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Vol. I.— The Pkosb Wbitebs op Gebmakt. 
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III.— The Dramatists op Geemant. 

Thia rvork, aeetmpanUd by numeroua biographical and critical notieea, ia intended to give a 
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0tio Btvman Ifteotrer 



For the Use of Schools. 




Sas . f-. /^.' 


m * 



I. The German Alphabet, 8 

II. Interchange of Consonants in German and English, 9 
III. How to prepare a lesson from the Reader, ... 11 

The names of some of the leading authors only- 
are given. Many of the pieces are compilations, 
extracts, and adaptations made from various 
writers ; others are taken from the best German 
Headers in use in the higher schools of Germany 


1.. 5Die {e^tge ®enrration, 

2. 2)ie ffiage, .... 

3. $ln ben Srul^Ung, . . 

4. @ttt>ad Stujenfd^einUd^ed, 

5. @pru(j^e in $rofa, . 

6. (Sine atte @age, * . 

7. ^ie ®eYe<^ti(]^!eit, . 

8. S)er ^it JtreBd unb ber iunge, 

9. Sprid^iDorter u. Otebendarten, 

10. ©inSunHje, . . , 

11. Do^ Jtinb u. bad firmament, 

12. ©in (Reifenber erja^ft, . . 

13. ^id^ o^xX )u i^fen toiffen, . 

Schiller, . 
Lessing, . 
Schiller, . 
Schiller, . 

Gothe, . 
Max Mtiller 





14. <£)ie Sugenbjeit, Saphir, ... 20 

15. ®)>ri(i^to}6rter u. dtebeniarten, .. ^ ..... 21 

16. 2)eutfd^e ©latter, G8the, ... 21 

17. ©efd^id^te ^m bumuKn ^kxa^ny. R. Lowenstein, 22 

18. JDie fRotur ein ©Ub, etc., 25 

19. (Sim pafftnht 9lnta>oxt 26 

2a SWorgen! QRorgen! etc., 27 

21. ^er <Sd^utbner unb fein ®l&nbiger, ...... 27 

22. <Die SacebdmonieT, 28 

23. @))rid^n>6rtet un)> (Rebntterten, * • . ' 29 

24. ©uterSlatl^, G5the, ... 29 

25. ®in mttf}^oUte Jtltino\>, . . 30 

26. @)>ti4n»o¥tcr u. (Reben^arten, 31 

27. 3)cr ©vumbaf , 32 

28. 2)ft 2Birt^ u. fcin @afl, 33 

29. Sungfer Sji^argatet^a, Pastor J. Sturm, 34 

30. ^tmSttUntx, Gothe, ... 36 

31. 2)ie Stint>f)tit, Max MUller, . 36 

32. @j)rid^tt)orter, 37 

33. 3)cr ertfonig, ...".... Gothe, ... 37 

34. 2)te ^au^rt^necfe. eto., .... J. F. Fischart . 40 

35. ^ie (Re^nung, 41 

36. ^er ^ergog, bie SDirtl^in, etc., 42 

37. ^ie Sangetofile, ...... B. Anerbach, . 42 

38. ^er SRonb ergdl^U, ..... Anderson, . . 43 

39. ^err ))on ^Und^fj^u^m erg&^U, . . Burger, ... 45 

40. When we were children, . . . H. Heine, . . 47 

41. S)ie iunge $enf{cn&rin, No. 1, . . Adapted from 

J^n'8 itUvahu^, 48 

42. <Der Sunfer u. bet ©auer, 50 

43. ^pn^tooxtlidft ^tUtOaxtm, 50 

44. iprebiger bcr iBiebe, Saphir, ... 51 

45. i>ai abeljiol^e grdulein, etc., . • 52 

46. @)}ri(l^mcrter u. (Reben^arten, 53 

47. IDic junge $enfion&rin, No. 2, oonHnued from p, 49, . 54 



48. IDer 9Xanerlattfct, 55 

49. 3)et ©renabirv, 55 

50. Sifi>ctau«^ent JMedevmi 1870,No. 1, A. ▼. CorTiii, . 56 

51. 2)ie iuage $en{bnartn. No. 3^ eontitmedfiromp. 54, . 57 

52. IDer !8auer wXb fein i^cbolb, . . J. and W. Grimm, 58 

53. SBeg9(toorfen€« ®e1b, etc, 60 

54. IDie iunge $enftonattn. No. 4, cotUiamedJromp. 57, . 61 

55. ^omont^m, 61 

56. S3iIberaii»bemiMe9c9onl870,No.2,6er8tacker, . . 62 

57. a)cr Sfcitag, . Saphir, ... 63 

58. g^tabc .* 63 

59. 5Ded Jtonigd ®raB Brothers Grimm, 64 

60. 3)er bftrcgene Xeufvl, Ruckert, ... 66 

61. S)ie iunge $enf{onarin, No. 5, continued Jrom p. 61, . 67 

62. IDie ^au^ratl^e, ..... After B. Auerbach, 68 

63. @prid^to6t?tcr 68 

64. UeBer bie @(^u^mad^er, 69 

65. IDer Saimfonig, 70 

66. IDer 9tt(^ u. bie 5Dontrn, . . . Lessing, ... 70 

67. 2)ie junge $m{bnarin, No. 6, conHnuedfromp, 67, . 71 
'68. 9hjrbifd^e @age, Uhland, ... 72 

69. aRa(^t bev 3KanteI ben $^iIofo):>^ ? ....... 73 

70. @»ni<^tootter, ' ... 73 

71. Legend of the Emperor Frederick Barbarofisa, with 

two verses of poetiy adapted from an anonymous 

writer, 74 

5JriebTi(!^ (Rot^bart auf bent Jhjft^anfer, J. and W. Grimm, 75 

72. SUberau«bemJWege»onl870,No.3,R. Heck, . . 76 

73. sKein Simmer, Saphir, ... 77 

74. 3)er JDoctot n. fein ^Patient, . . . ' P. von Sittewald, 78 

75. JDer alte ©arbatoifa, Ruckert, ... 80 

76. IDie iunge ^fenjlonarin, No. 7, continued from p. 71, . 81 

77. 3)er Xob, ber JBettter, etc., 81 

78. griebric^ «ot]^6att E. v. Geibel, . 82 

79. !»eben«arten, 83 



.80. JDer ©tord^ 84 

81. S)te iunge $enj!ondrin, No. 8, condusion^ .... 85 

82. aSein erfler ^efud^ aufiS (Sd^Iof, . Max MtiUer, . 86 

83. ©^rid^toorter u. aieben«arten, 87 

84. S)ie aSerlobung Korner, ... 87 

85. 9Kein erfiet SBefud^ aufd ^d^Iop, ccm^i, 90 

86. (R«ben«arten 90 

87. SSar ©cctatrt ein ffieifer ober ein 

9larr, Saphir, ... 91 

88. (S^jtid^toort, Btirger, ... 91 

89. ^ie ^erloBung, continued^ . . . Korner^. ... 92 

90. 2)er JDorn u. bie JDornen, 93 

91. gD{etnerfletSefu(i^auf0(Sd^(9f,eon^, 94 

92. aBa« tear, 94 

93. 2Bar @octatf« tin SBeifcr, etc., conJfi^ Saphir, ... 95 

94. 5Die S^erloBung, continued^ . 96 

95. @^)rid^tt)crter, .97 

96. IDet ©afiloirt]^ gu 3nge(]^eim, . Herloszsohn, . 98 

97. 2»eineriletS3efud^auf«@d^tofi, con**, 100 

98. @prid^to6rter, 100 

99. JDie 93ei?h)bung,cow/enttcc?yromp.97, 101 

100. ©prid^tootter u. (Rebeitfarten, 102 

101. Sogogr^^l^, . . 102 

102. 9){etn er^et ^efud^, etc., oonc/tMiec;, 103 

103. IDie Serlobung, continued,, , 104 

104. Robert Bruce, 105 

105. ^ie 93er(obung, conclusion, 106 

106. gotoenritt, P. Freiligrath, . 107 

107. Alliterative Phraseology, Ill 

108. 2)er ^attbfc^u^, *. Schiller, . . .112 

109. S3on ^Uibern, .... B. Auerbach, . 115 
3 10. Slu« bem 9libe(ungenlifb, 116 

111. SKar (Stclprian in ©efeHfd^aft, . Zschokke, 118 to 125 

112. dinfefle^urg, etc., .... Martin Luther,. 125 

113. ©irfinbbe«*errn Spitta, . . .128 


114. JE)e« 3)eutf(]^en SSatertanb, . 

115. 3)ie 2Ba(S^t am Ol^ein, . . 

116. (Bd^ditnm, 

117. J&eibenr6«lein 

118. JDet gute J^amerab, . . . 

119. 3)0^ 8ieb »om getbwatfd^otl, 

120. ©tubentenlieb, .... 

121. 5llte« (StubentetiUeb, . . 


* Arndt, ... 129 
Schneckenburger, 131 



139 to 142 

143 to 157 

Appendix I. 

Seitttttftdanjcigen, Advts in Newspapers, . . . 

Appendix n. 
^anbetecorref^otibeng, Original Letters, Invoices, Bills of 
Exchange, Freight- Accounts, etc., ... 

Appendix HX 

Monetary and Mercantile Reports, 158 

Shipping Intelligence, 160 

Meteorological Reports, 161 

Appendix IV. 

New Measures and Weights, 162 

Comparative Money Table, 164 

List of Abbreviations, 165 

Explanation of Weak and Strong, 166 

A Complete Grammatical and partly Etymological 
Vocabulary, with Supplement, .... 167 to 440 

How to construe a German Sentence, 441 

Forms of Parsing, 443 

Directions for Analyzing a Sentence, 446 

German National Handwriting, and Ornamental Round 
Hand, with four Tables of Specimens, 448 


^a, - 

A, a 

% n, — K, n 

S3,b, - 

B, b 

O, 0, — O, 

e, t, — 

C, c 

% ^ - P. P 

2), fc, - 

a, <», — Q, 4 

a, % — 

E, e 

9i, », E, r 

%, I - 

F. f 

©,f, §, — S, s 

®, 8, — 


3;, t, — T, t 

^,% - 


u, u, — tr, u 

% i, - 

I. i 

% 0, — V, V 

3, i - 

J. J 

«&,», — W,«r 

St, I, - 


f , X, — X, X 

% I, - 

L, 1 

S), i^, — Y, y 

3)1, m, — 


3, a, — z, z 


Vowels capable of being modified or inflected : — 

Modified or Inflected Vowels : — 

ae, h, — Oz, 6, — Me, u, — 5u. 




GrimnCa Law of Progression of Mutes, or " £aut»frf(3^ieBung.'' 

I. Labial or p-mutes. 

1 . German b, if not initial, answers to English f or v : 

©tab, staff ®xaif grave 

2. German f, if not initial, answers to Englisli p : 

©d^iff, ship of en, open 

3. German pf corresponds to Englisli p : 

5Pfeffer, pepper ^fto^jf, prop 

II. Kngudl or't-mutes. 

1. German b answers to 'English th: 

2)ic6, thief ©ab, bath 

2. German t or if) answers to English d : 

SJort; word Xfjixx, door 

Xmgual • Sibilants. 

3. German 9, ^, ff, correspond frequently to 

English t: 

. au^, out ^c(|i;;ho.t 2B a ff er, water 

4. German g and ^ often correspond to English t : 

9WaIj, malt 5taftc, cat flftcn, to sit 

A 2 


III. Guttural or k-mutes (Palatals). 

1. German { answers sometimes to English ch : 

Stinxif chin 

2. German d& corresponds frequently to English 

k, gh, tch, etc. : 

3Rilc]^,milk Sid^t, Hght 5Ped^, pitch 

3. German g corresponds sometimes to English 

y, 1, w, etc. : 

Slag, day ^ '&U9eI, hill ©otgc, sorrow 

4 German j answers in some words to English y : 

3a^r, year Sod^, yoke 


Find the English words corresponding to 
the German: fjaUxi, tjali, Zauit, ficben, fiber, 
Stnait, tief, t^cuer, ZaQ, Zob, beffer, Soli, 
bad, Strafe, JRafte, 3eit (ei = EngL i), qjfunb 
(u = Engl, ou), ju (u = EngL oo), felten, ©d^laf, 
auf, SBuc^, ategel, SBeg, leic^t, 3Beib, ©c^ne))fe, 
taub, ad^t, jierben, ^affen, ^elfen, tt)ad^en, folgen, 
5PfIanje, Dan!, tt)a«, reif, 5Pfeife, gieber, baf, 
furj, lieb, leben, Sager, lad^en, Stxnde, frad^en, 
fferl, jung, ^opfen, ^offen, t&erj, ^aufe, ®ruf, 
grad^t, gluc^t, gaf, 3)orn, ^ttt, ©art, alt 





Spell every word before looking it out in the vocabulary at 
the end. The more difficult forms of words, especially of verbs, 
are mostly given in the vocabulary in the same form in which 
they occur in the text, and traced liack to th^ir simplest forms. 

The notes on inflexion and composition, found in the vocabu- 
lary, must be carefully studied and committed to memory for 
every lesson. 

Many of the notes on derivation are, however, more intended 
for the higher classes of schools, especially in the classical 
division, and for the best pupils of the other classes, after they 
have mastered the inflexion of the word. The notes will also 
in some instances require some further explanation; and the 
student should make himself familiar with the Law of Inter- 
change of Consonants in German and English, given on p. 9. 

By consulting the vocabulary (which is intended to aid in 
teaching Grerman etymology and syntax, incidentcdlu as it were 
and not by mere rote), and with the help of toe author's 
Elementary German Grammar, or any abstract of German 
accidence, the student ought to be able to render a brief account 
of every word in the lesson which has been set. 

The vocabulary is so constructed as to avoid the necessity of 
resorting to any extraneous assistance in the preparation of the 
lesson, either from a tutor or from members of tne family hap- 
pening to possess a slight knowledge of the language. 

Examples of Constming, Forms of Parsing, and Directions 
for Analyzing Sentences, will be found at the end of the book. 

