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Whatever is worthy of Nodce* in 



Thp Situation and Extent .of JEinpires, Kingc^oim, 
aodPlnfvUices i\t2^if.Ciimite5,;§<iit'Producc, &<;♦ 

• • ,*•« ••• 
The Iffaoners and Ca(loxns..of' the-feveral 'JDhabitaats: 

their Governm^ntV-.ttieugiori'/'. Arts, Sciences, 

Manufa6lares, aod Commerce. 

The whole coniiiling of fach English and Foreign Authors 

as are in mod Eftecm ; including the Defcriptions and Remarks 

of fome celebrated late Travellers, not to be found in any 

other Coliedion. 

Iliuftrated with a Variety of accurate 




Printed for J. KNOX, near Southampton-Street, 
in the Strand. MPCCLXVII. 

p t 4*^ 

**Z A ••••••• 

•• ••• •• 

•• • • *••••»• 

••••• ••• •• 


. I 

■I ^ 

-« • .. 

. * 

1* • 

« 1 

■ ■ •Jk 





I^HE Voyage and Travels of Mr. John Tbevcno^ 
from Italy to Conflandnople : in which are to- 

cludcd the Remarks of other Travellers, page i 
Mr, Wood's Journey to Palmyra, or Tedmor in the 

Dcfirt, 80 

Mr. Wood's Account of the Riiitis of Balbeci the 

ancient Hcliopolis, id CtEiolycia, 104 

A Defcription of Judca^ ; pr'th*' Holy Land; and 
particularly of the (^ity of Jerufelem : collefted 
from the Writings,of Maundrell, Shaw, and other 
Travellers, * ill 

The Travels of Dr. Pococke, through Egypt ; with 
occafional ExtraATfrom Mr. Nordcn, 135 

Di. Shiw's Travels through fiarbary, 243 

A Journey u> ^quinez } by Mr. Windus, a Gcntle- 
mao in the Retinue of Charles Stewut, Efi]; Am- 
ba6ador to the Emperor oS Morocco, 29 1 

Traveb into die inland Farts of Africa j by Fnuids 
Moore : iodudtog an Aceount t£ the Advcoturfs 




(if .jQUeD.SolDiiiQii, £QDo^the Higb-jvieft of 

IBiindo, 315 

The Tramk of^ Johp ChMtdin, ihroi^ MiqgrelU 

and Geoi^ into Perba, ^ ' 335 

An Account of Indaftm t ittofperfed with the Ob- 
icrvations of Sir Thomas Roe, Mr. HolweU, and 
other WiiKfif , 405 

A Journey from St. Peterfburg, to Pckin j with an 
Embafiy from his Imperial Majefiy Peter the 
Fhft,tolUfaihi £rt){«rtirtif China: 1^ Johb Bell, 
B^i 444 


*i ■■ 


b F 




O F 



Iriterfperfed with the Remarks cf other 


MR. John Thevenot was of the fame family with 
the famous Melchezidec Thevenor, who pub- 
a colleclion of voyages, part originally writ- 
ten, and the reft very accurately trandatcd from other 
languages, into French; which is the realbn they are 
very oiten confounded together. The elder Thevenot 
travelled, indeed, for fo.iie time, but never without 
the limits of Europe-, nor did in: think any accounts 
of his voyages worthy the notice ol the public. He 
was library-keepei* to Lewis XIV. He died by too 
great abftinence, which he flattered himfelf would 
have cured an ague, on the 29th of October, 1692, 
in the 7 ifl: year of his age. 

Our author had, from his very youth, a (Irong 
inclination to travel. It was to gratify this inclin.i- 



tion that he went to Rome, where, meeting acci- 
dentally with the celebrated Mr. Herbelot, the moft 
learned man of his age, in every branch of oriental 
literature, he caught fi-om him fo violent a paflion for 
penetrating into whatever was curious or extraordi- 
nary in the Eaft, that Ke refolved to continue his tra- 
vels to the moft diftant part thereof. In this he flat- 
tered himfelf with the hopes of having the company 
of the very judicious perlbn before mentioned ; bur 
fome family affairs, which required the prefence of 
that learned gentleman, obliged him at that time to 
return into .France. But Mr. Thevenot having made 
all the neceflary preparations for this long expedi- 
tion^ and being encouraged to undertake it by his 
friend, who promifed to join him in the illand of 
Malta, he reiolved to proceed in the execution of 
his defign. 

Accordingly, on Monday, May i, 1655, he left 
Rome, in order to embark at Civita-Vecchia on 
board the galley commanded by count Gaddi. On 
June the 2d, he embarked at Civita-Vecchia, and 
came to an anchor before the port of Meflina in Si- 
cily in feven days. It is a fafe harbour by nature, and 
round it are fcvel-al fair palaces built very uniformly, 
which form a pleafant profpeft. 

There are 18 ftrong caftles in it, but four of them 
only are in tlie hands of the Spaniards : the Meflinefe 
have the reft. The town is very rich, by reafon of 
the greac trade in filk driven there. There are no 
inns for llrangers, fo that they are obliged to lodge in 
a wretched tivern by the harbour. All things are 
cheap •, the wines ftrong, but bad. It is an archi- 
epil'copal fee. I'he Strcights are made dangerous by 
Scilla and Charybdis, though anciently they were 
much more fo than now, bccaufj navigation is im- 
proved. Sciiia is a rock near the caftle Scyllio, on 
ii:e Italian Ihore. Charybdis is the meeting of two 
contrary eddies, which by beating and clalhing one 
;^gainft another, make a noile like the barking of 

dogs -,. 


Hogs ; and by caufing veflcls to turn round about, 
fuck them down to the bottom : nor is the harbour 
itfdf fafe from it, for the currents will fometimes carry 
the (hips out into it -, and therefore the Meflinefe have 
always a number of pilots in readinefs to a(fift veflels 
m danger. 

Sicily is of a triangular fornri, each ahgle making a 
cape, which are now called Difaro, anciently Peloriis; 
Paflaro, anciently Pachinis ; and Bocho, heretofore 
Liliba^um. It is but three miles diftant from Italy, 
being fepa rated from it by a dangerous ftreight, call- 
ed, ^Ibe Pharo of Mejfina, It is the moft confiderable 
ifland of the iVIediterranean fca, both for bignefs, be- 
. ing 700 miles in compafs, and fruitfulnefs ; producing 
plenty of corn, excellent wines, olives, and other necef- 
faries of life, infomuch that it was anciently called one 
of the granaries of Rome. It contains a great many fair 
rich towns, but it is much annoyed by the eruptions 
of mount Gibello, or ^tna, which cafls forth abun- 
dance of flames, afhes, and" torrents of melted mat- 
ter : it is alio much troubled with earthquakes. The 
king of Spain has always a viceroy there, who h:^s his 
refidencc half a year at Palermo, and the rcil at "i^Aci- 
fina. The Sicilians are rcvcn.'reru], hauc>;htv, and 
jealous-, eij;ecialiy of the French, whom they fuQ^eft 
not to have forj70ttcn the Sicilian Veipe's : and for 
that reafon always wear their dairgcr^ by their iuie, 
even in their fhops and v/ork-houfcs. From 
he coalted along -by Syracule, now corruptly called 
Saragoufia, formerly tiie mcrropolis of Sicily, and 
birth-ulace of Archimedes ; ti;c country about which 
produces excellent inu!"c?..I;ne : he next made the iile 
of Malta, anciently c:i!lcd Mcliia, from the plenty of 
honey it yielded. 

Malta is a low ifland, and the ibll a foft chaikf 
rock, vet it produces very <>:ood fruits •, but little or 
no corn, for that is brou(7Ju from Sicily thither. The 
air is 'io hot, th:it there Is rjo walking: in tlie fun •, and 
the nights are as intolerable, through the (line^ir^^^i, oIl 


hiufketocs. Head- aches and fore eyes, caufcd by thtf 
whuenefs of the earth, are there common and dan- 
gerous. Therie are no venomous beafts in the ifle, 
Tvhich the people attribute to St. Paul's benediction. 
The ifland is populous ; the people are of a brown 
complexion, and are very revengeful •, the women arc 
beautiful and familiar. They fpeak Arabic, but 
Italian is alfo common^ 

Here are feveral ports and creeks, but the chief 
havens are the .great port, and that called Marfa- 
mouchet. In the great port are all the gallies of the 
order laid up, and all the veflels that are to make any 
uay at Malta, either to load, careen, or refit, put in 
there : it is (hut with an iron chain. The port of Mar- 
famouchet is for fliips to perform their quarantine in, 
before they have acceft to the town, and for fuch as 
by reafon of foul weather cannot get into the great 
port ; as alfo for the Corfairs; who come only for z 
little time, and fo will not go into the great port, be- 
caufe it is hard to get out again. As foon a»the king 
of Spain had given the ifland of Malta to the knights 
of St. John of Jerufalem, fultan Solyman refolved to 
extirpate them, and fent a powerful army to take it : 
but the Turks defpairing of fuccefs, left the ifle in the 
end of September, 1565. 

When the Turks were gone, the knights refolved 
to buikl a nev; town, where the great mafter with all 
the order might conveniently dwell. They pitched 
upon the tongue of land whefe the cattle of St. Ermc 
ftands, from whence tlie Turks had fofurioufly driven 
them. The great mafter John la Valetta laid the firft 
Hone of it, March 28, 1566, P.nd from himfelf called 
it Valetta: it has been fo fortified fince, that feW 
jplaces can equal it. 

From she port you go up an hill to the town, 
v/hich is fmall, but very pretty. It hath but two 
^jates, one leading to the port, the other into the 
country. There are feveral churches in it, but that 
«f St. John is the chief. It Is a large building, paved 




with beautiful marble, and adorned with many co- 
lours taken from infidels. In this church they prcr ' 
tend to have many fine rcliques, as St. John BaptilVs 
right-hand, and many others. There are fcvcral ad- 
mirable buildings in the town ; amon^ others the 
ftately palace of the great mafter, in which is a ma« 
gazinc of armjB for 35 or 40,000 rpen, kept very 
clean and in great order : and among them the arms 
of fuch great matters as have been wounded in any 
a&ion wick the Turks, are to be ken with the marks 
upon them. 

Leaving Malta, he failed by the iile of Sapienza, . 
and having weathered Cape Matapan, came to an 
anchor in the bay of St. Nicholas, in the Ifle of Cc- 
ngo. Cape Matapan is a promontory of the Morea^ 
formerly called Tcnarus : this country is inhabited by 
the Meinots, a people who live in tlie mountains 
without law or government, and are fubje6t to thole 
who have mod power in the country ; fometimc^ the 
Venetians, and fometimes the Turks. All their bufi- 
nefs is to rob travellers. Cerigo is the firfl: idand ia 
the Archipelago, cr /Ejz;ean Sea, 60 miles in com- 
pafs, and 5 from the main land. The Venetians arc 
matters of it, and keep a good garrifon there, becauib 
it is a pafs of very grt;it importance. 

The iflands of the Archipehigo, anciently termed 
the ^gean fea, lie to the eatt of Turky in Europe^ 
and are compriied by ancienr geographers under two 
general names ; thofe called the Cyclades, or the Cir- 
cle Iflands, from forming a kind of circle round 
Delosj and thofj which lying fcattered at a greater 
dittance from Dclos were called the Sporades^ or Scat:-- 
tered Iflands. 

From Corigo, he fiiiled to Zi.i, leaving many in - 
confulerable iflands on the righr-hand, as Melo, An- 
tjmclo, 6cc. Tills ifie was anciently called Ceos, or 
Cea •, it is fliaped like an horfe-flioe, and is 50 miles in 
circum:erence. The inhabitants pay a tribute. to the 
Turks of 3400 piattres, and to tnc Ycnetiuus iboo 

B 3 bd\i 


befidc the extortions and robberies they meet with, 
which lb impov4Bii(h them, that they are often forced 
to leave their habitat ii^ns. 

From Zia he failed to Andra, anciently called An- 
dros, 60 miles from it, and 80 in circuit. It is reck- 
oned the moil fertile ifland of the Archipelago. Ic 
produces alnioft all things ncccfTary, and filk more 
elpecially, foF which they have a great trade. The 
port is pretty good, and the town adjoining to it hath 
about 200 houfes. There is a great -number of 
Greek churches in the ifle, which are under the go- 
vernment and difcipline of a Greek bilhop. The 
Latins alfo have a Wlhop there, and fix churches, of 
which the cathedral is dedicated to St. Andrew. The 
capuchins preach in them, and teach a fchool, tQ 
which the Greeks fend their children from as far as 
Athens. The Turks dil'pofe of tho temporal affairs 
of this ifle, and are but uneafy neighbours to the 
Chriftians. The inhabitants are civil ; their women 
arc chafle, and Ipeak well, but their apparel is unbe- 
coming. The inhabitants of the tov/ns love good 
cheer and diverfions, and care not much to labour; 
but the peafants are very induftrious. They have 
neither phyfician nor chirurgeon, but when they are 
fick, betake themfelvcs to the mercy of God as their 
only remedy. 

From Andra he failed by the Negropont, Sciro, 
IpGccra, Chio, and Tjrnedo, to Troy, where there 
are ftill coMfiderable ruins of that ancient and famous 
city, and thofe cf great extent •, viz. an harbour^ 
pieces of large pillars, and the remains of a great 
temple : but die learned fay, that tliey are only the ruins 
of fome buildings ertded there by the Romans long 
after the deltrudtion of 1 roy. From hence he paflTed 
the mouths and entered the channel of the Hellefpont, 
where the Turks firft paffcd oyer into Europe •, and 
failing betwixt the caftles cf the Dardanels, came to 
an anchor. The Dardanels arc two cafties, built on 
each fid^ the channel of the Hellefpont by Mahomet 
' ' ' - II, 


n. fon of Amurath II. The one (lands in Europe, 
in Romania, in the very place where Scftos formerly- 
ftood. This caftle is triangular, and befidc two bal- 
tions, hath three towers covered with lead, and 20 
large guns, which carry ftone bullets of 60 pounds 
wight. The other is in Afia, in a plain where an-* 
cicntly Abidos Hood. Thefe two fores are the keys 
of Conltantinople, though at 200 miles diftance j for 
they can hinder any fhip to pals them without Jpave.. 
All (hips that come from Conftantinople, are fearched 
here for contraband goods and fugitive flaves. Thefe 
places are famous for the loves of Hero and Leander,, 
and Xerxes*s bridge into Europe, which was made 
hereabout. From Andra to this caftle is 280 miles. . 
From thence he failed to Galliopoli, which is but • 
thinly peopled : The Greeks that dwell in it fell raki^ 
or brandy, for the moft part ; and their houfes hav^ 
doors not above fix feet high, to keep out the Turks, 
who will ride in elfe when they are drunk, and turn all 
things upfide down. It has a tower and arfcnal, 
where are comnioniy laid up fcveral galiies. 

Departing thence he pafleJ the ille of Marmora, 
^hich gives name to the fea that was formerly called 
the Propontis, and Tuling along by the Seraglio and 
Conftaniinopl'-^ came to an anchor at Galata, where 
is the harbour of that ciiy. The fea of Marmora, or 
the Propontis, which is ab^ut 120 German leagues in 
compais, lies between the ^S'^ and 41" of northern la- 
titude, which nukes the clime fo temperate, that it 
has neither the inconveniencies of fharp cold, or 
burning heats, which is the reafon that both fides of 
it has bern fo well 'adorned with famous cities. On 
the AHan fuie ilood Ghizico, a town formerly famous 
not only v.^'r b^i/g built by the Argonauts r;oo years 
before R<jiiiC, bJC for its lofty towers, magnificent 
buildings, large arfcrials and magazines, fine amplii- 
theatre and convenient port, though nothing now re- 
mains of all thefe things but frightful ruins. 

JJ 4 N c^. 


Nice, called by tlic Turks Ifnich, a city famous for^ 
thcfirft gencraf council, is almoft fquarc, and (lands 
at the extremity of a bay in a fine plain. It is encom-- 
pafltd with wails full of round turrets, and had a co- 
vert-way that ran by them, but it is now ruined. 
The city is large, the (Ireers neat, and has at Icafl: 
10,000 inhabitants, as well Greeks as Jews and 
Turks, who trade in corn, fruit, cotton, fine cloth, 
&Ci to Conftantinople. There are here many rc- 
inair:S of' Pagan and CHriftian antiquities, but fo de- 
faced by the Turks, that nothing admirable is to4)c 

Montagma, or Nicopolis, (lands on a bay anciently 
called Cianus Sinus, from the city of Ciom, which 
once ftood there. This town is fmall, but bv means 
of the bay drives a great trade to Conftantinople : the 
inhabitants are about 5 or 6000 Greeks, Turks, and 
Jews, and arc all merchants. 

Nicomedia, next to Conftantinoplcj has the plea- 
fan teft fituation of any city in the world. It ftands at 
the bottom of a bay, and runs up the fide of an hill, 
adorned with many fountains, and is covered with 
fruit-trees, vineyards, and corn. Here art abundance 
of remains of antiquity, enough to fatisfy the curio- 
fity of travellers. It is famous for the death of Han- 
nibal and Conftantinc the G/eat, for the early conver* 
(ion of its inhabitants to Chriftianity, and the many 
martyrs who leaJed the fuith with their blood. It is 
called Ifmit by the Turks, ard is ri large and popu- 
lous city, having about 30,000 inhabitants, Greeks, 
Armenians, Jews, and Turks j who moft of them live 
by trading in filks, cotton- wciol, linch-cloths, fruits, 
earthen and <;lals-wares, and fcveral other com modi- 
ties, which make it a city of {;rcat traffic. There arc 
many Greek churches and fair mc fqucs, with fcveral 
inns and nr^at b:i7rrs, cr ri':^-ke'"-pi:.res, in this town. 
Mc-d ol" iht fhips a'.ci v.jL!. vhich belong to Con- 
ftvintinopl;: arc bvjilf. ricre, but chey arc forry artifb ac 



&ip*buikling. On the right fide of the bay of Nicor 
nmlia is a fountain of n^ineral water, which the Turks 
^nd Greeks fay, cures all diftempcrs. 

Chalcedon. This town wui once famous for the 
temples of Venus and Apollo. Many Chriftian 
churches were built here ; and .iinong thcin one dedi- 
cated to St. Euphemia, where ih' ourth general 
council fat, and in part of which, as it ftill remains, 
the Greeks have yet their religious worfiup. Ic is 
now reduced to a village of 1000 or 1200 houfes, and 
thofe very ruinous. The city gives name to the 
ftrcights adjoining, which are called Frctum Chalce- 
donicum, Bofphorus ChalcedoniUs, as well as Bof* 
phorus Thracius. Near it is a light-houfe and a 
pleafure-houfe belonging to the gr^nd fignior. 
' On the Thracian fide (lands Rodofto, or Radiftoi, 
a town well fitiiated at the extreiii.iy of a bay, which 
affording it a very good havcn, lillb it with inhabitants, 
who drive a trade all over 'I'hrace, the Propontis, and 
Black Sea. 

Perinthus. or Heraclea, which once gave law to 
Byzantium, but now is Ibbjcft to ijt. This town hath 
two good havens belo/iging to i% but one of them is 
fo choaked up with the rubrafh and filth of the city, 
that it ferves only for barks and fiicks. The amphi- 
theatre of Heraclea w?.s one of the \<:vcn wonders of 
the v.'orld ; but now there are lome IhatrcreJ ruins 
of it. 1 here arc aili) to be fccii n^any pcdcllah with 
Greek inl'criptions to :-cverus, 'I'rajan, and other em- 
peror5, who liacl ccnfcrreci :vv.- ii^nr.l bcncHt upon the 
citVi but the llatiics wiiichoncc Jtood upon theiu arc 
thrown down and demoliilud. 'i he town at preient 
is but thinlv inh.ihircil, an 1 clri- cs but a imall trade. 
The C3thcv! : ; o: •* oi ihc fined in all (ircece, having 
a ro.M. .i.ui \c\n^x very neat in tlio infide, 
and better c(M-;tr:vcd thin tlie patrj.irchai church of 
Conftantinoplc. There are live or !ix clunci: ... oeiide^ 
but none of th.em in lo good a condition as the former, 
^nd two of them are wliolly difufcd. 


Ifi the Propontis are feveral iflands ; that of MaN- 
inora, which gives name to the whole fea, is about 
ten leaguers in compafs. Nearer to Conllantinople 
lies another knot of illands, called by the Turks Papas, 
Ada'ui, by the Grevks Papa Donifla, or the Iflands- 
of the Monks ; and by the Europeans, The Pope's 
Jfes, If Conftar.tinanle were in the hands of the 
Cl^rifil.ins, thefc iflanrir. would be a perfect paradife j 
buc b^x -g fui^jed to the ravages of the Turks, who • 
ofren go chiclier to be drunk, and in their heat rifle 
their gardens and vineyards, they Jie in a manner un- 
cultivated : and onjy a few Caloyers manure a little 
bit of lanu by the n^on^leries for herbs and roots for 
th *»r own ufe, Thefe Caloyers are monks of St. Ba- 
fil, who retain the ancient way of living and habit, 
without any alteration. They lead a very retired and 
aufl:ere life, and never eat any flcfli. They obfcrve 
four lents^in the year, befide feveral other falls ; and 
fome among them are f(> abfl:emious as to be fatis- 
fic! with eating a little bread and pulfe, dreflid with 
fait and water, once a-day : and others by cuft:om 
hnve brou.tvht thenifelves to eat once in two or three 
clays, during their lents. It is faid, fome will eat 
but feven times in the feven weeks of their lonaeft 
I'jnt, though this feems improbable. The reft order 
matters cunningly : for though indeed they eat no 
butter, fi(h, eggs, or oil, and drink no wine; yet 
they ufe other things luxurioufly, as oyfters, cavear, 
. and fliell-fifli, almonds, piftachos, and nuts, aqu^ 
-viraET, c -free, and flicrbet, &c. 

Conllantinople has the happieft fituation of any 
city in the world. It lies in Europe upon a point of 
the main land, jetting out toward the Bofphorus of 
Thrace, from whence it is but half an hour's paflage 
into AJia. On the right-hand is the White Sea, or 
Propontis, by which there is an cafy paflTage into Afia, 
Egypt, and Africa, whereby it is lupplied with all 
the commodities of thofe places. On the left-hand it 
hath the Black or Euxinc Sea, and Palus Ma^otis, by 



which it is fumiflied with all the commodities of the 
Norrh i infomuch that there is nothing that can be 
ncceflfary, ufeful, or pleallmr, which is not brought 
plentifully to Conftantinople : the winds always fcrv- 
ing to bring in commodities from one of thoie pares* 
The port is by nature the lovelieft in the world, being 
fix miles in compafs, and a mile over ; and fo deep in 
all places, that a Ibip may lay her liead aftiore with- 
out danger. It was anciently called Byzantium, and 
was buih by Paulanias, king of Sparta. The em- 
peror Severus demoliihed it, to punifli the rebellion 
of the inhabitants, and Conftantine the Great rebuilt 
it, calling it New Rome firft, and then Conftanti- 
nople. Being afterward dedicated to the Virgin, it 
fometimcs br:;rs the name of Parthenopolis ; the 
Turks call it Iftambol, or Stamboul. After the di- 
^i'lcn of t!ic Ro^^r'.n empire, it v/r.3 tlv: feat of the 
L:i vr.n e.. '.ro r, hoiv wl'ow, in iioj. it was taken 
bv :hc "•.''.•:-.eri;in^ n::d French, b'.:^ recovered bv r!ic 
Pa.i-L.-)!'.-';! hicy ye.:i.- in-'-, a.-c! :<A] in:') rlic !:aii :s of 
:he i^urics on Whituinci;;;,', 1453, v. ho have Kc;'t it 
ever liner. The air in kininier would be very hoc 
:';d inromJTiodiou-, were it not cooled by a breeze 
whiwli con:es every afternoon from the movith of the 
port, by which it is renJ.erLd very healthful ; fo thnt 
no ^'ifeafes are known here but the plague, whicii 
mikes a great havock every year. It is very lubjecl 
ro eanhquakes, lb that fometimes two haj pen in a 
day. 1 iie hg:ure of i: is trfan:^idar, ore fi ;e Ivin^ 
iOkvard the l^ropontis, the orher on the port, and tlie 
third toward the land. It is all cncoirpafil^d vAkIi 
good wails, and to tiie land-fide they are double ; 
beinor built in IbmcDlaces of free-done, and in c chcrs 
otfree-llone nn 1 bti;k. It hatii 22 gates, d toward 
the land, a^ :n;::n' :k-ng the port, and 10 on the 
ftreight of t!ic i'ropontio. The wiiole citv is about 
twelve miles in compafs. 

The callle of the icven towers joins the double 
walls on the continent fide to thofe that lie upon 



the Propontis. It was anciently one of the city gates,* 
called The Gilded GatCj from the gilt ornaments of it, 
and had four turrets ; but Mahomet II. becoming 
mafter of Conftantinople, added three new ones, and 
made it a caftie, ftrong enough to keep the treafures 
of the empire, and for 'that purpofe it ferved a long 
ticrtc. At prcfent it is only ufcd as an honourable 
priibn, wjiere the grand fignior fhuts up fuch perfbns 
of quality and flaves of note as have incurred his dif- 
pleafure. If any Chriftlans are confined in it, their 
priefts arc allowed to come and fay qpafs to them in a 
little chapel ; and if .they are knights of Malta, or 
other perfons of quality, they are allowed to go out, 
if an ambaflador, or other pcrfon of note, will be en* 
gaged for their return. Sultan Ofmai^and Heuflein 
Bafliaw were ftrangled in this caftle. 

"Without the walls, hard- by one of thefe caftles^ arc 
tyiO large ftatucs of white marble in bafle relief; the 
one feems to be Endimion, with Diana coming down 
to fee him ;/ and the other the nine mufes, with the 
horfe Pegafus. They are done by a good hand, but 
inferior to fome pieces in Europe. In going by fea 
from this caftle to the Seraglio, there is a fquare tower 
ftanding in the fea, at about iwo paces from the cjty 
walls, where, they fay, Juftinian imprifoned Belifa* 
|4us, his famous general, out of meer jealoufy ; and 
having ftripc him of all, forced him to beg his fub- 
flfteilce of charitable paflengers. Not far from this 
tower is a fountain, tg wfeich the Greeks always pay 
a great veneration, and, upon the day of Chrift'j. 
ttansfiguration, carry their lick to ic, to whom they 
' give fome of the v/aters, and cover their bodies a 
while with the fand •, and they fay, wonderful cures 
have been thus done by it. 1 he Qreeks have abun- 
dgiice of thefe miraculous fountains, which they fu- 
perftitioufly honour, and rhe priefts encourage them 
in. it for Alieir own gain. Near this fountain ftand^ 
thekioike, or pleafure-houfc of the Bafha, 
9j: ovcrfccr of the gardens. Beyond this Kiofkc arp 



icveral cannon planted, fo as to ftrike any (hips thac 
pais, between wind and water ; to binder the entrance 
into the feraglio or port, if any fhould attempt it by 
force. Thefe pieces are always charged, but never 
difcbarged, unlefs it be upon folemn fealls, or public 

After you have ' paflfed the cannon, and doubled 
the cape, where is a fountain, from which moft of 
the fhips take in frefti water, you come to two kioOces, 
built by fultan Soliman, to view the going out and 
coming in of the men of war, and divert himfelf 
with his women. Thefe are all the remarkable things 
without the walls, both of the city and feraglio. We 
will now go into the city. 

Conftantinople, like antient Rome, (lands upon 
feven little hills ; and the houfes are fo difpofed, that 
one takes not away the fight from the other. The 
Rreets are narrow for the moft part, but there arc fe- 
veral (lately buildings in them, and grand mofques ; 
of which the mod magnificent is that of Santa Sophia. 
This was antiently a chriftian church, built by the 
emperor Jullin, enlarged, enriched and adorned by 
Juftinian, and dedicated to Hagia Sophia, the 
Wifdom of God. The Turks have changed it into 
a mofque, buc retain the name. This fabric is fquare 
without, buc round within ; and has a dome in the 
middle, in the form a flatted globe, which is a fingu- - 
lar kind of architcfture. It is paved with fine marble, 
and matted, that the cold may not hurt fuch as come 
to worfhip without flippers. There is a tomb, which, 
the Turks fay, is Conllantine's; and a ftone, on which, 
they believe, the Virgin waflicd our Lord's linen, and 
on that account they bear a great reverence to it. 

The church was ornamented in mofalc with crofles 
and images of Chrift, the Holy Ghoft, the Virgin, 
and other faints; which yet appear, though the Turks 
have endeavoured to deface them, from their hatred 
to images. Vv'ithin aret'AO galleries, one over an- 
other, tnat go round the church, and are fupported 


by 62 pillars ; which, it is fuppofed, were for tlirf 
women when it was a church. On the outfide of 
the church are four fteeples, very high and (lender, 
on which are feveral balconies, from whence the Mae- 
zims call to prayers. It is big enough to hold 40,000 ; 
which number ufually meet in it at their bairam, or 
paflbver. Befide this mofque, there are feven others^ 
called Royal or Imperial, of which the chief is called 
Solimania, becaufe it was built by fultan Soliman ; 
whole coffin remains in it, adorned with carpets^ a 
turban fet with heron-feathers and precious ftones, 
and lamps burning. Several alcorans are chained to 
k, that the people may read them, and pray for the 
defunft's foul-, and feme are hired to do it: for the 
grand figniors take care to leave a fund for continual 
prayers to be faid for them after their death. Near 
this there is another, where lies the body of a fultana, 
whom Soliman loved extreamly -, as alfo of fultan 
Selim, his fccond fon. This mofque hath a moft 
lovely cloifter, with bagnios and fountains.. The 
new mofque, built by fultan Achmet, is one of the 
faireft and moft m.agnificent in Conftantinople. But 
the faireft of all the mofques are thgfe of fultan Me- 
hemmcr, fultan Selim, and that which is called Chah- 
zadeh Mefdgidi, i. e. The King's Son's Mofque, being 
built by one of Soliman's fons, and another of Baja- 
zet. All thefe mofques have hofpitals and fchools, 
where a great many poor fcholars are maintained and 

Moft of the ancient ftatues, obelifks arid pillars, fet 
up by Conftaniine and his fucceflbrs, are entirely 
ruined -, yet the large Hippodrome, called by the 
Turk?, Atmcidan, where they exjrcifed their horfca 
in racincr, is ft ill to be feen. ft is a large fquare, 550 
paces long, and 150 broad. In the midft of it is an 
obclifk, tolerably entire, marked with hieroglyphic let- 
ters ; and at a little diftance from it, a pretty high 
pillar, made of large ftones, laid one upon another 
without .cement J and toward the end of it is a pillar' 



made of three brazen ferpents twifted together, the 
heads making the capital. It was iaid to be the 
Talifman or Spell, raifed by Leo Ifaurrcus the empe- 
ror, againft ferpents. 

The Grand Bezidan, orExchimge^ is a noble build- 
ing : it is a great round hall, built of free-ilone, and 
furrounded With a thick wall, by wfiich are fliops full 
of the riGhcft commodities. It hath fc^^cral gates, which 
are (hutfaftat night; and becaufe no body lies in it, 
is guarded by feveral watchmen, till it is opened 
agam. Each body of merchants or trpJefaien have 
an apartment by themfelves, and no man may fell 
the fame commodities in another place. There is 
another Beziftan, but neither fo large nor fo well 
llocked with goods -, alio f^rveral Bazais, or public 
markets, in one of which, called the Auret Bazar, or 
Womens Market, is a marble pillar of an extraordi- 
nary height, called the Hiftorical Column, becaufe 
from the top to the bottom, which is 147 feet, are 
reprefented in bafla relievo, fwveral expeditions, bat- 
tles, and other remarkable events, during the em- 
pire of Arcadius. It is much defaced, and tlie houfcs 
ttand fo near to ir, that one cannot have room to exa- 
mine or find out the figures cf it : there arc ftairs in 
it to afccnd up to the top, hut t'lc Turks will fuffcr 
no man to go up them. [Lady Montague fays this 
pillar ff 11 dov/n about two years before fhe arrivi^d 
there. J In the quarter of the janizaries, near the baths 
of Ibrahim Baiha, in the court cf a private man's 
houfe. Hands the column of the emperor Marcian. 
It is all of fpotted marble, about 15 feet hip;!), ap.d 
Its capital of the Corinthian orJer. On \hj :op is a 
fquare hollow Hone, adorncu witii i'ouv cmj.I s ?.: e.u. h 
corner. It is re^fjnabie to think his hea/c w;::; nun in 
this ftone, and his body buried under the column. 
The other is called. The Burnt i-^iliar, ixxaule it has 
been lately burnt by a fire chat luippened near it, 
which has fo ibatcered ic, t\v:X they have been fcrj-i 
to keep it tight wi:h ir^^n-bars. Ic is compo . : of 

V.I » vvv. 


eight pieces of Porphyrian marble^ fo neatfy joinecf,* 
that they learned but one ftone, till the fire damaged 
it, but now they are all feen. . 

The grand fignior's feraglios are alio remarkable 
buildings. They are the p^ces wiiere the OitOmah 
princes ordinarily keep their courts. The word h 
taken from Serrai, which figniHes a n6ble houfc. 
There are two ieraglios belonging to the grand (ig- 
nior, viz. the Old and the New, which latter being 
much the mote noble building, is called the Grand 
Seraglio. It is of a triangular form^ two fides whereof 
arc encompaflcd by the Thracian Bofphorus, and the 
other divides it from the town« It (lands in the place 
of the antient Byzantium. It is three miles incom- 
pafs, and is enclofed within a very ftrong wall, upon^ 
which are divers watch-towers, on which the agliam- 
oglams watch night and day. It hath many gatts 
both to the fea and land-fide, but that toward the city, 
is ufed daily,, while the reft are never opened but 
upon fome fpecial occafion. This gate. is guarded 
day and night by the companies of capoochees, or 
porters, under the command of the capoochee-baftias, 
or captains of the porters. A company of janizaries 
watch without the palace, who are to give nonce of 
any accident: And by the fea-fide, the s^liam-og'- 
lams watch in toivers. upon the wall, and if any (hip- 
ping attempt mifchief, they have ordnance ready 
charged, and the gunners lying clofe by them. 

In this feraglio are many ftately rooms, fuiting the 
fcafons of the year ; the greatelt part whereof are 
built upon plain ground, and fome upon the hills and 
fea-fide, which are called Kiofks, or banquetting* 
houfes. Among thefe is the chamber where che grand 
fignior gives audience to ambaflkdors, Sec. This room 
itands in a court adorned with delicate fountains, and 
is furniihed with rich carpets and crin:>fon velvet em^ 
broidered with pearb, and the walls covered with 
fine white ftbncs. 



To thefc lodgings of the lliltan belong fair gar- 
^JcnSy with all forts of flowers and fruits, plealanc 
^alks and marble fountains. There are alio lodgings 
fur the women like a nunnery, wherein the fultana 
queen, and the other fultanas, and all the grand fig- 
nior's women flaves dwell. There are likcwile convc- 
hicnt rooms for the principal and inferior officers, all 
well fumiflied, among which arc the Hazineh, or 
king's private trcafury and wardrobe, both ftrong 
buildings with iron doors, which are kept conti- 
nually fliut, and the former fealed with the king's 
feal. In the feraglio arc alfo rooms for prayer, barhs, 
fchools, butteries, kitchens, diftillrng-rooms, places 
to fwim in, to run hbrfcs, and for wreltlingand (hoot- 
ing at buts, and, in a word, all other conveniencies 
for a prince's palace. 

At the entrance into the feraglio is a very large and 
ftately gate, where there is a guard always Handing 
of 50 capigies. This leads into a very fpacious court 
of near a quaher of a mile fquare, but it is not 
pa^d. The bafhas, and other great men, may ride 
into it ; and near the gate is a piazza, for rhe Iheher 
of men and horlrs. On the right fide of it is an hof- 
pital for all that fill fick in the feraglio, and an eu- 
.'ijch, called Hallelcr Agafi, 1 ;oks a^te^ chjm. On 
the left fide is a place where they keep their timber 
and car:<?, to be ready for tlic fervicc of ino pahcc ; 
and over it an hall, where are han^red hit wciooni of 
antiquity, a> cimitari, ji'.ve!In.s, bows, licaJ-picccs, 
tranclf IS, &c. which are lent to the Ibldicrs when the 
^rand fignior, or chief vifier, makci any folemn entry 
laro Coiiilur.tlnopK*. 

After having palfcd through this great court, you 
come to anot'ier gate, lefs than the former, but neater 
and more coltly •, iii v/hich there is alio a (lately 
porch, and a guard of capoochecs. This leads into 
another court, lets clian thi:: f >rmer, but far more 
b;:autiful and pleafant ; adorned with fountains at'.d 
walks, rows of cyprcires and gr;^-j)lais r^ilcl If , 

Vol. VI. C wKttc 


where the gazels feed : it is near 300 pace$ fquaf^^ 
ftnd the walks are paved. In-tliis court all mud Walk 
on foot, except the grand lignior. On both fides of 
this gate is an open gallery, where the chiaufles, or 
purfuivants, the janizaries, or foot-guards, and fpahisi 
or horfe-guards, ftand in their ranks, very well ap 
parelled, v/hen any ambaffadors enter, or on other 
folemn occafions- In this court are feveral kitchens^ 
with their offices and. larders, for the fultanas and 
other officers of the court. On the left fide is tli© 
fultan's little ftable for about ^^ horfes for his high- 
nefs*s ufe, and over it rooms for their furnitures-, 
which are very rick, fct 'v^ith jewels, to the admira- 
tion of all beholders. Next the ftable are rooms for' 
the officers of the divan, or court of juftice, and by 
them a chamber where the divan fits ; and a little be- 
hind that is the gate that leads to the womens k>dg* 

ings. ... 

At the end of this court is the royal gate, which 
tcids to the fultan's lodgings, and may not be entered 
by any but his attendants. This gate is kept by the 
capee-aga, or chief chamberlain, and a company of 
white eunuchs. The court is paved with fine marble^ 
wrought with mofaic work, and adorned with curious 
fountains ; and a lake where the grand fignior has a 
fine gilt boat for his recreation. In the buildings, 
which are fumptuous, are a chamber of audience, a 
row of fummer-rooms ftanding on a little hill^ and 
looking toward the fea -, a large hall ftanding on pil- 
lars, and opening toward the eaft, and by it tnc grand 
fignior's bed-chamber, the w?Jls of which are covers 
-ed with the fineft China metal, and the floors witli 
very coftly Perfian carpets of filk ar^d gold. The 

^pofts of die bedfted are filver, the canopy, bolfters, 
mattreffes, and pallets, are all of cloth of gold. Be- 
hind the hall is a place to ilioot in, where, for that 

ipurpofe, are laid up many bows and arrows. r 

The divan fits four days in a week, viz. Saturday, 

.Sunday, Monday and Tucfday, upon which days the 



Vizier-azem, or chief vifier, who is the fupream judge, 
and reprefents Che grand fignior, with all the rclt of 
the vifiers, the two cadilefchers, or judges of the ar- 
mies in Greece and Natolia ; the three tefterdars, or 
treafurers; the reiikitaub, or chancellor; the ne« 
fluunge or keeper of the mark, with their fecretaries 
and clerks \ the chiau(h-ba(ha and his officers, are to 
be at the divan by break of day. All caufes are de- 
tcnnined by the vizier-azem, if he pleales, for the 
baflias do not (peak, but only hearken and attend till 
he refers any thing to their judgment, as he often does 
for expedition, rcferving the caufes of the greateft 
confequence and importance to himfelf, as the caime- 
kam, or his deputy, does alfo in his abfence. The 
petitioners fpeak for themfelves, or deQre the help of 
a chiaufh y ibr they have no pleaders or attorneys. 
Whea the chief vifier hath heard their fuits, he con« 
fults with clie bafhas, and then refoives and deter- 
mines them himfelf. This he doth ufually after din-* 
ner, and then he repairs on Sundays and Tuefdays to 
the chamber of audience, to give an account to his 
fublime highnefs of what bufincls he has difpatchcd. 
Sometimes the grand fignior will come privately to a 
little window, which is covered with a lattice, and 
looks into the divan, to hear the caufes ; and this 
forces the chief vifier to afl circumfpedlly and jullly 
in managing affairs, while he fits in the divan, though 
at other times his hands are open to bribery : but all 
things are difpatchcd without clday. 

When an ambaflTador from any great prince. is to 
kifs the grand fignior's hand, the grand vifier calls a 
great divan of all the grandees of the Port, and all the 
chiauflies, mutafurrakas, fpahis, and janizaries are 
ordered by the captains to drefs themklvcs in the bell 
manner they arc able, and to ftand in their places in 
the fecond court. When the divan is fee in their or- 
der, the chief vifier fends a chiaufh-baflia with many 
of his chiaulhes on horkb.ick, to condud tiie ambaf- 
fador to the divan, where he is placed dofc to the 

C 2 \ iCi^t \ 


vifier •, who having complimented him a while, dtp* 
terrains him at dinner, and then conveys him to a 
room by the imperial gate with his attendants, till 
the fultan is ready to receive him. In the mean timr^ 
the ambaiTador's prelem is carried abodt the fecond 
court, in fight of all the people, and then is brought 
to the fultan ; and the grand vifier (ends the ambafla- 
dor fevcral vcfts, appointed by the ■ ancient rule, for 
himfclf and gentlemen, to put on for that ceremony. 

The vefts for the ambaffador are of cloth of gold 
of Burfa, but for the reft, they are of little or no 
value ; yet the ambaflador mufl: mak^ a prefent to 
the grand fignior of more than the wonh of them* 
Then the ambafladcr is conduced by the mafter of 
the ceremonies to kifs the fuhan's hand (which is, 
indeed, but his hanging-flccve ;) which done, the 
druggoman, or inttpprecer, declares the ambaflador's 
commifiion ; to which the grand fignior makes no 
anfwer, for he difdains to fpcak to a Chriftian ; but 
fpeaking to the chief vifier, ircfcrs all proceedings to 
his difcretion, and fo the am biUlador departs, bowing 
his head to the fuitan, but witliout puUing off his hat. 
Ambafladors of petty princes, or ftates^ though they 
have veils given them by the grand figiwor, yet come 
not to the divan, but go privately with their prefents.. 
All ambafiddors- are maintaincvi by the grand fignior, 
rxcept thofc from the Hates of Venice, during their 
abode at the Port ; but it is hard to get his allowance, 
through the balenels of tlie officers. 

All perlbns that live in the feraglio, arc the grand 
flgnior's flaves us are alio all that are iubjeffc to his 
rmpire; for they all acknowledge, that whatever 
they enjoy proceeds from his good-will, and that 
the>r eilates and lives are ablolutcly at his difpofaL 

There are in the fultan's court about 1200 women, 
old and young, l^hc fultan's concubines are ail 
young virgins, ftolen from foreign nations, inftruded 
in dancing, mufic, linging, and curious fewing ; and 
aii given 10 the g and fignior as prefcnts, by die Tar- 



tfrs, ba(ha.% and other great men : fo that theirnum- 
l^cr is uncertain. Thefe virgins, immediately upon 
their coming into the feraglio, ^re made Turks, by 
ixQng this ccrcrtony : they are to hold up their finger, 
aikl fay thefe words, ** There is no god but God 
alone ; and Mahomet is the me(Tenger ot Qod :" and 
then being examined by an old woman^, called Ka- 
hiyah Cadun, i. e. the Mother of the Maids, they 
are placed in a room with their equals in age and dif- 
pofition. AH the women live like nuns, but have 
large apartments to dwell in. Their beds are coarfe 
and hard, made of fioclics ; and Jby every tenth vir- 
gin lies an old woman, and there are lamps always 
burning by them. Near their apartments they have 
baths and /ountains for their ufe ; and, above their 
bed-chambers, places to fit and few in. They dinq 
in companies, and are waited upon by other women ; 
wanting nothing that is neceflary. There are alfo 
fchools for fuch as will learn to read or fpeak the Tur- 
kifli tongue, work or play ; and fome hours are al- 
lowed them for walking and recreations. 

[Lady Montague, when at Conftantinople, fay?, 
fhc went to fee .the fultana Hafiten, favourite of the 
Jate fultan Muft^pha* who was depofed by his bro- 
ther, the then reigning emperor. — " The fultana, 
fays Ihe, fcemed in .a very good, and talked 
to me with the utmoft civility. I did not omit this 
opportunity of learning all that I poflibly could of 
the feraglio, whrch is lb entirely unknown amongft 
us. She allured me that the (lory of tl»e ililcan's 
throwing a handkerchief, is altogether fabak)'js ; and 
the manner, upon that occafion, no other d.p.n this : 
He fends the kyflar aga, to fignity to the lady the 
honour he intends her. She is immediately ci^nipii- 
mcnred upon it by the others, and led tc the bath, 
where (he is perfumed and dreOed in the moll mai;- 
nificcnt and becoming manner. The emperor pre- 
cedes his vifit by a royal prefcnt, and then comes into 
i;er aparcmeru: nri:her is there any fuch thing as her 

C 5 CTCt:^^- 


creeping in at the bed's foot. She faid, th^ the Brft ■ 
he made choice of, was always after the firft in rank, 
and not the mother of the cldeft fon, as other writers 
would make us believe. Sometimes the fultan di- 
verts himlelf in the company of all his ladies, whb 
ftand in a circle round him. And fhe confefled, they 
were ready to die with envy and jealoufy of the happy 
Ihe, that he dittihguiifhed by any appearance of pre- 

If any one conceives by the fulran, and brings him 
forth his firft begotten child, ftie is called Sultana 
Queen •, and if it be a fon, fhe is confirmed and 
eftablifhed by great feafls and folemnities, and thence- 
forward has an apartment, fcrvants, and a large re- 
venue appointed her ; and all perfons in the feraglio 
mufl pay her the refpeft of a queen. The other wo- 
men that bear him children a:e called ^ultanas, but 
not Queens •, yet live in feparate apartments, are well 
ferved and attended, and have no want either of mo- 
ney or apparel, according to their degree. But if it 
happens that the lirft-begotten Ion of th^ queen, heir 
to the empire, dies, and another of the fultanas have 
a fon to lucceed the deceafed heir, the former is de- 
prived of her revenue and royalty, but remains a 
iukana, and the latter becomes queen ; and fo the 
title rurs from one fultana to another by virtue of the 
fon's right to the fucccffion. 

In times pail the grand fignior was married to the 
queen, but now file paffes without celebrating any 
nuptial rites ; yet the mother of the heir enjoys all 
the prerogatives of a queen, and has a guard of 30 
or 40 black eunuchs, under the command of the 
kizlar-aga, their matter, to be cmplo)'cd on her oc- 
cafions. The fultanas never go out of the feraglio 
but in the fultan's company, and are never fecn by 
any but fuch as attend them, who arc black eunuchs, 
that have undergone a total amputation of every ex- 
ternal diftinfticn of fcx. 


,;.. ,|.Ti'4 ft til r- ' ■ 

« ,.',.r,vt'.,v. -:■■■ 

^yJ.'^ar4ru />i fj-^- 


The grand fignior*s daughters, fillers and. aunts, 
fiave their lodgings alfo in the fame feraglio, until 
iuch time as, at their requell, the I'ultan fhall be 
plealed to give them in marriage ; and then they come 
forth, and carry each of them a chcit along with 
them, which the grand fignior gives them full of rich 
apparel, jewels, and money, to the value of about 
thirty thoufand pounds fterling, befide what they 
may have hoarded for themfclves before. If the 
grand Ognior be difpofed to deal generoufly with 
them, they are fuffcred to carry with them twenty 
women flaves, and as many eunuchs, and he conti- 
nues their allowance of a thoufand or fifteen hundred 
afpers a day, which they had in the (eraglio, and fur- 
pifhes their houfes ^ and if the hiifband of fuch a 
lady has not an houfe fit for her, the fultan gives her 
one of his own. As for the hufband, he is to make 
her a bill of dowry of at lead j 00,000 chccquins in 
money, befide veils, jewels, and other ornaments, 
which amount to a great fum. Being married, they 
ponvcrfc with men no more than they did before, ex- 
cept their hufbands ; but only with women, vifiting 
their gld acquaintance in the feraglio, but not \vith- 
out the grand fignior's leave. The fultanas thus mar- 
ried, are for the moll part their hufband's miftreffcs : 
command them as they pleafe, wearing an hanj^r, or 
dagger, in token of their power over thcin, and 
fonictimcs they v/ill put them away and take others ; 
;ind fuch a divorce commonly proves the death of the 

The other women either grow old in the (eraglio, 
and lb are made miflreflcs of the young ones ; or are 
fent into the old feraglio, which they account their 
bed fortune, becaufe from thence they may be mar- 
ried, with the confent of the miftrefs ; and carry 
away the riches they have got, which is very confi- 
derable, partly by laving out of the lultan's allow- 
ance, and by the prefents made them upon their 
bairam, and by the balhas wives. Hither alfo, after 

C 4 t\\^ 


thz fultan's death, are all the fuitanas fcnt, except 
the fultana queen •, and if they are wealthy, they 
marry to men of reafonablc qualitj% yet with the 
good will of the niiftrefs, and coiifcnt of the gr^d 
Jignior. The women of the feraglio are puAiflied 

^for their faults vei^" feverely, and are foundly beat by 
their overfcers : and if they prov.e difobcdient ancj 
incorrigible, they are, by the ioItah*s order, fent into 
the old feraglio, and the beft part of wjiat they have 
taken froni them. But if they arc fqund guilty of 
whoredom, pr any other great crime, they are bound 
hand and foot, and being ppt into a fack, are in the 
night caft into the fea. 

The feraglio may be properly termed the feminary 
pr nurfery of the bed fubjefts ; for in it all have 
their education, who afterward become the principal 
pfBcers or fubdrdinate rulers of the ftate and aflfairs 
of the empire; and thefe are they which are called 
the Agliam-OgUns, i. e. vmexpert and untutored 
youths. There are ordinarily about 6 or 700 of them, 
from 12 to 25 or 30 years of age ; being all chriftian 
children, gathered up every three years in the Morea 
and throughout a}! the parts of Albania. They are 
taken from fuch families as are fuppofed to be of the 
beft ipirit and moft warlike difpofition ; and as foon 
as they are broiighc into the feraglio, they are circum- 
cifed and made Turks. They are at firft put to very 
bale and flavifh employments, fuch as to I'erve in the 
ftables, kitchens and gardens, digging and cleaving 
wood, and are made to row in faicks or barges, arid 
tp lead the greyhounds to courfing, or whatever elfe 
they are commanded to do by the oda-ba(has, or cap- 
tains. They are allowed frorn^ two to five afpers a 
jday 5 but afterward, fuch as have a defire to learn, 
arc taught to read and write, and generally all of 
them are taught to wreftle, leap, run, throw the 
iron-bar, Ihoot the bow, difcharge a piece, and all 
other exerciles becoming a Turkifh foldier. 

' ■ ' ' • The 


The grand fignior makes ufe of them, when he 
intends a journey to any place, for pitching his tents, 
removing or carrying his chefts, and fuch like fcrvices; 
for which employment he never takes with him left 
than 3 or 400 of them. The boftangee-bafha always 
takes with him a good number of them, when by the 
fultan's order he puts fome great man to death, which 
is commonly done by the hands of thefe agliam-og- 
lans. They, are capable of being made ftewards to 
the boflapgee-baOia, and may rife to that great of- 
fice, which is an eminent place; for he hath the 
keeping of all the grand fignior's gardens and houfes, 
fleers the fultan's faick, and wears a turbant in the 
feraglio : and if he be in favour, he is preferred to 
higher dignities, viz. to be captain-baiha, baflia of 
Cairo, Damafcus, Aleppo, &c« and fometimes he 
comes to be vizicr-azem, or prime-minifter. 

There arc other youths educated in the feraglio, 
called Ichoglans, but in a far better manner than 
the former. TKey are brought up in learning, in 
the knowledge of the law and military exercifes for 
die fultan's and their country's fervice; and to un- 
dcrftand thofe things which belong to the govern- 
ment of the whole empire. By the ancient inttitu- 
tion they (hould be always made of chriftian rene- 

fados, and captives of the nobleft that can be found ; 
ut the capee-aga, or chief chamberlain, brings in 
fome natural- born Turks, of the beft afpefls, and 
who promife well, but with the fultan's confent. The 
number of them is uncertain ; but it is faid, they are 
commonly about 100. As foon as they come into the 
feraglio, they are exceedingly well inftrufted, and 
daily taught, as well polite behaviour, as the rites 
and ceremonies of the Mahometan law, and what- 
foever may tend to the improvement of their minds. 
Out of the young men thus perfefted and compleat- 
ed in their education, the king chufes his agas and 

6 In 


In the feragHo there are likcwife other minifter^ 

for oeccffary fervices; as alfo buffoons, tumbler^, 

muficians, wrefllers, and mutes, Thcfe laft are id 

great rcqueft, bccaufe the grand fignior tliinks it bc- 

^w his dignity to ijpeak to any about hirn familiarly, 

and therefore he m;ikcs himiclf merry with thefe mutes, 

who, though deaf and dumb, will reafon and diicourie 

of any thing by nods and figns, a^ other people do 

jay words j nay, many of them can write very fen- 

fibly and wdl, \Khich is admirable. 

. T)iere are alfo white eiinuchs, who attend tho 

grand fignior at his gate. 1 Ixc diief of them is the 

papce-aga, or chamberlain, who is in greateft authp^ 

rity with the grand figtxipr ; for he alone rs allowed 

to fpeak with him, and prefent all petitions, meflages, 

and writings, and accqmpanies the fultan wherever 

he goes. His falary ^s eighc fultanas a day, i. e. about 

thre!^ pounds fterling, befide prcfents rrom all that 

!have any bufinefs with the fultan> They are brought 

up with the ichpglans, and are taken from the fourth 

oda to fer\'e the grand fignior, who employs them in 

the government of his other fcraglios, and his femi-^ 

paries of youth at Conilantinoplc, Adrianople, and 

other places ; makes them bafh^s of Cairo, Aleppo, 

and other cities, and fomctimcs vifiers of the bench. 

They are alfo truftjed by the capee-aga to keep the 

King's curiofities and valuable rarities. TIaey are, ge- 

lierally fpeaking, not of much courage, yet they are 

accounted of gre^t judgment ar^d fidelity. 

The black eunuchs and black Moor wenches ferve 
the fultanas and the reft of tl:c queen's women. Thefe 
eunuchs, while they arc boys, are brought up as the ^ 
white ones are, and after are fet to ferve and wait a|^ 
. the fultan's gate, under the command of the kiflar* 
aga. They are allowed a penfion of fifty or fixty af- 
pers a day» and two veils, with linen and other necef- 
^ iaries yearly, bcfidc prelVnts given them by fuch wo- 
men as come to vifitthc grand fignior's women. They 

- TO THE hZVA'Vr: " vt 

""S^ftPiSflKtt abroad on any employment, but frrva- 
ft>r evf T in the leragJio. Thty are called by the narnes^ 
of flowers, as Rofc, KarciU'iis, &c. Thrir bafinrls is 
to carry melfagcs and notes from the iultanas to the 
C3pec-ag3, to be dt-Ijvrrcd to the fultan ; and attend 
upon the ladies in ficknds and heslth. 

The grand fignior's Ions by the queen, are brought 
up by thcmielves, by chcMcc nuifcs, which are toOinl 
tux. of the feraglio ; and if he has fons by other tiil- 
laiui, they are brought up by theinl'tlvcs, but may 
play with them till thty arc fix or fevcn years old. 
They live uiib the women nine or ten years, and 
about fourteen are circumcifed with great pomp, at 
weddings arc kept among Chriftians. The Ions, m>m 
five to ten years of age, arc taughc to write and read 
fay an hojah, or fchoolmaller } who, for that end, is 
admitted into the women's apartment for certain 
homst but fees them not, unlefs two or three dd 
llgly black Moorilh women : but daughters are little 
J^aidol. Whenthe Jhawhzswdeh, or fultan's fon« 
*wfto is bcir to the crown, ii circumdfed, he is fome- 
nncs ^t abroad wich a fultable equipage, aiid under 
ibe caff of his principal and' trufty eunuchs, to be 
:ffOTernc»' of MagneHa, and (he provinces atx>ut it, 
but OS deputy to his father. The eunuch is bound 
■to give Continual advice to the grand fignior of his 
fonS deportment'; fo that if he tranfgrefs the limits of 
Jiis comtniflion in the leaft, he quickly falls into dif- 
■grace, and into a fufpicion of rebellion. 

The old feragiio was built by Mahomet the fecond, 
'Vhen he took Conftantinople, to be his own palace. 
•fcis a large place, about three quarters of a mile in 
-OtHDpaft, and feared in. the nobleft part of the city. 
'tt-is environed with an high wall, and the buildings 
we very feir. It hath bat one gate belonging to it, 
-juid thatis of iron, which is kepr by a guard of white 
'Cuouchs. The inh^tan» of it are all women and 
^Cdnuchs. The women are only fuch as have been 
put out q( th« fultan's feraglioi viz. the fultanasof 



the deccafed grand figniors, fuch fts arc fallen into dif- 
grace with the fultan for their ill conditions or rude 
behaviour, or fuch as arc infirm or defedlive in fomc* 
thing that fliould fi.t them for the fultan's bed. TJiey 
are governed by an old wonran, xralled Kahiya-cadum, 
i. e. the Woman-oV«rfeer ; who is to take care that 
they have all things ncceffary for them, according to 
the cuftom of the houfe. The fultanas have lodginss 
apart, and -are reafonably well ferved, thoggh far 
fiiort of what they had in the fultan's feraglio^ If 
they are rich when fent thither, they take care tp 
make it known, and that procures them a good huf- 
band and jointure. The fultan will fometimes go 
thither to vifit his grandmother, fitter, or other reU- 
tions, or when he is melancholy. 

There are other feraglios in Conttantinoplc, which 
belong to private pcrfons, but built with an ugly ap- 
pearance for fear of giving jealoufy to the grand fig- 
nior*, though within the walls, which are high, there 
are very beautifdl apartments, ^adorned with gold and 
azure, and the floors covered with fini: carpets, flie 
walls faced with fine tiles lijce china^ I^ the halls 
and chambers they have a rifing about a foot higher 
than the floor, which they call a divan, covered with 
richer carpets than the npftof the room, and embroi- 
dered cufhions fet againft the wall. Here fhey reft, 
receive vi fits, and fpcnd moft of the day. There are 
alfo many great buildings in the city like monafteries, 
which they call Hans, with galleries and chamber?, 
where merchants have lodgings and warehoyfes at eafy 
rates, viz. one or two afpers a day. They bring in 
a great revenue to the owners. They are built of 
free-ftonc round a court, which has geperaljy a foun- 
tain in \u The walls are ftrong and well barred to 
fccurc the goods : the faircft of them in Conftanti- 
noplc is the Valida, built by the grand fignior's mo- 
ther. 7 he houfes of Conftantinople are all of wood ^ 
very indifferently b.uilt, and very fubjcdl: to fires, from 
their caking much tobacco, .The ftreets 9re crook e;d ' 


to THE LEVANT. 29 

and narrow^ (landing alfo up and down hill. The 
Caravanferas are builc as the Hans, but are ufed only 
to lodge poor travellers, and (he fervants of the cara« 
van, who have rooms there for little or nothing. 

Galatais the iuburb.of Conftantinople, feparated 
by the port only, in which there are faiks, or fmall 
boats, and wherries, to carry you at ail times for a 
fmall matter. You may go by lapd^ but it is a little 
about, and you pafs by the Atmeidan, or field where 
the Turks cxercile their archery, and go in procefllon 
to make prayers to God for the fuccefs of their arms, 
and whatever elfe they want. Galaca is a tolerably 
large place; the houfes are good and well built. Many 
Greeks^ live there ; and the Franks, who cohabit 
with them, have five monafteries and as many churches.; 
It has a large tower in it, and by the fea*fide the fine(^ 
fi(h' market in the world, where there is great plenty 
of all forts of fifli to be had cheap. The Greeks 
keep here a great many taverns, which draw the 
Turks from Conftantinople thither, who are very 
inlblent in their drink, and dangerous then to be met 
with ; fo that this is one of the greatcll inconvenieu- 
cies in Conftantinople. 

CaflTumpafha, a great village, where is the arfcnjl 
for building galleys, maones and (hips, has 1 20 dock \ 
and a magazine of arms for 6o,ogo men ; but it is in-. 
accedible to Chriftians. In it are, befide the Capou- 
dan-bafhas, or admiral's lodging, a fpacious bagniii 
for the grand fignior's flaves, of whom there arc 
many thoufands, and Vi^t very miferably. This 
town is divided from Galata only by the burvin^ - 

Beyond Galata lies Pera, a large borough, whiih 
is feparated only by burying-places. In thi.^ town re- 
fidc the ambafladors from Chriirian prin(ics ; for tiie 
emperor's, king of Poland's, and the republic or 
liagufa's only, may refide at Conftantinople. I'he 
houfes arc high and handlbme, being inhabited only 
by Greeks ot quality. Over asrainlt the hra^^o, on 



defaced all the images that they found in the city.: 
The dome of St. Sophia is faid to be 113 feet dia-* 
meter, built upon arches, fuflained by vaff pillars o^ 
marble, the pavement and ftair-Cafe marble. There are 
two rows of galleries fupported with pillars 0/ parti-co- 
loured martde, and the whole roof mofaic work; part 
of which decays very faft, and drops down. They pre- 
fented me a handful of it ; the compofifion feenls to 
me a fort of glafs, or tKat pafte wittf which they malc^ 
counterfeit jewels. They fliew here the tomb of the 
emperor Conilandne^ for which they have a great 

*' This \s a dull imperfeft defcriptioh of this cele- 
brated buildings but I uhderftand architeAure fo 
little, that 1 am afraid of talking nonienfe in endea- 
vouring to fpeak of it particularly. Perhaps I am id 
the wrong, but fome Turkilh mbfques pleafe me 
better. That of Sultan Solyman is an ej^adb 12}uare, 
with four fine towers in the angles -, in the midfl: is ^ 
noble cupola, fupported with beautiful marble pil- 
lars 'j two Iciler at the ends, fupported in the fame 
manner ; the pavement and gallery roulid the mofque, 
of marble : under the great cupola is a fountaih 
adorned with fuch fine coloured pillars, that I can 
liardly think them natural marble -, oh one fide is the 
pulpit of white marble, and on the other the little 
gallery for the grand fignior. A fine ftair-cafe leads 
to it, and it is built up with gilded lattices. At the 
upper end is a fort of altar, where the name of God 
is written -, and, before it, {land two cahdlellicks, a:s 
high as a man, with wax-candles as thick as three 
flambeaux. TJie pavement is fpread with fine Car- 
pets, and the molque illuminated with a vaft num- 
ber of lamps. The court leading to it is Viery fpa- 
cious, with galleries of marble of green columns,- - 
covered with z 8 leaded cupolas on two fides, and a 
tine founuin of bafons in the mid(! of it. 

" This defcription may ferve for all the mofqucs in 
Conftantinople. The model is exadtly the fame, and 
thcyon)ydmcr in'largcneft and richnefs ef materials. 


That of the Sultana Valida is the largeft of all, buik 
entirely of marble, the mod prodigious, and I think 
the moft beautiful ftrufturc I ever faw, be it Ipoke 
to the honour of our fcx, for it was founded by the 
mother of Mahomet the fourth. Between friends, 
Paul's church would make a pitiful Hgure near it ; as 
any of our fquares would do, near the Atlerdan, or 
place of horles, (al fignifying a horfe in Turkifh.) 
This was the Hippodrome, in the reign of the Greek 

Lady Montague adds the following account of the 

Turkifli houfes. " I fuppofe you have read in 

moft of our accounts of Turkey, that their Iioufes 
are the moft mifcrable pieces of building in the world. 
I can fpeak very learnedly on that lubjeft, having 
been in fo many of them •, and I aflure you, it is no 
fuch thing. We are now lodged in a palace, belong- 
ing to the grand fignior. I really think the manner 
of building here very agreeable, and proper for the 
country. It is true, they are not, at all, folicitous 
to beautify the outfides of their houfes, and they arc 
generally built of wood, which, I own, is the caufc 
of many inconvt- nicncies •, but this is not to be charg- 
ed on the ill tafi:c of the ptople, but on the oppref- 
fion of the government. Every houfc, at the death 
of its mafter, is at the grand lignior's difpofal y and 
therefore no m^.n cares to make a great cxpencc, 
which he is not lure his family v/ill be the better for. 
All their defign is to build a houlc commodious, and 
that will laft their lives ; and they are very indifferent 
if it falls down the ^ear nfter. Every hoiif/, great 
and fmall, is divided into two c!ift:n6l parrs, winch 
only join together by a narrow pafflige. The nrft 
houfe has a large cour: before ir, aiul o^jen giUeries 
all round it, which is, 10 me, a thing very agreei;ble. 
This gallery le^ids to all the chamb'^rs, w'jich are 
commonly large, and with two rovvs of Vv^iivl.)v,'j:^ the 
firft being of painted crhS:i : they feMom bniM r.hove 
two ftorics, each of vhidi has gallericj. Tl e ILiirs 

Vol. VI. JD «cxc 


are broad^ and not often above thirty fteps. This 
is the houfe belonging to the lord, and the adjoining 
one is called the Haram, that is, the ladies apart- 
ment, (for the name of Seraglio is peculiar to the 
grand figniorj it has alfo a gallery running round it 
toward; the garden, to which all the windows are 
turned, and the fame number of chambers as the 
other, but more gay and fplendid, both in painting 
and furniture. 1 he fccond row/>f windows are very 
low, with grates like thofe of convents -, the rooms 
# are all fpread with Perlian carpets, and raifed at one 
end of them (my chambers are raifrd at both ends) 
about two feet. This is the fopha, which is laid with 
a richer fort of carpet, and all round it a fort of 
couch raifed half a foot, covered with a rich filky 
according to the fancy or magnificence of the owner. 
Mine is of fcarlet cloth with a gold fringe ; round 
about this are placed, ftanding againft the wall, two 
rows of cufliions, the firft very large, and the next 
little one ; and here the Turks dilplay their greateft 
magnificence. They are generally brocade, or cm- 
broidery of gold wire upon white fattin — Nothing 

can look more gay and iplcndid. Thefe feats arc 

alfo fo convenient and eafy, that I believe I (hall never 

endure chairs as long as I live. The rooms arc 

low, which I think no fault ^ and the ceiling is al* 
ways of wood, generally inlaid or painted with flowers. 
They open in many places, with folding-doors, and 
&rve for cabinets, I think more conveniently than 
curs. Between the windows are little arches to fet 
pots of perfume, or baikets of flowers. But what 
pieafcs me bed, is the fafhion of having marble foun- 
tains in the lower part of the room, which throw up 
feveral fpouts of water, giving, at th^ fame time, an 
agreeable coolnefs, and a pleafant dafliing founds fai- 
ling from one bafon to another : fome of thefe arc 
very magnificent. Each houfe has a bagnio, which 
confifls generally in two or three little rooms leaded 
cn the tppj paved with marble, with bafons, cocks 



4if watcr« and ail ominemeiicks for cither hoc or cold 

^ You wiU perhaps be furpriled at an accofunt fo 
diflfcrenc fi^ra what you have hten enreruined . ^b 
by the common v<mge-writcrs, who arc very food of 
feeddng of what they don't know. It muu be un- 
OCT a rvy particular charaffcer, or on fome extracH^- 
urf ocdifion» that a Chriftian is admitted inta the 
boiK of a man of quality.; and their harams are al« 
ways forbidden ground. Thus they can only fpe^lc 
of the out fide, which makes no great appeacancel 
wd die women's apartments are always built back*/ 
-wanly •removed from fight, tod ha^o no other (^rof- 
pc£b than the gardens, which arc mQlofed with very 
high walls* There is none of oua.parterres in them i 
but diey are planted with high tiws, which give an 
■girecablc (hade, and to my fancy^ a. pleafing viev* 
In die midft of tht garden is thQ qhipfk; that is, a 
hige room, commonly 'beautified yndx a fine him^ 
tun in the midft of it. It is raifed nifie or ten ftepp, 
and enclosed with gilded lattices, round which, vines, 
jcflamines, and honey -fucklcs, make a fort of greeh 
wall* Large trees are planted round this place, 
which is the fccne of their greateft pleafures, and 
where the ladies fpcnd moft of their hours, employ^ 

ed by their mufic or embroidery. In the public 

gardens, there are public chiolks, wh^fre the people 
go, that are not fo well accommodated at home, 
and drink their coEfce, (herbet, &c. Neither are 
they ignorant of a more durable manner of building } 
their mofques are all of free-ftone, and the public 
hanns, or inns, extreamly magnificent, many of them 
taking up a large fquarc, built round with Ihops un* 
der ftone arches, where poor artificers are lodged 
gratis. They have always a mofque joining to them, 
and the body of the hann is a moft noble hall, ca^ 
pabfe of holding 3 or 400 perfons ; the court ex- 
treamly rpacious, and cloifters round it, that give it 
the air of our colleges. I own, I think it a more 

D 2 X«^&^^3b\^ 


reafbnable piece of charity than the founding of con- 

" Moft families have had their houfes burnt dowr^ 
once or twice, occafioned by their extraordinary way 
of warming themfelves, which is neither by chimnies 
nor ftoyes, but by a certain machine called a l^en- 
dour, the height of two foot, in the form of a table^ 
covered with a fine carpet or embroidery. This b 
made only of wood, and they put into it a fmall quan- 
tity of hot afhes, and fir v.ith their legs under the 
carpet. At this table they work, read, and, very 
often, flecp; and if they chance to dream, and 
kick down the Tendour, the hot afhes commonly fet 
the houfe on fire. There were 500 houfes burnt in 
this manner abiHit a fortnight ago, and I have fecn 
ieveral of the owners fince, who leem nor at all mov- 
ed at fo common a misfortune. They put their goods 
into a bark, and (ce their houfes bum with great phi- 
ibphy, their perfons being very fcldom endangered^ 
having no flairs to defcend."J 

In Afia, if you crofs the fea, which is about a 
mile over, you come to Schutari, paffing by Lean- 
der's tower. It is a large town, and there the grand 
* fignior has a ftately feraglio and lovely gardens. A 
little lower lies Chalcedon, once a city famous for 
the fourth general council, but now a pitiful village. 
The Princess Ifle, which is four hours fail from Con- 
ftantinople, and contains two little towns of Greeks, 
has excellent air; and the channel of the Black Sea, 
called the Thracian Bofphorus, is very convenient to 
take the air upon, being twelve miles long, afford- 
ing a delightful profpeft of ftarely houfes and lovely 
gardens. Six miles from Conftantinople are two forts, 
built to hinder the inroads of the Coffacks, who would 
otherwife feek their booty in that city. At the mouth 
of the Bofphorus is a rock, about fifty paces from the 
land, where (lands a pillar of white marble, called 
Pompey's Pillar, becaufe raifed by him (as it is faid) 
in memory of his viftory over Mkhridates. Over 


'-^^'^JJ'^^^z,^- J^l»«<iw in, lJ4g. 


againft this rock in Europe is t. village by the fca- 
iidc, called Fanare, where is a lighc-houfe for the 
convenience of vcflcls to keep them from the rocks, 
on which they arc in danger from frequent tempefts 
and currents, caufed by the Danube^ Borillhenes, 
Tanais, and other rivrrs falling into this fea, to fuf- 
fer ftiipwrccks : from thence it is called Mauro- 
Thalalia, i. e. The Black-Sea ; and by the Greeks, 
theEuxine, or Axene-Sea, i.e. Inhofpitable. 

The Turks are commonly well-fhaped, and have 
none crooked or crippled among them, but are gene- 
rally of robufl; and ftrong conftitutions. Their ha- 
bit is vt^ry fit to make them feem graceful, and to 
cover ail defects ; for next their fkin they wear a pair 
of drawers, and over them a (hirt and doliman. reach- 
ing down to their heels, like a clofe-bodied cailbc, 
made of fattin, taffata, or other neat fluff, which is 
Quilted in winter ; and this they gird about with a 
lafh, or leathern-belt, adorned with gold or filvcr- 
buckles. At their girdles they commonly wear two 
daggers, or cangiars, their handles and fheatlis being 
garnilhed with gold and filver, and fonicrimtrs preci- 
ous ftones, anc^ their pouch for tobacco. Over the 
doliman they wear a feredg, or nig!*L ;^i)'.vn, which 
iA winter time they line \vi:h rich rur-, if tl.ey are 
able. Their ftockings are or' c.orh, aii.i :\vj ic^-z ar,j 
focks of red and yellow leather, Tc'.veJ to t!^ id I'iier 
flbocs, which thev call PaJo/.ch's, are oi the I'lmc 
colour, like our flippers. Their heiid. :re c :v;'red 
with a crimfon vcUer rap, wi^hoiit briniN, a'^ouc 
which they wreath a wi^ire or red tjrban, which is x 
foul' of linen or filk iluif, many ells 1o:m, and [v>" 
the faihion of it the q'.inlity or u\: w/aw :, Icnriw.-,. 
The janizaries wear up;n Jome Ipecial o.cali)!!. Jii-r- 
cola, or cap of cerem'jriV, which h:n;-s ci >wv;; hi-hind,, 
and has a pipeof gilc leather i:>ji'ure, liilt'a [jm -'jiic.. 
reaching to the middle of" thcrir r')i/..e.ij. ; o::.;- 
wile tliey wear a turbriii of whice, r:-.!^ or ui'i:r lilk, 
as the common hn of Turiis do. 

D J T^u 


The attire of the ladies of Conftantinople hath a 
a particular air of jgrandeur and magnificence in it, 
and far furpafles the drefs of the other women of 
that country. Their tarpous, or head- drefs, is made 
lip of many handkerchiefs of various colours, all 
wrought with gold and filver, befet with all manner 
of precious ftoncs, and adorned with feveral forts of 
flowers. They can put it on or off without undoing 
it, and ufually wear it feveral days, and then put it 
into another fafhion ; but it is often fo heavy, as to 
be a burthen them. They wear outwardly a white 
gown, edged at the bottom with gold-laces and frin- 
ges, and lined with furs in winter, as the men's* 
The ladies of the ferafflio wear fometimes on their 
heads a calpak, or fur-cap •, others a round platine, 
as the Jewilh women, with a feather on each fide, 
and plumes at their ears. 

[Lady Montague defcribes her Turkifli drefs in the 
following terms. — " The firft part of my drefs is a 
pair of drawers, very full, that reach to my (hoes, 
and conceal the legs more modeftly than your petti- 
coats. They are of a thin rofe coloured damafk, 
brocaded with filver flowers. My (hMS are of white 
kid-leather, embroidered with gold. Over this hangs 
my fmock, of a fine white filk gauze, edged with 
embroiclcry. This fmock has wide fleeves, hanging 
half-way down the arm, and is clofcd at the neck 
with a diamond button ^ but the (hape and colour of 
the bofom is very well to be diftinguiflied through it. 
The antery is a waift-coat, made clofe to the Ihape, of 
white and gold damaflc, with very long fleeves fallinj 
back, and fringed with deep gold fringe, and fliouli 
have diamond or pearl buttons. My caftan, of the 
fame fl:ufT with my drawers, is a robe exaftly fitted 
to my fiiapc and reaching to my feet, with very long 
flrait falling fleeves. Over this is the girdle, of about 
four finpcrs broad, which all that c?.n afford it, have 
entirely of diamonds or other precious ft:ones j thofe, 
fr/it/ v/i!) nor be at that expence, have it of exquifitc 


embroidery on iattin; but it muft be faftened before 

with a clalp of diamonds. The curdee is a loofe 

fobc they throw off, or put on, according to the wea- 
ther, being of a rich brocade (mine is green and gold) 
either lined with ermine or fables ; the (leeves reach 
very little below the fhouldcrs. The head-drefs is 
compofed of a cap, called Talpock, which is, in 
winter, of fine velvet embroidered with pearls or 
diamonds, and, in fummer, of a Irght-fhining filver 
ftuff. This is fixed on one fide of the head, hang- 
ing a little way down with a gold taflcl, and bound 
on, either with a circle of diamonds (as 1 have ken 
feveral) or a rich embroidered handkerchief. On 
the other fide of the head, the hair is hid fiat ^ and 
here the ladies are at liberty to Ihew their fancies : 
fome putting flowers, others a plume of heron's fea- 
thers, and, in fhorr, what they pleafe : but the moft 
general fafiiion is, a large bouquet of jewels, made 
like natural flowers, that is, the buds of pearl •, the 
rofcs of different coloured rubies > the jclumincs of 
diannonds ; the jonquils of topazes, &c. fo well fct 
2nd enamelled, 'tis hard to imagine any thing of that 
kind lb beautiful. The hair hangs at its full kngth 
behind, divided into trefles braided with pjarl or 
ribbon, which is always in great quantity. I never 
faw in my life lb many fine heads of hair. In or.c 
lady's I have counted 110 of the* trolls, all mirural ^ 
but it muft be owned ihat every kind of bv-aiuy is 
more common here than v/ith us. ' Tis finofular to 
fee a young womr*n that is not very handlbiriC. l liey 
iiave naturally the moll beaut ful complexi' n.; in rhc 
world, and i;eneraUy large black eyes. I can aflurc 
you, with great truth, that the court of England 
(though I beiieve it the fairefi: in Chrillendomj does 
not contain fo many beauties as arc lindcr cur pro 
tection here. They generdly Ihape their eye-brow^, 
and both Greeks and Turks have a cullorn of p.n 
ting round their eyes a black tintiture, L:iai, at a dii 
lance, or by candle light, adds very much to cUc 

V 4 bv 


• . _ 

blacknefs of them. I fancy mnny of our ladies wouldf 
be overjoyed to knoW^ this fecret ; but 'tis too vifibic 
by day. They dye their nails a rofe- colour; but I 
own, I cannot enough accuftom myfelf to this ja- 
ihion, to find any beauty in it.**—] 

The Turks fhave their heads, and fay the devil 
neftles in long hair -» but they fuffer their beard and 
muftachos to grow : they have a great efteem for a 
man with a handfome beard, and account it a great 
aflFront to take a man by his beard : they fwear by that 
of their father, the grand fignior, or the like. They 
falute one another by laying their hands upon their 
breafts, and bowing a little, fay, Sela mean aleicom^ 
i. e. Peace be wilh you, and the perfon faluted re- 
turns the like anfwer, which was the ancient way of 
faii'.tntioR, as appears from the fcripturc, and is very 
grave. The left-hand is the moft honourable with 
the Turks, becaufe it is the fword-fide, fo that the 
Chriftians and Turks, though neither will give the 
i:pper-hand one to ailother, agree well in walking to- 
gether, through difference of opinion. 

The Turks make great ufe of bathing, both for 
keeping their bodies neat and clean, and for their 
health's fake ; and in every town they have many 
fair bagnios, the fmalleft village being feldom with- 
out one. They are all made of the fame fafliion, dif- 
fering only in bignefs and ornaments. All that go 
into them fliave off all the hair of their body, and 
go in naked, all but their loins, which are covered 
with a napkin. A fervant alfo rubs them well be- 
hind and before, to fupple their bones before thtry 
go in. Such as cannot fhave themfelves, fetch off 
the hair with the powder of a certain mineral called 
Rufma, which being mingled with lime and hot wa- 
ter, and laid upon any place, will fetch^off the hair 
in ha^f a quarter of an hour's time. In Malta they 
ufe orpiment for the fame end. Having bathed, a 
fervant with foap and cloths cleanfes the body from 
ji}] Bith, and then they arc dried with warm cloths, 



•nd.&'dRfi, The price' of the bagnio is two aQwy 
ftrtJK inafter, aoduinui/.ftr clie man, if Hb'frill 
W well ferved. Tbe pooreft perron that is, inaiior 
waoMDf gptt' to the both It kaft once a week. TK(t 
wpowB go in by chetntelvea^ ahd are fcrvcd br wo- 
men only. -It is a capital CTimcfbr a man to go into 
the bach where the women are. Qrtu peifons ban 
them in their houfes for thcairplve;^ and wives. 

[Lady Montague went to one c^'thefe'bagAios tt ■ 
Sophia, a handfome town near A'driatiople, famous 
ftr its hot baths, ind defcribes it thus.:—; — " Indent 
CO the bagnio about ten o'doclc. Ic was already full 
of women. It is built of ftone, in the fhape of a 
dom^ with no windows but in the roof, wliicb'giv^ 
^;hc enoi;igh. There were five of thefe domes Joinedi 
iDgtther, the utmoft being lefs than the reft, and 
btinog only as a halt, where the portiefs ftood at the 
doon-' Ladies of quality generally give this wdinaa 
^ crown or ten fbUlings, and I did not forget th^ 
ceienibay. The n»t room is a very large 6ne,'pave(t 
with marble, and all round it are two raifed foiaa of 
inarble, one above another. There were four foun- 
tains of cold. water in this rcom, fa'ling firft into 

' iharble bafons, and then running on rh= floor in 
little channels made for that pu pofe, which carried 
the -ftrcams into the next roo-n, ibmcthing Icfa than 
this, with the fame fort of marble Ibphas, but Ibhot 
with fteami of fulphor proccci^ing , from the baths 
joinii^ to it, ic was impolTibjc to iUy there with one's 
cloaths on. TIic two other domes wltc the hot 
baths, one of which had cocks ot cold water turning 
into it, tq temper it to what degree of warmth the 
bathers plealed, , ., ' 

■ " I was in my. ridtng-t^rcfs, and certainly appeared 
yery extraordinary to' thepi, Yet there,' w^sl'^iiot one 
rf them that fhewed,the leait furprii:cor impertinent 

, curioficy, but received me with all the 'ooligitig pivi- 
Jiiy poffiblc. . I know no European court; where' the 
ladies would have -fcchavcd thcmfelves in fo ^olitt- a 



manner to fuch a ftranger. I believe, upoti the 
whole, there were 20Q women, and yet none of tho(c 
difdainful fmiles, and fatirical whifpers, that never 
fail in our aflfemblies, when any body appears that is 
not drcflcd exaftly in the faflbion. They repeated 
over and over to me, ** Uzelle, pek Uzellc,** which 
is nothing but. Charming, very charming. —The 
firft fophas were covered with cufhions and rich car- 
pets, on which fat the ladies ; an J on the fecond, their 
flavcs behind them, but without any diftinftion of 
rank by their drefs, all being in the ilate of nature^ 
that is, in plain Hnglifh, (lark naked, without any 
beauty or dcfed concealed. Yet there was not the 
leaft wanton fmile or immodefi gefture amongft them. 
They walked and moved with the fame majeftic grace^ 
which Milton dtfcribes our general mother with. 
There were many amongft them, as exaftly propor- 
tioned as ever any goddefs was drawn by the pencil 

of a Guido or Titian, And moft of their Ikins 

fliiningly white, only adorned by their beautiful hair, 
divided into many treflTes, hanging on their (boulders, 
braided either with pearl or ribbon, perfcdtly repre- 
fenting the figures of the graces. 

I was here convinced of the truth of a reflcdion I 
have often made, " that if it were the faftiion to go 
naked, the face would be hardly obferved." I per- 
ceived that the ladies of the moft delicate (kins and 
fincft (hapes, had the greateft (hare of my admira- 
tion, though their faces were fometimes lefs beauti- 
ful thaVi thofe of their companions. To tell you the 
truth, I had wickcdnefs enough, to wifh fecretly, 
that Mr. Jervais could have been there invifible. I 
fancy it would have very much improved his art, to 
fee fo many fine women naked, in different pofturcs, 
fome in converfation, fome in working, others drink- 
ing coffee or (herbet, and many negligently lying on 
their cufhions, yrhile their (laves, generally pretty 
girls of feventecn or eighteen, were employed in 
braiding tficir hair in feveral pretty fancies. In (hort, 




V TO TriE LEVAlfT. 43 

k k Ae wMlui^s coflfee-houfe, where all tbe news of 

die lotd, ioindal invented) &c. They ge» 

WfiAy cake thb dJiveHton once a week, and ftay there 
tt leaft four or five, hours, without getting cold, by 
immediate coiiiing out of the hot*bath into the cool 
mxn, which was ycry furprifing, to me. The lady^ 
that ieemeci tlie moft coouderable arhongft them, en* 
imued me to fit by her, and would fain have undrej^ 
ftd me £«r die bath. I excuied myfclf with great 
difficulty. They being however all {o earneft in pep* 
finding ate, I was at laft forced to open my inirr, 
and fliew them my ftays, which fatisfied them very 
wdl I for, I &w, they believed I was locked up in 
that machine, aiid that it was not in my own power 
€0 open itt which contrivance they attributed to my 


This agreeable writer fumiflies farther remarks on 
die TurluiSi ladies. — ^ 'Tts very pleafant to obferve 
how tenderly voyage-writers lament tlie miferable 
' confinement of the Turkifh ladies, who are perhaps 
more free than any ladies in the uhivcrfe, and are the 
only women in the world, that lead a life of uninter- 
rupted pleafurc, exempt from cares, their whole time 
being (pent in vifiting, bathing, or the agreeable 
amufement of fpendinj money and inventing new 
fafhions. A hufband would be thought mad that 
exaded any degree of oeconomy from his v/ife, whoic 
expences are no v/ay limited but by her ov/n fancy. 
•Tis his bufinefs to get money, and hcr's (o fpend it ; 
and this noble prerogative extends irfclf to the very 
meaneft of the fex. Here is a fellow that carries 
embroidered handkerchiefs upon his back to fell, 
and as miferable a figure as you may fuppofe fuch a 
mean dealer •, yet Pll aflurc you, his wife fcorns to 
wear any thing lc(s than clolh <5f gold •, has her er- 
ipine furs, and a very handfome fee of jev/cls for her 
head. *Tis true, they have no places but the bagnio^, 
and thefe can only be feen by their own fcx -, how- 
ever, that is a diverfion they take great pleafurc iu. 



^^ I was, three days ago^ at one of the fineft in ' 
the town, and had the opportunity of feeing a Tur- 
kifli bride received there, and all the ceremony 
ufed on that occafion, which made me recollect the 
Epithalamium of Helen, by Theocritus ; and icfeems 
to me, that the fame cuftoms have continued ever 
fince. All the (he friends, relations and acquaintance 
of the two families, newly allied, meet at the bagnio ^ 
feveral others go, out of curiofity, and I believe there 
were that day 200 women. Thofe who were, or had 
been married, placed themfelves round the rooms, 
on the marble lophas -, but the virgins very haftily 
threw off their cloaths, and appeared without other 
ornament, or covering, than their own long hair braid* 
cd with pearl or ribbon. Two of them met the bride 
at the door, condufted by her mother and another 
grave relation. She was a beautiful maid of about 
kventeen, very richly drefled, and Ihining with jewels, 
but was prefently reduced to the ftate of nature. 
Two others filled filver gilt pots with perfume, and 
began the proceffion, the reft following in pairs, to 
the number of thirty. The leaders fung an Epithala- 
mium, anfwert d by the others in chorus, and the two 
laft led the fair bride, her eyes fixed on the ground, 
with a charming afFcdation of modefty. In this or- 
der they marched round the three large rooms of the 
bagnio. *Tis not eafy to reprefent to you the beauty 
of this fight, moft of them being well-proportioned 
and white fkinned •, all of them perfedlly finooth, and 
polifiied by the frequent ufe of bathing. After hav- 
ing made their tour, the bride was again led to every 
matron round the rooms, who faluted her with a 
compliment and a prefent, fome of jewels, others of 
pieces of ftufF, handkerchiefs, or little gallantries of 
that nature, which fhe thanked them for by kiffing 
tiieir hands. I was very well pleafed with having 
fccn this ceremony j and you may believe me, that 
the Turkifn ladies have, at leaft, as much wit and 
i'iviliry, nay liberty, as among us. *Tis true, the 


* Tl f 


t M < • ; 1 1 

^TO THE LEVAWT.;} T 45. 

that give thtm lb mamr (^)por{uiiitic8 
fl^ ^ndfying their evil indinatioiu (it thi^.hayc anjr). 
life put ic vttffMjAa the power of tbeir ihpftaqdpt 
ID jaevcoge thonielvest if they are difcoveiiedk^aBil-I 
dalb|)Ciiot fadt tfaieyfiiflSer ibinetiinea for jiheii^iJiKUi^ 
ciedbn ia a 11^ JfiYiere in^ i^bout.tviroin%QiMfa» 
ago^ there .was found at clajr-breakr iiot very far fixm 
iDV houfe, the blccdiii^ body, of a- ypiing JKMwi, 
aaked, ooly Wrapped in a coarfe (lM>et»r^wiijb ^JM^ 
wounds of aknite, one .in her fide, and apoiJMScr in 
hex. bicaft. She was not quite ooU, : and was^fe fun-- 
beaudfuU ^dt there were very Sew men ,ia 
did' net go .to look upon Jicr ; but it was 
not poAfe for any perfim to know her^ no wooian^a 
hot bemg Jiaown. She was fuppofed to haye been 
faramghti in the dead of. night, from %h^ Conftana- 
nofde fide, nd 1^. there. Very little cnquU^y :«is 
aiMe about.tbe mufidert aqdche coqife waa pri^raiely' 
boned without noife. Murder i$ i^ever pi«rfi)(i^ by 
At kingfs officers^ as with us. 'Tjs the huTincf^.of 
the next relations to revenge the dead peribn ^ and if 
they like better to compound the matter for money 
(as they ^nerally do) there is no more faid of ir^ 
One would imagine this defedt in their govcroment, 
(hould make fuch tragedies very frequent, yet they 
are extrcamly rare ; which Is enough to. prove the 
people not naturally cruel. Neither do 1 think, in 
many other particulars, they deferve the birb^cpus 

charafler we give them. 

« Upon the whole, I look upon the Turkifh women, 
as the only free people in the empire ; the very divan 
pays a refpeft to them, and the grand fignior him- 
felf, when a bafla is executed, never violates the pri- 
vilqges of the haram, (or women's apartment) which 
remains unfearched and entire to the widow. They 
are queens of their flaves^ whom the hufband has no 
permiffion fo much as to look upon, except 'it be an 
old woinan or two that his lady chufe^. * Jis true, 



their law permits them four wives *, but there is M 
inftance of a man of quality that makes ufe of this 
liberty, or of a woman of rank that would fuflPer it. 
A/Vhen a hufband happens to be inconftant (as thofe 
things will happen) he keeps his miftrefs in a 
houfe apart, and vifits her as privately as he can, juft 
as it is with you. Amongft all the great men here, 
I only knew the tefcerdar (i. e. treafurcr) that keeps 
a number of fhe-flavcs, for his own ufc, (that is, on his 
own fide of the houfe, for a flave once given to ferve 
a lady, is entirely at her difpofal) and he is (poke of 
as a libertine, or what we fhouid call a rake i and his 
wife won't fee him, though ihe continues to live in 
his houfe."]— i» 

The Turks have no fumptuous feafts, but are con- 
tented with a fmall matter. They have no fauces 
but what are made at firft fight, as oil, pepper, &c. 
Their ufual food is pilau, which is rice boiled with a 
pullet, a piece of mutton, beef, or the like, and for 
want of meat, with butter. Their bread is light, but 
coarfe, like our bifcuit ; and fiar. They fpread a car- 
pet of Turkey leather on the ground, called a Sofra, 
and fitting down upon the ground like taylors, eat it 
with wooden fpoons ^ and inflead of napkins, they 
ufe a long blue cloth, caft round the table. They 
drink water ufually, becaufe wine fcems to be for- 
bidden by the alcoran •, but the goodfellows fay, it 
b a council, not a precept, and fo drink it plentifully^ 

* Sftle remarks on this fubjedl: " Several learned men have fallen 
into the vulgar niiilake, that Mohammed granted to his followers 
an unbounded plurality ; fome pretending that a man may have at 
many nires, and others, as many concubines, as he can maintiin : 
whereas, according to theexpreH words of the koran, bo man can 
bave more than four, whether wives or concubines.— -Nor can wc 
urge as an argument againti fo plain a precept, the corrupt manners 
of his followers, many of whom, efpecially men of quality and 
fortune, indulge themfelves in cHminal exceffes; nor yet the ex* 
ample of the prophet himfelf, who had peculiar pnvileget in thia 
and other points." Prelim. JDi£ to the Koran« ^ ?i. p. 176. 


bviibr^ k in pvblic, except the jamzaries or Iboie 
pidfigttes. They never iniD»e water with clicir wifiCy 
iadiang^ at the ChfiftiaiiB tar fc dcnng. It ia pfen- 
ttfid'at Cenftaadiiople, and all over the Axaapem 
hgx The pdoier iorc, for cheapne6» dxink a Nq^ 
aide of faarlor and millet^ famewhat like oor beer, 
hot OQC ib plcafan^ This drink will make them 
dnmk. Thej alfb drink cofiee all^ hoars of the dM# 
TUa^ liquor thef hdd to be goodto cure the head^ien, 
kitep down vapours itota the head ; it oomforea 
flomach, and helps the digeftion^ nay, thqf fiqi 
iaia good againft all oiahKlies. All fcxes and:nnkai^ 
lidk and poor, drink at leaft twoor dnte diffaesa^hnr 
in Turkey. 'At the coffee houfes the maOer haoi 
mmSc to- divert hb cuftomers, and draw otheis ku 
Thqr have dfo Iherbet, which is a very good-dfink» 
mmdt in Egypt, *of fijgar, lemon-juice, mulk, ani^ 
htiMtafe and rofe-watcr. At their ^ats; they^v9 
coKCi Iherbet, and perfume for thnr beasds. Tney 
i^md quilts on the ground for their bedding, and 
every one lies on his own, and the mailers lay them 
go their divans. 

Their recreations are either to deep, fmoak a pipe 
of tobacfo, or play on the tambour, which is a kind 
of lute; and though it be no pleafant mufic, they 
will play all day on it -, but Icholars read or write. 
They hoigh at the Franks for walking backward and 
forward. They entertain their company with di(- 
courfe, or a game at chefs, draughts, tables, or fuch 
like pbys ; but they never play for money, or any 
thing of value, becaule they account it finful ; and 
yet will ipend whole afternoons at their games. The 
iccfcations of foldiers are their military exercifes, 
viz. (hooting at marks or butts with bows and arrows, 
dardng the zagayc, (hooting widi an harqucbufe, run- 
nii^ The other Turks make a great diverflon of 
puppet-fliews, which, though performed different 
som ours, yet are more pleafing; their fongs are 




pretty, but obfccnc ; and fb arc many of their paC^ 
cures in dancing. 

The Turkifh language is a primitive and orientat 
tongue, and though not very copious, yet is grave 
and pleafant, and with a little fupply from the Ara-* 
bian and Perfian, is rich and elegant enough. The 
Turks are not much addicted to fciences, yet have 
dodors of their law, who explain it in all fenfes^ 

[With regard to the Turkifh religion, Mr. Tournc- 
fort fays, " The only article of faith the Maho- 
metans have, is, that there is but one God, and that 
Mahomet is the meffenger of God. As to the corfi- 
mandments, the Turks reduce them to five. I. To 
pray five times in a day. II. To faft in lent (or their 
month of Ramadan.) III. To give alms, and do 
works of charity. IV. To go in pilgrimage to Mc- 
cha^ V. To fufFer no filth upon their body. There 
are four other points added, but not as abfolutely 
neceflary to falvation. i. To keep Friday a fabbath. 
2. To be circumcifed. 3. To drink no wine. 4. 
Not to eat fwinc's fle(h, nor things ftrangled.— -They 
believe alfo that their prayers will not be heard, unle& 
they firft refolve firmly to forgive their enemies. It is 
for this reafon that they never let a Friday pafs with* 
out making a hearty reconciliation ; and hence it is, 
that we never hear of any malice among the, Turks.* 

Where their theological aflumptions are fo few 
and fimple, and where, in confcquence, fuch ftrcfi 
is laid on good works -, there, if any where, we may 
expcft to fee the duties of humanity cultivated in an 
efpecial manner-, and if the difference of religious, 
fcntiments will not permit us to regard them as bro- 
thers in Chrift, we Ihall be obliged to allow them at 
Icaft the charafter of being good Samaritans. 

" We are told, that befide private alms, there is no 
nation which expends more upon public foundations 

• See a collcftion of the moral precepts cont^ned 5n the Koran ; 
lately publiflicd under the title oi" l/pg Morality 0/ the Baft, 


TO THE tEVANT. t 4? 
iKaii the Turks, Even they who have but t DlDde' 
rate fortune leave fomething after ihcir dcfihi to 
maintain a man to give water in the fummer Bcai»ilo 
drink to paQengers, as they go along by the place 
whcretheyare buried." " Nor (continuesM. ^pUnie-_. 
fort) do I queftion but they would alio liave brdnvd 
veflds of wine, if Mahomet had not forbitfden the . 
wfc of it. The fick vifit the priibns, to difc'haffge 
thofc who arc arrefted for debt : they are very cttcrui 
to relieve pcrlbns who are baftifiiUy alhamcd of tbtic 
h t Hjflj; . Hb« many famflies may one 6nd, ^nho 
nare been ruined by fires, atid are reftored by cliari- 
tifi ! They need oi^ prdentthemfelves at the -dtmrs 
of (he mol'ques: thartlfo gocotheirhoofes tocoin- 
fon the affitcUd. The difeafed, and they who havQ 
the peftilence, are fhccoured by their neighbour's 
purfe, and the parifhfiinds. Fdr UietTurks, asLeun- 
davius obferves, fet no boands to their .charitiet. 
•They lay out monevfor repairing theWgh-ways, and 
iinaking fountams ^ the bencfitof paffengers ; and 
build hofpitah, inm, batha, bridges, and mofques. 

" As charity and love of our neighbours are the 
moft efleiuial poinu of the Mahometan religion, the 
liig^-ways arc generally kept mighty well j and there 
ate fprings of water common enough, becaule they 
■are wanted for making the ablutions. The poor look 
after the conduit-pipts, and thofe of lolerjbic for- 
ttaie repair the caufirways. . The neiglibourhood joins 
together ro build bridges over the deep roads, and 
contribute to the benefit of the public according to 
Am power. The wori:men take no hire, but find 
hbotncrs and mafons gratis for the feveral Tons of 
voric You may fee piiciicrs of water flandingat 
tiie doors of the houfes in the towns, for the ufc of 
paflcDgers ; and fome honeft mufiblmen lodpe them- 
felvcs under a-fort of (beds, which they eroct in the 
ftad, and do nothing ellc during the great he^jts, but 
get thofe who arc weary to come in, andwcft ^kui- 
fclves, and -take refrefiicient. Tire bezgars them- 

VoL. VI. E " idvw. 


felves, though there are very few to be leen, tbink 
they are obkged to give their fui)erfluities to other 
poor folks; and they carry charity, or rather vi* 
nity, to fuch an extream, that they give their 
leavings even to fufficient perfons, who make no 
fcruple to receive their bread, and to eat it» to Ihcw 
how highly they efteem their virtue. 

^' The charity of the Mahometans is extended alio 
to animals and plants, and to the dead. They be- 
lieve it is pleafmg to God, fince men who will ufe 
their leafon want for nothing ; whereas the animals 
not having reafon, their inftinft often expofes them 
to feek their food with the lofs of their lives. In con^^ 
liderable towns they fell victuals at the corners of the 
ftreets to give to the dogs ; and fome Turks, out of 
chanty, have them cured • of wounds, and efpecially 
of the mange, with which thefe creatures are mifer- 
ably afflided toward the end of their life : and we 
may fee perfons of good fenfe, out of mere devodon, 
carry draw to lay under the bitches which are going 
to whelp ; and they build them fmall huts to melter 
them and their puppies. We would hardly believe 
there are endowments fettled in form by will, for 
maintaining a certain number of dogs and cats (o 
many days in the week ; yet this is commonly done : 
and there are people paid at Conftantinople to fee the 
donor's intentions executed, in feeding them in the 
ftreets. The butchers and bakers often fet alide a 
fmall portion*to beflow^upon thefe animals : yet with 
all their charity, the Turks hate do^, and never fuf- 
fer them in their houfes ; and in a time of pefHlence> 
they kill as many as they find, thinking thefe unclean 
creatures infcrd the air. On the contrary, they love 
cats very well, whether it be for their natural clean- 
linefs, or becaufe they fympathife with themfelves in 
gravity; whereas dogs are wanton, fpordng, and 

** As to plants, the moft devout among the Turks 

water them out of charity } and cultivate the earth 

3 where 


^hcre they gnaw, that they may thrive 4he becterV 
The good muflulnicn believe they do injt:- a chioa 
Agree^Ie to God, who is the creator and pnfcnvrff 
afi things."— 

' Even though we Ihould make a fmall qiatter of 
allowance for that exaggcradon, whirK a gentteoiaa 
might be betrayed into, who was furprifed with fy 
much benevolence and humanity, where perhaps h? 
^^*"]c cxpefted to find them ; enough will 1q!I remfutii 
i the concurrent tefllmony of others, will ^tiogSr 
X fufficiendy eflabltCh the faift, of tlie Ti]f^ being 
ftmc^ humane benevolent people. 
, . ' The Turks appropriate to ihemfelvp! thf nam« - 
LOf Mollenitm, which has been corrupted intb.Mufi- 
fulman ; fignifying perions profeinng of 
Mahomet. They alfo tcFoi themrelves Sonnttei, of 
obferven of the oral traditions of Mahoraec aqd hif 
three fucceflbrs j they likewife call themfelyos Troff 
Believers, in oppoHtion to the Pcrfians . ^nd' ocfieri^ 
the adherents q( Ali, whom they call a wicked an4 
_ j^minahlc fe&, Their rule of faith aqd pr(iftjcp 
if the Koran. 

' The chief eocle0aftic is the mufti, which n^m^ 
'fiipatit^ an o^xHiader of the law, and l^s office is 
lif fiich^igni^s that wheo he CQoics to j^ourt, the 
eii^>eror mmlclf tiles from his ^t* snd adn^ic^ 
'fevcn ftops to moec bin}, ilc. alone has: the hpnoijr 
of Icifling the fultan'a kfc fhouldcr ;. Aitile the gr^d 
Tizier, wuh ajuore pro&iuad iiiclinatifm of the body, 
kiflcs only the edgf of th; emperor's vcll^ irbo ad* 
' 'vabces no more (hiu) three Heps to meet hitn, Tfie 
.)aw requires, that the mufti fiiogld bi: confulted o(t 
' .dl emergencies, 'par¥ici}larly in ihafe relating to peacfi 
jind warj but the peculiar r^ard iwus ihewn to hjtp 
it little more than memfonn; for vere he either to 
^vea dilag^ce^ble ioterpreutioa of the law, or. fchilp 
.la council, to prcfume to uavfrle the cmperor^s jjf- 
figQS* be would be inftantly deppled, and bis placfi 
E a f«p» 


fupplied by one of a more compliable difpofi^dir. 
On conviftion of trcafon, or any other capital crimc^ 
he is put into a mortar, kept for that purpofe in one 
of the feven towers at Conllantinople, and pounded . 
to death. 

* The reverend Dr. Bufching obferves, that as the 
mufti of the Turks may be cpmparcd to the pope, 
fo a cadaliiker, who is a lecular perfon, is not unlike 
a patriarch : a mola anfwers to an archbifhop *, a cady^ 
who is alfo a layman, may be accounted a bilhop v 
and an iman, a pricll, whofe chief employment is 

* The Turks have alfo their convents, and monks 
under the general name of dervifes, the chief of 
which are the bektafhi, mebclevi, cadri, and fegati 5 
whofe forms of worfhip chiefly confift in certain re- 
ligious dances. 

' The Turks at prefent avoid all appearance of pro- 
pagating their religion by fire And fword ; and the 
Chriftians of various fcfts, who rcfide amongft them, 
enjoy full liberty of confcience, and live in much 
greater tranquillity than among fome who ftile them- 
fclves Chriftians. 

' The Greek church in this part of the world has at 
its head the patriarch of ConftantinopU', who is chofen 
by the neighbouring archbifliops and metropolitans,, 
and confirmed by the emperor or the grand vizier.. 
This is a perfon of great dignity, he being the prin- 
cipal of all the Greek patriarchs, and the head and 
direftor of the caller n church*. His revenue amounts 
to no lefs than a hundred and twenty thoufand guil- 
ders, one half of Vvhich he pays by way of annual tri- 
bute to the Ottoman Porte, adding fix thoufand guil- 
ders befides, by way of prefent at ihe feafl of Bairam. 
Subordinate to him are feventy archbilhops and 
metropolitans, and a much greater number of bifliops. 
The Armenians have many churches in this coun- 
try ; the Jews and Roman catholics have alio the free 




cxefcife of their religion, and the Swedes have beca 
permitted to build a Lutheran church at Conftanii- 

* The Turics are not without learning, having fomc 
fchools, colleges, and academies, by them called me- 
dans ; but thcfe are generally inferior to thofe amono- 
the Chriftians, and their management of them alfo. 
very different. Lately a Turkilh printing-office has 
been fet up at Conllaniinople by Ibrahim Effcndi, 
who, after great oppofition, obtained leave to print 
all kinds of books, except on matters of religion. 
He alfo publiflied fome maps, and books of hillory 
and geography, and is faid to have had a coniiderable 
knowlege of the Latin tongue. 

* Literature, however, is not fo rare among the 
Greeks, who have not only fchools for inPLfuding 
children in the principles of religion, as rcadinor, writ- 
ing, and learning by heart the pfalms and pafiages of 
fcripture, but have alio univerfitics. The ftate of 
learning, indeed, among the Greeks, is at prefent at 
a ver)' low ebb, in comparifon of what it is among 
us \ but it oucrht to be remembcivd, th it thcv are 
deiiitu:e of the fame means and opporLunitics of men- 
tal improvement. As to pliyfic, die GiVcks eithiT 
learn from the Arabic, Je.viih, or pliyfi- 
cians refiding among tlio:] ; or Jio lludy in the uiii- 
verficies in German}-, liolland, or Kni^!.:nd. 

* The ottor-nm (vv-.i^rnment i> very* v/cll chara,?ic'r- 
ized by M- T« iirnLi.^": in ilie following]; pafiages j by 
which it will r.'^ !i.> v i-c'cfTarv ic is m our in'rlent 
enquiry, to ulainj^uliVi becv.cen the government and 
the people. 

** Thoi's who i\i not reflect on the orioinal of this 
empire, diicern at (i:i\ fighr, th.iir the 'J urkifii g:> 
vcrnment is extre:imly I'evere, and almoil tyrannical; 
but if we confider tii;:t it began in war, and tliat the 
firlt ottomans were, from father to foi'., ilie moil fci- 
midable conquerors of their age, v/e Ihall not be lur- 

E j prifed. 


prifed, that they fet tiO Other limits to their powfc^ 
than meeriy their wilL 

*' Could it be expected that princes^ who owed 
their greatnefs folely to their own arms, fhould dU 
Veft themfelve^ of their right of conquell, in fiivour 
of th^ir flaves ? It is natural for an empire which is 
founded in a time of peace, and the pe<)pk of which 
make choice of a chief to ^6vern therti^ to be mild 
and gentle, and the authority of it may, in a man- 
ner, be divided and fhared ; but the firft fultans owed 
their promotion purely t6 tlieir own valour, and be- 
ing full of^ maxims bf war, afieded to have a blind 
obedience, to puhifh with fevcrity, to keep their 
fubje£i;s under an unability to revolt; and in a word, 
to be ferved only by perfons who flood indebted to 
them for their fortune^ whom they could advanc^ 
without jealbufy, and crulh without danger." * 

' This muth rriay fuffice as to the maxims on 
which this Empire was firit founded, and ftill fubfifts i 
the efFefts of it will not be difficult to conceive.* 

" Though the Turks, fays M. Tournefort, ima- 
gined God gives prudence, and the other nccel&ry 
talents, to thbfe whom the fultan raifes to high cm- 
ploy meilts; experience often teflifies the contrary. 
What capacity Can pages have, who are trained up 
among eunuchs, who treat them with the baftinado 
for fo long a time ? Would it not be better to pro- 
mote youth by degrees, in an empire where no regard 
Is had 16 bii'th ? Befide, thefe officers pals at a Sep, 
from a ftate of the utmofl uneafinefs and cotiftraint, 
to fuch an extraordinary liberty, that it is impoffibltf 
they (hould not let loofe their paffions ; and yet thej^ 
lire entrufted with the gbvefnment o^ the moft im- 
portant provinces. As they have neither abilities no^ 
experience to perfol^m the duties of their charge^ 
they truft to their deputies, who are commonly great 
irobbers, or fpies of the grand vifier, to fend him aii 
account of their condu&. Thefe new governors are 


THE tfiVANT. 55 

forced alio to pals dm^ die lumda of the Jews ; 
for as they have noching irfacndiey come fiom tiie 
feragtio, they have leooocfe to dide ufiiren, who ' 
lead them to all muuier of ninne tnd esortioa.— 
This evil would not be lb cztfcam, if thcjr would be 
coatent to receive it i^ain hj little and link t but as 
they are a^d cvtry moment die baffi Ihould be 
ftraoglcd or removed, tliejr never kt a debt grow vM, 
I aod the people mud be faueeced to tepay them. 

" Under iuch ciicn mf tincea it is endent, that no- 
ilifa^ oftlie imm a u e u t at the Ottoman IN)ne, and 
'tfbtttis a i^ed inceffiody tunut^." 
'■ *'T1ie domuion of the fukan is acknowkged in 
* -^neof diofbnrquanenof tbeemh, as follows: 
* * TMfceymEorapcapaccoftheinneiitCbriSiaii 
'MfAv of iheeift; «c pmett boooded <m the nwth 
bf Ctaiiia, Sdanma, and Trufylvaniai on die etft 
mr Vi^nid^ JCuBa, «id Afia i on die fiwth by the 
Mpdiiciiinein feat md on dw weft by die Adriatic 
attl'Dlihiittia. The extent is not to be aicertuned 
iridi any preclfiom It contains the following provin- 
ces: to ue Ibuth arc the Mores, or Peloponnefus, 
Adiaia, Thefialy, Epinis, Albania, and Macedonia^ 
and towatd the north, Romania, Bulgaria, BelGua- 
lia, part trf" Podolia, Servia, part of Hungary, part 
of Crotda, Bofnia, and part of Dalmatia. Tuncey 
in Afia, which is divided into Eaftern and Weftern. 
The Eaftem, contains Diarbeck, Turcomania, and 
Gcofgia; the Weftem comprehends Arabia, Palef^ 
line, Syria, and Anatolia. In Africa, the Turkifli 
government extends over Egypt; and nominally over 
A^liers, Tunis, Tripoli, atidBarca. 

■ The titles o( the emperor, according to the cuf- 
mm of the Eaft, are very prolix and magnificent, as 
will appear from the following fpecimen. We, the 
fervant and lord of the moft nonoured and blefled 
dties, the venerable houfes and facred places, before 
ifbich all nations bovr ; of Mecca, which God de- 
E4 lights 


lights to honour ; of the reiplendid Medina, and the 
ho]y city of Jerul'alem ; of the imperial and defirable 
cities of Conilantinople, Adrianople, and Buriia 
emperor^ alfo of Babylon, Damafcus, of the fra- 
grant I'aradifc*, and the incomparable Egypt ; of all 
Arabia, Aleppo, Antioch, and many other highly 
celebrated and memorable places, cities, and faithful 
valfals, emperor -, emperor of emperors, the moift 
gracious and all-powerful fultan, &c. 

* The Turkiih arms are a crefcent. 

' In the fucccfilon to the empire, no regard is paid 
to ag,L* or birth-right, the Turks efleeming it iuffi- 
cient, if, in their eledions, they keep to the Ottoman 
family: but women are excluded from the throne. 
Though the government is purely monarchical and 
defpotic, yet if the emperor takes no care to indulge 
the humours of the people, and efpecially of the mu- 
cinous janizaries, he is not only in danger of being 
depofed, but alfo of being murderedj.* 

Lady Mountague obferves,-^— ' The government 
here is entirely in the hands of the army. The grand 
fignior, with ^11 his abfolute power, is as much a 
(lave as any of his fubjedb, and trembles at a janiza- 
ry's frown. Here is, indeed, a much greater ap- 
pearance of fubjeftion than amongft us j a minifter of 
ftate is not Ipoke to, but upon the knee ; (hould a 
refledtion on his conduft be dropt in a coffee-houfCf 
(for they have fpies every where) the houfe would be 
razed to the ground, and perhaps the whole company 
put to the toriure. ISo huzzaing mobs, fenfelefs 
pamphlets, and tavern difputes about politics,. But 
when a nii-ialw; here difpleafcs the people, in three 
hours time he is dratz^^.ed even from his mailer's arms. 
They cut off his hands, head and feet, and throw 
them before the palace-gate, with all the refpecl in 
the world ; while tiie I'ultan (to whom they all pro- 
fefs an unlimited adoration) fits trembling in his apart- 
ment, and dares ntrither defend nor revenge his fa- 
vourite. This is the blefled condition of the mod 


r"- ■ ■ . . 

»bEblute monwtJi ii|i9P'«wA, wb^Qwiis oo-Iwbut 
his will.* .1 

* With relist uni/i. oati6QaI Rveoucs, tbejr arp 
returnable to two trcaftirieai thc pujtilic Utafuiy, iu^ 
the ireafury of :^ ^uiTuliDeii,, The public tre«> 
fury is undcrth^ maiuigemuit qf the tefEcrdar* 
or high treaiurcTt who has under hJm twelve offices, s« 
to which all the-rcyevues pf ttjC'Cnwire, ariGngfrotn 
.Q^tes; cuftootf^&c; arc Estuuuble^ ,and gut of , 
wivcb the irmyu'piud.. The qmfu^r u alloivcd five 
jxrccnc ofvlIthe.qaQn^ broughc iiito the 'trcaTuTy^ 
iriuci) muft bring hitn ia at Ic^ doUars aa- 
^Qa%.. Qoe founh^ the moocy he receives be piys 
JD ibe Itiocbudabcg^ otkahya* who is the gnnd vi- 
jae^ cpmtmOafy, aod abov^ ihe lefterdar. The 
sooner of. thift treasury, called the 'public money of 
lie mufiUlEQeih is not ,to be touched 1^ the emperw 
bof in the pt^eft czieeocy, much lefs for j>rivaa 
cnpifiiaas. . The. fultaa^ private trcafury, which he ' 
tf^pofca of accorditfg to his own pleafure, - is iiader 
the care of the hafnadar balchi, who is the next per- - 
ion in rank to the kiAar in the feraglio. Prince Can- 
temirfays, that in his time, 27,000 ptirfcs, acnouating 
to thirteen millions and a. half of rix-dollars, weie 
annually returned to boih ireafuries. The conlirca- 
tions of the eftates and effci^s of thc balhas, and other 
officers, together with the money arifing from the 
cfcheau of Turks dying without iriale-iiritej make 
aUb a very confiderable article' 

The money current at Conftaniinople is, thc man- 
gotu*, which is half a quadrin, copper- money, and 
ux of them make an alper, which is a liitlc piece of 
Jilver, ' (lamped with the grand fignior's name, and 
worth eight dcniers, or three farthuigs fterling. I'he 
ifdette is worth fifty-five afpcre. The aflani, or Gcr- 
mao rix-dollar, {o called becaufe it is Hamped with 
a lion, in Turkilh aQan, is wordi eighty afpers, and 
the piaftre, orpicade, ninety. The Turkiih chcquin is 
WOFth two piaures, and the Venetian, ten afpers more. 



The' afpers are inatiy of them counterfeit. Tfadr 
Weights are the quirat, which is four grains, and fix- 
teen of them make a drachm; the medical is a 
drachm and a half, twelve drachms make an ounce ; 
the rotte is twelve ounces ; the oque is three iottes» 
or four hundred drachms i and the cantar is an hun- 
dred and fifty rottes. 

As a fpecimen of the haughty ftile ufed by the 
mtoman lultans, we fhall here entertain the reader 
with a cartel, equally infolent and extravagant, lent 
by Solyman I. emperor of the Turks, to Maximilian 
II. emperor of the Germans. • 

*' By connivance of the great God in heaven, we 
Solyman, god on earth, great and fublime emperor 
of all the world, lord, mafter, and difpoler of all 
the followers of Chriil ; We fend and declare unco 
thee, Maximilian, indignation, misfortune, and in- 
fidelity to thee and thy princes, fubjedts and adhe- 
rents. We, moreover, give thee to know, that we, 
by the fufFcrance of the great God, (tiled on earth 
the perpetual and univerlal God, moft mighty em- 
peror, foldan of Babylon, lord of Armenia, the 
mightieft in Perfepolis and Numidia, the great auxi- 
liary of God, prince in Barbary, even unto the 
mountains of Achaia ; king of kings, fit>m the me- 
ridian to the pole, from the rifing of the fun to the 
letting thereof, the firft and chief placed in the para- 
dife of Mahomet, the fcourge of Chriftendom and 
Chriftians, keeper and defender of the fepulchre of 
thy God crucified, the only viftorious and triumphant 
lord of all the world, and of all circuits and pro* 
▼inces thereof : thou, Maximilian, who ftileft thyfclf 
king of our kingdom of Hungary, we will vifit thee 
for that caufe, and make thee acquainted with our 
ftrength of thirteen kingdoms, collefted into one 
hundred thoufand horfe and foot, prepared for war, 
with all the power of Turkifh munition, fuch as thou, 
nor any of thy fervants have feen, heard, or had know- 
icgc of I and this even before thy chidfcity Vienna. 


. TO Tlifc tEVAiit;; ^si 

■ We, Solyman, god M pa^ itt de6uce of thte,, 

thy adlio-cnts, and abefipn, doJ witK our mdike 
ftrength, pronounce nd bitfi^f dtiiie and dior utter 
deftrudion and depopuUtlDDy' by CfOj poffible OKattii 
Vfc can devife ; and tUl m figmfy lintocbc^ to de 
end that thou and thy mifttiMe people ttttjr pr^pate 
vourfelvi^ for death or rain : urith ua it is dttmninet^ 
by the hands of our jiuutoriei, to rirate and ffxal 
thee» and all thy GeftnaA Ipb^lxxu and prtrinccii 
This mifery we have denoiUKea agunft thee and iji} 
princes: have thou 00 doubt but We inU cxOae. 
Dated in the year of our m^ feitf-fevcs, in the tAf 
of Conilanttnople, from ntucii ire did end ihj pre- 
deceflbrs, their wives, duUreni and mends, and. 
made ihcm hiiferable mm ihd CiiptiVei." 

* AH ibefe tumid niepaccs evaporated ill fmoke. 
Sotyman, it is true, audeTaftprcpandonato mvadA 
Hungary with a poweifiil anhy, and invefted the dtf 
of Sigeih, on the frontiers of'Sdavonia, iriiidi was 
defended by count StiriAi at the head of a numeraitt - 

Sarrifon. Solyman did hot live to fee the place re- 
Dced, but died beibre it of a malignant fever. The 
iriziet; however, continued the fiege, and the place 
was defended to the laft extremity by the gallant Sc- 
Hni, "who, 'finding it impollible loneer to withftand 
die fury diF the aiIaiUntB> made a fally with his gar- 
Kfiui, and was flain with all his folbwers. The vizier, 
having cntErtufied his foldiers with the fight of Se- 
fini'S head upon a pole, afterward fent it to count 
Salm, who then commanded at Raab, tc^ther with 
this fiio^ billet : ** In token of my love, I fend thee 
the hea'd of a moft refolute and valiant commander, 
thy friend. The reft of his body I have decently 
buried, as became fuch a man. Sigeth bids thee ^le- 
'wcl for ever."] 

' Mr. Thcvtnot left Conftantinople, Auguft 30th, 
1656, and ikiled in a faique to Montagna, from 
Vhcnce he i^e to Buria, which was called by the 
^denfs Fnfia, the nfctropolis of the anuent k\n^- 
•- ' ■ - iotn 


dom of By thinia, and which was the capital city of the 
Turkifh empire in the reign of Orcan, the fon of Of- 
man the firft fultan, who took it in the 726th year of 
the hegyra, and in the year of our Lord 1325 5 but 
It was taken from Bajazet by Tamerlane. It is about 
ten piiles diftant from Mount Olympus j is pleafantly 
lituated, and water is fo plentiful, that befide what 
they have in their dwelling-houfes, they have foun- 
tains in their houfes of office for their ablutions. 
They have fome waters that run through the town, 
fo hot as to boil an egg, of which they have made 
feveral bagnios, which ierve for the cure of many 
diftempers, and people come above lOo miles to 
wa(h in them. 

From Burla he went to Smyrna with the caravan i 
and becaufe nothing is to be met withal upon this 
road but water, travellers muft carry all their provi- 
fions and houftiold-ftufF along with them, or want 
both. It is a large town, and well inhabited both 
by Turks and Chriftians, but is neither pleafant nor 
ftrong. It is commanded by a caftle, at the bottom 
of which in the way to the Greek church, called San- 
ta Veneranda, is a great amphitheatre, where St. Po- 
lycarp, St. John's fcholar and bifliop of Smyrna, fuf- 
fered martyrdom. The port is but fmall, but the 
road is I'pacious and fafe, and has a caftle lately built 
to command it. By the road ftands the cuftom-houfc, 
and the houfes of the coniuls, merchants, and Franks, 
who have, for the moft part, a back-door toward the 

Befide Turks, there live in it Chriftians of all 
countries, Greeks, Armenians, and Latins. The 
Greeks have t^vo churches, die Armenians have alfo 
two churches, and the Latins as many. The country 
about it ir» plain nnd fertile in olive-trees, and full of 
gardens. All things there are in abundance, and 
their wine is moft excellent. It is very fubjcct to 
earthquakes, which happen every year, and often 
ruin the town j but it is foon rebuilt again, becaufe 


K'TVV* ^ « 

. 1 ' 

flitie cttonttMitt i£ iiBifiiii^^ ''Th((«irJn\fQiii& 
iaw limii' iwbiJd' j)c yei7'|i0t» i£ it ivcne net fbr dier 
kur iniid, w north breeze, as •'ibejr cajt: tty nN^ddi 
UMfk itgoltfly: cfoy df^, land mmh qwlifiss the 

{WeJiiivelar itee:o^^ cttjriA 

Sk Gnt^Vnigi&^ ttvtdki, which we will add in 
Mkoim norcti^-^:*-^^ Siii3rnu hath ib fliaoy adwtt^ 
tagtt fto«i te ^'daniral fituatidu, that noitWithftaadiag 
tte^g;«Mu:: cdsmhies Which la^ be£dleti ic by war, 
aMhearthi|i>ake8i it bavkig been no itk than fix tinMa 
e» i r th ro<f& and almoft utcerfy ruined : yet it hadt 
llil btCA dKnugfat worth the it^atrii^, and reftoring 
M A the beaoi^ the art of itii inhabitants could co»> 
tiivt 10 adom it with. It is fituated at the bbttoiA 
«f ft1li]r, rflwmed twenty miks to its moothi fecurcd 
whfahijgk moimtabs on every fide fiiom all waida 
but At w«ft I whence from the fea they (an receive 

'^ Smyrna b a* place of great andqdicy, and is re- 
puted to havl: had the Amazon Smyrna for its fouh- 
drcis. They therefore damped their money with the 
figure of her head. Here is a great number of Chrif- 
dans of all nations, fe6ts and languages. Tiie Latin 
^ufch hath a monaftery of Francifcans ; the Arme- 
nians have one church ; but the Englifh, which are 
the moik confiderable in number next th^ Greeks and 
Armenians^ have only a chapel in the cohfurs houfe; 
which is a (hame, confidering ilie great wealth they 
heap up here beyond all the reft : yet they com- 
monly excel them in their paftor ; for I cfteem a good 
Englifh prreft an evangeiiil, if compared with any of 
the reft. The Hollanders, I believe, next to the Eiig- 
Cfli) are more numerous than any nation of the 
Franks, and take no more care, as I could learn, 
of their religious worihip. But as to trade, none 
ftrive to outvy each other fo much as the Englifh and 
Hblbndr/s, wher«?of Smyrna and Aleppo are now 
the chief f^ces in the Levant. The trade was fbr- 



merly pretty well divided between them ; but finfle 
their war with the French, the Englilh have much 
the greater bart of it. 

The chier commerce confifts in raw and Perlian filk^ 
grograms, both in yam and alfo woven, brought by the 
rerfians and Armenians ; and much cotton, raw and 
made in yam, &c. which groweth all about thefe 
countries, and the iflands of the Archipelago, being 
brought by the Greeks and Turks to be Ibid here. 
The Englilh faAory confifks of fourfcore or an hun- 
dred perfons, mod of them younger Tons to gen- 
tlemen, who give three or four hundred pounds to 
fome great merchant of the Levant company, and 
bind their (bns apprentices for feven years; three 
whereof they ferve at London, to underftand their 
mafters concerns, and then their mafters are obliged 
to fend them to negotiate in thefe parts, and to nnd 
them bufinefs, out of which they are allowed a cer- 
tain fum per cent. There, by their induftry in traffic 
for themfelves, alfo upon good gains, but little lofs^ 
they live genteelly, become rich, and get great eftates 
in a ihort time, if they will be but indifferent good 
hulbands, and careful of their own and their owners 

Ephefus lies not above fourteen or fifteen leagues 
from Smyrna. In the way is a village called Sede- 
qui, about three leagues from Smyrna, fituated in a 
very pleafant country ; for which reafon the Euro- 
pean confuls of Smyrna have their country-houfes 
there, and frequendy retire thither to divert themfelves 
with hunting. The reft of the way fron) Sedequi to 
Ephefus is over a very pleafant and large plain* 
Ephefus, once fo noted a city, is now nothing but a 
confufed heap of rubbilh, pieces of marble, demo- 
li(hed walls, broken columns and chapters. That 
part, which is at prefent inhabited, is bounded on the 
eaft with a large plain, which reaches as far 9s the 
Archipelago, and on the fides with high hills. The 
moft remarkable thing in it is the old church of St. 



