Roman troops nnder Sabinus and Cotta, who 
were stationed for the winter in the territories 
of the Ebarones, RC. 54. He failed in taking 
the eamp of Q. Cicero, and was defeated on the 
arrifil of Gasar, who was unable to obtain pos- 
session <fi the person of Ambiorix, notwithstand* 
r^ his active pursuit of the latter. 

AjfanrAESTz, the dieotcs or Tossals of the 
£diu, probably dwelt north of the latter. 

AxBivAam, a Gallic people west of the Moos, 
m the neighborhood of i^amur, 
AjiKnus TtjRpfo. Vid. Tcbpio. 
AMBL4DA (rd, 'AfiSXada : 'Afi6Xa6ev^\ a town 
•jB Piaidia, on the borders of Caria ; famous for 

AjfBaXdA {'iLfinpoKiat afterward *Afi6paKia: 
'A^doMrtJrjTf, 'AfiSpaxitOc, Ambraciensis : now 
ArU\ a town on the left bank of the Arachthus, 
iigfaty stadia from the coast, north of the Am- 
trsdsn Ouli^ was originally included in Acar- 
Maii, bat afterward m Epiru& It was colo- 
Biied by the Corinthians about B.C. 660, and at 
SD early period acquired wealth and importance. 
It becttoie subject to the kings of Epirus about 
the time of Alexander the Great Pyrrhus 
oade it the capital of his kingdom, and ademed 
it with public buildings and statues. At a later 
^e it joined the iStolian League, was taken 
by the Komana in B.C. 189, and stripped of its 
wofks of art Its inhabitants were transplanted 
to the new city of Nioopolis, founded oy Au- 
piatus after the battle of Actium, B.C. 81. 
South of Ambracia, on the east of tiie Arach- 
ihnik sod close to the sea, was the fort Ambraau. 
AasaAdfua Sam {'AfiirpaKtvd^ or *Afi6paKiKb^ 
»^»or; DOW ChUf of Arta), a gulf of the Ionian 
Ses between Epirus and Acamania, said by 
Polybios to be three hundred stadia long and 
«» hundred wide, and with an entrance only 
fite itadia in width. Its real length is twenty- 
HTe miles and its width ten : the narrowest pai't 
of the entrance is only seven hundred yards, but 
iU general width is about half a mile. 

A]iBa6!fn ("A/i^pcn/ef ), a Celtic people, who 
joioed the Cimbri and Teutoni in their invasion 
of the Roman dominions, and were defeated by 
■ariM near Aquse Sextis (now Aix) in B.C. 102. 
Aioaoncs, usually called St, Aicbrosb, one 
«tbe nuwt celebrated Christian fathers, was 
WTO in AD. 840, probably at Augusta Treviro- 
nm (now TrHet) After a careful education 
itBome,he practiced with great success as an 
wocrte at Milan ; and about A.D. 870 was 
•PPoioteJ prefect of the provinces of Uguria 
ijd ^miha, whose seat of government was 
*|«n- On the death of Auxentius, bishop of 
■«n. in 874, the appointment of his successor 

led to an open conflict between the Arians ukI 
Catholics. Ambrose exerted his inflnenee to 
restore peaces and addressed the people in a 
conciliatory speech, at the conclusion of which 
a child m the further part of the crowd cried 
out ^Afnbrosiiu episecjnur The words were 
received as an oracle from heaven, and Ambrose 
was elected bishop by the acclamation of the 
whole multitude, the bishops of both partiei 
uniting in his electioa It was in vain tnat he 
adopted the strangest devices to alter the de- 
termination of the people ; nothing could make 
them change their mind; and at length he 
yielded to the express command of the em^^ei- 
or (Valentinian L), and was consecrated on the 
eighth day after his baptism, for at the time of 
his election he was only a catechumen. Am 
brose was a man of eloquence, firmness, and 
ability, and distinguished himself by maintain- 
ing and enUrging the authority of the church. 
He WBs a zeiuous opponent of the Arians, and 
thus came into open conflict with Justina, the 
mother of Valentinian II., who demanded the 
use of one of the churches of Milan fur the Ari 
an& Ambrose refused to give it; he was sup 
ported by the people ; and the contest was at 
length decided by the miracles which are re 
ported to have attended the discovery of the 
reliques of two martyrs, Gervasius and Prota- 
sius. Although these miracles were denied by 
the Arians, the impression made by them upon 
the people in general was so strong, that Justina 
thought it prudent to give way. The state of 
the parties was quite altered by the death (4 
Justma in 887, when Valentiuian became a Cath- 
olic, and still more completely by the victory of 
Theodosius over Maximus (888). This event 
put the whole power of the empire into the 
nands of a prince who was a firm Catholic, and 
over whom Ambrose acquired such influence, 
that after the massacre at Thessaloniea in 390, 
be refused Theodosius admission to the Church 
of Milan for a period of eieht months, and onlv 
restored him after he had performed a public 
penance. The best edition of the works of 
Ambrose is that of the Benedictines, Paris, 1686 
and 1690. 

AMBBtsos or AifPHafsus ('Afi6pvaog : *A/t' 
Bfjvffevc: near Dhi%tQmo\ a town in Phocis, 
strongly fortified, south of Mount Parnassus: 
in the neighborhood were numerous vineyards. 

Ambustus, Fabius. 1. M., pontifex maxi- 
mus in the year that Rome was taken by the 
Gauls, B.C. 890. His three sons, Eseso, Nu- 
merius, and Quintus, were sent as ambassadors 
to the Gauls, when the latter were besieging 
Clusium, and took part in a sally of the besieged 
against the Gauls (B.C 891). The Gauls de 
manded that the Fabii should be surrendered 
to them for violating the law of nations ; and 
upon the Senate refusing to give up the guilty 
parties, they marched against Rome. The 
three sons were in the same year elected con- 
sular tribunes. — 2. M., consular tribune in B.Cl 
881 and 869, and censor in 868, had two daughr 
ters, of whom the elder was married to Mr 
Sulpicius, and the younger to C. licinius Stolen 
the author of the Licinian Rogations. Accord 
ing to the story reconled by Liyy, the youngei 
Fabia induced l>er father to assist her husbu?^ 
in obtaining the consulship for the plebeian of l 



der ititi> which she hud married — Z, M., thriM 
eouAul, ia B.C. 860, when he oooquered the 
Hernica; a seooDd time io 856, when he con- 
qaered the Falisei and Tarquiniensea ; and a 
third time in 864, when he conquered the Ti- 
burtes. He was dictator in 351. He was the 
(ather of the celebrated Q. Fabius Maxunus 
Rollianue. Vid Maximum 

AxifcNlinjs ('A^wovdf, Dor.'A;«ft/af : [now Jth 
iuello]% a river in Sicily near Catana, only 
flowed occasionally {nune fiuit^ interdwn tup- 
pretnt fontibtta aret, Or^ M^, zv^ 280.) 

AmxbHa (AmSnnus : now ArMlia)^ an ancient 
town in Umbria, and a monidpium, the birth- 
place of Sex. Roecius defended oy Cicero, waa 
situate in a district rich in vines (Virg^ Oeorg^ 
\^ 265). 

AMEaiduk, a town in the land of the Sabines, 
destroyed by the Romans at a very early period. 

AMEsralTUs ('Ayir/crrparoc: Amestratinus : 
low MUtretta\ a town in the north of Sicily, 
not far from tne coast, the same as the MyttU- 
*.ratum of Polybius, and the Amattra of Silius 
Italicus, taken by the Romans from tbe Cartha- 
ginians in the first Punic war. 

AMEHTai& Vid. AMAsnuR. 

AmIda (if 'Afiida: now JHarbekr\ a town* in 
Sophene (Armenia Major), on the Upper Tigris. 

Amuxjas. Vid. Hamilgab. 

Akiniab ('Afieiviac), brother of iEschylus, dis- 
tinguished himself at the battle of Salamis (B.C. 
480): ho and Eumenes were judged to have 
been the bravest on this occasion among all the 

AifipaiAB (*Afui7lfiac)t a comic poet of Athens, 
contemporary with Aristophanes, whom he 
twice conquered in the dramatic contests, gain- 
ing the second prize witli his Connus when 
Aristophanes was Uiird with the Clouda (B.C. 
428), and the first with his Comatta when Aris- 
tophanes gained the secoud with the Birds (B.C. 
414). [Some fragments of his plays remain, 
which are collected in Meinekes JPragmetUa 
Comieorum Grmeorttm, vol. i., p. 402 — 407, edit, 

Amisia or Am ifiluB (^Aftdaiog, Strab. : now 
Emt), a river in northern Germany well known 
to the Romans, on which Drusus had a naval 
engagement with the Bructeri, B.C. 12. 

AmibIa {*Afuaia and ^Afidaeia : now Eniden /), 
a fortress on the left Imnk of the river of the 
same name. 

AmisodXeub {^ Afiia6dapo^\ a king of Lyoia, 
said to have brouj^ht up the monster Chimoera : 
nie sons Atymnius and Maris were slain at 
Troy by the sons of Nestor. 

AicXsus ('Afuffoc: A*/iiaifv6c, AmisSnus: now 
8<imsuu\ a laree city on the coast of Pontus, 
on a bay of the Euxine Sea, called after it 
(Amisenus Sinus). Mithradates eclarged it, 
■Dd made it one of his residences. 

AvItxrnum (Amitemlnus : now Amahrica or 
Torre dAm%temo\ one of the most ancient towns 
of the Sabiues, on the Atemus, the birth-place 
of the hislorian Sallust 

AiociANDa {*Afifuav6i\ a Greek epigramma- 
dst, but probably a Roman by birth, the author 
of nearly thirty epigrams in the Greek Anthol- 
ogy, lived under Trajan and Hadrian. 

Ammianus MAacKLLiNua, by birth a Greek, 
And a native of Syrian Autioch, was aomitted 

at an early age among tbeimperiaf bcdy i^tiarda 
He servedf many years under Ursicinja, one of 
the generals of Coqstantius, both in the Wc8f 
and East, and he subsequently attended the £m- 
])eror Ji^ian in his campaign against the Per 
sians (A.D. 863). Eventually ho established 
himself at Rome, where he composed his his- 
tory, and was alive at least as late as 890. Hie 
history, written in Latin, extended from th« 
accession of Nerva, A.D. 96, the point at which 
the histories of Tacitus terminated, to the death 
of Valens, A.D. 378, comprising a period of two 
hundred and eightv-two years. It was divided 
into thirty-one books of which the first thirlceo 
are lost The remaining eighteen embrace the 
acts of Constantius from A.D. 858. the seven- 
teentli year of his reisn, together with tbe whole 
career of Gallus, Julianus, Jovian us, Valentio- 
ianus, and Valens. The portion preserved waa 
the more important part of the work, as he was 
a contemporary of tne events described in these 
books. The style of Ammianus is harsh and 
inflated, but his accuracy, fidelity, and imparti- 
ality deserve praise. — Mditions: By Gronovius, 
Lugd. Bat., 1693; by Emesti, Lips., 1778; by 
Wagner and Erfurdt, Lips., 1808, 8 vols. Sva 

[AaiMooHOSTua {*Afifi6xotrrog: now C Orego), 
a iafidy promontory near Salamis io Cyprus^ 
which gives name by corruption to the m«KlerE 

Amicon {^Afjifiuv\ originally an Ethiopian cr 
Libyan, afterward an Egyptian diviUty. The 
real Egyptian name was Amun or Ammun ; the 
Greeks called him Zeua Ammou, the Romans 
Jupiter Ammon, and the Hebrews Amon. Tbf 
most ancient seat of his worship was Meroe, 
where he had an oracle : thence it was intro- 
duced into Egypt, where the worship took the 
firmest root at Thebes in Upper Egypt, which 
was ^erefore fi*equently called by the Greeks 
Diospolis, or the cit^ of Zeus. Another famous 
seat of the god, wiUi a celebrated oracle, was 
in the oasis of Ammonium (now Siwak) in the 
Libyan desert; the worship was also establisberj 
in Cyrenaica. Tbe god was represented either 
in the form of a ram, or as a human being with 
the head of a ram ; but there are some repre- 
sentations in which he appears altogether as a 
human being, with only tlie horns of a ram. It 
seems clear that the original idea of Ammoo 
was that of a protector and leader of the llocks. 
The ^Ethiopians were a nomad people, flocks 
of sheep constituted their prmcipal wealth, and 
it is perfectly in aocoi'dance with the notions 
of the Ethiopians as well as Egyptians to wor> 
ship the animal which is the leader and prc>- 
tector of the flock. TUhls view is supported by 
the Tarious stories related about Ammoo. 

Ammonium. Vid Gasul 

AmmonIus ('Afift6viog). 1. Gbjoimaiicus* nl 
Alexandrea, left this city on the overthrow uf 
the heathen temples in AD. 889, and settled 
at Con«tantinople. He wrote, in Greek, a val> 
able W( rk On the Differences of Words of like Sier 
nificrjlion {irepl 6fioi4iv Koi dia^OfMJV Xi^euv)- ^* 
tionsi By Valckenaer, Lugd. Bat, 1739: uv 
Schafer, Lips. 1822.— 2. Son of Hebmeas. stud- 
ied at Athens under Produs (who died AD. 
484), and was the master of Simplicius, Dainw 
cius, and others. He wrote numerous oain 
mentaries in Greek on the works of the earli<^i 



pliiiosotilMJS. ffif extant works are Ccmmient- 
mne$ on the Ivigogt of Farphviyf or the Five 
Pndieabiee, fint puUiBhed at Venice in 1500; 
§Dd Onthe Oatefforiee o/Arieiotie and De Inter- 
frdatianA, pabliriied by Brmndis in his edition of 
tfa« Sebniia oo Aristotfa— 8. Of Lamfrje, in At- 
Dca, a p6ii|Mitetio plulosopher, lived in the first 
esotmy of the Ohnstian era, and was the in- 
rtmcbM- r.i Platatd]L--4. Snmamed Saco&s, or 
■idc-eaifiei, because hit employment was car^ 
f^ing tije forn, landed at Akxandrea, as a pub- 
be porter, was bom of Christian parents. Some 
jmters assert^ and others deny, that be aposta- 
9zed from the faith. At any rate, he oombined 
die fltwhr of jdiiloeophT with Christianity, and 
« regarded by those who maintain his apostasy 
IB the founder of the later Platonic School 
Among his dieeiplee were Loo^us, Herennius, 
PlotiooB, and Or^ea He died. A J). 243, at the 
age of more than eig^hl^ years. — [6. Of Alex- 
AienuLi, a popil of Anstarehns, a celebrated 
grammarian, who composed iiommentaries on 
Homer, Pindar, and others, none of which are 
fXtB0t"-4L Styled Lithotomvs, an eminent sur- 
geon of Alexandrea, celebrated for his skill in 
catting for the atooe.]] 

AjoNlstja (*Afivia6c), ft town in the north of 
Orete and the harbor of Cnosus, situated on a 
lircr of the same name, the nymplis of which, 
called AmmUUidee, were in the service of Diana 

AMoa, the god of love, had no place in the re- 
bgh4j of the Romans, who only translate the 
Gteek name Eros mto Amor. Vtd. Eaoa. 

AMoaooB {'Aftopyoc : 'Afiopylvoi : now Amor- 
f^X sn island in the Grecian Archipela^, one of 
tfe Sporades, the birth-place of Smoonides, and, 
indtf the Roman emperors, a place of banish- 

AjidaiOM (*Afi6piov), a city of Phrygia Major 
« Galatia, on the River Sangarius ; tne reputed 
birth-plaoe of ^Esodl 

Axrx {'Afunf. Uerod.) or Ampkl5ne (Plia), 
s tovn at the mouth of the Tigris, where Darius 
L planted the Milesians whom he removed from 
their own city after the loniar revolt (B.C. 494). 

AxmiuB, jL, the author of a small Work, en- 
titled Liber Memorialie^ probaUy lived in the 
lecood or third century of the Christian era. 
Ha work is a sort of common-place book, con- 
sining a meagre summary of tne most striking 
>tiinl objects and of the most, remarkable 
Tents, divided into fifty chapters. It is gener^ 
nlj printed with Floras, and has been published 
Mpsrately by Beck, Upa, 1826. 

AxriLDB {'A^ireAof ), a promontory at the ex- 
tremitj of the peninsula Sithonia in Chalcidice, 
is Macedonia, near Torone — 2. [A promontory 
of CrHe, on the eastern coast south of Sam- 
Booiom, with a city of same name, now prob- 
■bly Cape Saero, — 8. A mountain endipg in a 
prcnootory in the Isbmd of Samoe, opposite 
levia, now Cape DonUnieo.'] 

AiiriLtfaiA ('A/iireXovaia: now C. JSepartel)^ 
file promontory at the west end of the south or 
^ean coast of the Fretum Gaditanum (now 
StrnU of Oihraitar). The natives of the coun- 
try called it Cotes (ai Kwretr). 

AapHAxms (^Afi^lrtg), a district of M^g- 
Ws in Macedonia) at the mouths of the Axius 
jBd Edndoms. 

AmphAa {'Afi^ia : 'Ap^tiq), a sunll town sf 
Messenia on tiie borders of Laconia and Me» 
senia, oonquered by the Spartans in the first 
Meesenian war. 

[AmphiIlus ('A/x0£aAoc), a Phjeacian, who 
gamed the prize in the games, in which Ulyssei 
took part ((k,viii, 114).} 

[Amphianax ('A/i^iava^, king of Lycia, who 
received Proetus when driven out of Ai^golis, 
gave him his daughter Antea in marriage, and 
restored him to Argos.] 

AmphiarJLus {*A/i^idpaoc)t son of Oldes and 
Hypennnestra, oaughter of Thestius, was de- 
scended on his fiither's side from the fSunoua 
seer Mehunpus, and was himself a ffreat prophet 
and a great hero at Argos. By his wife £ri- 
phyle, £e sister of Adrastus, he was the father 
of Alcmaaon, Amphiaraus, Eurydice, and Dc- 
mooassa. He took part in the hunt of the Caly- 
donian boar and in the Aigonautic voyage. Ue 
also joined Adrastua in Uie expedition againat 
Thebes, although he foresaw its fatal termina- 
tion, through the persuasions of his wife Eri- 
phyle, who had been induced to persuade her 
husband by the necklace of Harmooia which 
Polynicee had given her. On leaving Argos, 
however, he enjoined on his sons to punish- 
their mother for his death. During the war 
against Thebes, Amphiaraus fought bravely, 
but could not escape his fate. Pursued by Peri- 
dymcnus^ he fled toward the River Ismenius, 
and the earth swallowed him up, together with 
his chariot, before he was overtaken by bis ene- 
my. Jupiter (24eus) made him immoital, and 
henceforth he was worshipped as a hero, first 
at Oropus and afterward m all Qreeee. His 
oracle between PotnisB and lliebes, where he 
was said to have been swallowed up, enjoyed 
great celebrity. Vid. JHeL of Ant^ tat Okaco- 
LUM. His son, AlcmsBon, is called Ampkiara- 

AMPiiiCiBA or AmphiclSa (Afi^UaiOf' ^Afi^i- 
xXeia: *Afi^tKaiev^: novr Dhadhi or Oplunitzaf), 
a town in the north of Phocis, with an adytum 
of Bacchus (Dionysus), was called for a long 
time Ophitia ('O^tre/a), by command of the Am- 

[Amphiclub ('A^txAof), a Trojan, slain by 

[Amphicrateb {*AfifiKpuTTji)f au early king of 
Samos, in whose reign the Samians made war 
on the i£ginetans. — 2. A sophist and. rhetorician 
of Athens, who flourished about 70 B.C.] 

AMPmori^ON {'Aft^ucTvuv), a son of Deucalion 
and Pyrrha. Others represent him as a kiug of 
Attica, who expelled from the kingdom his fa.- 
ther-in-law Cranaus, ruled for twelve years, 
and was then in turn expelled by Erichthonius. 
Many writers represent him as the founder of 
the amphictyony of ThermopyUs ; in conse- 
quence of this belief a sanctuuy of Aniphictyon 
was budt in the village of Anthela on the Aso- 
pus, which was the most ancient place of meetr 
mg of this amphictyony. 

Ahphidamas (*A/i^i6dfMg), son, oi^ according 
to others, brother of Lycur^, one of the Ap> 
gonauts. — [2. Son of Busins, king of Egvpti 
sUin by Hercules alox^ with his father. Vid, 
BusDus.— 8. A hero of Scandia in Cythera, to 
whom Autolycua sent a helmet set round with 
boar's tusks, afterward borne by Moriooes be- > 



iiure Troy.— 4. A king of Ghalcis in Kubcea: 
ho fell in battle against the Erythrieans, and 
his fione celebrated in his honor funereal games, 
at which Heeiod gained the first prize of poetry, 
vi&, a ffolden tripod, which he dedicated to the 

[AMPmndLi CAfi^idohti), a city of Triphjlian 

Amphzi.ochIa {'Afi^iXoxia), the country of the 

Amphilochi ('A/i^t^oi), an Epirot race, at the 

astern end of iJie Ambracian Qul^ usually in- 

eluded in Aeamania. Their chief town was 

Arqos Amphilochiouil 

AMPHiLdcHus {*Afi^iAoxoc)i son of Amphiaraus 
and Eriphyle, and brother of Alcnusoa He 
took an actiye part in the expedition of the Epi- 
goni against Thebes, assisted his brother in tne 
murder of their mother (yid. Aloilaon), and 
afterward fought against Troy. On his return 
from Troy, together with Mopsus, who was, like 
himself^ a seer, he founded the town of Mallos 
in Cilicia. Hence he proceeded to his native 
place, Ajsos, but returned to Mallos, where he 
was killed in single combat by Mopsus. Others 
relate (Thuc, ii., 68) that, after leaving Argos, 
Amphilochus founded Argos Amphilochieum on 
the Ambracian Gul£ He was worshipped at 
Mallos in Cilicia, at Oropus, and at Athens. 

AMPmLYTUS ('A^^Uvrof), a celebrated seer 
in the time of Pisistratus (B.C. 569), is called 
both an Acamanian and an Athenian : he may 
have been an Acamanian who received the 
franchise at Athens. 

AjiPiinilcHvs (*Afi^lfiaxoc). 1. Son of Ctea- 
tus, grandson of Keptune (Poseidon), one of the 
four leaders of the Epeaus against Tro;^, was 
slain by Hector. — 2. Son of Nomion, with his 
brother Nastes, led the Carians to the assist- 
ance of the Trojans, and was slain by Achilles. 

AsfPHiif ALLA (rd 'Afii^ifiaX?.a\ a town on the 
northern coast of Crete, on a bay called after 
it (now Gulf of Armiro), 

[AmphixIbus {*Afi^lfjiapoc\ son of Neptune, 
fiither of the mmstrel linus by Urania.] 

Amph!m£oon {'Afi^ifiidiiif), of Ithaca, a guest- 
friend of Agamemnon, and a suitor of Penelope, 
was slain by Telemachus. — [2. A Libyan slain 
at the nuptiab of Perseus.] 

[AupHiNdME ('Afi^ivofi^ one of the Nereids. 
— 2. Wife of i£eon and mother of Jason, slew 
herself when Pelias had slain her husband. — 3. 
Daughter of Pelias, married by Jason to An- 

[AmphinSmub ('Afi^vofioc)t son of Nisus of 
Oulichium, one of the suitors of Penelope, slain 
by Telemachus.] 

AMPHioN {'Afi^iuv), 1. Son of Jupiter (Zeus) 
and Antiope, the daughter of Nycteus of Thebes, 
and twin-brother of Zethus. (Ov., Met^ vi, 
110, aeg.) Amphion and Zethus were bora 
either at Eleuthera in BcBotia or on Mount Ci- 
tlueron, whither their mother had fled, and grew 
up among the shepherds, not knowing their de- 
scent Mercury (Hermes) (according to others, 
AiioUo, or the Muses) gave Amphion a Ivre, 
wlio henceforth practiced song and music, while 
bis brother spent his time in hunting and tend- 
ing the flocks. (Hor., JSj}^ I, 18, 41.) Hav- 
ing become acquainted with their origin, they 
marched against Thebes, where Lycus reigned, 
Che husljand of tlieir mother Antiope, whom he 

had repudiated, and had then mained Dirce m 
her stead. They took the city, aod ae Lycos 
and Dirce had treated their mother with greftt 
cruelty, the two brothers killed ihem both. 
They put Dirc4> to death by tying her to a bull, 
who ongged her about till she periahod; aod 
they then threw her body into a well, wbi<**- 
wits from this time called the Well of Diroa 
After they had obtained posseaaion of Thebei^ 
they fortined it by a wall It ia said that when 
Amphion played his lyre, the atonea moved of 
their own accord and fonned the wall {tnovU 
Amphion lapides canendot Hor., Carm^ iii, 11^ 
Amphion afterward married Nlobe, who bore 
him many sons and daughters, all of whom were 
killed by Apollo. His death is differently r& 
lated: some say, that he killed himself from 
grief at the loss of his children (Ov, Met, vL, 
270), and others tell us that he was killed by 
Apollo because he made an assault on the Pyth- 
ian temple of the god. Amphion and hm broth- 
er were buried at Thebes. The punishment in- 
flicted upon Dirce is represented in the cele- 
brated Farnese bull, the work of Apollonius and 
Tauriscus, which was discovered in 1646, and 
placed in the palace Farnese at Rome. — 2. Son 
of Jasus and uther of Chloris. In Homer, this 
Amphion, king of Orchomenos, is distinct from 
Amphion, the husband of Niobe ; but in earlier 
tracutions they seem to have been regarded as 
the same person. — [8. A leader 'if the Epcaua 
before Troy. — 4. Son of Hypererjus of Pallene^ 
an Argonaut — 6. A king of Coi inth, father of 

Amphipolis {'AfupinoAtc : 'Au^inoAiuic : nt "iC 
Neokhoriot in Turkish Jeni-lLeui)y a town m 
Macedonia on the left or eastern bank of tne 
Strymon, just below its egress from the Lake 
Cercinitis, and about three miles fiH>m the sea 
The Strymon flowed almost round the town, 
nearly forming a circle, whence its name Am* 
phi-polis. It was originally called 'Ewea 66uit 
''the Nine Ways," and belonged to the Edoni- 
nns, a Thraciau people. Aristagoras of Miletus 
first attempted to colonize it, but was cut off 
with his followers by the Edonians in B.C. 497 
The Athenians made a next attempt with ten 
thousand colonists, but they were all destroye'l 
by the Edonians in 465. In 437 the Athenians 
were more successful, and drove the Edonians 
out of the "Nine Ways," which was henceforth 
called Amphipolis. it was one of the most im- 
portant of the Athenian possessions, beipg ad- 
vantageously situated for trade on a navigable 
river in the midst of a fertile country, and near 
the gold mines of Mount Pangseus. Hence the 
indignation of the Atiienians when it fell into 
the hands of Brasidas (RC. 42 i) and of Philip 
(358). Under the Komans it Was a free cit^, 
and the capital of Macedonia prima ; the Via 
E^atia ran through it The port of Amphip- 
olis was £ioN. 

AxPHis ('^if ), an Athenian comic poet, of 
the middle comedy, contemporary with the phi- 
losopher Plato. We have the titles oi twenty- 
six of his plays, and a few fragments of them 
[These fragments have been published by Hei 
neke, FragmerUa Coniieorum Of:9Corvmt volh 
pi 045-666, edit minor.] 

Amphjssa {'Aft^uraa : 'Au^iaacvg, 'Afi^ aaaio{ 
now SalonaX one of the chief townfti)|^* '* 



en On]«B Ofi Um br>rd«rs of Phocis, seven miles 
froui I^phi, said co have been named after 
Amphiaaft^ daogftter of Macareus, and beloved 
bj ApoUa Id oooseqaenoe of the Sacred War 
cicelarod against Ampnissa by the Amphictjons, 
the towc was destroyed bv Philip, &G. S88» 
bat it was scwo afterward rebuild and under the 
iJonriiMW was a free state. 

AimusimATOS {'Afupurrparoi) and his brother 
Kbecas, the eharioteers of the Dioscuri, were 
•aid to have taken part in the expedition of Ja- 
soc to Ooldiis, and to have occupied a part of 
that coontiT which was called after them MetU- 
cekioy as keMioekMS {rfvioxoc) signifies a chari- 

[Amphithsa (^kfi<^tBia\ wife of Autolycus, 
grandmother of inyBses.^2. Wife of Adrastus.] 

[Amphzthsmis {*Afi^efiic)f son of Apollo and 
AeacaUis» and &ther of Kasamon and Caphau- 
xva br IVitoni& — ^2. A Theban general, who re- 
ceived mopey sent by the Persians into Greece 
to excite disturbances there, for the purpose of 
canaiqg the recall of Agesilaus from Asia.] 

[AxmtTB6% {*Aft/^i$otj\ one of the Nereids.] 

AjiPHiTBiix {'Afi^irpiTtf), a Nereid or an 
Oeeanid, wife of Neptune (Poseidon) and god- 
dess of the s«a, especially of the Mediterranean. 
In Homer Am^riiitrite is merely the name of the 
sea. and she firet occurs as a goddess in Hesiod. 
Later poets again use the won! as equivalent to 
the sea in general She became by Neptune 
(Poseadon) the mother of Triton, Rhode or Rhodes, 
and Beothosieyme. 

A]fPiiira67X {'A^rpomj *kfJupiTpoiraievc)y an 
Attic demuB belonging to the tribe Antioohis, in 
Jm nei^borfaood of the silver-mines of Laurium. 

AxPHmf ON or AMPHmi^o ('Afi^tTpvov)y son 
of AlcKus, king of Tiryns, and Hipponome. Al- 
ems had a brother £lectryon, who reigned at 
Mycenae. R«tween Electi^on and Pterelaus, 
king of the Taphians, a furiotis war raged, in 
wfa^ Electryon lost all hb sons except Licym- 
iWB, and was robbed of his oxea Amphitiyon 
reeovered the oxen, but on his return to Myce- 
oa aeddentally killed his unde Electryon. He 
was now expelled from Mycenos, together with 
AlfOneoe tiie da«v»hter of IHeetiyon, by Sthen- 
eloB the brotbv of Meetryon, and went to 
Thebes, where he was purified by Creon. In 
order to wir the hand of Alcmene, Amphitryon 
prepared Ao avenge the death of AJcmene's 
tffothers on the Taphians, and conquered them, 
after Ckmuetho, the daughter of Pterelaus, 
thioi^ her love for Amphitryon, cut off the 
»e golden hair on her other's head, which 
'endcred him immortal During the absence 
if Amphitryon from Thebes, Jupiter visited 
hLoam, who beeame by the god the mother 
"A Herenles ; the latter is called Ampkitryoniade9 
a allusioD to his reputed fiither. Amphitiron 
fell in a war against Ei^us, king of the Mmy- 
«& The comedy of Plaotus, called Ampkitruot 
A a ludicrous representation of the visit of Ju- 
piter (Zens) to Alcm<aie in the disguise of her 
Wrer Amphitryon. 

[Amphtob {'Af£^io(\ son of Lelagus, an ally 
of the Trojans, slain by the Telamonian Ajax. 
^1 Son of Merops, the celebmted seer, against 
wliose wish his tivo sons Amphius and Adrastus 
veot to the Trojan war ; j.4y were both slain by 

AMPHfiTifcRus ^'Aii^repof). Via. AojaJtiK — 
[2. A Trojan shun oy Patroclua.] 

AnPHaf 8L8 ('X/ii^aoc). 1. A small river m 
Tbessaly which flowed into the Pagasttan Qul^ 
o the banks of which Apollo fed the herds <4 
Admetus (pastor ab Amphryto, Vii^g., Georg^ ul, 
2).— -2. Ft(iL AjfBRYSua. 

[Ampius Balbus, T. Pidl Jalbus.1 

AjfPsloA (now Wad-el'KMr, or SuJ^imar), 
river of Northern Africa, which dividend Numidia 
from Mauretania Sitifensis. It flows past the 
town of Cirta (now OonttaniinaX 

AifpSANcrros or Ajisamotub Ijloub (now Logo 
S Afuanti or MuJUi), a small lake in Somnium 
near JScnlannm, from which mephiUc vapors 
arose. Near it was a chapel sacred to Mephi- 
tis» with a cavern from which mephitio vapors 
also came, and which was therefore regarded as 
an entrance to the lower world (Viig., .dUn^ 
vii., 663» 9eq,) 

Amfsivaoii. Vid Ansibaeii. 

Ajffpf ous ('A^ffvxof). 1. Son of Pelias, hua- 
band of Chk>ris, and father of the £unous seer 
Mopsus, who is hence called Ampycides, Pan- 
somas calls him Aoopyx. — 2. Son of lapetus, a 
bard and priest of Uere8> killed by Pettalus at 
the marriage of Perseu& 

AifPTX. Vid AjfPYCca. — [2. A friend of 
Phineus, changed to stone by PerseiH by the 
head of Medusa. — 3. One of the Lapitho, who 
slew the Centaur (Edus at the nuptials of Pir- 

AMtiius. Vid Romulus. 

Am YGLJE. 1. {'AfiVKTicu : 'AftVK^auvc, 'A/a^ 
KXaioc : now BJUavokhori or Aia Kyriaki f\ an 
ancient town of Laconia on the Eurotas, m a 
beautiful coimtry, twenty miles southeast of 
Sparta. It is mentioned in tibe Biad (il, 684), 
and is said to have been founded by the ancient 
Lacedsamonian King Amydas, father of Hyacin- 
thus, and to have finaen the abode of Tyndarua, 
and of Castor and Pollux, who are hence called 
AmyeUri Mattes, After the conquest of Pelo- 
ponnesus by the Dorians, the Achaeans main- 
tained themselves in Amydtt for a loog time; 
and it was only shortly before the first Meese- 
nian war that the town was taken and destN^- 
ed by the Lacedemonians under Teleclus. The 
tale ran that the inhabitants had been so often 
alarmed by false reports of the approach of the 
enemy, that they passed a law that no one 
should speak of the enemy; and accordingly, 
when the Lacediemonians at last came, and no 
one dared to announce their approach, '* Amy- 
das perished through silence :" hence arose the 
proverb Amycli* ipsi* taeiiumicr. After its de« 
struction by the Laoednmonians Amyd» be- 
came a village, and was onlv memorable by the 
festival of- the Hyacinthia (vid Diet, of Aniig^ 
9. V.) cdebrat^ at the phice annually, and by the 
temple and colossal statue of Apollo, who was 
hence called Amyelceiu, — 2. (Amydanus), an 
andent town of Latium, east of Terracina, on 
the Sinus Amydanus, was, acoordins^ to tradi- 
tion, an Achssan colony from Lacoma. In the 
time of Augustus the town had disappeared 
the inhabitants were said to have deserted it 
on account of its being infested by serpents 
whence Vii^ (jEn^ x., 564) speaks of taeitm 
Amycla, though some commentators suppose 
that he transfers to this town the epithc^t \» 




lOij^iQg to the Amyclae in Laoonia (Na 1). Near 
AmycLB was the SppJuDca {Sperlonpa\ or oat- 
oral ^tto, a fiiTonte retreat of th3 Emperor 

Amvclas. Vid. Amtcla 

Amtclides, a name of Hyaciothus, as the bod 
vi Aznvclas. 

An YCU8 ^'XfjvKog)^ BOD of Neptune (Poseidon) 
and Bitliynis, king of the Bebrycesi was cele- 
brated for his sk^ in boxing, and used to chal 
leiige strangers to box with him. When the 
Argonauts came to his dominions, Pollux accepted 
the challenge and killed him. 

fAjcf iu)N ('A/ivdc^), an ancient city of Psbodia 
in Macedinia, on the Axius^ spoken of by Homer 
(R, ii, 849).] 

AxtmOne (*Afivf£uvfi)^ one of tlie daughters of 
Danaus and Klephantis. When Danaus ar- 
riyed in Argos, the country was suffering from 
a drought, and Danaus sent out Amymone to 
fetch water. She was attacked by a satyr, but 
was rescued from his yiolence by Neptune (Po- 
seidon), who appropriated her to himself, and 
then showed her the wells at Lerna. According 
to another account^ he bade her draw his trident 
from the rock, from which a three-fold spring 
gushed forth, which was called after her the 
Well and River of Amymone. Her sun by Nep- 
tune (Poseidon) was called Nauplius. 

Amtnandeb ('Afivvav6poc% kmg of the Atha- 
manes in Epirus, an ally of the Romans in their 
war with Piiilip of Macedonia, about B.C. 198, 
but an ally of Antiochus, B.C. 189. 

AxTNTAS ('AfivvToc). 1. L King of Macedo- 
ia, reigned from about B.C. 640 to 600, and 
was succeeded by his son Alexander L — 2. II. 
King of Macedonia, son of Philip, the brother 
of Perdiccas II., reigned B.C. 893-369, and ob- 
tained the crown by the murder of the usurper 
Pausaniaa. Soon after his accession he was 
driven from Macedonia by the Illyrians, but was 
restored to his kingdom by the Thessalians. 
On his return he was engaged io war with the 
Olynthians, in which he was assisted by the 
Spartans, and by their aid Olynthus was reauced 
m 879. Amyntas united himself also witJi Ja- 
son of Pherie, and carefully cultivated the friend- 
ship of Athens. Amyntas left Ixv his wife Eu- 
ridice three sons, Alexander, Perdiccas, and 
the famous Philip. — 3. Grandson of Amyntas 
XL, was excluded by Philip from the succession 
on the death of his father, Perdiccas III, in RC. 
860. He was put to death in the first year of 
the reign of Alexander the Greats 886, for a plot 
against the king's life.— 4. A Macedonian ofiioer 
in Alexander's army, son of Andromenes. He 
and his brothers were accused of beiog privy to 
the conspiracy of Philotas in 880, but were ac- 
quitted. Some little time after he was killed 
at the siege of a village. — 6. A Macedonian 
trailor, eon of Antiochus, took refuge at the 
ooait of Darius, and became one of the com- 
mamlers of the Greek mercenaries. He was 
present at the battle of Ibsus (B.C. 888), and 
afterward fied to Egypt, where he was put to 
death by Mazaces, the Persian governor. — 6. A 
king of Galatia, supported Antony, and fought 
on bis side against Augustus at the battle of 
Aetiiun (B.C. 81). He fell in an expedition 
against the town of Homonada or Homona. — 
*l A Greek writer of a work en" itled Siaihmi 

(IraBftoC) probably on acoouDt of thv ditSerMB 
halting-places of Alexander the Qreat ia hit 
Asiatic expedition. 

Amtntob (*AfivvTup\ son of Ormenus of El^v 
on in Thessalv, where Autolycus broke into his 
hoQse, and fiither of Phcknix, whom he cursed oc 
account of unlawful intercourse with his mis- 
tress. According to Apollodorus he was a kkg 
of Ormenium, and was slain by Hereizlee^ to 
whom he refused a passage throug'b hie donaJD- 
ions, and the hand of his daughter AsttdamLl 
According to Ovid {Met^ xii., 864). ho was king 
of the Bolopcs. 

AinitT^us {'A/ivpTaloc)t an Cgyptiaa, as- 
sumed the title of king, and joined "inarus the 
Libyan in the revolt against tlie Persians in 
B.C. 460. They at first defeated the Pereians 
{vid AcHiKMENEB), but were subsequently totally 
defeated, 466. Amyrtsus escaped, and main- 
tained himself as king in the marshy district* 
of Lower Egypt till about 414, when the E^^ 
tians expelled the Persians, and Amyrtseos reign 
od six years. 

Amyeus i'Aftvpoc), a river in Thessaiy, with 
a town of the same name upon it, flowing into 
the Lake Bcebeis : the country around was called 
the 'AftvpiK^v ve6iov. 

Amythaon (*Afiv6dov), son of CreUieus and 
Tyro, father of Bias and of the seer Melampus» 
who is hence called AmytMdn\v9 ( Virg., Georg^ 
iiLj 650). He dwelt at Pylus in Messenia, and 
is mentioned among those to whom the restora- 
tion of the Olympian games was ascribed. 

Anabon ('Ava6uv)y a district of the Persiaa 
province of Aria, south of Aria Proper, coDtoJo^ 
mg four towns, which still exist, Phra (now 
Ferrah), Bis (now Beett or Bost)^ Gari (now 
Ohore), Nil (now Neh). 

[AnadCba (rci 'Ava6ovpa), a city of Pisidla.] 

Anaces ('AvaKcg), VicL Anax, No. 2. 

Anacoabsis {'Avdxapaig), a Scythian of 
princely rank, left his native country to travel 
m pursuit of knowledge, and come to Atheui 
about KC. 594. He became acquainted with So- 
lon, and by lus talents and acute observations, h« 
excited general admiration. The fame of hi^ 
wisdom was such, that he was even reckoned 
by some among the seven sages. He was killed 
by his brother Saulius on his return to his native 
ooimtry. Cicero (Iktsc, IHtp^ v, 82) quotci 
from one of his letters, of which several, but 
spurious, are still extant 

Anaob2on {*AvaKpeonf), a celebrated Ijrie 
poet, bom at Teos, an Ionian eity in Asia Mi- 
nor. He removed from his native city, with 
the great body of its inhabitants, to Abdera, in 
Thrace, when Teos was taken by the Peraiazis 
(about B.C. 540), but lived chiefly at Samos, 
under the patronage of Polycrates, in whose 
praise he wrote many songs. After the dcaUi 
of Pol^crates (522), he went to Athene at th« 
invitation of the tvrant Hipparchus, where be 
became acquaintca with Smionides and other 
poets. He died at the age of eighty-five, proha 
bly about 478, but the place of his death is un 
certaia The universal tradition of a ntiauity rep- 
resents Anacreon as a consummate voluptuaiyi 
and his poems prove the truth of the traditioa 
He sings of love and wine with hearty good will 
and we see in lum the luxury of the lAruav in* 
flamed by the fervor of tM poet Th*. tale thai 



U loTod Samihi/ « veiy improbable Of bus 
UMCK 011I7 a few ^ajoine fragments have 00 ae 
Arwn to us: fcr the ** Odes" attributed to bim 
ire now adniittwi to be spurious. — IkkHotu : By 
raeher, li^ 1793 ; Bergk, Lipa, 1834. 

AxAcrdBim ('Avoxropuw : 'AvanTSpiof^ a 
)L>wn io Ae•^laIlia^ built by the Corinthums, 
■poo a pnanontorj of the same Dame (near Za 
JMnbjm) at the eutraoee of the Ambraciao 
Gelt ACS jnhabitantB were removed by Augus- 
ts After the battle of Acthmi (RC. 81) to Ni- 


AxAOT^jdn {'Avadvofihjf}, the goddess rising 
vct of the sea, a surname given to Venus ( Aph- 
T^nUte), io allDsion to the story of her being 
bom firom the foam of the sea. This surname 
jsd Bot much oelefarity before the time of Apel- 
»di. bat his fiunoua painting of Aphrodite Ana- 
djomeae excited the emdation of other art- 
i^ psiDlers as -well as seulptora Vid. Apkl- 

[XsxA or AimsMA {'Xvaia or *Awaia^ a Co- 
T3M dtj on the Ionian coast of Asia Minor, op- 
poote the Islazid of Samos, deriving its name 
bnm in Amazon, Aneaa: it was the pUoe of 
T^i^ m the Peloponnesian war for the Samian 

kausylh, (Anagnlnus: now Anagni)^ an an- 
Got town of Latinm, the chief town of the 
Henia, and subsequently both a municipium 
lad s Boman oolooy. It lay in a very beauti- 
fi and fertile eountry on a hill, at the foot of 
▼bich the Via Lavicana and Via Prcmeatina 
cited (dow Compitum Anagniintm\ In the 
■eigbborhood Cioero had a beautiful estato, 
Aweffniman {bc, prcedimn). 

A^AGT&tB {'Avayvpovf, -ovvrog : ' Kvayvpdaio^^ 
'irsyvpovifToOev : ruins near Vari), a demus of 
Atties, belonging to the tribe Erechtheis, not, 
u tome say, il^antia, south of Athens, near the 
ftofflootory 2k)8ter. 

Ajumo/i {'Avmruc^ a district of Armenia, in 
^U^ tbi: goddess Ajiaitis was worshipped; 
il» called AdiisencL 

AxAms (*AvaiTtc) an Asiatic dlvini^, whose 
Ulu h also written Anaa, Aneiti*, Tanals, or 
Amos. Her worship prevailed in Armenia, 
Cippadoda, Assyria, Persis, Ac, and seems to 
W« been a part of the worship so common 
■nc^ the Asiatics, of the creative powers of na- 
ture: bufh nude and female. The Greek writers 
viutimeB identify Anaitis with Diana f Ar- 
^■18), and sometimes with Venus (Apnro- 

A^uiAai or -ass, a Gallic people in the plain 
<3f the Po, in whose land the Bomans founded 

AsisEs, a Gklb'c people west of the Trebia, 
bttveeo the Po and the Apennines. 

Akamis ('Avttvtor), a Greek iambic poet, 
^mporary with Hippooax, about B,C. 540. 
[Hn remains have been collected by Welcker, 
^ published at the end of his edition of Hip- 

A5APHS {*AvJ^ : 'Ava^alnn . now Anaphi, 
^•■f^t), a small island in the louth of tlie i£ge- 
^^ east of Thera, with a temple of Apollo 
^{ieUs, who was hence called A napk6u&. 

A^APHLTSics ( 'Avdf AwffTOf : KvapXvarlo^ : 
^^Aaav^\ an Attic demus ^1 the tribe Aji- 
t«Hc on the soutiiwest coast ««! Altica, oppo- 

site the Islaud Eleussa, called after Anaphlyf 
tus, son of Neptune (Poseidon). 

AnApds ('Avairof). 1. A river in Ac:» mania 
flowing into the Achelous.-— 2. (Now Anano), « 
river in Sicily, flowing into the sea south of Syr 
acuse through the marshes of Lysim^Ua. 

Amabtkb or ^i, a people of Dacia, n.>rth of the 

AiTAS CAvof : now OyadiiUM),Gae of the chiaf 
rivers of Spain, rising in Celtiberia in Uie moiLit> 
ains near Tiamininm, formed the boundary be- 
tween Lusitania and Bestica, and flowed into 
the ocean by two mouths (now only one). 

[AxASBUS (now Stella), a small river in the 
territory of the Venetl] 

AnatoxIub. 1. Bishop of Laodicea, A.D. 270, 
an Alezandrean by birth, was the author of Sev- 
ern! mathematical and arithmetical works, of 
which some frac^ments have been preserved.-^ 
2. An eminent jurist, was a native of Bcrytus, 
and afterward P. P. {prft/eetutprcBtorio) of Ulyr- 
icum. He died in AJ). 361. A work on agri* 
culture, often cited in the Geoponica, and a 
treatise concerning Sympaihiee and Antipathiee^ 
are assigned by many to this Anatolius. The 
latter work, however, was probably written by 
Anatolius the philosopher, who was the master 
of lamblichus, and to whom Porphyry addressed 
Hcmerie Queetiona. — 3. Professor of law at Be- 
rytus, is mentioned b^ Justinian among those 
who were employed m compiling the DigesL 
He wrote notes on the Digest, and a very concise 
commentary on Justinian's Code. Both of 
these works are cited in the Basilica. He per 
ished AJ). 557, in an earthquake at Byzant&um, 
whither he had removed from Berytus. 

Anaukus (*Ayavp6c\ a river of Thessaly flow- 
ing into the Pagaszean Gul£ [It was in this 
stream that Jason lost his sandal, and thus ful- 
filled the words of the oracle. Vid Jason.] 

AnIva {'Avava)y an ancient, but early decayed 
city of Great Phrygia, on the salt lAe of the 
same name, between CJelseno) and Colosete (now 
JIagee Ohioul). 

An.\x ('Ava^ 1. A giant, son of Uranus and 
Gffia, and father of Asterius. — 2. An epithet of 
tlie gods in general, characteriziiig them iwi the 
rulers of the world; but the plural foiins, 
•Avo«ef, or 'Avoxref, or 'Avtuceg rraZdeCt were 
used to designate the Dioscuii 

ANAXAa5aAS ('Ava^aySpac), a oelebiated 
Greek philosopher of the Ionian school, was 
bom at Chusomenae in Ionia, B.C. 500. He gave 
up his property to his relations, as he in- 
tended to devote his life to higher ends, and 
went to Athens at the age of twenty ; here h« 
remained thii'ty years, and became Uie intimate 
friend and teacher of the most eminent men of 
the time, such as Euripides and Pericles. His 
doctrines gave oflence to the religious feelings 
of the Athenians ; and the enemies of Pericles 
availed themselves of this circumstance to a<y 
cuse him of impiety, B.C. 460. It was only 
through the eloquence of Pericles that he wofl 
not put to death ; but he was sentenced to pay 
a fine of five talents, and to quit Athens. Hie 
retired to Lampsaous, where be dicnl in 428, at 
the age of seventy-two. Anaxogons was di» 
satisfied with the systems of his p^'Mecessora 
the Ionic philosophers, i.nd struck into a new 
path. The Ionic phUosoibers had onOifflvored 




Co «zplAia nature aDd ils vaiious phenomena 
by regarding matter iu its different forms and 
modifications as the cause of all things. Ad ix- 
agoras, on the other hand, conceived the necos- 
iity of seeking a higher cause, independent of 
matter, and tbus cause he considered to be notu 
'vcvc), that ia, mind, thought, or intelligence. 
[Editions of the fragments 07 Schayhdch, Lips., 
1827, and by Sehvm, Bonn, 1829.— 2. Sod of 
Airgeus, grandson of Megapenthes, monarch of 
I ^rgofl. He shared the sovereigQ power with 
Biafl and Melampus, who had cured the Ai^ve 
women of madnew — 3. An Atlienian orator, 
pupil of Isocrates.] 

Anazandsb {'Avu^av6poc\ king of Sparta, son 
of Eurycrates, fought iu tne secoDd Messeman 
war, about B.O. 668. 

ANAiCANDaiDES {'Ava^avdpldtfc). 1. Son of 
Theopompus, king of Sparta. — 2. King of Spar- 
ta, son of Leon, r7*gnedfrom about B.C. 660 to 
620. Having a hqrren wife whom he would not 
divorce, the ephors made him take with her a 
second. By hfir he had Oleomenes ; and after 
this by his first wife, Dorieus, Leonidas, and 
Oleombrotw — 8. An Athenian comio poet of 
the middle comedy, a native of Camirus in 
Rhodes, began to exhibit comedies in B.C. 8*76. 
Aristotle held him in high esteem. [The frag- 
ments of his plays are collected in Meineke^s 
Fragmenta Comicorwn Oracy vol L, p. 674-694, 
edit minor.] 

ANAXABcm7s (*Avd^fipxoc% a philosopher of 
Abdera, of ^e school of Democritus, accom- 
panied Alexander into Asia (B.C. 884), and 
ffained his favor by flattery and wit After the 
death of Alexander (823), Anaxarchus was 
thrown by shipwreck into the power of Nico- 
creon, king of Oypru?, to whom he had given 
mortal offence, and v/lo had him pounded to 
death in a stone mortar. 

Anaxarete {'Ava^ap^Tfj), a maiden of Cyprus, 
remained unmoved by the love of Iphis, who 
at last, in despair, hung himself at her aoor. She 
looked with mdifference at the funeral of the 
youth, but YcDus changed her into a stone 

AvAsXhiA {*Ava^i6ia)f daughter of Plisthenes, 
sister of Agamemnon, wife of Strophius, and 
mother of Pylades. — [2. Daughter of Bias, wife 
of Pelias of lolcos, and mother of Acastus, Pi- 
aidice, Hippothoe, and Alcestis.] 

AnxxIbito CAva(i6ioc), the Spartan adnoiral 
stationed at ^zantium on the return of the 
Oyrean Greeks from Asia, B.C. 400. In 889 he 
succeeded DeroyUidas in the command in the 
ifigean, but fell in battle against Iphicrates, 
near Antandrus, in 888. 

AnaxidIkus {'Ava^idofLOc), king of Sparta, 
•on of Zeuxidamus, lived t<} the conclusion of the 
Mcond Messenian war, B.C 668. 

AnaxilAus ('Ava^iiaof), or AnaxIlas ('Avo^- 
Aoc. 1. Tyrant of Rhegium, of Messenian ori- 
gin, tcN>k possession of Zancle in Sicily about 
B.G. 494, peopled it with fresh inhabitants, and 
twanged its name into Messene. He died in 
476. — 2. Of Byzantium, surrendered Byzantium 
to the Athenians in B.C. 408. — 8. An Athenian 
comic poet of the middle comedy, contemporary 
witli Plato and Demosthenes. We have a few 
frap:mcnts, and the titles of nineteen of his com- 
edies. [His fmgmenls are collected by Meineke 

in liis F'^aqnienta Ccmicorum Onae^ \oL ii, ^ 
667-676, ^-dit minor.]— 4. A phjaiciaQ and 
Pythagorean philosopher, bom at Liariaaa, \iaf 
banished by Augustus from Italy, B.C. 28, on tht 
chaise of magic. 

Anaximandeb {'Avu^lfica/dpoc), of Miletus, wa# 
bom EC. 610 and died 647, in bia aixty-fourth 
year. He was one of the earliest pbilosojiheri 
of the Ionian school, and the immediate success- 
or of Thales, its first founder. He first used the 
wcrd upxn to denote the origin of things, or 
rather tibe material out of which they were 
formed : he held that this upxv was the infinite 
(rd diretpov), cTerlasting, and divioe, though not 
attributing to it a spiritual or intelligeut na- 
ture ; and that it was the substance into which 
all things were resolved on their dissolution. 
He was a careful observer of nature, and was 
distinguished by his astronomical, mathemat- 
ical, and geog^phical knowledge: he is said 
to have iutroduced the use of the gnomon inU* 

AsAXTuivEB (*Ava^ifi£vijg), 1. Of Miletus^ 
the third in the series of Ionian philosophers, 
flourished about B.C. 644; but as he was the 
teacher of Anaxagoras B.C. 480, he must have 
lived to a great age. He considered air to be 
the first cause of all things, the primary form, 
as it were, of matter, into which the other ele- 
ments of the universe were resolvable. — 2. Of 
Lampsacus, accompanied Alexander the Great 
to Asia (B.C. 834), and wrote a history of Philip 
of Macedonia; a history of Alexander the 
Great ; and a history of Greece, in twelve books^ 
fi'om the earliest mythical age down to the 
death of Epaminondas. He abo enjoyed great 
reputation as a rhetorician, and is the author of a 
scientific treatise on rhetoric, the 'VrjropiK^ rrpdc 
'AM^av6poVf usually printed among the works of 
Aristotle. He was an enemy of Theophrastus, 
and pubhshed under the name of the latter a 
work calumniating Sparta, Athens, and Thebes, 
which produced great exasperation against 
Theophrastus. [The An RhetoriecL, edit^ by 
L. Spengel, Turici, 1844; the fragments of 
the history of Alexander, by Geier, in his " Scrip- 
tores Nistoriarum AUxaniri M. estate tuppares^ 
Lips^ 1844.] 

[Axaxipfus ('Ava^ijTTTOf). 1, A general of 
Alexander the Great — 2. A comic poet oi the 
new comedy, who flourished about B.C.S08. The 
titles of four of his plays have come down to 
us: his fragments are collected by Meineke, 
Fragm, Comic Grac^ vol ii., p. 1112-1116, edit 
minor., who adds a fragment from Athenasus, 
attributed to Anthippus in the ordinary text, 
but supposed to be an error for Anaxippus.] 

Amazarbub or -a (*Ava^ap66c or -u : AvaC</^ 
6evCt Anazarb€nus : ruins at Anasarba or iTa- 
verta), a considerable city of Cilicia Campestris» 
on the left bank of the River Pyramus, at the 
foot of a mountain of the same nam& Augus- 
tus conferred upon it the name of Cssarea (ad 
Anazarbum); and, on the division of Cilicia 
into the two provinces of Prima and Secunda, it 
was made the capital of the latter. It was al- 
most destroyed b^ earthquakes in the reigns of 
Justinian and Justm. [It was ^e birth-place of 
Dioscorides and Oppiaa] 

AvcjEVB {'AyKtOoc). 1. Son of the Arcadian 
livcureus and Cleophile <''f^pJ"(«j9fY*'**^ ^ 



CLer o/ .Appellor. He was one ot the Argo- 
DttOta, aixl took part in the CaljdoDian hunt^ in 
vbich be was kiU'd by the boar.-*-2. . Son of 
Keptune (PoseidoD) and AstypalsBa or Alta, "kxag 
of tlie Leleges in Samoa, husband of Samia, 
•nd father of Perilaua, EnodoSf Samoa, Aiither^ 
Ms» and Parthax>peu He seems to have been 
•ooloaDded by some mythographen with An- 
CKoav the boo of lijeargoB. The son of Nep- 
tcate (PoseidoQ) is also represented as one of the 
Ax^goDsnte^ and is said to ha?e become the 
hehnsman of the ship Argo after the death of 
Uphys. A weil-known proyerb is said to hare 
cc^gmated with this AncsBus. He had been told 
by a seer that he wonid not live to taste the wine 
of kb Tineyard ; and when he was afterward on 
tbe point of drinking a cup of wine, the growth 
of his own yineyard, he laughed at the seer, 
viio^ however, answered, voAMt ftera^ 9rlAet 
KvAixoc icai x^^^ uKpov, "There is many a 
slip between the cup and the lipi" At the same 
instant Ancaeus was informed that a wild boar 
was near. He put down his cup, went out 
against liie animaX and was killed by it 

AjtouLLn-Es, a people of Britain, probably a 
part of the Atsebates. 

AkghabIcb, Q^ tribune of the plebs, B.C. 69, 
took aa active part in opposiug the agrarian law 
of CsBsar. He was pnetor in 56, and succeeded 
It, Piso in the province of Macedonia. 

[AjrcH£>iALD8» son of RhoBtus, king of the 
Marnibii in Italy, was en)elled by his father for 
criminal conduct tuwara his step-mother, fled 
to Tumos, and w&s slain by Pallas, son of 
EvBoder, in the war with .^neas.] 

AjrcHsaMue (^Ayxea/iogiy a hiU not far from 
Athens, with a temple of Jupiter (Zeus), who was 
hence called Anehemiui. 

AncbIai^ and -ms ('Xyx^^vy- 1* (Now 
Akiali), a town m Thrace on the Black Sea, on 
the borders of MobsIu. — i. Also AxfouiALOs, an 
ancient city of Cilicia, west uf the Cydnus near 
the coast) said to have been built by Sardana- 

[AxcmAJAJsi'Ayxta^c)- !• ^JQg of the Taphi- 
iBDs, tather of Mentes, united iu guest-frienddiip 
with Ulysses. — 2. A Greek, slain by Hector be- 
fore Troy. — 3. A Phseaciaa All these are men- 
tiooed in Homer.] 

Anchises {*Ayxi(rvc\ Bon of Capys and The- 
mii^ the daughter of Bus, king of Dardanus on 
Mount Ida. In beauty he equalled the immor- 
tal gods, and was beloved by V enus (Aphrodite), 
bj whom he became the iather of u£neas, who 
la hence callecl Anchisiadet. The goddess warn- 
ed him never to betray the real mother of the 
diild ; but as on one occasion he boasted of his 
intercourse with the goddess, he was struck by 
a flash of l^htning, which, according to some 
traditions, killed, but according to others, only 
blinded or lamed him. Virgu, in his i£neia, 
makes Anchises survive the capture of Troy, 
■nd iEneas carries his father on his shoulders 
from the burning city. He further relates that 
Anehises died soon after the first arrival of 
i&ieas in Sicily, and was buried on Mount Eryz. 
Hob tradition seems to have been believed in 
Bidly, for Anchises had a sanctuary at Egesta, 
ind the funeral games celebrated in Sicily m his 
boDor continued down to a late period. 
AxcHXsiA ('A^^ata), a mountain in Arcadia, 

lorthwest of Maiitinea, where A chinos if laid U 
have been buried, according to one traditi /u 

[AnghOeub ('A}^ovpof), son of Mii'os, kipg ot 
Pluygia. A laiige chasm having opened naai 
CehenflB, Anchurus threw himself mto it, •• 
ac oracle had said that it wvoU not close uo 
til he had thrcwn what he regarded as moal 
precious into it On this the chasm dosed Im- 

Ancon (AevKoavfMV *AyKuv)j a harbor and 
town at the mouth of the River Iris (now Yethil 
ermak) in Pontus. 

AncOna or Ancon (*AyKuv : Anoonitanus . 
now Atu:ona), a town in Picenum on the Adri- 
atic Sea, lying in a bend of the coast between 
two promontories, and henee called Ancon or ao 
" elbow." It was built by the Syracusans, who 
settled there about B.C. 892, discontented with 
the rule of the elder Dionysius ; and under the 
Romans, who made it a colony, it became one 
of the most important sea-ports of the Adri- 
atic. It possessed an excellent harbor, com- 
pleted by Trajan, and it coiTied on an active 
trade with the opposite coast of lUyricum. The 
town was celebrated for its temple of Venus and 
its purple dye: the surrounding country pro 
duced good wine and wheat 

ANcoaXaius Mons, a mountain in Mauretania 
Ciesariensis, south of Csesarea, abounding in citr 
ron trees, the wood of which was used by the 
Romans for furniture. 

AMcOas. Vid, NiCiKA. 

Angus Maboius, fourth king of Rome, reign- 
ed twenty-four years, B.C. 640-616, and is saia 
to have tieen the son of Numa's daughter. Hs 
conquered the Latins, took many Latin towns^ 
transported the inhabitants to Rome, and gave 
them the Aventiue to dwell on : these conquer- 
ed liatins formed the original Plebs. He also 
founded a colony at Ostia, at tbe mouth of the 
Tiber; built a fortress on the Janiculum as a 
piHitection against Etruria, and united it with 
the city bv a bridge across the Tiber ; dug the 
ditch of tne Quirites, which was a defence for 
the open ground between the Cselian and the 
Palatme ; and built a prison. He was succeeded 
by Tarquinius Priscus. 

Ancvra ('AyKvpa : *AyKvpavo^f Ancyrftnus) 
1. (Now Angora\ a city of Qalatia in Asia Minor, 
in 89° 56' north latitude. In the time of Au- 
gustus, when Qalatia became a Roman provmce, 
Ancvra was the capital: it was originally the 
chiei city of a GaUic tribe named the Tectosa- 
ges, who came from the south of France. Un- 
der the Roman empire it had the name of Se- 
baste, which in Greek is equivalent to Augusta 
in Latia When Augustus recorded the chiof 
events of his life on bronze tablets at Rom^ 
the citizens of Ancvra hod a copy mode, whioli 
was cut on marble blocks and placed at Ancym 
in a temple dedicated to Augustus and licmsi 
This inscription is called the Monumenium dn- 
cyranum. The Latin inscription was first copied 
by Toumefort in 1701, and it has been cop*ed 
several times since. One of the latest copies 
has been mode by Mr. Hamilton, who also copied 
as much of the Greek inscription as is legible; 
[Near this place Bajazet was defeated and mad« 

Prisoner by Timur, or, as he is commonly called, 
'amerlane.] — 2. A town in Phrygia Kpictetu^ 

! on the borders of Mysia. ( 

igitized by ^ 




ArnilNiA {"Xviivia 'XvSavtevc, 'Avidviog: 
[now AndoroMa, and the ruins near Orano])y a 
town in Messenia, between Megalopolis and 
Messene, the capital of the kings of the race of 
the Lele^es, abandoned by its inhabitants in the 
second Mesaenian war, and from that time only a 

AndSoavt, AndIEqIti, or Ani>es, a Gallic peo- 
ple north of the Loire, with a town of the same 
name, also called Juliomagus, now Angers, 

Andematunnum. Vid. Lingones. 

AndSka (ret 'AvdeLpa : *Avdeiprpf6c)y a city of 
Mysia, celebrated for its temple of Cybele, sur- 
named 'AvdeipijvTJ, 

AndkbItcm (now Anterietix), a town of the 
Gabali in Aquitania. 

Andes. 1. Vid Andecavl — 2. Now Pie- 
tola), a village near Mantua, the birth-place of 

And5cides {^ kvdoKidri^), one of the ten Attic 
orators, son of Leogoras, was bom at Athens 
in B.C. 467. He l^longed to a noble family, 
and was a supporter of Uie oligarchical party at 
Athens. In 436 he was one of the commanders 
of tlic fleet sent by the Athenians to the assist- 
ance of the Corcyreans against the Corinthians. 
In 415 he became involved in the charge brought 
agaiast Alcibiades for having profaned the mys- 
teries and mutilated the Hermse, and was thrown 
mt<) prison; but he recovered his liberty by 
promising to reveal tlie names of the real per- 
petrators of the crime. He is said to have de- 
nounced his own father among others, but to 
have rescued him again in the hour of danger. 
But OS Andocides was unable to clear himself 
entirely, he was deprived of his rights as a citi- 
een, and left Athens. He returned to Athens 
on the establishment of the government of the 
Four Hundred in 411, but was soon obliged to 
fly again. In the following year he ventured 
ouce more to return to Athens, and it was at 
tliis time thai he delivered the speech, still ex- 
tant, On hxi Returrit in which he petitioned for 
permission to reside at Athens, but in voiu. He 
was thus driven into exile a third time, and 
went to reside at Elis. In 403 he again return- 
ed to Athens upon the overthrow of the tyran- 
ny of the Thirty by Thrasybulus, and the proc- 
lamation of the general amnesty. He was now 
allowed to remain quietly at Athens for the 
next three years, but in 400 his enemies ac- 
cused liim of having profaned the mysteries: 
he defended himself in the oration still extant. 
On the Mytterieiy and was acquitted. In 394 
he was sent as ambassador to Sparta to con- 
clude a peace, and on his return in 898 he was 
accused of illegal conduct during his embassy 
(n-cpa^pf (Tfif /of) ; he defended himself in the ex- 
taut speech On the Peace with Lacedaemon^ but 
was found guilty, and sent into exile for the 
fouith time. ^ He seems to have died soon aft> 
erwa.xl in exile. Besides the three orations al- 
ready mentioned, there is a fourth against Alci- 
biades, said to have been delivered m 415, but 
which is in all probability spurious — £ditians : 
[n the collections of the Greek orators ; also, 
icparately by Baiter and Sauppe, Zurich, 1888. 

ANUBiRMoy (*\v<ipaiuctv). 1. Husband of 

9oi'gc, daughter of CElcus, king of Calydon, in 

£tolia, whom ho succeeded, and father of Thoas, 

vhu \» hence called AndrmrtonidetL^^^. f^n of 


Oxylus, and husband of Dryope, -who was inotii 
er of Amphissus by Apollo 

[Andbuoa {^kvipiaKrj : now Jindraki\ port o/ 
Myra in Lycia.] 

Andbisodb Vk.v6pl<TKoc\ a man of low origin, 
who pretended to be a natural son of Perscos, 
king of Macedonia, was seized by Demetrinn^ 
king of Syria, and sent to Rome. He escaped 
from Rome, assumed the name of Philip, and 
obtained possession of Macedonia, B.C. 149. He 
defeated the praetor Juventius, but was conquer- 
ed by Cfficihus Metellus, and taken to Rome to 
adorn the triumph of the latter, 148. 

Andb5cles ('AvdpoicA^f), an Athenian dirma- 
gogue and orator. He was an enemj of Alci- 
biades ; and it was chiefly owing to bis exertions 
that Alcibiades was banished. After this e^3nt, 
Androdes was for a time at the head of the 
democratical party; but in B.C. 411 he was put 
to death by tne oh'garchical government of the 
Four Hmufred. 

[AkdboclIdes ('Av(!poffAeM)7f), a Theban offi- 
cer, one of those who received money from the 
Peruans to induce the Tbebans to make war on 
Sparta, so as to bring about the recall of Agesi- 
laus from Asia.! 

AKDaocLus LCAvdoo/c^f). 1. Son of Oodrus. 
leader of a colony of lonians to Aaia Minor, and 
founder of Ephesus.] — 2. The slave of a Koman 
consular, was sentenced to be exposed to the 
wild beasts in the circus ; but a lion which was 
let loose upon him, instead of springing upon 
his victim, exhibited signs of recou^tion, and 
began licking him. Upon inquiry, it appeared 
that Androclus had been compelled by the se> 
verity of his master, while in Africa, to run 
away from him. Having one day taken refuge 
in a cave from the heat of the sim, a lion enter- 
ed, apparently in sreat pain, and, seeing him, 
went up to him ana held out his paw. Andro- 
clus found that a large thorn had pierced it 
which he drew out, and the lion was soon alle 
to use his paw again. They lived together for 
some time m the cave, the lion catering tor his 
benefactor. But at last, tired of this savagd 
life, Androclus left the cave, was apprehended 
by some soldiers, brought to Rome, and con- 
demned to the wild beasts. He was pardoned, 
and presented with the lion, which he used to 
lead about the city. 

[AndrocrXtes ('Avdpoicpun7f), an ancient hero 
of the Platssans, who had a temple consecrated 
to him at Pkit8ea3.] 

Andb5gS0b {^kv&p6yeui\ son of Minos and 
PasiphaS, or Crete, conquered all his opponents 
in the games of the ranatheneea at Athens. 
This extraordinary good luck, however, became 
the cause of his destruction, though the mode 
of his death is related differently. Acoordiiuf 
to some accounts, .^eus sent the man he dread 
ed to fight against the Marathonian bull, who 
killed him; according to others, he was assas- 
sinated by his defeated rivals on his road to 
Tliebes, whither he was going to take part in a 
solemn contest A third account related that 
be was assassinated by uEgeus himself. Minos 
made war on the Athenians in consequence of 
the death of his son, and imposed upon them 
the shameful tribute, from which they were de- 
livered by Thbseus. He was worshipped |a 
Attica as a hero, and ('amis wore celnbratm] ii 



bu /Moor 9\€rj year in the Ceramiciu. Vid. 
Diet, of AnL, art Aitdeooeonu. 

AxDadXACHX (*Av6pofmxtf)r daughter of £e tion, 
king of tbe (Slieian Thebe, and one of the no- 
bleSb and mosl amiable female charaoten in the 
Diad. Her father and her seyen brothora were 
•Iain by Aehilles at the taking of Thebe, and 
her wtxber, who had purchased her freedom by 
a Urge ransom, waa killed by Diana (Artenus). 
She waa manied to Hector, hj whom she had 
a son, Soamaudrios (Aatyanax), and for whom 
she entertained the most tender loye. On the 
taking of Troj her son was hurled from the 
wall of the city, and she herself fell to the share 
of Neoptolemos (^rrhus), the son of Achilles, 
who took her to Epirua, and to whom she bore 
three sons^ Moloesus, Helus, and Perffamus. 
She afterward married Helenus, a brouier of 
Hector, who ruled oyer Chaonil^ a part of Epi- 
rui^ and to wbom she bore Cestrious. After Uie 
lei^ of Helenus, she followed her son Perga- 
mos to Asia, where a heroum was erected to her. 
AmxaSicXcHDB (^AvSpo/iaxog), 1. Ruler of 
Tanromenium in Sicily about B.C. 344, and fa- 
ther of the historian Timasus. — 2. Of Crete, 
physician to the Emperor Nero, AJ). 54-68 ; 
was the first person on whom the title of Archi- 
tter was conferred, and was celebrated as the 
ioTeotor of a famous compound medicine and 
antidote called Tkeriaea Andromaehi, which re- 
tains its place in some foreign PharmacopoBias 
to the present day. Andromachus has left the 
(firections fur making this mixture in a Greek 
elegiac poem, consisting of one hundred and 
•erenty-four lines, edit^ by Tidiceus, Tiguri, 
1607, and Leinker, Norimb., 1754.— [8. Son of 
the toner, commonly called the Younger, held 
the same office, that of physician to Nero, after 
his lather's deiKth. He is generally supposed to 
hare been the author of a work on pharmacy in 
three books, of which only a few fragments re- 


A5Da5MiDA (*AvSpofiedTj\ daughter of the 
iEthiopian Idnff Cepheus and Cassiop^a. Her 
Aother boasted that the beauty of her daughter 
nrpassed that of the Nereids, who prevailed 
OQ Neptune (Poseidon) to yisit the country by 
so ioundation and a sea-monster. The oracle 
of Ammon promised deliverance if Andromeda 
wu given up to the monster; and Cepheus, 
obl^ied to irield to the wishes of his people, 
diaioed Andromeda to a rock. Here she was 
ixmd and saved by Perseus, who slew the mon- 
ster and obtained her as his wife. Andromeda 
had pravioosly been promised to Phiueus, and 
this gave rise to the fisunous fight of Phineus 
sad Perseus at the wedding, in which the for- 
mer and all his associates were slaia (Ov., 
if«i, v^ 1, 9ea.) After her death, she was 
placed amoi^ tne stars. 

[AsDEOx QAvdpuv}, of Halicarnassus, a Greek 
hiitorian, who wrote a work entitled Ivyyivcuaif 
3f which he himself made an epitome. Miiller 
laigDs to this Andron a work, nepl ^auiv, 
wUdt some ascribe to the following. His frag- 
ments are collected by Miiller, JP^agm, HImL 
<?nit, vol iL, pi 84^852.-2. Of Teos, author 
«f a Poipluik perhaps the same with the Teian 
A'^thtn, son of Cebaleus, whom Arrian men- 
tioQs as a companion of Alexander the Great, 
md one of the leaders of the IniUan exploration. 

His fragments are given by Miiller, L j., p 
848-9. — ^Two otlK- historians of this, name art 
mentioned, one of Alexandrea, author of a 
Chronica, n fragment of which i^ given by 
Miiller, p. 852; the other of Ephesus, author 
of a work entitled Triptu: fragments of it are 
given in Miiller, n. 847-8. — 3. An Athenian, son 
of Androtion, ana father of the oralor Androtion.] 

AnobonIcus ('Avdpofcxof). 1. Cyeehxsteb, 
so called fit>m his native place, Cyr'-ba, proba- 
bly lived about B.C. 100, and built UiC octagonal 
tower at Athens, vulgarly called ** the Tower 
of the Winds." Vid. Diet, of Ant., pu 616, 2il 
ed, where a drawing of the building is givea 
— 2. Livius AKDnoiricDB, the earliest IU>man 
poet, was a Greek, probably a native of Taren- 
tum, and the slave of M. Livius Salinator, by 
whom he was manumitted, and from whom he 
received the Roman name Livius. He obtain- 
ed at Rome a perfect knowledge of the Latin 
language. He wrote both tragedies and come- 
dies in Latin, and we still {lossess the titles and 
fragments of at least fourteen of his dramas, all 
of which were borrowed from the Greek: his 
first drama was acted in EC. 240. He also 
wrote an Odyuey in the Satumian verse and 
Hymns, (Vid, Diintzer, Livii AndraniH Frag 
menta CUUcta, <&c., BerL, 1835).- 3. Of RhodxB; 
a Pennatetio phUoaopher at kome, about B.C 
58. He published a new edition of the works 
of Aristotle and Theophrastus, which formerly 
belonged to the library of ApelUcoD, and whidb 
were brought to Rome by Sulla with (he rest 
of Apellicon's library in B.C. 84. Tyrannic 
commenced this task, out apparently did not dc 
much toward it The arrangement which An- 
dronicus made of Aristotle's writings seems tc 
be the one which forms the basis of our present 
editions. He wrote many commentaries upon 
the works of Aristotle ; but none of these is ex- 
tant, for the paraphrase of the Nicomachean 
Ethics, which is ascribed to Andronicus of 
Rhodes, was written by some one else, and 
may have been the work of Andronicus Callistue 
of Thessalonica, who was professor in Italy in 
the latter half of the fifteenth century. 

ANDadruLis i^hvdpQv vb'kiQ: now Chabur)^ a 
city of Lower £^pt, on the western bank of 
the Canopio branch of the Nile, was the capital 
of the Nomos Andropolites, and, under the Ro- 
mans, the station of a legioa 

Andros ('Av<5poc : 'AvApio^ : now Andro\ thfi 
most northerly and one of the largest islands of 
the Cvdades, southeast of £ub(Ba, twenty-one 
miles Ion? and eight broad, early attained import- 
ance, and colonized Acanthus and Stagira about 
KG. 654. It was taken by the Persians in their 
invasion of Greece, was afterward subject to the 
Athenians, at a later time to the Macedonians, 
and at length to Attalus IIL, king of Pei^;amua, 
on whose death (B.C. 138) it passed, with the 
rest of his dominions, to the Romans. It was 
celebrated for its wine, whence the whole ial 
and was regarded as sacred to Bacchus (Diony 
sus). Its diief town, also called Andros, eon 
tained a celebrated temple of Bacchus (Diony 
susl and a harbor of tne name of Gaureleoi^ 
ana a Fort Gannon. 

[AypBO B T HK Wieg {^AvdpoaiihnK). of Thasua 
one of Alexander's admirals, sailed with Near 
chus, and was also sent hv Alexander to ex> 




plore the ooaat of the Peraian Gul£ He "viTote 
an acoooDt of his Toynge, and also a T^c 'Ivd<- 
A-^f noodTT^i/;.] 

AkdrStion (^Av($portov). 1. Ad Athenian 
orator, and a contemporary of DemoBthenes, 
against whom the hitter deliTored an oration, 
which is still extant — 2. The author of an At- 
this, or a work on the history of Attica. [Frag- 
m.ents published by Siebehs with Philochorus, 
lips., 1811, and by MuUer in his Fragnu Hist, 
€hwc^ ToL i^ p. 871-8*77.] 

Anemorea, afterward Akem OlSa ('Avr/u^pem, 
'AveuuXeta; 'Ave/iuntevg)^ a town on a hill on 
the Dorders of Phocis and Delf^ 

AKEUtyaiUM {'Avefiovpiov : now AnamuTf with 
ruins), a town and promontory at the southern 
point of Cilicia, opposite to Oyprus. 

[ANGEUoir (^AyyeXUw^ an artist always men- 
tioned in connection with Tectieus: they were 
pupils of Dipoenus and Scylhs, and flourished 
about 548 B.C.] 

Anoerona or Anoer5nia, a Roman goddess, 
respecting whom we have different statements, 
rvome representing her as the eoddess of silence, 
others as the goddess of anguish and fear ; that 
is, the goddess who not only produces Uiis state 
of mind, but also relieves men from it Her 
statue stood in the temple of Volupia, with her 
mouth bound and sealed up. Her festival, An- 
geronalia, was celebrated yearly on the twelfth 
of December. 

Angites (*kyyiTffc ' now Anffhista), a river 
in Macedonia, flowing into the Strymon. 

Akgitia or Amguitia, a goddess worshipped 
by the Marsians and MarrubiaDs, who tlved 
•bout the shores of the Lake Fucinus. 

Amoli or Anglti, a German people of the 
race of the Suevi, on the left banlc of the Elbe, 
afterward passed over with the Saxons into 
Britain, which was called after them England 
VicL Saxones. a portion of them appear to 
have settled in Angeln in Scbleswig. 

Angrivarii, a German people dwelling on 
both sides of the Yisurgis (now Weser\ separa- 
ted fipom the Cherusci by an agger or mound of 
earth. The name is usually derived from An- 
gem, that is, meadows. They were generally 
-ya friendly terms with the Romans, but rebelled 
in A.D. 16, and were subdued. Toward the end 
of the first century they extended their terri- 
tories southward, and, in conjunction with the 
Chamavi, took possession of part of the terri- 
toiy of the Bructeri, south and east of the Lippe, 
the Angaria or Enc^em of the Middle Ages. 

ANicfiTus [CAvuajTo0, 1. Son of Hercules, 
by Hebe, after his admission to the abode of the 
gods.] — 2. A freedman of Nero, and formerly 
Sis tutor, was employed by the emperor in the 
execution of many of his crimes : he was after- 
rvd banished to Sardinia, where he died. 

ANidus Gallus. Vid Gallds. 

[Amioius, C, a senator and friend of Cicero, 
whose villa was near the latter^s; mentioned 
x the letters of Cicero.] 

Anigrub ('Aviypoc : now Jfavro-Potamo), a 
small river in the Triphyllan Ells, the Minyehu 
^.vyrjlo^) of Homer (/21, xi., 721), rises in Mount 
Lapithas, and flows into the Ionian Sea near 
Samicum : its waters have a disagreeable smeU, 
and its fish are not eatable, ^ear Samicum 
VII9 a cave sacred to the Nymp^ i Anigyidet 

(*Avfypi6ec or *Avtypiddeg)y^wheT(i per8«>DS wiU 
cutaneous diseases were cured by the wa,ten 
of the river. 

Anio, anciently AnIex (hence, geiL, Axuems: 
now Teverona or LAniene\ a river, the moat 
celebrated of the tributari<>6 of the Tiber, rises 
in the mountains of the Hemici, near Treba 
(now TrmnX, flows first northwest and then 
southwest through nanx)w mouotain-Talleys, re- 
ceives the brook Digentia (now Jjieenza)^ above 
Tibur, forms at Tibur beautiftd waterfalls (hence 
prcBcept AniOf Hor., Carm, l, 7» 18), and flows, 
forming the boundary between Liatiam and the 
land of the Sabines, into the Tiber, three miles 
above Rome, where the town of Antemna stood. 
The water of the Anio was conveyed to Bome 
by two aqueducts, the Anio vetus and Anio no- 
VU8, Vid Diet, of Ant, p. 110, 111, 2d ed 

[Anitorgxs or Anistorgib, a city of Hispania 
Bsetica, near which a battle was fought between 
Hasdrubal and the Scipios.] 

Anius CAviog), son of Apollo by Creiisa, or 
Rhodo, ana priest of Apollo at Deios. By I>> 
rippe he had three daughters, OBno, Sp6ni}o, 
and Elais, to whom Bacdius (Dionysus) gave 
the power of producing at will any quantity <^ 
wine, com, and oil, whence they were called 
(Enotrdpa. When the Greeks, on their expedi- 
tion to Troy, landed in Delos, Anius endeavored 
to persuade them to stay with him for nine 
years, as it was decreed by fiate that they should 
not take Troy until the tenth year; and he 
promised, with the help of his tliree daughtera, 
to supply them with all they wanted during that 
period. After the fall of Troy, jEnoaa was 
iundly received by Anius. 

Anna, daugter of Belus and sister of Didc. 
After the death of the latter, she fled from 
Carthage to Italy, where she was kindly re- 
ceived by JS^ea&i Here she excited the jeal- 
ousy of Lavinia, and being warned in a dream 
by Dido, she fled and threw herself into the 
River Numidus. Henceforth she was woi- 
shipped as the nymph uf that river, under the 
nam<» of Anna Perenna. There are various 
other stories respecting the origin of her wo^ 
ship. Ovid relates that she was considered hj 
some as Luna, by others as Themis, by others 
as Jo, daughter of Inachus, by others as the 
Anna of Bovillte, who supplied the plebs with 
food, when they seceded to the Mons Sacer. 
(Ov., Fast,, iii^ 528.) Her festival was cele- 
brated on the 15th of March. She was, iu reah'- 
ty, an old Italian divinity, who was regarded as 
tne giver of life, health, and plenty, as the god- 
dess whose powers were most manifest at the 
return of spring, when her festival was cele- 
brated. The identification of this goddess witk 
Anna, the sister of Dido, is undoubtedly of Jatc 

A)fNA C^mnSna, daughter of Alexis I Com 
nenus (reigued A.D. 1081-1118), wrote the lift 
of her fiiUier Alexis in fifteen books, which if 
one of the most interesting and valuable hi» 
teries of the Byzantine hterature. Editknt. 
By Possmus, Paris, 1661 ; by Schopen, Bona 
1839, Svo. 

AnnXlis, a cognomen of the Villia Gens, first 
acquired by L. Villius, tribune of the plebs. ifl 
B.C. 179, because he introduced a law fixing 
the year {anwui at which it w:ij( lawful for a 



p«raoo io be a caodidfiie for eacli oi the public 

AaranEirs, M^ legate of M. Cicero daring bis 
go^emmeat of Cilicia, KG. 61. 

[Afuru, wife of L. Giima, and, after his 
doiUh, of M. Pbo CalpnmmnuA.] 

AKxrlxQBy T^ a Roman poet, liyed in the time 
«tf Trajan and Hadrian, and wrote Feeoennine 

AscNidtEJa (*Av»ixepic), a Cyronaic philoso- 
blier, of whom the ancients have left us oontra- 
dietary aeeomits. Many modem writers have 
eapposed that there were two philosophers of 
Uus name, the one oontemporaiy wim Plato, 
whom he is said to have ransomed for twenty 
miosB from Dionysius of Syraoose, and the other 
with Alexander the Great 

Ajs3di:3 Cdcbkb. Vid. Cixbeb. 
Akxics Mixo. Vid MoAk 
Akser, a poet of the Augustan age, a friend 
of the triumvir Marcus Antonias, and one of the 
detractors of Yiisil. Hence Virgil plays upon 
his name {JEeL, ul, S6). Ovid (Insi^ il, 485) 
caUa him procoz: 

AjmBAaii or Ajcpsivaaii, a German people, 
onginaUy dwelt south of the Bructeri, between 
the somvea of the Ems and the Weser: driven 
out of ih&r country by the Chauei in the reign 
of Nero (AJ>. £9), they asked the Romans for 
penniaeion to settle in the Roman territory be- 
tween the Rhine and the Yssel, but when their 
reauest was refused they wandered into the in- 
tenor of the country to the Cherusci, and were 
at length extirpated, according to Tacitus. We 
dad their name, however, among the Franks in 
'•he time of Julian. 

A!rTiBdp5u8 {*AvTcu6noXi^ : near Oaurel-Ke- 
hir), an ancient city of Upper £^gypt (the The- 
bais), on the east side of tJie Kue, but at some 
distanoe from the river, was the capital of the 
Nomos Antfl^opolites, and one of the chief seats 
of the worship of Osiris. 