When preparing the lesson, the student should ask himself: 

1.) What part of speech is this word, and what ia its mode 
of inflexion t 

2.) In what form does this word occur in the sentence 
before me, and how can I account for this particular form 1 

3.) Does this word in any way affect or influence the in- 
flexion or position of any other word in the sentence 1 How ? 
And why 1 

4.) Is this word dependent upon, governed by, or agreeing 
with, any other word in the sentence 1 


Page 37, No. 32, read : getoai^ttt. 
„ 52, „ 45, read : SD^amma. 
„ 52, „ 46, read : @tnem. 
,y 60, last line of note, read : hinten. 
„ 74, No. 71, line 10, read : Italianybr Latin. 
„ 97, „ 95, line 3, add gu afier %\fixt. 
„ 100, „ 98, line 3, read : jttntf^ern/dr fi^toijcnt. 
„ 133, „ 118, line 1, read : 3d^ l^iit etnen. 
„ 134, „ 119, note, read: forward /or forwards. 
„ 140, „ 3, line 2, read : fammtlid^en. 
„ 188, under Be, read : inseparable prefix. 
„ 190, line 7, read : bu Bcd^rjl. 
„ 212, line 5, read : 6^a{fen$9lnli>eifung. 
„ 216, after banfe! read: imper. 
„ 218, under bo^fclBe, read : berfctBe, biefelBe, etc. 
„ 218, under bdu^te, read; gebdud^t. 
„ 219, under S^egen, read : not akin to the Engl 
„ 247, under ed, read : f!e/ i^rer, il^hen. 
„ 248, under f&Ut, read : fallen. 
„ 265, read : ®enauigfeit/or ©enaugfeit. 
, , 269, under ©etraibe, read : (Srtrag/or (Srtag. 



1. — ^Die jetzige G^neratio'n. 

{Friedrich van Sc^tUer, horn 1759, died 1805.) 

War es iminer wie jetzt ? 

Ich kann dias Greschlecht nicht begreifen. 

Nur das Alter ist iuBg, 

Und ach! die Jugend ist alt. 

2)te ie^ige feneration. 

SBar ed immer n^ie je^t? 

S6f fann ba6 ®t\6)U^t ni^t tegteifen. 

Slur ba^*?llter iji junfl, 

Unb ad^! bie Sugenb ifi alt. 

2.— Die Wage. 

(O. 'il, Letsing, lorn 1729, died 1781.) 

Die Wage gleicht der groszen Welt: 
Das Leichte steigt, das Schwere fallt. 

2)ie SOB age. 

Die SBage gleid^t ber gro^en SBelt: 
2)ae Seid^te fteigt, ba^ Schwere fittt 


3. — ^An den Friihling. 

{Fr. V, Schiller^ 1759-1805, poet, dramatist, historian,) 

Willkommen, schoner Jtingling ! 
Du Wonne der Natu r ! 
Mit deinem Bliimenkorbclieii, 
Willkommen auf der Flur ! 

Ei ! da bist du ja wieder ! 
Und bist so lieb imd schon ! 
Und iien'n wir uns so herzlich, 
Entgegen dir zu geh'n. 

2ln ben Sru^ling. 

SBlBfommcn, fd^oner 3ungling! 
2)u SBonne btx Plaint I 
9Rit bcincm SSfumenforbd^en, 
SBittfommcn auf ber glut! 

@t! ba bift bu ja n)ieber! 
Unb btji fo Ileb unb fd&on! 
Unb freu'n tt)lr un^ fo ^erjlid^; 
©ntgegcn bir ju gc^*n. 

4. — ^Etwas Augenscheinliches. 

{Fr. V. SchiUer^ 1759-1805, |70«<, dramatist^ historian,) 

Der Schnee macht kalt, das Feuer brennt, 
Der Mensch geht anf zwei Fiissen, 
Die Sonne scheint am Firmame'nt, 
Das kann, wer auch nicht Lo'gik kennt, 
Durch seine Sinne wissen. 


(Stkt^ad Slugenfc^einltc^ed. 

!Det @^mt mad^t tali, bad Seuet brennt, 
Dcr aJlenfd^ gcl^t auf jn)ci guf en, 
2)ie ©onnc jd^eint am gtrmament, 
3)ad tann, tt>er aud^ nid^t 8ogif fenirt^ 
3)urc^ fcinc ©innc vpiffen. 

6. — Spriiche in Prosa. 

IJohann Wolfgang von Odihe, horn 1749, died 1832, the mott 

iUustriovs poet of Oermany.) 

Die Weisheit ist mir in der Wahrheit. 

Einer neuen Wahrheit ist nichts schadlicher, als 

ein alter Irrthum. 
Nicht iiberall, wo Wasser ist, sind Frosche ; aber 

wo man Frosche hort, ist Wasser. 
Die Hindus der Wiiste geloben, keine Fische zu 

Das Betragen ist ein Spiegel, in welchem jeder 

sein Bild zeigt. 

@^)rud^c in 5Profa. 

3)ic S9Bci6^cit iji nur in bcr SBa^r^cit. 

gincr ncucn SBa^r^cit ift nid^td fd^abli(^cr, aid 

ein alter Srrtffum. 
SRid^t uberaC, tt)o SBaffer ifi, finb grofd^ej aber 

tt)o man grojd^e I)6rt, ifi SBaffer. 
2)ie ^lubu6 ber SSBujie geloben, feine Sifd^e ju 

2)ad Setragen ifi ein ©J)iegel, in weld^em jeber 

fein a3ilb jeigt. 


6. — Eine alte Sage. 

Zu Bamberg auf Kaiser HeinricK's Grab' ist 
die Gottin der Gerechtichkeit eingehauen, mit 
einer Wage in der Hand. Die Wage aber ist so 
gemacht, dasz die Zunge sich ein wenig nach einer 
Seite neigt. Hieriiber geht eine alte Sage, dasz 
die Welt untergehen werde, wenn die Zunge in 
die Mitte komme. 

ne altc ©age. 

3u Samberg auf ffiaifcr ^eintic^'d ®ra6' ifl 
bie ®bttin ber ©ered^tid^feit cingefjaucn, mit 
einer SBage in b^t ^anb. 2)ie SBage aber iji 
fo gemad^t, baf bie 3unge fid^ ein ttjenig nad^ 
einer ©eite neigt. ^ieruber ge^t eine alte 
©age, ba^ bie SJett untergehen n?erbe, tt)enn 
bie 3unge in bie 9Ritte fomme. 

7. — How to defeat Justice. 

Was hilft es der Gerechtichkeit die Augen zu 

verbinden ? 
Umsonst ist da das Band. 
Wollt ihr sie besser binden, 
So bindet ihr die Hand ? 

SBa^ i^ilft e6 ber ©ered^tid^feit bie Slugen ju 

Umfonft ift ba ba^ 93anb. 
SBoUt i^r fie bejfer binben, 
©0 binbet i^r bie J^anil 


8. — ^Der alt'e Krebs tind Aer junge. 

" Geh' doch nicht so krumm, sonderh in gerader 
linie !" rief ein altetei* Kiebs einem jungeren zu. 
"Von Herzen gem, erwiederte dieser, nnr bitte ich, 
mir voran zu gehen?" 

2)er alte ifrcbd iinb bcr jungc. ' 

„®cy bocf) nid^t fo Trumm, fonbern in gcrabcr 
Slnief" mf ein &lterer 5treb6 eittcin jiingcrcn 
ju. „93on '^crjen getn, ctvoitbcrtc bicfer, nur 
bitte id^, mir ))oran jii flfl)en?" 

9. — Sprichworter und sprichwortliche 


Keine Hose ohne Dornen, 
Ein Mann, ein Wort. 
Kleider machen Leute. 

Aus der Hand in den Mund. 
In ein Horn blasen. 
Morgen ist auch ein Tag, 

©prid^tt)6rter unb ^pxi^tobxtU^t SRebenSatten. 

fteitie SRofe o^ne 3)ornen. 
@in SRann, ein SBort. 
ftleiber madden Seute. 

5ftu6 bet ;&anb in ben tKunb. 
3n ein ^orn blafen. 
SRorgen ifi dud^ ein Xa^, 


10. — ^Ein LiHnpe. 

{Johann Wolfgang von O'dthCj bom 1749, died 1832.) 

Freund, wer ein Lump ist, bleibt ein Lump, 
Zu Wagen, Pferd' und Fusze ; 
D'rum glaub' an keinen Lumpen je, 
An keines Lumpen Busze. 

@in 8unH)c. 

Sreunb, ton ein 8um>) ift bleibt ein Sump, 
3u aSagen, 5Pferb' unb Sufe; 
2)'rum glaub' an leinen Sumpen je, 
^n feine^ Sum^en S5uf e. 

11. — ^Das Kind und das Firmame'nt 

{Max MiiUer, M.A., Fellow of All Sotds, and Tayhrian Professor 
of European Languages and Literature at Oxford.) 

Das Kind sucht den Ort, wo der blaue Himmel 
auf der Erde liegt, und lauft imd lauft, und der 
Himmel lauft immer vor ihm her, und liegt doch 
immer auf der Erde — aber das Kind wird mlide 
und kommt nie dahin. 

Da^ £inb unb bad girmament. 

2)ad ffinb fud^t ben Ort, tt)o ber blaue ^im# 
mel auf ber @rbe liegt, unb lauft unb lauft, unb 
ber <§immel lauft immer ^or i^m ^er, unb liegt 
bod) immer auf ber @rbe — aber ba6 £inb tt)irb 
mube unb !ommt nie ba^in. — {Deutsche Liebe, p. 4.) 


12. — Ein Eei'sender erzahit: 

Ala ich in eine Stadt kam, begegnete mir ein 
Heiner Knabe, der ein verdecktes Korbchen trug. 
"Was hast du in dem Korbe?" fragte ich ihn. 
"Meine Mutter wtirde den Korb nicht verdeckt 
haben," antwortete er, "hatte sie gewollt, dasz 
man sahe, was in dem Korbe ist." 

;in SRclfcnber crj&^lt: 

8116 i6) in cine ®tat)t tarn, begegnete mir ein 
fleiner itnabe, bet ein ^erbetfte^ Rbxh^tn trug. 
„aa3a6 ^aji bu in bem StotUV fragte idf lf)n. 
iMdm SDlutter tt>urbe ben itorb nid^t t)erbe(ft 
fjahtn/* anttt)ortete er, „^atte fie gett)oBt, baf 
man fa^e, tt>a^ in bem itorbe ifi." 

13. — Sich gut zu helfen wissen, or How to 
get out of a difficulty. 

"Kapita n !" rief ein Matrose, "ist etwas verloren, 
wenn man weisz, wo es ist ? " 

"Nein, du Narr?" — "Nun, so seien Sie ganz 
rujiig liber Ihre silbeme Thee'kanne, die mir eben 
aus der Hand fiel ; sie ist da unten im Meere." 

©id^ gut ju ^elfen tt)iffen. 

f,StapitiinV* rief ein SWatrofe, „iji ettt)a6 
t)erloren, tt>enn man tt)eifi, n)0 e^ iji?" 

„9lein, bu Slarr!" — 3un, jo jeien ®ie ganj 
tu^ig uber 3^re filberne Jl^eefanne, bie mir 
eben and ber ^anb fiel j fie iji ba unten im SKeere." 



14. — Die Ju'gendzeit 

{M. O, Saphir^ ham 1795, died 185d, satmat and "humorist.) 

Was ist vom Leben schon ? Die Jugend I 
Was ist vom Tage schon ? Sein MoTgen ! 
Was ist von der Sonne schon ? Ihr Aufgang ! 
Was ist von der Rose schon ? Ihre Kiiospe ! 
Was ist von der liebe das liebste ? Ihr Joifang ! 
Was ist vom Leben das Schonste ? Die Jugend ! 

Das Paradies des Lebens ist die Jugend und 
nur in ihr bliiht der Baum des Lebens, imd nur 
in diesem Paradiese hort man, was die Vogel 
spreohen, was sich die Blumen erzahlen, was die 
Baume lispeln und die Bache plaudern. 

In der Jugend ist der Hunger nichts als Spasz, 
der Durst eine Neckerei, die K^te eine Erfrischxmg! 

3)ic 3ugcnbjcit. 

2Ba8 ffl t)om Scben fd^on? 2)ic Sitgent! 
SBa^ ifi t)om Sage fd^oti? Sein SRorgcnl 
SBa^ ifl t)on bcr Sonne fd^on? 3^t aiufgang! 
SBa^ {fi t)on ber 9iofe fd^on? 3^re itnofpel * 
Sffia^ iji t>on ber Siebe bad 8iebjie? 3^r Slnfang! 
SBad iji t)om Seben bad ©d^onfie? !Die3ugenb! 

3)ad ^4?<itabied bed Sebend iji bie 3ugenb unb 
nur in i^r bfu^t ber Saurn bed fiebend, unb nur 
in btefem flJarabiefe ^ort man, tt)ad bie SSogel 
fpred^efn, tt>ad fid^ bie Slitmen crjfi^Ien, xoa^ 
bie S3aume Iif^)eln unb bie SBad^e plaubetn. 

3n ber 3ugenb iji ber hunger nid^td aid @»)aj5, 
ber 2)ur}i eine Wedferei, bie it&lte eine @rfrifd^nng! 

15. — Sprichwopter uad spri^hwortliche 


Bede wenig, hore vieL 

Nacb B^en koijimt Sonnenachein 

!Bei der Nacht sind ^Uq E^t;zen grm* 

Er sieht den Wald vor Baumen uicht. 
Auf keinen grlinen Zweig kommen. 
Von der Luft leben. 

JRcbe wenig, f)bxt tkl. 

92a^ Siegen fommt ©onnenf^ein 

85ci ber SRad^t ftnb aUe ita^en grau. 

Sr fic^t ben SBalb t)or Sdumen nid^t 
Sluf feinen grunen 3tt)eig fommen. 
9Son ber 8uft leben. 

16. — ^Deutsche Blatter. German Newspapers. 

(/. Wolfgang von Oothe, horn 1749, died 1832, th^ most iUua- 

trious poet of Germany.) 

Wer hatte auf deutsche Blatter Aolit, 
Morgens, Mittag, Abend und Mittemacht, 
Der war' um aUe seine Zeit gebracht, 
Hatte weder Stunde, noch Tag, noch If achti, 
Und w&r urns ganze Jahr gebracht ; 
Das hatt* ich ihm gar sehr verdachi. 


3)eutfd^e SBlattcr. 

aaScr ^attcauf bcutfcj^e ©latter Sld^t, 
fKorgctt^, aRtttag, Slbenb unb SWtttcrttad^t, 
SDcr tt)ir' urn allc fcinc ^tit gebrad^t, 
«&atte tt>cber ©tunbc, nod^ Siag, nod^ Slad^t, 
Unb tohx um^ g^^J^ 3^^^ gcbrac^tj 
5)a6 ^dtf id{i i^m gar fe^r t)erbad^t. 