John the cvangclift. The Turks have converted k 
into a mofque, have added a minaret, and adorned it 
after their fafhion ; but the greateft rarities of i% 
when it was a church, were carried to Conftantinople 
to fultan Solyman, to adorn the mofque he had ereft- 
ed there. The caftle ftands on a hill juft by it, and 
has a very ancient tower ftiU Handing, on the top of 
which is a very curious piece of fculpture, or baflo- 
relievoy which, as fome fay, reprefents the hiftory of 
the famous Roman, Marcus Curius ; but others fay, 
the deftruftion of Troy. The truth is, none d^ 
come near enough to take an exa& view of it, and to 
they only guels at it. In pafling it, you may dif- 
cem thire pieces of marble, one reprefents BauhmaU 
the fecond a man fallen dead from 'his horfe ; a 
peribn in a fenator*s habit ilanding by, ieems to la- 
ment the accident ; and the third is the figure of a 
^ead body laid out ready for interment. 

A large inciofure, where antiently flood the tem[^ 
of Diana, has nothing remaining of it, but one larg^ 
gate, much ruined and defaced. Within it, on the 
north fide, is engraven on a (lone a man on horfeback, 
with a dog by him, and a fcrpcnt twifted round a 
tree. On the fouth-fide are two infcriptions, but 
they are fo mingled, that their meaning is not to be 
guef&d at. Not far from Ephcfus lies an ifland cal- 
led Scala Nova, but by the Turks, Cous-AdaG, or 
the Ifland of Birds. Here are the richeft Mufcadinc 
wines made, of all the iflands of the Archipelago. 

From ^Smyrna Mr. Thevenot went for a diverfion 
to fee the wonders of Chio, fo much tajked of through- 
out all Afia. This ifland, which may be called the 
paradife of Greece, is governed by Chriflians, though 
under the authority of the Turks, who cooimand in 
iJmall matters. 1 he people obtained thefe privileges 
by fubmitting voluntarily to Mahomet 11. when he 
conquered Greece ; and the Turks fuffer them to en- 
joy them without controul. Up and down the coun- 
try are fever4 churches, belonging cither to the 90- 


pi(h bifhops or monks ^ but the Greeks have many 
more in feveral places, the Latin churches being reck- 
oned but 301, but the Greeks 500: they are all well 
ferved, and divine fervice is performed with as many 
ceremonies, as if it were in the heart of Chriftendom, 
for the Turks moled them not. 

This ifland produces great quantities of maftic. 
They prick the trees in the months pf Auguft and 
September, and the mailic, whicli is their gum, fweac- 
ing out by the holes made in the bark, runs down 
the tree, and falls upon the ground. There it con- 
geals into flat pieces, which they gather fome lime 
after, and lay it in the fun to dry, and then range and 
Ihake them in a fieve to fcparatc the duft from them; 
which fo flicks to the faces of thofc that do it, that 
it cannot be got off but by rubbing their faces with 
oil. Tlvcfe villages produce above 1000 chefts of 
maflic, of which they pay to the grand fignior yearly 
300 chefb, or 300 weight ; every village being af- 
feffed according to their quantity of trees 5 and the 
reft they are obliged to fell at a certain rate, to the 
farmer of the cuftoms. 1 liis mnllic is by Diofcorides 
allowed to be the befl in the world, though it grows 
alfo in other places. It is a white gum, which enters 
into the compofition of many ointments ; and the 
Greeks ufe to chew it much, bccaufe ic makes them 
fpit, whitens their teeth, and fweeicns their breath : 
they put it alfo in their bread to make it more deli- 

The chief town of this illc is of the fime name. 
It hath good houles, and the ftrccts are wide enough 
for coaches: it is not large, but well peopled, and 
mod pare of tlie inhabitants arc Chriftians, either 
Greeks or Latins, whj have each of them a bifliop, 
and feveral churches 5 but the Greeks have moft by 
far. They have alio many convents of nuns, but not 
fo rtris^tly lliut up but that men may come at them, 
and they will be kind to them, fomcrimes even be- 
yond the bounds of Chriftian chanty. '1 hey may 



leave their convent when they pleafe ; and their bufi- 
tiels, while they are in it, is to embroider in gold, 
filver and (ilk, upon handkerchiefs, puries, &c. and 
they are very (kilfui in it. 

This whole ifland is very fubjed to earthquakes, 
yet would be very fertile were it not fo ftony, and if it . 
had more water -, for it rains fo little there, that every 
ipring the Turks, Greeks, Latins, and Jews, are forced 
to niake proceflions to obtain rain. But notwithftand-^ 
ifiK the hillinefs and drynefs of the iOand, it has all 
things neceflary and good in fufficient quantities. It 
jrields com and wine, but being thick, fome do not 
like it, becaufe, they fay, they niuft both eat and 
drink it. All things are cheap there, and excellent 
partridges may be had for little or nothing i for they 
keep them tame like turtles, and have keepers, who 
drive them out in the morning, and whiftle them in 
at night, which call they always obey. The inhabi- 
tants of this ifland are the only people who have pre- 
ferved their liberty under the Turks. 

The Chiots make much damaflc, fattins, taffatas, 
fuilians, and other filk-ftuffs, and drive a trade in 
many places with their faiques, viz, to Grand Cairo, 
and the maritime cities of Barbary and Natolia. Such 
as are not obliged to follow bufmefs, fit whole days 
under the trees talking together. Learning is out of 
ufc in this country ; yet they have naturally a fliarp 
wit, fo that to avoid their cheats in dealing, a man 
had need of all his eyes about him. 

The Chiots, both men and women, are much given 
to dancing -, and on Sundays and holidays, they dance 
all night promifcuoufly, both in the cities and villages-, 
and a ftranger is freely allowed to put in wieh them. 
They arc not at all jealous but tijeir women nnd 
maids are allowed to rtand at their doors to iVe and 
talk with fuch men as pafs by j and they will be a-; 
merry and familiar with ftrangers, as if they had been 
acquainted with diem all their days. 

Vol. VI. F Anotiier 


Anorher iDe of the Archipelago, bordering upon 
Afia, is Patino, Palmofa, or Patmora, amiently Path- 
mos. It is but 18 miles in compafs, and has but one 
well built town in ir, with acaftle in the middle of it, 
called, The Monaltery of St. John, v/here 200 Greek 
n^onks live. St. John the Evangelift being banifhed 
into this ifie, is faid to have wrote here his Revela- 
tions. They carefully keep in their church a body 
Ihut up in a cafe, which they affirm to be the 
body of St. John ; and fliew a grotto, where ihey 
likewile f^iy Sr. John wrote the Apocalypfe. There 
are about 3000 fouls in the iflc, who have much ado 
to li^'e, the ifle being very dry and rocky. No Turks 
live in the ifland, but they are all Chriltians who pay- 
tribute to the grand fi junior. 1 he Corl'airs put into 
this ifland to careen, and take frelh water. 

The illc of Ni?:ii*i, rnti<ntly Naxos, is 120 miles 
in comp.ifs. It was fubjeft to the Sanudi and Sonia- 
rii?i, Venetian dukes, till the '1 urks took it under 
the emperor Soiymus*, Vv-t tlicre are ftiil in it fevcral 
noble f:\milies defcended of thofc dukes. The land is 
fruitful in all things, but efpecially the valley of Dar* 
milla, which has iS villages. By the fca-fide, over 
againil the ifland of Nicaria, is to be leen, upon a 
very (k'ep and rupgtd mountain, I'ome ruins of 
the caflle of Apollo; and ic is a wonder how ftones 
could be f*ot up lb high to build ic. By :t are four 
little towns well inhabited. 

On the hills hereabout many goats feed upon an 
herb, called Ledum, which leaves a kind of vifcous 
dew upon their beards, that turns into a gum, 
of a very good fmcll, called Labdanum, or Lauda- 
num, and is gatherevl by ciftting oif their beards. 

About fix miiCs from Nixia is the ifle of Paro, an- 
tiently called Paros, which has three caftlcs, fcveral vil- 
lages, and a good harbour for all forts of vefiels ; fair 
churches, and many Greek priefl:s and monks. The 
antiquities of this ifle, confining in ftatuis, marble 



thefts, &c. were carried away by an Englifh gentle- 
man, who took all he could find here, as well as at; 
Delos, now called Sedrille, where was»p]enty of them •, 
but now there remains »but one image of a woman, 
fo large that it cannot be ftirred. This ifle was fa- 
mous for its noble quarries of marble, and for the 
oracle of Apollo heretofore, but now it is the refort of 
checorfairs. The ifland of Mycone, antiently Myco- 
nus, was once a well peopled ille, but now is almoH: 
forlaken, becaiifc of the rigorous pcrfccution of the 
Turks. It is about three miles round. 

We pafs over feveral iflands of infi-rior note j as 
the enumerauon of then) would furnifli very little 
either of information or entertainnn nc. 

From Chio Mr. Thcvenoc failed into Egypt, and 
in his paflaget being left before the ille of Samos, he 
took a view of it. It is a very barren country, though 
famous for having betrn the birth-place of Pythago- 
ras, PolycrateSj.and the Sibyl: it is eighty milts in 
circuit. Over againft Samps, and pretty near it, is the' 
ifle of Nicaria, antiently ciillcJ Icaria, irom Icarus the 
fon of Daedalus. It is of a long figure, and the Lmd 
is very dry and full of rocks, in \%hich are the houus 
of the inhabitants, who are in all about 3000 fouls, 
very poor and ill clad. 

They arc much addicl'jcl to fAimn;ing, and fifhing 
up fponges and wrecks -, and th^: richeit men. cr pa- 
pas in the ifle, give their daughurs to the bcft fwim- 
mer, which is trxd before the damfel and her fa- 
ther : he that can rem:iin longcfl under v/ater wins 
the maid. They pay the grund fignior tribute in 
fponges. They have vineyards among the rocks here 
and there, and they make of the grapes a Ibrt of 
white wine, as clear as water, which pafics by urine 
as foon as it is drank. The wine, as alio uax and 
honey, they trade with to Chio. The inhabiranrs are 
well Ihapcd and ftrong. I'he old Gre.k emperors of 
Conftancinople banillicd perfons of cjiial ty that had 
offended them in'o this ifle. 

F 2 LeivuM 


Leaving Samos, he came to the ifle of StancHioV 
otherwife called Ifola Longa, ninety miles diflranc- 
from it. Ic 'was antienrly called Coos, is feventy' 
miles in circuity and very fruitful, efpecially in good 
wine. On the port by the fea-Iide is a pretty gjcfod 
caftle, where the Turks keep garrifon. The town 
lies behind it, where tliere is a prodigious tree of that 
vaft extent, as to cover 2000 men ealily, the branches 
being fupported with many ftones and wooden pil- 
lars ; there are fcvcral barbers-fhops, cofiee-houfes^ 
and fnch like places, befide benches to fit on, under 
it.- It was amiently famous for the temple of >Efcu- 
lapius, and the births of Hippocrates the prince of 
phyficians, and Apelles the prince of painters. The 
knights of Malta held it, v,htn they were matters of 
Rhodes, and there are ftill many monuments remaining^ 
in it. Strangers here are more regarded by the womei> 
than is grateful to their hufbands. 

lie failed next to the caRie of Bodrou, which lies 
over af^^inft Stanchio, at 12 miles diftance. There 
is a good port, but lo flmt up with dirr, that grear 
fhips cannot gee into it. You enter this caftle through 
feven gates, over whicli are leveral coats of arms> 
which bcloi^r^cJ to the knif hts of Rhodes, that com- 
manded there. 

From Bodrou he failed to Rhodes, which is 100 
m'vles from Sta;ichio. The iQc of Rhodes has Lycia 
on the nonh, being parted from it by the fea, whicb 
is 20 miles broad ; the ifle of Cyprus on the eaft 1 
Canclia on tlic weft, and I^gypt on the fouth. It is 
ICO miles in circuit, lying in a temperate climate. 
The foil is fruitful, and hath feveral villages in it 
tivll inhabited, befuie a fmall city which is ftrong. 
This iHand has been under the Greeks, and under 
the Sr.racenf:, who loft it to the knights hofpitallert 
or Jcrufalem in 1309. They held it 200 years, and 
now is in the hands of the Turks, who under Solymaa 
iJ. took ic in 1522. 



The town hath two harbours, of which the Great 
IPortt being fquare and fpacious enough, is not very 
lafe, when the wind blows from E. N. E. or S. E. 
On the right-hand, at the entry of this port, is a new 
tower, built by the Turks, in a place where the old 
tower of St. Nicholas ilood. It is well furniflied with 
•cannon ; and over againtl this tower. Hands the caille 
of St. Angelo, but Ibmewhat ruinous. This caftle 
and tower were built in the place where ftood the feet 
of the great Coloflus, one of the feven wonders of 
the world ; between tlie legs of whicli a (hip under 
fail might pais. It reprclented the fun, and was caft 
by Chares the Lyndian. It was fevcnty cubits high^ 
ftrided fifty fathoms, and carried a light- houfe in one 
hand. It was overthrown by an earthquake, and 
being broke to pieces by the Saracens, was fold to 
a Jew, who loaded 900 camels with the metal, and 
carried it to Alexandria, in the year of our Lord 
954, and 1 46 1 years after it was made. The port 
of the gallies, which is covered by the caftle of St. 
Erme, is a good harbour, and able to contain many 
gallies ; but the mouth of it is fo narrow, that one 
galley only can enter at a time. It looks to the 
E. N. E. and is every night (hut with a chain. On 
the fide of this port is a piazza, with fome trees and 
a fountain in it, and at the bottom of it the arfenal, 
where gallies and faiques arc built. The town is fmall, 
but ftrong, having high and well-built walls, planted 
with faulcons on the top, and below there are port- 
holes for great cannon. 

It hath three g.ites, one to the fea, where corn is 
fold, and two to the lan-.l-fiJc. Over the wacer-gaie 
is fct up the dragon's hcaJ, which was 33 feet long, 
v;afted all the country round, and was fiain by Deo- 
gate de Gozon, one of thr knights of St. John. I'he 
ftrcets of the town are tolerably broad, all paved v.ith 
little ftoni.5, and for the mod part covered v/ith [^cnt- 
houfrs on cicii nd^ : there are feveral f.iir buildings 
;n it. Ki-.odes ii iiihabited now only by Turks .i-vl 

F 3 lii'i;-;, •, 


Jews; for though the Chriftians arc permitted tq 
keep fhops in town in the day-time, yet in the ni^c 
they mult retire to villages in the country about it. 
Lindo, the country of Cliarcs, who made the Colof- 
fus of Rhodes, is a little rock at the point of the iflc 
of Rhodes, 60 miles from the town. It has a fmall 
town on it, with a very good fort. 

At die bottom of the Mediterranean, lies the noble 
jfland of Cyprus, famous in all ages for the fertility 
of its foil, the excellence of its climare, and the ad- 
vantage of its fituation. It has been known in difT 
ferent ages of the world, by very different names j 
and feme of thefc are fuch, that it would be a diffi- 
cult thing to point out clearly the authorities upon 
which they arc founded. At length it was called 
Cyprus, but from whence it is not very clear ; fome 
fay from its copper mines, others from cyprefs-trecs 
which were in a manner peculiar to it. 

In antient times it was confccrated to Venus, who 
is ftiled by the pof ts, the Cyprian Goddefs -, and the 
reafon of this leems to have been from the wanton- 
nefs of its inhabitants ; ns this again may be derived 
from the excellence of its climate, and from the fer- 
tihty of the country. The longcft day is about four- 
teen hours and a half-, their weather in fummer is 
prodigioufly hot, fo that fomctimes their brooks, and 
even their rivers, have been dried up ; and in the 
reign of Conftantine the Great, when they had no 
rain for 56 years, it was in a great meafure deferted. 
But fuch accidents happen leldom, and therefore 
cughr no: to be mentioned as ob;eftions to the gene-: 
r.^1 repute this country has been in for its great fruit- 

it r.bonnds with win?, oil, corn, fugar, cotton, 
hnney, v/ool, turpi^ntine, allum, verdsgreafe, all 
forts of mttr-h, and moft cxccilenr fait. This ifland 
sHbrr!? rcviral good ports, all the materials requifite 
for cuiK-i:u: of fhips, all the commodities that can 
Lr: (Jefirecl ibi carrying on a great trade; and, if it 



w^re under a right government for one century, miglu 
be able to der'cnd itlelr' agamlt ail its neii^Ubours. 
At prefcnt it is tiiinly peopled, and not Iiairculci vared. 
A Turkiih buflii dclboyed all the i'ugar-canei, to 
prevent ihe Cypriots fra.ii having too much wealth ; 
an evil which there is now n > rcafon to fear. In a 
v.-Qrd, i: is at thii day the cleareit proof that can be 
given, how mueh a bad governrv,ent can defcar all 
the kind mrentions of nature : for in fpitc of all the 
advantages tiiat a C(^untry can poffibly have, there 
never was a more dif lul or defolacc place than this 
iiand is at this day. Fiom having millions of people, 
iherc are now in it f. arce jo,o:^c ; fro.n a climare that 
produced a perpetual fpring, it is become both un- 
whokfo.iiearjd u; ; from cities and tov^ns that 
touched eacn other, there arc now only villages and 
licaps of ruins j from abundance of ail things, the 
inhabitants are reduced to indifrencc and fiarvin;^ 
So tha:, except to conlideratc and intelligent |.:crLji', 
the face of the mod;;rn Cyprus refutes all that antent 
Lutnori have faid in it", tavour. Such are t!ie ewe::ii 
of a laile reiii^'on «n.l tyiaK'.ical i^overn-. ent. 

It v.'O'.iid br inexcui-r)lc la r;;e.iki.iL; of th; !e if: in : •, 
to hif'er t!:ac v.-iiich maker, liie 'vrcrcil injure i i ii-.:"- 
lOry, to rcUi .in hidj.. p, ;mv1 cj: o: -l-ic rc..j.i'v\ \\< w- ; 
I me.:a the iiiand or Landi.i, io l>aj: tlu i!u.i::v c^: 
war betwe-zn tije '^Vii'/'i-.iis an.: :'ij i vr'\:.^. 'Ir..^ i i- 
habitants of Lhi^i i;":.: : i arc ..]; )v»'i:J u. ^;v^ >l\',[\ -ic, -s 
well as biMVc Al'i.l h:.\::: \ \v:;vivai li..- ':^-:\'.:\':<^ cr i :- 
habitants or t!ie ifi'i:^: (.: S^:?, ire cvr. \.n.\W cu:!.;! 
PrafiiHO- bv the l^i;;-.-:-, \\! i> i?s m'.iLij ;i-; c; :-.\-, 
Green. 'I lie rcal'):i t;f ih;*: i.-, ili;;: li-'j 'j ".i.vii:!! I;.. ■ 
Iha, much ertee:^ie.i tor h:-> v,'i}l:r;':i, oM":. vi:;;;- :.-.: 
manners of the irilu'^iranuj o* ::i.\: ;;i^.;J. -..■.', ; ■. 
'* A wife Scioc an.i :\ f. r-.-ei^. i;>.;e ^vv•'c i;".-:..-' ./ •. y 
hard to be me: will.." ily ri.'.i u.'.;l;J:} 'u'\.,\i.\\ \.z 
ilamped the namr (a' P/.t I.:"."...-- v.\::\ ilir. v r, •!.: ..r». 

tion. But for tivj Caii.::.j: . :'i./. -."i l'* - [ j-.^ l,i • 

* I 1 I I ■ 

» I'* «« »■» » - ,-j ^ t" ■#■-•.■/■■■■■■'■>■'■ ^ • 1 i ■■ . ■ * 


both courage and Underftanding \ of both which they 
gave ample teftimony in the courfe of the long war 

Theifland of Candia, which in old time was, anc{ 
alfo now is by the Turks called Crete, hath foHowed, 
for the moft part, that of the empire of Greece, and 
is now fubjeftcd to the tyranny of the Turks, after a 
war of above 27 years ; in which time the Venetians 
did bravely, and with unparalleled courage, defend 
the city of Candii to the laft extremity. After a dofc 
fiege, for near two years continuance, the vizier there 
in perfon, and with him the bed of all the Ottoman 
forces, they were forced to furrendcr ; yet upon the 
moft honourable terms that themfelves could propofe, 
carrying away wirh them, not only their cannon and 
all other ammunition, but alfo the bells which were in 
the ftecples, and whatever elfe they thought worth 
their labour. The vizier was fo much overjoyed that 
the city was furrendcred to him, that he appointed 
feveral of the Turkifh boats to aflift the Venetians, 
if they fhould have occafion for their help, in carry- 
ing their goods to the (hips. He was fo obfervant of 
his word on tlie ccffation, that he caufed two janiza- 
ries to be put to death for attempting to force their 
way into the city. v 

All Europe has heard of this great fiege ; how 
many thouf^;nd bombs were caft into the city ; how 
many mines were blown up ; and how many bold 
afiaulrs the Turks made. They had at laft worked 
themfelves fo near the walls, that it was impoflTibl^ 
for the befiegcd to makeufc of any of their great 
guns •, for no fooncr could a man appear to level a 
gun, but there was a fhower of bullets and arrows : 
lb that the Turks would often attempt to undermine, 
and the Venetians to counrermine them ; and whei) 
they met under ground, they fought moft defperate- 
\y. The Venetians have an engine which they call 
Trombo c!i Fuoco, it is as long as a half-pike, thQ 
ftaff bigger ; at the end are two irons about two 

6 feet 


feet longy in the form o£ a fork, ^n which is faftened 
a crunk nriade of iron, and fome are wood ; in it are 
five charges, each firing feverally and at a certain 
time, and carry feveral bullets to do execution as far 
as a piftol : they fet fire to it at the fore part, and- 
have a touch to reach from one chamber to the 
other. Another invention they had to fi(h up the 
Turks when they attempted to undermine their walls : 
they had hooks made in the form of a boat's grap- 
pling, the points Iharp, fafiiened to a rope, and four 
or five feet of chain at the end -, thefe hooks they 
often call over the walls amongft the Turks, and feU 
dom failed to bring up a Turk, fome fattened by the 
ck>aths, others by the body. I have heard focre of 
the officers fay they have taken feveral in a night ; 
for when the hook was faftened, they gave them not 
chne to unhook themfelves, but had them foon d^er 
the walls. 

This ifland had twenty cities, and above one thou- 
fand towns, villages, and large monafteries ; now 
there are not above four cities, and three hundred 
towns and villages. Several men have feveral opi- 
nions about the labyrinth here ; but one fignior Ve- 
netando, who was born in a neighbouring village, 
gives this account : that a certain king of this ifland 
had fo great a hatred for all women, that he ordered 
this place for his court ; and at laft lived fo privately, 
that he would not fufrer any perfons to come to him, 
but fuch as adminiftered affairs, and ruled in his ftead. 
He would feldom come our, but to worlhip at a 
temple, dedicated to Jupiter, which ftood clofe by 
it. In this labyrinth he ended his days, and had a 
famous tomb built for him, the ruins of which they 
(hew you. 

The labyrinth is about two miles about, being fo 
covered on the top v/ieh earth, as it feems to be all 
firm land -, we entered it with two torches ami cc.n^ 
dies in Lmthorns, having a line to direcl us out again. 
'IvX way is plain under foot, and arched over head. 


fome arches being about ten feet high, feme moitt 
jbme lefs, with feveral windings. I made it my bu- 
iinefs to obferve if there was any thing of a building 
in the pillars or fides, but found it moftly an entire 
ilonev which thcry told me was fo well cemented toge^ 
thcr, that indeed ir appeared lb. Here are a great many 
fmall vaults, about four feet long, two broad, and 
two over, which were for burying-placcs. There arc 
abundance of baas which hang in clullers, fome of 
them larger than ordinary. We endeavoured to frigKt 
them, fcorching their wings, by which we found 
there. was lite in them : their deep is obferved to be 
much more found with a north-wind, than with a 
fouth-wind ; as the fpring comes on they leave this 
their palace. We had almoft ended our line, being 
about ICO pikes, which is about eighty yards, and 
then rcturntrd out, being a good hour in the laby* 
rinth. The ciamps are very great, againft rain it is 
always dropping, but very dry with northerly winds. 
At the end is a lake, and they tell you^ that fome 
who have attempted to go to ir, have been dr^wn into 
it. Our curioiiry did not invite us to fee it; for 
though it were not true, as in probability it is nor, 
the noilbir.e fmells are enough to ftifle one. To the 
fouth-welt, about ten miles diilant, is chat famous and 
great mountain, called Pfilla Vuona, formerly mount 
Ida -, at tour of the clock it cafts a ftiadow on the la- 
byrinth. On it are many pleafant monallcrics, with 
f roves of cyprefs- trees, and abundance of fountains, 
ome fay the coalt of Barbary may be feen from the 
top. From ti.e labyrinth to Candia, is about ten 
hours riding, moft in a plain, till within ten miles of 
the city. 

There are in this ifland abundance of monafteries, 
but very poor, and fome arc (hut up for want of 
monks. Candia, fo famous and generally known for 
the brave defence it made againft the Turks, appears, 
by the ruins, to have been one of the beft cities in 
the mid-land fcas. It is feated on the north-fide of 



(heiflandj almoft mid-way between Can ca and Sittia,^ 
in a pleafanc bay, having an artificial port fecured 
from thtr north-wind by a mole about 200 yards long, 
with a ftrong and large caftle at the head, called C^-- 
tei del Molo, having twenty great guns. 1 o the 
caft of the arfenal is the old caltle, called La Batta- 
ria del Arfenal, which is rebuilt with a ditch round 
it to bring in the fea, moftly cut out of a firm rock. 
The port is almoft round, and the gallies or fmaller 
veflels fecure againft any wind, but there is not wa- 
ter enough for (hips of any condderable bignefs. It 
is filled very mut h with the rubbifli that the rains car- 
ried into it from the city, and would certainly have 
been choaked up in a few years, had it not been for 
a French merchant, one monfieur Dodei, who to in- 
gratiate himfclf with the baiha, caufed an engine to 
be brought from Mari'rilles to cleanfe it. 

The Turks take a delight to give an account of 
the ftrength of the place, and efpecially will fliew you 
a fmall cave or arch, where the Venetian general 
ufed to deep, (as they tell you) ro fccurc hin-iclt 
from the bombs. Not above one tirjhth part of the 
hcull-s that formerly were, arc r.ow inhabucd v vciy 
few being left entire J nor do the Turks rcpiir any 
bur thole where they dwell. The bsr.uns in' tirj old 
houfes are boiii'i:t up and c;irri.dcc) Vcni/e, Z;.iit, 
gnd otiicr places ^ and beincj nui le ui' cyprrls-vv\ od,. 
they IwTve to make chefts and c.;I)incLs, nK^ny of 
which have been b;oaght to Kngland. 'I'lic liUinber 
of the inhabiranLs of the city ib nor ri.'c;kc:ncd lj be 
above ic.oco, incl-jdinc^ G:ecks. 7'ii rv i:-. a < '>iU'- 
nual garriion of 2 ceo janizaries, rl.r bafn^'s 
guards. Since the tr.king the place, iii.-y hv'c f^iiintcd 
liberty to ai! thr-t will come to inhnbi: t::c:e ^ but 
all t!;cir encou''i'i;e:i':ent cannot ;e(:Gie ic. 

{ 76 3 

The MILITARY QUALITIES of the fcver4 


By » General Officer who has jaft publiflied an 

Account of the late Campaigns in Germany ; 'm 

which he bore a great Part. 


EXT to the local geography of a country, the 
natural hiftory, and political conftitution of it, 
are objefts that deferve the utmoft attention ; as the 
quantity and quality of its produdions, foil, climate, 
food, and form of government : becaufe on thefe the 
phyfical and moral qualities of the inhabitants en- 
tirely depend. Thofe who inhabit the plains, and 
rich countries, are generally effeminate and bad f(rf« 
diers ; impatient under the lead fatigue,, foon fick» 
require too much food, and ar^ lefs adive than thofe 
of the mountains, and in every relpeft inferior to 
them. What did not the poor Scots Highlanders do ? 
what did they not fuffer ? They will live where an 
Er.glifhman, though animated with equal courage and 
love of glory, will perifli ; meerly from the difference 
of their fituation before they become foldiers. The 
Croats in theemprclVs fervice, feldom if ever encamp, 
and are expofcd to all the inclemency of the weather; 
yet, in proportion, much fewer of them die, than 
among tne reft of the troops : which can be attribut- 
ed only to the difference of the countries from whence 
they coinc. The inhabitants of great towns are ftilj 
worfe thin thofe of the plains -, being long enervated 
v/'.rh vice, and its confequences, they are unable to 
iV.pport any fatigue : and arc, moreover, too talka-^ 
five ever to form good and obedient foldiers. The 
form of government produces no lefs variety in the 
x:hara£l*crs cf men, tlian c'le phyfical qualities of the 


The Military Qualities of, &c. 7/ 

The fubjefts of a dcfpotic prince being from their 
birth caught obedience, and fubordination, two efTen- 
tial qualities to form a good foldier ; if not entirely 
alienated and weakened by opprefllon, and poverty, 
are preferable to thofe of republics, unlefs th^fe are 
animated by the enthufiaftic fire of liberty. But if 
deftitute of this principle, thefe latter make but in- 
ilifTerenc foldiers ; becaufe their pretentions to liberty 
clafhes continually with that blind fubordination^ 
which conftitutcs the very foundation of a good 

Difcipline (hould be adapted to national charac- 
ters, by which both are improved : but ^ thofe who 
have the formation and conduct of armies, feem 
wholly unacquainted with human nature in general, 
and with its various modifications, according to the 
difference of countries and government ; they find 
themfelves incapable to form a code of military laws, 
founded on national characters : and are therefore 
forced to dcftroy thelc, and eftablifli it, on the weak, 
uncertain, and flavifli principle of fear ; which has 
rendered our armies much inferior to thofe of the 

The French arc gjiy, li.f];hr, and lively, cpverned 
rather by an immediate r.nd traniirr.Ty i::)j>uife, than 
by any principle of rcafon or !enti:n.rnt: ihcir fenfci- 
tions^ from the nature of their climate, arc very de- 
licate-, and thcrcforvf objects make a viry ih*ong im- 
preflion. From whence It foilov/s that thi-y are impe- 
tuous, and dangero'js in ilieir attacks ; all the animal 
fpirits fcem united, and {^Ive them a more than or- 
dinary degree of vigour tor that inflont; but it ex- 
haufis the whoI.r fram: : the iPillant following*; they ap. 
pear languid and weak, and changed into 01 her men. 
To this national th-iracter may be adtWl, rhr liseir 
armies are rtcruiccd from the clafs of ir-xn that; ir\ha- 
blt the town-^, who, of :\\\ orliers, arc ih^^ le-Pt pro- 
per for fold if r.«:, being v,u-', ip"ipa*:i'.'r.r, t.^l>:j::ve and 
ttftmina'e : thtv advance, airured of viftcrv, havincj 

fb Thtf NIlLITARY QuALiTies 6f 

a grfcat opinion of themfelvcs, and comiempt of othcftf 
but if repulftd, their fpirits are exhaufted, fliame 
fucceeds, and humbles them to fuch a degree, that 
they are not cafily prevailed upon to renew the at- 
tack J and as their vanity will never let them confefs 
they are in the wrong, they throw the fault on their 
leaders, become mutinous, and defert. Wherefore 
it fhould be a maxim in making war againft the 
French, to keep them continually in motion, efpeci- 
ally in bad weather ; always to attack them^ never to 
permit them to follow their own difpofitions, but force 
them to obfcrve yours. 

The Auftrian army is compofed chiefly out of 
the clafs of labourers, vaflals of the great lords ; they 
are obedient and patientj and bear without a mur- 
mur the greatell hardfliips : and though their reli- 
gion does not rife to any degree of cnthufiafm, pro- 
bably for want of being excited by an able leader, 
yet it keeps them fobcr, and free from vice. By 
education, and temper, they are little difpofed to 
reafon about caufes and events ; and therefore very 
proper to form a good foldier, and fuperior to jyiy 
other, who are not railed by fome fpecies of enthu- 

The Rufilans have all thefe qualifications, in 
common with the Auftrians; and befide, fuch a fund 
of veneration for their prince, which infpires them 
with a degree of enthufiafm, that muft neceflarily 
render them fuperior to every other army that is nor 
animated with fimilar principles. Their courage alone 
has rendtrcd them vidtorious, in fpite of all thofc 
difficulties in which the general ignorance of their 
officers involved them. 

The Prulfian army, being compofed chiefly of 
ftrangers of different countries, manners, and reli- 
gions, are united only by the ftrong chain of military 
difcipline : this, and a moft rigid attention to keep 
up all the forms and difcipline eflabliftied, confti- 
tuces a vaft and regular machine *, which being ani- 

thefcvcral Europeak Nations compared. 79 

(dated by the vigorous and powerful genius of their 
leader, may be Juftly accountcil one ot" the moft rtj- 
fpe^ablc armies in Europe. Buc fliould this tpnng, 
however, languith bu: for an inltiatonly, the machine 
ilfelf, being compolcd of fuch heterogeneous mancr, 
would probably fell to pieces, and Ic^vc nothing but 
the traces of its antient glory behind. 

The Spaniards are brave and patient j and have 
brfiue a point of honour, which being improved, 
would make them good Ibldi^rs: their army, at pre- 
km, would make but an indiflereiii figure, for twa 
or three campaigns-, as their generals have neither 
that knowlege founded on ftudy and application, 
or tlut produced by experience. 

The Engliih are neither lb lively as the Fccnch, 
nor lb phlegmatic as the Germans : they refcmblc 
more, however, the former; and arc therefore'fomc- 
vhii lively And impatient. It the nature 01 the Eng- 
liih conftiiution permitted fome degree more of difci- 
pline, a more equal diftribution of favours, and a 
tool abolilhment of buying and felling commifTions, 
they would furpafs, at lealt equal, any troops in the 

The Turks, and every government founded on 
ndicary £>rce, muftnecelTarily decay, unlefs the fame 
'boaiiciini which gave it birth, be kept up by conti- 
muLwars. Mahomet undcrftood this principle fo 
well, that he has made a religious precept of it, com- 
nHadlng his followers never to make peace with 
thdr enemies. As the force of this army depends 
oxtrdy on numbers, and cnthuGulm ; if this h& is 
evCTCxtinguiGied, wi;ich now feems to be nuich the 
cafe, the other will avail them noihing : and that im- 
Aenfe fabric, being no longer animated with the only 
^t which could fuppo/t it, muft: fink under its 

t 80 j 

■ *. ' ' » ■■"J ■* ■ — I • ■•■ •. ' " /I * t p " I ■ 1 ■ 




J O U R N E 

r o 



TEDMOR in the DESARt, 

THIS account is taken from the Fnencl^editiorf 
of the ingenious Mr. Wood's pompous work 
on the Antiquities of Palmyra, A work which will 
be a lading proof of the abilities of the author, and 
the two learned gentlemen his companions in his tra* 
vels. From fuch works it is impoflible to abridge 
without giving both inftrufbion and entertainment. 

*' Two gentlemen *, fays our author, who more 
than once had been led by curiofity to travel into 
Italy, were perfuaded that a voyage properly made 
to the mod remarkable places in antiquity, on the 
coad of the Mediterranean, might be of advantage tQ 
the public, at the fame time that it would smbrd 
knowlege and entertainment to themfelves. As I 
had already feen mod of the places they pn^fed to 
vifit, they did me the honour to conununkrate their 
defign to me, and I with pleafure accepted their invi- 
tation to be one of fuch an agreeable party. The ad- 
vantageous idea I had formed of thefe gentlemen^ 

* Thefc gentleaien were Mr. Dawkint, aod Mr. Boaverie. 



whom I had feveral times met in France and Icaly, 

fluttered me with ail the fucceis that could be liopcd 

for from liich a voyage. 1 heir friendfliip, thei-r love 

of antiquities and the Bne arts, and their being ac« 

coftomed to travelling, were circumftanccs efiential 

to our prc^A : circumdances that feldom meet in 

twoperfons, who joined to a tafle and Icifure for fucli 

refcarches, the neceflary means of making them, and 

who had fufficient health and courage to fupport the 

fatigue of doing it. We agreed that we cculd not 

Qo without a fourth pcrfon who was in Italy, an.l 

whofe abilities were known to us with rclped to h.^ 

Ikill in architcftjre an J drawing. We therefore 

wrote to him, and engj^ged him to be one of ilw 


We chofe Rome for the place of our rtfndezvous j 
and there fpent the wintcrr together, employing the 
greateft part of our tixe in refrefliing our menicrics 
hf reading ancient hidory, and in perfecting our- 
felves in the geography of the country we prapofed 
to vifit. 

The following fpring we repaired to Naples, where 
wc found a veflfcl we hid hirc.l at LiOmlon, furnifiicd 
with every thing we had tiiojghc would be uf iVrvice 
to us ; as a choice colkction o'i the Greek poets and 
hiftorians, books or anciquiricG, and accounts of the 
bdl voyages and travels. There were alfo on board 
iiich marliemacical inilruments as we mir2;!ic have oc- 
cafion for-, and prelcnts fit for the Turi^s of diilinc- 
lion and others, to v/horn wc might b;^ obiigcd t;j 
addrcfs ourlelves in the courie of our journey. Wc 
vifited moft of the iflands of the Archiptrhgo, a parn 
of Greece in Europe ; the European and AlMt. j 
coalls of the Hellcipont ; the Proponcis and :hj iiui- 
phorus as tur as the liiack Sea. We pcnetri.i:cJ iiuo 
Afia Minor, Syria, Piiocnicia, Palellinc, and i'-i^/l-i:, 
and vifucd the moll rcin.u'kAl::j p!:;ces in cac!i. 

Tiic different counrrics through which wcr p;*ir d, 
it- hnjwn ro .ijvi::::' i:: >^^'*i;> -.t' various kiii;J-. t'l.c 


merit the attention of the curious traveller : however, 
it was Ids the prefent than the ancient ftatc of thefe 
countries that att rafted our regard •, though each of 
us was able to gratify his peculiar rafte. It is impof- 
fiblc to conlklcr with indiiicrence, the countries where 
polite literature and the am had their birth ; where 
th J captains, the orators, the philolbphers, the poets, 
snd the arthcs, lb bravely and fo happily fufFcred 
their g(?nius to foar, to the honour of human nature. 
Circumftinces of cliinate and lituation, otherwife tri- 
vial, bccon'.e inierclling fioin their connexion with 
the great men who have celebrated them, and with 
the iliuilrioiis aflions, which hiftory and poetry repre- 
fcn: as being there performed. The life of Milriades 
or Leonidas can no where be read v;ith fuch pleafurc 
as in the plains of Marathon, or at the Ilreights of 
Thermo'ovlce : the Iliad has new beauties on the 
ban!:s oi" the Scamander ; ;:nd the Odyfiey has frefli 
charms in the country whcrrc Ulyfies travelled, and 
llon'x;" jlinof. 

No part ot a tour through tlie eafl: is fo difficult as 
a iuurnv'v to Palmyra : for It is neccirary to go far 
i'i jm i!'iC common road, and wlierc the grand fignior's 
proi-cilon can be of no fervice. Aleppo and Damaf- 
^•js iecHiCd to be the places where we m.ight bell pro- 
vidt! I'or convenience and farl-ry in this enterprize : but 
havinp- endeavoured in vain to make the liWl of thefe 
cities, we anchored at Byroor, on tiie coall of Syria, 
•and crofled over mount Libanus, in order to go to 

The ba'fa of thnt city dcilr.revl t!iat lie could not 

Dromire us, that either his \\\x\\k: cr his i^ would 

be of aiiV fjrvi.c to us at tlic nla.\' r-.) v/:.:rh we were 

s.oin:^. ii-m what he I..1J, iind fr(j::i Sx chat w« 

couUi learn Irom otlicr?, v.e iound thai: v,e mull be 

<)l;i":*.';e.: to r::o to Hafils, a vi!!ai;c four days journey 

to ti.c liGiL/j ■:>! i'anu..:v.s, -csxA \\\\: r'v.-iid'j«".ce or an 

:•. •\ v.::ofc jurifdidion cxicnds to i-a!:yivra. This 
» • . . . • 

1 . . ■ , . . ■ . s .» pr. . t ' w\ f p ■» o»t*«»" ♦• \'r>. y ■ \ !\ ,-. 1 ii^... ••ni*->^*'irt 


of Damafcus padcs to Aleppo : it is firuared near 
Anti-Libanu5J, at a few hours diftancc fioin tlie river 
Orontes. 7 he nga received us with the hoipiraiity fo 
common in this country among the people of all 
ranks ; and though extreamly lurprized at our cu- 
riofity, he us, as well as he was able, the necef- 
far)' inllructions for gratifying it. 

We left HaiTi.i on the loth cf March, 1751, with 
an efcorrof the bell Arab horfemcn bel i 11:3:111;:: to the 
ng3, armed v/ith guns aivJ lung piLe^J ; and having 
croired a barren plaiii, wliich IcarCcIy produces vege- 
tables fufiicient to iced the aniel:)pes v;e fj.w there, we 
arrived at Sudud. is a fmiill village inliabited 
by Mironite ChriJlians : the hoi:re> are built of 
bricks drird in tli..- llin ; v.r.A tlu* !!j!i:i'.>it.i!its cuhivare 
as much land aiojiiJ tiic vii'n'rM •;:; ]- b.i'-ly fjiTiL'ient 
for thicir fubHiL-nci: : tii?y alio m:;ke tji^jr.ibk- good 
wine. We bouglit Ibme manulcripts of thur {)rieil; ' 
and after continued our journev to the ioutli- 
e.-ift through the fiine f)rt ot country, ard in rhrcc 

'!%.l:}i III.JaK. ■.'.ii»v.>.l il «. J i<J ii* ut s,V. i I, Viitv-.s. •« v. w<-« ).^ *■* i'^ 
1 i'J •• »t. '-• 1 1 1 1 • ' I I iL ill. I !•. ill ^ L '' tl. 14 . t C 1^1 L->^ » ^» . t ii.S 

r-u.KMl ; vV.:*: v.v r ivr. 1 lj'::e r'Ji.:s tiivrj, t.' :':c a 
Lfoof Of i:-» iu/iv;- on-re a more co:iiiv!vM-..b!,.» r,;.;.:e. 

havj b.en b\.\h -^ ov '-jc )'-ar>; :vjp j an.i two cl:i;);'c::ei 
in ruiiir rn;v i\- cf :.!:;• la:i:e ac;e. In tl^^e buiLIiiu*? 
there arr fK'/erij.-s :r:ui !i more ancic-r.t:^ bii: e.ripi)'. cd 

• '* T*' !•* 1"' W 

Coriiichiin v..:;- 'liI*", :';■{ m.inv Atric balVs of v/'iir^: 
mart:ie. '1 !::;:j Ho'iiMrj of aruiciuitv, :\:;d i\:v,i 
otheri v*c f»iui» 1 l«.M::.ivd about, have bLj-jn:.:-,-.! i j 
v.orkj ere.:L- i v/it!^ inorj expciije iiian ra-k. \»'e 
nasi Oc'i- 1 * \. V i ■■. li'. :;' '»i^ '»-i' ^ ' ■» \i.;a.'c C..I..I-. .\ a ..1- 
doncd bv ;:. i:;I;abi:ant:i; \^!;;cil i'letiuenilv \ a. » :i5 
in this C;;uii*'"y ; for wncn r'-c j)ro.iUv.e ct rl.L c.::;:: .i 
not ahf.ver.f v.* : ) :l:i- cuk:v.iii ;■?, t'lv iiih I'i r.rCi^yr-CA 
qi::: ::;c;r !:.i '.'.:.■.::. >ni tJ i-.v^.d 0|n>.Li7:on. 

C z ' ^ 


The next day we Irfc Howareen, and continuing 
to travel in the fame dircftion, in three hours reached 
Carieteen *, a village a little larger than the laft ; that 
has alfo fome fragments of marble which belonged to 
ancient edifices, as the (hafts of columns. Tome Co- 
rinthian capitals, a Doric bafe, and two imperfeft 
Grct k infcriptions. Wc thought proper to ftay here 
the remainder of the day, as well to wait for the rctt 
of the tfccrt the aga had ordered to accompany us, 
as to prepare our retinue and our cattle, for the fa- 
tigue they were to fufTer during the reft of our jour- 
ney : for though we could not perform it in lefs than 
twenty-four hours, we were obliged to travel fo long 
without repofc, there being no water in that part of 
the delarr. 

We left Carieteen on the 13th, at ten in the morn- 
ing, which was much too late : but our company be- 
came more diflxult to govern in proportion as they 
became more numerous. This bad conduft occa- 
fioned our being expofed to the heat of two days, be- 
fore our bcafts could obtain jeither reft or water: and 
though it was at tlie beginning of the feafon, the fand 
rfficdted the heat of the fun with great violence, 
wh.le we had neither the flighteft brjreze to refrelh us, 
nor tl;e Laft fliade to flielter us from its beams. 

Our company was then much encreafed, by its be- 
ing joined by Ibme merchants, lb that it confifted of 
:ibout 200 perfons, and nearly the fame number of 
beafts of burthen, wliich formed a grorefque mixture 
nt liOrfcs, camels, mules, and afies. Our guide told 
us, that we were in tlic moft dangerous part of our 
journey, and defired us to fuLniit entirely to his 
orders ■, which were, that the domcftics thould keep 
with the baggrgc, immediately behind our guard of 
jirJjs ; from wl;ich was frequently difpatched one, 
two, or more horfcmen on the difcovery, to all the 
cmiix'nccs before us, where they lliyed till we came 
i:p with them. Thefe horfcmen always quirted ihc 
car.iVcin en a fuil gallop, after the manner of the 

1 ana?s 

T O P A L M Y R A. S5 

Tartars and HuHIirj. It is hard to fay wlictlicr tliis 
precaution arofc from a real apprchtrnfion of dang.-r, 
or wheth;;r it did not procecfd from an ollcntatious 
(hew of vigilance, to make us conceive an high opi- 
nion of their activity and ufc. 

The road here from Carictcen to Palmyra was 
north and by ealt, through a level fanciy plain about 
ten miles broad, bounded to the ripiit and k-ft b/ a 
chz'iti of barren mountains, that fecn:cd to join within 
two miles of Palmyra. In all this courfc there is Hci- 
ther a tree nor a drop of water : but to tiike off our 
attention from the fatigue we endure J, our Arab 
horfemen diverted us from time to time by enga^ina 
in mock fights. It is furprifing to fee with what 
lirmnefs they keep their faddles, and the dexterity 
with v/hich they manage their horf.-s. At ni;:ht they 
ufually fat in a circle, to drink coffee and fmokc a 
pipe : this was their greateft regale. In the mean 
while one of the company diverted the rell by finging 
a fong, or relating a piece of hiftory, on the fubjecc 
of love or war, or wiih an extempore tale. 

When we haci proceeded nine h j'jT'j from Ciri^tecn, 
we arrived at a ruincJ to.ver, on whiili v/c ob:«.'r\;'d 
thecrofs of Maltii in two or three ])!aces. Near t'li:; 
tower arc the ruins of a fuperb biilding -, b:it a m.v^- 
nificent dojr-cafe of v/.hire marble, vi ihc onK' p:;rv: 
that remains llanding, and uncovered with iiind. Ac 
midnight we (lopt two h'uirs to take fomc repofc; and 
on the 14th a: noon /.rrived at the cr.A of t!:c pl.;!n, 
where ihe mountains to the right a:id lefc appear u 
TTiQ^t. Between thefe m'jun:ains is a valL-v, w'l :^- 
are iVill feen thj ruins of an a-juediijib, tiiac foiw.-j.!/ 
conveyed water t-) Palmyra. 

On each fide of this vallev are manv fciv'are towers 
of a confiderable height -. and on ap-Toi.ching th'.-rn 
we found that thcv were th * an.^icnt fenr.lchrcs of i!ie 
inhabitants of Pahnyra. Scarce had. wc ]:)airct! tluic 
venerable monument^, when t'lL* monnt.:ins oncnino; 
on each fide, we fuddenly ddcovered t!ie fjcatjlt 


quantity of ruins, all of white marble, we had cvcp 
fcen ; anJ behind thofe ruins, toward the EuphraceSg 
a level country extending as far as the eye could reacfaf 
without the lead animated objeft. It is almolt im« 
pofFiblc to imagine any thing more aftonilhing than vit w. No profpcdt can be conceived more ftrik* 
ing and romantic, than fuch a vaft multitude o§ 
Cc^riiui^ian columns, with few intervening walls ^4 
folic} buildings. 

lii'.t to be more particular: on the left hand yo^ 
behold a wall which bc^longed to the court of thi; 
temrie of the fun ; and though part is broken dowOy 
it is of a confiderablc length. A row of tv/elve noblb 
vvindov/3 are ftiil ihnciinc to::e:her ; and farther to the 
left arc' two otlicrs : bc-.wccn each is a pilaftcr of the order fupporting the entablature ; through 
the fp ice that is broken down the view is terminate4 
by diltant rows of columns, and over the part of the 
wall whicii is ftiil fian.ding rife the ruins of the temple 
irll'lf. At the end, where ftood the portico, is a fquare 
ruinous tower built by the Turks. Before thefe 
buildings are inclofures of corn and olive-trees planted 
by tb.e Arab-s and feparated by mud walls, while on 
dl fklcs lie- around them magnificent ruins. 

Bt^io/e th:; Turkiih tower is a piece of a very large 
colu'iMi ftanding on its bafe ; but the greatcft part, 
with i's capical and entablacure, has fallen down. 
Thj iLoncs ihat arc around it fliew that there was a 
gr..r '. cd'fice in this place. Tiic diameter of this co- 
i.....a noar the bafe is five feet und a half. A little to 
tlvj w/iM of the tower, though at a preater dillance, 
are l!ic ruins of a 'I\:ikiili niolque with its minaret: 
and before ir is a grand ccMun^r., that rifes to a great 
heiglit, ai.d is of the ll-iv.e dim-nfio;-., as that which is 
brxiisCii down. A liti;L' iarchL-r to t.he rii^lit is a noble 
arch, v\;th a pf^'lL-rn riiiily ornaincnvcd on each lidc, 
from v/liich a colon^dc exrerds 4.C00 feet in length, 
ter.uinatcd by a fu})crb miailbleum. Many of ti.efe 
columns are fallen down, ;;nd open a view to the 



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other ruins, while in other parts the revains of mag- 
nificent tiruclurcs are fecn through the intcrcolumn.a- 
tions. At Tome diftance nearer before this marzniti* 
cent colon':de Hands a fmail temple, adorned with a 
noble portico ; and ftill farther to the right is another 
temple, with its periltyle, feen through the interco- 
lumniaticn. Sdll farther to the ri:-};ht is a ranre of 
columns that appear to have belonged to a pordco. 
At fomc diflance nearer feem to be the ruins of a 
Chrillian church; and ftill nearer, and farther to the 
right, arc four lofty columns with th^rir I'uperb enta- 
blature, the only remains of fome grand edifice. A 
litile tj the riglu of tlvi-fc, thoMgh at a frreater dif- 
tance, are a n;:mber of columns v/liich ftid fugport 
a confiderable part of their ent.iblature, and are fo 
dilpofed, that they rck:n;ble the perilLvie of a fmali 
temple, that has been v/Iiolly dciiroycd: and nearer 
ftill, and more to t!ic rir;ht, is an elegant mauioleum. 
Befide thefe we fee a vail numb^'r of fc.ittcred co- 
lumns covering the plain, fome with, and {"oT.e with- 
out tlicir entablature^, wiiilc tiv;^ yvD'Jwd in on nil 
f:ics covered with b:-o:>.c;i coliKv.n^-, c.:pi:a!S, rich 
cntabluur:.'S, and \^^\n^> of prod:pi;ioi.i-i ni.if^;vt:iK!e. 
Toward the riaht the t.j.l:;r;t pivy/nLj: is tc.-:ii-iKi:ed 
bv a ranee of hills a::cl :"i:.-un*'iii>', en (uvc cf v.'liicii 
are the ruinsof aTurl;ifii i.i-tihcy.ion, a:ul on linovlicr 
}.z a Cr. jLL.e. 

Thrie were theanvizin:; ruins wliich fi^;' ilrjck 
our fight, and appeared ac cne v;-.; in t;y; (i:il:i:-.t 
prolpect. After hvi'-f:; ( r^ri'iLien:^ r'l^in f>r io v.e 
time, we v;e:*e CO!' ..Uv.j : u a ji-.:!: r<:'ryrsc]r.y t ) tnc 
Arab", cf which -iiL-iv : :r c'.b:);;t riiirtv in t.»^ C':.i;*c 
of tlie great tv-n^pi \ 'i':".e m:\;:;' o; thai; c:Ii- 
. fice, a ;d the riiL-aji;.^!'; c;:" t-i/'r 1: :;Jlla■i^jn, l^rnud a 

r-r\rj r f*«-i 1 1" f ** '' r x^'Ts; f^ .:*■■• •■*:•■' ■■■ ■ ■ • •■^r- 

i ^. ' 

The inlu;bi:a l:: [: n\\ i::en an'.i v/Mr.en are well 
fhaped : t!^ : co;ti: !:A^>n> o: th;: \:d:-:: a:'j Iv/.i;;';/, 
but diL-ir iciiture- r'."'.\: l'i \' ^c.'- vc "::•.!. b;;: r:vv 

• 1 • r- ■ •/■• 1' r\*' i -x ',■"•»*:»••"■■/■■■■■.■ " *' ' ' " " ■' ■ ■ !=■■■■ • " ■* • • I- ■- i 


the women of the Eaft generally are. They hang 
rings of either gold or braJ's in their cars and nofes ; 
they colour their lips blu^, their eyes and eye-brows 
black, and the tips of their Bngers red. Both fexes 
appear to be very healthy, being aimed ftrangers to 
diieai'cs. It feldom rains there except at the time of 
the equinoxes ; and we enjoyed a Icrene (ky all the 
while we {laid, but one afternoon, when we had a 
lictle ffiower preceded by a whirlwind, which railed 
Inch a quantity of fand as entirely darkened the air, 
and gave us an idea of thofe terrible ftorms that are 
fomccimes fatal to whole caravans. We continued 
there 15 diys, during which the Arab inhabitants 
liipplicd us pretty well with mutton and goats- flefh -, 
but had we ftaid much longer, they would have been 
unable to have furniflied us with provifions. 

As we found it v/ould be troublefome to carry a 
quadrant fo far by land, this prevented our taking 
the latitude of the city ; but according to Ptolemy it 
is in 34^ latitude, and is fix diys journey from Alep- 
po, as many from Damafcus by the fafeft road, and 
about 20 leagues to the eaft of the Euphrates, Some 
geographers place it in Syria, others in Arabia, and 
others in Phoenicia. The city walls were flanked 
with fquare towers ; but in many parts they are en- 
tirely levelled, and cannot now be diftinguifhed from 
the other ruins ; particularly none of them can be per- 
ceived to the fouth-eaft: however, from what we dif- 
covercd, there is great rcafon to believe that they in- 
clcfcd ti'ie great temple ; and therefore muft have been 
at leaft 3 miles in compnfs. 

The Arabs fhewcd us by the prefent ruins a track 
of land that may be about ten miles in circumference, 
and is a little railed above the level of tiie deiart ; ob' 
ferving that this was the extent of the ancient city, 
and that ruins were difcovcred there by digging. In- 
deed there feems better rcafons in favour of this opi- 
nion, than theic authority. A circuit of 3 miles was 
very little for Palmyra in iis proTperity ; efpecially if 



yuc confider that the greatell part of that fpace Is filled 
by public edifices, which from their extraordinary 
magnificence, and the great number of fuperb fepul- 
chres, arc evident proofs of the grandeur of the city. 
From thence it may be concluded, that the walls al- 
ready mentioned inclofed only that part of the city, 
which' contained the public edifices in its moft fiou- 
rifliing date : and that after it was ruined, its fituation 
rendering it the moft proper place for putting a ftop 
to the incurfions of the Saracens, Juftinian fortified 
it, as we learn from Procopius, and very probably 
contrafled its bounds. Palmyra was not then, as it 
/ormcrly had been, a rich and trading city, in which 
it was neceflary to have a regard to the intereft and 
convenience of individuals •, but a frontier town, that 
only required ftrength. Befide, in building the wall 
to the north-weft, advantage was taken of two or 
three iepulchres, which being of a convenient form, 
they converted them into towers ; and as there is no 
dolibt that the wall was built after the fepulchres, in 
may jullly be concluded that they were creeled fince 
the abolition of the pagan religion: the Greeks and 
Romans having too great a veneration for tlieir fepul- 
chres to apply them to any other ule ; and it was con- 
trary to the iRoft exprefs laws of both, to bury the 
dead within the walls of a city. 

It has been obferved, that on the top of one of the 
higheft of thefe mountains is a caftle. The afcent to 
it is extreamly difficult and ragged. It is furroundt:d 
by a deep ditch, cut in the rock j or rather they have 
taken the ftones from it as from a quarry. As the 
draw-bridge is broken, we found a good deal of dif- 
ficulty in pafling it. 7^his caftle is however fo ill 
built, that it is evident, i: was erefted not only after 
the time of Juftinian, to whom it is attributed ; but 
is even unworthy of the Mamalukes. This mountaia 
ailbrds an exteniive view to the fouth, where the de- 
fart rcfembles a fca^ and to the well: we may fee rhc 



top of Libanus, and diilindlly perceive fevcral parts 
of Anti-Libanus. 

Tlie barren track in v/Iiich the city (lands, might be 
made a delightful ipot, by means of two rivers, that 
are entirely negleftcd. The water of both is hot and 
mixed with fulphur; but the inhabitants efteeoi it 
wholelbme and agreeable. The moft confiderable of 
thefe ftrcams rifes to the weft, at the foot of the moun- 
tains, in a fine grotto, almoft high enough in the 
middle for a man to ftand upright in it. 1 he whole 
bottom is a bafon of clear v»'atcr, about two feet deep; 
and the heat being thus concentered renders it an ex- 
cellent bath, fpr which purpoi'e it is ufed by the 
Arabs : from it runs a rapid current above three feet 
broad and one foot deep. This water is for fome 
fpace confined within a paved chj.nnel formerly made 
for it ; but after a fliort courfe, it is imbibed by the 
fand to the eaft of the ruins. An infv:ripticn upon an 
altar near it, dcJic-ted to Jupiter, informs us, that it 
was called Ephe^i, and that the care of it was intfull- 
ed ro peribns cltLted to that ohice. 

The other llrcam, the fource of which v/c could 
not difcovcr, contains near the fame quantity of wa- 
ter ; and ai'tcr running for ihir^c time through the 
ri^.:ii«, in an :'nci::nt ilibterrancan aqueducl, joins the 
firil, and ii loft v.ith it in thj f^nds. The Arabs 
f:")cak of a third ilrcram that has been for fome time 
loii among the rtuns. 5c:ne have been much cm- 
b^rrafj'.d to accou.n for t!ic lols of a river mentioned 
by l\olcmv, and thc:vfo:-c^ attributed it to an earth- 
qualic: hov.iv^r, with rc]*[:c:t to thole of Palmyra, 
FjO rtiKr chafi^e ilems to have u::ppcn:*J, th:m what 
is thctir.N^: oi nc^lit^cnce: but ir thcTc currents arc 
thought rcj inconiiderablc to dcil-rvc the naiiic cf ri- 
vers, t!;:i-. h'"^r.oiir llioLild for t!;e /amc rc:\!bn be refulcd 
to tlic ia..c!:i:-, ihc Ivlck-s and many other rivers of 
GrcjC:-, u:\i b.ivc not io much v/atcr, ex.ept imme- 
diacclv aiU-r riiin. 



Befkle thefc, was the fubterranean aqucduft before 
mentioned, which brought good water to the city, 
and was Iblidly built, with openings at proper diF- 
lances, to keep it clean. Procopius obferves, tliat 
Juftinian conveyed water to Palmyra, for the ufe of 
ihegarrifon he left there: but we imagine that for 
this purpofe he repaired the aqueduct, which appears 
10 have been much more ancient, and built at an im- 
n'enfe expence. Palmyra in its profperity certainly 
could not fail to procure ftich a convenience; and, 
indeed, in more than one part o'^ this aqueduct, v^e 
have obferved infcriptions in Palmyrene charadters, 
which are now not legible ; but have found none in 
sny other language. 

Three or four miles to the fouth-can: of tlie ruins 

inthedefarr, U the FaHey of fii!t, where David [;ro- 

bably fmote the Syrians, 2 Sam. viii. 13. and which 

Jlill lupplies Damafcus and the neighbouring to-An:* 

v;ith great quantities of that comri.odity ; the cai th 

being impregnated with it to a confiderablc depth, 

Thev hollov/ the (rround upward of a f:.)ot deep ; v.rA 

f;-"!in r!ic rain-wi^^i;:*, which KaI-^cs in tlicfe c-^viri. .^^ 

r;;es a nw: v/hirc lair, ti:a: n y:i:nL:rv:d aitcr ih- \v::ll;: 

j: i'ried up, or e::ha!'vd by ihc \\\n, 

Thcfc noble ri-:!.;:iin ; of Pahnvra arc too uril/n.'^ 
and ma^:ii:icent r.oz to excite lv.v cujii^firv with i\ 1. cvt 
ro its c M.diiion in aiicienr tiiii'S. it is nutural t > en- 
quire, how a fi:0L like tliis, divivlcd fo.n the \\r yA 
tf.e world by an ir.hoi[>it;;b!e c'^fin, c:.:".":c to oj c'l: :;■:: 

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* * ■ \ 


from hiftory that we have any knowledge of Troy, 
Babylon, and Memphis: there does not at prefent 
remain a fingle ftone of thefe cities, to (hew where 
they were fuuated : but here are two examples of 
confiderable cities that have fubfiftcd longer than any 
other known to us ; and yet it is rather what wc fee, 
than what we read, that excites our curiofity concern- 
ing them : The remains of Balbec and Palmyra ftill 
fubfift, to relate, if we may life the expreflion, their 
own hiftory. Can the lofs of books be the caufe, or 
did the ancients fet lefs value on thcfe edifices, than 
we do at prefent ? If this latl be the cafe, their filencc 
with refpcft to Balbec v/ill juftify what they advance 
about Babylon; and their not mentioning Palmyra 
be a kind of proof of the magnificence of Greece 
and Egypt, on which they have beftowed fuch en- 

All the authorities of the ancients with refpefl: to 
this city, may be reduced to thefe. In the Arabic 
tranfiation of the fecond book of Chronicles, chap, 
viii. Palmyra is mentioned as fubfilling before the 
time of Solomon : but John of Antioch fays, that it 
was built by that monarch on the very fpot where 'j 
David flew the Philiftine chief, in honour of that mc- I 
morable adtion. But the Arabian hifliories on this ; 
fubjeft appear fo extremely fabulous and extravagant [ 
as to be unworthy of notice. 

"I' he Old Teftament informs us, i Kings ix. and 
2 Chron. viii. that Solomon eredlcd a city in the wil- 
dcrncfs, and called it Tcdmor ; and we are told by 
Jollphus^ tint the Greeks and Romans aftenvard 
gave it the name of Palmyra-, but that its firll name 
v/as retained by the Syrians : and this is confirmed by 
St. Jerom, who fiys that Tedrr.or and Palmyra are 
tiie >yiian and Greek names of the fame place : evei% 
lit picilnt the Arsbs of the country ftill call it TeA— 
mor. They prcTcnd that thcfe ruins were the worlc 
cf Scloiv.on ; cMiJ among other things fliew the fcrfi-— 
^•Mo of iha: kinc- his harsn). and tli-j :o:nbof o:k- oi 

T O P A L M Y R A. j^ 

his favourite concubines. *' Solomon, tlic fon of 
David, fay they, pcrtbrmed tliefe wonders by the aCift- 
ancc of fpirits." 

But the flrudures crefleJ by Solomon weie doiibt- 
Icfs entirely demoliflied by Nebuchadnezzar, who, 
we are afTured by Jolin of Ancioch, dcftroycd tliat 
city, before he befieged Jerufalem. It cannot be 
reiToiuUy fuppofed, that edifices in the elegant ftylc 
of ihofc of Palmyra were prior to the eflabliilimcnt of 
the Greeks in Syria; and taking this for granted, wc 
ftull not be furprizcd that Xenophon takes no notice 
of this city in his retreat of Cyrus the Younger, though 
he is very exafl: in defcribing tlie defart. Nor fhall wc 
wonder at its not being mentioned in the hiftory of 
Alexander the Great ; who might have reaped great 
advantages from the fituation of that city, when he 
croSed this defart. No mention is made of it even 
•hen Pompey reduced Syria to a Roman province; 
ihoygh at that time a talle for the polite arts began 
toprerail; and architedure, painting, and fculpturc, 
were cfteemcd not unworthy of the attention of a Ro- 
man general. One would have imagined that Pal- 
in)-ra would not have efcaped the avidity and avarice 
of the Romans; and yet we do not find that their 
:ory makes any mention of that city before the 
le of Mark Antony ■, who would have plundered 
had not the inhabitants fccured themfclves by 
nfporiing their moft valuable effefts beyond the 
Euphrates, and defended the paiTage of that river by 
dicir arclicrs. At that time the inhabitants of Pal- 
jaBjrawcrc merchants, and fold to the Ro.-nans the 
' ""^ »ic;chandize of India and Arabia. We may con- 
mdode that they were a rich and free people : but how 
; they h^d enjoyed thefe advantages is uncertain, 
or riches and trade were probably of fome ftand- 
, for it appears from infcriptions, that in lefs than 
/years after, their expences and tlieir luxurici 




At length, when the affairs of the Romans in thtf 
Eaft were in a deplorable fituation, Odenathus of 
Palmyra took ftich advantage of the fituation of his 
Country between the two great rival empires of Rome 
and Ptrfia, that he rendered himfelf maftlsr of thc 
balance of power, and declared for the one or the 
other, according as the face of affairs changed, and 
his intereft required. He entei-ed into an alliance 
with the emperor Gallicnus, colleded the poor re- 
mains of the Roman army, and by his valour, adtivity, 
and remarkable patience in enduring fatigue, yan- 
cjuiflicd Sapor king of Perfia in feveral engagements^ 
advancing with his viftorious troof s as far as Ctefiphon, 
the capital of his empire. On his return from this 
expedition, with the greateft applaufe, and withcon- 
fuk^rablc trcafurcs, Gallienus declared him Auguftus, 
and his aflbciate in the government of the empire. 
Oc^enarhus afterward defeated Balifta, who afpired to 
the empire, and at length drove out the Goths, who 
had committed the p;reareft ravr.cres. This was his 
jail exploit, and it is thought that in this expedition 
he was treachcroufly murdered by his kinlman Mseo- 
nius : his fon Ilcrodes foon after fuffered the fame 
fate. Mironius was then faluted emperor ; but in a 
Ihort time after was cut to pieces by his own foldiers. 

Odenathus left behind him his wife queen Zenobia 
and two fons he had by her, who boailcd her being 
riefcended from Ptolemy, and reckoned Cleopatra 
among her anctftors. She had many great and ami- 
able qualities. Alter the death of Odenathus, Ihe 
alTumed the reins of government, in the name of her 
children; and rciiouncins: the alliance with Rome, 
?.ttncked and cnrircly defeated livrracllanus, the Ro- 
:Vi?.n genern!. 'i his victory left her in the poflcflion 
or" Svria and r.l'lbpotamia. .She then by means of 
Zabcias, one of lier r>:riic*rals, conquered tgypt, and 
:::.lL:eJ to her c:)nvlnicns the rrreatcft part of Afia 
MiriOr. liow ilranLie, how t'liaccoiintuble arc the 
^ viciflTi- 


vicifiit'j'Jes of fortune ! A fmall territory in the midft 
of a dcfar: extends irs conquefts over many rich coun- 
tries ! The powerful kingdoms of thL- Piolcniies, and 
the SeleuciJa?, form a part of the dominions of a 
finglc city, whofe name is fought for in vain in their 
hii'tory : and Zenobia, furrounded by the barren 
fands of Palmyra, includes Egypt within her domi. 
nions to the fouth, and extends them to the north as 
far as the Black Sea and the Bofphorus. But the 
reign or this empire was of very fnorc continuance : 
the emperor Aurelian a few years after recovered the 
eiilern provinces, and forced Zenobia to fhelter her- 
feif within the walls of Palmyra. He laid fiegc to 
that city; the queen re;ect:cd all negotiations with 
contempt; but attL-r a brave defence, ihc refolved in 
perfon to folicit the affillance of the Perfians. She fee 
out on a dromedary ; but taken prifoncr as flie 
was about to crofs ti:e Euphr.:tcs, by a p.arty cf horfe 
km after her by Aurelian. The inhiibirants of Pal- 
iryra now Uirrcndcrcd to the emperor's mercy ; on 
w;.i::i he i'pi-.reJ their li/cs, nn/l marvV.ed to r'lr.inii 
\'.::]\ Zenobia, carry iri;^ witii iiim a r:iv:i: p;::*: of t;!:c 

• •!■ •!■ : .- ^ 

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rr.ofvei fur rciiliii;^ I^ini v.irii i'lK^Ii r*. .'oluiion ; and 
upon this ncc.i:icn lV.c i;:iin':"J h.r f'ory, by pur- 
cl.Jinn:!; a t::ihui\*ur.ii^!.' \.'i. a: i;<e la-'/iuc ci' her 

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umph. Am'jr.tT r'/.jv. jio ;i:l/^;eJi v.\:^ Lc:i..i:')i:":-, 
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The misfortunes of Palmyra were not yet endecf/ 
When a free people are from the height of glory fud- 
dcnly reduced to flavery, they generally take fomc 
defperate mcafures for their deliverance. The J*al- 
myrcnes cut off the Roman garrilbn ; and Aurelian 
hearing this news as he was returning to Rome, fpcc- 
dily turned back ; and taking the city, deftroyed ir, 
caufing almoft all the inhabitants to be malfacred, 
without regard to aK or fex. We are informed of 
the particulars of this cruelty by the emperor him- 
iVlf, who in the letter he wrote to Baflus to order him 
^o repair the temple of the fun, which had been much 
damaged by the foldiers, appropriates to that ufc 
300 pounds weight of gold found in Zenobia's cof- 
fers, with 1800 pounds weight of filver, which be* 
longed to the people, befide the crown jewels. 

Palmyra having thus'loft its liberty, continued fub- 
jedt to a Romjn governor ; and from the only Latin 
infcription now tound there, we are informed that 
nierodes was for the fifth time prefident of the pro- 
' vince, when Dioclcfian erefted fome magnificent 
buildings there. In the year of Chrift 400, the firft 
lilyrian kgion was quartered at Palmyra; but Pro- 
copiuS gives us reafon to think that the city was i^ 
li:tle regarded as to be fometimes without a Roman 
garrifon": for he fays that Juftinian repaired and fup- 
plied it with water, after its having been for Ibmc 
time almoft defcrted. This is the laft time that Pal- 
myra is mentioned in the Roman hiftory. The civil 
revolutions of this city afford a proof that Chrillianity 
could not be long cftablifhed there, fo that it is not 
furprizing that ccclefiaftical hiftory furnifhes nothing 
worth the pains of repeating -, and there is no means' 
of knowing? what has happened to it, fince the de-« 
ftriidlion cf the ealtern empire by the Mahometans. 

Among the fevcral infcriptions found there, none 
arc m.orc ancient than the birth of Chrift ; and none 
fo Ir.te as the dcftruftion of the city by Aurelian, 



ccpt the Latin infcription which makes mention of 
DioclcHan. The ara of thelc infcriptions is tha: of 
the Selcucidse. Some of them are found in the Pal- 
myrene, and others in Greek charaders. Two of the 
maufoleums, which are almoil entire, have on their 
fronts infcriptions that are very legible ; one of thcni 
informs us that Jamblichu^, the fon of iMocimus, 
cauicd that monument to be built, to ferve as a fc- 
pulchre for him and family, in the year 314, which 
anfwers to the third year of the Chrillian sra ; and 
the other, that Klabelus M.inaius caufeJ it to be 
crefted in the year 414, the 103d year of the Chrif- 
tian sera. The ornaments of theretwo maulbleums 
are muc'i in the lame tallc ; but the lad is the moil 
elegant, and linilhed with the greateft care : though 
both arc fo much in the talle and the miinner ot tn j 
other public edifices in gcncml, that we may realbn- 
ably fuppofe them not to be the works of very differ- 
ent ages. 

Before v/e had compleated our bufmefs at F.ilinyra, 
mir Arabian clcort be^ran to Sc iinpatienr, dwA to lb- 
licit our deparcurt: 1 allc^iii: i!m: our iaictv ii^ ^'Jti.r:' 
ing \v»\s much more prec.u-.oi.ii ilian in ou:; jiyj.ii.v.--, 
thitlier ; as they ha J tJivii cr.iv ac.:lvle:it.:l d. .::::'.:•; i '.j 
ap;.rrhend, while they w:;j n.-jw 10 piovij;^ ■:.[■■''..:.. ., 

^'* L ll!x,U . lkili.\,4 J i4. jJi 1 /.v A 1 J It 4.1.. J . II j;. -^1 kt • ^ .> w M . \: .. 

or Wan^hrin/ Ar.:li!; w!j » 0:1 'i/i 'i.v in •: :-K;ii.- .i^. .: 
of U^, mi</;hc t'ii.;!; u^ a y:\.a' \v;,:L:i 1j ■: -.■'•; .:.: ■ . 
\Vc i)ad l:'^n;:c o'a:' uv/;i rralbv; 10: m ;:"': lii.- \ <;•: ! 

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9« A JfOUllNfiT 

fcribcd, in our journey to Palmyra. But before we 
arrived at Carieteen, we difcovered at a diflance a 
party of Arabian horiemen, to which, had they been 
fuperior in number, we mud have fallen an eafy pr^* 
in the languid ftate to which both our men and horlcs 
wefc reduced, after a march of about twenty hours 
over the burning fands : but on our nearer approach 
diey retired with precipitation, abandoning fome cat- 
tk, which were leized by our friends, as a matter of 
courfe, laughing at our remonltrances againft their 

Being arrived at Sudud, we left our former road 
on the right hand, and in five hours more, proceed- 
ing flill through the fame defart, reached Cara, where 
we took leave of the greateft part of our caravan. 
The raanufcripts and marbles wc had coUeAed, we 
icnt on camels to our (hip at Tripoly : the merchants 
who had joined us for protection, returned to Da- 
mafcus with the (alt they went to gather at Palmyra; 
and our Arabian horlemen, who were now no longer 
of ufe, having demanded a certificate of their fidchty 
and vigilance, which they juftly deferved, returned 
to their mafter, the aga of Halfia. 

We had paiTed through Cara before in going from 
Damafcus to Haflia; from the lad it is about fix 
hours diftanc, and is under the govemment of the 
fame aga. This village is pleafantly fituated in the 
gc^at caravan road frpm Damafcus to Aleppo, and, 
we were informed, contains near looo fouls, amongft 
whom are about twenty Chriftian families. There is 
one ruined church to be feen there, and another con* 
verted into a mofque : upon the wall of the latter is a 
line of Greek capitals in a bad character, turned up- 
fide down, in which we could read the words jitbSf^ 
najios Epifcapos. The common mud formed into the- 
Ihiape of bricks and dried in the fun, of which the 
houfcs are built, has at fome diftance the appearance 
of white (l:one. Tlie (hort duration of fuch materials 
is not the only objcdion to them, for they render the 



ftrects dufty when there is wind, and dirty when there 
is rain : inconveniencies that are alfo fclc atDamafcus 
icfelf, which is moftly built in the fame manner. 

After fufFcring almoft a month's conftant fatigue in 
the defart, particularly at Palmyra, where every hour 
was precious, we here indulged ourfelves with a day 
of reft ; and by this Ihort interval of fecurity and rc- 
pofe, prepared ourfelves for new fatigues. 

Wc then fet out, and arrived at Erfale in fevea 
hours, proceeding the greateft part of the way acrofs 
the barren ridge of hills called Anti-Libanus. This 
Tillage, which confifts of thirty poor hou fes, was the 
only one we paflcd through in our way from Cara to 
Balbcc. We found nothing there worth notice, ex- 
cept a melancholy inftance of the unhappy govern- 
ment of thefc countries : the houfes were all open, 
every thing carried off, and not a living creature to 
befeen. We were informed that the governor of 
Balbcc's brother was then in open rebellion, ravaging 
the country with a party of his dclperate followers 5 
and it feems that when we paflTed tliroirgh Eri'ale, he 
was encamped in its neighbourhood, cjn which the 
inhabitants chofe to abandon ihc'ir d\vcilin2;s, rather 
than expofe thcmfclves to fuch unmcrciKil contribu- 
tions as he had raifed in other places. 

Impatient to leave a place of luch danger, we fet 
out early the next morning, an J in five hours and a 
half arrived at Balbec. This city, which was for- 
merly under the government of Damafcus, and fome 
years fince the refidence of a bafla, is at prefent com- 
manded by a perlbn of no higher rank than that of 
aga; who preferring the more honourable title of 
emir, which he had by his birth, to that of his fta- 
tion, was called Emir Haflcin : for the Arabs have 
hereditary nobility and family connedions, contrary 
to the policy of the Porte, which is dclirous of fup- 
prefling all influence that the grand fijinior lannoc 
g^ and take away at pleafure. 
This governor annually paid ihc k:rdi\d ligaiot 

II 2 "' fetu 


Bfty purfcs for the raxes of the diftridb under his coiiv 
mand : he alfo paid (ifty purfcs yearly for lands, granG« 
cd a5 rewards for military Itrvlce, and farmed by hiau 
i'hofc liiDus, we were toid, were much more profit- 
able to him, than to the pcribns for whofc benefit the 
grant was originally io tended, on account of the dif- 
ficulty and danf^cr (.f any man's pretending to the 
fame firm againll fo j)oweriiil a compeiitor. He 
cu.qht alio to Iv.wv irju] lomethin.^ to the baffa of Da* 
maicus, for laa !s li-j held under him ; but he had for 
fome time cv;ul d ::, bcir.g fKrcened by the kiflar aga^ 
or the b:;».c!v ciiiiUch, wf:o has the care of the grand 
fjf/ni .r's woivirn, to w.-o-ii iie was laid to be under 
privarc concilbution. 

\Vc look our I'A^inps of a Greek to whom we 
Wire recommended, and t!*ien waited on the emis, 
whoin w,. found in a chioiiaue in his garv.!en, reclined 
en a ic'pha near a fountain, and indolently enjoy- 
ing !;is pii.c. On our prcfciuing him with our firman 
from t.-.c grand fi .:;nior, auvl a li^rrer from the bafiaof 
Ti i-.o!y, wc were moll courtcoufly received. A pipe, 
co-rci!, fAectmcats i'.nd perfunie, were, according to 
cui:o:r, iucccfiivcly preicntcd. He applied the fir-* 
n'.an rclj-cCLtulSy tu ii-s forehead, then kilfcd it, and 
declared iiimiVIr tii' l.-lran's Have's (lave : told us that 
the land he comma::.kd, and all in it was ours; that 
VvC were hi i giieiL.> as long as we wuuid ftay, 
and un;icr his friendly proLc^llion might lecurcly pur- 
fuecur bufineis. 

'in r.o iniianee t'o the oriental manners (hew thefe 
p ; in ib amial-ie a light, as in their difchargc of 
i\j i-.j-i...s oi* !ior^;t;il:cy : the icvericies of eatlem dc- 
i\o::iir; ha-c in-ieir. been a?'A..ys ibficjicd by ;his v.5- 
iv.e, vviiivh lo ;ian.;',y lioiii. :/:..» moll, Vviie;e iu is moil 
w.-xiw: i. i'i.c '^:j. r. iorj^ec -iij inlbicnce Ci power to 
iL; i^ iheir ro;ir, and only pre ervea dig- 
■ii'/y I'j u:i :'r*rreij by humaui^y, i.' it iblely com- 
:.i :h:.. -jiui !:.v.:e7U! lelbed:, v.hicii ioOthcrwife fcarce- 
i« \ui\,n i.i .: ; vi::urv wh^^j inicriors diC oitener 


Notwith landing the emir's obliging profcrfTions, v/e 
had been advifed to dillrult him \ tor lit* had an in- 
famous charafter; and we had luon region to fee the 
juftice of this friendly caution. Ti)()ii!.!;h, according 
to the cuftom of the country, we h\d f.-nc our prc- 
fents, yet new demands were daily madK% which we 
for fomc time thought it adviicable to fati^fy, but 
they were fo frequently, and at Icni-rth io inU icnrly 
repeated, that we were obliged to give a peremptory 

Avarice is as much an eaftern vice, as hofpitdity is 
an eaftern virtue. 'I'he molt fordid inllanres of the 
former we found among the, and tiicfe in pub- 
lic employments, while we cxperienrtd exraordinary 
inftances of generofity in priv.ite lire. We woidd 
therefore be cautious of chart-ing to the charadcr of 
a people, what this government fcems to requiri:?. 
For amidll the uninterrupted I'cries of fhamele-s venn-. 
Key, which regulnes the difcharge of every public 
duty, from the prime vizie^r downw.ird ; and whic'i, 
in the true fpiric of dcfpoiifm, fto;'S only ;it ':!;e 
wretch who is too lo'.7 to make ririMlf'is •, c*v;iy hi;r.]- 
tcrn in power mvS\ rihn:ic ro tli \i p'):vi-M-\ of t!iL- om ■ 
mon proftituno.T v/iiich bcl :;r.r,s to !ii:: r.inlc, -av.A 
which therefore fccins ratiicr i:v: vice of tlic ':FlK'^ 
l-han of the man. 

The frequent ne2:oti:iti(^ns pro luceri by th"'; qunnv^I, 
in which the emir in va'n ex.'rtcJ nil his art an.i vi;- 
ki.ny, cnd'.^d in his op. nly dcclarin-T;, t'lat \vr fi-jould 
be atcackrrd an 1 cut t') pirccs in our v/ay from Bal- 
b:c : hjt en h:.-^ hcariii.^ rhrir t'lelV n:ona cs hul no: 
the c!;c-v.i he exr-vt^-d, and t!ia: wt.- w.-re rrc-nr:nr: to 
let out with ab..)-it 70 arr.cJ f/rvaiit?;, lie C:'/:i:v il*nr. 
to dcfiiv that v.-'j iniirht inLC*rc'ianTc r-rd'cnrs and narr 
tricnds, rvTiUcIrinq; tliar v/*r woul-.i allov/ h:> pt^o;'!'j ro 
f'lsard us as far as iiiourst. I .ii)an'.!s. To t!;i': -vvc- ^'ycc :. 
^;oon afjer he was affuTinatrvl b'- ni"! f-njilurv (f :'::; 

m m 

rebellious br'jthcr, wiio Uic.c;cd;i h';::n in tiic r,.o- 

[ »oa 1 

A N 






TFIE v;.lley of Bocat, in which Balbec is fituated, 
might be rendered one of the richcll and moft 
bcaUtiful Ipocs in Syria ; for ic is more fertile than the 
celebrated vale in Damafcus, and better watered than 
the rich plains of Efdraelon and Rama. In its pre- 
fent neglected (late ic produces corn, and fome good 
grapes; but tlidugh fliade is an eflential article of 
oriental luxury, it has but few plantations of trees, 
the inhabitants being difcouraged from labours, which 
promife fuch diilanc and precarious enjoyment, in a 
country where even the fruits of their induftry arc 
uncertain. Thus in Paleftine we have often fcen the 
hufbandman fowing, accompanied by an armed friend, 
to prevent his being robbed of the feed. 

The plain which extends in length from Balbec almoft 
to the fea, and in breadth from Libanus to Anti-U- 
banus ; appears to be in few places lefs than two 
leagues, or more than four over. The rivers by which 
it is watered are the Litane and the Bardouni : the firft 
rifes f om Anti-Libanus a little to the north of Bal- 
bec, and receives great incrcafc from a fine fprins 
clofc by the city walls : the laft rifes from the foot ot 
Libanus, and joins the Litane in the plain, about an 


AN ACCOUNT, Sec. 103 

hour from a village called Barillas. Th^i^ fireams, 
augmented by feveral condant rills from the melting 
(hows of Libanus, which the lead managemenc might 
improve to all the purpofes either of agriculture or 
pleafure, form the Cafimiah, and under that name 
enters the fea near Tyre. 

Balbec is pleafantly iituated upon a rifing ground 
near the north-eaft extremity of this plain, between 
Tripoly of Syria and Damafcus, and about 16 hours 
diftant from each. We may with certainty conclude, 
that this was the Heliopolis of Cqelofyria, fometimes 
called the Heliopolis of Phoenicia. It has now about 
5000 inhabitants, a few of which are Greek and Ma- 
ronite Chriftians -, and there are fome Jews *, but the 
people are at prefent poor, without trade and manu- 
£i£tures. The ancient female beauty and proftitution 
of the women in this neighbourhood feem to have de- 
clined together ; and the modern ladies of Balbec have 
the charader of being more chafte and lefs fair. 

When we compare the ruins of Balbec with thofc 
rf many ancient cities we have vifited in Greece, 
Egypt, and other parts of Afia, wc cannot help 
thinldng them the remains of the boldelt plan that 
appears to have been ever attempted in archiceifture. 

In taking a view of this city from the ibuth, wcice 
the prefent town encompafled with its wall, and at the 
eaft end the mod confiderable ruins of the ancient 
Heliopolis, particularly the remains of its magnificent 
temple, which are moftly furrounded by a f urkiih 

The portico which formed the grand front of the 
temple is fo noble, that no ornaments feem wanting 
to render it compleat : but it is disfigured by the two 
Turkifh towers built on its ruins. Behind it the 
hexagonal court, into which the portico leads, is 
adorned with the moll magnificent buildings, now in 
ruins : but enough is ftill left to give an idea of their 
ancient grandeur. The walls are adorned with pilaf- 
ters of the Corinthian order, with niches for l^atues \ 

H 4 x)ac 

10+ An ACCOUNT of the 

the doors are finely ornamented, and the enlabUtupd 
which llirrounds the building above the pilafters 15 
richlv adorned wiih ft- ftoons : but tlie colonade which 
furroundcd thcl'c edifices is cleftroyed, fcarcely any 
thing remaining but the pedcftals ; and the wholo 
court is covered with broken columns, capitals, and 
other parts of the buildings. ' 

This leads into a quadrangular court, in which are 
likewife remains of magnificent buildings much in 
tlfe fame tafte. The portico was crowned with an 
Atric couife, which was alfo carried throuorh the two 
courts, and fcems to have been ornamented v.'ith 

We now come to the great temple, the aj^proach 
to which was through the foregoing portico and 
courts. Little more of this edifice remains than nine 
lofty columns fupporting their entablature. It is re- 
markable, that the (hafts of thcfe columns confift of 
three pieces moft exactly joined togctl^cr without ce-' 
ment, which is ufed in no pn*-t of thefe buildings ; 
they beiPrP!: only (Ircngthencd with, iron pins received 
i.v.o a lo:ket worked in Cuch llone. Molt of the 
b «;c:> have two Inch Icckets, oik- iqiiare and another 
<, corrctyondiiig to two otiKTS of the fa'nc 
3]\;:;(' and dimcnfiono in th:- under y.irt of tlie fnaft. 
C^n niCuiliring U):r.c* of thi- kini^cll or thole that were, it was f .up.'.I that il\r iron p/.n which they 
r(\:v ivid mull h i\e been :\ i'oct lonp^, aivl above a foot 
in cliMir.crer. K; th^:: fjckiis in all the iaiien fra'y- 
liuivs o^'tlrs tc.!'.5 :.', it ai iv.mis rhir each irone had 
prol'i'jly b^cn JiiiUn-.d in thii rr,:Tr.nir. liuw luurh 
il;U n Cvli.;.'!;*ihi.::rd 10 l!i- flrcn-r^ih of the build- 
in;^ is rei-narkal.-ly iV.-.n in ihv r:.(:\\. entire* tenv^ilc, 
w;:.;-'' a colwn-in hv. ij-Wyir. .-(.: ..:i:t I'.c wall of t'x* ct.-ll 
wiiii Uich vlok'-'^e, r/. v:) hc.jr in r:".e fl"'on-? :t fell 
a^'iiTift, and Uvi:r.k v?xi <.'j trie i'li-itr, %vhi!-* r'u ioin- 
in?-^ of liie <an^ ih-i-t lave riOt L^\.:: ::. :';:C leu^r oren- 

4 ■4"' ."^l* f'l-* '■•».•■ I," 

'i he 


The moft entire temple is irregularly placed with 
refpe£k to the former, and is alio' built upon a much 
lower horizontal plan. It was a periftyle of eight 
columns in front, and fifteen in flank, which Itill 
continue to fiipport their entablature, notwithftanding 
feveral unfucceiiful attempts of the Turks to deftroy 
them, in order to get at the iron employed in Ilrength* 
cning this noble building. The arch of the portico 
is divided into compartments by the richeft mouldings 
and carved work, cut in the folid (tone. Thefc 
compartments are in an alternate fuccefllon of one 
hexagon and four rhomboids, inclofing figures and 
heads in alto relievo. The rhomboid pannels contain 
heads ot gods, heroes, and emperors ; the litfxagon 
alfo contain the heads of the fame fubjects, and ibme«- 
time.s entire figures relating to the ancient mythology; 
as Leda and the fwan, Ganymede riding on the back 
of an eagle, a half-length of Diana, &c. On the 
infide of this temple a row of fluted Corinthian 
columns reach to the top of the building, fupporting 
a rich entablature. Bctv/een each cobjiiin is a niche 
hnt:\\ ornatr.cnred, anJi above cvLch niche a t^j.-rnacle 
or ojeninu; r.n v criiig to it, lupportcd by iViull 
columns. The r;o: is fallen down; and cue or the 
ruins or the c-:~;:::b'ii:v.rc grow inany flirubs. 

At ibmc diiVincc ro th_* wcii of thciblupcrb remains 
cf ar.:iqvii:v, is .1 riwn::':cc-nc circular tcmrylc. 'ilie 
or^cr or \':]^ icriic^Lire 'A-irhour is Cori:ui^:.>:-:, and 
within bo:h CcrintnM:! ar.d Ionic; but th:* iha-'ts of 
.Vil tnc cclurnr.s esc of c:v.' ciccc. Ti'.c IcvVcr or Ionic 


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incio:c a i-v:ill !^:^r: oi Ci-c T -or ui' A\l - i .: ■■■: ;•>, '.* a 

■ -•• » * !*■ 

to6 An ACCOUNT of the 

Jb remarkable as a little bafon on the top of its capital, 
which has a communication with a femicircular 
channel cut longitudinally down the fide of the daft, 
and five or fix inches deep. It is faid that water was 
formerly conveyed from the bafon by this channel ; 
but how the b^^on was fupplied, our author could 
not learn. 

The fmall part of the city at prefent inhabited, is 
near the circular temple, and to the fouth and ibuth- 
wcft of it. In this compafs there are feveral minarets, 
orTurkifh ftceples. Inftead of bells, which arc not 
ufcd in Turkey, a perfon is employed to call the people 
to prayers, from the balcony near the top of the 
minaret, at the five dated times appointed every 24 
hours for divine worfhip. 

The city walls, like thofe of moft of the other 
ancient cities of Afia, feem the confufed patch-wor^ 
of different ages. The pieces of capitab, broken 
entablatures, and in feme places rcverfed Greek 
infcriptions, to be fcen in going round them, (hew 
that their laft repairs were made after the decline of 
tafte, with fuch materials as lay neareft at hand. The 
city gates in general correfpond with what has been 
faid of the walls ; but that on the north fide prefents 
the ruins of a large fubaflement with pedeftals and 
bafes for four columns, in a tafte of magnificence 
and antiquity much fupcrior to that of the other 

Near tlie city walls is a quarry of free-ftone, from 
which probably the immenfe ftones employed in the 
fubaflement of the great temple were taken, while the 
more ornamented parts of thofe buildings were fup- 
plied from a quarr)' of coarfe white marble weft of 
the city, and at a greater diftance. In the firft quarry 
there are ftill remaining fome vaft ftones cut and 
ftiaped for ufe. One of thefe ftones thus ftiaped, but 
not entirely detached from the quarry at the bottom, 



we found to be 70 feet long, 14 broad, and 14 feet 
5 inches deep. This ftone, according to thefe di* 
menfions, contains 14,128 cubic feet, and, were it 
Portland ftone, ihould weigh about 2,270,000 pounds 
ayoirdupoife, or about 1 135 tons. 

The inhabitants of this country, both Mahometans," 
Jews, and Chriftians, all confidently believe that 
Solomon built both Palniyra and Balbec. Indeed, 
the ruins of both anfwer our ideas of his power and 
riches, and it i^ not difficult to difcover his wifdom 
in the former, and his love of pleafure in the latter. 
It is probable that his character as a wife and yet 
voluptuous Prince, may have given rife to an opinion, 
which, with refpeft to Balbec at lead, feems to have 
icarccly any other foundation : for any Eaftern monarch 
could not enjoy his favourite pleafures in a more 
luxunous retirement, than amidft the ftreams and 
fliades of Balbec. Many ftorics are there told of the 
manner in which he fpent his hours of dalliance in this 
retreat : a fubjcft on which the warm imagination of 
the Arabs is apt to be too particular. 

Whether the Phccnicians did not ered thefc temples 
in the neighbourhood of their capital,, may be a more 
realbnable enquiry : for it is pretty certain, that thd 
fun was worfhipped here in the flourifhing times of 
that people, when this plain was probably 2 part of 
their territory. 

According to Macrobius, the city derived both its 
name and worftiip from Heliopolis in Egypt : and he 
obferves, that the ftatue of Heliopolitan Jove was 
brought from thence to this city. " This divinity, 
he obferves, was both Jupiter and the Sun : which, 
he adds, appears by the rites of the worfliip, and by 
the attributes of the ftatue, which is of gold, repre- 
fenting a perfon without a beard, who holds in his 
right hand a whip, like a charioteer, and in his left 
a thunderbolt, together with ears of corn ; all which 
mark the united powers of Jupiter and Apollo ; and 
the temple excels in divination.'* 

io8 An* ACCOUNT of the 

But inftead of looking for buildings of the Corin- 
thian Ionic order in the Jewifli and Phoenician hiftory^ 
it may be thought more proper to enquire for them 
during the time when the Greeks poflefled this 
country- But from Alexander's conqucft of it to that 
of Pompey, we do not find them mentioned j for 
which reafon we conclude, that they muft be works 
of a later date: and, indeed, John of Antioch fur- 
named Malala, fays, that i^ilius Antoninus Pius built 
a temple to Jupiter at Heliopolis, near Libanus, in 
Phoenicia, which was one of the wonders of the 
world. This is the only hiftorian who mentions tlic 
building of a temple in this city. 

It is certain that the ftrufture of the temples of 
Palmyra and Balbec differs in fome particulars from 
that of all others we have icen, and we imagined we 
could difcover in many of the deviations from the true 
objeft of worfliip, fomething in the climate, foil, or 
fituation of each country, which had a confiderable 
influence ineftabliiliing its particular mode of fuper- 


If this obfervation be applied to the country and 
religion of Syria, and we examine the wnrftiip of the 
fun, moon, and ilars, called in Scriprvire Baal, Afta- 
roth, and the Hoft of Heaven ; we fhall perhaps not 
only fee how that early fuperllition, which mifled the 
inhabitants of a level country, was naturally produced ; 
but wc may obferve fomething of its origin and pro- 
ga4s rcfuking from a connexion between thofe objefts 
of worlhip confjcicred phyfically, and their characters 
as divinicitfs. Thus the magnificence with which the 
fun v/as v/orlhippcd in Syria and Chaldca, the name 
of Hail, whicii in the Eallcrn language fignifies Lord, 
.i:ul tlu! hu.' vi6lims ihcrificed to his honour-, feem 
TO »".'lp.t cut an awful reverence paid rather to his 
i'.cv.;r xlww his henis:nicv, in a counrrv where the 
vi.r.T.'.c ot h;s h'.at is not only in many refpects 
tr«- li ' Uf J r.ic CO the mhabitanti^j bin Llcllrijclive to 

v r^ctati'j!!* 


vegetation. On the other hand, the deification of 
the inferior gods of the firmament feems to have 
taken its rife from difiirent principles, in which love 
appears to have been more predominant than fear. 

The extcnfive plains and unclouded fky not only- 
point this out-, but it appears that the inhabitants 
way of life, which is as uniform as their foil or their 
climate, has contribated to direct their attention to 
thefc heavenly bodies. It was always a cuftom with 
them to pafs the fiin:.mcr rights on the tops of their 
houfes, which for this purpufc were made fiat, and 
divided from each other by walls. This way of 
fleeping we found extreamly agreeable, as we by that 
means enjoyed the cool air above the reach of gnats 
and vapours, with no other covering but the canopy 
of heaven, which in different plcafin^^ forms unavoid- 
ably prdl-nts irfelf, upon every interruption of refr, 
v/hen the mind is llroiigly cilfpofeu to contemplaiiou 
by f'/iitude and filence. 

We could no where difcGvcr n::crc bcrauies in the 
nee of the heaven?, n?r fcv/cr cji tlie car:h, th^n ir: 
liaV iravtls ir. the n"::;!*.: riiroii^h the dtfarts of AiTibia ; 
v.'hcre it h i:r.p:ii'r.-j!j co avoid beir.^;; (truck vv::h th:; 
coiiir^ll; in uhich a L'.ui";::lcfi dreary wa^v, v■■^^^:.t 

Oi colou: •, 0.^\ . a lewii'Ai^ fi:nei^c!"!i to tiic 

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Though the heat, from the fituation of the couii* 
try with rcfpe£): to the equator, might be expedcd 
to be excefllve, yet Mount Libanus, from its un- 
common height, is covered all the winter with 
fnow. Dr. Shaw obferves, chat in travelling by night 
through the vallies of Mount Ephraim, he and his 
company were attended for above an hour by an ig- 
nis fatuus that aflumed a variety of extraordinary ap- 
pearances. It was fometimcs globular, then refcm- 
bled the flame of a candid; but initsncly it wtould 
fpread itlelf, and involve the whole company in hi 
pale inofFenfive light; then contracting itfclf', it would 
in(tantly difappear; but in lefs than a minute would 
again become vifible as before ; or, moving from one 
place to another, would expand icfelf, at particular 
intervals, over two or three acres of the adjaceitt 
mountains; It is remarkable that in the preceding 
evening the atmofphere had been uncommonly thick 
■and hazy, and the dew unufually unftuous. 

The firft rains, as they are called, generally fall 
about the beginning of November ; and the latter 
rains Ibmetimcs in the middle, and fometimcs toward 
the end of April. In the country round Jcrufalcra, 
if a moderate quantity of fnow falls in the beginning 
of February, and the brooks foon after overflow their 
banks, it is thought to promifc a fruitful year ; and 
the inhabitants make njoicings upon this occafion, 
like the Egyptians upon the cutting of the Nile : 
but this country is fokiom refrcihcd with rain in the 

The rocks of t.:ns counrry are in many parts co\'er- 
cd with a ibft chalky ki'Tl ukc, in uhich is inclofcd 
a great variety of fncll.s r.-^J coiuls. The.grcaieil 
part of the mountains of Cainvcl, anJ thofe of Jtrii- 
lalem and Bcthlciicni, arc ?\\o co/ercd Vvith a v.-hitc 
chalky ftrarum. In ihc former arc K-^thtred njany 
ftoncs, which, being i-i the form, as w is piet-nJcuf 
of olives, melons, peaches, and other fri:ic, are im- 
7 p'jf.d 

particularly of JERUSALEM. 113 

pofed upon pilgrims, not only as thofe fruits petrified, 
but as antidotes againft fcvcral diftempers. Indeed 
the olives, which are the kpidesjudcici of the (hops, 
have been an approved medicine againft the ftone 
and gravel -, however, little can be faid in favour of 
thfrir peaches and melons, which are only round flint 
ftones of different fizes, beautified on the infide with 
fparry knobs, that are made to pafs for feeds and ker- 
nels. The waters of Jordan and Siloam -, the rofes 
of Jericho ; beads made of the olive-ftones of Geth- 
iemane ; the chalk-ftone of the grotto near Bethle- 
hem, called the Virgin's Milk •, the little round cal- 
culi called her peafe ; and other curiofities of the like 
nature, arc prefents which the pilgrims ufually receive 
in return for their charity. 

As to the rivers of this country, the Jordan is 
not only the mod confiderable, bur, next to the Nile, 
is by far the largell to be found either in the Levant 
or in Barbary. Dr. Sliaw fays, that though he could 
not compute it to be more than thirty yards broad, it 
is fo deep, that even at the brink he found it to be 
nine feet. If we take this, l;iys he, during;; the whole 
year, for the meandepthof the ilrcam, which runs about 
two miles an hour, theii Jordan will daily di!"char[.^c 
into the Dead Sea about lix millions ninciy thjufand 
ions of water. So great a quantity of water daily re- 
ceived, without incrcalinjj; the limits of than lea, or 
like, has made fome conirchire, that ir is carried off 
bv lubterranean cavities, or liblorbcd bv the burnino: 
lands : but if the Dead Sea is, accordinn; to the cenc- 
ral computation, 72 miles lon^.^, and iS broad, by 
allowing, according to the ohi'crrvarion of tlic vM'cat 
Mr. Halley, 61.; ij. tons of vapour fjr ev(^ry fqu-^.re 
mile, there will be daily drawn uj) in <)(.•. kJs, to r^:- 
freili the earth wih rain or dews, S^qT'.), 00 ton^; ; 
vhich is almoil O'le third ir.orc t'van it re. rives froiu 
this river. W'irii rcfpecl to the bitnr.\/n, for w'li-rh 
this lake has been always remarkable, it is faid 10 
life at Certain times from the i:i large hcuii* 

\oh. VI, J V^'A-^vii^ 


fpheres, which, on their touching the furface of the 
water, and being adfced upon by the external air, bvurft 
with a great noife and fmoke, and difpeiie themfelves 
in a thoul'.md pieces. This is laid, however, only to 
happen near the (hores-, for in greater depths the 
irruptions are fuppofed only to difcover themfelves by 
the columns of fmoke which arife from the lake. 
This bitumen is probably accompanied on its rifing 
withfulphur, as both are found promifcuoudy on the 
Ihore. The latter exadly refembles native fulphur, 
and the former is brittle, and yields a fetid fmell upon 
fridlion, or on its being fet on fire : it is alfo as black 
as jet. The reverend Mr. Maundrell found on the 
ihore a blac k fort of pebbles, that burn on being held 
to the flame of a candle, yielding a mod offenfive 
fmell \ but though they lofe their weight in burning, 
they do not dccreafe in bulk. 1 hefe itones are com- 
mon on the neighbouring hills, and are capable of 
being carved and poliflied like marble. 

Vulgar report would perfuade us that all the birds 
that attempt to fly over this lake drop down dead 
into it, and that neither fifh nor any other animal 
can live within tiiefe deadly waters \ but this is fo far 
from being true, that birds fly over the lake without 
any vifible injury, and on the fhore the fhells of fifh 
are often caft up by the waves. The water is very 
limpid, and not only fait, but very bitter and naufe- 
ous ; aiid the lalt mentioned reverend gentleman, be- 
ing defirous of trying its flrength, went into it, and 
found that it bore him up in fwimming with uncom- 
mon force. As to the apples of Sodom, mentioned 
by feveral authors, thefe are alfo a fiftion ; for noi 
thing of that kind is either fcen or mentioned near 
this lake ; nor is there any tree from which fuch kind 
of fruit might be cxpefted. 

Modern unbelievers have dwelt much on the rocks 
ofPaleftine, the barrenncfs of the country, and the 
difagreeablenefs of the climate, in order to invalidate 
the accounts given in Scripture of the fertility of that 



paiticuiariy of JERUSALEM. ii 

land of promife, which is reprefented there as flowing 
wirh milk and honey : but the reverend Dr. Shaw, 
\vho fecms to have examined the country with an un- 
common degree of accuracy, fays That v/as the Holy 
Land as well culcivared as in former times, ic would 
be more fertile than the very beft parts of Syria and 
Phoenicia ; bccaufe the foil is generally much rxher, 
andi every thing confidcred, yields bri:;er crops. 
Thus the cotton gathered in the plains of^ 
Efdraelon, and Ramah, is more cilecmcd than that 
. produced near Tripoly and Sidon •, and it is impof- 
lible for pulfe, whrat, or any other grain, to exceed 
what is commonly ibid at Jeruralcm. 'I'hsrrc fore, the 
barrenncfs, fays he, of which fon.e authors con";plain, 
does not proceed from the n.irural untruitfulncls of 
tfcc country, but from the wane Oi' inhabitant?, and 
the opprelTion they labour under. 

Indeed the inhabitanrs cj-n have but Mt:lc ir.clina- 
tion to cultivate the earth. * In PalclVin;:, 5ay3 Mr. 
Wood, we have oleen Icen the inh .i):rc:nrs fowing^ 
ticcompanied bv ::r. anri^d tVicr.d, to [)ivv.Lr.: his be- 
ing robbed of i!"»c ic^vl ;' an i, afi'.-r al!, wiiorv/r fo vs 
is iincenain vvlv.;r!i<:r lie flv-iil (-v«;r r--»p :.';•• ii.'.rv\-ic. 


As the pirL> ab .i-: Jeruf ^Uni in !;\'r-: -Ay- !'.r '.• hiv.w 
delcribed as rocLy and r/.ouniai:;'ji: ■, \\\r: i...w L;L*.:ii 
"th*rrefore fup[)oic.l to b-j barrL-n ; but :'i':s i , : -* nr 
from being the uilcat prell^nr, tl.cV, r:-5:v.:t!;r:a:^ril;-.g 
the want there lius bec:n for nianv ai . rr* :: r:':>;>-*r 
culture, the plains and val!ic>5, th::v ^l a:; r./tiltr as 
ever, are almoil cnrircly ncglcctjd, w':;:':.- '<\'^:\'\' \v.\\<t 
hill is crowded v/:r!i inlvibitants. h ca.iivu i^jrc be 
urged, that the inhabitants en*Tnv riorc lalVtv t!:an 
in the plains ; for they liavc no wUls or ar.y loriifica- 
lions to fecure either ihcir vilbj^^-i or c:v:a r.i^'ncnts; 
and as therj are lev places of di:nju!t accci'^, botii 
He equally expolcd to ihe ravag-.-s of i^n cnL-my : but 
thev find fufiicient convcni-jncKs Tur thcniiVlvcs, and 
much greaterfor tlicir cattl', wliich ;c'jd uj^on a rich'^-r 

I 2 l»^'-r- 


herbage ; and both are refrefhed by Iprings of excel- 
lent water. 

CiTn, wine, and oil, with milk and honey, were 
botiitiit* fuod and the prinLipal dainties of the early 
ages. 1 iic:c >vere once tlie produce of this country, 
a*i they might be Itili in the greateft plenty, only by 
ufmg /.roper care. The wild- honey, once part of 
the* rood of St. John Baptift, fhews there was plenty 
Oi it in the defarts of Judea *, and by taking the hint 
from nature, and enticing the bees into hives, the 
quantity iright be vaftly incrcafcd. As in fomc places 
the mounrains abound with rofemary, thyme, fagc, 
and Tuch aromatic plants as are chiefly fought by the 
bees ; fo others are as well flocked with fhrubs, and 
a delicate fhort grafs, of both which the cattle are 
more fond than of the plants common to meado^ 
and fallow ground. The milk of the cattle thus fed 
is not only far richer, but their flefh is more fweet and 
nourifhing. Thcie mountainous diftrifts have been 
alio valuable on other accounts ; they fecm to have 
been formerly well planted vvich olive-trees, one acre 
of which, if properly improved, is more valuable 
than twice the extent of arable ground : and feveral 
parts of Paleftine, no Icfs than Jdumea, which lies 
contiguous to it, are reprefentcd by the antients as 
abounding in date-trees. 

In the beginning of March, the plains between 
Jaffa and Raniah, and other places in the road to Je- 
rulalem, arc particularly diftinguilhcd by beds of tu- 
lips, frut'llancs, and other plants of the fame clafs. 
The balfam-trce, however, is no longer found in this 
couner}', and the dudaim, or mandrakes, mentioned 
in thvr bcripfjres, are equally wanting. 

Every part ot the country abounds with plenty of 
game, as antelopes, hares, and rabbets ; and of the 
winged kind, woodcocks, partridges, teal, fnipes, 
anil ieve al others, which are all caught by hawking 
ar.d the chace. The hawks are ulUally of the nature 


jMT^cDlnty of JERUSALEM. 117' 

add filfe of our ^^-hawks, and fo firong as to brii^ 
dcnra a buftard, and (top an ^norlc^ in ^U cuter, 

Acn* anticntly called Accho, fituated Id 33" 40^ 
■mtli ittitadc, is one of ihe places fmm which cbe 
,'KraeUtes could not expel the antienc Cana^ites j but 
% afiET rbnesj being enlarged by Ptolemy I. he, from 
%t own oame, called it Ptoleniais : buc it has Sttoc 
"jeAoMd fbme refemblsnccof its aatient name. 1 bis 
dtf was ihc fcenc of maiiy obftlnaie difputes betwecD 
AeCrotfaders aod the Saracens. Its fituadon is a* 
alfantageous as poITible ; on the north and eaft it ii , 
— ^aounpaOed by a fpacioiis &itile ptiin, on the weft tt 
^wafiied by the Mediterranean, and on cheibutjt by 
*la^ bay, which extends from the city ts fira» 
nt Cajrmcl: it, however, contains little moffC 
_„ a few cpoagea, and piodigious heaps of niio^ 
ifaat only fcrve to (hew its former ftrength. 

Atmmg thefc ruins are flicvm fome remains of a laige 
church, that once belonged to a convent, of which 
the Chriftians there tcU the following remarkable Itory: 
The Turks, after a long fiege, took the city by ttonn 
io the year 1291, when the abbcfs of the co^ven^ 
dreading left Ihe and h-r nuns fhoiilJ be treated as is 
uTual in fuch cales, aflcmbled ihcm, and exhoning 
Aeoj to mangle their faces, as the only means of pre- 
fcmr^ their virginity, inftanily, an hcruic cou- 
iige, fct them the example, which the nans boktiy 
feUowed, by cutting off their nofcs, ana disfiguring 
ihrir faces in fuch a manner, as rendered them more 
dapted to excite horror than dcfire. Hence the fol- 
dScrs, foon after breaking into the convent, were Sa 
Appointed at reein|, inTlead of a number iy Uoom- 
ing beauties, fuch difmal ot^e^ts, that they cruelly put. 
iKm to the fword. 

The city appears to have been formerly encotnpaf- 
"ij bf a double wall, defended with towers ^ and with- 
K the walls are ditches, ramparts, aod a kind <^ 
ftioDS &cedwith ftone. 

1 3 T» 


To the fouth of Acra is Scballa, the antient Sama- 
ri;:, the capital of the ten tribes after their revolt 
iVoni tlie houfe of David ; and it being rendered by: 
Kcrod a very map;!v.ncent cicy, he fjave ^t the name 
cf Scballa, in honour of AugulUis Ca^far. It is fcat- 
cd on a long mount, of an oval figure, which rifcs 
in a fruitrul valley, furroundcd by a range of hills ; 
and is now entirely converted into gardens, having 
m> other remains. of its being once a famous city, but 
a large fquare, encompaircJ with columns, and the 
ruins of a great chr.rc h, to be erected over the 
place where Joiin the Bapiill was impriibncd and be- 
headed. In the body of tlie church is a flair-cafe 
into th'w dungeon, wlicre they fay his blood was (hcd. 
There are here a few poor families of the Turks» who 
have a great veneration for this prifon. 

A little farther, to the fouth isNaplofi, the antient 
Sychem, which ftaiids in a narrow valley between 
Mount Ebal on the north, and CJcrizim on the fouth. 
The Samaritans, whofe chief refidence is at Sychem, 
have a fmall temple upon Mount Gerizim, to which 
they ftill repair at certain feafons, for religious wor- 
fliip *, and it is faid aficmble once a year to offer facri- 
ficcs tiicie. Upon one of thefe mountains God cotn- 
mandrd the cliiidrcn of lirael to fet up great ftones, 
plaftered over, infcribed with the body of the law, 
and to erect an altar and offer facrinccs, feafting and 
rejoicing before th.e Lord, Deuc. xxvii. 4. But whe- 
ther l'"bal or Gerizim was the place appointed for thi$ 
folemnity, is not cai'ily detcrmiiicd. At a fmall dif- 
tance from Naplofa is Jacob's v/ell, famous for our 
Saviour's conference with tlie woman of Samaria. 
Over this well once ftood a large church, built 
bv Sr. Mciena, of v/hich none but the foundation 
nov,' r^n-.a-ns. i hib well is at prefent covered with 
an old Rone vault, into which pilgrims arc let down 
throiij^l;a firei[/!u hokj when removing a broad flat 
iLonr, thi-y diitovcr the mouth of the well, which is 


>«rtfcbttriy ef J^RTJSfALEM. ti^ 

3^ ifl the firm rocl^ : it U about three yards'in diar 
jneirr, anJ tliirty-rive in depth* ftbout Qrc.of «^^ 
•jK filled with w^ter. Th^, fkys Mr. Mftundrdl, 
provc$ iftc fallhood of [he Hory^ Fold by tmyellerSt 
^at it is dry all tfic year round, except on the aiiifi^ 
Vcrfar|- of the day when Chrift fat upon tu fide» a( 
irbich time they pretend that it bubUes up wjtK fiaixj 
of water. 

Jemfalem is eacompafledwtth hills, fo thftt the cuf 
katii 3i if fiiuated in 411 amphitheatre ; but nophcp 
tSbrds a diflanc view of it : that from the Mount .dt 
P&ve$, wliich is the bcft, and perhaps tiie fanhc^ 
'is fo near, (hat when our Saviour was there. Dr. Shtv 
f^crrcs, he might be faid almoft in 2 literal fenlc, to ■ 
mep tKtr it. Therf are, however, few remain^ 
■Aer of that city as it appeared in our Sayiotu'f 
pirie, or as it was afterward built by Adrian j its very 
fituaiion being changed. For Mount Sion, the higheft "" 
part of the antient Jerufalem, is now almoft entirely 
achided; while the places adjoining to Mount Cal- 
tary, where Chrift fuffered without the gate, are at 
pidEcnc almoft in the center. 

This city, which is about three miles in circumfe- 
rrnce, is fituated in 31" 50' north latimde, and in 
36* caft longitude from London, on a rocky mcun- 
Btn, on all udcs of which are fteep afccnts, except 
toward the north-, and is furrjundcii by a deep 
nOey, which is again tncompafied with hills. The 
^nUs are not ftrong, nor have any baftions 1 but towers 
pccre&ed upon them, after the old meiliod of for- 
jttcatiao, ;ina on one fide only it is defended by an 
tfidcrable ditch. The city has f^x gates; the 
itt buildings are mean, the ftrceis are narrow, 
but thinly inhabited. Tlie refort of pilgiims - 
r, and accommodating them with fiecelfarics, 
the principal bufinefs of the inhabitants. A 
ricifh baiba rcfldes there in order to prel'erve good 
^, and cdlcft the grand fignior*s tribute from the 
.rims, and the pricfo who rcfidc there ^ and alfc to 
I 4 f :%c^ 


protcft them from the Arabs, when they vifit the 
holy places in the adjacent country. 

No European Chriftian is allowed to enter the city 
till the governor is informed of his arrival, and he has 
paid the duties required ; nor are any permitted 
to ent.r on horfcback, or with arms, excerpt they 
come with fome public minifter or conful. The Eu- 
ropeans, whether pnpills or proteftants, always go to 
the Latin or Popilli convent, where they are enter- 
tained by the guardian and friars for their money : 
though loiTiC diftindtion is n-ade between thoie who 
travel thither out of devotion, and thofe who only 
come out of curiofny. The pilgrinis arc indeed treat- 
ed with peculiar niarks ot rclj ed. The drugger- 
man, or u^itcrprctcr, \\it!i lomc others deputed by the 
ccnvcnr, UiUally nject the pilgrims without the gate 
cf the city, where they pay the di.ties, and bring 
them to the cloiilt r, wlure they are hnndlomely entcr- 
t:iir-en, an.i ?.i\ np;irrrr.cnr is ofngncd ihcm. Sometime 
after they p.rc conduc:tcd to the: clui tl, to which the 
father eup.rdian comes wth all his nir.nks and hav- 
ing made the pilgrims fit en a couch of ciimibn vtl- 
vc:, walhe> their feet in velicis of Waicr mixed with 
rofts, iind kii7es them; and afcr the guardian has 
done, the line ctrtn.ory is performed by all the 
jrcnk.% who in ilie mean wliilc fing hymns and an- 
thems. At t!.c corcliifion of this ceremony, each of 
the piigrin.s receives a wax taper, and they all make 
a proccfTion about the c!oi!lcr, finging Te Dcum for 
bringing them in fjfc-ty to t!;e holy city : and this they 
perfoim at three altars, th;;t is, the high alrar, dedi- 
cated to the Holy Ghoft *, at the altar of out Lord's 
lall fupper; and at the altar of ChriiVs appearing to 
Si. Thomas after his refurrcdlion. 

One of the principal places vifited by tlie pilgrims, 
is the church ot the Holy Sepulchre upon Mount 
Calvary, which is about ico paces long, and 60 wide. 
In order to lay the foundation of this church, the 
founders were obli;^cd to reduce the top of the mount 


j»nkiil«Hrflf JERUSALEM. ^l 
|p>a ihvt. •!«>» by cutting down fivenl ptfts of tiw 
hudct and rufii^ othcn i but they fay uat fue wai 
taken diat no parts of tbe hUI more immediately coll- 
ie ccrned in our Saviour's paflion (hould be altered : aod 
theret'ore that pan <^ the mouot, where Chrift was 
fjtteiKd to [ho aa&, a left entire, and at prefenc 
(lands fo high above the common Boqr of the church, 
thai there are twenty-one ftep to go up to tbe top t 
and [he holy fepnlchie, in which our Lord's body wu 
hid, whtci) was originally a cave hewed in.the rode, 
is now a grotto above ground, the rock being cur 
awjy fiom IT. 

I'his church, with many others throughout Pakf; 
tine, is laiJ to have been founded by the empreft 
Helena, the mother of Condantine the Great Ac 
the well end c^ it is a Iquare tower or fteeplc, which 
appe:irs ^jmcwhat- cuinous ; but the edifice in general 
ts-kept in good repur, and has a fumptuous appear- 
ance. The body of the church is round, and is co- 
vmd- irith a dome of a prodigious fize, with an c^n- ' 
iftg at the top, through which it receives fufficicnt 
UffO. Exa&ly underneath this aperture is the holy 
lepulchie, which rifes conHdcrably above the pave- 
ment; and the rock on the oucfide is hewn into the 
ibnti of a chapel, adorned on the outfide with ten 
beautiful columns of white marble, adjoining to the 
wall, and fupporting a cornice. People are obliged 
to floop very low in entering the door, which does 
not exceed a yard in height ; but within it is about 
right feet fquare, and as much high, all cut out of 
tm folid rock, and lined with white marble. Thp 
tomb in which they fay our Lord was laid is raifed 
in the form -of an alur, almoft three feet from the 
floor, extending the whole length, and half the 
breadth of this little chapel; fo that there is not 
nxHU for more than three peiifons to kneel, without 
0eat inconvenience. The multitude of hmps here 
Kept continually burning, render the place extrcamly 



hot, the fmoke of which efcapes through vent-holes 
cut throiigjh t'lc roof. 

Th )itgri :hL churc'i of the Sepulchre is Icfs than 
one hundrc.l p /.\s iri lengrh, and not more than fixty 
in IjiroiwiCii, i; is iiippofcd to contain twelve or thir- 
t«* Ml j.^sronll crated by fome action relating to our 
Sav: . r\ :[' .th mvA rcfurrc&on. As the place where 
the foldieis derided him ; where they divided his gatr 
ment -, where he was confined while they dug the 
hole in which they erefted the crofs ; where he was 
nailed to it ; wp.cre the crois wis erefted ; where the 
foldiers ftood wiio pierced hir. fide ; where his body 
was anointed in ordrr lor burial ; where it was depo- 
fited in the fepulclirc •, where the angel appeared tq 
the women afier his refurrcclion ; where Chrift him- 
felf appeared to Mary Magdalen: all which, and 
many others, are fuppofed to be contained within the 
narrow hmits of this church, and are all adorned with 
fo many altars. 

Antiently every Chriilian nadon had a fmall fociety 
of monks, who refided in the galleries about the 
church, and the little builcHpgs annexed to it ; but 
the greatcft part of them have forfaken thefe apart- 
ments on account of the heavy rents impofed upon 
them by t!ie Turks, and none remain but the Latins, 
Greeks, Armenians, and Coptics. The feveral fcfts 
have contended to have tlie holy fepulchre as their 
ovm property -, and in particular, the Greeks and 
Latins have fo v/armly difputed the privilege of fay- 
ing mafs there, that they have fomcrimes come to 
blows, and wjunded each other at the very door of the 
fepulchre: however, by the interpofition of the French 
king, it was put into the hands of the Latins, who 
have the I'ole privilege of faying mafs in it, though 
the Chrillians of all nations may perform their pri- 
vate devotions there. Ten or twelve Latins, with a 
pre.Hdent over them, always refide in tl\c church, and 
iirr Jaily eiv^loved in trimming the lamps •, and every 



pffCk»M7«f JERUSALEM. isf 

^ 4|f alio make a kkmn ptoceffion, in whic(i^ 
^hff cny capers and crucifixes to the firveial ftafiu^ 
.fiujfig at each, a little hvmm' relating to tho 
It qf the place. But in the holy week before 
V when the pilKrims ufually flock to Jen;iialem, 
; jifrlfermcd with greater fidemnity than at odier 

f * w 

Ob th9 evening of Good-Friday, aa foon as it be- 
ppa ta now darky all the friars and pitgrioif aflemble ' 
}n the chapel of the Apparition, a fmall watory on 
fl^ nor^ fide of the holy grave, in order to go in 
pffipii:round the church : but before this begins^ 
of tb( friars preaches a lennon in Italian, on 
fkf dft^gadk at the crucifixion, and he has no fboner 
)M^;iia, tlian all the candles are put out, to iUuftrace, 
fiiefulgeft: and thi|s they continue without* light, 
t^stlie pcieacher having concluded his difcourfe, every 
ppllbo prefent has a laiige lighted taper put into hia 
lia|)da» and the crucifixes and other utenfib are put 
in ocder for the proceflioo. Among the reft is a large 
crucifix, which bears the image of our Lord, as 
big as the life, faftened on with great nails. This 
imag^ which is well painted, and crowned with 
fhoms, is carried at the head of the procefhon, Brft 
to the pillar of Flagellation, a large piece of which 
they pretend to have in a little cell jult by the chapel 
pf the Apparition. They there fing an hymn, and 
preach in Spanifli on the fcourging of our Lord. 
From hence they proceed to the prifon, where, they 
fay, Chrift was fecured, while the foldiers prepared 
for his crucifixion: here alfo they fing an hymn, and 
a third friar preaches in French. They next proceed 
to the altar of the divifion of Chrifil's garments, 
where they only fing an hymn. From thence they 
go to the chapel of Derifion, where they fing an hymn, 
and have another iermon in French. From this place 
diey go to Calvary, leaving their flioes at the toot 
of the ftairs. Here are two.altars, one where Chrill 
Vm nvled to the croi's, at which they lay down the 


great crucifix, and a£fc the part of the Jews in nailing 
our Saviour to it ; and after the hymn, one of the 
friars preaches another fermon on the crucifixion. At 
the other altar is a hole in the rock, in which they 
pretend the foot of the crofs flood, and here they tk 
up their crofs with the bloody image upon it ; and 
leaving it, fing an hymn, after which the father-guar-' 
dian, fcating himrelf before it in a chair, preaches a 
paHlon fermon, in Italian. In this manner Mr. MauiK 
drcll faw it performed. 

About four feet from the hole, in which they Bx 
the foot of the crofs, is a cleft in the rock, faid to 
be made by the earthquake, which rent the rocks at 
the death of Chriit. It has the appearance of a nst- 
tural breach, about a fpan wide at its upper part; 
and the fides of it anfwer each other, running in fuch 
intricate windings, as fcem above the power of art to 
imitate. The chal'm is about two fpans deep, after 
which it doles •, but acrain Oi:ens bt low, as may be 
feen in another chapel by the fide of Mount Calvary^ 
where it nms down to an unknown depth. 

AttLT this I'crmon, two friars, reprcicnting Jofeph 
CI Ar::rja:hea and Nicodcmus, po with a s^ravc and 
f;jlc:iin to the crols, draw ovK the nails, and take 
do\v:i the prcrtcndvtd body, which is fo contrived that 
the joints are nexibie as it it was really fleih and bone : 
and the llrangcr is furpriicd to fee them bend down 
ihe arms, which were before extended, and lay them 
upon thj body, which is received in a large winding- 
t'K*er, and carried down from Mount Calvary, v/hile 
.'.11 the company attend it to the ttone of undlion, 
vvliicii, they lay, is the place where Chrill was 
anointed and prepared for burial. Here they caft 
over the iiftitious corpfe fweet powders and fpices» 
and in the mean while fing an hymn, after which a 
iViiir preaches a funeral fermon in Arabic. The pre- 
tended body is then carried away, and laid in the 
lepulchre, where it is (hut up till Eafter Monday- 


, fmaa^f of JBRU8 AL-E M: tft^ . 