AxijBO& ('AvroiOf). 1. Son of Neptune (Po- 
eeidoo) and Ge, a mighty giant and wrestler in 
libra, whose strength was invincible bo long 
as he remained in contact with his mother 
esrth. The strangers who came to his country 
were compelled to wrestle with him ; the con- 
quered were slain, and out of their skulls he 
bmlt a house to Neptune (Poseidon). Hercules 
diMOvered the source of his strength, lifted him 
from tiie earth, and crushed him in the air. 
The tomb of Antaeus (Anted collis\ which form- 
ed a moderate hill in the shape of a man stretch- 
ed out at full length, was shown near the town 
of Tlngia in Mauretania down to a late period 
—2. [A companion of Tumus, slain by .tineas.] 

A5Tag5ras ('Avra/o/oof), of Rhodes, flourish- 
ed about B.C. 270, a friend of Antigonus Qona- 
tas and a ooDtemporary of Aratu& He wrote 
an epie poem entitled Thebaitj and also epi- 
grams, of whidi specimens are still extant [in 
*he Greek Anthology.] 

AsTALcanAS {'AvraAJcidac), a Spartan, son of 
I^eoo, is chiefly known by the celebrated treaty 
(woelnded with Persia in B.C. 887, usually called 
the peace of Antakidas, since it was &e fruit 
7f his diplomacy. According to this treaty, all 
*hi Greek cities in Asia Minor, together with 
ClaaomenflB and Cyprus, were to bdong to the 
Vrtraian king the Athenians were allowed to 

retain only Lemnos, Imbros, and Scyios; asa 
all the other Greek citieo were to be ind« 

AMTAirnKR ('AvravSpog). 1 Brotlier of Agath* 
odes, king of Syracuse, wrote the life of hij 
brother. [A fragment, preserved by Diodorus, is 
given by Miiller, Jf)raa. Bitt. Orac^ vol il, p. 
S83. — 2. Geno^ of the Messenians, and com- 
mander of cavalry in the first Messenion war 
against the Lacedemonians.] 

AMTAifDauB ^'Avrovd/Wf : *Avrav6pio^: now 
Antandro)^ a city of Great Mysia, on the Adra- 
novttian Gul^ at the foot of Mount Ida ; an 
j£olian colony. Vii^ represents .iOneas as 
touching here after leaving Troy (^n., iii., 106). 

AmtIbIdus i^AvTupado^'. now Tbrtoaa), a 
towu on the northern border of Phoenicia, op 
posite the island of Aradus. 

AmtSa or AmtU ("Avr«a), daughter of the 
Lycian kipg lobates, wife of Proetus of Aivoe. 
She is also called Sthenoboea. Respecting net 
love for Bellerophontes, see BsLLEaopHONTBS. 

tAiTTETOs, P., appointed governor of Syria 5C 
). On aooount of the iavor in which he stood 
with Agrippina, he was an object of hatred tc 
Nero: being accused of a conspiracy, he took 
poison, but, finding this too slow, he opened hie 

Amtemnjc (Antemnas, -atis), an ancient Sa- 
bine town at the junction of the Anio and the 
Tiber, destroyed by the Romans in the earliest 

Antenor ('AvrvFwp). 1. A Trojan, son of 
.^yetes and Cleomestra, and husbaind of The- 
ano. According to Homer, he was one of the 
wisest amon^ ttie elders at Troy : he received 
Menelaus and Ulysses into his house when the^ 
came to Troy as ambassadors, and advised his 
fellow-citizens to restore Helen to Menelaus. 
Thus he is represented as a traitor to his coun- 
try, and when sent to Agamemnon, just before 
the taking of Troy, to negotiate peace, he con- 
certed a plan of delivering the city, and even 
the palladium, into the hands of the Greeka 
On the capture of Troy, Antenor was spared by 
the Greeks. His history after this event is re- 
Uited differently. Some writers relate that he 
fouuded a new kingdom at Troy ; according to 
others, he embarked with Menelaus and Helen, 
was carried to Libya, and settled at Gyrene- 
while a third account states that he went with 
the Heneti to Thrace, and thence to the west- 
em coast of the Adriatic, where the foimdatioo 
of Patavium and several other towns is ascribec 
to him. The sona and descendants of Antenor 
were called AtUinbridaB, — % Son of Euphranor 
an Athenian sculptor, made the first bronze 
statues of Harmodius and Aristogiton, which 
the Athenians set up in the Ceramlcus, B.O. 
509. These statues were carried off to Susa by 
Xerxes, and their place was supplied by othen 
made either by Callias or by Praxiteles. After 
the conquest of Persia, Alexander the Great 
sent the statues back to Athens, where ther 
were again set up in the Ceramlcus. 

AmtjEros. vid, Eaos. 

Antkvoeta, also cidled Porrima or PbORSA. 
together with Postvorta, are described either 
as the two sisters or companions of the Roman 
goddess Carmenta; but originally they wen 
only fvo attributes (if the on4» goddess Oar. 
Digitizer g^ 



auota, the fonnpr describing lier kDOvledge of 
Uie future, and the Utter that of the past, anal- 
cgous to the two-beaded Jodus. 

[A.TTHKA {'Av6eia\ a city of Messema, men- 
ioned by H.^mer (//., 9, 161); the later Thuria, 
)r, acooraiDg to otiiers, identical with Atine,] 

AkthSdok {*Avdij66v : 'AvBti66vto{ : now Xv- 
hti /). 1. A town of BcBotia with a harbor, on the 
eoast of the Eubcean Sea, at the foot of Mount 
MessapiuB, eaid to hare derived its name from 
a nymph Anthedon, or fh>m Anthedon, son of 
GlaucuB, who was here changed into a god. 
(Ot^ Met^ yii^ 232; ziii, 905.) The inhabit- 
ants lived chiefly by fishing. — [2. A sea-port of 
Argolis on the Saronic Gulf; near the twrders 
of Corinthia, called by Ptolemy *A$^aiuv Xifujv. 
^3. A harbor m the southern part of Palestine, 
afterward called *Aypiirniuc,'] 

[AnTHfiLA {'AvdijXij\ a village of Thessaly, be- 
tween the entrance of the Asopus into the Ma- 
Uao Gulf and Thermopyhe, containing a temple 
of Ceres : it was one of the pUices of meetmg 
of the Amphictyonic council] 

AvTHSMius, emperor of the West, A.D. 467- 
4*72, was killed on the capture of Rome by Ri- 
eimor, who made Olybrius emperor. 

AmthemOs ('Avdefiovf -owtjc ' 'Avde/iovoio^)^ 
a Macedonian town in Chalcidice. 

AMTH^MtsiA or Antu£mu8 {*Av6e/uvaia)f a 
city of Mesopotamia, southwest of Edessa, and 
a little east of the Euphrates. The surround- 
ing district was called by the same name, but 
was generally included under the name of Os- 


AMTHfimt (Av^vj7), a place in Cynuria, in the 

[Anthermus, a statuary of Chios, father of 
Bupalus and Athenis : as the name is differently 
given in different MSS., Sillig has proposed Ar- 
ohennus instead of Anthermus. 

[Antheus {'Avdeifc), a Trojan, a companion 
of .£neas.] 

Anthylla ('AvdvXXa), a considerable city of 
Lower Egypt, near the mouth of the Canopio 
branch of tne Nile, below Naucratis, the reve- 
nues of which, under the Persians, were as- 
signed to the wife of the satrap of Egypt^ to 
provide her with shoes. 

Amt!a8, Q. VALEaiuB, a Roman historian, 
flourished about B.C. 80, and wrote the history 
of Rome from tlio earliest times down to those 
of Sulla. He is frequently referred to by Livy, 
who speaks of him as the most lying of all the 
anoalists, and seldom mentions his name with- 
out terms of reproach : iJiore can be little doubt 
that Livy's judgment is correct [The fra^^- 
ments of his work are collected by £rause m 
IVB Vita et FraatfL vetervm JRU, JicnL, Berlin, 
1838, pi 271-88.] 

A.NnoLfiA ('AvTucXeia), daughter of Autolyeus, 
wife of LaSrtes, and motiber of Ulysses, died of 
giief at the long absence of her son. It is said 
Uiat, before marrying LaSrtes, she lived on in- 
timate terms with Sisyphus ; whence Euripides 
oaUs Ulysses a son of Sisyphus. 

AvncLiDES {*AvTiKXeii^{:\ of Athens, lived 
after the time of Alexander the Great, and was 
the author of several works, the most import- 
ant of which was entitled N<otH (Noorot), con- 
taining an account of the return of the Greeks 
from their mythical expeditions. 

[AMicaiGi's (*AvT'.Kpayoc : now JSofandamnui 
a lofty and steep mountain range in Lycia» nm 
ning m a northeast direction along the ooaal 
of tiie Sinus Glaucus.] 

I^Anticratbs {'AvTiKpuTijcX a Spartan, who 
claimed the merit of having dealt the blow tha 
proved fatal to Epaminondas at Mantinea.] 

AmlcfRji, moro anciently Anticirbjl4, ('A» 
TiKippa or 'AvriKvpa : 'AvriKvpevc* 'Avrucvpaioc) 
1. (Now Atpra Spitia), a town in Phocia, with 
a harbor on a peninsula on the western side of 
the Sinus Anticyranus, a bay of the Cnssaeau 
Gulf; called in ancient times Cyparissus, and 
celebrated for its hellebore. It continued to be 
a place of importance under the Romans. — 2. 
A town in Thessaly, on the SpeFcheus, not £Eir 
from its mouth. Both towns were celebrated 
for their hellebore, the chief remedy in antiquity 
for madness ; hence the proverb, 'AvriKift^ ae 
Self when a person acted senselessly, and AV 
viget Anticyram, (Hor., 8ai^ il, 3, 166.) 

AMTioiNiS ('Avriyev^f), a general of Alexun 
der the Great, on whose death he obtained the 
satrapy of Susiana, and espoused liie side o{ 
Eumenes. On the defeat of the latter in B.C. 
316, Antigenes fell into the hands of hia enemy 
AntigonuB, and was burned alive by him. 

ANTiGi^MioAS ('Avnymdaf), a Theban, a cele- 
brated flute-player, and a poet, lived in the time 
of Alexander the Great 

ANTicdNX {^Avriy6vji). 1. Daughter of (Edipus 
by his mother Jocaste, and sister of Ismene, and 
of Eteodes and PolynXces. In the tragic story 
of CEdipus, Antigone appears as a noble maiden, 
with a truly heroic attachment to her father 
and brothers. When (Edipus had bb'nded him- 
self and was ob%ed to quit Thebes, he was 
accompanied by Antigone, who remained with 
him till he died in Colonus, and then returned 
to Thebes. After her two brothers had killed 
each other in battle, and Creon, the king ot 
Thebes, would not allow Polynices to be buried, 
Antigone alone defied the tyrant, and buried the 
body of her brother. Creon thereupon ordered 
her to be shut up in a subterranean cave, whero 
she killed herself Haemoi^ the son of Creon, 
who was in love with her, killed himself by her 
side. — [2. Daughter of the Trojan king Laome- 
don, changed by Juno (Hera) into a stork, be- 
cause she presumed to vie with her in the beau- 
ty of her hair. — 8. (Historical) Daughter of 
Cassander, second wife of Ptolemy Lagus, and 
mother of Berenice.] 

AnriGONfiA or -U and -Ia ('Airtywrta, 'Av«- 
ywia). 1. (Now Tepden%\ a town in Epirus 
(niyricum), at the junction of a tributary with 
the Aous, and near a narrow pass of the Acro- 
ceraunian Mountains. — 2. A Macedonian town 
in Chalcidice. — 8. FtdL Mamtiuxa.— 4. A town 
on the Orontes in Syria, founded by Antigonus as 
the capital of his empire (RC. 806X but most 
of its inhabitants were transferred by Seleoeui 
to Antiochia, which was built in its neighbor- 
hood. — 6. A town in Bithynia, afterward Nioeet 
-^. A town in the Troas. FidL ALixAifni.C4 
No. 2. 

[ANTiadifis ('AvTxyovtf), an Atheniso tribe, m 
called in honor of Ant^nus, father of DeoM) 

Airr!G5KU8 ('Avrlyovof). 1. King of Awa 
sumamed Uie One-eved Bon/Tjf Phjinff EJ' 



aetUi and &tlier of Demetrius Poliorcetes hy 
Scralomce. He was one of the geoerals of 
Alexander the Great, and iu the divisioo of the 
eopire after the death of the ktter (B.0 823), 
he recored the provinces of the Greater Phryg- 
k, Lyda, and JPaznphyb'a. On the death of 
^ regent Antipater in 319, he aspired to the 
Kfwtdgaij of Asia. In 316 he defeated and 

rt Eumeaee to death, tfter a struggle of near- 
^ three jearsi From 315 to 311 he carried on 
var, vith Taryin^ success, against Seleucus, 
P ^emj, Caseander, and Lysimachus. By the 
> ^tice made in 31 1, Antigonua was allowed to 
jdTe the goTemment of all Asia ; but peace did 
not last more tbao a year. After the defeat of 
riolemj^s fleet in S06, Antigonus assumed the 
tide of king, and his example was followed by 
Ptulemy, LyslDoacbuB, and Seleucus. In the 
eame year, AntiguDus invaded Egypt, but was 
compiled to retreat His son Demetrius car^ 
tied oa the war with success against Cassander 
B Greece ; but he was compelled to return to 
Asa to the assiatance of nis father, against 
«ham Casaander, Seleucus, Ptolemy, and Ly- 
caadias had formed a fresh confederacy. An- 
tigaiuB and Denaetrius were defeated bj Lysim- 
idiBs at the decisive battle of Ipsus m Pnryg- 
b, b 301. AjQtigODUS fell in the battle in the 
^^^-first year of his age. — 2. Gonatab, son 
of Demetrioa PoEorcetes, and grandson of the 
DTceediog. He assumed the title of Kin^ of 
Mimkmia, after his father's death in Asia in 
AC 2S3, but he did not obtam possession of 
the tbnaie till 277. He was driven out of his 
ci^dom by Pjrrhus of Epirus in 273, but re- 
ouTered it in the following year : he was agaii 
opelkd by Alexander, the son of Pyrrhus, and 
igUD recovered his dominions. He attempted 
to veTent the fonnation of the Achiean League, 
ana died in 239. He was succeeded by Deme- 
tncs XL His surname Gonatas is usually de- 
rired from Gk»Dnoe or Gonni in Thessaly; but 
Kaoe think that Gonatas is a Macedonian word, 
BgrnfTing an iron f^te protecting the knee. 
—3u DoeoN (so called because he was always 
shjot to give, but never did,) son of Demetrius 
of Cyrene, and grandson of Demetrius PoUor- 
cseteL On the death of Demetrius II in B.C. 
229, he was left guardian of his son Philip, but 
be nuffried the widow of Demetrius, and became 
King 4f HaeedfMiia himself He supported Ara- 
ta tad the Achiean League against Cleomenes, 
ioBg iA Sparta, whom he defeated at Sellasia in 
221, and took Sparta. On his return to Mace- 
'mis, be defeated the Illyriaas, and died a few 
^JB afterward, 220.— 4. King of Jjjdma, son 
of Amtobulus IL, was j^ced on the throne by 
tiie P^rthians in B.C. 40, but was taken prison- 
er \jj Sosiua, the lieutenant of Antony, and was 
pot to death by the latter in 37.-5. Of Casts- 
va, lired at Alexacdrea about B.C. 260, and 
^^ % work, still extant, entitled Hittorice Mi- 
niUet, wfaidi is only of value from its presery- 
■S extracts from other and better works. — 
fidUioM: By J. Beckmann, Lipa., 1791, and by 
VeBtenoaim in his Paradoxographi, Bruns., 

AjnliiBAJiuB i^kvnXlAavoi : now Jebd-e*- 
^Mk X AtUi'Leban<m)j a mountain on the 
of Palestine, Phoenicia, and Syria, 
Ifl '40 LibamiB (now lebaium)^ which it ex- 

in height Its highest summit is Moan 
Hermon (also Jebel-e^-SJmkh), 

AMTiLdcHUS {^AvTtKoxo^\ SOU of Nestor snd 
Anaxibia or Eurydice, accompanied his ^Iher 
to Tro^ar.d disUngiiislied himeelf by his brav 
ery. He was slain before Troy by MemnoD tb« 
^Ethiopian, and was buried by tho side • >f hii 
friends Achilles and Patrodus. 

AjrriMAOHDB i^Avrifiaxo^). 1 A Trojan, per« 
suaded his countrymen not to surrender Helen 
to the Greeks. He had three sons, two of whoa 
were put to death by Henelaus. — 2. Of Claroi 
or Colophon, a Greek epic and elegiac poet, was 
probably a native of Claroe, but was called a Col- 
ophonian, because Claros belonged to Colophoa 
(Clariut poeta, Ov., Trist^ U 6, 1.) He flourish- 
ed towara the end of the Peloponnesian war: 
his chief work was an epic poem of great length 
called Thebais (6960^). Antimachus was one 
of the forerunners of the poets of the Alexan- 
drine school, who wrote more for the learned 
than for the public at laive. The Alexandrine 
grammarians assigned to him the second place 
among the epic poets, and the Emperor Hadrian 
preferred his works even to those of Homer 
He also wrote a celebrated elegiac poem called 
Lyckt which was the name of his wife or mis- 
tress, as well as other works. There was like- 
wise a tradition that he made a recension of the 
text of the Homeric poems. [His fragments 
have been collected ana published by Schellen- 
berg, Halle, 1786; some additional fragment* 
in StoU's ArUinadvernonet in ArUimachi Fragm^ 
Gotting., 1840 ; the epic fragments in Duntzer s 
Fragm. der Fpiteh. Poet, der Oriech, his auf Al9x 
anckrj p. 99.J 

[Antuicebus (*AvTifiotpi>c)t a sophist of Men<l« 
in Thrace, a pupil of Protagoras, mentioufd ly 
PUito (Protag^ 315, A.)] 

AMTiNddpoLis ('AvT*vo6v ffoAtc or ^Avnvoeia ; 
ruins at En^eneh)^ a splendid city, built by Ha- 
drian, in memory of his favorite Antinous, on 
the eastern bank of the Nile, upon the site of the 
ancient Besa, in Middle Egypt (Heptanomis). 
It was the capital of the Nomos Antinoites, and 
had an oracle of the goddess Besa. 

AimN^uB Vkwlvoo^). 1. Son of Eupithes 
of Ithaca, ana one of the suitors of Penelope, 
was shun by Ulysses. — 2. A youth of extraor- 
dinary beauty, bom at Claudiopolis in Bithynia, 
was the favorite of the Emperor Hadrian, and 
his companion in all his journeys. He was 
drowned in the Nile, AJ). 122, whether acci 
dentally or on purpose, is uncertain. The grief 
of the emperor knew no bounds. He enrolled 
Antinous among the gods, caused a temple to 
be erected to him at Mantinea, and founded thi 
city of Antxnoopous in honor of him. A largt 
number of works of art of all kinds were exe- 
cuted in his honor, and many of them are still 

AiiridcHiA and -Sa {*AvTi6xeiai 'Avrtoxe^ 
and -6xet6^, fern. *AvTioxk and -6x1000^ Anlio- 
ehSnus), the name of several cities of Asia, six- 
teen of which are said to have been built hj 
Seleucus L Nicator, and named in honor of hn 
fiither Antiochus. 1. A. Epidafhnxs, or ad 
DAPmoEM, or ad Oromtem ('A. evl Ad^i so 
called from a neighboring grove : 'A. eirl Of^ 
TV : ruins at AntcLkia), the capital of the Greek 
kingdcm of S}Tia, and long the chief <!i^7/^V> 



Aftia, and ptrbapa of the world, stood od the left 
bank of the Orootes, about twenty miles (geog.) 
from the sea, in a beaatifiil valley, about ten miles 
lonff and five or six broad, inclosed by the ranges 
of Amanus on the northwest^ and Casius on the 
«outheast It was built by Seleucus Nicator, 
about B.0 800, and peopled chiefly from the 
oei^hboring city of Antigonia. It flourished so 
rapidly as soon to need enlargement ; and other 
idoitions were again made to it by Seleuous 11. 
Calllnicus (about B.C. 240), and Antiochus IV. 
Epiphanes (about B.G. 110), Henoe it obtained 
the name of Tetrapolis {rerpdnoXic, i e. four 
ntienY Besides bein^ the capital of the greatest ' 
tdngaom of the world, it had a considerate com- 
merce, the Orontes being navigable up to the 
eity, and the hi^h road between Asia and Europe 
passing throu^ it Under the Romans it was 
the residence of the prooonsuls of Syria ; it was I 
favored and visited by emperors ; and was made ' 
a colonia with the Jus Itolicum by Antoninus | 
Pius. It was one of the earliest strongholds of 
the Christian faith ; the first place where the 
Christian name was used (Acts, xi., 26); the 
centre of missionary efturts in the Apostolic 
age ; and the see of one of the four chief bishops, 
who were called Patriarchs. Though far inferior 
to Alexandrea as a seat of learning, yet it 
derived some distmction in this respect m>m the 
teaching of libanius and other Sophists ; and 
its eminence in art is attests by the beautiful 
gems and medals still found among its ruins. 
It was destroyed by the Persian King Cbosro^s 
(A.I). 640), but rebuilt bv Justinian, who gave it 
ike new name ThdQp&h's (QeoviroXic), The 
aicient walls which still sun'ound the insignifi- 
cant modem town are probably those built 
tv Justinian. The name of Antiochia was 
also given to the surrounding district, t. e^ the 
northwestern part of Syria, which bordered 
upon Cilicia. — 2. A. ad MiSANDBUM ('A. rrpdg 
M.€udv6p(,n ruins near YeniKhehr\ a city of 
Caria, on the Masander, built by Antiochus I. 
Soter, on the site of the old city of Pythopolis. 
— 8. A- PisiDLs or AD PisiDiAM ('A. ULaiSia^ or 
n-pdc TlifftSl^), a considerable city on the borders 
of Phrygia Paroreios and Pisidia; built by 
colonists from Magnesia ; declared a free dty by 
the Romans after their victory over Antiochus 
the Qreat (B.C. 189); made a colony under 
Augustus, and called Ctesarea. It was celebra- 
ted for the worship and the great temple of 
Men Arcsus (M^ 'ApKoIof, the Phrygian Moon- 
god), which the Romans suppressed.—^. A. Mar- 
oilNA ('A. Mapyiav^ : now Meru Sfiah-Jehan /), a 
city in the Persian province of Margiana, on the 
River Mai^gus, founded by Alexander, and at 
first called Alexandrea ; destroyed by the bar^ 
barians, rebuilt by Antiodius I. Soter, and 
called Antiochia. It was beautifully situated, 
and was surrounded by a wall seventy stadia 
(about eight miles) in circuit Among the less 
important cities of the name were : (5.) A. ad 
Taurux in Conmia^'ene ; (6.) A. ad Cragum ; and 
7.) A. AD Ptraxuv, in Oilieia. The following 
Antiochs are better known by other names : A. 
AD SARUx(vti. Adana); a. Characsnes {vid. 
CuARAx) ; A. CallirrhoIe {vid Edxssa) ; A. ad 
HiPFUM {vid. Qadara) ; A. MioDONiiB {vid, Nni- 
Bia) ; in Cilicia {vid. Tarsus) ; in Caria or Lydia 
(vii. Trallis). 

A.NTiocHia ('Arr; vfOf ). 1. Kiug» of Hyrta, 
1. Soter (reigned B.C. 280-261), was'^he i<« 
of Seleucus I, the founder of tbe Syrian king 
dom of the Seleucidae. He niai-ricu his step 
mother Stratonlce, witli whom he fell violently 
in love, and whom his father surrendered to 
him. He fell in battle against the Gauls in 2G« 
— 2. Thxos (B.C. 261-246), son and succesaot 
of No. 1. The Milesians gave him his eumame 
of Theo9, because he delivered them from their 
tyrant, Timarchus. He carried on war witl; 
Ptolemy Pbiladelphus, King of Egypt, which 
was brought to a close by his putting away^ 
his wife Laodice, and marrying i^erenlce, th« 
daughter of Ptolemy. After the death of Ptole 
my, he recalled Iiaodice ; but ^ revenge for the 
insult she had received, she caused Antiochus 
and Berenice tr be murdered. During the rejgn 
of Antiochus, Arsaces founded the Parthian 
empire (26r'| and Theodotus established ao 
independent iringdom in Bactrio. He was sac 
ceeded by his son Seleucus Callinicus. His 
younger son Antiochus Hierax also assumed 
the crown, and ean-ied on war some years witL 
his brother. Vid, Seleucus IL — 3. The Grkai 
(B.C. 228-1871 second son of Seleucus Callini- 
cus, succeeded to the throne on the death of 
his brother Seleucus Ceraunus, when he was 
onlv in his fifteenth year. After defeating (220) 
Molon, satrap of Media, and his brother Alex- 
ander, satrap of Persis, who had attempted to 
make themselves independent he earned oc 
war against Ptolemy Philopator, king of Egypt 
in order to obtain Coele-Syria, Phcenicia, and 
Palestine, but was obliged to cede those prov- 
inces to Ptolemy, in consequence of his defent. 
at the battle of Raphia near Gaza, in 217. He 
next marched against Aclueus, who had revolted 
in Asia Minor, and whom he put to death, 
when he fell into his hands in 214. Vid, Ach-eus 
Shortly after this he was engaged for seven 
years (212-205) in an attempt to regain the 
eastern provinces of Asia, wluch had revolted 
during tne reign of Antiochus III.; but though 
ho met with great success, he found it hopeless 
to effect the subjugation of the Parthian and 
Bactrian kingdoms, and accordingly concluded 
a peace with them. In 206 he renewed his wtu 
against Egypt with more success, and in 198 
conquered Palestine and Coele-Syria, which he 
afterward gave as a dowry with his daughtei 
Cleopatra upon her marriage with Ptolemy 
Epiphanes. In 196 he crossed over into Europe, 
and took possession of the Thracian Cherso>)e<«e. 
This brought him mto contact with the 
Romans, who commanded him to restore the 
Chersonese to the Macedonian king; but bo 
refused to comply with their demand, in 
which resolution he was strengthered byHflD- 
nibal, who arrived at his court in 196 Hanni- 
bal urged him to invade Italy without loss of 
time ; but Antiochus did not follow hi^ advice, 
and it was not till 192 that ho crossed o\^;r into 
Greece. In 191 he wa defeated by the Itomans 
at Thermopylae, and compelled to return to 
Asia; his fleet was also vanquished in two 
engagements. In 190 he was again defeated by 
the Romans under L. Scipio at Mount Sipylus, 
near Magnesia, and compelled to sue for peace, 
which was granted in 188, on condition of hii 
ceding all his dominions eai»t of Mount Taunw 


psjnug ftAe«n thousand Euboic talcoU within 
cwelve yearly gi^u^ up his elephanta and ships 
of wnr, and suirendennsr the Roman enemies ; 
cot he aUofwed Hannibal to escape. In order 
to raiae the monej to pay the Ronians, he at- 
tacked a wealthj tcmpie'in ElymaJis, but was 
kalled by the people of the phice (ISH He waa 
foeeeeded br his |)oq Seleucus Philopator.-— 1. 
gpiFBAKB (RC. 175-164), son of Antiochua 
IXL» waa gireu in hostage to the Romans in 
188, and was released from captivity in 176 
throngfa his brother Seleucus Philopator, whom 
be succeeded in the same year. He carried on 
war against Egypt from 171-168 with great suc- 
cess in order to obtain Coele-Syria and Pales- 
tine, which had been given as a dowry with his 
aster, and he waa preparing to lay siege to 
Alezandrea in 168, when the Romans compelled 
him to retire. He endeavored to root out the 
Jewish religion and to introduce the worship 
of the Qreek divinities ; but this attempt led to 
a risiog of tbe Jewish people, under Mattathias 
and his heroic sons the Maccabees, which An- 
tiodius waa unable to put down. He attempt- 
ed to plunder a temple in Elymais in 164, but 
be was repulsed, and died shortly afterwaitl in 
a state of raving madness, which the Jews and 
G racks eaually attributed to his sacrilegious 
erimesw His anbjects gave him the name of 
Epimanet (" the madman'*) in parody of Epiph- 
n«t— 5. EcpATOB (B.C. 164-162), son and suc- 
eeasor of Epiphones, was nine years old at his 
htker*s death, and reigned under the guardian- 
Unp of Lysiaa. He was dethroned and put to 
ieatfa by Demetrius Soter, the son of Seleucus 
^Ulopator, who had hitherto lived at Rome as 
1 hoetage. — 6. Theos, son of Alexander Balaa. 
He was brought forward as a claimant to the 
Town in 144, against Demetrius Nicator by 
TVjphon, but he was murdered by the latter, 
who ascended the throne liimself in 142. — ^7. 
Bid£te8 (B.C. 187-128), so called from Side in 
Pamphyha, where he was brought up, younger 
CQQ of Demetrius Soter, succeeded Tryphon. 
He married Cleopatra, wife of his elder brother 
Demetrius Nicator, who waa a prisoner with 
the Partfaians. He carried on war against the 
ParthianB, at first with success, but was after- 
Tard defeated and slain in battle in 128.— 8. 
Grtpcs, or Hook-nosed (B.C. 125-96), second 
WQ of Demetrius Nicator and Cleopatra. Ho 
wasjplaced upon tlie throne in 126 by his moth- 
er Cleopatra^ who put to death his cider broth- 
er Seleucus, because she wished to have the 
Dover in her own hands. He poisoned his 
nother in 120, and subsequently carried on war 
or some time with his half-brother A. IX. 
Cyriocnua. At length, in 112, the two broth- 
m agreed to share the kingdom between them, 
^ Cyacenus having Ccele-Syria and Phoenicia, 
lodAOrypris the remainder of the provinces. 
Grypus was assassmated in 96. — 9. Cyzicenus, 
from Cyrieus, where he was brought up, son of 
A VI L Sidetcs and Cleopatra, reigned over 
Cctk^yria and Fheenicia ii-om 112 to 96, but 
kQ io battle in 95 against Seleucus Epiphanes, 
«o of A. VIIL Grypus.— 10. Eusebis, son of 
A IX. CyzicenuB, defeated Seleucus Epiph- 
UM, who had slain his fiither in battle, and 
<i>UQtained th^ Uhrone against the brothers of 
^•*«^» Ht^ sooeeedea his fathe- Autiochos 


IX. in 95.— 11. Epiphanes, son of A. VIII. Gry 
pus and brother of Seleucus Epiphanes, carried 
on war against A. X. Eusebes, but was defeat 
ed by the latter, and drowned in the River 
Orontes.— 12. Dionysds, brother of No. 11, held 
the cpown for a short time, but feU in battU 
against Aretas, king of the Arabians. The Syr- 
ians, worn out witih the civil broils of the Se 
leucidsB, offered the kingdom to Tigrancs, king 
of Armenia, who united Syria to his own domin 
ions b 83, and held it till his defeat by the Ro- 
mans in 69. — 13. AsJATicus, son of A. X. Eu- 
sebes, became King of Syria on the defeat of 
Ti^ranes by LucuUus in 69 ; but he was de- 
pnved of it in 65 by Pompey, who reduced Syria 
to a Roman province. In this year tlie Seleu- 
cidffi ceased to reiga 

IL King* of Ccmmagene, 

1. Made an alliance with the Romans about 
B.C. 64. He assisted Pompey with troops b 
49, and was attacked by Antony in 38. He was 
succeeded by Mithradates L, about 31. — 2. Suc- 
ceeded Mitmtulatcs I, and was put to death at 
Rome by Augustus in 29.^3. Succeeded Mith- 
radates IL, and died in A J). 17. Upon his 
death, Commagene became a Roman province, 
and remamed so till AJD. 88. — i, Sumamed 
Epiphanes, apparently a son of Antiochus III., 
received his paternal dominion from Caligula in 
A.D. 88. He was subsequentlv deposed by. 
Caligula, but regained his Kingdom on the ac- 
cession of Claudius in 41. He was a faithfui 
ally of the Romans, and assisted them in thcii 
wars against the Parthians imder Nero, and 
against the Jews under Vespasiaa At length, 
in 72, he was accused of conspiring with the 
Parthians against the Romans, was deprived of 
his kingdom, and retired to Rome, where he 
passed the remainder of his life. 

IIL Literary, 

1. Of Mqm in Cilicia, a Sophist, or, as he 
himself pretended to be, a Cynic philosopher. 
He flourished about AJ). 200, during the rcigit 
of Severus and Caracalla. During the war of 
Caracalla against the Parthians, he deserted to 
the Parthians together with Tiridates. He was 
one of the most distiiu^shed rhetoricians of 
his time, and also acqmred some reputation as 
a writer. — 2. Of Ascalcn, the founder of the 
fifth Academy, was a friend of Lucullus and the 
teacher of Cicero during his studies at Athens 
(B.C. 79); but he had a school at Alexandiia 
also, as well as in Syria, where he seems to 
have ended his Hfc. His principal teacher waa 
Philo, who succeeded Plato, Arcesilas, and Car- 
neades, as the founder of the fourth Academy. 
He is, however, better known as the adversary 
than the disciple of Philo ; and Cicero mentions 
a treatise called SonUt vmtten by him against 
his master, in which he refutes the skepticism 
of the Academics. — 3. Of SraAcusK, a Greek 
historian, lived about B.C, 428, and wrote his- 
tories of Sicily and Italy. [The fragments of 
his writings are collected in Muller*s Fragmenia 
Hist. QrcK^ vol i, p. 181-184.— 4. Of Alex 
ANDREA, author of a nistory of the comic poets 
of Greece.] 

AntISpb {^kvTt&KJi). 1. Daufjhter of Ny?teu 
and Polyxo, or a' the river-eod Asopus in fd^rfp 



liAf Ucame by Jupiter (Zeiu) the mother of 
Ajnphioa and Zethus. Vid Amphion. Bac- 
cshus (Dionysus) threw her into a state of mad- 
nesa on account of the vengeance which her 
eons had taken on Dirce. In this condition she 
wandered through Greece, untU Phoous, the 
grandson of Sisyphus, cured and married her. 
— 2. An Amazon, sister of Hippolyte, wife of 
Ilieseus, and mother of Hippolytus. 

ANTirXTER ('AvrtVaTpof). 1. The Macedoni- 
an, an officer greatly trusted by Philip and Alex- 
ander the Great, was left by tne latter regent in 
Macedonia, when he crossed oyer into Asia in 
B,C. 334. In consequence of dissensions be- 
tween Olympiad and Antipater, the latter was 
summoned to Asia in 824, and Craterus appoint- 
ed to the regency of Macedonia, but the death 
of Alexander in the following year prevented 
these arrangements from taking effect An- 
tipater now obtained Macedonia again, and in 
conjunction with Craterus, who was associated 
with him in the government, carried on war 
against the Greeks, who endeavored to establish 
theur independence. This war, usually called 
the Lamian war, from Lamia, where Antipater 
was besieged in 823, was terminated by Antip- 
ater*s victory over the confederates at Cran- 
Qon in 322. This was followed by the submis- 
sion of Athens and the death of Demosthenes. 
Id, 321 Antipater passed over iuto Asia in or- 
der to oppose Perdiccas; but the murder of 
PEaniccAS m Egypt put an end to this war, and 
left Antipater supreme regent. Antipater died 
b 819, after appointing Polysperchon recent, 
and his own son Cassandea to a subordmate 
pQsitioa — 2. Grandson of the preceding, and 
seeond son of Cassonder and Thessalonfca. 
After the death of his elder brother Philip IV. 
(B.C. 295), great dissensions ensued between 
Antipator and his younger brother Alexander 
for uie kingdom of Macedonia. Antipater, be- 
lieving that Alexander was favored by his moth- 
er, put her to death. The younger brother upon 
this applied for aid at once to Pyrrhus of Epirus 
and Demetrius Poliorcetes. The remaminj^ 
history is related differently ; but so much is 
certain, that both Antipater and Alexander were 
subsequently put to death, either by Demetri- 
us or at his instigation, and that Demetrius be- 
came King of Macedonia. — 3. Father of Herod 
the Great, son of a noble Idumsaan of the same 
name, espoused the cause of Hyrcanus ajg^aicst 
his brother Aristobulus. He ingratiated hmiself 
with the Romans, and in B.C. 47 was appointed by 
Ciesar procurator of Judaoa, which appointment 
he hela till his death in 43, when he was carried 
off by poison, which Malichus, whose life he had 
twice saved, bribed the cup-bearer of Hyrcanus 
to administer to him.-^. Eldest son of Herod 
the Great by his first wife, Doris, brought about 
lAe death of his two half-brothers, Alexander 
and Aristobulus, in B. G. 6, but was hunself con- 
Jemned as guilty of a conspiracy against his fa- 
ther's life, and was executed five days before 
Herod*s d<ath. — 5. Of Tarsus, a Stoic philoso- 
pher, the successor of Diogenes and the teach- 
•Tof Panffitius, about B.C. 144.— 6. Of Tpe, a 
Stoic philosopher, died shortly before B.C. 46, 
and wrote a work on Duties (JDe Officii».)—1, 
Of Sidon, the author of several epigrams in the 
Qrtt>k AjQthology, fluuiiAheH about KG. 108- 

100, and lived to a great age — 8. Of Theau. 
lonica, the author of' several ejiigrama in the 
Greek Anthology, lived in the latter part of the 
reign of Augustus. 

AnTipATEA, L. OjBiJfns, a Roman jurist an,l 
historian, and a contemporary of C. Oracchiu 
(B.C. 123) and L, Crassus, the orator, wrote A^ 
tuUes, which were epitomized by Brutua, vuil 
which contained a valuable account of the seo- 
ond Punic war. [The fragments of this worii 
have been published by Krause in hb XlUe ei 
Fragmenta vetertMi Bist Komaru BerUn, 183^ 
PL 182-201.] 

Antipatkia (M vrmaTpia : now Berat /), a 
town in Biyricum on the borders of Macedonia, 
on the left bank of llie Apsus. 

[Antipateis ('Air'Trarpif), a city of Judaea be 
tween Jerusalem and Cesarea, in a beautiful 
and fruitful plain : it was built on the site of an 
older town called Capharsaba, enlarged by Her 
od the Great, and naDted Antipairis in honor of 
his father Antipatei 1 

AmtiphInes ('Av ^vrig). I. A comic poet 
of the middle Attic comedy, bom about KG. 404, 
and died 330. He wrote 365, or at the least 
260 plays, which were distinguiabed by ele- 
gance of language. [The fragments of ]m 
plays are collected by Meineke in bis Frag- 
menta Comic. Orac.^ vol i, p. 491-674, edit 
minor.] — 2. Of Berga in Thrace, a Greek writ- 
er on marvelous and incredible tilings. — 3 An 
epigrammatic poet, several of whose epigrams 
are still extant in the Greek Anthology, livorl 
about the reign of Augustus. — [4. Of Argos, a 
■culptor, disciple of Polycletus, and teacher (f 
Cleoa — 5. A physician of Delos, who h'ved 
about the beginning of the second century AJ>.] 

ANTipHATES ('Avrt^anyf). 1, King of the 
mythical Lsestrygones in Sicily, who are repr^ 
sented as giants and cannibals. Tbey destroy 
ed eleven of the ships of Ulysses, who escaped 
with only one vessel — [2. Son of the diviner 
Melampus, and father of (Ecles, mentioned hi 
the Odyssey. — 3. A companion of i£neas, sou 
of Sarpiedon, slain by Tumus.] 

Antiphjellus ('Avr£0eAAof : now Aiitivhilo), 
a town on the coast of Lycia, between Fatara 
and AperlsB, originally the port of Puellus. 

Antiph£mus ('AvTi^^of), the Rhodian, found- 
er of GeU in Sicily, KG. 690. 

AimpHiLUs ('Avn^tAof). 1. Of Byxautium, 
an epigrammatic poet, author of several excel- 
lent epigrams in the Greek Anthology, was a 
contemporary of the Em^ror Nero. — 2. Of 
Egypt, a distinguished pamter, the rival of 
Apelles, painted for Philip and Alexander the 
Great — [3. An Athenian general in the Lami- 
an war, appointed in the phice of Leosthenes.] 

AntIphon i^kvri^Qvy 1. The most aDcieot 
of the ten orators in the Alexandrine canoe, 
was a son of Sophilus the Sophist, and bom at 
RhamnuB in AtUca, m B.C. 430. He belonged 
to the oligarchical party at Athens, and took an 
active part in the establishment of the govern- 
ment of the Four Hundred (B.C. 411), after tb) 
overthrow of which he was brought to trial, 
condemned, and put to death. The oratorical 
powers of AntiplM>n are highly praised by thf 
ancients. He mtroduced great improvements 
in public speaking, and was the first who laid 
down theoretical lawn for^jraotical i^loqutnce 
igitizedby VjOOQI^ 



tt ope&nd 8 tcbool in which he taught rhetoric, 
cd the hiBtorisn Thuejdtdes is said to have 
UvQ one of Iiit popik* The orations trhich he 
P^apoeed irere vritten for others; and the 
sIy time fbat he spoke in public liimself was 
w)xsk h« was aeenaed and condemned to death, 
nia speeehp which -was considered in antiqoi- 
rr ft msster-piece of eloquence, is now lost 
tThce, Tiii, 68 ; CSc, Srvt^ 12.) We still tx»- 
jesa nfteeo oratioDS of Antiphon, three of which 
Ttfe writttB by him for others, and the remain- 
]lz twelTe as specimens for his school, or ez- 
enb«s on fiditioos cases. Thej are printed 
a the eoBedsoDS of the Attic orators, and sep- 
inUfy, edited by Baiter and Sauppe, Zilrich, 
!?:]», sDd XatzDer, Berlin, 1888. — 2. A tragic 
prct whom many wnters confound with Uie 
A:tie orator, lired at Syracuse, at the court of 
Hbe Met IKofDysiiiB, by whom he was put to 
lisadL— 3. Of Athtiua, a Sophist and an epic 
^ wrote a work on the interpretation of 
ceuns, which ia referred to by Cicero and 
othera. He is the same person as the Anti* 
pboQ who was an opponent of Socrates. (Xen., 
Mm., U 6-)— [4w lie youngest brother of Pla- 
bMoeotiooed m tbe Parmenides. — 5. An Athe- 
tBo^vho was arrested for faToring the cause 
«l Mscedooia, at the instigation of Demostbe- 
ks, lad pot to death. 

[AjniPHdsnjs ('Avr/i^oc), one of the sons of 
Ptkm, aecompanied his &ther when he went 
to solicit the body of Hector from Achilles.] 
[Aym*HajB ('Avrt^pa and *Avri^pai\ a city of 
Am, in the Libyan nome, at some distance 
IrtBi tbe sea: it was here that the common 
librao wine was made, which formed the drink 
^&ekiw» orders at Alezandrea] 

Ajtiphcb ('Avr£^)L 1. Son of Priam and 
Heeoba, shun by Agamemnon. — 2. Son of Thes- 
b1«, ud one of the Greek heroes at Troy. — 
[1 Sod of Pyliemenes and the nymph Gygiea, 
iflf of the Trojans, joint leader with his brother 
Mottdes of the Maeonians from Mount Tmolus. 
— L Sob of j£^[yptius of Ithaca, a companion of 
riTise* in his wanderings ; devoured oy Poly- 
]wmB&.— 5. Another Ithacan, a friend of Te- 

Axtip^Ilis ('Avr/iroA/f : now Antihes, pro- 
so^swed by the inhabitants AntiboufS, a town in 
GaDia KBrboDeosis on the coast, in tne territory 
'< tbe Deeiates, a few miles west of Nicaea, was 
^1^0)^ by Massilia : the mtmo, or salt pickle 
Bade of &h, prepared at this town, was very 

AiraarfcM ('AvrtftJeov : now Cattello di Ro- 
•^), a promontoiy on the borders of ^Etolia 
ffld Uwris, opposite Rhium (now Castello di Mo- 
nt\ m Aehaia, with which it formed the nar- 
•'ow eotraoce of the Corinthian Gulf : the straits 
»»iin«fimes called the lAttU Dardanelles, 
,^Ti8aA {'ApTi<r<Ta : 'Avrtaffoioc : now Kalat 
^•fONoi), a town in Lesbos with a harbor, 
"1 the wertem coast between Methymna and 
^promontory Sigrium, was originally on a 
Bm iBbiDd opposite Lesbos, which was after- 
»»i united with Lesbos. [It was the birth- 
^ << tbe poet Terpander.J It was destroy- 
^ by tbe Romans, B.G. 168, and ite inhabitants 
f^n^Ted to Methymna, because thev had as- 
A'TTsmiKEs {'AvrtoBivi!^). 1. An Athenian, 

founder of the sect of the Cyntc phtlosophoji 
His mother was a Thracian. In his jouth h# 
fought at Tanagra (B.C. 426), and was a disci- 
ple first of Gorgias, and then of Socrates, whom 
ne never quitted, and at whose death he wai 
present He died at Athens, at the age of sev- 
^ity. He taught in the Cynosarges, a gymnsi 
sium for the use of Athenians l^m of £»reigB 
mothers; whence probably his followers were 
called Gallics (kwikoT), though others derive 
their name from the dog-like neglect of all 
forms and usages of society. His writings 
were very numerous, and chiefly dialogues ; his 
style was pure and elegant; and he possessed 
considerable powers of wit and sarcasm. Two 
declamations of his are preserved, named Ajax 
and Ulysses, which are purely rhetoricid. He 
was an enexny to all speculation, and thus was 
opposed to Plato, whom he attacked furiously 
in one of his dialogues. His philoeopical sys- 
tem was cobfined almost entirely to ethics, and 
he taught that virtue is the sole thing necessa- 
ry. He showed his contempt of all the luxuries 
and outward comfortb of hfe by his mean cloth- 
ing and hard fare. From his school ^e Stoics 
subsequently sprung. In one of his works en- 
titled Phyncits^ he contended for the unity of 
the Deity. fCic, De Nat. JDeor^ i., 18.) TThe 
fragments of his writings have been ooUectr 
ed and published by Winckelmann, ArUittheni 
Fragmenta, Turici, 1842. — 2. Gf Rhodes, a 
Greek historian, who flourished about 200 RG 
He wrote a history of his own times, which 
has perished.] 

AntistIus, p., tribune of the plebs, B.C. 88 
a distinguished orator, supported the party of 
Sulla, and was put to deam by order of young 
Marius in 82. His daughter Antistia was mar 
ried to Pompeius Magnus. 

AntistIus Labeo. Vid Labko. 

AimsTfus Vftus. Vid Vbtus. 

ANTiTAuaus (*AvTLTavpoc : now AU-JDagh), a 
chain of mountains, which strikes off northeast 
from the mair chain of the Taurus on the south- 
ern border of Gappadocia, in the centre of which 
district it turns to the east and runs parallel to 
the Taurus as far as the Euphrates, Its aver- 
age height exceeds that of the Taurus; and 
one of its summits. Mount Argffius, near Ma- 
zaca, is the loftiest mountain of Asia Minor. 

Antium (Antias : now Tofre or Porto d'Anzo), 
a very ancient town of Latium. on a rocky prom- 
ontory running out some distance into the Tyr- 
rhenian Sea. It was founded by TyrrbeDians 
and Pelasgians, and in earlier and even lator 
times was noted for its piracy. Although unit- 
ed by Tarquinius Superbus to the Latin League, 
it generally sided with the Volscians agams^ 
Rome. It was taken by the Romans in B.C 
468, and a colony was sent thither, but it revoVv 
ed, was taken a second time by the Itomans in 
RC. tS8t was deprived of all its ships, the beaks 
of which (fiotira) served to ornament the plat- 
form of the speakers in the Roman forum, wiM 
forbidden to have any ships in future, and re- 
ceived another Roman colony. But it gradu- 
ally recovered its former importance, was aUow 
ed in course of time again to be used as a sea 
port, and in the latter times of the republic and 
under the empire, became a favor'te residrncs 
of many of tne Roman nobles and eraperofKYlp 

6Q O 



rbt En.pcror Xero was bom here, and in the 
.^mniDB of bis palace the celebrated Apollo Bel- 
vedere was found. Antium possessed a cele- 
Drated temple of FoHune {O xHva, graJtum gitat 
rtgia Antiunu, Hov^ Oarm^ L, 86), of iEscula- 
pius, and at the port of Ceno, a little to the east 
of Antium, a temple of Neptune, on which ac- 
count the place is now called Nettuno. 

ANrf ra KEsria Vid. Rssna 

AntOnia. 1. Major^ elder daughter of M. 
Antonius and Octavia, wife of h. Domitius 
Ahenobarbus, and mother of Cn. Domitius, the 
father of the Emperor Nero. Tacitus calls 
this Antonia the younger daughter. — 2. Minor, 
younger sister of the preceding, wife of Drusus, 
the brother of the Emperor Tiberius, and mother 
of Qermanicus, the father of the Emperor Calig- 
ula, of Liyia or Livilla, and of the Emperor Clau- 
dius. She died A.D. 3S, soon after the acces- 
sion of her grandson Caligula. She was cele- 
brated for her beauty, TU'tue, and chastity. — 
8. Daughter of the Emperor Claudius, married 
first to Pompeius Magnus, and afterward to 
Faustus Sulla. Nero wished to marry her after 
the death of his wife Poppsea, AJ). 66 ; and on 
her refusal he caused her to be put to death on 
a charge of treason. 

AntOnIa TuKEifi, a castle on a rock at the 
northwest comer of the temple at Jerusalem, 
which commanded both the temple and the city. 
It was at first (»illed Baris : Herod the Great 
changed its name in honor of Marcus Antonius. 
It contained the residence of the Procurator 

AftTdMfNi InNERAaluM, the title of an extant 
work, which is a very valuable itinerary of the 
whole Roman empire, in which both the prin- 
cipal and the cross-roads are described by a list 
of all the places and stations upon them, the 
distances from place to place being ffiven in 
Roman miles. It is usually attributed to the 
Emj>eror Marcus Aurelius Antonius, but it ap- 
'tiears to have been commtenced by order of 
/ulius Caesar, and to have been completed in the 
reign of Augustus, though it is probable that 
it received unportant additions and revision 
under one or both of the Antonines. — EtUtions : 
By Wesseling, Amst, 1786; by Parthey and 
Pinder, Berh'n, 1848. 


a city of Mesopotamia, between Edessa and 
Dara, afterward Maximianapolis, and afterward 

AirrONiNUS, M. AvBKiius. Vid. Aurelius, M. 

AntOmInus Pius, Roman emperor, A.D. 138- 
161. His name in the early part of bis life, at 
full length, was !ntus Aurditu Fuiviu Boionitu 
Arrius Antoninus, His paternal ancestors came 
from Nemau8us(now Nitmei) in Gaul; but An- 
toninus himself was bora near Lonuvium, Sep- 
tember 19th, A.D. 86. From an early age he 
gave promise of his future worth. In 120 he 
was consul, and subsequently proconsul of the 
province of Asia: on nis return to Rome, he 
lived on terms of the ^eatest intimacy with 
Hadrian, who adopted lum on February 26th, 
188. Henceforward be bore the name of T, 
.ASliut Hadriantu Antonintu Ccsaar^ and on the 
death of Hadrian, July 2d, 1 38, he ascended the 
throne. Tlie Senate conferred upon him ihe 
^He of Piu8, or the dutifully affeclionattf because 

he persuaded them to grant to his fcth-jr In- 
drian the apotheosis and the other honors uaual 
ly paid to deceased emperorsy T.^iich they bau: 
at first refused to bestow upon Hadriao. The 
reign of Antoninus is almost a blank in history 
— a blank caused by the suspension for a time 
of war, violence, and crime. He 'waa one of 
the best princes that ever mounted a throne, 
and all his thoughts and enei^g^oH ^eie dcdi 
cated to the happiness of his people. No at 
tempt was made to achieve new conquests, and 
vanous insurrections among the OermaDfl^ Da- 
dans, Jews, Moors, .^£gyptian% and Britons, 
were easily quelled by his legates. In all th« 
relations of private life the diaracter of Anto- 
ninus was without reproach. He was faithful 
to his wife Faustina, notwithstanding her profli- 
gate life, and after her death loaded her memory 
with honors He died at Lorium, March 'itii, 
161, in his seventy-fifth year. He was suc- 
ceeded by Marcus Aurelius, whom he had adopt- 
ed, when he himself was adopted by Hadrian, 
and to whom he gave his daughter Favstisa 
in marriage. 

AirrdNiNus Liberaus, a Greek grrammarian, 
probably lived in the reign of the Antonines, 
about AJ). 14'/, and wrote a work on Meta 
morphoses {^erafiopt^aeinf awaycj-yy) in forty 
one chapters, which is extant — Editions: By 
Verheyk, Luffd. Bat, 1774 ; by Koch, Lips, 
1832; by Westermann, in bis My*hographi. 
Brunsv., 1843. 

AktOnius. 1. M., the orator, bom B.C, 143 ; 
qusBstorin 113; praetor in 104, when ho fought 
against the pirates in Cilicia ; consul in 99 ; and 
censor in 97. He belonged to Sulla's party, and 
was put to death by Marius and Cmna whec 
they entered Rome in 87 : his head waa cut off 
and placed on the Rostra. Cicero mentions 
him and L. Crassus as the most distinguished 
orators of their age; and he is introduced sis 
one of the speakers in Cicero's De Oratorej~-2. 
M., sumamed CaETicus, elder son of the orator, 
and father of tiic triumvir, was praetor io 76, 
and received the command of the fleet and all 
the coasts of the Mediterranean, in order to dear 
the sea of pirates; but he did not succeed io 
his object^ and used his power to plunder the 
provinces. He died shortly afterward in Crete, 
and was called Creticua in derisioa — 3. C., 
younger son of the orator, and uncle of the tri- 
umvir, was expelled the Senate in 70, and was 
the colleague of Cicero in the praetorship (65) 
and consulship (63). He was one of Catiline's 
conspirators, but deserted the latter by Cicero's 
promising him the province of Macedonia. He 
had to lead an army against Catiline, ^'. % un- 
willing to fight aeainst his former frieod. be 
gave the command on the day of battie to his 
legate, M. Petreius. At the conclusion of the 
war, Antony went into his province, which he 
plundered shamefully; and on his return to 
Kome in 59, waa accused both of taking part n 
Catiline's conspiracy and of extortion in his 
province. He was defended by Cicero, but wa§ 
condemned, and retired to the island of Cepbal 
lenia. He was subsequentiy recalled, probably 
by Caesar, and was in Rome at the beginning of 
44.-4. M., the TaiUMvia, was son of Ko. 8, and 
Julia, the sister of L. Julius Caesar, consul ic 
64, and was bom about gS^Bil His fatho 
igitized by VjOC 



jmm) w}ule he «ras still young, anJ he was 
b w Hi^h t np by Cornelias Lcntulus, wh> married 
bis mother Jolia, and who was put to death by 
Cieero in 6S as one of Catiline's conspirators ; 
whence he became a personal enemy oi Cicero. 
Antony indulged in his earliest youth in every 
Idod of diaeipatioii, and his affidrs soon became 
deeply involved. In 58 be went to Syria, where 
he served with distinction under A. Gabinius. 
He took part in the campaigns against Aristo- 
bulos in Pklestine (57, 56), and in the restora- 
tkn of Ptolemy Auletes to E^ypt in 55. In 54 
be went to Gsesar in Gaul, aixi oy the influence 
of the latter waa elected qusstor. As quaestor 
(52) he returned to Gaul, and served under 
Ossar for the next two years (52, 51). He re- 
turned to Rome in 50, and became one of the 
most active partisans of Caesar. He was trib- 
une of the piebs in 49, and in Januaiy fled to 
Caesar's camp in Cisalpine (}aul, alter putting 
Us veto upon the decree of the Senate which 
deprived CsBsar of his command. He accom- 
panied Caesar in his victorious march into Italy, 
and was left by Caesar in the conmiand of Italj, 
while &e latter carried on the war in Spam. 
In 48 Antony was present at the battle of Phar- 
alia, where he commanded the left wing; and 
In 47 he was again left in the command of Italy 
daring Caesar's absence in Africa. In 44 he was 
ooqsqI with Caesar, when he offered him the 
Tkingly diadem at the festival of the Lujpercalia. 
AlUr CsDsar's murder on the 15th of^ March, 
Antony endeavored to succeed to his power. 
He tfalerefore used every means to appear as 
his representative; he pronounced the speech 
over Cssar^s body, and read his wiU to the peo- 
ple; and he also obtained the papers and private 
property of Caesar. But he found a new and un- 
expected rival in youDg Octavianus, the adopted 
son and great-nephew of the dictator, who came 
from ApoUonia to Rome, assumed the name 
>f Caesar, and at first Joined the Senate in 
irder to crush Antony. Toward the end of the 
rear Antony proceeded to Cisalpine Gaul, which 
Lad heen previously granted him by the Senate ; 
bat Dec Brutus refused to surrender the pro- 
rixM» to Antony and threw himself into Mutma, 
viieTe he was besieged by Antony. The Senate 
E^^HToved of the conduct of Brutus, declared 
AntcRiy a public enem^, and intrusted the con- 
duct of the war agamst him to Octavianus. 
Antony was defeated at the battle of Mutina, in 
April, 43, and was obliged to cross the Alps. 
Both the consuls, however, had fallen, and tne 
Senate now began to show their jealousy of 
Oct&vianuA. Meantime Antony was joined by 
Lepidus with a powerful army : Octavianus be- 
came reconciled to Antony ; and it was agreed 
that the government of the state should be 
rested in Antony, Octavianus, and Lepidus, under 
th; title of IHumviri Beipubliea ConstituendiSj 
loc the next five years. The mutual friends 
of each were proscribed, and in the numerous 
ezecutioQs that followed, Cicero, who had at- 
tacked Antony in the most unmeasured manner 
b his PkUippU Oraiioru, fell a victim to An- 
tony. In 42, Antony and Octavianus Crushed 
tlie republican party by the battle of Philippi, 
n which Brutus and Cassius fell Antony then 
vent to Asia, which he had received as his 
■tiare of the Roman world. In Cilicia be met 

vith Cleopatra, and followed her lo Es^pi, a 
captive to her charms. In 41 Fulvia, the wife 
of Antony, and his brother L. Antonius, mads 
war upon Octavianus in Italy. Antony pre 
pared to support his relatives, but the war 
was brought to a close at the beginning of 40, 
before Antony could reach Italy. The oppor- 
tune death of Fulvia facilitated the reca^iliation 
of Antony and Octavianus, which was ocmented 
by Antony marrying Octavia, the sister of Octa- 
vianus. Antony remained in Ital^ tiU 80, when 
the triumvirs concluded a peace with Sext Pom 
pey. and he afterward went to his provinces 
m the East In this year and the following, 
Ventidius, the lieutenant of Antony, defeated the 
Parthians. In 87 Antony crossed over to Italy, 
when the triumvirate was renewed for five years. 
He then returned to the East, and shortly after- 
ward sent Octavia back to her brother, and 
surrendered himself entirely to the charms of 
Cleopatra. In 86 he invaaed Parthia, but he 
lost a great number of his troops, and was 
obliged to retreat He was more successful 
in ms invasion of Armenia in 84, for he obtained 
possession of the person of Artavasdes, the 
Armenian king, and carried him to Alexandrea 
Antony now laid aside entirely the charaAtei 
of a Roman citizen, and assumed the pomp 
and ceremony of an eastern despot His con- 
duct, and the unbounded influence which Cleo 
patra had acquired over him, alienated many of 
his friends and supporters; and Octavianus 
thought that the time had now come for crush 
ing his rival The contest was decided by the 
memorable sea-fight off Actium, September 2d, 
81, in which Antony's fleet was completely 
defeated. Antony, accompanied by Cleopatra, 
fled to Alexandrea, where he put an end to h's 
own life in the following year (30), when Octavi- 
anus appeared before the city. — 5. O, brother of 
the triumvir, was proetor in Macedonia, B.C. 44, 
fell into the hands of Marcus Brutus in 43, and 
was put to death by Brutus in 42, to revenge 
the murder of Cicero. — 6. L., youngest brother 
of the triumvir, was consul in 41, when he 
engaged in war against Octavianus at the insti- 
gation of Fulvia, his brother's wife. He was 
unable to resist Octavianus, and threw himself 
into the town of Perusia, which he was obliged 
to surrender in the following year; hence the 
war is usually called that of Perusia. His life 
was spared, and he was afterwards appomted by 
Octavianus to the command of Ibena. Cicero 
draws a frightful picture of Lucius's character. 
He calls him a gladiator and a robber, and heaps 
upon him every term of reproach and contempt 
Much of this is of course exaggeration. — 7. M^ 
called by the Greek writers Antyllua, which is 
probably only a corrupt foi^a of Antonillui 
(young Antonius), elder son of the triumvir by 
Fulvia, was executed by order of Octavianus, 
after the death of his father in B.C. 30.-6. lu- 
Lus, younger son of the triumvir by Fulvia, wai 
brought up by his step-mother Octavia at Rome 
and received great marks of favor from Augui 
tus. He was consul in B.C. 10, but was put t» 
death in 2, in consequence of his adulterous inter 
CDurse with Julia, the daughter of Augtutoa 

AntCnIus Felix. FiVT F.«lix. 

AntonIus Muba. n<i M fSA. 

A.vrO.vIua PuDfus, Vtd. Pi ™^500qIc 



AMTBi>5 {*AvTp6v and ol 'Avrpuvec: 'Ktrpu- 
b'lof : DOW Fayio), a town in Phthiotis in Tbes- 
•oly, at th« entrance of th«i Sinus Maliiieua. 

Amtunna^dm \po\r Andcnimch\ a town of Use 
(Jbii on tbe RhiLe. 

Am^^bis ('Avou^tf), an Egyptian divinity, wor^ 
shipped in tbe form of a buman being with a 
dog^s bead. He was originally worshipped sim- 
ply as tbe representative of the dog. which ani- 
mal, like the cat, was saored in Egypt ; but his 
worship was subsequently mixed up with other 
religious systems, and Anubis thus assumed a 
symbolical or astronomical character, at least 
with the leai-ned His worship prevailed through- 
out Egypt, but he was most nonored at Cynopo> 
Hs in Middle Egypt Later myths relate that 
Anubis was the son of Osiris and Nephthys, 
bom after the death of his father ; and tnat Isis 
brought him up, and made him her guard and 
eompanion, who thus performed to her the same 
service that dogs pei*form to men. In tlie tem- 
ples of Egypt Anubis seems to have been rep- 
resented as the guard of other gods, and tlie 
place in the front of a temple was pai-ticulorly 
saored to him. The Greeks identified him with 
their own Hermes, and thus speak of Hermanu- 
bis in tbe same manner as of Zeus Ammon. 
His worship was introduced at Rome toward 
the end of the tepublie, and, under the empire, 
spread very widely )x)th in Greece and at Rome. 

Anxur. Vid. Tarracina. 

[Amxur, an ally of Tumus in Italy, wounded 
oy iEneas.] 

ANxtraus, an Italian divinity, who was wor- 
hipped in a grove near Anxm* (Tarracina), to- 
getoer with Feronia. He was regarded as a 
youthful Jupiter, and Feronia as Juno. On 
oiUDs his name appears as Axur or Anxur. 

Akysis ('Awatf), an ancient king of Egypt, 
iji whose reign f^ypt was invaded by the ^thi- 
upians under their king, Sabaco. 

Anyte ('AviJrj?), of Tegea, the authoress of 
several epigrams m the Greek Anthology, flour- 
ished about B.C. 300, [a date which some writ- 
ers, on mere conjecture, have changed to 700 
B.C.] The epigrams are for the most part in 
the style of the ancient Doric choral sones. 

ANifTUS ("Avwrcf), a wealthy Athenian, son 
of Anthemion, the most influential and formida- 
ble of the accusers of Socrates, B.C. 899 (hence 
Socrates is called Anyti reuB, Hor., Sat. ii^ 4, 
81 He was a leading man of the democratic- 
al party, and took an active part along with 
Thrasybulus, m the overthrow of the Thirty 
Tyrants. The Athenians, having repented of 
their condemnation of Socrates, sent Anytus into 

[AcKDE {^KoiSij), one of the three oldest Muses, 
whose worship was introduced mto Bceotia by 
the Aloidae.] 

AOn ('Acjv), son of Neptune, and an ancient 
Boeotian hero, frum whom the Aones, an ancient 
race iu Iksotia, were believed to have derived 
their name. A6n\a was the name of tbe part 
of BcBotia near Phocis, in which were Mount 
Helicon and the fountain Aganippe (Aonia aquca, 
Ov., Fasi^ iil, 456). The Muses are also called 
Aonidety since they frequented Helicon and the 
fountain of Aganippe. (Ov., Met.^ v., 333.) 

AdNinxs. Vii Aon. 

f AoRNOS ('Ao/j* 9fi a city of Baot la, next to 


Bactra in importance, having a strong and loft* 
citadel, but taken by Alexauder tbo Great 
Wilson regards the name as of Sauscrit urigip 
(from Aviarana\ and meaning '* an inc/usure" 
or " stockade,^ — 2. A mountain fiistuesa of lodik. 
on this side of the Indus, between the Copbefl 
and Indus, to which the inhabitauts of Baxin 
fled from before Alexander.] 

AoRsi {'Aopaoi) or AnoRSi, a powerful people 
of Asiatic Sarmatia, who appear to have haJ 
their original settlements on tlie northeast of 
the Caspian, but are chiefly found between the 
Pal us Mffiotis (now Sea of Azof) and the Cas- 
pian, to the southeast of the Biver Tanais (now 
Don\ whence they spread fur into Kuropean Sar- 
matia. They carried on a considerable traffic 
in Babylonian merchandise, whicli they fetched 
on camels out of Media and Armenia. 

Ados or .^Ias ('A^oc or A2ar: now Viofo^ 
VivMa or VcmuMa\ tiie principal riyer of the 
Greek part of lUyricum, nses in Mount Lacmon, 
the northern part of Piodus, and flows into the 
Ionian Sea near ApoUonia. 

[Apama ('ATTUjua or 'ATo/ij?), wife of Seleucuff 
Nicator, and mother of Antiochus Soter.] 

Apam£a or-iA {'kxu/ieia : ^A-rcofuevc^ Apam^ua, 
-Snus, -enais), the name of seveml Asiatic citie% 
three of which were founded by Seleueus L Ni- 
cator, and named in honor of his wife Apama 1. 
A. AD Orontxm (now Famiah), the capital of the 
Syrian province Apamene, and, under the Bo* 
mans, of Syria Secundu, was built by Stsleueus 
Nicator on the site of the older city of Pxlla 
in a very strong position on the River Orontea 
or Axiua, tbe citadel being on the left (west) 
bank of the river, and the city on the right It 
was surrounded by rich pastures, iu which Se- 
leueus kept a splendid stud of horses and five 
hundred elephants. — 2. In Osroxne in Mesopo- 
tamia (now Bala8ir\ a town built by Seleueus 
Nicator on tbe east bank of tbe Euphrates, op- 
posite to Zeugma, with which it was comiected 
by a bridge, commanded by a castle, called Se 
leucia In Pliny's time (AD. 77) it was oulj 
a ruin. — 3. A CibOtus or ad Mjea.vdrum ('A. i 
KiBuTog, or TTpdf M.alavdpov)f a great city of 
Phrygia, on the Msander, close above its con- 
fluence with the Marsyas. It was built by An- 
tiochus I. Soter, who named it in honor of hir 
mother Anama, and peopled it w^th the inhabit- 
ants of tne neighboring Celsn e. It became 
one of the greatest cities of Asia within the 
Euphrates ; and, under the Romnns, it was the 
seat of a Conventus Juridicus. The surround- 
ing country, watered by the Meander and its 
tributaries, was called ApamSna Regio. — i. A 
Mtrlko.v, in Bithynia. Vid. Mvrlea. — 6. A 
town built by Antiochus Soter, in the district 
cf Assyria called Sittacene, at the juuction of 
the Tigris with the Royal Canal which connect 
ed the Tigris with the Euphrates, and at th« 
northern extremity of the island called Mcsou^ 
which was formed by this canal and tbe twc 
rivers. — 6. A Mesxnes (now Koma), in Baby- 
lonia, at the south pomt of the same Ishiod ol 
Mesene, and at the junction of the Tigris anq 
Euphrates. — 7. A Rhaoiaka ('A. v iwdg 'Pa- 
yaii), a Greek c'ty in the district of Cboarens 
m Parthia (formerly in Media), south of the 
Caspian Gates. 

[ArxLLA, a very oomiroa-4)am^ tZ-Roniak 



fr««dnM:. the Jews id Rome, mostly fi'eedmen, 
Jvelt on the further side of the Tiber, and were 
regarded aa snperetitiotts ; hence AjoeUa came to 
be need prorerbiAlij for a superstitious person. 
l<>edat JvdoHU ApeUa, Hor., 8at^ I, 5, 10().)1 

Apelleb {'Azei^c), the most celebrated of 
Qrocian painters, was bom, most probabljr, at 
Colophon in looia, though some ancient writers 
call mm a Coan, and others an Epbesiaa He 
was the contemporary and friend of Alexander 
Ihe Great (RC. 336-828), whom he pmbably 
leoompanied to Ama, and who entertained so 
high an opinion of 1dm, that he was the only 
person whom Alexander would permit to take 
\at portrut After Alexander's death he ap- 
pears to hare trarelled thi^oufi^h the western 
parts of Asia. Being driven by a storm to 
Alexandrea, after the assumption of the regal 
title br Ptolemy (RC. 806), whose favor he had 
not gamed while he was with Alexander, his 
rivals laid a plot to ruin him, which he defeated 
by an ingemous use of his skill in drawing. We 
are not toM when or where he died, "nirough- 
oot his life Apelles labored to improve himself 
espedally in arawm^, which he never spent a 
day without practicing. Hence the proverb 
KtiUa diet tine linea, A list of his works is 
given by PBot (xxxv., 86). They are for the 
awst part single figures, or groups of a very few 
figures. Of his portraits the most celebrated 
vas that of Alexander wielding a thunderbolt ; 
but the most admired of all his pictures was the 
'Venus Anadyomene** (7 avadvofievij 'A^podtn?), 
or Venus riaog out of the sea. The goddess 
Yia wringing her hair, and the fSsJling drops of 
Tster formed a transparent silver veil around 
her fonn. He commenced another picture of 
Venus, vriiich he intended should surpass the 
Veoiu Anadyomenc, but which he left unfinished 
it his death. 

ArzLLicoiT {*A7r€XXtK<2v\ of Teos, a Peripa- 
tetic philosopher and great collector of books. 
His Taluable library at Athens, containing the 
autographs of Aristotle's works, was carried to 
Rome by Sulla (B.C. 88) : Apellioon had died 
jort before. 

ApEJisDirB MoNS {6 'Airewtvof and rd *Airtv- 
vipw hpo^y probably from the Celtic Pen, *a 
height'*), the Apennines, a chain of mountains 
wh^h runs throughout Italy from north to south, 
and forms the backbone of the peninsula. It is a 
eoDtiDQation of the Maritime Alps {vid. Alpes), 
beans near Genua, and ends at the Sicilian Sea, 
and throughout its whole course sends off nu- 
merous branches in all directions. It rises to 
its greatest height in the country of the Sabincs, 
who^ one of its points (now Monte Como) is 
9521 feet above the sea ; and further south, at 
the boundaries of Samnium, Apulia, and Lu- 
caoia, it divides into two main branches, one 
of which rune east through Apulia and Calabria, 
&nd terminates at the Salentine promontory, 
ukI the other west, through BrutUum, termina- 
*JQg apparently at Rhegium and the Straits of 
Mesana, but in reality continued -throughout 
Sdly. The greater part of the Apennines is 
e^Roposed of limestone, abounding in numerous 
eaveniB and recesses, which, in ancieut as well 
» modem times, were tlie resort 5f numerous 
^>bber8: the highest points of the mountains 
tfa <H>Ti«-ed with snow, even during most of the 

summer (niv<di vertiee te attoliiiu Apenmr, m9, 
Virg., -4^, xii., 708). 

Apse, M., a Roman orator and a native of 
Gaul, rose by his eloquence to the rank of quaaa- 
tor, tribune, and praetor, successively. He is om 
of the speakers m the Dialogue JJe OratoribiUMt 
attributed to Tacitus. 

Apkb, Aaafus, prietorian prefect, and son-in- 
law of the Emperor Numenan, whom he waa 
said to have murdered : he was himself put to 
death by Diocletian on his accession in A.D. 284. 

APERAnriA, a town and district of iEtolia near 
the Achelous, inhabited by the Aperantil 

[Apeii5pia {*Aweponia : now bhoko or BeUo 
Poulo\ a small isUind in the Argolic Gul^ near 

AfSsas CA-nioiiQ: now Fukaf\ a moimtain 
on the borders of Phliasia and Arffolis, with a 
temple of Jupiter (Zeus), who was hence called 
AMantittSf and to whom Perseus here first sao- 

AphIoa (tA 'A^flMco : now Afkai\ a town of 
Code-Syria, between Heliopolis and Byblus 
celebrated for the worship and oracle of Venus 
(Aphrodite) Aphacitis ('A^oKtrif ). 

Afhareus ('A^apevf), son of the Messeniau 
king Perieres and Gorgophone, and founder of 
the town of Arene in Messeuia, which he called 
after his wife. His two sons, Idas and Lynceus, 
the AphareHda {ApharHa proles^ Ov., Met^ viii^ 
804), are celebrated for their fight with the Dios- 
curi, which is described by Kndar. {Nem^ x, 
111.)— [2. Son of Caletor, slain by ^neas before 
Troy. — 3. A centaur, whose arm was crushed 
by Theseus with the trunk of an oak at the nup* 
tials of PirithoiSs.]— 4w An Athenian orator and 
tragic poet, flourished B.C. 369-342. After the 
death of his father, his mother married the ora- 
tor Isocrates, who adopted Aphareus as his son. 
He wrote thirty-five or thirty-seven tragedies, 
and gained four prizes. 

APHiTiB CA^h-cu and 'A^cra^ • 'A^cratof : 
[now Fetiof\), a sea-port and promontory of 
Thessaly, at the entrance of the Sinus Malia 
cus, from which the ship Argo is said to have 

Aph!oas ('A^eaJaf), son of Areas, obtained 
from his father Tegea and the surrounding ter- 
ritory. He had a son, Aleus. — [2. Son of Poly- 
pemon, for whom Ulysses, on his return to Itha- 
ca, passed himself off to EumaBus. — 8. A een 
taur, slain by Theseus at the nuptials of Piri 

APHroNA {'A^iSva and 'Atpidvai : *A(fndvalo^)f 
an Attic demus not hr from Decelea, originally 
belonged to the tribe iEantis, afterward to Leon 
tis, and last to Hadrianis. It was in ancient 
times one of the twelve towns and districts mto 
which Cecrops is said to have divided Attica, 
in it Theseus concealed Helen, but hei ciruthers. 
Castor and Pollux, took the place and rescued 
their sister. 

[Aphidnus, one of the companions of JEneaa, 
slam by Tumus.] 

Aphb5dis!as QAt^poStatuc : 'A<f>po^tei£V^ : Aph 
rodisiensis), the name of several places famouf 
for the worsliip of Aphrodite (Venus). 1. A 
CAHiiE (now Oheira, ruins), on the site of ai 
old town of the Leleges, named Niude : undei 
the Romans a free city and asylum, and a flour 
ishing school of art —2. Venebis Oppidum (non > 




Porto Cai*i/iBre), a town, harbor, and island on 
the coast of Oilic'a, opposite to Cyprus. — 8. A 
town, harbor, and island on the ooafit of Cyrena- 
*ca, ill Noi-li: Afnca.— 4. Vid. Gades. — [6. (Now 
Kaischjy ai: island in tiie Persian Qulf, on the 
eovt of Cai'inania, earlier called Catffia.] 

[ApHBODisiUM {^k^po6iaiov)y a town on the 
Qorthem «joafit of Cyprus. — 2. A village of Arca- 
dia, east of Megalopolis. — 3. One of the three 

, minor harbors into which the PirsBus was sub- 
diyided. — i. A. PaoMONToaiuM, a promontory at 

^ Jie eastern base of the Pyrenees, with a temple 
of Aphrodite (Venus).] 

ApheodIte ('A^po(Krj7), one of the great di- 
vinities of the Greeks, the goddess of love and 
beauty. In the Iliad she is represented as the 
daughter of Jupiter (Zeus) and Dione, and, in 
later traditions, as a daughter of Saturn (Cronos) 
and Euonyme, or of Uranus and Hemera ; but 
the poets most frequently relate that she was 
sprung from the foam (a^pof) of the sea, whence 
they derive her name. She is conmionly rep- 
resented as the wife of Vulcan (HephaMtus) ; 
but she proved faithless to her husband, and 
was in love with Mars (Ares), the god of war, 
to whom she bore Phobos, Deuuos, Harmonia, 
and, according to later traditions, Eros and An- 
teros also. She also loved the gods Bacchus 

! Dionysus), Mercury (Hermes), and Neptune 
Poseidon), and the mortals Anchises, Adonis, 
and BuTESw She surpassed all the other god- 
desses in beauty, and hence received the prize 
of beauty from Pans. She likewise had the 
powtir of granting beauty and invbcible charms 
to others, and whoever wore her magic girdle 
iomediately became an object of love and de- 
ure. In the vegetable Imigdom tlie myrtle, 
rose, apple, poppy, Ac, were sacred to her. 
The animals sacred to her, which are often 
mentioned a« drawing her chariot or serving 
as her messengers, are the sparrow, the dove, 
the swan, the swallow, and a bird called iynx. 
The planet Venus and the spiing-month of April 
were likewise sacred to her. The principal 
places of her worship in Greece were the isl- 
ands of Cyprus and Cytliera. The sacrifices 
offered to her consisted mostly of incense and 
garlands of flowers, but in some places animals 
were sacrificed to her. Respecting her festi- 
vals, vid. Diet, of AtUiq,^ art Adonia, Anaqogia, 
Aphrodisia, Catagoqia. Her worship was of 
Eastern origin, and probably introduced by the 
Phoenicians into tho islands of Cyprus, Cyth- 
era, and others, whence it spread all over 
Greece. She appears to have been originally 
identical with Astarte, called by the Hebrews 
Ashtoreth, and her connection with Adonis clear- 
ly points to Syria. Respecting the Roman god- 
dess Venus, vuL Venus. 

ArHRonlT5p5Li8 ( /L^podirijc iroAtf), the name 
of several cities in Egypt 1. In Lower £^pt : 
(1.) In the Nomos Leontopolites, in the Delta, 
between Arthribis and LeontopoHs; (2.) (Now 
Ghybin-elKoum\ in the Nomos Prosopites, in 
the Delta, on a navi^ble branch of tne Nile, 
l)etween Naucratis and Sais ; probably the same 
as Atarbechis, which is an Egyptian name of the 
•ame meaning as the Greek Aphroditopolis. — 
2. In Middle Eg^pt or Heptonomis (now AtA/h), 
a considerable city on the east bank of the Nile ; 
'Jie chief city of the Nomos Aphroditopolites. — 

3. In Upper Egypt, or the Thchals : (i.) V.iu« 
ris Oppidum (now TaeJUa)^ a little Tvaj from tbh 
west uieuik of the Nile; the chief city of the N> 
moB Aphroditopolites ; (2.) In the JNomos I{er> 
monthites (now J)eiry northwest of £sDeh), on Hm 
west bank of the Nile. 

AphthomIus Ck^6vio^\ of Autiocli, a Gn.'ck 
rhetorician. Uvea about AJD. 315, and wrote the 
introduction to the study of rhetoric, entitled 
ProgymnoMmata {irpoyvftvaofuira). It was con- 
structed on the basis of the Progymnatmaia of 
Hermogenes, and became so popiuar that it was 
used as the common school-book in this branch 
of education for several centuries. On the re- 
vival of letters it recovered its ancient popu- 
larity, and during the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries was used' every where, but more es- 
pecially in Germany, as the text book for rhet- 
oric. The number of editions and translaUooa 
which were published during that period is 
greater than that of anv other ancient writer, 
llie best edition is in Walz's Hhetores Grcsei, 
voL L Aphthouius also wrote some .^sopio 
fables, which are extant 

Aphytis ('A^rtf : now AOiyto)^ a town in 
the peninsula Pallene in Macedonia, with a ccIa* 
brated temple and oracle of Jupiter Ainmoa 

ApIa ('A7rm, sc 7$), the Apian land, an an- 
cient name of Peloponnesus, especially Argolis, 
said to have been so called from Apis, a niy&ca] 
king of Argos. 

Apicata, wife of Sejanus, was divorced by 
him, AJ). 23, after she had borne him three 
children, and put an end to her own life on th« 
execution of Sejanus, 81. 

Apicfus, the name of three notorious gluttons. 
— 1. The first lived in the time of Sulla,, and if 
said to have procured the condemnation of Ru 
tilius Rufus, B.C. 92. — 2. The second and most 
renowned, M. Gabiut Aptdus, flourished under 
Tiberius. [It is stated by Seneca that» after 
haviug spent upon his culinary dainties one 
hundred millions of sesterces (sestertimn milliea), 
upward of three millions of dollars, he became 
overwhelmed with debts, and was thus forced, 
for the first time, to look into his accounts. He 
found that he would have only ten millions of 
sesteroes (tetUrtiutn centies), a sum somewhat 
over three lutndred tfunuand dollars^ left after 
paving his debts;] upon which, despairing of 
beii:^ able to satisfy the cravings of hunger from 
such a pittance, he forthwith put an end to his 
life by poisoa But he was not foi^tten. Sun- 
dry cakes (Apicia) and sauces long kept alive 
his memory ; Apion, the grammarian, composed 
a work upon his luxurious labors, and his name 
passed into a proverb in all matters connected 
with the pleasures of the table. — 3. A contem 
porary of Trajan, sent to this emperor, when 
he was in Parthia, fresh oysters, preserved by 
a skillful process of his owa The treatise we 
now possess, bearing the title Cjclii Apicii de 
Optonii* €t CotuUmenHs, sive de Be CtUinaria 
Libri decern, is a sort of Cook and Confection- 
er's Manual, containing a multitude of receipts 
for cookery. It was probably compiled at a late 
period b^ some one who prefixed the name of 
Apicius, m order to insure the cii'culation of hii 
book. — Editions: By Abneloveen, Amstelod, 
1709 ; and by Bernhold, Ansbach., 1800. 

ApidAnus (*Afft<5avof, lon.-^Ttdavod, a river 
igitized by VjOOQIC: 



ji TbtBoaljt Yhidi reoeiyes the Empeius near 
Flnrealus, aiid empties into the Peneiu. 

AnbutL, a town of Latium, destroyed by Tar- 
quinios Proeas. 

Apiok {*Axiuv)j a Greek grammarian, and a 
native of Oaaa Magna in Egypt, studied at Alcz- 
andrea, and taught rhetono at Rome b the 
reigns of l^berius and CUudius. In the reign 
of Caligula he left Rome, and in AD. 88 he was 
jeot by the iobabitante of Alexandrea at the 
head of an embassy to Caligula to bring forward 
oomplaints against the Jews residing in their 
city. ApioD was the author of many works, all 
of which are now lost [with the exception of a 
few fragments! Of these the most celebrated 
were upon the JEomeric poems. He is said not 
doly to haTe made the best recension of the text 
of the poema, but to have written explanations 
of phrases and words in the form of a diction- 
asy (^ietc 'Ofoipuidii He also wrote a work 
on ^gypt in fiye booKS, and a work against the 
Jews, to which Josephus replied in his treatise 
AffoinMt Amon, 

Ariox, 'WoLEMiEus. Vld, PTOLEM.«ua, Ari- 

Arts (*AirxcX 1- Son of Phoroneus and La- 
odioe, kiu^ of Argos, from whom Peloponnesus 
was ealled Apia : he ruled tyrannically, and was 
killed bj llielxion and Telcbis.>-2. llie Bull of 
Memphis, worshipped with the greatest rever- 
enee as a god among the Egyptians. The Egyp- 
tians belieyed that he was the offspring of a 
young cow, fructified by a ray from heayea 
11 ere were certain ei^us oy which he was rec- 
Qgniased to be the gi^d. It was requisite that 
he should be quite black, haye a white square 
mark on the forehead, on his back a figure simi- 
br to that of an eagle, haye two kinds of hair in 
his tail, and on his tongue a knot resembling an 
insect ealled eatUhartis, When all these bigns 
were disooyered, the animal was consecrated 
with great pomp, and was conyeyed to Mem- 
phis, where he bad a splendid residence, con- 
taining extensiye walks and courts for his 
amusement His birth-day, which was celebrat- 
ed eyery year, was his most solemn festiyal : it 
was a day of rejoicing for all Egypt The god 
was allowed to liye only a certain number of 
yeara, probablj twenty-fiye. If he had not died 
before the e^^uration of that period, he was killed 
and boried m a sacred well, the place of which 
was unknown except to the initiated. But if 
be died a natural death, he was buried publicly 
ind solemnly ; and as his birth filled all Egypt 
with joy and festirities, so his death threw the 
whole country into grief and mourning. The 
worship of Apis was originally nothing but the 
ample worship of the bml ; but in the course of 
time, the bull, like other animals, was regarded 
as a symbol, and Apia is hence identified with 
Osiris or the Sun. 

Afib (JAiri^: now Kagner Schamaf) a city 
of Egypt on tiie coast of the Mediterranean, on 
the border of the country toward Libya, about 
one hundred stadia west of Parrotonium ; cele- 
brated for the worship of the god Apis. 

[AnaZoN ('A7r«Tawv), son of Phausiua, slain 
by Eurypylus before Troy. — 2. Son of Hippasus, 
a leader of the Pooniane, slain by Lycomedes 
More Troy.] 

ApoBATBjir ('A;rc^o£^/ioi]^ % place io Ai>^>1is, 

on the sea, tot iar from Thyrea, where I>at.aui 
is said to haye landed 

[AroBATnaA CA.ir66adpa . now Boja), a place 
near Sestos, where Xerxed's bridge of boats 

ApoDon and ApoDEOTiS {'iLvoduroi and 'Air» 
SoToty, a people in the southeast of ^tclfa, be- 
tweeu the Eyenus and Hylsethus. 

Apoi.unaris, SioONica Vid Sidoniuh. 