17. — Die traurige Geschichte vom dummen 


1) Hanschen will ein Tischler werden, ist zu 

schwer der Hobel ; 
Schornsteinfeger will er werden, doch das ist nicht 

Hanschen wiU ein Bergmann werden, mag sich 

doch nicht biicken ; 
Hanschen wiU ein Mliller werden, doch die Sacke 

driicken ; 
Hanschen will ein Weber werden, doch das Gam 

zerreiszt er. 
Immer, wenn er kaum begonnen, jagt ihn fort der 

Hanschen, Hanschen, denke dran, 
Was aus dir noch werden kann ! 

2) Hanschen will ein Schloszer werden, sind zu 

heisz die Kohlen ; 
Hanschen will ein Schuster werden, sind zu hart 
die Sohlen ; 


Hanschen will ein Schneider werden, doch die 

Nadeln stechen ; 
Hanschen wiU ein Glaser werden, doch die Scheiben 

brechen ; 
Hanschen will Buchbinder werden, riecht zu sehr 

der Kleister. 
Immer, wenn er kamn begonnen, jagt ihn fort der 

Hanschen, Hanschen, denke dran. 
Was aus dir noch werden kann ! 

3) Hanschen hat noch viel begonnen, brachte nichts 

zu Ende ; 
Driiber ist die Zeit verronnen, schwach sind seine 

Hanschen ist nun Hans geworden, und er sitzt 

voU Sorgen, 
Hungert, bettelt, weint und klaget abends und am 

Morgen ; 
" Ach, warum nicht war ich Dummer in der Jugend 

fleiszig ? 
Was ich immer auch beginne — dummer Hans nur 

heisz' ich. 
Ach, nun glaub' ich selbst daran, 
Dasz aus mir nichts werden kann ! " 


Was Hanschen nicht lemt, 
Lemt Hans nimmermehr ! 


!Die ttaurige ©efd^id^te t)om bummen ^hniiftn. 

1) t^an^d^fcn n)itt ciri %ii(^,Ux totxitn, {|l ju 

fd^mcr bcr ^obel} 
®d^orn{leinfeger tt)iQ er tpertten, bod^ ba9 ifl 

nid^t ttobcl} 
^an^^tn n)ill ein Setgmann u^erben, mag fic^ 

boc^ nid^t budcnj 
^hn^d)(n toxU tin SWulUr tDerbeii; bod^ bic 

6&dEc brudfeit} 
^&n^d^en voiU ein SQS^ber tioerben, bod^ ba^ 

®axn jerreift cr. 
3mmer, n>enn er faum h^^onmn, jagt i^n fart 

ber SKeifier. 
<&&n6d^en/ ^hn^dftn, benfe bran, 
SBad au0 blr nod^ n>crbcn fann! 

a) ^hn^6)tn tt)iB cin ©d&lofer ttjerben, finb ju 

^etf bie ifo^Ien; 
^ftn^d^cn tt)iK eln ©d^ujier tperbeU/ finb ju 

^art bie ©o^len; 
^ftndd^en toxU ein ©d^neiber tperben, bod^ bie 

Siabetn fied^enj 
^an6d^en tt>iB ein ©lafer tt)erben, bod^ bie 

©c^eiben bred^enj 
<&&ndd^en xt>xll Sud^binber iDerben, ried^t ju 

fe^r ber itleijier. 
3mmer, n^enn er faum begonnen, jagt i^n fort 

ber SDleijier. 
^hn^i)tn, ^&ndd^en, benfe bran, 
S93ad aud bir nod^ n)erben fann! 


3) ^an^^tn f^at nod^ t)iel Jegonncn, brod^te 

3)rubet ifl bie 3eit ^jetronnen, fd{itt)ad^ finb 
feinc t^&nbc. 

'^an^d^en ift nun ^and %ttt>cxbtn, unb er fijjt 

^oH ©orgen, 
^ungert, bettelt, n>eint unb flagct abenbd unb 

am SJlcrgen^ 
,;?lc]^, ttjatum nic^t tt>ax id) 3)ummer in ber 

Suflcnb ficififl? 
SBad ic^ immcr aud^ bcginne — bummer ^and 

nur ^cif id^. 
STd^; nun glaub' id^ fclbji baran, 
5)af aud mir nid^td loctben fann!" 


S8ad <&&n6d^en nid^t lernt, 
Sernt <&and nimmerme^rl 

18. — ^Die Natu'r ein Bild des menschlichen 


Die Jahreszeiten gleichen den Stufen im Leben 
des Menschen. Der Sommer stellt den Mann und 
der Herbst den Greis dar. Der FrtLhling, die 
sclibnste Jahreszeit, ist das Bild der Jngend. 
Schnell fliehen die Woehen des Friihlings dahin 
und schnell fliehen auch die Jahre der Jugend. 
Wisse darum, o Jiingling! und sorge, dasz du 
nichts versaumest und wenig bereuest. 



S)lc 9latur cin Silb l)c6 mcn/d^lid^ett 


!Die Sa^re^jcitcn glcid^cn ben ©tufen im 
S'cben bed SWenfcl^en. 2)er ©ommer ftettt ben 
5Wann unb ber *&erbfl ben ©reid bar. 2)er 
grueling, ble fd^onpe 3a^redjeit, ift bad SSilb 
ber Sugenb. ©d^neH fUe^en bie SBod^en bed 
gru^Ungd ba^in unb fd^nett flie^en aud^ bie 
Sa^re ber Sugenb. SBlffe barum, o 3ungling! 
unb forge, baf bu nld^td t)erfaumeji unb tt>enig 

19. — ^Eine passende Antwort 

Ein groszer, starker Mann war mit einem 
kleinen schwachlichen Manne in Streit gerathen. 

"Herr, schweigen Sie still!" rief ihm der 
Starke Kerl zu, " oder ich stecke Sie in die Tasche!" 

"Thun Sie das!" erwiederte der Kleine; "so 
werden Sie wenigstens Verstand in Ihrer leeren 
Tasche haben ! " 

ne <)affenbe 2lnttt)ort. 

Gin grofcr, jiarfer 50lann xoax mit elnem 
fleinen fd^ttjad^lid^en STOanne in ©treit gerathen. 

tf^^^^f f(^tt>eigen ®ie jiiH!" rief i^m ber jiarfe 
iferl ju, „ober ic^ jierfe ©ie in bie SEafd^e!" 

,,S;^un ®ie bad!" ertt)ieberte ber ifleinej „fc 
tt>erben @ie tt>enigjiend SSerfianb in 3^rer leeren 
Xafd^e ^aben!" 


20. — Morgen ! Morgen ! nur nieht heute ! 
Sagen alle tragen Leute. 

{Professor Max Mailer's Deutsche Liehe, p. 96.) 

Wie docli die Menschen mit dem Leben spielen, 
wie sie das Beste, was sie thun, dad Schonste, was 
sie genieszen konnen, von Tag zu Tag aufschieben, 
ohne zu denken, dasz jeder Tag der letzte sein kann 
und dasz verlorene Zeit verlorene Ewigkeit ist 

!Korgen! SWorgcn! nur nid^t ^eutc! 
©agcn allc trigen Scute. 

2Bic iodf tie SKenfd^en mlt bem 8cben \pkUn, 
»){c fie ba6 Sefie, tt>ad fie t^un, bad ©d^&nfie, 
tt>ad fie geniefen fonnen, \>on Za^ ju Za% 
auffd^ieben, ofjne ju benfen, ba^ jeber Za% ber 
leftte fein fann unb baf verlorene ^tlt t^erlorene 
ewigfeit ifl 


21, — ^Der Schuldner und sein Glaubiger. 
Debtor and Creditor. 

Ein Kaufmann in Leipzig inahnte in der Messe 
einen anderen aus Berlin um die Bezahluiig einer 
ansehnlichen Eechnung. — "Glauben Sie denn, dasz 
ich davon laufen werde?" sagte argerlich der 
Berliner. " Das eben nicht ! " erwiederte lachelnd 
der Leipziger; "aber ich werde davon laufen 
mlissen, wenn mich niemand bezahlt, und darum 
bitte ich Sie um mein Geld." 


Der (?cl^ulbner unb fcin ©loubiger. 

@in itaufmann in Selpjig ma^ntc wS^rcnb (or 
auf) bcr SKcffc cincn anbercn aud Scrtin urn 
tie Scja^lung clncr anfc^nlid^cn Sied^nung. — 
„@laubctt @ie benn, baf id^ bai)on laufcn 
tt)crbc?" fagte argerlic^ ber Sctlincr. ,,!Da6 
ebcn ttid^t!" crtt)iebertc I&d^elnb bet 8eij)jigerj 
„abet id^ n)erbc bat)on laufcn muffcn, totnn 
mid^ niemanb beja^It, nnb barum bittc id^ ©ie 
urn mcin @clb." 

22, — ^Die Lacedamonier. 

Es giebt wenige Leute, die mit Wenigem viel, 
aber viele, die mit Vielem wenig sagen. Die Lace- 
damonier erwiederten einem solchen Schwatzer: 
"Den ersten Theil deiner Eede haben wir ver- 
gessen, darum auch den zweiten nicht verstanden, 
und konnen dir also auf den dritten oder das Ende 
derselben nicht antworten." 

3)ie Saceb&monfcr. 

@d giebt tt)enigc Seute, bie mit SQBenigcm 
t>iel, abcr t)iele, bie mit SBielem tt)enig fagen. 
3)ie gacebSmonier ertt)ieberten einem folc^en 
®d^n)a^er: „!Den erjlen S^eil beiner SRebe 
^aben xoix tjergeffen, barum aud^ ben gtt)eiten 
nid^t t>erjlanben, unb fonnen bit alfo auf ben 
britten ober bad @nbe berfelben nid^t ant^ 


23. — Sprichworter und sprichwortliche 


Zeit bringt Eosen. 
Alles hat seine Zeit. 
Lerne was so kannst du was. 
StUle Wasser sind tief. 

Er hort das Gras wachsen. 

Er hort die Fliegen husten. 

Er sucht den Esel und reitet daraiif. 

Vom Pferde auf den Esel kommen. 

©prid^tvortcr unb fprid^ttjortUd^e Sleben^artcn. 

3elt bringt SRofcn. 
2lUe6 flat feinc 3cit. 
Sernc voa^ fo fannji bu n^ad. 
©tillc SBaffer finb tlcf. 

@r ^ort bad @rad tt)aci^fen. 

@t ^ort bie gliegen t)ujicn. 

©r fud^t ben Gfcl unb reitet barauf. 

9Som ^ferbe auf ben Gfel fommen. 

24. — Guter EatL 

{Johann Wolfgang von Gbthe^ 1749-1832 ) 

" Sprich, wie werd* ich die Sperlinge los?" so sagte 

der Gartner, 
" Und die Eaupen dazu, ferner das Kafergeschlecht, 
Maulwnrf, Erdfloh, Wespe, die Wlirmer und das 

ganze Gezlicht'?" — 
Lasz sie nur alle, so friszt einer den anderen auf. 



©uter fHatfj. 

„®pxl^, tt)ie tt>crb' i^ Me ^pnlin^t lod?" fo 

fagtc bcr ©artnetv' 
„Unb He 9iam)en baju, fernet ba^ itaferge^ 

9RauIn)urf, ©rbflo^, aBefpe, bie SBurmer itnb 

ba6 ganje ©ejud^t?"— 
8af fie nur alle, fo frift elner ben anberen auf. 

25. — ^Ein werthvolles Klei'nod, or A 
precious Jewel 

Ein munteres, schones Magdlein trankte einen 
reisenden Eabbi und seine Thiere. Beim Abschiede 
sprach er : " Du bist wie iinsere Mutter Eebecca." 
Da lachelte das Madchen so freundlich, dasz man 
wohl sah, es sei ein kluger Einfall; sie sprach: 
" Eabbi, wenn ich das Beispiel der Eebecca nachge- 
ahmt babe, so hast du nicht das des treuen Eliesers 
befolgt : " Da nun alle Kameele getrunken hatten, 
nahm der Mann einen goldnen Ohrring, einen hal- 
ben Seckel werth und zwei Armbander zehn Seckel 
Goldes werth und gab sie ihr." — "liebliche Kleine," 
erwiederte der Eabbi, " du besitzest werthvoUeren 
Schmuck als dir der treuste Diener geben kann: 
Klugheit und Unschuld und ein frommes Herz. 
Moge der Herr dich immerdar segnen !" 


iln muntcted, fd^oned SKagbldn tranftc 
cincn rcifcnbcn SRabbi unb felnc Xtjkxc. 95cim 
2lbfc^icbc fprad^ cr: „2)u bifi tt)ie unfere 
3»uttcr aiebccca." 2)a lac^cltc bad 9Ribd^en 
fo frcunblid^, baf man tt)o^t fa^, cd fci cin 
flugcr (SlnfaH; fie f))raci^: „9labbi, totnn idb 
bad Scifpiel bcr SRebccca nad^gca^mt ^abe, fo ^afi 
bu nid^t bad bed treuen (Slieferd befolgt: „!D(^ 
nun aHe itameele getrunfen ijatUn, na^m ber 
9Jlann elnen golbnen Darting, einen ^alben 
Serfel tt>ert^ unb jwei Slrmbanber je^n ©erfet 
©olbed totxtf^ unb gab fie i^r." — „8ieblid^e 
itieine/' ertt)ieberte ber SRabbi, „bu befifteft 
tt)ert!)t)oneren ©d^mud aid bit ber treufte 
2)iener geben fann: ittug^eit unb Unf(^ulb 
unb ein frommed •^erj. SKoge ber ^err bid^ 
immerbar fegnen!" 

26. — Sprichworter und sprichwortliche 


Eathen ist leichter, denn (or als) helfen. 

Je hoher der Berg, je tiefer das Thai. 

Je naher dem Feuer, je heiszer. 

Der Kliigste giebt nach. 

Besser Unrecht leiden, als Unrecht thun. 

Hunger ist der beste Koch. 

Pferdearbeit und Spatzenfutter {or Sperlingsfutter) 

Er hat grosze Eosinen im Sack. 

An ibm ist Hopfen und Malz verloren. 


©ptid|^tt)6rtcr unb fprid^tt)5ttlid^e 

SRat^en iji (deleter, bcnn (or aid) ^clfen. 

3c ^o^cr bcr SScrg, jc ticfcr bad JJ^al. 

3c nat)cr bcm gcucr, jc ^cif cr. 

3)cr itlugjic gicbt nad^. 

S3cffcr Unrcd^t Icibcn, aid Unrcd^t t^un. 

hunger iji bcr.bcftc ifod^. 

^fcrbcarbcit unb ®^a$cnfuttcr 

(or ©^jcrlingdfuttcr). 
@r ^at gtof c Siofincn im ©adf. 
2ln i^m iji ^opfcn unb SWafj t)crlorcn. 

