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NEW GENERAL 



BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 



ANS BAH. 



oO oZ \3 y^ ^^ 



NEW GENERAL 



BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY, 



PROJECTED AND PABTLT ABRAVGED 



BT'THB LATS 



REV. HUGH JAMES ROSE, B.D. 



PRINCIPAL OF KIITG's COLLEGE, LONDOW.' 



IN TWELVE VOLUMES. 



VOL. IL 



LONDON : 

T. FELLOWES, LUDGATE STREET ; F. & J. RIVINGTON i 

E. HODGSON; RICHARDSON, BROTHERS; J. BAIN; G. GREENLAND; A. GREENLAND 

F. C. WESTLEY; CAPES & CO. ; BOSWORTH AND HARRISON; H. G. BOHN; 

H. WASHBOURNE; WILLIS ft SOTHERAN; J. DALE: 

DEIGHTON, BELL & CO. CAMBRIDGE; 

AND J. H. PARKER, OXFORD. ^ 

1857 






-r'-l 



X 



BIOaRAPHICAL DICTIONARY, 



A N S A N S 

ANSON, (Pierre Hubert, 1744 — 1810,) she was married to his serene highness, 

a French writer, and an aUe financier. On that prince selling his territorial rights 

After having practised some time as an to the kmg of Prussia, he and the margra- 

advocate, he was taken into the office vine came to reside in England, until 

of the comptroller-general of finance, and the death of the former in 1806; after 

occupied, successively, several posts con- which event the margravine went again 

nected with that department. He vrrote abroad, and died at Naples. The fol- 

some historical memoirs; and translated lowing works are firom her pen: — A 

Lady M. W. Montague's Letters, and Joiuney through Crimea to England, 

Anacreon ; besides being the author of 4to, 1789; the Princess of Georgia; the 

several short poems and songs. (Biog. Twins of Sm3rma ; Nourjahad ; and Me- 

Univ.) moirs of the Margravine of Anspach, 

ANSPACH and BAREITH, (the formerly Lady Craven, published in 1825. 

Maigrave Christian Frederick Charles She also composed several pieces of 

Alexander of, bom 1736,) was nephew music, principally for the theatncal pieces 

of Caroline, queen of George the Second, she haa written. It has been judiciously 

In 1769 he united to his previous pos- observed, that " the margravine of Ans- 

sessions of Anspach, those of Boreith, on pach claims attention rather from cir- 

the death of his cousin Frederick. In cumstances than talent. She was a li^ht 

1790, alarmed at the prospects of war in and vivacious woman, of a school which 

Gennany, which seemed likely to inter- is rapidly going by, and which it is of the 

fere with his life of amusement and least possible consequence to renovate." 

Eleasure, and having no one to succeed ANSPRAND, king of the Lombards, 

im, he resiraed to Frederick William, guardian of Lieubert, son of Canibert, in 

for an annu^ consideration of 400,000 700. After defeating the army of Ari- 

rix-dollars, his sovereignty — which, at bert, son of the usurper Ragimbert, he 

any rate, would have faSen to the crown became king, and reigned for three 

of Prussia at hb death. He died in months. His son Liutprand, who suc- 

England in 1806. (Biog. Univ.' Suppl.) ceeded him, was one of the greatest of 

ANSPACH, (Elizabeth, margravine of, the Lombard kings. (Biog. Univ.) 
1750—1828.) This lady, known as a ANSTEY, (Christopher,) the son of 
writer, was the youngest daughter of the Rev. Christopher Anstey, was bom 
Augustus, fourth earl of Berkeley, and 1724. He was of King's college. Cam- 
was first married to Mr. William Craven, bridge, and made himself remarkable 
who afterwards succeeded to the title of there by hb resbtance to an attempt, on 
earl of Craven. After having been mar- the part of the university, to infringe 
ried many years, a separation took place, upon the peculiar privileges of that c3- 
and Lady Craven visited Italy, Austria, lege in takmg degrees. He was a fellow, 
Poland, Russia, Turkey, and Greece, and continued to reside at college till his 
She lived for some years at Anspach, mother's death, in 1754, which put him 
where she became the principal lady of in possession of soma family estates ; and 
the court, established a theatre, and wrote he resigned his fellowship to become a 
several dramatic pieces for the stage, country gentleman. He often amused 
On the death of the margravine she vi- himself with writing small pieces of poe- 
sited Spain and Portugal, in company try, and in 1766 published the New 
with the margrave of Anspach ; and on Bath Guide, which established his poetical 
the subsequent decease of Lord Craven, talent, and his peculiar and original 

TOL. II. 1 B 



ANS ANT 

powers of lively and satirical humour. V. H. adv. 26, that he was in the habit 
Few poems have ever been so popular ; of abusing the philosopher Arcesilaus, 
and Dodsley, the bookseller, who pur- who treat^ him as he deserved, by lead- 
chased the copyright, acknowledged that ing him to the most frequented places, 
the profits on the sale were greater than in order that the greatest number of 
he had ever made by any other book persons might become acquainted with 
during the same period, and generously the intemperance of his language and 
returned it to its author in 1777. He conduct. The Greek biographer of Ara- 
died in 1805, in his eighty-first year. He tus has attributed to Antagoras a poem, 
wrote several other pieces, wmch were under the title of Thebais, which, accord- 
collected and published in 1808. ins; to Hemsterhuis on Callimach. p. 590, 

ANSTIS, (John,) a learned heraldic belongs rather to Antimachus. Schneider, 

writer, and garter Idng-at-arms. He was however, in Analect. p. 3, agrees with 

bom in 1669, at St. Neot's, in Cornwall, the biographer; while Schellenberg on 

and was educated at Oxford and at the Antimachus, p. 27, ed. Giles, leaves the 

Middle Temple. As a gentleman of question as he found it — ^in imcertainty ; 

good fortune, he became known in his although he confesses that the story told 

county, (Cornwall,) and sat in parliament by Cicero, in Brut. 51, that Antimachus, 

in the reigns of Anne and George I. for while reading his Thebais at Athens, was 

St Germains and Launceston. Anne deserted by all his auditors but Plato, is 

gave him a reversionary patent for the very similar to the one related by Stobaeus 

place of garter ; but on its becoming of Antaeoras, who was left in like manner 

vacant, he was in prison, imder suspicion by a cirde of Boeotians, assembled to hear 

of being a jacobite. He claimea the an epic on the national theme of the 

office, and having cleared himself from Thebais. In one respect, however, the 

the charge brought against him, suc^ stories do not tally ; for while Antima- 

ceeded in obtaining it against the nomi- chus consoled himself with havine; an 

nation of the Earl Marshal, and in 1718 auditor, whose single judgment comd be 

was created garter. He died in 1745. opposed to the rest, Antagoras exhibited 

He was a most able and indefatigable much less of the philosopher in abusing 

officer at arms ; and published a Letter the Boeotians, who he said were rightly 

concerning the Honour of Earl Marshal, called by that name, for they had the 

1706; the Form of the Installation of ears of kine; a pun that turns in Greek 

the Garter, 1720; the Register of the upon the similarity of Botan-ot and 

Most Noble Order of the Garter, 1724; Boavara, 

Observations introductory to an Histori- ANTALCIDAS, a Spartan, famous 

cal Essay on the Knighthood of the Bath, in history for the disadvantageous peace 

1725 ; besides other laborious works in which the Lacedaemonians, jealous of 

MS. on Topography, Antiquities, Gene- their neighbours at home, employed him 

alogies, &c. which were dispersed after to negotiate with the Persians, and by 

the death of his eldest son, J ohn Anstis, which the Greeks yielded their footing in 

LL.D., who succeeded him as garter, by Asia. Tliis treaty, concluded b. c. 387 

virtue of a grant passed in 1727. The (01. 98, 2) was, from him, termed the 

son died in 1754. peace of Antalcidas. On his return, 

ANSTRUTHER, (Sir John,) a disUn- Antalcidas was made ephorus. The flat- 

guished member of the English parlia- tering marks of distinction which had 

ment; bom 1753, died 1811. He was been shown to Antalcidas by King Ar- 

appointed chief justice of Bengal in 1798. taxerxes, encouraged the Lacedsemonians 

At first a partisan of Fox, after the to send him on a second mission, the 

breaking out of Uie French revolution object of which was a loan of money. 

he joined the opposite party, and was But the Spartans had lost their influ- 

created a baronet shortly before his de- ence in Greece ; Artaxerxes treated their 

parture for India. envoy with coldness, and denied their 

ANTAGORAS, of Rhodes, was a request. Antalcidas returned to Lace- 
writer of Greek epigrams, of which only daemon, became the derision of his 
two have been preserved. He was con- enemies, and in the fear, as it is said, of 
temporary with Antigonus I. as we learn being pursued by the ephori, starved 
from Plutarch Apophth. ii. p. 182, and himself to death. 

Sympos. iv. 4 ; and such a gourmand ANTANDER, the brother of Aga- 
that he would not suffer any hands but tliocles, tyrant of Syracuse, and corn- 
bis own to dress his favourite dish of mander of the troops which he sent to 

ger-eels. It appears too, from jElian, the aid of the Crotoniates. After his 
2 



ANT ANT 

brother*! death, he is said to have written Giovanni Pisano." He worked in 1178 

his history. and 1196. (Lanzi, Stor. Pitt iv. 52.) 

ANTAR, or ANTARAH, a celebrated ANTELMI, (Joseph,) a French eccle^ 
Arabian warrior and poet, who flourished siastic and antiquary, bom in 1648, at 
about the end of the sixth century of our Frejus, of which place he was a canon, 
era, contemporary with Nushirwan, king In 1684, he was appointed crand-vicar 
of Persia. He was son of Sheddad, of the and official to J. B. de Veruamon, the 
tribe of Abs, a race eminent among the bishop of Pamiers, and succeeded in re- 
descendants of Adnan, (the generations storing peace to that diocese, which had 
from whom to Antar are given in a table been much disturbed by the rkgaUj by 
prefixed bv Sur William Jones to his ver- which the kin^ claimed the temporaUties 
sion of the Moallakat); — but as his and ecclesiastical patronage of a see, 
mother was an Ethiopian slave, and his during a vacancy. Antelmi's principal 
birth consequently illegitimate, his father works are — A Treatise de Periculis 6a- 
lonff refused to allow nim to assume the nonicorum ; a History of the Church of 
rank of a free-bom Arab. But the asto- Frejus, 1680 ; De veris Operibus, &c. ; a 
nishing deeds of valour performed by Disquisition on the genuine works of 
Antar, joined to the remonstrances of Leo the Great and Prcraper Aquitanus, in 
the oUier chiefs of the tribe, at length ^689; Nova de Symbolo Athanasii Dis- 
overcame his scruples, and Antar re- Quisitio, 1693; and some others. He 
ceived a place among the warriors of oied at Frejus in 1697, leaving the cha- 
Abs, and soon after, the hand of his racter of a man of acuteness, learning, 
cousin Ibla, the object of his early afiec- and integrity ; but credulous, and too 
tions. The whole life of Antar, as nar- fond of dealing in conjecture. (Biog. 
rated in the romance compiled by Asmai Univ.) 

(vide AsMAi), and bearing the title of ^ ANTELMI, (Nicolas,) canon and 

Antariyah, appears a continual succession vicar-general of the church of Frejus, in 

of martial achievements. Not onlv hostile the earlier part of the seventeenth century, 

Arabs, but Greeks, Persians, and Ethio- and the friend of Peiresc. He wrote 

pians, feel the almost superhuman force some Adversaria, mentioned by Joseph 

of his invincible arm : his sword Dhami, Antelmi. 

and his horse Abjer, share in romance ANTELMI, (Pierre,) nephew of Nico- 

the celebrity of Uieir owner: and the las, was bora at Frejus, and studied at 

title of Abu'1-Faouris (the Father cf Paris theology and jurisprudence, taking 

Horsemen,) conferred on him by common his doctor's degree m both faculties. He 

consent, testifies the supremacy of his continued for some time a sort of rivalry 

valour. After much opposition from the in the collection of a cabinet of anti- 

Koreish, he succeeded in placing one of quities, which had been commenced by 

his compositions in the sanctuary of the nis uncle, against Peiresc ; and on his 

Kaaba, as one of the seven Moallakat, or uncle's death, succeeded him in his 

nupended poems; and by Sir William canonry. He died in 1668. (Biog. 

Jones's translation of this poem, the Univ.) 

name of Antar first became known in ANTELMY, (Pierre Thomas,) a 
Europe : but his exploits have since been French mathematician, bom in 1730, 
rendered more familiar by the publication, died in 1783. He was a professor at the 
in 1820, of an English version of the first Ecole Militaire, where he made some 
part of the romance bearing his name, astronomical observations, inserted in the 
by Mr. Terrick Hamilton. He is said to Memoirs of the Academy. He also trans- 
have fallen in battle, by the hand of a lated Agensi's work from the Italian, 
pardoned enemy, shortly after the birth and Lessing's Fables and Klopstock's 
of Mohammed ; and of his descendants, Messiah from the German. (Biog. Univ.) 
no details appear to have been pre- ANTENOR, or AGENOR, a sculptor 
served. who lived at Athens in the seventy-sixth 

ANTELAMI, or ANTELMI, (Bene- Olympiad. He is celebrated for executing 

detto,) a sculptor who flourished at Parma the statues of Harmodius and Aristogiton, 

in the latter part of the twelfth century, designed to replace those in bronze, 

Lanzi says that he executed " a basso- which had been taken away by Xerxes, 

relievo, representing the Crucifixion of Alexander the Great restored the original 

our Lord, in the cathedral, which, though statues to the Athenians. Pliny (lib. 

the production of a rude age, had nothing xxxiv. c. 8) attributes these to Praxiteles, 

in sculpture equal to it, that I have been which is evidently a mistake, since 

able to meet with, until the period of Xerxes captured Athens in 480 b. c. ; 

3 B 2 



ANT ANT 

and Praxiteles did not flourish till eighty prefect of the East, was in 405 consul 

vears later. This sculptor is mentioned and prefect under Arcadius. On the 

by Pausanias. Winkeunann calls him death of Arcadius, Anthemius manajB^ed 

Agenor. the affairs of the empire during the mine- 

ANTEROS, (St.) a Greek, was chosen rity of Theodosius II. with great ahi- 

hishop of Rome in 235, during the per- lity and inte^ty. In 414, he retired 

secution of Maximinus, and died in 236. from his dignities, and passed the rest of 

ANTESIGNAN, (Pierre,) a gramma- his life in obscurity. (Biog. Univ. 

nan in the sixteentii century, bom at Gibbon.) 

Rabasteins in Languedoc, published a ANTHEMIUS, (Emperor of the West,) 
Greek grammar, which was often re- was grandson of the preceding. In 467, 
printed, and a work on Universal Gram- when Italy was suffering under the 
mar, an extensive but badly arranged tyranny of Ricimer, Anthemius was re- 
production. He also edited Terence, with ceived as emperor, giving to Ricimer 
notes and other assistances for the student, his daughter in marriage. Ricimer, 
at Lyons in 1556. however, quarrelled with his father-in- 

ANTHAKI, (bom in Antioch,) the law, and appearing in arms against him, 
sumame of a christian bishop of Said, advanced against Rome, which he sacked, 
who wrote in defence of the doctrines of and put Anthemius to death in 472. (Gib- 
Christianity against the Mohammedan bon.) 

theologians. An answer was written by ANTHEMIUS, of Tralles, in Ly- 

one of them, named Takieddin Ahmed dia, a celebrated matliematician and 

Bin Abdalhalim Bin Taimiah, who en- architect, who flourished about a. c. 532. 

titled his work. The True Answer to him Procopius de iBdific. ii. 3, says he de- 

who pretends to justify the Religion of signed the temple of S. Sophia, at Con- 

the Messiah. The two works appear to stantinople ; but as he lived only to lay 

have been written at the end of the the foundation, it was completed by 

seventh or beginning of the eighth cen- Isidorus of Miletus. A fragment of hu 

tury. work, Utpt Ilapadofooy MrfxaprifuiTt^Pf 

ANTHEAS OF LINDUS, was, accord- was first published by Du Puy, in the 

ing to his own confession, (says Athenseus, M^moires de FAcademie des Sciences 

X. p. 445,) a relation of Cleobulus, one of for 1777, accompanied with a French 

the wise men of Greece. His whole life translation and notes. It describes the 

was given rather to pleasure than philo- method of constructing hexagonic burning 

sophy, as a votary of Bacchus, in whose mirrors, and shows, as Buffon had as- 

honour he seems to have composed some serted, and partially proved by experi- 

comedies. He was likewise toe inventor ments detailed in the same M^moires 

of a kind of poetry, where compound for 1747, that the story of Archimedes 

words aboundea, such as we find m the burning the Roman fleet at Sjrracuse, was 

Dithyrambics of Pratinas, and in the not altogether unfounded. Agathias, too, 

last scene of the Ecclesiazusse of Ari- mentions the account of his frightening 

stophanes. the rhetorician Zeno by means of an 

ANTHELM£, called also Nauthelme, artificial earthquake, produced by the 
and sometimes Ancelin, descended from explosion of a steam boiler, or a compo- 
the lords of Chignin, in Savoy, after sition similar to gunpowder, 
having been provost of the cathedral of ANTHERMUS, a Chian sculptor, son 
Geneva, and sacristan of that of Belley, of Micciades, and grandson to Malas. He 
was in 1139 made prior of the great and his brother Bupalus, according to 
Carthusian convent of Fortes. In 1161, Pliny, lib. xxxvi. ch. 5, made a statue of 
or 1163, he was consecrated bishop of the poet Hipponax, who was remarkable 
Belley by Pope Alexander III., whose for his ugliness, which caused universal 
cause he had sustained against the parti- laughter, on account of the deformity of 
sans of the anti-pope Octavian. He died its countenance. The poet was so in- 
on the 26th June, 1178. (Hist. Lit. de censed, and wrote with so much bitter- 
France, xiv. 613.) He is known as the ness against the statuaries, that they are 
author of some epistles printed by Du- said to have hanged themselves, 
chesne, Mabillon, and Martene. His ANTHEUNIS, (James,) a theologian . 
zeal in defence of the privileges of the of Middleburg, lived at the end of the 
church was so acceptable to the court fifteenth century. He was vicar-general 
of Rome, that after his death he was at Brussels, in the diocese of Cambray, 
canonized. in the episcopacy of Henry de Bergher. 

ANTHEMIUS, grandson < of Philip, He is author of a work entitled Elegans 

4 



ANT ANT 

LibftUuB, ac nunc primum impressus de sell his property and distribute it to the 

?r8ecellenti& PotestaUs Imperatoris, &o. poor, read in the church, he returned home 

502. (Suppl. !Kog. Univ.) and imitated it literally, reserving only 

ANTHIPPUS. Of this comic writer a small nortion of his nches for the su]^ 

nothing is known, except a long fragment port of nis sister. Monks were at this 

quoted by Athenseus, ix. p. 4(H. time few and scattered. But in a solitary 

ANTHOINE, (Nicolas,) a fanatic, spot in the neighbourhood of Heradea, 

who was burnt at Geneva in 1632. Edu- an old man led the life of an anchorite, 

cated in the faith of the Roman Catholic and Anthony resolved to imitate him. 

church, he afterwards embraced Calvin- He accordingly soueht a convenient 

ism, and ended in professing Judaism, place in the neighbombood of his native 

However, for a time he concealed his town, where he adopted an austere course 

apostasy, and officiated as protestant of discipline, and devoted his time to 

minister at Divonne, in Gez, until suspi- prayer and the study of the Scripture. Af- 

cion ¥ras aroused by his constant neglect ter residing at this place some time, he left 

of the New Testament The fear of be- it to seek a still more lonely asylum 

ing denounced drove him completely among the dead in the catacombs. At 

mad ; and in this state he broke away, and the age of thirty-five, he quitted the 

arrived at Geneva, where notwithstand- tombs, and retired still further into the 

ing the representations of his friends, he desert, where he took up his residence 

was sentenced to death. (Suppl. Biog. among the ruins of a deserted castle on 

Univ.) See life of Paul Ferri. a mountain. Here he remained during 

ANTHOINE, (Antoine Ignace, baron twenty years ; and the fame of his sanc- 

de St. Joseph,) an eminent merchant of tity drew around him crowds of devotees, 

Marseilles, was born in 1749. For some whom he collected together into mona** 

time he was at the head of a commercial teries. When the persecution under Mazi- 

house in Constantinople ; and during the minus raged in Egypt, Anthony quitted 

jrears 1781-2-3, was engaged in anrang- the desert to encourage the martyrs by 

mg the terms of commercial intercourse his presence and exhortations. When 

between France and Russia, in which he returned, he left his former abode, 

his views were readily taken up and ap- which had become populous, to seek 

preciated by the courts of Versailles and solitude, and advancing still fvirther into 

St Petersburg. He founded an esta- the desert, settled on another mountain ; 

blishment at Cherson, and contributed but wherever he went, he was followed 

mainly to the present facilities enjoyed by by crowds of people, unUl the whole 

France in her commercial relations with desert was coverea with monasteries ; 

the countries on the Black Sea. In 1781 and at the death of the saint, the num- 

he was rewarded by Louis XVI. with her of monks who had adopted his rule 

letters of nobility. He filled some offices of life, are said to have amounted to 

connected with public trade under the di- fifteen thousand. During his life St An- 

rectory ; and after the eighteenth Bru- thony directed all these foundations, and 

maire, was admitted into tlie legion of visited them frequently, either in person 

honour. He was mayor of Marseilles frt>m or by his letters. In 355, he was per- 

1805 to 1813, and effected great improve- suaded a second time to quit the desert, 

ments in that town. He died in 1826. and repair to Alexandria, oy the pravers 

An EssaiHistoriquesurle Commerce et la of St Athanasius, in oraer to clear 

Navigation dela Mer Noire, reprinted in himself from the imputation which the 

1820, is by him. (Suppl. Biog. Univ.) Arians had cast upon him of being of 

ANTHONY, (St) one of the most their creed. He bved to the great age 

celebrated personages of the Eastern and of one hundred and five years, and died 

Romish calendars ; was bom at Hera- a. d. 356, on his return nrom this visit 

dea, in Upper Eejrpt, in a. d. 251. His His festival is celebrated on the 17th 

parents were nome and rich ; and while of January. 

younff he was left, with his sister, pos- St Anthony is regarded as the patri- 
sessed of their whole property. Accord- arch of the monks. He is known popu- 
ing to his biographer, he had shown larly for the numerous contests which he 
little inclination to letters ; but he had is said to have sustained against the evil 
been early imbued with the piety which one, many of them more fantastic than 
characterised his parents, and his zeal terrible, and all too trivial to be repeated ; 
increased with his age ; so that when still but they have frequently frumished mat- 
little more than a youUi, on hearing the ter to the imagination of the artist His 
exhortation of Christ to ihe young man to body was transferred from its first resting 

5 



ANl ANT . 

Awthchui X. (called Eusebes,) son miflcellany, is quoted by PhrynicbuA, ahd 

of the preceding, continued the war to which J. Pollux and the Schol. on 

against Seleucus vl. He married Selene, Hermogenes are supnosed to allude, 

the widow of Antiochus Orypus, and is Philostratus, in Vit. Sopn. speaks in terms 

supposed to have died about b. c. 75. of {>raise of his declamations and re- 

Antiochus XL (sumamed Epiphanes flections. — ^There is also an unknown An- 

and Philadelphus,) claimed the king- tiochus, the author of three epigrams in 

dom vrith Philip, on the death of their the Greek Anthology, 
brother Seleucus VI. They were de- ANTIOCHUS, a sculptor, son of Illas, 

feated by Antiochus X., and he died who is said to have made the fiunous 

B. c. 93. statue of Pallas, preserved in the LudoTiai 

Andochui XIL succeeded to Deme- gardens at Rome, 
trius III. He was killed in war with ANTIOCHUS, (St.) was bom of an 

the Arabs, about B. c. 85. equestrian family in Mauritania; and 

Antiochus XIIL (Asiaticus,) son of aner some years spent in the acquisition 

Antiochus X. and Selene, was sent to of both sacred and profane learninff, ha 

Rome, by her, to claim the kingdom of finally gave his attention to the study of 

Egyp^ and in returning he was plun- medicine, not with a view to enrich him- 

dered by Verres in Sicuy. He was re- self, but merely that he might be useAiL 

stored to the throne of S3n:ia h^ Lucullus, to mankind. He passed some time in 

but deprived of his sovereignty by Pom- Asia Minor, exercising his profession 

pey, B. c. 64, when Syria became a Royian gratuitously, and converting his patients 

province. to Christianity. During the persecution 

ANTIOCHUS, king of Comma^ene, in under the emperor Adrian, ▲. d. 118, hd^ 

Asia, was an ally of 'ngranes, agamst the was seized in the island of Sardinia, and 

Romans. He concluded peace with Lu- it is reported by tradition, that after 

cullus, B. c. 69, but was afterwards en- heiae tortured and miraculously deli* 

ga?ed in war, and defeated by Pompey ; vered, he was at last taken up into heaven, 

and again by Ventidius, one of Mark The Romish church celebrates his memory 

Antony's generals. on the 13th of December. (Martyrolo- 

ANTIOCHUS II., son of the pre- gium Romanum. Bzovius, Nomenclator 

ceding, was put to death at Rome by Sanctorum Professione Medicorum.) 
order of Augustus, b. c. 29. ANTIOCHUS, a saint and martyr, by 

ANTIOCHUS. — 1. Of Syracuse, was profession a physician, was bom at Se- 
the son of Xenophanes, and an historian baste in Armenia, and was put to death 
of Sicily and Italy, anterior to the time during the persecution un&r the em* 
of Timseus. His narrative was brought peror Diocletian, a. d. 303. ^^fter being 
down to 01. 87, and extended through tortured, by command of the prsefect 
nine books. The last is quoted by Adrianus, and thrown among wild beasts, 
Clemens Alex. Protrept. p. 22. — 2. Of that are said to have spared liis life, he 
Ascalon, was a philosopher, who seems was at last beheaded. The tradition adds, 
to have partially mixed up the dogmas of that milk instead of blood issued from his 
the Academy with those of the Porch, neck, and that Cyriacus, the executioner, 
He attended Lucullus in his expedition struck with admiration at the fortitude of 
against Tigridatcs, and wrote an account the saint, and at the miracle, immediately 
of it, quoted by Plutarch, i. p. 178, Xyl. professed himself a Christian, and suf- 
Attracted by the grace ana fluency of fered martyrdom with liim. The 15th 
his style, Cicero was not only led to the of July is the day on which his memory 
study of philosophy, but at his suggestion, is celebrated. (Acta Sanctorum. Mar- 
after the death of Sylla, took part in public tyrologium Romanum.) 
affairs, as we learn from Plutarch, i. p. 442. ANTIOCHUS, an old physician, mcn- 
His philosophical work, Ilcpi rtav KaKorj- tioncd by Galen as an example of the 
fccav, is mentioned by Sext. Empiric, good effects produced by paying attention 
Pyrrhon. i. p. 33. — 3. Of Alexandria, to diet, &c., without the aid of medicines, 
wrote a work on the poets who were ridi- He lived to nearly the age of a hundred, 
culed by the writers of the new comedy always enjoyed good health, and even 
at Athens. To the same individual. Fa- when upwards of eighty years old was 
bricius, Bibl. Or. attributes the work on able to visit Ids patients on foot He 
the Mythological Stories connected with appears to have been a contemporary of 
different cities, mentioned in Photius, Galen, who gives a detailed account of 
Biblioth. cod. 190. — 4. Of Cilicia, a his diet and mode of living, De Sanit. 
sophist, whose Ayopo, probably a kind of tueud&, lib. v. cap. 4. Perhaps he is 

10 



• ANT ANT 

the same person ai the AntiochuB quoted he was obliged to^'^sliut ' himBelf up in 

by AetiuS) Tctrab. i. serm. iii. cap. 114; that town, and would have been tiucen 

and by Paulus ^gineta, lib. vii. cap. 8. there, had not Leonatus come to his asaia- 

AnTIOCHUS, a monk of Seba, ih tance firom Asia; where, after foroinff 

Palestine, lived early in the seventh cen- the enemy to raise the siege, he appearea 

tury. He wrote one hundred and ninety a^ain in the field, and with the aid of 

homilies, under the collective title of Craterus, defeated the Greeks at Cranon 2 

Pandectae Divinae Scripturas, and a poem firom whence he marched to Athens, and 

on the loss of the real cross, at the taking compelled the Athenians to adopt a leu 

of Jerusalem by the Persians, which is popular form of government; and he would 

inserted in the Supplement to the Biblio- probably have destroyed the place, at 

theca Patrum. (Biog. Univ.) Philip did Thebes, had he not oeen re- 

ANTIPATER, son of Cassandra, con- strained by a reeard for the native land 

tested the crown of Macedon with his of Phocion. On nis return to Macedonia, 

trother Alexander, on the death of Philip he continued to be occupied in the affaira 

his elder brother, about b.c. 290. of his country to such an advanced age, 

ANTIPATER, or ANTIPAS, was that the orator Demades, when writing to 

fovemor of Idumea, under Alexander Antigonus, requested the latter to appear 
annes, and Alexandra his widow. He as a god in Greece, which as Plutarch, in 
rendered Julius Caesar considerable assist- Phocion, ss. 30, observes, was hanffinff 
ance in the Alexandrine war, and was by an old and rotten thread. He died 
appointed by him procurator of Judaea, about b.c. 317. Justin (xii. 14) assigns 
He died of poison, b. c. 49. He was the various reasons for supposing that Anti- 
father of Herod. pater was implicated in tlie murder of 
ANTIPATER. ^ Of the other different Alexander, by sending to his sons Philip 
persons who bore this name, the follow- and lolas, the cup-bearers of the prince, 
ing alone merit the least notice. a poison called Styx-water, and obtained 
1. The son of lolaus. He was bom at from Nonacris in Arcadia, and the know- 
Paliura, a city of Macedonia ; and after ledge of which Pliny (H. N. xxx. 16) 
being the pupil of Aristotle, became first would lead us to believe was obtained 
the friend, and then prime minister, to firom Aristotle ; and was said to be of so 
Philip, the father of Alexander the Great, corrosive a nature, as to eat through 
by wnom such was the opinion formed of every substance, but the hoof of a horse, 
his talents, that when the monarch rose ass or mule, according to Justin, ^lian, 
one day later than usual, he said, " he and Arrian respectively. He appears to 
had slept, only because he knew Anti- have left a collection of letters in two 

?ater was #wake.'* After the death of books, Eudocia says twenty, relating to 
*hilip, he was appointed by Alexander Alexander the Great ; from which, says 
to rule in conjunction with Olympias Fabricius, both Pliny and Plutarch, in all 
over Macedonia. But as his best plans probability, derived their information. He 
were frustrated or foiled by the ambition was the only one of the successors of 
or pcrvcrsencss of the widowed queen, Alexander wno refused to call the hero 
Antipater on his death-bed is said to of Macedon a god. He wrote likewise 
have cautioned all states against per- the history of the campaigns of Perdiocas, 
mitting a woman to take the least part in to whom he was occasionally opposed, 
public affairs. During the absence of 2. A philosopher of Tarsus, wno, (sayi 
Alexander, he performed the part of Plutarch, in Marius, ss. 46) when he was 
viceroy in a manner at once honourable reckoning up at the close of life tiie good 
to himself and the empire, by defeating things that had happened to him, did not 
the Peloponncsian forces under Agis, on forget his having siuled to Athens in 
the same day that Alexander routed the safety. Being asked to dispute with Car- 
army of Darius — an event that led the ncades, he refused to do so; but said 
latter to say, that the battle which took he would talk with a reed (pen), and 
place in Arcadia was, when compared hence he was called KoXafto/Soor, ** reed- 
with the one on the banks of the Grani- brawler." He was the pupil of Diogenei 
cus, a contest of mice, as we learn fVom of Babylon, and the master of Pansetius, 
Plutarch. and is placed by Seneca and Arrian 
Upon the death of Alexander, Anti- amongst the Stoics. Of his works, litUe 
pater was compelled to oppose the united more than the titles have been pre- 

f lowers of Greece, bent on recovering the served, with the exception of a fk*agment 

ibcrty the^ had lost in the time of Philip, on Marriage, quoted by Stobaeus, (Titb 

Defeated m the neighbourhood of Lamia, 67 and 70.) 

11 



ANT ANT 

3. L, Calius, bom about b. c. 128, procure the incense-cup he had vowed to 
wrote a history of Rome, which, says Jupiter. 

Cicero (Epist. Attic, xiii. 8), M. Brutus 10. The rhetorician and pupil of Adrian, 
abridged. Only a few frapnents of a mentioned by Eudocia (in Violet, p. 57), 
work, that the emperor Adrian, as stated and perhaps the same as the grammarian 
by Spartianus, m his life, preferred quoted by Diogenes Laertius and the 
to Saltust, as he did Ennius to Vurgil, and Scholiast on Aristophanes. 
Cato to Csesar, have been preserved and 11. The sophist of Hierapolis, and the 
printed at the end of Havercamp's Sal- secretary of tne emperor Severus, whose 
lust, and more recently by Krause, in historv he wrote, and composed some 
Vitae et Fragmenta V eterum Hist Ro- Ol3mthiac and Panathenaic speeches, pro- 
manor. Berolm. 1833. According to Livy, bably in imitation of Demosthenes and 
(xxvii. 27,) Antipater's history was tri- Isocrates : at least to some such writer, 
partite ; for one portion detailed what we must attribute the spurious orations 
was the common rumour ; another what attributed to the ffceai Athenian speaker, 
his son had witnessed, probably in the 12. The historian of the life of Aureo- 
second Punic war ; and the third, what lus Tyrannus, whom he appears to have 
his researches in other quarters enabled flattered so extravagantlv as to be consi- 
him to state. dered by Trebellius Poluo (in Claudian, 

4. A philosopher of Cyrene, who al- ss. 5) the disgrace of historians, 
though blind, could still make his cala- 13. An historian of Rhodes, known 
mity the subject of a joke, as we learn only by a quotation of Ste^han. Byzant 
from Cicero, Tusc. v. 37. ANTIPATER, a physician at Rome 

5. An epigrammatist of Sidon, who is in the second century, oelonging to the 
said by Cicero (de Orator, iii. 50, and de Methodic sect, (Galen, tom. xiv. p. 684, 
Fato, 3) to have been able to compose in all ed. KUhn.) He is several times men- 
kinds of verse extemporaneously. It is tioned by Galen, and his medical for- 
related of him that he was attacked with mulae frequently quoted, (tom. xiii. pp. 136, 
a kind of fever on the day of his birth, 931, 983, &c.) ; and a very interesting 
which recurred at each successive anni- account of his death (which Galen had 
versary, and by which he was carried off prognosticated from the inequality and 
on his birth-day. irre^arity of his pulse) is given, De 

6. A Stoic philosopher of Tyre, to Locis Affectis, lib. iv. cap. 1 1 ; (tom. viii. 
whom, says Plutarch, (in Cato, Min. p. 293, &c.) 

p. 761,) the elder Cato attached himself, ANTIPHANES, the comic writer, 

and whose moral and political principles flourished a little antecedent to the time 

became the rule of his own. of Alexander the Great ; who was not 

7. Another Stoic of T^e, who was much pleased with the then favourite 
contemporary with Cicero, and died a of the Athenian people, by whose suf- 
little before the son of the Roman orator frages he carried off eleven prizes in the 
visited Athens. He is thought to have dramatic contests ; although he might 
written the treatise on the Philosophy of have fairly calculated upon a greater 
Moral Duties, to which Cicero alludes, number, as he is said to have written 280 
de Ofiic. ii. 24, and it probably formed plays, and to have lived seventy-four 
a part of the work. On the World, of years. Of his parentage little is known, 
which the seventh book is quoted by Some say he was the son of Demophanes, 
Diogen. Laert. vii. 139. others of Stephanus, which is the more 

8. The epigrammatist of Thessalonica. probable, as he had a son called Ste- 
He flourished in the time of Augustus phanus, and grand-children, we know, 
Csesar, and was one of the celebrated were accustomed to take the name of 
pantomime dancers of the day. He seems the grandfather ; and as he was descended 
to have followed Piso, the proconsul of from slaves, it is probable that his mother's 
Macedonia, to Rome, where he wrote master was Demophanes. Equally un- 
many epigrams to and on his patron, certain is the place of his birth, whether 
One of his pieces is more than usually Sm3rma, or Rhodes, according to Diony- 
curious, as it describes the first applica- sius. All this uncertainty would, however, 
tion of a water-wheel to a flour-mill. in all probability have been cleared up, 

9. Antipater, the father of Nicolaus had the work of Dorotheus of Ascalon 
Damascenus, the historian, was celebrated upon Antiphanes, which is mentioned by 
(says Suidas) no less for his wealth than Athenaeus, (xiv. p. 662, F.) come down 
virtues. At his death, he strictly en- to us. Amongst the more modem critics, 
i .'d his fon Nicolaus not to forget to Koppiers, a pupil of Yalckenaer, has 

12 



ANT ANT 

written a good deal upon Antiphanes in cused of havingbeen implicated in the 

Obtervat Philolog. Lugd. Bat. 1771 ; conspiracy of Theodotus, governor of 

and more recently, Fynes Clinton has Phoenicia, affirming that he had seen him 

frinted some of th% fragments in the at dinner with Theodotus, and that by 

Philological Museum, No. lii. p. 35. the advice of Apelles, the city of Tyre 

2. Suidas makes mention of a second had revolted, and Pelusium nad been 
Antiphanes, a comic writer, who was taken. The accusation was totaUy ground- 
junior to Panoetius, and a third of Carystus less, Apelles never having been at Tyre, 
in Euboea, who was said to be contem- and having no acquaintance with Theo- 
porary with Thespis. dotus. Ptolemy, however, in his resent- 

3. Antiphanes of Berge in Thrace ment, without examining into the affiur, 
wrote a work so little worthy of credit, concluded him guilty, and would have 
that according to Strabo (i. p. 81), the punished him with death, had not an 
very word,toBergaixe, became the nick- accomplice of the conspirators declared 
name for a retailer of incredible stories, his innocence, and proved that the accu- 
like that of the fictitious Munchausen ; sation originated m the jealousy and 
who copied an anecdote mentioned in malevolence of Antiphilus. Stung with 
Plutarch, (ii. p. 78. Xyl.) where Anti- confusion at having listened to so in- 
phanes is reported to have said that in a famous a slander, Ptolemy restored Anel- 
certain city the cold was so intense, as to les to his favour, presented him witn a 
freeie the very words in the moment of hundred talents, to compensate the injury 
utterance, and which were only heard in he had sustained, and Antiphilus was in 
the summer, when the frost had disap- his turn bound in chains, and condemned 
peared. Plutarch indeed attributes the to slavery for life. Pausanias mentions 
story to the dramatist, but it seems more a statuary of the same name, of whom 
in character with the Bergean. he saw many works at Olympia, in 

4. A writer of epigrams, a few of which the place called tMe Treasury, (Bryan's 
are preserved in the Anthologia Grseca. Diet Lempri^re*s Clas. Diet &iog. 
He was bom at Megalopolis. Univ.) 

ANTIPHANES, an ingenious sUtuary ANTIPHO, the son of Sophilus, a 

of Argos, mentioned by Pausanias, whose schoolmaster, was bom 01. 75, at Athens, 

statues of Erasus, Aphidas, and Elatus, in the borough of Rhamnus, and is 

were still seen and admired in the temple reckoned amongst the ten orators, to 

of Ddphi, in the age of the Antonines. which that city gave birth. Unwillinfl[» 

ANTIPHANES, a physician of Delos, however, to appear often as a public 

whose age is unknown, who is mentioned speaker, he chose rather to write speeches 

by Clemens Alexandrinus as having said for those engaged in law-suits ; and ac- 

that " the only cause of diseases to man cording to Philostratus, used to boast 

was the variety of his food." (2 Pceda- that ** there was no sorrow so severe that 

fogi, cap. 1. p. 140.) He is mentioned his painless speeches could not root out 
y Galen, (De Composit Medicam. se- from the mind." But though Antipho 
cundum Loca, lib. v. can. 5 ;) and Cielius seldom appeared in public, yet when he 
Aurelianus quotes (De Morb. Chron. lib. did so, in the opinion of his pupil Thu- 
iv. cap. 8) a work of his called Panoptes. cydides, viii. he excelled all his con- 
ANTIPHILUS, a painter, the con- temporaries in the conception and ex- 
temporary and rival of Apelles ; was pression of his thoughts ; and as a 
bom in f^nrpt, and was pupil of Ctesi- moral character, was inferior to none, 
demus. He is distinguished by great He was ^e first, says Quintilian, iii. 1, 
facility of style ; one of liis most beauti- to compose a written speech, and amongst 
fUl works represented a youth employed in the first to publish a treatise on rhe- 
blowing a fire, from which the whole toric, which consisted of at least three 
house seemed to be illuminated. A satyr books, as may be inferred from Ammo- 
dressed in the skin of a panther, was nius and Pseud- Apsines ; and contained 
also admired. Plin^, lib. xxxv. ch. 10, in all probability specimens of the man- 
mentions many of this artist's works, and ner in which a speech ought to com- 
enumerates those he had seen. Antiphilus mence ; at least the Proems of Antipho 
was the designer of a figure which he called are twice quoted by Suidas. According 
Grylluty a name that continued afterwards to the author, probably Csecilius, whom 
to be applied to that species of caricature. Photius and Pseudo-Plutarch followed, 
When at the court of^ Ptolemy, to which Antipho was a very successful general, 
he was attached, his jealousy was excited and served the office of hierarch so nobly 
by the arrival of Apelles, whom he ac- as to fit out at his own expense sixty (in 

13 



ANT ANT 

Greek i^Korra,) triremes. But the story selling his words at the best market^ and 

carries its own refutation on the face who considered happiness to centre in 

of it. He might indeed have equipped all that ministered to luxurious and ex 

six or seven (c^ 17 jcoi cirro,) vessels, and pensive habits. Such was the similarity 

even this is not very likely, if it be true of his style with that of the orator, that 

that he was ridiculed by Plato the dra- Hermogenes confessed himself at a loss 

matist for his love of money. Towards to decide between their respective pro- 

the close of his life, he was connected ductions. 

with Peisander and others in new mo- 3. The tragedian, who is said to have 

delling the form of government in favour been beaten to death by Dionysius, tjrrant 

of the Four Hundred ; and as he was of Syracuse ; for when asked, according 

thus opposed to the democratic party, it to Plutarch, ii. p. 68, A. and p. 1051. C 

was only natural for him to be accused what kind of copper was the best, he 

of treason when he returned firom an answered, that of which the Athenians 

unsuccessful embassy to Sparta ; and made the statues of Harmodius and 

though his defence was an ame one, yet Aristogiton. Of his plays, the titles of 

it did not save him from being found only two have been preserved, the Andro- 

guiltir, when his goods were forfeited, mache and Meleager ; for the Plexippos 

his body denied burial, and his house was not a play, but only one of the cha- 

razed to the ground, and a pole stuck up racters in the Meleager, as shown by 

on the spot, with the inscription, ** This Ruhnken. 

was the g^round of the traitor Antiphp." 4. The mathematician and natoral 

The oration to which Thucydides alludes philosopher, whose attempt to square the 

was extant in the time of Harpocration ; circle is mentioned by Aristotle in Soph. 

and it was that perhaps which gave rise Blench, i. 10, and Phjrsic. Auscult. i. 2. 

to his being called the Nestor of the bar. 5. A collector of anecdotes, quoted by 

Respecting his style, however, there seems Diogen. Laert. viii. 3. 

to be an equal disagreement amongst 6. A writer on husbandry, known 

the critics of ancient and modem times, only from Athenseus. 

Dionysius says that his language was ANTIQUARIO, (Jacopo,) of Perugia, 

austere and antiquated, and by no means was a learned Italian, who lived at the 

agreeable ; while Csecilius, on the other end of the fifteenth, and beginning 

hand, speaks of him as possessing all the of the sixteenth centuries. He was se- 

requisites of a finished orator. So too cretary to Cardinal Savelli, legate at 

amongst the modems, Jensius sets down Bologna ; and afterwards to Giovanni 

all the extant orations as spurious ; while Galeozzo and Ludovico Sforza, duke of 

Reiske considers only the first and last Milan. He published the first, and per- 

as connected with real events, and rejects haps only entire edition of the works of 

the rest as merely sophistical exercises. Campanus in 1495. As an author he is 

Ruhnken, however, shows that the 4th, not much known, but he was an impor- 

5th, and 10th, are quoted as genuine tant person in the literary history of^his 

by Harpocration ; nor is the least hint times. He left, however, an Oratio, 

thrown out respecting the spuriousness of Milan, 1509; and a volume of Latin 

the others ; although it is true that hi the letters, printed at Perugia in 1519. He 

time of Csecilius, twenty-five of those died at Milan in 1512. 

attributed to Antipho were rejected as ANTIQUUS, (John, October 11, 1702 

forgeries. — 1750,) a painter of history, was born 

2. Contemporary with the orator, or at Groningen, and learned the art of 

rather a little posterior to him, was An- painting on glass firom Gerard Vander 

tipho, the dream and miracle expounder, Veen, which he practised for some years ; 

who wrote various treatises, of which but afterwards became a scholar of John 

little more than the titles have been pre- Abel Wassenberg, a respectable painter 

served. According to Origen against of history and portraits. At twenty-three 

Celsua, iv. p. 176, he denied in his work years of age, he went by sea with his bro- 

upon Truth the existence of a Provi- ther Lambert, a landscape painter, to Ge- 

dencc, and thus anticipated the doctrines noa. During the voyage, John made a por- 

of Epicurus ; while from his conversa- trait of the captain, which was esteemed 

tion witli Socrates, as detailed in Xeno- so much like, that he would not receive 

phon's Memorab. i. 6, it appears that he any money from the two artists for their 

was a sophist, or, as Suidas calls him, a passage. Arrived at Genoa, portraits 

word-cook ; an appellation well suited to were their resource ; and after six months* 

the individual, who was in the habit of sojourn, they went to Florence. The 

14 



ANT ANT 

grind duke of Tuscany employed him of the ' philosopher, who worshipped 
for six years, and sranted him a pension, nature alone, and Uught Diogenes, as 




large composition, 

representing t&e Fall of the Giants. He u to put on raga, and seem to bo 
also made a copy of the Martyrdom of Thofonnofa»M«ctpoT«rty." 
St. Stephen, after Cigoli, which he sold Such was the harshness of his manners 
for one hundred ducats. ' During his six and strictures, that he drove away nearly 
years' residence at Florence, he made all his fdlowers, and hence he was calleo, 
four journeys to Rome ; during one of ironicaUy, hy Socrates, <* the procurer,*' 
which he had a most distinguished as sUted hy Plutarch, ii. p. 632, a paa- 
reception from Po^ Benedict XIII. sage Uiat enables us to imderstand why 
The artists were held m such high esteem, the same term was ajtnlied to Socrates by 
that when they visited Naples, Solimeni, Antisthenes, as detailed by Xenophon, 
then head of the Academy of that town, in Sympos. ss. 8, who has preserved, in 
offered them his own house. On his return Memorab. ii. 15, a conversation between 
to Rome, John Antiquus nainted several the two; whUe the Antisthenes, mentioned 
pictures, when he heard the grand duke in iii. 14, can hardly be the philosopher, 
was dangerously sick. He returned im- for he is represented b;^ Nicomachides as 
mediately to Florence, but hb munifi- never having; served in the army, and 
cent patron had died. After staying; at skilled only m scraping money together ; 
theprincipalcitiesof Italy, and travelling unless it oe said that, at that period, 
to Venice, for the celebrated general Antisthenes had scarcely been weaned 
Schullembourg, he returned to his own from the practice and precept of his first 
country. His long residence in Italy master Gorgias. Of his various works, 
had excited in his countrymen a high which filled ten volumes, the few frag- 
opinion of his abilities ; he was received ments that have come down to us have 
by the prince of Orange with most flat- been collected by Orelli, in his Opuscula 
tering marks of attention ; and had his Grsec Veter. Sententiosa et Moralia. 
residence fixed, and a pension granted to Lips. 1821. According to Cicero, in 
him by that prince. He was employed Nat. Deor. i. 13, Antisthenes, in his 
in the palace of Loo, where he painted a work on Physics, overthrew the idea of 
large picture of Mars disarmed by the the existence and power of the gods, by 
Graces, and several other considerable asserting that the gods of the people were 
works. He was a correct designer, a many, out that of nature only one. 
good coloiirist, and had a freedom of Pbrynichus the grammarian, quoted by 
touch. His study of Italian art gave Photius, cod. 158, praises the purity of 
him a taste discernible in all his works, the style of Antisthenes, and considers as 
The prevailing characteristic of his style genuine his speech put into the mouth of 
is Uiat of the Roman school. (Brvan*s Ulysses. But if the one alluded to is 
Diet. Pilkington's Diet Biog. Univ.) that which is found in the collections of 
ANTISTHENES, the first of the the Greek Orators, the opinion is of little 
Cynic philosophers, was bom at Athens value ; for the speech in question is evi- 
about Ol. 89, of a Thracian or Phry^an dently taken from a play of Euripides, as 
moUier, for authorities differ ; but so little appears by the circumstance of finding 
was the disgrace he attached to such a nearly a dozen Iambic verses in their 
circumstance, that when he had con- original poetic dress, while it conveys sen- 
ducted himself bravely at Tanagra, he timents similar to those expressed in the 
asserted that no man, whose parents were Here. Fur. 189 — 196. Nor is a greater 
both Athenians, would have acted the dependence to be placed upon the judg- 
same part ; while he ridiculed the boast ment of Timor, who not only found fault 
of that people who said they were sprung with the number of the works of And- 
from the soil, by saying, " so were mus- sthenes, but with their matter, which he 
cles." He was originally a pupil of said was a mass of trifling ; for the Sillo- 
Gorgias, whose style he adopted m his grapher was in the habit of abusing all 
dialogues ; but he aflerwards attached the philosophers equally. He is said to 
himself to Socrates, and recommended have lectured in the gjnnnasium attached 
his pupils to follow his example. Like to the temple of Hercules, called Cynos- 
his new master, he was no friend to Plato, arees ; for that was the place where in- 
whose finical and factitious habits ill qmries were carried on respecting the 
accorded with the simple fare and dress parentage of persons supposed to be ille- 

15 



ANT ANT 

gitimate ; amongst whom, it would Beem, raine, and loaded him with honours. 

Antisthenes was numbered, from his Antoine of Burgundy afterwards served 

mother bein^ a foreigner. He died, after the French crown, under him and Charles 

alingering disorder, at the age of seventy, VIII., with zeal and fidelity. (Biog. 

but not before he saw the death of So- Univ.) 

crates avenged by the punishment in- ANTOINE D£ BOURBON, (king of 
flicted upon the accusers of his master. Navarre,) father of Henry IV. and son 
He appears to have been rather more of Charles de Bourbon, duke of Yen- 
attached to life than became a philoso- ddme, was bom in 1518. In 1540 he 
pher ; for when, in his last illness, he married Jeanne d'Albret, heiress of Na- 
required the aid of a fnend to put him varre, and obtained with her the princi- 
out of pain, Dioffenes handed him a pality of Beam and the title or king, 
dagger, which Antisthenes, however, de- He was a weak and irresolute prince, and 
clined to use, observing that he wanted wavered all his life between the two 
to be released, not from life, but pain. religions and parties which then divided 

Of the other individuals of this name, France. Suspicion of the constable 

the one whose works are most to be re- Montmorenci prevented him from assert- 

gretted, is one who wrote upon the Py- ing his right to the guardianship of 

ramids, as we learn from Fliny, H.N. Francis II., as first prince of the blood, 

xxxvi. 12. on the death of Henry II. ; and he saw 

ANTISTIUS, (Labeo,) who had been the government entrusted to the Guises, 
prstor, and even proconsul of the pro- and the prince de Cond^, his brother, 
vince of Narbonne, is said to have preferred to himself for the command of 
amused himself with painting small pic- the Huguenot forces. During the mino- 
tures, which, instead of excitinff puolic rity of Charles IX. he yielded ue regency 
admiration, only brought on him the to Catherine de Mecucis, and was con- 
ridicule of his contemporaries. He died tented with the empty title of lieutenant- 
at an advanced age, in the reign of Yes- general of the kingdom. Reconciled to 
pasian. (Bryan's Diet.) me Guises, and entirely detached from 

ANTISTIUS, a friend and physician the protestant party, he now formed, with 

of Julius Cssar, who was taken prisoner the duke of Guise and the constable 

with him, by the pirates, at the island of Montmorenci, the union which was called 

Pharinacusa,(Sueton.inYit&Csesaris,cap. by the Huguenots the triumvirate, and 

4 ; Plutarch, ibid.) and after his assas- took the command of the royal army, 

sination, examined his wounds, of which. He died in 1562, from the effects of a 

in his opinion, one only was mortal, viz. wound received at the siege of Rouen— 

that in the breast. (Sueton. cap. 82.) detested by the protestants, whom he 

ANTJE, AERTJEN, or AART YAN had deserted, and little regretted by the 

LEYDEN, a painter of history, called catholics. A negotiation was at one time 

also Aert Claesson, (1498 — 1564,) was pending for a marriage between hini and 

born at Leyden, and was pupil of Come- Mary Queen of Scots. (Biog. Univ.) 

lius Engelbrecht. He fell into the water r ANTOINE, (Paul Gabriel,) a learned 

und was drowned. His portrait is found Jesuit, bom 1679, died 1743 ; was rector 

in the new edition of C. Yan Mander, of the university of Pont-&-Mousson. 

engraved by L' Admiral. There are, by His works are: — Theologia Moralis 

him, the PViests of Baal, engraved in Universa. Nancy, 1731. Avi^on, 

folio by Mulder, with the name of the 1818. Theologia Universa, speculativa et 

painter — Aentje Yan Leiden, which print dogmatica. Pont-k-Mousson, 1725. Lec- 

13 inserted in the Bible of Gerard Hoet ; tiures Chr6tiennes. Nancy, 1736. Medi- 

the four Evangelists, in one plate, en- tations, 1737. Demonstration de la 

graved by B. Dolendo; and, the Ship- Religion, 1739. They were published at 

wreck of St. Paul, a large work engraved first anonymously, have been frequently 

by the same. (Heinecken, Diet, des reprinted, and have always retained their 

Artistes.) reputation. (Biog. Univ. Suppl.) 

ANTOINE, (caUed le Grand B&tard,) ANTOINE, (Pierre Joseph,) a civU 

born 1421, died 1501, was a natural son engineer, bom 1730, died 1814. He 

of Philip the Good, duke of Bur^ndy. wrote, Navigation de Bourgogne, 1774; 

After distinguished military services m Serie de Colonnes, 1782; and several 

Africa, and against the Liegeois and remarks on subjects of local utility, con- 

the Swiss, he was taken prisoner at the nected with his profession. His brother 

battle of Nancy, in 1476. Louis XI. Antoine was also a civil engineer. (Biog. 

ransomed him from R^n^, duke of Lor- Univ. Suppl.) 

16 



ANT ANT 

ANTOINE, (Sebastian,) an engraver, have the benefit of his advice and assist- 

a native of Nancy in Lorraine, where he ance. Anton was appointed chancellor 

engraved a portrait of R. P. Augustin and first professor of laws in the new 

Calmet, in a large oval, in 1729. The institution, to which a large number of 

Enterprise of Prometheus, one of the students were attracted by his celebrity 

ceilings of Versailles, painted by Mignard, as a lecturer. In addition to these duties, 

was uso engraved oy him; and the he was actively engaged in affairs of 

crown of precious stones, with which state, and was sent as ambassador to 

Louis XV. was crowned, Oct. 25, 1722. several courts. His comprehensive juri- 

He worked chiefly with the graver in a dical science gained him a reputation 

thin feeble style, without effect ; he was which has survived him. The most 

also very deficient in the other requisites celebrated of his works are : — 1. Dispu- 

of the art. (Strutt's Diet of £ng. Hei- tationes Feudales, the best edition of 

necken. Diet, des Artistes.) which was published by Stryk, Halle, 

ANTOINE, (Jacques Denis,) bom at 1699, 4to. 2. De Camerse Imperialis 

Paris, Aug. 6, 1733, was an artist who Jurisdictione. This treatise, in which 

did much for the reformation of archi- the author differed from Herman Vul- 

tectural taste in the French capital. One teius as to the extent of the emperor's 

of his first works which attracted notice constitutional rights, involved him in a 

was the small tetrastyle portico in the hot controversy with the latter, who had 

court of the Hospital de la Charity, the advantage, in point of temper and 

which, although now not at all remark- moderation at least. A complete list of 

able, was at the time of its erection a his works is given by Willen, Memorise 

striking novelty, being the earliest ap- Jurisconsultorum, p. 82. 

plication of the ancient Grecian Doric, a ANTON, (Robert,) one of the minor 

style that has found few imitators in poetsof the reign of King James the First, 




1776; but his great work is the Hdtel of consists of a collection of satires, and 

des Monnaies, or Mint, a vast pile of is entitled. Vice's Anatomy Scourged and 

building with two fronts — one towards Corrected; but there is also a second 

the quay and Pont-Neuf, the other to- title, the Philosopher's Satires, which, on 

wards the Rue Gu6n6gaud, — each up- a subsequent page, is expanded into the 

wards of 370 feet in extent ; and notwitn- Philosopher's Seven Satires, alludin? to 

standing faults of detail, and a certain the Seven Planets. There is an edition 

littleness of taste in some respects, it is of the date 1616, and another of 161 7, or 

unquestionably an imposing unbroken possibly the same edition with a reprinted 

mass of building ; at the same time, it has title-page. The satires possess little claim 

no particular propriety of character, hav- on the reader's attention, although there 

ing more the air of a palatial residence are a few slight notices of the eminent 

than of what would indicate the actual poets contemporary with this nlrncrt fc- 

purpose of the edifice. Antoine also de- gotten author. 

signed the Mint at Bern, and the palace ANTON, or ANTONIUS, (Paul,) a 

of the Due de Bervic at Madrid. He Lutheran divine, bom 1661 at Hirschfeld, 

died August 24th, 1 801 . in Upper Lusatia, died 1 730 at Halle. His 

ANTOINETTE op Orleans, daugh- principal works are — De Sacris Gentilium 
ter of El£onore of Orleans, duke of Processionibus. Leipsig, 1684. Concilii 
Longueville, was married to Charles de Tridentini adeoque et Pontificiorum Doc- 
Gondi, marquis of Belle-Isle, who was trina publica. Halle, 1697, oflen re- 
killed in 1596. Abandoning herself to printed. Elementa Homiletica. Halle, 
grief, she entered a nunnery at Toulouse, 1700. Collegium Antitheticum. Halle, 
and afterwards founded the order of the 1732; and some controversial writings. 
Filles du Calvaire, among whom she See Walch, Bibl. Theol. vol. ii. p. 754. 
died, at Poitiers, in 1618. (Biog. Univ.) (Biog. Univ.) 

ANTON, (Gottfried, 1571—1618,) was ANTON, (Conrad Gottlob,) a leamed 

bom at Freudenberg in Westphalia. He German, born 1745, died 1814; was 

was a student, and afterwards professor, professor of morality, and afterwards of 

at Marburg, f^om whence he removed to oriental languages in the university of 

Giessen, at the request of the lands^-ave Wittenibcrg. lie is the author of a num- 

Lewis v., who was then about to found her of works, chiefly on Hebrew and 

a university in that town, and wbhed to oriental literature. (Biog. Univ. Suppl.) 

voun. 17 c 



ANT A N 'Jf 

ANTON, (Charles GotUob,) born 1751, giastical dignities to that of cardinaL 

died 1818; practised as an advocate at He was bom in 1698, died 1767. He 

Goerlitz. He wrote several historical published — De Titulis (juos S. Evaristiu 

and other works — among them, Essays Roman is Presbvteris distribuit. Rome, 

on the Templars ; and on Rural Economy 1725. Ragioni della sede Apostolica 

in Germany. He was also an active sopra il Ducato di Parma e Piacenza es- 

contributor to a great number of scien- poste a' Sovrani e Principi Cattolici dell' 

tific and literary journals. (Biog. Univ. Europa. 1742. S. Athanasii Archie- 

Suppl.) piscopi Alexandrise Interpretatio Psalmo- 

ANTONA, (Giovanni de,) a painter rum. 1746. Vetus Missale Romanum. 

of portraits. Francisco Zucci, of Venice, 1756. Other works by him were collected 

engraved an oval portrait of Giovanni and published at Rome, in 1756. (Biog. 

Antonio Murani, after a picture by his Univ. Tipaldo, vol. i p. 114.) 

hand. (Hcinecken, Diet, des Artistes.) ANTONELLI, (Leonard, Cardinal, 

ANTONELLA DA MESSINA. See 1730—1811,) was one of the moat 

Messina. able members of the Sacred College, 

ANTONELLE, (Pierre Antoine, mar- and accompanied Pius VII. to Paris in 

quis d',) was bom at Aries in 1747. He 1804. He was also a member of the 

served in the army for some time, but on Acad6mie des Inscriptions, and collected 

the breaking out of the French revolu- a valuable library of nooks. (Biog. Univ. 

tion he became an extreme democrat; Suppl.) 

was named mayor of Aries in 1790, and ANTON I, (Alexander Victor Papa- 
was more than once censured in the nico d',) bom 1714, died 1786; was 
National Assembly for his violence, but director of the School of Artillery of the 
was defended by Mirabeau. He was kins of Sardinia, and author of a Course 
chosen member of the Legislative As- of Military Mathematics, Architecture, 
sembly for the department of Bouches- and Artillery. The most valuable parts 
du-Rhone; and in 1792 was despatched of this work are treatises on gunpowder, 
with two colleagues to arrest Laiayette. and the use of fire-arms, which contain 
He presided over the revolutionary tri- the results of a great number of experi- 
bunal which condemned the Girondins, ments in illustration of the science of 
in whose favour he seems to have re- gunnery. (Biog. Univ.) 
Icnted, but was compelled by Fouquier- ANTON I, (Vicenzo Bemi degli,) a 
Tainville to go on. After the fall of very celebrated Italian lawyer, bom 1747, 
Robespierre, he continued to play a con- was procureur du roi in Napoleon's Italian 
spicuous part, and was concerned in a kingdom. (Biog. Univ. Suppl.) 
newspaper called the Journal des Horames ANTONI, (Degli,) or D'ANTONIO. 
Libres. He was involved in the conspi- See Messina. 

racy of Babeuf, but acquitted; and was ANTON lA, (Minor,) second daughter 

regarded by the Directory as one of their of M. Antony and Octavia, born (not'be- 

naost dangerous enemies. After the fore) b. c. 36, died 37 or 38 a. d. • She 

atfair oi the iT^fernal machine, he was married Drusus, the youngest son of 

obliged to withdraw from France for a Livia (Augusta) and of Clauoius Tiberius 

time ; but on returning to Paris, was Nero, who fought against Octavianus at 

allowed to pursue in peace the philosophi- Perusium, e.g. 40,^1 • Of many chil- 

cal speculations to which he was addicted, dren of Drusus and Antonia three sur- 

In 1814 he undertook the defence of the vived their father, Germanicus, Li villa, 

restoration, in Le Reviel d'un Vieillard, and Claudius, afterwards emperor, 

in which he declared that France could Antonia was prevented by Tiberius 

only obtain liberty imder the legitimate and Livia from appearing at the 

king. He died i^8l7. He published ftmeral of Germanicus, (see Tacit. Ann. 

several political pamphlets on various oc- iii. 3,) that the spectacle of her grief 

casions. (Biog. Univ. Suppl.) might not add to the popular excitement 

ANTONELLI, (Giovanni Carlo, 1690 of the time (see Aorippina I.) Her 
— 1768,) an Italian prelate, known in beauty, her long widowhood, above ru- 
Italy for some treatises of local interest, mour or suspicion, and her abstinence 
relating to Velletri, his native place, from court-intrigue, procured for Antonia 
He was in several official cmplojinents ; universal esteem, and even conciliated 
he was ordained subdeacon, 17J8, and the jealous temper of Tiberius. Accord- 
priest and bishop 1 752. ing to Josephus, Anticj. xviii. 8, she was 

ANTONELLI, (Niccolo Maria, count the first to apprise him of the real de- 

of Pergola,) rose through various eccle- signs of Sejanus. Cf. XiphiUn in Dio C. 

18 



ANT ANT 

She educated Caligula and his sisters, return to Rome he was made professor 

With his usual caprice, that emperor pro- of helles-lettres in the college of the 

cured for his grandmother from the Sapienza, and so learned and popular 

senate all the honours Livia had enjoyed; were his lectures, that on the day he 

and shortly after, by his contemptuous began to explain the Oration of Cicero 

neglect, by express command, or even by pro Marcello, he reckoned amongst the 

more direct means, occasioned her death, crowd of his auditors no less than five 

Claudius, after his accession, assigned to and twenty cardinals. In 1667 he took 

her memory a covered chariot (carpen- orders, and was appointed secretary of 

turn) on days of public procession, and the Sacred College. The popes Gregory 

the surname of Augusta. For fbiiher XIII. and Sixtus V. employed him on 

account of Antonia Minor, see Pliny, several importantmissions. OregoryXIV. 

N. H. vii. 19 ; ix. 55. Valer. Maxim, iv. offered him three successive bishoprics, 

c.„3 ; and the author of the poem, ** Con- but he refused them all. At last, Cle- 

Bolatio ad Liviam Augustam de Morte ment VIII. made him a canon of the 

Drusi," w. 299 — 344, and the art. ** An- Basilica Vaticana, his chamberlain, and, 

tonia," in Bayle. Pliny mentions, N. H. in 1598, a cardinal. He died in Rome 

XXXV. c. 10, a Templum Antonias; see on the 15thof Aumist, 1603. His printed 

Hardouin's remark. works are — 1 . DeU' Educazione Cristiana 

ANTONIANO, (Silvio, Cardinal,) bom dei Ficliuoli, written by the desire of 

at Rome, in 1540, of a famUy which came cardinu Borromeo, whilst with him in 

jQrom Castello, a village of the province Milan. Verona, 1584, and reprinted 

of Abruzzo, in the kingdom of Naples, at Naples. 2. Orationes Tredecim, pub- 

His father was a woollen-draper. From lished at Rome in 1610, after his death, 

his infancy he showed a 8inc:ular disposi- hy Castiglione, with the addition of his 

tion to poetry and music. At the a^e of Life. 3. Many Discourses, Dissertations, 

ten years he played on the lyre, and ac- Letters, and Poems, both in Latin and 

companied himself, singine extemporary Italian, which have been several times 

verses upon any given subject — a pheno- printed in different collections, 
menon not imcommon in Italy. From ANTON I ANUS, (Silvius,) an en- 

this circumstance he obtained the sur- graver on wood, who flourished ahout 

name of Poetino. His rising reputation 1567. According to Papillon, he oma- 

procured him the protection of cardinal mented with cuts a small hook of fables 

Ottone Tmeses, who took him into his by GahrielFaemo, published at Antwerp, 

house, enabled him to acquire a know- entitled Centum FabulsB ex Antiquis 

ledge of the Greek and Latin languages, Auctorihus delectae, et a Gabriele Faemo 

and to improve his talent of improvisa- Cremonensi Carminibus explicataB. An- 

tion, of which he gave one day a striking tuerpia ex Officina Christoph. Plantini, 

proof, at a great entertainment given 1567. To each fable he nas given a 

oy his patron. Cardinal Alexander Far- print, of which there are one hundred, 

nese taKing a nosegay, presented it to the all marked with a cipher of A. and S.— 

youth, telling him to eive it to him whom a cipher also used, it is said, by Sam- 

iie thought most likely to be pope ; bucus. (Stmtt's Diet, of Eng.) 
Silvio immediately addressing himselt to ANTONIANUS, fJohn,) a Dominican 

cardinal Giannangelo de Medici, who of Nime^en, died in 1558, who edited 

was afterwards Plus IV., in extempo- some of me works of the Fathers. (Biog. 

rary verses, begged him to accept the Univ.) 

emblem of his future dignity. Ercole n. ANTONIDES, (Hans,) an eminent 

duke of Ferrara, was so pleased with his Duteh poet, sumamed Van der Goes, 

talents that he took him under his special from his birthplace in Zealand, was horn 

protection ; and at sixteen years of age, in 1647, of poor parents. When a boy, 

gave liim the professorship of literature he took great pieoiBure in reading the 

at Ferrara, wnere the historian relates Latin poets, and his first attempts in poetry 

many remarkable instances of his power consisted of imitations from them. He 

of improvisation. After the death of the next composed a tragedy, called Traiet, or 

Ducca Ercole, pope Pius IV., not for- the Invasion of China, which his modesty 

getting the incident of the nosegay, sent would not allow him to puhlish. How- 

for him to Rome, and appointed him ever Vondel thought so well of it, that 

tutor and secretary to his nephew, cardi- he honoured the young poet by adopting 

nal Carlo Borromeo, with whom he went some passages of it into one of his own 

to Milan, and compiled the Acts of the plays. In 1671, he published his most 

Coimcil which was held there. On his esteemed work, the Y-stroom, an epic 

19 c2 



ANT ANT 

description of the river Y, in four books, personal character of the farmer was 

Antonides was intended to be an apothe- m&mous, and, according to Frocophu^ 

cary, but he was enabled by some patrons Antonina resembled her mother, and 

to study medicine, in which he took a carried into domestic life the morals at 

doctor's degree ; but was afterwards pre- the stage. Yet, in the memoirs of the 

sented to a place in the Dutch Admi- empress Theodora and of Antonina, the 

ralty. He married in 1678 ; after which very suspicious nature of the Anecdota 

he wrote htUe, and died in 1684. After of Procopius, a work composed with an 

Vondel he is esteemed the most eminent avowedly malignant purpose, and in the 

Dutch poet, and his poems have been form of a libe^ should be bcnrne in mind. 

printed several times. Before her union with Belisarius, Anto- 

ANTONIDES, (Hans, Van der Lin- nina had married a man of rank, sdthough 

den.) See Likdbn. not wealthy, and was the parent of seve- 

ANTONIDES, (Heinrich,) of Naer- ral children ; among whom Photius, and 

den, near Amsterdam, bom 1546, died a daughter, the ftiture wife of an officer 

1604. He was driven from his native of distinction, named Hildiger, are partis 

place by the violence of the duke of cularly named. She seems to have filled 

Alba. He wrote, Svstema Philosophis, a high office in the imperial palace— 

1613, which ftumishes much valuable Zvon;, nearly answering to our *' lady of 

information relating to the beginning of the bedchamber," — and to have thereby 

the reformation in me Netherlands ; and enjoyed the rank and honours of a patn- 

Initia Academiae Franekerensis, 1613. cian. She was married to Belisanus in 

He is sometimes called Henr. Antonius the interval between the Persian and 

van der Linden. (Biog. Univ.) Vandal wars, January 532 to June 533, 

ANTONIDES, (Johann,) called Alck- A.n. while he resided at Constantinople, 

marianus, from Alckmar, his birthplace, She was a fiuthless wife, but a zealous 

a learned orientalist. He pubhshed, and serviceable friend, following her bus- 

Epistola Pauli ad Titum, Araoic^, cum band in his African, 533 — 535, and his 

Jo. Anton, interlineari Versione Latini ad Italian campaign, 536 — 540, A.n. against 

verbum, 1612. (Bioe. Univ.) the Vandals and the Ostrogoths; and on 

ANTONIDES, CHieodore,) a Dutch some occasions, like the czarina Ca- 

divine of the eighteenth century ; author therine I. promoted their success by ex- 

of Commentaries on the Epistles of St. ertions more suitable to her spirit than 

James, St. Peter, and St. Jude, and on her sex. On their first voyage Antonina 

the Book of Job. (Biog. Univ.) showed her practical address. During a 

ANTONILEZ, (Don Jose, 1636 — calm which detained the fleet between 
1676,) a Spanish painter, bom at Seville, Zante and Sicily, the water became 
where he leamea the principles of his tainted, and unfit for use. Even the 
art, and afterwards was placed imder general would have suffered the extreme 
Don Francisco Rici at Madrid, who was hardship of thirst, if Antonina had not 
one of the painters to Philip IV. He preserved water in glass bottles, buried 
painted history and portraits, and was deep in sand in the hold of the ship. In 
also admired for the landscapes he intro- the Italian war, pope Silverius owed hia 
duccd into his works. In ttie church of banishment, ana Constantine, a distin- 
La Magdalcna at Madrid, are two pic- guished officer imder Belisarius, his death 
tures by liim, which are favourably spoicen to the influence or ill-will of Antonina. 
of by Palomino, representing the Mira- Yet the one was a proved traitor, and the 
culouj Conce])tion, and the Good Shep- other in open insubordination at the time, 
herd. M. Durdcnt, in the Biographie Antonina levied recruits, collected provi- 
Univcrsclle, says, " It was in landscape sions, escorted convoys, and presiaed at 
that he chiefly excelled ; he had a good military councils in person, and through- 
choice of subjects, and his touch was airy out the Gothic campaign in Italy seconded 
and light. He also exerted himself, but with ability and vigour the extraordinary 
with less success, upon devotional subjects exertions of her husband. She did not 
and TM)rtrait." Some of his works are at attend him to the Persian war in 541 ; 
Alcola de Henarez and Madrid, at which and the reasons of her absence must be 
IntttT city ho died. (Bryan's Diet. Biog. sought in the less creditable page of her 
Univ.) story. On the departure of the African 

ANTONINA, born in 499, died after expedition, June 533, a newly-baptized 

505, A.D. Her parents were an actress soldier, who had lately abjured the £uno- 

and a public charioteer. The profession mian heresy, embarked as an auspicious 

of botu was esteemed degraoing; the omen in the galley of the general, and 

20 



ANT ANT 

VM ft^SP^ ^y BeUsariiu as hii spiritual in Paris, where he published yarions 

son. Tne young proselyte, Theodosius, elementaxy books, and some editions of 

became enamourea of^ and was beloved Italian Qassics. (Biog. Univ.) 
by, Antonina; and although the eyes of ANTONINI, (Filippo,) a learned Ita- 

Belisarius were frequently opened to his lian antiquary, lived m the middle of the 

disgrace by Macedonia, an attendant of fifteenth century. He was the author 

Antonia, and by Photius her son, these of— -Discorsi dell' Antichita di Sarsina e 

discoveries ended in the ruin of the in- de Costumi Romani. Sarsina, 1607, and 

formers, and confirmed the uxoriousness Faenza, 1769. Supplemento della Chro- 

of Belisarius. By the dexterous removal nica di Verruchio. nologna, 1621. (Biog. 

of Theodora's rival, John of Cappadocia, Univ. Suppl.) 

Justinian's minister, Antonina had earned ANTONINUS I. (Pius, 86^161, A.p.) 
a right to the protection of the empress. Titus Aurelius Fulvius Bojonius Arrius 
She herself was released firom confine- Antoninus, the son of Aurelius Fulvius, 
ment, in which her injured husband had and Arria Fadilla, was born at Lanu- 
retained her; Photius was thrown into a vium, on the 20th of September, a.d. 86, 
dungeon; Belisarius recalled from the v. c. 839. He was descended from an 
Persian frontier, degraded, disgraced, and ancient and noble house of Nismes (Ne- 
heavily fined, and restored to his former mausus) ; and derived from the family of 
favour, and to part of his estate, only by either parent many eminent examples 
an unconditional reconciliation with An- both of public and private virtues. ^ The 
tonina. The death of Theodosius, how- youth of^ Antoninus was spent principally 
ever, and the lapse of time, enabled the at Lorium (Castel Guido), on the Aure- 
affection of Belisarius to revive, and pei> lian road, where he afterwards built an 
haps Antonina became less abandoned, imperial residence. The liberal nature 
or more circumspect in her conduct. She of Antoninus, his refined manners and 
had by her second marriase an only handsome person, procured him general 
daughter, named Joannina, who remained esteem ; and his large patrimonial estate 
at Constantinople, while her parents were was improved by repeated bequests from 
engaged in the Italian war, and whom the numerous friends and connexions of 
the empress Theodora espoused to her the Arrian and Aurelian houses. His 
nephew, if he were not rather her illegi- first consulship, a.d. 120, was with Ca- 
timate son Anastasius, as the sole heiress tilius Severus, and he was one of the four 
of Belisarius's wealth. The match was, consular senators appointed by Adrian to 
however, broken ofi^ after the death of govern Italy in his absence; and Cam- 
Theodora, upon Antonina's return to Con- pania, where his estates were, was assigned 
stantinople, although the virtue, the fame, to Antoninus as his peculiar district. As 
and pernaps the sections of her daugh- proconsul of Asia, he was even more po- 
ter were sacrificed to her determination, pular than his grand&ther Arrius, and an 
After the final disgrace and the death of anecdote has been preserved of his good 
Belisarius, Antonina devoted to the clois- humour and kindly disposition. In one of 
ter the remains of her life and fortune. hisprogresses within the province, he rested 

The Anecdota of Procopius are the at the house of the sophist Polemon, then 
princi^ sources for the biography of absent from home. The sophist on his 
Antonina. To authentic history these return expressed with much rudeness his 
bear the same relation as the Letters of sense of the intrusion, and Antoninus, at 
Junius, or the Satires of Churchill. Gib- midnight, sought another lodging. Some 
bon (Decline and Fall, vol. vii. 8vo. c. 41, years afterwards, a player complained 
pp. 263--269, Milman,) and Lord Mahon, to the emperor Antonmus that Polemon 
in his Life of Belisarius, have collected had driven him from the stage at mid- 
all that is known of Antonina. See also day: " He drove me from his house at 
articles Belisarius and Theodoea in the midnight," was the reply, '* and I have 
present work. never laid a complaint against him. '* 

ANTON INI, (Giuseppe,) was auditor (Philostrat de Vit. Sophist, i. 25, c. 3.) 

and judffe fiscal, under the emperor Upon his return to Rome, he became one 

Charles V I., early in the eighteenth cen- of the select council of Adrian ; and on 

tury, who wrote a complete Histor3r of the death of ^lius Verus, Adrian pro- 

Lucania, printed at Naples. (Biog. posed to adopt Antoninus on condition 

Univ.) that he, in his turn, should adopt Marcus 

ANTON INI, (Annlbal,) brother of Aurelius and L. Verus. After some 

the preceding, was bom in 1702, died hesitation he accepted the title of Cssar, 

1755, and taught Italian for many years and the tribunitian power, A.n. 138, u.c. 

21 



A S 7 A X T 



l". > .Kirjtit, ^>< r. V:4 mrk jear. £&d recused to Italy mt whcitj to tihe 

A/*ft;r/r/.iii4&tf-.;.7 44»<irt :ijKi«i«rT Tiixes toe Liif at Vkt " Mzrcm cci 

«r.<^ ;»-.*^.rutl'vcr. tiut air.?^of u;« le&ar^. Tiara. " tae xzLHir!3saoErci& to the nev 

'v«% A.-^^ta*.. H« luyv VM tijk tkAi^^ Catiar. He tu mtrmaTrf^y aeqiunixcd 

'/ 7. .^M.^M H^tfinaciai A^SobiiuM. and vitii the tnde. rewoRes. uid tnbote of 

rvjfi. r^a frjTi t:^ «?jU« the sp9«£otioii each pTDViDce. Etctt peddon wi 

'/ ' K^-zvi," A.:*. 1'^. Bet he <ieci:r.ed by has before it vao ihrnhtpd 

v.> •xryrd:\ •jcja it^ui Mmk U-rliheti 3^a oofmcil or the muxe : erec the J< 

v.r'^. '/ ;.-;■< «ar*»ortr.j pr*<i««*v>Ti, *c- ^ere porcaHj rtUered froci die opj 

*>fr/'xt.f fjP4*r tfee t.tii» off '* Facther of hii fiTe enactmenti of the Ute leign; 

*//.:.*."{ {-jT :.'.::,vr.i, a.:,, IZ9, ziA of had Ukj claje of hu subjects cause Ibr 

A '.r^Jk f'^ >. Ji vl-f> Fvudx^ and per- con^pUmt. except the freedmen and &e 

rf,.''J^:.y *Jrj: U!t>,*£/: to iffre'.t f^iiiikd !tktaei infonners. 

t/« V*^, ^iKfjA^A tr.tafth^T* fA his boose, In fikrofor of the Christians, AntoniiiiM 

kr»4 V^ <'>t>f>r4t/t upofi his btrth-day the renewed the prohibition of Adrian agaiml 

'//s/:.';^ *A XuK ^AitMj^, summarj and tamultoonxs pere e c utiun i, 

AriVyr4»'i'M y:«rrt:TXM«A strictly as pred- and directed his rescript especiaUT to the 

'J^Y.* 'A tk^ MTi4te : sobmitting every citicm of l«ariMa. Athens, and Thesaalo- 

tl«i;»jr t/« iu *U:yi\phnlv/riHj f/r, at least, to nica, (Melito, in £useb.iv. c. 26.) But, 

a 9^l':rX '.t^iunW of it% ny/re experienced if the edict (irpor ro xoipor, sc. 9vpe- 

ttituu\t*ir%f arid kw-mnn }iim«elf f/rxly to dpcoy, Ao-uir; to the municipajities of all 

^x'^rutA t>i«rir J'-'citionJi. His patt-mal Ada be genuine, the protection aflbfded 

tarcr WM «fjr/trn in tbi!; diffen/nce he ob- by Antoninus was not merely negative, but 

s^TV'-d (/^w'T'm hiA private rriunificence, a direct recognition of the christian com- 

arid hi* utri^'t #rc>riorfiy in the manage* munities among the legalized creeds of 

ffi<rrtt of th<: publi'; r'rvf.'nuf;. He declined the empire. However, the language of the 

th'r frih«Tit4nc<; of th/Ao who had children edict is suspicious, its authenticity qnes- 

livin^ At th<; timo of their decease; he tionable, and the sflenceof the apokvists 

as«i«ti:d frfftn hit own purse, at a low rate upon so important a concesnon haid^ to 

of intjn*'%i, individuals, communities, and be explained. See upon the opposite 

rriAf^ixtraten, who rcquirH loans for the sides of the question, Kestner. Die Agape: 

di«/ harff^c of t}i(:ir private: (ft official duties, odcr dcr geheime Weltbund der Chnsten, 

\'hu**:*'K%ttry iM'nnion^ wrrrr; witlidrawn or p. ^00; and Eichstadt, Exercitat. Anto- 

r*"Un:ff\^ whiio in nil the provinces the ninn;^, No. 4. 

tiior«! <TnirM'nt profcMKirH or Hurtoric and None of the procurators of Adrian 

iiliilonophv ri'Ccivr'd an annual salary, were displaced ; and those whose govern- 

llf P'(,MirMtionn of N«'rva and Adrian re- ment he approved remained in office 

sjHTiiri;^ th«- public \nntn vrcru renewed seven, and, m some instances, nine years, 

by Antoninus: and no v,x\H'h*(». was Antoninus dissembled his knowle^e of 

sjinri'd (or the thf*atre and the circus, thrnigh several conspiracies formed against him 

onibatM of ^la/liatcirs were checked in the early part of his reign ; and where 



siinri'f 

til*' V4 

by Miinipiiiary laws. But the great glory di-icovcry was unavoidable, he punished 
of tfif* ff'ign of Antoninus was his pro- only the principal actors, without de- 
vinrial fidininiHtrntion of th<M'mnirc'. The grading their families, or forfeiting their 



HiihjfrtH nf |{^Hni> were relicvca from the estates. But although Antoninus avoided 

bnrdi'fi of all )>iit dcfi-nnivi' wars — from the unnecessary wars, he maintained the dig* 

iiii|MTi:tl pro^rfrHSi's — and from capricious nity of the empire on all its frontiers, 

find unequal ini|u>sittonH. No complaints Insurrections were suppressed in Egypt, 

wrn- HO readily lintcrifrd to as petitions Achaia, and Palestine. In Britain, Lol- 

ii/^dinHt pn»vini'ial nin<riHtrat(>!i ; and the lias Urbicus drove the Caledonians into 

rliiidrm (»f such as had Imtu convicted of the northern extremity of the island, and 

fraud, w«Ti' permitted to succeed to the raised a new rampart of earth, beyond 

palrrnnl cHtate only on condition they the wall of Adrian, between Edinburgh 

ri'f'uiuliMl to the province wliat had boon and Dumbarton. Capitolinus enumerates 

unjustly taken from it. It was a prin- the foreign princes whom an audience, a 

cipal motive for the inii>erial n«Hidence at mesHagc, or a letter of Antoninus, retained 

Korue, thai it was central and convenient in peace or restored to their dominions; 

f«ir every part of the empire; and the and Appian, whose history was com- 

journevH c«t Antoninu!< H<'hli»ni extended pleted about the tenth year of Antoninus, 

beyond Itouie luul Lanuvluni. At the liad seen ambassadors refused the honour 

beguinin^; of IiIh rei^ni« as an example of they came to solicit, of being admitted 

tliu economy he meant to olMcrve, he into the rank of subjects. 

22 



ANT ANT 

Antoninus married, before his adop* were exposed to the wonder of the popu- 
tion, Annia Galeria Faustina (105 — 141 lace, and a hundred lions at once let 
▲.D.) daughter of Annius Verus, prefect loose in the arena, 
of the ci^. They had four children ; the In the seventy-fifth year of his age, 
sons died young ; and of the daughters, and the twenty-second of his rei^, An- 
the younger, Faustina, alone survived her toninus died at his villa of Lonuni) of 
parents. (See M. AuaBLius.) The elder fever. When the symptoms became dan- 
Faustina died in the third year of the gerous, he commended to the pretorian 
reign of Antoninus. Her levity had prefects, and to the principal officers of 
caused him some uneasiness, but he did the household, his daughter and her hus- 
not, like Augustus, betray to the public the band, and directed the golden image of 
disorders of his household. Her memory Fortune to be transferred from his own 
was honoured with statues, circensian chamber to that of the Csesar. The word 
games, a temple, and a priesthood. But a given by him, for the last time, to the 
memorial more suited to the character of cohort on duty, was " ^quanimitas." 
Pius was the maintenance and education of In his delirium, it is remarkable that his 

a certain number of young females ^puellse thoughts ran upon subjects most foreign 

Faustinianse — in the name of the late em- to his nature and habits — the recollection 
press. He declined, however, a proposal of injuries, and the intention of revenge, 
to have the months, September and Oc- His death resembled a tranquil slumber ; 
tober, called Antonianus and Faustini- his ashes were deposited in the mauso- 
anus. — In his intercourse with his subjects leum of Adrian, and divine honours, a 
Antoninus followed the example of Au- temple, a flamen, an incorporated priest^ 
gustus. His table, his diet, and dress hood, and circensian games were eagerly 
were simple. In the city his favourite voted to his memory. His flmeral ora- 
amusement was the theatre'; but he re- tion was pronounced by his adopted sons, 
luctantly presided at the exhibition of and all public business suspended until 
the glamators. In the country his leisure the obsequies and consecration of Anto- 
was employed in agriculture, the sports ninus were completed. But the most 
of the field, or the society of the learned, sensible monument of his virtues was 
His economy enabled hun to be liberal the name of Antoninus borne by sue- 
without appropriating to his own plear ceedin^ emperors for more than a century 
sures the revenues of the state. His afler his decease, and the most enduring, 
table was served by his own slaves ; his the Antonine Column, 
farms and preserves managed by his own The materials for the life of Antoninus 
bailifis ana purveyors. He personally are unfortunately scanty. Dion Cassius 
directed the education of his adopted sons, and the epitomators fall exactly where 
Marcus and Lucius, and for the promising their assistance would have been most 
abilities of the former, secured the in- desirable ; and the intricate account of 
structions of the ablest teachers of the Capitolinus is rather a character than 
age. (See Mabcus Aubslius, and Afol- biography. There is a history of the 
LONius OF Chalcis.) His taste and muni- emperors Titus and Marcus Antoninus 
ficence were displayed in the temple of by M. Gautier de Sibert, Paris, 1769; 
Adrian, in the restoration of the Greek and there are some excellent remarks 
Basilica (Graecostasis), in repairing or upon the age of the Antonines in Ttschir- 
constructing the pharos and the baths at ner's FaU des Heidenthums, Leipsig, 
Ostia, the ports of Gaeta and Tarracina, 1829, 8vo; and in Wieland's prefatory 
in an aqueduct at Antimn, and temples at Essay to his Translation of Lucian, 
Lanuvimn. He encouraged and assisted Ueber Lucians Lebensumstande, Charac- 
the provinces to restore the edifices that ter, und Schriften ; compare also Montes- 
war or accidents had destroyed; and if quieu de rEsprit des Lois, xxiv. 10; and 
the aoueduct and amphitheatre at Nismes, Grandeur et Decadence, c. 26. 
and tne lesser temple at Balbec, are cor- ANTONINUS. (See M. AuasLius , 
rectly assi^ed to Pius, his public works, Elaoabalus ; Cabacalla.) 
in grandeur at least, equalled those of the ANTONINUS LIBERALIS. Re- 
most flourishing periods of the republic specting the name and age of this writer 
and empire. The games he exhibited tnere is much uncertainty. Saxius, in 
were remarkable for the number and Onomasticon, i. p. 308, conceives that he 
singularity of the animals produced upon flourished in the time of the Antonines ; 
the stage. If the names in Capitolinus but no better reason has been assigned for 
are rightly explained, the hyena, the fixing upon this period than that the 
ibex, Uie river-horse, and the crocodile, matter of the Metamorphoses is such at 

23 ^ 



ANT ANT 

was suited to the decline of the study of of his life. His baptismal name 
Greek literature in Italy. The volume Fernando, which he changed into An- 
contains an account of f^rty-one trans- tonio, that he might escape the re- 
formations, extracted from authors no searches of his parents, whom he left to 
longer in existence, especially Boeus and enter the clobter. He first joined the 
Nicander, and sometmies in their very order of canons regular, but afierwazds 
words, as shown by the introduction of assumed the habit of the Franciscans. 
Ionic forms of speech into Attic Greek. He embarked for Africa, with the inten- 
It was first published by Xylander, tion of preaching to the Mahomedana ; 
at Basle, 1568, from a Palatine MS. but immediately changing his intention, 
at present in Paris, but which is in he retired to the hermitage of St. Paul, 
a less perfect state than when it was near Bologna. Being accidentally led to 
first transcribed by Xylander. The latest preach in public, he acquitted himself so 
edition is by Koch, Lips. 1832, which much to the surprise of the assembled 
contains all that is to be found really fiiars, that he was commanded by the 
valuable in the preceding commentaries ; general of the order to devote himself to 
together with the remarks of Bast, taken me pulpit. His career was short, but 
from his Epistola Critica, in French and brilliant. The manner in which he de- 
Latin, and a few notte from the pen of scribed the torments of hell, held his 
Godfrey Hermann, and the editor s de- congregation breathless with terror. But 
ceased friend Schluttig. his unagination was much greater than hia 

ANTONINUS HONORATUS, bishop iud^rment, and his enthusiasm than either: 

of Constantine in Africa in the fifth cen- he is sometimes puerile, generally pe- 

tury, is known by a letter of encouraefe- dantic. His sermons at Padua, during 

ment which he sent to Arcadius, a Spamsh the Lent of 1231, were wondeifiilly sue- 

bishop, who was banished, with three cessful; all Padua, clergy as well as 

Others, by Genseric, for refusing to ac- laity, of every order and condition, 

knowledge the opinions of Arius. It is flocked to hear him ; the villages and 

to be found in ttie Bibliotheca Patrum, towns, many miles distant, sent their 

in Ruinart's Commentary on the Persecu- multitudes to listen to his preaching — ^no 

tion under the Vandals, and other works, church could hold them, he preached 

The four bishops suffered martyrdom in therefore in the open air, and his daily 

437. (Biog. Univ.) hearers are said to have amounted to 

ANTONINUS, (Placentinus,) a chris- thirty thousand. Not a shop was left 
tian martyr in the sixth century, said to open, no business of any kind was trans- 
be the author of a tract, entitled, Itinera- acted, the streets were a solitude, and 
riiun dc Locis Terrse Sanctae quse peram- the multitude whom he addressed were 
bulavit, printed in the Act. Sanct. Mens, silent as if they were speechless, or even 
Mai. torn. ii. motionless. 

ANTONINUS DE FORCIGLIONI, ANTONIO DE LEBRIJA, (1442— 
(St.,) archbishop of Florence, where he 1522,) so called because he was bom in 
was bom in 1389; was a Dominican, that Andalusian city, studied at Salamanca 
and in l'H6 became archbishop of Flo- and in Italy, and made great progress in 
rence. He distinguished himself by his Hebrew and Greek, no less than in Latin, 
temperance and simplicity of life, as On his return to Spain, he filled a pro- 
well as by his zeal and charity, which fessor's chair at Salamanca, with great 
latter virtues were especially shown in benefit to his pupils, and great honour to 
the great plague and subsequent famine himself. By cardinal Ximenes he was 
at Florence, in 1418. He died, much drawn to the new university of Alcala de 
lamented and honoured, in M59, and Henares, and he was one of the chief 
was canonized by Adrian VI. in 1523. editorsofthefamousComplutensian Poly- 
His principal works are — Historiamm glott. Of his numerous works, as exlu- 
Opus ecu Chronica, libri xxiv. Venice, biting either good latinity or considerable 
1480. Summa Thcologice Moralis, often learnmg, the best known and the most 
reprinted. Summula Confessionis, first esteemed are, Two Decades of the History 
printed in black letter, soon after the of Fernando and Isabel ; Letters ; Latin 
invention of the art. These works were Poems ; Notes on Difiicult Passages of 
frecpiently printed during the fifteenth Scripture ; and Comments on Ancient 
and sixteenth centuries. Authors. 

ANTONIO, (St. 1195—1231,) a na- ANTONIO, (prior of Crato,) was the 

tivc of Lisbon, though sumanied of Pa- illegitimate son of Luis, duke of Bcja, 

dua, where he passed a large portion brother of Joam III. king of Portugal. 

24 



ANT ANT 

On the death of Sehastian at Alcazar after liis deaihi when cardinal Aguine 

Seguer, (1578,) whom he had accompa- gave it to the puhlic. It ii a nohle mo- 

nied in that disastrous expedition, Dom nument both of learning and of criticism, 

Antonio was, like the rest, a prisoner, and its style is very good. By Bayer of 

but as his quality was unknown, he pur- Valencia the Bibliotheca Nova was aug- 

chased his ransom on very easy terms, mented and improved. Madrid, 1783. 

and returned to Lisbon to claim, after ANTONIO, (the Infanta, 1755— 

the death of the cardinal Henrique, the 1817,) brother of Charles IV. kine of 

throne of Portugal. His claim he founded Spain, and consequently uncle of Fer- 

on the assertion that his father had mar- nando IV. From his early years, this 

ried his mother, that he was begotten and prince was absorbed in exercises of piety, 

bom in lawful wedlock, and, as no one m alms-givin?, or in the useful arts, 

would believe his bare word, he suborned some of which he practised as well as 

witnesses to swear to the fact. There patronized. But these pursuits unfitted 

were, in all, five claimants for the sue- nim for the stirring scenes which fol- 

cession, but none had the least right ex- lowed the invasion of Spain by the armies 

cept the duke of Braganza, and Phih'p of Buonaparte. When his nephew Fer- 

king of Spain. The right of the latter nando went to Bayonne to meet the 

was the clearest, so far as connexion with French monarch, he was left president of 

the royal family of Portugal was con- the junta of government. Unfit for the 

cemed; but by a law of Lomego, the intrigues of state, he soon resolved to 

princess who married a foreigner lost her quit his post, and follow Fernando to 

claim-^but did her offspnng lose it ? myonne. Like the other princes of his 

There was precedent in Philip's favour, house, he was carried to Valenpay, where 

and he recurred to the sword ; with what he remained until the downfal of Napo- 

success, everybody knows. Antonio made leon. 

a stout and a long-continued resistance ; ANTONIO. There are several artists 

the greater part of the Portuguese nation of this name : — 

was for him, not that anybody believed 1. The Cavaliere Giovanni, or Gum- 
in his legitimacy, but through dislike to nanUmio, called // Sodomtu See So- 
a foreign ruler. But his own bad quali- soma. 
ties lost him the support of his former 2. Mare. See Raimondi. 
adherents ; he was defeated almost with- 3. Da Trento. See Trento. 
out a battle, and compelled to seek refuge 4. Antonioy or Antoniano, of UrbmOf 
in France. At length, hearing that called H Sordo di Urbino, See Vx- 
Phili^ was unpopular, he sought assist- viani. 

ance in Englana, but with little success ; 5. Pietroy de Pitri, an engraver, who is 

and a few years afterwards, in 1595, he supposed to have been an Italian, and to 

himself died in France, where he had have resided at Rome. He engraved a 

sought refuge. frontispiece to a collection of altar-pieces 

ANTONIO, (Nicolas, 1617—1684,) of by Mariotti, which Gio. Giacomo de 

Seville, the celebrated literary biogra- Rossi published at Rome ; it is from 

pher, or rather bibliographer, of Spain. Giro Ferri, a slight spirited etching, in a 

Having studied at Salamanca, he returned style something bordering upon that of 

to Sevme, and literally buried himself in Pietro Aquila. The drawing is good, 

the great Benedictine library of that city and the extremities touched in a masterly 

while compiling his great work. In style. It is inscribed, Pietro Antonio de 

1659 he was employed in a confidential Pitriy tculpt, (Strutt's Diet, of Eng.) 

mission to the Two Sicilies, where he ANTONISZE, (Cornelius,) a painter 

remained twenty-two years, but he still and engraver, bom at Amsterdam, about 

proceeded with his task so far as his the year 1500. He excelled in repre- 

collection of materials would allow him. senting the interior views of towns, which 

On his return to Spain, he was honoured, he did with uncommon fidelity. In the 

and, to a certain extent, enriched by his Treasury Chamber at Amsterdam is a 

sovereign; but he .was so liberal to the picture by him, representing a view of 

poor that he was ever in want. Unknown that city as it was in 1536. He after- 

to him, the cardinal of Arragon applied to wards painted twelve pictures of views 

the pope, who gave him a canonry in the in the same city, with its convents, 

cathedral of Seville, where he ended his churches, and other public buildings, 

days. Of his great work, Bibliotheca which he engraved on as many blocks 

Hispana Vetus ac Nova, the modem part of wood. These prints are rare, but are 

was published first ; the ancient notimtil still to be foimd in the collections of the 

25 



ANT ANT 

curious. (Bryan's Diet. Strutt's Diet. The eharge, apparently, was not proved, 
of £ng.) for the Fasti make no mention of a de<- 
ANTONIUS, (Mareus,) sumamed position from offiee in this year. In 91 
** the Orator," son of Caius Antonius, (92) Antonius held a eommand, without 
who is otherwise unknown, bom 142 b.c. ; distinguishing himself, in the Marsic war. 
quaestor in 112; and assigned to the The eagerness with which Marius and 
proconsul of Asia. The time of his first Cinna, upon their return to Rome in 87, 
ofBce is ascertained by his having been sought his life, warrant the supposition 
siunmoned to appear before L. Cassius, that Antonius had been equally zealous 
the city praetor, whose tribunal, from the with his friend Crassus (see Caassus) in 
severity of the judge, was called '* the his opposition to the popular party. He 
rock of the accused," upon a charge of was concealed in the house of a depen- 
criminal intercourse with a vestal, dent of humble condition. A slave, sent 
Though he might have pleaded the Lex to a tavern for wine better than his mas- 
Mcmmia, he returned to Rome to meet ter usually drank, added that it was for 
his accusers. His confidence, and the Antonius the great orator. The vintner 
fidelity of a young slave who offered him- immediately gave information to Marius, 
self to the torture, led to the acquittal of whodespatchedP.Annius with a company 
Antonius. He was praetor in b. c. 104, of soldiers to bring him the head of An* 
since, in the next year, he was in Cilieia tonius. The eloquence of Antonius de« 
with a proconsular commission to put layed, for a few moments, his fate ; when 
down the numerous bands of pirates tnat the tribune, wondering at the tardinesa 
infested the Mediterranean. Either, how- of his men, entered the chamber, and 
ever, the force entrusted to him was with his own hands executed the sen- 
inadequate, or Antonius was more emi- tence. Marius was still at table when 
ncnt as an orator than a soldier. For the head of Antonius was laid before 
some partial successes he triumphed in him. Having feasted his eyes upon it, 
102, and soon afterwards his only daugh- he ordered it to be exposed on the 
ter was carried off, in the neighbourhood Rostra. Antonius was at the time of his 
of Rome, by a band of the pirates, who death in his fifty-sixth year, 
exacted a large sum for her ransom. In Antonius wrote a brief treatise upon the 
100 B. c, when the city was under arms principles of his art,(DeRationeDicendi,) 
against L. Apulcius Satuminus, Antonius but it was either an imperfect or an im- 
was stationed without the walls to pre- mature production, and he regretted ita 
vent the tribune, and the praetor Glaucia, publication. He had, probably, a coun- 
receiving reinforcement from the predial try-house near Misenum, wliither, in the 
slaves and peasantry. . In 99 he was con- vacations of public business, he repaired 
sul with A. Posthumius Albinus. He for study or recreation. His associates 
probably remained in Italy upon the ex- were the most eminent members of the 
piration of his office, since there is no senate, and the most celebrated rhetori- 
account of his provincial administration, cians of Greece, with some of whom he 
In 98 he delivered his celebrated defence had become acquainted at Athens or 
of M. Aquiliius, accused of corruption by Rhodes, when on his way to his province 
L. Fufius. The defendant reiused to of Cilieia. Greek he studied *' late in 
employ the customary arts for exciting life, and not deeply, "yet his acquaintance 
the compassion of the judges ; but, in his with the rhetoricians and historians, — 
peroration, Antonius tore open the gown the pliilosophers and poets he neglected, 
of Aquiliius, and pointed to the honour- — was extensive and intimate. His repu- 
able scars upon his breast. Even C. tation as a pleader commenced early and 
Marius, who nad been consul with Aquil- increased steadily, until the Marsic war 
lius, B.C. 101, commiserated the altered silenced the courts of justice, and diverted 
fortunes of the accused ; and though the the attention of the popular assemblies, 
evidence against him was strong, he was He committed none of his speeches to 
acquitted. In 97j Antonius was censor, writing, assigning the singular reason 
wit 11 L. Flaccus. He enibellislied the that '* so, if he let slip any rash or rude 
Rostra with a portion of tlie spoils of his expressions, he could deny them more 
Ciliciiin campaign. He was accused by easily." It was, however, incorrectly 
the tribune M. Duronius, ^vhom lie had said of him that he spoke without notes, 
expelled the senate for abrogating a Ilis most celebrated speeches were, for 
sumptuary law for limiting the expense M. Aquiliius, 98 d.c. ; for Norbanus, 94 , 
•"f private entertainments, of having ob- for Gratidiauus; Cn. Maiilius; and Q. 
ned office fraudently and corruptly. Rex. 

20 



ANT ant; 

ANTONIUS, (M.Creticus, )elde8t son of revolution, whUe his position obliged him 
Antonius the Orator, and father of the tri- to support the. existing institutions. 
umvir;quse8torin80, andpr8etorin75B.c. Hence, when towards the end of 63 he 
Through the influence of P. Cethegus, went into Etruria to cooperate with Q. 
and of the consul Cotta, he was in 74 Metellus Celer, and prevent Catiline's 
appointed to the command of the arma- escape into Transpadane Gaul, he de- 
ment against the Cilician pirates. He volved the command of the consular army 
abused the powers entrusted to him by upon his lieutenant Petreius, upon 
oppressing tne provinces, especially Sicily, pretence of gout. The lieutenant con- 
and the allies; and he was even sus- quered, and the imperator Antonius 
pected of a secret partnership with the was honoured with a triumph. Anto- 
Cilicians. On pretence that they had nlus travelled in his province with the 
assisted Mithrldates, he wanton]^ at- triumphal fasces borne before him, 
tacked the Cretans; but, although sup- and his government showed that the 
ported by the maritime towns of the subjects of Rome, at least, had gained 
iEgean, and by the Byzantines, he was nothing by the detection of Catiline, 
totally defeated, the ^eater part of his The presence in his suite of one Hilarus, 
fleet destroyed, and nimself allowed to a slave, and afterwards a freedman of 
escape on the most ignominious terms. Cicero's, gave some colour to the report 
The surname CretictUf given in derision, that Cicero's resi^ation of Macedonia 
was the most lasting monument of his was not without its conditions. What- 
misconduct and incapacity. He died of ever were the terms they were not kept, 
shame soon after, leaving to his heir since the latter complained loudly of his 
neither estate nor good name. He mar- ex - colleague's ingratitude. Antonius 
ried — ^first, Numitoria, daughter of Q. robbed both the provincials and the bar- 
Numitorius Pollus, who betrayed his na- barians, but was surprised by the Dardans, 
tive town Fregellee in the troubles that and narrowly escaped at the head of his 
followed the death of C. Gracchus (Cic. cavalry, leaving nis plunder in their 
Philipp. iii. c. 6) ; she died without hands. He was threatened with a recall 
children. Secondly, Julia, daughter of and with impeachment for malversation. 
L. Julius Ceesar, consul in b. c. 90, by Cicero, however, managed to baffle both 
whom he had sons, Marcus, Caius, and these propositions ; but in 59 Antonius 
Lucius. Compare Plutarch, Antonius, was prosecuted, for his share in Catiline's 
c. 1, who describes him as rather weak conspiracy, byM. Ceelius Rufus; and, at 
than wicked, and something of a hu- the same time, by C. Caninius Gallus, 
mourist. his future son-in-law, for extortion. Ci- 

ANTONIUS, (Caius, Hybrida, i.e, cero was now not at leisure to defend 
according to Pliny, H. N. viii. 79, Se- him, and he was fined and banished. He 
miferus,) younger son of the Orator. In chose Cephallenia (Corfu) for his resir 
87 B. c. he attended Sylla as military deuce, and was allowed to act as governor 
tribuDe into Greece. Upon the return of that island. Antonius was neglected 
of his commander, he plundered the in the general restoration of the exiles by 
province of Achaia, for wnich, in 76, he Cssar, and was probably not recalled 
was impeached before M. Lucullus, by before 47, when the dictator returned 
Julius Csesar. Antonius kept out of the from the east to Italy. He was present 
way, and CsBsar did not press the con- in the senate on the 1st of January, 44, 
viction. But six years later, he was but did not long survive, leaving behind 
expelled the senate for the offence, for him the character of wanting nothing 
having neglected to appear, and for in- but strength and steadiness of purpose to 
solvency. He was, probably, sdile soon have been another Catiline, 
after Cicero's sedileship, b. c. 69, since ANTONIUS, (Marcus, triumvir, b. o 
they were colleagues m the prsetorship 81 — 29,) eldest son of Antonius Creticus, 
66, and in the consulship b. c. 63. For and JuUa, daughter of L. Julius Csesar, 
the circumstances of liis consular elec- consul in 90. Mark Antony, for the 
tion, see Cati linb, Cicebo, &c. To de- name is more familiar in this form than 
tach him from Catiline, the province of in its more euphonic Roman dimensions, 
Macedonia was allotted to him, and, after was bom about 81 b.c. (see Appian, Bell. 
the detection of the conspiracy, fear as Civ. v. 8). The example of his father, (see 
well as interest retained him in the party Antonius Cbeticus,) and of his step- 
of the senate ; but he never actea cor- father, P. Cornelius Lentulus, (see Lentu- 
dially with Cicero. His debts and his lus Sura,) was more powerfiil in forming 
habits of life made him desirous of a the character of Antony than the instnio- 

27 



ANT ANT 

tions of his mother. (See Plutarch, gardens of Cn. Pompeius ; and for which, 
Anton, c. 2.) A handsome person, a smce they belonged to the treaswy, Csesar 
ready wit, his prodigality and his poverty, was inexorable in exacting the purchase- 
made him an acceptable companion to money. The real one was, prooably, the 
the dissolute young nobles of Rome. His irregularities of Antony during his vice- 
connexion with the younger Curio was government of Italy, which made Ciesar 
broken off by the intervention of Cicero ; unpopular, and his plans for introduc- 
and this, with the execution of Lentulus, ing monarchy more difficult Though 
seems to have laid the foundation of the aggrieved, Trebonius found no encourage- 
implacable enmity between the orator ment from Antony, when at Narbo, in 
and the future triumvir. In 58 b. c. August 45, he darkly hinted at a conspi- 
Antony became the associate of P. Go- racy against the dictator; and shortly after, 
dius; but an intrigue with Fulvia, the Cssar having occasion, perhaps, for a 
tribune's wife, whom he afterwards mar- good officer in the Parthiw war, restored 
ried, caused them to part in anger. In nim to favour. The memorable ides of 
57,56, he accompanied Aulus Gabinus, March, 44, while they nearly involved him 
whose cavalry he commanded, in his in the fate of his patron, opened out to 
campaign against Arlstobulus in Pales- Antony new and wider prospects, which 
tine ; and in 55 he followed the same he had both the means and the ability to 
leader into E^ypt, upon the expedition realize. In the important hours between 
so much disliked by the senate, for the the 15th and 17th of March, Calpumia 
restoration of Ptolemy Auletes II. At placed in his hands the money, the per- 
thc end of 54 he repaired to Csesar, then sonal property, and the papers of Casaar ; 
in winter-quarters, after his second inva- and his own promptitude secured the 
sion of Britain. (Bell. Gall, v.) Antony nubhc treasure in the temple of Ops. 
returned to Rome at the end of 53, with He was, therefore, more than a match 
money and recommendations from Caesar; for the conspirators, when, on the 17th» 
and in 52 was elected qiuestor. He the senate assembled in the temple of 
went back immediately to Gaul, and took the Earth. " If you declare Cssar a 
an active part in the seventh campaign tyrant," he dextrously argued, ** his acts 
of Caesar. In 50 he was chosen augur are void, and with them your appoint- 
in place of Hortensius ; and on the ments \mder him to offices and pro- 
lOtn December, began his memorable vinces." Caesar*s acts were therefore 
tribunate. On the 23d he laid before confirmed ; an amnesty proclaimed ; and 
the assembly of the people the duplicity a public funeral decreed to the corpse, 
of Pompey throughout his public life ; which the conspirators, a few hours before, 
on the Ist of January, 49, the tribunes, had intended to cast into the Tiber. The 
Antony and Cassius, demanded that the well-known speech of Antony at Caesar's 
proposals of Caesar should be considered; funeral, is perhaps more correctly repre- 
and on the 7th, in a hired carriage, in sented by Appian (B. Civ. ii. 144 — 148) 
the disguise of slaves, the representatives than by Dio, (44, c. 36 — 50,) or by 
of the people were on their way to the Plutarch (Anton. 14. Brut. 20). It was 
pro-consul's camp at Ravenna. During not a continued oration, but a dramatic 
Caesar's first Spanish campai^, Antony and highly artistic exhibition. The rc- 
govemcd Italy with the title ofpropraetor. suit is well known ; the conspirators fled 
At the beginning of 48 he conveyed the beyond the walls, and Antony, as consul, 
legions Caesar had left behind to the was obliged to put down the storm he 
Iliyrian coast ; he fought with distinction had raised. The next day he resumed 
at Dyracchium, but at Pharsalia the the mask ; the senate believed, or affected 
troops he commanded did not come into to credit his moderation ; nor did he 
action until the battle was decided by the completely lay it aside until the state of 
ri^ht wing. Antony returned to Italy the opposite factions rendered disguise 
with his former commission, to watch no longer possible. But the papers of 
over the internal police, to guard against Caesar, after his acts were declarea valid, 
the return of the exiles, the emigration were the most formidable instrument in 
of the neutral, and to secure the coast Antony's hands. With the assistance of 
from tlie navy of the Ponipeians. From the late dictator's private secretary, Fa- 
the third dictatorship to within a few berius, he could insert into the genuine 
months of the murder of Caesar, a cool- memoranda whatever suited his interest 
■^css prevailed between Antony and his or his pleasure. He observed at first 
on. The ostensible cause was An- some moderation, and brought forward 
's inability to pay for the house and such enactments only, and projects of 
28 



ANT ANT 

laws, as Cssar was known to have de- senate (28th November, 44,) he joined 
signed. But, afterwards, schemes the his legions at Tivoli, and marched into 
most opposite to the dictator's known Cisalpine Gaul. By the end of the year, 
intentions — private bills, exemptions to Decimus Brutus was besieged in Mutina 
cities and provinces, that seriously af- (Modena). After a deputation from the 
fected the revenues and the dignity of senate to Antony, 5th January, 43, order- 
the state, restoration of exiles, and sales ing him to desist from the siege, Modena 
of public lands, were unblushingly an- was relieved in the following April, 
nounced as the plans of Csesar. The (20—29,) (Ovid. Trist. iv. 10, 6, ** cum 
house of Antony on the Carinse was an cecidit fato consul uterque pari ;") and 
auction-mart of titles, privDeges, offices, Antony, at the head of his cavalry, made 
and kingdoms ; and Fulvia was equally a rapid and arduous march into Trans- 
active with her husband in the sale of the alpine Gaul. By the 28th of May, how- 
republic. Cicero's assertion, however, ever, he had united his forces with those 
(Philipp. i. 13 — 20,) that until the Ist of of Lepidus. He was subsequently joined 
June Antony supported the senate, and by Pollio and Flancus, and recrossed the 
afterwards betrayed its cause, is incor- mountains at the head of seventeen 
rect. The time that elapsed between legions and 10,000 horse — a formidable 
Cffisar's funeral and the Ist of June was rival, or a useful ally to Octavianus, who 
employed by Antony in a journey into had already abandoned the cause of the 
Campania, for the purpose of collecting senate. Upon a small island, formed 
and organizing the veterans, from whom, by the confluence of streams in the 
after the execution of Amatius, or Hero- neighbourhood of Bologna, the second 

Shilus (the pretended Marius), he in- triumvirate, after a secret consultation of 
uced the senate to allow him a body- two days, was formed, November 27, b.o. 
giiard, which soon amounted to 6000 men. 43, and the lists of the proscribed were 
The appearance of Octavianus, end of forwarded to the consul redius at Rome. 
April, 44 B. c, was a most undesired After his personal antipathy had been 
event to Antony ; it deprived him of his satiated by the death of Cicero, Antony 
claim, his strong hold upon the Csesarians, proved the most placable of the confe» 
as a kinsman and chief magistrate, to aerates. He obtained, in the division of 
avenge the dictator's death. To Octa- the provinces, the whole of Gaul on either 
vianus, the undoubted heir of CaBsar, he side the Alps, with the exception of the 
must account for the sums, and restore Narbonnese. In the war with the con- 
the papers he had received from Cal- spirators, Antony was conspicuous for 
purnia. In their first interview Antony his military talents ; and after the en- 
showed no disposition to concede, nor gagement at Philippi, in the autumn of 
Octavianus to retract, any of his demands. 42, for more humane and generous feel- 
Both equally endeavoured, with bribes ings than Octavianus. In the new divi • 
and promises, to secure the veterans; sion of the provinces, the east, with the 
and, by active recriminations, each to care of replenishing the treasury, was 
subvert his rival's popularity. Antony assigned to Antony. From Philippi he 
prevented the adoption of Octavianus proceeded to Athens, where he cultivated 
from being confirmed by the assembly of the arts and philosophy ; and to Ephesus, 
the curies, his election to the vacant tri- where, to humour his passion for display 
bunesliip of Helvius Cinna, his payment and profusion, he was received as the 
of the legacies of Csesar, and the full god Bacchus. But the Asiatic Greeks 
celebration of the ^ames of Venus Gene- could not avert the object of Antony's 
trix. But Octavianus was, upon the visit, and the extraordinary impositions 
whole, more successful in gainmg the which the arrears of the army required, 
goodwill of the soldiers and the people, were rendered doubly oppressive by liis 
Some hasty severities at Brundusium own improvidence and the rapacity of 
alienated from Antony three out of four his followers. Yet of the 200,000 talents 
of the legions which he had summoned exacted from the province of Asia alone, 
from Macedonia. The senate and Octa- no part found its way into the treasury 
vianus formed a temporary imion ; Deci- at Rome. At Tarsus, whither she was 
mus Brutus was in possession of Cisalpine summoned to answer for having, in the 
Gaul, which province, as it commanded late war, supplied ships to Cassius, he 
Rome and Italy, Antony had designed met, for the second time, with Cleopatra, 
for himself; his popularity at honie was He had seen her before in Egypt, on his 
on the decline ; and after hastily suqd- expedition with Gabinius, but that was 
moning, and as hastily dismissing the a transient impression; but from the 

29 



ANT ANT 

m the market-pbce «t Tama die ion of Jalms wodd affect die adop- 
ts hfM ieidh, the fortones of Antonj were tire title of Octavumn Caesv. But none 
mnited to one whoie rices were the lest of these acts offended the preindiccs of 
ex£7M*hie, becaiue they arose from selfish the Roman people so mnch as the diroree 
ealenlati'/vn, and whmt arti were the more c^ Octavia, and the publication of An- 
dettractive, becacue the)' were prompted tony's will. It confirmed his profase 
solely by pemonal hopes and fears. An- gifts to Geopatra and his children ; alie- 
tony wintered at Alexandria — a season of nated some of the most rahiahle p oai ci 
insane and turbulent revelry. None of sions of the empire ; and directra that, 
the oYijects for which he went into the should he himself die at Rome, his body 
east were accomplished ; the treasury should be conveyed to Alexandria, and 
was still empty, the veterans unpaid, the be laid in the same tomb with Cleopatra. 
Parthians cm the frontier, and the op- In vain, after defending him in the se- 
pressed provincials, readv to admit its nate, the consuls of 32, Ahenobarbua and 
most dangerous enemy into the fairest Sosius, demanded at Ephesus the dis- 
portlon of the empire. The Perusine missal of the Egyptian queen. She ac- 
war, B.C. 41, 40, at length recalled companied him to Samos, to Athens, and 
Antony from Egvpt. At Athens he into winter-quarters at Patrs. Every 
found Fulvia and his mother Julia, with stage of their progress from Ephesns to 
many exiles, who had joined in the pre- the bay of Corinth was marked by a 
mature attempt of the former to put nim renewal of the revels of Alexandria. An 
at the head of the Csesarians. Fulvia's hnprovident winter, and an inactive 
death at Sicyon, however, relieved him spnng, thinned the ranks of his best sea- 
f^om his principal difficulty. By the men, and his convoys and outposts fell 
int(*rvcntion of Afasccnas, Ancnobarbus, intothehandsof Agnppa. (See Agrippa). 
CocceiuH Nerva, and other common Yet, even after the loss of his fleet, An- 
A'icnds, peace was again concluded be- tony, had he put himself at the head of 
tween the triumvirs, and cemented by his legions, might still have divided with 
the marriage of Antony and Octavia. Octavianus the Roman world. He re- 
in 50 was the celebrated conference at turned, however, to Alexandria. Shame 
Miscnum, between Scxtus Pompeius and and remorse, not unmixed with suspi- 
tho trinmvirs. In the following year the cions of Cleopatra, the desertion of friends, 
Pnrtliian war was successfully begun by and the surrender of provinces, deprived 
Antony's lieutenant Yen tidius. In 36 an him of his wonted energy in extremities, 
open nipturc with Caesar was prevented He allowed Octavianus to take Paraeto- 
by the jmidence of Octavia ; but her nium, and invest Alexandria ; while in a 
pains were ill repaid, for Antony sent solitary dwelling in the great harbour he 
iicr hack with his children to Italy, and felt or emulated the melancholy of Ti- 
on his arrival in Syria discovered the mon. Upon the investure of Caesarion and 
tnip fftu««' of her dismissal, by appointing Antyllus with the manly gown, however, 
Cleopatra to meet him at Laodicea. His he returned to his usual life ; and some 
disnHtrous campaign with the Purtliians, bold and well-directed sallies showed 
in which he narrowly escaped the fate of something of his former spirit. But the 
C/riiHKun, wan greatly owing to the pre- desertion of his fleet and his cavalry, the 
S4MKM; of ('leopiitra during the prepara- conviction of Cleopatra's treason, and the 
tion« for the war. lie took the field too defeats of his infantry, reduced him to 
liilr in the Keason, and with an army despair. The pathetic scene of his last 
ha<lly Hupplii'd with magazines. Jn 35 moments is known to every reader of 
he inflictrd a new and wanton provoca- Shakespeare and Plutarch; and since 
tion on OctavianuH. To repair his losses we must abbreviate, we should imper- 
in the hite war, Octavia was bringing out fcctly represent what is so well known, 
a reinforcement of men, money, and Antony fell by his own hands, in his 
clothing, bnt on the news of her approach fifty-second year. His character must 
AiitJMiy returned to Alexandria, and or- he taken rather from the facts, than 
<len«d Octavia to remain at Athens. (Sec the expressions of historians. He of- 
0<T\vi\.) In lU lie ins\)1t('d the majesty fended the national prejudices of his 
of Home itHclf, by exhihiting at Alexan- countrymen, but he was not unbeloved 
dria, after tlie enjjtun* of Artavasdes the by the subjects of the empire. Both his 
Annenjjm, a lloman triumjdi. Clco- faults and his virtues arose more from 

t)Htra was now declared *' queen of impulse than from principle ; but the 

LingM," and \\vt houh " kings of kings," impression he made on the world was one 

tflpcciully Civsarion, whose Tegitimucy as of no ordinary strength, since it has, in 

30 



ANT ANT 

some measure, overcome the reserve of hated these commissioners, although to* 

Augustan historians, and the fierce ezag^ wards him the hehaviom* of Lucius was 

gerations of his personal enemy, M. temperate, and his estates were un- 

Cicero. touched. Yet the terms in which he 

ANTONIUS, (Caius,; son of Antonius speaks of Lucius, are, " Gladiator Asia- 
Creticus, in b. c. 64 engaged, as tub- ticus," (Philipp. v. 7, 20.) " Minnillo 
«cnp/or with his younger brother Lucius, Asiaticus, latro ItalisB," (Philipp. adi. 
in tne impeachment of Aulus Gabinius for 8, 20.) A gilt equestrian statue was, 
malversation in the province of Syria, however, erected to Lucius for his ser- 
in 51, (see Pigh. Ann. tom. iii. p. 431,) vices in the partition of the lands. He 
Caius was quaestor to Q. Minucius Ther- was present at Rome when Octavianus 
mus, propraetor of Asia ; and was recom- arrived ; and, with his consent, the youth- 
mended to him by Cicero, whose enmity ful Caesar addressed the assembly of the 
to the Antonii was of later date, to be people, and promised the payment of 
left in charge of the province until the his uncle's legacies. On one occasion, 
successor of Minucius should arrive. In if Cicero's statement may be trusted, 
49, Caius went as Caesar's lieutenant to (Philipp. vi. 4, 10,) Lucius, with the most 
lUyricum. He was besieged in the little vehement remonstrances, and even me* 
island Coricta, on the Ill3rrian coast, by naces, diverted, at Tivoli, his brother 
M. Octavius, the lieutenant of M. Bibu- Marcus from all thoughts of acconuno- 
lus and the senate. Partly from the dation with the senate. On the 15 th 
failure of his provision, pamy through April, 43, Lucius, durins; the battle at 
the treachery of T. Fulfio, he was com- Forum Gallorum, (Castel Franco,) was 
pelled to surrender, and did not recover left in charge of the works at Modena, 
nis liberty until after the battle of Phar- and attempted a diversion of the enemy 
salia. He was made one of the ponti- by an attack on the camp of Octavianus. 
fices by Caesar, and was city-pnetor with He was declared a public enemy with 
Marcus Brutus in 44. Before his tri- his brothers before the last engagement 
bunal, Octavianus declared his intention at Modena. In the march over the 
of claiming the estate of his uncle. On Alps, he led the advanced guard, and 
the 7th Jmy, Caius exhibited for his col- he occupied the passes, after the retreat 
league, M. Brutus, the praetorian games, of Le^idus's officer, CuUeo. After the 
to the reception of which, as a test of formation of the triumvirate, Lucius was 
public feeling, the conspirators looked employed in raising the necessary sup- 
forward with anxietv. The province of plies for the war, and the payment of tne 
Macedonia, to which Brutus was ap- troops. An inscription maxes mention 

pointed, and in which he was superseded of Antonius and P. Sulpicius as 

by M. Antony, was finally given to Caius. censors, in the year 42. This must have 

But he was too ill-provided with military been Lucius. In 41, he was consul, and 

force to maintain himself against the con- on the first day of the year, celebrated 

spirators. He was driven into ApoUonia, a triumph over the Alpine tribes, over 

and towards the middle of March, 43 b. c. which, nowever, he had gained no vic- 

was compelled by his soldiers to surrender, tory. On pretence of maintaining the 

After an ineffectual attempt to recover rights of Marcus, then absent, for which 

his freedom, by exciting tne soldiers of the word Pietas was placed upon his 

Brutus to mutiny, he was put into close medals, he engaged in the Perusme war. 

confinement ; and when the news arrived Perusium surrendered towards the end 

of the proscription of Decimus Brutus of the winter, 40 b.c. ; and Lucius was 

and Cicero, he was put to death by order sent with the title of lieutenant, but 

of M. Brutus. really as an exile, to Spain ; from which 

ANTONIUS, (Lucius,) youngest son time there is no farther mention of him. 
of Antonius Creticus ; subscriptor in 54 ANTONIUS, (Ain-o)i^ior,) a physician 

B. c. with his brother Caius, in the trial and epicurean philosopher, who lived 

of A. Gabinius ; tribune in 44, and, about the end of the second century, a. n. 

throughout his year of office, serviceable He wrote a book (not now extant), Ilcpt 

to the measures of Marcus. He was the rfjs cm rots Idiots UaBtaiv E^cdpccar, 

principal of the seven commissioners ap- De Praesidio adversus Proprios Affectus, 

pointed to carry into effect the Agrarian which gave occasion to Galen to compose 

law, by which Marcus hoped to detach his work, De Cognoscendis Curandisque 

the veterans and the people from the Animi Morbis. He is probably the same 

aristocracy and Octavianus, (Philipp. v. person whom Galen calls (l>ikofjLaBrjs and 

9, 7.) Cicero especially feared and <^(Xo(ro^r, and to whom he has dedi- 

31 



ANT ANV 

cated his book, De Pukibiu. (Galen* ANTYLLUS, (Ayn/XXor,) an eminent 
Opera, torn. v. p. 1, sq., and torn. xix. physician and surgeon, whose date and 
p. 629, ed. Kiihn.) oirth-place are both unlmown. He is 
ANTONIUS CASTOR, a physician supposed to have lived about the be- 
at Rome, contemporary with Phny, in ^ning of the fourth century, a.d. as he 
the first century after Christ, by whom is quoted by Oribasius, the physician to 
he is mentionea as famous for his know- the emperor Julian. Nothing is known 
ledge of botany, and as having a little of his life, but as the thirtieth book of 
garden full of all kinds of plants, in one of his treatises is quoted, (Oribas. 
which he used to work when more than Medicin. Collect, lib. vL cap. 21,) he ap- 
a hundred years old, in perfect enjoy- pears to have been rather a voluminous 
ment of health, and in full possession of writer. None of his works remain be- 
all hb faculties. (Plin. Hist. Natur. lib, yond some fragments preserved by Ori- 
XXV. cap. 5.) A physician of the same basins, Aetius, Paulus .Seineta, &c, 
name, praised by Galen, and called, which have been collected and published 
o pi(oTOfU)g, herbariutf is perhaps the separately by Sprengel, Halse, 1799, 4to. 
same person. (Galen, de Medicam. Kara Tney are curious and valuable, and shew 
Tonovs, lib. ii. cap. 1. p. 557, ed. Kiihn ; that the writer was a man of talent and 
et de Medicam. Kara y€vij, lib. vi. cap. originality. He seems to have written 
15, p. 935.) largely on the gjmmastic art, and in the 
ANTONIUS, called in the Romish extracts preserved by Oribasius (Medicin. 
Calendar Beatut Antonitu Confettor^ Collect, lib. vi. cap. 21, &c.) we read of 
was bom at Milan a. d. 1424. He was some sorts of exercises not mentioned by 
of the rich and noble family of De Torre, Galen, or any former author. He gives 
(in Latin Turrianuty) finished hb educa- directions about venesection, the choice 
tion at Padua, and embraced the profes- of the vein to be opened, &c. (ibid, 
sion of medicine, which he practbed with lib. vii. cap. 7, 9, &c.) and recommends 
great success. He was accustomed, arteriotomy (cap. 14.) He speaks of ope- 
whenever he prescribed for his patients, rating for the cataract by the method of 
to make the sign of the cross, to exhort extraction, which he recommends when 
them to repent of their sins, and to pray the cataract b small, but not in other 
for their soul as well as their body. He cases, on accoimt of the danger of forcing 
afterwards entered into holy orders, but out at the same time the humours of the 
still continued the exercise of his profes- eye, (Rhazes, Contin. lib. ii. cap. 3.) He 
sion, healing the poor gratuitously, and gives a clear and accurate description of 
giving away in charity the money he the mode of performing tracheotomy, 
received from the rich. He travelled (Paul, -figin. De Re Med. lib. vi. cap. 33,) 
about in Italy, France, and Spain, and which b the earliest detailed account of 
finally settled at Aquila, in the kingdom the operation that we possess, though it 
of Nanles (Aquila in Vestinis), where had before been recommended in ex- 
he diea at the age of seventy, a. d. 1494. treme cases by Asclepiades about a hun- 
His memory b celebrated in the Romish dred years b. c. (CsbI. Aurelian. Morb. 
church on July 24 ; and in the Acta Sane- Acut. lib. iii. cap. 4.) He has left a great 
torum, under that day, may be found many ointments, medicines, &c. some of 
further particulars of his hbtory, and an which are judiciously composed. He 
account of miracles said to have been gives many airections about the operation 
performed by himself during his life, and of lithotomy, which he performed after 
by his relics after his death. the manner of Cebus. (Khazes, Contin. 
ANTONIUS MUSA. See Musa. lib. iv. cap. 2.) 