[ApoLLiNARia, SuLPicius. Vid. SuLTiomaj 

AfollInis PaoMONTOaiux {'AnoXT^uvvc axpov '. 
now Cape Ziheeh or Cape Farina)^ a promontory 
of Zeugitana in Northern Africa, fonmug th« 
western point of the Gulf of Carthage. 

[ApoLLnf drdus ('AxoXAiJVOf •ko'Kl^). 1. Magma 
TTo^tQ fityukri 'AjroAAtJvof : now Edf(m\ the cap- 
ital of the nome named after it, ApoUoniatos, u\ 
Upper Egypt, on the w^st bank of the Nile. The 
people of this city were hatei's and destroyers oi 
the crocodile. — 2. PAayA ('ATr^AXwvof jj fiiKpd : 
now Ku»9\ a city of Upper Egypt, on the east 
bank of the Nile, m the Noinoe Coptites, between 
Coptos and Thebes.] 

Ajpollo ('AttoAAuv), one of the great diyini 
ties of the Greeks, son of Jupiter (Zeus) and 
Latona (Leto), and twin-brother of Diana (Ar 
temis), was bom in the Island of Deloe, whither 
Latona (LetoJ had fled from the jealous Juno 
(HeraX Via, Lxra After nine days' labor, 
the god was bom under a palm or oliye tree at 
the foot of Mount Cynthus, and was fed by 
Themis with ambrosia and nectar. The pow- 
ers ascribed to Apollo are apparently of different 
kinds, but all are connectcMi with one another, 
and may be said to be only ramifications of one 
and the same, as will be seen from the follow* 
ing classificatioa He is: 1. The god taho nam 
iJuty whence some of the ancients der /eu hii 
name from anoXTjofiL^ deetroy. (^EscIl, Agam. 
1081.) As the god who punishes, he is repre- 
sented with bow and arrows, the gift of Vuloai: 
(Hephaestus) ; whence his epithets, ^xaroc, i\a- 
epyo^y iKaT7f66Xo^j k/.vt6to^oc and apyvpoToi, f, 
arcitenenty Ac. All sudden deaths were be* 
lieyed to be the effect of the arrows of Apollo ; 
and with them he sent the plague iuto the camp 
of the Greeks.— 2. Tlie god who affords help and 
toarde off evil. As he had the power of punish 
ing men, so he was also able to deliyer Lien, if 
duly propitiated ; hence his epithets, aKtaiod 
uKioTupf oke^ucaKOQ^ auTijp, airorponaio^t hri- 
Kovpioct laTpofiavTLg, opifefy salutifer, <kc From 
his being the god who afforded help, he is the 
father of ^Esculapius, the god of the nealing vrt, 
and was also identified in later times with 
PiB^n, the god of the healing art in Homer 
Vid PjtEON. — 8. The god of prophecy, Apollo 
exercised this power in his numerous oracles, and 
especially in tnat of Delphi Vid Diet, of Ant^ 
art Obaculum. He had also the power of 
communicating the gift of prophecy both to 
gods and men, and all the ancient seers and pro 
phcts are placed in some relationship to him. 
— i. The aod of aong and musie. We find him 
in the Hiad (l, 603) delighting the immortal 
gods with his phomiinx; and the Homerie 
bards deriyed their art of song either from 
Apollo or the Muses. Later traditions ascriber] 
to Apollo syen the inyention of the flute anj 
I lyre, while it is more commonly related that bf 
I receiyed the lyre (rom Mercury (Hcrm«d). lie 




•pecthig hie musical eoDlwts, vid. Makstas, 
fazDAB. — 6. The god who proteeU the Jloeks and 
tattle {vofitoc ^eoc, from vofio^ or ^Ofi^, a meadow 
»r pasture laud). There are in Homer only a 
ew allusioos to tliis feature in the character of 
ApoUo, but in later writers it assumes a Tery 
OTominent form, and in the story of Apollo tend- 
ing the flocks of Admetus at Phene in Thessaly, 
the idea reaches its height — 6. 7^ god v>ho de- 
lights in the foundation of towns and the ettab- 
liskmeni of civil eontiitutiona. Hence a town or 
a oolonjr was never founded by the Greeks with- 
out consulting an oracle of Apollo, so that in 
every case he became, as it were, their spiritual 
leader. — 1. The god of the Sun, In Homer, 
Apollo and Helios, or the Sun, are perfectly 
distinct, and his identification witli tue Sun, 
though almost universal among later writers, 
was the result of later speculations and of for- 
eign, chiefly Egyptian, influence. Apollo had 
more influence upon the Greeks than any other 
god It may safely be asserted that the Greeks 
would never have become what they were with- 
out the worship of Apollo : in him the brightest 
side of the Grecian mind is reflected. Respect- 
ing his festivals, vid Diet, of Ant., art Apol- 
LONiA. Thabgelfa, and others. In the religion 
of the early Romans there is no trace of the 
worship of Apollo. The Romans became ac- 
quainted with tliis divinity through the Greeks, 
and adopted all their notions and ideas about 
him from the latter people. There is no doubt 
that tlie Romans knew of his worship among the 
Greeks at a very early time, and tradition says 
that they consulted his oracle at Delphi, even 
l>efore the expulsion of the kings. But the 
first time that we hear of his worship at Rome 
'.B in B.C. 480, when, for the purpose of avert- 
ing a plague, a temple was raised to him, and 
soon after dedicatea by the consul, C. Julius. 
A second temple was built to him in 850. Dur- 
ing the secoucl Punic war, in 212, the ludi Apol- 
linare* were instituted in his honor. Vid Vict, 
of Ant, art Ludi ApoLUNABKa. His worship, 
however, did not form a very prominent part m 
the religion of the Romans tilt the time of Au- 
gustus, who, after the battle of Actium, dedicat- 
ed to him a portion of the spoils, built or embel- 
lished Wa temple at Actium, and founded a new 
one at Rome on the Palatine, and instituted 
(juinquennial games at Actium. The most beau- 
tiful and celebrated among the extant repre- 
sentations of Apollo arc the Apollo Belvedere 
at Rome, which was discovered in 1508 at Ret- 
tuno, and the Apollino at Florence. In the 
Apollo Belvedere, the god is represented witli 
oommanding but serene majesty ; sublime intel- 
lect and physical beauty are combined in the 
most wonderful manner. 

ApOLL^caXTES (*A;roAXo/cparj7f), elder son of 
Dionysius the Younger, was left by his father in 
command of the island and citadel of Syracuse, 
but was compelled by famine to surrender them 
to Dion, about B.C. 854. 

AroLLdnoRus ('A7roA?.ocTwpof). 1. Of Avphip- 
OLi? one of the generals of Alexander the 
Great was intrusted in B.O. 881, together with 
Menes, with the administration of Babylon and 
( f all the satrapies as far as Cilicia, — 2. Tyrant 
of CAasANDREA (formerly Potidasa), in the pcn- 
ioaula ot Pallene, obtained the supreme power 

in B.O. 879, ind exercised it with th« uoiMift 
cruelty. He was conquered and put to deatl 
by AntigonuB Gonatas. — 8. Of Oabtstus, a 
eomic poet, probably lived B.C. 800-260, ari 
was one of the most distmspiished of the poets 
of the new Attic comedy. It was from him tha< 
Terence took his Hecyra and Phormio.—- 4. 01 
Gela in Sicily, a comic poet and a cf^ntompo 
rary of Menander, lived B.C. 840-290. Ho i$ 
frequently confounded with ApoUcdorus of Ca 

Zstus. — ^6. A Grammarian of Athens, son or 
idepudes, and pupil of Aristarcbus and Pans 
tins, nourished about KC. 140. He wrote a 
great nnmber cf worl% all of which have per 
ished with the exception of his Bibliotheca 
This work consists of three books, and is by far 
the best among the extant works of the kind 
It contains a well-arranged account of the my- 
thology and the heroic age of Greece : it begins 
with uie origin of the gods, and goes down to 
the time of Theseus, when the work suddenly 
breaks off. — Editions: By ^yne, Gottii^en, 
1808, 2d ed; by Clavier, Paris, 1806, with a 
French translation ; and by Westcrmann in the 
Mvthogravhi, Brunswick, 1848. Of the many 
other works of Apollodorus, one of the most im- 
portant was a chronicle in iambic verses, com- 
prising the history of one thousand and forty 
years, ftxjm the destruction of Troy (1184) down 
to his own time, B.C. 148. — 6. Of Psrgamus, a 
Greek rhetorician, taught rhetoric at Apollonia in 
his advanced age, and had as a pupil the youpg 
Octavius, afterwiud the Emperor Augustus. — 7. 
A painter of Athens, flourished about B.C. 408, 
with whom commenced a new period in the his- 
tory of the art Ho made a great advance in 
coloring, and invented chiaroscuro. — 8. An ar- 
chitect of Damascus, lived under Trajan onr' 
Hadrian, by the latter of whom he was put to 
death. — [9. Of Phalerum, one of the intimat* 
friends of Socrates, and who was present at hit 
death. — 10. Of Lkmnos, a writer on agriculture 
previous to the time of Aristotle.] 

ApollonIa {^kTroXTMvla : 'knoXKuvidrric)' 1- 
(Now PoUina or Pollona), an impoilant town in 
Blyria or New Epirus, not far fix)m the mouth 
of the Aous, and sixty stadia from the sea. li 
was founded by the Corinthians and Corcyrae- 
ans, and was equally celebrated as a place of 
commerce and learning: many distinguished 
Romans, among others the young Octavius. af- 
terward the Emperor Augustus, pursued their 
studies here. Persons travelling from Italy to 
Greece and the East usually landed either at 
Apollonia or Dyrrhachium ; and the Via Egnatia, 
the great high road to the East commenced at 
ApoUonia, or, according to others, at DyrrJia- 
duum. Vid Egkatia Via,— 2. (Now Polina\ 
a town in Macedonia, on the Via Egnatia, be- 
tween Thessolonica and Amphipolis, and south 
of the Lake of Bolbe.— 8. (Now Bizeholi), a 
town in Thrace on the Black Sea, with two 
harbors, a colony of Miletus, afterward called 
Soiopolis, whence its modem name: it had a 
celebrated temple of Apollo, from which Lucul- 
lus carried away a colossus of this god, and 
erected it on the Capitol at Rome.— 4. A castle 
or fortified town of the Locri Ozol», near Nau- 
pactus.— 6. A town in Sicilv, on the northern 
coast, of uncertain site. — 6. (How Ahfdlu)iiUe\% 
town in Bithynla. on th« Lake Apolloniati* 



4roog^ which the Rirei Rhyndacoit flovra. — 1, 
A. tovit OD the borders of Mysia and Lydia, be- 
iTreea Pemmua and Sardia. — 8. A town in 
EUeftina, between Caasarea and Joppa. — 9. A 
tovn in Awyna, in the district of Apolloniatis, 
thiough wiueh the Delaa or Durus (now DUUd) 
liowBw— (10. Now Marza /SfMa), a town in Cy- 
reaaica, and the harbor of Cyrene, one of the five 
towns of the Pentapolis in Libya: it was the 
birtb-plaee of Eratoethenea. 

|[Aroixo3mTis. Vid, Asstkia, 1.] 

I ApoLLosiiua {*Xiro?Jjuividac)t a Greek poet, 
cmder whoee name there are thirty-one pieces 
extant in the Greek Antholoey. He flourished 
ODder Aqgustus and Tiberiu8.j 

[AFOLLdMiDES (*A7roXkcivioiiCf 1^1** 'XiroXXuv- 
i&K^ 1. Commander of the cavalry in Olyn- 
thn8» who opposed Philip of Macedon, and pre- 
Teoted the surrender of the town to him. Philip, 
boweTer, by his agents in Olynthus^ procured 
his honishmenL — 2. A Bcsotian officer in the 
annj of Oytub tlie Younger, who was, after the 
death of Gyros, deprived of his office, and de- 
v^raded to a memal oondilaon. — 3. Of Chiob, 
who betrayed Chios to the Persian general 
Memnoa during Alexander's eastern expedi- 
Cioo: he was afterward taken and put in con- 
finement — i. A Stoic philosopher, fiiend of the 
yoiaiger Cato, with whom he conversed on the 
alloirableoess of suicide before commitUng that 
aet at Utica. — 5. A Greek physician and sur- 
geon, bom at Cos, obtained reputation and hon- 
Of at the Persian court under Artaxerxes Lod- 
gimftniiB, He beeame engaged in a disreputa- 
ble attenpt^ and was put to death by torture.] 

ApoLi.dKis ('Avo2Mjvig)t a city in Lydia, be- 
tveoi Peigamus and Sardis, named after Apol- 
knis, the mother of King Eumenes. It was 
eoe of the twelve cities of Asia which were 
destroyed by an earthquake in the reign of Ti- 
berias (AJ). 17X 

ApoixOsdns {'Avo?,X6vtoc). 1. Of Alabanda 
in Caria, a rhetoriciao, taught rhetoric at Rhodes 
about KG. 100. He was a very distinguished 
teadier of rhetoric, and used to ridicule and de- 
spise philosophy. He was somamed 6 MaXoxof. 
aod must be distinguished from the following. 
— 2. Of AukAANOA, sumamed Molo, likewise a 
ihetorician, taught rhetoric at Rhodes, and also 
dlrtingmshed bunsclf as a pleader in the courts 
of justice. In B.O. 81, when Sulla was dicta- 
tor, Apc^onios came to Rome as ambassador 
of the Rhodians, on which occasion Cicero I 
heard him ; Cic3ro also received instruction 
from ApoUonius at Rhodes a few years later. — 
%. Son of Abchibuld8» a grammarian of Alex- 
andrea, in the first eentury of the Christian era, 
and a pupil of Didypatus* He wrote an Homeric 
Lexiooa, which is stiU extant, and, though much 
Dterpolated, is a work of great value. — JSdi- 
Hom: By Villoison, Paris, 1773 ; by H Tollius, 
Li«d. Bat, 1788 : and by Bekker, Berlin, 1833. 
«-JL Smvamed Dtsoolus, ** the ill-tempered," 
i grammarian at Alexandrea, in the reigns of 
Hadrian and Antoninus Pius (AJ>. 117-161), 
Uitfht at Rome as well as Alexandrea. He 
tad Us son Hkrodiamub are called by Priscian 
tibe greatest of all grammarians. Apollonius 
VBS the first who reduced grammar to any 
like a system. Of his numerous works 
four ar<» extart 1. Ueol awTtlBeuQ rov 

I Ao/ot fieffWf, "De Coostructione OratKNiis," 3( 
" De Ordinal ione sive Constructione Dictx>' 
num," in foui* books ; edited by Fr. Sylburg- 
' Frankf., 1590, and by L Bekker, Berlin, 1817 
2. Ilep^ difTcjvvfilact " De ProDumine ;" edited 
by L Bekker, Berlin, 1814. 3. liepl awCeafUJV, 
" De Conjunctionibus," and, 4. Uepl knifi(nifjulTuv, 
|*De Adverbiis," printed in Bekker's AtieedoL, 
il, p. 477, <bc. Among the works ascribed to 
Apollonius by Suidas there is one, T^tpl Kareypeva- 
fiwijc loTopiac, on fictitious or forged histories ; 
this has been erroneously supposed to be the 
same as the extant work 'laropiai ^avfiaaiai, 
which purports to be written by an Apollonius 
(publisned by Westermanu, j^aradoxographi^ 
Brunswick, 1839); but it is now admitted that 
the latter work was written by an Apollonius 
who is otherwise unknown. — 5. Pergjeus, from 
Per^a in Pamphylia, one of the greatest mathe- 
maticians of antiquity, commonly called the 
** Great Geometer,'^ was educated at Alexan- 
drea under the successors of Euclid, and flour 
ished about B.C. 260-220. His most important 
work was a treatise on Conic Sections iu eight 
books, of which the first four, ^ith the com- 
mentary of Eutocius, are extant in Ureek ; and 
all but the eighth in Arabic. We have also in- 
troductory lemmata to all the eight by Pappus 
Edited by Halley, " ApolL Perg. Conic, lib. viii," 
<&&, Oxon., 1710, loL The eighth book is a 
conjectural restoration founded on the introduc 
tory lemmata of Pappus. — 6. Ruhdius, a pool 
and grammarian, son of Silleus or Uleus and 
Rhode, was born at Alexandrea, or, accordint 
to one statement, at Naucratis, and flourisheo 
in the reigns of Ptolemy Philopator and Ptolemy 
Epiphane8(B.C. 222-181). In bis youth he was 
instructed by Callimachus ; but they afterward 
becaire bitter enemies. Their tastes were en 
tirely different ; for Apollonius admired and imi 
tated the simplicity of the ancient epic poets 
and disliked and despised the artificial and team 
ed poetry of Callimachus. When Apollonius 
reaa at Alexandrea his poem on the Argonautic 
expedition (ArgomnUica), it did not meet with 
the approbation of the audience ; he attributed 
its fadure to the intrigues of Callimachus, and 
revenged himself by writing a bitter epigram 
on Callimachus which is still extant. {Anth 
Grcee^ xi, 275.^ Callimachus, in return, attack- 
ed Apollonius 10 his /6t«, which was imitated by 
Ovid m a poem of the same name. Apollonius 
now left Alexandrea and went to Rhodes, where 
he taught rhetoric with so much success, that 
the Romans honored him with their franchise . 
hence he was called the *' Rhodioa" He afl:er< 
ward retnmed to Alexandrea, where he read a 
revised edition of his Argonatiiica with great 
applause. He succeeded Eratosthenes as chici 
liorarian at Alexandrea, in the reign of Ptolemy 
EpiphaneS) about B.C. 194, and appears to have 
hela this office till his death. The ArgontnU- 
ica, which consists of foiu* books, and is still ex- 
tant, gives a straightforward and simple descrip- 
tiou of the adventures of the Argonauts : it is a 
dose imitation of the Homeric language and 
style, but exhibits marks of art and labor, and 
thus forms, notwithstcmdiug its many lesem- 
blances, a contrast with the natural and easy 
flow of the Homeric poems, A'nong the B<^ 
mans the <7ork was much rea<1/a^(' '" m*^ 
Digitized by » 



bus Varro AUcinus acquired great reputation 
by his tr^nslatioD of it The Arsfonautica of 
ValcHna Flaccua is only a free imitation of 
it — Editions: By Brunck, Argentorat, 1780; 
by G. Scbffifer, Lips., 1810-18; by WeUauer, 
Lips., 1828. Apollonius wrote several other 
works which are now lost — 1, Ttanensis or 
TTANiKDs, f. e^ of Ty&na in Cappadocia, a Py- 
thagorean philosopher, was bom about four 
years before the Christian era. At a period 
when there was a general belief in magical 
powers, it would appear that Apollonius obtain- 
ed g^eat influence by pretending to them ; and 
we may believe that nis Life by Philostratus 
gives a just idea of his character and reputation, 
however inconsistent in its facts and absurd in 
its marvels. Apollonius, according to Philos- 
tratue, was of noble ancestry, and studied first 
under Euthydemus of Tarsus; but, being dis- 
^sted at the luxury of the inhabitants, he re- 
tired to the neighboring town of JEgss, where 
he studied the whole circle of the Platonic, 
Skeptic, Epicurean, and Peripatetic philosophy, 
and ended W giving his preference to the Pyth- 
agorean. He devoted himself to the strictest 
asceticism, and subsequently travelled through- 

the life of ApoUonius was not vrrittcu wfi 
controversial aim, as the resemblADces, althc 
real, only mdicate that a few thio^ were 
rowed, and exhibit no trace of a. Byetem 
paralleL Vid. Pbilosteati;& — 8. Of Ttbj 
btoic philosopher, who lived in the reign 
Ptolemy Auletes, wrote a historj- of the S| 
philosophy from the time of Zeoo. — ^9. Apoi 
NiuB and Taubiscus of Tralles, were two hm 
ers, and the sculptors of the group which h e^ 
monly known as the Famese bull, reproeentj 
the punishment of Dirce by Zethus and Aiup 
oa Vid. DiBOE. It was taken from Hhodes 
Rome by Asiuius Pollio, and afterward plaoed 
the baths of Caracalla, where it was dug upi 
the sixteenth centiuy, and depodted in the Ft 
nese palace. It is now at Naples. ApoU<iDii 
and Tauriscus probably flourished in the first c^ 
tury of the Chnstian era. 

ApollSphInxs ('AiroAAo^vj7f), a poet of tj 
old Attic comedy, of whose comedies a few frei 
ments are extant, lived about B.C. 400. [1% 
fragments are collected in Meineke's J^offyn. C<m 
GrcBC., vol I, p. 482-484, edit minor.] 

Ap5nu8 or Ap5ni Foxs (now Ahano), winl 
medicinal springs near Pataviam, hence callH 
AauiB Patavime, were much fi^equented by tin 

out the East, visiting Nineveh, Babylon, and 
India. On his return to Asia Minor, we first ' sick, 
hear of his pretensions to miraculous power, | Appia or ApLi ('A?r;rta, 'Attwi), a cityof Phry< 
founded, as it would seem, on the possession of ' gia Pacatiana. 

some divine knowledge derived from the East | AppIa Via, the most celebrated of the Hozzuu] 
From Ionia he crossed over into Greece, and roads (regina viarum, Stat, Silv^ iL, 2, 12,), wu 
came thence to Rome, where he anived just ' commenced by Appius Claudius Ciecus when 
after an edict against magicians had been issued censor, B.C. 819, and was the great line of ci^ 
by Nero. He accordingly remained only a short munication between Rome and Southern Italy 
time at Rome, and next went to Spain and Af- ' It issued from the Porta Capena^ and, pae.<iu^ 
rica; at Alexandrea he was' of assistance to through Arieia^ Tres Tabemay Appii J'orvn 
Yespasian, who was preparing to seize the em- I ThrraeinOy JP\indi, Formiaf Mintnmay Stnufw 
pire. The last journey of Apollonius was to and Canlinumt terminated at Capwiy but wa* 
iEthiopla, whence be returned to settle in the eventually extended through Calaiia and Can' 
Ionian cities. On the accession of Domitian, diurn to Ben^evenhmif and finally thence tbn>ui;b 

Apollonius was accused of exciting an insur- 
rection against the tyrant: he voluntarily sur- 
rendered himself, and appeared at Rome before 

Venusia, TaretUumy and fTWo, to Brundinvm. 

AppiAnub ('Ainrtavoc), the Roman hi^t^H.'Ui, 
was bom at Alexaiuirea, and lived at R^m« 

the emperor ; but^ as his destruction seemed during the reigns of I'rajan, Hadrian, and Ad- 
impending, he escaped by the exertion of his i toninus Pius. He wrote a Roman bislc)^ 
supernatural powers. The last years of his life i ('P«;*aiica or Po/mIk^ Unopia) in twenty-four 
were spent at Ephesus, where he is said to have books, arranged, not svn^^hronistically, but cth- 
proclaimed the death of the tyrant Domitian at ! nographically, that is, ne did not relate the bi« 
the instant it took place. Many of the won- ! tory of the Roman empire as a whole io chn»- 
ders which Fliilostititus relates in connection ! nological order, but he gave a separate account 
with Apollonius are a clumsy imitation of tl»e | of the sSaxn of each country, till it was fiuaU/ 
Christian miracles. The proclamation of the incorporated in the Roman empire. Tbe sub- 
birth of Apollonius to his mother by I^teus, liects of the different books were: 1. The king- 
and the mcamation of Proteus himself, the cho- f Iv period. 2. Italy. 8. The Samnitesw 4. Tbe 
nis of swans which sans for joy on the occa- { Uauls or Celts. 6. Sicily and the other islaiuk 
bion, the casUng out of devils, raising the dead, 6. Spain. 1. Hannibal's wars. 8. Libya, Car 
and healing the sick, the sudden disappearances I thage, and Numidia. 9. Macedonia. 10. GrMce 
ind reappearances of Apollonius, his adventures | and the Greek states in Asia Minor. 11. Syria 
in the cave of Trophonius, and the sacred voice , and Parthia. 12. The war with Mithrsdatof 
which called him at his death, to which may be '" "* "^' 
added his claim as a teacher having authority to 
reform the world, can not fail to suggest the 
parallel passages in the Gospel history, [from 
which they have evidently been borrowed.] 
We know, too, that Apollonius was one among 
many rivals set up by the Eclectics to our Sa- 
viour, an attempt renewed by the En^^lish free- 
thinkers Blount and Lord Herbert Still it must 
be allowed that the resimiblances are very gen- 

13-21. The civil wars, in nine books, froir 
those of Marius and Sulla to the battle of Ac 
tium. 22. 'EKaTovToertot comprised the history 
of a hundred years, from the oattle of Actiua 
to the beginniiie of Vespasian's reign. 23. The 
wars with lUyria. 24. Those with Antik 
We possess only eleven of these oompl***. 
namely, the sixth, seventh, eighth, eleventh, 
twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteeotb, to.- 
teenth' seventeenth, and twraty-third: ibert 

tral and, on the whole, it eeems probable that are fragments of several^ of ihe ptl 

-n ^ Digitized by CjOOgli 



nrthUui austuTj i^eh has oome clown to us 
as part of the eleT<»th book, is not a work of 
Appian, bat merely a oompilatioD from Plu- 
Lsrd)*8 IdTM of AntoDj and Crassus. Appian's 
'work b a compilatioa His style is dear and 
siuple ; but he possesses few merits as an his- 
torian, and he trequently makes the most ab- 
surd blanders. Thus, tor instance, he places 
Saguntum oo the north of the Iberus, and states 
that it takes only half a day to sail from Spam 
to Britaia The best edition is that of Schweig- 
bauser, Lips^ I'/SS. 

Apfias, a nymph of the Appian well, which 
was atuated near the temple of Venus Genetrix 
in the forum of Julius Gcesar. It was surrounded 
by statues of nymphs, called Appiadei. 
Appu FoRUic. Vid Forum Appil 
[Appiol^ an old city of Latium, said to have 
beeu taken and burned by Tarquinius Priscus, 
and to have furnished from its spoils the sums 
necessaiy for the construction of the Circus 

[Apfius CLAiTDica. Vid Claudius.] 
Appfh^Sirs or AptfLtnjs, of Medaura in Africa, 
was boni about AJ). 130, of respectable parents. 
He received the first rudiments of education at 
Carthage, and afterward studied the Platonic 
philosoplrf at Athens. He next travelled ex- 
tenavely, visiting Italy, Greece, and Asia, and 
becoming initiated in most mysteries. At length 
he returned home, but soon afterward undertook 
a new joarney to Alexandrea. On his way 
Uuther he was taken ill at the town of (Ea, and 
7as hoepitabljr received into the house of a 
^oung man, Sibinius Pontianus, whose mother, 
a very rich widow of the name of Pudentilla, 
he married. Her relatives, being indignant that 
9o much wealth should pass out of the family, 
impeached Appuleius of gaining the affections 
of Pndeotilla by charms and magic spells. The 
cause was hesird at Sabrata TOfore Claudius 
Ifasdmus, proconsul of Africa, A.D. 173, and 
the defence spoken by Appuleius is stall extant 
Of his subsequent career we know little: he 
oeeasionally declaimed in public with great ap- 
planse. The most important of the extant works 
of Appuleius are, 1. Metanwrphoieofi $eu de Asino 
Awr€o lAbri XL This celebrated ronuince, to- 
gether with the Arinw of Lucian, is said to have 
been founded upon a work bearing the same 
title by a certain Lucius of Patrse. It seems to 
have been intended simply as a satire upon the 
hypocrisy and debauchery of certain orders of 
priests, the frauds of juggling pretenders to su- 
pernatural powers, and the general profligacy 
^ public morals. There are some, however, 
who <fiseover a more recondite meaning, and 
espedally Bishop Warburton, in his Divine Le- 
gation of Moses, who has at great length en- 
deavored to prove that the Goldeu J^ was 
written with tne view of recommending the Pa- 
^an religion in opposition to Christianity, and 
especially of inculcating the importance of initia- 
tion into the purer mysteries. The well-known 
tad bamtifiil episode of Cupid and Psyche is in- 
troduced in the fourth, fifth, and sixth books. 
This, whatever opinion we may form of the prin- 
cipal narrative, is evidently an allegory, and is 
generally understood to shadow forth *^tlie pro- 
gress of tiie soul to perfection. IL Floridcrum 
Tlhrl IV. Au Anthol(^ containing select ex- 

tracts from various orations and disscrtattoo^ 
' collected, probably, by some admirer. IIL D« 
j Dfo SoeratU Liher. IV. De Doffmaie PlatofUt 
I Libri tret. The first book contains some ae« 
count of the tpeeuUtiiyye doetrifiet of Plato, the 
second of his moraU, the thii-d of his }offic. V 
De Mjindo Liber, A translation of the work 
Kept KOffuoVf at one time ascribed to Aristotle. 
Vl Apoioffia sive De Maaia Liber. The oration 
described above, delivered before Claudius Max 
imus. The best edition of the whole works of 
Appuleius is by Hildebrand, Lips., 1842. 

AppiffLfiius SaturmInus. Via, Saturnixus. 

ApRifis ('A7rp/j7f, *Airpiac)f a king of Egypt, 
the Pharaoh-Hophra of Scripture, succeeded his 
father Psammis, and reigned B.C. 590-570. Af- 
ter an unsuccessful attack upon Cyrene he was 
dethroned and put to death by Amasis. 

AprCnIus. 1. Q, one of the worst instru- 
ments of Yerres in oppressing the Sicilians.— 
2. Jj., served under Drusus (AJD. 14) and Ger- 
manicus (15) in Germany. In 20 he was pro- 
consul of Africa, and prsstor of Lower Germany, 
where he lost his life m a war against the Frisii 
Apronius had two daughters, one of whom was 
married to Ilautius Silvanus, the other to Len- 
tulus GsBtulicus, consul in 26. 

[AprCsa (now Ausa),^ a river of Umbria in 
Italy, flowing near Ariminum.] 

[ApsEUDGS {*A-^evi^c)t 0- Nereid, mentioned in 
the Jliadof Homer.] 

Apsil^ i'AyliiXai), a Scythian people in Col- 
chis, north of the River Phosis. 

Apstneb {*A'tl;ivr}c)f of Gadara in Phcenicia, a 
Greek Sophist and rhetorician, taught rhetorie 
at Athens about AJ). 236. Two of his worki 
are extant : Uepl ruv fiepov tov TroXxrcAoi; },6yov 
rixvfji "which is much interpolated; and Hefi 
ruv kaxyifioTiafiivov TrpoSTifffiuTuv, both of whicL 
are printed in Walz., JRheior. Orceci, voL ix., p 
466, sqq,^ and p. 634, sqq, 

[Apsinthh ('Afivdiot), a people of Thrace, 
said by Herodotus to border on the Thracian 

Apsus (now Crevcuta), a river in Illyria (Nova 
Epirus), which flows Into the Ionian Sea. 

Apsyrtus. Vid Abstrtus. 

Apta JxJLiA (now Apt)j chief town of tlie Vul- 
gientes in Gallia Narbonensis, and a Roman 

Apt2ra ('kirripa : *AirTepaioc : now Paltm- 
kastfon on the Gidf of Suda), a town on the west 
coast of Crete, eighty stadia from Cydonia. 

ApuAni, a Ligurian people on the Macra, were 
subdued by tlie Romans after a long resistance* 
and transplanted to Samnium, B.C. 180. 

Apulkius. Vid Appulkius. 

Apulia (ApulusX included, in its widest sig 
nification, the whole of the southeast of Ital;^ 
from the River Frento to the promontory lapy 
gium, and was bounded on the north by the 
Frentani, on the east by the Adriatic, on the 
south by the Tarentine Gulf, and on tlie west 
by Samnium and Lucania, thus including the 
modem provinces of Bariy Otranto, and Capi- 
tanatay in the kingdom of Naples. Apulia, in it« 
narrower sense, was the country east of Sam- 
nium on both sides of the Aufidus, the Daunia 
and Peucetia of the Greeks : the whole of the 
southcastpart was called Calabria by the Ro- 
mans. The Groeks gave the name of Daunts 




|» tL« /Kirth piirt of the country from the Frento 
lo the Aulidiis, of Peucetia to the eountiy from 
the Auiidus to Tarcntum aod Bruodisimn, aod 
of lapygia or Messapia to the whole of the re- 
nAainiDg south part, though they sometimes iu- 
oluded under lapygia all Apulia in its widest 
meaning. The norSiwest of Apulia is a plain, 
but the south part is traversed by the east branch 
of the Apennmes, and has only a small tract of 
bad on the coast on each side of the mountains. 
The country was yery fertile, especially in the 
neighborhood of Tarentum, and the mountains 
afforded excellent pasturage^ The population 
was of a mixed nature : they were, for me most 
part, of Blyrian origin, and are said to have set^ 

tied in the country under the guidance of lapyx, 
Daunus, and Peucetius, three sons of an lllyr- 
ian king, Lycaon. Subsequently numy towns 

lians joined the Samnites against the Remans, 
and became subject to the latter on the conquest 
of the Sanmites. 

Aqu^, the name giyen by the Romans to 
many medical springs and bathing-places. 1. 


Baden-Baden), 2. Oaudm or Sous (now Bath) 
in Britain. 8. Cotilub, mineral springs in Sam- 
oium near the ancient town of CuUlia, which 
perishod in early times, and east of ReAtc. 
There was a celebrated lake in its neighborhood 
with a floating island, which was regarded as 
the umbilicus or centre of Italy. Vespasian 
died at this place. 4. MATnAOiE or Fontes 
Mattiaci (now Wiesbaden), in the land of the 
Mattiaci in Germany. 6. r atavism (vid Aponi 
Pons). 6. SxXTiiB (now Aix)t a Roman colony 
In Galh'a Narbonensis, founded by Sextius Cal- 
vinus, B.C. 122 ; its mineral waters were long 
oelebrated, but were thought to have lost much 
of their efficacy m the time of Augustus. Near 
this place Marius defeated the Teutoni, B.C. 
102. 7. Stahella (now Aequi\ a town of the 
Statielli in Liguria, celebrateu for its warm 

AQUiB, m Africa. 1. (Now Meriga, ruins), in 
(he interior of Mauretania Ciesariensis. — 2. Ca- 
LiDiB (now GurboB or Hammam P Snf\, on the 
Uulf of Carthage. — 3. Regls (now JSammam 
7Vuzza\ in the north part of Byzacena.— 4. 
TAGAPrrANiB (now Hammat'el-KhM)^ at the 
southern extremity of Byzacena, close to the 
kuffe city of Tacape (now KhabB), 

AqdIla. 1. Of Pontus, translated the Old 
Testament into Greek in the reign of Hadrian, 
probably about AD. 130. Only a few fragments 
remain, which have been published in Ukb edi- 
tions of the Hexapla of Origea — 2. Juuus 
Aquila, a Roman jurist quoted in the Digest, 
|)robabIy IJyed under or before the reign of Sep- 
timius Seyerus, A J). 193-198. — 3. L. Pomin 
Aquila, a friend of Cicero, and one of Cosars 
murderers, was killed at tiie battle of Mutina, 
B.C. 43.-4. Aquila Romanus, a rhetorician who 
probably liyed in the third century after Christ, 
wrote a small work entitled De FignrU Senten- 
tiarwn ei EloadioniB, wUch is usuaDy printed 
with Rutilitts Lupu& — SditicnM: By Kuhnken, 
Liigd. Bat, 1768, reprinted with additional notes 
by Frotscher, Lips., 1831. 

AQrTLiRiA (now A^howireah), a town on tlie 
aoast of Zeugitana ir Africa, on the west side 

I of Hermttum Proinon!x>rium (now Cape JSmi, 
the eastern extremity of the Gulf of Cartliagt 
It was a good landing-place in summer. 

AQuiLfiiA (Aquileiensis : now ^i.quiUia or 
Afflar)y a town m Gullia Traospadana, at tlie 
yery top of the Adriatic, bcrw^eeo tlie riven 
Sontius and Natiso, about sixtj stadia from the 
sea. It was founded by the Romans in B.OL 
182 as a bulwark against the northern barbari- 
ans, and is said to have deriyed its name from 
the favorable omen of an eagle {aguila) appear^ 
ing to the colonists. As it was the key of Italy 
on the northeast, it was made one of the strongs 
est fortresses of the Romans. From its posi- 
tion it became also a most flourishing^ place of 
commerce: the Via Emilia was contmued to 
this town, and from it all the roads to Rad- 
tia, Noricum, Pannonia, Istria, and Dalmatia 
branched oS. It was taken and completely de- 
stroyed by Attila in A.D. 452 : its inhabitants 
escaped to the Lagoons, where Venice was after- 
ward built 

Aquillia Via, began at Capua, nod ran souUi 
through liola and Nuceria to SaUmum; (rom 
thence it ran tJirough the very heart of Luca- 
uia and the country of the Bnittii, passing Neru- 
luin, InteramniOf Uotentia, Vibo, and Met&ia, and 
terminated at Rhegiian, 

Aquillius or AquilIus. 1. M'., consul RC 
129, finished the war against Aristonicus, son 
of Eumenes of Pergamus. Ou his return to 
Rome he was accused of maladministration in 
his province, but was acquitted by bribing the 
judges. — 2. M'^ consul in B.C. 101, conquered 
the sUves in Sicily, who had- revolted imdur 
Atheuion. In 98 he was accused of maladmio' 
istration in Sicily, but was acquitted In 88 he 
went mto Asia as one of the consular legates 
in the Mithradatio war : he was defeated, and 
handed over by the inhabitants of Mytilene to 
Mithradates, who put him to death by pouring 
molten gold down nis throat 

Aquillius Gallus. Vid Gallus. 

AquilOnIa (AquilOnus), a town of Samnium, 
east of Bovianum, destroyed by the Romans in 
the Samnite wars. 

Aquinum (Aquinas : now Aquino\ a town of 
the Yolscians, east of the River Melpis, in a fer* 
tile country; a Roman munioipium, and after- 
ward a oolong ; the birth-place of Juvenal ; cel- 
ebrated for its purple dye. (Hor., Ep^ I, 10, 

AQUirANfA. 1. The country of the Aquitani, 
extended fipom the Garumna (now Oarcnne) tc 
the Pyrenees, and from the ocean to Gallia Nar 
bonensis : it was first conquered by Cesar's le- 
gates, and again upon a revolt of the iohabitanti 
in the time of Augustus. — 2. The Roman prov- 
ince of Aquitania, formed in the reign of Au- 
gustus, was of much wider extent, and was 
bounded on the north by the Ligeris (now Xoire), 
on the west by the ocean, on the south by tlie 
Pyrenees, and on the east by the Mous Cevep- 
na, which separated it from Gallia Narboncosis. 
The Aquitani were one of the three races wLicb 
inhabited Gaul ; they were of Iberian or Sw- 
ish origin, and differed from the Oauls andlBel- 
giaiis in language^ customs, and physical peoo- 

Ara Ubiobum, • place in the neighborhood of 
Bonr in Germany, perhapr-^G^odf^^wt: othmt 



■up pose £t CO tie another name i f Colonia Agrlp- , 
|«iBi(Dow Cologne). | 

^^BiA (17 'A^MKa : 'kptvp, pi. 'AoaScf , 'Apa&oi, 
Arcbs, ArAb&a, pL Arib§8, Arftbl : now Arafna)^ 
a country at the southwest extremity of Asia, 
forming a Iarg« peninauh^'of a sort of hatchet- 
■hape, boundra on the west by the Abauous 
SzziTB (now JUd 8ea)t on the south and south- 
€suBi by the Brtxhb^dm Haile (now Oulf of 
Bmihd'MaMSA and Indian Oeean\ and on the 
Dortbeast by the Persicus Sinus (now Fertian 
Gulf). On the north or land side its bounda- 
ries were somewhat indefinite, but it seems to 
bare ineluded the whole of the d<!eert country 
between Egypt and Syria on the one side, and 
the hanks of the Euphrates on the other ; and it 
was often ocisiderea to extend even further on 
both sides, so as to include, on the east, the 
eoiithem nart of Mesopotamia al<»ig the left 
bask of the Euphrates, and on the west, the 
part of Palestine east of the Jordan, and the 
part of £^ypt between the Red Sea and the 
eaatem margin of the Nile valley, which, even 
a» a part of Egypt» was called Arabia Nomos. 
In the stricter sense of the name, which confines 
it to the peninsula itself Arabia may be consid- 
ered as Ijounded on the north by a Ime from the 
head of the Red Sea (at Suez) to the mouth of 
the Tieris (now SJuU-el- Arab% which just about 
coineiaes with the parallel of thirty degrees north 
latitudes It was divided into Uiree parts: (1.) 
AoABiA Psra^EA {if irerpaia 'Ap'tSia: northwest 
part of EUHejaz\ including the triangular piece 
of land between the two beads of the Red Sea 
(the pouDSula of Mount Sinai) and the country 
immediately to the north and northeast, and 
called, from its capital, Petra, while the literal 
•ignifieauon of the name, *^ Rocky Arabia," agrees 
atto with the nature of the coontry : (2.) Ara- 
bia IhEBsaxA (now Kl-Jebel), including the great 
Syrian Desert, and a portion of the interior of 
the Arabian peninsula : (3.) Arabia Felix (now 
ElrN^td, Ei-Hejaz, £1- Yemen, El-Hadramaut, 
Oman, and El-Hejer) consisted of the whole 
eouutry not included in tiie other two divisions ; 
the ignorance of the ancients respecting the 
interior of the peninsula leading them to class 
it with Arabia Felix, althou^ it properly be- 
IfOogB to Arabia Deserta, for it consists, so ur as 
it is known, of a sandy desert of steppes and 
taUe land, interspersed with Oases ( WaaM\ and 
Ifinged with mountains, between which and the 
sea, especially on the western coasts lies a belt 
of low land (called T€hamak\ intersected by 
numerous mountain torrents, which irrigate the 
^ps of land on their banks, and produce that 
fertility which caused the ancients to apply 
the epithet of Felix to the whole peninsula. 
The width of the Tehamah is, in some places 
00 the western coast, as much as from one to 
two days' journey, but on the other sides it 
is very naiTOW, except at the eastern end of 
the peninsula (about Aftukal in Oman), where 
far a small space its width is again a day's 
journey. The inhabitants of Aralua were of 
the race called Semitic or Aramaan, and closely 
fdated to the Isrselites. The northwestern dis- 
triet (Arabia Petraea) was inhabited by the 
varions tribes which constantly appear in Jew- 
yk faistorr : the Amalekites, Midunites, Edom- 
bas lloabites. Ammonites, Aa. The Greeks 

and Romans calhd the inhabitants by tlie naiue 
of Nabathjki, whose capital was Petra. The 
people of Arabia Deserta were called Arabes 
ScenltiB {lKffvlTai\ from their dwelling in tents^ 
and Arabes Nomades (No/iadej), from their 
mode of life, which was that of wandering 
herdsmen, who supported themselves partly by 
theix cattle, and to a great extent, also, bv iLn 
plunler of caravans, as their unchanged ds 
scendants, the Bedouins or Bedateee, still do 
The people of the Tehamah were (and are) o 
the same race ; but their position led them at 
an early period to cultivate both agriculturti 
and commerce, and to build considerable titiet. 
Their chief tribes were known by the f>llow- 
ing names, beginning south of the Naljathiei 
on the western coast: the Thamydeni and Minaai 
(in the southern part of ffefai)^ in the neigh- 
borhood of Macoraba (now Mecca) ; the Sabsei 
and UomeritsB, in the southwestern part of the 
peninsula (now Yemen); on the southeastern 
coast, the ChatramolItiB and Adramitae (in El- 
HadramatU, a country very little known, even 
to the present day) ; on the eastern and nortii- 
eastem coast, the Omanitse and Daraeheni (in 
Oman, and El-Ahsa or El-Hejer). From the 
earliest known period a considerable traffic 
was carried on by the people in the north (espe 
cially the NabaUuei) by means of caravans 
and by those on the sou&em and eastern coast 
by sea, in the productions of their own coimtry 
(chiefly gums, spices, and precious stones), and 
m those of India and Arabia. Besides tlii« 
peaceful intercourse with the neighboring coi:u 
tries, they seem to have made military expc 
ditions at an early period, for there can be ne 
doubt that the Uyksos or " Sh^^pberd kings," 
who for some time ruled over Lower E^ypt, 
were Arabians. On the other hand, they havs 
successfully resisted all attempts to subjugate 
them. The alleged conouests of some of the 
Assyrian kings could only have affected small 
portions of the country on the north. Of the 
Persian empire we are expressly told that they 
were independent Alexander the Great died 
too soon even to attempt his contemplated 
scheme of circumnavigatii^ the peninsula and 
subduing the inhabitants. The Greek Idngs of 
Syria made unsuccessful attacks upon the Naba- 
thoei. Under Augustu^ ^lius Gallus, assisted 
b^ the Nabathasi, made on expedition into Ara- 
bia Felix, but was compelled to retreat into 
Egypt to save his army from famine and the 
climate. Under Trajan, Arabia Petnea was 
conquered by A. Cornelius Palma (AJ). 107), 
and the country of the Nabathiei became a Ro- 
man province. Some partial and temporary 
footing was gained at a much later period, on the 
southwestern coast, by ihe ^Ethiopians; and 
both in this direction and from the noilh Chris 
tianity was early introduced into the country, 
where it spread to a great extent, and continued 
to exist side by side with the old religion (which 
was Sabaism, or the worship of heavenly bo- 
dies), and with some admixture of Jucmiem, 
until the total revolution produced by the riss 
of Mohammedanism in 622. While maintain 
mg their independence, the Arabs of the Desert 
have also preserved to this day tiieir ancient 
form of government, which is strictly patri- 
archal, under the heads of tribes and families 




{ISmirt aui Sheiks), In the more settled dis- 
tricts, tae patriarchal authority passed into the 
hands of Kings, and the people were divided 
into th« seTeral castes of scholars, warriors, 

S^ricultarists, merchants, and mechanics. The 
ohommedan revolution lies beyond our limits. 

Ahab!cc8 Sinus (6 *Apa6tKdc koXttoc: now 
Red Sea)y a long narrow gulf between Africa 
and Arabia, connected on the south with the 
Indian Ocean by the AngustiiB Divs (now Straits 
of Bab-el-Manaeb)t and on the north divided into 
two heads by the peninsula of Arabia Petriea 
(now Peninsula of ainai), the eact of which was 
called Sinus i£lanites or i£Umiticus (now 0%ilf 
of Akaba), and the west Sinus Heroopolitea or 
Heroopoliticus (now Gulf of Suez). The upper 
part of the sea was known at a very early pe- 
riod, but it was not explored in its whole ex- 
tent till the maritime expeditions of the Ptole- 
mies. Respecting its other name, see EarrH- 
ajccM Makx. 

Aalais i^ApaSiCf also *Apd6iogt 'Ap^tc* ^kpra- 
Cig, and 'kpruSio^: now Poorally or Agbor\ a 
river of Gedrosia, falling into the Indian Ocean 
1000 stadia (100 geographical miles) west of the 
mouth of the Indus, ana dividing the OntsB on 
.its west from the ArabltsB or Arbfes on its 
cast) who had a city named Arbis on its eastern 

Arabitjl Vid, ASABIS. 

[ AsABius (Scholasticus), a Grecian poet, prob- 
ably in the Ume of Justinian, who has left seven 
epigrams, which are found in the Anthologia 

AaAOHNiBDK ( Apa^yaiov), a mountain form- 
n^ the boundary between Argolis and Corin- 

Araghnk, a Lydtan maiden, daughter of Id- 
inon of Colophon, a famous dyer in purple. 
Aracbne excelled in the art of weaving, and, 
proud of her talent, ventured to challenge Mi- 
ucr>a (Athena) to compete with her. Arachne 
produced a piece of cloth in which the amours of 
the gods were woven, and as Minerva (Athena) 
could find no fault with it, she tore the work to 
pieces. Arachne, in despair, hung herself: the 
goddess loosened the rope and saved her life, but 
tlie rope waa chaiiged into a cobweb and Arachne 
Uerselt into a spider (updxi^\ the animal most 
xlious to Minerva (Ath«na)^ (Ov^ Met., y'u, 1, 
»eq.) This fable seems to sujggest the idea that 
nan learned the art of weaving from the spider, 
and that it was invented in Lydia. 

AaACHOSil i^Kpaxuolai *ApaxoToi or -Utoi: 
souifieasternpart of Afghanistan and northeast- 
ern part of Joelooehislan), one of the extreme east- 
ern provinces of the Persian (and afterward of the 
Parthian) empire, bounded on the east by the 
(ndus, on the nordi by the Paropamisadie, on the 
west by Drangiana, and on the south bv Gedro- 
sia. It was a fertile country, watered by the 
River Arachotus, with a town of the same name, 
built by Semiramis, and which was the capital 
of the province until the foundation of Alkxan- 
Pbca. The shortest road from Persia to India 
|>assed through Arachosia. 


AaACHTnus or AaihHO ('ApaxOoc or *Ape(kw : 

now Arta), a river of Epirus, rises in Mount 

Lacmon or the T^mphean Mountains, and flows 

,(oto the Ambrncian Gulf south of Ambracia: 


it is deep and difl.cult to crosa. and navigable uf 
to Ambracia. 

[Aracia ('ApOKia), or Alezandii IqbuIa (now 
Cltaredsch or Karek), an iBland in the Persian 
Gulf, opposite the coast of Persia, containing a 
mountain sacred to Neptune.] 

^ Abaotnthcs {*ApdKwdoc : now Zigo9\ a mount- 
ain on the southwest coast of ^tolia, near Pieu- 
ron, sometimes placed in Acamaniii. LAiet 
writers erroneously make it a mountain between 
BoBotia and AtUca, and hence mention it in con 
nection with Amphion, the Ba^otian hera (Pro 
pert, iii., 18, 41 ; Actaso (t. «. Attioo) Aracyntho, 
Virg, Mel., iu 24.) 

Abadub ( 'Apado^ : *AputUoCf Ar&dlus : in Old 
Testament, Arvad: now Ruad)^ an island oft' 
the coast of Phoenicia, at the diatance of twonty 
stadia (two geographical miles), with a citv whicjj 
occupied the whole surface of the ialanS, seven 
stadia in circumference, which waa aaid to Imvt; 
been founded by exiles from Sidon, and whicij 
was a very flourishing place under ita own kiugd* 
under the Seleucidae, and under the Romans 
It possessed a harbor on the main land, caiJeJ 

Ajljs Philjcnorum. Vid, PHiLjKNoauii Aa^ 

AUiBTHYaiA {'ApaiOvpia), dauffbter of Arss. 
an autochthon who was believed to have built 
Arantea, the most ancient town in l^bliasia 
After her death, her brother Adris called tht 
country of Phliasia Ariethyrea, in honor of hit 

Abaphbn {*Apa/ipifv: *Apaf^vioc, 'Apa^ifvodnn 
now Rafina), an Attic demus belonging to the 
tribe iE^eis, on the east of Attica, north of thi 
River Erasinus, not far from its mouth. 

Arar or Araris (now Sadne), a river of Gaul, 
rises in the Vosges, receives the Dubts (now 
Doubs) from the east, after which it becomei 
navigable, and flows with a quiet stream into the 
Rhone at Lugdunum (now Lyon), In the time 
of Ammianus (AJD. 870) it waa also called Sau 
eonnOf and in tlie Middle Ages Sang ma, whence 
its modem name Sa&ne. 

[Ararunb ('Apapiivn)j a barret< district of 
Arabia Felix, inhabited by nomad tribes, through 
which iElius Gallus had to make his way in his 
unsuccessful attempt to subjugate Arabia.] 

AbarOs ('Apapuc)t an Athenian poet of the 
Middle Comedy, son of Aristophanes, flourislied 
B.G. 375. [The frsjgments of his comedies are 
collected in Meineke's Fragm, Comic. Grcec^ vol 
i., p. 630-682, edit minor.] 

Abas. Vid. AjLarHTBKA. 

ABASPxa ('Apdffntf^), a Mede, and a fiicnd ot 
the elder Gyrus, is one of the characters in Xen 
ophon's Cyropssdia. He contends with Cyrui 
that love has no power over him, but shortly af 
terward refutes nimself by falling in love with 
Panthea, whom Cyrus had committed to his 
charge. Vid, Abbadata& 

Aratus {'Aparoc), 1. The celebrated geocnd 
of the Achieant, son of Clinias, was lx>m at 
Sicyon, RC. 271. On the murder of his father 
by Abantidas, Aratus, who was then a child, was 
conveyed to Argos, where he was brought up. 
When he had reached the age of twenty, he 

Sained possession of his native city, EC. W, 
eprived the usurper Mcocles of his power, and 
united Sicyon to the Achiean league, whict 
gained, in consequence, tL^-grent acfession of 



•wirei Vid Ac&si Id 245 he was elected 
l^euenj of the league, which office he frequently 
held in Bobeequeot jean. Through his influ- 
ence a great number of the Greek cities joined 
the league ; but he excelled more in negotiation 
than in war, and in his war with the JStoliaus 
and Spartans he was often defeated. In order 
to resist these enemies^ he cultivated the friend- 
ahip of AntigoouB Doeon, king of Macedonia, 
aoa of his suoeessor Philip ; but as Philip was 
erideotlj anxious to make himself master of all 
Greece, dtasensions arose between him and Ara- 
toe, and the latter was eventually poisoned in 
2 IS, by the king's order. Divine honors were 
paid to him by nis countrymen, and an annual 
featiTal ('Apurrca, vid. Diet, of Anliq.) establish- 
ed. Aratus wrote CommentarieSf being a his- 
tory of his own times down to B.C. 220, at 
wbicb point Poltbius oommenced his history. 
— 2. Of Soli, alteniard Pompeiopolis, in Cilieia, 
or (aeeording to one authority) of Tarsus, flour- 
ahed RC. 270, and spent all the latter part of 
his life at the court of Antigonus Gonatas, king 
of Macedonia. He wrote two astronomical po- 
ems, entitled Phcmamena {^aivSfJxva), consisting 
of 782 Terse«, and Diosemeia (^loaitj^ia), of 432. 
Hie design of the Ph^gnomena is to give an in- 
troduction %o the knowledge of the constella- 
tioDS) with the rules for their risings and set- 
tboga. The Diosemeia consists of prognostics 
of the weather fi*om astronomical piMenomena, 
with an account of its effects upon auimals. It 
appears to be an imitation of Hesiod, and to 
have been imitated by Virgil in some parts of 
the GeorKica. The style of these two poems is 
diitingui»ied by elegance and accuracy, but it 
WLntB originality and poetic elevatioa That 
ther became very popular both in the Grecian 
aLQ Roman world (cum sole et luna temper Ara- 
tus erit^ Or., Am^ i, 16, 16), is proved by the 
number of commentaries and Latm translations. 
Parts of three poetical Latin translations are 
preserved. One written by Cicero when very 
young, one by Cssar Germanicus, the grand- 
son of Augustus, and one by Festus Avienus. 
^EiKti&H*. [Most copious and complete, by 
BoUe, Lips^ 1793-1801, 2 toIs. ; later, with re- 
visied textj, bv Vos^ Heidelb., 1824, with a Ger- 
man poetical version; by Buttmann, Berol., 
1826 ; and by Bekker, Berol, 1828. 

[Ajlauba (now St, 7\beri\ earlier CessSro, a 
town of the Volcae Arccomici, on the Arauris, 
in Gallia Karbonensia] 

AaAuaiB (now Hera\dt\ erroneously Rauraris 
m Strabo, a river in Gallia Narbonensis, rises 
in Mount Cevenna, and flows into the Mediter- 

AraobIo (now Orange) a town of the Cavari 
or Cavares, and a Roman colony, in Gallia Nar- 
bonensis, on the road from Arelate to Vienna : 
it still contains remains of an amphitheatre, 
dreus. aequeduct, triumphal arch, &e. 

Akaxb {^kpd^\ the name of several rivers. 
—1. In Armenia Major (now Eraskk or Ara»), 
rises in Monnt Aba or Abus ^near Brzeroum), 
from the opposite side of whicn the Euphrates 
flows; and, after a great bend southeast, and 
;h«n northeast, joins the Cyrus (now Kour\ 
which flows down from the Caucasus, and fidls 
vith it icto the Caspian by two mouths, in about 
19* SO' norti' Utitude. The lower part, past Aa- 

TAXATA, flows curough a plain, which was oad* 
ed rd 'Apo^dv neiiov. The Araxes was pro* 
verbial for the force of its current ; and hence 
Virgil (-dFn, viii., 728) says pontem indiffnatu* 
Araxesy with special reference to the failure of 
both Xerxes and Alexander in throwing a bridga 
over it It seems to be the Phasis of Xeno 
pbon. — 2. In MesopotamiiL Vid. ABOaaHAa. 
— 3. In Persis (now Bend-£hnir), the river on 
which Persepolis stood, rises in the mountaius 
east of the head of the Persian Gulf, and flows 
southeast into a salt lake (now Bakhtegan) not 
far below Persepolis. — 4. It is doubtful whether 
the Araxes of Herodotus is the same as the 
Oxus, Jaxartes, or Volga. — 6. The Pxnxus, in 
Thessaly, was called Araxes from the violence 
of its torrent (from dpdaao), 

Aeaxus {'Apa^oc : now Cape Papa), a prom- 
ontory of Acbaia, near the oonfinos of EUs. 

AjuIgxs {'Ap6dKvc)y the founder of the Medi- 
an empire, according to Ctesias, is said to have 
taken Ifineveh in conjunction with Belesis, the 
Babylonian, and to have destroyed the old As- 
svrian empire under the reign of Sardanapalus, 
D.C. 876. Ctesias assigns twenty-eight years 
to the reign of Arbaces, B.C. 876-848, and 
makes his dynasty consist of eifht kings. This 
account dififers from that of Herodotus, who 
makes Dxiocss the first king of Media, and as- 
signs onl^ four kings to his dynasty. 

Aebkla (rd 'ApoffXa : now Erbille\ a city of 
Adiabene in Assyria, between the rivers Lycus 
and Caprus ; celebrated as the head-quarters of 
Darius Codomannus before the last battle in 
which he was overthrown by Alexander (B.C. 
331), which is hence frequently caiUed the battle 
of Arbela, thougl) it was really fought near Gau 
GAMELA, about fifty miles west of Arbela. The 
district about Arbela was called Arbelitis ('Ap- 

AaBia Vid. AaABis. 

[Arbheb. Vid PxraoKius.] 

Arbuoala or AkbooAla (now Villa Fasi/afy 
the chief town of the Vaccai in Hispania Tar- 
raconensis, taken by Hannibal after a long re- 

Abbusc^la, a celebrated female' actor in pan- 
tomimes in the time of Cicero. 

Abca or -jE {'ApKff or -ai : now Tell'Arka\ a 
very ancient city in the north of Phoenicia, not 
far from the sea-coast, at the foot of Mount 
Lebanon : a colony under the Romans, named 
Area Cffisarea or Cmsarea Libani: the birth- 
place of the Emperor Alexander Severus. 

ArcadIa (*ApKadta : 'Apiccf, pL 'Ap«a(Icf), a 
country in the middle of Peloponnesus, was 
bounded on Uie east bv Argolis, on the north bv 
Achaia, on the west by Mis, and on the south 
by Messenia and Laconica. Next to Laconics 
it was the largest country in the Peloponnesus 
its greatest length was about &Sty miles, it» 
breadth from thirty-five to forty-one miles. It 
was surrounded on all sides by mountains 
which likewise traversed it in every direction 
and it may be regarded as the Switzerland of 
Greece, its principal mountains were Cyllent 
and Erymantnus in the north, Artemisius in the 
east, and Parthenius, Msenalus, and Lycieus in 
the south and southwest The AlphAus, the 
greatest river of Peloponnesus, rises m Arcadia, 
and flows through a considerable part of thr 



•ou&lry, . .•ueiviDg numerons afSuenU. The 
nortlieiu and eaBtern parts of the countrj were 
barren and uDproductare ; the weeteni and 
•onthem were more fertile, with numerous val- 
leyi where com was grown. The Arcadians, 
laid to be descended from the eponymous hero 
Aboas, regarded thenselves as the most ancient 
people in Greece: the Greek writers call them 
mdigenouB (airroxSovec) and Pelasgians. In con- 
sequence of the physical peculiarity of the coun- 
try, they were (diiefly employed in hunting and 
the tending of cattle, whence their worship of 
Pan, who was especiidly the god of Arcadia, and 
of Diana (Artemis). They were a people sim- 
ple in their habits and moderate in then* desires : 
they were pissionately fond of music, and cul- 
tivated it with great success (soli eatUare periti 
Areadea, Virg., Bcl^ z., 82), which circumstance 
was supposed to soften the natural roughness 
of their character. The Arcadians experienced 
fewer changes than any other people in Greece, 
and retained possession of their country upon 
the conquest of the rest of Peloponnesus b^ the 
Dorians. like the other Greek communities, 
they were originally goyemed by kings, but are 
said to have abolished monarchy toward the 
close of the second Messenian war, and to haye 
stoned to death their last king Aristocrates, be- 
cause he betrayed his allies the Meeseniajis. 
The different towns then became independent 
republics, of which the most important were 
Mantinea, Teqea, Orchomenvb, Psophis, and 
Phkneos. Like the Swiss, the Arcadians fre- 
quently served as mercenaries, and in the Pelo- 
pounesian war, they were found in the armies 
of both the Lacedaemonians and Athenians. 
The Lacediemonians made many attempts to 
obtain possesBion of parts of Arcadia, but these 
attempts were finally frustrated by the battle 
of Leuctra(B.C. 871); and in order to resist 
all future aggressions on the part of Sparta, 
the Arcadians, upon the advice of Epami- 
nondos, built the city of Meoalopolis. and in- 
stituted a eeneral assembly of the whole na- 
tion, called ttie Myrii (Mvp/ot, vid. Diet, of Antiq^ 
9. v.). They subsequently joined the Achaean 
League, and finally became subject to the Ro- 

Ajloadiub, emperor of the East (A.D. 896- 
408), elder son of Theodosius I., was bom in 
Spain, A.D. 888. On the death of Theodosius 
he became emperor of the East, while the West 
was given to his younger brother Honorius. 
Arcamus possessed neither physical nor intel- 
lectual vigor, and was entirely governed by un- 
woi*thy favorites. At first he was ruled by Ru- 
finus, the pnefect of the East ; and on the mur- 
der of the latter soon after the accession of 
Areadius, the government fell into the hands of 
the eunuch Eutropius. Eutropius was put to 
death in 899, and his power now devolved upon 
Gamas, the Goth ; but upon his revolt and death 
in 401, Areadius became entirely dependent upon 
his wife Eudozia, and it was t/irough her influ- 
ence that Saint Chrysostom wus exiled in 404. 
Areadius died on the first of May, 408, leaving 
the empire to his son, Theodosius II., who was 
a minor. 

[Abgadius ('Ap/cu<5toc), a Greek grammarian 
j{ Antiocb, of uncertain date, but certainly not 
Kiirlier than 200 A J>. He wrote a useful work 

on accebts {tcepl rSvuv)^ which is eztant. — ftJk 
Hofu: By Barker, Leipzig, 1820, aDdbyDinioif 
in his OrammaL Oraei^ Leipzig, ld28.J 

AboInuk. Vtd, Arpinum. 

AaoAS ('Apxoc), king and eponymoiiis hero of 
the Arcadians, son of Jupiter (Zeus) and Oal- 
listo, grandson of Lycaon, and fiather of A^hidaa 
and Elatus. Areas was the boy Tvbose flesh 
his grandfather Lycaon placed before Jupiter 
(Zeus), to try his divine character. Jupiter 
{Zous) upset the table {rpdirt^a) which bore the 
dish, and destroyed the house of Ljcaoa by light- 
ning, but restored Areas to life. When Areas 
haff grown up, he built on the si/e of his father's 
house the town of Trapezus. Areas and hii 
mother were placed by Jupiter ^Zous) among 
the stars. 

ArcSsilAub or AroSsIuls ('A/>/rf.7/^a.x'> 'ApKt- 
aiXa^), a Greek philosopher, son of S<iuthe8 or 
Scythes, was bom at Pitane in .^Eolis, acd flour 
ished about B.C. 250. He studied at first in 
his native town under Autolycus, a mathema- 
tician and afterward went to Athens, where he 
became the disciple first of Theophrastus, and 
next of Polemo and of Grantor. He succeeded 
Orates about B.O. 241 in the chair of the Acad- 
emy, and became the founder of the second or 
middle {uhrri) Academy. He is said to have 
died in nis seventy-sixth year from a fit of 
drunkenness. His philosophy was of a skep- 
tical character, though it did not go so £ir as 
that of the follDwers of Pyrrhon. He did not 
doubt the existence of truth in itself^ only oui 
capacities for obtaining it, and he oombatet 
most strongly the dogmatism of the Stoics. 

ARoisfLlus ('ApKecr/Xaoc). 1. Son of Lycui 
and Theobule, leader of the Bodotiacs in th« 
Trojan war, slain by Hector. — 2. The name of 
four kings of Gyrene. Vid. Battus and Bat- 
TiADJB. — [8. A Sicilian, who accompanied 
Agathodes to Africa, but, on the departure of 
the latter from that country, murdered his soc 
Archagathus. — 4. A sculptor in the first cen- 
tuiy B.O., who was held in high esteem al 
Rome : he was intimate with L. Lentulus, and 
was greatly commended by Varro.] 

Aaofi^us ('A/Mce£(Ttoc), son of Jupiter ^Zeus) 
and Euryodia, father of Laertes, and grandfather 
of Ulysses. Hence both Laertes and Ulysfca 
are called Areesiades {'ApKeunddtji;). 

AacaAdpdus (*Apxai67roXic\ the later capital 
of Oolchis, near the River Phasis. 

[AacHAOATHUs. Vid Arobbilaub, 8.] 

AaoHANDRdpdLis {*Apxuv6pov flroXtf ), a city oJ 
Lower Egypt, on tiie Nile, between Ganopus 
and Gercasorna 

[ArchebItxs {'kpxe6dTTi^\ son of Lycaon, 
destroyed by Jupiter (2^us) by lightning.) 

AacHftnftiius ('Apx^dnfUK; Dor. 'Apx^dofioc). 
1. A popubir leader at Athens, took the first 
step against the generals who had gained the 
battle of ArginusiB, B.O. 406. The comic poeto 
called him ** blear-eyed" {y^fuw), and said that 
he was a foreigner, and had obtained the fran- 
chise by fraud—S. An i£tolian (ealled Arobi- 
damus by Livy), commanded the iEtolian troopj 
which assisted the Romans in their war with 
PhiUp (RO. 19«-197). He afterward took so 
active part against the Romans, and eventasl- 
ly joined Perseus, whom he acoompanied in hw 
flight after his defeat in f^fyAM(''''^'"' ' 



6Coie ululoeoplier, mentioned by Cioero^ Stf .*«ica, 
and otner ancieut writers. 

AaflHJCDiooa {'ApxediKO^), an Athenian <3omic 
poet of the new comedy, supported Antipater 
and the Macedonian party. 

AaoBftoATEB i''i^ffXf7^^TK)> A surname of 
Apolloi, probably in reference to his being a 
Isadar of eolooiea. It was also a surname of 
other gods. 

AanntLAis ('ApxcAoic). 1. In Cappadocia 
{now AJuerai% on the Cappadoz* a tributary of 
the Halya, a city founded oy Archelaus, the last 
king of GappadociJL, and made a Roman colony 
tj the Emperor Claudius. — 2. A town of Pales- 
tine, near Jericho* founded by Arehelaus, the 
fon of Herod the Great 

AacHtLACs {'Afixi^aoc), 1. Son of Hxaon 
the Greatk was appointed by his fcither as his 
successor, and received from Aiigustus Jadiea, 
Samaria, and Idumaea, with the tide of ethnarch. 
In eooaeqoence of his tyrannicnl government, 
the Jews accused him before Augustus in the 
tenth year of his reign (AJ). 7): Augustus 
banished him to Vienna in Gaul, where he died. 
—2. King of Macedonia (B.C. 413-399), an il- 
kgitimate son of Perdiccas IL, obtained the 
tltfone by the murder of his half-brother. He 
impTOTed the internal condition of his kingdom, 
and was a warm patron of art and literature. 
His palace was adorned with magnificent paint- 
fEgs by Zeuzis ; and Euripides, Agathou, and 
other men of eminence, were among his guests. 
Aeeording to some accounts, ArchcUus was ac- 
eidently slain in a hunting party by his favorite, 
Gratenis or Crateuas; but, according to other 
aeeooDts. he waa murdered by Craterua — 8. A 
diitiiKaiahed general of MiTHaAOATES. In B. 
C 87 he was sent into Greece by Mithradates 
with a larape fleet and army; at first he met 
vith considerable success, but was twice de- 
feated by Sulla in 86, near Cbieronea and Or- 
chomeous in Boeotia, with immeose loss. There- 
upon he was commissioned by Mithradates to 
ne for peace, which he obtained; but subse- 
qoentlr oeing suspected of treachery by the 
ki»«, he deserted to the Romans just before 
Vbe oommenoemeut of the second Mithradatie 
war, EC. 81, — i. Son of the preceding, was 
niaed br Pompev, in B.C. 63, to the dignity of 
priest of the goddess (Enyo or Bellona) at Oo- 
naoam Pontus or Cappadocia. In 66 or 66 
Arehelaus V^^came king of £|gypt by marrying 
Berenice, the daughter of Ptolemy Auletes, who, 
ifter the expulsion of her father, had obtained 
%e lovereieiU^ of Egypt Arehelaus, however, 
vu long o? E«ypt only for six months, for Ga- 
oiuius marohed with an army into E^ypt in or- 
der to restore Ptolemy Auletes, and m the bat- 
tie whk^ ensued, Arahelaus perishedL — 6. Son 
of N<K 4, and his successor in the office of hi^h- 
prieSL if Comana, was deprived of his dignity 
(7 Julius GsBsar in 47.—^. Son of No. 6, re- 
eeired from Antony, in B.C. 86, the hingdom 
c( Cappadocia, a favcr which he owed to the 
thaims of his mother Olaphyrk After the bat- 
tle of A/f*»""», Octavianos not only left Arehe- 
hcs in the posaeaaion of his kingdom, but sub- 
MqaenUy aaded to it a part of CiBciaand Lesser 
Armenia. But, havinff incurred the enmity of 
Tiberias by the attention wliieh he had paid to 
(*• Oaeaar hi waa soinroonei U Rome soon after 

the accession of Tiberius and accused >i ii««- 
son. His life was spared, but he was obliged 
to remain at Rome, where he died soon after 
AJ). 17. Cappadocia was then made a Roman 
province. — 7. A philosopher, probably bora at 
Athens, though others make him a native of 
Miletus, flourished about RO. 460. Tbe^philo 
sophical system of Arehelaus is remarkable, as 
forming a point of transition from the older to 
the newer form of philosophy in Greece. As a 
pupil of Anazagoras, he belonged to the Ionian 
school, but he fulded to the physical system of 
his teacher some attempts at moral specuUiion. 
— 8. A Greek poet, in £gypt, lived under the 
Ptolemies, and wrote epigrams, some of which 
are still extant in the Greek Anthology. — 9. A 
sculptor of Priene, son of ApoUonius, made the 
marble bas-relief representing the Apotheosis of 
Homer, which formerly belonged to the Colon- 
na family at Rome, and is now in the Townley 
Gallery of the British Museum. He probably 
lived in the reign of Claudius. 

[ArchklCohub {*Apxl^h)Xo^)i «« 0^ the Tro- 
jan Antenor ; slain by Ajax.] 

[AacHKMACHUS {'Apx^/jtaxoc)y a greek his- 
torian of £ub(Ba, who wrote a work on his na- 
tive country (ra EidoiKu), consisting of at least 
three booka] 

AaoHiMdaus {'Apxsfiopo^), or Opheltxs, sou 
of the Nemean king Lycurgus and Eurydioe. 
When the Seven heroes, on their expedition 
Against Thebes, stopped at Nemea to obtain 
water, Hypsipyle, the nurse of the child Ophel- 
tes, while showing the way to the Seven, left 
the child alone. In the meantime, the child 
was killed by a dragon, and buried by the Sovea 
But as Amphiaraus saw in tliis accident an 
omen boding destruction to him and his 00m- 
pauiuos, they called the child Archemorus, that 
IS, "Forerunner of Death," and instituted the 
Nemean games in honor of him. 

[AacHJEPTOLiMUS (*ApxeTrT6Xe/Mg\ son of Iph 
it us, charioteer of Hector, was shun by Teucer.] 

[AaciusTaXTi/S CApx^^rrpaToc), one of the ten 
goierals appointea to supersede Alcibiades in 
the command of the Athenian fleet, after the 
battle of Notium, B.C. 407.— 2. A member of 
the povX^ at Athens, who, during the siege of 
the city, after the battle of JSguspotami, B C 
406, was thrown into prison for advising capitu- 
lation on the terms proposed by Sparta.] 

AeohxstpXtub ('ApxecTpaTog), of Gela or Syi"- 
acuse, about B.C. 360, wrote a poem on the Art 
of Cookery, which was imitated or translated 
byEoniusin his Carmiua Hed}fpaUteiica or Hedy- 
paihiea (from ^SvTrdOeia). 

[Abchbtius, a companion of Turaus, slain by 

Abohias {*Apxiac)' 1* -An Heraclid of Corinth 
left his country in consequence of the death of 
AoTJEON, and founded Syracuse, B.C. 784, by 
command of the Delphic oracle. — [2. A Theban 
who betrayed the citadel (Cadmea) to the Spar 
tan commander Pbcsbidas, B.C. S82. He was 
at the head of the paitv in the interest of Spar- 
ta, but was shun bv the Theban exiles under 
Pelopidas. — 8. Of THOau, oriiooally an actor 
was sent, B.C. 822, after the battle of CranoQ, 
to apprehend the orators whom Aotifpater had 
demanded of the Athenians, and who had fled 
from Athens. Vid. HYPicamKs and Dimostiz^^ 

85 ! 



ffKtt. He was Dicknamed ^'yadod^jpar^ **€xile- 
huDte*- ," aod ended his life, as he deserved, in 
poverty and disgrace.] — 4. A. Lioinius Abohias, 
a Greek poct> l^m at Autiooh in Sjrria, about 
B.C. 120, very early obtained celebrity by his 
verses. In 102 he came to Rome, and was re- 
ceived in the most friendly way by many of the 
Roman nobles, especially by the Luculli, from 
whom be afterward obtained the gentile name 
of Licinius. After a short stay at Rome he ac- 
oompanied L. LucuUus, the elder, to Sicily, and 
followed him, in the banishment to which he 
was sentenced for his management of the slave 
war in that island, to Heraolea in Lucauia, in 
which town Archias was enrolled as a citizen ; 
and as this town was a state united with Rome 
by tifadut, he subsequently obtained the Ro- 
man franchise in accordance with the lex Plau- 
tia Papiria passed in RO. 89. At a later time 
be accompanied L. LucuUus the younger to 
the Mithradatio war. Soon after his return, a 
charge was brought against him in 61 of as- 
suming the citizenship illegally, and the trial 
come on before Q. Cicero, who was prastor this 
year. He was defended by his friend M. Cicero 
m the extant speech Fro Arehia^ in which the 
orator, after briefly discussing the legal points 
of the case, rests Uie defence of his client upon 
his surpassing merits as a poet, which entitled 
him to the Roman citizenship. We may pre- 
sume that Archias was acquitted, though we 
have no formal statement of the &ct. Archias 
wrote a poem on the Cimbric war in honor of 
Marius ; another on the Mithradatic war in hon- 
or of LucuUus ; and at the time of his trial was 
engaged on a poem in honor of Cicero's con- 
sulship. No fragments of these works are ex- 
tant ; and it is doubtful whether the epigrams 
preserved under the name of Archias in the 
Greek Anthology were really written by him. 

[Arghidamia {*Apxi^futa\ the priestess of 
Ceres (Demeter) at Sparta, who, tnrough love 
of Aristomenes, set him at Uberty when he had 
been taken prisoner. — 2. A Spartan woman, who 
distinguished herself by her heroic spirit wheu 
Sparta was nearly taken by Pyrrhus in B.C. 
272, and opposed the plan which had been en- 
tertained of sending the women to Crete.] 

ARCHiDAifus (*Apxi^<ifioc), the name of five 
kmgs of Sparta. 1. Son of Anaxidamus, con- 
temporary with the Tegeatan war, which fol- 
lowed soon after the second Messenian, B.C. 
668. — 2. Son of Zeuxidamus, succeeded his 
ginrndfather Lcoty chides, and reigned B.C. 469- 
427. During his reign, B.C. 464, Sparta was 
made a heap of ruins by a tremendous earth- 
quake ; and for the next ten years he was en- 
Si%ed in war against the revolted Helots and 
essenians. Toward the end of his reign the 
Peloponnesian war broke out: he recommend- 
ed his countrymen not rashly to embark in the 
war, and he appears to have taken a more cor- 
rect view of the real strength of Athens than 
any other Spai-tan. After the i»ar had been de- 
ckred (B.C. 431) he invaded Attica, and held 
the supreme command of the Peloponnesian 
forces UU his death in 429.^8. Grandson of No. 
8, and son of Agesibius II., reigned KG. 861- 
S88. During the lifetime of his father he took 
an active part in resisting the Thebans and the 
various otner enemies of Sparta, aod in 867 he 

defeated the Arcadians >nd Argi^ea m tiic 
"Tearless Battle." so caUed because be bad 
won it without losing a man. In 362 he Je- 
fended Sparta against Epaminondas. In the 
third Sacred war (B.C. 856-346) he assietel 
the Phocians. In 838 he went to Italy to aid 
the Tarentines against the Lucanians, and there 
fell in battle. — 4. Grandson of No. 8, and boo 
of Eudomidas I., was king in B.C. 296, wher 
he was defeated by Demetrius PoL'^' rcctes — 6 
Son of Eudamidas IL, and the brother of Agic 
IV. On the murder of Agis, in B.O. 240, Ar 
chidamus fled from Spaita, but afterward ob 
tained the throne by means of Aratua. He was. 
however, slain almost immediately after his re 
turn to Sparta. He was the last kingp of the 
Eurypootid race. 

AacHfo^NEs (*Kpxi'yevff^), an eminent Greek 
physician born dt Apamea in Syria, praotieed 
at Rome in the time of Trajan, A.D. 98-117. 
He published a treatise on the pulse, on which 
Galen wrote a Commentary. He waa the most 
eminent physician of the sect of the Eclectid, 
and is mentioned by Juvenal as well as by other 
writers. Only a few fragments of bis works re- 

ABCHiLdcHus (*Apxi^xpc\ of Faroe, waa one 
of the earliest Ionian lytic poets, and the firat 
Greek poet who composed Iambic verses 80001x1- 
ing to nxed rules. He flourished abont B.C. 714- 
676. He was descended from a noble family, 
who held the priesthood in Paros. His grand- 
father was Tellis, his father Telesicles and his 
mother a slave, named Enipo. In the flower 
of his age (between B.C. 710 and 700), ArdiiJo- 
chus went from Paros to Thasos with a colony, 
of wliich one account makes him the leader. 
The motive for this emigration can only be oon- 
jectured. It was most probably the result of 
a political change, to whiish cause was added, 
in the case of Archilochus, a sense of personal 
wrongs. He had been a suitor to Neobule, one 
of the daughters of Lycambes, who first prom- 
ised and afterwaixl refused to give his daughter 
to the poet Enraged at this treatment, Archil- 
ochus attacked the whole family in an Iambic 
Soem, accusing Lycambes of perjury, and his 
aughters of the most abandoned lives. The 
verses were recited at the festival of Ceres 
(Demeter), and produced such an effect, that 
the daughters of Lycambes are said to have 
hung themselves thi-ough shame. The bitter- 
ness which he expresses in his poems toward 
his native island seems to have arisen is part 
also from the low estimation in which he was 
held, as being the son of a slave. Neither was 
he more happy at Thasos. He draws the most 
melancholy picture of his adopted country, wl iob 
he at length quitted in disgust. While at Tba 
SOB, he incurred the disgrace of losing his shield 
in an engagement with the Thracians of the op- 
posite continent ; but instead of being ashamed 
of the disaster, he recorded it in his verse. At 
length he returned to Paros, and in a war be- 
tween the. Parians and the people of Naxo^ 
he fell by the hand of a Naxian named Caloodas 
or Ooraz. ArchUochus shared with bis con- 
temporaries, Thaletas and Terpander, io tb« 
honor of establishing lyric poetry throughout 
Greece. The invention of the elegy is asciihed 
to him, at well as to Callinuo : but- t| was os 



^m aatiTii lambio poetry that hw fame was 
IcMMKied. Hi« Iambics expressed the strongest 
feelh^M in the moat UDmeasured laDguage. The 
lieenee of loniaa democracy and the bitterness 
of a disappMoted man irere united with the 
higl&est d^ree of Ppetical {K>wer to give them 
ibroe and point The emotion aooomited most 
ccMMpMuoos in his yerses was ** rage," ** Archi- 
lofthnm |.roprio ra&ies armavit iambo." (Hor., 
Ars. FoU^ 19.) The fragments of Archilochus 
are «)Uected in Bergk's Poti. Lyriei Orcte.^ and 
by Xiebe], Arckifoehi Reliquim^lApi^ 1812, 8vo; 
[id edit, somewhat enlarged, Vienna, 1818, 8yo.] 
Abchihjbdeb {'Apxifv^cjt of Syracuse, the 
moat fiunouB of ancient mathematicians, was 
bom B.C. S87. He was a fHend, if not a kins- 
man, of Hiero^ though his actual condition in 
life does not seem to have been eleyated. In 
the early part of his life he trayelled into Egypt, 
where be studied under Conon the Samian, a 
nuitlieaiatictan and astronomer. After yisitiug 
other eoontries, he returned to Syracuse. Here 
he eoQstructed for Hiero yarious engines of war, 
whieh, many years afterward, were so far ef- 
fectual in the defence of Syracuse against Mar- 
eellaa as to oonyert the siege into a blockade, 
and delay the taking o( the city for a consider- 
able time. The accounts of the performances 
of these engines are eyideotly exaggerated ; and 
the story of the burning of the Koman ships by 
the reflected rays of Uie sun, though yery cur- 
i-eot in later times, is probably a fiction. He 
superintended the building of a shin of extraor- 
dinary sixe for Hiero, of which a aescription is 
giyeo in Athenieus (y., p. 206, d.), where he is 
abo said to haye moyed it to the sea by the help 
of a serew. He inyented a machine called, from 
its form. Cochlea, and now known as the water- 
screw of Archimedes, for pumping the water 
out of the bold of Uiis yesseL His most cele- 
brated performance was the construction of a 
tpkere; a kind of orrery, representing the moye- 
ments of the heayenly bodies. When Syracuse 
was taken (B.G. 212), Archimedes was killed 
hy the Soman soldiers, being at the time intent 
upon a mathematical problem. Upon his tomb 
was placed the figure of a sphere inscribed in 
a cylinder. When Cicero was quaestor in Sicily 
(75), he foond this tomb near one of the gates 
of the dty, almost bid among briers, and for- 
gotten by the Syracusons. The intellect of Ar- 
chimedes was of the yery highest order. He 
pos s e nscd , in a degree ueyer exceeded, unless 
oy KewtoD, the inventiye genius which discoy- 
ers new proyinces of inquiry, and finds new 
points of yiew for old and familiar objects ; the 
clearness of conception which is essential to 
the reaolution of complex phenomena into their 
ronstitoent elements; and the power and habit 
of loteDBe and persevering thought* without 
which other intellectual gifts are comparatitely 
fruitleaa. The following works of Archimedes 
haye eonoe down to us : 1. On EquipondtranU 
m»d Centre* of Gravity. 2. The QuwitcUure of 
Uu Parabola, 8. On the Sphere and Cylinder. 
4. Om JHmenaion of the Circle. 6. On Spirals. 
1 On Conoide and Spheroids. 7. The Arenarine. 
8. Oh Floating Boaiee, 9. Lemmata. The best 
editioo of his works is by Torelli, Oxun^ 1792. 
Ilicre is a French tran?la ion of his works, with 
ooCea. by F. Peyrard. 'aris. 1808, and an En- 

glish translation of tlu* Arenarius hy (}. Amlei 
•on, London, 1784. 

^ AiiCBfNus i^Apxlvoc)^ one of the leading Athe 
nians, who, with Thrasybulus and Anytus, oya^ 
threw the goyemment of the Thirty, B,G. 408. 

Aaomppcs (^Apximro^), an Athenian poet of 
the old comed;r» About B.C. 415. [The fraff 
ments of Archippus are collected in Meinekei 
Fragm. Comic. Oracor., yol. i, p. 408-415, edit, 

[Aechippus, an ancient king of the Marrubu 
in Italy, one of the allies of Turnus in his war 
with iEneas.] 

AacHffTAa {^kpxvracy, 1. Of Amphissa, a 
Greek epic poet, flourished about B!C. 300. — 2 
Of Tarentum, a distinguished philosopher, mat^ 
ematidan, general, and statesman, probably Uy 
ed about B.C. 400, and onward, so that he was 
contemporary with Plato, whose life he is said 
to haye sayed by his influence with the tyrant 
Dion^sius. He was seyen times the general of 
his city, and he commanded in several cam- 
paigns, in all of which he was yictorious. After 
a lue which secured to him a place among the 
very greatest men of antiquity, ne was drowned 
while upon a voyage on the Adriatic (Hor., 
Carm.y i., 28.) As a philosopher, he belonged 
to the Pythagorean school, and he appears to 
have been himself the founder of a new sect 
Like the Pythagoreans in general, he paid much 
attention to mathematics. Horace calls him 
maris et terra numeroqtie earentis arence Menso- 
rem. To his theoretical science he added the 
skill of a pratical mechanician, and oousti'ucted 
yarious machines and automatons, among which 
his wooden flying dove in paftioular was the 
wonder of antiquity. He also applied mathe- 
matics with success to musical scieuce, and 
eyen to metaphysical philosophy. His influence 
as a philosopher was so great, that Plato was 
undouDtedly indebted to him for some of his 
views ; ana Aristotle is thought by some wiiters 
to have borrowed the idea of his categories, as 
well as some of his ethical principles, from Ar- 
chytas. [The fragments of Archytas are pub- 
lished in part by Qale, Opusc. JMythol.^ Cantab., 
1671, Arast, 1688; aud more fully by Orelii, 
Opusc. SentenL et MorcU., vol il, p. 234, segg.] 