* '^DiMe is inddwT ceremony obferved In this church, 
' 'U likH i^Mo finffular to be omitted. This is a pious 
frmtAfofannea bf the Greek priefts, who pretend 
ttoc upon every Eafter-'eve a miraculous ^me de- 
temd* iato'the holy fepulchre, and kindles all the 
Iwipf nd candles there. ' The Eafter of the Greeks 
i u Bpauaf^ ft week after that of the Latins, when 
Mn Mwfldrdl was aT'Jmifalem, he went on the 
fTimiM ;tiilFnir thnr Eafter Sunday to this church, 
vUchK fiHind crouded with a ^ftnftedmob, tnajc- 
htg • Mdebus clsmour ( and with difficulty preflia'g 
ifaRH^ them, got into the gallery next the Lariii 
DMnietii^ «lierehe had a view- of all diu fiaft/ The . 
pcepIe-iaH'with all their might round the holy fepul^ 
chie» oy^K *' Huia, huia •" " this is be> this if 
te.^ ^duSbving at length, by their running round 
aad tiMtf vociferation, almofl: turned their brains, 
llKf'«fted the moft antic'tricks imaginable jfome<- 
• thaea dn^ing one another ^ong the floor,, and car- 
rfing«clieR upon their ihoulders round the feputchre : 
iomeumes they carried men with their heels upward, 
with great indecency -, and fomctimes they tumbled 
round the fepulchre, like tumblers on a fVage } and, 
in tbortj nothing can be more rude and cxrravaganc 
than their behaviour upon this occafion. This fran- 
tic tumult lafted from twelve to four in the afternoon ; 
aod then the Greeks fet out on a proceQion round 
the fi:pulchre, followed by the Armenians, cncom- 

CBing it diree times, drefTcd in their embroidered 
bits, and carrying crucifixes, ftandards, and ftrcam- 
crs. Toward the end of the proceflion, a pigeon 
came flutcering into the cupola over the fepulchre, at 
which the people redoubled their Ihouts and clamour. 
The Latins obfcrved to the Hnglifh gentleman, that 
this bird was let fly by the Greeks to deceive the peo- 
]dc into the belief that this was a vifible dcfcent of 
the Holy Ghoft:. After the proccfUon, the fuffragan 
of the Greek patriarch, and the principal Armenian 
bilhop, approached the door of the re].:ulclirr, cut 


the firing with which it was faftened^ and breaking tki 
feal, entered in, (hutting the door after tliem, all the 
tandles and lamps within having been before eztin- 
guifhed in the prcfcnce of the Turks. As the aocom- 
plilhment of the miracle drew nearer, the exclamations 
Were redoubled ; and the people prcffcd with fuch 
violence toward the door, that it was not in the 

Eower of the janizaries, who ftood to guard it, to 
eep them off with the fevered blows. This croud- 
ing was occaQoned by their defire to light their can- 
dles at the holy flame, as Toon as it was brought out 
•of the fepulchre. 

The two bifhops had not been above a mintite lA 
the fepulchre, before a glimmering of the holy fire 
was feen through fome chinks of the door ^ at which 
the mob behaved with the mofl extravagant kind of 
phrenzy. Soon after the two bifhops came put with 
blazing torches in their hands, which they held up 
at the door, while the people thronged about them 
to light their tapers at the divine flame, though the 
Turks endeavoured to keep diem oft' with their clubs, 
and laid on without mercy* Thofe who got the fire 
inflantly applied it to their faces and bofoms, pre- 
tending that it would not burn like an earthly flame ; 
but none of them would try the experiment long 
enough to make good this prctenfion. However, 
futh numbers of tapers were prefently lighted, that 
tlie whole church feemed in a blaze j and this illumi- 
nation concluded the ceremony. 

The zealous among thefe bigots fmcar pieces of 
linen with the melted wax wi:ich drops from thefe ta- 
pers, and lay them Up for wir.ding-iheets for them- 
felvts and their friends -, imagining, fays the reverend 
Mr. Mauridrell, that nothing can be a greater fccu- 
rity againll their luffering by the flames of hell. 

TliL Laiiiis take great pains to expofc this ceremo- 
ny, as a fivanietul impofi:ion and fcandal to the Chrif- rtiigion, Mr. Thcvcnoc obferves, a flint and 
It eel would focn produce tire, were there nor^.e in the 


particularly of J E R U S A L E M. 127 

iepulchre before ; and, according to him, the Turks 
have dilcovercd the cheat, and would have puniflied 
them for it ; but the patriarch reprefented, he could 
not pay them the money required of him, if they 
took from him the proBt of the holy fire : they arc 
therefore fufiered to continue the juggle, and the 
priefts have a^ed the cheat fo long, that they are 
now in a manner compelled to (land co it, for fear of 
endangering the apoftacy of the people. 

The Armenians have a fpacious convent on a plea-* 
fane ipot of ground^ which, with the gardens, covers all 
that pare of Mount Sion which is at prelent within the 
city walls ; and they ailert, that their church is built 
over the place where St. James, the brother of John^ 
was beheaded. 

The Armenians have a chapel in the convent where 
they fay the houfe of Annas ftood ; and on the iniide 
they ihow a hole in the wall, to point out the place 
where one of the officers of the high prieft fmote our 
Saviour. In the court before the chapel is an olive- 
tree, to which they pretend that Chrill was chained 
by order of Annas, to prevent his elcapc. They 
have alfo another Imall chapel on the fpot where the 
houfe of Caiaphas ftood ; and under the altar, they 
pretend, is the ftone that lay at the doL»r of our Sa- 
viour's fepulchre, which they fay the Armenians ftf)!c 
from the church of the fcpjlclirc, anJ brought thi- 
ther; though it is two yaai^ and a quarter long, one 
yard broad, an.l a yard ih^k. It ;s pliillered over; 
only about live or fix [^laccs :s'.: left bare to receive 
the killes oft'ie ])ilL^rims. In t.his c!vu)el is alfo fhewn 
a fmall cell, laid to bv- our L/.v\i'.s prifon, till the 
morning when he vyas carr-ed ber'^Tc Pil ite. 

Juft without Si()n-*^;ite i:; th;* cii'jrch of the Csena- 
culum, where, they iay, C liriit imtituted his lad 
fupper ; but this bcini; cunv..;tJi.: \mj a niofque, the 
Chrillians ar:' not pvrniitt'jd zj tr.Ejr ir. Near it arc 
the ruins of a iuuie in \vl;!ji ii^e X'i:;.:-: h fu^pofed 
to h^ive diedi and at ibnie uifv-.ncL.* trwiii :i is a place. 


where, they fay, a Jew arretted her body, as they 
were conveying it to the grave : but the hand with 
which he feized the bier withered. 

At the bottom of Mount Sion, without the city, 
is fhewn Bathlheba's pool, where fhe was wafliing 
herfclf when David faw her from the terrace of his 
palace. At a fmall dittance from thence is the Poc- 
ters-Field, aftenvard called The Field of Blood, but 
now named Campo Sando : this piece of ground is 
only about thirty yards long and fifteen broad, one- 
half of which is taken up by a fquare building, erected 
for a charnelhoufe. Jt is twelve yards high, and 
bodies are let down into it from the top, where live 
holes are left open for that purpofe, through which 
they may be feen under different degrees of putrefac- 
tion. A little below the Campo Sandbo is a cave, 
confifting of fcveral rooms, one within another, where 
the difciples are faid to have hid themfelvcs when they 
forfook their Matter. 

On Mount Olivet they (hew feveral caves cut with 
intricate windings, called The Sepulchres of the Pro- 
phets -, and twelve arched vaults, where it is pretend- 
ed the apoftles compiled their creed : and at the top 
of the mount they (hew the place of our Saviour's 
afcenfion, where there was antiently a large church, but 
all that remains of it is an odlagonal cupola about eight 
yards in diameter, which is faid to be over the place 
where our Lord fct his laft footfteps on earth j and 
upon a hard ftone under the cupola is (hewn the print 
of one of his feet. This Chipel of the Afcenfion 
is in the cuftody of the Turks, who ufe it for a 

On another fide of the mountain, they fliew the 
place where Ch-ift beheld the city and wept over it; 
and near the bottom is a great ftone, upon which the 
blefled Virgin dropt her girdle after her afiumption, 
in order to convince St. Thomas ; and there is ftill to 
be feen a fmall winding channel upon the ftone, which 
they fay is tlie imprelfion of the girdle when it fell. 


jSarticuIarly of JERUSALEM. 129 

A little lower is fhewn Gethfemane, an even piece of 
grounJ between the foot of Mount Olivet and the 
brook Cedion. It does not exceed fifty- feven yards 
Iquare, but it is well planted with olive-trees, which 
the people are fo credulous as to believe are the fame 
which grcv/ there in our Saviour's time ; and the 
olives, Itones, and oil produced from them, are pur- 
chafed at a high price by the Spaniards : and yet Jo- 
fephus obfcrvcs, that Titus cut down all the trees 
within a hundred furlongs of Jcrufalem. 

At the upper part of this garden is a flat ledge of 
naked rocks, faid to be tlie place on which Peter, 
James, and John fell aficep during our Saviour's agony; 
and by it is a cave, in which, it is faid, he underwent 
that bitter part of his pafllon. Near it is a narrow 
piece of ground, twelve yards long and one broad, 
faid to be the path on which Judas walked up to 
Chria, and faying, "Hail matter," kiffed him. This 
narrow path is diltinguilhed by a wall on each fide, as 
a terra damnata^ which was done by the Turks, who, 
as well as the Chrirtians, dttcit the ground on which 
that infamous piece of treachery was afted. They 
alfo fliew the place where the palace of Pilate flood ; 
but upon this ij.:ot is now an ordinary Turkilh houfc, 
from the terrace of which people have a full view of 
the ipot on which the temple flood -, and, it is faid, 
that a litter place for an ausruft building; could not be 
found on the whole earth : but no Chrillian is per- 
mitted to enter within the borders of that ground. 
In tlie middle of the area (lands a mofcjuc of an octa- 
gonal figure, faid to be crecfled on the Ipot where for- 
merly Itood the Holy of Holies. In the above pre- 
tended houfe of Filate, they llievv the room where 
Chrift was mocked with enfisyns of rovalrv, nnd buf- 
feted by the foldicrs. On ili-j other fide of tKtr flrcct 
is a room, which belongs to a weaver's flirp, v/here 
it is f lid our .Saviour v/cs fcourgcd. In what i" c.illcd 
the Dolorous Way, tiicy Ihew the place where Pilate 
brought out our Lor.l to the people, fiyiri^r., " Be- 
hold the mani" v^h^rc C7;n7t fainted twice undcY t\\e 

Vol. VL K cto^^% 


crofs^ wliere the Virgin Mary fwooncd at this 
tra^jical fight ; where t>t. Veronica prefentcd him a 
handkercliict to v/ipc his bleeding brows ; and where 
the IblJicrs compelled Simon to bear his crols. They 
Ihew many other places in the city of Jerufalcm, and 
its neighbourhood, dillinguiflied by fomc a£lion of 
our S:iviour or his apollles •, ib that there is not the 
leall circuiiilumcc relating to his behaviour, either 
recorded in the holy Scriptures, or believed as tradi- 
tions, but they can point out the very fpot where it 
was performed, with much greater exadtnefs than 
tiiofe who lived when the events were performed. 
We fnall now lead our readers to a few of thofe places 
a: a diftance from Jcrufalcm, celebrated on account 
of the CN'cnts performed there. 

We fliall begin with Bethlehem, which is famous 
for being the birth-place of our Saviour. It is feated 
two miles to the fouth of Jerufalem, on the ridge of 
a hill, in 31® 30' north latitude •, but at prefent it is 
only an inconfiderable place, though much vifited by 
tlic pilgrims. It has, however, a church erefted by 
ll'.iena, which is yet entire, and in the form of a 
trolb. The roov is of cedar, fupported by four rows 
of columns, of an entire block of white mar- 
bl:^;aj|Vai^W places beautifully fpeckled. Under 
the clvurch, in a cave hcvv-n out of the rock, is the 
cluipel of the nativicy, in which they pretend to fhew 
the rniinger in which Chrifl: was laid, alfo cut out of 
the rock, anJ r;ow encrulled with marble. An altar, 
v/iih the rcpivllriiuiion of the nativity is erected here, 
r.n'-l lamps kcjjt burning before it. Here is alfo the 
chapL-lof St. J(»feph the luppofed father of our Lord, 
:ind (^f the I-io!y Innocents. The place is chiefly in- 
h*ibircd I'V .1 rev/ poor Greeks. 

The wi vi.Mn.fs of St. John, though very rocky, is 
will c'jl:iv.K'/d, and produces plenty of corn, vines, 
:i:-i.i ohve-rrees. In this wilderncfs they fhew a cave 
;::'vi fountiiin, v/!ierc they fay the Baptilt ufed to exer- 
cife his auilerities. Between this wildernefs and Je- 
ruJiilcm li the convent of St. John^ which is a large 

particularly of J E R U S A L i: M. i j i 

fquare, and neat modern ftrudlurc ; and it. cliurch is 
particularly beautiful. 

Nearer to JcrufaLm is a nc^t convent ofili'- Cr.'cks, 
that lakes its name from the holy cro:>:. T: ih;:).!^, la 
a ddighrful fituation •, but wh it is noil cxrr.iurdi- 
nary, is the rcalbn they here ^ivc for ic^ nanc and 
foundation: for they ridiculouily paur) 1, t' here 
is the earth which nourifticd the roor tljuc I) uj the 
tree of which the crofs was made. Unwler tiu high 
altar they (hew a hole in the ground, wliere the Hump 
of the tree flood, and many pilgrims are fo blindly 
luperftitious as to fall down and worfhip it. 

Nazareth is now a fmall village, fituated in a kind 
of valley on the top of a high hill, in 32^ 30' north 
latitude. The church of Nazareth is partly formed 
by a cave, where it is faid the Virgin Mary received 
the meflfage from the angel, " Mail, thou th-it arc 
highly favoured, &c." This ftrufturc is in the form 
ct a crofs, and is fourteen paces long and fix over, 
running direftly into the cave, having no odicr arch 
over i: but that of the natural rock. The tnmlVcrfc 
pirt, v.hich is erected acrols the mouth of the e:i.t.% 
is nine paces long and four broad; a-xl v/htre t!.^i'c 
ioin are two granite piliirs, one llipjiJica to ii:r.l 
where the angel, and the other where the virgin ftc J, 
at the time of the annunciation. The piiiar of t.":e 
virs:in has been broken, and eiohteen incii^s in 1 'P.<ftii 
taken away between the pillar and iti pcdcil J, and 
yet it touches the roof, to which it ]>roba5)ly Im-i;^"v, 
though tile friars maintain that it \s hipy/.n'w] ' y ,1 
miracle. In this village they Ihcw tiu; hy.rX- •r :\. 
Jofeph, where Chriil lived near thirty ;. lU's i-i "•' ;..c- 
tion to his fuppoled father. Near it thv-y \:<>: ('ir 
the place where flood the fynagogue, i.-i v ; • 'r, • :".;.«5 
preached the fermon by which h.s c\ni:r.:'.": r. ..:• 
lb exafpcrared. At cic!) of tlicl'.! l.-.I ; I ■» -ij 

ruins ot a handlome churcli, er.ctjd In* i l;.l.n.:. 

The next place we fnall menii;.»n is ^'. '/ .:' rr, 
a high, round, and beautiful mo.:ni*in, n vr \ ... .- 
Itm, thou^^hr re? be ch:it 0:1 wii'idi our 'o..v'. »'\v n. ^i 

K 2 v::^\ 



transfigured. People are near an hour in afccf 

to the top, where they find a mod Aiiitful and 

cious plain, of an oval form, about two furlon 

length, and one in breadth. It is every whci 

compaflTcd with trees, except toward the fouth. 

was antiently encompafled with walls, trenches, 

other fortifications •, many remains of which ar< 

vifible. In I'everal places are cifterns of good i 

and near the plain are three caves, formed to r 

fent the tabernacles Peter propofed to erc£t ; ^ 

beholdins: the glory of the transfiguration, he 

Qiit, " Lord, it is good for us to be here, let us 

three tabernacles &c." The top of this root 

affords a moll delightful profpeft. The nortl: 

affords a view of ihe rvlrditerranc^.n, and all i 

are the fine plains of Galilee and Efdraelon. T 

eallward is Mount Kcrmon, and at the foot is : 

Nain, famous for our Lord's rclloring the wi 

fon to life. Due c:ift is the lea, or rather la 

Tiberias ; and clofe to it a rteep mountain, 

which the fvvine ran and perilled in the water. 

ward the nor:h is what they call tlie Mount c 

Beatitudes, a fmall riiing from which Chrill deli 

his fcrmon ; and near this little hill is the city < 

phct. Handing upon a high mountain, which, 

then in vicvv, our Saviour may be fuppofed to : 

to it when he fays, " A city let on a hill cam 

hid -,*' and to the fcurhward is a view of the r 

tains of Gilboa, fatal to Saul. 

Mr. Maundrell oblervcs, as fomev;hat extr 
nary, that almoll every thing reprcfcnted to be 
in the Goipcl is laid by the people who flit 
places to be done in cave?^, even \vlicre the ci 
llar.ccs of the adions themlclvcs itrcin to rcquii 
fercfU places : thub thok of the birth of the ^ 
Mary, of the aniunuiiicion, of Mary's faUitat: 
HIi/abcth, of the nativity of Chrill and Joh 
Baptiic, of the trar:>.nguracion, and of Sr. Petr 
prntance, are rcj^rwlcnL'^d as being done uiidcr gr 

[ 133 ] 



O F 




With occafional Extrafts from Mr. NOR DEN. 

^T*0 the travels of Dr. Pococke we fliall unite the 
■■' obfervations of the inncnious Mr. Freilcrlck 
Lewis Norden, captain of the I^.inilh navy ; as both 
of them travelled up the Nile at the lame time. The 
former gentleman is diilingiiiih'. d by his great h-arn- 
jng, modefty and c;uulour ; and, hcivir.g rlic hapni- 
rels to be better fiirninv.^d v.irh r:'com;]xnd:i:*ions ro 
the great men of tlie couniricS t!iroLig!i which he 
pa.QVd, met with fewer difficilcics, and iiad ::ic pica- 
lure of examining more flriclly, fcvcrrai places, to 
which the other was denied iiccef«^. But the Doctor 
was little acquainted wiili tii:- a;r of drawing, and 
the rules of perfpective ; while Mr. Norden w.\s a 
perfcit mafler cf thcie art?. Tins gentlem:'.n h:id 
in'iproved his tan.e bv travellinLr ir.^o Italv, an;] hir> 
Mienrs "-iincd him the diitiiiJ-iion of bcino; n-.ndo an 
aiTociace to the Academy of I-Jra-wing at I'loreiice. 
Thou2ii not w.f',1 riCLii:;:in:efl w;i:!"i th(^ eaiicrn !an- 
y\\yyx^^^ ne v,:.:, a n-an (ir i'.-;-! lean; I"":: ai: : ii:;:iit;c"., 

r — ■! - r"",/"» ' \^r' 1 i '■> n- ■ . .fii-^j '• ■' l'*»'f iii'«> '•• '* • 'Vl*i 
• I.. I. LiK at*l.v. Kl.i* ■ 1 J''. 11 :;...\> i_.i'_ -1- ■» »...\^ - ..>i'C 

V\ <Iiawi::os, on ■ !i".* ^^J':, '):' t';-; ::v;:: r- :.; ': Is d^e 
C'>\.:":s: ;ind i*i his work !;r- i. i:;:i /.r.a;:v nil /..-..dt^ 
ii^\c excelled ev^ry ti:in'x ^-' J^he ki:ia liu; ''\\\ \^.:cl\ - 


hitherto publiflied. It is to be lamented that thcfe 
two gentlcrmen, both of fuch diftingui(hed merit, 
did not travel in company. Had Mr. Norden known 
of Dr. Pococke^s being engaged in the fame purfuit, 
he would doubtlefs have waited for him at Cairo. 
Their travels might then have been attended with 
more fucccfs •, and from their joint obfervations they 
might have compofed a work that would have been 
more compleat in every refpeft. To repair this mis- 
fortune as much as poffible, we have united the moft 
curious obfervations of each ; following the narration 
of our learned countryman, and inferting Mr. Nor- 
den's remarks in crotchets. 

Having explained our intended method, we fliall 
juft premifc a few words dcfcribing the fituation of 


Accor^-ing to ihc poets, Egypt derived its name 
fromKgyprus, the brother of Danaus, once fovereign of 
the country. Ily the Hebrews and Arabs it is called 
Miiraim. It has alio been known by the name of 
Coptu-s the capital of Upper Lgypt; and by the 
Turks it is called Kl-kcbit, or the overflowed country. 

Kjivpt being ficuatcd on the north-eaft part of 
Africa, is bounded on the north by the Mectiterra- 
nean -, on the eall by the illhmus of Suez and the 
Red i en, which divicie it from Afia -, on the fouth 
by Nuoia •, and on the wefl by the dcfart of Barca and 
the unknown parts of Africa. It is fcated between 
20^* and 32"- north latitude, r.nd between 30° and 
36^ (aft lupgitu'Je from London-, and is therefore 
about .:.5o miles in length from north to fouth, and 
125 in bicaJth when.- brcadt-ft. 

Egypt is generally divided into Lower, Middle, 
and Upper i-gypt. The greatell part of Lower 
Ff^ypt :s contained in a triangular ifland formed by 
the M* d::crrancp.n lla and the two i^reat branches of 
the Nile, which dividing itfelf five or fix miles below 
Old Cairo, one part of it flows to the north-eaft and 
r falls inco the fca at Damietta, the antient PeluCum ; 
,y^ and 

TRAVELS through EGYPT. 135 

and the other branch,.which runs toward the north-wcIr, 
falls into the lea at Roletto. 

We embarked at Leghorn, fays Dr. Poco( kc, on 
the 7th of September, 1737, and on the 29th of the 
fame month arrived at Alexandria in Kgy['t, bcinp- 
only a week in our voyage, from the time when wc 
loft fight of Sicily. 

For many ages Egypt was governed by irs 
kings, till it was conquered by the Perfians under 
Cambyfes. At length Alexander, with the c\MH]'iclt 
of Pcrfia, obtained the rolUfTion of iliis country, 
and made PtoLmy his general, king (;f Kgypt ; 
under whofe dcfrendants ic reiii.iini-^l, r:il i: b-; iimir 
a Roman province. On tlvj (iivifijp. vA [.\i- ri^inire, 
Eivpc belonged to the e.iiljin c:iii)t roiS ; i',ur loon 
after the eftaolilhmen!: of the //' !:i-.)-»v.'imi i\ ;!••.••' n, it; 
was taken from thei7i by tii-j y^irac-^f.-s, r::;d wus p;o- 
vcrned by different fafiiilics, till :n 127:) i!v Mnina- 
luke government took j)Licc, v.-^Jcv wiiiLh conlli:*.]- 
tion a fliivc wa<; aKvavs advanced to the tlirone, an.l 
no fvjn C'juld llirj^ed to his fach'jr's cro^vn : biic ihi> 
e;overnmL':u was lupnycfu'd bv iiih:,n Sclim, ;::k1 it 
i:.i; rci!-j.i:n, in the Ottriman faiiiilv. 

On rhe return of AL-::an.!v.'r Irom cor-'uleinp; the 
oracle of Jupiter An.imon, Ii-j w.-.s fo |)]i'aicLl sviLii the 
firuation of Rhacotis, th.ic i*.j ordered a c/.v to be 
builc there, which from Ivini was cd]^\\ \! xiixlrl.:. 
This new city became the capital of tlie !::ii .d;^m, a 
territory was annexed to ic, [\::C\ it wns ::k:.Ij r. dirlinclil: 
provin.e of itlelf. The Arabian hiilo;*i.i:::» l\v\ rlia: 
when tr.e city was taken by tivj Saracc.i ;, it c;;r....'i:c'.i 
4000 paiaCcs, as many butli^, jjv,o fqii.uvs, :u\d 
40,000 jew. who paid trilnic*. 

The ports of A! :x:in'!ria wrre for'iK-c! '.)V t'v* i/iv of 
Pharos, wh r'l LXtenJed acroL ihr :r. uitli '.i' :'.::: ''r.\:\ 
and tO'/.arvi tiic '.v.-!l'-cnd wa'. io:.:».d r > r.;e co.::^ v. : 
bv a c^ii'c.v.iv J.T 1 tv.o b/iunres ';-.) piv-.'S l : ■ 
a rOs-k, cnco-r.p.iiil'd Iv i!ie ii.*a :i: iw fiiil-Li-.l a'l . 
iiland, 'vv;:5 ihv* fur.-.O'J.s i':iarj«i, or !:; 'u-houlV^ 

V I 

\. \ 


fccms to be the fpot on which one of the two caftles 
is built, at the entrance of the new port -, and the 
pillars feen in a calm fca within this entrance, may be 
the remains of that fuperb ftrufture. I Jaw thefe pil- 
lars when I went out in a boat in a calm day, and 
could perceive the bociom'-, but my making fuch 
nice obfcrvations fo near the caftle was much taken 
notice of, and I was told that fcveral foldiers, who 
were that day on guard in the caftle, were puniQied 
for fufFering me to examine the port with fuch 

[Noihing can be more berAitiful than to view from 
hence the mixture of antique and modem monu- 
ments, which every where oi7cr ihcmfclves to view. 
Upon paiTing the lmal!cll caltle, called the Little 
Pharillon, you perceive a row of great towers joined 
to e.:ch other by the ruins of a thick wall. A fingle 
obelifk has fufficient height to make itfelf remarked,- 
where tlie wall is fallen down. If you turn yourfelf 
a li:tle farther, you perceive that the towers appear 
again, but only in a dillant view. The new Alexan- 
dria afterward makes a figure with its minarets ; and 
at a dillance beyond this column rifcs the column of 
Ponipey, a moft majcftic monument. You likewife 
difcover hills that appear to confirt of aflies, and fome 
other towers. At length the view is terminated by a 
great fquarc building, that ferves for a magazine of 

The outer walls the old city arc beautifully 
built of hewn ftonr, and fecni to be antient. They 
are defended by ft mi-circular towers, 20 feet in dia- 
meter, and a'vjut i 20 feet afiindcr : at each of them 
^;e ft'jps to afccnd up to the bartlcmenis, there being 
a \v;i!!v ri \;:kI on the top Oi' the walls bull: on arches, 
'l !ie inner \\A\% of tlu- old cifv, wliich Teem erected 
in the n:iddle ap:es, are much flro:ic;er and higher 
than the ociicrs. 

The palace, with the fuburbs bclono;;ng to ir, was 

a fourth part of the city ; within its diilrid was the 

J mufcLMU, 

TRA-VELS through EGTPT. 137 

or academy, and the buriaKplacc of the 
here was depoficcd the body or Alexander, 
1 of gold \ which Ixing taken away, jt was 
ane of elais : in this condition it probably 
I Auguftus took, a view of ihc corptc of that 
i fcUKring flowers over it, adorned it with a 

t extraordinary remains of Alexandria arc 
» that arc buik under their houfes, and fup- 
^hy two or three arches or toUimn^, for rc- 
y the water of the Nik by a canal, as they do 
I day. This canal of Canopus comes to the 
I near l*ornpcy*s piilar, and has a pafTage under 
1. But ihc water is not only conveyed to the cif- 
s from ihc canal where it enters the city -, but alio 
ire from Icvcral di(Unc parts of the canal, by paf- 
s tinder ground to the higher parts of the city. 
[ defccnt to thclc cillcrns is by round walls, and 
t water is drawn up by windlafTL-s. But t!ie great 
be Mareoits, whicb was formerly n-ivigable, is now 
mcrally dry, and has only wattr in it after great 

[We arc informed by hiflory, that ihe calilh or ca- 
Eial was made to facilitate commerce, ;:nd for the con- 
e of goods from Cairo to Alexandria, withoac 
ig Them to the dangers attend the pidfage 
) mouth of the Nile. The people ah" reaped 
Kr advantaj^ from it ; the city of Alexandria 
gdcrt'ruteof frtlh water, was by this means iiip- 
Bui the decay of commerce, and the ruin of 
Lojuntry, no longer permit the inhabitants to be 
r tspcnrc of keeping it ift repair, Henrc at 
"; it rcfcnibles a ditch ill kept up, and has 
^'Watcx enough to lupply the ref:rrvoirs of Ne* 
Bndria. When the old city fjbfiftcd, all the 
ind it occupied was made hollow for rcfcrvoirst 
jrr4ie(l part of which are filled up, and no more 
\ hjlf a dozen remain's. Ail the arches of tdcfc 
s arc tnadc of brick, and covered with the 


lame matter, impenetrable by water ; with which the 
walls and refervoirs are covered that one fees at Baise 
and at Rome, in the baths of feveral emperors.] 

The materials of the old city have been carried 
away to build the new ; fo that there are only a few 
houfes at the Rofetto and Bagnio. Gates, fomc 
mofques, and three convents within the old walls. 
All over the city are leen fragments of columns of 
beautiful marble, the remains of its antient grandeur 
and magniBcence. Among the reft is an obclifk 63 
feet high, of one finglc piece of granite : but two 
of its four faces are fo disfigured by time, that you 
can fcarcely fee in them the hieroglyphics, with which 
they were antiently covered. This is Hill called the 
obelifk of Cleopatra, Near it lies another, broken. 

The lofty Corinthian column, called Pompey's Pil- 
lar, is fituated on a fmall eminence, about a quarter 
of a mile to the fouth of the walls •, and as Strabo 
makes no mention of it, it was probably erected after 
his time, perhaps in honour of Titus or Adrian. 
Near it are fomc fragments of pillars of granite mar- 
ble-, and it plainly appears that fome magnificent 
building has been erected there, and that this noble 
pillar was placed in the area before it. Some Ara- 
bian hirtorians fay, that here was the palace of Julius 
Calar. This pillar is of granite, and, befide the 
foundation, confifts of only three lioness the capital 
is judged to be eight or nine feet deep, and of the 
Corinthian order, the le.if feeming to be the plain 
laurel or bay leaf. A hole having been found on the 
top, it has been thought that a ftatu-:; wa:i erected 
upon it. I'he Ihafc, taking in the upper torus of the 
bale, is of one piece of granite marble, 88 feet 9 
inches high, and 9 feet in diunieter. The pedeilal, 
with part of the bafe, [which are of a greyilh 
refembling flint] are 1 2 feet and a half high ; and 
thti foundation, which confids of two tier or Hones, 
is 4 feet 9 inches ; lb tliat I fuun.i the whole height to 
be I lA ieet. 


TRAVELS through EGY PT. 139 

To the weft, beyond the canal of Canopus, are 
fome catacombs, which confift of feveral apartments 
cut in the rock on each fide of an open gallery : on 
both fides of thefe apartments are three ftories of 
holes, big enough to depofit the bodies in. 

[The borders of the great canal are covered with 
different ibrts of trees, and peopled by flying camps 
of Bedouins, or wandering Arabs; who there feed 
their flocks, by which they maintain themfclves ; but 
in other refpects live in great poverty.] 

Abo*Jt four Icfijues from Alexandria, is Aboukir, 
called by Europeans Bikierc. This town is fituated 
on the weft-fide of a wide bay, a chain of rocks ex- 
tendmg from it to a fmall ifland about half a mile 
long, and a furlong in breadth. In this ifland are 
the remains of Ibme fubterranean paflages, and of a 
piece of a ftatue we conjectured to be a fphynx. 
About two miles nearer Alexandria are the ruins of 
an antient temple in the water, with broken ftatues 
of fphynxes, and pieces of columns of yellow marble 
and granite. 

[Nearer the city are fecn on the fliore cavities in the 
rocks, ufed as agreeable retreats •, where the people 
enjoyed the cool air, and, without being feen, but 
when they chofe it, law every thing that pafled in 
the port. Soirie jutting rocks furnilhed a delightful 
fituation, and the natural groitos in thofe rocks gave 
the 0[ porcunity of forming there, by the afllftance 
of the chinil, real places ot pleafure. 

Oppofite the point of the peninfub that forms the 
port, is a ca^-ern, which is commonly termed a tem- 
ple. The entrance is a little opening, through 
which you pals ligiited by flambeaux, ftooping tor 
20 paces, when you enter a tolerably large Tq-jarc hall. 
Thr top of the cieling is fmOvUh, but the bottom 
and lides are covered wich ianJ, and the excrements 
of bats and other nnimjils that ha/bour there. From 
hence you pais through arxother alley into a round 
cavern, the top of which is cur in the form ot Jiti 


grch. Ic has four gates oppofite to each other, each 
adorned wich an architrave, a cornice and a pedi- 
ment, with a crefcent on the top. One of theft gates 
ferves for an entrance ; the others form each a niche, 
that only contains a kind of clieft, faved out of the 
rock in hollowing ir, and large enough to contain a 
dead body. Thus ic appears, that what is in that 
country cltcen^cd a temple, muft have been the tomb 
of Ibmc great man or Ibvereign prince. A gallery, 
which continues beyond this pretended temple, ftems 
to fncw tliat farther on there arc other flruclures of 
the lamc nature. 

[As to the new city of Alexandria, it may be juftly 
faid to be a jx^or orj-.han, who had no other inheri- 
tance but the venerable name of its father. The pro- 
ci:tr't.-r.5 extent of the ar.ticnr ciiv, i.; in the new con- 
tracCsTii to a ihiall neck of land, which divides the 
tv;o pf?r..N. I'hc moil fuperb temples are converted 
into plain noUiucs *, the moll magnificent palaces 
into h.>urc3 of bad llruclurc ; and opulent and numer- 
ous pcoj-^rj !":ave given way to a lew foreign traders, 
ar.d lo a nvwiliirudc of v/rcrchcs, who are the flaves 
of t;y:il' o.i whom they dcp-;rnd.] Yet notwithftand- 
uri ti-.L- !::v.Mr.:v U of the buildi:y.^s in f;encral, in feve- 
r.'.l hou;^? bui't rc)up.d courrs en porticos, they have 

»>iaccd a L:rc;;r varivrv cf c»:]ii:v*ns moll of granite, 
» * , * • ."^ * 

time v.crc cr/JL- th'j ornaniL'nrs ot ihe ancient city. 

Oil the .»j.':'. of Ovfiobcr, v.c lit our from Alexan- 

dr:.', i.i orv^r to i)roccfJ t-) RolVrto. h\ this journey 

I had th':r Ii»- )V:r C) acc'^mr:\P" tiic Kiijliili conful. 

Vs'c c.i::.'/ V) ivrrv over :::.• c;;;::*.: of .• hike, that is 

n;T'po.-v. i(^ i^ve '^i\ri ?!;- 1 •%/. r ;-v i i»: t!ic Canopic 

trarvii ot •! * Nil... On iiv/ *.::'.::: i.j.r h a kane, 
• i"* ■ ' ■ ' ■ i" 1 •" I* 

trr:n \':: */:•.::::■.• t ;■ :.:v ..:».' , v.:;.-: ;".:r*.ly go to 
r;:u.t lu*;-. a\\ ti.e cc, :;•::'■; i, a 'y ^-c-iart, where 
:*-.c l.:ru: cr.i.rijcs 1., (mIl.", i \xZ i: v.oi :A cj aimcult to 
{" i:;c v.- ay, were i: iv^c fir 1 1 }'":!:;;'/3 erected acrois 
ihe [lain, at about :i:e u:i;.:::e;; 'ji' hulf a mile from 

1 caeh 

TRAVELS through EGYPT. 14^ 

each other. At one of thefe pillars an arch i.* 
turned, and an earthen vafc placed under it, which, 
by ibmc charity, is kept full of Nile water for the 
benefit of travellers. 

The conful was met by his vicc-conful of Rofetto, 
and by many of the French, about a league from 
that town. On our coming to fomc landy hills, I 
was furprifcd at feeing a magnificent tenr, where a 
handfome collation was prepared. After this repaft, 
we all mounted on fine horfes fent by the governor of 
the city, and each was attended by a groom on footj 
in which manner we continued our journey to Ro* 
fetto. The next morning the governor fent a pre- 
fcnt of flieep and fowls to the conful, which was 
probably returned by a prcfcnt of much greater 

Rofetto, called by the Egyptians Rp.fchid, is on 
the weft fide of the branch of the Kiie, anticntly 
called Bolbitinum, and is efteemed one of the molt 
pleafant places in Egypt. It is near two miles in 
length, and confids of two or three I'ji^g Itrccts. 
The hills about tl»is town f:tm as ii' tiicy n:\:] bi-cn 
the antienc barriers of the fca. liic fini: c.:'j:i:ry nt 
Delta on th^ orh^r fide of the Nili-, and f.vo h.vraiui- 
ful ill-indi a litde below the town, a'.ibrJ a tlviiLhti'ii! 
proi'pect. To the north, the country is i:iip.-ovcd 
with piealant gardens of citrons, or.inpcs, lemons, 
and almoil all forts of fruit, varicfrarc^l v/ith ci'ovcs 
of paim-trecs, fmail lakes, and fields of ri'.c. 'i'hc 
infiabitants have a great manufadlory or' ii:iped and 
other coarfe linens •, but the chief buiincis of rlic: 
place is the carria^^- of goods bctv.cen this tov/n and 
Cairo: all European incp.liandii: bcin::^ i:r.'.;u;.-h: ;Vo:ri 
Alexandria hith'-r by fca, anJ fc:n iv.rr. ii:.;yji' iji 
other boats to Cairo •, as thole bro'jg!>: ci';\vn thi- Ni];r 
from Cairo are h'-'re put inro larirc i.o.i:. t.) le 'Xi\: to 
Alexandria. For this pur^^^^fj riie J* ».;■ ;• f.'.rr. h-vr 
their vice-cjnfid; :::)d Meters Vx-c :o rr....I.i r :" 
bulinels, and let:ers are reiii'.laily bro-:* 'if iVu'-, Ai- :<• 



andria, to be fcnt by the boats to Cairo ; however, 
letters of greater codequcnce, that require difpatch, 
are fent by foot meflengers acrofs the defarts. 

At Rofetto I faw two naked faints, who arc com- 
monly ideots, and are treated with great veneration 
in Egypt ; one a lufty elderly man, and the other a 
youth about 18 years of age : idcots are greatly re- 
vered by the Mahometans, being fuppofed, abfurdly 
enough, to be adbuated by a divine fpirit. I obferved 
the people kifs the hands of the latter, as he went 
along the ftreets; and was told, that on Fridays, 
when the women go to the burial- places, thefe naked 
ideots frequently fit at the entrance of them, when 
they not only kifs their hands, but (hew them the 
fame refpeft that was paid to a certain heathen idol, 
and expedt to receive the fame advantage from it. 
One of thefe faints I myfelf afterward iliw fitting at 
the door of a mofque in the high-road without the 
gates of Cairo, with a woman on each fide of him ; 
but though the caravan was going to Mecca, and a 
multitude of people were palTing by, they were fo 
accuftomcd to fuch fights, that no notice was taken of 

About two miles north of Rofetto, on the weft 
fide of the river, is the caftle of that town, which I 
went to fee. It is a fquare building, with round 
towers at the corners, built of brick caled with ftone; 
and has port-holes near the bottom : about them I 
obferved feveral pieces of yellow marbic, many of 
which had hieroglyphics on them, and might be 
pieces of fome broken obeliflc. 

While I was at Rofetto, I went to pay a vifit to the 
Greek patriarch of Alexandria, who ufually refides 
at Cairo ; and being introduced by the dragoman or 
interpreter to the conful, I had all the honours done 
me that are ufual at an eaftern vifit. A lighted pipe 
is brought by a fervant -, then a faucer of fweat-meats 
is carried about, and a little in a fmall fpoon given to 
each perfon. After the coffee is ferved, every one is 


TRAVELS through EGYPT. 143 

given a bafon of fherber, by a fervant with a hand- 
kerchief on his arm, for them to wipe after they have 
drank. When it is time to go away, the hands of 
the gueft are fprinklcd with rofe-water, with which 
he rubs his face. Incenfc is then brought, which he 
receives leaning his head forward, and holding out 
his garment on each fide to receive the fmoke. But 
this compHment is only paid where they would (hew 
a particular regard ; the mader making a fign for it, 
when he thinks it time to end the vifit, or the gueft 
offers to go : but it is never done when the vifitor is 
much fuperior, till he makes a motion to retire. 
Every thing is done in thefe vifits with the greateft 
decency, and the mod profound filence ; the flaves 
or fervants (landing at the bottom of the room, with, 
their hands joined before them, watching with the 
utmofl attention every motion of their mafter, who 
commands them by figns. 

I embarked with the conful for Cairo on the 4th of 
November on board a fine galley. Thefe are flat- 
bottomed velTels, with three mafts : as they are nearly 
half covered, they have one large handfome room, 
and a fmaller near the ftern for the women, when 
there are any on board. They have lattice windows 
all round, and fwivel-guns fattened toward the prow. 
They fail well againft the current with a good brifk 
wind ; but in a calm, or when the wind is contrary, 
and not very high, they arc drawn along by the men 
on (hore, with a cord fattened to the matt. When 
they are obliged to lie by, as they commonly do in 
the night, the people amufe themfelves by tcliing 
long Arabian ttorics : and if they are obliged to flop 
by day, the boatmen frequently pafs away the time in 
adling low farces. 

Sailing on the Nile i^ extrcamly, from the 
richntfs and fertility of th;: coup.l: y on \vs br.nks. 
The villages, with palm trf-es pjiiritcd rcun.i rncm, 
appesr like fo many c!clif-rhtt\:l rrovc. , an;: whiin the 
country is ovcrfiowcd, tijcy arc all Lcautiful iiiands. 
4 \\\ 

144 POCOCKE and NOftDEN's 

In December, which is here the middle of fpringy 
Egypt appears in its mdft lovely drefs : many plants 
arc then in full bloflbm, and the country is covered 
with green corn and clover* 

Stopping at a village for want of wind, we vifited 
the governor of the place^ who offered us coffee, and 
at our departure fent after us a prefcnt of 50 eggs. 
On our arrival at Ouarden wc alfo waited on the go- 
vernor, who would have entertained us, and not only 
fent us a lamb and 100 eggs, but cnmeon horfeback 
to the boat to return the vifit ; and the ufual honoure 
being paid him, it was intimated that he would think 
wine an acceptable prefent ; which was accordingly 
fent him after it was dark, to prevent giving umbrage 
to the more confciendovtt mufuilmen. 

I'hc night before n^c finiflitd our voyage was fpent 
in mirth and firing of guns, on our being met by our 
friends. The next morning, having palfed through 
the village of Hele, we Vtrre joined by a great num- 
ber of people that came to meet the conful -, who 
mounting a fine horfe, was preceded by fix janizaries ; 
and a man who went before fprinkling water on the 
ground, to lay the dull. In this manner he entered 
the ciry, followed by his friends and dependants rid- 
ing upon afies ; no Chrillian, except a conful, being 
allowed to ride on a horfe into the city. 

As I chufe to finifli my account of Delta and the 
country about it, before 1 give a defcriprion of Cairo, 
1 Ihall do it in this place, though I did not make a 
voyage on the caftern branch of the Nile till I left 
that city, on my going out of Kgypr. 

Four or five miles from the rnouih of tliis branch 
of the Nile is fituarc^d Damiata, a lan-.c town, but 
iroft of it ill built, it being chiJiv inh.;;>ited by fifh- 
crmen and janizaries. At the north-end it has a very 
fine large tower of hewn Itone, perhaj^^s built by f!<e 
Mamaiukes, after they had recovered Damiata from 
the Chrillians. The country from thciue 10 Gnza is 
chieily inlvabitcd by Arabs, who arc under no regu- 

TRAVELS through EGYPT. 145 

lar government ; and the people of Damiata have 
fuch an avcrlion to the European Chriftians, iJiac one 
of chem cannot go into a part of the town, noc 
ufually frequented by ihofe of his religion^ without 
being infulted. This particular averfion to Europe- 
ans feems to be handed down to them from their fore- 
fathers, and to be occafioned by the holy war, the 
chief fccne of which in Egypt was about Damiata. 
This place was taken by the Chriftians, and afterward 
rellorcd to the Egyptians, as part of the ranfom ot 
Lewis IX. who had been taken prifoner. The trade 
here, confills in the exporting of rice and coffee to 
Turkey, and the importation of foap from the coafts 
of Syria, and of tobacco from Latikea. 

Proceeding from Damiata to Cairo, we paflld by 
the large city of Manfoura, on the ealUfide of the 
Nile, which I conjefture to be Tanis, the Zoan of 
the Scriptures. The canal which runs north of this 
town falls into the lake Mcnzale. The country on 
each fide of this branch of the Nile is even more 
beautiful thin on the banks of the other already c!c- 
fcribed ; it beiri:^ thicker let with villages furroundcrd 
by pleafaat gfjves of palm- trees. V/c llopjjcd at 
the port of Cjjcat MuhalK;, und rod*,! on hired afles 
about four miles to the citv, which is la-gr, and licu- 
ated bciv.ccn tv/o canals : it is tolrrai'iy well built, 
and is the capira! of tiie province of Gar,icii. There 
are about 500 Copti Chriilians there, wb'j have a 
little mean church. I was rcco:n[r;en.:c;l re a 
chanr here, who was, I tihink, a niii'T of rhe pans 
toward Moroj en 1 biit^ rhouj'h h.- i".;:j ir.v.dc four 
pilgrimages to Mt-cca, \v:vs a vnv iirncli and woriliy 
Mulfulni^n. ller^^e mc a :ian, s«-h(i iixkc the 
Lingua tnuicay (a corr-'ii li.-.lliii ulcwi m \\\: (ail) to 
atterid me v\'.er:. ver I j.ivLfcv; •, iirul :i vc.y ;^' id jpart- 
n.ent in a i-.a-'-L- i\\\-. h'Aou?^.:. 10 l:iin. I he next 
niosnin:.r h'.' icin u-;, a '»-. rv liari.ii. ;ni?- Lollaticn, v. hen 
I tiril lalu .! 1!;-^ kLU-:;r of J- ^1/^ i-i !.^ jM^atrlt { er- 
hction, arid i\u\\n •. iv very ^Miv.;'./. Ac niL-hr \vc 

Vol, \L L \^ \^. 


were ferved with a very plentiful fuppcr ; but though 
he came to us betore we had done, he would not cat: 
for this IS the cuftom in the eaft, if they come while 
perfons arc at table, which thty feldom do, except 
they attend on thofe of very fuperior rank. 

The next day I proceeded to the village of BaaK 
bait, four or five miles to the north-eaft. It i^ fitu- 
ated about a furlong to the eafl: of the canal Thaba- 
nea, on one of thofe artificial eminences on which 
Bufiris was probably, a city famous for its, 
temple dedicated to Ifis; there being great remains 
of a temple there, the moft coftly in its materials of 
any in Kgypt, At about loo feet diftance it is fur- 
rounJcd by a mound, raifed to keep out the Nile. 
The ourfide of this ftrufture was of grey granite, 
and the infidc p.nd columns of red ; the capitals being 
the head of Ifis. There a;^pears to have been four 
rows of 12 columns each in the temple; but what 
commanded my auention Itill more, was the exqui- 
litc be.uiry of the fculpture : for though the figures 
are only a'^out four feet high, there is fomething fo 
ihv.% ami io divine, in the mien of the deities and 
pricils, thiiL tar exceeds any thing I ever faw in that 
v/ay. The natives iire conftanrly deftroying chefe fine 
fraf;!r.cnis of Kgyptian antiquities, and I liiwfomeof 
the pillars cut iiuo mill-llones. 

From this place we rttiirned to the boar, and pro- 
ceeding toward Cairo, pafied by Semenud and Abou- 
fif, two considerable towns. Having entered the 
Nile, where it runs in one ftream, we find, alx)ut a 
Icairue to t!ie eaihvard, t'le remains of the amient 
city of Ilcliopoli.s vvhid) is the Or of tnL- SciiT^rurC'. 
This was a city of ctvcm antiuui.v, f.'r.ious rbr the 
\vi>rfnip ofihc lun. A large n:ound t.!i-.'o:np-:;ires the 
V. 'r/ic; a-.i ! ;:t zhc c.-UMnce on the Vv'jic end -ire the 
ri.iiis of a I'phvnx, of a briiTnr lliinin^; vellow mirbie. 
The prieilsof llcliopolis were the molt famous ot ail 
K •vpc fr.r the Hudy of p'lilofophy -Mid allrcnomy, 
a:ju were t!".c fi:*!! who c-Wipuu-d timu bv vcars c-i' 

1 • 


TRAVELS through EGYPT- 147 

365 days. Herodotus came here to be inftruftcd ia 
all the learning of the Egyptians ^ and Strabo, when 
he came to tins city, was Ihcwn the apartments of 
Plato and EuJoxus. 

A little to the fouth of the above inclofure is the 
village of Matarca. The Chrillians of the country 
have a tradition, that the holy family lay concealed 
here for fome time when they came into Egypt ; and 
add, tliat a tree opened and became hollow, to re- 
ceive and Ihelter them from fome bad people. The 
Coptis even pretend to Ihew the very tree, whicli is 
hollow, and of the fort called Pharaoh's Tig, and 
take away pieces of it as relics-, but the Romans Ihy 
that the tree fell down, and was carried away by the 
monks of the convent belonging to Jernfalem. 

The city of Grand Cairo confiils atprefen: of three 
towns or cities, a mile dilhnc from each other ; that 
is. Old Cairo, Cairo properly fo called, and the pvort 
named Bulac. In Old Cairo are what are commonly 
termed Jofeph's granaries. Thcfe are only fquarc 
courts cncompafleJ by walls about i j feet l'.ig:i, bui!c 
chiefly with brick, and llrcni^tlicned with femicireulir 
buctrefles. I'hey are filled with corn, Iiavincc onlv 
fjom left to enter at i!iC door. The grain is covered 
over vv'iih mat'ing, and t'le door iLiic only wirh 
wooden locks ; but the infpccloi's of :he giVinarics 
fix thtir fcal upon a handful of ci::y, v/hic!i iKey put 
on the locks, and ufe as wax. [Mere is JL-nofiteJ x.]:it 
corn t!ut is paid a^ a tax to tlio grind ilgnior.] Ir is 
brought from Upper Egypt, a;id diluli/viLcd out to 
the loldiers as part of ilie.r pay. [This granjr-y, 
notwithftanding its nam/, is not very antique : its 
walls are partly of the time of the SaiMcen^.J 

At the north-end of Ol 1 Cairo is a irmrrniilcint 
plain building, for raffing the w.Urr of the ■\'ll: to 
ilic aqueduct. Tr.ii i^nuti^re is laid to haw; bi.\.a 
erected bv Cam:\:j:i, the Immediate T)redeeeiy.j.- of 
the lail km:: of the Mam. dukes : it is in h-. x.'j;--.:» ; 
ta^h fide 1j b.'twien 'So ..r.A 00 feet lonr u^J uLout 


as many in height. The water comes into a rcfervoir 
below, and is drawn up by five oxen, which turn fo 
many Perfian wheels, that empty the water into the 

Oppofitc to this watcr-houfe is the canal that con- 
veys the water to Cairo, which feems to be that made 
by Trajan. Near the mouth of it, they annually 
perform the ceremony of opening the canal, with 
great rejoicings, by breaking down a mound when 
the Nile has arifen to a certain height. 

Old Cairo is at prefent reduced to a very fmall 
compafs, it not being above two miles round : it is 
the pert for the boats that come from Upper Egypt; 
and fome of the beys have houfes there, to which they 
retire at the rifing of the Nile. The Coptis have 
twelve churches and a convent, moftly in one quarter 
of the town ; and pretend that the holy family was 
in a cave in the church dedicated to St. Sergius. The 
Roman catholics have an hofpital belonging to the 
fathers of the Holy Land -, and the Jews have a fy- 
hagogue, faid to have been built about 1600 years 
ago, in the manner it now i^, which nearly refembles 
our churches. There arc here alfo about half a dozen 
mofques, with their minarets ; among which, that 
named Amrah, is faid to have been a church: but 
what is mod remarkable, is its having near 400 pil- 
lars, which, with tlieir capitals, feem to have been 
coUefted from fcveral antient buildings. 

[At half a league to the fourh ot old Cairo is the 
great mofque of Atter-Eunaby, fuuatcd on a point of 
land projecting into the Nile. For this molquc the 
Mahometans have a great veneration, from the tradi- 
tion that Omar their firft califf, going to the place 
where it was afterwards founded to his honour, left 
the print of Ids foot upon a piece of marble. This 
edifice has nothing: extraordinary, except a gallery of 
antique columns, fc» ill ranged, that frequently the 
capital?; turned toply-turvy ferve as pedcdals, and 
the pedeftak are employed to ferve as capitals.] 


TRAVELS through EGYPT. 149 

From old Cairo I made a (hort excurfion to tiic 
plea(ant ifle of Raoudah, or Koida, which is oppofite 
to it. The channel of the Niie between, is dry when 
(lie water is low. This ifland is near a mile long ; 
toward the norch-end is the village of Roida, and at 
chefouth-end is the iViikia.3, or houfe in which is the 
famous pillar for mcafuring the Nile. This is fixed 
in a deep bafon *, the bottom of which is on a level 
with the bed of the river, the water pafling through 
it. The pillar, which is placed under a dome, and 
crowned wirh a Corinthian capital, is diviilca into 
meafures for obferving the rife of the waters ; and 
from the court that leads to the houTe, is a defceiit 
to the Nile by fteps, on which the common pco- le 
believe that Moles was found, after he had been ex- 
pofed on the banks of the river. 

Half a mile to the north of old Cairo is CafTaro- 
linc, where there arc gardens of citrons, oranges, le- 
mons and calTia ; but it is moil remarkable for a con- 
vent of Dervifes, who afiedting an extraordinary lanc- 
tity, may be faid to live in their mofque, which is a 
large fquare room, covered v.lth a very fine dume. 

Bulac is fituited about a mile lartlier 10 ti.c north, 
and is near two miles roun.l. This being the port ibr 
all boats that tome up the river from all the pores (;f 
Delta, it has a cutloni-hotjle, vvi'.h inany v/arch -^1* i, 
and kanes for travellers ^ but it is le.Tj^iikajle for r.o- 
thing but its fine bagiiio. 

The city of New Cairo, wiiich is f.-.tieJ about a 
mile from the river, extends cailwarii near two mile-, 
to a mountain, and is about \C'\'i\ n-;ilch roun.i : bj: 
it is faid to have been hr^tir vviivii ii uv.s tncr cenn^ 
of trade from the Eaft InJ.ics. It v/:i> t!:.':i walle.i 
round; but only part of tiie v.ull, v. ;r!i ^u: c.illl.. , 
and fomc magnificent gates, ij^iAi by t.iC M.i'P.:i:u!.L.., 
are now ftantling. The canal, cut rroni the Nil-:, 
nins through the city •, but ic is only to ce ken 
the back or the houfcs built on its banl^s •, anJ thourh 
there are fevcral bridges over it, yet houl^^ V:v'V^^\ 


bulk on each fide of them, the view of the water is 
even there intercepted : but when it is dry, it appears 
like a ftreet, the people paflTing along it. However, 
from the time when it begins to dry, the fmell of the 
mud, and ftagnated water, becomes very offenfivc. 

[One of the moft angular cuftoms obfervcd at 
Cairo, is the ceremonies obferved at opening this 
cannl. When the Nile begins to fwdl, they calt up a 
bank of earth acrofs the end of the ftreet near the 
river ; and in the month of Auguft, when the water 
is arllen to a proper height, the bafla, attended by 
his guards, proceeds on horfcback along the canal, 
and coming to the end of it ftrikes the bank, takes 
horlc, and ndinir back, leaves fcvcral perfons to break 
it clown. Oil his return from the bank, he is fol- 
lowed bv arcut crouds finsinff and ftrikinq; each other 
wich cudgels : the water at length Rows in, accom- 
panied by a number of men and boys fwimming, 
v.Tiile otlicrs throw one another into ir, and fliew a 
thouland idle pranks. Fire-v;orks are difchargcd, 
p.nd all the time the canal is filling, it is covered with 
beats filled wich young men finding and playing upon 
iiulruments, to flicw their joy fgr the fertility p ro- 
duced by the Nile.] 

if wc form an iJea of Icveral fquares about the 
city, from a quarter to three quarters of a mile round, 
that receive and retain t!^e water of the Nile, con- 
veyed to them by the canal, as the river riles, we 
fnall have a jiretty juft notion of the feveral lakes, 
which, during the greatcll part of the year, arc in 
the city : when nothing can be imagined more beau- 
tiful. They are furrounded by the bed houfes; 
and in tlie fimimer, when the Nile is high, arc 
covered with the fine boats anvi barges of all the per- 
fons of didinCnon, whofpend the evenings with their 
MJics on tiic water. Concerts of mufic, I am told, 
are never v^anting, and fometimes fire-works arc 
addeJ. All the houfes round are in a manner illu- 
;i:ii}ated, and the v, inJov/s filled with ipedators. This 


TRAVELS through EGYPT. 151 

pkafing fcene is however much altered when the wa- 
ters are gone off, and nothing appears but mud. Yet 
this is foon fucceeded by the agreeable view of green 
corn, and afterward ot harvcll, in the midft of a 
great city, on the very Ipots where a few months be- 
fore the boats were failing. 

The ftreets, like thole of all the TurkiQi cities, 
are very narrow. The widell extends the wi.oie 
length of the place ; but would only be confidered 
in Europe as a lane : and the others are fo narrow, 
that the inhabitants frequently fpread a flight lluiF 
acrofs the tops of their houfes, from one ficje to tlie 
other, to defend them from the iun. Mod of the 
ftreets, or at leaft each end of every diftricl, is fliuc 
up at night with gates, and guarded by two or three 
janizaries, fo that no idle pcopit:: can lurk about rhrm 
without being difcovercd. Several ftrtets confift only 
of fhops, without any houl'cs, and arc locked up at 
night when the traders return home -, and fliops of 
the fame trade are generally togctlv.^r. 

The Turkifli houies in l'/^t-t.-, cfpcciallv in Cairo, 
make a dlf;iQ:reeable zv:]'?.\:\vy^c ; they are comn"ior.iv 
built round a courr, where rliL^y rre icen t ) i\\c I-o-l 
advanrJ2:c: nochino; bv.c vSj is cc:;;";dc:rcd in ti:c* iVJ.j 
next ihe ilrcet: as cvcrv crn.rr. r.r is rc!crvc;l ibr the 
falojn within. Thus bjinc; hi:":-: htlov/ of llonc, a:i-i 
above with a for-t of ciLtit-v-'or':, i'j r/jtirn^rs hlicd ud 
u"iih unburnt brick, ana t^ .v r/; r.o v.ind)v.s to.v.u-d 
the llrect ; th'-v arj vltv d :.;.:::': vMjle to tholj v.i.o 
h:ive oblcrv. d t c rL":i :;ri:v :v.A beau:v of }:Aroi)i*a:i 
cr.'xs. I wcT.: :o l-jc lv!Vj ly: {\\: *:t.z ::ou;l-s n '^, 
jnd -oj^nd u\:\z r;";e i/icr: h.-vj ;; :o!oon i'or common 

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they want to take in or deliver out, without their fee* 
inc; one another. 

At the houfe of Ofaian bey, there is a fine (aloon, 
with a lobby before it: ihe izv?.nd room is an oblong 
jqnare, with an octagon in.irble pillar in the middle; 
this room is inlaid on two fides, about eight feet high, 
with p.'.nneh of grey marble, iMcn bordered with 
mofaic work ; but the end at which one enters, and 
the fide where are the windows, are not finiflied in 
this riianner: the fopha extends ail round the room, 
turnilhcd with the richell velvet culhions, and the 
Hoor is covered with fine carptts. 

I alfo vifited a much more ar.ticnt edifice, (aid to 
have been built bv fultan Nafir Iben Calahoun, or 
Calaun, the fevcnth king of Kgypt, of the race of 
the Mamaluke*:, who lived about the year 1279 j 
which is alfo built round a fmall court. The entrance 
to the grand apartment is by a tiiie old door, fome- 
what in the Gothic taflc. It has a magnificent faloon 
in the figure of a Greek crofs, with a cupola in the 
middle, and is wainfcotted ten feet high in a very 
collly manner: round at top, about two feet deep, 
ere Arabic infcriptions •, tlien for two feet more are 
works of mother of pearl and fine marbles, in the 
^\z^\:c of fmall arches. Below this the wall is covered 
with panni'ls, lome of the fined mnrbles, and others 
of motlier of pearl ; all the pannels are furrounded 
with a border of mofaic work in mother of pear^ 
zn'\ W.ut final t, or a fcrt of iihis that is not tranf- 

I:\ and a:;ou: the city are fevcral magnificent 
n'c)fniies ; b^c thofe of kilinn Hafiam, near the foot 
f>f liie ciltU-ir.ll, cxcee^ls them all in the folidity 
( f rhi* l-ii-.ilc-jnt;, ar.ii in its grandeur and magnin- 
( l: •:;, v.h'cii (iri^e the l^ehoUtr in a furprifing man^ 
1U.I-. It i- vt! y lofty, and of an oblong fquare figure, 
<c:'Owncd with a cornice all roi.nd, that projcds a 
orcat way, and is adorned afier ilie Tu.kifh manner, 
wiih a kinii of grotckjue Crtrv.:ig. 1 he entrance is 


TRAVELS through EGYPT. 153 


inlaid with feveral kinds of marble, carved as at the 
top. The afcent was by feveral fteps ; but thefe are 
broken down, and the door walled up : becaufe ii| 
public infurredions the rebels have often taken fhelter 

To the north-eaft of the town is a fine mofque,. 
called Cubbe-el-Azab ; which is about 60 feet fquare, 
with a beautiful dome over it, raifed on a bafe of 16 
fides, in each of which is a window. It is wainfcotted 
round with all the nioft beautiful marbles, among 
which are feveral fine flabs of red and green por- 
phyry : the borders round the pannels* are carved and 
gilt -, above is a fort of frize, covered with fentences 
cue in large gilt characters, called the Couphe, in 
which they here antiently writ the Arabic language. 
The walls above have Arabic infcriptions in letters 
of gold, and the whole cupola is painted and gilt in 
the fined manner. All over the mofque are hung 
glafs lamps and oflriches eggs. Adjoining to this 
edifice are feveral apartments built for the priefts, and 
fome grand ones for the perfons of rank, who fomc- 
times reficie here. 

The caftle ot Cairo is fituated on a rocky hill, and 
is faid to have been built by Saladin. It is walled 
round, and is of very difficult arccfs ; but it is fo 
commanded by a hill to the; cart, as to be of n^^) 
firength fince the invention of cannon. At the weft: 
end are the remains of very grand apartments, fome 
of them covered with domes, and adorned with pic- 
tures of mofaic work : but this pare of the buiidiniy is 
now only ufed for weaving, embroidering, and pre- 
paring the hangings and coverings they annually fend 
to Mecca. I faw them about this work ; and though 
they think it a profanation for a Chriftian fo n)uch as 
to touch thole rich damalks, I have ventured to ap- 
proach them. Above this is a higher ground, ne::r 
a grand faloon, called Jofeph's Hall, from which 
there is a moft delightful profpeft of the city, tlic 
pyramids, and all the adjacent country, k was \^xo- 


bably a terrace to this faloon, which is now open on 
every fide, except to the fouth, and is adorned with 
very large and beautiful pillars of red granite, fome 
of which have capitals of the Corinthian order, others 
are very plain ; fome are only marked out in lines 
like leaves, and many of them are only plain ftones, 
that have but litcle reiemblance to capitals. In the weft 
part of the caftle is the jail, which the common peo- 
ple will have to be the prifon in which Jofeph was 
confined. About the middle of the caftle is a large 
court, on the fouth-fide of v;hich are the baffa's 
apartments, and the great divan, which I had the 
picafure of feeing : the beys adcmble three times a 
v/tck under tb.ekaia, or prime minifter of the baflki 
antl the latter, whenever he pleafes, fits in a room be- 
hiri J, that has a communication by fome lattice win- 
ciov/s. A Itranger may enter with the conful's Drago- 
man, or interpreter ; and being afterward condu£ted 
to tiie bailVs coSec-rojm, is civilly entertained by 
his ptroplc v/lth fwcet-meats and colfee. At a fmall 
ciillanre is the mint, where they coin their gold, 
iinA i'n:ill pieces of iron v/ailied over with lilver. 
'I'licie .ire called Mcdines, and are of the value of 
t;»roc A\ In thj caftle is alfo a well, that has 
bt^wii rnucii uj mired on account of its great depth ; 
it Lcin::; cut thpjUL^h the fide of the rock, and the 
w.iu.:* bL'i'K; brou-rfit up by fevcral Perfian wheels, 
tiirr.e i by o;c'jn, an.l placed one over another. This 
is calk a Joiiinirs VVfil, not from the patriarch Jo- 
fi'olu Wjit i'.'j 11 a ::■ r:::Kl vizitr or that name, who had 
the C-irc oi' liic v.ork under fukan Mahomet, about 
7.:.o Years ai^(>. In ihorc, this curtl,*, which is about 
•d mil'-' in v-ircumi'crciiCL*, refeaiblcs a liitle town •> 
but tlic: pjxatcit part of it is in a very ruinous con- 

To the foii^h of the cafrie is n iVt of ant'ent fub- 
urbs Called CaraTaj a: t.j cnti\h..\: of which arc 
lOiVie ni.i/Tii.'i'eiit lo.iib^, covered \\k\\ domes, faid 
to be lIu ii-or/jp-icnrs oi ijme ki.ii js of lijiypt : the 


TRAVELS through EGYPT. 155 

people fay they are the califfs, the relations of Ma- 
homet, who conquered this country ; and fo great a 
veneration have they for them, that they oblige the 
Chriftians 'and Jews who pafs this way, to defcend 
from their affes out of refpedt to them. 

The principal part of the inhabitants feem to be 
dcfcended from the Mamaluke race. There are alfo 
fDme Greeks, many Jews, and a few Armenians. Of 
the Europeans, there are fettled here only the Englifh, 
French, and lome Italians from Leghorn and Venice. 
When any of the Englifli happen to die in any pare 
of the Levant, where there is no Englilh chaplain, 
they arc interred with the Greeks, and according to 
the ceremonies of their church. 

The European merchants, confidering how much 
riicy are confined, live agreeably enough among them- 
felves ; they are generally fociable with thofe of their 
own nation, and in fo plentiful a country poflefs what- 
ever is capable of making life pafs pleafantly. They 
ipend the morning in bulinefs, and often pals the re- 
mainder of the day in the fields and gardens to the 
north of Cairo; there being little danger wiihin a 
mile of the city. Sometimes the whole day is fpent 
in diverfions ; and as great p.irt of their affairs is 
cranfacled by the Jews, they have a relaxation from 
bufinefs both on ihe Jcwifh and the Chriftian iabbath. 
When the Nile has overflowed its banks, and little 
bufinefs is to be done, they retire to tlieir houfes at 
Old Cairo and Gize, where they pafs thtir time as 
aorecablv as the circiiinilances of the place will ad- 

The trade of Cairo confills in the importation of 
broad cloths, tin and lead, and tlie expo:. ;i? ion of cof- 
fee, fena, flax, and levcral drugs n.ofiiy broiiohr 
from Perfia. The nanves c?iro import raw liik from 
Afia, which they chiefiy m^inufaclDre into facnns 
ar.d filk^, in imitation of thole cf InJia; and in 
fome places they make a coarie kiiid 01 i.nen. bu- 
gar, of the growth of thii country, is alfo mad', h;iv-. 


but it is neither cheap nor fine : there is, however, a 
very nne fore made for the ufe of the grand figniors 
but it is very dear, and not commonly to be met 
wich for i'ale. Furniture for horfes, and lattices for 
^vindows, of brafs, iron, and turned wood, are made 
here in great perfeftiun. In the province of Delta 
and about Manoufieh, fine matting is made of dyed 
rufhcs ; and from thence fent not only all over the 
Turkifh empire, but to moft parts of Europe. 

Amidll the curioflties obfervable at Cairo, chat of 
the hatching or chickens is none of the leaft. This 
lad is performed by heating ovens of fo temperate a 
heat as to imitate the natural warmth of the hen, and 
putting about 8000 eggs in an oven, the chickens 
are produced in 22 days. This employment is con- 
tinued four months, during which fome hundred 
thoufand chickens are hatched in this manner and 
fold. If it happens to thunder, great numbers of 
the chickens mifcarry : befide, the chickens thus 
hatched often want a claw, a rump, or are fome other 
way imperfeft. I have been informed that only the 
people of one village are mailers of the art, and that 
at the proper time of the year they fpread themfelves 
all over Kgypt *. 

There arc few arts in any perfeftion higher up the 
Nile, or indeed in any other parts of Egypt : this, 
with the convenience of water carriage, makes Cairo 
a place of great trade ; and as little credit is given by 
the Turks, there is generally a vdft conflux of people 
at this city. 

The monuments near Cairo mofl: worthy of the 
curiofity of a traveller are the pyramids -f , which have 

* The great duke of Florence fent for perfons employed in thus 
^ro'^uc'in^, chickens, who actually pertbrxned the fame art with fuc- 
cr-^ i,i his dominions : the late celebrated M. Roau'mur, after many 
c.xpt'ri:ncnt>, found it practicable in France, and has (hewn the 
manner of doing it in a woik on that fubjedl. 

t I his account of the pyramids is chiefly taken from the obler- 
vrticp of tiic ingenious Mr. Norden ; with which we have inter- 
ir. ':-: : .hJ. of :hc IcjincJ Dr. Pococke. 


TRAVELS through EGYPT. 157 

been formerly ranked among the fevcn wonders of 
the world, and ftill demand our admirarion. It is 
remarkable that thefe kind of monuments are no 
where to be found but in Egypt. Indeed there is 
one at Rome, which ferves for a tomb to C. Ceftus ; 
but it is no more than a mere imitation^ and is fur- 
paiTed in fize by the lead of thole in Egypt. Theie 
ate fituated upon the rock^ at the foot of the high 
mountains that accompany the Nile in its courfe, and 
feparate Egypt and Lybia. They have been all 
railed as fepuichres ; but their architecture, as well 
on the infide as without, is extremely different, with 
refpc& to diftribution, materials, :;nd grandeur. 
Some are open, others ruined, and moil of them are 
cloied; but there are none that have not been 
damaged. The prodigious quantity of materials ufed 
in conftruAing them, renders it impoflible that they 
fiiould be ail built at the fame time ; and thofe that 
have been the laft ereftcd, greatly furpafs the firft in 
grandeur and magniBcence. l^hey are the works of 
the remoteft antiquity, and even more early than the 
times of the molt ancient hillorians whole writings 
have been tranfmitted to us : the very cpocha of their 
beginning was loft at the time v-hen the iirlt Greek 
philofophcrs travelled into 1' gvpt. It is not impro- 
bable that the invention of })yramids was owing to 
the ignorance of the people, in having no oihei 
method of covering a great circumforcnce, before the 
art of arching and employing columns to fupport a 
roof were invented. It is indceJ a mortifying con- 
fideration, that the moll durable v/orks in architedlr.rc 
have been owing to ignorance : thus the famoi.s 
aquedudls of the ancients, the remains of which :\ix 
the wonder of the prelent limes were owing to their 
not knowing that water would rife up nearly to the 
fame height as i!iat from wliic'i it falls. 

The common people of E^'vpt have a trauition, 
that there were ancicntiv priants in tli.ic country, who 
raifed, without muc!i dirficulvy, the pyiAmivli^ tU-t 


vafl: palaces and the temples, whole remains are at 
prefent the objefts of our admiration. But this ridi* 
culous opinion is confuted by obferving, that had 
this been the cafe, the entrances of the caves, from 
whence they have drawn ftones for thefe purpofes, 
would have been larger than they are : that the gates 
of the buildings, which ftill fubfiit, would have had 
more height and breadth ; that the pafTages of the 
pyramids, at prefent fo narrow that fcarcely a man of 
our times can drag himi'elf along lying on his belly, 
would have been by no means proper for men of fuch 
a flature ; and that the cofEn in the largefl: and lad 
pyramid is an inconteftable proof of the falfity of all 
fuch extravagant ideas, (ince it determines the (ize of 
the prince's body for whom the pyramid was built ; 
and the paffagcs (hew, that the workmen were not of 
a larger (ize than the prince, fmce the entrance and 
the egrefs fcarcely give fufficient room for men of the 
common ftature. 

Hie principal pyramids are at the fouth-eaft of 
Gize, a villao-e three hours vovaee up the Nile from 
Cairo, and fituatcd on the Weltcrn Ihore. As it is 
believed that the city of Memphis was near this place, 
they are commonly called the pyramids of Mem- 
phis *. On your arrival there you find four of the 
pyramids that dcferve the greateft attention of the 
curious ; for though there are levcn or eight others in 
the neighbourhood, they are not to be compared with 

• It iray be thought rcry cxtraorJir.ary that the fituation of 
Memphis, which v^as \o conliJw^rable a cicy, and lor fo long a time 
the capic:.'I ci Kgypr, fhouIJ not now be knnwn : but as many cf 
the iri;i!c:ials micht be cnnirJ to Alc.\:'.:iJri i. Cniro, .Tnd other 
places afterward built near it, tJv.* ciry \\:v. in all rDh.ibflity alinoA 
icwiied ; end the Nile ovcjfi'jwinjj the ruins, it may caiily be con- 
cji;cJ that its rcnii^.ins have been lor.[; cuvcrcd over, as if no fuch 
place had ever been. Tin.' continual accretions of mud thus broug'ii 
by thf Nilf piuU evidcnily, in a courfe of time, have altered ani 
raifed the (uifa-.c of iIil* c<iar.try fo fkr as overllowod j and this is 
nne re ioii why Icvv oC the cniunins rcniaiiring thtjc, a:c 10 be feea 

^i.k' :o liici: bdlcd. 


TRAVELS through EGYPT. 159 

the former, cfpccially as they have been almoft en- 
tirely ruined. The four principal are nearly upon 
the fame diagonal line, and about 400 paces diftant 
from each other. Their four faces exactly correfpond 
to the four cardinal points, the north, the fouth, the 
caft, and the weft. The two moft northerly are the 
greateft, and have 500 feet perpendicular height ; 
^d according to Mr. Greaves, who meafured the 
bottom of the firft, it is exaftly 693 Englifli feet 
fquare ; and therefore covers fomeching more than 
eleven acres : the inclined plane is equal to the bale, 
and the angles and bafe form an equilateral triangle. 
The number of fteps has been very differently 
related ; but they are between 207 and 2 1 2. Thefe 
fteps are from two feet and half to four feet high, and 
are broad in proportion to their height. But diough 
the two others are much lefs, they have Ibme particu- 
larities that caufe them to be examined and admired. 
It appears that the rock at the foot of the mountains 
rot being every where level, has been fmoothed by the 
chiflcl. This rocky plain is about 80 feet perpendi- 
cular above the level of the ground that is alwav;; 
overflowed by the Nile, and is a Danifh league in 
circumference. NotwithftandinG; its bcino- a con- 
tinual rock, it is almoit covered witii a Piyinn; fin(i, 
brought thither by the wind from the acljac'jn!: higii 
mountains. In this fand is a great number of {hells 
and petrified oyfters; a tliing the more ilirprizing, as 
this plain is never overCowed by the Nilj, \\hich bc- 
fide has not throuijhout its v.hole courle anv fliell-fifli. 
In this quarter wc aifo find thoic beautiful fiint li:onf>, 
which, on account of the finoiuliuicv of their coloiir'. 
are much more eilcemed than agate, and of wv.icit 
fnuff-boxes and hr.ndles for knives are m.^ic :,i 

A pyramid is the mort folid figure th.u can I2 
given to any building. There is no Vv\:y r-> rjir: ir, 
but by beginnin'2; at the top ; for it rcils U!>on w r-:- 
too lix-m 10 bs attacked in ihac purr, iv^w. wli'i 

O Vr 

7 Ni^-v.:* 


would undertake it would find as much difficulty as 
there was to raife it. 

The moft northern of thefe great pyramids is [he 
only one that is open ; and as we meec with that firft, 
I fliall begin my defcription with it. It is neceflary to 
be very near it, in oraer to form a juft idea of the 
extent of its enormous bulk. The external part is 
chiefly built of great fquare ftones cut from the rock 
which extends along the Nile, where to this day wc 
fee the caves from whence they have been taken. 
The fize of thefe (lones is not equal ; but they have 
all the figure of a prifm, that they may lie perfeftly 
tlofe together. Ic might be imagined that each 
range ihould form an even ftep round the pyramid : 
but the architect has only oblerved the pyramidical 
figure, without troubling himfelf about the regularity 
ot the fleps ; and it appears that this inequality of 
the ftcnesi which difter four, five, and even ten 
inches, is the realbn why fo many travellers, who have 
touritcd the degrees of the pyramids, always differ 
with nfgard to the number. Thele kind of ftcps 
were not dcfigneJ for mounting or delcending ; and 
regularity was fought no farther than was neceflary 
for the general (hape of the pyramid, and for the 
facility of the work. We find that their external 
lays are only compacV.cJ by the w^eight of the ftones, 
without mortar, without lead, and without cramps 
bf any metal : but in the body of the pyramid they 
have been obliged to ufe a mortar mixed of lime, 
tarth, and clay. This plainly appears at the entrance 
of the fecond paflage of the firll pyramid, which has 
been opened by force. At its four corners it iseafily 
perceived, that the lows^r Hones are placed on the 
rock without any other foundation : but beyond 
them, quite ro the iTiiddle of each face, the wind 
has formed a ilopc of fand, which on the -north fide 
rifes fo high, that it afibrds a commodious afcent quite 
to the entrance of the pyramid, which is about 48 
feet hii'li. 



AVfiLS thrtw^ EGYFf. iSt 

I^Mting up to'the enfraitce yw difchorge t piikd 

to frighten away the bais, after "which two Anbs^ 
«tiiM you ate obliged to hAVe for your Etttendants^ 
mut and remove the fand, with Which the paflage' 
ii ilmoft (topped upi Af^cr tbele prtcautions, you^ 
bip yourrdf to your ftiirt, on actount-of theexcefliTtf 
test conrtantly felt in the pyramids-! in (hi* condition' 
m enter the pafTage, evtry on* Of the company^ 
iming A wax candle In his hand i for ^he torches aM! 
not bghted till fOu arc ifl the charfibers, for ietif df 
ooGng TOO much imoke. Betng arrived it the «x-'' 
Bttnity of the g»ilery where the pafTage is forced* yo» 
find an opening bartly a fool and a half in height 
nd two feet in breadth } yet thr6\3gh t^is hoh yrjtf 
tK obliged to pafs. The traveller; in(l:^*I of Cttt^ 
9%, oommonhf liiya WMfctf-dbrfri. atid this twtf 
An(K, that go bcfotr, take on<* of his legs, ind 
tho* drag him through jover the fand and dufti 
On having pafled this ftreigh:, which is luckily 
Dwre than two ells long, you find a large place, 
e you commonly uke fome refrefhrncnts; and 
gives courage for penetrating into"^ the fecond 

, It ia here proper to obfcrve, that all thefe paflagcsj' 
pC the fourth, arc nearly of the fame !izc, that isy 
t firet and a half fquarc, and lined on the fouf 
i-by great ftoncs of white marble, fo poliftied, 
I this, with the acclivity of the way, would render 
D ifflpftffable, wert it not for little holes cut ftt 
g the feet in. It cofts a great deal of trouble (0 
tx forward, and if you make a falle ftcp, you 
Bilidc backward to the place from whence you fet 
J however, by obferving thefe hole's, you proceed 
Imodioufly enough, though alwsys ftoopinj to the 
i of the Iccond pafTage, where is a ^etti^.- plscel 
' (be rigJK hand there ts an opening ir.'.o a kind 
Well, wherein nothing is to be found but bats ; 
i you defccnd not by means of any {tep>, but by a 
?0L. VI, M perpen- 


pcrpcndicultf pipe, as diiinncy-ftrcepers defixad • 

At the extremky of this reftii^place bcgjuis dbe ' 
third gallery, leading to the inferior chanwer* • k 
runs horizontally in a ftraight line. Befiire the chamber 
are fome (tones, with which the way is embarrdfc^ 
but with fome trouble you furmount that difficukya' 
and find that the infide of the chamber is alio co?en4 
with (tones. This chamber has a iharp-raifed vMl^ ' 
and is throughout coated with granite, mcr p e i ic QI y 
polifhed, but at prefent extremely black with ne 
imoke dF the torcnes ufed in viliting it* Whoeva 
would examine the way through which tliev Jmic 
drawn the (tones into this room, mu(t expolc hiaiHf 
to the fame ceremony as is prafti(ed ki pa(fiBg fivn 
the firft gallery to the (econd \ but few are wi^ig 
to take that trouble, as it is known that it does apt 
reach far, and there is nothing to be fecn in it bvta 

Having vifited the lower chamber, you return l» 
the refting place, and afcend upward by faftcniog 
your feet as before, till coming to the end of the 
fourth gallery you meet with a little platform. You 
mud anerward begin to climb again ; out foon finding 
a new opening, where you may (tand upright, yoo 
contemplate a fort of little room,, which is at firft no 
more than a palm's breadth larger than the galleries^ 
but enlarges itfelf afterward on both (ides s and at 
length, by ftoopine for the la(t time, you pafs the 
remainder of the &th gallery, that leads in a hori- 
zontal line to the upper chamber, which, like the 
former, is coated and covered with great (tones .of 
granite. On the left (ide is a coffin of granite, of 
the figure of a parallelopiped, without any other oma« 
ment. It is cxtreamly well hollowed, and on being 
ilruck with a key, founds like a bell. Near this coffin 
you perceive a very deep hole, made fince the build- 
ing of the pyramid was fini(hed. It is probable that 


TRAVELS through EGYPT. 163 

there was a cavity underneath ; for it looks as if the 

{lavement had funk in. In this chamber are alfo two 
ictle paflages, which are choakcd up with ftonea 
thrown in by the curious to know their depth. 

While in this room people commonly difcharge a 
piftol, which makes a noifc rcfembling thunder. You 
then return in the fame manner you came, and with 
the fame difficulty, on account of the ftones and fand 
with which the entrance is embarrafied. 

As foon as you are out of the pyramid you drels,* 
wrap yourfdf up warm, and drink a glafs of fome 
ftrong liquor to prcferve yourfclf from a plcurify, 
occafioned by a fudden change from an extreamly hot 
to a temperate air. At length having regained your 
natural heat, you mount up to the top of the pyra- 
mid, in order to enjoy a delightful profpeft of the 
country around it. The method of afcending is by 
the angle to the north-eafl: ; and when the fteps are 
hieh, or one flep entirely broke away, you arc 
obliged to look for a convenient place, where the fteps 
are entire, or a high ftep is mouldered away fo as to 
make the afcent more eafy. On the top you perceive, 
as well as at the entrance and in the chambers, the 
names of abundance of people who have at different 
times vifited this pyramid, and were willing to tranfmit 
the memory of their having been there, to pofterity. 
Herodotus fuppofes that this pyramid was built by 
Cheops king of Egypt. 

Having well confidered this firft pyramid, you 
take leave of it, and approach the fecond, which on 
your coming near it appears even higher than the 
firft, but this is owin^ to its A:anding on a more 
elevated foundation ; tor in other refpefts they are 
both of tlic fame fize. The only difference is, that 
the fecond is fo well clofed, that you fee not the leaft 
mark which flicws that it has been opened, and that 
its fummit is coated on the four fides with granite fo 
well joined anti polilhed, that the boldeft man would 
not attempt to go up it. 

M 2 Ot\ 


On the eaftern fide you fee the ruins of a temple, 
the floncs or which are of a prodigious fize, tbejr 
bebg Hx tcec broaJ and deep, and moil of them i& 
or i 7 feet long, an J fooae of them 22 ; the whole 
buiiding being 180 feet in frcnr, and 160 in depth. 
'J ben dcibcnjing infcnfibly you arrive at the fphynx, 
irhofx: enormous bulk attracts vour admiration : but 
it is I'carCs.' pofllbie to avoid fetHng fome indignation 
ac choi'c who have ftrangcly di:ifigured its nofe. This 
fphynx \s cut out of the folid rock ; and what has 
been thought by fome to be joinings of the ftones» 
;ye oaiy veins in the rock. Tnis extraordinary imH 
nument is faid tj have been the fcpukhre of Amafis. 
It is tbout 27 feet high. The part of the occk, 
or bcpinring of the breaft, is 55 feet wide, and it is 
about ! 15 tee: from ci.e forenart of the neck to the 
rail. But the fa::. I !:. riicn up in uich a manner, thac 
the top of the buck i^ only ken. 

The tiiird pyr.'.mid is .rot I'o high as the twx) former 
by ICO feet-, but in other lefpccts it rclembles thenx 
It is clcfcci l;!u- irx Iccond* and is without any coating. 
Oi^ t'^e cufL fiJe ct ryraniid was akb a temple,. 
v.'ili.:.'i is more ciit.ngu:fi-ir;b;": in its rtiins than the 
oilier : the ll.)ncs whereof it was compoicd are like- 
wife of a prodigious iizc. 

The fourth, pyramid is an 100 feet lefs than the 
thiro. It is V. idioiit costing:, is clofed, and refemblcs 
tht* ctlieis ; b'.it ha«i no teir.p'c. It has, however, one 
fmoulurity, .ihicii is that its uimmic is terminated by 
a fificle lionv, that fcemo to have Imx'd as 2 
pcdefial. It is belide utuarcd out or the line of the 
otiierr, beino; a little more to the well. 

Thefe four grciu ;)vramids are furroundcd by a num- 
ber that are fmalicr, end .- 'lich have for the molt part 
been opened; and two of them arc in fuch^ruins that 
one cannot even uiiceru the chamber. 

! if you want any othtr fubjecl to faiiify your curi- 
ofity, you need only approach two antique bridges^ 
rtiii^-J on ^ j)iai»i annuaiiy ovcrliowcd by the Nile, ac 


TRAVELS thrbugh EGYPT. i6s 

«bout half a league to the eallward of the firft pyra- 
mH, and the fame diftance from the mountains. 
The firft of thcle bridges ext^rnds north and fou:h, 
and the other eaft and wtrft. Being fuuated in a track 
of country not more cxpofed to the waters than the 
other plains, it is impoflible to conceive thereafonof 
their foundation : but their fabric, and the infcrip- 
tlons we find on them, (hew that they were built by 
the Saracens. That which extends from the north to 
the fouth has lo arches ; it is 241 feet in length, and 
ao feet 4 inches in breadth. I'hey are built with 
large pieces of free ftone, and are railed 22 feet above 
the horizon.) 

Some time after I went to vifit the pyramids of 
Saccara, which are not fo miles diftantfrom thofe of 
Gize. On my arrival at S.^ccara, which is a poor 
mean village at the foot of a hill, having letters of 
lecommenaation, I went to the houfe of the fheik, 
who, according to cuftom, fet his provifions before 
m^, and promifed, after being at the mofque at noon, 
it being then Friday, to accompany me to the pyra- 
micfs that were near, which he accordingly did : and 
that dav and the two following; I made mv obferva- 
tions with the more exaftnefi, as few pcrlbns have 
dcfcribcd any thing particular here except the cata- 
combs. Thefe pyramids extend from north to Ibuth, 
and are fituated at the foot of the mountains in a 
plain, that fecms as if nature had contrived it for thnt 
purpofe ; it not only being of great extent, but fo 
high, that it is never overfiowed by the Nile ; and it 
appears that the ancient city of Memphis extended 
almoft to this place. 

One of thefe pyram/id-; rifing above the reft, is 
called Il'Henein'Etkeberc^Kl'BGrieh^ or 77v Great Py- 
ramid to Iti^e North. As there are heaps of ftones 
around it that have fallen off, and I had no inftru- 
ments to take the les^cl, \ wvs obliged z6 meafure the 
pyramid at a diftance by beginning op/polire to the 
angles, and in this manner found th- north liJ< to be 

M 3 T\o 


710 feet, and the eaft fide 690. The perpendicular 
height is 345 feet, and on the top the north fide is 
20 feet, and the eaft fide only 1 5. There are t ^6 
fteps, each from 2 to ^ feet high. This pyramid b 
built of the fame kind of free-ftone as the others % 
but was cafed with a fine hard ftone, which in ievend 
pares is ftill remaining, though a great deal i$ fallea 
down. On the north fide, about one third of the 
way up, is an entrance 3 feet 5 inches wide, and 4 
feet 2 inches deep. The ftones within are of the 
height and breadth of the entrance, and about 5 feet 
long. We entered this paflage, which is fteep, and 
has holes cut as refts for the feet -, but it was with 
great difficulty we made our way for the laft 25 feet, 
the paflage being almpft filled up with fand. Havii^ 

!>afled through, we entered a room zi feet and a hatf 
ong, and 11 feet ip inches broad. At the height 
of 10 feet 6 inches a tier of (topes projefted on each 
lide 5 inches inward -, and in the fame manner 1 2 ders 
projedtcd one further than another, till they meet at 
the top. To the weft of this room is fuch another; 
and at the farther end of both, in the middle of the 
fifth and fixth tiers of ftone, is a door, each of which 
leads to a fmall room, as I was informed by a gende- 
man v^ho contrived a ladder in order to get up to it. 
Thefe rooms are of a fmooth white ftone, very lai^, 
there being only 7 ftones in length, and 3 or 4 ip 

About a mile to the fouth-eaft is another great py- 
ramid, called the Great Pyramid to the South, which 
is about 600 feet fquare at the bottom. It is very re- 
markable that it feems to incline with a greater ang^ 
from the height of 280 feet than it docs below. It 
appears to have been cafed all the way up, and \$ 
built of very good hewn ftone even withifi, as I 
oblcrveJ where the outer furface is in fomc places 
broke away : for it is ruined in many parts ; but not 
fo as to render it poflible for any perfon to get to 
the top. 


TRAVELS through EGYPT. 167 

Oa a lover ground nearer to the eaft edge of the 
mouatain, and about two miles to the eafl of the laft 
mat pyramid, is one buih of unburnt brick, which 
feems CO be made of the mud brought from the Nile ; 
ic being of a fandy black earth, with fome pebbles 
and (hells in ic ; and mixed up with chopped ftraw, 
in order to bind the clay together ; as unburnt bricks 
ace now made in E^ypt, and many other parts of the 
Eaft. This pyramid is much crumbled and ruined. 
On meafuring it I found it to be 157 feet on the north 
fide, and 210 on the weft; it being much broke 
away on the eaft and weft fides. It is 150 feet high, 
and at the top meafured 43 feet by 35. By what I 
could judge from its prefent ftate, I concluded that it 
was built with 5 degrees, each being 10 feet broad 
and 30 deep ; but the a(cent to it is eafy, as the bricks 
are crumbled away. 

The other pyramids are of ftone, and. of different 
fizes ; all in a ruinous condition, and may amount in 
the whole to about 20. 

Another day I went to fee the catacombs, which 
arc in the fame plain in which the pyramids arc ft- 
cuated ; and was firft conduced to that of the mum- 
mies. The entrance to it is by a kind of w*'ll about 
4 feet fquare, and 20 feet deep, cut throuiih a flaty 
rock : but this rock is covered with fand, that is often 
moved by the wind, and fills up the holes. Hov- 
cver, fome of thcfe wells are cafed with lai^ unburnt 
brick, as far as the depth of the fand. The ufual 
method of letting pe )ple down with ropes being very 
painful, I had provided myfelf with a rope-ladder, hy 
which I defcended more conveniently, though not 
without being incommoded with the fand falling fro n 
the top. l here were, I oblcrved, holes on each tide 
to defccnd by j but moft or tliem Teemed worn away, 
and to be of no ufe. On being got to the boctom, I 
found myfelf in a paflage 5 feet wide, and alxjut o^ 
feet long, almoft filled up with fand : having got tf) 
the end of it, I turned down another paflage on tlic 

M 4 Vix. 


left hand about 6 feet high, on one fide of which 
were apartments with benches about 2 feet above th« 
Poor. On thefe I fuppofc the mummies were placed i 
buc if they vyere fcc upright, there muft have been 
fome method of fupporting them. On the other fide 
are narrow cells juft big enough to receive a largp 
coiFm. At the end of this alley I turned on my right 
hand into another which was; and on each 
fide were niches, that fcemed dcfigned for coffins 
placed upri;.{ht. From thi*; paflage arc cut oblong 
I'quare apar::nents, filled v;irii the remains of mum- 
mies : ani.1 probably here die inferior perfoRS of a 
family we. :: depolitcd, and piled upon one another, 
while the heads of the families were placed in the 
piches. Each f-^mily had perhaps originally its 
burir:' v/iace, and as the family increafcd, they 
bran out theie, fepulchral grotts, that every 
defcendant might have a leparate place for his family, 

I then went to the catacomb of the birds, which 
has the fame kind of entrance, only it is about 30 
f^et dcvp : The pafiage from it is about 8 fyec wide, 
and almoll full of fand. This catacomb is much 
more iv;agniHcent than the others, it being the iepul- 
chre of thoie birds, and other animals, worihippcd 
by the ancient Egyptians •, for when they happened 
to finvi the.n deaci, they embalmed them, and wrap- 
ped th'.m up with the fame care as they did human 
bodies, c;cp -fiting them in earthen vafes covered over 
and ftopped clofc wiih mortar. In one of the irre- 
gular apartments I faw larger jars, that might be for 
dogs and other animals -, of which feme have been 
found, but they are now very rare. 

Havin ' defcribed thefe catacombs, we (hall now 
take a vic.v of the ancient methods obfervcd by the 
Egyptians in embalming bodies. According 
Xo i krodorus, there were certain perfons appointed 
for this bufiniTs, who had 3 prices according to the 
bea'.uy of the workmanfhip. In the moll cfteemed 
mcihod of embalming, they extradcd tlK brams -by 
I the 

TRAVELS through EGYPT. 169 

die nofe with a crooked iron, and then poured in 
drugs; afterward they opened the body, took out 
the bowels, v/alhcd the infide with palm-wine; and, 
having rubbed into it pounded perfumes, lilled ic 
with myrrh, caiVia, and other fpices, and then fewed 
it up. After this they wa!hed the body with nitre, 
ihen let it lie 70 days ; and having waflied it again, 
wound *ic up in fwathes of linen, befmearing it over 
with gums, which the Egyptians ufed inftead of glue. 
The relations then took home the body, and inclofing 
it in the wooden figure of a man, placed it in the 
catacombs. Another method of embalming was in- 
jeding turpentine of cedar with a pipe into the body, 
without cutting it : they then faltcd it for 70 days, 
and afterward drew out the pipe, which brought the 
bowels with it by the fundament. The nitre dried 
up the flefh, Iravi^ig nothing but fkin and bones. 
The third way was only by cleanfmg the infide with 
fait and water, and fairing it for 70 days. 

From what Diodorus obferves, one would imagine 
that there was a vvay cf preferving the bodies much 
fupcrior to either or" th^: forn:cr ; for, according to 
him, their eyebrows arid eyelaCies, with the form and 
appearance of the whob body, were To well preferved, 
that they misrht be bv their features : v/hence 
many of the l^'jxyptians kept th^- bodies of their 
ancellors in lioul-js adorned at a very great expence; 
and had the plc^aliire to fee thtrir forefathers, who 
had been dcrad many years before tliey were born, 
and to obfcrve all their features as well as if they were 
living. But it docs not a[)pear that any bodies were 
ever difcovcred embalmed in this manner. 

A body I brought rVom Egypt, when I returned 
to Fngiand, was in a coffin made with boards, the 
holes between which were filled up with linen and 
fine plaller. Fc^ur folds of cloth were over the head, 
the u[^\^CT one painted blue. Under thefc was a com- 
pofition about half an inch thick of gum and cloth, 
burnt by the heat of the things applied to it ; and 


next to the (kin was a coat of gum or bitumen of the 
thickncfs of a wafer. The hinder part of the head 
was filled with bitumen, which had been poured in at 
the no(e, and had penetrated even into the bone of 
the ikulL The body was bound round with a ban* 
dage made of linen, about 3 quarters of an inch 
broad, under which were four folds of clothe then a 
fwathe two inches broad -, and under that eight diflci^ 
ent bandages of the fame breadth, laid acrofs from 
the Qijulders to the hips on the other fide. Under 
this was a cruft of linen about an inch chicks burnt 
almoft to afhcs buc (licking together by means of 
the gums with which it had been fmeared. The 
arms were laid acrofs the breaft, the right hand over 
the left, and the hands lying toward the face. From 
the hips to the feet were eight bandages two inches 
broad, one covering about half the other ; and under 
thefe were bandages an inch thick, confumed by time 
and the heat of the drugs : but the outer bandages 
did not ft:em to have been befmeared with gums. 
The cofEn in whicii the body was put was formed of 
two pieces of wood, hollowed fo as to receive the 
body, and being put together were faftcncd with 
broad pegs in the top, fixed in holes in the lower 
part Tlicy were cut into the fliape of a human 
body, as bound up after it is embalmed *, and both 
the coiBn and body wrapped up in linen were covered 
witli a thin plafter, and painted. 

The birds in the lall-mentioned catacomb were em- 
balmed much in the fame manner, being dipped in 
gums and aromatic drugs, and bound up with many 
Folds of linen. 

I returned from vifiting the catacombs fooner than 
was expefted; and on my unlocking the door of the 
room the (heik had given me at his houfe, a litde 
giil about eight years old ran out of it againft me; 
and laving hold of her, fiie cried out; but I let her 
go, it being here a great affront for any one to lay 
luiKis on the fair iVx. On my entering the room I 


TRAVELS through EGYPT. 171 

frw a hole had been broke through the cieling, though 
it was ten feet high ; and I fuppofe the mother had 
kt the child down by a rope, to rifle my baggage, 
and to convey what they thought proper up the faine 
way ibe came down. I had caught them in the 
beginning, and therefore little was loft^ though 
doubtlefs they thought th.^y fliould find treafures, as 
th< y imagine the t ranks, as they call all Europeans, 
abound in money. I was a little vexed at this treat- 
ment, but thought it mod prudent to take no notice 
of it ; and the next qiorning took my leave, the (heik 
fending a man to condudt me to Cairo. 

Being recommended to the cafhif or governor of 
Faiume, who was going into that province, I joined 
him at Old Cairo, at the houfe of Ofman Bey, where 
I had a room affigned me, and the cafhif invited me 
to fup with him ; when having brought fome fpirituous 
liquors as a prefent to him, 1 took care that he fliould 
be fuppUed at fupper, and 1 found him a merry 
chearful companion. 

In the morning we fet out, and came to the large 
village of Mocanan, with fine plantations of palm- 
trees about it. Proceeding two miles farther td the 
fouth-wcft, we reached Metrahenny, where 1 obfcrved 
heaps of ruins, and a mound extending a mile north 
and fouth, and then north-weft to the pyramids near 
Saccara; which I conjcfture might be a rampart 
thrown up to drfend the ancient city of Memphis. 
We then pafled over the Canal of the Pyramids, and 
flopping, I had my carpet laid at a diftance; but the 
calhif invited me to him, and J partook with him of 
a collation of bread, raw onions, and a fort of fait 
pickied checie. After which we purfued our jour- 
ney, and at length pafled the night in a grove of 
palm-trees. The caftiif fent tor me to come to him ; 
and I prefented him the liquor I had brought, fitting 
with him for fome time ; but he being vifited by a 
great (heik, I retired : and he afterward fent me a 



part of his fuppcr, which had been drefled for him at 
a neighbouring villager. 

The next day we alccnded fome low fandy hills to 
the fouth-wcft, which abound with the Egyptian 
pebble. We afterward pafled through an uneven 
landy defart, and came to a vnle bounded on the 
north by fmall hills made up of large oyfter-fliells, 
with a very little red clay between. Thofe on the 
furface were not at all changed ; but many below, 
and in the plain, are petrified. We at length arrived 
at Tamica, at the end of the defart, where a canal 
runs into the lake Mseris The Arabs who came out 
to meet tlie cafhif cxercifed themfelves all the way on 
horfcback, by purlbing each other with the pike. 
V/hcn one has the advantage over another he engages 
him ; he then turns Hiort, and rides away, the otner 
purluing him till he finds an opportunity to ftrike, 
and then he runs off in the fame manner. Coming 
at laft to the large vilhge of Scnnours, we went to 
the houfc of the governor of the place, where a great 
Hipper was prepared for the calhif. A coarfe brown 
woollen cloth being fpread over the whole lengtli df 
the room, cakes of bread wrre laid all round it, and 
about ten difhcs, repeated fix or feven times, were 
placed all along the room ; as a fmall (hcep boiled 
whole, a roafted lamb, pilaw, fowls roafted, many 
diflies of ftewed meat, fwcet flummery, meat roafted 
in fmall pieces, and the like. At the head of the 
table fat the cafhif, with the great people by him : 
I might have fat among them, but 1 kept my feat on 
thefopha; and whtn the perfon on the cafhif's right 
hand arofe, the cafhif called me to take his place, and 
ihcwed mc great civility. It is cuftomary for every 
one as foon as he has done to get up, wafh his hands, 
and take a draught of water : thus there is a continual 
fuccefiion, till at laft the poor come in, and cat what 
is left ; for the Arabs never fct by any thing that 
comes to tlieir tables. When they kill a fheep they 


TRAVELS through EGYPT. 173 

drefs jt all, call in their neighbours, and afterward 
live on bread and their other mean fare. In the 
morning we had a grand collation in the fame man- 
ner, confiding of the bed fort of bread made with 
butter, honey, fried eggs, green theefe, and other 

We were now in. the fertile province of Arfinoe,, 
liud to be the fined fpot in all Egypt, and the only 
part which naturally produces olives, fiut though 
the people might make the mod excellent oil, whac 
they make has an ill tade ; which is probably owing 
to their letting the olives hang too long, in order to 
obtain the greater quantity of oil. 

Wc now purfued our journey, and reached Faium% 
after pafling through the ruins of the ancient Arfinoe, 
and crofling a bridge over a large canal that runs 
along the north fide of the new town. 

Faiume is the rcfidence of the calhif, or governor 
of the province : it is about two miles in compafs^ 
and is very ill built, chiefly of unburnt brick. Here 
live fevcral rich people who have villages belongin<' 
to them ; and alfo 60 Arabs who have the title of 
(heiks, with one at their head, who is a perfon of 
great intered ; and thefe all go to the dii/an of the 
cadi, which is held twice a- week* 1 he inhabitants 
have here a manufadure of the mats they lay on the 
floors of their rooms. They are alfo famous for 
making rofe-water, which is ufed in many things 
they ear, as well as to throw on the guefts before tht-y 
offer the incenfe. They arc likewife faid to make 
coarfe cloths, and cheap duffs j to prepare leather, 
and to make the leathern bags in which they carry 
water on the backs of camels. The Francifcans of 
the convent of Jerufalcm, who here go under the 
denomination of phyficians, have a fmall convent, 
and the Copti have a church four miles off, though 
there are many Chridians in '-■> town. There are 
vineyards about two ieagoL'. .j the wed, \vhcre the 
Chrillians make vexy good white.winc. They have 


likewife fine railins; and the Mahometans maket 
fyrup of the juice of the grape by boiling it : dua b 
brought to the table^ and is very agreeable food. I 
had here an apartment in the calhiPs houfe ; and his 
people perfuaded me to (end back my hories* pro- 
mifing that I (hould be well fupplied : but I was after- 
ward obliged CO hire very bad horfes at an extravagant 
price. I was daily furniihed with provifions in my 
own room, and (bmetimes the calhif fent for me id 
dine with him-, when the drams went plentifully 
round while we were eating, and he diverted himfeliF 
with jefiing with two or three who Teemed to be with 
him as dependants, exptrfting fome little govern- 
ment : for whcrn the Turks are in private, they lay 
afide their gravity, and are as merry as the Europeans. 
While I was here it hailed and rained almoft all one 
morning, and likewife rained very hard the following 
night ; which the people were fo far from confidering 
as any advantage, that they told me rain caufes 
fcarcity, the overflowing of the Nile being fufficient 
to water the country. There are about this town no 
other remains of the ancient city of Arlinoe, but great 
heaps of ruins. 

On my leaving Faiume, I proceeded to the fouth- 
weft; and ac about three miles dillance from that 
town, came to a very remarkable obelifk of red 
granite, called the pillar of Bijige, from the village 
of Bijige near it. It meafures four feet two inches on 
the north fide, and fix feet fix inches on the eaft : 
it is 43 feet high, and each fide is divided by lines 
into three columns, each of which is filled with 
hieroglyphics. This obelifk is much decayed all 
round for ten feet high ; and the weft fide is almoft 
entirely defaced. 

We now proceeded moflly through groves of young 
palm-trees ; and obferved about the country feveral 
vineyards, the vines of which are difpofed in a very 
particular manner : we then pafled by corn fields, and 
afterward over uncultivated lands ; and having crofTed 


TRAVELS through EGYPT. 175 

the dry bed of a canal, came to another canal called 
Bahr-Jofeph, which runs into the bke Maeris. It 
is 100 yards broad, with clifts on the eaft fide, ac 
leaft 4« feet high, and on the weft about 30 : though 
it was about 50 feet broad, it was then very fhallow. 
The countiy to the weft is called Nefle, where the 
harveft is, I believe, forwarder than in any part of 
Egypt ; for on the 1 6th of February, I have feen 
baiicy of that year cut and threflied. 

On my entering the large village of Nefle, which 
is dole by the Nile, I went to the (heik's houfe» 
which is built about a court, and has a round turret 
at the north-weft comer, with cannon for its defence. 
I had a letter from the cafliif to the fheik ; but he not 
being at home, one of the chief Arabs agreed for 
about the price of three guineas, to furnifli me with 
four Arabs on horfeback, and a camel to carry water 
and provifions. We fet forward about four the next 
morning, and proceeding about two hours to the 
north-weft^ took a fupply of frefti water. From that 
place the Tandy plain begins •, and pafling over it we 
at length faw at a great diftance Ibme remains of the 
temple of the Labyrinth -, and being about a league 
from it, obferved fcveral heaps of ruins covered with 
land, and many ftones all around, as if Ibme great 
building had been there. This, which is called the * 
town of Caroon, fcemed to have been of a con- 
fiderable breadth from the eaft to weft, and the 
buildings extended on each fide toward the north, to 
the lake Masris and the temple. This without doubt 
is the fpot where once ftood the famous Labyrinth, 
which Herodotus fays, was built by the twelve kings 
of Egypt, when the government was divided into 
twelve parts, as fo many palaces for them to meet in, 
and tranfaft the affairs of fta,tc and religion. — " Of 
this Labyrinth, he adds, there arc twelve Taloons, or 
covered courts, with gates orpoiite to each other, fix 
toward the north, and fix toward the Ibuth in con- 
tinucd lines. They are furroundcd by the Tame o-Jt- 

4 n; a\^ 


ward wall. The apartments are on two Boon, tiirt; 
one under ground, and the other t>ver them : 3000^ 
in all, each confifting of 1 500. Thofe above ground- 
I myfclf have feen and gone through, fo that I fpak 
from my own knowledge ; but thofe beneath briogi 
the fepulchres of the kings, and of the facred croco* 
diles, the rulers of the Egypnans wofe by no mcMit 
willing to (hew them. The upper apartments' I 
myfclf faw to be greater than any other human works ^ 
for the outlets at the top, and the various windings 
through the faloons, gave me infinite funprize as I 
paflcd from a faloon into apartments^ and from apart- 
ments into bed-chambers, and into other rooms oiiK 
of the bed-chambers, and from apartments into 
faloons. The roof of the whole is ftone as well as thd 
walls. The latter are adorned with fculpturc : each 
faloon has a periftyle of white ftones admirably joined 
together. Quite clofe to the line, where the labyrinth 
terminates, is a pyramid of 240 feet, on which large 
animals are engraven : the way into the pyramid is 
under ground." — This is the account given of it by- 
Herodotus. It was fo extraordinary a building, that 
Doedalus came to Egypt on pnrpofe to fee it, and 
built the labyrinth in Crete for king Minos on the 
model of this. But little is now to be feen of thefc 
boafted pieces of art, but heaps of ruins, broken 
pillars, mattered walls, and cornices, many of which 
are of a kind of brown marble. 

Going over the fpot where this magnificent ftruc« 
ture once ftood, I came to the foundation of an oblong 
fquarc building formed of a reddifh ftone or marbW 
Some femicircular pilafters placed upon it, have only 
one hewn ftone at the bottom, and all the remains of 
the edifice above are of brick plaiftered over. What- 
ever this building was, it feems to have been repaired 
in this rough manner. More to the eaft are the 
remains of an oblong fquare edifice of white hewn 
ftone plaiftered over, with a fort of bafe and plinth 
ranging round. Near this is a particular fort ofruftic 


TRAVELS through EGYPT. 177 

luilding, thac feems to have been a gate. At length 
ve came to Ibnic remains of the grand (tru6lure itfclf, 
vhich is now called Cafr Caroon, or the caille of 
Maroon* It had a portico of ruilic work, which is 
ilxnoft entircly deftroyed, it being no where above 
ix feet high. The front is more ruined than any 
)thcr part. - The upper ftory in the middle is fallen 
lown : but in the other parts there are 44 tiers of 
tone, each nine inches deep, and confequently it is 
here 33 feet high : there are figns of a cornice rang- 
ng round, with fome ornaments of fculpture. In the 
ength of this building, are four rooms, with 
bor places crowned with double cornices, together 
vith ornaments of the winged globe ; and o^er each 
s a work like a falfe door, ornamented with double 
x>rnices, and one of them adorned with fculptures of 
lawks. In a falfe door on each fide of the entrance 
o an inner room below, is a niche cut with a fhell at 
he top, and there are feveral fmail niches in the fides 
if the walls of the other apartments. There are 
nany ftones fcattercd about the plain near the build- 
ng, among which are Icveral round ones that fecni 
o havecompofcd the (hafts of columns. 

Having taken a full view of thcfe ruins, I returned 
o Faiumc; and from thence fct out wi:h a caravaa 
or Cairo. 

As I had taken the refolution to fail on the Nile 
nto Upper Egypt, the conful procured letters from 
he great flieik Ofman Bey, the head and prote<!ilor 
>f the Arab race, to the bey of Girge, the prince 
)f Akmim, and the great fheik of Fourfhout. I 
nade provifion as for a long voyage, purchafmg a 
|uaniity of tobacco, rice, coffee, Ibap, red fhoes, 
ind other things for prefents, not forgetting; arms 
md ammunition for our defence. I had the happi- 
icfs to mccc with a boat bclon<>:ing to the prince of 
Akmiri!, and to be recommended to Malim Soliman, 
who was going in ir. This wa^ a very worthy Copti, 
for whom 1 Ihall always have the ucaioll regard. He 

Vol. VI. ' N Va\ 


had^ the principal management of the affairs of tfaaC 
prince, though he would never accept of any ofikc 
under him. It was thought proper that I fliould take 
upon me a name familiar to tne people: fo it wa» 
agreeu I fhould be' called Jofeph, with Malim, or 
Mafl^T, the ufual title given to Chriftians in this 
country. I had alto let my beard grow, and aflumed 
the habit of a Copri, with the black gown of cere- 
rrony, and had a larQ;e blue and white handkerchief 
loo "e about my neck, hanging down before ; and oo 
other occafions a fliect ot the lame kind) brought 
round my body and ever my head. Befide, I had 
the hlue garment or fliirt, which is put on over all, 
to go out wirh at any time in dirguitc with the boat- 
men. In this maTncr I let out with my fervant and 
dragoman, or interpreter, on w.c 6th of December 
173* ', when I embarked in a I'mail hired boat, and at 
night came up to the great boat at Turphaicr, which 
IS on the ifland that 1 ftippoie to be the great ifle of 
Heracleopolis, made by a can.:l crolfing from the 
Nile to the old bed of that river \n:]cr the hills. The 
great boats, fuch as this in wliic-i we embarked,, 
have a mall about the middle, and another toward 
the prow. Part of the boat is covered with matting, 
by means of poks fct upright, with otliers tied acrofe 
at the top of them ; under which (belter the people 
fir, and in the night take their repofe. 

On the 8th, having little wind, we went adiore on 
the eaft, at the convent of St. Anthony. There, as 
in mod of the monafteries in Kgypt, the piicilsarc 
fccul^r.c, and live in the convent with their wives and 
;:iii'J;i'n. Scv<Tal of them were emnloveil in carrvinc; 
lio.fb t;> rc'i'-lr tinrir rc)nvent ; and, titkir,;]^ us for 
i>rfiCc:*f. \v'>o kw.'m: io demaiid tlvi* poll-tax, toid us, 
0:1 our .ilx^'^.r: how many there were of them, th:»t 
tIutc were 1:0 w.^.v.^ rhrrn we faw : l)ut on our undc- 
CtiviiuMfiCm. 1 1 rv (hewed us their convent, wh:c!i 
Ts wu- ltd round, lj dcltnd them tVom roi"»bers. 


TAAVELS through EGYPt. 179 

Oh the 14th we had a good wind, and pafllng hy 
^linis, the refidencc of the cafhif of the province of 
diat name, came up with the ruins of the city of 
/Indnoopolis, built by Hadrian in honour of An- 
Linous his favourite, who was drowned there -, but 
now called Enfineh; It is faid that the city was three 
ar four miles round. Among thefe ruins I Taw dill 
ftanding a large pillar with a Corinthian capital, on 
(he top of which was a fquare ftone, that was pro- 
bably to fet Ibme (latue upon. I had alio a view of 
a very fine gate of the Corinthian order, and of ex- 
cellent workmanfhip. Near this place is a village of 
Chriftians called Ebadie, whofe greateft fecurity 
among fuch bad neighbours feems to be a notion that 
has prevailed, that no Mahometan can live there. 

We failed on, and all the way from Souadi to 
Manfalouch obferved grottos cut in the mountains^ 
[once the abode of hermits, but occupied at prefent 
by a fort of Arabs, who follow the profeffion of 
pirates upon the Nile. In different places of thefe 
rocks, the echoes are fo diftinit thai;not a fmglc 
fyllable is loll. 

The molqucs of Manfalourh give it a beautiful 
appearance at a dillance. The adjacent country is 
vcrv fertile, and we find there all ibrts of fruit in 
abundance. O;:pofite this town, on tlic eaftcrn 
border of the Niie, there ib a Co[)Li convent abrvjlutely 
inacccinhl:'. T!iO;e that v/ould enter it ol>!i;^eJ 
to get the?iifclves i ailed up in a bafker, by means of a 
pulley i from wlicnce it has obiained rhe na::ie oi i*:c 
Pulley Convent.] 

On the 15th we pafled by Seiout, abcur t.vo miles 
from the river, wlii:h I went to on my reniiii. This 
I fuppofe to be 7\nt:ii()poiis, the c;ipi:r.l ot .1 province 
of that n.i;rie, ioc^leJ. h\)\^^ A:it."»:L!.s, who svuis over- 
come by I lerciiks. 

Near a niile t) th;" v.cft of :i: - liver v/e Kiv A1:oump;j 
which ii. a toler:i!)l\ rowr^, nn-J a bilhop'j l-:e : Oa.^ 
was pcrhiii-S il;j i:y^':'jle < i th.e ao'^Knu. Nct-r the 




town was encamped an Arabian fheik who commaixlr ; 
this country. I'hefe governors often go round thdr 
territories, encamping near towns and villages, in 
many of which they have houfes, in order to odkft 
their tribute, which moftly confills in cattle. In the 
evening we came to Gaua-Kiebre, where is a very 
beautiful portico of a temple, containing i8 pillan 
in three rows : thefe have a very lingular kind of 
capital ; and the (hafts of the pillars are enriched widi 
hieroglyphics, executed in a more mafterty manner 
than any I have feen in Kgypt. It appears to have 
been a very magnificent building, not only from the 
portico, but from the vaft (tones that are (een about 
It. On the 1 6th we came to the territories of the 
prince of Akmim, which begin at Raigny. Near 
this place is the grotto of the famous (erpent called 
Heredy, mentioned by travellers. 

[This grotto is the tomb of a pretended Turkiih 
faint, and is adorned with a cupola raifed above the 
mountain. The Arabs affirm that (heik Heredy, 
having died in this place, was buried here, and that 
God, by a particular favour, transformed him into a 
ferpcnt that never dies; but heals difeafes, and 
beltows favours on all who implore his aid. It 
appears, however, that this miraculous ferpent makes 
fome diftindion of perfons, and is much more pro- 
pitious toward the great lords, than toward the infe- 
rior people. If a (heik is attacked with any diibrder^ 
the Icrpent has the complaifance to fufFer himfetf to 
be carried to his houfe ; but a perfon of the common 
rank mull not only Ihew a defire of his viftting him, 
and make a vow to rccompenlc him for his trouble ; 
but fend a fpotlefs virgin on the important embafly : 
for the fair alone can have any influence on him ; and 
it hf r virtue (hould be the leaft fullied, he would be 
inexorable. On her entering into his prefence (he 
ir.aUes him a compliment, and with the moft humble 
lubniilTiOn, intreats him to fufFer himfelf to be carried 
to the pcrJbn who wants his alTiftance. The (erpent, 


TRAVELS through EGYPT, iSi 

I can refufe nothing to female virtue, begins at 

with moving 'its tail ; the virgin redoubles her 
eaties, and at length the reptile iprings up to her 
k, places itfelf in her bofom, and there remains 
:t, while it is carried in flute in the midd ot loud 
amations to the houfe of the peribn who difpatchcd 

ambaflfadrefs. No fooner is it brought into the 
n, than the patient begins to Bnd himlclf relieved. 

tkis miraculous phyfician does not withdraw ; for 
is very willing to remain fome hours with the 
cnt, if during the whole time they take care to 
lie his priefts, or his faints, who never quit him. 

this goes on marvellouQy well, provided no dif- 
ever or Chriftian comes ^ for his prefcnce would 
urb the feaft ; and the ferpcnt, who would per- 
e him, would immediately diiappear. In vain 
lid they fearch for him ; he is no where to be 
id 5 and Ihould he even have been carried to the 
:r fide of the Nile, he would be able to return in- 
dly to the tomb. In fhort, the Arabs boldly 
rt, that if this fcrpent was cue in pieces, the parts 
lid join again upon the fpot, and that this attempt 
Id not pot an end to his life, fince it was deftincd 
)c immortal. 

The Chrillians, who claim a fuperior degree of 
lorn to the Arabs, very pioiifly believe that this 
tended faint is the Devil himlclf, who, by the juft 
gment of God, is perniicted to miflead this blind 

ignorant people •, and they are contirtned in this 
.et, by a tradition that it was to tins place the 
el Rapluel bani(hcd the devil Almodi, Tobic 
, 3. That a ferpcnt is there, cannot be denied ; 

he undoubteJly dies like other ferpents, and the 
:fts fubilitucc another of the lame kind in his room. 
:re they indeed to cut the iVrpent In pieces, and 
•e the parrs fecn to join again, it migiu be elleem- 
in inconteftible procit'of us iina^.on.iricy •, but they 
lid never be broup;ht to that. TIk virginity of 

ambaflfadrefs is fccur^d by her being (o young as 

N 3 vc^ 


to be free from fufpicion ; and ferpents are known t9 
be atcraded by cercam odours and herbs, with which 
the girl may be rubbed, at leaft fhe is adorned with 
chaplets and garlands of flowers, in which they take 
care not to forget fuch as are agreeable to the ferpent 
In fhorr, if it be aHced how it is pofTible that it (houkl 
difapj^ar from the light of fo many people, I anfwefi 
that it is fiifficlcnt to conceive that thefe priefts are 
excellent jugglers-, and whjcver has feen the tricks 
daily played by the mountebanks in the great fquans 
beff^rc the caftle of Cairo, muft have been ftiuck with 
feats much more remarkable than this.] 

On the 17th we arrived at Akmim, which is about 
a mile to the caft of the river, fitujtcd on a fmall 
eminence that feems to have J^een railed by art, and a 
canal from the Nile encompaflcs moft part of the 
town. This I fuppofe to be Panopolis, anciently fa- 
pious for workers in ftone, and for the linen manu- 
fafture. At preftnt the inhabitants make coarfe 

1 was at Akmim at Chriftmas, and fat up almoft 
all the nii];ht of the eve of that feftival to fee the 
Copti ceremonies in the Roman church -, for though 
they are converts to the church of Rome, ihey retain 
their own ceremonies, and only make fomc few alter- 
ations in part of their prayrrs. As foon as the fervice 
was ended, which was not before day, I had a mcf- 
fiige from Malim Soliman, that I mull pafs the whole 
day with him-, accordingly I went to his houfe, and 
coffee being ferved, we all found it ncrelTary to take 
fome reft on account of the fatigue of the preceding , 
nighr. At noon a great dinner was ferved up in an 
open fummer-houfe. There were 2^ diflies, which 
molllv confided of vxh foupr, and a fort of raaoos, 
pigeons, and iowls l\\}iV,:>.\ wi.h lice, .ind road lamb. 
I vyas the cniy perlbn a'- the tabic* ierved v/ith a plate, 
or that had a kr.ik nriu iorl:. iii; k>ns-in-law, with 
fome other of his rd .t;;;n5, Wiiiicd ac table-, for fo 
great a fubordination is oblcrvcd throughout all the 


TRAVELS through EGYPT. 183 

call, with regard to different degrees and ftations, 
clue fons and inferior relacions never lit before their 
parents, unlefs they are fevcral times delired to do it. 
Firft, a very rich dram was ferved } and at dinner, 
Ibme wine of which I had made bin a prefcnt, was 
given round. After we had drank coffee, we walked 
out of the town to fee his garden, whfxe we had 
coflfee again, and then returned to his houfe. After 
fupper he alked me if I would lie there or at tke con- 
vent. Thus the day was palled in the manner of a 
Turkifli vifit ; every thing being far beyond whatever 
the Arabs pretend to. 

I alfo went a feconJ time to fee the prince; who 
(aid, he wondered he had feen me but once : he even 
defined me to make his houie my own, and to com- 
mand what I pleafed. 

I here agreed for a boat and four men to go up 
with me to the cataracl, and back again, paying them 
about the value of half a crown a day, wita a certain 
quantity of corn and lentils by the month, nnd finding 
them in coffee. Indeed I afierwrird found rhn thev 
expeSed to have a fliare of every ihing I had i tur ic 
is the nature of the Arabs to dciire wliatcver rhev lee. 
When we had agreed, the Co;.'cis who were j^rcirnt, 
iccordinsr to their CLiilom, laid a uraver. Malim 
Soliman and fome other frien.Is attended rnc tj tiis 
boat ; and his fervants brought n;e a prcl^:!: of ulai g* 
^alkct of bread, fome fine cakes, and a Iheco. At 
parting the Coptis faid a prayer, and w:fhed me a la:e 
return, that we might again pray t .gether. 

I left Akmim on the 2Sth of Uccember, and in 
h'.nc time ca:nc to Menlhech, a poor ill built town, 
ibout a mile in compafs ; but to the fouth of it there 
ire confiderable marks of a great city. This feems to 
lavc been Ptolemais, nicnrioned by Strabo, as the 
created city in I'lc Thcbaid. The prince of Akmim 
tiaving written to an officer of the town to give me 
Ibme letters for Afl'ouan, I waited on him with a pre- 
cm of rLce and foau, which arc here aca'\}Uok-. 

N 4 \\^ 


he entertained nne very civilly at his houfe, and give 
me letters to his friends at Aflbuan. I afterward wenr 
to lee the mailer of the veiTel in which I came from 
Cairo, who had invited me to his houfe. He entcr<« 
rained me with-cofiee, and a hot Iharab, as they caH 
it, made with fug^r and ginger ; but people o£ fo- 
perior rank ufe cinnamon, and drink it like tea« We 
fat round a pan of coals, and three Mahometans fung 
Arabian ibngs, beating time with their hands, ana 
playing on a tambour. 

v^l went to the bazar, and found it better furniflicd 
than thofe I had met with eilcwhere. Indeed the 
barques ufually (lopping here contribute to render 
this a place ot trade, and commodities are brought 
thither every market day, becaufe the people are 
always fure of felling them. The town has a moiquOi 
and likewife a very large church-yard, where one may 
obferve the diOerent monuments with which they 
honour the memory of the dead. This laft diftinc^ 
tion it owes to the height of its fituation, which in- 
duces the people to bring thither the dead of all the 
neighbouring places, that they may not be expoled 
to the annual inundation of the Nile. As I was walk- 
ing in the bazar, I met with two of their pretended 
faints, whom the market had drawn thither: they 
were entirely naked, and ran like madmen through 
the ftreets, (baking their heads, and crying out with 
all their might. A courtezan was alfo there j her fiicc 
and bofom were unveiled, and her fhift was white, 
whereas that of other women is blue. Her head, 
neck, arms, and legs, were adorned with abundance 
of trinkets; but all thefe embelli(hments did not 
charafterife herfo well as her impudent air, and 
lafcivious geftures. One would think that thefe fort 
of women muft, in all countries, have a common 
mark of didmAion : this, however, had an extraor- 
dinary one, which was, that (he infinitely exceeded all 
others in uglinefs. 


TRAVELS through EGYPT. 185 

The Chriftian Copti, as alfo the profelytes de Pro* 
faganJaj have in this town, and evencbrough all the 
dominions of the prince of Akmim, very great privi- 
leges : they are not afraid here to ftrike a Muflulman ; 
though in other places they cannot do it without run* 
ning the rilk of being murdered.] 