ANTONIUS, (Gottfried.) See Anton. ANUND, sumamed Braut, or the de- 

ANTONIUS PRIMUS. See Primus, stroyer of forests, king of Sweden in the 

ANTRACINO, (Giovanni,) an Italian seventh centmy. He is said to have 

physician, died 1530, practbed with great burnt large tracts of forests to encourage 

reputation at lloftie. On the deam of agriculture. (Biog. Univ.) 

Aclrinn VI. wliom he had attended in ANUND II. king of Sweden, succeeded 

his last illness, and who was exceedingly hb father Olaus in 1024, and is said to 

unpopular, a crown was hung at Antra- have perished in war with Canute in 

cino's door, with the inscription — Libera- 1034. (Biog. Univ.) 

tori Roma?, S. P. Q. R. He is also known AN VERS A, (d'Ugo,) a Flemish painter, 

as the author of some Latin poetry. (Biog. who flourished in the sixteenth century. 

Univ. Suppl.) (Lanzi, Stor. Pitt. iii. 28.) 

ANTRAIGUES. See Entriques. ANVILLE, (N. de la Rochefoucald, 

32 



ANV ANV 

due d',) a distinguished officer in the which at a later period he was to make 

French navy. In 1745| he commanded such admirahle use. He had reached his 

an eicpedition to North America, with the thirtieth year before he gave any new 

object of retaking Louisburg from the works to the public: these were, the 

EngUsh ; some of his vessels were lost, maps for the Afrique Occidentale of P^re 

others taken, and he feU fll and died be- Labat, for the Relation d'Abyssinie of 

fore his return. J^rdme Lobo, and for the Voyage de 

ANVILLE, (Jean-Baptiste Boureui- Desmarchab en Guin^e. The Jesuits 

fnon d', bom at Paris, July 11, 1697, died chose him to execute their great atlasses 

an. 28, 1 782.) During nb long career, of China and Tartary, which accompanied 

as well as after his dea&, D'AnviUe en- the descriptions of Du Halde ana Ger- 

joyed the well-earned reputation of being billon. He also made the maps to Charle* 

the greatest geographer of his age. Pre- voix's History of St Domingo ; to the 

ceded by Guillaume de lisle, in the bold Oriens Christianus of Lequien ; to the 

work of reforming the old geographical Ethiopie Occidentale of Labat ; various 

routines, he accomplished this great task maps for the Lettres Edifiantes ; those of 

with wonderftil skill, and by the perfec- the Ancient and Roman Histories of 

tion of his works caused the examples RoUin ; those of the History of the £m- 

which had directed him in the way to be perors by Crevier; and many others, for 

in a manner forgotten ; whilst, on the various works of very different degrees of 

contrary, none of D'Anville's followers merit. At the same time D'Anville 

have equalled him ; and however great published himself other works of great 

and just the fame in our days of G^sel- unportance, such as his Map of Italy, 

lin and Rennel, their fairest title is to accompanied by a volume, in which are 

have approached D'Anville in the lesser discussed the bases of its construction ; 

circle in which their criticisms have been and afterwards in succession large charts, 

exercised. each in several sheets, of the two Ame- 

While at school, the taste of younff ricas, of Africa, and of Asia, as well as of 

Boureuignon was so strongly pronounce^ the different countries abroad, where the 

that tne time allotted for recreation, and French East-India Company had esta- 

even his school-hours, were often em- blishments, with various Memoirs, con* 

ployed in drawing maps. There is pre- taining the geographical analysis of most 

served a little sketch of Grsecia Vetus of these charts. 

executed by him in 1712, when he was These works established the reputation 

only fifteen years old. His studies were of the ^ographer, which had been long 

far from suffering from this bias ; on the gradually increasing, and the Academie 

contrary, he read eagerly the authors of des Inscriptions elected him a member in 

antiquity ; but they interested him only 1754, when he had reached his fifty- 

in a geographical point of view. Their seventh year, and was in the greatest 

rhetoncalor poetic oeauties passed under vigour of his talent After this period 

his eyes unperceived or despised ; and he published his Notice de la Gaule ; his 

the very incorrect style of ms writings M^moires sur TEgypte ; his G^ographie 

offers a perpetual proof of his negligence Ancienne abr^g^e ; his Traits des Me- 

in this respect. When he left school, he sures Itin^raires Anciennes et Modemes; 

sought the society of the learned ; and he his work on the European States formed 

found in the celebrated abb4 de Longue- after the fall of the Western Empire ; and 

rue a guide, under whose directions he a multitude of particular memoirs, witli 

gave himself up with new ardour to the which he enriched the collection of the 

examination of all the geographical ma- Academie des Inscriptions. The death 

terials ftimished by ancient and modem of Philippe Buache having in 1773 va- 

writers. Lonjguerue even employed him cated the two places of first geographer 

to make a series of maps for his Descrip- of the king, and adjoint-geompher of 

tion de la France Ancienne et Modeme, the Academie des Sciences, D'Anvillei 

which were published in 1719, at the then seventy-six years old, was invested 

same time with a Map of the Theatre of with both these titles ; and he published 

the War in Spain (Arragon) ordered by afterwards his Antiquity G^omphique 

the regent, the duke of Orleans, who de I'lnde ; his book entitled L Euphrate 

appointed young D'Anville geographer in et le Tigre ; his Considerations g^n^ralei 

ordinary to the king. After these first sur la Composition des Ouvrages de G6o- 

attempts, D'Anville passed several years graphic (a rapid outline of the conditions 

in the study of books and maps, and in of study and capacity necessary to form a 

collecting Uie materials and knowledge of perfect geographer, and which he had 

VOL. II. 33 D 



ANV AKW 

himBelf lo admirably accomplished) i nnd done before him, gare him giich adraii- 

teveral shorter memoirs, of which the hut tages in the preparation of his mapsy that 

bears the dote of 1779. The catalogue of he often arrivea at truth amid a cniiiw in 

the works of this indefatigable laU>urer which none but himself could hare per- 

counts no less than 211 maps, and seventy- ceived it, or e\-en euessed at it. D*An- 

eight treatises or dissertations. ville himself, modest in other respects. 

He had assembled, in the course of his had a high opinion of his own knowledge 
long career, a valuable collection of in these matters, and said naively of 
maps, both engraved and in manuscript, geography what Augustus said of Rome — 
amounting to nearly nine thousand arti- " I found it bricks, and I have left it 
cles, which were bought by the French gold." He was sensitive to die criticisms 
government in 1779, to form the nucleus of others, particulariy when it concerned 
of the D^pdt G^ographique of the Foreign ancient geo^;raphy, which had always 
Office ; but they were left in the posses- been the object of his predilection, and 
sion of the illustrious old man till his when somebody ventured to deny lus re- 
death. Barbie deBocage,underD'Anville'8 suits, he cried in a rage, " On pro&ne 
active direction, classed and catalogued toute I'antiquit^ ! " This great geo- 
them, a work which it took nearly a year grapher formed no scholars : he did all 
to execute. Soon after this D'Anville lost with his own hand, and his maps, so 
the use of his faculties, which had already neatly engraved by Guillaume de la Have, 
showed signs of weakness ; and after are only a servile and exact reproduction 
dragging on a painful state of existence of the original manuscripts. His only 
during two years, he died at the age of brother, Hubert - Fran9ois Bour;^uiffnoa 
eighty-five, one year after the decease of Gravelot, designed the borders. Nobody 
his wife, with whom he had lived fifty- received from nis mouth the traditions of 
one vears. He had two daughters, one his doctrines ; but his Considerations sur 
of whom became a nun, and the other was la Composition, &c., and still more the 
married to M. Hubert de Hauteclair, excellent models afforded by all his works, 
(directeur des ponts et chauss^es et du contain the best instructions which he 
pav6 de Paris.) His eulogv was pro- could have left. 

nounced at the Academic des Inscrip- ANWARI, one of the most celebrated 

tions by Dacicr, and at the Academic des poets of the golden age of Persian literab- 

Sciences by Condorcet. ture. He was bom of indigent parents 

His love of study had preserved D'An- in the district of Abiverd in Khorasan, 

villo from the common indiscretions of in the early part of the twelfth century of 

youth ; and his extreme sobrietv, joined the Christian era, and received a gra- 

witli the regularity of his domestic habits, tuitous education at the Manssunyah 

enabled him, in spite of a delicate con- college in the city of Toos : but hb poeti- 

stitution, to devote through his long life cal genius soon developed itself, and an 

nearly fifteen hours a day to work with- accidental sight of the splendid equipages 

out impairing his health. The works he of a court poet in the retinue of the Sel- 

left, oil impressed with the marks of deep jookian Sultan Sandjor, fired his youthful 

meditation, and a complete erudition in mind with emulation. On the morrow 

the sources relative to his subject, would he laid at the feet of the sultan an eulor 

fill six volumes in quarto. An edition in gistic poem, which he had composed 

this form was undertaken by Demanne, during the night ; and Sandjar, who was 

one of the keepers of the Bibliotheque a munificent patron of literature, imme- 

Koyiile at Paris, who inherited the original diately loaded Anwari with honours and 

plates of D'Anville. Two volumes of this benefits, and invited him to his court, 

edition appeared in \H'M ; but its publi- then the general resort of men of science 

cation watt interrupted by the death of and learning from all parts of Asia. The 

the pu))Iisher, and seems to have been poets Selman, Zeheir, and Rashccdi, who 

abandoned. iiad previously contested the favour of the 

D'Anville never travelled; he knew monarch, speedily yielded the palm to 

very little of geonietr}*, and still less of Anwari ; and *' this Persian Pindar," (to 

aiitrunoniy ; yet everybody is agreed on use the words of Von Hammer,) *'' raised 

the preeminence of his merit in works the name and renown of Strndjar hiffh 

which an* founded on those two sciences, above the regions of earth to the lieht 

An uncommon spirit of criticism, an ad- of the highest heavens!" In the warlike 

mirahle accuracy of judgment, and a still expeditions of the sultan, Anwari became 

more wonderful sagacity, the entire and a constant attendant ; and when Sandjar 

profound knowledge of all that nad been besieged his rebellious vassal Atsiz the 

3i 



ANW ANY 

Khwareimiaji, in the fortresfl of Haza^ of his contemporaries and of succeedi^s 
rasp, he maintained a poetical war&re, ages : as a wnter of ghazelt, or odes, he S 
hy means of verses fastened to arrows, perhaps inferior to Hafez ; but the' eulo^ 
with his old rival Rasheedi, then a parti- gistic pieces, which constitute the greater 
san of Atsiz, and an inmate of the be- part of his works, are unequalled and 
leaguered castle. But the captivity of unapproached throughout the range of 
Sandjar, who in the latter part of his oriental verse : and to him is ascribed 
reign was taken prisoner in a rash ex- by the unimpeachable testimony of his 
pedition against the Turkomans of the opponent Rasheedi, the merit of having 
Levant, gave a different impulse to his been the first who purified Persian poetry 
muse ; and the poem, cntitlea. The Tears from the indelicacy which before his time 
of Khorasan, in which, addressing Ahmed, too often disfigured it. (D'Herbelot.) Ber 
the ruler of Samarkand, he laments the sides his poems, he is said to have beeq 
misfortunes of his patron, and the desola- the author of numerous treatises on judi- 
tion of his native country, has been una- cial astrology and alchymy. An excel-: 
nimously considered one of the most lent translation of the Tears of Khorasan 
beautifiu productions in the Persian Ian- into English verse by Captain Kirkpatrick, 
gua^e. After the death of Sandjar, An- accompanied by the Persian text, is given 
wan still continued at the court of his in the Asiatic Miscellany, i. 286 ; and 
successors; but envy of his poetical merits, another of his poems has been rendered 
and the long favour he had enjoyed under into German by M. de Ch^zy, (Fund- 
Sandiar, had raised him up enemies; gruben des Orients, i. 86.) The life of 
and his unfortunate propensity for astro- Anwari is ^iven by Dewlet-Shah Samar^ 
logical predictions gave them an oppor- kandi, in his Lives of the Persian Poets, 
tunity of ruining his credit. He had ANYSIS, king of Egypt He wa< 
foretold that from a certain conjunction blind at his accession to the throne. He 
of the planets, in a. h. 581, (a. d. 1185,) was driven from it by Sabacos. king of 
would result a hurricane, which would Ethiopia. Larcher places tne com- 
overthrow mountains, and devastate the mencement of his reign about 1012 b.c. 
whole of Asia ; a prophecy which some (Biog. Univ.) 

authors consider to nave been amply ANYTE of EpiDAUBUSyasFulviusUrsI- 
fulfilled by the commencement in that nus inferred from Pausanias, x. 38, or' of 
^ear of the conquests of Zenghiz-Khan : Tegea, as Holstein was led to infer from an 
Its failure, however, in a literal sense epigram, is known only, as one of the 
drew on him not only the merciless satire poetesses of Greece, by twenty-three of 
of his contemporaries, but the displea- her Epigrams to be found in the Greek 
sure of the reigning sultan, Togrul Ebn Anthology. Of the events of her life 
Arslan-Shah (the last of the Seljookians), nothing is known ; for the Anvte men- 
who rebuked him as an impostor wiUi tioned oy Pausanias belongs to the period 
such severity, that Anwari, unable to of fabulous history ; and of her age, only 
support both the incessant attacks made thus much, that according to Tatian, 
on nim, and Uie loss of court favour, p. 114, her statue was sculptured by 
withdrew from the royal residence of Euthycrates and Cephisodemus, who 
Merv, and took refuge at Balkh, where, flourished (says Pliny) about 01. 120. 
however, fresh persecutions awaited him : ANYTUS, best known as one of thje 
and it was only on making a solemn and accusers of Socrates, was the son of An- 
public renunciation of astrology that he themion, by trade a currier, but of a 
was permitted by the inhabitants to fix wealthy family, and one that had taken 
his residence in their city, imder the pa- an active and distinguished part in public 
tronage of the cadi Amad-ed-deen, who affairs. According to Diodorus Sic. (xiii. 
pitied and sheltered him. He survived 64) he was appointed to the command 
for six years the overthrow of the Seljoo- of a fleet of thirty sail sent by the Athe- 
kian power by the Khwaresmians, and nians to the succour of Pylos, when be- 
died peaceably at Balkh, a. h. 597, a. d. sieged by the Lacedemonians, (01. 92) ; 
1200, apparently in extreme old age, as but prevented by the severitv of the 
the siege of Hazarasp (above referred to) weather from doubling Cape Malia, he 
by Sandjar, at which date he appears to returned to Athens, and was tried for 
have been firmly established in favour, is betraying the interests of the state ; when, 
placed by historians a. d. 1138, sixty-two to avoid a verdict of guilty, he tamperea 
years before his death. The reputation with the judges, and was tne first to intro- 
of Anwari, as a poet of the first rank, has duce the practice of bribery, as remarked 
been ratified by the concurring judgment by Diodorus and Plutarch (i. p. 200 B.} 

35 D 2 - 





A3CT APA 

M ihe mah a ntf ynbMj of Antode, bji 
4|nc4e4 hy Hj j yacT a ti<att ia AttMrndum. He 
Mibtei|tMniidjr took part vtth TlsnarbabM 

in th« exM«iaoD ctf th« thsrtr trratAy as ten ipu i ar r 

•toted bjr Lyi UM ft&d Jboeratiss, aad vith maoecr : one of 

C^haluft in restorukjl^ tike demoenrtic form Melisot. as aa 

<if %<'tftrumeut, as nay be inferred from thos ecn£nnsy aK 

e4v/ipsr]n||f And«cide«with£Kn2rehQi. He tioo, viach k is dW ofcjict af Anct !• 

is likewue introdneed as CAe of the neak- dt qw o^ e. 

en in the Meno of Plato, where he h re- AOUST, Cthe marfms Jcaa-Mane d\ 

Jfttnenitd as being on friendly terms with bcra 1740. £ed 1513. t was a vialot par- 

Hocratet, tend the decided cmcnent of tizan of the French i c iu i MUM M. He vaa 

th';ir cz/mnMO enemies — the tcpnirts, with a mcnther of die tmtmhtj of tke atata*- 

whom Athens then abcwnded. From the general, and of die aaiMMal a/mmAam^ 

kn/nrledf^e of this fact, Freret, in Ids roting for die deadi of Loos XVL ; ^m1 

Dis«ertatum inserted in the Memoircs de after the 18th BnimjiiCy was Baaaed W 

TAcad^mie dei Inscriptions, t. 47, is led to Buonaparte mayor of Qnincr, ahti e haa 

infertliatAnytus had nohand in thecon- w iy ei ty waa sitnatcd. (SoppL Biajgi. 

dernnati'in m tktcnit*, deayiu all that is Unir.) 

saidt^itheeoDlraryintheApologyofPlato; AOUST, (Eutache d\) ddcat aos oT 

which he conceires to be either the the preceding, waa bom m 1761. Ha 

•purioiM production of fome Flatonic phi- rose to the rank of general of 

I'M^ipher, or else the wilful penrerdcMi of the rerohitionary army, and e 

fsy:U by Plato himself, who is here, as in Spain, when he sui i cied a defeal ia 

elsewhere, at variance with the more 1793. On returning to Flaris, he wa« 

faithful authz/r of the Memoirs of So- accused of treason and incapacity, smI 

crate«, where no similar charge is brought condemned to death, and cxecntad m 

against Anytus. The ingenious acade- 1794. (SnppL Biog. Unir.) 

tnician, hrmerer, leems to hare fivrsotten APACZAI, Apatzai Tsere (Jolm,) a 

a boiom 



tliat he, who has been once even a boiom man of remarkable learning in the aeT< 

friend, may become the bittereit of foes, teenth century ; was bom in the village 

e4p<!cially when a man's self-love has of Apatza in Transylvania. He was 

hiMrri w'/urided, as it was in the case of educated at Utrecht, and returning to 

Arivtiis. For it was only after Socrates his native land, taught geography, natn- 

Uwl bffgun to luive some influence over ral philosophy, ana astronomy, in the 

Al(:ibiiul<;s, that the latter treated with university of Weissenburg ; but having 

marked insolence the individual, whose declared himself in favour of the pbilo- 

lovn was sf»mething more than Platonic ; sophy of Descartes, and for certain doe- 

and it is only fair to infer, that Anytus tnnes of the presbyterians, he was obBg^ 

W()iilfl readily lay hold of any pretext to to leave it He died in 1659. He 

ri'ndff Socrates obnoxious to the cannibal wrote — Dissertatio continens Introdne- 

mob of Athens, already sufficiently irri- tionem ad Philosophiam Sacram. Utrecht^ 

tatrd by his refusal to condemn the un- 1650. Magyar Encyclopediat, &c. 

fortunate offici^rs, who neglected, after Utrecht, 1653. Magyar Logica. Weis- 

tlin naval victory at Arginusse, to pick senburg, 1656. Oratio de Studio Sapi- 

up till' di'ad hmlifs of their countrymen ; entis. Utrecht, 1655. Dissertatio de 

nor li'NS exaspprated, by finding that Politia Ecclesiastica. Clausenburg, 1658. 

ThfraiiifUfs and Critias, two friends of (Biog. Univ.) 
Nocratrs, bad played the moHt conspicu- APAFFI. See Abaffi. 
OU4 part aiiiongMt tlie thirty tyrants ; by APAME, daughter of Artabazus, sa- 

wlioiii Anytus was driven from Athens, trap of Bactriana, wife to Seleucus, one 

and thus led to join Thrasybuhi.4 in re- of Alexander's generals, who gave her 

storiiiK to the people their former liberty, name to several towns, particulariy to 

It niiiy, however, be fairly conceded to Apamea in Syria. 

Freret. that all the stories told by Dio- APAMEENSIS, (Johannes,) a Syriac 

enes I«aertius, iElian, Plutarch, and monk, who took his cognomen from the 

lieinistiu!!, of Anytus being banished, city of Apamea in Ccelo-Syria, and was a 

and eonHi<h*red, like the parricide Orestes, member of one of the numerous monaste* 

an outeast in society, and denied the ries which, in his day, were built on the 

rights of fire, water, and converse with banks of the Orontes. He appears to have 

man, and of his rventuully haneing him- lived during the sixth century, as far at 

l«lf in despair, or of bcing'stoncd to death least as can be gathered from the inci» 

36 



f 



APA APE 

dental mention made of him by various the author of numerous novels, taleSy 

writers of his own country. He has legends, and other ephemeral produc* 

sometimes been mistaken for Cluysostom tions, in prose and verse. One of his 

by European authors, from the circum- tales — ^Der Freischuta, was the founda- 

atance of both writers being mentioned tion of the drama which was once so 

in Syriac by their common name of John, extremely popular. The German critics 

He appears to have written On the Pas- praised him only for the elegance and 

aions ; On the Government of the Soul ; correctness of his style. He wrote some 

On Perfection; Epistles; and three volumes dramas in imitation of the Greek, which 

(a somewhat indefinite term when speak- led him into a controversy with Her- 

ing of MSS.) on other subjects. mann, on Greek metres. His elder 

APCHON, (CI. Marc Ant. d', 1723-— brother, Friedrich August Ferdinand^ 

1783,) changed the profession of a sol- was also an author, 

dier for the church, and was bishop of APELLES, (about 332 b. c.,) the most 

Dijon, and archbishop of Auch. He is illustrious painter among the ancients, 

known as the author of Instructions Pas- was bom, according to some authors, in 

torales. the isle of Cos, but bv others is said to 

APEL, (John, 1476 — 1536,) a con- have been a native of Ephesus or Colo- 
temporary of Luther, was a' professor at phon, and was the son of Pithius, and 
Wittemberg, and a supporter of the the brother of Ctesiochus. He is also 
Reformation. Having married a nun, variously stated to have been the pupil 
while he was canon of Wurzbur^, he was of Ephorus of Ephesus, and of Pamphiius 
arrested by the bishop, and was mdebted of Amphipolis, in Macedonia, if he 
to the imperial troops for his release, were instructed by the latter, it seems 
He then retired to Nuremburg, his native likelv that Apelles was of an exalted 
place, of which he was appointed syndic, family, since it was Pamphiius who ob- 
as also counsellor to the elector of Bran- tained the ordinance that the art of 
denberg. He wrote — 1. A Defence of painting should not be practised, through- 
his Marriage, addressed to the bishop of out Greece, by slaves, and should only 
Wursburg, Defensio Johannis Apelli be studied by persons of education and 
pro suo Conjugio, cum Prsef. Lutheri. distinction. In all probabUity, as stated 
Wittemb. 1523, 4to. 2. Methodica Lo- by M. la Salle, in the Biograpme Univer- 
gices Ratio ad Jurisprudentiam accom- selle, Ephorus save him his first lessons 
modata. Norimb. 1535,4to. 3. Dialogus in the art, and Pamphiius was his second 
Isagog. in Inst Justiniani, first printed master. He omitted nothing that might 
at the end of Ulr. Fabricii Processus enable him to reach perfection in his art 
Judiciarius. Bas. 1542, 4to. In this He visited all the most celebrated schools ; 
work (p. 168), Apel gives an account of amongst others, that of Sicyon, which 
a manuscript treatise on Roman law, then enjoyed a high reputation. Apelles 
which has oeen since printed, and is combined in himself ail the excellences 
known by the different titles of Brachy- of the artists that had preceded him, and 
logus and Summa Novellarum. Saxius is generally supposed to have carried the 
(Onomast ii. p. 537) treats Apel's state- art of painting to the highest attainable 
ment of his discovery of the manuscript perfection. He not only excelled in 
as a fiction, and considers him the composition, design, and colouring, but 
real author of the work. The argmnents he possessed an unbounded invention, 
by^ which Saxius attempted to support was select and beautiful in his propor- 
this opmion were refuted by A.W. Cra- tions and contours; and above all, his 
mer (Dispunct Jur. Civ. p. 94), and figures were dways distinguished by a 
Weis ( Progr. de^t. Brachyl.Marb. 1 808) ; grace that was considered to have almost 
and the question is now clearly esta- proceeded from inspiration. No painter 
blished by the researches of Savigny, ever applied to the study of his art with 
who has discovered manuscripts of the more persevering assiduity. He never 
thirteenth century containing this work, allowed a day to pass without practising 
According to Savigny, the Brachylogus some branch of it, whence arose the pro- 
was compiled in Lombardy, about the verb, Nulla diet tine lined. The cities 
beginning of the twelfth century, and, as of Greece, of the Archipelago, of Asia, 
he conjectures, by Imerius. (Savisny, and of Egypt, possessed some of his most 
Gesch. des Rom. Rechts im Mittelalter, admirable works. His extraordinary 
vol. ii. c. 14). genius, and his general accomplishments, 

APEL, (Johann August, 1771 — 1816,) secured him the patronage of Alexander 

a German lawyer, but better known as the Great, whose portrait he painted 



APE APE 

Mvernl tim«», and received frmn th« kini^ chance, prodored the exact effect he 

the exclusive privile|?e of painting his intended. 

likeneHs. Arnonp; otner* of hii worki After the death of Alexander he went 

was a p<*rtrait of Alexander holding a to the coort of Ptoleznj, driven toE^rpt, 

thurwlr'rlmlt, which Pliny, who had seen it it sjud, br ftres of veatber. His ene- 

it, asfK;rtti wa^i v) admirable that the hand mies hired a baffbon belonging to the 

of thr; kinf^ gra<iping the thunder neemed king to plar a tnck «:p'7n him. bv mritiDg 

to roine out or t.'ie picture. This pro- him to the rojal table to supper. The 

ductioii was placed in the temple of Diana artist waa no favourite with Ptoiemr, who 

at Kphesuw ; and Plutarch reports that it wa^ highly incensed when he arrived. 

was a cointnon sayinp^ that there were Apelles said he should not have ventiired 

two Alexanders, one invincible, the *on into his presence without his own invita- 

of Philip —the other inimitable, the work tion, ana being required to point out who 

of ApMles. On another occasion the had bid him come, the artist instandj 

paint4;r, according to iElian, does not sketched on the wall, from memory, so 

appear to have been no fortunate in pleas- faithful a likeness of the buffoon, that the 

ing his royal mast<;r, for the latter was king immediately recognised it, and after- 

diNHUtlMfied with a p>rtrait of himself on wards loaded Apeiles with honours and 

horseback, Apelles caused a horse to be wealth. His hazardous situation, througli 

brought, and the animal upon approach- the cnry of Antiphilus, has alrrady heen 

ing the picture neighed at the sight of it, recorded in the life of that painter. The 

giving the painter the opportunity of mind of .Apelles appears to have been as 

ohHcrving, ** ft would seem that the horse noble as his genius was transcendent, 

in a better judge of painting than your the strongest proofs of which are his 

mnjrnty." generous acts towards his brother painter 

The most cstf emed work of Apelles rrot^igenes. Having gone to Rhodes to 
w.'iH a painting of Venus rising from the visit that artist, whose celebrity had ex- 
sea, wringing her wet hair, called Venus cited his emulation, on his arrival Proto- 
Ariarlyomenc. ft wai purchased by Au- genes was absent. .Apelles, without 
gitsfus from the inhahitantn of Cos, where stating his name, contented himself with 
It adorned thr> snnrtunry of il^sculapius, drawing with a pencil a subject of won- 
at thi- price of thi: Intndrfd talents of derful precision and purity, and retired, 
trihiitf* whifh i\wy \m\i\ to ihf rr-puhlic, Protogfnes returning recognised the hand 
and Uf. phif't'i] it in th'! t<;mple of Julius of Applies a» alone capable of producing 
Cii'Miir. This work was not entirely so perfect a sketch ; but he endeavoured 
firnHhi-d at tin* df-ath of ApfliifH, and on to surpass it, and added a design still 
itn rcniov.il Ut lloinc- i\\f hmcr part of it more light and exquisite. Apelles came 
wai a litfh- di-fac#-d, and it is wiid that in a second time, and seeing the work of 
that rify iImtc witc no painters capable Protogenes beside his own, he filled the 
of n-ntiiririg it. Ovid has cdcbrated this vacant space which remained with an 
pirfuri' in file following lines: — outline so delicate that the Rhodiai| 

.. ^. „ „ , ... painter confessed himself beaten, and 

t\:r:r:.^.rrrrz£l:''^:^u^^^^^^ r<^ -^peiio' ever,- »ort of ho„o„r. m. 

latter was not behind in acknowledging 

Pliny stati'ii that Alexander ponnittcd the great abilities of Protogenes, who, 

liiri f.ivoitritf u^\^i^^'n^ ('arnpaspo, whom although admired by his countrymen for 

Apillft< li.id nii'M in a hath, to sit to him his genius, was allowed to pine in want, 

for hii V'liU"! ; llioii;»li others assert that from the lack of purchasers of his works, 

tip' iMMtiliful JMiryne was his model. Apelles demanded what price he put 

VVIii-ri III- |i:iiiiti'd* the portrait of Cain- upon his pictures, and the Rhodian har- 

pfiipi' III' liiM Mine enamoured of her, and ing named a very inconsiderable sum, 

tin* kiii|r pcrinitted him to marry h(>r. Apelles, indignant at the injustice done 

Tin* nilint was an admirer of beauty, and to such admirable productions, paid him 

miiij'Jit till* ino'^t ex(|uisite forms to paint HHy tdents for one picture, announcing 

f'loin. .nid it. was he who discovered the piioliely that he would make it pass and 

fiiiiiMUi liiiiH, who, still yo\uig and un- sell as his own. This liberality was soon 

l.imwn, wuHilniwing wiitiT at a fountain, followed by the citizens, and Protogenes 

It ii Kidd tlitit on one oreaHion he h.id n-aped, afterwards, an ample reward for 

found it iiiiposHilile to depiet the foam his labours. The price of fifty talents, 

nl the niotilli of ii horsi', and, in de- however, seems so enormous as to throw 

spnir, diiilied u sponge charged with an appearance of great improbability on 

•olour a/^ninst the picture, which, by the story, so far as the amount is con*< 

:1N 



APE APE 

cenfed; for, at the lowest computatioii, Voras, Yeniis Anadjomene, and m 

it would mre imwards of twelve thoosand Alexander ; and never to have used more 

pounds of &iglish money. than four colours — ^white, jdlow, red. 

On his return to Greece, Apelles and Uack, — hut with such skill ana 

paintNl a picture in commemoration of judgment that none of the ancients ever 

the persecution he had undergone at the surpassed him in delicacy of colouringi 

hands of his enemies at Alexandria. The or sublimity of expression. He wrottf 

composition was an allegorical repre- three volumes on painting, which were 

sentation of Ca/mniiy, and Lucian gives still extant in the a^ of nmy. He was 

the following description of it: — "On honourably entitled tne/Vmceo^Pcmifert, 

the riffht of the picture was seated a per- and painting was itself denommated Tke 

son of magisterial authority, to whom the Art of jlpeUes, The date and ]4ace of 

painter had eiven laree ears, like those his death are alike unknown. (Hryan*t 

of Midas, who held forth his hand to Diet xviiL Biog. Univ. Fusdi's Lec- 

Calumny, as if inviting her to approach, tures.) 

He is attended by Iniorance and Surai- APELLES, APELLOS, or APEL-^ 

cion, who are placed by his side. c!a- LAS, for the name is thus variously 

lumny advanced in Uie form of a beaut^ sp^lt, the autfior quoted by Athensiu, 

fomale, her countenance and demeanour ix. p. 369, is thought to be the same as 

exhibiting an air of fory and hatred ; in the Cyrenian mentioned by Marcianua 

one hand she held the torch of discord, Heracleot. p. 63, and to whose work on 

and with the other dragged by the hair a Delphi reference is made by Clement 

youth personifying Innocence, who, with Alexandr. in Protrept. p. 31. Of some 

eyes raised to heaven, seemed to implore other persons of the same name a list is 

the succour of the gods. She was pre- given by Menage, on Diogen. Laert. 

ceded by Envy, a figure with a pallid p. 342, and by Grdtius, on Roti. xtL 10. 

visage and an emaciated form, who ap- nut none are connected with any fact of 

peared to be the leader of the band, importance ; whUe the Jew Apeflas Uves 

Calumny was also attended by two other only in the verse of Horace, 
figives, who seemed to excite and animate APELLES, a heretic in the second 

her, whose deceitful looks discovered them century, was a native of Syria. At ilome 

to be Intrigue and Treachery. At last he formed an acquaintance, not of the 

followed Repentance, clothed in black, most honourable land, according to old 

and covered with confusion at the dis- writers, with a woman called Phflumena, 

covery of Truth in the distance, environed who pretended to prophetic inspiration ; 

with celestial li^ht." " Such,** says and afterwards broached a series of eX- 

Bryan* '* was the mgenious fiction which travagant doctrines, which found disci- 

inoicated the vengeance of Apelles, and pies chiefly in Egypt and Asia. A book, 

which may be regarded as one of the entitled the Prophecies and Revelations 

most admirable e3uunples of emblema- of Philumena, was ascribed to him, but 

tical painting that the history of the art much of his history is doubtful. His 

afforos. R^aelle made a drawing from followers were called Apellites,ApelleianSy 

Lucian *s description of this picture, which or Apellicians. 

was formerly in the collection of the duke APELLICO, a Tean by birth, and an 

of Modena, and was afterwards placed Athenian by adoption, is best known by 

in the French Museum." the seal with which he collected the 

This illustrious painter was accustomed works of Aristotle, as we learn from 

to exhibit his works publicly, and in order Athensus, v. p. 214, and by Uie folly 

to hear the criticisms of his visitors used with which he endeavoured to supply de-^ 

so to place himself that he might not be fects in the original MS. caused by the 

seen. On one of these occasions a cob- damp and worms. According to Posido- 

bier found fault with the representation nius, he was equally dippery in politics 

of a slipper, which Apelles accordingly and in morals ; he either stole hunsel( 

correctCNl. Emboldened by this acquies- or bribed others to steal, the autograph 

cence, the artisan upon his next visit, documents preserved in the tem^e of 

objected to the drawing of the leg, but Ceres in Athens, and from similar sane- 

the painter coming forward reproved tuaries in other states whatever was of 

him m the well-known sentence, which value in the eye of an antiquarian. To 

has since become proverbial — Ne tutor avoid the punishment due to such sacri- 

ulira erepidam, lege, he at first fled fVom Atibens, but 

Apelles is said to have put his name to afterwards returned to it, where by paying 

tifaly three of his pictures — a Sleeping court to not a few he was improper^ 

39 



APE APH 

enrolled as a citizen, in conjunction with Moanl. The name lignifiea^ ** Our Lord 

his friend Athenion. After his death his Converted." 

library seems to hare fallen into the APHRAATES, or PHARHAD^ 

hands of Mithridates, and when the latter called Aphrahet by Abraham F«rrhrlriMi% 

had been vanquidied by Sylla, it was a Syrian divine, ai Persian origin, said 

carried by the conqueror to Rome. (OL known among his contemporaries hj Ibe 

173, 4.) epithet of the Persian Sage. He flou- 

APENS, (C.,) a Dutch engraver,* who rishcd at the same time with ^phren 

flourished about the year 1673. He re- Syrus. His works consist of two volmnea 

sided at Groningen, in the Netherlands, of Sermons or Homilies, and a hock of 

about the year 1670. He engraved a Moral Verses, twenty-two in nnmber, 

portrait of Samuel Maresius, Theologian, written in the peculiar taste for TcrlMl 

m 4to, dated A. D. 1673. ingenuity which has always distingniahcd 

APER, (Marcus,) one of the principal the East. The first id these hemiM with 

speakers in the dialogue De Cwisis Cor- the letter Olaph (the first of toe Syiiao 

ruptse Elo^uentis. All that is known of alphabet), avoiding that letter thronghoui 

him is derived from the part he sustains the remainder of the poem ; the second 

in that imaginary conversation. He was begins with Beth, in like manner avoid- 

a native of Gaul, had been a traveller in ing all words in which that letter occnn ; 

his youth, had visited Britain, and after- and so on through the twen^-two letten 

wards followed with success the profes- of the alphabet. 

sion of an advocate at Rome. He passed APHTHONIUS, a rhetorician of An- 

through the offices of qiuestor, tribune, tioch, flourished, according to Sauna, 

and prsetor, and appears to have been about ▲. c. 315, and was therefore conii- 

generally employed for the defendant in derably junior to another oi the same 

criminal prosecutions. (See Dialog, de name, the father of Sabinus the acq^hist* 

Orat. cc. 7 — 9.) He is supposed to nave and the contemporary of Aristidesi one 

died about 85 a. d. of whose declamations is quoted by the 

The name of Aper would acquire much rhetorician, who is thought oy Heumann 
more importance in biography could it to have been the professor of doquence at 
be ascertained that he was the author of Alexandria, mentioned by Philostorgins, 
the dialogue in which he takes a principal iii. 15, especially as AphthcmiuSy in 
share. He would then, in literature, be Progymn. ss. 12, has drawn a comparison 
a contemporary worthy to associate with between the acropolis of Alexandria and 
Tacitus, Quintilian, and Pliny. The Athens respectivelv. Besides the Pro* 
question of the authorship of the dia- gymnasmata, which is little more than 
loj^e is discussed at some length by the refiction of a rhetorical treatise 
Bahr, Geschicht der Romisch. Literat. under the same title by Hermogenea. 
8vo, 1832, pp.558 — 562, who gives a and the ground-work of Clarke's method 
copious list of ihe advocates of the dif- of writing Latin themes, Aphthonius ef- 
ferent claimants. Like M. Antonius, the ployed himself in putting into more 
orator (see Cic. de Orat. ii. c. 1, ff,) elegant prose some simple fables of .£sop^ 
Aper gave, or pretended to give, nature written m Choliambics. The fables have 
and impulse the preference over study been indeed attributed to another person; 
and preparation in the art he professed, but they are just the kind of thing which 
(De Orator, i. c. 2.) a teacher of rhetoric would do, as shown 

APHAREUS, the son of Hippias, was by the similar practice of Theo, and they 

both an orator and a writer of tragedies ; probably formed a part of the lost exer* 

which, according to Pseudo-Plutarch, in cises (MeXcrai) mentioned by Photiui^ 

Isocrat. p. 839, amounted to thirty-seven, cod. 133. The Progymnasmata were first 

or rather thirty-five, for two were doubted published by Aldus, Yen. 1505, amongat 

as bcin^ the genuine productions of the the Rhetores Grrsci, together with some 

adopted son of Isocrates. lie is said to Scholia, which their recent editor, Wals, 

have gained the prize four times be- attributes to Maximus Planudes. There ia 

twecn Ol. 102, 4, and 109, 3. One of his likewise another commentary on Aphtho- 

speeches is quoted by Dionysius Ilal. nius by Doxopater, who from the mention 

p* 102. of the deposition of Michael Calaphatet 

APIINIMARANUS, a Syrian ecclesi- is referred by Walz to a period not 

astiCfWho flourished under the patriarchate earlier than a. d. 1041. Of Doxopater's 

of Gcorgius, about the end of the seventh homilies, Walz says, very justly, thai 

century of our era, and who founded the they aflbrd a conspicuous proof of the 

monastery of Zaphara, in the district of author's loquacity and the dishonesty of 

40 



APH API 

TVophonhu, wHo has frequently tran- and divisions of instruments. In this 

scribed Doxopater verbal. Of the third work he predicts eclipses, and constructs 

anonymous Scholia on Aphthouius, first the figures of them in plans. In the se- 

published by Widz, the author, says the cond part of the work on the Meteoro- 

editor, is the same person as he whose scopium Planum, he gires the description 

Scholia on Hermogenes are printed in the of the most accurate astronomical qua- 

seventh volume of the Rhetores Grseci^ drant, and its uses* To it are added 

Stuttgurd. observations of five different comets, vis. 

To the precedin|[ Aphthonii may be in the years 1531, 1532, 1533, 1538, and 

added a thurd, mentioned by Syinmachus 1539 ; where he, for the first time, teaches 

as a scribe of the emperor Iionorius ; and that the tails of comets are always pro- 

a fourth, .£lius Festus, a fragment of jected in a direction from the sun. 8. 

whose writings is quoted by Isaac Vossius Besides these works, he prepared for the 

in his work DeVinbusRhythmiet Poem- press several others, viz. Ephemerides 

atum Cantu, p. 90. for various years ; a Treatise upon Sha« 

APIAN, (Peter,) in German Biene- dows; books on arithmetic and alf;ebra; 

witi, was bom at Leysnick inMisnia, on gau|ing; Ptolemy's works m the 

in 1495, and made professor of mathema- original Greek ; the Perspective of Vitello ; 

tics at Ingolstadt in 1524, where he died Universal Astrolabe of Numbers, &c. ; all 

in 1552, aged fifty-seven. He was greatly of which are enumerated in his Astrono- 

distinguished as a mathematician and micum Csesareum. 

astronomer, and has left behind him the His son Philip, who succeeded him 

following works : — 1. Tractatus Cosmo- in his mathematical chair at Ingolstadt, 

graphie, 4to, Landshut, 1524, freouently died at Tubing in 1589, where he had 

reprinted till nearly the close of the six- been forced to retire, havine embraced 

teenth century, and in its matter and the Protestant religion. He was the 

arrangement very similar to the modem author of — 1. De Cylindri Utilitate. 2. 

school books on the Use of the Globes. De UsuTrientis Instrumenti Astronomic! 

2. Folium Populi, fol. Ingolst 1533, Novi, 4to. Tubing, 1586. Tycho has 

containinganaccoimt of a curious instru- preserved, in his Progym. p. 643, his 

ment which he designated by that name, letter to the landgrave of Hesse, in which 

and which was intended to show the hour he gives an opinion on the new star in 

in all parts of the earth by the sun's Cassiopeia, of tne year 1572. 

rays, and was extended to show as well APiCIUS. There were three cele-> 

the unequal hours of the Jews. 3. In- brated epicures of this name : — 

troductio Geographica, cum Epistola 1. ApiciuSf contemporary with Sylla 

Joannis de Regiomonte ad R. P. et D. and Nicomedes III. of Bithynia. He was 

Bessarionem Cardinalem Nicenum, atque mentioned by Poseidonius in the forty- 

Patriarcham Constantinopolitanum, de ninth book of his continuation of Poly- 

Compositione et Usu cujusdam Meteo- bius. He was the accuser of Rutilius 

roscopii Armillarii, cui recens jam Opera Rufus. See Eraesti Clavis Ciceronian. 

Petri Apiani accessit Torquetum Instm- and Athenseus, lib. i. c. 12, and iv. c. 66. 

mentum pulcherrimum Sane et Utilissi- 2. M, Gaviut Apicnuj who lived in the 

mum, fol. Ingolst 1533. This is quite a times of Augustus and Tiberius, called by 

different work, of much higher scientific Plin. H.N. 10, 68, " Nepotum omnium 

pretensions, than his treatise De Cosmo- altissimus gurges." Apion the gram- 

^phia ; the iorquetutf a sort of quadrant, marian wrote a treatise, Utpi rtis AniKiov 

IS in reajity an Arabic instrument, and is Tpv^iyr. (Athenseus, 7, 12.) The second 

mentioned by Grostest in his treatise De Apicius is mentioned by Seneca, Con- 

Sphserft. 4. Instrumentum Primi Mo- solat. ad Helviam. x. After having ex- 

bilis, fol. 1534. This work contains pended upon his table 807,291/. 138. 4d. 

trigonometrical tables, with one hundred and squandered immense grants and 

astronomical problems. 5. Instrumentum salaries, he put an end to his life by 

buch durch Petrum Apianum erst von poison, when only 80,729/. remained of 

new beschriben, fol. ingolstad. 1533. nis former wealth. (Cf. Martial, ep. iii. 

6. Inscriptiones Sacro-Sanctse Vetustatis 22.) His luxurious habits are described 

non ills quidem Romans, sed totius by Seneca, De V. B. xi. ; epp. 95, 120 ; 

fere Orbis, fol. Ingolstad. 1534 (see Bioe. Martial, ep. ii. 69 ; iii. 80 ; x. 73. 

Univ.) 7. AstFonomicum Cssareum, fol. Juvenal. Sat iv. 23. He kept an aca- 

Ingolstad. 1540. This was his principal demy of gourmands, and discovered the 

work, and contains a number of interest- tongue of the phoenicopterus (redwing 

ing observations, with the descriptions iuraus iUacut) to be a delicacy. Severn 

41 



API APr 





Bf*^^m;r-ir '-ytvn. 'Sr.ys«. Or-'>«,. 

trrirtL f>Tit *A •.•L«#t rzI-TiArr ctrei ^-.rrr T*TTf. €xr 

p*juti'/n «»j Api'rI'i! IL *<rt Tttri. A^js. babtr ^ l."™** 

ir. I, *nd liio. 57, 15r. t**:' :!» pC^*:* 

th<iT*r is extent a tr^fttzM I>* B* Colzn^ria, Ear b* Ka:«-i Tsait. ts ^* 

in Urn Uiokii. Tht ttvl* ii mcorrwt, and cf tk* Hiari :al«= t-T^^^-r <^aqc g 

r^Jll«rt* with f*ar1>ar*3i« wordji wi-J phrajsei. h:f*rrw: ^rrn ^l*r?e T=jt H«i 

H»rnc« it has J**:*m cfmj^cXartd trsat Aps- th* *x«:;rci:i.-= •:: :h* IBad after be 

oiij», liJc*: o»jr own " -Nlr%. GLaJwt,"' m tne e«3mp!*t'r4 b^".ii poecL*: atd li^i 

tit|«; /if a co!I*cti'in of rulznan- ni!*:^ and to show t-a^, as :h* twr? cffstas 

f^rip'rf, hy on« M. C»li««, or Cat^rilius ; «igHt bxk«. a •iz.z'.* Ho=c«r. 

ifr, at hett, an fzxtnni with inttrpoLatkmf two per«oxiJ cf that •las*. as smne pmat- 

frorri viiri<r wrn-k no longer in neinj?. of marianf asserted, was the aotlmr oi boA 

«;fi<- of th'; Apicii. S*;^ Funciwi de Immin. epics. The fjUltiZ psrdr^ilars of the lifb 

L.L.St-n'-.f.iui.x.yi'Jfff. Fabric. Biblioth. of Apfon hare been preserred ib dM 

Lht. if. c. 2.0. ThoM who are crmoiu pagn of Josephos and Philo. from wbom 

M\9*fui th« li«i Cu]inari« Veterum, may we learn tKat ce was sent co an eiub—ij 

conKult with advantage the Flora Apiciana by the people of Alexandria, to rompLnn 

of J. H. Dierhack. Heidelberg, Hro, to Caligula of the Jews who were setded 

IH'M. there, and by whom a connter-embaarf 

AI'IN(,'S, ^Johann Ludwig, If/iH — was vent, headed by Philo. to justify tbeir 

170r},; a ('mrmtxu phvftician, was profensor conduct. Animated by the hatred whicb 

of nuriforv and phymology at Altdorf, and the Eg^-ptians erer bore'to the Jewv. ApioD, 

author of oii« or two ni'rdical works. amongst other charges, insisted chieflj on 

AI'INi;S, rSigi«mund Jacob, 109.3 — the refusal of the Jews to consecrate 

I7')2,) a diNtinguinhrrd philologist, and images to Caligula, and to swear W Ids 

•on of thir precedinff. 'JIh; most valuable name, while all other subjects of tbe 

of liiii work»i lire — filMHcrtationes de In- empire were ready to dedicate altars amd 

ifWoriu piiro; Oft Ri'gtil^ Lenbia. Alt- temples to him. Nor did he stop hew; 

dorf, I7I.'>. lie VxiriiM Disccndi .Methr>dis, for in his work on the Antiquities of 

Arf^, Altilorf, I71tl. Vitm IVofessonim. Kg)'pt, he is said to have lost no oppor- 

NnrMrib. 1728. (Hiog. Univ.) tunity of reviling the Jewish people, in 

AI'IC>N, a cifii'brat'fd fjre<rk com- whose behalf Josephus nobly stepped 

rrM'iitiit'ir on lloinf-r, luid om; of the most forward; and it is from him we learn 

IfiiiiM'd mid InborioiiM of griirnirifiriflns, that Apion, who was not living when the 

mid hriiii- fftllid Mox^otf Inh'tr^ and answer appeared, died in great torture, 

lis* in jitvinf^t, lht; ntnnyritnfpti-ri,r, was after having unsuccessfully undergone 

\\u' Moii of |'o«idoiiiii«, M Htatfd by Julius the very act of circumcision for which he 

ArriiiiniiN, qimtcd in KuHibiiis, P.i:. x. 10. had ridiculed the Jews. Although, says 

llrlironiiiN, iin-ording to HiiidaH, railed Pliny, he boasted of his power to confer 

hiiii ft Cti'tmi ; bill hf wiiH born lit Oasis, immortality upon those to whom his 

ill I III' liitid of ApiH, to wlioMi perhaps he bcniks were dedicated, yet he is himself 

Iraifil lii« ori^riii and iimin* ; nlthouf;h known only by the chance quotations of 

JiiNr|iliiiii ari'iiNi'H liiiii of abjuring bin other writers. His treatises on the Ro- 

iiiuiihy, mid prrtrndiiig to bi- a iiativi* of man Dialect, the Luxury of Apicius, and 

Ali-miiHliia. Hi* wim ibr pupil of Didy- tho Knowledge of Metals, arc mentioned 

niiin, "tbr braxi'ii tiowi-llcd," and it ispro- respectively by Athenaeus and Pliny; 

bably lo tliJiirlrrutiiHianfrTiberiuNCii'Har while Auhis Gellius has translated his 

Lion and Androclus. As 
specimen of the nature of big- 



iiaiiiy to iiijiirirrutiiHianfr I iberiiw ( ii'Mar while Auhis ( 
iilludrd.wlKhbrnillidlitin "thf Cymbal story of the 
•r the world i" wbi-reoa, says Pliny, to another specii 



API APO 

inquiries, we are told by Aulas Gellins guished hy the twenty-four letters of tha 

that Anion explained the reason for wear- alphabet Suidas says that this work 

ing a nng on the third finger of the left comprised the whole Hebrew Scripturet 

hand, by stating that the anatomists of {ira<rap rtjp raov 'Efiptutav ypa^i?^) > whfle 

Egypt had discovered that there was 8 Sozomenus (y. 18) says tnat it consisted 

nerve which ran from that finger alone only of the Jewish history up to the time 

to the heart. Of his Notes on Homer, of S&vl (ttip 'EfipMicr}v apxatoKoy tap iit)n}i 

some fragments are to be found in the n;^ rov SaovX BaaiKrias) ; and the his- 

Venetian Scholia, Suidas, the £t3rmolo- torian Socrates (iii. 16) describes this 

gicon Magnum, &c. work as being a translation of the books 

APOCAUCUS, a person of low birth j of Moses only. But we learn from the two 
but unbounded ambition, held the office historians that he did translate other parts 
of protovestiarius of the eastern empire, of the Scripture, some of which he gave 
at tne period when the emperor Andro- in the form of comedies, in imitation of 
nicus the younger was succeeded by his Menander ; others as tragedies, in the 
son John ralsrologus. His intrigues, and manner of Euripides ; and others in the 
his contentions with Catacuzenus, the shape of odes, like those of Pindar, 
great domestic, and regent during the Suidas says that he excelled equally as a 
emperor's minority, continued long to grammanan, a poet, a philosopher, and 
distract Constantinople. At length Apo- an orator. He wrote for the use of the 
caucus succeeded in gaining the mind of Christians, treatises on grammar and rhe- 
Anne of Savoy, the emperor's mother; toric. His son (see next article), whose 
his rival was ejected from the regency, genius seems to have been as universal 
and a civil war ensued. Apocaucus was as his own, joined in the attempt to sup- 
now master in the capital, and his tyranny ply the wants of their scholars when de- 
knew no bounds. The prisons of Con- prived of the use of ancient Greek writers; 
stantinople were not spacious enough fbr and, according to Socrates, for this purpose 
the reception of all those who fell under he turned the four Gospels, and the Acts of 
his wrath, and he ordered the old prison the Apostles, into the fbrm of Flatonie 
of the palace to be enlarged. While dialo^es. The elder Apdlinarius wrote 
occupied in superintending the works of a book addressed to Julian, 'YirepAXi/^cKV 
this new edifice the prisoners broke loose (de Vcritate), in which he defended 
and murdered him, June 11, 1345. The Christianity by reason, without any refer- 
empress avenged his death by a fear{\il ence to Scripture. The emperor is said 
massacre of the assassins. (Gibbon, Ixiii.) to have returned to the bishops who sent 
APOLLINARIUS, (St.) bishop of it to him, the sarcastic and epigrammatic 
Hierapolis in Phrygia, about 177 a. d, reply — Avryvov, eyvwy, kareypap, — "I 
presented to Marcus Aurelius an apology have read it, understood it, and con- 
fer the Christians, and wrote against the demned it." (Sozom. ib.^ Suidas attri- 
paffans and heretics of that time, espe- butcs to the elder Apollinarius, besides 
ciuly the Montanists ; but his writings epistles and various commentaries on the 
are lost. Scriptures, a work against the heretic 

APOLLINARIUS,orAPOLLINARlS, Porphyrins, m thirty books; but this it 

as the name is spelt by Socrates and said, on better authority, to be the work 

Sozomenus, a grammarian of Laodicea in of the son. The only work preserved 

Sjrria, in the rourth century. Suidas (v. bearing the name of Apollinarius, is a 

AfroXXiyaptor) says that he flourished translation of the Psalms into Greek 

during the reigns of Constantine and hexameters ; but it seems not ouite cer- 

Julian the Apostate ; that he lived on- tain whether it be the work of tne father 

wards to that of Theodosius; and that he or of the son. Two or three editions of 

was the contemporary of Basil, Gregory this work appeared in the sixteenth cen- 

of Nazianzen, and Libanius the sophist tury, and it was afterwards inserted in 

In the heat of Julian's persecution of the Bibliotheca Patrum. 
the Christians, when the emperor inter- APOLLINARIUS, (the yoimger,) sob 

dieted them from the reading of the Greek of the preceding, was also by profession 

profane authors in their schools, Apollina- a grammarian, but he became an eccle- 

rius undertook to write works to supply siasdc, was first reader in the church, and 

tlieir place. With this view, he made a afterwards bishop of Laodicea. He is 

translation from the Bible in Greek he- supposed to have died about 382. As 

roic verse, which was to take the place of has been stated in the preceding article, 

Homer, and which, like the Iliad, was he was at first a useful member of the 

^Tided int9 twenty-four books, distin* christian church, but at a later period he 
'43 



APO APO 



imbibed certain optnions relating to the Such was tKe repntatioo 

humanity of Christ, which were not le« once enjored, that aome c| _ 

dangerous than the heresies thai he cither in imise or ridimle of lum, 

had formerly combated, and which he- pot the loDowing sentiments lato Ui 

came still more extravagant in the hands month : — 

of his disciples. These opinions were -FnmmyWaSmdnw^t' 

condemned oy a council at Alexandria in ^^ '^^ *^^ 




362 ; again at Rome in 377 ; and in 378, o?5S.'TS^?i& 

after which Apollinarius was deposed firom Nor aeairk af c^dk kaid* 

his bishopric. Sozomen. vL 25, tells ns ^ »« ^^"^ •»* '^ aUtkewtidi 

that Apollinarius exercised his poetical It was first poUished from a MS. in dw 

talents in composing popular songs, Vatican at Borne, 1550, by i^gioi of 

which were sung about the streets, and Spoleto, accompanied with a Latin tiaim 

even by the women amid their daily lation, and notes which exhibit mniiiiffT 

avocations, and which contributed not a able learning. Its latest and beat editor 

little to spread his name and opinions. was Uejne, who printed it twice nk 

APOLLINARIUS SIDONIUS. See Gottmgen; first, in 4 vols. Sm, 1782, 
SiDONius. and again, in 2 vols. 8vo, in 1803 ; m^ 

APOLLODORUS. Of this name, so strange to say, the former is the more 
frequent in Greek history, the best complete work of the two, as it contnina 
known is the native of Athens, who was what the other wants — the cdkctioa of 
the pupil of Aristarchus the grammarian, the fragments of ApoDodorus ; for wfaicli» 
and or the philosopher Panaetius. But however, an Index VeriK>rum was perfaiqps 
though he was, like the rest of the schod intended to compensate. It hM been 
of Aristarchus, a very voluminous writer, tirice translated into French ; the lart 
yet time has preserved only some scattered time by Clavier, in 2 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1806, 
fragments of his works, together wi^ a enriched with the MS. notes of Serin and 
portion of his Bibliotheca, which contains Coray. Of the other individuals of the 
an account of the different persons con* same name, Fabricius has given a liat 
nected with the mythology of Greece, that may be thus abridged : — 
It commences with the creation, and !• A writer on a^culture, mentioned 
ends abruptly with the history of The- by Aristotle, Polit i. 7. 
seus. Tanaquil Fevre, the father of the 2. Writers of comedy. Of these there 
celebrated Madame Dacier, and one of its were three : one of Athens, another of 
editors, considers the present work to be Carystus, and a third of Gelo. According 
only an abridgement of a larger one, On to Suidas, the Athenian was the author <x 
the Gods of Greece. Clavier, its last forty-seven comedies, five of which carried 
French translator, eoes even a step far- off the prize. Of the other two, the titles 
thcr, and believes that Apollodorus never of about thirty plays have been preserved ; 
wrote at all a work under the title of the but it is very difficult to assign each to 
Bibliotheca, and appeals to Steph. Byz. its respective author. Schweighseuaer 
in AvfAff, to show tnat at the end of the indeed considers, not without reason, Uie 
fifth century there was a tradition cur- Athenian and Carystian to be the same 
rent of some person having abridged person. One of the plays of the Carya- 
Apollodorus. He considers, moreover, the tian was imitated, says Donatus, by 
work wc now have to be the prose repre- Terence, in his Phormio, and proba« 
scntation of another in verse, and that it bly another of the same dramatist in 
is not only filled with poetical expressions, the Hecyra; and hence perhaps for 
but exhibits even fragments of poetry — a the Evvca, quoted by J. Pollux, x. 153, 
r(MTiark that our cars do not enable us to and the 'Icpcio, by Athensus, vi. 
confirm in tlic passages he quotes, nor p. 243, D., we must read in both places 
any where else. lie seems to nave been Exvpri, 

misled by knowing that Apollodorus 3. A writer of dreams, and a native of 
wr<»to, in trimeter Iambics, a Poetical Telmissus, mentioned by Artemidorus. 
(■hronology in four books, commencing 4. Grammarians. — One of Cyrene, 
with the full of Troy, and derived pro- quoted by the Scholiasts on Aristophanes 
biibly from the authors who detailed the and Euripides ; another of Cuma, whom 
ndvtMiturcH of the chiefs on their return Clemens Alexandr. in Strom, i. calls the 
home. He is said to have written also, first of critics; and a third of Tarsus, 
ill the Hfune measure, a work on geogra- who was also, according to Suidas, atragio 

£liy, which Scymnus of Chios, and writer, 
^ionysius of Chorax, took as their models, 5. A writer of hymns, known only by 

44 



APO APO 

a M^tary ouoUtion of Erotiaiii in T#p- restoring her countryman to liberty. At 

Bpov, a subsequent period he was tried nimself 

6. The philologist of Aspendus, who for aiming at sovereign power ; when he 
was buried at Ephesus, as uiown by an not only assumed himself the black dresa 
inscription discovered on hi^ tomb, erected of a criminal, but clothed his wife and 
by his brother. children in a similar garb, and threw 

7. Philoeophers. — 1. A follower of De- himself on the mercy of his judges, who^ 
mocritus, ana a native of Cyzicus, as may out of pity for the innocent, acquitted 
be inferred from Diogenes Laert in even the guilty. Scarcely, however, was 
Democrit ix. 38 ; and, accordung to Pliny, he set at liberty than he seized upon the 
a writer on magic. 2. The Epicurean, reins of government, through the aid of 
called Ki|iro-rvpavyof, the kmg of the gar" the very troops of Eurydice, which had 
den, which was the name of the place at been previously withdrawn from the 
Athens frequented by Epicurus, whose citadel, and settled at Pellene; and, to 
life and doctrines seem to nave made the show either his ingratitude, or notions of 
subject of the forty volumes of ApoUodo- strict justice, he punished severely the 
rus. 3. The Penpatetic to whom, says very parties who had acquitted him. Like 
Fabricius, was pernaps written the letter Catihne, he is said to have murdered a 
of Lynceus, quoted by Athenseus, ix. youth called Callimeles, and, with the 
c. 14. 4. The Pythagorean and arith- assistance of his cook, to have served up 
metician mentioned by Athen. x. p. 458, some of the limbs before his fellow-con* 
and for which Apollodotus is wronely spirators; to whom, after they had pledged 
written in Plutarch, ii. p. 1094, Xyl. ; the wine-cup, where human blood was 
and a similar mistake, says Fabricius, is mixed with the juice of the grape, he 
in Qemens Alexandr. Strom, ii. p. 417, showed the remamder of the boy's body, 
with regard to the follower of Democritus. and thus reacted the scene of the banquet 
5. The friend of Socrates, but of manner of Thyastes. His cnielties, however, 
so rouffh that he was called the madman, seem to have only led to his more cer* 
and who, to show his respect for his poor tain destruction. The pirate - leader, 
teacher, or ridicule of costly bunals, Aminias, at the instigation of Antigonus, 
brought Socrates a dress of the finest formed an alliance with Apollodorus, and 
wool, in which he was to die after drink- the better to lull all suspicion of treachery, 
ine the cup of hemlock, as we learn from sent food and wine to Cassandrea, during 
.^Elian, V.ll. i. 16. 6. The Stoic, whose the siege of ten months which that place 
treatise on Ethics is mentioned by Dio- sustained against the army of Antigonus. 
genes Laertius, and a fragment of one on Deceived by the pretended absence of 
Physics preserved by Stobseus. On the the enemy, the troops of Apollodorus 
latter work Theon, a Stoic of Alexandria, kept a less strict guard than usual. In 
wrote a book, as stated by Suidas. He is the mean while, Aminias prepared his 
called E^iXXoff by Diogenes Laertius, but scalinfi^^ladders of the height of the walls, 
SylluM by Cicero, de N. D. i. 34, wliich and placed about 2000 troops under a 
would lead to ABrjkvs ; for, like Plato, he hill not far from the town. Finding, 
was probably no friend of the fair sex. after a time, that only a few soldiers 

8. Rhetoricians. — ^The first of these at day-break lined the ramparts, Aminias 
taught Augustus Csesar the science of bade ten pirates, under the t^ommand of 
oratory at Apollonia, and is said by Melotas, to creep up to a place between 
Lucian in Macrob. ss. 23, to have lived two towers, and raising tne ladders, to 
to the age of eighty- two; the second is give a signal to the rest to rush firom 
reproached by S. Nilus, in Epist. i. 75, their hiding-place ; who after scaling the 
having relapsed into Paganism after he walls made themselves masters of the 
had been converted to Christianity. town, and freed it from the tyranny of 

APOLLODORUS of CASSiLNDREA. Ac- Apollodorus. 
cordinff to Polysenus, vi. 7, 6, he was APOLLODORUS. There were two 

originiuly a hater of tyrants, but afterwards artists of this name : — * 

became himself a most cruel one. Bein^ a 1 . A painter of Athens, who flourished in 

leading man in the state, he obtained a the 93d Olympiad, or about the year 409 

decree for the expulsion of Lachares, for B. c. Pliny, notwithstanding his previous 

havine formed an alliance with Antiochus, high eulogium on Polygnotus, who he 

with uie view of betrayinfi" the city into says was the first artist that gave ease 

his hands. He opposed likewise, most and grace to his figures, asserts that 

strenuously, the e;rant of a body-guard Apollodorus was the mi who contributed 

to Theodotusy and assisted Eurydice in to the glory of painting, and that before 

45 



APO APO 

he appeared there was no production of tul»ugated every leadinc^ power in Europe 

the art worthy to attract the attention of and Asia, and was anxious to adorn her 

the spectator. Bryan thus reconciles triumphs with all the spoils of those 

this seeming contradiction : "Polygnotus coimtries, in which the arts had flou- 

divestcd his design of the stifihess and rished. It was now the ohject of her 

formality which existed hefore him, emperors to render the city of the Seven 

clothed his females with more elegant Hills as much an ohject of admiration for 

draperies, gave superior expression to the splendoiur of her edifices, as her war- 

his neads, and more varied attitudes to riors had heen for the hrilliancy of their 

his figures; yet his colouring was cold victories; and the artists of Greece 

and feehle, and he was little acquainted flocked hither to acquire those opportu- 

with effect. But ApoUodorus showed nities for the display of their talents, 

more dexterity in the handling of the which were denied them in their own 

pencil, was the first who succeeded in subjugated country. The Romans, who 

the blending of his tones, and in the dis- were essentially a nation of warriors, had 

tribution of his light and shadow, by hitherto neglected the cultivation of the 

which he may be styled the inventor of fine arts, and were glad to avail them- 

the chiar-oscuro." Two of his pictures selves of the intellectual powers of men. 

were admired at Pergamus in the time of who had received a polished and refinea 

Pliny : a Priest in a suppliant posture, education in the groves of Academus, or 

and Ajax struck with Minerva's Thunders, under porticoes, where the principles of 

He was the preceptor of Zeuxis, whose esthetics, as practised by Ictinus,Apelle8, 

celebrity occasioned no enmity or envy and Phidias, were taugnt with the utmost 

in his hreast. On the contrary, Apol- success. The name of ApoUodorus stands 

lodorus wrote verses in praise of his prominent in the list of those foreign 

talents, in which he complains " that the artists, who flourished during the reign 

art of painting has been stolen from him, of Trajan, a most brilliant epoch of 

and that it was Zeuxis that had committed Roman art. Pausanias and Dion Casaius 

the thefl ! " He is, however, said not to particularly mention the baths or gynma- 

have been free from vanity, for he con- sium, a circular theatre or odeon, and the 

tidered himself at one time the prince of celebrated forum of Trajan, as having 

painters, and never appeared in public been designed by our architect Of the 

without wearing on his head a tiara, after two former buildings there are no known 

the fashion of the Mcdes. He wrote a remains, but the Trajan column, which 

treatise on the rules of painting. exists in all its pristine beauty, and the 

2. A statuary of the age of Alexander, ruins of the basilica, which recent exca- 

who from his irascible nature was called vations have brought to light, mark Uie 

ApoUodorus the Mad. His works were spot where the genius of ApoUodorus 

distinguished for their care and clabo- triumphed, and prove that the forum of 

rateness, yet upon the slightest pro voca- Trojan surpassed every other eroup of 

tion he would destroy them. Ins friend cdihces in Rome, whether consiaered for 

SUanion cast a brazen statue of him, its extent and arrangement, the sumptu- 

which represented him with such exact- ousness of its matenals, or the exquisite 

ness, that the resentment of the artist taste displayed in its various enrich- 

seemed, as expressed, alive in the coun- ments. 

tenance. Rome already possessed four Font 

APOLLODORUS. A Greek archi- superbly decorated by preceding empe- 
tect, who flourished at Rome in the first rors with stately edifices, appropriated 
century of the christian era, during the to tlie general meetin£;s of the people^ 
reigns of Trajan and Hadrian. He was the transaction of public or private busi- 
of Damascus, but apparently born of ness, and the judicial proceedings. But 
Greek parents. Nothing however is these were all surpassea by the one which 
knouii uf the earlier period of this archi- Trajan erected out of the spoUs taken 
tect's life; we are therefore unacquainted from the Dacian war. The principal 
with the course of studies which he fol- entrance was probably from the forum of 
lowed, the particular school in which he Octavius Augustus. Here was a magni- 
acquired the elements of his art, or with ficent marble arch, adorned with columns 
the reasons which induced him to settle and choice sculptures, and surmounted 
at Rome. Greece had lost that political by groups of equestrian figures and tro- 

Sreeminence, whicli had at one time ren- pnies, portions ofwhich were subsequently 
^ ered her the most important and flourish- transferred to the arch of Constantine. 
ing country in the world. Rome had and now constitute its most admireq 

40 ^^ 



AFO APO 

decoration, shining out from the barbarous ings, the* rej^resentations on'medali, and 
sculptures of the time of the christian the descriptions of ancient writers, can 
emperor, by which they are surrounded, give only a fuint idea of the majestic 
The pnncipal court was of ample extent, splendour of this series of edifices, which 
surrounded on three of its sides with excited the wonder and admiration of 
colonnades of marble, and paved with the ancients. Anmiianus Marcellinus 
slabs of the same material. Tlie side which states, that Constautius was so struck with 
faced the arch was occiipied by a splendid the beauty of the equestrian statue of 
basilica, called the L Ipion from the Trajan, that he expressed his detcrmina-r 
prenomen of the emperor, and statues tion to have a similar one executed for 
were erected by him on pedestals around himself. Omiisdas, the Persian, who 
the area in honour, not only of illustrious stood near the prince, observed, in allu- 
men of fonner periods, but of the distin- sion to the forum, "First build as splendid 
guished statesmen, warriors, poets, artists, a stable to receive your horse, and you 
and philosophers of his own time. The may then hope to possess as fine an 
basilica consisted of a nave 83 feet wide animal to occupy it.'* No monument is 
and two aisles on each side, fonning a more famous in histor)* than the gigantic 
total aggregate width of about 180 Kei bridge by which Apollodorus, at the com- 
between the walls, and probably five or mand of Trajan, spanned the broad and 
six hundred feet in length. The shafU rapid Danube. The narrowest part of 
of the columns were of granite 80 feet this impetuous torrent was chosen, yet 
high, and the bases, capitals, and enta- even here the banks were 4770 Roman 
blatures, of white marble ; the pavement feet apart. Tliere were twenty piers of 
was laid with slabs of pavonnazzo, gial- stone, 150 feet liigh and 60 wide. The 
loantico, and light-veined marble: and modern historians, who ouote Dion Cas- 
the roof is mentioned by Pnusnnias as sius, are in doubt whetner the arches 
remarkable for being covered with brass, were of stone or wood. As a military 
On the other side ox the basilica was an bridge they may have been of the latter : 
area somewhat smaller than tliat previ- but the otner works of the Romans, and 
ously described, having on either side a the point made by Trajan's successor to 
library, the one for Grecian, the other for destroy this work, which would have 
Latin manuscripts. There were also been so easy to accomplish had the arches 
magnificent porticoes, a superb temple to been of wood, induce the supposition that 
the emperor, his equestrian statue, and they were of solid construction, 
the celebrated marble column encircled Success seems to have rendered ApoL- 
by its spinil band of sculpture, which lodorus impatient of criticism, for being 
ynndi from the base to the capital, illus- one day with Trajan to whom he was 
trating the principal events of the Dacian explaining some designs, Hadrian, who 
war by the representation of fortresses was present, offered a remark so dis- 
erectea, stormed, and taken, the conflicts pleasing to the architect, that he bade 
of hostile bodies of warriors, the passage the prince go and paint his pumpkins, 
of rapid rivers, the allocutions of the em- and not interfere in matters which he did 
peror to his army, and triumphant pro- not understand. Tliis bitter sarcasm was 
cessions after victor}*. This majestic in allusion to a favourite style of fruit- 
pillar is constructed of solid marble painting upon which Hadrian occupied 
blocks of gigantic dimensions, the spiral much of his time. This ill-timed and 
staircase in the centre being cut out of unbecoming reproof was not forgotten by 
the mass. The total height from the the prince, who had not the greatness of 
pavement to the top of the pedestal above mind to imitate Alexander in his disre- 
the capital is 125 feet, and was sur- gard of a shnilar tauuit, which had es- 
mounted by a statue of the emperor caped the proud spirit of Apellos. When 
holding in .his hand a globe, in which, he succeeaed to the empire, he at first 
it was supposed, his ashes were depo- employed Apollodorus in si)me impurtjmt 
sited : for ancient writers state, that tiib works, but he smm sent him into banish- 
column served at once for his monument ment upon the plea of peculation or some 
and tomb. Its altitude also was intended, other impn)per transaction, which it ap- 
according to the inscription which still pears probable had no other foundation 
exists, to mark the height of the soil, than the malice of the emperor. Hadrian 
which it was necessarj' to remove in was not onlv an admirer of architecture, 
order to aflbrd space for the forum be- but was ambitious to prove that he was 
tween the CapitoUne and Quirinal hills, capable of conceiving and executing a 
The remaining fragments of these build- magnificent building. He determined 

47 






APO APO 

|]MT^>r« V> ^ittfX * A»U« t«3ipiU to densaca of 

V«rirM cb^l K/>cr.t <» t£>. Via Saen. ::«ar qixesxc 

two <>i;iU«, *t th« «iv<it 'A vaJeSi were t2i« cccas^ aLi UdeaSi cf 

|4jki^ tvo Urire bir>j««, back to bock, to u Tn^an br AjMCodcroi; 

r«:e^ v« t^«e ttaUbM <yf tibt dirziiiti£4. On bovercr ardeu m Iib adn ' 

ei t>»«r luik tA tb« eetUa were aaple eow»- wlio cndenakes to be dhe 

iuui«4, ftfid *t each end ij«>Ue ten c«>- driac Use nodactiaDS 

ltuftf»*'A poftieoef of th« Cormtbun cwder, death of Apouodorai < 

tk« ctAmuut being r/f fluted Vtunaik marUe and in fMCt. maon mntf tell is 

M%iy feet hi j^b« The sacred precmct, artisti who are protected bj a Ebcial 

which wa« 6^i (eet hm^, br 3S0 feet enlightened piince like Tngan, are 

wide, waa adr/med witli ftatnea and likely to be idmnlated in their 

hfnitjrtay eotumiu, and encloted with tions bj an independence of qirit, 

granite ptnxtyUi* in which the wonhip- enthosiaitic lore of art, and a 

per* m\ff\ii be protected from the heat or ambition, than those who aze oUigcd to 

rain, and which were approached from ftudj with mhmiaiTe awe die peculiar 

the lower level of the Via Sacra hy ipa- tastes and notions of a patron fike Hn- 

ci'ius flights of steps. The whole edifice drian, for he conceires hnnaelf qualified 

was dec^jrated with a magnificence and not only to judge hot to direct the inrai* 

richneas of ornament, that must hare tion of the artist. Such was the state of 

been mr/st imposing. In fact, the em- architecture during the re^g;us of dieae 

peror was so mucn pleased with the emperors, Trajan and Hadrian, an cpoeh 

result, that he forwarded drawings of the the most prosperous for architecture smce 

temple Ui Apollodr;rus in his exile, with the time of Augustus. Aray of ita gloiy 

the view Ut humble the architect by the descended upon some of the monuments 

consciousness that a grand edifice could of Antoninus Pius, of which the Corin- 

be erected without his assistance. Adver- thian temple in the Campo Vaccine^ 

sit^ however had not softened the proud erected to Antoninus and Faustina, la an 

■pint of Apollodorus, nor taught him the exquisite example : hut the palmy days 

clanger or wounding the pride of an of the art were passed, and a rapid decline 

fmperor. lie wrote in replv, that the in taste rendered each successive erection 

ti'inplc was defective in height, and the a wider and more glaring departure from 

lowiM'NN of the basement did not allow the elegance and purity of taste, which 

the itilro<luction of the machines for the so particularly distinguished the produc* 

aiiipliittifutre, wliich sliould be there tions of the briUiant and the refined 

pri'pured and thence introduced uncx- genius of Apollodorus. (Canina Deacri- 

pectcdlv into the area. He also re- zione Storica del Foro Romano. L'Archi- 

iriurkiMl tliiit the statues of the goddesses tettura Antica [Romanal descritta e di- 

wcri* diiiproiKirtionally large, for if thev mostrata coi Monumenti, tomo settimo. 

rose 111) from their thrcines they would crush Burgess, Antiquities of Rome. Caristie, 

their iieails ngiiinst the ceilings. These Plan et Coupe d'une Partie du Forum 

riMiiiirks sunk deeply into the mind of Romain et des Monumens sur la Voie 

thi< diNapiM>int(*d cinpcrorarchitcct, who Sacr^e. Taylor and Cresy, Architectural 

hiul liopiMi t(i have extorted Home cxpres- Antiquities of Rome.) 
sioiiM of prnirie from the mortified exile, ArOLLONIDES. History has pre- 

fiiid hf roiiMcijufiitiy scut orders for his served the memory of six persons of this 

iiiiiiicdiutt' rxccution. name : — 1. The tragic writer of an un* 

If w«» roinpun* tliu works executed known period, a few of whose fragments 

during llie reigiiH of Trajan and lladrinii, have been preserved by Stobaeus and 

who wt'n* rrrtaiiily groator patrons of Clemens Alcxandrinus. 2. The Stoic phi- 

thr riiit' arts than any of their predeccs- losopher, and the friend of Cato of Utica. 

MorM hIiut AugUHtuH, wo shall observe 3 and 4. Two epigrammatists, of Smyrna 

tliat in thoHe huildings executed by the and Nictea, the former of whom is thought 

t'oriiuT, cHpcrially tlumo which were de- to have lived in the time of Augustus, and 

sif'iuul hy Apollodorus, greater punty of the latter in that of Adrian. To the 

oi nanieiit and elegance of proportion pre- Smymean, Schoell, in Histoire de la Litt^ 

vailed, hut in those directed i>y Hadrian rature Grecque, iv. p. 48, would attribute 

greater inaguiticence of conception and the Commentary on theSiXXot of Timon, 

proliinion of decoration : in fact, as he which Diogenes Laertius, ix. 109, saya 

united the characters of architect and was dedicated to Tiberius Csesar, while, 

sovereign, he was restrained by no consi- in iii. p 181, he assigns it, on the autho- 

•18 



APO APO 

rity of Diogenes, to the Nicaean. 5. He 1. Andrea Tqfi, who flooriahed in the 
who was called Hor-Apius, probably early part of the thirteenth century, 
from his being a priest of Horus and called Greco Maestro ApoUonio del Tafi, 
Apis in £g3rpt, wrote on the religious of whom Lanzi gives the following ac- 
rites of his country, and on the fruitless count He was Sie pupil of Apollonius, 
labours of its kings, in a work under the a Greek artist, and assisted hun in the 
title of Semenouthi, as we learn from church of St. John, in some pieces of 
Eudocia, in Violet, p. 49, who probably Mosaic, from scriptural history, which, 
obtained her information firom Theophilus according to Vasari, are without inven- 
of Antioch, ii. f. 85, who makes mention tion or desijni ; but he improved as he 
likewise of an Apollonius, in iii. f. 127, proceeded, tor the last part of the work 
whom Fabricius would identify with was better than the beginning. Baldi- 
Apollonides. nucci has asserted that he was a disciple 
APOLLGNIDES, (AiroXXcovtdiyr,) a of Cimabue ; but Lanzi observes, " Cim»- 
native of the island of Cos, and a physi- hue is not named in these works, nor in 
cian at the court of Persia, who fell in what Tafi afterwards executed without 
love with Amytis, the daughter of Xerxes, assistance; and as he was old when 
and, under pretence of curing her of a Cimabue began to teach, I cannot con- 
daneerous illness, persuaded her to gra- ceive how he can be reckoned the scholar 
tify his sinful passion. For this he was of the latter, or a branch of that root." 
given u]^ by the king Artaxerxes Longi- (Lanzi, Stor. Pitt i. 22.) 
manus into the hands of her mother 2. AgottinOy di S.Angelo in Vado, a 
Amistris, who tortured him in prison painter of the Roman school in the mid- 
during two months, and at last ordered die of the sixteenth century. He was 
him to be buried alive as soon as Amytis the nephew and heir to Luzio Dolce, and 
died, about Ol. 80, b. c. 460. (Ctesias, removed and settled in Castel Durante, 
De Reb. Pers. § 42, ed. Baehr.) In order now called Urbania, in the state of Ur- 
to lessen in some degree the guilt of bino, where he executed works both in 
Apollonides, it should be mentioned that stucco and in oils, particularly at San 
Amytis was a woman of most abandoned Francesco. He succeeded bow to the 
character, who, even during the life of practice and the property of his maternal 
her husband Megabyzus, had been con- imcle. (Lanzi, Stor. Pitt. ii. 165.) 
victed of adultery, and after his death 3. Jacopo da JBattano, (1584 — 1654,) 
carried on her licentious amours without a painter of the Venetian school, grand- 
control (Ctesias, loco cit, and § 28 and son, and the ablest disciple of Jacopo da 
30). She is probably the same person Ponte, called Bassano. His style is that 
who is called Anutis (Avovtls) by Dinon of his master, and liis works are only 
(De Reb. Pers. apud Athen. Deipnosoph. distinguishable from those of Bassano, 
lib. xiii. § 89, p. 609), and said to have by a less vigorous tone, a less animated 
been KaXXtarrj ray (p tjj Ao-tf yvvaiKov touch, and an inferiority in the delicacy 
Kai aKoXaarroTaTtjf " the most oeautifUl of his contours. Some of .his best works 
woman in Asia, and the most profligate." consist of a Magdalen, in the Dome at 
There seems to be no reasonable ground Bassano, and a San Francesco at the Re- 
for doubting (as some persons have done) formati ; but his most celebrated work is 
the truth of Ctesias 's statement the titular and various other saints at 

APGLLGNIDES, a physician of Cy- the church of San Sebastiano, the princi- 

prus, of the Methodic sect, the pupil of pal subject of which represents the mar- 

Olympicus and. tutor of Jtdianus, about tyrdom of that saint. Melchiori states 

the end of the first century, a. d. (Galen, his age to have been sixty-eight (Lanzi, 

Meth.Med.lib.i.c.7,pp.53,54,ed.Kuhn.) Stor. Pitt iii. 130.) 

A surgeon of the same name is men- APOLLONIS, a lady of Cyzicus, wife 

tioned by Artemidorus (Oneirocrit lib. of Attains, king of Pergamus, celebrated 

iii. cap. 3) ; and Aetius quotes a pre- chiefly for the filial piety of her sons, 

scription of ApoUoniades, which may Verses made upon her are given by Jacob, 

possibly be a corruption of the same in the Exercitotiones in Script. Vet Lips, 

name. (Tetrab. ii. Serm. iv. cap. 48.) It 1797, vol. ii. 

should, however, be noticed, that in the APOLLONIUS, a courtier and general 

passages of Galen referred to above, it of Antiochus Epiphanes, who committed 

is doubtful whether the true reading is great cruelties in Judsea, but was defeated 

AnoWoividov or A7roXXei>vtov. and put to death by Judas Maccabsus. 

APOLLONIO. Tlie works of three Another Apollonius was defeated by 

painters of this name are recorded : Jonathan. 

TOL. II. 49 JB 



APO APO 

APOLLONIUS. Of the indiTidiiali ion may be most eamett, and mort mild 

who bore thu name antecedent to the In ^ring instructioiiy he was neitiicr 

time when Alexandria became, what captions nor arrogant; esteeming Ua skiB 

Athens had been, the seat of letters, in conTeying truths or pfoblems, as the 

science, and art, histoiy records only least among his inteUectoal gifts. Fram 

three. The first was a physician of him also I learned how to receiTe what 

Abdcra, who lived prior to Hippocrates; are called faronrs without becoming de- 

the second was a disciple of the father of pendent, or migratefiiL" 

medicine, mentioned by Galen, tom.r. p. APOLLONIUS of LaoDiCBAf a Greek 

83, Bas. ; and the third, a son of the Ante- astrologer, whose work, entitled Apote- 

player Chseris, as stated by the Scholiast lesmata, still remains in MS. in the Royal 

on Aristophanes, and who i4ipears, by Library at PSris, MS. Gr. 2419. In the 

Apollonius, in Lex. Homeric, to hare catalogue of the Paris maniiBcripta this 

been a commentator on Homer. The treatise is e rro n e ou sly ascribed to Apol- 

rest, amounting to npwards of seventy, lonius of Perga. He is mentioned with 

have left nothing but their names, with commendation by Paulus Alexandiinai 

the exception of Uie poet and the mm- as having corrected many of the emm 

marian of Alexandria ; the philosopher of of the ^yptian astrologers. 

Tvana, whose life has been written by APOLLONIUS PE&GJECS. ApoDo- 

PniloRtratus ; the geometrician of Pergae ; nius of Perga, in Pamphylia, one of the 

the rhetoricians of Alabanda ; and the most celebrated of the Greek geometers, 

Stoic philosopher of Chalcis. was born in the third century befiire 

APOLLONIUS of Chalcis in Syria, Christ, in the reign of Ptolemy Eoergetes. 

^Chalcidic6, — x'^^^^^^^^ ^ Eusebius is Of his life we know nothing except that 

incorrect,) — an eminent professor of the he was one of the Alexancvine school. 

Stoic philosophy in the age of the Anto- and a successor of Euclid the geometer. 

nines, and one of the preceptors of He is principally known by a very elabo- 

M. Aurelius. He was rerident at Athens, rate work on the Conic Sections, m eight 

when the elder Antoninus sent for him books, of which the first seven only are 

to assist in the education of his adopted extant They were first published hy 

sons, Marcus and JElius Verus. The Borelli in 1661, fi^m an Arabic version ; 

pliilosoplicr came to Rome, but refused the eighth book was afterwards supplied 

to attend his pupils at the palacc^ — the by Dr. Halley in the splendid Oxford 

Domus Tibcriana — saying that it befitted edition of 1710, when the whole of the 

rather tlic pupil to come to his master. Greek text was published, together with 

Whence it appeared, as Antoninus re- a Latin translation, as well as the Com- 

marked, to be easier for Apollonius to mentary of Eutocius, the Lemmata of 

travel from Greece to Italy, than from Pappus, and the treatise of Serenus ou 

his lodging to the Palatine. Apollonius the same subject. Apollonius was also di»- 

WAs accused of avarice ; and in his ac- tinguished among the ancient mathemati- 

count of Dcmonax, Lucian makes the cians for his course of geometry, which. 

Cynic exclaim — " lloom for Apollonius in the Alexandrine school, obtained the 

and his Argonauts;" the object of his title of Toiros Avakvofuvost and 

H 




TQivivov traipov ; but many of this ntimc parata, qui in geomctricis sibi comparare 

arc mentioned by PhilostrntuR, Vit. Soph, volunt vim ac facultatem inveniendi 

xix. XX. ; Kutropiufl, viii. 12; Dio, Ixxi. problemata, qua; ipsis proponuntur." 

.l/i ; Lueiim, &c. &c. • hoc jJso Casaubon. (Collect. Math. edit. 1588, fol. 157, 8vo.) 

Not. ad ('nj)itolin. in Antonin. Pio. c. x. This collection included the loei toUdi of 

4; nnd (iataker, nd M. Anton, i. c. 8. Aristaeus the elder, the /oet at/ ^tiper/icsffss 

*Y\\v <-]ittrftcter of Apollonius is, however, of Euclid, and the data and poritmata of 

exhibited in a more favourable light by the same writer. We shall notice those 

hiH imperial pupil, (l)e Rebus Suis. I. by Apollonius in their proper order, 

c. H.) •* From Apollonius," he says, 1. De proportionis sectione. — ^The ob- 

*' I learned to be free]; to leave nothing ject of tliis treatise may be defined by 

to chanee ; to enteem nothing but reason ; the enunciation of the following pro- 

and whether in Rhaq) pains, in lingering blem : — " Tlirough a given point to draw 

diwane, (»r under bereavement of children, a straight line cutting two other straight 

to be always the same. In bin), as in a lines given in position, so that the scg- 

living example, I saw that the same per- mcnts may have a given proportion." 

50 



APb APO 

"^4 work itself is lost, but Dr. HaHey ctrculum describere per tmumquodqUe 

attempted a restoration of it, pnblisbea datomm ptmctomm, qui tmamquamqae 

at Oxford in 1706. lineamm datamm contingat" Yieta 

2. De ttcUcne apatiu — ^This is a gene- restored this tract in a work called Apol- 
ral problem, similar to the former : — lonius Gallus, printed at Paris in 1600, 
" Per datum punctum rectam lineam and reprinted in the Schooten edition of 
ducere secantem, a duabus rectis lineis his works ; but although the solutions of 
positaone datis ad data puncta, lineas Vieta are elegant, yet they are in several 
quse spatium contineant dato spatio respects deficient. There is not a fUU 
equale.'* This is the only treatise in the distinction either of the cases, or of the 
Toirof Avakvofiepov by ApoUonius which necessary determinations ; no analysis i9 
has descended to us, and it was published given, and no attempt to restore the Apol- 
by Dr. Halley in 1706, from an Arabic Ionian solutions by tne use of the I.«mifiato 
manuscript discovered by Bernard in the in Pappus, which had been assumed in the 
Bodleian library at Oxford. work of Apollonius. A superior restora- 

3. De tedione determinata. — ^A general tion by Jonn William Camerer appeared 
problem : — " Datam infinitam rectam at Gotha in 1795, containing also a valu- 
lineam uno puncto secare, ita ut intetjec- able and curious history of the problem, 
tarum linearum ad data ipsius puncta, and interesting for the accounts which it 
vel unius quadratum, vel rectangulum gives of the labours of some foreign 
duabus contentum datam proportionem mathematicians upon this problem, which 
habeat, vel ad rectangulum contentum are little known in this country. He also 
una ipsanim interjecta, et alia extra data, gives the preface and lemmata of the 
vel duabus interjectis contentum punctis tactions in Greek, from a Dresden ma- 
ad utrasque partis datis.*' Pappus in- nuscript; and on examination we find 
forms us (Collect. Math. fol. 159, 8vo) that the version agrees nearly word for 
that the first book contains " problemata word with that in the celebrated Codex 
sex, epitagmata sexdecim, et determina- Barocianus in the British Museum. See 
tiones quinque, quarum quatuor maximse, also Montucla, tom. iii. p. 14 ; Pappi 
atque una minima." The meaning of Collect. Math. fol. 159. 

epitagmata in this passage has given rise 5. De locit planU, — ^This treatise wad 
to much discussion among the learned, restored by Francis Schooten and Peter 
and Barrow (Lect. Mat p. 127) went so Fermat; the latter indeed gave ageome- 
far as to suspect that ApoUonius had trical restoration, but synthetical only, 
never used the word, but that perhaps it without analysis, and deficient also in 
had crept in by the carelessness of^the other material points, particularly in the 
transcribers, for ctti ravra. A little re- distinction of the cases, and in ascertain- 
fiection would readily show that this ing the determinations. The restoration 
conjecture is quite erroneous, and fi^m by Schooten, published in 1657, has simi- 
an application of the word tirirayfia which lar defects ; in a few only of the problems 
we find in the work of Archimedes on an analysis, and one purely algebraical ; 
the Conoid, we are inclined to believe and he acknowledges in his preface that 
that Apollonius intended nothing but his restoration was dcsignea to be an 
lemmata, (Vid. de Con. et Sper. lib. i. illustration of the geometry of Des Cartes* 
p. 22.) Lemmas, indeed, in this parti- by furnishing proper examples of his 
cular instance, would include the neces- method. With such views, it is scarcely 
sary distinction of the various situations necessary to observe that both these re- 
of the points, the object to which Dr. storations were complete failures; and 
Simson referred the epitagmata. This Bsaln are we indebted to Dr. Simson, 
treatise of Apollonius was first restored wnose restoration was printed in 1.750. 
by WildebrodTSneU, but in a very knper- Such is the elegance of method, and the 
feet manner ; Alexander Anderson uke- ingenuity of demonstration in this work^ 
wise solved some of the particular cases that he has truly exhibited a copy, or at 
of the general problem ; and lastly, the least so very nearly a copy, of the work of 
masterly hand of Dr. Robert Simson Apollonius, that little regret need be felt 
completed a restoration, which has been for the loss of the original. The preface 
believed by competent judges to excel also is well deserving the attention of 
the existing works of Apollonius himself: those who wish to acquire just notions of 
this was published in the Opera Reliqua. the ancient books of analysis. 

4. De tactionibus. — An easy general 6. De inclinalionihu, — Restored very 
problem: " Punctis et rectis lineis etcir- ably by Ghetaldus in 1613, and after* 
vulistribus quibuscunque positione datis, wards (1779) by Mr; Reuben Burrow. 

51 b2 



APO APO 

Thblast claims the preference in point of interpolated, firom wbat he fimnd in die 
mathematical skill. The object of this testament of Apoflonius, (^MtAfaoi, Phi- 
work was the following general problem : lostrat. L 3,) Uie note-book of Damu, 
" Duabus Uneis positione datis inter ipsas and the biographies of Maximos, Mcera- 
ponererectamlineammagnitudinedatam, genes, and others now lost. For the 
qus ad datum punctum pertineat." marvellous narrative of the Indian trayels 
After this extended notice of the ele- of Apollonius, he possibly consulted the 
mentary works of Apollonius, the elegant works of that ** crowd of contemptiUe 
and enduring ornaments of the Towos historians," who celebrated the Futhian 
AvaXvofupoSf it is not necessary to enter victories of Marcus Antoninus. Some of 
into an account of his conic sections, his stories, however, are disguised, but 
which are generally well known, and not improbable facts ; and some, perhj^M, 
have been often described. Suffice it to like the tales in Ctesias, are literal and 
say, that as a collection of curious and ignorant versions of the picture and sym- 
difficult geometrical propositions, this bol-writings, such as were to be seen cm 
work stands unrivalleo, and it would be the walls of Chel-Menar (PerseM^). 
an easy matter to puzzle most of our pre- The historical existence of ApoUonms is^ 
sent analytical mathematicians with the however, unquestionable : the pagani 
enunciations of some of them. Apol- compared his life and actions to those of 
lonius was sumamedThe Great Geometer Christ ; and our elder divines, and espe* 
among the ancients, and in the industry cially Henry More, (Mjrstery of Gooli* 
of working out his geometrical ideas on ness, b. iv. c. 2 — 15; v. c. 7, &c.) iniu- 
trial he stands a respectable rival to diciously revived the parallelism. Ae 
Archimedes. Proclus, in his commen- fathers of the church believed him a 
taries on Euclid, mentions two other magician, (Marcellin. ad Augustin. ep. 8 ; 
works, De Cochlea, and De Pertiurbatis Augustin. ep. 4, 49 ; Lactant, D. i. V. 
Rationibus, but the inaccuracy of this c. 3 ;) and after his death he received 
author is so universally acknowledged divine honours, (Dio. IxxviL c 18; 
that we should not be willing to give en- Vopiscus in Aurelian. c. 24 ; Lamprid. in 
tire credence to his single testimony. Alexand. 29) ; and intellectual homage 
Before we conclude, we must observe (see Sidon. ApoUin. ep. viii. 4; Sir* 
that Apollonius was the first who used mond.) The follow mg are perhaps among 
the words parabola, eUiptCy and hyperbola, the real events of the life of Amdlonius. 
althougli It has always been stated that Ample details will be found in lullemonty 
the two former were known to Archi- Histoire des Empereurs, voL ii. ; in Ber- 
medes ; but the first is found only in the wick's Life of Apollon. ; and in the French 
title to his treatise on the quadrature of translation of Philostratus. Berlin, 1774, 
the parabola, and the second has only 4 vols, 12mo. 

been used in the ninth proposition of his He was a native of Tyana, in Cappa* 

book on conoids and steroids — ^a strong docia, bom about the commencement of 

ground for presumption that both are the christian era, of a wealthy and illua* 

really interpolations. trious family, which traced its origin to 

APOLLONIUS of Tyana, (from the first Greek colonists of the city. At 

about A. D. 1 to 97.) For the history of the the age of fourteen, his father, who wa4 

work of Philostratus, in which he has re- also named Apollonius, sent him to Tar- 

cordcd the acts and doctrines of this cele- sus for instruction in grammar and rhe«> 

bratcd Pythagorean, see Philostratus. toric ; but the manners of the Tarsianf 

They belong, perhaps, more to a general displeasing him, he was removed at his 

liiatoryofthc times than to biography. The own request to the neighbouring town of 

life of Apollonius, as represented by Phi- -^gae. Euxenus, a Fythagorean, from 

lostratus, isprobably a symbolical account Heraclea on the Euxine (Erekli), was hit 

of the reaction of paganism in the second master in philosophy ; but the lessons and 

century, and, in common with the por- the practice of his instructor were at 

truiturc of Pythas^oras by Porphyry and variance with each other, and Apollo- 

Jamblichus, was aesigned to recommend nius determined to form for himself^ 

a purer system of morals, and to restore from the pure precepts of Pythagoras, a 

the simpler ritual, and the fontal precepts consistent system of doctrine and life. 

of the earlier ethnic creeds. It partakes Henceforth, he abstained from animal 

of the nature of a pliilosophical romance, food, and from the use of every thing 

and a book of travels. It would require, that had animal life. His garments were 

perhaps it would repay, a philological of linen : his shoes, when he did not go 

commentary, to separate what rhilostratus barefoot, were of the bark of trees. Hit 

52 



A P O A P 6 

hair and his heard were allowed to grow ; quinquennial silence. Afterwards, if hd 
and although wine was produced hy a were in a Greek city, he discoursed phi-* 
harmless and heneficent plant, he re- losophicaUy with the priests upon the 
frained from it since its effects disturbed nature of the gods, or upon the best 
the cdmness and composure of the soul, modes of restoring or purifying the local 
He cultivated assiduously the society of observances of rehgion. If among bar- 
the j>riests, and assumed the grave and barians, t. 0. strangers to the Hellenic form 
benign demeanour of one whose thoughts of polytheism, he inquired into the origin 
were abstracted from all sensual and of their rites, and reformed them when 
worldly objects. The town of Mgse was indecorous or fallen into decay. Then 
the resort of philosophers of different he gave instructions to his scholars, re- 
sects ; and from the doctrines of the Porch, solving their doubts by brief apophthegms 
the Academy, and the Garden, Apollonius and terse decisions, (do^at ppavtiai icai 
selected those which harmonized mosf adafuzyrtyot, b. I. c. 17, Vit Apol.) The 
readily with the Pythagorean. Whether noon-hours were given to a public lecture 
he were a saint, an impostor, or a fanatic, upon the Pythagorean doctrines and 
his system, voluntarily adopted at the age polity. Then the cold-bath, exercise, 
of sixteen, presupposes much strength of and the " dinner of herbs." 
character, and aemanded no ormnary From Antioch, Apollonius proceeded 
self-denial. Upon the death of his father, with two attendants only into the far east, 
Apollonius, then in his twenty-first year, to converse with the magicians at Baby- 
resigned the larger share of'^ his inheri- Ion and Susa, and with the brahmins of 
tance to his elder brother, a lover of India. He proposed to his seven dis- 
pleasure and of self, who required many ciples to attend him ; and when they ob- 
things superfluous to a philosopher. Of jected the length and dangers of the 
the remainder, he reserved but little, journey, "Do you then," he replied, 
dividing it among the poorer members of " stay and philosophize at home, but for 
his family. He now imposed on himself myself I will go whither God and wisdom 
the quinquennial silence of the I^thafo- call me." At Nineveh he met with the 
reans. During the term of restraint, his future companion of his wanderings, and 
abode was partly in Cilicia, partly in his biograpner, Damis, who to an untiring 
Pamphylia. At Aspcndus, by one of his faith, and simple honesty, added an ac- 
brief^ and pointed letters, he quieted a quaintance with the road and the Ian- 
sedition produced by the com-monopo- guages on the farther side of the En- 
lists, (b. I. c. 15 ; Pmlostrat V. A.) At phrates ; for although Apollonius knew all 
the end of the five years he repaired to the dialects of men, and had even learnt 
Antioch, where he publicly lectured on the from the Arabians to interpret the voices 
doctrines of the Samian philosophy. But of animals, he did not disdain the services 
his method was opposite to that of So- of an experienced guide and linguist, 
crates. He avoided places of public This is probably one of the inconsistencies 
resort, and promiscuous assemblies, say- Philostratus did not find in his original 
ing, that he required for his hearers not documents; bince in his adorned and 
people but men — ovk cofOp^ir^v €avT<p idealized tale there is still enough of plain 
ofiv aXKa avhp^v. The shady spaces of story to make the adventures of ApoUo- 
groves, especially within the precincts of nius not more extraordinary than those of 
a temple, or around a gymnasium, were any other traveller with similar objects 
his favourite resort He dictated rather would have appeared at the time this 
than discoursed: lightly esteeming the journey, if not altogether fabulous, was 
dialectic and rhetoricid display of the undertaken. Apollonius himself appears 
Platonic and Peripatetic teachers. He to have disclaimed supernatural gifts : he 
adopted the avros «f>a of Pythagoras, practised divination indeed, and the inter- 
saymg that in his youth he had doubted pretation of dreams, but in no greater 
and inquired, but in his manhood he measure than a well-educated augur or 
knew and taught. Throughout his pub- hierophant might have done ; and these 
lie ministry, the aim of Apollonius was were arts whicn had been cultivated for 
to restore the original meaning and ritual centuries, and reduced to fixed laws of 
of the different forms of paganism, under calculation. His eastern journey is, how- 
its subdivisions of divine, hero, and daemon ever, so obscure and mixed up with fic- 
worship. The first hours after sunrise tion, that it will be sufficient to observe 
were devoted to personal ceremonies per- that his intercourse with the Parthian Bar- 
formed in solituae, or in the presence of danes (see Tacit. Ann. 11, 8; Joseph, 
auch alone as had passed through the Antiq. xx. 2) at Babylon, fixes Uie dato 

53 



A P O A P O 

of ApoUoniiis'i travels to about -IS — 50, refused initiation to the mysteries on the 
A. D. But both the times and the geo- ground of his being an enchanter : he 
graphy of Philostratus are inexplicable ; wa^ admitted, however, four years after- 
sine e he allows Apollonius onlv four wards. He reformed the ritual of Athens, 
inontha to go from the Tigris to tne seat in its several departments of sacrifice, 
of the brahmins, near the Ganees, and libation, and prayer ; and reproved the 
return by the coast up the Euphrates to Athenians for corrupting the Dionysiac 
Ijabylon again ; and he makes the Ganges festivals with the profusion and cruelty 
and the Indus to be not distant one from of the Roman games of the Arena. He 
the other. "The magi," Apollonius said, visited in succession all the temples of 
'* taught him something, and learnt some- Greece, from Dodona to that of the Car* 
thing from him in return ;" and that nean Apollo at Sparta ; the caves of Am- 
" they were wise, but not thoroughly so." phiaraus andTrophonius, and the national 
The brahmins he ever after acknowledged games at Elis and the Isthmus. He 
as his masters in wisdom ; and at a later arrived in Italy just after the publication 
period of his wanderings contrasted their of Nero*s edict against the philosophers, 
sound and liberal philosophy with the (Plin. H. N. xxx. 5 ; see Musonius.) 
intolerance of the /Ethiopian Gymnoso- Of thirty-four disciples who accompanied 
phists, and the envious and selfish spirit Ai)ollonius to Aricia, within sixteen miles 
of the Greek professors. Upon his return of Rome, eight only ventured within the 
from the east, Apollonius viaited Cjiirus walls of the capital. On the morning 
and Ephesas, where he passed nmcn of after his arrival, Apollonius was brought 
his remaining life. It is probable that before the consul, C. Lucius Telesinus, 
tlie zeal of Apollonius in the restoration which determines his journey to Rome to 
of paganism procured him the favour of ▲.d. 6G, and received permission to \*isit 
the oracles, and a general introduction to the temples, and to associate with the 
all the sanctuaries and religious confra- priests. The reputation of Apollonius 
teriiities of the Roman empire. And this had preceded him ; his appearance, and 
supposition, in connexion with the inti- that of his companions, drew general at- 
mate correspondence which the managers tention ; and under his supenntendence 
of the oracles and the various priesthoods the paganism of Rome assumed for a 
maintained with one another for their time a more rational and earnest aspect. 
c.onniion interests, if not for political pur- The indiscretion of the Cjnic Demetrius, 
poses, takes off sonic of the improbability however, brought him into some danger, 
of what is attributed in his later years to He was summoned before the notorious 
the agency of Apollonius in the conspi- Tigellinus, who seems to have dismissed 
racies formed against Nero and Doniitian. him with some trepidiition. When, on 
At E])hesus, the handicraftsmen left their his departure for Greece, Nero renewed 
workshops to follow him, some astonished his edict against the philosophers, Apol- 
ut his wisdom, some at his majestic form, lonius pursued his journey to the vest, 
and his peculiar habits of life. The ora- having heard that at Gades there were 
clc's of Colophon, of Pergamum, and of men of no ordinary wisdom, and to he- 
Didvmi, declared him a partaker of the hold the tides of the Atlantic, ras cui- 
wisuoiu of Apollo. Delegates were sent nwras tov QKiavov cTro^o/xcvor, lib. I V. 
by many cities appointing him a public c. -17. He seems to have been privy to 
guest, or requesting his advice upon the the various conspiracies of the legions of 
rf«(uhiti(m of religious affairs — fitaiKav tc the West against Nero. The interval of 
id()V(r€is Kui ayaXfjLUTiav — or of private the civil wars that followed the death of 
actions and life. After freeing Knliesus tliat emperor was passed by Apollonius 
from the phiguo, (see Vit. Apoll. IV. in various journeys in Africa and Sicily, 
c. 10} where a statue was erected to him, and in a second progress, in the character 
witli the attributes of Hercules, the of a religious reformer, through Greece 
avcrter of calamity — 'lipaKXrjs ukf^iKUKos, and the islands of the Archipelago. At 
and a short residence at Smyrna, whose Alexandria, where he was welcomed with 
citizens he praised for their good disposi- solemn processions as a divine being, 
tions to K'arning and leurned men, Apol- (a. d. 69-70,) he met with Vespasian, 
lonius priK'eeded to Athens. In the who availed himself of the influence and 
Troad he oiiered saeritices to the manes reputation of Apollonius with the people, 
of tht* ancient Ach.'i'aiis, and passed a and aifectcd to believe his title to the 
ni;;ht on the mound of Achilles; and it empire confinned by the sanction of the 
was reported that tlie shade of that hero philosopher. Apollonius, on the other 
sppoared to him. At Athens he was hand, rejoiced at the prospect of a 



APO APO 

lagilant and temperate sacceeaor to the A, 456;) he could transfonn himself into 
Caesan. At this time hegan his quarrel a wild heast, a tree, or running water, he 
with the philosophers in the train of should never be let out Within thre^ 
Vespasian, and especially with Euphrates, days, however, ApoUonius was released, 
who in the reign of Domitian, caused and directed to be ready with his defence 
him to be apprehended on a charge of at the end of five days. He then ordered 
treason and oi ma^cal arts, and who was Damis to go down to Puteoli, and with 
probably ^e origmal of many Hhds not Demetrius to await him on the shore 
at aU favourable to the sanctity of Apol- opposite Calypso's isle. The simple As- 
lonius, or easy to reconcile with the Syrian apprehended an appariticm; but 
veneration that he, apparently, every- ApoUonius assured him that he would 
where excited. The sixth book of Pm- come bodily. Philostratus proceeds to 
lostratus relates the visit of ApoUonius to describe the last interview hetwden the 
the C^ymnosophists of iEthiopia. He was philosopher and Domitian. He was quee* 
equaUy in favour with Titus as with Ves- tioned upon his diet, his dress, his peci»- 
pasian. After ihe destruction of Jem- liar Ufe, his repated miracles, and the 
salem, the former refused the crowns of graver part of the accusation, his inter- 
victory offered him by the neighbouring course with Nerva. ApoUonius trusted 
states of Syria and Asia, alleging that he so little to supernatural aid that he pre- 
was but an instrument in the hemds of a pared a defence, the substance of whicJi 
higher power. ApoUonius commended is given by Philostratus. The emperor 
his moderation in a brief and characteristic dimiissed him with the same mixture of 
letter, (Vit. ApoUon. YI. c. 29.) And uncertainty and alarm that Tigellinus had 
when Titus was (a. n. 72) associated with experienced on a similar occasion ; and 
his father in the empire, he sent for the on the day of his dismissal, ApoUonius 
phUosopher to Areoe to receive directions rejoined Demetrius and Damis at Puteoli I 
for his future conduct. Whether his re- He returned to Jonia, and his latter days 
spect were real or assumed, it proves the were passed at Smyrna and Ephesus. At 
extraordinary influence ApoUonius had Ephesus, diuing a philosophical discourse, 
acquired in the Roman world. In the he is reported.to have beneld the murder 
latter years of Domitian 's reign, ApoUo- of Domitian at Rome, and to have an- 
nius appears to have secretiy fomented nounced it many days before the news 
the growing discontent, and to have arrived of the accession of Nerva: To 
urged Orfitus, Rufus, Nerva, and other Nerva he addressed an enigmatical letter, 
grave and respectable senators, to form a implying that they should soon meet in a 
combined attempt against that capricious world where there were neither emperors 
and implacable tyrant. The events that nor subjects. He died probably m ex- 
foUow are perhaps the most difficult to treme old age at Ephesus. But the rumour 
explain of aU that Philostratus has re- that he disappeared either in the temple 
corded, since they do not belong to the of Athene at Lindus, or of Dictynna in 
marvellous incidents he has interwoven Crete, is more consonant to the general 
with his original materials, and yet will texture of the biography of PhUostratus. 
not admit of any probable solution. On The emperor Adrian collected the episties 
the information of Euphrates, the pro- of Apollonius ; and these, with his Apo^ 
consul of Asia was directed to send Apol- logy, are the only extant wcnrks of one of 
lonius to Rome. Without listening to the the most celebrated reformers of pa- 
representations of Damis and the cynic ganism. The Episties of ApoUonius 
Demetrius, he presented himself before were edited by Commelin, 1601, 8vo, 
.£Kanus, the prsetorian prefect, who like- and H. Stephens included them in his 
wise dissuaded him from appearing before Epistolia, 1577. They are in the PhUo- 
Domitian. He was then placed m easy stratorum Opera of G. Olearius. Lipsise, 
confinement until the emperor should be 1709, fol. 

at leisure to examine nim in person. : Wieland, in his Agathodsemon, attempts 

After his first examination by Domi- to find a plausible solution for the mar- 

tian, Apollonius was thrown into the vellous and miraculous events recorded 

common dungeon among the worst cri- by PhUostratus. His work is distin- 

minals, his hair and beard were shorn, guished by that intimate acquaintance 

spies and informers sent to tempt or pro- with ancient life and manners, which his 

yoke him to some rash speech or con- classical tales always display. But he has 

fossion, and a threat was added that confounded the real ApoUonius, whose 

unless, like his peculiar Dsemon Proteus, character and actions were not impro- 

(•ee Vit. Apollon. i. c. 4, and Odyss. bable, with the idealized picture of the 

55 



APO APO 

biographer. That we may not give an and succeeded Erastosthenes as librarian 

imperilect account ofthis ancient romance, to Ptolemy Eucrgetes, and was buried 

we add a few of the legends with which it eventually in the same tomb as Calli* 

abounds. In the garb of an aged mendicant, machus. His Argonautics, containing 

the Plague visits Ephesus. He is recog- theadventuresof Jason, and other Grecian 

nised by Apollonius, and, by his direc- heroes, in quest of the ffolden fleece, are 

tions, stonea by the people in the theatre, written in four books, of which the most 

Under the heap of stones is found a black interesting portion is that relating to 

mastiff, of the size of a lion, (b. iv. c. 10.) Medea, Uie prototype of the Dido of 

One of his disciples, Menippus, is on the Virgil. It is well described by Quintilian 

point of marriage at Connth, with a as a not contemptible poem, written 

beautiful and wealthy maiden. Apollo- with uniform mediocri^, and where the 

nius comes to the marriage-feast, and author, if he never rises, never falls^ 

declares the bride to be an Empusa — the as Longinus observes. Terentius Varro 
rich furniture and decorations of the ~ translated the whole of it into Latin verse, 

house melt away, the attendants vanish as we learn from Propertius ; but not a 

beneath the gaze of Apollonius, and the word of the version Kas been preserved, 

weeping bride, before she disappears, con- According to Athenseus, x. p. 451, Apol* 

fesses that she is a Lamia or Empusa (a lonius wrote something on ArclulocnuB. 
vampire), who thirsts after the blood of This was perhaps in answer to the Ibis of 

the young, and that she has enticed Callimachus, whom he treated as Archi- 

Menippus to devour him, (b. iv. c. 25.) lochus did Lycambes, when the latter 

At Rome Apollonius meets the funeral refused to accept the poet for his son-in- 

of a young maiden. Her betrothed and law. He wrote likewise some epigrams, 

her parents follow the bier weeping, mentioned by Antoninus Liberalis, and 

Apollonius approaches, and speaks some at least two books in Choliambic verse on 

words in the ear of the maiden, who re> the Canopus, as we learn from Stephanus 

turns to her father's house, like Alcestis, of Byzantium ; but the work on the 

(i. 6, 45.) Foundation of Cities, seems little suited 

APOLLONIUS, the poe^ was the son to a poet like Apollonius. As connected 

of nious, or Silleus, and Rhode, and bom with the hbtory of criticism and printing, 

at Alexandria ; or, according to Athenseus, the Argonautics of Apollonius oner some 

at Naucratia. Originally the pupil of curious facts. The poem, very early, save 

Callimachus, he gave no little offence to rise to a large mass of learned scholia 

!.:_ i. v.. : :— _ii.._: i_ i-«_ /• j;/i» j. ^.x ^i •_ • 




as stated by some, that he took to nimself has been preserved in various MSS. It has 

the credit of his teacher's productions; exercised, within the last eighty years, 

so different arc the talents and the the ingenuity of several critics ; amongst 

attainments of the two ; for while Apollo* whom, the highest place is held by J^oi 

nius exhibits a poetical genius that Virgil Pierson and David Ruhnken, the pupil 

did not disdain to imitate, Callimachus and friend respectively of Valckenaer. 

scarcely ever rises above the level of a ver- It is one of the four books printed in 

sifier, and was far more conversant with capitals at Florence in 1496 ; a copy 

the facts of history than the fictions of of which edition is in the Public JS- 

iniaginntion. Hence it may be fairly brary of Cambridge, collated with a 

inferred that when Apollonius recited his MS., whose various readings were tran* 

poem, still extant, on the Argonautic ex- scribed by Person, and published after 

pedition, in the presence of Callimachus, his death in the Classical Journal; while 

the antiquarian pointed out errors in the inedited notes of Salmasius are to 

mythology, history, and chronology, so be found in the margin of a copy of 

a« to raise, says his Greek biographer, a Stephens's edition, in the Royal Library 

blush on the cheek of the youthful poet, at Brussels ; and those of Franciscus Por- 

aiid to compel him to retouch it. It was tus in another copy of the same edition 

probably during the period of liis quarrel in the Library of the Senate at Leipsic. 

with Callimachus, who wrote against him Of modem editions, the most desirable 

the lost poem called Ibis, imitated by are Shaw's, printed at Oxford, 1777, for 

Ovid, that Apollonius retired to Rhodes, its index of words, and the Notes of Pier- 



APO APO 

the double set of Scholia, and Reiske's father of JElius Herodiaii, flourished in 
Indices of the historical, geD&;raphical, the time of Adrian and Antoninus Pius, 
and other matter contained in them ; and obtained such celebrity as a gram- 
and Wellauer's, at Leipsic, 1826, for the marian, that Priscian says he conceived 
full body of various readings ; and where he ought to follow his authority on every 
it is stated that the edition in capital point of syntax. Such was his poverty 
letters contains in the fourth book correct in early life, that he was compelled, from 
readings, not to be found elsewhere ; the want of parchment, to make use of 
while, to complete the apparatus criticus oyster-shells, or pieces of pottery, to per- 
on this author, should be added the Lec^ petuate his ideas, as GifTord the critic did 
tiones Apollonianse of Gerhard, Lips, on pieces of leather, wlien he carried on 
1816. The Argonautics have been trans- the trade of a cobbler. He was known by 
lated into English entirely, by Fawkes the name of AvcricoXof, (Dyscolus), " the 
and Greene, in 1780; and by Preston morose," either from his temper or studies; 
in 1803 ; and partially by Ekins in 1771, for he is said by his Greek biographer to 
and Elton in Specimens of the Gassic have proposed in the then conversazione 
Poets, 1814. of the learned difficult questions upon ah- 
' APOLLONIUS, a rhetorician of Ala- struse points of grammar. He lived and 
banda in Caria, the town tliat gave birth died in the nvpovx^iov, corrupted into 
to a contemporary of the same name, the Latin Bruchiutny a place expressly set 
called VLciKaKos " the effeminate." Such apart by the rulers of tne country for the 
was his reputation, that both Caesar and support of scholars. Of his acute work on 
Cicero attended his school at Rome, whi- Grammar, the only portions that have come 
ther he had been sent on an embassy by down to us are those On Syntax, On the 
the Rhodians, during the dictatorship of Pronoun, On Adverbs, and On Conjunc- 
Sylla ; and afterwards, when he was set- tions. The first was published in an im- 
tied at Rhodes, he was again visited by perfect state by Aldus, at the end of his 
the Roman orator, during his proconsul- edition of the grammar of Theodorus 
ship in Asia, as we learn from Quinti- Gaza, fol. Yen. 1495 ; then in a more 
lian. Unlike the rest of his countrymen, perfect form by Sylburgius, Francof. 
who were fond of a florid style, he di- 1590, from the papers and with the notes 
rected, says Cicero, his chief attention to of Franciscus Portus and Michael So- 
pruning tne luxuriance and restraining phianus, and the collations of MSS. fur- 
the redundance of mere verbiage ; and it nished by Dudithius. But the most recent 
was perhaps to this habit of separating and best edition is by Immanuel Bek- 
the bran from the flour of a speech, that ker, Berolin. 1817, wno was the flist to 
he was called MoXa)y, or rather MvXcdv, a publish the treatise On the Pronoun in 
mill; although it is true that this deriva- the Mus. Antiq. Studios, in 1811, and 
tion is at variance with the pun on his subsequently by itself in 1813. Some 
name mentioned by Strabo, (xiv. p. 969, portions of it had, however, been pre- 
Cas.) who says that both the Alaban- viously printed very incorrectly by Reit- 
dians were pupils of Menecles ; and that zius, at the end of his edition of Mnt- 
afler " the effeminate" had entered the taire's work on the Dialects ; and even 
school, the master addressed the other in now, by comparing the notes of Bast on 
the words of Homer, O^c MoXcav, " you Gregorius, in Schsefer's edition, it will be 
are come late. Melon." Unlike too the seen that there is a considerable diffe- 

§enerality of teachers, whose profession is rence in the transcripts made by him and 
leir mint, Apollonius would not permit Bekker, from the original MS. To the 
(says Cicero, de Orator, i. 28) pupils, last mentioned scholar is likewise due the 
whose talents did not permit them to be first publication of the treatises On Con- 
orators, to waste their time with him, and junctions and Adverbs, which he inserted 
recommended them to follow a more con- in the second volume of his Anecdota 
genial pursuit ; and it was therefore only Grseca, Berol. 1817. Independent of the 
natural for him to say, as reported by sound views promulgated by the author 
Plutarch (ii. p. 444, Xyl.) when he heard on questions of syntax, his works are sin- 
Cicero declaiming in Greek, " The for- gularly valuable for the great number of 
tunes of Greece excite indeed my pity, quotations they contain from authors no 
when I see the only good left us in our longer in existence, and especially those 
learning and eloquence carried by Cicero who wrote in the Doric and .^lic dia- 
to Rome." lects. To Apollonius Dyscolus has been 
APOLLONIUS of Alexandria, the attributed a paltry compilation, under the 
son of Mnesitheus and Ariadne, and the title of Histor. Mirabu. first edited by 

57 



APO APO 








Mecxnciu, tzA zi 1772 Vf T»:'d£7. I3 ucfr t^ y.T&e» :m' y»ai J hf 

Cftilj T&I:i6 it, iTJiT. h LJU p^-AiTTad A=r ff j r"5i M«>. ^fg L Ilk au ofpL^Sj, 

AJPOLI/jNIUS, tJK MB, fjr u ouai fattC'jb'uxn ih-ed 

uy, tLft uiber of ArciTofs*. acd tie aii*- b^icrfc Ozfs. 