27. — Der Bru'mbasz, or How to frighten 

Wolves away. 

Im Winter siebzehnlmndert zwei und achtzig 
war die Kalte so grosz, dasz sich die WoKe in 
die nahen Oerter wagten. Ein Violonfst, der mit 
seiner Baszgeige aus dem nachsten Dorfe nach 
Hause gehen woUte, war kaum eine halbe Stunde 
weit gegangen, als ihm neun entsetzliche Wolfe 
von einem Hiigel herab entgegentrabten.^An 
ein Entlaufen war nicht mehr zu denken; er 
setzte sich also flinks mitten auf die Chaussee 
und fing an aus Leibeskraften zu geigen. — ^Die 
Wolfe stutzten, wuszten nicht, was flir ein Thier 
da so gewaltig bnimme und liefen furchtsam 


2)er Srumbaf. 

3m SQBinter ficbje^n^unbctt jttjci unb ad^tjig 
Yoax bic italte fo gro^, baf fid^ bic SBoIfc in 
bie natjcn Dcrtcr iragtcn. @in SSiolonift, ber 
mit fcincr SSafgeigc aua bem nfid^ften ©orfe 
nad{> ^aufe gcf)en tt)oKtc, n>ar faum einc ^albe 
©tunbc tt)eit gcgangen, al$ if)m neun entfe^Iic^e 
SBoIfc V)on einem »&ugel ^crab cntgcgcm 
trabtcn: — Sin cin Sntlaufen tt>ar nic^t mc^r 
ju benfen; cr fefttc fid^ alfo flinf6 mitten auf 
bic S^auffcc unb fing an au6 8cibe6fraften ju 
geigen. — 3)ie SBoIfe ftufttcn, tt)n^ten nid^t, tt)a^ 
fur eln S^^icr ba fo gett)altig btumme unb ticfcn 
furd^tfam ba^on. 

28. — ^Der Wirth und sein Gast. 

- " Herr Wirth ! heute zahle ich nicht ; schreiben 

Sie nur an, was ich schuldig bin." Der Wirth 

nimmt die Kreide iind schreibt mit groszen 

Buchstaben an eine grosze Tafel den Namen, 

Stand und die Schuld des Gastes. — " Aber," sagte 

dieser, "mnsz es denn die ganze Stadt wissen, 

was ich Ihnen schuldig bin?" — "Wissen Sie, was 

zu thun ist, um dem vorzubeugen ?" erwiederte der 

Wirth; "lassen Sie Ihren Mantel hier, den-will 

ich dariiber hangen !" 

^ b2 


S)er aeirt^ unb fcin ®a% 

„^nx 2Birt^! ^cutc ja^tc i^ nld^t; fd^reibcu 
@ie nur an, n)a6 ii} fd^ulMg bin." 2)er SBirt^ 
nimmt bie ifrcibc unb fd^reibt mit grofen 
Sud^jiaben an cine grofc Slafel ben 9iamen, 
©tanb unb bie ©d^ulb be^ ®a|ie^.— „2lber/ 
fagte biefer, „mufl ed benn bie ganje ©tabt 
njiffen, we^a-^ i^ 3^n«n fd^ulbig bin?"— 3iffen 
©ie, voa^ ju tf)un iji, urn bem ^orjubeugen?,, 
ettt)ieberte ber SBirt^j f^l^xffen ®ie 3{>ren 9Jlan^ 
tel ^ier, ben tt)ill Id^ bariiber ^angen!" 

29. — Jungfer Margare'tha. 

Das war die trage Ma'rgareth, die wollte die 
Hand nicht regen ; 
Da muszte die alte Mutter allein wischen, waschen 
und fegen. 
Das war die eitle Margareth, die putzte sich 
schon am Morgen ; 
Da muszte die alte Mutter allein Ke^e^ und 
Kiiche besorgen. 
Das war die schone Margareth, die that den 
Burschen gefallen ; 
Sie tanzten und kosten gem mit ihr, doch nahm 
sie keiner von alien. 
Das war die verlaszene Margareth, es kamen 
und gingen die Jahre, 


Vorbei war Putz und Spiel iind Tanz, die Mutter 

lag auf der Bahre. 
Das ist die hungrige Margareth, sie mag die 

Hand nicht riihren, 
Dort kommt sie mit dem Bettelsack und bettelt 

vor den Thiiren. 

Sungfer SWarflaret^a. 

2)ad toax He tragc 5D?argarct^, bie tooUH bie 
^anb ntd^t regcn; 
2)a mu^te bic altc 9Kuttcr allcin tt)ifd^en, 
tt>afd^en unb fegcn. 
2)a6 tt)ar bie eltle 9Rargaret^, bie J)utte fic^ 
fd^on am SKorgen; 
3)a mufite bie alte 9Kuttet allein StlUx unb 
itud^e beforgen. 
!Dad toax bie fd^one !9largaret^, bie tfjat ben 
Surfd^en gefallenj 
©ie tanjten unb fo^ten gem mit itjx, boci) na^m 
fie fciner t)on alien. 
2)a6 n)ar bie t^erlafenc SRargaret^, e^ famen 
unb gingen bie Sa^re, 
SSorbei war ^u^ tinb @^>iel unb 3^attj, bie 
9J?utter lag auf ber SBa^re. 
!Da6 iji bie fjungrige 9Jlargaret^, fie mag bie 
^anb nid^t ru^ren, 
S)ort fommt fie mit bem SettelfadE unb ictUlt 
»or ben Sfpren. 


30. — ^Dem Kellner. 

Setze nicht, du Grol)iaii, 

Mir den Krug so derb vor die Nase ! 

Wer mir Wein bringt, sehe mich freundlich an, 

Sonst triibet der Wein sich im Glase. 

3)em itcUncr. 

©efte n\ci)t, bu ©robian, 

9Jlir ben if rug fo berb »or bie 9lafe! 

SBcr mir Sffiein bringt, fe^c mid^ freunblid^ an, 

Sonfi triibet ber Sffiein fid^ im @la\c,—{Gdthe.) 

31. — Die Kindheit. The Memory of the 
Past, or The Merry Days of Childhood. 

{Max Mutter, M.A., FeUow ofAU Souls, and Tayhrian Professar 
of European Languages and Literature at Oxford.) 

Es ist doch SO schon, an den Friihling des 
Lebens zuriickzudenken, in sein Inneres zurtickzu- 
schauen — sich zn erinnern. Ja, auch im schwlilen 
Sommer,- im trtiben Herbst nnd im kalten Winter 
des Lebens giebt's hier und da einen Frlihlingstag, 
und das Herz sagt : " Mir ist's wie Friihling zu 
Mutha" Ein solcher Tag ist's heute — und da 
lege ich mich auf das weiche Moos im duftigen 
Wald, nnd strecke die schweren Glieder aus, und 
schaue hinauf durch das grline Laub in das 
unendliche Blau — und denke : Wie war's doch in 
der Kindheit ? 


@d ifi l)od& fo fd^on, an ben gruf)ling bed 
8eben6 guriicf jubenfen, in fein 3nnere6 jururf ju^ 
fd^auen — fid^ ju erinnern. 3a, aud^ im fd^wulen 
©ommer, im truben *&er&fl unb im falten 
SBinter bed Sebend flibt'6 ^ier unb ba eincn 
gruf^lingdtag, unb bad ^erj fagt: ^SRir ift'd 
tt>ie grunting ju 5Kutf)e." Sin folc^er %(x% 
ifi'd Iieute — unb ba lege ic^ mid^ auf bad 
tt>cid^e 5Kood im buftigen SBalb, unb ftredfe bie 
fc^weren ©lieber aud, unb fd^aue ^inauf burd^ 
bad grune Saub in bad unenblic^e Slau — unb 
benfc: SBie ttjar'd bod^ in ber itinb^eit? 

{Frofe9%(3T Max MiiVer^s Deutsche Liebe^ pp. 2, 3.) 

32.— eprid(;n)6rter. 

aUet 2lnfang ifi fd^wer. 
SReibe alien bofen ©d^ein. 
Sung flettjo^nt, alt get^an. 

33.— The Erl-king. 

{Johann Wolfgang von O'dthe, born 1749, died 1832, the most 
illustrious poet of Germany, and one of the most celebrated 
authors in European literature. "Der Erlkonig" is one of 
Gothe's ballads, distinguished by its clear and melodious versi- 
fication. It has been set to music by F. Schubert, translated 
mto English by Theodore Martin and Sir Walter- Scott, into 
Scotch by Peter Gardner, and into French by Emile Descliamps.) 


3)et etifonig. 

A father riding on horseback, and holding hia little boy In his arms, is 
out late in the evening. 

2Bcr rcitct fo ^pat bnxdf 5ftad&t unb SBlnb? 
e« ift ber 9Sater mit fcincm ffinb,* 
@r f)at ben itnabcn njo^l in bcm ^xm, 
@r faf t {^n fid^cr, cr ^alt i^n toaxm. 

A mischieTouB fairy-king, called the "ErlkiJnlg" (lit. Aldertree-king ; 
but the word is probably derived from the Danish ** Ellekone," the wife 
of a fairy), appears and frightens the boy, but the father does not see or 
hear the spirit, and tries to make the boy believe that it is a " Nebelstreif,'* 
!.«., the fog hanging over the plain. 

SJlein ©o^n, tt)a5 birgft bu fo bang beln Ocfid^t? 
©ic^ft, aSatcr, bu ben erlfonig ni(^t? 
!Den ©rlenfonig mlt itron' unb @d^tt)eif? 
9Kein ©o^n, e$ ift ein*5Rebelpreif! — 

The Erl-king wants to induce the boy to go with him, promising him 
pretty games, gay flowers, and golden dresses. 

„!Du Hebed 5tinb, fomm, ge^ mit mir! 
®ax fd^one ©piele ^pkV Of mit bir; 
5Kand^' bunte SBlumen finb an bem ©tranbj 
3Keine 9Kutter f)at mand^' gulben @en)anb." 

The fiither explains to the boy that the whispering of the Erl-king is 
merely the rustling of the wind among the dry leaves. 

SDZein SSater, mein aSater, unb f)6reft bu nid^t, 
aCad Srlenfonig mir leife »erf^)rid^t? — 
®ei ru^ig, bleibe ru^ig, mein itinb^ 
3n burren SBiattern faufelt ber SBinb!— 


The Erl-king again whispers to the boy, saying that his daaghters shall 
prettily wait upon him, rock and dance and sing him to sleep. 

„S33iaft, fcincr ffnabe, bu mit mir gcl)'n? 
SKcine Zb6)Hx follcn bld^ toaxUn fd^on; 
9Keinc 5;6c^tcr fu{>rcn ben nhdftU^cn JRci^'n,* 
Unb tt>icgcn unb tanjcn unb fingcn bid^ ein." 

The boy now fancies he sees the £rl-king's daughters, and the fiither 
explains that it is only the gray willows glimmering at a distance. 

fKcin aSatcr, mein SSater! unb fic^ft bu ni6)t bort 
erlfonifl^ %b(i)ttx am buftcrn Drt?— 
STOein ©o^n, mein @o^n, i^ fe^' e5 genau, 
G^ fd^einen bie alten SBeiben fo grau. — 

The Erl-king at last threatens to take the boy away by force, and the boy 
exclaims, "My father, my father, now he seizes me I the Erl-king has 
wrought me harm ! " 

„!3d^ liebe bid^, mid^ reijt beine fd^one ©eftaltj 
Unb bift bu nid^t tt)illig, fo brauc^' i(S) ®ett)alt!" 
9Rein SBater, mein SSater, je^t faft er mid^ an! 
©rifonig f)at mir cin Seib^ get^an!'^^ 

The father, greatly alarmed, hurries home to find, on reaching the farm- 
stead, the child dead in his arms. 

2)em aSMter graufet'^, er reitet gefd^n^lnb, 
@r f)alt in ben Slrmen ia^ fid^jenbe 5tinb, 
erreid^t ben ^of mit 9Ku^ unb 5ftott); 
3n feinen Slrmen ba^ ffinb \t>ax tobt. 

* " We almost envy the credulity of tl^ose who, in the gentle 
moonlight of a summer night in England, amid the tangled 
glades of a deep forest, or the turfy swell of her romantic 
commons, could fancy they saw the fairies tracing their sportive 
rtng."—iSir Walter JScoU, 


34. — The House-snail and the Snail's 


{Johann F. Fischart^ bom at Mayence about 1545; practised 
as a barrister at Speier, was appointed Amtmann, high bailiff, 
of Forbach, and afterwards translated to Straszburg, where be 
died in 1591. He was the most distinguished and popular 
author of the latter half of the sixteenth century, and con- 
tinned the Lutheran controversy against the pretensions of 
the Roman Church. Little is known of him life, or else it might 
throw some light upon some of his most extraordinary literary 
productions. With great learning, he combined a sparkling flow 
of wit and humour ; and it may be truly said of him, that he 
not only possessed wit, but that the wit possessed him. Among 
his principal works must be mentioned his " Monkey -venture- 
some and Caterpillar-loathsome History ; " the humorous poem, 
** Der Flohatz, or the Chase of the Fleas;" and the narrative 
poem, " The Lucky Ship." The piece given below is taken 
from his " Book on Matrimonial Discipline," after Plutarch, and 
the lesson it teaches ought to be remembered by young ladies 
and wives.) 

!I)ic «&au^fd^necfc unb ba^ ©d^necfen^au^. 

©^ tragt eine ©d^nccfe fur unb fur 

2Bo fic ^ingc^t i^r ^aud mlt i^r, 

!Drum meint man, baf bie 8eut' t)on ©d^nedten 

^a'n gelcrnt ^^aufer bauen unb bedten: 

Sllfo tt)ann ein' grau muf ge^'n aud, 
Son fie tragen im ©inn bad ^aud, 
@d nid^t an cinen 5ftagcl ^angen, . ^ 
Unb tt)eif nid^t xok lang, nid^t ^eim* benfen. 


3a fic fon tt)cr6ett jicte ju ^au« 
©leid^ tt)ic ber 9Wann muf tt^erben brau^': 
SBcId^'g if)r cin^ Unc^r iji fo wenig 
211^ im Sicn'forb bcm Smmcnfonig, 

9©cld^er bal|cim bldbt fletS ju «&aud 
Unb la|it bic anbcrtt flicgett au6. 
5Wan fie^ct ja, baf nie fcin gifd^ 
Slu^er bcm SBaffcr blelbet frif^ 

Unb bafi ein^ Sd^nccf^ fiirbt aHe mat 
SBanu fic bcraubct tt)irb ber Sd^ar : 
2)a^cr foH auiS) d'm SBeib feln bang 
aOBann fic muf au^ bcm ^au^ fcin lang. 