The next day we purfued our voyage, and after 
feme time had high rocky hills to the eaft, that are 
almoft perpendicular, in which there are many 
grottos. We foon reached Girge, on the weft ; this 
IS the capital of Said or Upper Egypt : it is near two 
miles in compafs, and is pretty well built. The fan? 
giack or governor of Egypt refides here. I went to 
the convent of the Francifcan miflionaries, who pa(s 
for phyficians, but have privately a church, and about 
1 50 converts i but they are frequently in great dan- 
ger from the infolence of the foldiers, fo that they 
have been two or three times forced to fly, and their 
houfe has been plundered. I was condudted by one 
of the fathers to the caimacam of the town, who is 
chief governor in the abfence of the bey ; and being 
in a dropfy, had him called in to vifit him. I fhewed 
this great man the letter I had from Oiman bey to the 
fengiack of Girge, and having made him a prefent 
of two boxes of French prunellas, he gave me a letter 
to Aflbuan, near the cataradl. We then went to the 
aga of the Janizaries, who was, according to their 
cuftom, fitting under the gate-way leading to his 
houie. He received us with much civility, he having 
been one of the father's patients ; and giving me four 
letters, I fcnt him the fame prelent I had made the 
caimacam. Afterward we waited on a 1 urk, who, 
I was informed, had fome fuperior command over 
the janizaries of the caftle of Allbuan ; to him 1 gave 
a letter from the prince of Akmim, and to the prcfcnt 
I made the others, added a larae bafkct of rice. Irle 
did not give us a very polite recepii'^,n, but wondered 
why the Franks vifited the cataracts ; and alkcd, .1' I 
had a watch to fell 9 which is an intimation that lie 


framed one for a prefent: however, on his leeing 
vvhat'I had brought, he ordered me a letter, which, 
he faid, would proreft me as far as the three caftks, 
chat is, to the end of the grand fignior's dominions. 

On the 3d of January, the wind not favouring us, 
wc (topped at a place about three miles from Fur£ou€. 
We mounted on aflcs without bridles, and only a 

Eiece of coarfe cloth tied on the back for a faddki 
ut the prefident of the convent having notice of our 
arrival. Toon met us with horlcs, on which we rode 
into Furfhout, which is a poor ill built ruinous town« 
^bout a mile round. Yet here refides the great flieik, 
who is governor of all the country on the weft, almoft 
as far as Aflbuan. The adjacent country is very plea- 
fant, all the roads to town being planted with acacia- 
trees. Here the Francifcan mifDonaries have a con* 
venc under the name of phyficians, and have a lai^ 
falcon where they receive their company, which ie 
private icrves for a chapel. I waited on the iheik's 
iecretary, with a prefent of five or fix pounds of 
coffee ; in return he fent a live (heep to the convent 
to enccrtiiin me with, and introduced me to the fheik, 
whj wiis in the Arab drefs, fitting in a corner of his 
room by a pan of coals : he role on my entrance, and 
on my leaving him, I gave him three letters, and my 
fcrvanr brought in my prefent, which confifted of two 
boxes of prunellas, two of other fweetmeats, and 
fome glafti veffcls. He aiked where I intended to 
go? 1 told him to the cataraft. He replied .with a 
good natured fmile, that a boat of Franks * lately 
went np ; anJ that the people faid they came to dil- 
cover the way into the country, in order to return and 
take it-, and then dcfired to know what I wanted to 
fee ? I told him tlic ruined cities. He obfrrvcd that 
we had not iiich ruins in England -, and alked whe- 
ther if they (hould go into our country, we would 
permit them to fee every thing? adding, that be 

* Tliis appears to have been Mr. Norden. 


TRAVELS through EGYPT. 187 

frould give me letters and a man to go with me •, (b 
that I might be afTured I fhould travel fecurely. I 
afterward went to fee the fheik*s garden, which in 
the middle was planted with vines, and in the other 
pares like an orchard, with orange, lemons, acacia, 
palms, and other trees. 

On the 9th about midnight we arrived at Dendera, 
which is lurrounded with woods, and fituated abouc 
half a mile from the river ; but did not chufe to go 
aiuch about, on account of its being the firft day of 
the great Turkifh feaft Bairam, after the concluiion 
of flicir month of fading. Some of our m.en went to 
the mofque in a gown of white cotton fewed up 
before, a habit of ct-remony worn in thofc parts ; and 
poflibly the ufe of the furplicc might take its rife from 
diis, as a veft of ceremony worn whcn^they went any 
where in high drefs. Having letters to two Maho- 
merans here, I carried them fome fmall prefcnts, and 
they recommended me to the governor, who fent his 
brother with me to Amara, which lies about a league 
to the u.v.rh. wlicre arc tliC ruins of the ancien: '1 en- 
tyra. I'i.c iiih.tbin.n-s we're great v/orfliippcrs of 
Venus and I:!.*;, to l;u:ji of whom rhev buil: a temple. 
Fro:ri ^'lc r. .inv Ii a-.v, ^'f that are leen here, the 
city apy-ar- to ::•■'..• [-,„n la^gc, and to have been 
muc'. rriq'.:<"- rd u.xc the time of its ancient Iplcn- 
do' . i"/.is V. Lis doirbtlefs ihe temple of Ifis. 

Having v/.th the greatTilf-.tisfaction viewed thefe 
fine ren-iains of antiquiiy, I returned to the town. 
At parting, my friends fent me a prefcnt of a lamb ; 
and the governor's brother came to the boat f^r his 
prehnr, which was a balkct of rice, fome coffee and 
11)2 p. 

A r.rtle farther we cam.e up with Kept, a villri2:e 2t 
foTe diltanic from the yW?t, 1 hi^ w.»? the .:r.cier.c 
Copros, v.h'.ch i'- inhab::ed b'^'li I'v the Feyptians 
nnd A.abians; for the Nile belo'»- the riry running: to 
iheweft, this w:s the f/rft coive*:! r.r 'Ma^c ibrc.jrv- 
int: on tl»e rr^je to tiic i\r \ Sea. riiC river '^n^cr 
7 \.: V'C-t 


iSI P0C0C;KE and NORDEN*i 

nearer to it here than at any other place bdov 
and thii, with the difficult navigation of the Red 
Sea CO the north, caufed the trade for the nrndufi*. 
difei of India and Arabia to take this channeL In 
the early ages of Cfariftianity this aty became &iiaoi 
for the great relbrc of Chriftians to it in times of per- 
fecutiont and this is the lirfl rife c£ the name of 
Cc^tis. which ic is faid the Mahometans gave in 6a- 
rifion CO the Chriftians of Egypt. 

At length coining to the pore of Cous, we rode two 
miles through a Hat country full of dome-tree^ to 
chat miferable town built of unburnt brick. It was 
the ancient ApoUinopoHs, and is fittuted on an utt- 
fictal eminence-, but there are no remains except tf 
one I'mall temple, on which is a Greek infcription io 
honour of Apollo and the other deities worlbippcd in 
it. While 1 was viewing this temple, one of the great 
iheik's officers, in a Turkifh drcfs, came and aflced 
jnc with much civility to drink coffee ; but it being 
late I declined the invitation. I afterward went ta 
the great Iheik's fecretary, to be introduced by him 
to his mafter, and made him a fmall prefent. We 
fat down on a mat in the open court, where our 
horfts were tied i and I was treated with very indif- 
ferent fare, conlifting of an ill tailed feed, mixed with 
oil, onions, bread, and water: our entertainment 
concluded with cofFce. After which he went with me 
to the Ihcik, whom we found laid down to take his 
repofe on a fopha, in a fmall room, drefled in a kind 
of blue fhirt over fome other garments, with one (^ 
his olHccrs fitting by him. I went up to the fopha, 
and delivered my letters from the prince of Akmim, 
and an officer of the janizaries at Girge, and then my 
prelent, as ufual, was laid before him, which confifted 
of a bag of rice, leaf tobacco, Joppa foap, and a pair 
of red (hoes. Then letting him know that I defired 
a letter to fee the antiquities of Carnack and Luxerein, 
he ordered it to be wrote, and delired me to go and 
^Irink coffee with his fecreury. But I went on board, 


TRAVELS through EGYPT, iffj 

leaving my interpreter to bring the letters ; on which 
the lecretary fent me a (heep. The Iheik let me know 
by my interpreter, that he advifed me to fee Camack 
and Luxerein now, and not, as I propofcd, at my re- 
turn I for as he was going to encamp there, I fhould 
fee every thing with the greater fafety. 

I very readily complied with his advice, and on the 
12th proceeded with a man the (heik had fent to con- 
duct me ; and (topping oppofite to Zenieh, where the 
Iheik of Carnack has his refidence, I the next day 
went to that fheik, with a letter I had from his fupe- 
rior, and the fheik of Fourftiout -, and making him a 
prefent, he treated me civilly, and fent me a flieep in 
return. I now went to Carnack, which is part of the 
anticnt Thebes, where there are ruins of a moll mag- 
nificent temple : but on my beginning to meafure the 
firft gate I came to, the man the fheik of Fourfhout 
had fent with me, who had no authority here, told 
me, I mufl not venture to do fo, without the permif^ 
fion of the great fheik, who had encamped near the 
river ; on which, ordering him to conduft me to him, 
he brought me to the village of Carnack, where I 
found the fheik 1 had been with in the morning, who 
freely gave me leave to meafure and write down what 
I plcafed ; on which I returned to the temple ; the 
(heik himfelf (laid with me there two or three hours, 
and the people of the village, Teeing me meafuring, 
came about me. I dined in the temple ; and having 
ordered my boat to lie near the fheik's camp, I, in 
the evening, waited on him in his tent •, on which he 
invited me to fup with his fecretary : but I cxcufcd 
myfclf, and returned to my boar, accompanied by 
the fecretary, who coming on board, partook of Ibmc 
rcfrcfhments. Thefe encampments are in the regular 
manner of an army : in the middle was the Targe 
green tent of the fhciks, who fr.t in a corner of ir, 
accompanied by three or four of his officers. In this 
manner they encamp about their territories to get in 
their tributes, which arc paid in kin:!. I continued 

f90 POCOClCB and NORt)£||'# 

here^ and had the liberty of viewing the tempfe ig 
often as I pleafed ; the mett conftamly drefling my 
dinner in the boat, and brining it to the temple. 
The cavalcade belonging to the £eik one day pamog 
by, a great number or perfons rode into the temple 
and talked to me : I was alfo once vifited there by 
the Iheik's fon of the place, who conduced me to a 
part of the temple inhabited by women, and giving 
them notice to keep out of the way, I went m ana 
viewed it. One day likewife, the Caia, or firft offi- 
cer of the fheik, came and dined with me, and I 
made him a prefent ^ which he returoed, by fending 
me a lamb. 

[The great and famous city of Thebes was on botE 
fides of the river ; according to fome it was built by 
Ofiris, and according to others, by Bufiris the ieconcl. 
It was called Diofpolis, or the city of Jupiter, and 
afterward it obtained the name of Thebes. Its 
opulence and power were every where known, and 
Homer thus ipeaks of it : 

* Not all proud Thebes' unrival*d walls contain, 
The world's great emprcfs on'th' Egyptian plain, 
Tliac fpreads her conquefts o*er a thouiand (tates, 
And pours her heroes through a hundred gates, 
Two hundred horfemen, and twQ hundred cars. 
From eacli wide portal iffuing to die wars.' Pope. 

Diodorus fays, — * We have heard, thr\r not only this 
king but many of his fucceflbrs were ambitious to 
improve the city with prcfents of gold and filver, with 
ivory and a multitude of coloffat l>»;cues, and that 
there was no city under the fun To idorncd with obe- 
lifks of one entire fton^:r. The buildiniis indeed have 
remained to modern rimes, but the gold and filver, 
and all tlic collly ivory and i)recious Itones, were pil- 
laged by the Perfians whea. Canibyfi-s let fire to the 
temples of Egypt. So great, they f.iy, were the 
riches of Egypt at that time, that from the rubbilh, 


TRAVELS through EGYPT. 191 

ifier plundering and burning, was taken more than 
300 talents of gold, and cf lilver 23C0 ralenis.'] 

The hundred gates above mentioned, arc com- 
monly thought to have been the gates of the city ; 
but there are no Hgns of walls round it, nor were 
walled towns common in Egypt : however, as it is 
obferved that 200 armed chariots could be fcnt out 
of them, others rather iuppofe them to belong so the 
palaces of the princes and great men, who could, on 
an emergency, fend chariots to the war. Of the four 
fcmarkable temples, that which I now viewed, was 
doubtlefs that mentioned by Diodorus Siculus, as of 
a moft extraordinary fize ; the ruins of this l"bupend- 
ous building extending near half a mile in length : 
the defcription he here gives of the height and thick- 
nefs of the walls, has been thought to be very cxtra^ 
vagant, and beyond all the rule of probability ; yet 
it wdl appear to any one who examines the remains 
of the temple, that in both thcfe refpects, they in 
fome parts exceed the account given by Dioclcrui. 

I have fully examined thefe noble antiquities : tlic 
fhtik's ion offering to go >^ith mc four n.ilis :o tik- 
eail of Carnack, 1 gUciiy accepted of his propo!i:l, :.n J 
he came early in the morning to the boat \\r.\i ;k :il:?. 
Upon this I laid a carpet on the bank of the riv.r, 
and having entertained him with coH'ee, we j':: f:a- 
ward toward the temple, accompanied nWo by 
caia, or ftewardof the great llieik. In ili!.^ e.\Ci ifi i\ 
wc law, that the ground, where it is iown, is laid in 
broad low hillocks ; round which t!\ere are imail ./- 
regular channels, the corn not being fawn on tise 
top, but only near the channels, in order that it r.^.y 
be the moreeafily watered, by a fmall canai froi^. t.i r 
I^ile which conveys the water to all rart-. Ab.ur 
200 feet to the n-^rth of the temple, Vve :.iw ;; g-.a.:.; 
gare, adorned with four comparfjivi.o <): iM.r.^l - 
y:i cs. All this tcmole is verv rr.iu ii i'c;.i'...>eJ, t v- 
ti.-".'t i.'.e icont, anJ c/Lii U:.;t i; no: ^oi.'.-^.. J ... 


-t9« POCOCKB and NORDEN*^ 

grand gate is however entire, and I faw near it i 
Iphynx about four feet long. The antient city of 
Thebes probably extended to this place. Returning, 
I viewed the ruins of what I fuppofe to be a roaad 
temple : it appeared to have been 175 feet in diamc'^ 
ter, and to the weft of it were fome remains of a grand 

On my return, I entertained my conduftors with 
coflfee at the boat ; and the (heik's fon having ihewd 
me great civility, I made him fuch a prefent as I 
thought would be agreeable to him. Two days after 
I went to fee that part of Thebes which was to the 
weft of the river, and is now called Goumou. On 
my going on that fide, I fcnt to the fheik, to whom 
I had a letter from the great fheik of Fourfhout ^ on 
which he came to the boar, and conducted me to his 
houfe at the village of Gournou. The (heik there fur- 
niihed me with horfes, and we fet out to go to Biban* 
el-Meluke. When we had proceeded about a mile 
to the north, we came to a kind of ftreet ; for the 
rocky ground on each fide rifing about ten feet high, 
had on each hand a row of rooms cut in it, fome of 
them fupported with pillars ; and as there is not 
here the leaft fign of raifed buildings, I could not 
help imagining, that in the earlieft times, thefe ca- 
verns might ferve as houfes, and be the firft inven- 
tion after that of tents, when they might be contrived 
as a better (belter from the weather, and the coldnefs 
of the nights. 

At length having pafied through fome other val- 
leys where the mountains arife to a great height, 
we came to a round opening like an amphitheatre, 
and afcending it by a narrow fteep pafTage, came to 
Biban-el-Meluke, that is. The Gate, or Court of the 
Kings ; here being the fcpulchres of the kings o( 
Thebes. The vale where thefe grottos are is covered 
with rough ftones, that feem to have roHed from 
above; it may be about 100 feet wide, and the hills 
on each fide are high fteep rocks, in which the grot- 
4 tos 

TRAVELS throush EGYPT, lyj 

tos arc cut in a moft beautiful manner in long paiT.if cs 
and galleries under the mounciins, out or a ciofj 
white freellone, that cues like chalk, and is as fmuoth 
as the fineft frucco work. Four or five of th^tc <iA' 
lerics, one within another, from 30 to 50 fee: lor p;, 
and from 10 to 15 feet hi^h, generally lead to a i'pa- 
cious room, in which is the king's tonib, with his 
figure cut in relief on the lid, or painted at fall 
length upon it. Both tlie fides and ccilirg of the roo.ns 
are cut wi:h lii;:roglyphici of birds and bejic^;, fonv; 
of them p.iin:cd, and as frcfii as if they were but 
juft finiflied, though they niutl be abo.c 2000 years 
old. Or.c of tliele fepulchres, in particular, is moft 
beauiif'jlly adorned with hieroglyphics cut in tiic 
ftone and painted. The liing's tomb is of one flon'^ 
of red granite, feven feet nine inches hiizh, eleven feet 
eight inches long, and above fix fee: broad, the cover 
being made to that into it. Upon it is cut the figure 
of the kins in mezzo- relievo, withan hieroo-lyDhical in- 
fcrlpti in. UI1C room is adorned with difiertnt columns 
of hieroglyphics, vviili the figures of men, bulls and 

Havir.LT wk.'i tiie utmoft riealure viewed t*:c-le o:- 
traordiniirv rcr)uk'hre. of' the kin'is of Thelv-S, h" 
the iiclo of the v;a>c-l:y:!its v/e broii lit v.l:!i u-, b. - 
in:! much firiiiucd, v»j acrreed to ii: dov.-r. ami t.^ke 
fome refrelhmer.ts in t!iis retired place ; l-'jt unfo!*- 
tun^telv v.e Iiad lora;:.i to brino; v.iiter, aiid tivj fr.-:'!-: 
be:r.<- in I'.afle to 1,0, we returiicJ : and at w::: a": iv.d 
at t!.e boa:, the Ib^'iic io c!.»iijini? a'> t=> flav r.:r: 
cat wirh n.e, v»!.;c!i they rarely do. Or.c w:>u!;l be 
apt :o iniatv«r.e tlu: thele were n;ibi:i:ion>. i'or t'v. I'.-- 
ing, an i :hat t'-.ey were cut urd-jr t!ie palace.: of :!v:- 
kinss oi" T'lebe-, if tii-^v ;:::- ;■(;: tlieri":lclve; :•.;- 
bccb fi^r fl'.J.ii to i"e:;re to i:"i G:\:rr to rs:\C\ tli: he:.r. 

From'^vr.ce I wriir -xc.A ti^r.l; r. p;.::; ;:\;r \-LV.-';.f 
tnAiuin.. Oi a iir, e tc:r.p:r, a l:::.-: v.Ay lu \}.\i t'Tn- 
eall At a diilaiice :r<).:i i: a:v wx \'s.\\\ of a ;: /^ 

11^ •*"I r?l»* "iifi /.t 1 \'. •■■ ltt*'"-*f'.'.ii. <♦■-.■■-, !-.*•'>-,. 
iJ, .k.! . ' .Ikv,^ a; I . V*l .1 \ Ll * 1 .4 ;J w L v^.- '-%» i iL -. • w . L'. « .\ . 

off .;bv/L:: ihe n.iudle of the trunk . i: 1; : i iVe: br-. •..••. 


at the (houlders ; the ear is three feet long, and ft(m 
the top of the head to the bottom of the neck is ii 
feet. In the firft court of the temple are two rows 
of fquare pillars, on each fide of which is a ftatuc; 
but the heads of all of them are broke off. Thefe 
Ilatuts have each the lituus in one hand, and die 
fiagelljm or whip in the other, as commonly fecnia 
the ftatues of Oliris, A great number of pillars be- 
longing to th.e temple are Handing,, and many others 
are deiiroyed : but from the ruins it appears to have 
been a magnificent (Iruccure. [In this edifice we ob- 
fen'e two forts of pilhrs, one more beautiful diaa 
the other. Their tiiicknef^j and folidiry give them a 
delightful appearance atadifiance; on approaching 
them, the hieroglyphics are agreeable to-thc 0ghc^ 
a"d when you are quite nejr, their colours bavei 
fine effect. This fort of painting has neither ihide 
nor degra.iatio.-:. 1 he figures are incru&ed like the 
enar.-.d on the dial-plates of warchcs, with this dif- 
ference, tha: they cannot be cJctached. I mull own 
rl-;a: this incriifted matter furpafics in ftrength every 
L'li ":g I !uvc feen of this kind. It is fuperior to the 
Al-rrcfco or n.cfaic work ^ and has the advantage of 
idling .1 lor.iivi- ii:re. It ii furprifing to fee how the 
gol'vi, U)Lr.i-n*i.irine. and orhvrr colours have prefervcd 
their luiliC to rSc j:c-':rr.c -ge.] 

From this t'.:n|:lc I wLMt to the (latues, which I 
flu!l call ihc c'ol.)iTjl ftatues of Memnon-, but the 
llvrik hurried n.c rVoni rh.-r.ce, faying he was near his 
ci:c:r.:e.N ; 1 hcwL^vr wtiu to them again early in the 
nvorfiing, and ipjnt above half a day at them. '[Thefc 
cciotral ii-urcb iVont the Nile. The firft feems to 
rtfprcicnc a man, ?.:h1 tix- other a woman; they are 
boih 5s; feet in -.v: -.i.c, fi-^m the bafes of the pcdcf- 
tvih to the liinn;!: c: t!;c hcrJ. They arc fitting 
upon r.oncs aiuiL.t cubic.:!, of 15 feet in height; on 
pi::n pcdclt:-!:, iive i.l-c high.]^ Ihe ftatue to the 
r.j/Ji hr.s hi\'i\ b:\.kc-n c*: at the middle, and has 
IcLP. built up \,r.\\ r-vc tier of Hones ; but the other 
is ui o:x fir. jl: I'.Qr.: : th^ ic^v Vvscsc vhs toes broken 

TRAVELS through EGYPf. ig^ 

Dff^ and the features are mouldered away by time; 
The fides ai the feats, -upon which they are fitting, 
are covered over with hieroglyphical figures : on the 
pedeftal of the imperfefl ftatue is a Greek epigram ; 
and on the infteps and legs are feveral infcriptions in 
Greek and Latin, fome being epigrams ih honour of 
Memnon ; but the greater part are tefliimonies of 
ritofe who have heard his found : for one of them has 
been thought by fome to be the famous ftatue of 
Memnon, which at the firft and fecond hour, they 
preeeiid, uttered a found occafioned by the rays of 
the fun (hiking on it. 

At a fmall dii^ance from thefe ftatues are the ruins 
oi feveral others. Having taken a full view of thefe 
thiDgSj we returned to the river. 

-While I was abfent, the natives having taken um- 
brage at my copying the infcriptions, came to the 
boat, and faid, that they would fee whether this ftran- 
teer would dare to come out another day *, dropping 
feme expreflions as if they would afiault the boat by 
night : for they feemed very defirous of my leaving 
the place, from their being ftrofigly poflefled of the 
notion, that the Europeans have the power of difco- 
vering trcalures. I however talked of going abroad 
the next day, being defirous of feeing, if pofiible, 
the temple of Medinet Habou •, but the flieik com- 
ing to the boat, and being informed of what had paf- 
fcd, advifed me to depart. But I faw this place oa 
my return. 

I then proceeded up the river a fmall league to 
Luxerein or Lafcor. On my arrival there, in the 
morning, I carried a letter and a prefent to the flitrik j 
and the flicik of Carnack's fon came to me there, 
provided a dinner for me, and was fo obliging as 
to ftay with me all day. 1 there viewed the remains 
of the large and magnificent temple, which was doubt- 
Icfs a part ot the antient T hebes on the eift fide of 
the river. This noble building agrees with the de- 
fcription Diodoruo gives of the fepuichre of Ofyman- 
dus, whicij h^ fays was a mile and a qyatiet \v\ c\^- 

O 2 c>3imkicvv^^. 


cumference. He fays it had this infcriptiort, " I am 
Olymandus, king of kings. If any one is deiirous 
to know how great I am, and where I lie, kt him 
furpafs any of my works." 

We firft come to two obelifks, that are probably 
the fineft in the world •, they are now 60 fcct high 
above the ground, and might be 70 or 80, according 
as the ground hasr riien, which is evidently a great 
deal. They are fcven feet and a half fquare, and at 
bottom might be eight feet. The hieroglyphics, 
which arc in three columns down each fide, arc cut 
with a flat bottom an inch and a half deep-, and the 
granite has perfeftly retained its polifti, which is the 
fined I ever faw. On the top, on each fide, a pcr- 
fon fits on a throne, and one offers fomething on his 
knees : thefe figures are likcwife below. Lower 
down are three hawks, then three bulls ; and at abooc 
the diftance of every foot is an owl. I alfo obfervcd 
monkeys, hares, dogs, ferpents, birds, the heads of 
camels and infecls ; but about half the pyramid of 
the weltern obcliflc is broken ofF, and the fouth-wcft 
corner of the eaftcrn one is, for about fix feet high, a 
little battered. 

At a little diHancc is a pyramid at a gate 200 feet 
long, and at prefcnt 54 above the ground. On each 
fide of the entrance is a coloflal ftatiie, 13 feet and a 
half above the ground : they are of grey granite, and 
the (houklers are only three feet and a half above the 
furface of the earth. In the front of the pyramidal gate 
arewindows, and fculpture, particularly a perlbn feated 
on a throne, holding out one hand, which has a fccptre 
or a IiafFin it, and furroundcd by others in pofl:urcs 
of adoration. On the other fide, a perfon is reprc- 
fcnted in a car, as galloping and fliooting with a bow, 
with many chariots after him : this may have a rela- 
tion to the wars of this king againfl: the Baclrians- 
\Vi:hin this gate is a court almoil filled up with cot- 
tages, with ibmc piilars, that once rompofed part of 
acolonadc: beyondv/hichwas another gate, thatisnow 
in ruins \ and beyond *\i aivQXW.t ^^\avc^ which con- 

TRAVELS through EGYPT. 197 

ioed rhe hiftory of the king cur all round on the 
rails, and had a large and bfatitii'irl altar in the ' 
ruddlr. Thf pillars in this court are 40 feet high-j ' 
Hit the work in the capitals is not in relief, but only 
nc out in lines. The walls of the roonis are 
idomcd wi(h fculpture. A deity is carried in a fort 
fa boat by -lii men, preceded and followed by a 
wftra holding a particular enfign, I alfo obfrrved 
n the walls a man leading four bulls with a llring j 
[perjbn fitting, and another kneeling to him: ailb 
mftrtimenls of mufjc, and men kneeling who have 
ie heads of hawks. 

In ihe evening I left Luxerein, and landed at Er- 
EtMnt on the weft, the antient city of Hermonthis, 
Jk CMital of a province of that name. We went 
Hthenoule of the Iheik, who conduflcd us to the' 
id city in the midft of a large plain, where are the 
tmains of a fmall temple adorned with hieroglvphics 
JGih within and without, that ffems by thr. many 
iiwks cut in it, to have been dedicated to Apollo. At 
iXDcdiftance are the remains of a iiramifiil building, 
iat appears too grand for a Chnftjan church on the 
iiftcftablilhoifnt of Chriftianity in the fourth-century J 
fet it has crones cut on fome of the Itonen, with Coptic 
huntings and infcriptions in ni^iny parts of ir, that are 
daftered: there are, however, little remains of the edi- 
ice, except at the welt end, where the rooms had 
pllcries over them, which tniglic be for the women. 

On the ifith of January we went on with very licde 

wad, and fhot at a crocodile, as he was going into 

ttie water from a fandy iile. We had reafon to be- 

KcTc the ball ftruck him ; for inftead of walking in 

ibwly, as is ufua! with them, he opened hi^ mouth 

»iti jumped five or fix f-ret inro the watei'. The next 

iJay we came to Efne on the weft, a confiderable 

for thofe parts ; we went afhore and ftaid about 

w, when the men wanting a ftone for ballaft, 

wpic knowing I was an European, would not 

m take ic 'ma> the boat i 'faying, th^t if the 

Q 3 Fraivka 


Franks took away that ftone, they wouM, by the^ 
magic art, draw away their hidden treafures. This 
place, and the antiquities about it, I faw in my re- 
turn. I had letters to the caifaif, who was then ab? 
fent ; but I had feen him before, and his people were 
ready to go with me. 1 carried letters and a prefent 
to one of the ferifs, who went with me to fee the 
tcinple. [It is clofcd on three fides, and in the fifont 
are 24 columns that appeared well preferved. It is 
remark,able, that in all this temple one capital of a 
column does not refemble another ; the proportioA 
is the fame, but the ornaments are difierent. The 
infide of this edifice is blackened by the fmoke of 
fire formerly made there ; however, all the pans are 
well preferved, except the gate, and the interme- 
diate fpaces between the front columns, which have 
been filled up. by the Arabs, in order to Ihut up their 
cattle in the temple, which at prefent ferves for no 
other ufe.] 

We alfo went about three miles to the north-weft 
to fee another temple, which I ("onjeftured might be 
tlie ten. pie of Pallis, at Lacopolis, where both that 
goddefs and the fi(h Latus were worfhippcd. On 
the infide aie three ftories of hieroglyphics of men 
^bout three feet high, and at one end the lowcft 
figures are as big as the life ; one of them, I obfervcd, 
had the head of the Ibis -, and in feveral parts of the 
wall I faw the figure of a woman fitting. This 
temple appears to have been ufed as a church ; for I 
faw fome Coptic infcriptions in black letters on the 
v/alls, and was told that there had been a convent 

A mile to thefouth of Efne is the monaftery of St. 
Helena, by whom it is faid to have been founded; but 
it has been more commonly calfed the Convent of the 
Mart)TS. Here is a great burial ground, not lefs 
than a mile round. Many of the tombs are magni- 
ficent, they having a dome on four arches, with a 
little cupola on the top. The convent, with its 


TRA^PLS thiough «S9 

r church, are however but mean : there ar^ only two 
monks in ic^ who capnot marry ; but thrir lelatibns, 
both women and children, live with thctn. This is 
ihe laft church in Eoypt. 

On the 20th we came to Etfou, which was once the 
Great Apo)linopolis. I went to the fheik's houle, 
..ith a letter from the fecik of FourOiout. When he 
sr,cw who it was from, he fcifled the letter and put 
;: 10 his forehead} as a mark of refpe£t I made aim 
1 handfome prefent, which he received with great 
tiirUity ; and when the letter was read, and I defired 
to lee the ruins, he put his hand up to his head, as a 
□lark of his compliance, and that he took me under 
hi pro[e>5lion. He himfelf went with me and Ihewed 
me the temple, and a grand pyratnidal gate. [This 
hit monument of antiquity is perfectly wcllprefcrvcdj 
r ji the Turks have coiivertcd it into a citadel. There 
-'-ns all round a krai -circular corona, fuch as is com* 
mool)" fcen round the Egyptian buildings. No cor- 
nice is to be feen about the edifice i but it may have 
been ruined, or have fallen down. This edifice is in 
general well defigned, and its fimpliciry gives it a 
voy pretty appe^ance. The other antique monu- 
ment is the temple which was dedicated to Apollo; 
but ihc greatcft part of it is buried under ground, 
and the Arabs have made no fcruple of employing 
what they have been able to take away, in making 
hrae vile pigeon-houfes.] 

While Iwas meafuring the ruins of the temple, a 
great many perfons came about me, and on my giving 
my book to a fervant to hold for me, a young man, 
who was the (heik's nephew; fnatched it out of his 
hand, and ran away with it. The Ihcik and my fer- 
vjnt ran after him. Mean while I continued meafur- 
ing and writing on another paper, till the fheik re- 
"-ned with his pike, having thrown ofF his outward 

mcnt whcD he went in fear^h of his nephew, whom 

jfaid he would have killed had he overtaken him. 

* brothers had been competitors for the govern- 
O 4 meat 


ment of this village •, and the Iheik now condufte^ 
me to his houfe, where matters were carried fo far, 
that I was afraid we (hould have fuffcred in the tUr 
mult, the brother being favoured by many of the 
people. I was defirous of going to the boat ; but 
was told, that the flieik would be offended if I did , 
not fiay to eat with him. I was privately informed 
that I might have my note-bcok, if 1 would give. 
about ihc value of a crown; to which I confented, 
;irjd it wan cccordingly brought me. \Vc now fat 
dov/n to cat out ot a large wooden bowl, full of 
thi.n cakes broke into fniall bits, with a fyrup mixed 
with them : but the iheik fat at a diftance, and would 
no; tat witli us. Afterward he mounted his horic, 
and attcncli^d me to the boat, followed by fevcral 
pericn'^; iW.d having made nu* a prefent of a (heep, 
c.mic i;Ko the boar, and ordered a letter to be writ- 
tr:\ to tiie erer.t fneik. About an hour after the fheik 
leit u% liis i'Mi came riding to the river, to inform" 
u?, tiiat his faihir having been told I had given mo- 
nt-V to have my book: rellored, had obliged them to 
rciurn ir, r.wd had lent it to me. Thus this worthy 
j\]\\h pave an inllance of fidelity is rarely to be 
n-cr Vviih. 

Y\*e novv' {a:l:d on, nnd a^ we approached toward 
TT-j.-ir y ilciiy, the rocks on thi* wefttrrn fhore appeared 
a'> i: cut for a iirand iratev/ay. A little farther to the 
foil Ik J l\\.' five regular entrances into grottos, cut 
eq':.?iiy d:lbnt in ti":e rock, and above them a cor- 
nice, or half round, feemcd to have crowned the 
v.urk j b'jt only the half round remained. Procced- 
irq; to i!a',ar Silciiy, or the; reck of tlie chain, the 
Nik' f-;r"v/ e:;i\eJing narrow and rapid*, for 1 fup- 
rr.iv It is n-K above loo yards wide, the rocks en- - 
c:-.\u:!iing upon the river on each fide. It had its 
i-'.-.'-.e ..■.;m a ehain bcinii formerly drawn acrols, to 
("' :'v.;:J. ilicn.'.O-, and I was lliewn a rock on the caft-", v. iiLi-e 1 v.:i3 told the ch;iin v/as falleiied. 


S thcough-E G ¥ P T* soi . 

[On die infides of the grottos there is not fiiffident 

lUr-Iigtit to ditUtisujfti objefts ; the light entering '. 
oaly at the door oTcach grotto : this gave me Came 
o»cem, but at length I perceived an openiifg at the 
cop, which ^lowid mc nie view of four figures ia 
ilto relievo. ' thcf are of the natural Gzei two men 
Fit in ihe middle^ with their arms laid aaafs time 
brads, and on^each fide fits a woman, who takes hoM 
r4' the arm of the man who is next her. I couM noc- 
Utelingajuft^eteftationatthe malice and fuper* . 
•» of the Turks and Arabs, who have ftraiigel^' 
med thefe figures, efpecially in the face. On ' 
e Edc of this group is an hleroglyphical table, cue 
'ndb rdicvo, with much pains; and whac'gives it 
JKU value is, its being perfeftly well prcjenred to- 
t prdent rime^ though the rock in which all tfaefc 
{jTOvios are cut, confifts only of a yellowifli fandy 
itonc- Tlie hicroglypliical table probably contains 
ihc epitaphs of the perfons whofc bodies have been 
iiiclofed in this grotto. J 

A little above this place the Nile rcfumed its natu- 
ral breadth, and there is a fandy ground, with a gentle 
alirent on each fide. We afterward paffcd by fi^ral 
Tandy illands, on which we faw many crocodiles ; par- 
ticularly on one there were near 20 of them, which 
fcemed to be from 1 5 to 20 feet long. On our Ihoot- 
ingatthem, about half of thctn went into the water i 
nd on our firing a fccond time, ihey all difappearecL 
We afterward came to a large ifland, to the eaft or 
wKch is the village of Com-Ombo. [The principal 
I nonumcnt in the place is fituated behind a mountain 
1 of fand, and on another fide is concealed by fome 
L nifcrable cottages -, but thefe cannot prevent a curi- 
un traveller contcmplaring with great fatisfaftion . 
iMe beautiful ruins. The building refts upon twcnty- 
tce well wrought pillars, adorned with hierogly- 

We now proceeded to the port of Lafticrrad, where 
K cffluf of Efiic was encamped ; wc would have 


paficd him, but his men called to us» and the boat- 
man did not dare to proceed* We were thus (topped, 
becaufe by the covering of our boat we were judged 
to be Europeans. I had letters to the ca(hif i out 
did not know that he was the perfon to whom they 
were diredcd. I carried him a prefent of coffee^ to- 
bacco, and fome other things ; which be faid I had 
no occafion to give him : be readily confented to mj 
feeing the antiquities ; but the Arab flieiks of La(her- 
rad being preient, oppofed it. On this I returned 
to the boar, and pafllng by feveral iflands, arrived on 
the evening of the zifk at Ailbuan, a poor fmall 
town, wiih a kind of fortrefs, or rather barracks for 
the janizaries, who have in reality the command of 
the country. On my waiting on the aga of the jani- 
zaries with letters from Muftaphat aga of the janizar 
ries at Girge, and from the fheik of Fourlhout, he 
treated me with cofiee, and made me a prefent of a 
lamb ; and,- in return, I fent him a prefent of tobacco, 
rice, coffee, and other things. He very obligingly 
^ent two janizaries to guard the boat, and invited mc 
to take a lodging in an apartment that belonged to 
his oi^n houfe, though ieparate from it. The Chrif- 
tian fecretai y of the caimacam, or civil governor, tel- 
ling me that I Ihould make his matter a prclcnt, the 
people and janizaries about the boat ordered him to 
get outof ic, there being a jealoufy between the civil 
and military power. The aga, on being informed of 
this, lent me word that I need not make prefents to 
any one : this he repeated on my waiting upon him, 
adding, that he would take me under his protc6Hon, 
lb that no one fliould injure me ; I therefore removed 
to tiie lodging he had allotted. A Turk belonging 
to Ofman bey, who happened to be there, kindly 
olicred his advice on all occaGons, viGted me, and 
brougiit mc a prefent of a dozen of pigeons and fome 
dates. Son^.e other Turks came to fee me -, and one 
of them, as a token of refpeft, brought me the 
trifling prefent of a bunch of radiflies. 


TRAVELS tbnmgh EGYPT, ap| 
Oa the eminence 'Over Aflouan are the niins of the 
city of Syene, which is exa&ly under the cro- 
c^ Cancer ; but the principal pare of that citf 
1313 to have been on a lower hill to the fouth. Abouc 
t middle, between the brow of the lull afld the 
\ isa building, chat may poflibly be the obfeiv 
itory dcfcribed by Strabo, as erected over t well for 
Baking aftronomical pbiervations : the holes it the 
p, which are much larger below than above, I imi- 
ne were to try the experiment tn relation to the flw*' 
rws at noon-day, 

Having viewed diefe ruins, I went about a oiile tD 
e foutb-eall, to the quarries of granite t for the 
■mtry to the eaft, the bed of the river, and the 
uds, are all red granite. The quarries are not 
tiusAia deep; bpt the ftone is hewn fxK of the 
K of the low hills. I obferved fome columns and 
^obeliflc marked out in the quarries, and Oiapedtm * 
fides : they fecnied to have worked in round the 
with a narrow tool, and when the ftones were 
feparated, they probably forced them out with 
Oppofiic to Sycnc is the ifland Elephantine *, in 
.«hich was a city of that name. It is about a mile ii) 
'^B^jth, and at the fouth-end a quarter of a mile 
in Eveadth : but to the north it ends in a point. In 
$hts Mland there was a temple to Cnuphis, and a niJo- 
fncoer, to meafure the rile of the Nile. I obfcrved 
Acre the remains of a fmall temple, before which is 
le about eight feet high, fitting with the hands 
on the breaft, and a tituus in each. On a wall 
the temple is a Greek infcription, which is in 
parts defaced. In the midfl of the ifland are 
ins of one fide of a magnificent gate of red gra- 
finely adorned with hieroglyphics. [Among 
T ruins, I found an amient edifice Itill ftanding, 
im^h covered with earth at the top, as well as on 
ht fide : it is ftill called the temple of the ferpenc 
pm^his ; but it refembles a fepulchral monument 

!f Mr. Nordea bya, the prciciit pame of the iflaod it Ell-Sa^. 


more than a temple. It is incloffd by a kind of cloyf- 
ter, fupported by columns. This inclofurc contains 
a grand apartment that has two large gates, the one to 
the north, the other to the fouth ; and the infidc is 
almoft entirely filled with Hones and earth. The walk, 
covered with hieroglyphics, are bedaubed with dirt, 
and blackened by the fraoke of fires made there by 
the fliepherds. In the midtl of that apartment I ob- 
fervcd a plain fquare table, without any infcription, 
and imagined that there might be underneath an uni 
or mummy, and I was tempted to get it lifted up; but 
the fuperftition of the people would not permit if. 
A trav-eller w^uld think himlclf happy, in having the 
liberty to obferve theic antient edifices in quiet ; and 
he muft not attempt any thing farther. I lliall never 
forget that, on our cafting ianchor before AlTouan, 
the populace ran in crouds to lee, as they faid, the 
forcerers experienced in the black art.] 

I afterward fet out from Aflbuan, and rid toward 
Phite*, paffing near the quarries, and going along a 
load that feems to Iiave been mdde by art, between 
little hills and rocks of red granite, fome of which 
were ditlinguiihcd by having hicroglypliics carved 
upon them : this road was divided into two parts by 
a mound in the middle of it. \Vc at length paffed 
over the ifland of Phil?c, which is high and very 
fmall, it not being above a quart-r of a mile long, 
and half a quarter broad. The city Items to have 
been on the eaft fide, and it appears thr.t there were 
no other buildings on the iQind, but v.-hat had a rela- 
tion to the temples ; for Diodorus k-ems to infinu- 
ate, that no perfcn but the prirfts v/ere permitred to 
land, on account of the facrednefs of the place : and 
accordingly the whole ifland appears to have been 
walled round, foniething in the manner of modem 
fortification, and great part of that v/all (till remains. 
The particular fort of Ethiopian hawk worfliipped 

• The modern name of this ifiard is, according to Mr. Nprdcn, 
EJJ HcilF. 

TRAVELS throujgh EGYPT. 205 

here, I obfcrved cut among the hieroglyphics in fc- 
vcral parts, and rcprcfented with a long neck, ex- 
tended wings, and a ftrpent coming out from ir. 
The temple of tlic hawk is built of freeftone, near 
the warer, on the wcil fide of the ifland. 

To the caft of this ftrudturc is [according to Mr. 
Nordcn, the temple of Ifis] an oblong fquarc build- 
ing open on all fides. The capitals of the pillars, 
which have fome refemblance to thofe of the Corin« 
thian order, may be reckoned among the moft beau- 
tiful in tgypt, and were probably. of the lafl: inven- 
tion, they being the only capitals of that kind I faw 
in Egypt. 

Returning about half a m le the way we came, we 
turned off to the weft, in order to take a view of the 
catara& ; when having proceeded about a mile far- 
ther, we came to the port for the boats that come 
fiom Ethiopia, where we found moft of the people 
negroes. Here is no village, but only fome little 
huts made of mats and reeds. At this place the peo- 
ple enter their goods, and convey them by land to 
Aflbuan ; and in the fame manner the goods brought 
from Lower Egypt arc alio conveyed thither by land 
from AflSiuan. The chief impjort here confifts in 
dates, which the jx^ople of Afibuan buy, bo:h for 
their own ufe, and to fend it into other parts of Egypt : 
fo that on both fides, the Egyptian and Ethiopian 
r.avigation end at the cataract. I never faw nature 
difcover fo rough a face as tliere : on the eaft-fide 
nothing is to be fcen but rocks, on the weft the hiih 
are cither fandy or black rocks ; above to the fouth 
there fcems to be a high rocky ifland, and higher up, 
rocky clifcs on each fide •, and bclov/ to the north arc 
1*0 many rocks, that little of the w.itcr can be fecn. 
We now went on to the north, the Nile running 
through the rocks : but the people knowing that I 
came to Le llv: cataract, ilocd Hill ; upon which I 
alked them, whvn I flio jIJ cuinc tu it ? and to my 
great furprilc, they told luc that was the caiaraft. 

4o6 POCOCKE and NORDEi^s 

The bed of the Nile is eroded by rocks of graniiev 
which in three places, at fome diftancc from cadi 
other, divide the ftrcam, making three falls at each. 
The firft we came to was the leaft^ the fall appearing 
to be not more than three feet. The fecond, which 
i& a little lower down the river, winds round a large 
Fock or ifland, forming two dreams : this ifland, to 
the north, may be about la feet high, and it isliud, 
that at high water, the Nile runs over this rock; 
but fuppoling the river to be then five feet higher 
below the rock, the fall may be about feven or oght 
feet. Farthcf to the weft are other rocks, and again 
to the weft of them is a third ftream. Gooig foooe- 
what lower, I obfcrved a third fall, which appeared 
to be greater than that of the others. There is an- 
other catarad at Ibrim, which is faid to be i a days 
journey from this place : fome alio fay there is anocbcr 
catarad): -, and others, that there are feven mountains 
and feven cataradls. 

I here faw the corn in ear in the latter end of 
January : the coloquinrida was full grown, and the 
little apple called Nabok was almoft ripe, which in 
Delta was ripe in November. In tlic lower parts of 
Egy[ t, the time of growth for fiich fruit, I fuppofe 
to be after the overflowing of the Nile; but here, 
after the great heats are pait. I now faw the people 
driving camels loaded wit!\ fenna, and was told that 
each load was worth 200 medins, or near 12 s. 6d. 
The bafla grants a licenfe to one perfon, who is gene- 
rally a Jew, to buy all tl.e fcnna -, he is obliged to 
take all that is brought to Cairo, and one Engiiib 
merchant only has the privilege of purchafing it of 

On mv return to AfTouan, the rela:ions of a foldier 
I havl brought from the flieik of f burlhout, as a mark 
of rel|:.cft, lent me a fupp^T rea-Jy drelVed, in hopes, 
I fuppofe:, of a return of greater value. And the 
laft cvLuing I was there the aga likewife lent me a 

fuppcr ot goats flefli, boiled and well peppered, pi- 

TRAVELS through EGYPT. 207 

hWf barley-broth, and hot bread ; defiring that v^hat 
was left might be given to the boatmen, and not to 
his people. 

The next day, having all my goods put on board, 
I cook leave of the aga, and fome of his relations at- 
tended me to the boat -, when the wind not permit- 
ting us to begin our voyage back, I paflfed the day 
in the boat with thofe who came to fee me. Among 
the reft I was vifited by a genteel man, brother to the 
caimacam of Girge : I had feen him at the aga's, 
and was' now in a country where I thought I met with 
a friend wherever I faw.a Turk, or a pcrlbn of the 
middle parts of Egypt. He behaved with great civi- 
Iky, and feemed to be a very good fort of a man. 
The Chriftian fecretary of the caimacam, intruded 
me with a letter, and a fum of money, of the value of 
three or four pounds, to be delivered as direAed in 
Akmim ; a very great fum in that country, and a 
Cruft he would fcarcely have repofed in one of his 
own country that was going to Cairo ; though he was 
iendble I fliould foon leave Egypt, and he would 
never fee me more. ' He at the fame time prefcnted 
me a live ftieep, and in return I made him a prefcnt. 

[As Dr. Pococke proceeded no farcher up the Nile, 
we fhall, before we follow him back to Cairo, attend 
Mr. Norden as far as Deir, or Derri. The aga at 
Aflbuan, and other perfons in that town had intcrcllcd 
themfelves in his fatety, and ufcd every argument to 
prevent his advancing farther, obfciving thut he would 
infallibly be dellroyed, fince he was not going among 
men, but among favage monllers, who would mur- 
der a man for a parrot : in what manner then will 
they deal with you, faid the aga, who carry fuch trea- 
furcs ? But all his arguments had no efFeft, and Mr, 
Norden refolved to proceed. The aga, notwithfl-und- 
ing his fears for his fafety, fcnt his own brother to 
accompany him : he had alfo with him a' janizary, 
vith feveral Komifh priells, who had come with him 
i3p the Nile, bcfide fervants and a Jew valet, Being 

lo8 POCOCKE and NORDEN'* * 

furnifhed with letters of recommendation to the prin^ 
cipal perlbns on the coaft, they fct out^ while the na- 
tives cook leave of them, as of perlbns doomed to 

Mr. Nordeii fet out from AfTouan on the iiA of 
December, a month before Dr. Pococke's arrival it 
that town ; and by the aga's order had 1 3 dromeda- 
ries, 3 horfes, and as many afles, to Carry him, his 
artendi'.nrs, and baggage, to the haven of Morroda, 
above the cataraft. He there embarked in a boat; 
with his atrcndancs ; viewed the antiquities already 
defcribed by Dr. Pccocke, in the antient iflc of Phib^ 
and proccev^ing up the river, loon reached Deboudr, 
a village v. here he could have wifhed to land, in or- 
der to exturiine lome antient edifices thit appeared in 
fifirhr : bii: liie wind being favcunible, he was obliged 
10 h'j i:.L s^;:cd with a diftar.t view of them. He ob- 
lervc^ a :,r.\r.J cJincc of great length, built of very 
b.rge tVi.'-'l::n?s, doled en all fides, except the front, 
v.hrrc tl:cic is a erca: gate, and as it were two win- 
dows en c\:ch ikle, fornicd by four columns. This 
i*" ir> cn:cnipuircd with a high wall, much da- 
rr.a', c:"pt'.:!aily toward the porcal. Oppofite the 
iron: :ire three portals lucceedinj^, one another, which 
Iceiii Lo n:nkc a paiVagc leading to a canal 40 feet 
broad, that terminates in the Niie. This canal is 
tiilL-d v.irh land, but its borders are lined with a thick 
Wail. There are cciumi^ to be perceived on the in- 
fuse of tl:c prin^if al Cviilice, which appears to have 
ant:cr»ily llT^cd as a icn:pic: but bcfidc iliis ftrufture, 
t!K'^^: is -Ji v;ic modern piece of itcnc-v.oik, that dif- 
hcnci:rs thaler a-itieut buildings, and renders the prof- 
pect a ilalc conhiled. For ahR)ve the fpace of a quar- 
ter c;" a L-agu^, ihe walls and foundations of Tuperb 
cdiilccs were iVen on every fide ; but all are in ruins,* 
a::d iihvjoli covered with land. Near TcH'a, which is 
en the cor fines ot Egypt and Nubia, they alfo faw 
fonne remains of antient buildings, which like the 
lat^, were bui'tof v/hiie Itones, perfcftiy v;?Il joined 
5 tvgethen 

TRAVELS through. EGYPT. 209 

her. The columns on the infide are ftill fubfift- 
but chofe thac were without are ruined. 
: eight in the evening, when they were not above 
i-fliot diilant fro;ii the village, an incident hap- 
d that let them know the cnara&er of the inha- 
ts. Thefe ordered them to bring the barque to 
that they might fee the Franks, and have feme 
ic riches they carried with them : but this being 
k1, a mufket was fired at the barque from each 
)f the river ; this infult was returned by a double 
ai^ of feven mufkecs toward the place whence 
Dice came : but the natives having hid themfelves 
id fome ftones, received no damage. They were 
ver filent for fome time ^ but foon refuming their 
ge^ began to fire again, and to give abufive Ian- 
e. This did not pleafe thofe in the barque: 
therefore called out to them, that if they did 
eCft, they would land, and entirely exterminate 
; which had its eStHj and no more was heard of 
le next day, there being no wind, they lay be- 

I village named Scherck Abohucr, which has a 
5t of near two leagues in extent ; the pilot, 
was a native of the place, afluring them that 
would find his countrymen a good fort of peo- 
ind that they might land with the utmoU fafety. 

r. Norden vifned the adjacent parts, and at a 
diftanceobfervcd along tf.eNilc an antique quay, 
of Hones, all cut in the form of prifms, and 

II joined togciiiL-r, that there was not the leall 
between. Near it v.cie five or fix cottages built 

ftones, enf itely covered with hieroglyphics j but 
Jifice e'ould he dilcovered whence they wcr^ 
. The greateib bre;iJtU of the land, from the 
itains to the border of the N ik, is in this diftri:t 
ore than i oo paces. 

ic wind being fair at eight o'clock the next mora- 
thcy immediately fet fail ; Mr. Norden took a 
of fcveral viiiQges, and fom^ inconfidcrabk 
)L. VL P xvixww. 

iio POCOCKE and NORPE^s 

ruins. They now came n> the mod difficuk paffM 
in the whole Nile. The river here is entirely croftd 
by rocks, concealed under the water i at the fides of 
thefe rocks the rirer is of great depth, and the inter- 
mediate fpaces form eddies or whirlpools. Thofe vi 
the barque conduced themfelves with all the preao- 
tion that ib dangerous a paflage required ; but the 
misfortune was, that the barque did not obey the nid- 
der: (he (Iruck upon a rock, and continued in a 
frightful fituation. She was taken hold of precilclj 
in the middle, and the whirl of the water made her 
turn upon the rock as upon a pivots Happily die 
current and the wind beat againfl: the barque at the 
fame time, and this was their fafety ; the barque, by 
this means, m a hctle time, difengaged itfelf without 
farther afTiflance, and thofe on board took fuch ad* 
vantage of the wind, that they were foon out of dan- 
ger. At length they arrived at Schemederelcbied, t. 
village where they ftaid all night. 

The next morning they fet ikil from thence^ and 
foon after an adventure happened which (hews the dif- 
pofition of thefe people. Mr. Norden was examin* 
ing the names of the places by which he had pafled 
the preceding day ; the commander of the veffel, and 
the Jew valet were fitting near him, and repeating 
the names of thofe places that were already written, 
while he corrected them by their pronunciation ^ when 
a piiflenger (laning up, threw himfelf upon Mr. Nor- 
den, fi^ized the paper he held in his hand, and tearing 
it ill piece?, retired quietly to his place, where he fit 
down as if nothing had happened. Mr. Norden not 
bcinc; able to uiulcrftand the meanins; of this infih 
knee, was reflecting with himielf whether he Ihould 
rrfent it or nor, when thofe who were prefent burft 
into a loud laugh. Upon this he a(ked the reafoHy 
and they ex[)iained to \\\m the whole myftery. The 
fellow WIS unwilling he fhould know the place froAr 
whence he came, becanfe he might return feme fcais 
after into NuUia, and bringing more people with hiifl, 



|t|l|j,ml hid i( in. wrmng,; be.flni^^ 
faiie.o£ Jw i^Kdui^ the pliper^ iir;»ludi>«fif 

»*bu(.to wevcDt the canfeqiMMWi 
r. for the fucmf hi» affiicn^ 
^ di^inihg th&commirK^ thr-^vitffeirti 
jpetr th&hMk, «dd piKtl^ciii^iici^ttt««i 
p(7«[dding» /^ J'he ban^jM i^. eotir^ piirs>£ ii i» ' 

* ^xktv^ inioidid^: we'fh#vtoi;n iiim fOUt^ 
waipiddftd a • pi0bi^[pr, .4Mi«r . hvMllr 
ft; and prcxni^ tch bMhMc-ktmdli 
_ oa which Mr. Nordea iu&itsfiJBm . 

^.^QR^mMop^ andtb^maa&am thactKbt. 
iwrtaftd tradablfii . , ^^ - > 

llltHiieaii time they paflblfaf itrveialiotliBr vil^ 
iiand.tbt^ wind falling cald^ they faOftned th« 
It. on the weftern. fiiorc, near a* village naioed 
|9»i<( the neighbourhood of whkh arer<*ite rc^ 
aM^' antiquities^ built in the ahtient E^ptiaii 
. ^tThefe ruios are in a plain covered with raiid( ' 
t-fntaiomc* broken walla there appeal" w havt 
<Kliei:;btttldiogs of a vail extent. 
jic.aeji; morniug cbey again ijbt failf anKdv-bi/ ch^ 
^fM- appcoaching a viUage named. Kovalkoff^ 
ie4 -<>»' the eaftern ihorei/ the natives caUed <hiC 
eoi< 16 bring the barque to laod. They obeyed^ 
:hcn heard that the Scborbatfchte^ the father of 
aiSiif Ibrim^ was therQ at his ctiuntry houlei 
3 this they went afhore, and Mn Nprden waited 
, . tlus potentate, accompanied by tbOi aga of 
iM-« brother^ riie Jew valet, and^ thejaninrir 
tBiCfiC; with; them asia guard,* They Samd thr 
; man feaced in the middle of a. field, expaled tm 
le heat rfli_ the Axn, : and vemployfil in deciding A 
ICC between civo liicn about a camel. He tiad 

F 2 ^^ 

Ill PoCOCKE and NOkbfeK^i 

the look of a wclf, and was drefied Kke a be^^lA 
An old napkin, which was formerly white, macfehil 
turbant y and a red drefs, (till mofe old, fcarce cover- 
ed his body, which appeared through the holes. Mn 
Nordeh faluced him iii the ordinary manner ; but as 
he had brought no prefent^ he did hot fo much as afk 
him to fit down ; but he placed himfelf by him, with- 
out aiking his permiffion, and put into his hands the 
letters the aga of Allbuan and his fon had furniflid 
him with. The latter he put in his turbant, but 
read the others with great attention i after which ht 
turned to thofe who were pleading, each of whom 
feemed to imagine he Ihould gain his caufe by dint of 
hoife. The Schorbatfchie iometimes intermixed his 
voice, and made himfelf fo well heard, that it could 
hot be doubted but that he was the judge. 

As this trial feemed as if it would not be ibon end- 
cdj Mn Nbrden ordered the Jew to fpeak to the 
cfFendi, who was prefent, in order to prevail on the 
Schorbatfchie to difpatch him fpeedily. This the 
efFendi did ; and on the Schorbatfchie's hearing from 
him that the Jew was Mr. Norden*s interpreter, he 
alked him, why his mafter had not brought him a 
good prefent ? " You go too faft, replied the Jew. 
What, alk for prefents before you have done him the 
leaft fcrvice ! Shew yourfelf his friend, and you will 
fee that he will pay you well." This flattering hope 
entirely changed the gentleman's behaviour : he af 
fumed an air of mildnefs ; faluted Mr. Norden, and 
told him that he had nothing to do but to go to Def- 
ri; that he would be there before him, where he 
would give him entire fiitisfaction. At the fame time 
he ordered his fon to conduft him to his country 
houfe, to fliew it him, and to fend a goat as a prefent 
to the barque. 

■ Mr. Norden by this means faw his country-ieat, 
which might with more propriety be termed altable^ 
and while he was looking at it, his conductor chofc 
from leven or eight (he-goats the pooreft he could 


TRAVELS through EGYPT. 213 

find. As they were returning to the barque, the Jew 
told Mr. Norden, that the enendi, who was a native 
of Cairo, had (hewed great, lurprize, at their having 
dared to advance b tar; and obferved, that they 
might think themftlves h^ppy if they efcaped in 
(afety : but he feemcd to give little attention to 
this difcourfe. On hjs arrival at the barque, he found 
that the goat^ lean as (he was, was become a bone of. 
contention. The crew laid claim to it, and main* 
tained that the Schorbatfchie had fent it for their fup- 
per ; the commander of the vefle) fided with them ; 
but (he valet being unwilling to furrender it, the dif- 
pute grew warm, and Mr. Norden was obliged to 
mainuin his right by ferious menaces^ but having 
thus determined the property of the goat in his own 
favour, he gcneroudy made a prefent of it to the 

Mr. Norden had no fooner fct fail, than the com<^ 
mander of th(: barque declared, that he would not 
upon any confideration carry him farther than Derri -, 
and nothing fhould induce him co procecrd to the fe- 
cond c^taraft. f hefc cjilqourles, added to the eflen- 
^i's advice^ caufed Mr. Norden to make fcveral feri- 
ous reflcftions : but he was too far engaged to draw 
back, and was refolvcd to continue advancing to fee 
what would be the refuh of it. In the mean time, 
be thought proper to impofe filence on the comman- 
der of the velTel, and to allure him, in what manner 
focvcr things might turn out, they (Hould always have 
It in their power to dcmolifh him : and that if any 
ir.isforiunc bcicl them, they fliouid confidcr him a^ 
|he author of it, and be fure to make him the firft 
victim. Theie menaces madv^ him change his tone^ 
aod he fworc, that if Baram Calhif, to whom the 
boat belonged, would permit it, he would, with all 
bis heart, convey them as far as he could fail : but 
he eachorted Mr. Norden and his attendants to take 
^are of offending that tyrant, of whom he <>;.ive a 
^readtul defcription, though he was his mailer. 

P 3 ^ 

2t4 I^OCOCKE and NORDfiN**' 

A calm comity on, md the current driving iham 
back, they faftened the barque near Amada, a ^dfiaK 
on the weftem (hore, almoft oppofice to Koroflcol^ 
where Mr. Norden landed, in order to fee an aofient 
Egyptian temple, which in length of time had gD( 
into the hands of the Chriftians. On the walls ut 
paintings of the Trinitj'', the apofUes, and fe^cr^ 
or her faints; and where the plafter has fallen ofi^ the 
hieroglyphics that are underneath begin to appear 
This temple is ftill entire -, ' but a mbnailcrv, that 
had been built near it, is abfolucely ruined. *'*' 

Mr. Norden having taken a drawing of it with- 
drew ; he had perceived no body on the way, but 
near the barque he met with one of the natives on 
horfeback, entirely naked, only his breaft was cover- 
ed with a goat's (kin. He was armed' with a long 
pike, and a buckler made of the (kin of a rhinoceroa. 
This trian flopt him ; but after afking him fbme qocC- 
tions, and finding he was not undcrftood, rode off. 

The Nile was here fo (hallow, that in fcvcral places 
the barque could fcarcely pafs. : •■ 

The next morning^ ' the wind being north, they 
were obliged to tow the boat along the (hore during 
the whole day- It was now remarked, that the flope 
of the (hore of the river was for the mod part cover- 
ed with lupines and radi(hes, and the feed of which 
ferves for making*^oil. * There were likewife fomc 
other plants, fuch as fuccory and' burner. ' Mr. Nor- 
den remarked here an old method of crofling the Nik. 
Two men were' fitting on a trufs of ftraw, whilea 
cow fwimming before, one of them held in one hand 
her tail, and with the other goidcd die beaft by a 
cord faftentd to her horns : the other man, who was 
behind, (leered with a little oar, by means of which, 
he kept at the fame time the balance. ' The fame dayi 
he likewife faw fome loaded camels croffine the river: 
A man fwimming before, held the bridle of the firft 
camel in his mouth -, the fecond camel was fiftened 
to the tail of the firfV, and the third to the tail of the 


THAVELS thrmigh EGYPT* 215 

iccond^ while another man brought up the rear, and 
tock care that the fecond and third camck ihould fol- 
tow in a ipw. 

Two days after they arrived at Deir or Derri, which 
is fituated on the ealtern fliore of the Nilq, pretty 
near the place whe;^ the river begins to direct its 
cQbrie toward the weft. The news of their arrival 
had gone befbre them ; for on their f:iftening their 
harqu^ to land, a croud- of people were running in 
wder to fatisfy their curiolity by ieeiag them« Mr. 
Norden being told tfiat {he Schorbatfchie was re- 
corued, and had alTeoibled other princes at his houfe^ 
imtnediately waited on hin^, attended by one of the 
priefts, who undeHlood the language^ and the Jew 
valet. They found thefe petty princes in a grand 
dnnn, and were received with much civility. Baram 
cafliif £it as prefident, ||nd, ^ifter the firft cpmpli- 
mcBts, let Mr. Nordeii know, that they had been 
confulting together about him ^ and a^ they intended 
Id promote his voyage^ they had thought it was beft 
for him to ftay at Derri ti]l the arrival of the new ca- 
fliif, when they Oiould go to war with a people that 
dwelt in the neiorhbourhood of the iccoad pataravft ; 
and as they fliould lead an army of 500 men, he would 
travel in good company, and with the utrnQft fafcty. 
The whole divan teftified their being of the fame 
fentinients : but Mr. Norden, perceiving that a plot 
was laid for him, anfwered. That he and thole with 
hizn preferred continuing their voyage upon the Nile 
in the barque they had hired ; but thar, however, 
they would confider on the offer which had Iktch 
made'th^m. Baram caOiif being then informed 
Mir. Norden defired to have a private conference with 
•hiriiy he ' confejited, and appointed the hour. On 
which our traveller rofe up, faluted the divan, and 
returned to the barque, in order to confult with his 
companions in the voyage, on the meafures molt pru- 
dent to be taken, 

E 4 The 


The propofal of the divan, joined to what du^ 
had been told at Aflbuan, made every one think it 
would be madnefs to go any farcher ; and that it wa; 
ncceflary to turn back as fobn as poflible. At the 
hour appointed Mr. Norden waited upgn Ban^m o^ 
Ihif, and informed him, that thece were none of then 
in a condition to bear fo long a journey by land, and 
that they begged of him, as a favour, that he wouk) 
oblige the commander of the barque to convey them 
to the lecond cataradt. He anfwered, that the barque 
was his ; that if his forvant had engaged to carry 
them farther, he had exceeded his orders : that be- 
fide, the. water of the Nile wa? top (hallow to render 
it poflTible to go up the Nile as far as the catarafi \ 
that they ^ould be forced to ftop fomc where upon 
the way with his barque, which wo.uld be a grea( 
lofs to him. Mr. NorJen replied, " Since it is not 
pofnble to advance by water, and on the other band 
we arc unable to go by land, we have no other mca- 
fure to take but to return back." " You m^iy, h^ 
replied, but it fhall not be with my barque. I want 
it ; and you muft take your things out of it as ibon 
as poflible." 

Mr. Norden could not now doubt of the bad dc- 
figns formed againft him. There was then no other 
barque at Derri, and even if tlu're had been one, no- 
body would have dared to carry him in it without the 
permiflibn of this man, who was a real tyrant. * Mr. 
Nov.:;.!! therefore, by means of the Jew atid the 
prielt, cohered him all the advantages be could hope 
for in le:ting the barque, and after many difficulties 
the bargain was made : the man who cOtiimanded it 
was called, and they all fwore, holding their bands 
on their beards, to (land to the agreement. Baram 
cafhif was fo fatisfied with it, that he made Mr. Nor- 
den a prefent of two new zagaies, or dans, and the 
pizzie of a young elephant, which he faid he had 
carried above ten years j and on his returning to the 


TRAVELS through EGYPT. «I7 
bttrque, he fcnc after him a goat» and a balket of 

Mr. I^orden now fent him a prefent of cobacco, 
ttroiiR liquors, and other things ; but his affairs had 
alreaoy taken ^ different turn : the Schorbgtfchie had 
heard pf the agreement, and being apprehenfive qf 
lofing, bjr the depanur^ of the boat, all the advan- 
tages he had expefted, he talked with Baram cafhif, 
9nd ipade him change his fentiments. He therefore 
rejefbed the prelenr, faying they had made a fool of 
him, ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^W^ ^^^^ things of greater value. 

The Jew returning with this report, they could 
icarce give credit to what he faid ; they, however, 
commiiTioned the father to wait oa him again. Ba- 
laoi cafhif gave him a^vcry cold reception ; told him 
a thoufand foolifh things ; and the prieft obferving, 
(bat he ought to confider f hey were under the protec- 
tion of the grand Qgnior, he anfwere^ in a feeming 
fage, ^' I laugh at the horns of thq grand fignior ; 
t am here grand fignioi; myfelf, and will teach you to 
fcfpeft me as you ought. I know already what fort 
of people you are, added he. " I have confulted my 
cup, and have fund by it, that you are thofe of 
ifvhom one of our proplitts h^s faid. There would 
come Franl^s in difgiiilV, who by little prefents, and 
by a foothing and inlinuating behaviour, would pafs 
every where ; L-^mine the Itate of the country -, go 
p make a report of it, and afterward returning with 
a great number of Franks, conquer and exterminate 
us all* But I will take care of that : you muft quit 
the barq'.:c without delay." 

The lather having at his return repeated this dif- 
counc, it v/as refolved not to quit the barque but 
with life. However, early the next morning Mr. 
Norden Waited on Baram, accompanied by the pried, 
who fpoke the language, and by the Jew. The ca- 
ihif foon appeared, repeated his accuftomed cant, 
and offered to conduft them to the cataraft : but on 
their letitin::; him know that they had no mind to go 

erS f btdCKE Od KO]l&EN% 

fhicficr, he dcAianded hrgc pitfehts. Up6i» tUk Kfr. 
T^orden afked him by what right he formed fuch piK 
feii(ion5 ; and what he Mduit py playing thus with his 
oath, and breaking the bargain he had mide ? En- 
Aged ftt thefe tepro^cs, he fwore thit he Micdd 
rfsakt thern khow who he was, knd threatened lb tadcfe 
away their lives. To yhich Mr. Norden anfwefed, 
that they fhbuld be ibk to take their n^eafures ; .aM 
quitting hitff. without taking leavie, they went imtOKh 
diately to the fcorbatichie. 

This officer, who was as great a villain as the other, 
treated them with much the fame language. On 
which Mr. Korden rofe up, and raifing his vdioe, 
cried, ** Tirll him, if they have taken their refi)hi- 
tion, we have vak^n ours, and will wait the iflllie ^Mdl 
our weapon m our hands." jUpon this he wtnt fift 
the door, and the fkther and tne Tew haying inters 
preted what ht (aid, followed him ckiiely. ~ 

As they were crolTing the market-place, in ofdef 
to haften to the barque, Baram cafhif, who was therr; 
fent for Mr. Korden, and being then in his good bd-^ 
rnour, made jhim fit down by him ; and ^during him, 
laid, he niuft cloath him like an emir, and make 
him other prcfents, which he mentioned. Mr. Nor- 
den promised to content him, provided he would im- 
mediately give orders for their departure ; tod the 
bargain feemed to be again concluded. As no ame- 
Inent was yet made with the fcorbarfchie, Mr." Nor- 
den propofcd to return to him -, but the cafliif defiicd 
that tiie others might be fcnr, and that he would ftiy 
with him till they came back. 

This being agreed to, they were no Iboner alone, 
than the cafhif ordered fome dates and water to b^ 
brought ; and treating Mr. Norden with great civi- 
lity, made him Undefttand that he fhould giyt him 
fome of his (hirts, with fome coffee, rice, &c. Thb 
he promiftd by figfis, and in broken Arabic. The 
cafhif, filled wiih joy, renewed his careflcs -, but it 
was vifible they were owing to his avarice. Botlrthe 

TTIAVELS through £GYfeT. 219 

fiftbB «n4 the Turks are accuflome d to put what 
itity ^fteem mofl: valuable in the folds of tlieir tur- 
hont/ fiid'thofe bf their fcarf; and Baram cathif 
fraiitifig to know w4|ether he did not cany Tomeching 
Suable about hiiiri, began with filling his pockets 
ividi <fafees, and then putting fdfme nito his fcarf and 
lUrbanr,' took care to fearch at the fame time whether 
he orald not find any thing in them : but Mr. Noi<- 
den had wifely taken every thing out Isefore he left 

the barque, fo that he loft both his labour and the 

*j_ . *.. - 


' ' In the mean while, the prieft and the Jew returnedj 
frtthout being able to orevail on the fchorbatfchie ; 
on whkh Baram cafhit told Mr. Norden, that if he 
Wtald (Uy with him and let the others go, he would 
ieidit hini as his own brother. But that gentleman, 
iifieV 'Ranking him for his offer, entreated him to 
^i(ii ^he affair, and give orders for ^is departure. 
.7V> this he confented ; and taking them to his houfe, 
ftiade frefh propofals ; and it was agreed, that he 
fliould' have Mr. Nordcn's fuit of deaths, a pair of 
ipiflx)!^ Ibme powder and ball, and fifteen fevillans : 
that the' fame fjm fhould be given to the fchorbat- 
JTchie ; that befide, the cafhif mould receive 35 fevil- 
lans for the hire of the barque, 6 fevillans (hould be 
S'ven to the man who was to command it, and 3 to the 
ilors. On thefe conditions thev were to fail in the 
night, that they might do it witn the greater fafety, 
The cafliif then told them, he would go and make 
the fchorbatfchie hearken to reafon, * and afterward 
borne to the barqix to fee the prefents defigned him. 
' Our travellers now hafted to the barque, where 
theyimmediatcly caufcd every thing they had bar- 
gained for to be taken out of their chefts, to prevent 
their being obliged to open them in the-prcfence of the 
calhif -, taking xrarc to conceal all their houlhold uten- 
filsi with a thoofand ufeful trifles, and to expofc no- 
thing to the fight but weipons, of which they had a 
pretty good ftock. * 

^20 POCaCKE and NORDElfi 

In about an hour Baram calhif arrived, and orderiiig 
every txvly on the bank of the Nile to retire, entered 
the bark *, and having feen his prefent, appeared well 
fatisfiedr He defired that it might be concealed from 
the fchorbatfchie, who was comings and kept till it 
grew dark^ when he woukl fend one oi his flaves ibr 
ir. But the fchorhatfchie, on his arrival, appeared 
diJatisfied \yith the bargain ; and refuling to accept 
of a piece of common red cloth, fufHcient to make 
Kim a fuit of cloaths, retired difcontented. Baram 
ca(hif, however, bid them fear nothing, for he wouU 
ftand to his agreement. Who would not have thought 
that he now a£led fincerely ? efpecially as the tnai^ 
t^'ho had the care of the boat, camp^ and faid he had 
received orders from his mailer to fail, fuid ibr that 
purpofe had put frefh merchandizes on board. Yec 
at night no flave came for the preient, and this ren^ 
dering Mr. Norden uneafy, he lent the Jew and the 
aga's brother to fee what occaHoned thjs delay : but 
after flaying till pail midnight, they returned with 
the melancholy news, that the cafhif Iwore to deftroj; 
them ; and talked of having chefts of gold before he 
would fuffer them to efcape. 

The effendi then came to the barque, and uA^ 
them, he was extremely concerned at the fad circum- 
ftances in which he faw them. ^' You have to do 
ivith devJs, and not men, faid he. I have the unhap- 
pinefs to be obliged tq live with them, I maintain 
myfclf in my pofl, becaufe I can write, which they 
cannot do themfelves : but I abhor the manner in 
which they treat ft rangers, whence no barque any 
longer comes here. I know not what it is that re- 
ftrains them with rcfpcft to you : but before your ar-: 
rival it was debated in the divan, whether they (hould 
get rid of you immediately, and in what manner they 
ihould fwt about it. After great difputes, it was 
agreed to conduct you into the defarts, under the pre- 
tence of accompanying you to tht.- cararadl. What 
they wouki have done with you when there, the pro- 

^ \>hc^ 

TRAVELS through EGYPT. Hi 

t)hct only knows : but all they laid about the war 
were lies, intended to make you fall into the. fnarc 
Believe me, you have to do with the ereateit villain 
ion earth. He has killed nine men with his own hand. 
Who were his friends, and fome of the moft powerful 
men of the country. It is this that has rendered him 
To formidable : he fupports his power by the prcfencs 
he makes to Ibme, out of what he plunders from 
bthcrs. He might be really a calhif, did he but dare 
to go to Tfchirche, to a(k for the cafTecan ; but he 
18 deterred by the complaints often carried thither 
againft him : thus he rather chules to fend thither 
Ibme filly young fellow, in whofe name he governs. 
BeGde, added the efiendi, he is drunk every night ^ 
•—he then refembles a madman —he lies with liis owj^ 
daughters.— In fliorr, he is the vilcft wretch 1 ever 

Thofe in the barque heard this dreadful characSter 
without anfwering a word ; and only alked his advice, 
which he was unable to give them. In this uncertainty 
he left them, and they continued in it the whole night. 

At break of day, a flave from the cafhif came to 
tell the commander of the barque, that he niuft 
throw all tlie baggage of the Franks on Ihorj, and 
oblige them to quit the vcfitl : but they imn.e- 
diately informed him, in the prcfrncc of t!ij flave, 
that he fliould not touch any thing that bclon^-d to 
them J that they were rcfolved not to quit the barque, 
but with life, and that the firil perlbn who fr/juki at- 
tempt to force them our, fhould be laid dcaJ on the 
fpot. They promikd, howcv^T, to talk with tiie 
cafhif ; and Mr, Nordcn had tliL* courioe to cro i:u- 
mediately to his houfc, atcendfrd by the inre.p.cters. 

They were received with great CLiJnefs -, und on 
thtir mentioning the fccond agreement, he fliiw into 
B rage, crying, ''Get you gone, ^^et you gone.'' They 
did not ilay to have this brutal compliment repeated; 
but went to the Ichorbatlirhie, to knov/ xto:\i inai 
what they had to expect. I'hey a: rived at li.s hnul'-: 

■ -I 

222 POCOCK£. an4 NO^D.£|ir« 

before he was up, and found many people sdlembU 
there, a^l of whom were eagp to taifi: to diein, ahd 
to a(k for fbmething. The prie^ who was witK 
them, repeated what the^ (2ud^, and their ridkubxit 
rcquefts gave them occafion more tKari once to laug^ 
One of their faints, who had fileiitly ftood in a dx* 
ner of the room, at length appcoach&d thbm i and 
being offended at their good humour; chsftiuibly tM 
them, in lingua Franca, which he fpdke very; ill; 
that they ought not to be fo mcxrfy fince it #DUld 
better fuit them to weep : for b^mre tliie day was 
ended, they would, perhaps, have loft all. iheir 
gaiety. But this couniel made ix) great Impfeflioii 
upon them. This man was lately come fh>m Algiers; 
and was half naked ; but his pretended tharadcr of 
being a iaint, occafioned his being trbated with great 

The fchorbatfchie at lad. appearing, they Wifhed 
him a good day, which he coldly returned. Mr. 
Norden then defired the interpreter to a(k him, whe- 
ther they might hope to come to an agreement with 
him ? " Give me, faid he, five or fix purfes, and I 
will then talk to you. I muft fee your cnefts. I will 
go this day to the barque ^ you Ihall open them for 
ir.e, and if they are not filled with gold, you (hall 
(hare with me what thev contain." To this Mr. Nor- 
cltrn relblutcly replied. That he fhould not fee the 
infide of his chefts, nor brcik them open ; but that 
he might depend upon it, that the perfon to whom 
hf rravc the commiirion would not return to tell him 
vv]i;ii he fcAind there. To this menace the fchor* 
h:ur» l^if- g.ive no uiilVcr j f)ut after lookhig earneftly 
u Mr. Norcieiij rurr.r.* t«;\v.u'd his* own people, and 
ciircv^fcil hih dikouil-- :o rhem. 

T!:cy !iad now l,c-nal cnor.^Ii to form a judgment 
of \vh.:r t!;ey w.rr lo e^peiTt, .md therefore retired 
in (/HJci tu rerurn m rhc*ii' barque : bur the caihif be- 
'^•1: '-'J'^g in grand ro-incil ii? the market-place, and 
I' th- ir: {Mis by, ■ m':!.. .! to rh'"n ; arid on :heir(lill 



TRAVELS through EGYPT, iz, 

ing, feat a Save alter tlienn, on which th;y 

up to him. He was now no longer the lime 

■, he received them with an air ot gaiety, and 

luving maiic them fit down by his fide, aftcd Mr. 

Nofdcn why he woidd not give him a chi:!^ of gold, 

lir^e he iwd lb many ? Mr. Nordcn inlbtntly a:ofc, 

n order 10 go away, without making hini any arv- 

MXT; but the caOiif taking hold of his ciMths, 

obliged him to fit down again, and afking why he 

!■ ' nnr anfwcr liim : he told him, that he was a piiifiil 

aichout hojiour or confcience, and rhcrefore 

iJ have nothing farther lo fay to him. The 

,k.(..c:cr hcfiuting, Baram perceived ii, and oc- 

■i<Ted him with a ftcm look to tell iiim all, without 

wnitting a iingle word; which he having done, B-- 

vii_ Iniirad of being oftended, as was cxpcftcd, tux 

■■;:h : and Mr. NordenadJcd, that he had of- 

in too much already ; but if he woiiU let 

r._ ^'_' immniiauly, lie would not regard what *^s 

|g|ft, and would :idd foitie tittle prtfcrms tha: Aould 
Kagrccablc to him. This the cafliif fccii:ed to rc- 
ft : he loaded him with carcffcs, anJ called him Ills 
hrochcr ; demanded fome puries for hiinlcif, tad 
others for the fchoibaifchic; and in Ihort formevi 
r prrcenfions, to which Mr. Nordm n-,:idc no 
ncr : but being prcflird to fpcak, he tulJ him, 
ihcy had no more than was ncce(i;;ry for their 
and would give him nothing-, that it was 
bad made him promifes, but a: the cailiif had 
;c his word, he was difpcnled with from keeping 
word with him ; that he Ihould iiavc nothing but 
re, and that he was going to the barque to put 
thing in ord^r for his reception. The caflxif 
_ this With patience, and only anfwercd, tliat he 
force enough to deAroy them, wa'i he difpulca to 
' We Know it, cried Mr. Nordcn : wc were 
of your evil difpohiion bL-lbre wc left Af- 
d there took the precaytion of h.iving the 

Hi POCOCKE alia NORD^Nf's 

infults we might fuffer here revenged, in cafe 
Ihould be unable to reveng[e burfelvcs.*' 

Upon this he arofe and retufned to the barque, 
with a firm refolution of quitting it no more. But 
he had not been there half an hour before the caihif 
lent for the interpreter, on which the Jciw went ; and 
foon returned with the news, that he begged they 
would ferid him the prefents that had been zgrctd 
iipon, and alfo fome other trifles; oh which condi- 
tions he pronfiifed to let them depart immediately, 
and to accompany them himfelf to a certain diftance. 
Though little credit could be given to what he faSd, 
the prefents were fent, and alfo the money for himf<^If 
and the fchorbatfchie. 

About noon the cafhif came to the boit with twb 
bullies, ordered every thing to be got ready for fail- 
ing; when alking Mr. Norden if ne was now fatii- 
fied with him ? he replied. That he could not have 
thought he would have been fo honeft, and that he 
was at prefcnt very much inclined in his favout. 
This was faying too much, " Since you are favour- 
ably inclined to^Vafd me, faid he, give me fom<?- 
thing." They appeared a little reludlant, but he 
would not give over his demand ; and it was nccef- 
fary to part with feveral other trifles. The wortl of 
it was, that he had never done alking ; and no Iboner 
got one thing, than he wanted another, and would 
njt leave disputing for it till h« got it. 

In the mean while they had proceeded a good 
wav, and nioht coming on, the cafhif landed at Ke- 
ravjfchie, and ordering his lupper to be got ready, ate 
it in the open air at a little diftance from the barque. 
In the meaii while, a fervant of one of the prirfts, 
who h;id been robbed of a riding-coat, went to make 
]m complaint to the caihif, who by this time began to 
yrow drunk. He fell into a violent paflion, role upt 
drew his fabre, and fworc that whoever had commit- 
iCv! iht* nVobcry flioulJ foircit his life. The coat was 


'i^//W-a^^ (^y^^^'^'/^^'^*' ''' '*^^'' 


TRAVELS through EGYPT. 225 

On found, and the flave who had ftole it threw him- 
If at his feet to implore his mercy -, our travellers 
£) entreated for him, and he was happily pardoned : 
IT had Baram killed him, they would have been 
bligcd to pay him for the lofs. This was the leaft 
lat could have happened from it : they were there- 
irc much concerned at the fervant's having carried 
is complaint to the cafliif without their knowledge; 
ut he did not forefee the confequcnce. 

Baram ca(hif, before he left the barque, had obliged 
hem to pay two fevillans to each of the bullies he 
od brought with him. He himfelf had fqueezed 
hem the whole day, and had left off aflcing, only 
tecaufc he (aw nothing more to afk for : but now he 
?emcd defirous to return to the charge ; and fenr 
hem word that he defigned to come to the barque to 
ike his leave of them : but the brother of the aga 
f Aflbuan, who had fupped with him, prevented 
I; by reprefcnting that he had fqueezed them fo 
luch, that they were provoked beyond all patience, 
nd that he would not be anfwerable for his life, if 
c attempted fo much as to enter the barque again. 

Notwithftanding the cafliif was drunk, thefe repre^' 
intations had their effect, and he contented himlelf 
dth fending his wiflies of a good voyage ; but lee 
iem know, that he had jufl: received intelligence 
liat his fultana was brought to bed, and defircd they 
^uld be fo good as to make the child a prcfcnt of 
wne filver baubles. They promifed to fend them, 
ut took care not to do it till they were ready to de- 
art. At laft they found themfelves happily efcaped 
ut of the hands of tills tyrant, and congratulated 
ich other on being quit at fo cheap a rate. As they 
fd no wind, they had rccourfe to their oars, which, 
i^h the afTiftance of the current, made them advance 

faft, that they foon loll fight of the fire Biiiam ca- 
tf had kindled in order to warm himielf. 

In this paflTagc from Aflibuan to Derri rh^re is t'l." 
"Cattft difficulty in gettintr provifions, ro'.iiing '.s '■> 

Vol. VL ' ' ^<i ^^ 


be found biic a few (hcep and goats* that arc'eztitUD 
ly lean, and the : latter good for nothing. Ppuloy j 
very fcarce^ and confequently eggs are not comnaoti 
with regard to bread, the natives grind no more cor 
than they want for their own immediate ufe, anddi 
cakes they ntake of it, are not above half bakec 
Bur what is ilill more difagreeable, when you pu 
chafe any thing, its being Ibid, delivered, and -pd 
for, does not iviake a pertect fale. Mr. Norden^v 
let had bought a iheep near Dendour, which oacc 
the natives brought to the barque, in order to fell it 
after much wrangling, he for two ftvillans^u 
went away with the money \ but in half an hour 
time, returned to demand his flicep, offering to ffs 
back what he had received. Exafperated at thispn 
ceeding, they refu fed to break the bargain; bcGd 
they wanted the Iheep. But the man being obfl 
nace, made a t rriblc outcry, which brought fo mar 
of his countrymen about him, that to avoid comir 
to excremities, they complied with his rcqueft, ( 
condition ot his iccuniing the kvillans. The comcc 
did not end here : a i'iio vent after he returned wii 
tbefame ftHep, for wiiich he alked three fevillan 
They v/oul.] h.ivc turned him away, but when 1 
faw that tiiey did not wan his (lieep, he pretended) 
oblige thc-m to take it lor ilie price they had give 
him at firft. Tiiey hcrK..t;.d at this. At hft 1 
cametOcin arjrecincnt, anJ rhc flvep continued wi' 
them for or.e fcviilan ..v.d U-ir.c meaiures of cor; 
which was, however, lels in value than w!iat w. 
given hi-n at iirll. 

The people iVom AfTluuin to l)er:i no: bein^a 
culiomed to ciwl's thj NiL- in', have dilierci 
ways of i«.ppi/i:vA t'^.c v. an: or" ihcn^. Two of the 
have b:cn :u;\:viy :.ienricncd, :;ivJ Mr. iNcirue:: giv 
a thu-d. Th. y hi r.^".r/J- v.i\:n i\ [yjiwi pi'.cc oiv/00 
placing their cio,i[hi om tii-ir liraJs in the tbrr:i of 
rurb.:nr, ;:nd tiun makiiio; uli- of r-ivir .-irivis js eai 
croL vl.e n'.er v/iihO'jt luu.ii diiVieu'iy, Tiiib nyjuv 

TRAVELS through EGYPT* 227 

tf in ufe where there arc even more crocodiles than 
here, and yet no accidents happen from it. And 
ihofe who bathe every day in the Nile make ufc of no 
precautions again ft that animal. 

In fix days they arrived at Morrada, the port above 
lhj{ cotaraft, the p^^ople, as they palfed, bt-ing every 
where furprizcd at finding that they were frill alive, 
and at feeing that they had efcaped from Aflbuan. — 
We return now to Dr. Pocock^-.] 

We left Aflbuan, continues Dr. Pococke, on the 
27th of Januarys but a cold and contrary wind 
obliged us to lie by about a kague below the town. 
Th'.»re is fuch a fcarcity of fuel in :hefc parts, tliat the 
natives are obliged to burn either the reeds of Indian 
wheat, or cow dung dried j the latter is the fuel ge- 
nerally ufed by the poor throughout t'gypt. On the 
8th of February we arrived at Kept, wherj 1 ituiJ 
two days to view the antiquities. One of the Maho- 
metans, to whom I had a letter to deliv.?r, came :o 
me the laft day, and took me to fee fonie Eliin;/^ I h \d 
not vet obferved. On our rcrurn he .:. /".:':;. jLd :r.(: 
to the boar, and havir.g c^arnjiliy enrre:/:.:d iv.j ivr^i-j 
ilepart till I had h:i:x\ farther Ur,:n W::v.^ forrij lirrA: 
after very kindly Icnr ir.e apreLut (.n a i:i'J, and two 
balkcts of breati. 

On the iith \.'j arrived at the por: c:f iVicli-^iiM, 
and wcr.r to the cunveiir of t''urlhr:r, v.i.: I 
waitvd on the gre;.!: ilieik, \shom 1 i-:'ji:.l {i'.r'rr?; v.icii 
^Mahometan pri-.-il, and earini; be.-ns L'o.k-d ni t!ie 
fl^rils. I delivere 1 !ii;:i my Icrur fi.-»m ri.e Owik of 
J^ttou, and he aiked me, fmllin-r, v.!..* \wi' the peo- 
ple attempted to d:r.\iii us, an^ i:' t!Ky tore loy 
^k', ad.iinsf, " t!'.ey thouL^^h: you were in ilaicli 
of trealures." 

On the i2Lh v.'o arrived at Gir^rc, an:! ^wnt to tlie 
COnven\ 'Jhe bev was encamped t ) r!.e f /Ji!i of :!ie 
^'^J'i but when i v.\;;i to the camp, l.c wjs at lu; 
'•^''am int.^v.;i v;; h ivr. l\Mcs\ but he I'.oii ca lu oa 
'»0i5cba;k, a::e^dL-.! Ly :.bou: ci^h: f:^v-3i :::i ! en 

c^ 2 ^ VkV'i 

2St POCOCKfi and NOADEN** 


his arrival, the mufic played in the camp for about 
a quarter of an houn I went to his nmgnificeitc tentf 
and found him fitting on a fopha in the corner, on 
the right hand as one enters. He was a perfon'of a 
fine countenance, with a graceful fmile-, but when he 
pleafed he could aflume a ftem and majeftic lookj 
and I thought his manner more nearly refembled chaC 
of our great men in Europe, than any I had feeniii 
this part of the world. I delivered him a letter from 
Ofman Bey ; and my fervant placed my prefcnt before 
him, confining of a dozen boxes of French prunellas, 
and a fine covered glafs vafe for flierbct. He gave 
me a very civil reception, defired me to fit, and or- 
dered coffee. On my rcquefting the favour of fome 
letters to the governors under him, he enquired wbete 
we had been, and fmiling, aflced if I had found any 
treafurcs. I then went to the fecretary's tent, where 
the letters being written, I returned with them to die 
bey, and he put his fcal to them. 

We then proceeded to El-Berbi, where, as I have 
alrea:ly faid, was a temple, and this place I fuppofe 
to have been the ancient Abydus. On my returning 
to the boat, in order to depart, I was informed they 
had taken away the oars, demanding a duty of about 
fifteen fiiillinjrs : but on mv fcndincr to the governor, 
I found that thcv had afked for three times as much as 
their due. On the 14th we arrived at Akmim, 
where I went to the convent, and afterward waited on 
the prince, who g.ive me ibme letters I wanted on the 
way to Cairo; and on the r7th landed at Raigny, 
where the religious flifik of the famous fcrpent Heredy 
was at the ficie of the river to receive us. I carried 
the prince of Akmim's letter to tlic fneik of tiie vil- 
3agc, who cp.tcrrained us with a grand collation^ 
and went with us to the grotto of the ferpent. We 
afccnded between the rocky mountains for about half 
a mile, and coming to a place where the valley opens 
wider, faw a building like a Iheik's burial place, in 


TRAVELS through EGYPT. 229 

is a large cleft in the rock, out of which the 
feipenc is faid to come *. 

On the 20th we came to Meloui, where I waited 
jOB the Sardar with a prefcnt of I* nglifn cutlery ware, 
and fome other things. He gave nie a very obliging 
leocption, and faid he would cither go widi me him- - 
Idf tO'&e the temple of Archemounain, to have half 
the treafures I found, or he would fend his fecrctary. 
The next day I went to tlie town, when the cavalcade 
of the fardar ^ing toward Archemounain, with the 
oia, attended by a great ni:mber of people, v/ich 
kettle-drums and other mufic, I fcllowcd, riding on 
aTcry indifferent afs. Having viewed the temple in 
CHnpany with the fccretary, I returned to the caia, 
vbofe caipet and rulhions were laid on an eminence, 
jon which we fat, with the llandard by him, that is 
carried before him when he goes oiii: in t!iis mann-jr. 
I iat down by his fide, and conic v. as bruughr. Aitcr 
this refreflinicnr, I returned to tlic !x).;r. 

On the 24t!i we proccedcvi toiward, aad the nr^cc 

day approached two villages, Sheik FaxXlle on ihe 

caft, and Benimfaron the well. Thcfe villa.q;es h:.d a 

diipute about an iiland ficuatcd between tlicm, and 

^^plying to a great bey, to deeide the dilfcrencc, he 

•flot being wiling to diibblige eith' r of lii'.m, bid 

ihcm fight it out. Tiiis happening to be liie day of 

battle, we h.-ard the firing of guns, and afier that a 

aoiie and (hounnc:, as if for a victorv. Soon afce:' we 

perceived people throwing themfelves into the water 

from many parts of the illand, and Iwimrning to t!^t: 

eaft, while o:hers followed, firing at them or pelting 

thcai with lioncs. We plainly law t!i.:t: we were now 

in the midil of a battle, and that it was to:) late to 

fccirc; we therefore prepared our arms to deK-nd our- 

jehres, in cafe we flioulu be attacked. Oblerving 

^t the chi;:f fire was tVom the caltern fide, the bati Ic 

being on the welV, where they were engaged, wc were: 

• Stca particiilar account of this fcrpent, p. iSc. snte. 

Q^ 3 determined 

230 POCOCKE and NORDEHl^" 

determined to go on the eaft, under the cofcpof tlidr 
fire. Great numbers we obferved fwiinmiAg over id: 
the eall: with their clothes and pikes in, their handle 
and one of them laying hold QO.our boat, to reft him* 
lelf, we were afraid the people on the weft fide maid 
fire on us, for protedbing their enemies \ for tbo 
weQern people had gained the vidory, and moftof 
them having retired from the ifland, difplayed their 
ftandard on the o:her fide. 'I he women on the eaft 
now came to the bank of the river to look forthdr 
hufuands, clapping their hands, and beating their 
breiids. Mean wiiile the village of Sheik Faddie.on 
the eaft manned a boat, put it out into the river, and. 
firing at the other fide, the fire was returned. Wo 
were in great danger in pafiing by this boat. BttI 
we were no fooner below the village, than we judgod 
we were fafc ^ however, going out to fee what paUra, 
I perceived a ball, whicli wus doubtlefs fired at as, 
fall into the water, only three or four yards from the 
boat. Thus I f.;w tiiis cngagemenc, which perhapi 
was not much inferior to fume of the little battles of 
the Greeks, dcfcribLd by Thucydides with fuch pomp 
and elegance. 

On tiic z6ih 1 went afliore at Bcncfuief, and aftcr^ 
ward pLiilcd by Bouchc, wliich I llippofe to be Pto- 
lem:MS, ^ To this place jjcojuc un^aliy come in order 
to [TO lo the nion.iftc-ries oi' >t. Antliony and St. Paul, in 
the dci-irts near the Red Sea j the former being the 
founder of the monailic, and the Ijitrer of the hermits 
life, 'ih-j corivcnt of Sr. Anthony is a large enclo- 
f'j.fv-, t'lL* entrance of wl-ich is by a window, as at 
rro'.'.a: :;i;i:\i: ihcic a'.e a ;^:Cat number of palm, 
clive, iiiid oL'Vjr ti"c:'s v. irhin the cnclofurc ; and the 
monks Imvl: c wry tiiiiijr wiliin ihcmfcK-es, and par- 
ticr.larly a for a f li;.c;'.i;im'j dcfrivJcd by a bridge, 
r:S a kcLiiity in cnl'c the Arabs ihoiiid break in upon 
thtm. On my 1 ".'.vlr^j; lioiiche, wc uill proceeded 
down the river, and on the 271:1 of l^cbruary reached 

/,•.. .7 Old 

TRAVELS through EGYPT. 231 

Old Cairo, having fpent exaftly three months in going 
above the cataraft, and down again. 

The river Nile, on which I fpent fo much time, in 
leirch of other curiofitics, may itfelf be confidercd as 
one. of the greateft curiofities in Egypt. The north 
winds beginning to blow about the latter end of May, 
drive the clouds formed by the vapours of the Medi- 
ttiranean fouthward as far as the mountains of Ethi- 
opia, which (lopping their courfe, they condenfe, 
"and fell in violent rains. The fame wind alfo drives 
in the water from the fea, and keeps back that in the 
river in fuch a manner as to raife the waters above. 
The Egyptians, and efptrcially the Coptis, arc fond 
of an opinion that the Nile begins to- rife every year 
on the fame day -, and indeed it generally begins on 
the 1 8th or 1 9th of June. By accounts of irs rife for 
three years, I find it rofe the firft fix days from two to 
five inches every d ly ; for the twelve next days, from 
five to ten inches, and thus continues rifing till it 
arrives at the height of 16 pikes, or cubits, when the 
canal of Cairo is cut : after this it continues rifing iix. 
weeks longer •, but then the rile is only from three to 
five inches a day •, for fprcading over the land, and 
entering the canals, though more wauu* may clcUend 
than before, yet its rife is not lb great; for after that 
can.:l is opened, the others are alfo opened at fixed 
limes, and thofe that wa:er the 1o;Vlt grounds, the 
lad. Tlicfe canals arc carried along the highelt parts 
of the country, that the v/ater may from tiiem be con- 
veyed to all the lower parts. It i^ remarkable that all 
other rivers, being fupplied from rivulets, the ground 
is lowed near the b-ni:s : but as no water fails into 
the Nile in its pallage throu^^jh this country ; and as 
it is neoenary that tliis river iiuuld ovrriiov/ the land, 
it appears that the country of Kg/pt is l'3wer at a 
diftance from the Nile, than it is near it. In moft 

?arts it appears to have a gradual defcent from the 
lile to the fjot of the hills, ^hat miy be faid to begin 
fX thole fundy parts, a mile or two di^liant from 


them, wKich being gentle afcents, they arc never 


The plentiful rifing of the Nile is the bleffing of 
Egypt. When it begins to rife, the plague begins 
to Itop 'j and the benefit of the inundation is in pro- 
portion to the height to >vhich the water rifcfc 
Eighteen pikes or cubits is efteemed but an indifier* 
cnt Nile, so is middling, and 22 is a good Nile, be* 
yond which it feldom riles. 

[The authors who have given defcriptions of 
Egypt, contented with faying that the fertility of iht 
country is folely derived from the annual inundacioii 
of the Nile, have by their filence given occafion to 
think, that Egypt is a paradife on earth, where they 
have no need of plowing the ground, or fowing it, aU 
bfing produced, as it were, fpontaneoufly after "the 
draining of the waters : but they are greatly miftakent 
and I dare aflert from what I have leen, that there is 
fcarcely a country where the land has greater need of 
culture than in Egypt.] 

Where the knd lies higher than the inundation 
riles, the people are forced by neccflity to have va- 
rious methods of railing the water by wheels turned 
bv oxen. 

There are no fliell-fifh in the Nile, except a kind 
of mukle in the canal near Faiume, nor perhaps any 
fort of fifh that are in the rivers of Europe, except 
eels and mullets -, which lait, with fome others, at 
certain fcafons come from the fea. It is generally 
obicrved, t'hat the crocodile has no tongue ; but he 
has a flcrfliy fubftance rclcmbling one, fixed all along 
to the lower jaw, which may fervc to turn his meat. 
He has two long teeth at the end of his lower jaw, 
anfwering to which are two holes above to receive 
them. The upper jaw is moveable. Thefc ani- 
mals are very quick fighted ; for on my making 
a circuit to come behind them, I always obferved they 
began to move gently into the water, as foon as I 
came in fight of them j there being a kind of chan- 

TRAVEJ-S through EGYPT. 233 


ari in the head behind each eye, by which the view of 
objeds are conveyed to them from behind. They 
make a hxAc about two feet deep in the fand, above 
die water, in which they lay their eggs and cover 
them over, often going to the place, and taking care 
of their young ; which, when hatched, immediately 
run into the water. They lay about fifty eggs, nearly 
of the fize of thofe of a goofe, which are 25 or 30 
days in hatching. The people fearch for the eggs 
with an iron pike, in order to deftroy them : but I 
oould get no account in Upper Egypt of the ichneu- 
mon's deftroying them, or of his entering by the 
mouth of the crocodile into his bowels, and killing 
ibim. When the crocodile is on land he is always 
feen on the low banks of Tandy iflands near the water, 
with his head toward it ; and if he is diflurbed, he 
walks flowiy in, and difappears by degrees. The 
people fay they cannot take a man fwimming in the 
water ; but if a man or beaft ftands by the river, they 
at once jump out of the water, and leize him with 
their fore paws : but if the diftance be too great, they 
make a fpring, and beat down their prey with their 
tails. The mod common way of killing them is, I 
believe, by (hooting them in their bellies, where 
their (kin is Ibfr, and not like their backs, armed 
with fcales. The natives fay, that they make feme 
animal cry at a diftance, and when a crocodile comes 
out, they thruft a fpear to which a rope is tied, into 
his body 5 then letting him retire into the water to 
fpend himfclf, they afterward drag him out, run a 
pole into his n^iouth, and leaping upon his back, tic 
his jaws together. 

Egypt extending on both the banks of the Nile is 
but of a fmall breadth, without reckoning the wind- 
ings of the river. The climate is very hot in fum- 
mer, from the landy foil, and its fituation between 
two ranges of mountains •, and even in winter the fun 
fliines with great heat in the middle of the day, 
though the nights ;ind mornings arc very cold. In 


its'Ar POCOCKE and NORttEfTs 

Upper Egypt they have fotncciines a Kttle rain ; WrI 
was Intbrmed chat it had been known ' to ram bii 
twice very hard for about half an hour in e^hcyean;. 
though it rained much toward Akrnim: w](ren i was 
in thole parts. The weft and the north-i^eft. winds- 
are thole that bring the rain. The foutb-Grfl winKs 
jbme denes lb exceOivcIy hot as to reiemUe the air of 
an o«cn ; and people are forced to retire frens it inb 
their vaults, where the bed defence againft k, is id 
fliut themfelvcs dole up. I'his wind genenlly begins 
about the middle of March, and continues tUi Mqr- 
The nortii, anciently called the Eiefian windy beg^ 
to blow in May, refrefhes the air, and renders the 
heats of iummer fupportabIc» bringing with it heaidt 
9nd happincis* .....:• ^ . 

■ I^» F^ naturally produces few vegetables, tbs feat 
and •nimdations deftroying moft of the tender plutts ; 
but where the Nile has overfiowed, and the land is 
plowed i:n:i Ibwn, it yields a great increafe. Egypt* 
which v/as formerly the granary of the Roman cm* 
pir.\ flill produces coniiderable quantities of corn 
and fruits. Upper Egypt fupplics moft part of 
turojK' with faina ; and in the iandy grounds cok>- 
cjiiintidi f;row3 wild. But as Egypt has no grais, 
tlicy lupply its place by fowing the land with clover, 
without ploxving. ... 

Ea:ypt feems ro have few or no trees thr.t have not 
been trani'pl.mtcd from other counrries. Thofc in 
the gartltns are doubtlcfs exotics, as the calEa^ 
or.^n^yjs, lemons, apricors, poxegranatcs, a delicate 
frui'. c:i:k\i ihc mofch, and die cous or cream-trcc ; 
thcr vrcition-tioe alio i'^ourilhes here. 

Tlierc? ar^:* n > s.:;rcat varictv of faur footed beads in 
Er^vpt. 1 l^e ows are very hir:]re and red, withfhort 
hvrr.:> ; r'-e niuivL'S make ufc of tixir oxen to turn the 
v/hcds \vi!:!i v. iiich they draw warer, and to plough 
the lariJ. rhev havi: alfo larn;e biittalccs, which are 
i'-) i.r..M:i"!'.t v*i hear, ilia: they wili lland in the water, 
virji o/.iy ;hv:r nolesout to brtathe-, and when they 


TRAVELS through EGYPT, 235 

hiire not this convenience, will' lie all rday, like fwine, 
wallowing in mud and water. As to the beads of 
burchen, it has been often obferved how furprifingly 
the carnal is fitted for travelling in hot countries, 
where they will go eight days without water. Of 
this I have been a witnefs. They can live on fuch 
little (hrubs as thcfc deiarts produce, without grafs» 
and are latisfied v/ith very little corn, which travellers 
commonly carry ground into meal, and tempering it 
with water, cram them with large balls. They travel 
about two miles, or two miles and a half in an hour, 
and I have rode on them 1 6 hours without flopping, 
A fmaller fort, called hayjin, pace and gallop very 
fwiftly ; and it is laid they will carr\' a perfon 1 00 
miles in a day. The flefliy foot of the camel is ad- 
mirably fitted for travelling on the hot lands, which 
would dellroy the hoof, llie Arabs do not kiil the 
camel for food •, but the Turks eat the flcfn of the 
young ones as a mofl; delicate dilh •, but \%iil not per- 
mit it to be eaten by Chriftia*"»s, probably that the 
breed mav not be dcllrovcd. 

The horlls, efpcciailv tliofe of IJorcT i'>vT'.r, r.c 
very fine, but tb.cir p.ccks ar* too {h-j.-t. 'i ii.y w.iik 
well, never trot, and nralJDp \vi:;i i»rcat Ipe-'d, tun 
/hort. Hop in a mum r.r, aiivi an- LNirciinly tracV jiilc •, 
but are only fit td vv.iik in mn-ulinji:, an! cinii:>t per- 
f -rm long jou'i'jics. Jn ri/j l;c:ai (m' ilt i:i:iK'r, v.-ic:! 
there iS no G;rals '.licv arc fj.l \v:::i t ii'-);^::t\l iliMw. 
AVhcn :hrv ;4:«> i:i it-..- ■•'iin, tb.c r iim; :)ir.:.';.s are ex- 
ceedinLi: finr, anil en . jr.::\i w.ih iiivji-, cr fi'/cr 
cilf. In Cairo but thj li'.. a: ride on aile- : t' c e 
are a fine Kul'c b.eod, and tlie;v aic L::J lo b.* 4C.-..l.o 
of therm in ciiv. 

Anielopcs are coi.iT.on about Aii':::.:v::ia, a:ul in 

other places ; tlic-y Ik-vj Iciirer h.;iT,!;, ;.n.: :;rc {\.uxt 

beaut ful than in (a\\^\ cc;ii::;:;es. i'.'ii: \. xes and 

)iarcs arc of a l:y.I't cor)iir; h-;.: il.,- i.i.tcr -^w^ n r 

very common, TI:o tyger, an i :'..•.' u'jb'\:', ui 

1 ■■ ' '1 ' 


hyaena, are very raire ; however, there are Ibmc near 

Among the winged tribe theoflrich deicrves the 
preference. It is called in Arabic ter gimel, or the 
camel bird ; becaufc in its head, neck, and walk, it 
relembles a camel. This bird is common on the 
mountains fouth-weft of Alexandria : its fat is fold by 
the Arabs, and ufed as an oincmcnt for all cold 
tumours, the palfy and the rheumatifm. There is 
here a kind of large domefcic hawk of a brown colour, 
with a ver\' fine eye: thcfe frequent :he tops of 
houfes ; and one may fee the pigeons and thefe hawks 
Handing clofe together; but though they arc not 
birds of prey, they eat flelh where they find ir. The 
natives never kill them, and as well as their anceftors, 
feem to have a veneration both for thefe birds andibr 
cats. On the iflands in the Nilje I faw great numbers 
of the ibis, which was held in great veneration by the 
ancient Egyptians, becaufe thefe birds, it is faid, de- 
livered the country from multitudes of fcrpents, that 
bred in the ground after the Nile retired. They 
reremblo the crane, are of a grcyilh colour with the 
wings and tiiil black. 

The natives of Egypt are now a very indolent peo- 
ple, who delight in fitting ftill and in hearing rsdes : 
indeed they appear to have been always more fit for a 
quiet, than an active life; this may be in a great 
meafurc owing to the heat of the country, by which 
they are enervated. They are alfo mifchicvous and 
envious, vvhich keeps them from uniting and fetting 
up for themlelves. The Mahometan inhabitants are 
either original natives, who live in the villages, or of 
the Arab race. The latter are divided into thofe who 
are alfo fettled in the villages, and are generally an 
honefb people, and thofe who live under tents ; thefe 
laft are called Bedoui, and chiefly fubfift on the cattle 
they graze, which are principally camels and goats, 
that feed on fn^all Ihrubs, The Turks, who arc thus 


TRAVELS through EGYPT, tjj 

lamed to diftinguifli them from the natives of the 
country, and the Arabs, are thofe fent by the grand 
fignior, and the flaves. The governing party is takrn 
from among them and their defcendancs. Thefe arc 
the moft covetous of money, and mofl: defirous of 
power : they diftinguifh themfelves from the others^ 
by what is ftri&Iy the Turkiih drefs. 

Many of the children in the country go naked all 
the year round, as almoft all of them do in fummen 
The moft (imple drefs in Egypt probably refembles 
the primitive manner of cloathing, and has fomething 
like that of the ancient Egyptians, who were clad in 
linen, with a woollen garment over it. They wear a 
long fliirt with wide fleeves, commonly tied about 
, the middle. Over this the common people have a 
brown woollen fhirt, and thofe of fuperior rank, a 
long cloth coat, and then a long blue fhirt : but in 
the drefs of ceremony they wear inftead of a blue, a 
white fliirt, which in Upper Egypt they put on upon 
fieftival days, and to pay great vifits ; in the lower 
parts they ufe a garment of the fame form of black 
woollen, which is fometimes left open before ; and 
perfons of rank have them of cloth and furred. Moft 
of them wear under all a pair of linen drawers ; but 
iio not put the fhirt into them. 

It is almoft a general cuftom of the native Arabs 
and Mahometans to wear a white or brown blanker, 
and in fummer a blue and white cotton flicet : this 
the Chriftian^ alfo conftanily ufe in the country, 
wrapping it round their bodies, over the left (houlder, 
and undrr the right arm, which U Itfc trtc, I par- 
ticularly oblerved that about l'\iiunic, young people, 
and the poorer fort wore no other covering. 

The Chrifti;ins of the country, with the j:iniz3ri::s, 
the Arabs, and Egyptians, wear fl.ppers of red lea- 
ther, while thofe of the Jews arc blue. Within doors 
the Turks and Chrillians in the citv, cut of fru^alitv, 
wear a kind of wooden closs, fome of which are made 
very fine. In thefe countries pcopb are very much 


diftinguiftied by the drcfs of their head and their feet; 
they are fined if they do not follow the cuftop ; and 
none but foreign Chriftians are allowed tov^r^y^Uosv: 
flippers. ^ ^'":r. : ;*jsfci 

The drefs of the women is not much unlike that of 
the men, only their drawers, and moft of their other 
garments are of filk : all but their outer drefs are 
Ihortcr than the mens, and their llceves hancr down 
very low. They have a white woollen iT^ull cap; 
their heads are befide dreffed with an embroidered 
handkerchief, and their hair platted round it. They 
have a large black veil that comes over all, and feme- 
thing of gauze that covers the face ; for as it is 
cftecmtrd a great indecency to fliew the whole face, 
they generally cover the mouth and one eye, if not 
the whole. The ordinary women wear a large blue 
linen or cotton garment, like a furplice ; and before 
their faces hang a kind of bib, joined to their head- 
drcfs, by a tape over the nofe ; the fpace between 
being only for the eyes : this gives them a very odd 
appearance. The women among the vulgar, efpe- 
cially the blacks, alio v/car rings in their noi'es, orna- 
mented with glafs beads. T.hey have iargc ear-rings, 
three inches in diameter, that come round the ear, 
and a.c ad.)rncd with (lones. Th/y alfo wcarftonc- 
rings on their fingers : thole of the ordinary people 
are of lead; but the better fort have tliem of gold. 
'I'heir bracelets arc commonly of wire-, but fome are 
of ^oid finely jointed-, but tiierc arc Ibme of plain 
iron or br.iLs. The vulgar v.'omcn paint their lips, 
and rhe ri[) of their c!:in with •, and ihol'e of ib- 
pji-'or rank pairit their naiis arid tie: yellow, and their 
tyc-lids black. 

The l/.p^'pticins :irc but :\r. reo::!c ; m::nv 
of iheiji a;v v.iicn \ou:'1t-, l uc livj ibn :;jrTward 
renders thrrjT jV/iirJ-v. 'i'li..*v *:r'j very dinv and 
floveiiiy, er-TC:.iliy ti:e Ccpu-s ; :ind i s laMe Jincn is 
ielcJoni or iv.^v er inlrd l>v tiie r::vp::^::s, the Arabs 
and i\:^ Copci.^, 1 have observed li:e La'.er, ai:ej 


TRAVELS through EGYPT, 239 

waftiing their bands when ihcj have eaten, wipe them 
with the great fleevcs of their (hires. Both the Turks 
and Egyptians are very frugal in their manner of 
living ; tJie latter feldoin eat meat, and the tables of 
the great men are of little cxpence to them, confider- 
ingthe number of their attendants, in which they are 
very extravagant. It is common for them to have 
fifty or fixty iHaves, and a great number of otlier 
fervants a":d dependants; the cloathing of their 
Haves is how^^ver a great cxpence, as is alfo their 
keeping many horibs •, it being common for them to 
have from £q to 200. 

None but {xrople of the middle rank relurc to coffec- 
houies. Some of thcfe have mufic at certain hours of 
the day ; and in others n man tciis fo!::e liiilory or a 
fort of Arabian talc, v/itha vcr) go-d f^Mce. Tiadrf- 
men often fend to have their pro. jri.-n.s brought to 
coffcc-ho'Jks \ and thofe vA\o have noihing to du pais 
whole days in tlicm. 

As to the rci'gion of Egypt, the Coptic is that of 
the native Ciiriilians of tjjc couiury. 'i he (irccks 
arc very nu-'ncrjus at Cair-j and in i./a);;;i ; but 
there are nor rrvAy in Ro.'cao, Alrxrj.Jrln, iuid the 
other parts of lig-ypt, ewcpr ;; txw ircrc;-.:-r.ts in the 
principal town::. Tiicrj cv^ b;i: VvJiy :*^v -\.-;,:cn^ans 
at Cairo, ihoL'.::hdiCy h^vc a c::u:c:j i:: :!.ii: citv. 

^Thc Chriiciaarelij/ion '.vou:d b^- iiiii :.: ■:, i'/.v-r ebb, 
did not tr.e j^eople l::\d ir tor.v .•;.•. r.t t') i\:'.c Coj:ci 
llcwards of tlK-ir cftutcs v.ho arc \-:tl\ acc/j.-iiirird \v:rii 
all affuirG, and arc very v::::;Lrt ar h^'-:'j:"j:i: accojr.iu 
which thtrv do in a iovt ol Cu;::ic ciuraciwTs '.]r:dLT- 
ftood by nob.Aiy cir.*. liitrr^r iWc i\.c [..i-jidv;-, (-i' 
the Chr.iii:.r.3 in e^-ry villi. c. Tia- O/'ri.-, Ljw- 

ei* ',' "V" *" ,-. 

iClj JLi.. Ill V. y ow i. '..»;•. li . ». » V , •- : J.. »:.,.» ^.iJt.. i. iil 

.'i''*!T*i''--\"''''''''' ( \ 'I'l fl'-' .* -I ■* v: < '■■ ■■1 • ••!.• 

It' ."• " ii~'*'i" • 'i 1 

iliMlL U».»-J.«w «..b.i.»,i. . J ...1 . iL.».»Vi*'N Hi 1.4. . 11 \^ti.i. ',L .-, 

ar 1 1 T^, ' ^ <w •■ 1 • ' - « ■ ■ • . » I , 1 i » • t ■ : , i ■ 1 i ■" - ■ ■ "7 •• 1 1 • ■• • . « ■ • - , , • 

L« ■« , « f. .. r I . . ■, •• n- 1 • I w ", ;T w'v ■ :'• Ti • r "J " ■ . 1 ;! '" ■ • ■ .... ^ ■ . # ^ - », 

...waUt itiw.i •'. .^ l.'l ^>t. t..'^ iiii.iDx.. .. >...;«.*« I. .wm 1(1 

" ■ 1 * i~ ... 

1 ■•■»■: -I ■#••- I ■ ■ • \.' .■ -in Tc'i f.i il '■ ~ *■ ' . "'■ .•■'(■'■<•>_ 

240 POCOCKE and NORDfeN^t 

fuls in repeating their long fervices^ and in ftiidlf 
cbferving their numerous falls. Both the priells and 
people are extreamly ignorant : the former perform 
the fervice in the Coptic language by rote, of which 
they generally underftand very little; but they have 
books of their liturgy, with the Arabic interpretation. 
They abiUin fiom blood and things ftrangled; pray 
for the dead, and profti ;ite themfclves before pi^ores; 
but have no images except a crucifix. 

The Coptis bear an implacable hatred to the Greeks, 
and have generally as little regard for the Europeans^ 
which in a great meafure proceeds from the endea- 
vours of thole of the Romifh church to make con- 
verts of them. They rarely ciiftingiiifti between thofe 
of difFerent religions, but include all under the naooe 
of Franks. 

As the Jews were in times of Paganifm afraid of 
drinking wine offered to idols, they ftill have here all 
they drink made up by their own people, ftalcd up, 
and fent to them : this cuftom they obferve through- 
out all the Eaft. They have 36 fynagogues in Cairo, 
and one in Old Cairo. There is a particular &St 
among them who live by themfclves, and have a fe- 
parate iynagogue. Thcfe are the ancient Eflcnes, 
and have now the name of Charaims : they are diftin- 
guilhed by the regard they pay to the five books of 
Mofes, which they ftridly obferve according to the 
letter, not receiving any written traditions. 

Education in Egypt confifts in little more thad 
learning to read and write, which the Coptis generally 
learn, together with book-keeping : but few of the 
Arabs and native Mahometans can read, except thofe 
bred to the law, or fome employ. The flaves have 
the heft education •, for they underftand Arabic and 
Turkifli, and often write both : they are alfo well 
ikilled in riding, Ihooting, and throwing the darr, 
which are efteemed great accomplifliments. The 
Turks in particular are deeply tinctured vVith the doc- 
trine of predeftination, which not only infpircs them 



TRAVELS through EGYPT. 241 

with courage, but makes them fhew great magnani- 
mity when thrown from the height of power into the 
molt mi(crable condition : indeed they behave better 
inadverfity than in profpericy; though when in high 
flrations they alTume a becoming gravity, and confer a 
&ivour with a very gracious countenance : but the/ 
are greedy of money ; and nothing is to be done with 
them without a bribe. They fancy that the greatefl: 
villanies arc expiated as foon as they have wafhed their 
hands and feet. This is their preparation for prayer. 
The outward appearance of religion is in fafhion 
among them. They pray in the mofl: public places ; 
and when on a vifit will call for water to wafh their 
hands and feer, and then perform their devotions : 
and yet their words pafs for nothing, either in rel^ 
tions, promifes, or profeflTions of friendihip. Opium 
is not fo much ufcd by them as formerly, inftead of 
which they drink fpirituous liquors very plentifully at 
their meals. But thefe are chiefly the great men and 
the foldiers ; for drinking ftrong liquors would be 
feckoned fcandalous in people of bufinels. The Arabs 
indeed very rarely drink j and the common people 
pound the leaves of green hemp, make a ball of it, 
and fwallow it, to render them chearfiil. They have 
a high opinion of the magic arr, and think there is 
much virtue in charms and talilmans. 

The pooreft Mahometan thinks himfelf fuperior to 
any Chriftian : yet the Arabs and people of ihc coun- 
try behave with civility; they come and fie about 
^ou, and grow troublelome by being too obferving, 
:urious, and inquifitivc. The Turks allb will be v^ry 
:ivil, either to get prefents, or to dilcovcr vol:.* lj- 
Igns i in which chcy arc very artful. They beii.iv;: 
with the greateft decorum and rclpect to th'j:-; fupj- 
riors ; and one of great dignity, rc;;\dlly holds liv: 
llirrup of another who is ilill greater. Tiio \v.:y c,f 
faiuting as they pals, is ilrciching out th-j \\^.i li.m.l, 
bringing it to the bicaft, a littk i.^.llr.iij :h: liraJ. 

Vol. VI. R Th- 

242 TRAVELS through EGYPT. 

The extraordinary falute is kifling the hand, and pat- 
ting it to the head. When they vifit a fuperior» they 
kii3 his hand ; but if he is greatly fuperior, they ki& 
the hem of his garment. When they take any thing 
from, a (iiperior, or that is (ent by a fuperior, they 
kifs it, and put it to their foreheads.; and whcnthcy 
promife to ferve or protedt you, they put their 
hands up to the turbans, as much as to fay, fie it oa 
our heads. • 

The entertainments of the Turks and Arabs have 
been Often mentioned ; and I (hall only add herc^that 
an Arab prince will often dine in the ftreet before hb 
door, and call to ail that pafs, and even to beuars, 
crying in the ufual manner, in the name of God.; 
-upon which they (it down ; and when they have done, 
retire, laying, God be praifed. With fuch generoficjr 
and hofpitaliiy they maintain their intercft : yet die 
middling people and the Coptis live but oiean^. 

[ 243 ] 




B A R B A R Y, 

B Y 

T. S H A W, D. D. and F. R. S, 

BARBARY begins on the weft at Mount Atla?, 
extending north-eaftward along the coaft of the 
Atlantic Ocean to Cape Spartel; and then bending 
eaftward, forms the fouth coaft of the Scraiorhts ot 
Gibraltar, and afterward the fouth coaft of the Me- 
diterranean as far as the city of Alexanriria, which is 
the weftcrn boundary of Egypt, where that coinirry 
joins to Barbary. Both coafts, whether that waihcd 
by the Atlantic Ocean, or by the Mcditerrincan, are 
cxtrcamly fertile in corn and paftures •, the fonver 
being watered by many large and fmall rivers, which 
flow from Mount Atlas, and difchargc rhemlelvcs inro 
the ocean ; while the other extends itfclf along t!ic 
declivity of a vaft range or' mountains, Ibme of rhv^:n 
of a confidcrablo height, and fprcad in depth above 
40 leagues into the inland country. They are wa- 
tered by a multitude of rivers, which, after a long 
courfe, and various windings, through a vaft var. jty 
of pleafant and fertile v^iUies, difcharge rhemfe^vcs 
into the Mediterranean. 

Barbary was by turns poflefled by the Carthagi- 
nians, Romans, Greeks, Saracens, Vandals, Arab% 
Moors, and Turks; befide the various ;ute ipts 
made by the Spaniards, Portuguefe, and otiier Erro* 

R 2 ^^^ 


pean nations who have formed fettlements in Tome 
parts of this coaft, which firetches from eaft to wcftr 
near 2000 miles in length, and in fome places 75a 
in breadth. It was known to the ancients by the 
name of Mauritania, Numidia, Africa Proper, and 
Lybia-, and is the beft country in all Africa, esKCpt 
Egypt and the country about the Cape of Good Hope. 

Dr. Shaw, who rcfided at Algiers for twelve years 
in quality of chaplain to the Britifh factory there, has 
in his account of Barbary, ranged his obfervarions 
under diftinft heads, without mentioning the time, 
place, or manner, in which they were made. But as 
the method of Turveying thefe countries ; the diet and 
reception of the traveller, with the hardfliips and 
dangers to which he is expofed, ought not to- be 
pafled over In filence, he gives the reader in one view,, 
fuch material circumdances and obi'ervations, as might 
liave been difperfed through his travels, 

The rcaclcT is therefore to be informed, (ays he, in the: icvcral maritin^c of Barbary where 
Britiih factories are cllabliflied, I was entertained with 
extraordinary marks of gciurofiry and friendfliip, 
h.aving tlic vS'2 nor only of thv^r houfes, but of their 
Iiorl'.-s, their lar.izaries and lirrvants. In the inland 
towns and villages there is generally a houfe fet apart 
for t!\e rcceptior* of Icrangers, witli a proper officer 
to attend it, v.'here rerions are Iodized and entertained 
for one nighr, at :hc expence of the community, in 
the bcft mai^n^ir li^' place will afford: but except at 
ihele, and tl\j phices btfore mentioned, I met with 
no houics of c:ULrL.;inmcnt, throuQ:h the whole courfc 
of nvv' travels. Ihc furnilhin^ ourfelves with tents 
woLilJ not only have been attended with expence and 
t:o'.:ble, lut would have railed the fufpicion of the 
Ar;:bs : if thv-'icfore, in the courfc of our travels, wc 
did not fall in widi tlie hovels of t!ie Kabvles, or the 
cnrampments of t'le Arabs, wc had nothing to pro- 
tect us either from tlic fcorchhig iieat of the fun by 
day, or the cold of the nighr. unlcii wc had the hap- 

through BARBARY. 245 

pmefs to find a grove of trees, the flielf of a rock, or 
ibmetimes by good fortune found a cave. When this 
happened^ which was indeed but fcldom, our horfes 
were the greateft fuffcrers : they were, however, our 
firft pare, and we gathered for them grafs, Hubble, 
boughs of trees, and fuch like provender, before we 
£it down to examine what fragments of a former meal 
were rcferved for ourfelves. 