Urr cif Apioci, u«? cei^brufrd gr^^ rariMk, AP0LI»N1LS, ooBaBodSy n^r^ G- 

i* tfift p«rrKA to vbciGb Uii beta tan- t^^ii&i. iT~ ^""^ - — ^ 

buted tr.« Lexi<»Q Hocc>£r^e:;:iEi, £rii pofr- irzisTt ££ , _ „ 

ljih«4 br ViliolKA, in 2 too, 4u>. Pu*. Sjxtfz^ His. de la Med.> 

] 7^3, ^>cn a Kilitarj MS. prescTred ia lo ~:^ :£e uzja pfcjnr it> no 

P'rarioer. W;ui th{; exc^pCcA <if a £&v i=7:;&=.£9d Masi. Mvi, vS>n>bai»Jik 

variotu re^diiigi fumUiied for tiiRr text c/ C ^ . g% l£b^ t. i&ii. : Galc^ de 

UotnhT, Wid k'fnjpmfc&t or two ox' A&a- Pul ab.rr. c 10. Arc; Heii~ 

cr^ron, Akman aoid BAbrus, xkoc fcoid L&Te lireid ai i2ke £ra ccstai^ 

el 44 where, tlje Lexicon leaicelT descrred clirisca::^ era. ind wu, m he tdk 

t/i be edited ai^ain, by TcmIjiu, Loj^d. s^^ ■ p. 2. ed. Dietz tbe popQ of 

Jiat. 17*^8, in %va, or by Immaonea Bek- ru, at AicsancTia. He ii tke 

ker, at Berlin, in IS^ who boverer of some Conunentaxifei ca "wutt 

profeMcs to hare foDoved the MS. lo De Artkulis, Thich are LuiiMMi 

closelv, as to &ay that when he difieri interesting as being the onlj 

from Lis predecessors, he does so on the mentaries on Hippoc7«tei Mill 

authority of that document alone. The writicn by any pLysician of %k 

principal value of Villoison's edition is in uidriai 

iiis Prolegoniena, and a fac-simile cojh tbe firs — ,^ 

per-plate, representing the whcJe of the Hippocrs.tem et Galenum, edited hj F. 

articles relaung to the last letter of the R- Dietz, Regim. Pruss. 8ns ^ wli. 

alphabet; while in the notes are given 1S34. 

nuuieroai extracts from the Lexicon of APOLLOXIU5, (Lerintii,) a tnrcllcr 

Philemon. in the sixteenth centunr, bom near 

APOLLOXIUS, a sculptor of Rhodes, &uges, and died at the Canaiiea om kk 

who, conjointly with his country-man, ^ay to Peru. He wrote (in Latm) a 

TaiiriscuH, rendered himself known by history of the discovery of the latter 

executing a striking representation of country', printed at Antwerpi, ia 1567; 

Zethni and .\Djphion tying the revenge- and an account of the French £3 — ^"^ — 

ful Dircc to the tail of a mad bull. This to Florida, printed at the same 

celc'brate<l antique, which is said to be 1^68. (Bio^. Univ.) 

still extant under the name of the Far- APOLLOXIUS, (William,) 

nesc hull, is admired for the workman- of the reformed church, bom at Middcl 

ship, but more particularly for the huge buig in the beginning of the ieventeentk 

blrM:k of marble itself, on which the his- centur}', is known by a controveny with 

U}Ty is if) well represented. There was Nicolas Vedel, on the power of the liata 

another artist of this name, a native of to regulate ecclesiastical affiurs. He alio 

Atlurns, Mm of Nestor, distinguished also wrote Disputationes de Lege Dei, MiddcL 

as a sculptor, to whom some have attri- ICoo. See Vedel. 

butid the famous Torsus IteWidera. APOLLOPIIANES. We meet with 

ATOLLONIUS, (AflroXXvvtor.) C. F. three individuals of this name. 1. The 

flailf-8* givi-s a long list of physicians comic writer, of whose five plays men- 

of this naiiic, of which only the following tioned by lexicographers, only two firag- 

Ncrin to deserve any particular notice. ments in as many lines have been pee- 

AI'(>LL(jXii;s, called sometimes sen-ed by Athenaeus. 2. The epic poet, 

^7/>, lii'Mtiuj ]>i'rhaps the same who known only from Fulgentius, My tholog. L 

is culled 6 of^tf Serpens^ (Frotian., 3. The writer on medicine mentioned 

Lvx. Voc. llipiiocr. in Procem.), and l>y Pliny, and to whom Fabricius would 

Pi-r^Nimcims, from being born at Per- attribute the work on Physics, quoted by 

gttiiiiiH in Mysia (Oribas., Euiwrist. i. 9.), piogcncs Laert. in Zeno, ^-ii. 140, and 

IM iiurtly known us u conmientator on identify with the one quoted by Etynud. 

lii])p<>crutes(i:rotian. p. 80;. lie is pro- M. in ^^oXcwy. But there the correct 

reading is Aristophanes, as shown by 

• Ai.^urnt iii.«».i n I.. J A u, ,r j. AchaHi. whcTc the very word occurs. 
•Aii.iJi'rt/iniitoilro.CrhicadeArchlgene Medico, A Pni I m>Il A Virc / a \\ a. \ 

Vrsffnaiitu, itambcrif, isia, 4to. physician to AntiochuB Soter, king of 



APO APO 

Syria, was born at Seleucia, and lived in conneeted with the Btudy of the scieuee'of 

the third century before the ohristian medicine, consulting the position of the 

era. He possessed ffreat influence with planets and stars at the time of the birth 

the king, as we learn nrom Polybius (Hist of his patients. His remedies were ^- 

lib. ▼. cap. 56, 58), and there are extant rected under the same influence, and 

two bronie medals struck in his honour great importance appears to have been 

by the people of Smyrna, described b^ attached by him to tne time at which the 

l>r. Mead m his Dissert de Nummis plants should be gathered, that being re- 

?uibusdam a Smymseis in Medicorum gidated bv the position of the moon, &c. 
lonorem percussis, 4to, Lond. 1724. His attachment to astrology is evident 
The same physician, or one of the same from his having caused upwards of four 
name, is quoted by Galen, Paulas JEgi' hundred astrological figures to be painted 
neta, Alexander Trallianus, Cselius Aure- in the public haU at Padua. These were 
lianus, and AStiuB. destroyed by fire in 1420, and replaced 
APONIUS, a theologian of the seventh by the pencil of Giotto. Living at a 
century, who wrote an extensive com- period wnen science was little cultivated, 
mentary upon Solomon's Song, which or rather immersed in superstition, it is 
was abridged in the twelfth century, by not surprising that, distinguished by su- 
Luke abbot of Mont-Comillon. See Hist perior attainments, Apono should have 
Lit. de France, xiv. 9. been accused of dealing in magic. He 
APONO, or ABANO, (Peter,) a cele- was, indeed, denounced by the pnysicians 
brated profbssor of medicine at Padua, of his day as a ma^cian, a heretic, and 
(sumamed Conciliator, from his principal even an atheist, and was cited before the 
work,) 1250 — 1315. He was the son of Inquisition in 1306, where he most ably 
a notary, named Constant ; but took the defended himself against the malicious 
name of Abano from the place of his charges of his enemies, and was honour- 
birth, a village in the vicinity of Padua, ably acquitted. One of the accusations 
the Latin name of which is Aponus. It against him was that he had obtained a 
was celebrated for its warm-baths, a de- knowledge of the seven liberal arts bv 
scription of which is to be found in one means of seven spirits, whom by his 
of tne letters of Theodoric the king of the power he held confined within a crystal ! 
Goths. Apono is said to have acquired He was accused a second time in 1315; 
a knowledge of the Greek language at but, before the charges were disposed of^ 
Constantinople, and of medicine and ma- he died, at the age of sixty-six, and was 
thematics at Paris, where it is not clear interred with great pomp in the church 
whether he took the degrees of doctor of of St Anthony, leaving a son named 
philosophy and medicine, but where he Benvenuto. When at the point of death, 
wrote his chief work, Conciliator diffe- he made a profession of his faith and 
rentiarum Philosophorum et praecipu^ orthodoxy before witnesses, and expressed 
Medicorum, in which he attempted to the same also in his will. The death of 
reconcile the opinions of different philo- the accused, however, did not serve to 
sophers and physicians. From the extent arrest the process. The tribunal enter* 
of his learning he was generally esteemed tained the charges raised against the 
as a prodigv ; in Italy he was looked upon deceased, and Apono, without any one to 
as a second Hippocrates ; and he was re- defend his memory, was declared guilty, 
markable for the boldness of his opinions, and his body condemned to the £unef. 
He was familiar with the greater part of The magistrates of Padua were com- 
thc languages of Europe, and many of manded to disinter the body, and cause 
the East About the year 1303, he was it to be burnt in the public place, which 
called fhun Paris to radua, to succeed however was prevented by the attach* 
Roncalitrius as professor of medicine, ment of a domestic named Marietta, 
He is reported to nave exercised his pro- who, being apprised of the order, caused 
fession at Bologna, and to have taught at the body to be secretly removed and 
the university of that place. His repu- transported to the church of St. Peter, 
tation was great ; he was sought after by where it was placed in an open tomb» 
popes and sovereigns ; and many circum- near to the gate of the church* Unable, 
stances have been detailed by Mazuchelli therefore, to wreak their ridiculous re- 
and other biogranhers, to show that the venge upon the mortal remains of Apono, 
fees he demanded for attendance were of they prepared an effigy of him, and pub- 
a considerable amount. He was dee]plv licly submitted it to the flames. At a 
versed in astronomy, and imbued with much later period, namely, the com- 
the doctrines of astrology, which he mencement of the eighteenth centuxy, 

59 



APO APO 

his remains were taken to the church of MSS. ofthe writings of Apono. The works 

St. Austin, and huried near to the prln- of Ahen-Ezra : Initium SapientiaB ; Liber 

cipal gate, where a tablet, with the fol- Rationum ; Liber Interrogationimi, Lu- 

lowing inscription, was placed to his minarium, et CJoenitionis Diei Critici ; 

memory : De Mundo et Seculo ; Liber Nativitatum ; 

rxTmx APoxx Liber Electionis; De Significationibus 

oB^xi^ms. Hanetarum in Duodecim Domibus ; De 

jBT.'ee. Cognitione Hominis. In the library of 

_ .. , J 1 * A St. Mark at Venice is a MS. entitled^ 

Postenty has done honour to Anono. g^^^. ^ractatus varii k Petro Paduano 

Frederic, Duke of Urbmo, caused the Latinitate donati. It is of the beginning 

foUowmg inscnption to be engraved at ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^y^ ^f ^^ 

the foot of a statue erected to his me- Vatican is a MS. caUed, Eleucidarium 

"^°^y •"" Necromanticum ; Liber Experimentorum 

PsTao Apoko MedlcoTum arbitro »qul8tImo Mirabilium de Annulis secund(!lm 28 

Obiemotiorumd«dpHnarum^.tudiumlD.igne ^ansiones Lun« ; Vari« ProphetiiB 

^r^ 3 . ,>.«/> Mag. Petri Patav. de Abano. Doni 

On one of the gates of Padua, in 1420, mentions other works of the author: 

a century after his decease, was placed D^gU gpiriti, che Pigliano Corpo ; Dia- 

the following :— Jogo^ ^etto Asmodeo. Goulin asserts that 

pxTRva APONvi PATAVINV8 hc translated some of the works of Galen: 

Philosophise Medlcin«que •cienliMimui, t^ tj Pnrtinm Comoria Human! : De 

Ob idque Conciliator!, cognomen adeptus: ^ Usu rartium iX)rporis nwnam, ue 

Astroiogis yero adeo peritut. Optima Complexione ; De Iliebus liecre- 

Ut in Magi» sutpicionem Inciderit, toriis 

F«h6que de H«re.i poatuiaiu.. abaoiutu. ftilt. APONTE, (Emanuele, 1736—1815,) 

The works of Apono are : — 1. CJon- a native of Oropesa in New Castile. At 

ciliator differentiarum Philosophorum et fifteen he is said, being the only one of 

prflecipud Mediconim, Mantuse, 1472, his family, to have given all his goods to 

Venet. 1476, 1483, &c. folio. In this the poor, and to have entered the order of 

work he quotes from the celebrated Ara- Jesuits. He went very early in life to the 

bian physician, Averroes. 2. De Vene- West Indies as a missionary, and after- 

nis eorumque Remediis Liber. Mantus, wards exchanged that scene of labour for 

1472, fol. RomsB, 1478, 8vo. Luzare the Philippine Islands, after having passed 

Boet published a French translation at over America in his way. He learnt the 

Lyons, in 1593. 3. Expositio Proble- Malay language in three months, and 

matum Aristotelis. Mantus, 1475, fol. preacned in it; and after visiting Japan, 

Venct. 1482, 1505, &c. 4. Decisiones iJumatra, &c., returned to Spam. He 

Physionomicae. Patav. 1474, 8vo. A MS. retired to Italy for quiet, but the disso- 

of the Decisiones is in the Royal Library lution of his order caused him much 

of Paris, under the title of Lioer Compi- trouble, and he took a parish in Bologna, 

lationis Physionomicse k Petro de Padua After a time he was made Greek profes- 

in Civitatc Parisiensi editus. 5. Dios- sor there. He published (1802) a Greek 

coridis Opera. Lat. interp. et expos. Grammar, and ne is said to have trans- 

Petro Paduancnsi. Ck)lle, 1478, fol. lated Homer into Spanish. (Tipaldo, i« 

6. Hippocratis de Mediconim Astrologi& 322.) 

libellus ex Graeco in Lat. Venet. 1485, APOSTOLI, (Francesco,) a Venetian 

4 to. 7. Astrolabium Planum in Tabu- writer in the eighteenth century, who 

lis Asccndens, &c. Venet. 1502, 4to. wrote — Lettres et Contes sentimentaux 

8. Tcxtus Mesuae emendatus, id est, de de Georges Wanderson, Augsburg, 1777; 

Egritudinibus Cordis et de Egritudinibus Storia di Andrea ; Saggezza della FoUia ; 

Membrorum Nutritionis. Venct. 1505. Saggio per servire alia Storia de* Viaggi 

8vo. Lugd. 1551,8vo. Venet. 1586, 1G23, Filosofici e de' Principi Viaggiatori, 

fol. 9. Geomantia. Venet. 1549, 8vo. Venice, 1782; Lcttcre Sirmiensi ; Rap- 

Of this work there are several editions in prescntazione del Secolo xviii. Milan ; 

Italian. 10. Heptameron, sou, Elementa Storia delli Galli, Franclii e Francesi. 

Magica. Paris, 1567, 8vo. This is placed He led a very rambling life; and after 

at the end of the first volume of the having been tossed about in the troubles 

works of Corn. Agrippa. 11. Questiones and vicissitudes of the revolutionary move- 

de Febribus, Venet. 157(5, fol. This is ment of the end of the last century, he 

printed in a Treatise, De Febribus Opus, died in great distress in 1816. (Biog. 

There is a MS. of the work in the Roval Univ. Suppl.) 

Library at Paris. There are various other APOSTOLIUS, (Michael) a learned 

60 



APO APP 

Greek of the fifteenth century, who came to have heen chiefly employed hy hook* 

to Italy on the taking of Constantinople sellers. A portrait of Thomas nartho* 

hy the Turks, and was patronized oy linus, after H. Dittmar, by him, is prefixed 

Cardinal Bessarion. He afterwards re- to that author's book of anatomy; and 

turned to Crete, and gained his living by other works engraved by him of anato- 

copying manuscripts. His only printed mical subjects are inserted in the edition 

work is — Mich. Apostolii Parcemise, Gr.- of 1674. They are all executed with the 

Lat. ex Versione et cum Notis Pet. eraver in a neat, stiff style, the effect of 

Pantini. Lued. Bat. Elzev. 1619. His labour without genius. The portrait, 

son, Aristobuius Apostolius, is known as which is the best, has little to recommend 

the author of Galcomyomachia, often it ; but it was repeated by him for Hon^ 

added to .£sop's Fables. (Biog. Univ.) dius's Collection of Eminent Men. (Strutt's 

APOSTOOL, (Samuel,) a Dutch theo- Diet, of £ng. Heinecken, Diet des 

logian and founder of a sect of Anabap- Artistes.) 

tists, called from him Apostolici, who APPENDINI, (Francesco Maria, 1768 

separated from the Waterlandians in — 1837,) an Italian ecclesiastic, of consi- 

1664. (See Mosheim, Hist. EccL Biog. derablc reputation as a philologist. He 

Univ.) was a native of Poirino, near Turin, and 

APPEL, (Jacob, Nov. 29, 1680 — after an education at Rome was ap- 

May 7, 1751,) a painter, native of Am- pointed, at an early age, professor of 

sterdam, who showed early taste for the rhetoric at Ragusa. In 1802, after many 

arts by drawings in pen and ink, and years of labour, he produced his Histo- 

cutting out figures of animals. He first rical Notices on the Antiquities, History, 

studied under Timothy de Graaf, and and Literature of Ragusa, for which the 

afterwards was instructed in landscape senate bestowed on him a handsome 

painting by David Vander Plas. Tne reward. He now applied himself to a 

instructions of his masters, diligent study work which he never finished — his Var- 

of the works of Tempesta, and his own rone Illirico, in which he was to trace the 

natural ability, rendered lum at eighteen Illvrian language in the names of the 

years of age an artist of considerable pnncipal rivers, &c. of Europe. On the 

merit. He painted the portraits of the entry of the French into Italy, Appendini 

Principal inhabitants of Sardam, where was highly instrumental in preserving 

e also executed some landscapes and the institutions of Ragusa, which was 

historical works. On his return to Am- placed at the head of the public instruc- 

sterdam, he established a sort of manu- tion for all the neighbouring counties, 

factory of pictures, other artists working A religious house, or monastery, was 

under hb directions, and painting every established there for the purpose of regu- 

description of subject. Tnis speculation lating this matter, and he was placed 

greatly enriched him, but he still perse- over it. He wrote some treatises on the 

vered in painting, and gained large prices Illjrrian language (especially in a preface 

for his works. He died suddenly. Ac- to Stulli's Dictionary), into which he 

cording to Deschamps, he at first imitated translated the civil code of Austria. He 

the works of Tempesta, but afterwards wrote also lives of G. F. Gondola of 

changed his manner, and adopted that of Ragusa, of Petrarch, of Zamagna, &c. ; 

Albert Meyering. His portraits are con- and an Essay on St. Jerome, to prove 

sidered to be superior to his landscapes, him a Dalmatian. (Tipaldo, vi. 142— 

(Bryan's Diet. Biog. Univ.) 145.) 

APPELMAN, (Bernard,) a painter, APPIAN, a native of Alexandria, 
born at the Hague in 1640. It is not His auto-biographical memoirs are unfor- 
said by whom he was instructed, but from tunately lost, and our acquaintance with 
the subjects of his pictures, it is probable his life is derived from the concluding 
that he had visited Italy. His landscapes sentence of the Preface to the twenty- 
are taken from picturesque views in the four books of his Roman History. After 
vicinity of Rome. He was for some time practising as a pleader at Rome, he at- 
employed by the prince of Orange, and tained in mature age the highest honourf 
decorated a saloon in the palace of in his native city, and was probably pre- 
Soesdyk, with very pleasing landscapes feet of Alexandria under tne elder An- 
painted in a good style, and well-coloured, toninus. Appian (Syriaca, c. 1.) speaks of 
He also painted portraits with reputation, the destruction of Jerusalem by Hadrian 
(Bryan's Diet.) as a contemporary event ; and says 
APPELMANS, (G.) a Dutch engraver, (Proem, c. 9) that the Roman empire 
who flourished about 1671. He appears dated 900 years, which fixes the compo- 



A P P AFP 




jr<^*r '/f Ant/yriin*;* K-»m. TK* m*tJy>d «/ of tb» Crril War 

Apf/iftn in tK«s «T4n?»rm*Tit of h:< n*m- wrth tfc* daSh of 

tirfr, r«-v:rriM«f* that whirh C«to t>.* H-iw the •aHt InitorT frf die 

had *:rijil^^*«i in hit ^Mjrn*^ ^v^*: Vo»- The fllTrljin Wan hare bwn 

!, Ht lli«t, I>i^t!n. i. c. 5;. vt'l vhirh bat th» Ccmpaismi fn Anbia 



fEMj«, Ht lli«t, I>i^t!n. i. c. 5;. vt'l vhirh bat th» Ccmpaizni fn Armbia tttrgproba 

(iWA/ftu in fT«^t m^arart a/i^p*.4 in tr.4 blj |Kri§lu«l Tbe bit book f ff«e Frocm. 

l>«;olin«! «n<f Fa]|. TV *t«^'u of the c. xr. oKitaEc^ti the cirfl and miliiBrj 

lt//man hi^t/iiy are related not in the itatistzci 'jf the enpsre. For fuilh e i ae- 

«tri':t r/rd*T fk tirri*-, bat frnchrrfnitti' crjont of Appun. ie« Voaha, de HiilDr. 

tally and in nati'mal prrfjum. The prin- Gntc. cd. We^ennann. and Sdiwngjb- 

r;ipal iric^mreniomre r/ this method is vuer's Note, ad c. 15. Phwm. J. MuDcr 

th'* n'-^f^vitv of recurrence : itA adran- and Niebohr, Rem. Gescfaicbt, ^qL ii. 

ta^<'4 f'>r "xfiibiting, and pietenting ma c. 15, ]«t. edit. ^p. 327. Walther'i 

ronv<mient frirm U> the memory, a long UtioD,> hare p i uuum jccd the mart 

Heri'm r/f erentii are obrioa^. Appian site jodginent upon the meriti of 

ropifr'l, withr/iit much painn to correct as an hiftorian. The latter, bu wcter , 

th^ir trfffrn, the wr;rk<i of hifl predece«- admits the excellence of his introdnctian 

nftrn^ and in hiii pag'rs we often read frag- to the Ciril Wars, which he conjecturei 

mf-ntu of the Io4t Wiks of Oiony^ius and to hare been partly borrowed from Fttii 

l)iridon», of Polybiu^, and Poseidoniiu. doniiu. 

Ilifl having practised as an adrocate .\PPIANI. There were two dktfii* 

at ll/nnr; for many years, makes it, how- guished Italian painters of this name : 
ev<T, prohahlr-, that he was better quali- 1. IroncMCo, of Ancona, (1702 — 1792,) 

fiiA U) tH'at of llornan history than Plu- a scholar of IXomenico Simonetti, eiJled 

tarcli, (v-o Vit. ]>eniosthr;n. in Pro<*m.) II Magatta. He studied a coniidenble 

n<? i^ rarf'leu in bis cbronol r>gy ; his time in Rome, whilst Benefial, Tkeraaniy 

nnrrntivff is sometimes inconsistent; and, Conca, and Mancini, flourished there. He 

although less so than Dion Casiiius, he is painted in a pleasing style, of which tiiere 

t/H) frinrl rif imaginary speeches. Yet is a specimen in the church of San SiaCo 




work in nn ititfriru>Hiate kind botwecn with a gold medal and chain. He 

niwii'iit niwl inodi-m narrative. Of his sided the greater part of his life at Peru- 

twi-nty ff)ur iKioks, some arc preserved gia, where he pamted the ceiline of the 

fiitirc; K/itrwf in fraj^rnr'ntH ; and some arc cathedral, and decorated the cmircb of 

flit I rely loht. ]\\h I'roi'iriiimi is nn expo- S. Prancesco. His works are also m the 

sitirtn of bin plan ; and is tlur most exact churches of St. Pietro de' Cassinensi, S. 

nnft aiiipjf statfinrnt remaining of the Thomaso, and Monte Corona. He punted 

i'xl<rif of till' niipirc in tbe wrond ccn- also many pictures for England, and con- 

tiirvf A.iK Till? fifHt fiv«,' lH)ok<i, ron- tinucd his labours with ardour until 

tairii?!/'' Ilic Mvfliir, tin? H^'fral, and ninety years of age, an instance of vigour 

tbc hiiljr? piTioff of llfHnnn liiHtor}', the unexampled, except in the case of Titian, 

warn Willi the (hiwU and tliouc in Sicily (Lanzi, Stor. Pitt. ii. 211.) 
and till inbiiulH, are jireKerved in brief 2. jindreOy (1701 — Nov. 8, 1817,) a 

atwl <li;l/iiil rra^'iiieiit-i only. Tins sixtli, celebrated painter, born at Bosizio. He 




jir. The Mare<loiii(' War is imperfect; Correpio. Tlie archduke of Austria, go- 
tin* ('iiiiinnl/rMM of (i. HaniinintH and of vonior of Milan, employed him to deco- 
Piiiijii* ,T'iniliii'4 are |o«t. A j»art only rate the palace or castle of Monza. He 
of lite eiiiiipiii)nii| a|raiiiMt AntioeliuH and "paintiul both in oil and fresco; but his 
till- PiirlhliiiiN Ikim ( Diiir ilown lo um ; tin? nigheHt reputation depends upon the latter. 
pMiihini of Ap)iiMM an-, indeed, an ex- His finest works are in the churches of 
tr»nl I'liiui till' liiveH of ('ra«suM and of St. Mary and St. (Visa, at Milan, and in 
M. Antiiny by riularrli. The Milliri- the palaces of IJusca and Monza. At the 
daiir war i i i-ninpl, ||.. The five books of time of the conquest of Ijomburdy by the 
Ibe Civil Warn an* riilire; and the causes French, he was noticed by Napoleon, and 
M* the ihrline of the republic uro traced fonnod one of the conmiission for the 






AHf APP 



mnpoae of ofeing him ^e crown of tiie tdiool of Da Vind in Milaii) men- 
itUy. He W08 preaenl ml the coronatioa tioned by Lottuada m hit Deseriiiotte di 
of Buonaparte at Paris, and was made a Milano, as having exeeuted the fresco 
member of the Legion of Honour ; and nainting over the gate of Uie Fmo, which 
on his coronation as king of Italy, An- Lanxi states to be certainly in the Vinci 
piani was appointed first painter to the manner. (Lanii, Stor. Pitt It. 166.) 
crown, and directed to paint in fre«», in APPI US CLAUDIUS. SeeCi^uniim. 
the ^rand hall of the palace at Milan, APPLETON, an Enriish sea office, 
the history of the new monarchy from the of the time of Oliver Cromwell. like 
time of his nomination to be ^eneral-in- the majority of mariners in the Protector's 
chief of the repuUic, to the tune of his aenrice, litUeislmown of hislineal descent 
ooronatian. This work was represented in or professional noyiciate. He attained, 
baasi-relieyi, four hundred feet in length, howeyer, the rank of commodore, and 
and was partly asgrayed by wder of the in that capacity commanded a squad- 
Italian goyemment, by Longhi, Rosa- ron in the Mediterranean. When ser> 
5iina,anaothercelelffatedengTayers. Ap- ying on that station, a circumstance 
ani was afi^ted with paralysis for some occurred, which brought about one of 
years before his death. The Institute of the bloodiest battles recorded in naval 
Milan erected a monument to him, in the warfiure. It would seem that shortly 
nalace of Brera, but which was delayed after a sanguinary contest, between the 
for some time by a question as to the Dutch admiral. Van Galen, and the 
proper costume in which to represent the British commodore Bodley,* the fbrce of 
painter of the Italian Graces. At length, the former put into Legtiom roads, at 
after various designs had been rejected, which anchorage was riding another 
the work was erected in 1826 ; it repre- British squadron,f under the orders of 
sented a group in marble of the three commodore Apj^eton. In Uie previous 
Graces, and was sculptured by Thorwald- encounter with JBodley, Van Galen cap- 
sen. The same subject was copied by tured the British frigate jPAcmtr, and 
Manfredini, on a medal, which was di»- giving the command of this vessel to the 
tributed on the day of Uie inauguration young Van Tromp, added her to his own 
of the monument Longhi, one of the force. The belligerent squadrons were 
most distinguished artists in Italy, pro- now riding together at a neutral anchor- 
nounced the oration on Appiani, which age. But Appleton could not support 
was printed at Mflan in 1826. (Biog. the sight of Van Galen's trophy proudly 
Univ. Diet. Historique.) floating so near him, and thererore too 

APPIANO, (Jacopo d',) was made readily accepted the services of captain 
perpetual chancellor of the republic of Cox, who had formerly served as a lieu- 
Pisa, by the influence of Pietro Gam- tenant of the Pkcmix, to carry that ship 
bacorti, in 1369. Appiano surrounded by a coiip-</e-matif. This unjustifiable, 
himself with his adherents, embraced the but still well-concerted and well-executed 
Ghibdine part^» and formed a close design, was undertaken on Uie 20Ui No- 
alliance with Galeas Visconti, lord of vember, 1652. With three boats manned 
Milan. In 1392, he procured the mas- and armed, Cox carried the frigate. The 
sacre of Gambacorti and his friends, ship was possessed by the assailants be- 
whose houses were burnt and pillaged, fore the Dutch had time to ofier the least 
and possessed himself of the supreme resistance ; and young Van Tromp, her 
power, with the title of Lord of Pisa. He commander, was forced to leap ovenxMird 
died in 1398. (Sismondi, Histdes Rep. to avoid being taken. (Whitlock. Heath's 
Ital. 5. Biog. Univ.) Chron.) The grand duke of Tuscany, 

APPIANO, (Gerard,) son and sue- however, justly considering Uiis scisure 

cessor of the preceding, finding himself of a frigate on " pacific waters" as a 

unable to retain his power without assis- breach of that neutrality which he was 

tance, sold the seignory of Pisa to the bound to maintain so long as tlie ships of 

duke of Milan for 200,000 florins, re- the two republics remained witMn the 

taining only the sovereignty of Piombino precincts of^ his jurisdiction, insisted that 

and the Isle of Elba, to which he retired • « ». vi » ^. ». -^ *v « ^tu. - 

"* 1399- the name. ^^ 

APPIANO, Prince of Piombino. Tlie t Consisting of— guni. men. 

descendants of Gerard retained this prin- ^^'^^J.^nV;^;;;:::::: JJ IS 

cipality till the family of the Appiani be- Sampson 86 90 

came extinct in 158D. if,^*"* Merchant . 18 so 

I APPIANO, (Niccoia,) a painter of SI&!!.:.:;;:::;:;;:: IS 11 

63 



APP APP 

the English should either restore the age. The Dutch, as it was expected, put 
Phoenix to the Dutch, or depart the road- to sea with their whole squadron in pur- 
stead.* To proceed to sea involved con- suit of Bodley. This movement gave 
sequences fraught with danger to the Appleton the opportunity to weigh and 
British squadron, for Van Galen pos- depart the roads; hut the Dutch, who 
sessed an infinitely superior force,t and were aware of the design, desisting in the 
would he in time to follow Appleton, at the pursuit of their former antagonist, and 
expiration of the time usually allowed to '^ putting ahout," fell upon Appleton's 
depart hy the neutral party. Yet, at squadron with nine of theur largest ships. 
all hazards, the alternative of putting to At the first encounter, the Bonaventmre 
sea was chosen, rather than to deliver up unfortunately took fire, and exploded early 
the Phoenix to the Dutch. in the action ; hut shortly before the blow- 
No sooner was this resolution formed, up, a shot from that ship broke Van Galen's 
than advice was despatched to commo- leg, of which wound ne soon after dic4. 
dorc Bodley, who lay at Porto-Longone, In the mean time, Appleton was attacked 
in the Isle of Elba, with two vessels of by two of the HoUanders at once, iug;ain8t 
war and a fire-ship, which took part in whom he maintained a close fight for 
the former engagement with Van Galen, upwards of four hours, with such un- 
it was agreed between the two commo- daunted resolution, as to silence the fire 
dores that, in order to produce a diversion of both his opponents. Van Galen ob- 
in favour of Appleton, so as to permit serving the unsnaken spirit of the English 
him to proceed to* sea, Bodley with his commander, desperately wounded as he 
small squadron, (though imfit for action, was, directed his ship to bear down to the 
partly from the severe loss of men he assistance of his friends ; but a fireship de- 
Iiad sustained in the late fight, and partly spatchedfromBodley's squadron compelled 
on account of the rich merchant- ships him to desist from his purpose; so that he 
under convoy,) should appear at the was deprived of the glory of deciding the 
fixed time within sig ht of Leghorn. Thb fortune of the day : but another ship coming 
stratagem was carried into execution, to the assistance of the Hollanders who 
On the 2d of March, 1653, Bodley was were engaged with Appleton, the attack 
descried from Leghorn roads. On the was renewed with increased vifi;our. Some 
following day he approached the anchor- Dutch writers relate, that me English 

• The grand duke, through hi. minister in Eng- commodore, finding himself oppressed hj 

land, complained loudly of this violation of neutra- such uncQual numbers, like the brave Sir 

lity. and insisted upon proper satisfaction. The Richard Grenville, in the reifm of queen 

parliament were so highly offended with the mis- t?i: i. i.i xj. / j i. vi !-•«_• 

Conduct of commodore Appleton. that they re- i-hzabetll, attempted tO blow up tUS shm • 

ferred the whole matter to the council of state, but in this desperate design, like tne 

who sent immediate order, to Appleton to return former hero, he was opposed by his of- 

home by land. A communication wa. also trans- « *. , w ««« t^|<vov«« ,,j «mo wa 

mitted to the grand duke, " te.tifying great con- nccrs and crew, SO that he was compelled 

ccrn for the accident, and an assurance, that .uch tO yield. Younff Van Tromp attacked 

a course should be taken with the commodore as 4.i,« c««..^« !,„♦««« v»„*»„ fw »A..» -.-. 

should .ufficiently manife.t to all the world, they ^^^ Ciamson, but was beaten olT after an 

(the parliament) could no leu brook the violation of obstinate contest, though subsequently she 

his right, than the infringement of their own autho- ^as destroyed by a fire-ship. The LetMmi 

rity, which had been trampled upon in this instance, j,-- , .•'i ^ . , X . X, 77 

contrary to those repeated command, to their chief Merchant also not only beat Oil a Ship 

officers and captains arriving in his ports, which that encountered her, but also stranded 

ZZrll^^^Z'^''i;:^V^^^T.ri^'Z S,"' "^^ vrWch she was hewelf tJc«n. 

Ph(vnix, ihcy promise, after hearing Appleton, and The only remaining English ship of the 

farther conference vrith his resident to pronounce gix that sailed from Leghorn roads WES 

such a Ncntence as shall be agreeable to justice and a.\ nr i j S *«••»«» ^w 

equity." (Whitiock, Heath'. Chron. &c. &c.) But "^c Mary, who made her escape and 

mark what followed in less than two years,— the joined Bodlev's squadron. Of tne ter- 

..imeauthoritirs inform us, that Blake upon being t«;„^** „ ^c k J\ l ~» ^ *!.• 

dispatched with aforce to the Mediterranian,"wa! mination of Appleton s career, nothing 

first to proceed to leghorn, where he had two ae- remains on record. 
counlM to make up with the grand duke ; the first 




and this sum, there is reason to believe, was ac- mcnico, placed in tllC church beloUfiinir 

nolly paid." (He..h-.Chron.;Whl.lock; Ludlow, ,„ j,;, „/,,^, ;„ ycnice, drawn upon f 

f Sixteen vessel, of war. and some nre-sbip.. large scale ; as also in his other very 

6\ 



APP APS 

numerous j>ictures in that city. (Lanzi, His subjects revolted from him to Amasis, 
Star. Pitt. lii. 186.) and he was strangled after reigning 

APRAXIN, (Fedor-Matveitcht,) a twenty-five years. (Herod, ii. 159.) 
Russian general and admiral in the reign APKONIUS, (Lucius,) a Roman knight 
of Peter the Great, and one of the most who accompanied Drusus when sent by 
distinguished men who contributed to the Tiberius into Panonia, a. c. 14, and the 

advancement of Russia at that time. His next year was honoured with a Uiumph 

sen'ices by sea and land were eminent, for his achievements in German}^ 
but his character was tarnished by his APROSIO, (Angelico,) a learned Au- 

rapacity, which on one occasion procured gustin, born at Ventimielia, in the state 

his temporary disgrace. * He died 1722. of Genoa, 1607, from wnich he was fre* 

(Biog. Univ. Suppi. Voltaire, Pierre le quently, during his ^preatest reputation, 

Grand.) called Father Ventimiglia. He travelled 

APRAXIN, field-marshal of the Rus- a good deal in Italy, and resided for some 
sian armies under the empress Elizabeth, time in Venice, where the greater part 
At the commencement of the seven of his works were printed. In 1648 he 
years' war he led an army of 40,000 men founded a library m his native town — 
into Prussia, and defeated Lewald, one of known as the Sibliotheca Aprosiana ; 
Frederick's most distinguished generals, and after having filled some of the 
at Joegersdorff. He was prevented from higher dignities of his order, died in 1681. 
improving ^his victory by an intrigue at His most curious work is his Bibliotheca 
the court of Russia. Bestuchef^ the Aprosiana, passatempo autunnale di Cor- 
chancellor, to recommend himself to the nelio Aspasio Antiviglimi, &c. Bologna, 
grand duke, afterwards Peter III., who 1673 — a book of extreme rarity, as in- 
was an enthusiastic admirer of the great deed most of his others are. It contains 
Frederick, and expected shortly to sue- some interesting notices of the author's 
ceed to the crown, issued orders to Apraxin life, and a list of persons who had pre- 
to withdraw his army into winter quar- sented books to him, together with the 
ters, which were obeyed. Bestucneff, titles of the books, and a number of 
however, was exiled, and Apraxin ar- curious anecdotes not to be met wiUi 
rested on its discovery ; ana he after- elsewhere ; but this list, which is alpha- 
wards took no part m public affairs, betically arranged, does not extend be- 
(Lord Dover's Frederick II. vol. ii. yond the letter C. Another work not 
Biog. Univ.) less seldom met with, La Visiera alzata 

APRES DE MANNEVILLETTE, Hecatoste di Scrittori, in which several 
(Jean Baptiste Nicolas Denis d',) a French of the pseudonymous authors of his time 
navigator and hydrographer, born 1707, are unmasked, was published posthu- 
died 1780. He entered the service of the mously. Aprosio himself constantly em- 
French East India Company at an early ployea fictitious names upon his title 
age, and distinguished himself on his pages. (Biog. Univ.) 
first voyage by his knowledge of navi- APSCH, (Jerome Andreae, about 1490 

fation. He was one of the first to intro- — 1556,) a German engraver on wood, 

uce Hadley's quadrant, with which he bom at Nuremburg, who assisted Hans 

made a great number of observations, Burghmair in executing the wood-cuts 

and formed the design of correcting and for a book published at Vienna, entitled 

adding to the charts of the Indian seas, Der Weyss Konig, the Wise King, con- 

which were at that time very imperfect, taining the principal events of the life 

The result of his labours appeared in and reign of the emperor Maximilian, 

1745, under the name of Neptune Orien- represented in two hundred and tliirty- 

tal. The coasts most correctly laid down seven prints. (Bryan's Diet.) 
by him were those of Africa, Malabar, APSINES. There seems to have been 

and Coromandel, the Bay of Bengal, the three rhetoricians of tliis name. The first 

Straits of Malacca, and in genersd those was of Phoenicia, and the friend of Philo- 

which he had himself seen, or were most stratus, who closes his life of this sophist, by 

frequently visited by French vessels. He saying, thatitdoesnotbecome him to speak 

was materially assisted in the execution too highly of the powers of memory and 

of this work by Mr. Dalrymple, with the accuracy of Apsines, lest his partiality 

whom he was in constant correspondence might throw discredit on his testimony ; 

during its progress. (Biog. Univ.) and it is perhaps from this passage tliat 

A PRIES, son of Psammis, was king of a short treatise On Memory, edited by 

Egypt about 595 b. c. He made war Fridcric Morell, Par. 1698, has been at- 

against the Phoenicians, and took Sidon. tributcd to Apsines, but which is merely 

VOL. II. 65 F 



APS APS 

an extract from the Ttx^ 'Ffirepuai, as- this idle life, he determined to join tha 

signed to Apiinea the second ; whose earl of Essex in the expedition to Cadis. 

father (%aj% Suidas) was Pan, as the story and for this purpose ohcained an emplov- 

went, ancl himself the pupil of Heraclides ment under the victualler of the navy. In 

the Lycian, who taught at Smyrna, and this expedition he hehared with so much 

of Ba^ilicus in Xicomedia ; from whence courage and prudence, that on his return 

Apsines went to Athens in the time of the he was sent into Ireland, where he had a 

ernperor Max! minus. The third Apsines very noble and profiuble employment, 

was a sophist of Athens, and the fatner of In that country he married a ricn widow ; 

Onesimus, who probably settled at Sparta, and growing in esute and honour, was 

and was hence called a Spartiote, or a knighted by king James I. soon after his 

Lacedsemonian, according to Eunapius, accession to the throne. Having lost his 

and who flourished in the time of Con- first wife, he married a daughter of Sir 

Btantine. Of the first and third there Peter Carew, a niece of Sir Geom Carew, 

are no remains, but the second has left afterwards earl of Totness. This la4y 

two treatises, Iltpi Upooifuov, and Ucoi lived not long ; and dying during his al^ 

KtrxfjfuiTiafuptav UpoffkijfuiTtap, first puo- sence in Ireland in his employment there, 

lished in the first volume of the Rhetores he determined to obtain hu discharge 

Grsci by Aldus, Ven. fol. and more from it, and at the same time some pubue 

recently by Walz, in the ninth volume employment in England. The place 

of his Rhetores Grseci, Stutgard, 1836, which he obtained was that of victualler 

where, however, the latter part of the of the navy, a place both of credit aud 

T«x^ 'PTTopiKi; is assi^ed to Longinus great revenue. At this period of his life 

on the autliority of Riuinken ; who was he connected himself with the house of 

the first to remark, in vol. xxiv. p. 273, Saint John, by marrying Lucy, thebeau- 

of the Bibliothcque des Sciences et tiful daughter of Sir John Samt John, of 

Beaux Arts, La Uaye, 1768, that Joannes Lidiard Tregoz, in the county of WUti, 

Siceliota has quoted from a lost work of she being but sixteen, and Sir Allen 

Longinus, lltpt Eupccrcisr, a long passage forty -eight. They lived for a year or 

found in that vcr^ treatise. Finckh, two in a house in East Smitlifield, which 

however, whose Epistola Critica is given belonged to Sir Allen's office in the navy; 

by Walz, abiudicatcs a portion of wliat after which they removed to the Tower of 

is there attributed Ui Longinus, on the London, Sir Allen being appointed to the 

ground of its dissimilarity to the style of lieutenancy of the Tower, on the disgrace 

uio autlior On the Sublime. Be this as and death of Sir Jervase Elways, an ho- 

it may, the treatise is of no little interest nourable appointment, which he held fop 

to scholars, as it enabled Tyrwhitt to show the remainder of liis life. He died in 

that Pseud - Apsines had read in the May, 1630. 

Bacchre of Euripides, a scene at present Such are the leading events of his life, 

lis ac- 

better 

... - . , having 

ihadrnmafCaWvdXpKrTosnaax^^i^'^^^^^ married Colonel John Hutchinson, of 

two-thirds of that play have been intro- Owthorpc, in the county of Nottingham. 

diicfd with more or less alterations. She wrote at large an account of the life 

ATSLEY, (Sir Allen,) the seventh of her husband ; and she left also a frag- 

nnd y<)unj|,'('8t son of Apsley, of Pul- ment of the history of her own life, in 

h()r()u«,'h, In the county of Sussex, a gen- which is an account of her fother's life 

ticinan at that time of hcven or eight also. Both were printed from her own 

liunclnd pounds a year, was born in or manuscript, near the beginning of the 

about the year l.'iOS. His father died present century. 

while he was a youth at school, leaving Mrs. Hutchinson further says of her 
him an annuity which he quickly sold, father, that he was greatly lamented by 
and (h'Hcrting his studies, entered at once all, having shown himself through life a 
into active life, and hecanuMme of the most man of singular excellency, and been 
eiiterpriHing and successful persons of his especially remarkable for his liberality and 
time. By means of a relation at court, graeiousness. He had a singular kind- 
he got a place in the household of queen ncss for all who were eminent in learning 
Klizahetli, where he appears to have lived or in arms. He was a father to his pr£ 
like many of the young gallants of the soners, one of whom was Sir Walter 
time, yet winning the atlertion of the Kaleigli, whose investigations in natural 
persons around him. Disliking, however, philosophy, in which he employed him- 

C6 




AP8 APU 

ielf wliile in the Tower, were facilitated Benjamin Bathurst The issue of this 
iOirough his indtdgence, and the supplies marriage was Allen Bathurst, who was 
of money for the purpose which Lady created Lord Bathurst in 1711, and who 
Apsley made to him. Add to all this, married his cousin-german, Catherine, the 
that he was eminently loyal and pious. daughter and heir of Sir Peter Apsley. 
APSLEY, (Sir AUen,) the younger, a The son of the first Lord Bathurst being 
commander in the civil wars on the side created a peer in the life - time of his 
of the kine, and an author, was a son of father, chose the title of Baron Apsley, 
the Sir Allen Apsley, the subject of the which has continued to be used as the 
preceding article, by Lucy Saint John, second title of that noble family, 
his third wife, and brother to Mrs. Lucy APSYRTUS, (kfvprot,) an author 
Hutchinson. He was bom at the house frequently quoted m the VeterinarisB 
in £ast Smithfield, in or about the year Medicince Libri Duo. Grcecd, Basil, 1537, 
1619, and was, as Wood supposes, for 4to. He was bom, according to Suidas, 
some time of Trinity college, Oxford, either at Prusa, or Nicomedia,mBithynia, 
This has entitled him to a place in Wood's towards the end of the third century after 
Account of the Eminent Men educated Christ, and served as a soldier under the 
in that University. The civil war com- emperor Constantino on the banks of the 
menced just when he was arrived at the Danube, as he informs us himself. (Hip- 
full period of manhood, and he became a piatr. lib. i. cap. 1.) He appears to have 
commander on the side of the king. His been well acauainted with tne formidable 
employment seems to have been chiefly disease callca the glanders, and to have 
in the west, where he was governor of understood its nature. 
Exeter, and afterwards governor of Barn- APTHORP, (East,) an English divine^ 
staple. This place he surrendered on the bom 1732, died 1816, was prebend of 
ruin of the royal cause, and lived a re- Finsbury in St Paul's cathedral. He 
tired life till the return of the king. Poll- was a native of New England, and a 
tical differences even in those violent member of the university of Cambridge, 
times had not interfered with private re- He published several Sermons and Let* 
gards, and he maintained a strict friend- ters on the prevalence of Christianity 
ship with his sister and her husband, before its civil establishment, with oo- 
Colonel Hutchinson, who were zealous servations on Gibbon's History. London, 
parliamentarians, which was manifested 1778. (Watts, Bibliotheca Britannica.) 
m acts of kindness to him during the APULEIUS, (Lucius,) but his pre- 
ascendency ofColonel Hutchinson's party, nomen is doubtful. (See Elmenhorst. 
and in zealous efforts of Sir Allen Apsley Not. ad Vit. Apul. tom. iii. p. 503, ed. 
to keep the name of his brother-in-law Oudendorp.) Also the orthography Apu- 
out of the exception clauses of the Act of leius and Appuleius is not clearly ascer- 
Indemnity, which were finally, as to the taincd. The older inscriptions give Appu^, 
most material point, the life of Colonel the more recent JpuAeius. (See Crenius, 
Hutchinson, successful. The circum- Animadvers. Philol. p. xi. init. Ouden- 
stances are related at laree in Mrs. Hut- dorp ; and Osann ad Apulei, de Ortho- 
chinson's Life of her Husband. graph, p. 14, ff. 1828, Schulzeit.) He 

After the Restoration, he had an ap- was bom probably towards the end of 
pointment in the duke of York's reei- Adrian's reign, at Madaura, a city, and 
ment, and an office in his household, afterwards a Roman colony on the bor- 
He also sat in parliament for Thetford. ders of the province of Africa, whence 
He is the author of a poem, published in (Apologia, p. 28, Bipont ed.) he calls 
1679, entitled. Order and Disorder; or, himself " Seminumida Semigsetulus." 
the World made and undone : being Me- His father Theseus was duumvir of th&t 
ditations upon the Creation and the Fall, city ; his mother Salvia, through the 
as it is recorded in the beginning of philosopher Sextus of Chseronca, wai 
Genesis. He died in St. James 's-square, related to the biographer Plutarch, and 
Oct. 15, 1683. his patrimony consiaerable (H. S. vices 

In this branch of the family of Apsley — 16,145/.). The education of Apu- 
had centered the estate of l^ilborough, leius began at Carthage; at Athens he 
in Sussex, by eift of the owner, tlie son studied and professed with distinction 
of the elder orother of the first Sir the Platonic philosophy ; and, later in 
Allen. The second Sir Allen married life, he acquired at Rome, without an 
Frances, daughter and heir of John Pctre, instructor and with infinite pains, arum" 
Esq., and had two children, Sir Peter nabili labore, the Latin language. Tho 
Apsley and Frances, who married Sir fortune he inherited was consulted in 

67 F 2 



APU APU 

frequent jonrneyi, etpeciaDy in Greece, rbetoric than prodncthre of truths ftr 

to the difierent schoolfl and teachers of phUoaophy. "He had not only taated of 

philoflfiphy, and by repeated initiationfl the cup erf" Iheratore under the gramma- 

inUt the mysteries of the pagan religion ; rians and rhetoricians of Carthage, bat 

until, at last, for entrance into the Isiac at Athens drank freely of the miii^ed 

worship at ftrmie, he was obliged to part dranghu of poetry, the clear stream of 

with his garments in order to raise the geometry, the sweet waters of musicy the 

necessary sum. (Metamorph. p. 277, rough current of dialectics, and the nee- 

liip€mt.) The necessities of Apuleius tareous and inexhaustihle depths of 

diverted him from philosophy to the bar; universal philosop^." " Empedodes 

and after acquiring the language, he composed poems, l4ato dialogues, £pi- 

practised as a pleader at Rome, and sub- charmus songs, Xenophonhistoiries,Xeno- 

sequently in his own country, with such crates satyric pieces, Apoleias all of 

success that several cities decreed statues these." Tie last two sentences are fioa 

to him, and CEa (Tripolis) the more hu Florida, p. 148, and may me some 

substantial privflege of the freedom of notion of the quaint, redmcGint, and 

the city. His professional income was exotic manner of the African Platoniat. 

increased by marriage with a rich widow. Yet the works of Apuldua are mcHre 

iKmilia I'udentiDa, by her former hus- valuable thanthe recoras of his life, and 

band Sicinius Amicus the mother of two equally with those of his contemporaij 

sons, Pontianus and Sicinius Pudens. Lucian of Samosata, reflect the «"g"?ar 

She was considerably older than Apuleius, moral and intellectual state of the era of 

but in all other respects a gooa nuitch the Antonines. Hu best known pro* 

for a philosopher. Her late husband's duction is the Metamoiphoais, more 

family, however, resented the transfer of usually entitled the " Golden Ass," a 

her estates to a stranger, and they ac- name that rests, however, on no good 

cuscd Apuleius of gaining her affections authority, and is not warranted by any 

by magical arts, and of causing, by simi- thing in the story. In the edition of 

lar practices, the death of Pontianus, her Aldus Manutius, October 1521, it ia 

eldest son ; and they raised the common merely ** Lucii Apuleii Madamensb Me- 

cry of atheism against him as a philoso- tamorphosis sive Lusus AsinL" The 

plier and a mystic. Sicinius ^milianus, sources both of the '' Lucius" of Lncian, 

nrother of Sicinius Amicun, conducted and the Metamorphosis, are to be tonght 

the prr>secution ; it was pleaded before rather in that class of stories which the 

Claudius Maximum, proconsul of Africa, ancients called Milesian, Bifikta rmw 

and the defence of Apuleius is his Apolo- Apiorcidov M(Xi70'iaK6»y, (Plutarch. Craas. 

gia ; or, as it is more properly entitled, De 32, cf. Ovid. 2 Trist. v. 443,) than in the 

Mugiu Oratio. He triumphantly answers apocryphal /xcra/io/x^MMrcwr Xoyoi of 

every point of the prosecutor s speech, Lucius of Patra? (see Vossius de Hktor. 

and shows the accusations to be trivial, GrsBcis, pp. 517,518; SchoU. Geschicht. 

iiiconNistent, and false, unsupported by derGriech.litii.p.509); and theMfleaian 

facts, and unsound in law. lie was ac- stories probably ascend into the remote 

({uitted, and seems to have passed the antiquity of Eastern apologue. Neither 

remainder of his life in the cnioymcnt of is the beautiful episode of Cupid and 

competence and philr>sophic leisure. The Psyche original, rulgentius (Mytholo- 

tiine of hiM death is not ascertained, gicdn, lib. iii.) ascribes it to Aristophantea, 

From Metamorph. pp. 20 — 25, ond Apol. an Athenian (see Mem. de I'Acad. dea 

p. (J, it appcarN that the person andcoun- Jnscript. xxxiv. p. 48). The Oratio de 

tenance of Apuleius were remarkably Magia has already been mentioned. It 

sy 111 metrical and liandsonie, and his is the work of an artist in a degenerate 

aecuHerH reproached him with too much age ; less tumid, obscure, and metaphori* 

anxiety about Iuh drciis and the arrange- cal in diction than the other writings of 

ni(>nt of his hair. He defends himself Apuleius, it is chiefly valuable as a lively 

with the examples of Pythagoras, of Zcno, and exact picture of the opinions and 

and of Plato, who regorded a comely manners of the times. The Florida is 

exteri<»r as the symbol of u pure and in- either a collection of prefaces and common 

geiiuous npirit. His learning embraced places for rhetorical exercises and de- 

the whole eirele of the sciences of that clamation, or an anthology by one of the 

age ; and we may infer that some of liis scliolars of Apuleius from nis more cele- 

ae(iuirein(>nts were therefore rather spc- bratcd speeches. The philosophical works 

cious than solid, more valuable as fur- of Apuleius abound in the neoplatonistie 

nisl&ing him with the ornaments of doctrines which, towards the end of the 

68 



APU AQU 

•eeond century, superseded the stoical Elector, ii. c. 21, &c. For the portrait 

ethics of the preceding age. His treatise of Apuleius, see Gronov. Tkesaur. An- 

De Deo Socratis, contains a theory of the tiqq. and Visconti Iconographia, Roman. 

Dsemones, somewhat resemhling that of i. p. 430, ff. 

the comte de Gahalis in modem times, APUL£IUS, (L.CseciliusMinutianus,) 

and attempts to define the order of these author of a treatise De Orthographia, 

intermediate heings, to which the tutelary published from the original manuscript 

genius of Socrates belonged. The three by A. Mai. His country, and Uie date 

books, De Dogmate Platonis, are an in- of his life and writings, are unknown ; 

troduction to the Platonic philosophy, probably he lived soon aiter Cassiodorus, 

which Apuleius divides into physical, t. f. eSier a. d. 575. He is not the Apu- 

ethical, and rational; but the purity of leius mentioned by Sueton. De Illustr. 

the elder Academy is impaired by later Grammatt. 3. Two other tracts, probablv 

and more fanciful theories. The language taken from some longer work, De Nota 

of these works bears some resemblance to Aspirationis, and De Diphthongis, were 

the over refinement and nice subdivisions adaed by Osann. Darmstadt, 1826, and 

of the schoolmen. The treatise De Mundo are by some attributed to this Apuleius, 

is a free translation of the false Ari- but mey were not written, in all likeli- 

stotle's tract, Ilroi Koo-fiov. The verses of hood, before 1327. 

Apuleius, both m cadence and prosody, APULEIUS. See Satubminus. 

are inferior to the poems, of a later date, APULEIUS CELSUS, an eminent 

of Boethius. Many of the multifarious physician, bom at Centorbi (Ceit/tirtpa) in 

works of Apuleius have perished — e.g. Sicily, about the beginning of the chris- 

Phffido, a Latin translation of the Dia- tian era. Nothing is known of the events 

logue of Plato ; Hermagoras ; De Pro- of his life except that he was the tutor of 

verbiis ; De Republica ; Medicinalia, if Valens and Scnbonius Largus, (Scribon. 

this be not rather the work of Apuleius Larg. cap. 94, 171.) He is perhaps the 

Celsus, a Sicilian, of the age of Augustus ; same person who is quoted several times 

DeMusica; Ludicra et Conviviales Quses- in the Geoponica, Cantab. Gr. and Lat. 

tiones; Libri Physic! ; Letters and 8vo, 1704. 

Speeches. (See Florida, p. 122.) The APULEIUS. There is extant, under 

tract, however, Hermetis Trismegisti this name, a work entitled Herbarium, 

Asclepius, s. De Natura Deomm Dia- seu de Medicaminibus Herbarum, con- 

logus, is improperly placed among the taining a description of one hundred and 

writings of Apuleius. twenty-eight plants, in the same number 

The literary reputation of Apuleius of chapters. It has been attributed to 
was not without its detractors. In a Apuleius Celsus of Centuripa, and to the 
letter to the senate, after the death of his famous Apuleius of Madaura, but it is of 
rival Clodius Albinus, the emperor Se- a date manifestly posterior to both those 
verus makes it a principal subject of writers, and cannot have been written 
complaint that " the Romans had given earlier than the fourth or fifth century 
the title of a literary man to one who, after Christ It was first printed at Rome, 
like Clodius, took defight in the Milesian 4 to, ap. Is. Phil, de Lignamine, sine 
tales of the Punic Apmeius." (Capitolin. anno, with the title Herbarium Apulei 
Severus, c. 12.) He was long ana gene- Platonici ad Marcum Agrippam. The 
rally reputed, by the christian writers, a last and best edition is that by Acker- 
magician. See Lactantius, Div. Instit. mann, in the Parabilium Medicamentorum 
v. 3 ; and in the g3nnnasium of Zeuxip- Scriptores Antiqui. Norimb. 1788, 8vo. 
pus at Constantinople, there was a statue There is also a snort treatise, De Ponde- 
of AirvXffiov Tov Mayov ; see also Antho- ribus et Mensuris, bearing the name of 
logia, lib. V. p. 531 ; Augustin. ep. 4, 5, Apuleius, which is to be found at the 
49 ; and Marcellin. ad Augustin. 3. end of several editions of the works of 

For a more complete account of the Mesne, viz. Venet. 1549, fol. ap. Juntas, 

writings of Apuleius, see Fabricii, Bib. and others. 

Latin. Emesti ed. tom. iii. lib. 3, c. 2, AQUA, or ACQUA, (Cristofano dell', 

and the edition of his works by Ouden- of Vicenza,) an engraver, who flourished 

dorp and Rosscha, Lugd. 1785 — 1823, about 1760. Amongst his other known 

3 vols, 4to ; and for his literary charac- works are a portrait of Frederick the 

ter, F. C. Schlosser, Universal Hist. Great of Prussia; a portrait of Genlio 

Uebers. der alten Welt, iii. 2, 5, 196, ff. ; Ferrari, a nobleman of Vicenza, both in 

consult also Augustin, De Civitate Dei, 4to ; Merit crowning Apollo, after An- 

and Lipsius Epp. Quaest IL 22 ; iii. 12 ; drea Sacchi, a large print in folio ; and a 

69 



A Q U A Q U 

frontUpifrce and thrv,ts vif^nette? for the t> .arkaUe for beizig eztrenwlj litcnL 

Italian prn^tA, d«:rlicatfiH to the king of Ti.i3 laftt consideration lerres to disda- 

I'ruMia. Hill work.4 are executed with ^a!.-h him from the translator, called 

thf ^avfTJnafieMr; Atylr^and with very Akilot in the Jerusalem Talmud, hot 

littU: vifecX. Mlf-'inecken, Diet, den Ar- Onkelos in the Babylonish, because from 

tlHtirR. Stnitt, DicU of £n^.; some portions of that translation still pre- 

AQ(;AI'KNL)f:NTE. See Fabricio served, it appears to have been para- 

itK AttUAFBNiiKNTE. plirastic. Tne version of Aqoila was 

AQ(JAV'/VA, (Andrea Matteoj duke read in the synagogues ; a permission to 

of Atriy in the kingdom of Naples, and tliat effect having been granted by Ju*- 

son of Julius Aquaviva, coimt of Conve- tinian. (See Novell. 146.) 
rinno, nnd author of Disputationes de The notion that Aquila published two 

VirtiiU; Moral i, Ilelonop. 1000 ; and editions of his version, is supposed by 

nn unfiniHhcd Knryclopsdia; died in Ilody (deTcxtibusBibliorum,p.238) tolle 

ir/JS, a^ird Revf!nty-two. ilis brother a mistake ; Montfaufon, however, seems 

licJiftariuH was als^i an author, and pub- to have maintained it, but without noticing 

linhrsd trfatiscn, I>f; Venationc ; DeAucu- Hodv's arguments, which de Wette (in 

pio; Of; I'riricipum Lihcris Educandis; Ersch and Gruebcr; considers quite con- 

find \)i' Ortarninr: Hin^ilari ; which were elusive. See more on these obscure 

priritfd at Naples in 1 ."^ 1 9, and at Basic point«i in that article of de Wette, in 

in J. 578. Ilody (ubi supra, and lib. iv. c. 1), and in 

AQUAVIVA, (Claudio,) son of Gio- Montfau9<m's Preliminaria in Hezapla 

vaniii Jrroiiyififi, duke of Atri, bom Ori^rcnis, in wliich work, and the partial 

at Na])lfi>i ill 1513, died in 1C15, and reprint of it by Bahrdt, will be found 

rlio4fii (.'fiif-ral of the JpHuits. lie the fragments now extant of Aquila'a 

wroti' nrvi-ral rfli^ioiis works ; among version. 

tlififi — IiiduMtria? ad Ciirandfis Aniiuae AQUILA, (Giovanni dell',) an Italian 

Morhon. VitriH^ KiO'A. But his best known physician of Naples, who practised with 

iirodiiction wan the llatio Studiorum, pub- great celebrity in the fiAeenth century. 
liHlicrl at l</>jii(; in 1580, dcHigncd for the AQUILA. There arc three artiats of 

Uflc f>r liifl firdcr, whirh w;im HUppn^Hscd by eminence of this name; one a painter, 

tlic Iii(|niHitirin, hiit reprinted with alter- and the others designers and engraven. 
atioiif ill \oU\. ntio^. Uiiiv.) 1. PompeodcU\ so called from Aquila, 

AC^UILA, a iiaiiv(! of I'ontus (Ire- his native town, and sometimes asdled 

iiriMiR, iii. 21), rclrhrattrd for \\U transla- Aquilano, an artist stated by Orlandi, in 

tioii of tlir* llrbrcw ScripturcK into (irick. Ihh Abbecodario Pittorico, to have been a 

IliM hintory in involved in much ohscu- reputable painter of history, both in oU 

ril y ; but tbo most tni.Htwortliy account and fresco, imd to have flourished in the 

iijipnirj* to be tbatof Ku^f'biiiM, (I)i in. Kv. latter part of the sixteenth centurv. In 

vii. I J who Rt'itcH that be was a .fcwiiih Ronu-, in the church of Santo Spirito in 

pruHriyte. (Sre alio IrciifiMM, f//;» Rupra, Sassia, is a fine picture by him, repre- 

niirj .Icroiiir, an fpifited in KrK<-h and (fruc- Hcntin|r the taking; down from the Croat, 

b(>r. ) Tlir ficcouiit of Kpi)>banius (de of which there is a print by Horatius de 

PdihI. ft. NfeiiH. e. j.'j, and aUo a frag- Sanctis, dated 1«>72. Several consider- 

iiieiti ill Moiitfiiuyon's llexapla, vol. i. iible works by him, in fresco, are to be 

j». H'J) is tboui^bl. to be entitled to very seen at Aquila. (Lanzi, Stor. Pitt ii« 

Iiifb- rrrdit. It Htnten tliat be was a near 202, Bryan's Diet.) 
iiliitioii to tbe eiiipiror Hadrian, and 2. /ra//r<^.Tc-o /V/rao;/c, a designer and 

beramr a Cbri-.tijin ; but tinit beiii^r re- en^'raver, born at Palermo in 1676, and 

proviil fi»r 111 I ii(blictii»ii to astnilojry, b« settled at Home in 1700. Ilis engravinn 

reiiouiii'ed (;bristi;mify, embraced Ju- are inunerouH, and some of them highly 

d:iimii, and after leariiiiij: Hebrew, trans- esteemed. His Btylc of engraving is, in 

liiiiMJ ibi> SrriplureM. witli fui aiiti-ebriHtian execution, considered neater tlian that of 

biiu. 'j'br justice of tiiis hitter accusa- bis youn^rer brother Pietro, though he ia 

tioii jippcars Hoiiirwbal diMibtful, altbou^b very inferior to him in correctness of 

Hoiiii' in.ii-kM of it lire tiuiuubt to exist in drawing; and expression. He sometimea 

■■mine of iliii fr.i}riiii.|its Mill i'\tnnt (»f bis worked with the jjraver only, but hia 

xiiMoti. It Nrriiis probabjr, :im hr is plati-s in that way are cold an^ deficient 

ouotid by lirn:rus and Justin Martyr, in eli'ict, and by no means equal to thoio 

tb.'it be iivrd ill tbr ill st balf of tbe second on wbicli he used the point. Some of 

crMtiny. 1 1 ih tvausbitioii occupied tbe tbird bis prints are after his own designs. Hia 

eohniin of Orii'.euH llexapla, and was works arc — Le Coiucrc Sepolchrali di 



AQlt AQt? 

Idvia Augusta ; forty plates after designs the painter from whom he copied ; and 
by P. Ghezii ; a set of twenty-two large these faults seem never more glaring 
plates, entitled Picturse Kaphaelis Urbi- than in his prints irom Raphael, where 
natis ex Aula et Conclavibus Palatii the chaste simplicity of outlme, the great 
Vaticani, &c. Aouila, del. et incid. 1722 ; characteristic of that master, is lost in tho 
many statues ana groups for the work of manner of Pietro Aquila. It is from 
Rossi ; and an immense number of de- Annibale Carracci that he has best sue- 
tached pieces after rarious artists, which ceeded." He died probably at Rome, at 
are enumerated in M. Heinecken's Die- what time is not exactly known, though 
tionary. The works after his own com- Orlandi states that he was living at an ad- 
position arc St Rosalia, and Mars with vanced date in the last century. (Strutt, 
nis Armour hung on a Tree. (Heinecken, Diet, of £ng. Heinecken, Diet, dek 
Diet des Artistes. Strutt's Diet of Artistes. Lanzi, Stor. Pitt ii. 286.) 
£ng.) AQUILA, (Caspar, 1488—1560,) su- 
3. Pietro^ the 3rounger brother of the perintendent of Saalfeld, and a well- 
preceding, bom also at Palermo, and known writer on theological subjects, 
with him settled at Rome in 1700. He Having been nominated army chaplain 
was educated for the church, and became, by the imperial general, F. V. Sickingen, 
according to Orlandi, a priest of Mar- in 1515, he became a preacher the next 
seilles. fialdinucci pronounces him to ^ear at Augsburgh. He was, however, 
have been a respectable painter, but his imprisoned for some years by the bishop, 
reputation was &r greater as an engraver, and released only on the intercession of 
Tne only works mentioned by Land, as Charles V.'s sister ; and in 1520, he again 
of his painting, are two pictures in the joined F. V. Sickingen. Here, having 
church Delia Pietj^, in his native place, refused to christen a cannon-ball, the 
representing the Parable of the Prodigal soldiers determined to shoot him from a' 
Son. His en^aved works are numerous, mortar ; but his life was preserved, by the 
several of which are after designs of his piece missing fire ! By Luther's advice 
own ; amone^ the principal of which are, (1527), he went as a preacher to Saalfeld, 
a set of the Roman Emperors; the and there became superintendent. He 
Adoration of the Wise Men ; the Flight wrote so severely in 1548 and 1549 against 
into Egypt ; a Holy Family ; Diana and the *' Interim, that the emperor put a 
Actaeon ; Two Lions Fighting, an em- price (nearly five thousand guilders) on 
blematic subject, inscribed, Spe tusciiat nis head, dead or alive. Catherine of 
iras. His plates after other masters are Schwarzburg protected him in this dan- 
in great request. The chief of them are, ger; and in 1550 he was employed in 
Imagines Veteris ac Novi Testamenti^ Sraalcald, and in 1552 retumea to Saal- 
commonly called Raffaelle's Bible, from feld, where he died. Shortly before his 
the pictures by that master in the Vatican, death, he subscribed the supplication ad- 
This work consists of fifty-five plates, of dressed by forty-six of Luther's followers 
which he engraved sixteen ; namely, 37, to Frederick II. of Saxony, against the 
38, and 39, and from 42 to 54 ; the others new sects and heresies among tne protes- 
having been executed by Cssar Fantetti. tants. His works are more particularly 
The &ttle of Constantine, on four large specified by Baur, hi Ersch and Grueber s 
plates, from the picture of Julio Romano, Lncyclopadie, from wliich this article is 
which he painted after the designs of taken. See also Schiller's works. 
Raffaelle. Concilium Deorum, commonly AQUILANO, (Serafino, 1466 — 1500,) 
called Lanfranc's Gallery, in nine large an Italian poet, so called from Aquilo, a 
folio plates, and others after Annibme city in the Ambruzzi, where he was born. 
Carracci, Pietro de Cortona, Ciro Ferri, His poems were printed at Venice in 
Carlo Maratti, Giovanni Morandi, &c. 1502, &c., and consist of sonnets, eclogues, 
Mr. Strutt gives the following excellent &c. Together with Tebaldeo, Cariteo, 
summary of his style and ments : — " He Altissimo, and other poets of the end of 
drew admirably, and etched in a bold the fifteenth century, Aquilano enjoyed a 
free manner, finishing his lights, and bar- considerable but temporary reputation, 
monizing his shadows with small dots. (Biog. Univ. Roscoe's Leo. Tiraboschi.) 
His greatest faults are, want of efiect AQUILANO, (Sebastiano,) an Italian 
from scattering his lights, and what by physician in the fifteenth century, is said 
the artist is called manner in his drawing, to have been among the earliest to em- 
The first gives a confused flat appearance ploy mercury in syphilitic cases. He 
to his prints ; and the last presents us died in 1543, leaving some medical trea- 
with a style of his own, instead of that of tises. (Biog. Univ. Ha^er.) 

71 



Ki^'C AQC 



-Wr/r.A.VO. Vk .*;i.T:i^ ?,uip:t; I L ViL Mas- 5. D. I. . Is 






»/y^>..'.*, r.jtr. x::sts. cj: *iTU:fxsj:^^ aa ^p- Lecsdiai Gc de I»riia&. 21. 69; on 

/ //.r, y^j..v, f.i \c.^. firuv.tzj-XL hAxr.:^ zza uxtmuz. H-s «9cape<L hovewf^ by 

A ^. >' <*!>. H*::.^.t*t. Lrj:t. -ia Ar- r^cinz sa Tuira AppoBif R Cir. 1, 

t.^r."* 22, bi3 aH his aca were i 

r, )*\>.r. .A V, In a. ^. 101. an/i V-.-varii th« pu^f a pleaeiau hooae. Books and 

<^r.^ ',? \:.xr. i<\:. \^.r.'. iiV- ^'xrlj. -miuiTt calf, fcr tae mixc pnt. hare the £; 

IK: -: i,f3r*y/:Aj Ia".. S»irx\, Lifi. Lorwa wi:h hardlT an czcepGnx. ibe 3fSSLgnrc 

^ t*^ -: .*. .: .'. a : Jul, , ir.fl C . »* r. .*. '-a Lvxkr. Ai^cfiha. 

/. :.. IfA,, tjiii r^.n^ivhi's'zij i/if:^ ct- AQL'ILUUS. C. Galba^) m c^efanlcd 

f '.v-:, :.^.*\ iwi.r fjk^ziyi itf.nzjtti br the lawjer. a cGatemponrr aiid fiicnd of 

«U/-'.( )4:.^/T Ail«^*>/7i, in th^ »Koa<l Cict!r*i (Topica, m. 32,, the i^olar of 

h'r-.c: xiir, 'IXrAftT. z. pp. 1(3 — XVt. Q^ Mcciu Scaeroia. and die iuttiu e t or 

ft/i/i-t, i.i. *:, yj,j Aquiiiiiu acted for of Serrhu Solpicics yC&e. Bnit. 42|. He 

tf *::.■: i.tu*: t,h thH 'ifif'-.TiHT^f c'^tunjs Off vas pnetcr in the same jearwitli G 

f K': W4tr:r and vippli^n of tK« iiuur;?«nt5. bus aeclxned offering himself fiir the 

At \*-u'/^-.\i, in & f!/:u*^il crngagezne&t, he solship 'Cic. adAtt. 1, 1, 1) aDmi^ 

U/Jiiiy rMit/:fl th<rrri, ari'i, according to a Ttzioa, his health and his IcgsTttTO— 

oil'; A/y.ourit, 'm jAtd Ut Piave killed tLeir tionj. He praided, C i c tup e ta tory) at the 

\*'Ht\tr AtK«:rti/in in tingle combat. For trial of P.Quintxus (lee Qe. pn> P.QsiBt.), 

A '«.'.'//."/ ov<;r iiUv':^ sind rebels an oTa* and is wannlj commended or theft oBitiv 

tiofj orify 'a'%4 al!o7rr:d. Abd after his in his defence of Caecina. The voela <if 

r<-t>ir/i from th<: i>.I;».'id which he governed Aquillxns are, even by name, qn kiWB , 

iu pr'//-ori«ij| ijrttii fiO B.C., Aquillius was except some Formuls Aqniniens (see 

irni^-achH by L.Fufiiui (Ciccrrj, Brut. 62, Beier ad Cic. de Offic. iiL 1-1, p. 287), to 

222, Vi'ir, AcciM. 5, 1, 3;, on a charge prevent frauds in bargains « nle and 

of vnal adrriiniiitratiori, and defended conveyance, probably the same work ai 

by \f. Ant/iiiiii4, Cic. dc OraL 11, 28, the one entitled De Dolo MsIol Theie 

Hii'i 17. (S*:*: A.*fio.sir;i, oTfttoT.) 11x6 is also an extract from the writhiea, or 

yr'HfU ut/:ufi-.t hirn v,*:n: ktrone, but the the opinions of Aquillius, heeded Galhis 

r< 'oli<-r tioii of hin tKrrvicos in the Ser\'i!e Dig. xxxviii. 2, 29, de Liberis et Poet* 

v.. Iff siini i\ii'. iinpn-xaivf* appeal of his humis Heredibus instituendis. Cicero 

ii'l/o'ut", who in the peroration of the describes him as remarkable for the depth 

4\ii'uro^ v,U':ti Aquillius hail refused to and clearness of his knowledge of the 

f.ti|i|,h':it'; th<: jiulgfi, t^jrcopen the gown law, and for his prompt and pertinent 

tti t|i«- «i/'' I ivd find iKiint4:d t^i the honour- replies. (Brutus, 1. c.) - Pliny the dder 

iihh- ^tnrn upon liM hn-ast, drew tears (N.II. 17, 1) mentions the magnificence 

rvi-n from C. Marine, and procured an of the house of Aquillius on the ViminaL 

Mrqnitfiil. AquilliuH WUH naniod one of (Sec also lb. vii. c. 54.) 
tli<- ( oiinni*-.Hion<rrH for ndjuHting the dif- AQUILLIUS, (Sabinus,) a Roman 

^■M-M^l■(t h<tw<'<'ii Mithrnhiti'M and tlic lawyer in the third century, who by his 

kiii.'M of (.'(ipiia<l<jf'i:i ami Bithynia ; and wif>aom and learning obtained the ap- 

iilii iw;inl'., \\1hm i]u'. war hrok<! out, was pellation of Cato. He was consul in the 

ii)i|><fint<(l on*- ofthni.' ^< iicrals to con- years 214 and 216. 

t\w i It. M«' wan htatif»n«(l in tlie passes AQUIN, (Louis Claude d*,) bom at 

hv vUmh Milhri<lat«'sw(»iihl(iit«r Bithynia Paris in 1094, died 1772, was a celebrated 

(mmii I'onliiH; hill on thi* approach of performer on the organ. (Biog. Univ.) 
III.' kin/', AijiiilliiM ritin-d behind the AQUIN DE CHATEAU- LYON, 

Sniij'.uin |Sakhiiriaj; and after losing (Pierre Louis,) a French writer, son of the 

hn ininy, hiMi^Hit rrfii^'e at Mitylciie in preceding, died about 1797. His works 

LiliiM. ||i> w«i ih'liveied un to Mitli- show little talent, and met with slight 

iiiliitii, wlio ntuHcd him tol)ele(l,niounted success. It was said of him, in allusion 

nil MM iiH'i, thnni^^li the {irineipal eities of to his father's profession, ** On souffla 

ihi- Koiuiiii ANiii, wilh a crier proelaiming pour Ic pcrc, on siffla pour le fils." 

lliiil it Wirt " MiiiiiiH Aiiuiilius tlie Roman (Biog. Univ.) 

lonnil, thr niii-..- of the war." He was A(iU IN AS, (Thomas.) Sec TnoifAS. 
at liMi'th jiul tiMli-.iih hy iiouring molten A(iUINO, (Carlo d',) a Jesuit, bom 

l',nU\ iLiuii hi. timi.ii. '^riin. N.H. xxx. at Naples in 1G51, died at Rome in 1740. 



t\l 



AQU ARA 

His works arc written in Latin, and dis- interval he had travelled into Kipzak, or 

Sy much learning and taste : — Poemata, Russian-Tartary, penetrating (as a pas- 

me, 1 702 ; Orationcs, 1 704 ; Lexicon sage in his Life of Timour seems to imply) 

Militare, 1707; Noniendator Agricul- as far north as Astrakhan. He dira, 

turn, 1736; Historical Miscellanies, a.h. 854, a.d. 1450 (Ha^ji-Khalla), six 

1725; Fragmenta Historica de Bello years, according to Hammer-Purgstall, 

Hungarin, 1726. after having written the history of Timour: 

AKABIUS, called Scholasticus, was a hut Arahshah*s own words at the condu- 

writer of epimms in the time of Jus- sion of the work fix its puhlication in 

tinian ; of which, however, only three a. h. 840, fourteen years hdbre the death 

have heen preserved in the Greek An- of the author. Of his numerous works, 

tholo^y. the one by which he is principally known 

ARABSHAH, (Ahmed Ebn Moham- in Europe, is his History of Timour 

raed Arabshah Ebn Abd* allah Al Haneifi,) ( Ajaib al makdur fi akhbar Timour) ; the 

a celebrated Moslem jurist, historian, and original of which was published, accom- 

philosopher, who flourished in the first panied by a Latin version, under the title 

naif of the fifteenth century of our era. of Ahmed Arabsiadse Vitffi et Rerum Ti« 

He was bom at Damascus, of a family muri, <mi vuli|;o Tamerlanes dicitur. His- 

which claimed descent firom one of the toria. bamuel Henricus Manger. 1767, 

Ansars, or citixens of Medinah, who 2 vols, 4to. Leovardiie. (Gibbon erro- 

auitied Mohammed after the flight; neously states it to have been printed 

but the precise date of his birth is un- at Franeker.) The text had previously 

known ; and the meagre details remaining (1636) been printed at Leyden, under 

relative to his life nave been collected the superintendence of Golius; and a 

principally from the incidental notices very faidty French version, now exceed- 

scattered through the works which have ingly rare, appeared at Paris, 1658-9, 

preserved his memory. Descended from from the pen or Pierre Vattier, physician 

a race of eminent jurisconsults, he was to Gaston, duke of Orleans. This history 

rigidly educated in the doctrines of the is said by Gibbon to be " much esteemed 

Haneiiis, the strictest of the four sects of for the florid elegance of its style ; " but 

the Soonis, or orthodox Moslems ; and the the diction is laboured and unequal : and 

high reputation which he attained for when the author attempts, as is n^uently 

research and learning, reached the ears the case, to copy the lofty phraseology of 

of the Ottoman sultan, Mohammed I. the the Koran, his meaning is often lost 

son of Bayexid, who appointed him tutor amidst a cloud of obscure and turgid 

to his sons ; and while employed in this metaphors. As an historical work, its 

capacity, he is said to have translated accuracy and completeness render it valu- 

into Turkish several of the Arabic and able ; but as a biography it is singular, as 

Persian authors, on morals and history ; having been undertaken apparently for 

and among them the Historical Collec- the sole purpose of vilifying and traducing 

tions of Jemal-eddeen Alwaki, a work of its subject : the hostility of the Syrian 

which three other Turkish versions have against the devastator of his country, 

subsequently been made. and the polemic zeal of the Sooni doctor 

Hammer- Purgstall, (Hist, de I'Emp. against the Shcah heretic, are conspicuous 

Ottoman, ii. 212, French trans.) says, in every page ; and the epithets of the 

that Arabshah had been preceptor to the basilisk, the impious, the scourge, the 

children of Timour before he received devouring whirlpool, &c. are lioerally 

a similar appointment at the Ottoman showered, even in the headings of the 

court : but this statement, improbable chapters, on the devoted head of Timour. 

from the respective ages of Timour and Two other works, on the Unity of God, 

Arabshah, becomes incredible when we and the Fruits of the History of the Kha- 

consider the bigoted opposition of the lifis, arc noticed by Dllerbelot; and a 

latter to the Sheah tenets held by the poetical treatise, entitled, Mirat-ol-Ad- 

Tartor monarch, and the malignant hatred nab, or the Mirror of Morals, is known 

shown in his writings to the person and by the passages frequently introduced 

character of Timour. from it into the History of Timour. From 

On the accession of his royal pupil, a catalogue of oriental works, in the 

Mourad II. to the Ottoman throne, (a.h. Imperial Library at Vienna, Hammer- 

824, A.D. 1421,) Arabshah appears to have Piirgstall mentions three other treatises: 

returned to his native countr)-: but he Djami-al-hikoyat (the Collector of His- 

mentions a visit which he paid to the tories) ; Ankood-en-Nassihat (the Raisin 

Turkish dominions in 1435| and in the of Counsel!); Ajaib - al - Boudour (the 

73 



ARA ARA 

Wondcn of full Moons.) (D'llerbelot, the year of his natiTi^r, whU cidicri 
pp.72, 121,391; Hadji-Khalfa ; Manger; contend that he must have been bom 
Ilammer-IHirgstall.) earlier: and the period of his death is 

ARADONDEQUINIPILY,(Jerome,) mentioned to be either 1554, 1561, or 
one of the principal officers of the duke 1567. 

of McrcoDur in tnc wars of the League, Lanzi. in his History of Pluntnig in 
who wrote a journal of the crents in Italy, thus makes mention of an artist of 

which he was concerned. (Biog. Univ.) this name, which is most likely meant 

ARAGON, (Tullia d',) one of the for the suhject of this article :— " Lnca 

most celebrated and accomplished of the Sebastiano, an Aragonese, who died 

Italian poetesses in the sixteenth cen- towards the close of the sixteenth ccn- 

tur}', wnH natural daughter of Peter Ta- tur}-, was celebrated, we are told, rather 

gliavia d'Aragon, archbishop of Palermo, as a fine designer than a paint^. An 

She was very beautiful ; and when scarcely altar-piece with the initials L. S. A. has 

more than a child, she spoke and wrote been attributed to his hand. It is the 

in Latin and Italian with equal facility. Saviour represented between two saints. 

During her life-time she enjoyed consi* the composition of which is common; 

dcrabic reputation, which has not, how- the foldings of the drapery want soRnesa ; 

ever, contmucd to attend her writings, but the figures, the colours, and the attl- 

Tlicy arc — Rime, Venice, 1517, and often tudes are excellent*' In the Index to 

reprinted; Dialogodell' infinita d'Amore, Lanzi he is called Luca Sebastiano da' 

Venice, 1517; II Meschino o il Guerino, Brescia. (Biog. Univ. Lanzi, Stor. Pitt. 

Poema in ottava rima, at Venice, 1560. iii. 107.) 
(Biog. Univ. Roscoe's Leo.) ARAIGNON, (Jean Louis,) a Fixrisian 

AIlAGON£S£,(Sebastian,)a draughts- advocate, author of a tragedy, Le Sii^ge 

man and antiquarian, descended from a de Beauvais, Paris, 1766; and a comedy 

Spanish family, and the son of a painter Le Vrai Philosophe, 1767. (Biog. UniT. 

of some repute, is supposed to have been Suppl.) 

bom at the town of Ghcdi, in the province ARA J A, (Francisco,) a composer, bom 

of Bresciano. He originally studied at Naples in 1700, was chapel master at 

painting, but abandoned it, and confined St. Petersburg, in the service of the em- 

nis attention to pen drawincf, in whicli he press, and is celebrated as the author of 

greatly excelled. Some of his most beau- the first opera in the Russian language. 

tiful works arc copies of ancient medals. It was entitled Cephalo et Ptocns, and 

a collection of sixteen himd red of which, composed in 1755. He also produced 

witli tlicir reverses attached, and executed several other operas, amongst which may 

in a hii^hly finished manner, in two hun- be enumerated Abiatare, Semiramis, 

drcd (irawincs with arabesque scrolls, Scipione, Arsace, and Seleuco, at St. Pc- 

aro nttrilmtod to him. This collection, tersburg; Berenice, at Florence: and 




the same manner the antiquities, marbles, sicinns.) 
and iiiHcriptions which in his time were AKAKTCHEEV, (Count Alexis An- 

at IJnscia, tlio capital of Bresciano, then drccvicht,) a Russian general, who rose 

a i)r()viii(M' of tlie Vemtian tcrritorj', and from the rank««, and who essentially be- 

which are now preserved in tlie Quirinian nefitcd the milit.iry system of his coun- 

Lihrary there. It wns Aniponese's in- trymen, by the very preat improvements 

tent ion to publish the plates which he he nitrodii'ced in the artillery service, was 

had enf,Taved from these in 1551, but no born in the province of Novogorod, 1767. 

inipression.s are known to have been then lie was educated in the coq)s of cadets, 

taken from thi-ni. In 177.S some prints but a-*, altlioujrh belonging to the class of 

were taken from them, wliieh fonn a nobles, his parents were poor, he was 

work, lar^^e folio, containing tliirty-four entirely dependent upon his own exertions 

en^ravinprs on wood, witli \vhit«* htters on for liis' future advancement. In his other 

a blaek ground, entitled Mcmuuienta Ftiidies he made very little progress, nor 

Antiqua I'rbis et A^^ri Hrixi;mi, summa did he ever become'acquainted with any 

riira el dilipntia eoIhMt.i jxr nie S» bus- other Innniago than his own; but his 

tiiinuni Arajronesenj IJrixianuni. The aj>i>lieation to every thing connected with 

daten alike of his birlli niid deatli are military pursuits was most assiduous, 

variously stated, some assigning 1523 as After passing through several other grades. 



A R A A R A 

he WAS appointed by the grand duke with his name. ''He was indisputaU^ 

(afterwards Paul I.)} in 1792, commander a good artist," says Land, *' in the mixed 

of the artillery forces in the garrison of manner, that is now called antico mo^ 

Gatchina, where, by his unremitted at- demo." There are also several altar- 

tention to discipline, he obtained the per- pieces in the churches of Parma by this 

sonal favour of the prince, who, among master. (Bryan's Diet. Lanzi, Stor. 

other distinctions, conferred upon him Pitt. iv. 53.) 

the rank of major-general, the order of ARALDI, (Michael,) an Italian phy> 
St Anne, and an estate of 2000 peasants, siologist, bom at Modena, 1740, died at 
After a short retirement from the service, Milan, 1813. The results of his labours, 
in 1798, he took an active share the fol- both in physiology and mathematics, to 
lowing year in the military preparations which he also applied himself, are to be 
Russia was then making, but m conse- found principally in the Transactions of 
quence of some tumults and acts of insub- the Scientific Society of Modena ; but he 
ordination in the artillery companies, fell published two separate works ; one, a 
under the emperor's aispleasure, and treatise on the Anastomoses of the Vaa- 
withdrew from the service till 1803, when cular System in Animals; and another, 
Alexander appointed him inspector of all on some disputed points of Physiology, 
the artillery forces throughout the empire. (Biog. Univ. Suppl. Lombardi, Storia 
He now commenced those reforms and della Litter, ii. 261.) 
improvements in that department of the ARAM, (Eugene,) a native of Rams- 
military establishment which have since gill in Yorkshire. His father was a 
brought it to its present degree of per- gardener, and he had received little edu- 
fection. To his prudent counsels and cation ; but by his own talents and assi- 
measures, among which was that of duity, he had acquired a considerable 
organizing numerous corps de reserve, knowledge of languages, and was engaged 
may be partly attributed the success of as a. teacher in difierent schools. Hit 
the Russian arms in 1813-14. When fame rests upon a much less creditable 
peace was established he still continued circumstance. In 1758, when employed 
nis active services to the state in various as an usher in the free-school at Lynn, 
ways, and had considerable share in the he was arrested for the murder of a shoe- 
formation of military colonies or settle- maker, named Daniel Clark, perpetrated at 
ments. In 1826, after the death of Knaresborou^h thirteen years previously, 
Alexander, he retired altogether from and, after a clever and ingenious defence, 
public affairs, and resided upon his estate, being convicted of the crime, which he 
where he died in 1834. Having no heirs, afterwards confessed, he was executed at 
he left the disposal of his landed property York in the year following, 
to the emperor, who assigned it to the ARAM -SHAH, the second of the 
Cadet Institute of Novogorod, which has Patau monarchs of Delhi, son of Kootb- 
in consequence now taken the title of the ed-deen Aibek, the first who attained 
Araktcheev C. I. During his lifetime he independence in those regions on the fall 
had bestowed upon it 300,000 rubles, of the supremacy of the Gnaurian sultans. 
One very singular disposal of money He succeeded his father, a.h. 607, a.d. 
made by him is the following: in 1833 1210; but his imbecility and unfitness for 
he lodged in the Imperial Bank the sum rule soon becoming apparent, he was de- 
of 50,000 rubles, on the express condition posed in a few months, and succeeded 
of its being left to accumulate, untouched, by his brother - in - law, the celebrated 
for the term of ninety-three years, when Shams-ed-deen lletmish, or Altmish. See 
it is computed that it will amount to Iletmisch. (Ferishta. D'Herbelot) 
1,918,960 mbles, three-fourths of which ARAMON, or ARAMONT, (Gabriel 
is to be bestowed (in 1925) on the author de Luetz, baron d',) distinguished himself 
of the best history of the emperor Alex- as ambassador of France at Constanti- 
ander (to be written in the Russian Ian- nople, in the reign of Henry 11. He died 
guage), and the remainder appropriated to about 1553. His secretary, Jean Ches- 
defraying the expense of printing 10,000 neau, wrote an account of his travels, one 
copies of the worx! of the most interesting narratives com- 
ARALDI, (Alessandro of Parma, posed in the sixteenth centiuy. (Bayle. 
about 1470 — 1528,) a painter, was bom Moreri. Biog. Univ.) 
in that city, but studied under Giovanni ARANDA, (Manuel de,) though a 
Bellini at Venice. In the church of the native of Bm^es, was a Spaniard by 
Carmelites at Parma there is a picture education, family connexions, and pro- 
by him, representing the Amranciation, perty. On his return from Spain he waa 

75 



ARA ARA 

taken by an Algerine pirate, and detained He wrote, amongst other poetry, the 

in captivity for some years. On his en- Acts of the Apostles in Latin verBe, 

largement in 1642, he published a rela- which he presented to Pope Vigiliiu in 

tion of his misfortune, and his book was 544. His poems have been frequently 

translated into several languages. printed. For a further account of them, 

ARANDA, (Antonio de,) published see Leyser, Hist. Poet. Med. iEv. pp. 

in 1545, at .Toledo, an accotmt of the 146 — 151. 
Holy Land. ARATUS of Sicyon was bom about 

ARANDA, (Juan de,) published a 272 b. c. When only seven yean old his 

common-place book of Maxims, &c. Se- father Clinias was murdered by the or- 

ville, 1595. ders of Abantidas, who sought likewise 

ARANDA, (Pedro P. AbarcadeBolea, the life of the child; but the latter 
count of, 1719 — 1794,) a noble of Ara- found an asylum in the house of the 
gon, entered the military profession, but sister of Abantidas, and by her he was 
was subsequently employed as ambas- sent away privately to Areos. There he 
sador to Poland, where he remained five devoted himself to all kmds of nuinly 
years. In 1765 he was recalled to join exercises, and with such success as to 
the administration; but the share which carry off the prize of the PentathUm; 
he had in that iniquitous transaction, disregarding the attention usually paid 
the expulsion of the Jesuits, rendered by the public characters of the day to 
it necessary for Charles III. to remove the graces of oral and written composi- 
him honourably from court, as ambas- tion. After the death of Abantidas, and 
sador to Paris. The stubbornness of his the miu*der of his successor Paseas by 
character led to his recall in 1784; eight Nicocles, the latter became in his'tuxn 
years after, he was again in the ministry, the tyrant of Sicyon, when Aratns de- 
but only to make room for the queen's termined, with the aid of other ezilesy to 
paramour — the infamous Godoy. make himself master of the town. Ac* 

ARANJO DE AZEVEDO, (Antonio cordingly, having prepared ladders that 
de, 1752 — 1817,) conde de Barca, a Por- could be easily taken to pieces, the party 
tuguese diplomatist and minister, whose commenced their march by moonlight^ 
negotiations and misconduct were disas- and arrived before the place at daybreak ; 
trous to Portugal. Under the directorial and scaling the walls compelled the tyrant 
government of France, to which he was to fly, leavmg his palace to be pillaged by 
accredited, he lost much time in nego« the enemy. Sie;nal as was the success of 
tiating a treaty which his own careless- Aratus in restoring his country to liberty, 
ness, want of foresight, and above all it was no less so in controlling the pas- 
want of activity, rendered of no effect, sions of his party, who were esf er to 
At Lisbon he managed things so in- recover the property they had lost during 
judiciously that the royal family were the period of their exde. To prerent, 
nearly captured by Junot. He died in therefore, a civil war, he left Greece with 
Brazil. the N^iew of sailing to Egypt to obtain 

ARANTIUS, (Julius Caesar,) a cele- pecuniary assistance from Ptolemy ; but 

brated anatomist, bom at Bologna about was driven by stress of weather upon a 

1530; studied \mdcr Vesalius and his coast subject to his enemy Antiffonus. 

uncle Bartolomeo Maggius ; and was pro- From thence, however, he escaped with 

fessor at Bologna for thirty-two years, till difficulty, and arrived in Egypt, where he 

his death in 1589. His chief works were — was received kindly by Ptolemy ; whose 

Dc Ilumano Foctu Liber. In Ilippocratis goodwill he had gainea by sending choice 

Libnnn de Vulneribus Capitis Commenta- specimens of art, for which Sicyon and 

rius brcvis, ex ejus Lcctionibus coUectus. Corinth were in the time of Apelles so 

(Biog. Univ. Holler. Marget.) celebrated. Loaded thus, not only with 

AllAKOS, the son of Aristophanes, favoiurs but money, Aratus retiuned to 

was, like his father, a writer of comedy, Sicyon ; where a statue of him in brass 

but liad so little of hereditary talent, that was erected, with an inscription in which 

his name became a bye-word for such Aratus is called the saviour of his coun- 

excessive coldness, as to be able to t\im try. Shortly aflcrwards, being elected 

watiT into ice, as remarked by Alexis in the head of the Achaean league, he bent 

his Parasite, quoted by Athenwus. his whole mind to driving out the Mace- 

ARATOll, a native of Liguria, secre- donians from the peninsula. For this 

tarjr and intendant of fmances to Atha- purpose he made himself master of the 

lane, and afterwards subdeacon of the citadel of Corinth, under favour of a 

Komish church, lived in the sixth century, night in which tlie moon, visible or not 

7C 



ARA ARA 

at different periods, assisted equally the Plutarch pleads imperious necessity, per- 

attempt, which Plutarch considers as the haps the leading motiye was the desire to 

last en the nohle deeds done hy Greeks, punish Aristomachus ; who had been the 

Not content with freeing his own coun- first to destroy the credit of Aratus with 

try, Aratus was desirous of doing as much the Achaeans ; and hence we need not 

for Argos. There, says Plutarch, the wonder that when, after the surrender of 

people, accustomed to slavery, made not Mantinea, Aristomachus fell into his 

the least exertion to liberate themselves, hands, Antigonus first tortured him and 

but sat like spectators at the Nemean then threw his body into the sea near Cen- 

fames, and saw unconcerned the contest chrea. The influence, however, which 

etween Archippus and Aratus ; in which, Aratus possessed over Antigonus lasted but 

although the latter was wounded, he a short timewith his successor Philip; who 

mieht nave easily defeated his opponent, was led by some of his courtiers to view 

had he continued his exertions tnrough Aratus with suspicion ; norwasthe Mace- 

the night ; for Aristippus was already on donian general disabused until events 

the pomt of running away, and had even taught him otherwise ; but unable to bear 

put some of his private property on ship- his continued good fortune, which was 

Doard. He was, nowever, defeated shortly owing rather to the counsels of Aratus 

afterwards at Cleone, without the loss of than to any talents of his own, the youn? 

a single man by Aratus ; who thus dis- man soon showed himself in his naturfu 

proved the charge brought against him colours, and after insulting the son of 

of fainting at the very sound of a trum- Aratus, began to throw off the father ; 

pet, and of always retiring from the field and, at last, carried his ill-feelings towards 

to await the issue of a fight. Nor did he him to such an extent that he employed 

behave with less courage in his attempt Taurion, one of his officers, to get rid of 

to free Athens, by frequently attacking Aratus. This the too faithful friend of 

the Macedonian garrison in the Piraeus, the t3rrant eflected by administoring a 

In his retreat, he sprained his leg, and slow poison, that produced first a cough, 

was compelled to be carried for some and tnen a spitting of blood ; which when 

time on a litter, while prosecuting sub- Aratus saw, ne said to his servant, " Be- 

sequent military operations, failing, hold the reward for serving a prince!*' 

however, in his final attempt, he was His death, which took place shortly after* 

given out for dead; and so completely wards, was viewed as a public calamity by 

had the spirit of freedom departea from his countrymen, and the memoir of his 

Athens, tnat the people actually crowned services was perpetuated by two festivals, 

Demetrius on the receipt of this intelli- one kept on the anniversary of the day 

gence. A similar report was spread when when he restored Sicyon to liberty, and 

he was defeated bjr Cleomenes near Ly- the other on that of his birth. With regard 

caeum. Finding himself unable to cope to his degenerate son, Plutarch says that, 

single-handed with Cleomenes, he formed thdugh he died in the very flower of 

an alliance with Antigonus. But so com- youth, his death ought to be considered 

pletely did the rising star of Cleomenes rather a happy release than a misfor- 

eclipse the declining one of Aratus, that tune. The period at which Aratus lived, 

he who had been the leading man of the forms the connecting link between Greek 

Achaeans for thirty-three years, appeared, and Roman history ; and Polybius says 

says Plutarch, like a vessel water-logged, he took up the thread of the narrative 

in the shipwreck of his country. In the where the memoirs of Aratus broke 

midst of his difficulties overtures were ofl*. He describes Aratus as no unusual 

made to him by Cleomenes, which he mixture of opposite qualities, with parts 

declined, preferring rather to attach him- alternately quick and slow, and conspicu- 

self to Antigonus, into whose hands he ous alike for courage and cowardice, 

ofiered to put the citadel of Corinth, and ARATUS, the son of Athenodorus and 

give his own son as the pledge for his Letophilc, was bom at Soli in Cilicia ; 

fidelity. This so exasperated the Co- but according to Asclepiades Myrleanus, 

rinthians that they confiscated his pro- at Tarsus. After attending the schools 

perty, and even made over his house to of approved masters in grammar, philo- 

Cleomenes. Despite his previous hos- sophy, and rhetoric, he adopted at first 

tility to the Macedonians, Antigonus the medical profession ; but feeling a 

received him with marked attention, greater attachment to the Muses than to 

fully aware that the talents and influence iEsculapius, he brought himself into no- 

of Aratus would be equally serviceable, tice by writing an Epithalamium on the 

To this disgraceful conduct, for which marriage of Antigonus with Phile, the 

77 



AitJL 



AfcB 



4$m^j^^ \i Vk^utui ^^soffx wit x 

tt v.'ji "-oijt irv«.u7 Jit v» Ji-^nwt w 

If. 4 v><;. .v.'r»:-i*r vfci yitj^^fsri *.*»•.* *; 
;..« .-i--..".* vjir>. -.? 1 1^- ji 111-.*'- ^U.=:.» I 

' .,'•,» ji yr'^^^-f^j 'A -jfOLL-X^ :z. :▼- :ii» 

>;,•.:- .:« t*^ V* :-A7* vt«-i ^l^— .t.*.*^ 
at •,'.* r*:^. .rfiru: *■.< -J v*s.'-.t -i:i"-4r-.!L Jl- 

tii < A ' . «rMiJi, 'y,f, ti..'„ ;. ^ - ^ » i3"l ? '- f i yX.'. 

Ui/ttf Uf*X ffU Uih (Miyhiur/, kzA F-i***- 
qii^fitly, ;fct Ui<; r«t/j uirtt' M Ar-tl^'X'-i*, en 

(iffi.:,liit *^Mt\U-ti U*tt.kt-,i *j,\:.> .^l^tiv.'.'.f^u 
*ti t.i« |*;strori. 'J ;*<: i':*v-r*. r,o *«:%«;,', «:,.'.;: 

I'oll.o, who 111 ti\»*,ntA to hit/*; i*^:ifh*i 

tilli*' of JJiifill-, Mho'.<; i.-'l.tior* ■A\3\t*:SiT6:*i at 

l,<i|M. J/^;:; IhOI, in 2 -.ol-. >,to, Y. C, 
M;ttt}ij;«' h;i4j/iv«-riori<:at Vmiit'S.'.u 1S17; 
Jj<kkir, htkhiUt'f hi ii*rA. \H2H, v.jth iho 
«-</llftti#«ii of ihirUu'it MSS. aiifi tKr: S^ holia 
of 'I Uttfh Mni tttlit-rn ; anrl U>!tly, Jiutt- 
ifiiifiti |iiil»luiii-fl t}i<: t<-xt iilon", with a 
fi vr i.ol* ?, at l^roliii. Ih.'J*;, ;iii#l w}j<nr ho 
nil). I tliat ill- It;i9| t;ik<ii ;i<;v;ii,t;;;/«. of tlie 
fiiiiMi I lo 1,1- hiijii/) ill tli«- Ocriiian tr.-iii'>- 
Jiihon hy Vo** at llndi ll»«-rj.'. JS2I; hut 
hi- ttri-iii.] not to hav<- ktiowii tli(- rrljtion of 
III- I'nufwiJtUi ^., |>iiiil<-(l hy T. l'</ThUr in 
I Ik ( lan.ii<al Jotiriiah and hiihvqinntly 
l»y iiiti M in I HI.'!, with a ropiou!! commen- 
tiay. 

AlCUACLS, thi' Mi-ili-, who, U,i£o\\u:r 
Willi 1*1 li .iiM, M volti-d a(^ain-.t Sardanapa- 
hi.i, tihoiii (100 II. I, Siviriil kiii^MhiiiiM 
iiM#.:i fiotiilhr d< ;tl ruction of thf AN:iyriun 
itiiiiiM-, wlmli |oiiiid III a i-iiiifi-drrution, 
Willi AiIhk • 1 III ii., IhihI. 

AKitXMA, M I tun- of Siduzzoj a 
|iuiiilif wlio fliiiiii.diid from ahuut 1670 

VH 



r^nT &>n IOC ftusn. a 
C7> Tw jiTu'rtr Hi r 

Ijt^ \t ^- 1«*-^ J u ran if *: 

'jf lid 2f». H.t ▼«£ % 

r^vci :c r^iJjs IL ins x 
rjjiz lit -TM «ai3u:7-*j£ sr 

ia. -.If >DUri. -. 

J.u'.'^U^ rf 111-. 



--If -Jut i:L:=r:i .if 




IT. iOo ; T. .>>«.. 

AKBAl'D, FruL^i*,; vm cmm of dM 
tn: :i.«:-i^n c^ -.1* Frcndi 

wry,::* i.^ \xA.r:.\ w xuLke pc€ttj, 

\'.i\ c^ od? ^., I>:::ii XI It. s popfanMC 
of K.-r.c ox tl^ Pi&lmf, togetfacr with 
lor.-.'r o-.L-cr p^^r'Jral pieces. He died m 
104 'J. J'.«ri A r baud, his biochcr, abo 
-sTp.^: ;/^:.r.fcU. Li.d venlncd Kmc Fnlms. 
liiojr. L';.iv.; 

AKBLTIO, a Koman gencnl, wlio 
aru-d a ver^' conspicuous part in tht 
affairs of thr: en.pire. under ConitaBtiiii 
aiid Valen?. Sci: Gibbon.; 

AKbOGAST. r Louis Fran9ou An- 
Uiino,, a distinguished French analjii^ 
waji LKjm in 17^9 at Mutzig, anuIltowB 
in Ahaee. Of his early life or studies 
nothin;.' is known, but we find him pro- 
ff.'RSor of mathematics in the srtiUcrT 
Hch'yjl of Strasboiu-g, and afterwards 
n-ctor of tlie university* of the same 
place. On the formation of the national 
convention he was elected to represent 
the province of the Lower Uhinc in that 
asitemhly; hut his amiable and retiring 
character little fitted him for distinction 
amongst that body, and we consequently 
find his name hut seldom recorded in ita 
proceedingf*. It appears, however, in a 
report upon the newly-invented telegraph 
of M. (Jliappe, and likewise in that upon 
an uniform sydtem of weights and mea- 
sures. Od the dissolution of the 



A&.B AEB 

bly he retired again to Strasbourg, and tion of the series of Taylor. There cair 
devoted himself with renewed energy to be no doubt of his having anticipated 
the cultivation of science, and especially Lagrange's publication ; but we cannot 
to the subject upon which his celebrity is for a moment entertain the belief that 
mainly founded, the composition of his Lagrange had borrowed the idea from 
Traits du Calcul des Derivations. This Arbogast The essay never having been 
work has been often censured for the published entire by itself proves that,, 
number of new notations which he has at all events, the plan and execution of 
introduced into it, and therebv rendered it was inferior to that of his great rival, 
tiie study of it exceedingly embarrassing, even in his own estimation. 
Many of these notations, however, are In 1 792 Arbogast sent a paper to com- 
only embarrassing from analysts having pete for the prize offered by tne Peters- 
been accustomed to others ; but thev are burgh Academy, for a discussion of the 
founded on philosophical and imiform nature of the arbitrary functions which 
principles, and we only speak from our enter into the integrals of partial diffe- 
own experience in stating that, when this rential equations. His paper gained the 
difficulty is once ^ot over, there can prize. His views are the same as those 
scarcely be proposed to oiur consideration of Euler and Lagrange, and in opposition, 
a work contaimng so systematic and ele- consequently, to those of D'Alembert 
gant a series of investigations. Many of After his return to Strasbourg he was 
his conclusions too were not only new at appointed professor of mathematics to 
the time of publication, but even now, the central school of the department of 
after a lapse of forty years, there are the Lower Rhine, and was mainly instru- 
many remarkable theorems in his work mental in forming the fine library at- 
that are still unknown to analysts in ge- tached to that institution. His whole, 
neral. One professed object of the work life, indeed, was one of unwearied labour 
is the development of functions in series, in the cultivation and difiusion of science, 
and especially of such as had not been and the fulfilment of the duties of a good 
effected, and apparently could not be, citizen and sincere friend to all with 
by means of the differential or any ana- whom he came into social contact. He 
logous calculus ; but of his methods, died April 8, 1803, at the early age of 
it would be inconsistent with the plan of forty-four, respected and regretted by 
this work to give any detailed ana intel- all. 

li^ible account, mixed up as it must be ARBOGAST, (St.) bishop of Stras- 

with mathematical discussions of a kind bourg, a native of Aquitaine, made bishop 

that would not admit of compression into in the reign of Dagobert IL about a. d. 

the space allotted to a single life. It 670. He died in 678. His writings ap- 

may, however, be stated that to Arbogast pear to be lost His life was written by 

is due the systematic separation of the Utho, a bishop of the same see after the 

symbols of operation from those of tenth century. See Hist. Lit. de France, 

quantity, in expressing the original con- iii. 621 . 

dition, or tlie terms of the development ARBORIO BI AMINO, (Retro, (1767 

of commutative functions. The applica- — 1811,) was prefect of the department 

tion of this principle promises ere long to of La Stura, in Napoleon's government of 

alter alike tne appearance and character Italy, and composed instructions of public 

of many of the most frequently occurring economy, which were printed at Coni. 

operations of development. Some speci- (Biog. Univ. Suppl.) 

mens may be seen in Sir John Herschel's ARBORIO DE GATTINARA, (Mer- 

Calculus of Finite Differences, and in the curin, (1465 — 1530,) was chancellor to 

Cambridge Mathematical Journal, vols i. Charles V. by whom he was employed in 

and ii. several important negotiations, especially 

Arbogast presented to the Academic, in that with Clement VII. He was 

in 1789, a work bearing the title of Essai created a cardinal by this pope in 1529. 

sur de Nouveaux Principes de Calcul (Biog. Univ.) 

Diff(§rentiel et Integral, ind^pendants de ARBORIO DE GATTINARA, (Ange 

la Theorie des Infiniments petits, et de Antonio,) of the same family as the pre- 

celle des Limites. This essay was not ceding, was bom at Pavia in 1658 ; in 

printed ; but from his own account of it 1 724 was made archbishop of Turin ; and 

m the Preface to his Calcul des D6riva- died m 1 743. He assistea in terminating 

tions, he claims to have preceded Lagrange the differences betweenVictor Amedeus II. 

in his manner of establishing the deve- and Pope Benedict XIII. on a question 

lopment of functions, and the determina- of ecclesiastical jurisdiction : and resisted 

79 



aX% x2.m 




•/"►fr-. %;•,»- .ii» ISM* vvtii-At.*?! n 'jar -fir Jw ^ij*nxi«L sd "in-w^ 

4 r-^> »-■-.•..».'!. '^^r>rji '.'jriiliTA .n vrtiA "iie- xsr* i#i*i ssnniilT 

V'*'*'^ "/ T;r.n. vjt-i ^v<-». lu^rf ". 'i.* Jii:r»sat»ft iar. TVe diomiisr ^ 

^r'> *v--»-^» -;r*r.rjr.i «"irf w*r?.v.»w. ^rjt. ii'.r j-.n-^ lihflr iiisfi icius ^ 







tf.* '//v-.*^/ '/ •*->► ^f >!",-. : *r^l ■»« -jRi* --f -rill-. r*3it:*-4d Tmiii-Y Mriy 3L Sd» M ^e 

lrri//]p> *VviJ .'J.^S, Tr.* j^/t^ A -v,r..:-^ if L«Bd»r^ uiii £0071 ai Metal Si 

tvo y^^t.x */, K.'« Tf.'izr.orr, Jilj v^rli Ti.e7* ij laii ^: '3« a r ri iPiTi— of 

>^»»^'J A 9 ^h^ WiU'\^ fA it.^ xx^r^ rA tsrxjizj. Zr, Lit* >^r=i 

f''/Ti»/'Vf;iij|», an 'J </f th^ r*Ljri«3* vrdn Virz"". md :« ^t* aces. higliiT 




l«/f.f.*^«, ir. IM7, ftr./J sVi^i^'l at ParJi, ARBiTHNOT, .OucderO ptindpd 

wh' f«- h«- ■»;!* r<" ^v^'J rlrx.V/T ifj th*'-'*I',irv, of tr-e cr-iTtnirr cf AberdM 

Kri"»if;ij/' 'I \r/ th*: \/iit,fi^t of hi^ 'iioc*:^^, 153"!, tm the scr* cf iii« bum 

wfio f« Tir;!^!'''! Ki« ViUTitr/ mA pioTU not. He sTudied civQ lav in Fi 

\n\,'tMr* St'j th<r '!ifirriiti«r< of Jkr':hipTf:a biter under Cujacius : and on his l e Uuu to 

uu*\ i,S\\fv.%\^ )n' u\\itrVt.i\ grith vijrour and Scotland became a zealonu pirtian of 

Kii/"«4 th« rorruption* irh)/:h th'^n pre- the reformatioi], and took otden. In 

vfiil"! iirnorift; f.h'* r|fr(ry. On th«; d^ath loCS he was a member of the Gcnenl 

of hi4 piitron, titf hi^h'/fi who KiiC':<rf;ded Aisembly held in Edinburgh, and was 

wu« Im4 fHvoiirMM'- to f}M' r'Tonnirif^prin- f;rnployed by it to revise a book, called 

i i|il«« /<f J{/fh<rt d'Arhri<4^l, And th«' latter 'Hie Fall of the Church of Rome, which 

w rif lo f/-ft/ h \ht-i,\oyy ni Arif(T)i, whTG had given great offence, and gare rue to 

If- ttthut it /) till, fif ff-rition of iHipf; (y'rhan an order that no book should thereafter 

M , -//lio '/rii4 nn y]i»Ktt\ with iiiH K^nnong be published without the license of coin- 

iliiit III "ir»fi rr<-<l 'm hirri th«* titjf; of misftioners appointed by the aaiembl^. 

np'ftolii til (iri IK hf-r, uw\ yftvf hiiri p*T- H« was sfKjn afterwards appointed mini* 

tinKAimi hi jifMi' h " |m r iiiitviToiiri iniiri- st#-r of Arbuthnot and LogyBuchan; and 

fliiifi " 11" fl< (MiriliiffI to iivfiil hirnHcIf in ]of'/J was made principal of King's 

I'l iIm full I h(mi( of f|ii4 privijcf^c, and Colji-gp, Aberdeen. Mr. Arbuthnot was 

w« nf |iifiif liin/^ tiofii <ifii' purl tonnother, rrKKlerator of the General Assembly in 

tulln'."! »l hy I M»wfh of hoih Brx<'R, who ir*?.'}, and again in 1577. On this last 

win iiilinitid l»v lii« fhn^ww'f find his orruKion, a ])ractice arose of delegating 

II |ii»itiiiiiii A» IiMt III- (l(tcrinin«-d to all niatt<'rf> of importance to a committee, 

•'•Mil ill iliK v,ililiMii«« of I'dfitcvrfiiilt, cfillcd tin? Congregation, who discussed 

V. Ill II, ill lid.'i. III iniiiiili-d II mnniiHtrry, thcni, and left for the assembly little to 

V III! Ii iiiiiiii lifi iitiii' VI ly fonnidiTiihle. df) except the a])proving of their resolu* 

'IIm ^^••lll' II wi 11 I iii|iloy«-'l ill pniyrr find tlouH. Jn this Mr. Arbuthnot took an 

iiiliii ili Miiiiiiiiil ixifimru, wliiUt the aetive part ; but having given offence to 

tiM II III I ii|Mi il ilii-iiiqi lvf-« in iliiiiniii^ the Jnini'HVl. l)y editing Buchanan's History 

iiMii.ilii .1, il»iiiiii|f (lir liitiil, find nilli- of Seotlnnd in 1582, he was commanded by 

viitiii|f I ho |iiiiMiitl. 'IliK mixture «if men the king to remain at Aberdeen, in order 

Ml) 



ARB ARB 

that he might not he present in the character of a man of capacity enough, 

assembly, where his influence in the that had dipped into every art and 

managing committee or congregation was science, but injudiciously in each." In 

very great. Soon aiVer this his health the corresponaence between Swifl and 

failed, and he died in 1583. He was well Pope, Arbuthnot is frequently mentioned 

acquainted with philosophy and the ma- as a person destined to take an active 

thematics ; eminent as a lawyer and a part in the projected Memoirs of Martin 

divine ; and was of great service to the ocriblerus ; ana no one could have been 

church of Scotland and to his country, better qualified to perform his part of the 

His only printed work was, Orationes labour, for he abounded with wit and 

de Origine et Dignitate Juris. £din. science. The death of queen Anne put 

1572. (Biog. Brit. M'Kcnzie's Scots a stop to the plan, and deprived the world 

Writers, iii. 1 86.) of a work which would, doubtless^ have 

ARBUTHNOT, (John, M.D. 1675— insured the admiration of posterity. The 

1734-5,) one of the most celebrated wits first part or book only appeared, and was 

and physicians of the reign of queen published in Pope's woncs. It was from 

Anne. He was the son of an episcopal the pen of Arbuthnot. Dr. Johnson, who 

clerg3rman of Scotland, and bom at Ar- could not relish the piquancy of the wit, 

buthnot, near Montrose. He studied at condemns the specimen, and contends 

the university of Aberdeen, where he took that the satire can only be understood by 

the degree of M.D. By the revolution the learned. He accuses the authors of 

his father was deprived of his preferment ; having raised phantoms of absurdity to 

young Arbuthnot therefore quitted his be driven away, and of curing diseases 

native country, and went to reside at that were never felt. The Travels of 

Doncaster, a place remarkable for its Gulliver by Svdft, and The Art of Sinking 

salubrity. Here he experienced little in Poetry by Pope, may be considered as 

success, and was induced speedily to quit emanating from the same association, 

it. To a neighbour who observed him Arbuthnot was very intimate with Harley 

falloping away, and who inquired whither and Bolingbroke (the rival ministers), 
e was going, he facetiously replied, '' To with Atterbury, Congreve, Addison, and 
leave your confoimded place, where I can many other celebrated men. He was a 
neither live nor die.' He arrived in Tory, and many of his pieces have a poli- 
London, and foimd an abode in the house tical tendency. In 1700 he published An 
of Mr. William Pate, " the learned wool- Essay on the Usefulness of Mathematics 
len draper," but he did not practise physic to Young Students in the Universities, 
while resident with him ; he supported He was elected a fellow of the Royal 
himself by teaching the mathematics. In Society in 1704; and in 1710 communi- 
1697 Dr. Woodward published his Essay cated a paper, which was printed in the 
towards a Natural History of the Earth, Philosophical Transactions, (vol. xxvii. 
&c, in which he put forth some singular p. 186,) on An Argument for Divine 
opinions relating to the Deluge. Arbuth- Providence, taken from the constant re- 
not immediately entered upon a critical gularity observed hi the Births of both 
examination of this essay, and published oexes. The equality of the sexes is here 
it simply with his initials, J. A., M. D. treated of in a mathematical manner, by 
It excited much curiosity, and obtained which he deduces that polygamy is con- 
great notoriety, for he showed Woodward's trary to the law of nature and justice, and 
opinions to be inconsistent with mathe- to the propagation of the human race, 
matical principles or sound philosophy. He was aamitted a fellow of the Royal 
This enabled nim to commence practice College of Physicians of London in 1710, 
as a physician. His manners were ele- having in the preceding year been ap- 
|;ant and agreeable, and he rapidly rose pointed one of tne physicians in ordinary 
into favour ; his wit and pleasantry are to the queen, an appointment he obtained 
said to have oflen assisted his prescrip- by his successful treatment of Prince 
tions, and in some cases even to have George of Denmark, who was suddenly 
superseded the necessity of them. By taken ill at Epsom. By his skill he 
his learning he soon became associated secured the conhdence of the prince, who 
with the chief literary men of the day, recommended him to the queen ; and 
and he lived and corresponded with Pope, upon the indisposition of Dr. Hanncs, a 
Swift, Gay, Paniell, and others, and was pnysician of little pretence, but a favourite 
a member of the Scriblerus Club, the with her majesty, who conferred the 
object of which was ** to ridicule all honour of knighthood upon him, Arbuth- 
the false tastes in learning, under the not was called in to attend on the queen. 