35. — 2)ic JRcd^nung. 

@in tcic^er, aber fe^r gcnaucr 9Rann, ber fein 
^aud au^bcffcrn Ilef, fa^ ben Slrbeit^lcuten 
bi^weilen ein tDcnlg ju. Sine^ 2;agc6 bemerftc 
er cine 9Renge eiferner S^Sgel auf ber Srbc 
umf)cr gejlreut liegen unb fagte ju einem in 
ber 3lafjt arbeitenben 3intmermanne: ,,S33cirum 
^cbt i^r biefc 9iagcl nid^t auf?"— fie merben 
flctt)if alle t)erloren ge^en. — f,%^ nein!" ertt)ie* 
bcrte ber Slrbeiter, „©ie tt>crben biefelben alle 
auf ber JRcd^nung finben!" 


36. — !Der ^erjog, bie aCirt^in iinb Die 


2)cr »&erjog Staxl i)on SBurtcmbcrg, ber {m 
t)origen 3af)r^unbert gclcbt f)at, toax cin jircngcr 
^nx unb ^at cinmal im fjcifen ©ommcr in 
bcm ©tabtc^cn 9t. ju STOittag gcgeffcn. ^ommt 
cine Unja^l i>on gliegen unb f^)eidt mit, 
uneingelaben, unb laufen ^in unb ^er unb 
get)6ren bod^ gar nid^t an eine furftlid^e JEafel. 
2)a tt)irb ber ^^erjog b66 unb fagt, ju ber 
SKirt^in: „3n'6 ^ucfuf^ 5Ramen! beef' @ie ben 
gliegen befonberd!" S)ie SBirtfjin ift ftiH unb 
tf)ut, tt)ie i^r befo^len. "Stai) einer SBeile tritt 
fie tt)ieber t)or ben »&erjog, ma6)t einen ifnir 
unb fagt: „®ebe(ft ift, befe^len je^t aud^ Sure 
2)ur(j^lau(^t, baf fid^ bie gliegen feften!" 

!£aufenb SHegen ^att' ic^ am Slbenb erfdblagen; 
2)od^ n)erfte mid^ eine beim fru^ften !iagen. — 


37. — !Die Sangeweile, ein ®ef})enfi. 

{Berthold Auerhack^ novelist, horn 1812, sIaU living,) 

SQBei^ n)o^I, lieber Sefer, ba^ bu nid^t me^r 
an ©efpenfler glaubft, it)ie id^ auc^ nid^t. @d 
giebt aber ein ©efpenfi, bad id^ oft gefe^en 
^abe bci Seuten, bie auf fatten 35anfen, ynb 
bci Seuten, bie auf tt)eid^en ge^)olflerten ©tu^Un 


fi^en. Sd^ tjaic c6 am.^cHcn Zaq, bei etnfamet 
Oeltampe unt) bdm @d^eine t)on ^unbert 3Ba(^^ 
ferjcn gcfcf^en. 

3)u fcnnfi bfe ©age, i)a% rotnn Semanb 
flcn)altfam umgebrad^t tt)orbcn ift, fein @eip 
al^ ©cfpenji umfjcrgc^c. SSicIc ^Renfcf^cn 
fd^lagen bie 3dt gctt)altfam tobt burd& 9ti(^td* 
t^un ober baburd^, baf fie tttt>a^ treiben, tt)ad 
nic^t t)iel me^r a(6 9lidt;t6t^un ift, nub ba 
fommt benn ba^ ©efpenfi ber gemorbeten 3«f/ 
bie 8angett)eile, unb fe^t fid^ ben 9B6rbern, tt>o 
fie finb, auf ben Siarfenj e6 mad^t fein ®erauf(^, 
ed mad^t nur ga^nen. SQiUfl bu ba^ ©efpenfl 
»on bir bannen, mu^t bu immer tttoa^ Slufti^ 
lid^e^ t^un obe^ benfen. 

Sangett)eile ifi ein bofe^ ^xaut, 

Slber aud^ eine SBurje, bie »iel »erbaut. — [Gotiie.) 

38.— 3)er 9Ronb erja^It. 

(A pictnre from life by Hans Ckrigtian Andersen, a Dane, 
bom 1805, and still living. He is the author of the well- 
known and popular ''Mahrchen," or fairy-tales, which hare 
been translated into many languages, and are the delight of 
both old and youn^.) 

^eute SIbenb blicfte id^ burd^ ein genfler 
o^ne ©arbinen benn c6 tt)o^nt 9liemanb ge* 
genuber. 3c^ fa^ eine ganje Sd^aar itleiner, 
alle ®d^n>ejiern unb ©ruber, barunter n>ar 


tin ncinee SKabd^en, fie. ift nur i>kx 3a]^e alt, 
tann abcr i^r aSatcrunfer bctcn, fo gut tt)ie 
irgcnb ciner. !Die SJtutter fi^t alle Slbcnbc 
an if)rem SScttc unb f)&rt fie betcn, bann 
befommt fie einen itufl unb bie 50httter bleibt 
fi^en, bi6 bie £Ieine einfd^Iaft, unb ba^ gefd^ie^t 
eben fo fd^neU, al6 fid^ nur bie 2Ieuglein.fd^lief en 

^cntt Slbenb tt)aren bie jtt)ei alteften 5tinbcr 
fttt)a6 au^gelaffen. 2)a^ eine ^upfte auf einem 
Seine in feinem langen, tt)ei|len 5Rad^tf)embd^enj 
ba^ anberc ftanb auf einem ©tu^I, umgeben t)on 
ben ifleibern aller anbern ffinberj e6 fagte, e^ 
tt)aren ^ebenbe Silberj ba^ britte unb ba6 
t)ierte legten bie SBafd^e fein orbentlid^ in ben 
itaften unb ba^ muf aud^ gemad^t n^erben^ bie 
SKutter aber faf an bem ^ctU be^ fleinfien 
unb bebeutete fie, bafi fie alle fd^n)eigen foUteU; 
benn bie Heine ®d^tt)efter n>urbe ba^ SSaterunfer 

3d^ blidfte uber bie Sampe n)eg in ba« ^ttu 
ber 5?leinen, tt)o fie auf bem feinen, tt)eigen 
Ueberjug tag, bie »&anbd&en gefaltet unb bad 
fleine ©efid^t ganj ernft^aft unb anbad^tigj fie 
betete laut bad SSaterunfer. „2lber ttjad ifi 
ia^,'' unterbrad^ bie 9Wutter fie mitten im 
©ebet, „tt)enn 2)u gebetet f)a% „@ieb un6 
unfer taglid^ ©rot/' fe^efi 2)u nod^etttjad ^inju, 
tt)ad id^ nid^t t)erjie^en fann,, !Du muft mir 


aber fagen, tt)ae ed iji!" !Dic StUim ft^ttJieg 
unb blirfte ^erlegen btc 9Ruttcr an. „aBa6 
fagfl 2)u tt)citcr al^: ®icb und unfer tSglic^ 
S3tot?'' „©ci ja nid^t bofe, licbe 2KutterI 3c^ 
bctctc: unb rc(^t »iele Sutter batauf." 

39. — ^An Adventure of Baron Miinchhausen. 

{O. A. Bilrger, bom 1747, died 1794, for a long time the 
fayonrite poet of the nation, " der Lieblingsdichter der Nation.** 
His ballads, *' Leonora** and "The Emperor and the Abbot" 
(both omitted from this Reader on account of their length), arc 
of the highest order of merit. He is also the translator and 
reputed author of " Baron Milnchhausen's Travels.** Biirger is 
said to have become acquainted with the yeritable Miinchhausen 
at the public resorts of the Pyrmont spa, where the immortal Baron 
related his exciting stories to the visitors. Biirger published 
his own version of these stories, and afterwards disowned the 
authorship on account of the Baron's legal proceedings against 
him. However this may be, so much is certain, that '' Baron 
MUnchhausen*B Travels** were first published in English (1785) 
by a certain R. E. Raspe at Hanover, and Biirger*8 Glerman 
version appeared two years later.) 

t&err \>on 9Rund^^aufcn erjS^lt. 

2Iuf meiner 9ie{fe na6) 9luf lanb ritt i^ cinfi 
im tiefcn SBinter, bi5 3laii)t unb ^unfcl^clt 
mid^ ubcrfielen. Siirgenb^ tt)ar ein 3)orf ju 
^oren nod^ ju fc^cn. 2)ad ganje Sanb lag 
untcr ©d^nee, unb id^ ttjuftc tt)ebcr ©eg nod^ 

2)e6 5Relten6 mubc, fiicg IS) cnblid^ ah, unb 
banb meln $fctb' on cine 2lrt »on fpipem 


Soumjiafctt, ber ubcc bcm ©d^nce ^cr^otragtc. 
3ur ©id^er^cit na^m id) tncinc ^pijiolcn unter 
ben 8ltm, legte ntld^ nid^t n^cit batjon in ben 
©d^nee ni:ber, unb iijat ein fo gefunbe6 
©d^Iafc^en, baf mlr bie Slugen nid^t e^er 
ttJieber aufgingen, al6 bi^ e6 feller, lid^ter JJag 
tt)ar. SBie grp^ tt)ar abet mein (Stfiaunen, aid 
fd^ fanb, ba^ id^ mitten in einem 3)orfe auf 
bem itird&^ofe lag! SReln 5Pferb toax anfang^ 
lic^ nirgenbd ju fe^cn; bod^ ^orte id)'^ ialb 
barauf irgenbwo fiber mir tt)ie^ern. Slid id& 
nun emporfa^, fo tt)urbe id^ gewa^r, baf ed an 
ben SBetter^a^n bed j^ird^t^urmd gebunben 
toax, unb t)on ba ^erunter Idling. S?un tt)ufte 
id^ fogleid^, n)ie id^ baran tt)ar. 2)ad !Dorf 
war namlid^ bie 'StaSft fiber ganj gugefd^neit 
gen^efenj bad SBetter l^aitt fid^ auf einmal 
umgefeftt; id^ tt)ar im ©d^laf nad^ unb nad^, 
fott)ie ber ©c^nee gufammengefd^moljen toax, 
ganj fanft ^erabgefunfenj unb )n>a^ ici} in ber 
2)unfel^eit ffir ben ©tunH)f eined Saumd^end, 
ber fiber bem ©d^nee ^ert)orragte, getjalten, unb 
baran mein 5Pferb gebunben ^atte, bad tt>ax 
bad ifreuj ober ber SQBetter^a^n bt^ ifird^ 
t^urmd gewefcn. 

O^ne mid^ nun lange gu bebenfen, na^m id^ 
cine t)on meinen ?pijiolen, fd^of nad^ bem 
^alfter, fam glfirflidff auf bie Slrt tt)ieber ju 
meinem ^ferbe unb t>erfolgte mcine JReife. 


40. — When we were Children. 

(Heinrich Eeine, bom 1799, satirist, humorist, and lyrist, tbe 
most gifted poet of Germany since the days of Schiller and Gothe, 
and the national hard of Young Germany. His style is incom- 
parable, and some of his lyric poems, especially those in his 
" Buch der Lieder," must be enrolled among the best lyrical 
productions in any language. He died, 1856, at Paris, where he 
had lived the latter part of his life.) 

5Blcin itittb, tt)tr tt)aren ifinber, jtt^ei Stinbn, 
flein unb fro^; 

SBir frod^en in'^ ^u^ncr^aued^en xinb jledten 

un6 untcr ba^ ©tro^. 

SBit fta^tcn tt)te bic ^a^ne, unt) famen ?eute 

ttorbci — 
£lferific! fie glauBtcn, e6 to&xt «§af)ncngefd^rci. 

Die itijicn auf unferem ^^ofe, bie tapejirten 

tt)ir au6; 
Unb tt>o^ttten barin beifammen, unb mad^ten 

ein X)orne^me^ ^au^. 

2)e^ 9lad^bar6 alte itafte fam 6ftcr6 jum 93efud^.; 
aaBit mad^ten i^r SBudEling' unb Stnixt, unb 
6onH)Iimente genug. 

933ir f)aUn na(f) it)rem Sefinben beforglid^ 

unb freunblid^ 9^fi^<i8*} 
aOBir ^abenfeitbem baffelbe mand^er atten Jtafce 


2Bir fafictt aud^ oft unb f})rad^ett tocrninftlg, 

tt)ie alte Scuf, 
Unb f lagten, n>ie alte^ bcffer gcttjefen ju unferer 


Sffiie Sieb' unb Xxtu* unb ©lauben t)crfd^n)unben 

aue bcr SBcU, 
Unb tt)ic fo t^eucr ber itaffce, unb wie fo rar 

bad®clb! — 

SSorbei finb bie ^inberfpielc unb ailed rollt 

2)a6 ®clb unb bie SBelt unb bic ^^iun, unb 

©lauben unb 8ieb' unb Zxt\f, 

41.--2)ie junge ^Penfionairtn 
im 2)amenj?5Penfionat ju Sbtpindburg. 

By a yovmg lady from the country on entering a hoarding-achool 

in town. 

(Emily is sent by Lady F , her godmother, to a school in 

Edwinsbarg, which is about fifteen miles distant John, my 
lady's coachman, had to driye Emily to town in the fiamily- 
carriage. Emily gives, in her own simple language, an account 
of her first two days at school.) 

1) Die SInfunft The Arrival. 

SBir famen ber ©tabt n&f)er unb nS^erj 
guerji ber SSorjiab't mit fd^onen ©arten, bdnr 
ber ©tra^e in tod^tx bie ^jjenfiondanfialt toax. 


9D?ein ^erg fd&Iug unbanbig, c6 fd^lug an feincr 
altcn ©telle, unb bod^ tt)ar mir, al^ fteefte (jlafe) 
ed im <5alfe unb tt)erbe mid^ erffidfen. Sof^ann 
blidfte fic^ mitunter gut^erjig nad^ mir urn. 
enblid^ fagte er: ^Sefet nod^ funf ^aufer!" 
3d^ tt)are fafl tton meinem ©i$ auf ben S3oben 
be^ SBagen^gefunfen; id^ foHte gleid^ ouSjietgen, 
unb meine ffniee gitterten. — 3)er SBagen ^ielt 
an; ble 2;pr bed ^aufed toax nod^ gefd^lofen 
unb unbefangen ftieg idS) aud. So^ann fltn^ 
gelte unb bie Zf^ut offnete fic^; auf ber 2)lele 
liefen ffinber unb junge STOSbd^en um^er; 
einlge »erf(^n)anben mit ber ©d^nelUgfeit bed 
Sliced, anbere blieben neugierlg fie{)enj jtt)ei 
fleine SOiabd^en fteDten fid^ an ble ^audt^ur, 
urn ?Pferbe; SBagen unb (Stphd ju mufiern, 
ba offnete fid^ eine Zf)iix, unb ein Ileined 
3Rabc^en fagte: „2)ie grau ^rofefforin." 