When in travelling in Barbary, we were fo fortunate 
as to find an encampment of the Arabs, for we were 
not fond of vilicing the Kabyles, who are not fo eafily 
managed 5 we were entertained for one night on free 
coft, and furnifhed with a fufHcient quantity of provi- 
fions for ourfelves and our horfes ; befide a bowl of 
milk, and a bafket of raifins, dates, figs, or other 
dried fruit, generouQy prefented to us upon our 
arrival. The matter of the tent where we lodged, 
fetched us, according to the number of our company, 
cither a kid, a goat, a lamb, or Iheep, half of which 
was immediately boiled by his wife, and ferved up 
with cufcufu -, the reft was ufually roafted, and referved 
for our dinner or brcakfaft the next day. 

But though the tents of the roving herdfmen may 
(hclter us from the weather, they are not without their 
inconveniencies ; for the cold and the dews to which 
we were every night expofed in the defarcs of Arabia, 
are much more fupportable than the vermin and 
infefts, which conftanrly moleilcd us licre : for bcfide 
fleas and lice, which are here in all quarters, the ap- 
prehenfions we were under of being bit or ftung by 
the viper, the fcorpion, or the venomous fpider, 
rarely fail, in fome parts of thefe countries, to inter- 
rupt the reft fo grateful to a weary traveller. . Indeed 
upon fighc of one of thcfe venomous creatures, a 
thaleb or writer, who happened to be one of my fpa- 
hees, after he had muttered a few words, exhorted 
us all to take courage, as he had made it tame and 
harmlefs, by his charms and incantations. We ar^ 
alfo no Icfs offended by their kids, calves, and other 

R 3 ^^sx^% 


t+S Oft. SttAWs TRAVELS 

ydung cattle, that are every night tied up in the tcnK," 
to prevent their fucking their dams -, for the cords 
being generally made of loofe fpun yarn, they were 
continually breaking loofe and trampling over us. 

When we were entertained in a courteous manner, 
which was not always the cafe, I ufed to give the 
matter of the tent a knife, a couple of flints, or a 
little Englifh gunpowder, which being much ftrongef 
flun theirs, they highly efteem, and keep it to fcnrc 
as priming for their fire-arms: and if hiswiftwas 
obliging in making our cufcufu favoury and with 
expedition, (lie would return a thoufand thanks for a 
pair of fciflkrs, a large needle, or a flccan of thread, 
which are great rarities. 

During the exceflive heats of fummer, and para* 
cularly when we were afraid of meeting with a party 
of the Arab freebooters, we tr.ivelled in the night; 
which according to their proverb, ' having no eyes,* 
few of them dare to venture abroad, from theirnot 
knowing what dangers and anibufcades they may ftll 
into. We had then frequent realbn to call to mind 
rhcf v/ords of tlie Pfalmifl, " Thou makefl: darkncfs 
th2t it may be night ; v/htrrcin all the beads of the 
forefts do move. I'hc lions roaring after their prey:" 
the leopards, hyrenas, and a variety of other ravenous 
beads calling to and anfwering each other j the dif- 
ferent fexes, by this mean*-, perhap?, finding out, and 
corrcfponding with their mates : thcle founds awfully 
broke in upon the folitudc, and dcdroycd the ideas 
of the iafcty wc fought by travelling at this fcafon. 

We did not always take dages of the fame length 5 
for when under the a{)prehcn;ion of danger, we tra- 
velled through all the by-paths that were known to 
our condutlors, without reding, fv>metin-ies 12 or 15 
hours together : bur an ordinary day's journey, exclu- 
five of the time taken up in making obfervations, 
fel.lom exceeded cieht or nine h')urs. We condantlv 
rofc at break of day, and letting forv/ard with the 
fun, travelled till the middle of the afternoon, when 


through B A R B A R Y. 247 

we began to look out for the encampments of the 
iVrabs ; who, to prevent fiich parties as ours coming 
to live upon them, chufe fuch places as are leaft con- 
fpicuous. And indeed, unlefs we difcovercd the 
fmoke of their t. nts, heard the barking of their dogs, 
orobferved fome of their flocks, it was with difficulty 
we were able to find them, and all our labour was frc- 
quendy ineflfedtual. When we came up wi»h them, 
we were accommodated, as 1 have already laid, for 
one night, and if in travelling the next day 

i We chancM to find 

A new repaft, or an unrafted Ipring, 
Wc blcft our ftars, and thought it luxury.* 


In the Holy Land, and upon the ifthmus between 
Eg}'pt and the Red Sea, our conduftors cannot be 
too numerous : but in Barbary, where the Arabs are 
under great fubjection, 1 was rarely attended by more 
than three fpahces and a fcrvant, all of us well armed : 
though we were fometime obliged to augment our 
ouoibers, particularly when we travelled among the 
indcpendant Arabs on the frontiers of the neighbour- 
ing kingdoms, or when two contiguous clans were at 
variance : ihefe and the freebooters make no fcruple 
of plundering and munhering, not only ftrangers, but 
one another. 

The bell method to prevent falling into their hands, 
is for a traveller to be always dreHed in the habit of 
the country, or like one of the fpahees. For the 
Arabs are jealous and inquilitive, fufpedting every 
ftrangcr to be a fpy, fent to taUe a Uirvey of thofc 
lands, which, at one time or other, they are taught 
10 fear will be rcftored to the Chrillians. 

I cannot help here obferving, that a traveller can 
fcarce fail of falling into a ferious train of thought, 
when he obferves luch large fcenes of ruin and defo- 
lacion as are feen in thefc countries. He is ilruck 

R 4 with 


with the fplitude of the few domes and porticoes thaf 
are left (landing, which hiftory tells him were once 
crouded with inhabitants : where Scyphax and Mafi- 
niflTa, Scipio and Casfar ; where the orthodox Chris- 
tians and the Arians, the Saracens and the Turks, 
have in their turns given laws. Every pile, every 
heap of ruins points out to him the weakncfs and in- 
ftability of all human art and contrivance, reminding 
him of the many thoufands that lie buried below, now 
loft in oblivion, and forgotten to the world. 

Two of the moft confidcrable diftrifts of that part 
of Africa, which latter ages have diftinguiftied by the 
name of Barbary, are the kingdoms of Algiers, and 
Tunis. The former is bounded on the north by the 
Mediterranean Sea ; on the eaft, by the river Zainc, 
the ancient Tufca, which feparates it from Tunis; on 
the fouth, by the Sahara, or defart ; on the weft, by 
the village of Twunt and the mountains of Tran^ 
which feparate it from Morocco. According to the 
cxafteft obfervntions I could make, I find, its true 
length from Twunt to labarka, to be 460 miles, it 
extending from 1 6' weft longitude from London, to 
the river Zaine in 9° 16' eaft. To the weft it is g^ 
nerally about 6c miles broad ; and the eaftern pan is 
no where leis in breadth than 100 miles. This coun- 
try is at prefcnt divided into three provinces, that of 
Tlemfan to the weft ; the province of Titterie to the 
fouth, and of Conitantina to the eaft of Algiers. Each 
of thcfe provinces is governed by a bey or viceroy, 
appointed and removed at pleafure by the dcy of 

The remarkable chain of hills which gec^aphcrs 
fometimcs place between this ccimtry and the Ssuiara, 
and at others within the dominions of Algiers, 1 take 
to be a continuation ot mount Atlas, though they arc 
not fo high as they are reprelentcd by the ancients ; 
for thofe parts of them which I have feen, arc rardy 
equal to fome of the moft lofty mountains in our 
jlland } and 1 queftion whether they are any where fo 


through BARBARY. 249 

high as the Alps or the Appenines. If you form the 
idea of a number of hills, ulually of the perpendicular 
height of 4, 5, or 600 yards, with an tafy afcent, 
adorned with a;toves. of fruit and forell trees, rifinsr 
fuccelEvciy one behind a;: ji'.er, with here and there 
a rocky precipice, and place upon its fide or its fum- 
intt, a village of Kabyles, encompaffed with a mud 
wall, you will have a juft and lively idea of one of 
thcfe mountains : and you will have no occafion to 
heighten the pifture, with the imaginary nofturnal 
flames, the melodious founds, or the lafcivious revels 
of the fictitious beings attributed to them by the 

Twunt and the mountains of Trara, are the weftem 
confines of the province of Tlemfan, as the river Ma- 
fifiran, at near 200 miles diftance, bounds it to the 
eaft. This province is almoft equally diftributed into 
mountains and valleys. 

At fome diftancc from cape Hone is the river 
Tafna, on the weftern banks of which, almoft conti-^ 
guous to the fea, are the ruins of the ancient Siga, 
(Mice a royal city of the Numidian kings. 

The firft town on the coall of any note, is the city 
of Warran, commonly calletl Oran j which is about a 
mile in circumference, and fituated on a declivity 
near the foot of a mountain, on the fummit of which 
arc two caftles. Within lefs than half a furlong of 
this mountain, is another calllc in a fituation fome- 
what higher than the two former; but a large vale 
lying between them, their refpedive ridges are fo re- 
markably difunitcd, as to form a convenient land 
mark for mariners. To the fouth and fouth-eaft arc 
two other caftles erefted upon the fame level with the 
lower part of the town, but fcparated from it by a 
deep winding valley, which may be confidercd as a 
natural trench to the Icurh fide of the city. At every 
opening of this valley we fee fuch a confufed view of 
precipices, plantations of orange trees, and rills of 
water trickling down from the rocks, as appears ex- 
6 trcamlv 


treamly delightful ; for nature rardy dilplays fiidi i 
variety of profpe&s and cpol retreats. 

Three Roman miles from Oran is Arzew, tke an- 
cient Arfcnaria. Among the ruins of the ancient dty 
are fcattered feveral capitals, bafes, and (hafts of oo- 
lumns ; a well wrought Corinthian capital of Fiuin 
marble fupports a fmich*s anvil; and in the cadfi 
houfe I accidentally difcovered a beautiful Mafiuc 
pavement, through the rents of a ragged caipct 
fpread over it. There is here alfo a fcpulchral cham- 
ber 1 5 feet fquare, built plain without niches or any 
other ornaments ; thougn on the walls arc (cvcral 
Latin infcriptions in Roman capitals. 

To the Southward of Arzew is a large fpaoe of 
ground full of pits, from which the neighbounog 
people are fupplied with fait. This commodityi fiom 
the facility of uigging it, and the fhortnefs of canuge 
to the adjacent port, would, under any other goma- 
ment, be an invaluable branch of trade, the pes 
Jbeing inexhauftible. 

Thefe fait pits take up an area of about fix miks in 
compafs, furrounded with mountains. In winter tlus 
fpace appears like a lake ; but in fummer the water 
is exhaled by the heat of the fun, and the fait left b^ 
hind cryftalized. 

To the caftward is the city of Sherfhell. TUs 
town is fituated amidft the ruins of a city that was not 
much inferior to Carthage in extent. Thefe ruins aie 
a proof of its former magnificence : for they abound 
with fine capitals, columns, capacious ciftcrns, and 
beautiful Mofaic pavements. The water of the river 
Hafhem, as it is now called, was conveyed thither 
through a large and noble aquedud, litde inferior to 
that of Carthage, in the loftinefs and ftrength of ill 
arches. There are likewife two other conduitSi 
brought from the mountains to the Ibuth and (buth- 
wefl : thefe flill fubfill, and as they furnifh SheHhell 
with excellent water, while that of the wells is brack* 
ifh, they may juftly be confidered as two ineftimablc 



through BARBARY- 251 

legacies left to this place by the ancients. This place, 
from many circumftances, evidently appears to have 
been the Julia Caefaria of the Romans, which was the 
fee of a bifhop. 

The country about the city is extreamly fertile, 
and exceedingly well watered by feveral brooks : on 
the bank of one of them is an old ruined town under 
a high rocky precipice ; and at fome diftance near 
chefe fountains the Algerines have a fortrcfs, in which 
is a garrifon of Moors and Arabs, to prevent the 
incurfions of the Beni Menaffer. Certainly nothing 
can be more entertaining than the variety of profpefts 
every where to be met with in this delightful country. 

Having paflcd the river Gurmoat, which is formed 
by Icvcral rills of water that fall from the mountain 
Shenooah, we difcover a number of ftone coffins of an 
oblong figure *, and a little farther to the caft, under a 
riling ground, are the ruins of Tefcflad, or Tfcfllul, ex- 
tending two miles along the fcii ihore. Both at this 
place, and at Sherfliell, wc kc many arches and walls 
of brick, of a kind not commonly found in other parts 
of Barbary, where we may I'uppofc the work to be 
Roman. The bricks are of a fine parte and colour, 
onlv two inches and a half thick, but near a foot 

Tefeflad is fitiiated 13 miles from Sherfliell, and 
appears to have been the anciL'nt Tapfa, which was 
the fee of a bifliop. The coali: all along from this 
place to Algiers, in fome parts for the breadth of tv/o 
or three leagues together, is either woody or moun- 
tainous, by which the fine plains of the Mittijiah 
behind it, are fhcltered from the northerly blafts of 
wind from the fea. 

The Rubber Romeah, or Roman Sepulchre, or as 
it may likewife be rendered. The Sepulchre of the 
Chriliian Woman, is fituated on the mountainous 
part of the fea coall, fcvcn miles from Tefeflad, and 
is a folid compact edifice •, it confifts of a very high 
kafe, on which is formed a kind of pyramid of fteps. 


i52 Dr- SHAWs travels 

This (Iruclure, which is built of the fincft free ftone; 
I computed to be lOO feet in height, and the diameter 
of the bafe 90. The opinion that this ftrufturc was 
erected over a large treafurc, has caufed feveral parts 
of it to be broken down ; however, it is ftill of a fut- 
ficient height to be a convenient land mark for ma- 
riners. This appears to be the monument buik by 
Mela for the royal family of the Numidian kings. 

We fliall now examine the fouthern parts of this 
province, and fliall begin with the city of Trcmcfen, 
or according to the pronunciation of the Moors and 
Arabs, Tlemfan, or Telemfan. It is fituated upon 
a rifine ground below a range of rocky precipices, 
upon the firft ridge of which is a long narrow piece 
of level ground, watered by many iprings, whkh 
uniting their ftreams, fall in a variety of cafcadcs in their 
approach to Tlemfan ; the weftermoft of thefc rivulets 
turning a variety of mills. In the city is a large 
refervoir of v/ater, condufted thither by a fubterra- 
neous channel, and from thence the ufual demands of 
the city are fupplied. 

The ancient Tlemfan was about four miles round; 
but at prcfcnt there is not above one fixth part of it 
remaining. Among thefc ruins we meet with feveral 
fhafts of pillars, and other fragments of Roman anti- 
quities : and in the walls of an old mofque, Ifawa 
number 01' altars dedicated to the Dii Manes. 

Kcar the river Sinan I was (hewn the place where 
Rr-rharofTi ftrewed about his treafure j his laft, but 
jV::itlcls CiTbrt to retard the purfuit of his enemies. 

Between the Shelliff and the fea, are the baths of 
Mereega, the Aqua^ Calida^ Colonia of the ancients. 
The larg'?rt and moft frequented of thefe baths is a 
baibn tv.c:!v^ feet fquare, and four feet deep. Here 
the water bubbles up with a dL-o;ree of heat juft fup- 
portable, an.l hence pafles off* to another fmalkr 
ciilcrn uied by tlie Jews, who are not allowed to 
bathe in company with the Mahomerans. Both thefc 
hat.'is v-oiT formerly covered with a handfbmc build- 

trough BARBARY. 253 

tng ; but they sure now expofed to the weather, and 

whoi I law them, were half full of ftones and rubbifh. 

A great concourfe of people are ufually here in the 

i^ng, the feafon of thele waters, which are fuppofed 

ID remove rheun^atic pains, tocure the jaundice, and 

to alleviate moft other inveterate ill habits. Higher 

up the hilt is another bath, the water of which being 

of too intenfe a heat for bathing, is conveyed through 

a long pipe into another room, where it is made ufe 

of in an operation of the lame nature and eiFedt as our 


Between this and the lower baths, are the ruins of 
t Roman town, equal in fize to that of El Herba ; 
and at a little diftance from them, arc feveral tombs 
and coffins of (lone, fome of which, I was informed^ 
icit €f an unufual bignefs. The late lieutenant of 
this province affured me, that he faw a thigh bone 
belonging to them, near 36 inches in length : but on 
my being at thefe baths half a year after, I could not 
receive the leaft information about it ; and the graves 
and coffins that fell undc-r my obfervation, were only 
of the ufual dimenfions. However, the people of 
this and other countries are full of ftories and traditions 
of this nature ; which, provided thefe fliould not be 
human bones, which may really be the cafe, as the 
Africans are far from bein^ nice and fkilhil obfervers, 
we may poffibly account for, from a cuftom I have 
ibmcwhere read of among the Goths and \'andals, 
that might pafs over with them into AiVica, of inter- 
ring the horfe with his rider, and the armour of the 
latter in the fame grave-, and this ailcrtioii is con- 
firmed by the long fwords with hundlcs fhapcJ like 
crofies, often dug up in this country. 

Thefe baths are furrounded by a ilicccMlion of very 
nigged hills and deep valleys, each of tl^ciii in rhoir 
turn very difficult and dangerous to pais ovlt. But 
this fatigue and danger is liifficiently rjcompcnfcd by 
our beincr afterward conducted throuo;h the rich and 
delightful plains of Mcttijiih, lying beyond them to 


254 ^^' SHAWs TRAVELS 

the northward, which are M miles long and 20 broad, 
every where well watered by a number of fprings and 
rivulets. Here are many country-feats of the prin- 
cipal inhabitants of Algiers, and the farms which 
fupply that city with the greateft part or its provi- 

The fouthern province of Algiers, or the province 
of Ticterie, which is bounded to the eaftward by the 
river Booberak, is greatly inferior to the wcftcm in 
extent, it being fcarce 60 miles either in length or 
breadth. The fea-coaft, to the breadth of Sveorfii 
leagues, is chiefly made up of rich champain ground; 
behind which is a range of rugged mountains that run 
almofl in a direct line through a great part of the pro- 
vince ; but beyond them are extenfive plains, though 
none of them are equal to thofe of Mettijiah. 

In this province is Algiers the Warlike, as it is 
termed by the Turks, the capital of the whole king- 
dom of the fame name. This place, which has for 
feveral ao;cs braved the rcfentment of the greateft 
powers of Chriilendom, is not above a mile and a 
half in circumference, though it is faid to contain 
ico,oco Mahometans, of whom not above ^o arc 
renegadoes, 15,000 Jews, and about 20CO Chriftian 
flaves. It is fituated on the declivity of a hill facing 
the north and north-eaft; the houfcs rifing \o gradually 
above each other, that there is fcarcc^ly one in the whole 
city that has not a view of the fcA, The walls are 
however weak, and inc.ipable of defence, except 
where they are ftrcngthened by additional fortifica- 
tions. The citadel, which is built upon the highcft 
part of the city, at the weftern angle, is of an ofto- 
gonal figure, and each of the fides in view has port- 
holes or embrr»:lirc3. The ditch, which formerly fur- 
roun.ied the c.ty, is almoft entirely filled up, and is 
of liale conlequcnce. Such is the fituation and 
llrtnortii of" Alj^iJers on the land fide; but toward the 
ta i: is be:tt.T f jriified, and capable of a more obfti- 

through BARBARY. 235 

nate defence : for the embrafures here have all brafe 
guns in good order. 

The port is of an oblong figure, 130 fathoms long^ 
and 80 broad. Its eaftern mound, which was for- 
merly an ifland, is well fecured by feveral fortifica- 
tions. The round caftle built by the Spaniards while 
they were mafters of the ifland, and the two remote 
batteries erei5ted within this century, are faid to be 
bomb proof. However, as none of the fortifications 
are aflifted with either mines or outworks, and as the 
foldiers who are to guard and defend them, cannot 
be kept up to any regular courfe of duty and atten- 
dance, a few refolute battalions proteAed by a fmall 
iquadron of ihips, mi^ht foon make themfelves mal^ 
cers of the ftrongeft of them. 

The naval power of the Algerines has been for 
ibme years in a declining condition : except their row- 
boats and brigan tines, they had in 1731 only half a 
dozen ihips from 36 to 50 guns, and not half that 
number of brave and experienced captains : they are, 
however, ftill able to interrupt the trade of Europe. 

There is little within the city that merits the atten- 
tion of the curious. Upon the tower of the great 
raofque are fome imperfcd infcriptions ; but the let- 
ters, though of a fufficient bignefs to be feen at a 
diilance, are fo filled up with lime and white-wafii, 
that I could not particularly diftinguiih them. 

The hills and valleys round the city, are every 
where beautified with gardens and country-feats, 
whither the wealthy part of the inhabitants retire 
during the fummer. Thefe are little white houfes 
Ihaded by a variety of fruit-trees and ever-greens : 
the gardens are well (locked with pot herbs, melons, 
and other fruit ; and what is moft admired in thefe 
hot climates, each of them, as well as the city, enjoys 
a great command of excellent water, from the many 
rivulets and fountains that every where prefent them- 
felves. From thefe fources the fpring water ufed at 


256 Dr. SHAWs travels 

Algiers is brought through a long courfc of pipd 
and conduits. 

Jurjura, the higheft mountain in Barbary, extends 
at leaft cigiit leagues from the north-caft to the Ibuth- 
weft ; and from one end to the other, appears a con- 
tinued range of naked rocks and precipices, fccuring 
by its rugged fituation, a number of Kabyles from 
becoming tributary to the Algeriiies. In the midft 
of winter the ridge of this mountain is covered with 
fnow ; and it is remarkable that the inhabitants of one 
fide maintain an hereditary and implacable enmity 
againft thofe of the other ; while by common confent^ 
a little fnow puts a (top to their hoililities during that 

I now come to the eaftern province of AlgicrSi 
diftinguiflied by the name of the province of Con- 
ftantina, which is nearly equal in extent to the other 
two, it being 230 miles in length, and about 100 in 
breadth. The tribute collefted here by the viceroy is 
even much greater than tliat of the other two ; for 
the bey of the fouthern province pays annually into 
the trcafury of Algiers only about 12,000 dollars*, 
and the bey of the weftern province 40 or 50,000; 
while the viceroy of Confta:uina never delivers in Icfs 
than So, and Ibmetimes ico,ooo. 

Tlxe fea-ccall of this province is rocky almoft 
through its whole extent. I'he river Booberack is its 
weftern boundary, and at a league's dillancc upon 
the fea-coalt, the town of Dellys is built at the foot 
of a high rr.ouiitain, out of the ruins of a large city, 
probably the Ruiiicurium of the ancients. Here a 
great par: of ihe old wall, with other ruins near the 
fummit of t!:e mountain, promile at a dillancc fomc 
cxtraoi-dinary antiquities ; and in a wall juft over the 
harbour is a I'lnall niche with an image placed in it^ 

♦ The dr.lhrs cf Al^'crs and Tuais ufually pnfs for 3 5, 4 d. of 
3 s. 6 J. v:.luc. 




through BARBARY. 257 

the attitude of 9 Maidona ; but the features and 
tpery are defaced. ^ 

Dng by ibme villages of little confequence, we 
to. the port of Boiijeiab, called ^y Strabo the 

Tht town of Boujeiah, or Bugia, as it is caDed hf 
1i Eanqxaris, is built upon the ruins of the ancient 
Iff, in the fame manner, and in a like fituatiOn with 
Idtjfi^ though of thrice the circuit. A great part 
old wall is ftill remaining, and carried up to 
' the mduhtain. Befide a caftle, which com- 
the' city, there are two others at the bottom 
^ motintain for the fecurity of the port ; and 
iMithe Walls of one of them are flill remaining the 
jiiBi of the canhon-'ball, fired againfl: it by Sir 
Spraggy in his memorable expedition againft 
Faffing through fome inconfiderable villages, and 
fcvcrtl rivers, we came to the Scbba Rous, or the 
Sfvcn Ca«)cs, which are a cluftcr of fo many high 
A^ged and barren promontories. Among the eafter- 
moftof thtrfe capes, the Zhoore, a confiderable river, 
difcHarges itfcrlf into the fea. The Welled Attyah 
tod the Beni Friganah, tv/o of the principal clans of 
thcfe capes, drink of thi^ river, and do not, like the 
odKr Kabylcs, live in thatched hovels under the 
iidterof fome foreft or mountain; but in caves of 
,fc rocks, which they have cither dug thcmfelves, or 
[baod made to their hands. Upon the approach* of 
I'iny vcflel, either in the courfe of failinf;, or by dif- 
ftids of weather, thele inhofpitable Kabylcs imme- 
i&tdy. iflue out of their holes, and covering the clifls 
irfthe fliore with thrir mulcicudes, utter a thoafand 
flKcrable wifhes, that God would deliver it into their 
Farther to the fomh are the ruins of tijc ancient 
ippo, called Hippo Regius, from its being one of 
■: royal cities of the Num?dian kings. 
Vol. VI. S Of 


Of this city Sc. Auguftine was bifliop, and \he 
Moors (hew a pait of the ruins which they pretend to 
have be^n his convenL 

Among the mountains of the Beni Abbels, is t 

narrow winding deBle, which, for near half a mile^ 
extends between precipices that arife on each fide to 
a great height. At every winding the rock that ori- • 
ginally went acrois it, and feparaied one valley from 
another, is cut in the form or a door-cafe fix or fevca 
feet wide, and thefe are called by the Turks The 
Gates of iron. Few perfons can pafs them without 
horror ; and here a handful of men might defend the 
pafs againd a great army. Two leagues to the ibutlh 
fouth-eaft, is another dangerous pafs, called the Acaba» 
or the Afcent. This is the revcrfe of the former j 6r 
here the road exiends along a narrow ridge, witji 
precipices and tleep vallies on each fide, and thekdl 
deviation from the beaten path, expoies the paffioflBf 
to the danger of being daihcd to pieces by faQiqg 
to the bottom. The common road from Algiers n> 
the eallward, lies through the above pals, tind over 
this ridge. 

Cirta, or Conftantina, as it was afterward called^ 
is fituated 48 miles from the fca, and was one of the 
chief, as well as one of the ftrongeft cities of Nunu- 
dia. The greateft part of it has been built upon a 
kind of peninfiilar promontory, inacceffible on all 
fides, except toward the fouth-weft. This I computed 
to be above a mile in circuit, ending to the north- 
v/ard in a perpendicular precipice, at leall 100 fa- 
thoms deep. 

Befide the general traces of a diverfity of juins 
fcattcred all over this place, there are ftill remaining 
near the centre of the city, a Jet of cifterns, .which 
received the water brought thirhcr by an aqueduft: 
they are about 20 in number, forming an area 50 
yards fquare; Ihk though the aqueducl is in a more 
ruinous conditioii than the cille ns, its ruins fuffi-r 
I cicntly 

through BAl^BARY. 259 

T dcmonftrarc the public fpirit of th^ Cirtefians, 
^ing a ftrudlurc that required luch an iirmtnic 
tv of materials. 

>w the bridge, the river Rummel begins to turn 
northward, and continues ihac ooifrle through 
frrancan pafljge in the rocks, which is in le- 
places defignedly laid open, probably f.^r the 
lience of drawing up the water. This fcenis to 
)ecn an extraordinary provifiori of nature for the 
ion of this river, which muft have othcrwife 
d a prodigious lake, and have laid great part of 
sighbouring country under wat^r, before it 

a paffage to the fca. This river falls from 
bterranean cavity in a large cataraft, a quarter 
mile to the eailward of a place called Seedy 

long the ruins to the fouth-weft of the bridge, 
: narrow flip of land already mentioned, is the 
ft part of a triumphal arch, called The Cafl:le 
! Giant. At fome leagues diftance to the eafl: 
>nftantina, are the Silent or Inchanted Baths, 
rd on a low ground, furrounded with mountains. 
: are here feveral fprings of an injcnfe hear, and 
mail diftance, there arc others that arc compa- 
ly extreamly cokl; near wliich are the ruins of 
houftrs, built, perhaps, for the convenience cf 
who came here for the benefit ©f thL' waters. In 
narkable, that befidi' the frronj kilphurecus 
5, the heat of the above Iprings is lb gr,.^3t, as tcT 
, large piece of mutton very tender in a quarter 

hour, and that the rocky ground over which 
^ater runs, is, for th:: fpace of 100 itci^ in a 
zr diflbived, or raih.:r calcined by it. Thv-'iv: 
being originally jotc unJ umfor*Ti, th;:, by 
]g every v,ay equal i;rjprv(r:::n':, liMves ihcin in* 
ape of cont-'S anvl hj:r.Ji\.h.r-<, wliich bci.-;!: \.^ 
igh, and n.-arly of t;:c fa r.e d:a;ne:cr, the Ar.:!?5 
•c to br the tents (;f thoir picJoc;*iijrs rurncd 
:one. But where thcf'j kv.>:'^. b^fiJe their uiual 

6 2 c\\o^>j 



chalky fubftance, alfo contain fome layers of a haider 
matcer^^ not fo eafily diflblved, you are entertained 

with a confufion of traces and channels, diftinguiihcd 
by the Arabs into camels, horfes, and fhecp, with 
men, women, and children, whom they fuppofetD 
have undergone the like fate with their habitadoiu. 

On riding over this place it gives back fuch a hot- 
low found, that we were every moment apprchenfive 
of fmking through it. It is therefore probable, that 
the ground below us was hpllow ; and may not then 
the air pent up in thcfe caverns, afibrd that mixture 
of (hrill, murmuring, and deep founds, which, accord- 
ing to the dircdion of the winds, and the motioaof 
the internal air, iflue out along with the water. 
Thefe founds the Arabs affirm, to be the muGc t£ 
the jenoune, or fairies, who are fuppoled in a parti- 
cular manner to make their abodes at this pbce, and 
to be the grand agents in all thcfe remarkable ajqieac- 

7'here are likewife ether natural curiofities at this 
place : for the chalky ilone diflblving into a fineim- 
pdlpable powder, and being carried along with the 
llream, lodges itfclf on the fides of the channel, and 
fometimcs on the lips of the fountains themfelves ; ot 
elic embracing twigs, draws, and other bodies in itJ 
way, immediately hardens and flioots into a bright 
fibrous fubllance like the afbeftos, forming itfelt at 
the fame time into a variety of glittering figures, and 
beautiful crvftalizations. 

The mountains of Aurefs, to the fouthward of Con- 
ftantina, are a knot of eminences running into one 
another, with fcveral little plains and valkys between 
them. Botli the higher and the lower parts arc ge- 
nerally cxrreamly fertile, and are efteemcd the garden 
of the kingdom. They are about 130 miles m cir* 
cuit, and all over them are fpread a number of ruins. 
It is remarkable, that the inhabiiants of the mountains 
of Aurefs have a quite diircrent mien and complexion 
from their neighbours : for they arc fo far from being 


through BARBARY. ^ 

thy, that they are fair and rudd^; and *»^««i,^w| 
ii, among the other Kabyles^ is- of a daHc^cottftir, 
ith them of a deep yellow. Thefe cirfttA^poces, • 
rithftanding their being Mahometans, and their 
ling only the common languag^ of the Kabyles, 
er it probable that they may be a remnant of the 

caving Conftantina to the nor^h, we enter into 
noft extenlive and fertile diftri£b in all Numidia, 
led by a powerful and warlike tribe called Han- 
lah, who have often been of fignal fervice to the 
rincs in their wars with Tunis. This whole 
try is finely watered, and was once interfperfed , 
dties and villages, of which the only veftiges 
caps of ruins. 

lie govei;nment of the Algerines, which difEa-s 
from that of Tunis, confifts of the dey, and a 
DQn council, compofcd of 30 yiah bafhees, 
gh the mufty, tlic cady, and fometimes the 
e ibldiery are called in to afTifl:. All affairs of 
ent are fometimes agreed upon by this aflembly, 
■e they pafs into laws, and the dey is cntrufted 
the execution of them. But lately little account 
>een made of this body, which is only convened 
nfcnt to what has been before concerted between 
ey and his favourites. 

ic dey is cholen out of the army ^ the moft infe- 
rder having an equal right to that dignity with 
ligheft. And ev^ry bold and afpiring foldier, 
jh taken yefterday from the plough, may be 
iercd as heir apparent to the throne. They arc 
hamed to own the meannefs of their extraftion. 
)met bafla, who was dey when I was at Algiers, 
difpute he had once with a dcpury-conful of a 
bouring nation, freely mentioned the meannefs 
s birth: " My mother, laid he, Told flicep*s 
and my father neats tongues ; but they would 
been afhamtd to have cxpofed to fale fo worth- 
tongue as thine." llewho.iifpircs to this high 

S ^ T^wk. 


rank does not v*'ait till ficknefs or age hss re!ri0vc4 
th : present poiTeRbr, it is enough i? he be abie to 
protefthimfjlfwich the famefcymitar which he boldiy 
Ihcaihs in the bowel i of his prcJi^cefijr i i\:T fcanceiy 
onrf in ten of them dies ill his bed. However, thi3 
factions Immour iecrr.s, ac prdl-nt, to be lomewhac 
puni; d and ailavcd by the many hafonable execu- 
tions that havj Jjccn ht-Ay made of tbefc ai'piring 

The whole force of Algiers, in Turks and Colog- 
lics, is at preler.i: cojT)|,i:tc 1 at about 6500 » 2000 of 
whom are fu;"j)cfeci zi heokl and cxcufod from duty; 
and of die rcinaiiiinp: 4500, lozo zv'^. ccnilantly cm- 
ployed in their gcirriibns, w-.ile the reft are either to 
arm out their cruizers, or form the three iiying camps 
il*nt ou: every under the provincial viceroys. 
To thefe Turkifli troops wc nYay join about 2000 
Mooriih horfe and foot, ke;-t in conftant pay ; but 
being all hereditary enemies to the Turks, arc con- 
f:dered as adc^ir.^j bjt litrie to the ftrcngth of the go- 
vernment. This extenfiVj k-r.gdcm is indeed kept 
iri eb.d;v.;-:e, net ib mv.rh by force of arms, as by 
ciircf^illv ubfeivricr ^h.^ olu ro:i::c:;l m.ixim, '■ DiviJe cor/i i.jn.'/. •/' lor tI*ero h£i«.:7 continual ieaioufics 
fiud ch ■ iitc.N bccv.LX-n r'le -\rtib:«:ii tribe?, the provir.- 
c:?.\ v.'^^'ij]^ i ::ve noiiiinij to do but to keep up the 
kT!--«'r!r, ::" J. .:l proper iin:eii throw in new niatrcr 
V:v ciij^r::. Thus, by plavino: one tribe againft 
rrin ]x\\ ;!i v ure able :o maintain their ground againft 

-• ■ I 1 . ^ - • • . » .- 

tiki '■•.i-^»- 

I'L-r-T-'^ t ': Alrerines acknowlece themfc.lves the 
^.:'.'.!::l :\;nLf:> v*iinil, thjy pay him no manner of 

1:1 i/ij Liift:;'.l:ii:i :i of judice, the cad^/ is judge. 
1::. !:» i;eaei':illv c'dLit.iL.wvi in livj ie;: ina-ies of Con- 
ii '.;M.: i:- Iv. or Grand Cuiro, v.v.-rc i: is faid the 
Uo:"i.:.n c-jJ.s a-.l p.^.r.d.Jts, tran!]aie:i into the Arabic 
tr-r:^i C; . .c tc^ught a:ul explained. Me is obliged to 
?.\vy:\.\ v:::c oi- a day at the court ofjuftice, 


through BARBARY. 2(Jj 

where he determines the fuics that are brought before 
him : but as he is generally fuppofed guilty of bribery, 
all a(Tairs of moment are laid before the dey, or in his 
abfencc, before the treafurer, mafter of the horle, and 
other principal officers of tlie regency, who conftantly . 
fit in the gate of the palace* tor that purpofe. At 
thcfe tribunals the caufe is foon determined, after 
which the fentence is executed within Icis than half 
an hour. Small offences are puniilieJ with the bafti- 
nado. For clipping or debafmg the public coin, the 
old Egypti.m punifhment is inflicted, which is cutting 
off the iiands. If a Tew or Chriltian fubjeft is guilty 
of murder, or any other capital crime, he is burnt 
alive without the ?;ates of the city : bu: for the fame 
crime the Moors and An;hs are either impaled, hung 
up by the neck over the battlements of the city, or 
thrown upon hooks fixed in the walls below ; where 
they fometimes hang in the moft dreadful agonies 30 
or 40 hours together, before they expire. The Turks, 
out of refpeft to their charafters, are fcnt to the aga's 
houfe, where, according to the nature of the offence, 
they are baiiinadr)ed or llrangled. When the women 
offend, they are not expofed to the populace ; but fent 
to a private houfe of correilion ; or if the crime be 
capital, th<::y are tied up in a fack, carried out to 
fea, and drowned. The wellern Moors (till ufe the 
barbarous punifhment of fawing the offender afunder : 
for which purpofe they prepare two boards, of the 
fame length and breadth with the unfortunate perfon, 
and having ticrd him betwixt them, they proceed to 
the execution bv beainnini at the head. It is faid 
that Karciiialh, a perfon who was formerly ambaffador 
at the court of Grc.^r Britain, lat^'ly fufFered in this 
manner : for wiiii rcfp^ft to the punilhmcnc of thjfc 
countries, l::tle or no rcgJird is paid to the rank of 
the offender. 

As to the form of r;overn:r,cnt: among the Arab 
tribes, it is co be obi'cr\t'd, thit though tiiey have 
been for m.iny ages under the Turkilh yoke, yet they 

S 4 v:5. 



are fcldom imcrmpred in thr enjoyment of their h 
for if they live peaceably, pay regularly tlie eigh 
part of the produce of their land's, with a fmall pa 
tax, annually demanded by the Turks, (hey arc || 
in the full poITcnion of all their private privileges al 
cultoms. Every camp may be Contidercd as a lit 
principality, over which it is ufual for the family 
the greateit reputation and fubftancc to prcCdf. Tl 
honour docs not, however, always deli:end from : 
ther to Ion 5 but, as among their predcceflbrs t 
Numidians, when the heir is too young, or fubjcA 
any infirmity, they make choice of the uncle, orfoll 
other relation, diitingullhed by his wildom utA p^ 
tlence. Vet noiwithltancliiig tlie defpotic power lot 
ed in this pcribn, all grievances and difpotcs are 
cpmmodated in as amicable a manner as pofTible, 
calling to his alTiflance one or two perfons out of ci 
tent : and the offender being always confidered a 
brother, the fentence is given on the favourable lid 
and even in thv moft enormous crimes baniibtnciil 
generally the only punilhment inlliited. 

The kingdom of Tunis is bounded to the M 
and eaft by the Mediterranean fea 1 to the weft 
Algiers; and to the fouth by Tripoli; extending ff 
the illeof Jerbain jj" 30' to cape Serra in 37* 
north latiiuiie : it being 2 zo miles in length, am o 
170 in breadth. Sbckkah, the fartheft city 10 
weft, being fituaied in 8", and Clybci, the faitli 
to the call, inn" 20' eaft longitude from Londooj 

Tunis is not, like Algiers, divided iato provii 
but is tinder the immediate infpeilion ot' the bey, 
goes in perlbn to collect the iribiiic : for whldltl 
pofc he once a year vifits the principal pvts WIl^ 
flying camp -, ih the fummer feafon traverAng thtl 
tile country near Keff and Baijah, and the d(ft» 
between Cflirwan and the Jerecde; and in the win 
taking a circuit througli the reft of the count 
ihercrorc, under thcfc divifions I ftiall dcfcribc 1 

through BAR BAR Y. ft6g 

The fummer circuit is much better inhabited, than 
any part of the neighbouring kingdoms of the fame 
fize, it having a greater number of cities, towns and 
villages ; and from there being fewer inftances of op- 
preflion in the government, there is a greater appear- 
ance of affluence, profperity and chearfulnefs. 

Cape Negro, which is about five leagues to the 
iiorth-eaft, is remarkable for a fettlement of the 
French African company, who pay a confiderable 
fum of money to the Tunifcens for the fame privi- 
leges they enjoy at La Calle, and have a fmall forti- 
fication to procedt them from the attacks of the 
jieighbouring Arabs. 

Five leagues farther to the north-eaft is cape Serra, 
the moft northerly part of Africa ; and four leagues 
beyond it are three rocky iflands, called The Bro- 
ichcrs, lying near the continent, half way to Cape 

Eight miles beyond this laft cape, ^t the bottom 
pf a large gulph, is the city of Bizerta, pleaiantly 
fituated on a canal between an extenfivc lake and the 
fea. It is about a mile round, and defended by feve- 
xal caftles and batteries. The channel between the 
lake and the fea was the pore of Hippo, which is 
ftill capable of receiving I'mall veflels ; but it was 
formerly the fafeft and moft beautiful haven on this 
coafl. The gulph of Bizerta, the Sinus Hipponenfis 
pf the antients, is a beautiful fandy inlet, near four 
leagues in diameter. Hie ground being low, the 
eye is permitted to penetrate through delightful groves 
pf olive-trees, a great way into the country, and 
afterward the profpedl is bounded by a high rocky 
Ihore. Were the Turks to give proper encourage- 
ment to trade and induftry, Bizerta might be ren- 
dered a town of great wealth ; for it abounds with 
all kinds of fifli and fruit, v/ith corn, pulfe, oil, cot- 
ton, and a variety of other produdions. 

Utica certainly lay fomewhere in this diredtion ; 
but we fhall not be able to fix its cxad: lituation, un- 

5 ^^^^ 


kls we allow that the Tea has been driven back three 
or four miles by the eafterly winds, and the increafe 
cf the mud •, and then wc may juftly place that iinall, 
but celebrated city, at Bocfliater, where are many 
traces of buildings of great extent and magnificence, 
as \^ alls, citterns, and a large aqueduft. 1 hcfe ruins 
lie about 27 Roman miles from Caithage, and be- 
hind them we are entertained with the view of the 
larc-e fields which the Romans have rendered famous 
by thv.Mr military exploits. 

Indeed Csr:hage has not much better fupported it- 
felf againil the encroachments of the north-eaft winds, 
and the mud thrown out by the Mejerdah, which to- 
gether hath flopped up the antient harbour, and noade 
it almoft as far dillant cs Utica. The greateft part of 
Carthnge was built upon three hills, inferior in ele- 
vation to tliofe on wiiich Rome was erected- Upon 
a pl.uv which overlooks the fouth-caft Ihore, is the 
area of a fpacious room, with feveral fmaller near it: 
fomc of ihcm have te Jclated pavements ; but neither 
the der;cr;i nor the execution are very crxrraordinarv. 
It rc.viiic: alonp the Hiorc, the common-lewcrs arc 
kcii in iVvcral p^acc*;, which beripn; at fiift WLll-baik 
2:.d c :.: r*.cu, tiTie has not in [he leall impaired: 
excer- \:cr liKiu \\\: ciilsrns hr/e fuffercd Icaft bvthc 
gcr.eni: ruin ot vr.i city. Thjic are the rcmiins 
of tiu* rrrancieur and maaniticcnce of this antient cirv, 
the rival or Rome. W e find no triumphal arch, or 
fupcrb li-.-jctiire ; no columns of porphyry or granite, 
no curi:>i.:s enr:.biatv;res : all the broken walls and 
ftru>U:rcs liiii rctri;/inir.2:, being; erected either in the 
Gorh.c rv:.rvv.T. or by the later inhabitants. 

Th-j n.r'\^ of t'le celebrate:! aciueJucr, that con- 
veved the v.'i:cr inro thj iTrei»LLr ciftern?, mav be 
traced n<; a? Zcw-v;?.n and Zun'^;-ff.!r, to the dif- 
tance of at lealc 5- n^i!e>. This w.::.^ a wry expenfivc 
work, and a: th:.c p;;rr of it which ext^^nds along 
the peninliila, was beautifully faced with ilone. Kt 
Arriana, a fmall village two leagues to the northv/jrd 


through BARBARY. 267 

of Tunis, arc feveral entire arches, which I found 
to be 70 feet high, and the piers that fupported 
tfatni were 1 6 feet fquare ; the water channel that 
was above thefe arches, was va-ulted over, and plafter- 
td with a ftiong cement. A perfon of the ordinary 
fize may wilk upright in it ; and at certain diftances 
arc holes left open, as well for the admiffion of freih 
;iir, as the convenience of cleanfing it. 

Tunis, the Tunes of the antients and the capital 
of the kingdom, is 3 miles round ; but not fo popu- 
lous as Algiers, nor are the houfes fo handfome and 
fpacious. It is chicfi) fituated on a rifing ground 
along the wtllern banks of the lake, having a full 
view of Cartilage and the Guletta. The lakes and 
marfhes with which the city is furrounded might 
probably rentier its fituation lefs healthy, was not the 
rooiHure of the air correded by the great quantity 
c£ maftic, myrtle, rofcmary, and other aromatic 
plants, with which their ovens and bagnios are daily 
heated, and that frequently communicate a fenfible 
fragrance to the air. The w^anc of fweet water is one 
of the great difadvantages under which the inhabi- 
tants labour •, tor the brackilhnefs of their well water, 
and the fcarcity of their cifterns, oblige them to fetch 
a great part of what they drink from foine places a 
milcdiftant: but excepting tliis inconvenience, noplace 
enjoys a greater plenty of all the necefTaries of life. 

The I'unifeens have little of tliat infolence and 
haughtinefs too common at Algiers, and indeed are 
the mod civilized nation of Barbary. All affairs 
with the rtgency are tranfacled in fuch a friendly 
complaifant manner, that I had no fmall pleafiire in 
attending the Englilh conful at his audicncos. This 
nation has always had the charader of not imitating 
their neighbours in living at open war, or perpetual 
difcord with the Chriftian princes ; but of cultivat- 
ing their friendlhip, and readily entering into an al- 
liance with them : they have therefore for many }-ears 
been more intent upon trade, and the improvement 


of their maniif:iftu:c5, than upon plundering and fit- 
ting: out corlairs. 

(Jn a rifin-}; c>;round between the lake of Tunis and 
the i'ca, is the town of Rhadcs, the antient Ades, 
Y;hc:rc Rrrulns defeated the Carthamnians ; and at a 
imall cli'ila ce, are the hills where Hanno placed his 
ck'phants to cppcfe him. 

Near the bottom of the gulpli is the fmall town of 
Solyinnn, fituat^'d upor the ikirrs of a fine plain. It 
ir» remarkable, that this phcc is chiefly inhabited by 
Andnhifian Moors, who the Spanifh language, 
arc more civilized than their brethren, and more cour- 
teous to the Chriftiar.s. 

Farther to the north-caft is the fanftuary of Seedy 
Doude, whi'h takes its name from David ; or, as 
they pronounce ir, Doude, a Moorifli faint, whofe 
fepulchre is here ihcwn, five yards long. But this 
llruclurc r.ppears to be a part of a Roman praetorium, 
from three conticuous molaic paveir cnt -, all of them 
wroiight with the orcatert 1\ nMnetry snd exactnefs: 
the figures rrc hor'.l;.'^, trees, birds, and fifli, finely 
inlaid, in fiich a v.iriciy of colour'^, that they even 
fippear more gay and lively than many tolerable paint- 
ings, 'i'hc hurfe, t'le inlignia of the Carthaginians, 
in reprefented in the bold pcilure in Vv'hich it appears 
upon tlie African nxdals. 

'I'v/o KTigiies farther is I.o\vb.:reah, the Aquilaria 
of the nntivnt^, ^ C ttrio landed the troops that 
v> (.;■;• rfrcrv,- :rd cue to rivar. bv Sr.h'jra. There are 
)!i;-e v.vfir:! iV:'!:vi"'ePts (;t iintii-ui-ies i hut none of 
\ /.e:*! Vv^i V rcnr.rkcibl:', cxcert .i iv.rprifmfx cavern: for 
ivvrr. r>r \\:i Wvw to iliis viib^L-e, which is rt half a 
triiv- '■; C-. !..::';■ \ I^ ;i nio'jnvr.;" rollnwed \v;:ri great 
:'■: f:-:>:n !;^e Wv-A ()•' t'.e lea to ihe Iv.Mi^'it of 20 or 
-:; ; I'*,'i i::-^' T'^iilais and archjs i^fr llandins at 
rr-^j-er diiL/.r^ce-; u> i ';^p'vt t'^e ivoii.irain. I'heiC are 
:r.'* r: .'::Tie^ :".cr:'::'\:jj l^v S:raLo, rrom whence the 
J> 1.;. i;(v-«- jv C'.irth-ie, L'r;c% fi'id 'rapv other neich- 
i^urir f: ciii^y, nr.r'-M receive the'r materials. As 


through BARBARY. 26g 

this mountain is all over (haded with trees ; as the 
arches below lie open to the fea, with a large cliff on • 
each fide, and the ifland of iEgimurus is placed over 
againft them, while fprings are perpetually running 
down the rocks, and feats are railed for the weary la- 
bourer i we can fcarccly doubt, but that this is the 
cave which Virgil places fonnewhcre in this gulph : 
jiocwithftanding Ibme commentators have thought ic 

Near the fea, at a few leagues diftance, is a mau- 
lb}eum, near 2® yards in diameter, erefted in the 
form of a cylindrical pcdeftal, with a vau*t undcr- 
Dcath ; and on the cornice are feveral fmall altars, 
each of them infcrlbed with the name of a different 
perfon. Thcfe are fuppofcd by the Arabs to have 
been formerly fo many lamps for the diredtion of 

Fifty miles from Utica is the city of Bayjah, or 
Bcja, the Vacca of Salluft, a place of great trade, 
and the chief mart for corn in the whole kingdom. 

On the norrh-eaft extremity of a mountain narnccl 
Zowoan, or Zagwan, is a fmail flouriihing town of 
the fame name, famed for the dying of fcarlct c,\p^,^ 
and the bleaching of linen •, great quantiticfs ot i::.r!i 
being daily brought thither for that purpofe frdn all 
parts of the kingdom. The ftream ufcd for thii : j;- 
pofe was conveyed to Carthage •, and over th : f;\"i: :;- 
head was a temple, the ruins of v/hich arc Ibii to i^^* 
fcen. On an antient gate of the city is carved a ra:r/.; 
head, under which is the word Auxiiis, from wlii.:!! 
it may be prcfumed that the city was dedicated to Ju- 
piter Ammon. 

We fhall now take a view of t!ic mofr. rcmar!::\'j- • 
places in tht; winter circuit. Here all tiie parci I 
have feen fall verv Ihorc of that fertiiitv attribute i t » 
them by the an:ien:s ; and particukirly thole ncir :h * 
fea-coaft are p;enera!ly of a dry, Tandy nacure, w-.v'li 
no great depth of loil. 



Herkla» or Heraclea, of the lower empire, and 
probably the Adrumetum of the earlier ages, is bu3t 
upon a promontory, two leagues to the Ibuth-eaft of 
a morals, fuppofed to have been the boundary be- 
tween this province and Zengicania. It appears to 
have been little more than a mile in circuit, and if 
we may be allowed to judge of its former grandeur 
by the remaining ruins, it will appear a place of im- 
portance, rather than of extenr. I'hat part of the 
promontory which formed the port fecms to have been 
walled in to the very brink of the liea, and to the weft 
and fouth-weft of this promontory were the poiiand 
cothon which Casfor could not enter in his purfuit of 

The next remarkable place, upon the coaft is Sufa^ 
fituated on the northern extremity of a long range 
of eminences, about five leagues to the fouth-eaft of 
Hcrkla. This is the chief mart of this kingdom finr 
oil-, it has alfo a flouri(hing trade for linens, and 
may be reckoned one of the moft confidcrable cities 
of the Tunifcens. Here are feveral columns of gra- 
nite, vaults, and other n-.arks of its being formerly a 
confiderable place. It is walled round, and was pto^ 
bably one of thofe towns that fubmitted to Csefar in 
his march to Rufpina. 

Leaving the fca-coaft, and taking an inland courfc, 
we foon arrived at Hydrah, which is fuuated in a 
narrow valley, with a rivulet running by it ; and for 
extent of ruins appears to have been one of the moft 
confiderable places in this country. For there arc 
here t!ic walls of feveral houfes, the pavement of a 
whole ftrcirt, wirh a variety of altars and maufo- 
leums ft ill remaining. Many of the latter are well 
preferved, and are of various forms. 

Eight leagues to the weftward of Sufa is Kairwan, 
the Vico Augulli of the anticnts. It is a walled city, 
and the fecond in the kingdom for trade, and the 
number of its inhabitants. It is fituated in a barren 
plain, and at half a furlong's diftance without the 


through BARBARY. 271 

iraUs, is a pond and a capacious ciftern, builc to re- 
ceive the rain-water j but the former, which is chiefly 
for the ufe of the cattle, drying up or putrifying in 
the heat of fummer, caufcs agues and other diftem- 
pcrs. Here are fome fine remains of the antient ar- 
chitedure, and the great moique, edeemed both the* 
moft magnificent and the moft facred in Barbary, is 
Fupported by an almoft incredible number of granite 
pillars. Eight leagues to the weftward of Kairwan 
arc the ruins of Truzza, the Turzo of Ptolemy^ 
where are feveral vaulted chambers perpetually filled 
with fulphureous fteams, much frequented by the 
Arabs for the ufe of fweating. 

At the dillancc of a furlong from Spaida, the an- 
tient Sufetula^ is a magnificent triumphal arch of the 
Corinthian order, confiding of one large arch, and 
two Ihialler, one on each fide, with the fragment of 
an infcription upon it. From thence all along to the 
cicy» is a pavement of large black ftones, with a pa- 
rapet wall on each fide. At the end of this pave* 
ment, we pafs through a beautiful portico, built in 
the lame manner with the triumphal arch. This leads 
into a fpacious courr, where are the ruins of three con- 
tiguous temples •, but the roofs, porticos and fronts 
are broken down, though ail the other walls, with 
their pedimicnts and entablatures, remain entire. In 
each of them^is a niche, fronting the portico, and 
behind that in the middle temple is a iVnall chamber^ 
which formerly ferved, perhaps, for a vcftry. 

Upon an eminence, fix leagues to the wcd- 
Ibuth-weft of Spaitjj, is Caflareen. The river Dcrb 
runs winding below i: ; and upon a precipice th.»t 
hangs over that river, is a triumphal arch, more re- 
markable for the quantify and value of tlie materials 
than for the beauty and elegance of the dcfign. But 
notwithftanding t!c iudcncfs of the workinanrtiip, 
and the oddnei's of the fuuation, it has an infcrip- 
tion, in which Manlius Felix, the founder, is grate- 
fully commemorated. In the plaini below tlic city 

472 Dr. ShAWs travels 

are marly maufoleums, upon one of which js an ^cgf 
in hexameter and pentameter verfes. This place 
feems to have received its prefent name from the' 
maufoleums, which at a ditlance have the appearance 
of fo many towers or fortrefles. 

At Jcmme, the Tiftra of Caefdr, arfe many anti- 
quities ; as a variety of columns, altars with defaced 
infcriptions ; and many trunks and arms of marble 
ftatues, one of which is of the coloflTal kind in ar- 
mour, another is of a naked Venus^ in the po&tat 
and fize of the Medicean ; both by good matters i 
but their hands are broken off. This place is alfo re- 
markably diftinguiflied by beautiful remains of a 
fpacious amphitheatre, that originally confifted of 64 
arches and four orders of columns. The upper or- 
der, which is, perhaps, no more than an attic, haf 
fuffered by the Arabs, in a late revolt of thofc peo- 
ple, who ufcd this place as a fortrefs : Mahomet bey 
blew up four of the arches from top to bottom ; other- 
wife nothing could be more entire and beautiful. It 
feems to have been built about th.c time of the An- 
tonines ; and as the elder Gordian was proclaimed 
emperor of this city, it is probable, that in gratitude 
to the phcc where he obtained the purple, he founded 
this ftrufture. 

fcrrcanah, which from irs lonely fiti?ation, and 
oiher circumftances, was probably the Thala of Sal- 
luft, lies in the fame parallel with Rugga, and was 
once the largeft city of Bizacium, though it has now 
no other remains of its anticnt grandeur but a few 
granite and other columns, which, by fomc extraor- 
dinary chance, the Arabs have left llanding on their 

We now enter upon that part of the Sahara which 
belongs to the Tunifcens, and is called El Jereed, or 
The Dry Country. The villages in this diftrid are 
built like thofe in Algiers, with mud walls, and raf- 
ters of palms ; among them may be found granite' 
pillars, and Roman infcriptions. The inhabitants ii* 


mU . ttiroiigh SARBARV. 273 

Hfetil trade itt dates^ which they exchange fi)r whi»t, 
nrley, linen, and other commodities, brought from 
Ifae neighbouring parts. The dates of Tozar, one 
' thefc villages, being moll efteemed, that is be- 
_ Be the principal mart for them ; great quantities 
it dieiii are exported to Ethiopia, where they are 
tichanged for black (laves, at the rate of tAo or 
iiKc quintals for a black. 

The roving unfcttled life of the Arabs, and the 
ptrpciual grievances the Moors frequently fufler from' 
the Turks, will not permit either of them to enjoy 
thii hberty and fecurity which give birth and encou- 
ngement to learning : hence the knowlegc of medi- . 
tine, of phUofoptiy and the mathematics, which once 
Bourilfaed among the Arabs, are now fo loft, that 
line are fcarcely any traces of them remaining. 
S3Ik children of the Moors and Turks are fent' 
n fchool at about fix years of age, when they 
irc taught to read, and write, for the value of about 
I painy a week : inftead of paper, each boy has a 
picct of thin fquare board Hightly diiubed over with 
vjiidng; on this he makes his letters, which may be 
vipcd off or renewed at pleafure, f laving made 
fcmeprogrefs in the koran, he is inici.ited in the fe- 
wnl ceremonies and myfteries of religion. When a 
boff has diftinguilhed himfclf in any of ihefe branches 
I of learning, he is richly dreflcd, mounted upon a 
liiorie 6nely caparilbned, and conduflc-d amidfl: the 
f huzzas of his fchool- t'ellows through the ftreets ; 
I while his friends and relations alTtmi">lt: to congratu- 
f lare his parents, and load him with gifts. After be- 
ing three or four years at fchool, ilic; boys are put to 
trades, or enrolled in the army, where moft of them 
fbon forget all they have learned. 
■ While I was at Algiers, I endeavoured to become 
acquainted with thofc perlons who were mof^ didin- ' 
guuhed for their learning ; and though, from their 
mtaral fliynefs to fttJngers, and contempt of the 
Chrillians, it is difficult to cuUiviite a real friendfhip 
with them, yet I fijoii tbimd, that their chisfallro- 
Voi.. VI. T nomcr. 


nomer,' vho fuperintends snd regulars the hours of 
prayer, had not the (kill to make a. fun-dial: tlmtbc 
whole art of nivigation, as pia^ifcd at Algiers and 
Tunis, conliltcd of nothing more than what is tcrmnl 
the pricking of a chart, and didinguiHiing the eight 
principal points of the cocnpafs : and that even che- 
miftry, formerly the favounte fcience of thefe people, 
is at prefcnt only applied to the dillilling a liitte 
rofe-water. The phyUciaos chit By ftudy the Spaniih 
edition of Diofcorides ; but the figures of the plants 
and animals are more confulted tli^m the dcfcriptions. 
yet thefe people are naturally fubtle and ingenious ; 
and nothing but time, application andcncouragetnrat, 
are wanting to cultivate and improve their facuidcs. 

The Mahometans being for the mod part predelti- 
narians, pay little regard to phyfic, and generally 
leave the difordcr to contend with nature, or mike 
life of charms or incantadons. They, iiowever, re- | 
fort to bagnios in alldiilempers, and there are a for 
remedies in general ufe. Thus in pleuritic and rheu- 
matic cafes, they make feveral punftures on the part 
af^eiSted with a red hot iron, repeating the opeiaDDB 
according to the violence of the dileafe, and tie 
ftrtngth of the patient. They pour frelh butter ■!■ 
mod boiling hot into all (imple gun-fhot wounds. 
The prickly pear roailed in the afhes is applied hot, 
for the cure of bruifes, fwellings, and inflammations; 
End a dram or two of the root of the round birth- 
wort, is an eftabiiflied remedy for the cholic: fome 
ol* them inoculate for the fmall-pox ; though Uiis 
praftice is not much in repute in this part of Barbary, 
and diey tell a number of ftories to difcourage the 
ufe of it. They have few compound medicines ; 
however, they ufe a mixture of myrrh, faffron, aloes, 
and fyrup of myrtic-berries, which is often found e£- 
fedtual in the cure of the plague. 

I have ioinctimes been favoured with the fight of 
their antient kaicndars, in which the fun's place, the 
femidiurnal and nofturnal arch, the length of the 
twilight, with the feveral hours of prayer for each 

through B A R B A R Y. 275 

' in the month, are calculated to a minute, and 
^utifulty tnfertfd in propi-r columns : buc thefe ace 
lUnlc confulted as their antient mathematical inftru- 
tDtSy of which they know not the ule. ■ Notwith- 
lOdlng the Jkill of their ancfnors in arithmcdc and 
ttbfa, not one in twenty thoulknd appears to be ac 
fcnt acquainted with the firft operations in ihefe 
iBchcs of m;ithcmatics; yet the merchants arc fre- 
ently vcy dextrous in the addition and fubtra&ion 
I Urge fiiins by memory ; and have ailba very Gn- 
W method of numeration, by putung cheif hands 
oeach others fleeves, and touchin;; one anoflier 
ih this or that hnger, or a particular joint, each 
tooting a determined I'um or number. Thus, with- 
it moving their lips, they conclude bargains of the 
Eiteft value. 

Several clans of the Arabs go bare-headed all the 
ar long, as MafinilTa did of old, binding their 
oiplcs only wiih a narrow fillot, 4o prevent their 
V being troublefomc. But the Moors and Turks 
^general, with fome of the richer clans of Arabs, 
Br upon the crowns of their heads a Imall cap of 
inlet woollen cloth, of the manufa£I:urc of the 
uQtry. The turban is folded round the bottom of 
(fc caps, and by the failiion of the folds the feveral 
ders of foldiers are diilin2,uillicd, not only from the 
lefmen and citizens, but tram one another. The 
1^ wear a ioofe garment, called a Hyke, which 
jl piece of cloth of their own manufaiture, ufuaUy 
[yards long, and five or fix feet in breadth; this, 
(ich they wrap round them, and gird up with a fafli, 
tves them for a complete drcfs in the Jay, and fof 
bed and covering by night. Above this they wear 
doak or upper garment called a Burnoore, which is 
owe in one piece, with a kind of hood for the head; 
M alio tight about the neck, and widens below like 
dook : but this is only worn in rainy and very cold 

•Some of them wear under their hykes a dofe-bo- 
Md frock, or tunic, with or without liseves, wlucK, 
T 2 *a 


follows the prayers of fun-fet, and then repeating tbf 
f^me at the fccting of the watch, when it begins to 
be dark, they oo to bed imnicdiaiely after. Some 
of the graver pe<^»pic, who have n-j conftant employ, 
fpend the day, tirlier in converfiiig with one anorhit 
in the barbers fh:>ps, in the bazar, or at a cofiee- 
houfc; while a great part of the Turkiih or Moorifli 
yoiuh, wi[h many of the unmarried folJiers, attend 
their concubintrs with wine and inufic inro the fields, 
or make merry at one of the public taverns ; which, 
though prohibited by their religion, thefc govern-" 
ments arc obliged, from the ncceffiiy of the unws, 
to dilpenle with. 

The lives of the Arabs are one continued round of 
idlenefs and diver fions. When tliey arc not called 
abroad by any paftime, thty fpend the day in loiter- 
ing at home, fmoaking their pipes, and repofmg 
themfelvcs under fome neighbouring (hade. They 
have not the Icraft relifh tor domcQic pleafures, and 
arc fcklom known io converlc with their wives, or 
play witii their cnilcircn. 'livj Av?.b places his highcft 
iatisfactiun in his hour, ami is feldom in hirrh fDirits, 
but when riding at full fpced, or hunting. The 
caftcrn nations in general are very dexterous at this 
exercill: ; and upon c^ne of the nicdallions of Confcan- 
tinc's arch is a bc.uuinil rep:*c1entation of tijis ff.ort, 
as [yo'formcd ac rrc lenc by the Arabs •, who, having 
rouztd the bcall from his retirement, and puriucd it 
inro fomc adjacent plain, endeavour, by frequently 
ovcrta'.vin'.!; and turning it, to tire and r.erplex it, and 
then waic!iing an opportunity, they fix lances in its 

At the huntinv^ cf 'he lion a ^^hc)le diflrift is fum- 
moned CO appear, .ho lorniing themfclves inro a cir- 
cle, ar firlt erc:oi> a ibaee th-ee or four miles in 
co-npa!s, accoidinjr to ihe nun;ber of the people, 
a;.d liie ncUure of the L^raind. Th- foorn^cn ad- 
vance i'in'l, ruiliiniv into di'r thickets v;irh their doa^, 
nnd lances, to I'jMze t o!r game, wli'Ic the ho:re:nen 
kcephrj; a little beiilivA, ure o^UviYS ready tu i'aily on 


through BARBARY. 279 

the wild bead. They (till proceed, concraAing the 
circle, till at lad they either clofe in together, or meet 
with diverfion. The accidental pallime upon thefc 
occafions is ibmetimes extreamly diverting ; for the 
various animals within the circle being thus drove to- 
gether, they feldom fail of having a variety of agree- 
able chaces after hares, jackals, leopards, hynenas, 
and other wild beafts, It is a common obfervation 
in this country, that the moment the lion is rouzed 
he will endeavour to feize upon the perfon ncared him, 
and lufitr himfelf to be cue to pieces rather than quit 
his hold. 

Hawking is one of the principal diverfions of the 
Arabs and gentry of the kingdom of Tunis, where 
the woods afford a beautiful variety of hawks and fal- 
cons. Thofc who delight in fowling, inilead of 
fpringing th^ game with dogs, fhade thcmfelves with 
a piece of canvals ftretched upon two reeds, and 
painted with the figure of a leopard. Thus concealed, 
the fowler walks through the breaks and avenues, 
looking through fome holes a little below the top of 
the (kreen, to obferve what paflcs Ix^fore him. It is 
remarkable that the partriJgcs, and fome other birds, 
on the approach of the canvafs, covey together, 
though they were before at fome diftance iVom each 
other ; and the woodcock, quail, and othv^r birds that 
commonly feed in fiOcks, will, on feeing it, danJ 
dill with a look of adonilhn'ient. Thu^ the fportf- 
man has an opportunity of comir.g near thein, when 
refting the fkrcen upon the ground, and directing c!ie 
muzzle of his piece through one of tlie holes, he 
Ihoocs a whole covey at once. Tl>c Arabs have 
alfo another method of catching partridges ; for 
obferving that after their being haltily fprung tv.-o 
or three /..;:.':, t!it.'V become fatjij^ued and lannnd, 
they thei; ma in upon them, and knock th.cni down 
with their zerwattics, which are ihoit f^iicks bjund 
round with iron, or inlaid with pev/:er or hiMls. Thefe 
fcrve thofe Arabs who are not malK-ri ci* a .run fov 
oft'cnfive and dcknfive weapons. 


With refped to the manners and cuftoms of 
Bcdowcens, they retain mdny of thofc we read oi 
facrcd and prophanc hiltory i for excepting their 
ligron, [hey are tlic fame pe.iptc tliey were tm 
three ihouCand years ago, Lpon meeting one anod 
ihey ftill ule the primitive falut-itinn, " Peace be 
to you," The inferiors out ot deference and refj 
kifs the feet, knees, or garments oi their fupcria 
while the children or kinstolks pay the fame rcfp 
to the heads of their parents, and ag d relations, 
falutin^ each other ihey lay their hand upon th 
breaft, while thule who are more intimately acquai 
ed, or are ot an equal age and dignity, mutually k 
the hand, tiead or (houldcr of each other. At 
feaft of iheir Bairam and other great folcmniti 
the wife compliments her hufband by kifljng 

Here perfons of the higheft chjrafler, like the I 
tient patriarchs, and the heroes of Homer, perfo 
what we Ihould term menial employmenls. 1 
greateft prince of thcfc countries is not afliamcJ- 
fetch a lamb from his flock and kill it, while I 
princefs makes hade lo prrpare her fire and kcti 
and then drefles it. The cuftom of walking citl 
bare-foot or with landajs, renders the comphmrnt 
waftiing the ftranger's feet (till neceflary. Thil 
done by the maHcr of the family, who firil prefi! 
himfelf, and is always the moll officious in ilm i 
of kindncis. When his entertainment is preparf 
he would think it a fiiame to fit down with his gucf 
inllead of which he llands all the time, and wi 
upon them. Yet notwithrtandingthis rcfpeft, th 
arc fomctimes overtaken and pillaged in the momil 
by the very perfons who have entertained them W 
fuch hofi italiiy at night. 

However, to the honour of the weflem Moi 

(hey carry on a trade with Ibmt- barbarous natt< 

bordering on the river Niger, without feeing the p 

Jpns t^ty vyic vyitli, or thcjr having once brt 


•ihrough BARBARY. stf 

ir that original charter of commerce^ l^dch 
ic immemorial has been fettled between dwm, 
tthod is this : at a certain time of the jretr, 
* if I am not miftaken, is the winter, thejr 
Ats journey in a numerous caravan, carryiiu 
tcm firings of coral, glafs-bcads, bracdeti ctf 
knives IcifTirs, and the like. On thdr uriv- 
^dic pbce appointed, which is on a cenain dl^ 
[■moon, they find in the evening fcvend beips 
d dud, at a fmall dillance from ^ach btberi ' 
\ which, ihe Moors place fo mjny cf thor 
Is as they judge will be taken for the nlu^ 
' Nigritians the next morning approve of tb/i 
»j they talic up the trinkets and leave the gcdd. 
imake fume deduftions from the gold duft, <Bcc. 
to iheir great honour, they tranfa^ their es- ' 
;, without the Icaft inftance of pcrfidioufnels 

: antient cuftom of plighting their troth, by 
nff out of each' other's hands, is, ac prefent, 
1^ ceremony ufed by the Algerines tn their 
ges. But the contract is to be firft agreed 
Ktween the parents, in which mention is made, 
[y of the fum of money which the bridegroom 
on the bride, but of the feveral changes of rai- 
the quantity of jewels, and the number of (laves 
'hich the bride is to be attended, when Ihe firft 
ipon her hiifband. The parties never fee each 
ill the marriage is to be confum mated, when 
laiion<i b^ing withdrawn, the bridegroom firft 
i, and then undreOTs the bride. The huf- 
nay put away his wife when he plcafes, upon 
fciture of the fortune he has fettled upon her : 
cannot afterward take her again, till after ftie 
icd and bedded by another man. 
; cfvility and refpefl: paid by the politer nations 
fair, are here confidercd as abfurd infringe- 
on the law of nature, which afligns the pre- 
lA to man. For the wives of this ceumry. 

!|lo Dr. SHAW'S TRAVE 

With rcfped to the manners and cuftoms of Af 
Bedoweens, ihey retain many of tbofe we read of ift 
iKredRDd prophane hirtory-, for excepting ibeu* re- 
ligion, they are the lame people they were two or 
three thouSiind years ago. L pon meeting one anofhcTi 
they ftill uie the primitive falutatinn, " Peace be un- 
U> you." The inrVriors out of dtfercnix and rcfpefi 
kils the feel, knees, or garments or their fupcrion; 
-while the children or kinsrolks pay the lame rcfpeft 
to the heads of their parents, and ag d relatimu. In 
lalutiitg each other they lay their hand upoa tiwir 

'brcaft, while thole who are more intimaiely acqiunx* 
cd, or are of an equal age and dignity, mutually kifi 
the hand, head or Oioulder of each other. Atibt 
feaft of their Bairam and otiicr great folcmnitio, 
the wife compliments her hulband by kiflang In 

HcFC prrfons of the highcft charaftcr, like the n^. • 
ticnt patriarchs, and the heroes of Homer, perforai 
what we Ihnuld term menial employments. The 
gpeateft prince of ihcfe countries is not alhamed to 
■Ktch a lamb from his flock and kill it, while the j 
princcfs makes hafte to prepare her fire and kcrtk, 
and then dreUcs it. The cuftom of walking cither 
bare-tbot or with landals, renders the compliment of 
waftiing the ftrangcr^s fcet ftill neccfiary. Thii u 
done by the mailer of the family, who firft pteioia 

, himfelf, and is always the molt ofiicious in this aft 
of kindnefs. When his entertainment is prepaRd, 
he would think it a (hamc to fit down with his goeftsj 
inftead of which he Hands all the time, ana wail^ 
upon them. Yet notwithftanding -this refpeS, tholb 
are ibmetimes overtaken and pillaged in the momin& 
by the very pcrfons who have entertajned them wi«t 
fuch hofi'italiiy at night. 

However, to the honour of the wcftern Moon, 

they cart)' on a trade with fome barbarous nations 

bordering on the river Niger, without feeing the petT 

^ns th£:y tr^de vyitli) Of their having once brt>k8 


through BARBARY. 281 

through that original charter of commerce, which 
from time immemorial has been fettled between them. 
The method is this : at a certain time of the year, 
which, if I am not miftaken, is the winter, they 
make this journey in a numerous caravan, carrying 
with them ftrings of coral, glafs-beads, bracelets of 
horn, knives, fciffars, and the like. On their arriv- 
ing at the place appointed, which is on a certain day 
of the moon, they find in the evening feveral heaps 
of gold dud, at a fmall dillance from 6ach other ; 
againit which, the Moors place fo many of their 
trinkets as they judge will be taken for the value. 
If the Nigritians the next morning approve of the 
bargain, they take up the trinkets and leave the gold, 
or clfe make fome deduftions from the gold dull, &c. 
Thus, to their great honour, they tranfaft their ex- 
change, without the leaft inftance of perfidioufnefs 
or difhonefty. 

The antient cuftom of plighting their troth, by 
drinking out of each other's hands, is, at prefnt, 
the only ceremony ufed by the Algerines in their 
marriages. '»uc the contraft is to be firft ao;rced 
upon between tiic parencs, in which mention »s made, 
not only of the ilim of money wliich the bridegroom 
fettles on the bride, but of the feveral chancres or rai- 
ment, the quantity of jewels, and the number of Haves 
wi:h which the b^'ide is to be atf-nded, w icn Ihe firft 
waits upon her h.ift^and. Tlie [)art:e . never fee each 
other till the miiriiaee is to be confii:nfi;ated, when 
the relation*; b-ing withdrawn, t!ie bridegroom firft 
unveils, and tlv:n undrvrllPs the bri le. 1 he huf- 
band may p-jt away his wire when h'.* pleafes, upon 
the forreirure of the fortune he has fetilvd upon her: 
but he c.mnc^t afier'kvard take her atMin, till after ihc 
io m.iriiecl an.i beJ.Jed by an(;ther man. 

The civility :in;l reijx*it paid by the poliicr nations 
to tlie fair, are here conlkicrci as abfiird infringe- 
ments on ih(* law of" nature, which aln-rns the j-re- 
eminenct: to m.m. For the wives of this country. 

i8s Da., SHAW'S TRAVf ! 

are only confidered as a fuperior clafs of ierraMi, 
yiho are yet to have the greaced Ihare of toil and bulj- 
liefs. WhUc the lazy hulbands take their repofe un- 
der firnie neighbouring fliade, and the young men 
and maidens attend the Bocks, the wives are either 
all day employed at their looms, grinding at the null, 
or drelling proviGom ; and to conclude the day, thqr 
(till take a pitcher, or a goat's fkin, and tying their 
fucking children to their backs, trudge two or three 
miWs to fetch water. Yet in the midft of all this 
bufinefs, neither thefc country ladies, nor thofc of 
better fafhion b cities, wilt lay afide any of their 
' ornaments neither their nofe-jewcls, their braccJcB 
for their arms and legs, or their ear-rings, all of 
which are very cumbcrlbme ; nor will they omit cuig- 
ing their eyes with lead ore : fo prevalent is cuftom, 
and fo zealous are even the Udlcs in Barbary to ap* 
pear in faQuon. I 

The greateft part of the Moorith women would be ' 
efteemed beauties even in England. Their chikliea 
have the fincft complexions of any nation whatfocva^ 
but the boys are fo cxpoled to the fun, that they Iban 
attain the fwarthinels of the Arab: however, the 
girls, keeping more at home, preferve their beauty 
till [hey are thirty, when they are ufually pad child- 
bearing. One of thefe girls is fometimes a mother 
at eleven, and a grand-mother at twenty-two; aod 
their lives being ufually as long as thofe of the Eu- 
ropeans, thefe matrons fometimes live to fee their 
children of many generations. 

No nation in the world is fo fuperftitious as the 
Arabs, or even the Mahometans in general. They 
hang the Bgure of an open hand round the neck <h 
their children i and both the Turks and Moors paint 
it upon their fhips and houfes as a counter-charm to 
an evil eye. The people who are grown up always 
carry about wiih them fome paragraph of the koran, 
which they place upon their brcalt, or few under their 
caps, to prevent falcination and witchcraft, and to 


through BARBARY. 283 

iecure themfelvcs from ficknefs and misfortunes. 
The virtues of thcfe charm*^ are fuppofed to be fo 
univerfal, that thev alio han.» them to the necks of 
their cattle, their horles, and oth?r beafts of burden. 

The Mahometans have a great veneration for their 
Marabutis, who arc generally perfons of a rigid au- 
ftcre life, continu^iily employing themfelvcs either in 
counting over their beads, or in meditation and prayer. 
Their chaplc: uHially confiits of <^() beads, on touch- 
ing each of which they either lay, " God be praifed, 
God is grejt, or, God forgive me." This faintfliip 
goes by rucceJTion ; and the fon, provided he can be- 
have with equal gravity, is entitled to the lame reve- 
rence and eftccrm w th the father. Some of them pre- 
tend to fee vifions, and to converfe with the Deity, 
while others are fuppofed to work miracles. Being 
with Seedy Muftafa, the caliph of the weftern pro- 
vince, he told me, in the prefence of a number of 
Arabian flieiks, who vouched for the faft, that a 
neighbouring Marabutt had a folid iron bar, which, 
upon command, would give the fame report, and do 
as much execution as a piece of cannon ; and that 
once the whole Algerine army, on demanding too 
exorbitant a tax from the Arabs under his prorc<i?lion, 
were put to flight by the m^iracle. Yet, n:)twith- 
ftanding the frequency, as they pretended, of the 
experiment, all the merit I urgtd, of convincing 
a Chriftian, and the felicitations of the company, 
the Marabutt had too much policy to hazard his 
reputation by putting it to the proof. At Serccf 
I law a Mariibi.t: famous for vomitin.i: fire: but 
though I was at llril mucli f^irprikd iit feeing his 
mouth fiiddrnlv in r. b!a>:e. nnd at tlir violeiit ar^o- 
nics he counter/; -wl :;: rh'j fi'r.e tir-.u", I afrcrvv.ird 
plainly perceive.! :. .. : v. v ■:. 1 .1 t:l;k ; ::i:>: that t!ie 
tVinies and fmokv.- .-. 'u; w iicn i\'c v/as furioiinded, aroiL' 
ir)\Vi ibme tov/ wd i"ulpi:in* v. i-.i^h he c iMrivcd to l'*c 
on 'ire under his b'jrn .i-ic. 

The nu":I;od of buiiiiir.'^, r-orh in liarbary and t!i? 
Levant, ro .^^.w .- i;/-;!:iViL'u 'liic '.AAiVi \\V\:^>.vr. 


any alteration, from the moft eariy ages, 
houfes are fquare buildings with flat roofs, furround 
ing a court, where alone they are ornamented. In- 
deed, large doors> fpacious chambers, marble pav&-. 
ments, cloyftcred courts, with fountains fometimcft 
playing in the midft, are well adapted to the beat q 
the climate*. 

The tents of the Bcdoweens are of an ol 
figure, rcfembling the hull of a (hip turned 
down, and are covered with a coarfe hair-cloth 
differ in fize in proportion lo the number of ^ 
, *ho live in them, and are accordingly fuppoitcd 
fome with one pole eight or ten feet high, and or'-^'^™ 
with two Or three of the fame length, while a 
tain or carpet placed upon occafion at each of i 
divifions, feparates the whole into feveral apartmentSi' 
and thefe poles being covered with hooks, the Anbt' 
hang upon them their cloaths, faddles, bafkets, ud 
accoutrements of war. They take their reft by lying 
upon a mat or carpet, without a bed, matre(5 or{m- 
low, and only wrapped up in their hykes. When 
we find any number of thefe tents together, and I 
have feen from thrte to three hundred, they arc ulu- 
ally placed in a circle -, and in the night the cattle aie 
inclofed in the area in the middle, to fccure them 
from the wild beafis. The defLription Virgil has 
given of ilieir manner of living and decamping, is 
as juftly drawn, as if his obfervations were but lately 

From the encampments of the Bedoweens we are 
to procted to the villages of the Kabyles, whjch con- 
fift of a number of cottages, raifcd cither with hur- 
dles daubed over with mu<l, with the materials of 
ibmc antient r^iins, or with fquare cakes of clay 
b.iked in the- fun ; while the roofs are covered with 
ftraw or turf, riipportt:d by reeds or the branches of 
trees. There is leldom more than one room in the 

• S' e ths ^rfcriptinns already given ftom Thevenot, lady Mon- 
tf^ttf, and I'cccckei 

through BARBARY. 2S5 

largcft of them, which not only fcrves for a kitchen, 
dining-room, and bed-chamber ; but one corner of 
jt is referved for the calves, foals, and kids. 

In chefe huts the women make their blankets called 
hykes, and the goat's hair cloth for their tents ; weav- 
ing them not with a ihuttle, but condudtrng every 
thread of the woof with their fingers. 

One principal branch of the manufactures and trade 
of chefe countries, is that of carpets. Thefe are made 
of coarier materials, and are not lb beautifully dcfign- 
cd as thofe in Turkey -, but being fofter and cheaper, 
ihey arc preferred by thefe people to lie upon. Both 
at Algiers and Tunis are looms for velvet, taffeties, 
and fcveral kinds of wrought filks. Over all thefe 
kingdoms is made a coarlc fort of linen *, but that 
made at Sufa is the fincft. The grcateft part of thefe 
roanufaftures is conCumcd at home -, but fome of them 
are fo inconfiderable, particularly the filk and linen, 
that the deficiencies are frequently made up from Eu- 
rope. Indeed thefe parts of Barbary fend very few 
of their commodities to marker. 

The cultivated parts of thefe kingdoms er;cy a 
very wholefome air, neither too hot and i'ultry in .'uin- 
mer, nor toj fnarp and cold in winter. For ii'..r:r;g 
the fpace of twelve years, in which 1 attcnvl^d live 
faftory at Algiers, the thermometer lii: k only 
twice to the freezing point, and then the wholj c:.)Mn- 
try was covered v/uh fnow. The lealbns ir.icnfibly 
fall into each other ; and t!-e cxiraorJinary equability 
in the temperature of the cli.'.^re appears iroin the 
barometer's flicwinQ; all the rc-.-'.lurions of tiie 
ther in the fpace of an inch anJ a half. In :hi.s cli- 
mate rain is icldoni known to t\\\\ in the lbmn:cr fea- 
fon i and in moll parts of tlie Sahara, particiiiarly 
thofe of Jcreed, there is rarely any !ni:i at aii. 

When I was at Tozlt, in De:e:r.bcr 1727, v vi 
had a fmall drizling rain, ih.ii: lai'.jci two hrw:-^ ^ i 
which fevcral of the lioull;-, v hi-.'.", as iiUui-, v,v:j 
only built of palm brnnche . r:j ; i:.:- b^k?,! in u.j 

i8j6 Dit. SH/ 

iun* &U down hv imbibing the moiflurc; and fis) 
the drops been either larger, or the ftio* er of a loc^ 
continuance^ the whole city would doubtlcfs hin 
diflblved and dropt lo pieces. In the other pans, 
the firft rains fall in September and October, afier 
which the Arabs break up the ground, and b^^ to 
fow wheat, and plant beans, &c. If the latter r^ 
iall in the middle of April, as they ufually do, the 
crop is reckoned fecu re; the harveft following in the 
latter end of May, or the beginning of June. 

The country produces fevcral kinds of grain, be- 
fide all thc^ of Europe, except oats ; particubriy 
rice and a white fort of millet, with feme forts df 
pulfe unknown in England. The Moors and Arabr 
ftill continue to follow the primitive cullom of the 
E^ in treading out their corn, which is a quicker boC 
lefs cleanly method than ours ; for this being dflOB 
upon a level piece of ground, only daubed over with 
coy-dung, a great deal of earth and gravel miift on- 
avoidably be gathered up with the grain -, befidc, aO 
the ftraw is broke to pieces. Aftf r the grain is trod- 
den out, it is only winnowed, by throwing It ioRi 
the wind with Ihovels ; it is then lodged in lubttna- 
neous magazines, two or three hundred of which I 
have fometimes feen together, and the fmalleftaf 
them would contain four hundred bufhcls. 

Provifions of all kinds arc fold excreamly che^ 
You may have a large piece of bread, a bundle of 
turnips, or a fmail baflcet of fruit, for the 696 put 
of a dollar, of 3 s. 6d. of our money. Fowls aic 
frequently bought for three half-pence apiece j a 
flieep for 3 s. 6d. and a cow and a calf for a guinea. 
It is happy for thefe people, that one year with an- 
other they ciii have a bufliel of the beft wheat far 
fifteen or eighteen pence : for the inhabitants of thefe 
countries, as well as the eaftern nations in general^ 
are great eaters of bread ; three perfons in four livil^ 
entirely ujxjn it, or upon fuch compofiiions as are 
made of wheat and barlev Rour. 


through BARBARY. 287 

In cities and villages, the bread is ufually leavened 
and baked in public ovens ; but among the Bedo- 
weens, the dough is no fooner kneaded than it 
is made into thin cakes, which are either im- 
mediately baked on the coals, or fryed in a pan with 

All the fruits of Europe, befide thofe found in 
Egypt, are produced here, except the hazel-nut, the 
filbert, the goofeberry and currant-tree. But their 
gardens are laid out without method and defign, and 
are a confufed medley of trees, with beds of cab- 
bages, turnips, beans, and fometimes of wheat and 
barley difperfed among them, tine walks, and 
parterres, they would confider as the lofs of fo much 
foil i and the iVudy of new improvements, they would 
regard as fo many deviations from the praftice of 
their anceilors, which they follow with the utmofl: 

Lead and iron are the only metals difcovered in 
theie countries. The latter is white and good, though 
in no great quantity ; it being dug and forged by the 
Kabyles in the mountainous diftrift of Boujeiah, and 
brought in fhort bars to the market of Algiers. Ic 
will not be improper to relate here the (lory the peo- 
ple tell of the plough-fliares of Mahomet b^y of 
Tunis, This perfon had the misfortune to be de- 
throned by his fubjefts •, but having the reputation 
of being acquainted with the philofopher's ilonc, 
Ibrahim Hojiah, dcy of Algiers, engaged to reftore 
him to his former dignity, upon proniile of being 
let into the fecrct. The arlair was accordin^lv 3Q;recd' 
upon, and Mahc/incr was reitoreJ •, when to t'oltil iiif; 
promife, he Tent the dey of Algier:, with gicat romp 
and ceremony, a number of mattocks and plough- 
ihares : thus emblematicaUy inftruciing him, iliat the 
v/calth of his kiny; iom was to aiile trom a ii!iiri;erir 
£ttcndaiicc upcn aericulturc and h'.jf!>aTi'.i:v; ar.d :!iat 
the only phiioiopher's llune he coirkl ircuu'Jnt him 
2 V. iih, 


with, wu the art of convening a good crop into 

The beifts of burden in this country arc camels, s 
, few dromedaries ; horfes, which of late years bxit 
much degenerated in this country; alTes, mules, and 
a creature called the Kumrah, a Uttlc fervigeable bnft 
frf burden, begot between an afs and a cow. Thai 
wluch I faw was Tingle hoofed like the als, but d^t- 
rent fiDtn it in every other rcfpcft, having a Geeker 
fltin, and a tail and head, though without lioros, K' 
iembling the dam's. | 

The black cattle are fmall, llender, and aSbrd boC 
little milk. Abdy balTa, the late dey of Algiers, 
and all his minifters, were greatly furprifcd, when 
admiral Cavendilh, a few years ago, told him, thst 
he had a Hamplhire cow aboard the Canterbury, 
then in the road of Algiers, that gave a gallon of 
milk a day, which is as much as half a dozen of die 
beft Barbary cows could yield in the fame time : be* 
iide, the Barbary catde ^ways lofe their calves aod 
their milk together. 

The Jheep and goats alfo help to fupply the dairioi 
the cheefe being chiefly made of their milk. InQjod 
of rennet, they in fummer make ufe of the flowers of the 
great headed thifl:)e, or wild artichoak, to turn die 
milk ; putting the curds thus made into fmall bafkets 
of rufhes or palmctta, and afterward binding and prtf- 
fing them. Thefe cheefes are ufually of the uapa 
and fize of a penny loaf. Their butter is neither of 
fuch fubftance, nor of fo rich a tafte as ours : tbdr' 
only method of making it, is by puttinz their cream 
into a goat's fl^in, which being fufpendcd from one 
fide of the tent to the other, and preflcd to and fto 
in one uniform diredion, foon occafions the fcpara- 
tion of the butter from the whey. 

The flicep here are of two forts ; one of them oini- 
mon all over the Levant, as well as in the kingdom 
of Tunis, is diftinguiOied by its having a Ivge broad 


through BARBARY. 389 


ksSli which confifts of hard folid fat, not inferior to 
marrow ; but the flefh of this fheep generally taftes 
bf the wool, and has not the tender fibres of the 
jihaller tailed fheep. Thofe of the other (pedes are 
fiearly as tall as our fallow deer, and excepting the 
head, arc not much different in fhape ; but their flelh 
is dry, and their fleeces as coarfe and hairy as the 
goats. The Arabs feldom kill any of rheir flocks ; 
lor they live chiefly upon the milk and butter, or 
upon what thev get in exchange for wool. The num- 
ber of cattle likewife brouorht to the ncricrhbourino: 
towns and villages, is alio very inconfidcrable, when 
compared with the yearly breed ; lb that the ftock of 
tattle is continually encreafing. 

Among the ravenous beaLts are the lion and the 
panther } but the tyger is not a native of this part of 
Barbary. Fire is wiiat they are mod afraid of; and 
yet, notwithflanding all the precautions of the Arabs 
m this refpeft, together with the barking of their 
dogs all the night long, thefe revenous beafts fre- 
quently out-bravihg thefe terrors, will leap into the 
midft of the circle incloled by the tents, and bring 
oiit alive with them a Ihecp or a goat. If thefe rava- 
ges are repeated, the Arabs oblerving where they 
enter, dig a pit and cover it over (lightly with reeds, 
or fmall branches of trees, frequently catch them, 
and feed on their flcfli, which is much ellcemed, it 
having the talle of veal. After the lion and panther 
the dubbah is the ficrccft of the wild b(:afts of Bar- 
barv. It is of the fize of a wolf, but has a flatter 
body ; it naturally limps upon its hinder right leg, 
yet is tolerably fwift. Its neck is ll) ftiff, that in 
looking behind, or fn itching obliquely at any objedt", 
it is obiiwd to move its whole boclv. It is of a red- 
dilli buff, or dun colour, with fome tranfvcrfe ftreaks 
of a dark brown : it has a mane near a foan long, 
and the feet, which are well armed with claws, ferve 
to dig up the roots of plants, and foiuctirnes the 
craves of the dcivJ. 
" Vol. VI. U TV.t 


The faadh is fpottcd like the leopard, but the fljn 
is coarfer and of a deeper colour, and the animal is 
not of fo fierce a nature. The Arabs imagine it be- 
got by a lion Ton a leopardefs. There are alfo two 
other animals marked like the leopard, but tbcir 
fpots are generally of a darker colour, and the fur 
fomewhat longer and fofter. 

The jackall, and an animal called the Black-eaitd 
Cat, are both fuppofed to find out prey for the Fion, 
and are therefore each called the lion's proiddcr; 
though it may be much doubted, whether there be 
any fuch friendly intcrcourfe between two fuch difie- 
rent animals. In the night-time, indeed, thefe, with 
other kinds, are prowling in fearch of prey ; and m 
the morning, they have often been fcen knawiog 
fuch carcades, as the lion is fuppofed to havefJEd 
upon the night before. This, and the promifisiODS 
noife I have frequently heard the jackal! at leaft make 
with the lion, are the only circumftanccs I am ac- 
quainted with in favour of this opinion. The lion is 
fuppofed to feed chit- fly on the wild boar ; but that 
animal fometimes defends itfelf with fuch courage, 
that the carcalles of both have been found lying 
dead together, covered with blood, and dreadAiUf 

Befide thefe, and feme other creatures not common 
in other places, thtre are in Barbary, bears, apes, 
hares, rabbits, ferret*^, wed'els, moles, porcupines, 
and foxes ; camcleons, and feveral kinds of lizards. 

[ 29» 1 


T O 


By Mr. W I N D U S, a Gentleman in the 

Retinue of Charles Stewart, Efq; Am- 

h^Skdor to the Emperor of Morocco. 

r^T^HE kingdoms of Fez and Morocco, which 
L Jl now compolc one empire, were once a part of 
the antient Mauritania, and are fitua:cJ on the moft 
weftcm borders of Barbary. They ere bounded on 
that fide by the Atlantic Ocean •,. on the eaft by the 
river Mulvya, which feparates tliem from Algiers ; 
on the north by the Streights of Gibrahar and the 
Mediterranean lea ; and on the fouth by the river 
Sus, which divides iMorocco from the province of 
Derha, and by part of the kingdom of 'rafilet : the 
whole empire extending from 28^ to 36"^ north lati- 
tude^ and from 4^ to 11® weft longitude from Lon- 
don. Its grcateft length, in a direct line from north 
to Ibuth, is above 500 miles, but in bread'.h it does 
not much exceed 260. 

Each of thefe kingdoms ftill retnins its antient 
name, though both xhe empire and ihe emperors arc 
chiefly called by that of Morocco, which is the mull 

U 2 l^i!* 


This empire, or kingdom, is thrown ioto AAf 
gFand divifions, Fez, Morocco Proper, and Swt' 
bcfidc the kingdom oF Tafiicc and the large province 
of Gcfula, buth which are fubjeft to the emperor. 

The climate is almoft every where hot, and tnoch 
more fo to ihc fouth, yet it is generally healthier diu 
that of Algiers or Tunis, it Beidg pleafamly £tc£ 
fied, and the air rendered more moderate by its mpOH 
tains and plains, and cooled by (ea-breezes fromdv 
Atlantic Occan. We ftiall now attend to Mr. Windm.] 

Th& honourable Charles Stewart^ Efq^rbdM^OK 
to treat of a peace with the emperor of Moracso^ 
landed in the bay of Tetuan on the 6th of T* 
f720, at about nine o'clock in the moraiug}. i 
«e found a lufficiem number of tents pitcRrfft^cJd* 
convcniency, and among them a fine large on*,- which 
the amballador made choice of to cat in on his jon^ 
ney. Our firft entertainment was in this tent, nAae 
they brought plcnry of cufcufu, fowls, and a ihccp 
roarted whole upon a great wooden fpit, which ^icf 
icrt upon ihe tabic, fpit and all. Between three ^nd 
four o'clock the bafTacame down» attended byaMut 
200 hcrfe and 300 foot, who having entered the cunp 
firing ^nd cavalcading, threw themfclves into tbc 
form of an half-moon before our tenr, where wc htd 
the diverfion of feeing them cxercife above an hour. 
This I hey performed with great aflivity j the tnflil 
and his brorher often heading parties of horic, tAn 
all together clapping their fpurs to their horfes Sdes^ 
levelled their pieces and fired at each other, as if 
they were attatking an irnemy. Afcer this they took 
their ipcars and fingledout each other to tih, dcxttt- 
cully pLitinp by tli-; thruftof the fpcar, though n»d« 
i'[ tiicir back's, while their horfes wsrc on full' Axed. 
iviean while the foot kept a continual irregular mii^ 
(rvt: y man thirling his piece, and firing, into the 
>^roi:nd as faU as he could. Their drums made a 
u-arl;i:c fu'jnd, and were beaten with xhcavjAidlt 


.on the top, and a fmall one at the bottom, keeping 
jtime to a pipe, that had fome refemblance to a fife, 
and founded very^ loud and (brill. The cavalcade 
being over, the bafla welcomed the ambaflador to 

Sirbary, and invited l)im to his tent, where he told him 
at he would do all in his power to render the coun- 
yry agreeable to him : that he liked the Kn^lifh better 
than any other ChrilVian nation ; and fonie other com- 
pliments having pafled between them, they parted. 

The next morning the ambaffador vifited the bafia 
at his tent, who having renewed his compliments, 9 
row.of fine horfes were drawn up, which made a noble 
appearance, many of their faddlcs being entirely cover- 
ed with pUte ; the baflfa then politely defired the am- 
baflador to take which he liked belt: which having done, 
each of us chofe for ourfelves, and then fet forward. 

The Moors almoft all the way to Tetuan, whichr 
i3 about fix miles, continued firing and cavalcading. 
On our entering the town, we were received by great 
.(Touds of people (houting, and the women all in 
white, and muffled up fo that no part of them could 
be feen but their eyes, were preffcd together upon 
the tops of the houfcs as thick as they could (land. 
The bafla drew up his people in a large fquare before 
his houfe, where he and his brothers, finely mounted, 
ihewed us again their dexterity at the fpear, tilting, 
^nd fometimes darting their lances into the air before 
them, and catching them again with their horfes on 
full fpeed. The ambaflador was then conducted to 
the houfe allotted for him, v/hich was one of the 
beft in Tetuan, and a ftable of horfes was appointc4 
for his ufe, and that of his rednue. 

On the 8th, the ambaflador paid a vifit to the baf- 
(a, who rec(;ived him in an outer room, built long 
and narrow, like mofl: of the rooms in Barbuy. 
There were two chairs placed oppofite to each other, 
in which the ambafl^^dor and bafla fat down, and 
talked about an hour and a half; during which, 
eight pr ten of the principal Moors in the town flood 

U 2 bcVwA 


behind the bafla. The conftrcnce being over, wc 
were fhewn the bafla's gardens and ilablcs. 

On the 1 5th we dined in a garden which the baflEi 
had lately planted about three miles from Tecuan. 
It is fituated in a pleafant valley, almoft funx>undcd 
with hills and mountains, which being green and 
woody, afford on every fide a moil delightful prorpc6L 
A ftream runs through the garden, which with gfCtt 
labour was conveyed thither from an adjacent moun- 
tdn. The governor of Tetuan, who was one of the 
baffa's brothers, came juft after dinner, and walking 
with us, was fo complaifant, as to gather, and give 
us the bed fruit. The walks are feparated b^ cane- 
work, and there is a handfome arbour of the iame 
materials, in which is a bafon fupplied with water 
trom the above ftream, which the ambaflador fiOcd 
with punch *, but it was with fome difficulty he per- 
fuaded the governor to drink two or three ghJKs. 
This arbour was rendered very delightful by 1 
great number of carnations growing through the 
cane-woik, and in at the windows. The gover- 
nor was attended by his mufic, which confifted 
cf two pcrfons playing on fmall inftruments, after the 
manner of violins : one had a piece of parchment 
cirdwn right over a fmall hoop, with pieces of loofc 
tin on the ficles, which he (hook with one hand, while 
he drummed on it with the other ; and another per- 
Jon beat time to their mufic, by ftriking the pabns 
Joi his hands together, very loud, and with great 
ikxteriry. This part of the country abounds with 
ime or.'. n2:es, Itnions, citrons, grapes, apricots, 
pomegranates, melons, figs and olives. 

On the 20th we went with the baflfa to hunt the 
wild boar, in the mountains between Tetuan and 
Otira, when we killed fix. and took three young ones 
.:live. The fycars ufed bv the foot are not above 
hnlr' ns largr iis thofc carried by the horfe ; they arc 
:ri.u.hi of a heavv and tough wood, with the blade 
R' uut ''.ilf :i yard long, and \'cry thick, to prevent their 



aldng. A great number of foot went with us thus 
ted, who getting upon the hills, by their ihout- 
» raifcd the boars from the woods and thickets, 
: brought them in view for the chace. If one of 
fe men is attacked by a boar, he does not (hew 
leaft fign of fear ; but putting himfelf in as firm 
ofture as he can, he receives the boar on his fpear, 
> goors himfelf up to the end of the blade, where 
iron goes acrofs to (lop the fpear from running 
>ugh, otherwife the boar prefTing on, would reach 
man, and wound him with his tu(ks« 
Tctuan, which is a very ancient city, was called 
Jie Romans Tecuanum, and gives name to a large 
vincc. It is ficuated at the opening of the (freights 
I the Mediterranean, upon the afcent of a rocky hill 
vecn two high mountains, about fix miles from 
fez ; and has a caflile built higher on the hill, that 
a full command of the town. Through the val- 
runs a little river, navigable for fmall veflels as 
as Marteen, a place about two miles from the bay, 
rie they load and unload their goods. 
7ctuan is well builr, but the Itr;^cts are very nar- 
, and there are harJly any windows to be fcen, 
:pc little holes to look out at -, the light being ad- 
:cd at the infide, where there is a fqiiare court 
a at the top, w th pillars fupporting galleries, and 
iCed wooden baluilrades. 1 he houfes are but two 
ics high, except the baifa's, and a few others be- 
ring to particular men. Hicy are flat at the top, 
!iat in many places the inhabitants can wajk a great 

upon (hem *, but thofe belonging to the Chnitian 
chants have battlements, to keep them within 

bounds of their own houfes : fur thr Moari(h 
nen live in the upper apartments, and often vifit 

another from the tops of their houfes^ They 
white wafhed on the outfide as well as within, 
ch renders the reflexion of the fun fo bright, as 
c painful to the eyes. Their walls are not raifed 

U4 by 

• • VJ 


by laying brick or ftone even upon one another ; but i 
they make a ftrong wooden cafe, into which they cdl^ . 
the mortar, and beating it down hard, take die cA 
away when it is dry. 

The (hops are very fmall, and have no dpooi but 
the mafter having opened the (butters, jumps 10, and 
fits crofs-legged, upon a place raifed about the hdglbt 
of a counter! The goods are difpofed in dratwcii 
round about him, which he can for the moft pait 
reach without moving out of his place ; his cuftooica 
Handing in the ftrect while they are fcrved. 

The town is populous and healthful ; but the peo- 
ple are poor, and pofiefs nothing but at the pknuiQ 
of the ba(ra ; who gives or takes away houfes, land^ 
or whatever he pleafes. Therefore, when a man by 
his diligence and induftry ha^ acquired weakb, he 
endeavours to conceal ir, and feem poor ; ifer if it 
(hould come to the knowledge of the bafla, he might • 
throw him into prifon, and caufe him to be battina- 
doed to make him difcover ail his treafures. 

The people are of a fwarthy complexion, intct' 
mixed with a race of well-looking men, fomewhac 
fairer than the reft : they arc generally lufty, ftrong- 
limbed, aAive, laboripus, and patient of labour and 
fatigue, enduring with furprifing refblutioh the heats 
of fummcr, and the cold rains of winter, A meflbo- 
ger will go from Tetuan to Mequinez, which is ICQ 
miles, for a Barbary ducat ; and in the midft of a 
florm of rain, he will only look out for a bu(h or 
high ftone, and fitting down oq his hams with his 
back toward it, remain in that pofture the whde 
night : or if the weather be fair, he will wrap himfelf 
in his cloaths, and pafs the night upon the gra(s. It 
is f^d that the n)oft famous footmen of the country 
will go futy leagues in three days. They fwim the 
rivers in the depth of winter, if not deterred by tht 
rapidity of the current ; and for a journey of (even 
or eight days carry only a little meal, and a few raifina 
or figs in a fniall goat's flvui. 



They have no firtded poft in the country, the ordir 
nary way of fending letters being by thcfc footmen, 
•ho are nearly as cxpedicious as horfcs. Nor have 
t'jcy any kind of wheel- carriage : their light goods 

c removed from place to place, if not far, upon 
;.)rfc5 ; but when they have great quantities either of 
-urn, wax, liides, or ihe like, and go far, theyufe- 

The drcfs of the people is not ungrjccful. The 

' '■" « Ihon ftiirts with very broad flecvcs, ih»c 

.;; hang down, but are more frequently tuek- 

; !-;eep them cool. They have linen breeches 

_ ,__ jut their waifts next the fkin. They go bare 

l*:itgcd, but wear flippers of red or yellow leather, 

tirfiout heels. Over their (hirt they wear a cloth 

vt&y or waidcoac, very ftiort, and made to fit clofc 

10 the body 1 it is fiftcncd with fmall buttons and 

loops fct cbfe together, and is often embroidered 

with gold or fiker thread. Round the waift they 

war a fcarf of Dlk or ftufF, in which they ftick 

lirge knives, with the handles either of fomc valii- 

sl>ie metal, or ivory inlaid, and the fheathi are tipt 

with Giver. Their outer garment is cither the al- 

^i^t»c, or albornoocc j the former is a piece of 6ne 

iihitc woollen (luff, five or fix yards long, and about 

line and a half broad, which they wrap round them 

iOove and below their arms. This drefs rcfcmbles 

; .: drapery of antique figures : the albcrnoocc is 

l; .lade of clo[h or woollen ftuffnapt, and foaic- 

;. mbies 4 Ihort cloak, but is joined 3 little 

:urr from the neck downward, having two or 

vs of Ihort ftripes worked in the (tuff, and 

.: the ends for ornament -, the bottom and 

edged with a deep fringe; and behind at 

; there hangs a peaked cowl, with a talTcl at 

. which they can cover their heads with to 

] .^i' the weather. On their heads, which they 

'A*i)'', keep fliaved, they wear a little red cap, which 

iLr? makp inio a lurbam by rolling muClin about it : 



but when they go into the country, they wear a 
handfome cane- hat to keep oflF the fun. The Al- 
caydes have a broad leather belt, embroidered with 
gold, to hang their fcymicars in, which they wear 
over their Ihoulder. 

The Moors in general are drefled after this manner, 
without any other difference than in the richneis and 
finenefs of the fluffs ; only the upper garment of the 
poorefl fort is a coarfe thick woollen cloth, with holes 
to put their arms through inflead of fleeves. This 
reaches to their knees, and hangs loofe about their 

When the women go abroad, they are drefled al- 
mofl like the men, their upper garment being an al- 
hague, with which they cover their heads, bringing 
it down over their foreheads clofe to their eyes ; and 
underneath ihey tie a piece of white cloth, to hide the 
lower part of the face : the alhague covers all bo^ 
their legs, which, when they are at home, orvifit 
from the tops of their houfes, are generally naked; 
only fome of fuperior rank have their drawers fo long, 
that they reach to their feet, and hang in great loofc 
folds about their legs. They wear the fame kind of 
flippers as the men. Within doors they have only a 
iinsle binder about their foreheads, and their hair 
hangs behind in two large plaits at full length. At 
home ihcy alfo wear a vcft, open from the bofom to 
the waift, to fhew their embroidered fmocks ; and 
they faftcn brgc pieces of muflin to the fleeves of 
their veils, which hang down very low in the nature 
of ruffles : over their drawers they wear a fhort pet- 
ticoat ; beflde they have bracelets on their arms and 
legs, and large ear-rings in their ears. 

The women have fine eyes, and fome of them very 
beautiful fkins, which wc had fomctimes an oppor- 
tunity of obferving ; for though a man may live a 
year in Tetujn wuhouL feeing the face of a Moorifh 
v/o:nan in the Itreets, yet when we met them in the 
iic'iV^, or faw tliem on the houfc-tops, if none of the 



Moors were in Hght, they would unveil, and laugh, 
till the appearance of one obliged them to hide thciir 
faces again. 

When any of the Moors have a mind to entertain 
their neighbours, the women go to the top of the 
houfe, and continue their till the gucfts are gone. 
Their general entertainment confifts or cufcufu, which 
is thus made : they put fine Hour into a large flat pan, 
and fprinkling it with water, roll it up into Irnall 
balls ; thefe are put into a kind of cullender that 
lerves for the cover of a por, where meat and fowls 
are a ftewing, fo that it receives the heat and fteam : 
when it is enough, they pour ftrong broth into it, 
and putting the meat and fowls at top, ferve it up. 
They fit crofs-legged on the floor, putting their diflies 
upon a large piece of grcafy leather, that ferves both 
for table and table-cloth. Their difhes are cither of 
pewter or earthenware, wicie at the top and narrow 
at the bottom, fomewhat like a high crowned hat 
turned with the crown downward. While they cat, 
a Icrvant (lands by with a great bowl of warer in one 
hand, and a narrow long piece of blue Inen in the 
other, to wipe their right hanc!>, with which they 
pull the viftuals to pieces, which are generally ftewed 
to rags. They never ufe the left hand in eating ; 
becaufe that is always ufed on ncceilary occalions. 
They eat without (peaking, and after their meals 
drink waier, their religion forbidding them wine and 
all other intoxicating liquors, except cyder ; ycr moll 
of them will get drunk with ftrong liquors of any 
kind, if they can get it. They are lo fond of butitr- 
milk, which is their chief defert, that wh-jn thev 
would fpeak of the extraordinary fwcetnets of any- 
thing, they compare it to thar. A lirge black pit- 
cher of it is generally brought in, with a wooden 
ladle, which is prefentcd to the moft confiderable 
perfon, and from him it palTcs round the conipany 
fcvtral times. 



Their butter, which is bad, is made of all die 
milk as it comes from the cow, by putting it into ^ 
ikin, and fliaking it, till the butter feparates from ir. 
They bury it in the ground to make it keep, and da 
not diflikc it when it is three or four years old. They 
alfo wrap up the cawls, fuet and fat of cows, fheep 
and goats, in great rolls, which in winter are Ibid to 
the poor inftcad of butter. Their bread is however 
cxtreamly good and cheap. 

While in their houfes they arc always fitting oo 
piats, or lying ; and if they go out on foot, ic is 
never farther th^n to make a vilit, unlefs their buG- 
xiefs requires it : but they daily fpcnd fiye or fix hours 
fitting en their hams bjc:fore thjeir doors, thinking it 
moft ridiculous to walk up and down a room* Why, 
fay theY> fliould a man move from one end of the 
room to the other, without apparent caufc ? Can he 
not as well Hay in the place he is in, as go to the 
other end, meerly in order to came back agam ? 

On the 13th of June we began our journey to Mc- 
quinez, and on the iSth, coming within two miles 
of Alcaflar, \ys were mcc by the governor of Tan- 
gier, who car/iC toward us with a Ipcar carried up- 
right by a (lave at his horfc's fiead. After he had 
welcomed the ambaflfadox, we were conducted to- 
Vv-ard t!:e town wiih a number of luftv Moors tilting 
before us •, the drums were beating, llrangc forts of 
mufic playing, and great crouds of people prefling 
,ro clofc upon us, tirac they could not be kept off by 
the blov/s of our gi:r.rds, till we came to the tents 
tha: Vvcre pitched clofc to the walls of Alcaffar. 

On the icfc of the road, almoft all the way froni 
Tctuan to Alcafiar, runs a ridge of very high moun- 
tciins, called by the Moors, The Mountains of Ha- 
bib ; the inhabitants of which cannot be reduced to 
the fame degree of fiibjeclion as the reft of the coun- 
try : yet, upon civil treatment, bring the bafia a con- 
tribution ; bur when ulcd ill, revenge themfelves by 



infefting the roads, and robbing and deftroying tra- 
vellers, rearing, when they fee occafion, to their re-' 
treats in the mountains, where it would be difficult 
to hurt them : whence the bafTa rather chuies to take 
peaceably what they voluntarily lend him, than to 
enrage tnem by attempting violent meafures. 

Alcaflar was once an important city^ and the feat 
of the governor of this part of the kingdom v but it 
is now fallen to decay, fo that of fifteen mofqucs^ 
there are only two in which fcrvice is performed. 
Here are a great number of ftorks, which live very 
familiarly with the people, walking about the town, 
and poflelCng the tops of the mofques and the houfes ; 
but though they are efteemed facred birds, they are 
not free enough to «nter in and (belter themfelves 
fiom.chc heat of the fun, and therefore fome of them 
(drop down dead every day. 

On the 26th we left Alcaflar, and proceeding on 
our journey, on the firft of July paffcd by the ruins 
of a very antient and noble llone building, called by 
the natives Pharaoh's Caftle. Thefe ruins arc fituated 
on a hill of an eafy aicent, about 140 miles fouth of 
Tetuan, and 16 north-eaft of Mequincz. One of 
the buildings Iccms part of a triumphal arch. 

The country we had hitherto paffcd is very plea- 
fant and fertile •, the plains, in many places, abound- 
ing in corn and cattle, the hills and mountains yield- 
ing plenty of olives , though a great part lies wall'.: 
and uncultivated, not lb much from the v/ant of a 
fuificicnc number of inhabitants, as from the opprcf- 
fions of the government. 

On the ;^d we entered tlie city of Mequincz, a 
little before the fun arofe, to avoid the prociifijious 
croud v/e (hould have met with had tlic day been 
much farther advanced ; by Vviiich mca'js wc goi. to 
our houfe witli very little interruprlon. 

On the 6ih. about Icven in liiL- ir/jmin^r, th? cm- 
peror fcnt an AlcayJe wltii a gu*:rj to on.i'/.LV rhi: 
ambaffador to him. Wc piifTcd ihrc^jgh i\\c Itrccrs in 
6 "Ocv^ 


the following order : firft there were two ierjeaiits bd 
horfeback, followed by our mufic, whilch played all 
the way -, then came the ambaflador, with his livery- 
men on each fide ; and after him the gentlemen of 
the retinue, followed by fcveral fcrvants on horfeback. 
The alcaydc who commanded the guard, would not 
fuffer the Moors, out of the emperor's fervicc; to 
come near us ; the guards therefore laid on unmerci- 
fully, and fometimes knocked the peoplie down. 

We difmounted at the outward gate of the pdlace, 
and pafling through three or four large court yards, 
fat down under fome piazzas for about half ah hooh 
Then word being brought that the emperor was come 
cut, we were lid into a fpacious palace, where wc 
faw him mounted with an umbrella held over his 
head : his courtiers flood bare-footed on each fide, id 
the habit of flaves, and behind him his guards were 
drawn up in the figure of an half-moon. Wc march- 
ed toward the emperor with our mufic playing, till 
we came within about eighty yards of him ; when the 
old monarch alighting from his horfe, proftrated him- 
fclf on the earth to pray, and continued fome minutes 
with his face fo dole to the earth, that when we carr.c 
up to him, the: ckift remained upon his nofe. When 
he had dene lie inllantly mounted, and took a lance 
in his hand. 

The anriba(rauor and we bowed as we approached 
the emj cror, when notiding his hca^!, he cried fcve- 
ral times lono^ and b?At the ambaflador be covered; 
with which he complied, and at t!;c lame time de- 
livered his majerty's letter, tied up in a filk handktrr- 
chief, into the emperor's liand, obferving, that he 
WAS come from the king of Great Britain, his mafter, 
to fettle peace, fi lencjfliip, and a good underftanding 
between the two crowns : and that he had brought 
him a prefent, vliich he hoped he would accept. 
The enperor replied, he fhould have every thing he 
cume for, becai.le he loved the F.nglilli ; and that 
fuch of the Moors wiiom r!*f ambaflador h.;d brought 



over with him, as were able, Ihould 'pay their ranfom, 
and thofe v/ho were not, the bafla of Tetiun (houkl 
pay for : but recoUefting himfelf, he added, the Eng- 
ii(h make no flaves nor tell any. Upon which the 
ambaflador told him, he hopea he woiild have the 
fanDC regard for the king his mailer's fubjcfts, and 
admit them to return hoine into their own country ; 
a charity becoming lb potent a rr.onarch.- Soon after 
the emperor fpcaking to the balTa of 1 ctuan, the lat- 
ter pro4lrated himfelf on the earth, kiOTcil it, andarill 
ing, went up to the emperor, an! kiflcd his foot: 
which they all do very ofrcn when ht: talks to them, 
and then retire backward into their places again. 

The enr.peror was mounred on a black horfe. His 
negroes fanned and beat the flics from the horfe with 
cloths; and the umbrella was conftanrly kept twirlino- 
over his head to produce a li- tie wind, the man that 
carried it alfo taking care to move as his horfe did, 
that no fun might come upon the emperor. His drcfs 
differed little from that of his baifas : but the handle 
erf" his fcymitar was of gold, and fet with large eme- 
ralds ; and his faddle was covcrcvi with fcarjet cloth 
embroidered wi;h gold, with one piftol in a cloth 
cafe, on the left fide. 

On our leaving the emperor, whii Ii we did by go- 
ing backward a go^xl way, v« were roiuiuftcd by his 
majefty's order to fee the palacr. We wltc firft led 
into a large fquare buikiing, with piazzas all round: 
this was the queen of the: Xc-riuh's The 
arches were wruuffht v. ith plaiiicr fret-work in flowers, 
and fupported by neat ib>^.c p.liir.s : the bottom and 
fide, for about live? feet higri, were ilitrquered with 
tiles of ftveral colcAirs, as knctc all the apartments, 
walks, paflages, arid underneath ihe arches, which 
gave a beautiful air of neJtnj-fs to the buildings. 
From thence we were led inuj a magazine near a quar- 
ter of a mile long, an:l nji .ibcvc thiriy feet broad; 
in which were hunL' up g ir-t tjiianiiiic^ or ar»iia u\ 

8 \Nfl 


We Were then carried into another large and fym^ 
ous building, with piazzas all round, like the &s^ 
jner, where lived two of the emperor's wives^ mudi 
cileemed by him. 

From thence, paiTmg through fome neat long 
walks and paflfages of chequer- work, we came to in- 
other building, that had a large garden in the middle, 
planted round with tall cyprefs trees : the gardta is 
funk 60 or 70 feet below the foundation of the build- 
ing, over which runs a terrafs walk, from one fide 
to the other, about half a mile long, and i5or i( 
f«et broad, all the way Ihaded at the top with vintf 
and other greens, fupported by ftrong and well macfe 
wood work. In this walk was a chariot that Went 
with fprings, and a fmall calafh, in which, we weie 
told, the emperor was fometimes drawn by womeii 
and eunuchs. 

We paflfcd through feveral other fquares and kmg 
buildings, now and then feeing the Chriftians upon 
the top of high walls, beating down the mortar with 
heavy pieces of wood, fomething like thofe ufed 1^ 
our paviours in driving down the ftones ; thefe they 
all raife together, and keep time in their flrokes. 

After we had been about three hours in viewing 
the palace, we were again conducted to the emperor, 
who was on horlbback viewing a magazine of lances 
and other arms. At the approach of the ambaflador, 
Ke advcd him how he liked his palace ? the ambaiia- 
4fMr faid it was one of the noblcft on the face of the 
fpnh •, at which the emperor faid, Thank God. 
fcme Englifh bays then falling proftratc, and giving 
lum the ul'ual falutation, God blefs thy power-, the 
emperor afked of what nation they were, and being 
told they were Englilh, he bid them go home with 
the ambaCTador, and lee him to bed: upon which the 
nmbafliidor returned the emperor thanks, and took 
his leave. 

At night one of the queens fcnt fome proviHons 
drelled in the j a!acc% and rViiir, ticriring to know how 



^e atnbafiador did, and wlfhing him a good night. 
The viftuals were high fcafoncd^ and ttewcd with 
toots and fpices. 

The next day we were fcnt for again to fee the pr- 
iacc, where arriving about nine o'clock, we were firft 
flicwn fome large rooms full of men anJ boys mak- 
ing faddles, ftocks for guns, fcabbards for fcymicars, 
and other things. From thence we paflcd through 
Icveral large neat buildings, and at Ici^th entered 
the moll inward and beautiful pare of the palace^ 
which has a garden in the middle, planted round 
with cyprefs and other trees. All the columns of this 
Imikling, which is of a vaft length, are of marble, and 
£ud to be antient Roman pillars, tranfported thither 
ftom Sallee : the arches and doors of the apartments 
ore finely adorned. 

Here one of the queens Tent us a collation of dates, 
giapeS) melons, almonds, raifms, figs, and fweet- 
teeats. The fruit was very welcome, for walking 
had made us dry ; we therefore fat down under a pi- 
azza^ and were attended by the maids of the palace, 
whofe jetty fkins received no fmall embelliihiTienc 
from the fhining bracelets and filvcr trinkets they wore 
in great plenty on their arms and legs, with gold 
chains about their necks, monftrous large ear-rings, 
and other African ornaments : we were all the while 
obferved by the emperor's women, though we did 
not know it till afterward. 

This regale being ended, we pirted from our blacr:' 
attendants, and were conduced to another rie it re-' 
gular building, with piazzas all round. I'li;: urvia"* 
was all chequer-work, and in the middle was a row 
of marble bafbns at certain diilancei, with lirtlj i h:ii> 
nels cut in Hone, convcvino the vMicr iVoin om: cc i\v^ 
other. Here is a maiyazine and trv^^furv. We .liVrr- 
ward vifited the infuic of an rn^arii.iicnt where of 
the queens formerly llvjd ^ we hiw alio liic b.irl. , .ind 
fome beautiful cob^hi belonj'lr.j; to thai ci:\;r;'riP'..'.. 
From thence we were led tiiro'.'c': u-v-ralciiei '^ 1..-I- 

• Vol. VL X \v »^ 


kigs, confiding for the mod part of oblong fquaicv 
with piazzas^ under which the doors enter into the 
lodgings, which are generally ground rooms. The 
doors of each building arc all of one fize and form, 
finely inlaid, and fome of them gilt. In one of thcfe 
Iquares was a fountain with ch^innels of marble, that 
formed a very neat and pretty labyrinth. Wc after- 
ward vifitcd iome other ftately cobahs, which are lofty 
and magnificent rooms, each covered with a dome 
painted of a fky colour, adorned with fiars, aad a 
golden fun in the middle, of curious workmanffaip. 

This palace is about four miles in circumference^ 
und is aimoft fqiiar^.^ It ftands on even ground, and 
has no hill near ir. The buildings are of rich m(Mtar, 
without either brick or ftone, except for pillars and 
arches •, and the mortar fo well wrougnt, that the 
wallfi a:e like one entire piece of terrafs. The whole 
building is exceeding mafTy, the outer wall being 25 
ircrt thick. Going to take a dillant profpeft of this 
il:ruC:^airc, wc palTcd through a large fi^ld, where, on 
each fide of the patli, v/crc great numbers of rats of 
a prodigious fize, which burrowed in the earth like 
rr.bHts ; and ran about lb thick, that the ground was 
airnoll covcivci by ihcm : tht-y let us come within eight 
or te:^. yaivl-j of tlicm before they would go into their 
hol'js V and havir.g paiicd tlicm they again ap- 
peared above giouriLi, t'u that both before and behind 
us there were v;iil: multitudes or" them. At the end 
of this fiild, wiiii h is of great extent, is a garden of 
po' [-iMited in a valley, over which the 
ein;)einr lu:, buiir a ib'cng bridge, that reaches from 
the top of one lull to the other, for the liiorc com* 
modious r.v.iTmr over them. 

On the 2 2Ji of J'jly the ambaiTador had his fecond 
a'jdience, \v!icn the emperor had ordered all theEng- 
lifli capiivc.^ to be drawn up in his palace. We went 
uith the mufic playin.o:, as before, and found thccm- 
percr fitting under a piazza -, but mounting hishorlc, 
und after the liru co;r.pliments, waving his hand to 



r^ captives, he bade them go home with the amba£- 
^idor into dieir own (:ountTy: upon this they all 
Uh proftrate, crying, " God blcls thy po*er,** and 
were going out of nis prefence ; when the etnperor 
caufuig them to ftay, added, that he loved the amr 
baiiUdor and all the Engliih, becaufe he knew thejr 
Icpved him and his hoiife, and that there Ihould not 
be an Englifhman a flavc in his empire. Then wav- 
ii^ his hand again to the captives, tbey went away ; 
and the ambaflkdor returned the emperor thanks iw 
the honour he had done t^imi After feme other com- 
pliments, that prince turning his horfe, galloped 

On tlie 25th the ambaflador went to vifit Muley 
Ally, one of the emperor's fons, who received, him 
Gitiiag on a filk. carpet, wrought with gold in large 
{bwers. He had two black boys fanning him, one 
(^them drefl: in a veft of black and white flowered 
velvet, the other in yellow fpeckled with black. 
Tbe prince's garment was of rich cloth of gold." 
They brought us chairs, and we fat down for lome 
ante, the ambaflador talking to the prince by one of 
our captives, who relied himfelf on his hands and 
knees at the threthold of the door, and when he lixike 
to ihe prince, proftratcd himfelf almoft dole to the 
ground We were then led up ftairs, and entertain- 
n with wine and muflc till dinner, which conlifted 
nf above twenty large dilhes, drefTed in feveral 

Mcquinez is Ctuated in a delightful plain, at the 
Alliance of about twenty leagues from the city of 
Fez, and was an inconfiderable place before the em- 
peror chofe to build his palace there, which has renr 
ijUncd it the metrobolis of a large empire. 
|U^ the midft of the city live the Jews, who have 3 
^B|c^t(t themfelves, the gates of which are locked 
Ig^t. They have an alcayde to protCift ihem 
jieingi plundered by the common people j for 

liJfj^^h.for them to curfe, or lift up a hand 
X 2 figainll 


againft the meaneft Moor ; the very boys kick tbeoB 
about at their pleafure, againft which they have no 
other remedy but running away. 

Clofe to Mequinez, on the north-weft fide, and 
only divided from it by a road, ftands a large negroc 
town, that takes up as much ground as the city ; but 
the houfcs are neither fo high, nor fo well built, lo 
inhabitants are blacks or tawnies, out of whom the 
cmptrror recruits the foldiers for his court. 