AacoNNfisus ('ApKow^ooc: ^ ApKowrjaio^). 1. 
An island off the coast of Ionia, near Lebedus, 
also called Asms and Macris. — 2. (Now Orak 
Ada\ an island off the coast of Cana, opposite 
Halicamassus, of which it formed the harbor. 

AacriMus ('Apxrtvof), of Miletus, the most 
distinguished among the cycUo poets, probably 
liyed about B.C. 776. Two epic poems were, 
attributed to him. 1. The uElhiopis, which was 
a kind of continuation of Homer's Jliad : its 
chief heroes were Memnon, king of the i£thio 
pians, and AchiUes, who slew him. 2. The i>«- 
strttction of llion^ which contained, a description 
of the destruction of Troy, and the Bubsequeni 
events until the departure of the Greeks. [The 
fraementa of Arctinus have been collected by 
DUbner, Homeri Carm. et Cyeli Epici Jtelig^ 
Paris, 1837, and by Duntcer, Die Fragm. des ep, 
Pocsie bis auf ^Zfx.,'K6ln, 1840 ; and Nachlrag^ 
p. 16, Koln, 1841.] 

AacroPBi^LAX. Vxd. Aacrus. 

ARCToe ('ApKTOf), " the Bear," two constella>. 
Urns near tbe North Pole. 1. Tiw Ge'at Bkai 





yJipK^OQ fiLjUAij: Uma Major), als) called the 
Wagcn (d^o^a : plauMrwn), Thi) aocieDt Ital- 
ian OAine of this coDstellatioD was Sepietn Tri- 
ontSt that is, the Seven J^loughing Ozen^ also Sep- 
tenirio, and with the epithet M<yor to diistii^uish 
it from the Septentrio Minora or Letter Sear: 
hcDce Vii-gil {j£n^ ill, 866) speaks of geminot- 
itte Trione». The Great Bear was also called He- 
ice (kXiATi) from its sweeping round in a curve. — 
2. The LifssEa or LrrrLE Beab ('ApKrof; /UKpu : 
Una Minor), likewise called the Wagon^ was 
first added to the Greek catalogues by Thaler, 
by whom it was probably imported from the 
East It was also called Phceniee (^oivUtj^ from 
the circumstance that it was selected by the 
Phoenicians as the guide by which they shaped 
their course at sea, the Greek mariners with 
less judgment employiug the Great Bear for the 
purpose; and Ognotura {Kvv6covpa\ dog't tail, 
from the resemblance of the constellation to the 
upturned curl of a dog's tail. The constella- 
tion before the Great Bear was called Bootet 
1Bo«rJ7f) Arctopkylax {* kpKTo^'ka^YoT Arcturut 
*ApKTovpo^t from ovpoc, guard) ; the two latter 
names suppose the constellation to represent a 
man upon the watch, and denote simply the po- 
sition of the figure in reference to the Great 
Bear, while Bootet, which is found in Homer, 
refers to the Wagon, the imagmary figure of 
Bootes beiog fancied to occupy the place of the 
driver of the team. At a later time Arctopkylax 
became the general name of the constellation, 
and the word Arcturut was confined to the chief 
star in it All these constellations are connect- 
ed in mythology with the Arcadian nymph Cal- 
I6T0, the daughter of Lycaon. Metamorphosed 
oy Jupiter (Zeus) upon the earth into a she- 
bear, Callisto was pursued by her son Areas in 
the chase, and wheu he was on the point of kill- 
ing her, Jupiter (Zeus) placed them both among 
the stars, Callisto becomiug the Great Bear, and 
Areas the Little Bear, or ^Bootes. In the poets 
the ephithets of these stars have constant refer- 
ence to the family and country of Callisto : thus 
we find them called Lycaonit Arctot; Mcenalia 
Arctot and Mcenalit Urta (from Mount Mienalus 
m Arcadia) : ErymatUhit Urta (from Mount Ery- 
manthus in Arcadia) : Parrhatidet ttellce (from 
the Arcadian town Parrhasia). Though most 
traditions identified Bootes with Areas, otliers 
pronounced him to be Icarus or his daughter 
Erigoue. Hence the Septentriones are <^led 
Bovet Icarii. Vid Diet, of Antig^ p. 147, 148, 
169, 2d ed. 
ARCTCau& Vtd. Arci06. 
Ardka (Ardeas, -atis: now Ardea). 1. The 
chief town of the Rutuli in Latium, a little to 
the left of the River Numicus, three miles from 
the BCSL, was situated on a rock surrounded by 
marshes, in an unhealthy district It was one 
of the most ancient places in Italy, and was said 
to have been the capital of Turnus. It was 
aonquered and colonized by the Romans, B.C. 
442, from which time its importance declined. 
In its neighborhood was the Latin Aphrodisium 
or temple of Venus, which was under the super- 
intendence of the Ardeates.— 2. (Now Arde- 
kdnf), an important town in Persis, southwest 
of Persepolis. 

[Ardericca ('A/MJlp«Ka, now Ahkerhiff Hee- 
reoX 1. A town abov^ Babylon, where the £u- 

phrales was so diverted from its Ci^urse that ii 
passed three times Uirough this place — 2 A 
town of Susiana, not fur fi^om Suiia , perhaps the 
same as the Araoca of later writers, where Da- 
rius Hystaspis settled the captured £retriaii&J 

[Ardksous {^kpd/^oKOi), a river of £uropear 
Sarmaiia, flowing into the Ister ; the god ol ttk 
stream was, according to Heaioc^ a aoo of Oe^ 
anus and Tethys.] 

Ardcbnna Silva (now the Ardenne*), a vast 
forest in the northwest of Gaul, ezteuded from 
the Rhine and the Treviri to the Nervii and 
Remi, and north as far as the Scheidt: then* 
are still considerable remains uf this forest 
though tbe greater pai't of it has disappeared. 

Arots ('Ap<H;f), sou of Gyges, kiugf of Lydia, 
reigned B.C. 678-^29 : he took Prieue, and made 
war f^aiust Miletus. 

ArkI or ARfiTiAS i^kpeta or 'Apt/TiiLc vyaof, 
i. e., the island of Ares: now Kera»unt Ada), 
also called Chalceiitis, an island off tbe ooaM 
of Pontus, close to Phai-nacSa, celebrated in the 
legend of the Argonauts. 

[AREadNis ('Aptjyovig), wife of Ampyous^ and 
mother of Mopsus.] 

[Areilycus ('AL^iAvxof), a Trcjaii warrior, 
slam by Patroolus.] 

AR&iTH5u8 {'Apijidooc). 1. King of Ame in 
Bceotia, and husband of Philomeduaa, is called 
in the Iliad (vii., 8) KopvinjrjjCt because be fuqgfat 
with a club : he fell by the hand of the Arcadian 
LyeurKus.-— [2. Charioteer of Ahigmus, slain 
by Achillea J 

ArelAtk, Ar£las, or Arelatvu (Arelatenais 
now Arlen)^ a town in Gallia JNarbouensis, at 
the head of the delta of the Rhone on the led 
bank, and a Roman colony founded by the sol- 
diers of the sixth legion, Colonia Arelate Sexto- 
fiorwn. It is first mentioned by Cassar, and un- 
der the emperors it became one of the most 
flourishing towns on this side of the Alps. Con* 
stantine Uie Great built an extensive suburb <w 
the right bank, which he connected with the 
original city by a bridge. The Roman remains 
at Aries attest the greatness of the ancient city : 
there are still to be seen an obelisk of granite, 
and the ruins of an aqueduct, theatre, amphi- 
theatre, palace of Constantine, and a large Ro- 
man cemetery. 

[Areluus Fuscdb. Vtd Fuscua.] 

AremOrica. Vid. Armorica. 

Arenacum (now Arnfteim or jErtf\tL. town 
of the Batavi in Gallia Belgica. 

[Aren^ Montbs fuow Arenat Gordat), high 
sand hills in Hispama BcBtica, between the Bad-, 
tis and Urium.] 

[Arene i^kpiivji). 1. Daughter of tbe Spartan 
king (Ebalus, wife of Aphareus. — 2. A city of 
Elis, on the River Minyeius, said to have bees 
named after the foregomg : it was the residence 
of Aphareus.] 

ARE5rAGua. Vid. Athena 

Ares ('Ap^A (the Latin Mart\ tbe Greek 
god of war ana one of the great Olympian gods, 
is represented as the son of Zeus (jupiter) and 
Hera (Junoi The character of Ares (Mars) in 
Greek mytbolo^ will be best understood by 
comparing it with that oC otlier divinities who 
are likewise in some way connected irith war 
Athena ^Minerva) represents thoughtfuhiess ami 
wisdom m the affiiirs of wiuv^ni proto«t> mri 
Digitized by VjOOQIC 



4Uiil Umu- habitatk>xiB dormg its ravages. Ares 
(lfara),oa tha other hand, ia ztothiog but the 
penonificatioD of bold force and Btreogth, aod 
Dat ao much the god of war as of its tumult^ ood- 
fision, and horrors. Hia sister £ris calls forth 
WAT, Zeu9 (JtqHtO') directs its course, but Ares 
(Mara) lores war &r its own sake, and delights 
ID Uie din and roar of battles, io the slaughter 
of men, and the destruetioQ of towns. He is 
not CFeo influenced bj party 8]>irit» but some- 
times asdsts the one, and sometimes the other 
side, just as his inclination may dictate ; wheoce 
2iei» (Jnpiter) calls him u?LXovp6ad?i,Xoi. {11^ v^ 
S89.) This savage and sanguinary character of 
Ares (Mars) makes him hated by the other 
goda and by his own parents. It was contrary 
to the spirit of the Greeks to represent a being 
like Ares (Mars), with all his overwhelming 
physicai strength, as always victorious; and 
when he comes in contact with higher powers, 
he is usually conquered. He was wouixled by 
IMomedes, who was assisted by Athena (Miner- 
xa,\ and ui his fall he roared like ten thousand 
warriors. The gigantic Aloldae had likewise 
eooquered him, and kept him a prisoner for thir- 
teen months^ until he was delivered by Hermes 
(Mercury). He was also conquered by Hercules, 
with wlKun he Ibught on account of his son Gyc- 
BOB, and was obhged to return to Olympus. 
This fierce and gigantic, but^ withal, handsome 
god, loved and was beloved by Aphrodite (Ve- 
obbJl VuL ArHEoniTS. When Aphrodite (Ve- 
mn) loved Adonis, Ares ^Mars), in his jealousy, 
metamorphosed himself into a boar, and killed 
fais rivaL Vid. A00NI& According to a late 
tEiditaoD, Ares (Mars) slew Halirrhothius, the 
son of Poseidon (Neptune), when he was on the 
point of violating Akippe, the daughter of Ares 
^lars). Hereupon Poseidon (Neptune) accused 
Area (Mars) in Uie Areopaffus, where tne Olym- 
piaa gods were assemblcxi m court Ares (Mars) 
VBS acquitted, and this event was believed to 
have given rise to the name Areopagus. The 
wulike character of the tribes of Thraoe led to 
the belief that the god's residence was in that 
eowtry, and here and in Scytliia were the prin- 
cipal seats of his worships In Scythia he was 
vonlopped under the fonu of a sword, to which 
not only horses and other cattle, but men also, 
were sacrificed. In Greece itself the worship of 
Arcs (BCars) was not very general All the 
stories about Ares (Mars), and his worship in the 
eoimtries zK>rth of Greece, seem to indicate that 
hb worBfaip was introduced into the latter coun- 
try firtxm Thrace; The Bomans identified their 
god Mars with the Greek Ares. Ftd Mxas. 

[Abklas {'Apeaiac), one of the thirty tyrants 
jB Athens under the Spartan ascendency.] 

AaBBTOB CApeoTop), f&ther of Aigus, the 
guardian of Io, who is therefore called Aretict' 

Arstmds ('AperaZof), the Cappadociau, one 
of the most celebrated of the ancient Greek 
phvsicians, probably lived in the reign of Ves^ 
paioac. He wrote in Ionic Greek a i^eneral 
tnatise oo diseases in eight books, which is still 
dtant The best edition is by C. G. Kiihn, 

[AsxTlox {'Aperduv), a Trojan, slain by Teu- 

AaJttJot dinh-acX the tame ot >«evenu Kmgs 

oi Arabia Petrffio. 1. A oo:.>em^K.rary of Pmd 
pey, invaded Judiea in B.C. ( 5, in order to place 
Hyrcanus on the throne, but was diaven bade by 
the Romans, who espoused the cause of Ariatobu- 
lus. His dominions were subsequently invaded 
by Scaurus, the lieutenant of Pompey. — 2, The 
father-in-law of Herod Antipas, invaded Judeea 
because Herod had dismissed the daughter of 
Aretas in consequence of his connection with 
Herodiasw This Aretas seems to have been 
the same who had possession of Damascus 
at the tune of the conversion of the Apostle 
Paul, A.D. 81. 

AasTE ('Ap^rv). 1. Wife of Alcinous, kin^ 
of the Phteacians, received Ulysses with hospi- 
tality. — 2. [AaiTS, in Greek 'A^cny], daughter 
of the elder Dionysins and Aiistomache, wife of 
Tliearides, and after his death of her unde 
Dion. After Dion had fled from Syracuse 
Arete wa9 compelled by her brother to marry 
Timocrates, one of his friends; but she was 
again received by Dion as his wife when he hac 
obtained possession of Syracuse, and expellee 
the younger Diouysius. After the assassination 
of Dion in 853, she was drowned by his enemies. 
— 8. Daughter of Aristippus, the founder of the 
Cyrenaic school of philosophy, was instructed 
by him in the principles of his system, which 
she transmitted to her son, the younger Aris- 

A&ethOsa (*Ap^ovaa% one of the Nereids, and 
the nymph of the £sunous fountain of Arethusa, 
in the island of Ortygia, near Syracuse. For 
details, see Alphsus. Virgil {JSdog^ iv., 1 ; z., 1) 
reckons her among the Sicilian nymphs, and aj 
the divinity who inspired pastoral poetry. There 
were several other fountains in Greece whick 
bore the name of Arethusa, of which the mcst 
important was one in Ithaca, now Lebado^ and 
another in EubcBa, near Chalcis. 

A&£tbOsa ('Af)i<?ovaa : jxxw Er-Restun). 1. A 
town and fortress on the Orontes, in S^ia : in 
Strabo's time, the seat of a petty Arabian prin- 
cipality. — [2. a city of Maceaonia, between Am 
phipolis and the Lake Bolbe. — 3. A bituminous 
lake in Greater Armenia, through which the 
Tigris was said to flow without mingling its 
waters, at no great distance from its source. 
Strabo gives as the Oriental names of this lake, 
Arsene and ThospUis.] 

AafirlAS. FuIAbea. 

ABJfcTiUK. Vid. AaasTniif. 

[AbStds ('A/o^TOf). 1. Son of Priam, slain by 
Automedon. — 2. Son of Nestor.] 

Abkus ('Apevc), two kings of Sparta. 1. Suc- 
ceeded his grandfather, Cleomenes IL, smco hia 
father Acrotatus had died before him, and 
reigned B.C. 809-265. He made several un* 
successful attempts to deUver Greece from th^ 
dominion of Antigonus Gonatas, and at length 
fell in battle agaiist the Macedonians io 266, 
and was succeeded by hia son Acrotatus.-— 
2. Grandson of No. 1, reigned for eight years 
(the duration of his life) under the guardiauship 
of his uncle Leonidas II, who succeeded him 
about RG. 256. 

[Aaius ('ApeZof), of Alexandria, a Stoic or 
Pythagorean philosopher, who enjoyed in a hi^h 
degree the confidence of Augustus, and was said 
to have been his instructor in philosophy. J 

[ AaivA (now Alatuon or, according to Flrjrei^ 

HO gle 



rcfito), a tr/hntary of tbc Durius, in Hispania 

Arevac/R or Akevact, the most powerful 
tribe of the Celtiberians in Spain, near the 
sources <^{ the Tagus, derived their name from 
liie Rirer Areva (q. y.). 

AEG/SU8 (^kpyouoc). 1. Kice of Macedonia, 
•( n and successor of Psrdiccas I, the founder of 
Uie d}niasty. — 2. A pretender to the Macedonian 
Gpown, dethroned Perdiccas II, and reigned two 

* Aeg-«U8 Mons {'Apyalf^ : now EriJ^h'Dagh\ 
a lofty snow-capped mountain nearly in the cen< 
tre of Cappadocia ; an ofiset of the Anti-Taurus. 
At its foot stood the celebrated city of Mazaca 
or Caisarea. 

AaoANTHOMius (*Apyavd6vtoc), king of Tartes- 
«us in Spain, in the sixth century B.C., is said to 
have reigned eighty years, and to have Ii?ed one 
hundred and twenty. 

AaoAMTHdNius or Aeoanthits Mons (rd 'A/>- 
yavduviov 6po^: now Katirli), a mountain in 
Bithynia, running out into the Propontis, forming 
the Promontorium Posidium (Cape B<mz\ and 
separating the bays of Cios ana Astacus. 

[Aroe {'Xpyij), a Hyperborean maiden, who 
came with Opis to Delos.J 

Aegennl Jf or Aeoinum {'Apysmfov, 'Apylvov : 
now Cape Blanco). 1. A promontory on the 
Ionian coast, opposite to Chios. — [2. A promon- 
tory of the eastern coast of Sicdy, now Capo 
San Aletsio.^ 

[AegennOsa, an island with a city of same 
name between the promontory of Ar^ennum, 
and the Ionian coast, and the promontonum Po- 
ndium in the island of Chios.] 

[Aegentanvm (now San Mareo\ a city of 

[Aegentaeia or Aegentuaria, also Aegento- 
VAEiA (now Arzenheim), the capital city of Gal- 
lia Belgica, where Gratian defeated the Ale- 
manni A.D. 378.] 

AaoENTfius (now Arfffns), a small river in 
Gallia Narboneusis, which flows into the Medi- 
ten*anean near Forum Julil 

ArqemtoeItum or -tus (now Stranburg)^ an 
important town on the Rhine, in Gallia Belgica, 
the head-quarters of the eighth legion, and a 
Roman municipium. In its neighl^rhood Ju- 
lian gained a brilliant victory over the Aleman- 
ni, A.D. 857. It was subsequently called Strate- 
burffum and Stratisburgum^ whence its modem 

Aeges. Vid. CTOtx)PE& 

Aegia i^Kpyeia), 1. Daughter of Adrastus and 
Amphithca, and wife of Polynices. — [2. Daugh- 
ter of Autesion, wife of the Spartan king Aris- 
todemus, by whom she became the mother of 
Rurysthenes and Proclcs.] 

ArgIa ('Apyc/a). Vii Aegos. 

[AEGiLEdNis {^ApyOLCQvU)* a Spartan female, 
mother of tl.e celebrated general Brasidas.] 

AbgilStum, a district in Rome, which extend- 
ed from the south of the Quiring to the Capito- 
line and the Forum. It was chiefly inhabited 
by mechanics and booksellers. The origin of 
thti name is uncertain : the most obvious deri- 
vation is from aryiV/a, "potter's clay ;" but the 
moi'e common explanation in antiquity was Argi- 
Utuniy " death of Argus," from a hero Argus who 
waf buried there. 

f Aegilus ("Ap/tAof : 'Apyi?uoc)t a town in III 
saitia, the eastern part cf Mygdonio, in Mace 
donia, between Amphipolis and BromisouB, a ool 
ony of Audros. 

AaoiNCSiB {'Apyivovaai or 'Aqyivovaacu), three 
small islands off the coast of .^fiolis, opposite 
Mytilene in Lesbos, celebrated for the naval vic- 
tory of the Athenians over the Laoedxemoniaua 
under Callicratidas, B.C. 406. 

[AEGidpx {^Apyi.6nri\ a nymph, mother of the 
Thracian bard Thamyris by Phdummon.] 

Aeoiphontes {'Apyei^Ttic), " the alayer vf 
Argus," a surname of Heemes. 

AEGiPPiEi {'Apyiimaioi), a Scythian tribe in 
Sarmatia Asiatica, who appear, from the descrip- 
tion of them by Herodotus (iv., 23), to have been 
of the Calmuc race. 

Aegissa. Vid Argura. 

ARGrrniA, the chief town of Athamania, m 

Aegiva, a surname of Hera or Judo, from Ar- 
gos, where, as well as in the whole of Pelopon- 
nesus, she was especially honored. Vid, Aaooa. 

AegIvi. Vid Ajlgob. 

Aego. Vid Aaqovavtm. 

[Aegolicus Sinus. Vid Ar60&] 

Arg$li8. Vid Aegob. 

Aegonavt^ {'ApyovavTai\ the Ai^nauts, 
" the sailors of tiie Argo,*' were the heroes who 
sailed to ^a (afterward called Colchis) ibr the 
purpose of fetching the golden fleece. The 
story of the Argonauts is variously related by 
the ancient writers, but the common tale ran as 
follows : In lolcus in Thessaly reigned Pelias, 
who had deprived his half-brother JEeon of the 
sovereignty. In order to get rid of Jason, the 
son of .^£son, Peuab persuaded Jason to fetch 
the golden fleece, which was suspended on an 
oak-tree in the g^ve of Ares (Mars) in Colchis, 
and was guarded day and night by a dragoa 
Jason willingly undertook the enterprise, and 
ccHnmanded Argus, the sod of Phrixus, to build 
a ship with fifty oars, which was called Argo 
{*Apy6) after the name of the builder. Jasoo 
was accompanied by all the great heroes of the 
age, and their number is usually said to have 
been fifty. Among these were Hercules, Cas- 
tor and Pollux, Zetes and Calais, the sons of 
Boreas, the singer Orpheus, the seer Mopsus, 
Philammon, Tydeus, Ineseus, Amphiaraus, Pe 
leus, Nestor, Admetus, <&c. After leaving lol- 
cus they first landed at Lemnos, where they 
united themselves with the women of the islanot 
who had just before murdered their fathers and 
husbands. From Lemnos the^ sailed to the 
Doliones at Cyzious, where King Cyzicus re- 
ceived them hospitably. They left the coun- 
try during the night, and being thrown back 
on the coast by a contrary wind, they were 
taken for Pehis(^ans, the enemies of the Do- 
liones, and a struggle ensued, in which Cyzi- 
cus was slain; but, bein^ recognized by the 
Argonauts, they buried hun, and mourocd over 
his fate. They next landed in Mysia, where 
they left behind Hercules and Polyphemus, who 
had gone into the country in search of Hylfla» 
whom a nymph had canied off while he wai 
fetching water for his companions. In *!>• 
country of the Bebryces, King Amyous chal- 
lenged the Argonauts to fight with him; and 
when he was TdUed by PoUux, [the Bebiyoet 

Digitized by 




lo ATepge the death of their kiog, mftde an 
attack OD PoUux, bat the Ai^onauta, haviog 
seixiMl their tarns, repalsod them, and elew many 
in their fl^ht* they then] sailed tu Salmydea- 
■UB in TlkEaoe, where the seer Phineus was tor- 
m«Dted by the Harpies. When the Argonauts 
eoosulted him about their voyage, he promised 
Uiem his adviee on condition of their deliyering 
him from the Harpies. This was done by Zetes 
and Oahds, two sons of Boreas; and rhmeus 
now advised them, before saifing through the 
Sjraplegades^ to mark the flight of a dove, and 
to judge from its fate what they themselves 
vroold have to do. When they approached the 
Sjmplcp^des, they sent out a dove, which, in its 
ra|»a flight between the rocks, lost only the end 
of its taS. The Aigonauts now, with the assist- 
ance of Juno (Hera), followed the examplo of 
the dove, sailed (|uidcl^ between the rocks, aud 
etioeeeded in passmg without injury to their ship, 
iTith the exception of Bome ornaments at the 
atenv Henceforth the Symplegades stood im- 
movable in the sea. On tneir ari-ival at the 
country of the Mariandyni, the Argonauts were 
kindly received by their kinj^, Lycus. The seer 
Idmoo and the helmsman Tiphys died here, and 
the place of the latter was supplied by Ancsus. 
They now sailed along the coast until they airiv- 
ed at the mouth of the River Phasis. The Col- 
chian kipg .^etes promised to give up the golden 
fleeee if Jason alone would yoke to a plough 
two fire breathing ox«q with brazen feet, and 
sow the teeth of the dragon which had not been 
used by Cadmus at 1 hebes, and wliich he had 
teoeived from Mioeiva (Athena). The love of 
Ifedea furnished Jason with means to resist 
Are and steel, on condition of hia taking her as 
his wife ; and she taught him how he was to 
kill the warriors that were to spring- up fix>m 
the teeth of the dragon. While Jason was 
engaged upon his task, Jiletes formed plans for 
burning the ship Argo and for killing all the 
Greek heroes. But Medea*s magic powers lulled 
to sleep the dragon who guarded the golden 
fleeee ; and after Jason had taken possession of 
the treasure, he and his Ai^onauts, together 
with Medea and her young brother Absyrtus, 
embarked by nifht and suled away. JSetes 
pursued tbem; but, before he overtook them, 
Medea murdered her brother, cut him into pieces, 
and threw his limbs overboard, that her father 
might be detained in his pursuit by collecting 
the limbs of his child. .£etes at last returned 
home, but sent out a great number of Colcliians, 
threatening them wiUi the punishment intended 
Sot Medea if they returned without her. While 
the Oolchians were dispersed in all directions, 
the Argonauts had already reached the mouth 
of the River Eridanus. But Jupiter (Zeus), 
angry at the murder of Absyrtus, raised a storm 
w^ch east the ship from its course. When 
driven on the Absyrtian Island^ the ship be^an 
to speak, and declared that the anger of Jupiter 
(Zeus) would not cease unless they sailed toward 
Ausonia, and got purified by Circe. They now 
•ailed along the coasts of the Ligyans and Celts, 
and through the sea of Sardinia, and, continuing 
ttieir course along the coast of Tyrrhenia, they 
arrived in the Island of i£«a, where Circe pun- 
fied them. When tiiey were passing by the 
Sieoa Orpheus sang to pro>ent the Argonauts 

uviiig al.' jred by them. Bates, however, swant 
to them, but Yen is (Aphrodite) carried him U 
LilybsBum. Thetis and the Nereids cooducteo 
them through Scylla and Charybdis aid between 
the whiriiog rocks {nerpai nXayKrai) ; and, sail- 
ing by the Thracian island with its oxen of 
Helios, they came to the Phsacion inland of 
Corcrra, where they were received by Alcinouai 
In the mean time, some of the Colchiaos, not 
being able to discover the Argonauts, had settled 
at the foot of the Cei-aunian Mountains ; othcn 
occupied the Absyrtian islands near tije coast oi 
lUyncum ; and a third band overtook the Argo- 
nauts in the island of the Phaeacians. Bat as 
their hopes of recovering Medea were deceived 
by Arete, the queen of Alcinous, they settled in 
the island, ancl the Atvonauts continued their 
voyage. During the night they were ovei-tuken 
by a storm ; but Apollo sent brilliant flashes of 
lightning, which enabled them to discover a 
neighboring island, which they called Anapha 
Here they erected an altar to Apollo, and solemn 
rites were instituted, which continued to be ob- 
served down to very late timea Their attempt 
to land in Crete was prevented by Talus, who 
ffuarded the island, but was killed by the arti- 
fices 01 Medea. From Crete they sailed to 
iEgioa, and from thence between Euboea and 
Locris to lolcus. Respecting the events sub- 
sequent to their arrival in loleus, vid, JEaoiXt 
Medea, Jasox, Peuas. The story of the Argo* 
nauts probably arose out of accounts of com- 
mercial enterprises which the \i ealthy MinyanSi 
who lived in the neighborhood of lolcus, made 
to the coasts of the Euxine. Tlie expedition of 
the Argonauts is reLited by Pindar in the fourth 
Pythiau ode, by ApoUouius Rhodius in hia 
Argonautica^ and by his Roman imitator, Vale- 
rius Flaccus. 

Aroos (rd 'Apyo^t '^c\ is said by Strabo (p. 
372) to have sigoified a plain in the language of 
the Macedonians and Tbessalians, and it may 
therefore contain the same root as the Latin 
word ager. Id Homer we find mention of the 
Pelasgie Argos, that is, a town or district of 
Thessaly, and of the Achiean Argos, by which 
he means sometimes the whole Peloponnesus 
sometimes Agamemnon's kingdom of Argos, of 
which. MyceniB was the capital, and sometimes 
the town of Argos. As Argos frequently sig- 
nifies the whole Peloponnesus, the most import 
ant part of Greece, so the *kpyeloi often occur 
in Homer as a name of the whole body of the 
Greeks, in which sense the poets also 
use Argivi. — 1. Arqos, a district of Pelopuniie- 
su^ called Argolis {if ^kpyoTJ^) by Herodotus, but 
more frequently by other Greek writers either 
Argo9^ Arg%a (v 'Apyeta), or Argoliee (if 'Apyo- 
Xua^y Under the Romans Argolis became the 
usual name of the country, while the word Ai^gos 
or Argi was confined to the town. Argolis, un- 
der the Romans, siguified the country bounded 
on the north b^ the Corinthian territory, on the 
west by Arcadia, on the south by Laoonia, and 
included toward the east the whole Aote or pen 
insula between the Saronic and Argolic gulfs* 
butt during the time of Grecian independence, 
Aiigolis or Argos was only the country lying 
roiukd the Argoucus Sinus (now Qulf of Nauplia\ 
bounded on Uie west by the Arcadian Moimtains. 
and separated on he north by a range of mount 



11D8 trom Coriul/i, Cleouie, and Fiiliufl. Argolis, 
M understood b^ the Romans, was, for the most 
pai't, a mountainous and uoproductive oountry : 
the only extensive plain adapted for agriculture 
was m the neighborhood of the eity of Argos. 
Its rivera were insignificant and mostly dry in 
summer : tJie most important was the Inaohua. 
The country was divided into the districts of Ar- 

ga or Argos proper, Epidauria, T&oczenia, and 
RaMioMi& The original inhabitants of the 
oouDti-y were, according to mythology, the Cj- 
nurii ; but the main part of the population ooq- 
listed uf Pelasgi and Achiei, to whom Dorians 
were added after the conquest of Peloponnesus 
by the Dorians. See below, No. 2. — 2. Abgos, or 
Abgi, -oauif, in the Latin writers, now Argo^ the 
capital of Argolis, and, next to Sparta, the most 
important town of Peloponnesus, situated in a 
level plain a little to the west of the Inachus. It 
bad an aucieot Pelasgio citadel, called Larissa, 
and another built subsequently on another height 
(duas arce» haberU Argi^ liv^ zxziv^ 25). It 
possessed niimerous temples, and was particu- 
larly celebrated for the worship of Juno (Hera), 
whose great temple, Hercnim, lay between Ar^os 
and Mycente. The remains of the Cydopian 
walls of Ai^B are still to be seen. The city is 
said to have been built by Inachus or his son 
PuoBONSus, or grandson Abgu& The descend- 
ants of Jnaclus, who may be regarded as the 
Pcbutgian kings, reigned over the country for 
nine generations, but were at length deprived 
ti the sovereignty by Danaos, who is said to 
have con-.i from Egypt The descendants of 
Danaus were in their time obliged to submit to 
Uie Achiean race of the Pelopidas. Under the 
rule of t^e PelopidfB Mycenie became the capi- 
tal of the kiogdum, and Argos was a dependent 
state. Thus Mycenae was the royal residence 
of Atreus and of his son Agamemnon ; but under 
Orestes Argos again recovered its supremacy. 
Upon the conquest of Peloponnesus by the Do- 
rians Argos fell to the share of Temenus, whose 
descendants ruled over the country; but the 
great bulk of the population continued to be 
Achssan. All these events belong to Mythol- 
ogy ; and Argos first appears in history about 
B.C. 760, as the chief state of Peloponnesus, 
under its ruler Phidon. After the time of Phi- 
don its power declined, and it was not even able 
to maintain its supremacy over the other towns 
of Argolis. Its power was greatly weakened 
by its wars with Sparta. The two states long 
contended fur the aistrict of Oynuria, which lay 
between Argolis and Laoonia, and which the 
Spartans at length obtained by the victory of 
their three hundred champions, about B.C. 650. 
In B.C. 624, Cleumenes, the Spartan king, de- 
feated the Argives with such loss near Tiryns 
that Sparta was left without a rival in Pelopon- 
nesus. In consequence of its weakness and of 
its jealousy of Sparta, Aiigos took no part in the 
Persian war. In order to strengthen itself Ar- 

£»s attacked the neighboring towns of Tiryns, 
ycencB, iio^ destroyed them, and transplanted 
their inliabitants t<> Argos. The introduction 
of so many new citiseus was followed by the 
abolition of rovalty and of Doric institutions, 
and by the eBtiibliebment < f a democrai^y, which 
continued to be the form of government till later 
times, when the city fell under the power of 

tyrants. In the Peloponnesiau war Argos sidoh 
with Athens against Sparta. In B.0, 24S it 
joined the Achean League, and on the conquest 
of the latter by the Romans, 146, it became a 
part of the Bx>man province of Achaia. At aaa 
early time Argos was distinguished by its culti- 
▼atioo of music and poetry (vidL Sacada9. Tki^ 
bsilla); but at tiie time of the intellectual 
greatness of Athens, literature and science seein 
to have been entirely neglected at Argos. I( 
produced some great sculptors, of whom Agei^- 
DAB and PoLTCueiuB are the most celebrated. 

Argos AxPHiLdomcuic {'Anyo^ rd *Afiipi?Mx» 
K6v)f Uie diief town of Amphilochia in Acama- 
nia, siCuated on the Ambracian Gulf, and found- 
ed by the Argive Amphiloohub. 

Abgos HiFriux. Vid. Arfl 

[Ajlgob Pelasgiguk ('Ap70f rd UeXaayiKStf)^ 
an ancient city and district of Thessaly, men 
tioned by Homer ; but in Strabo s time the sity 
no longer existed.] 

AroOds Pobivs (now Ptnio FerraioX, a town 
and harbor in the Island of Ilva (now £lba), 

AegOra ('Apyovpa), a town in Pelasgiotis io 
Thessaly, called Argissa by Homer (//., li, '7S8). 

Argus {'Apyoc). 1. Son of Jupiter (Zeus) and 
Niobe, third king of Argos, from whom Argos 
derived its name. — 2. Sumamed PanopteM^ ** the 
all-seeing," because he had a hundred eyes, sod 
of Agenor, Arestor, Inachus, or Arg^. Juno 
(Hera) appointed him guardian of the cow into 
which Io bad been metamorphosed ; but Mercury 
(Hermes), at the command of Jupiter (Zeus), 
put Argus to death, either by stoning him, or by 
cutting off his head after sendin*; him to sleep 
by the sweet notes of his flute. Juno (Hera) 
transplanted his eyes to the tail of the peaoocK, 
her fiivorito bird.-— 8. The builder of the Arso^ 
son of Phrixus, Arestor, or Poly bus, was sent by 
iEStes, his grandfiither, after the death of Phrix- 
us, to take possession of his inheritance in Qreece. 
On his voyage thither he suffered shipwreck, wap 
fonnd by Jason in the Island of Aretias, and car- 
ried back to Colchis, 

Aaof RA CAfyyvpd), a town in Achaia near Pa- 
tras, mtb a fountain of the same name. 

ARof RiPA. VicL Arpi. 

Aria ('Ape/a, 'Apia : 'Apeioc, 'Apioc : the eoKg- 
em part of Kkorattan, avd the weitern and north- 
ivetteni part of A/ghanUtan), the most import- 
ant of the eastern provinces of the ancient Per- 
sian Empire, was bounded on the east by the 
ParopamisadsB, on the north by Margiaoa and 
Hyroania, on the west by Parthia, and on the 
south by the great desert of Garmania. It was 
a vast plain, bordered on the north and east by 
mountains, and on the west and south by sandy 
deserts ; and, though forming a part of the great 
sandy table-land, now called the Desert of Irai^ 
it contained several very fertile oases, especiallj 
in its northern part, along the base of the Sarl 
phi (now Kohiaian and Hazarah) Moun^Ains, 
which was watered by the river Arius or -ai 
(now Herirood), on which stood the later capital 
I Alexandrea (now Herat), The river is lost in 
I the sand. The lower course of the great river 
! B^TTHANDRUB (iiow Helmund) also belonged to 
i Aria, and the lake into whicn it falls was called 
' Aria Laodb (now Zurrah), From Aria was de 
I rived the name under which all the eastern pro 



AmiA Lacics Vid Abia. 

AmiABfoxis ( Apia6tyvtfc)^ son of Dariiia Hya 
taflpia. oiM of the oommaodera of the fleet 
«f Xenea. fell Id the battle of Salamis, B.C. 

AmiAinnc ('Aptddp7f\ daughter of HiDoe and 
Paaiplue or Greta, fell io lore with Theseus 
when he vas seot by his father to ooovey the 
tribute of the Atheuiana to Minotaurus, aud 
eare him the elew of thread bj means of which 
h« foond his way out of the lAbyriuth, and 
wbieh she herself had received from Vulcan 
(Hephsstos). Theseus, in return, promised to 
marry her, and she accordingly left Grete with 
him ; but od their arrival in the Island of Dia 
(Nazoe), she was lolled by Diana (Artemis). 
Thie is the Homeric account (Od, xi^ 822); 
bat the more common tradition related that 
Theeens left Ariadne in Nazos alive, either be- 
eaiue he was forced by Bacchus (Dionysus) to 
leave her, or because he was ashamed to bring 
a foreign wife to Athens. Bacchus (Dionysus^ 
found her at Nazos^ made her his wife, ana 
placed arooos the stars the crown which be 
g|ave her at their marriage. There are several 
dreomstances in the story of Ariadne which 
offiared the happiest subjects for works of art, 
and some of the finest ancient works, on gems 
as well as paintings, are still extant^ of which 
Afiadoe is the subject 

AaiiWBS ('A/MoJof) or Aridjcub ('Apidaiog\ 
the frieod of Gyrus^ commanded the left wing 
of the armv at the battle of Guoaza, B.G. 401. 
After the death of Gyrus he purchased his par- 
don from Artazerxes by deserting the Qreeka. 

AaiAioaEs (*Apuifja/fjg), the name of two kings 
of Gappadocia, one the father of Ariaratbes i., 
and the other the son and successor of Ariara- 

A&iAnA {'Apiav^: now Iran), derived fi*om 
AaiA, from the specific sense of which it must 
be carefully distinguished, was the general name 
of the eastern provinces of the ancient Persian 
Empire, and included the portion of Asia bound- 
ed un the west by an imaginary line drawn 
from the Gaspian to the mouth of the Persian 
OulC on the south by the Indian Ocean, ou the 
east by the Indus, and on the north by the great 
efaain of mountains called by the general name 
of the Indian Gaucasus, embracing tlie provin- 
ces of Parthia, Aria, the Paropamisadffi, Ai*a- 
diosia, Drangiana, Qedrosia, and Garmania 
foow KkoraMmtif Afghanittan, Belooekittan, and 
Atnnan). But the name was often extended to 
the country as far west as the mai^ of the 
Tigris valley, so aa to include Media and Persis, 
and also to the provinces north of the Indian 
OBocasna, namely, Bactria and Sogdiana (now 
Bokltara). The knowledge of the ancients re- 
specting the greater part of this region was con- 
mcd to what was picked up in the expeditions 
of Alexander and uie wars of the Greek kings 
of Syria, and what was learned from merchant 

[AaiAXTAS, a kmg of the Scythians, who, in 
order to take a census of his subjects, ordered 
eaeh to bring him an aiTow-bead. So great a 
number was collected, that he caused a bronze 
vessel to be made from them, and tliis he pre- 
•erved-as a memorial] 

[AaiAPiTBSB, a king of the Scythians who 

was treacherously murdered by SpargapiUica 
king of the Agatbyrsi.] 

[AbiarIthSa {^ kpiap6deiu\ a city of Gappa- 
docia, founded by the Gappodocian king Ariara 
thes IV. : it lay between Sebastia ar li ComaLS 

AaiABATHXs ('Apiapddtig), the name of several 
kii^ of Gappadocia. — 1. Son of ArsAmnes I, 
assbted Ochus in the recovery of Bgypt, B.G. 
860. Ariarathes was defeated by Perdioca^ 
and crucified 822. Eumenes then obtained 
possession of Gappadocia. — 2. Son of Holophe^ 
nes, and nephew of Ariarathes I., recovered 
Gappadocia after the death of Eumenes, B.G. 
815. He was succeeded by Ariamnes U. — 8 
Son of Ariamnes IL, and grandson of No. 2, 
married Stratoi^ce, daughter of Antiochus 11^ 
king of Syria. — 4. Son of No. 8, reigned B.G. 
220-162. He married Antioohis, the daughter 
of Antiochus III., king of Syria, and assisted 
Antiochus in his war against the Romans. 
After the defeat of Antiochus, Ariarathes sued 
for peace in 188, which be obtained on favorable 
terms. In 18S-1'79, he aflsist<^d Eumenes in his 
war against Phamaces. — 6. Son of No. 4, pre- 
viously called Mithradates, reigned B.G. IBS- 
ISO. He was sumamed Philopator, and was 
dlstin^ished b^ the excellence of his character 
and his cultivation of philosophy and the liberal 
ails. He assisted the Romans in their war 
ag:ain8t Aristonious of Pergamus, and fell io 
this war, ISO.— 6. Son of Na 6, reigned RG. 
180-96. He married Laodice, sister of Mithra- 
dates VI., king of Pontus, and was put to death 
by Mithradates by means of Oordius. On his 
death the kingdom was seized by Nicomedoe» 
king of Bithynia, who married Laodice, the 
widow of the late king. But Nioomedes was 
soon expelled by Mithradates, who placed upon 
the throne, — 7. Sou of No. 6. He was, how- 
ever, also murdered by Mithradates in a short 
time, who now took possession of bis kingdom. 
The Gappadocians rebelled agoiust Mithradates, 
and placed upon Uie throne, — 8. Second son of 
No. 6 ; but be was speedily driven out of the 
kingdom bv Mithradates, and shortly afterward 
died. Both Mithradates nnd Nicomedes at- 
tempted to give a king to the Gappadocians ; but 
the Romans allowed the people to choose whom 
they pleased, and their choice fell upon Ario- 
barzanes. — 9. Son of Ariobai-zones II., reigned 
B.G. 42-86. He was deposed and put to death 
by Antony, who appointed Archelaus as his suc- 

Abiasp^ or Agbiasfje {'Apiuanai, ^Aypiua- 
7r(u)f a people in the southern part of the Per- 
sian province of Drangiana, on the very boi*deiii 
of Gedrosia, with a capital city, Ariaspe {'Api 
damj). In return for the services which they 
rendered to the army of Gyrus the Great when 
he marched through the desert of Garmania, 
they were honored with the name of Eitoy^ 
TOL, and were allowed by the Persians to re- 
tain their independence, which was confirmed 
to them by Alexander as the reward of similv 
services to hlmsell 

[Ariaspes {*Apiu(rrr^g\ called by Justin (10. 
1) Ariarates, son of the Peralan king Artaxerxes 

[AaiBiBUS CApi6ato^\ king of the Gappad> 
dans, was slain by the Hvrcnnians in the timt 




of thd elder C/rus, neoording to Xenophon in 
bis CyropaKlia.] 

ARidU ( Aricloui : dow Ariccia or Jiucia\ an 
ancittDt town of Latium, at the foot of the Alban 
MouDt, on the Appian Way, sixteen miles from 
Rome. It was a member of the Latin confed- 
eracy, was sabdued by the Romans, with the 
«ther LatiD towns» in RO. 888, and receiyed 
the Roman franchise. In its neighborhood wbjs 
the celebrated grove and temple of Diana Ari- 
elna, on the borders of the Lacus Nemorensis 
(now JVemi), Diana was worshipped here with 
barbarous customs : her priest, called rex nemo- 
rensis, was always a runaway slave, who obtain- 
ed his office by killing his predecessor in single 
combat The priest was ooliged to fight with 
any slave who sncceeded in breaking off a 
branch of a certain tree in the sacred grove. 

AainjiDS. Vid. Ael£us, Arrhidaus. 

[A&idOus {'Api6uXig\ tyrant of Alabanda in 
Caria, accompanied Xerxes in his expedition 
against Greece, and was taken captive by the 
Greeks off Artemisium, B.C. 480.] 

Arii, is the name applied to the inhabitants 
of the province of Aria, but it is probably, also, 
a form of the generic name of the whole Per- 
sian race, derived from the root ar, which means 
nobUf and which forms the first syllable of a 
^reat number of Persinn names. Compare 

Arivaspi {'Apifiaairoi), a people in the north 
of Scvthia, of whom a fabulous account is given 
by HiTodotus (iv., 27). The germ of the fable 
IS perhaps to be recognized in the fact that the 
Ural Mountains abound in gold. 

ArihAzss (*Api/iu^Ti0 or Ariomazes (*Apiofiu- 
^f), a cliiet in Sogdiana, whose fortress was 
taken by Alexander in KG. 828. In it Alex- 
ander found Roxana, the daughter of the Bac- 
trian chief Oxyartes, whom he made his wife. 

AaiMi ('Apifioi) and ArimX (rei 'Apifia, sc 6pfj), 
the names of a mythical people, districts and 
range of mountains in Asia Minor, which the 
old Greek poets made the scene of the punish- 
ment of the monster Typhoeus. Vigil (jEn^ 
ix., 716) has misunderstood the eiv 'Aptuoig of 
Homer (IL, il, 783), and made Typhoeus lie be- 
neath luarime, an island off the coast of Italy, 
namely, Pithecusa or ^naria (now lochia), 

Ariminum (Ariminensis : now Rimini), a town 
in Umbria, on the coast, at the mouth of the little 
River Ariminus (now Atarocchia), It was oiigin- 
aily inhabited by Umbrians and Pelasgians, was 
afterward in the possession of the Senoues, and 
was colonized by the Romans in B.C. 268, from 
which time it appears as a flourishing place. 
After leaving Cisalpine Gaul, it was the first 
^wn which a person arrived at in the northeast 
cf Italia proper. 

Ariobarzanes {'AptoBap^uvijg). I. Kings or 
Satraps of Ponlus. — 1. Betra^red by his son 
Mithradates to the Persian king about RC. 
400.— 2. Son of Mithradates L, reigned B.C. 
863-S87. He revolted from Artaxerxes in 362, 
acd may be regarded as the founder of the king- 
dom of Pontus.— 8. Son of Mithradates III., 
reigned 266-240, and was succeeded by Mith- 
radates IV. IL Kings of CappadocicL — 1. Sur- 
named Philoromanu, reigned B.C. 93-68, and 
was elected king by the Cappadocians, under 
Uie direction of the Romans. He was several 

times expelled from his kingdom bj Mithf.*.iA 
tes, but was finally restored by Pompey in 6^ 
shortly before his death. — 2. bumaoiea Philo- 
pator, succeeded his father in 68. The time of 
nis death is, not known, but it must have been 
before 61, in which year his son was reigning; 
— 8. Sumamed Kusebes and Philorommts, aon 
of No. 2, whom he succeeded about 61. He aa- 
sisted Pompey against Cffisar in 48, but "vrwrn 
nevertheless pardoned by Csosar, who even en- 
larged his territories. Ho was slain in 42 by 
Cassius, because he was plotting against bim 
in Asia. 

Arion {*Apiuv\ 1. Of Methymna in Lesboe^ 
an ancient Greek bard and celebrated player 
on the cithara, is called the inventor of the 
dithyrambio poetir and of the name dithyramb. 
He lived about B.C. 626, and spent a great part 
of his life at the court of Periander, tyrant oi 
Corinth. Of his life scarcely any Uiing is knowc 
beyond the beautiful story of his escape from 
the sailors with whom he sailed [from Taren 
tum in Italy] to Corinth. On one occasion, 
thus runs the story, Arion went to Sicily to take 
part in some musical contest He won the 
prize, and, laden with presents, he embarked in 
a Corinthian ship to return to his friend Peri- 
ander. The rude sailors coveted his treasures, 
and meditated his murder. After trying in raio 
to save his life, he at length obtainca permission 
once more to play on the cithaia. Id festal at- 
tire, he placed himself in the prow of the shijK 
and invoked the gods in inspired strains, and 
then threw himself into the sea. But many 
song-loving dolphins had assembled round the 
vessel, and one of them now took Uie bai*d oc 
its back and carried him to To^uSLrus, frun 
whence he returned to Corinth in safety, and 
related his adventure to Periander. Upon the 
arrival of the Corinthian vessel, Periander iii- 
Guired of the sailors after Arion, who replied 
tnat he had remained behind at Tarentum ; but 
when Arion, at the bidding of Periander, canie 
forward, the sailors onued their guilt, and were 
punished according to their desert In the times 
of Herodotus and Pausanias there existed at 
ToDoarus a brass monument representing Ariou 
riding on a dolphin. Arion ana his citliara (lyre) 
were placed amons; the stars. A frafi;ment of a 
hymn to Neptune {Poseidon), osciibed to Ariou 
' is contained in Bergk*s Poetcs Lyrici Graci, p. 
566, Ac. — 2. A fabulous horse, which Neptune 
I (Poseidon) begot by Ceres (Demeter) ; fur, in 
I order to escape from the pursuit of Neptune 
I (Poseidon), the goddess had metamorpnosed 
herself into a mare, and Neptune (Poseidon) 
' deceived her by assuming the figure of a horse. 
, There were many other traditions respecting 
the origin of this horse, but all make Neptune 
' (Poseidon) its father, though its mother is dif- 
I ferent in the various legends. 

Abiovistus, a German chief, who cn^ssed the 

' Rhine at the request of the Sfequani, wlien they 

: were hard pressed by the JEdui. He subdued 

the Mduiy but appropriated to himself part of 

! the territoi*y of the Sequani, and tlireateued to 

' take still more. The Sequani now united with 

the i£dui in imploring the help of Cassar, whc 

defeated Ariovistus about fifty milcf from the 

Rhine, B.C.58. Ariovi8tiis,.^^apec ociosa t)i4 

river in a smaU boi^ized by LjOOglC 



lAmsFsuts ( ApcfwyX I* l^e father of XiJi- 
lihippua, and gnuidfather of Pencles. — 2. Of Sic 
TOO, a Qreck poet, author of a beautiful poean t(> 
Health, preaeryed by AtheoaBUB: it is given in 
B^rgk's J^oeUe Ijyrici Qrntd^ p. 841.] 

[Akisbs {^Kpiatti\ 1 Daughter of MeropB, 
lirst ^ife of Priam, U> vliom she bore .ifisacus. 
*— 2. Daughter of Teucer, wile of Dardauus, 
from whom the town Arisbe, in Troas, was said 
to be named] 

[ A ajSBX {'Apiary now JAmm Kdi\ 1. A town 
oi Troaa, od the Sellets, not far from Abydus, 
founded by the Lesbiaus, or, according to Anax- 
imenes of Lampsacus, by the Mil^ians, the ear- 
lier (uwo haying been destroyed by Achilles in 
the Trojan war. It was occupied by the army of 
Alexander after the passage of the Hellespont : 
at a later period it was captured by the Gauls, 
and in Strabo*s time it no longer existed. It 
appears to have been subsequently rebuilt, and 
to naye become a considerable place under the 
later emperora — 2. A city of Lesbos, made trib- 
utary at an early period by the Methymuaians : 
it was destroyed by an earthquake.] 

[Akesbus {^kpta6o^\ a river of 'Ilirace, flow- 
bg into the Hebrus.] 

AusTiBinbTus {^KpujTaiverci\ the reputed au- 
thor of two books of Loye Letters, taken almost 
entirely ftt>m Plato, Lucian, Philostratus, and 
Plutarch. Of the author nothing is known. 
Hie best edition is by Boissonade, Paris, 1822. 
ABJST.£ifUS {^ KpufTOLvof:), of Mcgalopolis, 
■ometimes called Arigiometug, was frequently 
strat^us or general of the Achaean League from 
B.Q. 198 to 185. He was the political opponent 
Qif Plulopoemen. and a friend of the Romans. 

AaisT^eua {^Apurrdioc^ a divinity worshipped 
m various parts of Greece, was once a mortal, 
who beeame a god through the benefits he had 
eooferred upon mankind. The different ac- 
eounts about him seem to have arisen in differ- 
ent plaoes and independently of one another, so 
that they referred to several distinct beings, 
who were subsequently identified and united 
into one. He is described either as a son of 
Uranus and Gc, or, according to a more general 
tradition, as the son of Apollo and Cyrene. His 
mother Gyrene had been carried off by Apollo 
from Mount Pelion to Libya, where she gave 
birth to AristiBus. Aristsus subsequently went 
to Thebes in Bceotia ; but after the unfortunate 
death of bis son AcriSox, he lefl Thebes, and 
visited almost all the Greek colonies on the 
eoasts of the Mediterranean. Finally he went 
to lliraee, and after dwelling for some time 
Dear Mount Hsmus, where he founded the town 
of AristsBon, he disappeared. AristAus is one 
of the DQost beneficent divinities in ancient my- 
thology : he was worshipped as tlie protector 
of flocjEB and shepherds, of vine and olive plant- 
ations ; he taught men to keep bees, and avert- 
ed from the fields the burning heat of the sun 
iod other causes of destruction 

AazflTAa5aA8 ('Apiarayopag). 1. Of Miletus, 
brother-in-law of HistiAus^ was lofi oy the latter, 
during his stay at the Persian court, in charge 
d the government nl Miletus, Having failed 
io an attempt upon Naxos (B.O. 601), which he 
had promised to subrlue for the Persians, and 
feariBg the consequences of hie flulure, he in- 
inoed th« Ionian cities to revolt from Pen^ia. 

He applied fur assistance to the Spailant sod 
Athenians: the former refused, lut the lattei 
sent him twenty ships and some troops. In 
499 his army oapturta and burned Sardis, but 
was finally chased back to the coast The 
Athenians now departed ; the Persians con 
quered most of the Ionian cities ; and Aristag 
eras, in despair, fled to Thrace, where he waf 
slain by the Edonians in 497. — [2. Son of Her- 
aclides, tyrant of Cyme in JEolia, one of tlie Io- 
nian chiefs left by Darius to guard the bridge 
over the Danube. — S. Tyrant of Cyzicus, also 
in the service of the Persian king, and left by 
him as one of the guards of tlie bridge over the 
Danube. — i. A Greek author, who composed a 
work on Egypt, flourished near the time of Pla- 
ta — 5. A comic poet of the old comedy, of whom 
a few slight fragments remain, given by Mei- 
neke, Fragm. Comic Gr(Be^ voL i, p. 427-428, 
edit minor.] 

ARisTANoca (' ^•oiaravdpo^), the most celebra 
ted soothsayer ot Mexander the Great, wrote a 
work on prodigies. 

Abistaechi's (*ApiaTapxoc). 1. An Atlieniau, 
one of the leaders in the revuiutiou of the " Four 
Hundred," B.C. 411. He was afterward put to 
death by the Athenians, not later than 406.— 2. A 
Lacedsmonian, succeeded Oleander as harmost 
of Byzantium in 400, and in various ways ill 
treated the Greeks of Cyrus's army, who had 
recently returned from Asia. — 3. Of Teqka, a 
tragic poet at Athens, contemporary with Eu- 
ripides, flourished about B.C. 454, and wrote 
seventy tragedies. — i. Of Samos, an eminent 
mathematician and astronomer at Alexandrea, 
flourished between B.C. 280 and 264. He em 
ployed himself in the determination of some of 
the most important elements of astronomy ; but 
none of his works remain, except a treatise on 
the magnitudes and distances of the sun and 
moon (irepl /leyeOuv koI diroarjjftuTuv ijXiov kolL 
ae^vrii). Edited by Wallis, Oxon, 1688, and 
reprinted in vol. iiL of his works. There is a 
Frendi translation, and an edition of the text, 
Paris, 1810 — 5. Of Samuthraoe, the celebrated 
grammarian, flourished B.C. 156. He was edu- 
cated in the school of Aristophanes of Byzan- 
tium, at Alexandrea, where he himself founded 
a grammatical and critical school At an ad- 
vanced age he left Alexandrea and went to 
Cyprus, where he is said to have died at tlie 
age of 72, of voluntary starvation, becaiuse he 
was suffering from incurable dropsy. Aiistar- 
chus was the greatest critic of antiquity. His 
labors were chiefly devoted to the Greek poets, 
but more especially to the Homeric poems, of 
which he published a recension, which has been 
the basis of the text from his time to the pres- 
ent day. The great object of his critical labora 
was to restore the genuine text of the Homeric 
poems, and to clear it of all later interpolations 
and corruptions. He marked those verses which 
he thought spurious with an obelos, and tJiose 
which he considered as particularly beautiful 
with an asterisk. He Jivided the Iliad and 
Odyssey into twenty-four books each. He did 
not confine himself to a recension of the text, 
but abo explained and interpreted the poems : 
he opp38ed the allegorical interpretation which 
was th )n beginning to find favor, acd which al 
a later time became very general. JKUiLifm^ 



Biotic&l pnocipU-F. IT ere ntbtcked by maoy of hi& 
eofitem]K,'*-ine8: tbe most emineDt of his oppo- 
DeoU wap Cb ktkb of MolluH. 

Abwt* a (Apioreac). 1. Of Proconneeus, an 
''pic poet .f whose life we have only fabulous 
AoeouQts. His date is quite UDoertain: some 
place him in the time of Croesus and Cyrus ; 
but other traditions make him earlier thao Ho- 
mer, or a coQtemporary and teaober of Homer. 
The ancient writers represent him as a magi- 
tian, who lose after his death, and whose soul 
eould lea^e and re-enter its body according to 
its pleasure. He was connected with the wor- 
ship of Apollo, which he was said to haye in- 
troduced at Metapontum. He is said to have 
travelled through the countries north and east 
of the Euxine, and to have visited the Issedones, 
Ariniaspse, Cimmeri], Hyperborei, and other 
mythical nations, and after his return to have 
written an epic poem in three books, called The 
Arinvwpia (rd *Apifidaireia), This work is fre- 
quently mentioned by the ancients, but it is 
impo'/iible to say who was the real author of 
tt. — [2. Of Chios, a distinguished officer in the 
army of the Ten Thousand. — 8. An Argive, 
who invited Pyrrhus to Argos, B.O. 272, as his 
rival Aristippus was supported by Antigonua 

AaisTKAS or Abist^scs, nn officer of Ptolemv 
Phiiadel{dias (B.C. 285-247), the reputed author 
of a Gr«t:jc work, giving an account of tbe man- 
ner in which the translation of the Septuagint 
was executed, but which is generally admitted 
oy the best critics to be spurious. Printed at 
Oxford, 16«2, 8va 

Aaii^DES ('Aptareidrf^). 1. An Athenian, son 
of Lysimachus, sumamed the ** Just," was of an 
ancient and noble family. He was the political 
disciple of Clisthenes, and partly on that ac- 
eount, partly from personal character, opposed 
trom the first to Themistocles. Aristides fought 
as the commander of his tribe at the ImtUe of 
Marathon, B.C 490 ; and next year, 489, he was 
archon. In 488 or 482 he suffered ostracism, 
probably in consequence of tlie triumph of the 
maritime and democratic policy of his nvaL He 
was still in exile in 480 at the battle cf Salamis, 
where he did good service by dislodging the 
enemy, with a band raised and armed by him- 
self, m>m the islet of Psyttaleia. He was re- 
called from banishment after the battle, was ap- 
pointed general in the following year (^^9\ and 
commanded the Athenians at tne battle of Pla- 
taesB. In 477, when the allies had become dis- 
gusted with the conduct of Pausanias and the 
Spartans, he and his colleague Cimon had the 
glory of obtaining for Athens the command of the 
maritime confederacy ; and to Aristides was by 
general consent intrusted the task of drawing 
up its laws and fixing its asseiisments. Tliis 
first tribute {^opo^) of 460 talenta, paid into a 
«on?mon treasury at Delos, bore his name, and 
was regarded by the allies in after times as 
marking their Satumian age. This is his last 
recorded act He died after 471, the year of 
Ibe ostracism of Themistocles, and very likely 
b 468. He died so poor that he did not leave 
enough to pay for nis funeral: his '^ughters 
were portionea by the state, and his son, Ly* 
iimacnus, recblveo a grant of land and of morey 

*2 The author of a work entitled JfiUi^ tea I 

which was probably a romance, liaviug Miletite 
fur its scene. It was written in prose, and wac 
of a licentious character. It was ti*anslated into 
Latin by L. Cornelius Sisenna, a contemporary 
of Sulla, and it seoms to have become popular 
with the Romans. Aristides is reckoned as 
the inventor of the Gr«»ek romance, and tba 
title of his work gave rise to the tenn Jli%Unat% 
as applied to works of fiction. His age and 
country are unknown, but the title of his work 
is thought to fiiyor the conjecture that he was a 
native of Miletus. — 8. Of Thjebes, a celebrated 
Greek painter, flourished about B.C. 860-tSa 
The pomt in which he most excelled was in 
depicting the feelings, expressions, and pas- 
sions which may be observed in common life. 
His pictures were so much valued, that, long 
after his death, Attains, king of Pergamus, offer- 
ed six hundred thousand sesterces for one of 
them. — 4. ^Eliub AaisriDEa, sumamed TmEO- 
DOBUS, a celebrated Qreek rhetorician, was bom 
at Adriani, in Mysia, in A.D. 117. He studied 
under Herodes Atticus at Athens, and subee- 

?[uently travelled through Egypt, Greece, and 
taly. The fame of his talents and acquire- 
ments was so greats that monumeuts were 
erected to his honor in several towns which he 
had honored with his presence. Shortly before 
his return he was attacked by an illness which 
lasted for thirteen years, but wis did not prevent 
him from prosecuting his studies. He subse- 
quently settled at Smyrna, and when this city 
was nearly destroyed by an earthqiudce in 179^ 
he used his influence with the emperor. M. Au- 
relius, to induce him to assist in rebuilding the 
town. The SmyrasBans showed their gratitude 
to Aristides by offering him various honors and 
distinctions, most of which be refused : he ae- 
cepted only the office of priest of ifisculttpiue 
(Asclepiusj, which he held until his death, about 
A.D. 180. The works of Aristides which have 
come down to us are fifty-five orations and dec- 
lamations, and two treatises on rhetorical sub- 
jects of little value. His orations are much su- 
perior to those of the rhetoricians of his time 
His admirers compared him to Demosthenes 
and even Aristides did not think himself mnoh 
inferior. This vanity and self-sufficiency made 
him enemies and opponents; but the number 
of his admirers was far greater, and several 
learned grammarians wrote commentaries on 
his orations, some of which are extant The 
best edition of Aristides is by W. Dindorf, Lips, 
1829. — 6. QunrriLUNUs Aristides, the author 
of a treatise in three books on music, probably 
lived in the first century after Christ His work 
is perhaps the most valuable of all the ancient 
musical treatises : it is printed in the collectioo 
of Meibomius entitled Antigv(w Mutica Avdcfta 
Sepiem, Amst, 1662. 

AaisitoN {*ApuTTiijv\ a philosopher either of 
the Epicurean or Peripatetic school, made him- 
self tyrant of Athens throngh the influence of 
Mithradates. He held out against Sulla in R 
C. 87 ; and when the city was taken by storm, 
be was put to death by Sulla's orders. 

AaiBTiPPUS ('ApierriTTTroc). 1. Son of Aritades, 
bora at Cvreie, and founder of the Cyrenaie 
school of pbilo80T>fay, flourished abont B.O. 870 
Hie lame of Socrates brought him to Athena 
and he remained with tliatrpbilosopber elm#**( 
igitized by v 



M t» the time of jhis ejcecutiun, EO. 899. 
Oof^ a diietple of SocrateB» he wandered 
bocfa in princqtle and practice veiy far from the 
iBKhio^ and eumple of his great master. He 
m luxurious in his mode of living; he in* 
jalgcd in ieoraal gratifications and the society 
tf the ooCoriouB Lais ; and he took money for 
Mi teaehiog (being the first of the disciples of 
Socraies who did so). He passed part of his 
fife St the eoort of JDionysiuB, tyrant of Syra- 
«»e; bui lie appears at last to have returned to 
&T«De,snd fhtfe to hare spent his old agei 
Tie siMciktBB wfai^ are toM of him, boweyer, 
il> Doi give OS the notion of a person who was 
tU mtcre slare of hia passiors, but rather of one 
^ took a pride in eztraeting enjoyment from 
iL eiremnstaDcea of every kind, and in con- 
tnJb^ adversity and prosperity alike, lliey 
jl.atnte and coaGrm the two statements of 
Ht race (^ L, 1, 18), that to observe the pre- 
empt* of Aristippus la mihi re$, non me rebut tub- 
/a^erA and (u, 17, 28) that cmniB Aristippmn 
t^vU color et status et res. Thus, when re- 
(Tcadied finr his love of bodily indulgences, he 
loncTid that there was no shame m enjoy- 
ing titfm, but that it would be disgraceful if he 
ei&ii oU at any time give them up To Xeno- 
{1^ and Plato he was very obnoxious, as we 
¥x iran the Memorabilia (iL, 1), where he main- 
lai&s u odions discussion sgainst Socrates in 
3acAe« of voluptuous enjoyment, and from the 
PW), where his absence at the death of Soc- 
T9SA tikjogh he was only at ^^Igina, two hund- 
red i^a<^ from Atl]«DB,is doubtless mentioned 
Mireproaeh. He imparted his doctrine to his 
(ia^giiter Arete, by whom it was communicated 
to W wo, the younger Aristippos. — [2. Abjs- 
upCB. so Aleuad, of Larissa m Thessaly, re- 
eared money and troops from Cyrus, to resist a 
^^^tkn opposed to him, and for the ulterior 
paposei of Cyrua, to whom he sent the troops 
Ddtf oommand of Meoon.— 8. An Argive, who 
3^*uud the supreme power in Argos through 
tile kid of An^wras Gonatas, about B.C. 272.— 
i Ad AfgiTe, tyrant of Aigos after the the mur- 
ittq£ AnatomachusL Aratus made many at- 
^anpto to deprive him of his granny, but at first 
vithoot suoeess: he fell at length in a battle 
t^iofit Aiatus, and was succeeded in the tyran- 
ny bj Arirtomachus IL FtdL Akistomachvb, 
lAumuB Fdscdb. FidL Pcsoca No. 2.] 
AuRo, T., a distineijiahed Roman jurist, lived 
<w (he Kmperor Trajan, and was a friend of 
tK younger Pliny. His works are occasionally 
"ntMMd in the Digest^ but there is no di- 
(^ odnet from any of them in that compi- 
«*«■ He wrote notes <m the lAbri Posts- 
y^^ of Labeo^ on Cassius, whose pupil he had 
^»«rot Vid AamoK. 

^*«nttCujB ('ApiOToBovXoc), princes of Ju- 
'''*• 1. Eldest son of Joannes Hyrcanus, as- 
^ the title of Eiz^ of Judea on the death 
■tofaher in B.0. 107. He put to death his 
^nthcr Antigonus in order to secure his power, 
^<liediDtbeloll0wiugyear, 106. — 2. Tounffer 
*>B of Aleiander Jannaras and Alexanc&a. 
After the death of his mother in EC. 70, there 
^OTilwar for some years between Aristo- 
^io4 lis brother Hyrcanus for the posses- 

sion of the crown. At length, in B.G. 68, 
bulus was deprived of the the sovereignty b| 
Pompey, and carried away as a prisoner tc 
Koma In 67 he escaped from his confinement 
at Borne with his son Antigouus, and, return- 
ing to Judtsa, renewed the wai*; but he was 
taken prisoner, and sent back to Rome by Gar 
binius. In 49 he was released by Julius Cttsan 
who sent him into Judaea, but he was poiscn<{ 
on the way bj some of Pompey's party.«~& 
Grandson of No. 2, eon of Alexauder, and broth 
er of Herod's wife Mariamne. He was made 
high-priest by Herod when he was ouly seven- 
teen years old, but was afterward drowned at 
Jericho, by order of Herod, B.C. 86. — 4. Son of 
Herod the Great by Mariamne, was put to death 
in B.C. 6, with his bhother Alexander, by order 
of their father, whose suspicions had been excit- 
ed against them by their brother AMTiPATza.—- 
6. Sumamed ** the Younger," son of Aristobulua 
and Berenice, and grandson of Herod the Great 
He was educated at Rome with his two brothers. 
Agrippa L and Herod the future kio^ of 
Chalcis. He died, as he had lived, in a private 
station.— 6. Son of Herod, king of Chalcis, 
grandson of No. 4, and great-grandson of Herod 
Uie Great In AJ). 65, Nero made him king 
of Armenia Minor, and in 61 added to his do- 
minions some portion of the Greater Armenia 
which had been given to Tigranes. He joined 
the Romans m the war against Antiochus, king 
of Commagene, in 78. 

Abi8TobOlu& 1. Of Cassandrea, served un 
der Alexander the Great in Asia, and wrote a 
history of Alexander, which was one of the 
chief sources used by Arrian in the composition 
of his work. — %. An Alexandrine Jew, and a 
Peripatetic philosopher, lived B.G. 170, under 
Ptolemy VL Philometor. He is said to have 
been the author of commentaries upon the books 
of Moses, the object of which was to prove that 
the Greek i^Uosophy was taken from the books 
of Moses ; but it is now adinitted that this work 
was written by a later writer, whose object was 
to induce the Greeks to pay respect to the Jew- 
ish literature. 

AEisxdcLKs ('ApiCTTOic^f). 1. Of Rhodes^ a 
Greek grammarian and rhetorician, a contem- 
porarv of Strabo.— 2. Of Pe^gamus, a Sophist 
and rnetorician, and a pupil of Herodes Ati&cus, 
lived under Trajsn and Hadriaa— 3. Of Mes- 
sene, a Peripatetic philosopher, probably lived 
about the beginning of the third century alter 
Christ He wrote a work on philosophy, some 
fragments of which are preserved by Eusebiua 
—4. Sculptors. There were two sculptors of 
this name: Aristodes the elder, who is called 
both a Cydonian and a Sicyonian, probaWy be- 
cause he was bom at Cydonia and practiced his 
art in Sicyon; and Aristodes the younger, of 
Sicyon, grandson of the former, son of CleGetas, 
and brother of Canachns. These artists founded 
a school of sculpture at Sicyon, which se- 
cured an hereditary reputation, and of which 
we have the heads for several generations, name 
ly, Aristodes, deostas, Aristodes and Canar 
chos, Synnoon, Ptolichus, Sostratus, and Pantias. 
The dder Aristodes probably lived about B.O. 
600^68 ; the vounger about 640-608.— [6. Ear- 
lier name of Ptto. Vid. PLAxa] 

AaiBTOoalTES ('A/MffToiepdrijf).* 1. Last K' 




A Areadia, was the leader of the Aroadianf jx 
tiie seoood MesseiuaD war, when tfaey aasbted 
the MeM6Diaii8 ag^ainst the SpartaDS. Haying 
heen bribed by ttie Spartans, he betrayed the 
Meseenians, and was, m consequence, stoned to 
death by the Arcadians about B.C. 668, who 
now abolished the kingly office. — 2. An Atheni- 
an of wealth and influence, son of SceUias, was 
sne of the Athenian generals at the battle of 
Arginiissd, B.C. 406, and on his return to Atliens 
was brought to trial and executed. 

ARisTdDftMUs {'Apurrodtffwc), 1. A desoend- 
int of Hercules, son of Aristomachus, and fa- 
:her of £urystbenes and Procle& According 
to some traditions, Aristodemus was killed at 
Naupoctus ly a flash of lightning, just as he 
was setting o'ut on his exjjedition into Pelopon- 
nesus; but a Lacedsemouian tradition related 
that Aristodemus himself came to Sparta, was 
the first king of his race, and died a natural 
death. — 2. A Messeniin, one of the chief heroes 
m the first Messeniau war. As the Delphic 
oracle had declared that the preseryation of the I 
Hesscnian state demanded that a maiden of the 
house of the iEp^^ds should be sacrificed, Aris- 
todemus offered ius own (laughter. In order to 
saye her life, her loyer declared that she was 
with child by him ; but Aristodemus, enraged at 
this ossertion, murdered his daughter, and open- 
ed her body to refute the calumny. Aristode- 
mus was oifterward elected king in place of 
Euphaes, who had fallen in battle against the 
Spartans. He continued the war against the 
Spartans, tall at length, finding further resist- 
ance hopeless, he put an end to his life, on the 
tumb of his daughter, about B.C. 723. — 8. Ty- 
rant of Cumie in Campania, at whose court Tor- 
auinius Superbus died, B.C. 496.-4. One of the 
Uiree hundred Spartans at Thermopylae (B.O. 
480), was not present at the batUe in which his 
comrades fell, either in consequence of sick- 
DCSA, or because he had been sent on an errand 
from the camp. The Spartans punished him 
with Atimia, or civil degradation. Stung with 
this treatment, he met fais death at Plat«iB in 
the following year (479), after performing the 
wildest feats of yalor. — 5. A tragic actor of 
Athens in the time of Demosthenes, took a 
prominent part in the political afiEoirs of his 
time, and advocated peace with Macedonia. 
He was employed bj the Athenians in the ne- 
gotiations with Phihp, with whom he was a 
great feyorite. — 6. Of Miletus, a friend and flat- 
terer of Anti^nus, king of Asia, who sent him 
into Greece m KC. 815, in order to promote 
his hiterests there — ^7. There were many lit- 
erary persons of this name referred to by the 
ancient grammarians, whom it is difficult to dis- 
tinguish from one another. Two were natives 
of Nvsa in Caria, both grammarians, one a teach- 
er of Pompey, and the other of Strabo. There 
was also an Aristodemus of Elis, and another 
of Tliebes, who are quoted as writers. [The 
fragments of these writers are collected and 
published together by Muller, F^roffm, Htttor, 
Chrae^ yoL iii, p. 807-311.1 

AaisTOGlTON ('Ap^rroyelrejv). 1. The con- 
spirator against the sons of Pisistratus. Vid. 
Habmodius. — 2. An Athenian orator and od- 
yeroaiy of Demosthenes, Hyperfdcs, and Dinar- 
ehus. He was oflen accused by D^jnostlMnos 

and others, and defended himBelf iu ii nu 
of orations which are lost JisnouQ the e. 
speeches of Demosthenes there &re tiro ac 
Aristogiton, and among those of Dinarcljus \ 

Aeist^mache {^kpujTOfidxny [1. One oi 
daughters of Priam, and wife of C/itoiaue 
2. Daughter of Hipparinus of SyracuAa eJ 
of Dion, and wife of the elder ]3ioDyaius, 
married her and Doris of Locri on the sjuue ^ 
She afterward perished witb ber daugl 

AEiST^MAOHrs ( ApioTo/jtaxocy 1- i^o *>f 
lous and brother of Adrastus. — 2. Son of CI 
demus or Cleodseus, grandson of Hyllus, tn**^ 
grandson of Hercules, and father of Tenuu 
Cresphontes, and Aristodemus. He fell in bi 
tie when be invaded Pelopoiuiesua ; but II 
three sons were more successful, and cttoqui 
ed Peloponnesus. — 8. Tyrant of Argus, uo-ii 
the patn)nage of Antigonus Oonatas, wod £ 
sassinated, and succeeded by Ariatippus IL— 
Tyrant of Argos, succeeded Aristippus IL : 1 
resigned Ius power upon the death of Dcmeti 
us in RC. 229, and mduced ArgoB to jiyio d\ 
Acluean League. He afterward deserted tL 
Aclueans, and again assumed the tyranny of A: 
gos ; but the city having been taken by Auti^ 
uus Doson, Aristomachus fell into the luuut *'i 
the Achseans, and was by them put to death. 

AaisrdMiNES ('A^*(m>/*«vj7f). 1. The il«»t 
nian, the hero of the second war with Sparu 
belongs more to legend than to history. He 
was a native of Andania, and was spruc^ hm 
the royal line of iEpytus. Tired of the yoke vi 
Sparta, he b^^ the war in B.C. 685, tlurtv- 
nme years aft»r the end of the first war. S- e 
after its commencement, he so distiogui&beii 
himself by his valor that he was oflfered th« 
throne, but refused it, and received the offirt 
of supreme commander. After the dei'eat v( 
the Messenians m the third year of the var 
through the treachery of Aristocrates^ the Ar 
cadiau leader, Aristomenes retreated to tix 
mountain fortress of Ira. and there maiotsiotfJ 
the war eleven y<iars, constantly ravagmg tlw 
land of Laconia. In one of his mcursionA, bo^- 
ever, the Spartans overpowered him with rv 
perior numbers, and carrying him, with fiftv <* 
his comrades, to Sparta, cast them into tLi 
pit (iceacJof) where condemned ciimiual» vtf 
thrown. The rest perished ; not so Ari5t<Wf 
nes, the favorite of the gods; for legend* U>U 
how an eagle bore hun up on its wiogi «« w 
fell, and a fox guided bur. on the third day froff 
the cavera But havinrT incurred the siig«r « 
the Twin Brothers, his country was destined \a 
ruia The city of Ira, I7hich he had 6o m 
successfully defended, fell into the hands of w 
Spartans ; Aristomenes, afl«r performing proju 
gies of valor, was obliged to leave his oouutn 
which was again compelled to submit to (w 
Spartans, B.C. 668. He afterward wtUed a*, 
lalysus in Rhodes, whei-e he died. Dsinaj?at» 
king of lalysus, had been enjoined by tne Ir.*- 
phie oracle •* to marry the daughter of the l»;> 
of the Greeks,** and ho therefore took to w«i< 
the daughter of Aristomenes, who sowmptfiw 
him to Rhodes. The Rhodians booorMl A* 
tomenes as a htrr » and from him were d«ic«w 
ed the iUustrious Cimily of the DiMv^jdu- 



!ia Aomanian, who g<07eme>i Egypt with jos- 
^ aod witdom during the minority of Ptole- 
m V. E^ipfaaiMiB, bat waB put to deaui by Ptole- 
i^ in 192.— vS. A oomic poet of Athens, floor- 
abed dorm^ the Peloponnesian war: [of his 
TiiH-fieB onhr a few firagments remain, which are 
vCeeted in M ekieke's Fragm. Comic, OrcM^ toL 
I, pi 415-7, edit miiKyr.] 

AiLSroir {'ApUrrcw'^ 1. Of Chioe, a Stoic 
plikieoriier, and a cbsciple of Zeoo, flouriehed 
tboot BJC. 260. Hioiigh he professed himself 
• Staic, yet be differed from Zeno in several 
piintB) and beeame the founder of a small 
KhooL He is aaid to have died of a conp dt 
93inL — ^2. A Peripatetic philosopher of lulis in 
6e Idaod of Ceoe, succeeded Lycon as head 
«f die Peripat^ic school about KG. 280. He 
«Tc>te serend pfailoeophical works which are 
Icet— 3. Of Alexandrea, a Peripatetic philoeo- 
F^ and a contemporary of Strabo, wrote a 
vKjk <ai the Nile ; [and another, vepl 'AOtfvaiuv 
ertwuo;, aa Yoasiiis has shown, with whom also 
Midkr agrees, who has giyen the fragments of 
these vorks^ in his Fragm, Eist. Orae,, yoL iii., 

Ax!sroaKAUTM['Api(rTovavTat)j a town in Achaia, 
tb'!; harbor of Pallene. 

Aisraiiccs (^'ApurraviKo^). I, [A tyrant of 

l|%.'tiijmoa, in Leebos, who oppressed the Les- 

biua He was aubeequently taken prisoner by 

ibft navil oommanders of Alexander at Chios, 

pna up to the 3iethynmeans, and by them 

eisellf put to death.] — 2. A natural son of £u- 

Qon U. of Pei^gamus. Upon the death of his 

imtW, Attains III, RO. 133, who left his 

tiiginm to tho Romans, Aristooicus laid claim 

totJiM oown. At first he met with considerable 

iQceeHL He defeated in 131 the consul P. li- 

eoioB CrassuB ; bat in 180 he was defeated and 

bia uriBoner by M. Perpema, was carried to 

Kooie by M'. Aquillius in 129, and was tliere put 

to deatL— 3. An Alexandrine grammarian, a 

ecotonporary of Strabo, and tlie author of sev- 

«il voiks, most of which related to the Homeric 

Aii8r6s?]ii;8 ('ApuTruwfioc)f a comic poet and 
^^anporary of Aristophanes and Amlpsios^ [of 
^boM plays scaroely any thing suryiyes : two or 
lr«ft fragments are giyen in Meineke's Fragm, 
Coottc (^ac, yoL i, p. 401-2, edit minor.] 

AusiopHibrES (*AptaTo<^avijc), 1. The cele- 
^wted comic poet, was bom about B.C. 444, and 
pwbibly at Athena. His father Philippus had 
posfeeaioDs in ./Egina, and may origioaUy haye 
*ww from tbat island, whence a c^uestion arose 
v^hether Aristophanes was a genume Athenian 
Btaen: his enemy Cleon brought against him 
"Mw than one accusation to depriye him of his 
tt^K riehts (^ev/of ypa^at^ but without success. 
« l>ad three sons, Philippus, Araros, and Ni- 
Kstratua, but of his priyate history we know 
*^ Ho probably died about BrC. 380. The 
*«n«iies of Aristophanes are of the highest bis- 
"^cal interest, containing as they do an admi- 
JJ^ series of caricatures on the leading men 
J the day, and a contemporary commentary on 
»« evils enstinfi^ at Athens. Indeed, the cari- 

•^ is the omy feature in modem social life 

tiach at all resembles them. Aristophanes was 
* wld and often a wise patriot He had the 

<Kfi?(st affection for Athens an'! longed to see 

her restored to the state in which she was floon 
ishing in the preyious ffeneration, and ahncst id 
his own childhood, beK>re Pericles became the 
h^d of the ffoyemment, and when the age of 
Miltiades and Aiistides had but just passed 
away. The first great eyil of his own time 
against which he inyeighs is the Peloponnesiao 
war, which he regards as the work of I^erides. 
To this &tal war, among a host of eyils, he as- 
cribes iii» influence of demagogues like Cleou 
at Athens. Another great object of his indig 
nation was the recently adopted system of e<lu 
cation, which had been introduced by the Soph- 
ists, acting on the speculatiye and inquiring 
turn gi^en to the Athenian mind by the Ionian 
and Uleatic philosophers, and the extraordinai^ 
intellectual development of the age following 
the Persian war. The new theories introduced 
by the Sophists threatened to oyerthrow th* 
foundations of morality, \>y making persuasion, 
and not truth, the object of man in his mterooursv 
with his fellowS) and to substitute a uniyersal 
skepticism for the religious creed of the people 
The worst effects of such a system were seen in 
AlcibiodeSyWho combined all the elements which 
Aristophanes most disliked, heading the wai 
party in politics^ and protecting the sophistical 
school in philosophy and also in literature. Of 
this latter school — wa literary and poetical Soph- 
ists — ^Euripides was the chief^ whose works 
are full of that fitreupoaoi^la which contrasts so 
offensiyely with the moral dignity of .^Ischylue 
and Sophocles, and for which Aristophanes in- 
troduces him as soaring in the air to write his 
tragedies. Another feature of the times was 
the excessiye loye for litigation at Athens, the 
conseauent importance of the dicasts, and dis- 
graceful abuse of their power, all of which enor 
niities are made by Aristophanes objects of con- 
tinual attack. But though he saw what were 
the eyils of his time, he had not wisdom to find 
a remedy for them, except the hopeless and un- 
desirable one of a moyement backward; and 
therefore, tiiough we allow him to haye been 
honest and bold, we must deny him the epithet 
of great The following is a list of his extant 
comedies, with the year in which they were 
performed : 426. Achamiam. Produced in the 
name of Callistratus. First prize. — 424. 'InireUi 
Kniahit or Hortemen, The first play produced 
in the name of Aristophanes hmiself. First 
prize ; second Cratinus.— 423. Clouds. First 
prize, Cratinus ; second, Amipsins.— 422. Waspt. 
Second prize. — Cloud* (second edition), failed in 
obtaining a prize. Some writers place this B.C. 
411, and the whole subject is very uncertaia 
—419. Peace. Second prize; Eupolis, first— 
Birds. Second prize; Amipsias, nrst; Phryu- 
ichus, third— 41 1. Lysistrata. — Thesmophoria- 
guscB. During the Oligarchy.— 408. First P/i*- 
tus.— -405. Froas. First prize ; Phrynichus, sec 
ond ; Plato, third Death of Sophocles. — 392. 
Fcclesiazusce. — 888. Second edition of the Plu- 
tus. — The last two comedies of Aristophanes 
were the jSolosieon and Coealus, produced about 
B.C. 887 (date of the peace of Antalcidas) by Ar- 
aros, one of his sons. Suidas tells us that Aris; 
tophanes was the author, in all, of fifty-four play8[ 
As a poet Aristophanes possessed merits of the 
highest order. His works contain snatches of 
lyric poetry which are quite n*-ble, and *0PY5-ff^T/> 



liu elioniseB, partioularly one in the Knights, in 
whicb the bones are represented as rowing tri- 
remes in an ernedioon against Corinth, are writ- 
ten with a spint and humor nnriyalled in Greek; 
and are not very disaimilar to EngUsh ballads. 
Ho was a complete master of the Attic dialect; 
and in his hands the perfection of that glorioos 
languace is wonderfullj diowa No flirats are 
too bold for the rang^ of his fitncy : annuals of 
erery kind are pres^jd into his service; frogs 
chaunt choruses, a dog is tried for stealing a 
dieese, and an iambic yerse is composed of the 
grunts of a pig. — .Sditi&n§ : The best of the col- 
leetiYe plap are by Inyemiczi, completed by 
Beck and Dindori; 18 yol&, L^ 1794-1826; 
by Bekker, 6 vols. 8yo, Lond., 1829 ; [and by Din- 
dorf, 4 yolk, in 7 parts, 8yo, Oxford, 1885-88]. — 
2. Of Byzantium, son of Apelles, and one of the 
most eminent Greek mmmarians at Alezan- 
drea. He was a pupfl of Zenodotus and 'En- 
tosthenes, and teacher of the celebrated Aristar- 
ehuB. He liyed about B.O. 264, in tiie reign of 
Ptolemy H. and Ptolemy HL, and had the su- 
preme management of the library at Alexandrea. 
Aristophanes was the first who introduced the 
use of accents in the Greek language. He de- 
foted himself chiefly to the criticism and inter- 
pretation of the Greek poets, and more espe- 
cially of Homer, of whose works he made a new 
and critical edition (SiopOctaic). The philoso- 
phers Plato and Aristotle likewise engaged his 
attention, and of the former, as of several of the 
poets, he made new and critical editions. AU 
we possess of his numerous works consists of 
fragments scattered throueh the Scholia on the 
(joets, some arguments to the plays of the tragic 
[loets and of Aristophanes, and a part of his 
A^eic, which is printed in Boissonade's edition 
of Herodian's Partiiumes, London, 1819, p. 283- 
289. [A collection of all the extant fragments 
of Aristophanes has been made by Nauck, Halle, 

AaiSTdpHON ('ApioTo^y 1. Of the demus 
of Azenia in Attica, one of the most distinguish- 
«d Athenian orators about the close of the Pelo- 
ponnesian war. The number of laws which he 
proposed may be inferred from his own state- 
ment, as preserved by .£schines, that he was 
accused seventy -five times of having made ille- 
gal proposals, but that ho had always come off 
victorious. In B.C. 854 he accused Iphicrates 
and Timotiieus, and in tiie same year ne came 
forward in the assembly to defend the law of 
Leptines against Demostiienes. The latter 
treats him with great respect, and reckons him 
among the most eloquent orators. — 2. Of the 
demus of Colyttus, a contemporary of Demos- 
thenes, and an orator of ereat distinction and 
faifluence. It was this Anstophon whom JE^ 
chines served as a clerk, and m whose service 
be was trained for his public career. Vid, J^ 


voL ii, n. 675^79, ed. minor.}--4. A painter of 
some (Ustincliony son and pupil of Aglaophon, 
and brother of Polygnotus. 