!D{e ?Profeffor{n ©turm tjat nad^ bem JEobe 
i^red 9Kanned iijx Snftitut errid^tet, n)eld^em 
fie mit gn)ei 5Rid^ten tjorjie^t. S93ie id^ empfan^ 
gen tt>axb, tt)ei|i id^ eigentlid^ felber nid^t, ici) 
erinnere mid^ nur, bafl bie SJJrofefforin fagte: 
„@mma unb Suife bringt (Smilie auf @uer 
3immer unb jeigt i^r ailed." (Continuation on p. u.) 


42. — 3)cr 3unfcr unb bet 93aucr. 

(Sin Saucr txat mit bicfcr itlage 
aSor 3unfer ?llejcanbcr ^in: 
,,a3erncf)mt, «&crr, tt)ie td^ ^eut' am JEage 
©0 fibel angcfommcn bin: 
SKein ^unb ^at eurc ^n^ gcbiffcn; 
SBcr tt)irb bic nun beja^len muffcn?" 

„„2)a foDfi bu, ©d^elm; ben Seutel gic^cn/'" 
Su^r alfofort ber Sunfer auf. 
fnMiv voax ba^ ©tucf t)on fold^en ifu^en 
Sur brcifig S^^alcr nid^t ju itaufj 
Die foUji bu augenblicf^ erlegen. 
2)a^ fei erfannt »on 9led&te^ wegen."" 

„2ld^ nein! ©ejirenger ^txx, a^, ^oret!" 
3lief i^m ber Sauer wieber ju, 
n^^ ^ab' e^ in ber Slngji ^erle^ret, 
2)enn euer ^unb bi|i meine 5tuV' 
Unb njad tt)ar nun bad Urt^eil 8lleranber6? 
„„3a, Sauer, bad ifi ganj ttoad anberd."" 

43.— ©prid^njortlid^e SRebendarten. 

The following proyerbial sayings suggest the idea of useless labour, like 
the English, " To mUk one's cow in a sieve," " To carry coals to Newcastle ; " 
like the Scotch, "To carry salt to Dysart;" like the Latin, <'To carry wood 
to the forest;" and like the French, "Porter de Teau & la rivi&re." 

Staffer in einem ©ieb ^olen. 
geered ©tro^ brefd^en. 
ffiaffer ind SJKeer tragen 
@ttt)ad aud ben Singern faugen. 


44. — 5prcMger bcr Siebe. 

(IT. O, Sapkir, bom 1795, died 1858, a renowned humorist 
and satirical writer of the first half of the present centnry; a 
friend and contemporary of Heinrich Heine. Unfortunately, 
many of his writings are tainted like those of Heine's, though 
his private life was purer than that of his friend's. Saphir was, 
like Heine, by birth a Jew, and was received into the Lutheran 
Church when nearly thirty years old. At his baptism he uttered 
the sentence which called forth the animosity of his former 
co-religionists : " Fiir das Judenthum gibt es nur einen 
Fortschritt, namlich den zum Christenthum : " ** For Judaism 
there is only one means of progress — conversion to Christianity." 
In connexion with his name, an amusing incident must be 
mentioned. His grandfather's name was Israel Isreel, and 
when the decree went forth that all Jews should assume a 
distinctive surname, the old Isreel appeared before the registrar 
quite undecided what name to adopt. The registrar, vexed at 
the delay, and observing on the hand of the rich old Jew a gold 
ring set with a large jewel, brc^e the spell by saying : '* Du 
tragst einen King in welchem sich ein Saphir befindet, ergo 
soUst du Saphir heiszen. Punctum I " — " You wear a ring with 
a sapphire, ergo, your name be Saphir. Donel" And to the 
amazement of the old man, he registered the name forthwith.) 

3)ic SSIumen, bie Saume, bie SSIut^cn, bie 
©anger bc^ SBalbe^ finb ^rebiger ber Sicbc 
in bcr gtogcn itird^c ber ®d^6))fung! 3)ie 
SBIume <)rebigt 8le6e, benn tt)enn ber ©turm 
fie gebeugt f)at unb fie nacl^ bem ©turme i^r 
^aupt tt)ieber erfjebt, fie buftet bod^ tt)ieber 
milbe unb fenbet i^ren SQSo^igeruc^ in biefetbe 
8uft. Unb bie Saume <>rebigen Siebe, fie fragen 
ben fonnt>erbrannten SHJanberer nidht: t,^Cift 
bu bie @abe meined ©d^attend Wrbient?" 


fonbern fie fagen: „5tommt alU, ble i^r m 
unb mubc fcib, in mcincn <B(fyatUn, iH) 
^od^, abet oi i^r ben ©d^atten ^erbient o 
nid^t, bad muf bod^ erji ein ^o^erer bort ol 
rid^ten!" Unb bie Slut^en ^)rebi9en Siebe, 
opfern fid^ felbfi gerne, fie geben i^r !Da| 
^In, urn ber fjjatern grud^t 5piaft |U mad^i 
Unb bie ©Snger bed SQBalbed prebigen il 
i^r ©efang, i^re Sieber finb bie Urfad^e, i 
bie 3Kenf(^en fie t)erfolgen unb einfangen, i 
bod^ fingen fie aud roller ^ttjU unb blutenl 
^erjen, urn bad Of)x ber 9Jlenfd^en ju begludE 

46.— !Dad abeljlolje grftulein unb i^ 


Sluf einem SaHe in SBaben^Saben, einem 
befud^ten Sabeorte, forberte ber gu^rer ei 
jungen ®rafen, ber in ^alle fiubirte, ein abli 
grSulein gum iEanje auf. Slid ber 3: 
beginnen foUte, fragte bad graulein i^ 
ilanjer: „9Kit n)em ^abe id^ bie @^re 
tanjen?" „3d^ bin ber ^audle^rer bed ®r< 
t)on 2lrn^eim/' antwortete er. „©ie finb 
tt)ol ein Sirgerlid^er?'' fu^r bad grSuIein 
r/3a, bad bin i(if/' ertt)ieberte er. ,,@o bitt( 
urn aSerjei^ung," fagte bad graulein, „{nbe« 
i^re «&anb jurudfjog, benn bie 3Wama tjat 
t)erboten mit einem Sfirgerlid^en }U tan; 


3)er bclcibigtc ^crr entferntc fid^ unb fud^tc 
fid^ im greicn ju fammcln. ©ein S^gling 
folgtc i^m iaf^in, unb "onnafjm blc Urfad^c 
fcincr Slufrcgung. „6ic follcn fur bicfe Sx&n^ 
fung balb ©cnugt^uung ^aben!" fagtc cr, eiltc 
in ben S^anjfaal jurudf, forbcrte ba6 fioljc 
fWabd^cn jum S^anje auf, unb ftagte fie, eben 
aid ber Xanj begann: „SDiit ttiem f)ah' id^ bie 
(St)re ju tanjen?" „?!Rit bem grftulein »on 
SBalbjiein/' „Sld^, fo blttc id^ urn Sntfd^ulbi^ 
gung," anttt)ortete ber junge @raf, „benn ber 
^apa 1)at mir befo^len, blofi* mit ©rafinnen 
ju tanjen.". SKit biefen SBorten Hef ber junge 
®raf bad abelfiolje graulein befd^Smt pe^en 
unb feiner forberte fie biefen Slbenb tt)ieber 
jum ^^anje auf. 

46. — @j)rid^tt>5rter unb Slebendatten. 

Da6 italb folgt ber itu^. 
gliegen fann man nid&t mit (Sffig fangen. 
gliegen unb greunbe Ummtn im ©ommer. 
SQad SHegen iodt, bad lodt aud^ Sreunbe. 

2)en 9Rantel nad^ bem Sffiinbe ^&ngert 
•&aarc auf ben ^atjntn ^aben. 
(Sinem ettt>ad weid madden, 
©inern tttt)a§ aufbinben. 


47. — Die jungc ^Penfionairin. 

{Continued from page 49.) 

«) 9Wein ©d^lafjimmcr. My Bedroom. 

3n bcm 3inii«^^ fianbcn brei Sctten; jcbe ?Pem 
fionairin mu^te ba6 i^rlgc mitbringcn. 3)ic Satonin, 
meinc ?Pat^e, ^attc meinc6 fur mid^ »orau6gefanbt. 
@^ ftanb ba in bcr ©dfe unb fa^, tt>lc ailed bei i^r, 
blenbenb n>eif aud. ®o tt)ar \i) bod^ i)on etn)ad 
SBefanntem umgebenj \)Ci^ troftete mid^. Slufer Un 
33etten befanben fid^ brei SBafd^tifd^e, brei @tuf)le, ein 
iSifd^ unb ein ©d^ranf jur ?lufbett)(if)rung ber 5tteibcr 
unb @d^uf)e in unferem Sintmer. 

SBaf^ttxxjfer fianb bereit, ifamme unb Surjlen boten 
bie jungen 2Rabdt>en mir an j ate id^ jiebod^ ftuf erte, baf 
meine 9?eifetafd^e blefe ent^alte, liefen fie mid^ einen 
Slugenblidf aUein. 3d^ fanf auf einen ©tul)I} mein 
»&erj fd^tt)oH t)on ©eufjern. „C," bad^te i^, „nur fo 
t)iel, nur fo t)iel 3^it/ ntid^ au6tt)einen ju f&nnen!" — 
Slber ic^ ^aiit biefe nid^t unb mic^ aufraffenb orbnete 
id^ mein »&aar unb tt)ufd^ mid^. Smma offnete bie 
S^^ur. ,f3^r ffoffer fie^t auf bem SBorfaal'' — unb bann 
fugte jte ^inju: „2Bir nennen und f)ier aHe unter 
einanber 2)u." „©o nenne mid^ bod^ aud^ fo," enfc^ 

gegnete id^, unb folgte i^r. (Continuation on p. 57.) 


48.— !Der SKaucrlaufcr. 

©in bcrud^tigtcr 2)icB, 5Ramcn^ @ur^bato6, faf im 
©efangnijfc. ©cine 333ad^ter bcraufd^ten ftd^ cinji unb 
famcn auf ben ©ebanfen, i^ren Oefangenen lo^jubinben 
unb anfjuforbern, baf er i^nen jeige auf tt)eld^e 2lrt er 
bie ^aufer erHimmen fonne. Slufang^ ttjeigerte • fid^ 
ber ©auner; abet enblid^ legte er fi(t) feine ©erat^e 
gured^t unb begann ttor ben jiaunenben SBad^tern bic 
fenfred^k SBanb bed »&aufe6 ju erfieigen. Slad^bem er 
aber bad !Dad^ erreid^t ^atte, t)erga|i er bie SRucffe^r 
unb t)erfd^n)anb, e^e bie *&afd^er unb ^Polijeibiener urn 
bad «&aud ^erumlaufen fonnten. 

49. — 2)er ©renabier. 

(£in alter ta))f rer ©renabier, 

S)er gleid^ gut fod^t unb log, fiel einji im ^anb*= 

gemenge ; 
SttJei greunbe trugen i^n gerfleifd^t aud bem ©ebrSngc. 
„©agt, 5finber ! ift cr tobt?" fragf fte fcin Dfpcier. 
f,3a tt)of)l!" toerfefct bad ^JJaar, mit fd^njeren Sft^cm^ 

„9lid^t bod^! id^ lebe nod^!" brummt ^ier ber armc 

„Sld^ !" rief ber elne greunb, ^^^err ^au^)tmann glautt 

i^m nid^t ; 
(Sr ^)flegte ia fein Sebelang jU lugen." 


50.— S3i(ber aud bem ffrtege von 1870. 
1) 2lue bcr ©d^tad^t bci S986rt§. 

SDlcin ^tfd^cr n)ar ein fc^r intcHigentcr unb mu 
tercr SD^ann au^ SUnjiDer bci @at>ern, bcr gcgen fcin 
SBittcn bic ©d^lad&t bel SBort^ mit angefcf^cn ^al 
@in ^arifcr 3citung6rcbacteur ober Sorrcfponbent f)a 
if)n auf \)ierjef)n 3^agc gcmiet{)ct unb cr fam gcrabe o 
bcr »^6^c t)or SQBort^ an, ate bic Sc^Iac^t bcgann. I 
5Parifcr 3^itung0mcnfc^ tt)urbc fcf)r blafi unb aufgeri 
unb ranntc batjon. 2)cr 5hitfdf>cr llc^ 2Bagcn unb 5l?fci 
fic^cn unb brucftc fid& fainter cincn SJlciIcnficin in b 
@rabcn ncbcn bcr Gfjaujfcc, n)0 attc ihigcin ubcr i 
^intt)cgflogcn unb cr bic Sd^Iad^t mit anfc^cn fonn 
@r fprad^ mit ttjcnig Sicbc »on ben Sranjofcn u 
auf crtc, baf bic bcutfc^cn ©olbatcn ganj anbcrc Sci 
fcicn, tt)cit ^oflic^cr unb nid^t fo »crfoffcn. 2)ic fra 
gojifd^cn Solbatcn fatten ben ganjen iSag^getrunf 
unb bctrunfcn am SBcgc auf bcm gclbe gclcgcn. < 
njoHtc fid^ f^alb tobt ladf^cn, al5 cr baran bad^tc, tt)ic i 
granjofcn gclaufcn fcicn. Sic fatten ailed im £t 
gclajfcn, fcicn n)ic »crrucft jurudfgcrannt unb f^ati 
gcfd^riccn: „5Rcttct cud^, rcttct cud^! bic ^Prcup 
fommcn!" — 2)ic crfd^rcrftcn @intt)of)ncr bcr 2)6r 
tDSrcn allc mit i^ncn gcflo^cn unb SBciber unb if ini 
unb aSic^ f^attm fic^ in bic SaSalbcr geflud^tct. 9R 
^attc bic Slrtillcricpfcrbc abgcfpannt unb auf jcbi 
l)attcn itod, brci unb »icr granjofcn gcfcffcn unb man 
mat ^atte fid^ nod^ cincr an ben ScifUMni gef)an 


©einem SBagen ffahc man jteben aSerwunbcte aufflc^ 
lobcn. .2)er itutfcl&cr Uf)au)fiUt, baf Me granjofcn 
bcbeittenbc Wefcrtten gc^abt fatten, ttjeld^e gar nid^t in'0 
Bcucr gcfommen, fonbctn t)on bcm J)anifc^cn ©c^rcrfeu 
bc6 crjlen S^tcffcnd angcjiccft unb mitgelaufcn toiren. 