The emperor ^^ho treated us with fuch civility, was 
named Muley Abdallah; he was 87 years of age, 
about 50 of which he had fpent on the throne. But 
though his behaviour to us was obliging, yet be 
might juflly be termed a monller in the human form, 
and one of the moil bloody tyrants that ever plagued 
mankind ; for his life was one continued fcene of a* 
adbions, murders, and die moft horrid afts of cruelly, 
daily exerciied on his (laves, and his miferabk fiib- 
jefts. Yet this wretch was efteemed a faint : he was 
continually proftrating himfdf on the earth, tooffrr 
up his petitions to Mahomet -, and perpetually excr- 
cifing wanton afts of inhumanity. By his four wives, 
aPid the many thoufand women he has had in his 
leraglio during his long reign, he is faid to have hid 
700 fons able to mount a horfc j but the number of 
his daughters is not known. 

It is a thouiand pities that fo Hne a country Ihould 
be fubjeft to a government, that in the moft cfTcftual 
manner dilcoiirages indullry and improvement : for 
the climate is deliehtful. though too hot, and the 
foil fertile *, producing every thing that can 
contribute to ule and pleal'ure, even beyond imagina- 
tion -, nature in a great meafure fupplying the defici- 
ency of their indullry. 1 hey imitate the Spaniards 
in their manner of tilling the ground, which produces 
great quantities of wlieat, barley, peafe, beans, hemp, 
and flax ; and they reap three between May and 
Septeiiibrr. Would the government but counrenancc 
indv.ftry, or at leaft allow the peoptc to enjoy in 



peace the fruit of their labour, the land would be 
capable of producing a hundred times as much as is 
now confumcd in the country, for it is faid, that a 
hundredth part of the land is not cultivated. 

The chief commodities exported from thence arc 
tin, copper, hides, wool, cordovans, dates, honey, 
wax, raiiins, olives, ahnonds, gum-arabic, gum-fan- 
dric, elephants teeth, oftrich feathers, indigo, and fine 

Fez is the center of the trade of this empire, and 
from thence the caravans go to Mecca and Medina, 
carry goods into the Eaft j and from thence large ca- 
ravans fct out every year to Guinea. 

On the 27th of July, a little before fun-fet, we left 
Mequinez, with the articles of peace figned by the 
emperor, and travelling the fame road wc came, ar- 
rived at Tetuan on the i2thof Auguft, Some of 
our captives died there, and upon the road -, and one 
i¥as drowned in the river Alcaflar. We embarked 
with 296 of thefc captives, who were all that were 
left alive, and had not turned Moors. From them 
wc learned, that at our coming to Mequinez there 
were reckoned to be 1 100 Cliriltian flaves in the king- 
dom, about 300 of whom were Englilh, without 
reckoning 19 v;ho had embraced the Mahometan re- 
ligion ; there were 400 Spaniards, 165 Portngucle, 
152 French, 69 Durch, 25 Gl'ikk-iV, and ^ GrcelwS : 
but fome of all thelc di'Teivnc nations h:\A been in- 
duced to change th' ir rrlip^ion, and loll all 
hope of being r^dcemcH. 


[ 310 
Into the Inland Paita of . . 

A F R I C A, 

B Y 

r R A N C 1 S MOOR] 

T LEFT England, fays Mr. Moore, in July 1730; 
■*■ on being appointed a writer in the fcn-ice of the 
Kbyal African company, and on the ^tb of Novem- 
ber came to an anchor in the mouth of the Gambii. ; 
As we failed up that river near the fhore, the country 
appeared very beautiful, being for the moft part 
woody ; and between the woods were pleaiant giten 
rice grounds, \vhich after the rice is cut, are Itockea 
with cattle. On the 1 1 th wc landed at James'i tOaoiL 
which is fituated in the middle of the river, that ii 
here at lead feven miles broad. This iOand lies about 
ten leagues from the river's mouth, and is about 
three quarters of a mile in circumference. Upoil 
it is a fquare ftone fort regularly built, with four baf- 
lions \ and upon each are feven guns well mounted, 
that command the river all round : beGde, under th(: 
walls of the fort facing the fea, are two round bat- 
teries, on each of which are four lai^ cannoa wdl 
mounted, that carry ball of 24 pounds wdght, and 
between thcfe are nioc fcnall guns miountcd fiiC 

BeGde the fort, there are feveral factories up tbq 
river, fettled for the convenience of trade ; but they 
arc all under the direftion of the governor and chidf 
merchants of the fort. For this purpofe thecom- 


|Wny have here three or four floops of about 30 tons 
each, and about the fame number of long-boats ; 
Ibmc of which are conftantly employed in fetching 
provifions and water from the main for the ufe of the 
garrifon, and the reft are employed in carrying goods 
up to the fa£):ories, and bringing from them (laves, 
elephants teeth, and wax. 

Soon after my arrival, I fupped upon oyfters that 
grew upon trees : this being fomewhat remarkable, 
k may be thought worthy of an explanation. Do^yn 
the river, where the water is fait, and near the fea, 
the river is bounded with trees called Mangroves ; 
whofe leaves being long and heavy, weigh the boughs 
into the water : to tnefe leaves the young oyfters 
b&cn in great quantities, where they grow till they 
are very large, and then you cannot feparate them 
from the tree, but are obliged to cut off the boughs 
with the oyfters hanging on them, refembling ropes 
rf onions. 

On the 2 2d of February, one of the kings of Fo- 
mz came to the fort, and on his landing was faluted 
with five guns. He came to fee the governor, or 
rather to alk for fome powder and ball, in order 
to enable him to defend himfelf againft fome people 
with whom he was at war : be was a young man, 
very black, tall, and well fet; was drefled in a pair of 
Qiort yellow cotton-cloth breeches, and wore on his 
back a garment of the fame cloth, made like a fur- 
plicc : he had on his head a very Large cap, to which 
was faftened part of a goat's tail, which is a cuftomary 
ornament with the great men of this river; but he 
had no ftiocs nor ftockings. He and his retinue cahie 
in a large canoe^ holding about 16 people, all armed 
with guns and cutlaffes. With him came two or 
three women, and the fame number of Mundingo 
drums, which are about a yard long, and a foot or 
twenty inches diameter at the top, but Ids at the 
bottom ; made out of a lolid pi::ce of wood, and 
covered at il:c vvicicft end with the flcin of a kid. 

X 4 They 

312 MOORE^s TRAVELS into 

They beat upon them with the left hand^ i^igoiiljr 
one drum-llick ; and the women wUl dance veiy 
briikty to the found. They (Uid at the fort ali iugiit» 
ar.d then returned home^ having nine guns- filed at 
their going 06; 

It may be here proper to obTerve, that there am 
many diflferent kingdoms on the banks of the Gaai^ 
bia, inhabited by feveral races of people, as Mun- 
dingoes, JolloifFs, Pholeys, Floops, and Portugudi^ 
The mo(t numerous are called Mundingoes, as a 
likewiie the country they inhabit : thefe are geneiallf 
of a black colour, and well fcr. When this countiy 
was conquered by the Portuguefe, about the year 
1420, fome of that nation fettled in it, who have a^ 
habited v;ich thcfe Mundingoes, till they are nov 
very near as black as they : but as they ftill retada 
a ibrt of baflard Fortugucle language, called Citol^ 
and as they chriftcn and marry by the help of a piieft 
annually ibnc thither from St. Jago, one of the Cape 
dc Verde iQands, they flill ePitrem ihemfelves PortU- 
piicrfe Chriftians, as much as if they were ai^ualiy 
natives of Portugal -, and nothing angers them more 
than to call th^rm Negroes, that being a term they 
ufir only for flivcr. 

On the north -fiJe of the river Gambia, and from 
tln^nce in-land, arc a people called Jolloiffs, whole 
r.-Aintry extends even to the river Senegal. Thefe 
jxoplc are much blacker, and handfomer than 
thr Mundinrirccs ; for thev have not the broad nolcs 
nnd thick lips peculiar to the Mundingoes and 

I.^. every kingrlom and country on each fide of the 
river are peo])ie of a tawncy colour, called Pholeys, 
v;:.(» rcfeiribl'j the Arabs, whofe language moft of 
thi m fpeak -, for it is taught in their fchools ; and the 
koran, wl;ich is alfo their law, is in that language. 
'i'hey sre more generally learned in ihe Arabic, than 
•he people of Europe are in Latin -, for they can moft 
';: tiv.m fj^rak ir, thoi^gh they have a vulgar tongue 


the Inland Parts of A F R I C A. 313 

called Pholey. They live in hords or clans, build 
(owns, and are not fubjeft to any . of the kings of 
the country, though they live in their territories ^ for ^ 
if they are ufed ill in one nation, they break up their 
towns, and remove to another. They have chiefs of 
their own, who rule with fuch moderation, that every 
aft of government fcems rather an aft of the people 
Chan of one man. 1 his form of government is eafily 
odnuniftered, becaufe the people are of a good and 
qoiet difpofuion, and fo well inilrudted in what is 
juft and right, that a man, who does ill, is the abo- 
mination of all. 

In thefe countries the natives are not avaricious of 
lands ; they defire no more than what they ufc, and 
as they do not plough with horfes or cattle, they can 
ufe but very little. 

The natives make no bread, but thicken liquids 
with the Hour of the different grains. The maize 
they moftly ufe when green, parching it in the ear, 
when it eats like green peas. Their rice they boil in 
the fame manner as is pra6lifed by the Turks ; and 
make flour of the Guinea corn and manfaroke, as 
they alfo fometimes do of the two former fpecies, by 
beating it in wooden mortars. The natives never 
bake cakes or bread for themfelves, but thofe of 
their women who live among the Europeans learn to 
do both. 

The Pholey are the grcateft: planters in the country, 
though they arc ftrangers in it- They are very in- 
duftrious and frugal, and raife much more corn and 
cotton than they conlumc, which they fell at reafon- 
able rates -, and are fo remarkable for their hofpitality, 
that the natives efteem it a blefling to have a Pholey 
town in their neighbourhood : befide, their behaviour 
has gained them fuch reputation, that it is eft*jenicd 
infamous for any one to treat them in an inliufpiiabic 

The moft general language ufed in thefe countries 
}S the Mundingo 5 and whoever can fpeak it, may 


travel from the river's mouth up to the country of the 
Jcncocs, or the merchants ; a people fo called, from 
their annually buying a great number of flaves there, 
and bringing them down to the lower parts of the 
river, to lell them to the Europeans ; though I believe 
their country cannot be lefs than fix weeks journef 
from James's Fort, 

The next language moftly ufcd here is called the 
Creole Porcugucfe -, though I believe it would be 
fcarce underftood at Lifbon : it is, however, fijoner 
learnt by Englifhmen, than any other language ufed 
on the banks of this river, and is always fpoken by 
the linguifts or interpreters j and thefc two I learnt 
whill]; in the river. 

The x^rabic is not only fpoken by the Pholeys, but 
by mod of the Mahometans in the river, thou^ 
they arc Mundingoes ; and it is obferved, that thofc 
•who can write that language are not only very ftrift 
at their devotions three or four times a day ; but arc 
remarkably fober and abftemious in their manner of 

On the 4th of April I went to Gillyfree, which is 
a large town, a little below James's fort, inhabited 
by Portngucfc, Mundingoes, and Ibme Mahometans, 
who have here a pretty little mofque. The Englifli 
company a factory here, pleafantly fituated, 
facing th'>: fort, and alio fomc j^^ardens that fupply 
the fort wiili n:recns and fruit. 

A native here took me to his houR% and (hewed me 
a great nunibcr oi' arrows, daubed over with a black 
mixture, \:.\d to be fo venomous, that if the arrow did 
but drav/ bk)od ir would be mortal, unlefs the perfon 
v/ho made the mixture had a mind to cure it ; for 
the man obi'erved, that there were no poifonous 
herbs, vJiofj eiTects might not be prevented by the 
appli ration of otlier herbs. 

On ih:' iith, came down the river a vefTcl com- 
mmded by captain Pyke, a leparate trader, from 
Joar, loa.lco v/iih flavcs, among whom was a peribn 


the Inland Parts of AFRICA. 315 

pf an elegant figure, named Job Ben SoIomon> who 
was of the Pholey race, and fon to the high prieft oi 
Bundo, in Foota, a place about ten days journey 
Irom Gillyfree. This perfon was travelling on the 
fouth fide of the Gambia, with a fervant, and about 
20 or 30 head of cattle, which induced the king of a 
country a little within the land, to feize not only the 
cattle, but Job and his man, both of whom he fold 
for Oaves to captain Fyke. The Pholeys, his humane 
countrymen, would have redeemed him ; but they 
had the mortification to Bnd that he was carried out 
of the river before they had notice of his being a 
Ilave ; and captain Fyke failed with him to Maryland. 
Job, who was a perfon of extraordinary abilities, .and 
diftinguifhed merit, was not fo unhappy as he had 
reafon to expeft : but his adventures will be hereafter 
related, when I fhall have occafion to mention his 
return to this country. 

On the 29th, the governor and I fet out for Vintain, 
where we arrived in three hours, though it lies about 
fix leagues from James's fort. On our coming to 
the town, the Alcalde, and all the principal inha- 
bitants came to welcome us •, and foon after came the 
prince, in whofe dominions the town is fituated. 
• The inhabitants are not very curious in their fur- 
niture ; for the moft that any of them have is a fmali 
cheft for deaths, a mart raifed upon pods from the 
ground, to lie on ; a jar to hold water, a callabalh to 
drink it with ; two or three wooden mortars, in which 
they pound their corn and rice •, a bafket which they 
ufc as a fieve, and two or three large callabalhes, 
out of which they eat with their hands inftead of 
Ipoons. They are not very careful of laying up ftore 
againft a time of fcarcity -, but chufe rather to fell 
what they can, as upon occafion they can fad two or 
three days without eating; but then they are always 
fmoaking tobacco, which is of their own growth. 

Here are cameleons, and great numbers of croco- 
diles, which tlwr natives kiU and eat : they admire 

3i6 MOORE^s TRAVELS inta 

both them and their eggs, which I have frequendy 
feen them eat, when they had young ones in them 
as long as my finger. This is one of their niccft 

Whilft I was here, I faw an oftrlch, with a man 
riding upon its back, who was going down to the 
fort ; it oeing a prefent to the governor, from one of 
our fad:ors, who bought it at Fatatenda. 

Soon after my arrival at Joar, the king of Barfally 
came thither, attended by three of his brothers, above 
100 horfcmen, and as many foot ^ and though he had 
a hoLife of his own in the town, he infilled on lying 
at the fadlory. Mr. Roberts, Mr. Harrifon, who 
Avere faftors, and I, were all the Englifh there. The 
king immediately took poirefTion of Mr. Roberts's 
bed; and then having drank brandy till he vv 
drunk, ordered Mr. Roberts to be held, while he 
himfelf took out of his pocket the keys of the ftorc- 
houfe, into which he and feveral of his people went, 
and took what they pleafed : he fearched chiefly for 
brandy; of which there happened to be but one 
anchor : he took that, and having drank till he was 
dead drunk, was put to bed. This anchor laftcd 
him three days -, and it was no fooner empty, than he 
went all over the houfe to feek for more. At laft he 
entered a room, in which Mr. Harrifon lay fick, 
and feeing there a cafe that contained fix gallons and 
a half, that belonged to him and me, he ordered Mr, 
Harrifon to get out of bed and open it : he, however, 
told him with great gravity, that there was nothing 
in it but fome of the company's papers ; and that it 
muft not be opened i but the king was too well 
acquainted with liquor cafes to be fo eafily deceived; 
and therefore ordered fome of his men to hold Mr. 
Harrifon in bed, while he himfelf took the key out 
of his breeches pocket. He then opened the cheflr^ 
took out all the liquor, and was not fober while it 
laft'.'d ; but he of:ca fcnc for Mr. Harrifon and me to 
'Irink v/:rh him. At kngth it being all drank, he 


the Inland Parts of AFRICA; 317 

talked of going home; on which his people, and 
even his chief minifters, who were his general, and 
the keeper of his (lores, amufed themfelves with 
taking whatever they liked, and had the aflTurance to 
open even cheits and boxes. This we could not help, 
for what refiftance could three men make againft 200 ? 
What they took amounted to 20 1. fterling. 

Sometimes the king would ride abroad, and take 
moft of his attendants with him : but wiien he was 
gone we were plagued with the company of two of 
his brothers, who were, if poffible, worfe tTian his 
majefty. Once during his abfence, Boomey Haman 
Benda, one of thefe princes, laid hold of a mug of 
water, and pretending to drink, took a mouthful, 
and then fetting the mug on the table, fpurted the 
water in my face. Upon which, confidering that if 
I fuflfered fuch infolence to pafs unrcfented, it would 
render me liable to be continually infulted, I took 
the rennunder of the water, and threw it into his 
bfeeches. Upon this he pulled out his knife, and 
endeavoured to Ilab me, but w^s prevented by his 
favourite attendant, who held his arm, and foon aft^r 
reprelented to him the unhandfrjm:: manner in which 
he had treated me, and the provocation I had received 
to wet him. This made him To afharntd, that com- 
ing up to me, he hid himll^lf down on the iloor with- 
out his garment, took my foot, and pl.ic^d it on his 
neck, and there lay till I defired him to rife : after 
which, no man appeared more my friend, nor fliewcd 
greater wiilingnefs to oblige me. 

This king, as well as all his attendants, are of the 
Mahometan relis;ion, notwithftandintr th:ir bcincr 
fuch drunkards ; and this monller, when he is fobcr, 
even prays. His people, as well as himlelf, always 
wear white cloaths and white caps -, and as they are 
exceeding black, this drefs makes them look vtrr 

This tyrant is tall, and fo pafllonate, thar when a: y 
of his m^n affront him, he makes no lu li]. k- of Ihoo:- 


ing them ; and fometimes when he goes aboard a 
company's floop at Cohone, where he ufually refidesj 
he inhumanly Ihews his dexterity by fhooting at the 
canoes that pafs by, frequently killing one or two 
men in a day. He has many wives, but never brings 
above two or three abroad at a time with him. 
Among iiis brothers, there are fome to whom he 
feldom fpeaks, or permits to come into his coanpany; 
and when they obtain his favour, they pull oflr their 
caps and garments, and throw dud upon their heads, 
as all except white men do, who come into the king's 

The dominions of this prince are very exteniive, 
and are divided into feveral provinces, over which he 
appoints governors, called boomeys, who annually 
come to pay him homage. 

At length the king and his guards, to our great 
joy, left the faftory, in order to return to Cohone; 
but they firft ftript Mr. Roberts's chamber, and took 
away his cloachs and books, which laft they offered 
to fell to a Mahometan prieft •, but he being a friend 
to Mr. Roberts, told them, he believed they were 
books in which he kept the account of his goods, and 
that to take them away would inevitably ruin him: 
upon which they gave him leave to return them. 

However, five months after, the king of Barfally 
paid us another vifit, and ftaying about a week^ 
during which he behaved much in the iame manner as 
before, he and his attendants again left us ; but fomc 
of them firtt broke open my bureau, and took out 
things to a confiderable value; and the fame fate* 
attended Mr. Roberts : befidc which they took 2L 
great quantity of the company's goods. 

In the interval which paffed between thcfe twQ 
vifits, I had been made taftor, and had received 
orders to take charge of the factory of Joar : but I 
was unwilling to accept of this office, as that factory 
was liable to fo many infults from a drunken monarch, 
void cf every principle of jullice, and dcftitute of the 
6 feeling 

tke Inland Parts of AFRICA. 319 

ding of humanity. I therefore took an inventory 
* the goods the company had there, in January 1 7^2, 
id taking a letter to the governor from Mr. Roberts, 
ly collegue, returned to James's fort. 
hi March I returned to my fa£tory : but Mr, Hugh 
iunilton being fent up the river to fettle a fadory 

Fatatenda, I was permitted to accompany him ; 
d accordingly on the 9th of April we left Joar, 
d proceeded in a floop up the Gambia. The next 
J we arrived at Yanimarew, which is the pleafantefl: 
>it in the whole river, the country being delight- 
liy fliaded with palm and palmetto trees. The 
mpany have here a fmali houfe, with a black fa&or, 
purcbafe corn for the ufe of the fort. 
On my arrival at Nackway, the natives welcomed 
c with the mufic of the balafeu, which, at about 
K> yards diftance, founds fomething like a fmall 
gan. It is compofed of about 20 pipes of very hard 
xxl finely polimed ; which diminifli by little and 
de, both in length and breadth, and aro tied to- 
thcr by thongs of very fine leather. Thefe thon^ 
5 twifted about fmall round wands, put between 
e pipes to keep them at a difl^nce ; and underneath 
c pipes are fattened 12 or 14 callabafties of different 
«s. This inftrument they, play upon with two 
cks, covered with a thin (kin taken from the trunk 

the palmetto tree, or with fine leather, to make 
e found lefs harfii. Both men and women dance to 
is mufic, which they much admire, and are highly 
lighted to have a white man dance with them. 
Having finifhed my bufinefs here, I returned to 
unyamacunda ; and having continued there about 
rec months, proceeded ftill farther up the river to 
itatenda. The Gambia is there as wide as tlie 
hames at London-Bridge, and feemed very deep ; 
2t what is moft extraordinary, the tide in the ciry 
ifon rifcs three or four feet, thoi^gli that place 13 
)0 miles from the river's mouth. 


i:'»o MOOilE*s TRAVELS into 

On the 2oth of November in the evening wast 
total eclipfe of the moon ; and the Mundingoes told 
me, the darknefs was occafioned by a cat's puttmg 
her paw between die moon and the earth. The Mir 
hometans in this country were fingine and dandng 
the whole time, becaufe they expert tnieir prophet to 
come in an eclipfe. 

I ftayed at Yamyamacunda, till the £th of fAj^ 
1734; and was employed in the company's finrioe 
in different parts of the river till the 13th of July Al- 
lowing, when I was defired to come down to JamcA 
Fort : I was there on the 8th of Augufl, when &lt 
Dolphin fnow arrived, with four writers, and Tbb 
Ben Solomon, on board. We have already mentuSii- 
ed his being robbed and carried to Joar, whtrt hi 
Was fold to captain Pyke, by whom he was carricd'Oi 
Maryland. Job was there fold to a planter, liiA 
whom he had lived about a twelvemonth, in all wNtt 
time he had the happinefs not to be flruck by fii 
mafter, and had then the good fonune to have a lettef 
of his own writing in the Arabic tongue conveyed to 
England. This Tetter coming to the hand of Mr. 
Oglcthorp, he fent it to Oxford to be tranflateds 
which being done, it gave him fuch fatisfaftion, and 
infpired him with fo good an opinion of the author, 
thnt he immediately Tent orders to have him bou^t 
of his mafter. This happened a little before that 
gentleman's fetting out for Georgia 5 and before his 
return from thence. Job arrived in Kngland -, where 
being brought to the acquaintance of Sir Hans Sloandi 
he was found to be a perfeft mafter of the Arabic 
tongue, by his tranflating feveral manufcripts and in- 
fcriptions on medals. Thar learned antiquary recom- 
mended him to the duke of Montague, who bemg 
pleafed with his genius and capacity, the agreeabie- 
nefs of his behaviour, and the fwcecnefs of his tem- 
per, introduced him to court j where he was gracioufly 
received by the royal family and moft of the nobilitf, 


the Inland Parts of A F* R I C A: 321 

who honoured him with many marks of I'.ivour, 1 he 
African conipany and the chief merchants of the city 
flrove who fliould ofccncft invirc him to their tables. 
His good fenfe engaged their elteem ; he freely dif- 
courfed on every fubjeft, and attended the churches 
of the moft celebrated divines. When he had been 
in England about 14 months, his ardent defire to fee 
his native country made him prefs for his departure. 
He had wrote from England to the high pried his 
father, and earnedly longed to fee him. Upon his 
letting ouc from England, he received many noble 

Srcients from queen Caroline, prince William, the 
uke of Montague, and the carl of Pembroke, fcveral 
ladies of quality, Mr. Holdcn, and the royal African 
company; and the latter ' ordered all their agents to 
ihew him the greateft refped):. 

On his arrival at James*s Fort, Job defired that I 
would fend a melTenger to his country to let his 
fiiends know where he was. I fpoke to one of tlie 
blacks whom he ufually employed, to procure me 
a meflenger, and he brought me a Pholey, who not 
only knew the high prieft his f ither, but Job himfclf, 
and cxpreffed great joy at feeing him fafely rc-turncd 
from flavery, he being the o:dy mun, except one, 
ever known to come back to his country, after being 
once carried a flave out of it by white men. Job gave 
him the mcflage himfelf, and delired that his father 
would not come down to him, obferving that it was 
too far for him to travel ; and that it was fie the youni; 
fliould go 10 the old, and not for the old ro com;i to 
the young. lie alfo fent fomc prcfcnts to his wives ; 
and dcGred the man to bring his little one, who was 
his bcft beloved, down with him. 

Job having a mind to go up to Joar, ro tali: with 
ibmeof his countrymen, went along wjih me. We 
arrived at the crcrk of Danval'mlli i an;l having ibrric 
old acquaintances at the town of iluxt nam ;, JoLi and 
I went in the ynw! : in the \\\\y \^o\i\i uj) -i n.uiov/ 
place for aboDt Iialf .1 mile, v/c iav; levoral nrjukrvs 
VoM VI. Y of 


of a beautiful blue and red, which the natives tdd 
mc never fet their feet on the ground, but live en- 
tirely among the trees, leaping from one to another, 
at fuch gredt diftances, as would appear improbahk 
to any but an eye-witncfs. 

In the evening as my friend Job and I were fitting 
under a great tree at Damafenfa, there came fix or 
feven of the very people, who, three years bcfbre»had 
robbed and made a flave of him, at about go imla 
diftance from that place." Job, though nacu^l^pof- 
fefled of a very even temper, could not contaio hiin* 
fclf on feeing them : he was filled with rage and in- 
dignation, and was for attacking them with his broad 
fword and piftols, which he always took care to have 
about him. I had much ado to dilTuade him from 
rulhing upon them : but at length reprcfenting the 
ill confequences that would infallibly attend {b raft 
an adtion, and the impofljbility that either of lis 
Ihould efcapc alive, I made him lay afidc the attempt, 
and perfiiading him to fit down, and pretending doc 
to know them, to afk them queftions about himfelf; 
which he accordingly did-, and they told him tbe 
truth. At lart he enquired how the king their maftcr 
kV.d ? they replied, that he was dead ; and by farther 
inquiry v;c found that amongll the goods for which 
he Ibid Job to captain Pyke there was a piftoJ, which 
the king ufed commonly to wear flung by a ftring 
nbout his neck ; and as they never carry arms without 
thtir being loaded, the piftol one day accidentally 
went off, and the balls lodging in his throat, he pre- 
f ntly died. Job was fo tranfported at the clofe of 
ih;s ilory, that he immediately fell on his knees, and 
rcrurnfd ihanks to Mahomet for making him die by 
the very i:<K)ds fvjr which he fold him into flavcry. 
't licn returning to mc, he cried, " You feet now, Mr. 
Moore, that God Almighty was difplcalcd at this*s; making me a flave, and therefore? made him 
ciie by the very piitol for whiih he f(»ld me: yet I 
(fViiht to lor-Mvc him, b.ciiui'c had not I been fold, 

I ihouid 

thi Inland Parts of AFRICA. 



I fhould neither have known any thing of the Englifli 
tongue, nor have had any of the fine, ufeful, and 
valuable things, I have brought with me; nor have 
known that there is fuch a place in the world as Eng- 
land ; nor fuch noble, good, and generous people as 
quei^ Garoline, prince William, the duke of Mon- 
tagufj the carl of Pembroke, Mr. Holden, Mr. 
Oglethorpe, and the royal African company.** 

iVfter this Job went frequently with me to Cower, 
and'' feveral other places about the country. He al- 
ways (poke very handlbmely of the Englifh; and 
whdt helaid removed much of that horror the Pho- 
tefs felt for the flate of flavery amongft them. For 
Airy before generally imagined, that all who were 
Md for flaves, were at Icall murdered, if not eaten, 
ttnce none ever returned. His delcriptions alfo gave 
dicm an high opinion of the power of England, and a 
veneration for the Englilh, who traded amongll them. 
ft fokl fome of the prcfcnts he brought with him for 
trading goods, with which he bought a woman fhve, 
aid two horfes, which hcdefigned to take with him 
to fiundo. He gave his councryn;cn a good deal of 
writing paper, a very valuable commodity ainonglt 
tkem, for the company had made him a prcfcnt of 
fcveral reams. He ufed frequently to pray ; and he 
behaved with great affability and mildnds to all, which 
rendered him extreamly popular. 

The mefTenger not returning lb foon as was expec^- 

d, Job defircd to go down to James's Fort, to take 

tilt of his goods; and I promif.d not only to firnj 

Aim word >\hen the mclPjno;cr came back, but to 

fend other mcflcngcrs, for fear the iirft Ihojld have 


At lenGjth the mcflcno-cr returned with r;vcral let- 

f ters, and advire rhat Job's tathcr dc'.:d •, but hid 

litcdto receive the letters his Ion had iVnc him fron 

England, which gave him the lu-ws of J-.i, 

'being redeemed trom flavery, r;nd an c1C';'.jj:i: of ihc 

ffigurc he made in EngUnvl : that onj of job'> wives 

Y 2 \;jLi 


was married to another man ; but that as ibon as tM 
new hufband had heard of his return, he thought 16 
advifeable co abfcond ; and that fince Job's abfenoe 
from his native country, there had been fuch a dread- 
ful war, that the Phdieys there had not one cow kfi, 
though before Job's departure his countrymen were 
famed for their numerous herds. With this meflcih 
ger came many of Job's old friends, whom he wai^ 
exceeding glad to fee ; but nocwichftanding the joy 
their prelcnce gave him, he (h^d abundance of teais 
for the lofs of his father, and the misfortunes of hit 
country. He forgave his wife, and the man who hwt 
taken her ; *' For Mr. Moore, faid he, Ihc could aochcip 
thinking I v/as deed -, for I gone to a land fnxri 
whence no Pboley ever yet returned-, therefore no^ 
ther Ihe nor the man is to be blamed." During thMi 
or four days he convcrfed v;ith his* friends withoilt 
any interruption except to deep or eat. 

As I have brought this account almoft to the tioifc 
of my lea. Ing this countr)', it will be neceflary to give 
a more particular defcription of it, with refpeft to the 
c!im;ue, the general culloms of the natives, and'the 
trade carried on there. 

As the mouth of the Gambia lies in the latitude of 
1 2''^ lo north, and in 15* 20' weft longitude, there 
is no wonder that the climate is cxceflfive hot ; boc 
the grrateit hc^ts arc generally about the latter end 
of ?viay, a fortnight or three weeks before the rainy 
Icafon begins. The fun is perpendicular twice in lli 
year, and the days are never longer from fun-rifingiD 
iun-fet than 13 hours nor ever (horter than ii. 
AVhat at firll feenied to me ftrange, was that as foon 
as it grew ligh% the ilin arofe, and it no (boner fee 
than it i/rcw dark. 

The lainy leaioii commonly begins with the month 
of June, aiid continues till the latter end of Septcm- 
b^-r, or the beoinnini; of Oftobcr. The wind comes 
firll, and blows cxceilive hard, for the fpaceofhilf 
a]i hour or more, before any rain falls, fo that a veffil 
I may 

the Inland Parts of A F R.I G A. 325 

nay be fuddenly furprifcd and overfct by it : a perfon 
may however perceive the figns of its coming ; for 
the clouJs grow very black, and the lightenings 
darting from them, have an awful appearance. Both 
the thunder and the lightening are exceeding dread- 
Ail ; the flafhes fucceeding each other fo iwiftly, as to 
lender it continually light, while the thunder at the 
iaine time (hakes the very ground. During the rain 
tbe air is generally coul : but the Piower is no fooner 
over, than the fun breaks out exceflive hoc, which 
induces fome people to ca(t off rheir cloaths, and lie 
4&wn lOfl^ep-, but before they are awake, another 
tornado perhaps conies, when the cold flrikes into 
#ieiF very bones, and gives them fits of illnefs, which 
to the Europeans are very fatal. During the rainy 
fcafon the lea breezes feiJoni blow ; but inllead of 
them, caftcrly w:n:is, which in the months of Novem- 
ber» December, January, and February, generally 
blow very frelh, and fometimes the evenings and 
iDornings are exceeding cold, and the middle of the 
4ay very hoc 

Four months in the year are unhealthful, and very 
tedious to thofe who come from a colder climate ; but 
ft perpetual fpring, in which you commonly Ae ripe 
fruit and bloffoms on the fame tree, makes fome 
amends for that inconvenience. Befide, the heat of 
the air is frequently moderated by pleafant and refredi- 
ing breezes. 

The Gambia is of fuch a length as to be navigible 
for Doops above 600 miles, the tides reaching fo far 
from its mouth. The land on each rAc of this great 
and fine river is for the moft part fla: i*:id woody about 
a quarter of a mile beyond its banks : and within that 
(pace are pleafant open grounds, on whicli the natives 
plant rice ; and in the dry feafon it ferves the cattle 
for pafture. Thus within land it is generally vrry 
woody 5 but near the towns there is always a large 
fpot of ground cleared for corn. Near the fea no 
bills are to be fcen^ but high up the river are lofty 

Y 3 ixvovLV^Uv^'^* 


mountains. Thcfe are chiefly cdmpolcd of ' mm % 
fl^onc, and though they are iemptiinca Ikdetlfe boK% 
continued hard rock, chey arefuUQf:tnca,?w^ftMc 
greatly to beautify (he ffce pf.thp qraotrji. - :L»i:.\ 

In every kingdom there ai« feviiral peifbni>cilhi*: 
Iprds of the . foU, who have the prqpeity of ^aO ihs 
palm and palmeao tires, fo diac none are aUowedtt 
draw any wine JFrpm them^ without their Jmowh^gji: 
and confcnt. Thofe whq qbcain leave to diurw^ 
eivc two days produce in a week, to the lordjof w 
toil ; and white men are obliged to make a fiiiatt|iMji; 
{ent to them, before they cut palmetto leaver; or gptfy 
to cover their houfes. ' ' . - . -• r 

The palm is a fine ftraight tree that grows 10a fktp 
djgious height, and out ot-ic the natives exQOift^iW 
of white liquor like ^hey, called palm wine% br. 
making an incifion on the top of the trunk, to iMck 
they apply gourd bottles, and into thefe the Uqpsr: 
runs by mean$ of a pipe made of leaves. This 
is very pleafant as foon as it is drawn, it being 
ordinary fweet ; but is apt to purge very much : hath^ 
ever, in a day or two it ferments, and grows tough 
and flrong like Rhenifh wine; when not being at ill 
prejudicial to the health, it is plentifully drank liy 
the negroes* Jt is very furpriOng tp fee how aimUy 
the natives will go up thele trees, which are Jomfr- 
times 60, 70, or 100 feet high, and the bark finooch.' 
They have nothing to help them to climb, buta|»cn 
of the bark of a tree made round like a hoop, widi 
which they enclofe themfelves and the tree ; then fisi^ 
ipg it under their arms, they fet their fecc i^ainft the 
tree, and their backs againll the hoop, and go ^ 
very fad: but fometimes they mifs their footing ; m 
the bark on which they refl breaks or fromes untied| 
when falling down, they }ofe their live?- . - "■■ ■ 

The people here, as in all other hot countries, 
marry their daughtcis very young » even fomc mtt 
contracted as foon as they are born, and the parents. 
can never after break die match ^ but it is in ihc 


the Inland Parts of A F R I C A, 327 

powrr of the man never to come and claim his wife ; 
and yet without his confent (he cannot marry another. 
Before a man takes his wife, he is obliged to pay her 
|iarcncs two cows, two iron bars, and 200 cola, a fruir 
that grows a great way wirhin land : it is an exceeding 
mod. bitter, and much refcmbks a horfe-chelhut with 
oe ikin off. 

. -When a man takes home his wife, he makes a fead 

at his.own houfe, to which all who pleafe come wi(h« 

out the form of an invitation. The bride is brought 

tUcfacr apon mens {boulders, wich a veil over her 

hce^ which (he keeps on till fhe has been in bed with 

facarhuflund, during which the people dance and Ting, 

beat drums, and (ire mulkecs. 

.After the wife is brought to bed, (he is not to lie 

widi her hufband for three >ears, it the child lives ib 

kng; for during that term the child fucks, and they 

lit firmly perfuaded that lying with their hufbands 

mmld fpoil their milk, and render the child liable to 

many difeafes. The v/o:nen alone arc Uibject to all 

the mortifications attendinsr lb ]owy an abtlinciice ■, 

for every man is allowed to take as many wives as he 

pleafes: but if the wife is found fali'e to her hulband, 

ihc is liable to be fold for a flave. Upon any diflike, 

a man may turn off his wife, and make her take all 

her children with her; but if he has a mind to take 

ipjrof them himfelf, he generally ehufes fuch as arc 

big enough to aflllt him in providing for his famil/. 

He has even the liberty of coming Icvcnil years after 

they have parted, and taking from her any of the 

; children he had by her. But if a man is difpofed to 

\ part with a wife who is pregnant, he cannot oblige her 

; U) go till fhe is delivered. 

. The women are kept in the greatefl fubjeftion ; 

and the men, to render their power as compleat as 

poflTible, influence thrir wives to give them an un- 

liuiccd obedience, by all the force of fear and terror. 

, For, this purpofe the Mundingoes have a kind of 

ioiase eight or nine feet hi^ii, made of the bark of 

1 4 U^^^.^ 

328 MOORH/s TRAVELS into 

trees, dreflcd in a long coat, and crowned with a whifp 
of ftraw. This is called a Mumbo Jumbo ; and 
whenever the men have any difputc with the women, 
this is fcnt for to determine the conccft, which is al- 
moft always done in favour of the men. One who is 
in the fccret, conceals himfelf under the coat, and 
bringing in the image, is the oracle on thcfc occafions, 
No one i% allowed to come armed into his prefencc. 
When the women hear him coirving, they run away 
and hide themfelves \ but if you are acquainted with 
the perfon concealed in the Mumbo Jumbo, he will 
fend for them all to come, make them fit down, and 
afterward either fing or dance, as he pleafes; and if 
any refufc to come, he will fend for, and whip them. 
Whenever any one cnrers into this fociety, they fwcar 
in the mofl: folemn manner never to divulge the fccret 
to any woman, or to any peribn that is not entered 
into it : and to prefcrve the fecrct inviolable, no bms 
are admitted under i6 years of age. The people allb 
fwear by the Mumbo Jumbo ; and the oarh is efteenv 
ed irrevocable. There are very lew towns of any 
note that have not one of thefe oojeds of terror, to 
frighten the poor'won^en into obedienkX. 

About the year 17-'. 7, the king of Jagra having 
a very inquifitivc woman to his wife, was ib w*eak a« 
to difclofe to her this fecrec ; and Ihe being a goffip, 
revealed it to feme other women of her acquaintance. 
This at laft cominn; to the ears of Ibme who were no 
friends to the king, they, dreading lelt if the affair 
took vent, it (houki put a period to the fubjection 
of their wives, took the coat, put a man into it, 
and going to che king's town, fent for him out, and 
taxed him with it : when he not denying it, they fcnt 
for his wife, and killed them both on the fpot. Thu« 
the poor king died for his complaifance to his wii'r, 
and Ihe for her curiofity. 

The women pay fuch- refpeft to their hulbands, that 
when a man has been a day or two from home his 


the Inland Farts of AFRICA. 529 

wives falute him on chcir knees ^ and in the fame pof* 
cure thev always mve him water to drink. 

When achiij is nc// born thev dip him overhead 
and ear*, in cold w:uer three or four times in a day ; 
and as Tood as ne is dry, rub him over with palm oil, 
particulirly the ba:k-bone, the fmall of the back, th^ 
elbov/s, neck, knees, and hips. When they are bora 
^hcy arc of an olive colour, and fomctimes do not cum 
black till they arc a month or two old. 
- 1 do not find chat diey are here born with flat noies ; 
but the motiiers, when they wa(h the children, prels 
down the upper part of the nofe : for large breafls, 
chick lips, and broad r.oflrils, are efteemed ex- 
treamly beautiful. One bread is generally larger tbaa 
che other. 

About a month afterward they name the child, 
which is done by (having its h^ad, and rubbing ic 
over with oil -, and a (hurt ti.Tie before the rainy lea- 
fen begins, they circunicifc a grcac number of boys, 
of about 12 or 14 years cf aj^i*. after which the boys 
put on a peculiar habic ; the d.efs of each kingdom 
being different. From che limc of their circumcifion 
to that of the rains, they a'c allowed to commit what 
outrages they pledt'e, without being called to an ac- 
count tor them ; and when the iird rain falls, the 
term of this liccniioufncU being expired, they put on 
their proper lubit. 

The people are naturally very jocofe and merry, 
and Will danvc to a drum or ballatcu, lometimes 24 
hours together, now and tlicn dancing very regu- 
larly, and at other times iifing very odd gcftures, 
ftriving always to outdo each otlier in nimblenefs and 

The behaviour of the natives to ftrangcrs is really 
not fo difagree^ble as people are apt to imagine ; for 
when I went through any of their towns, they almoft 
all came to (hake hands with me, except fome of the 
von^en, who having never before feea a white man, 



ran away from me as fail as they could, and would not 
by any nieans be perfuaded to come near me. Some 
of the men invited me to their hou/es, and brought 
their wives and daughters to fee me ; who then fat 
down by me, and always found (bmething to wonder 
at and admire, as my boots, fpurs, doaths, or wig. 

Some of the Mundingoes have many (laves in meic 
houfes ; and in thefe mey pride themfclves. They 
live fo well and eafUy, that it is fometimes difficult 
to know the flaves from their mailers and mif* 
treffes •, they being frequently better cloathed, cfpc- 
cially the females, who have fometimes coral» amber, 
and filver, about their wrills, to the value of 20 or 
30 1. fterling. 

In almoft ev^ry town they have a kind of drum of 
a very large fize, called a tangtong, which they only 
beat at the approach of an enemy, or on Ibmc very ex- 
traordinary occalion, to call the inhabitants of the 
neighbouring towns to their afllftance ; and this in the 
nishc-iirne niav be heard fix orfeven miles. 

There was a cuftooi in this country which is not 
thoroughly repealed, thatwhatever commodity a man 
fells in I he morning, he may, if he repents his bar- 
gain, go and have it returned to him again, on his 
paving back the money any time before the fctting 
of the fun the fame day. This cuftom is ftill in force 
very high up the river j but below it is pretty well 
worn out. 

Whenever any faftories are fettled, it is cuftomary 
to put them, and the perlbns belonging to them, un- 
der the charge of the people of the neareft large 
town, who are obliged tv> take care of it, and to lee 
none impofe upon the white men, or uie them ill; 
and if any body is abufed, he mull apply to the 
alcalde, the he^.d man of the town, who will fee that 
juflicc is done him. Tl/is man is, up the river, call- 
ed the white man's king •, and has befide very great 
power. Almoft every town has two common fields, 


the Inland Parts of AFRICA. 931 


«oe for dieir corn and the other for their rice» and 
)k appoints the labour of the people: he fees chat the 
men work in the corn fields, and the women and girU 
ji the rice grounds, and afterward divides the crop 
among theno. He likewifc decides all quarrels, and 
Ibb the firft voice in all conferences relating to any 
tlung belonging to the town. 

The trade of the natives confiils in gold, flaves, 
dephants teeth, and bees-wax. The gold is finer 
tbah flerling, and is brought in fmall bars, big in the 
middle, and turned round into rings, from i o to 40 s. 
each. The merchants who bring this, and other in- 
land commodities, are blacks of the Mundingo race, 
f called Joncoes, who fay, that the gold is not wafhcd 
out of the fand, but dug out of mines in the moun- 
tsins^ the neareft of which is 20 days journey up the 
river. In the country where the mines are, they lay 
there arc houfes built with flone, and covered with 
terrafs; and that the ihort cutlafTes and knives of 
good fteel, which they bring with them, are made 

The fame merchants bring down elephants teetli, 

and in fome years flaves to the amount of 2000, moft 

of whom they fay arc prilbners of war; and bought 

of the different princes by whom they are taken. The 

way of bringing them is, by tying them by the neck 

with leather thongs, at about a yard diftance from 

each other, 50 or 40 in a Itring, having generally a 

bundle of corn, or an elephant's tooth upon each of 

their heads. In tlieir way from the mountains they 

travel through extenfivc woods, where they cannot 

for fome days get water; they therefore carry in fkin 

bags enough to fupport them for that time. I cannot 

be certain of the number of merchants wlio carry on 

ihistrade; but there may perhaps be about ico who 

go up into the inland country with the gooils, which 

ihcy buy from the white men, and wiJi tht m pur- 

fhde, in various countries, gold, flaves, and.cie;: Hants 




teeth. They ufe afles, as well as flaves^ in carrying 
their goods, but no camels nor horfes. 

Befide the flaves brought down by the negro mer- 
chants, there are many bought along the river, who 
are either taken in war like the former, or condemned 
for crimes, or (lolen by the p' ople : but the com- 
pany's fervants never buy any which they fulped to 
be of the laft fort, till they have fent for the alcalde, 
and confulted with him. Since this flave trade has 
beenufed, all punilhments are changed into flaverys 
and the natives reaping advantage from fuch condexn- 
nations, they drain hard for crimes, in o dcr to obtain 
the benefit of felling the criminal : hence not only 
murder, adultery, and thtfr, arc here punifhed by 
felling the malefaftor; but every trifling crime isaUb 
puniihtd in the lame manner. Thus at Cantore, a 
man feeing a tyger eating a deer, which he himfelf 
had killed and hung up near his houfe, fired at the 
tyger, but unhappily (hot a man : when the king had 
not only the cruelty to condemn him for this acci- 
dent -, but had the injuftice and inhumanity to onier 
aifo his mother, his three brothers, and his thrtc 
fiflers, to be fold. They were brpught down to roc 
a: Yamyamacunda, when it made my heart ache o 
fee them ; but on my refufing to make this cruel pur- 
chafe, they were fent farther down the river, and 
fold to feme feparate traders at Jcar, and the vile ava- 
ricious king had the benefit of the goods for which 
they were fold. 

Indeed the cruelty and villainy of fome of thefc 
princes can fcarccly be conceived. Thus, whenever 
the king of Barfally, fomeofwhofe villanies I have 
already mentioned, wants goods or brandy, he fends 
to the governor of James*s Fort, to defire him to fend 
a floop there witli a proper cargo -, which is readily 
complied with. Mean while, the king goes and 
ranfacks fome of his enemies towns, and feizing the 
innocent people, fells them to die fa&ors in the (k)op, 


the Inland Parts of AFRICA; g^^ 

fimr fuch conunodities as he wants, as brandy, ruhi, 
guns, gunpowder, ball, piftols, and cutlaflcs, for his 
attendants and foldiers, «wich coral and filver for his 
wives and concubines : but in cafe he is not at war 
with any neighbouring king, he then falls upon one 
of his own towns, which are very numerous, and ufcs 
them in the fame manner, felling thoic for flaves, 
wfaoni he is bound by every obligation to protect. 

Several of the natives of thefe countries have many 
flaves born in their families. Thus there is a whole 
village near Brucoe of 2co people, who are the wives, 
flaves, and children of one man. And though ia 
finne parts of Africa they fell the flaves born in the 
fiunily^ yet this is here thought extreamly wicked ; 
and I never heard but of one perfon who ever fold a 
£unily flave, except for fuch crimes as would have 
authorifed its being done, had he been free. Indeed* 
if there are many flaves in the fimily, and one of 
dieoi commits a crime, the mafter cannot fell him 
without the joint confent of the reft : for if he does, 
they will all run away to the next kingdom,, where 
they will find protedtion. 

Ivory, or elephants teeth, is the next principal 
article of commerce. Thefe are obtained either by 
hunting and killing the beads, or are picked up in 
the woods. This is a trade ufed by all the nations 
hereabouts ; for whoever kills an elephant, has the 
liberty of felling him and his teeth. But thoie traded 
for in this river are generally brought from a good 
way within land. The largeft tooth I ever faw weighed 
J 30 pounds. 

The fourth branch of trade confifts in bees-wax- 
The Mundingoes make beehives of draw fliaped like 
ours, and fixing to each a bottom board, in which 
is a hole, for the bees to go in and out, hang them 
on the boughs of fees. They fmother the bees in 
order to take the combs, and prefl[ing out the honey, 
of which they make a kind of mcthegiui; boil up the 


134 KlOORE's TRAVELS^ iaH , 

wax with watery ftrain it, ami ptefi it through hat 
cloths into holes made in the ground. 

At lengthy on the 8th of April i735» having de* 
iivered up the company's efiefb to Mr. James Conneri 
I embarked on board the company's (loop. AmoM 
other perfons, Job came down with me to the floop, and 
parted with me with tears in hb eyes ; at the fame 
time giving me letters to the duke of Montaeue, tht 
royal African company, Mn Oglethorpe, and fevetal 
other gentlemen in England, telling me to give his 
love and duty to them, and to acquaint them, that 
as he defigned to learn to write the Englilh tooguc^ 
he would, when he was mafter of it, fend them longer 
cpiftles. He dcfired me, that as 1 had lived with Um 
almoft ever fince he came there, I .would let his grace 
and the other gentlemen know what he had done} 
and that he was going to the gum forefl, and would 
endeavour to produce fo good an underftanding be-^ 
tween the company and the Pholeys, that he did aot 
doubt but that the £ngli(h would procure the gum 
trade : adding, that he would fpend hb days in en- 
deavouring to do good to the EnglKh, by whom he 
had been redeemed from flavery, and from whom be 
had received innumerable favours. 

Soon after he returned on Ihore, while I failed tt> 
England ; and at length, on the 1 3th of July, landed 
at Deal. 

[335 I 



' THE 


O F 



1 : PERSIA. 


IT may not be amifs to obferve, by way of preface, 
that the author of thefe travels was a gentleman 
of a good family in France, and of a liberal educa- 
tion. He applied himfelf to commerce very early, 
' aid profecuted with great fuccefs the mod coniider- 
able branch of foreign trade, that of dealing as a 
merchant in jewels, which he underftood perfectly, 
and by which he acquired, with an un'.pocced cha- 
ncer, a very large and affluent fortune. He made 
fcvcral excurfions into the Eaft, by.difierent roads; 
ind refided feveral years in Perfia ; had very great 
and uncommon opportunities of entring deeply into 
the fubjefts of which he has treated, and digcftcd his 
accounts with great accuracy and pcrfpicu.ty : To that 
they have been cfteemcd not only here, but in France, 
and throughout pAirope in general, as the moft perfcft 
in their kind that have hitherto appeared. 

This gentleman, when the periecution aguind t!ie 
Proreftancs broke out in France, came over iiitiicr, 
and brought with him great riches. He v/as received 
with much relpcft at court ; and king Charles II as 
a mark of his favour, bellowed upon him in 1683, 
the honour of knighthood. He publ Ihed tnc fint 


335 CHARDIN's- TRAVELS through 1 

edition of his travels in our language^ ia a higefifid I 
volume; but they have been fince feveral dmel I 
printed with many correfbions, great improvemencsi I 
and conjliderable augmentations in French. He con- I 
tinued to refide here, and purchafed a confidenbk I 
eftate ; fo that in the reign of queen Anne, we find I 
him frequently mentioned by fuch as took occafiofl I 
to (hew how much the weahh of England was im- 1 
proved, and its trade increafed, by encouraging h^ i 
reigners of the Proteftant religion, to come and fodcl 
amongft us. Sir John died at a good old ag^, in 1 
1712. He left behind him two fons, and fcrcnl ' 
daughters. ^ 

I left Paris, fays Sir John, on the 17th of Aunt 1] 
1 67 1, to return to Perfla, where the late king had bf 
letters patent made me his merchant, and ordered me 
to procure many jewels of value, his majefty having 
drawn with his own hand, the models by which he 
would have them fcr. Mr. Raifm, a gentleman of 
great integrity, who had been my companion in my 
former travels, engaged again in this trade. "We 
fpent 14 months in the richcft countries of Europe, 
in fearch of the largeft Hones, and the fineft wrou^t 
corals. We caufed to be made the richeft goldfmith's 
work, watches, and curious clocks ^ and befide, took 
with us 12,000 ducats in gcJd. 

We travelled by die way of Milan, Venice, and 
Florence ; and arriving at Leghorn, embarked in t 
(hip under a Dutch convoj', and failed to Smyrna; 
which we reached on the 2d of March 1672, and 
12 days after arrived at Conftantinople. In this city 
we remained four months: but in the mean while 
there happening a quarrel between the grand vizier 
and the French ambaffador, a report was fpread, thai 
the former intended to arreft, not only the anr.bafladoTf 
but all of the French nation in that city -, when being 
afraid that our goods, which were very rich, wauM 
be feized, we endeavoured by all poGible means to 
leave Conftaotinopie, and to proceed on our journey 




^crHa. The caravans in thofe hoc months did 
travel ; but chc porce being about to fend a new 
.mander with foldicrs, and the annual fupply of 
icy to the fort of Azoph, on the lake Mceotis, 
obtained a paflage in a Turkifh f?.ick belonging 
b^ fleet; and on the 27th of July embarked at a 
tin the Thracian Bofphorus. 
hi the 3d of Auguft in the morning, we arrive^ 
L^affa, a port in the Tauricus Cherlbncfus, a pc« 
bla {o called, from its being Brft inhabited by the 
chians of mount Taurus. It is 35 leagues from 
h to fouth, and g^ from eaft to weft. But the 
nus that joins it to the continent is not above a 
.ue in breadth. It is inhabited by the Crim 
tars, who dwell in cities and towns, while their 
;hbours the Nogays and Calmucs, dwell in tenis, 
lie reft do on the continent. 
rom Caffa to the ftreights that open into the lake 
xitis is 120 miles. The country on both fides is 
e£t to the Turks, and thinly inhabited by the 
tars, almoft all the coaft being defarr. From the 
ght to Mingrella is reckoned 600 miles along the 
c, which confifts of pleal'ant woods, thinly inha- 
d by the Circafilan Tartars, who are neither fub- 
nor tributary to the porte. The vcfiels that come 
1 Conftantinopic to Klir.grcHa trade with this peo- 
but do it with their arms in their hands, and by 
ages; for they arc remarkable for their infidelity 
perfidioulhefs, and feldom fail to (leal wherever 
' find an opportunity. The trade with them is 
led on by exchange •, the Circalfians bringing down 
cs of all ages and fexcs, honey, w.ix, leather^ 
:als, and the iliins of fome bealls, for fuch com* 
iities as they want. 

)ircaflia is a plcafant and fertile country that pro- 
es great pltnty of all forts of fruit wltl.out labour, 
apples, pears, cherries, ap.d walnuts > but the 
if wealth of the inh?.bitan:s confifts in cattle, as 
rp, whofe wool is as fine as chat of Spain, deer, 
^OL. VI. Z ^o^vs, 

338 CHARDIN's TRAVELS through 

goats, and wcU-ftiapcd horfes, fo fwxfc and ftron^' 
that they will tire wild beads, and overtake them io 
the chafe. They fow no grain but millet for thdr 
bread, and barley for their horfes, and their women 
till and manure the ground. Their drink is water 
and boza, which is a hquor made of millet, as intori- 
cating as wine. 1 hey live in wooden huts, and go 
almoft naked. Their beds are made of (hcep-fkins 
fewed together, and fluffed with millet leaves beaten 
in the thra(hing as fmall as oat chaiF. They were 
formerly Chriftians : but are now of no religion, except 
obferving fome fuperftitious ceremonies borrowed 
from the Chriftians and Mahometans; and they are 
all fworn enemies to thofe who. live in the provinces 
round aboi:t them. 

1 he Abcas border upon the Circaflians, and pof 
fcfs about lOo miles on the coail between MingrcUa 
and CircafTja. They are not fo favage as the Great 
fiar^s; but are as much inclined to robbery. They, 
like their neighbours, arc In want of all the convc- 
niencics of lile, i nd liave nothino; to exchange for 
them but huiinm creatures, furs, the fkins of deer 
ar.d rygers, box- v. cod, wnx, and honey. 

T!ie inh.birants of Caucafus who border upon 
Colchis ar-j the Alancs, Suancs, Gigues, Caracioles 
or Cara-clierks, that is, Black CircafTians, fo called 
by the Turks, not from their complexion, for they 
' are ellcemed the fail eft people upon the earth; but 
from their country, which is always darkened with 
clouds and for};'?. '1 hey were anciently Chriftians, but 
now live hy robbery and r.ipInL% lin'.l profefs no reli- 
gion, having liiilc bcfide Ipcccii tLaC can intitic them 
to humanity. 

Mount Caucafus proJucCi a great number of wild 
bcafts, as lions, iy.icrs, ieopanis, jaLkab, ard 
wolves-, wlilch laft make L-^rc:it havork amonsift their 
Cattle and hodl-s, and i'tcqUv.-ntly diilur-") the ir.iia- 
bitants in their houfes wiih t'u-ir d ciJful howi'ng>. 
They have great numbers of very g.:od h^^rics, almtr J 


V. • 


every man keeping fever.d of them ; for they coft 
fittlc or nothing, as they neither fhoe them nor feed 
them with corn. They have no cities nor towns, 
except two by the fea fide ; but their hoiifes arc lb 
fcattcrcd up the country, that you can hardly travel 
a mile, without feeing three or four of them. There 
arc nine or ten caftlcs in the countr}% the chief of 
which where the prince keeps his court, is called 
Rues, This caftle has a ftone wall ; but it is fo fmall, 
and fo ill built, that it might be battered down by 
the leaft piece of artillery : it has, however, fomc 
Cannon, which the other caftlcs have not. They are 
made in the followino: manner : in the midft of a 
thick wood the people build a ftone tower 30 or 40 
fcct high, capable of containing 5,0 or 60 perfons. 
This tower is the place of ftrengch, where they Ihut 
up all the riches or the lord, and oF thofe wlio put 
ihcmfelves under his protection. Near this tower 
are five or fix others of wood, which I'ltvc f jr m:i- 
gazines of provifions, and as places of retreat for the 
wives and children, in cafe of an attack. 7'hcrc arc: 
alio fcveral huts made of wood, others of branches ot 
trees, and others of canes and rcecis. The area 1:1 
which they are enclofed is furroundtd by a clofc lieJge, 
and by a wood, which is every where fo thiclc, t!iat ii: 
is impofllble to find thele retreats but by tlie way cue 
to them, which is ftopped up by trees, wiicnever they 
apprehend the approach of an cneiny. 

The men are well ftiaped, and the woivcn lb hand- 
fome, that they feem born to infpire lov e ; yet tLey 
all paint their faces, and particularly tlirir eyebrows. 
Thtry drefs themfclves in as ojn.inicntal a manner js 
they can, wearing a l^erfian h.»bir, and curling tiie 
hair. They are witty, civd, and fuil of coiDpli- 
mcnts : but, on the otiier hand, are proud, dc-ccir- 
ful, cruel, and libidinous. 1'hc men have alio mai.y 
mifchievous qualities-, but that which they molt 
pradtife is th-ft-, and this th.?y m:ilce their employ- 
ment and glory. They juftil'y the lawfuiiKfs of ha^^- 

Z 2 m^ 

340 CHARDIN's TRAVELS tbrengB 

ing many wives, by faying that they bring thesi 
many children, which they can fell for ready moneys 
or exchange for neceflary conveniencies ; yet whe^ 
they have not the means of fupporting them, they 
hold it a piece of charity to murder new-bom in£uits» 
and fuch perfons as are fick and paft recovery, becaufe 
by this means they free them from mifery. 

JMlingrelia is but thinly peopled,, which is ocau 
iioned by their wars,- and the vaft numbers fold by 
the nobility to the Perfians and Turks. All their 
trade is carried on by the way of barter ^ for their 
money has no fettled value. The current fpecie aie 
piaftres, Dutch crowns, and abaffis, which are made 
in Georgia, and bear the Perfian (lamp. 

Their marriages are a contradt by way of bar^ir 
and fale ; for the parents agree upon the price irith 
the pcrfon who defires her ; and here the price of a 
woman who has been divorced is the loweft \ fi>r.» 
widow more is demanded ; but for a maid moft of 
all. When the bargain is once made, the young man 
may keep company with the woman till the money 
is paid ; and it is no ibandal if flie is with child by 
him. If any one has married a barren woman, or one 
of an ill diipoficion, they hold ic not only lawful, but 
rcquifitc to divorce hen 

The neighbouring nations live and a<5t in almoft all 
rcfpcdtr, after the fame manner ; only thofe who live 
near IVrfja r.nd Turky are more civilized. 

The people of Gurrel, Mingrelia, and Abca, were 
fubjctt :o the king of Imeretta, after they had all four 
t'rt^i:d t:ieii:klves from the power of the emperors, firft 
of CoriltdntiiiOple, and then of Trcbilond ; but in 
tl;e hill century fetting up for thcmfclves, ihey bc- 
nirr.e involved in continual wars; till calling in the 
aliiftance of th.e Turks, they were all made tributary 
to them. The Ling of Imeretta pays a tribute of 80 
boys and f:irls frcm 10 to 20 years of age. The 
prince of Guricl pays 46 children of both lexcs, and 
tlic prince of i\iinciclia 60,000 cUs of linen cloth made 


hat country. The Abcas, however, feldom paid 

thir\g at firft, and now pay nothing. 
is ibon as our veflel had entered the road of 
lOUfy I landed with the Greek merchant who con- 
)3ed mc, with the hopes of finding houfes, fome 
rifions and aflTiftance ; but I was much deceived. 
; inhabitants had fenced round a place, 100 paces 
CI the fhore, 256 long, and 50 broad ; this was 
-erand market of Mingrelia. It had a (treet form- 
er about 100 little hues on each fide; built of 
iches of trees tied together, ^ach merchant took 
, in which he lay, and there fold fiich commodi- 
. as he hoped to difpofe of in two or three ^iays 
: : thofe they bought ; and thofe they had no pro- 
Htf of felling immediately, were k^pt on board 
fhips. No refrefhments were to be had in the 
ket, nor was there a peafant's houie in its neigh- 
rhood. At this I was equaUy furprifed and 
9)ed, for our provifions were almoft confumed, 
nothing was to be fold by the natives, but (laves 
ncd jtogether. There were about a dozen naked 
xhes, who with their bows and arrows in their 
is ftruck every one with terror : thefe were the 
crs of the cuftoms. But my furprife and affliftioa 
t much encreafcd, on my being informed that the 
ks and the prince of Guriel had taken up arms 
nfl: the Mingrelians, and begun the war by plun- 
ig^he houfes of their neighbours, and carrying 
hem, and their cattle, wherever they found then). 
•n my taking the rcfolution to go inco Mingrelia, 
d depended greatly on the Thcatine midionaries, 

have a houfe 40 miles by land from Ifgaour, 
re I was told I might live in fafety, and chat they 
Id fpcedily procure me a paflage into Perfia, J 
rfbre fcnt an cxprefs with a letter to the prefeft of 
miflion, and returned on board much dcjcftcd. 
\vo days after, a number of peafants who fled from 
*nemy paffed by Ifgaour, and raifcd a great alarm ; 
reporting tliat the Abcas, whom the prince ot 

z 3 M\wqjt}:\% 

34a CHARDIN's TRAVELS through 

Miogrelia had called to his alTiftince againft the 
•turKS, plundered and burnt every thing before 
them i and carried off" all the men and bcalls that fell 
into their hands : adding, that they VrCre already near 
the port. All were now in a hurry lo carry their 
eflfefts on board. Each of the commanders of tltt 
Clips landcti two pieces of cannon, and the men were 
tinder arms all night : but. thf- next day they rcim- 
barked, chufing rather to abandon the wool, filt, 
earthen ware, and other merchandife, they had not 
beep able to bring on board, than to ejcpofc theoi- 
lelves tp the dangt-r of falling into the hands of (he 
Abcas, About lo ac nighr, we faw ail the market 
in a flame •» and the next morning, fnme men land- 
ingi they found nothing but the remains of the con- 

I now endeavoured to buy from the maftrraof^ 
Ihips as much provjfions as pollible; but all I could 
p'.;rchal'e from the feveral merchants was $o poauh 
of bifcuit, a little pulfe, S pounds of butter, and ii- 
pounds of rice. I'his was but little for fix peilbaii 
but good managemt^nt made it laft longer than I could 
have imagined. We had, however, dried 'fi(b ia 
abundance, and fcarcely eat any thing elle. I was voo- 
derfuUy delighted when I had prevailed on my met; 
to make a meal without bread. 

At length hearing no ijews of the prefcft, and not 
being able to guefs the reafbn, I informed my men of 
the necelTity we were under that one of them (hould 
go to him ; becaufe none but he could fecure us from 
the evils with which we were threatened, or deliver 
us from tliofe we endured, and that were encrealing 
every day. My valet offered to undertake the 
journey. I therefore g^ve him letters and prefcnts 
for the prefedi: apd his brethren, and he fee out on 
this expedition. 

On the monjing of the 4th of Odtober my walct 
returned, bringing with him the prefect, who was % 
fi^tiv^ of Mantua, c^ed Don Maria Jofcph Zampy, 

1 id^ 


1 immediately ran to embrace him, when he cried, 
* God forgive thofe who have advifed you. Sir, to 
come hither : you are arrived at the moft barbarous 
country in the world ; and the bell ftep you can take, 
is to return to Conftantinople by the firft opportu- 
nity." The joy we had conceived at feeing this pritrft 
was damped by his difcourfe. I took him into my 
cabin, and there with my comrade deliberated on 
what was to be done. He told us that he was come 
to fervc us to the utmoft of his power ; that he would 
take us to his houfc if we defircd it : but that he had 
no bread ; that now no provifions were to be had ; 
that the air of the country was unhealthy, and the 

rrople more wicked than it was poffible to imagine. 
told him that I had a letter of recommendation ro 
the prince of Mingrelia : but he replied that he was 
as great a villain, and as bafe a robocr as any of his 
fubjeds : and then added, that if nfter this notice I 
was refolved to venture, he would do all in his power 
to preferve our perfons and baggage, and procure us 
a fafe paffage into Perfia. 

I did not ftay to deliberate on what the father had 
reprefenred : the evils with which I was threatened 
in Mingrelia were future, and I hoped to avoid 
them : but thofe I fuffcred were prefent -, they filled 
my imagination, and my heart funk under them. I 
therefore reprefcnted to him, that whatever nusfor- 
tunes might happen to us in Mingrelia, they muit be 
lefs than thofe of returning to Calia, by wh'ch we 
niuft infallibly periih^ and this opinion I ft'enjchenLd 
by many reafons. He was loon Cv)nvln~':u by nv/ 
arguments, and now only coniiiltc-l on t'le manjier 
in which wc Ihould travel. Tiie i^arouc wherein he 
had come down the river wirh mv v.iic:, wv. r^'oier 
for our purpofc. It was tfciiji;:-';! tor (i^)-'^ix, ''- -d 
coming. We thereibrc e.n'v-ii.--d in i: w/.:h Ai ujr 
baggage, and I gavj the v.iiiic ■)t' ico 'Vr-.v/ro ii '^-y j.!s 
to tatiicr Zampy, v/iio i-.;K*v/ ii^c \,.xc lit u;.')ni% 
and was to buy it for me. Tue b-3'^^i^e beinj^ ..'tii- 

344 CHARDIN's TRAVELS through 

barked before noon, we immediately fet fail. I wa| 
filled with joy at leaving the Ihip, where I could noc 
endure the (link, nor bear the fight of the infamous 
commerce carried on in it. It was become a prilbii 
for flaves, in which the men and boys were chained 
two and two every night, and loofened every morn- 
ing. The war of Mingrelia was of advant:^ to our. 
merchants, who bought the booty and flaves takea 
by the Abcas, who were now continually cominj 
on board, to exchange them for arms, cloaths, .an( 
other commodities. A Greek merchant whofe cabbia 
was next to mine, bought a woman and her fucldng 
child for 12 crowns. The woman was 25 years of 
age : her face was extreamly beautiful : her flkin had 
the whitcnefs of the lilly ; and I never faw a finer 
breall or a rounder neck. This lovely woman filled 
rne at the fame time with fvich envy and corapaffion, 
that giving her a dejefted look, I faid to myfelf, Un- 
happy beauty, thou fliouldell not create thefe uneafy 
fenlations was I in another ilate, and did I not find 
myl'elf on the point of falling in:o greater miferics, if 
there can be greater, than that of being a fiave. 
What furprifcd me mod, was to fee that thefe mifcr- 
able creatures were not dejected, and that they ap- 
peared infenfible of the mifcry of their condition. As 
foon as they were bought, their rags were taken oliv 
they were drcired in new linen habits, and fet 10 
work; the men and boys in doing fomething about 
the fhip, and the women in kwing. 

But to proceed : we had i\ pretty good wind, and 
our little barque advanced both with fails and oars. 
During the voyage, I agreed with father Zampyon 
the means to prevent our falling into the hands of the 
enemy, and of being neither plundered nor affaflinated 
by the Mingrelians. 

■ At midnight we arrived at the entrance of the 
Aftolphus, one of the greateft rivers in Mingrelia, 
and called by the natives Langur •, where flopping, 
we fent two of our mariners to Anarghia, to inquire 
' after 


fiRcr the enemy, and to fee if the inhabitants had not 
' fled. Anai^hia is a village two miles from the fea^ 
'and the moft confiderable place in all Mingrelia. It 
coniifts of about 100 houfes ; but they are fo far 
diftant from each other, that it is two miles from the 
ifirfl: to the laft. There are always Turks in that vil- 
lage to purchafe flaves, and barques to carry them 
pK It is faid to be built on the place where anciently 
'flood the great city of Heraclea. 

The next morning before day, the two mariners 
returned with the news that the Abcas had been no 
nearer than within 15 miles of Anarghia, and that 
every thing there was as ufual. Father Zampy caufed 
the men to row hard, in order to arrive early at that 
village, that we might all land without being feen. 
This happened according to our wifhes. We went 
to lodge with a peafant who had the belt accommo- 
dations of any in the place ; and as we had many 
chefls, the largeft of which was full of books, father 
Zampy advifed me to open it as foon as we were at 
our lodgings, under the pretence of looking for fome- 
thing, to prevent their imagining that thefe chefts 
were filled with treafures : he at the fame time pro- 
pofed my pretending to be a religious, and that we 
had brought nothing with us but books. I followed 
this advice. The people of the houfe were aftoni(hed 
at feeing fo large a cheft thus filled ; and I believe 
imagined that the contents of the others were the 

On the 9th of Oftober a lay Theatine, who was 
phyfician and furgeon to all Mingrelia, came to fee 
us. The accefs which his art save him to the houfes 
of the prince and of all the great, had raifed his va- 
nity. I received and treated him in a manner that 
Eattered his pride ; and in return he gave me a thou- 
fand aflbrances of his protection and afliftance. Some 
days after he came to inform us that the Abcas had 
returned home -, and had carried off 1 200 pcrfons, 
puch cattle, and a great booty. He then told father 

2^6 CHARDIN's TRAVELS through 

Zampy that we might all go to their houle at Sipi^ 
and that rhe prince and catholicos had ordered him to 
tell me and my comrade, that we were welcome, and 
that they would grant us men and horfes to conduft 
us inco Georgia. Upon receiving this agreeable news, 
we refoived to let out the next day. 

While we ftaid at Anarghia we had no fcarcity of 
provifion^, but had plenty of fowl, hogs, and goats, 
which my men exchanged for needles, thread, combs, 
and knives. We had every thing very cheap ; and 
this being the time of vintage, we had wine in plenty, 
and nothing was fcirce but bread. There was a 
widow lady of quality at Anarghia, whofe hufband 
had been vizir to the prince, father Zampy con- 
dufted me to her, and I made her a prefent of fome 
trifles. In order to obtain others, (he fent me every 
day a cake of chit v/eighed about half a pound, 
with fo:r.c other refreflinients. Thus one day (he fcnc 
a hog, anoti)er day a cake of wax, another fome ho- 
ney, another a phcaiinr -, and on fending thefe (he 
nhv^ys begged for fomo trifles, as knives, fcidars, 
and ribbons : fne n:aJe me pay double the price of 
hi^r prefcnts. One day flie paid mc a vifir, when (he 
v>':i? cxtroamlv oblic'ino;, but made manv demands. 

Fa:h.^r Z.i:rjpy made tjc pals fir a capuchin, ob- 
ftrrvire, iliac I iliouLl mLct with fome of that order 
in Georgia. To ibpnorc this character, I dre(red as 
mv.Mniy an poiTible, and affcctrd poverty on all occa- 
Jion*:. I a:lcd my pare vvtU enough ; but the conduct 
of my iL^i'vaiits prcven.t-jd n-:y im^-ofing on the peo- 
ple : tc: zh'^y broke all r.iy nicaUircs by their cooker}', 
an:l bor..:;-;: :he grcareil dclicacie^-, k: them coft what 
ih.'v \vc?i;iJ. 

On tlic i ?;':;■ tlie princcfs of Min.-rrcli.i came to the 
The:/.i::r^. .•:::' was 0:1 h'>rrc'.-^ack a'ttrnded by about 
trn men at:..! c:_::t: wo-^v. n, very bri^Ay i:lo..thcd, and 
iil mouncrJ, w::h fcs'-j'/a! niL-.j on ibor v.t.o fcood 
about her h^.ril\ lariiL-r Zampy wcp.t imme.^ia^ely 
to receive h^r^ when ihe told him, that fiie had 


heard there were fome Europeans in his boufe, who 
had brought a great quantity of baggage: that fhe 
yifj^ glad of it, and defired to fee them, in order to 
tell them that they were welcome. I was then in- 
Hantly called, and father Zampy told me, that I muft 
ipake h^r a prefenr, fince it was the cuftom to pay in 
this manner for the vifits of a prince and princcfs. 
Being told that I fpoke the Turkifli and Perfian 
tongues, Ihe called a (lave who knew the Turkiifh, 
and afked me a thoufand queftions about my rank» 
and my voyage. I told her that I was a capuchin. 
She caufed me to be afked, if I was in love ? if I had 
ever been in love ? how it happened that I had never 
been in love ? and how I did to live without a 
woman ? She carried on this converfation with great 
vivacity, and all her retinue were very merry upon it : 
hut for my part, I was much dejefted, and would 
have been glad of the abfence both of the princefs 
and her train ; whom I every moment feared would- 
pillage our lodgings j for Ihe afked three times to fee. 
what I had brought -, but father Zampy promifing to 
bring her the ufual prefent the next day, me departed, 
fceming well fatisfiedr 

The next morning fhe fcnt to invite me to dinner. 
She was at a houfe only two miles from ours ; but 
did not live with the prince, who had a great diflike 
to her, having been forced to marry her. I found 
her better drcfTcd than the day before. She was 
painted, and feemed to endeavour to appear lovely. 
She was clothed in gold brocade, and had jewels in 
her hcad-drefs. She fat on a carpet, with nine or ten 
women by her fide ; and near her were many fh^bby 
fellows h:iif nak'::d, who compofed her court. They 
afked for my prefent for the princefs, before they fuf- 
fered me to enter. It was brought by iny fervant, 
who delivered it to them, and confiiUd of ca!es of 
knives, fciffars, and other things which coll about 
20s. and was worth above 3 1. in Mingrelia. The 
princcfs was fatisficd, and fulFcred me %o enter arrcr 

5*8. C HARDIN'S TRAVELS tfaraugh 

having fetfn thtsttk. Near her was a bench, on which' 
the fla^e who fpokt Turkifh defired me to fit. She 
flrft told me, that fhe wouM have me marry one of 
her friends, and that I (hould not leave that country ; 
for fhe would give me houfes, lands, and flaves. Bat 
a ftop was put to her difcourfe, by one coming to 
inform her that dinner was ready. 

The h6ufe in which {he lived was in the midft of 
five others, each at i oo paces diftance. Before one 
of them was a raifed place built with wood i8 inches 
high, over which was a fmall dome. Here a Carpet 
being fpread, the princefs feated herfelf upon it, as 
did her women at four paces diftance on other carpets. 
The ihabby wretches who compofed her court, and 
were about r,o in number, feaced themfelves round 
on the grai's. There were two benches near the plitc 
raifed for the princefs, one of which ferved the 
Theatines and me for a feat, and the other for a table. 
When the princefs was feated, a long painted cloth 
was laid before her, and at one end of it was placed 
two large and two fmall flagons, four plates, and 
eight cups of different (izes, with a filver bafbn, ewer, 
an.! ikiininer. Other fervants at the fame time laid 
boArJs bjfore thofe who were feated, to ferve as 
tables ; and one was alfo put before the women. 
This being done, two kettles were brought in and 
placed in the middle : one of them, which was very 
large, was carried by four men, and was full of com- 
mon go.nm : the other, which was fnaller, was 
brought in by two, and was full of white gomm. 
This gomm wis a kind of'p^fte, of v/hich the Min- 
grclians make the fame ufe as we do of bread. Two 
ether men brought in upon a kind cf bier, a hog 
boiled whole -, and four others entered with a large 
pitcher of wine. The princefs was fenced firft •, then 
her women, then us and afterward her attendants. 
The princefs was alio ibrved with a wooden bowl of 
gomm, and feme herbs, and with a filvcr dilh, in 
which were two fowls, one boiled, and the other 
, rv-.iieai 


roaftcd; but both of them had very difagreeable: 
iauce. The princefs fent me a part of the bread anc] 
lallad, and caufed me to be told» that I Ihould (lay ' 
fupper, and that fhe would kill an ox ; but this wasi 
mere compliment. A little after fhe fcnt me twa 
pieces of fowl, and afked with a loud voice» why 
there never came into Mingrelia any of the European 
artificers who work fo well in metals, filk, and wool, 
and why there only came monks who had no bufinei^ 
there, and whom they did not want ? It is eafy to 

Siefs at the confufion into which this queflion muft 
row the poor Theatines who were preient* I an* 
fwered, that the artificers of Europe laboured only 
for gain, and having employment enough there, had 
no inclination to go farther ; but that the religious 
having in view the glory of God, and the falvacion of 
Ibuls, thefe great concerns induced them to leave their 
country, and travel fo far. 

The repaft latled aboi:t two hours. V«'hen it was 
half ended, the princefs fcnt me a cup of wine, and 
caufed me to be told, that ic was the wine flie herfelf 
ufed, and the cup out of which (he drank. Tliree 
times (he did mc this honour, and was much fur- 
prifed to fee me mix water with my wine, faying, (he 
iiad never fecn that done before. Indeed, (he and 
her women drank it unmixed in great quantities. 
Dinner being ended, (he fent to enquire if 1 had 
brought any fpices or china-ware ; (he alfo afked mc 
for a variety of things ; and finding that I had none 
to give her, (lie at lall grew angr)', and faid (he 
would fend to examine my goods : but though I was 
much frighted, I anfwered, (he might do it whenever 
Ihe pleaicd : to which (he replied, that (he was only 
in jeft. Hov/ever, as loon as we rofe from table, I 
entreated one of die Theatines who had accompanied 
me, to make all pofTiblc hafte to my comrade, and 
tell him what the princefs (aid, in order that he might 
prepare for all events. After diiiner (lie again Ipokc 
of the marriage, and faid (he would foon (hew me the 

350 CHARDIN's TRAVELS through 

woman Ihe would give me : but I replied as before, 
that monks never marry, and was going to take my 
leave ; when unhappily, flie perceived under the mean 
frock I wore, that I had whiter and finer linen than 
what they had in Mingrclia. She came up to me, 
took me by the hand, pulled up my fleevc to my 
elbow, and held me for fome time by the arm, talking 
all the while in a low voice to her women. I was 
cxtreamly embarrafled, and what gave me moft pain 
was, my not knowing what (he faid, though I could 
perceive by her geftures, that Ihe was talking eameftly 
about me. I was at a lofs how to beh.ive in public to 
a woman who had at the fame time the title of fove- 
reign, and the impudence of a proftitute. But flic 
foon threw me into a greater conftcrrnation ; for going 
up to father Zampy, ihe faid, you both deceive me : 
you (hall come again on Sunday morning, and this 
Itranger (hall fay mals. Ths father was going to 
reply •, but the princefs turned her back, and bid us 
go home. 

I returned to our lodging very fad and penfive. 
The princcfs's avarice mjclc; mc aj^prcrhend (he would 
do me fomc ill turn •, and father Zampy told me, that 
h.e was infallibly certain of it. 1 therefore the fime 
i'ight caufcd a pic fi/c feet deep to be dug in his 
nj\irtmcnr, in wljjch I put a chcil that coiuaincd a 
clock, and a bo:: of coral: this w.i.s fo well buried, 
t!ut there was nor left the lea'l fign of the ground 
having been opened. 1 then went into the church 
with the fame defign, when fatlr.-r Z-'.mpy advifcd me 
Z) open the grrave of aTheati!-:- vvv.j had been buried 
f:K vears berore, and to de^^;■:.• .i-.^.'nrr h-s a flies a 
l';r.:;ll calkec I was willing ^ i *. .•••. . al : ■..t:r happily I 
choie lo burv this calket, in v.juj; v.:s : ..^f.^ o Sfuld 
ducats, in a corner cf the Llu-fJi i-eliiiKi :!'.e cioor; 
lor v;hich purp<;rc I rnaJc a deep p;. hkc the i'or; 
i afcerward conccalel in t!ie ro; r over the ehan:bcr 
v.-'.ere I lodged, a f/.bre and a ]H>i!:.':rJ lee wuli pre- 
c:./.:" iKiie.s, Mvcjmrade and 1 ke::c about us what 

7 WUS 


was of the Icaft weight and the greateft vahie ; and 
fuch things as were not worth a great dcaJ, we gave 
the Theatines to keep for us. 

On the 23d after dinner, a perfon came in to in- 
form father Zampy that there were two gentlemen at 
the door who afKed for him. Thcfe gentlemen, who 
were neighbours, were on horfeback, and had with 
them ^o men, horfe and foot, well armed. My 
comrade and I were immediately called. I could not 
penetrate into their defign ; but I kne^v it too foon-; 
for on our coming up to them, they caufed us to be 
feized and tied by their men ; telling thr prefect, and 
the other Theatines who came to falute them, that if 
they ftirred, they would kill them. The prefect 
being feized with fear fled. 1 he others, hov/cvcr, 
would not leave us •, and the lay-brother not only 
made ufe of all his intereft in our behalf; but t!lou^•il 
a fword was held up to his neck, he w.juld not aban- 
don us. Our fervants were immediately llizetl, and 
one of them making refiftance, and dttending him- 
felf with a knife, was thrown down, and tied to a 
tree. They then dedircd, that they would fee what 
rreafures we had. To wliich I replied, that they 
mud do as they pleafed*, we we-e poor capuc'ii'i-, 
and all our wealth confiiied in books, T)r.rer';, r^ivA :i 
few ordinary goods, which, if thc^y woiiiJ oHer v< 
no violence, we would Prxw tlitm. Thi'j tir:;''. ; r 
fuccecded -, they unti:d n:e, and bid me cpeii rny 

We had kept about us, a'? I have nlrcriJ;' o'>rervev, 
our moft precious jewels : ivy cr^r.iva/ie h:ci fe:^\i h * 
in the neck of a clo!e cor.r 1 ncd -viih rv;- b.;-: I h:A 
made mine up into two Ini.ili rackcrt^, \v;*.ic!i i' 1;:^ i 
hid in my cheit iimon^r my boi/::^. *, nor d w w-f * » c -.vy 
them about me for f ar of b^^ing ixjbberi or a*'. 
on their accounr. I ihere*')re dcfireJ ivy .or.;, ic 
and the lav-broiher to t»\..c th.' iv/ j </ci:i cm 11 ;.;;'.•/. 
and to aiiiufc cht.'Ti b/ ( livri'iv; a l.i k- nnrv-v. 1, 
order to give me time to :ake tl-e t*vo '..iKubic v .i.k' ^r 

352 CHARDIN's TRAVELS tfamngH 

out of my cheft, and to conceal them in another plac^. 
They did fo : I entered my chamber, and fhut myielf 
in. The gentlemen fulp^ted my defign, and went 
to the door, which I had faftened on the infide : ykhca 
my comrade bid me, in a low voice, be on my guard, 
as they watched me through the cracks. This made 
me fnatch the two packets out of the thatch in which 
I had already concealed them, for fear they had feen 
me put them there. I then put them in my pockety 
and feeing that the villains were breaking open the 
door, I threw myfelf out of the window into the 
garden. In a lefs prefling necellity I would not have 
made that leap on any confideracion i but a mind 
leized with fear, dreads nothing but the firft olgcft 
of its apprehenfions. I ran to the bottom of the 
garden, and threw the two packets into a thicket of 
briars ^ but was in fuch confufion, that I did not widi 
fufficient care obferve the place where I put them. 

I immediately returned to my chamber, which I 
found full of thefe robbers, fome of whom were 
llruggling with my companion, while others were 
beating with their weapons on my chefts, to break 
them open. Knowing that there was now nodiing 
in them of great value, I took courage, and bid them 
take care what they did, as 1 was lent for by the king 
of Perfia ; and that the prince of Georgia would take 
a feverc revenge for the violence tliat was offered me. 
I then fliewcd the king of Pcrfia's paflport, which 
one of the gentlemen took, and was going to tear it, 
faying, he neither feared nor valued any man upon 
earth -, but the other rtopped him ; for the writing in 
gold, and the gilt Teal, inlpired him with relpcfi. 
lie, however, bid me open my chefts, and faid that 
no harm fliould be done me ; but if I made any 
farther refifbance, they would lever my head from 
my body. I began to reply inllead cf fliewing my 
obedience •, but this had like to have coll me dear; 
for one of the ibldiers drew his fword, and was aiming 
k at my head, when the lay-brother rto])ped his arm. 

1 flQW 

MiNGRELlA into PERSIA. 353 

i new immedbtely opened the chefts ; they began to 
plunder them, and every thing that picafed thefc 
^ntlemen was taken away. 

During the time this pillage lafted, I leaned againft 
a ^ndow, and turning my eyes away fitom thefc 
wretches, that I might not encreafe my grief by be- 
holding them, 1 cad a look into the garden, and 
there perceived two fold iers removing the brambles, 
juft where I fuppofed I had concealed my two 
packets of jewels. I ran in a rage to the place^ fol- 
lowed by one of the Theatine fathers ; but the fol- 
diers, 1 knew not why, retired as foon as they faw us 
coming toward them. I inftantly fought for my two 
packets ; but the confufion I was in prevented my 
knowing the place where I had put them 5 and my 
tiot finding them, made me certain that they had dif- 
covcred and taken them away. The reader may 
judge firom the value of thefc packets, which 
amounted to 25,000 crowns, of the conftemation 
with which I was feized. In the mean while my 
comrade and the lay-brother calling me as loud as 
they were able, I left the garden, and ran into the 
chamber. On my entering it, I was feized by two 
Ibldiers Who dragged me into a corner, and took 
every thing they found in my pockets, which was of 
no great value. They then ieized my hands, and 
attempted to tie them. I cried out — I refilled — I 
made figns that they fhould lead me to their maftcr. 
— 1 caufed the chief of the villains to be told, that 
they need not tie me, either to carry me away, or to 
kill me ; for I was difpofed to fubmit to whatever 
they did with me. They replied, that fincc v/e were 
ambafladors, t!iey would take mc to uvAr prince. I 
let them know, that we would ro without being tied^ 
and that we hoped he v/ould do us jullicc, as we had 
letters tp him, to whicli he would certainly {he// 
rcfpeft. It was late, th-j nirrht npproiiched, nn.l iht: 
prince's caftle was at i ^ miles d^lancc ; th jy lii^r^- 
fore releafud u*?, and o:ily took the rcrvant wiio i.-ad 

Vol. VI. A a W^^ 


been tied to a aec % and whofe liberty I procmd • 

ibrtnight after for ten piaftera. 

As foon as I was out of the hands of thde nbben^ 
I wcDt into the garden. The prieft who had IbC- 
lowed me when 1 went to fetch the nao pacbeis cf 
' jewela I had concealed, told every body in the bonk 
^ the niisfortune I believed I had fCkficrcd » and 
body doubted but thacthefe foldiep haviogobfenei 
me. had followed and taken what I had ooacedsd 
anx)ng the brambles. Allaverdyi one o£our Ainft- 
nian valets, followed me, and to my gnu ■flaafc- 
mcnt threw his arms about my neck, with lu &k. 
bathed in tears. Sir^ faid he, we arc nuncd. 
and' the common' misfortune have made ua 
what we all are. I was at firft fo furprifcd, tint I' 
took him for fomc Mingrelian who was going n 
ftrangle me ; and when I knew him, 1 was moved b; 
his tendemers. Sir, laid he, have you made a tht- 
rough fearch ? I have learched fo much, cried I, thtf 
I am quite furc of my misfortune. He was not a»- 
tented with this -, he would have me ihew him dt 
place, and the manner In which I concealed them. ) 
ilid fo merely out of complaifance for the pooa yavdt 
who (hewed I'uch affeftion i but was-lbfuHyperluufci 
that he would lo(e his labour, that I woiJd nocaffil 
liim. It was now night, and I was fo uncaly tbat 
knew not what I did ; but at length, to my g 
allonifhmcfit, Allaverdy came again to cards me, 
gave me the two packets, which he pulled out of lit 
bofbm. 1 could not help imagining, that the Bofp 
of heaven was in this j and believing now that I' 
ilie care of the Almighty, I became confident of 
divine aiiiftancc, and entertained thofe hopes of 
li\'erance, tliat luve ever Irnce fuppofied me ua 
all my diftrcflcs. 

I now went to my chamber, and told my 
of my fuccefs. I found him putting our thinp ii 
order. What they had taken confifted of d 
linen, arms, bra£i veiTcls, and other things of 

M1NGR£LIA Intd IPfiRSIA. 353 

itaduc,. which did not amount to 460 crowns ; and we 
igprecd to conceal the recovery of my two packets 
fiom the Theatincs, that they might think we had 
little elfe to lofe. 

. The next morning the prefcft of the Theatines, 

luid the lay-brother, went with me to the prince, and 

the catholicos, or chief pr left, to demand juftice ; but 

neither of them could give us any farisfaftion. The 

prince obferved, that while the war lafted, he had but 

Iitde authority over the nobility ; but at another time 

he would have done his utmoft to recover what we 

. -had loft. The catholicos, to whom we gave a cafe of 

filver hafted knives and forks, talked in the fame 

manner, and endeavoured to comfort us. I'hey, 

however, each of them appointed a gentleman to go 

00 their parts to demand what had been tslken from 

«tu; but their endeavours to find the robbers were 

inefie£tual. From them we learnt that the princefs 

ins concerned in the robbery, and had a third part 

[ of the fpoils ; and that the i urks had entered Min- 

grelia, and were laying wafte all the country through 

!)s;which they paflcd with fire and fword. 

I was now in fo refigned a difpofition, that this 
<BCWS did not much move me : the Theatines, how- 
ever, were filled with terror, an J both they and we 
; prepared for flight. At midnijjht we heard the re- 
■;port of two great guns, fired from the fortrcfs of 
-Kucks, to give notice of the approach of the enemy, 
. At this fignal every body began to fly ; and at break 
of day weourfelvesfet out. 1 left every thin*; that 
had been buried, and concealed in the roof and other 
* places, thinking them much fafer than what we took 
with us. The Theatines had no other carriage but 
one cart drawn by bullocks, and two horfes. In the 
cart was carried the baggage-, the lay broth' r 
t»lnounted one of the horlcs, and my comrade, who 
■ Was fick, rode the other, while two Theatine friars 
^^nd I followed on foot, accompanied brail the flaves. 
Skid fervants. One of the friars Ilaid alone to guar ■ 

A a 2 ^Va 

356 CHARDIN's TRAVELS dmiigjh 

the houfe, in which were a thouiand things that ve 
could not take away for want of carriages. 1 left my 
books, moft of my papers, and my mathematical in* 
ftrumcnts, imagining that ncrither the Turks, nor tbe 
Mingrelians would take the trouble to reonove diem. ' 
The wars there confiding chiefly in chafing and pluo- 
dcring, the enemy foon retires. For this reaibn tbcf 
always leave a perlbn or two at each houie, to pie« 
vent the neighbours Healing the corn, wine, and 
ether things that could not be carried away. Thefe 
men are fcldom Itirprifed by the ene.ny, bccaufetbey 
are always upon the watch, and take care to efcape. 
inro the v.oods, which are not only near, but tIudE» 
and proprr for coiKcalment. 

Tne I .jce to which we retired ".7as a fortrefs in the 
v/oods, like thoi'e 1 have already ucfcribed. The kxd j 
of the place, who was called Sabatar, was a Geoigiani 
who had been a Mahometan, and had turned Chxit 
t*»an. We arrived at his c;-ftle^ after having pro- 
ceeded five le;.c:ues throue'i the dirt and mire, ia 
^vhich the cart was continually llicking fall; fo that 
it VvaS obliged to be upJoadcd and loaded 20 times, 
^^J.':n v/rik we were i;; coirjnual danger of beLng 
r.>bjcd :\rA rniirdcivd. We met with a favourable 
'•:\.L'j:rion ; arid zhc Thcr.ti."ics reliing th:r lord Sabarar 
i\\z 1 v.or.I',1 rcpav ihe obliizatior.s he flaould confer 
on i:^', he lodged t;:; in a bakei-.onfe, a little mean 
h".::, in v;h''ch wc were fliekervrd, but little better than 
?i v.t: jijid been in the open court, fur the rain poured 
:'.": (■•; nil jivic?. Our having icv.js however a great 
favuur, as it prevcnrcd our bcin.T; minsled with a 
?;:L.!liu:/l' of i^ik-rable objecis. The fonrcls was full 
•; :' ptcj^-c btiore v.-e .nrrivccl, a:Kl contained Soo pcr- 
ibns^ almoil /ill of uhoni wcie-womcn and c^^iidren- 

On the 2' til, the p-cRM: or* li..^ i heatines left us 
TO JO to the ho -.lie ior ib.r.c vciTvris ::nd provifions wc 
iiiid kit behir-id. 1 dciij[i:;:d to have accompinicd 
him ; but hr^ itc out two hours bcil:iv day. On en-^ 
v.:i.-'L ihc houllr, he tbund it full of rant5::rs belong-* 

• ing 



Sqi to the Baflky and the prince of Guricl, who bear 

Un wuhtheif ftaves, and infifted on his opening the 

ckutcb, faying, he had concealed there all the crea- 

.fmit\ but the prefeft had cad the key among the 

huDbles, immediately on his perceiving them ; and 

DBCwithftanding the ill treatment he received, he re- 

AM to tell where it was. At length, ftripping him 

rfjNKt of his cloaths, and taking out of the houfe 

fach things as were light and of Uttle value, they 

away, without touching either my books or my 

pners. However, on the 29th, a gentleman of 

magreKa, with 30 of his men, went thither in the 

l^t, and uncovered almoU all the roof of my cham- 

faVy with the hopes of finding fomething, I might 

htiti concealed. He carried otf all the chefls that 

bd been left, and my more cumberfome moveables : 

b fliort, every thing which the Turks had left, ex- 

c^t what was of great value, which he happily did 

flDtdifcover. This rapacious wretch having no light, 

: made a fire with my papers and books-, tearing off 

ithe covers becaufe they were finely gilt : for I had 

oofed my beft books to be curioufly bound before I 

'kfcParis, and this villain did not leave me one. 

'.On the 30th in the morning, I with the deepeft 

QDboetn, learnt thefe particulars. Wc began to be 

iffwant of the neccfliiries of life : my fervanrs were 

ndlKed toclcfpair, and we had nothing before our 

<9CS, but the profpeft of death or flavery. I'his 

MUde me relblve to hazard every thing in order to 

'fcifc Mingrelia while I had ftrenmh to do ir. 

rf caufed guides to be every where fought for : I pro- 

^nnfed, I entrea^d, I made prefents, but none would 

[ttndud: me. They told me that men in arms pof- 

^£fled all the i>affcs of Imeretta, between Mingrelia- 

|IBd Georgia, and that it wouki be the o;ieat<l1: folly 

fcimgo thither, fince we (hould all be certainly made 

res. 1 then propofed to make the tour of mount 

Kaucafus, or to proceed along the fea fhore : but no- 

jbdy would conduct me : for it can fcarccly be con- 

A a 3 ceived 

358 CHARDlN's TRAVELS through 

ceivdd how afraid the Mingrelian^ are of death ; no 
reward can induce them to undergo the leaft danger. 

Sabatar, to whom the forcrefs belonged, had now 
fubmitttfd to the Turks, and was not only to enjoy all 
his lands, but to have a Turkifli guard for the fecu- 
riiy of his caftle : for which he was to pay 25 flaves, 
arnl 8o«' crowns, which he was refolvcd to nuie 
among thofe to whom he had granted his prptedHon. 
From every fami-y that had four children, he xock 
one ; and it was th(* molt dreadful fisht in the woild, 
to fce them torn from the arms of their mothers, 
tied two and two, ^nd led to the Turks, I was taxed ' 
at 20 crowns. 

At length I was conftrained to take the refoludoQ 
to go by fca, that is to take a compafs of 70 leagues: 
for that purpoi'e I went to Anarghia, a village and 
fmall port, already defcribed, and having found there 
a Turkifti felucca, I freighted her for Gonia, and 
returned to the houfe of the Theatines, to prepare for 
the voyage. " - 

I Icfc the caRIe on the loth of November, early in 
the morning, having agreed with my comrade on the 
methods I fiiould take, in order to deliver him out 
of Mingrelia, if it fhould pleale God to give me a 
happy voyage. I tcx)k with me ico,ooo livres in 
precious llones, and Soopiftoles in gold ; with a part 
of t!ie baggage that remaincJ. The jewels were con- 
ccal.-d in a laddie made in Europe for that purpofc, 
aiKi in a pillow. 1 took one of our fervants with me, 
the lame whom I had redeemed from flavery, who 
was a wicked drunken fellow, and whom it was not 
fafe to leave in Mingrelia. Father Zampy accom- 
panied me, as lie had always done \ and the lay- 
brother alfo went with me to Anarghia. The prefed 
and I walke 1, bccaufe we cuuld only hire one horfe, 
on which was placed my baggage ^nd my valet ; but 
the lay-brother rode on horlcback, he having a horic 
of his own. 1 cannot cxprtfs the fatigue we endured 
in the two days we were upon the road j for it ramed 



'▼cry hard, and we were obliged to wade through the 
inudy in which I commonly funk above the knees. 
On the night of the fccond day we arrived at 
Anarghia, (baked through with rain. 

On rhc 19th, Father Zampy received advice^ that 
the night before, the church had been broke open, 
and nothing left but the bare walls : the tomb had 
been opened, and every thing taken out, which the 
poor Theatine who had been left in the houfe^ had 
baried in it. It is eafy to imagine the apprehenfions 
with which I was feized at receiving this news ; I 
having left above 7000 piftoles buried in the church. 
I immediately difpatched ameffenger with a letter to 
my comrade, who wrote me word that they had not 
touched our money, and that every thing we had 
buried was fafe. This news revived my courage, 
and I went to haften the Turks, of whom I had 
hired the felucca. 

While I (laid at Anargliia I was invited to two 
chriftenings, which were performed in the following 
manner : The priell being fent for at about 1 o o*clock 
in the morning, went into the buttery where they 
keep the wine, and fitting down on a bench, began 
to read an half torn oclavo volume, runnincr on verv 
faft in a low voice, and in To carclcfs a manner, tha;t 
he did not fcem to regard v/hat he was doing. In 
about a quarter of an hour the father and godfather 
brouglit in a boy about five years old •, an-J the god- 
father having fixed up a fmall canJle againfl the cabin 
door, fcattered a few grains of incenfj upon a few 
embers. The prieft Itill continu-d reading in the 
fame carclefs manner, breaking off to fpcak to every 
body that came in : the father and godfather all the 
rime walking in and out ; and th*- liccL' bay did no- 
thing but eii. In about an hour's time a bucket iull 
of warm water was got ready ; and the prieft having 
poured into it a fpoonful of the oil of walnuts, bid the 
godfather undrefs the child ; which bL*ing done, he 
JK2& Jet on his feet in the water, and t!ic godfjthfc 

A a 4 v;i.'J'v\^i 

360 CHARDIN's TRAVELS through 

waflied his wliole body very well. The pricfl: difo 
took out of a leather purfe, vvhich hung at his girdle, 
a fmall quantity of the oil of unflion, and giving it 
to the godfather, he anointed the chjld on the crown 
of the head, ihc cars, the forehead, the nofe, the 
cheeks, the chin, the fhoulders, the elbows, the 
back, the belly, the knees, and the feet •, while the 
prielt continued reading till the godfather had dreflcd 
the child : when the father bringing ia boiled porl^ 
and wine, they fet down to table, with the family and 
the guefts, and foon got drunk. 

All the other ads of religion are celebrated with 
the i}.u\\Q irreverence. One day as I was going by a 
church, tiie pritiL who was fiyinp; mais heard me afk 
the way of fcmf pcjple who were llanding at the door, 
and cried out from the altar, Stay and I'll fliew you. 
A moment after he came to the door, rr. littering the 
n^aJ's as he walked j then having alked, where v/c 
Tame, i\iv.\ whither we were going, lie civiily (hewed 
lis the V. :iy, and rer-irncd to tiic aitr.r. 

On the 2yih c.f No\e;T.bcr i left AnarghiJ, and 
nfrer an hour's railir.::^ re.ichcd rlie il\i-, for the river 
I.angur is very nirld, anvl we p i();:eedcJ with great 
fwittr^c^fs clown the ilreum. 

The Kuxir.e or El.ick Se.i is :o.^ leagues in length, 
nearly froir. eail to weft-, nn.i i:s gieatetl breadth 
ficni the Hufpliorus to tlie Boriithenes is about three 
degrees : but the oppofite end is not half fo broad. 
The water of this fea aj^pcars nei'lier fo clear, fo 
gre^n, nor fo fait as the ocean, which probably arifes 
from the great rivers that difcharge liKMnfeJves into 
it. It div! nor receive its name from the colour of the 
water, but from the tempefis, which are i'uM to be 
there more trequent and more furiuv.s i!un in other 
feas : hence the Greeks g.v-c it tlic r.-.-'ie of A>:in, 
which fignifies intractable, *i:ui tiie Tur.V > '?..\t of Cura 
Pengui.s, or t!.c Storm/ St a; for i. ..;.,, wiiiJi pro- 
f crlv mcanb blael., alfo ric>r.':i:eG fi'jMrv. 



On the 29th we reached the river Phafis, and pro- 
ceeded a mile up it, to fome houies where the mafter 
[>f the felucca landed, and put fome goods on ihore. 
The river Phafis has its fource in mount Caucafus, 
md is now called by the people of the country the 
dione. It is conHned within a narrow bed, and.runsi 
Bvith great rapidity. I fought for the great city o£ 
Scbafta, which geographers have placed at the n)Outh 
jf the Phafis j but the ruins of that city, like thofe of 
Colchis, have no traces of them left. AH, that I 
jbfcrved to have a.ny conformity with what the 
jncients have written of this part of the Black Sea is, 
:hat it abounds with pheafants. This river (eparates 
Vlingrelia fron) the principality of Guriel, and the 
[ittic kingdom of Imeretta. 

On the 30th in the afternoon we arrived at Gonia^ 
ibout 40 miles from the Phafis, Our felucca no 
Iponer came to land than my valet leaped afhore, 
Rifled the earth, and fhewed the mcft extravagant 
U)d frantic figns of joy ; and then entering the caftle, 
left me at a time when I moil wanted him. Soon 
ifter the cuftomhoufe officer and the lieutenant- 
jQvernor came to fee my things landed, and to receive 
:he duty. They inftantly let me know that they were 
jiformed of my being an European, and of all the 
Tiisfortunes that had happened to me in Mingrelia. 
Piis furprifcd me ; and I found I was betrayed by my 
uTcal of a valet. The officer of the cuftoms aflicd 
pe feveral queftion^, and gave orders for examining 
ny goods ; but thty couIJ find nothing I wanted to 
;onceaI. My faddle, however, weighed very heavy, 
ind this rendered it fufpttled; efpecially as the 
Furkifli faddles arc extreamly light. It was examined 
ind handled on all fides ; but being able to find no- 
hing within it befide hair and wadding, they laid it 

Of the 800 piftoles I had brought, I carried half 
)f them about me, and the other half in a walle% 
aftentd with a padlock, with fome things, which. 

^Si CHARDIN's TRAVELS through 

though of fmall value, I knew the Turks would fcize 
if they faw them. The cuftom-houfe officer and his 
janizaries being told of this wallet, ordered me co 
open it, on which I told them that I would freely do 
it in the houfe ; but not on the fea-fhorc before lb 
many men. On which the officer of the cuftoms 
took me home with him to his houfe, and the lieute- 
nant governor went with us. The latter made me 
pay the value of one per cent, on my goods, and the 
other five. The cuftom-houfc officer likewife took 
22 piftoles in gold, and every thing he liked that was 
tound in my wallet : among the reft he got from me 
a pair of piftols -, which were the only arms 1 had : 
he, however, paid me for them, but gave me m 
more than half their value. After this rapacious 
behaviour he invited me to lodge with him ; but I 
could not help expreffing my ailonirnment, that he 
who had unjullly made me pay a duty for the goH 
and filvcr I broufiht, Ihould immediaLclv aflume the 
mafk of friend;"::: J : but he vindicated wha: he hid 
done, renewed his ip.vicarion, and even pron:;!:ed lo 
fupply me v;ith a guard t3 prctect my bagjrage, and 
conduct me over ti.e mounrair.s. But though he 
renewed his cnrrcatics, an;:, as I atterward \o\ iJ, 
rcaliy rriCant me well, yet I was afraid of a^c;:pt:ng 
his invicaiior.s, for fear he (hould take ihac opj;or:u- 
nirv of caufins: ir.v laddie and mv cloaths to be more 
narrowly examir.ed. 

Jl was aimoil njo-ht when I left this officer of the 
cuilorns, wi'.o \v.:s alio governor of the territory ot 
Goni.i. My valet had ca. ricd mv bafrrra^t :l» i\\z 
p!u;e wr.ere the iren Wi.o came v. ir . is 1, 
Th*; v;js a wrctclicJ cottape, uh'i.h a'ri.i::id ihe 
air on ali fides, nnd v,^s as dirty and flinxi: z as roi- 
rji)le. 1 then rccei.' J many complirr.en:s or con- 
dolence, if I may uTc the rcrr, for all the men 
apj.earcd forry for ir.y lol's, and blamed me for r40C 
Jttrii g :!icm keep the wallet for m.e ; their goods pay- 
ing n j duty. While I was eating a piece of a bil- 



euit, a janizary came to tell my valet, that the lieu- 
tenant-governor wanted him. My valet went ; and 
jui hour after the fame janizary came for me. 1 
found the lieutenant and my valet fitting together 
both drunk. Having obliged me to eat and drinic, 
the lieutenant demanded 200 ducats, as due to his 
inafter from all Chrlftian church-men who came 
there. This occafioned a long difpute ; I attempted 
to retire, but was detained by force, and threatened 
to be put in irons, and was at la(t glad to efcape by 
paying 100 ducats to the lieutenant, and four to the 
janizaries. But this was not alU the lieutenant obliged 
mc to entreat him to accept of the money, and to fwcar 
that I would not complain of him. 

The next morning the officer of the cuftoms fcnt a 
party of (bldiers to my miferable lodgings to examine 
jigain my faddle, and to fearch me : but though they 
filled me with the greateft uneafinefs, they could 
make no difcovery. After this, I was allowed two 
men to carry my baggage, and a Turk to condufl: 
me as far as Acalzika : he alfo gave me a paflport, 
and advifed, that I and my valet fhould wear a white 
turban, in order to be treated with the greater refpeft. 
This 1 did •, and fet out at eight in the morning, 
tranfportcd with joy, at leaving fo wicked and dan- 
gerous a place, and at having nothing more to fear. 
1 then began to feel fome peace of mind. For five 
months paft I had fufFered the moft dreadful agita- 
tions. Iiifult, flavery, marriage, the lols of my fub- 
ftance and liberty, clirincr all this time diftrafted my 
xnind by turns, and .. tlioufand real e/ils had kept 
me under the decpell dcjedlion. I now afccndcd 
mount Caucafus with a lightnels which furpiifcJ my 
porters : for the body is literally light when the heart 
is eafed of a heavy load : this i^ uuo without a figure; 
for I feemed to have been ck'Hvcjred from the weight 
of a mountain. I now proceeded four leagues toge- 
ther among the rocks. 


3^4 CHARDIN's TRAVELS through 

Afia is divided by a chain of mountains, one at the 
end of the other, the three higheft of which have 
been named Taurus, Imaus, and Caucafus. The firft 
advances farthed into Afia, and the whole chain ia 
general is called by the name of Mount Taurus : I; 
lay in general, becaufe each part has its particirfar 
name» by which it is called by the nacion neareft it. 

But to return to the defcription of mount Caucafuft; 
which is the higheft mountain, and the moft difficult 
to pafs of any 1 have feen. It has frightful precipii:e8^ 
and in many places the roads are cut out of the (cM 
rock. When I palTed it, it was entirely covered with 
fnow, which was almoft every where ten feet deep; 
and my condudtors were in many places obliged to 
clear it away with (hovels. They wore fnow (hoes in 
the form of rackets without handles, which preventtd 
their finking in the Ihow, and enabled them to nm 
with great fwiftnefs upon it. The top g( mount 
Caucalus, which is eight leagues over, is indeed per- 
petually covered with it. 1 paffed the night rf the 
7th and 8th in the midil of the Ihow ; wliere I caufed 
iome fir-irces to be cut down, and lay upon the 
boughs by the of a great fire. On our arrival at 
the top, my contludors made long prayers to their 
images, to do us the favour to prevent a wind ; and 
indeed if it had been high, we fliouLl doubtlcfs have 
been buried in the inow, for as ic is as fmall as diift^. 
a little wind fills the air with it. The horfes funkfo 
often into holes covered by it, that 1 often thought 
we fliould loll them, I ahnoll conllantly walked on 
foot, anvi did not ride above eight leagues in crofling 
this fri^hiFul mountain, whicli is 36 leagues over. 

During the two lalt days, I fecmcd in the clouds, 
not bc'nv^ able to Ice 20 paces before me. It is true^ 
the fir:» wiih whiih the top of tlie mountain is covered, 
greatly obilruct the view. On deleending it, I favir 
ihc clouds move under my feet. On our reaching the 
boitom, v/e entered a beautii'ul and fertile valley, 



three miks broad, covered with villages, and watered 
by thd river Kur, which paffirs through the middle 
of it. 

Mount Caucafus is fenile almofl: to the top ; and 
hs fides abound in honey, com, fruits, hogs, and large 
cattle. The vines twine about the trees, and rife lb 
lu^ that the inhabitants cannot gather the fruit from 
the upper branches. There are many ftreams of ex- 
cellent water, and a greac number of villages. It was 
the time of vintage, and I found both the grapes and 
the new and old wine admirably good. 

The inhabitants of thefe mountains are for the moft 
part Chriftians of the Georgian church. They have 
very fine complexions, and 1 have fecn among them 
very beautiful women. They are infinitely better 
accommodated than the Mingrelians. 

We next arrived at Teflis. The lay-brother, who 
accompanied me, led me to the convent of the Capu« 
chins, where having no time to lofe, I immediately 
told the prefect the caufe of my journey, and gave 
him my letters of recommendation. He was foon 
fenfible of the necefllty of going at all hazards to 
endeavour to recover what I had left behind. It was 
agreed to fay, I was a Theatine, who hail been fent 
by thofc of Colchis, to beg afliftance of the capuchins, 
and they were to fend one of their companions with 
me, in order to bring them away, on account of their 
being reduced to the greateft diftrcfs by the war. 

This was no fooncr determined, than I prepared 
for the journey. I took out of my &ddle and my pil- 
low, the jewels I had concealed in them, and puttmg 
them in a cafket, committed them to the care of the 
prcfeft. We thought we (houKl never have been 
able to hire horlcs ; for nobody would go with us into 
Mingrclia : but at lall, by the means of money, we 
gained over two men, and gave Iccurity for their 
horlcs and cloaths in ca!'c tliey ihould be robbed of 
them. I alio difiniifcJ my valet, v»ho pUycd me a 
thoufand villainous pranks and many times attempted 


my deftni£tion. After I bid ^zpoftulated 

on the numerous inftanixs of treachery of vindi 
had been guilty, 1 paid him for the wfac^ time JM 

had (erred me, and exhorted him to *nieii~* 

But the mildnefs of this tieatment had no e^ 
lum : he was enraged at being difmtfled in a 
country I <^"^ g^v^ '"c "^i" ^^ ^car fbmethiivfial 
fitHn lus icfcntmenc. I was tempted to lay mn h 
irons, which I could hare done for a word l^xaluBB 
the capuchins having fuch credit at Teftis asufie 
able to do it with the greateft eafe : but I [^lied hint 
and foon difcovered Ibmc dangennu fhnci he Ud 
for me. 

On the 20th of December I let out with broAcr 
Angclo, and a Georgian belonging to the capodnm 
who had frequently been at Colchis, and all the nrigji- 
bouring countries, and whom the prefect recoounend- 
ed as a pcrfon on whom 1 might place the greattft 
confidence. We were only five men with four horfei. 
Brother Angelo and I mounted two, the two others 
carried provifions; and we every where gave out, 
that we were going in fearch of the Theatinca of 
Mingrelia. We again pafled mountains covered with 
fnow, and at length coming to the banks of a large 
liver, croflcd it in a boat ; then dcfcending a moun- 
tain, we entered a large village, that extends into 
Mingrelia, and is watered by icveral ftreanis. Here 
we lay in a village named Scfano, fituated in the fineft 
part of the country of Imerctia. 

Scfano is near a callle belonging to an old lady/ 
aunt to the kingof Imcretta, who being now lick, 
and hearing that a capuchin was arrived at the vil- 
lage, lent tor him, all the mlfTionaries being in thrfe 
countries taken tor phyficijns ; and indeed they all 
praflife phyfic. Brother Angelo went to her, and 
Was in hopes of making this event turn to our ad- 
vantage. Two hours after he left us, to my great 
furprilc, a capuchin of Gory arrived on horicDack 
with a guide, to iiitbrm us, that the valet 1 had dtf^ 



mifled had been at Gory, where he had difcovered 
all he knew of my enterprize ; Iwearing to ruin me, 
and that he was gone no body knew whither. This 
news greatly alarmed me ; and having given the 
capuchin a thoufand thanks, I prevailed on him t» 
accompany us. 

The next day we reached Cotatis, and lodged ac 
the houfe of the biihop, who was not at home, but 
his officers knowing brother Angelo, gave us a very 
kind reception. While I was at dinner with the two 
capuchins, the carriers and my guide being alfo, ac- 
cording to the cuftom of the country, at table with 
us, I faw the rogue of a valet enter with an Arme- 
nian and a prieft, who came to ihcw him the houfe. I 
was not much furpriied at feeing him, for my apprc- 
henfions kept him Hill in my thoughts. I had not, 
however, difcovered the lead fear : I imagined he was 
turned Mahometan from his wearing a turbant. The 
villain entered with fury in his looks, and feared him- 
fclf by my men, without being aflced. This infa- 
lence offended me flill more; and I afked, from 
whence he came ? He replied, from AcaJzifka ; 
whence he had come in two days. I afked, if tte 
way was fo eafy, and the mountain? fo little covered 
with fnow, that he could crofs them in fu fhort a 
time. The way is the word in the world, he cried» 
and the mountains are covered with fnow like thofc 
we pafTed in coming from Gonia. You (hall lee, for 
you mufl come to /icalzika, I have orders from the 
baffa to bring you to that town. You mull have 
more force to carry me thither, laid I, for I have no 
bufinefs there. You are ill advifcd : you know 1 paid 
you at Teflis, and if you are not fatisfied, you ought 
to make knjwn your demands ; for without going fo 
far as Acalzikaon fo trifling an affair, there are fufn- 
cient numbers at Cotatis capable of deciding it. This 
I fpoke with the greateft mildnefs pofTible. But the 
villain turned with a furious air to his companion, 
and bid him bring in th« Turks. He went out irii- 

mcdijLU^ \ 


mediately ; hut this was only an artifice to cmify met 
i was indeed extreamly fitted, and thought ihjlSf 
loft. The prieft of Cotatis was ignorant of whit ptf- 
fed, becauK we ulked in the Turkifli tongue ; mk 
Ixing informed by father Angdo of the nacore of dt * 
difpute, and the equi^ of my propofal, he immedi' 
ately interefted himfelf in the affair, and with femil 
■ Geomians prefied the fellow to agree to fo reifbnriile 
an o£r -, but the more they fatd, the more infolOK 
and abufive he grew. Till at laft, lofuig all patience^ 
I ftruck at him with my fword ; but they ftopped mf 
liand, and the villain fled in a great fright. 

It was now refolvcd that brother Angelo Oioutd die 
next morning proceed forward into Mingrelta, wMe 
the other capuchin and I (hould -ftay behind ; tbe 
principal reafon was our being unable either to boy 
or hire horfcs, and the neceflity of fending one ftir 
the ufc of my partner. 

The next day, which was the 2d of January, bro- 
ther Angelo fet out with all the horfes and men ! 
had brought from Tcflis, while I returned to Chicaris 
with the capuchin, where we propofcd to wait till 
brother Angelo's return. 

I had continued there a fortnight, when one morn- 
ing at break of day, I was agreeably awaked by my 
comrade. He told me that brother Angelo with the 
men and horfcs arrived at Sippias on the 9th, when 
tohis great joy he heard of my arrival at TcBis, and 
that I was then waiting for htm near Cotatis. He 
inftantly prepared for the Journey, dug up the chefts, 
and took out of ihe roof^of the houle half of what 
we had concealed there ; and having ftjtd till-tbe 
I ith to rell tlic liorfcs, let nut, leaving the remain- 
der of the treafore to the care of the moft faithfulrf 
our valets, not daring to run the li.izard of loQng' 
the whole at once. 

It was late, but my comrade and I could not go tt 

fuppcr till after we had fomedilcourie on the happy 

lutccfs of our labours. We could not ha^-ehopw 

7 thtu 


thus to fave every thing, when we were furrounded 
with dangers that made us dread the lols of all ; and 
yet our lofles in this fatal journey had amounted to 
00 more than about onr per cent 

Georgia, by which I would be underftood to mean 
the whole country of that name fubjeft to Perfia, is 
bounded on the ead by Circaflia and Ruflla, on 
the weft by Armenia Minor, on the fouth by Ar- 
menia Major, and on the north by tlie Black Sea, 
and that part of Mingrelia called Imeretta. This is, 
in my opinion, the whole country diftinguiflicd by 
the antients by the name of Iberia. It has many 
woods and mountains that enclofe large and beau* 
tiful plains ; but the middle part, which is watered 
by the river Kur, the antient Cyrus, is the moft fer- 
tile. The natives call themfelves Cartheuli, and it 
is faid the Greeks gave them the name of Georgoi, 
which in their language (ignifies Labourer. 

The air of Georgia is dry, very cold in winter, 
and hot in fummer. The fine weather does not be- 
gin till the month of May; but then it lalls tU the 
end of November. The inhabitants are therefore 
obliged to water the earth -, by which means it pro- 
duces all forts of grain and fruit in the greatell |»ro- 
iudon. The bread is as good as any in the world. 
The fruits are excellrnt, and of all Ibrts. No pare 
of Europe produCf*s finer, or better tafted pears and 
apples ; nor any pa^'t of Afia, more excellent pome- 
granates. The cattle are extrcamly numerous, and 
very good j the wild boars are as common and as de- 
licate as thofe in Mingrdia; and the common people 
live almoft entirely upon fwine, which are fcen ail over 
the country, and though their flcfli is not cxtrca:n!y 
palatable, it is very wholefome. The wild fowl are 
incomparable, and of all forts. Bcfide, th: Calj^ian 
Sea, which is near Georgia, and the Kur which runs 
through ic, afford the greateft plenty of fea and frc/h- 
water fifh. 

Vol., VI. B b In 

370 CHARDIN's TRAVELS througH 

In no other country do the inhabitants drink fo 
much, or llich exc^llenc wine. The vines grow about 
the trees a*; in Min^relia, and great quantities of wine 
arc il-nc fro:ii Tcflis into Ar.xenia, Media, and Ifpa- 
han, where it is i-Acd :it the Shah*s table. An horfc- 
load, which is thr^c hundred weight, fells for about 
the value Oi' e!i:!:c fnilhr.^s : rhii is ^h^* price of the 
bcft Ibrt, for ihc crJ.inary wints docs r,ot fell for 
more than hair i.3 much. Georgia ail-> produ're- great 
quantities of fill;, which \>. exported to lurkey and 
the neighbouring counrriis. 

The G:oroiai*s are the handfonneft people, not 
only in the call, but, I believe, in the whole world; 
and I nfver obicrvcd an ordinary pertbn of cither fcx 
in this country : but I havefeen fome that have been 
quite angelical. Nature has givi-n moil of the wo- 
men fuch graces as arc no whcie el-'e to be fcen; and 
it is impoflible to behold without loving them. They 
arc tall, e^ify, no: enainibered v.ith fat, and have 
flender v/aills -, but they injure their beauty with 

The Gcor^ian> lave naturally much wit, and had 
they a proper ec!ucarion, might polTibly be ciiftin- 
guiflied by their learning, and their (kill in the arts 
and icicncts; but the ne-lecr of all inllruclion, and 
and the for«.c of ili txiin pie, render them ignorant, 
difnonell, \\\\\ exircaTilv vicioi^s. 7"hev ^iil, with 
ti^e GTc-atcil eifionrcrv, deny what they have laid and 
dorx", iTid ailerr ar.d vindicate the mod notorious 
f2!i*ely):d-. TIkt arc irreccncilcahle in th^ir hatred, 
and never foruive; but then thi-y -re not ealilv dif- 
pleak-d, and never cor.ceive a perretu.-l hatred with- 
out iull c:;i?l'e of iinjier. 1 hev are adtlidlid to drunk- 
ennels and luxurv, wh;c!i are n'jt even eftcemed 
crimes. The churihrncn ret drunk ns well as the 
laity, and keep bcuUtiU'l flaves for concubines. 
No body -s oftn 'od at this, becaufc it is the general 
authoriz-d culloni. 



The habit of the Georgian^ is alir.oft like of 
he Poles : they wiriir tl-.cT bonnets like theirs ; their 
^fts arc open at the brcaft, and fallencd ^ich but- 
Dns and loops ; their covering for the Ieg5 and feet 
rfcmbl:s chiit ot the Perfians, and the habi: of the 
tomen is entirelv Pcrfinn. 

The nobility exercife the moft tyrannical power 
)vcr their vafials, whom they obliiic 10 Vvo;k ibr 
:hem whole nionths toget'ner, and as ofrcn .^s they 
)ltare, without giving them either pay or food. 
rhey think they have a right to their fubftance, li- 
jcrty, an.{ 1 ves : they lake their children and kll 
:hc*i, or keep them as Haves j but rhey f^fldom fell 
my, elpecially women, who are above twenty years 
if age. 

The Georgians are almnft as ignorant wirh refpefl: 
:o religion as the Min^rrelians. Both thcfc countries 
•cceived the knowledge of Chriilianity in the fourth 
rentury, from a woman of Iberia, who embraced the 
i^briftian religion at Conftantir.opic; and both have 
low loft rhe fpirir of it. Thr re are many bilhops in 
Georgia belide the ca:hoiicos or patriarch. The 
3rince, though of tlie Mahometan rcrligion, com- 
nonly fills the vacant fce>, anJ generally chufes his 
>wn relations. 

Moft of tl'.e Georgian lords make an outward pro- 
'eflfion of the Mahorr.ctan religion : lome to <jain cm- 
ployments at court, or penfions from the ftate ; others 
:o obtain tlie honour of marrying rheir daugl.ters to 
:hc prince, or only to introduce them to the fcrvice 
if his women. 'I lierj are fume of thefe bafe nobi- 
lity who will ihcmftlvcs lead th^rir moll be.uiriful 
daughters to the prince i for which they are rcv/arJeJ 
oy a poft in the government, or a pcnfion. 

Whde I was at lVf:is, a Gecnz;ian lord, lettino; the 
prince knov/ that he had a niece remarkab!'-* for her 
uncommon beauty, his maefty ordered th::t flie fiiould 
be brought to him ; and he took upon Limfclf thvi 
office of bringing her. The villain wen: to his filler, 

B b 2 \NV\ci 

J72 CHARDIN's TRAVELS through 

vho was a widow, and told her that the prince would 
marry her daughter -, and that ihe muil prepare her 
for that honour. The mother immediately informed 
the poor girl of the violence that was going to be 
offered her. She loved a young lord in the neigh- 
bourhood, who had an equal affe6lion for her ; and 
their mother had encouraged their paflion. In this 
didrefs they took the refolution to condole with the 
lover. They fent for him, and he arrived foon after. 
He found the mother and the daughter (hut up by 
themfelves, mingling their tears, and in the deepeft 
diftrefs lamenting the fevcrity of her fate. The lover 
threw himfelf at their feet, and let them know that 
he feared nothing fo much as the lofs of his miftrds ; 
and the prince could inR\6t nothing on him fo dread- 
ful as this lofs. That the only way of prefcrving 
him from it, was their being immediately married; 
and that the next day, they might inform their perfi- 
dious uncle, that (he was no longer a maid. The 
propofal was accepted ; and the mother leaving the 
room, the lover wiped away the tears of diftrefs that 
fell from the eyes of his miftrefs, by inftantly marry- 
ing her. The uncle dilbovered the whole affair, and 
told it to his majefty •, who being enraged at his dif- 
appointmenr, gave exprefs orders for bringing to 
court both the mother, the daughter, and the huf- 
band. But they fled, and for fome months efcapcd 
from place to place. At length, being convinced 
that they (hould be at laft taken, they got to Acal- 
zika, where the Turkilh baffa took them under his 

The fear of fuch accidents obliges thofe of the 
Georgians, who have beautiful daughters, to marry 
them as foon as poflible, and even in their infancy. 
The poor efpecially marry theirs early, and even in 
the cradle, that the lords to whom they are fubjcct 
may not take them away, in order to fell, or make 
chem cheir concubines. 