VOL. II. 81 o 



Ai.B 






H \A »1*\J t. 3U(X£ Mf. '.IIM vat*. h^TfT. 
f''w« VIA «VLuC .'«« ni:«t DUi VM ^* 

7', t»t, it vwvt Sve vt- ; vwes. 

i;« Mk*«C ''A f««itt VM •»'«! 'jtft VUtia- 

7', */.»../t. ti^ A/V---:^X *A M« * 

withdraw U/ yurvk Uj rwruit Ilk tyjrjut. 

St. Jtxttttrt't; uM upr^ (jIs retiLm to L/yn- 

)i<: wnt^:« t// T'/rK-: '* M«ftiri% office is 
iioMT ihc- in^:outi d/yyr on the Irft h&cd in 
liov<'r-»tr<r*t, where he wiJl J>e gUd to •« 
Jir. l'nnn:\\f Mr, l''/pe, and bii old friend*, 
t// wh/;rn he can «tiJl nfTord a Wf-p:nt of 
tlnn-t." Liu-rary ^x.-cuptition u-emf to 
h/ivi- kohu:ifd hiiri iindtrr the dintrfntf oc- 
rniiioii<d hy th'f r|ii<"-n'H death, and the 
di'ttrii'-tioii of th<; Tory party. 

Jn 1712 his wroU' the lllnUjry <A John 
liiill, a |H/liti«'(il aIh';(ory of ^reat merit, 
find fiiH of wit and hiiniour/ I*one and 
Hwifl have voiuhi-d for hln iKring the wAq 
aiilhor of thin |iii-rri', whi<:li wiu particu- 
hilly iiif<-ii(hd to throw ridinde upon tlic 
vJrIiii-N of Marlhoroii^fh, and make the per>- 
ph« i\\nvii\\U\\Ui\ with the war. Sir Walter 
t'ott hiiN adiiiirahly ilhiMtrated the Miti- 
rind iilUitiiriMH roiilaiiii'd in tluH prodiic- 
tliiii, ill hjit idiiioii of Swift'M workn. A 
tiiihiihitiiiii «il" if ill rniich |,y Ok. Ahh6 
Vi'lly, wim iHJiiiiil ill I7.'i;j ill l2iiio. In 
I7IU h.- |iiTiHi(i 'I Im- IViilioii of the Col- 
hi-iM, CooKh, Cook - iiiiiidH, DliukHniithH 
iiiid ofh.'r.i, nddriHM'd to tin* J.onl Mavor 
mid Ahhritiiii oi'thi' (iiy of liOiidon. In 
I7IM hi* viiiili-d riniicr ; and in 1722 wint 
to liiiih, hiinp; unwell and in had npiritH. 
In i72.'t lie wan iipiiointfd om* of the 

I'lll.ioiH of |||.< KovhI K\^\\xyy of IMiyNJ- 

•'••uin i and hi I V'.V/ «lili\ iTrd ilif Marviian 
iiiMlltiii, ulilrh uii-1 ptihiiNhiM hi thi* Name 
V«'H In Mil. In thii year alio he puh- 
luhi d hln iiMiil i-i !• Itraii d work, eiilith'd, 
Tahl. 1 lit' Aiuhiit CiiiiM, Weights anil 
Mriintiii n , II hiTiuitl idiiioii ol'whii'h, with 
ttu .A|i|irndiH hy lli-njiuilin l.an|fwith, 



mj -. TIM imnwL JT *rM; 
^j-xiinnifii:. Bubfas i^ C&oK 

Ui'.'i^ :ixi> ▼"jrz m sue 
X 210.7 ?^ ^ 

liC^K ±:^ Ll=3L ST D. 
C»at PuRZJk ST 

»ii GtT. is. ;jr 

Br>L«». iri'-rriri. L 
c««Krr c/ iSSff^dir^ w 





li 



cf differect 

tlr-.-uzh WTcral echaoftt. and 

Ut^<d ;i.v> Fre^di bj Bojcr at 

17(2. In 1731 he'pGt fbith Ab Easf 

cocccTsinjr the Natcre of Afincak^ am 
the choice of them, aceordbig tD Ac dif- 
ferent ConidtQ&oDi of HooHai BodiML 
Thii wai Tritten to pnrre dial Ae dittelie 
p&rt of medicine depended aa onch 
as any other upon scientific princnici^ 
and may be looked upon as a phjnologT 
of aliment. -This work also went tlmapi 
several editions : the second in 1732 hav- 
ing Practical Rules of Diet in theTviooi 
Constitutions and IHseasei of Himuui 
Bodie<i. It was translated into Frm^ 
hy lioycr at Paris, in 1741, and into 
German, and published at Hambingh in 
1 714, in 4to. In 1732 he contributed to 
detect and punbh some impoattioDa and 
abuses, carried on under the name of 
tlic Cliaritable Corporation; and in 1733 
he wrote The Frecnolder's Political Cate- 
rhiKm, an edition of which appeared in 
170f>, in 8vo. His health was bad; he 
Huff'ered preatly from asthma and dropay, 
and in 1 TAX went to reside at Hampateady 
hut Hoon returned to his house in Cork- 
street, Hurlington-gardcns, where he died 
Feb. 27, 1734-.5. Of his marriage no 
particulars arc recorded ; but he lot two 
ehihiren, (ieorj^e and Anne. The former 
was one of the executors to Pope's wfll, 
and held the place of first secrctanr in 
the Uem(>n)l)ranee Office under Lord 
MiiMham. Arhuthnot is more diatin- 
^'uished by hi^di moral feelings, and great 
intelleetiuil endowments, than by his abi- 
lity ai a praetical physician. Ilumanitjr 
and l)cnevoleiicc formed conspicuous traits 



ARB ARB 

in hifl character. His friends were most pedition as far as Uie vicinity of Charles- 

warmly attached to him. Dr. Johnson town, which port, upon reaching, these 

gives him high praise. He extols him vessels, as miavailahle for future opera< 

as " a man of great comprehension, skil- tions, were directed to leave for New 

fUl in his profession, verscJl in the sciences, York, under the orders of Captain Drake 

acquainted with ancient literature, and of the Russell^ leaving the vice-admiral a 

able to anunate his knowledge by a bright squadron consisting of the Boebuck (44), 

and active imagination ; a scholar with Itenoum (50), Romtdut (44), the BUmde^ 

great brilliance of wit ; a wit, who in the Perseus^ CtttniUaf and Raleigh, fHgates of 

crowd of life retained and discovered a an inferior force. 

noble ardour of religious seal." Arbuth- In consequence of a long continuance 

not's Letters to Swift and to Pope fully of boisterous weather, and the intermina- 

develop his character, and place him in ble annoyances which the boats employed 

the most honourable and amiable point to sound the channel encoimtered from the 

of view. They are, at the same time, fUll enemy's galleys, it was not till the 20th 

of manliness and tenderness ; his princi- of March that tlie British squadron, 

{>les arc fixed and founded on a sincere after the larger ships had been consider- 

ove of virtue. Pope says that he was ably lightened, succeeded in passing the 

fitter to live or die than any man he bar ; when the enemy, who had a consi- 

knew ; and that his good morals were derablc naval force in the harbour drawn 

equal to any man's ; but his wit and up in the order of battle, as if prepared 

humour superior to all mankind. Swift and determined to dispute the passage, 

said, ** he has more wit than we all have ; abandoned their position, and retired 

and his humanity is equal to his wit." towards the town, where most of the 

In 1750, some of his MSS. were put to armed ships, together with several mer- 

the press, and published as Tlie Miscel- chant vessels, were sunk purposely to 

laneous Works of the late Dr. Arbuthnot, block up the channel and obstruct the 

at Glasgow, in 2 vols, 12mo; a second navigation. 

edition appeared in 1751. These volumes At the desire of Sir H. Clinton, some 
contain many pieces that had appeared in heayy guns were ^landed firom the ships 
Swift *s Miscellanies, and a variety of of war, with a detachment of seamen; 
pieces printed anonymously, some of and by the 9th of April the army, 
which are unquestionably Arbuthnot's, consisting of 7550 men, had constructed 
whilst others are of doubtfiil parentage, and opened batteries a^nst the town. 
His son pronounced these volumes to be On the same day, the nritish squadron 
an imposition upon the public, and not sailed and passed Sullivan's Island under 
the works of his father, in a letter he ad- a heavy fire from the forts ; and soon after 
dressed to the newspapers, Sept 25, 1750. a brigade of seamen and marines were 
Positive as is this assurance, and though landed, and took possession of a post 
some few may be spurious, the style and at Mount Pleasant without opposition, 
character of many rally prove them to be the enemy flying into Charlestown on 
genuine. their approach. Thinking it practicable 
ARBUTHNOT, (Mariot,) an admiral to carry the fort on Sullivan's Island by 
in the British navy, was bom about the storm, the vice-admiral determined to 
year 1711. He was said to be nephew make the attempt ; and on the night of 
to the celebrated Dr. Arbuthnot, the friend the 4th of May, 200 seamen and marines 
and associate of Swift, as also of Pope, were landed.* This detachment sue- 
Contemporaneous with the first American ceeded in passing the fort before day- 
war, his achievements were confined to light, unobserved by the enemy, and took 
the western world. After the failure of possession of a redoubt on the east end of 
the French at Savannah,* the capital of the island. The ships of the squadron 
Georgia, Admiral Arbuthnot, the com- being brought up to support the attack, 
manaer-in-chief of the station, prepared and all being perfectly prepared to com- 
to escort Sir Henry Clinton and his troops mence the assault, a summons was sent 
on an expedition which had long l>oon into the fort, the garrison of which almost 
projected against South Carolina, Shift- immediately surrendered as prisoners of 
ing his flag into the RoebNck of 44 war. 

guns, (vessels of a light draught of water This success was followed by the stir- 
being best calculated to carry into execu- render of Charlestown itself, about the 
tion the service required,) he departed lltli of the same month, when the Pro- 
New York on the 26th December, 1780. . tt ^ ^ ^ * t .» ^ ^.j- 
•K .^ , . • J A. Under command of capUtat Uadaon, Ord% 

Five 74-gun ships accompanied the ex- snd Gambler ^^ 

83 a 2 



ARB ARB 

He \?a8 speedily in high favour; the D.D. was printed in 1754; and it has a 

queen estimated his talents. Swift caUs poetical dedication to the kin^ by Charles 

him " the queen's favourite physician," Arbuthnot, student of Christ Church, 

and " the queen's favourite." Oxford. This work displays considerable 

Gay, in ihe Prologue to The Shepherd's leaminc and judgment He possessed a 

Week, makes the following allusion to his good share of antiquarian knowledge, 

skill in recovering the queen from a dan- and was industrious in research. Al- 

gerous illness : though the work is not free from errors, 

. , „ ,^, ^, it may yet be consulted with advantage. 

"A skilful leach (BO God him speed) j. ™*„:„- „ ^,^^,1. o^^^n^f /vf fi^ 

They say had wrought this biSsed deed ; 1* contams a cunous account of the 

This leach Arbuthnot was yclept, doses of medicines given by ancient 

Who many a night not once had slept, physicians, and of the prescriptions of 

But watch'd our gracious sovereign still ; i»iiTB*^MM»B, €mi« v* v*«, ^t«»w ^m^u. 

For who eouid rest while she was ill f Celsus, Paulus, &c. This work was tram- 

Oh I may'st thou heneeforth sweetly sleep I lated into Latm by D. Koenig, Utrecht, 

'x'iTw.rhtU^V, tni^'.'^ •""' 1766. In 1727 aLw appeared feisceUane- 

He saved the realm who saved the queen. ous Poems, by Arbuthnot, Swift, Pope 

followmg year, he pubhshed An Essay 
He attended her majesty with Dr. concemmg the Effects of Air on Human 
Mead in her last illness in 1714 ; and her Bodies, in which he contends for the ne- 
death affected him so greatly, that he cessity of attending to meteorological ob- 
withdrew to Paris to recruit his spirits, servations as illustrative of the prevalence 
He was deprived of his apartments at of different diseases. This work went 
St. James's ; and upon his return to Lon- through several editions, and was trans- 
don, took a house in Dover-street, whence lated into French by Boyer at Paris, in 
he writes to Pone: '< Martin's office is 1742. In 1731 he put forth An Essay 
now the second aoor on the left hand in concerning the Nature of Aliments, and 
Dover- street, where he will be glad to see the choice of them, according to the dif- 
Dr. Pamell, Mr. Pone, and his old friends, ferent Constitutions of Human Bodies, 
to whom he can stul afford a half-pint of This was written to prove that the dietetic 
claret." Literary occupation seems to part of medicine depended as much 
have solaced him under the distress 00- as any other upon scientific principlet, 
casioned by the queen's death, and the and may be looked upon as a physioiogv 
destruction of the Tory party. of aliment. 'This work also went through 
In 1712 he wrote the History of John several editions ; the second in 1732 hay« 
Bull, a political allegory of great merit, ing Practical Rules o£ Diet in the various 
and full of wit and hiunour. Pone and Constitutions and Diseases of Human 
Swift have vouched for his being the sole Bodies. It was translated into French 
author of this piece, which was particu- by Boyer at Paris, in 1741, and into 
larly intended to throw ridicule upon the Uerman, and published at Hamburgh in 
virtues of Marlborough, and make the peo- 1 744, in 4to. In 1 732 he contributed to 
pie discontented with the war. Sir Walter detect and punish some impositions and 
Scott has admirably fllustrated the sati- abuses, carried on under the name of 
rical allusions contained in this produc- the Charitable Corporation ; and in 1733 
tion, in his edition of Swift's works. A he wrote The Freenolder's Political Cate- 
translation of it in French by the Abb6 chism, an edition of which appeared in 
Velly, was printed in 1753 in 12mo. In 1769, in 8vo. His health was bad; he 
1716 hp printed The Petition of the Col- suffered greatly from asthma and dropsy, 
Hers, Cooks, Cook -maids, Blacksmiths and in 1734 went to reside at Hampstead, 
and others, addressed to the Lord Mayor but soon returned to his house in Cork- 
and Aldermen of the City of London. In street, Burlington-gardens, where he died 
1718 he visited France; and in 1722 went Feb. 27, 1734-5. Of his marriage no 
to Bath, being imwell and in bad spirits, particulars are recorded ; but he left two 
In 1723 he was appointed one of the children, George and Anne. The former 
censors of the Royal College of Physi- was one of the executors to Pope's will, 
cians;andin 1 727 delivered the Harveian and held the place of first secretary in 
oration, which was published in the same the Remembrance Office under Lord 
year in 4to. In this year also he pub- Masham. Arbuthnot is more disUn- 
lishcd his most celebrated work, 'entitled, guishcd by high moral feelings, and great 
Tables of Ancient Coins, Weights and intellectual endowments, than by his abi- 
Measures; a second edition of which, with lity as a practical physician. Humanity 
an Appendix by Benjamin Langwith, and benevolence formed conspicuous traits 

82 



ARB ARB 

in his character. His friends were most pedition as far as Uie vicinity of Charles- 

warmly attached to him. Dr. Johnson town, which port, upon reaching, these 

gives him high praise. He extols him vessels, as imavaUahie for future opera* 

as " a man of great comprehension, skil- tions, were directed to leave for New 

All in his profession, versed in the sciences, York, under the orders of Captain Drake 

acquainted with ancient literature, and of the Russell, leaving the vice-admiral a 

ahle to animate his knowledge by a hriffht squadron consisting of the Roebuck (44), 

and active imagination ; a scholar with Jnenoum (50), Romulus (44), the EUmde, 

great brilliance of wit ; a wit, who in the Perseus, Camilla, and Raleigh, frigates of 

crowd of life retained and discovered a an inferior force. 

noble ardour of religious zeal." Arbuth- In consequence of a lone continuance 

not's Letters to Swift and to Pope fully of boisterous weather, and the intermina- 

develop his character, and place him in ble annoyances which the boats employed 

the most honourable and amiable point tosoimd the channel encountered from the 

of view. They are, at the same time, fUll enemv's galleys, it Was not tiU the 20th 

of manliness and tenderness ; his princi- of March that the British squadron, 

{>les are fixed and founded on a sincere after the larger ships had been consider- 

ove of virtue. Pope says that he was ably lightened, succeeded in passing the 

fitter to live or die than any man he bar ; when the enemy, who had a consi- 

knew ; and that his good morals were derable naval force in the harbour drawn 

equal to any man's ; but his wit and up in the order of battle, as if prepared 

humour superior to all mankind. Swift and determined to dispute the passage, 

said, ** he has more wit than we all have ; abandoned their position, and retired 

and his humanity is equal to his wit." towards the town, where most of the 

In 1750, some of his MSS. were put to armed ships, together with several mer- 

the press, and published as The Miscel- chant vessels, were sunk purposely to 

laneous Works of the late Dr. Arbuthnot, block up the channel and obstruct the 

at Glasgow, in 2 vols, 12mo; a second navigation. 

edition appeared in 1751. These volumes At the desire of Sir H. Clinton, some 
contain many pieces that had appeared in heayy guns were Islanded firom the ships 
Swift's Miscellanies, and a variety of of war, with a detachment of seamen; 
pieces printed anonymously, some of and by the 9th of April the army, 
which are unquestionably Arbuthnot's, consistmg of 7550 men, had constructed 
whilst others arc of doubtful parentage, and opened batteries against the town. 
His son pronounced these volumes to be On the same day, the British squadron 
an imposition upon the public, and not sailed and passed Sullivan's Island under 
the works of his father, in a letter he ad- a heavy fire from the forts ; and soon after 
dressed to the newspapers. Sept 25, 1 750. a brigade of seamen and marines were 
Positive as is this assurance, and though landed, and took possession of a post 
some few may be spurious, the style and at Mount Pleasant without opposition, 
character of many nilly prove them to be the enemy fl3ring into Charlestown on 
genuine. their approacn. Thinking it practicable 
ARBUTHNOT, (Mariot,) an admiral to carry the fort on Sullivan's Island by 
in the British navy, was bom about the storm, the vice-admiral determined to 
year 1711. He was said to be nephew make the attempt; and on the night of 
to the celebrated Dr. Arbuthnot, theniend the 4th of May, 200 seamen and marines 
and associate of Swift, as also of Pope, were landed.* This detachment suc- 
Contemporaneous with the first American ceeded in passing the fort before day- 
war, his achievements were confined to light, unobserved by the enemy, and took 
the western world. After the failure of possession of a redoubt on the east end of 
the French at Savannah,' the capital of the island. The ships of the squadron 
Georgia, Admiral Arbuthnot, the com- being brought up to support the attack, 
mander-in-chief of the station, prepared and all being perfectly prepared to com- 
to escort Sir Henry Clinton and his troops mence the assault, a summons was sent 
on an expedition which had long been into the fort, the garrison of which almost 
projected against South Carolina. Shift- immediately surrendered as prisoners of 
ing his flag into the Roebuck of 44 war. 

funs, (vessels of a light draught of water This success was followed by the sur- 
eing best calculatca to carry into execu- render of Charlestown itself, about the 
tion the service required,) he departed llth of the same month, when the Pro- 
New York on the 26th December, 1780. -tt^ a » ^ i «j ^^i-. 
n. ,,. , . • J au Under command of captains Uudion, Ordo» 

Five 74-gun ships accompanied the ex- and OamWer. 

83 a 2 



ARB ARC 

vidence and Boston, American frigates, army in Virginia; and the French, de- 

Banger, of 20 gims, L'Aventure, a French feated in all uieir projects, returned suc- 

ship of 20 guns, a polacre of 16, and cessless to Rhode island, 
several other small vessels, fell into the So says Chamock ; hut we place more 

hands of the British, whose whole loss confidence in the accounts of omcers who 

during the siege did not exceed twenty- participatedin this "unsatisfactory fight." 

three Killed, and twenty-eight woundecL In the Political Magazine and Parlia- 

Early in the ensuins; spring the enemy, mentary Journal for May 1781, are se- 
accordmg to ChamocK, *' encouraged hy veral letters from parties concerned, 
the reduced state of Arhuthnot*s squa- One writer unhesitatingly asserts, " more 
dron, — one of whose ships, the CuUodeny of might have heen done ;" and adds : '' As 
74 guns, was totally lost ; the Bedford, for the two admirals, they had little 
of the same force, dismasted ; and two share of the action ; and the ships astern 
other ships, one of 64 (the America) never came in, owing to the blunder of 
driven to sea ; the other of 50 guns (the ordering the signal for the line at two 
Adamant), ahsent, — are said to have con- cahles' length asunder, and keeping it up 
templated an attack on the British admi- the whole time ; whereas, had he (the 
ral, who then lay in Gardiner's Bay, admiral) hauled it daum, our ships would 
Long Island. Tliis attempt, however, have each taken one of the enemy, and 
they resolved to ahandon on more mature have stuck hy her ; when, no douht, al- 
reflection and hetter information concern- most the whole of the French fleet would 
ing the position of the British sliips. have heen taken, sunk, or destroyed." 
Foiled in their first point, the enemy next In another letter from an officer pre- 
directed their attention to the small naval sent, it is asserted that " the whole cause 
force which had heen despatched from of our /ai^re was the admiral not haul- 
New York to cooperate with General ing down the signal for the line, and 
Arnold on the Virginia station. In this making the signal for close action." 
they were also disappointed ; hut on their This officer concludes his letter in the 
return were fortunate enoueh to capture following words : — " I am tired of telling 
the Bomulus of 44 guns, whose captain our misfortunes ; I wish I could ohlite* 
had not heen apprised that an enemy rate stlch a day out of my memory." 
was off the coast. The fact is, Arhuthnot was a sorry 

Embarking two thousand troops, the tactician ; he permitted the French to 
Vrenc\i chef-d^eseadre put to sea, with a out-manceuvre him in every evolution 
strong easterly gale, on the evening of performed. His courage was never 
the 8th of March. Arhuthnot, who had doubted ; hut, like many of his contem- 
accurate intelligence of the enemy's mo- poraries, he was deficient in skill, and let 
tions, prepared to pursue on the followine^ slip the opportunity at which it was moat 
day, and on the 10th was fortunate enoufi^n desirable to engage the enemy. Vide 
to clear the coast of Long Island with the Sir Charles Ekin's Naval Battles, 
whole of his squadron, having by great Shortiy after this encounter, the vice- 
exertions, working night and day, put admiral proceeded to England, struck his 
the Bedford in a state fit for service. On flag, and during the war remained unem- 
the 16th the French squadron was dis- ployed. He med in London the Slst 
covered steering for the Cape of Virginia, Jan. 1794, having attained the rank of 
and after much manceuvring, and mani- admiral of the blue, and reached the ad* 
festing littie inclination for battie, were vanced age of eighty-three, 
brought to distant action about two ARC, (Jeanne d'.) See Joan, 
o'clock. The enemy began to fall into ARC, (Philippe Auguste de Ste Foix, 
disorder after an hour's contest ; but a Chevalier d',) natural son of the comte ' 
thick haze, which had prevailed previous de Toulouse, died in 1779 ; leaving, be- 
to, and during the action itself, together sides some other publications, a Histoire 
with the disabled state of some of the G6n6rale dcs Guerres, 1756-8, not corn- 
British ships* which led into action, made pleted, and Histoire du Commerce et de 
it impossible to pursue the partial ad- la Navigation des Anciens et des Mo- 
yantage, and rendered the contest inde- dernes, 1758, of which that part relating 
cisive. The British chief put into Lynn- to the commerce of the ancients only was 
haven bay, where he had it in his power executed. (Biog. Univ.) 
to cover and protect the operations of the ARCA, (Lionardo dell',) an Italian 

engraver, who flourished about the year 

• On thii occaiion capUln Cosby, In the Roebuck, l^OO. He eneraved, according to the 

diatinguishedhimself in an eminent manner. Abb6 de Marolles, some plates of oma* 

8i 



ARC ARC 

mttits and grotesque figures. (Heinecken, finus, a Gallic jurisconsult, the prefect of 

Diet des Artistes, Brvan's Diet) the East, a man accused of manv vices, 

ARCADIO, (Jean Fran9ois,) a Pied- and probaUy guilty of them all. His 

montese physician in the sixteenth cen- avarice ruined, his cruelty alienated, his 

tury, horn at Bistagno, in tlie district of intrigues hetrayed the provincials, and 

Montferrat He published, De secandA he regarded the emperor as his pupil 

Ven& in Pleuritude, Asti, 1609, in which rather than his sovereign. He projected 

he recommended bleeding for the pleu- a marriage between his only daughter 

risy, and which was attacked by Roseo, and his ward ; but the weakness of Ar- 

and defended by Arcadio in his Discorso cadius, more perhaps than aversion to 

■opraTAntilogia del Roseo. He also wrote the match, disappointed the prefect in 

Parafirasi sopra la Medicina Santoriana, his hopes of engniAing on the imperial 

Loano, 1618. line the obscure descendant of a Gallic 

AUxmmtkr ArtaiiOy who lived in the family. The absence of Rufinus at 

seventeenth century, ia also known as Antioch transferred the emperor to the 

the author of several works on medicine, manasement of the eunuch Eutropius ; 

politics, and morab. (Biog. Univ. Suppl.) and Eudoxia, the daughter of Bauto, a 

ARCADIUS. A mmmarian of An- general of the Franks in the service of 

tioch, wrote a Treatise on Orthography Rome, was raised to the rank of empress 

and Syntax, and an Onomasticon, which of the East. Eutropius at first shared^ 

Suidas describes as prodigious. Histrea- and afterwards contested his authority 

tise on accents, however, is of little value over Arcadius, to whom a master was 

as regards the quotations firom the lost necessary, with Gainns the Goth, and 

writers of antiquity, and is in fact only Eudoxia. Under the reign of these sue- 

an extract from the Catliolicon of Hero- cessive favourites, the subjects of the 

dian. It was printed by E. H. Barker, eastern and western divisions of the em* 

at Leipsic, 1819, firom two MSS. pre- pire learnt to rerard each other with 

served at Paris ; but neither of them are mutual hatred and jealousy ; and by the 

so valualble as the one at Copenhagen, appointment of Alaric (see Alaaic) to 

whose various readings are given b^ the government of the eastern lUyricum, 

Dindorf, in his Grammatici Gneci, vol. i. whicn the suspicion or the dread of 

p. 48. Leips. 182S. ^ Stillicho, which the empress and her 

ARCADIUS, (bom 377, beean to reign rivals agreed in entertaining, recom- 
395, died 408, ▲.!>.) the eldest son of mended to Arcadius, the Goths ac- 
Theodosius the Great, and Flaccilla. He quired, in a well - employed repose of 
was bom in Spain, in the habitation of a roiu* years, the superior anns ana tactics 
private family, but educated m the impe- of the Romans. The latter part of a 
rial palace at Constantinople, and was reign cqiially feeble and calamitous, was 
equally weak and wicked as if he had occupied with the persecution of Chry- 
lineally inherited the purple from the sostom; and a religious quarrel, pro- 
sons of Constantine. His e^-il or imbe- duced by the imprudence of the saint 
die temper first manifested itself in the and the resentment of Eudoxia, deluged 
treatment of his tutor Arsenius, who with blood the streets of Constantinople, 
preferred fifty-five years of rigid penance Arcadius, who had alternately submitted 
m the monasteries of Egypt to the duties to his ministers, his eunuchs, and his 
imposed upon him by Theodosius. The wife, died at the a^e of thirty-one in the 
life of Arcadius would not be worth re- thirteenth year of nis reign, on the 1st of 
cording if it did not form a connecting May, 408. It is impossible to delineate 
link with those of Alaric, Chrysostom, a character in which there is not a single 
Rufinus, and Stillicho, and if he had not trace of independent thought or action ; 
been one of the principal instruments in but it may be proper to mention the only 
the dismemberment of the Western em- symptom of prudence or feeling that has 
pire. In his seventh or eighth year he been even fabulously attributed to Ar- 
was proclaimed Augustus by his father ; cadius. Considering the helpless cotidi- 
and in his eighteenth, became the nomi- tion of his son (see Theodosivs II.), who 
nal master or the world, from Thrace to had not reached his eighth year, the 
tlie confines of Ethiopia, and from the dangers of a minority, and the ambition 
Euphrates to the western half of Illy- of a powerful neighbour, Arcadius is said 
ricum. At his decease, Theodosius en- to have bequeathed, under trust, the 
trusted his sons to the care of his two sceptre of the East to Jexdegerd, the 
ablest ministers, Honorius to tlie brave active and aspiring monarch of Persia, 
and loyal Stillicho, and Arcadius to Ru- The story is more remarkable firom its 



ARC ARC 

proceeding to state that the royal guar- other works are, Journal Historique de 

dian discharged his trust with fidelity, la Prise de Mahon ; M^moire Apolog6« 

Procopius, however, and tradition (see tique de la Revolution de Corse en 17^ ; 

A^athias, lih. iv. Niehuhr. ed.) are the and several memoirs puhlished by the 

sole authorities for the testament of Area- Academy of Rochelle. (Biog. Univ.) 

dius (see also * Jezdegerd,' in the Biog-a- ARC£SILAUS, the son of Seuthes, or 

phie UniverseUe de Michaud). The Scythes, according to ApoUodorus, quoted 

personal appearance of Arcadius cor- by Dioeenes Laertius, was bom at ritane 

responded to the imbecility of his mind, in iBoUa, and was the founder of the 

His stature was low, his ngure and de- New Academy ; the peculiar doctrine of 

meanour ungraceful, his eyes small and which was to deny the certainty of every 

inexpressive, his speech slow and embar- proposition ; and hence he was accus- 

rassed, and in tne ceremonies of the tomed to dispute on both sides of a 

imperial station, he required the presence question. His chief weapon was the 

of a prompter for his words and motions. Socratic interrogation, and his principal 

By Ludoxia he left one son, Theodosius arguments drawn from the wntings of 

II., and four daughters, Flaccilla, Pul- the dead. He is described in a fragment 

chcria,Arcadia,and Marina. See Ducange, of Numenius, preserved by fiusebius in 

Fam. Byzantina, p. 70. P. £. xiv. 5, as of a ready and lively wit, 

ARC^US, (Francis,) a celebrated and of an engaging person ; and thoush he 

Spanish physician, who, in 1573, in his was employed, to use the words of myle, 

eightieth year, wrote a treatise on the in the boldest attempt ever made by a 

cure of wounds, De Recta Curandorum philosopher, the rejection not only of the 

Vulnerum Ratione, which was printed at testimony of sense, but of reason ; yet, 

Antwerp the year following, and went says Numenius, he spoke so well and 

through several editions in the seven- looked so beautiful, that it was equally 

teenth century. In it he anticipated difficult to resist the eloquence of hu 

many of the processes of the modem tongue and the fascination of hia form ; 

practice of surgery. and thus, while his opponents were either 

ARCANO, (Giovanni Mauro d',) com- vanquished by ar^ments, or rendered 
monly called II Mauro, a celebrated speechless by admiration, it seemed as if 
Italian burlesque poet, lived about 1530. no ojiiiions could be right or wrong ex- 
He was secretary to the cardinal Alex- cept such as were approved or condemned 
ander Cesarini, and seems to have lived by Arcesilaus. His favourite motto waa 
on terms of intimacy with most of the the sentiment of Hesiod-^ 
dever men of liis toe. Hisperformances ,.^ ^, ^„ ^^, .,„,rtri.hlde,- 
have been printed vnth those of Bemi, 

the most distinguished author in this and as he carried out, beyond all the bounda 

species of composition, and consist of of rational scepticism, the modest doubta 

twenty-one Capitoli. He was an irre- of Socrates, by asserting that Socratea 

concilable enemy of Aretino, whom he could not even say he knew nothing, Ci* 

attacked in his poems. (Biog. Univ.) cero has accused liim of introducing into 

ARCASIO, (1712— 1791,) professor of philosophy, what Tiberius Gracchus did 

civil law in the university of Turin, dis- mto pontics, a restlessness of mind as &tal 

tin^ished for his knowledge in Roman to the morality, as the other was to the 

jurisprudence, and known by a work en- happiness of man ; while, in allusion to the 

titleu Comraentaria Juris Civilis. Turin, contradictory opinions which his princi- 

1782. (Biog. Univ. BibUoteca Oltrc- pies necessarily gave rise to, it is prettQy 

moiitana.) observed by Numenius that he was a 

AllCERE, (Louis Eticnue,) was bom hydra, devouring and devoured by itsdf, 
at Marseilles in 1698. In 1743 he went and this too with an equal want of judg^ 
to reside at Rochelle, became perpetual ment, and a total disregard of decency. 
secretary to the Royal Society of Agri- It has been said that the object he had in 
culture, and together with his colleague view for thus overthrowing all the grounds, 
Jaillot, was engaged upon the Histoire not only of belief but conviction, was 
de la Rochelle et du Pays d' Aunis, which merely to oppose the dogmatism of Zeno ; 
appeared in 175G. It is a complete ac- and the tradition is supported not a little 
count of one of the smallest provinces in by the fact tliat, though his tenets 
France, and is remarkable for the curious tended to destroy all the distinctions 
research and exact knowledge of facts, as between right and wrong, yet his con- 
well as the sound views which it displays, duct was generally such as to extort even 
Arcere died at Rochelle in 1 782. His the admiration of more liberal oppcmenta. 

86 



ARC ARC 

For when some one said that the life and was defeated hy his hrother Learchus, 

principles of Arcesilaus were of a piece— and, after drinking poison, strangled, as 

"Hold your tongue," said Cleanthes; we learn from Herodot. iv. 159. Totheie 

" for if he destroys all the received ideas may he added two mentioned hy Poly- 

of duty hy his words, he supports them hius ; one of whom, a countr3nnan of the 

with his acts;" where he prohahly alluded historian, took a part in public affiiin, 

to the well-known anecaote, that when and was sent as an ambassador from the 

Arcesilaus visited a sick friend, who Achseans, to effect a reconciliation be- 

was unwilling to expose his poverty, the tween Antiochus Epiphanes and Ptole- 

philosopher, on some pretence, bidding the my; and the other, who was sent by 

mvalid raise his head fix>m the pmow, some Spartan exiles to Rome, but was 

secretly placed under it a purse of money, taken by pirates and murdered, 
in order, says Seneca, that the too bash- ARCESILAUS, the name of two 

fill man might consider it rather as a painters and another sculptor. One of the 

fod-send than a gift. Thus it might former was a Greek pamter of Pharos, 

ave been said of him, as of the man of a contemporary with Polygnotus, and who 

Ross, celebrated by Pope, that he pamted in encaustic. Of the other painter 

■.Didgo<Klby.U.lth.«Mlblud«dto(todttfcm.." '^e have no account. Arc«ilau«, a «ailp. 

• ' ' tor of Rome, lived sixty-five years b. o. 

For when Cleanthes stated that his life He was employed by Lucullus. Varro 

gave the lie to his doctrines, Arcesilaus speaks of him with praise, and mentions 

repudiated the compliment, and called it a group in marble, of one piece, from^his 

flattery ; on which Cleanthes asked, ** Is hand, representing a lioness playing with 

it flattery to assert that you say one thing cupids. (Bio^. Univ.) 
and do another?" where, says Bayle, ARCHAGATHUS, (ApyayaOosj) son 

there is an allusion to a line in Homer — of Lysanias, and an inhabitant of Pelo- 

the very author of whom Arcesilaus was ponnesus, is said to have been the first 

so fond, that he called the Iliad his mis- foreign surgeon that settled at Rome, 

tress, and never retired to rest without A.,u. c. 535, b. c. 219. (Cassius Hemina 

reading a portion of it ; and it is from ap. Plin. Hist Nat. lib. xxix. cap. 6.) 

Homerthathe probably imbibed a taste for He was at first very well received, die 

poetry ; but, like Plato, he seemslo have Jus Quiritium (which comprehended all 

tried his hand only on epigrams, two of the rights of Roman citizens) was given 

which have been perpetuated by his bio- to him, a shop was bought for him at the 

grapher Diogenes. Unlike the son of public expense, and he was called <' Vul- 

Aristo, he wrote no works on philosophy, nerarius, or " the Healer of Wounds." 

or destroyed rather those he did write, Soon, however, on account of the (real 

after he had been detected in the act of cor- or supposed) cruelty of his mode of using 

recting them. Although he took no part the knife and cautery, the people, who 

in public affairs, he was still accusea of were imaccustomed to these operations, 

courting the favour of the multitude, in changed his name to '* Camifex," or 

consequence probably of the liberality " Executioner," and conceived a great 

with which he distributed alms to the aversion forthe profession of medicine and 

needy, which he was enabled to do by all who practised it. The composition of 

funds frimished by his brother, who had a plaster, invented either by this person 

an estate in Pitane. Amongst the per- or another of the same name, is g^ven by 

sons who made themselves conspicuous by Celsus, De Re Med. lib. v. cap. 9, § 27. 
their abuse, JElian has, in V. H. xiv. 26, ARCHDALL, (Mervyn,) an exem- 

given the name of the poet Antagoras ; plary protestant divine, and learned 

to whom, however, the philosopher would antiquary, was bom in Dublin in 1723, 

not deign to give a reply, feeling no doubt and died in 1791. After forty years of 

that the abuse of some people is the highest intense application to the records relating 

praise. He died at the advanced a^ of to the monastic foundations of Ireland, 

seventy-five, in consequence of drinxing he published, in 1786, an abridgement of 

an immoderate quantity of wine. his labours, under the title of Monasticon 

Diogenes mentions three other persons Hibemicum. He published also, in 1789, 

of this name : — 1 . A writer of the old an edition of Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, 

comedy, not quoted elsewhere. 2. An which he increased from four to seven 

elegiac writer. 3. A sculptor, the son of volumes. The cause of the extension of 

Anstodemus, on whose statue of Diana the latter work, however, is attributed to 

Simonides wrote some verses. There is Mrs. Archdall's skiH in decyphering the 

also a fourth, the son of Battus, who short-hand notes of Mr. Lodge. 

87 



'^ ARC ARC 

ARCHDEKIN, (called also Mac Gilla Alexander, and to whom perhaps ought 
Cuddy, Richard,) an eminent Jesuit, born to be attributed the work on rivers quoted 
at Kilkenny in 1619, and died at Antwerp by Pseudo-Flutarch, i. p. 1148, Xyi. 2. 
about 1690. He is the autiior of severed llie author of a poem, called lAIO^YH, 
works, some of which were exceedingly a word that has puzzled the learned not a 
popular, particularly an Essay on Mira- little ; although it is easy to see that the 
cles. His Theologia Tripartita Universa, correct reading is lAYO^YH, ** mud- 
si ve Resolutiones Polemicse, Practicse, bom," in allusion to the doctrine of 
Controversiarum et Questionum etiam Archelaus; to say nothing of the fact, 
Recentissimarum quae in Schol& et in that in Greek no words are compounded 
Praxi per Omnia IJsum prsecipuum ha- of two adjectives. He is called by Athe- 
bent, Missionariis, et aliis Animarum nseus (ix. p. 309, C.) the Chersonesite, 
Curatoribus et Theologiae Studiosis soler- and is identified by Schweighseuser with 
ter accommodatae, was published in its the Archelaus of Egypt, quoted by An- 
fifth edition at Antwerp in 1682, 3 vols, tigonus, Caryst H. M. ss. 23, because 
8vo. The eleventh edition appeared at there was a town of Chersonesus not fax 
Venice in 1700, 4to. At the time the firom Alexandria. The poem was written in 
eighth edition was undertaken there were Iambics, as the same scholar infers from 
sixteen thousand copies of this work dis- Athenseus, xii. p. 534, E. 3. The writer 
posed of,, and a great demand for more. on stones, who was probably the Milesian; 

ARCHEBULUS. A lyrical writer at for according to his doctrine, stones might 
Thebes, and the inventor of a kind of be considered only as earth, with its mois- 
verse called after his name, as stated by ture evaporated by heat. 
Hephsstion. ARCHELAUS, king of Macedon, was 
ARCHEDAMUS, ARCHEDEMUS, the natural son of Perdiccas, who lefl to 
and ARCHIDEMUS, for so the word is his care Alcetas, his legitimate son and 
written respectively byStrabo, Plutarch, destined successor. He was, however, 
and Cicero, was a Stoic of Tarsus or removed by Archelaus, who assumed the 
Athens, and wrote some treatises on the crown himself. During a reifi^ of four- 
Voice and the Four Elements ; of which teen years he materi^y added to the 
only a fragment has been preserved by resources of his kingdom, by the con- 
Stobseus in Eclog. xcix. According to structidh of forts and roads ; kept up a 
Plutarch, he left behind him in Babylon large army, and built ships ; and extended 
a succession of Stoic philosophers. his patronage to literature and art. He 

ARCHEDICUS. A writer of comedy; was assassinated b. c. 398 

two of his plavs are quoted by Athenaeus, ARCHELAUS, one of the most able 

and we learn from Suidas that he directed generals of Mithridates in his war with 

his satire against the nephew of De- Sylla. Convinced of the superiority of 

mosthenes. the Roman power, and becoming sus- 

ARCHELAUS, the son of ApoUo'do- pected by Mithridates, he ultimately 
rus or of Myson, was bom at Miletus, found shelter among the Romans, 
and mi^ated to Athens ; and after study- ARCHELAUS, son of the preceding, 
ing philosophy under Anaxagoras, be- remained attached to the Romans, and 
came, as some assert, the teacher of was made by Pompey high-priest of Co- 
Socrates. He was the first to introduce mana in Armenia, and afterwards mar- 
at Athens the physical philosophy taught ried the daughter of Ptolemy, and became, 
in Ionia. According to his theory, heat for a short time, king of E^ypt He was 
and cold proceeding from, or accompanied killed in battle with the soloiers of Gabi- 
by, moisture, were the two principles of nius, b. c. 56. 

creation ; and he taught that all animals ARCHELAUS, son 'of the preceding, 
were produced from the earth, which sent by Glaphyra, was made kin^ of Cappa- 
up a mud-like substance, of the colour and docia by Mark Antony, in place of Ana- 
consistency of milk ; while in morals, he rathes X. He was with Antony at 
said that the ideas of right and wrong Actium, but nevertheless was confirmed in 
are the creatures of law, and not of nature, his sovereignty by Augustus. He was 
He seems to have been a poet too ; at sent for to Rome by Tiberius, and died 
least Plutarch says that he wrote some there a. c. 17, after which Cappadocia 
elegiac verses to console Cimon for the became a Roman province, 
loss of his wife. ARCHELAUS, son of Herod the Great, 

Of the other persons of the same name was tctrarch of Judea and Idumea, but 

there are, 1. Tlic geo^rraphcr, who wrote was deprived of his power by AugustuSj 

an account of the countries traversed by in the year 6 a. c. 

88 



ARC ARC 

ARCHELAUSi bishop of Cascara, a fragment of his third book found in 

city on the confines of Mesopotamia, re- Athensus. 

markable for a dispute which he main- ARCHENHOLZ, (Johann Wilhehn 

tained against the Manichaeans, in the von,) was bom near Dantzic in 1745, 

year 277, when the doctrines of that sect and received his early education at the 

had spread widely in Persia, and threat- cadet's school in Berlin. In his fifteenth 

ened to infect the rest of the East. He year he entered the Prussian army, in 

has been erroneously supposed to be which he served till the conclusion of the 

bishop of Haran, or Chasrse, but Asse- seven years' war. At the peace in 1763 

manni (vol. i. p. 555) has satisfactorily he received his dismissal in consequence 

shown the source of this mistake. more especially of his fondness for gam- 

The greater part of the above-named ing, which had come to the knowledge of 
disputation, ana the whole of the author's his king, Frederick II. Upon this he 
letter to Diodorus, who had consulted set out on his travels, and during a space 
him on the spread of the errors of Manes, of sixteen years passed through most 
were published by Valesius at the end of parts of Germany, Switzerland, England, 
the Annotationes in Socratem et Sozo- Holland, the Austrian Netherlands, 
menum, and a fuller, but still imperfect France, Italy, Denmark, Norway, and 
edition, by Zacagnius, prefect of the Poland. He has been accused, by a con- 
Vatican, temporary writer, of acquiring funds for 

ARCHELAUS, a sculptor, bom at this joumey by practices too similar to 

Priene in the age of Gaudius. He exe- those whicn had procured his dismissal 

cuted a small bas-relief of the Apotheosis firom the Prussian army; but this account 

of Homer, on which appear, in a Greek seems to be at least deeply coloured by 

inscription, the name ana country of the the prejudices of the biographer, and by 

sculptor. This work is said to have been the envy of an unsuccessful rival. Whilst 

dug up, about the year 1658, from be- in Italy he had a fall firom his horse, 

neath the Appian way, near Albano, in a which fractured his leg, an accident firom 

place formerly called Bovillas. The em- which he never fully recovered. On his 

peror Claudius had a palace near that return to Germany he resided in Dresden, 

locality, and it seems probable that it was Leipsic, and Berlm, but more especially 

decorated with this sculpture. (Biog. in Hamburg, and lived by his literary 

Univ. Lempriere's Class. Diet.) labours. Without possessing profound 

ARCHELAUS, (ApxcXaor,) an Eg3rp- learning, he had a considerable acquaint- 
tian, who wrote, in Greek verse, a work ance with modem languages, an extra- 
on the wonders of Natural History, (irtpi ordinary spirit of observation, and a 
Toou napaho^v,) addressed to Ptolemy, peculiar talent for collecting information ; 
His date is uncertain, but as he is quoted to this he added much knowledge of the 
by Antigonus Carystius (Hist. Mirab. world and of mankind, and the faculty of 
cap. 23) ne probably lived in the third seizing the most important and charac- 
century b. c. Only a few of his verses teristic points of a subject, and of ex- 
have been preserved, in which he says pressing them in the most lively and 
that scorpions spring from the putrid expressive lan^age. All this, with a 
carcase of a crocodile, wasps from that nice tact in adapting his subjects to the 
of a horse, and bees from that of an ox. taste of the day, earned him considerable 
(Antie. Car. loco cit, ; Varro, De Re popularity, and a great share of influ- 
Rust. lib. iii. cap. 16.) Another person ence. His first literary employment was 
of the same name is mentioned by Athe- the publication of a monthly journal, the 
naeus (Deipnos. lib. ix. § 76, p. 409), and Neue Literatur und Volkerkunde, which 
Diogenes Laertius (Vit Philosoph. lib. ii. was continued for nine years, from 1782 
cap. 4, § 17), as having written a work, to 1791, and was remarkable for the 
Jlrpi Tou idio<l>vau, De iis quae propriae nice feeling of the popular taste, and the 
Naturae sunt ; he is called xtppovriairriSi best means of meeting it, which distin- 
an inhabitant of Chersonesus. A person guished our author. A more important 
of the same name is quoted by Pliny, work was his England and Italy, a book 
Hist. Nat. xxviii. 6 ; Galen, De Medic, which has been translated into almost all 
KaraTOTTovsjiJi.Q] andAetiu8,Tetrab.iv. the languages of Europe. In this work 
serm. 4, cap. 133 ; but it is not possible he has spoken of Italy with a feeling of 
to say exactly to whom all these passages prejudice against that coimtry, which 
refer. accompanied him through life, and was 

ARCHEMACIIUS, a writer on the apparent as well in his public writing as 

afiairs of Euboea, is known only by a in his most confidential conversation. 

89 



ARC ARC 

The part relating to England is written a. m. in 1582 ; and was admitted ehap- 

in a very different spint, and perhaps lain to his near kinsman, Dr. John May, 

lies open to the opposite charge of an bishop of Carlisle, in October, 1584. 

exhibition of over-partiality. This feel- After Dr. May's death (viz. in 1599) he 

ing showed itself in the choice of a subject became chaplain to archbishop Whitgift. 

for his next work, the Annals of British In 1589, Dr. Archer was present^ to 

History, from the year 1788; a work the living of Houghton-Conquest in Bed- 

which, in spite of many errors as to facts, fordshire, where he continued rector 

which even the author's fellow-country- forty-one years. Happening to preach 

men have not been slow to discover, has before James I. at the neighbouring vil- 

done much to extend among them the lageofHawnes, in 1605, Archer so pleased 

knowledge of the English political history the king that he was sent for at the dose 

at a very interesting period. In 1787 of the sermon, and appointed hia m^esty*t 

he began the English Lyceum, a period- chaplain in ordinary. Hii text was from 

ical work, continued under the title of Canticles, ch. ii. ver. 15. This circum- 

tlic British Mercury, to promote the stance is careiullv recorded in a curious 

reading and study of the English Ian- MS. volume, which has descended to the 

guage among the Germans. His History successive inciunbents of Houghton-Con- 

of tne Seven Years' War first appeared quest, and from which these biographical 

in the Historische Taschenbuch of Berlin particulars are derived. In ue same 

for 1 789, but was republished in a much volume are enumerated the other several 

more extended form in 1793 and in 1801. occasions on which Archer hod the ho- 

This has been thought worthy of a trans- uour of preacliing before the king and 

lation into several modem languages, and his court. Tlie entries which this volume 

also into Latin, by Reichard (Baireuth, contains are, in some few instances^ 

1790), an honour which it deserved for valuable, but of the greater number the 

the accuracy, clearness, and elegance of interest id merely local ; all, however, 

its composition. He wrote also, the His- tend to show that their author was pious, 

tory of Queen Elizabeth, for the Leipsic amiable, and intelligent ; and he is proved 

Kalender fur Damen ; the Conspiracy of to have been a liberal benefactor to the 

Ficsco ; and the Life of Pope Sixtus V. ; church and parish of Houghton, 

and a valuable History of the Buccaneers. In 1G29, as if conscious of his approach* 

His History of Gustavus Vasa is an inte- ing end. Archer raised a monument to 

resting account of the reign of a monarch himself, immediately above the grave 

whose accession will long be an epoch in which, six years before, he had prepared 

Swedish histor\', but there is little of that for the reception of his body, and survived 

liistorical novelty which might have been that act only a few months. His singular 

anticipated from the author's announce- epitaph, written by himself, may be found 

ment of his access to new sources of in- in Lysons' Hist, of Bedfordshire, 

formation. Archenholz translated Orme's ARCHER, (Sir Simon, bom 21st 

History of Hindostan into German, but September, 1581,) an antiquary of the 

the translation appears to have been de- former half of the seventeenth century, 

ficient in those explanatory additions who resided at Umberslade, in the parish 

wliich were necessary to render this work of Tamworth. He was the son of Andrew 

available to German readers. The last Archer, of the same place. He lived at 

twenty years of Archenholz's life were a time when the attention of persons of 

devoted to political writing, as editor of an imaginative and historical turn of 

the Minerva, an historical and political mind were much directed on the possi- 

jounial, conmienced in 1792 and conti- bility of giving authentic accounts of 

nued till the editor's death, in 1812, with the several districts into which the 

a few intemiptions. Following cau- kingdom is divided, and fasti of the 

tiously the public feeling, he contrived persons holding eminent situations within 

always to preserve the appearance of an those districts, or genealogies of the fumi- 

impartial writer : the paper, however, is lies who had been their more censidcr- 

of great value for the political history of able inhabitants ; and for this purpose he 

the time. Areluiiholz died at his estate consulted the chronicles, and examined 

near Hamburg, at the age of seventy- many records, both in public depositories 

one. and in private hands, emulating in this 

ARCHER, (I)r. Thomas, 155.'J — 1G30,) what was doing on a larger scale by 

a distinguished clergyman of the Church Gascoign and Dodsworth, Burton and 

of England. He was a fellow of Trinity Ferrars, and some others who prepared 

college, Cambridge; took his degree of the way for Dugdale and other persons of 

90 



ARC AKC 

the same turn of mind in the succeeding architect ; and Horace Walpole, with 
generation. Sir Simon Archer's coUec- some other critics of the day, unahle to 
tion seems to have rekted chiefly to the appreciate its beauties, reprobated iti 
county of Warwick, but we find him also cumbrous aspect, and its four towers, 
contributing to the Vale Royal, by Daniel The outside consists of a bold Dorio 
King, a manuscript containing Webb's order, well proportioned and elegantly 
Survey of the Countv of Chester. His profiled: the columns are about three 
collections for WarwicKshire were used by feet four inches in diameter, and stand 
Sir William Dugdole, when he pul)- upon a lofty pedestal or podium, eight 
lished his Antiquities of that county ; feet high. The north and south porticos 
and one of the circumstances of the life or hexastyle, each consistinff of four 
of Sir Simon Archer which connects him outer pilasters and two central columns; 
worthily with' the literary history of his the three centre intercolumniations being 
time, is that he was an early friend and recessed, and the outer interpilastrations 
patron of this eminent person, as Dugdale being solid, these latter serve as bases to 
in the account which ne prepared of his the towers, which rise at each end of the 
own life has gratefully mentioned, intro- tympans. The entablature is surmounted 
ducing him to many of the gentry of the by a balustrade, except over the porticos, 
county, and afterwards, in London, to where there are pediments broken throueh 
Sir Henry Spelman and other eminent in the centre, for the width of three m- 
antiquarian scholars. Sir Simon Archer tercolumniations, to admit a kind of fan- 
received the honour of knighthood from tastic pedimental group, with a perforated 
king James, on August 21,1624. He niche. The four towers have square baset 
married a daughter of Sir John Ferrars, to the height of about eight feet above 
of Tamworth-castle, and had several chil- the springm^ of the pediments, and then 
dren. He was living in 1654. There assume a circular plan. At the angles 
are many of his Letters in the Corre- there are isolated columns with circular 
spondence of Sir William Dugdale, pub- pedestals and circular entablatures, pro- 
lished by Mr. Hemper, in 4to, 1827. His jecting from the main body of the towers, 
great-grandson, Thomas Archer, was Above the entablature, there is a gri^ 
created a peer by king George IL dually receding roof of concave profile, 
ARCHER, (Thomas,) an English surmounted by a pine apple. The cast and 
architect, who flourished during the early west ends of the main roof are enriched 
part of the eighteenth century. He was by grouped gables, flanked by large en- 
a pupil of Sir John Vanburgh, who, being riched scrolls or trusses in the Roman 
appointed surveyor-general for the new fashion. 

churches in London, which were to be The whole composition is impressive, 

built by the grant of queen Anne, gave and its boldness loses nothing by the 

several of them to his pupils. Tlie new graceful playfulness of the outline. There 

church of St. John the Evangelist in are some inaccuracies of detail, which a 

Westminster, fell to the lot of Archer, little more study of purer models might 

and was built in 1 728. The plan con- have corrected ; but the whole is well 

sists of an oblong with rounded corners, worthy a distinguished place among the 

having at the east and west ends deep striking productions of the Vanburgh 

recesses for the altar and vestry, and on school. Tne exterior being entirely faced 

the north and south sides, bold projecting with stone, its solid magnificence mrma a 

enclosed porticos, flanked on each side striking contrast to the parsimonious 

by a tower, making four in«ll, and which meanness, which distinguisnes the like 

now have staircases, to afibrd access to buildings of the present day. In vol. iv. 

the modem galleries. At first the in- p. 70, of Dallaway's edition of Horace 

terior was ennched by columns, and there Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, Heth- 

were no galleries : so that the inside must rop, St. Philip's church at Birmingham, 

have originally been extremely effective, a work of considerable merit, the quad- 

In 1741, the interior and roof were con- rant colonnades at Cliefden-house, and 

sumed by fire, which left only the waUs a house at Rochampton, peculiar but 

and columns standing. The church was striking in its eflTect, all given in the 

then rebuilt, the columns being omitted ; Vitruvius Britannicus, are mentioned as 

in 1758 galleries were added, and subse- works of Archer. To liim also is attri- 

quently lengthened in 1826 by Mr. In- buted the fanciful and attractive pavilion 

wood, architect. When this fine build- at the end of the piece of water, which 

ing was first completed, justice was not faces the centre of Wrest-house, in Bedi 

done to the originality and powers of the fordshire, the seat of the £ui de Gn 

91 



ARC ARC 

Hiis pavilion is hexagonal in plan, with has heen assigned to the age of Angtistos 

a porch at the entrance : with very little Caraar. 

attention to effect, it might be made a ARCHIAS, (A. Licinius,) bom at 

very graceful object, well worthy the Antioch in the latter part of the second 

splendid mansion, which has been recently century b.c. He was living, advanced 

erected by the present noble possessor in years, in b. c. 61, but the dates of his 

from his own designs and under his own birth and death are not known. The 

immediate direction, and in which his lord' poetical talents of Archias developed 

ship has evinced a great feeling for art, themselves early. The reputation toey 

sound discrimination, and a happy adap- prociurcd him, even in boyhood, in his 

tation of the style chosen, whicn is that native city, was confirmed and extended 

of the French chateau, of the time of subsequenUy in a journey through Asia 

Louis XV. Minor and Greece. But the oppressed 

ARCHESTRATUS of Gela or Syra- and impoverished provincials coma afford 
cvsE, for authorities differ, was the pupil him little beyona barren admiration ; 
of Terpsion, according to Clearchus, in and Archias sought in Italy and at Rome 
Athen. vii. p. 377, B, and wrote a didac- a more solid recompense ror his produe- 
tic poem on Gastronomy, or the Art of tions. After spending some tune in 
Good Living, which he dedicated to his southern Italy, where his lectures and 
friends, Moschus and Oleander, or Clese- recitations obtained for him the free- 
nus. Like Ulysses, he visited many dom of Tarentum, Locri, Rhegium, and 
places, and conversed with many men, to Neapolis, he proceeded to Rome in b. c. 
enable him to do justice to a subject, far 102. The Luculli received him into 
more palatable to the taste of many per- their house, continued their protection or 
sons, than are the songs of Homer and their friendship to the end or his life, and 
the precepts of Hesiod, whom he paro- conferred upon him their gentUe name 
died, as may be seen in the numerous Licinius. Through CseciliaMetella, mo- 
fragments preserved by Athenseus ; and ther of the afterwards celebrated Marcus 
hence, Chrysippus considered him as the and Lucius Lucullus, Archias was recom- 
real founder of the sect of Epicurus. Of mended to the Metelli also. These 
his age, nothing is known. Schweig- families were his principal patrons ; but 
haeuser feels almost disposed to make him the sons of the most illustrious houses in 
a companion of one of the dissolute sons Rome were placed under his care, and 
of Pericles. There is another Arche- he numbered among his friends or his 
stratus mentioned by Athenseus, as the pupils the Lutatii, the Octavii, the Drusiy 
author of a treatise in two books on the Hortensii, ^milius Scaurus, and 
Flute-players. Marcus Cicero. He accompanied L. Lu- 
ARCHETIMUS, or ARCHIDEMUS, cuUus the elder into SicDy; and, aOer 
the philosopher and historian of Syracuse, his banishment for malversation during 
seems like Plutarch to have written a the second Servile war, (Diodorus, x. 
fictitious account of the congress of the p* 161,) to his place of exile, Heracleain 
sages who met at Corinth, during the Lucania. At the request of his patron, 
reign of Cypselus, as may be inferred from Archins was presented with the freedom 
Diogen. Lnert. i. 40. To the same per- of this place, which, as one of the allied 
son has been attributed the history of cities, enjoyed ampler 'privileges than 
Arcadia, mentioned by Plutarch. those in which he was already a citizen. 

ARCHIAS of Thurium, was the leader And by the Plautian and Papirian law, 

of the party sent by Antipater, to disco- b. c. 90, the freedom of Heraclea entitled 

ver the hiding-place of Demosthenes ; its possessor, on fulfilling certain condi- 

and for his success in that and similar tions, to the full franchise of Rome. 

occupations, he went by the name of Archias attended the younger L. Lucullus 

" the exile-hunter." He was originally to Asia when quaestor to Sylla, in b. c. 86; 

a tragic performer, and the master of the to Africa, when propraetor, in 70 ; and, 

more celebrated Polus, and had studied in 70, to the third Mithridatic war. In 

oratory under Lacritus. From the part 62, the right of Archias to the privileges 

which he played in the dying scene of the of a Roman citizen was called in ques- 

life of Demosthenes, it would seem that tion, before the city praetor, Q.Cicero, by 

one of his characters was that of Creon, one Gratius, or Gracchus. For assuming 

in the Antigone of Soj»hocles. 2. A the franchise without a legal title, he 

grammarian of Alexandria, and the master would have come within the penalty of 

of Epaphroditus, as stated by Suidas in the Papian law, d. c. 66. 
his account of the latter ; and hence, he ^Vhy, however, Archias, a man of 

02 



ARC ARC 

blameless life, popular talents, and great their country, and could fight as well as 

reputation, was selected as an object of the men. (Plutarch, Life of Pyrrhus.) 
attack, is not clear. The Pompeians, ARCHIDAMUS. The name of seve- 

aggrieved in the year preceding by the ral kings of Sparta. The first, son of 

triumph of Lucullus, hoped perhaps to Anaxidamus, is said to have reigned in 

wound him by the conviction of a favoured b. c. 620. 

dependant. The accusation turned on Archidamus //., son of ZeuxidamuS| 

two principal points : had Archias been succeeded his grandfather Leotychides as 

registered at Heraclea? This could only king of Sparta, b. c. 476. In his reign 

be proved by oral evidence, since the an earthquake devastated Laconia, and 

regbtry was burnt during the Marsic the Messenians revolted and fortified 

war. Had he complied with the terms themselves at Ithome, where they main- 

of the Plautian and rapirian law ? This tained themselves for ten years. Archi- 

was the weakest part of the defence, and damns commanded the Peloponnesian 

apparently Archias was not, according to troops against the Athenians, b. c. 431| 

the strict letter of the law, a citizen, since 430, 428, and died b. c. 427. 
his advocate, M. Cicero, always eludes the Archidamus III,, son of Agesilaus, 

question, or meets it by saying that if to whom he succeeded b. c. 361. He 

Archias had not already the franchise, took an active part in the sacred war; 

his talents and virtues long ago deserved and b. c. 338 went to Italy, to the 

it. The result of the trial is not recorded, assistance of the people of Tarentum, 

but Archias was probably acquitted, against some neighbouring states, and fell 

The oration of Cicero, which has preserved in battle. 

the name of Archias from a casual exist- Archidamus IF,, son of EudamidaSf 
ence in the Anthologia, was delivered, was king of Sparta when it was attacked 
perhaps, after the consulship of Pipo, by Demetrius Poliorcetes, 293 b. c. 
B. c. 61 ; its genuineness is questioned ARCHIDAMUS, (Apxt^afioSf) a phy* 
by Klotz, Acta Literaria, Altenburg, sician of the fifth century b. c. who is 
1 767 ; and Schroeter in his edition of the mentioned by Diocles Carystius as having 
Oratio quae vulgo fertur pro A. &c, preferred dry friction after bathing, from 
Lips. 1818, 8vo; defended by Platz in theidea that oil hardens the skin. (Galen, 
Crit. Bibliothec. 1821-22; by Frotscher, De Simpl. Medicam. lib. ii. cap. 18.) A 
Anmerkung, z. Cic. Red. pro Archia, physician of the same name is mentioned 
Schneeberg, 1820; andbyMadrig.Comm. by Pliny, Hist. Nat., Ind. Auct. 
de Ascon. Pedian. p. 151, not. 8. Ar- ARCHIGENES, (Apx^ytvTiSf) an emi- 
chias celebrated, in Greek verse, the nent physician at Rome, in the time of 
Cimbric wars of Marius, and the Mithri- Trajan, at the beginning of the second 
datic war of Lucullus, Cic. pro Arch. c. 9 ; century a. d. He was bom at Apamea 
he had also undertaken the consulate of in Syria ; his father's name was Philip- 
Cicero, id. c. 11. Some of the epigrams pus; he was a pupil of Agathinus; and 
extant in the Anthologia, under the name tie died at the age of sixty-three (Suidas, 
of Archias, are by Archias of Antioch. in Apx'yO* ^^ according to the empress 
He was celebrated for his skill in impro- Eudocia (Violar. ap.Villoison, Anecd. Gr. 
visation, Pro Arch. viii. 18 ; and it is not vol. i. p. 65) eighty- three. He is much 
imlikely that his compositions were bet- praisea by Galen (De Locis Affect, lib. 
ter suited to recitation than to silent li. cap. 6, sq.), who says he had learned 
reading. Quintilian, Instit. Orat. x. 7, every thing connected with the profession 
§ 19, mentions Antipater of Sidon and of medicine, and that all that he had 
Archias together as extemporary poets, written was worth reading; he adds, 
See Cic. de Or. iii. 50 ; see also, Archias however, that he was too fond of subtle 
in Clinton's Fast. Hellen. c. 12, No. 157, definitions ((^iXopiana) ; that his style 
and Drumann, Geschicht. Licinii, 23, was obscure and negligent ; and that he 
vol. iv. s. 199, and the Scholia Bobiensia sometimes prescribed medicines without 
in Or. pro A. Licinio Archia, published jud^ent. (De Medicam. Kara toitovs, 
by A. Mai. lib. iii.) Alexander Trallianus calls him 
ARCH ID AMI A, a woman of Sparta, (lib. vii. cap. 6) OeioTaroSf the most 
daughter of Cleades, who procured the divine f which is the same epithet he con- 
repeal of a decree that the women should stantly applies to Galen ; and Juvenal 
be sent to Crete on the approach of several times (Sat. vi. 236 ; xiv. 252 ; xiii. 
Pyrrhus, by seizing a sword, rushing to 98) mentions his name, to signify an 
the senate house, and declaring that the eminent physician in general. He wrote 
women could never survive the ruin of several works on medicine and natural 

93 



ARC AEC 

philosophy {larpiKa km ^vcrijca, Suidas) two passages. like his imitator, Horace^ 

of which only some of the titles remain, he was h^ter able to handle a pen than 

together with several fragments, preserved a spear, and was not ashamed to throw 

by Galen, Oribasius, Aetius, Paulus away his shield in the endeavour to sare 

jSgincta, Alexander Trallianus , &c. In his life ; in which, however, he seems to 

pleurisy he directed blood to be taken havebeenimsuccessful,ashemethisdeath 

from the arm opposite to the side affected at the hands of one Calondas of Naxus, 

(Aetius, Tetrab. ii. serm. iv. cap. 68). whose surname was Coras, " a raven," 

In case of an abscess of the liver, he re- and who, when he went to Delphi, was 

commends an opening to be made, though ordered to leave the temple, as hieing the 

he confesses it is hazardous ; he notices murderer of a servant of Apollo, although 

that when the pus escapes by the lungs he pleaded that he had done it fairly In 

and mouth, there is more dimger than war. Bitter as was the pen of Archi- 

when it makes its way either through lochus, it could still employ itself in sub- 

the integuments of the abdomen, or by jects of a mournful cast, as shown by his 

the intestines (Aet. iii. 2, 4, and 5). In poem, which, like Falconer's, was called 

diabetes he recommends blood-letting the Shipwreck, and written on the loss of 

(Act. iii. 3,31). He says that neither his brother-in-law at sea. A fragment of 

eunuchs nor women are subject to elephan- it has been preserved bv Plutarch ; while of 

tiasis (Act. iv. 1, 122). There are many the other remains of tne poet, the fullest 

fhi^ents concerning materia medica, collection is by Liebel, Lips. 1812. Gais- 

and among them the formula of a cele- ford, in Poets MinoresGneci,C)zon. 1814, 

brated medicine called, after his name, which was reprinted by Dindorf, Lips. 

'jHiera Archigenis" (Aet. i. 3, 114). 1823, who had added a few references to 

There are also several charms and amu- critics, omitted by Gaisford, and taken 

lets, in which, notwithstanding his medi- not the least notice of Liebel*s work, al* 

cal skill, he seems to have placed much though a second edition of it is quoted 

confidence. There is a {dissertation by by Hermann, in his Dissertation, de Par- 

Harlcs, entitled, AnalectaHistorico-Critica ticula Av, ii. 13, but which is only the 

de Archigene Medico, et de Apolloniis first with a new date in the title-page, 

Medicis, eorumque Scriptis et Fragmen- 1818 instead of 1812. 
tis. Bamberg. 1816, 4to. ARCHIMEDES. The most celebrated 

ARCHILOCHUS of Paros, whose of the Greek mathematicians, bom about 

father was Telesiclcs, and mother, Enipo, 280 b. c. at Sjrracuse, and related to 

a slave, lived, according to Herodotus, Hiero king of Sicily. He was remark- 

i. 12, in the time of Gyges, and was con- able for his extraordinary application to 

temporary, says Cicero, with Romulus. To mathematical studies, but more so for hia 

him we owe the invention of the Iambic skill and siurprisine inventions in mecha- 

measures, found in the Comedies of Aristo- nics. He excelled hkewise in hydrostatics, 

phanes, the Fables of the Pscudo-Babrias, astronomy, and optics ; he exhibited the 

and the P^podes of Horace, together with motions of the heavenly bodies in a pleas* 

the Trochaic and some other varieties of ing and instructive manner, within a 

versification. Quintilian has said of him spnere of glass of his own contrivance 

and of Homer, that invention and perfec- and workmanship ; he likewise contrived 

tion went hand in hand in them alone, curious and powerful machines and en* 

Such was the bitterness of his satire, that gines for raismg weights, hurling stones, 

he drove not only Lycambes, who had pro- darts, &c., launching ships, and for ex- 

misi'd his daughter, Neobule, to the poet, hausting the water out of them, draining 

and afterwards married her to a wealthier marshes, &c. When Marcellus the Roman 

suitor, to hang himself, but his daughters consul besieged Syracuse, the machines 

likewise to follow the example of their of Archimedes were employed ; these 

father. Tlie story has, however, been showered upon the enemy a cloud of de- 

callod in question of late years, though on structive darts, and stones of vast weight 

scarcely sufficient grounds. Although and in great quantities ; their ships were 

the united voice of antiquity places him lifted into the air by his cranes, levers, 

amonj^st the greatest of poets, the few hooks, &c., and dashed against the rocks, 

fragments that have been preserved do not or precipitated to the bottom of the sea, 

enahl(> us to judce of the truth of such Nor could they find safety in retreat; his 

coiiiinendations ; hut of his indelicacies, powerful burning glasses reflected the 

which were such as to induce the empe- condensed rays of tlie sun upon them 

ror Julian to prohibit their perusal by the with such effect that many of them were 

priests, we can get a glimpse from one or burnt. Syracuse was, however, at hat 

91 



ARC ARC 

taken by storm, and Archimedes, as it is could not admit such an unqualified as- 
said, too deeply engaged in some geome- sertiou, still considered them to exceed 
trical speculations to be conscious of what any numbers that could be assigned for 
had happened, was slain by a Roman them. Here was the question that brought 
soldier. Marcellus was grieved at his Archimedes to the very verge of the 
death, which happened 210 b. c, and took fiuxional calculus ! This appears to be 
care of his funeral. Cicero, when he was a speculation fVom which no practical 
questor of Sicily, discovered the tomb of advantage was likely to be produced, and 
Archimedes overgrown with bushes and none possibly was derived from the mere 
weeds, having the sphere and cylinder resolution of the question ; but in the 
engraved on it, with an inscription which means which Archimedes devised for this 
time had rendered illegible. ./ purpose, we find the principle not only 
His reply to Hiero, who was one day invented, but brought mto actual opera- 
admiring and praising his machines, can tion, which in our later times has formed 
only be regaraed as an empty boast, one of the greatest means of shortening 
** Give me," said the exulting philoso- labour in the conduct of arithmeticu 

{)her, ** a place to stand on, and I will processes. The excellence of the Oriental 
ift the earth." Aor fioi tfov oto), kqi rnv numerals has reduced the Grecian arith- 
yriv KivritTio, This, however, may be easil metic to an object of historical curiosity, 
proved to be impossible ; for, granting and we can only admire the ingenuity of 
him a place, with the simplest machine, those who could work with such awkward 
it would require a man to move swifter implements. The Arenarius, indeed, is 
than a cannon-shot during the space of a employed rather on the arrangement than 
century, to lift the earth only one inch in the notation of numbers, but the imper- 
all that time. Hiero ordered a golden fection of that notation would, in any 
crown to be made, but suspecting that common hands, have probably soon put 
the artists had purloined some of the gold a stop to the inquiry. No one can read 
and substituted base metal in its stead, the treatise witnout finding how much 
he employed our philosopher to detect more clearly he can follow uie reasoning 
the cheat. Archimedes tried for some of it, by reducing the several parts to the 
time in vain, but one day as he went into figures which we have now in use ; how 
the bath, he observed that his body ex- much, therefore, must the difficulty have 
eluded just as much water as was equal been increased when the ideas to be ex- 
to its bulk ; the thought immediately pressed were entirely new ! Archimedes, 
struck him that this discovery had fm*- nowever, confident in his powers to over- 
nished ample data for solving his difli- come the difiiculty, at once endeavoured 
culty ; upon which he leaped out of the to take it in its greatest possible extent, 
batn, and ran through the streets home- and asserted that he could assign the 
wards, crying out, ivprfKa ! tvprjKa I / numbers which should exceed not only 
have found it! I have found it ! the sands of Syracuse and Sicily, but what 
Of aU the mathematicians of antiquihr, would be sufiicient to fill a sphere equal 
Archimedes is confessedly the first for to the earth, or even to the universe it- 
power and originality. In his treatise self. An English translation of the 
entitled ^a/i/xtn/ff, or Arenarius, he Arenarius was published at London in 
shows the means of accomplishing what, 1784; it is the] work of Mr. George 
in his time, appeared to all others to Anderson, and is extremely well per- 
be impossible. This treatise stands, formed. 

from its subject, distinct from the rest The quadrature of the parabola, ac- 

of his works, but it is not on that ac- complisned in two difierent ways by 

count the less interesting or valuable. Archimedes, was the first example of an 

It gives us, indeed, no specimen of that exact quadrature between curves and 

beautiful geometry, in which the ancients straight lines. His method of exhaustion, 

taught by their example the most perfect which consisted in limiting curves by 

form of close and logical reasoning ; but means of polygons, deserves especial no- 

if its want of this attraction has made us tice ; an extension of it proauced the 

less familiar with it, the same circumstance method of indivisibles by Cavali^re. The 

adds a certain variety to the method of best edition of the works of Archimedes 

investigation which it pursues. He ad- is that published by the Oxford press in 

dresses his work to Gelo, the eldest son 1792, under the able editorship of Dr. 

of Hiero. It appears that the grains of Robertson, then Savilian professor of 

sand at Syracuse had been held by some astronomy. 

to be infinite, and that even those who ARCHIMELUS, a writer of epigrams, 

95 



ARC ARC 

two of which are preserved in the Greek Philolaus, Eudoxus, and Plato. Like 

Anthology. the rest of his school, he was a man of 

ARCHINTO, (Octavio,) a Milanese varied attainments in philosophy, geo- 

couiit, son of Horace Archinto and Leo- metry, mechanics, and harmonics ; and 

nora Tonsa, was horn towards the end of such were his talents as a politidan, that 

the sixteenth century. He filled seve- he was elected seven times the chief of 

ral puhlic stations, and received from the state, an office that had been previ- 

Philip III. of Spain the title of count de ously only for a year; and so able a 

Barata. He published — Epilo^ati rac- general, that according to Ariatoxeus, 

conti delle Antichit^ e Nobifta della he was never defeated. Hi« death by 

Famiglia Archinti, etc. — Ag^untavi una shipwreck is alluded to by Horace ; and 

breve Exposizione degli Antichi Marmi, though Diogenes says nothing of his writ- 

che ne' Palagi di questa Famiglia si ings, Fabricius has g^ven a long list of 

leggono, Milan, 1648. Collectanea An- his works, of which a few fragments, 

tiquitatum in ejus Domo, fol. no date or written in the Doric dialect, have been 

place — a very rare book. (Biog. Univ.) preserved by Stobaeus and others, and 

ARCHINTO, (Count Charles,) son of collected first by Gale, and more recently 

the senator Philip Archinto, bom at Milan, by Orelli, in his Qpuscula Grsecor, Veter. 

July 30, 1669, founded an academy at Sententiosa, Lips. 1821. Amongst his 

Milan, and collected a valuable library mechanical inventions, Aulus Gellius, 

and philosophical apparatus. He was x. 12, mentions an automaton dove, that 

appointed gentleman of the bed-chamber was made to fly by means of air endosed 

to the emperor Leopold ; and, bv Charles within it ; a story that would lead to the 

II. and rhilip V. of Spain, a Knis^ht of supposition that Archytas was acquainted 

the golden fleece and grandee of Spain, with the property of gas, and the princifde 

He left many MSS. on scientific subjects, of aerostation, and of which another cu- 

but nothing in print, except some notes rious proof is perhaps given in the story 

on the History of Arnolphus, in the Scrip, of Daedalus. The other persons of the 

Rcr. Ital., and a work published posthu- same name were, 1. A musician of Mity- 

mously at Venice, Tabulae, praecipua lene. 2. An epiCTammatist of Amphissa, 

Scientiarum et Artium capita digesta which is thought to be the town now 

per Ordinem, reprsesentantes. The Pala- called Salona. 3. A writer on agricidtore, 

tine Society of Milan, which was formed by some identified with the philosopher, 

for the purpose of assisting Muratori with 4. A writer on cookery, 
subscriptions to defray the expense of ARCIMBOLDI, (Giuseppe, 1533— 

printing the Scriptores Rerum Ilalica- 1593,) a native of Milan, and established 

rum, chiefly owed its existence to <he at Prague, was skilled in portraits, and 

exertions of the count Charles Archinto. was selected as the court painter of the 

(Biog. Univ.) emperor Maximilian II., in which office he 

ARCHINUS of C^ELE, in Attica, was continued also under the emperor Ro- 

one of the party who assisted Tlirasybu- dolph. He was celebrated for those 

lus in expelling the thirty tyrants from capricci, or fancy pieces, which afterwards 

Athens. According to Photius, (in Bib- fell into disuse, and which at a distance 

lioth. cod. 240,) Isocrates took much of appeared to be the figures of men and 

his Panegyric from the funeral oration of women ; but on a nearer view the Flora 

Archinus, to which allusion is made by disappeared in a heap of flowers and 

Plato in his Mencxenus. leaves, and the Vertumnus was metamor- 

ARCHIPPUS. — 1. A Pythagorean of phosed into a composition of fruits and 

Tarentum, who, according to Porphyry, was loliage. He acquired great credit for 

aniongstthefirstof those who wrote acorn- these strange inventions; and on one 

nientary on the precepts of his master, occasion pamted a picture of Agriculture, 

2. A dramatist of the old comedy. Tlie consisting of spades, ploughs, scythes, 

titles of seven of his plays have been pre- and other appropriate implements. He 

served ; but according to Suidas, he only also excelled in painting interiors of 

once gained the prize, in 01. 91. kitchens with fruit, vegetables, culinary 

AllCIION, (Louis, 1645 — 1717,) was utensils, &c. There are engraved after 

chaplain to Louis XIV. and aiuhor of a him, the Four Seasons, their heads com- 

Ilistory of the Chapel of the Kings of posed of flowers and fruit, without the 

France. Paris, 1711. (Biog. Univ.) name of the engraver, but bearing the 

ARCIIYTAS of Tarentum, was the inscription Correte e Zerbeneiiif &c. 

eighth philosopher who sat in the chair (Lanzi, Stor. Pitt. iv. 180. Bryan's Diet, 

of Pythagoras, and was the master of Ileinecken, Diet, des Artistes.) 

96 



ARC ARC 

ARClMBOLDO, (Giovanni Angelo,) Services on his return to Europe ; in his 
archbishop of Milan, born in 1485, died patriotism enlightened, predicting the 
1555. He was legate in Germany to calamities that would ensue to his coun- 
Leo X. and in 1529 was made one of try from the influence of the Jesuits, and 
Charles Vth's counsellors, and a prince the tyranny of the nobles, 
of the Holy Empire. He published a ARCKENHOLZ, (John,) born in Fin- 
catalogue of heretics, which was trans- land in 1695. He accompanied a Swedish 
lated into Italian and printed by Ver- gentleman to Paris, and while there com- 
gerio, imder the title — Catalogo ove posed a pamphlet against the policy of an 
Arcimboldo, Archives, di Milano, Con- alliance between Sweden and France, 
danna e Diffama per Heretici la magior This having become known he was thrown 
Parte de' FigliuoU di Dio, &c. 1554, in into prison on his return to Sweden. He 
8vo, which is very scarce. (Biog. Univ.) was shortly after released, however, on 

ARCION, (Apicioy,) a surgeon at condition of his apologizing to cardinal 

Rome, who was called in to £'es8 the Fleury, who appears to have been more 

wounds of those persons who were hurt particularly attacked in his work. In 

at the time of the assassination of the em- 1746 he was appointed librarian and 

peror Caligula, a. d. 41, a. u. c. 794. keeper of the medals in the collection of 

(Joseph. Antiq. Jud. lib. 19, cap. 1, Cassel, a post which he retained for 

where some editions read AXiciov or twenty years. He then received permis- 

AXkov,) sion to retire to Sweden, and after eleven 

ARCISZEWSKI, Krzysztof, (Chris- years' residence in that country, during 

topher,) a Pole, who after having served which time his powers of mind were so 

some time in the army, in the reign of weakened by age as to render him incapa- 

Sigismund Wasa, in order to avoid per- ble of prosecuting his historical labours, 

secution for his religious opinions, as he died, in 1777, at the age of eighty-two 

being a dissident, went to Holland, and years. . His chief works are, M^moires 

entered the service of that republic. His concemant Christine, Reine de Su^de, 

bravery and skill recommended him so Amsterdam, 1751-60; whence d'Alem- 

greatly to the Dutch, that they sent him bert has taken the anecdotes of Christina, 

out as military governor to their posses- given in his Melanges de Litt^rature,'&c. ; 

sions in the Brazils, where he established Lettres sur les Lapons et les Finois, Svo, 

garrisons at Rio Janeiro, Bahia, Pemam- Frankfort, 1756; M6moires de Rusdorf, 

buco, and other places. His successes Ministre de I'Electeur Palatin, written in 

over the Spaniards raised him so high in French, and translated from the MS. into 

the esteem of the Dutch, that they caused German, published in that language at 

a medal to be struck in honour of him. Frankfort andLeipsic, 1762 ; andRecueil 

Notwithstanding the authority and credit des Sentimens et des Propos de Gustave 

he enjoyed, he earnestly longed to return Adolphe, Stockholm, 1769. In his latter 

to his native country ; and, as the rigour years he had been charged with the task 

Sreviously shown towards the Polish of writing the history of Frederick I., who 

issidents began to abate after the acces- died in 1751 ; but his infirmities rendered 

sion of Ladislaus IV. (Sigismund's son), him unequal to it. 

Arciszewski addressed a letter to that ARCO, (Nicolas, count of,) a good 

nrince (in 1637), which may be seen in Latin poet of the sixteenth century, second 

Niemcewicz's Hbtorical Collection. Ex- son of count Oderic, privy counsellor to 

cept, however, that he did return, nothing the emperor Maximilian, was bom at 

further can now be traced resi>ecting him Arco, in the Tyrol, an ancient fief in his 

from tKat time ; the only positive mfor- family, in 1479. He was learned in the 

mation we have is, that Kochowski states ancient languages, and spoke all the mo- 

his death to have happened at Lesznic in dem ones with fluency. He entered the 

1655, at the time of the war with Swe- army, and served imder Wolfgang of 

den, and that shortly after he was bu- Furstemburg, until the death of his bro- 

ried, the church where he was interred ther, when he abandoned his military 

was set fire to and destroyed by the career, and took possession of his paternal 

Swedes. He wrote a Latin work on fief. He had several public employ • 

Artillery, which was then considered the ments, but did not neglect literature, 

best of its kind, and was translated into and lived on intimate terms with Paulus 

French, German, and Dutch. In cha- Jovius, Annibal Caro, Fracastor, and 

racter he was noble and disinterested, others. His death is supposed to have 

reiecting many offers from different states taken place about 1546, m which year 

which would willingly have engaged his his Latm poems were published, with the 

VOL. II. 97 H 



ARC ARC 

tide, Nicolai Archii Comitis Numeri, sunk or set on fire by heated shot fired 

Mantua, in 4to. They were reprinted from the rock. These were constructed 

by Comino, with those of Fumano and from hurge ships, covered with hides, and 

Fracastor, at Padua, in 1739. (Biog. provided with the means of circidating 

Uuiv.) water in all parts to extinguish fire : they 

ARCO, (Philip, count of, bom in 1740, were besides bomb-proof, and carefully 

died 1805,) belonged to the order of ballasted, to balance the weight of the 

Malta, and was their ambassador to the guns carried bv them. They were to be 

electoral court of Bavaria, where he supported in the attack by bomb-vessels, 

afterwards held some important political gun-boats, and ships of the line. One 

offices. His brother, Ignacius Charles, was hundred and fifty pieces of heavy artillery 

also honourably engaged in the political were to be directed against the Britisn 

service of Bavaria, and died at Munich stronghold, from ten of these enormous 

in 1812. (Suppl. BiOff. Univ.) machines; and the utmost interest was 

ARCO, (Alexis d9, 1625 — 1700,) a excited at the courts of Spain and France 

Spanish painter, born at Madrid, a dis- for the success of the scheme. On the 

ciple of Antonio de Pereda. He was 13th September, 1782, the plan was put 

deaf and dumb from his birth ; but was, into execution, but completely mis- 

neverthelcss, an eminent painter, both of carried ; and d'Arfon was obliged to 

history and portraits. Several of his pic- publish a justification of his share in the 

turcs are mentioned by Polonusio, parti- affair. He was afterwards engaged iu 

cularly the Miraculous Conception, and the invasion of Holland, and was made a 

the Assumption of the Virgin in the member of the senate by the first consul 

cloister of the Trinitarios Descalios at in 1799, but died in the following year. 

Madrid ; and in the church of San Salva- General d'Ar9on was the author en save- 

dor, a fine picture of S. Teresa. He died ral works on military subjects, of which 

in his native city. (Bryan's Diet.) his Considerations Militaires et Politiques 

ARCO, (Giambatista Gherardo d*, sur les Fortifications, Paris, 1795, was 

1739 — 1791,) an Italian writer on mis- the most important, as combining the 

cellaneous sulijects. His first work was results of all his observation and expe- 

a prize essay on a subject proposed by rience on the subject to the pursuit of 

the Academy of Sciences at Man tua,Vrhich which his life was dedicated. (Biog. 

gained him much reputation. His essays, Univ. Drinkwater's Siege of Gibraltar, 

as member of several scientific and lite- Ann. Reg. 1782.) 

rary societies, were published at Cremona ARCONS, (Cs&sar d',) advocate to the 

in 1785, in four volumes. The emperor parliament of Bordeaux, died in 1681, 

Joseph II. gave him a political situation was author of — Du Flux et du Reflux de 

in Mantua, in which his humanity and la Mer, et des Longitudes, Rouen, 1655. 

good management are much praised, es- Trait^s de Phj'sique, Bordeaux, 1668. 

pecially in 1782, a year of great scarcity. Dissertations, bruxelles, 1680. Eschtti* 

in his essay on the Oriein of the Fine tillon, ou le premier des trois Tomes d'nn 

Arts of Design, he considers Italy their Ouvrage qui fera voir dans TApocalypee 

birth-place, and tries to prove that the les Traditions Apostoliques, ou les Mji- 

Grecks borrowed their first notions tdres de TEglise passes, presents, et 4 

thence ! He retired frompublic life some venir, d6di6 au Sacrament de I'Autd. 

time before his death. (Tipaldo's Biog.) Paris, 1658. (Biog. Univ.) 

ARCON, (Jean Claude Eleonore Le- ARCONVILLE, C^^iroux d'.) See 

miccaud d',) a celebrated French mili- Thiroux. 

tary engineer, was boni at Pontarlier in ARCUDI, (Alexandre Thomas,) a Do* 

173,3. He was destined by his father for minican, descended from a noble family 

the ecclesiastic state, but snowed a strong of Corfu, was born in the kingdom of 

taste for the profession of arms, which Naples, and died in 1720, leaving Anato- 

was allowed to prevail; and in 1704, miadcgl'Ipocriti, under the assumedname 

d'Ar^on entered the school of Mezieres^ of Candido Malasorte Ussaro, Venice^ 

and in the following year received a com- 1699. Galatina Letterata, Genoa, 1709. 

mission as engineer in the army. He l^redichequaresimali, Lecce, 1712. Sant' 

served in the seven years' war, and par- Atanasio magno, Lecce, 1714. (Biog. 

ticiilarly distinguished himself at the de- Univ.) 

fence of Cassel in 1761. At the siege of ARCUDIO, (Peter,) a learned Greek 

(lihraltar in 1780, d'Arcon conceived the priest, of Corfu, was brought up at Rome^ 

plan of attack from the sea, by immense and employed on various occasions by 

floating batteries, which could not be Clement VIII.; by whom he was sent to 

98 



ARC ARC 

Russia, to decide some disputed points of seventh centmy, who is known only by 
doctrine. He died at Rome m 1634. his travels. He was moved by the desire 
Arcadio was exceedingly anxious to re- of visiting the holy places mentioned in 
concile the Greek and Latin churches, Scripture, an^ in company with a Bur- 
and wrote a book, De Concordift Ecclesise gundian hermit, named Peter, he went 
Occidentalis et Orientalis, Paris, 1619, nrst to Jerusalem. After having paid 
to prove that they did not in fact differ his devotions there, and at most of the 
materially, either in doctrine, or in their ancient sites in Palestine, he embarked 
modes d administering the sacraments, at Joppa, and went to Alexandria in 
He also wrote two treatises, now scarce, Egypt. He next went to Crete, and from 
— Utrum detur Pnrgatorium, et an illud thence to Constantinople, where h^ made 
sit per Ignem? Romse, 1632; De PUr- a long stay, (from Easter to Christmas.) 
gatorio Igne, adversus Barlaam, Roms^, He next proceeded by sea to Sicily, where 
1637 ; and translated several modern he visitea Mount Etna, and then went to 
Greek treatises on doctrinal questions. Rome. After having resided durine some 
(Biog. Univ. Fabr. Bibl. Grs&c.) time at Rome, he embarked in a ship In 
ARCULANUS, (Joannes,) or HER- order to return to his native land, but the 
CULANUS, an eminent Italian physi- ship was so long driven about by storms 
cian of the fifteenth century, is commonly and contrary wmds, that he was at last 
supposed to have been bom at Verona, thrown upon the isle of lona in the Irish 
His real name was ^rcotewt, or £rco/awi; sea, where he was received by Adam- 
the date both of his birth and of his nanus, then abbot of the celebrated mo- 
death is uncertain. He waS professor of nastery in that island. It seems probable 
medicine, first at Bologna and afterwards that Arculf spent the rest of his days in 
at Padua, and is said to have died at the society of Adamnan, to whom he told 
Ferrara. He has left behind him two his adventures, and who committed them 
medical works, both relating to the to writing. This book was, according to 
Arabic physicians, and both of which Bede, presented bv Adamnan to the An- 
(judgmg from the number of editions glo-Saxon king Aldfrid, and must there- 
thai were called for) seem to have en- lore have been written before a.d. 698. 
Joyed a great reputation. Tlie first is a Bede gives a short account of Arculf in 
commentary on the ninth book of the his History, and some extracts from his 

-..vfliuJI s.^Jji, Ketaah Almansuri, work ; he a^o founded upon it his treatise, 

Ut/^ • ' ' De Locis Sanctis ; and it is partly em- 

iTiber ad Almansorem, of Rhazes, the bodied in the Itinerarium Bemardi Sa- 

great text-hook of practical medicine in pientis, written a little later. Adamnan 'is 

those times. It was first published, 1483, tract was first edited by Jacob Gretser, a 

Venet. fol., with the title, Practica Me- German Jesuit, at Ingolstadt, in 1619, and 

dica, quae Omnium Morborum et Symp- was afterwards inserted in the Act SS. 

tomatum Census et Remediorum Prsesagia Ord. Bened. III. part ii. p. 456. (Bed. 

exponit The last edition was in 1560, H. E. v. 15, 16, 17. HistLit.de France, 

Venet. fol. The other work is a com- iL 651.) See Adamnan. 

mentary on the first Fen of the fourth ARCUSSIA, (Charles d*,) descended 

book of the V^l J ^\ ^, KTvrceT'S Srf^fiXa^f 
Ketaah Alkanounfi Akeh^ Liber Canonis was a celebrated writer on Falconry. The 
Medicinae of Avicenna, which was first first edition of Arcussia's Fauconnerie, 
published 1488, Ferrarae, fol., with the containing five books, was printed at Aix 
title, Expositio Perutilis in Primam Fen in 1598, 8vo. It met with great succes^ 
Quarti Canonis Avicennee in qu& de and was reprinted at Paris in 1604 and 
Febribus agitur. The last edition, wiA 1608, and was translated into German 
rather a afferent title, was in 1684. and Italian. The most complete edition 
Patav. 4to. Haller (Biblioth. Med. is that of Rouen, 1647, in 4to, which has 
Pract) speaks slightingly of both these ten books. Lallemant has given an ac- 
works, and it appears that the only real count of this work, which is still interest- 
service he has rendered to medicme is ing, in his Biblioth^ue des Th^reuti- 
the introducing the more frequent use of cographes. (Suppl. Biog. Univ.) 
the seton. TTie chapter De Balneis is ARCY, (Patrick d',) was bom of an 
inserted in the Latin collection of ancient ancient family in Galloway, in Ireland, 
writers on that subject, published 1553, in 1725, educated in France, and served 
Venet fol. in the French army. He made several 
ARCULF, a Gallic bishop of the campaigns in Germany aiid Flandiers, 

99 H 2 



ARC A R D 

and in 1746, was in the expedition sent yean, and almost without oppotition, 
to Scotland, to the assistance of the Pre- Kennan, Irak, and the other southern 
tender. He was taken, hut dismissed, provinces : and when Ardewan at length 
hy the English government, and after- took the field in person, he was over- 
wards served in the campaign of 1757. thrown and slain in the decuive hattle of 
D'Arcy distinguished himself by several Hormuz, which established the new dv- 
scientific works, among which may he nasty of Sassan in Persia, a. n. 226. Tne 
mentioned his — Essai sur 1' Artillerie, first care of Ardasheer was to replace the 
1 760 ; M^moire sur la Dur6e des Sensa- lax and enervated rule of the Asnganians 
tions de la Vue, 1765 ; Sur la Th^orie de by an uniform and vigorous sjrstem of 
la Lune, 1749; Sur la Th6orie et Pratique administration, which he enforced by 
dc r Artillerie, 1766 ; Nouvelle lli^orie visiting at the head of his army every 
d' Artillerie, 1766; Recueil de Pi^es sur part of his newly-acquired dominions, 
im Nouveau Fusil, 1 767. He also disco- llie Magian doctrines were declared, by a 
vered an important general principle in general synod convoked for the purpose, 
mechanics, made a series of experiments to be the sole tolerated religion in the 
in electricity, in concert with M. Leroi, empire ; and all dissidents or schismatics, 
and contributed many piupers to the Aca- of whatever denomination, were perse- 
demie des Inscriptions. He died in 1779, cuted with unrelenting bigotry. After 
and his 61oge was pronounced by Con- completing the domestic regiuations of 
dorcct (Biog. Univ.) his kingdom, by the promulgation of a 

ARDABURIUS, general to Theodo- code of laws, which continued till the Mo- 

sius II. in 421 commanded an army hammedan conquest the basis of Persiaii 

against the Persians. In 425, Ardabu- jurisprudence, Ardasheer turned his atten- 

rius, with his son Aspar, was sent by tion to foreign conquest; but the war 

Tlicodosius II. to assist Valentiau III. in which he engaged against Alexander 

and Placidia. Thu Ardaburius must not Scverus, a.d. 230, for the recovery of the 

be confounded with his grandson of the ancient Asiatic provinces of Persia, led 

same name, the son of Aspar, who died to no decisive results ; and though many 

in 471. (Biog. Univ. Gibbon.) of its events were glorious to the PersLan 

ARDASHEER, (sumamed Babekan, arms, the Romans continued to retain 

or son of Babek, and called Artaxerxes Mesopotamia. After the Roman war, he 

by the Roman writers,) was the founder enjoyed several years of uninterrupted 

of the Sassanian dynasty in Persia. His prosperity ; till a. d. 240, tired of the 

father was an infenor officer in Pars : but fatigues of royalty, or more probably 

he claimed descent, through liis remote anxious to secure his line by the ett»- 

ancestor Sassan, from the ancient Kaia- blishment of a successor in ms own llfe- 

nian monarchs, the race of Cyrus and time, he resigned his sceptre to his only 

Cambvses ; a pedigree probably devised son, Sholipoor (Sapor I. of the Romans) 

after his own elevation to royal dignity, whose mother is said by all the Penian 

The scanty details which we possess historians to have been daughter of Arde* 

relative to the Ashganian dynasty (or wan, the last Ashganian king. How 

Arsacidse) then ruhng in Persia, being long Ardasheer survived his abdication 

almost exclusively drawn from Roman u not stated : his dying advice to his eon^ 

historians, who term them Parlhianty in which are embodied his views on reli- 

give no clue to the position of internal gion and government, is given by Fei^ 

politics wliich led Ardasheer to form, at dousi. In the above account, we have 

an early age, the apparently daring pro- followed tlie statements adopted by Mai- 

ject of possessing himself of the crown ; colm and Gibbon, as many of the Persian 

ut the rapidity of his progress implies histories are replete with fable and con- 

thnt the juncture must have been favour- tradiction in the life of this great restorer 

able to such an attempt ; and it has of their national monarchy, (vide D'Her- 

been conjectured with probability that he belot, in art. Ardschir liabegan,) Ard«- 

won the regards of his countrymen by sheer is pronounced by Malcolm to have 

docluring hnnself the champion of the been *' one of the wisest and most valiant 

uncirnt faith of Zcrdusht or Zoroaster, in princes that ever reigned over Persia." 

oppoNitiiin to the Greek idolatry, to which His claim to the latter appellation is suf* 

till* reigning prince Ardewan (Artahanes) ficiently proved by the ease with which 

was inclined. After making himself he subverted the preceding d^'nosty, and 

master of his native province of Pars, maintiiined his acquired crown against 

and overcoming the rivalry of his elder foreign and domestic foes ; nor are the 

brother Shapoor, he subdued within a few evidences of his wisdom and policy lesa 

100 






ARD ARi) 

indisputable than of his valour. The version of the Book of Ecclesiastes, Li^ge, 

skill with which he reunited the dis- 1632 ; and a History of the Bishops of 

jointed provinces of the kingdom, and Li^ge, also in Latin verse, 1634. (Suppl. 

the energy and vitality which was infused Biog. Univ.) 

by his administration, at once raised ARDELL, (James Mac, about 171(^— 

Persia from the distracted and feeble state June 2, 1765,) an admirable mezzotinto 

into which it had fallen under the later engraver, was either a native of Ireland, 

Ashganian princes, to the rank of a com- or of Irish extraction, and is regarded as 

pact and powerful empire ; and the per- one of the ablest artists, in his branch of 

manence of the Sassanian dynasty, which, engraving, that has practised the art. 

with its concomitant civil and religious The number of his plates is very consi- 

institutions, remained unshaken during dcrable, the greater part of wmch are 

more than foiu: centuries, till overthrown from portraits of persons of distinction 

by the arms of the khalifs, attests the by the principal painters of his time, 

sagacity which enabled its founder, during such as Hogarth, Hudson, Sir Joshua 

his short reign of fourteen years, to place Reynolds, Zofiany, Cotes, and others. He 

on so firm a basis the edifice of his power, also scraped a few plates from historical 

He is said to have been the author of two subjects by Murillo, Vandyck and Rem- 

works, the Kar-Nameh, or Commentaries brandt, some of his finest works after 

ofhis own Life; and a treatise on the Rules whom are the Virgin and Infant Jesus'; 

ofaGoodLife, which was frequently tran- Moses and Pharaoh's Daughter, and 

scribed and circulated by his successors. Time clipping the Wings of Love, after 

Many of his maxims have also been pre- Vandyck ; Tobit and the Angel, the 

served by tradition : perhaps one of the Tribute Money, Rembrandt's Mother 

most characteristic of the spirit of oriental reading, and the Student in Mathe* 

government is the saying, " that the matics, after Rembrandt; the Virgin, 

sword should never be used where the with a Glory of Angels, St Jerome 

stick would be sufficient." kneeling before a Crucifix, and St 

There were two other Sassanian princes Francis da Paola, after Murillo. He also 

of the name of Ardasheer : one, the sue- engraved Rubens, his Wife and Child, 

cesser of Shahpoor the Great, who reigned after that master. He lived almost en- 

from A. D. 380 to 385 ; the other, an tirely in London, where he died. (Strutt's 

infant son of Shiri^yeh, the son of Khos- Diet, of £ng. Heinecken, Diet, des Ar- 

roo - Purveez, who was placed on the tistes. Bryan's Diet.) 
throne for a few months m 629, in the ARDEMANS, (Teodoro,) a Spanish 

confusion which preceded the fall of the architect, but of German extraction, (his 

Persian monarchy ; but neither of their father beine; a native of that country, 

reigns presents events of importance. serving in the Spanish royal guards,) was 

ARDAVAN, or ARDEWAN. The born in 1664. He at first studied paint- 
name of two kings of Persia, the one ing under Coello, but afterwards applied 
immediately succeeding the other, and himself chiefly to architecture, and in 
belonging to the dynasty of the MolQk 1689 was appointed superintendent of 
AttawfiyS*, or king of the tribes — a Granada catnedral, where he had an op- 
race of inglorious kings, or, as some portunity of exercising both his profes- 
suppose, of rulers of provinces only, sions. A similar appointment was coii* 
coming in between Alexander the Great ferred upon him in 1694, by the chapter 
and Ardasheer Babekan, the founder of of the cathedral of Toledo. In 1702, 
the Sassanian dynasty. The whole of Philip V. made him both superintendent 
this line is passed over very slightly in of the royal buildings, and his sergeant- 
Persian historians, and little more is painter. After the termination of the 
recorded of the two kings under notice, war of the succession, he was employed 
than that the first reigned thirteen years, by that monarch to complete the palace 
and was deposed by the second, who of Aranjuez, which had been left un- 
reigned twenty-three years. There was finbhed from the time of Philip II. ; and 
also a third of the name, the last king of the chief part of the east front was exe- 
this race, who was deposed by Ardasheer cuted by him, but merely in continuation 
Babekan, after a nommal reign of thirty- of the original design by Juan de Her- 
on e years. From this name the Greek rera. He ako made extensive additions 
historians have made Aprafiavos, to the ancient palace of Valsain, in Old 

ARDEE, (Jacques d',) amonkofHuy, Castile, to which place Philip V. was ex- 
born at Li^ge in the latter years of tne tremcly partial ; but as the king would 
sixteenth century, author of a poetical not allow any part of the old buildings to 

101 



AKD ARD 

be taken down, the whole presents merely He took an active part in ppposii^ 
an irregular assemblage of difierent struc^ Fox's East -India bill; and when, in 

tures. After many years of suffering from accordance with the sense of the^ coun- 

the gout, to a degree that incapacitated tr^, the king dismissed the ministers 

him from making any designs or sketches, with whom that unconstitutional measure 

he died at the beginning of 1726. originated, and recalled Mr. Pitt and hia 

ARDEN, (Edward,) bom in 1532, a fiiends, Arden resumed (Dec. 26, 1783) 

gentleman of an ancient family in War- his office of solicitor-general, from which, 

wickshire. His father died durmg his on the 24th March, 1784, he was raised 

infancy, and he became the ward of Sir to the attorney-eeneralship, which last 

George Throckmorton, of Congleton, appointment he ncld for nve years, in 

whose daughter he afterwards married, conjunction with the chief-justiceship of 

Mr. Arden, who was a zealous catholic, is Chester. On Lord Kenyon's promotion 

chiefly celebrated for a plot, real or sup- to the King's Qench in 1788, Arden was, 

Sosed, against queen Elizabeth, in which through the influence of Pitl^ and despite 
e is said to have been engaged. In the opposition of the chancellor, Thurlow, 
1583 he was committed with others to appomted to the mastership of the Rolls, 
the Tower for high treason, and was after which he held till 1801, when he suo- 
irial executed in Smithfield. ceeded Lord Eldon as chief-justice of the 
ARDEN, (Richard Pepper,) first baron Common-Pleas, and was raised to the 
Alvanley, and chief-justice of the Com- peerage by the title of Baron Alvanley, 
mon- Pleas, was the second son of John of Alvanley in Cheshire. He died on the 
Arden, of Dredbury in Stockport, where 19th of March, 1804. As a lawyer, Lord 
Ve was bom in 1745. He was educated Alvanley, though not entitlea to rank 
at the grammar school of Manchester, amongst the first, holds a very respectable 
and, hi October 17G3, entered himself as station: and the appeals fiK)m his decir 
a gentleman commoner at Trinity college, sions were neither more numerous, nor, in 
Cambridge, where, altliough not conspi- their disposal, less creditable to him than 
cuous for his application, he obtained ttie those which had been brought in the days 
prize for declamation, and credit for the of Lord Kenyon. In paruament he waa 
possession of considerable talents. In not a distinguished speaker, but at timet 
1766 ho was twelfth wrangler, and was wielded the weapons of sarcasm and rail- 
soon after elected a fellow of his college, lery with great effect. In society he was 
Although, in compliance witlihis father's greatly liked, as, with a hasty temper, he 
wishes, Arden entered himself of the possessed a kindly and generous oispoai- 
Middle Temple, he continued to reside tion, and manners so singularly prepoi- 
sonie time at Cambridge, where he revised sessing, as to have conciliated the regard 
the statutes of Trinity college, which had of men so dissimilar in character, as the 
previously been often the subject of liti- statesman Pitt, and the dissipated Byron. 
gation. In 1 770 he was called to the Lord Alvanley was once married, (Sep- 
bar, and commenced practising in the tember, 1784.) By his lady, Anne D<h 
court of Chancery, going at the same time rothea, eldest daughter of Richard Booftle 
the northern circuit. Some time elapsed Wilbraham, Esq. a lady of great attractiona 
after his call before his name became at and good familv, the sister of Lord Skel- 
all known ; but this was a matter of less mersdale, he had three sons and foivc 
importance, as his father possessed means daughters. 

and influence through wiiich Arden ob- LordAlvanley'sjudgments, whilst Mas- 

taiucd the recorderuhip of Macclesfield, ter of the Rolls, wul be found reported in 

when almost unknown at the bar. He Brown's Chancery Cases, and Vesey 

gradually rose uito notice, and in 1770 juu/s Reports; whilst chief-justice of 

was made a Welsh judge, when his busi- the Common - Pleas, in Bosanquet and 

ness increased so much, that he obtiined, Puller's Reports in the Common-Pleas 

in 1780, a silk gown. In July 1782, he Court. 

was made solicitor - general, when the ARDENE, (Esprit Jean de Rome d',) 

Shelburne administration were in power ; a French poet and general author, was 

and iu February 1783, entered })<arli{mient bom at Marseilles m 1G84, died in 1748. 

as member for the borough of Newton, His published works are — Recueil de 

iu the Isle of Wight, lie ably supported Fables Nouvelles en Vers, 1747 ; GBuvres 

the government, then exposed to the PosthunicH, 4 vols, 1767. (Biog. Univ.) 
attiicks of the combined forces of Mr. Fox ARDENE, (Jean Paul de Rome d',) 

and Lord North, and together with them brother of the preceding, bom in 1689, 

resigned his ofliceinthe very next month, died 1769. He was a priest, the author 

102 



AHD ARD 

of leveral botanical works, and edited nropoaed by Celsug and Pauliu JSginela. 

his brother's posthumous works. (Biog. He superseded the cruel practice of hia 

Univ.) day, tne cautery, as used by Albucasis, 

ARDENNE, or ARDUENNA, (Re- He adopted the mode by incision, whieli 

macle d',) one of the best Latin poets of is still practised ; but he oocasionaUy 

his time, was bom at Florennes, near employed the %ature, after the mannev 

Maubeuf e, about 1480. He was secre- of William of Saliceto. His MSS. give 

tary to Alargaret of Burgundy, in the coloured representations of his cases, and 

Low Countries. He was at London in the names of many of his patients are 

1512, and died in 1524. He wrote-r* mentioned. He invented a syringe lor 

Epimmmatum lib. iii, at Cologne or the injection of clysters, which were not 

Paris, 1507 ; Palamedes, London, 1512^-— in general use in his time. He boasts 

a book of extreme rarity like the pre- much of his skill in the use of his instru? 

ceding; Amorum Libri, Paris, 1513, small ment, and states the fame and profit he 

4to, also very scarce. (Bioe. Univ. Suppl.) derived from this occupation. His writings 

ARDENTE, (Alessandro of Faenza,) are not untinged by empiricism, which» 

a painter of history and portraits, of the considering the period in which he lived, 

Piedmontese school. He is by some called is not at dl remarkable. He stipulated 

of Pisa, and by others a Luccheae ; but with his patients in regard to the fees he 

on one of his three pictures, in the church should receive, and took security for the 

of S. Paolino at Lucca, namely, that of payment. Freind and Eloy give an ex- 

S. Antonio Abate, he subscribes himself ample of his rapacity for fees in cases of 

"Alexander ArdentiusFaventinus, 1565." operation for the fistula. *' Centiun Mar? 

There are others of his works in Lucca, in cas (a Nobili), vel xl libras cum robia 

one of which, painted at S. Gbiovanni, the et feodis — et centum solidos per annum 

subject is treated in a highly original ad terminum vitse." Ardern employed 

manner. In the neighbourhood also of caustics, of which arsenic entered into the 

that city, there are many of his produc- composition ; but he does not disguise the 

tions. In Turin, at the Monte della evil effects occasionally produced by their 

Pict^ is a picture by him of the Conver- employment, and ingenuously relates the 

sion of St. Paul, pamted in a style which particulars of two cases, in which they 

would lead to the supposition that he did much injury. The surgery of Ardern 

studied at Rome. Lanzi considers that seems principally to have been drawn 

Ardente resided a considerable time in from the writings of Paulus and Cekus, 

Piedmont, as he finds some works by him and he may be looked upon as having 

out of Turin, as an Adoration of the Magi, been the earliest to introduce a rational 

an altar-piece in Moncalieri, inscribed surgical practice into England, 
with his name, and dated 1592. On his ARDERNE, (James,) an English di- 

death in 1595, a pension was assigned by vine, was a native of Cheshire, and edu- 

the prince to his widow and sons, " a cated at Christ's college, Cambridge, 

proof to my mind," says the same author, from which he afterwards migrated to 

" that he must have served the court Brazennose college, Oxford. He held 

many years." (Lanzi, Stor. Pitt. v. 302.) the living of St Botolph Aldgate, in 

ARDERN, (John, fourteenth century,) London, from 1666 to 1682, when he 

eminent in surgery. The date of his became dean of Chester, where he died 

birth is unknown; but the MSS. of his in 1691. He bequeathed his books and 

works, of which there are several in the the principal part of his estate to provide 

British Museum, state him to have been and maintain a public library in the 

established at Newark, in Nottingham- cathedral of Chester, for the use of the 

shire, from the first year of the pesmence, city and clergy. He wrote. Directions 

in 1349, to the year 1370, " where he concerning the Matter and Style of Ser- 

lived all that interval" His experience, mons, 1671 ; Conjectura circa Ewufofufp 

and the reputation he gained, caused him D. Clementis Romani, cui subjiciimtur 

to be sent for to London, where he sue- Castigationes in Epiphanium et Peta- 

cessfiilly practised his profession amonff viiun de Eucharista, de Coelibatu Cleri- 

persons of high rank, and he introduced corum, et de Orationibus pro Vita frmctis, 

some improvements into surgery. One 1683; some single sermons on occasional 

only of his works has been printed, that topics were also printed by him. (Wood, 

on Fistula. Of this treatise, John Read Ath. Ox.) 

made a translation into English, and ARDICES of Corinth, a painter who, 

published it in 1588. His method of together with Telephanes of Sicyon, is 

treatment was in accordance with that said to have improved the art of painting, 

103 fro 



ARD ARE 

which previously consisted of the tracing * ARDUINUS, (Marquis of Tyr^e j 
of a simple outline, called by Pliny king of Italy, was chosen by the Italians, 
Psc/uraZinfom, and which was invented, in 1002, on the death of OthoIII. ; at 
according to that author, either by Phi- the same time that the duke of Bavaria 
locles the Egyptian, or Cleanthes the was chosen by the Germans, under the 
Corinthian. This improvement was ef- name of Henry II., who asserted hia 
fected by the addition of other lines, pretensions to all rishts enjoyed by the 
indicative of the internal parts of the Othos in Italy. Armiinus, unable to de- 
figure, by means of which were described fend himself against the emperor Henry, 
the lights and shades. Still the picture and deserted by his subjects, finally took 
was only an outline, vrithout any attempt the monastic habit in 1015, and m the 
whatever at colour. (Biog. Univ. Bryan s same year died. (Biog. Univ.) 
Diet.) ARDYS, son of Gyges, succeeded hia 

ARDICINI, (Louis,) bom at Padua, in &ther in the kingdom of Lydia, about 
1739, was a scientific agriculturist, and at 678 b. c. He reigned forty-nine years, 
the age of twenty was appointed assistant- and left the throne to Sadyattes his son. 
professor to his father. His works are, (Herod. 1, c. 15.) 
a translation of a French treatise, by ARE ERODE, 'an Icelandic historian ; 
M. Tessier, Sur. la Carie des BUs ; the first, according to Snorro, who com- 
Elements of Agriculture ; On Bees ; On mitted the annals of his own country to 
the Cultivation of Dyeing Plants ; On writing. This circumstance, however. 
Naked Barley ; On the Application of does not give him a claim to be consi- 
Technical Terms to Agriculture. In dered as Sie first hUtorian of Iceland ; 
1810 a prize was offered by Napoleon for for in that countrjr, as well as in the whole 
the discovery of a substitute for su^ar- of the Scandinavian peninsula, tradition- 
cane sugar, on which Ardicini published ary materials for history and biography 
an interesting treatise on the extraction were handed down oraliy, from one gene* 
of sugar from the holcus-cafor, from ration to another, probably with as much 
which an abundant supply of highly accuracy as if they had been committed to 
crystallized sugar might be obtained, writing. Snorro relates diat he wrote a 
Ardicini died in 1833. large historical work on the kings of Nor^ 

ARDISSEN. The name of this painter way, Denmark, and England; but this 

is found on a portrait of bishop Anthony work is lost Suhm, in his Histoire Cri- 

Godeau, engraved by J. Landry in 1G72. tique, mentions a MS. in the collection 

(Heineckcn, Diet, des Artistes.) of Amas Magnieus, as being probably 

ARDIZON, (Jacopo,) an Italian an abridgement of our authors great 
jurist, who flourished at Verona in the work above mentioned ; but the only part 
fourteenth century. His treatise on of it now remaining, as well as the only 
Fiefs, Summa in usiis Feudorum, went surviving work of this historian, is the 
through several editions, and was held Schedslslandicae, a short history of Ice- 
in general estimation. (Biog. Univ.) land. Of this work there have been three 

ARDUINI, (Pietro,) an Italian bo- editions published ; one printed at Skal- 

tanist, bom at Verona, was professor of holt, edited by Krusc, the Icelandic text 

agriculture and rural economy at Padua, revbed by Thorlacius, bishop of Skalholt. 

and author of Animadversionum Botani- A second edition appeared uom the Shelr 

canun Specimen, Patavii, 1759; Memorie donian press at Onord, bearing the date 

di Osservazioni e d'Esperienze sopra la of 1716, but in reality completed in 1697. 

Coltura e gli Usi di varie Piante che scrvir This edition contains the text, with a 

possono air Economia, Padova, 1766. version, paraphrase, and philological notes, 

(Biog. Univ.) and was conducted by Chr. Wormius, 

AliDUINIS, (Santcs de,) also called afterwards bishop of Zealand, who, how- 

Arduino de Bologna, a painter and en- ever, lefl his work imperfect, being obliged 

graver, who flourished, according to to leave Oxford from debt. 

Gandellini, about 1515, and engraved on Are Erode (or Arius Polyhistor, as he 

wood ; but his prints are not specified, is called in Latin) was bom in the year 

(Heineckcn, Diet, des Artistes.) 1068, about two hundred years after the 

ARDUINO, or ARDOINI, an Italian first peopling of Iceland from Norway, 

physician, who practised at Venice in and little more than sixty years from the 

the fifteenth century. lie was the author introduction ofChristionity into the island, 

of a Treatise on Poisons, published at He was thus almost an eye-witnesa of 

Venice in 1492. (Biog. Univ. Mazu- events, which other historians could only 

chelli, i. 987.) speak of on tlie authority of chronidea^- 

104 



ARE ARE 

a consideration which renders doubly de- called Mario di Fiori, he studied flower- 

plorable the loss of the large historical painting from nature, and practised it 

work, which Snorro and others, in the with great success. He died in the 

most positive terms, attribute to him. chapel of Notre Dame de Bon-Conseil, 

TiXL the age of twenty, he was brought at Madrid, in which city there are four of 

up by a near relation, who was the grand his pictures. (Biog. Univ.) 

nephew of Hrolf, or Rollo, the famous Spain has also produced other persons 

leader of the Normans into France ; and of this name : — 

Ssmund, the author or compiler of the 1. Gil Ramirez de, member of the 

older Edda, appears to have been the council of Castile, and president of the 

companion of his youth. The two young Inquisition, wrote two treatises, on the 

scholars studied together for three years Privileges of Creditors, and on the Great* 

at Cologne, on the Rhine. Are was af- ness of the House of Aquilar. 

terwar£ admitted to the priesthood of the 2. Another Ramirez de Arellano wrote 

Icelandic church ; and from this circum- a treatise on Spanish orthography, 

stance he takes the title of *< prestr" 3. A third, a monk who lived in the 

(ecclesiastic), which is sometimes added early part of the seventeenth century, is 

as an epithet to his name. much better known than the prececung. 

Besioes his historical works, he ap- He wrote — 1. On the Antiquities of 

pears to have written some sort of a Carmona. 2. On the Image of the Blessed 

grammar, a work of note in its day. The Virgin. 3. On the Rehoues of St Justa 

author of the Hattcrly Kil, a treatise on and St. Rufina. In adoition to these, 

poetry, says, '* I will show you the first perhaps also he wrote an account of the 

forms of tnc letters according to the id- anti(}uities in the convent of the Holy 

phabet of the Danish language, consisting Trinitv at Seville, 

of sixteen letters, as Thorolde, master <n 4. Afiauel Gomez de, knight of Sant- 

Runes, and Are Frode, prestr, disposed iago, ana member of the council of In- 

them, after the similitude of the Latin dian affairs, wrote on canon and civil law, 

alphabet, ordered by Priscian." Rese- and on the immaculate conception, in 

nius, in the introduction to his edition of the middle of the seventeenth century, 

the Edda, also mentions, on the authority ARELLIUS, a painter of some cele-* 

of Amgrim Jonas, that our author wrote brity at Rome, a short time before the 

a work on the Runic literature. reign of Augustus. Pliny speaks of 

AREIUS of Alexandria, a Stoic phi- his ability with much commendation, but 

losopher, one of the most intimate friends blames him for havine selected as models 

of Octavianus Csesar, whose education, for his goddesses the most celebrated 

in conjunction with ApoUodorus of Per- courtesans of his time. Some of his pic- 

gamum, he completed. He shared the tures were in the temples, but the senate 

table and friendship of the triumvir with on this account ordered them to be 

his sons Dionysius and Nicanor. (Sueton. withdrawn, notwithstanding their great 

August. 89, Dio. 51, 16, 52, 36, and beauty, that they mi^ht not desecrate the 

Fabricii Not.) Upon his entrance into sacred places. (Biog. Univ. Bryan's 

Alexandria, and afterwards in the theatre. Diet.) 

Octavianus appeared in close conversa- t AREMBERGH, (Jean deLigne, count 
don with the philosopher, and in his of,) a zealous officer of Charles V., was 
speech to the people in the Hippodrome, killed in battle near Groningen, in 1568. 
assi^ed as one among three motives for Charles d'Arembergh, a capuchin of the 
spanng the city from pillage, that it was same family, bom at Brussels in 1593, 
the birth-place of Areius. Seneca (Con- died 1669; published a History of the 
sol. ad Marciam. 4) has preserved part of Writers of his Order from 1525 to 
a discourse addressed by Areius to the 1580; Cologne, 1640. Clypeus Sera- 
empress Livia upon the death of her phicus, sive Scutum Veritatis in Defen- 
younger son Drusus Nero. Whether sionem Ordinis Minorum, 1650. (Biog. 
Dioscorides dedicates his Treatise on the Univ.) 

Materia Medica to this Areius or another AREMBERGH, (Leopold Philippe 

of the same name is not ascertained. Charles Joseph, duke of,) duke of Aers- 

ARELLANO, (Juan de, 1607 — 1670,) chot and Croi, governor of Hainault, was 

a Spanish flower-painter, bom at Torcas, bom at Mons in 1690. His father was 

near Toledo, was a pupil of Juan de Solis, captain-general of the emperor's guards, 

under whom he studied historical com- and was killed at Peterwaradin in 1691. 

position, but soon abandoned it. After Leopold was wounded at Malplaquet, 

copying several pictures of Mario Nuzzi, and by his courage and deserts raised 

105 



ABE ABE 



to the highest military hononn. Ban^■galaaI bj the new kin^ He Wft 

He made the caT.paigna of 1716-17 in the Ekuch umv after the leTolntkHi of 

Himeary. u major-geaeral of the em- 1S30, and died in 1S33. iBiog. Uaiv. 

peror's armies, and was woonded at the SuppL • 

siege of Teme^war. He commanded the ARENA. vAntonius de, i.e« Antoine 

rigrit win? of in&ntry at BeUrade. and da Sahlon.^ a celebrated macaranic poel 

essentially contributed to the gaining of of the ini hail of the sixteenth centwy* 

that battfe. In 1719 he was appointed He was bom at SoUieia, in the dioccae of 

governor of Rome ; and in the campaign Toulon, and studied under '^^^^^m at 

of 1 733 continued to serve under prince Arignon. He was afterwards judge of 

Eugene, on the Rhine. In 1737 he was St. Kemy, in the diocese of Anes, and 

made field-marshal, and commander-in- died there in 15-H. The original wiitinM 

chief of th? emperor's armies in the Low of his works are now verv rare, but aane 

Countries ; and in 1743 waa wounded at of them hare been reprinted more than 

the battle of Dettin^en. He died in 1754, once during the last centurr, and may be 

as celebrated for his patronage of litera- found in most large public libraries. In 

ture as for his military renown. ^Biog. one of his works, entitled Oe Arte Dan- 

Uuiv. Suppl.) sandi, and evidently written while he 

AREMBERGH, (Louis Eugelbert, was young and a student at ATJgMMiy he 

duke and prince of,) grandson of Leo- gives many curious traits of the auuuien 

pold, was bom in 1750, and lost his of the students, of the customs of the 

sight when twenty-four years old. He university, such as their electioii of the 

passed the period of the French revolu- "abbot of niisnile." and the efibrts of the 

tk>n in retirement, which he was induced different ** nations," to secure the eleetkni 

to leave in 180G ; and in return for his of one of their own party, and of the oon- 

seat in the Senate-consen-ateur, and other tentioDs between the students and the 

distinctions, lent his aristocratic presence town, &'c. In this tract he calk **"»ftf 

to Napoleon's court. He died at Brussels ** Provenyalis de Braffardissima ViUn de 

in 1820. His daughter Pauline, married Soleriis." The first hnes of one of the 

to the Prince Schwartzenberg, perished in chapters which treat on the manners of 

the ball-room conflagration, at Paris, in the students, entitled De firntilfiiiis 

1810. (Biog. Univ. Suppl.) Instudiantium, may scr\*e as a necimen 

AREMBERGH, (Augustc Marie Ray- of the kind of jargon in whicn thsse 

mond, prince of,) younger brother of tte pieces are written : — 
Prince Louis Engclbert, was born in 1 753. « oenti galantes sunt omnes inttudiuitm, 
He long bore the title of count de la £tbelLu ganas semper anuiotokiit; 

Marck, and was colonel of a Geiman Et »cn,per semper sunt debrigantibuiip»l. 