(-4. von Corvin.) 

51. — 2)ie junge 5Pcnfionairin. 

( Conttnt(6(2/roin page 54.) 

8) Dad Sludparfen. The Unpacking. 

2luf bcm SSorfaat jianb mcln itoffer nckn eiucm 
©d^ranf mit ©d^ublaben, tt)clc^er mir bejiimmt toax, 
aSieIc jiungc SKftb^en unb itlnbcr fianbcn um^cr ; t)on 
alien ©eiten ^lef e6: „3)u fannji jeftt au6pacfen, 
Suite, ©op^ie, S^arlotte, Slnna!" u. f. tt). (unb fo 
vceiter). 2)er ifoj)f gtng mIr um, betaubt t)on bet 
Keife, tt){e ic^ toot, 

Sangfam fd^Iof td^ meinen ffoffer auf, ber nod^ fo 
manege •^eimat^fc^a^e ent^ielt, tDeld^e i^ je^t fo t)ielen 
fremben Sltcfen preidgeben mu^te. „SBir wollen 2)ir 
^elfen/' ^iefi e6 5 jn)ei S^^rfincn fielen in meinen itoffer, 
abet ic^ beugte bad ©efic^t tief ^erab, unb feincr fa^ 
meinen ©d&mcrj. 3)ie itleiber lagen oben auf ; biefc 
famen in bad ©c^ranfd^n, tt)e(d^ed in ber 3)reib(att# 
ftube fle^t, benn fo toirb unfer B^n^ni^^ nac^ bem ©d^ul? 
gebraud^ benannt, tt^eld^er eine befonbere 33egeid^nung 
fur aOed f^at, n^enn bie ^rofejforin ed nid^t ^ort. 

{Continuation on p. 61 .) 



62. — The Farmer and the Kobold. 

(The demonology of Germany has been interwoven in mai 
poems and prose fictions, and comprises a great number 
spirits of water and of earth. The Water-nixe or nymph (i 
presented by Fouqufi as the soulless "Undine," French Vondii 
from the Latin wnda^ wave, water) is represented by Heinrit 
Heine as the beautiful, blue-eyed, golden-locked " Lorelei," 
Loreley, the siren of the Rhine. He describes her, in his we 
known poem (Fischart*s *' German Stories "), as sitting on a lof 
rock, combing her golden hair with a golden comb, and singii 
her siren-song. The rower in his boat gazes spell-bound on t! 
height, and is seized with a pang of love. He sees the g 
above, but not the rock below, and both rower and boat a 
swallowed by the stream. 

The gnomes and demons of the earth, known by the name 
Kobolde, Heinzelmannchen (i.e., wanton imps, elves), Polte 
geister (i.e., invisible hobgoblins, or helter-pelter-skelter spirits 
Bergmannlein (i.e., mountain-mannikins)^ Zwerge (dwarfs), et( 
are generally represented as mischievous tittle imps, dwellii 
in every nook and comer of the "great Fatherland," ai 
creating confusion everywhere, as well as frequently renderii 
many little services to the weary traveller on the wayside, 
the overworked housemaid in the kitchen. 

In this respect the German Kobold (the English "Rob 
Goodfellow "), and more especially the Heinzelmannchen reseml 
the Scottish " Brownies," spirits formerly supposed to haunt o 
farm-houses, and who, if well treated, were wont to do, ov 
night, many pieces of drudgery for the servants. 

The Kobold is also the demon of mines. The metal whi( 
now bears the name cohaHty was at first, before its use was know 
attributed to the ill services of the Kobolds. Up to the prese: 
day the miners of Cardiganshire attribute the strange noises, 
frequently heard in mines, to these goblins or coblyns, who a 
supposed to point out the rich veins of lead and silver by the 
unearthly knockings. 

Among the mighty mountain -spirits, the much-dread< 


" Biibezahl " or Number-Nip, who is supposed to have his abode 
in a subterranean palace in the Sudetic Mountains and Biesen- 
gebirge in Silesia, holds the foremost rank. He derives his 
nickname " RUbezahler," abbreviated into "Rubezahl," from 
having once had the tedious task set him by a lovely princess 
whom he had abducted, of counting the turnips in a large field. 
While the gnome was thus engaged, the princess escaped from 
the subterranean mansion by means of his own magic wand, 
and joined her earthly lover. 

According to the description which Gothe gives of the " ErU 
konig" in the well-known poem of that name (see p. 37) this 
mischievous fairy-king, who is said to haunt the Black Forest 
or Schwarzwald, must be classed with those airy creatures the 
Elves, that dance on the grass or sit among the leaves of trees 
and carry on their sports at the time of the full moon. 

" Salamander," the demon of fire, mentioned in Gothe's " Faust," 
partakes of the nature of the reptile of that name, which is 
supposed to endure fire. This spirit is of classical origin, having 
already been known to the ancients as the symbol and emblem 
of fire.) 

3)er Saucr unb fein itobolt 

{BrUder J, and W. Grimm. See biographical notice on p. 65.) 

(Sin 93auer tt>ax fcinc^ itobolb^ ganj uberbruffig gej^ 
iDorbcn, n^eil cr aCerlei Unfug anrld^tetc ; bod^ mod^tc cr 
c0 anfangen, n)ie cr immcr tooUtt, fo fonnte cr if)n nid^t 
tt)icbcr lo^ tt)crbcn. 3ulcftt toaxi cr fRatf)^, bic ©d^cunc 
onjuficrfcn, tt)o bcr StoMb fcincn ®lft ^attc, unb if)n 
gu »crbrcnncn. 2)c5tt)cgcn ffif)rtc cr crft all fcin ®tro^ 
unb ^cn ^crau^ unb bci bcm Ic^tcn itarrcn junbctc cr 
bic ©c^cunc an, nad^bcm cr ben ®ciji )^>o^ t)crfpcrrt 
fjattc. aaSic ftc nun fd^on in totter Olutf) ftanb, fa^ 
pd^ bcr Saucr "oon ungefa^r urn, ftef)c, ba faf bcr 5?oboIb 


^intcn auf bem itarren unb fpxacf) : „c6 War ^dt, baf 
tt)ir ^eraud famcn! cd war 3^it, baf Wir ^crau^ 
famcn !" 2)cr 95auer muf tc alfo wiebcr umf e^ren unb 
ben itoftolb be^altcn. 

In a quaint poem by Trinius (177S-1844), we are told of a citizen who burnt 
the Kobold out of his house. He piled his furniture on a waggon and set 
fire to the house. Then he set himself beside his wife and children on 
the waggon and went on his way to his native Swabiai rejoicing over the 
supposed death of his tormentor. But lo ! when they had gone scarcely a 
few miles, and night had set in, a familiar voice made itself suddenly heard: 
£s brummtein Bekannter im Bass: ''Wenn wir nicht wSren entronnen, 
dann wSren wir alle verbronnen ! " Dcr Kobold sasz hinter im Fass. 

63. — SBeggeworfcned @elb — tpeggcfd^miffene 


9Ran \)crgifit im 8eben nld^t^ fo Icfd^t, al6 bad 
SKuItipliciren. @d fann jemanb clnen S^ag in ben 
anbcrn nur cinen ©rofd^en unnJt^igcrWeife audgebcn. 
SUlanc^cr, bcr ben ©rofd^en ubrig fjat, tf)ut ed, unb 
meint, ed fei nld^t »iel. Slber in elnem 3a^re jtnb ed 
brel^unbert funf unb fed^jig, unb in breif ig 3af)ren 
je^ntaufenb neun^unbert unb funfjig ©rofd^en. gacit : 
3)reif)unbert unb t)ier JS^atcr fed^d ©rofd^en wegge^ 
worfened ®elb, unb bad iji bod^ \)iel. — (Sin anberer 
fann einen S^ag in ben anbern gwei ©tunben unnuj 
unb in SOiu^iggang jubringen, unb meint jebedmal, fur 
^eute laffe ed jicl& t)erantn)orten. 2)ad multiplicirt ftd^ 
in einem Sa^re ju jieben^unbert unb breif ig, unb in 
breif ig 3a^ren ju ein unb jwanjigtaufenb unb neum 
f)unbert Stunben. ^acit: neun^unbert unb jwolf 
t)erIorne S^agc bed furjen Sebend. 'I^a^ iji bo d^ nod^ 
me^r, aid brei^unbert unb t?ier Xf)akx, tt)er'd bebenft. 


54. — !Die jungc fpcnftonaitln. 

4) 3!)a6 8lu^t)a(fen. {Conttnued/rompageBl,) 

5Kcin bunted SKujfelinHcib ttjarb juerft fjzxau^^ 
gcnommcit; @mma na^m c6 mir ab. „0, ein SKuf* 
fclin ! Suifc, m {jt xok S)ein ftlelb." ,,5Rein, meincd 
ijl wcniger bunt." „3d^ jlc^c ©mma'd Jflclb t)or." 
,,9?ein id^ flnbc bicS ^ubfd^cr." @o ging ed mit jcbem 
^Icibe; jebe6 n^arb beurt^cilt, bclobt obcr gctabelt. — 
Site mcinc SBafd^c unb mand^cd Slnbere an bic 5Reif)e 
fam, bat id^, ailed aHein beforgen ju burfenj bie 
gro^eten SRSbd^en gingen tann fort, ble Heineren aber 
umfianben mid^^ nod^ unb pjierten: „2)a ifi ein 
^arfd^en ! ba ijl nod^ eined !" greunblld^ fa^ ii) mi^ 
nae^ i^nen urn 5 je^t fonnte id^ i^nen meine »&errl(d^* 
feiten nid^t jelgen, aber eine fleine ©d^ac^tel mit Son^ 
bond, tt)el(^e id^ mir jufammen gefpart, ubergab ic^ f^nen 
mit ber Sitte, fte unter ftd^ ju t)ertf|eilen. @ie maren 
ungemein erfreut. „D, banfe ! aber tt)iDjl 3)u fie nid^t 
bet)alten ? ©exalte fie boc^, Du f)afl fte bod^ fflr 2)ic^ 
mitgebrad^t." 3d^ lad^te : „9Kit ioierje^n .3a^ren ^at 
man feine Sonbonji^ne me^r." ©ie lad^ten jeftt auc^> 
unb liefen ^ergnugt »on bannen. {Continuation on p. 67.) 

.55. — .^omon^m. 

2)ie erfie fic^ in bunten Siei^en tt)legt, 
2)ie jtt>eite lujiig burd; bie Sufte fliegtj 
Doc^ fommen fie tt>of)t barin uberein : 
©ie Knnen belbe lebern fein. (jBoK.) 


56.— Sllber au« bem Jtricgc t)Ott 1870. 

2) 3n ben 5ParaHelen eincr bclagerten S^fiung. — 9Sor 


?piff— »)aff— fnallten bie ©d^uffe aller Drten unb 
©nben, unb aid id^ auffa^, ragten t)on jebem ctf)o^tcn 
?Punft aud bie Sunbnabelflinten mit aufgejiecften 
SBajonncten ober bic SBallbud^fen ^eraud, S^ob unb 
aScrbcrbcn jebem bringenb, ber fxcfy ba bruben fiber ben 
SBaHen jelgte. 

@d tt)ar ein malerifd^er Slnblicf. UeberaH an ben 
neun unb oft jef>n gufi ^o^en (Srbtt)anen ^Ingen bie 
©d&uften, guf^alt fud^enb, tt)o fie if)n eben ftnben 
fonnten. 2)er obere JRanb fold^er ©teHen tt>ax bann 
mit ©anbfacfen gebedt, bad ^eiflt fleine ©anbfSde, ettt)a 
gtt)ei gu$ lang unb im Ser^altnif bicf, n^aren bott fo 
gufammengelegt, baf fte oben auf bem aufgett)orfenen 
2)amme eine Slrt t)on ©d^ieffd^arte bilbeten, um ben 
ba^inter lagernben ?Pojien fot>iet ate moglid^ gegen bie 
ihigein ber Sfjaffepotd ju fd^u^en. S)urd^ bie gelaffene 
Deffnung aber fatten unfere beutfd^en ©olbaten i^re 
@ett)e^re geftecft unb lagen bort im Slnfd^lag, bid fte ben 
ito^)f eined geinbed fiber ben ©d^anjen bort brfiben 
erfennen fonnten. ©ie ia^kn gar nid^t baran, einen 
©d^uf of)ne ^id abjugeben, tt)&^renb bie granjofen 
bagegen formlid^e Sleiminen in enblofen ©atoen f^cxf 
fiberfd^lcften. @d iji tt>aiix, bann unb tt>ann trafen fte 
allerbingd einen ber Unferen, aber bod^ nie e^er, aid bid 
fie fein ©etvid^t in Gifen ober Slei ^crfibergefanbt. 


©crabe \>ox un^ lag ciner ber ©d^uftcn im Slnfd^lag, 
unb fein bli^cnbe^ Sluge, bet fj^arffpa^cnbe SSlicf 
ttcrriet^, ba|l cr ba brubcn eincn ^einb erftja^t unb auf 
bent itorn fjobt. 3c$t eine rafd^e, aber kife Scttjegung 
— bic ganje ©cjialt blieb cincn SKomcnt tt)lc au^ Stein 
gef)auen — ein S3li& plo^Iid^ — ein Sd^Iag unb ein 
triunH)^irenbed Sad^eln glitt iiber bie fonnengebraunten 
3uge be§ 5!Kannc$. 

„2;reffl 3^r benn aud^ manc^mal ?" frug ben einen 
mein freunblid^er gutter, ber Dberfttieutenant ^on ber 

„@i gett>i^/' lad^te ber SJ^ann, „y)or^in jeigte jtd^ fo 
cine 5Rotf)^ofe ganj Ud oben auf bem Sffiall, ber i^abe id^ 
aber gleic^ ein^ f)inubergefc^icft, baf fie tjornuber ^erum 

SQSenn ber geinb bie fafi funflot^ige 5tugel befcmmen 
^atte, VDar'^ fein SBunber. {Fr. Gerstacher.) 

57.— 2)er greitag. 