Georgia has but four fortified towns, Teiiis, Gory> 
Suram, and Aly ; of which the former is the capital 
of the province. It is (ituated at the foot of a moun- 
tain, and by it runs the river Kur. The city is fur- 
rounded with handfome ftrong walls, except on the 
river fide, and extends from north to fouch. It has 
a large forcrcfs on the declivity of the mountain, 
where the garrifon only confifts of native Pcrfians. 
Here is a public fquare, an arfenal, and a market. 
This fortrefs is a place of refuge for criminals and 
debtors. The prince of Georgia is obliged to pals 
through it, when he goes, according to cuftom, with- 
out the gates of the city to receive the letters and pre- 
ients fent him by the king of Perfia ; becauie the 
city has no other entrance, in the road from Perfia, 
but through this fortrefs : and the prince never paflfes 
through it, without the apprehenfions that the gover- 
nor has fccret orders to feize his perfon. Teflis has 14 
churches, which is a great number in a country where 
there is fo little devotion. 

Though this city belongs to the empire of Perfia, 
and as well as the whole province, is governed by a 
prince who profeflfes the Mahometan religion, it has 
not one mofque. The Perfians have indeed made 
ufe of their utmofl endeavours to build them, but 
have never been able to accomplifii it; for the 
people immediately rofe in arms, pulled down the 
work, and beat the workmen. The princes of Geor- 
gia were indeed glad of thcfc fcditions ; for having 
abjured the Chriftian religion only to obtain the vice- 
royalty, they were not willing to confent to the eftab- 
lilhment of Mahometanifm. The public buildings 
at Teflis make a handfome appearance ; thefe are of 
ftone, and kept in good order, particularly the bazars 
and the caravanferas. 

On the loth, the prefect of the capuchins inform- 
ed the viceroy of my arrival ; which, indeed, could 
not be concealed from a prince, who knows the moft 
trifling things that happen at Teflis : but I was defir- 

B b 3 o>^ 

374 CHARDIN's TRAVELS through 

OU3 of feting him, and prefcnting the paflports of the 
king of Peril;:, addxikxi to all the gove:-nofsof pro- 
vinces, to whom 1 was icroug-y recoinmendcd •, for I 
made no ciouir b'^r at the fight of thefe orders he 
would !.ive Jiie a good rirccpiion, and an cfcort to 
conduct me out ol iiib dominions. This prince, who 
is caikd Ll.anaws K.Iian, toM the prefect that I was 
welcome, and that I IhouiJ do him a pleafure to 
CO r.e an i fee hiiii as fuon as i could ; and on the 
i2rri, he I'.'i.c a ^^eiulcman to inform me, that as he 
was en.tring on a week of rejoicing, during which 
he Ihoulvl c.crj day j. ivi- a public entertainment to 
his v"^' '! * conrr, he dcfircd me to come. The capu- 
K ]■•.]■■''. .- ' IT : wJ mv comrade and I to drels as well as 
j: .;!;i>L., and on ii: ir acc^un^. to make a very noble 
prejcnt to the prince. To this 1 agreed, bci.^gvery 
glad of an opnortunicy of (liewing my gratitude for 
the imiOiMin: ferviccs I had received from them. 

It vv.-j: ni-uT noon when we went to tx palace, ac- 
coniri-nivc! by tlie prelect, and one oi the commu- 
nity, i. mul i\'.tlier Ra|;hael. 'J'he prince was in a 
l..ji- iiboiii ICO ll-et !onc< and ao broad, built on the 
ba !v of the river wi'h an open fr nt on that fide. 

i l"l:ali not cvrfcribe tlie or ier and n;agnincenceof 
th s kail ; I Ilia!! onlv fav, th?t a rrre^u tleal of wine 
Wi. drank, an.d rh*ii a prodi.nou.' q.u.ntity of meat 
v,'^' e«t' n. We r.roJ'e Iroin ili !e aicer havmg f..t 
three hours ^ yet rhe lo:'.] \vx?x \\\.:: not vet brought 
in. Vv e m«dv- a low bow t) ^r.e prince on our retir- 
i-r;, v/iii-n Iw font ap::i^ tf) icii uf, we were welcome, 
ar.'vl ord.-!\.l u: to be run/ii-drcl I.ome. 

On li-e .)t:- i!i(* pririit' lent us two great fi.vgons 
of V. ine, i;v'^ pii.\.\rs, a'vi four p;;ri.ridge5. The 
c^entle ran wl' ; b.o::^^;ir, rokl me, thac the 
piinc" h.i! tiiv'.n hii:i orders to enquire, whether I 
wanted a!iy tiiii-</, ; anil whetlier the capuchins 
took taie to diver: us ; rnd :.o cell us, that if we liked 
the vvine he tent us, we miphi lend every day fori: 
to l»i:> rantrv. I tiianked the p;entleman, and defircd 



him to aflTure the prince, that the capuchins fufFered 
us to want for notliirm; ; and that we drank together 
the prince's health with the wine he fent. Indeed, 
wc could no whce d ink better. 

On the 16th, the p^injc invited us to the marriage 
of his niece, v/r.ic!i was p-rrrf >rmfd at the palace. I 
went there with the ; rcr';cc and fa:her R.:phael, one 
of the capuchins *, biit th.- marriage ceremony was 
over befrre wc anivi-J. It was pcrf irmcd in the 
grand (aVjoa wh v:e w; hiiJ. dined (xforr, and it be- 
ing fuH uF la.ii r,, n.) ochLV men were admitted but 
the prince, an.I i.i-. nca- rcla*":oi>s. 

It is (jniy lince t 'e ( *LO;'jia;is have been fubiect to 
Pcrlia that they have forbid clieir women to converfe 
wi:h r-nen : this, h:;.vev;-r, takes ulace onlv in the 
towns 1 for in the couiurv, and in places where there 
are no M-hometans, they wear no veils, and mike 
no difTiculty of ibe::^.^ anJ fpeakir.g to :he other ll-x : 
but as the cuRoviS c»f uv: i\ gradually 
gain ground in Georgia, v/idi tlu'ir rdigioi^, the li- 
berty of the women dc.reails in tlu' proport'on. 
The '" arriaije feal was on a terrace of the palace, 
furrounded witii a ioplia two fc.t fijh; and iipjn ic 
was creeled a ^rand ivivllion, lun:/jr:.d on lin." co- 
lumns 22 feet i 1 h.«;i.jv., and ab-.^ti: 5 inche-^. :/) dia- 
meter. The linin;^; -as nf iio\<\ iivl iViVv.r b;\')c.:de, 
velvet, anJ painted ii:i'::i, fo artUKly jjin.d, tha: by 
the light of the tapers it J li.;e a cicling coin- 
pofed of dowers and ni.)reico work. The fuo > wvte 
covced with line carpers, a:i.! tlie :">lav.e li.jiued wi:h 
40 large lamps on ilanJs refe:nb;i:'.g candL. licks, 
moft of which were ;o pounds '^ve l;'.:, an i ir^ LkIics 
in dijimerer; the four n^'xt the priice \veie ^t!'.:, 
I?! • 'iC A- -5 liivcred. 'll\j danJ at the Ijei:^Sr of af -oc 
.... I a ii if, f'>ore a cu;j full (jf tall ?w, wliich kr)^)lijd 
f.v.) wicks \vi:h iiuhr. 

The Liueib, wh'> a nounted :o an ".:: r.n !r. ridivJ, 
were ranged on fopha>, extend r-.?, m) :v.! r j ^'.1: 
tliJ prince fat on one raifed above ike rvil, ;... 1 cjvj;-- 

B b 4 < : 


376 CHARDIN^s TRAVELS throtfgft 

ed with a canopy made in the form of a dome. Hii 
fon and h s brothers were oil his right, and the bi- 
fliops on his left. Soon after we were leated the 
bridtrgroom en:e-cd, led by the c.iiholicos, and hav- 
ing taken his ieat, the prince s rcUtions went to 
make him their compliments, and to off :r liim a pre- 
fent; and this was afterward done by rroft of the 
other guefls, each in his rank. This fiirmcd a kind 
of proccflion, that lallev! a. -out half an hour. The 
prefcnts confnled of money in gold and filver, and in 
fmall filver cups : but all uf them together did not, 
I believe, amount to above ?oo crowns* 

The fcaft confiftcd of three krviccs, in each rf 
which :lure were about fixty large covered difhes. 
The firft was of all forts of pilaw or pleo ; that 
is, rice dreflcd with meat, which was of various 
colours and taftes : the yellow was drefled withfaf- 
fron, cinnamon and fugar; the red with the juice rf 
the pomegranate •, but the whice, wiiich is the beft, 
was of the natural colour. This pilaw is very deli- 
cate food, and exireamly v.hekfome. The fccond 
ferv'ice was of tarts, fwect and four fricafees, and ra- 
gouts : thL' third was of road meat. All the three 
fei vices were mixed with fifli, eggs, and pulfe for 
the ecclefiaftics. Everv thins: was brought in and 
taken away with furprifing filence : for three Euro- 
peans at a table would make more noife than ail the 
gutib and fcrvants in this hall, who were no Ids 
than if;o. The prodigious number of drinking vef- 
ieis was alfo very furprifing; thefe were about 120, 
2nd confided of bowls, cups, and horns, fixty fla- 
go'.:-, and twelve tankards. 

I uo not kiiow how long the feaft laded, for I did 
not day til! ti;e end of it •, we retiring at midnight, 
when the meat was not then taken away. No 
bodv drr.nk till the tliird ll-rvice, and then thev be- 
a?.n to drink heakhs in tlie following; manner. TheV 
delivered to t-igiit pcr'bns neared the prince, four on 
his rigiu lund, and four on his left, eight fmail cups 



of the fame fize and fafliion full of wine. Thofe on 
the right hand drank off the wine 6r(l, and then thofe 
on the left. The others next them were then fcrved 
till the health went round. After which they began 
again with eight larger cups. It is the cuftom of the 
country to drink the healths of the great with the 
largeft cups ; and the gucft% to fliew their rcfpeft, 
continue this till they are quite drunk. In this man- 
ner they drank for the two lall hours of my being 
there, I afterward learnt that they did not bnak off 
till it was light. The capuchins and I were exempt- 
ed from drinking \ and indecrd had I drank as much 
as thofe who fat near me, 1 fhould have died upon 
the fpot : but the prince gave orders that we ihould 
drink no rrore than we liked. 

When th.- healths began, the inftruments and vo- 
cal mufic ftruck up ; with which the whole afTembl/ 
feemed tranfponed, though to me it appeared rude 
and barbarous. 

On che 2oth, I defired the prefeft and father Ra- 
phael to return thanks to the prince for the honours 
he had conferred upon me, and to defire him to grant 
me an officer to conduct me as fur as Irivan, the ca- 
pital of Arnv-nia M.ijor ; to which the prince readily 
agreed. He profeHed to entertain an efteem for the 
Europeans, and that he fhould be glad to have a 
number of them fettled in Georgia ; and added, that 
if they came thither for the fake of trade, he would 
grant them all the advantages they could defirc : and 
that as his country extended to the Black Sea, they 
would find their advantage in travelling through it 
to the Eaft Indies. 

On the 28th of February we left Tcflis, our Me- 
hemandcr riding before to previ-nt my paying any 
duties, and to furnifli us with provifions and lodgings 
on the road We paffed by feveral towns and villages, 
and at laft arrived at Trivan. 

Irivan is a large dirty city, the greateft part of 
i;vhich is filled witiA gardens and vineyards. It is fuu- 


ated in a plain furroiindedwith mouncains, and on the 
ban!:s of two rivers 5 the Zengui wafhirjg it co ifae 
norih-well, anJ a river L.:i!rd The Forty Fountains, 
from the nunibcr of its Iburccs, running to the ibuth- 
vxIl. Irivan is fitLiatc.l in 51'' 15' north latitude, 
and enjoys a g:od air; b t it is thick, and very cold. 
The winter lalU lo.ig, and the fnjw ;bmetiaies falls 
in /ypril. The country is, however, extreamly fer- 
tile, and the wine pro.iuced in its ne.ghbourhood is 
good and cheap. The Armenians eftecm this the 
nioi'c antient city in the world, and believe that Noah 
dwelt there both bef jre and after the deluge, when 
he defcended from the mountain on which the ark 
relied. They even fay, that here was the terreftriai 

At twelve leagues from Irivan, is the celebrated 
mountain on which almoft all the pe >ple of the coun- 
try are firmly perfuaded that the ark reitcd. This 
mountain is fo hip;h and large, thar wh-.-n the air is 
clear, it do.s not appear ab.-ve f.vo le-«^ues d^llant. 
The Armeni..n5 cvon Ixli^ve th t the ::r:< is ulll on 
the fummit cf this iV:Ou;n.i'.i^. •, and Li-, that a n:orik, 
nar»:ed Ja.', wu.t hair" way up the acclivity; he 
cojld t?o no fartlKT, bec:m.''r, h ivijvj; aicciukd thus 
far every clr.v, ho \va<, wluh allecp in the niuhr, car- 
ricd back to the jrlace rVcrri v/Iiencr be ft out in the 
morning. T\w) aciii, thau this continued a long 
rime, till (;od b. ir.;-; v. iiiinfj to fatisty in part his dc- 
fires, ient iii:u a I'-.-tc cr" ti^.e ark by ,\n angel, and 
cr(kred h'm to be told, t:i.i: ail acceis to the top uus 
foibidJen to liiinkind. 

At tilt. u;o: ei' ^.-ic n.ounrain i> a viila^c of Chrir- 
tiar.s, and a nron.-.ilrry : for vvl^.ich the Arr:-.en*ans 
have prcac Jv'.vr'iiii, i^d'evip.^/ that Noah finl ofilred 
i>.crii:Lei tli^iv i.:V:. tlie dc'luce. i ii s i> called The 
Moiiallery of ii.e /•poilies; from its Lx-ing pretend- 
ed li-ac tiu* b^-..:i* of Sr. Andrew aiid St. Matthew 
wcr^r ihciv.-, and that tiie tl^iili of that cvangc- 
Ji.'i i*> 'jrcilrvCvii'i die church of th^ ir.onailerv. The 

L • 


people relate a hundred other abli-rd particuhir. (>f 
this place, and of the country all arovi.^ 1, which thty 
make their holy land. 

I having fent to inform the governor of Irivan of 
my arrival, a meflcnger cam^ to teli 'le rhat I was 
welcome ; and chat he was very defirous of Jecing ; e, 
and a part of the jewels I haH br.-^ught I was thtn 
afked how many men 1 had with mc, and wh-thtr I 
choie to lodge in the fortrefs, or in the great Cdi\.van- 
fera. I chofe the latter-, btrcaure tiiC:e can be no 
place more fecure, and there is no want of company, 
• for merchants come tiiere from all parts of Add. On 
this, the governor giving orders for niy having one 
of the bell apartments, i went thither the next day, 
with all my bigjage, and about noon an officer bi!- 
longing to thv: governor brought me an orJer from 
the Intendanc to receive daily from thi: propiT omcer, 
bread, wine, flefli, fifli, fruir, rice, butter, wood, 
and other necefraries for fix perfons. 1 he quantity 
for each is regulated ^ but the portion allowed for 
one peribn is iulficienc for two. 

On the loth, I went, by the governor's defire, to 
pay him a vifit, and found him in a large handiome 
light clofet, with feveral lords of the country, lie 
treated me with great complaifance, told mc: thr e 
times that I was welcome, and enLcrtaineJ me with 
fweet-meats and Ruflian brandy. 1 IhcvveJ I:im my 
patents, after which he fpent an hour in afking me 
news of Europe, in relation to the wars in that part 
of the world; the prefent difpofition of the Chriilian 
princes, and the (late of the fciences, with the n.w 
difcovcries that had been made. He fpent aro"-,cr 
hour in examinino; the iewelsl had broui'ht, of which 
he talked lik^: < ».(.• who was well ac ju:iint<;d With 
them. He let ;:ii :e thofe that particulnrlv picafcd 
him, and fuch as he thought would be aj!;ree;ib!e to 
the princefs his wife. Having kept n.c 10 dinner, 
he honoured me afterward with his converfation for 


3So CHARDIN's TRAVELS through 

half an hour longer, and then difmifled me, ordering 
my mchcmander to fufFer me to want for nothing. 

This governor was one of the greatell lords ot Pcr- 
fia ; he was beloved by the king, and revered by 
the court ; his two fons were his majcfty's chief fe- 
vourites ; and he was refpefte J by the people on ac- 
count of his juftice and inregrity. Iniieed he well 
defervcd his good fortune ; for l^wfiJc ihefe amiable 
qualities, he was a man of fcnic, and fond of the 
arts and fcicnces. 

On the 12th, I difmifled the officer belon:ring to 
the viceroy of Georgia, who had condufted me to 
Irivan ; on which occafion I made him a prefent of 
eight piRolcs. 

On the 6th of April, I dined with the lieutenant 
of the fortrefs, who was a native of Dagheftan, an 
extenfive country covered with mountains, on the 
confines of Ruflia •, and I had the pleafure of hearing 
him relate many fingularities, with refpeft" to the 
manners and cufloms of his country. The next day 
the treaiurer entertained mc in the fame manner. I 
now made diele gentlemen Imall prclciits, in return 
for the favours I had received from them. 

On the 1 7th we arrived at Tauris, the fccond city 
of Perfia, both with relped to its extent, commerce, 
riches, and number of its inhabitants. There is the 
iargeft fquare at Tauris I have ever fcen ; it being 
much more fpacious than that of lipaiian. The Turks, 
when they v/cre in pofil-fllon of this city, have fre- 
quently drawn up v/ithin this Iquarc -? 0,000 men in 
order of battle. In the evening the populace are di- 
verted there with diolls, mountebanks, wrcftling, 
ram and bull-fights ; the repeating of pieces in prole 
and verie, and dancing wolves. This fpacious fquare 
i^: in the day time ulcd as a market for all kinds of 

The number of inhabitants at Tauris, I believe, 
amounts to at Icj-.-l 550,000 people i befide a multi- 


tude of ftrangers that are conftantly there from all 
pares of Afia. The fineft Perfian turbans are made 
in this city ; and I have been aflured by the principal 
merchants, that the inhabitants annually manufacture 
6000 bails of (ilk. The commerce of this city ex- 
tends not only all over Perfia, but into Turkey, Ruf- 
lia, Tartary, the Indies, and to the Black Sea. 

I flayed at Tau"is for fome time, during which I 
fold a number of jewels to the governor, and the fon 
of the receiver-general of the province, for which I 
received a thoufand crowns ; but they would not al- 
low me to get any thing by them : the firft placed to 
my account his father's interefl with the (hah, and 
the other that of his brother's, and of his uncle Mirza 
Sadec, the great chancellor ; forcing me to take the 
letters of recommendation they offered me, as a re- 
compenfe for giving them the profit I ought to have 
made. It is impofTible to conceive the carefTes, the 
flattery, the engaging and agreeable behaviour ufed 
by the great in Fcrfia, to promote their own intercfV, 
even in affairs of the Imalleft moment : in which 
they act with fuch an appearance of fincerity, 
that a perfon ought to be perf:;dHy acquainted 
with the genius of the country and of the court, to 
prevent his being deceived by them. 

As this was the time when the Curdes, the Tur- 
kuman, and the other nations who dwell in tents, 
and are moflly robbers, quit the plains, on account 
of the heat of the fun, and remove with their flocks 
and liabitations in the mountains in fcarch of fhade 
and paflure, we were adviled for the greater fecurity 
to wait for company : for this purpol'e I flayed till 
the 28th of May, and then fct cut with the provoft 
of the merchants, who had fourteen horics and ten 

Leaving Cafbin, or Cafwin, to the right, wc pro- 
ceeded on our journey toward lipuhan. We had for 
ibme time fct out an hour or two before fun-fer, and 
complcatcd a journey of about five ', r fix l-^Mirucs bv 
g ' " aboi:- 

.:: CHARDIN's TRAVELS through 

libov.i midnight. People in the eaft generally travel 

in this manner tiurir.i: ihe tum.Ter, to llcure them- 

ftivcsfrjm the heat or' t.'.e lun^ whuh is very fatigu- 

in-' both ro m. n and be.tlt. In ihe nirrhr thev travel 

w'lO. g'e: tc- Iptrc-d. '1 h:* Icrvanrs Iroin time to time 

proct:u on :oot, iir.d rhc mjucrs thcmtclvcs are glad 

to walk. ;i litile to jTcvent tiicir bcint; lirized with 

flr^p, and ro l^erp rhemfelvcs v/arm, w.iivh eafes the 

h^- fes. Cn trrir arrival thtv ^-o ro b.fJ, and gain 

in ihci'ay rhc flvrep ciiey loi^ \u the ni^ht. 

Op t'^e ijth vve procjew-c-.l to Kom, a large city 

fitU-U d aloR2 chc biuk of a river, it has alio levcral 

liancir\n''C CAravanll-ras, and ii:^e iTc^fqucs ; the moft 

bfiutf'jl of thclc lalt, is iIilU in whii:h are interred 

the pr'rr. !s . arinu, Maho.r:et's daug.Ster, and the 

two lilt kings of Pcrfiv*. The ftri^cture of this' is beautiful, and its ornarr.trnts extreamly 

fu ;:l>il:oli.>. The ^':cy:^!> is throuj^h four large and 

ft-tci.' courts •, \-v: 'fi^A of wlii.h is a hincifame ear- 

den, <iivi tile • h is 1 v.i:!i tranfparcnt marble, 

2'. 1 fv-VjO-.-.v:. .; vii'i rcit IdJl:::..:^ tor the priefts. 

Til'" tl ■(». : .) iwch r.'.wS'jkiiiT, i> piated witJi lilvcr, 

^ k ■ 

a:. I ti'.c t.'.;* "ib.i a c ill :•=••]•; '.Jed \vic!i paics of the la.TiC 
m:f:.'... N"ii^..;iu c '.n ::j irKMined nciicr, neatc^r and 
nv-i'v :"•■•:.■'.!: cnc liiMi thcic :ii.i«.;lM:rj. '1 o that of 
PativL' :I:e rVri':-: vi^e i.'c name t,f MalTuTia, or 
Pure, a:x] hoi i i- ir. j'-c-.n: vcnerjic-.'^.r.. Thirreisa 
reven'je i/i 520 :j i-^ o.*!ong:ng :o the place. 

On the ;.Lt "1 v.- ,-;iv d :U llpahui, the metropo- 
lis or P'.T-'.r:, :r\! :..:.■: of the Jar^Lft cities in the 
world; tor, '»v. I :C'^'^ ti.e ill urbi, ir is not lels than 
2-;. iv.iks in ei ^.•e.n;ls-^.•^':•v^ Some { eribns compute 
t .e nuT-ber rA z r: iri'v.:b::i:n:s at 1,! 00,^00, but 
th.^Tc wiio jDakc :;.-r n\ Ai moderate computation fup- 
pv.ecney a^uju*:: to o.'dy (.=00,000, and the numbifr 
of ho.ifrs were ::t v^.w ume laij to r.mojnt to about 
29,460, v/itriou: injuKlin;^ t le palaces, mofques, 
jvjblic batlis, biz.;rs, and caravanirr^s. The city 
alV/earj as well peo^.'led asLondj.T; it is built on 



the banks of the Zenderoud, over which are three 
fine bridges, one near the middle of the city, and each end. The walls of Ifpahan are about 
20,000 paces round ; they are only built with earth, 
and are fo hid by the houfes and gardens, both on the 
infide and without, that in many places they cannot 
be feen. The city is alfo defended by a ditch and 

The beauty of Wpahan particularly confifts in the 
great number of its magnificent palaces, handiome 
houfes, large caravanferas, beautiful bazars, and in 
its canals and fpacious ftreets, the fides of which are 
adorned with rows of lofty plar.c-tiees ; but the other 
ftreets are generally narrow and crooked. The worft 
( is, they are not paved ; but as, on the one hand, 
! the air is very dry, and on the other, the people wa- 
i ttr the ftreet before their houfes morning and even- 
ing, they are neither fo dirty nor io dulty as might 
beexpeded. They have three other confiderable in- 
conveniencies : one, that the ilreets being over vaults 
made for the paflfage of the canals which run under 
them, they fometimes fall in and endanger the lives 
of the paflengers ; another is, there being wells in 
the ftreets, the fides of which are even with the earth, 
the paflengers are expofed to the fame danger, if 
they do not take fufficient care ; the third inconve- 
nience is a very difagreeable one, which is, that under 
the walls of the houfes are large holes for receiving 
all the filth, and fometimes ferving as common bog- 
houfes. The ftreets, however, do not ftink as might 
be imagined -, which is in parr owning to the drynels 
of the air, and alfo to thefe pits being emptied every 
day by the peafants, who bring fruit and other pro- 
▼ifions to the city, and load their cattle with the 
ordure, which they carry away to manure their gar- 

The city on every fide appears at a diftance like a 
^ood, intermixed with large and lofty domes ar.d 


'3»4 CHARDIN's TRAVELS thnwi^ i 

On the 2d of February, 1674, having fold great, j 
part of my jewels, 1 kfi lipahiin, aud uiivcd oa tis 
13th atilic ruins of the anncnc FofepolU*. 

At a dlAance thtfe magnificent remains appear m 
in a kind of amphitheatre, the mountains formiog a 
half moon as if to embrace them. They are IbtKd 
in a fine plain due extends two leagues in breadth 
from the Ibuth-weft lo the north-eaft -, and near fbnjr 
kagues in kngih from the north-weft to the foudt 
caft. This pljin. is ufually called Mardasjo, and die 
inhabitanu pretend that it contains SSo villages, and 
about 15C0 within the diftance of 12 leagues round 
the ruins, including the villages fcated among the 
mountains ; Ibn.e of which are adorned with beaud* 
ful ^irdens. The gre^teft part of this plain is, ia 
in the winter feafon, fldUcd with water, which is a 
very advantageous circunnflance with rc{peA to the 
rice thai grows ai that time. The foil of this agree- 
able plain is moftly converted into arable lands, and 
watered with a number of ftreams that render, it et 
ceedingly fertile. It abounds with many forts of birds, 
and more particularly wich cranes, pigeons, quails, 
fnipes, partridges, havjks, and vaft Bights of crowi, 
which are very numerovic thruughcut all Perfia. 

The antien: palace of the kings of i'erfia, ufually 
called the houfe of Darius, and by the inhabitanu 
Chel-menar, or Chil-minar, which figtiifies the forty 
pillars, is fituated to the weft, at the foot of tbc 
mountain of Kuligrag-met, or Compaflion, antiendy 
called the Royal Mountain, which is entirely com- 
pofed of freeftonc. That fuperb edifice hds the walls 
of three of its Gdcs ftill ftanding. The front extendi 
600 paces from north to fouth, and 3^ from eaftto 
weft, as far as the mountun, where an afcent is formed 

* There are no rrmiing of tlie city icMf now llinding; ihoA 
fiiti ra be feen, bclnngin^, according to Sir John Chardin, t'aha 
to an irtient umple, or accotdinjr to M^-. Comeliui le Brayn, n 
tfce celebrued ptUcc of I'trftpoli-, wantonly burnt 1^ Alexander 



between fome fcattercd rocks ^ beyond which there 
appears to have been formerly fome other buildings, 
the rocks appearing in fome places finely fmoothed 
and polilhed. 

The top of this edifice prefents to the view a plat- 
form of 400 paces, extending from the middle of 
the front wall to the mountain -, and along three fides 
of this wall is carried on a pavement ot two (lones 
joined together, eight feet broad. With relpeft to 
the height of the wall, it is in fome places 24 feet ; 
but it is not every where fo high, in Ibme places the 
carch about it is raifed, and in others the wall itfelf 
has funk. On examining the previous remains we 
muft proceed as we do in examining thofe celebrated 
beauties, whom age or ficknefs has brought low, 
that is from the traces of beauty we fee, foriu an idea 
of what they were. The ftoncs of the wall are black, 
harder than marble, fome of them finely poliflied, 
and many of them of fuch an amazing fize, that it 
is difficult to conceive how they were able to remove 
and raifc fuch prodigious mafics. 

The principal ibircale is placed between the mid- 
dle of the front, and the norchcrn t^nA of tiie eJiiicc. 
It confifts of two flights of fteps, th^t wind off from 
each other to the diilance of 42 feet at the bottom. 
Thefc fteps are only four inches high, and 14 in 
breadth. They are the moft commodi :u:» (fays M. 
Le Bruyn) I ever faw, except thole of tlio viceroy's 
palace at Naples j which are, hov;ever, in my opi- 
nion, fomethiui' h't'hcr. There are ^ ', or' thelc iLps 
on the northern fide, and 5;^ to the fourh , but thcl'e 
lall are not lb eniire as the orhers. I am hkcwilc 
perfi.iaded that there are levercil others under ground, 
that have been covered over bv length cf time, as 

fiom one to the o:hL;-j iVom tiijncc the nvj !l -.rhts 
Vol.. V(, C c arc 


are carried ofF from each other, and return back to 
the center at an equal diftance from the extream parts 
of the top : and above chefe flights is a pavement (^ 
large floncs, and another fingle flight of fteps 75 
feet in width, anfwering to that of the bottom, and 
leading up to the grand entrance of the edifice. 
This itaircafc has a very fine and Angular eflTeft, an- 
fwering to the magnificent remams of the reft of the 

On afcending the upper fteps, the fpeftator fees 
before him, at the diftance of 42 feet from the front- 
wall of the ftaircafc, two grand portals, and as many 
columns. Thefe portals are 22 feet 4 inches in 
depth, and 13 feet 4 inches in breadth. On the in- 
fide, upon a kind of pilalter on each hand, is a large 
figure in balfo relievo ; they bear fome rciemblance 
to the fphynx, and are 20 feet from' the fore to the 
hinder legs, and 1 4 feet and a half high. The faces 
of thcfe animals are broken off, and their bodies 
much damftged •, but what is moil extraordinary, the 
bread and farc-feer projecl from the pilafter. Thofc 
of the lirrt porral are turned toward theftaircale, and 
iholl* or" th^:; fecond, each of which has wings, face 
the moMP.cain. Indeed it is impoflible to know what 
thclc figures, thus niurilatcd, were defigned to reprc- 
lent ; bu: tiitr bodies have fome rcfcmblance to that 
of a hone. On the upper part of thcfe pilafters 
are characters, which from their Ihiallnefs and eleva- 
tion it is impofTible to dillinguifli. The height of 
the fir-ft portal is ;y feet, and that of the fecond 28 ; 
the pilallers (land on a bale five feet two inches in 

I'he two columns tiiat appear between the portds 
are the leafi: damage-.l of ail, p:M'cicularIy with re- 
fpeit to their capitals and the uthcr oriianicnts of 
the Uj'per jMrrs •, but the bales are entirely covered 
over with e.:rch. They are 14 feet in c.ircurr.ferer.ce, 
and rile to the height of 54 feet. Tiieic were for- 
4 merlv 


mcrly two others between thcfe and the laft portal, 
feveral pieces of which lie half buried in the grounds 

At the diltancc of 52 feet fouth of the fame por- 
tal is a large ba(bn for water, cut out of a fingle itone 
20 feet long, and 17 feet five inches in breadth, and 
raifed three feet and a half above the furface of the 
floor. From this bafon to the northern wall is an 
extent of ground comprehending 1 50 paces in length, 
in which nothing is to be feen but the fragments of 
large ftoncs, and part of the Ihaft of a column that 
is not fluted like the reft, and is twenty feet in cir- 
cumference. Beyond this track of ground, and as 
far as the mountain, the earth is covered with heaps 
of (tones. 

Proceeding fouthwafd from the portals already de- 
fcribed, you fee two other flights of fteps refen)bling 
the former, the one to the eaft, and the other to the 
weft. On the upper part the wall is embclliihed 
with foliage, and the reprefentation of a lion rending 
a bull in baflTo relievo, much larger than the life. 
There are alfo fmall figures on the middle wall. This 
ftaircafe is half buried under the earth. 

From hence extends a wall 45 feet in len3;th, be- 
yond the lower part of the ftaircafe, and then U an 
interval of 67 feet, extending to the wcllcrn front, 
which corrcfponds with the other, and has three 
ranges of fissures one over the other, with a lion tear- 
ing an afs that has a horn projefting from the fore- 
head; and between thefe animals and rows of figures 
is a fquare filled with antique charafters, the u;:pcr- 
moft of which are defaced. The figures arsf icfs da- 
maged in t'lat part of the (Iructure where the ground 
is lower : but the wall, which extends from the ftair- 
cafe to th'j wcftcrn fronr, his n.;t any fi^^urcs. On 
the other iliJc the fcairs arc tli:ec raii-ics of fm.dl 
figures ; bi:r tlicfe on rlu' upj) r row are oniy vilil^le 
from ihc v.j.ift downv.urd. Ihefe fij^urcs are only 
two fcti line inches l.i.?,h, and the wall, which is 

Cc 2 live 


five feet three inches in height, has an extent of 9S 

On the top of the (leps, lad defcribed, is an en- 
trance into an open place paved with large ftoncs, 
whole breadth is equal co tlie diftance from the ftair- 
cale 10 the firlt columns, which comprehends the 
jpace of 2 2 feec 2 inches. 1 hefe columns are dif- 
poicd into two ranges, each of which coniifb of fix 
pillars, but none ot them are entire j there are alfo 
eight bales or {x-dcUals, and the ruins of ibme others. 
At the dIOijncc or ;o feet 8 inches, were formcriy 
fix rows of other piilars, each row confifling of fix: 
thdc 36 pillars v/cre likcwife 22 feet 2 inches diftanc 
from tach other, but only feven of them are now 
entire ; however, all the bafcs of the others are 

At the diilance of 70 feet 8 inches from thefc rows 
of columns on the v/elt, toward the front of the ftair- 
cafe, ^vere once tv.elve other columns in two ranges, 
each of whicii CJiuaincd Jix, but only five are now 
remainintv 'ihc iirour.d is there covered with the 
trcU£me!U.- of, :vrA tlic ornaments that fervcd 
for tU^r c/ipiiais ; becv/.en wiiich arc pieces of fculp- 
lure rcnn iVntir.f^ c. :v. . 1 , cii tlu*ir knees. On the top 
of on;: of thec:jlu;v.!".o is a compartment reprcfenting 
camels in thatpoilur:'. 

On advancijip; t(r.vard the caft, you are prefcntcd 
with a view ot fevcral ruins, confilling of portals, 
palfagcs and windows. Tlic infides of the portals 
are atiorned with figures in bafs relief. Thefe ruins 
extend 90 paces from eafl: to well, and 12;;^ from 
north to fouth, and are 6j paces both from the 
columns and the mountains. In the midtlie of thtlc 
ruins the earth is covered with 76 broken columns; 
19 of v.hicii flill kipport the entablature : their Ihafts 
are formed oi' four pieces, beude the bale and ca- 

At the diftance of i iS feet from thcfc columns to 



the fouth, is an edifice that rifes higher than any 
other part of the ruins, from its being fituatcd on a 
hill. The front wall, which is five feet fcvcn inches; 
high on that fide, is compofed of a fingle range of 
ftones, fome of which are eight feet deep ; and the 
wall extends 113 feet from eaft to weft, but has 
neither figures nor any other ornaments. However, 
in the middle of the front are the ruins of a double 
(laircafe, on the fides of which are feveral figures. 
The reft of the building was chiefly compoled of 
large and fmall portals, and is entirely dcftroyed. 
The largeft of thefe portals is five feet wide, and 
five feet two inches deep. Among the reft, tv/o por- 
tals appear to the north, with three niches or windows 
walled up. Under thefe portals are tlfe figures of a 
nun and two women, down to the knees ; for their 
legs are covered with earth that is raifed againft 
them. Under the other gate is t!:e figure of a man 
holding a lion by the mane. To the fouth is a por- 
tal and four open windows, each of which is five 
feet nine inches wide, and eleven in height, includ- 
ing the cornice ; their depth is equal to that of the 
grand portals. The two lides of this gate arc carved 
with the figure of a man, with fomething on his head 
rcfembling a tiara. He is acccompanica by two wo- 
men, one of them holds an umbrella over his head. 
On the infide, three niches arc covered wi[h aniient 
Perfian characters. 

There are two other gates to the weft that are not 
covered ; wirhin one of thefe is the figure of a man 
fighting a bull : with his It-ft hand he p;rarps a liorn 
in his forehead, while with his right he plunges a 
dagger into his belly. On the other fide the figure, 
another man clafps the horn with his righc hand, and 
ftabs the beaft with his left. The fecond portal has 
the figure of a man carved in the fame manner, with 
a winged deer, that has a horn in his fore-head. 
Horns were antiently the emblems of ftrcngth and 

C c 3 ma- 


majefly ; they were therefore given to the fun and the 
moon •, and Alexander was called by the Orientals, 
Dhulkarnam, or the horned, becaufe he nnadc him- 
felt kins of the horns of the fun, that is, of the caft 
and the well. 

Behind this edifice are the ruins of another, which 
excted it in length by 38 feet. It has alfo niches and 
windows, the former of which arc cut out of fingle 
Hones. A little to the fouth is a double flight of 
fteps, feparated by walls embellifhcd with fmall Bguits 
and foliage. 

Farther to the fouth, are fubterraneous paflfagies, 
into which none of the natives of the country dare to 
enter, though they are faid to contain grcrat treafurcs; 
this is owing to a general perlbafion, tiiat all the 
lights carried into thcfe places will go out of them- 
fdves. This opinion did nor, however, intimidate 
cither Sir John Chardin or Mr. Lc Bruyn ; thqf 
both exainined them with the utmoft care, and pro- 
ceeding with liglirs through thcfe pafliigcs, till they 
ended in a nanow track, which extended a great 
lcn.:th, and appeared to have been originally contriv- 
ed for .in a ',uedudl •, but its ftraitncfs rendered it im- 
pofTibie to be pafled. 

S'.ill tar. her to ihe fouth are the remain? of another 
edifice, which extend 160 feet from north to fouth, 
and iQi from well to cad. Ten portals belonging 
to it a;e lliil to be leen, together with fcven windows 
and fortv inclokires, that were lorn^.^rlv covered 
roorr.s. In the n^.idJlc arc the balls of 36' columns 
in fix r.:rc:es and the n;iound is covered with laroe 
ftonci', under which were aqncdurts. 

'J hi re antiently flcxid another ftruclure to the weft- 
v.-:ir.i of the lift mentioned building. On rhe ruins 
cl I'.e wall, whi.h illl riles near twj feet above the 
p;vrp..r::t, are cut the fis:ures of men in bafib relievo, 
t:ic:i ri-'relentcd with a lan.*e. Hie ground cnclofcd 
bv thih w.'.il c ^r.rains a number of round (tones that 
Y-cTC iivj b.":il'D uf columns. 



On the eaft fide of thefe lad ruins are the remains 
of a beautiful ftai^cafe, 60 feet in length, refembling 
that of the front wall ; but though mod of the ileps 
are dcftroyed by time, the wall that feparaces the two 
flights is dill eight feet in height, and adorned with 
figures almod as big as the life. The front contains 
the reprefentation of a lion encountering a bull : there . 
are alfo lions of the fame workmandiip on the wings 
of the Itaircafe ; both of them accompanied with 
characters and figures almod as big as the life. Co- 
lumns were formerly difpofed between this edifice 
and the other lad mentioned. Among thefe ruins 
are four portals, each adorned with the figure of a 
man, and two women holding an umbrella over his 

A little to the north of thefe two lad edifices are 
two portals with their piladers, on one of which is 
alfo the figure of a man and two women, one of 
whom holds an umbrella over his head. About thefe 
women is a fmall figure with wings, which are ex- 
panded to the fides of the portico. The lower part 
of the bud of this figure feems to terminate on the 
two fides, with a fprcad of foliage, and a kind of 
frieze. Over the fecond figure a man is featcd in a 
chair, with a daiT in his hand , and another (lands 
behind him, with his right hand upon the chair : a 
fmall figure above holds a circle in its left hand, and 
points to fomething in his right. Under this portal 
arc three ranges of figures, all of whi-.h have their 
hands lifted up i and over the third pilader, which 
dill remains, two women hold an umbrella over the 
head of a man. Tiie earth is aho covered with frag- 
ments of columns and other antiquities. 

From hence you proceed to the lad ruins of the 
druftures on the mountain. On the fouth-fide 
are two portals, under of wliich a man is fcaied 
in a chair, with a d::f^* in his right hand, and in his 
left a kind of v^Ue : behind him is another figure, 

C c 4 which 


vhich holds fomrthing on his head like the tdl of » 
iea-horic, and has a linen cloih in his right hand. Bfr' 
hind are three rows of Bgares with lifted hands : - Jbur 
In the Brft, and Bve in each of the other tworowb 
They are dirce feet fbur inches high i but the (eated 
figures are much larger than the life. Above this an 
ft^eral cnnamental ranges of foliage, the loweft rf 
which is iti'Termixed with fmall lions, and die higbtft : 
with oxen. Over thefe ornaments is a little wiiwc^ 
figure, ^hich holds in his left hand fomething vM 
relcmble a fmall glafs, and makes a ligna^ with Hi 
right. Thefe portals are twelve feet five inches ii 
breadth, and ten feet fbur inches deep; and'^ 
bigheft of the pilaftcrs is from twenty-eight id thiin 
feet. Qn the two toward the north a man is feate^ 
withaperfon behind him, like the preceeding figures; 
and behind tSis arc two other men, holding in their 
hands fomething that is broken : before the figure 
rcprcfentcd fitting, are two other figures, one with 
his hands on his lips with an air ot falutation, and 
the other holding :>. 1'm.iH veflcl. Above thefe figures 
is a ftone filled with ornaments, and below are five 
ranges of figures, three feet in h"ig;ht : thefe area 
hand of foldiers armed in difFcrrnr manners. From 
the foot of thefe mountains you have a full view of 
all the ruins, er^cept the walls and Itaircafes that can- 
not here be Icen, 

No other differerwre is obferved in the columns, ex- 
cept that foine of them have capitals, and others have 
not V witli refpeft to tlie elevation of thofe that are 
pcrfeft, they are all from 70 to 72 feet high, and are 
1 8 feer five inches in circumference, except thofe near 
the firlt portals. The bales are round, and 24 feet 
five* inches in circumference j ihcJl* are four feet three 
inches high, and the lower moulding is one foot five 
inches thick. They have three forts of ornaments, 
■which may be termed capitals. 

JJeftde ^he bafib relievo already mentioned, .there 


tre many others ; particularly the reprefentatlon of 
a triumph, or a procefEon of people bearing prelents 
to a king, confifting of a great number of figures, 
with Tome led horfes, an empty chariot, a led camel, 
&c. The drapery of all the human figures in this 
edifice is extreamly fingular, and has no relation to 
that of the antient Greeks and Romans, Their mi- 
litary habits are agreeable to the mode of the Perfians 
and Mede«. The rules of art are not obferved in rhe 
figures, fmce no mufcles are vifible in the naked 
parts, and the figures themfelves have a heavy air : 
nothing has been obferved but the contours, and this 
negleft caufes them to appear ftiflf and inelegant : 
the draper)*^ has alfo the fame defeds, and the whole 
has a taftelfs famenefs. However, the proportions 
have been finely kept, which proves that thofe who 
made them were not entirely deftitute of capacity, 
but were probably obliged to be too ex^^edicious to 
finifh them with proper care. The gener.i zy o: the 
ftones are polifhed like a mirror, [jarricularl/ thofe 
within the portals, and which compofe zht window* 
and pavements. Thcfc are of different colours, as- 
yellow, white, grey, red, deep blu.% and in fome 
places black ; but the ilor.cs of the greatcft part of 
the edifice arc of a clear bW. -. 

Indeed every thing corrcfponds with the grandeur 
and ma2.niScer.ce of a great king's palace, to which 
the images and relievos give a iurprifing air of ma- 
jefty. It is certain there have been very ftareiv por- 
tals and grand galleries to afibrd a commiinicarion 
with all the detached p^rts of the ilructurc : mou of 
the columns, whofe remains arc IHII lb beautiiul, v/cre 
evidently intended to fupport thofe gailrrlc-, anti 
there even fcems to be ftill lome ren"i:?ins of the 1 ov.lI 
apartments. In a word, th'j matrnificcnce cf thel'e 
ruins can never be fufnciently admired ; and this 
ftructurc muft i.ndoub cdiv have coil immeiMc trea- 
fures. This pab.ce, which was tht- -^iorv of nil the 



Eaft, owed its deftrudion to the debauchery and 
frenzy of Alexander the Great, who after he had prt- 
ferved it from the ravages'of war, above 20co years 
ago, reduced it to afhes at the foliciration of Thais a 
Grecian courtezan. 

There are two antient tombs of the kings near 
the mountain, one to the north, and the other to the 
fouth ; both of them are hewn out of the rock, and 
are noble fragments of antiquity. Their fronts arc 
covered with figures and other ornaments ; and the 
form of both are nearly the fame. That part of the 
tomb on which the figures are carved is 40 feet wide: 
the height is almoft equal to the width bclo^', and 
the rock extends on each fide to the diftance of lirty 
paces. Below, a range of four columns fupport the 
entablature on their capitals ; each of which is com- 
pofed of the heads of two oxen as far as the brcaft, 
with the forelegs bent on the top of each column. 
The gate which is furrounded with ornaments, is 
placed between two of thefc columns in the middle, 
but is at prcfcnt almoft clofcd up. Above the co- 
lumns is the cornice and entablature, adorned with 
18 fmall lions in bals relief, nine on each fide ad- 
vancing toward the middle, where there is a fmali 
ornament refcmbling a vafe. Above the lions arc 
two ranges of figures, almoft as larp;c as the life, 
fourteen in each range, armed and lifting up their 
hands, as if to fupport the building above them; 
and on the fide is an ornament fomewhat in the form 
of a pillar, with the hand of \orr.c animal that has 
only one horn. Above this is another cornice, orna- 
mented v.iih leaves. On the left, where the wall 
projects, are three rows of niches, one above each 
ot'ur, each of them containino; two figures, armed 
with lances, and three others on the lidc armed in 
the fame manner. There are likewiie two on the 
right fide, with their left hands placed on their 
biarcis, and the right on their body ; on the fide of 
tlitfe are three otlicrs, in the fame dilpofition as thofc 



an the other fide. At fome didance below, and be- 
tween thele figures and an ornament that has fome 
diftant refemblance of a round pillar, there is another 
figure on each fide, very much impaired. Above on 
three Iteps ftands a figure that has the air of a king, 
pointing at fomething with his right hand, and hold- 
ing a kind of bow in his left. Before him is an al- 
tar, on which an oJicring is made, from whence the 
flam:s are reprefenced Above this altar 
appears the moon, and it is faid, that there was once 
a fun behind the figure ; but nothing of it is now to 
be I'cen. In the middle, and above all this appears a 
fmall myftic figure, cha: is alio to be feen in feveral 
parts of the otlier builiiings. 

Two leagues from t'lefc ruins is a place called Noxi 
Ruflan, but the traveller is obliged to take a largp 
circuit to go thither -, becaufe a river crofles the coun- 
try» which can only be pafled over a bridge, at a 
confiderable dillance : the plain is alio cut into a va« 
riety of firall canals, that are fo many impediments 
CO travtilei's in their way thither. In this place are 
four tombs of perlbns of eminence among the ancient 
Pcrfims, that much refc:nble thofe of Perfepolis; 
only th.?y are cut much higher in the rock. I his 
place receivv-s i:s name from one Raitan, whole figure 
is there carved :o perpemaie his memory. He is laid 
to have been a po'.ent prmce. The tombs have their 
bafes iS iQrrt :ibove the furface of the caufcwav, and 
rife about four times that heiahc ; and the rock is twice 
as high as the tombs, which are 60 feet wide in the 
cniidie. Under each tomb i- a feparate table, filled 
with lar::e fissures in low relief; and on two of thefe 
tabhs are lome traces or men fighting on horfe- 

On the I Qth of Fcbruar)- I left Perfepolis, afccr 
having ftaid there five days, and then proceeding nine 
Icigucs, the nest morr/mg reached Schiras, the capi- 
tal of iht proviPiwC of Pars, and one of the grcatcil 



and moft confiderable cities in Perlia. Ic is (ituated 
between the mountains, in a plain between feven and 
t\oht leagues in length, and about four in breadth : 
as tine and as fertile a fpoc as imagination can con- 

The great llreets are bordered with trees : thcfc 
are their principal ornaments j for there are not many 
grand bazars, nor fine baths. Moil of the buildings 
of the city are in ruins, and the ftreets fo narrow and 
dirty, that they are hardly paffable in rainy feafons j 
and in feveral places paffengers are obMged to bend 
their bodies in order to walk under the arches before 
the houfes, efpecially in the quarter inhabited by the 
Jews. 1 he ftreets artr alio made extreamly ofFcnfive 
by the many neceffary houfes in them, which render 
the air very difagreeable : the jackals not only infcft 
the burying grounds, but often commit great difor- 
ders in the city, and in the night-time make difmal 
howlings that refemble an human voice. 

The public gardens at Schiras, which are about 
twenty, are extreamly delightful ; the trees are the 
largert of the kind perhaps in the world : rhefearc 
planted witliout order, and the foil enamelled with 
flowers, which are in the grcateft plenty, and of the 
brighteft colours. In the king's garden, to the Ibuth 
of Schiras, I obferved a tree, the trunk of which was 
eight y^trds round. The inhabitants, from the great 
age of this tree, conceive the higheft veneration for 
it : they go to pray under its ftiade, and tie chaplets, 
amidct*-', and pieces of their cloaths to the boughs. 
The fick, or orhc rs for them, come there to burn 
incenTe, to fi:: lighred candles to it, and to perform 
other luperftirious ceremonies, wirh the hopes of re- 
coverinfi; their hciilth. There are throughout Perfia, 
many trees thus fiiperftitioully revered by the people. 

About a quiuter of a league to the call of Schiras 
IS thetf)mh of (heik Sadi, on- of the moll celchraced 
l\rfian authors in prole and vcrio, \vh:i lived alv.njt 


400 years ago, and whofe works contain the fincft 
morals. On one fide of his tomb is a large o6tagon 
bafon^ the water of which is moderately warm, and 
contains plenty of fi(h confecrated to the (heik ; buc 
the common people imagine, that if any perfon takes 
them, he will be punimed with fudden death : buc 
though I was feveral times at Schiras, I never went 
thither without having a good plate qf thefe fiih with 
the Carmilite friars, with whom I always lodged. 

On the fame Gde of the city, by the corner of a 
mountain, are the ruins of an antient cattle, and at 
fome dillance from it a convent of dervifes, near 
which are two deep holes in the ground : the mouth 
of one of them is four feet and a half round, and ic 
is of an unfathomable depth. I was told, that on 
throwing a large Itone into it, one might diftindly 
repeat the Lord's prayer, before the noife made by 
its falling ceafcd ; and this I found to be true, by try- 
ing the experiment three times fuccefTively. 

A league beyond thefe ruins, you fee the remains 
of an antient building of (lone and marble, which, 
notwithftanding the foiidity of the itrufture, and the 
durablencfs of riie miterials, is greatly decayed. It 
is a fmall temple, 30 or 40 paces round, fituated on 
the dt:cliv:ty of a mountain, with three gates, which 
arc ftiil pretty entire, opening to the north, fouth and 
calL Tiiey are eleven feet high, and three broad ; 
on the fides of each is the figure of a woman done in 
relief as big as the htf, nrembling thole at Perfepo- 
lis. The Perfians c.tll this place Mador Sulemon, 
that is, the Mothtrof S/lomon: they pretend that 
ihe buih the tem;.L', an:l c.\:vx hiilier to pay her de- 
votions. Bizarus s, tha: a tomb is tbund there 
intcribed with IJubrcv characters; but I law no fuch 
thing, and am perluad^d that opinions arc ill 


The fertility ^i' tlic coimrry about Schiras is very 
furprifi.ig. it urj.iucji tiie liiicft hjifes, and the 



beftptftures. The fhccp are fo fit; thit Aeir cdk 
wrigh eighttcn or twenty pounds we^kt. AsiofiMf 
fiiiics» among the left the pomegranates are as knt 
as the head tf a new bom child : burdiebcftfivt 
is the gnupe, of which there are three principal ftusi 
one very unall, which is fwcct and deUciOQs, aad Al 
ibed fo minute and tender thatit can fcaroely be poi 
ceived; the great white gnq)e ; and a large red grapc^ 
the bunches of which weigh 12 or 13 pounds. Of 
this grape alone they make the eKellent wine diftiB- 
suiihed by the name of the Wine of Schiras, whic^ 
for its fine colour and richneis of tafte, i» cfteemei 
the befty not only m Perfia, but throughout thecsiL 

On the 24th I left Schiras, where 1 had kK%edii 
die monaiiery of the Carmelites, who give a ^ttf 
civil reception to all the Europeans who come lb 
them, without dillindion of nation or religion, and 
thankfully take whatever any one gives rhcm in le- 
turn for their hofpitality. 

On the 7th of March I fct out from Laer at three 
in the afternoon, and pafling by the village of ChcF- 
cofF, which is full of gardens, arrived at Gormouth; 
a town, which, with its gardens, confiding chiefly dF 
date-trees, was a league in length, and beyond the 
town, groves of thefe trees extended as far as the ejre 
could reach. The inhabitants of Caramania Delena 
retire, during the fummer, into thefe woods, to (hel-. 
ter themfelves from the heat, which in that feaibn il 
infupportable, as I found in the year 1677, ^hen I 
pafied through this country at the end of Auguft: 
for then the wind was fo hot, even in the night, that 
I was frequently obliged to torn afidc my horfe and 
cover my face with my handkerchief, to avoid the 
blafts that could no more be endured than flame. 1 
was once reduced to the necefTity of throwing mylelf 
from my horfe, and lying with my face to che earth, 
to avoid the fcorching vapours ; but found that thofe 
which arife from thence were even ftili more fi]flbcal> 



ing. In the day I was obliged to continue naked in 
a caravanfera, from nine in the morning till four in 
the afternoon, feated or lying on a flcin of Ruflia IcA" 
riier, not only on account of the heat, but becauie 
iracier inceflfantly flowed from my body in fweac, in 
in fuch a manner, that I could neither read nor write, 
and every thins I took in my hand was immediately 
wet. I had taken two camels at Laer with my ufual 
baggage, the'^one to carry water, and the other pro- 
^uons, becaufe the country was deferted ; and really 
for 25 leagues, that is, from Gormouth to Coure- 
floon, I did not fee a fingle perfon, every body being 
then retired into the woods of date-trees, or into the 
mountains; and as the dates were then ripe, the 
people lived on almoft nothing elfe. This fruit is 
nouri(hing, and wherever it grows tt\pre is a certainty 
of finding water. It is to be obferved, that the land 
which bears dates is always Tandy ; and that at 1 2 or 
1 5 feet beneath the furface, water is to be found : 
the people therefore dig pits, and thofe that are laft 
dug have always the belt water. 

I remember, that performing this journey five 
years before, I happened to lofe my way, and ramble 
into the mountains : I thought myfclf loft, and ex- 
peded never to return. Having wandered part of 
che night, 1 laid myfelf at the ioot of a tree, hold- 
ing my horfe by the bridle, and waiting till it was 
light. When the day came, I dil'covered a wood of 
late-trees at two leagues dirtance, where being ar- 
rived, I foimd I had advanced fix leagues on my 
}vay, and a coIle6bor of the taxes conduced me to 
:hc road. I never fuffered fo much in my whole life; 
:he morning appeared to bring fome coolnefs with 
:hc dew, but the heat returning with the fun, at firft 
ronfumed this fmall humidity, and affe£bed me To 
/iolently, that I could not even fweat, it fccming to 
Durn and dry up my very entrails. My horfe ftopt 
It every ftcp, not having llrcngth to advance; bup 



vdiat prefled me moft, was mj not bang lUeitf 
keq} either my mouth or my eyes opeo, on iecBiM 

of the exhalations from the earth, whidi rolc'n Bf 
fiice like gufts of Bame pouring frem the nawA of 
a lighted oven. I alio obferved' two cirGomftaMB 
in thefe regions during the heat of fummcr t dtt tic 
is, that the fields are entirely burnt ap, ud 
ariles through the whole night and moraoBg 
excited by the heat of the earth, which -co 
fuch a manner, that it cannot be ditbovered « Mf 
paces diftance, it perfe£Uy relembling s fea» or ''~~~ 
great lake in a calm. 

On the ^'.bt I proceeded fix leagues duoi^ba 
mountainous and ftony country, where are ocw^kb- ■ 
lels many ftreams of running water, cfpecialhr^ 
fpring : thcfe arc very clear ; but great care muft be 
taken not to drink this water, ii being almoft as &k 
as that of the fea, which proceeds from the landowr 
which it pafles j for this land is in fummcr while witk 
the fait that covers it. Wc ftopped at Tanguedchii 
where are two caravanferas with ciftcrns. This ^aa 
is between two very high mountains, a quarter eft 
league dillant from each other. One of the caianii- 
ieras has a bafon of running water ; but it is brackiflii 
and not fit to drink : yet it is brought by a gmd 
aqueduA to this caravanfera, whence it takes id 
courfc toward the oppollte mountain, through wfach 
it pades by a canal cut in the rock, 300 paces in 

On the 1 2th, I met a great lord on the road, named 
Ali Kouli Khan, who was returning from his govcio- 
ment of Gambroon, in order to go to a province in 
Ferfia, given him by the fniih. He hadagpod 
train: his women, svith all thut belonged to th<Bi^ 
were carriei! on So camels, 40 mules, and 20 hodi^ 
His own reiintie and eBc^s were conveyed on 
twice as many camels and mules. JVlany .of tfx 
peafdnts fled frooi the villages od the rcoJ, for 
7 &ir 


tVar that his men (hould take their provifions by 

As I w'CL^ prc,naring to ft-t out at five in tiic evxn- 
inp, J oblVrvcd tha: ihe air \\\\^ cLir.^Lcnec!, .i.> whea 
the Iky is covered wi;.n ci» uuii-, mv* conJklcrir.g that 
this couicl not be the die, 1 recollected tliut ihele 
.clouds conilftcd ot loculls ; and indeed, as they pal- 
•J'ed, a pi-odjgious nuuiber of thole dcllructive inkcls 
Jtil to ih;: ground : they were tiic Lir.eii i had ever 
4een, and lo iktravy tiuc they ciiuld noc rlil- a\!;a!n. 
The pea ants i:.i:!je:ed the^u as ihcy fill-, aiul told 
iivr, ih .1 in ijj;^ ieaibn I'uch clouds appear ainioil 
rvcry ni/!u : liavih;;; gaihcrcd, thiry ^ly a::d I'air 
.cheni, v.:'L\' \\ii\ch t.'uy live uj'Jon tli^m, a:..! kU 
t'^-.cni to caLn u.hcr very clicap, a:> the) arc chcir com- 
mon fOMi. 

J hici d iy wf procve.lcd avr Icaf^tics in a very level 

jcounirv, but thn.U''.a movini;' -aiius ioto the 

Jiorics fjnk. Alter advancinf^ a k\^</UL\ \vc uai^cd 

•by a iii.ail vidagc abouiidinp; witii lUtc-trLCi and 

runiiinc v/aier : in • iniiabitants 1 to'iij,: r.'i-jrc ciuit;i-:i: 

their c^.>»n; and as 1 hdd levn th: rj • ! • ; lx;iic i er- 

•lV,.oiis iu»vin.' inc land a'->ouC thivc s.vlI»:s bviOiC, [ 

couid no: f^cip rir.nk r«i^ ir wi:r\' r^;.i.. ':v."«lc, ti.a: I 

Hiould j-c pt;-.;j>':e 1 nv cor.i albr t!::.- i:.'v...'l. •.>! 1 c- 

bruary, anti rea;» i* bcov rhv* ii lid c o :vi...^h I'i- 

lowinir. U hi. .ir.pi '-nvd 10 nu- 1.;vj..;: t::;t',i;i :i v 
*- . . • * ... ' 

10=. in.C- ill i\ill.l i.j LilJ lifvC !t-> « !.' i^ '.Ui\ir V.rcc!-. 1: 

jn.'lecd :.:e ivi.j.i. ;; ..1' i^-i ai is lo -k ;.. .-.I a;i.i i-.* ex:- :;- 

live, t'U-: K !■*!.. ;.;':5'::rr .\\\\\ \Vl:.r :• ..t '-.^ ja? e i:.l.;", 

liir o-'.w on oriL li ■■•, .nd the Mrii; i •■■:! t".- »• h -r 

i i.L" I'-rx: cia, I lei: •.m'' at c*.v;i :■• t .•.* ::. v;/:n % .".nJ 
re;i hcJ\ C^anbr^j- a, fa w^ v. i-s c: jc i !•/ r .c i^c-r.: u>, 
l5ai.i-r .jj.idiC, nr ;iiei\;:t(ir ■•:.. Cj * i.i"::\; r^. . 
fif.i.itecl r.i tiie loiirli-eii'c (a '^i.'.r.s, .;n i-i-r i -'.n ;> 
sji IiUali.ui. i lie u;.M!:ee b tv'.evi; dis Ma.e .'.: : r e 

but iheie K.i;_^i:j'i .iiv ver»' loi»i:, an.l ::»e iiiU'..hL.iir.>, 

\'..:.. \':. ]) d with 


viith the badnefs of the roads, render the journey 
very tedious. 

The houfes of Gambroon are built fo near th? 
water, that in a high fea they are wafhed by the 
waves. It is fituated between the iflands of Ormus 
and Kifmis, the one to the left and tlie other to the 
right ; and the coad of Arabia being bordered by high 
mountains, may alfo be feen in a clear day to the 
right, at 20 leagues diftance. Three leagues behind 
Gambroon are alfo veiy high mountains, which are 
far from being barren, they being covered with trees 
and abounding with water. The territory belonging 
to Gambroon is, however, dry and fteril, it conlift- 
ing of moving fand. The town is furrounded by i 
wall on the land fide, and has two fmall fortreife. 
The houfes are computed at 14 or 1500, one third 
of which are Indian Gcntoos or Idolaters, and a few 
Jews ; the greatell part are Ferfians, and the reft 
Englifli, French and Dutch, belonging to their rc- 
fpeftivc companirs. The Governor of the province 
ufually refidcs there, and not at the capital, which is 
called Neris, and is ten days journey from thence: 
he has a pretty large and commodious palace at the 
end of the town, at the greatell dillance from the 
fea, built with (lone brought from the iflc of Ormus, 
and all the houfes have flat roofs. 

This town has no port, but the road is as large, 
good and faf^*, as any in the univerfe ; however, it has 
one great inconvenience, which is, that the veffels 
that Itay there during tiic fumnicr, are fubjefh to be 
crreatiy daniiiri^ed by beint^ eaten with the worms. The 
Ihips lie ac anchor in four or five fathoms water, in 
as fecure a fituation as if they were in a balbn. 

The water of Uambroon is very brackifh, and 
drank by none but the poor : it is taken out of pits 
dug three farhoius (!cep in the land. The common 
people drink tlic water of Mines, a village at the dif- 
i'UiLC of a Jeague fro.m the port > and tlie people in 

V ciify 


«sly circumftances drink the water of Iflin, a large 
and fine village ficuated at the foot of the moun- 

As to the air of Gambroon, it is extreamly dif- 
agrecableand unhcilthy: the wind almoll throughout 
the year changes four times a day. From midnight 
to break of day it blows from the north and is cold ; 
from break of day till ten or eleven o'clock in the 
morning, it blows from the eaft, and is alfo cold : a 
ibuth wind arifes about three o'clock, which is hot, 
it proceeding from the fea ; this changes to the weft 
at fun-fet, and blows hot till midnight. Thefe fud- 
den changes of the air from hot to cold produce 
many difeafes, that are extreamly fatal to foreigners ; 
the moft common of which arc the dyfentery, the 
bloody-flux, and malignant fevers. 

Provifions are here very good, and in great plenty, 
particularly fi(h, which are brought afhore frcfh night 
and morning: they fometimes catch antelopes and 
partridges ; but the natives live chiefly on milk and 
plants, of which there are here all forts. As to 
fruits, they being brought from a great diftance, can- 
not be had very cheap : t}ie moft common are ne(5ta- 
rines, quinces, citrons, oranges, pomegranates, figs, 
melons, apples, pears, nuts, ala^oods, and grapes of 
feveral kinds. 

On the 13th of March, the principal pcrfon be- 
longing to the French company took me with him 
to dine with the governor, who entertained us with 
great magnificence after the Perfian manner; that is, 
we had mufic and dancing, and among the reli a 
young Indian pofture-marter. The entertainment 
lafted five hours. It began at ten o'clock with a 
(light breakfart : dinner v/as fcrved up about an hour 
after, at which the governor and feme of hi^ j;^i:e' i; 
drank to excels. No body was forced to drir.k \ buc 
fo many healths were propofcd, that it was nccilary 
to drink a great deal. Swordfrncn in the i:.all accji- 
tom themfcives to drink wine after or.r manner \ uk 

D d ?. N.\:i\\ 


when tlie he.;Uhs of thr kings of France and Pcrfla* 
with iliole of iIk- principal perfons prefcnt, were 
drank, ilicy were accompanied with rhc difcharge oi 
the cannon of the forrrelfes, with thole of the gover- 
nor's paiace, and of the veflels in the road. 

I had not been long at Ganibroon before the bad- 
nefs of the climate aife(fted all my men, who were 
taken v. ry ill, and I inylelf was much difordered ; 
when being informed of the danger of our being 
foon carried off if we ftayed there, I refolved to re- 
turn to Ifpahan, without waiting any longer for a 
veflel 1 expcfted from India. I therefore fet out, but 
was taken fo ill at 7'anguedelan, that my life wat 
defpaircd of: I however recovered, reached IlpahaQ, 
and foon after returned to Europe. 

• t 405 "\ 





IN D O S T A N: 

InierTpcrfcd with the Obfervations of , 


And other Writers. 

THE name of India was doubtlefs derived from 
the river Indus, the weftern boundary of this 
cxtenfive country, which is fuuatcd between the In- 
dus and the Ganges ; but it is at prefent known by 
the name of Indoftan, or India Proper, and by the 
natives is called Mogulftan, or the empire of the 
great iMogul, who is defccnded from Tanicrlane, who 
was a Mungul Tartar. 

This country is of very great extent, and is bciund- 
cd by Ulbec I'artary and Tibet on the north ; by 
another part of Tibet, with Ava, Acl.r^::!, and the bay 
of Bengal, on the c.It ; by the Indian ocean on the 
foufh ; and by the idir\c ocean and Perlia on tlic wc!h 
It extends between 66" and 9 1^ eatl longitude from 
London, and between 7"" and 40" in north hiitude ; 
anil is 2043 ^"I'^ilcs in length, from north to fouth, and in 
the broadeft part 141 2 in breadth, from cad to weft; 
but the mo:t Ibutiiern part of the peninfula is not 
312 miles broad. 

The nonii-eaft divifion of India conranis. the pro- 
vince of Bengal, which is fituated at the nuudn of 

D d ;> uv: 


the Ganges, and thofe of Naugracut, Jcfuat, Patna^ 
Nccbal, Gor, and Rotas, which are in the mounttnns 
of Naugracut. The fouth-eaft coaft of the peninfuh, 
called tne Coaft of Coromandcl, contains the provin- 
ces of Orixa, Golconda, the eaft fide of Bifnagar, 
or Carnate, Tanjour, and Madura. The odiiddle di- 
vifion contains the provinces of Afme, or Bando^ 
Jengapour, Cafllmere, Hendowns, and Lahor, or 
Pencab, Delly, Agra, Gualeor, Narvar, Ratipor, 
Chisor^ Berar^ and Candilh. The nonh-weft cfivi- 
fion, on the Frontiers of Pefia, and on the river In- 
dus, contains the provinces of Cabul, Haican, Mul- 
tiin, Bucknor, Tata, or Sinda, Jeflelmere, and So- 
ret. The fouth-weft coaft of India, generally called 
the coaft of Malabar, contains the following provin- 
ces : Guzarat, or Cambaya, Dccan, or Vinapour, 
and Btlnnga, orC?.rnate. 

'1 he dominions of the Mogul are chiefly above 
the pt-n-nfula, thoiijrh it is generally imagined, that 
ri'.'v" whole is under his iriimcdiate government, and 
ihat tre roval mandate^i from Deli are obcved in the remote parts of the coaft: but Mr. Caoibridge 
ifbilrvj?, th.^.t this is fo tar from the truth, that t 
i;re .r pr.rt oi' tliis vaft peninfula never acknowleged 
ar.y iubjccciri^n to the throne of DcUi, till the reign 
<•;' Aiiiei:rr2ch(»-, and the revenues from thofe Indian 
kii-f/s I'.nd IVIooriih governors who were conquered 
or cr.pioveci Iv/ l-.iin, have, Hivcc his death, been 
in:(-::cr:eci by :hc vicerovs, which liis weaker fuc- 
ccji'->r.s i:ave i^pp'jin:ed for the government of the 
pciiiralliia : fo that at this time neither can the tribute 
frcPii th'r levcnd Dcrencates reach the court of Delli,- 
ror the viprour of the government extend from th« 
capic:! to thcic rcrrote couarri^rs. And ever fince 
the province o;* In;!c;flan wr.3 n.'ined by Nadir Shah, 
the wcaknefsof -he Mogul, and the policy and con* 
firmed indcp' cf the viceroys, have in- a man- 
ii:T cor.ilnc'ii the infiiv.rnce of the government K> its 
ii.iAiiJ clr]j'rc:rscru. ^Vhcncc, ao he afterward 6i> 


from Sir T. ROE, HOLWELL, &c. 407 

ferves, the fovcreign really poflcfles only a thirdj 
and that the lead valuable part of his own vad: em- 

As the tropic of Caricer extends through the 
middle of it, the air is exceedingly hot •, but in the 
moft fuliry feafon, the rains, which ufually begin ac 
the latter end of June, and continue till about the 
clofe of October, cool the air and refrefli the earth« 
When thefe rains fee in, a day fcldom pafles without 
terrible thunder and lightning ; and even during the 
fair feafon, they have lightning, though without 
thunder, for fcveral weeks together : but this kind of 
lightning does no manner of harm. The heavens 
are clear and ferene, except in the rainy feaibn, and 
about the time of the vernal equinox ; for all the reft 
of the year is exempt from ftorms and hurricanes, 
and there are only fuch moderate breezes as the heat 
of the climate requires. The pleafure to be found 
\n the mornings and evenings is not to be conceived; 
for not only the heavens feem to enjoy a more than 
ufual purity and brightnefs, fuch as is never feen in 
thefe northern latitudes, but all trees and plants re- 
tain a perpetual verdure, and you behold bloflbms 
and ripe fruits on fome tree or other all the year 
round -, and a late author obfcrves, that the fight, 
the tafte, and the fmell, are all regaled in thofe deli- 
cious gardens, which come up to our fined ideas of. 
a terrellrial paradile. 

The excellence of the climate appears from the 
unincerrupced health and long life of che natives ; but 
this is partly to be afcribed to their innocent food 
and the liquors they ule, namely, rice, herbs, and 
fair water -, and partly to the lakibrity of the air. 
But there are low grourids near the fea, where the 
vapours ariling from tlic ooze and fait marihcs ren- 
der the air unhcakhful, particularly in the Englifli 
icttlcment of Bombay, and the country of Bengal, 
through wliicli th*; Ganges difchargfs itfclf by fcveral 
HiOUths into the lea, and che whole province is, like 

D d 4 ^'tVi'^ 


Egypt, annually overflowed. However, nine parts 
in- ten of the£ontinent of India is as healthful ss any 
part of the worki •, and as agreeable to European 
conltitntion*i, afrcr their recovery from the illnefs they 
generally contract during the firft rronihs after their 
arrival, which proceeds as much from the alteration 
of their diet, and a difivrent regimen, as from any 
other c.iufe. 

Thtr j)ririci|V:l rivers of this empire are the Ganges 
and the Indus ; the former is held in the grca'di 
cfteem, not only iiorp irs long CDurfc, the depth of 
the thanncts thronoh which it fails into thfr bay of 
Bengal, and the purends of the waters, buc from 
the imagin:.ry limdity atiributed to it by the natives, 
who worlhip tiil> river as a god, and hapj^y is the 
man who breatiies our his foul lipon its banks. 

The incii.s waters ihe welltrn fide of India as riie 
Ganges docs the cafr, both running; a courfe of about 
gooo miler- •, but the ci.trr.ncc of the Indus is fo 
choaked up widi lai^J, thvt it is nor navipat^d by 

sreat fnitjs. li llow^ noni ihc north call to thefourh- 

•. • 

wefr, an\.i c'^xbijif^es :'j it nu) the Indian ocean bv 
three movith^ ]i\ ;>b'".ii: ri^e twenty-fourth degree of 
north lari-udf. T'iv)i:j;:h th'/tc nvc-rs run fo far afun- 
der, their lourccs avf.- ii:i:i t;) ivj ner.r each other, and 
both are hcKi t:> be i.i t!>^' ki:^r;.!om of I ibtt. 

The mounrjur.> rnicvic.- clia-v.onds, nnd a!fo ru- 
bies, amcthvlls, civiJi-.-.s, :/i\.i:. les, ag-.u and infr-er. 

It is ncccirtiry to oblcivc. cii. c ihe chain cf moun- 
tains, which runs Uiror.c-h i' c rcninruld from north 
to fouth, arc the ciiulV of an exiraorciinary phteno- 
mcnon in natural hiilory. 'J he cotin:ile. wl/'ch arc 
feparatcd by ihele mou:va':n«', tho; g;h undtr x\x fan-e 
latitude, have tliLir leaibr.N and ciirna'.e entirely difre- 
R'nt from ot;,er-, ai.vl it is winter on one 
f!.ic of the hills, it is fumnier on the other. On the 
coUt of Maliibar a fou'.ii-well wind begins to blow 
frcm the fea at the end of June, with continued rain, 
and r?2es ;:y:-iinlt the d.;. it fv;r fuur mouths, dfrini> 


from Sir T, ROE, HOLWELL, &c. 409. 

which time the weather is calm and ferene on the 
coaft of Coromandel -, and, toward the end of OAo- 
ber, the rainy feafon, which they term the change of 
tlie monfoon, begins on the coaft of Coromandel : 
at which time the tempeftuous winds beating conti^ 
nually againit a coaft in which there are no good 
ports, make it fo dangerous for the (hipping to re- 
main there for the three enfuing months, that it is 
Scarcely ever attempted. This is the caufe of the peri- 
odical return of our (hips to Bombay, where there id 
a fecure harbour and convenient docks. 

At the end of the fair feafon the earth refembles a 
barren dei'art, without one fpire of grafs or any thing 
green on its furface, except the trees, which never 
lofc their verdure ; but the ihowers no fooner begin 
to fall, than the face of nature is changed, and the 
eanh almoft inftantly covered with grafs and herbs. 
The foil, confuting of a brittle fat mould, is eafily 
broken up and prepared for tillage -, and though they 
ibwrhe fdme land every year, it is never manured, 
but is rendered fufiiciently prolific by the annual 

. in the northern parts of India they have as good 
wheat and barley us any where in the world ; but in 
the fouthern part or die peninfula tht-y fow nothing 
but rice, and indeed the natives fcarce eat anv tninor 
clfe. The fields lie open, except near the towns and 
▼illagci, where people form llttic inc Cures lor their 
own convenience ; and as no man has any property 
in the lands he lows, tlie prince's ofncers take a 
third, or one half ot the crop, or more, as they 
think proper, and leave the poor hulbanc'men the 
reft. Nor is it left to 'their choic;, whirrhcr th'.y will 
fow or not ; tor tiic rcii-ectivc ltoviv.oi ^ anJ <j;^ lu-rals, 
having towns and villnsrcs aliiirneci ci/zm to eniiMe 
them to lupport the quota of troops they are t(» :ur- 
niih, order a particular Ipor of projin;! to be v:ulti v ar- 
cd by every villns^;^, and at harvell fend thrir o.-lccvs 
CO cake as much uf the crop as is thuv<^*hi proper. 

large pearls, rubies, and diamond;: drilled, j 
his neck he wore a chain of three firings of est 
pearl, the largeft the ambafTailor had ever 
Above his elbuws he hid bracelets fci with dian 
ant! Oil each lide of his wrifts three bracelets, ol 
ral ibrts, and upon nlmott every finger was a 
His coat was of cl.jth of gold without (leevci 
underneath it he had a fiimain as fine ai lawn, s 
his feet he had a pair of bufkins embroidercc 
pearl, the toes Iharp and turned up. Thus 3 
and thus drcflcd, he went into his coach, whic 
made lb exactly like an EngltJh one the amba 
had prctenred him with a little before, that he 
only diftingiiifh it by its being covered with I 
velvet, emoroid rcJ with gold. 

Whtn this prince marches at the head of his 
goes a hunting, or rciires to one of his, c( 
houfes he is aivomp.nird by above ic,coo 
and about ico, with houfings of 
and broc;i(!e, rrarch at the he.-id (if this little 
Each elephant carries iwo men, one cf \vhoi 

from Sir T, ROE, HOLWELL, &c, 413 

»ms are adorned with gold, and fometimcs he is 
rricd by men in a fplended palanquin. His reci- 
le is compofed of the officers of his cnurt, who are 
Uowcd by 5 or 6 jo elephants, camels, or chariot^ 
aded • = ith ba;jrgagc. 

Two Iblemn iv^icivals are annually celebrated in the 
yal cicy to his honour. Ihc firit is held a: the be^ 
nning Oi' the new year, and lalb about 18 days« 
rforc the pakcc a thtacrc is erected 14 feet high, 
5 long, and 40 broad, covered with rich tapeftry, 
id. furroundcd by a baluftrado. Near it is a ftr.jc- 
ire of painted wood embelliihed with mother of 
:arl, in which fome of the principal lords of the 
»urc feat themklves ; though their tents arc at the 
me time erefted in the firft court of the ualace, 
here they ftrive to difplay all their riclics and fpien- 
3r. The Mogul antiently entered thefe. rents, and 
ok whatever he liked ncil ^ but for above a cen- 
try paft, the prince, accompanied by the Icvcn firft 
lay-minifters, afccnds the theatre, and feating him- 
If on a velvet cu(hion embroidered with ^old and 
saris, waits for the prcllnrs that arc brought him ; 
hich he receives equally from tiic peof.le and the 
randces of his enapire, during the 18 di<.ys that the 
rrcmony lafts. Toward the concluPion ^A tl.-t rime, 
s diftributes among them his boun'/.c:*, c.^nniling 
I places and dignities which he co^llC^^ on Thoie who 
ivc made him the moft viiuabie prtilnr". i'avcr- 
icr fays he faw him receive at or.e < f thefc: feafts 
30ve the value of thirty nulii )r.5 ci livrcs in dia- 
londs, rubies, emerakis, pearls, g^ivi, lilver, fine 
uffs, elephants,- camels, and horl'e;. 

The other fefrival is tiie annivcnary or the Mogul's 
inh. He begins the day with all man-.f r of diver- 
ons, which h: breaks of/ to wait upon th*: queen 
is mother, it Ihe be yet alive, at her pilacc ; and 
lews his grai.tudc to her, by caufinLC the gr.inclees 
F his empire lo make her magnifn en: prefmeG. 
iter he has dined, he drellcs hu.::'eii in h.s r.r.e.c 


robes, covers himfelf with gold and jewels, and be« 
ing rather loaded than adorned with riches, enters a 
fliperb pavilion, where he is attended by the principal 
lords or his court. He there finds the great fcalcs, 
and the chains by which they are fufpcnded, bodi of 
mafly gold adorned with jewels. In one of the feales 
he places himfelf, and the other is filled with gold, 
filvcr, jewels, pieces of filk. fine linen, cinnamon, 
mace, cloves, pepper, corn, pul(e, and herbs; and 
an exaft regifter is kept every year of the difiercncc 
of his weight. It is a fubjeft of great joy when he 
weighs one year more than another, and of as great 
concern if he be found to have fallen away. 

This ceremony is fucceeded by the grcateft aft of 
generofity which the Mogul exhibics during the 
v;hole year. It confifts in his giving to the poor fomc 
fmall pieces of money, and in throwing among the 
grandees, nuts, piftachios, almonds, and other fruit 
made of gold ; but io Imall anv] fo thin, that a thou- 
far.d of them arc nc t worth more than leven or eight 
pircoks. A bafcn liiitd \vi:h thole trifles was found 
not to exceed the valu;.* of u^n crowns. Thus the li- 
bL^rality of this weakhv n^onarch on his birth-day 
amoiirus to no more than tlic pitiful fum of a hundred 
crowTs. The fcllival concludis with his giving a 
frir.onifhrent J upper to t!ie lords of his court, with 
whom he pafil's the night in drinking. 

The U)p.<; of the Mogul have the title of fultans, his (.lii'johtcrs of fijltanas. The viceroys, or go- 
v.;:r.rr.-. of provir.ccs, are called nabobs. The next 
111 cx^rtc^ wr.ich anhvtrs to our nobility, have the 
ti'.Ie o: kh;..*:, or cawn, as ic is ufuaily pronounced, 
aiui thcfc arc diilinguifiicd by names which they re- 
ceive upon ihciv advancement^ as Afaph Khan, the 
rd\ lord : Khan Khanna, lord of lords. The great 
niiiiiiry o.'Ticers arc named Omrahs ^ and one who 
h i^ h^c:\ gcncfral is called Mirza. 'J'he chief eunuchs 
• iw the poll of treafurcrs, llewartis, and the compt- 
:'>;:•;•;: ':; the h'juiliolJ. The other great officers are 


from Sir T. ROE, HOLWELL, &c. 415 

the fecretaries of ftate, the govcFnors of the dcr 
phancs, the mailer of the tents, and the keepers of 
the wardrobe, who are intrufted with the Jewels. 

l^he women of the feraglio are either wives or con- 
cubines, princefles of the blood, governcffes, or 
flaves. I'hofe called wives are contracted to the Mo- 
gul with much ceremony, and feldom exceed four ; 
but the number of his concubines is uncertain, 
though they generally amount to above a thoufand. 
The Mogul never marries the daughter of a foreign 
prince, but generally one of his own fubjefts, and 
Ibmetixnes advances the meancft flave to that dignity. 

His firft fon by any of thefe wives is confidered as 
his lawful heir to the empire, though the throne is 
jjfually poflefled by him who has the longeft fword ; 
who no Iboner afcends it, than he generally dcftroys 
all his brothers and their male iflfue. 

The yogng fultans are married at thirteen or four- 
teen years of age, and then are allowed a feparate 
court, little inferior to the emperor's •, and when they 
come to age, a]l of them, except the heir to the 
crown, who (lays with his father, are fent to diftant 
governments. The young fultancflcs are educated 
with all the tendernefs and indulgence imaginable ; 
they are not under the fame reftraint as other women, 
and there are inftances of the Mogul's indulging 
them in their gallantries, which is the more reaibn- 
able, as being of the royal blood, they muft never 
marry, and be under the controul of a lubjeft. 

The governefles of the young princeflts, and thofe 
who are Ipies upon the co^duft of the king's women, 
form a confiderable body in the feraglio, and are faid 
to have a ^reat Ihare in the government of the em- 
pire. If the Mogul can properly be faid to have any 
council, it is compofed of thofe ladies •, for the go- 
vernments and great offices of ftate are difpofed of 
by their influence, and each of them has a title an- 
fwerable to fome creat office. One is ftiled prime 
miniftcr, another lecretary, and another viceroy of a 
province; and each Jady keeps w^ xv. oweX^OivA^'^^^ 

446 .A^cau^Tc^riNBl 

«di.d)cr BiiBiftBr.*rhpfc'(id?iftfcl_ _ . 

bacl^^iud aiid ^ward betwm; iktm^. By xhcirjb 
taqtoOtun si\ baftaaCi of cqalf(|Mancc.i 
far .they .have . b^ter opportwiie^* ' 
xl4Bgs to the empwir (htm his iIhi "^ 

'PK «fnpcror ^n hi$ rccirementji 
.women*, and. is atfo laid xahivc a gwuAi 
.WBiaen, araKii with hova and fabrcs, ' 
(Mreof his perfpn. The^tesand^U^ 
tbf pallet ere.guirdcd by- a miilEKuds ff|| 
ivbo arc iiud to have a very difficult fK 
jhey are too rigid, they prooire the J 
jqiweDsandprinceQeSjWhafunietiincsfa ' 
and if the Mogul thinks them too oo 
jun the hazard ui their lives. Neither ttiee 
any othfr great men lie wicli their wonien a. 
Jiave trnffid a contain age, which feme fay is t __ 
iiv«, and others thirty ; yet, notwithilandina K 
■they continue guarded as ftrift as ever. 

An KrigliQi divine, who was at the Mogul's t_ 
■mentions onfi of thi;ie women being put t^.* 
death, for buing Inrprill-d by thb Mogul whiteJI" 
an eunuch ; tor this iuppofcd crime the etnpnp. 
the barbarity to c^ut'e her to be let up to the. neek^i 
tiic ground, and the earth to be ramnied ck^V 
her. Thus Ihe ftood two djys in the fcorchilig 
■and then expired, crying out as Iting as (he ?„ 
fpeaky *• Oh my head, my head !" To add to i 
miiery, ihe oft'ending eunuch was brought beibrcA 
>irKi her hnmrinity Ihocl^ed by Teeing him totn*4 
.pieces liy an elephant. 

" The annexed engraving, taken (an ihe utthority of li _ 
C>imj;'Ul^) frum ri;al lilu in Ltai counuy will givcajpfttdv 
.f>f ihf l.:\uriou5 indolence in which they pals the gmteft {IU| .J 
4>f ih«!r live;, except wiien they are at war. Ai ibey fit for llifc . 
mof: pari upon tbi-ir I'oFaa, (inonking and uotifing tbemfetm 
with their jcweU, uiking coiicc or l'we<:t-4DeaC9, fc-eiag their qiuib 
•^^Ji:. cr iiich like poiHincs; To nothing furprii'es them mOie, 
L;:;ri '.o U*? an EuTO^an w^Vk. About a room : uid none bat thor 
\ti V young ucupVe >:i<^^ n4e fov ■.iVCftViWitos. w vMKijA!^ wA-^. 


from Sir T. ROE, HOLWELL, &c. 417 

As the Mogul confidcrs mod of ilie other princes 
greatly inferior to him, he, like the other Afiatics, is 
kbove fending ambalfadors to them, nor arc ambaf- 
fadors treated as the rcprefcntatives of theii- fovereign, 
but only as common melfcngers. The Mogul's let- 
ters are received with as much reverence as it he him- 
felf was prcfent •, for the governor to whom they arc 
tiifpatcjied, on receiving intelligence that they are 
Upon the road, rides out with ail his officers to meet 
the mellcnger who brings them, and no fooner kt% 
the pacquet than he alights from his horfe and falls 
proftrate on the earth ; then takes them from the 
nicffcnger, and placing them on his head, binds theni 
fall, and returns back to the court where he ufually 
difpatches bufinei's ; and having read them, inftantly 
returns an anfwcr. The governors have alfo another 
method of (hewing their refpcft -, for though ti.ey 
Ihave every day when at court, yet on their being 
fent to a government, they neither (have nor cut their 
hair till their return. 

The Mogul, as haih been obferved, p.dirinift. rs 
juftice himfdf in capital cafes, wherever he rv-lidcs, 
as his viceroys c!o in their rclpedive provinces ; but 
an officer, named the Catoual, caules offenders to 
be apprehended, and inflicts punifl-imcnts for frnall 
trimes. The cadi is judi/e in civil cafes btrtwccfi man 
and man, and of marriages and divorces. 

Though there are no wrictcn laws in the emj^lrc, 
certain puninimcntv a;v ui'ually inliicled for ccrr.-.iii 
crimes. Thus murder i\rA robbery ;ire ri::"i:Vied v;:r!i 
dearh, but the manner ot txccution is ("tialy in the 
breall ol the Mogul c;r vicrroy, vho r.cvcr u.iIItj 
malefactor.^ to be aliovo a ni^rhc in prii'on, ai-.i Vv-ry 
fri-'quL^ntly he is not cDnveveJ* to anv j'h.c r.:' co^'- 
fincment ; tor if tlu- olhi-.^sr be appivn-ri.IeJ "::. :iic 
day-tiir.e, he is ini.ricJi..^lv bro*u:;iir Ik'iov th.- < i- 
vtrn )r, and either ;'iL^]i:it:r',! or (on.L-iniTLd -, and /r ;.ii 

t'udgnent he is hur.ic;! ro hi- cxc\'ition, wUIJa \j oe- 
lerally perfornxJ 1:1 :he market- ^ l.-ce. 
Vol. VI. L e So.uc 

'418 ACCOUNT oi INDQSTA2$» § 
Some makfi&Dn are h«i^[Ed, othcn bdmdA^ 
fame impalrd on (haqi flakes, fbme torn in picoilJiKa 
wild beaftK or killed by drphaots. If an t^eghttkfm^ 
ordered to difpacch a. critniiud inftantlf . he fbii|piF 
upon the wretch, who lies trembUng bdoK 4pii^ 
with his broad round foot, and in a momeat cndMN . 

' him to death : if he is to die in torture, liie elephlMJ ' 
breaks firfl: the bones of his leg?, than thofe of- Vtti 
thighs and arms, and leaves him to die bj the «ou|4m 
he has ^ven him. Sir Thomas Roc obierrcit ifafa - 
when he was at the Mogul's court, too robben vCiq* 
brought chined before that prince, with chcir acCll- 
fation } *nd the Mogul having paflcd lentence flf ,' 
death, gave orders that the cluef of them fliould Jba 
torn in pieces by dogs, and the reft put to de«tb-M''' 
the ordimry way. The pnfoners weie according!^ 
divided into'fcveral quarters of the to*n j their cfairf 
was torn in by 1 2 dogs bct'ore the ambafladoi^ 
houfe, and at the lame place thirteen 01 the robbershirf 
their heads tied down to their feet, and their necb 
chopped half off with a fabre, sfter which they woe 
left n.ikcd and bU-eding in the rtreets, where they be- 
came a great Ennoyancc to the neighbourhood. 

The Mogul's camp is conllanily pitched in OK 
form, and is nearly round. The whole circumferoxc 
feldom takes up tels than twenty miles ; for the miE- 
tary men alone f^eneralty amount to ioo,<.oo. 

The tents are commonly wiiite, like the cloathiu 
of the people ; but that of the Mogul's is red, aod 
jitched in the centre. It is ercfted much higher 
ilun the rt-ft. and irom it he has a compleat view of 
the whole. As the queens and the whole fengfo 
tjke the field, the emperor's quarter is as large as 1 
confiJerabie town. It is furrounded with an indo- 
I'lire about ten f(.-ci hi^.'i, guarded by the troops o£ 
the lioufhold, and other great bodies of horie and 
f<.ot, and no body is fuflered to approach it witioi 
the diilance of a mufket-lhot. The tencs of i|t 
u(rruhs ftand at a dillancc round the cmperoi^ 


from sir T. ROE, HOLWELL, &c. 419 

fhole of the firft quafity nearcft, and the inferior 
^people are placeci in the rennotejR: parts of the camp. 
The ftreets, formed by the tents, yc wid*^ and 
iftraight, and the principal of them extend in a dire£l: 
Irnc from the fpace of the roy;il quarter. In thefc 
are (hops, and all manner of trades are carried on as 
in a city ; and in every quarter is a market-place, 
Where provifions are frequently fold almoft as cheap 
as in garrifon : the camp of the . Mogul was for- 
merly laid to be the grcatcfl: marker for diamonds 
in the world. 

The camp fddom moves ten miles at a time, and 
is generally fixed at a place where there is plenty of 
Water. The Indian armies have frequently a number 
bf barges placed on carriages, which follow the camp, 
and thefe are ufcd by the Mogul when he takes his 
pleafure upon the lakes and rivers, as well as in paf- 
ling over his army ; he has alfo with him hawks, 
dogs, and leopards, bred for the game. Thus, 
While he ranges from one part of his dominions to 
another, he divides his time between his recreations 
and his enquiries into the conduft of his viceroys and 
governors. In thcfc marches, fome of tSic Mogul's 
women are carried in little towers upon the backs of 
elephants ; others in coaches •, others in palanquins ; 
and fome of the meaneft are faid to have no better 
carriage than a kind of cradles ha::ging on the Ikies 
of camels ; but all of them are ciofc covered, and 
attended bv eunuchs. 

The Mogul's forces are principally compofed of 
the troops furnilhed by the rajahs, or pagan princes ; 
he has alio Moorifh foot, but he principall;* depends 
:)n his horfc*. He has alio fevcral regiments named 

• There is, as Mr. CtimhriJc^e rcinarks, a rirrv.t r.*\^:.irnn?5 
of effeminacy in the ealleni drdV, which ha., at :i!i i\\ric> CtMirr:- 
bated to leffcn their militarv character amonq; tl«i' Kiin):>j.i!i in- 
tions; who, Irciin their o-vn habits, and in«.leid f\o\\\ V.f. v...:.\u\: 
of things t!i; rifelvc.-!, r.cjive a iLian^^e irn[i:o ...• n tV.;:n li-..:;;'; 
bodici of lio;!"." in filk or ltiloii TuIuj: .-Mivi ,»... Jn-j-, ^.i:n i,. ...m 
extrcarnly fo;;d oi* a miliU'.ry cliara^ltr. 


the Body-guards, or houfliold troops : the principal 
of thefe is a regiment of 4000 men, called the Em- 
peror's Slaves This is the moft honourable body 
among the Mogul's troops : their captain is called the 
Daroga, and is an officer of great authority, who 
has Ibmetinies the command of the whole army. 
Every fokiicr admitted into this regiment is marked 
on the forehead, and from thefe troops the fubaltern 
officers are taken, who are by degrees preferred n> 
the dignity of omrahs, cr general officers. Every 
horfeman has two fervants, one to take care of his 
horfe, and the other to procure him forage; and 
all thofe, as hath been already inervtioncd, arc 
accompanied by their wives and cliildren-, and 
there always follows the camp a moveable town of 
(hops, where every thing is to be fold, as in their cities ; 
with fome hundreds of elephants mcerly for ftattf 
and a train of women, with a numerous retiniie be- 
longing to the prince and the great officers. 

However, thefe numerous armies Icldom keep the 
field any time v/ithout great lofs by famine; for a 
vcrj' confidcrablc diminiition is fcurcdy felt among 
fuch multitude?, and vcrv iictle rcprarded from any 
fcnrimcnt of humanirv : a f.ii\iine is therefore neither 
cojifidtTcJ as any thing extriordin-iry, nor will the 
memory of it ever prevent the aliembling of another 
mulritudc, that mull alio be liable to the lame chances 
of fuhfiflingor ftarving. 

We have a s^reac advantno;e in their bcinq: tenacious 
of their anticnc manners, and in their want of bravery: 
not only the prince, but every rajah, who has the 
command of all the forces he can brinq: into the field, 
always ap})t'ar3 among them mounted on an elephant, 
and is at once the general and enfign of his men, 
who confla-nly keep their eyes on him ; and if they 
lofe fight of him for a moment, conclude that all is 
lo(t, anJ inftantly difperfe. This affords our engi- 
necr<i a fair opportunity of deciding the fate of a 
whole detachment by one well directed difchargc of 


from Sir T. ROE, HOLWELL, &c. 421 

Z (ix-pounder ; and thofe enormous beads now feem 
brought into the field only to be a mark for our ar- 
tillery. Thofe rajahs, fenfible of being thus expofcd, 
Ibmeiimes avail theniielves of the only expedient that 
can afford them any fecuricy i fur it has been oblerv- 
cd, that feveral elephants, with the fame caparifons, 
and with riders in the fame rich and fplen.iid habits, 
have appeared in different pares of the field on the 
fame day. 

Though they have feverely fuffcreJ by being fur- 
prifed in the night by the Europeans, they can never 
be brought to cllablifli in their camp either order or 
vigilance ; for at the clofe of the evening every man 
cats a great quantity of rige, and many take after it 
foporific drugs, fo tha,t about midnight the whole 
army is in a dead fleep, the confequence of which is 
pbvious ; and yet, fays Mr. Cambridge, an eadern 
monarch would think it very ftrange, fnould a-iy 
body endeavour to perfuade him, that the fecurity of 
his throne depended upon the regulation o£ the mcils 
of a common foldier ; much kis would he be pre- 
vailed on to reftrain him in the ufe of tiiat opiiirn 
which is to warm his blood for aflion, and animate 
his foul with heroifm. 

The revenues of the LMogular'.fc from the prcciuce 
of the ground, the cuftoms of the ka-;)or:.% the 
cftates of the great men at ihclr ticath, v;}rn:h ilr- 
volve to the crov\n, the prefcnts of his lubjcch-, who 
never approach their prince or govcniiir e.-rpty- 
handed, and the trclilures produced by the dia:nuiui- 
mines. The viceroy, or governor, of every j i j- 
vince, who owns hi- lubjection to, is oblijcii i.) 
fupply the crc\vn v/ith a certain fum, wlucii he i-iiii.:? 
out of the manuhctiires and produce oi tiio \J\\ 
This, added to the other reve^Uie^, is lliid to aii-oiJiu 
annually to between ro»*ty and firry niiiions ;ler'.::v: ; 
an immenfefum, whic!i muil be grtaily leifer.e^i i;.m.c 
Nadir Shah ravaged the empire, took away ii^ t:e.i- 
furcs, and, by wcakenin-^ tlie power 01" the prir.c*, 

t. e 3 etiJoW. 1 


enabled many of the nabobs to throw off their fiilvi 
je6tion to him. 

The coins of this country are the pice, or cafli, 
which are of copper, and about the valucof a half- 
penny i the fanam, a filver coin, worth three-pence; 
the rupee, a filver coin, worth two (hillings znA 
three-pence ; the gold moor, or rupee, worth about 
fourteen filver rupees ; and the pagoda, fo called 
from its having the figure of a pagoda damped upon 
it. The laft, which are worth nine (hillings, arc fiat 
on one fide, and convex on the other, and are chiefly 
coined by the rajahs or petty princes. 

Gold and filver coins are finer here than in any 
other country. Foreigners have their mints, and 
coin both gold and filver, particularly the Englilh 
at Fort St. George. Foreign coins are alfo cunent, 
but for trifling matters they fometimes ufe bit- 
ter almonds, or fca-flidls called couries, or black- 
n":orc'.s rccth, fixtv of which are valued at about a 
hiiif-j'.cnny. Whatever foreign coin falls into the 
iiands C'f the Mui'iil's rfoverr.ors is melted down into 
rupees viih tlic characicTs of the reigning emperor; 
and alTv r his (icAth t!icv lofe the value of a half- 
pciniy, or pcni^.y, iMi account of the wear ; and none 
but the lit. vv coin is current at the full value. 

l,arg'_- Ir.iMS ar.': reckoned by lacks, carons, and 
arab';. A )acl: is 100,000 rupees; a caron, or ca- 
rol, i.s ICG l';(ks ; x^wk^v an arab is 10 carons. 

'J 'I'lir v/vij;iH'; difi'rT almoft in every port, and fre- 
qrcnrly in thr lame port, and therefore they cannot 
be exactly ij trUkd. 'I'he common weight at Surat 
is the leer, v»!:'cli is about thirteen ounces one-third; 
and forty 1«xts generally make a maund. 1 he leer 
at Apra is laid ro be equal to two at Surat. The 
candy varies fioai five hundred weight to five hun- 
dred and ftventy \ but it is generally laid that twenty 
n^aunds go to a candy. Saltpetre, turmeric, aflafoe- 
t:dj, pepper, dry ginger, benjamin, and tyncal, 
h*ive, accorriinp; to Mr. Lockyer, foj-ty-two feers ot" 


from Sir T. ROE, H'OLWELI., &c. 423 

Surac to the maund. Copperas, aloes, brimdonc, 
long-pepper, dammcr, (licklack, and wormfcird, have 
tbrty-four fccrs to the maund -, and, for the mofl: 
part, fuch goods as have no wafte, as quickfilvcr, 
copper, ivory, vcrmillion, Lahor indigo, tutanag, 
^c. are fold at forty feers to the maund, or three 
maunds to an hundred weight. 

At Surat, corn, rice, and other comnroditSes Ibid 
with us by mcafurc, are there fold by weight ; but 
Illk and calUcots are fold by the pieces, and by the 
cobit, which contiins twcnty-fcven inches. 

In liquid and dry mcafures, one meafurc is one 
pint and a half; eight meafures arc- one mercall ^ and 
zbur hundred mercails are one garfe. 

The principal manufaftures of Indoflan are filks, 
callicoes, and muflins : we alfo import from thence 
diamonds and other precious ftones, quantities 
of pepper, the growth of the Malabar toall, indigv), 
f^ltpetre, cardamums, opium, aflafceiida, and a gi cit 
variety of phylical drugs. The good:» exported thi- 
ther from Europe are Fnglifli broad-cloch, lL\:d, 
lookino:-a:laircs, Iword-bi.idcs, knives, habtrrjuflivrv- 
wares, gold and f;ivcr Lice, tin-v/are, bnrdy, btv-r, 
and fome otlicr provifions chiefly t-k*;! i'l oy our 
own factories. 'i":)j r:i:;.s a::') fr-vji;cn.l'/ ij^c 111 
flints with their b. l;a:l, t'tv liicre i: .-. ;l .: Hint t'^ !^? 
found in India, at Ica'.l in tlic pr.;*i .^! I y : -l' J .a- 
ropeiins ; fo that in tliL* inhii.l, v. iicre ihe 
people have nor an op/uitij;M:y ot Lc...': l-.: ;.i:cvl by 
our ihipping, a h^^ of dints i^ al;r*.jtl .:■. v.iiu.ijlj ws 
a bag of money. 

It mull liJW'/ver bo cc^nfcfilJ, i^-:' ::1! tlrj r;.':' ^ 
we carry to iiidii are a trilk, cu.ii;m::.1 v.: :i ;' .- .. .:- 
lion and foreign c An tX|:oitcd ihiL'.r. (>v;r f...:^, 
when they go our, i,:c in a v .T.[»'.y o:* ;.v'.- 
chandize, though il-w or" them iwrvy I ,. t ■..;■« ■.!"..*;: 
or four fcore in >*'.v.i.', liii. h^i 
railewl a quellion, wlietncr ilic InJi.; i;\i.I • Lc in' :u)-f 
advantage to this iiutijn •, but, i.» i\;Liii;i> tree ■'". 

E e 4 ]^<z\ 


pany anfwer, that the Indian mercliandizc they re- 
export and fell in fcveral pares of Europe, bring in 
more trcafure than they carry out : and were it other- 
wife, we fliould have other nations monopolize the 
trade, and fupply us with the fame commodities, and 
confcquently more trcafure would be paid to them 
than is now carried to India. 

But to return. There are no greater merchants iQ 
the world than the Mugul fubjecls, though their (hips 
never pafs the Cape of Good Hope ; for they carry 
on a prodigious trade to Perfia and the Red Sea, and 
fupply both Turkey and Perfia with all the rich mer- 
chandize of India ; in return for which they bring 
back carpets, pearls, and other Perfian commodities, 
but chiefly treafure, which they frequently load on 
board t nglifh or Dutch fnips, and the freight is faid 
to be one great branch of the company's profit -, for 
they feldpm difpatch a fhip from Perfia to Surat but 
fiyj is as deep laden as flie can fwim, full of paflcrn- 
pcr:;, witli viiil quantities of pearls and treafures on 
bo;.rd, forrjciin cs to the aiiiount of two or three 
hup.drcd ihoUi'and pounds. 

The Ip !' irakc iii'e of Eurcpean fhips to im- 
port their t: c\;iiirc chiefly i'or iccuriry ; for they con- 
lidcr then") r.s 1 1; n;^ in jnuch Icfs danger from pirates 
tliiin thcT (.\/n \W- ' ir.j/. 'I'hcy have Ihios indeed ef 
f ViV or five hv.nlr^.'d tons bu/cien built iii India anrr 
t1i^' Er;rr!iih n^f.;".! : l \1l rluir I.fcars, or Indisn u\\- 
lor-, \. (>".!;! ' ..•'.•• i)'.:r p. poor drli-nc'^ fhould they be 
att.-ckc'.!, ar..! v.'-v hive ciic little ll-:!!! in navict.uion. 
\vc ihnll or.iv' ;\!.!, i!-. -c tli'-ir 1) iiicd on the c<uih 
c::]\:d rr.i.i/.ii'iv , ar * f^ar-h.-ttOiTiCd vefllls, the fil-.s 
rf V. i.-i h are f -.r or hct h'ph ; the- planks arc 
very tijir-, rn i J. v v! t'M2,eiiicr with cocoa-nut cor- 
dii^;^-, 1') :::.: r!.i';' /.i]: y'-M ii!:e radi-boarJ, anJ arc 
in no '-.ijU'T of /I i.".;;j v/hcn tiiev llrike, as thev 
rrull i.K-quri:: y do on n-.-rny part^ of that court be- 
lort ::iiy can -i . rr> fo.c, ;i;vj. on t!.is account they are 
gin'..i liy uild i^y u,l ::/';VIh \:i innding their rvood?. 

fromSirT. ROE, HOLWELL, &c. ^3 

They are rowed by fix or eight hands ; but as they 
are very deep, and will carry great quantities, it is 
not very expenfive to employ thtm in landing or 
embarking goods. They have anothen^ind of veflel^ 
|f it may be called by that name, which is termed a 
catamaran, and is only formed of three or four rougl> 
pieces of timber tied, together, and are chiefly uled 
by the fifnermen, on account of their not being fit to 
carry fuch goods as may be damaged by the wet, very 
iicclc Tea beating over them. For the fame reafon 
paflTengers fcldom make ufe of them, though they 
are really fafer on that coaft than any other veflels, 
and Ibme people have failed along the. fiiore upon 
pne of them for a hundred miles together : upon 
theie kind of fioats the Indians carry the heavieft 
weights, fuch as great guns, anchors, &c. 

Having now taken a view of the country of India 
in general, we (hall prefent before the re:idcr a view 
of the capital of that empire, and of the rem.irkable 
revolutions that have lately happened at Delli, the 
capital of the province of the iame name, and the 
prefent capital of the empire. It is fituiued in 79** 
call longitude from London, and in 28^' njrdi lati- 
tude, and Hands on the rivt-r Jcmma, which divides 
it into two parts : that lafl bu.i: v/as ercrctcd by Sh.ih 
Jehan, and from thence is cdld Jehanab:;d -, b'.ic 
they are both t ;r<:rlier called by tht; Euiopvans by 
the name of Delii. In the part built by ihit 
ror, ail thehoiifcs ciclolc ipivious courts ; and in -he 
inner pare of iliAc buildings the people lod^.-, ro 
prevent any frora approaching the places appointed 
for their women. Moil of the izrcat men liavc lioufcs 
without the ciry, on account or the convciiiL-nLy of 
the waters. 

The c:;trance ip.:o the ciry is by a lorg frre^.r, on 
each TaIc of wiiicli are regular arclics, iiiid«.r v.r.i h 
the merchants have tlieir fhops. Thi*. ftr. et ic.ui . to 
rhf p.dace, which is above a mile an i a lialT r(Uhv]. 
Tiic wall iii buih or' hcv;n Hone, wiih baulcwicn-.s ■, 



and at every tenth battlement is a tower. The ditches 
which furround the wall, are full of water, and alia 
faced with hewn Hone. The grand portal has no- 
thing extraorAnary in its appearance, and as little has 
the hrll court into which the great lords are permitted 
to enter, I'eaced on their elephants : this leads to a 
large and long paflage adorned with fine porticos, un- 
der which are many Imall rooms, into which a part of 
the guards retire : on each fide are the women's apar& 
ments, and the great halls where juftice is adminifter- 
ed ', and in the middle of the pafTage is a canal filled 
with water, which at equal diftances is formed into 
little batons. P rom thence a paflage leads to a ic- 
cond court, where the omrahs mount guard in pcr- 
fon. They have their quarters there, and their borfes 
^re tied before the gates. 

On entering the third court, the divan, where the 
king gives audience, appears in front. It is a hall, 
to which is an afcent of fcven or eight fteps : thii 
llruclure is open on three fides, and us root, whidi 
confills of a number of arches, is fupported by 32 
marble columns. When the emperor Shah Jcban 
caufecl this hall to be ercftai, he gave orders that it 
fnould be all over enriched with the fined work form- 
ed of jewels inlaid : but when the men had made the 
trial on fonne columns to the height of two or three 
feet, th.ey fou/id it would b:* impollioie to rind a num- 
ber of jewels fufiicient to execute fo grand a deCgn, 
dnd tli;iL the evpencc would be imnienfe ; the Mogul 
was therefore obliged to abandon the pr(jiect, and to 
be contented with painting it with different flowers. 

In themidfc of this haii, o{:pofite to the wall which 
looks into the court, is a kind of alcove, and there the 
throne on which the king gives audience is ercdcd : 
after the manner of the antient orientals, it is in the 
form of a fmall bed with three feet -, but its ma'^nih- 
ccncc L'ould r.'jr be believed, were it net attefted by the 
molt credible.- w'.tntfles. Tliis bed is adoriied wicli 
four coLijn:.:, a canopy, a head-board, a bolfter, 


from Sir T. ROE, II OL WELL, &c. 4a y 

ud a counterpane : one would imagine that Shah 
Jehan, who caufed it to be made, was refolved to 
cxhauft upon it all the riches of his kingdom. It 
ihines with gold, filver, emeralds, diamonds, and 
rubies, which have been diffufed over it with grcac 
profufion. The canopy is fo coverdd with them^ 
that the eyes of the beholders are dazzled : its frinae 
IS compol'ed of gold and pearls ; the columns which 
fupport it are equally covered with them. The fiir- 
niture of the bed, with the counterpane which the 
prince has over him, are embroidered with gold and 
pearls ; and the feet on which the bed (lands, are no 
lefs adorned than the columns : to each of thefe lad 
arc fixed the Mogul's buckler, fabre, bow, quiver, 
aiTows, and other arms. 

At a fmall diftance from the hall of the divan arc 
the grcac ttablts, which are always full of the fincft 
horles, in which the Mogul ufually takes great de- 
light •, thefe are brought from Arabia, Perfia, and 
Tartary, at a great expence. Before every flable- 
door is hung a kind of mat ma^ie of reeds, and 
bound together with filk twifted in the form of 
flowers. Thefe are intended to prevent the fli^s from 
entering: but they are not fatisfied with this precau- 
tion ; every horfe has two grooms, who relieve one 
another, and fan them continually. All the dny ihcy 
have carpets over them, and at night r!iey lie upon a 
litter made of their own dung dried in the iun, and 
well pounded. 

The o'hcr public buildings in this city arc a great 
mofque, which has ieveral fine marble d^imtrs ; and a 
noble caravanlera, built by a Mogul princcls for tlic 
'accommodati(^n of llrangers. 

It is however proper to obferve, that this pompous 
account was wrote before Nadir Shah ravaged tlvj Mo- 
gul's dominions : for, in the beginning 01 I'-^o* thai 
conqueror liaving defeated the Mogul, enterttl Ddli, 
fecured his pei ion, and having ieizrd all his jev/tls 
and treafures, oi which he obliged ))i:ii to give a liil, 

rt- placed 


replaced him on the throne, obliging him to promifc 
to pay an annual tribute of 6,250,000 L ftcrling. 
Among rhc other pkjnder feized by the Pcrfian mo- 
narch, v/ns the empcror.s bed of Itate adorned with' 
precious llones, and the grand imperial throne. In 
ihort, the value of the plunder taken from the Mo- 
gul and his nobles, is laid to amount to 1 1 1 courons, 
or 2j i,250,c 00 1, llciling. It muft be acknowleged^ 
that the l;irge;icl3 of this immenfe fum may render 
this accouni in-jprobablc-, it i& therefore neceflfary to 
add, that it is taken from a letter from Perlia, pu- 
blilhed the fame year in the London Gazette. 

The Pattans, a race of northern people, who in- 
habit the mountainii ot Candahar, though Mahome- 
tans, are no It-l's enemies to the Moorifli govcrnmcnti 
than the Morattas, or other Indian Gcntoos. They 
Averc always eftce:iicd good foldiers, and are now 
confuiereJ as the very bell infantry in the whole em- 
pire. This warlike nation rendered themfelves for- 
iiiiciablc to Nadir Sh;ih in their march ; and after that 
conqueror had left the MqctuI empire in the weak and 
ir:ciL*r"enlibic ilate to which he had reduceil it, they 
invaded that country, on a fuppofuion that it was 
then in too low a condition to be able to refill the 
force vvlii^ h rh'*y tiK^n tliOUor;K fie to brinor asjainft it. 

Ti:c c'liincror being appriicd ot their march, af- 
feniblcd his council, anJ fittino; on his throne fur- 
rountlcd by his ccLcrals and tweniy-two principal 
omrrJi3, IkIJ in Irs liand a betel, which, according 
to the cullor.i rf liic country, he olfcred to that chief 
who would imnicvliately engage to take the command 
of th'.- arniv, and rcpulfe the enemies of his country. 
But io u.uvcrral was the treachery, or the cowardice 
of ins covirticrs, tJiat not one of them advanced to 
tal; ' tlic luTvl a:; a nlcdcve of their fidelity ; which 
tiiC vou^ii; |)ri:u t', v.fV) was ih?n about 1 S, obferving 
witii exrr'iin coiv.crn, preienteJ himfelf before his 
ic/iuT, c;«-;.t.;ly fniiLMiiiij/; that he might be pcrmit- 
tcci ;.'j !tv-*i". c ir. 


from Sir T. ROF, HOLVVELL, &c. 429 

His father, rcfuGng his rcqueft, told him, that ic 
vas not proper for the heir of the empire to expofe 
himfelf in fo dangerous an enterprize, while there 
were fo many experienced generals more fit for that 
fcrv'ice. The omrahs, on the other hand, all main- 
tained, that as his fon had offered to take the betel, 
he alone fhould put himfelf at the head of the troops ; 
and joining their folicitations with thofe of the prince, 
at length prevailed on the emperor, who immediately 
gave orders for raifing 300,000 men. 

The omrahs, exafperated at the prince's boldncfs, 
on their withdrawing from couit, entered into a con- 
fpiracy, and gaining the chiefs of the leveral bodies 
of which this army, fo haftily afiembled, was com- 
poied, concerted with them the means of betraying 
the prince •, but the young hero being informed of 
the plot laid againft his life, had the addrefs, a little 
before he engaged the Pattans, to fecure the perfons 
of thofe treacherous commanders ; and then attack- 
ing the enemy, gained a compleat victory, and 
obliged them to quit the country by a precipitate 

While tlie brave prince was thus glorioufly deli- 
vering his country from the Pattans, the confpirators 
in the capital caufcd it to be reported, tli:it he was 
fallen in battle; and entering the palace, il-ii^.d uii 
the em.peror and fcrangkd him, and tiicn gave out 
that he had poifoncd him!'elf in a nz of defjuir, occa- 
fioned bv his fon's death, and the lofn of the battle. 
This horrid aflaffination reached the c;:rs of the princ^, 
who wjs now returnirig in iriumj:h toDelli; ar.d be- 
ing ftnlible of the d;:necr that t;:rea:ened his own 
iifc from fo forir:idabIc a corHpi-v.-jv, he aJor^tc.l ih^ 
ftratagem whi'-'h his grandfathc.- Acrcnczebe pracil.l-d 
on another occdiion. Prc:cRci;^z ^'j bciicve thsc l;is 
fjtliLT dl'j.J a natur.;! death, hr awvxared incvriioi- 
able for his UiUx aiul re.-rinir otf nis crirnivi'C-, 
took the habit of a fak'r, piiblckiy dec'.ire.i ih.: 
he rciiounced tiic woild, ua.l v, juld n;:vei- ; -or': 

( ■ ' - 


fcoilcerh himfelf !n the govcrrimcnt. A court of jilt 
tice for ftate criminals is a thing unheard of in thdc " 
lawlefs governments, and the only way of puniftiing 
a traitor is by turning againft him his own afts of 
treachery and deceit. 

The prince acted his part fo perfcftly as to deceive 
the confpiratofs, who went out to meet him with at 
furances of their readinefs to acknowledge him for 
their lord and king •, and in return he declared his 
intentions to give up all thoughts of the crown, and 
even to retire from the world : arid telling them, that 
as it was neceffary fo extenfive an empire Ihould not 
be deftitutc of a head, he entreated their afliftancc 
to direft him in the choice of an emperor, defiring 
them to dflcmblc that evening in his palace to delibe- 
rate on this important affair. The omrahs retired, 
flattering themlelvcs that they had now obtained an 
opportunity of fcrtting up a creature of their own ; 
while Amet Shah, for that v.'iis the young emperor's 
name, entered the royal palace, and p!::ccd a number 
of trurty pcrlons on each fid^ of tlie doon of the 
iLwriil avenues vyhieh led to the inner court. 

The entr/.nce to the ap.Trtments of the princes of 
the l'i\(\: is difpofed wirli a view to prevent the irrup- 
tion of airairn:<, there being no approaching t!ie pre- 
knce-chaniber but through long oblique paffages, 
in which, at proper intervals, are receffcs for the 
polling of eiiards : a contrivance that at once fecures 
the monarch from the arccmir-rs of the moll deter.ri- 
natc \'i;].:ins, and nt ihj kxivx time atrords him an 
opportunity of execuiing his purposes on thofc who 
have incurred hi^ dijplealii.-e. 

Everv ti'iiiL" hv^-ine ti.ii:; ^.lii'-or,':] (or rlie reception of 
tl'.e c:i'.rahr, each as ihey arrived were introduce.! to 
thele fatal avtr.ues ;, and as :;icy lloopcd to pafs the 
curtains, whicli ;:p; ii-i.cmmIIv kjpc lo'.vcred, were 
ici'Jtd by tl'-e gurTcl;, anj in.:'V.r.i.:tJy received the 
j:.!l reward of rh.;r (T:.'ve>. i :.'.:.s tirj ?Mrgul Amct 
^lu cilablilhed hin-.i^lf m the cjict rclilfiiGn of the 


frottiSirT. ROfi, HOLWELLi &c. 43* 

throne, by triumphing at once over his foreign anij 
domeftic enemies. But it was not long before the 
peace of Delli was more fatally difluroed *, for the 
Pattan chief foon after aflembled a much more for- 
midable army, and entering Delli, gave up that city 
to be plundered three days by his foldiers. In th6 
mean time he feized upon the royal treafury, and 
obliged the collcftors of the public revenues to account 
to him for all they had received. He then marched 
home, being fuppofed to have taken away more riches, 
except jewels, than Nadii; Shah carried out of the 
country. He, however, then made no revolution, 
nor any alteration in the government of Indoftan ; but 
when he returned to Lahor, he drew a line from north 
to fouth, claiming a vaft extent of country to the weft 
of that line, which was at leaft nominally dependent 
on the empire of Indoftan •, and leaving his fon Timur 
there as governor of his new dominions, gave at that 
time no farther difturbance to Indoftan. 

Since this time feveral revolutions have happened 
at Delli ; and in 1757 this Timur was feated on the 
throne, and the empire of Mogul became fubjcdt to 
the Pattans. 

The people of Indoftan are generally well made, 
and have good features : toward the fouth they are 
black, and toward the north of an olive colour; but 
the natives have every where black long hair, and 
black eyes, and hardly any of them are deformed. 
They are Urong, acute, have a lively fancy, and a 
good genius. They are civil to ftrangers, profoundly 
fubmiftive to their governors ; but not remarkable 
for their courage. l"tie Indians here are diftinguiftied 
into Moors, or Moguls, and Gentoos, or original 
Indians and Pagans. The former are a mixture of 
Tartars, Perfians, Arabs, and molt of tht: Maho- 
metan nations, who having the power in their hands, 
behave as the lords of the country. The Pagans, 
who are much the greateft number, are as polire, as 
peaceable, as ingenious, and as inofTenfivc a pcopi;: 


as any on the face pf the earth. Their beautiful 
chints, and painted calicoes, are drawn by the meanef^ 
of the people, from their own fancy : for the ch'ints 
and calicoes on die Coromandel coad arc painted witK 
a pencil; but thofc to the northward are printed: 
however, the dye of neither waflies out. For inlay- 
ing in ivory no people excel them. The goldfmiths 
work curioufly in filligrcen, and imitate any goW- 
fmith*s work maJe in Europe. The builders ufc a 
cement made of fea-fliells much harder than bricks^ 
and will tcrrafs the roof of a houfe, or lay a floor 
with it, that iliail be like one entire (lone, and be 
full as hard. They have likewife good carpenters 
who exaftly imitate the Englilh models. 

The Indians genenilly wear a white veft of calico^ 
lilk, or mullin, which folds over before, and is tied 
with firings on cither fide. The fleeves are clofe to 
their arms, and fo long that they fit about their wrifts 
in wrinkles. The upper part fits clofc to th^ir 
bodies i but from tiic w.:ift downward it hangs in 
plaits reaching below the knee. They have no 
llockinf;;?, biit their brccclics fLMcli down to their 
heels, ai'iJ they pui their bare lire into their flipper?. 
Koiind iheir \vai;ls il.ev wear a i'jSn. in wliich the 
better ibii have :i ci:ii?^er. In tlie n'.>r[h r.irt of the 
country they have jihiris open before, which hang 
over tiieir brceclies : and in the winter feafon thcv 
alio wear a cloak. 'I'lie Pamns v/ear tlicir hjirmadc 
up ill a roll behind ; bun the Mours Ivive only a fingie 
lock : many or tiicm v. car their beards, but lo.T.c 
have onlv whin<er>-. 1 he Ta^an women have their 
hair adoinLtl w'vh jewei^, which tlicy alio wear ;n 
their ears an^i no.'ls : t-n-v have b.aceljts on their 


v;ii:h and arii^Ic::., r.nd g(/id, filver, or brals rings on 
tlieir iiiigers and loes •, or ii' tiiey ca'mot afTord thole 
of n"ietal, they have tliofe of glafs. Tlie Mahometan 
women are ahiioft alv.ays veikd, ;;iid let part of their 
hair hano; on their fliouldcrs. 


from Sir T. ROE, HOLWELL, &c. 435 

The Gentoos are divided into 85 diftcrcin tribts, 
which do not eat with each other : each nib^.^ licrds 
together, and thofe of one tribe cannot rc.zvvv into 
another ; they muft purfue the trade and prufcffion of 
the family. The chief of thefe tribes are th^ Brach- 
manS) or Bramins, who are their priells-, and the 
Rajaputes, or Ralhboots, who profefs arms, but do 
not, like the other tribes, abftain from meat, except 
it be the flcfli of a cow, orof fome other bealls which 
they hold facred. 

The Bramins, or priefts of the prophet Bramah, per- 
fuade thofe who are ill to leave legacies 10 the church, 
for which they give a receipt, which they put into 
the dead perlon's hand ; in this cafe, fays captain 
Hamilton, thev draw a bill for ten times the value in 
the othrr world on fome eminent faint, who nego- 
ciates fuch bills in paradife. They perfuade the 
vulgar, that their idols eat like men ; and in order 
that they may be plentifully provided v/ich good 
cheer, they make them of a gigantic ftature, and 
give them a monftrous belly ; and if the people fail 
in their offerings to thefe idols, by which the Bramins 
maintain their families, they threiten th;m with the 
anger of the gods. The people believe is fome- 
thing fo divine in a cow, that happy is the .naii v/ho 
can get himfelf fprinkled with the aihes of onj burnt 
byaBramin; and they efteem the man bl-_'Hcd, who 
in the agonies of death can lay hold of a cow's t.iil : 
for they believe tranfmigraiion, and tninl-: the foul 
fomctimes returns into the body of chat: bcaft, which 
they confidcr as an high honour. The fjuls of the 
wi-ked they imagine enter tii^ boj.ies of dogs, fwine, 
and other unclean animals. Mcnce they abil.iin fr-ni 
the fiefli of all living creatures, end kill nothinp; rhat 
has lifi.-, for they fhouL! dilpOifefs the Ibul ot a 
fricnil or relation of its hiibic^tlon. The l^1^nin:^ of 
the BKuninj t^-nfiils in their being a'.'le to rL\ui, 
and C'^i bv liiarr fome ancient books laid to be wririen 
bv Braiiu. 