' . ^1 Ti 1 •, Inter niipnonos gloria prima nuinet. 

regiment in the French scnice, with Banquetant. bragant. Ikelunt miraculaplun, 

which he served in India. Returning to ^' ^^ bonutc sunt tine fine boni." 

Franco, he embraced the doctrines of the The poem on the War in Provence in 



revolution; became a member of the 1536, published at Avignon the 
States-general, and afterwards of the year, under the title Mcygra Entreprisa 
National Assembly, and contracted an Cathuliqui Imperatoris quando en 1536 
intimate friendship with Mirabeau, who veniebat per I^vcnsam bene carossatus 
named him one of his executors. The in postani prenderc Fransam cum Villis 
count's revolutionary zeal was a little de Provensa, &c., like some other of his 
cooled by the suppression of the privi- smaller poems, contains many historical 
leges of the nobility, and especially by the notices which are not found elsewhere, 
bein;; deprived of his regiment by the The common imprint of these burlesque 
Nationid Assembly ; and he assisted Mi- tracts was '^ Stampatus in Stampatura 
rabeau in his negotiations with the court. Stampatorum.'* Arena also printeasome 
When the royal cause became hopeless treatises on Jurispnidence, chiefly, re- 
he left France, and entered the Austrian markable for the bad Latin in which they 
army with the rank of niaior-general, were written. 

and was (Miipluyed an a diplomatist on ARENA, (Jacques d',) a French jurist 

various occasions, but never on any mili- in the tliirtfiuth century, of whom very 

tary srrviee. On his brother's establish- little iii known, lie wrote several learned 

nient at Paris, ho was anxious to re-enter and viilu;ibl« works on the Civil Law, 

the service of France; this however N a- whicli wiie printed in the sixteenth cen- 

jMileon would not allow him to do, and tury. (iJiog. Univ.) 
he remained at Vienna till 1814, when he AKICN A, (Joseph,) a Corsican officer 

came to Bnissel.*, an<l was made Heute- in the French revolutionary army, who 

lOG 



ARE AR£ 

• 

WM coBkdemned to death nloDg with oflfered, accarding to his circumstances at 

Peiachi, Tojpuo Lebnin, Demerville, the time. In returning from Madridt he 

and Piana, ua a conspiracy against the had nearly reached the borders of C2er* 

first consul in 1803. (Bioc. Univ.) many, when a doubt struck him as to 

A|t£NA, (Barthelemi,) brother of Jo- some point to be cleared up in that capi- 

seph Arena, was deputy from Corsica to tal ; he went straight bade to Madrid, 

the Council of Five Hundred, and was and then resumed his homeward route, 

accused of an attempt to stab Buonaparte He was arrested during a second visit to 

on its dispersal by him, on the 18th Italy, in 1824, on suspicion of being an 

Brumaire; which he always strenu- emissary from the German carbonari, 

ously denied. He was a violent repub- from the resemblance of his name to 

lican, and died in obscurity at livoume, Amdt, the author of the Spirit of the 

182d. (Biog. Univ. Scott's life of Na* Times — a suspicion which was confirmed 

poleon.) by the Runic alphabets which he carried 

ARENiEUS. Of this writer a sohtarr bein^ mistaken for secret symbols. He 

epigram has been preserved in the Cireek died m prison at Naples. Arendt's learn- 

Anthology. ing was immense, but in a great measure 

ARENDT, (Martin Frederick,) a Da- died with him, for he kept no joumid c^ 

nish antiquary, bom at Altona in 1769, his travels, and only wrote a few memoin 

who led a singularly rambUng life. At on particular subjects. (Biog. Un&Y* 

first he applied himself to the study of Supm.) 

botany, which he abandoned lor that of ^JIENHOLD, (G. J.) a German por- 

archfieology. In 1789 he commenced his trait painter, from whose pictures the 

travels, in search of MSS. and other an- followmg prints are known : — Portrait of 

tiquities, taking up his quarters in the Jean Gottfried Meiem, folio, engraved 

houses of the peasants and j^tors, with- by Bemigerot ; another of Silvestre Tap* 

out at all consulting their wishes or con- pen, Lutheran divine, 8vo, engraved by 

venience. On one occasion he is said to Geor. Dan. Heuman ; and a title with a 

have been carried out of a house forcibly, view of Goslar and Rammelsberg, foUoi 

and on another to have been smoked out G. J. Arenhold, inv. and del Hanov. ; 

He continued this kiod of rambling Ufe G. D. Heuman, fecit. Norimb. 173& 

till 1806, when he returned to Copenhagen (Heiiiecken, Diet, des Artistes.) 
with his collection of monuments and ARENIUS, or ARRHENIUS, anor- 

copies of Runic inscriptions. Here he trait painter at Stockh<^, after whom 

obtained employment under the commis- the following prints are known : — the 

sion for publishing ancient Icelandic MSS., portrait of Cnarles Harlemen, foho^ en- 

but soon quarrelled with them, and made graved in mezzo-tinto by J. J. Haid { 

his way to Paris. Arrived there, he and a portrait of John Charles Hedlinger 

discovered that he had lefi behind him, at the medallist, painted at Stockholm in 

Rostock, some Cufic coins entrusted to 1738; mezzo-tinto at Augsburg by the 

him by the baron de Tham, and imme- same engraver. (Heioecken, Diet, de^ 

diately set out again to recover them. Artistes.) 

At Paris he fell iU, and lost an eye while ARENSBECK, (Peter Diederich,) a 
a patient in the Hdtel Dieu, a misfortune Swedish classical and oriental sch<^. 
which he attributed to his exposure to He was emuloyed under the direction of 
the weather during his antiquarian jour- bishop Matnias, in a translation of the 
neys iu the north. From Paris he walked Bible into Swedish, which however was 
to Venice to see the Runic inscription on never finished. He wrote, on this occa- 
the lion of St. Mark. In 1810 he re- sion, a work now very rare even in 
turned to Paris, and was taken care of by Sweden, entitled Specimen ConciUationis 
Malte-Brun, and became a member of Linguarum ex natim eorundem proprie- 
the Celtic Academy. Always restless, tatibus in Textus aliquot sacros ad 
however, he set ofi* suddenly one day for Veram et Convenientem Lin^use Sueticie 
Naples, and was confined iot some time Versionem dcductuin. He died at Stock- 
as a vagrant at Melun. In the same holm in 1673. 

year he resumed his roving life in the ARENl^ (Thomas, 1652--1700,) a 

north, refusing every ofier of assistance Dutch poet of some celebrity in his day, 

which was likely to interfere with the who produced several tragedies, and a 

{>erfect freedom of his motions. In 1820 collection of mengel-poesi, or miscella- 

ic came to Germany, and thence south- neous pieces, which latter are commended 

wards to Italy and Spain, wandering by De Veris, and the specimen he gives 

about, and asking or refusing alms when of them justifies his commendation. Ao- 

107 



ARE . ARE 

cording to that critic, Arents would hftve the fimenl being attended br FMcr 

greatly surpassed what he now is, had he himself, and many of the princmal noUes. 

trusted more to his own talents, instead His library, and collecti<m or minerals^ 

of imitating the poets of France. &c., were purchased dming bis fife 

ARESAS, a Pythagorean philosopher for the Academy of Arts. (£n<*iUop. 

of Lucania. A single fragment of his Leksikon.) 

treatise, On the Nature of Alan, has been ARET^US of Cappadocia, (lat cen- 
prescrved in the Eclog. Physic, of Sto- tury,) one of the most celebrated and 
Dsus. learned physicians of antiquity, but of 
ARESI, (Paul,) of Milan, was bom whose history the particulars are qh- 
at Cremona about 1574. He taught known. Even the time and place in which 
theology, philosophy, and rhetoric, at he lived b imcertain. From what has 
Rome and Naples, and was appointed been collected, however, it would appear 
confessor to Isabella of Savoy, duchess of that he flourished towards the close o( or 
Modena, and was afterwards made bishop immediately after the reign of the cm- 
of Tortona. He died in 1644. His prin- P^roi* Nero, as he mentions the Thexiaca 
cipal works were — In Libros Aristotelis for the cure of the poisonous effects of 
de Generatione et Comiptione. Milan, the viper, which was invented by Anchro- 
1617. De Aquae Transmutatione in Sa- machus of Crete, the father of the phyai- 
crificio Misss. Tortona, 1622. De Can- cian to the emperor. Voesius places him 
tici Canticorum Sensu, Velitatio bina. before the Augustan age, on the ground 
Milan, 1640. Velitationes sex in Apo- that his work is written in the lonie 
calypsim. Milan, 1647. In Italian, Arte dialect; butthb inference is untenable, 
di predicar bene. Venice, 1611. Im- as Arrian of Nicomedia, who lived as lale 
prese sacre con triplicati Discorsi illus- as the middle of the second centnrj, 
trate ed Arrichite. Verona, 1613. Delia emi^oyed this dialect in his book entitled 
Tribolazione e suoi Remedii. Tortona, Indica. Rome, or its neighbourhood, 
« 1624. Panegirici fatti in diverse Oc- seems to have been the seat of his prac- 
casioni. tice, from the character of his remedies 
ARESKIN, or ERSKINE, (Robert,) and the wines he recommends, among 
principal physician to Peter the Grea^ which are the Falemian, the Surren- 
was a native of Scotland, who, after tine, Signine, &c. From the time of 
studying at Oxford and taking the degree Aetius (who lived in the fifth century) 
of doctor of medicine, went to Russia few writers of any celebrity have failed 
about 1704, where he was at first private to ^uote from his works, and to express 
physician to prince Menzikov. In 1716 then* admiration of his style, which, in 
ne became chief physician to Peter, whom elegance, surpassed that of the period in 
he accompanied the following year in a which he is supposed to have lived. It is a 
journey through GermanVi France, and matter of surprise, and quite unaccounted 
Holland, and by whom ne was greatly for, thathc should not be noticed by Galen, 
esteemed both for his abilities and per- Oribasius, and others who have so largely 
sonal qualities, and for his attachment as referred to preceding writers of eminence, 
well as his professional skill. It is to The writings of Aretieus have been, and 
him that Russia was indebted for the continue to be, highly esteemed by phy- 
adontion of many excellent measures sicians for their accuracy and perspi- 
tending to advance the study of medicine cuity. The symptomatology has always 
and pharmacy, and to rescue them from been admired. His style has attracted 
ignorant or incompetent practitioners, the attention of all learned men, and it is 
The liigh favour in which he stood with exceedingly to he regretted that we are 
his imperial patron did not fail to excite ignorant of his personal history. His 
cabals against him, one of the instigators works have not descended to us without 
of which was baron Hertz, who endea- mutilation ; Aetius quotes passages which 
vourcd to make it appear that Erskine was are not now to he found in any of his 
aiding the cause of the Stuarts, and car- knovm writings. In the description of 
ryingon a correspondence with their adhc- diseases he is almost unrivalled, and the 
rents in Scotland. The tzar, however, truth of his delineations is universally 
gave no credit to such rumours, and took admitted. Frcind looks upon Aretscut 
care that Erskine should be cleared from all and Alexander to be the two most valu- 
suspicion in the eyes of the British court, able authors since the time of Hippo- 
He died in December 1718, at Olonetz, crates. They treat of but few distempers, 
and was interred with great ceremony in not more than fifly or sixty, and evidently 
the Newsky monastery, St. Petersburgh ; write of these from personal observation. 

108 



ARE * AltE 

Of tho writings of ArctiBui vo have tho cautery wai of common applicatloih 

eight hooks ; two on acute and two on Ho states elephantiasis to be infectious* 

chronic diseases gcncrully, and two on lie deserves notice, as having hcen the 

each of these divisions descriptive of tlieir first medical writer to observe particularly 

particular symptoms. It is inmossiblo to the influence which the mind exerts 

read Aretoius without being forcibly re- over the body, and that exercised also by 

minded of the great father of physic, the body over the mind ; influences, for 

The correspondence of stvlc, mode of which, with the modesty associated with 

description of symptoms, observation of science, he does not attempt to account, 

nature, sagacitv or diagnosis, order in He is the earliest writer to recommend 

Uie slatement of causes, judicious selection the employment of contharides to produce 

of remedies, &c., are manifest He pre- vesications. IVior to this time, mustard 

cedes his history of diseases bv an ono^ and the plant colled thapsia were used for 

tomical introduction upon the organs this purpose. 

affected. Anatomy was then in its in- From the works of AretsDUs which are 

fancy, and great difilculties existed to its preserved to us, it is evident that he had 

progress. The errors of Aretecus in tliis composed others which are lost ; on sur- 

branoh are therefore necessarily nume- gcry, fevers, the diseases of women, the 

rous. Ho considered the heart to be the preparation of medicines, &c. The works 

principle of life and strength, and in we possess are also imperfect, and their 

which tho soul and nature of man held unrivalled excellence materially excitea 

their residence. He looked upon it as tho regret for the absence of any part. His 

source of respiration, being placed in tho works have been publishea in Greek, 

centre of the lungs. These organs he con- Latin, and other languages. In Greek, 

siderod as active, their motions being the flrst edition is that of J. Ooupyl, 

dependent on their small nerves. The Paris, 1554, 8vo, which was reprinted by 

venous system, according to him, took Henry Stephen, in the collection Medicis 

its origin fVom tho liver. Ho admitted, Artis IViucipcs, Paris, 15G7, folio. There 

with frisistratus, that the nerves were is another Greek edition by Turnebus, 

tho organs of sensation and motion. £x Bibl. Res. printed also at Poria, 

These ideas ho endeavoured to apply to 1554, 8vo. In Greek and Latin, au 

his views of disease. Shortly af\er tho edition by George Henisch was printed 

establishment of tho sect of the Methodists at Vienna in IGOS, and asain in 1627 in 

in physic, the Pneumatists and Eclectics folio. Wigan of Oxford published an 

arose, tho latter of which attempted to edition taken from two Greex MSS. with 

reconcilo the doctrines of the Empirics notes, prefaces, critical dissertations, &c., 

and the Methodists. Areta*us seems to at Oxford, 1723, folio. Triller published 

have taken for tho basis of his doctrine some remarks on this edition. Isoerhaave 

that of the I^eumatists, but he reduced edited an edition at Leyden in 1731, in 

their principles to a more scientiflc form, folio. He followed the Greek text of 

and enriched it by a number of valuable (ioupvl, and the Latin version of Crassus, 

observations. The practice of Areto^us and he has given a commentary, by 

was, however, in accordance with that of Peter Petit, on the first three books, 

Hippocrates; it was founded on experi- which were written in 1G62, and sept* 

once and an attentive observation of rately printed by Mattaire at London, in 

nature. In his mode of treatment he 1726. A second edition by Boerhaave, 

rarelv employed other tlum tho most with additional notes and observations, 

simple means, and his remedies were few was printed in 1735. This is esteemed 

in number. He employed bleeding in the best edition of the works of Areta^us 

many coses, and in several to o ffreot Holler printed on edition also in his Me- 

extent. Ho used ortcriotomy behind the dicao Artis IVincipes, at Lausanne, io 

ears in severe oflTections of tho head. 1772 and 1787, which is not considered 

Kinetica (of wliito hellebore especially) of importance. The first edition of 

he used extensively. Ho attended por- Areta'us was published in the Latin Ion* 

ticulurly to the diet of his patients, and ffuoge, by Junius Paulus Crossus, a pro* 

did mon' in this respect than by the em- lessor at Poduo, and printed by tlte 

ployuient of phormaceuticol means. In Juntas at Venice, 1552, m 4to. Of this 

chronic diseases his practice was often version several editions were published ; 

bold. Ineuilepsy he did not hositate to at Poris, 1554, 16mo; Basil, 1581, 4to; 

make o perlbration in tlie skull, for which Argent. 1768, 12mo, Translations havo 

practice, however, it would be difllcult to also been published in German by Dr, 

find any thmg like a satisfactory reason ; Dewax, Viennc, 1790—1802, 8vo, 2 vola. 

109 



ARE ARE 

In English by Dr.Moffatt, Lond. 1785, ARETINO, (Ketro.) This writer, w!io 

8vo; and a translation is said to have been has obtained so iuien\'iable a celebrity, 

made into French by Lefcbvre dc Ville- was bom at Arezzo, in April 1492, the 

brunc, but it has never been printed. natural son of Antonio Bacci, a patriciftti 

ARETAPHILA, daughter of -flilglatos, of that city. Whatever some writew 

wife of Melanippus, a priest of Cyrene, may say of his early studies, it is certain 

lived in the time of the Mithridatic war. that he never learnt either Latin or Greek; 

Nicocrates, tyrant of Cyrene, killed her andthelittleof aeeneral nature which he 

husband Phaedrinus, and forced her to acquired was picked up here and there, 

marry him. Aretaphila never lost sight by dipping into the books that were en- 

of schemes of revenge, and having failed trusted to him at the time that he was a 

in an attempt to poison Nicocrates, she joumcyinan to a bookbinder in Perugia. 

engaged Lcandcr his brother, who had His disposition was lively and ardent, nis 

married her daughter, to murder him. imagination fervid, to which he joined a 

He did so, but possessed himself of the great fluency of expression, and an un- 

sovcrcign power, and the freedom of bounded impudence. A satirical sonnet 

Cyrene was as remote as ever. Areta- against indulgences drove him from 

nhila afterwards procured his death, Arezzo, and his want of religion made 

by means of Anabus, a Libyan chief, him leave Perugia to go to Rome on 

and established a free government in foot, his whole equipage consisting of the 

Cyrene. (Plut. De Virtute Mulierum. clothes he had on. His first patron was 

Polyacn. viii. c. 38.) a merchant, Agostino Ghigi, the same fbr 

ARETAS. The name of several kings whom Raphael painted the palace called 

of Arabia Pctrsea. The first whose name La Famesina ; soon after, he became 

is recorded defeated Jason, the leader of known to pope Leo X. and to cardinal 

the Jews, about 170 b. c. A second Giulio de* Medici, who was. afterwards 

possessed himself of Ccelc-Syria, about pope Clement VII., in whrfse service be 

84 B.C., and coined money in his name, entered, but it is not known in what ca- 

as king of Damascus. Another Aretas, pacity. Sixteen obscene sonnets which 

king of Damascus, is mentioned by he wrote under sixteen no less disgracefid 

St. Paul. drawings of Giulio Romano, engraved by 

ARETE, a daughter of Aristippus, and Raimondi, obliged him to quit Rome, 

one of the few ladies of antiquity who de- and Giovanni ae Medici, so notorious 

voted themselves to philosopny. during the Italian wars by the name of 

ARETIN, (Jean Adam Christophc the captain of " Le Ban dc nere," and on 

Joseph, the baron,) was bom at Ingold- whom immorality could make no unfa- 

stadt in 1 709, died in 1822. He filled vourable impression, received him under 

Fome of the highest state offices in Ba- his protection in Milan, and presented 

varia, and in 1817 represented that him to Francis I., whom he had the 

kingdom in the Germanic Diet, lie was good fortune to please by the fulsome 

the author of some publications, an ama- praises he lavished on him. At the death 

teur in the fine arts, and possessed an of Giovanni he fixed his residence at 

exceedingly fine collection of paintings Venice, having previously made an ex- 

and engravings. (Biog. Univ. Suppl.) cursion to Rome, where he was severely 

ARKTIN, (Jean Christophe Frederic, woimded, and with difficulty escaped with 
the baron,) brother to the preceding, his life, through the jealousy of a gallant, 
born in 1773, was a person of^ consider- for some verses which he had written for 
able political and literary celebrity. He or against a cook, with whom both of 
was actively engaged ni public affairs them were in love, 
from his first aj)pearance at Munich in Depending now upon his pen for his 
1 79'\j at the court of the elector of Ba- livelihood, he began to write prose and 
varia, till liis death in 1821; but did not verse satires, indelicate dialogues, heroic 
succeed in his attempt to combine with cantos, sonnets, comedies, besides an im- 
these enji^jjgenients the pursuits of a mense quantity of letters, which he ad- 
learned scholar. His literary pei-fomi- dressed to all the princes, great men, and 
ances have not nuich merit, although ladies of his time, sometimes flattering 
during five and twenty years he was con- them or praising himself, and at others 
stantly j)nhlis]iing jmfitical pamphlets, even threatening them with the lash of 
and contributing to periodicals, besides his satire ; and from them all he received 
beinc: tlie author of other works, a list of presents, which enabled him to hvc a 
which is given in the Biographic Univer- dissolute life. He had the impudence to 
•elle. (Biog. Univ. Suppl.) style himself " IlDivino Aretinoj" and 

110 



ARE * ARE 

boasted that he was the 8c<Mi]*ge of princes, bably bom at Modena about 1580, w)io 
He thus levied contributions upon most painted history and portrait, but princi- 
of the Italian princes, and even men of pally the latter, and flourished about the 
letters, besides Francis I., Charies V., year 1606. He formed his taste by co- 
several popes, Henry VI 11. of England, pying the trorks of Bagnacavallo, at 
and it is even said firom Solyman the Bologna. He was invited by Ranuccio, 
sultan of the Turks. At times, how- duke of Parma, to become court painter, 
ever, he met with a reward totally dif- and in 1587 employed by him in paint- 
ferent, and much better deserved. He ing, in the new building of S. Giovanni, 
died suddenly in Venice, in 1557, by copies of the pictures of Oorreggio, which 
overturning his chair in an immoderate had decorated the old structure. As a 
fit of laughter at hearing an indecent portrait painter, he attained to great 
story of his two sisters, wlra led a lif^ as eminence, and was patronized in that ca- 
infamous as his own. pacity by many oi the Italian princes. 

The nature of most of his works has He had the power of assuming tne st}'le 
been idready noticed. There are others, of almost everv painter, and in manv 
which being of a religious cast, have instances is said to have passed off his 
made some writers bdieve that towards copies for the originals. In his imitation 
the end of his life he became penitent, of Corregeio he was particularly succcss- 
This, however, is a mistake ; Aretino ftil, and naving copied the celebrated 
was never penitent ; the motives which Night by that master, for the church of 
prompted him to compose his religious S. Giovanni di Parma, he obtained the 
works were as mercenary as those \niich honour of restoring the painting formerly 
moved him to write the others. He also executed by Correggio in the same church 
has been thought to be the autlior of the as mentioned above. Ruta, in his Gmda, 
famous book De Tribus Impostoribus. says his success in this performance was 
This supposition rests upon an assertion such, " from its accurate imitation of the 
of the celebrated CampaneUa, who having taste displayed in the original, of its con- 
been accused, as many others before him ception, and of its harmony, as to lead 
had been, of being the author of that those unacquainted with the fkct to sim- 
book, justified himself by saying that it pose it to be the work of Allegri." In 
had been printed thirtv years &fore he conjunction with Gio. Batista Fiorinl. he 
was bom ; an epoch wnich agrees with painted the cupola of the cathedral of 
the time of Aretino. The existence even S. Pictro, at Bolosna. His portrait, 
of this book has been doubted. painted by himself, for the gallery of the 

For other persons of this name, sec grand duke, is engraved by P. A. Pazti. 

AccoLTi, BavNi, GuiDO, and Spikello. He died in 1612. (Lanzi, Stor. Pitt iv. 

ARETIUS, (Benedict,) an eminent 32, 89; v. 51. Bryan*sDict Heinecken, 

Swiss divine and botanist, was bom at Diet des Artistes.) 
Berae eariy in the sixteenth century, and A REUS, son of Acrotatus, king of 

became distinguished as a teacher of Sparta, 309 b. c, lost liis lifo in battle 

theol(^, and preacher of the reformed with Antigonus Gonatas, at Corinth, 268 

religion at Marpurff. He died at Berac b.c. (Pans. iii. c. 6.) 
in 1/54. His most important theological AREZZO, (the Cardinal Thomas,) was 

works were — Examen Theologicum, a bom in 1756, at OrbiteUo, in Tuscany, 

voluminous work, which was printed After having filled other stations, he was 

twelve times within three years; Com- sent by Pius VII. as nuncio to St Petcrs- 

mentaries on the New Testament; A burg, on a mission for the reconciliation of 

Life of Gentilis, with a Refotation of his the Greek church to that of Rome. Much 

Principles, &c. But Arctius is better had been aCTccd on between him and 

known in his other pursuit, which led Paul, when the death of that king put an 

him into correspondence with nearly all end to the negotiation. He was residing 

the eminent botanists of his time, who as legate at Dresden in 1807, from which 

speak highly of his skill and usef\il re- place Napoleon sent for him to Berlin^ 

searches. He discovered and described and communicated to him some of his 

forty new Alpine plants, and published designs upon the pontifical sovereignty. 

Stockhomii et Nessi Helvetise Montium, It appears that Arezzo turned all the in- 

et nascentium in cis Stirpium, Descriptio, formation he received in this manner to 

impr. in Operibus Val. Cordi. Strasb. the advantage of Pius VII., and he was in 

1561. (Bioe. Univ.) the following year arrested at Florence, 

ARETUSi, (Cesare, or Munari degli and confined for some time in the island 

Aretusi,) a Bolognese citizen, and pro- of Corsica. In 1815 he was created 

111 



ARE ARC 

e4HfnAl, and in IViO vlc^i^hiT,CH2f.r of ARFWIDSSON, a. mcdem 

th« ^Ki;r,h, IK rilf^d ir* 1^'^>. ^Blo^. enj^nrer of portnisa. rHeinecken, Diet. 

ARf'K, 'J.jAf* ri*,; wiA tr*ft ^ar.iK.n ARGAIZ. ^Gregono de.) ft Qicnk of 
of lirnrl'^iifi, iLvA iftn of AnUfi^io *ift Arfe, St. Btcftdict in the leventeeioth centnry ; 
(/'jth fJiUr^tTnUA canr^n and workera in published in 1667 an Ecdouudcal His- 
m*:tji]f th« <iMiir of vhom wu a German toiy of Spain, which, he pretended to be, 
hy hirth, and tiippo^Mrd to have been in luoAtance, fbnoded on a work of St. 
\froui()tt from JFlanden to Spain by Gregor}*, biihop of Grenada The im- 
il.ilip f. Antonio is laid to l^iave been posture vai detected bj Garda de Mo- 
th ': nrU who adopts Cilunrins and other una. 

oniixt(t*int% derived from Italian architec- ARGALL, (John,) was bom in Lon- 
tiir^', in cuAtodia«| reliquaries, &c. Juan, den, but in what year is uncertain. An- 
wiio wa^ ly>m at Leon in 1535, diatin' thony Wood, who collected neariy all 
ffuiA\if.d hims^ilf not only by his perform- that is known of him, informs ns that he 
uurjrn a» an artist, but by his mathematical was the third son of Thomas AigaD, by 
knowledge, by his studies and his writ- Margaret, daughter of John Talkanie of 
in {(4. Among these last, Uie most re- Cornwall ; and that late in the Run of 
mark able is his Varia Commensuracion Mary, he became a stodent of Cnrift- 
(the fimt p«^»rtion was printed at Seville church, Oxford. He took his degree of 
in 1 585;, wherein he treats of sculpture M.A. in 1566-6, being the seniorirfthe act 
and arcliitecture, also of geometry and celebrated on the 18th February. (Ath. 
annt/iiny, giving his precepts in octave Oxon. by Bliu, L 760.) In September 
stanzas, accompanied oy aprose ezpla- of the same year, a Latin and an JSnclish 
nation and commentary. The wood-cuts play were performed before queen £utt- 
wen; aim executed by himself. It hap- oeth, in Christ-church hall, the former 
poned hy singular misfortune that the called Progne, by Dr. James CalfhiU, 
whole of'^the first impression of the work and the latter, entitled Palamon and 
was destroyed by ^re, and he was obliged Arcyte, by the celebrated Ricbaid Ed- 
to re-write it. In the preface to it he wards, (Collier's Hist of Dram. Poctr. 
promised to compose a treatise on Prac- and the Stage, i. 191.) In one of these 
tical Perspective, which, however, he John Argall performed, and Wood states^ 
docs not appear ever to have done. In that he was '* a great actor;" but whether 
IiIh own i>rofc8sion he executed many in Latin or English, or in both, does not 
T>ro<Iuction8, of which onlv the more celc- appear. He .night be the unnamed per- 
orated can now be snecifica; among others, former to whsm queen Elizabeth pre- 
th(? custodia of the cathedral of Avila, sented eight ^ineas, in token of Uie 
and that of the cathedral of Seville; both satisfaction he had given her on that 
of which arc represented in his Varia occasion ; but had sucn been the case, he 




pf)Hitc ; the other, which occupied him " became parson of a market-town in 

Hix yours, is circular in plan, and consists Suffolk, called Halesworth," where he 

of fdiir orders, viz. Ionic, Corinthian, and lived long, and was buried obscurely, 

two (!(>iiipoflite ones, with a variety of He died suddenly during a feast at Chea- 

KldtiicH and haH-reliefs. For the Escurial ton, a mile distant from Halesworth, and 

111* ixrcutod flixty-four metal busts. The his interment took place on the 8th of 

liiHt work attributed to him is the cus- October, 1606. Argall, in his Introdnc- 

todi.'i of the <hurch of St. Martin at tio ad Artcm Dialecticam, Lond. 1605, 

M/ulrid, thf contract for which wiis made 8vo, (which Anthony Wood quaintly calls 

ill Wioo, find it iH Hupposcd that he died " very facete and pleasant, ) claims to 

Hhorlly after coiiipletinp it. have been intimate in early life with Dr. 

AUrii, (Juan de,) born at Seville in Bilson, subsequently bishop of Winches- 

KiO.'l. He romnuiiced the study of his tor; Dr. Heton, bishop of Ely ; Dr. Ro- 

nrt ill that city, and afterwards went to binson, bishop of Carlisle ; and Dr. Mat- 

liiily to jierfeet hiiiiHelf. On his return thew, first bishop of Durham, and finally, 

to hi < native I'oinitry he executed, amongst archbishop of "i ork. If they attempted 

«»lher yjnil works, stiitues in marble anything in Argall's favour, they attempted 

111 the ivaii)MliHtH and doctors, twenty it ineirectually ; for os he himself said, the 

frit hif'h, in the elianelof thcCumnmnion year before his death, he was "an un- 

of Seville. (Hiofj. I?iiiv.) worthy and poor old man, still detained 

112 



ARG ARG 

in the chains of poverty for his great and leges deprived the patentees of their 

innumerable sins, that he mi^ht repent expected profits. Ar^and came to Eng- 

with the prodigal son, and at length, by land, and his death m 1803 is said to 

God's favour, obtain salvation." Besides have been accelerated by his disappoint- 

tile Introductio ad Artem Dialecticam, ments. (Biog. Univ.) 

from which the above quotation is made, ARGELLATI, (Philip,) an Italian 

John Argall wrote and printed a treatise, printer, and one of the most learned and 

De Vera Penitentia, Lond. 1604, 8vo; laborious authors of his time, was bom at 

and Dr. Bliss has pointed out a MS. Bologna in 1685. His most important 

in Bibl. Reg. A. xii. entitled, Johannis undertaking was the printing of the great 

Argalli Epistola Monitoria ad R. Jaco- collection of ancient historians, known as 

bum, cum in Regem Anghae inauguratus the Scriptores Rerum Italicarum. Mu- 

est ratori, who formed the design of this 

ARGALL, (Richard,) was a sacred work, was almost on the point of aban- 
poet of some merit, but not of much cele- doning it, from the impossibility of getting 
brity ; and whether any and what rela- it printed in Italy, where the art of typo- 
tion to the preceding, is uncertain, no graphy had been allowed to fall into great 
particulars of his life or family being neglect A society, called the Palatine, 
Known. Three of his works were pub- was however formed, chiefly owing to the 
lished in the same year, viz. The Song of exertions of the count Charles Archinto, 
Songs, which was Solomon's, metaphrased to defray the expenses of pubUcation, 
in English heroicks by way of Dialogue, and Argellati estaolished a magnificent 
Lond. 1621, 4to; The Bride's Ornament, printing-house at Milan, from which this 
poetical essays upon a divine subject, work was the first to issue. His other 
Lond. 1621, 4to; and A Funeral Elegy, productions were — the works of Sigonius, 
consecrated to the memory of his ever- in 6 vols, folio, which appeared in 1738 ; 
honoured lord. King, late bishop of Le Opere inedite di Ludovico Castelvetro, 
London, 1621. He was patronized by 1727; De Antiquis Mediolani Edificiis, 
bishop John Kin^, and dedicated the 1736; &c. Argellati also wrote and pub- 
first of the preceding works to his son lished, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Mediola- 
Henry, then archdeacon of Colchester, nensium, 1745;Bibliotecade' Volgarizza- 
and subsequently bishop of Chichester, tori Italiani, 1767; besides many memoirs 
Anthony Wood (Ath. Oxon. by Bliss, i. in difierent collections. He died in 1755. 
761) notices two other intended publi- (Biog. Univ. Mazuchelli.) 
cations by Richard Argall, and doubts ARGELLATI, (Francesco,) son of the 
whether they were ever printed, owing preceding, bom in 1712, was well ac- 
to the disappointment of the author at quainted with ancient and modem lite- 
the death of his patron : the one was rature, which he had ample opportunities 
called Meditations of Knowledge, Zeal, of cultivating in his father's nouse, with 
Temperance, Bounty, and Joy; and the whom he lived till his death in 1754. He 
other. Meditations of Pmdence, Obedi- lefl some mipublished works, in jurispru- 
ence, Meekness, God's Word and Prayer, dence, philosophy, and general literature. 
Wood does not add where he had seen (Biog. Univ. MazucheUi.) 
the MSS. of these productions. He had AKGENS, (Jean Baptiste de Boyer, 
not been able to ascertain to what col- marquis d',) was bom in 1704, at Aix in 
lege in Oxford Richard Argall belonged, Provence, and entered the French army 
but merely states, that he ** spent some at an early age ; he was, however, obliged 
time in study" there. to leave it, and was sent to Constanti- 

ARGAND, (Aim6,) inventor of the nople with the French ambassador. On 

lamp known by his name, was a Ge- returning to France, his family wished 

ncvese. He made his first lamp in Eng- him to study for the bar, a profession for 

land about 1782. He found it esroedient to which his profligate habits particularly 

share the honour and profits of his inven- unfitted him ; and he again entered the 

tion with M. Lcmge, who also claimed army, but a fall from his horse at the 

the discovery, in whose name, jointly with siege of Philipsburg disqualified him for 

his own, French letters patent were ob- a military life. Disinherited by his feither, 

tained in 1787. The use of the new lamp, he was obliged to take to liis pen, as a 

with its perfect combustion of the oil and means of subsistence, and went to reside 

steady light, produced by the intemal in Holland, where he published his Lettres 

current of air and the glass chimney, Juives, a work wliicn recommended him 

soon became general; but the revolu- to tlie notice of Frederick II. at that time 

tionary abohtion of all exclusive privi- prince royal of Prussia. On his accession 

VOL. If. 113 I 



I 



ARG ARG 

to the tlirone, Argcns accepted an inrita- nor can we conceive how the AmgODese 

tion to Berlin, wliere he received the ap- dispensed with his residence among them, 

poititinent of chainherlain, with a consi- even for a time. Accompanied by his 

dcrablc Kalury, and the superintendence brother, Lupercio went to Naples. At 

of tlielitcnirydepurtnient of the academy, his request the viceroy founded a new 

lie reMided in Prussia for twenty- five academy, that o! the OcicMOf, or Men with 

ycarH, living on terms uf great intimacy Leisure, — mearJng that the subjects which 

and favour with Frederick, until he of- lie within their province should occupy 

fended the king by niarryuig, when nearly their notice only at leisure houm, as a 

sixty years old. The last two years of relaxation from more important duties. 

his life were spent in Provence, where he The multiplicity of his offices injured Lu- 

died in 1771. His publications were nu- percio's health: he was physically unequal 

nierous, but did not possess much literary to duties so numerous and so varied, and 

merit: they were once popular, and are notwithstanding the aid which he received 

all tainted with infidelity and innnorality. from his affectionate brother, he sunk 

His information was extensive, but em- under them in 1613. The remt which 

iloyitd with little taste or judgment ; and his death occasioned, both in Naples and 

liH style has all the faults of a frequent Spain, must be attributed to his private 

and hasty writer, with whom literary virtues as much as to his literary merit. 
composition was at first necessary as a In the dramas of Lupercio,— -of which 

means of support, and afterwards, as an the only two that are extant, Isabela and 

indispensable nabit. (Biog. Univ.) Alejandra, have been published in the 

AlKiKNSOLA. Two brothers of this Parnaso Espaiiol, — we find nothhig to 
name are entitled to a particular mention admire beyond the elegance of the Tan- 
in the literary annals of Spain : — giiiM^c and the fluency of the versification. 

\. Leonardo de Lupercio, {\^6Ti — 1G13,) The former is acknowledged to be far 
a native of ikrbastro, and by both parents superior to the latter ; yet its &ults are 
of ancient lineage. His education, like numerous, without any redeeming beautv 
that of his brother Bartholomew, began beyond those we have just mentioneo. 
at Huesca and was finished at Sanigossa. But these works were exceedingly po- 
It is mentioned, to his praise, that he paid pular, and the reader who may remember 
consi(leral)le attention to Greek — a Ian- the high praise bestowed upon both by 
giuige more studied in those days than Cervantes, in the conversation between 
at ])re.scnt in the Spanish universities, the curate and the canon of Toledo, will 
From the time of Ins leaving college to have little respect for the critical autho- 
l.'iS."), we know nothing of his motions; rity of that celebrated writer, 
hut ill that year he was at Madrid, com- In another department, Lupercio is 
>Ieting three tragedies, which were pro- deserving of a hign degi'ee of praise. As 
)-il)ly represented at court. He, or at an imitator of Horace, as a lyric poet, a 
least his brother, seems to have had satirist, and a writer of epistles, he will 
some interest among the great ; for he always be perused with pleasure. If he 
was about this time appointed secre- has not feeling, he has fancy ; his judg^ 
tary to the empress Maria of Austria, ment is good ; his observation of life con- 
to whom Bartholomew \\i\» chamberlain, siderable; his taste highly cultivated; his 
and gentleman in the household of the manner often sententious. In the sonnet 
areluluke Albert. An ap])ointment far and the national song he was also suc- 
mort> worthy of him, and more eoiigenial cessfiil ; but he has little vigour, and his 
witli his wislies, was that of cronlsta poetical efforts, elegant as they arc, cloy 
itiat/or of Arragon, which Philip 111. hud by their unifonnity^ An historical work 
created about ir)!»8. The patronage of this on the troubles of Arragon, connected 
oHice was not in the crown; it was wisely with Ant(mio Perez, (see the name,) was 
left to the deputies of the kingdom, who also, we are told, composed by Lupercio, 
evinced their good sense by attacliing two but it has never seen the light, 
conditions to the olilce; lirst, that the chro- 2. Jiartholonie Juan Leonardo de, 
nicl.r slioiild reside in Arraj^on ; and {\i)i]G — KJ.'U,) who was bom and cdu- 
secondly, that Liij)ercio sliould continue cated at tlie same places as his brother, 
tlie Aniial.4 of /urit:i, by writing the liis- entered the clmrch, and was chaplain to 
tory of the rei^n of Charles V. How the eni])ress Maria of Austria. On the 
hn\<i he had exercised this duty when, in death (►f that princess he repaired to 
Kilo, lu- was noiniiiatcd secretary to tiie Valladolid, where the court then resided^ 
conde de Ia'iuos, (viceroy of Naples,) and and where he found a patron in the 
member uf administration, we know not; cunde de Lemos. But the manners of « 



1 



ARO ARG 

court did not pletse him, and he remored efiUsions are much more numerous than 

to Saragossa with the intention of per- his brother's ; and his spiritual songs, in 

manently remaining in the capital of his imagery, power of reflection, and pathos, 

native country. He did not, however, are superior to any thing produced by 

remain there many months ; he resolved Lupercio. 

to accompany his brother to Naples, and As an historian, Bartholomew deserves 

as he was well provided with the goods considerable praise. His Conquista de 

of fortune, firatemal affection only could las Islas Molucas (Madrid, 1609) is 

have been his motive. On the death of written with much elegance and with 

Lupercio in 1613, he was elected his sue- considerable judgment; and his conti- 

cessor as historiographer of Arracon. The nuation of Zurita's Annals is inferior to 

duties of the post, coupled with those that of his reverend predecessor in one 

required by his prebendal stall in the respect only — it is somewhat too rhe- 

cathedral of Saragossa, a stall conferred toncal. In the latter work he proves 

on him by Paul v., rendered his future himself a true Arragonese ; he is animated 

residence m that city indispensable. He by the free spirit of his country, and we 

waited, however, at Naples until the end are sometimes at a loss to conceive how 

of the viceregal authority of the conde the book could have been licensed in 

de Lemos, and reached Saragossa in 1 61 6. Spain. Some other works of Bartholomew 

From this time, religion, history, and vet remain in MS. and are mostly, we 

poetry, occupied his whole time, unless believe, in private libraries. (£1 Pamaso 

indeed when the gout assailed him. This Espanol, torn. iii. vi. Nicolas Antonio, 

was his great enemy, and in 1631 it put Bibliotheca Nova (sub nom). Bouterweck, 

an end to his life and labours. History of Spanish Literature, book ii.) 

For the literary merits of Bartholomew, ARGENSON. See Votbb. 
as for those of his brother, we must not ARGENTAL, (Charles Auguste de 
adopt the exaggerated estimate of Spanish Ferriol, comte d',) bom at Paris in 1700, 
writers. When Cervantes (in his Canto died 1788, was for many years counsellor 
de Caliope) assures us that they were in the parliament of Paris, and afterwards 
** two suns in poetry, on whom Heaven represented the duke of Parma at the 
with lavish hand conferred all that she court of France. He was an intimate 
had to bestow;" "that the younger and early friend of Voltaire, for whom he 
imitated the elder by soaring so high as entertained the greatest attachment and 
to be lost to human gaze;" and when a admiration. (Biog. Univ.) 
recent native biographer afiirms that ARGENTELLE, (Louis Marc Antoine 
Bartholomew was " a great, true, original Robillard d',) a Frenchman, who was 
poet, comparable with the most celebrated very successful in modelling botanical 
Ijrric poets of antiquity," we may smile specimens. He returned from the Isle of 
at the manner in which children in the France to Paris, in 1826, with a rich col- 
art of criticism — for such in poetry at lection of tropical plants, represented in 
least are the Spaniards — thus outrage the his peculiar method. He was bom in 
established prmciples of that art. But 1777^ and died in 1828. (Suppl. Biog. 
when Cervantes observes that the two Univ.) 

brothers seemed to have been sent to ARGENTI or ARIENTI, (Au^tine,) 

reform the Castilian language, we may an Italian lawyer and poet of the sixteenth 

acquiesce in his opinion — for who was a century, died in 1576. He composed a 

better judge? Even to foreigners, who pastoral drama, entitled — Lo Sfortunato, 

cannot have the same critical knowledge Favola Pastorale, Venice, 1568, and de- 

of mere style, there is in the writings of dicated to his patron, the cardinal d'Este, 

both a good taste, a correctness, a finished which was acted at Ferrara with great 

elegance, which we should vainly seek success. (Biog. Univ.) 

in any of their predecessors or contem- ARGENTI, (Borso,) brother of the 

poraries — even in Cervantes. In many preceding, died in 1594; was an eccle- 

respects the style of both is so similar siastic, and wrote some pieces in poetry, 

that it can scarcely be distinguished, as well as a comedy in prose — La Pri- 

This similarity may be explained by that gione. Ferrara, 1580. (Biog. Univ.) 

of their pursuits, Uieir tastes, their con- ARGENTIER, (John,) a Piedmontese 

joint education, their inseparability, and physician, bom in 1513, died at Turin in 

their strong fraternal attachment. But 1572. His works were collected after 

in the churchman there is more thought, his death, in 2 vols fol. at Venice, 1592, 

more knowledge of the world, more vi- 1606, and at Hanover in 1610, which is 

gour, a greater spirit of action. His the best edition. Argentier knew little 

115 I 2 



ARG AKG 

of Hie practical parts of his profesnoc, at the head of the isalcontents, hut 

but occupied himself with the study of overpovered and taken prisoner; but 

tlie medical writers. He centres Galen Ahmed impmiently quitting the army 

wiih much acrimonv. (Biog. Univ.) for the capital, the Mogul sreneraLs re- 

ARGEXTRE, (Louis Charles Du- leased Arghua, and placed him on the 

plessis d,') bishop of Limoges, was bom throne in the plare of his uncle, who was 

in 1721, died in 1808 at Munster, whither seized and given un for retaliation to the 

he had been driven by the revolutionary princess Kongoo»-l*cliai, whose son he 

movements in Frence. had put to death, a.d. 12S4, ▲.h. 6S3. 

ARGENTRE, (Bertrand d\) a French During the first years of the reign of 

historian, bom in 1519 ; succeeded his Arghun, the government was almost en- 

father in the place of seneschal of Ren- tirely administered by the emir Boga, a 

nes. He wrote an historical account of Mogul by birth : an attempt, however, in 

the province of Britany, which was pub- 1287 to dethrone his master, cost this 

lished at Rennes in 1582, and Pans in powerful minister his life ; and a Jewish 

1588. D*Argentr6 also wrote commen- physician, named Saad-ed-doulah, sue- 

taries on the customs of Britany, which ceeded as vizier, and obtained an ahso- 

are praised by Dumoulin. He died in lute ascendant over the mind of Ai^wi, 

1590, and his collected works were printed which the superstition of that age attri- 

in 1608 — 1612. (Biog. Univ.) buted to the use of philtres. During the 

ARGENTRE, (Charles Duplessis d,') whole reign, the Moslems were subjected 

bishop of Tulle, was bom in 1673, at the to rigorous persecution, and debarred 

castle of Plessis, in the diocese of Rennes, from all offices of trust or emcdtunenty 

He devoted himself to the studv of theo- which were filled with Jews and Chris- 

^^Sy* ^^^ wrote several works, tne titles of tians : it was even said that Arghun had 

which are, Apologic de 1* Amour qui nous promised to lead an army into Arabia, 

fuit d^sirer de posseder Dieu seul, &c. and convert the Kaaba at Mekka into a 

Amst. 1698. Traits de TEglise, Lyons, church ; and pope Nicholas IV. conveyed 

1698. Eiementa Theologio*, &c. Paris, to the Mogul prince his acknowledge- 

1 702, with an explanatory Appendix in ments for the favour which he had shown 

1 705. Lexicon rhilosophicum, Hague, the Christians. But a malady which at- 

1 706. Dc Propria Ratione qua Res Super- tacked Arghun disconcerted all these 
nntiirak'S a Rebus Naturalibus difTemnt, . hopes ; and the recovery of the khan was 
Paris, 1707. Martini Grandini Opera, no sooner declared hopeless, than the 
Paris, 1710. Collectio Judiciomm de favourite Snad-ed-doula was massacred 
Novis Erroribus, 1 725-33-36 ; and some by the Mogul nobles. Arghun survived 
othcrri. lie died in 17-10. (Biog. Univ.) his minister only a few days; and was 

ARGENVILLE, (Ant. Joseph, 1680 succeeded by his brother, — (whose ni^ne 

— 1766,) an amateur engraver and man has been variously spelled Kangiatu, 

of letters, born at Paris. His family Kaikhtii, Kev-Khatu, &c. ; the last is 

name was Dezaillier. Besides many most probably correct,) — a. n. 1291, 

works on natural history, gardfoing, a. u. 690. His character has been Yery 

and other subjects, there is by him an differently painted by Christian and Mos- 

Al>ri(l^(Miicnt of the Lives of celebrated lem writers ; by the former he is lauded 

PaiiitcTH, with their Portraits, Paris, 1745, as a pattern of all princely virtues, while 

1752; reprinted in 1762. He designed thelatter represent liim as a tyrant and op- 

and on*^ruvcd for his amusement. Tlierc pressor, and consider his death as a mira- 

art? several landscapes by his hand, and cle wrought in their favour. An impartial 

one head of a Peasant Girl laughing, examination will perhaps justify us in 

after ('arnvaggio, engraved in the chalk regarding him as a prince of little natural 

manner, dedicated to the countess de force of character, swayed by his minis- 

Koehefort, and another head of a Peasant ters and favourites, and with no predo- 

(lirl, after Watteau. (Hcinccken, Diet, minant passion but avarice. (Khondemir. 

di'H Artistes.) Abul-Faraj. Abul-Feda, D*Hcrbelot. 

AlUillUN-KlIAN, son of Abaka, and De Guignes.) 

grandson of Ilulaku, was the fourth of ARG ILL ATA, or DE ARGELLATA, 

the Mogid khans of Persia, if we reckon (Pietro d*,) an Italian physician, was pro- 

Ilulaku as the first. His uncle and pre- fessor of logic, astronomy, and medicme, 

deci'Hsor, Nikoudar Ahmed Khan, having at Bologna, where he died in 1423. His 

inmle liiniself obnoxious to his Mogul works, entitled, Chirurgias Libri Seat, 

BuhjectH by embracing the Moslem faith, Vcnetiis, 1480, were four times reprinted 

was opposed by Arghun, who put himself witliin twenty years. They contain many 

116 



ARG ARG 

valuable observations, and are remarkable advocate in the parliament of Paris. His 

for the candour with which he acknow- best known work is his — Institution au 

ledges his own mistakes. (Biog. Univ.) Droit Fran9ais, which has been some- 

ARGOLI, (Andrea,) an Italian ma- times ascribed to the Abb6 Fleury, with- 

thematician and astrologer, bom in 1570, out any foundation. His works were 

at Tagliacozzo, in the kingdom of Naples, collected aflcr his death, and have passed 

was professor in the university of Padua, through several editions. (Biog. Univ.) 

He died in 1G53, leaving— De Diebus ARGUES, (Gerard des.) SccDesAk- 

Criticis, 1G52; Ephemerides, from 1620, cues. 

4 vols, 4to; Observations on the Comet ARGUIJO, (Juan de, died before 1630,) 

of 1653. His Ephemerides were reprinted of Seville, a poet who had many flat- 

at Padua and Lyons, and continued to terers in his day, and although far from 

1700. (Biog. Univ.) contemptible, assuredly does not merit 

ARGOLI, (Giovanni,) son of Andrea, the praises which he has received. His 

distinguished for his juvenile poetry, was liberality in pecuniary matters was great : 

bom in 1609. He published a poem on though his means were originally am- 

the Silk-worm — Bambace e seta, idillio, pie, he exhausted them, and was com- 

Rome, 1624, before he was fifteen years pelled to subsist on the dowry of his 

old. Two years afterwards, he brought wife. Hence tlie adulation of tnose who 

out his poem of End3rmion, in twelve did, or hoped to benefit by his purse, 

cantos, which was completed in seven Bouterweck praises his sonnets, but he 

months. This performance was so sue- is not a high authority in Spanish lite- 

cessful, that it was even doubted whether rature. The only composition of his 

so young a man, as the alleged author, which we have had the opportunity of 

was capable of writing such a poem, perusing — a Cancion in the 9th voL 

Angoli afterwards studied jurisprudence, of the Pamaso Espaiiol — has no great 

and taught literature at Bologna. His merit. 

death took place about 1660. He was ARGUIS, See Polycletus. 

also the author of some Latin verses, ARGYLE. See Campbell. 

and several memoirs and essays on ARGYRE, son of Melo, a powerful 

antiquarian and other subjects. (Biog. citizen of Bari, made himself master of 

Univ.) that city, and in 1042 assumed the title 

ARGONNE, (Noel,) called Bonavcn- ^of duke of Italy. He preserved the go- 
turc, a Carthusian monk, bom at Paris vernment of Beri, with the assistance of 
about 1634, died at Gaillon in Nor- the court of Constantinople, till 1058, 
mandy in 1704. lie wrote — Traite de after which he lost the favour of the em- 
la Lecture des P^res de I'Eglise, 1688; peror, and died in exile. 
L'Education, Maximcs ct Reflexions de ARGYROPULO, (John,) was one of 
M. de Mon^ade, avcc un Discours du Sel the learned Greeks, driven from Con- 
dans les Ouvrages d'Esprit, 1691 ; M6- stantinople on its capture by Mahomet 
lances d*Histoire et de Litt^rature re- II. m 1453, whose appearance in Italy 
cuedlis par Vigneul- Marville, Rouen, contributed so remarkably to the revivsd 
1699 — 1701, reprinted for the fourth time of ancient literature. He received the 
at Paris in 1725, a work which contains appointment of Greek professor at Flo- 
manv curious literary anecdotes and re- rence from Cosmo de Medici, where he 
flections. (Biog. Univ.) had for his pupils Pietro and Lorenzo de 

ARGOTE of Molina. See Molina. Medici, the son and grandson of Cosmo, 

ARGOTE, (Hieronomo C. de, 1676 — and Politian and Acciaioli. Argyropulo 

1749,) a native of CoUares, in Portuguese remained at Florence until the plague 

Estremadura, distinguished himself by obliged him to quit it, when he went to 

his antiquarian and liistorical essays. Rome, and continued his course of in- 

His contributions to the Transactions of struction in philosophy and the Greek 

the Academy of History at Lisbon have language there, numbering among his 

considerable merit ; but he is better scholars the celebrated German Reuch- 

known for his work, De Antiquitatibus lin. He died in consequence of eating 

Conventus Bracaragustani, and for his melons excessively, in the seventieth year 

memorials relating to the archi episcopal of his age, soon after liis settlement at 

church of Braga. He also wrote, in nis Rome : the exact date is uncertain, but it 

native language, several discourses, and must have been after 1478, because he 

the lives of a few saints. survived Thcodorus Gaza, who died in 

ARGOU, (Gabriel,) a French author that year. His translations of some of 

in the seventeenth century. He was an Aristotle's works into Latin arc to be 

117 



ARO ARI 

found in the older editions of that author. He preferred his hermitage, to which he 

(Biog. Univ. Roscoe*s Lorenzo. Hodius retired with new ardour. He had there 

de Grsecis Illustr.) one habitation for summer, another for 

ARIADNE, empress of Constantino- winter ; the one surrounded by gardens, 

pie, was daughter of the emperor Leo L the other by vine plantations. Scarcely 

Her first husband was Trascalipsus, a was he comfortably settled in this enviable 

chief of the Isauri, who took the name solitude, when Philip again drew him into 

of Zeno, and was associated with the world to superintend the library of 

her in the empire. She followed him the Escurial, and to teach the oriental 

with fidelity in his exile ; and on his languages to the monks of that establish- 

decease gave her hand and the imperial ment. He died at Seville. Besides the 

title to Anastasius, an aged domestic of Antwerp Polyglott (8 vols, fol.) which he 

the palace. She died in 515. (Gibbon, assisted to edit, he wrote nine hooka on 

vii. 6.) Jewish Antiquities, a History of Nature, 

ARIARATHES. Ten kings of this a Treatise on Rhetoric; he translated the 

name reigned in Cappadocia. The first Psalms of David into Latin verse, and 

lived about 330 b. c, and the tenth and the Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela into 

last was deprived of his sovereignty by Latin prose. 

Mark Antony. ARIAS DE BENAVIDES, a phyri- 

ARIAS, (Francisco, 1533 — 1605,) a cian of Toro, who travelled in the New 

Jesuit of Seville, whose labours for the World, and published on his return a 

reformation of prisons merit the esteem book which he entitled Secrets of Sor- 

of posterity. His works, which are nu- gery. 

merous, and all religious, attest hb own ARIBERT, son of Clotaire II., king of 

])iety, and his zeal wr the spiritual wel- France, and half-brother to Dagobert I. 

fare of others. Aribert was too young on his father*! 

ARIAS MONTANUS, (Benedictus, death to assert his claims to succeed lum 
1527 — 1598,) a native of Fraxenal in in the monarchy of France, but was 
Estremadura, is well known to European crowned king, at Toulouse, of part of tlie 
scholars for his interlineary versions, realm of Aquitaine, and died two yean 
Educated at Alcala, and invested with afterwards, in 630. (Biog. Univ.) 
the habit of Santiago, in 1562 he accom- ARIBERT I., king of the Lombards, 
panied the bishop of Segovia to the coun- . son of Gundoald, succeeded Radoald in 
oil of Trent, where he laid the foundation 653, and died in 661. (Biog. Univ.) 
of his celebrity. On his return, he re- ARIBERT II., king of the Lombiirds, 
tired to the hermitage of Nuestra Sciiora was son of Ragimbert, duke of Turin, 
de los Angelos, on the summit of a rock who after usurping the crown of Lon>- 
neur Aracena, and there he hoped to hardy in 700, associated his son in the 
meditate without interruption. But Phi- government with himself, and soon after- 
lip II., who had heard of his skill in the wards died. Aribert put to death Liut- 
ancient languages, sent him to Antwerp bert, the rightfid sovereign, and ezer- 
to superintend the publication of the cised great cruelties upon the wife and 
Polyglott which Plantin was printing, children of Ansprand,Lmtbert'sguardiaB. 
There he reiniiined from 1568 to 1572. Ansprand attacked him, in 712, with 
To the languages wliich had been printed a Bavarian army, and Aribert, deserted 
at Alcala, he added a Ch<ildee paraphrase, by his soldiers, fled and was drowned in 
a Syriac version of the New Testament, the Tesino, in hia endeavour to escape. 
in Syriac and Hebrew characters, with a (Biog. Univ.) 

Latin translation. His labours procured ARIDICUS, a Greek painter, disciple 

him much renown, and a bitter enemy in of Arcesilaus, by whom also Apelles is 

Leone de Castro, professor of tlie oriental said to have been instructed, 

languages at Salamanca, who accused him ARIGISUS I., duke of Benerento^ 

at Home and to the inquisition of altering succeeded in 591 to Zotton, the founder 

the text of Scripture so as to pluase the of that principality, and received investi- 

Jews and confirm them in their misbe- ture from Agdulphus, king of the Lom- 

lief. Many were the jounieys which he bards. He died in 641. (Biog. Unir. 

liad to niJike to Rome before he could be Sismondi, Rep. It.) 

absolved from the charge ; but in the ARIGISUS II., duke of Benevento^ 

end (1580) he was honourably dismissed, succeeded Liutprand in 758. Ariffisiis 

and I'hilip, to show his sense of the in- married the daughter of Desiderius, King 

justice with which he had been treated, of the Lombards, and, refusing to acknow- 

offered him a bishopric, which he refused, ledge Charlemagne upon the destructioii 

118 



A R I A R I 

of the Lombard kingdom, he assmned Cappadoda was possessed alternately by 

the rights of independent sovereignty, Anobarzanes ana the son of Mithridates, 

but in 787, after a struggle of thirteen for four or five times, as the power of 

years, was forced to admit his feudal Mithridates or the R^omans prevailed; 

dependence on the crown of Italy, and but Pompey finally established him on 

to pay a large annual tribute. He died the throne. (Biog. Univ.) 

in the same year. (Biog. Univ. Sis- ARIOBARZAN£SII.,sumamedPlii'* 

mondi, Rep. It.) lopator, son of the preceding, succeeded 

ARIGNOTE of Sahos, is said by some his father about 67 b. c, and died about 
to have been the daughter of Pythagoras 52 b. c. (Cicero, Epist. fam. xv. 2.) 
and Thcano, and by others only the pupil of ARIOBARZANES III., sumamed 
the philosopher. Suidas attributes to Eusebes Philoromseus, son of the preced- 
her a Treatise on the Mysteries of Ceres ing. He was protected by the Koman 
and Bacchus, under the title, it would people, with whom he communicated 
seem, of *Upos Aoyos ; the loss of which through Cicero. After the death of 
cannot be sufficiently deplored, as it Julius Crosar he joined the forces of the 
would probably have enabled us to know triumvirate. (Biog. Univ.) 
that as a fact, which can be now arrived ARION, the son of Cyclon, was a na- 
at only by inference. It is possible, how- tive of Methymne in Lesbos, and con- 
ever, that the author of the treatise was temporary with Periander of Corinth, 
the Arignotus mentioned by Lucian in where he lived a long time, and was in 
Philopseud. § 29. high favour with the prince as a dithy- 

ARIMAZES, a chieftain of Sogdiana, rambic poet ; and, according to Herodo- 

who refused to surrender to Alexander tus, i. 23, the first of that profession, 

a rocky fortress held by him. It was From thence he went to Italy and Sicily, 

taken, and Arimazes put to death, with where he amassed considerable property, 

all his garrison. (Q. Curt. 7, c. 11.) On his return, however, to Corintn, he 

ARIMNESTUS, the son of Pythagoras, was plundered by the crew of the vessel, 

and the preceptor of Democritus, wrote a and ordered to throw himself into the sea. 

work on^ the Boundaries of Samos, or Arion pleaded for his life, or at any rate, 

rather the Definitions of the Samian (i.e. begged that if they determined to destroy 

Pythagoras). Heumann identifies him him, they would not prevent his corpse 

with tne A'imnestus mentioned by Dio- from reaching land and obtaining the usual 

genes liaertius. honours of me dead. Deaf to his en- 

ARINGHI, (Paul,) an Italian anti- treaties, the crew would grant him only 
quary and priest of the Oratory at Rome, the request he made to play a spirit- 
where he oied in 1676. He is chiefly stirring strain; when taking his harp he 
known by his additions to the Roma struck the strings with sucn skill as to 
Subterranea of Basio. Aringhi also pub- attract a dolphin, upon whose back he 
lished, Monumenta Infelicitatis. Rome, threw himseff and reached Corinth in 
1664. Triumphus Pcenitentiae, 1670. safety. The story of his adventure was 
(Biog. Univ.) at first disbelieved by Periander; but 

ARIOALD, was elected to succeed when, on the arrival of the vessel, the 

Adaloald in the kingdom of Lombardy in crew were asked what had become of 

625. Gundeberga ms queen was accused Arion? and they had answered that he 

by a disappointed lover of conspiracy was safe at Tarentum, Periander produced 

against her husband, and was confined Arion in the very dress he wore when he 

by him, for ^ three years, in a tower at leaped into the sea, which so staggered 

Lomello, until a champion appeared to the sailors that they were compelled to 

do battle for her. He conquered in the confess the truth, and were immediately 

combat, and Gundeberga was restored to impaled on a cross by the orders of the 

her seat on the throne. Arioald died in prince. The story has been explained, 

636. (Biog. Univ.) by supposing that Arion was picked up 

ARIOBARZANES, king of Cappa- by another vessel called the Dolphin, 

docia, sumamed Philoromseus, was elected which arrived first at Corinth. There is, 

to the crown with the approbation of the however, a curious confirmation of the 

Roman senate, when the royal line of tradition in the accounts of travellers, 

Ariarathes became extinct. Mithridates, who tell us that in the back settlements 

who intended the kingdom for his own of North America some of the native 

son, expelled Ariobarzanes ; but the tribes are accustomed to harpoon the 

latter recovered Cappadocia on the defeat larger fish, and quitting their canoe, to 

of Mithridates by Svlla. The crown of leap upon the back of the fish and to 

119' 



AR] ARI 

ride it to land. The hymn which Arion Giorgio Rd della Gran Britagna, &c» 

is said to have sune has been preserved with only his initials; after which he 

by JEMnn, H. A. xii. 45, but it is repu- quitted England, and no further account 

diated by Schneider. Herodotus, how- apnears concerning him. (Bumey*8 Hist. 

ever, testifies that the poet perpetuated en Music. MuaicalBiography.) 

the memory of the adventure b^ a small ARIOSTO, (Ludovico,) was bom at 

votive tablet of brass, on which, says Reggio in 1474, of noble parents, some 

^lian, was an epigram to the effect fol- writers pretending that he was related to 

lowing : — the duket of Ferrara. He was the eldest 

of ten children. Like many other ge- 

This car from Sicily's sea brought safe to land." •"•«^» «» ^^^ »»— *« r- j*, ••«- e"** *> '*•» */ 

proora of his talents for poetr}', and wrote 

ARIOSTI, (Attilio,) a musician, who whilst a boy a traeedy on the subject of 
was an ecclesiastic of the order of St. P)rramus and Thisbe, which with his bro- 
Domenic, and is supposed to have had a thers he acted before his parents. But by 
dispensation to exempt him from the rule the desire of his father he was compelled 
of nis order, and enable him to follow a to study the law, and after having lite- 
secular profession. He was [a native of rally thrown away not less than five 
Bologna, in which city, and in Venice, years in this pursuit, he was at last per- 
he pursued his art He afterwards re- mitted to follow hiis own inclination, 
sided in Germany, where in 1700 he was Impressed with the necessity of under- 
appointed maestro di capella to the standing well the classical authors, he 
electress of Brandenburgh ; and in the applied himself to the study of the best 
same year, on the occasion of the mar- liatin writers, under the guidance of 
riaee of the daughter of that princess Greeorio da Spoleto, an eminent scholar 
with the hereditary prince Frederick of of his age. AVhilst readinff Hautus and 
Hesse Cassel, a ballet and an opera of his Terence, he conceived the plan and wrote 
composition were performed at the villa a great part of two comedies. The first 
of the electress, near Berlin. In the he attempted was La Cassaria, and Uie 
opera, which was called Atys, he com- next I Suppositi, much the best even 
posed what he called sinfoma infemale, of those he wrote in his more mature 
to express the extremity of rage and years. AVhilst engaged in writing the 
despair, of which the modulation was so former, for some fault not mentioned by 
singular, and altogether so masterly, as liis biographers, his father reprimandea 
to excite the greatest astonishment, and him severely ; Ludovico listened atten- 
ensure entire success. tively to all he said without uttering a 

On the establishment of the Royal single word. Being asked by his brother 

Academy of Music in Londo|i, in 1720, why he had not justified himself he 

he was invited from Berlin, and with answered, " I wanted a scene like tlua 

Handel and Bononcini appointed to com- for my comedy ; my father has offered 

pose for it. He produced several operas, me the model, and I was unwilling to 

of which the most esteemed were Corio- interrupt him." By means of his IjAt 

lanus and Lucius Verus, the only ones poems, both in Italian and Latin, he 

which are printed entire. In the former, oecame known to cardinal Ippolito 

the prison scene is wrought to the d'E^te, who took him into his service, 

highest perfection, and is said to have and, together with his brother, the di^Le 

drawn tears from the audience at every Alfonso employed him in business of 

representation. Bumey says Ariosti consequence, particularly with pope Giu- 

came to England in 1716, and played lio II., during the war he was carrying 

upon an instrument called viol d'amore, on against the Venetians. The desire of 

wnich he had either invented or very paying his court to his patrons, and thus 

greatly improved ; so that he had pre- oettering his fortune, inspired him with 

viously visited this country. He played the idea of writing the Orlando Furioso, 

also on the violoncello. He was con- by adopting the fictions of Boiardo, who 

sidered one of the most eminent musi- had preceded him ; a poem, as he said, 

cians of his time, and to have been a in which he would take from future 

Serfcct harmonist, though somewhat dc- poets every hope not only of surpassing 

cicnt in invention. Falling into dis- but of equalling him either in imannation 

tress, he published a set of Cantatas by or style. The great knowledge lie had 

subscription, and some lessons for the of the Latin language, and the facility 

viol d'amore, wliich, togetlier, he de- with which he composed Latin verses, 

signatcd by the title Alia Mnesta di induced cardinal Bembo to advise him to 

120 



ART ARI 

write his poem in Latin ; fortunately he else. Urged hy this appeal, the duke 

did not listen to the advice, and he is granted him the government of a small 

even said to have answered that he province, called La Garfagnana, distracted 

wished rather to he reckoned the first hy factions and infested hvrohhers, whose 

among the Italians than the second chieftain was the notonous Pacchione. 

amongst the Latins. Although such an appointment ill-suited 

After the lahour of ten or eleven years, the poet's taste, yet oy his mild character 

duringwhich he was exposed to several and and conciliatory manners he succeeded 

long interruptions, ana by no means easy in establishing some sort of order, and 

in his circumstances, this poem was puln obtaining the affection of the people. It 

lished in 1516, in forty cantos; and though was there that the scene took place 

in many respects very different to what which was, for the first time, related by 

he afterwards made it, yet it was considered Garofalo, and which following biogra- 

so superior to anything of the sort as to phers, in copying it, have strangely 

raise its author at once to the rank of the altered. According to Garofalo, Ariosto 

first Italian poets. He revised and cor- was going over the mountauis, accompa- 

rected it afterwards at every new edition, nied by six or seven servants, all on horse- 

and in the last which appeared during his back, and on the road fell in with a troop 

life in 1532, he extended it to forty-six of armed men who were sitting in the 

cantos. But notwithstanding the general shade. Their suspicious appearance in- 

applause with which it was received, one duced Ariosto to hasten the pace of his 

voice was heard blaming the poet and horse. The chief of the troop, under- 

the poem, and this voice was that of his standing from one of the servants who 

patron, cardinal Ippolito, the man who was in Uie rear, that it was Ariosto, fol- 

nad scantily repaiahis services, and had lowed liim, and the latter perceiving him- 

no right to boast of his claims. It is re- self pursued by this armed man, thought 

ported that he complained that Ariosto, it prudent to stop. The man saluted 

for the sake of writing this poem, had him respectfully, said that his name was 

neglected his services ; and the insulting Filippo Pacchione, apologized for not 

question which he put to the poet after havmg saluted him when he passed, 

having read his poem, is too well known not knowing his name, but said that after 

and msgusting to deserve repetition ; a having learnt it he had hastened to pay 

complaint the more unjustifiable, as the personally his respects to the man whom 

poem had been in a great measure written ne knew so well by reputation, 

to celebrate and immortalize the cardinal At the expiration of three years, 

and his family. The cardinal, however, Ariosto left his government and returned 

thought differently ; for reasons not very to Ferrara, and it was then that, to please 

creditable to his memory he from that the duke, he revised his two comedies, 

moment lost eveiy sentiment of benevo- and wrote three new ones. La Lena, H 

lence towards Ariosto, and, as is often Negromante, and La Scolastica, and thus 

the case amongst the great, hatred sup- he shares with Cardinal Bibiena and 

plied its place. On his departiire for MacchiavcUi, who were his contempo- 

Hungary, tie left Ariosto, who could not raries, the credit of having written the 

accompany him on account of ill-health, first regular comedy. Of these, four 

in distressed circumstances, from which, were first written in prose and turned 

for a short time, he was partly relieved afterwards into verse. They were re- 

by the duke Alfonso, who took him into presented with every possible magni- 

his service, but repud him with similar ficence, on a stage raised after his own 

ingratitude. The only remuneration plan and under his immediate inspection, 

which Ariosto obtained from him, as well by the first noblemen of the court, and in 

as from all the princes of this family, the Lena one of the sons of Alfonso spoke 

celebrated as they have been for their the prologue. In the midst of so many 

munificence and liberality, was a pen- occupations Ariosto did not lose sight of his 

sion, or rather a reservation of rent on poem, for at this time he made ue alter- 

the chancery of Ferrara, of seventy-five ations which have been already noticed, 

ducats per annum, amounting to twelve About this time he also published his Sa- 

poimds and ten shillings of English tires, and was again involved in family 

money. Indeed the distress which Anosto difficulties, and harassed by law-suits. At 

experienced at this time compelled him last, having arranged his affairs, he 

to apply to the duke to beg that he would bought a piece of land, where he built a 

either relieve his necessities or permit very small but commodious house, whicK 

him to offer his services to some one some of his biographers assert he did 

121 



ARI ARI 

throogh the liberality of the dake Alfonso, real ol^ect of the poem mmy be to cdebnte 

but the words, " parta aere meo," which the origin of the family of Este, the lovea 

occur in the inscription he put on the and exploits of Ruggieri and Bradamante 

entrance, show that this liberality of the form its principal argument or action. 

duke is to be found only in the imagina- To this Ariosto, by way of predictions, 

don of the writers. which are invariably told to Bradamante, 

It is generally believed that the labour has joined all that could flatter the Tanity 

he took in the publication of the last of ms patrons ; and the event, or second 

edition of his great poem, in 1532, pro- action, to which he had attached that 

duced the malady, unfortunately too main argument, is the imaginary war of 

common among literar}' people, which the Saracens against Charlemagne. Tlie 

after eight months of excruciating pain, madness of Oriando forms the third 

carried him to the tomb, in the fifty- aigument or action, though the poem 

eighth year of his age. In accordance takes its title from it,««nd this mamiess, 

with his own desire, he was carried dur- with the description of the efiects it pro- 

rng the night to the old church of S.Be- duces, the extraordinary means employed 

nedetto in the most private manner, and by Astolfo to restore him to his senses, and 

his ashes remained for forty years in this the amusing detail of the manner in which 

humble situation, with no other inscrip- this cure is performed, form all together 

tion than the few Italian and Latin verses one action, or one episode, highly enter- 

which occasionally travellers had en- taining and poetical. But still, such is the 

CTaved, or rather scratched, on the stone, magic of liis style, the sharpness of his 

In the year 1572 a gentleman of Ferrara, satire, the vivid description of his cba- 

ealled Agostino Mosti, who had been a racters, the wonderfiil power of his ardent 

pupil of Ariosto, caused to be built at his imagination, his general good taste, and 

expense in the new church of S. Benedetto the manner in which he can excite the 

a tomb of beautiful marble, having at the curiosity of his reader, and even interest 

top the bust of the poet. On the anniver- his passions, that the Orlando Fiuioso is 

sary of his death, Agostino carried in his the first of all the poems of chivakr and 

own hand the urn containing his remains, romance, and the most extraorunaij 

followed by the monks, who accompanied composition of the kind, 

the convoy with chaunts and tapers, AUIOSTO, (Gabriel,) a brother of the 

amidst the acclamation of the people. great poet, died about 1552, according to 

The works of Ariosto are : — 1 . Seven Mazzuchelli, but it is probable that his 

Satires, in which he endeavoured to inii- death took place much earlier. A col- 

tate the urbanity of Horace rather than lection of Latin poetry by him, was 

the asperity of Juvenal, and which con- published at Ferrara in 1582. (Biog. 

tain many facts that are of creat use to Univ.) 

the historian of his time, and his hiogra- ARIOSTO, (Horace,) son of Gabriel, 

pher. 2. Five Comedies. 3. His ludian and nephew of the poet, was bom in 

Poems, consisting of elegies, odes, son- 1555. Ho was a canon in the cathedral 

nets, madrigals, &c. 4. His Latin Poems, of Ferrara, and an intimate friend of 

in two books. 5. A short prose tract, Tasso, for whom he composed arguments 

entitled Erbolato, in which he introduces to the cantos of the Jerusalem Delivered, 

a certain Antcmio de Facnza speaking of In the dispute between the partisans of 

the dignity of man .and the science of Tasso and Ariosto, Horace Ariosto ¥rrote 

medicine. And, lastly, his ercat poem, La Difese dell' Orlando Furioso, &c., but 

Orlando Furioso, to which he owes his always entc^rtained a hi*'h admiration for 

immortality, and which has passed through Tasso. He commenced the com]X)sition 

numberless editions, and been translated of a groat poem, entitled Alfeo, the com- 

into almost all languages, not without pletion of which was prevented by his 

much harsh criticism, even by some death in 1593, and none of it was erer 

of his admirers, who cannot exempt printed. (Biog. Univ.) 

themselves of a feeling of disgust, arising AKIOVISTUS. A celebrated leader 

by a kind of vexation produced by the of the Germans, who was defeated by 

labour they must employ to attend to the Ca?8ar, with a reputed loss of 80,000 men. 

rapid succession and the astonishing His name is said to answer to the German 

multiplicity of the episodes, and the in- Ehrenvest. (Cresar, 1 Bell. Gall. Taci- 

troduction of foreign anecdotes and vul- tus, 4 Hist.) 

gar characters, which are perpetually ARIPIIRON, alpic poet of Sicyon, of 

interfering with each other and inter- whom a solitary fragment has been pre- 

nipting the main storj'. For although the served by Athenapus, xv. p. 702, in the 

122 



ARI ARl 

well-known Ode to Health, vrhioh G. Bur* Greek by Aristanetus; the volume in 

ffca has restored to its original measures 12mo. is dedicated to £ustatius Budgel, 

m the Classical Journal, No. 48, p. 368. who, as appears from tlie preface, was the 

ARIPHRADES, a writer of comedy, author or the papers in the Spectator, 

quoted by Aristotle, Poet. ss. 22, and signed X. The nrst book likewise has 

who is perhaps the person to whom Ari- been translated into English verse by H. S. 

stophones alludes in Iinr. 1278, and S^ijk. (t. e. N. B. Holhed and R. B. Sheridan) 

1272, as may be inferred from Lucian, in 1771. The Greek was first printed at 

Pseudologist, ss. 3. Antwerp, 4to, 1556 ; and the latest and 

ARISl, (Francesco,) an Italian jurist, most complete edition is by Boissonade, 

and a man of some literary eminence, Lutet. 182!5. 

was born at Cremona in 1657. He Of the other persons of the same name, 
studied law at Rome, Bologna, Pavia, history records — 1. The politician and 
and Milan, and on his return to Cremona leader of the Achirans, wno sided with 
he divided his time between his profes- the Romans ; and altliough he was op- 
sional occupations and the cultivation of posed to Philopc^menes, yet when the 
literature, especially of poetry. He was latter had been condemned to perpetual 
in constant correspondence with his most exOe by the people of Megalopolis, on 
celebrated contemporaries, and was a the ground of nis havmg betrayed them, 
memberof most of the Italian academies. Aristimetus prevented the execution of 
His professional reputation for learning the sentence, as stated by Pluturch, 
and integrity procured him employment i* p. 388. — 2. The historian of Gela, 
on sevenil public occasions, in which he (quoted by Steph. Byi., and who is iden- 
always acquitted himself with honour, titied bv Fabricius with the one men- 
He died in 1713. Maxsuchelli gives a tioned by Nonnus, in his Scholia on 
list of Arisi's works, amounting to eighty- Dionysius. — 3. The sophist of Bvxan- 
four, both printed and manuscript. Of tium, and a pupil of Chrestus, as weleam 
the former, may be mentioned. La Tirra- iVom Philostratus, Vit. Soph. ii. 5. 
nide So^giogata. Cremona, 1677. Cre- ARISTiEUS of Cbotoma, was the ton 
mona Litterata, &c. 3 vols, in fol. Parma, of Damophon, and the successor of Py- 
1702 and 1705; Cremona, 1741. Rime tha^ras, according to Jamblichus. Pa- 
per le Sacre Stimate del Santo Patriarca bricius supposes him to be the same with 
Francesco, &c. 1713; a volume of three the subject of the preceding article, who 
hmidred and twenty-five sonnets on the is perhaps the author of the work on 
marks on the body of St Francis ; II Harmony, quoted by Stobseus. 
Tabacco masticato, e fumato, tratteni- ARISTi^US. The author of five books 
menti ditirambici colle sue Annotaxioni, on Solid Loci, one of the most difficult 
Milan, 1725. (Biog. Univ. Maxxu- parts of the ancient geometry, and who 
chelH.) nourished in the fourth century before 
ARlSTJilNBTUS of Nicx, in Bith^nia, the birth of Christ. None of his works 
was the friend of Libanius, and perished have reached the present tune, but ho is 
in the earthquake, which laid Nicome- spoken of by the ancients with much 
dia in ruins, in a. c. 358. To him was respect, and wtis considered one of their 
once attributed the collection of letters greatest scientific luminnries. From the 
that pass under that name, but which preface to the seventh book of Pappus's 
have been shown to bo written af\er the Alathematical Collections, we learn that 
fifth centurv, from the allusion in i. 26 his work on Solid Loci was included in 
to Caramallus, mentioned by Sidonius the Towor AvaXvoftci^or of the Alexan- 
Apollinaris, xxiii. 267 ; and the title is drian school. (See Apollonivs Pkb- 
now supposed to owe its origin to the g*us.) Vicentio Viviani, a celebrated 
fact, that the first letter is addressed by Italimi geometer, endeavoured to restore 
Aristienetus to Philocalus. Amongst the this work, imd his restoration was pub- 
curioua circumstances connected with the lislied at Florence in 1701. Aristieus 
letters is this, that they contain a prose re- also wrote a work on the Conic Sections, 
presentation of the story of Acontium and to which it is said ApoUonius is indebted, 
Cydippe, taken fVom a lost poem of CtU- but the title of it is all that time has left 
limachus, but so altered as to make it dif- to us. 

ficiilt to detect any of the original versiti- ARISTAGORAS, the son of Molpa- 

cation. They have been translated with gt>ras, and the son-in-law of Histiteus, 

great spirit into English by an anony- was governor of Miletus, muler Darius ; 

mous author, under tnc title of Ten Let- from whom, however, he instigated the 

ters of Love and Gallantry, written in Ionian states to revolt, and so e: • 

123 



ARI ARI 

Serated the king of Persia, that he or- the victory of Amycl«. (Pans. 3, 18, 5. 
ered his servants to remind him every Sillig, Catal. Artincum.) 
day to punish the rehel. On his mission ARISTARCHUS. A celehrated astro- 
to Sparta, with the view of ohtaining nomer of Samos, who flourished in the 
assistance from Greece, he is said to have third century before Christ, and who was 
carried with him a plate of copper, on one of the brightest ornaments of the 
which was engraved a map of the world, school of Alexandria. He advocated the 
with its seas and rivers. Failing in his Pythagorean system of the world, after- 
purpose with Cleomenes, who was fright- wards revived by Copernicus, teaching 
ened at the proposal of sending Spartan that the sim and stars were fixed in the 
troops a three-month's march from the heavens, and that the earth moved in a 
sea-coast, Aristae oras went to Athens, circle about the sun, at the same time 
and easily induced that more enterprising that it revolved about its own centre or 
nation to join in the attack upon Sardis, axis. One of the most serious objections 
which was burnt to the ground rather by brought against it was that, if the earth 
accident than design, in consequence of were in motion, a fixed star seen from 
the houses being built with thatch. With one point in the earth's orbit, would be 
talents better suited to commence than referred by us to a point in the heavens 
carry on a rebellion, especially afler the different from that to which it would be 
tide of victory had turned in favour referred when we are at the opposite 
of Darius, he retired to Thrace, where, point, but that, in fact, no such difference 
together with his army,' he was destroyed, is observed. The reply of Aristarchus 
while besieging a town in the neighbour- evinced a correct conception of the mag- 
hood of Amphipolis. Of the same name nitude of the celestial spaces ; he alleged 
are foimd, 1 . A dithyrambic poet, who is that the whole orbit of the earth is a mere 
said by the Scholiast on Aristoph. Nr0. point in comparison with the distance of 
828, to have exhibited in a dance what the fixed stars. This would, of course, 
tookplace in the Eleusinian mysteries, and render such difference in apparent posi- 
was probably one of the party connected tion (called parallax) so small as to be 
with Alcibiades in a similar profanation . — quite insensible to the nicest observations. 
2. A comic writer, of whom a solitary Archimedes says, in his treatise called 
fragment is found in Athenseus, xiii. ^a/iyin;;, that Aristarchus, " confuting 
p. 571. — 3. A writer on the history of the notions of astronomers, laid down 
iEgypt, known only from Pliny's H. N. certain positions, from whence it follows 
ARISTANDER of Telmissus, was a that the world is much larger than is 
celebrated soothsayer, in the service first generally imagined ; for he lays it down, 
of Philip of Macedon, and afterwards that the fixed stars and the sun are im- 
of Alexander the Great, over whom he movable, and that the earth is carried 
obtained almost unbounded influence, round the sun in the circumference of a 
His principal power lay in the intcrpre- circle." On which account he was cen- 
tation of dreams. It was he who first sured for his supposed impiety ; for it is 
predicted, during the pregnancy of Olym- said. Clean thus was of opinion that Greece 
pias, the future glory of the son of Philip ; ought to have tried Anstarchus for irre- 
ond not only did he revive the drooping ligion, for endeavouring to preserve the 
spirits of Alexander's army, by inter- regular appearance of the heavenly bo- 
prcting prodigies favourably, but even dies, by supposing that the heavens 

{)revcntca Alexander from destroying themselves stood still, but that the earth 

limself through remorse for the murder revolved in an oblique circle, and at the 

of Clitus, as stated by Plutarcli, i. p. G94, same time turned round its own axis. 
Xyl. According to Artemidorus, i. 33, Aristarchus invented a peculiar kind 

Aristander wrote most learnedly on the ofsun-dial, mentioned by Vitruvius. The 

subiect of dreams, a work to which Pliny only work of his that is extant is the 

pcrnaps alluded in H. N. xvii. 25. He treatise upon the Magnitude and Distance 

was, however, in the opinion of Bayle, of the Sim and Moon; this was trans- 

not the writer on Agriculture, mentioned lated into Latin, and commented upon 

by Varro as an Atlicnian. by Commandine, who first published it, 

ARISTANDER, or ARISTANDROS, with the ' explanations of Pappus Alex- 

a statuary bom at the island of Paros, andrinus, in 1572. Dr. Wallis afterwards 

who flourislicd at the time of the battle printed a Greek version from a manu- 

fiEgospotimos (93d Olympiad, 405 b.c.) script in the Savilian library, with Com- 

'»d who made the brazen tripod which mandines translation, in 1688, and which 

Spartans dedicated from the spoils of he inserted again in the third volume of 

124 



ARI ARI 

his Mathematical Works, printed in folio own, at variance with the language and 

at Oxford in 1699. This treatise was manners of the Homeric poems and the 

afterwards commented upon h^ Mr. Fos- Heroic age, as we learn from Athenseuiy 

ter in his Mathematical Miscellanies, iv. p. 180, who prohahly obtained his in- 

There is another work which has gone formation fit>msome of the opponents of 

under the name of Aristarchus, on the Aristarchus, whowereof thescnoolof Ze- 

parts and motions of tlie mundane sys- rodotus or Crates. During the reiffn of 

tern, first published in Latin by Robier- Ptolemy Euergetes II. he redrea to 

val, and afterwords by Morsenne, in his Cyprus, where he starved himself to 

Mathematical Synopsis, but its authentic death to cure the dropsy, b. c. 157, aged 

city has been questioned. In the sixth seventy-two. There is still, or perhaps 

book of tlic Mathematical Collections of was, a MS. treatise of Aristarchus, under 

Pappus Alexandrinus will be found seve- the title of Kayoy«»y Gi;<ravpor, men- 

ral comments on different ports of the tioned by Labb^, in Bibl. Nov. MSS, 

Stnuine work of Aristarchus* (Hutton's iv. 104. He left two sons. The one who 

ictionary. Powell's History. Chasles, bore his father*s name, says Suidas, was 

Aper^u Historiquo.) sold for a slave, but ransomed by the 

ARISTARCHUS of Tegea was a AUienians. 
tragic writer, contemporary with Euri- ARISTARETE, a lady, the daughter 

pides. Of his seventy ploys, tlie titles of and disciple of Neorchus, eminent as a 

three alone hove been preserved, and paintress. Her date and country are 

only a solitary verse quoted by Athenseus uncertain. (Plin. '35, 11, s. 40. Sillig, 

of on author, who gained but once the Catal. Artificum.) 
nrixo, perhaps by his Achilles, to which ARISTEAS of Proconnessus, was 

Plautus alluacs in the prologue to his the son of Caiistrobius, and is one of 

Poenulus, and which according to Festus those who are said to have lived oftener 

was translated by Ennius. He died up- than once. The story, as told by Hero- 

wnrds of one hundred years old, and ac- dotus, iv. 14, is that, having arrived 

cording to Suidns, was tlie first to intro- at Proconnessus, he died there in the 

duce &e cothurnus on the stage. factory of a fUller, which after his death 

ARISTARCHUS of Samothracb was the owner locked up, and went ana told 

the most celebrated of tlie pupils of Aristo- his relations to prepare the funeral ; that 

phanes the grammarian, and tlie fomider when the news nad spread through 

of a school of forty critics, who flourished the town, a young man or Cvticus came 

for many years at Alexandria, where he forward and said, that on his journey 

was a tutor in the family of Ptolemy from Artoce he hod met Aristeas, and 

Philometor. Such was his reputation, hod entered into conversation with him ; 

tliot Ponrctius (so}^ Athenirus, xiv. and tliot when, to clear the myster}', the* 

p. 634, C.) called him ** tlie diviner;*' room where the body had been deposited 

while in the time of Cicero and Horace, was opened, it was no where to be found, 

his name passed into o proverb for the nor was it seen till seven days afterwards, 

prince of critics. Of eight hundred com- when Aristeas made his appearance ; and 

mcntarieson tlie different poets of Greece, after writins: his poem, called the Ari- 

scarcely a fragment has been preserved ; mospeons, aisoppeorcd again, until after 

and he is at present known only by the the lapse of 347 years he showed himself 

allusions to his two editions of Homer, at Metapontus, a town of Italy, and com- 

to be found in the Venetian Scholia, manded the people to build an altar to 

But as Ammonius wrote a treatise ex- Apollo, and to erect a statue near it in 

prcssly to prove that Aristarchus pub- honour of Aristeas the Proconnessian, 

lished only one edition, Villoison was for they were the only Italians whom 

led to believe tliot the father of Homeric Apollo Iiod deigned to visit, and that he 

critics adopted occasionally one reading had accompanied the cod in the shape 

in the text and another in the notes; of a raven. It is to this tradition tliat 

in which, soys Wolf, he seems to have been Pliny alludes, when he says, in N. H. 

the first to pay marked attention to the vii. 52, tliot the soid of Aristeas was seen 

subtleties of grammar. According to to come out in tlie shape of tliat bird ; 

Cicero, he was accustomed to reject as while others, according to Suidas, asserted 

Buurious whatever did not square with that his soul went in and out of his body 

Ins preconceived opinions ; and thous^h ot pleosure — o tradition that owes its ori- 

hc was ever ready with his pruning knife gin, as Boyle suggests, to the foct that 

to cut out the interpolations of others, the Metopontines were Pythagoreans, 

he occasionally engrafted some of his and believed in the transmigration of 

125 



ARI ARI 

aouls. Of his venes six have heen pre- the name of Aristeas had been Mik w ily 

served by LoBginus, and a few otliers by qaestionedy and it was closdy ezaminea 

Tzetzcs in his Chiliads. In proof of the by Scaliger, Hody, Frideanz, frc, who 

little estimation in which the writings of aU pronounced their judgments against 

Aristcas were held in after times, Aulus it The best editions of the ori^^inal are 

Gellius says, that when he was at Brun- those printed in llody, De Bibliontm 

dusium, he saw several bales of books Textibus, and separately at Oxford, Chr. 

exposed for sale, and that he purchased Lat. 8vo, 1692. In 1715 another English 

as many as he liked at a low price ; and translation appeared at Lond. 8vo, by 

finding amongst them Aristeas, Ctesias, Mr. Lewis, of Corpus Christi College, 

and others, he ran through all of them in Oxford. In 1736 was published at Lou- 

the two following nights, and made ex- don, in 8vo, a Vindication of Aristeas 

tracts from such of them as were little ** from the misrepresentations of the 

known to his countr3rmen. It is pro- learned Scaliger, Dupin, Dr. Hody, Dr. 

bable, however, that the author of the Prideaux, and other modem entics." 

Attic Nights was deceived by the title ; Yet, although it was warmly deflmded by 

for Dionysius of Halicamassus observes, Isaac Vossius, it has been clearly de<- 

that the works which passed under the monstrated to be a forgery, and it is 

name of Aristeas were considered by supposed to have been the inventioii of 

some to be forgeries. some Jew of Alexandria, who wished to 

ARISTEAS, the grammarian, who raise the importance of the Greek versioii 

wrote on accents, is known only by the used by his countrymen there. The best 

Venetian Scholia on Homer, and is per- books to refer to on the subject are, the 

haps the same as the author of the trea- work of Dr. Hody just mentioned, and 

tise on Harpers, quoted by Athenseus. the Dissertation by Van Dalen, De LXX. 

ARISTEAS, or ARISTIUS, of Phlia, Interpretibus super Aristeam, 4to, Amst 

was the son of Pratinas, and a writer of 1705. The version now known as the 

comedy, of whose plays the titles of only Septuagint is supposed to have been 

three have been preserved, and as many composed by the Alexandrian Jews, at 

verses. According to Pausanias, ii. 13, different periods. The tract bearing the 

a statue of him was placed in the forum name of Aristeas is of considerable an- 

at Corinth. tiquity, as it is quoted by Philo and 

ARISTEAS, the pretended author of a Josephus. 
history, written in Greek, of the Septua- ARISTEAS, a sculptor who, with 
gint translation of the Hebrew Scriptures. Paphia, carved two centaurs. The period 
According to this tract, Aristeas was an when he lived is doubtful, 
officer of Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of ARISTIDESofTHEBEs,thesonofAristo- 
Egypt, who having employed Demetrius demus, a painter, who was pupil of Nicoma- 
Phaienis to fonn a royal library, and chus and of Euxenidas, and contemporary 
having heard of the Hebrew books of the with Apelles, lived about Olympiad 110, 
Jews, sent Aristeas to the high-priest 340 years b. c. He painted for MnasoD, 
Eleazar to obtain copies of these books, tyrant of Elatea, a combat with the Per- 
and persons capable of translating them sians, for which he was paid at the rate 
into Greek. Six persons were chosen of ten mina?, or Athenian pounds, for 
out of each of the twelve tribes for this each figure, of which there were a hun- 
pnq)080, making in all seventy-two, and dred. Pliny, vii. c. 38, 1. 35, c. 10, 11, 
a very extraordinarj' account is given of 36, mentions some of his paintings which 
the manner in which they proceeded to were still extant in his time, and sajrs 
make tlie Greek version. Aristeas pre- that Attalus offered for one six thousand 
tends to give a narrative of his embassy, cesterces. Several of his works were de- 
an d he describes Jerusalem and other stroyed at the taking of Corinth by the 
places. This book was first printed in Romans, and Polybius relates that they 
the sixteenth century ; and, attracting were thrown in a heap, and that the 
much attention, it went through several soldiers gambled and played games on 
editions. It was translated into Italian the faces of them without knowing their 
by Lodovico Domenichi, at Florence, value. Another of his pictiires was con- 
8vo, 1550; into French by (ruillaumc sumed at the burning of the temple of 
Paradin, 4to, Lyons, 1504; and, into Ceres at Rome. His principal work was 
Enjrlish by I. Done, Lond. Timo, 1033; a picture representing the taking of a 
of wliich latter, a revised edition appeared city where a mother is wounded and 
in 8vo, in 1685. By this time tnc au- dying, having near her her infant, who 
thenticity of the book wluch goes under seeks the breast, in which the features of 

120 



ARl ARI 

the mother were forcibly expressive of philosopher, as may be inferred by com- 
feor lest the child should suck the blood Daring what he has written, with the 
in which she is bathed. Alexander the liaws and Phsedo of Plato. He wrote 
Great had this work taken to Pella, his likewise a work on poetry, which, had it 
native town. The great excellence of been preser>'ed, would perhaps have 
Aristidcs consisted in the perfect exprcs- thrown some light on the noetics of Ari- 
sion he gave to his figures, and the mas- stotle. Martianus Capella has made con- 
terly manner m which he represented siderable use of Aristides, as remarked 
the passions. He is supposea also to by Meibomius ; and Gaisford has given 
have painted in encaustic. His principal an extract from his work, at the end of 
pupils were, Euphranor, Antondes and Hephiestion. From a passage in the 
his children, >ficeros and Aristippus. second book, it appears that the move- 
Pliny also mentions another painter of ments of the body of troops was regu- 
thb name, pupil of Nicomachus. There lated, as at present, by the sound of 
was also an Anstides, a statuary of Sicyon, trumpet, for the purpose of concealing 
a disciple of Polycletus, who excelled in fh)m the enemy the intended manoeuvres, 
representing chariots with two or four Of the same name mention is made of 
horses (Plin. 34, c. 8, 19) and who lived four philosophers of different sects; one 
in the 87tli Olympiad. (Biog. Univ. of whom, when dying from the bite of a 
Sillig, Catalogus Artificum.) weazel, cared less for nis death, than that 
ARISTIDES of Miletus appears to it was caused by so ipioble an animal, as 
have been the oldest writer oi tales of stated by ^ian, in V. H. 
fiction ; but of his life and age nothing is ARISTIDES, the son of Lyamachus, 
known. All that liistory records is found celebrated alike for his talents, integrity, 
in Plutarch, i, p. 564, Xyl. ; who says that and poverty, acted a considerable nart 
after the defeat of Crassus, there was in the affairs of Greece during the Per- 
found amongst the baggage of Roscius, sian invasion. Of his early life little has 
one of his officers, a copy of the Milesiaca been preserved, except that his political 
of Aristides, which Surena the victor laid opposition to Themistocles had its source 
before the senate of Seleucia, and ridiculed in the feelings of wounded self-love ; when 
the degraded Romans for giving their he discovered that a common friend even- 
attention to such things during a cam- tually attached himself to his more clever, 
paign. The work was translated by Si- though less scrupulous rival, according to 
senna, as stated by Ovid, in Fast. ii. Plutarch, who took the anecdote from the 
443, and was probably like the Sat^iicon Love-Tales of Ariston, ouoted in i. p. 113, 
of Petroniua Arbiter, or the Metamor- A. Xyl. At the battle of Marathon, where 
phoses of Apuleius, and contained at he was polemarch of his tribe Antiochis, 
least six books, for the sixth is quoted by he not only willingly gave up his command 
Harpocratiun, and it perhaps formed part to Miltiades, perceiving the absurdity of 
of the history of Persia, a fragment of the custom, by which each polemarch 
which has been preserved by Stebseus. was permitted to have the command for a 
To the same author has been attributed a single day, but likewise induced tlie other 
history of Italy and Sicily, known only officersof thesamerank toactin the same 
by some ouotations in Plutarch, fVom way, observing that it was no disgrace, 
whose Parallel it appears, that the writer but rather an honour to obey a man 
lived after the time of Hannibal, and of talent Such too was his honesty, 
that the work extended to at least forty that when he had it in his power to 
books. enrich himself with the spoils of the van- 
ARISTIDES, ^ (Qiuntilianus,) is the quished Persians, he returned from the 
author of a treatise on Music, published neld as poor as when he entered it ; and 
in the Musicie Antique Scriutores, Amst. hence, after the close of the war, he was 
1652, 4to, by Meibomius, who conceives appointed to collect the money each state 
that ho lived anterior to the time of was required to pay to defray the expense 
Ptolemy, the author of the Harmonics ; incurred ; when he performed an office, 
at all events hfi was posterior to Cicero, generally disgraced by shameful pecula- 
whose opinions he quotes from his Re- tion, whh so much integrity, as to gain the 
public, and contrasts them with those good-will, and not, as the Athenians did 
promulgated in the speech for Roscius. m after times, the hostility of the contri- 
It is from Aristides we learn the princi- butors ; and though Themistocles sneered 
pies of musiciU eomi)osition and notation at his simplicity, which he said was the 
amongst the Greeks, and which he pro- conduct of a mere treasury-keeper, yet 
bably obtained from some P)'thagorean Aristides was enabled to retort upon the 

127 



ARI ARI 

man, who tlioiight that the end justifies to be nnmed amonest the truly gnat, 

the means, by saying, As be had lived withomt any wealth bat 

.. ., ...'.. ...«,. J « his good name, lo he died without learine 

*' Mut«r of WLMkoa tLou, LuS not cf haod.* ,. *..,, ' _^, • t. -^ * 

his children anj other mhentance ; eren 

Such unbending integrity was, bowerer, l^i, t^^|, ^^s erected at the public ex- 
little suited to a place like Athens, where pg^^ ^ q^ p^^ ^^ Phalenis* and the 
mob-rule stamped knavery as the cur- portion of his two daughters paid oot of 
rent coin ; and hence it was only natural ^j^e public treasury, a&r they had re- 
for Themistocles to succeed in getting mained for some time unmamed on ac- 
Arwtides banished for ten years, upon a ^j^unt of their want of property. He died 
charge so frivoloa^, that when one of the 5^ ji^g fourth year after hu rival Themi- 
voters was asked what he had to allege ancles had been banished from Athens. 
against the party accused, he rephed, ARISTIDES, the sophist, was the son 
" Nothing at all ; except that he hated to of the phOosopher Eudemus, or as some 
hear any man called The Just :" an ap- ^y^ Eudaemon. The latter is, however, 
pellation which had been given with such j^ ^he opinion of Kayser, m his notes 
universal assent to Aristides, that all the ^on the life of Aristiiks in Philostratos, 
eyes of the spectator were timied to- „ot so much the name of the father as of 
wards him, when words to the effect fol- ^^ gon, which was assumed, like that 
lowing were pronounced on the stage— of Theodoras, in allusion to Aristides 
" From the deep furrows of the mind inch fruit having had the good fortune (in Greek 
Gathering, Myieidt the richett germ of thought, Evdauutv, Eudannon) to be taken nnder 

He loTei to be, oot Mem, tbo honett mso." .1 117 *• r x* 1 • ^ j 1. aU 

' the protection of jEsculapius, and by the 
To prove how well he merited the title gift of the god (in Greek Ocodttpor, Theo- 
bestowed upon him, Plutarch tells us, dorus) restored to health after an illness 
that when he was sitting as one of the that lasted thirteen yean. With a mi- 
jiiry upon a trial, the plaintiff by way of nuteness of detaQ that ^is almost ridicn- 
ingrntiating himself with the court, re- lous, Aristides tells us, that his nurse was 
counted the injuries which tlie defendant Neritus; his earliest teacher Epagathus; 
had done to Aristides ; when he said, his medical friend Zosimus ; his masters 
" State what he has done to you. I sit in rhetoric, Alexander of Cotyaeom, He- 
here to decide your cause, not mine." So, rodes of Athens, Aristocles of Pergamns, 
too, when Themistocles had said in pub- and Polemon of Smyrna. like the phi- 
lie, tliat he had a plan to confer a lasting losophers of the past, he travelled mto 
bfMicfit upon Athens, but that he would distant countries, and was led by read- 
impart it to Aristides alone; the latter, ing Herodotus to visit Egypt, wnere he 
when he heard it, told the people it was ascended the Nile as far as rhilse. Du- 
the best conceived, but the most disho- ring his residence in that country, Rhodes 
nourablc of designs ; and it was in refer- was destroyed by an earthquake, of which 
eiice to his unwillingness to give up the he has given a vivid account in his Orat. 
juMt for the expedient, while the policy Rhodiac. According to Masson's lenethy 
of I'heinistocles was based upon a totally life of Aristides, which is chiefly viuua- 
oppoflite principle, that Aristides was led ble for the attempt to fix the dates of the 
to observe, there would be no security for different pieces of the sophist, this event 
the Rtntc until either himself or Themi- is placed between a.d. 153 and 159. It 
stoclcH were destroyed. Tlieir united was about the latter period that Aristides, 
offortH, however, were of signal service while travelling in Italy, was seized with 
to tluMr country at the battle of Salamis ; his protracted illness ; during which he 
and of this Themistocles had such a pre- devoted himself to writing, from hu want- 
sentiment, tliat he wuH the very party to ing tlic power, as he said, to throw up 
pn)|)OMe nnd o))Uiin the recal of Aristides words, and feeling the desire to be rather 
111 tlie liour of danger, and when there correct than voluble. Afler staying at 
was n fear that the banished Athenian Rome, where he was in high favour with 
would trnnHfiT his services to the Per- the imperial family, and from whom he 
siaiiM. luHtead, however, of sacrificing, took as a client the prenomen of ^iua, 
nM ThemistoeleH himself did Hub.sequently, he returned to Smyrna, where he filled 
hi-i eountry to feelings of private revenue, some of the higher offices of state. On 
AriHtideH wad content to serve under his the destniction of that town by an earth- 
former political foe, and showed by his quake, inx. d. 180, he wrote a monody 
rcmduet at Salamis and lMata>a, how nnd a letti>r to M.Aurelius so affecting as 
li!ll«» rennoii AtlieiiH had to fear the man, to draw tears from the eyes of the em- 
whom Plato said was the only one fit pcror. But the tears must have been 

128 



ARI ARI 

ratlier of sorrow for the bad taste of the Aptamsea, the author of a commentary on 
writer than for the catastrophe itself; Aristides' Treatise on Rhetoric 
which the emperor, however, remedied Aristides was the first ¥rriter who sub- 
as well as he could by rebuilding the stituted prose for poetry in hymns to the 
town. Amongst hb mty-four orations gods ;^ a practice which he defends by 
still extant, there is one against come- saying, that even the oracles of Delpm 
dians, and amongst the lost pieces one and Dodona were not always in verse, 
against dancers, to which Libanius re- In his *Upoi Aoyoi, we meet with the 
pued. Respecting the place and date oldest allusion to the phenomena of 
of his death, there is an equal uncer- somnambulism and animal magnetism, 
tainty. According to some ne died at and Koenig has made it the suoject of 
Hadriani, at the age of sixty ; others say a Dissertatio de Aristidis Incubatione, 
at Smyrna, near seventy. Authors also printed at Jena. Amoi^;st the lost works 
differ about the period of his birth, which of Aristides, the titles of which are given 
some fix at a. c. 127; but Letronne by Fabricius, there is one Ilcpi Ilapoi- 
follows Ualley, who made out the astro- fuop^ or, as it should be, Utpi UpooifuoM, 
logical data furnished by Aristides for as may be infened firom Suidas, who says 
cuculating his nativity ten years earlier, that Porphyry wrote a work in seven 
In addition to Libanius, who speaks of him books on the Ilpooifuoy of Thucydides, 
inhiffh terms of praise, which is reechoed and in opposition to Aristides, wno had 
by Photius, m BiblioUi. Cod. 158, he had probably spoken in praise of what the 
for his opponents, Sergius and Palladius other condemned, 
and Porpnvrius, some of whose criticisms ARISTIPPUS, tyrant of Argos, died 
are probably perpetuated by Philostratus, 242 b. c. See A&atvs. 
who, however, considers him as the most ARISTIPPUS, the son of Aretas, left 
skilAil of sophists. Of his declamations, his native town of Cyrene to become a 
those relating to the Leptinean question discipleof Socrates at Athens; whose pre- 
have attracted the greatest attention, cepts and practice were so little in umson 
although they are the least interesting, with his own — ^for Aristippus was the first 
from the subiect The one a^nst Demos- of the Socratic school who taught for 
thenes was first edited by Morelli, firom mone^ — that he seems to have quickly 
a MS. in the library of St. Mark at left his master ; but not before he save 
Venice, in 1785; and about forty years Socrates the opportunity of reading nim 
afterwards, Angelo Maii discovered in the a lecture in the alleeory of the Choice of 
Vatican a second declamation on the Hercules, told so beautifully in Xeno- 
sxmie subject, and which he conceives to phon*s Memorabilia ; and as Socrates ex- 
be one of three that Aristides wrote, posed oftener than once the subtleties of 
But it appears that he was led into an the Cyrenean, as we learn from Xeno- 
error by not knowing that Aristides phon, M. S. iii. 8, it is no wonder that 
meant to say that he appeared as a third Aristippus was amonest those who did 
speaker, after Demosthenes and Phormio, not attend the death-bed scene of So- 
and not as the writer of three speeches, crates, and preferred rather to enjoy him- 
Both the Leptinean Declamations have self in j£gina, a place celebrated for good 
been edited together by Gravert, at Bonn, living. After the death of Socrates, 
1827, and his edition reviewed by De whom he vainly attempted to propitiate 
Geel, in Bibliotheca Critica Nova, t. iv. by a handsome present, which was to hia 
The most complete edition is by Dindorf, great mortification refused, he went to 
Leips. 1839, in 3 vols, 8vo, who has sup- Sicily; where he made himself very ac- 
plied some lacunae from a MS. of the ceptable to Dionysius, by uniting the 
tenth century, and printed, with a few conflicting characters ofa philosopher and 
emendations of Niebuhr, the whole of the parasite, or, as Diogenes said, by acting 
Scholia, as they were collected and ar- " the royal cynic. It was probably 
ranged in the papers left by Reiske. Din- during his stay at the court of Syracuse, 
dorr has, however, taken no notice of that he carried a robe to Plato, which the 
FrommeVs edition of the Scholia, printed latter declined in the words of Pentheus— 
at Francof. ad Mien. 1826, where frequent , _ ^ . 
reference is made to the note, of Valcke- ifTe^NhTd^"" ".1f'ST.i3rg«b ;• 
naer and the other Dutch critics, who were 

the first to point out the value of the then when Aristippus replied by quoting from 

inedited Scholia. The Scholia, which Pho- the same play — 

tius found in his copy of Aristides, have „ wv • # • .!«».• «» 

v« .. ., 4 jt itl 1^ o * f " Why not ? Bince e'en In Bacchu*' revelUngt 

been attributed by Frommel to Sopater of a piudeut damsel will not ruined be.- 

TOL. II. 129 X 



ARI ARI 

On his return to Cyrene, it would seem, he rian of Arcadia mentioned by Cleineni 

was shipwrecked on a coast, where, when he Alexandr. Strom, i. and the Scholiast on 

saw some geometric diagrams on the sand Theocritus. 

of the sca-shorc, he bade his companions ARISTO, the name of three ancient 

not despair, for lie recognised the marks artists. A statuary, a native of Laconia, 

of men ; and led probably by similar but of doubtful date, the brother of Te- 

proofs of civilization, he arrived with the lesta, with whom he made a colossal 

crew of the vessel at Rhodes ; where, by statue of Jupiter. Another was a statuary 

exhibiting his talents as a disputant, he and worker in silver, bom at MytUene, 

gained money enough to supply the also of imcertain date. A third, a painter, 

wants of himself and companions, who the son of Aristides the great painter, and 

had been compelled to throw all their pro- the brother of Niceros. He painted a 

Serty overboard ; and it was probably at Satyr, crowned with a drinkmg bowl. 

Rhodes he replied, when asked in what did He taught the art to Antorides and £u- 

a philosopher differ from a fool, " Throw phranor. 

them both naked among strangers, and ARISTO. Of the individuals of this 

you will see at once the difference." Upon name Menage, on Diog. Laert vii. 164, 

geometry itself, however, he set, says has given a list, amongst whom the 

Aristotle, no value ; because, as he as- following alone are worthy of record. 

serted, it did not, like handicraft trades, 1 . The philosopher of Chios, and ori- 

contribute to the good things of the pre- ginally a disciple of Zeno, but afterwards 

sent ; and as to the past and future, tney tne founder of a sect, which carried the 

were both equally unworthy the atten- doctrines of the Stoics to an extravagant 

tion of a philosopher, whose sole pursuit length, and according to Cicero, Tosc. t., 

was self-gratification, and who conse- lasted for only a short time ; nor, says 

quently, disregarding every social duty, Bayle, could they expect a different fate ; 

felt himself equally at ease — when they asserted that all things, even 

" In ev«ry change of many^oloured life.- pleasure and pain, were matters of indtf- 

ference ; that virtue and vice were the onlr 

In this and some other points, the doc- good and evil of life; and considered botn 

trines of Aristippus were nearly the same natural philosophy and metaphysics to 

as those of Epicurus ; and both were be equally useless ; for that the former 

based on the union of the conflicting was above our comprehension, and the 

principles of Heraclitus and Pythagoras, other full of contradictions ; and that dia- 

wlio asserted respectively that all things lectians, like spiders, exercised no little 

are in motion and at rest. Of his sayings, skill in weaving webs merely to catch 

Diogenes Laertius and Stobaeus have pre- flies. Although Aristo was at fiwt an 

served a considerable number, united by advocate for moral philosophy, yet even- 

Orelli in hisOnuscul, Vet. Graic. Sentiosa, tually he so narrowed its limits as to be 

Lips. 1821; but of his numerous trea- content to speak of virtue in the absteict, 

tiscs, written partly in the Attic, and partly without teaching its practical application 

m the Doric dialect, not a fragment has to the duties required in different condi- 

been preserved. Pearson, in Vindic. Ig- tions of life ; not aware, as Seneca ob- 

natian. p. 3G1, considered all the epistles serves, in Epistol. 89, that if precept be, 

that pass under his name to be forgeries; as he asserted, the lesson of the peda* 

but Valckenaer thoiifrht that those wliich gogue, the philosopher is, in fact, the 

aro wntten m the Doric dialect continued pedagogue of tlie human race. He seems 

notliing imworthy of the Cyrenean. They to have possessed considerable powers of 

arc found m the collection of Socratis et persuasion, as may be inferred from his 

Socraticorum Epistola;, Lips. 1815, by appellationof Siren, and from the fact that 

Orolh ; who, however, gives up their he induced Satyrus, the flute-player, to 

genuineness, altliough he confesses they throw his instrument into the fire, and to 

are the production of a writer, not unable attacli himself to a philosopher; who hi 

to support the character and to reflect his old age became a voluptuary, and 

the ideas of Aristippus. did not disdain to act the flatterer to 

Of the other persons of the same name, men in power. From an epigram by 

nothing more is known than that one was Diogenes Laertius, it would appear that 

« 'ff w ^V "^ Aristippus, and called, he died by a coup-de-soleil, to which 

I he Mother-taught," because he was a he had exposed his bald head. Of the 

pupil of Arete, who sat in his father's various works attributed to Aristo, a very 

chair of philosophy ; another of the New few fragments have been preserved by 

Academy sect; and a third, the histo- Stobaeus, from the 'Ouow, to which Athe- 

130 '^ 



ARi Am 

nmuB likewise alludef under the name of BOphist.— 4. The Alexandrine, and authot 

Epttrtiea *Ofio«a. of a work on music and dancing, which 

2. The Peripatetic philosopher of loulis, extended to at least eieht books, as &p- 
a town in the island of Cos, was the sue- pears from Athenseus, xiy. p. 630. — 5. The 
cessor of Lycon, who died about Ol. rhetorician of Rhodes, who flourished in 
138. He wrote much, and in a polished the time of Augustus Caesar, and wrote a 
style, but he wanted weight, as we learn treatise on poetry, quoted by Ammonius. 
from Cicero, who says, that his own Trea- -—6. The author of a solitary inscriptioni 
tise on Old Age differed from that of preserved by ^lian, H.A. xi. 4. 
Aristo, inasmuch as the latter had made ARISTOCLES. There were several 
the principal speaker not a real person, celebrated Grecian artists of this namCi 
like Cato, but the Tithonus of mjrtnology. the most ancient of whom was bom at 
A solitary fragment of the Greek work Cydonia in Crete, and was a sculptor, 
seems to have been preserved by Stobaeus, who flourished in the period before the 
cxviii. p. 602. city of Zancle was called Messina, said 

3. The Peripatetic philosopher of Alex- to be 664 years B.C. He executed for 
andria, was a contemporary of Strabo, and the town of Elis, a Hercules fighting with 
wrote a work on the Nile ; which Fabricius the Amazon Antiope for her girdle. An-* 
would, however, assign to Aristotle, be- other Aristocles, a sculptor of Sicyon, 
cause it was translated into Arabic, an lived in the ninety-fiflh Olympiad, 400 
honour never paid to any of the other years b. c. He was the brother of Ca- 
writings of Aristo. nachus, another renowned sculptor, and 

4. The Epigrammatist, three of whose the master of Synoon. According to 
pieces are found in the Greek Anthology. Pausanias, Aristocles was the son and 

5. The tragic writer, and an illegitimate disciple of Cleotas, and executed at Elia 
son of Sophocles. a group, representing Jupiter and Gany- 

6. The father of Plato. mede. There was tuso a painter of this 

7. A political character of Athens, whom name, the pupil of Nicomachus. A fUll 
Solon opposed ineffectually when the account of the artists of this name maybe 
former recommended the people of Athens found in Sillig'sCatalogus Artificum, pp. 89 
to grant Pisistratus a body-guard of fifty — 92. (Biog. Univ. SiUig, Catal. Artif.) 
club-bearers. ARISTOCRATES, of Sparta, Was the 

ARISTOBULUS, of Cassandrba, ac- son of Hipparchus, and the author of a 

companied'Alexanderinhis eastern expe- life of Lycurgus, and according to Plu- 

dition, and wrote an account of his enga^ tarch, i. p. 90, Xyl. was the only person 

ment with Porus, so full of flattery, that who said that the Spartan legislator tra* 

the victor threw it into the Hydaspes. veiled to India, ana conversed with the 

As he grew older he became wiser ; for at Gymnosophists. But if he be the histo- 

an advanced age — Lucian, in Macrob. rian who lived after the time of Philo- 

says 84 years old — he wrote a history of poemen, and is at variance with Polybius 

Alexander so worthy of credit that Arrian on a point of history, as stated by Plu- 

did not disdain to make use of it. tarch, i. p. 392, Xyl. he was too far re- 

ARISTOBULUS, a painter, of whom moved from the time of Lycumw to know 

Pliny makes favourable mention ; and much about the matter. To the same in- 

says he was a Syrian, which Sillig un- dividual is perhaps to be attributed the 

derstands to mean, that he was bom at work on Laconia, quoted by Steph. Bys., 

Syros, one of the Cyclades. (Sillig, Ca- and that on the Laconic Polity, assigned 

tal. Artificum.) by Athenseus to Aristocles. 