Aei«t5t£lxs (^kpLOToHXTfO, the philosopher, 

was bom at Stagira, a town in Qialcidice in 

Macedonia, B.C. 884. His father, Nicomachus, 

was i^hysic'an in ordinary to Amyntas IL, king 


of Macedonia, and the author ti severul I 
on subjects connected with natural science : bic 
mother, Phasstis (or PhsBStiasi was desoeodea 
from a Chalcidian family. The studies and oe> 
copation of his father account for the early in 
dination manifested by Aristotle for the inwea- 
tigation of nature, an inclination which ia per- 
ceived throughout his whole life. He lost fau 
iaihet before he had attained his seventeeof fa 
year, and he was introsted to the guardianship 
of one Prozenus of Atameus in Mysia^ who israa 
settled in Stagira. In 867 he went to Atfaeoa 
to purane his studies, and there became a pupil 
of Plato npon the return of the latter from Sici 
ly about 865. Plato soon distinguished bim 
above all his other disciples. He named him 
the ** intellect of his school,'' and his house the 
house of the ** reader." Aristotie lived at 
Athens for twenty years, till 847. During thf. 
whole of this period the good understanding 
which subsisted between teacher and scholar 
continued, with some trifling exceptions, nndia- 
turbed, for the stories of the disrespect azid in- 
gratitude of the latter toward the fonner an> 
nothing but calumnies invented by his enemiee 
During the last ten years of his nrst residence 
at Athens, Aristotie gave instruction in rhetoric, 
and distinguished himself bj his opposition to 
Isocrates. It was at this tmie that ne publieb- 
ed his first rhetorical writings. Upon the death 
of PUito (847) Aristotle left Athens ; perhaps ba 

I was offended by Plato having appointed Spen- 
sippus as his successor in the Academy. H« 
first repaired to his friend Hermlas at Ataraena, 
where he married Pvthias, the adoptive dangh 
ter of the prince. On the death of HEaMLiB 
who was killed by the Persians (844), Aristotle 
fled from Atameus to Mytilene. Two years 
afterward (84^) he accepted an invitation from 
Philip of Macedonia to undertake the instruc- 
tion of his son Alexander, then thirteen yean 
of age. Here Ariatotle was treated with th<> 
most marked respect His native city, Stagira 
which had been destroyed by Philip, was re 
built at his reouest, and Phihp caused a gym 
nasium (called Nympha)um) to be built there in 
a pleasant grove expressly for Aristotie and his 
pupils. Several of the youtiis of the Macedo- 
nian nobles were educaud by Aristotie along 
with Alexander. Aristotie spent seven yean 
in Macedonia, but Alexander enjoyed his in- 
struction without intemiptici: for only four. 
Still, with such a pupil, even this short period 
was sufficient for a teacher like Aristotie tc 
fulfill the highest purposes of education, and to 
create in his pupil that sepse oi the noble and 
g^eat whicb distinguishes Alexander from all 
those conqueron who have only swept like a 
hurricane through the world. On Alexander's 
accession to the throne in 885. Aristotle retuni- 

' ed to Athens. Here he found his friend Xcnoe 

I rates president of the Academy. He himself 
had the LycSum, a gymnasium sacred to ApoUs 
Lyceus, assigned to liim by the state. He soot 
assembled round him a large number of disUn 

' guished scholara, to whom he delivered lecturei 
on philosophy in the shady walks ffrf,o/iraro<} 
which surrounded the Lyceum, while walkiiy 
up and down (Trep/Tarijv), and not bitting, whia 
was the. general practice of the philosnphen 
From onis or other of these circumstance* ^ 



mae Peripaielie m derived, which was Alter- 
■rd given to hb ediooL He gave two dif- 
hot cwAii f of lectures everjr day. Those 
tikk he ddireied in the monuDg (htdivdc ire- 
inroc ) to a imrrowet ebde of chosen (esote- 
m) hiartn, and whicfa were called aeroamatic 
IT tcToaUe, cmbraeed subractB connected with 
^ more ahatrose plifloeop^y (theology), phys- 
m. tad dialfirtim Those which be deliyered 
is «he iftenioaii {daikivdf fcepiiraroc), and intend- 
tdhr^wan nronusonons circle (which, accord- 
'tt6y^ he caDed eani&rie), extended to rhetoric, 
yif^ties, and politiea. He appears to have 
tksght not so anidi in tlie way of oonyersation 
» HI Kgniar leetoresL His school soon became 
the meet edebntted at Athens, and be continued 
to ]nade over it for thirteen years (386-828). 
IhiriD^ this time be also composed the greater 
pait of Us works. In these labors he was asr 
mAed by the truly kingly liberalilT of his former 
fs^ who not only presented him with 800 
SikKtfi, but tlao eftusea laiige collections of oat- 
to be made fur him, to which 

ugcoity is indebted for one of his most excel- 
W iPoikB, the Bitiorf of ArUmaU. Meanwhile 
firioQs eaiMCS oootribiited to throw a cloud 
jTcr the latter years of tlie philosopher's life, 
btbefintpteoe be felt deeply the death of his 
v& Pvthias, wbo left behind her a daughter of 
ibe tame name : be lived subsequently with a 
tneod o( bis wife*8» the slave Herpyllis, wbo 
bon him a son, Nicomachus. But a source of 
f£l ereater gri^ "^^^^ui lu^ mterruption of the 
bndij T«ktion in which he had hitherto stood 
to \m royal pupiL This was occasioned by the 
eesdoetof CALUsriuuns, the nephew and pupil 
d An^botie, wbo bad vehemently and injudi- 
aMslj opposed the changes in the conduct and 
pE&f of Alexander. Still AleScander refrain- 
ed fraa v/f expression of hostility towards his 
fianaef iiistroet(»', although their former cordial 
»»QeetiaD no longer subsiBted undisturbed. 
"ISe etory that Aristotle had a share in poison- 
JBg the king is a fiibrication of a later a^e ; 
asd, moreover, it is certain that Alexander died 
\ n^bonl death. After the death of Alexan- 
^(3i3)b Aristotle was looked upon with suspi- 
aa It Athens as a friend of Macedouia; but 
tti&vas not easy to bring any political aocusa- 
t£n gainst him, he was accused of unpiety 
[icdaac) by tbe hierophant Eurymedoa He 
^^t^ifinv from Athens oefore his trial, and es- 
aped in tbe beginning of 822 to Chalets in £u- 
ba, vbere he died in the course of the same 
^ar, in the sixty-third year of his affe, of a 
etvooic dieesse of the stomach. His boSy was 
tnapofted to bis native dtj Staglra, and his 
^SKQorj vas honored there, hke that of a hero, 
^Tetriy festivals. He bequeathed to Theo- 
FUtiB his well^tored library and the origi- 
vis uf his writings^ In person Aristotle was 
<Wt and of slender make, with snuiU eyes, 
ud a lisp io his pronuneiation, using L for R, 
"idvith a sort of sarcastic expression in his 
sonUoaDeek He exhibited remarkable atten- 
tM) to external appearance, and bestowed much 
eanoo his dress and person. He is described 
M banog been of '*^eak health, which, consid- 
Biog tte astonishing extent of bis studies, 
'^ && ikd more the energy of bis mind. The 
iwiioai vorks of Aristotle may be divided 

into the following classes, according to the sub 
jecte of which they treat: we only mention the 
most important in each class. L DiALscrica 
AND Looia The extant logical writings are 
comprehended as a whole under the titie Or- 

E('Opy<tvov, t. e^ instrument of science) 
are occupied with the investigation of the 
d by wbich man arrives at knowledge 
An insight into the nature and formation of con- 
dusione, and of proof by means of conclusion^ 
is the common aim and centre of all tbe sep 
arate six works oomposiog the Organon : these 
separate works are, I. Kartiyopiai, Frcediccanen- 
tOt in which Aristotle treats of the (ten) com- 
prehensive generic ideas, under which all the 
attributes of things mar be subordinated as 
species^ — 2. IX^p^ kp/ofvelttc, De InterpretaHona, 
ooncermng the expression of thought by means 
of speech.— 8, 4. 'AvaXvriKd nporepa and iarepa, 
Analytica, each in two books, on the theory of 
conclusions, so called from the resolution of 
the oondusion into its fundamental component 
parts. — 5. Toirucd, De Loci*, in eight books, of 
the general points of view (roTrot), from which 
conclusions may be drawn. — 6. Ilrp^ ao^iartKQv 
kXeyx^^f concerning the fallacies which only 
apparently prove something. The best edition 
of the Organon is by Waitas, Lips, 1844. XL 
Theohetical Philosopht, consisting of Metor 
physic9, Mathematics, and PhyaicSj on all of 
which Aristotle wrote works. 1. The Meta- 
phyneSf in fourteen books {tQv fierii riX fvaiKu)^ 
originally consisted of distinct treatises, inde- 
pendent of one another, and were put together 
as one work after Aristotle's death. The title, 
also, is of late origin, and was given to the work 
from its beino^laced after {jutiL) the Physics 
(rd ^oiKu). The best <Kiition is by Brandia 
Ben>l., 1823.— 2. In Mathematics we have twc 
treatises by Aristotle: (1.; Wept aroyjuv ypaft 
fuiVj i. 0., concerning indivisible lines; (2.) Mr 
XavcKct irpoC/njfMTO, Mechanical Problems. — :>. 
in Physics we have, (1.) Physics (<^aiK^ uKpou- 
ffiCt called also, by others, nepl upx^v), in eight 
books. In these Aristotle develops the general 
principles of natural science (Cosmology). (2.) 
Coneerfiing the Heaven [irepl oipavov), in four 
books. (3.) On Pro€hHi(m and Destruction {Kept 
yeveaeu>c koI fdopug, de GmertUione et Corrup- 
tione\ in two books, develop the general lawp 
of production and destruction. (4.) On Meteor 
ology (fieTSLipoTioyiKu, da Meteofis\ in four books 
(5.) ok tJis Universe (irepl KoofxoVt de Mundo), a 
letter to Alexander, treats the subject of the 
last two works in a popular tone and a rhetor- 
ical style altogether foreign to Aristotle. Tlie 
whole is probably a tran^tion of a work with 
tbe same title by Appuleius. (6.) The History 
of Animals (irepl ^uuv laropia), in nine books, 
treats of all the peculiarities of this division of 
the natural kingdom, according to generri, class- 
es, and species, especially giving all the char 
acSteristics of each animal according to its ex- 
ternal and internal vital functions, according 
to the manner of its copulation, its mode or 
life, and its character. The best edition is by 
Schneider, Lips., 1811. The observations in 
this work are the triumph of ancient sagacity, 
and have been confirmed by tbe results of the 
•nost recent investigations (Cuvier). (7.) On 
the parts of Animals {irepl ^uuv fiopiuv).m{Qj» l 



bookn. in which Aristotle, after dcscribiDg the 
phieoomeDa in each epecies, develops the causes 
of these pbsBDomeDa by means of the idea to be 
formed of the purpose -which is manifested in 
the formation of. the animal (8.) Oh the Oen- 
oration o/AnimaU (nept Cwwv yeveaeog) in five 
hooks, treats of the generation of animalB and 
the organs of generatioa — (9.) J)e Incetau Ant- 
malium (nepl ^uqv TropeioQ), (10.) Three bookt 
on the /Sem/ {nept iwxv( )• Aristotle defines the 
soul to be the ** internal formative principle of a 
body which maj be perceived by the senses, and 
is capable of life." Best edition by Trendelen- 
burg, Jenie, 1838. Several anatomical -works 
of Aristotle have been lost He waa the first 
person who, in any special manner, advocated 
anatomical investigations, and showed the ne- 
cessity of them for the study of the natural 
sciences. He frequently refers to investiga- 
tions of bis own on the subject III Practi- 
cal pHiLOsopHT or PouTics. All that falls 
within the sphere of practical philosophy is com- 
prehended in three priDcipal works : the Ethics^ 
the Folitieey and the (Economics. 1. 77ie Ni- 
eomachian Ethics (*HdiK^ TSucofidxeia)^ in ten 
books. Aristotle here begins with the highest 
and most universal end of life, for the individ- 
ual as well as for the community in the state. 
This is happiness (eidaifiovia) ; and its condi- 
tions are, on the one hand, perfect virtue ex- 
hibiting itself in the actor, and, on the other 
han^l, corresponding bodily advantages and fo- 
«oriible external circumstances. Virtue is the 
readiness to act constantly and consciously ac- 
cording to the laws of the rational nature of 
man {op6dc Xoyo^). The nature of virtue shows 
itself in its appearing as the medium between 
two extremes. In accordance with this, the 
several viilues are enumerated and character- 
ized. Best editions by Zell, Heidelb., 1820; 
Coray, Paris, 1822; Cardwell, Oxon., 1828; 
Michelet, BeroL, 1848, 2d editioa— 2. The Eu- 
dernSan Ethics ('HOiKa "Ei^fieta), in several books, 
of which only books i, ii, iii., and vil are in- 
dependent, while the remaining^ books iv., v., 
and vi. agree word for word with books v., vl, 
and vil of tlie Kicomacheon Ethics. This eth- 
ical work is perhaps a recension of Aristotle's 
lectures, edited by Eudemus. — 8. llOiKd, Me- 
ia?Mf in two books.- 4. Politics ('no?uTiKaUiu 
eight books. The Ethics conduct us to the Pol- 
ities. The connection between the two works 
is so dose, that in the Ethics by the word ijcrre- 
oov reference is made by Aristotle to the Poli- 
tics, and in the latter by frpSrepov to the Ethics. 
The Politics show how happiness is to be attain- 
ed ^<w<A« htanan community in the state; for the 
object of the state is not merely the external 
preservation of life, "but happy hfe," as it is at- 
tained by '' means of virtue (dper^, perfect de- 
velopment of the whole man). Hence, also, eth- 
ics roi in tlie first and most general foundation 
of political life, because the state cannot attain 
(ts highest object if morality does not prevail 
among its citizens. The house, the family, is 
the element of the state. Accordingly, Aristo- 
tle begins with the doctrine of domestic econo- 
jny, then proceeds to a description of the differ- 
ent forms of government, after which he gives 
% delineation of the most important Hellenic 
oonstitutious, and then investi^tes which of 

the constitutions is the best (the ideal of & sU&e) 
The doctrine concerning education, as the most 
important condition of this beat state, fonns tfa« 
conclusion. Best editions, by Schneider, Fraia 
col ad. Viadr., 1809 ; Coray, Paris, 1821 ; Gott 
ling, JensB, 1824; Stahr, with a German trans- 
lation. Lips., 1887 ; Barth^l^my St Hilaire, witi: 
a French translation, Paris, 1887, — ^5. (EooHotnit'M 
(olKovofiiKd)tm two books, of which onljr tl»o first 
is genuine. IV. Works on Art, which havs 
for their subject the exercise of the creative 
faculty, or Art To these beloiig the Poetict aad 
Rhetoric. 1. The Poetics (Uepl voirfTuc^^:). Aris- 
totle penetrated more deeply than any of the 
ancients into tlie essence of Hellenic art He 
is the father of the asthetics of poetry, as he is 
the completer of Greek rhetoric as a edence^ 
The greatest part of the treatise contains a 
theory of Tragedy ; nothing else is treated o^ 
with the exception of the epos ; comedy ia 
merely alludeci to. Best editions, by Tyrwhitt, 
Oxon., 1794; Hermann, Lips., 1802; Grafenhao, 
Lips., 1821; Bekker, Berol, 1882; Hitter, Co- 
loa, 1839. — 2. The Rhetoric (r^xyv fivropiia^), in 
three books. Rhetoric, as a science, aecordinf; 
to Aiistotle, stands side by side with Dialectics. 
The only thing which maKes a scientific treat- 
ment of rhetoric possible is the argumentatioD 
which awakens conviction : be therefore directs 
his chief attention to the theory of oratorical 
argumentation. The second main division of 
the work treats of the production of that favor 
able disposition in the hearer, m consequence 
of which the orator appeara to him to be worthy 
of credit The third part treats of oratoricai 
expression and arrangement According to a 
story current in antiquity, Aristotle bequeathec 
his library and MSS. to Theophrastus, his sue- 
cessor in the Adademy. Cn the death of Theo* 
phrastus, the libraries and MSS., both of Aria 
totle and Theophrastus, are said to have come 
into the hands of his relation and disciple, Ne- 
leus of Scepsis. This Neleus sold both libraries 
to Ptolemy IL, king of Egypt, for the Alexan 
drine library ; but ho retained for himself, ai 
an heir-loom, the original MSS. of the works of 
these two philosophers. The descendants of 
Neleus, who were subjects of the Kin^ of Per- 
gamus, knew of no other way of secunng them 
from the search of the Attali, who wished to 
rival the Ptolemies in forming a laive library, 
than concealing them in a cellar, where for a 
couple of centuries they were exposed to the 
ravages of damp and worms. It was not till 
the beginning of the century before the biilh of 
Christ that a wealthy book-collector, the Athe 
nian Apellicon of Teos, traced out these valua- 
ble relics, bought them from the ignorant heirs, 
and prepared from them a new edition of Aiis* 
totle s works. After the capture of Athens, 
Sulla conveyed Apellicon*s library to Rome, B. 
C. 84. Vii APELUOoy. From this story nn 
error arose, which has been handed down from 
the time of Strabo to the present day. It was 
concluded from this accoimt that neither Aris- 
totle nor Theophrastus had published their writ 
ings, with the exception of some exoteric works, 
which had no iuipoi tant bearing on their sys- 
tem, and that it was not till 200 years latei 
that tliey were brought to light by the above 
mcntic ned Apellicon. and published to the pbD 



gopfctra] vorld That, however, Wiia by no 
[ mmm th« CUI8& Aristotle, bdecd, did not pre- 
^re a «oiiiplete editkMi, as ive call it^ of his 
vridngBL Mj, it is certain that death overtook 
fe& before he could finish some of his works 
md put the finishing hand to others. Never^ 
ifegledS, it cfto Dot be denied that Aristotle des- 
ind ail hii irorks for publication, and published 
•rrosl in his lifa-tima This is indisputably 
•otaia vith nmrd to the exoteric writings. 
Those vhi«^ had not been published by Aristo- 
ke himself were ^ven to me world by Theo- 
pbnstoa and his disciples in a complete form. 
^Sditicms: The best edition of the complete 
v»rfca of Aristotle ia by Bekker, BerUn, 1881- 
1^^ 4to, texi in 2 toIs., and a Latin translation 
n oce Tolnme This edition has been reprint- 
^1 St QrCbrd in 11 Tola 870. There is a ste- 
reotyped edition published by Tauchnitz, Leip- 
agy 183^ 16mo, in 16 Tols^ and another edition 
-4 the text by Weise, in one volume, Leipzig, 
i»4&~4- ^^« of the thirty tyrants estabhshed 
a Athens RC. 404 : he would also appear to 
bare been one of the 400, and to have taken an 
afdve part in the scheme of fortifying Eetionea, 
13d s<muttiiig the Spartans into t£» Piraseus, 
B.a411. IirB.O. 405 he was livmg in banish- 
BMsfc^md is mentioned by Xenophon as being 
wsh Lysaoder during the siege of Athens. — 8. 
Of Sidlj^, a rhetorician, who wrote against the 
?»egyTicas of laocratea— 4. Of Athens, an 
bntor'and wtat.eainan, under whose name some 
k/nsme orations were known in the time of Di- 
ugnes Laertiusy which were distinguished for 
their deganoe. — 5. Of Arsos, a Megaric or dia- 
t«tie pt^oeopher, belonged to the party at Ar- 
^ vfaiefa was hostile to Cleomenes of Sparta.] 

AusToxKNCs ('Api^rd^evof ). 1. OfTarentum, 

A Peripatetic philosopher and a musician, flour- 

ihed about KC. 318. He was a disciple of 

Antotle^ whom he appears to have rivalled in 

the rariety of his studies. According to Suidas, 

^ ^rodueed works to the number of 458 upon 

BMSK, philosophy, hbtory — ^in sbort» eveiy de- 

ptftaKQt of hterature. We know nothing of 

Ik ^^lilosophieal opinions except that he held 

the Mol to be a harmony of the body (Cic, Tiue^ 

L 10). a doctrine which had been already dis- 

c«ied by Plato in the Fhado, Of his numer- 

oos works, the only one extant is his MlemenU 

^ Harmimtf {dpficvutd, arotxela), in three books, 

oiit«d by Heibomius, in the AtUiqua Mtmca 

Axhrf Sejaiem, Amst, 1652.— [2. Of Selinus 

b Sicily, a Greek poet, who is said to have been 

^ first who wrote in anapiestic metres. — 8. 

i eekbrated Greek physician, who flourished 

ibwL the beginning of the Christian era, and 

Vis the author of a work Ilep^ r^c 'Hpo^Uov 

%'«wr. De Heraphili Secia.] 

AuBTos {'AptOToc). 1. Of Salamis in Cyprus, 
viDte a history of Alexander the Great — 2. An 
AesdcffliQ philosopher, a contemporary and friend 
^Cicero, and teacher of M. Brutus. 
Aann, river. Ftd Aeia. 
[A&icB ('Apeiot). 1. A Pythagorean or ^Hoic 
pmopher of Alexandrea, an instructor of Au- 
^latns 10 philosophy ; highly esteemed br Augus- 
ta, vho declared, after the capture of Alexan- 
drsa. that he spared the city chiefly for the sake 
^ Arias. Btfvides philosophy, he also taught 
rWtflri<». and wrote on that ail* — ?.. T\w cele- 

brated heietic. bom shortly after the middle of 
i the third century AJ). In the religious disputei 

at Alexandrea, AD. 806, Arius at first took the 
I part of Meletius, but afterward became i'econeil 
I ed to the Bishop of Alexandrea, the opponent of 
I Meletius^ who made Arius ddaoon. Scion aftei 

this he was excommunicated by Peter of Alex 

andrea, but was restored by his successor Achil 
: las, and ordained priest AD. 818. In 818 th« 
, celebrated controversy with Bishop Alexander 
I broke out» a controversy which has had a grcat- 
, er and more lasting iimuence upon the develop- 
jmentof the Christian religion than any other. 

So fierce did the dispute become, that the Em- 
I peror Constantbe was forced to convoke a eeo- 

end council at Nicsea (Nice^, AJ). 825, at whioh 

upward of three hundred buhops were present. 
I liie errors of Arius were condemned ; and he 
I was compelled to go into exile into Illyricum, 
.where he remained until recalled by the em- 
I peror in 8d0» and allowed to return to Alexan- 
; drea, through the mfluence of Eusebius of Nioo- 

media. His ever-wakeful opponent, however, 
' Athanasius, was not so easily deceived as the 

emperor, and, notwithstanding the order of Con- 

stantine, refiised to receive him into the com- 
I munion of the Church. This led to a renewed 

application to the emperor; and when Arius 
j finally seemed on the point of triumphiug over 

his sturdy orthodox opponents, he was removed 

suddenly by the hand of death, AJ>. 836.] 
I Aait^aU (1^ 'Apiovaia x^^)t <^ district on the 
, north coast of Chios, where the best wine 10 
, the island was grown (Ariimum Vinum, Virg , 

Armxnx ('Afifihnj or -^ : now AkHinan), a 
town on the coast of Paphlagonia» where tilt 
10,000 Greeks, during then* retreat, rested five 
days, entertained bv the people of Sinope, a lit- 
tle to the west of which Armene stood. 

AiiMiNiA (*Apfievia : 'Apfteviog, Armenius : now 
Armenia), a country of Asia, lying between Asia 
Minor and the Caspian, is a lofty table-land, 
backed by the chain of the Caucasus, waterod 
by the rivers Cyrus and Araxes, containing tiie 
sources also of the Tigris and of the Euphrates, 
the latter of which divides the country mto two 
unequal parts, which were called Major and Mi- 
nor. 1. Armenia Major or Propria ('A. ^ fu 
yuXfi or # W<«f KaTjiviiivri : now Erzercuniy Kart^ 
Van, and Erivan), was bounded on the north- 
east and north bv the Cyrus (now Kur\ which 
divided it from Albania and Iberia ; on the north- 
west and west by the Moschici Mountains (the 
prolongation of the cham of the Anti-Tau- 
rus), and the Euphrates (now FratX which di- 
vided it from Colchis and Armenia Minor ; and 
on the south and southeast by the mouotams 
called Masius, Niphates, and Gtordiiei (the pro 
loiigation of tiie Taurus), and the lower course 
of the Araxes, which cuvided it from Mesopo 
tamia, Assyria, and Media: on the east th# 
country comes to a point at the confluence ol 
the Cyrus and Araxes. It is intersected by 
chains of mountains, between which iiin the 
two great rivers Araxes, flowing east into 
the Caspian, and the Arsanias (now Murad), 01 
south branch of the Euphrates, flowing west into 
the main stream (now Fral) just above Mount 
Masius. The eastern extremity of the cham ot 
mountains which separates the basins of th^M , 



tiw« riYers, aud wbkb is an ofEahoot of the AnU- 
Tau: lu, forms the Ararat of Scripture. In the 
south of the couutry is the great hike of Van, 
Arsifles Paius, inclosed by mjuutaio chains 
which connect Arai*at with the southern range 
of mountains. — 2. Armenia Mince ('A. fuxpU or 
QpaxvTepa), was bounded on the east by the 
Euphrates, which divided it from Armenia Ma- 
jor, on the north aud northwest by the mount- 
auie Scodises, Faryadres, and Anti-Taurus, di- 
viding it from Pontus and Cappadocia, and on the 
south by the Taurus, dividing it from Comma- 
gene in Northern Syria, so that it contained the 
country eisl aud south of the city of Siwu (the 
ancient Cabira or Sebaste) as far as the Euphra- 
tes and the Taurus. The boundaries between 
Armenia Minor and Cappadocia varied at dif- 
ferent times ; and, indeed, the whole country up 
to the Euphrates is sometimes called Cappado- 
cia, aud, on the other hand, the whole of Asia 
Minor east of the Halys seems at one time to 
hare been included under the name of Armenia. 
The people of Armenia claimed to be aboriginal ; 
and there can be little doubt that they were one 
of the most ancient families of that branch of 
the human race which is called Caucasian. 
Theu* language, though possessing some re- 
markable peculiarities of its own, was nearly 
aUied to the Indo-Germanic fiuuily; and their 
manners and religious ideas were similar to 
those of the Medes and Persians, but with a 
greater tendency to the personification of the 
;;K>werB of nature, as in the goddess AnaXtis, 
whose worship was peculiar to Armenia. They 
hf.-i commercial dealings with Assyria and Phce- 
oil. a. In the time of Xenophon they had pre- 
served a great degree of piimitive simplicity, 
but four hundred years later Tacitus gives an 
unfavorable view of their character. The ear- 
liest Armenian traditions* represent the country 
as goveiiied by native kings, who had perpetu- 
ally to maintam their independence against at- 
tacks from Assyria^ They were said to have 
been conquered by Semiramis, but again throw 
off the yoke at Uie time of the Median and Baby- 
lonian revolt Their relations to the Medes and 
Persians seem to have varied between sucoess- 
ful resistance, unwilling subjection, and friendly 
alliance. A body of Armenians formed a part 
of the army which Xezes led against Greece ; 
and they assisted Darius Codomannus against 
Alexander, and in this war they lost their king, 
and became subject to the Macedonian empire 
(B C. 828). After another interval of success- 
ful revolt (aC. 317-274), they submitted to the 
Greek kings of Syria; but when Antioehus the 
Great was defeated by the Romans (Ii.C. 190), 
the country again regamed its indepen^ ence, and 
it w%s at this period that it was divided into the 
two kiogdrms of Armenia Major and Minor, 
iinder two iifferent dynasties, founded respect- 
iTely by the nobl\^ who headed the revolt, 
Artaadas and Zariadras. Ultimately^ Armenia 
Minor was made a Roman provinoe oy Traian ; 
and Armenia Major, after being a perpetual ob- 
ject of contention between the Romans and the 
Parthians, was subjected to the revived Persian 
empire by its first king, Artazerzes (Ardeshir), 
b A.D. 226. 

A1UCENIO8 M0N8 (rd *Apfiiviotf 6po<), a brandi 
»f the Anti Taurus oMin in Armenia Micor. 

AaMiNius (the J^tiiized furm of HermoMi. 
**the chieftain"), son of Sigimon, **the eon- 
queror," and chief of the tribe of the Cherusci. 
who inhabited the country to tin north of the 
Hartz Mountains, now forming the south oi 
Hanover and Brunswicic. He was bom in BjCl 
18; and in his youth he led the warriors of 
his tribe as auxiliaries of tlie Roman legions io 
Germany, where he learned the language and 
military discipline of Rome, and waa admitted 
to the freedom of the city, and enrolled among 
the equites. In A.D. 9, Arminius, who was now 
twenty-seven years old, and had succeeded hin 
father as chief of his tribe, persuaded his oo«sd- 
trymen to rise against the Romans, who were 
now masters of this part of Germany, and whieh 
seemed destined to become, like Gaul, a Roduid 
province. His attempt was crowned with suo- 
cess. Quintilius Varus, who was stationed io 
the country with three legions, was destroyed 
with almost all his troop (vtdL Yaeus) ; and the 
Romans had to relinauish all their posaessioiifl 
beyond the Rhine. In 14, Arminius had to do- 
fend his countnr against Germanicus. At first 
he was successml; the Romans were defeated, 
and Germanicus withdrew toward the Rhine 
followed by Arminius. But bavib^ been oomr 
pelled by his uncle, Inguiomer, agamst his own 
wishes, to attack the B^mans in their iutreodb- 
ed camp, his army was routed, and the Romans 
made good their retreat to the Rhine. It was 
in the course of this campaign that Thiisnelda^ 
the wife of Arminius, fell into the hands of the 
Romans, and was reserved, with the infimt boy 
to whom she soon after gave birth in her captivi* 
ity, to adorn the triumph of Germanicus at Rome. 
In 16, Arminias was again called upon to restiit 
Germanicus, but he was defeated, and his coun- 
try was probably only saved from subjection b^ 
the jealousy of Tibenus, who recalled Germaoi 
CUB in the following year. At length Arminius 
aimed at absolute power, and was, in conse* 
quence, cut off by his own relations in the thirty 
seventh year of his age, A.D. 19. 

AEMoaicA or Arbmo&ica, the name of th* 
nortliwest coast of Gaul from the Ligeris (now 
Loire) to the Sequana (now jSeine)^ derived from 
the Celtic art atr, ** upon," and mutr, m^r, " the 
sea." The Armortca civitatea are enumerated 
by Caasar (B. (?, vil, 76). 

Arna (Arnaa, -Atis : now Civitella <tAmo), a 
town in Umbria, near Perusia. 

Arn^ ('Apvat), a town in Chal^idice in Mac^ 
donia, south of Aulon and Bromiscus. 

[Arnaus {'Apvaio^), the proper name of the 
beggar Irus, mentioned in the Odyssey. Vid 

Arnx ('Apv^). 1. A town in Bosotia, mentio» 
ed by Homer {H^ ii., 607), supposed by Pausa 
nias to be the same as Chsronda, but placed by 
others near Acnei^um, on the east of the Lake 
Copais.— [2. A town oi Magnesia in Thessaly, on 
the Maliao Gul^ said to have derived its name 
from Ame, a daughter of ^Eolus. — 8. A foun 
tain in the territory of Mantinea in Arcadia.] 

[Arnx ('A/9VJ7). 1. A daughter of .^olus. Vid 
the foregoing, No. 2. — 2. The betrayer of het 
native coun^ to King Minos, and, on this M 
count, changed into a jackdaw.^ 

Arnissa ('Apv£(7ffa: now Ortrovaf)a. tonn m 
' £ordiea in Macedonia. ^-^ , 




AaaHuihx. 1. The elder, a nativt; of Africa, 
Imd ftbont A JX SOO, in the reign of Diocletian. 
He vAs fiict a teaeber of riietorie nt Siooa in 
Africa, but afUrwajnd embraced Christianity; 
CidL to rvnore all doabts at to the reality of ni» 
•noTeraoi^ be wrote, while yet a eatediumen, 
bis celebrated work against the Fkigana, in seren 
bDckf (JJM 9tp€an adoerwM O^iUet), which we 
Millpoeaeaa. The beat editions are by OreUi, 
Lfm^ 181«, [and by Hildebrand, HaUe, 1844].— 
1 The Tonnger, Ihred aboat A.D. 460, and waa 
DfofaablT a biahop or pretl^ter in OanL He 
vrote a'eommeiitary Wi the Psalma, still ertant» 
vhieh shows that he waa a Semi-Pelagian. 

AaarSs CApvuv : now WatM M<mb), a con- 
Kderable river of East Palestine, rising in the 
Arabian Desert, and flowing west through a 
\Nkj valley ioio the Lacus Asphaltites (now 
I^Sea). The sorrounding district was call 
«d Annoaa ; and in it the Romans had a miK 
uiT fCstioii, called Castra Amonensia. 

Assiss (now Amo\ the chief river of Etniria 
liKs ill the Apecmines, flows by Hse^ and fallf 
isto the Tynieoian Sea. It gave the name tc 
tke TnhMM ArnietuU, formed B.C. 887. 

As5a ('Apoa or 'Apdij); the ancient name pf 

\^AaoA3finB ('Apodvioc\ a river of Arcadia, 
ria«s io Hoont CyUeoe, loses itself in some 
utanl cavitiee near Phenens, then reappears 
£ the {oat of Penteleion, and joins the Ladon. 
Tbe ame name was given to two other streams^ 
'oe a tributaiy likewise of the Ladon, the other 
iVnbattfy of the Erymanthus.] 

isdvlTl {rd. *Ap6fi€n-a, 'kpofidruv&Kpw : now 

Cxj^ Ottardafui}, the easternmost promontory 

d A(ttca, at the aouthem extremity of the Ara- 

hiao Golf: the snrroanding district was also 

oiled Arooiata or Aromatophora Regio, with a 

\B%^*ApufidTuv kfiiropiw: so named from the 

akadsDee of spices which the district produced. 

Atn (ArpAnus : now Arpi\ an inland town 

ethe Daonian Apnlia, founded, according to 

tnifilioo, by Diomedes, who called it 'Apyo^ lir- 

ruif, from whieh its later names of Argyrippa 

orir^yHpa and ^i7» are said to haveansen 

'"^(Diomedee) uroem Argjifripamy patrioB cog- 

tftc ^fli(M, Virg., u£K zi, 246). During the 

! of its independence it was a flouri&ng 

nBunereial town, nsinff Salapia as its harbor. 

It wu friendly to the Romans in the Samnite 

vm, bat revolted to Hannibal after the battle 

ofCmme, B.O. 216: it was taken by the Ro- 

Qu»io S18, deprived of its independence, and 

ower raeovered its former prosperity. 

[AipiNA ('Aprtya), an ancient place in Elis, 
Mar tke Alphdus, so called from a daughter of 
4eA«opus: near it flowed the River Arpinft- 

AtrlsDH ( Arplnas, -Atis : now Arjpino)^ a town 
rfUtiuin, on the small river Fibrenus (now Ft- 
**••), originally belonging to the Voladans and 
uKrward to the Samnites, from whom the Ro- 
iDui vrested it^ was a Roman municipium, 
^ reeeived thtjiu ntffragii, or right of voting 
|> the Roman oomitia, B.C. 188. It was the 
■rtlhplaee of Marius and Cicero; the latter of 
vbom via bom in bis father's villa, situated 
»»Maall island formed by the River Fibrenus. 
Qttro'i brother Quintus had an estate south of 
AipJDQoL called Arcamun 

tm< ( 

[AaaABO (in Ptolemy 'Sapa6civ, no^ J&SJ&), t 
' river iu Pannonia, a tributary of the Danube. 
I At its mouth lay 'the city and fortress Arrabo, 
now Jiaab,'] 

AamiTiuM or Aaftrf ox (Arretlnus : now Ar09- 
zo)y <me of the most important of the twelve 
cities of Etruria, was situated in the northeast 
of the ootintry at the foot of the Apeniunea, and 
possessed a fertile territory near the souroes of 
the Amns and the Tiber, producing good wine 
' and oora It was thrice colonized by the Ro- 
mans, whence we read of Arretini Veieres, jPI- 
demU«$j Jvlienan. It was particularly cele* 
brated for its pottery, which was of rell ware. 
The Cilnii, from whom MsBcenas was descend- 
ed, were a noble family of Anetium. The 
ruins of a mty two or three miles to the south- 
east of Arezso, on a height called Poggio di San 
Corndio, or OatUl Seca^ are probably the re* 
mains of the ancient Arretium. 

AbbhapaubItib {;ikfi(faKaxlTi^\ a district of 
Assyria, between the rivers Lyeus snd Choatras. 

AaaHxajnTB ('AfijkBcOoc), chieftain of the Mace 
donians of Lyncus, revolted against King Per- 
diceaa in the Peloponnesian war. It was t^ 
reduce him that Perdioeas sent for Brasidaa 
(B.C. 424), and against him took place the un- 
successful joint expedition, in which Perdiccaa 
deserted Brasidas, and Brasidas effected hii 
bold and skillful retreat 

AiufcHin^ra {*Al^aioc) or Arid^sus ('A^ 
daloc). 1. A hali-brother of Alexander the Great 
SOD of Philip and a female dancer, Philinna of 
Lariasa, was of imbecile understanding. He 
was at Babylon at the time of Alexander's death, 
RC. 828, and was elected king under the name 
of Philip The young Alexander, the infant 
son of Roxana, was associated with him in the 
^vemment In 822 Arrhidaus married Euryd- 
ice. On their return to Macedonia, Eurymoe 
attempted to obtain the supreme power in op 
position to Polysperchon ; but Arrhid«Bus and 
Eurydice were maude prisoners, and put to death 
by order of Olympias, 817.— 2. One of Alexan- 
der's generals, obtained the province of the Hel 
lespontine Phryjria at the di vision of the prov- 
inces in 321 at Triparadisus, but was deprived 
of it by Antigonus m 819. 

AauA. 1. Wife of Caacina Pastus. When her 
husband was ordered by the Emperor Claudius 
to put an end to his life, AJ>. 42, and hesitated 
to do so, Arria stabbed heraelC handed the dag- 
gertoher husband, and said, ** Pastus, it does 
not paia me." — 2. Daughter of the preceding, 
and wife of Thrasea. 

ArriInub {'Afifiiavoc), 1. Of Nioomedia in 
Bithynia, bom about A.D. 90, was a pupil and 
friend of Epictetus, and first attracted attention 
as a philosopher by publishing at Athens th« 
lectures of his master. In 124 he gained the 
friendship of Hadrian daring his stay in Greece, 
and received from the emperor the Roman citi 
, zenship ; from this time he assumed the name 
of Flavins. In 186 he was appointed praafect of 
Cappadoda, which was invaded the year after 
I by the Alani or Massagetss, whom he defeated 
Under Antoninus Hus, in 1 46, Arrian was cod 
sul ; and about 160 he withdrew from public lifci 
' and from this time lived in his native town of N*- 
oomedia, as priest of Ceres (Demeter) and Pro9 
erpina (Persephone). He died at an advan^p 



ige ill the reign of M. Aurelius. Arrian was 
one of the most active and best writers of bia 
lime. He was a close imitator of Xenophon, 
both in the subjects of his works and in the 
style in wliich they were written. Ho regard- 
ed his relation to Epictetus as simihir to that of 
Kcnophon to Socrates ; and it was his endeavor 
to carry orit that resemblance. With this view 
I he published, 1. The philosophical lectures of 
^*us master ( Amrp(6a2 'Eitikt^tov), in eight books, 
ihe first half of which is still extant Edited in 
Schwttighiluser's Epictetea FhilowphicB Manvr 
waUOy voL ill, ana in Corae's Hupepya ^EXkr^v, 
HiCXiod^ voL viiL — 2. An abstract of the prac- 
tical philosophy of Epictetus {^Eyxeipiiiov 'Ett/- 
vr^rov), which is still extant This celebrated 
work maintained its authority for many cen- 
turies, both with Ghrifttions and Pagans. The 
oest editions ai^e those of Schweigb&user and 
Corae, in the collections above referred to. He 
nlso published other works relating to Epictetus, 
which are now lost His original wodcs are: 
8. A treatise on the chase (Kwi^^rucofX "^hicb 
forms a kind of supplement to Xenophon's work 
on the same subject, and is printed m most edi- 
tions of Xenophon's works. — 4, The History of 
the Asiatic expedition of Alexander the Great 
('Avu6a(T{f 'AAe^uvdpoi;), in seven books, the 
most important of Arrian's works. This great 
work reminds the reader of Xenophf>n*s Anab- 
asis, not only by its title, but also by the ease 
and clearness of its style. It is also of great 
value for its historical accuracy, beinff based 
upon the most trustworthy histories wntten by 
the contemporaries of Alexander, especially 
those of Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, and of Aris- 
tobulus, the sou of Aristobulus.— -5. On India 
('lv<5i/c^ or T(i *lv6iKd), which may be regarded 
iis a continuation of the Anabasis, at the end of 
which it is usually printed. This work is writ- 
ten in the Ionic dialect, probably in imitation 
of Ctesias of Cnidus, whose work on the same 
subject Arrian wished to supplant by a more 
trustworthy aud con*ect account The best 
editions of the Anahatia are by EUendt, Regi- 
fflontii, 1832, and by 0. W. Kiiiger, Berlin 
1835-49, 2 vols. ; of the Indiea by Schmieder, 
Halle, 1798. — 6. A description of a voyage ro*ind 
the coasts of the Euxine {ntpivTMvg irovrov £^|- 
e/vov), which had undoubtedly been made by Ar- 
rian himself during his government of Oappa- 
docio. This Peri plus has come down to us, to- 
gether with a Periplus of the Erythrssan, and a 
Periplus of the Euxine and the Palus Msotis, 
both of which also bear the name of Arrian, but 
they belong undoubtedly to a later period. The 
best editions ai*e in Hudson's Oeographi Minores, 
vol i., and in Gail's and Hoffinann s collections 
of the minor Geographers. — 7. A work on Tac- 
tics {Xoyo^ TOKTiKog or rexyfj TtucTiK^y of which 
we possess at present only a fragment : printed 
in Blancard's collection of the minor works of 
Arrian. Arnan also wrote numerous other 
works, all of which are now lost — 2. A Roman 
jurisconsult, probably lived under Trajao, and 
IS perhaps the same person with the orator Ar- 
liaous, who coi responded with the younger 
Pliny. He wrote a treatise De Intetmetia, of 
which the second book is quoted in the Digest 

Arubas, AaarBAS, Arymbas, or Thaebytas 
{'^(tVi&aQ^ '\/i/5v6af, 'A/ii''u6af, or ■Oa^^iTor), a de- 

scendant of Achillea^ and one of oic '^aily kings 
of the Molossians in Epirus. Ho is said to havi 
been educated at Athens, and on his utum U. 
his native country to have framed for the Mo- 
lossians a code of laws, and established a regu- 
lar constitutioa 

ARaia& Q. 1. Pr»tor B.C. 72, defeated 
Grixus, the leader of the runaway slaves, but 
was afterward conquered by Spartacus. In 71, 
Arrius was to have succeedea Veres as pro- 
praetor in Sicily, but died on his way to Sicily 
— 2. A eon of the preceding, was an unsuocess 
ful candidate for the consulship B.C. 59. H'' 
was an intimate friend of Cicero. 

Abbius Afbb. Vid. KifBA. 

AbbuntIus, L. 1. Proscribed by the trium 
virs in B.O. 43, but escaped to Sextus Pompev 
in Sicily, and was restored to the state with 
Pompev. He subsequently commanded the left 
wing of the fleet of Octaviauus at the battle of 
Actium, 31, and was consul in 22. — 2. Son of 
the preceding, consul A.D. 6. Augustus ae- 
clared in his last illness that Arruntius was uot 
unworthy of the empire^ and would have bold- 
ness enough to seize it if an opportunity pre- 
sented. This rendered him an object of sus- 
picion to Tiberius. He was charged in A.D. 
87 as an accomplice in the crimes of Albucilh^ 
and put an end to his own life. 

Absa (now Azunga)^ a town in Hispania Boh 

Absaces i^ApauKTic), the name of the founder 
of the Parthian empire, which was also boriM 
by all his successors, who were hence called 
the Arsacida. — 1. He was of obscure origin, 
and seems to have come from the neighborhood 
of the Ochus. He induced the Parthiaus to r«- 
yolt from the Syrian empire of thj SeleucidiB, 
and he became Uie first monarch of the Parthi- 
ans. This event probably took place about 
B.C. 250, in the reign of Antiochus II. ; but the 
history of the revolt as well as of the events 
which immediately followed, is stated very dif- 
ferently by different historians. Arsaces reign- 
ed only two years, and was succeeded by nis 
brother Tiridates. — 2. Tiai dates, reigned thir- 
ty-seven years, B.O. 248-211, and defeated Se- 
leucus Csllinicus, the successor of Autiochus II - 
— 3. A&TABANUs I., son of the preceding, was 
attacked by Antiochus IIL (the Great), who^ 
however, was unable to subdue his country, and 
at length recognized him as kin^ about 210. — 
4. Pbiapatius, son of the preceding, reigned fif- 
teen years, and left three sons, Phraates, Mith- 
radates, and Artabanus^ — 6. Pbraates I., sub* 
dued the Mardi, and, though he had many sons, 
left the kingdom to his brother Mithradates.— « 
6. MithbadAtes I., son of Arsaces IV., greatly 
enlarged the Parthian empire b3' his conquestai 
He defeated Demetrius Nicator, king of Syria, 
and took him prisoner in 138. Mithradates 
treated Demetrius with respect i^od gave him 
his daughter Rhodogunc in marriage. Mithra- 
dates died during the captivity of Demetrius 
between 138 and 130. — 7. Phbaates IL, son of 
the preceding, carried on war against Antiochuf 
Vll. Sidetes, whom Phraates deteated and slew 
in batUe, BO. 128. Phrantes himself was 
shortly after killed in battle by tlie Scythiani^ 
who had been invited by Autiochus to assist 
him ogainst PI rant e^ but \e1io did m^t arrive 
Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



uQ After the &1] of the formei -S. ArtalXncs 
IL, yooo^est 1*rodier of Araaces VL, and joimg- 
est SOD of Araaces IV^ fell in battle against the 
Tbogarii or Toohari, apparently after a abort 
rdgD.'— 9. MnVEADlTEB IL, son of the preced- 
ing; proaeeated many wars with success, and 
added niai^ nationa to the Parthian empire, 
wheooe he obtained the soiname of Great It 
was in his re^n that the Romans first had any 
official communication with Parthia. Mithra- 
dates sent an ambassador to Sulla, who had 
oome into Asia RC. 92, and requested alliance 
with the Bomans. — 10. (MNAflCiaiaff) Noth- 
11^ is known of the successor of Arsaces IX. 
Even his name is uncertain — 11. Sanateoceb, 
rogned seTcn years, and died about B.O. 70. — 
12. Phbaates UL son of the preceding. He 
liTed at the time of the war between Uie Ro- 
mans and Mithradates e£ Pontus, by both of 
whom he was courted. He contracted an alli- 
ance with the Romans, but he took no part in 
the war. At a later period misunderstandings 
arose between Pompey and Pbraates, but Pom- 
pey thought it more prudent to avoid a war with 
the Parthians, although Phraates had invad- 
ed Anneoia, and Tigranes, the Armenian king, 
implored Pomp^s assistance. Phraates was ' 
omrdered soon afterward by Im two sons, Mith- 
-adates and Orodes. — MrrHaADATSs ILL, son of 
the preceding, succeeded his father during the 
Armenian war. On his return £rom Armenia, , 
Mithradates was expelled from the throne on 
account of his cruelly, and was succeeded by ' 
his brother Orode«. Mithradates afterward 
made war upon his brother, but was taken pris- 
oner and put to death. — 14. Orodes L, brother 
of the preceding, was the Parthian king whose 
general Surenas defeated Crassus and tlie Ro- 
mans, RC. 63. Vid. CaA88u& After the death 
of Crassus, Orodes gave the command of the | 
army to his son Paourun, wb» entered Syria in 
51 with a small force, but was driven back by 
Crassius. In 50 Pacorus again crossed the £u- 1 
pfarates with a much lai^er army, and advanced I 
as £sr as Antioch, but was defeated near Anti- { 
gonga by Caseins. The Parthians now remained | 
oniet for some years. In 40 they crossed the 
Euphrates again, under the command of Puco- j 
ra» and Lsbienus, the son of T. Labienus. They 
overran Syria and part of Asia Mic % but were 
deiiuted m S9 by Ventidius Bassus. ^e of An- 1 
tcmy'B legates: Labienus was ftake^ and put' 
to death by Ventidius ^(ter the oattlej, and the 
Parthians retired to tb^ ' own dominions. lu ' 
38, Pacorus again iovadei^ 'yria, but was com- ' 
pletely defeated and fell in the battle. This 
defeat was a severe blow Ut the aged king 
Orodes, who shortly afterward surrendered the 
crown to hb son Phraates during his life-time. 
— 15. PheaItes IY., commenced his reign by 
mnrdering his father, his thirty brothers, and 
his own son, who was grown up, tliat there ' 
might be none of the royal family whom the 
Parthians could place upon the throne in his 
stead. In consequence of his cruelty, many of ^ 
the Parthian nobles fled to Antony (37), who , 
aivaded Parthia in 36, but was obliged to retreat 
after losing a great part of his army. A few 
yean afterward (he cruelties of Phraates pro- j 
doeed a rebellion against hun ; he was driven i 
Jint ol the country, and Tiridates proclaimed i 

king u his stead Phraates, ho ^cver, was suuc 
restored by the Scythians, and Tiridates flod ic 
Augustus, carrying with liim the youngest son 
of Phraates. Au^tus restored his son to 
Phraates on condition of his surrendeiing the 
Roman standards and prisoners taken in the 
war with Crassus and Antony. They were 
given up in 20 ; their restoration caused univer- 
sal joy at Rome, and was celebrated not only 
by tne poets, but by festivals and coimnemmora* 
tive monuments. Phraates also sent to Augus- 
tus as hostages his four sons, with their wives 
and children, who were carried to Rome. In 
A.D. 2, Phraates was poisoned by his wife Ther 
mnsa and her son Phraatacea. — 16. .Ph&aata- 
OES, reigned only a short time, as he was ex- 
pelled by his subjects on account of his crimea 
The Parthian nobles then elected as )dng Oro- 
des, who was of the family of the Arsacidse. — 
17. OaOn£S IL, also reigned only a short tune 
as he was killed by the Parthians on account 
of his cruelty. Upon his death the Parthians 
applied to the Romans for Vonones, one ^ of 
the sons of Phraates IV., who was according 
ly granted to them. — 18. VonOnes I., son of 
Phraates IV., was also disliked by his subiects, 
who therefore invited Artabanus, King of Media, 
to take possession of the kiugdom. Artabanus 
drove Vonones out of Parthia, who resided first 
in Armenia, next in Syiia, and subsequently io 
Cilicia. He was put to death ui A.I). 19, ae 
cording to some accountB by order of Tiberius 
on account of his great wealth. — 19. AbtabI- 
NU8 III., obtamed the Parthian kingdom soor. 
after Uie expulsion of Vonones, about A J> ] 6 
Artabanus placed Arsaces, one of his sons, CTCI 
Armenia, and assumed a hostile attitude toward 
the Romans. His subjects, whom he oppressed 
dispatched an embassy to Tiberius to c^ hiiv 
to send Parthia Phraates, one of the 8<xiB of 
Phraates IV. Tiberius willingly complied wit! 
the request ; but Phraates, upon arriving in By 
ria, was carried off by a disease, A.D. 3ft. Ai 
soon as Tiberius heard of his death, he set up Ti- 
ridates, another of the Arsacidie, as a olaimanl 
of the Parthian throne : Artabanus was obliged 
to leave his kingdom, and fly for refuge to 
the Hyrcanians and Oarmauians. Hereupon 
Vitellius, the governor of Syria, ciossed the 
Euphrates, and placed Tiridates on the throne 
Artabanus was, however, recalled next year 
(36) by his fickle subjects. He was once oiore 
expelled by his subjects, and once more restored 
He died soon after liis last restoration, leaving 
two sons, Bardanes and Gotarzes, whose civil 
wars are related differently by Josephus and 
Tacitus. — 20. GoTAazEs, succeeded his father 
Artabanus IIL, but was defeated by his brother 
Bardanes and retired into Hyrcania. — 21. Bai, 
DANES, brother of the preceding, -was put to 
death by his subjects in 4'} whereupon Gotaizes 
again obtained the crowa But, as he riUed 
with cruelty, the Parthians secretly begged the 
Emperor Claudius to seud them from Plome Me- 
herdates, grandson of Phraates IV. Claudius 
complied with their request, and commauded 
the governor of Syria to assist Moherdatcs. but 
the latter was defeated m battle, and 'taken pris- 
oner by Gk)tarzes. — 22. Vonones II, succeeded 
Gotarzes about 50. His reign was short. — 2ii. 
Voi.oa£gE8 L, son of Vonones II. or Artalvii us 
Digitizer J07 



(IL Soon a(tor hU aocession he conquered 
iirmenia, which he gave to his brother Tindates. 
In 65 he gave up Armenia to the Romans, bat 
in 68 he again pUced hig brother oyer Armenia, 
and declared w^ against the Romans. This 
war terminated in fayor of the Rtmians: the 
Parthians were repeatedly defeated by Domitiiis 
Corbulo, and Tindates was driven out of Ai^ 
menia. At length, in 62, peace was concluded 
between Vologeses and the Romans on condi- 
tion that Nero would surrender Armenia to Ti- 
ridates, provided the latter would come to Rome 
and receive it as a gift from the Roman em- 
peror. Tfridates came to Rome in 68, where 
he was received with extraordinary splendor, 
and obtained from Nero the Armenian crowa 
Vologeses afterward maintained friendly rela- 
tions with Vespasian, and seems to have lived 
till the reign of Domitiaa — 24. Pac^ritb, suc- 
ceeded his finther, Vologcses I., and was a con- 
temporary of Domitian and Trajan. — 25. Chos- 
adss or Oaadss, succeeded his brother Pacorus 
during the rei^ of Trajan. His conquest of 
Armenia occasioned the invasion of Partiiia by 
Trajan, who stripped it of many of its provinces, 
«nd made the Partliians for a time subject to 
Rome. Vid. Trajanto. Upon the death of 
Trajan in AD. 117, the Parthians expelled Pai^ 
tliomnspates, whom Trajan had plac<K] upon the 
throuc, and recalled their former king, Chosroea. 
Hadrian relinquished the conquests of Trajan, 
and nmdc the Euphrates, as before, the eastern 
coundary of the Roman empire. Chosroes died 
during the reign of Hadrian. — 26. VolooSses 
IL, succeeded his father Ohosroes, and reigned 
from about 122 to 149.— 27. VoLoofisRS IIL, be- 
ran to reign in 149. He invaded Syria in 162, 
but the generals of the Emperor Verus drove 
him back into his own dominions, invaded Mes- 
opotamia and Assyria, and took Seleucia and 
Ctesiphon ; and Vologeses was obliged to pur- 
chase a peace by ceding Mesopotamia to the 
Romans. From this time to the downfall of the 
Parthian empire, there is great confosion in the 
list of kings.— 28. VologSses IV., probably as- 
cended the throne m tiie reign of Oommodus. 
His dominions were invaded by Septimus Seve- 
rus, who took Ctesiphon in 199. On the death 
of Vologeses I V^ at the beginning of the reign of 
Caracalla, Parthia was torn asunder by contests 
for the crown between the sons of Vologeses. 
—29. VoLOGfisKS v., son of Vologeses IV., was 
attacked by Caracalla in 216, and about the 
»ame time was detlironed by his brother Arta- 
banus.— SO. ArtabAnus IV., the hist king of Par- 
thia. The war commenced by Caracalla against 
Vologeses, was continued against Artabanus ; . 
but Macrinus, the successor of Caracalla, con- 1 
eluded peace with the Parthians. In this war | 
Artabanus hod lost the best of his troops, and i 
the Persians seized the opportunity of reoover- 
hs their long-lost independence. They were i 
led by Artaxerxes (Ardeshir), the son of Sassan, , 
and defeated the Parthians in three g^eat bat- 
tles, in the last of which ArtalMmus was taken I 
prisoner aud killed, A.D. 226. Thus ended the 
Parthian empire of the Arsacidie, after it had ' 
existed four hundred and seventy-six years. 
The Pai'thiaus were now obliged to submit to 
Artaxerxes, the founder of the dynasty of the Saa- 
Miiid». which continued to reign tiu A.D. 651. 

AraacIa ('AfXrasila : ruins southeast of 7U» 
ran), a great cit^ of Media, south of Uie Otm 
piiB Porta, origmally namea Rhagie (TavoQ 
rebuilt by Seleucus Nioator, and oallod Euro 
pus {Eipuvoc) ; asain destroyed in the Parthiaa 
wwn, and rebuilt by Arsacos* who named it after 

hii l V l^l f 

AsaAOiDiB, the name of a dynasty of Parthian 
Idqgs. Vid, AasAOiB. It was also the name of 
a dynasty of Armenian kings, who reigned in Ar 
menia from B.C. 149 to AJ). 42a This dynasty 
was founded by Artaxias L, who was related to 
the Parthian Araaddss. 

[Arsaicrnxs ('Apaajnevffc), son of Darius Hys 
taspis, a commander m the army of Xerxes.] ' 

fARSAMES {'Apffdfiffc). 1. Father of Hystaapes, 
and grand&ther of Darius. — 2. Son of Danus, 
and Artjrstone, daughter of Cyrus, commanded 
the Arabians and .Ethiopians, who lived aboye 
Egypt^ in the army of Xerxee. — 8. An illegitir 
mate son of Artaxerxes Mnemon, murdered by 
his brother Artaxerxes Ochus.— 4. A Pei-aian 
Satrap of Lydia under Darios Codomannus: hj 
not securing the Ciiician passes, he afforded 
Alexander an opportunity of a ready passage 
into Upper Asia from Asia Minor.] 

ArsamOsIta {'ApcafutaarOf also wrongly ab- 
breviated 'ApficMTuTa: now 8ttem»hat\ a tuwn 
and strong fortress in Armenia Major, between 
the Euphrates and the sources of the Tigris, near 
the most frequented pass of the Taurus. 

AasANiAs, -lUB, or -m ('A/Mrov^of, ^c), the 
name of two rivers of Great Armenia. — 1. (Now 
Murad), the southern arm of the Euphratea 
VitL Armbnia. — 2. (Now AraUmf\ a small 
stream rising near the soiwy^g of the Tigris, 
and flowing west into the Euphrates near Mel^ 

ArsSnArIa or -enn- CKporivapia : now -4r- 
tawj ruins), a town in Mauretania Csesarienais, 
three miles (Roman) from the sea: a Romac 

AasfiNE. Vid. Arzanxnx. 

Arses, Narsxs, or Oarseb ('Apovc, ^<*poV{i 
or 'Odpaifc), youngest son of King Artaxerxes III 
Ochus, was raised to the Persian throne by the 
eunuch Bagoas after he had poisoned Artaxerxes 
B.C. 889, but he was murdered by Bagoas in the * 
third year of his reign, when he attempted to fre« 
himself from the bondage in which he was kept 
Aft«r the death of Arses, Bagoas made Danus 
III king. 

ArsIa (now Arta), a river in Istria, forming 
the boundary between Upper Italy and lllyn- 
cum, with a town of the same name upon it 

Arsia Silva, a wood in Etruria, celebrated 
for the battle between the Tarquuis and the 

Ar8!x5e CApaivSij). I. Mythological, I. Th 
daughter of Pheseus, and wife of AlcmsBon 
As she disapproved of the murder of AIcmsBon, 
the sons of Phegeus put her into a chest and 
carried her to Agapenor at T^ea, where they 
accused her of havmg killed Alcmseon. Vii, 
ALOMiBON, AoENOR. — ^2. Nurscof Orestes, saved 
the latter from the hands of Clytemneetaii, and 
carried him to Strophius, father of Pylades^ 
Some accounts call her Laodamia. — 8. Daughter 
of Leucippus and Philodice, became by Apollo 
mother of Eriopis and .£sculapius. IL IHston- 
cal. 1. Mother of Ptolemy L, was a concubin« 



•i Pbilip. &tlicr of Aleznnier tl.e Great, and 

■Knied liagos ^vbile abe was pregnant with 

Hslemj.! — ^3. Dangfater of Ptolemy L and Ber- 

•eee. muned LtTsimaebna, king of Tbmce, in 

&a SOO ; after t&e death of Lyeimachaa'in 281, 

Alt married her lialf-brother, Ptolemy Cerau- 

DOi, who murdered her children by Lystmar 

dtta ; and, faKtIj, in 879, she married her own 

brother PloiemT H Philadelphw. lliough Ar- 

aaoe bora PtoIenQy no children, ahe was ex- 

evedingly beicyred bv him : he gave her name 

to ecrenl otiea, ealled a district (vofi6c) of 

Egjpt Arsiomtes alter her, and honored her 

aiemory in ▼ariooa waya — 3. Daughter of hj^ 

limaebnB, married Ptolemy 11. PhiladelphuB 

loca after faia aeeessloD, RO. 286. In oonse- 

qaeaee of her plotting affainst her namesake 

(!^a 2l], when Ptolemy Ml in love with her, 

d>eva» lMuaifih«d to doptoe, in Upper Egypt 

She hod bj Ptolemy three diildren, Ptolemy III. 

EvergHea, Ljauaacbos, and Berenice.— 4. Also 

calkd Eurydiee and Cl^maira, danffhter of Ptol- 

eeiT III. Erergetes, wife of her brother Ptol- 

«DT IV. PhUopatar, and mother of Ptolemy V, 

Eptphanea. She was killed by Philammon by 

order of her hoaband — 6. Daughter of Ptolemy 

XL Aoletes, escaped from Csesar when he was 

beseging Alezandrea in B.G. 47, and was ree- 

oe&ix^ as qaecD by the Alexandreans. After 

theaptnre of Alezandrea siie was carried to 

IWme by CsBsar, and led in triumph by him in 

46l She was afterward dismisscHl by Gtesar, 

sd retamed to Alexandrea; bat lier sister 

Cleopatra persuaded Antony to have her put to 

death in 41. 

Aisisofi CA/xrci^ : ^Apatvoevc or -onnfc)* the 
came of sereral cities of the times of the suo- 
eeasors of Alexander, each called after one or 
other of the persons of the same name (see 
ibotey — 1. In iBtolia, formerly Kuv6ira. — 2. 
Oa the northern ooast of Cyp|niB, on the site of 
the older city of Marinm (Mdpiov), which Ptol- 
emy L had destroyed. — 8. A port on the west- 
ern eoast of CypruSb — 4. (Now Famagotta)^ on 
the soulheastem coaat of Cyprus, between Sal- 
fosUand Leuoolla.-«-5. In Cilicia, east of Ane- 
monum. — 6. (Now Ajerovd or 8uez)y in the No- 
mas HeroOpcuites in Lower Egypt, near or upon 
^ head or the Sinus Heroopobtes or western 
oruKh of the Red Sea (now Ovl/cf Suez), It 
was afterward called Oleopatris.— 7. (Now Me^ 
^ftd-d-Faicwn, rninsX the chief city of the No- 
iDOi Arsinoitea in the Heptanomis or Middle 
I^pt (iftdL iBoTrros, p. 18, b); formerly called 
0t6Qd(fiiop5Iis {JLfMKodtVuuv iroXif), and the dis- 
trict Komos Crooodilopolites, from its being the 
diief seat of the Egyptian worship of the croc- 
odile. This nomoe aJao contained the Lake Mob- 
rii tnd the Labyrinth. — 8. In Oyrenaica, also 
called Taucheira.— 9. On the coast of the Trog- 
lodjiA on the Red Sea, east of Egypt Its 
pobsble position is a little below the parallel of 
Tbelwa Some other cities ealled Arsinoe are 
better known by other names^ such as Ephesus 
h JoDiB and Pataea in Lycia 

[AianidiiB ('ApalvoocX father of Heoamede ; 

FAishia ('Apacn7fX *fttrap of the Helles- 
poDtioe Fhiygia when Alexander the Great in- 
nded Asia : after the defeat of the Persians at 
^ (}i uueu« he put himself to death ] 

. &8I884 or MaivtiIna i^Kpaiaaa, ^ Mcivrwanf . 
now Van\ a great lake abounding in fish, ig 
' the south of Armenia Major. Vid. AaMsifiA. 
I AbtabXnub ('A/>ra6avof). 1. Son of Hystaa 
]>eB and brother of Darius, is frequently men 
tioned in the reign of his nephew Xerxes as a 
wise and frank counsellor. — 2. An Hyrcaniac 
commander of the body-guard of Xerxes, as- 
sassinating this king in !B.0. 485, with the view 
of setting himself upon the throne of Persia, but 
was shortly afterward killed by Artaxorxes -- 
8. L, II., IIL, IV., kings of Parthia. VicL Ajum^ 

[Astabazanxs ('Apra5a(,'<fvi7f), oldest son of 
Darius Hystaspis, half-brother of Xerxes^ and 
called, also^ Anabignes. Vid. AaiABifflTEt)] 

AetabIxdb fApri^^Of). 1. A Mede. acts a 
prominent part in Xenophon's account of Gyrus 
the Elder. — 2. A distiiuruished Persian, a son 
of Phamaces, commanded the Parthians and 
Ghoasmians in the expedition . of Xerxes into 
Greece, B.G. 480. He served under Mardonius 
in 410, and after the defeat of the Persians at 
PlatiBA, he fled with forty thousand men, and 
reached Asia in safety. — 3. A general of Aj> 
taxerxes I, fought against Inarus in Egypt, 
B.G. 462.^-4. A Persian general, fought uuoei 
Artazerxes II. against Datames, satrap of Cap 
padocia, B.O. 862. Under Artaxerxes III., A^ 
tabazua, who was then satrap of Western Asia 
revolted in B.O. 856, but was defeated and 
obliged to take refuge with Philip of Macedonia. 
He was afterward pardoned by Artaxerxes, and 
returned to Persia ; and he was one of the most 
faithful adherents of Darius IIL GodomannuSi 
who raised him to high honors. On the Jeatb 
of Darius (330) Artabazus received from Alex- 
ander the satrapy of Bactria. One of his 
daughters, Barsine, became by Alexander the 
mother of Hercules ; a second, Artocama, mar- 
ried Ptolemy, son of Lagus ; and a third, Ax- 
tonis, married Eumenes. 

ABTABBi, afterward AaoTaiias, a Geltio peo 
pie in the northwest of Spain, near the Promon* 
tory Nerium or CelUoum, also called Artabruiv 
after them Tnow Cape Finitterre), 

Aktaob ylLproKii: now Artaki), a sea-port 
town of the peninsula of Gyzicus, in the Pro 
pontis : also a mountain in the same peninsula. 

Aetachaxs i^Kpraxoirii), a distinguished Per^ 
sian in the army of Xerxes, died while Xerxes 
was at Atbos. The mound which the king 
raised over him is still in existence. 

[Aktaoib {*ApTcuu7i)f a fountain iu the coun- 
try of the mythic Liestrygdnes.] 

AaTlcdlNA {'ApraKoava or -Kuwa : now 8ekh- 
vanf"), the ancient capital of Aria, not for from 
the site of the later capital, Alexandbea. 

AaTiBi ('A^roiot), was, according to Herodo- 
tus (vi., 61][, the old native name of the Per 
siana. It siguifies noldej and appears in the 
form Apro. aa the first part of a large number 
of Persian proper names. Gompare Aati. 

[ABTAo£aA or ARTAotRM ('ApTay7fpai)t a 
mountain fortress in southern Armenia, on the 

[Aetageeses {*Aprayipafic)j a commander u 
the army of Artaxerxes.] 

[Artanxs {*ApTuv7jc)f son of Hystaspes and 
brother of Daiius, fought and feU a^ the bat^ie 
of ThermoDvljB.1 Digiti^e^by GoOglc 



AetInxs ('A/)ruvi7f). I. A river in Tliiacc, 
fijling into the Ister.— 2. A river in Bithynio. 

[Abtaozus ('Aprao(of), a friend and supporter 
of the younger Cyrus.] 

Ajltaphbemes (*ApTa(^epv7jc)' L- Son' of Hys- 
taspes and brother of Darius. He was satitip 
of Sardis at the time of the Ionian revolt, B.O. 
500. Vtd. AaiSTAaoRA& — 2. Son of the former, 
commanded, along with Datis, the Persian army 
of Darius, which was defeated at the battle of 
Marathon, B.O. 490. Arta]>hemes commanded 
the Lydians and Mysians in the invasion of 
Greece by Xerxes in 480. — [8. A Persian, sent 
by Artaxerzes I. to Sparta with a letter, ar- 
rested on his way by Aristides and taken to 
Athens, where bis letter was translated: the 
Athenians endeavored to turn this to their ad- 
vantage, and sent Artaphemes in a galley, with 
their ambassadors, to Kphesua] 

Artaunum (now Salhurg^ near Homburg ff), a 
Roman fortress, in Germany on Mount Taunus, 
built by Drusus and restored by Gerraanicus. 

Artavaades (•Aprooua<7(Ji?f or 'ApraSdadrfc) or 
ArtadAzss {*ApTa6d^ri^). 1. King of the Great- 
er Armenia, succeeded his father Tigranes. In 
the expedition of Crassus against the Parthians, 
B.C. 54, Artavasdes was an ally of the Romans ; 
but after the defeat of the latter, he concluded 
a peace with the Parthian king. In 86 he joined 
Antony in his campaign against the Parthians, 
and ])er8uaded him to invade Media, because he 
was at enmity with his namesake Artavasdes, 
king of Media ; but he treacherously deserted 
Antony in the middle of the campaign. Antony 
accormngly invaded Armenia in 84, contrived 
(o entice Artavasdes into his camp, where he 
was immediatelv seized, carried him to Alex- 
andrea and led "him in triumph. He remained 
in captivity till 80, when Cleopatra had him 
killed after the battle of Actium, and sent his 
head to his old enemy, Artavasdes of Media, in 
hopes of obtaining assistaiioe from the latter. 
This Artavasdes was well acquainted with 
Greek literature, and wrote tragedies, speeches, 
and historical worka — 2. King of Armenia, 
probably a grandson of Na 1, was placed upon 
ihe throne by Augustus, but was deposed by 
the Armenians. — 8. King of Media Atropatene, 
and an enemy of Artavasdes L, king of Arme- 
nia. Antony invaded his country in 86, at the 
ustigation of the Armenian king, but he was 
obliged to retire with great loss. Artavasdes 
afterward concluded a peace with Antony, and 
gave his daughter lotape in marriage to Alex- 
ander, the son of Antony. Artavasdes was 
iobseqnently engaged in wars with the Par- 
ihians and Armenians. * He died shortly before 

ArtaxXta or -m (tH 'KpTu^ara or '^iarai 
ruLS at Ardaohatt above Nakshivan), the later 
capital of Great Armenia, built by Artaxias, 
under the advice of Hannibal, on a peninsula, 
BuiTounded by the River Ai'axea After being 
burned by the Romans under Gorbulo (A.D. 58), 
it was restored by Tiridates, and called Nero- 
n!a (Sepuveia). It was still standing in the 
fourth centur3r. 

Abtaxerxes or Artoxxrxbb {'Apra^ep^c or 

AoTo^ep^^) the name of four Persian kings, is 

compouuded of Afi€^ which means "honored,**! 

sod Xnrrs, which ie the same as tlie Zend^ 


ksathra, "a king:** conseqaently ArloMrvm 
means "the honored king." 1. Samamed 
LonqImInds, from the ciroamstance of his right 
hand being longer than his left, reigned KO 
465-426. He ascended the throne after his fa 
ther, X«rzes I, had been murdered by Arta 
banus, and after he himself had put to dieath hit 
brother Darius at the instigation of Artabanua. 
His reign was disturbed by several dangercicsB in 
surrections of the satraps. The Egyptians akc 
revolted in 460, under Inarus, who was support- 
ed by the Atheniana The first army which 
Artaxerxes sent under his brother Achtemenes 
was defeated and Aduemencs slain. The sec- 
ond army which he sent, under Artabazus and 
Megabyzus, was more successful Inarus was 
defeated in 466 or 455, but Am^rtiBus, another 
chief of the insurgents, maintained himself in 
the marshes of Lower Eg>-pt At a later period 

(449) the Athenians unaer Cimon aent 
ance to Amyrtaeus; and even after the death 
of Cimon, the Athenians gained two viotories 
over the Persians, one bv land and the other by 
sea, in the neighborhood of Salarais in Cypms. 
After this defeat Artaxerxes is said to have con* 
eluded peace with the Greeks on terms very ad- 
vantageous to the latter. Artaxerxes was suc- 
ceeded by his son Xerxes 11.^2. Sumamed 
MnAxon, from his good memory, succeeded his 
father, Darios 11., and reigned B.C. 405-359. 
Cyrus, the youneer brother of Artaxerxes, who 
was satrap of Western Asia, revolted against 
his brother, and, supported by Greek mercenc- 
ries, invaded Upper Asia. In the neighborhood 
of Cunaxa, near Babylon, a battle wii«« fougl t 
between the armies of the two brothers, in 
which Cyrus fell, B.C 401. I'id: Ctrus^ Ti»- 
saphemes was appointed satrap of Western 
Asia in the place uf Cyrus, ana was actively 
engaged in wars with the Greeka Vid. Tmu- 
BRON, DxROTLUDAs, AoiBiLAUB. Notwithstand- 
ing these perpetual ocmflicts with the Greeks, 
the Persian empire maintained itself by the dis- 
union among the Greeks themselves, which was 
fomented and kept up bj Persian money. The 
peace of Antalcidas, in B.O. 888, gave the Per- 
sians even greater power and influence than 
they had possessed before. Vid Antalcidas. 
But the empire was sufifering from internal dia* 
turbanoes, and Artaxerxes had to carry on fre- 
queut wars with tributary princes and satraps, 
who endeavored to make themselves independ- 
ent Thus he maintained a long struggle against 
Evagoras of Cyprus, from 885 to 876 ; he also 
had to carry on war against the Cardiisians, on 
the shores of the Caspian Sea; and his attempts 
to recover Egypt were unsuccessful Toward 
the end of his reign he put to death his eldest 
son Darius, who had formed a plot to assassi 
nate him. His last days were still further em 
bittered by the unnatural conduct of his son 
Ochus, who caused the destruction of two of 
his brothers, in order to secure the succession 
for himselC Artaxerxes was succeeded by 
Ochus, who ascended the throne unaer the 
name of Artaxerxes III — 8. Also called GcBua 
reigned RC. 859-888. In order to seeure his 
throne, he began his reign with a merciless ex- 
tirpation of the members of bis family. He 
himself was a cowardly am' reckless despot 
and the great advaj>tiigM Arhich the Per^ias 



I gamied diinog his reigu \rer« owing only to 
h» Greek eeoenis and merceoariea. Tbose ad- 
TBOtagea ednsisted io the ooDquest of the revolted 
Mtrap ArtabttKLA (vid, Artabacub, No. 4)» and in 
tiie redactkn of PbGeoicia, of several revolted 
fiofme in Cjprus, sod of £gypt» 860. The reins 
ol goTdnuneot vere enlirely in the hands of the 
vouueh Bagoas and of Mentor the Rhodiao. At 
Lu: he was poisoned by Bagoas, and was sus- 
r<H<d«ni by his youngest son, Absxs. — 4. The 
^;uiider of the dynasty of the Sasbanida 

AaTAXiAs ('Apro^tof) or A&tazes ('Xprd^c)* 
tbe name of three kings of Armenia. 1. The 
lutood^r of the Armenian kingdom, was one of 
Ute generals of Antiochos the Qreat» but revolt- 
ed from him about KC. 188, and became an in- 
(kpendeot aovereiga Hannibal took refuge at 
ue eourt of Artazias, and he superintended the 
baiUiiig of A&TAZATA, the capital of Armenia. 
Artaxzaa was conquered and taken prisoner by 
Aotiochns IV. Epiphanes about 166. — 2. Son 
cf Artavaadee, was made king by the Armeni- 
las when his &tber waa taken prisoner by An- 
tooj in 34. Id 20, Augustus, at the request of 
^ Armeniaiia, sent Tiberius into Armenia in 
order to depoae Artazias and plaee Tigranes on 
the ihrooe, but Artazias was put to death before 
Tibenus reached the country. Tiberius, however, 
book the eredit to himself of a successful ezpedi- 
tkn, whoiee Horace {Epist, i. 12, 26) says, 
0«dt virtuU Iferonis Armenitu eecidit. — 8. Son 
«f PolemoD, king of Pontus, was proclaimed king 
cf Armenia by 6ei*man'cus in A.D. 18. He died 

AftTATCTEB i^ApiTavKTri^\ Persian governor of 
Sestos on the Hellespont, when the town was ta- 
kraby the Oreeks in KC. 478, met with an igno- 
mjoious death on account of the sacrilegious acts 
vbicfa he had conmiitted against the tomb of the 
bero Protesilaus. 

[ AaTltNTE i^Apra&vT7i\ a daughter of Masistes, 
the brother of Xerxes l, who gave her in mar- 
riage to his son Darius, while he himself was se- 
erelly in love with her : this, becoming known to 
Amastria, brought down her vengeance on the 
iKoUier of Artaynte, whom she suspected of hav- 
ing been the eauae of the king^s passion.] 

[AbtItktxs {^kfrravvrri^\ one of the generals 
in the army of Xerxes ; after the battle of Sala- 
mis, he, with several other generals, sailed to 
Ssmos to watch the loniaos ; but, after the de- 
feat of the Persians at Platffis and Mycale, he 
absDdooed his poet and returned to Persia.] 

A«iMiDdai» {'Aprefudupof:). 1. Surnamed 
Aai8T0PBANiC8» from his being a disciple of the 
eeWbrated grammarian Aristupbaoes, was him- 
self a grammarian, and the author of several 
^orks now lost — 2. Of Cnidus, a friend of Ju- 
\am Cesar, was a rhetorician, and taught the 
Greek language at Rome. — 8. Daldianus, a na- 
b>e of Ephesus, but called Daldianus, from 
D«l& in Lydia, his mother s birth-place, to dis- 
tioguish him from the geographer Artemidorue. 
He lived at Rome io the reigns of Antoninus 
Tibs and M. Aurelins (AJ). 188-180). and wrote 
ivork on the faiterpretati'.'n of dreams COvfcpo- 
9trMit), in five books, which is still extant The 
^Atjeet uf the work is to prove that the future 
B terealed to man in dreams, and to clear the 
leieoee of interpreting them from the abuses 
vitb which the fashion of the time had sur- 

: rounded it The style is simplo, ttfrrecft, aao 
I elegant Tie best edition is bv Rei^, Lipe, 
1806. — 4. Of Efhesus, a Greek geographer, 
lived about RC. 100. He made voyages round 
I the coasts of the Mediterranean, in the Red Sea, 
I and apparently even in the Southern Ocean. He 
also visited Iberia and Oanl The work, in 
which he gave the results of his investigations, 
consisted of eleven books, of which Marcianua 
afterward made an abridgment The original 
work is k}6t', but we possess fragments of Mar- 
cianus's abridgment, which contain the peri- 
plus of the Pontus Euxinus, and accounts of 
Bithyniu and Paphlagonia. These fragments 
are printed in Hudson's Oeographi Ifincre$t 
voL 1. 

Abtxhis (^Xprefiic), the Latin JXana, one of 
the great divinities of the Greeka According 
to the most ancient account, she was the daugl^ 
ter of Jupiter (Zeus^ and Leto (Latona\ and the 
twin-sister of Apollo, bom with him in the isl- 
and of Delos. She was regarded in various 
points of view by the Greeks, which must be 
carefully distinguished. 1. Artetnit (Diana), oi 
the Hater of Apollo^ is a kind of female Apollo^ 
that is, the as a female divinity represented 
the same idea that Apollo did as a male divini- 
ty. As sister of Apollo, Artemis (Diana) is, 
hke her brother, armed witli a bow, quiver, and 
arrows, and sends plagues and death among 
men and animals. Sudden deaths, but more 
especially those of women, are described as the 
effect of her arrows. As Apollo was net only 
a destructive god, but also averted evils, so A^ 
temis (Diana) likewise cured and alleviated the 
sufferings of mortals. In the Trojan war she 
sided, like Apollo, with the Trojans. She was 
more especially the protectress of the young; 
and from her watching over the young of fe- 
males, she came to be regarded as the goddess 
of the flocks and the chase. In this manner 
she also became the huntress among the im- 
mortals. Artemis (Diana), like Apollo, is un- 
married; she is a maiden divinity never con- 
quered by lore. She slew Oaiox with her ar- 
rows, according to one account, because he 
made an attempt upon her chastity ; and she 
changed AcTiEON into a stag simply because 
he had seen her bathing. With her brother 
Apollo, she slew the children of Niobe, who 
had deemed herself superior to Leto (Lati)na). 
When Apollo was regarded as identical with 
the sun or Helios, nothing was more natural 
than that his sister should be regarded as Se- 
lene or tho moon, and accordingly the Greek 
Artemis is, at least in later times, the goddc-sf^ 
of the moon. Hence 4rt«niis (Diana) is repre- 
sented in love with the fair youth Endtmion, 
whom ^he kissed in his sleep, but this legend 
properly relates to Selene or the Moon, and is 
foreign to the character of Artemis (Diana); 
who, as we have observed, was a goddess un 
moved by love. — 2. 7%e Arcadia*i Artemis is a 
goddess of the nymphs, and was worshipperl as 
such in Arcadia m very early times. Sne hunt- 
ed with her nymphs on the Arcadian Mount- 
ains, and her chanot was drawn by four stagM 
with golden antlers. There was no connection 
between the Arcadian Artemis and Apollo — 
8. The Taivrian Artemie, The worship of this 
goddess was connected, at least J^^'^^ydYJjmeA 
Digitized tt \^jOOQ IC 



with liumyi siictificcs. Acooi-diog tu the Greek 
Ui'cnd tliore \vu8 iu Taurus a goddess, whom 
the O reeks for aome reasoo identified with their 
%mn Artemis (Diana), aud to whom all strangers 
thrown on the coast of Tauris were saorifioed. 
Iphigenla aud Orestes brought her image from 
thence, and knded at Brauron in Attica, whence 
the goddees derived the name of Braurooia. 
The Brauronian Artemis was worshipped at 
Athefji and Sparta, and in the latter place the 
boys were soourged at her altar till it was be- 
sprinkled with their blood. This cruel cere- 
mony was belieyed to have been introduced by 
Lycurgua, instead of the human sacrifices whi<m 
had until then been offered to her. Iphigenia, 
who was at first to have been sacrificed to Ar- 
temis (Diana), and who then became her priest- 
ess, was afterward identified wiUi the goddess, 
who was worshipped in some parts of Greece, 
as at Hermione, under the name of Iphigenia. 
Some traditions stated that Artemis made Iphi- 
genia immortal, in the character of Hecate, the 
goddess of the moon. — 4. TJie JEpheHan Artemit 
{Diana) was a divinity totally distinct from the 
Greek goddess of the same name. She seems 
to hare been the personification of the fructify- 
ing and all-nouriehing powers of nature. She 
was an ancient Asiatic divinity, whose worship 
the Greeks found established in Ionia when 
they settled there, and to whom they gave the 
name of Artemis. Her original character is 
sufficiently clear from the fact that her priests 
were eunuchs, and that her image iu the mag- 
nificent temple of Ephesus represented her with 
matiy breasts {noAvfiaaroc)' The representations 
of the Greek Artemis in works of art are diffei^ 
ent, according as she is represented either ta a 
huntress or as the goddess of the moon. As 
the huutress, she is tall, nimble, and has small 
hips; her forehead is high, her eyes glancing 
freely about, and her hair tied up, with a few 
locks floating down her neck; ner breast is 
covered, and the legs up to the knees are naked, 
the rest being covered by the chlamys. Her at- 
tributes ai'e the bow, quiver, and arrows^ or a 
spear, stags, aud dogs. As the goddess of the 
moon, she wears a lone robe which reaches 
down to her feet, a veil covers her bead, and 
above her forehead rises the crescent of the 
moon. In her hand she often appears boldine a 
torch. The Bomans identified tneir goddess Di- 
ana with the Greek Artemis. 