' Vol. VI. F f TV^o^v^ 


Thexf is z religious order ainong them called 
' Faquiri md Johgies, who nuke vowi of povcrtjT iOA I 
ccliMcy« and, lo obtain the favour oi brands, I'ufier I 
the nnft dreadful tortures, Tbcy contemn worldiy J 
Ftcha, and go naked, except a piece of cJotb ibodlj 
thcit Uuos, and fomc hxve not even that. A fet^fl 
thefe never comb nor cut their hair^ but dciigbrioi 
naftinefs, befmcar their bodies and faces with ai 
Mr. Hamilton obferves, that iic has fcen one of d 
fitting quite naked under the Ihade oi a trect 
that married women came as a cure for banttu 
to kifs the part wliich modcrty ought to have t 
him to conceal, while he ftroaked their headsy.^ 
muttenrd prayers over them. The auftcrioes of lb 
of thefc are incredible to ihofc who have not been p 
witnenes of ihcm. Some ftand for years on one fooT, 
with their arms tkd to the beam of a houfe, or tilt J 
branch of a tree. By this means their arms rettfe-ii 
thatpofiure, and evCT afier become ufelefs ; andlba 
fit in the fun with ihcir faces looking upward,!" 
they arc incapable of altering the pofition of thi 
heads. Others, it is faid, make a vow never tofi 
or lie down, but either walk or lean; accordingly 1 1 
rope being tied from one bough of a tree to another, | 
a pillow Or quilt is kid upon it, on which they lean t J 
but thefc are fsidtu alter t'leirpofturc when they pr>7*,J 
being drawn up by the hteis to the bough of the tret, 1 
their heads hanging down toward the earth, as tm- I 
>vur[hy to look up to heaven. The people in ail thdc 
cufcs make a merit of feeding them. Sectherepre* 
lentations in the plates annexed. 

Frauds are, however, Ibmctimes praftiled; foruM 
the year 1721, one of thefe zealots ptctending 
more fanflity ths.:i kh neighbours, gave out, that he , 
would be buried a'ive in a grave ten ftct deep, and 
that he thould appear at Aniadabat, at about 20a 
miles dill:ance, within 15 days. The grsvc was dug, 
and going in, he had Ibme reeds placed about a foot 
'.r two over his iiead, to picvcnt the earth failine in. 

" A 

>y/;.w,/<{- A,,/,/.,,, ifti.,/,,/,,/. 





from Sir t. ROE, HOLWELL, &c. 435 

A large jar of water ftood under the fhade of a great 
tree, about 10 or 12 yards from the grave, where li 
good number of Faquirs had for fome time taken up 
their quarters^ and had petfuaded many people into a 
belief of the (lory ; but the governor of Surat ordered 
a party of ibldiers to fere the Faquir buried, and to 
take care that no impofture was u(ed in his pretended 
refurre&ion. They accordingly fearched narrowly; 
and fufpeding that fome place about the root might 
afford a paflage^ ordered the Faquirs to remove a 
little out of the way, which they willingly did : but 
finding nothing, they ordered the Faquirs to rcniove 
the great water jar, which was almoft full. At this 
they exclaimed aloud ; but their clamours ftrength- 
ening the fufpicions of the Mahometans ; who either 
breaking or removing the jar, difcovered a fubterra- 
nean p^ffagc that led within two feet of the grave, on 
which they fell upon the Faquirs with their drawn 
fwords, and cut many of them to pieces ; and the 
fellow who was to have arifen from the dead loft his 
head in the fray. 

Befide the many tribes of Indian idolaters, there is 
2L'fc& called the Pcrfees or Gebers, who are worlhip- 
pers of fire. Thcfe are here bred to trade and huf- 
bandry, and are very induftrious. 

The Banians or Gentoos are often married at fix or 
feven years of age, but they do not cohabit before the 
bride is twelve, and the bridegroom fixteen. Their 
weddings are celebrated with much pomp. If the 
youth does not happen to like the girl chofe for him 
by his parents, he may keep concubines ; and if the 
wife murmurs at this, he may fee her to work with 
his flaves, for which flie can have no remedy, not 
even a divorce. The women of this country pay 
their hulbands an extraordinary refpeft, and are 
entirely at their difpolal : which is the lels extraorji- 
nar)", as among the richer fort, the hufband parchafcs 
his wife of her parents. 

F f 2 Althoiif>h 



V*Aith<(«gh the bloody facrifices of the ancients w» 
fOrp«t^«t the Gtntoo tenets, yet there fubfifts 
IMffng^'i them at this day, a * voluntary facrifice,' 
<tl)<^^gular a nature, to pafs unnoticed -, the rather 
§fi;iPiiikiK bcfn frequently mcnrioned by Twioua 
jKySlwK,, 'without that knowlege and perfpicuity which 
^^M^mantr calb for: the facriljce we allude to i%, the 
fii^BtfX) wives burning with the bodies of their de- 
ixafird hufband?.' We have taken no fmall pains, 
iUfffk.iPH^ Holwcll, to inveftigatc this feeming cruel 
f^b(Kgt..and hope we Ihall be able to throw fome 
fHat^/^ty lights on this very extrjordinaiy fubjefl, 
f^C^'itas hitherto been hid in obfcurity. 
■t.'^PKCaufe commonly aHigned for the origin of this 
■ fitori^Kn as, that ' it was a law confticuted to put » 
mnai t» a. wicked prafticc that the Gentoos wives 
nsdiof poifoning their hulbands.' For this aJTertion 
^.Cfiinot trace the fmallell femblance of truth, and 
indeed .the known faft, that the facrifice muft be vo- 
hiDtary,.of its felf rvfutcs that commoa mtfiake. — ^It 
has alio been a received <n)inion, chu * if the wifil 
refufes to bun), flic lofes her caft (or tribe) afed fa 
ftamped with difgrace and infatny-j' an opinion eqoSjr 
void of foundation in faft as the other.— <-Tbc Ktl 
ftate of this cafe is thus circumflanced.— ^The'&iri 
wife (for the Gentoo laws allow- bigamy^ alchouj^ 
they frequently do Jiot benefit them^lves of -the '>ii»- > 
dalgence, if they have iflue by the £rft) has it in^ber 
choice to. burn, but ' is not permitted' to dedarelKr 
resolution before 24. hours after the deceafe of her 
hufband. — If Ihe refiifcs, the right devolves tm-^ 
iecond. — If either, after the c^tpiration of 24'4Knit%, 
publicly declare^ before the Bramins and wicneffis^' 
their rc^lutk>n 10 burn, they cannot then recraA. - !f 
they both tcfule at the expiration of that teritt{|Kte 
worlt cunfe<]uencc ilut attends their refu&l, b'^^H 
under the imputation of being wanting tO' theirv(ii^ 
bonoufi purification, and the prDrpentT'iof'-^ic&' 

from Sir T. ROE, HOLWELL, &c. 437 

family : for from their infanqr, they are inftrufted by 
the boufehold Bramin to look tfpon this cataftrophe, 
as rooft glorious to themfelves, and beneficial to their 
<diildren. The truth is, that the children of the wife 
who burns, become thereby illuftrious, are fought 
after in marriage by the mo(t opulent and honourable 
of their cad, and are Ibmetimes received into a caft 
Ibperior to their Qwn. 

That the Bramins take unwearied pains to encou- 
rage, promote, and confirm in the minds of the 
Gentoo wives, ^ this fpirit of burning/ is certain ; 
and although they feldom lofe their labour, yec 
inftances happen, where the love of life fets at nought 
all their preaching : for it famednics falls out that the 
6rft wife refufesy.and the fecond burns; at others, 
they both refuiie. As but one can burn, it fo hap- 
pens, that when the fecond wife has ifTue by the 
deceafed, and the firft none, there commonly enfues 
a violent contention between them, v^'hich of the two 
Ihall make the facrifice ; but this difpute is generally 
determined by the Bramins, in favour of the firft, 
unlefs fhe is prevailed on by perfuafion, or o:her mo- 
tives, to wave her right, in favour of the fecond. — 
Having elucidated thtrfc matters, we will proceed to 
give our readers the bell account we have been able to 
obtain of the origin of this remarkable cuftom. 

Ac the dcmife of the mortal part of the Gentoo's 
great law-giver and prophet Bramah, his wives, in- 
confolable for his lofs, refolved not to furvive him^ 
and offered themfelves voluntary viftims on his funeral 
pile. — The wives of the chief Rajahs, the firft officers 
of the ftate, being unwilling to have it thought that 
they were deficient in fidelity and affed^ion, followed 
the heroic example fet them by the wives of Bramah. 
— The Bramins (a tribe then newly confticurcd by 
their great legiflator) pronounced and declared, ' that 
the delinquent fpirits of thofe heroines, immediately 
ceafed from their tranfmiirrations, and had cncercJ 
the firft boboon of purific.ition/ — It follon^ci, vxvix. 

F f 3 >iw£vt 


their wivcsclaimed a rightof making the fiuneiacrifica,, , • 
of their mortal forms co God, and itje manes o£ chcip 
deceafed huibands, — The wives of every Gentoo 
caught the cndiuiiallic (now pious) f{ame. — Thus the 
heroic acts of a few women brought about a gcwr^ 
cuflom, atid the Bramins gave it the fax>d) 

When perfons have lived together to aiv advanced 
age, in murual acta of confidence, friendfhip, and 
affection ; the facrificc a Gencoo widow makes of her 
perfon, under fuch an affecting circumftance, fceoM 
lefs an object ot wonder i but when we fccwoffienin 
the bloom of youth, and beauty, in the calm poffeHion 
of their reaion and underftanding, with ailonifhing 
^rtitude, fct at nought the tender conQderatioas of 
■parents, children, friends, and the horror and tor- 
ments of the death they court ; we cannot rcfift view- 
ing fuch an aft, and fuch a viftim, with tears of 
commtftrationi awe, and reverence.. . ,-..._ i __ 

Mr. Holwell mentions his having bc^n prde&t,at 
many of thefe facrificcs. In ibmeof the vidiouie 
obferved a pitiable dread, tremor, and ccIu&hk^ 
diat ftnmgly fpoke repenisnce for -their declared tdPT 
lotion { ' tuc it was now too Lue to retra^ or retfBK;. 
Biftnoo was waiting fv the fpirit. If the iclf dopfDi^ 
viftim difcovers want of courage and forticade^ Qk^. 
with gentle force obliged lo afcetid the piie, wfacR, 
|he is held down with long poles, held bjr ooca.da 
<ach fide of the pile, until the Qaoicq reafh Jicr : iicr 
fcreams and cries, in- the mean tifnc* being i^wQC^ 
unidft the deafening ooilb of .loud mufic, and di^ 
acclamations of the multitude- -^-Others g^.thn^xrit 
this fiery trial with niolt amaaing:, ftcadyv c^hn J^^.' 
lution, atid joyous fortitude.-^It w^L not* .wc 4v)f^' 
l>e unacceptable, if we prefent our readen wiili « 
ilrfbnce of the latter, which happened foipfrTCsr^p|ft 
at the Eaft In^ia company's fa^ory at Coft^gaHtiV^Hff* 
in the time of Sir Fnincis Kirch's chieifflua;:s->IEM 
afithor^ and fevcttl oihe^ ^entletnea of the hOatft- 

from Sir T- ROE, HOLWELL, &c. 439 

were prefent : from a narrative, which he then cranf- 
mitted to England, we are enabled to give the parri- 
culars of this mod remarkable proof of female lorti* 
cude and conftancy. 

" At five of the clock on the morning of the 4th 
of February, 1742-3, died Rhaam Chund Pundit, of 
the Mahahrattor tribe, aged 28 years. His widow 
(for he had but one wife) aged between 17 and iS, 
as loon as he expired, difdaining to wait the term 
allowed her for refledion, immediately declared to 
the Bramins and witnefles prefent her refblution to 
burn : as the family was of no fmall confideration, ail 
the merchants of Coflimbuzaar, and her relations, lei'c 
no arguments uncflayed to diflliade her from it. — 
Lady Ruflel, with the tenderell humanity, fent her 
fcveral mcffages to the fame purpofc. — The infant 
ftate of her children (two girls and a boy, the eldeft 
not four years of age) and the terrors and pain of the 
death ftie fought, were painted to her in the ftrong(*ft 
and moft lively colouring — fhe was deaf to all, — (he 
gratefully thanked Lady Ruflell, and fent her word 
• ftie had now nothing to live for, but recommended 
her children to her proteftion.* — When the torments 
of burning were urged in terrorcm to her, (he with 
a refolved and calm countenance, put her finger into 
the fire, and held it there a confiderabic time *, Hie 
then with one hand put fire in the palm of the other, 
fprinkled incenfe on it, and fumigated the Bramins. 
The confideration of her children left deftitute of a 
parent was again urged to her. She replied, * he 
that made them, would take care of them.' — She was 
at laft given to underftand, (he fhould not be per- 
niitted to burn * : this for a ftiort fpace feeiiied to 
^ve her deep affliftion ; but foon recollerting herlelf, 
Ihe told them, * death was in her power, and that if 

• The GcDtoos are not prrrrrffd to burn, wlihont T.n orc'cr 
from the Mahommedan governmtnc, aud ihis pcrixiiiiun is coin* made a perquiAte of. 

F f 4 n-.c 

440 Accpuwrtf isi«ysTA^^v 

flie was not allowed to buni^ tocordiiiK ttf tha^pritf^ 
dpks of her caft; Ihe^wouM fbrre terfelf/ ^ Her 
fineitds; finding her thus p e ttaip torj and refiiiMiii 

were gbliged at laft to aflent. 

^^ The bodjr of tHe deceafed was carried dowtfto 
the water fide, early the following mpming % die 
widow followed about ten o'clock^ accompanied bf 
three very principal Bratnins, her ehildren, parettti^ 
and relations, and a numerous concourfe of peopfe 
The order of leave for her burning did not arrive front 
Hofleyn Khan, Fou'zdaar of Moraiadabad, until after 
one; and' it wats then brought by one of die foubalfs 
own oflicers, who had orders to fee that flie bunit 
voTuntarily. The time they w«ted for the order wiS 
employed in praying with the^ramins,- and waflibg 
in the Ganges : as fooii as it arrivied, flie retired, an 
ftayed for the fpace of half ah hour in the midflr oiFlKr 
fi!Jmale relations, amongft whom was her mother* 
She then divcftcd herfelr of her bracelets, and other 
ornaments, and tied them in a cloth, which hung like 
an apron before her, and was conducted by her fis 
male relations to one corner of the pile. On the pile 
was an arched arbor formed of dry fticks, boughs, 
and leaves, open only at one end to admit her en- 
trance. In this the body of the deceaied was depo- 
fned, his head at the end oppofite to the opening. 
At the corner of the pile, to which Ihe had been coi^ 
duAed, the Bramin had made a fmall fire^ round 
which (he and the three Bramins fat for Ibme minutes; 
one of them gave into her hand a leaf of the bale 
tree (the wood commonly confecrated to form part of 
the funeral pile) with fundry things on ir, which flic 
threw into the fire : one of the others gave her a 
fecond leaf, which fhe held over the flame, whilft hfe 
dropped three times fome ghee on it, which melted^ 
and tell into the fire, (thefe two operations werepre^ 
paratory fymbols of her approaching diflblution 'by 
fire ;) and whilft they were performing this, the third 
Bramin read to her fome portions of the Aughtorrah 

* Bhadcb 

i , ^ 

#rTf:^ • 


i^. •- 


/^/f>,/ii //•,„„,„ f:,„„„i^ /i^,:.^//,n. ■ 

from Sir T. ROE, HOLWELL, &c. 441 

Shade, and afked her fome queftlons, to which (he 
anfwered with a fteady and Icrene countenance ; but 
the noife was fo great, we could not underftand what 
flic faid, although we were within a. yard of her, 
Thcfe over, (he was led with great folemnity three 
times round the pile, the Bramins reading before her: 
when (he came the third time to the fmall fire, (he 
flopped, took her rings off her toes and fingers, and 
put them to her other ornaments : here (he took a 
folcmn m;ijeftic leave of her children, parents, and 
relations •, after which, one of the Bramins dipped a 
large wi. k of cotton in fome ghee, and gave it ready 
lighted into her hand, and led her to the open fide of 
the arbor; there, all the Bramins fell at her feet. 
After (he had bleflcd them, they retired weeping. By 
cwo fteps (he afcended the pile and entered the arbor. 
On her entrance, (he made a profound reverence at 
the feet of the deceafed, and advanced and feated her- 
itV by his head : (he looked, in filent meditation, on 
his face, for the fpace of a minute, then fet fire to the 
arbor in three places. Obferving that (he had fet fire 
to leeward, and that the flames blew from her, in- 
ftantly feeing her error, (he rofc, and let fire to wind- 
ward, and refumed her ftation. Enfign Daniel with 
his cane feparatcd the grafs and leaves on the wind- 
ward fide, by which means we had a diftinct view of 
her as (he fat. With what dignity, and undaunted a 
countenance, (he fet fire to the pile the lad time, and 
ftflTumed her feat, can only be conceived, for words 
cannot convey a juft idea of her. The pile being of 
combuftible matters, the fupporters of the roof were 
■pre(cntly confumed, and it tumbled upon her." * 

• As ihf enrrraving annexed ev?Jent]y i^ocz nnt corrcfpor.d with 
fome of the ciicunillances here mentioned, j: i- pr-^p.-r lo (.bfcrvc 
thit the above dc{cripiion was not ?ccomj'<.i;ici v. iiii v.'-. rcnrc- 
fenLition. The mtthoJs of burning .ire Wiiioi;--, it tcii' • Toine- done in a pit ; thril we hsvc cx!iibitcd is from IvJanccilo, of a 
i\ v^hofe hulbmd b:id died in a diflanc pluc. 


We fee our fair country-women fh udder at an adi<wj 
which we fear they will look upon as a proof of i^3 
higheft infatuation in their fcx. Although it is no3 
our intention here to defend the tenets of the BrarainsFj 
T« we may be allowed to offer fome juflificaiion onj 
bchait of the Gentoo women in the aftion before utT 
Let us view it (as we (hould every other action) with- J 
out prejudice, and without keeping always in fighi 
our own tenets and cuftoms, and prepgfTelTions tna 
' too generally refult therefrom, to the injury of otfiers.. 
if we view thcfe women in a juft light, we Oiall think* 
more candidly of them, and confefs they aft upon 
heroic, as well as rational and pious principles. In^^ 
order to this, we muft confider tliem as a race of^ 
females trained from their infancy, in die full convic- 
tion of their ccleftial rank ; and that this world, and 
the corporeal form that inclofes them, is deftined by 
God, the one as their place of puniflimeiit, the other 
ss their prilbn. That their ideas are confequcntly 
raifed to a foothing degree of dignity befiting angelic 
beings. They are nurfed and jnftruifted in the firm 
&ith — that this voluntary facrifice is the moft glorious ' 
period of their lives, and that thereby the ccleftial 
fpirit is releafed from its tranfmigrations, and evils (^ 
a miferable exiftence, and flies to join the fpirit of 
their departed hufband, in a Hate of purification : 
add to this, the fubordinate confideration of railing 
the luftrc of their children, and of contributing by 
this aftion to their temporal profperity : all thefc it 
muft be owned are prevalent motives, for chearfully 
embracing death, and fctting at nought every com- 
mon attaLhmcnt which the weaknefs of humanity 
urges, for a longer exiftence in a world of evil. Al- 
though thefe principles are in general fo diametrically 
ciintrary to the prevailing fpirit and genius of our fair 
country-women, who (from a happy train of educa- 
tion) in captivating amufcments and diflipation, find 
charms fufficient in this world, to engage their wifhes 


fromSirT. ROE, HOLWELL, &c. 443 

for a perpetual refidence in it : yet we will depend on 
iheir natural goodnefs of heart, generofity, and can* 
dour, that they will in future look on thefe their 
Gentoo fiders of the creation, in a more favourable 
and confident light, than probably the^ have hitherto 
done ; and not deem that aftion an infatuation which 
refults from principle. 

Before we clofe this fubjed, we will mention one 
or two more particulars relative to it. Ft has been 
already remaM'ked in a marginal note, that the Gentoo 
women arc not allowed to burn, without an order of 
leave from the Mahommedan government : it is pro- 
per aUb to inform our readers this privilege is never 
with-hcld from them. There have been inftances 
known, wheq the viAim has,^ by Europeans, been 
forotably relcued from the pile It is currently faid 
and believed (how true we will not aver) that the wife 
of Mr. Job Charnock was by him fnatched from this 
facrifice : be this as it may, the outrage is confidered 
by the Gentoos an atrocious and wicked violation of 
aheir facred rites and privileges. 



(.*.. Ill .•jvi.-.i) ., .. . .-f.i vv,,i;-i/i rtiwi 
,.-,»'.<l 11' J-''J' ■■ -''"iO"!'! . ■^•"■'"fli 
vio'iiiit'i oil:}*. •■■■ :'■ ■'''■■-' It' 1 

-:i..*rj'"F'iB-T E-R 'S' B jP': 

■iwirr. iaailivT-'i ,,. vW'- 
.:,".' "inn-l 1 " ;?'.-'^' ■ • '• 

.5yi;. -is* ■•■■■'■L'' ■ - V -"■■ ■ ■■ ■ ';. - , 
WiL'ittlClfiAafl^^rtHw his lAfieilil^ 

' 'tJw'Ftfft, toKAiiHl Emptrorot'CHis.A:"' ' 

By J O H N BEL L, Efqi -f 

MR. Bell informs U9, tbst i cunofity to vifit 
frveral parts of Afia, particularly thofe Wfati^' 
border on the dominions, of Ruflia, induced hfm lb' 

tct a recommendation to Dr. Arelkine, chief plnr- 
cian and pnvy counlcllor to the czar Peter X 
Through this gentleman's recommendation, and Us 
own knowlege in phyfic and forgery, Mr. Bell 'frpt 
be was appointed to attend an embafiy to the ftfohy 
of FerOa; and afterward that to the court of Chmii 
the particulars of which laft we prapofe to eniich btir' 
collection with. 

BeGde the ambaflador, LeofFVafClovichlsm^iaA^ 
who was a gentleman of family, and a capbod ctf ide 
Ruflian guards, bis fecretary, fix gentlemetl, ^Mt 
prieft, Mr. Bell informs us that they were-tttcBded^ 
with interpreters, clerks, a band <x muGc, valen, 


fcocmen, &c. in all to the number of about 60 per^ 
fens-, befide a troop of 2 5 dragoons, as an eicorc from 
ToboUky to Pekin, and back. We ihall proceed 
with our author's own detail. 

The prefents for the emperor of China being got 
ready, ars well as the ambaflfador's difpacches, I Tec 
out from St. Peter(burg the 1 4th of July, 1 7 1 9, in 
company with Meflieurs Lange and Grave, attended 
by a few fervants *, the firft was a native of Sweden, 
and the other of Courland. We travelled to the city 
of Moico in fmall parties, the more eafily to procure 
poft horfes. September 9th, having (hipped our 
baggage, and prepared every thing for our departure, 
we went ourfelves on board; and after firing nine 
suns, rowed down the river Mofco. There is a 
uorter way from Mofco to Siberia through Yaroflave ; 
bur, as we were incumbered with heavy baggage, 
. confining chiefly of prefents from his majefty to the 
emperor of China, it was thought beft to proceed as 
far as podible by water. 

After a voyage of fix weeks we arrived at Cazan on 
the 20th of Oftober. Here I found many of my old 
friends and acquaintance, particularly the Swedifh 
officers ; among others, general Hamilton, general 
Rofen, and baron Wachmaiter, who dill remained 
priibners of war, regretting the hard fate of their long 
captivity. We (laid here about five weeks, waiting 
for the fnow falling, to fmooth the roads ; and in the 
mean time were employed in preparing fledges, and 
other neceflaries for our journey toward Siberia. 

November 24th, we lent off the heavy baggage : 
but Monfieur Ismayloff, with a few of the gentlemen, 
remained fome days longer ; becaufe it was difagree- 
able travelling on rough roads with loaded fledges. 
Arlaft, on the 28 th, late in the night, the ambaflTador 
quitted Cazan, keeping to tlie norrh-eaftward. There 
being many villages on the roaJ, we changed horfes 
as often as cccafion required. 

4 On 


nofe imedH 


On tTi« 7th we reached Kay-gorod, « fmaU 
We pereeivcd (he cold becoming daily more ii 
as we pnkeeded northward ak>ng the banks of d^ 

The 8th, we quitted Kay-gorod in a vehement 
arfd. Though there was Gttle wind, and a thick fog, 
the froft continued fo penetrating thai fcveral of out 
people, who were moft expofed, had their fingcn 
and toes frozen. Moft of them recovered by Urn] 
common method of rubbing the numbed pamw''" 
fnow: but had wc not halted from time to time 
villages 10 let them warm thcmfclves, they muft 
pcrilhed by cold. 

On the 9th, we arrived at the town of Solikai 
derived firom Sole, fait, and Kama, the river on 
banks of which it is fituated. This river is of ^ 
fame in thcfe parts of the world* It rifes far to 
north, and, in its courfe, receives the Parma, Pili 
Koyva, and many other rivers, which together (c 
a mighty rtrcam, very nearly equal to the Volg»r' 
iftto which it dilchat^cs itfelfl tibouc 6» nrft bUatfi 
the city i^Cazan, and lofes Its name. -'' ■ •I'.'i^ 

In the heighbourhood of SoHkamflkf u 4ba(ld4e 
foffil called afbedos; of which n imde altiUd'lf^ 
dtth like }inen, that may be put mD» di»'flM «*= 
tAtn out again Qnconfamod. This ciMh iMsiliMMf' 
among the ancients, and ufed 1^ tfiem vk'ftfefiA 
occafions. At prefejit, it goes by the 'AaAe of^Ai' 
incombufKbte linen, ■ ■. .ji 

Theafbeftos. like many both curious -aA^iiifeftf' 
difcpTcrids, was found out by meer acciiEfeiit fn cbdie; 
parts. IlhaH briefly rHat6 in what manAert' A«c«^' 
utn'hutltfmttri' bein^ ahtrnt to load his fQ»wtk^picMa^! 
and wanting wadding, obfcnrcd a grcit llatte iO>^' 
woodk, wtitchfeemcd tohtvedbnT^lllikesBitonitWW' 
lodfc, threes i he Jbon fbtfttd that- by mbblNgliir: 
turned i^to*a fofi downy ^ftrbftjtffce 'fit f* hi* «ftw l*i 
therefore BHed his pockeciRdi it; but4iftw(^iftf^i 
his piece, was furprifed to fefc that the jguft ^ W i « f " 
7 had 

TO PEKIN. 447 

hid no effcft upon the wadding : this raifed his curi* 
ofify 6> far, diac he kindkd a fire on purpQre» into 
which he put the aibeftos -, but Hill took it out intirc« 
and of the fame ufe as formerly. This experiment fo 
frighccned the poor fportfman, that he imagined the 
devil had taken pofleflion of the foilU. On returning 
home, he told what had happened to the prieft of the 
Miiflii who^ amazed at the relation, repeated it {o 
bi^uendy, that,atlaft, he told it to a perlbn who was 
aeqvainted with that quality peculiar to the aibeftos ; 
ud^ on examination, found the flakes to be that 

The 1 6th, about noon, we were in fight of the city 
of ToboUky, though diftant from us about 20 £ng« 
lifli miles. It ft^ds upon a very high bank of the 
ToboL The walls are whice ^ and the cro/Tes and 
cupolas of the churches gilded, which make a very line 
appearance. About two o'clock, we arrived fate at 
the city of ToboKky, the capital of Siberia, and the 
refidence of the governor. We lodged in the broad* 
ilreet, leading to the governor's palace and the courts 
of juftice. 

We travelled between Tumcn and ToboKky, about 
250 verft, in the fpace of 30 hours. Sledges are the 
moft fimple and convenient machines for travelling on 
fnow that can be imagined. And the perfon in the 
Ccdge may either fit or lie along upon the couch, 
according to his inclination. 

Tobollky is (iiuatcd in latitude 58^ 40^ north, at 
the conflux of the Irtiih and Tobol. From this lall 
the city has its name. Both thefe rivers are navigable 
for fcveral hundred miles above this place. The 
Irtifl], after receiving the Tobol, becomes a noble 
dream, and difcharges itfelf intp the Oby. This 
ficuacion was chofcn by the Ruflians, both for its 
flrcngth and btauty. Formerly tiiC larcar princes 
had their abo:ie at a place about 30 verd foudi from 
Tobollky, which is now neglected and ruinous. The 
inhabitanis are chiefly RulTuns, of difKrcnc profef- 

44^ fiELVs >0U11KET 

fiou : fUny of thcAi aremerduDB, «ld «cry lUi ! 
bjr the pnfitible trade thtv carfy on m che b tu d ca rf 
CfaiiM»'aiidiBmnyplacesof their own country. 

I caniMX but obfeiTe, that the Swetftfii {irtitMim, 
(Wpeifed in ntoft of the towns of this country, con* 
nibuted not a tittle r> the civiltzing the inhat»tantsof 
theie diftant r^iions ; as riwy were the means of ia* 
trodueing fevnal ufifiil arts, wlikh vfere aloMftm* 
known bcfbre their arrinl. Many of die uttiKU, 
bang gentkmcn of liberal edocition, die beiHr tt 
fuppon their tedious captivity, dcrood thdrillaen 
the litudy of the mote agreeatde and entertaining ^iRi 
t£ fcience, particularly mufic and painttng} mmi ia 
Same of them attuned to great peiMtion. I «tt|iit' 
fern at feveral of thrir coscerts, and was not aktte 
furprifed to Bod fuch harmony, and variety of moScd 
inilruments, in this part of the world. They fixne* 
titnes amufed themfelves with teaching young gentk- 
men and ladies the French and German languages, 
mu&c, dancing, and other limilar accomplifhmentS) 
whereby they gained many friends among the' peo(^ 
of diftindlion ; a circumllance, to men in their jitua- 
tion, both honourable and ufcful. 

The Irtlfh takes its rife from a great lake, named 
Korzan, in a mountainous country, about 1500 verft 
to the Southward of Tobolfky. The country about 
this lake is inhabited by the Black Kalmucks, a 
mighty and numerous people, governed by a prince 
called Kontaylba. From the^ the Kalmucks on the 
Volga are defcendcd. After the Irtifli has run fix 
many miles, through a hilly country covered with 
wood, ic pafies through a fme fruitful plain, inluibited 
by the Kalmucks, till it comes to a houfe called 
Sedmy-Falaiy, or the Seven Rooms, fituated to the 
right in coming down the river. ' It is very furprifing 
to find fuch a regular edifice in the middle of a delart. 
Some of the Tartars fay it was buik by Tamcfiane^ 
called by the Tartars Teifiyr-Adc-SKK, or Lame- 
Temyr; others by Gingecze-Chan, The buikliiigi 

T O P E K I N. 449 


according c6 the bed information I could obtain, is 
of brick or ftone, well finilhed, and continues ilili 
entire. It confifts of fevcn apartments under one 
roof, from whence it has the name of the Seven 
Palaces. Several of thefe- rooms arc filled with fcroUs 
of glazed paper, fairly wrote, and many of them in 
gilt characters. . Some of the fcrolls are black, but 
the greatelt part white. The language in which they 
are written is that of the Tongufts, or Kalmucks. 
While I was at TobolPicy, I met with a foldier in the 
ftrcet with a bundle of thefe papers in his hand. He 
afked me to buy them ; which I did for a fmali fum, 
I kept them till my arrival in England, when I diftri- 
buted them among my friends ; particularly to that 
learned antiquirian Sir Hans Sloane, who valued them 
at a high rate, and gave them a place in his celebrated 

Tv/o of tbefe fcrolls were fent by order of the em- 
peror Peter the Firll, to the royal academy at Paris. 
The academy returned a tranQation, which I faw in 
the rarity-chamber at St. Peterfburg. One of them 
contained a commiflion to a lama or prieft ; and the 
other a form of prayer to the Deity. Whether this 
interpretation may be depended on I (hall not deter- 
mine. I'he Tartars eflccm them all facred v.-ritings, 
as appears from the care they take to prcfervc them. 
Perhaps they may contain fome curious pieces of an- 
tiquity, particularly of ancient hiftory. Above the 
Sedmy Palaty, toward the fource of the Irtifli, upon 
the hills and valleys, grows the belt rhubarb in the 
world, widiout th- leaft culture. 

Before I leave this place, I imagine it v/ill not be 
improper to fubjcin a few more particulars relative vj 
the kontayflia, prince of the Kalmucks. I am il:? 
more inclined to do this, as I can enrirely dcprnd on 
my intelligence. The territories of this prince a:c 
bounded by three of the moft porcnr emoircs in tlie 
worl.i ; on the north by KulTia, hy Ciiinu on thf, 
aud by tliC country ofihr Great Morrul :o ihv f iji:.. 

Vol. VI. G <x l- .^i.a 


l-'rom the two firft he is feparated by defart plains, 
and fiom the third by almoll impaflablc mountains. 
To the fouth-weft his frontiers reach near to Bucharia. 
Tl:e kontayfha is a very powerful prince, and able 
to bring into the field, at a fhort warning, 100,000 
hr.rfcmtrn, who are all of them able-bodied men, 
well mounted, and armed with bows and arrows, 
lances and fabres. This is a greater number orhorfc 
than any prince that I know can mufter, except his 
KulTian majefty, and the emperor of China. Thcfe 
Tartars live in tents^ all the year, removing from 
place to place, as called by necefTity or inclination. 
1 his is the mod ancient and pleafant manner of life. 
It is entertaining to hear them commilerate thofc who 
are confined to one place of abode, and obliged to 
i'upport thcmfelvcs by labour, which they reckon the 
greateft flavery. 

Tie kontayHia has always fome thoufands of hfs 
fubjcAs encamped nt'ar himfclf, who treat him with 
great veneration and rclpcft. And, in juftice to him, 
it miift be confefled, that he is as attentive to the in- 
tcreils of his people-, anJ as o.lTiduous in the admini- 
llration of jrilice, in pareicular, as if they were his 
own children. 

x'i^e Kalmucks are not lucli favage people as they 
are ^cnLTally reprclenrc;! •, tor I am iriformed a per- 
i'jn may travel aiv.onj them with greater fatety, 
both to hi:'> pcrlbn and eiiods, than in many other 

The konrayfli.i received the deputies from the go- 
vernor of Siberia, like ambafiador^ from foreic^n 
jKinces, and treated them accordingly. This (hews 
\.i^'.: hiph reipe^t thefe eaftern princes entertain for 
! is C '^.arilh majcllv, when the ciovernorof Siberia is 
r.r. a:\:ed as a jbverei^n. 

i iirir medio J or carrying on, by waftincr the 
co'jntfv, is very ciicicnt the Tartars, and 
j)r.ia;:cd by ail of iliem from ti;c Danube eaftward. 
Tiiis circi'.mllancv: renders them a dreadi'ul enemy to 


TO PEKIN. 451 

regular troops, who muft thereby be deprived of all 
fubfiftence, while the Tartars, having always mnny 
fpare horfes to kill and eat, are at no lofs for provi- 
fions. I havo only to add, that the kontaylha mull 
be the fame prince, who, in our European maps, is 
generally callc:! the Great Cham of Tartary. As no 
Europeans travel thrr/jq;^ that country, thefe maps 
mult oe very erroneous. 

January 9th, 1720, we proceeded toward Tara. 
Wc paflcd through many Tartar villages, ai:d ac 
ni^t lodged in one of tl.eir litde huts, and warmed 
ourfelves at a good iirc on the hearth. Thele houfes 
confift generally of one or two rooms, according to 
the ability of the landlord. Near to the hcarrh is fixed 
an iron-icettle to drefs the viftuals. In one end of 
tbe apartment is placed a bench, about iS inches 
high, and 6 feet broad, covered with mats, or fkins 
of wild beads, upon which all the family fit by day, 
and fleep in the night. The walls are buiic of wood 
and mofs, confiding of large beams, laid one above 
another, with a layer of mofs between every two 
beams. All the roofs are raifed. A fquare-hole is 
cut out for a window, and tofupply the want of glafs, 
a piece of ice is formed to fit the place exadlly, which 
lets in a good light. Two or three pieces will laft the 
whole winter. Thefe Tartars are very neat and cleanly 
both in their perfons and houfes. They ufe no uoves, 
as the Rufiians do. Near the houfe there is commonly 
a Died for the cattle. 

It is generally reckoned, that more robberies arc 
committed in Baraba, than in any country on the road 
to China -, not by the natives, for they are very honeft 
and hofpitable ; but by the Kalmucks, who come to 
colled tribute for the kontaylha : thefe fometi.mes 
pick up travellers, and carry them otf with all their 

In the places through which we paflcd, the am- 
badador fcnt for all the hunters and Iportlmen, that 
he might inquire what kinds of game and wild beads 

G g 2' were 

4S»- - ■ B-E L.L*s_ JOURNEY 

were in thrir neighbourhood. Hunting is ilic cm* 
plofoKflt of moft of titf young fellows i a this counuy *. 
and is very, profitable, bs they fell ihc furs to great 
advantage. * We fonod ihai this pkce produced grcii 

filenty both df game and wild beaCts, but few fables. 
n the fpringi a nuffibet of elks and (ia'^s conic hither, 
from the fouth ; many of which are killed by the 
inbalHtsbts, both on' account of their flclh and their 
hidte. Wbit of tlie fleih is not confumed frefh ihcy 
faltL The hidex are very lai^c, and are drelTed inio- 
neecllem buff. The huntfman, having found the 
track' of aftagupon the Ihow, pgrftics it upoa his 
Ihow-Ihoes, with his bow and ariowsj and little d<^ 
nlltbe animal is quiK fatigued : for, ihc Ihow on the 
furfadc, being melted by the heat of the fun, and 
congealed, at ilight, by the frofV, bvn not ftrong 
'jcnough :to bear the weight of fuch an acinulj he 
' £i^ deep at every fte]>, and the Iharp ice cuti his 
ancles; and lames him ; fo tiiat he becomes an calj- 
prey to the hunter. 

The 19th, we entered theBaraba, aad cbounucd- 
travelling through it, for ten days. Baraba is leally 
-'what its name fignihcs, an txtenQve marihy pI^D. 
It is generally full of lakes,^ and marlhjr gnHiildsi 
overgrown with tall woods. " The inhai)itants art 
very hofpitablc-, and defire nothing, in return of 
their civilities, but a little tobacco to fmoke, and a 
dram of brandy, of which they are very fond. TKc 
drefs, both of men and wbmen, coniifts of long coats 
of flieep flcins, %vhich they get from the Ru0ians aqd 
Kalmucks, in exchange for more valuable furs. 

The Barabintzy, like moll of the ancient natives 
of Siberia, have many conjurers among them ; vboip 
they call Jhamans, and fomeiimes priefts. Many of 
the female fcx^alfo aiTume this charaftcr. The Ih^ 
mans are'held in great eftcem by the 'people; thcjf 
jjretend to correfpohdence with the fliayian, ordevi|; 
. by whom, they fay, they arc informed raf aJI paft ajd 
future events, at any diftancc of time or placfc. Wc 


TO PEKIN. 453 

\\9tnt to vifit a famous woman of this chirafter. 
When wc entered her houfc, Ihc continued bufy about 
her domeftic affairs, almofl without taking any notice 
of her gucfts. However, after ftie had fmoked a pipe 
of tobacco, and drank a dram of brandy, fhc began 
,to be more chearful. Our people afked her fome 
trifling queftions about their friends ; but fhc pre- 
tended to be quitt; igiioranc, till Ihe ^ot more tobacco, 
and fome inconfidcrable prefenrs ; when (he began to 
-colled her conjuring tool*^. Firft, (he brought the 
fhaytan -, v;hich is nothing but a piece of wood, 
wSerein is cue fonncrthin^ rcfcmbling a human head, 
adorned with many filk and woollen rapr^, of various 
colours s then a fruall drum, abou: a foot diameter, 
"to which were fixed many braLs and iron rings, and 
«hung round alio with ra^s. She now began a difmal 
.tune, keeping time with the drum, which (he beat 
•with a ftick for that purpofe : icveral of her neigh- 
bours, whom (he had previoufly called to her aflilV- 
ance, joined in the chorus. During this fccn--*, v/hich 
Jaded about a quarter of an hour, (he kept the fhay- 
tan, or im.ig^, cl: It: by herf^lf, ftucic up in a corner. 
The charm being now finiihcd, (he dcfiri-d us to put 
our queftions. H.t anfwcr^ w.r-e delivcrcvi very art- 
fully, and With as much obfcurity and ambi^uitv, as 
-they could hive been given by any orucle. Sli-j v,as 
a young woman, and very hand/ome. 

February 4th, we arr/.'cd fife at the town of 
Tomiky, lo called fromtiic noblj river Tomm, upon 
the caftern bank of which ic fta"ic:=. 

About ei^ht or ten davs iour-^cv from Toxfliv. in 
a plain, are found mar.y tomb:, zx.X ju'vi.i;-^ !.!..(:-, 
of ancient heroes-, who, in aii proba /iiiry, r .; in 
battle. Thcfe arc eafiiy c :t:.'i;^^:rni:d \r; \u*i 
ffiounds of earth and {vs.'^% ra ic: up-jn :!/ :n. vv r.r-.-, 
or by whom, thevL- h;:fif:i wer'j iryy.,:'.\^ Im :a- -o v.*: 
northward, :5 ur.ctrui'.. I v/a'> i.for./:! i,v r .*: 
Tartars in the: 3:t:i':a, ;har 'I a .-/.rU:.';, ^r 'I i-. ; - 
Ack-Sack, a.-, v^ev .-/iii Mr::, \,i.'\ cri:-::^':': :. . 

454- : BELL'S JOURf 

in tiut country' with tKe Kalmucks -, whom he in v 
endetVoured to conquer. Many perfons go iroax' 
Tomflcy and other parts, every I'uinmer, to tbde 
graves; which they dig up, and find, among the 
afhct of the dcati, conliderable quantities of gold* 
fihrer,- ■ brafs, and lome precious ftones ; but patticu* 
lirly lalts of fwords and armour. They arc (baje- 
titnev indeed, interrupted, and robbed of all thd( -m 
booty,' by parties of the Kalmucks, who abbor thfJ 
<liftorbing the aJhes <a the dead. , t : - . , ;.■■ jU ^ 

The (jth,- we wn« eKieitiinedU Ac C9a|iiuu4nns 
whrre'wereiflembkdfatneiioadredsafibtfGpr ' 
orli^baiiie^ UBxdwkhfaomiuid „ 
mang thtourii tfadr .tifinl'Swidfei ..<&af Anvo^i^ 
'deinerity m-flMOting on. faeffebick •Mi^lti jSp 
TJieyetcfied-ft poley^fiwrntmn^ in MiOptfiiSt 
and, ' piffing ir, it &U gtUoph ^atf: Ink Sigol 
arrows; and IbcKR fptit ir afl to ihiTen. 

The 20th, we arrived at a Ruffian village, calkd 
Melctzky,'oftroguc, where we iUid a day lo rcfidh 
ourfelves and horles. In the Neighbourhood of this 
place we found many huts of thefe Tzulimm Taitan, 
who feem to be a different race from all of chat name 
I have yet mentioned. Their complexKM indm) is 
fwarthy, like that of moft of the other defccRdanaof 
the ancient nadves of Siberia ; but I have feen lAany 
of them having white fpots on their Ikins, .from bead 
to foot, of various figures and flzcs. Many iaugine 
thefe fpots natural to the people ; but I am rather in- 
clined to believe they proceed from their conftantdict 
of fi(h and other animal food, without bread. Tbii, 
of couric*, creates a fcorbutic habit of body, which 
often breaks out in iniants; and the tears fsulingoff, 
leave that part of the fkin as if 'it had been fcalded, 
which never recovers its natural colour. I have rbow- 
evcr feen feveral children with thefe ^>ocs, who feeoied 

The Tzulimms, like other Tartars, 
half-funk under ^iomimX. TWj \ a 6re in the 

TO PEKIN. 455 

middle, with a hole at the top to let out the fmoke, 
and benches round the fire, to fit or lie upon. This 
feems to be the common method of living among all 
the northern nations, from Lapland, eailward, to the 
Japaneie ocean. They arc poor, miferable, and 
ignorant heathens. The archbifhop of Toboliky, in 
perfon, came lately hither,' and baptifcd feme hun- 
dreds of them, who were inclined to embrace the 
ChrifVian faith. As they are a ^vcll-dif|)ofed and 
harmlefs people, probably in a fiiort time they may 
be all converted. 

The firft'of March, we overtook our baggage, 
which we palled •, it being thought more convenicnc, 
both in order to procure lodgmg and frefh horfcs, 
that the heavy carriages (hould travel btrhind. 

We continued our journey, for feveral days, along 
the Tongufta. Wc found, now and then, little 
villages, or fingle hbufes, on the banks. One day 
we chanced to meet a prodigious flock of hares, all 
as white as the fnow on which they walked. I T eak 
within compafs, when I lay there were above 5 or 600 
of them. They were coming down the river, very 
deliberately, on a fmall path, of their own making, 
clofe to the beaten road. As foon as they faw us, 
all of them ran into the v/oocls, without fceming much 
frightened. I am informed that thefe hares travel to 
the fouth, in much greater flocks than this, every 
Ibring, and return in autumn, when the rivers are 
frozen and the fnow falls. 

- The nation of the Tongufy was very numerous -, 
but is, of late, much diminiflied by tlic fnrall pox. 
It is remarkable, that they knew nothing of this 
diftemper till the Rufllans arrived among them. 
They are fo much afraid of this difeafe, that, if any 
one of a family is feized with it, the relt immediarcly 
make the patient a little hut, and place by him lbn.c 
water and viftuals ; then, packing up every thing, 
thf-y march off to the windward, each carrying aa 
eartlien poc, with burning coals in it, and making a 

G g 4 dreaJt'ul 

dreadful lflnentation;uibcyg9-,i|MC. ? W i l| <w» 
KviBt (be ftck, dU ther think tlw diuigRtp«ft;.?li 

- (heperioDdies, thcf ^dAtthim-QBftbraacbflC^MmL 
tci.wluch he is tied, vith ftiong wytbes so pccmpi^ 
liiltng. -..:>.,,) 

. When they ^ a hutitiBg ijno .the- tmadsvidvif' 
carry vith theiaiDo proviGmsi' bgt'4eponde|MiNitp 
on what they arc t& catch. They. e^t'.ev^ uiitViC 
that amies in thnr way, even. ailKar, » fyx* -ae«ii& 
The {quinfib .ajcitckoned delicate food; 'bttiJ^B 
era>ins have fuch a ftrotig rank tafie and ibneUri/^biS 
Qothing but ftacviag can oblige'dicin to eat 4eiE 6fftk 
When a Tonggfe kiUs an ^dk t)r deer, . he mufiig 
Vioves. from the place, till hp has ate it up> unle^^a 

' happens, to be near his £unily i . in which fra^-i^ 
carries part of it home. He is never at a lofs for fiit, 
having always a tinder-box about him ; if this Ihould 
happen to be wanting, he kindles a 6re by rubbi^ 
two pieces -of wood agalnfl each other. 

The fables are not caught in the fame mannn at 
other animalt. The fur is fo tender, that the kaft 
mark of an arrow, or ruffling of the hair, fpoils the 
fale of the (kin. In hunting them they only u6 a 
little dog, and a net. When a hunter finds thcjcrack 
of a fable upon the fnow, he follows it, perhaps, fee 
two or three days, till the poor animal, quite tired, 
takes refuge in fome tall tree ; for it can climb like a 
cat : the hunter then fpreads' his net around the tree,' 
and makes 2 fire ; the fable, unable to endure the 
I'muke, immediately dcfcends, and is caught in the 
net. I "have been told, by fome of tlicle hunters^ 
that, when hard pincl^ed with hunger, on fuch long 
chaccs, they tdcc two thin boards, one of which they 
apply to the pit of the ftomach, and the other to the 
br.cU oppofitc to it ; the extremities of thefe boaids 
a-e tied with cords, which arc drawn tighter by 
ck-grecs, and prevent their feeling the cravings v 


TO PEKIN. 457 

Although I have obfervcd, that the Tongufians, in 
general, worfhip the fun and moon, there are many 
exceptions to this obfervation. I have found intelli- 

fent people among them, who believed there was a 
cing fuperior to both fun and moon ; and who 
created them and all the world. 

I fliall only remark farther, that from all the 
accounts I have heard and read of the natives of 
Canada, there is no nation, in the world, which they 
fo much refemble as the Tongufians. The diftance 
between them is not fo great as is commonly imagined. 
"We met with, daily, great flocks of hares in their 
■ progrefs to the wefl:ward, and many Tongufians in 
their huts. It is to be obferved, that, from this 
place, northward to the frozen ocean, there are no 
inhabitants, except a few Tongufians on the banks 
of the great rivers ; the whole of this moft extenfive 
country being overgrown with dark impenetrable 
woods. The foil, along the banks of the rivers, is 
good ; and produces wheat, barley, rye, and oats. 
The method taken by the inhabitants to deftroy the 
large fir-trees, is, to cut off a ring of bark from the 
trunk, about a foot broad, which prevents the 
afccnding of the fap, and the tree withers ia a few 
years. This prepares it for being burnt in a dry fea- 
ibn ; by which means, the ground is both cleared of 
the wood, and manured by the aflies, without much 

The Ruffians obferve, that, where the fort of fir, 
.commonly called the Scotch fir, grows, the ground 
never fails of producing corn ; but it is not fo where 
the pitch, or any other kind of fir, prevails. 

The 9th, we arrived at the town of Elimfky, which 
ftands on the road to the eaftcrn parts of Siberia ; for 
travellers to China generally take to the fouth-eafi, 
toward Irkutflcy, and thofe who travel to Yakucfky 
and Kamtzatfky, to the north-eaft. 

The people who travel in winter, from hence to 
• thefc places, generally do it in January, or February-. 



It. is a very long and difficult journey -, and which 
nODe but Tongulians, or Tuch hardy peap)?, hiv6 
■Irilitics to perform. The Ruffians frequently finifll 
it in fix weeks. The common method is as follows i 
After travelling a few days in fledges, when the road 
beojmes impaflable by hdrfes, they fet themfelves on 
fiKrtv-ftioes, and drag after them what is called a narr, 
■containing provifions and other neceflaries ; which 
•Teas tew and light as poffible. This nart is a kind 
of fledge, about five feet long, and ten inches broai 
which 3. man may eafily draw upon the deepeft fnowl 
At night, they make a large fire, and lay themfelves 
dovn to deep in thefc narrow fledges. As loon » 
tlwy have refrefbed themfelves, they again proceed 
Oft iheir fnow-fliocs, as before. This manner of tra- 
vdling continues about the fpace of ten days, whea 
jliev come to a place where tlicy procure dogs to draif 
both themfelves and their narts. The dogs arc yoked' 
by pairs ; and are more or fewer in number, accord- 
ing to the weight they have to draw. Being traiBcd 
to the work, they go on with great fpirit, barking ti& 
the way ; and the ^dbn who lies in the fledge hiolas 
a fmall cord to guide the dog that leads we reft. 
They are faftened to the fledge by a foft rope, whicli 
is tied about their middle, and paflcs through between 
their hind legs. I have been furprifed to foe the 
•weight that thcfc creatures are able to draw j for tra- 
vellers mufl: carry along with them provifions, both 
for themfelves and the dogs. Thefc watchful ani- 
mals know the time of fetting out in the morning ; 
and make a difmal howling, till they are fed and 
purfue their journey. This way of travelUng wiuuld 
not, I believe, fuit every conftitution j the very figl>t 
of it fatisficd my curiofiiy. Thus, however, thefc 
people proceed for near three .weeks, till they arrive 
at fome villages on the Lena; where, leaving tHe 
dogs, they procure horfes, with which they trayi^^to 
the town of Xakutflcy. 

TO PEKIN. 459 

Thefe people, though otherwife humane and trac- 
fcaUe, have, among them, one very barbarous cuf- 
torn ; When any of their people are infirm throufi;h 
age* or feized with diltempers reckoned incurable, 
they make a fmall hut for the patient, near fome 
river, in which they leave him, with fome provifions ; 
and feldom, or never, return to vifit him. On fuch 
occafions, fhey have no regard to father or. mother ; 
but (ay, they do them a good office in fending them 
to a better world. Whereby it appears, that, even 
thefe rude ignorant people have a notion of a future 

We fet out from Elimfky on the 1 2th. There is 
a narrow road cut for fledges ; and the trees on each 
fide, meeting at the top, made it by day ; and in the 
flight make it very dark, and almofl; difmal. 

The face of the country had now a different afpeft, 
£rom what I had feen for feveral months ; fometimes 
we faw a fine champaign country, exhibiting a beau- 
tiful and extenfive prolpcft -, at other times, the view 
was agreeably varied with woods, and rifing grounds. 
The north-fide of the river is moftly over-grown with 
woods. There arc fome openings along the banks ; 
where we found villages, and abundance of cattle 
iuid provifions. 

We were entertained with a famous Buratfky fha- 
man, who was alfo a lama, or priefl, and was brought 
from a great dillance. As thefe fhamans make a 
great noife in this part of the world, and are believed, 
by the ignorant vulgar, to be inlpired, I fhall give 
fome account of the behaviour of this one, in parti- 
cular, by which it will appear that the whole is an 

He was introduced to the ambafTador by the com- 
mandant, accompanied by feveral chiefs of his own 
tribe, who treat him with great refpedt. He was a 
man of about 30 years of age, of a grave afpecl and 
deportment. Ac his introduction he had a cup of 


46d fiEL;t.>.4,puR|rEr i 

brand7 prefented to him, Fhiqh he draii)^, but ic^t^ 
any more. .-'.'"!■ * 

After fonr^e conv^rftdon, he was defirtd to exk^ 
feme iiiAecimcn of his art ; but he nejrficd, he eraM 
•do nothing in a -RuflSan hosfe-^ becaufe there iMn 
ibme images' (^ laints, 'which prevem^d- IfTs fuccefi. 
The performance -was therefore adjourned to a Bii- 
ratfky tent in the fuburbs. Accordingly, in the evchr 
. sng, we went to the place appointed, whefe-we found 
^e ihaman, with iever^ oi his ciompanions^ round a 
little fire, fmoaking tobacco ; but no women anx>ng 
them. We placed ourfelves on ^one fide of the tent^ 
leaving the other {qt him and his couqtrymen. After 
fitting about half an hour, the fliaman placed himfelf 
crofs4cgged upon the floor, elole by a few burning 
toals upon the hearth, with his fate toward his com- 

})anions; then he took two flicks, about four 6et 
ongeach, one in' each. 'hand, aitd began to fii^ a 
difmal tune, beating time with the fticks: all his 
followers joined in the chprus. During this part of 
the performance, he turned and difliorted his body 
into many different poftures, till, at laft, he wrought 
himfelf up to fuch a degree of fury that he foamed 
at the mouth, and his eyes looked red and daring. 
He now darted up on his legs, and fell a dancing, 
like one diitrafted, till he trod out the fire with his 
bare feet- Thefe unnatural motions were, by the 
vulgar, attributed to the operations of a divinity; 
and, in truth, one would almoft have imagined him 
poffcffed by fome demon. After being quite fpcnt 
with dancing, he retired to the door of the tent, and 
gave three dreadful (hrieks, by which, his com- 
panions faid, he called the demon to direft him in 
anfvvering fuch queftions as (hould be propofcd. He 
then returned, and fat down in great compofure, tell- 
ing he was ready to refolve any queftion that might 
be afked. Several of our people put queftions in 
abundance ; all which he anfwered readily, but in 


TO PEKIN. 461 

ftich ambiguous terms that nothing could he made of 
them. He now performed fcveral legerdemain tricks j 
fiich as ftabbing himfelf with a knife, and bringing 
it up at his mouth, running himfelf through with a 
fword, and many others too trifling to mention. In 
Ihort, nothing is more evident than that thefe flia- 
mans are a parcel of jugglers, who impofe .on the 
ignorant and credulous vulgar. 

The 28th, about noon, we came ta a river called 
Orongoy, which we croflcd on a tall camel j it being 
too deep for horfes. At this place we found a num* 
ber of the Buratflcy encamped, with their flocks grazing 
in the neighbourhood. 

Our horfes having fwam the river, we went into 
one of the Buratflcy tents, till they were dried. The 
hofpitable landlady immediately fet her kettle on the 
fire, to make us fome tea ; the extraordinary cookery 
of which I cannot omit defcribing. After placing a 
large iron-kettle over the fire, flie took care to wipe 
it very clean with a horfe's tail, that hung in a corner 
of the tent for that purpofe ; then the water was put 
into it, and, foon after, fome coarfe bohea tea, which 
is got from China, and a little fait. When near boil- 
ing, flie took a large brafs ladle and tofled the tea^ 
till the liquor turned very brown. It was now taken 
off the fire, and after fubfiding a little, was pourerf 
clear into another veflcl. The kettle being wiped 
clean with the horfe's tail, as before, was again fet 
upon the fire. The miftrcls now prepared a pafte, of 
meal and frefli butter, that hung in a flcin near the 
horfe's tail, which was put into the tea-kettle and. 
fried. Upon this pafte tJie tea was again poured ; to 
which was added fome good thick cream, taken out 
of a clean ftieep's flcin, which hung upon a peg among 
the other things. The ladle was again employed, for 
the fpace of fix minutes, when the tea, b(rin^ removed 
from the fire, was allowed to ft and a while in order 
to cool. The landlady now took lome wooden cups, 
which held about half a pint eiich, and fervcd her tea 

5 ^^ 

BELL'S J0URKE7 ^i^| 

tosH the cOmpBinj', Th« principal advantage of tWS" 
tea is, that it boch fatisfiss hunger and quenches 
thirft. I thought ii not difagrecable i butihould bave 
liked it much better had it brea prepared in a manner 
a little more cleanly. Our bountiful hoftofs, how^ 
ever, gave us a hearty welcome -, and, as thclc people . 
know not the ufe of money, there was nothing to psf, j 
for our entertainment. We only made her a prcfenw 
of a little tobacco to fmoke, of which thefe people ] 
are very fond, l- have given this receipt, wiih a vie«r ^ 
that fome European ladies may improve upon it. * 
The 29th of May, we mounted early, and, byjd 
means of our coflacks, hunted and ranged the woodv^ 
as we went along, in the banner of this country,*' 
called oblave in the Ruflian language. Their tnetfaoii^ 
is to form a fcmi-cirde of horfemen, armed with' I 
bows and arrows, in order to inclofe the gatne.4 
Within the femicircle a few young men are placed,^ 
who give notice when the game is fprung ; ihcle only'* 
arc permitted to purfue, the others being confined to ' 
Iceep their ranks. Our coflacks, with ihdr aiiawt, 
kiUed three deer, and feveral hares. And, if killing 
-harmlefs animals can be called diverfion, this tnxf 
properly be reckoned one of the fineft. After this 
falhton they hunt bears, wolves, foxes, and mU 

About iioon we came to a village on the Setinga, 
where we halted a few hours, and then crofled ux 
liver in boats ; which was near a mile broad ac this 
place. Our coflacks, however, fought no boats, 
•except one to tranlport their arena, cloaths, and 
faddles; which b«ng done, all of them mounted 
their horfes, and plunged into the river without the 
Jcaft concern. As foon as the horfes were f« a fwim- 
ming, for eafc to them the men difmounted, and, 
laying hold of the mane -with one hand, guided theia 
gently^ by the bridle with the other. This ia!die 
common method in this country of tranTporting dieri - 
and horfes ; which i look upon to be both ian and 


TO PEKIN. 465 

eafy, provided the horfe is managed with a gcntio 
hand, without checking him with hidden jerks of the 

We halted a little, after eroding the river, till the 
hories were dried ; after which we mounted, and, in 
the evening, arrived at the town of Sclinginflcy^ 

Here ends the tribe of the Buratfky, and the natiort 
of the. Mongalls begins. 

The Mongalls are a numerous people, and occupy 
a large extent of country, from this place to the 
Kallgan, which fignifies the Everlafting Wall, or the 
great wall of China. From this wail they ftretch 
themfelves northward as far as the river Amoor, and 
from the Amoor weftward, to the Baycall fea ; where 
they border with the territories of the kontayfha, or 
prince of the Black Kalmucks. On the fouch, they 
are bounded by a nation called Tonguts, among 
whom the delay-lama has his refidence. One may 
eafily imagine, from the vaft track of land which the 
Mongalls occupy, that they muft be very numerous 5 
efpecially, when it is conQdered, tliat they live in a 
healthy climate, rnd have been engaged in no wars^ 
fince they were conquered, partly by the Ruffians on 
the wcfc, and partly by the Chinefe on the eaft ; to 
whom all thefe people are now tributaries. In former 
times the Mongalls were troublefome neighbours to 
the Chinefe, againft whofe incurfions the great wall 
was built. 

Kamii':, the prefent emperor of China, was the firft 
who fubuucd thcfe hardy Tartars ; which he eftedted 
more by kind ufage and humanity than by his fword ; 
for thefe people are great lovers of liberty. The 
fame gentle treatment hath been obfervcd by the 
Kuffians, toward thofe of them who are their fubjecls. 
And they themfelves confefs, that, under the protec- 
tion of thcfe two mighty emperors, they enjoy more 
liberty, and live more at eafe, than they formerly aid 
uader their own princes. 



The prcfent prince of Mongalia is called Tu(h-du- 
Chan, and reiidcs about lix days journey, to the fouth- 
call, from Selinginfky. The place is called Urga^ 
and is near to where the kntuchtu, or high pricft, 
inhabits. When the Mongails fubmitted themfclvcs 
to the empercr of China, it was agreed, that the Tuflr- 
du-Ciian Ihould ftill maintain the name and authority 
of a prince over his pcopL- •, but undertake no war*, 
nor cxpeJition, without confcnt of tlie emperor; 
which has itrisitly been obferved ever fince. 

It io very remtirk:iblc, that, in nil the vail dominions 
of Mo:in:al:a, the:e is not fo much as a fin<:tle houfc to 
be ict n. All thcr people, evep the prince and high 
pricit, live conllanrly in tenrs ; and remove, v/irh 
their caitie, from pLicc to place, as convenicncy re- 

Thcl'c p'siO/jIc t!o not trouble themfctves ^ih 
plou^iiine, or u !{:[:;! rig the ground in any fafliion; 
but :i:e content with the produce of chcfir fiocks. 
Satisf.jJ* v.'irii n.L\iLries, without .:: fjDcr- 
fiuiti'-.':, ili;*v pi.;!i:e 'iic iTio'l nncieiit and lirr./!'/ man- 
m:ro;iiiv-: v,'h:c!i, 1 n:uil C()ntel>, I think very p!ca- 
Lnt in lV;v;I. a n.ild and dry clim:Ue. 

[-'"yv.n [he river Volja, to r!:e v.r.U of China, tlicrc 
are t!:rrc: ^ 1 :vt.;r j^rinees ; tlie Ayuka-Chan, the 
K'p:. -villi, aivi r!.j 'i\iih-.!u-Li;an. Tiieie three 
Hiifxhtv na'.i rr.v h:\\\' :>i:7i'?lt t!ie Icii-ne f'jaturei, rel'::io.i, 
an.l i.i^.«i\.'%- •, :-:ui 1 -l in the lin'ie manner. I: will 
c.irf.v bj ;n::cvi'.e ], bv an eve on the nijpb-, 
whiii: .i . ciiLeivc ot' i-.'irit ry thele pr'.nces i^olT:!':-, v/r.oi'j 
lub'e ■ ■; ) !'v Liie t'c-:i',ial name of Kalmiiclis. Few 
Im.'i ..' i.^ e;.n'v a traveller over a crrea^er ex:er*r 
01 I ji!L.t:y iiidii .iiac of the Kalmucks. W::h the 
Ar.:\.\Cy i;it:.-. d, a jxrion may travirl, tiirousr'i r.-r-ny 
]ji-e.-» -I i.".^- e :!", tV./:n Ei^ypt to the ccii:-: cf il\c 
Cji\a: A)o .! ■, '.iir, with cr.e lllync, lie caii tr::vcl 
nKK h uiFiliv/ tlu;n with eich^r of the K)r::ier ; vi:!. 
fro.ii li.j t'u!f of to the outm^it co'jndaries 


TO PEKIN- 465 

<if Kamtzatfky ; for the Ruffian is a dialed of the 

The greateft ^part of Mbngalia is one continued 
wafte ; except the places along the Amoor, and to- 
\vard the Ruffian borders on the weft. The foil alfo, 
to the fouth, from Sclinginflcy, is exceedingly fine -, 
and capable, by proper culture, of producing grain 
of feveral forts. 

Our barques arrived at Selinginfky on the 4th of 
June, After we had taken out of them what neccf- 
faries we wanted, they >^ ere difpatched with the reft 
of the baggage, for the greater fecurity, to his 
majefty's ftore-houfes at Strealka, about four miles up 
the river, where the caravan for China then lay. 

In the mean time, the ambaflador writ a letter to 
the allegada, or prime minifter, at the imperial court 
of Pekin, to notify his arrival ; and defirc his excel- 
lency would give orders for his reception on the bor- 
ders. This letter was fent to the prince of Mongalia, 
to be by him forwarded to court ; for no ftrangcrs are 
allowed to travel through his territories to China, 
without his permiffion. The officer, who carried the 
letter to the prince, v/as treated with great civility ; 
and his letter immediately fent to court by an exprefs. 
A few days after, the prince fent two gentlemen, one 
of whom was a lama, to congratulate the ambaflador 
on his arrival in thele parts. They were invited to 
dine with the ambaflador, and behaved very decently. 

The fame officer, who carried the ambaflador's let- 
ter to the prince of Mongalia at Urga, v;as ordered to 
prefcnt his compliments to the kutuchtu, or high 
prieft, who is a near relation of the prince. He 
received the officer in a very friendly manner, dcfircd 
him to fit down in his prefence; an honour granted 
.tt> very few, except ambaflTadors, and pilgrims from 
remote countries ; and, at his departure, gave him a 
prelent of fome inconfiderable things ; paiticulaily, a 
few pieces of Chincfe fi!ks. 

Vol. VI. H h I cm- 


I cannot leave this venerable perfonagr, withtH 
taking I'ome notice of him. I fhall therefore rclai 
« few things concerning him among thoufands more" 
ridinulous, which die people of this country tell md 

This extraordinary man afTumcs to himfclf the 
charafter of omnifcicnce, which is the interpreratioo 
rt" the word kutuclicu i and the people are taught 
to believe that he really knows all things, pad, pre- 
fent, and future. As his intelligence, by mcana of 
his lamas, is very extenfivc, he is eafily able to im- 
pcfe on the vulgar in this particular. They alfo be- 
litve that he is immortal ; not that his body lives 
always ; but that his foul, upon the decay of an old 
one, immediately tranfniigratcs into Ibme voting 
human body, which, by certain marks, the lamaj 
dit'cover to be animated by the foul of the kuluchtUp 
and he is accordingly treated as high pricft. r^ 

When the fpir-i of the katuchtu has taken poflef-"^ 
fion of a new body, that is, in plain Ki^fb, whn 
he is dead, the lamas are immediately emplmd to 
difcover in what part of the wwld this woodeHiil 
perfon is regenerated, or born again, as tbcy ezpttfi 
it. They need, however, go to no great diftsnCe to 
find him ; for, the affair being previoufly concerted 
among the chief lamas, they foon determine the 
choice of a fuccellbr ; who generally happens to be 
a young boy, that has been well intruded how to 
behave on that occafion. When a fucceflbr is pre- 
tended to be found, a company of lamas are lent to 
examine the matter, who carry along with tbeta many 
toys, fuch as fmall filver bells, and thii^ of that 
nature, which bcltrngcd to the former kutuchto, 
intermixed with others that did not. ■ AM thefe kc 
laid before the child, who picks out fuch' things as 
belonged to his predeceObr, and difcovers tlie greifteft 
Ibndnefs for them } but rejeds vnth difguft,~*ltiiBvcr 
is not genuine. Befide this trial, fotne queltioKt^re 



put to him, relative to wars, or remarkable events, 
in his former ftate-, all which are anfwered to the 
fatisfaftion of the conclave. Whereupon he is una- 
nimoufly declared to be the felf-fame kutuchtu, is 
condufted with great pomp and ceremony to Urga, 
and lodged in the tent of the high pried. 

What they call the Urga is the court, or the place 
where the prince and high prieft refide ; who are al- 
ways encamped at no great diftance from one another. 
They have feveral thoufand tents about them, which 
are removed from time to time. The Urga is much 
frequented by merchants, from China and RuQla, 
andf other places; where all trade is carried on 
by barter, without money of any kind. Tlie Chincfe 
bring hither ingots of gold, damafks, and other filk 
and cotton fiuiis, tea, and fome porcelain ; which are 
generally of an inferior quality, and proper for fuch 
a market. The Ruffian commodities are chiefly furs 
of all forts. Rhubarb is the principal article which 
is exchanged for thefe goods, great quantities where- 
of are produced in this country, without any culture. 
The Mongalls gather and dry it in autumn, and 
bring it to this market, where it is bought up, at an 
cafy rate, both by the Ruffian and Chinefe merchants. 

The kutuchtu and his lamas are all clothed in 
yellow, and no layman is allowed to wear this colour, 
except the prince. This mark of diftinftion makes 
them known and refbedtcd every whire. They alio 
wear about their necks a firing of beads, which are 
ufed in faying their prayers. The Mongalls believe 
in, and worfhip, one Almighty Creator of all things. 
They hold that the kutuchtu is God's vicegerent on 
earth ; and that there will be a flatc of future rewards 
and puniihments. 

The anfwcr to the letter, which the am^aflTador 
had written to Fckin, was not yet arrived. In the 
mean time we were obliged to remain at aSdingin- 
iky, where we entertumed ourfclves in the belt man- 
Dcr we could. 

H h 2 Juac 

• * 

46t BEl.^h j6^%n'!k'tm^l0^^^ 

June the izA^ walkbiK akmg the bitrilf ^Hft^ 
river, I was a littfe «furprHM vt tkc figtfe tt4 "'4flii 
<rf^ a man (landinig among a number of bqfTlltfar 
were angling for Imall fim. The perftK faM^hltlill 
the fifli alive, and immediatelf let tKfefti gs agtfa 
IRIX) the river, which he did v^'gewtly oittbfdkL . 
The bop' were verf civil to him, tfiOHtth Atr Mfttft 
upon him as diftraded on accodht of hisr biAiiMbA 
During this ceremony he took litde Wolbttti Vjj^ 
though I fpoke to him. ievcnd times, t fiMMi<|^el^ 
eeived, by his drefsr, and the ftitak cf ^BlflUlrflfc 
iiis forehoKl, that he was OM of like bi 

After ietdng al! the fifh a fWimmin^ 
much pleafed ; and, haVhig kutied "a littifc ^ __ 
Ruffian language, and a imateeriqg; «f tife tta jji^ 
gucfe, began to converfe with me. " I caifrkd ttiglfV^ 
iny' lodgings, and cfffered to enltrtdn him" iifik% 
dram; but he would tafte nothing: for he £itd, it 
was againft the rules of his religion to eat or dnnk 
with ftrangers. 

I aikcd him the reafon why he bought the fifli to 
let them go again ? He told me, that perb^ the 
Ibuls of feme of his decealed friends, or relations,, 
had taken poflfeflTon oF thefe fifh ; and, upon that 
fuppofition, it was his duty to 'relieve them : th«, 
according to their law, no animal whatever ought to 
be killed or eaten ; and they always lived on vege- 

After this interview, we became {o familiar that 
he came every day to vifit me. He was a chearfid 
mjin, about leyenty years of age. He had a bufh 
of hair growing on his forehead, very much matted,. 
and, at.leaft, fix feet in length : when it hung loole, 
it trailed upon the ground behind him ; but he comr 
monly wore it wrapped about his head in fbrm 6f a 
turban. The hair was not all his owh, but coUeAed 
as relicks of his friends, and others of dis profelBon^ 
refuted faints-, ail which he had intermbted,. and 



•matted with his natural hair. Perfons of this cha- 
•rafter are called Faquers, and efleemed facred every 

^ He told me he was a native of Indoftan, and had 
often been at MadraCs, which he called Chinpatan, 
and faid it belonged to the Englilb. Tliis circum- 
.ftance, added to fcveral others, made me believe he 
was no impoftor, but an innocent kind of creature, 
.as arc moft of that fedl. He came to this country, 
-in company with fome others of his countrymen, on 
a pilgrimage, in order to pay their devotions to the 
Kutuchtu and Delay-Lama. They had been twelve 
months on their journey, and had travelled all the 
way on .foot, over many high mountains and wade 
defarcs, where they were obliged to carry their provi- 
iions, and even water, on their backs. I fhewcd 
Jiim a map of Afia, whereon he pointed out the 
courie of his journey, but found many errors in the 
geography ; and no wonder, fince few Europeans 
would have had the refolution to undertake fuch a 
journey as this man h^d done. 

The 14th, a chief, named Tayfha, of thofe Mon- 
.galls who are fubjefts of his majefty, came to pay his 
rcfpefts to the ambaflador, who gave him a friendly 
-reception, and kept him to dinner. He was a merry 
old man, near fourfcore, but fo vigorous, that he 
could mount a horfe with as much agility as many 
young men. He was accompanied wich five Ions, 
and many attendants, who treated him with equal 
refpeft as a king ; and even his fons would not fit 
iiown in his pretence, till he defired them. I confefs 
it gave me great pleafure to fee the decency with 
which they behaved. One of our company, a pretty 
fat man, aflccd the Tayiha what he (hould do in or- 
der to be as lean as he was. The old man replied in 
thcfe few words, ' Eat lefs^ and work more :' a fay- 
ing worthy of Hippocrates himfelf. In his youth he 
had been engaged in many battles with the Chincfe, 
whom he held in great contempt, Ajs he was a keen 

H h 3 t^^c>r^.0 

470 BELL'S JOURNEY througli 

fportfman, the ambaflador made an appointment with 
him for a grand hunting match ; after whid^ he and 
his retinue returned to their tents. 

The 24th, arrived an officer from the court of Fb^ 

kin, fent on purpofe to difcover the number and iqua- 

lity of the embally. This gentleman, who£: name; 

ivas Tulifhn, was a Mantfhu Tartar hy birth, and a 

member of the tribunal for wcftern aflws, with 

which he was very well acquainted. Thefe offiicen 

are called Surgudky by the Mongalls, and by the 

Europeans Mandarin, a Portuguefe word derived from 

mando. H^ had formerly been in this country, 'and 

had learned the RufCan language. He pretended to 

have been employed on fome bufinefi with the Tolh^ 

du-Chan at Urga ; and, hearing of the ambs^Qulor's 

arrival, had come to pay his refpcfiks to him. It wis 

however well known, that he was lent to eiujuiie 

whether the ambaffador came on a friendly errandl 

He was received very kindly -, and, after he had ftay- 

cd three days, and made his obfervations, returned 

very well fatisficd. At his departure, he told the 

anibaflador, that orders would lOon be given for his 

reception on the frontiers ; but thefe could not be 

ifiucd till his arrival at court, becaufe on his report 

the whole affair depended- This wife and cautious 

nation, jealous of all the world, fufter none to enter 

their territories, but fuch as bring friendly meflages. 

By this circumftance we were confined fome time 

longer at Selingir.fky. 

July 5th, the I'ayflia-Batyr arrived, in confequcncc 
of his appointment with the ambaffador, and brought 
along with him 300 men, vvdl mounted, for thechace. 
This old gentleman had the appellation of Batyr -, a 
title of great refpeft among the Mohgalls. It figni- 
fies a hero \ and is conferred only on thofe who have 
fignalized themfelves by their courage and conduft in 
the field of battle. Befide thefe Mongalls, we car- 
ried with us 50 of our CoflTacks, and our tents, as we 
fropofed to be abroad fome days. 

f ^ * Early 


Early on the 6th, we tcx)k our way to the caftward, 
over high hills, and through tall woods, having al- 
moft no underwood to incommode the horfes, or in* 
terrupt our view; which made it very pleaiant. 
After riding a few miles, the Tayfha, being mailer 
of the chace, ordered his men to extend their lines. 
The Taylhaand we were in the center ; and often f iw 
the game pafs us, purfued by the horft-men ac lull 
fpeed, without the Icaft noifc, but the whiftling of 
arrows. The horfes, being accuftomed to this kind 
of fport, follow the game as a greyhound does a hare ; 
ib that the riders lay the bridles on their necks, and 
attend to nothing but their bows and arrows. Ons 
may eafily imagine the exquifite entertainment, in 
feeing fevcral or thcfe horfemcn in purfuit of an elk 
or ftag through the valleys. 

Tired with fport, we left the hills in the after- 
noon, and came down into a fine valley, where we 
pitched our tents, near a pure brook. 1 he TayRu 
then ordered all the dead game to be brought bef ire 
him, and ranged in proper order. We found, that 
this day we had killed no lefs than five large elks, 
four ftags, a dozen roe- bucks, fevcral wolves and 
foxes, befide fawns and hares. 

The TaylTia caufcd the game to be divided among 
the huntfmen ; who began immediately to drcfs it, 
fome of them by boiling, others by broiling, and eat 
it v;ithout either bread or fait. 'I'he tails of tlie ft \rrc 
which, by thcll* people, arc reckoned very delicare, 
fell to the Tayflia's fhare. He cut them inro lliccs, 
and eat them raw. I eat a bit of cue of them, an I 
thought it very palatable. The tnltc refembled nn- 
thing fo much as that of frefli caviare. After we h:vA 
feafted on variety of excellent venifjn, for we hid n • 
other provifions, we went to reft, v;dl fadsried ui::i 
the diverfion of the day. 

During this fliort excurfion, I could not enouT^ 
r.d:nirc the beauty of the country through w!i:ch wr 
pafTcd. The gentle rifing of the hilis, c:r 

H h 4 V .Jj A 

47» CELL'S JOURNEY through ^| 

which havic tbpr tops oaly covered widi wood, and 
the .fertility of the vales, contribute lo form one o^ 
the Bioft delig^ttful kndlkips the world can aSotii. 
To this may be added the temperature ojid drytxis 
of the climate ; in which rcfpefls this far exceeds any 
country with which I am acquainted. After Mid- 
fumtncr there is almoft no rain till December, when 
the fnow falls ^ and in fuch moderate quantities, iltac 
it does not hinder ihc cattle from lying abroad all the 

In furveying thefe fertile plains and pleafarjt woodt, 
I have often entertained myfclf with painting, in my 
own imagination, the neat villages, country- feats, 
and farm-ntiufes, which, in proccl's of time, maybe 
erefted on ihc banks of the rivers, and brows of the 
hiils. There is here waftc land enough to maintain, 
with cafy labour, feveral European nations, who are, 
at prefent} confined to barren and ungrateful foils : 
and, with regard lo tlie Moiigalls, whofe honefty and 
Iimplicicy of manners are not unamiable, I Ihouki 
like them very well for neighbours. 

From what I have read of North America, I am 
of opinion, that this country refembles none fo much 
as fome of our colonies in that quarter of the world; 
p;irticubrly the inland parts of Penfylvania and Mary- 
land. Both countries lie nearly in the lame latitude: 
in the one we find great lakes and mighty rivers ; in 
the other, the Baykall fea, and rivers, which, for 
the h'ngch of their courfe and quantity of water, may 
be ranked with any in the weftern world. 

Ji;ly aoth, another Mandarin arrived from Pekio, 
accompanied by an officer from Urgaj who brought 
a letter to the ambafiador from the Tulh-du-cban, 
acquainting him, that he might foon exped a per- 
fon, properly authorifed, to conduct him ra the im- 
perial city. 

Auguft Qth, a courier arrived from Pekin, who 
told the ambaflador, that he had pafled our conduc- 
tor on the road ; and that we ihould now prepare for 



pur journey to the capital, as that gentleman would 
arrive in a few days. On the 24th, our conduftor, 
called Lomy, at laft arrived. He was, by birth, a Mant- 
ihu Tartar, and a member of the court for the weftern 
department. After remaining with us for Ibme days, 
he returned to Yolki, a place upon the border, in or- 
der to procure horfes and camels for our journey. 

September 8ih, we fent our baggage by water to 
Strealka, and next day we followed ir. We lived in 
tents, while we (laid at this place, till horfes and ca- 
mels were got ready. 

After dining with the commiflary of the caravan, 
at Strealka, on the iSth, we left that place in the 
(evening, accompanied with the commilfary and moft 
of the officers at Selinginflcy. After we had travel- 
led about 20.Engli(h miles to the fouthward, through 
fine plains covered with exceeding long grafs, we ar- 
rived at the end of the firll ftage, called Kolludtzy. 

The 20th, about noon, we reached a place called 
Saratzyn, or the New Moon, fituated on the bank of 
a rivulet of the fame name. This rivulet is the boun- 
dary between the Ruffian and Chinefe territories, 
and feparates two of the moft mighty monarchies in 
the world. The diftance between Selinginlky and 
this place is computed to be about 104 verft, nearly 
70 Englifh miles. 

The conductor was encamped on the eafr-fide of 
the rivulet, and we pitched our tents on the other. 
The ground, on both fides, rifes a little, and the foil 
feems to be extreamly good. The grafs is rank and 
thick, and, as the Teafon is very dry, wv)uld, with 
little labour, mike excell nt hay. This grafs is often 
fct on fire by the Mongalls, in the fpring, during 
high winds. At fuch tinics it burns moft furioully, 
running like wild-fire, and fpreading its flames to t!ic 
diftance of perhaps ten or twenty miles, till its pro- 
grefs is interrupted by fome river or barren hill. The 
impetuofity of thefe flames, thirir fmoke and crack- 
ling noile, cannot eafily be conceived by thole who 

4H''BELL'3 journey thr. 

^lavenot fcen them. Wlien any pcrfon finds hirofdf 
to the kcward of them, the only method, by whidi 

I he CIO favc himfelf from their fury, is to kindle i 
meditfdy the grafs where he ftands, and follow 
own fire. For this purpofe, every pcrfon is provi_ ^ 
ed with fiints, fteel and linder. The reafon why the 
Mongalls fet 6rc to the grafs is to procute early 
pafture' for their cactk. The allies, left upon the 
ground, fink into the earth at the melting of the 
fnow, and prove an excellent manure ; fo that the 
grifa, in the Ipring, rifcs on the lands, which have 
been prepared in this mantier, as thick as a field * 

. wheat. Caravans, travellers with merchandife, b 
cQiccitllf armies, never encamp upon this rank 
grafs. And there arc fcveral inftances of confidcrabit 
bodies of men b^ing put in confufion, and even de- 
feated by the enemy*i letting fire to the grafs. 

The 91 ft, the condudor came to congratulate 
ambafTador on his arrival ac the borders ; and ac- 
quainted him, thatt the horfcs and camels being readfi 
he might proceed when he [deafed. I cannot omit 
an inconfiderablc circumftance, that happened at this 
place, as it ftrongly reprefents the caution and pru- 
dence of the Chinefe. Our conduftor, having ieea 
fome women walking in the fields, aflced the aaibaf* 
fador who they were ? and whither they were going? 
He was told, they belonged to the retinue, and were 
going along with it to China. He replied, they had 
women enough in Pekin already ; and, as there never 
had been an European woman in China, he could not 
be anfwerabte for introducing the firft, without a 
fpecial order from the Emperor. But, if his excel- 
lency would wait for an anfwer, he would dilpatch t 
courier to court for that purpofe. The lecurn of 
this meffengcr could not be fooner than fix weeks ; it 
was therefore thought more expedient to fend hack 
the v.'omen to Selinginfky, with the Wp^oos diat 
brought our baggage tQ this place. 


The 22d, this day we commenced guefts of the . 
^mperor of China, who entertains all ambafladors, 
and bears their expences, from the day they enter his 
dominions, pill the time they quit them again. Our 
retinue confifted of about one hundred pcrfons, who 
were allowed fifteen (heep every day. The overplus 
of this large allowance was given to the Mongalls 
: who drove the camels. Befide mutton and beef, 
there is no other kind of provifion to be found, till 
you come within the wall of China. The mutton is 
of a middle fize ; but I muft confefs, exceeding fine. 
The conductor was attended by an officer from the 
Tulh-du-Chan, who procured from the Mongalls en- 
camped neareft our road, what fjieep we wanted. 
The camels were very tradable, and (looped to take 
on their loads. But the horfes were, at tirft, very 
unmanageable. Many of them had never before been 
employed for any ufe j and were faddled with great 
difficulty, but mounted with much more; for the 
very fmell of our cloaths, which they perceived to be 
different from that of the Mongalls, their matters, 
made them fnort and fpring with great fury. They 
were eafily managed, notwfthftanding, when we got 
upon their backs. 

Our road now lay through fine plains and valli^s, 
covered with rank grafs -, but not a finglc tent was to 
be feen. I inquired why fuch a fine foil was without 
inhabitants ; and was told, that the Chinefc had for- 
bid the Mongalls to encamp fo near the Ruffian bor- 
ders, for fear of being allured to pais over to their 
territories, as many had formerly done. Thefe fruit- 
ful vallies are furroundcd with pleafant hills, of cily 
afcent, whofe fummits are covered with tufts of trees. 
On thefe hills are a great number of animals called 
marmots, of a brown iih colour, having feet like a 
badger, and nearly of the fame fize. They make deep 
burrows on the declivities of the hills-, and, it is faid, 
that, in winter, they continue in thefe holes, for a 
certain time, even without food. At this fcafon, how- 


" — ':* 

ever, they fie dr lye new their ttuttMrvkaqpiky^ 
flrift watch ) «d ac the approach flf ^wqgSfk^ ffjr 
fhomfi^s upon their hind-iftCt '0Mag< n:^^ i^bJI 
whiftlc, fi]^ i iviiir, to call iq thr ftragfipsiM^ll 
theri'dttop faitt) dldr boles in a moiilmt. 

1 fbCMild" face apFt mentioned -an animal ^ wft 
kndwH ite the maratot, had it not been oa accowc «i 
the rhubarbs Wherever you iee ten or twenqr idjjumr 
. growings y(M are fore of finding Icveral hQnomnmSfOf 
nie (hades of their broad fpreading leavea. P^eili^ii 
thiey miy fometmies eat the leavts^and roots cf iMi 
dbnti Htiwever, it is probable^ the maftoR tbif 
leave 4ioiit the Mms, contributes not a ^Ab m^ 
ijbcreilfe:; and thdr cafting up the earth tnafcea'ifr 
ftoot out young buds, and multiply. This 
does not run, and fjjpfead itfetf, like docks^ arid 
ct ttie fiufie ijpecies ; but grows in ttfn^ aic urn 
diftances, a^ if the feeds had been dropped with deh 
fign. It appears that the Mongalls never accounted 
it worth cultivating ; but that the world is obliged to 
the rr.armots for the quantities fcattered, at random, 
in many parts of this country. For whatever ptft of 
the ripe feed happens to be blown among the thick 
grafs, can very feldom reach the ground, but muft 
there wither and die; whereas, Ihould it fall amongthe 
loofe eai'th, thrown up by the marmots, it immedi- 
ately takes root, and produces a new plant. 

On the banks of the Tola we found many Mon- 
galls encamped, with numerous flocks of cattle ; be- 
ing the firft inhabitants we had feen fince our leaving 
the border. The Ruffians, aiYd the Mongalls who 
are fubjeds of .Ruffia, claim all the country weftward 
from the Tola ; which, they fay, is the natural 
boundary between the two empires. This would in- 
deed be a conCderable addition 'to the dominions of 
RufHa. But as both thefe mighty monarchs are abun- 
dantly provided with a vaft extent of territory, neither 
prty think it worth while to diipute about a few 
Bdndred miles of j^rdperty, which» obtained^ wouMy 



perhaps, not balance the coft, or contribute but 
Kttle to the advantage of either. 

The appearance of the country was now greatly 
altered for the worfe. We faw no more pleafant hills 
and woods ; neither could I find one fingle plant of 
rhubarb. The foil was dry and barren ; and the grafs 
not to be compared to what we had already pafled 

The 4th, after every man had drunk his fill of the 
pure and wholcfome water of Tola, and filled his 
bottle with it, we departed with feme regret, as we 
could hope for no more rivers, or brooks, till we 
came to the wall of China. We foon entered the de- 
fcrt commonly named, by the Mongalls, the Hungry 

The 6th, early in the mornin?, we proceeded 
eaihvard, through the fame fort of flat country. The 
weather was very fine, and the roads excellent. In 
the evening we arrived a: a pool, called Tylack, of 
brackifh water, where we remained the following 
night. This day we faw feveral large flocks of ante- 
lopes, and feme Mongalls in their tents ; which was 
no dilagreeable objeft in this continued plain. We 
pafled few of thefe tents without vifuing them, where 
we always found an hofpitable reception, and were 
entertained with fome zacuran, a kind of tea which I 
formerly defcribed. And, if we happened to (lay till 
our baggage was gone out of fight, the landlord con- 
ducted us, by the fliorccft way, to the fprings that 
terminated the next ftage. 

The 9th, we fct out early, and travelled to a pool 
named Oko-toulgu. This day, a lama from the 
kutuchtu, going to Pckin, joined our company, 
who, by his habit and equipage, fcen3cd to be a pcr- 
fon of eminence. In marching along the tedious de- 
ierr, the converfation turned on a tcrribU* CMrchejuake 
which happened, during the month of July lalb, in 
China, between the long wall and Pckin ; and had 
laid in ruins feveral villages, and walled towns, and 
5 Luclcd 


trflfied tnanj' people in their ruins. 

2' lund what was the opinion of the learned i 
il^:S{>e concerning the caufe of this phsaon 
3i!ir*..*)Id him, it was commonly reckoned to be fub- 
IJBmuieous fire ; and ilien afked, in our turn, to what 
caufe fuch extraordinary appearances were imputed 
)fy bis countrymen ? He replied, that fomc of their 
karned lamas had wricien that God, after he had 
jtBUied the earth, placed it on a golden frogj and 
■Dgbcnever this prodigious frog had occafion to fcratch 
JXI,: head, or ftretch out its foot, that part of the 
■90t:h, immediately above, was iliaken. There was 
jiO, reafoning on a notion fo fantaftical ; wc therefore 
4efijhe lama to pleafe himfelf with his hypothcGst 
And'turned the dilcourfe to fomc other fubjeft. 
■■ The 24th, having got frelh horfes and camels, we 
«aine, in ihc evening, to a pond of brackiQi water, 
jcalled Koruntcer, upon the extremity of a diJinal 
bankoffand, running a-crols our rood. 

The day foUowing we entered on the fand-buk^ 
along a narrow and crooked parage, between two 
hillocks. Every one prayed for calm weather wUk 
we travelled over the Kind ■, which put me in mind of 
being at fea. Wc continued our joumeVi throng 
deep fand, till about noon -, when, all our horiies, and 
camels, being tired, we halted in a hollow pIJKpi 
where we dug, and found very bad water. Along 
this bank there is not the leaft track, or path of aoy 
kind ; for the fmallcft blaft of wind immediiucfy 
cffiu:es it, and renders all the furface fmooth. Wc 
had gone but a few miles when moQ: of our people 
were obliged to alight, and walk on foot, the iuma 
.beins quite tired with the deepneis of the find ; 
.whicn made our progrcfs extreamly flow. The 
weather, fortunately, was ftill. very calm. About 
noon we pitched our tents in a hollow place, eaeom- 
pafled with high hillocks of iand. About midnufa^ 
.the wind rofe to fuch an height, that all ourtf4tt 
were overfec atonoe, and our beds filled wuh.£ia4. 

■ 3 *^ 


As it was near morning, wc thought it not worth 
while to pitch them again. We therefore prepared 
ourfelves to fet out at the dawn, in hopes of getting 
«ver the fand-bank before night ; which, by riding 
and walking by turns, in order to haften our progrefs, 
wc happily eflfedted. 

The 28th, we proceeded along the plain to the 
fprings called Chabertu. I cannot but take notice of 
the uncommon manner the people have of killing 
. their Iheep. They make a flit with a knife between 
two ribs, through which they put their hand, and 
fqueeze the heart till the creature expires ; by this 
method all the blood remains in the carcafs. When 
the Iheep Is dead, and hungry people cannot wait till 
the flefli is regularly dreflcd, they generally cut out 
the briflcet and rump, wool and all, and broil them 
on the coals ; then fcrape off the finged wool, and cat 
them. This I have found, by experience, to be no 
difagreeable morfel, even without any kind of fauce. 

The 2 2d of November, about noon, we could 
perceive the famous wall of Chlna^ running along 
the tops of the mountains, toward the north-eaft. 
One of our people cried out Land, as if we had been 
all this while at fea. It was now, as nearly as I can 
compute, about forty Englifli miles from us, and 
appeared white at that diftance. 

The nearer we came we were the more furprifcJ at 
the fight of that fo much celebrated wall ot Chin j, 
commonly called, for its length, the endlefs wail. 
The appearance of it, running from one high rock 
to another, with fquare towers ac certain intervals, 
even at this diftance, is moft magnificent. 

We dcl':endcd by a narrow path, about eight feet 
brOKl, between tl\e mountains, till we came to a 
I'mall Chinelc monaftery, fituatcd on the declivity of 
a fteep rock. Curiofity led us to vifit this folitary 
place. But, the road being impaflable to horfcs, wc 
alia;hted and walked thither. On our arrivin- near 
the place, the monks came out to meet us, with the 

flHf LL's JOURNEY tha 

-ifeal fricndfy laiutation of the country-, whicfi « 
jfcrfornictl by Uying one of ilicir hands upon the 
■mhtfr, and then (baking them, and pronouncing 
thd'c vioiAs Chv-ley'tho. The compliment being re- 
turncf, they conduced us into the apartments of 
their liitlc cb;ipcl, and treated us with a dith of gieea 
lea 1 which was very agreeable. In the chapel was a 
for: of altar piece, on which wtre pUced feverallinall 
brals images i and, in one of the corners, I obfcfved 
a fack filled with wheat. The habit of the monks, wa 
a lonir gown with wide flcevcs. On their heads was 
a fmall cap, and their lung lank hair hung down ova 
their ftiouldcrs. They had very few hairs in their 
beards. This being the firfi: Chinefe boufe we met 
with, 1 have, on tha: account, been more pftnicubr 
in dcfcribing it. pA-cry thing now appeared to us as 
if we had arrived in another world. We felt, efpe- 
cially, a lenfiblc alteration in the weather ( for, in- 
Ilcaci of the colJ bleak wind in the dclert, we had 
here a warm and pleafant air. 

Our route now lay along the fouth fide of a rirolctt 
full of great ftones, which had fallen from the rocks 
in rainy weather. In the clifR of the nxiks you fetf 
little fcattered cottages, with fpots of cultivated 
ground, much refembltng thofe romantic figures of 
landfkips which are painted on the China-ware am) 
other manufaftures of this country! Thefe arc ac- 
counted fanciful by moft Europeans, but are reaUf 

We arrived at length at the famous wall of Cbiiu. 
We entered at a gre^it gate, which is ihut every 
night, and always guarded by a thoufand men, tinder 
the command of two oflicers of dittinftion, one a 
Chinefe, and the other a Mantzur Tartar \ for, it u 
an eft:iblifhed cuti^om in China, and has prevailed 
ever fincc [he conqiieft of the Tartars, that, in itt 
places of public truft, there muft be a Chinefe «nd a 
Tartar inverted with equal power. This nUe is ob- 
- fervcd bo:h in civil and military afiairs. - 


As loon as we had cnrertd the gate, tf:cL* f.vo ofn- 

ccrs, and miny fubaitems, cime :o cor!:p!i.Tien: th? 
axnbaflador on his :"afc arrivs! ; and afkei th:r f.ivour 
of him to walk into ilit guird-room and drink j diih 
of tea. 

The fanne evening, r!ie a:r-b:fnJor and :he gentle- 
men of the retiruc v. ere invited to lup at thJ coni- 
mandant's houil* -, and horl'es v.ere ll'iu to cirry us 
thither. Wc alighted in the ouur-coiirt, where the 
commandant in pertbn waited for us •, and conducted 
138, through a neat inner-courr, i'uo a hall, in th:: 
middle ot which ftcod a hrsie brafs chariror-Jilh, in 
ihapeof an urn, with a fire or charcoal in ic. The 
floor was covered wi:h mars, ar.d the room quire fee 
round with chairs, and little fquare iap:inneJ table?;. 
The ambafiador fat at a table by hiir^r-lf, and the roll 
of ihe company at fepanire tables, by two and two. 
Wc were firft entertained witli tea, ar.J a dram of hc;t 
arrack; after which fupperwas bronghr, and p!::ced 
on the tables, without tiflicr tablc-cloui, napkins, 
knives, or forks. Inltead of fork?, were laid down, 
to every perfon, a coujdc of ivo'-y-f licks, with which 
the Chinele take up their meat. The d iLes v.cie 
fmall, and placed upon tlie table in t^c irn;ll regular 
manner ; the vacancies being fiiled wi'h li;ucers,\oft- 
taining pickles and biitrr hirbs. T\vj cnuTC^inmmr 
confifted of pork, mutton, fowls, ar.d two roallvd 
pigs. The carver fits upon the lloor, r*nd cxccur^s 
the office with great dexterity. He cuts the llclh i:> 
to fuch fmall bits, as may eafily be taken up by the 
guefts, without further trouble. '1 he meat bcinfr 
cut up, is given to the footmen, \\\\r> llipply tlic 
empty dilhes on the tables. The whole h Icrvrd i:i 
China-ware ; and neither gold nor filver is to be ilrt n. 
All the fcrvants perform their duty wi:;i the univ)!!: 
regularity, and without the leaft noii^. I mud (.rm- 
fcis, I was never better pleafed with c?ny enreri.;:n- 

VoL.vr. li Til- 

48s BELL'S JOURNEY ttiraug^. M 

The vifSuals being removed, (he defcri was placfl 
on the tables in the fame order; and conQAedo^l 
variety of fruits and contL-cdons, In the mean titJ 
a. band of mvCtc wa& calk-d in, which conndcd of ih 
or twelve pcrfortners, on various, but chiefly winfl 
inftaimcn^s, fo difTcrent from thofe of thatclalsl 
Europe, thai I Ihall iii;[ prt-tcnd to defcribc thrfl 
The mafic was accompanied with dancing, wKia 
was very eniercainlrg. The dancers were nearly 9 
numerous as the mu(:ciani. Their pcrforma'ncfl 
wrrt: only a kind' of gelUculation, confillin? of m^H 
ridiculous poftures -, for they fcldom moved from cjfl 
fame place. The evening being pretty far fpeot, ll 
took leave, and reiurned to our lodgings. fl 

The 6th, a great fall of thow, and a coU frofl 
wind, obliged us to halt at this place. 9 

Next day, [he froU and fnow (till continued i Qol 
withfiandin^, we fct out, and pjJTcd over a ftoflfl 
bridge, near this pluce, paved, not with foiall IIumI 
but with large tquare, froe Hones, neatly juiiMfl 
After travelling cjlWard about thirty F.nglifh milj 
we reached a large and pt;piiIoiis ciiy calk-d Siacg-fB 
"We were met, witlioui die gate, by lome of t|l 
principal inhabitants, and eonduded to our lodgtogH 

When we arrived, the govc-rnor was out aoai^l 
ing with one of ihc Emperor's Ions. As iixin asfl 
iriurticd in ihc evening, he viaiicd on ihe ambil&difl 
and confiplimcntcd htm in a very polite manner j cS 
cufing hia-.fcif for not wairing on him foorj:r. M^ 
the fame time, he gave his excellency a fornial in- 
vitation to fuppcf i for it is anpointed, by the o>uii. 

that foreign arabojladors fliould be ;'.^ '"■ ■ 

tertained. m all the towni through * 
But the ambaiTadtir, being fomcviluc 
fired to b^ cxci^fcd. 

Our route, this day, was through a fine ci;-i ; 
country, well culiivatcd, bet cp.itaifirng v : 
trees. Wp p.ifltd Icveial fiiiall town*, anu ., 


villages, well built, and inclofed y/ith walls. The 
roads were well made, and in good order ; running 
always in ftraight lines, where the ground will allow. 
I had heard a great deal of the order and ceconomy of- 
thcfe people ; but found my information far fhort of 
what I daily faw in all their works and aftions. The 
ftrccts of every village run in ftraight lines. 

Upon the road we meet with many turrets, called 
poft-houfes, crefted at certain diftances from one 
another, with a flag-ftafF, on which is hoifted the im- 
perial pendant. Thefe places are guarded by a few 
foldiers, who run a- foot, from one poft to another, 
with great fpeed ; carrying letters or difpatches that 
concern the Emperor. The turrets are fo contrived, 
as to be in fight of one another •, and, by fignals, they 
can convey intelligence of any remarkable event. 
By this means the court is informed in the fpeedieft 
manner imaginable, of whatever difturbance may 
happen in the moft remote provinces of the empire. 
Thefe pofts are alfo very ufeful, by keeping the 
country free from highwaymen ; for fhould a pcrfon 
efcape at one houfe, on a fignal being made, he 
would certainly be ftopped at the next. The dirtance 
of one poft-houfe from another is ufually five Chinele 
li, or miles •, each li confiding of five hundred bow- 
lengths. I compute five of their miles to be about 
two and an half Englifli. 

The 8th, we halted at this place. As we could 
not be prefent at the entertainment to which we v/ere 
invited, laft night, by the governor, he had refolved 
that the delicacies, prepared on that occafion, flioulJ 
not be loft -, and therefore fent into our court t^velve 
tables, whereon were placed, by a number of people, 
all the viftuals that were drcfled the prcccJing night, 
with the dcfcrr, and fevcral forrs of tea. The who!-j 
was afterward brouQ;lit into the hall ; and there 
placed, in form, vwvya zlv^ tables. Wlicn this v/.i.> 
done, an o.TiCcr of dutinjViv.n came to u.nre the ;i:r.- 
bafikidor to tailc of his Iniociial ivi.\j?iiy*j bo;iriry-. 

I i 2 We 

484 BELLAS JOURNEY through 

We Bccordinglf fat down at the tables in great order. 
%vtrjf dung was very good, but moRJy cold j having 
bcfn carried through the ftrccis to Ibme diftance. 
'After wc had removed from the table, (he perfon, 
yrho ha4 the dircdion of the entertainment, called 
our fcrvants, and ordered them to Gt down at ihc 
fables, and eat. This produced a very diveriing 
fccne i but. had it not been complied with, the go- 
Tcrnor would have thought himfelf highly affionieiJ. 

Id the evening, ihe Emperor's thifd fon went 
through this city, on his wjy toward the capital. He 
was carried upon men's fhouiders, in a palankin ; a 
velucle very eafy for the traveller, and wtU knovn 
]d European ttdcment? in India. The Emperor's 
fiHishavc no other names than thofc of firft, fecood, 
third, &c. This prince had only a fmall retinue o£ 

Our newcondu^r, Tulilhia, invited the «l^M^ 
dor and his retinue to pafs the evening at his lodg- 
ings. His excellency excufed himfelf, as he had not 
been at ihe governor's. Ail the gentlemen, how- 
ever, accepted the invitation. The enterttinment 
was elegant, and fomething like that I formerly de- 
fcribed, accompanied with dancing and mufic, and 
quail-fighting. It is furprifing to fee how thcle little 
birds fly at one another, as foon as they are fet upon' 
the table-, and fight, like game-cocks, to death. 
TheChinefe are very fond of this diverfionj and bet 
as high on their quails, as the Englifti do on cocks. 
They arc alfo great lovers of cock-fighting i but it is 
reckoned among the vulgar fports. The quails are 
■ generally parted before ihey hurt one another too 
much ; and refervcd, in cages, till another occafion. 

The 9th, hiving fent off" the baggage "in the motn- 
ing, the aaibafliidor returned the governor's viDt 
"We only Itaid to drink tea; after which wc imme- 
diately mounted, and purfucd our journey to a finaH 
town called Juny 1 where we arrived in the erening. 
.Near this place is a fteep rock, ftanding on a plain, 


inaccefllblc on all fides, except to the weft ; where a 
narrow win-Jin^ path ib cut in the rock, which Icwds 
CO a Pagan tempic anJ nunnery, built upon the top 
of it. 

The chain of moonrains running to the north, 
which bound this plain to the weft, are very high, 
rugged and barren. Their breadth, from the dclert 
to the plain hibitable country of China, I compuze not 
to exceed fifteen or twenty miles, and in many places 
it is much kls. Bj: their length, I a.n informed, is 
above one thoufand Englifh miles. They encompafs 
all, or the greateft part of the empire of China, to 
the north and weft. Thefe impregnable bulwarks, 
together with the almoft impaffable delcrts, have, in 
try opinion, fo long prcferved this nation from being 
over-run by the weftcrn heroes. One would imagine, 
that a. country, fo fortiiied by nature, had little need 
of fuch a ftrong wall tor its defence j for, if all the 
pafles of the mountains are as narrow and diiiicuk as 
that where we entered, a Imall number of men might 
defend itagainft a mi-jhty army. 

On the 14th, we halted at a fmall town. But our 
baggage, and his ma^efty's preicnts, advanced a ftage 
farther. Thd'c, by order of t;:c Mindarin, our con- 
ductor, were carried on mens (houLieis, covered wth 
pieces of yellow filk ; as every thing is which luih 
any connexion with the court. \\ hatever is cii- 
itinguiflied by this b.idge is looked on d^ faired •, ;;n J 
he who has the caie of any thiiig bvloni^ing to the 
Emperor needs no other pro:edti »n : luch is the re- 
verence paid him all over the empire. The yclLrv 
colour is choR-n by the Emperor, becauie, ainon; 
the Chioefe, it is the emblem of z\\c fun, to whiJi 
he is compared. 

The following day, our, lyng over ib:iic 
rocks, was very rugged. In lome it was cui, 
for a confiderabh length, above twenty feet de::^ 
through the folidrock j which appears to have Lve.i :i 
work of great labour and cxpence. But no pcc^ple, I 

113 v^>i*A 

L Kt's JOURNEY through 

ever faw, tate fuch pains lo make ihcir ftrcets, aiiifl 
. high-ways, eafy lo travellers, as the Chinefe. In (oitit 
places of the rocks were cut out images of Chinefe 
£uil'Sv but the workmanlhip vcrj- mcjn. * 

Near this ptice, we paficd ihrough fix or ci^ 
{)jong fcmicircular walls, within one another, wludti 
have the endlcfs wall ror their common diameter, ani 
take in a great comp-ifs. In all tSel'e walls there arit 
large well built g-tics, guarded by a conftaflt witd^ 
both in times of peace and wir. At one of thnfi 
the ambairador was lalutcd with three great gund^ 
from a tower over the gate-way. Thcfc walls Iccdi 
to be of the lame materials and architeifiiire with dfe 
long wall -, having fquare towers at the didance of a 
bow-lhoi from ejch oihcr. While we flopped at one 
of .the gates to ri-:rt-Ih oiirti.K'cs, I took the oppor- 
tunity to walk into one of ihcfe towers, where 1 lav 
fome hundreds of old iron cannon thrown logetbcr M 
ufelefs. On examination, I found them co be am- 
pofed of three or four pieces of hammered iron, 
joined, and faftened together with hoops of the &iik 
metal. The Chinefe have, however, now learned to 
caft as fine brafs cannon as are any where to be found. 
Ffoni this tower I was led, by a broad ftone-ftair, to 
the lop of the wall, which is about twenty feet in 
breadth, and paved with large fquare ftenes, dotely 
joined, and cemented with ftrong mortar. I walked 
along tilts flat, till I came to a rock, where I found 
8 high {lair of above a ttioufand (leps, the whole 
breadth of the wall, which led to a tower on die 
fumniit, from whence I could fee a like ftair, on the 
other fide, forming a defcent to a narrow pafli^ be- 
tween two rocks. I obfcrved alfo, that the ii3i was 
neither fo high nor broad where it was carri«J over 
another rock, to the i'oiith-weft, as at the plice 
where I ftood. But time not allowing mc to go'ftr- 
ther, I returned by the iitme way, to our cbmnuiVi 
«nd, after ftayiog a few hours^ we prKo^til, ma 


afternoon, to the town of Zulinguang, where wc 

The next day, after travelling about two hours, 
we came to the lafl: femicircular wall. Here ended all 
the hills and mountains. Our road now lay through 
a fine champaign country, interfperfed with many 
fmall towns and villages. In the evening, we reach- 
ed a large neat city called Zang- Ping- Jew. In the 
market place ftood a triumphal arch, whereon were 
hung a number of dreamers, and filken pendants, of 
various colours. The ftrects were clean, ftraight, 
and broad ; in fome places covered with gravel, in 
others paved wi:h flat fquare ftones. 

As foon as wc had reached our lodgings, the go- 
vernor of the place came to falute the ambaffacior, 
and invited him to an entertainment prepared by order 
of his majefliy. 

The invitation was accepted, and we immediately 
went to the governor's palace. The entertainment 
was very magnificent, fomewhat of the fame kind 
with that I formerly defcribed, and accompanied with 
mufic and dancing. This place is fituated in a fruit- 
ful plain, about thirty Englifh miles northward of 

The 17th, after travelling about a dozen of miles, 
we came to a fmall town called Shach. The 
weather being very fine and warm, the governor 
came to meet the ambaflador, and dcfircd him to re- 
frefh himfelf a little by drinking tea. Here we halt- 
ed about' an hour, and then proceeded fix or eight 
miles farther, to a fmall village, about four miles 
from the capital ; where we lodged. 

Next morning, two Mandarins came from court 
to congratulate the ambaflador on his arrival, and 
brought fome horfes, on which his retinue were to 
make their entry. The furniture of the horfes was 
very fimple, and far inferior to the coflly trappings 
of the Pcrfians. 

114 My 

488 BELL'S JOURNEY thiough 

My lodgings in this village, happened to be at a 
cook's houi'e -, which gave me an opportunity of ob- 
fer/ing the ingenuity of thefe people, even on triflin[ 
occafions. Ivjiy landlord being in his ihop, I pale 
him a vifit ; where I found fix kettles, placed in a 
row on farnaces, liaving a fcparate opening under 
each of them, for receiving the fewcl, which confiftcd 
of a few fmall fdcks and ilraw. On his pulling a 
thong, he blew a pair of bcilows, which made all his 
kctdcs boil in a very fiiorc time. Th^y are indeed 
very thin, and made of call iron, being extremely 
fmooth both wiihin and without. The fcarcity of 
fewel, near fuch a populous city, prompts people to 
contrive the eafieft methods of drelfing their vitals 
and keeping thcmfelves warm during the winter, 
which is feverc for two months. 

About ten of th:: clock, we mounted, and pro- 
ceeded toward the city, in the following order. 

An officer with his fword drawn ; three fol- 
diers ; one kcetic drummer ; twenty four foldiers, 
three in a rank ; ih-s,* ftcward ; twelve footmen ; two 
pagers ; three interpreters ; the ambaffador, and a 
Man !:iri:i of diftindtion ; two fecrercries -, fix gentle- 
n:en, t .vo and two •, followc J by fervants and at- 

Thv whvVic rct'nuc dreft in their bed apparel. 
Thj loiilieii in unlibrm, carrying their mufkets like 
horiciiien ll.:;:.:!.:'-; centry •, drawn fwords being re- 
fui'ed i>y our CoLwluJcor, the officer only had that 

V\ e v: .v.\.\;v; rrcni the >illa^::e, alons; a fine road* 
t\j\,ti^ -i . L^ . LM or cliiiL and mukitudes of fpeftators ; 
.;;:.!, ;:i ■.."•:> l.iii.'i, en:ereJ the city at the great north 
v.;.::- ; \j ..v'l opened into a fpacious fl:reet, perfectly 
■I .'-:!;;, i.s fui* as ti.e eye-fight could reach. We 
ibimu '.z Li'l ij>rinkied \\i:li v/acer, which was very re- 
fr^ihiny .^./:cr riu d-jit we had pafied through. 

A g'.i-rd of rive hunjrcd Cliinefe horfcmen was ap- 
poinred to the way -, notwithftanJing which, 



vc found it very difEcult to get through the crowd. 
One would have imagined all the people in Pckin 
were affembled to fee us ; though I was informed 
that only a fmall pare of the inhabitants of the city 
were prefent. I obferved aHb great crowds of wo- 
men unveiled ; but they kept in the windows, doors, 
and in corners of the Itreet. The foldiers did not 
behave with roughnets to the people, as in foms other 
places of the ealt ; but treated them with great mild- 
rtcfe and humanity. Indeed the people of themfelves, 
made as much way as was poQible for them, con- 
fidering their numbers. After a march of two hours 
from the gate where we entered ; we at laft came ta 
our lodgings, in that part of the city called the Tar- 
tar's town i which is near the center of Pekin, and 
not far from the Emperor's palace. 

We lodged in what is called the Ruffian-houfe. It 
was allotted by the prefent Emperor, for the accom- 
modation of the caravans from Mufcovy ; and is fur- 
rounded with a high wall of brick, which inclofcs 
three courts. The firft, from the ftreet, is appoint- 
ed for the guard of Chinefe foldiers. The fecund is 
a fpacious fquare, on the fides whereof are apartments 
for fcrvants. The third is divided from the fecond 
by a high brick wall, through which you enter by a 
great gate. Oppofite to this gate is the great hall, 
which rifes a few fteps above the level of the court. 
The floor is neatly paved with white and black marble; 
and, on the fame floor, to the right and left of the 
hall, are two fmjll bed-chambers. This hall was oc- 
cupied by the ambaflador. In the fame court are two 
large houfes, divided into apartments, in which the" 
retinue was lodged. All thefe llruftures are but of 
one ftory, with large windows of lattice-work, on 
which is patted white paper. 

The fame evening, the matter of the ceremonies 
came to compliment tiie ambaflador. He, in the 
£mperor*s name, enquired into the chief fubjeft of 


4^o ^STLTC^s JOtri^inST thAd^ 

1)18 commiffion i and having received a fatjsfiMSto^ 
anfwer; retired. 

Thus we happil7 arrived at die famous and long 
wifhed for city of Pekin, the capital of this w^atj 
empire, after a tedious journey of exaffly jiztcen 
months. It is, indeed, very long; yet may be per- 
formed in much kfs dme. I am of opinion that to- 
vellers might go firom St. P^terlburgh to Pekin, and 
return, in the ibace of fix months } which, were it 
neceflary, I think I could eafily dempnllrate. 

At ten of the clock at night, the officer on |;uard, 
in the outer-court, locked our gate, and lealcd it with 
the emperor's feal ; that no perfon might go out^ or 
oome in, during the night. The amba&dor, not 
approving of this proceeding, as foon as the gate was 
opened in the morning, fent his fecretary, and an in- 
terpreter, to the al^gada, or prime miniAer, lo 
complain of his being confined. The aleggada laid 
he was altogether ignorant of what had happened ; 
but exprefily forbid any fuch behaviour for the fu- 
ture. In Pcrfia, indeed, and fome other nations of 
the eaft, it is the cuftom to reftrain foreign minifters 
from con vcrfing" with the inhabitants, till they have 
an audience of the prince. . 

The 19th, the prime minifter, accompanied with 
the mafter of th- ceremonies and five Jefuits, came 
to compliment the ambaflador. As foon as they en- 
tered ti'ic gat'v", tv;o of their attendants walked before 
them at fome diftance, making a humming noiie^ 
the ufual fign that fome perfon of diilinftion is com- 
ing. Aloy dcfircd the ambaflador would give him 

tcrs from his beft friends, among whom he reckoned 
his Czarifh majcdy the chief, without knowing the 
contents. The Latin copy was ai laft produced, the 
original being in the Ruflian language •, and the maf- 


fcr of the ceremonies and the miflionaries having 
tranflated it into Chincfe, took their leave. But the 
aleggada remained for the fpace of three hours, talk- 
ing on different fubjefts. This minifter, it feems, 
was a great fportfman. He afked to fee the ambaC- 
fador's dogs, which were a few grey-hounds, and 
fome French buck-hounds. He was defired to re- 
ceive, in a prefent, any of them which pleafed him 
beft ; he accepted only a couple of grey-hounds. 

In the mean time, the emperor fent an officer to 
enquire after the ambaflador*s health ; who brought 
along with him a table, carried by four men, and 
covered with yellow filk, on which was placed variety 
of fruits and confeftions •, and, in the middle, a 
large piece of excellent mutton. The officer ac- 
quainted the ambaffador, that thefe provifions were 
brought irom the emperor's own table-, and there- 
fore hoped he would eat of them. This circum- 
ftance was accounted a Angular mark of the empe- 
ror's favour. 

The day following, the ambaflador had a vifit 
from the prefident of the council for weftern affairs, 
called Aflchinoma, accompanied by four miflionaries, 
two of which were meflieurs Peranim and Fridelii. 
The converfation turned chiefly on the ceremonial 
of the ambaflador's introduftion to the emperor, 
which wai a matter not eafily fettled. The principal 
pomrs, infiftcd on by the ambaflador, were, that he 
might deliver his credentials into the emperor's own 
hands, and be excufed from bowing thrice three times 
on entering his m:ijefty's prelence ; to which cuilom 
all mud fubmit who appear before the emperor. The 
prefident, on the contrary, aflcrced, that the conPianc 
practiil" in China, for many ages pafl, was direftly 
contrary to thele demands ; that their emperors never 
received letters of credence with tneir own hands -, 
that the cufl:om was for the ambaifador to lay them 
on a table, at fome dillance from the throne, or the 
place v/herc the emperor may happen to fit •, after 

49^ ftSL^Vt jatJU^tf 

mhkh they wen ddivored tp ijhe coqietor bf iheoA- 
tfr appdfriffd fo that Durpoie. . ^ ^ ^ 

Ac the fatfle time, tne fKreGidkot iimted die aft- 
baffiuldf to aft enteitaiamrntg to be g^ven at a pJbit 
in (he city, where^ he laid, the eniperar woold^te 
]ttefeiit, and fpeak with him. His exrclfcuqr icp 
plied, he ^ould accept of the tnvitation, piondal 
De teight, on that occafion, deliver the Ganr ik 
mafter^ letter. He was tok) this was oddier a ftxih 
per place nor time for that purpofe ; bat that die em- 
peror intended to give hin> a public ^"^^Vmrt voj 
food, dnd receive his credentials in form. 

The ambaffiidor was apprehenfive^ that die empe* 
for, having already feen a copy of his credendi^ 
ihould he alio fee himfelf at die entertainoEieiit, Ins 
]$ublic audience might thereby be retarded^ and 
thefejbre he declined the invitation. It appeared^ 
however, afterward, that this iuipidoo waa widioai 

The 2 1 ft, the aleggada paid a fecond vifit. His 
fervants brought tea ready made, fomc jars of arrack, 
with fruits and conftfbions. From diis day lictk 
material happened, except daily meflagcs from court 
relating to the ceremonial, till the 27th -, when this 
affair was at laft adjufted on the following terms. 
** That the ambaflador fhould comply with the efta- 
blifhed cuftoms of the court of China ; and, whea 
the emperor fent a minifter to Ruflia, he (hould have 
inftrudions to conform himfelf, in every rcipeft, to 
the ceremonies in ufe at that court." This affair 
gave the miniftry at Pekin much trouble ; and, t 
muft confefs, the miffionaries took great pains to 
foften things on both fides. 

On the 28 th, the day appointed for the ambaflk- 
dor*s public audience of the cjnperor, hor&s were 
brought to our lodgings for the ambaflador and his 
retinue ; the emperor being then at a country^houfe* 
called Tzan(hu-yang, about fix miles weftward from 
Pekin. We mounted at eight in the morning, and 



about ten arrived at court ; where we alighted; at the 
gate, which was guarded by a ftrong party of foldiers. 
The commanding officers conduced us into a large 
room, where we drank tea, and ftaid about half an 
hour till the emperor was ready to receive us. We 
then entered a fpacious court, enclofcd with high 
brick walls, and regularly planted with feveral rows 
of foreft-trees, about eight mches diameter, which I 
took to be limes. As we advanced, we found all the 
minifters of ftate, and officers belonging to the court, 
feated upon fur-cufliions, crofs-legged, before the 
liall, in the open air ; among thefe, places were ap- 
pointed for the ambaflador and his retinue ; and in 
this fituation we remained, in a cold frofty morning, 
till the emperor came into the hall. During this in- 
terval, there were only two or three fcrvants in the 
hall, and not the leaft noife was heard from any quar- 
ter. The edifice is quite open to the fouth ; and the 
roof fupported by a row of handfome wooden pillars, 
oftangular, and finely polifhed ; before which is hung 
a large canvafs, as a fhelter from the weather. 

After we had waited about a quarter of an hour, 
the emperor entered the hall at a back-door, and 
feated himfelf upon the throne ; upon which all the 
company flood. The mailer of the ceremonies now 
defired the ambaflador, who was at fome diftance 
from the reft, to walk into the hall ; and condutled 
him by one hand, while he held his credentials in 
the other. Having afcended the ftep?, the letter 
was laid on a table placed for that purpofc, as had 
been previoufly agreed -, but the emperor beckoned 
to the ambaflador, and direfted him to approach ; 
which he no fooner perceived, than he took up the 
credentials, and, attended by the Aloy, v/alkcd up 
to the throne, and, kneeling, laid therii bcibre the 
emperor ; who touched them with his hand, ar.d en- 
quired after his Czarilh majefty's health, lie then 
told the ambaflador, that the love and friendlhip he 
entertained for his majefty were fucb, that he had 



'494 BELL'S JOURNEY through 

even difpenfcd with an eftablUhed cuitom of the em- 
pire in receiving his letter. 

During this part of the ceremony, which was not 
long, the retinue continued Handing without the hall; 
and we imagined, the letter being delivered, all was 
over. But the mailer of the ceremonies brought 
back the ambaflador ; and then ordered all the com- 
pany to kneel, and make obeifancc nine times to the 
cmptTor. At every third time we flood up, and 
kneeled again. Great pains were taken to avoid this 
piece of homage, but without fuccels. The matter 
of the ceremonies flood by, and delivered his order}, 
in the Tartar language, by pronouncing the words 
vicrgu and l&fs j the firft meaning to bow, and the 
other to rtand j two words which I cannot foon for- 

This of formality being ended, the ma.ler 
of the ccrt-monies conducted the amb;i(l>.dor, and 
the fix ;:^i'iitlcmcn of the retinue; witli one interpreter, 
into the hall. Our clerks, inferior <?fiicer>\ and kr- 
vants, remained ftill without ; together v/i:h many 
courtiers and officers of diilinction. We were jeated 
on oe.r own culhions, in a row upon the Roor, to the 
ri;.lu uf tl:e thrOne, about ^i^: )\\\'\ tiidance. And 
iirimjviiatK-ly behind us f:r tir/e-j ir.irionaries, dreiTed 
in Chineie luihits, who conltanilv attend the court. 
On this occalion, they krved, by turns, as inter- 

Soon after we were admitted, t!;e emperor called 
tlie anib.illcidor to hini, and trjked verv t'an";i!iarlv on 
v.iri?H!C llibjecls. Am(uv.i; orher tl-inj},-, I*ie told him, 
that, lie \va.^> informed liis C:::iriih niajcilv expofed 
his perfon to ma;iv L!.in;/:ers, r.rr:ei.l.:rlv bv water, 
ar wiiieh li-* was mueh iliri^ ; but dcfired lie 
W();iid tiike :he advieeoi an cid n:an, a:ul not hazard 
liis lire, hv committinr; himielr' to the ran;e of the 
mercikfs waves anvl wind>, where no valour could 
avail. \Vc were near enmi^h to hear tiiis piece of 
friciidly and wlioli-'lbnii.- .-.dvicc. 


■:^A^y-//J(^,^cu>r <,/SL,<a h, l66r 


This converfation being finiflied, the emperor gave 
the ambaflador, with his own hand, a gold cup full 
of warm taraflun; a fwect fermented liquor, made 
of various forts of grain, as pure and ftron'g as Ca- 
nary wine, of a difagreeablc fmell, though not un- 
pleafant to the tafte. This cup was brought about 
to the gentlemen ; and all of us drank the emptrror's 
health ; who obferved that this liquor would warm 
us that cold morning. His majefty alfo found many 
faults with our drefs, as^mproper for a cold climate ; 
and, I mud confefs, I thought him in the right. 

On the left fide of the throne fat five princes, funs 
to the emperor -, together with all the minifters and 
grandees of the court. The taraflun, however, was 
handed about to none but ourfelves, and the Jefuits 
behind us. Eight or ten of the emperor's grandfons 
now^ entered the hall. They were very handfomc, 
and plainly drefled ; having nothing to diftinguifn 
tljem but the dragon with five claws, woven into their 
outer garments, and a yellow tiinic of fattin, bearing 
the fame device, with little caps on their heads faced 
with fable. After them came the muficians carrying 
their inftruments. By this time the hall was pretty 
full ; and, what is furprifing, there was not :!-e V^di 
noife, hurry, or coniufion. Every one p^rfVitly 
knows his own bufinefs •, and the thick paper Icics of 
the Chinefe boots prevent ar.y noife from tlieir walk- 
ing on the floor. By thcric means every thing goes on 
with great regularity -, but at the fame time with won- 
derful quicknefs. In fhjrr, the characteriltic of the 
court of Pckin is order and decency, rather than 
grandeur and mao-n-ficcnce. 

The emperor iat cn^^-lcgg^d on his thron?. He 
was drefled in a fliort iool'e coat of fable, havinfr the 
fur outv/ard, lined with lanib-flvin -, under which he 
wore a long lunic of yellow fllk, interwoven wkli 
figures of golden dragons wi:h five claws -, which de- 
vice no perlbn is alloweii to be^^r except the imperi I 
family. On his head was a liLcle round cap, faced 
7 with 

,496 BELL'S JOURNEY thiwgl 

with black fox-fltin ; on the top of which I obfbvod 
a large bt-autifu! pearl in ihc fhape ot' a p^^ar, whicii, 
togcilicr with a taHll of red filk tird below the pearl, 
was all the ornament I fiw about this mighty monucb- 
The throne alfo was very fimple, being made of 
wood ; but of neat workmaniliip. It is raifed fire 
fteps from the floor, is open toward the conipnyj 
but has a large japanned Icrren on each liie to de&od 
it from the wind. 

The maftcr of the ceremonies, and a few ofBcers 
of the houlhold, were dreflcd in the robes of ftatc, 
of gold and filver ftuffs, with monftrous dragons on 
their backs and breafts. Moft of the minifters of 
ftate were dreiTed very plain, having nothing lik«