ARISTOCLES. Respecting the per- ARISTOCRATES, a king of Ar- 
sons of this name nothmg is known but cadia, about 700 b. c. was stoned to 
their place of birth and profession, with death by his subjects for violating a 
the exception of — 1. The Peripatetic phi- priestess of Diana. His grandson of the 
losopher of Messina, whose work on the same name was the first who took a bribe 
life and writings of Aristotle seems to fh)m the Lacedemonians, and by with- 
have been the original of the more recent drawing his forces from the side of the 
histories of the Stagirite. Of his Treatise Messenians, turned the scale «of victory 
on Ethics, in ten books, some fragments in favour of the enemy, as stated by Pau- 
have been preserved by Eusebius. — 2. The sanias, iv. 17. When, however, after a 
Stoic of Lampsacus, who wrote a com- lapse of twenty years, as may be inferred 
mentary in four books on the doctrines of from Plutarch, ii. p. 548, Xyl. he in- 
Chrysippus. — 3. The rhetorician of Per- tended to repeat the Knavery, he was dis- 
gtmufl, and the master of Aristadet the covered through the means of a letter 

131 « 2 




ASlI All 

tkfj w -A f'-^vKiv',-*. A; *r. •;»?•. 7 z^rrrji 
*A ,.i>. :,.\ .r^'.s^ftrv v»7> ir, *iij*rr',7:.-ir,» 

l^^^.j%. H*i. A. Is. V...!- p. l-^iC. K. t 

«7;^v.t vM act ta« «^e of C?;7ia. viisrf. 
tr«/>Q^h Kit tfnsArj::^::^ v«Te ixAisnrx 'z» 

Hif^yKr«^>n. t'^^i th« Utter, 'tfx^zA^Afi v, '^^al a =£: ia t^ fire. c« moncd bj 

vitli Ui4 f^«tr>iv<t, th« ««iUKt« vii£^ to uji::^. - Tten a ccjj oce sjb m Cama." 

t^rtiftfr W,^, yrti/: ^4 n^m ; \nX tb« Y^^Jt Sczlz '^t :2:ie reproAch, kxzw roodis de- 

t/y/k p*n with AmU/dMr^t, v}y>, uti tersi^ed to fre« taesJelTCs lad c uuiuij 

yiutJUfih, it. y,2fi\,X^\.,}t»^ytidj^tik£fT fn-Tz. t^s riLiziz tou of the trrant. 

t'riri U, th« l//v«T '/r*vrrt thao becur<« a II«adA<i bj Thrniocelss. the fan of Hip- 

fr<^i^»J« T>f« diwimUt vat Ktticd, bov' yxLedr^. ^ij were ccncnctcd br Xeno- 

frvcr, )nr HirHirijr th« prize b«tveen the erise to tLe spaitz^ect of Axistodcniiis;, 

two, Jn th< c'AJrvt <>f rrenti, Anit» tr^d £ndi&^ Llzi onaiined and nDgQardcd, 

il«'rriij4 Utf.MiH httt hi the l^a^lni? iimh of put Khn to dt^nh. 

th^ tUUr ; wh«m th^ ykindktm, eager to AKISTODEMU5. of FbigaimMj vaa 

i;H rj/l //f him and hit partizaiu, sent the son of Aitjlas, and adopted by Tri* 

iUntif iff the numf^er of two thousand, to t«us, a person of lome infinence at Jie- 

th<; •tj/;/''iijrof Arricttim, thenbeiief^ed br galopolu: where, although Axutodcmm 

Arrotif the I'/n of Ponenna. Although made himself a tyrant, yet he was itill 

th"/ w<rr«; ptjt mt U/ard veYV;!* not sea- called '* the good,'* probably on hb tomb, 

worthy, in th*: hoyi: that th'ry would all mentioned by Pausaniaa, riii. 36. Dnring 

h" ]«/«t, th^^y arrivrd, contrary to ex* the period of hfs adminislratuMi the 

|f«« tition, in iMfHy ; wh«;n An]it/jd«:mus Lacedstmonians made an attack OD Me- 

<iiiif:kly irHv*-. th<; t-wiuy battle, defeated galopolis, and after a hard fought battle 

tlfirrn, ti>«ik a y/rtn\ many pris/^n^rs, and were defeated, with the lots of their 

f'nrif:h<-d hiii men with a confiiderable leader. Tliis succen, howerer, did not 

f|ii/ifitity of pliind'T. On his voyage prevent his own assassination, effected by 

hiu k, hf uiwU' th<; trfKiM a/rqiinint/rd with persons emplo\'ed by Ecdemns and D^ 

thf) thmpit'T Ut whirh ttifry ha'l been ex- mophanes. (Plutarch, in Philoponneii. 

i»ONi>d, iifid <'nj/ftging them to assist him ss. 1.) 

in |Miniiihin/^ the pHtridann, he secured ARISTODEMUS, the tutor of Age»- 
thi' rimyt'rtiUnu of the prisfinrm nliv>, by polis, the son of Pausanias, who had 
Ncltiiiff Ihfin lit lihfrtv. On his arrival ncen banished from Sparta, and to whom 
lit riiirifi hf f-onviMiMl the sf'nat«', and he was related, was appointed by the 
N< iiri'ily hiid h«- !>«'|Miii lo ^ivi* an arrount Spartans to command the army which 
tti' hu |irori'i'fliii|^N, when hU piirtixans dtffeatrd their opponents in the battle 
riitliiMl into tli<« nifirf iif aHHiMiihly nnd near Oirintli, as we learn from PaiuaniaSy 
iiifitiNtinrd ihr priiirifMi! piTNons of ihc iii. />, and Xcnophon, H.Gr. iv. 2, 9. 
i-iiy; nnd on tin* fMlfowing diiy hi; waH ARISTODKMUS, a Mcssenian, waa 
iiiviitiri! with thf rriiiNfif^ovcrnnirnt, on distinguished in the first Mcssenian war, 
IMoiiiiniii^ a new diiitrihutioii of property, and elected king 731 b.c. He sacrificed 
mill nil nlHililion ofull outHtantiing (lehtH; his own daughter in obedience to the 
wliile, llie lif'ller to secure Win penton, In; Delpliic oracle; and on the f^dlure of the 
hiiiiied II hoily guard, and diKanned the McKsrnian arms, slew himself in remorse 
I ili/.eiiN, and intended al'terwardN to dc- upon her tomb. (Paus.) 
Hlioy the children of those who had been ARISTODKMUS, of Miletus, is de- 
put to flentli, hut was induced to relent scribed hy Plutarch as the prince of courtly 
nl the liilereeNNton of their niothers, who flatterers ; for when, after Demetrius had 
had man led his pnrtixans. They were, gained a victory over Ptolemy, he wai 
tiimrever, seiil Into \\w country, or em- sent to Antigonus with the news of th6 
ployed III di|(ging trriu'hca round tho luccciiful sca-fight, he refused to com* 



'A R I A R I 

municate the iiitellig^ence, for irhich An« ARISTODEMUS, the name of three 

tigonus was on the tiptoe of expectation, ancient artists. One a painter, the father 

to any of the messengers sent expressly and preceptor of Nicomachus ; another a 

for that purpose, nor would he deign to statuary, who flourished after the time of 

hasten his step ; hut when he came into Alexander the Great The country of 

the jpresence of the prince, he said, with a neither of these is known. A third was 

perfectly composed look, ** Rejoice, king a Carian, who wrote a history of Paint- 

Antigonus ; we have heaten king Ptolemy, ing. 

have made ourselves masters of Cyprus, ARISTOGEITON, with his friend 

and taken 16,800 prisoners ;" as if such Harmodius, were the individuals whose 

things were merely matters of ordinary memory was celebrated in a popular 

occurrence in the case of a prince like Athenian song, preserved by Athenseus, 

Antigonus and his son Demetrius. for the efforts tney made to free their 

ARISTODEMUS, of Atuxms, whose country from the tyranny of the Pisis- 
nickname was Little, is known — firom tratidfe. The younger of these was Hip- 
Plato's Sympos. p. 223, — as the constant parchus, who, by endeavouring to attach 
companion of Socrates, and he so closely Harmodius to himself, and to detach him 
imitated his master as to go barefoot, as firom Aristogeiton, not only excited the 
stated in Phscdr. p. 229. According to hostility of the latter, but led them con- 
Xcnophon, M. S. i. 4, he was originally jointly to destroy the brother of Hippias, 
an atneist, and was probably converted who was then tyrant of Athens. Al- 
by the arguments of Socrates, who has though they accomplished their purpose 
there anticipated modem writers on na- by concealmg their swords in myrtle 
tural theology, in their reasoning founded boughs durine the feast of Minerva, yet 
on design as exhibited in the works of they were botn put to death, Harmodius, 
creation. after the perpetration of the murder, while 

ARISTODEMUS, an Athenian tragic Aristogeiton, who was taken shortly 
actor, who was employed by Philip to afterwards, was treated, says Thucydides, 
negotiate widi the Atlienians, after the vi. 58, not mildly; by which we must pro- 
fall of Olynthus, b. c. 347. bably understand that he was put to the 

ARISTODEMUS, of Elis, was the col- torture, and died a lingering aeath ; as 

lector of the Laughable Anecdotes, quoted was the case with Lesena, the mistress of 

by Athcnsus. They ran through at least Harmodius, when she refused to give any 

two books, and seem to have been the information respecting the conspirators, 

oldest Joe Millers on record. To the (as we learn from Athenaeus, xiii. p. 596, 

same individual has been attributed the F.,) and to whom the Athenians erected 

Commentary on Pindar, mentioned by a tonguelcss statue, to show, says Plu- 

Athenieus, xi. p. 495, F., but who was torch, ii. p. 505, the victory eained by. a 

rather the writer on the Antiquities of woman over the love of talking. Two 

Thebes. statues were erected likewise to the 

ARISTODEMUS, a writer on the an- memory of the political martyrs ; which 

tiquities of Thebes, is known only by a were, however, carried to Persia by 

few quotations in the Scholia on Eunpides, Xerxes, and restored by Antiochus. 

Apollonius Rhodius, and Theocritus. (Pausan. i. 8.) 

ARISTODEMUS. Three of this name ARISTOGEITON, the son of Cydi- 
were grammarians of Nyssse. The two machus, by a freedwoman,wa8 nicknamed 
elder are mentioned by Strabo, xiv. p. 650, " the Dog, " from his shameful and daring 
who says that one was the son of Menecrates conduct Like his contemporary £s- 
the grammarian, and a pupil of Aristar- chines, he made a speech against Timar- 
chus ; and that the other, attached to the chus and others, and especiaUy against the 
family of Pompey the Great, taught rhe- celebrated courtezan Phryne. But of all his 
toric m the morning, and grammar in the orations not a single fragment has been 
afternoon. To the latter Fabricius sup- preserved, sithougn they were extant pro- 
poses Varro and Plutarch to allude; oably in the time of Quintilian, who 
and with the former he would identify speaks of him in conjunction with Lycur- 
the scholiast on Pindar, who is sometimes gus ; and from a fragment of Alexis,quoted 
called the Alexandrine, not because he by Jul. Pollux, x. Ill, it would seem that 
wus a native of that city, but because he he was connected with the charcoal trade* 
taught there in the school of Aristar- Among the orations attributed to De- 
chus. The third grammarian, according mosthenes there are two against Aristo- 
to Suldas, abridged the Catholicon of geiton ; and though both are rejected as 
Herodion. spurious by Dionysiua the critic, yet the 

133 



A R I A R I 

firit is received by othcn as genuine, for of his life. He was likewise a writer on 

it contains an alliuion to the nickname, agriculture, for amongst the ancients the 

and says tliathis father was Cydimachus, rearing of bees for the purpose of obtain* 

and not Lysimachus, as found in Suidas; ing honey and wax formea an essential 

who states that Aristogeiton was put to part of the business of a farmer. Hispor- 

death by the Athenians, but without as- trait has been preserved in a cornelian, 

signing any reason for the act. It appears, copied into Visconti's Iconographie. 

however, from the speech of Dinarchus ARISTOMACHUS. There were two 

again 8t him, that he was accused of having t)Tanti of Argos of this name, according 

been bribed by Harpalus ; while, from to Plutarch, Cuth in the time of Aratua. 

Plutarch, in Pliocion, i. p. 716, it may be Polvbius mentions only one, who volun- 

inferred, that although he was constantly tarily resigned his power, and allowed 

urging his country to take up arms, he Argos to join the Achaean league. (Biog. 

was unwilling to face the enemy, and Univ.) 

used to attend the public meetings leaning ARISTOMACHUS, a statuary of 

on a crutch, and with liis legs bound up, Str^-mon, but of doubtful date, who was 

as if he were a cripple. the first that sculptured statues of cour- 

AIlISTOGEITON, aTheban statuary, tezans, concerning which the epigram of 

who exercised liis art, it is supposed, Antipater may be read in AnthoL Palat. 

from the ninetieth to the one hundred vi. 2G8. (Sillig, Catal. Artificnm.) 

and second Olympiad. ARISTOMEDES, a Theban statuary, 

ARISTOGENES, (Apiaroytvrit,) a who flourished about the seventy-fiflh 

physician of Thasos, mentioned by Suidas Olympiad ; and who, together with So- 

as having written twenty-four books, of crates the sculptor, his fellow -citizen, 

which nothing but some of the titles now made a statue of Cybele, in the temple 

remain. which Pindar founded near Thebes. 

Another pliyaician of the same name, ARISTOMEDON, an Argive sculptor, 
l>orn at Cnidos (according to Suidas;, who flourished a little before the first 
and tlie servant and pupil of Chrysippus, and second expeditions of the Persians 
(Galen, De Vena Sect. adv. Erasistr. into Greece. He made the gifVs which 
cap. 2.) He was physician to Anti- the Phocians dedicated to the temple at 
gonus Gonatas, king of Macedonia, in Dclplios, on account of the great victory 
the third century before Christ. He is ofThessuly. He lived about the seventy- 
quoted by CeluuH, (l)e Re Med. lib. v. third Olympiad, 
ciip. IM,) and sevend timen by Pliny. ARISTOMENES. So little is known 

AlllSTOLAUS, (about tiOG b. c.) a of the history of the persons who figured 

painter of Athenn, the son and di&ciplc as leading characters in the minor itatei 

of PaUHic'iM, is celebrated among the of Greece, that more than ordinary atten- 

paintcfH of his time for tlie severity tion may be paid to an individual who^ 

of his Ktylu; ** from which (says Bryan) like Hannibal, swore he would make no 

we may infer, that he united a purity of peace with the enemies of his coun- 

form with a strict simplicity in liis com- try, as he felt that the Spartans would 

])OMitionH." His pictures were generally never rest satisfied till they had dfr- 

confin(>d to a sint^Ie figure, and he usually stroyed Messcnc, as the Romans did 

made rlioice of Huch eminent persons as afterwards Carthage. To Pausanias akme, 

were hif(lu'st ill tilt; eHtceni of tiieir coun- — for the poet Khianus, and historian 

trvnien. Aiiii>ii^ these were Medea, Myron, from whom he drew some of his 

TiieHeiiK, ]-<paniinon<laM, and Pericles. A materials, are both lost, — are we indebted 

picture is alKo mentioned, representing for a detailed account of Aristomenet; 

tile Athenian people, personified, a sub- who was the first, and almost only man, 

jeet which ofleii exercised the genius of said Myron, whose actions shed a splen- 

tlie (ireek artists. Pliny (xxxv. c. 1 1, 10) dour on Messene, and whom Rhianus did 

^ives a list of his works. (Hiog. Univ. not hesitate to compare with Achillea 

Ihyairs Diet Sillig, Catah)gus Arti- himself. Descended from the family of 

ficuni.) i^CputusjAristomenoswasbomatArdaiiia, 

AKISTOMACIIUS, a native of Soli and was the son of Pyrrhus, or rather of 

ill Ciliiia, was the tlie pupil of Lycon, Nicomedes, and of Nicotcleia, whom it 

and, like the founder of tlie Peripatetic was said some deity had impregnated in 

pliiloMiphv, paid eonsidi-rahle attention the shape of a sequent, as the Macedo- 

to natural history, and especially to that nians a.sserted was the case with Alex- 

purtioii of it relatiijfr to bees, to which ho ander's mother, and the Sicyonians said 

IS said to have devoted fifty-eight years was that of their hero Aratus. Eacer to 



A R I A R I 

deUver his country from the yoke of the care, that he was enabled to hanuw (he* 
oppressor, at an early period of his life surrounding country, and even to produce 
Anstomenes secretly engaged the Area- a scarcity in Sparta, which drew its sup- 
dians to assist him m his operations ; by plies of food from that part of Greece, 
whose leader he was, however, twice be- Taken at last in one of his foraysi 
trayed, after Aristocrates had consented he was sent to Sparta, and thrown into 
to sell himself to the Lacedemonians, the pit called Ceadse, where criming 
His earliest exploit was in the battle of were left to die of hunger. From this, 
Ders, where, after enacting more wonders however, he escaped by following the 
than a man, he was offered the crown, track of a fox that had found its way 
and on his refusal, elected general, or there to feed upon the carcases of the 
rather dictator. With the view of striking dead. After his unexpected escape, 
terror into the enemy, he stole by night Aristomenes waylaid and cut to pieces 
into the temple called Chalcicoeus (brass- a reinforcement sent by the Corinthians 
house) and there hung up a shield with to the Spartans for the destruction of 
the inscription — " This, fiom the spoils of Eira ; but being afterwards seized, during 
Spartans, does Aristomenes to the god- a truce of forty days, by some Cretan 
dess pve,** It was about this period mercenaries, he again escaped from the 
that tne Lacedemonians were required by hands of the enemy througn the aid of a 
the oracle of Delphi to obtain a counsel- country girl, who made his guards dnmk. 
lor from the Athenians ; who sent them Despite, however, all the efforts of the 
the poet Tyrtaeus, who had been a school- Messenians, Eira was taken, although Ari- 
master of little note, and was lame with stomenes, with some of the garrison, con- 
one foot ; but though he was unable to trived to force their way through the camp 
take an active part in the bustle of the of the enemy, and to retire to the moim- 
fight, he was of^no little service to the tain Lyceeus, from whence he intended 
Spartans, by introducing amongst them to make an attack upon Sparta itself, but 
his spirit-stirring strains. But all the was again betrayed by Aristocrates; 
excitement of martial music could not when miding it useless to contend longer 
prevent the defeat of the Lacedemo- against the mte that had doomed his coun- 
nians at the battle of the Boar's-tomb; try to destruction, he retired to. Rhodes, 
where Aristomenes, with a band of eighty whither he accompanied his daughter, 
picked men, gained a complete victory, whom Damagetus, the prince of Jalysus, 
although, in the ardour of the pursuit, he had married, and where he died. After 
lost his shield, entangled, it would seem, his death, his bones were carried back to 
m the boughs of a wild pear-tree ; but Messene, where honours were paid to 
which he afterwards recovered in the him as a hero, and a brazen statue erected 
cave of Trophonius, and eventually placed to his memory. 

it in the temple of Lebadea, where Pau- There are several other persons of this 

sanias saw it, surmounted by an eagle, name who deserve at least to be indi- 

whose wings were extended from rim to cated. 

rim. He then made an attack on Phars, 2. The writer of the old comedy flou- 
where he defeated the enemy, but received rished about 01. 87, and was nicknamed 
a wound in the lower part of the back, the door-maker, Qvpowoios, or, as others 
while retreating with the booty he had say, the door-breaker, OvooKonos. The 
collected. He was not, however, equally titles of only five of his plays have been 
successful at £gila, where he was taken preserved, and a few fragments in Athe- 
prisoner, but released through the kind- nseus and the Scholiast on Aristophanes, 
ness of the priestess of Ceres, who had — 3. The historian of Arcadia, quoted by 
fallen in love with him, but who pretended the Scholiast on Apollon. Rhod. — 4. A 
that Aristomenes had unloosed, oicxXvo-av , pupil of Plato, and a friend of Dionjrsius 
the bonds by which he had been bound, of Syracuse. — 5. A friend of Aristotle, 
and not burnt them through, dioKava-as, and named in the will of the latter as the 
as we find in Pausan. iv. 1 7. Pursuing stUl guardian of his adopted son Nicanor. 
his career of opposition, he engaged the ARISTON, (Apiaroiy,) one of the 
Lacedemonians at the GreatDitch; where, oldest Greek physicians, to whom is 
however, in consequence of Aristocrates' sometimes attriouted the work — De Victu 
treacherously drawing off* his Arcadian Salubri, wliich bears the name of Hip- 
troops, the Messenians were surrounded pocrates. (Galen. De Medicam. Kara 
by the enemy, and Aristomenes was com- roirovsy lib. ix. c. 4.) 
pelled to retire to a mountain fastness, Eira. ARISTON ICUS, a natural son of 
Here he was besieged, but with so little Eumencs, king of Pergamus, attempted 

135 



ARI ARI 

to recorer bis fktLer's ^Int^aai, Vtzt vat wm VsSa^ EkrviK, fior nd wii the 

Uk<ni bj Perpfnina, and d:€9d a pnMoer cmtom at Adieoi ; aad ai die finmlf vaa 

at K//m<^. taid br iome to bare been natmi of 

AKI.STONICX^S, a gruumaTun of .£eina. and to bare yamt ■»! uupatj 

Alcaandm,va»ac>vnVfm^jrarTofS!i:^^ in that island, it ia pnwMf mat tbe 

and wr/U; a vM^k, in kx Ux/ki, on tbe fathsr vai one of tboae vbo lettled tbere, 

Irre^aritUn of Syntax to be found in after iti subjugation to Atbem, during 

HorritT ; on the Wauiderin^ of 31 enebmi ; tbe administration of Pericles ; or, mce, 

and on the Theo^^nj of lleiiod. aecco'dinz to cMber acoocnti, tbe taaSlj 

AKISTOXOL'S, a fttatoarr, bean in came originallj from Lindos in Rhndn, 

the ifUnd of Efnn^ but of uncertain Camara in Crete, or Xancratii in Egypt* 

date, made the ttatne of Jupiter, dedi- vbile Aristophanes binuelf vas bom at 

cated by tbe pefjpU of Metapontom. Athens, and of tbe tribe ofPandJop, indie 

ARISTONYML'S, a disciple of Plato, ward ofCvdatbene^dierewonld bare been 
wav sent by his master to legislate for the ample ground for contesting bis daim to 
Arcadiani. A few fragments of his the pririleges of an Athenian citizen; 
Tomaria ( t. e» little tomes ;, bare been pre- whicn Cleon is said to bare done in rerenge 
served in Stobaeus ; and from one of them, for the ridicule thrown in The Babyl»- 
in xxi. p. 1 70, it would seem that Socrates nians, not only upon himself peiaonallr, 
merely followed Heraclitus, when he but on the office be held of Ta/Mtagf m 
said — *' All that I know is, that I know conjunction with nine otben, as may be 
nothing;" and it is Aristonymus that has inferred by comparing an hitherto on- 
perpetuated the witticism of Socrates, noticed fragment in Plutarch, iL p. 853, 
who said, that if the crier in the theatre XyL — t^anrur ov^t raiuas oXAa am 
were to hid all the cobblers, or tailors, or Aa/uas lorras, with tbe words of Aristo- 
tinkr^s, to stand up, only the persons of phanes in Z^c 1033, and Eip. 740. 
tho^ trades respectively would do so ; but So searching was the inooisition that 
if he bade all the wise to get up, every took place, to ascertain wbo were the 
man would rise. To him is likewise due parties entitled to receire, in their cha- 
thc idea which has been worked into a racter of Athenian citizens, a share of 
couplet^ the com sent by Psammetichns, that 
*•. KiiTy doth merit like iti ibade jmnat ; according to Aristophanes, in Ach- 481 , 
Hut iik« th« *hadow proves tbe lubttance true.'' the aliens, who were considered tbe chaff 

ARISTOPHANES. On this the sole of the citizens, were carefully siRed, and 

survive of the comic stage of Athens, 4700 persons, as we learn from tbe scbo- 

whfrrc the first of wits wrote for spectators liast on Z^i^k. 716, had their names erased 

who were at once the cleverest and most from the parish registers, into whkh 

caiiriciouM of human bein;^s, and who, after thoy had been improperly enrolled. 

relishing equally the suhlirnity of i^schy- From this ordeal, however, the dramatist 

]uM,ntid the pathos of Euripides, could split not only escaped unhurt, but was eren 

their sides with laughing at parodies upon led, no doubt by the feelings of prirate 

b^ith, so much has h^^en written in the hate and public wrongs, to attack with 

course of the last quarter of a century, still greater violence than before the 

that if only n tenth part of what others Demogorgon of the state. But mch 

have Hnid were put down, it would fill was the dread of the power which tbe po» 

h.'ilf n volume. And yet all that llankc litical monster then possessed, just fresh 

has heaped un in his Life of Aristo- from his victory over the Spartans at 

pluiiieH, extending to 400 octavo pages, Pylus, that the performers, who bad 

may be eoiriprcssed into a few columns, sustained the principal parts in the 

if we are to detail only admitted factH, former plays, were unwilling to act the 

and draw fair inferences from the con- son of the tanner; and even the manu- 

fiirting evidence relating to the life and facturcrs of masks refused to make one 

writings of the dramatist. TIic year of to represent the great mob4eader ; and 

the birth and death of Aristoplianes arc hence Aristophanes was compelled to 

rquiilly unknown ; and there is even some disguise himself with the lees of wine 

rontroverNy respecting his country and rubbed on his face, and to be at once 

the name (if his father. According to his author and actor. Such has been the 

(ireek biographer, some said he was the inteq)rctation hitherto put on the words 

son of IMuljp, and Imrn at Athens ; others, of the dramatist, in 'Inw. 230, in conse- 

of rhilinpides of il'.gina. Hut as one of quence of what has fallen from the 

Ills rhildren bore tbe name of Philip, it scholiast, whose story is repeated by 

is probable that the grandfather's name another or tlio same commentator.-^for 

I no 



ARI ARt 

it matten not wliich,^ii S^ie. 1016, IliacL The Btory is, however, rejected 
and hy the Greek biographer of Aristo- by Ranke, who conceives that it owes its 
phanes. Ranke, however, in his Com- origin to the tradition, that St Jerome 
mentat p. xciv. and again, p. ccxvi. asserts, used a MS. of Plautus for a similar 
that the words do not necessarily convey purpose, or that Aldus wrote down by 
such a meaning ; that they merely ac- mistake, John Chrysostom, instead of his 
count for the fact, why Cleon appears namesake Dio, who has frequentlv, ac- 
without a mask ; and tlmt the whole ac- cording to Reiske, alluded to Aristo- 
count is solely the invention of the phanes. Person, on the other hand, as 
scholiast on one passage, which has been stated by Dobree, conceived that Aldus 
repeated on the other, if the commentator took the story from a scholiast ; for it is 
be the same person ; and if a different borne out by the fact, that the eloquent 
one, has been copied, and thus became father of the church has frequently imi- ' 
the foundation for the anecdote in the tated the langui^ of the no less power- 
biographical article. That the scholiasts ful dramatist. The question, however, 
sometimes drew upon their fancy for is one that we cannot enter upon at pre- 
interpretations maybe conceded, without sent Our own impression is, that Uie 
admitting that such is the fact in the eleven were selected by some father of 
present case. Unless the story had been the Greek church, from their containing 
handed down from authentic sources, it is more or less decided allusions to, and 
difficult to understand how it could have ridicule of, the mysteries of pagan wor- 
occurred to the scholiast, especially as shi^ ; for though Aristophanes was never 
there is nothing in the text to lead di- initiated himself, yet he had the talent to 
rectly to it. Wi^ equal justice Ranke see through the real aim of rites which, 
might object to every anecdote mentioned under the cloak of solemnity, carried on 
in the Scholia, but not stated distinctly in a disgusting farce, and by which, at one 
the text Until then some stronger areu- and the same time, the many were led to 
ments are brought forward to prove that believe in twelve gods at least, and the few 
Aristophanes was not both author and to deny any power but that of matter. Be 
actor, we may stick to the old story, which it, however, design or accident, to which 
bears at least probability on the face of we owe the preservation of the eleven 
it, and continue to believe that partly by plajrs, it is a fact that the whole forty- 
his acting, but more by the continued fun four are quoted by Athenseus and Julius 
of the piece, where from the first ap- Pollux ; and it is equallv certain that in 
pearance of Cleon to the last, there is no the time of the author whom Suidas tran- 
Dreathing-time given to his antagonist, scribed in his short life of Aristophanes, 
the success of the dramatist was com- only the eleven still surviving were to be 
plete. By this victory, coming as it did found ; and so Meineke (in Qusstion. 
close after another achieved in the preced- Scenic, ii. 12.) and Ranke (in Commentat 
ing year with his Achamians, Aristophanes p* c.) might have guessed, had they seen 
was placed amongst the brightest wits that in aircp dc wcirpayaficy Apioro^- 
of the day ; nor was it without reason vovs dpafiara, the word irarpaxafitv is 
thatPlatosaidof the man, whose writings, merely a literal error for irnrpaxt to 
according to Olympiodorus, were found «fi«J'* — i. e. " of the dramas, which Aristo- 
on the death-bed of^he philosopher — phanes composed, eleven have remained." 

•' In Arittophanc.' loul the Grace, found Amongst this number are to be found 

A shrine, that e'en Time's scythe shall ntrtr the Achanuans and Knights, which were 

^°^"**-" respectively the third and fourth plays 

The prophecy has been, however, unfor- Aristophanes wrote ; and likewise the 

tunately not verified ; for of the forty- second Plutus, which appeared towards 

four plajrs, or rather forty, smce four the close of his dramatic career ; and they 

were rejected as spurious, onlv eleven thus enable us to see the different phases 

have come down to us, and these too, of the comic stage exhibited at Athens 

with the exception of the Plutos, Clouds, during a period of neariy forty yean. 

Knights, and Birds, in a castrated form. In none of the plays, however, do we meet 

For their preservation we are indebted to with what was peculiar to the old comedy, 

the pood taste of John Chrysostom ; who, real characters with real names, and 

if Aldus is to be believed, had a Manu- perpetual allusions to passing events : for 

tius MS. volume, containing twenty-eight even in the Achamians, Uie principal 

plays of Aristophanes, which he used for character is a fictitious person ; unless it 

a pillow, just as Alexander is said to have be said that there was an actual Dicseo- 

elept upon the twenty-four books of the poUs, as weU known by the mask the 

137 



A K I A K I 

acU>r put on, as were Nicias and Demos- a clown ; a hero or an old woman ; that 
theiic-8 in the Kni^^htb bv theirii, even the wit of Ansti>phanes affords no delight 
without th<: mention of their respective to the many, while it is absolutely insuf- 
naiiieb ; wljiic in the secoitd Plutus, all ferable to the few ; that his muse, like a 
the charaoterii and events are fictitious : faded courtezan , affecting the staid de* 
nor is there, except in the parts intrr>- mean our of a wife, is equally disagreeable 
duccd fro!ii the first edition of the play, to persons of \-ulgar taste, from her as- 
any allu-tion to contemporary persons or sumed prudery, and to men of more 
circuinst'iiicfs. The fact is, that during elegant minds, from her real immodesty ; 
the period which elapsed between the that the acidity of his Attic salt excoriates 
exhibition of the firiit and last plays of the tongue instead of tickling the palate ; 
Arihtojiharu's, wliich were re.tpec lively nor is it easy to say where his uoasted 
the AaiTtiXtii and KcokoAos, the license cleverness is to be found; for his charac- 
originally granted to the i-^tage had been ters are caricatures ; his iokes to be rather 
withdrawn ; and insUrad of levelling his laughed down than laughed at; while all 
keenest sliafts at individuals, the drama- his notions of love are full, not of gaiety 
tist was compelled to aim at general but grosHne-is. So too Voltaire said of 
chanicters; and thus the nuise of comedy ArisUiphanes — " Ce poctc comique, qui 
underwent the same reducing regimen, n'est ni comique ni pocte, n'aurait pas 
that tragedy did in pa>»ing from yKs- ete ad mis parmi nous a donner ses farces 
chylus to Kuripides, until in both cases a la fuire du St. Laurent." But other 
the spirit of the drama, which had once writers, as well among the ancients as 
figured on the boards witii the helm, the modems, have adopted a different 
shield, and s])ear of Minerva, was con- tone ; and he is now considered by the 
tent to appirar as tlie Goddess of Love ; Schlegels and their adniirers as a poet 
while the tricks of clevei' servants, aiding second only to Homer, and superior to 
their youthful masters to cheat penurious Socrates as a moralist, and, as a patriot, 
parents, were substituted for the ridicule equalled by Phocion alone. Instead, how- 
of j)hilosop]iers without pence, and of ever, of penning panegyrics, whose very 
politicians without honesty. Nor was it extravagance carries a doubt of their sin- 
m the conduct of the piece alone that the cerity, it were wiser to speak of Aristo- 
old (;omedy diiiercd from the new; for phanes as he really was. The bold antago- 
while the dread of tht- law put a curb nist <jf bad inen in power, and the clever 
upon the inta^ination of the poi-t, the d(.t(ctor of spacious knaves, united to 
s<:nn(ly less (In-ad of expense curtailed a keen jx-rcejjtion of the ridiculous, 
the scenery, dres-)es, aitd decorations of ready to shoot folly as it flies, the ver- 
the theatre. IJut when tlie (.'h(;rus was >atility of a parodist, prepared to put 
silenced, the lyre of the comic muse v.as on t very garb of thought; but, like all 
left unstrung, which had formerly ram- ])arodists, he was unable- to sustain, except 
bled through all the varied melorjifs of for a short period, tlie towering flight of 
song; and instead of the lively Trochee the nnmarcn bird, v.hosc eyrie is on the 
and stately Anapa.'st, and the mixed pinnacle of I'arnassus. 
measures of tin; Lurps-dr-hallt;!, nothing Trom the few fragments which have 
was heard but the monotonous recitative been preserved of the writings of his con- 
ed' tin; prosy Senarian. In the eyes of ti-mi)oraries, it is impos-ible to Siiy how 
the soljiT IMutavih, quite sliocked, it far he was justified in decrying the bad 
would srrm, with th" coiirsi- lidiruh- taste of tlu- judges in rejecting The 
thrown u|)on hi> fjivoiiriie hero IN rides C'loiuU ; uhiili, .iccording to modem 
l)y Aii>!<q)li.'iiies and his contemjiuriiries, notions, is the most complete comedy 
this cli.'inge from the brond humoiir of of tlie wlif»l<.' i lev(ii, ;is it is the only one 
tin* iild comedy to tlir dilieat<' sullie:- of that has a beginning, middle, and end. 
tiie hi w, was considt-red a di-cid< d The f.iilure is. pcrhnps, to !)e attributed 
symplom of iiicnt.-il improvemeiil, iri:ti-iid to the fact, that in selecting Socrates as 
of hcinir thin, as it has been i-ver finer, liie butt for his ridicuh', he merely fol- 
tlie heralrt (if intelli-ctu:ii d« (',';y. In hi.> lowed in liu' wake of (Vatinus, who had 
eilchratcd ci)ni|iarisou b-tu'iin Ari>to- (Idih- as much in the casi> of llippon, not 
phants and Menaiidi r. he tiiifU fault Jlipp.iMis: wlm^e tln-ciry, that neat was 
witli the want «it" kei ])iii;.' in tlje cli.iraeters the princi])lr xA' creation, as stated by 
of the oldiT dramatist; ;ind ilii-'. In- oh- Ari><t'it. M»-taj)hys. i. .'J, was derided by 
serve-. i> carrii (1 t«i uch a huL'th, that the Cratinus ; wjjo compared the world to an 
n-ader is (joitr miahle t<> sax win tlicr ovi n. and human beings to charcoal, as 
the speaker i-> a father (m* a sun ; a god or nuiv i)e infern d from the words of tlie 

i;;.s 



ARI ARI 

■cboliast on Aiiiitoph. Nc^ 96, and from enemy assailed by the weapons of wit } 
whence we can understand Uiat in the which men in power feel the mmt 
word nayoirrai, the title of the play of acutely, for they are the only ones it is 
Cradnus, there is a pun upon the eqmvo- impossible to parry or prevent When, 
cal meanings — " all-seemg," or " all- however, the tide of popular indignation 
baking," as applied to the gods. And was running against Socrates, for the 
though Aristoohanes leys no little stress part he had taken, in refusing to condemn 
on the originality of his ideas, and com- the officers who had neglected to pick iqp 
plains of lus competitors pilfering his best the bodies of those who had fallen in the 
thoughts ; yet it appears from the scho- sea-fight at Arginuss ; and still more, 
Uast, on N^. 5512, that a similar charge when his friends Theramenes and Critias 
of plagiarism was made against him by bad shown that the Socratic phflosophy 
Eupolis, who asserted that the Knights was no friend of democracy; it is not 
was a joint production, and that he made unlikely that Anytus, whose vanity bad 
a present or his share of it to the baid- been wounded by finding that Alcibiades 
feuotc, for such Aristophanes was.* But had given up his society for that of 
even allowing that the plot, incidents, and Socrates, endeavoured to bribe Aristo- 
ideas, were not taken frx>m others, still phanes to bring out again the play, 
there were probably grounds enough for which the author considered one of 
rejecting the favourite play of the author, his best. We are told indeed that the 
For the scholiast well observes, that the Nubes was repeated in the year im- 
tenets attributed to Socrates were not his mediately following its first exhibition, 
at all, but the doctrines rather of the when it was even less successful than 
philosophers and sophists to whom he before, for it obtained not even the third 
was constantly opposed ; and hence, the prize. But £lmsley has shown in the 
Greek commentator adds, ** is seen the Classical Journal, No. xi. p. 135, that the 
folly of those, who fancy that Aristo- second representation did not take place 
phanes wrote the play from any feeling in that year at all ; and that Eratosthenes 
of enmity to Socrates;*' for both were doubted, as we learn frx>m the scholiast 
lions of the same lair, and naturally piur- on Nc6. 552, whether it ever appeared 
sued the same quarry. At all events, more tnan once ; but as this doubt is at 
the charge brought against Aristophanes, variance with the fact, that the Parabasis 
of being the cause of the death of the of the second edition has been actually 
philosopher, is well refuted by Palmer, in preserved, Elmsley is disposed to believe 
£xercitat p. 729, who shows that the that the second representation did not take 
first representation of the Clouds preceded place till the people had time to forget 
the tnal of Socrates by at least twenty- the first ; for thus the Hutus was not re- 
four years ; and even then it produced so peated till twenty years after its first 
little sensation, that it obtained only the appearance. If then a similar period be 
third prise after the plays of Cratinus supposed to elapse between the first and 
and Gonnus — a failure for which the second representation of the Clouds, it 
author was quite unprepared, and by will be brought sufficiently near to the 
which he was not a little mortified. And time of the trial of Socrates to give rise 
yet independent of the incorrectness of the to the story, that Aristophanes was bribed 
portrait which he gave of Socrates, there by Anytus and others to vnrite the play 
were sufficient causes then operating to for the purpose of raising a clamour 
render his ill success not improb&le. against the pnilosopher ; whereas, in fact. 
At that time the party of the philoso- the play was merely revived for that pur- 
phers, backed as they were by Pericles, Pp^^* Fritzsche mdeed, on Aristoph. 
^ the patron of Anaxagoras, were too strong Thesm. p. 68, says, that the second edition 
to be destroyed by a juvenile play-writer, of the Clouds appeared four years after the 
even fresh from his victory over Cleon, first ; but he produces no arguments for 
who was at once hated and feared by the deciding so positively upon a point which 
better sort of citizens and domiciled every other critic confesses to be a matter 
aliens ; who were delighted to see their of doubt 

• The charge. howeTer. was more e««y to make ^ ^^ *^® P^^X^ t^at are lost, the one tO 

than prove; for it is not very prohaUe that one be regretted the most is the AoiroXctr, 

^.STiiifw in invention as the writer of forty plays ^hich Aristophanes wrote first, and when 

must hare been, and who in the eleven that remain , ^ ^ ^ \ . «•"*»• 

is never found to borrow from himself, with the "« was toO youn^ to be a competitor for 

exception of the allusion to his victory over Cleon. the dramatic pnze, according to ihe 

repeated in the Wasps and Peace, would condescend «^v»«i;^»* «« tj ^ koa — i. *i -* 

to^Ufcr f^m otheS, and those too whom he con- scholiast on Nci^. 530, who says tiiat 

sidertd infiirioi to himself. the legal age was forty, or, as some 

139 



AEI ARI 

assert, thirty. Now this Terj nncertuntj tions inserted tacidy into the text And 

is enough to throv no little suspicion Tet after all these continned pnhl ift i nni, 

upon a statement, unsupported by any lie has left not a little to he donie by fotore 

other writer ; to say nothing of the alh- scholars, such as Fritzache, whose e^tion 

surdity of a law that could be evaded at of the Thesmophoriazosae, (Li^ 1838,) 

once by the author getting a friend of is the first that has united the ingennitf 

the legal age to fkther his production, as of the English critic to the learning dL 

indeed Aristophanes confesses himself the continental one. 

to have done in Z^ijit. 1014; where he The text of and scholia on Aristophanet 

calls himself a ventriloouist, for speaking, were first printed by Aldus, at Yen. 1498, 

as it were, from the bellies of others, and under the superintendence of Mareua 

for which he was ridiculed by his con- Musurus, from a MS. which contuned all ' 

temporaries ; who ssdd that he was bom, the eleven plays; although the last two 

like Hercules, on the fourth day of the were in a state too imperfect to he used for 

month, and destined accordingly to work any good purpose. The work is a noUe 

for the benefit of others, as we learn from specimen of the Aldine press. The type 

the scholiast on Plato, Apol. i. 19, C. of the text is the same as that used for 

The fact is, that the allusion to the law the Aldine Aristotle and Theophrastns ; 

was made for the occasion, and meant to while the abbreviations in the scholia 

explain the words — will serve as an excellent praxis to those 

9ap$€*<n tttp tr n*, «<»•« cf n» »- M<»« tc«€.». who are desirous of leamine how to de- 

"For I WM a virfriDf and not permitted to bring cipher a Greek MS. of which it is almost 

forth a child." a fac-simile. The two plays omitted by 

But as the child made its appearance, Aldus were first printed from an Urbiniff 

and was exposed by its parent, another MS. by Bern. Junta, at Flor. 1515, 8ro, 

young female, says the bard, acted the but without the scholia. These were firrt 

part of a foster-mother. Now, had there known to be in existence firom the mar* 

been a law prohibiting a person under a gin of a book, to which Dobree alludes in 

certain age from writin? a play, a provi- the preface to his edition of Poraoni Notae 

sion would doubtless have been made in Aristophanem ; and since that time 

against another person of the same age they have been found in the RaTenna 

bringing it forward, or, at any rate, MS. in a state very similar to that 

against its gaining the prize, when it was in which Suidas saw them in the MS. 

thus produced contrary" to an express of Aristophanes, from which he tran- 

enactment. But as it (Ud gain the third scribed them into his Lexicon ; the rerj 

prize, it is evident that no such law ex- work to which, sa}'s Dindorf, Maicua 

istcd. It is from the same fragment we Musurus had recourse for the purpose of 

learn that in the time of Pericles there swelling the scholia in the edition of 

were glossaries for Homer, just as we Aldus. From the time of Junta to that 

have those for Chaucer and Bums. of Kuster, nothing was done for the im- 

Of the editions of Aristophanes tlic provement of the text by the collations of 

most remarkable is the one printed MSS. ; and even in his edition, (Lugd. 

from the Ravenna MS., that precious Bat. 1710,) the MSS. were of litde use, 

document, which has confirmed so many with the exception of the Vossian, which 

of the corrections made previous to its furnished the scholia on the Lyiistrata. 

discovery, and has given rise to hot a few Various scholars had, however, in the 

since. Iliis edition was commenced in mean time, given a few slight emenda- 

1794 by Invemizzi, continued by Beck in tions of the text. Amongst &ese, Joseph 

1809, and finished by Dindorf, in thirteen Scaliger alone deserves the least mention, 

>olumcs. The same editor has given an- whose short notes give the real value to^ 

other Aristophanes, in five 8vo, volumes, the edition of Amst. 1670, 12mo; while 

printed at Oxford, 1834 — 1838, containing the principal oniament of Kuster *8 edi- 

the text, scholia, and indices, together with tion is the corrections of Bentley upon 

a selection of notes, explanatory and cri- the Plutus and Nubes. It is only witnin 

tical ; while to those who want only a the last thirty years that the rest of these 

handful of annotations, he printed, at Lips, notes have been transcribed from Bentley'a 

182.5, in 2 vol;), small 8vo, and again in the papers, and published in the Classical 

Poctje ScL-nici Gra?ci, a large 8vo, Lips. Journal ; while those of Tyrwhitt were 

1830, the text of the dramatist; which he communicated by the author to Brunck, 

has again repeated in 1838 at Paris, in the who has occasionally passed them off as 

Scriptorum Gra»corum Bibliotheca, with- his own, in his edition printed at Straa* 

out any notes, but with his latest concc- burgh, Argentorat. 1783. This wai re- 

140 



ARI ARI 

viewed by Ponon, in Matty's Review ; the subsequent versions of Mitcbell and 

wbo there gave some restorations, which Walsh ; the former of whom has been less 

Fiorillo used in his edition of Herodes anxious to do than overdo Aristophanes 

Atticus; while some of the others in his partial versions of the Achamians, 

were confirmed by the Ravenna MS. Knights, and Clouds ; and has thus left 

which Immanuel iBekker collated with to the latter the task of giving a more 

greater care than Invemizzi had done ; faithful portrait of the Greek dramatist in 

and after transcribing the inedited scholia his complete translation of the same plays, 

from that and other MSS. sold his To these must be added the version of 

paners for 400/. to Priestley the book- Wheelwright, who has alone dared to 

seller of London, who made them the ^apple with the whole eleven plays ; but 

basis of his partial reprint of Dindorfs he nas designedly omitted whatever was 

voluminous publication. From that time likely to offend the delicacy of modem eanu 
to the present nearly all the accessible ARISTOPHANES, the celebrated 

libraries of Europe have been ransacked grammarian of Byzantium, was the son 

for MSS. of Aristophanes, the counter- of ApcUes, a military officer, and the 

part of the Ravenna, but without success ; pupil of Callimachus and Zenodotus. 

and hence, as no fiirther aid can be ex- rlaced by Ptolemy over the library at 

fleeted from such sources, the only means Alexandria, he gave an edition of Homer, 
efi for the restoration of the Greek dra- which is frequently mentioned in the 
matist, are to be found in the ingenuity Venetian Scholia. He wrote likewise 
ofscholars to emend the errors of the text, Homeric, Doric, and Attic Glossaries; 
and in their good fortune to discover sup- in which he appears to have paid some 
plementsofthelacunss. Of the latter, Uie attention to woros indicative of different 
most curious instance has been furnished degrees of relationship. Eustathius men- 
by a Greek life of Euripides, which has tions also a separate treatise by him on the 
preserved three lines at present wanting in .£gis of Jupiter. To him has been aa- 
the Achamians, 395; but which it is signed an abridgement of Aristotle's 
evident the scholiast found in his copy ; to History of Animal ; and some lives and 
which a distinct allusion is made by the arguments prefixed to the plays of So- 
same or another scholiast on Barp. 942, phocles and Aristophanes bear nis name, 
and by Suidas in Movydciv. The tristich. These were probably extracted from the 
to which allusion is here made, and which work he is said to have written against 
has been totally overlooked by all the Callimachus. Speaking of the causes 
recent translators and editors of Aristo- which led to his appointment as librarian, 
phanes, was first printed in the Journal Vitruvius says, that when seven judges 
des Savans, April 1832, p. 240 ; Annal. were appointed to decide upon the merits 
Philolog. ct Psedagog. i. p. 539; Rhei- of the poets, whose works were to be 
nescheMuseum,i. p. 298; and Hermann, placed m the library at Alexandria, 
Opuscul. V. p. 202. Aristophanes selected those whom the 

Amongst the still unedited papers of others rejected ; for, said he, they alone 
scholars who have paid attention to are original writers, the rest are merely 
Aristophanes, those of Daubuz at pre- plagiarists; and as he verified the as- 
sent in the British Museum deserve to be sertion by producing the very pas- 
noticed. His name appears in Kuster*s sages that had been pilfered, it was 
preface as the person to whom that edi- thought that he was the most proper per- 
tor was indebted for the collation of the son to take care of books, witn the con- 
Bodleian MS. ; and though the notes of tents of which he was so well acquainted ; 
Daubuz are rather upon tne scholia than and it was at this time, probably, that he 
the text, yet in some few instances he wrote a treatise, to show the similarity in 
has anticipated the emendations of sub- sentiments between Menander and pre- 
sequent critics. ceding dramatists. Of the same, or 

Nor is it with professed scholars alone another grammarian, Plutarch, ii. p. 972« 

that Aristophanes has found favour, tells a story, how an elephant was the 

Within the last thirty years, he has rival of the scholar in the attentions paid 

been repeatedly translated into German, to a flower-girl at Alexandria. 
French, and Enclish. In the latter ^ To the foregoing Fabricius adds — I. 

tongue Frere first siiowed, in Blackwood's The Boeotian, who wrote a work on Thebes. 

Magazine for January 1819, how close- — 2. The friend of Libanius, who wrote an 

ness might be imited to ease and elegance oration, still extant, in belialf of Aristo- 

to strength. To the specimen there given phanes, prefect of Corinth. — 3. A writer 

of a translation from the Frogs, are owing on agriculture, mentioned by Pliny. 

141 



A R i A R I 

ARISTOPHON. 1. The indiTidual in that country is not precisely known ; 

sent hy the government of Four Hundred hut in 1470 he was employed at Venice, 

at Athens, on an embassy to Sparta, in where he huilt some churches ; and in 

Ol. 92, 1, and who afterwards introduced 1473 was summoned to Russia hy the 

the law that no person should be consi- grand-duke Ivan Vassilivitch, who had 

dered a citizen whose mother liad not sent to 1 taly for an architect to erect a 

been a free woman. If he is the same cathedral at Moscow ; the former one, 

as the one who brought Inhicrates though begun only in 1426, being so 

and Timotheus to trial on a charge of badly constructed, that it was found ne- 

betraying their country, he must nave cessary to take it down altogether. Ari- 

lived to Ol. 106, 1. He is numbered stotile completed the new edifice in four 

oftener than once by Demosthenes years, and according to the Russians 

amongst the celebrated orators of Athens; themselves, he executed or designed 

and according to Ruhnken, in Histor. many other buildings ; and among the 

Crit. Orat. p. 46, he was the son of De- rest, several at Vologda and Novogorod : 

mostratus the orator, mentioned by Plu- but here all further particulars of him 

tarch as the son of Aristophon. — 2. cease, for neither the time nor the place 

Another orator, sometimes confounded of his death have been ascertained, not- 

with the preceding, seems to have been withstanding the celebrity he enjoyed 

a person of great influence; for he is among his contemporaries, — one proof 

described in a fragment of a speech of ofwhichis, that the mvitation to enter hia 

Hyperides against him, as conceiving service was made to him by Mahomet 

himself at liberty to do what he pleased. II. probal)ly on account of his reputation 

According to the Greek biographer of as an engineer. In this latter capacity 

^schines, the antagonist of Demosthenes he appears to have been eminently ser- 

was a scribe in Aristophon *s employ. — viceable to the Russians, whom he in- 

3. The archon Eponymus, who is called structed in the art of casting cannon, 
likewise an orator in Theophrastus, ARISTOTLE, a celebrated phUoso- 

Charact. 8. But there, Ruhnken con- nher, founder of the Peripatetic school, 

ceives the words tov prjropo? to be an He was bom in the first year of the 

interpolation; while Casaubon woidd ninety-ninth 01}Tnpiad (e.g. 384-3) at 

read roav prjTopcyvy in allusion to the con- Stagirus, a petty town in the north of 

test between the rival orators respecting Greece, situated on the western side of 

the crown, which took place in his the Str}'monic gulf. His father was 

archonship. — 4. A comic writer in the Nicomachus, one of the family, or guild, 

time of Alexander the Great. Of his of the Asclepiads, who resided in the 

dramas, the titles of only eight have been capacity of body-surgeon at the court of 

preserved, and a few fragments in Athe- Amyntas, king of Macedonia, the father 

nceus, StobfBus, and Julius Pollux. — 5. of the celebrated Philip. His mother't 

The author of a work under the title of name was Pha^stis. She was a de- 

Lvcaptariaj quoted by Fulgentius. scendant of one of a number of colonists 

ARISTOPHON, a painter, the son from Chalcis in Euboea, by whom the 

and disciple of Aglaopnon, and brother population of Stagirus, which was founded 

of Polygnotus, and who flourished about oy the Andrians, had been' subsequently 

the eigliticth Olympiad. replenished. 

ARISTOTEtE, (Sebastian dc San Tlie father of Aristotle died while hii 

Gallo.) See San Gallo. son was yet a minor, and left him under 

AR I STOTILE, (Alberti, or Fiora- the guardianship of one Proxenus, a 
vanti,) an eminent Italian architect, en- citizen of Atameus, a town of Asia, who 
gincer, and mathematician, was a native appears to have been settled in Stagirus. 
of Bologna, in which city he is said to It is probable that the orphan was left in 
have removed the campanile of the the possession of a considerable fortime, 
Duomo, entire and with all its bells, to and this did not suffer, as was so often 
the distance of thirty-five feet from its the case in antiquity, from the careless- 
original site, by means of machinery, ness or malversation of fraudulent guar- 
In like manner he restored to an upright dians. The gratitude of Aristotle towards 
position another campanile, at Cento, I^oxenus is one of the most striking 
which was inclined about five feet and a features of his moral character. In a 
half out of the perpendicular ; and he will, or a codicil to a will, which has 
was invited to Hungary by Mattha?us Cor- come down to us, he directs the erection 
▼inus, where he erected several edifices of a statue to his guardian, and also to 
and bridges. How long he remained his wife ; he appoints their son Nicanori 

112 



ARI ARI 

whom he had preTiously adopted, to be of a Phidias into action to adorn the cit;^ 
joint guardian with Antipater of his of Athena in a manner worthy of the 
own son Nicomachus ; and he also he- goddess, — ^whcre the tragedies of a So- 
stows his daughter upon him in marriage, phodes and the comedies of an Aristo- 
Such a testimony of regard and esteem u phaneshad been produced, — where almost 
an irrefragable argument in favour of all the heroes whose names were great in 
Proxenus*s conduct, and utterly disproves Grecian story had been bom and reared, 
a foolish story which was made up oy the and where every enjoyment which even 
enemies of Aristotle some time after his an epicurean could desire, was to be 
death, that he ran through his paternal fbnndin the highest perfection. Certainly, 
property at an early age, and was reduced if a specific reason is to be assigned 
by want to take service as a mercenary for such a step, none more absurd can 
soldier ; that failing in this character, he well be imagined than what was invented 
set up as a vendor m apothecary's drugs ; by the perverse ingenuity of subsequent 
and nnally, by the aid of Plato's gratui- times, when all real knowledge of this 
tons instructions, was enabled to succeed period had faded away ; namely, " « 
in the capacity of a philosopher. As he JDelphie orade, which commanded the 
was only of the age of seventeen when he . young Stagirite to eo to Athens, and 
came to Athens and devoted himself to devote himself to philosophy." It is 
those pursuits for wlvich he became afVer- more probable that, although Aristotle's 
wards so celebrated, it is quite obvious, father died when the son was little more 
independently of the improbability that a than a child, it was not until he had in- 
mere boy should have passed through so fused a taste for scientific pursuits into 
manv vicissitudes of fortune, that he him ; for we know that Nicomachus was 
could never have squandered his property not a mere practitioner, but wrote upon 
except through the culpable neffligence or his art, and those branches of natural phi- 
indulgence of his guardian, who, in such losophy which were connected with it ; 
a case, would never have been remem- and also that it was universally the prac- 
bered with respect and gratitude by his tice of the Asclepiads to teach the nidi* 
vrard, after a lapse of forty-five years. ments of their hereditary profession to 
At the time when Aristotle's minority their children from the very earliest 
terminated, and left him at liberty to dis- years, so that, as Galen remarks, " there 
pose of himself as he would, Athens was was no more fear of their forgetting their 
the centre of the civilisation of Greece, anatomy than of their forgetting their 
and possessed for the votary of pleasure, alphabet" Under these circumstances, 
as well as for the student, attractions especially when we consider how much a 
superior to any other city in the world, taste for this branch of study predomi- 
" Where,'* asks the Sicilian orator, in nates in Aristotle's works, it is scarcely 
Diodorus (xiii. 27), ** shall foreigners go possible to consider his journey to Athens 
for instruction, if Athens be destroyed T" as produced by any other cause than the 
Hippias the sophist is made by Plato desire of carr}'inff on pursuits previously 
(Protag. § 69) to call it " the very pryia- commenced, probably under tne imme- 
neum of Grecian wisdom;" and the de- diate guidance of his parent 
scriptions of the comic poets in the frag- In Athens he remained nearly twenty 
ments which have been preserved, show years attached to the school of Plato, 
that even the lower gratincations of sense and in habits of personal friendship both 
were there carried to a remarkable pitch with his great master and his future suc- 
of refinement Of imported and forced cessor in the Academy, Xenocrates. It 
fhiits, vegetables, and flowers for gar- is indeed not improbable that his intro- 
lands, there was such an abimdant sup- duction to the philosophy of the Academy 
ply, that Aristophanes (ap. Athen. p. 372) was due to this last ; for at the time when 
declares that foreigners who walked he first came to Athens Plato was absent 
through the (Mom, the Covent-garden of on one of his visits to Sicily, from whence 
Athens, would be utterly unable to ?uess he did not return till throe years after- 
what the season of the year could be. wards. During this long period, Aristotle 
We need hardly then look for anv parti- employed himself chiefly in laying up 
cular motive that should have influenced materials for his future use, and such was 
a youth of seventeen, master of himself, his diligence tliat Plato is said to have 
and an ample independence, to resort to given to his house the name of " the 
a place where Pinto was residing in the house of the render." An anecdote is 
heightof his reputation, — whore the splen- related of him, that in order to prevent 
door of a Pendes had called the genius the remission of attention which results 

143 



ART ARI 

ffMn ntbTTt InMiMo^Aj ^vlnjt mxj voider prfcciples, azkd Lfnuelf profeacd to 

th« pr^^v'iT^ of «t«?^« Atuiir, it vas hU teach it bj mere practice in the fchooby 

pr4/,*.'.'.e Iff XH!hA YtfAtil:»sf % ht!! in oi:e u fei:c;r.z or boxing might be lesn;t. 

h^r.'i, urifitrr whir.h vas placed a brazen Him unphl^oiophical method b aUnded to 

bsu.'n. On the nHghtevt inToInntary re- m terms of oisan^robatkOf in the trc*- 

IsixJitioTi of the muitciet, ti^te ball woold tiie on rhetoric which haa come down to 

iiufutiAisiXA'/ fall, and the feadden nrAae at ns, but in all probability mint hare been 

e^tf:»: dinipat/!r the incipient drowiinesa of censored in a much more ime<{iiiTocal 

th<i At'j'l'^nt, ^>ne r^tult of these laboon manner in the work which we hare just 

wa4 a t^AUciUin of the hiiUny, laws, and described. Iiocratea did not eome fiir- 

c»4t/tin%f of no le«» than one hundred ward to defend himtrif, bnt a ichcJar of 

and fifty '*;ifj^\it stAtes, a magnificent work, his, one Cephisodonxs, took np the pen in 

of TfU'ichf though it has unfortunately his behalf, and in a polemical treatise of 

b«;/rn Ufntf a f^fffA many fragments hare considerable length, did not confine him- 

etftnt: Hown to us preferred in the writ- self to the defence of his maiter's doc- 

ing* of scholiasts and grammarians, trines, but indulged in the most rirnlent 

Htnrn: part of the political treatise, too, attacks npon the character, both monl 

wliirh we hare, must hare been written and intellectaal, of his riraL This work, 

during this peri/xl, although other parts howerer, as well as the one which cafled 

obrirmsly are to be referred to a much it forth, is now lost, 
lat^r date. A collection of prorerbjiy a A report prerailed, rather extensively, 

work on the fundamental principles on in antiquity that an ill feeling between 

which the codes of law in the Greek Aristotle and his great master arose 

stat/rs were sererally based, and an his- antecedenflrto the death of the latter, and 

tr/rical riew of the science of rhetoric,— some anecdotes are told (none howerer 

all urifortunat<:ly lost, — were composed on any earlier authority than iEIian, who 

by hirn in this part of his life, rrom was not bom till four centuries afier^ 

the lant of tliesc, t}ie sketch of the rise of wards) illustratire of this opinion. But 

the art w}iic)i Cicf-ro gires in his Brutus the report is contradicted m the moat 

(I 12; is apparently dcrired, and he uneqmrocal manner by Aristodes, a Pe- 

elflewlicre doHcribos it as containing an ripatetic philosopher of rery considerable 

orroiifit of t}i'! tlicorics of all the pro- learning and judgment, who lired in the 

fi'HHOTH from the tirnc of Tisias, (the first half of the third century of the 

firnt who wroU; upon the subject,) so christian era, and in a sort of history of 

nrlinirnhly and pcrMpicuoufly set forth, philosophy, of which a fragment ia pre- 

that nil p<'nions in iiis time who wished served by Euscbius, examined the grounds 

tit ^niri fi know!(fdgo of tlicm preferred upon which the charge agunst Aristotle 

AriHtotlr's dfRcripiionto their own. Be- of ingratitude to his master was buOt, 

sidi'H tlicHf'writiiigfi, which were all rather satisfactorily demonstrating that it de- 

of tho iiaturr; of colhfctions, digests, and served no credit whatever. There is 

rritiriNiiiN, than rontaiiiing origmal views certainly a great difference between the 

of thi! writi*r's own, he gave public Ice- habits of thought and modes of feeling 

turfs on the Ruhjcct of rhetoric, which, obscr\'ablc in the writings of the two 

arrordin^ to Cici'ro, united instniction in great philosophers. The one never omits 

pfilitical wirtdom with practice in oratory, an occasion of passing from the finite to 

find wi-rt! not without their weight m the infinite, from the sensuous to the 

inniifMicinir Philip, king of Macedonia, spiritual, from the domain of the intellect 

to Nfli'cl tlicir author to he the proroptor to that of the feelings and the imacina- 

of AlrxnndiT tho (Sn*at. It in said thnt tion. lie is continually striving to body 

Ai'i'itdtir wiiN indiicf'd to come forward in forth an ideal, and he only regards the 

the fhiinirtrr of a profcHHor of oratory by actual as it furnishes materials for this. 

iiidijMiniion at tlir undoHrrved kucccss of In the other we find a searching and 

thf nhiillow and RopluHtical Isocrates. comprehensive view of things as they 

Ih' is rrporti'd to have miotcd a line present themselves to the understanding, 

whiih I'.iniiiidc*!, in hin PhiloctfteM, n out no attempt to pass the limits of that 

diiy M(iw Idsl, ]uit into the mouth of faculty — no suspicion indeed that such 

ii|y<i>if'<i, exist. The productions of the two differ 

.. „, . , M . .,. , 1 , ,. « ns a map diflers from a picture. The riewi 

" HliMiiii* III l.f ■lliMit and lot a barbarian ■peak,'* ^r*i.-. ..^ i r : l e a 

^ ' or the one always form parts of a system 

in ii)i|»liriiti(in to tlmt rclchratod do- inti'llectually complete ; those of the other 

eliiiiiHT. InocriitrN dcprtTutod any at- have a moral hannony : we rise from the 

trnipt to hiu«o th«* art upon scicutilic study of Plato with our feelings purified. 

Ml 



\ 



Aitt AttI 

from that of Aristotle with our percep- dual. That the term, however, is to ba 

tions cleared ; the latter strengthens the imderstood raUier of such functions as 

intellect, while the former elevates the those of an eastern vizier than any other, 

spirit This difference, so strongly marked may be gathered from Uie statement that 

between the matured philosophical cha- Hermias had previously resided in Athens, 

racters of these two giant minds, is of a and received mstnictions both from Plato 

kind which must have shown itself early, and Aristotle, and from the fact that, on 

and perhaps have prevented a comnlete the death of Eubulus, he became bis sue- 

congeniality, although it need not nave cessor. Aristotle, who, as we have seen, 

been adverse to the highest degree of had before this time bestowed much al- 

mutual respect and admiration. But tention on the various departments of 

their respective followers, men far inferior political science, was, very probably, in* 

to either, may very well have been un- vited to the court of this prince, in order 

able to combine dissent with good feeling, to frame a constitution for the infant 

and the spirit of partizanship, whicn commonwealth which had sprung up, and 

Cicero (DeTin. ii. 25) speaks of as pro- in the historical transactions of the time 

ducing, even in abstract questions, so we can discover '. circumstances which 

much slander and ill-feeling among the would render a departure from Athens, 

Greeks, would soon engender tales such however desirable a place for residence, 

as those to which we have alluded. There at that moment almost necessary to him. 

are other anecdotes too, of at least equal It was just at this time that the Athe- 

authority, which go to prove that Aristotle nian suspicions of king Philip, which had 

paid the highest tribute of admiration been lon^ growing, received a sudden 

and reverence to his master ; he is said confirmation by the successes of that 

to have erected an altar, or cenotaph, to monarch in the Chalcidian peninsula, 

his memory, and to have inscribed it with Demosthenes took advantage of the fall 

a distich, to the effect that << Plato was of Olynthus and the destruction of the 

too holy a man for the bad to venture Greek confederacy, of which that town 

even to praise." But the most satisfac- was the head, to excite a strong feelinff 

tory eviaence is that furnished by his of hatred aeainst every thing connected 

own writings, which, in those parts where with Macedonia. We may easily con* 

the nature of his task leads him to con- ceive that this would not fail to be 

trovert his master's doctrines, exhibit directed against the distinguished philo* 

sometimes a singular tenderness and de- sopher, the friend of Antipater, ana son 

licacy towards mm, and never either of a Macedonian court-physician, resi- 

voluntary misrepresentation or want of dent as an alien in a town where Philip 

respect. was believed to employ all such persons 

Just after' the death of Plato, which as his secret emissaries. Every possible 

happened when his illustrious scholar motive, therefore, seems to have existed 

had nearly completed the twentieth year to induce Aristotle, at this particular junc- 

of his residence at Athens, Aristotle, ac- ture, to take the course which he did ; and 

companied by the Platonic philosopher we have no occasion to resort to such a 

Xenocrates, passed over into Asia Minor, one as the malice of his enemies ascribed 

and took up his residence at Atameus, to him, namely, envy and indignation at 

or Assos, (for the accounts vary,) at the Plato having appointed Speusippus as his 

court of one Hermias, a petty prince of successor in the school of the Academy. 

Mysia. This remarkableman appears to But if the object of his expedition waa 

have been a kind of eeneral, or stadt- such as we have supposed it to be, he 

holder, of a small confederacy of Greek was not fortunate enough to succeed in 

towns, organized for the purpose of main- bringing it to pass. The cities of Asia 

taining their common independence Minor had been encouraged to rebellion 

against the gigantic power of the Persian by the successful examples of Egypt and 

empire, from which they had recently Phcenicia, and for a time every thing 

revolted. Their first leader was a cer- seemed to favour the cause of liberty 

tain Eubulus, who originally followed against the tjrrant Artaxerxes Ochus. 

the occupation of a banker, but was But, at length, the treachery of a Rhodian 

raised by the efforts of his own genius leader of Condottieri in the service of the 

and the force of circumstances to the revolted Egyptians, enabled the Persian 

rank of a sovereign prince, with absolute king rapidly to overrun those two coun- 

authority. Hermias, who is said to have tries, and to devote the whole force of his 

been an eunuch, was the servant (as the empire to the reduction of the revolted 

Greek writers express it) of this indivi- Asiatics. Hermias stiU made his ground 

VOL. u. 145 L 



ARI ARI 

Mod, until at Uut he lufiered himself to yean which folloved the diouter of 
be entrapped into a personal conference friend and patron we cannot lay, but in 
with the traitor whose per6dy had ruined the archonslupof Pythodotus (a.c. 343-2) 
the £g}'ptian cause. In spite of the he commenced the education of Alex- 
security of a solemn oath, his person was ander the Great, at the court of hia 
seized and sent to the court of the king, father. A well-known letter, preserved 
who ordered him to be put to death ; the in the work of Aulus Gelliua, would lead 
fortresses which commanded the country to the inference that Alexander waa fimn 
surrendered at the sight of his signet, his earliest yean destined to grow up 
and Atameus and Assos were occupied under the superintendence of ma latest 
by Persian troops. The two philosophers instructor. But Cicero represents Philip 
succeeded in escaping to Mytilene, taking as mainly determined to his selection by 
with them Pythias, the sister and adopted the reputation of Aristotle's rfaetorico- 
daughter of Hermiaa, whom Aristotle, political disquisitions, delivered during 
compassionating her defenceless situation, nis stay at Athens ; and if the letter were 
and pleased with her modesty and good- genuine, we should be much perplexed 
ness, made his wife. There was no action to account for the absence of the philo- 
of his life which drew down upon his sopher from his charge during the first 
head so much calumny as this did. To thirteen years of Alexander's life ; for 
marry the daughter of a barbarian and a the influences exerted upon this tender 
tyrant was regarded by the Greek, proud age are by Aristotle himself conndered 
of the free institutions of his country and of paramount importance, and it is re- 
the superiority of his race, as a most lated that the injudicious treatment of 
heinous offence, and Aristocles, when he the great conqueror by his early pre- 
spcaks of the various charges which had ceptor Leonidas, imbued him witn some 
been brought against the great founder of vices which he was to the very end of hit 
his school, and dismisses most of them life unable to conquer. Plutarch, — who 
with unqualified contempt, as carrying gives us a description of this stem and 
the marks of falsehood in their very front, severe disciplinarian, as well as of an- 
makes an exception of that which relates other, by name Lysimachus, of exactly 
to his conduct to Plato, and this one, as the opposite character, whose flattery 
having obtained conKiderable credence, seems to have combined with Leonidas ■ 
Aristotle himself seems to have thought rigour in producing that singular otcilla- 
that he should incur much odium from tion between asceticism and efieminacy, 
the fttep, for in a letter to Antipatei he which is so striking a feature in Alex- 
apologizes for it on the grounds which ander 's afler-life, — Plutarch asserts that 
wo have given, and which ore calculated under the fostering care of Aristotle, hit 
to make us think as well of the qualities nupils nature rapidly expanded, and ex- 
ofhis heart as his works do of the powers nibited an attachment to philosophy, a 
of his intellect. But the feelings of an- desire of mental cultivation, and a fimcU 
tiquity were utterly unable to understand ness for literature, which stands in re- 
any thing approaching to sentiment in markable contrast to the intemperate and 
the intercourse of the sexes, and the coarse habits which were inherited with 
stories coined to account for Aristotle's his barbarian blood, and strengthened 
proceeding partook of this cliaractcr. rather than discouraged by the Spartan* 
lie was in some represented as having like education of his ill-judging preceptiMr. 
purchased the hand of Pythias by a course He is reported to have said that hit 
of eondiict too disgusting to he described, obligations to his instructor were greater 
and to have allowed his exultation in his than Uiose to his natural father; that to 
good fortune to lead him into excesses as the one he owed life, but to the other all 
abnurd, although leKS shoekiiig. The that made Ufc valuable. It is probable 
qucHtion of his relation to his father-in- that such expressions as these led later 
law was indeed one which excited great writers to beheve that the conqueror had 
interest among the literary antiquiuiaiis received from his master direct instrue- 
of the second century before the chris- tions for the accomplishment of thaC 
tiaii era. Many treatises were written exploit which has made him known to 
upon the subject, of which, one by Apel- posterity, and to no other source, perhaps, 
licon of Teos, a weultliy bibliomaniac, is is to be traced the Arabian romance, of nit 
deserihed hy Aristocles as setting the having been personally attended by him 
whole ({uestion at rest, ond silencing all through the Asiatic expedition. Plutarch, 
the calumniators of the philosopher. indeed, says that Alexander gained more 
How Aristotle employed the next two towards the fulfilment of his schemev 

116 



A R I Ant 

ftova Aristotle than firom Philip ; but this Instructioifs on the best Mode of £^t«bH8b«? 
phrase is not to be taken as meaning any ing Colonies." Both these works aret 
thing more than that he owed to the lost, but their titles may incline us to 
former, the development of those intel- conjecture that those characteristics which 
lectual and moral qualities, which contri- distinguish Alexander from other con* 
bute more to success in any great design querors, — ^the attempt to fuse into one 
than the most ample advantages merdy homogeneous mass his old subjects and 
external. the people he had conquered, — the assi- 
The most extraordinary feature of milation of their manners, especially by 
Alexander's education is tne extremely education and intermarriages, — the con- 
short space of time that it occupiea. nexion of remote regions by building 
Between its commencement and the be- cities, making roads, and establishing 
ginning of the expedition into Asia eight commercial enterprises, — ^may be in no 
years elapsed ; but of this period, less small measure due to the development of 
than the half could have been employed the principles (although probably not to 
in the business of systematic instruction, the direct advice) of his preceptor. 
For in the fourth year, Alexander was It is said that the price which Aristotle 
left by his father, during an expedition received for his pains, was the restoration 
to Byzantium, sole and absolute regent of of his birth-place, Stagirus, which had 
the kingdom of Macedonia ; and, after- been destroyed by Philip, and the inhar* 
wards, was continually engaged in busi- bitants sold as slaves, at the same time 
ness eitlier at court in opposing a party when a similar misfortime befel Ol3mthus, 
who wished to induce Philip to alter the and several other Chalcidian towns. Pro- 
succession, or abroad in arms against the bably the city, when rebuilt, furnished 
Athenian confederacy which was crushed the philosopher with a retreat during the 
at Chteronea. Still, in this narrow pe- latter part of his stay in Macedonia, after 
riod, his master found the means not the direct superintendence of his pupil 
merely to imbue him with a taste for the had ceased, and he may there nave 
lighter species of literature, but also to written the works we have just described, 
introduce him to the gravest and most In the days of Plutarch, straneers were 
abstruse philosophical mvestigations, to shown the shady groves in whicn he had 
which the term of acroamatic was speci- walked, and the stone benches on which 
fically applied. In a letter which has he had been used to repose. The con- 
come down to us, the conqueror com- stitution imder which tne new citizens 
plains that his preceptor had published lived, was said to have been drawn up 
those of his works which were designated by him ; and, long afterwards, his me- 
by this name, and asks how, this being mory was celebrated in a solemn festival, 
the case, he shall be able to maintain and a month of the year called by his 
that mental superiority to others on which name. 

he valued himself more than his con- When Alexandercommencedhis eastern 
quests. This letter, as well as Aristotle's expedition, Aristotle recommended a re- 
answer, was given in the collection of lation and pupil of his own, Callisthenes, 
one Andronicus of Rhodes, a contempo- to accompany him, ostensibly in the cha- 
rary of Cicero's, and, even if forged, racter of historiographer, and himself 
proves the belief of those times that there returned to Athens, partly perhaps influ- 
was no department of knowledge, how- enced to this step by the superior mildness 
ever recondite, to which Aristotle had of the climate ; but chiefly, no doubt, by 
not taken pains to introduce his pupil ; the same reasons which at first induced 
and we should not forget, that althouffh him to make the place his residence. He 
all instruction in the stricter sense of the now commenced the practice of giving 
word must have terminated when the lectures on the different branches of phi- 
regency of Alexander commenced, yet losophy cultivated at that time, and made 
that the philosopher may subsequently use of a large building surrounded with 
have exercised a considerable influence groves, and known by the name of the 
over his pupil's mind by his writings. Lyceum, for this purpose. His health 
Of these, one class is described by me was delicate, and a regard for this, com- 
commentator Ammonius, as consisting of bined with a wish to economise time, 
treatises written for the sake of parti- induced him to deliver his instructions, 
cular individuals ; among which are not sitting or standing, but walking back- 
specified " those books which he com- wards and forwards in the open air. The 
noted at the request of Alexander of extent to which he carried this prac- 
Macedonia, that On Monarchy, and tice, procured for his scholars, who wer# 

147 l2 



ARt ARI 

neeeftarilv compelled to conform to it. This discipline, and the disbrilmtion of 
the appellation of PeripaUiies, from the classes, is closely connected with a cele- 
Oreeii word HtpuraTtip, which, like the brated division of his written works into 
Latin inambularef denotes this peculiar the two kinds of exoteric and acroamatie, 
kind of exercise. Among his scholars a division which gave rise, in later times, 
he made a division. The morning course, to some singularly erroneous opinions 
Off as he called it, from the place where respecting them. The real distinction is 
it was delivered, the morning-walk, was that between eyciical, methodical, set" 
attended only by the more thoroughly entific teatises, and insulated, independent 
disciplined part of his auditory; the essays. It is quite obvious, from the 
subjects of It belonging to the higher nature of the case, that the former of 
branches of philosophy, and being treated these would onlv be appreciable by such 
in such a way as to require a systematic as were able and willing to afford a steady 
attention, as well as a previously culti- and continuous application to thedeve- 
▼ated understanding, on the part of the lopment of the wnole subject, in all its 
scholar. In the evening course, both ramifications and bearings; while the 
the subjects and the manner of handling latter might be understood by those who 
them were of a more popular cast, and brought no previous knowledge with 
more appreciable by a mixed assembly, them, but merely attended to the matter 
It was m this part of his system that he in hand ; and with respect to their form, 
appears to have made a curious arranp^e- that to the one class the demonstrative 
ment, which can be compared to nothing mode of exposition would alone be ap- 
else so well as to the acts (as they are propriate ; to the other any one, narrative 
termed) which were kept in the univcr- or dialogic, or whatever might be most 
sities of the middle ages. Where in- fit for placing the single matter to be 
formation on any given subject must be illustrated in a striking light These 
derived mainly from the mouth of the exoteric works have, witn the exception 
teacher, — as was the case before the of a few fragments, been entirely lost 
invention of printing, and so long after- But Cicero composed his De Oratore, 
wards as books were scarce, — the most De Finibus, and Dc Rcpublidl, in imita- 
satisfactory test of a learner's proficiency tion of them, and descrmes their style in 
is his ttbifity to maintain the theory he terms which show that the powers of 
has received against all arguments which rhetoric were called in to aid the conclu- 
may be brought to overthrow it. Hence sions of philosophy. Now, in the age 
the candidate for a degree in any of the which succeeded Theophrastus, the study 
faculties was, in the days of Scotus and of philosophy degenerating, it was natu- 
Aquinas, (and by the force of habit also ral that works thus agreeably and lucidly 
long aflorwurds,) required to maintain written, and available to any person of 
certain theses against all who chose to ordinary literary acquirements, should be 
controvert them, and was refused the much more popular than the dry syste- 
object of his ambition until he had refuted matic treatises whose only merit was 
at least some opponents. An analogous their rigidly logical connexion, and the 
proct^dure seems to have existed in the vanity of possessing a multifarious know- 
scho(>l of Aristotle. He is said to have ledge joined with indolence to throw 
ujmointcd, every ten days, u sort of pre- these latter writings out of circulatioii 
siucnt, wliosc duty appears to have been to such a degree, that in the time of 
very much like that which, in the Ian- Cicero, althougli a very considerable im- 
pinge of the sixteenth century, would pulse had just before been given to the 
imwhficwicrmcAkeepviyanact, He had, study of Aristotle's philosophy, the To- 
apparently, during the time that he held pica, one of the least difficult of all the 
his ollice, to defend the theory which he scientific works, repelled Trebatius, Ci- 
had riu'eived, and to refute the ohjections cero's friend, from its perusal by its 
which his brother-pupils might cither obscurity, while a rhetorician of eminence, 
ent(>rtain or invent, the master in the to whom he applied for assistance, de- 
ineanwhile taking the place of a moe/^ra^cr, clared he had never heard of it; ''a 
oeeafionally interposing to show where thing," says Cicero, " which I was very 
issiK? inigh( be joined, to prevent either far from being surprised at, that a rheto- 
party from drawing illogical conclusions rician should know nothing of a philoso- 
from acknowledged premises, and, per- pher, of whom philosophers themselves^ 
haps, after the discussion hud lastecl for with the exception of a very few, knew 
a suiiicient time, to point out the grounds nothing,'* But witliout the study of the 
of the fallacy. systematic treatises, Aristotle 'sjprtncyte 

1-18 



ARI ARI 

tnd method could not be understood, were in after times similar periodical 

although many of his opuiiom might he reunions of the followers of the Stoic 

known ; and the natural consequence was, philosophers, Diogenes, Antipater, and 

that readers not taking the trouble to put ransetius. 

themselves upon his standing ground, to It was probably during this second 
enter into his thoughts, and to follow sojourn at Athens, which lasted for the 
them out through the ramifications of his space of thirteen years, that the greater 
system, often imagined a want of bar- part of Aristotle's works were produced, 
mony between the results at which he His external circumstances were most 
arrived. Cicero notes this, and gives an favourable. Macedonian influence being 
explanation of it from the different prin- the prevalent one at Athens, was a secu- 
ciples upon wliich the popular and the rity to him for his quiet ; and inde- 
scientific writings were composed. " This pendently of any other resources which 
is the cause," he alleges, " why Aristotle ne might possess, the bounty of the con- 
sometimes appears not to say the same queror of Asia towards him was almost 
thing in one treatise as in another, al- boundless. He is said to have received 
though in the end there is no discre- from Alexander the sum of eight hundred 
pancy at all," (De Finibus, v. 5.) Now, talents (about two hundred thousand 
upon this fact was based an opinion, which pounds sterling) to defray the expenses of 
gathered strength and distinctness as it his History of Animals ; and Pliny relates 
passed from one hand to another, that that some thousands of men were placed 
Aristotle had an inner and an outer doc- at his disposal for the purpose of pro- 
trine, differing essentially the one from curing zoological specimens, which 
the other, — an opinion, from which the served as materials for this celebrated 
modem use of the terms, esoteric and treatise. It is likely that not only all the 
exolericy is derived, — and which ascribes means and appliances of knowledge, but 
a species of Jesuitism to the philosopher, the luxuries and refinements of private 
that was most alien to his character. life, were within his reach ; and that, 

The same difierence which prevailed having as little of the cynic as of the 

in the writings of Aristotle, no doubt sensualist in his character, he availed 

existed in his oral instructions, and we himself of them. Not apathy, hut modera" 

shall probably form no erroneous idea of /loit, is a maxim which is ascribed to him 

the nature of the evening course, if we by an ancient writer ; and some chargea 

conceive that insulated topics, arising out of luxury and coxcombry, which his ene- 

of a subject which his scholars had heard mies brought against him after his death, 

systematically treated by their master in absurd as they are in the form in which 

his lectures of the morning, were debated they were put, appear to indicate a man 

by them, in the presence of the entire who could enjoy nches when possessing 

body, in the evening, the lecturer himself them, as well as in case of necessity he 

being present, and regidating the whole could endure poverty, 
discussion. And these disputations mi&;ht On the death of Alexander the Great, 

very well suggest the idea of writing fVesh courage was inf\ised into the 

treatises in the form of dialogue, af anti-Macedonian party at Athens, and 

though possessing little or no dramatic a new persecution followed of such as 

interest, such as must have been the case entertained opposite views. Aristotle 

with those of Aristotle, if Cicero's imita- was prosecuted for an alleged offence 

tions may be regarded as fair represen- against religion. He had composed, 

tatives of them. it was said, a paan, and offered sacri- 

He also attempted to elevate the tone fices to his deceased father-in-law Her- 

ofsociety in Athens by instituting periodi- mias, and also honoured the memory 

cal meetings, — which may be compared of Pythias, who had died, leaving an 

to the dinners of literary clubs in modem only daughter, with libations such as 

times, — among the more select class of were used in the worship of Ceres. This 

his scholars. His object was plainly so-colled pasan has come down to us, and 

to unite the advantages of high intellec- turns out to be only a scolium, or drinking 

tual cultivation with social pleasures ; and song, exactly similar to the well-known 

the utility resulting from the institution one so popular at Athenian banquets, 

was very generally recognised. His which records the merita of Harmodius 

friend Xenocratcs adopted it. Tlicophras- and Aristogeiton. But when Athenian 

tus, his successor, left a sum of money party hatred was roused, the absurdity of 

in his will to be applied to defraying the a charge was a very insufficient guarantee 

expenses of such meetings; and there for the security of the accused: and 

149 



ARI ARI 

to ^flse wbidi ksre bec« 



AiiwUAlf: jfTAdhhUr -m'lthdrtw to CKalcii m 



igned for it. 



in &iiiiAion t/^ thj^ fat« of .vxn£««, u ve It ii impotcble. therefcve, to attach anj 
ftr<: V/I'i, -' I>t *i* le^ve Atr.«T.i, and not ir.oTe than a Terr qualified credit to tiie 



g'iv; th<: Ath<>niaj*!k « Mcond op>>nariitT itonr. It ii indeed not imllkeiy that 

of r.orn rri ittin^ %jir:ni^^e a^:r^it pr.uOM>- lozzie xr^zitucnpu of Arlstode's vritiiig 

phy." At CiiiJci*, MjuEr^coriiar* ir.£xi£ijc« were diicorered ahout ih£ time of S^U, 

at that tirri<; preva:l/E;<i, »o tr.at he had no but these vere in all profaahilitT nodting 

occakion t/i f^ar ariy pen^jnal injury from more than ztmgh dian^hti of fotiire 

hi» t-nc-rnie^y who, hovev&r, reforted to totu, which pou€SMd no ralne at the 

all meariJi of annoyance which yet re- nine of their author 'i death, and only an 

mained in their power in the way of antiqoarlan one two hnndred years after- 

calumny and insult. He did not Ion;? wardi, while the writings for which ther 

Kurvive the bafiiAhment from his old had serred as the §caff6id vet existea. 

m 

haunU, but died in the hixtv-third year It has been conjectured that the political 
fif )iis nfsf:, of a disease, in all probability tre&tise which has come down to oar 
an int«.'Atinal affection, from which he had timei is a document of this nature, 
long buffered U> fiuch a de^ee, that an Subseqaenily to the death of P3rthias, 
ancient writ^.r fiays it was niuch more to Aristotle had a son named Nicomachua, 
be wondered that he lived to long than after his grandfather, by a female called 
that he died when he did. Herpyllis, for whom he makes a prori- 
The fate of the writings of thi;i great &ion in his will. He appears to bare 
philr/Vipher, if we believe some old writers, been united to her in that kind of mar- 
was curiouf. They are related to have riage which alone the customs of anti- 
hft-u buried not long afler his decease, quity permitted to exist between the 
and to have lain a prey to worms and natives of different cities. He also left 
damp in a cellar at Scepiib in Asia a daughter by his first wife, who was 
Minor, for a couple of centuries. From three times married, first to Nicanor, her 
this ohiivion, tliev are said to have father's adopted child, secondly to Procles, 
been reHcued, much damaged, however, son of Deniaratus, king of Laccdannon, 
by t)>c treatment they nad received, and thirdly to Metrodorus, a physician of 
not long before Sylla sacked Athen?, and eminence, to whom she bore a son named 
carried off the library of Apellicon the after his maternal grandfather. The 
'J'eiaii, wiio harl purchaKed these precious orplian Nicomachus was educated by 
truasun-H, to Konie. The decay of the Theophrastus, and, according to Cicero, 
iV-iijiatetic Hclifxil has been a.scribc-d to was considered bv some the author of the 
the circuHiHlance of its members being Niconinchean Etliics, which have come 
deprived of the jirincipal part of their down to us among his father's works. 
iiijihl«r'h works; and to the injury inflicted Other accounts represent him as fiilling 
hy tlw (i:in)p and worms of ti»e Scepsian in battle at an early age. 
cellar, has been imputed the olMcurity The best edition of Aristotle's works is 
which ]>r(;vails generally in the works that published at the expense of the 
which have come down to us. But there is Hoyal Academy at Berlin, under the 
eviflencr that many of the writings which superintendence of Bekker and Brandia. 
are siiid to have undergone this strange The Greek text was published in two 
lortum-, were not only made use of by quarto volumes, in 1831 ; the Latin ver- 
tin* hueceH^irirs of Ari-totle, and hy the sion shortly afterwards in one, and two 
St«)ie Chrysippus, l)ut that c«)pieH of them more of commentators, with Prplcgomena 
wen- possessed hy the Alexfuidrian gram- by Dr. Brandis, are yet to come. The 
marianK in that interval during which following is a list of the works printed in 
they an- said to have heen unknown, this edition. Those which are enclosed 
And although it is uiujuestionahle that in brackets arc, in the opinion of the best 
])liil"-.o|»hy (Icgenerated in the ages which scholars, unquestionably from some other 
hurre«(h'<l Theoj)hrastUH, yet the iVripa- hand than Aristotle's, and those which 
1« tic MrhooN, inferior as they were to their are j)rinted in italics are cither wholly, or 
loundrr, are ex]>ri-sly stated hy (!icero in part, of doubtful genuineness. 1. The 
lo have excelled all others. The ol)scu- Logical Works, comprising the Catego- 
rity loo of the writin;.^s which have come ries, 77ie Treatise on Interpretation, uie 
douM to us, although such as to render Tormer Analytics, the Latter Analytic*, 
their study a work demanding imlustry the Topics, on Sophistical Proofs, 2. 
juid acuteness of a high order, is not at The Thysical, Metaphvsical, and Physio- 
ull <»f a kind likely to he produced hy logical Works, comprising the Physical 

l.'iO 



ART ARI 

Lectures, on the Heayeni, on Generation Eeeur. t. i. p. 307. It is, bowever, equally 
and Decay, Meteorology^ [To Alexander certain, botn from external and internal 
en the World,] on the Soul, on Percep- evidence, that the two books^ Ilf pi 4vra>Vt 
tion and Objects of Perception, on Me- De Pkmtis, which bear his name, are 
mory and Recollection, on Sleep and spurious : for Alexander Aphrodisieniii 
Wakinff, on Dreams, on the Prophetic says (Lib. de Sensu et Sennli, c. 4) that 
Vision m Sleep, on Length and Shortness in his time Aristotle's work on Botany was 
of Life, on Youth and Age, Life and no longer extant ; and from the freouent 
Death, on Respiration, on Breathy Ac- Latinisms that occur in the two books in 
counts of Animals, on the Parts of Ani- question (e,g. dfi Iva ra <^vXXa tto-i, ii. 7a 
mals, on the Movement of Animals, on sc), and from the mention of the man* 
the Locomotion of Animals, on tiie En- ner of planting trees at Rome (i. 7), it ia 
genderingof Animals, on CohurSf Extract supposed that the Greek text which we 
from the Book on Sounds, Phynognomica^ possess must have been translated from 
fon Plants,] on Wonderful fortes, Me^ the Latin. Menage(Observat.et£mendat 
chanietf Problemt, on IndivUible Linee, ad Diog. Laert.) supposes them to be a 
the Quartert and Namet of the fVinds, on compilation from ArbtoUe and Theo- 
Xenophanes, Zeno, and Georgias, the phrastus, which conjecture is confirmed 
Metaphysics. 3. The Moral Works, by the author's seeming to mention Ari- 
comprismg the Nicomachean Ethics, the stotie's work, De Meteoris, as if it were 
Great Eihiett the Eudemian Ethics, [|on his own, ii. 2, mit. It will not therefore 
Virtues and Vices,^ Politics, Economta, be necessary to notice their contents at 
the Art of Rhetoric, [the* Rhetoric to any great length. The author explains the 
Alexander,] on the Poetic Art. All dinerence between the life of plants and tiie 
these writings are of the scientific or life of animals, lib, i, cap. 1, 2. (Compare 
systematic kind, and many others of the Aristot. De Part. Animal, ii. 10.) He ad- 
same description are lost. Of the exoteric, mits, in a certain modified sense, the male 
none whatever remain entire, and only and female sexes in plants, i. 2. (Compare 
two or three very small fragments, of Aristot De Generat. Anim. i. 23, tnit.) 
which but one is preserved in the original He says that former writers contended 
language. that all the leaves were fruit, ii. 7, an 

SThe following account of the physical opinion exactiy the reverse of the modem 

I medical doctrines and works of Ari- theory, which considers tiie fruit to be 

stotie is from the pen of another contri- only a modification of the leaves. He 

butor to this work.] says that hyoscyamus and hellebore 

It is not merely by his writings on are poison to men, but food to quails, 

poetry, logic, rhetoric, and ethics, that i. 5. The two books, Utpi *vt«)V, 

Aristotle acquired his reputation; hb De Plantis, were first published in 

authority on all matters relating to the 1539, Basil. Grwcd, with the Greek au- 

different branches of physical philosophy thors, Do Re RusticA. A learned com- 

was, for a long time, almost equally great; mcntary, by Jul. Ca*s. Scaliger, was 

it is therefore necessary to enumerate some published in 155G, Liitet. Par. 4to. It 

of his most accurate as well as his most may be added, that in the Arabic cata- 

erroneous statements, noticing briefly, at loguc of Aristotle's works, given by 

the same time, such of his writings as are Casirii is mentioned one in fifteen booki| 

•till extwit on these subjects, "rteymay called toOWl J ^-^f ^^^ fi 

be considered convenientiy under the <->^ • •' 

four following heads: 1. Botany; 2. ^^ftpi^Aa/, De Xgriculturft Liber, which 

Zoology ; 3. Anatomy and Physiology ; is noticed also by D'Herbelot, Biblioth* 

and, 4. Medicine. Orient, p. 489. There are also in hi< 

1. It is certain that AristoUe wrote a genuine works several passages relatinflr 

work on Botany: for he mentions the to Botany, all which are collected ana 

work himself, De Lon^t. et Brevit Vitsp, explained in a dissertation by Aug. lien- 

suhfiUy and Hist. Animal, v. 1, § 2 ; it is schel, entitled Commcntatio de Aristotele 

quoted by Athenccus (Deipnos. xiv. § GQ, Botanico Philosopho. Vratislav. 1824, 

p. 652), and Simplicius (Comment, in 4to, pp. 58. 

Arist. Phys. Auscult. p. 1, a, ed. Aid. 2. In Zoology Aristotie enjoyed ad- 

Vcnet. fol. 152C); and it is enumerated vantages far greater than any of his pre- 

anion^ liis other works by Diogenes decessors, ana perhaps scarcely surpassed 

Laertius, V.l^ § 25, and by the unknown by the imisewns and menageries of 

Arabic author of the Pliilosoph. Biblioth., modern times. Alexander assisted his 

quoted by Casiri, Biblioth. Arabico-Hisp. researches and experiments in every 



ARI ARI 

possible way, and spared no expense several extraordinary errors into his 
in collecting, tliroughout all Asia, speci- Zoological works ; e,g. he says that the 
mens of all sorts of curious animals, both necks of the lion and of the wolf are 
quadrupeds, birds, and fishes, which he formed of a single bone (De Part. Anim. 
sent home for his master's use. It is said lib. iv. cap. 10, iniL) ; that the bones of 
(Plin. Hist. Nat viii. 17) that several lions contain no marrow (t6t</.) ; and that 
thousand persons were employed in this in Syria the lioness, first brings forth five 
service, and (unless the sum is much ex- whelps at a birth, and afterwards^ dimi- 
aggerated by Athensus, Deipnos. ix. nishing the number by tme every vear, 
s. 58, p. 398) at the expense of eight becomes at last barren. Hist Anim. lib. vi. 
himdrea talents.* Upon the whole, cap. 28, § 1. (Compare Oppian, Cyneeet. 
it ma^ be added, that, considering the lib. iii. v. 58, 9q, ; Plin. Hist Nat lib. 
time m which he lived, the services he viii. cap. 17.) The best editions of 
has rendered to Natural History were the ten books,t Ilcpt iMtav 'limptag, 
equal to the advantages he enjoyed. Not De Historic Animahum, are, J. C. Sea- 
only did he reject many of the fables liger's, Tolosss, 1619, fol. Gr. and Lat. ; 
related by his predecessors, but he is in the Paris ed. of 1783, 2 vols, 4to, 
this respect superior to most of his sue- Gr. and Fr. by Camus ; to which should 
cessors ; and we are surprised to find in be added, a Cntiqueby De Sure St Faux- 
iElian, Pliny, Oppian, &c., a repetition bin, entitled, Lettre d'un Solitaire k tn 
of several of the absurdities which had, Acad^micien de Provence sur la Nou* 
long ago, been contradicted by Aristotle.f velle Version Fran9aise de THistoire dea 
Bunon praises his History of Animals in Animaux d'Aristote, Amst and Faria, 
the warmest terms, for the ** plan and 1784, 4to ; and Schneider's, laps. 
distribution of the work, the selection of 1811, 4 vols, 8vo, Gr. and Lat Thm 
his examples, and the justice of his com- are also some annotations by A. F. A* 
parisons." Cuvier acknowledges that Wiegmann, entitled Observationes Zoo* 
the principal divisions of the animal loe. Criticse in Aristot Histor. Animal., 
kingaom, followed by modem zoologists. Lips. 1826, 4to. Aristotle's other works 
were pointed out by Aristotle ; and Dr. on the same subject are, four hooka, 
Kidd, in the Appendix to his Bridgewater Ilcpi ZcMoy Mopioov, De Partibui Ani- 
Treatise, has ** made a selection nom his malium ; five, Utpi Z»»p Tcvco'ctif, De 
descriptions of some natural groups and Generatione Animalium ; and, one, HitffL 
individual species of animals, for the Zoxov Jloptiast De Incessu Animalium ; 
purpose of comparing them with the but there is no edition of any of these 
corresponding descriptions of Cuvier, "•» deserving particular notice. There if 
and it may be addea that Aristotle loses a curious book which goes under hia 
none of his reputation by the comparison, name, though generally considered to 
This article has already run out to so be spurious, entitled Ilfoi OavfMuruN' 
great a length that it would be impossible Axovo-fuirttv, De Mirabilibus Auacultar 
to give anything like a complete analysis tionibus, of which an excellent editun 
ofhis ^eat work Ilcpt Za>a»y loTopcar, De was published, Gotting. 1786, 4to, €hr. 
Historid Animalium, for which the reader and Lat., with copious and learned notes 
is referred to Sprengel's Hist, de la M^- by J. Beckmann. It consists (as the 
decine, and to Dr. Kidd's Bridgewater name implies) of a collection of wonder* 
Treatise. Tliere is also a dissertation fill stories,chiefly on the subject of Zool<My, 
by F. A. Gallisch, De Aristotcle Historise among which are several so absurd that 
Naturalis Scriptore, Lips. 1776, 4to. It it is almost impossible to believe Aristotle 
should be remarked, however, that in spite to have been the compiler, 
of liis general accuracy, he lias admitted 3. Some Anatomical works which 

Aristotle wrotef are no longer extant, 

* That i», according to the common computa- 
tion, 155,000/. If, however, with Ilusscy, (Ancient cap. 28, § 2); notwithstanding thii, however, Oppian 
Weights and Money, &c. Oxford, 1836,) we consider (Cyneg. v. 288), with a slight variation, repeats th* 
the Attic talent to bo worth 243/. \5t. (instead of atory. 



193/. \5s.) it would amount to 195,000/. ! an almost t The number of books of which this wortK 

incredible sum to be expended upon natural history listed is stated very differently in different aneieiit 

—even by Alexander. Athenceus miffht well call authors. The particular variations may be teen in 

Aristutles History of Animals vuXvTuXavror irpa7- Fabricius, Bibl. Gr. ; but it should be added that 

fAareia, which can hardly be translated into Phiglish besides the writers there enumerated the Arable 

•o as to avoid a seeming pun. It means, literally, a catalogue of his works, quoted above, also mentWiaa 

teork of many talents. nineteen. 

f For instance, Aristotle expres.<i1y says that it it § Diogenes Lacrtius mentions, in his Catakgne 

not true that the hyirna is an hermaphrodite, and of Aristotle's works, eight books, called Avo- 

•zplaini the anatomical disposition of the parts To^a, Anatomica; and one called bcXoTcu Ai«- 

%hlch gave rise to the fable (Hist. Anim. lib. vi. to^wv, Selectiones Anatomiconini. TIm AnWe 

152 



ARI ARI 

but from those which remain, eape- are not now extant,* but in those which 
dally from his History of Animals, we remain there is a good deal upon that sub- 
can plainly see that nis knowledge of ject, particularly in his npo/SXi^fuira, 
Physiology was far superior to that of any Qusestiones Physicse, the first section of 
of his predecessors. For a complete which is entirely on medical matters, 
analysis of his opinions we must refer In this work mucn is taken from Hippo- 
Uie reader to Haller*s Biblioth. Anatomica, crates, particularly from his treatise, De 
and Sprengel's Hist, de la M^dedne, and Aere, Aquis, et Locis. The following are 
must be content with noticing a few of his some of his medical opinions. Sickness 
most remarkable assertions. It is impos- is always caused either by excess or de- 
sible to say whether his anatomical know* ficiency, and health is the mean (Probl. 
ledge was learned from dissecting animals sect i. 2, 3). He thought that all diseases 
only, or from a human subject; and if, of the liver might be cured by opening the 
sometimes, from his accuracy we are vein of the ri^ht arm, which belief arose 
inclined to suspect the latter, yet there firom the opinion that this arm was sup- 
are quite errors enough to make us hesi- plied with blood by the liver, and the left 
tate to believe that the parts are described oy the spleen. He recommends that 
from actual inspection. He says that medicines should be changed from time 
the brain is not supplied with blood (Hist, to time, in conseouence of their becoming 
Anim. lib. i. c. 13, (al. 16,) §3) ; that the inert from too long continuance. He 
heart contains three cavities {ibid. iii. c. 3, considered that the immediate cause of 
§ 2 ; i. c. 14, (al. 17,) § 2) ; he is the first most diseases is some fault in the blood, 
person who gives the name aoprri to the either from its bein^ too thick or too thin, 
largest artery in the body, which, how- or too hot or too cold, &c. The best edi- 
ever, he calls ^Xc^, and supposes to have tion of the Problemata is that published 
the same functions as veins {ibid, i. c. 14, 1632, Lugd. fol. Gr. et Lat, with a 
(al. 17,) § 3 ; iii. 3, § 1. Conf. Galen. De Commentary by L. Septulius. 
Venar. et Arter. Dissect c. 1 ; and De ARISTOXENUS, (Apicrroffvor,) a 
Sem. lib. i. c. 8) ; he says that man has, Greek physician of the HerophUean sect, 
of all animals, Uie largest brain (i. c. 13, author of*^ a work, not now extant, Ucpi 
(al. 16,) § 2) ; he treats as fabulous the rrjs 'Hpo^iXov AJpeocttr, De Herophili 
assertion of Hippocrates, that the male SectA, which is quoted and praised by 
foetus is situated on the right side, and Galen (De Different. Puis. lib. iv. cap. 7, 
the female on the left (vii. c. 1). He 10, pp. 734, 746, ed. Kiihn.) He defined 
mentions that embryos sometimes remain the pulse to be ** the characteristic func- 
in the uterus for several years, and be- tion of the heart and arteries." (Galen, 
come as hard as stone (De Generat ibid,) He was a pupil of Alexander 
Anim. lib. iv. c. 7.) It may be mentioned Philalethes (Galen, ioco cit.) and must 
that there is extnnt a cunous little work therefore have lived about the beginning 
of Aristode's on Physiomomv, ^<rioyyai>- of the christian era. He is also quoted 
fioviKG, in which he describes very mi- by Ca^lius AureUanus (De Morb. Acut. 
nutely the different features, &c., which lib. iii. cap. 16, p. 233), as having recom- 
he supposes to coincide with certain habits mended clysters in hydrophobia. There 
and oispositions. It has been published is a dissertation by Mahnc, entitled, Dia* 
together with the treatises on the same tribe de Aristoxeno. Amst. 8vo. 1793. 
subject by Polemo, Adamantius, and Me- ARISTOXENUS, of Tarentum, was 
lampus, under the title Scriptores Physio- the son of Spintharus. After the death 
gnomiseVetereSj&c, ed. J.G.F.Franzius, of his father, who had been his first in- 
Gr. and Lat 8vo, Altenb. 1780. structor, he became the pupil of Lampris 
4. As a medical writer, Aristotle does not the Erythrean, then of Aenophilus the 
appear to have enioyed so much repute- Pythagorean, and subsequently of Ari- 
tion, though he belonged to the family of stotle, whose memory he assailed for 
the Asclepiadse, and was both the son and having appointed Theophrastus his sue* 
the father of a physician; and ^ian tells cessor in the chair of Uie Peripatetic 
us (Var. Hist. lib. ix. cap. 22) that he philosophy — an honour which Anstoxe- 
himself fallowed the same profession. 

He wrote some works on medicine which • Caeilui AurcHanui quotci (Mori>. Acnt. lib. II. 

cap. IS) a work, De Adjutorilt. Diogenes Laertius 

Catalogue, quoted above, mentions icvcn book.-- »«n"o°« ^"^^ »ook». called larpwa, Medicinalla; 

[^ A :^ t«. j(;) tfjt jM ^Ki**- J and the Arabic Catalogue flre, called ^^ t)^Ujw« 



J Harakdt aUnaitcdu&twa^Tashrihha, De Anima- S-^'l ^"'*"' ■••'» •'-^'"'» ProblemaU Mi- 
lium Motibus atque conim Anatomi4. dira. 



ARI ARI 

nus conceived was due rather to himself Of the other penoiiB of the same name 

alone. The story, however, is at variance there are, — 1. The poet of Selinoua, in 

viththc testimony of Aristocles, in Euseh. Sicilv, who lived before the time of 

P. E. XV. 2, who said that Aristoxenus Epicharmus. — 2. The philosopher of Cy- 

never spoke but in the highe^t terms of rene, celebrated for his inordinate 

the Stagirite. According to Suidas, he luxur}'. — 3. The physician mentioned by 

passed some time at Mantinea, for the Galen. 

purpose, as Mahnc suppo.<es, of learning AUIUS, or more properly AREIUS, 
music practically, to the theor\' of which (Apccor,) a Greek physician belonging to 
he paid great attention. Like II era- the school of Asclepiades, whose pre* 
clitus and Euripides, he is said to have scriptions are frequently quoted by Galen 
been a foe to laughter. The titles of (Opera, ed. Kiihn, tom. xii. p. 829 ; xiii. 
twenty of his treatises have been pre- pp. 347, 827, 829, &c.). He is probably 
ser\'ed, relating chiefly to the doctrines the person to whom Dioscorides dedicates 
ef Pytiiaeoras on the hannony of sounds his work on Materia Medica, and if so, 
and nuinoers, and applied to the nianu- must have lived in the first century a.d. 
facture of flutes, and to the dances on ARI US, son of Aminonius, was bom 
the stage. Of his other works, the most in Libya, which was also the native coun- 
valuablc would doubtless have been those try of Sabellius. We hear of him, fint, 
connected with the biography of philoso- in the time of St. Peter, bishop of Alex- 
phcrs, especially of the school of Pytha- andria, as an adherent of Meletius, who 
goras; for it was probably from Aristoxenus had been exconununicated for sacrificing 
that Cicero and others got the well-known to idols during the persecution of Diocle- 
story of Damon and Phintias, or, as he sian. Arius was afterwards reconciled to 
is sometimes called, Pythias ; although the church, and ordained deacon by St. 
his accoimt would have been required to Peter, but on the latter ref\ising to ac- 
he received with caution; since, from his knowledge the baptism of the Meletians, 
attachment to the Pythagoreans, he was and it would seem too, on Arius' pro- 
led to scandalize the character of So- mulgating, in a degree at least, the errors 
crates, who was no friend to the Italian which he afterwards developed, he was 
philosophy, and to speak of the usurious again ejected from the church. St. 
habits of a man wluise whole life exhi- Peter, having held the see of Alexandria 
hited ail utter disregard of money. In a twelve years, was, a.d. 311, thrown into 
similar spirit, he accused Plato of buying prison by Maximinus. His probable 
uj) all the copi*?s he could of the writings death led Arius to aspire to the episco- 
of Dj inocritus, for the purpose of de- pate. For this purpose, readmission into 
Btroying them, as we learn from Diogen. the church was a necessarj' preliminary, 
Laert. ix. 10. Of the events of his life and he prevailed on a number of Alex- 
nothinj,' is known, except that he dis- andrian presbyters to visit St. Peter in 
graced the philosoi>hcr by being the prison and intercede for him. St. Peter 
parasite, says Lucian, of 'Neleu.-, who continued inflexible, and taking aside 
purchased the library of Aristotle ; while, Achillas and Alexander, he declared U> 
as regards his writings, only three books them tliat he had seen, in a vision, the 
of his treatise on the Elements of liar- child Jesus, in a gannent rent from the 
mony have come down to us. They were top to the bottom, who had warned him 
first imhlished by Meursius, and suhsc- of their intended visit, and forbidden the 
quently in a more i>erfect form hy Mei- restoration of Arius, the author of so sad 
bomius, m Auctores Anliquie Music.T. a rent in tlie church of Christ. St. Peter 
Amst. l(io2. Since that time, Morelli furtlur predicted the elevation of both 
has printed at tlie end of the newly-dis- Achillas and Alexander, to the episcopate, 
covered declamation of AnVtides, Ven. wliich was fulfilled in the case of the 
178."», a fragment of a treatise on Rhythm former hy his appointment to the see 
by Aristoxenus ; while to the sagacity of (after the martvrdom of St. Pet(T)in 312. 
Wyttenhach, in IJihlioth. (Vit. t. ii'. p. The penitence «')f Arius, however, induced 
112, is owin^r the detection of some frajr- Achillas to restore him to communion. 
ments in Stohiens, which, from internal He was soon ordained priest, set over 
evidence, he assi;:ns to Aristoxenus ; and the church of I3aucalis in Alexandria, and 
from whence they are inserted in Mahne's entrusted with the inteq)retation of the 
Diatribe de Aristox.-no, Amst. 17I>3, Scripturo. at the head of the school in 
who observes that tl.r name of yiptjaiai, that citv. Among his pupils here, were 
given by Smdas to the father of Aristoxe- Secundus, Ursacius, and Valens, who 
nus, IS not found elsewhere. afterwards supported him in his heresy, 



ARI ARI 

and of whom the two latter were diitin- ledged to be true,) which determined 

guished in the council of Ariminum many who before had been undecided* 

(360). The same letters contained reflectiona 

On the death of Achillasi Alexander^ upon EusebiuB of Nicomedia, which led 

as St. Peter had predicted, was made him more openly to espouse the cause of 

bishop. Arius contested the appoint- Arius. To him Arius wrote, complaining 

ment, and the strict integrity of the pro- of the treatment he had received, and 

ceedings was (most probably falsely, but pretending that all the eastern bishops (ex« 

we cannot speak positively) imputed by cept three, whose names he mentions,) 

the party of Anus. However this may were involved in the anathema. He inti* 

be, tlie effect upon Arius was to induce mates in this letter the similarity of senti- 

him to unfold his errors in a controversy ment between Eusebius and mmself, bv 

with Alexander, siumamed Baucalas, who calling him fellow-Lucianist, as they botn 

stood second in order in the presbytery-^ held opinions in common with Lucian, a 

Arius himself holding the place above celebrated presbyter of Antioch. Eusebius 

, him. In this controversy Arius directly constantly wrote to Alexandria in behalf 

denied the necessary existence and eter- of Arius. It was at this time that St 

nit^ of the Second Person in the blessed Athanasius incurred the enmity of the 

Trmity ; and at a time when the city heterodox. He was a deacon in the 

was much divided by the varying Alexandrian church, and there seems 

modes of interpretation adopted by the reason to believe that this great man was 

presbyters, at the head of the several already the real, though unseen, cham- 

churcnes in Alexandria, the party at- pion of the truth ; bein^ high in the 

tached to Arius was particularly strong, estimation of his bishop, wliosc steadfast- 

Of these dissensions the bishop Alexander ncss of purpose seems to have derived 

was advertised by Meletius, bishop of vigor from the uncompromising character 

Lycus, to whom Arius had before been of St. Athanasius. 
attached, but who seems to have been Constantine, whose sole wish seems to 

himself ftee f^rom the charge of heresy, have been peace, even at the expense of 

Alexander, in consequence, summoned truth, was vexed at the disturbances now 

Arius and Baucalas before a provincial rising in the church, when politically his 

council, consisting of one hundred clerks, object seemed to have been obtamed. 

Arius wrote to the several bishops of He consequently commissioned Hosius, 

Palestine, apparently with a view to bishop of Corduba, to mediate between 

sound them, out he was disappointed, and Arius and Alexander. Arius, haviujg^ 

exhorted to submit to his metropolitan, sent the above-mentioned letter by his 

He was, however, supported by Eusebius, father to Eusebius, afterwards went him- 

who had been unduly translated from the self to Nicomedia, and was received by 

see of Berytus to tlie now capital of the the bishop. From that city he wrote an 

East, Nicomedia. Alexander is rcpre- expostulatory letter to Alexander, in the 

sented as wavering in opinion while the name of the priests and deacons who had 

two presbyters disputed before him. accompanied him, distinguishing his opi- 

Whatever may have been the real ex- nions from those of Valentinus, Sabellius, 

planation of Alexander's conduct, he and others, and professing that the senti- 

seems to exhibit his real sentiments in mcnts he held were none other than 

the conclusion to which he came ; viz. those he had inherited from the church, 

the approval of the catholic doctrine, and hod been taught by Alexander him- 

He urged Arius to recant, and failing, self. While at Nicomedia he wrote a 

excommunicated him. poem, called Thalia, which is condemned 

Arius was not the only person involved by St. Athonasius, as containing moral 

in the charge of heresy ; a number of improprieties, as well as doctrinalerrors j 

vireins, several presbyters and deacons, ana aware of the influence that verse has 

ana two bishops, Secundus of Ptolemais, for good or evil, he composed a number of 

and Theonas of Marmarica, had been songs, containing his doctrines, and suited 

deceived by him ; and many accompa- to the capacity and taste of seamen and 

nied him m his departure from Alex- common workmen. He is also charged 

andria into Palestine. The reception with having altered the Doxology, by 

which Arius met with from the different ascribing " Glory to the Father by the 

bishops of Palestine, (some communicat- Son in the Holy Ghost," instead of as- 

ing with him, others not,) induced Alex- eribing it to all the three Persons in the 

ander to write seventy circular letters, blessed Trinity. 

(the contents of which Arius acknow- The effect of Constantine 's commission 

155 



ARI ARI 

to HosiuB seems to have been Uie convoca- Secundus, the most forward of Anna 
tion of a council at Nicomedia, at which partizans, confirmed the doctrine of a 
Alexander was present, and Arius and different substance in the blessed Trinity, 
his doctrines condemned. This, however, and through intimidation, have obtained 
was only preparatory to a more important the subscription of Alexander, (though 
event. AVhether Constantine were, or but for a time, viz. while the intimidatioii 
were not, sincere in his profession of lasted,) for this must have been as much 
Christianity, he was employed by Him, opposed to Constantine 's political viewa, 
who uses even the politic wisdom of the within five months of the council of 
mere statesman to work out His ends, to Nice, as a mere statesman, as it would 
establish, on infallible authority, the catho- have been to his religious sentiments, 
lie doctrine, which Arius had attacked, had he been a sincere catholic. But the 
Hence the convocation of the oecumenical credibility of the writer referred to, ig 
council of Nice. There were assembled lessened on the one liand by his Arianism, 
three hundred bishops, more or less (pro- on the other, " by hb passion, his preju- 
bably three hundred and eighteen). Ho- dice, and his ignorance." (Gibbon, c. 21, 
sius the president came from Spain, and n. 44.) Five months after the council 
Sylvester, bishop of Rome, was repre- of Nice, Alexander, bishop of Alexandria, 
sented by two delegates, old age prevent- died. He was succeeded by St Athana- 
ing his personal attendance. The holy sius, (325 or 326,) and the Eusebians were, 
fathers closed their cars when they heard as might be expected, more exasperated 
the words of Arius, and anathematized against him when raised to the episcopate 
his works and himself. The Arian Phi- than while a deacon of St. Alexander, 
lostor^us even, only speaks of twenty- For three years, Arianism met with no 
two bishops who favoured Arius, and of encouragement from the emperor. Itwa% 
these, (if indeed there were so many,) however, gradually gaining strength, ana 
the number was ultimately reduced to mainly through the intri^es of Eusebitis of 
two. The rest subscribed, partlv through Nicomedia. There was m constant attend- 
fear of exile, partly by availmg themselves ance upon Constantia, the widow of Lici« 
of a fraud suggested, it is said, bv Con- nius, and Constantine's favourite sister, a 
stantia, by wmch, through the addition presbyter of the Arian faction. We have 
of a single letter (Homocusion for Ho- already had an intimation of her favour- 
mousion) the catholic doctrine of the able disposition towards the Arians, and 
sameness of the substance of the persons of this will account for the presence of the 
the Trinity was evaded, and its similarity Arian, and his success in using Constantia 
alone asserted. Sccundus and Theonas as the means of Arius' restoration. He was 
held out, and the former upbraided Eu- prompted to do this by Eusebius, who 
sebius of Nicomedia with his dissimula- was still in exile. Constantia was de- 
tion, accompanying his reproof with a terred, through fear, from interce^ 
prediction that he would ere lone incur with her brother ; till, on her death-1 
the very penalty, to avoid which he had she entreated him to restore one who 
so truckled with his conscience. On the been unjustly banished, lest an act of 
dissolution of the council, Constantine violence committed by him should con* 
wrote a circular letter, enjoining con- tinuc unexpiated. Another account tells 
formity to the Niccnc decrees, and in us that she simply commended to him 
applying to Arius a quotation from Homer, her Arian priest as a faithful and loyal 
charged him at once with turbulence subject, and that, through the influence 
and incontinence. Arius was, with Se- that he gained over the emperor, Arius 
cundus and Theonas, and liis other adlic- and his companion Euzo'ius were sum- 
rents, banished to Illpicum. moned into the presence of Constantine. 
As Secundus had predicted, three They both, upon oath, protested their 
months afler the council of Nice, Euse- agreement with the fathers of the Nicene 
bins and Theognis, bishop of Nice, were council. Constantine, supposing that 
banished, and Amphion and Chrestus there would now be no longer any obsta- 
substituted in their sees. Whether this cle to the union he had so long desired, 
was the result of confession or detection, sent them to Alexandria; but unity, 
Constantinescems willingly to have seized not union, is the principle of catho- 
an opportunity of banishing one wlio had licism, and St. Athanasius rejected their 
been formerly attached to his rival Lici- application. The firmness (or, as it would 
nius. It seems hardly credible, as is seem to Constantine, the obstinacy) of 
reported by Philostorgius, that Constan- St. Athanasius, rendered the emperor 
tine should at the same time have restored more wilUng to restore Eusebius and 

156 




ARI ARI 

Thei)gms to the sees of which they had occasioii. In the most solemn form 

been depriyed. Thejr represented the of anathema, he prayed that either he 

unfairness of recalling the leader from might himself be withdrawn from the 

exile, while his adherents still suffered for world, before the triumph of Arius oyer 

their attachment to him. Constantino, the church was complete, or that God 

howeyer, took the precaution to summon would make some new thing, and remove 

Arius again, and exacted from him an the troubler of Christendom from the 

oath, in which he swore " that he held earth. His prayer was heard, and to the 

faitbiiilly the doctrines he had written." amazement of the Eusebians and the empe- 

It is saia, that while he presented to yiew ror, and the relief of the afflicted catholics, 

a copy of the catholic fedth, he had se- the death of Arius, which took place on 

creted a statement, which he carried the same day, became a signal token of 

under his arm, containing the errors for the diyine protection oyer the church, 

which he had been condemned. He was As he was pompously parading the streets 

then fully acquitted by the emperor, and of the city, he retired to a public draught 

the sentence of exile being recalled, was behind tne Forum of Constantino, and 

excluded only from Alexandria. perished with the fate of Judas. 