ARTEMxaU {'ApTCfuala), 1. Daughter of Lyg- 
damis, and queen of Halicamassus in Garia, ac- 
companied Aerxes, in his invasion of Greece, 
with five shipa. and in the battle of Salamis 
(B.C. 480) greatly distinguished herself by her 
prudence and courage, tor which she was after- 
ward highly honored by the Persian king. — 2. 
Daughter of Hecatomnus, and sister, wife, and 
successor of the Carian prince Mausolua, reigned 
BkC. 862-850. She is renowned in history for 
Iter extraordinary grief at the death of her hus- 
band Mausolus. She is said to have mixed his 
ashes iu her daily drink ; and to peroetuate his 
memory, she built at Halicamassus the celebra- 
ted monument) Mautoleumy which was regarded 
M one of the seven wonders of the worQ, and 
the name of which subsequently beoune the 
genenc tenn for any sple'idid sepichral monu- 

ARTEiiisiuM ('ApT€fu<rtov], propArlv a t^mfUi 
of Anemia. 1. A tract of country ou the north* 
em coast of Eubcea, opposite Maguesia, sc called 
from the temple of Artemis (Diana) belonging to 
the town of Uestiaea: off this coast tlie Greek* 
defeated the fleet of Xerxes, EC. 48' .—8. A 
promontory of Caria, near the Gulf Glaucu^ to 
called from the temple of Artemis it its neigh 

AamiviTA {'Aprifura). 1. (Now 8herebai^f\ 
a city on the Siilas, in the district of Apollonia* 
tis in Assyria. — 2. A city of Great Armeoia, 
south of the Lake Araissa. 

Art£m6n (*ApTe/iav), a Lacedsmonian, built 
the military engines for Pericles in his war 
against Samos in RO. 441. There were also 
several writers of this name, whose works are 

[ArtImas ('Apri/mc), a Persian satrap, men 
tioned in the Anabasis.] 

[Artisoub ('ApTiaKoc'. now BtMc-Derejy a 
river of Thrace, a tributary of the Hebrus.] 

[Artontxs ('Apr6vn7fX ^^ ^^ Mardonius.] 

ArtOriub, M^ a physician at Rome, was the 
friend and physician of Augustus, whom he at- 
tended in his campaign against Brutus and Oaa- 
sius, B.C. 42. He was drowned at sea shortly 
after the battle of Actium, 81. 

Arverni, a Gallic people in Aquitania, in the 
country of the Mons Cebenna, in the modem 
Auvergne. In early times they were tlie most 
powerful people in the south of Gaul: they 
were defeatea by Domitius Ahenobarbus and 
Fabius Moximus in B.C. 121, but still possess&d 
considerable power in the time of Csesar (56). 
Their capital was Nemossus, also named Aiigua- 
tonemetum or Arvemi on the ElAver (now AUier\ 
with a citadel, called at least in the Middle Ages 
Clarus Mons, whence the name of the modera 
town, Clermont. 

ArvIna, a cognomen of the Cornelia gens, 
borne by several of the Oomelii, of whom the 
most iinportant was A. ComeliuH Cossus Arvina, 
consul B.C. 848 and 822, and dictator 820. He 
commanded the Roman armies against the Sam- 
mites, whom he defeated in several batUes. 

A RUNS, an Etruscan word, was regarded by 
the Romans as a proper name, but perhaps sig- 
nified a younger son in general. 1. Younger 
brother of Lucumo, t. «., Il Tarquinius Priscus. 
— 2. Younger brother of L. Tarquinius Superbus, 
was murdered by his wife. — 3. Younger son of 
Tarquinius Superbus, fell in combat with Bnitusb 
—4. Son of Porsena, fell in battle before Aricia. 
— 6. Of Clusium, invited the Gauls across the 

ArukiIus. Vi<L Arrvktius. 

ArubiAnhs, Mmsus or Mxssius, a Roman gram- 
marian, lived about A.D. 450, aud wrote a Latin 
phrase book, entitled QuadrigOy vd £xempla £1- 
oeutionum ex Ktryt/to, SaUvttia, Terentio, et Oi- 
ceraneper literal digesta^ It is called Quadriga 
from its being composed from four authors. The 
best edition is by lindemann, in his Corput 
Orammaticorvm JxUin^ voL i, p. 199. 

ArxIta {'Ap^ara : now JVaJbsAtmin), the capi- 
tal of Great ALrmenia, before the building of Ar 
taxata, lay lower down upon the Araxes, on th% 
confines of Media. 

Artandeb CAfwuvdijg), a Persian, who was 
appointed by Cambyses governor oi EmpU but 
Digitized by VjOOQI'^ 



vms |)ut to death by Darius, because he coined 
dher money of the purest metal, in imitation 
of the gold money of that monarch. 


Abycaxda {'Af*'€avda)f a tmall town of Ly- 
cia, east of Xant-iua, on the Biver Aryeandus, 
a tributary of the lamyrua 

AszIkSics ( Ap^avfpn^), a district of Anneniji 
Major, bounded on the south hr the Tigris, on 
the west by the Nymphius, and containiog in it 
the Lak» Ars^e ('kpoiivrf: now Enet^ It 
fcimed part of GoanTvinb 

[AbsAn or -is, or ATEAxmuN {'Ap^, 'Ap^ec, 
'JLTpdvovT^tv : now Erztroimn)^ a stroiMf fortress 
m Great Armenia, near the sources of the Eu- 
phrates and the Arazes, founded in the fifth 

Aa^i ('AaoZoi), a people of Sarmatia Asiatioa, 
near the mouth of the Tanois (now Don\ 

AaAXBKB ('Affovdpof). 1. Son of Philotas, 
brother of Parmenion, and one of the generals 
of Alexander the Great After the death of 
Alexander in 828, he obtained Garia for his sat- 
rapy, and took an actiye part in the wars which 
fbuowed. He joined Ptolemy and Cassander in 
their league against Antigonus, but was de- 
feated by Antigonus in 818. — ^2. A general of 
Fbsniaoea IL, fang of Bosporus. He put Phar^ 
Doees to death in 47, after the defeat of the 
bttcr by Julius GjBsar, in hopes of obtaining the 
kiogdom.* But Caesar conferred the kingdom 
npun Mithradates of Pergamus, with whom 
i^ander carried on war. Augustus afterward 
eoofirmed Asander in the soTcreignty. [He 
died of voluntary starvation in his ninety-third 

rAiBB6u3B ('Acr^Aof), a centaur, iamed for his 
ikUl in prophesyine from the flight of birds; 
finiffht against the Lapithie at tlie nuptials of 
Finthous- He was crucified by Hercules.] 

Abbtstje ('A(T^(rraA a Libyan people, m the 
north of Cyrenaiea. Their country was called 


AfiCA ('AffKa), a city of Arabia Felix. 

AsoalIbob, son of Misme, respecting whom 
tbe fame story is told which we also find relat- 
ed of Abas, son of Metanlra. Fed Abas, No. 1. 

AscAiAFHiTS {^ koKdka^g), 1. Son of Mars 
{Ares) and Astjfoche, led, with his bi*other lal- 
menus, the Ifinyans of Orchomenos against 
Troy, and was slain by De'iphobus. — 3. Son of 
Ael^atm and Gorgyra or Orphne. When Pro- 
serpina (Persephone) was in the lower world, 
and Fluto gave her permissicm to return to the 
opper, proYidinff she had not eaten any thing, 
Ascalaphue declared that she bad eaten part of 
a pomegrarate. Geres (Demeter) punished him 
by burying bim under a huge stone, and when 
this stone was subsequently removed by Her- 
cules, 'IVofterpina (Persephone) chained him 
into an owl {<lujKuXa^\ by sprinkling him with 
water firom the Biver Phlegethon. 

KwcHsxm ('AoKokuv : 'AaKo^Mvetrrjc : now 
Ankaldn), me of the chief cities of the Philis- 
tinca, on tb^ coast of Palestine, between Azotus 

AaclNiA {h 'AoKovia Xlftini). 1. (Now Lake 
tflztuk), ir . JBithynia, a great fresh-water lake, 
at the ead'TU end of which stood the oit}^ of Ni- 
eaa (now Jtnik). The surrounding district was 
ilsp eidlsil Ascania.— 2. (Now Lak0 of BwHwr), 

a salt-water lake on the borders of Pl^ygm um 
Pisidia, which supplied the neighboring cobntiy 
with salt 

AsoanIus ('Affxavcof). [1. An ally of the Tro- 
jans from the Phrygian A8cania^-2. Son of 
HippoUon, also an ally of the Trojans.] — 8. Son 
of j£neas by Creusa. According to some tnt 
ditions, Aseanius remained in Asia after the fidl 
of Troy, and reigned either at Troy itself or a 
some other town in the neighborhood. Accord- 
ing to other aoeounts, he aeoompanied his fathe 
to Italy. Other traditions, again, gave the name 
of Aacaiiius to the son of i£neas and Lavinia 
livy states that on the death of his fiither Asea- 
nius was too young to undertake the govern- 
ment, and that, after he had attained the age of 
manhood, he left Lavinium in the hands of his 
mother, and migrated to Alba Longa. Here he 
was succeeded by his son Silrius. Some writ- 
ers relate that Aseanius was abo called Ilus or 
lulus. The gens Julia at Rome traced its origin 
from lulus or Aseanius. 

AsdfBUEGiux (now Aihurg^ near Msrs), an an- 
cient place on the left bank of the Rhine, found- 
ed, according to fable, by Ulysses. 

A soil {uaKioif i e., thadowleM)^ a term applied 
to the people living about the equator, between 
the tropics, who have, at certam times of the 
year, the sun in their zenith at noon, when, con- 
sequently, erect objects con cost no shadow. 

AsouFiABji. the reputed descendants of As 
clepius (^sculopius). Vid. JEooulatius, 

AsglepiIdsb rAffKhfmddtfi:), 1. A lyric poet, 
who is said to have invented the metre called 
after him (Metntm Attclepiadium)^ but of whose 
life no particulars are recorded. — 2. Of Tragilui 
in Thrace, a contemporary and disciple of Isoo- 
rates, about B.C. 860, wrote a work called 
Tpayff>dov/ieva in six books, being an explana- 
tion of the subjects of the Greek tragedies 
[The fragments of this work are published in 
Muller's Fragm, Hut, Ornec^ voL lii., ix 801-6. 
— 8. Of Samos, a bucolic poet, who flourished 
just before the time of Theocritus, as he ia 
mentioned as his teacher : several epigrams in 
the Anthologv are ascribed to him.]— 4. Of 
Myrlea in Bithynia, in the middle of the first 
ceqtury B.O, wrote several ^ommatacal works ; 
[and a historv of Bithynia, in ten books : a few 
fragments of this last work ore collected in 
Miuler's Fragm, Hist. Grae^ voL iil, p^ 800-1.] 
— 5. There were a great many physicians of this 
name, the most celebrated of whom was a nar 
tive of Bithynia, who came to Borne in the 
middle of the first century B.C., where he ao 
quired a great reputation hj his successful cures 
Nothing remains of his writings but a few frog 
ments published by Gum pert, Jlsc^tac^M^t/A^ 
FragmentOy Vinar., 1794. 

AsCLEPlODdBUS {*KOK'k7l'KlO&upo{), 1. A gCC 

eral of Alexander the Great, afterward mad« 
satrap of Persia by Antigonus, B.O. 817^ — 2. k 
celebrated Athenian painter, a contemporary (.'f 


AscOnius Psdl&nub, Q., a Roman gramma 
rian, bom at Patavium (now Padua\ a£)ut B.G 
2, lost his sight in his seventy-third year, in tin 
reign of Vespasian, and diecf in his eighty -fifU 
year, in the reign of Domition. His most import 
ant work was a Commentary on the speechei 



ol Cieerei and we still possess /ragmenta of 
fail Oommentaries on tbe Diyioatioi the firat 
two speeches against Verres, and a portion of 
the third, the speeches for Cornelius (i., il), 
the speech In to^ Candida, for Scanrus, agamst 
Piso, and for Milo. They are initten in Tery 
pare language, and refer chiefly to points of 
history and antiquities, great pains being be- 
stowed on the illustration of those constitutional 
forms of the senate, the popular assemblies, akid 
the courts of justice, which were fiist falling 
into oblivion under the empire. This character, 
however, does not apply to the notes on the 
Verrine orations, which were probably written 
by a later grammarian. Edited in the fifth vol- 
ume of Cicero*s works by Orelli and Baiter. 
There is a valuable essay on Asconius by Mad- 
vig, Hainis, 1826. 

AsooaDUS, a river in Macedonia, which rises 
in Mount Olympus, and flows between Agassa 
and Dium into tne Thermaic Gulf. 

Abcka {'AcTKpa : 'AoKpaioc), a town in Boeo- 
tia, on Mount Helicon, where Hesiod resided, 
who had removed thither with his father from 
Cyme in .^lolis, and who is therefore called 

AacHum. 1. Pioenum (AsculAnus: now Ai- 
eoli), the chief town of Picenum and a Roman 
muuicipium, was destroyed by the Romans in 
the Social War (B.O. 89), but was afterward 
rebuilt — 2. ApClum (Ascullnus : now Aaeoli di 
Satriano), a town of Apulia, in Daunia, on the 
confines of Samnium, near which the Romans 
were defeated by Pyrrhus, BO. 270. 

AsoCbis (now Ezero\ a lake in Mount Olym- 
piis in Perrhiebia in Thessaly, near Lapathus. 


AsiA (rf 'kaka\ a town in Arcadia, not fax 
from Megalopolis. 

AssLLio, P. SsMPaoNius, tribune of the sol- 
Jiera under P. Scipio Africanus at Numantia, 
B.C. 188, wrote a Roman history from the Pu- 
nic wars inclusive to the times of the QracchL 

AsELLUS, Tib. Claudius, a Roman eques, was 
deprived of his horse by Scipio Africanus Minor, 
when censor, B.C. 142, ana in his tribuneship 
of the plebs in 189 accused Scipio Africanus be- 
fore the people. 

AaiA VKaia\ daughter of Oceanns and Tethys, 
wife of lapetus, and mother of Atlas, Prome- 
theus, ana Epimetheus. According to some 
traditions, the continent of Asia derived its 
name from her. 

AaiA i^kaia : 'AaievCt -iovcjf , -tttr^f , -arucSi : 
now Atia), also m the poets Asia ('<la<V), one of 
tlie three g^eat divisions which the ancients 
made of the known world It is doubtful wheth- 
er the name is of Qreek or Eastern origin ; but, 
in either case, it seems to have been hrst used 
by the Greeks for the western part of Asia Mi- 
nor, especially the plains watered by the river 
Cavster, where the Ionian colonists nrst settled ; 
and thence, aa their geographical knowledge 
advanced, they extended it to the whole coun- 1 
Iry east, northeast, and southeast The first 
knowledge which the Greeks possessed of the 
opposite shores of the iEgean Sea dates before 
the earliest historical records. The legends 
respecting the Argonautic and the Trojan ex- 
peditions, and other mythical stories, on the one . 
MUid, and the allusions to commercial and other 

.intei course with the people oi /usia 
Syria, and f^ypt on the other hand, indicate « 
certain degree of knowledge of the coast from 
the mouth of the Pbasis, at the eastern extrem 
il^ of the Black Sea, to the mouth of the Nile. 
This knowledge was improved and increased 
by the colonisation of tne western, northei-ii^ 
and southern coasts of Asia Minor, and by the 
relations into which these Greek colonies were 
broueht, first with the Lvdian, and then with 
the Persian empires, so that, in the middle of 
the filth century B.C., Herodotus was able to 
give a pretty complete description of the Per- 
sian empire, and some imperfect accounts of the 
parta beyond it; while some knowledge of 
southern Asia was obtained by way of Egyj^i 
and its northern regions, with their wandeiing 
tribes, formed the subject of marvellous stories 
which the traveller heard from the Greek oolo 
nists on the northern shores of the Black Sea. 
The conquests of Alexander, besides the per- 
sonal acquaintance which they enabled the 
Greeks to form with those provinces of the Per- 
sian empire hitherto only known to them by 
report, extended their knowledge over the re- 
gions watered bv the Indus and its four great 
tributaries {the Punjab and Scinde) ; the lower 
course of the Indus and the shores between ita 
mouth and the head of the Persian Gulf were 
explored by Nearchus ; and some further knowl- 
edge was gained of the nomad tribes which 
roamed (as tliey still do) over the vast steppes 
of Central Asia by the attempt of Alexander to 
penetrate, on the northeast, beyond tbe Jtixartea 
(now 8ihoun\\ while, on all points, the Greeks 
were placed m advanced positions from whicl> to 
acquire further information, especially at Ah x- 
andrea, whither voyagers constantly brought re- 
counts of the shores of Arabia ana India, as ifur 
as the island of Taprobane, and even beyo&d 
this, to the Malay peninsula and the coasts of 
Cocliin China. On the east and north the wars 
and commerce of the Greek kingdom of Syria 
carried Greek knowledge of Asia no further, 
except in the direction of India to a small ex- 
tent, but of course more acquaintance was gain- 
ed with the countries already subdued, until the 
conquests of the Parthians shut out the Greeks 
from the country east of the Tigris valley ; a 
limit which the Romans, in their turn, were 
never able to pass. They pushed their arras, 
however, further north than the Greeks had 
done, into the mountains of Armenia, and they 
gained information of a great caravan route be- 
tween India and the shores of the Caspian, 
through Bactria, and of another commercial 
track leading over Central Asia to tbe distant 
regions of Uie Seres. This brief sketch will 
show that all the accurate knowledge of the 
Greeks and Romans respecting Asia was con- 
fined to the countries which alope down south- 
ward from the great mountain chain formed by 
the Caucasus and its prolongation beyond tlie 
Caspian to the Himah&yas : of the vast elevated 
steppes between these mountains and the cen- 
tral range of the Altai (from which the northern 
regions of Siberia again slope down to the Aro> 
tic Ocean) they only knew tliat they were iu- 
habited by nomad tribes, except the country 
directly north of Ariana, where the Persian em- 
pire had extended beyond /theinountain chain 
igitized by VjO( 



Hid wl.ere the Greek kingdom of Bactria had 
been aubeequently efltabllabed. The notions of 
me ancients respecting the size and form of 
Asia -were sneh as might be inferred from "what 
has been stated. Distances computed from the 
aeoCTiDtB of trarellers are always exaggerated ; 
■nd hence the southern part of the continent 
vaa supposed to extend much further to the 
cast than it really does (about 60^ of longitude 
loo much, aoeording to Ptolemy), -while to the 
Eiorth and northeastern parts, Which were quite 
nnknovn, much too small an extent was assign* 
ed. fiowerer, all the ancient geographers, ex- 
cept Pliny, agreed in considering it the largest 
of the three divisions of the world, and all be- 
liered it to be surrounded by the ocean, with 
the enrions exception of Ptolemy, who recurred 
to the early notion, which we fiiia in the poets, 
that the eastern parts of Asia and the south- 
eastern parts of Africa were united by land 
whidi inolosed the Indian Ocean on the east 
and south. The different opinions about the 
boundariee of Asia oa the side of Africa are 
mentioned under Africa : on the side of Europe 
the boundary was formed by tlie River Tanais 
(now 2>offX the Palus Mieotis (now J3ea of Azof), 
Pontua Euxinus (now Black 8ea)y Propontis 
(now Sfu of Marmara\ and the JSgean (now 
An^pdago). The most general division of 
Asia waa into two parts, which were different 
at different times, and known by different names. 
To the earliest Greek colonists the River Halys, 
the eastern boundary of the Lydian kingdom, 
formed a natural division between Upper and 
Xcofr AUa (^ avu *A., or rii uvu 'Aai^Ct uid ^ 
Kdrv 'A., or rd. kotu ttjc *A.oiffc, or 'A. ^ ivrdc 
AXifoc 'sroTouov) ; and ajfterwaixi the Euphrates 
was adopted as a more natural boundary. An- 
other division was made by the Taurus into A. 
intra Taurum, I e., the part of Asia north and 
northwest of the Taurus, and A. extra Taurum, 
all the rest of the continent ('A. tvrdc tov Tav- 
pov, and 'A. Urdc tov Tavpov), The division 
ultimately adopted, but apparently not till the 
fourth century of our era, was that of Atia Ma- 
jar and Ana Miner. 1. Asia Majok ('A. 17 
ftcya?,ii) waa the part of the continent east of 
the Tanais, the Euxine, an imaginary line drawn 
from the Euxine at Trapezus (now TrebizonS) to 
the Gulf of Issus, and the Mediterranean : thus 
it included the countries of Sarmatica Asiatica, 
with all the Scythian tribes to the east, Colchis, 
Iberia, Albania, Armenia, Syria, Arabia, Babylo- 
aa, Mesopotamia, Assyria, Media. Susiana, Per- 
sis, Ariana, Hyrcania, Margiana, Bactriana, Sog- 
diana, India, tiie land of the Sinae and Serica ; 
respecting which, see the several articles. — 
1 Asia Minor ('Aa/a ij fiiKpu : now Anatolia), 
was the peninsula on the extreme west of Asia, 
bounded by the Euxine, JEgeau, and Mediter- 
ranean on the north, west, and south ; and on the 
east by the mountains on the west of the upper 
eourse of the Euphrates. It was, for the most 
port, a fertile country, intersected with mount- 
sins and rivers, abounding in minerals, possess- 
ing excellent harbors, and peopled, from the 
cuiiest known period, by a variety of tribes 
from Asia and from Europe. For particulars 
respecting the country, tlie render is referred 
U) the separate articles upon the parts into 
%bich it was divided bj the later Greeks, name- 

ly, Mysia, Lydia, and Caria on the west; Lyeia, 
Pamphylia, and Cilicia on the south ; Bithynia, 
Paphlagonia, and Pontus on the north; and 
Phrygia, Pisidia, Galatia, and Cappadocia in the 
centre: see, also, the articles Troas, Moua^ 
Ionia, Doria, Ltcaonia, Isacbia, Pergauuh. 
Halts, Sangariub, Taurus, ^-—8. Asia Pro^ 
FRIA ('A. ^ IdUtc KaXovfuvri\ or simply Asia, the 
Roman province, formed out of the kingdom of 
Pergamus, which was bequeathed to the Ro- 
mans by Attalus IIL (B.C. 180), and the Greek 
cities on the west coast, and we adjacent isl 
andi^ with Rhodes. It included the districts of 
Mysia, Lydia, Caria, and Phrygia, and was gov- 
erned at first by proprsetors,'aiterward by pro- 
consuls. Under Constantine the Great a new 
division was made, and Asia only extendec 
along the coast from the Promontorium Lectuu 
to the mouth of the Mssander. 

(AfiiATicus, a surname of the Scipios and Va- 

[AsidIteb ('kci6dTfi^\ a Persian nobleman, 
whose castle was unsuccessfully attacked by Xen- 
ophon, but who was afterward captured with all 
his property.] 

iAsiNA, a surname of the Scipios.] 
AfliNjEus Sinus, another name of the Messeul- 
acus Sinus. Vid. Asinx, No. 8.] 

AsiNARUS (*Aoivapoc : now Jbivme di Koto or 
Freddof\ a river on the east side of Sicily, on 
which the Athenians were defeated bv the Syra- 
cusans, EC. 418: the Syraousans celebrated here 
an annual festival called Atinaria. 

AsiNE {^kaivri : 'AatvaZof). 1. (Now Pa9iawa)t 
a town in Laconica, on the coast between Tieiia 
rum and Gythium. — 2. (Now Phwrnos), a town 
in Aiigolis, west of Hermione, was built by th^i 
Dryopes, who were driven out of the town by 
the Aigives after the first Messenian war, and 
built No. S. — 8. (Now Saratzaf), an important 
town in Messenia, near the Promontory Acritas, 
on the Messenian Gulf, which was hence also 
called the Asinsean Gul£ 

AsiNiA Gkns, plebeian, came from Tente, the 
chief town of the Marrucini ; and the first per- 
son of the name mentioned is Herius Asinius, the 
leader of the Marrucini in the Marsic war, B.C. 
90. The Asinu are given under their surnames, 
Gallus and Poluo. 

AsiuB ('Afftof). 1. Son of Hyrtacus of Arisbe, 
and father of Acamas and Phsnops, an ally of 
the Trojans, slain by Idomeneus. — 2. Son of T>y- 
mas and brother of Hecuba, whose form Apollo 
assumed when he roused Hector to fight against 
PatroduB. — [3. Son of Imbrasus, accompanied 
^neas to Italy.] — 4. Of Samos, one of the earli- 
est Greek poets, lived probably about B.C. '700. 
He wrote epic and elegiac poems, which have 
perished with the exception of a few fragments ; 
[and these have been published with the frag- 
ments of Callious and Tvrtseus, by Bach ; in the 
Minor Epic Poets, in Didot^s Bibl. Grcee.\ and 
by Bei^t in his Poet Lt/rici GrrcBc.] 

AsMiRAA, a district and city of Serica, in the 
north of Asia, near mountains called AsMiRifii 
MoNTES, which are supposed to be the Altai 
range, and the city to be Khamil, in tlie centre 
of Chinese Tartary. 

[AsQpis ('Affwffif J. 1. Daughter of the river- 
god Asopus. — 2. Daughter of Th§|piua mcthei 
of Mentor.J ^.^.^.^^^ by^OOgie 



Aji^Ptn QAffQvrSc), 1. (Now Banliko%\ a riy- 
«i* in Peloponnesus, rises near Phlius, and flows 
through the Sioyonian territory into the Corinth- 
ian Gul£ Asopus, the god of this rirer, was 
ton of Oceanus and TeUiys, husband of Metope, 
and father of Evadne, Euboea, and Mzm% each 
of whom was therefore called Asopia {^Aaoiri^), 
When Jupiter (Zeus) carried off uSgina, Aso- 
pus' attempted to fight with him, but he was 
smitten by the thunderbolt of Jupiter (Zeus), and 
from that time the bed of the river contained 
pieces oi charcoal By iE!^;ina Asopus became 
the CTandfather of JBacus, who is therefore 
called Asojnade%, — 2. (Now Atopo)^ a river in 
BcDotia, forms the northern boundaiV of the ter- 
ritory of PlatsBiB, flows through the south of 
Boeotia, and falls into the Eubcean Sea near 
Delphinium in Attica. [On the banks of this 
river was foufbt the fiimous battle of PlataesB.] 
— 3. A river m Phthiotis in Thessaly. rises m 
Mount (Eta, and flows into the Maliac Oulf near 
Thermopylffi. — 4. A river in Phrygia, flows past 
Laodicea into the Lycus.— '5. (Now Esapo), a 
town in Laconica, on the east side of the Laoo- 
liian Gulf 

AspadIna {'konaddva : now Ispahan f)^ a town 
of the district Panetacene in Persis. 

[AsPALis {*A(nraXig\ daughter of Argsus, 
concerning whom an interesting legend is pre- 
served in Antoninus Liberalia] 

[Abpab, a Numidiau, sent by Jugurtha to Boc- 
chus in order to learn hu designs, when the lat- 
ter had sent for Sulla. He was, however, de- 
.vived by Bocchus.] 

AfiPABAoiiTM (now l8i;arpar\ a town in the ter- 
ritory of Dyrrhachium, in lllyria- 

AspIsIa ('AaTraata). 1. the elder, of Miletus, 
daughter of Aziochus, the most celebrated of 
the^ Greek HetiersB (vid. Diet of Antxq^ s. ».), 
came to reside at Athens, and there gained and 
fixed the affections of Pericles, not more by her 
beauty than by her high mental accomplish- 
ments. Having parted with his wife, Pericles 
attached himself to Aspasia during the rest of 
his life as closely as was allowed b^ the law, 
which forbade marriage with a foreign woman 
under severe penalties. The enemies of Peri- 
cles aocosed Aspasia of impiety (iaeSeia), and 
it required all the personal influence of Pericles, 
who defended her, and his most earnest en- 
treaties and tears, to procure her acquittal The 
house of Aspasia was the centre of the best 
literary and philosophical society of Athens, and 
was frequented even by Socrates. On the death 
of Pericles (EG. 429), Aspasia is said to have 
attached herself to one L^sicles, a dealer in cat- 
tle, and to have made lum, by her instructions, 
a first-rate orator. The son of Pericles by As- 
pasia was legitimated by a special decree of the 
people, and took his father's name. — 2. The 
Younger, a Phocman, daughter of Hermotimus, 
was the favorite concubine of Cyrus the Young- 
er, who called her Aspasia after the mistress 
of Pericles, her previous name having been Mil* * 
to [from filXroc,] «0rmt/ton, being so called on j 
account of the brilliancy of her oomplezioa] 
After the death of Cyrus at the battle oi Cunaxa 
(RC. 401), she fell into the hands of Artaxerxes, 
who likewise became deeply enamored of her. 
"When Darius, son of Artaxerxes, was appointed 
successor to Uie thmne, he asked his father to 

surrender Aspasia to him. The requesl 
not be refused as coming from the kins eleet 
Artaxerxes, therefore, gave her up ; but no booc 
after took her away again, and made her a itrieat- 
ess of a temple at £cl»tana, where strict celibaey 
was requisite. 

AsPAaiL Vid. Aspii. 

Aetlsias {'AoTruacoc). 1. A penpatetie pK* 
losopher, lived about A.D. 80, and wi-ote eoB 
mentaries oo most of the works of Aristotk 
A portion of his commentaries on the Niac 
maohean Ethics is still preserved. — 2. Of Byb 
lus, a Greek sophist, lived about AJ>. 180, ant 
wrote commentaries on Demosthenes and .£s- 
chines, of which a few extracts are preserved; 
[the extracts relating to him are collected by 
Mailer, in tlie third volume of Didof s FragmefUa 
Hi^otieorum Orceeorutn, pt 676.-8. Of Tyre, a 
rhetorician and historian, who, according to Sni- 
das, wrote a history of Epirus and of things in 
it in twenty books; but Mtiller {Fragmefda Hi*- 
tarieoTvm Qrateormn^ p. 676), with much proba- 
bility, suggests Tvpov for 'Hiretpov, and so the 
account would be of Tyre. — i. Of Ravenna, a 
distinguished sophist and rhetorician, who lived 
about 226 A.D., in the reign of Alexander Seve- 
rua His works are now lost] 

AsPENDUS ('AoTrei'dof : 'Acrn-^diof, Aspendiua: 
now Deukaskkehr or Mctnauffot), a strong and 
flourishing city of Pamphylia, on the small navi- 
gable river Eurymedon, sixty stadia (six geo- 
graphical miles) from its mouth: said to have 
been a colony of the Argives. 

AspsR, ^MTLfvs, a Roman gmmmarian, wbti 
wrote commentaries on Terence and Virgili 
must be distinguished fram another graninui* 
rian, usually caUed Asper Junior, the author of 
a small work entitled Art OrarmjuUiait printed 
in the Orammat, LaL Auetor&a, by Putschius 
Hanov., 1606. 

AspbaltItes Laous or Mars Moetuum (*Atf- 
^Artrif or XodofziTig Xifiviff or 7 ^aAaaaa ^ ver- 
pa), the great salt and bituminous lake iu the 
southeast of Palestine, which receives ths 
water of the Jordan, [is of an irregular oblong 
figure, about forty miles long and eight miles 
broadj It has no visible outlet, and its surfiiMe 
is [a little more than thirteen hundred feet] be- 
low the level of the Mediterranean. [It is <»V«1 
the Dead Sea from the desolation prevail^ 
alon^ its shores, as well as from the belief that 
no hvkig creature can exist in its water».] Al- 
though the tales about birds dropping down dead 
as they fly over it are now proved to be fabu- 
lous, |3ret the watera and the surrounding soil 
are so intensely impregnated with salt and sul- 
phur that no tree or plants grow on its banks: 
and it is doubted, with great probabiUty, whether 
any fish live in its waters, for these, when ex- 
amined by a powerful mwosoope, have been 
found to contain no animalcuLe or animal matter 
whatever. This sea has been very recently ex- 
plored toT the first time with accuracy by Lien 
tenant Lynch of the United States navy, who 
has proved that the bottom of the sea consists 
of two submeiiged plains^ an elevated and a de- 

Ercssed one, the former averaging ihirteeny the 
itter thirteen hundred feet b^low the surface 
The shallow portion is to the south ; the deeper, 
which is also the laiiger, to the north, lliii 
southern and shallow portion would iif -^ear t/ 



^i»Wi btCD anfiuJj die fertUe plaio of Siddim, 
mm 'vdUoh tlM guilty tttiot ■tood. 

, «r A—Agft CAair«M, 'Aandaioi), an In- 
i tnbe, m tfa« cMriet of the Paropiimisada^ 

I the men Choes (now Ka$na) and Indus, 
-zk sise Dorthaaii of .4/b^^*''^ ^^ ^'^ north- 

^ CSS of tll^ /^M^ 

JksRs i'Aawtf). 1. Cltpka (nov JfZtftuiAX * 
siity oc a promnntary of the uune name,near.the 
i^urtheaaUai point of the Oarthaginian territor j, 
ssiaaded by Agathodea» and talun in the first 
PiK«ie var'by the Romans, who called it Clypea» 
*lLe translation of 'Aanic, — 2. (Now ManorZcff' 
rmm / rnosji in the African TnpoUtana, the best 
.Arbor 00 the eout of the Great Syrtisr— 8. Vid. 

t{'AairXii6vv : 'AavXifdovtog), or Spu- 
a fesvB of the Minyas, in Bcwtia, on the 
Bimer Helas* near Orehomenus; built by the 
Djilueal Aapledoo, son of Neptune (Poseidon) 
aad Jiidea. 

AwBA rAaaa : 'Aoffotof), a town in Chalcidicei 
is MaoeaoDia» on the Singitio Gull 

Awiirt^ii ('AtfvmpTvot^ an Indian tribe, in the 
ii^rid of the ParopanusadsB, between the rivers 
Oapbcn (now Cb6ooQ and Indus, in the northwest 

AaBAsloos ('AcaupoKocjy king of TVoy, son of 
Iroa* fither of Capys. grandfather of Ancbises, 
and great-grandfather o? .^neas. Hence the Ro* 
maiia» as deacendants of .£oeas, are called domus 
Anand (Vizg^ ^En^ I, 284). 

Awfaos ('Aoo^adf), a town of Ionia, near Mi 
Vetoa^ with a temple of Minerva (Athena), sur- 
asmed 'Aerninia. 

Afiadans ('Acrcrcjpof or *Kao6ptov : 'Aaaupivoc : 
now Astro), a small town in Sidly, between 
Bnna and Agyrium. 

AasoB ('Affooc: 'Aaatoq, 'Aaaevc: now Aao, 
raioa near Btiram), 1. A fiourishiDg dty io the 
lioad, on the Adramyttiao Gul^ opposite to 
Leeboa: afterward called Apollonia: tne birth- 
pbee of Cleantbes the Stoie. — [2. A tributary of 
Ihe Cephisua, in Phods and Bceotia.] 

Aa»iraiA (^Agravpia : 'Aaavpiof, Asisyrius : now 
KugdiMtany 1. llie country properly so called, 
B the narrowest sense, was a district of West- 
ern Asia, extending along the eastern side of 
the Tigrifly which divided it on the west and 
northwest from Mesopotamia and Babylonia, 
and bounded on the north and east by Mount 
Niphates and Mount Zasrus, which separated 
ii nt)m Armenia and Media, and 00 the south- 
esit by Sosiana. It was watered by several 
tfr«ams, flowing into the Tigris from the east ; 
vvo of which, the Lyeus or Zabatus (now Great 
Zeb), and the Gaprus, or Zabas, or Anzabas (now 
LUtU Zab\ divided the oountry into three parts: 
tbat between the Upper Tigris and the Lyeus 
Tu called Aturia (a mere dialectie variety of 
Aasyria), was probablv the most aneient seat 
«( the monarchy, and contained the capital, 
ITiaereh or Nccns; that between the Lyeus 
lad the Gapms was eaUed Adiabene; and the 
fart toutheast of the Caprus contained the dis- 
tneti of ApoUoniatis and Sittacene. Another 
diTttion into districts, p^ven by Ptolemy, is the 
knowing: Arrhapachitis, Calacine, Adiabene, 
ArWUtift, ApoUoniatis* and Sittacene. — 2. In a 
vider feoi« the name was applied to tlie whole 
•ountn watered bv th« Euphrates and the Ti- 

gris, between the mountains of Armenia tm tin 
north, those of Kurdistan on Jie east, and the 
Arabian Desert on the west, so as io include, 
besides Assyiia proper, Mesopotamia and Bab- 
ylonia; nay, there is someUmes an apparent 
confusion between Assyria and Syria, wliiefa 
gives ground for the supposition that the terms 
were originally identicu. — 8. By a further «»> 
tsnaion the word is used to deaignate the Aik 
Syrian £m{Hre in its widest sense. The early 
history of this ^eat monarchy is too obscure to 
be given here m any detaU; and, indeed, It ia 
only just now that new means of investigating 
it are being acquired The germ of this empire 
waa one of the first great states of which we 
have any record, and waa probably a powerful 
and civilized kingdom as. earlv as Egypt Its 
reputed founder waa Ninus, the builder of the 
capital oit^ ; and in its widest extent it included 
the oountriea just mentioned, with Media, Per^ 
sia, and portiona of the oountiies to the east 
and northeast, Armenia, Syria, Pbcdnicia, and 
Palestbe, except the kingdom of Judah; and, 
beyond these limits, some of the Assyrian kings 
made incursions into Arabia and Egypt The 
fruitless expedition of Sennacherib agiunst the 
latter country and the miraculous destructioQ 
of his armv before Jerusalem (B.C. 714), so 
weakened tne empire, that the Medcs revolted 
and formed a separate kingdom, and at lost, in 
B.O. 606, the governor of Babylonia united with 
Gyaxares, the king of Media, to conquer Assyr- 
ia, which was divided between them, Assyria 
Proper falling to the share of Media, and the 
rest of the empire to Babvlon. The Assyrian 
king and all bis family perished, and the city of 
Ninus waa raced to the ground. Gompare 
Babylon and Mxdia. It must be noticed as a 
caution, that some writers confound the Assyr- 
ian and Babylonian empires under the former 

A6TA rAstenstsl 1. (Now Atti in Piedmont), 
an inlana town of Liguria on the Tanarua, a Ro- 
man colony.— 2. (Now Mesa de Atta\ a town in 
Hispania Betica, near Gades, a Roman colony 
with the surname JHegia. 

AsrlBdiiAS (*AaTa&pac : now Atbarah or Ta- 
eazza) and Astapus ('AardirovCt now Baftr^l-Az- 
rek or Blue Jtiver^, two rivers of i^thiopia, hav- 
ing their sources m the highlands of Abj/inniot 
and uniting in about 17^ north latitude to form 
the Nile. The land inclosed by them was the 
so-called island of Msaos. 

Aarlcus {'Aaraxo^), 1. A Theban, father of 
Ismarus, Leades, Asphodieus, and Melanippus. 
— [2. Son of Neptune (Poseidon) and the nymph 
Olbia, reputed founder of the city Ajbtacdb, q, it, 


AstXcus ('AaraKo^: 'AoTOKnvoc), 1. (Now 
DroffomeMtre), a city of Acamania, on the Ache- 
loiia — 2. A celebrated city of Bithynio, at the 
southeast comer of the Sinus AstaeenuM {'Aara- 
AcjTvdf KoXiroc), a bav of the Propontis, waa a eol 
ony from Megara, but afterward received fresh 
colonists from Athens, who called the place OUna 
(*0X6ia), It was destroyed by Lysimachus, but 
rebuilt 00 a neighboring site, at tlie northeast 
comer of the gull^ by Nicomedes I, who named 
his new city Nicoxedia. 

AstXpa (row Eittepa), a town *o Hisraaia 





AsTARTE. Vid. Aphrodite and Stria Dea. 

AsriiJfHTO ('AffreX«0of), a river of Oolchia, 
me hoDdred and twenty Btadia (twelve googreph- 
ioal mQes) south of Sebaatopolu. 

[Aster {'kar^p^ a skillful archer, one of the 
garrison of Methone in Macedonia, who, when 
rhilip was besieging that city, aimed an arrow at 
him, with this inscription on it, 'Aor^p ^ikLirKi^ 
^avdoiumf irifiwet fieXoc, and deprived him of an 
eye. Philip sent back an arrow into the town 
with the inscription on it, *karipa ^tkinnoQ^ Ifv 
?M6yf Kpefujaerai. When the place was taken, 
Philip crucified Aster.] 

AOTiaiA ('AarepiaY danghter of the Titan Cobub 
and Phoebe, sister of Leto (Latooa), wife of Perses, 
Hnd mother of Hecate. In order to escape the 
embraces of Jupiter (Zeus), she is said to have 
taken the form of a quail (artyxt 5prv^,) and to 
have thrown herself down from heaven into the 
sea, where she was metamorphosed into the 
island Atteria (the island which had fallen from 
heaven like a star), or Ortygia, afterward cidled 


AbtIrIon or AsTiRiiTS VkorepUiv or 'Acrripioc). 
1. Son of Teutamns, ana kins of the Cretans, 
married Europa after she had been carried to 
Crete by Jupiter (Zeus), and brought np the 
three sons, Mmos, Sarpedon, and Rbadamanthys, 
whom she had by the father of the gods. — 2. Son 
of Cometes, Pyremus, or PriscuS) by Antigone, 
daughter of Pheres, was one of the Argonauts. — 
[8. Son of Minos, slain by Theseus. — 4. A small 
river of Argolis, the god of which was father of 

AstSris or Aarfi^A {'Aareptct *koTepia\ a 
small island between Ithaca and Cephallenia. 

AbtkrIum ('A<rrlp£ov), a town in Magnesia, in 
' Tliessaly. 

[AsTERius (*A(Trtptof). 1. Son of Hyperasius, 
an Argonaut — 2. Son of Neleus, brother of Nes- 
tor. Vid. also AflTERioN.] 

AsTEROPiSUS ('Aen-rpoTTOiOf), son of Pelegon, 
leader of the Pssonians. and on ally of the Tro- 
jans, was slain hy, Achilles. 

Sr Aster5pe ('AcrrepoTD/), daughter of the river- 
god Cebren, wife of .£sacus.] 
Asteropea {^koTEpoTTeLc^ 1. Daughter of 
ias. — 2. Daughter of Deius in Phocis. sister 
of Cephalus.] 

Asnoi (now Eeiga\ a town in Hispania Bsetica, 
on the River Singulis, a Roman colony with the 
surname Augusta Jflrma. 

[AstbabIcub (*kaTpu6aKoc) a son of IrbuB^ 
brother of Alopecus, of the &mily of the Eurvs- 
thenidas, an ancient Laconian hero, who had a be- 
roum in Sparta, and was worshipped as a god] 

Abtrjca (^koTpala) daughter or Jupiter (Zeus) 
and Themis, or, aeoordiug to others, of Astr»us 
and Eos. During the Gk)lden Age, this star- 
bright maiden lived on earth and among men, 
whom she blessed ; but when that age had passed 
away, Astrasa, who tarried longest among men, 
withdrew, and was placed among tlie stars, where 
she was called llapdhfo^ or Virgo. Her sister 
kld6ct or Pudiciiia, left the eartli along wiUi her 
(ad 9uperot A strcca recMtit hoc {Pudieitia) eomite, 
Juv., vi^ 19.) 

AsTRiEus {*A<rTpaloc\ a Titan, eon of Crius 
and Eurybia, liusbaud uf Eos (Aurora), and 

fiither of the winds Zephyrus, Boreaa» and ISo- 
tus, Eosphorus (the morning star), and all tlM 
stars of heaven. Ovid {Met., xiv^ 646) calla 
the winds Astrcsi (adj.) /ratre$, the **Astz»aii 

Abd&ra. 1. ^Now La Stura), a river in La- 
tium, rises in uie Alban Monntains, and flowa 
between Antium and Circeii into iie IViriiemaa 
Sea. At its mouth it formed a Bviall islaDd with 
a town upon it, also called Astura (now Torn 
^Attura)i here Cicero had an estate.— 2. (Kow 
Szla), a river in Hispania Tarraoonensis, flowing 
into the Duriua 

AsTitRSs, a people in the northwest of Snain, 
bounded on the east by the Cantabri and v ao> 
cffii, on the west by the Qallieci, on the north by 
the Ocean, and on the south by the Vettonea, thus 
inhabiting the modem Atturiat and Uie northern 
part of Leon and Valladolid, They contained 
twenty-two tribes and two hundreo and forty 
thousand freemen, and were divided into the 
Augustani and Transmontani, the former of whom 
dwelt south of the mountains as far as the Duriua^ 
and the latter north of the mountains down to 
the searooast The country of the Asturee waa 
mountainous, rich in mineraJa, and celebrated for 
its horses : the people themselves were rude and 
warlike. Theur chief town was Asturica Augusta 
(now Astorga). 

Ajsrf AGES {'koTvdytfc), Bon of Cyazares, laal 
king of Media, reigned B.C. 694-660. AUrmad 
by a dream, he gave his daujg^hter Mandane in 
marriage to Cambyses, a Persian of good fiunilv. 
Another dream induced him to send Harpagpa 
to destroy the ofifspring of this marriage. Tb% 
child, the future conqueror of the Medea, wai 
given to a herdsman to expose, but he brought it 
up as his own. Years afterward, circumstaneea 
occurred which brought the young Cyrus under 
the notice of Astyages, who, on inquiry, diseov- 
ered his parentage. He inflicted a cruel pnnisli- 
ment on Harpagus, who waited his time for m- 
venge. When Cyrus had ^rown up to man*t 
estate, Harpagus induced him to instigate the 
Persians to revolt, and, having been appointed 
general of the Median forces^ he deserted witk 
the greater part of them to Cyrus. Astyages 
was taken prisoner, and Cyrus mounted the throne 
He treated the captive monarch with, mildness^ 
but kept him in confinement till his death. This 
is the account of Herodotus, and is to be prefei> 
red to that of Xenophon, who makes Cyrus th4 
grandson of Astya^es» but says that Astyagei 
was succeeded by his son Cyaxares II., on whoss 
death Cyrus succeeded peaceably to the vacant 

Asrrl'ANAZ ('A(7rvttvaQ, son of Hector and An- 
dromache: his proper name was Scamandriiu^ 
but he was called Astyanaz or "krd of the city" 
by the Trojans, on account of the services of koM 
father. After the taking of Troy the Greeks 
hurled him down from the walls, that he might 
not restore the kingdom of Troy. 

AsTi^DAMAS {'kcTvSdfiac), a tragic poet, son of 
Morsimus and of a sister of the poet J^schyla% 
and a pupil of Isocrates, wrote two hundred and 
forty tragedies, and gained the priae fifteen times 
His first tragedy was acted B.U. 399. 

Abti^damia {^karvdiifieia). 1. Daughter of 
Amyntor, and mother of Tlepolemus by Heroa 
left.— 2. Wife of AcASTua. /^ ^^^T^ 
Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



t Aat^ujs ('A<n-v/oc), of Orotoni^ a distin- 
gmdied athlete, gained seyeral prizes at the 
Olympio games.] 

Asr^Ndm ('Aanv6fA^\ daughter /f Ohryses, 
ketter known under her patronym'.e Chrtwi& 

rAflmidua ('Aorwooc). 1. Son of Phaethon, 
&Uier of Sandacua — 2. Son of Protiaon, a Tro- 
jan, elain by Neoptolemus. — 8. A Trojan, slain 
Dj Diomedes.] 

ABTi^5oHK or Aarf 5ctiA (AarvSxn or 'Aotvo- 
l^^ia). 1. Daughtet of Actor, by whom Man 
^Ares) begot AscaUphus and lalmenus. — 2 
Daughter of Fhylas, king of Ephyra in Tbes- 
protia, beeame by Hereules the mother of Tie- 

AsT^^dcHUs {'A9rvoxoc)y the lAcedemonian 
admiral in RC. 412, oommanded on the coast 
of Asia Minor, nrhere he was bribed by the 
Persians to remain inactive. 

AflTTFAi^SA (*AffTvirdXaia : 'AarviraXaievc, 
^AoTviraXaidTffc : now Slampalia). 1. One of the 
Sporades, in the aouthem part of the Grecian 
ardiipelago, with a town of the same name, 
founded by the MegarianS) which was under the 
Romans a libera ciritas. Attypaliia regna^ I e, 
Aatypalcea, Ov^ Met^ vii^ 461.) The inhabit- 
ants worshipped Achilles. — [2. A point of land 
in Attica, near Sunium. — 8. A pomt of land in 
Garia, near Myndus. — i. An ancient city in the 
jland Cos, whidi the inhabitants abandoned, 
and boilt the city Cos instead] 

Asrf BA (rd 'A<rrvpa), a town of Mysia, north- 
west of Adramyttium, on a marsh connected 
with tke sea, with a grove sacred to Diana (Ar- 
temis), snmamed 'Aorvplvrj or -rfvij. 

A&TCHiB {'Aavxt(\ an ancient king of %ypt, 
aneeeeded Mycerinus. 

ATlatxjn, tlie name in Apulia of the parching . 
southeast wind, the Sirocco, which is at present 
called Altino in Apulia. 

ATAsf^ais or Atab? afuM ('Aro^v/Mov), the ' 
highest mountain in Rhodes on the southwest | 
of that island, on which was a celebrated temple ' 
of Jupiter (Zeus) Atabyrius, said to have been 
founded by AlthsBmenes, the grandson of Minos. 

[Atacinub. Vid. Atax] 

AtIois. FtdL Athksis. 

Ataiahta (*ATaXdvrti), 1. The Arcadian Ata- 
lania^ was a daughter of lasus (lasion or lasius) 
and Clymene. Her father, who had wished for 
a son, waa disappointed at her birth, and ex- 
posed her on the Parthenian (virgin) hill, where 
she waa suckled by a she-bear, the symbol of 
Diana (Artemis). After she had grown up she 
lived in pure maidenhood, slew the centaurs 
who pursued her, and took part in the Caly- 
donian hunt Her father subsequently recog- 
aised her as his daughter ; and when he desir^ 
her to marry, she required every suitor who 
wabted to wm her to contend with her first in 
the foot-race. If he conquered her, he was to 
be rewarded with her hand ; if not, he was to 
be put to death. This she did because she was 
the most swift-footed of mortals, and because 
the Delphic oracle had cautioned her against 
marriage. She conquered many suitors, but 
was at length overcome by Ifilanion with the 
assistanee of Venus (Anhrodite). The troddess 
had given him three golden apples, an<f during j 
the moe he dropped Uiem one after the other : j 
thcif beanty charmed Atalanta so much that 

she could not abstain from gathering then, aua 
Milanion thus gained the goal before hei. She 
accordingly became his wife. They were sub- 
sequently both metamorphosed into lions, bs" 
cause they had pro&ned by their embraces the 
sacred grove of Jupiter (Zeus).— 2. The Boeotian 
Atalanta, The same stories are related of her 
as of the Arcadian Atalanta, except that her 
parentage and the localities are described dif- 
ferently. Thus she is said to have been a daugh- 
ter of SchcBnus, and to have been married to 
Hippomenes. Her foot-race is transferred to 
the Boeotian Onchestus, and the sanctuary which 
the newly-married couple profaned by their love 
was a temple of Cybele, who metamorphosed 
them into lions, and yoked them to her chariot 

AiALANTE ('AraAavi77 : 'AraAovrctfof). 1. A 
small island in the Euripus, on the coast of the 
Opuntian Locri, with a small town of the same 
name^ — [2. A small island on the coast of At- 
tica, near the Pirasus.]— 8. A town of Macedo- 
nia, on the Azius, in tbe neighborhood of Gk>r- 
tynia and Idoroene. 

AtIbantes (*ATufKtvTTfc)r a pcoplc in the east 
of Libya, described by Herodotus (iv., 184). 

ATABRfioHia. Vid ApHBODrropoua. 

Ataeneus {"Arapvevc : now Dikeli)^ a city on 
Mount Cane, on the coast of Mysia, opposite to 
Lesbos : a colony of the Chians : the residence 
of the tyrant Hermias, with whom Aristotle re- 
sided some time : destroyed before the time of 

ATAULpmjs, Athaulphus, Adaulphub (t. «. 
Atbaulf^ " sworn helper," the same name as that 
which appears in later history under the form 
of Adolior Adolphus), brother of Alaric's wife. 
He assisted Alanc in his invasion of Italy, and 
on the death of that monarch in A.D. 410, he 
was elected kin^ of the Visigoths. He then 
made a peace with the Romans, married PU- 
ddia, sister of Honorius, retired with his nation 
into the south of Gaul, and finally withdrew into 
Spain, where he was murdered at Barcelona. 
^ Atax (now Aude\ originally called Narbo, n 
river in Gallia Karbonensis, rises in the Pyre- 
nees, and flows by Narbo Marti us into the Lacus 
Rubresus or Rubrensis, which is connected witib 
the sea. From this river the poet P. Teren- 
tins Varro obtained the surname A tacintis, Vid, 

At* {'Atti), daughter of Ens or Jupiter (2^us), 
was an ancient Greek divinity, who led both 
gods and men into rash and inconsiderate ao- 
tions. She once even induced Jupiter (Zeus), 
at the birth of Hercules, to take an oath by 
which Juno (Hera) was afterward enabled to 
give to ilurystheus the power which had been 
destined for Hereules. When Jupiter (Zeus) 
discovered his rashness, he hurled Ate from 
Olympus, and banished her forever fh>m the 
abodes of the gods. In the tragic writers Ate 
appears in a difierent light: she avenges evil 
deeds and inflicts just punishments upon the 
offenders and their posterity, so that her char- 
acter is almost the same as that of Nemesis and 
Erinnys. She appears most prominent in the 
dramas of iEschylus, and least in those of Eu- 
ripides, with whom the idea of Dike (justice) ii 
more fully developed. 

At.^Ius, sumamed PrmUxtaiuf and PhUoio^ 
ffuSf a celebrated grammarian at^Rome^ 


I at^Rome^ about 




B.C. 40, and a friend of Sallust, for whom he 
dre'W up an Epitome {Breviarium) of Roman 
History. After the deatb of Sallust Ateius lived 
on intimate t«rma with Asinius Pollio, whom 
he ajBsisted in his literary pursuits 

Atkius CIpIto. Vil UAPira 

Atjella ( AtellAnus ; now Aversa), a tk>wn in 
Campania, between Capua and NeapoUa, orig- 
inally inhabited by th« Oscaos, afterward a Ro- 
man mimioipium and a colony. It revolted to 
Hannibal (B.C. 216) after the battle of Cannie, 
and the Romans, in consequence, transplanted 
its inhabitants to Calatia, and peopled the town 
by new citiEens from Nuoeria. At«lla owes 
its celebrity to the AUlUtna Ii\ibtU<» or Oaoan 
fiarces, which took then: name from this town. 
( Vid. Diet. o/ArUiq., p. 847, second editioa) 

Atbrnum (now Petcara), a town in Central 
Italy, on the Adriatic, at the mouth of the River 
Atemus (now Pe9cara\ was the common harbor 
of the Yestini, Mamicini, and Peligni. 

Ateencs. Vid, Ateknuu. 

Ateste (Atestlnus : now E9te\ a Roman col- 
ony in the country of the Veneti, in Upper Italy. 

AthIcus, a town in Lyncestis, in Macedonia. 

AthamanIa {'AdafUttfia : 'Adaiuiv, -uvoc), a 
mountainous country in the south of Epirus, on 
Che west side of Pindus, of which ArgiUiea was 
the chief town. The Atbamftnes were a Thes* 
ialian people, who had been driven out of Thes- 
salv by the Ijapitho. They were governed by 
lUde^Mident princes, the last of whom was Axy- 


Atulu AS {'Addfjuzc), son of i£olus and Ena- 
*ete, and king of Orchomenus in Boeotia. At 
he command of Juno (Hern), Athamas married 
Nephele, by whom he became the father of 
PaaixcB and Helle. But he was secretly in 
bve with the mortal Ino, the daughter of Cad- 
mus, by whom he begot Learchus and Meli- 
certes; and Nephele, on discovering that Ino 
had a greater hold on his affections than her- 
self^ disappeared in anger. Having thus incur- 
red the anger both of Juno (Hera) and of Neph- 
ele, Athamas was seized with madness, ana in 
this state killed his own son, Learchus: Ino 
threw herself with Melicertes into the sea, and 
both were changed into marine deities, Ino be- 
coming Leucothea, and Melicertes Paliemon. 
Athamas, as the murderer of his son, was oblig- 
ed to flee from Boeotia, and settled in Thessaly. 
Hence we have AthamanCUSdes, son of Athamas, 
i. «., Paliemon; and Athamaniia, daughter of 
Athamas, i. e., Helle. 

AthanaoIa (now Agramunt /), the chief town 
of the llergetes, in Hispania Tarraoonensis. 

AthanarIcus, king of the Visigoths durine 
their stay in Dacia. In A.D. 867-860 he carried 
on war with the Emperor Yalens, with whom 
he finally concluded apcace. In 874 Athanaric 
was defeated by the Huns, and, after defending 
himself for some time in a stronghold in the 
mountains of Dacia, was compelled to fly in 
880, and take refuge in the Roman territory. 
He died in 881. 

AthanasIub ('Adayu(Tiof), St., one of the most 
celebrated of the Christian fathers, was bom at 
Alexandrea alx)ut A.D. 296, and was elected 
archbishop of the city on the death of Alexan- 
der in 826. The history of his episcopate is 
|])1 of stirring incidents and strange transitions 

of fortune. He was the great chaupion of (be 
orthodox faith, as it has l^eu expounded at tli« 
Council at Nice in 862, and was Uierefore eK 
posed to persecution whenever the AriiDs eol 
the upper hand in the state. He was thnee 
driven from his see into exile through their 
machinations, and thrice recalled. He died in 
878. The Athanasian creed was not composed 
by Athauasius: its real author is unknown 
The best edition of his works is by Moutfauoop 
Paris, 1698, reprinted at Padua, 1777. 

Athkna ('A^vv^ or 'kdTjva\ (Roman Minerva^ 
one of the great divinities of the Greeks. Ho 
mer calls her a daughter of Zeus (Jupiter^, with 
out any allusion to Uie manner of her birtn ; but 
later traditions related tliat she was born from 
the head of Zeos (Jupiter), and some added that 
she sprang forth witn a mighty war-shout and 
in complete armor. The most ancient tradi 
tion, as preserved by Hesiod, stated that Metis» 
the first wife of Zeus (Jupiter), was the mother 
of Athena (Minerva), but that Metis, when preg> 
nant with her, was, on the advice of Q»a and 
Uranus, swallowed up by Zeus (Jupiter), and 
that Zeus (Jupiter) afterward gave birth him- 
self to Athena (Minerva), who sprang from his 
head. Another set of traditions regarded her 
as the daughter of Pallas, the winged £[ian^ 
whom she afterward killed on account of his at- 
tempting to violate her chastity ; and a third set 
earned her to Libya, and called her a daughter 
of Poseidon (Neptune) and Tritonis. These va- 
rious traditions about Athena (Minerva) arose, 
as fn most other cases, from local legends and 
identifications of the Qreek Athena with other 
divinities. But, according to the general belief 
of the Q reeks, she was the daughter of Zeus 
(Jupiter); and if we take Metis to haie been 
her mother, we have at once the clew to the 
character which she bears in the religion of 
Greece ; for, as her father was the moet power- 
ful aud her mother the wisest among the gods, 
so Athena was a combination of the two, a god- 
dess in whom power and wisdom were harmo- 
niously blended. From this fundamental idea 
may be derived the various aspects under which 
she apppears in the ancient writers. She seems 
to have Deen a divbity of a purely ethical char- 
acter; her power and wisdom appear in her 
being the preserver of the state and of evei7 
thing which gives to the state stren^tli and 
prosperity. As the protectress of agriculture, 
Athena (Minerva) is represented as inventing 
the plough and rake ; she created the olive-tree 
{vid. below), taught the people to yoke oxen to 
the plough, took care of the breeding of horses^ 
and mstructed men how to tame them by the 
bridle, her own invention. Allusions to this 
feature of her character are contained in the 
epithets jHovieia, Poapfiia, uypi^, Imrf^ or x^ 
iviTig, She is aJso represented as the patroo 
of various kinds of science, industry, and art 
and as inventing numbers, the trumpet^ the 
chariot, and navigatioa She was further be 
lieved to have invented nearly 6very kind of 
work in which women were employed, and she 
herself was skilled in such work. Hence ws 
have the tale of the Lydian maiden Arachne 
who ventured to compete with Athena (Mi- 
nerva) in the art of weaving. Vid, AKACHMm 
Atliena (Minerva), is, in faci, the patroiM«« ni 


zed by Google 



^dt iLe mtM and elegant arta. Heaee she 
•m ealletl ipy^, and later writera ixake her the 
^vddcsi of all wifidom, knowledge, and art, and 
r^p pc e cn t her as flittiiig on the right hand of her 
fifttter Zem (JopiterX and Bopporting him with 
htBT toQtmd. She in tJierefore charaeterised by 
s-Anooa cpicbata and surname^ expressing the 
A««nDeas of her aisht or the Tigor of her intel- 
Z-^"^ roeh aa iurrUrnCt ^a^riCf d^SepnvCt 
• A.cvctfTfC, woAvSovXoc, mTivftJfTlCfBDd utix€afiTi£, 
JL» the patron diyiaitj of tiie state, she was at 
Jktikena the protectress of the phratries and 
bL<«is«s whidi turmeil the basu of tne state. The 
fiLtl Tsl of the Apaturia bad a direct referenee 
to this parftiealar pH>int in the character of the 
svcUesBL (FtdL JheL of Ani^ art Apatukia.) 
Sbe slso maintaioe'l the authority of the law, 
jostiee, and order in the courts and the assem- 
bly cf the pet^lcu This notion was as ancient 
aa tiie Homeric poems, in which sbe is described 
as awiitini^ Ulysses against the lawless conduct 
cf the mtjon. {Od, xiii^ 894.) Sbe was be- 
licTed to have instituted the ancient court of 
the Areopagus, and in cases where the yotes of 
the judges were equally divided, she gave the 
eaatmg one in fkyor of the accused. The epi- 
thets which have reference to this part of tne 
eoddeas's cfaaracter are i^tonotvo^j the ayenger, 
ioo^oid, and dyvpoia. As Athena (Minerva) 
prcflioted the internal prosperity of the state, 
■o she also protected the state from outward en- 
emies, and tfaos assumes the character of a war- 
like drrinity, though in a very different sense 
from Ares (Mars), Eris, or Enya According to 
Hmner. sbe does not even keep arms, but bor- 
rows them from 2^us (Jupiter); she preserves 
DSD from slaughter when prudence demands it, 
■ad repels Ares's (Mars) savage love of war, 
ad eooquers him. The epithets which she de- 
rives frxMn her warlike enamcter are dyeXeta, 
'ut^pSa, aXiufidx>lt Xaoaaoo^f and others. In 
times of war, towns, fortresses, and harbors are 
BDder her especial care, wbenee she is desig- 
wted as IpvoUrroXi^, HhtkKOfuviftQy voXidpf iro- 
haexocj 6xpdia, uKpla, KXy6ovxfK$ irvXalric, irpo- 
maxopfuif azid the like. In the war of Zeus (Ju- 
piter) sgainsi the giants, she assisted her father 
ind Hercules -with ber counsel, and also took an 
•etive part in it^ for sbe buried Enceladus under 
the island of Sicilv, and slew Pallas. In the 
l^jia war sbe sided with the Greeks, though 
«D their return borne she visited them with 
titorms, on account of the manner in which the 
Locrisa Ajax bad treated Cassandra in her tem- 
pk: As a goddess of war and the protectress 
of heroes, Athena (Minerva) usually appears in 
annor, with the agis and a golden staff. The 
ehsrscter of Athena (Minerva), as we have 
tnc«d it, holds a middle plaoe between the 
Bale and female, whence she is a virgin divin- 
ity, whose heart is inaccessible to the passion of 
wre. Tiresiaa was deprived of sight for having 
(c«Q her in the bath ; and Hephastus (Vulcan^ 
vho made an attempt upon ber chastity, was 
«bii{;ed to take to flight For this reason, the 
ucieot traditions always describe the goddess 
M dressed; and when Ovid makes her appear 
uk«d before Paris, he abandons the genuine 
■tory. Athena (Minerva) was worshipped in all 
puts of Oreeoe. Her worship was introduced 
W the sanicrt towii on the Tiakp. Copsis at a 

very early penod into Attica, where sbe becams 
the great national divinity of the city and the 
country. Here she was regarded as the ^ed. obt- 
Ttipoy vyUia, and irauivicL The tale ran that in 
the reign of Cecrops both Poseidon (Keptune) 
imd Athena (Minerva) contended for the possea- 
sion of Athens. The gods resolved that «hieh- 
ever of them produced a gift most useful to 
mortals should have possession of the land. 
Poseidon (Neptune) struck the ground with 
bis trident.^ and straightway a horse appeared 
Athena (Minerva) then planted the olive. The 
g^s thereupon decreed that the olive was more 
useful to nuui than the horse, and gave the city 
to the goddess, from whom it was colled Athens. 
At Athens the magnificent festival of the Fanch 
thtncM was celebrated in honor of the goddess. 
At this festival took place the grand procession, 
which was represented on the triese of the Par- 
thenoa ( Vii Diet, of Ant^ art. Panathxnjsa.) 
At Lindus, in Rhodes, her worship was likewise 
very ancient Respecting its introduction into 
Italy, and the modincations which her character 
underwent there, vid, MjofxavA. Among the 
things sacred to ber we may mention the owl, 
serpent oock, and olive-tree, which she was 
said to have created in ber contest with Posei- 
don (Neptune) about the possession of Attica. 
The sacnfices offered to ber consisted of bulls, 
rams, and cows. Athena (Minerva) was fre- 
quently represented in works of art in which 
we generally find some of the following charao- 
teristios: 1. llie helmet which she usually 
wears on her head, but in a few iustanoes car- 
ries in her hand. It is generally ornamented 
in the most beautiful manner with griffins^ 
beads of rams, horses, and sphinxes. 2. The 
aagis, which is represented on works of art not 
as a shield, but as a goat-skin, covered with 
scales, set with the appiuling Gorgon's bead, and 
surrounded with tassels. {Vtd Did of AtC 
art JEatB.) 2. The round Argolio shield, in the 
centre of which the head of Medusa likewise 
appears. 4. Objects sacred to her, such as au 
olive-branch, a serpent an owl, a cock, and a 
lance. Her garment is usually the Spartan 
tunic without sleeves, and over it she wears 
a cloak, the peplus, or, though rarely, the 

Athena ('AOnvai, also 'ABpvif in Homer : 'A^ 
valoct h 'XOifvala, AthSniensis: now Athens), the 
capital of Attica, about thirty stadia from the 
sea, on the southwest slope of Mount Lycabet- 
tus, between the small nvers Cepbisus on the 
west and Ilissus on the east the hitter of whirh 
flowed dose by the walls of the town. The 
most ancient part of it the Aeropolis, is said to 
have been built by the mythical Cecrops, but 
the city itself is said to have owed its origin to 
Theseus, who united the twelve independent 
states or townships of Attica into one state, ano 
made Athens their cajHtaL The city was burn- 
ed by Xerxes in B.G. 480, but was soon rebuilt 
under the administration of Themistodes, ana 
was adorned with public buildings by Oiraon 
and espedally by Perides^ in whose time ^B.O. 
460^29) it reached its greatest splendor. Its 
beauty was chiefly owing to its public buildings 
for the private houses were mostly insi'j^nificant. 
and its streets badly laid out Tx>ward the end 
of the Peloponnesian wf r, it eootaipcd Un i^ai 
DigitizedlttlVj OOQ IC 



■and houses (Xen., Mem^ iii^ 6, % 14). which, nt 
tb« rate of twelve inhabit nnts to a house, would 

S've a population of one hundred and twenty 
ousana, though some writers make the in- 
habitants as many as one hundred and eighty 
ihoujuind. Under the Romans Athens continued 
io be a great and flourishing city, and retained 
uaoy privileges and immumties when Southern 
'Qreeco was formed into the Roman province 
I of Achaia. It suffered greatly on its capture 
\by Sulla, B.C. 86, and was deprived of many 
of its privileges. It was at that time, and also 
during the early centuries of the Christian era, 
one of the chief seats of learning, and the 
Romans were accustomed to send their sons to 
Athens, a« to a University, for' the completion 
of their education. Hadrian, who was very 
partial to Athens, and frequently resided in the 
cit^ ^AD. 122, 128), adorned it with many new 
buildings, and his example was followed by 
Herodes Atticus, who spent large sums of mon- 
ey upon beautifying the city in the reign of M. 
Aurelius. Athens consisted of two distinct 

Sarto : I. The City (rd uarv), properly so called, 
ivided into, 1. Tlie Upper City or Acropolis (7 
&VO iToXiCf a/cpo7roX«f,), and, 2. The Lower City 
(j7 Kara TroAff), surrounded with walls by The- 
mifttoeles. 11. The three harbor-towns of Pi- 
nous, Munychia, and Phalerum, also surrounded 
with walls by Themistocles, and connected with 
the city b^ means of the long wallt {rd fiaxpd, 
• "^^'^Xn^ buiU under the administration of Per- 
iolesL The long walls consisted of the wall to 
Phalerum on the east^ thirty-five stadia long 
(about £our miles), and of the wall to Piraeus on 
the west, forty stadia long (about four and a 
half miles) ; between these two, at a short dis- 
tance from the latter and parallel to it, another 
wall was erected, thus makin? two walls leading 
to the Piraeus (sometimes called tH aKkXrf), with 
a narrow passage between them. There were, 
therefore, three long walls in all ; but the name 
of L<mg Waih seems to have been confined to 
the two leading to Uie Piraeus, while the one 
leading to PhalSrum was distinguished by the 
name of the Phalerian Wall (rd ^aXripiKdv rel- 
Xoc)' The entire circuit of the walls was one 
hundi^ed and seventy-four and a half stadia 
(nearly twenty-two miles), of which forty-three 
stadia (nearly five and a half miles) belonged to 
the city, seventy-five stadia (nine and a half 
miles) to the lon^ walls, and fifty-six and a half 
stadia (seven miles) to Piraeus, Munychia, and 
PhalSrum. — 1. TopoaRAPHT of the Aoropolib 
OK Upper Citt. The Acropolis, also called Ce- 
eropia, from its reputed founder, was a steep 
rocK in the middle of the city, about one hundred 
and fifty feet high, eleven hundred and fifty feet 
long, and fiv« hundred broad: its sides were 
naturally scarped on all sides except the west^ 
em end It was originally surrounded by an 
ancient Cvclopian wall, said to have been built 
by the Pelasgians ; at the time of the Pelopon- 1 
nesian war only the northern part of this wall I 
remained, and this portion was still called the j 
Pdasgic Wall ; while the southern part^ which j 
had been rebuilt by Cimon, was called the ^- 
montan WalL On the western end of the Acro- 
polis, where access is alone praotioable, were 
the magnificent Peoptlaa, 'the Entrances,'* 
built by Pericles, before the light wing of which 

was the small tenipk of N/k? 'A n-r f />.('• il» 
summit of the Acrapolis was covered with lem 
pies, statues of bronze and marble, and variow 
other works of art Of the temple^ the gnu* «- 
est was the Parthenon, saored to the ** Virgin'' 
goddess Athena (Minerva); and north of the 
Parthenon was the inagnificent Ereobthbum, coo- 
taining three separate temples, one of Athena 
Polias (IIo;Uaf), or the « Protectress oT the State* 
the Erechthiitm proper, or sanctuary of £rceh> 
theus, and the Pandroaiutny or sanctuary of 
Pandrosos, the daughter of Cecrops. Between 
the Parthenon and EreehthCum wab the colossal 
statue of Athena Promadios {UpofiaxiK), or the 
" Fighter in the Front," whose helmet and spea. 
was the first object on the Acropolis viaiUe 
from the sea. — 2. Topoorapht of the Lowm 
City. The lower city was built in the plain 
round the Acropolis, but the plain also con- 
tained several hills, especially in the southwest- 
em part. — Wall& The ancient walls embraced 
a much greater oirouit than the modem onea 
On the west they included the hill of the 
Nymphs and the Pnyx, on the south they er- 
tended a little bevond the Ilissus, and on the 
east they crossed the Ilissus, near the Lyceum, 
which was ojitside the walls. — Gates, llieir 
number is unknown, and the poeition of many of 
them is uncertain; but the following list con- 
tains the most important On the west side 
were, 1. Dipylum. (AtTrvXov, more anciently QpiOr 
aiat or Kepafuxaijt the most frequented gate of 
the city, leading from the inner Oeramicus tc 
the outer Ceramlcus, and to the Academy. — 2. 
The Sacred Oate (aljlepal IlrAai), where the sa- 
cred road to Eleusis beean. — 3. The Knight** 
Oate {fd *hT'Kd6eq fr.), probably between the hill 
of the Nymphs and the Pnyx! — 4. T'he Firttan 
Oate (7 UetpaiKi^ n-.), between the Pnyx and the 
Museum, leading to the carriage road (dfzd§iTog) 
between the Long Walls to the Piraeus. — 5. Tht 
Melitian Oate (ai ^eXiride^ rr.), so called because 
it led to tlie demus Melite, within the city. On 
the south side, going from west to east, — ft. The 
Oate of the Dead (ai 'H^tai tt.), in the neighbor^ 
hood of the Museum, placed by many authoii 
ties on the nortli side. — 7. The Jtotiian Oate {at 
'iTuviai rrX near the Ilissus, where the road to 
Phalerum began. On the east side, going from 
south to norui, — 8. I'he Gate of IHocharea {at 
Aioxtlpovc IT.), leading to the Lyceum. — 9. 71U 
DiomSan Oate (7 Aiofieia ir.), leading to Cyno- 
sai^es and the demus Diomea. On the north 
side, — 10. The Aehamian Oate (al *AxapviKai v,) 
leading to the demus Acharnaa. — Chixt Di» 
TRiora. The inner Ceramlcuti (Kepafieitcef), 01 
" Potter's Quarter" in the west of the city, ex 
tending north as far as the gate Dipylum, bv 
which it was separated from the outer Cerami 
cus ; the southern part of the inner Ceramicus 
contained the Agora (a/opo), or " market-place," 
the only one in the city (for there were nut two 
market pUees, as some suppose), lying south- 
west of the Acropolis, and between the Acrop- 
olis, the Areopagus, the Pnyx, and the Muse- 
um. The demus Melite^ south of the inner 
Ceramicus, and perhaps embracins the hill of 
the Museum, llie aemus Scambonidat west 
of the inner Ceramicus, between the Pnyx and 
the Hill of the Nymphs The CoUytva, south 
of Melile. CnUe, a district^uth of Xk>llYtui 
Digitized by VjOOQIC 



tfod the Museum, aloog the Ilissus, io which 
were the gnves of GimoD and Thaeydidea. ' 
ZimwuK, a district east of Melite and ColiytuB> 
betweeo the Acropolis and the Iliasufl. Diomea, 
» diatriet io the east of the city, near the gate 
%• the eame name and the Cyooearges. Affrcg, 
» district south of Diomea. — Uilxb. The Ariop- 
affU9 i'Apetov frdyoc or 'ApeiOf vdyoc), the « Hill 
oV Ares* (Mars), west of the Acropolis, which 
gnre its name to the celebrated ooudcU that 
held ita sittings there {M Diet, of Ant, 9, v.), 
was accessible on the south side by a flight of 
atepe cut out of the rock. The Hill of the 
Nympkty northwest of the Areopagus. The 
Pnjfx (IIvv^), a semicircular lull, southwest of I 
the Areopagus, where the assemblies of the 
people were held in earlier times, for afterward 
the people usually met in the Theatre of Diooy- , 
BUS (Baeebua) ( Vid, Diet, of Ant, p. 440, b, 2d 
ed.) Hie Mvaium, south of the Pnyz and the 
Areopagus, 00 which was the monument of 
Fhilopappus, and where the Blacedoniaus built a 
fortress. — SniEEm Of these we have little in- 
formation. We read of the Piraan Street, which 
led from the Pinean gate to the Agora ; of the 
Street of the Hermot, which ran along the Agora 
between the Stoa Basileos and Stoa PoBcil6; of 
the Street of the Tripode, on the east of the 
Acropolta, oc — Pdbuo Buildings. 1. TempUe, 
Of these the most important was the 0/ym- 
fiiym {^07MfncU$ov\ or Temple of the Olym- 
pian Zeus (JupiterX southeast of the Acropolis, 
near the Ilissus and the fountain Callirrhoe, 
which was long uulinished, and was firet com- 
pleted by Hadrian. Theeium {Qfiaelov\ or Tem- 
ple of llieseus, on a hill north of the Areopagus, 
now converted into the Museum of Athena. 
The Temple of Area {Marn)^ south of the Areop- 
agus and west of the Acropolis. JietrOum (Mij- 
Tp^ov), or temple of the mother of the gods, 
east of the Agora, and south of the Acropolis, 
near the Senate House, and the Odeum of He- 
rodes Atticua. Besides these, there was a yast 
number of other temples in all parts of the city. 
<^2. The Senate Jiofuae (fiovMtn^piov), at the 
south end of the Agora.— S. The Tholut (i^oAof X 
a round building dose to the Senate House, 
which served as the new Prytanfium, in which 
the Prytanes took their meals and offered their 
aaerificea. ( Vid. Did, of Ant e, v.)-4. Tlie 
Prytanium (UfiVTOvetov), at the northeastern 
foot of the Acropolis, where the Prytanes used 
more anciently to take their meals, and where 
the laws of Solon were preserved. — 6. Stocs 
{rrodi), or Halls, supported by pillars, and used 
as places of resort in the heat of the day, of 
which there were several in Athens. ( Vid, Diet, 
of Ant^ p. 944, 2d ed.) In the Agora tliere 
were three : the Stoa BadUoe (aroii fiaaiXeioc), 
eke court of the Kiug-Archon, on the west side 
of the Agora; the Stoa PoeciU (arock iroiKiXrf),Bo 
called b^use it was adorned with fresco paint- 
ings of the battle of Marathon and other aohieve- 
ments by Polygnotus, Lyoon, and others ; and the 
Stoa EUiitheriui {crod, AevBepioc)* or Hall of Zeus 
EHeulherina^ both on the south side of the Agonu — 
1 Theatree, TheThtaireof Dionj/eu${Baeehue\ 
on the southeastern slope of the Acropolis, was 
the great theatre of the state (vid Diet, of Ant. 
p. 11 SO, 2d ed); besides this there were three 
Odia {u&tla), for oootesta io vooal and instru- 

mental music {vid. Diet, of An I, s, v.), an as 
cient one near the fountain Callirrfao«\ a second 
built by Pericles, close to the theatre of Diony- 
sus (Bacchus), on the southeastern sloi)e of the 
Acropolis, anid a third built by Herodes Atticua^ 
in honor of his wife Regilla, on the southwestera 
slope of the Acropolis, of whieh there ai*o still 
oonsiderable remains. — 7. Stadium (rd lTd6iov\ 
south of the Ilissus, in the district Afraa.— S 
MoMMmenta. The Monument of Andronieus^ 
Cyrrhettee, formerlv called the Thwer of the 
Winds, an octagonal building north of the Aero* 

S>lis, still extant, was an horologium. {Vid 
iet, of Ant^ p. 616, 2d ed.) The Choragio Afon 
vment of Lystcratea, frequently but erroneously 
called the Lantern of Demosthenea, still extant, 
in the Street of the Tiipods. The Monvment of 
Harmodiua and Ariatoglton in the Agora, just 
before the ascent to the Acropolj8.--^UBuaBaL 
The Outer Ceram\e\u (<J Ha KaXovfievo^), north- 
west of the city, was the finest suburb of Athens : 
here were buried the Athenians who had fallen 
in war, and at the further end of it was the 
AoADKMiA, six stadia from the city. Cynoaargea 
(rd ¥iw6aapya^\ east of the city, before the gate 
Diomea, a gymnasium sacred to Hercules, 
where AntisSienes, the founder of the Cynio 
school, taught Lyclum (rd Avkslov), southeast 
of the Cynosaiges, a gymnasium sacred to 
Apollo LycSus, where Aristotle and the Peripar 
teties taught 

ArafiNiB {*kGfivat,\ now Atenah\ a sea-port 
town of Pontus, named from its temple of 
Athena (Minerva). 

Athsn^sum ('A^/v(uov), in general a temple of 
Athena, or any place consecrated to the gcxldesa 
The name was especially given to a school 
founded by the Emperor Hadrian at Borne about 
A.D. 138, for the promotion of literary and eci- 
entifio studies, it was in the neighborhood 
of the Forum, and at the foot of the Aventine 
HiU: it had a staff of professors paid by the 
government, and continued in repute till the fifth 
century of our era. ( FtdL Diet, of Ant , a. v.)— 
Athen^sum was also the name of a town in Ar- 
cadia, not far from Megalopolis, and of a place 
in Athamania in Epirus. 

Athxnaus ('Aft7v«oc). 1. A contemporary 
of Archimedes, the author of an extant work 
Hepl 'iirixovriitdTuv (oc warlike engines), ad- 
dressed to M^rcellus (probably the conqueror of 
Syracuse); printed in Thevenot's Mathematics 
Veteren, Pans, 1698. — 2. A learned Qreek gram- 
marian, of NaucraUs in Egypt lived about AJ). 
280, first at Alexandrea and afterward at Rome. 
His extant work is entitled the Deipnosophiata 
{Aeiirvoao^iaToi), i. tf., the Banquet of the Learned, 
in fifteen books, of which the first two bookai 
and parts of the Uiird, eleventh, and fifteenth, 
exist only io an Epitome. The work way be 
considered one of the earliest oollections of 
what are oalled Ana^ being an immense mass of 
anecdotes, extracts from Uie writings of poets 
historians, dramatists, philosophers, orators, and 
physicians, of facts in natural history, criticisms 
and discussions on almogt every conceivable sub 
ject especially on gastronomy. Atheuaeus r<) 
presents himself as describing to his friend li 
moorates a full account of the conversation at s 
banquet at B(/roe, at whidi Galen, tlie physician, 
and Ulpian, the jurist^ were among the guest* 



- EcCUiont : By Oasauboo, Oeney^ 1697 ; by 
i) «hwe]ghau8er, Argentorati, 1801-1807 ; and by 
W. Dindor^ Lips., 1827.— 3. A celebrated phy- 
•i^siaD, founder of the medical sect of the Paeu- 
tnatici, -was bom at Attalia Id Cilicia, and prao- 
tioed at Rome about A.D. 60. 

Athenag($sab {'XOtfvaySpacY an Athenian phi- 
losopher, converted to the Christian religion in 
Lhe second century of our era, is the author of 
two extant works, An Apology for Cliristiafis, 
addressed to the emperors M. Aurelius and his 
son Commodua, and a treatise in defence of the 
tenet of the resurrectioa— ^t<ton« ; By Fell, 
Ozon^ 1682; Rechenberg, Lips., 1684-86, De- 
chair, Oxon^ 1706. 

ATHENiis ('Adrpfotc), Sumamed Philotior' 
giu, wife of Ariobarzanes XL, king of Oappa- 
docia, and mother of Ariobarzanes III. — 2. 
Daughter of Leontius, afterward named £u- 


Athjknion ('AStfvlQv). 1. A Cilician, one of the 
commanders of the slaves in the second servile 
war in Sicily, maintained his ground for some 
time successfully, and defeated L. lidDius Ln- 
oullus, but was at length conquered and killed in 
B.C. 101 by the consul U\ Aquillius.— [2. A 
comic poet of Athens, of whose plays only one 
fra^ent has been preserved; it is printed in 
Memeke's Fragmenia Comic Orcte^ voL ii., p. 
X 166-6, edit minor. — 8. A painter, bom at Mar- 
ouea in Thrace. He was a pupil of Glaucion of 
Corinth, and gave promise of high excellence, 
but died young.] 

ATHfiN6D(>Rus {'XOfp^odupoc). 1. Of Tarsus, a 
Stoic philosopher sumamed Cordylio, was the 
keeper of the library at Pergamus, and after- 
wara removed to Rome, where he lived with M. 
Cato, at whose house he died. — 2. Of Tarsus, a 
Stoic philosopher, sumamed Cananiitftf from 
Cana in Cilicia, tlie birth-place of his father, 
whose name was Sandon. H.e was a pupU of 
Posidonius at Rhodes, and afterward taught at 
ApoUonia in Epirus, where the young O^vius 
flubsequently the Emperor Augustus) was one 
of his disciples. He accompamed the latter to 
Rome, and became one of his intimate friends 
and advisers. In his old age he retumed to 
Tarsus, where he died at the age of eighty-two. 
He was the author of several works, which are 
not extant — 8. A sculptor, the son and pupil of 
Agesander of Rhodes, whom he assisted in exe- 
euting the group of Laocooa Vid. Agbsandkr. 

Atbjcsis (now Adige or Ettch), rises in the 
R«tian Alps, receives the AtXoib (now JSiaach), 
flows through Up]>er Italy past Verona, and 
falls into the Adriatic by many mouths. 

Athm^vb ('ASfiovi, also 'kdfiovia and *A6fio- 
vov: *A$fiovevct i^^- *Adftovic), an Attic demus 
belonging to the tribe Cecropis, afterward to the 
tribe Attalis. 