A council was held at Jerusalem, under Arius is described by St Epiphanius. 
the influence of the Arian party, which He was exceedingly tall, with a clouded 
restored Arius to communion, and sent and serious brow, haying the appearance 
him to Alexandria. His arriyal in that of a man subdued by self-mortification; 
city occasioning a tumult, Constantino his dress corresponded with his looks, his 
commanded Anus to repair to Constanti- tunic was without sleeves, and his vest 
nople, where Alexander was now bishop, but half the usual length. His address 
But the disposition of the emperor to was agreeable, and adapted to engage 
favour Arius met with no more encou- and fascinate all who heard him. Hit 
ragement here — at least from Alexander, learning is generally acknowledged. 
The people indeed was divided, and the It now only remains to trace the for- 
Eusebians were strong, so much so, that tunes of Arianism in its most important 
on their at last protesting that on the fol- branches. The death of Arius was not 
lowing day they would oblige Alexander by any means the extinction of his party, 
to admit Arius to communion, there However this party,in appearance one,con- 
seemed every probability of success, tained within it the seeds of division. The 
Constantino, still wavering, again sent Homoeusion had been adopted by many, 
for Arius, and on his solemn oath that only with a view of gaining time, till they 
his sentiments were orthodox, consented were able openly to maintain what they 
to support him, accompanying his con- privately held. But there were others 
sent, nowever, with a declaration of his among them more honest, but less shrewd, 
conviction that if Arius were guilty of who having subscribed the Homoeusion, 
dissimulation, that God, whom he had defended it in a signification far more 
falsely invoked to be the witness of his like the catholic truth than the Eusebians 
peijury, would avenge Himself. The admitted. So long as the former could 
alternative was now proposed to the bishop be made of any use by the Eusebians in 
of Constantinople, to receive Arius, or to their attempts to impose upon the West- 
be deposed. It was the Sabbath, and the em church, they continued united. But 
Eusebians boasted of their resolution to when the council of Sardica (347) made 
brine Arius the next day (wliich ^was this appear impossible, the more orthodox 
Sunday) into the church. * were suffered, by tiie Eusebians, to form 

While Arius was being conducted os- a distinct party, under the name of Semi* 

tentatiously through the city, after his Arians, whose symbol was the Homoe- 

conference with the emperor, by the usion. Eusebius of Csesarea,and the sophist 

Eusebians, Alexander was prostrate be- Asterius, were virtually the originators 

fore the altar, fasting and in intense sup- of this sect, at the council of Nice, 

plication, in the church of Peace. The Acacius, a pupil and successor of £u- 

result is related by St. Athanasius, on sebius in the see of Csesarea, was the 

the authority of Macarius, a presbyter, author of another division. Following 

who was in the church with the bishop out a hint dropped by his master at Nice, 

Alexander. The circumstances threat- as to the impropriety of using theological 

ened, humanly speaking, the subversion words which are not found in the sacred 

of the catholic faith and the establish- Scriptures, and disliking the introduc- 

ment of heresy, and the prayer of Alex- tion of the word Substance (tmo), which 

ander was worded accordmg to the occurred in both the catiiolic Homousion 

157 



A R I A R I 

and the Semi-Arian Homoeiuioh, he ftnhmoned two coiuiciIb, one ai Ariei^ 

adopted as his symbol the Uomoeon, as- (363), and the other at Mflan (355), in 

sertinff that the Son was "generally," which St Athanasiua was condemned, 

or '* altogether Uke" the Father. and George was, by Sjnrianus, dnke of 

Actius, and his pupil Eunomius, have Egypt, seated on the throne of St. Atha- 
the credit of carrying out (and legiti- nasius (356). The Anomoean sect was 
mately) the principles, which, to a super- now gaining ground, Aetius having been 
ficial observer, might seem a trifling and ordained deacon by Leontius, bishop of 
unimportant declension from the exact- Antioch, in 350. It was joined by the 
ness of truth. He maintained that the Homoean, or Eusebian party, and Con- 
substance of the Son was wilike the sub- stantius, at heart a Semi-Arian, was 
stance of the Father, and so founded the alarmed at the growing impiety of the 
further division of the Anomoeans. These Homoeans, whom he had been induced 
held, in fact, the opinions broached by to support. He consequently wished to 
the pure Arians, and were by them cor- unite the Semi-Arians and Calholicfly 
dially received. against the Anomoeans, by their subscrip- 

The Arians, or Eusebians, did their tion to a creed compiled for the purpoee. 
utmost to overthrow the true faith, by This creed was actually received by Li- 
bringing accusations against the catholic berius, bishop of Rome, as well as by the 
bishops, and substituting in their sees Scmi-Arians and Eusebians themielves; 
men of their own party. Constantine both of whom had appealed to him — the 
died the year after Arius, in 3.37, and in latter, after a council they had hdd at 
the beginning of the reign of Constantius, Antioch, under their new bishop Eudozins; 
there were Arian prelates in Constanti- the former, after their condemnation of 
nople, Hcraclea, Ephesus, Ancyra, both the Eusebians in a council at Ancyra 
Cflesarcas, Antioch, Laodicca, and Alex- (358). This, then, was a triumph for 
andria. The persecution of the church the Semi-Arian party, which they hoped 
in the East drove many of the catholics to secure by an oecumenical council, and 
to Rome, and among them, St. Athana- for that purpose obtained the emperar's 
sius. A council held there (341) acquitted consent. Tne intrigues of the Eusebians 
the latter, and proposed the convocation succeeded in getting two places appointed 
of a gonernl council. The Eusebians an- where the Occidentals and Orientals were 
ticipatcd this by the council of the to meet separately ; viz. Ariminum and 
Deaicntion (viz. of the church called Seleucia. They succeeded also in pro- 
Dominicum Aurcum) at Antioch (a. d. curing, at a preliminary meeting at Jer- 
341) in which the deposition of St. Atha- mium, a Homoean creed, to be proposed 
nasius was confirmed, and Gregory sent to the two councils. The majority of the 
to occupy his patriarchate ; and besides, bishops at Seleucia were Homoeusian ; at 
a number of creeds were suggested, for Ariminum, Homousion. Deputies were 
the purpose of framing one by which, it sent from both to Constantius at Constan- 
was hoped, the suspicions of the Western tinople, and at a council at Nicssa, near 
church might be allayed. Through Con- Haarianople, the " Substance" and " Hy- 
stans, a general council of three hundred postasis" were condemned, and a simply 
and eighty bishopd was summoned at Sar- Homoean creed sent back to Ariminum ; 
dica (347), to which St. Athanasius was and, at another council in Bithynia, the 
admitted. In consoquonce of this, the se- chief Semi- .Brians at Seleucia were ba^ 
veiity-six Eusebian bisliops, who were pre- nishcd, and Eudoxius, the Eusebian, was 
sent, retired to PhilippopoIiH, and there made bisliop of Constantinople. The 
confirmed the council of the Dedication. Homoean creed was finally received at 
The council of Sardica, notwithstanding Ariminum ; " the world groaned, and 
their proceedings, ratified the restoration o. marvelled that it was become Arian," 
St. Athanasius. As soon as Acacius, on the This triumph of the Eusebians was com- 
deatli of Constans (350), had, by his pleted in 'MM) ; the next year Constantius 
specious creed of the Homopon, conci- sanctioned the Anomoean symbol at An- 
hated Constantius to the Eusebian party, tioch, and died (UGl). 
the scliisin between the Semi-Arians and On Constantius' death, St. Athanasius 
pure Arians broke out. The distinct appeared at Alexandria, and there sum- 
parties in opposition to each other, were moned a council (3G2), in which sentence 
now, tlie C-hurch, tlie Semi-Arians, and was passed on the various Arianizers, and 
the Homoeans (with whom the Eusebians, the verbal differences between the Eastern 
•r pure Arians, were united). The last and Western Church settled. The emperor 
possessed the &vour of the emperor, who Valens was an Eusebian, and at hif 

158 



A R 1 A E K 

bapYltm (by Eudozius) strove to ettablisH liab, the fiunoui monarch of Turan, ifi 
Ananism. The Semi-Ariant, however, Turquettan, who invaded Persia under 
protested strongly against the impiety of the reign of Nutxer, and having slain that 
the Eusebians, and, nnally, after a council monarch, held the throne of Persia for 
at Lampsacus (365), they resolved to twelve years. Afh^iab was at last dispos- 
seek the protection of Valcntinian, the sessed of the kingdom and slain ; but his 
orthodox emperor of the West, and sub- descendant Arjosj), in a subsequent irrup- 
scribed the Homousion (366). A council tion, sacked the city of Balkh, famous ai 
was appointed at Tarsus to complete the the metropolis of the fire-worship, and 
reconcuiation, but thirty-four of the fifty- killed Lohorasp, who had retired to that 
nine Semi-Arian bishops ref\ised to con* city to end his life in the performance of 
form. The Semi-Arians now disaonear, religious duties. The conqueror at last 
forming into a new sect, called the Mace^ drove Gushtasp, the reigning king, firom 
donian, and the downfal of pure Arianum his throne, and obliged him to take re- 
is dated at the death of Valens in 378. fuge in the mountains of Kouhestan ; but 

This notice of Arianism must not be at length he was himself slain by Asfun- 
concluded without referring to its intro- diyar, the son of Gushtasp. The invasion 
duction among the Goths. Many of of Arjasp appears to have been provoked 
them had received Christianity before the by the bigotry of Gushtasp, who had re- 
time of Constantine, and their bishopi cently embraced the doctrines of Zoro- 
Theophilus, was present at the council of aster, and who was incited by that re- 
Nice. On occasion, however, of internal former to ibrce the new religion upon hit 
dissensions among the Goths, when their Turanian neighbours, 
bishop Ulphilaa was sent, by Fritigem, to ARKEVOLTI, (Samuel, died 1611,) 
implore help against his antagonist Atha- was author of some letters, entitled Mayan 
naric, the Eusebian Eudoxius induced the Ganim, the Garden Fountain ; and a 
Gothic delegate to subscribe the Horacean Hebrew Grammar, a part of which was 
creed of a council held at Constantinople translated by Buxtorf into Latin, and 
in 360. The high esteem in which the published in his Cosri. (De Rossi.) 
Goths held Ulphilas, faciliUted the per- ARKHAROV, (Nikolai Petrovitch, 
fbrmance of the task Eudoxius had given bom May 7th, 1742,) after rising through 
him, and the more so, as the creed he several military grades in the army, was 
had subscribed was represented as differ- appointed superintendent of the police 
ing only in words from the Nicene. at St Petersburg, in which capacity he 
Arianism having thus found an entrance, distinguished himself by his activity, 
spread rapidly among the barbarians, watchfulness, and penetration, and by 
In the sixth century, Leander, bishop of the vigorous measures he adopted for 
Seville, effected the restoration of the rendering the system more efficient. He 
Goths to the church. He was tutor to was in consequence sent to Moscow in 
Ermenigild and Richard, the sons of the 1771, to investigate the affair of Puga- 
Gothic king. Tlie former suffered mar- tchev's insurrection, and remained in 
tyrdom for his adherence to the truth ; that city in quality of governor. He was 
the latter succeeded in extirpating the next appointed namtptfnik, chief magis- 
heresy, and burnt tlie Arian books at trate or mayor, first of Tver, afterwards 
Toledo. of Novogorod ; and while residing at the 

The principal authorities which have former place, planned and carried into 
been consulted for the life of Arius, are — execution many important improvements 
St. Athanasius ; St Epiphanius; various in the inland communication of the pro- 
Epistles of Synods, Constantuio, &c. ; the vince, both by land and water, by means 
historians Socrates, Sozomen, Theodoret, of canals, bridges, and roads. He was 
Nicephorus, and the Arian Philostorgius ; then made governor-general of St. Peters- 
the Martyrium S. Petri (ap. Surium, t vi. burg, but allowed to retain the appoint- 
Nov. 25, Col. Agr. 1575), quoted also by ments he had previously held; oesides 
Justinian (Fide Cone. Labb. t v. p. 652, which, the emperor Paul conferred upon 
Par. 1671), and Photius, Bibl. Num. 256. him the rank of a general in the army, 
The Biog. Univ. refers to a life of Arius and the order of St, Anne, of the first 
by Travaai, published at Venice, 1746. class. However, both he and his brother. 
The forms which Arianism took, and its Ivan Petrovitch, (upon whom Paul had, 
history, are given in Maimbourg ; Tillc- on his accession, bestowed an estate of 
mont; and Newman's History of the 1000 peasants, besides the command of a 
Arians of the Fourth Century. regiment, and the military governorship 

ARJASP, the son or grandson of Afira- of Moscow,) stem shortly after to havt- 

159 



ARK ARL 

fallen into disgrace, being commanded to between wbich the fibres of cotton liad 
retire to their estates ; yet they were re- to pass, while in a parallel state, and were 
called in 1800, before Paul's death. From drawn out to the requisite degree of fine- 
that time both brothers resided either at ness ; after which there was a contrivance 
Moscow or their country seats, without for ^ving to them the proper twist. The 
holding any employments, or taking any origmality of the invention was, how- 
share in public affaiTS, Nikolai died at ever, disputed ; and other persons began 
Razskazov, his estate in the province of to use tne patented machmery without 
Tambov, in Jan. 1814, and Ivan at St license. An action was tried in the court 
Petersburg in the February of the fol- of King's Bench in 1781, in which a Col. 
lowing year. Mordaunt was defendant, which went 
ARkWRIGHT, (Sir Richard,) was against Arkwrifht, on the ground of in- 
born of poor parents, at Preston, in Lan- sufficiency in his specification, without 
cashire, m 1732, and earned his living as raising the question of novelty. In 1785 
a barber, till he was nearly thirty years Arkwrifi;ht commenced another action, in 
old — shaving in a cellar for a penny, which he gained the verdict, and was 
About 1760 he became a dealer in haur, restored to the enjoyment of his mono- 
which he collected by travelling about poly ; but in the same year proceedinn 
the country, and resold to the wig-makers; were had by scire factas to repeal tne 
and he is said to have been in possession patent, under which the whole merits of 
of some valuable secret for improving the the invention were entered into, and the 
appearance of that commodity. His first patent invalidated. But Arkwright was 
essay in mechanics was an attempt to now on the high road to fortune, and 
construct a perpetual motion, which could not be turned aside ; he continued 
brought him into acquaintance, about to superintend his works, and gradnafly 
1767, with a clockmaker of Warrington, rose to the possession of immense wealth, 
named Kay. ^t that time the English In 1786 he was high sheriff of Derby- 
cottons had only the weft of cotton, the shire, and was knighted on the ooeasion 
warp being of Imen ; and it was consi- of presenting an address to the king. He 
dered impossible to spin cotton, so as to died at Cromford in 1792. Wluiterer 
make it applicable for the warp. All the may have been Arkwrij^ht's claims to the 
cotton, too, was spun by hand ; and invention of the machmery brought into 
although many thousand persons were use by him, there can be no doubt tiiat 
working at spindles, the quantity of weft by his spirit and perseverance it was 
produced fell far short of what was re- brought to perfection, and an important 
quired in the manufacture of cotton cloth, branch of national manufacture fbonded. 
As early as 1733, attempts were made to (Lib. of Ent. Knowledge.) 
spin by machinery ; but the machines ARLAND, or ARLAUD, the name 
had either been destroyed, or allowed to of two painters in miniature, natives ^of 
perish. Such was the state of things, Geneva. 

when Arkwright and Kay appeared at 1. Jacques Antoine, (May, 1668— • 
Preston, in 1768, with the model of a May 25, 1743,) was intended for die 
machine for spinning cotton thread ; but church, but from inclination became an 
fearing the hostility of the people of artist He studied only two months 
Lancashire, great numbers of wnom were under a master, and depended solely on 
employed in spinning by hand, they pro- his own powers for further improvement, 
cecded to Nottingham. The necessary His first works were small ornamental 
capital was furnished by Messrs. Need miniatures for jewellers ; but he painted 
and Strutt, of Nottingham, and a patent some portraits, the success of which 
for the new machinery was taken out in inducca him, in 168^, to go to Paris, 
their names jointly with Arkwright's, in where he gained much employment 
17G9. A mill driven by horse-power was as a painter of portraits, noth in 
erected, and furnished with frames ; and miniature and in oil, and of fancy tub- 
two years afterwards another worked by jects. His merit attracted the notice of 
water was built at Cromford in Derby- the duke of Orleans, afterwards regent, 
shire ; while in 1 775 a second patent for who became his pupil, and accommocutted 
further improvements was obtamed. The him with an apartment in the palace of 
great principle of the first patent was to St. Goud. He was likewise hiehly fii- 
render cotton thread fit for warp, by voured by the Princess Palatine, the 
giving it a hard and fine twist. Tins was duke's mother, who presented him with 
effected, in the first place, by means of her portrait set with diamonds, and gave 
tollers revolving with different velocities, him letters of introduction to the Enfflish 

160 



ARL A EL 

court, particularly to the princess of Pilkington*8 Diet by Fuseli. Biog.Unif. 

Wales, afterwards oueen Caroline, the Heinecken.) 

consort of George it. He painted her 2. Benoit, said to he hrother of the 

portrait, which was greatly admired, and former. He resided in London twice, 

also the likenesses of many of the pnn- and as a portrait painter was greatly en- 

cipal nobility ; and returned to raris coiuraged; His works are considered to 

loaded with honours and wealth. He possess considerable merit, and he was a 

painted his own portrait, to be placed in frequent exhibitor at the Royal Academy, 

the gallery of painters at Florence, at the He returned to Geneva for the last time 

request of Medicis himself, which was in 1701, but su£fered much in his cir- 

engravcd by C.Colombini for the Museum cumstances by the depredations of the 

Florentinum, and was also scraped in French, and lost property in their funds, 

mezzotinto by J. J. Haid, and engraved He died in 1719. There is a portrait of 

small by Schell^erg, for the book of Shakespeare, engraved by Duchanger, 

Swiss painters, by Fuessli. He was also after a picture by him ; but what auwo- 

the friend and correspondent of Newton, rity the painter adopted for his likeness 

He returned to his native place in 1730, does not appear. This plate is marked 

where he resided the latter years of his by mistake, B. Amauld, del. (Edwards*! 

life ; and died at the i^ of seventy-five Anecdotes of Painters, fiiog. Univ. 

years, according to Heinecken, Bryan, Heinecken.) 

and Pilkington ; but in the Biographic ARLERI, (Peter,) the son of a Sua- 
Universelle he is stated to have hved bian artist, (Heinrich von Gmiind, settled 
until 1746. He bequeathed to the library at Bologna, where he appears to have 
of Geneva many gold and silver medals, changed nis name,) was an architect, bom 
some fine pictures, a large collection of at IBolosna in the fourteenth century, 
prints, and several valuable books. The which city he quitted in early life, pro- 
masterpiece of this artist was an imitation ceeding to Germany, where he was 
of an admirable marble bas-relief by employed at Prague in conducting the 
Michael Angelo, representing the story building of St. Vitus, from 1356 to 13 , . • 
of Jupiter and Leda, which was done He also erected there the Allerheiligen 
" so exquisitely, with a tint of colour so Kirche, and the stately bridge over the 
exactly similar to the marble," says Pil- Moldau. He also built the church at 
kington, " and with such correctness in Kollin on the Elbe, 
every part, that when they were both ARLINGTON. See Bbnnst. 
placed together, it was scarcely possible ARLOTTI, (Rodolpho,) an Italian 
to distinffuish the marble from the paint- poet, who lived about 1590. Although 
ing." The same author further states nis talents were not of a very high order, 
that it was purchased by the duke de la he was the friend of Tasso, Guarini, and 
Force, at the enormous sum of twelve others of the first literary men of his age 
thousand livres, but that it was afterwards and country. He was the secretaiy of 
sold for a less sum. Of the fate of this Cardinal Alexander d'Est. (Bio^. Univ.) 
work, M. Beuchot, in the Biographie ARLOTTO, commonly called II Pio* 
Universelle, gives a very difierent account, vano Arlotto, was bom in Florence on 
who says, ** he had made a copy of a has- the 25th December, 1396, according to 
relief of Michael Angelo ; he tore it up, the memoir of him prefixed to some of 
it is not known why, but it is presumed the later editions of nis Facezie, Motti, 
it was done from scrupulous motives. &c. Hence is derived all the knowledge 
The two hands of this Leda are preserved we possess of his personal character and 
in the library of Geneva." it is also conduct, excepting as far as he speaks of 
said that a copy of this was sold in Lon- himself in the various jokes ana stories 
don, during the life of Arlaud, for six attributed to him. He enjoyed great 
hundred guineas, but that no offers could popularity, not merely in France and 
tempt him to part with the origmal. Italy, but in this country ; and he was so 
Speaking on this subject, Mr. Fuseli, in well known, that one of our early dra- 
a note to his edition of Pilkington, throws matic writers, John Day, speaks of him 
a doubt upon the whole story, by remark- by name, and makes one of his characters 
ing, "we know of no other Leda of quote him in The Isle of Gulls, printed 
Michael Angelo, than the celebrated in 1606. Lisander asks Manasses what 
one which he painted for the duke of religion he is of? and Manasses replies, 
Ferrara, in distemper, which afterwards ** How many soever I make use o^ 111 
went to France, and was destroyed answer with Piovano Arlotto, the Italian, 
there by bigotiy." (Bryan's Diet. —I profess the duke's only." Sir John 
VOL. II. 161 " u 



ARL ABIf 

Harington also rendered several of Italise, torn. v. ; and a history of Milan/ 

Arlotto's satirical pieces into English which remained in MS. His brother, 

▼ei*se, in the reign of queen Elizabeth, but Oiovanni Pietro, was a physician, and 

without acknowledgment Arlotto was the author of several medical treatises, 

intended by his father (whose family (Biog. Univ.) 

name was Mainardi) for trade, but he AKMA, (Jean Francois,) a Piedmon- 

took to the church, and became rector of tese physician in the sixteenth century, 

the living of S. Cresci, in the diocese was attached to the household of Enuna- 

of Fiesole. He never obtained anv pre- nuel Philibut, duke of Savoy. He wrote 

ferment, although the writer of his life several medical works, for the most part 

asserts that he was much beloved by two published at Turin. (Biog. Univ. Supp.) 

popes, by many cardinals, as well as by ARMAGNAC. Several of the counts 

the king of Naples and the duke of Bur- of this noble house acted a prominent 

g^dy. Edward IV. king of England (not, part in the history of the middle ages, 

of course, Edward V. as some bioCTaphers Jean /. count of Arma^ac, son 

have asserted) is also enumerated among and successor of Bernard VL, in 13S6 

his friends, and it appears that Arlotto assisted in Gascony and Guienne against 

made one or more voyages to England, the English. He was taken prisoner br 

Some of the stories attributed to him are the count of Foiz, in 1362, in a battle 

api)arently of English origin, or appli- fought near Toulouse, and had to pay 

cation, as that of Whittington ana nis 50,000 livres of ransom. He afterwards 

Cat, which is told on p. 53 of his Facezie, auitted the alliance of England. He 

Motti, &c. Edit. 1565. Some others of oied in 1373. 

his iests have been current in this country Jean III. count of AnnajRiac, grand- 

in (livers forms for two or three centuries, son of the preceding, was kmed in 1391, 

He continued in possession of the Pieve at the head of an army of adventnrerSy 

di S. Cresci for more than fifty years, whom he had led into Ualy. 

but could not have resided there by any Bernard FIJI, count of Aimagnac, 

means constantly, as his company was so constable of France, espoused the side 

much sought by the sovereigns of many of Charles, duke of Orleans, against 

of the petty states of Italv. We are the duke of Burgundy, in 1410; and 

assured that he rciiised all the offers was a principal actor in the long civil 

made him of advancement in his pro- war of the reign of Charles VI. After 

fession, and never wished for money but the battle of Agincourt, he was called by 

for purposes of benevolence and charity, the queen to Paris, for the defence of the 

It has been said that he was still living kingdom, and took the whole power into 

at Florence in 1483, but that was the his own hands, esteblished new impoftSi 

year in which he died, being buried at and filled the country with terror. On 

the Spedale de' Preti, on the da^ after the death of the dauphin, son of Qiaries 

Christmas-day, in a tomb of his own VI., of procuring which the constable 

erection, on which he caused to be in- was suspected, he lost all discretion, and 

scribed — *' This tomb was built by the placed tne queen's person under restraint. 

Piovano Arlotto, for liimsclf and any She was released by the duke of Bur* 

other persons who may wish to lie in it. ' gundy, who approached Paris with a 

It has been the custom to consider him large army, raris was betrayed to the 

merely as a buffoon, and certainly some duke in 1418, and the constable left his 

of the bttrle assigned to him are of a low house, to take refuge in the house of a 

character ; but others are full of wit and mason, by whom he was given up ; and 

satire, and must have proceeded from a the populace some days afterwards broke 

vigorous understanding. Ilis Facezie into his prison, and massacred him. No 

Piacevoli were printed at Venice in 1520, funeral honours were paid him, tfll the 

8vo, and often subsequently. The me- entry of Charles VII. into Paris, eighteen 

moir, to which we have referred, was years afterwards. 

first prefixed to the edit, of 1 565, 8vo, to Jean V. count of Armagnac, gprandson 

whicn are appended the Biifibnerie of of the consteble, and son of Jean IV. and 

Gonella, and the Motti, &c. of Barlac- Isabellaof Navarre, was bom about 1420. 

chia, together with a short miscellaneous He carried on an incestuous commerce 

collection of jests by difterent authors. with his sister, by whom he had children ; 

AIILUNO, (Bernardino,) a noble Mi- and although excommunicated for his 

lanese jurisconsidt, in the fifteenth cen- offence, he publicly married her, in virtue 

tury. IIo wrote a history of the Venetian of a forged bull of dispensation. He was 

Wars, printed in the Thesaurus Antiquit. a second time excommunicated; and* 

162 



ARtt Xftit 

being suspected of carrying on inf ercoune iTh^Atre Francais, and inspiring his fellow 
with the English, his seizure was ordered clerks with nis own enthusiasm, fitted 
by Charles Vll. The count fortified his up a small theatre, distributed the several 
castles, but on the approach of the king's characters amongst them, and, in short, 
troops, was obligedf to fly to Arragon, turned the office of his master into a 
where he had estates. Proceedings were nursery for comedy. After this he joined 
commenced against him in the paruament several strolling companies of players, 
of Paris, whiSti terminated in a sentence and made his first appearance at the 
of banishment, and the confiscation of his Th^fttre Francais in Paris on the 2d of 
estates. The count undertook a penitent March, 1723, where he remained forty- 
journey to Rome, and procured the inter- two years, acting a vast number of char 
cession of Pius II., but the king was racters, but his £rte lay in those of tricky 
inflexible ; and he did not return to France and intriguing valets. Towards the close 
till the following reign, in 1461, when of his theatrical career, he lost some 
his estates were restored by Louis XI. portion of his comic power, which he 
Nevertheless, he again took arms in 1465 strove to replace by exaggeration and 
against the king, and continued to sup- grimace. (Biog. Univ.) 
port large bands of followers, which he ARMANI, (CHambattista,! 768 — 1815,) 
consented to dismiss on receiving 10,000 a Venetian who, in early life, served for 
livres from the king, and took the money, a year or two in the army ; but, having 
but kept his men. On this, Louis sent retired in consequence of ill-health, he 
forces against him, and the count was a embraced a literary life, and entered the 
second time obliged to take refuge in university of Padua. He subsequently 
Arragon. His estates were again forfeited, travelled over Italy, giving lectiures on 
and himself condemned to death ; but he poetry, and performing as an improvi- 
recovered his domains by force, and satore. After his marriage he made a 
defended himself for some time against second tour of the same und, and after- 
the royal army. He surprised the town wards held some official situation. He 
of Lectour, and in it sustained a two translated part of Chateaubriand's works, 
months' siege, at the end of which the and published some poems and essays. 
Cardinal d'Albi was sent to negotiate These are enumerated in Tipaldo, ii. 228. 
with him. The count was deceived by ARM ANNO, (Vincenzio, of Manders, 
a show of good faith, and a party of the about 1599 — 1649,) a landscape painter, 
king's soldiers broke in and stabbed him, who greatly excelled in imitating nature, 
as he was executing the articles, in 1473. and was one of those who improved upon 
His legitimate wife was afterwards poi- the old dry manner of execution in this 
soned m prison, and his brother Charles branch of art. He seems careless in the 
confined m the Bastile for fourteen years, choice of subject ; but of whatever he 
(Biog. Univ.) treats, he charms by his truth, and by a 

ARMAGNAC, (Jacques and Louis d'.) repose of colour pleasingly diversified by 

See Nemours. lig^^t and shade. He is classed by Lanzi 

ARMAGNAC, (George d',) son of in the Roman school, though he is desi^- 

Pierre d'Armagnac, bastard of Charles nated as above, " of Flanders," in his 

d'Armagnac, was educated by Louis index. (Lanzi, Stor. Pitt. ii. 163Ji 

Cardinal d'Amboise. He was bishop of ARMATI, (Salvino degli,) a Floren- 

Rhodes, ambassador at Venice and Rome, tine, of whom nothing is known but that 

counsellor of state, and archbishop of he died in 1317; but who is said to have 

Toulouse. He was created a cardinal in been the inventor of spectacles. (Biog. 

1544, and died at Avignon in 1685, aged Univ. Suppl.) 

eighty-four. (Biog. Univ.) ARMBRUSTER, (John Michael,) was 

ARMAND, (Fran9ois Armand Hu- bom at Sulz, in Wtirtemburg, Nov. 1, 
guet, 1699 — 26th Nov. 1765,) a French 1761. He made his studies at the cele- 
comedian, bom at Richelieu, of respect- brated military academy of Stuttgard, 
able parentage, went young to Paris under and left his native country to take the 
the care of the Abb6 Nadal, who, after place of secretary to Lavater at Zurich, 
endeavouring to bring him up as a mu- where he was some time editor of the 
sician, placed him with a notary ; but Zurich Gazette. Not sympathizing en- 
from inclination, excited by going at tirely with the somewhat eccentric ideas 
thirteen years of age to a play, he adopted of Lavater, he left him ; and, having 
the stage as a profession. He imitated married, established himself at Constanz, 
the peculiarities of the notary's customers, where he lived in a modest way by lite- 
amused himself by frequent yisits to the rary labours. It was especially his 

163 M 2 ' 



ARM ARM 

Vollu-firettnd, a journal lie conducted tonun, et Vironim Sanctitate IIlustriQm 
from 1793 to 1799, which proved his e Conprcgatione Casinensi, Assisi, 1733; 




vemment to give him a situation in the ARMENINI, (Giovanni Batista,) a 

Austrian provinces, where, ahout the year painter of the Bolognese school, a native 

1800, he edited another popular paper, of Faenza, who was living in the year 

called Der Redliche Schwahenbothe. 1587, at which time he published at 

Expelled by the French from Gunsburg, Ravenna a work entitled, Veri Precetti 

he went to Vienna, first as commissary della Pittiura — ^The true Precepts of Paint- 

of police, and rose, in 1805, to the situa- ing, which reappeared at Venice in the 

tion of secretary of the supreme court of ensuing century. He is considered a 

police and censorship. As such (!) he better theorist than practitioner. There 

was the editor of the Wiener Zeitung, the is only one work of his in his native place, 

official organ ofthe Austrian government, a large picture of the Assumption, in- 

He also published the Wanderer, a po- scribed, Jo. Bapt. Armenini primitise ; 

pular journal, not without some real meaning that it was among the first, or 

merit. As it was the interest of the go- perhaps the very first altar-piece which 

vemment to rouse the spirit of the people ne ever painted. Perotti, the author of 

temporarily in the year 1809, he was certain Farragini, a mixture of all itylet 

encouraged in beginning the Vaterlan- and subjects, which are still preserved in 

dische Blatter fiir den Oesterreichischen the library of the seminary of Faenxa, 

Kaiser Stat, which was the first journal there observes that Armenini was a pupil 

of any real merit after the Josephine of Perin del Vaga. (Land, Stor. Pitt. 

period. Armbruster put an end to his v. 61.) 

own existence in 1817, partly under the ARMENONVILLE. See Morvillb. 

mortifications attendant on pecuniary ARMFELDT, (Charles, baron o() a 

embarrassments. Besides periodicals, he Swedish general under Charles XII., bora 

was very active and successful in writing in 1666. In 1713 he defended Hdsing- 

books of amusement for children, and fors against the czar Peter ; and on being 

little tales, which possess novelty, inte- forced to retreat, obliged the inhabitants 

rest, and a cultivated style. His private to quit the town, which he burnt to the 

character was amiable and friendly, and ground. He afterwards engaged, with 

he will be ever remembered as one of the six thousand men, the Russian general, 

cultivators of the popular mind in the Apraxin, with eighteen thousand, near 

Austrian empire. Storkyro, in Ostrobothnia, on 15th Feb. 

Another person of this name established 1714, and was defeated. In 1718 he 

the first tolerable curculating library in commanded a disastrous expedition to 

Vienna, during the short relaxation of Norway, in which most of his men pe- 

censorship, from 1815 to 1819. (Ersch rished by cold and hunger; and ne 

and Gruber, Encycl. Gradmanns Gc- returned with a very few, to learn the 

lehrt Schwaben, 13. Hallische Lite- death of Charles XII. Armfeldt died in 

ratur Zeitung, 1817.) 1736. (Biog. Univ.) 

ARMELLINI, (Jerome,) often called ARMFELDT, (Gustavus Maurice d\) 

Jerome de Faenza, from his birth-place, grand governor of the city of Stockholm, 

was inquisitor-general at Mantua, about lieutenant-general of the armies of Swe- 

1516. He wrote a book against one Ti- den, &c. He was among the number of 

berio Rossiliano, who maintained that the confederates of the nobles, whom the 

Noah's deluge could have been predicted king caused to be arrested in Finland, in 

by astrology ; which is mentioned by the month of March, 1789, when be 

&hard, Scnpt. Ord. Prsdic. vol. ii. p. 33, effected the revolution which circum- 

but Mazzuchelli was unable to discover scribed the power of the higher orden. 

it, either printed or in MS. (Biog. Univ.) M. d'Armfeldt was nevertheless em- 

AllMLLLINI, (Mariano,) a Benedic- ployed as commander in the campaign 

tine monk, bom at Ancona, died in 1737, of 1790 against the Russians, and gained 

in the monastery of Foligno. His works various advantages. He was afterwarda 

ve — Bibliotheca Benedictino-Casinensis, named plenipotentiary, and concluded a 

an account of the lives and writings of peace with Kussia on the plain of Wa- 

the members of the congregation of Mont- reela, between the vans ofthe armiea; 

Cassin, 2 parU, fol. 1731-32; Catalogi and ultimately signed a treaty of alliance 

tres Monacnorum, Episcoporum Reforma- between the two courts. Immediately 

164 



ARM ARM 

after ihe assassination of Gustavus III., forgiven him a speech irhich he allowed 
(see Anckabstbom,) he was appointed himself respecting the feeble manner in 
governor of the cit^ of Stockholm. He which this prince punished the assassina 
resigned his place of general in July, of his brother. When the young king, 
because the duke-regent revised to march Gustavus Adolphus, himself assumed the 
troops against France, conformably to reins of ^vemment, M. d'Armfeldt en- 
the treaty made with the empress of tered again into favour, and his wife was 
Russia. On the 11th of the same month even chief eovemess of the king's chil- 
he was nominated Swedish ambassador dren. At the close of 1802, he received 
to the Italian courts. In December, 1793, from this prince a new mark of confidence, 
he was suspected of a conspiracy against and was sent in the character of Swedish 
the duke-regent, and of a traitorous cor- minister to the court of Vienna. He re- 
respondencewith the countess of Rudems- mained but a short time in his ambassa- 
k6ff. In the February following, a dorial capacity at Vienna, in consequence 
courier was sent to procure his arrest at of his sovereign having refused to ac- 
Naples, but the governor of this city knowledgethe title of emperor of Austria, 
furnished him with the means of escape, which Francis II. had just taken. His 
and in answer to the complaints made oy further career appears to be unworthy of 
the court of Sweden, pretended that the record. (Biog. itfodem.) 
necessary forms had not been observed ARMINE, (Mary,) a lady of whose 
towards him. This affair, which was on life and character there is an account in 
the point of occasioning a rupture be- the Lives of Eminent Persons in this 
tween the two powers, was, however. Later Age, by Samuel Clark, fol. 1683, 
settled by the mediation of Spain. The was remarkable for christian charity and 
baron d'Armfeldt retired into Poland, piebr. She was a daughter and co-heir 
and inserted his justification in the public of Henry Talbot, a younger son of Georee, 
papers. On the 1st of March he was the sixth earl of Shrewsbury, and wife 
cited before the tribunal of the court, upon of Sir William Armine, of Osgodby in 
a charge of high treason. From his Lincolnshire, baronet. She is celebrated 
different correspondences, which were for her skill in ^lemical divinity, and for 
seized and read publicly in the assembly, the liberality with which she supported 
he was declared convicted of having the scheme for the propagation of the 
wished to place a foreis^ prince on the gospel among the Indians, and generally 
throne of Sweden, and to sacrifice the for her bounty in all cases in which the in- 
liberty of his fellow-citizens, for the sake terests of religion were concerned, and to 
of engrossing to himself a great part of the poor, founding alms-houses in divers 
the supreme authority. Several of his places, which still exist. She died in 1675, 
letters announced the project of Intro- being above eighty years of age. 
ducing a hostile fleet into the ports of ARMINIUS, or HERMANN, the hero 
Sweden, to favour his enterprise in the of ancient Germany, was bom 18 B.C., 
capital. On the 10th of July he was brought up at Rome, and served in the 
condemned to death, he was outlawed, armies of Augustus. He united the chiefii 
and permission was given to any one to of the Germanic tribes in a confedera- 
fall upon him, in case he should set his tion to overthrow the Roman power; and 
foot in the Swedish territories. His pro- by mingled treachery and skill procured 
perty was confiscated, and his sentence the destruction of the large Roman army, 
stuck up in all the e^reat towns in Sweden, sent under Varus to complete the con- 
This affair, like dl others of a similar quest of Germany and introduce the 
nature, has been presented under different institutions of Rome among the German 
points of view to public oninion. On the people. He was tvrice defeated by Ger- 
one hand, M. d Armfeldt has been re- manicus. According to the account of 
presented as the active agent of the court Tacitus, the patriotism of Arminius yielded 
of Russia, as a man not attached to the to the desire of possessing royal autho* 
regent, and whose ambition seemed to rity ; and he fell by a conspiracy of his 
tend towards bringing the cabinet of own countrymen, m his thirty-eighth 
Stockholm under his sway, by the mar- year. Arminius, though not always suc- 
riaf e of the young grand-duchess Alex- cessful, kept the Roman power in check 
andria with Gustavus Adolphus ; on the for twelve years, when it was at its great- 
other hand, it has been said that this est height, — which was not achieved by 
nobleman was guilty, at most, only of a any leader of any other people. He 
court intrigue; and it has been declared preserved the national existence, insti* 
that the duke of Sudermania had never tutions, and language of his country, 

165 



ARM. ARM 

Wfaen those of every other nation in £ih earij age of from fifteen to twenty-ttro 

rope, into which the K^man arms were to hare already giren earnest of the high 

carried, were changed or destroyed, intellect which was afterwards to Ecn£r 

Klopflt/>ck wrote two poems on the suh- him famous through the whole christian 

ject of Hermann, of whom the best his- world. He was particularly distinguished 

torical account is to be found in Schmidt's for his talent in the composition of Latin 

History of tlie G^rrman People. verses, for his success m mathematical 

A KM INI VSf f James.) TFi is celebrated and philosophical studies, and, above all, 
divine, who4C original name was Her- for his love of, and acquaintance with, 
manni, or Herman nsen, was bom in the the looic of Ramus. This taste he pro- 
year 1 560, at Oude water, in Southern Hoi- bably unbibed from his friend and patron, 
land. Hi.Hfathf.'r, a respectable cutler, died Sn ell, who was enthusiastically attached 
during his iiifancy» and the orphan was to that system. Under the auspices of 
indebted for his education and the forma- Snell, Arminius was invited by the curators 
tion of his moral and religious principles, of the university to give lessons in the 
Ut 'flicodor Krnilius, a cicTgyman of the elements of mathematics. This was in 
Rominh church, but who, from conscien- the year 1578, and consequently when he 
tioiiM objections to the errors of that com- was ciehtecn years old. To tnis mathe- 
niuiiitv, had renounced his office in the maticalcultivation, and this attachment to 
church, and was at heart a Protestant a sound system of logic, may probaUy he 
He perceived the talent and bent of mind imputed his strong powers of reasoning, 
of bis prot£g6, and endeavoured anxi- acknowledged even by his adversaries, 
ouHly and successfully to impress him with and the employment of which, to a re- 
his own serious views on the subject of markable extent, has been rated as an 
religion. When Arminius was fifteen years excellence, or taxed as an over-boldness 
olfl, bis imtron died ; but his place was in sacred matters, according to the theo- 
filled by Hudolf Snell, a mathcniaticiau logical tenets of his judges, 
of eminence, and a countryman of Ar- In the year 1582 his merits had be- 
niiiiius. IW him the young Arminius comesoconspicuous, that he was strongly 
was placed in the university of Marpurg; recommended by the burgomasters and 
but in the course of the same year, news resident ministers of Amsterdam to the 
cam(! of the destniction of Oude water, guild of merchants of tluit city, and by 
and thf! nlaugliter of its inbiibitanlH, by the liberality of this latter body he waa 
the SpHniard^f — tidings which proved too provided with funds for the proeecution 
fatally true, when the ^'oun;; student and completion of his studies in some 
hastcn<?d to behold with his own eyes the foreign university ; he in return for thia, 
fute of his birthplace, and found that his binding himself in writing to consider 
mother, brother, and sister, had perished himself devoted for the rest of his life to 
there. the service of the city of Anuterdam, 

About this time the university of and after his reception into holy orders, 

liPyden was founded by William 1. of to devote himself to no church in any 

Orungp, as a reward for the coura^'e dis- other city witliout the permission of tfaie 

played by the inhabitants of that city magistrates of Amsterdam for the time 

agaiiiHt th'> Spaniards. With thf hope of, being. In consequence of this arrange- 

bt'in); admitted into this imivrrsity, Ar- meiit, Arminius proceeded to Geneva, 

uiinius left Marpurg for Uotterdam, where he attended the lectures of Theo- 

whcrc till' fugitives tVoin Oiuh'watfr, as dore Beza, who was then expounding the 

w<'ll as iiiniiy who luul bcni driven from epistle to the Iloinans. His high admi- 

Amsterdam by the cnicltics of the duke ration of this learned man was repaid by 

of Alva, had t.'iki-n n'l"u;f»'. Hire he was a sinerrc esteem on the part of JUesa, as 

takrn into the hous(> of thf elder lU'rtius, is evidenced by a letter written at a 

and shortly aherwards sent, in company suhs('(|Uent period by the latter to the 

with his hojit's son, to Li>yden. This his autliorities of Amsterdam in his favour. 

schoolfellow lived to prononnc(> a funend His stay at Geneva, however, was brief, 

rulo^rjum U})on him, and linally to dis- ns he had given serious offence to some 

graci* himself, and betray the party of of the i)rincipal men of that city by 

the Arminiaiis, or K(>monstraiits, to which his zealous advocacy of the doctrines 

he had iittached himself, by an apostasy of Uamus. His giving lessons on this 

to the chnrehof Koine. The oration just subject in private was treated as an 

alluded to contains the warmest praises infractiim ot the ndes of tlic university, 

of the talents of Arminius, as shown at nnd he was compelled to discontinue 

the university, where he seems at the tliem. In consequence of this duagree- 

l()(j 



A R nL A R M 

ment lie left Genera for Basle, where he Basle upon the epistle to the Romam; 

gained much reputation hy a series of hut his expressed opinions ^^n thia 

lectures, such as were then gratuitously remarkahle portion of the New Testament 

S'ven hy the more advanced students ; —the text-hook of aU the disputes be- 
e subject of these was the epistle to the tween the Arminian and Calvinistic pap- 
Romans. At Basle the degree of doctor ties — ^were not at that time such as were 
was offered him by the faculty of theology considered unorthodox, but, on the con^ 
— an honour which he modestly declined trary, eained him high applause from hito 
on the score of his juvenile appearance. Calvinistic hearers and patrons. To ez- 
In 1583 he returned to Geneva, and plain the change in his opinions, it ia 
found that the feeling excited against necessary to go about ten yean back, to 
him by his former philosophical lectures the year 1578, in which year a certain 
had considerably subsided. On his part Richard (or Dirk) Folkert^n Coomhert^ 
he had learnt more moderation in the conversing with a man who had left the 
maintenance of his opinions; and thus popish for the reformed church, and 
he continued at Geneva, honoured for finding him unable to defend his change 
his talents, and acquiring the friendship of opinion by sufficient reasons, remarked 
of many young Hollanders, who after- that it was doubtfiil whether he had 
words held the most important offices in changed for the better. This expression 
their own country, till the year 1586. In came to the ears of two ministers of Delft, 
that year many of his schoolfellows went who challenged Coomhert to a centre- 
on a tour into Italy — a journey which he versy on the characteristics of the true 
himself also imdertook ; his chief induce- church. This controversy was afterwards 
ment being a wish to hear the celebrated transferred to Leyden ; and Coomhert 
James Zabarella, whose lectures on phi- appears to have been so far the better 
losophy he attended at Padua, giving disputant as to have puzzled his adver- 
at the same time instructions in logic to sanes ; when occasion was taken from 
some German noblemen. He afterwards some expressions of his which were judged 
visited Rome and some other parts of out of rule to put an end to the debate ; 
Italy, but very rapidly; as the whole and he was forbidden to publish his 
journey did not occupy more than seven remarks on this or any other religious 
months. For this expedition, undertaken controversy. But the ministers of Delft, 
without consulting his patrons, he was about the year 1589, published a pam- 
severely blamed, even by men of probity phlet, a sort of answer to the doctrines of 
and moderation ; and his enemies took Coomhert, which appear to have been 
the opportunity of spreading the falsest ultra-arminian. In this, by a sort ni 
accusations of him, as having complied compromise, they took up the mi/apforMm 
with the requisitions of popery, and scheme, by which it is asserted that God 
formed friendships with distinguished permitted, without pre-ordaining the fall 
popish ecclesiastics ; and he was even of man ; and that when Adam, and in 
accused of apostasy to the Romish church, him his posterity, were rendered sinful in 
From these charges, however, he fully nature by the fall, he chose certain indi- 
cleared himself to his patrons at Amster- \'iduals as the objects of redemption, 
dam, on his return to that city, after a leaving the rest in the state of sin and 
few months' stay in Geneva ; bringing condemnation into which they had fallen, 
with him from the latter city the most This pamphlet, opposed to the anti-cal- 
favourable testimonials to his talents and vinistic opinions of Coomhert, was op- 
virtues, and a strong recommendation posed also to the doctrine of the more 
as a fit person for the work of the mi- rigid Calvinists, or supralapsarians, who 
nistry. To this office he was unanimously held that the divine decree, before the 
elected in his twenty-eighth year, and fall of Adam, had appointed certain in- 
commenced his clerical duties in the dividuals to destruction. By this party 
church of Amsterdam. of the reformed church, and more par- 
A few years after he had been settled ticularly by his friend Lydius, Arminius 
in this honourable office, an event oc- was desired to reply to the pamphlet of 
curred which materially influenced his the Delft ministers. This he undertook 
future life, as well as the state of the to do ; but in the course of his medita- 
rcformed church, and which added to tions on this subject, he was led, first to 
his former reputation the doubtful and embrace the principles of the sublapsa-^ 
troublesome honour of being the founder riaris, which he had undertaken to com- 
of a new sect. It has already been bat ; and subsequently, going beyond 
mentioned that Arminius lectured at these also, to take up and to promulgate 

167 ^ 



ARM ARM 

those opinions on the subject of the tenets differing from those of the reformed 

divine decrees, which are now known by church, and to confer with the rest d the 

his name. These may be best expressed ministerial body, in case of doubt arising 

in the words of the first article of the in the mind of any IndividuaL The mar 

Arminian faith, during the time imme- gistrates of -Holland had from the first 

diately following the death of Arminius : establishment of the reformed religion in 

— '' lliat God from all eternity deter- that ]^rovince inclined to the sublapsarian 

mined to bestow salvation on those whom doctrmes held by Melancthon, BuUingery 

he foresaw would persevere unto the end and some others of the early reformers, 

in their faith in Christ Jesus, and to in- in opposition to the clergy, who chiefly 

flict everlasting punbhments on those who favoured the more rigidly Calvinistic 

should continue in their unbelief, and doctrines taught by Calvin and Bexa. 

resist unto the end his divine succours." From this circumstance they were more 

(Mosheim, Eccles. Hist, by Maclaine, disposed to favoiur Arminius than the 

vol. ii. p. 521.) clergy opposed to him, as was shown on 

The first important overt manifestation this and on other occasions, 
of this change in the sentiments of In the year 1602, two of' the three 
Arminius was made in 1591, in his professors of divinity at the universitY of 
public exposition of the text, Romans vii. Lcyden, Junius and Trelcatius, diea of 
14, to wnich he gave a meaning dif- the plague which raged in that jtUf 
fering from the sense in which this pas- leaving Gomarus to execute the dutiei of 
sage had been before understood, and that professorship alone. The choice of 
more favourable to his new views on the the directors of the university fell upon 
subject of the divine decrees. The sen- Arminius and the younger Trelcatius, 
timents at this time expressed, though The election of the former was long de* 
more moderate and more cautiously layed by objections raised against hie 
worded than the subsequent doctrines of theological opinions by hb brethren of 
the sect, excited the alarm of his cleri- Amsterdam] and others, and by the nn- 
cal brethren ; and a public dispute was willingness of the magistrates of that city 
held on the subject, oetween Arminius to dispense with his services in the church, 
on the one side, and Plancius on the By the intervention of his firiends, and 
other. This was managed on the side the request of Maurice prince of Orange^ 
of Arminius with great talent and cau- the consent of the magistrates was at 
tion, as well as address ; but did not length obtained ; but it was stipulated 
prevent his undergoing much calumny that Arminius should not leave the church 
and exaggerated accusation. His friends, of Amsterdam, till they had the prospect 
Lydius, Uitenbogardt, and Taffinus, at- of obtaining another pastor of learning 
tempted a reconciliation between him and piety ; that he should clear hims^ 
and tlic church of which he was a pastor, in a conference with Gomarus, his future 
and offered for this purpose certain colleague, from all charge of heterodosgr; 
articles of accommodation between Ar- and that he should be left at Ml libei^ 
minius and the ecclesiastical senate, to resume his ministerial functions, if the 
The substance of these was, that he necessities of the church at Amsterdam 
should engage to teach no new doctrine ; should demand his services, or his own 
and in case of doubts arising in his own inclinations should lead him to relinquish 
mind as to any tenet held by tiie reformed his professorship. Afrer the proposed 
church, he should refrain from stating conference with Gomarus, in which he 
his opinions openly, and should rather cleared himself from the charge of here* 
privately confer with his brethren in the tical opinions, he was installed as pro- 
ministry. To these terms Arminius was fcssor of divinity in 1G03, and shortly 
willing to subscribe, but the ecclesiastical after delivered his lectures on the booK 
senate refused their assent ; and the end of Jonah. In this situation of professor 
of this dispute was, that the magistrates of divinity his great object was to recall 
of Amsterdam, after a private conference the students imdcr liis care from the 
with those friends of Arminius already scholastic subtleties, in the study of which, 
mentioned, and a hearing of Iiim and lus according to the taste of the time, they 
opponents, commanded Uie senate to let were deeply immersed, and to bring 
the matter rest, and dismissed the par- them back to a sound and scriptural mode 
ties with an advice to each to adopt that of studying theology. He displayed also 
course wliicli had been suggested in the in liis conversation, conduct, and writings, 
proposed articles of i>aciiicution ; to re- the earnest desire which appears to have 
^oin, that is, from the promulgation of accompanied him through nis life for the 

1G8 



ARM ARM 

reconciliation of the various sects of being evidently accommodated to the 
Christians. His coUeague Gomarus be- things themselves, 
gan very shortly after hu inauguration " With regard to his civil con versation, 
to display a spirit . of jealousy, which he was cotirteous and affable towards all 
greatly disturbed his quiet of mind ; and men, respectful to his superiors, and con- 
the renewed promidgation of his opinions descending to his inferiors. He was 
drew upon hun much obloquy. These hospitable, cheerful, and not averse to a 
troubles contributed greatly to break his little innocent mirth and wit among 
health, which, in fact, nad suffered during friends, for the sake of mental relaxation, 
the neater part of his life from intense But in those qualities which constitute a 
apphcation and almost ceaseless anxieties, serious man, a good christian, and a con* 
The bitterness of religious controversy summate divine in the church, he was, as 
was terribly shown during his last illness, far as human infirmity permitted, second 
in the course of which he lost the use of to no one. He reverenced and honoured 
one eye and arm ; to these afflictions Almighty God alone ; and he suffered no 
were applied by some of his enemies the day to pass without pious meditations and 
awful denunciations in the book of Ze- a careful perusal or the sacred records, 
chariah — ''Their eyes shall consmne always commencing the duties of the 
away in their holes," (xiv. 12;) and from morning with earnest supplications and 
the same prophet — ''Woetotheidolshep- thanksgivings; and that ne might make 
herd that leaveth the flock ! the sword still greater progress in the study of piety 
shall be upon his arm, and upon his right and truth, to these prayers he added 
eye : his arm shall be clean oried up, and frequent fastings. He preferred to be 
his right eye shall be utterly darkened." really pious to the mere appearance of 
(xL 17.) His own sentiments of charily piety; and he accounted no course of 
to all mankind, expressed on his death-bed, conduct so proper, as that of directing all 
and left behind him in his will, in which his actions according to the rule of a pure 
he dwells on his favourite topic of the conscience, andnotbythe opinion of other 
pacification of the church, are in beautiful people. By his own example he confirmed 
contrast with these displays of unchari- the truth of the motto on his seal, in the 
table feeling. He died in 1609 ; leaving sentiment of which he greatly deliehted— 
behind him seven sons and two daughters, " A good conscience is a paradise. ' The 
all of whom, except two of the sons, died works of Arminius consist of — Seven 
young, shortly atter their father. His Orations on Theology, &c. ; Declara- 
wife, whom he married in 1590, was the tion of his Sentiments delivered he- 
daughter of Laurence Real, one of the fore tlie States of Holland ; An Apology 
senators of Amsterdam — a distinguished against Thirty-one Defamatory Articles ; 
promoter of the reformation in Holland, Answers to certain Theological Questions; 
and a firm opponent of the designs of the Twenty-five Public Disputations ; Se- 
Spaniards agamst that country. venty-nine Private Disputations ; Dis- 

The following description of the per- sertation on the True and Genuine Sense 

sonal appearance and cnaracter of Armi- of the Seventh Chapter of the Epistle to 

nius is taken from the Life of him written the Romans ; A Letter to Hippolytus a 

by Brandt, and incorporated with ampli- CoUibus on the Divinity of Christ, the 

fications by Nichols into his translation of Providence of God, Predestination, Grace, 

the works of Arminius — a book of which and Free-will, and Justification ; and, 

much use has been made in compiling Certain Articles to be diligently Examined 

the preceding biography. and Weighed. These were published in 

''In stature he did not exceed the a collected form at Leyden, 1629, 4to; 

middle size. His eyes were dark and at Frankfort, 1631, and again, 1635. 

sprightly — the sure indications of quick- They have been translated into English 

ness of mind and genius. He was of a by J. Nichols, with copious notes. Lon- 

serene countenance ; of a sanguine con- don, 1825 — 1828. (Works of Arminius, 

stitution of body ; compact in his limbs, with Brandt's liife of the Author, by 

and rather robust, as long as his age per- James Nichols. Petri Bertii Oratio in 

mitted it. He possessed a voice that was Obitum D. Jacobi Arminii. Mosheim's 

slender, yet sweet, melodious, and acute ; Ecclesiastical History, by Maclaine, vol. 

but it was admirably adapted for per- ii. pp. 518 — 531.) 
suasion. Ifany subject was to be adorned, ARMSTRONG, (John, M.D., 1709-* 

or to be oratorically discussed, it was 1779,) an eminent physician and poet, 

done distinctly ; the pronunciation of the He was the son of a clerg3rman, and born 

words and tne inflexion of the voice in the parish of CasUeton, in Roxburgh* 

169 






vl ..'-«r..-.i-. I I,.*-. ir..j-r.»-.. >;.i tr-jl^-r-: M»»ri, •-: x^::i lai Zi^. l»*g3. leiii 3 



^ • It \' 'y..'.vv.'f'.. t'.i*. rrwf.Li^''-%^ tr vjt ana:;! t^""" ir-iTi. T»=iZ;r -ii^iii ann* 

.-.:* . "; ■ ■.'-.■./. .V? r--.*,tT r .r ^'.r.'.\. TTi-.-rr*. 7rji.r;:iiZ7 Tir^ij.vi i-nn. ;iie 

'.■ V:.-, - V;'. -,rMi t.-;-.': -.?* Vj» rT-.y 1- 0:i- zrr -zi-i i.:*:t':^7 :f L»:t». i 

.« ".,:•:, ..iV.. TV. i i-AT..-. _r*=.*- ▼!..■. -. n -^t:--;: x-.-^ rr»x: -TOTir. Vil 

* * _ ^ • 

f^.* r.'VAr. ;..t W.r.vir. t.M v. LiT* rrriT'rC in 1"-H. iz. 4^. I: 2xf Skc de- 

w-v:. .r. -:.'..•-&•. or. ',f ?5;jt£.e»T>«i-'*. ir.d ilz.t^2^»» His eLinct«r u a poet, izid 

'<.'***. :, •-'i f'^Y tr.«r».*..v>r r:.> '.or.-.:/. rr.ifitkri hi* til-r-i* i= a rrrfewfciui cbterrer of 

'jf 7 r. ',T.'i V/ r. , M;t .- «:t, A Af '.r. H ^1. ard th j ■: viz: in b«:<:T ir d its rarlocs ^iscsioBs» 

V', . :. '/ . \{ 4; i «^. w rov: Vj o r. *: 'A ':. _* f r *r. d* th* cTi-r rsil-: r: «: f diiers nt a^ects. monl 

If I )rA.:.\* it 'J'. \f» 4»« tr.* 4.-.:-. or * p^rrr*:*- ar.d phrrlca- on it* ccsstinnioii. dtc^may 

».'/.'. V, y .\..'}.i ;•.: ^*^.t h': afvrrrir'ij laf-eiv rt*t ujyir. tne ni^riti cf this work : 

tit/ r-.'i i..t t:..:.*l. fe.'i'i it *i'A i.^A appear tr^ere ar^r in it pi«aee* cf great beautj 

u.'i'.j J 770, 7i:.*ri it W4,< prir.Vr': al'.nz and :r.:r:r>:i: exrellen^e. It his gained for 
*.»h otr.'rf iffjiu'.ioTi* of hLaic«r*!>^are a^d ' " ~ 



hi:n th* hishest approbation. Between 
the pubiicat'on cf Ae foregoing poems it 



/n I7'ini*:pririt«:'i.ir»t>i»^i«r';oridT'jIujr.e is pr^.-b-ibi* h:« spirits wtre mnch de- 

of til*; VAitthufjU M'rdical K-s-av*. an pr»:-**"d. ar.d his pp?<p«ct5 in life far from 

Kr*.!/ hu \'*w:\.rAiiU'* T'/pi': Mfrdy-irif:", chterin?: for. fron: letters preserred in 

bi-inj,' an af.-ffijii to «:X plain •orn*- of t:.e thf: British Mu>eiiin, we tind that he 

plM-noiri<-;i.'t of ah-orption. '.j#on tii«; prin- soliiltii-d the assistance of Dr. Birch to 

npi* ■. of th«: ni«:rliani';al p:;:.orop}iy. In c-x»-rci-'.- his influence with the generous 

tMi4 yi-ikT al^/i, \i*: wrot'; Ji p;;p<;r Of the Dr. Mo ad to jet h:m appointed physician 

Alr:i|<-^r< nt Dinponition of Anirna! Fluids. V) the forcti then going to the West 

wlii'li vfit^. ri;ad U'for«r th': Jtoy#-.l .Society, Indies. In this object, however, he did 

Jiinii;iry -JO, I7.'J.'S, hut was iiot printed in not succeed, but he was chosen, in 1746, 

tin- i'liiloioplii'-al 'I'raiiHa/ti'ini. It is one of the physicians to the Hospital for 

urts*-r\t'*\ in lln: Sloant- ("olliction fDr. Sick and Lame Soldiers, then situated 

ninli'H I'iipiT',; in tliir JJritiih Miiieuin, beliind Buckinirham-house. He obtained 

No. U.'J.'J. Ill M'.i't hf; published a pam- this appointment principally through the 

phj't, witlidiii iiffixiii^' IiIh name to it, interest of Mead, to whose taste and 

unM«T ilii: title of An K'nsayfor Abriflj.'inp excellence he makes allusion in the funt 

llii- Sfiifly (,f Thynir ; to whirli is added book of his Art of I*reser\ing Health, in 

fi Diiilo^'ii" (h'twixt lly7<-ia, -Mirciiry, tlie following elejrant terms : — 
uitrl riiifo; niiitinj( to tin; IVactirc of •■ O thou beloved by all the graceftil arti, 
I'hy«i'' an it in nian.i^o'd l>y a J(rt;:in illus- I'hoxx kmg the fav'rite of the healine powen." ^ 

Irioun Sorji-ty ; hh aUo iiti Kpistlc fn»ni A ])oem Of Benevolence, an Epistle to 

I'ldnk thi- TrrHiaii to Jfodiu;i) \V(.'ii)d, Kuinenes, some one who had endeavoured 

I'»i«j. Thifi wa.i reprinted in Dilly'h Rr- to do the author a great piece of ser^'ice, 

pfMJiory (vol. iii. p. \'l't). It i.s a Im- appeared in l/.O!, and did honour to his 

Mioiouh hatiii* on (|iiaek(ry, conl.'iinin^ sensibility. I lis Taste, an Epistle to a 

Nonir Mi'vi-n* bul jnst n-ilci'lions on the Yoiin^ Critic, was printed in 1753. It 

if;iioinnrr of iipoihffarii'H in {'cni-nil. It it written in imitation of Pope, and ii 

i« di di<-iili-d "to the antacadi inic philo- Htron^ly tinctured by that splenetic cha- 

riiiphi i>i, til tin> fM-ncroiiH <h",pi»nT . of th(» ractcr which afterwards so lamentably 

HI lifitil I, to the <li*Hi'rvrdly tclchratcd distin^uish(*d him. Under a fictitious 

.l(imhiiii) \V(iir)d, liinl ,l(ohn) M(oo)r, nnnu', that of Launcelot Temple, Esq., 

iiml the iml of till- nunnTouH ki'cI of in* he published in 1758, Sketches; or, £&• 

spired pliyuiciauH." says on various Subjects. In the com* 

170 



ARM A R H 

poflition of some of these, he has been he prepared an edition in 1768, expunge 
supposed to have been assisted by his ing many of the most offensive passagesy 
friend John Wilkes, Esq., with whom he and the Epistle to Wilkes. They contain 
enjoyed great intimacy. The sUle of the also some other pieces of no great merit. 
Essays is, however, m general cynical, and therefore do not deserve particular 
coarse, and affected, and added nothing notice. He offered to Garrick a tragedy, 
to the author's reputation ; indeed, it is entitled The Forced Marriage, but it was 
probable that the censure unsparingly rejected. It is printed in the Miscel- 
applied to this work, tended to confirm lanies, and has been described as distin« 
the hatred he entertained for the critics guished by " much passion, but little 
of his day. judgment. A Short Ramble through 
Armstrong was appointed physician to some Parts of France and Italy, under 
the army in Germany in 1760, for which the name of Launcelot Temple, was put 
he is said to have been indebted to forth in 1771, and is interesting princi- 
the interest of Wilkes ; and in this year pally from having been made in company 
he wrote a poem, called A Day, an Epistle with Fuseli, who has spoken favour* 
to John Wilkes, of Aylesbury, Esq. It ably of the general benevolence of Arm- 
was considered to have been published strong. Dr. Armstrong has also made 
without his knowledge or consent, by allusion to the painter in one of his 
an anonymous editor, supposed to be sketches, andjustly predicted the eminence 
some one to whom Mr. Wilkes had lent he attained. He designates him as " a 
it. Churchill has been reported to have genius, not indeed of British growth ; 
imagined himself reflected on in it, and unpatronized, and at present almost un- 
his temper is said to have led him to known ; who may live to astonish, to 
retort upon the author in the Journey, terrify, and delight all Europe." In this 
This, however, is scarcely probable, as tour he paid a visit to Smollett, who then 
the lines which have been referred to resided near Leghorn, 
relate rather to an actor than a poet, and Dr. Armstrong's last publication was a 
great as the vanity of Churchill unques* quarto volume of Medical Essays, in 
tiouably was, he could hardly have ven- which the peculiarities of his temper, and 
tured to ascribe to himself the line, his extreme dissatisfaction with every 

" What crazy scribbler rei^fns the present wit r thing around him, is but too abundantly 

manifested. He condemns all theory, 
and it is still less likely that he would have yet fails not to enlist it to his aid when 
allowed four years to elapse before he he assigns to every gland '* an occult kind 
made his retort to a supposed attack. The of magical power, inexplicable to the 
animosity which existedbetween Churchill human faculties, of transforming the 
and Armstrong is rather to be attributed blood which passes through its fabric into 
to differences in opinion upon political this or that particular humour." In 1779 
subjects. he paid a visit in Lincolnshire, and upon 
About this time Armstrong broke in getting into his carria|;e to return to Lon- 
friendship with Wilkes, it is said, on don, met with an accident, by wliich his 
account of some reflections on the na- thigh was seriously injured, and he died 
tional character of Scotchmen, inserted on the 7th of September, at his house in 
in the North Briton. This variance con- Russell-street, Covent-garden, leaving be- 
tinued for many vears, and in 1773 Arm- hind him, to the astonishment of his 
strong called Wilkes to account for some friends, upwards of three thousand pounds, 
reflections on his character, which he principally the savings out of a very mo- 
attributed to Wilkes, and which appeared aerate income, chiefly consisting of his 
in the Public Advertiser. The particulars half-pay as a physician of the army. All 
relating to this transaction are to be who knew him speak highly of his bene- 
found m the Gentleman's Magazine for volence and sensibility, and he was es- 
1792, but they are evidently furnished by teemed by men of learning and genius, 
a prejudiced hand. Upon the establish- He seems, however, to have been remark- 
ment of peace in 1763, Armstrong re- able for his indolence, which especially 
turned to London, and devoted himself unfitted him for success in the practice 
to practice, in which, however, he was of the medical profession. The morbid 
never extensively engaged. In 1770 he sensibility by which he was so powerfully 
published 2 vols, 12mo, of Miscellanies, impressed, gave rise to a languor and 
which contain most of the pieces previ listlessncss which depressed the vigour of 
ously mentioned, with the exception c; his mind ; and to such an extent did this 
theEconomy of Love, of whioh, howevei^ pievail, that the following picture in 

171 



ARM ARM 

Thomson's Castle of Indolence is said to unqualified to employ the meaui that 

have their original in Armstrong : — usually lead to medical employment, or 

"With him wa. sometime. Join'd in -ilentwlk, ^ ^^^^^ ^» ^^X !^^^ "" /^"^A^^ 

(Profoundly silent, for they never spoke) competitors. An mtmiate tnenosOip 

One shyer still, who quite detested talk ; always subsisted between the doctor and 

T.'iJJv^^o'/pSlri'nd lSSS.%Thi.«S|U : *« author of the Sea«,n., a. well a. with 

lliere, inly thriil'd, he wander'd all alone, Other gentlemen of leanung and genius ; 

And on himself his pensive fUry wroke ; he was intimate with, and respected by 

He never utterd word, save when first shone o* ti. •»• i axi- ^ ^ t^^ 

The glittering star of eve— • Thank heaven 1 the 2>ur John l^rmgle, to the tune of hu 

day is done!"* death." 

Dr. Beattie, in a letter to Sir William ARMSTRONG, (John, M.D., 1784— 
Forbes, says, " I know not what is the 1829,) bom at Ayres Quay, in the parish 
matter with Armstrong, but he seems to of Bishop Wearmouth, in the county of 
have conceived a rooted aversion against Durham, May 8, 1784. His parents were 
the whole human race, except a few in humble circumstances, his fiither being 
friends, who it seems are dead. He sets manager of a glass-manufactory at Ajrres 
public opinion at defiance — a piece of Quay, and afterwards at Deptford, near 
Doldness which neither Virgil nor Horace Sunderland. Under the tuition of the 
were ever so shameless as to acknow- Rev. Mr. Mason, a minister of the United 
ledge. I do not think Dr. A. has any Secession Chmrch of Scotland, Armstrong 
cause to complain of the public ; his gained a moderate acquaintance with the 
Art of Health is not, indeed, a popular English, Latin, and Greek languages, 
poem, but it is very much liked, and has and a tolerable share of mathematical in- 
oftcn been printed. It will make him formation. He early manifested an eager- 
known and esteemed by posterity, and I ness to excel in every thine he undertook, 
presume he will be more esteemed if all He was apprenticed to Mr. Watson, a 
nis other works perish with him. In his surgeon and apothecary at Monk Wear- 
Sketches, indeed, are many sensible, and mouth ; but, although much attached to 
some striking remarks ; but they breathe the study of the science of medicine, he 
such a rancorous and contemptuous s]^irit, disliked this part or system of practice, 
and abound so much in odious vulgarisms and it was tnerefore determined to re- 
and colloquial execrations, that, in read- move him to Edinburgh, there to qualify 
ing, wc are as often disgusted as pleased, for the higher branch of the profession as 
I know not what to say of his Universal a physician. He was distinguished bv 
Almanack ; it seems to me an attempt at the exercise of his imagination, and his 
humour, but such humour is cither too fancy led him to attempt various pieces 
high or too low for my comprehension, in verse, and even to contemplate the 
The plan of his tragedy, called The execution of a tragedy, founded on the 
Forced Marriage, is both obscure and story of Boethius, as recorded by Gibbon, 
improbable; yet there are good strokes the perusal of which had maae a very 
in It, particularly in the last scene." strong impression upon his mind. The 

Armstrong bus been generally regarded necessity of close attention to medical 
as " wrong-neaded, not malignant-heart- studies, however, prevented the comple- 
ed." The amiable physician of Dor- tion of his^purpose ; and, after attendance 
Chester, Dr. Cuming, has given his upon the usual classes, he took a d^ree 
testimony to the general benevolence of in surgery, at the Royal College of Sur- 
the poet and physician. *< I was early geons, on the 5th of May, 1807, and in 
acouaintcd with Dr. A., have visited him the month of June following, the degree 
at his lodgings, knew many of his inti- of doctor of medicine of the university of 
mates, have met him in company, but, Edinburgh ; and composed a thesis, De 
from my having visited the metropolis so Causis Morborum Hydropicorum, Kt^ 
seldom since my residence in Dorsetshire, tionequc iis Mcdendi. He now became 
I was not 8u well acquainted with him as a candidate for practice at Bishop Wear- 
I should otherwise have been, or wished mouth ; but soon after removed to San- 
to be. He always appeared to me (and I derland, where he was extensively en- 
was confirmed in this opinion by that of gaged for several years, and was ap- 
his most intimate friends) a man of learn- pomted physician to the Sunderland 
ing and genius, of considerable abilities Dispensary. He married, in 1811, Sarah, 
in his profession, of great benevolence eldest daughter of Charles Spearman, 
and goodness of heart, fund of associating Esq. of Thoniely, near Durham, 
with men of parts and genius, but indo- I Dr. Armstrong's first publication after 
lent and inactive, and therefore totally the Inaugural Dissertation, was a p^per 

172 



ARM ARM 

on Brain Fever produced bv Intoxication, mentii ; for his tastes centered in \m {hto- 
which was printed in the Edinbui^h Me- fessional pursuits, and his enjo3rments in 
dical and Sureical Journal for ^nuary the bosom of his family, and m the fami- 
1813, and, witn others on Diseased Cer- liar society of a few personal friends. Hit 
vical Vertebree, &c., materially served to sensibilities were acute, and his mind 
bring his name and talents before the simple and discerning in its instincts and 
profession and the public. In 1814 he desires. He had left a society to which 
published Facts and Observations relative he was attached by the ties of gratitude ; 
to the Fever commonly called Puerperal, and in the oppressive solitude of his pre- 
a second edition of which appeared in 1 8 1 9. sent situation he keenly felt the loss of his 
His opinions and doctrine upon the sub- early friends, and became fully sensible 
ject of fever, by which he has been prin- of the hazard to which he had exposed 
cipally known m his profession, were first the interests of his family. He has often 
detailed in this publication. This subject told me (Dr. Boott) that the loneliness 
engrossed his mind through life, ana he of his situation at times overpowered him ; 
has certainly left upon record much im- and that so oppressive was tne busy scene 
portant information on this disease, in all around him, m which he stood a stranger, 
Its varied types and conditions. In 1816 uncared for and unknown, that he some* 
he nublished. Practical Illustrations of times found relief in tears, and tried to 
Typnus Fever, and other Febrile and In- drown the consciousness of sorrow, by 
flammatory Diseases, a work which eained seeking sleep in his darkened chamber at 
for its author great celebrity, and went noon. The energies of his mind, how* 
through three large editions, in three ever, sustained him; and he soon rose 
successive years. He looked upon fever elastic from this temporary pressure." 
as inflammation, demonstrated the effi- In 1818 he put fortn Practical Illut* 
cacy of bleeding in the early stages, and trations of the Scarlet Fever, Measles, 
proved the signs of debility and mali?- Pulmonary Consumption, and Chronic 
nancy manifested at the close of the Diseases, with Remarks on Sulphureous 
disease to be in proportion to the degree Waters. A second edition went through 
and duration of the previous inflamma- the press in the same year. His reputa- 
tion. He divided the disorder into simple, tion was therefore maintained by thit 
inflammatory, and congestive ; an useful publication. 

division, which admits of verification at He had not yet, however, been ad- 
the bedside of the sick. The success mitted into the Royal London Colleee 
which attended the publication of this of Physicians. He presented himself ror 
work determined Dr. Armstrong to re- examination, conformably to its regula* 
move from his native place to a more tions, to obtain the license to practise in 
extended sphere of operation in the me- London and its suburbs, and he was re- 
tropolis. In 1818 he came to London, jected. This rejection of an eminent 
relying solely upon his abilities and the practitioner, and a writer of considerable 
character the^ had acquired him for sue- and deserved celebrity, has been gen^ 
cess in practice. This important step in rally attributed to his deficiency of clas- 
his life has been thus interestingly de- sicad knowledge, upon which the examiners 
scribed : " In October, 1817, he resigned set much value. On this point, however, 
his situation as physician to the Sunder- it must be remarked neither Dr. Arm- 
land Dispensary ; and in February, 1818, strong nor any member of the college has 
after placing his wife and his two chil- given any information. It is fortunate 
drcn m .lodgines at Durham, he repaired that in its operation the rejection did not 
to London, with no other recommenda- destroy the reputation Dr. Armstrong had 
tion, than that which his works and repu- acquired, or oiminish the zeal either of 
tation afforded him. He took lodgings at himself in his profession, or of his friends 
No. 38, Great James Street, Bedford Row, to assist him : that this did not occur will 
where he resided several months alone, be manifest by his election to the office 
This was the most trying part of his life, of physician to the Fever Hospital of 
All those domestic sympathies upon which St. rancras, upon the retirement of Dr. 
he so much depended for happiness were Thomas Bateman. To enable him to hold 
far removed from him, and ne felt as it this appointment without being a licentiate 
were alone in the world, anxious about of the London College, it was necessary 
his present and uncertain of his future to suspend the operation of a bye-law of 
fortunes. He never, to the close of his the institution relative to the quaUfications 
life, courted general society, and had few of a candidate. This was generouslv 
inducements to mix in public amuse* done by the committee of the hospital 

173 



ARM ARM 

fSAd. Dr. Armitrong thua entered upon the riveted the attention, and made eren 

practice of the institution. those who could not entirely adopt or ap- 

In 1821 he commenced as a lecturer propriate his opinions, sensible that ne 

on the practice of physic at the school was uttering the deep convictions of his 

founded by the late Mr. Edward Grainier, mind ; and there was so much of chaste 

in the neigbourhood of the Borough Hos- and often of pathetic feeling, so much of 

pitalS) known as the Webb- Street School; the refined sensibilities of his nature 

and few persons were perhaps, on the blended with his discourse, that those who 

whole, better able to perform the onerous were compelled to admire his talents felt 

duties of teaching, or more successful in confidence in his virtues ; and while they 

the result, than Dr. Armstrong. His man- revered the professor, they loved the 

ner was to pupils peculiarly pleasing and man." 

attractive ; his diction free and earnest ; The extent of Dr. Armstrong's private 
his order lucid ; and the practical part of practice, and the time necessarily devoted 
his subject was ever kept in view. He tolecturing, obliged him, in 1824, to retire 
was one of the most popular teachers in from the Fever Hospital. He printed in 
London, and was attended by a very large the Medical Intelligencer, in 1822, a paper 
class. His lectures have been reported entitled, Some Observations on the Ori- 
in the Lancet ; but more accurately ^iven gin, Nature, and Prevention of Tophus 
since his decease by a pupil and friend : Fever ; and in 1823, Some Observations 
Lectures on the Morbid Anatomy, Na- on the Utility of Opium in certain In- 
ture, and Treatment of Acute and Chronic flammatory Disorders, which was pub- 
Diseases. Edited by Joseph Rix, Lond. lished in the Transactions of the Associated 
1 834, 8 vo. Dr. Armstrong also delivered Apothecaries of England and Wales. These 
lectures on the Materia Medica, in 1823, papers were some of the results of his 
and continued them until 1825, when he observations, chiefly made at tlie Fever 
embodied them in his course on the Prac- Hospital, and contain the germ of those 
tice of Physic. His education had been opinions which led to very important 
scanty and his course of reading limited, modifications of his views of typhus, and 
His lectures were therefore almost entirely of his practice in inflammatory diseases. 
composed from his own opportunities of tHe had expressed a belief that t3rphiis 
observing the pheiioniena of disease, originated solely firom contagion ; he now 
Being delivered extempore, he kept alive maintained that malaria was its primary 
the attention of his hearers, and he exhi- source, and that its contagious character 
bited proofs of his quickness of apprc- was very questionable. He viewed the 
hension and appreciation of facts. He plague in a similar manner, 
was, however, too declamatory, and his In 1825 he printed An Address to the 
attempted contempt of learning much Members of the Royal College of Surgeons 
disfigures his orations. He never failed of London, on the injurious conduct and 
to embrace any opportunity to hold up to defective state of that Corporation with 
ridicule the learinng of schools and col- reference to Professional Rights, Medical 
leges, and to treat with neglect the claims Science, and the Public Health. This 
of learned practitioners. He speaks of address was ^Titten in opposition to a 
Hcberden as a superficial observer of na- monopoly attempted to be set up by the 
ture ; as a popular physician in London, college, in reference to the teaching of 
but wliose literary productions will socm anatomy, restricting that duty to the pro- 
be forgotten. Tlic H<igra)it injustice of fessors of the recognised hospitals of the 
this opinion cannot be too forcibly con- metropolis, or the appointed professors of 
denincd ; but Hcberden 's cliaracter and anatomy and surgery in the universities 
talents need no advocate. They are fully of Dublin, Edinburgh, Glasgow, and 
displayed in his Comnientarii de Morbo- Aberdeen, by which laudable competition 
rum Historia et Curationc. Dr. Arm- would be checked, and the formation of 
strontf's accusations against Dr. Mead new schools prevented. The medical 
and I)r. Cvillen arc equally groundless profession generally manifested great 
and ungenerous. His friend and bio- disapprobation of the proposed measureSy 
grapher lias thus characterised Dr. Arm- and the bye-law which went to establish 
strong as a lecturer: "The elfoct his it was repealed. In 1826 Dr. Armstrong 
lectures produced was electric. The assisted to form a new school of medicine 
energj' of his manner, tlie fine intonations in Little Dean Street, Soho,in conjunction 
of his voice, the facility and correctness with an excellent anatomist, the late Mr* 
of his diction, the strain of impassioned Bennett, who had been educated at the 

quencc which oflen burst from him, university of Dublin, but who was net 

174 



ARM ARM 

attached to any recosfnised hospital ot ARMYN, "(Robert,) was ft dramatic 

school, and his friena, Dr. Boott. He author, as weU as a distingmshed actor, 

lectured, however, only during one season belonging to the company licensed by 

at the west end of the town, finding the King James I. on I7th May, 1603, under 

fatigue of delivering two courses beyond Laurence Fletcher and Shakespeare. Ar- 

the power of his frame, which was always myn's name is inserted last but one in the 

to be regarded as delicate. In 1825 nis list of players in that instrument, (Col" 

health had begun to experience disorder ; lier*s Hist, of Dram. Poetr. and the Stage, 

but it was not until three years afterwards i. 348.) That he was a comic actor of 

that any decided disease manifested itself, considerable eminence is proved by the 

when symptoms of pulmonary consump- verses " to honest, gamesome Robin Ar- 

tion became evident, and terminated his myn," in Davies of Hereford's Scourge of 

useful and active life in 1829, in the 46th Folly, and by other pieces of contempo- 

year of his age, leaving behind him a rary evidence. One of these is, Tarlton'8 

wife, three sons, and three daughters. Jests, 1611, 4to, where it is stated that 

In the year previous to his decease he that extraordinarily popular comedian 

commenced a work of which two fasciculi took a fancy to Armyn, adopted him for 

only were published in quarto, entitled, his son, and prophesied that he should 

The Morbid Anatomy of the Bowels, " wear the clown s suit after him." At 

Liver, and Stomach, illustrated by a series this date, (which must have been prior to 

efPlates from Drawings after Nature, with Sept. 1588, when Tarlton died,) Armyii 

Explanatory Letter-press, and a Summary was apprentice to a goldsmith, and met 

of the Sjrmptoms of the Acute and Chronic Tarlton at a tavern in Gracechurch Street, 

Affections of the above-named Organs, whither Armyn had been sent with a biU 

Some of the plates are coloured, and they from his master. He must have joined a 

are faithfully executed. dramatic company soon afterwards, (pro- 

ARMSTRONG, (Sir Thomas,) whose bably at the Curtain Theatre, where Tarl- 

name is much connected with the poUti- ton then chiefly played,) and he was 

cal events of the reign of Charles II., had, living in 1611 ; but considerably before 

in his youth, been a strenuous partisan of this date he seems to have been super* 

the royal cause, and for his intrigues in seded in at least some of his clown's parts 

favour of Charles II. during his exile, by William Kemp, who obtained ereat 

had been imprisoned by Cromwell, and reputation in Much ado about Nothing, 

Ills life placed in danger. In the reign As you like it, &c. (Dyce's Life of Kemp, 

of Charles II. he was a great asserter of prefixed to the reprint of the Nine Days' 

the Protestant principle, and attached Wonder, 1600, for the Camden Society.) 

himself to the fortunes of the duke of Yet in the epistle before his Italian Tauor 

Monmouth. His conduct became at and his Boy, 1609, 4to, Arm3m quotes 

length so obnoxious, that fearing to be Dogberry, as ifhe had known the text from 

taken notice of he fled the kingdom; some recentperformance of the character, 

but, being seized abroad, he was brought Armyn was an author as early as 1590, 

to England, and exectited on the 20th of and at this time we may presume that he 

June, 1684, without, it is said, the form was a favourite actor, and was therefore 

of a trial. It was supposed that he had employed and paid to write a prose ad'* 

a great ascendancy over the duke of dress in commendation of a Bnef Reso- 

Monmouth. lution of Right Religion. Thomas Nash 

ARMSTRONG, (John,) a general mentions him, with Deloney and Stubbs, 
oflScer in the American service, who dis- in his Strange News, 1592, 4to ; but we 
tinguishedhimself inthewars withtheln- do not hear of Armyn again (excepting 
dians, was appointed a brigadier-general in the license of King James) until 1604, 
on the 1st of March, 1776, ( Joum. Cong.) when he wrote a Dedication to Lady Mary 
and took part in the defence of Fort Chandos of a True Discourse of the Prac- 
Moultrie, and in the battle of German- tices of Elizabeth Caldwell. Here he 
town. He resigned his commission in tells us that he was known by the nick- 
1777, through dissatisfaction as to rank, name of Pink, but not how he acquired 
and in 1778 took his seat in congress as it. He adds, that he had been in the ser* 
a delegate from Pennsylvania. In 1787 vice of the husband of the lady he ad- 
he was elected by congress one of the dresses. In 1608 he published A Nest 
judges for the north-western territory, of Ninnies, giving characteristic descrip- 
but declined the honour. (Joum. Cong, tions of various clowns and jesters ; and 
Jan. 22, 1788.) He died at Carlisle on at this date, as we learn from the preli- 
the 9th March, 1795. minary matter to his Italian Tailor and 

175 



ARM A R N 

Ills Boy, before referred to, lie wa« in landic. This translation was published 

want, and ** pleaded poverty with the by bishop Johannes Amaeus, at Copen- 

pen.** This tract is con^ssedly a transla- hagen, in 1731. 

tion in verse from the Italian prose, though ARNAL, (Juan Pedro,) one of the 

Ann}7i docs not mention his author. It most reputed architects of his time, was 

forms, Nov. 5, Night 8, of the Notii of bom at Madrid Nov. 19th, 1735, and was 

Straparola. A dramatic piece by Armyn, sent to study the fine arts at Toulouse, 

called the Two Maids of Moreclacke, where he obtained seven premiums in ar- 

came out in 1609, and on the title-page chitecture, perspective, and drawing. On 

he is said to be *' servant to the Kmg's his return to Madrid he distinguished 

most excellent majesty," as if he still himself in the Academy of S. Fernando, 

continued in the company for which of which he was made a member in 

Shakspeare wrote. To Armyn also is im- 1767, having previously been employed to 

puted, in the Biographia Dramatica, a make drawings of the Arabian antiquities 

play called the Valiant Welshman, printed at Granada and Cordova. In 1774 he 

m 161.5, but only with his initials. When was appointed director, and in 1786 jhto- 

he died is not known. ' fessor of architecture at the academy, 

ARN^US. The name of several emi- which latter office he discharged not only 

nent Icelandic writers and divines. with diligence, but with great liberality, 

1. Amautf or Armeten, (Magnus Jo- bestowing on the library, for the use of 
hanncs,) bishop of Skalholt during the the students, a number of foreign works 
former part or the eighteenth century, on architecture and the fine arts gene- 
He wrote an Icelandic and Latin Lexi- rally, in the history of which he was ex- 
con, which does not appear to have been ceedineiy well versed. Notwithstanding 
printed ; a Latin Icelandic Grammar ; a these donations, he left behind him at his 
Discourse on Tvthes ; and some other death (March 4th, 1805) a very extensive 
theological and feeal works. and choice library of books on art in ya- 

2. AriKBUiy (Johannes,) a magistrate at rious languages. He does not appear to 
Snsefellnes, in Iceland, about the middle have executed anything of importance at 
of the eighteenth century. He wrote, an independent work of architecture, but 
Introductio Ilistorica de tVocessu Juris designed many altars and other decora- 
Islandici, which was published at Soroe tions for various churches at Madrid and 
in 1 762, with additions and remarks by J. elsewhere, among which may be men- 
Ericus ; and Vitse Prscfectorum Islandise, tioned the tabernacle of marbles and 
ab 1202 ad 1683. bronze in the chief chapel oftiie cathedral 

3. Arnau$t or Arnaierij (Jonas,) bishop at Jaen. He also etched a variety of 
of Skalholt, was bom at Dyrefiordcn, in architectural ornaments and compoutioni 
Icelund, in 1665. He studied for two of his own invention. There are abo 
years at Copenhagen ; and, on his return engravings from a series of drawing! by 
to Iceland, was appointed successively him of the mosaic pavements discoverea 
conrector and rector at the school at atRielves, near Toledo, which he was sent 
Ilolum, priest of Stade, and provost in by the king to exan\ine in 1780. 

the district of Strande; afterwards, bishop ARNALD, (Richard,) a learned di- 

of Skalholt. He wrote a Life of his vine, and writer of the eiehteenth cen- 

futhcr-in-law, bishop Einar lliorstenscn, tury, was bom in London, about the year 

and Hcveral devotional works, in prose 1696. He studied in the university of 

and verse. Another writer of this name, Cambridge, where he became a fellow of 

author of on Introduction to the Ancient Emmanuel college, and settied on the 

and Modem Icelandic Course of Plead- rectory of Thurcaston in Leicestershire, 

in^, was provincial judge in the district which was given him by his college. « He 

of Sna>fellne8. had also a prebend in the church of Lin- 

4. Arn/FuXf (Socmundus,) an Icelandic coin; and this seems to have been all the 
autlior, flourishing about the middle of preferment he enjoyed. He printed two 
the seventeenth century, who wrote a copies of sapphics on the Death of King 
series of Chronolopeal Tables, taken from George the First, and several single 
the Serintures and Philo Judauis, which Sermons preached on public occasions; 
were publislied in 1669 by Amas Mag- but what entitles him to a place in a 
niPUH. BiogTa])hical Dictionary is his Com- 

5. Arruruity (Tliorlev,) clergyman at mentary on the Apocryphal Writings, a 
Knlkafell, and prn^poaitus at Kaflafell in book which now usually forms part of the 
Iceland. He translated Amdts Tmc series of Scripture Commentaries, of which 
Christianity, from the Danish into Ice- the otlier portions consist of the works of 

176 



ARN ARN 

Patrick, Lowth, and Whitby. This Com- several of his pictures, the subjects taken 

mentary appeared in separate parts ; the from the life of the patron saint ; and in 

first, which relates only to the Wisdom of the church of Santa Maria de la Mar is a 

Solomon, being published in 1744; the picture of St Peter, to whom angels are 

Commentary on Ecclesiasticus, in 1748; presenting the keys. (Bryan's Diet) 

and that on the other books, in 1752. ARNAUD, a name common among 

He died September 4, 1756. His son, the troubadours or poets of Provence. 

William Arnald, the precentor of Lich- Those most celebrated by their lives or 

field, and a canon of Windsor, was the writings are : — 

sub-preceptor to the prince of Wales and AmaudDaniely a very celebrated trou- 

the duke of York, the sons of king George badour of the twelfth centui^, bom (^ a 

the Third. noble but noor family of Ribeirac in Pe- 

ARNALDI, (Count Eneas,) a Vicentine rigord. His taste for poetry manifested 

noble, bom 1716, who applied himself to itself at an early age, and he is mentioned 

architectural studies, and published a work by Dante and Varchi as one of the first 

on theatres, 4to, Vicenza, 1762, and an- of the poets of Provence. Petrarch extols 

other in 1767 on ancient basilicas gene- him equally: — 

rally, with a particular account of that at « p„ ^^ ^ p^^^ ^^^^^^ Danidlo 

Vicenza called II Palazzo di Ragione. He Gran maestro d'amor, eh'alla raa terra 

professed himself an admirer and follower -^^o' f* ©nor col dir poiito e beiio." 

of Palladio. ^ His first poems were addressed to a lady 

ARNALDO, (Pietro Antonio,) an Ita- of whom he was enamoured, and whose 

lian author, bom 1 638, was an ecclesiastic, name he concealed under that of Cybeme. 

and, besides devotional works, published He afterwards passed over to England, 

some discourses and poetical pieces. (Biog. and was received at the court of Richard I. 

Univ.) Amaud's style of verse and composi- 

ARNALDUS,aFrench monk, who was tion was veiy complicated and difficult 

abbot of Citeux before the year 1202. to understand. A jongleur at the English 

He is famous in history, as being the court challen^d him to a trial of skill, 

chief promoter of the crusade against the and undertook to make more complicated 

Albigenses. His violence and unrelent- and difficult verses. The king gave them 

ing cruelty in that war, merited for him ten days to perform their task. Amaud 

the archbishopric of Narbonne. It was was ill disposed to his work, and when the 

he who, when Beziers was taken, and its day of trial was at hand had done nothing, 

inhabitants massacred indiscriminately, whilst his rival had finished his work on 

being asked by the chiefs of the army the third day, and spent the others in 

how, in the slaughter, they were to dis- committing it to memory. Arnaud one 

tinguish the catholics from the heretics, day listened at his door, and his great 

returned the brutal answer, " Slay them memory enabled him to retain the whole 

all ; God will know his own." A long of the piece which he had heard the 

article is devoted to this prelate by M. jongleur repeat alone. On the appointed 

Daunou, in the Hist. Lit. de France, day, when tney were met before the king, 

xvii. 306 — 334. See also. Hist de la he asked as a favour the permission to 

Croisade, in ProveuQal verse, edited by give his piece first, and he repeated, 

Fauriel, the original historians of the without the sb'^htest omission, wnat he 

Albigensic war in Dom Bouquet, and had heard recited. The jongleur was 

Michelet, Hist de France, tom. i. stupified with amazement ; but when 

ARNALL, (William,) a political writer Araaud confessed the trick, the king was 

of some note during Sir Robert Walpole's highly amused at the incident, ordered 

administration. His principal newspaper them both to withdraw the wager, and 

was the Tme Briton, in which Sir Robert's loaded them with benefits. All Amaud's 

government was supported, for which he poems which have been preserved are of 

is said to have received a pension of 400/. an amorous character : some of them are 

a year. He also published several pam- printed by Ra3mouard. (Hist. Lit. de 

phlets and tracts on subjects of temporary Fr. xv. 434. Raynouard. Millot.) 

mterest. Arnaud de Marveilf a troubadour of 

ARNAU, (Juan, 1595-1693,) a Spanish the same coimtry and age as Amaud 

painter, bom at Barcelona, and scholar Daniel, though of less reputation. Pe- 

of Eugenio Caxes. He painted history, trarchcallshim^ilmenfamosoAmaldo." 

and was chiefly employed for the churches His parents were poor, and he was first 

and convents of his native city. In the designed to be a clerk ; but the love of 

monastery of the Augustines there are poe^ and of wandering prevailed, and 

YOL. n. 177 K 



ARN ARM 

he lived by his talenti mt the courts of whose life we know nothiiig, hot who 
the barons. He is said to have been amo- seems to hare flourished towards the end 
roiu of Adelaide, riscountess of Bezien, of the thirteenth century. There is only 
whose name in his poems he concealed one of his poems pres e rved, which is ex- 
under that of Belvezer, or Belregard ; but tremely curious for the picture it affords 
she turned him off for a nobler suitor, of the manners of his age. (MiUot.) 
Alfonso kine of Castile. He is supposed ARNAUD, (George d',) was bom al 
to have died about the end of the twelfth Franeker, Sept 16, 1711, of French pa- 
century. (Hist. Lit de Fr. xv. 441. rents. When a boy, he distinguished lum- 
Kaynouard, v. 45.) self by his triplication and preoodoos tft- 

Amaud k Catalan^ satirized by the lents. Attheageofl4hebeanneastudeiit 
monk of Montaudon under the name of ofthe university of Franeker, and attended 
Tremoletta, a troubadour of the end of the lectures of Hemsterfauis and Wessel- 
the twelfth and b^inning of the thir- ing. Hisfirstwork(9pec. AninuuLadali- 
teenth centuries. He celebrates as the quot Script. Grsec. Harl. 1728, 8vo^) was 
object of his admiration the well-known published at the suggestion of the former : 
Beatrix of Savoy, married in 1219 to it contains emendations of Anacreon, 
Raimond Beranger, count of Provence, .fschylus, Callimachus, Herodotus, Xeno- 
whom he says that he had previously seen phon, and the metrical treatise of Re- 
in a voyage he made into Lombardy. He phsestion. In two years this was ibllowed 
must have been aged at this time, from by another volume of critical obsenra- 
what the monk of Montaudon says of tions, chiefly on Hesychius, (Lect Onec. 
him. (Hist Lit de Fr. xvii. 573. Ray- lib. iL Hag. 1 730-1 ,) and a dissertation De 
nouard.) Diis Ilapcdpoir, sive Adc e ssoribns et Con- 

Arnaud de Commingeif a troubadour junctis. Has. 1730. D'Anumd origin- 
who flourished in the first half of the thir- ally intended to study for the church, out 
teenth century, and is believed by Millot an affection ofthe lungs having compelled 
to have been a member of the noble him to forego that intention, he applied 
house of Comminees. He is only known himself, by the advice of Hemsterhuis, to 
by one poem, which is a satire upon the the study of civil law, and with that view 
disorders of the time, and appears to be he attended the lectures of Abraham 
directed more particularly against the war Wieling, who was then law professor at 
of the Albigenses. (Raynouard, Choix, Franeker. The result verified the anti- 
v. 29.) cipations of Hemsterhuis. In 1734, when 

Arnaud d EnirevineSy a troubadour of he was a candidate in the faculbr of law, 
the beginning of the tliirtcenth century, he published and defended a thesis, Dc 
believed to have been a member of the Jure Scrvonmi apud R^nnanos. The 
house of Agout, and to have been born in learning and ability displayed in this dis- 
Provence. His fame at present rests upon sertation, which is even now the standard 
a poem addressed to the troubadour Blacas, work on that branch of the law, procured 
part of which is printed by Raynouard. for him the place of law readar aft 

Arnaud Plaauef, a troubadour of the Franeker. D'Amaud's next woik was a 
beginning of the thirteenth century, who miscellaneous collection of obscrvatioiii 
has left two love-songs and a tenson with on various legal topics, ( Var. Lect lib. ii. 
Hugues dc Saint-Cyr. One of his songs Franek. 1738, 4to;) and in the following 
is dedicated to Alfonso IX., king of Cas- year (1739) there appeared a dissertation 
tile, wlio died in 1214 ; and the other on a subject in some degree connected 
conjointly to Eleonore de Castile, queen with that of his thesis, (Diss, de his, qui 
of Arragon, and Beatrix of Savoy, and is Pretii participandi Causa sese venumdari 
therefore to be dated from 1221 to 1223. patiuntur.) Both these works are ap- 

Arnaud de Carcatth, a troubadour, who pcnded to the reprint of the Var. Lect 
is supposed to have died at the return of which appeared at Leeuwarden in 1744. 
tlic last cnisade, and is now only known These works raised D'Amaud's repnta* 
by a spirited talc entitled the Parrot, in tion as a jurist to such a height, that hi 
Pr(>ven9al verse. It is printed by Ray- 1739 the curators of Franeker were in- 
nuuard. duced to appoint him to the law chair, 

Arnaud de CothignaCf or de TintignaCf vacant by M ieling's removal to Utrecht, 
a troubadour of whom very little is known. He did not, however, live long enough to 
but wlio is Hui)posed to have flourished in satisfy the expectations which had been 
the thirteenth century. (Hist. Lit. xix. formed of him, as he died almost before 
699. Uavnouard.) he had been installed in his new ofllce. 

Arnaud dt Afarain, a troubadour, of June 1, 1740. His premature death aioiiey 

178 



ARN AUN 

according to Hanbold, prevented him lids, and the Ineuniblesofthe city of Paris, 

from obtaining a place among the most and ofall the military hospitals in France." 

celebrated jurists of his country, in the In his work he gives a good history of the 

critical department at least of the science, opinions and practice of ancient writers, 

His eulogium was pronounced by his and shows a very particular knowledge 

friend and tutor Hemsterhuis, and is to of all points connected with this disease, 

be found in Hemsterhusii et Valcken. He is the first to describe with accuracy 

Orat. p. 157, Lugd. Bat. 1784, 8vo. A the sjrmptoms of strangulation, and to 

dissertation, entitled Vitse Scsevolorum, remove with success large portions of gan- 

was published after D'Arnaud's death by grened omentum. Amaud was commis- 

Amtzenius, (Utr. 17C7.) The fourth, sioned by the Royal Academy of Surgery 

fifth, and sixth volumes of the Observ. of Paris, in 1740, to compose a memoir 

Miscellan. Amstelod. also contain some on hernia, and a great number of papers 

contributions by D'Amaud. and communications were placed in his 

ARNAUD D£ RONSIL, (George, hands for the purpose. Theu: bulk, how- 
1697-1774,) a celebrated French siurgeon. ever, precluded their insertion in the Me- 
He studied physic and surgery at Mont- moirs of the Academy, and a condensed 
pellierinl719,underChicoyneau,Deidier, account of them is to be found in this 
Astrue, and Soullier ; afterwards at Paris, work. He greatly improved the manu- 
in the Hdpitalde la Charit^,under Gerard; facture of trusses, and had a pension 
and in 1/25 was admitted a master in granted to him by the French government 
surgery. He was subsequently chosen a to supply the army and public hospitals, 
member of the Royal Academy of Sur- 2. Observations on Aneurisms, London^ 
gery of Paris, upon its establishment in 1750-1760, 4to; in French, Paris, 1760, 
1731, and he taught osteology and the 4to. The author gives in the French edi- 
diseases of the bones in the school of St. tion a translation of Dr. William Hunter's 
Cosme in 1736. In this school he sue- paper, contained in the Medical Observa- 
ceeded his father, Paul Roland Amaud, tions and Inquiries, which renders the 
who also delivered lectures on anatomy first account of the aneurismal varix, 
and the operations in surgery at the arising from an injury of the artery pro- 
Royal Garden of Paris. In the library duced by phlebotomy. Amaud invented 
of the Medical Society of London there a machine for pressure in cases of false 
JB a manuscript of the second part of a aneurism, and he admits its inefficiency 
course delivered by him in 1716, which in producing obliteration of the vessel in 
does great credit to his intelligence. From the true aneurism, 
some observations in this volume it ap- 3. A Dissertation on Hermaphrodites, 
pears that he lectured on the operations London, 1750, 4to; in French, 1765, 
in conjunction with the celebrated M. Paris, Svo ; and in German at Strasbourg, 
Duvemey, and was altogether engaged 1777, 4to. This formed the subject of a 
twenty years in teaching his profession. paper read before the Royal Academy 

George Amaud withdrew frx)m Paris of Surgery of Paris, but first printed at 

about the year 1746 or 1747, for reasons London. 

now unknown, and settled in London, 4. A plain and easy Method of curing the 

where he became a member of the cor- Disorders of the Bladder and Urethra, Lon- 

poration of surgeons, and engaged in don, 1754-1763-1769, 12mo; in French, 

practice. He enjoyed much enunence in Amst 1764, 12mo. The edition of 1769 

nis profession, possessed skill and in^e- was a letter addressed to Mr. Goulard, 

nuity, exhibited great industry, and m- taken from the French edition published 

troduced several improvements into the in Holland in 1674. 
practice of surgery. His professional 5. A Discourse on the Importance of 

reading was extensive, and in nis writings Anatomy, London, 1767, 4to. This is 

he quotes largely from preceding writers, printed in English and in French, and 

both ancient and modem. He died Feb. was a public discourse delivered as an 

27, 1774. In the course of his career he introductory lecture in a course before the 

published several works : — corporation of surgeons of London, when 

1. A Dissertation on Hernias, or Run- Amaud had arrived at the age of 70. He 

tures, London, 1748, Svo; in French, Pans, forcibly displays the importance of a 

1749-1754, Svo. The treatment of hernia knowledge of anatomy to all classes, but 

appears to have been in France considered particularly to the surgeon, and he states 

apart from the practice of surgery, and Ar- the following curious circumstance : — ** In 

naud styles himself " Surgeon for ruptures, France, betwixt the years 1 720 and 1 73^ 

of the hospitals of Hdtef Dieu, the Inva- Adelaide of Orleans, princess of the blood, 

179 K 2 



ABK ABN 

avirtuousandgreat scholar in eyeryflcienee of bis talents. His first production of 
and arty was led into the most scrupulous note was his Lettre sur la Musique, an 
details of anatomy by the celebrated Comte de Caylus, 1754, being a pro- 
Winslow. It was a shining epoch, forever spectus of a large work on the music of 
honourable to our art ! — the uncommon tne ancients, which was never completed* 
genius of that princess, enlightened by In concert with M. Suard, he edited, 
me beams of anatomy, induced her to be L'Histoire ancienne des Peuples de I'Eu* 
taught in the performance of the opera- rope, par Du Buat, 1772 ; and assisted in 
tions of surgery by several of the best the Journal Etranger, the Gazette Litt£- 
practitioners in Paris ; and, if I may say raire de I'Europe, Vari6t^ Litt^raires, 
so, I was partaker of that honour with and other works. A maud was a ereat 
them. That genius placed her in so high admirer of the German composer, Guick; 
a degree of skill as to enable her to per- but the compilation entitled, Mteoires 
form, with the greatest dexterity and sue- pour servir k I'Histoire de la Involution 
cess, all the operations on living favourite op^r^e dans la Musique par le Chevalier 
subjects of her own sex, which she would Gluck, 1781, is not by him, but by the 
not trust to any other hand. She had so Abb6 Leblond. (Biog. Univ.) 
much resolution, and was so sure in her ARNAUD, (Fran9ois Thomas Marie 
operations, that she blooded herself with de Baculard d',) a French author, bom 
the greatest safety, though very fat and in 1718. Some early compositions pro- 
difficult to be operated upon." cured for him the notice and assistance 

6. M^moires de Chirurgie, avec quel- of Voltaire, to whom he was the meant 
ques Remarques Historiques sur I'Etat de of introducing Le Kain. Frederick V. 
la M6decine et de la Chirurgie en France invited Amaud to Berlin, and compli- 
et en Angleterre, London, 1768, 2 tom. mented him with the name of his Ovid; 
4to. These volumes contain, among other a distinction which Voltaire thought too 

Eapers, a Memoir of the Life of Dr Wil- great for his prot6g6, and which exposed 
am Hunter, who was then living, and a him to considerable ridicule. He re- 
translation of his celebrated work on con- mained for one year at Berlin, when he 
Senital hernia, illustrated by plates ; a was appointed counsellor of legation al 
iscussion to show that priests afflicted Dresden, but afterwards return^ to Pa- 
with hernia are not to be regarded as im- ris, where he lived for several years. 
perfect, or thereby disqualiiied from per- He was imprisoned during the reign of 
forming the offices of the Roman Catholic terror, and on his liberation suffered con- 
Church ; Observations on Aneurisms ; siderable pecuniary distress. He died in 
a Dissertation on Hermaphrodites; various 1805. The writings of Amaud are very 
papers on different kinos of hernia ; De- numerous, consisting of novels, poems, 
scription of a Chair for the Performance and plays, of which there are two edi* 
of Surreal Operations ; a Speculum Uteri ; tions--one in twenty-four volumes 12mo, 
Memoir on Staphyloma, &c. The spe- and another in twelve volumes Svo* 
culum is an improvement upon that pro- (Biog. Univ. Diet. Hist.) 
posed by Scultetus, ingeniously contrived, ARN AUDIN, a French author, bom 
but too complex in its construction. about 1690, wrote — Refutation par le 

7. Remarks on tlie Composition, Use, Raisonnement du Livre intitull, De 
and Effects of the Extract of Lead of M. I'Action de Dicu sur les Creatures, 1714; 
Goulard, and of his Vegeto-mineral Water, La Vie de Dom Pierre le Nain, Sous- 
London, 1770-1774, 12mo. To this essay prieur de la Trappc, 1715; besides a 
the author has affixed a somewhat sin- translation of the treatise of Cornelius 
gular motto from Borelli — " Plumbi cum Agrippa, De TExcellence des Femmes, 
corpore humano sympathia." The effects 1713. (Biog. Univ. Supp.) 

of this useful preparation are verj' clearly ARNAULD, (Antoine,) eldest son of 

pointed out Amaud was a fellow-student Antoine Amauld, advocate-general to 

with M. Goulard, who was " demonstrator Catherine de Medici, was horn at Paris 

royal " of anatomy in the College of Phy- in 1560. He was made counsellor of 

sicians of Paris, and a man of considerable state by Henry IV., and received the 

cclebritv in his day. daughter of Marion the advocate-general 

ARNAUD, (Francois,) a French au- in marriage, as a mark of his admiration, 

thor, bom in 1721, died in 1784, was an His most celebrated cause was that of 

ecclesiastic, and a member of the Aca- the University of Paris against the Je- 

d6mic Fran9aise. He was a man of suits ; and the speech mane by him, in 

learning and taste, but an indolent dis- favour of the university, has been printed 

position prevented the full development several times. Amaud was besioes the 

180 



ARN ARN 

author of a work against the Jesuits, and made bishop of Angers, and spent tlia 

of some political writings ; and died in remainder of his life in the discbarge <^ 

1619, havmg had twenty-two children by his functions, upon his diocese, ,in the 

his wife Catherine Marion. His integrity practice of the most extensive chari^f 

and modesty were not less conspicuous and active benevolence. On the revolt 

than his talents; and he was so disin- of Aneers in 1652, the bishop procured 

terested, as to refuse the post of secretary firom the queen-mother the pardon of the 

of state, offered to him by Catherine de rebels ; and on the occasion of a great 

Medici, saying, " that he could serve her famine, he secretly employed 10,000 

better as advocate-general." He was so livres in relieving the wants of the peo- 

much respected, that on his death, he pie. His latter days were disturbed by 

lay in state for some time, to give his the Jansenist quarrels. He lost his sight 

countrymen the opportunity of visiting ^ve years before his death, which took 

his remains. (Biog.-Univ.) place in 1692. His Italian diplomatic 

ARNAULD D'ANDILLY, (Robert,) transactions were printed at Paris in 1 748, 

eldest son of the preceding, was bom in and contain many interesting particulars. 

1589, and discharged several important (Biog. Univ.) 

offices with great ability and integrity. ARNAULD, (Antoine,) brother of the 

He was deservedly in great favour at the preceding, and son of Aiitoine Amauld 

court of Paris, which he always employed and Catherine Marion, was bom in 161 2, 

for the best purposes ; and merited what and inherited all his father's animosity to 

Balzac said of nim — " U ne rougit point the Jesuits. He studied theology at the 

des vertus chretiennes, et ne tira point Sorbonne under Lescot, whose doctrine 

vanity des vertus morides." At the age of grace he impugned in his Acte de 

of fifty-five he retired to the monastery Tentation, which he held in 1636. Les- 

of Port Royal des Champs, where he cot's resentment aeainst his pupil was 

occupied the hours not devoted to study implacable, and his mfluence with Riche- 

in the cultivation of fruit-trees. The lieu prevented Amauld from receiving 

aueen, Anne of Austria, always desired his doctor's degree till after the cardinal's 

lat she might be served with Amauld death, in 1641. Two years afterwards 

d'Andilly's fniit, of which he used to send he published his book, De la Fr^quente 

annual presents. He was married to the Communion, which was immediately at* 

daughter of Le Fevre de la Boderie, by tacked by the Jesuits, against whom it 

whom he had three sons and five daugh- seemed to be levelled, with the greatest 

ters. He died in 1674, leaving some vigour ; and it was denounced by them 

translations, several religious works, and as full of pernicious doctrine. The pub 

memoirs of his own life. (Biog. Univ.) lication of this work may be regarded as 

ARNAULD, (Henri,) brother of the an epoch in the history of the Gallican 

preceding, was born in 1597, and was de- church, from the reform effected by it 

stined for the bar ; but on receiving firom in the administration of the sacraments, 

the court the abbey of St Nicholas, ne en- But it exposed Amauld to great perse- 

tered the ecclesiastical state. In 1637 the cution ; and the enmity of his adversaries 

Abb^Amauldwasappointedto the bishop- was increased, after Nouet had been 

ric of Toul, which he declined to accept, m compelled to demand pardon on his knees, 

consequence of disputes between the Icing before the assembled clergy of Paris, for 

and the pope on the right of nomination, calling him an heresiarch worse than 

In 1645 he was despatched to Rome on Luther and Calvin, aritt his followers 

an extraordinary mission, on the occasion bhnd. In the subsequent disputes on 

of the quarrels between the Barberini grace, Amauld warmly espoused the 

and Innocent X. ; and prevented the cause of the Jansenists ; but laid himself 

seizure of the Barberini palace by that open to a formal censure by the Sorbonne. 

Sontiff, by affixing to it the arms of France The duke of Liancourt's grand-daughter 

uring the night, and alleging that it had was receiving education at Port Royal, 

been privately sold to the French monarch, in 1655 ; and the duke was refused abso- 

as had been previously arranged. His lution, after confession to a priest of St. 

negotiation was ultimately successful, and Sulpice, unless he would remove his 

the Barberini family suffered to return daughter, and break off his connexion 

to Rome : they struck a medal in honour with the Jansenists. Amauld, on this, 

of Amauld, and erected a statue to him wrote two letters on behalf of the duke ; 

in the palace, the possession of which the second of them containing two pas- 

they owed to his exertions. On his re- sages, one on grace, the other denying 

turn to France, Arnauld was, in 1649, that the celebrated five propositions of 

181 



ARN ARN 

Jansenius were to be found in his works, nnmeroiu. (Biog. UniT. life In Um 

which were selected for censure by the Lausanne edition oi'his works. Moibeim.) 

Sorbonne. Amauld was excluded by this ARN AULD, ( Antoine,) eldest son of 

sentence from the theological faculty, Robert Amauld d'Andilly, was an aede- 

notwithstanding his protests against the siastic, and assisted his unde, the bishop 

injustice and irregularity of their proceed- of Angers, in the business of his diocese. 

ings, in which seventy-two doctors and His Memoirs were published in 1756 

many bachelors were included besides (Biog. Univ.) 

himself, for refusing to concur in the ARNAULD, (Marie Ang^lique,) sister 
propriety of his condemnation! which was of Antoine Amauld, bom in 1501, was 
moreover proposed as a test to future abbess of the Port Royal des Champs, and 
candidates. Upon this, Amauld retired died in 1661. Her sister Agnes also di- 
for many years to Port Royal, until the rected the affiurs of Port Royal, and died 
conclusion of the Jansenist controversy, in 1671, leaving one or two religiona 
in 1668, by the peace of Clement IX., works. There were four other sisters, all 
when he was presented to Louis XIV., members of the same religious boose, and 
and received by him with great marks of all taking part in the controversy con- 
distinction. Amauld now tumed his ceming grace. Their niece, Ang^liqne de 
controversial powers against the Calvin- St. Jean Amauld,was brought up by them, 
ists, and wrote, in conjunction with and was afterwards abbess. ,8ne died in 
Nicole, La Perp^tuit^ de la Foi, and 1684. (Biog. Univ.) 
other works. But he could not resist ARNAULD, (Antoine,) a French ge- 
the temptation ofrenewing hostilities with neral, (1767 — 1804,) who served in Uie 
his old enemies, the Jesuits — an inclina- invasion of Holland under Pichegni, and 
tion said to have been fostered by Har- distinguished himself in the attack on 
lay, archbishop of Paris, who bore no Baltzeim and at Hohenlinden. (Biog. 
good will to them; and in 1679 Amauld Univ. Suppl.) 

was obliged to quit France, after living ARNAULD,(MarquisdePomponneand 

for some time in concealment and dis- Abb6 de Pomponne.) See PoMFomii. . < 

guise, for which his impetuous and indis- ARNAULT, (Antoine Vincent,) one 

creet temper little fitted him, under the of the omaments of the age of Napoleon, 

Srotection of the duchess of Longueville. was bom in Paris in 1766, and nominated 
[e now lived in obscurity at Brussels, in 1785 secretary of the cabinet of Mm- 
where he continued to indulge liis pole- dame. He made himself known at an 
mical powers ; and, after a life of constant early period by his labours in dramatic 
excitement and exertion, his death in literature, and his first tragedy, Marius 
1694deprivedtheJanseni8ts of their most a Mintumes, represented in 1791, met 
powerful supporter, and the Jesuits of with great success, as well as another 
their most dangerous opponent It is to entitled Lucr^ce. After the 10th Augnaty 
be lamented that the learning and philo- 1 792, he retired, first to England, and 
sophic spirit of Amauld should have been subseouently to Brussels. Having re- 
so entirely occupied in bitter controversial tumea to France, he was arrestea and 
warfare ; but his eager zeal would allow put in prison as an emigrant, bnt the 
of no repose. Nicole, his friend and com- committees declared that the law did not 
panion, as earnest but less impetuous than &pply to such literan' men as the author 
hiinself, once confcKscd to him that he was of Marius. After his release, he devoted 
tired oftheircoii8lantagitation,and wanted himself entirely to literature, and pub- 
rest. " Rest !" said Arnold ; " have we lished several plays. In 1797 he went to 
not eternity to rest in V* Amold, so vio- Italy, where Bonaparte charged him with 
lent in his writingH, possessed manners of organizing the govemment of the Ionian 
great simplicity and gentleness in private Islands. In the former country, at Ve- 
life, and his modesty was remarkahle at nice itself, amid the mins of the institu- 
a time when his reputation was spread tions it refers to, he composed Let 
oyer all Europe. A complete edition of Vciiitiens. In the following year he 
his works, in 45 vols, 4to, was published embarked with the Arm6e de FOrient; 
at Lausanne in 1 777, &c. : they may be but his brother-in-law, Regnaud de St 
classed as follows — 1. Literature and Jean d'Angely, having fallen dangerously 
philosophy, including his lal^urs at Port ill at Malti, Arnault retumed to France, 
Royal. 2. On the controversy concern- but the frigate in which he sailed waa 
ing grace. 3. Writings against the Cal- taken by the English, by whom he waa 
▼inists. 4. Against the JesuiU. 5. His treated with particular kindness. In 
Other theological works, which were 1799 his tragedy, Les Vtoetieni, waa 

1. Oat 



A R N A R N 

represented at Paris, and Arnault nomi- CkdUatune de Nassau, and a number of 

nated a member of the Institute. He essays, are new, and some of the latter 

took some part in the events of the 18th interestine^. The name of Arnault, as a 

Brumaire. He went with Lucien Bona- dramaticfd writer and a public ftmc- 

parte into Spain, and pronounced before tionary, will be always respected in 

the Madrid Academy a discourse, in France. (Eymery, Biog. d'Amault 

which he urged the same intimate con- Michaud. (£uvres d'Amault.) 
nexion between the learned of the two ARNAULT D£ NOBLEVILLE, 

countries, as then existed between (Louis Daniel,) a French physician, bom 

their govemments. On his retmn to 1701, died 1778, was the author of some 

France he was, during eight years, the publications on Natural History, Botany, 

colleague of the famous and learned and Medicine. 

Fourcroy, director-general of public in- ARNAULT DE LA BORIE, (Fran- 

straction. As president of the Institute, 9oi8,) archdeacon and chancellor of the 

he complimented Napoleon on his return university of Bordeaux, died in 1607, 

from the field of Austerlitz. In 1808 he and was the author of Antiquity de P6ri- 

was named secretary-general to the uni- gord, 1577. (Biog. Univ.) 
versity. Arnault was also one of the ARNAyON,(Fran9oi8,)wa8 bom about 

members charged with the preparatory 1740, in the Venaissin district. In 1773 

labours of the DictionnairedeP Academic, he published a discourse against Rous- 

as well as one of those who had to make seau's Contract Social ; and in 1790 was 

the reports of the Institute concerning the deputed to Rome, by the representative 

great prix d^cennaux. After the first and national assembly sittine at Carpen- 

abdication of Napoleon, Arnault went to tras, to obtain the continued annexation 

meet the new king at Compi^gne. Still, of the Venaissin to the papal states. Hia 

he lost all his appointments in January, mbsion was naturally terminated , by the 

1815. Napoleon, more generous, or more reunion of the province to France in 

politic, than Louis XVfll., replaced Ar- 1791, and the Abb6 Amavon never rc- 

nault, at his return from Elba, in his ceived the expenses of his journey ; but in 

former situations, and even added some 1802 he was named titular canon of the 

new ones. Arnault assisted the cere- church of Paris, and devoted himself to 

mony of the Champ de Mai, and was the writing of works on the fountain 

elected member of the Representative of Vaucluse. He died in 1824. (Biog^ 

Chamber. In this quality he was sent to Univ. Suppl.) 

the army as commissary. He was also ARNA i, a miscellaneous French 

one of the members who, finding the writer, who professed the belles-lettret 

doors of the corps legislative shut, and history at the Academy of Lau- 

assembled at Lanjuinais and protested sanne in the middle of the 18th century, 

against this arbitrary act of Napoleon. He has been sometimes confounded vdth 

After the second restoration he lived Simon Auguste d'Amay, or d'Araex, 

away from Paris, or in exile. At the a Swiss, known by several translations 

reorganization of the Institute, his name from German into French. (Biog. Univ. 

was expunged from the list of its mem- Suppl.) 

bers. In 1816 he produced his tragedy ARNDT, (Joh.) bora Dec. 27th, 1555, 
of Germanicus, intended to gain him at Ballenstadt in Anhalt, was a Lutheran 
credit with the new dynasty, but the divine, who distinguished himself by his 
representation gave rise to the most preaching and writings, in which he la- 
violent demonstrations, and a mere play boured to substitute piety and genuine 
assumed really the importance of a state faith for that lifeless theological dogma- 
affair. Its author had, in the mean time, tism and polemical spirit which had so 
contributed also to several periodicals; long been mistaken for religion. His 
and the greatest part of those superior work, entitled Das Wahres Christen thum, 
articles on morals, literature and philoso- has been translated into many languages, 
phy inserted in the Belgian Liberal, from and, among others, into the Russian by 
181C to 1820, are from his pen. After Turgenev, in five volumes, of which the 
he had been permitted to return to France, first edition was published in 1 784, another 
in 1819, he was one of the four editors in 1810. A modernized edition of it 
of the Biographic des Contemporains. appeared in Germany in 1816. Notwithr 
Napoleon left him by his will 100,000 fr. standing his piety, practical as well as 
Between the years 1824 and 1827 he doctrind, — and limited as were his means, 
published a complete edition of his he was most charitable towards the poor^ 
works, in 8 vols, 8vo, amongst which, — he was decried by Osiander and others 

183 



ARN ABN 

as promulj^ating mystical and unsound ercises^'upon a miserable cracked flute ; 

tenets. After being successively preacher and after ne left that place, he has him- 

at QuedUnburgy Brunswick, ana Eisleben, self stated that he was accustomed to bor- 

he was appointed superintendent of the row a livery of a servant, and thus gain 

diocese of Celle, where he died May 11, admittance to the gallery of the Opera 

1621. House, then appropriated to domestics. 

ARNDT, (Johann Gottfried,) born at At home he had contrived to secrete a 

Halle, Jan. 12th, 1713, died at Riga spinet in his room, upon which, when 

Sept 1st, 1767, is a writer who has done the family were asleep, he used to prac- 

very much for the history of Livonia by tise, after muffling the strings with a 

his Lieflands Chronik, Halle, 1747-53, handkerchief. 

which may be considered as the chief At length he was compelled to serve a 
source of our present information relative three years' clerkshi]^ to the law, but 
to the antiqmties and early periods of even during this servitude he dedicated 
that country. It consists of two parts, every moment of leisure he could obtain 
the first of which contains a translation of to the study of music. Besides practising 
Heinrich, a chronicler of the thirteenth upon the spinet, and studying composition 
century ; the other a continuation of it, by himself, he managed even at this 
down to 1561, by Amdt himself; and al- time to acquire some instructions on the 
though a mere chronicle in regard to violin from Festing. Upon this instni- 
style and narrative, the latter has the ment he made sucn progress, that soon 
merit of being trustworthy, because found- after he had quitted his legal master, his 
ed upon a number of curious authentic father, calling accidentally at a gentle- 
documents in his possession, which have man's house in the neighbourhood, was 
since disappeared. astonished to find his son in the act of 

ARNDT, (Christian,) 1623-1683, wrote playing the first fiddle in a musical party. 

Dissertatio de Philosophia Veterum, Ros- Finding it vain to contend against so 

tock, 1650; Discursus Politicusde Prin- powerful an inclination, the faUier per- 

cipiis Constituentibus et Conservantibua mitted him to receive regular musical 

Rempublicam, ib. 1651 ; De vero Usu instrucUon. 

Logices in Theologift, ib. 1650. On discovering that his nster had a 

ARNDT, (Joshua, 1626 1685,) brother sweet-toned voice, he gave her such in- 

of the preceding, whom ho succeeded in strucdon as soon enabled her to sing for 

the chair of logic at Rostock, was a Lu- Lampe in his opera of Amelia ; and find- 

theran divine and ecclesiastical antiquary, ing ner well received, he quickly pre- 

and published many works on philosophy, pared a new character for her by settinf 

history, and controversial divinity, of Addison's opera of Rosamond, m which 

which a list is given by Niceron, vol. xliii. he employea hisyounger brother likewise 

ARNDT, (Charles,) son of the pre- as the page. This musical drama was 

ccding,(1673-1721,)was Hebrew professor first performed, March 7th, 1733, al 

at Rostock, and the author of several the theatre in Lincoln 's-inn Fields. He 

learned works. next composed music for Fielding's Tom 

ARNDT, (Gottfried Augustus,) bom at Thumb, which he got transformed into a 

Breslau, 1748, died in 1819, was professor burlesque opera in the Italian manner, 

in the university of Leipsig, and the and it was performed with great success 

author of several learned historical and at the theatre in the Haymarket, many 

antiquarian works, principally relating to members of the royal family being pre- 

the history of Saxony. (Biog. Univ.) sent on the early nights of its performance. 

ARNE, the name of five persons noted In 1738 Ame established his reputation 

in the musical world. as a lyric and dramatic composer by the 

1. Thomas Augustine y (May 28, 1710 — admirable manner in which he set Mil- 
March 5, 1778,) the most eminent of the ton's Comus. In this he introduced a 
family, a composer and musician, was the lieht, airy, original, and pleasins melody, 
son of an upholsterer in King-street, wnolly different fix)m that of rurcell or 
Covent-^arden, London, at whose house Handel, whom all English coinposers had 
the Indian kings lodged in the reign of hitherto pillaged or imitated. Indeed, the 
^uccn Anne, as mentioned by Addison melody of Ame at this time, (and of his 
in the Spectator, No. 50. He was sent Vauxnall songs afterwards,) forms an era 
to Eton, where he early evinced his pre- in English music ; it was so easy, natural, 

ection for music ; for to the annoyance and agreeable to the whole kingdom, that 

VA his schoolfellows he was constantly it had an effect upon the national taste, 

ig, when not engaged in his ex- In 1740 he set MaUet'a masque of 
184 



ARN ARN 

Alfred, in whicli Rule Britannia is intro- professed imitations of the Scots style ; 
duced — a song and chorus, vhich has but in his other songs he frequently 
been justly said to have wafted the fame dropped into it, perhaps without desiffn* 
of Ame over the greater portion of the Ame was never a close imitator of Handel, 
habitable world. The same year he nor thought, by the votaries of that great 
married Miss Cecilia Young, a vocal musician, to be a sound contrapuntist . . . 
performer of considerable refutation ; In the science of harmony, though he 
and upon her engagement, m 1745, was chiefly self-taught, yet, being a man 
at Vauzhall, he became composer for of genius, quick parts, and great penetra- 
that place of amusement. In 1742 he tion in his art, he betrayed no ignorance 
had visited Ireland, where he remained or want of study in his scores." 
two years, and in 1744 was a second Mr. Hogarth observes, '' His melody is 
time engaged as composer for Drury-lane more uniformly sweet, flowing, and grace- 
Theatre, his previous engagement there ful than that of Purcell ; but he was far 
having been m 1736. In 1759 he was from possessing that illustrious man's 
created a doctor in music by the univer- erandeiu: of conception, deep feeling, and 
sity of Oxford. The opera of Artaxerxes, impassioned energ|y. He never fails to 
the most celebrated of his works, was please, and often charms the hearer ; but 
produced in 1762 ; it is composed in the never dissolves him in tenderness, or 
Italian style of that day, consisting en- rouses him with such spirit-stirring strains 
tirely of recitative, airs, and duets. Its as those of Purcell ;'* and a writer in the 
success was complete, and from that time Musical Review has said, " There was in 
to this it has kept possession of the lyrical Arne's compositions a natural ease and 
stage. The opera of Love in a Village elegance, a flow of melody which stole 
contains many songs by him, and he is upon the senses, and a fulness and variety 
said to have arranged the music for per- in the harinony which satisfied, without 
formance. His latest productions were surprising, the auditor by any new, af- 
the opera of the Fairies, the music to fected, or extraneous modulation. . . . • 
Mason's tragedies of Elfrida fmd Carac- With this composer ended the accession 
tacus, additions to the music of Purcell of new principles to the art of dramatic 
in Kin^ Arthur, songs of Shakspeare, and writing. Whatever of novelty has since 
music for the Stratford Jubilee. His ora- been appended to our musical drama will 
torios were never successful, for it is said not be foimd to suit beyond the original 
his conceptions were not sufficiently great, cast which particular composers have 
nor his learning sufficiently profound, for given to their air or accompaniment, 
that species of composition. He died of Arne's use of instruments was certainly 
a spasmodic complaint, and was buried delicate, but he is neither so scientific nor 
in the church of St. Paul, Covent-garden. powerful as later composers." The same 
He had been educated in the tenets of writer objects to the instruments in some 
the Roman-catholic church, and though of the airs of Ame beins in unison with 
he had neglected his religious duties, he the voice, as it adds nothing to the bar- 
was on his death-bed stronely aroused to mony, whilst it hazards, from many cir- 
a sense of his situation, and, sending for cumstances, the breaking of the accord, 
a priest, died in a devout and penitent and so interrupting the effect. The date 
state of mind. It is said he sang a " hal- of his birth is by some said to have been 
lelujah" about an hour before he expired, about the year 1704, but 1710 seems to 

The only productions of Ame which be the correct period, 

had decided and unequivocal success were 2. Cecilia^ the wife of Dr. Ame, as 

Comus and Artaxerxes, which were pro- mentioned above. She was a pupil of Ge- 

duced twenty-four years from each otner, miniani, and sang for the first time in public 

though of nearly one hundred and fifty at Dmry-lane in 1780, and was consi- 

musical pieces brought on the stage at the dered tne first English female singer of 

two theatres, firom the time of ms com- her time. She died about 1795. 

posing Rosamond to his decease, a period 3. Michael^ son of Dr. Arne, was bom 

of litUe more than forty years, thurty of about the year 1740, and was brought up 

them at least were set by him. by his aunt, Mrs. Gibber. He showed so 

Dr. Bumey says of his style, — " The early a genius for music, that at ten or 

general melody of our countryman, if eleven years of age he was able to play on 

analyzed, would perhaps appear to be the harpsichord all the lessons of Handel 

neither Italian nor English, but an agree- and Scarlatti with great correctness and 

able mixture of Itauan, English, and rapidity, and it was thought that even 

Scots. Many of his ballads, inaeed, were then he could play at sight as well as any 

185 



ARN ARN 

performer living. In 1764, in conjunction other works on Greenland. He left in 

with Mr. Battishill) he produced at Drury- MS. Historia Norve^ca Historia lonis 

lane Theatre the opera of Alcmcna ; but Bergensium, which is in the Royal Li- 

it was not very successful. He afterwards brary at Paris. He died at the age of 

produced at the King's Theatre the opera ninety- five, having married a young wife 

of Cymon, from which he derived both at ninety-one. 

profit and fame. A short time subse- ARNGRIM, (Vidalin,) a grandson of 
quently he became a convert to the ridi- the preceding, died in 1704. He pre- 
culous folly of those who believe in the sented to the Danish government, an 
transmutation of metals and the philoso- Essav on the Discovery of Greenland, 
pher's stone ; but after having thus spent which was never printed, 
all his money, he had sufficient wis- ARNGRIMSEN, (TorchiUus,) bom at 
dom to resume his professional duties, Melstad, where his father Antrim Jo- 
and composed music for Covent-garden, nasen was priest. He translated Thomas 
Vauxhall, and Ranelagh. As a composer, k Kempis de Imitatione Christi into Ice- 
Michael did not possess that happy taste landic. 

nor that power of writing beautiful me- ARNIGIO, (Bartolomeo,) an Italian 

lody, which were so conspicuous in his physician and poet,the son of a blacksmith 

father ; yet there is a certain good sense of Brescia, with whom he worked till bis 

which pervades all his works, though it eighteenth year, was bom in 1523. His 

must at the same time be observed, that talents were discovered, and he was sent 

if some of them were less complex, they to the university of Padua by some fifiends; 

would perhaps be more pleasing. Upon and on returning to Brescia he was intro- 

the whole, however, his merits very justly duced to practice as a physician under 

entitle him to a high and distinguished the patronage of Conforto ; but he was 

rank amongst English composers. oblieed to fly for his life in consequence 

4. Susannah Maria, the sister of Dr. of tne fatal results of some dangerous 

Ame, spoken of in his Life, for whom see experiments upon his patients. After this 

Gibber. he gave up the profession of medicin^ 

The foregoing articles have been com- and cultivated literature and his poetical 

piled from Bumey's History of Music, talents. He died in 1577, leaving some 

vol. iv.. Musical Biography, Dictionary of poetical and other writings. (Biog. Univ. 