Ath6b ('A^«c, also "A^:' : 'AOoirrfc : now 
ITaghion Oros, Monte Sanio^ i. e.. Holy Mountain), 
tl.e mountainous peninsula, also called Acte, 
which projects from Chalcidice in Macedonia. 
At the extremity of the peninsula the mountain 
rises abruptly from the sea to a height of 6849 
feet : there is no anchorage for ships at its base, 

Vid AGAMTHU& The isthmus is about on* and a 
half miles across ; and there are most distioc: 
traces of the canal to be seen in the present 
day ; so that we must not imitate the skepticisui; 
of Juvenal (x., 174)^ and of many modem writ 
ers, who refused to believe that the canal was 
ever cut The peninsula contained several flour- 
ishing cities in antiquity, and is now studded 
wiUi numerous mooastenee, cloisters, and diapels, 
whence it derives its modem name. In tnes« 
monasteries some valuable MSS. of ancient au- 
thors haye been discovered. 

AiRidfais ('AdpiBic), a city in the Delta of 
'Egypt ; capital of the Nomos Athribites. 

[Atdkulla ('AB^ov?,Xa: now Jathrib or Me- 
dina), a city of Arabia Felix, conquered by 
iBlius Gallus.] 
AtIa, mother of Auauann. 
AthIa or AtjluU Obnb, the principal mem- 
bers of which are given under their surnames, 
Calatinds^ Regulus, and Skrilanus. 

ATiucSxm, a Roman jurist, who probably 
lived about A J). 60, is referred to in the Digest 
AthIub. 1. L, one of the earliest of the Ro- 
Toan jurists who gave public instruction in law, 
probably lived about B.O. 100. He wrote com 
mentaries on the laws of the Twelve Tables. — 2 
M., one of the early Roman poets, wrote both 
tragedies and comedies^ but apparently a greater 
number of the latter than of the former. 

Atina (Atlnas, 4Ltis : now Atina), a town of 
the y olsci in Latium, afterward a Roman colony. 
AtditAmxs CATLVTuvec), an Epirot people m 
Ulyria, on the oorders of Macedonia : ttieir coun- 
tiy, Atintania, was reckoned part of Macedonia. 
Alius Varus.' Vid Vakub. 
Atlamticdm Maiue. Vid Ogxaitos. 
Ahamtib ('ArAovrtf, sc v^ffOf), according ir 
an ancient tradition, a great island west of the 
Pillars of Hercules in the Ocean, opposite Mount 
Atlas : it possessed a numerous population, and 
was adorned with every beauty ; its powerful 
princes inyaded Africa and Europe, but were 
defeated by the Athenians and their allies : itf 
inhabitants afterward became wicked and im- 
pious, and the island was in consequence swal- 
lowed up in the ocean in a day and a night 
This legend is given by Plato m the TltncgM 
and is said to have been related to Solon by the 
Egyptian priests. The Canary Islands, or the 
Azores, which perhaps were visited by the Pbcd* 
niciani), may have given rise to the legend ; but 
some modem writers regard it as indicative of a 
vague belief in antiquity in the existence of the 
western hemisphere. 

Atlas ('ArAof), son of lapetus and Clymene, 
and brother of Prometheus and Epimetheus 
He made war with the other Titans upon Jupi- 
ter (Zeus), and being conquered, was condemned 
to bear heaven on ms head and hands : accord 
ing to Homer, Atlas bears the Icag column 
which keep asunder heaven and earth. The 
myth seems to have arisen from the idea that 
lofty mountains support the heavens. Later 
traditions distort the original idea still more, by 
makiog Atlas a man who was metamorphosed 
into a mountain. Thus Ovid (Met,, iv., 625, 

and the voyage around it was so dreaded by seq.) relates that Perseus came to Atlas and 
mariners that Xerxes had a canal cut through asked for shelter, which was refused, whore- 
the isthmus, whidi connects the peninsula with I upon Peracus, by means of the head of Medusa 
the main land, to afford a passacre to his fleet ' chau};ed him iuto Mount AUafrou wbichi rested 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



with all its sUra. Others go Btill fur- 
ther, and represent Atlas as a powerful king, 
wlio po o B c s so d great knowledge o the courses 
of the stars, and who was the first who taueht 
men that hearen had the form of a globe. 
Hence the expression that heaven rested on his 
■booldera was regarded as a merely figurative 
mode of speaking. At first, the story of Atlas 
referred to one mountain only, which was be- 
lieTed to exist on the extreme boundary of the 
earth ; bat, as geographical knowledge extend- 
ed, the name of Alias was transferred to other 
places^ and thus we read of a Mauretanian, Ital- 
ian, Arcadian, and even of a Caucasian Atlas. 
The oommoo opinion, however, was, that the 
lieaTeii-bearing Atlas was in the northwest of 
Africa. See below. Athis was the father of 
the Pleiades by Pleione or by Hesperis ; of the 
Hjades and Hesperides by jfithra ; and of (Eno- 
maoB and Maia oy Sterope. Dione and Calyp- 
BOi, Hyaa and Hesperus, are likewise called his 
diildren. AUantUides^ a descendant of Atlas, es- 
pecially Mercury, his grandson by Maia (oomp. 
Mercuri faeunde nepoa Atlantit, Hor., Cann^ i^ 
10), and Hermaphroditus, eon of Mercury. At- 
lantiaM and Atlantis, a female descendant of At- 
las, especially the Pleiads and Hyads. 

Atlas Moxs (*ArXaj>: now Atlaa), was the 
general name of the great mountain range 
which covers the surface of nortliem Africa, 
between the Mediterranean and Oreat Desert 
(now Sahara\ on the north and south, and the 
Atlantic and the Lesser Syrtis on the west and 
east; the mountain diams southeast of the 
Leaser Sjrtis, though connected with the Atlas, 
do not properly belong to it, and were called 
by other names^ The northern and southern 
ranges of this system were distingnished by the 
names of Atlas Minos and Atlas Major, and 
a distiDCtion was made between the three re- 
gions into which they divided the country. Vxd, 
AiruGA, p. S8, a. 

Atossa ('Aro^rcra), daughter of Cyrus, and wife 
smoessively of her brother Cambyses, of Smer- 
dis the Magian, and of Dorins Hystaspis, over 
whom she possessed great influence, she bore 
Darius four sons, Xerxes, Masistes, Acliiemenes, 
and Hystaspes. 

Atsje or Hatra CArpaij tH 'Arpa : *ATpfjv6cy 
Atrgnos: now Hoar, southwest of Mosuf), a 
•trongly-fortified city on a hiffh mountain in Mes- 
apotunia, inhabited by people of the Arab race. 
SxicpaoNius, AniATiinm. 1. A^ consul B.C. 
49t and 491.-~2. L., consul 444 and censor' 
442. — 8. C, consul 423, fought unsuccessfully 
against the Yolscians, and was in oonsequence 
condemned to pa^ a heavy fine.-— 4. L., accused 
Marcos Celius Rnfns> whom Cicero defended, 
W B.C. 

Atrax ("ATpa^: 'Arpa/ctOf). 1. A town in 
Pelasjgiofis in Tbessaly, inhabited by the Per- 
riusbi, to called from the mythical Atrax, son of 
Peneoa and Bura, and fiither of Hippodamla and 
Canis. [It was famed for ita green marble, 
known by the name of Airaeiwn Marmor. — 
2; A Hnall river of Pelasgiotis in Tbessaly, a I 
•ribntary ofthe Peneus-J I 

ATaxsATES, a people in Gallia Belgica, in the 
modem Attots^ which is a corruption of their ! 
name. In Ciesar's time (B.C. 67) they num-| 
bo'd 15,000 warriors ; their capital was Nkme- I 

TOCENMA. Part of them crossed »ver to fintuo 
where they dwelt in the upp<r valley of th« 
Thames, Oxfordshire and Berkshire, 

Atrxub (*ATpev^\ sou of Pelops ani Hippo 
damla, grandson of Tantalus, and b ether of 
Thyestes and Nicippe. Vtd Pblofb. He was 
first married to Cleola, by whom he became the 
father of Plisthenes ; then to Adrope, the widow 
of his son Plisthenes, who was t£e mother of 
Agamemnon, Menelaus, and Anaxibia, either by 
Phsthenes or by Atreus (vt'dL AeAMxacNON) ; and 
lastly to Pelopia, the daughter of his brothel 
Thyestes. The tragic fate of the house of Tan 
talus aflbrded ample materials to tiie tragic 
poets of Greece, who r^ate the details in van* 
ous ways. In consequence of the murder of 
their half-brother Chrysippui, Atreus and Th^ 
estes were obliged to taxe to flight ; they were 
hospitably received at Mycenn; and, after the 
death of Eurystheus, Atreus became king of 
Mycenss. Thyestes seduced ASrope, the wife 
of Atreus, and was, in consequence, banished by 
his brother: from his place of exile he sent 
Plisthenes, the son of Atreus, whom he had 
brought up as his own child, in order to slay 
Atreus; but Plisthenes fell by the hands of 
Atreus, who did not know that he was his own 
son. In order to take revenge, Atreus, pretend- 
ing to be reconciled to Thyestes, recalled him 
to Mycen», killed his two sons, and placed their 
flesh before their father at a banquet, who un- 
wittingly partook of the horrid meal. Thyestes 
fled with horror, and the gods cursed Atreus 
and his house. The kingdom of Atreus was 
now visited by famine, and the oracle advised 
Atreus to call back Thyestes. Atreus, who 
went ont in search of him, came to King Thes- 
protus, and as he did not find him there, he mar- 
ried his third wife, Pelopia, the daughter of Iliy- 
estes, whom Atreus believed to be a daughter 
of Thesprotus. Pelopia was at the time with 
child by her own father. This child, JSgisthus, 
afterward slew Atreus, because the latter had 
commanded him to slay his own father Thy- 
estes. Vid. ^oisTHua. The treasury of Atreus 
and his sons at Mycenss, which is mentioned by 
Pausanias, is beheved by some to exist etill; 
but the ruins which remain are above eround, 
whereas Pausanias speaks of the buil<Sng as 
under g^und. 

AtrIa. Vid. Adria. 

Atrioxs ('Arpecdi7f), a descendant of Atrerj, 
especially Agamemnon and Menelaus. 

ATRdFATENfi (*ATpoiraTip»i\ or Media Atropa- 
tia ('ATporraria or -or Mi^cJto), the northwestern 
part of Media, adjaooni to Armenia, named aftet 
Atropfttes, a native of the country, who, havinff 
been made its governor by Alexiinder, founded 
there a kingdom, which long remained inde* 
pendent alike of tlie Seleucidie, the Parthians, 
and the Romans, but was at last subdued by the 

AtrofXtes {^kTponuTtfc\ a Persian satrapi 
fought at the battle of Gaugamela, B.C. 881, and 
after the death of Darius was made satrap of 
Media by Alexander. His daughter was mar> 
ried to Perdiccas in 824 ; and he received from 
his father-in-law, after Alexander's death, ths 
provmce of the Greater Media. In the north- 
west of the country, called after him, Media 
AtropatSne, he estaVished an indepcndeo* kirg 

Digitized by^OOgle 



iota, which coDtioued to exist dowo to the time i 
of the Emperor AnfifustuB. 

ATadpoft. Vid. MouiB. 

Atta, T. QuiNTiis, a Eoman oomic poet, died 
B.C. 78. His 8un>.ame Atta was given him 
from a defect in his feet, to which circumatauce 
Horace probably alludes {£v^ ii^ 1, 79). His 
playo were very popular, ana were acted even 
ID tho time of Augustus. [The fragments of 
AtU Are <y)lleoted by Bothe. Poet. Scenic, Lat^ 
?oL V, P. ii, p. 97-102; cf. Weichert, Port. 
LaL Meliguicej p 846.] 

A'lTAolNus (*XTTaytvoc\ son of Phrynon, a 
Theban, betrayed Thebes to Xerxes, B.G. 480. 
After the battle of PlatsHB (479) the other 
Greeks required Attaginus to be delivered up 
to them, but he made his escape. 

AttIua ('ArrdXeia, 'ArraAewTj/c or -aric)- — 
1. A city of Lydia, formerly called Agroira 
('Aypoeipa). — 2. TNow Ldara\ a city on the 
coast of Pamphyiia, near the mouth of the Riv- 
er Gatarrhactes, founded by Attains II. Phila* 
delphus, and subdued by the Romans under P. 
Servilius Isauiicus. 

Attalus ('ArraAoc). 1. A Macedonian, uncle 
of Cleopatra, whom Philip married in B.C. 887. 
At the nuptials of his niece, Attalus offered an 
insult to Alexander, und, on the accession of the 
latter, was put to death by his order in Asia 
Minor, whither Phihp had previously sent him 
to secure the Greek cities to his cause. — S. Son 
of Andromenes the Stymphiean, and one of 
Alexander's officui-s. After the death of Alex- 
ander (B.C. 828), he served under Perdiccas, 
whose sister, Atalante, ho had mamed ; and 
after the death of Perdiccas (8211 he joined Al- 
aetas, the brother of Perdiccas ; out their united 
forces were defeated in Pisidia by Antigonus 
in 820. — 8. Kings of Fergam%t8.--{1.) Son of 
Attains, a brother of Philetserus, succeeded his 
cousin, Eumenes I., and reigned B.C. 241-197. 
He took part with the Romans against Philip 
and the Achseans. He was a wise and just 
prince, and was distinguished by his patronage 
of literature.— (IL) Sumamed Philaddphut^ r^c- 
ond son of Attalus I, succeeded his brother Eu- 
menes IL, and reigned 159-188. Like his father, 
he ^as an ally of the Romans, and he also en- 
couraged the arts and sciences. — (III.) Sur- 
named Philometor, son of Eumenes IL, and 
Stratonice, succeeded his uncle Attains II., and 
reigned 188-188. He is known to us chiefly for 
the extravagance of his conduct and the murder 
of his relations and friends. In his will he 
made the Romans his heirs ; but his kingdom 
was claimed by Aristonicus. Vid, Aribtoni- 
CUB.-— 4. Roman emperor of the West, was 
raised to the throne by Alaric, but was deposed 
by the latter, after a rei^n of one year (A.D. 
409. 410), on account of bis actiug without Ala- 
ric's advice. — 5. A Stoic philosopher in the reign 
of Tiberius, was one of the teachera of the phi- 
losopher Seneca, who speaks of him in tlie 
higliest terms. 

ArrxottA, a tcwn in Hispania Bsetica, of un- 
certain site. 

Attbib or Anrs ('Ar^if or 'krriA, daughter 
of Cranaus, from whom Attica was believed to 
have derived its name. The two birds into 
which Philomels and her sister Procne were 
uictau orphosed were likewise called Attis. 

AnioA {fi *Attik^ sc >$), a division of Greece^ 
has the form of a triangle, two sides of which 
are washed by the iEgean Sea, while tlie third 
is separated from Bceotia on the north by the 
mountains Cithseron and Pames. Megaris» 
which bounds it on the northwest, was formerly 
a part of Attica. In ancient times it was called 
Aele and Actiee {'Akt^ and 'AKTiKij)^ or the 
"coasthmd" (vid. Acts), from which the later 
form Attica is said to have been derived ; bu^ 
according to traditions, it derived its name from 
Atthis, the daughter of the mythical kiug Cra- 
naus ; and it is not impossible that Alt-ica may 
contain the root Att or Atk^ which we find in 
Aithii and Athemr, Attica is divided by many 
ancient writers into three districts. 1. Tlu 
Highlands (17 dtapxia, also dpeiv^ 'Attiktj), the 
northeast of the country, containing the range 
of Pames and extending south to Sie Promon- 
tory Cynosura ; the only level part of this dis< 
trict was the small plain of Marathon opening 
to the sea. 2. The Plain (i^ Tredio^, rd Trcdtov), 
the northwest of the country, included both the 
plain round Athens and the plain round Eleusis, 
and extended south to the Promontory Zoster. 
8. The Sea-coast District {^ irapaXia), the south- 
ern part of the oountiT, terminating in the Prom- 
ontory Sunium. Besides these three divisions 
we aiso read of a fourth, l^ie Midland District 
{fuaoyaia), still called Mesogia^ an undulating 
plain in the middle of tlie country, bounded by 
Mount Pentelicus on the north. Mount Hymet- 
tus on the west, and the sea on the east The 
soil of Attica is not very fertile; the greater 
part of it is not adapted for growing com ; but it 
produces olives, figs, and grapes, especially the 
two former, in great perfection. The countiy 
is dry ; the chief river is the Cephisus, which 
rises m Pames and flows through the Atheuiau 
plain. The abundance of wild flowera iu tlie 
country made the honey of Mount Hyniettuf 
very celebrated in antiquity. Excellent marble 
was obtained from the quarries of Pentelicus, 
northeast of Athens, and a considerable supply 
of silver from the mines of Laurium, near Su- 
nium. The area of Attica, including the island 
of Salamis, which belonged to it, contained be- 
tween seven hundred and eight hundred square 
mDes; and its population in its flourishing pe- 
riod was probably about five hundred thousand, 
of which nearly four fifths were slaves. Attica 
is said to have been originally inhabited by Pe 
lasgians. Its most ancient political division 
was into twelve independent states, attributed 
to CsoEopa, who, according to some legends, 
came from Egypt Subsequently Ion, the grand- 
son of Hellen, divided the people into four tiibes, 
Geleontes, Hopletes, Argades and ^£gicores ; and 
Theseus, who united the twelve independent 
states of Attica into one political body, and 
made Athens the capital, again divided the na- 
tion into three chisses, the iupatrtdoB^ Gecmorit 
and Demiurgi. Clisthenes (B.C. 610) abolished 
the old tribes and created ten new ones, accord- 
ing to a geographical division: these tribes 
were subdivided into one hundred and seventy- 
four demi or townships. (For details, vid. DvcL 
of Antn art Taisus). 

AiTicus HxaoDxs, Tiaiaius Claud! 78, a cel- 
ebrated Greek rhetorician, bora about A.D. 104, 
At Marathon in Attica. He taught rhctonc b^Ui 



Bt AtfaeiM and at Rome, aud bis school was 
frcqueoted bj tbe moet distioffuiabed men of ' 
the age. Tbe future empeix>rs M. Aurelius and ' 
L. Veras were among bis pupils, and Antoui- : 
DU8 PiuB raised bim to tbe oousuUbip iu 148. 
He poflflOBoed immense wealth, a great part of ' 
wbieh be spent in embellisbing Athens. He 
died at the age of seventy-six, in 180. He 
wrote numerous works, none of which have 
eome down to us, with the exception of an ora- 
tion, entitled Uepl woXireiaCt the genuineness of 
which, however, is very doubtful It is printed 
in the collections of toe Qreek orators, and by 
Fiorillo, in HerodU AUiei qua supertufUf lips., 

AnlccB, T. PoMPONics, a Roman eques, bom 
at Rome B.G. 109. His proper name, after bis 
adoption by Q. Csacilius, tbe t>rother of his moth- 
er, was Q. Cecilius Pomponianus Atticus. His 
samame, Atticus, was given him on accouut 
of his long residence in Athens and his intimate 
acquaintance with the Greek language and lit- 
erature. He was educated along with L. Tor- 
quatua, the younger 0. Marius, and M. Cicero. 
Soon after the breaking out of the civil war be- 
tween Marius and Sulla, he resolved to take no 
part in the contest, and accordingly removed to 
Athens. During the remainder of liis life he 
kept aloof from all political affiurs, and thus 
lived on the most intimate terms with tbe most 
distinguished men of all parties. He was equal- 
ly the friend of Caesar aud Pompey, of Brutus 
and Cassius, of Antony aud Augustus : but bis 
most intimate friend was Cicero, whose cor- 
respondence with him, begiooing in 68 and con- 
tinued down to Cicero's death, is one of the 
most valuable remains of antiquity. He pur- 
diased an estate at Buthrotum in Epirus, in 
whidi place, as well as at Athens and Rome, he 
■pent the greater part of bis time, engaged 
in literary pursuits and commercial undertak- 
ings. He died in 82, at the age of 77, of volun- 
tary starvation, when he found that be was at- 
tacked bv an incurable illness. His wife Pilia, 
to whom ne was married in 56, when be was fifty- 
three years of age, bore him only one child, a 
daughter, Pomponia or Cscilia, whom Cicero 
sometimes calls Attica and Atticula. She was 
married in the life-time of her father to M. Vip- 
nnius Agrippa. The sister of Atticus, Pom- 
ponia, was married to Q. Cicero, the brother of 
tbe orator. The life of Atticus by Cornelius 
Kepos is to be regarded rather as a panegyric 
upon an intimate friend, than, strictly speaking, 
a biography. In philosophy Atticus belonged 
to the Epicurean sect He was thoroughly ao- 
quainted with the whole circle of Qreek and 
Roman hterature. So high an opmion was en- 
tertained of his taste and critical acumen, that 
many of his friends, especially Cicero, were ac- 
customed to send him their works for revision 
and correction. None of his own writings have 
•ome down to us. 

Amuk (AmjACf or 'ATTtXof, German Sizel, 
Hungarian EtheU\ king of the Huns, attained 
tn A.D. 484, with his brother Bleda (in German 
Bidder^ to the sovereignty of all the northern 
tribes between the frontier of Gaul and the fron- 
tier of China, aud to the command of an army 
of at least five hundred thousand barbarians. 
\l^ ^adually concentrated upon himself the 

awe and fear of tbe whole ancient woi Id. whick 
ultimately expressed itself by affixing to liii 
name the well-known epithet of "the ^coargc 
of God." His career divides itself into two 
parts. The first (AJD. 446-450) consists of tlie 
ravage of the Eastern empire between the Eux- 
ine and the Adriatic and the negotiatiocs with 
Theodosius II., which followed upon it They 
were ended by a treaty, which ceded to Attila a 
large territory south of the Danube aud an an- 
nuaJ tribute. The second part of bis career was 
the invasion of the Western empire (460-452) 
He crossed the Rhine at Strassburg, but was 
defeated at Chalons by Aetius, and Theodorio, 
king of the Visigoths, in 451. He then crosa- 
ed the Alps, and took Aquileia in 462, after a 
siege of tkree months, but he did not attack 
Rome, in consequence, it is said, of his inter- 
view with Pope Leo the Great He recrossed 
the Alps toward the end of the year, and died 
in 453, on the night of his marriage with a beau- 
tiful girl, variously named Hilda, Ildico, Mycolth, 
by the bursting of a blood-vessel. In person 
Attila was, like the Mongolian race in general, a 
short, thick-set man, of stately gait, wiUi a large 
head, dark complexion, flat nose, thin beard, and 
bald with the exception of a few white hairs, his 
eyes small, but of great brilliancy and quickness 

AxTiLius. Vid, Atiuus. 

Airiua. Vid, Aooius. 

AiTius or Attus Navius. Vid. Naviis. 

Arrius Tuuius. Vid Tuliius. 

[Arm CLAUsca Vid Arf lus Claudiue ) 

AtCkia ('Arovptal Vid Asstbia. 

Art^aus (now Adour\ a river in Aquitanii^ 
rises in the Pyrenees, and flows through the ter- 
ritory of the Tarbelli into the ocean. 

Attmmius ('Arv/ivtof or 'krvfivog), 1. Son of 
Jupiter (Zeus) and Cassiopda, a beautiful boy, 
beloved by Sarpedoa Others call him son of 
Phoenix. — [2. Son of the Lycian king Amisoda- 
rua, came as an ally of the Trojans to the war, 
was slain by Nestor.] 

Atts, Attys, Attks, Ams, or Attin ('Arw 
'AT-rvf, 'Arn/f, 'Arrif, or 'Arnv). 1. Son oi 
Nana, and a beautiful shepherd of the Phrygian 
town Celasoie. He was beloved by Cybele, but 
as he proved unfaithful to her, he was thrown 
by her into a state of madness, in which he un« 
manned bimseU. Cybele thereupon changed him 
into a fir-tree, which henceforth became sacred 
to her, and she commanded that, in future, her 
priests should be eunuchs. Such is the accouut 
m Ovid (Fa»t^ iv., 221), but his story is related 
differentiy by other writers. At^s was worship- 
ped in the temples of Cybele m common with 
this goddess. His worship appears to have been 
introduced into Greece at a comparatively late 
period. It is probable that the my thus of Atvs 
represents the twofold character of nature, the 
male and female concentrated in one. — 2. 3od 
of Manes, king of the Mieonians, from wl.oss 
son Lydus, his son and successor, tbe Msoni* 
ans were afterward called Lydians. — 8. A Ijatia 
chief^ son of Alba, and father of Capys, from 
whom the Atia Gens derived its origin, and from 
whom Augustus was believed to be descended om 
his mother's side. — 4. Son of Crcesus, slain by 

[AucH^TiS (Ai;^;ara<), a Scythian j^ople at 
the sources of the Hypauis (vnm^Bog).\ | 

Digitized by LiOOgle 



AvtIlAsa ^AaBdeoas, -&tia: now Alfidma), a 
town io Samoium, oa the River Sa^ruB. 

/LUFiDiDs. 1. Ox., a learned historiaD, cele- 
brated by Cicero for the equaaimitj with which 
he bore bliodness, was quaestor B.G. 119, tribu- 
Qui plebie 114, and fiDally prastor 10&— 2 T^ a 
furiet, qua?8tor B.C. 86, and afterward propraBtor 
ui Alia. — 3. Bassc& Vid. Bassus. — 4. Luboo. 
Fia. LuROo. — 6. Orestes. Vid. Obesteb. 

AunDua (now 0/afUo)f the pHucipal river of 
\pulia, rises in the Apennines, in the temtory 
>f the Hirpint in Samnium, flows at first with 
i rapid current (heoee violent and octfr, Hor., 
Carm^ iii., SO, 10 ; Sat., U l* 68)> &Qd then more 
•lowly {st€Ufna Aufida, Sil. ItaL, ^^ I'fl) into the 
Adriafti& Venusia, the birth-place ot Horace, 
was on the Aufidus. 

AuoXeus. Vid, AcBARUS. 

AuoE or Auq!a {Kiyri or kiyeia), daughter of 
Aleus and Keaera, was a priestess of Athena 
(Minerva), and mother by Hercules of Telephus. 
She afterward married Teuthras, king of the 

Aug4as or AugIas {klr/ka^ or k{rfeia^\ son 
of Phorbas or Heh'os (the Sun), and king of the 
Epeans in Elis. He had a herd of three thou- 
sand oxen, whose stalls bad not been cleansed 
for thirty years. It was one of the labors im 
posed upon Hercules by Eurystlieua to cleanse 
these sUills in one day. As a reward the hero 
was to receive the tenth pai-t of the oxen ; but 
when he hud accomplished his task by leading 
the rivers Alpheus and Peneus through the sta- 
bles, Augeas refused to keep his promise. Her- 
cules thereupon killed him and his sons, with 
the exception of Phyleus, who was placed on 
the throne of his father. Another traaition rep- 
resents Augeas as dying a natural death at an 
advanced oge, and as receiving hei*oic honors 
from Oxylua 

[AuoEas (A^fof), a Grecian comic poet of 
the middle comedy at Athens: of his plays 
only a few titles remain. For the Cyclic poet 
whose name is sometimes thus given, vid Aoi- 


[AuGiA ikiyeiat)^ name of two cities men- 
tioned in tlie Biad ; one was in Laconia, the 
other in Locria] 

AuqIla (rd kfryika : now Aujilah), an oasis 
in the Great Desert of Africa, about three and 
« half degrees south of Cyreue, and ten days' 
journey west of the Oasis of Ammon, abound- 
ing in date palms, to gather tlie fruit of which 
a tribe of the Nasaraones, called Augilsp (A^- 
yVML\ resorted to the Oasis, which at other 
times was uninhabited. 

AuGVBiNUs, GENudfus. 1. T., consul RC. 451, 
and a member of the first decemvirate in the 
same year^ — 2. M., brother of the preceding, con- 
sul 445. 

AcgurIntts, MiNVcfuB. 1. M., consul B.C. 
497 and 491. He took an active part in the de- 
fence of Coriolanu9, who was brought to trial 
in 491, but was unable to obtain his acquittal 
~2. L., consul 468, carried on war against the 
^uians, and was surrounded by the enemy on 
Mount Algidu'', but was delivered by the dicta- 
kir CincinnatQS. — 8. L, was appointed prefect 
)f the corn-market (jprcp/eetu* annona) 489, as 
she people were suffering lh>m grievous famine. 
rho ferment occasioned by the as.«*««sination I 

> 0. S\\ Mashus in this year was appeased {ty An 
I gurinns, who is said to have gor«e over to the 
, plebs from the patricians, arid to have beeo 
chosen by the tribunes one of their body. Ai> 
gurinus lowered the price of com in three mark 
et days, fixing as the maximum an a< for a mo 
dius. The people, in their gratitude, presented 
I him with an ox naving its horns gilt^ and erect- 
ed a statue to his honor outside the Porta Tri- 
' geniina, for which every body subscribed an ounce 
of brasSb 

Augusta, the name of several towns founded 
or colonized by Augustus. 1. A. Asruaioi. 
Vid, AsTUBES — 2. A. Emebita (now Merida\ Io 
I Lusitania, on the Anas (now Ouadiana)^ colo- 
nized by Augustus with the veterans (emeriti 
of the fifth and tenth legions, was a place or 
considerable importance. — 3. A. Fjrxa. Vid. 
AsnQV—A. A. raJETOBiA (now Aoita [contract- 
ed from Augu9ta\ a town of the Salassi in Up- 
per Italy, at the foot of the Graian and Pennine 
Alps, colonized by Augustus with soldiers of 
the prastorian cohorts. The modem town still 
contains man^ Roman remains, the most im- 
portant of which are the town gates and a tri- 
umphal arch. — 5. A. Raubaoobum (now Augst)^ 
the capital of the Rauraci, colonized by Munatius 
Plancus under Augustus, was on the left of the 
Rhine near the m<xiem BasU: the ruins of a Ro* 
man amphitheatre are still to be seen. — 6. A. Sv- 
E8S0NUM (now /SotMOfu), the capital of the Sues* 
soues in Gallia Beigica, probably the NoviodQ- 
num of Cassar. — 7. A. TAURmoauM (now Turin\ 
more anciently called ToMratia^ the capital 'of 
the Taurini on the Po, was an important town 
in the time of Hannibal, and was colonized by 
Augustus. — 8. A. Tbevibobuv. Vid, TbevibI 
— 9. Tbicastinobum (now Aouste), the capital 
of the Tricastini in Gallia Narbonensis. — 10. A 
yufDiiiooBUic (now Aug8burg\ capital of Vin- 
delicia or Raetia Secunda on the Licus (now 
Leeh)y colonized by Drusus under Augustus, after 
the conquest of VLbuXavl, about B.C. 14. 

AuousTiNus, AuBEiius, usually called St 
AuouBTiNB, the most illustrious of the Latin 
fathers, was bom A.D. 854, at Tagaste, an in- 
land town in Numidia. His mother was a sin- 
cere Christian, who exerted herself in training 
up her son in the practice of piety, but for a long 
time without effect He studied rhetoric at 
Carthage, where he embraced the Mauichaaar 
heresy, to which he adhered for nine years 
He afterward became a teacher of rhetoric at 
Carthage, but in 888 he went to Italy, and in 
Milan was led by the preaching and conversa- 
tion of Ambrose to abandon his Mauichaean e^ 
rors and embrace Christianity. He was bap- 
tised by Ambrose in 887, and then returned to 
Africa, where he passed the next three years 
in seclusion, devoting himself to religious ex- 
ercises. In 891 he was ordained a priest by 
Valerius, then bishop of Hippo, and m 895 lie 
was consecrated bishop of Hippo. His history 
from the time of his elevation to the see of Hip- 
po, is so closely implicated with the Docatistio 
s od Pelagian controversy, that it would be im- 
practicable to pursue its details witldn our lim- 
its. He died at Hippo in 480, when the city 
was besieged by the VaudalSb Of his numerous 
works the two meet interesting are, 1. His Con- 
fetfiont, in thirteen books, written in 891, coo- 




; on account of bis early life- 2. De Civi- 
taU Jki, io twenty-two books, cotmneoced about 
413, ODcl not finished before 426. The firat ten 
books oootain a refutatioD of the various sys- 
tems of false religioD, the last twelve present a 
systematic view of the true reUgioD. The best 
edition of the collected works ^f Augustine is 
the BeDedictine, 11 vols, fo^ I wis, 1679-1700: 
[tills valuable edition was reprinted at Paris, in 
II vols, imperial 8 vo., 1836-39. 

Ao«i»roBdKA (now 2h>yes\ afteriiard called 
^Heasam, the capital of the Tricasii or Tricasses, 
in Gallia Lofdunensis. 


AcGU8Tt^i.U8,Rox6LC8, lost Romau emperor of 
the Westt was placed upon the throne by his fa- 
ther Orestes (AJ>. 475), after the latter had de- 
posed the Enrperor Jnlius Nepos. In 476 Ores- 
tes was defeated by Odoacer and put to death : 
Bomulus Augustulus was allowea to live, but 
was deprived of the sovereignty. 

Augustus, the first Roman emperor, was bom 
dO the 23d of September, RC. 63, and was the 
son of C. Octav us by Atia, a daughter of Ju- 
lia, the sister of C. Julius Caesar. His original 
uame was O. Odamtigf and, after his adoption 
by his great-uncle, G. JuLiua Cauar OctavianuSf 
but for the sake of brevity we shall caU him 
Ai^gustus, though this was only a title given 
aim by the senate and the people in B.C. 27, to 
express their veneration for him. Augustus 
lost his lather at four years of age, but his edu- 
eaticm was conducted with great care by his 
grandmother Julia, and by his mother aud step- 
uther, L. Harcius PhiUppus, whom his mother 
married soon after his father's death. C. Julius 
Gesar,^ who had no male issue, also watched 
over his education with solicitude. He joined 
his ojide in Spain in 45. in the campaign against 
tiie sons of Pompey, and in the course of the 
same year was sent by Garaar to Apollonia in 
niyricum, where some l^oi» were stationed, 
thai he might acquire a more thorough practical 
b«ining in militaiy affiurs, and. at tLe jame time, 
prosecute his studies. He was at Axiilionia 
when the news reached him of his uncles incur- 
der at Rome m March, 44, and he forthwith set 
oat for Italy, accompanied by Agrippa and a few 
other friendSb On landing near firddisium at 
the beginning of April, he neard that Oesar had 
adopted him in hib testament and made him his 
heir. He now assumed the name of C«Bsar, 
and was so saluted by the troops. On reachinff 
Borne about the b^^innii^ of Hay, he demanded 
nothing but the pnvate property which Oesar 
had left him, but dedarea that he was resolved 
to avenge the murder of his benefactor. The 
state of parties at Rome was most perplexing ; 
and one can not bat admire the extraordinary 
iacL and prudence which Augustus displayeo, 
ana t^ skill with which a youth of scarcely 
Mrfinty contrived to blind the most experienced 
^ryumea in Rome, and eventoally to carry all 
Im designs iLto effect Angostus had to con- 
tend .against the republican party ^as well as 
against Antony ; for the hitter foresaw that Au- 
ffostoB would stand in the way of hb views, and 
had therefore atremptcd, though without suc- 
t«w, to prevent ^up^ustj^q from accoptkig the 

iuheritance which his uncle had left hun. An 
gustus, therefore, resolved to crush Antony first 
as the more dangerous of his two ensmies, anc 
accoixlingly made overtures to the rcpublieaL 
party. These were so well received, cspeciallj 
when two legions went over to him, that the 
senate conferred upon him the title of prator. 
and sent him, with the two consuls of the year, 
0. Yibius Ponsa and A Hirtius, to attack An 
tony, who was besieging D. Brutus in Mutina 
Antony was defeated and obliged to fly acroa 
the Alps; and the death of the two consuh 
gave Augustus the command of all their troops 
The Senate now became alarmed, and determ- 
ined to prevent Augustus from acquiring fur 
ther power. But he soon showed that he did 
not intend to become the senate's servant Sup 

Sorted by his troops, he marched upon Rome and 
emonded the consul^p, which the terrifieo 
senate was obliged to give him. He was elect 
ed to the office along with Q. Pedius, and tht 
murderers of the dictator were outlawed. Hi 
now marched into the north of Italy, profess 
edly against Antony, who had been jomed by 
Lepidus, and who was descending from the Alps 
along with the latter at the h^ of seventeen 
legions. Augustus and Antony now became 
reconciled ; and it was agreed that the empire 
should be divided between Augustus, Antony, 
and Lepidus, under the title of triwnviri rei 
publiccB canaiitiiigTida, and that this arraogement 
should lost for the next Ave years. They pub- 
lished a jprotcriptiOf or list of'^ all their enemies, 
whose hves were to be sacrificed and their 
property confiscated : upward of two thousand 
equities and three hundred senators were put to 
death. Among whom was Cicero. Soon oftei^ 
ward Augustus and Antony crossed over to 
Greece, and defeated Brutus and Cassius at ths 
dicisive battle of Philippi in 42, by which the 
hopes of the republican party were ruined. The 
triumvirs thereupon made a new division of the 
provinces. Lepidus obtained Afiica, and Au- 
gustus returned to Italy to reward his veterans 
with the lands he had promised them. Here a 
new war awaited him (41), excited by Fulvia. 
the wife of Antony. She was supported b^ L 
Antonius, the consul and brother of the trium- 
vir, who threw himself into the fortified town of 
Pcrjsia, which Augustus succeeded in taking 
in 40. Antony now made preparations for war. 
but the opportune death o/ Fulvia led to a rec- 
onciliation between the triumvirs^ who con- 
cluded a peace at Brundisium. A new division 
of the provinces was again made: Augustus 
obtained all the parts of the empire west of the 
town of Scodra m Dlvricum, and Antony the 
eastern provinces^ while Italy was to belong to 
them in oommoa Antony married Octavia, the 
sister of Augustus, in oraer to cement their al 
lianoe. In 89 Augustus concluded a peece with 
Sextus Pompey, whose fleet gave him the com 
mand of the sea, and enabled him to prevent 
com from reaching Rome. But this peace wai 
only transitory. As long as Pompey was inde 
pendent^ Augustus could not hope to obtain thf 
dominion of the West^ and he therefore eagerly 
availed himself of the pretext that Pompey at 
lowed piracy to go on m the Mediterranean for 
the puipgse of declaring war against him. Li 
36 tne contest came to a final usae. The fU«4 
Digitized 1^5ljO( 



•f AugustiWi under the command of Marcus 
Agrippa, gained a decisive victory over that of 
Pompey, who abandoned Sicily and fled to Asia. 
LepiduB, who had landed in Sicily to support Au- 
i^tus, was im{>atient of the subordinate port 
which he had hitherto played, and claimed the 
island for himself; but he was easily subdued 
by Augustus, stripped of his power, and sent to 
Rome, where he resided for the remainder of 
his life, bein^ allowed to retain the dignity of 
pontifez maximus. In 85 and 84 Augustus was 
engaged in war with the Blyrians and Dalma- 
tians. Meantime, Antony had repudiated Oo- 
tavia, and had alienated the minds of the Ro- 
man people by his arbitrary and arrogant pro- 
ceedings m the East Augustus found that the 
Romans were quite prepnr^ to desert his rival, 
and accordingly, in 82, iht» senate declared war 
against Cleopatra, for Antony was looked upon 
only as her infatuated slave. The remainder 
of the year was occupied by preparations for 
war on both sides, in the sprins of 81, Au- 
gustus passed over to Epirus, and in Sepl^em- 
ber in the same year his fleet gained a bril- 
liant victorjr over Antony's near tlie promontory 
of Actium in Acamania. In the folfowing year 
(80) Augustus sailed to Ejgypt Antony and 
Oleopatra, who had escaped m safety from Ac- 
tium, put an end to their lives to avoid falling 
into the hands of the conqueror ; and Augustus I 
nov; became the imdisputed master of the Ro- 
man world. He returned to Rome in 20, and 
after restoring order in all parts of the govern- 
ment, he proposed in the senate to lay down his 
powers^ but pretended to be prevailed upon to 
cmain at the head of aSairs tor ten years long- 
er. This plan was afterward repeated several 
times, and he apparently alloweci himself to be 
always persuaded to retain his power either for 
ten or five years more. He declined all honors 
and dietmctions which were calculated to re- 
mind the Romans of kingly power ; but he ac- 
3epted in 38 the imperium nrocoruulare and the 
tnbunitia potestas for life, by which his inviola- 
bility was legally established, while by the impe- 
rium proconsulare he became tlie nighcst au- 
thority in all the Roman provinces. On the 
death of Lepidus in 12 he became pontifez max- 
imus ; but, though he had thus united in his own 
person all the great offices of state, vet he was 
too prudent to show to the Romans oy any dis- 
play of authority that he was the soie master. 
He had no ministers, in our sense of the word ; 
but on state matters, which he did not choose to 
be discussed in public, he consulted his per^ 
Bonal friends^ 0. Cilnius Mtecenas, M. Yipsanius 
AgTippa, M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, and 
A^nius Pollio. The people retained their re- 

imblican privileges, tnough they were more 
brms : they still met in their assemblies, and 
elected consuls and other magistrates, but only 
•uch persons were elected as had been propos- 
ed or recommended by the emperor. The al- 
most uninterrupted festivities, games, distribn- 
tioM of com, and the like, made' the people for- 
get tlie substance of their republican freedom, 
and obey contentedly their new ruler. The 
wars of Augustus were not aggressive, but were 
ehiefly undertaken to protect the frontiers of 
the Roman dominions. Most of them*were car- 
rie<] OD by his relations and friends, but he con- 

ducted some of them in Dersoa Thus, in ST. 
he attacked the warlike Cantabri and Asturet 
in Spain, whose subjugation, however, was not 
completed till 19, by .^^ppa. In 21 Augustus • 
travelled through Sicily and Greece^, and spent 
the winter folbwing at Samos. Next yeur 
(20) he went to Svria, where he received frmc 
Phraates, the Paraian monarch, tue standards 
and prisoners which had been taken from Oraa- 
sua and Antony. In 16 the Romans sulfered u 
defeat on the Lower Rhine by some German 
tribes; whereupon Augustus went himself to 
Gaul, and spent four years there, to regulate 
the government of that province, and to make 
the necessary preparations for defending it 
against the Germans. In 9 he again went to 
Gaul, where he received German ambassadors, 
who sued for peace; and from this time for- 
ward, he does not appear to have again taken 
any active part in the wars that were carried 
on. Those in Germany were the most formid- 
able, and lasted longer than the reign of Augus- 
tus. He died at Nola, on the 29th of August 
AJ). 14, at the age of seventy-six. Augustus 
was first married, though only nominally, to 
Clodia, a daughter of Clodius and Fulvia. His 
second wife, Scribonia, bore him his only daugh- 
ter, Julia. His third wife was Livia BnisiUa, 
the wife of Tiberius Nero. Augustus had at 
first fixed on M. Marcellus as his successor, the 
son of his sister Octavia, who was married to 
his daughter Julia. After his death Julia was 
married to Agrippa, and her two sons, Caiuf 
and Lucius CiBSor, were now destined by Avt 
gustus as his successors. On the death of thes^ 
two youths, Augustus was persuaded to adopt 
Tiberius, the son of Livia, and to make him tah 
colleague and successor. Vtd. Tibebiub. 

AuLERCX, a powerful Gallic people dwelling 
between the Sequana f now Seine) and the Liger 
(now Loire), were diviaed into three great tribes. 
1. A. Ebdeovices, near the coast, on the left 
bank of the Seine, in the modem Normandy : 
their capital was Mediolanum, afterward called 
Eburovices (now Evreux). — 2. A. Cknomant, 
southwest of the preceding, near the Liger; 
their capital was Subdinnum (now le Mans). At 
an early period some of the Cenomani crossed 
the Alps and settled in Upper Italy.^3. A. Baxif- 
NovicES, east of the Cenomani, near the iEdui, 
whose clielts they were. The JHablintea men- 
tioned by Caesar are said by Ptolemy to have 
been likewise a branch of the Aulerci. 

[AvLESTES, a Tyrrhenian, an ally of iEneaSi 
slam by Messapus.] 

AuLis (A^>ic)i & harbor in Boeotia, on tlie Eu- 
ripus, where the Greek fleet assembled before 
BoiUng against Troy : it had a temple of Artemis 

AuLON (ki%6vi KijT^JviTrii), 1. A district 
and town on the borders of Elis and Messenia, 
with a temple of iEsculapius, who hence had 
the surname Aulonitu. — 2. A town in Oioicid- 
ice in Macedonia, on the Strymonic Gun.-«3- 
(Now JI£elone\ a fertile valley near Tart^nr; rai, 
celebrated for its wine {amieus AulotifffiiU 
Baeeho; Hor^ CarvLf il, 6, 18.)— [4. llKuai 
(A^Ac^v 6 paaLhx6i\ a valley of Syria, not far 
from Damascus. — 6. The vaUey of the Jordan, 
extending from the Sea of Gkuilee, and indud 
ing the De«d S«& thp southern pnTk of il 



IB the fertile plain of Jericho^ — 6. Ciliciuf, the 
ttrait between Cyprus and the ooast of Cilieia.] 

[AuLus Geluus. Vid. OxLura.] 

AuKANins (AirpavlTtc: now Bauran), a dis- 
trict Booth of Damascus and east of Iturea and 
B atanca, on the eastern side of the Jordan, be* 
longing either to Palestine or to Arabia. 

AjoAjl OHXBSONtsus {ff Xovo^ Xepo6vfj<Toc)y 
Uie name given by the late geographers to the 
Mclay P«ntiUM/a, [or, as others maintain, to the 
<outhem part of feou^ They also mention an 
Aurea Regio beyooa tlie Qanges, which is sup- 
posed to be the country round Awi. 

AoaiiiA, the wife of C. Julius Ciesar, by whom 
she became the mother of G. Julius Ciesar, the 
^etator, and of two daughters. She carefully 
watched over the education of her children, and 
always took a liyely interest in the sueoess of 
her son. She died in B.C. 54, while CoBsar was 
io Ganl. 

AuaftLiA Ojens, plebeian, of which the most 
important members are given under theur family 
names, Cotta, Okbtis, and Soaueub. 

AuaftLiA Oekstilla, a beautiful but profligate 
woman, whom Catiline married. As Aurelia at 
first refused to marry him because he had a 
grown-up BOQ bv a former marriage, Catiline is 
said to have kiiled his own ofispriug in order to 
remove this impediment to their union. 

AuafiiiA Via, the great coast road firom Rome 
to Transalpine Gaul, at first extended no further 
than Pita, but was afterward continued along 
ihe coast to Genua and Forum Jtdii in GauL 

AmsLiANi. Vid. Genabuk. 

AuaftiilNUS, Roman emperor, A.D. 270-276, 
^JTBH bom about A.D. 212, at Sirmium, in Pan- 
oomik He entered the army as a common sol- 
dier, and by bis extraordinary bravery was rais- 
ed to offices of trust and honor by Valerian and 
Clandios II. On the death of the latter, he was 
elected emperor by the legions at Sirmium. His 
rei^n presents a succession of brilliant exploits, 
which restored for a while their ancient lustre 
to the arms of Rome. He first defeated the 
Goths and Vandals, who had crossed the Dan- 
ube, and were ravaging Pannonia. He next 
gained a great victory over the Alemanui and 
other German tribes: but they succeeded, not- 
withstanding, in crossing the Alps. Near Pla- 
eentia they defeated Sie Romans, but were 
eventually overcome by Aurelian in two deci- 
sive engagements in Umbria. After crushing 
a fonniaable oonspiraoy at Rome, Aurelian next 
turned his arms against Zenobia, queen of Pal- 
my^^ whom he defeated, took prisoner, and 
carried with him to Rome. Vid. Zekobia. On 
his return he marched toAlexandrea and put 
Firmus to death, who bad assumed the title of 
emperor. He then proceeded to tlie West, 
where Gaul, Britain, and Spain were still in the 
hands of Tetricus, who had been declared em- 
peror a short time before the death of Gallienus. 
Tetricus surrendered to Aurelian in a battle 
fought near Chalona Vid Tctriccs. The em- 
peror now devoted his attention to domestic im- 
provements and reforms. Many works of public 
ntilitv were commenced: the most important 
of all was the erection of a new line of strongly 
fortified walls, embracing a much more ample 
sircuit than the old ones, which had long sbce 
WsB irio ruin; but this vast plan was not 

completed until the rei|^ of Probus. Aftci t 
short residence in the city, Aurelian visited tht 
provinces on the Danube. He now entirely 
abandoned Dacia, which had been firat con- 
quered by Trajan, and made the southern bank 
of the Danube, as in the time of Augustus, the 
boundary of the empire. A large force was now 
collected in Thraee in preparation for an expA 
dition against the Persians ; but while the em 
peror was on the march between Heraclea and 
Bvzantium, he was killed by some of his ofiicera 
They had been induced to conspire against him 
by a certain Mneetheus, the freedman of the em 
peror and his private secretary, who had betray 
ed his trust, and, fearful of punishment had, by 
means of forged documents, organized the con- 

AuatiilNUS) C^iius or CoelIub, a very cel- 
ebrated Latin physician, was a native of Nu- 
midia, and probably lived in the fourth century 
after Christ Of his writings we possess three 
books On AcuU JHseaaes, ** Oelerum Passionum" 
(or "De Morbis Acntis"! and five books On 
Chronic Diaeaaesj "Taraarum Pasaionum" (or 
**De Morbis Chronieie")L Edited by Amman, 
Amstel, 1709. 

Auaftiius AirrdNiiira, M., Roman empercr, 
A.D. 161-180, commouly called "the philoso- 
pher," was bom at Rome on the 20th of Apnl, 
A.D. 121. He was adopted by Antoninus Piue 
immediately after the latter had been himself 
adopted by Hadrian, received the title of Cxmat, 
and marned Faustina, the daughter of Pius 
(188). On the death of the hitter in 161, he 
succeeded to the throne, but he admitted to an 
equal share of the sovereign power L. Ceionius 
Commodus, who had been adopted by Pius at 
the same time as Marcus himselC The two 
emperors henceforward bore respectively the 
names of M. Aurelius Antoninus and L. Aure- 
lius Verus. Soon after their accession Verus 
was dispatched tc» the East, and for four years 
(AD. 162-166) earned on war with great suc- 
cess against Vologeses III., king of Partbia, 
over whom his lieutenants, especially Avidius 
Caasius, gained many victories. At the con- 
clusion of the war both emperors triumphed, 
and assumed the titles of Armeniaeua, Fartnieui 
Maximtu^ and Medieui. Meantime Italy was 
threatened by the numerous tribes dwelling 
along the northern limits of the empire, from 
the sources of the Danube to the Ulynan border. 
Both emperors set out to encounter the foe; 
and the contest with the northern nations was 
continued with varying success during the 
whole life of M. Aurelius, whose head -quarters 
were generally fixed in Pannonia. After the 
death of Verus in 169, Aurelius prosecuted the 
war against the Marcomanni with great sue 
cess, and in consequence of his victories over 
them, he assumed in 172 the title of Germani 
cus, which he also conferred upon his son Com- 
modus. In 174 he gained a decisive victory 
over the Quadi, mainly through a violent storm, 
which threw the barbarians into confusioa 
This storm is said to ha^e been owing to tlit 
prayers of a legion chiefly composed of Chris 
tians. It has given rise to a famous contro- 
versy among the historians of Christianity upon 
what is eommonly termed the Miracle of the 
ThiT Y L«^n. The Marcomanu? and th« 



i^^r northern barbarians concluded a peace 
with Aurelius in 176, who forthwith set out for 
the £aBt, where Avidius CasaiuB, ut;ged on bj 
Faustina, the unworthy wife of Aurelius, haH 
risen in rebellion and proclaimed himself em- 
peror. But before Aurelius reached the East^ 
uassius had been slain by his own officers. On 
his arrival in the £aat» Aurelius acted with the 
BTeatest clemency; none of the accomplices of 
Uassius were put to death; and to establish 
perfect confidence in all, he ordered the papers 
of Cassius to be destroyed without suffering 
them to be read. During this expedition, Faus- 
tina, who had acoompaiued her husband, died, 
according to some, by her own hands. Aure- 
lius returned to Rome toward the end of 176 ; 
but in 178 he set out again for Germany, where 
the Marcomanni and their confederates had 
af;ain renewed the war. He gained seyeral 
victories over them, but died, in the middle of 
the war, on March 17th, 180, in Pannonia, either 
at Yindobona (now Vienna) or at Sirmium, in 
the fifty-ninth year of his age and twentieth of 
his reign. The leading feature in the charac- 
ter of Sl Aurelius was his deyotion to philoso- 
phy and literature. When only twelve years 
oldC he adopted the dress and practiced the aus- 
terities of the Stoics, end he continued through- 
out his life a warm adherent and a bright orna- 
ment of the Stoic philosophy. We still possess 
a work by M. Aurelius, written in the Greek 
language, and entitled Tc^ elc iavrov, or MedHa- 
ti<m$, in twelve books. It is a sort of common- 
place book, in which were registered from time 
to time the thoughts and feelings of the author 
npon moral and religious topics, without an at- 
tempt at order or arrangement No remains of 
antiquity present a nobler view of philosophical 
heathenism. The best edition of tiie Meditations 
is by Gataker, Cantab, 1652, and Lond, 1697. 
The chief; and perhajw the only stain U|)on the 
memory of Aurelius is his two persecutions of 
the Christians; in the former of which, 166, the 
martyrdom of Polycarp occurred, and in the lat- 
ter, 177, that of Irensus. Aurelius was succeed- 
ed by his son Commodus. 

AuBSiiuB Victor Vid Victor. 

AuBidLUB, one of the Thirty 7\/rants (A.D. 
260-267), who assumed the tiUe of Augustus du- 
ring the feeble rule of Gallienus. Aureolus was 
proclaimed emperor by the legions of lUyria in 
267, and made himself master of Northern Italy, 
bat he was defeated and slain in battle in 268, 
by Claudius II., the successor of Gallienus. 

[Au&nriA, a prophetess, held in great venera- 
tion bv the Germans, spoken of in connection 
with Veleda by Tacitus. J 

Aurora. Fid Eos. 

AuRHKOL Vid Italia. 


[ AusAR {kiaapt now Serchio), a river of Etru- 
ria, which anciently joined the Amus; but at 
present they both flow into the sea by different 

Ausui or AvBon, a powerful people in Aquita- 
nia who possessed the Latin franchise ; their cap- 
ital was called Climberrum or Elimberrum, also 
Augusta and Ausci (now Auch). 

AusBTijn, a Spanish people iu thtf modem 
Catalonia : their capital was Ansa (now Vique\ 

AusoN (kiauv), son of Ulysses and Calypto u 
Circe, from whom the country of the AuruDoam 
was believed to have been called Auaonta. 

Ai»5ifX8, AuadNlA. Vid Itaua. 

AmdMius, DiciMua Macwus, a Roman poet 
bom at Burdigftla (now jBowrdeaux), about AJD 
810, taught grammar and rhetonc with suck 
re^tation at his native town that he was ep- 
pomted tutor of Gratian, son of the Emperor 
Valentinian, and was afterward raised to th« 
highest honors of the state. He waa appomted 
by Gratian Drsafectus of Latium, of Lioyat and 
of Gaul, ana in 879 was eleyated to the consul- 
ship After the death of Gratian in 888, he 
retired from public life, and ended his days in a 
country retreat near Bourdeaux, perhaps aboul 
890. It is most probable that he was a Chria- 
tian and not a heothea His extant works are, 
1. J^pigrwnmatwn ZAher^ a oolleetion of one 
hundred and fifty epigrams.— 2. EphemerU^ con- 
taining an account of the busmess and proceed- 
ings of a day. — 8 Parentalia, a series of short 
poems, dedicated to the memory of deceased 
friends and relations, and commemorating their 
virtues.— 4. Profeuoret^ notices of the Profes* 
sors of Bordeaux. — 6. Efitaxkia Hen/wm^ epi- 
taphs on the heroes who feu in the Trojan war 
and a few others. — 6. A metrical catalogue of 
the first twelve Ciesars. — ^7. Tetnulicka^ on the 
CsBsars from Julius to Eaagabalus. — 8. Clara 
UrheB, the praises of fourteen illustrious cities. 
— 9. LuduM SepUm, Sapientwnf the doctrines of 
the seyen sages expounded by each in his own 
person. — 10. IdylUOt a collection of twenty 
poems. — 11. jS^MMrartum, short poems conneeted 
with the Calendar, (&ar~12. EpiHoUe^ twenty- 
five letters, some in verse and some in proser— 
18. Qratiarym Actio pro Contulahtf in prose, ad- 
dressed to Gratian. — 14. Feriocha, short argn- 
ments to each book of the Iliad and Odynsey. — 
15. TVet PrcBfatiuneukB. Of these works the 
Idyls have attracted most notice, and of them the 
most pleasing is the Motella^ or a description of 
the Kiyer Moselle. Ausonius possesses skill in 
versification, but is destitute of all the higher at- 
tributes of a poet The best edition of his com- 
plete works is by Tollius, Amstel, 1671. 

AusTKR, called Nbtua (Nor^r) by the Greeks 
the south wind, or strictly the southwest wind, is 
personified aa the god of the south wind, son of 
AstriBUS and Eos (Aurora). It frequently brought 
with it fojp and rain ; but at certain seasons of 
the year it waa a dry, sultry wind (hence called 
piumbmt Auttert Hor^ 8ai^ iL, 6, 18), injurious 
both to man and to vegetation, the Sirocco of the 
modem Italians. 

AotariItje {AifToptdTot), an Illyrian people 
in the Dalmatian mountains, extinct in Strabc's 

AotesiodOruk, -urum (now Atuerre), a towa 
of the Senones in Gallia Lugduneosis. 

AuriEaloir {AiTeaiov\ son of Tisamenus, Cither 
of Theras and Argia, left Thebes at the command 
of an oracle, and joined the Dorians in PelopoR* 

AcTOCHTH52fX8 (oifToxBoves). V.d Abortqi- 


AuT^LdLxa, or -je (AiroXoXai) a Gffit ilian tribs 
on the western coast of Africa, south of the Atlac 

ActSl^ cus {AiroAVKo^y 

igitized by ^ 



(Bermee) and Chione, father of Auticlea, and 
Jhos maternal grandfather of niyases. He lived 
OQ Mount Paraaasus, and was renowned for his 
eunnin^ and robberies. Ulysses, when stayixig 
with bun on one occasion, was wounded vj a 
boar on Parnassus, and it was by the scar of 
this W3und that he was recoCTiz^d by his aged 
anrsc when he returned from Troy. — 2. A Thes- 
saliar^ son of Deimachus, one of the Argonauts, 
and the founder of Sinope. — 8. A mathematician 
of Pitane in iEolis, lived about B.O. 840, and 
wroto two astronomical treatises, which are the 
most ancient existing upecimens of the Oreek 
mathematics. — 1. On the Motion of the Sphere 
(nepH Kivovftivijg o^aipoi), — 2. On the ritingB and 
aettings of the fixed stars (irepl hriro}^ koX 
6voeuv). Editea by Dasypodius in his Sphceri- 
ea Doetrina FropogiiUmes, Aigent, 1572. 

Aut6xIla (ri A^rofxa7,a), a fortified place on 
the Great Syrtis in Northern Africa. 

AcrdMSDoN {Kirrofteduv), 1. Son of Diores, 
th« charioteer and companion of Achilles, and, 
after the death of the latter, the companion of 
his son Pyrrhus. Hence Automedon is the 
name of any skillful cliarioteer. (Cio, pro Rose, 
Am^ 86 ; Juv, L, 61.) — 2. Of Cyzicus, a Greek 
poet^ twelve of whose epigrams arc in the Greek 
Anthology, lived in the reign of Nerva, A.D. 

ActSmSu {kvr6fio7Mi\ as a proper name, was 
applied to tiie IWptian soldiers, who were said 
to have deserted from Psammetichus ioto JSthi- 
opia, where they founded the kingdom of MxaoE. 

AuT$K$i (A^rovo)?}. 1. Daughter of Cadmus 
and Harmonia, wife of Anstieus, and mother 
of Actieon. With her sister Agave, she tore 
Pentheus to pieces in their Bacchic fury: her 
Comb was 8lk>wn in the territory of Megara. — 
[2. A handmaid of Penelope, mentioned in the 

Autkio5nes, a people in Hispania Tarraco- 
Densis, between the ocean (Bay of Biscay) and 
the upper course of the Iberus : their chief town 
was FukvioBaiOA. 


AuxfisU {ki^day the goddess who grants 
growth and prosperity to the fields, honored at 
Troezen and Epidaurus, was another name for 
Proserpina (Persephone). Damia, who was 
honored along with Auzesia at Epidaurus and 
Troezen, was only another name for Ceres (De- 

AxTziinnc (Auzimas, -Atis: now Odmo\ an 
important town of Picenum in Italy, and a Ro- 
man colony. 

AuzCmb or AjL'ijLHovfjoi or 'A^uftjf, and other 
forms : Kd^widrai or 'A^ufdrai, (fee. : now Ass- 
inn, ruins southwest of Adowa), the capital of a 
powerful kingdom in^thiopa, to the southwest 
of Meroe, in Habesk or AhussinitLt which either 
fii'ftt arose or first became known to the Greeks 
and Romans in the early part of the second cen- 
tury of our era. It grew upon the decline of 
the kingdon of Meroe, and extended beyond the 
StrmU of BojM'Mamdeb into Arabia. Being a 
noountajoous region, watered by the numerous 
cpper streams of the Astaboras and Astapus, 
and intersected by the caravan routes from the 
Bterior of Africa to the Red Sea and the Gulf 
of Bab-el'Mandeb, tiie country possessed great 
iotftrnal resources and a flourishing commerce. 

AuzAa, or -lA, or Ait^ia (now ^8^ (JtLztan oi 
Hamza, ruins), a city in the interior of Maure 
tania CsBsariensis ; a Roman colony under Mar* 
cus Aurelius Antoninus. 

AviLiTEs (Aio^T^f : now Zeilah), an cmp») 
rium in Southern JSthiopia, on a bay of ths 
Erythraean Sea, called Av^Ites Sinus ('A. koX- 
ffOf), probably the €hUf of Bab-el-Mandeb. or its 
innermost part, south of the Straits. A p€oi]JeL 
AvalStffi, are also mentioned in these parts. 

Avar!cuic. Vid Bnuaioss. 

AvELLA. Vid Abella. 

AvSNio (now Avignon)^ a town of tiie Cavares, 
in Gallia Narbonensis, on the left bank of thi> 

AvsMTTCDx (now Avenehes\ the chief town of 
the Helvetii, and subsequently a Roman colony 
witii the name Pia JFUma Oonstans J^tnerita, of 
which ruins are still to be seen in the mod^D 

AvxMmnsNsis, GenucIdb. 1. L., consul B.C 
865, and again 862, was killed in battle against 
the Hemicans in the latter of these ye^rs, and 
his army routed. — 2. Cn., consul 868. 

AventInus, son of Hercules and the iiriestese 

AvEiniNVS MoNS. Vid. Roio. 

AvERNUB Lacus (j> 'Ao/wof Kiavtf: now Lagv 
Avemo\ a lake close to the promontory which 
runs out into the sea between Oumss and Pu 
teoll This lake fills tiie crater of an extinct 
volcano: it is circular, about one and a half 
miles in circumference, is veir deep, and is sur- 
rounded by high banks, which in antiqui^ were 
covered by a gloomy forest sacred to Hecate. 
From its waters mepbitic vapors arose, which 
are said to have killed the birds that attempted 
to fly over it, from which circumstance its 
Greek name was supposed to be derived (from 
a, priv., and hfivi^). The lake was celebrated 
in mythology on account of its connection with 
the lower world. On its banks dwelt the Cim* 
merians in constant darkness, and near it was 
the cave of the Cumsean Sibyl, through which 
iEneas descended to the lower world. Agrippa, 
in tiie time of Augustus, cut down the forest 
which surrounded & lake, and connected tho 
latter with the. Lucrine Lake *, he also caused 
a tunnel to be made from the lake to OumsB, of 
which a considerable part remains, and ie known 
under the title of Orotta di SibyUa, The Lu 
orine Lake was filled up by an eruption in 1580 
so that Avemus is again a separate lake. 

AviljruB, FlavIob, the author of foHy-two 
JEsopic fables in Latin elegiac vei'se, which are 
of very littie merit both as respects the matter 
and the style. The date of Avianus is uncer- 
tain; he probably lived in the third or fourth 
century of the Christian era. — Editions: By 
Cannegieter, AmsteL, 1731 ; by Nodell, Amstel, 
1787 ; and by Laohmann, Berol., 1845. 

[AvmiuB Oasbius. Vid Cabbivs.] 

AvifiNUB, RuFUB Festub, a Latin poet toward 
the end of the fourth century of the Christian 
era. His poems are chiefly descriptive, and are 
some of tne best specimens of the poetry of 
that age. His works are, 1. DeacripHo OrUs 
TerrOf also called Metaphrasis Feriegeseos JHo' 
nysiiy in 1894 hexameter lines, derived directly 
from the rcepi'^ffaic of Dionysius, and containing 
a succinct account of the most remarkable ob 



^8 ID the phvaicol and political geography of 
the known world. — 2. Ora Maritima, a fragment 
in 708 iambic trimeters, describing the shores 
of the Mediterranean from MarseiUes to Cadiz. 
— 8. Aratea Fhanamma and Aratea PrognotticOy 
both in hexameter verse, the first oontaimng 
1825> the second 552 lines, being a paraphrase 
of the two works of Aratus. The poems are 
edited by Wemsdor^ in his Poeia Latini Mino- 
rf<, ToL Y., pt ii, wluch, however, does not in- 
tlude the Aratea : [reprinted, with the addition 
of the Aratea, by Lemaire, in the fifth volmne of 
liis Poeta Laiini Minoret, Paris, 1824-26.] 

AviGnes, a people in the north of Germany, 
whose position is uncertain. 

AviTus, Alphius, a Latin poet under Augustus 
and Tiberius, the fragments of some of whose 
poems are preserved in the ArUhologia Latino, 

AviTus, Cluentios. Vid. Cldentiub. 

AviTus, M. MiEOiiius, Emperor of the West, 
was raised to the throne by the assistance of 
Theodoric II., king of the Visigoths, in A.D. 
455 ; but, after a year's reign, was deposed by 

[AzANTos, another name of Uzantis (now 
Ou€9«ani)j on the northwestern coast of Gallja.1 

[ AxellSdCnum (now Brugh ?\ a castle of the 
Brigantes in Britannia.] 

AxSnus. Vid, EuuNDs Pontus. 

AxiA (now Cattell dAtto), a fortress in the 
territory of Tarquinii in Etruria. 

AxioN {^k.^iuv\ son of Phegeus, brother of 
Temenus, along with whom he killed Alcmieoa 

[Axi5n!cu8 ('A^fovtxoc), an Athenian poet of 
tlie middle comedy, of whose pla;^B only a few 
fragments have bieen preserved in Atnenaeus: 
these are published collectively in Meineke's 
FroffmofUa Comic ChxBc, vol ii, p. 769-72, edit 

Axi5th£a ('A^«o0^), a nuuden of Fhlius, who 
came to Athens, and, putting on male attire, was 
for some time a hearer of Plato, and afterward 
of Speusippus. 

Axius, Q., an intimate friend of Cicero and 
Varro, one of the speakers in the third book of 
Yarro's De Re Utatica, 

Axius ('A^toc : now Wardar or Vardhari), the 
chief river in Macedonia, rises in Mount Scar- 
dus, receives many affluents, of which the most 
important is the Erilgon, and flows southeast 
through Macedonia into the Thermaio GuU As 
a river^;od, Axius begot by Periboea a son, Pel- 
agon, the father of A^teeofjeu& 

Ax5na (now Aitne), a river in Gallia Belgico. 
which fjEdls into the Isara (now Oiae). 

AxOiii. Vid. AuxuMK. 

[AxDS ('A^of), capital of a small kingdom in 

[Ax^Lus ('A^Xoc), a Thracian prince, men- 
tioned in the Iliad, son of Teuthranus, slain by 

Axan ('ACav), Bon of Areas and the nymph 
Erato, brother of Aphldas and Elatus. The part 
of Arcadia which he received from his father 
was called Azania: it was on the borders of 

AzlNi {*A^ttvol : *k^aviTnc\ a town of Phrygia 
on the River Rhyndacus, and twenty miles south- 
west of Cotyadium (now Kiviayah\ The nuns of 
oolumns, capitals, and other architectural firag- 
tnerits arc scattered otaf the ground. There 

are also the remains of a splendid templs ani 
of a theatre. This ancient aito was discovered 
by Mr. KeppeL 

A2ANIA or BajuurI A (JA^avla, BapSof^a : now 
Ajan), the region on the eastern coast of Afri- 
ca, south of Aromata Promontorium (now Oap4 
Ouardafui\ as far as Rhaptum Promontorium 
(now Cave FormoM /). 

Az£nia ('A(j7v/a : *jL^fivieit^\ a demus in the 
southwest of Attica, near Sunium, belonging to 
the tribe Hippothoontis. 

. Azsus C^evc), son of Cl^menus of Orchome- 
nos, brother of Erginus, Slratius, Arrhon, and 
Pyleus, fiither of Actor and grandfather of As- 

[Aziais ('ACcp^c in Hdi, or 'A^iXic in CalL 
now Temmineh), a city cf Marmarica in Africa, 
opposite to the island of Platea, and founded by 
the Theraeans.] 

Az5bus or Azoaiux ('ACa>pof, *A^6piov : 'A^- 
plnfCt 'A^ctpidr^Ct *A^psv^\ a town in the north 
of Thessalj, on the western slope of OWmpus, 
formed, with Doliche and Pythium, the PerrhflD- 
bian Tn'polis. 

AzdTUs ('ACwTOf : 'A^wnof : now Askdod or 
Athdoud), a city of Palestine, near the sea-coast^ 
nine miles northeast of Ascaloa It was one 
of the free cities of the Philistines^ which were 
included within the portion of the tribe of Judah. 


Babrius {Bu6pto^), a Greek poet, probablv in 
the time of Augustus, turned the fables of JEaop 
into verse, of which only a few fragments were 
known till within the last few years, when a 
manuscript containing one hundred and twenty- 
three fables was discovered on Mount Athoa. 
Edited by Lachmann, BeroL, 1845; by Orclli 
and Baiter, Turic„ 1845 : by Lewis, Lond, 1847. 

BIb$lon (Bo^v^v: BaovXiJVioCt fern. Ba£v- 
Xavic : Babel in Old Testament : ruins at and 
around Billah), one of the oldest and greatest 
cities of the ancient world, the capital of a great 
empire, was built on both sides of the River 
Euphrates, in about 82^ 28' north latitude Its 
foundation, and the establishment of a kingdom 
by Ninrod, with the city for a capital, are 
among the first recorded facts subsequent to 
the Deluge {GetL, x, 9, 10 ; xl, 1-10). Seoo- 
lar history ascribes its origin to Befus (L &, 
the god ^aal), and its enlargement and deoora- 
tion to Ninus, or his wife Semiramis ; or, aooord- 
ing to another tradition, the country was sub- 
dued by Ninus, and the city was subeequectli 
built by Semiramis, who made it the capital <n 
the Assyrian empire. At all events, it is pretty 
dear that Babylon was subject to the Assyr- 
ian kings of Nineveh from a very early peri<Ki ; 
and the time at which the governors of BaliyloB 
first succeeded in makixig themselves virtually 
independent, can not be determined with any 
certainty until we know more of the history 
of the early Assyrian dynasties. Compare Na 
BONASSAR. The Babylonian empbe begins with 
the reign of Nabojwlassar, the fiither of Nebu 
ehadneaoar, who, with the aid of the Mediaa 
kinff Cyaxares, overthrew the Assyrian moo- 
arohy, and destroyed Nineveh (B.O. 609), and 
soon afterward defended his longdom nffainsi 
the aggressions (at first successful) of Neoiio 



tmg of "Egjpt^^ in the battle of Cii-cesium, B.C. 
604w Under his Bon and successor, Nebuciiad- 
nezzar (RG. 604-562), the BabTlocion empire 
reached its height, and extended from the £2u- 
phratea to ^gjpt, and from the mountains of 
Armenia to the deserts of Arabia. After his 
death It again declined, until it 'was overthrown 
hj the eaptura of Babylon by the Medes and 
Persians under Cyrus (n.C. 588), who made the 
eify on9 of the capitals of the Persian empire, 
the others being Susa and Ecbatana. Under 
his successors the city rapidly sank. Darius L 
dismantled its fortifications, in consequence of a 
revolt of its inhabitants; Xerxes carried off 
the golden statue of Belus, and the temple in 
which it stood became a ruia After the death 
of Alexnnder, Babylon became a part of the 
Syrian kingdom of Seleucus Nicator, who con- 
tribute'^ to its decline by the foundatioo of Se- 
LEDCiA on the Tigris, which soon eclipsed it 
At the commencement of our era, the greater 
part of the city was iu ruins ; and at the pres- 
ent day, all its visible remains consist of mounds 
of earth, ruined masses of brick walls, and a 
few scattered fragments. Its very site has 
been turned into a dreary marsh by repeated in- 
undations from the river. The city or Babylon 
had reached the summit of its magnificence in 
the reign of Nebuchadnezzar. It formed a 
square, each side of which was one hundred 
and twenty stadia (twelve eeographical miles) 
in length. The walls, of burned brick, were 
two hundred cubits hi^h and fifty thick; in 
them were two hundred and fifty towers and 
sixty bronze gates ; and they were surrounded 
by a deep ditch. The Euphrates, which divided 
the city into two equal parts, was embanked 
with walls of brick, the openings of which, at 
the ends of the transverse streets, were closed by 
sates of bronze. A bridge, built on piers of 
newn stone, united the two quarters of the city ; 
and at each end of it stood a royal palace : these 
erections were ascribed to Semiramis. Of two 
other public buildings of the greatest celebrity, 
the one was the temple of Belus, rising to a 
great height, and oonsisting of eight stories, 
gradually diminishing in width, and ascended by 
a flight of steps, which wound round the whole 
building on the outside ; in the uppermost story 
was the golden statue of Belus, with a golden 
altar and other treasures : this building also 
was ascribed to SemiramisL The other edifice 
referred to was the "hanging gardens" of 
Nebuchadnezzar, laid out upon terraces which 
were raised above one another on arches. The 
houses of the city were three or four stories in 
height, and the streets were straight, intersect- 
ttg one another at right angles. The buildings 
were almost universally constructed of bricks, 
MHne burned, and som? only sun-dried, cemented 
together with hot bitumen, and in some eases 
with mortac The Babylonians were certainly a 
Semitio race ; but the ruling class, to which the 
kings, and priests, and the men of learning be- 
longed were the Chaldseans, whose origin and 
iffinities are somewhat doubtful; the most 
probable opinion, however, is that they were a 
tribe of invaders, who descended from the 
mountains on the borders of Armenia, and con* 

2uered the Babylonians. The religion of the 
laldeans was Sabaism. or the worfthip of the 

heaverily bodies, not porely so, but symbolizei 
in the iurms of idols, besides whom tbey had 
other divinities, representing the powers of na 
ture. Tlie priests formed a caste, and culti- 
vated science, especially astronomy ; in which 
they knew the apparent motions of the sun, 
moon, and five of the planets, the calculation of 
eclipses of the moon, the division of the zodiafl 
into twelve constellations, and of the year into 
twelve months, and the measurement of time by 
the sun-diaL They must also have had other in- 
struments for measuring time, such as the water- 
clock, for instance; and it is highljr probable 
that the definite methods of determinmg such 
quantities, which the Chaldsean astronomers in- 
vented, were the origin of the systems of 
weights and measures used by the Greeks and 
Romana Their buildings prove their knowledge 
of mechanics ; and their remains, slight as they 
are, show considerable progress in the fine arts. 
The Babylonian government was an unlimited 
monarchy ; the king appears to have lived in 
almost total seclusion from his people, nsr- 
rounded by his court; and the provinces were 
administered by governors, like the Persian sa- 
traps, responsible only to the monarch, whose 
commands they obeyed or defied according to 
his strength or weakness. The position of the 
city on tiie lower course of the Euphrates, by 
which it was connected with the Persian Guli^ 
and at the meeting of natural routes between 
Eastern Asia and India on the one side, and 
Europe, Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Arabia 
on the other, made it the seat of a flourish- 
ing commerce, and of immense wealth and lux- 
ury. The district around the city, bounded by 
the Ticris on the east, Mesopotamia on tM 
north, the Arabian Desert ou tne west, and ex 
tending to the head of the Persian Gulf on th« 
south, was known in later times by the name of 
Babylonia (now Irak Arahi\ sometimes also 
called Chaldffia. But compare Chaldjca. This 
district was a plain, subject to continual inunda- 
tions from the Tigris and Euphrates, which 
were regulated bv canals, the chief of which 
was the if aarmalcna. i e^ Royal River or Canal 
[irorafibc ^aaiXeioCt St6pv^ paai2.iK^y fiumen re- 
gium), which extended fW)m the Tigris at Se- 
leucia due west to the Euphrates, and was navi- 
gable, llie country was fertile, but deficient 
m trees. 

BXBf LON (BotfwXwv : near Fottat or Old Cairo) 
a fortress in Lower Egypt, on the right bank of 
the Nile, exactly opposite to the pyramids, and 
at the beginning of the canal which connected 
the Nile with the Red Sea. Its origin was as- 
cribed by tradition to a body of Babylonian de- 
serters. It first became an important place 
under the Romans. Augustus made it the sta* 
tion of one of the three Egyptian legions. 
BabtlOwIa. Fidl Babtlon. 
Bacchjc {Bdxxcu)^ also called Manadct and 
Thyiades. 1. The female companions of Diony- 
sus or Bacchus in his wandenngs through the 
' East, are represented as crowned with vine 
' leaves, clothed with fawn skins, and carrying ia 
I their hands the (hyrtus (vid. Diet, of Ant^ «. v), 
— 2. Priestesses of Bacchus (Dionysus), who, by 
wine and other exciting causes, worked them 
' selves up to phrensy at the Dionysiac festivals. 
BArcHiXPiE {BoKXiddat), an H^raclid clp, da 



lived their oameB from Bacchifl^ king c f Corintli 
■nd retained the supreme rule in that state, first 
under a monarchical form of goverameDt, and 
next as a close oligarchy, till their deposition by 
Cjp«elu8, about B.O. 667. They were, for the 
most part, driven into banishment, and are said 
to have taken refuge in different parts of Greece 
and even Italy. 

[BaoouIum (BaKxelov), an island in the iEgean 
Sea, I^iDflf before the hai bor of the city Phocsea, 
beautifully adorned with temples and works of 
art, which were destroyed by the Romans under 
ilSmilius. B.a 190.] 

Bacohius (BoKxeloc). 1. The author of a short 
musical treatise called elaayuy^ rix^VC uovauc^Ci 
printed by Meibomiuf, in the Antigit€B Afwticce 
Auetores Seplem^ Amst, 1662. — 2. Of Tanagra in 
Bosotia, one of the earliest commentators on the 
writings of Hippocrates : his writings have per- 
ished. — 8. Of Miletus, the author of a work on 

Bacchus. Vid. Diontsus. 

Baoch^'lY DE8 ifioKxyTudrji), one of the great ly- 
ric poets of Greece, bom at lulis in Ceos, and ne- 
phew as well as fellow-townsman of Simouides. 
He flourished about B.C. 470, and lived a long 
time at the court of Hiero in Syracuse, together 
with Simonides and Pindar. He wrote m the 
Doric dialect Hymns, Paeans, Dithyrambs, <bc ; 
but all his poems have perished, with the ex- 
ception of a few fragments, and two epigrams in 
(he Greek Antho^'^. The fragments have 
been published by Kcue, Bacchyltdta Cei Frag- 
menta, BeroU 1628, and by Bergk, Poetce Lyrici 
Greed, p. 820. 

BaoSnis Silva, a forest which separated the 
Suevi from the Cherusci, probably the western 
part of the Thuringian Forest 

Bacis (Bux^c), the name of several prophets, 
of whom the mo«t celebrated was the Boeotian 
seer, who delivered his oracles in hexameter 
verse at Heleon in Bceotia. In later times there 
existed a collection of his oracles, similar to the 
SibvUine books at Rome. 

Bactka or Zaeiaspa (rd, BiUrpa, rd ZoDiaana 
and i Zapidermf : now Balkh\ the capital of 
Bacibia, appears to have been foundea by the 
early Persian kings, but not to have been a con- 
siderable citv till the time of Alexander, who 
settled in it nis Greek mercenaries and his dis- 
abled Macedonian soldiers. It stood at the 
northern foot of the Mount Paropamisus (the 
Hindoo Koosh\ on the River Bactrus (now Adir- 
nah or Deh<u\ about twenty-five miles south of 
its junction with the Oxus. It was the centre of 
a considerable traffic. The existing ruins, twenty 
miles in circuit, are all of the Mohammedan 

BACTafA or -lANA (BcucTpiavrj '. BuKrpoif -loi, 
Hovri : now Bokhara), a province of the Persian 
empire, bounded on the south by Mount Paropa- 
misus, which separated it from Ariana, on uie 
east by tlie northern branch of the same range, 
which divided it from the Saoas, on the northeast 
hy the Oxus, which separated it frt>m Sogdiana, 
and on the west by Margiana. I^ was inhab- 
ited by a rude and warlike people, who were 
•uhdued by C^rus or b«s next successors. It 
was included m the conquests of Alexander, 
■ad formed a part of the kingdom of the Seleu- 
eidoB nntil RC. 266, when Theodotus, its gov- 

ienior. revolt .J from Antioehns 11., and founded 
the Greek kingdom of Bactiia, which lasted 
till B.C. 184 or 126, when it was overthrown 
by the Parthians, with whom, during its whole 
duration, its kings were sometimes at war, and 
sometimes in alliance against Syria. This Greek 
kingdom extended beyond the limits of the 
province of Bactria, and included at least i 
part of Sogdiana. Bactria was watered by 
the Oxus and its tributaries, and contained 
much fertile land; and much of the com- 
merce between Western Asia and India passed 
through it 

[Bactrus (BoKr/wc), a river of Bactria, Vtd 

[BAOCifTirB (now Bomith), a river of Lower 
Pannonia, which empties into the Savus near 

Baduhennje Lucus, a wood in Western Fries 

B^.bIa Gexs, plebeian, the most im|)ortan4 
members of which are given under their sar* 
names, Dives, Sulca, Tamphilus. 

Bac^la, a town in Hispania Tarraconensis, 
west of Oastulo, in the neighborhood of silvm 

[Bjelon. Vtd. Bklon.] 
BiBsiPPO (now Porto Barbalo\ a harbor OD 
Junonis Promontorium, not far from Gades, id 
Hispania Baetica.] 

BiETERiLS (now Beziers^ also called BiTERRm- 
BIS URB8, a town in Gallia Narbonensis, on tht 
Obris, not far from Narbo, and a Roman colony * 
its neighborhood produced good wine. 

BiBTiCA. Vfd Hispania. 

BiETis (now Quadalquiver\ a river in South* 
em Spain, formerly called Tartessus, and by the 
inhabitants Cxrtis, rises in Hispania Tarracone»- 
sis, in the territory of the Oretani, flows south- 
west through BflBtica, to which it gives ita name^ 
past the cities of Oorbuda and Hispalis, and falli 
into the Atlantic Ocean by two mouths, north of 

[BiETURiA (fi<uTovpla\ the northwestern part 
of JBaetica, between the Anas and Mount Ma- 

Bag A CUM (now Bavai), the chief town of the 
Nervii in Gallia Bolgica : there are many Roman 
remains in the modem town. 

Baoaudje, a Gallic people, who revolted undei 
Diocletian, and were with difficulty subdued by 
Maximian, A.D. 286. 

[Bagistanus Mons (rd Bayiaruvov 6poc\ a 
mountain range in Media, southeast of Ecbat- 
ana, and made by the Greeks saired to Jupi- 
ter: the region around was called BoffistaruL 
This mountain is now more correctly termea 
the "sacred rock of Behistun." According U 
the ancients, it had the figure of Semiramis cot 
upon it, with a Syrian inscription; but Major 
Rawlinson has shown that the inscription oo 
the rock was executed by order of Danr.i Hys- 

BaqQab {Bayuac)j a eunuch, highly trusted 
and favored by Artaxerxes II L (Ochus), whom 
he poisoned B.O. 838. Jfe was put to death by 
Darius ill. Codomannus, whom he had attempted 
likewise to poison, 886. Th4» name Ba^oas fra 
fluently occurs in Persian history, and is some 
times used by Latin wnt^rs ar synonymous with 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



BAGEi. AS {BtrypdSac : now M^erdah\ a river 
«r Korthern Africa, falling into the Qolf of Oar-^ 
thage near Utica. 

Baub (Baifinus), a town in Campania, on a 
■mall bay west oi Naples, and opposite Puteol^ 
was situated in a beautifal country, whicli 
abonnded in warm mineral springs. The baths 
of BaiflB were the most celebratCKd in Italy, and 
the town itself was the fevorite watering-place 
of the Romans, who flocked thither in crowds 
for health and pleasure; it was distinguished 
by licentionsnees and immorality. The whole 
country was studded with tibe palaces of the 
Roman nobles and emperors, which covered 
tke coast from Baiao to Puteoli : many of these 
palaces were built out into the sea. (Hor., 
Carm^ ii^ 18, 20.) The site of ancient BaJ» 
IB now, for the most part, covered by the sea. 

[BALAN.&4, (BaAopola : now Bama8\ a city of 
Syria, on the coast, north of Aradus, by Ste- 
imanus Byzantinus assigned to FhoBuicia.] 

[Balbillus, made governor of Egypt by Neio, 
and wrote an acooua: of that province.] 

Balbinds, D. CiELius, was elected emperor 
hj the senate along with M. Clodius Popienus 
luudmus, after the murder of the two Gordians 
in Africa at the b^^nin^ of A.D. 2S8 ; but the 
Dew emperors were slam by the soldiers at 
Rome in June in the same year. 

Balbub, M'. AoTLiufi, the name of two con- 
sols, one in B.C. 150, and the other in 114. 

Balbus, T. AmpIus, tribune of the plebs B.G. 
68, was a supporter of Pomp^, whom he join- 
ed in the civil war B.C. 49. He was pardoned 
by Oaesar through the intercession of Cicero^ 
mo wrote to him on the occasion {ad F€an^ 
vi, 12). I 

Balbus, M. Alius, of Aricia, married Julia, I 
the sister of Julius Ciesar, who bore him a! 
daughter, Atia, the mother of Augustus CeBsar. | 

Balbus, L. CoenxlIvb. 1. Of Gades, served j 
imder Q. Metellus and Pompey against Serto- , 
rius in Spain, and received from Pompey the I 
Roman citixensbip. He accompanied Pompey . 
on hia return to Rome, B.G. 71, and was for a | 
long time one of his most intimate friends. At | 
the same time he gained the friendship of Gsesar, I 
who placed great confidence in him. As the 
friend of Gaesar and Pompey, he bad numerous 
enemies, who accused him m 66 of having ille- 
gally assumed the Roman citizenship; he was 
defended by Oicero, whose speech has come 
down to us, and was acquitted. In thh civil 
war, 49, Balbus did not take any open part 
against Pompey ; but he attached himself to 
Gaesar, and, in conjunction with Gppius, had 
the entire management of Gsesar's afiairs at 
Rome. After the death of Gesar (44) he was 
equally successful in gaining the fayor of Oeta- 
vianus, who raised him to Sie consubhip in 40. 
Btlbus wtx>te a diary (Ephemeri9\ which has 
jut oome down to us, of the most remarkable 
ooeurrences in Gaesar's life. He took care that 
Caesar's Gommentaries on the Gallic war should 
be continued ; and we accordingly find tibe eighth 
book dedicated to him^ — 2. Nephew of the pre- 
ceding, received the Roman franchise along 
with his uncle. He served under Gassar in the 
eiyil war ; he was quaestor to Asinius Pollio in 
further Spain in B.G 48, and while there add- 
«d Ur his native town. Gades, a suburb; niaoy | 

^ ears afterwai*d he was procousul of Africa, and 
triumphed over the Garamantes in 13. . He 
built a magnificent theatre at Rome, wbidi was 
dedicated in 18. 

Balbus, LuoilIub. 1. L., a jurist, and broth- 
er of the following. — 2. Q., a Stoic philosopher 
and a pupil of Panastins, is introduced by Gicere 
as oiie of the speakers in his De Natura Deorum, 

Bauub, OcnrAvlus, a contemporary of Gicero^ 
bor^ a high character as a judex *, ne was put 
to death by the triumvirs, B.G. 48. 

Balbus, 8p. ThobIus, tribune of the pleba 
about RG. Ill, proposal an agrarian law. Vid, 
Did, ofAnt^ art Lxz Tporia. 

BalbIbis (BaX«ap^($ef, Ba^ap/dec), also call 
tf\ GTMNfisLs {Tvianiauu) by the Greeks, two 
islands in the Mediterranean, o£f the coast of 
Spain, distinguished by the epithets Major and 
MinoTy whence their modem names Mttj&rea and 
M%7%orea. They were early known to the Gar- 
thsginians, who established settlements there 
for the purposes of trade ; they afterward re- 
ceived colomes from Rhodes ; and their popula- 
tion was at a later time of a yery mixed xind. 
Tlieir inhabitants, also called naleareB^ were 
celebrated as slingers, and were employed as 
such in the armies of the Gartha^iniaos and 
Romans. In conse<}uenee of their piracies they 
provoked the hostility of the Romans, and were 
finally subdued, KG. 128, by Q. Metellus, who 
assumed, accordingly, the surname Balearicus. 

Baubta, prefect of the praetorians under 'V'a- 
lerian, whom he accompanied to Uie East Aft- 
er the defeat and capture of that emperor (A 
D. 260), he rallied a t>ody of Roman troops and 
defeated the Persians in Gilicia. His subse- 
quent career is obscure; he is mentioned m 
one of the thirty tyrants, and was probably pi t 
to death, about 264, by Odenathus. 

[Balius (BaAiof), one of the horses of Achil 
les, offspring of Zephyrus and the harpy Po 

[Balba and Balsa Felix (now Tavira)^ a cibf 
of Lusitania. 

Bambauo, M. Fulviub, father of Fulvia, the 
wife of M. Antonius, the triumvir, received the 
nickname of Bambalio, on account aC a hesitancy 
in his speech. 

Bamb7o& Vid. H1KBAP0LI& 

BAnaba (now Mamma f ruins), a city of Mau 
retauia Tingitana, on the River Bubur (now 
8ebou\ near the western coast: • colony un- 
der Augustus, Valentia Banata, 

BAKDdsiJi F0V8 (now 8amhueo\ a fountain in 
Apulia, six miles from Venusia. (Hor., Carm^ 
iii., 18.) 

Baniia (Bantinus: now Banzi or Vangi)^ a 
town in Apulia, near Venusia, in a woody dis- 
trict {udttM Bantini, Hor. Carm.^ iii, i, 15): 
[near this place MarceUus fell a victim to the 
well-laid plans of Hannibal.] 

[Baphybas (Bo^pof), a river of Pieria, in 
Macedonia, empties into the Thermaic Gulf] 

BabbIna (now Bqjana\ a river in lUyria, 
flows through the Palus Labeatis. 

BabbXbi {Bdfi6afyoi\ the name g^Tcj b} tba 
Greeks to all foreigners whoso language was 
not Greek, and who were therefore regarded by 
the Greeks as an inferior race. The Romans 
applied the name-to all people who spoke neiUuy 
Greek nor Lutin. ^-^ « 

Digitized by Cli3©Ogle 




[IUkbaiuu* Pru)MONToaiux (noii Oabo de Et- 
fihel). a pro ' io#itory of Luttitaaia, juat below 
the month of trie Tagus.] 

BAMnkTiOf ocmmander of the household troops 
uider Gkillos, whom he arrested by command of 
Coiistaatius, AJ). 854. Id 866 be was made 
general of the infantry, and sent into Gaul to 
assist Julian against the Alenuuml He was 
pi:t to death by Constantius in 869. 

BabbItus, M. HoRATius, consul B.C. 449 with 
Valerius Publicola after the overthrow of the 
leoemvirs. VUL Pubuoola. 

BAKLKsiiLA, a city and river (now Guadiaro) 
A Hispania Bictioa, on the coast, north of Oalpe.] 

BAEBOsmiNUB, a mountain east of Sparta. 

BabbCla, Mmuua. 1. Q^ consul B.O. 81*7, 
when he sulsiued Apulia, and consul again in 
Sll, when he fought against the Etruscans. — 2. 
L, consul in 281, carried on war against the Ta- 
rentines, Samnites, and Sallentines. — 8. M., consul 
in 280, carried on war against the Ligurians. 

Baboa, the surname of Hamilgab, the father 
Df Hannibal, is probably the same as the Hebrew 
Barak, which si^ifies lightning. His family 
was distinguishecT subsequently as the ** Barcine 
fiunily," and the democratical party, which sup- 
ported this family, as the ** Barcine party.** 

Baboa or -E (BdpKjj : BapKiTrfCt BapKoioCt Bar- 
cttos). 1. (Now Merjeh, I'uins), the second city 
of Oyrenaica, in northern Africa, one hundred 
stadia (ten geographical miles) from the sea, 
appears to have been at first a settlement of a 
Libyan tribe, the Barcoi, but about B.C. 660 
vas colonized by the Greek seceders from Cy- 
fene, and became so powerful as to make the 
vestem part of Cyrenaica virtually mdependent 
of the mother city. In RC. 510 it was taken 
by the Persians, who removed most of its inhab- 
itants to Bactria, and under the Ptolemies its 
ruin was completed by the erection of its port 
into a new city, which was named Ptolemais, 
and which took the place of Barca as one of the 
cities of the Cyrennio Pcutjipolis. — 2. A town in 
Bactria, peopled by the removed inhabitants of 
the Cyrenaic Barca. 

BabcIno (now Bareefona), a town of the Lale- 
tani, in Hispania Tarraconensis, afterward a 
Roman colony : the town was not large, but it 
possessed an excellent harbor. 

Babdanbs. Vid, Abbaoxs XXL 

Babdyus or Babdtlus (Bdpdv^ic, Bdp6vXkic), 
an Illyrian chieftain, carried on frequent wars 
with the Macedonians, but was at length de- 
feated and slain in battle by Philip, the father 
of Alexander the Great, B.C. 859. 

Bab£a Sob anus, consul suffectus in A.D. 62 
under Claudius, and afterward proconsul of Asia, 
was a man of justice and Integrity. He was 
accused of treason in the rei^ of Ifero and was 
eondemed to death, together with his daughter 
Bervilia. The chief wituess against him was 
P. Egnatius Celer, a Stoic philosopher, and the 
teacher of Soranua ( VUL Juv., iii., 116.) 

BabgCsii, a people in the northeast of Spain, 
between the Pyrenees and the Iberua 

fBABOTLiA or Babgtllb {Bapyv?4a, rd ; Bap- 
yvMuTTfCi BopyvXijynKoc), a oity of Caria, lying 
on the gulf, named from it, Bargylieticut Sinus, 
•od named by the Carians Andanus {'Avdavo^) ; 
filmed for a statue of Diana.] 

BabIom (Barinus: now Bari% a town in ApTh 
lia, on the Adriatic, a municipium, and celebrated 
for its fisheries (Bariwn nUeowm, Hor., 8at^ i^ 

« Babbazntss (BopffOfvn/f ) or Babsaentub (B^p- 
CttevTVf), satrap of the Arachoti and DraugsB^ 
took part in the murder of Darius III., and after- 
ward fled to India, where he was seized by the 
inhabitants and delivered up to Alexander, who 
put him to death. 

Babbimk {Bapaivn), 1. Daughter of Artaba- 
zuSk and wife of Meomon the Kbodian, subse- 
quently married Alexander the Great, to whom 
sne bore a son, Hercules. She and her son were 
put to death by Polysperchon in 809. — 2. Also 
called StatIba, elder daughter of Darius III, 
whom Alexander married at Sosa, B.C. 824. 
Shortly after Alexander's death she was mur- 
dered by Roxana. 

[Babyoaza (BopvyaCa* now Baro<Uich\ a city 
of India, on the eastern side of the River 
Nomadus, possessing an active and extensive 
land and sea trade with Bactria, Arabia, and 

rBABZi\xNTEa {JBapl^ahniq), Vid. Bab8AKNteb.J 

BAfiANina Vid BhtiMMh. 

BasilIa (now Bead or BdU\ a town on the 
Rhine, in the neighborhood of wliich ValeutiuiaD 
built a fortres8.~-[2. An island. Vid Abalus.] 

BasilIna, the mother of Julian the apostate, 
being the second wife of Julius Constantius, bro- 
ther of Oonstantine the Great 

Basiuus (Boff^^ioc), commonly called Basl 
the Great, was bom A.D. 829, at Csesarea. He 
studied at Antioch or Constantinople under Li- 
banius, and subsequently continued his studies 
for four years (351-866) at Athens, chiefly under 
the sophists Himerlus and Proosresius. Among 
his fellow-students were the Emperar Julian 
and Gregory Nazianzen, the latter of whom be- 
came his most intimate friend. After acquiring 
the greatest reputation as a student for his 
knowledge of rhetoric, philosophy, and science, 
he returned to Ciesarea, where he began to 
plead causes, but soon abandoned his profes- 
sion and devoted himself to a religious life. He 
now led an ascetic life for many years; he 
was elected Bishop of Csesarea in 870 in place 
of Eusebius; he dxed in 879. The best editioa 
of his works is by Gamier, Paris, 1721-1780, 
8 vols, folia 

Basilub, L. Minuciub, served under Ccesar in 
Gaul, and commanded part of Caesar's fleet in 
the civil war. He was one of Csesar*s assassins 
(B.O. 44), and in the following year was miir- 
dered by his own slaves^ 

[Bassania, a city of lllyria, not far from lis- 

BassIbeub (fiaaaapev^\ a surname of Bacchus 
(Dionvsus), probably derived fix>m patraaoic, a 
fox skin, worn by the god himself ana \h% 
Mttuads in Thrace. 

Bassub, Acfzd!ub, an orator and historian 
under Augustus and Tiberius, wrote an account 
of the Roman wars in Germany, and a work 
upon Roman history of a more general character 
which was continued in tliirty-one books by tht 
elder Pliny. 

Bassub, Q. Cibgiijgb, a Roman eques, and an 
adherent of Pompey, fled to Tyre after the bat- 
tle of Pharsalia, B.O. 48. Shortly afterward he 


I WriADM. 

ol (aiood p(M8«68ioD of Tyre, and was joined by 
most of the troops of Sextus CsBsar, the goyern- 
or of Syria, who had been killed by his own sol- 
diers at the iDstigatioQ of Bassus. He subse- 
qiwotly settled down io Apameo, where he maio- 
tained himself for three years (46-48) against 
0. ADtistius Yetus, and afterward agaiost Sta- 
tins Murcns and Marcius Crispus. On the ar- 
riTal of CaMius in Syria in 48, the troops of 
Bassos went cyer to Cassius. 

BASsns, GmAvb, a Roman lyric poet, and a 
friend of Persius, who addresses his sixth satire 
to him, was destroyed, along with bis villa, in 
AJ). 19, by the eruption of Vesuvius which 
overwhelmed Herculaneum and Pompeii 

Biasus, Salkito, a Roman epic poet of coo- 
aiderable merits contemporary with Vespasian. 

Bastaenje or Bastebnj^ a warlike German 
people, who migrated to the conntry near the 
mouth of the Danube. They are first mentioned 
in the wars of Philip and Perseus against the 
Romans, and at a later period they frequently 
devastated Thrace, and were engaged in wars 
with the Roman governors of the province of 
Alacedonia. In B.C. 80 they were defeated by 
Marcos Crassus, and driven across the Danube ; 
and we find them, at a later time, partly settled 
between the Tyras (now Dnietter) and Borys- 
thenes (now JMieper), and partly at the mouth 
of the Danube, under the name of Peueini^ from 
their inhabiting the island of Pence, at the 
mouth of this nver. 

[BAsn (now Bata\ a city of the Bastttajil] 

Basttiani (also Lastram, Bastdu), a peo- 
ple in Hispania B«Btica, on the coast 

[^Bata (Baru, ra). a city and port of Sarmatia 
Asiatica, on the Euxine, opposite Sinope.] 

BXtIxaa or BASANms (Daravora, "BaoaviTLt : 
in the Old Testament, Bat^han, Basao), a district 
of Paleatine, east of the Jordan, extending from 
the river Jabbok on the 8oi:th to Mount Her- 
mon, in the Antilibanus diiiin, on the north. 
The 8 and t are mere dialectic varieties. 

Batavi or BatXvi (Lucan^ i^ 481), a Celtic 
people who abandoned their homes in conse- 
quence of civil dissensions before the time of 
Julias Ciesar, and settled in the island formed 
by the Rhine, the Waal, and the Maas, which 
island was called after them, Insida Batavorum, 
They were for a long time allies of the Romans 
in their wars against the Germans, and were of 
great service to the former by their excellent 
cavalry ; but at length, exasperated by the op- 
pressions of the Roman officers, they rose m 
revolt under Claudius Civilis in A.D'. 69, and 
were with great difficulty subdued. On their 
subjugation they were treated by the Romans 
with mildness, and were exempt from taxation. 
Their country, which also extended beyond the 
iflhmd south of the Maas and the Waal, was 
called at a later time, Batavia. Their chief 
towns were Lugdunum (now Leyden) and Ba- 
tavodui'um (now Wyk-Burttad f), between the 
Maas and the Waal The CaninefaUs or Can- 
ninefate* were a branch of the Batavi, and 
dwelt in the west of the island. 

BatavodCrux. Vid. Batavi. 

[Bat&a (BttTcta). 1. A Naiad, mother by (Eba- 
los of Tyndareus, Hippocoon, and leanon. — %. 
Daughter of Teucer, wife of Dardaous, mother 
of Bus and Erichthonius.] 

Bathjolxu (BacH/icX^f), a celebrated aitist d 
Magnesia on the Mseander, constructed for th« 
Lacedssmonians the colossal throne of tbo Amy* 
claean Apollo. He probably flourished about the 
time of Solon, or a little later. 

BATHTLLua 1. Of Samos, a beautiful ycvth 
beloved by Anacrcon. — 2. Of Alexandrea, the 
freedman and fayorite of Macenos, brought to 
perfection, together with Py lades of Cilicia, ih« 
imitative dance or ballet called Paniomimua, 
Bathyllus excelled in comic, and Pyladcs ia 
tragic personifications. 

[Bathts Portcb {Ba&dc X*/^), tlie larie d^ep 
harbor of Aulis, in which the Grecian nett a»" 
sembled before sailing to Troy.] 

BATViB (Bdrvai : BarvaZoc). 1. (Now Sarw)f 
a city of Osroene in Mesopotamia, east of the 
Euphrates, and southwest of Edessa, at about 
equal distances; founded by tlie Macedonians, 
and taken by Trajan; celebrated for its an- 
nual fair of Indian and Syrian merchandise. — 
2. (Now Dahaby, a city of 'Cy rrhestice, in Syria, 
between Beroea and Hierapolis. 

Bato (Bdrwv). 1. The charioteer of Amphi- 
araus, was swallowed up by the earth along 
with AxpHiAaAU& — 2. The name of two leaders 
of the Pannonians and Dalmatians in their in- 
surrection of the reign of Augustus, A.D. 6. 
Tiberius and Germanicus were both sent against 
them, and obtained some advantages over them, 
in consequence of which the Pannonians and 
Dalmatians concluded a peace with the Romans 
in AD. 8. But the peace was of short durv 
tion. The Dalmatian Bato put his namesake 
to death, and renewed the war. Tiberius now 
finally subdued Dnlmalia ; Bato sun*endered to 
him m AD. 9, upon promise of pai'don ; he ac- 
companied Tiberius to Italy, and his life waj 

BATTiADiE (BarnuJaz), kings of Cyreue dur 
ing eight generations. 1. Battus 1., of Thera. 
led a colony to Africa at the command of the 
Delphic oracle, and founded Cyreno about B.C. 
681. He was the first king of Cyrene ; his gov- 
ernment was gentle and just, and after his death 
in 699 he was worshipped as a hero. — 2. Arces- 
iLAUS I., son of No. 1, reigned B.C. 699-588. 
— 8. Battus II., sumamed **the Happy," Fon 
of Na 2, reigned B.C. 688-ff60 ? In bis reign 
Cyrene received a great number of colonists 
from yarious parts of Greece ; and in conse- 

3uence of the increased strength of his king- 
om, Battus was able to subdue the neighboiioff 
Libyan tribes, and to defeat A pries, king ot 
Egypt (670), who had espoused tlie cause of the 
lobyans. — 4. Arcesiladb II^ son of No. 8, sur- 
named "the Oppressive," reigned about BO. 
660-660. In consequence of di6scn8i<)ns be- 
tween himself and his brothers, the latter with 
drew from Cyrene ntrl founded Barca. He 
was strangled by hi.-« brother or friend Leaichua 
— 6. Batfus III., or " the Lame," son of Na 
4, reigned about B.C. 650-680. In his time^ 
Demonox, a Mantinean, gave a nev constitu- 
tion to the city, whereby the royal j.x)wer was 
reduced within very narrow limits. — 6. Aucxa- 
ILAUS III, son of No. 6, reigned about B.C. 
680-614, was driven from Cyrene in an attempt 
to recover the ancient royal privileges, but re 
covered his kingdom with the aid of Samiai 
auxiliaries. He endeavored^ ttrengUien him 
igitized by V J39 



teif by making submission to Cambys^s in 625. 
He was, however, again obliged to le&Te Oj- 
*ene; he fled to Aluir, king of Barca, whose 
daughter he had married, and was there slain 
by the Barcseans and some Cyremean ezilea» 
—7. Battus IV, probably son of No. 6, of 
whose life we have no accounts. — 6. Akoesi- 
uiUB rV, probably son of No, 7, whose victory 
n the chariot-race at the Pythian games, RO. 
166, is celebrated by Pindar m his fourth and 
fifth Pythian odes. At his death, about 450, a 
popular government was established. 

[Batt^deb, a patronymic of Oallimachus, from 
his fiither BattusJ 

Baitub (Barrof), a shepherd whom Mercury 
(Hermes) turned into a stone because he broke a 
promise which he made to the god. 

BATdLUii, a town in Campania of onoertain 

Baucis. Vtd. Philemon. 

Bauu (now Baeolo)f a collection of villas rather 
than a town, between Misenum and Baiaa, in 

I^Bautis, Baoteb, or Batttisus, (now Hoanghx>), 
a nver of Serica.] 

BAvfcs and Mjcvfro, two malevolent poe- 
tasters, who attacked the poetry of Virgil aud 

BazIra or BezIra {Bd^ipa : Ba^tpoi : now Ba- 
jour, northwest of Petkawur), a city in the Pa- 
mpamisuB, taken by Alexander ou his march into 

Bebk^css (BiSpvKeg). 1. A mythical people ia 
Bithynia, said to be of Thracian origin, whose 
k'^g, Amjrcus, was slain by Pollux (p. 90, b.)— 
2. An ancient Iberian people on the coast of the 
blediterranean, north and south of the Pyrenees : 
thev possessed numerous herds of cattle. 

BedriIodm, a smaU place in Cisalpine Gaul, 
between Cremona and V erona, celebrated fur the 
ilefeat both of Otho and of the Vitellian troops, 
AD. 69. 

BelbIna (BiULva : BeUivtTfic), 1. (Now Si. 
Chorge cT Arhori), an island m £e ^E^sean Sea, 
ofif the south coast of Attica. — 2. VuL Bele- 


Belemina {JHeXefdvOf now Belemia\ also called 
Belmina and BelbinOf a town in the northwest 
of Laconia, on Uie borders of Arcadia, llie sur^ 
rounding district was called Belminatis and B^l- 

Belesis or BelSsts (Bi^^aic, BReovf), a Chal- 
de^ priest at Babvlon, who is said, in conjunc- 
tion with Arbaces tne Mede, to have overthrown 
the old Assyrian empire. Vid. Arbaces. Bele- 
sis afterward received the satrapy of Babylon 
from Arbaces. 

BELQiE, one of the three great people into 
which Caosar divides the population of GauL. 
They were bounded on the north by the Rhine, ' 
on the west by the ocean, on the south by the ' 
Seouana (now Seine) and Matrona (now Mime), 
ana on the east by the territory of the TrevirL 
They were of German origin, and had settled in 
the country, expelling or reducing to subjection 
(he former inhaoitunts. They were the bravest ; 
of the inhabitants of Gaul, were subdued by \ 
Cossar after a oourageou4 resistance, and were the . 
first Gallic people who threw off the Roman do- ! 
minioiv The BolgsB were subdivided into the I 
iribes ')f the Ncbvu. Bellovaoi, Rexi, Suss-* 

8IONB8, Mosiin, Mehafu, AnvAnor, and othera 
and the collective forces of the whoU catior 
were more than a million. 
BbloIca. Vid, Galiia. 
BxLofuic, tiie name generally applied to th^ 
territory of the Bellovaoi, and of the tril>es de 
pendent upon the latter, namely, the Atrebates 
Ambiam, Velliocasses, Aulerd, and CaletL Bel- 
num did not include the whole countrjr inhab- 
ited by the BelgsB, for we find the Nervii, Remi, 
(fee, expressly exduded from it (Caes., i^. O^ v. 

[Belgiub or BoLGiCB (BSXyioc), a leader of the 
Gauls, who mvaded Macedonia and Blyria in 
B.C. 280. He defeated the Macedonians in a 
great battle, in which their king, Ptolemy Cerau- 
nus, was slaia] 

[Beudes, patronymic of Pahunedes, as de- 
scended from^elus.] ' 

BeusIsidb, the greatest general of Justinian, 
was a native of Blyria, and of mean extraction 
In AJ). 684 he overthrew the Vandal kingdom 
in Africa, which had been established bv Gen- 
serio about one hundred years previously, and 
took prisoner the Vandal king Gelimer, whom 
he led in triumph to Constantinople. In 585- 
540, Belisarius carried on war against the Goths 
in Italy, and conquered Sicily, but he was re- 
called Dy the jealousy of Justiniaa In 541-544 
he again earned on war against the Goths in 
Italy, but was again recalled by Justinian, leav- 
ing his victories to be completed by his rival, 
Narses, in tiie complete overthrow of the Gothic 
kingdom, and the establishment of the exarchate 
of Ravenna. The last victoir of Belisarius was 
gained in repelling an inroad of the Bulgarians, 
559. In 568, he was accused of a conspiracy 
against the life of Justinian; according to a 
popular tradition, he was deprived of his pro- 
perty, his eyes were put out, and he wandered 
as a beggar through Constantinople; but ac- 
cording to the more authentic account, he was 
merely imprisoned for a jear in his own palace, 
and tnen restored to his honors. He cued in 

BellIErSphon or BELLiaSpHONTzs (BeX^po- 
^ or Be'AXepo(f>6vT7fc)f son of the Corinthian 
king Glaucus and Euirmede, and grandson of 
Sisyphus, was originally called Hipponous, and 
received the name Bellerophon from slaying the 
Corinthian Bellerus. To oe purified from the 
murder he fled to Prcetus, whose wife Antea fell 
in love with the young hero; but as her oflfcn 
were rejected by him, she accused him to her 
husband of having made improper proposals to 
her. Proetus, unwilling to kill hun with his 
own hands, sent him to his father-in-law, lo- 
bates, king of Lyda, with a letter, in which Uic 
latter was requested to put the young man to 
death. lobates accordingly sent him to loll the 
monster Chinuera, thinking that he was sur« 
to ^rish in the contest After obtahiing pos- 
session of the winged horse, Pegasus, Betler ' 
ophon rose with him in the air, and killed the 
Cnimffira with his arrows. lobates, thus dis- 
appointed, sent Bellerophon against the Soly- 
mi, and next against the Amazons. In these 
contests he was also victorious; and on his re^ 
turn to Lycia, being attacked by the bravest 
Lycians, whom lobates had placed m ambush 
for the purpose, Bellerophon slew them all lo- 



tmUM, now seeiDg that it was hop«leM to kill ! 
^e hero, gaye him his daughter (Phllonoe, An- 
tielea, or Cassandra) in mairiage, and made him 
bis suoeesaor on the throoe. Bellerophon be- 
came the father of Isander, Hippolochusi and 
Laodamia. At hist Bellerophoo drew upon him- 
self the hatred of the gods, and, consumed br 
giiet wandered lonely Uirough the Aleian field, 
avoiding the paths of men. This is all that 
Homer says respecting Bellerophon's later fate : 
soma traditions related that he attempted to fly 
to heaven upon Pegasus, but that Jupiter (Zeus) 
sent a ^d-fly to sting the horae, which threw 
off the rider upon the earth, who became lame 
or blind in consequence. (Horace, Carm^ iv^ 
11, 26.) 

[Bauibtus, a CSorinthian. VicL BEixsao- 

Belu, a Celtiberinn people in Hispania Tar- 

[Beluknus, L. 1. Uncle of Catiline, proprse- 
tor in Africa B.C. 104. — 2. Originally a slave of 
Demetrius, was the occasion of an insurrection 
in Intemelium during the civil war between 
Cesar and Pompey.] 

BzllQsa, the Roman goddess of war, was 
probably a Sabine divinity. She is frequently 
mentioned by the Roman poets as the compan- 
ion of Mars, or even as his sister or his wife, 
and is described as armed with a bloody scourge. 
(Virg, jEn^ viii, 703.) During the Samnite 
wars in EC. 296, Appius Claudius Cfficus vowed 
a temple to her, which was erected in the Cam- 
pas Martius. Her priests, called Bellonarii, 
wounded their own arms or legs when they 
offered sacrifices to her. 

Bjcllovaci, the most powerful of the BelgSB, 
dwelt in the modem ^eauvais^ between the 
Seine, Oise, Somme, and Bresle. In Caesar's 
time they could bring one hundred thousand 
men into the field, but they were subdued by 
Cttsar with the other Belgss. 

Belon or Rblon (Bc/U^, 'Qaikov, near Boh- 
fita, ruins), a sea-port town in Hispania Boetica, 
on a river of the same name, (now Barbate), the 
usual place for crossing over to Tingis in Mau- 

BsLTO (BvXofi snn of Neptune (Poseidon) 
and Libya or Eurynome, twin brother of Age- 
nor, and father of ifigyptus and Danaus. He 
was believed to be the ancestral hero and na- 
tional divinity of several Eastern nations, from 
whom Uke legends about him were transplanted 
to Greece, and there became mixed up with 
Greek myths. 

BfiLUS (Bi7^ : now Nahr Naman), a river of 
Phoenicia, risbg at the foot of Mount Carmel, 
and falling into the sea close to the south of 
Ptolemais (now Acre\ celebrated for the tradi- 
tion that its fine sand first led the Phcenicians 
to the invention of glass. 

BkkAccb Lacus (now Lafo di Oarda\ a lake 
in the north of Italy (Gallia Transpadana), out 
of which the Mindus flowa 

BiiiivxivTUH (now Benevento\ a town in Sam- 
cinm, on the Appia Via, at the junction of the 
two valleys through which the Sabatus and 
Calor flow, formerly called MalevtiUwn on ac- 
ooont^ it is said, of its bad air. It was one of 
the most ancient towns in Italy, having been 
if mded. accordmg to tradition, by Diomede. 

In the Samnite wars it was subdued by the U» 
mans, who sent a colony thither in B.C. 268, 
and changed its name Maleventum into Bene- 
▼entum. It was isolonized a second time by Au 
gustus, and was hence called Oolonia Mia Con' 
cardia Atigutta Felix. The modem town has 
several Roman remain^ among oJiers a tri- 
umphal arch of Trajan. 

BJEaxoTKiiA (BeptKWTia), a surname of Cyb- 
ele, which she derived from Mount BerecyiH 
tus where she was worshipped. 

[BKasonrrus Moks (Bep^/cwro^), a mount- 
ain in Phrygia, sacred to Cybele. Vid. ths 

Biaiiiiios {BepevUif^ a Macedonic form of 
PherenMce (^£peviKri\ u *, "Bringing Victory." 
1. First the wife of [Philip, son of Amyntas, a 
Macedonian officer], and afterward of Ptolemy 
L Soter, who fell in love with her when she 
came to Eg^pt in attendance on his bride Eu- 
rydice, Antipater's daughter. She was cele- 
brated for her beauty and virtue, and was the 
mother of Ptolemy II. Pbiladelpbua. — 2. Daugh 
ter of Ptolemy II. Philadelphus, and wife of An 
tiochus Theos, king of Svria, who divcrced La 
odice in order to marry tier, B.C. 249. On the 
death of Ptolemy, B.C. 247, Antiochus recalled 
Laodice, who, notwithstandimr, caused him to 
be poisoned, and murdered l^erenice and her 
son. — 8. Daughter of Magas, king ^of Cyrene. 
and wife of Ptolemy III. Euergetei She was 
put to death by her son Ptolemy IV. Philopator 
on his accession to the throne, 221. The fa- 
mous hair of Berenice, which she dedicated for 
her husband's safe return from his Syrian ex- 
pedition in the temple of Arsinoe at Zephyrium, 
was said to have oecome a constellation. It 
was celebrated by Callimachus in a poem» of 
which we have a translation by Catullus. — 4. 
Otheiwise called Cleopatra, daughter of Ptole- 
my VIII. Lath^mis, succeeded her lather on the 
throne B.C. 81, and married Ptolemy X. (Alex- 
ander IL), but was murdered by her husband 
nineteen days after her marriage. — ^5. Daughter 
of Ptolemy XI. Auletes, and eldest sister of the 
famous Cleopatra, was placed on the tbrone by 
the Alexandrines when thev drove out her fa* 
ther, B.C. 58. She afterward married Archelaus, 
but was put to death, with her husband, when 
Gabinius restored Auletes, 66.--6. Sister of Her- 
od the Great, married Aristobulus, who was put 
to death B.C. 6. She afterward went to Rome, 
where she spent the remainder of her life. She 
was the mother of Agrippa L — 7. Daughter of 
Agrij)pa I., married her uncle Herod, king of 
Chalcis, by whom she had two sons. After the 
death of Herod, A.D. 48, Berenice, then twenty 
years old, lived with her brother Agiippn II., not 
without suspicion of an incestuous commerce 
with him. She gained the love of Titus, who 
was only withheld from making her his wife by 
fear of offending \he Romans by such a step.-^ 
[& Wife of Mithradates the Great, put to death 
by him with his other wives, to preveot their 
falling alive into the hands of the Romuna] 

BiaiNicE (BepevUri : BeprvtKivc), the nam€ 
of several cities of the period of the Ptolemie& 
1. Formerly Eaiongebcr (ruins near Akabah\ in 
Arabia, at the head of the Sinus iElanites, oi 
eastern branch of the Red Sea. — 2. In Uppei 
Egypt (for so it was considered, though it la^ 
Digitizer 41 



a litde sou'Ji of the parallel of Sjene), on the 
Qoast of the Red Sea, on a gulf called SinuB 
Immundos {&Kd6apTog it6X:rog, now Fotd Bay\ 
where its ruins are Btill Tisible. It was named 
niter the mother of Ptolemj IL Philadelphus, 
who built it, and made a road hence to Coptos, 
•o that it became a chief emporium for the com- 
merce of Egypt with Arabia and India. Under 
the Romans it was the residence of a prsefectus. 
—8. B. PAN0Ha?808 (B. ILuyxpvao^ or ij KarvL 
IdSacX on the Red Sea coast in ^Ethiopia, con- 
Bideraolj south of the above. — i B. £Fii>!aiES 
(B. inl Aetpw), on the Promontory Dira, on the 
western side of the entrance to the Ited Sea 
(now 8traiU of Bab-d-Mandeb). — 6. (Now Ben 
Ohazi, ruins), in Oyrenaica, formerly Hsspe&ib 

gSffTTfptc), the fabled site of the Gardens of the 
esperides. It took its later name from the 
wife of Ptolemy IIL tluergetes, and was the 
westernmost of the five cities of the Libyan 
Pentapolis.- There were other cities of the 

BeroistIni, a people in the northeast of Spain, 
between the Iberus and the Pyrenees, wnose 
capital was Bergium. 

[Bergihic {pow Bamberg f), 1. A place in the 
country of the Hermunduri, in Germania Magna. 
— 2. Vid. Bergistaio.] 

Bebg$mum (Bergomas, -atis: now Bergamo), 
a town of the Orobii in Gallia Cisalpina. be- 
tween Comum and Brixla, afterward a muni- 

[Bermius Mons (B^p//m>v hpog : now Xero Li- 
vadho\ a mountain of Macedonia, a continuation 
of the great range of Olympus.] 

Ber6b (Bepof/). 1 . A Trojan woman, wife of 
Doryclus, one of the companions of ./Eneas, 
whose form Iris assumed when she persuaded 
the women to set fire to the ships of uEneas in 
Sicily. — [2. The nurse of Semele, whose form 
Juno (Hera) assumed for the purpose of per- 
suading Semele to request Jupiter to visit her 
m all his divine majesty. — 3. Obe of the ocean 

Bercea (B^pota, also Befifioia, Bepoij : Bepoievd 
Beooialoi;). 1. (Now Verria), one of the most 
ancient towns of Macedonia, on one of the low- 
er ranges of Mount Bermius, and on the As- 
trieus, a tributary of the Haliacmon, southwest 
of Pella, and about twenty miles from the sea. 
— 2. (Now Beria)y a town in the interior of 
Thrace, was under the later Roman empire, 
together with Fhilippopolis, one of the most 
important military posts. — 8. (Now Aleppo or 
Ealeb), a town in Syria near Antioch, enlarged 
by Seleucus Nicator, who ^ve it the Macedo- 
nian name of Bercea. It is called Helbon or 
Chelbon in Ezekiel (zzvii., 18), and ChcUep in 
the Byzantme writers, a name still retained in 
the modem Ifaleb, for which Europeans have 
substituted Aleppo. • 

B£rosds (Bjipuaoct or "Bifpuaaog^ a priest of 
Belus at Babylon, lived in the reign of Antio- 
chus IL (B.C. 261-246), and wrote in Greek a 
history of Babylonia, m nine books (called Ba- 
6vXuviKdj and sometimes XaXdoi/ca or Urroptat 
XaXdaiKoiS, It embraced the earliest traditions 
about the numan race, a description of Babylo- 
nia and its population, and a chronological list 
of its kings down to the time of the great Cyrus. 
B«*.n>Bus stiys that he derived the materials for 

his work from the archives in the temile oi 
Belus. The work itself is lost^ but considcrabU 
fragments of it are preserved in Josephu* 
Eusebius, Syncellus, and the Christian fauiers 
the best editions of the fragments are by Rich 
ter, lips., 1826, and in BidoVs JF\ragmerUa BUtor 
ieorvm Oraxontmy voL ii, Paris, 1848. 

BftatTua (BjjpvToc: Bjypvnof : now Beiptt, 
ruins), one of the oldest sea-ports of Phoenicia, 
stood on a promontory near the mouth of the 
River Ma^oras (now ifahr Beirut)^ half way be- 
tween By dIus and Sidoa It was destroyed by 
the Syrian kingTryphon (RC. 140), and restored 
by Agrippa under Augustus, who made it a col- 
ony. It afterward became a celebrated seat of 

BfisA. Vid AjiTiNodroLis. 

Bessi, a fierce and powerful Thracian people, 
who dwelt along the whole of Mount Bjemus as 
far as the Euzine. After the conquest of Mace- 
donia by the Romans (B.C. 168), toe Bessi were 
attacked by the latter, and subdued after a se 
vere struggle. 

Bessos (Bfjaaoc), satrap of Bactria under Da 
rius IIL, seized Darius soon after the battle of 
Arbela, B.C. 831. Pursued by Alescander m the 
following year, Bessus put Darius to death, and 
fled to Bactria, where he assumed the title of 
king. He was betrayed by two of his followers 
to Alexander, who put him to death. 

Bestia, CalfurnIus. 1. L., tribune of the 
plebs B.C. 121, and consul 111, when he carried 
on war against Jugurtha, but, having received 
large bribes, he concluded a p^ace wiSi the Nu 
midiaa On his return to Rome, he was, iu con- 
sequence, accused and condemned.-<-2. L., one of 
the Catilinarian conspirators, B.C. 68, was at 
the time tribune of the plebs designatus, tmd 
not actually tribune, as SaUust says. In 59 he 
was ffidile, and in 67 was an unsuccessful candi- 
date for the prfetorship, notwitlistanding hb bri- 
bery, for which offence he was brought to trial 
in the following year, and condemned, although 
he was defended by Cicero. 

Betasii, a people in Gallia Belgica, between 
the Tun^ and X^ervii, in the neighborhood of 
Beetz in Brabant 

[Bevus (Bevoc)t a river of Macedonia, an af 
fluent of the Erigon.] 

Bezira. Vid Bazira. 

BiInor. 1. Also called Ocnus or Aucnus, 
son of Tiberis and Manto^ is said to have builc 
the town of Mantua, and to have called it after 
his mother. — 2. A Bithynian, the author of 
twenty-one epigrams in the Greek Anthology, 
lived under Augustus and Tiberius. 

BiAs(B(a^.) 1. Son of Amythaon, and brother 
of the seer Melampus. He married Pero 
daughter of Neleus, whom her father had re 
fused to give to any one unless he brought him 
the oxen of Iphiclus. These Melampus obtained 
by his courage and skill, and so won the princess 
for his brother. Melampus also opined for Bias 
a third of the kingdom of Aj^os, m consequence 
of bis curing the daughters of Proetus and the 
other Argive women of their madness. — ?. Of 
Priene in Ionia, one of the seven sages of Gi eeoe. 
flourished about B.C. 650. 

BiBAct^Lus, M. FurIus, a Roman jraet, bore 
at Cremona B.C. 108, wrote iambics, epigrams 
Hnd a poem on Ceesar^s Gaulish wars the ncKtn- 



Sff line In tho latter p««m is parodied by Horace ' 
mirtiM hibertuu carta nive contpuet Atpet, Sai^ 
a, 6, 41). It is ]^robable that Bibaculus also | 
wrote a poem entitled .^thiopis, containing an ' 
account of the death of Memnon hj AchiUes^ | 
and that the turgidw Alpinus of Horace {8at^ ' 
i^ 10, 86) is no other than Bibaculus. The at- 
tacks of Morace against Bibaculus may probably 
be owing to the fact that the poems of bibaculus 
eoutainS insults against the Ciesars. (Tac^^nyL, 
17, 84.) . 

BiBBACTB (now Avitin\ the chief town of the 
.£dui in GaUia Lugdjnensis, afterward Augu9- 

BiBBAX (now Bievre), a town of the Remi in 
Gallia Belgica, not far from the Aisne. 

BiBOLUS OALPUEiriu& 1. L., curule sedile B. 
C. 65, pnetor 62, and consul 59, in each of which 
years he had C. Julius Casar as his collea^e. 
He was a stanch adherent of the aristocratical 
party, but was unable in his consulship to re- 
ibt the powerM combination of Ciesar, Pom- 
pey, and Crassus. After an ineffectual attempt 
to oppose Caesar^s agrarian law, he withdrew 
from we popular assemblies altogether ; whence 
it was said in joke that it was the consulship 
of Julius and Casar. In 51 Bibulus was pro- 
consul of Syria; and in the civil war he com- 
manded Pompey's fleet in the Adriatic, and 
died (46) while holding this command off Cor- 
cyra. He married Porcia, the daughter of Cato 
U tieensis, by whom he had three sons,' two of 
whom were murdered by the soldiers of Gabin- 
ins, in £g}[pt, 5(X — 2. L., son of No, 1, was a 
youth at his iather^s death, and was brought up 
by M. Brutus, who married his mother rorcia. 
He fought with Brutus at the battle of Philippi 
in 42, but he was afterward pardoned b^ Anto- 
ny, and was intrusted by the latter with im- 
portant commands. He died shortly before the 
battle of Actium. 

[BicuBOiuM (now Erfurt f\ a city of the Che- 
nisci in Germany.] 

BiDis (Bidinus, Bidensis), a small town in Si- 
cily, west of Syracuse. 

BiGEBaA (now Beeerra /), a town of the Ore- 
lani in Hispania Tarraoonensis. 

BioebbiOnxs or BioEaai, a people in Aquita- 
nia, near the Pyrenees. 

BiLBiLiB (now Baubola)f a town of the Gelti- 
beri in Hispania Tarraconensis, and a munici- 
raum with the surname Augusta, on the River 
Salo, also called BilbiHs (now Xalon), was the 
lurth-place of the poet Martial, and was cele- 
bratea for its manufactories in iron and gold. 

BiLLiBua {pOCkalo^ : now Mlb<u), a river of 
ffithynia^ rising in tlie Hypii Montes, and ialluig 
into the Pontus Euzinus twenty stadia (two 
ffeographical miles) east of Tium. Some made 
n £e boundary between Bithynia and PapMa- 

BinoIdx (now Bingen), a town on the Rhine, 
m Gallia Belgica. 

Bioif (Bujv). 1. Of Smyrna, a bucolic poet, 
flourished about B.G. 280, and spent the last 
years of his life in Sicily, where he was poison- 
ed He was older than Moschus, who laments 
his untimely death, and calls Himtf Al f the pupil 
of Bir>a (Mosck, Id, in.) The style of Bion 
is refined, and his versification fluent and ele- 
i^aiit bat he if inferior to Tbecoritus in stren^ 

and depth of feeling.— .£^'^*(m«, uiduding Mo» 
chus, by Jacobs, Gotha, 1795 ; Wakefield, La» 
don, 1796; and Manso, Leipzig, 1807. — 2. Of 
Borysthenes, near the mouth of the Dnieper, 
flourished about B.C. 250. He was sold as a 
■lave, when young, and received his hberty from 
his master, a rhetorician. He studied at Athens, 
and embraced the later Oyrenaic philosophy, 
as expounded by THsonoaus, the Atheist He 
lived a considerable time at the court of Antig 
onus Gonatas, king of Macedonia. Bion was 
noted for his shai^ sayings, whence Horace 
speaks of persons delighting Bionei% termonibtts 
€t 9al€ nigro, {EjmL, iL, 2, 60.)— [^3. Of Soli in 
Cilicia, author of a work on -^Ethiopia (Ai^to- 
iTfica), of which a few frafi^ents remain; he 
wrote also a treatise on agneulture.— 4. A math 
ematician of Abdera, the first who maintained 
that there were certain 'regions where the night 
lasted six months, and the day the other six 
months of the ^ear.] 

[BiBTHA (rums at Birad^k), a dty of Osrho- 
«ne, on the Euphrates.] 

[BiSALT^ (BtffciAraf). Vld. Bi3Altia.J 

BiSALtiA {Biaakrta : BiodXrrfc), a district in 
Macedonia, on the western bank of the Stry- 
moa The Bisaltce were Thracians, and at the 
iuvasion of Greece by Xerxes (B.C. 480) thej 
were ruled by a Iliracian prince, who was in- 
dependent of Macedonia; but at the time of 
the Peloponnesian war we find them subject to 

[BiBALTis, female patronymic from BUalte$f L 
e., Theophane.] 

BiSAMTHB (Biauvdrfi Biaavdrjvo^ : now BiQ- 
doito), subsequently Bhcedettum or Bhoedettua, a 
town in Thrace on the Propontis, with a good 
harbor, was founded by the Somians, and was 
in later times one of the great bulwarks of the 
neighboring Byzantium. 

Bist5nes (BAjTovef), a Thracian people be^ 
tween Mount Rhodope and the iEgean Sea, on 
the Lake Bistonis, in the neighborhood of Ab 
der^ through whose land Xerxes marched on 
his invasion of Greece (B.C. 480^. From the 
worship of Bacchus (Dionysus) m Thrace the 
Bacchic women are called BiitMideB. (Hor., 
CamL, iL, 19, 20.) 

BrrH^NlA (BiCfuvta : Bi9w6^), a district of Asia 
Minor, bounded on the west by Mysia, on th<! 
north by the Pontus Euxinus, on the east by 
Paphlagonia, and on the south by Phrvgia Epie- 
tetus, was possessed at an earlv period by Thra 
dan tribes from the neighborhood of the Stry 
mon, called Thyni (Bwot) and Bithyni (Bidwoi), 
of whom the former dwelt on the coast, the 
latter in the interior. The earlier inhabitants 
were the Bkbbycss, Oauoones, and Mtgdones. 
and the northeastern part of the district was 
possessed by the Mariandynl The eountry 
was subdued by the Lydians, and afterward be- 
came a part of the Persian empire under Gyrus, 
and was governed by the satraps of Phrygia. 
Dming the decline of the Persian empire, the 
northern part of the country became independ- 
ent, under native princes called ^napxoi, whc 
resisted Alexander and his successors, and es 
tablished a kingdom, which is usually considei 
ed to begin with Zipcetes (about B.O. 287) or hit 
son Nlcomedes I. (B.O. 278), and which lasted 
till the death of Nioomedes JH. (B.C. 74) wh«i 



Ipeqiieatbed his kmgdom. to the Romans. By 
tjiem it was liret attached to the proTince of 
Asia, afterward to that of Pontus, and, under 
Augiwtus, it was made a proconsular proTince* 
Several changes were made in its boundaiies 
under the later empei\>r8. It was a fertile 
eountry, intersected with wooded mountains, the 
highest of which was the Mjsian Olympus, on 
its southern border. Its chief rirere were the 
SANQAaros and the BiiXiEUB. 

BiTHf NiuM {Bi6vviov)t afterward Claudiopo- 
ua, an inland city of Bithynia, the birth-phice of 
Haidrian's fiEiyorite Antbous. 

BiTON {BiTuv), 1. A mathematician, the au- 
thor of an extant work on Military Machines {kq- 
TcuiKevctl iroXefwuiv dpydvitv Koi KaTaneXriKuv), 
whose history is unknown. The work is printed 
in Vei, Matkem, Op^ Paris, 1693, jk 105, seq.— 
[2. A friend of Xenophou, who, with Euclides, 
showed him kindness, and rdieved his wanta at 
Ophryniiuq, on his return from Babylonia.] 

BrroN and Cle5bib {KX^o6t^\ sons of Oydippe, 
a priestess of Juno (Hera) at Argos. They were 
celebrated for their affection to their mother, 
whose chariot they once dragged durine a fes- 
tiyal to the temple of Juno (Hera), a distance 
of forty-fiye stadia. The priestess prayed to 
the goadess to grant them what was best for 
mortals; and during the night they both died 
while asleep in the temple. 

BiTuiTus, in inscriptions Betultub, king of 
the Aryemi in Gaul, joined the Allobroges in 
their war against the Romans. Both tlM Ar- 
yemi and Allobroges were defeated B.C. 121, at 
the confluence of the Rhone and the Isara, by 
Q. Fabius Maidmus. Bituitus was subseqaently 
taken prisoner and sent to Rome. 

BitObiges, a numerous and powerful Celtic 
people in G&llia Aquitanica, had in early times 
Uie supremacy oyer the other Celts in GauL 
(liy., y., 84.) They were divided into, 1. Bit. 
CuBi, separated from the Caiiiutes and iEdui 
by the Liger, and bounded on the south by the 
liemoyices, in the countir of the modem J^our- 
fM ; their capital was AyAEiouiL 2. Bit. Vi- 
yisci or Ubisci on the Garumna : their capital 
was BuaniGALA. 

BlIdds, Blandub, or Blauddb (BXd-, BAuv-, 
BAai)<$of: BXavdrpfoc: Blaudesius), a city of 
Phrygia, near the borders of Mysia and Lyaia. 

BuASUs, C. SEMpaoMlns, consul with Cn. Ser> 
villus Cspio, EC. 253, in the first Punio war. 
The two consuls sailed to the coast of Africa, 
and on their return were overtaken off Cape 
Palinurus by a tremendous storm, in which one 
hundred and fifty ships perished. 

BunuB, JunIus, governor of Pannonia at the 
death of Augustus, AJ). 14, when the formid- 
able insurrection of the legions broke out in 
that province. He obtained the government of 
Africa in 21, where he gained a victory over 
Tacfarinas. Oh the fall of his uncle S'ljac-.v in 
81, he was deprived of the priestly offices wnich 
he held, and m 86 put an &ad to nis own life, to 
«yoid falling by the hand of the ezecutioDer. 

Blaxda. 1. (Now BUaoi), a town o{ the 
Lacetani Ip Hispania Tarraoonensis.— 2. (Now 
8L Bianojf a town in Lucania. 

[Blandusia Fons. Vid. BAirDUsiA.] 

bLAficoN (now Bre9eou\ a small island in the 
G«Uicus Sinus, off the town of Agatha. 

Blasio, M. Helvius, prcctor RC. 107, deliatad 
tlie Celtiberi in Spam, and took Illiturai 

[Blaudus {Bkavdoc), Vid. Bladus.] 

Blavia (now Blaye), a town of the Santooei 
in Gallia Aquitanica, on the Garumna. 

Blemyes (B^/n;ec BXe/u^e^), an Ethiopian 
people on the boratan of Upper Egypt, to whioh 
their predatory incursions were veiy troubleK>me 
in the times of the Roman emperors. 

[Blemdium (now SarUanderf), a port of tbt 
Cantabri in Hispania Tarraconensis.] 

Blksjl (Bleranus: now Bieda\ a town in 
Etmria, on the Via Clodia, between Forum 
Clodii and Tuscania : there are many remabs of 
the ancient town at Bieda. 

BlosIus or Blobsius, the name of a noble 
family in Campania. One of this family, 0. 
Blosius of CumsB, was a philosopher, a disciple 
of Antipater of Tarsus, and a friend of Tibenus 
Gracchus. After the death of Gracchus (EC 
133) he fled to Aristonicus, king of Pergamus. 
and on the conquest of Aristonicus by the Ro 
mans, Blosius put an end to his own life for feai 
of falling into the hands of the Romans. 

BoADicfiA, queen of the Iceni in Britain, hav 

Xbeen shamefully treated by the Rcm:uis 
even ravished ner two daughters, excited 
an insurrection of the Britons against their op 

Eressors during the absence of Suetonius Pau- 
nus, the Roman governor, on an expedition tc 
the island of Mona. She took the Roman colo 
nies of Camalodunum, Londinium, and othei 
places, and slew nearly seventy thousand Ro- 
mans and then: allies. She i^ras at length de- 
feated with great loss b^ Suetonius Paulinus, and 
put an end to her own hfe, A J). 61. 

[Bo^ or Bavo (now Bua), an island on tlie 
coast of Dalmatia, used by the later Roman em- 
perors as a place of exile for state criminals.] 

BoAoaiuB (Boa/piof, now TerTemotto)^ a river 
in Locris, also called Manes, flows past Thro- 
nium into the Sinus Maliacus. 

[BoBiijM ^now Bobbio)t a c€utrvm of the li* 
gurians, on the Trebia.] 

[BoooHAR. 1. A brave king of the Mauri in 
A^mca, a contemporary of Masinissa. — 2. An 
officer of King Syphax, who fought against 

BoocHUB (6oic;(Of). 1. King of Mauretania, 
and father-in-law of Ju^rtha, with whom ai 
first he made war against the Romans, but 
whom he afterward delivered up to Sulla, the 
quaestor of Marius, B.C. 106.— 2. Son of the 
preceding, reigned alons with his brother Bo- 
gud over Mauretania. Bocchus and Bogud zs 
sisted Cssar in his war against the Pompeians 
in Africa, EC. 46; and m 45 Bogud joined 
Caesar in his war in Spaia After the murder 
of Caesar, Bocchus sided with Octavianus, and 
Bogud with Antony. When Bogud was in 
Spain in 88, Bocchus usurped the sole govern- 
ment of Mauretania, in which he was confirmed 
by Octavianus. He died about 83, whereupcn 
his kingdom became a Roman provmce. Bogud 
ha4 previously betaken himself to Antony, and 
was lolled on the capture of Methoue by Agri]>- 
pain 81. 

[BoDKRiA (Bodtf^t etow/f, Ptol). Vid Bo- 


BoDENCUB or BooxNOUB. Vid Padvb. 
BoniocABBES, a people in Gallia LuEdunen 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



iSi t&eir eafiital was Avgtjbtodubuh (now 

Boi^jT&iA or Bci>»BiA .^STDlaiUM (now Firth 
»/ Fhrth), ao SBetu^ od the eastern coast of 

[BoDuooNATus, leadof of the Nervii in Gallia 
b the time of Julius OcBbar 1 

B<BJi (Botai : ^idrtfc : now Vatka\ a town | 
in the south of Laconica, aear Oape Malea. 

[BcKATioua Simra, to the eas^ or, rather, the 
eastern part, of the Laoonicos Sinus, so called 
from the town of Boeffi, and now Gulf of Vatka.] 

BacBE (Bo/617 : Boi6ev^)j a town in Pelasgio- 1 
^ in Thesealy, on the western shore of the 
Lake BckbIis (BoiStjic, now Bio), into which 
several rivers^ of Thessal j flow. 

BoftJDBdMius (Boijdpofuocy "the helper in dis- 
tress," a surname of Apollo at Athens, becaose 
be had assisted the Athenians. Vid, JOiet. of 
Ant^ art Bobdbomia. 

[BoEo (Bo(u), a Grecian poetess of Delphi, 
oomposed a hymn, of which Pausanias has pre- 
served a few lines.] 

BoiOTiA {Boioria : BouiT6c : part of IAvadia\ 
a district of Greece, bounded north by Opun- 
tian Locris, east by the Euboean Sea, south by 
Attica, Megaris, and the Corinthian Gulf^ and 
west b^ Fhocis. It is nearly surrounded by 
mountains, namely, Helicon and Parnassus on 
the west, Cithseron and Fames on the south, 
tiie Opuntian mountains on the north, and a 
range of mountains along the whole sea-coast 
00 the east The country contains several 
fertile plains, of which the two most important 
were the valley of the Asopus in the south, the 
inhabitants of which were called Parasopii, and 
the vaUey of the Gephisus in the north (the 
npper part of which, however, belonged to Pho- 
cis), the inhabitants of which were called Epi- 
oephisil In the former valley the chief towns 
were THE3iB, Tanagra, Thbsplb, and Pla- 
TMM] in the latter the chief towns were Oa- 
CHOMEiTUSy CHiSaoiinEA, CoaouvA, Lebadba, and 
Haliabtub ; the latter valley included the Lake 
CoPAis. The surface of Motia is said to be 
one thousand and eighty square mUes. The at- 
mosphere was damp and thick, to which cir- 
eomstance some of the ancients attributed the 
dnUnesB of the Bceotian intellect^ with which 
(he Athenians freouently made merry ; but the 
deficiency of the j^oeotians in this respect was 
more probably owing, as has been well re- 
marked, to the extraordinary fertility of their 
country, which probably depressed their intel- 
lectuiil and moral energies. In the earliest 
times BcBotia was inhabited by various tribes, 
Hie Aones (whence the country was called 
Aonia), Temmices, Hyantes, Thradans, Lele- 
ges, ic Orchomenus was inhabited by the 
powerful tribe of the Minyans, and Thebies by 
the Oadmeans, the reputed descendants of Cad- 
KUB. The Bodotians were an ./Eolian people, 
who iriginally occupied Ame in Thessaly, from 
friuch £ey were ezpeUed by the Thessalians 
rizty years after the Trojan war, and migrated 
it'to the country called after them BoBotia, partly 
expelling and partly incorporating with them- 
selves the ancient inhabitants of the land. 
BcBotia was then divided into fourteen inde- 
pendent states, which formed a league, with 
Htebps nt its head. The chief nragittrates of 

flie oonfederacr were the BoBotarehs, elt«ted 
annually, two by Thebes and one by each of 
the other states ; but as the number of states 
was different at different times, that of ths 
BoBotarchs also varied. The government k 
most states was an aristocraoy. Vid. Did, u/ 
AfU,, art BaoTAKCHEs. 

BoftTHiua, whose full name was Anicius M.i!f 
Lius SxvxaiNUB BoBTHius, B }li?nian Dtatesmia 
and author, was bom between AD. 470 and 476 
He was fiunous for his general learning, and es- 
pecially for his knowledge of Greek pMlosophy 
which, according to a common account (thougk 
of doubtful aumority), he studied under Proclu» 
at Athens. He was consul in 610, and was 
treated with great distinction by Theodoric the 
Great; but having incurred the suspicions of 
the latter by advocating the cause of the Ital- 
ians against the oppreSsions of the Goths, hu 
was put to death by Theodoric about 624. Du- 
ring his imprisonment he wrote his celebrated 
work De Conaolatione Pftilo9ophicB^ in five books, 
which b composed alternately in prose and 
verse. The dicti<Hi is pure and elegant, and 
the sentiments are noble and exalted, showing 
that the author had a real belief in prayer and 
Providence, though he makes no reference to 
Christianity. Boethius was the last Roman of 
any note who understood the language and 
studied the literature of Greece. He translated 
many of the works of the Greek philosophers, 
especially of Aristotle, and wrote oommenta 
ries upon them, several of which have oomi« 
down to us. He also wrote a commentarv, in 
six books, upon the Topiea of Cicero, which is 
also extant In the ignorance of Greek writer* 
which prevailed from the sixth to the four 
teenth century, Boethius was looked upon as 
the head and type of all philosophers, as Au 
gustin was of aU theology, and Vngil of all lit- 
erature ; but after the introduction of the works 
of Aristotle into Europe in the thirteenth cen- 
tury, Boethius's fame g^radually died away. 
The best edition of his collective works was 
printed at Basel, 1670; the last edition of his 
jDe OoMolatione is by Obbarius, JensB, 1843. 

BoBTHUS {Boijd6c\ 1. A Stoic phUosophei of 
uncertain date, wrote several works, from on« 
of which Cicero quotes. — 2. A Peripatetic phi 
losopher, was a native of Sidoo in Ffacenicia, a 
disciple of Andronicus of Rhodes^ and an in 
structor of the philosopher Strabo. He there 
fore flourished about B.C. 80. He wrote sev 
eral works, all of which are now lost — [3. A 
native of Tarsus, who gained the fiivor of An 
tonv by celebratii^ in verse the defeat of Brutus 
and Cassius at Philippl] 

BatuM (Botov, Bolovt Bdov : Botany), an an 
cient town of the Dorian Tetrapoli& 


Bon, one of the most powerful of the Celtk 
tribes, said to have dwelt originally in Gaul 
^Transalpina), but in what part of the country 
is uncortaia At an early tune they migrate<l 
in two great swarms, one of which crossed the 
Alps and settled in the country between the Pu 
and the Apennines ; the other crossed l^e Rhine 
sod settled in the part of Germany called Boi- 
hemum (now Bohemia) after them, and between 
the Danube anc the Tyrol The Boii m Italy 
long carried on a fierce striggle with^ '* ' '^ 





■UUDfl. tnit ihey were at length subdued Ly the 
eoDSul P. Sdpio io B.C. 191, and were subse- 
aueati^ incorporated in the province of Gallia 
UiBalpina. The Boii in Germany maintained 
their po^er longer, but were at length subdued 
by the Marcomanni, and expelled from the coun- 
try. We find 32,000 Boii taking part in the 
H^vetian migration; and after the defeat of 
the Helvetiar^ (B.C. 58), Ciesar allowed these 
Doii to dwell among the .£dul 

[BuiodOecm, (now Innttadi), a town of Yin- 
dehcia, at the junction of the .^Inus (now Inn) 
and the Danube.] 

BoioBJz. 1. A chieftain of the Boii, fought 
against the Romans in Cisalpine Gaul, B.C. 
194. — [2. King of the Cimbri, fought against the 
Romans under Marius^ and fell m battle near 
Verona* B.C. IClJ 

BoLA, BoLiB, or YoLiB (Bolftnus), an ancient 
town of the iE^ui, belonging to the Latin league, 
not mentioned m later times. 

BolInus, Ysttids, governor of Britain in 
AD. 69, is praised by Statins in the poem (Silv^ 
v., 2) addressed to Crispinus, the son oi Bo- 

BoLBS (B6X61J : now BeMhek), a lake in Mace- 
donia, empties itself by a short river into the 
Strymonic Gulf near Bromiscus and Anion : the 
lake is now about twelve miles in length, and 
six or eight in breadth. There was a town of 
the same name upon the lakei 

BoL^TiNS {BoX6iTiv7f : Bo^iTiv^rtic : now 
Hosetta), a city of Lower £gypt» near the mouth 
of a branch of the Nile (tiie westernmost but 
one), which was called the Bolbitine mouth (rd 
Bo7i6lTivov OTofia), 

I^BouEBiuM PaoMOMToaiuM, the southwest 
pomt of Britannia, now LaruFt JSnd, in Corn- 

BuuNE (BoXivTf : BoXivdioc), a town in Achaia, 
the inhabitants of which Augustus transplanted 
to Patria 

B0LI88TO (BoAiaaoc : BoTUaaioCt no*^ Voliuo), 
% town on the western coast of Chios. 

B0MILGA& (Bofu?jtap, Boa/u^ap). 1. Com- 
mander, with Hanno, of the Carthaginians 
against Agathocles, when the latter invaded 
Afiica, B.C. 810. In 808 he attempted to seixe 
the ^vemment of Cartilage, but fSuled, and was 
orucified. — 2. Conmiander of the Carthaginian 
supplies sent to Hannibal after the batUe of 
CannsB, 216. He afterward atiempjed to re- 
lieve Syracuse when besieged by Maroellus, 
but was unable to accomplish any thing. — 8. A 
Numidian, deep in the confidence of Jug^rtha. 
When Jugurtha was at Rome, 109, Bomilcar 
effected for him the assassination of Massiva. 
In 107 he plotted against Jugurtha. 

BomIus Mons, {Bufuoc and ol Botiot), the west- 
ern part of Mount (£ta in iEtolia, inhabited by 
the Bomienses (Bw/uelc). 

Bona Dea, a Roman divinihr, is described as 
the sister, wife, or daughter of Faunus, and was 
uereelf called Fauna, Falua, or (hna. She was 
orshipped at Rome as a chaste and 

divinity; she revealed her oracles only to fe- 
males, as Faunus did only to males. Her festi- 
val was celebrated every year on the first of 
May, in tlie house of the consul or prostor, as 
the sacrifices on tliat occasion were cffered on 
behalf of the whole Roman people. The so- 

lemnities wtre conducted by the j ostals. and 
no male person was allowed to b<i in the Lousv 
at one of the festivals P. Clodius profaned the 
sacred ceremonies by entering the house of 
Cesar in the disguise of a woman, B.C. 62. 

BoNiTACius, a Roman general, governor of 
Africa under Yalentinian IIL Bdieving tliat 
the Empress Placidia meditated his destruction, 
he revolted against the emperor, and invited 
G^enseric, king of the Yandals, to settle in Afri- 
ca. In 480 he was reconciled to Placidia, and 
attempted to drive the Yandals out of Africa, 
but without success. He quitted Africa in 481, 
and iu 482 he died of a wound received in com- 
bat with his rival Aetius. 

BoNNA (now B<mn)t a town on the left bank 
of the Rhine, in Lower Germany, and in the ter^ 
ritory of the Ubii, was a strong foi*ti*eB8 of the 
Romans and the regular quarters of a Roman 
legion. Here Drusus constructed a bridge 
across the Rhine. 

BonOnIa (Bononiensis). 1. (Now Bologna), 
a town in Gallia Cispadaoa, originally called 
FsLBiNA, was in ancient times an Etniscan city, 
and the capital of northern Etruria. It after- 
ward fell into the hands of the Boii, but it was 
colonized by the Romans on the conquest of the 
Boii, B.C. 191, and its name of Felsina was then 
changed into Bononia. It fell into decay in the 
civU wars, but it was enlarged and adoi-ned by 
Augustus, 82. — 2. (Now BculogM)^ a town in m 
noHh of Gaul. Vid. Gesoriacub. — 3. (Now Ba- 
nottorf), a town of Pannonia, on the Danube. 

BonOsus, a Spaniard by birth, served with dis- 
tinction under Aurelian, and usurped the im]icri- 
al title in Gaul in tlie reign of Probus. He waf 
defeated and slain by Probus, A.D. 280 or 281. 

BoOtes. Vid, Arctdrxts. 

BoRBETOMAGUs (uow WotmB), also called Yah- 
GiONBS, at a later time Wormatia, a town of the 
Yangiones, on the left bank of the Rhine, in Up- 
per Germany. 

BdaiAS (iBopea^ or Bopuc), the north wind, or 
more strictly, the wind fr^m the north^uorth- 
east^ was, in mythology, a son of AstrsBus and 
Eos, and brother of Hesperus, Zephyrus, and 
Notus. He dwelt in a cave of Mount Haemus^ 
in Thrace. He carried off Orithyia, daughtei 
of Erechtheus, king of Attica, by whom ho begoi 
Zetes, Calais, and Cleopatra, wife of Phineus. 
who are therefore called BoreadoB, In the Per 
sian war, Boreas showed his friendly disposition 
toward the Athenians by destroying the shi^ 
of the barbarians. According to an Homeric 
tradition (7?., zz., 228), Boreas b^ot twelve 
horses by the noares of Erichthonius, which is 
commonly ezplabed as a figurative mode oi 
expressing the extraordinary swiftness of those 
horseSb Boreas was worshipped at Atheni, 
where a festival, BoreoinU, was celebrated in 
his honor. 

Bor£um (Bopeiov). 1. (Now Malin Head), the 
northern promontoiy of Hibernia (now Jreland\ 
— ^2. (Now Baa Teyonat^ a promontory on the 
western coast of Cyrenaica, forming the eastern 
headland of the Great Svrtis. — 8. The northern 
extremity of the ishmd of Taprobone (now 

fioaftus MoNS (Bopetov ^poc), a mountain in 
Arcadia, on the borders of Laconia, containing 
the sources of the rivers Alpheus and Eurotas 



HoBtva PoRi^s fj^opeioi MfjtJ/v), a harbor in 
the islaod jf Teoe'lus, at the moutb of a river of 
the same name. 

BoRsavA '{rd, Bopamna : Bopairnnfvo^ : now 
Baursa), a city of Babylonia, on the western 
bank of the Enphratee, a little south of Babylon, 
eelebrated for its manuflEUitures of linen, and as 
the chief residence of the Chaldean astrologers. 
The Greeks held it sacred to Apollo and Diana 

BGBTSTHiNis (BopvoBivrfC : now Dnieper)^ af- 
terward Danapus, a river of European Sanna- 
tia, flows into the Euzme, but its sources were 
unknown to the ancients. Near its mouth, and 
at its junction with the Hypanis. lay the town 
BoBTSTHXinB or BoarSTHKNis (now Kudak), 
also ciUled Olbia, Olbiopolis, and Miletopolis, 
a colony of Miletus^ and the most important 
Greek city on the north of the Euzine. (Eth- 
nic, BopvaOeviTff^f 'O^iofro^injc,) 

Bo6r5au8 (Bocnropof), i. e., Ox-ford, the name 
of any straits among the Greeks, but especially 
applied to the two following: 1. Thk Thbacx- 
AK Bospoaua, (now Channel of ConsiantinopUY 
unites tJbe Propontis, or Sea of Marmara, with 
the Euzine, or Black Sea According to the 
legend, it Wks called Botponu from lo, who 
crossed it in the form of a heifer. At the en- 
trance of the Bosporus were the celebrated 
STMrLEOADXs. Darius consti'ucted a bridge 
across the Bosporus when he iuvaded Scythia. 
-2. Thb GiMMEaiAN Bospoaus (now Straits of 
Kagd) unites the Palus Mffiotis, or Sea of Azof; 
with the Euzine or Black Sea. It formed, with 
the Tanais (now Don), the boundary between 
Asia and Europe, and it derived its name from 
the CiMMxan, who were suppossi to have dwelt 
in the neighborhpod. On the European side of 
the Bosporus, the modem Crimea, Uie Milesians 
ll>undea the town of Panticapaeum, also called 
Bosporus, and the inhabitants of Panticapaeum 
rubsequently founded the town of Phanogoria 
on the Asiatic side of the Straits. These cities, 
being favorably situated for commerce, soon be- 
came places of considerable importance ; and a 
kingdom gradually arose, of wnich Ponticapas- 
om was the capital, and which eventually in- 
cluded the whole of the Crimea. The first 
kings we read of were the Archaenactidas, who 
reigned forty -two years, from B.C. 480 to 488. 
They were succeeded by Spartacus L and his 
descendants. Several of these kinp were in 
dose alliance with the Athenians, who obtained 
aannally a large supply of com firom the Bos- 
porus, llie hist of wese kings was Pasrisades, 
who, being hard pressed by the Scythians, vol- 
ontarily ceded his dominions to Mithradates the 
Great On the death of Mithradates, his son 
Ffaamaces was allowed by Pompey to succeed 
to the dominion of Bosporus ; and we subse- 
quently find a series of kings, who reigned in 
VDA comitry till a late period, under the protec- 
tion of the BA>man emperors. 

Bo«TAK (B«<TTwp, Bwffrapof). 1. A Cartha- 
giniai. general, who, with Hamilcar and Has- 
druVd, the son of Ebnno, fought against M. 
Atilius Begulus, in Airica, BC. 266, but was 
defeated, token prisoner, and sent to Rome, 
where he is said to have perished in consequence 
of the barbarous treatment which he received 
from the sons of Regulus. — 2. A Cartiiapinian 

general, under Hasdrabal, in Spain, set at hl> 
ertjr the Spanish hostages kept at Sagimtum. 
hoping thereby to secure the affections of the 

BosTRA {jii Boarpa, Old Testamenc Bozrah 
BoffTTvdf and -oJof ■ sow Butrah, ruins), a dty 
of Arabia, in an Oasis of the Syrian I>e8ert» 
little more than ten d^rrees south of Damascus. 
It was enlarged and beautifled b/ Trajan, who 
made it a colony. Under th ^ later emperors it 
was the seat of an arv^ibishopric. 


aia, BoTTiaitc : Bonuuo^}, a district in Macedo- 
nia, on the right bank of the River Azius, ez 
tended in the time of Thucydides to Pieria on 
the west It oontabed the towns of Pella and 
IchnsB near the sea. The Bottiaei were a Thra- 
cian people, who, being driven out of the coun- 
try bv the Macedonians, settled in that part of 
the Macedonian Chalddice, north of Olynthus, 
which was called Bottice {JBorrucq), 


[BovzNNA (now Cahrera\ a small island at 
the northern eztremity of Sardinia.] 

BoviliruM (Bovianius : now B<yano), the chief 
town of the Pentri in Samnium, was taken bv 
the Romans in the Samnite wars, and was col 
onized by Augustus with veterans. 

BoviLLiB (Bovillensis), an ^ ancient town in 
Latium, at the foot of the Alban Mountain, on 
the Appian Way, about ten miles from Rome. 
Near it Clodius was killed by Milo (Ba62), 
and here was the socrarium of the Julia gens. 

Bracaba Augusta (now Braga\ the chief 
town of the Callaici Bracarii, in Hispania Tar 
raconensis : at Braga there are the ruins of an 
amphitheatre, aqueduct t&c. 

BaACHMjlNiB or -I (BpaxfiuveQ\ is a name used 
by the ancient geographers, sometimes for a 
caste of priests in India (the Brakmin*)^ some- 
times, apparently, for all the people tehose re* 
ligion was Brohminism, and sometimes for a 
particular tribe 

Bracbodbs or Caput Vada (Bpaxu&rj^ uKpa . 
now Raa Kapoudiah)^ a promontory on the coast 
of Byzacena, in NoHhera Africa, forming the 
northern headland of the Lesser Syrtis. 

Brachxlles or BaACHTLLAs (Bpaxv^^ijg, Bpa- 
XvX^ac)f a Boeotian, supported the Macedonian 
interests in the reigns of Antigonus Doson and 
Philip y. At the battle of Cyuoscephalae, B.O. 
197, ne commanded the Boeotian troops in Phil- 
ip*s army, and was murdered in 196 at Thebes 
by the Bioman party in that citv. 

[BaADANUS (now Brandano}, a river of Lu- 
cania, which falls itto the Sinus Tareiitinus : it 
forms the boundary between Lucania and Apu- 

Beanchidjb (al Bpayxt^i'- now Jeronda, 
ruins) afterward Dinf ma or -i (rd Ai^vfiOy ol 
Afdv/xoi), a place on the sea-coast of Ionia, a 
little south of Miletus, celebrated for its temple 
and oracle of Apollo, sumamed Didymeus (Ai- 
dv/zevf). This oracle, which the lonions held 
in the highest esteem, was said to have been 
founded by Branchus, son of Apollo or Smicrus 
of Delphi, and a Milesian womaiL The reputed 
descendants of this Branchus, the BronchidsB 
{ol B/)a}%(da(), were the hereditary ministers of 
this oracle. They delivered up the treasures 
of the temple to Darius op Y<t!xes ; and, wli'ui 



Xerxes retorued from Qreeoe, tbe BraocfaidiB, 
fearing the revenge of the Greeks, begged him 
lo remove them to a distant part of his empire. 
They were accordingly settled in Bactria or 
Sogdiana, where their descendants are said to 
bare been punished by the army of Alexander 
for the treason of their fore&thcrs. The tem- 
ple, called DidymAum, which was destroyed by 
Xerxes, was rebuilt, and its ruins contain some 
beautiful specimens of the Ionic order of arclii- 

BaANCHUS (Bpdyxog). Vid, BaANcmoA 

BaANNoyicE& Via, AuLxaoL 

[BaANODONUM (now Braneatier\ a city of the 
Iceni or Simeni in Britaxmia Romana.] 

[BaANooiNiDM (now Woreetter) or BaAN6Ni- 
iTM, a town of the Boduni in Britannia Romana.] 

BaASiDAS (Bp€UTt6ac)t son of Tellis, the most 
distingushed Spartan in the first part of the Pel- 
oponnesian war. In EO. 424, at the head of 
"a small force, he effected a dexterous march 
through the hostile country of Thessaly, and 
poiued Perdiccas of Macedonia, who had prom- 
ised co-operation against the Atiienians. B^ 
his milit^ skill, and the confidence which his 
character inspired, he gained possession of 
many of the cities in Macedonia subject to 
Athens ; his gr^test acquisition was iunphip- 
olis. In 422 he gamed a brilliant victory over 
Cleon, who had been sent, with an AUienian 
force, to recover Amphipolis, but he was slain 
in the battle. He was buried within the dty, 
and the inhabitants honored him as a hero by 
yearly sacrifices and by games. Vid. Diet, of 
Ant^ art BaAsiDsiA. 

BbatuspantIum (now Brahupante^ near Bre- 
ieuil), the chief town of the Bellovaci in Gallia 

BaAra^JN (Spavpuv: Bpavpuvioc: now Vrao- 
na or VraTia)^ a demus in Attica, on the eastern 
coast, on the River Erasinus, with a celebrated 
temple of Diana (Artemis), who was hence 
called BrauroniOt and in whose honor the fes- 
tival Brauronia was celebrated in this place. 
Vtd. Diet, of AtU.y&. V. 

Beeoetio (near Szony^ ruins, east of Co- 
inom), a Roman municipium in Lower Panno- 
nia on the Danube, where Valentinian L died. 

BaENNfs. 1. The leader of the Senonian 
Gauls, who, in B.C. 890, crossed the Apennines, 
defeated the Romans at the Allia, and took 
Rome. After besieging the Capitol for six 
months, he quitted the city upon receiving one 
thousand pounds of gold as a ransom for the 
Capitol, and returned home safe with his booty. 
But it was subsequently related in the popular 
legends that Camillus and a Roman armv ap- 
peared at the moment the gold was beiqg 
weighed, that Brennus was defeated by Camil- 
lus, and that he himself and his whole army 
were slain to a man. — 2. The chief leader of 
the Gauls who invaded Macedonia and Greece, 
B.C. 280, 2*79. In 280 Ptolemy Ceraunus was 
defeated by the Gauls under Belgius, and slain 
in battle ; and Brennus in the following year 
penetrated into the south of Greece, but he was 
defeated near Delphi, most of his men were 
slain, and he Umsetf put an end to his own life. 

Breuct, a powerful people of Pannonia, near 
the confluence of the Savus and the Danube, 
took an active part in the insurrection of the 

Pannonians crd Dalmatians against the Ra 
mans, AJ>. 6. 

BaxuNi, a Rasiiim people, dwelt in lh« Tyio. 
near the Brencer. (Hor, Carm., iv- U, 11.) 

BaiAEEus. Vid. .Sjqmoh. 

BaiciimiiB {Bpuiiwiai), a place in Sicily noC 
far from Leontinl 

BaioAMTxa, the most powcrfkil of the British 
tribes, inhabited the whole of the north of the 
island frt)m the Abus (now Htanber) to the Ro- 
man wall, with the exception of the southeast 
comer of Yorkshire, whicn was inhabited by tha 
Parisii. The Brigantes consequently inhabited 
the greater part of Yorkshire, and the whole of 
Lancashire, Durham, Westmoreland, and Cum- 
berland. Their capital was Eboraodv. They 
were conquered Jby Petilius Cerealis in the reign 
of Vespasian. There was also a tribe of Bri- 
gantes in the south of Ireiaud, between the riv- 
ers BirguB (now Barrow) and Dabrona (now 
Blaehoater)^ in tbe oounties of Waterford and 

BaiOAimi, a tribe in Vindelicia, on the Lak« 
Brioantinus, noted for their robberies. 

Brioamtinub Lacub (now Bodentiee or Lake 
of Constance)^ also called Venetus and Aoro- 
NI178, through which the Rhine fibws, was in- 
habited by the Helvetii on the soutli, by th« 
Rietii on the southeast, and by the Vindehd oc 
the north. Near an island on it, probably Bet- 
ehenauy Tiberius defeated the Vindelici in a 
naval engagement 

Brioantiuk. 1. (Now Briangofi), a town ol 
the Segusiani in Gaul, at the foot of the Oottian 
Alps. — 2. (Now Corunna)y a sea-port town of 
the Luccnses, in Galltecia in Spain, with a light- 
house, which is still used for the same purpose^ 
having been repaired in 1791, aod which is now 
called La Torre de Herades. — 8. (Now Bregenz\ 
a town of the Brigantini Vindelici, on the Lnke 
of Constance. 

Brilessus (BpL\f}oa6i)^ & mountain in Attica, 
northeast of Athens. 

Brim o {JBpifiuY " the angry or the terrifying," 
a surname of Hecate and Proserpina (Perseph- 

BriniAtes, a people in Liguria, south of the 
Po, near the modem Brignolo. 

Briseis (Bpfoj/tc), daughter of Brises of Lyr- 
nessus, fell into the hands of Achilles, but was 
seized by Agamemnon. Hence arose the dire 
feud between the two heroes. Vid Achilubs. 
Her proper name was Hippodamla. 

Britannia (^ BperraviKij or Bperavuc^y sc 
vf/ao^t i Bperrttvta or Bperavla : Bperravoi, Bpe 
ravoif Britanni, Brittdnes), the island of England 
and Scotland, which was also called Albion 
('A^cov, 'A'^oviuv, IfutdaAlbionvm). Hibeenia 
or Ireland is usually spoken of as a separate 
island, but it is sometimes included under the gen* 
eral name of the Insula BaiTANNiCiK Bpero^ 
viKol v^<roi\ which also comprehended the small* 
er islands around the coast of Great Britaia The 
etymology of the word Britannia is uncertain, 
but it is derived by most writers fit'om the Celtic 
word brith or brit, ** painted," with reference to 
the custom of tlie intiabitants of staining tlieir 
bodies with a blue color: whatever may be the 
etymology of the word, it is certain that it was 
used by the inhabitants themselves, since in tlM 
Gielic the inhabitants are called Brvihon. anr 



Utaur language Brythonep. The name Allioti is 
probably derived from the white clifEs of the 
BBland [for the iuor« correct derivatioii, vid. Al- 
noK] ; but writera who derived the names of 
all lands and people from a mythical ancestor, 
ccjnectedthe name with one Albion, the son 
of Neptune. The Britons were Celts, beloQ^ 
mg to that branch of the race called (>pnry, 
sikL were apparentiv the aboriginal inhabitants 
of the country. Tneir mannen and customs 
were in general the same as the Gauls ; but, 
fleporated more than the Gauls from intercourse 
with civilized nations, they preserved the Celtic 
religion in a purer state than in Gaul, and hence 
Dnndism, according to Ciesar, was transplanted 
from Gaul to Britam. The Britons also retained 
many of the barbarous Celtic customs, which 
the more civilized Gauls bad laid aside. They 
painted their bodies with a blue color extracted 
from woad, in order to appear more terrible in 
bottle, and they had wives in common. At a 
UUm* time the celgaa crossed over ttom Gaul, and 
settled on the southern and eastern coasts, driv- 
ing the Britons into the interior of the island. 
It was not till a late period that the Greeks and 
Romans obtained any knowledge of Britain. In 
early times the Phoenicians viaited the Scilly 
Islands and the coast of Cornwall for the pui^ 
pope of obtaining tin ; but whatever knowledge 
they acquired of the country they jealously kept 
secret, and it only transpired that there were 
CASSTTEaiDSS, or Tin Istandu, in the northern 
Larts of the ocean. The first certain know- 
ledgo which the Greeks obtained of Britain was 
ftvm the merchantB of Mnssilia, about the time 
of Alexander the Great, and especially fix>m the 
voyages of Ptthkas, who sail^ round a great 
part of Britaia From this time it was gener- 
ally believed that the island was in the form of 
a triangle, an error which continued to prevail 
even at a later period. Another important mis- 
take, which Iflce wise prevailed for a long time, 
was the position of Britain in relation to Gaul 
and Spam. As the northwestern coast of Spain 
was supposed to extend too far to the north, and 
the western coast of Gaul to run northeast, the 
lower part of Britain was believed to lie between 
Spain and GauL The Romans first became per- 
sonally acquainted with the island bj Ciesar^s 
invasion. He twice landed in Britain (B.C. 
55, 54X and though on the second occasion he 
conquered the greater part of the southeast 
of tne island, yet he did not take permanent 
possession of any portion of the country, and 
after his departure the Britons continued as in- 
dependent as before. The Romans made no 
liui;her attempts to conquer the island for nearly 
one hundred years. In the reign of Claudius 
(AD. 48^ th^ again landed in Britain, and per- 
manently subdued the country soutii of the 
Thamea. They now began to extend their con- 
quests over the other parts of the island ; and the 
great victory (61) of Suetonius Paulinus over 
the Britons who had revolted under Boadicea, 
still further consolidat)d the Roman dominions. 
In the ivign of Vespasian, Petilius Oerealis and 
Juhus Frontinus made several successful expe- 
ditions against the Selcbbs and the Beioamtes ; 
and the oonquest of South Britain was at length 
finally completed by Agrioola, who in seven 
•ampaiicns i7& 84) Eubdued the whole of the 

ishind as &r north as the Frith o( Forth aid th« 
Clyde, between which he erected a series of 
forts to protect the Roman dominions from the 
incursions of the barbarians in the north ol 
Scotland. The Roman part of Britain was non 
called Britannia RomantL, and the northern port, 
inhabited by the Caledonians, Britannia Barbara 
or Caledonia. The Romans, however, gave up 
the northern conquests of Agricola in the reign 
of Hadrian, and made a rampart of turf from 
tJie i£stuarium Ituna (now Bolwiy FriUi) to the 
German Ocean, which formed the northern 
boundary of their dominions. In the reign of 
Antoninus Pius the Romans again extended their 
boundary as far as the conquests of Agricola, 
and erected a rampart connecting the Forth and 
the Clyde, the remains of which are now colled 
Grimee Dike, Grime in the Celtic language sig- 
nifying great or powerful The Caledonians 
afterwara broke through this wall ; and in con- 
sequence of their repeated devastations of the 
Roman dominions, tne Emperor Severus went 
to Britain in 208, in order to conduct the war 
against them in persoa He died in the isUmd 
at Eboracum (now York) in 211, after erecting 
a solid stone wall fi^m the Solway to the mouth 
of the Tyne, a little north of the rampart of 
Hadrian. After the death of Severus, the Ro- 
mans relinquished forever all their conquest! 
north of this wall In 287 Carausius assumed 
the purple in Britam, and reigned as emperor, 
independent of Diocletian and Maximian, till 
his assassination by Allectus in 298. AUectus 
reigned three years, and Britain was recov