Musicians, Rees's Cyclop, article Arne, Mazzuchelli.) 

and Hogarth's Musical History, &c, ; and ARNIM, (Ludwig Achim,) a popular 

Memoirs of the Musical Drama, by the and original German writer, bom at oerlin 

same author. Jan. 23, 1781, applied himself at first to 

• ARN EM ANN, (Justinian,) a physician physics and natural history, and in 1799 

of Lunenburg, bom 1763, died 1807, was pubUshed his Theorie der Electrischen 

the author of several works on medicine Erscheinungen, which excited the atten- 

and physiology, especially that of the tionof the leamed world; a singular d^bul 

nervous system, all published at Gottin- with his pen for one who afterwards dis- 

gen from 1785 to 1801. He committed tinguished himself by works of fiction and 

suicide. (Biog. Univ. Suppl.) the productions of nis inventive faxkcy, 

ARNGRIM, (Jonasen,) an Icelander, among the earliest of which was his Arieis 

who studied under Tycho Brahe, and was Ofienbaruneen, 1804. The popular poetiy 

afterwards priest at Melstadt, and coad- and poetical traditions of his countrymen 

jutor of the archbishojiric of Hola in next engaged his attention; and in 1806 

Iceland. He had the offer of a bishop- he published Des Knaben Wunderhom, 

ric, which, however, he refused, saying a collection of ballads and other pieces, in 

that the king must offer this dignity to three volumes. In 1809 he produced a 

some one who had less love of study than series of novellettes and tales, and another 

he. He wrote several works descriptive of legends, &c., under the title of Trost 

of Iceland, one of which was an abndge- der Einsinkeit, and in the following year 

ment (anatome) of a work by Dithmar his History ofthe Countess Dolores, a work 

Blefkenius ; Epistola pro Patria Defen« that obtained the notice of Jean Paul, by 

soria ; two works on the Runic Letters, whom it was praised as being the most 

and the Northern Divinities ; and a work interesting of its class, and in some parts 

on Greenland, in Latin, of which the unrivalled. In his Halle und Jerusalem, 

oriirinal was never printed; an Icelandic 1811, and his Schaubuhne, or dramatic 

tion appeared at Skalholt in 1688, pieces, 1813, his humour is somewhat too 

» German one at Copenhagen in unrestrained and powerful at times. Of 

t to which latter were appended some the same date as the former of these pub- 

186 



A E N A R N 

liettkms is a rery interesting series of his- and Thurn ; stilli however, mistrusted by 
torical tales and narratives by him. In the allies. It was said that some severe 
1817 appeared the first part of his Kronen- words, which fell from Gustaviu Adol- 
wachter, *a romance, (never completed,) phus, had embittered him against that 
where he gives an animated picture of the king and the protestant cause, and corn- 
times of the emperor Maximilian. Several bined with his former devotion to Wal- 
other productions by him — among others, lenstein to induce him to betray the 
his dramatic poem entitled Die Gleichen interests of his own party. A brilliant 
—attest both the power and the fertility victory which he gained over the impe- 
of his imagination. During the latter rial troops at Liegnitz contributed to 
period of his life he resided alternately at produce a more favourable judgment of 
Berlin and on his estate at Wiepersdorf, his fidelity ; but on the occasion of the 
where he died Jan. 2l8t, 1831. peace of Prague, conceiving that his in- 
All Amim's writings display no ordi- terests had not been sufficiently respected, 
nary talent, great power of fancy and he withdrew from the elector's service, 
imagination, humour and feeling ; but at and retired to his family seat in Uker- 
the same time many, particularly his ear- mark. Here he was seized, in 1637, and 
lier ones, are disfigured by carelessness imprisoned, first at Stettin, and after- 
of execution, and by mucn that is dis- wards at Stockholm, by order of the king 
agreeably fantastic and capricious. of Sweden, on suspicion of plotting against 
ARNIM, (Johann Georg von,) more him ; he escaped, however, the following 
commonly written Amheim, was bom year during a festival, when the vigilance 
at Boizenburg in Ukermark, in 1581, of his guards was relaxed by the license 
and descended from a noble family of the occasion ; and after lying con- 
which had been established for more cealed for some time, he ^am entered 
than six hundred years in the March of the service of the elector of Saxony, then 
Brandenburg. His first military service in alliance with the emperor, and died at 
was in the Polish army, but afterwards Dresden in 1641, at the time when he 
he entered into that of Sweden, where he was engaged in endeavouring to levy a 
served under the famous Gustavus Adol- new army. He was distinguished by 
phus. In 1626 he entered the imperial extraordinary energy and activity, and 
service, under the auspices of Wallenstein, by temperance so remarkable, that it 
and soon acquired the esteem of that procured him the sobriquet of the " Lu- 
general, a feeling which he retained theran Capuchin." He was distinguished 
through his whole life, and which laid for diplomatic, as well as military talent ; 
him open to the suspicion of collusion was frequently employed in negotiations ; 
with nis former commander, when a and when the news of his deatn came to 
change of service had imposed upon him cardinal Richelieu, he declared that the 
duties incompatible with such an under- worid had lost a cardinal as subtle, and 
standing. In 1627 he was made field- as ^fled for the management of affairs of 
marshal, and in 1628 besieged Stralsund pohcy, as the court of Rome could have 
— an attempt in which he was unsuccess- made. 

ful. In 1629 he commanded the de- ARNIM, (Georg Abraham von,) ge- 

tachment sent to the assistance of the neral field-marshal in the Prussian ser- 

Poles against the Swedes; but ouarrels vice, was bom in 1651, at Boizenburg in 

arising between him and the Polish gene- Ukermark. He served as a soldier from 

rals led to his recall by the emperor, and his sixteenth year, was present at the 

ultimately induced him to leave the im- most important actions fought during his 

perial service for that of the elector of life, and had the command of the army 

Saxony, under whom he commanded at of eight thousand Brandenburgers sta- 

the battle of Leipsic, in 1631. He after- tioned in Italy, during the war of the 

wards led a part of the electorial army Spanish succession, in 1709. His last 

into Bohemia, and took Prague, Egra, expedition was the taking of the island 

and EUenbogen, but was obliged by of Wollin in 1715, after which he retired 

Wallenstein to abandon his conquests;' from the army. He died in 1734, after 

and it was on the occasion of this repulse having had an honourable share in 

that the suspicions of his secret corre- twenty-five battles and seventeen sieges, 
spondence with that general were ex- ARNIS^US, (Henningus,) born at 

pressed, alluded to in the beginning of Schlansted, near Halberstad, was doctor 

this account. He afterwards conducted of medicine, and professor of morals at 

the war in Silesia for some years, in con- Frankfort on the Oder, and aft^wards 

junction with the Swedish generalsDuval professor of medicine at Helmstadt. This 

187 



ARN ARN 

latter university owes to him the founda- lished at Rome (1542-3), under the title 

tion of a hotanic garden, a chemical of Amobii Disputationum ad versus Gentes 

laboratory, and a series of anatomical libri viii. Roms. Fr. Priscianensis. The 

drawings, consisting of twenty-five plates, number of books here mentioned is made 

and representing the muscles ox their up by the addition of the Octavius of 

natural size and colour. These were still Minutius Felix, as an eighth. This was 

to be seen in the time of Haller. In 1630 followed by many editions, of various 

he left the university to fill the place of degrees of merit, (see Fabricius, Bib. 

court-physician, to which he was an- Lat ii. 289. Dupin, Bibl. des Auteurs 

pointed by Christiem IV. of Denmark, Eccl^siastiques, i. 203.) This is the only 

and died at Fredricksborg in 1636. His remaining work of .^nobius. A Com- 

works are numerous, and on various sub- mentary on the Psalms, and a dispute 

jects ; comprehending, besides several between Serapion and Arnobius, De Deo 

medical treatises, essays on metaphysical, Trino et Uno, which have been ascribed 

political, and theological topics. to him, are now decided to be the pro- 

ARNKIEL, (Trogillus,) a Lutheran ductions of the younger Arnobius. 
theologian, born at Tollstedt in Holstein, ARNOBIUS, of Gatxl, was a Semi- 
was pastor in the church at Appenrade. Pelagian writer, about the year 460, and 
He wrote a treatise on the philosophy author of a Commentary on the Psalms, 
and school of Epicurus ; The Cimbrian which has been frequency printed. It is 
Danish Church History ; and several not a work of merit, but obtained repvt- 
other works, most of which are of a devo- tation by being mistaken for the produc- 
tional tendency, and several of them in tion of the elder Arnobius. 
verse. He died in 1713. ARNOLD, of Brescia, was one of 

ARNOBIUS, (the elder, or African,) those who, long prior to Luther and the 

was a teacher of rhetoric at Sicca, a town reformation, attempted to correct the 

of Numidia, in the reie^ of Diocletian, abuses and corruptions which had intro* 

His great work is a Dook against the duced themselves intoChristianity, through 

Gentiles, which was written at the time the principles and practice established by 

when he was a candidate for admission the Romish church, and through the 

into the christian church, and before he policy of papal domination. Attracted to 

was enrolled among its members. Of Paris by the fame of his celebrated con- 

this work, which consists of seven books, temporary Abelard, he found in him a 

the first two are a defence of the christian teacher, whose acuteness as well as elo- 

religion against the charges of the Gen- quence instilled into him opinions and 

tiles, and a defence of the Deity and views not at all favourable to the existing 

Divine Mission of Jesus Christ. The state of things in the church; and he 

three next following are directed against returned to Brescia, to become a servant 

the errors of Paganism ; and the last two, of the church, in order that by his preach- 

a justification of the Christians for aban- ing he might the better disseminate hia 

doning the pomp and luxury of temples, doctrines among the people, and convince 

sacrifices, and altars, in use among the them how greatly the religion of the gos- 

Pagans. He appears to have uiown pel had been perverted, tiu it was become 

nothing of the Old Testament ; and of merely a system of worldly policy and 

the New, only the history of Christ, ambition. Eloauent, earnest, enthu- 

unless we suppose that he purposely siastic, he inveighed unsparingly against 

omits any allusion to the contents of the the prevalent reugious errors and corrup- 

rest of the holy Scriptures, as being works tions in such manner as to excite general 

unknown to those for whom he wrote, attention, admiration of his fearless 

On the other hand, he shows great ac- boldness, and in many instances convic- 

quaintance with Greek and Roman writers, tion also. ITiat his doctrines were highly 

many of w^om he cites by name ; con- unpalatable to the clergy, and all orders 

siderable knowledge of the christian of religious, may easily be conceived 

apologists — Justin and Clemens Alex- when we find that he strenuously opposed 

andrinus, for instance ; and in the books the temporal power claimed by the popes, 

devoted to the attack upon the doctrines declaring it to be utterly at variance with 

of Paganism, he exhibits an extensive the gospel, and in contradiction to the de- 

mythological knowledge, and quotes, for claration of Christ himself, that his king- 

the purpose of giving them a philoso- dom is not of this world ; and further 

'flal explanation, many myths wnich are contended that ecclesiastics ought not to 

Hnr to be found in any other writer, possess temporal dignities and authority, 

t edition of this work was pu)}- principalities and revenues ; but that 
188 



ARN ARK 

ihey, and all other servants of the church, gaining over numerous proselytes, who 
ought to imitate the anostles, hoth in were distinguished by the name of Ar- 
povert)r and in zeal, edifying the people noldists. At length, through the insti- 
oy their example, and by the purity of gation of Bernard, the pope (Innocent 
their lives, no less than by their exhor- II.) excommunicated him and his fol- 
iations and doctrines. No wonder that lowers. But at this juncture, serious 
such opinions were held to be exceedingly popiilar tumults took place in Rome 
dangeroMf and fraught with the most itself; whether the doctrines that had 
abominable heresy, or that measures were been freely promulgated in Switzerland 
taken to prevent the promulgation of had any share in influencing the Romans 
them ; a pretext for doing which was is uncertain, but the latter determined to 
afforded by his having also attacked the abridge the power of the church ; to 
doctrines of the church in regard to the compel the pope to renounce all secular 
eucharist and baptism. The severity of authority ; seized upon the capital, and 
his morals, whicn formed so striking a elected, by the name of a patrician, a 
contrast to the lax and often scandalously chief mamstrate for themselves and their 
licentious conduct of the clergy, gave new repimlic. On hearing of this, Arnold 
additional weight to his eloquence and forthwith hastened to Rome, where every- 
arguments. His followers increased, and thins seemed to second his designs. At 
the laity began openly to murmur against the head of anned soldiers the pope en- 
the ecclesiastical order and the monks, deavoured to expel the new senate from 
The bishop of Brescia applied to the the capital, but was repulsed, and so 
pope to silence Arnold, who having good severely wounded by stones, that he 
reason perhaps to apprehend that his shortly after died. His successor £u* 
enemies would not stop there, quitted genius III. was no sooner elected, 
Italy, (1139,) and went to his friend than he made his escape from the city, 
Abelard ; and afterwards sought an asy- accompanied by several cardinals. Ar- 
lum at Zurich, where he was received nold was now looked up to by the people 
with much friendliness and respect. In as their director and adviser : imfortu* 
Switzerland, his doctrines made many nately, however, instead of exhorting 
converts, and were patiently listened to them to moderation and discretion, he 
by the bishop of Constance and the eloquently depicted the tyranny they had 
pope's legate, two individuals who could submitted to, the insolence of ecclesi- 
not have been inclined towards them by astical power, and the advantages of 
their prejudices or their interests. regenerating a republic similar to that of 
On the other hand, he had now to en- the ancient Romans. He perceived his 
counter formidable opposition from St. indiscretion when he founa what effect 
Bernard, abbot of Clairvaux, a man of his counsels had ; for the people began to 
the highest character both for his abilities commit the wildest excesses, pulling 
and the sanctity of his morals, but also down the palaces of cardinals and nobles, 
inordinately ambitious. His personal and maltreating many of the former, 
character, and that of Arnold, would at The pope now excommunicated the se- 
first sight appear to have been nearly nate and its adherents, and threatened to 
similar, each being distinguished by his lay the whole city under ban ; wherefore 
self-denial, and the patient exercise of as the inhabitants feared to brave the spiri- 
poverty ; yet widely different were their tual terrors of the church, or to withm-aw 
principles and motives — for what the their allegiance from it, notwithstanding 
former gladly renounced for himself, their outcry against its tyranny, they sul^ 
he claimed for the church ; whereas the mitted, and Eugenius entered the city in 
Brescian reformer maintained that wealth triumph, on Christmas-day, 1145: but 
tended only to corrupt the church, and only to escape from it again as a fugitive 
to render it spiritually poor. While Ber- to France in the following year, 
nard neglected nothing that could pro- Aware of the instability of their new 
mote the aggrandizement of the church government, the Romans invited first the 
and its hierarchy, Arnold laboured to German emperor Conrad, afterwards his 
reduce both to the simplicity of primitive successor Frederic I. (Barbarossa), to 
Christianity. Notwithstanding the per- become their sovereign, but the latter 
secution he had to endure from Bernard, mistrusted their flattering promises, and 
who was not sparing of his reproaches was fearful that the principles of demo- 
towards the bishop ot Constance, and the cracy, which, aided by Arnold's doctrines, 
legate, Arnold continued to preach with- had spread greatly in Lombardy, would 
out interruption at Zurich, until 1144, thwart his views of obtaining uxilimited 

189 



ARX ASK 




In tke iwiipMf he 
BHK&e prvpomtMiiH i^r an expe^taoo into 
luij. a»i iiad aa iactcrrierr vith Eo- 
ircnioi 22 CcAstanee. at v^seh the latter 

gained him oxer to lui TJm. prnmisiig are fwumfitrJ . in £reet oppiflidao to 

to fa|)rpcvt tiie emperor as th± faxtfafbl viD: aad tktt the pitjutt caaditiaB af 

MO afkd pnyCecior of tLe eborck. oa cod- Ae wocid, aad tke pmutt Hateaf tbc 

ditzon of hb ndadng the TtAmctarj Bo- dnsch, are foch aa Inmo jwilaliij can 

mans to their aOeguaice to the fpirhaal be in atundm ce vitk Ini wflL" ** He 

head of h. Enarenios, hoverer, did not vfaom an intwitj l roicc lids go fwtk 

lire to receire Frederic at Rome, neither and preach the tnidi. k bonnd to da ao 

did hij immediate foecesor Anaitasini. amhrinkingiT, Aoo^ certain of 

It was referred for Adrian IV. to crown dom : not tint he onght to 

Frederic in Sc Peter a ; hot as the dom, hot if diere is no odic 

emperor had rejected the orertnres made tar him hot to meet death, or to 

to nim by the senate, who propoacd that the trath, he ongbt not to hcatate to 

he should release the repoblic from the prefer the Ibrmcr." On his ntterii^ tiieae 

authority claimed by the pope, the cere- words, the aadnea ^at hithcito flurkad 

mony was performed in great haste, and his features and demeanour gate niaee 

before the mhabitants were aware of the to sii i ipn niiwi iif iiiiiiiiphinf jojfnIniM 

proceedings, which were followed by a Early on the following nwmiag* be was 

severe combat between the citizens and oonmicted to the stake, before the Porta 

the German soldiery, and the former del Popolo, and checrfuDy anboutted to 

were compelled to retreat after losing his pamfol death, breakii^ out into a 

nearly a thousand slain, and two hundred hjrmn, while the flames were kindltng 

prisoners. AAer the emperor's depar- round him. His ashes were immediatdy 

ture, (1153,) instead of complying with flung into the Tiber, kat die peopw 

the demand of the people to acknowledge shomd honour them as thoae of a martyr, 

the republican government, Adrian com- ARNOLD, a Yandois, who haa bMn 

manded that Arnold should immediately fi^uently confounded with Arnold of 

quit the city ; his followers and adhe- Brescia. He took refuge among the AI- 

rents, however, reitbted, and in their bigenses in the town cf Alby, towards 

violence, attacked one of the cardinals, the end of the twelfth century, and was a 

and mortally wounded him. Upon this, zealous advocate of that sect. (Hiit. Lit. 

Adrian did what none of his predecessors de Fr. xv. 504.) 

hafl ventured to do — placed the papal ARNOLD, archbishop and elector of 

city under interdict, nor did he remove Mayence, was elected in 1153. He vaa 

it, until assured that the man whom he massacred by the people of Mayence, 

regarded as the instigator of this sedition who rose against him ; for which the d^ 

and disobedience had actually quitted its was destroved by the emperor Frwierie 1. 

walla. (Biog. Univ.) 

Arnold took refuge in the castle of a ARNOLD, (Strutthan von Winekel- 

nobleman in Campania, but the latter ried,) one of the heroes of Swtas inda* 

was compelled by the emperor to give pendence. Although Muller caUs him a 

him up, and he was sent prisoner to the knight, he seems to have been only a 

cantle of St. Angelo of Rome, the gover- simple peasant, of the canton of Unter- 

nor of which was one of bis personal walden; who, by his devotion to hit 

cneinicM. Me waM now completely in the country, has merited the title of the 

power of tliOHO who were ctetcrmined to Decius of Switzerland. When the Au»- 

get rid cif liiin with as little delay as pos- trians, in junction with the nobles of 

sible. IliH trial (1155) waa conducted with Switzerland, prepared to destroy the 

litlli* form, or rather only with the mere liberty of the Swiss in 1386, Leopold, 

foriiiN nccefiMarv to give the nentence the duke of Austria, had assembled his army, 

Appearance of being a judicial one. consisting of four thousand men, mostly 

ill? wan, however, permitted to address nobles, and splendidly armed, under the 

the aHHemhly, it bein^ expected by some walls of Sempach, in the canton of Lu- 

that he would n>tract bin opinions. Af^cr ceme. The Swiss, in numbers only one 

chari^int^ bin opponents with pervert- thousand four hundred, and badly armed, 

ing both religiouH and civil government were met to defend their country ; they 

to their own purposes and ambitious advanced, in the form of a wedge, upon 

views, he added : " that God governs the Austrians, who had detcen£d from 

ftnd directs the world, I know well, but their horses and covered themaehrea bjr • 

190 



ARN ARN 

wall, as it were, of shields. When the from all taxes. Anumber of his obserra^ 
Swiss approached nearer to their enemies, tions and calculations were printed in the 
they were staggered by the impenetrable Leipsi^ Acta Eniditorum. He also pub • 
front which was presented to them, and lished m 1692 a quarto volume, entitled, 
were on the pomt of retiring, when Gottliche Gnadenzeichen in einem Son- 
Arnold moved forward, and cried, " I nenwunder. The observatory which he 
will break you a way ; take care of my erected on the top of his house remained 
wife and children, and remember my till 1794, when it was found necessary to 
lineage 1" He rushed forward, seized take it down. 

as many as he could of the spears which ARNOLD, (Godfrey,) a Lutheran di- 

were pointed against his friends, and vine, and historiographer to Frederic I. 

receivmg them into his breast, bore down king of Prussia, was bom in 1665. He 

in his fall the Austrians who held them, was a man of considerable learning ; but 

The Swiss rushed over hb body, and in his Ecclesiastical History and other 

broke into their enemies' ranks ; and the works, placed all religion in the existence 

latter were thrown into confusion, and of internal emotions, after the fashion of 

many of them, without even being the mystical divines ; opinions of which 

wounded, were suffocated in their armour, he is said to have repented before his 

The peasants now hastened from the sur- death, which took place in 1714. His 

rounding forests, and joined their coun- life waswritten by himself (Leipsig, 1716), 

trymen in slaughtering the Austrians. and by Colerus (Wittenb. 1718.) (Biog. 

Leopold, with most of his noblest soldiers, Univ. Mosheim.) 

were slain ; and the independence of ARNOLD, (George Daniel,) bom at 

Switzerland was secured. In the arsenal Strasburg, 1780, after studying at the 

of Lucerne they still show the large academy of that city, passed two yean at 

quantity of cords which the Austrians had Gottingen, where he attended the lecturei 

brought to fetter the Swiss. The lineage of Meister, Huffo, and Martens, and took 

of Arnold has long been extinct. (MUller. his degree as doctor of laws. He then 

Mallet, Hist, de la Suisse.) visited Paris, where his talents obtained 

ARNOLD, (Heinrich,) a native of for him the notice of many distinguished 

Courland, who translated David Chytrseus' characters of the day. In 1806 he be* 

work De Statu Ecclesise Grsecse, into Ger- came professor of civil law in the school 

man, under the title of Was zu dieser of jurisprudence at Coblentz, and after^ 

Zeit in Griechenland, Asicn, Africa, &c, wards professor of history at the academy 

der Christlichen Kirchen Zustand sey ; of Strasburg, where he also gave lectuiei 

1581 . upon Roman law, and on the history of na- 

ARNOLD,(Nicholas,) professor of divi- tional and commercial law'. On the death of 

nity at Franeker, was bom at Lesna professor Hermann he was made dean of 

in Poland, in 1618. His works are the faculty of jurisprudence, in 1820. In 

very numerous, and were written princi- 181 2 he published his Elementa Juris Civi- 

pally against the tenets of Socinus, which lis Justinianei cum Codice Napoleoneo et 

had been widely spread in Poland. He reliquis Legum Codicibus coUati. But 

died in 1680. His son, Michael Arnold, he did not confine his pen to professional 

who died at Haerlem in 1738, was author topics ; for, besides a collection of poemsi 

of one or two religious pieces. (Biog. he produced a comedy entitled, Der 

Univ.) Pfingstmontag. Of this piece, which is 

ARNOLD, (Christopher, 1627— 1656,) written in the Strasburg dialect, and in 

a learned philologist, was bom at Nurem- Alexandrine verse, Goethe has given a 

berg, where he was professor of history, minute analysis, and spoken at some length 

rhetoric, and poetry, and was the author in his Kunst und Alterthum, not without 

of several works. (Biog. Univ.) commendation of its merits as a drama, 

ARNOLD, (Christopher, 1646 — 1695,) and its interest as a literary curiosity, 

a peasant, born at Sommerfield, near Arnold died at Strasburg in 1828. 

Leipsig, who made such proficiency in ARNOLD, (Richard,) the publisher of 

astronomical studies, wherein he was his Tlie names of the bailiffs, custoae8,mayor8, 

own teacher, that many men of learning and sheriffs of the city of London, from 

entered into correspondence with him. the time of king Richard I. ; of which 

It was he who first discovered the comets the first edition is said to have been 

of the years 1683 and 1686; and his ob- printed in 1502. A second edition ap- 

servations on the transit of Mercury in peared in 1521; and there is a third edition 

1690, were rewarded by the senate of printed not long after that year. These 

Leipsig by a sum of money and a release are books of great rarityi and have b 

191 



ARN ARK 

described by bibliographical critics, as by the Prodigal Son; and in 1777, by tbe 

Oldys in the British Librarian, by Ames, Resurrection. He bad, however, in 1769, 

and in the Censura Literaria. The prices purchased Marylebone-j^dens, for which 

at which they have been sold are high, ne composed the music of several bur- 

But in 1811 there was published in Lon- lettas ; out by this speculation he ulti- 

don a reprint of the first edition, with the mately lost a considerable sum of money, 

additions of the second, vrith a valuable In 1771, he married the only daughter of 

introduction, under the title of The Cus- Dr. Nanier. 

tomsofLondon, otherwise called, Arnold's Of all his oratorios, the sacred drama 

Chronicle. of the Prodigal Son was the most famous. 

It is not to be understood that this book In 1773, it was performed, with his per- 
is a mere dry list of the names of persons mission, at the instalment of lord North, 
who filled the higher offices in the city of as chancellor of the university of Oxford. 
London, there being much historical mat- In consequence of his ready compliance, 
ter interwoven, in the manner of the he was offered the honorary decree of 
City and Borough Chronicles, of which doctor in music in the Uieatre, but he 
there are several printed or remaining in preferred the academical mode of obtain- 
manuscript, as of Coventry, Chester, ing it ; and agreeably to the statutes of 
Doncaster. The foundation of Arnold's the university, he received it in the 
Chronicle appears to be the manuscript school-room, where he performed, as an 
now remaining in the office of the town exercise, Hughes's poem on the Power of 
clerk of the city of London, and there Music. 

known as the Liber de Antiquis Legibus. On the death of Dr. Nares, in 1783, 
But Arnold has introduced much other Dr. Arnold was appointed his successor 
matter having no connexion with the as organist and composer to the Chapels 
principal subject of his work, and amongst Royal. In the following year he was 
this miscellaneous matter is the well- nominated one of the sub-directors of 
known ballad or popular poem of the the Commemoration of Handel, in West- 
Nut-brown Maid. minster abbey. 

There was an Arnold a painter in the In 1786, at the particular desire of his 

reign of Elizabeth, who is named by Majestv, he undertook to superintend 

Meres in 1598 : and in 1616 there is the publication of a magnificent edition 

prefixed to a treatise on painting the face, of all the works of Handel in score, 

a translation fVom the Spanish of Dr. of which he completed thirty-six folio 

Andreas dc Laguna, by Mrs. Elizabeth volumes. He also published, about the 

Arnold. same time, four volumes of ciUhedni 

ARNOLD, (Samuel, Aug. 10, 1740 — music, intended as a continuation of Dr. 
Oct. 22, 1802,) an English musical com- Boyce's work; three of the volumes ar« 
poser of much eminence, was the son of in score for the voices, and one for the 
naron Arnold, and was bom in London, organ. In 1789, he was appointed con- 
He received the rudiments of his musical ductor of the Academv of Ancient Music, 
education under Mr. Gates, the master of an office which he held to the time of his 
the children in the Chapel Roval, St. death. In 1796, he succeeded Dr. Hayes, 
James's, and completed it under Dr. as conductor of the annual performances 
Nares. At the usual age he was ad- at St Paul's, for the benefit of the scms 
mitted into the Kind's Chapel, under the of the clergy. After a tedious illnesi, 
patronage of the princesses Amelia and he died at his house in Duke-stree^ 
Caroline. As early as 1760, he became Westminster, and was buried in the 
composer to Covent-garden Theatre, and Abbey. He left a widow, two daughters, 
in 1776 to that in the Havmarket. Hav- and a son. 

ing in early life enjoyed the benefit of Dr. Arnold was the composer of seven 

Handel's superintendence, he turned his oratorios, fifly-five English operas, and a 

attention to sacred music, and began the vast number of pantomimes, odes, sere* 

composition of the Cure of Saul, which natas, and burlettas. He also left in 

was produced in 1767, with such sue- manuscript a treatise on thorough bass, 

cess, that it was said to be the best of and several services and anthems com- 

its kind since the time of that great com- posed for the Chapel Royal, and different 

poser. This work he generously pre- public charities. " His oratorios," says 

scnted to the Society for the Benefit of a writer in Rees*s Cyclopsedia, *' are not 

Dccaved Musicians. In the following unworthy of the disciple of so great a 

J rear he produced the oratorio of Abime- master as Handel ; and such was tha 

ech, which was succeeded in 1773 by versatility of his talents, that ha not only 

190 



A R N A li N 

Acquitted himself with higli credit in in Connecticut, on the 3d of January^ 
those solemn and august subjects which 1740. He was in early youth appren- 
relate to our religious duties, but in those ticed to a firm of druggists in his native 
tender, playful, and humorous composi- place, but was twice, £iring his appren- 
tions which belong to the best of our ticeship, induced to enlist as a private in 
public amusements. ' Tlie comic operas the army. Having deserted, he at last 
of the Maid of the-Mfll and the Castle returned to his original employment, and 
of Andalusia are by him. (Musical ultimately commenced business on his 
Biog. Rees's Cyclo.) own account at Newhaven. In this he 
ARNOLD,] or ARNOUL, (Jonas,) a was greatly assisted by his former mas- 
painter and engraver of portrait and ters, a fact which leads us to doubt the 
history, who worked at Nuremburg, Ulm, accuracy of Mr. Sparks 's assertion, (Life 
Paris, and other places. He drew the of Benedict Arnold,) that, during his ap- 

S>rtraits and figures for Sigismond van prenticeship, Arnold exhibited, to the 

ircken's Spiegel der Ehren, or mirror displeasure of his superiors, an innate 

of honour, which were engraved by love of mischief, an obduracy of consci- 

Philip Kilian. Amongst his own en- ence, " a cruelty of disposition, an irrita- 

gravings are Louis XI V. on his throne, bili^ of temper, and a reckless indifference 

whole length, a large upright plate after to the good or ill opinions of others." 

a picture by Antoine Dieu ; the Dauphin, After ms settlement at Newhaven, hia 

after the same ; and Patrona Sodalitatis, enterprising disposition induced him to 

B small work. His portrait of Jacob imite to his regular business that of a 

Jenis, oval, is engraved by P. Kilian, general merchant, and he carried on a 

andoneofMartinZefler, by A.Kohl. The trade with the West Indies, frequently 

date when he flourished is not given, commanding his vessels in person. • At 

(Heinecken, Diet, des Artistes.) There the time the revolutionary war broke out 

is another engraver of this name, but he was captain of one of tlie two com- 

one of no great merit, by whom, amongst panics of militia in Connecticut, called 

others, are Daniel in the Lions' Den, 4to, the governor's guards, and when the 

from Fr. Xav. Palco, and a subject from news of the battle of Lexington arrived 

£xodus, after Palco the son. (Idem.) A at Newhaven, he managed to collect a 

third engraver of the name is Anton Ar- body of volunteers, and, having obtained 

nold, bom at Koniggraetz in 1 735, who arms for them from the pubhc magazines 

yras pupil of the engraver Rentz, and by tlireats, marched them to Cambridge, 

who lived at Prague, and worked for the Here he received from the Massachusetts 

booksellers, occupying himself also in Committee of Safety a commission ag 

engraving devotional subjects. (Idem.) colonel, and, at his own instance, instruc- 

• ARNOLD, (John,) the inventor of the tions to attempt the capture of Fort 

expansion balance, and of several other Ticonderago, which was situated on the 

important improvements in the mecha- south-western shore of Lake Champlain, 

nism of chronometers, died 1799, aged and was garrisoned by royal troops, 

fifty-four. He obtained premiums from Finding, however, that colonel Allen (see 

the Board of Longitude, for the accurate Allen, Ethan) was on his way to make 

time-keeping of his chronometers. the same attempt, Arnold hastened for- 

- ARNOLD, (Thomas,) an English phy- ward, and endeavoured to persuade that 

sician, who died at Leicester in 1816, and ofiicer to surrender to him the command 

was author of some medical treatises. of the expedition ; but, failing in this, 

ARNOLD, (Benedict,) an American, consented to accompany him as a volun- 

succeeded Roger Williams as governor of teer, in which capacity he assisted at the 

Rhode Island in 1657, in which office he capture of the fort. After this event, and 

continued for three years. During this after endeavouring, without success, to 

time, together with Coddington, who has obtain the government of the captured 

been fitly denominated the father of fortress, he managed to surprise St John's, 

Rhode Island, he effected the purchase of seizing at the same time a royal sloop on 

the Island of Quononoquot (afterwards the lake. Leaving Ticonderago, he sta- 

James Town) from the Indian Sachems, tioned himself at Crown Point, having 

He was governor of Rhode Island again, assumed the command of a little fleet, 

from 1662 to 1666 ; from 1669 to 1672 ; consisting of the sloop, a schooner, and a 

and from 1677 to 1678; in which last small flotilla of batteaux; but soon, of- 

year he died. fended with the legislature of Massachu- 

ARNOLD, (Benedict,) a distinguished setts for having sent a deputation to 

American officer, was bom at Norwich, inquire into his conduct, resigned his 

VOL. II. 193 o 



A a N A R X 

eommazid and comnu&if on in disgiut. the bank* of the lirer to the vealher, and 

Of the ezpeditioD, originaliy t a^ested to the risk of thieTet, on which the ownen 

by him 'Joomalii of Congre»>, June 1, finding their property injured and plnn* 

1 77.>;, through the wUdi to Quebec, for dered, presented inraces to Confresi, 

the purp>oK of exci'.in^ rebellion in Ca* and claimed the full amount. AmoTdfOn 

n%da, Arnold wa.% appointed commander, whom the blame first fell, declared that 

receiving at the lame time a commiAaion Hagen waj alone in lanlt, haTing dia- 

a« colonel in the continental service. The obeyed his strict injunctions to take espe- 

perilous duty which he undertook he per- cial care of the goods, and accordin^j 

formed with equal fidelity, courage, and Hagen was tried by a coart-martial^for 

discretion, although, through the cow- disobedience of orders. Arnold, enraged 

ardice or stupidity of one of his officers, at the court refitting to receiTO some 

his force, when he arrived at Quebec, did evidence wluch he tendered, addressed 

not exceed seven hundred men. After to the members a letter which they ea- 

having, by causing his soldiers to approach teemed disrespectful, and on account of 

tlie walls and give three loud cheers, which they appealed to the commander- 

sought to induce the malcontents in in-chief, who, being anxious to appoint 

Quebec to rise against the royal troops, Arnold to the command of the fleet then 

a desig^i which did not succeed, ne preparing to meet the enemy on the lake, 

retreated and awaited the arrival of m order to screen him, abn^ptly diMolved 

general Montgomery, under whom he the court-martiaL 

was to act, when the American troops About this time, a Major Brown, irri* 
attacked the royalist earrison, but were tated by a charee which Arnold had 
repulsed with the loss of their commander, brought against nim, retorted, by ao- 
For his gallantry in this action, Arnold cusing Arnold of various miidemea- 
was made brigadier-general, (Joum. nours, and demanded that be shoold 
Cong. Jan. 10, 1776,) but a wound which be arrested; but not succeeding in thiS| 
he received in the assault, aggravated bv he published his charges, of which 
a fall from his horse, and a coolness which no notice was taken. The total de- 
arose between him and the officer that struction of the American flotilla, on 
succeeded Montgomery, induced him to the lake, whUe under the command of 
retire to Montreal, where he continued in Arnold, exposed him to considerable 
command until the evacuation of that animadversion; but the gallantry he ex- 
town. Previous to this, and at a time hibited is above praise, nor is the pru- 
whcn the British army was in full march dence of his conduct altogether to be 
on Montreal, Arnold, under the autho- questioned. It is doubtful whether he 
rity of crm;^ess, seized the goods of could have avoided fighting, and it is 
certain merchants for the public service, certain, from the disparity of the two 
and for which the owners were to be paid forces, defeat could be the only result of 
by the United States. Instead, liowever, fighting. Congress having, on the 19th 
of giving these owners invoices of the of February, 1777, appointed five m«or- 
goo(U thus taken, and certificates of the generals, Arnold was mortified to find 
purpose for wliich they liod been taken, his name omitted from the list, nor was 
the confusion and hurry of the moment his indignation diminished when he finrnd 
prov(rnted Arnold doing more than in- that the favoured officers were all his 
scribing on each parcel its proprietor's juniors in rank. Washington, who was 
name, and forwarding them all ni great annoyed at the slight thus passed on a 
haste to Chamblee, directing Colonel brave officer, did all that he could to 
Hagen, who commanded there, to take soothe him, and wrote to some friends in 
th(; greatest care of tlieni. Although this congress, who, as he informed Arnold, 
was somewhat informal, and although it assured him tliat the omission was unavoid- 
has been said, that amongst the goods able, as Connecticut had already two major- 
thus taken, some could hardly have been generals, and congress had resolved that an 
necessary for the avowed purpose of their equal proportion of officers from each state 
seizure, yet the fact that Arnold commu- should be appointed. In reply to Arnold's 
nicated tlie wliolc of his proceedings in a request, that if any charges had been 
letter to (leneral Scluiyter inim(*(liatcly brought against him, his conduct might 
after their occurrence, must he held he investigated before a military tribunal, 
sulHeient for his vindicati<m from every Washington declared that no such chargea 
charg(M)f a personally dishonourable kind, had been made; but not satisfied with 
Colonel llagen, however, when he rc' the reasons on which congress was said 
ceived these goo<lri, h*ft them exposed on to have proceeded, Arnold determined to 

191 



ARN ARN 

address fbat body himself, and on his under General St. Clair, one of the flvt 
road to head-ouarters, to obtain permis- major-generals who had been promoted 
sion to do so, fell in with generals Silli- over his head. He was rewarded for this 
man and Wooster, who were in pursuit of exemplary conduct, by a majority of two- 
a body of British troops that, landing at thirds of congress voting that his appli^ 
Compo, near Fairfield, had burnt the town cation respectmg his rank should not be 
of Danbury, and were in full retreat to granted I On Siis, he begged General 
the coast. Joining these generals, Arnold Schuyler's leave to retire, but, in obedi- 
took part in an action in which, after a encc to that officer's entreaties and repre* 
brilliant display of valour, he nearly lost sentations, withdrew his request. After 
his life, but was rewarded by congress having, by an ingenious stratagem, re* 
(Journals, 2d May, 1777) with the desired lieved Fort Schuyler, which was closely 
honour of promotion to the rank of besieged by the British, Arnold distin-* 
major-general. The date of his com- fished himself greatly in an action which 
mission, however, left him below the is usually called the first battle of Behmu's 
five major-generals previously appointed. Heights. It would appear that Gene- 
Washington immediately oficred him a ral Gates, who had succeeded General 
high command, which he refused, and Schuyler in his command, and who took 
proceeded to Philadelphia, where he no part in the battle himself, prevented 
petitioned congress to inquire into his Arnold, the greater part of the day, from 
conduct, and to repair the injury it had entering the field ; but that officer leam- 
inflicted on him. The board of war, to ing, towards the close of the day, that 
whom this petition was referred, entirely the action still remained undecided, could 
acquitted him, and reported that the be withheld no longer ; but, in disobedi- 
charges were wholly unfounded, with ence of Gates's orders, hastened to the 
which his character had been " cruelly field and secured the victory. (See Col. 
and groundlessly aspersed." Although Varick's Letters, quoted in Sparks's Life 
this report was confirmed by congress of Arnold.) The conduct whicn Gates pur- 
(2dd May, 1777), yet his rank was not sued on this occasion can only be ascnbed 
restored to him, nor any reparation made to the jealousy he entertainea of Arnold's 
him for the manifold injustice of which fine military talents, and to this may be 
he complained. On the very day his attributed the very discourteous manner 

Setition was presented, the well-known in which he withdrew from his command 

Lichard Henry Lee, in a private letter, a portion of his division, without ap- 

observed : " One plan, now in frequent prizing him of the fact. Tliis occasioned 

use, is to assassinate the characters of the a quarrel between the two generals, in 

friends of America in every place and by which high words and angry letters were 

every means; at this moment they are banded on either side. If Arnold was 

reading in congress a bold and audacious indiscreet and intemperate. Gates was 

attempt of this kind against the brave insufferably overbearing and arrogant ; so 

General Arnold!" At the same time he much so, tnat the former demanded and 

submitted his accounts to congress, and obtained a pass to join Washington at 

prayed that they might be examined and head-quarters, but was induced to delay 

passed. They were accordingly referred his departure in order to take part in the 

to a committee, who, we learn from Mr. second battle of Behmu's Heights, in 

Sparks (no friendly witness), '* delayed which, holding no command, he conducted 

making a report," and, in spite of Ar- himself with more courage than discre- 

nold's remonstrances, '* seemed not in- tion, but still most assurecUy the merit of 

clined to hasten it;" while, at the same the victory is his. He was severely 

time, no notice was taken of his reiterated wounded in the leg, and, while suffering 

demands to have his rank adjusted, under its effects, was gratified with the 

Wearied and disgusted, he at last wrote announcement that congress had agreed 

to congress resigning his commission, to present him with a commission, giving 

but on the very same day disastrous in- him rank from the 29th February pre- 

telligence was received from the army, vious ; they, however, reiected an amend- 

and also a letter from Washington, re- ment, which was to add to the vote a 

commending Arnold for a post in the recognition of " his extraordinary merit.'^ 

northern army, as being " active, judi- (Journ. 8th August, 1777.) In order to 

cious, and brave." Arnold on this, in recruit his healtli, he retired to Newhaven, 

epite of the injuries he had received, where he received a letter from Wash- 

withdrew his resignation, and, sacrificing ington, who had previously entreated him 

Ids personal feeungs, offered to serve to return to the army, forwarding to luBt 

195 x>2 



A R N A R X 

a tword uA a pair of epaxJeOH mzleh. as proposed by Wnliizijitaii. Hmj vcte 
ha had reccircd, vhh nro other sets, called go, as acccdng parties^ to iobrtaii- 
from a French gentleman vbo had sees daze before the cocrt-iziaitiai the chargca 
them, begging Wuhington's acceptance vhich tbej had made, but this thev were 
of one set, ai^d re<{aesdng him to present nnvHIinz. be: as last consented, to do. 
the others to such gentlemen &i Le might The trial vas fdH longer delayed, in con- 
cofL«ider merited them. This sulhciently sequence of the movements of the British 
shoTf hoir highly Arnold's services vere troops: and previous to the uccuiieuce, 
valued by Washington, vho, a: the end Arnold having resigned his command at 
of the next May, appointed him to the Philadelphia. ISih March, 1779,) fanned 
command of Philadelphia, then lately a design of establishing a militazj settle- 
evacuated by the British. This ofiBce has ment in the western part of New York, a 
been described as one of exceeding deli- plan approved by the depatation in Con- 
cacy and difficulty, arising as well from gress from that state, and by Mr. Jay, 
the loyal feelings of a large number of the president. At length the trial took 
the innabitants, as from the fact, that the place. On two of the four charges pressed 
respective boundaries of the civil and against him he was acquitted ; "the other 
military powers were not defined, and the two were sustained in part, but not so fitf 
course of conduct to be pursued was left, as to imply, in the opinion of the coart, a 
almost wholly, to the discretion of the criminal intention." (Sparks.) The first 
commandant. A proclamation which, in of these last>mentioned charges was, that 
conformity with a resolution of congress, Arnold, without the knowledge of the 
Arnold issued on entering upon his duties, commander-in-chief, who was then in the 
for the purpose of prohibiting the sale of camp, gave a protection to a vessel Wing 
any griods in the city until it had been at Philadelphia, then in the hands of the 
ascertained whether any belonged to the British, authorizing it to enter into any 
king of Great Britain or his subjects, port of the United States. This, although 
rendered him exceedingly unpopular, the vessel belonged to Pennsylvanian 
Other causes of dispute arose, and the citizens, was considered irregnilar. He 
result was, that he soon became involved second charge was, that he had employed 
in hostilities with the president and coun- new public carriages for the transport of 
cil of Philadelphia, wtio at lost passed a private property, and this, although it was 
resolution censuring him for oppressive satisfactorily shown to have been done at 
and disrespectful conduct ; they, at the private expense, and to have in no way 
same time, instructing their attorney- mipeded the public ser\'ice, was also con- 
general to proceed against him " for such sidered irregular. For these irregtila- 
illegal and oppressive acts as were cogniz- rities the commander-in-chief was directed 
able in the courts of law." to reprimand General Arnold. TWi 
Kight articles of acoisation, embodying office was perfonncd by Washington with 
the charges against him, were laid before his characteristic delicacy, (Com^ot d'Ai^ 
congresK, who referred them to a com- nold et Sir Henn' Chnton, Paris, 1816, 
mitteci by which Arnold was immedi- p. 33 ;) but Arnold was deeply mortified 
ately ucquitted ; but, it having been that his eminent and acknowledged ser- 
contended that the Pennsylvanian coun- vices had not obtained for him an ho- 
cil, from a misunderstanding which nourable and total acquittal. The no&- 
aroMi* between them and the committee, settlement of his accounts by congress, 
did not produce all the evidence they the indisposition of that body to appre- 
]>oHHCKKi'(l in support of tlic charges, it ciatc his merits, the jealousy of many of 
wnw ultimately determined to refer to a his fellow oiiicers, added to the difficulties 
coiirt-mtirtial such articles as were cog- into which an extravagant style of living 
nizablu by such a tribunal. This course, had plunged him, all combined to disgust 
which dcKcrvcs the severest reprobation, him with the service in which he was 
Arnold bitterly exclaimed against, nor engaged. lie is said to have used very 
Were hia complaints diminished at the improper means to extricate himself from 
poHtponemcnt of the court, which was ob- his embarrassments, of which certainly 
tuiiicd by the council under pretence of the most objectionable was, an applica- 
colIiTting the evidence. The three months tion he made to the French envoy, the 




puriMso. liic council also tages France would derive from binding 
took exceptions to the form of the trial to her, by the chains of gratitude, a dia- 



ARN ARN 

^guished American officer. It is likely, evidence whatever to show that, at hat 

however, that Arnold made this applica- been asserted, he «o/<f himself to the British 

tion, considering the envoy simply in the -—the sum of 6315/., which he received 

light of a private friend; and although from Sir Henry Clinton, might have been, 

rach an application deserves to be treated as he himself declared, compensation for 

with suspicion, there is nothing to induce the losses he had received in consequence 

a belief that any treason to his party was of his desertion. (Complot d' Arnold et 

intended by him. The rejection of this Sir Henry Clinton. Sparks*s life of Be- 

request by De Luzerne left Arnold nothing nedic t Arnold. ) 

to hope, except from his joining the - There were several other distinguished 

standard of his lawful sovereign. To this Americans of this name : — 
his attention had been turned previous 1. Arnold, (Josiah Lyndon,) an Ame- 

to his trial. The indignities he had suf- rican poet, was bom about 1760, at Pro- 

fered induced him, — availing himself of a vidence, and graduated at Dartmouth 

correspondence between ms wife and college in 1788. He superintended the 

Major Andr6, and also through the me- academy at Plainfield, Connecticut, for 

dium of anonvmous letters which he some time, and afterwards devoted him- 

addressed to Sir H. Clinton himself, — to self to the study of law, and was called 

communicate to the British commander to the bar at Providence. He did not, 

important information relative to the however, pursue his profession, being 

republican armies ; and having, with some appointed a tutor in his college. On the 

finesse, obtained the command of the death of his father in 1793, he settled at 

fortress at West Point, he commenced St. Johnsbury, Vermont, where he died, 

those negotiations in which the part that His hasty verses were published after 

Major Andr6 took cost that gallant officer his death. 

his life. For a full accoimt of these 2. Arnold, (Peleg,)'who was a dele- 
transactions, we refer to our life of gate to congress under the confederation, 
Andre. To the particulars therein stated was afterwards made chief-justice of 
we need only add, that on the capture of Rhode Island. He died at Smithfield, 
Andre, Arnold, with some difficulty, on the 13th of February, 1820, in the 
escaped to New York, where he was sixty-eighth year of his age. 
joined by his wife. His defection was 3. Arnold, (Thomas,) appointed chief- 
rewardea with a colonels commission in justice in 1809, and died at Warwick the 
the British service, and the rank of 8th of October, 1820. 
brigadier-general. He raised a corps, ARNOLDI, (Bartholomew,) was bom 
consisting of American refugees, and in Usingen, whence he received the cog- 
took part in two expeditions, neither of nomen. of Usingensis, under which he 
them attended with any very important appears in the writers of his time. He 
results. In December, 1781, he sailed was an Augustine friar in Erfurt, and was 
for London with his family. There he considered one of the most acute philo- 
continued for some time, and afterwards sophers of the age. He, however, never 
established himself as a West India mer- ceased to be a strenuous advocate of the 
chant at New Brunswick. On his return scholastics. Luther being at first one 
from this place to Fngland, he was en- of his disciples, became aSerwards fami- 
gaged in some commercial speculations, liar with him. Subsequently, Arnold! 
in the course of which he had to visit the entered the theological faculty. When 
island of Guadaloupe, where he was Luther returned, in 1518, from the £r- 
taken prisoner by the French, but managed furt convention, Amoldi travelled part 
to escape, and returned to London, where of the way with him ; and he was also 
he died on the l-lthof June, 1801, in the present at the famous colloquium of 
sixty-first year of his age. He was twice Luther with Jodocus Trutvetter. Luther 
married ; the second time to the youthful could never convince Amoldi, but merely 
and beautiful daughter of Mr. Edward reduced him, by his arguments, to silence. 
Shippen, afterwards chief-justice of Penn- A coldness arose between them, and Ar- 
sylvania, by whom, as well as by his first noldi began to attack Luther and the 
wife, he had issue. Whatever opinion new doctrine in his sermons, especially 
may be formed of General Arnold's in the printed one entitled, Sermo de 
treachery to the republican party, by Sacerdotio, of which the consequence 
whom he was employed, this must never was, a long series of controversial writ- 
be forgotten, that through a career marked ings between him and Culsheimer, Lange 
by the most brilliant services he received and iEgidius Machler. In the year 
the greatest ill usage. >- There is no 1526 ho left Erfurt, with the rest of the 

197 



A R N A R N 

catholic clerg>', and retired to Wurzburg, Montpcllier, and twenty at Paris, and 

whence lie went, in 1530, with the bishop afterwards travelled through Italy and 

to Aug»bur^', and was present at the Spain, visiting all the univemities of those 

delivering of the Confession. After the countries. In Spain, he made the ac- 

catholics had been reinstalled in Erfurt, quaintancc of the celebrated Raymond 

he returned tliitlier, and died in the con- LuUy, who became his pupil. Amoldus 

vent of the Augustines in 1532. His is renowned as a theologian, a physician, 

works are at present very rare, but with- an alchemist, and an astrologer. Alche- 

out intrinsic value. I iisst vie of theological mical and astrological studies were the 

controversy was ratlier distinguished by prevailing follies of the age in which he 

abuse of the op))OHite party than argu- lived. He imaginedthat he had discovered 

ment. It shows the insufiicicncy of the the art of transmuting metals into gold, 

catliolics at that period, tliat such a man and he carried his contidence in astruosy 

could ever have been considered the most so far as to predict the termination of the 

conspicuous champion of their cause, world in the year 1335. He incurred the 

(Moschmann. Rotermundt. Krschund hatred and persecution of the inquisitors 

Grueber, Ijicycl.) of the faith, was denounced as a heretic, 

AKNOLDI, (John, 1751—1827,) an and obliged to quit Paris. The faculty 
eminent Dutch diplomatist, born at Her- of theology condemned fifteen positions 
born. By his iiiuthcr's side he was which he liad advanced, and the whole of 
grandson of the orientalist, Albert Schul- which may be considered to be fairly 
tens. At the age of sixteen he was admitted embraced in the following : — '* That the 
among the number of the academicians works of mercy, and the services rendered 
of his native town, and atU-rwards studied to liumanity by a good and wise physi- 
in tlie university of (iottingen. After cian, are more acceptable to the Deity 
his return to lifrborii he obtained the than all the pious works of the priests, 
phice of secretary to the regency ; in tlieir prayers, and even the holy sacrifice 
177-1 he was a])pointed auditor of the of the mass." Tliesc refiections upon tlie 
chambre dcs coinptes; and in 1702 cxer- monks and the mass, were doubtless suf- 
cised the same functions under the re- ficient to incur the animosity of the 
gency. After the breaking out of the war priesthood. Arnold took reftige in Sicily, 
of the revolution, he was cliarged by his and there enjoyed the protection of Fre- 
sovercign witli the entire mana;;cniont of deric, king of Arragon, and Robert, king 
f he iiiilitaiy bu.siiifss. During tlie event- of Naples. iJy the former he was em- 
fill period which foHowcd, he was con- ployed in some diplomatic matters. His 
Ktantly (•ni]>Io\ed on ditieri-nt diph)matic retirement terminated ui)on the illness of 
services. In 1K02 he was chosen to fonn l*npv' Clement V., who required Ids pro- 
part of the cabinet of the new ])rince, fessional attendance at Avignon, and in his 
nilliain Frederic ; but after the battle of voya;re to the pope he perished by ship- 
Jenu, and the fall of the family of Orange, wreck, in the year 1314, at the age of se- 
he retired from aH'airs, until recalled venty-six years. Hisremains were interred 
into action by the peace of Tilsit. In at (ienoa. In such high estimation was 
1809 he was engaged in an attempt to Arnold held by the pope, that, upon occar 
make a ^'^neral rising in Westphalia and sion of his death, lie advertized for a book 
other parts of (ierniany, l)ut his eilbrts on the Practice of Medicine, which Ar- 
were nmlered alxnlive by the huceesscs nold had promised to him, and even 
of the I'reneh a^'ainst Austria. In 1S13 fulminated an exconmmnication against 
till' reviving fortunes of tlie house of any one withholding it from him. 
Orange enabled him to return to his na- The fame of Arnold nuist rest upon his 
tive eountry; wlure, after again filling chemieal discoveries, not upon his medical 
some of the hi;^hest olliees in the stat»s reputation. His medicil works arc not 
he di((l on the 'Jd <if Deeeniher, 1S27. remarkable either for their style, or the 
Arnoldi was the author of several poli- subject matter of them, and do not merit 
tieal tracts, most of tin in printed in the consideration. His Commentary' on the 
(iriiuan journals of the day. (Hiog. celebrated Schola Salerniuma constitutes 
I niv. Su])pl.) his chief and best production of this kind, 

AKNOLDl'S 1)1, ViMA Nova, (12;JS and was cominised during his retreat in 

— 1«'»11,) a cell hrateil ]>hy>ieiaii, nain(>d Sicily. See John of Mi la>'. 

from the place of his hinh, a small vil- C lieiniMry may be said to owe much to 

lage in the iiri^hhnurliood of Mimtpel- the labours of Arnold, since to him we are 

lier. Me is supposed to have been born indebted for the discovery of the sulphuric, 

about 1238; he Miulied ten years at the imiriutic, and the nitric acids. ' Tho 

l!».s 



ARN ARN 

sulpliuric acid he found to be a menstrutun of the Piazza del Priori, la Badk, and of 

capable of retaining the sapid and odori- the church of Santa Croce, in which is 

ferous principles of various vegetable his portrait painted by Giotto. These 

substances, and from this discovery have and other edifices procured him the dis* 

issued the numerous spirituous solutions tinpiished privilege of being elected a 

so commonly used as tinctures in medi- citizen of the republic, and pointed him 

cine, and as cosmetics. The essential oil out as well worthy to carry into effect 

of turpentine was also discovered by the intention of the Florentines, to 

Amolo, and he is said to have been the erect the largest church in the world to 

first to give any regular scientific details the honour of Santa Maria dei Fiori in 

of the process of distillation. Arnold was the centre of their city, and occupying the 

a doctor of physic of Montpellier, and for site of a vast number of smaller cnurches. 

some time regent of the faculty at that The powers of Amolfo must be measured 

university. His works have been col- not by the standard of edifices erected 

lected together, and published in one since his time, and to which his genius 

volume folio, at Lyons, in 1504, in 1509, gave rise, but by comparing the state of 

and in 1520; at Basle, in 1515 and in architecture as he foimd and left it. He 

1585 ; at Venice, in 1514, &c. ; and a cast aside all the puerilities of the cor- 

Life of Arnold, by Symphorien Champier, rupt German Gothic, which had previously 

is prefixed to the Basle edition of 1515, prevailed in Italy but had there found an 

which has also the notes of Jerome Tau- imconffenial soil, and he adopted a broad 

rellus ; and another Life was published in and vigorous style of composition, di* 

1719, at Aix, by Haitze, under the name viding nis mass into simple and imposing 

of Peter Joseph. parts. The church of Santa Maria da 

• ARNOLF, or ARNOUL, a Milanese Fiori at Florence is too well known to re* 

historian, lived at the end of the eleventh quire a lengthened description in this 

century. His History of Milan extends place. Its form is that of a Latin cross, 

from 923 to 1077, and is remarkable for the east end and ends of the transepts 

its accuracy. It is included in the great being polygonal. The construction was 

collection of Muratori, and it will also be of the most solid nature, so that when 

found in Leibnitz, Rerum Brunsvic. Amolfo died, having completed the church 

Scriptores, tom. iii. and in the Thesaurus only up to the tambour of the projected 

Antiq. Ital. of Burmann. (Biog. Univ.) cupola, Brunelleschi found the walls, piers, 

ARNOLFINI, (Giovanni Attilio, 1733 and foundations, so substantial as to enable 

— 1791,) an Italian engineer of much him, without apprehension, to proceed 

merit. He was a native of Lucca, and with his own design for completmg the 

in an official employment given to him fabric. Amolfo had not studied the an* 

there, he was very useful in forming cient monuments of Roman art; he was, 

canals, and in other applications of by- consequently, not acquainted with those 

drostatical knowledge, both in the Luc- resources of decoration, which, if intro- 

chese territory and elsewhere. La Lande, duced in this monument of his genius, 

in his Journey in Italy, speaks most would have saved the interior from that 

highly of his talents. (Tipaldo, i. 14.) chilling and poverty-stricken nudity which 

ARNOLFO, (di Lapo,) an architect now is so apparent, when we compare it 

and sculptor, bom at Florence in 1232, with churches of more recent times. But 

deceased 1300. He inherited the talents when we consider the vicious style of the 

of his father Lapo, who being employed period, which Amolfo had to combat and 

upon the most important buildings of his avoid, the faults into which he might so 

time, was enabled to instil into tlie mind naturally have fallen ,but which he escaped, 

of his son the soundest principles of archi- it must be acknowledged that for simpli- 

tecture then known, both as to theory city of arrangement, breadth of effect, and 

and practice. One of the first works of scale of parts, he deserves to be mentioned 

Amolfo was the outer line of the city walls among those distinguished men, to whom 

of Florence, to which he added towers, modem architecture is under great obli- 

He designed the Piazza Or San Michele, gations. (Quatremdre de Quincy. Dic- 

the church of which consists of an im- tionnaired'Architecture. MiliziaMemorie 

posing square building, with the upper degli Architetti. Vasari.) 

partoccupiedas thcarchivia. Theboklest ARNOUL, (R6n6,) a French poet, 

features in this striking mass are the win- bom 1569, died 1639. His only work is 

dows, twenty feet wide, with circular L'Enfance de R6n6 Amoul, Poictiers, 

heads, and the tracery filled up with a 1587, which is very rare. (Biog. Univ.) 

bastard Gothic. He was also architect ARNOUL. See Abnulp. 

199 



A R N A a N 

ARNOULD, of RoTTEBDAM, (Amoldus Dorat in hit poem of La Declamation. 

Rotterodameiisis,) a divine of the fif- Tliis lady was no less noted for her wit 

teenth century, whose family name was than for her eminence as an actress ; and 

Gheilhovcn ; died in the monastery of was equally notorious for the extent and 

Groencndael, near Brussels, in 1442. variety of her amours, and the exalted 

His principal work is entitled, Onoto- rank of her lovers. Many of her bon 

solitos, sivc Speculum Conscicntiarum: mots are preserved in the Bic^^phie 

Brussels, 147C. (Biog. Univ. Suppl.) Univcrselle, and in the Bic^aphie Nou* 

ARNOULD, (Joseph, 1723—1798,) vellc des Contemporains ; in Uie former 

was a member of the Royal Academy of of v. liich the date of her birth is nven as 

Nancy, and an ingenious horologist and the 14th of Februarv, 1744, and the year 

mechanist. (Biog. Univ. Suppl.) of her death is dated as 1803. As, now- 

ARNOULD, (whose real name was ever, she appeared on the boards in 1757, 

Jean Fran9ois Mussot, 1734 — 1795,) a it is most likely that the date at the 

French comic actor, and manager of the commencement of this article is coTrect. 

theatre I'Ambigu Comiquc in Paris, was (Biog. Nouv. des Contemporains. Biog. 

the author of a great number of theatrical Univ.) 

pieces, and is numbered among those to ARNOULT, (Jean Baptiste,) an ex- 

whom pantomime owes its birth m France. Jesuit, bom 1689, died 1753, was the 

(Biog. Univ. Suppl.) author of a Collection of Proverba, a 

ARNOULD, (Ambroise Marie, bom scarce book, Besan^on, 1733, published 

1750, died 1812,) was a member of the in the name of Antoine Dumont; and 

Council of Ancients in 1798, and after- some other works. (Biog. Univ.) 

wards of the Five Hundred. He held ' \RNOULT, (Charles, bom 1750, died 

the office of maitrc des comptes, and 1793,) a French advocate of Dijon, and 

was a counsellor of state under Napoleon, a member of the statcs-generaL (Biog. 

He wrote some works on Commerce and Univ. Suppl.) 
Finance. (Biog. Univ. Suppl.) ARNOUX, (Jean,) a French Jesuit, 

ARNOULLET, (Balthasar,) a French was appointed confessor to Louis XIII. 

engraver on wood, who resided at Lyons, in 1G17. He died in 1636, after having 

and who, according to Papillon, exc- suffered for some time under the dclnsion 

cuted a large woodcut of the town of of believing himself to be acock. He was 

Poictiers. (Br^'an's Diet. Suppl.) the author of several books. (Biog. Univ. 

ARNOULT, (N.) a French engraver, Suppl.) 
who flourished about the end of the AIINOUX, or ARNOULX, (Francois,) 

seventeenth centurj', and acquired pome a French ascetic writer in the seventcentib 

reputation by his portraits of the nersons century. ITie titles of two of hii works 

alK)ut the court, dressed in the fashions may be given — Lcs Etats G£n£raiix 

of the time. In this style there are a set convoqu^s au Ciel, Lyons, 1628 ; La 

of six figures in folio, engraved in 1683 Poste Royale du Paradis, Ibid. 1635. 

and 16vSl. Ik>sides these there are, (Biog. Univ. Suppl.) 
amongst others, prints of fashions as ARNST£IN,(von,)abankcrinVieDna» 

follow : Madame la Marquise d'Anc:eau and one of those many private indivi- 

at her toilet, folio ; l*ridc ; the Four duals, who in this century have acquired 

Seasons, represented by figures in the princely fortunes. He stood, for many 

fashionable dresses of the jwriod. He years, at the head of the principal na- 

cngraved also a portrait of Mathieu de tional enterprises of Austria, such as the 

Montri'uil, 8vo; but all are executed in a national bank, steam navigation, &c. 

poor, coarse manner, and are very defi- Although a Jew, he liad been raised to 

tient in taste. (Heinecken, Diet, des the dignity of a baron. Being possessed 

Artistes. Strutt's Diet, of Kiig.) of liberal sentiments, and a cultivated 

ARNOULT, or ARNOULD, (Sopliie, mind, his house in Vienna was for many 

1710 — 1802,) a very eminent French Years the general rendezvous of men of 

actress, was born in Paris of respectable letters, artists, &:c., of whom he was a 

parents, her father keeping an liotel generous patron. He died towards the 

garni. She made her first a])pearancc endof 1839, at an advanced age. (Allgcm. 

on the loth of December, 17.07, at the Zeitung. 18:jf).) 

opera in that city, where she played the ARNTZENIUS, (John,) a learned 
principal parts, until her retinnient fnmi philologist, born at Wesel, in 1702, died 
the Htii;;e in 177S. Slie is said to have in 17.'>0; was npixiinted in 1728 pro- 
been gnatly praisid by (iarrick when ftssor of historj- and rhetoric in the Athe- 
ie visited Paris ; and was celebrated by na>ura of Niuicgucn ; and in 17-12 mc- 

•JOO 



ARN ARN 

ceeded Burmann in^ia chair at Franeker. and nothing is left of him hut a few 

He had heen at Utrecht the pupil of official acts, which he composed. (Hist. 

Drakenborch and Duker, and at LeydeUy Lit. de Fr. viL 245.) 

of Bmnnann and Havercamp. Besides ARNULF, monk of St Andr£ at Avig- 

aeyend dissertations, he published edi- non, a writer of the eleventh centunr, 

tions of Aurclius Victor and Pliny the who has left a brief chronicle brought 

younger. down to the year in which he wrote, 

ARNTZENIUS, (Otho,) brother of (a.d. 1026), a short martyrolbgy, a tract 

the preceding, bom 1703, died 1763, was on Weights and Measures, and some 

protessor of polite literature at Utrecht others. (Hist Lit. de Fr. viL 251.) 

and other places, and author of some ARNULF, bishop of Orleans, the most 

works. learned and eloquent prelate of the Gallic 

ARNTZENIUS, (John Henry,) son church at the end of the tenth century, 

of John Amtzenius, was bom in 1734 ; who was consecrated to that see about 

he followed the studies of his father and 986. He was a great opponent of Abbo^of 

uncle, and became professor of law at Fleuri. He crowned Itobert, the son of 

Utrecht, where he died in 1797, leaving Hugh Capet, in 988. A few vears before 

various works. he had rebuilt his cathedral, in which 

ARNU, (Nicholas,) a French Domi- this ceremony was celebrated, and which 

nican, bom in 1629, died 1692, professor had been destroyed by fire. In 991, he 

of metaphysics at Padua. He wrote, was the most active prelate in the coun- 

Gypeus Philosophise Thomisticse, Pad. cil which deposed Amulf of Rheims. 

1686, and a Commentary on the Summa He died about the end of the century, 

of St Thomas. but the exact date is uncertain. His 

ARNULF, the emperor, succeeded works now preserved, are the Acts of the 

Charles - le * Gros, his uncle, and was Council in 991, and a treatise De Car-^ 

grandson of Louis-le-Germanique. He tilagine. (Hist Lit. de Fr. vi. 521.) 

died in 899, at Ratisbon, and was sue- ARNULF, a French monk, nearly 

ceeded by his son Louis IV. (Biog. related to the counts of Champagney, 

Univ.) who was made abbot of Lagni, in the dio- 

' . ARNULF or ARNOLPH, of Cala- cese of Paris, in 1066. He travelled into 

jiaiA, a chronicler of the tenth century, Italy in 1078, and on his return brought 

wrote an account of his country from 903 into France the relics of St Thibaud, 

to 965. (Biog. Univ.) archbishop of Vienne. He is said to have 

ARNULF, (St) archbishop of Metz been the author of a Life of Furseus, 

in 611, was one of Clotaire's most able supposed to be the same as the one 

minbters. On retiring from the court, pnnted by MabiUon and the Bollandists. 

he shut himself up in a monastery near (Hist Lit de Fr. ix. 290.) 

Remiremont, where he died in 640 in the ARNULF, abbot of St Martin de 

odour of sanctity, after living the life of Troam, in the diocese of Bayeux, a friend 

a hermit for forty years. His remains of St. Anselm. He was elected abbot in 

were transported to Metz. (Biog. Univ. 1088 or 1089. His writings arc spoken 

Suppl.) of by old writers, but do not appear to 

ARNULF, archbishop of Rheims, was be preserved. Richard des Foumeaux 

a natural son of Lothaire, king of France, dedicated to him his Commentanr on 

and succeeded Adalbsron in January the Ecclesiastes. (Hist Lit de Fr. vu 

988, while still very young. His opposi- 519.) 

tion to the policy of Hugh Capet caused ARNULF, a Flemish preacher, re- 
him to be accused of naving revolted markable for his austerity and learning, 
against his sovereign; and in 991 a who preached the crusade through France 
coimcil assembled by the king's order and Germany in the twelfth century. He 
condemned and deposed him, and gave went with the army which was directed 
his see to the famous Gerbert, (see Ger- against the Moors in Spain, and leaving 
BEBT.) The pope, however, was not England with the numerous fleet em- 
satisfied at this proceeding; and in an- ployed in that expedition, was present at 
other council, ordained that Amulf should the taking of Lisbon, 1 1 th October, 1 147, 
be restored, which was not done till after and wrote an account of the siege, which 
the king's death, and Gerbert was him- is printed in the first volume of the great 
self raised to the supreme pontificate, collection by Dom Martennc. 
Amulf retained his bishopnc till his ARNULF, bishop of Lisieux, one of 
death in 1021, or, according to others, the distinguished prelates of the twelfth 
1023, The writings of Amulf are los^ century, was bom in the earlier years of 

201 



A R N A R P 



tlut centtinr m XormandT. He wai He wai bom in Shrmhire, ttadied in SL 
made bS.hop in 1111. &rA was Ion? at Edmnnd's HalL Oxrord. and wai made, 

tiiifiity V :t;. Gooffrev duke of Noimandy. in l&i2, archdeacon of Lichfield and 
who hkd befrn offVn Jed by the election of 0>Tentzy. He niffered much in the Cirfl 
a binhon. who wafi not recommended by Wars; and on the rnin of the king's 

himielr. He accompanied Loui^ le Jetme caoje, removed to the Hagne, and frnn 

in hit cniiade ; ana after his retom and thence to Virginia, where he died about 

the death of Geoffrey, he waa in great the year 1653. (Wood'f Athens.) 

favour with his son, both aa duke of Nor- AROMATARI, (Ginseppe degii,) an 

inandy, and afterwards when he came to Italian physician, bom about 1586. He 

the crown of Kn^land as Henry II. He obtained the degree of doctor of medicine 

t^x^k part with the king, and supported at the age of IS. and soon after took np hit 

him with his advice, in his quarrel with residence at Venice, where he practited 

Thomas a B*.*cket, ^see Becket.) After phvsic for upwards of 50 yean. He pob- 

having resigned his bishopric, Amulf re- lisiied some tracts on literary mbjtecti, 

tired Vj the ablK-y of 8t. Victor at Paris, but he is most distinguished for his opi- 

where he died, Oct. 31, 1185. Amulf nions on the generation of plants. In 

was remarkable for his learning and his 1625 he published a treatise entitled Dia- 

magnificcnce. Those of his works which putatio de Rabie Contagiosa, to which was 

are preserved are not numerous: they prefixed a letter addressed to Bartholomew 

consist of a considerable number of letters, Nanti on the subject of the generatian of 

of a Defence of Pope Innocent II., of plants fi'om seecu. This was afterwards 

three Sennons, and of some Latin £pi- printed among the Epistols Selectse of 

grams, which exhibit the elegance of that G. Richt, Nuremberg, 1662, 4to. It was 

ng<', so rich in Latin pwts. In one of also translated into English in the Hii 

tfie cjii^n-a'ins, he mentions the reputation losophical Transactions, No. cczL, and 

for jjoetry whicli lie then enjoyea : — reprinted with Jungius's works, in 1747, 

" Olim me celebrem Normannla tot* poetam at Coburg. His indifferent health, and 

Duxit, Tixquc dabat Oaiiia tou parem." the pains and anxieties attendant on it, 

A longer account of his works will be prevented him from pursuing and fol- 

found m the Hist. Lit. dc France, xiv. lowing out his ingenious speculations, and 

iU).'). thev were too far above the knowledge 

ARNL'LF, or ERNULPII, a French and the method of reasoning of his age to 

nioiik, wlio was invit<'d over to P2ngland be taken up and followed out by others in 

bv Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury, his time. (Univ. Biog.) 

lie w.'w made huccessively prior of the AROMATARI, (Dorotea,) a celebrated 

monastery of Canterbury, abbot of Peter- cmbroidross of pictures, a Venetian lady, 

boroM;,'h, and bishop of Rochester. He who lived in 1660, and who is said hj 

attained the hist dif;nity in 1115, having Bosch ini to have produced with her needle 

Hiieecedcd Ra(hilpliiis, who Wfut removed all those beauties which the finest and most 

to the see of Canterbury. 1I(; was the diligent artists exhibited with the pencil. 

author of th(> Textus Roifensis, a work In this particular art she is said to hare 

relatinj^ to tlie founchition, endowment, been unrivalled. (Lanzi, Stor. Pitt, iv, 

clwirtirs, and r)ilM'r things belonging to 182.) 

tin* cathedral of the rlmrch of Roches- Al{0UET,(Ren6,) anotary ofStLoun, 

ter, and whurh is still preservi'd in its a small town of Poitou, was bom there m 

arrhivcs. 'I'his work was i>rint('d in ITOJ^, 1410. lie was an ancestor of Voltaire. 

})y Mr. Thorpe, in his itej^istruni Rof- He wrote several works, which he never 

f<'nsi'. There ar(r extant also of his — could be prevailed upon to publish, and 

liihrllus dc fnccstis Conjugiis, and Kj)i- had a c(msiderable reputation in his pro- 

Mtolji Solutioni's (pifisdani continens ad vince. The family of Arotict continued 

varias lianihcrti Ahhatis Bcrtlniani (^i.'us- to reside at St. I^mp until the grandfather 

tioiics, pra'cipuc dc Cori)ore et Sanguine or the father of Voltaire went to reside at 

Domini. ( Hio;;. Hrit.) Paris. (IJiog. Univ. Suppl.) 

AKNWAY, (John, 1). I).) a divine, ARPA, (Moezz-ed-dcen Arpa-Khan,) 

who was a strenuous asscrtcr of the the tenth sovereign of the Mogul dynasty 

cauM' nf kin;^ Charles I. apiin^^t the par- founiled in Persia by llidaku, was placed 

lianicut, an(l :mthor of a lra< t, prinU'd on tlie throne by the nobles, a.h. 736, 

at the I Ia<'ui', in !^).')0, cntith'd, Tablet, or A.n. l.'J.S"), on the death of Abou-Said 

Muderjition of Charles I. Martyr, witli without issue. He was not a direct de- 

an Alarum to the Subjects of Kn<rland, seendant of Hulaku, but of a collateral 

which was reprintid at London in 1<»01. line, derived from his brother Arik-Boga. 



ARP ARP 

The dyinK wordt of Abou-Said, who had the Tillage of Pniztauer stands, a eoiH 
declared uiat none of the existing race of sultation with his way wodes, in which 
Hulaku were equal to the weight of em- laws for the general management of hia 
pire, were, however, held by the chiefs kingdom were framed, and a sort of codex 
to justify his elevation, and he strength- laid down — ^which was the eroundwork 
ened his title by marrying Sati-beg, the of the subsequent constitution of the 
Bister of the deceased monarch. Arpa is realm of Hungary. When the Greek 
said to have been a religious and bene- emperor Leo got at war with the Bulga- 
ficent prince, but he was inadequate to rian king Simeon, he sought the assist* 
sustain the falling monarchy ; and some ance of Arpad, who sent an army over 
ill-timed acts of severity having alienated the Danube, but they ended by betraying 
the turbulent nobles, Moussa-Klian, grand- the emperor, whom they besieffed m a 
son of Baidu, a former sovereign, was set little town (Mundraga — Alba Bulgann 
up in opposition by the governor of Diar- rum), and forced him to swear allegiance 
bekr. Arpa was taken prisoner, and being and to pay a tribute to Arpad. Thk 
delivered up to the sons of Mahmood- army united afterwards witn another, 
Ainju, whom he had put to death, suf- and made incursions into Sclavonia, Dal- 
fered retribution at their hands, May 15, matia, and Croatia, and subdued the 
1336, after a reign of scarcely more than whole of Croatia in the year 895. In 
five months. (Habib-ses-Scir, in Price's the mean time, the king of Bulgaria, to 
Mohammedan Dynasties, ii. C7'i-7.) revenge the reverse he had met with, 
ARPAD, the foimder of the kingdom united his strength with the Patzinazites, 
of the Hungarians. It was in the ninth invaded Atclkusu, and dispersed the 
century that a tribe of the Huns, on the Magyars in the year just mentioned. 
Caucasus, calling themselves Magyars, Arpad retreated with his wa3rwodes to 
and most probably prompted by some the island of Gepely (Tschepely), formed 
traditions of Attila's exploits, resolved to by two branches of the Danube ; whence, 
invade Paiinonia a second time. They the following year, he sent his gene- 
elected Salinutz (Almus) their duke, and rals, Zuard, Kadusa, and Bayta, towards 
it was agreed upon, that this dignity the Temesch, Transylvania and Walla-> 
should remain hereditary in his family, chia. After having collected another 
Almus conducted his liordes over the army under his own command, he went 
Wolga and Dnieper, to the foot of the to Old-Ofen, where, according to the 
Carpathes, where he was succeeded, in custom of those times, he abandoned 
the year 886 (or 889, or 892), by his son himself with his waywodes, for several 
Arpad. The chiefs having promised weeks, to all sorts of convivial hilarity, 
allegiance to him, he was, according to The next year was spent in subduing the 
the custom of the Magyars (Chazores), Marahane Sclaves, who had received con- 
liited upon a shield. Shortly afterwards, siderable assistance from the German- 
Arpad separated his army into seven Roman emperor. After a few uncertain 
divisions of 20,857 men each (Degui- contests, he defeated them entirely, near 
gncs), over which he placed subordi- Tolna, and having taken possession of 
nate chiefs. Ound and Ketel conquered the wliolc surrounding coimtry, returned, 
the districts of Ugatsch and Szatmar ; at the close of 896, to Old-Ofen, which 
Borsu ports of what is now culled the from that time became the metropolb 
Borschod country; Tosu and Szabales of Hungary. About the same period, 
laid waste the country between tlie Theiss the Magyars conquered the whole coun- 
and Kores. Other hordes took posses- try between the Gran and the Waag. 
sion of the lands about the Danuoe, the Their progress was stayed for a while by 
Gran, and the Waag, and, near Neutra, the emperor Amulf, whose army entered 
hanged the Sclavian chief, Zobor, on a Moravia in 899. On his death, Arpad 
mountain which is yet called Zobor. prepared to extend hb conquests to the 
Arpad himself, with tlic main body of right bank of the Danube, and occupied, 
his army, went from Ungwar to the about a.d. 900, that part of Pannonia 
Bodrog, and defeated the Bulgarian duke, which is called Interamnensis. The 
Salan, even after the latter liad obtained Magyars then extended their invasion 
assistance from the Greek emperor, Leo, to Germany and Italy. On the banks of 
and he deprived hiin of his lands. After the Bronta, they defeated an Italian 
such exploits, Arpad held in the year army, of which 20,000 are said to have 
893, near the lake Kirthilto, at a place remained on the field of battle. In 900 
where, afterwards, tlie convent of Szer- and 901, their progress was arrested by 
monostor was erected, and where now the arms of duKe Luitpold (Leopold), of 

203 



ARP ARR 

Bavaria. Still, however, the Magyars was a man of great learning and vast 

carried on their depredations in other memory, but he threw them away upon 

quarters, though, during his latter years, trifling researches. (Biog. Univ. Suppl.) 

Arpad did not lead them in person. In ARPINO. See Josepin. 

905 the aged warrior nominated his son ARPINO,(IlCavaliered\) SeeCESAKi. 

Soltan to be his successor, and had him ARQUIER, (Joseph,) an eminent dra- 

proclaimed by the waywodes and nobles, matic composer and player on the violon- 

He died in 907, and was buried with cello, who was bom at Toulon in 1763, 

much ceremony at the source of a small and died at Bourdeaux in 1816. (Biog. 

rivulet near Stuhlweissenbourg (accord- Univ. Suppl.) 

ing to others, near Old-Ofen). His name ARRAIZ, (Amador, 1530 — 1600,) one 
is still revered by the people, and lives of the classic writers of Portugal, bom at 
in the strain of Magyar popular poetry. Beja, in the province of Alentejo. At 
Arpad's dynasty reigned imtil 1301, when the age of fifteen he "entered the order 
the last of the race, king Andreas III., of the Carmelites, and while still young, 
died by poison. (Deguignes, Hist. Gen. acauiredmuch reputation by the elegance 
des Huns. Fessler. Schneller, Gcsch. v. of nis sermons. Dom Henry made him, 
Ung. Ersch imd Gmeber, Encycl.) in 1578, bishop of Tripoli, and Philip II. 
ARPAJON, (Louis, marquis of Seve- gave him the bishopric of Pontalegro in 
rac, duke of,) a French general, who dis- 1581. This he resigned in 1596, and 
tinguished himself in the wars of the spent his latter days m the monastery of 
reign of Louis XIII. In 1645, when the Coimbra. He is best known by his Ten 
sultan Ibrahim threatened Malta, D'Ar- Moral Dialogues, composed in imitation 
pajon raised a large body of troops, and of Plato, which were printed at Coimbra 
went to assist the knights. "When the in 1589. (Biog. Univ.) 
danger was over, the grand master, with ARRAS, (Mathias von,) a native of 
the consent of his council, conferred many France, who was invited by John of Bo- 
honours and privileges upon him, and, hemia to Prague, as his architect, in 
among others, the right that one of his 1344, to complete the cathedral of that 
sons or descendants should for ever be city, which, however, was not finished 
enrolled a knight from the time of his till 1385, some years after his death. He 
birth, and be made a grand cross at the also superintended the erection of the 
age of sixteen. In 1651 he was created a Karlstein, begun by Karl IV. in 1348, 
duke by Louis XIV. He died at Severac which edifice still remains for the most 
in 1679. (Biog. Univ.) part according to the original, notwith- 
ARPAJON, (Louis, marquis of,) grand- standing the alterations it underwent in 
son of the preceding, was a distinguished the time of Rudolph II. It was corn- 
general in the wars of Louis XIV. He pletcd by Arras in seven years, and he is 
died in 1736. He left an only daughter, supposed to have died very shortly after- 
who.was married to a son of the duke of wards. 

Noaillcs, and who transmitted the Maltese ARRAULT, (Charles,) an eminent 

privilege mentioned in the life of the duke French advocate, who was bom in 1643, 

of Arpajon to that family. (Biog. Univ. and died in 1718. (Biog. Univ. Suppl.) 

Suppl.) ARRE, a Swedish engraver, by whom 

ARPE, (Pierre Frederic,) was bom in we have the portrait of Thorstan Ruden, 

1682, at Kiell, in Holstein. He was pro- Epis. de Sinkoping, in the form of a me* 

fcssor of law at Kiell, but left it and re- dallion. (Strutt's Diet, of Eng.) 

tired to Hamburgh, to ^ve* himself en- ARREBOE,(Andreas,) bishop of Dron- 

tirely to literary piu-suits. He died in theim, in Norway, during the reign of 

1 748. He wrote, among other works — Christian IV. of Denmark. His reputa- 

1. Apologia pro Cajsare Vanino, Rotter- tion rests chiefly upon his poetical talents, 

dam, 1712, a bold undertaking, and which which were so great, that he has been 

made much noise at the time. 2. The- called the first Danish poet who wrote 

atmm Fati, sive Notitia Scriptonim de elegantly in his own hmguage. His 

Providentia, Fortuna, et Fato. 3. De Pro- rhythmical version of the Psalms, and a 

digiosis Naturae et Artis Operibus, Talis- poetical picture of the Six Days of 

manes et Amulcta dictis. Hamburgh, Creation, are still held in reputation in 

1712. 4. Feriai iEstivales, sive Scripto- Denmark; besides many pieces on 

rum suomm Historia Liber singularis. secular subjects. He was deposed from 

Hamburgh, 1726. An nccoimt of all his his episcopal oflice in 1622, at a judicial 

writinp, printed and in manuscript. 5. assembly held at Bergen, in which the 

Themis Cimbrica. Hamburgh, 1737. He king presided in person, for his irregidar 

204 



A R R A R R 

life and openly scandalous demeaftoui'. the appointment of librarian io llie imi- 

It was also made part of the charge versity. In 1684, he was ennobled by 

against him, that he had refused to ap- the name of Oemhielm (under which 

pear before a lay-court when summoned name he is more frequently mentioned 

to do so at Drontheim ; " thereby openly in biographical works,) retaining the 

afironting the authorities of that city arms of his family with some additions, 

without cause assigned." He afterwards He wrote — a Life of Anscarius, the first 

discharged the duties of the clerical office archbishop of Hamburg ; the Ecclesiasti- 

decently and without blame, at Wer- cal History of the Swedes and Goths, in 

dingborg four books ; the Life of Ponti de la Gar- 

ARREDONDO, (Don Isidoro, 1654— die ; and left behind hun in MS. a Latin 

1702,) an eminent Spanish painter, bom and Swedish translation of the History 

at Colmenar de Oreja, was nrst a scholar of the Goths and Lombards in Italy, 

of Joseph Garcia, and afterwards studied by Emanuel Thesaurus ; a collection of 

under Francisco Rici. He painted his- Letters from the Romish See to the 

tory with great reputation ; and on the Kings, &c. of Sweden ; a History of the 

death of Rici was appointed painter to Swedish Mart3rrs and principal Eccle- 

Charles II. of Spain. One of his prin- siastics, and of the Foimdation of the 

cipal works was a large picture of the principal Swedish Monasteries ; a Sueo- 

Incamation, which Palomino, who de- gothic Chronology from the earliest 

scribes several of his productions, men- Times; and a Latin translation of Pyrrhi 

tions as a very grand composition. Ligorii Fragmenta de Vehiculis. A little 

(Bryan's Diet.) before his death, count Eric Dahlberg 

ARRHENIUS, (Claudius,) royal his- received from the king a grant for the 

toriographer of Sweden, was bom at Lin- preparation of a work in 3 volumes, con- 

kbping, of a family originally German, taining plates of the Swedish towns, 

His studies, commenced in the public castles, churches, and other remarkable 

school of his native place, were after- buildings, for which the descriptions 

wards prosecuted at the university of were to be furnished by Oemhielm ; bu^ 

Upsal. Here his favourite subject was his death put a stop to this imdertaking. 

history ; but he made considerable pro- This event took place at Stockholm in 

c^ess in other branches of learning, and 1695. Afimeral oration was pronounced 

his poetical compositions were not without over him by Petrus Lagerlof, which has 

merit. At the age of thirty he took the been printed. 

charge of a young Swedish nobleman, the ARRHENIUS, (Jacob,) the brother 
count Gabriel Oxenstierna, and accom- of Claudius, was bom at Linkoping, in 
panied his pupil on his foreign tour ; on 1642. He came to Upsal in 1663, and 
his return from which, he was appointed was first amanuensis and afterwards no- 
tutor in the academy at Upsal, and af- tary in the college of Antiquities, esta- 
terwards (in 1667) professor of logic and Wished there in 1668. In 1680 he was 
metaphysics. In the following year he made administrator, and afterwards pro- 
was chosen professor of history, a post fessor of history in the college of Upsal. 
which he filled with the greatest credit In his capacity of administrator he greatly 
and ability for nineteen years ; so that, improved the finances of the college, ap- 
according to the testimony of a Swedish plied them to the increase and improve- 
author (Gezelius Biographiskt Lexicon, ment of the building, and was the founder 
voc, "Oemhielm,") the history of his na- of the new library there. In 1716 he 
tive country, which before this time was gave up his professorship to his son Lau- 
involved in obscurity, was brought to rentius, and lived as an honoraiy member 
light by his diligence. The college of of the academy, and senior of the aca- 
antiquities was foimded during his pro- demic consistory. He died in 1 725. 
fessorship, in which he was appointed Besides many disputations on historical 
assessor in 1669 ; and ten years after* subjects, he wrote a treatise — De Patria 
wards, he received the appointment of et ejus Amore ; compiled a Collection of 
royal historiographer. The duties of this Psalms ; and translated and composed 
ofHce he discharged with extraordinary many of the Psalms in the Swedish autho- 
diligence, perusing and collecting docu- rized version. 

ments of all kinds bearing upon Swedish ARRHENIUS, (Laurentius,) son of 

history : of these he formed a larger the preceding, and his successor in the 

collection than any one had ever pos- historical professorship of Upsal. His 

sessed before him. In 1687 he re- works consist of dissertations, chiefly his* 

signed his professorship, and received torical. 

205 



A R B A R tt 

' ARRHIDEUS, tho natural son of head against the wall of the chamber. 
Philip, was placed on the throne hy the When her sense returned, Arria re- 
Macedonians, after tho death of Alex- marked, " I told you, that if you pre- 
andcr the Great, in 321 b. c. He fell vented me from an easy way of dying, I 
into the hands of Olympias, who put him would find out a hard one.' 
to death hi 315 b.c. He was a weak 2. j^rria, daughter of the preceding, 
prince, and always govenied by others. Upon the condemnation of her husband, 
ARRIA, 1. wife of Caecinna Paetus. Thrasea Psetus, she wished to imitate her 
For taking part in the revolt of Camillus mother. But Thrasea enjoined her to 
Scribonianus, (Sueton. in Claud. 13, and live for the sake of their only daughter, 
35 ; Dio, Ix. 15,) Caecinna was sent Fannia. (Tacit. Ann. xvi. 34.) She was 
from Illyricum to Rome, and condemned sent into exile after Thrasea's death, 
to die. Arria plunged a dagger into her (Plin. Epp. ix. 13,) and returned to Rome 
breast, and presented it to ner husband with her aaughter Fannia, after the death 
with the long-remembered words — " My of Domitian. Her daughter Fannia was 
Ptietus, it hurts not. " (See Martial, the wife of Thrasea Psetus, put to death 
-Epp. i. 14.) Pliny the younger, how- by Nero, (Tacit. Ann. xvi. 34;) and 
ever, who heard from Fannia, tne grand- Anteia, her granddaughter, was married 
daughter of Arria, many particulars of to Helvidius the younger. (See Pliny, 
her history, esteems this an inferior in- Epp. 1. c. and Dio. vii. 30. Tacit. Agri- 
stance of the heroism of Arria's nature, col. 45, et ibi Lips.) 
(see Epp. iii. 16, compared with vi. 24,) 3. Arria FadilUiy mother of the cm- 
and he prefers the following. Her hus- peror Antoninus Pius, 
band Caecinna, and her son, were both, ARRIAGA,(Rodrigode,1592 — 1667,) 
apparently, djring. The son died ; and of Logrono, a Jesuit, taught philosophy 
Arria, with an unchanged countenance, at Valladolid, theology at Salamanca, 
continued her attendance upon the sur- and subsequently at Prague in Bohemia, 
vivor, replying cheerfully to liis inquiries where he ended his days. He published 
for his son, — "He sleeps, or has taken lectures in both these facidties. His 
food, and is recovering. Even the pre- opinions on matters unconnected with 
parations for the funeral were concealed religion were not settled ; he was more 
from Caecinna ; and when her grief be- fond of destroying other systems than of 
came too powerful to control, Arria left erecting one of his own ; hence he is 
the chamber to weep unseen. After rather a favourite with Bayle. 
the death of Scribonianus, Caecinna was Two other persons of this name occur 
seized and forced on board a ship to in the literature of Spain, 
be carried to Rome. Arria entreated the 1. Gonsalvo, (d. 1657,) a Dominican 




food, to dress, and wait upon him. I to Peru; who, having for some time 

will perform all their services." "When governed the college at Lima, perished 

this was denied her, she hired a small at sea in 1623. He wrote several reli- 

fishing-boat, and crossed the Adriatic gious books, the best of which is. On the 

with the galley that conveyed her hus- Means of Extirpating Idolatry, and of 

band. And when Junia, the widow of bringing the Indians to the Knowledge 

Scribonianus, to procure some mitigation of the Truth. 

of her own sentence, offered to give fur- ARRIAN, who assumed the prenomen 

ther information respecting the revolt, — of Flavins, when the emperor Adrian 

" Do you then continue to live," observed made him a citizen of Rome, about A. D. 

Arria, " in whose lap Scribonianus ex- 124, was born at Nicomedia in Bithynia; 

pired ?"* To the entrejities of her son-in- where, says Photius, who, in Cod. 93, 

law Thriu^oa, who asked her, " Would quotes from the Bithj-nica, a lost work 

you tlion, were I condemned, wish your of Arrian, the young Xenophon, (as he 

dau^'litor to die with me ?" She replied, calls himself in the still extant Cyne- 

" Aye, had she lived with you as long getics,) was a priest of Ceres and Proser- 

and as h.irmoiiiously as I with my pine, the tutdary deities of his native 

Pa'tus." To those who watched her she place. At cmce the pupil and friend of 

said, " Your ])ains are fniitless ; you may Epictetus, as Xenophon had been of 

keep me from an easy death, but not Socrates, he chose to perpetuate not 

from dying." And with these words, merely the substmice of conversations the 

she leaped from her seat, and dashed her philosopher held with himself and othen^ 

206 



A R XI ARE 

Imt, as far as he could, the very words, as person a large portion of his extensive 
he tells us in his letter to Lucius Gellius. dominions. It contains an accurate to- 
Of these Memorabilia, wliich extended pographical survey of the coasts of the 
to eight books, says Photius, only four £uxine, from Trapezus to Byzantium, and 
have been preserved, unless it be said was written probably while Arrian held 
that the Enchiridion of Epictetus, still his office of prefect, a short time before 
extant, forms another portion of the same the breaking out of the war against the 
'work ; while the fragments of the Homi- Alani : and it was doubtless at the same 
lies to be found in Stobseus, and the time that he drew up his instructions for 
Discourse alluded to in Aulus Gellius, the march of the Roman army against 
xix. 1, are to be referred probably to the the barbarians, which are found in a 
twelve books of Homilies, or Discourses, short but imperfect fragment annexed to 
mentioned by Photius ; of which the one the Tactica, written, as he states himself; 
detailing the life and death of Epictetus, in the twentieth year of the reign of the 
perhaps formed a part ; for Simpucius, in emperor, and containing, afler a brief 
nis preface to the Enchiridion, says that account of former writers on the same 
Aman arranged the discourses of his subject, a description of the order and 
master in books of many lines. Like his arrangement of an army in generaL With 
protot3rpe, he sacrificed to Mars as well respect to the Periplus of the Erythrean 
as Minerva, and was appointed by the sea, which sometimes passes under the 
emperor Adrian prefect of Cappadocia, name of Arrian, its genuineness has been 
where he signalized himself in the war doubted by many, and it is positively re^ 
against the Alani and Massa^etae; and jected by Vincent. To the preceding 
we are told that such was the fear felt by works must be added — 1 . The Parthica, 
the barbarians of his talents, that the containing an accoimt,in seventeen books, 
Scythians imder Pharasmanes, who had of Trajan's victories in that part 6f the 
committed great havoc in Media, did not Roman empire. 2. The Life of Tillibo- 
dare to attack the province under his rus, a celebrated brigand of Asia, men- 
command. In the language of Mr. Dan- tioned by Lucian. 3. The History of 
sey, the learned, faithful, and elegant Events subsequent to Alexander's Death, 
translator of Arrian 's treatise oh Cours- in ten books. 4. The Histories of Dio 
ing, Lend. 1831, not only is there a of Syracuse and of Timoleon of Corinth, 
similarity in the lives and tastes of together with some other works, which 
Arrian and Xenophon, but even in the Photius says, in Cod. 58, were attributed 
frame of their minds. The same excel- to him, but of which the bibliographer 
lences and the same weaknesses existed confesses he knew nothing. Neither the 
in both ; the same patient and unerring period of Arrian 's birth or death has 
virtue ; the -same kind and generous been as yet discovered ; and even the time 
feeling ; the same credulous regard to of his consulship is placed only by guess 
celestial admonitions, with a proportionate at the close of nis campaign against the 
degree of the purest heathen piety. Ar- Alani. Likeall the other Greek historians, 
rian's principal work — the Expedition of Arrian was first "known at the revival of 
Alexander — though composed in an age learning by Latin translations. The oldest 
when genius and taste were on the de- of these is attributed to Carolus Valgu- 
cline, is not unworthy of the best period lius Brixiensis, and is said to have been 
of Attic literature ; and his Indian liis- printed in the sixteenth century ; but the 
tory, written in the Ionic dialect, and in volume is known only from the Catalog, 
imitation of Herodotus, is one of the Biblioth. Pinell. No. 2473. There is 
most curious fragments that have come another, or the same, assigned to Petrus 
down to us. Though he did not, like Paulus Vergerius, of which there is a MS. 
Xenophon, take any part in the scenes copy in the Vatican, according to Zeni, 
he describes, yet, like Thucydides, he in Voss. Dissertaz. i. p. 53. The third 
did not fail to apply to the most trust- is by Bartholomsus Facius, who, how- 
worthy soiurces for information, and he ever, lived to get through only a fourth 
thus presents a singular contrast to the part of the Expedition of Alexander : 
romantic writer, Quintus Curtius. Of his it was completed by Jacobus Curulusj 
other Works, Dansey has given the fol- and printed at Pisaur. 1508, fol. The first 
lowing account. Arrian 's Periplus of edition of the Greek original appeared at 
the Euxine is in the form of a letter, Ven. 1535. A copy of it is in the British 
from its author to the emperor Hadrian, Museum, with the collations by Bentley of 
who was particularly attached to gco- a MS. whose readings occasionally differ 
gnmhical research, and had visited in from any furnished by other Codices. 

207 



ARE ARK 

A meagre edition was given by Schneider, ARRIGH£TTI| (Nicolaa,) a duciple 

Lips. 1798, and a learned one by Ellendt, of Galileo, also a well-known man of 

at Regimont. Prussor, 1882, in 2 vols; letters in Italy; was bom at Florence, 

the lost is by Krueger, Berlin, 1835, who and died in 1639. He distinguished hink- 

has given the text, with some brief self in mathematics and natural history, 

notes under it, to point at the grounds and in the study of the Platonic philo- 

on which the \adgate has been altered, sophy. (Biog. Univ.) 

With regard to the Tactica, nothing has ARRIGHETTO, or ARRIGO, {Le. 

been done since the time of Blancard, Henry,) called, in Latin, Henrieus SepH' 

who published at Amstel. 1683, the Tac- mellensitf or Henricui Florentmusp tLhmk 

tica and Pcriplus of the Euxine and poet of the twelfth centunr, was bom at 

Erythrean Seas. The treatise on Hunt- Settimello, near Florence. He obtained the 

ing was added by Schneider to his edition benefice of Calenzano, which, however, he 

of Xenophontis Opuscula Politica, Eques- was obliged to leave, owing to a vexatioua 

tria et Venatica, Lips. 1778. It has law-suit with the bishop of Florence. 

been translated into English by Dansey, After this, he was so reduced that the 

and adorned with notes, at once learned name of ** il potfero," or ''the poor,'*waa 

and elegant. Falconer, the editor of given him. He wrote an account of 

Strabo, published the Voyage roimd the his misfortunes in elegiac vene, in a 

Euxine, Oxf. 1805; to which he added poem entitled, De Diversitate Fortuns et 

three dissertations : — 1. On the trade to Philosophise Consolatione. This had, for 

the East Indies, by means of the Euxine some time, a very great reputation, waa 

Sea. 2. On the distance which the ships eagerly read in the schools, and proposed 

of antiquity sailed in twenty-four hours, as a modcL It was printed, for the first 

3. On the measure of the Olympic time about 1495. Several other editiona 

Stadium. have since been published, and it will be 

Ofthe other persons ofthis name, there found in Leyser, Hist. Poet. Med. £v. 
are — 1. The writer on Meteorology, who p. 453. (Biog. Univ.) 
is said by Agatharcides, in Phot. Cod. ARRIGHI, a painter, a native of 
250, to have denied that comets por- Volterra, and the favom-ite pupil of Fran- 
tended either good or cviL According ceschini. All the pictures ot hit which 
to John Philoponus, on Aristot Meteoro- remain in public contain a great portioD 
log., who refers to Eratosthenes, he cal- of the work of his master. (Lanii, Stor. 
culatcd that the circumference of the Pitt i. 205.) 

earth was 2,050,000 stadia.— 2. The ARRIGHI, (Antony,) a native of 
author of an enic poem in Greek on Corsica, and related to the family of 
Alexander, which extended to twenty- Bonaparte, was professor of law at Padua, 
four books; and of some poems on At- where he died about 1753. He was re- 
talus; and he translated also the Georgics markable for a ridiculous controveny 
of Virgil into Greek verse, as stated by about an epitaph of his own compoaition. 
Suidas. His principal writings are, a Hiftory of 

ARRIBAS, (Pablo Antonio, 1771— the Wars of Cyprus, in Latin; and, a 

1828,) Spanish minister of justice; pro- Life of Franciscus Maurocenui. (Biog. 

fessed law at Vallodolid, and rose through Univ. SuppL) 

the gradations of oftice until Charles IV. ARRIGHI, (duke of Padua,) of a Cor- 

made him procurador-gcncral of the Al- sican family, a relative of Napoleon, and 

cades del Corte. Gratitude to his royal one of his most distine;uishea generals. 

master was not among his virtues, for he Having entered the military service very 

embraced the interests of Joseph Bona- young, he became aid-dc-camp of Ber- 

parte, and by that usurper was made thicr, went with the expedition into Effypt, 

minister of |)olice, and of justice. In and afterwards distinguished himself at 

1S14, thereiore, he was compelled to Austerlitz as a colonel of draeoons. He 

leave Spain, and he ended his days in the acted with great bravery at the battle of 

vicinity of Paris. Wagram, where he commanded a regi- 

ARRIGHETTI, (Philip, 1582—1602,) mcnt of Napoleon's guards. He was 

was bom at Florence, lie was one of made a general, a duke, and married 

till* most distinguished members of the the daugnter of count Montesquiou, 

Florentine Academy, and that of the chamberlain of Napoleon. In 1813, he 

Alterati. lie wrote a great many works assisted in the campaign in Saxony ; and 

of an academical and theological cha- at the head of the tliird corps of cavalry, 

ractcr, which, however, were never received orders to sweep the left banks 

printed. (Biog. Univ.) of the Elbe. Arrighi declared Leipzig 

208 



ARR ARR 

in a state of siege, and became still more Rafiinelli*s Collection of the Letters of 

impopular in Germany, by attacking the Different Authors. (Biog. Univ.) 

free corps of Liitzow during the armi- ARRI VABENE, (Giovanni Pietro,) of 

stice, on the 17th Jime, 1813. He fought the same family, was a pupil of Philel- 

with his usual coiu'age in the other bat- phus, and became bishop of Urbino, 

ties of that great campaign. After the where he died in 1504. He wrote Gon- 

abdication of Napoleon, Arrighi made zagidos, a poem, in honour of Ludovico, 

his peace with Louis XVllI. In the marquis of Mantua, a general who died 

hundred days he accepted a peerage from in 1484, and Latin Epistles, that were 

Napoleon, and was sent as commissaire published, with those of James Picco- 

extraordinaire to Corsica. He there for- lomini, at Milan, 1506. (Biog. Univ. 

tified himself in Calvi, and prepared to Roscoe's Leo X. MazzuchellL) 

defend himself to the utmost. After the ARRIVABENE, (Hyppolito,) of the 

battle of Waterloo he still held out, and same family, died in 1739. He was a 

determined upon declaring Corsica inde- physician at Rome, and was the author 

pendent — a project in which, as might of Poems published at Modena in 1717, 

De expected, he was unsuccessful. He and an academical dissertation, entitled 

was banished from the French territory. La Vera Idea della Medicina. Reggio, 

and retired into Lombardy, where ne 1730, 4to. 

died recently. Several other personages ARRIVABENE, (Ferdinando, 1770 — 

of the same name have distinguished 1834,) an Italian jurist and philologer. 

themselves in Corsica of late years. He was a native of Mantua, and em- 

(Biographie Nouv. des Cotemp. Milit. ployed some time as president of a court 

Conv. Lex.) of law in Brescia, from 1807 — 1816, and 

ARRIGONI, (Francis,) was bom at then removed to Bergamo ; but in 1821, 

Bergamo in 1610, and died 1645. He he appears to have been deprived un- 

wrotesome Eulogies and Discourses, which handsomely of his judgeship. He wrote 

were published at Bergamo in 1636 ; the two treatises on legislative subjects, an 

Theatre of Virtue, and other pieces, no- Historical Commentary on Dante, and an 

ticed by Vaerini in his history of the Essay on the Loves of Dante and Bea- 

writers of Bergamo. trice, a Grammatical Preface to a Dic- 

ARRIGONI, (Pompeio, cardinal,) was tionarj', compiled by his brother, an 

bom at Rome in 1552. He filled many Essay on Forensic Language, a work on 

important offices in the papal court, and Italian Antiquities, &c. (Tipaldo, ii. 462.) 

died in 1616. He was the author of a ARROWSMITH, (John, D.D., bom 

few tracts mentioned in the Biog. Univ. 1602, died 1659,) eminent as a preacher 

ARRIGONI. See Laursntini. and writer in divinity among the puritans 

ARRIQUIBAR, (Don Nicholas,) a of the seventeenth century, and for the 

merchant of Bilboa, in Spain, deserving high stations which he filled diuring the 

notice as the author of one of the earliest short time in which that party were in 

treatises on Political Economy as a Sci- the ascendant. 'He was bom at* Gates- 

ence. His book, entitled Recreacion head, a suburb of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 

Politica, was composed in 1770, and studied in St. John's college, Cambridge, 

printed, after his death, in 1779, at Vit- and became a fellow of Catherine hSl. 

toria. (Biog. Univ.) He was one of the university preachers, 

ARRIVABENE, (Andreas,) a printer became settled at Lynn, m Norfolk, 

of Venice about the middle of the six- whence he removed to London, where he 

teenth century, and the author as well as had the church of St. Martin's, Iron- 

frinter of a translation of the Koran into monger-lane, and was one of the assembly 

talian. This version is not made imme- of divines who were called to assist the 

diately from the Arabic, but is a transla- Long Parliament in affairs touching reli- 

tion from the Latin of Retinensis. It gion. At this time, namely, in April, 

was itself the basis of the German trans- 1644, he was constituted master of St. 

lation of Schweigger. John's college by the earl of Manchester, 

ARRIVABENE, (Giovanni Fran- to whom the parliament committed the 

cesco,) was bom at Mantua, and flourished changes to be made in that university, 

about the year 1546. He was the author Dr. Beal, the former master, being re- 

of some poems, which he entitled Mari- moved to make way for him. In 1647 

time Eclogues, and which were printed he was vice-chancellor of the university ; 

at Mantua in 1547. He was also distin- and in 1651, was made regius professor 

cuished as a prose writer, and many of of divinity. Finally, in 1653, he was 

nis letters and essays are published in chosen master of Trinity college. Hia 

VOL. II. 209 p 



ARK A R S 

death, just on the ere of the king's re- the dynasty of the Anacides« The Ar- 

turn, and the re-establishment of the menian kings of this name were also 

church in its former order, probably saved descended from the Persian Arsaces, and 

him from a removal from his mastership, their dynas^ takes its name from him. 
and from taking his place among the The Persian annals throw little light 

puritan ministers excluded from the upon the history of these monarchs ; and 

church by the Act of Uniformity in 1662. wnat information we possess, is chiefly 

He was buried in Trinity college chapeL derived from the Greek and Roman hi»- 

Dr. Zachary Grey, in his Examination torians, and from the Armenian, Motes 

of Neal's History of the Puritans, has Chorenensis. Between these latter ac- 

produced certain passages from the writ- counts there is considerable discrepancy. 

ings of Dr. Arrowsmith, which show him The following is their history as fiur as 

to have been infected with the bad taste it can be c(3lected from these various 

of the times in respect of pulpit oratory ; sources. 

but nothing has come down to us to im- Artaee» I. He and his brother Tl- 

peach the testimony of a contemporary, ridates lived in Persia in the third 

that he was ** holy and learned," oiligent, century before Christ, during the time 

sealous, and sincere ; doing all that could that that country formed a province of 

be done with a " weak and sickly body." the kingdom of the Seleucidae. .The two 

His printed works are. Two Sermons, brothers appear to have heen men of 

preached before the Parliament ; Tactica rank in their own country, and claimed 

Sacra, 4to, 1657; Armilla Catechetica, descent from the Achsmenides. Ag»- 

a Chain of IMnciples, or an orderly Con- thocles (or ^according to Arrian, Fne- 

catcnation of Theological Aphorisms and recles,) the governor of Persia under 

Exercitations, wherem the cnief Heads of Antiochus Theos, had offered a disgrace- 

the Christian Religion are asserted and ful insult to llridates, which his brother 

improved, 4to, 1659 ; with a posthumous Arsaces avenged by the death of the 

work, entitled God- Man, published in aggressor, and called upon his country- 

1660. His writings are said to be still men to revolt against the domination of 

esteemed. The Armilla was reprinted at the Seleucidse. Antiochus Theos, oeco- 

Edinburgh as late as 1822. See Neal; pied by the war in Egypt, and distracted 

History of St. John's college, Cambridge ; by a similar revolt in Bactria, was unable 

Brook's Lives of tlie Puritans ; Lowndes' to quell either ; and Arsaces, die deUverer 

Bibliographical Manual. of his nation, became also their sovereign 

ARROWSMITH, (Aaron, 1751 — about b. c. 250. He established himself 
1823,) an eminent English engraver of in Parthia, and chose the ci^ of Heca- 
maps, who held for some ^ears the office tompylos (called by Moses Chorenensis 
of iiydrographer to the king. His maps Bath) as the capital of his enmire. Ac- 
were very numerous, and the neatness and cording to Arrian, he died after a reign 
finished style of their execution gained of two years ; but Justin and others give 
for them a very extensive reputation, him a much longer reign, ascribing to 
which, however, on closer examination, him much of what is attributed to his 
they have not permanently sustained, brother and successor Tiridates, and re- 
Arrowsmith was a most industrious col- late that he perished at last in a battle 
lector of materials, but he was not equally against kins Ariarathes IV. of Cappa- 
judicious ill using thcin ; and though, in docia. He is honoured by the Armeman 
various rcs^yccts, useful and meritorious, historians with the title of Arshag Kach— 
his maps contain many great and im- Arsacet the Brave, 
portant errors. Anacei II, Ttridatety the brother of 

AllROY, (Beaian,) a doctor of the the preceding, and mentioned in hit hi»- 
Sorl)onne, and a theologician at L^ons, tory, followed him on the throne, and 
in the seventeenth century, who published greatly increased the limits of the Par- 
various works, now of no great import- uiian kingdom. He made himself master 
ance. (Biog. Univ.) of Hyrcania, and entered into an alliance 

AUSACKS, or AHSIIEK, a name with Theodotus, king of Bactria. In an 

borne by several Persian and Armenian expedition against the Parthians, a. c. 

kings : in modern Persian historians 238, Scleucus Callinicus, the successor of 

written Ashek. This name was borne Antiochus Theos, was taken prisoner by 

by some of the Achaemcnides ; but the Arsaces, and continued in captivity four 

greater number of those so named were years : according to some writers till his 

of the early part of the Parthian dynasty, death. • The day of this victory was kept 

which for this reason is sometimes called by the Parthians as an annual feitinl; 

210 



AR8 ARS 

the amdvenary from which they dated The lufeceeding kings of Parthia hol^ 

the full establishment of their independ- the name of Arsaces, but apparently only 

ence. Arsaces II. is said to have reigned as an adjunct of sovereignty — as the 

thirty -seven years. He is styled by Roman emperors took the title of Csesar. 

Moses Chorenensis Artases, or Ardash. The authorities for their history are, 

Arsaces III. Artabaniu succeeded his Arrian, Strabo, Justin, Ammianus Mar- 
father in the government about b.c. 217; cellinus, Polybius, Moses Chorenensis; 
and whilst Antiocbus the Great was oc- and in modem times — Foy Vaillant, 
cupied with the war against Egypt, and Louis du Four de Longuerue, Spanhe^ 
against Achaeus, the usurper of the crown mius, and Bayer. . The Parthian coins, 
of the Seleucides, the Parthian king took with Grecian inscriptions and Macedo- 
possession of Media. Antiochus, how- nian names of the months, are given by 
ever, having finished the wars in which Vaillant. 

he was engaged at the time of this con- The notices of the Parthian kines in 

quest, drove Arsaces out of Media, pur- the Persian historians, are exceedmgly 

sued him into his own states, and pene- meagre, amounting to little more than a 

trated to the waU? of Hecatompylos, his list of their names. This may perhaps 

capital. Arsaces, with his army, with- arise from the prevalence of the Greek 

drew into the mountains of Hyrcania, language and literature during their 

trusting in the natural defences of this rule. 

rugged country ; but Antiochus gained The Armenian kings of this name, ac- 

possession of the mountain passes, and cording to the Roman historians, are the 

took the city of Syringis. Arsaces, how- following : — 

ever, found means to assemble another Arsaces I, son pf the Parthian king 

and numerous army ; and Antiochus, Artabanus III. was forcibly placed by 

finding it inexpedient to continue the war him on the throne of Armenia, on the 

with an enemy so able and resolute, es- death of Artaxias. Tiberius stirred up 

peciaUy as the affairs of Egypt and Asia against him Mithradates and Pharas- 

Minor demanded his attention, made menes, and he perished by a conspiracy 

peace with the Parthian king, b.c 210. among his own servants in the first year 

The terms of peace were, that Arsaces of his reign, 
should retain possession of Parthia and Arsaces II. was placed on the throne 
Hyrcania, on condition of his assisting by his brother Artabanus IV. of Parthia, 
Antiochus in his expedition against £u- about 218 a. n. He was a friend of the 
thydemus, king of Bactria, which he Romans, and assisted his brother against 
wished to subject to the government of the rebel Ardasheer (the founder of the 
the Seleucidae. He met, however, with Sassanian dynasty,) by whom, however, 
so much opposition, that he granted the he was finally overcome. 
Bactrian king a peace on very advanta- Arsaces III. succeeded his father Ti- 
geous terms; and after a visit to the ridates III. under the reign of Constan- 
Indian king, Sophagasenus, returned to tins Augustus, the son of ^nstantine the 
Sjrria. After this Arsaces lived in peace Great, and was a friend of the Romans, 
to the end of his reign, the length of He was treacherously taken prisoner and 
which is not accurately determined. By murdered by Sapor 11. of Persia, at a 
some writers he is called Arsaces II., banquet, to which that king had invited 
Tiridates being altogether omitted, him at the castle of Agabana. Moses 
Moses Chorenensis calls this king Ar- Chorenensis relates a similar story of 
shag Mieds — Arshag the Great, and says Tiranus II. and his Arsaces II. 
that he established his brother Valarsaces, Arsaces IV. son of Arsaces III. suc- 
or Wagharshag, as king of Armenia. ceeded his brother Para in the eovem- 
Arsaces IF. Phriapatius, succeeded ment of Armenia, towards the end of the 
his father in the government of Parthia ; fourth century. He appears to have 
but little is known of his history. Justin been an ally of the Romans, and to have 
says that he reigned fifteen years, and enjoyed an undisturbed reign under fa- 
left three sons, Phraates, Mithradates, vour of the peace made between Theodo^ 
and Artabanus ; the first of whom sue- sins and the Persians, 
ceeded him. Moses Chorenensis calls Arsaces F. son of the foregoing, by 
him Arshagan, and makes his reign his father's will inherited only a fifth part 
thirty years. The greatest discrepancy of the kingdom, while to his brother Tk- 
prevails between t&s writer and the granes was allotted the remainder. He 
Greek and Roman historians on the sub- applied to the Roman emperor, Theodor 
ject <^ the duration of these reigns. siiis the younger, for assistance to recove? 

211 p 2 



A R S A R S 

tbe wKole of the kingdom: but when committed there, he put annelid to his 
Tigranes, to protect himself against the own life. 

powerful allies of his brother, gave up ARSAMES, or ARSAMAS, a king of 
nis part of the kingdom to the kin^ of Armenia, about 245 b. c. There are se- 
Persia, Arsaces, on his side, relinquisned veral of this name, among whom are, 
his portion to the Roman emperor, and Arsames, father of Hystaspes, the father 
descended into private life. of Cyrus ; another, a son of Artaxerxes 

The list of Armenian Arsaces given Longimanus ; and a third, a Persian 
by Moses Chorenensis, differs conside- general killed at the battle of Issus. 
rably from the above. He makes only (Biog. Univ.) 
three of them ARSENIUS, patriarch of Constant!- 

Arsaces L succeeded his father Wal- nople, was a lay-monk in a monastery in 
arsaces, who had been placed on the Macedonia, from which he was, in 1255, 
throne by Arsaces III. of Persia, (see this called by Theodore Lascaris to the me- 
name) in a.d. 108. He made war upon tropolitan see. In the course of one 
the inhabitants of Pontus, and is saia to week, he was lay-monk, deacon, pnest, 
have left behind him there as a mark of and patriarch, rour years after, Theo- 
his progress, his lance struck deep into a dore Lascaris died, but, before hit death, 
stone colunm, which had lone received he committed his son, John Lascaris, 
divine honours from the peo]^e of that then in the sixth year of his age, to the 
region. During his reign, many of the careofArsenius, conjointly with Muxalon. 
Bulgarians, the inhabitants of the coun- Shortly afterwards, Muzalon was assaaii- 
try about Mount Caucasus, driven by nated, and Michael Palseologus, having by 
popular commotions from their own coun- a series of artifices and encroachments, in 
try, took refuge in some of the most fer- some of which Arsenius was an unwilling 
tile parts of Armenia. He exhibited a instrument, obtained the sovereign power, 
memorable instance of religious persecu- and been crowned emperor, though with 
tion against the sons of Bagaratus, a an understanding that when John Las- 
Jewish settler in Armenia, to whom his caris arrived at years of manhood he 
predecessors had been under great obli- should be joined with him in the sove- 
gations^ and whom they had ennobled, reignty, the patriarch seeing his own 
Two of these youths were put to death, authority and influence on the decline, 
and the rest spared, on condition that retired to a monaster}'. Michael there- 
they should not observe the sabbath in upon deposed him, and chose Nicephorus 
abstaining from war or hunting, and that in his place, and thence arose a great 
they should not circumcise their chil- division in the Greek church concerning 
dren. He is said to have reigned thirteen them. In 1261, Constantinople having 
years. been recovered from the Latins, Michau 

Arsaces II, son of Tiranus II. was put thought it judicious to recall Arsenius to 
on the throne by Sapor, kine of Persia, his see. Michael was again crowned in 
A. D. 364. The emperor Valentinian, the church of St. Sophia, with the same 
about to invade Persia, called upon him understanding as before. The tyrant was 
to join him in this expedition against the restrained from fear or conscience from 
ancient enemies of Armenia ; and his dipping his hands in royal blood, but he 
refusal to do so provoked Valentinian to determined to secure his throne by what 
send an anny against him, under the Gibbon calls — '* one of those imperfect 
command of Thcodosius : the attack, crimes so familiar to the modem Greeks," 
however, was averted by the intercession that is, by putting out the eyes of the 
of the bishop Narses. Arsaces cruelly unfortunate young prince. Arsenius, 
persecuted his nephew Gncl, and at last filled with indignation, excommunicated 
murdered him, that he might marry his the emperor, who exhibited signs of great 
wife Pharauzcs. His cnicTty raised his remorse and repentance, and of reverence 
subjects against him, and caused many for the character of the patriarch. No- 
rebellions ; and in addition to this, his thing, however, could prevail upon him 
dominions were frequently invaded by to withdraw his sentence, and for three 
Sapor. During one of these Persian in- years the emperor laboured under all the 
cursions, Arsaces trusted himself in the danger and scandal of it At length, in 
Persian camp, was taken prisoner, and 1266, Michael having obtained the con- 
thrown into a tower in Chuzistan, called sent of several bishops, convoked a coun- 
the Castle of Oblivion. Here, desperate cil, which, on the pretence of Arsenius 
at the progress which Sapor was making having been engaged in a conspiracy 
in his kingdom, and the cruelties he against the emperor, deposed him, and 

212 



ARS ARS 

banished him to a small island of the in the Mediceo-Laurentian Library at 
Fropontis. He bore his sufferings with Florence. In the Apophthegms