Sin einem greitage foil ber SKenfd^ nid^t6 unterne^^ 
men, unb feine Steife antrctcn, ber grcitag ift ein 
Unglurf^tag. Solumbu^ ifi an einem Sreitage au^^ 
gefegelt, bapir ^at er ba^ Unglucf ge^abt, Slmerifa ju 
entbecfen, unb bafur in ffetten gelegt ju tt)erben. {SapMr,) 

58. — (Sf)arabe. 
2)ie erpen gebeif)en auf be6 2lcfer^ SKittej 
9Kit gleid^ unb ungleic^ tt)cd^felt bie brittej 
2)ad ©anje Mirft au6 ^ergangener ^z\i 
Unb lebt in 3Jiaf)rd^en tx^eit unb breit. (nmzahi) 


69. — ^The last Eesting-place of King Alario. 

(The great migration of Grerman tribes, known in history as 
the " Volkerwanderung," commenced in 376, when Germany 
was invaded by barbarous hordes from Asia. The invaders 
drove before them the inhabitants, who fell upon the already 
tottering Western Empire, and hastened its fall. For the first 
time since the days of Brennus, the proud city of Rome saw, in 
409, a foreign conqueror within its walls. This was Alaric, the 
King of the Visigoths. From Rome, Alaric marched into 
Southern Italy, where he suddenly died. The story of his burial 
is given below. 

The Goths, who had embraced Christianity, were more civi- 
lized than the rest of the Teutonic tribes. Their bishop Ulphilas 
translated, about 360, the Holy Scriptures into the Gothic 
language, and this translation, which is still in existence, is the 
oldest specimen of any German dialect.) 

3)c6 itonigd ®xai. 

(Briider J. und W, Grimm.) 

2)ic SBeP9otf)ctt VDoOtcn bm^ Stalien nad^ Slfrifa 
njanbcrn, untertDcgg jiarb j)I6^licl& ^laxldf, i^r 5f6nig, 
ben ftc abcr afle 5Kaf en Ilcbten. 3)a fingen fte an unb 
leiteten ben glufi 33arent (Sufentum or Safeno), ber 
neben ber ©tabt Sonfentina am gufle bed Sergei flie^t, 
aud feinem S3ette ab. SKitten in bem Sett lie^en fic 
nun burd^ einen «§aufen ©efangener ein @rab graben, 
unb in ben ©d^oof ber ©rube bejiatteten fie, nebfl 
t)ielen itojlbarfeiten, lf)ren ifonig Sllarid^. Sffiie bad 
gefdfie^en tt)ar, leiteten fte bad Sffiaffer tt)ieber ind alte 
Sett jurucf unb tobteten, bamit bie @tatte "oon niemanb 
tjerratf)en mxbt, alle bie, tt)eld^e bad ®rab gegraben 


S)ic Sriibcr 3atob unb SBil^clm ®rimm. 

(AutJiors ofNos. 52, 59, 71.) 

Jacob Grimm, the greatest philologist of his time, and the 
author of the world-renowned *' Deutsche Grammatik," or Ger- 
man Grammar, was horn in 1785, and died in 1863. His brother 
William, his inferior in point of penetration only, was a year 
younger, and died in 1859. These two brothers, the most re- 
markable scholars of the nineteenth century, were always 
associated in their literary labours. For nearly sixty years they 
liyed in the same house, and worked together from mom till 
night in adjoining rooms. They were never separated. It was 
even fabled that they intended to marry the same lady. But 
far from that ; they led a student's life, and had made up their 
minds to remain bachelors, when an eld aunt insisted that one 
at least should get married. The question who should be the 
victim was argued for many an hour, and at last settled, on the 
understanding that Jacob, as the elder of the two, should take 
the fiatal step. A lovely and accomplished lady of twenty -two 
was forthwith introduced to hinv but to his great horror he soon 
found out, before he had seen her ten minutes, that Ae, at 
least, had not the slightest idea how to win and woo the lady. 
In this awkward position his brother William took pity upon 
him, and came to his rescue, showing his brother how to play 
the gallant lover. But there was Cupid, and he changed 
brother William's feelings and turned him into the lady's 
admirer. William, forsooth, fell in love with the lady before a 
week was over, and Jacob felt highly delighted and greatly 
relieved. Thus William married Jacob's intended, and Jacob 
returned to his studies and died a bachelor. 

The brothers Grimm will be known as long as the German 
language is spoken. They were the first to collect the scattered 
and last surviving remnants of ^ Teutonic mythology — those 
delightful fairy tales, unsurpassed for quaintness, simplicity, 
and beauty of language. 


60. — The Evil One outwitted. 

{Friedrich Miickertj bom ] 789, died 1866, a renowned orien- 
talist and poet Through the assiduous cultiyation of his 
poetical gifts, he became a great master of form and melody, 
and found it almost easier to express himself in verse than in 
prose. He translated a great number of Chinese, Persian, and 
Arabian stories, and made the German language flow in the 
metres of the oriental poets. As the lyrist of happy love, he 
holds a high place among German poets. His martial odes, 
called " Grehamischte Sonnette," are the most remarkable of his 
patriotic songs.) 

2)cr betrogene S^eufcl. 

2)ic Slraber fatten i^r gelb bcfieHt, 
* 3)a tarn bet 3;cufel ^erbel in (SiV, 
@r fprad^ : „9Kir geprt bie ^albe SBett, 
3d^ n^itl aud^ t)on eurer (Srnte mein 2;^eil." 

2)ie 2lrabcr aber ftnb gfld^fe t)on ^au^ j 
©ie frrad^en : ,,!Dic untere ^atfte fei bcin." 
2)er ieufel voiU allcjelt oben ^inau^ : 
„9iein/' fprad^ er, „e$ foil ble oberc fein." 

2)a bauten fte SRuben in cinem ©trid^ ; 
Unb ate e^ nun an bie S^^eilung gicng, 
2)ie Slraber na^men bie SBurjeln fur ftdb, 
2)er S^ufel bie gelben flatter empfieng. 

Unb ate e^ wieberum gieng in'^ 3a^r, 
2)a fprad^ ber S^eufel in ^eHem 3orn : 
„3tun tt)ill IS) bie untere ^Slfte furtt)af|r I" 
3)a bauten bie 2lraber 2Beij' unb item. 


Unb ate e6 tt)icbcr jur Jl^ellung tam, 
5)ie Slrabcr na^mcn ben Slc^rcufd^nltt, 
3)cr !£eufcl bie leercn ©toppcln na^m, 
Unb ^cijte ber ^5Uc Ofcn bamit. 

61. — 2)ie iungc ^Pcnfionairin. 

{Continued from p, 61.) 

6) 3)ie Srau $rofefforin unb i^rc beibcn 9lid^ten. 

Urn itcbcn UI)r fu^rten @mma unb Suifc mld^ in ba5 
SBof)njlmmer ber %xau 5)}rofejforin, tt>el(^e mit i^ren 
beiben Slid^ten am X^eetifd^e faf. @ie empfing mic^ 
freunblid^ ; i^re 9Sertt)anbte begruliten mid^ \^mxQmb. 
2)ie ^rofefforin iji eine Heine grau, in beren ©eftd^t 
aSetfianb ber ^auptau^brucf iji. ®ie f)at ru^ige, ben^ 
fenbe Slugen unb ein gemeffene^ Sene^men. 3n i^rem 
Sleu^eren fiel mir citt>a^ auf, tt>a^ ict) nic^t ju erflaren 
tt)uf te ; fpater fa^ id^, baf fte if)re ^aube ganj befonber^ 
^o6) fe^t, tt)a^rfc^einlid^, urn grower ju erfc^einen, aber 
ed giebt if)r etn)ai3 @igentf)umlid^ed. 2)ie 9iid^ten faf)en 
beibe angenef)m unb f(ug an^. 

2)ie ^Profefforin fagte mir: „^u fannji gleid^ 
morgen am Unterrid^te S^^eit neljmen,* id^ n)erbe im 
SSerlauf beffclben fcf)en, tt>a^ 2)u weift. 2a^ Dir 
fagen, xoa^ morgen t)orfommt. SBeil 2)u t)on ber SReife 
iEommji, ifl ^eute eine @u))pe fur !Did^ unb bie anbern 
Sc^ulerinnen im Slebenjimmer angerid^tet." 

{Continttation on p, 71.) 


62,— 2)ie ^au^rit^e. 

Srjlcr ^Rad^bar : „2Bic fangt if)r'd benit an, licbcr 
Siad^bar, baf eucr »&au6n)efen fo n)o^I bejieKt iji ?" 

Shelter Sftad^bar: „3d^ njufte nid^t, n?a6 ©d^ulb 
baran fein foKte, c6 tt)arcn benn meinc brei »&au^rat^c, 
bencn i^ bad aUcd ju ^erbanfen I)abe." 

erfter 5«ad^bar: ^Surc brel »&auMt^e? SBer 
jtnb benn bic ?" 

3tt)citcr 9lad^bar: „2)er »&aud{)unb, ber »&aud^ 
^a{)n unb bic ^audfa^e." 

erjier 5«ac^bar: „3f)r fc^erjt !" 

3tt>eiter 5Rad^bar: ,,©6 iji meln »6Kiger (Srnfl; 
benn fef)t, ber Ȥaud^unb bellt, mnn ein 3)ieb ^erbei^ 
fd^Ielc^t, unb ba ^eif t e6 benn : ^Slufgepafit !" 

!Der ^an^^at)n fral)t, tt)enn ber Slag anbrid^t, unb 
ba f)eif t ed benn : „2Iuf9efianben !" 

Unb bie ^audfa^e pu^t fid^, n)enn ein mxtf^n @afl 
fommt, unb ba ^eifit ed benn : ^Slufgetifd^t !" 

grfier Slad^bar: ,3d^ t)erftef|e, 9lad^bar. 3^r 
n)oDt bamit fagen, baf brei 2)inge not^ig feicn, urn bem 
»&au6tt)efen audju^elfen: — SSorforge gegen ailed, tt)ad 
fd^aben JEann, S^fiatigfeit in allcm, n)a6 niiften fann, 
unb greunblid^feit gegen alle, bie und n)o^ltt)olten unb 
mit benen tt)ir umgef)en." 

63.— ®j3rid^tt)6rter. 

Sorgen mad^t Sorgen. S56fed SDlaul, bofed *§erg. 
9iebe nid^t tt)o fein Dtjx ifi. SlWit n^enig lebt man n?o^t. 


64.— Uebcr blc Sd^u^mad^er. 

Untcr ben ©d^u^mad^ern f)aUn ftd^ immcr \>idt 
ttJiffcnfd^aftUc^c Stbp^t gcfunben. ©d^on ^^acl)ru6 l&f t 
cincn 9)lann, n)cld^et munber^aftc 9J?et)ijln ma^tc, clncn 
©d^fu^flicfcr fein. S*^ iji telcbcrum itmtxUn^mrtf), 
baf in ncuerer 3^it mand^e ©c^ujier ftd^ bed ^Prebigcnd 
befleipigen unb bie itanjcl befteigen. Slnbere treten 
auc^ ate 2)id^tcr auf. itonntc man ba nid^t mlt 9lcd&t 
jagen: „©d^uftcr Weib' bei bcinem Seijien." — 
Seffing fagt : 

„@^ f)at ber ©d^ufier Stanj jum !Did^tcr jid^ cntjudtt. 
SBad cr ate ©d^uftcr tl|at, ba6 tf)ut cr nod^ : cr flidft." 
(Sin ganj anbere^ Silb ftcllt un6 aber ber beruf^mte 
Slurnberger ©c^u^mac^er «&and ©ad^d (1494-1576) 
bat; ber bebeutenbjie SWeifierfanger be^ fed^je^nten 3a^r^ 
^unbert^. Sr tt)ar ein ©d&ufter ju 5Rurnberg, ber ©o^n 
clne^ ©d^neiber^; ber ©driller eined 8einett)eberd unb 
ot)ne 3tt>elfel ein geborener 3)id&ter, aber otjne alle 
eigentlid^e Silbung. 2)lefcr SKann ift fd^on merf^ 
wurbig feiner unge^euren grud^tbarfeit ttjegenj benn 
nadl^ feiner elgnen Slngabe f)at er fed^^taufenb ad^t unb 
^ierjig ©tucfe t)erfaft. !I)er grofere !E{)eil feiner 
©ebic^te ifl jebod^ nur t)on geringem SBert^e, unb SSiele^ 
tt)enig me^r ate leere JReimerei. "Slan ijat ba^er auf 
i^n ben beru^mten ihtuttelreim gemad^t : 

,;^and ©ad^^, ber war ein ©d^U^i — 
9Rad^er unb 5Poet baju." 


65. — 2)cr 3^unf6nig. 

e^ ijl fein fr6f)Iid^cr Zijkxiljm in ber SBclt, ate tcr 
3aunf6nig. SRitten in ©turmen unb @ci^ncegefio6cr 
ffi er gutcr 3)inge unb barum tt)irb cr aud^ mit 9lc(^t 
cin itonig, cin ©d^ncefonig unb SBinterfonig genannt. 
SBenn e^ friert, baf bic Saumc frad^en, ba fjbxt man 
feinc ©timme in ben SBalbcrn unb c6 fd^aKit burd^ bie 
(Sid^en, ate citct 9»uftf unb tt)ie ba6 ©eton feller qjfeifen. 
?lber cr ^alt ftd^ aud^ gem naf)c ju im SBo^nungen ber 
SRenfd^en, auf ta^ cr if)ncn cin gute0 (Sxtvxpd fiatuire 
unb fie crinnerc, baf cin fro^Iid^c^ ©crnut^ fofilid^cr fcl 
ate t)iclc« ®oIb unb ©ilbcr. 

66. — !Dcr ^u^^ unb bic S>orncn. 

{O, E. Lessing^ bom 1729, died 1781, the reformer of German 
prose, and the founder of the German drama. The object of his 
life was to create a national literature, and he did create it. He 
gave to German literature its national tendencies and physiog- 
nomy. Elopstock had made it English, Wieland had made it 
French, Lessing made it German. His principal dramas are 
" Minna von Bamhelm," " Emilia Galotti,'' and " Nathan der 
Weise," of which extracts are given in " Fischart's Advanced 
German Reader.") 

(Sin ttcrfolgtcr gud^d rcttctc fid) auf cine SDlaucr. Urn 
an ber anbern ©cite gut ^erab ju fommcn, crgriff cr 
cinen na^en 2)ornjiraud^. ©r lief jld^ aud^ gludlid^ 
baran niebcr, nur baf i^n bic 2)orncn fd^mcrjlid^ ttcr^^ 
tiunbeten. „@Ienbc »&clfer !" rief ber %vii)^, „bic nid^t 
^etfen f onnen, o^nc juglcid^ ju fd^aben !" 


67. — !Die jungc ^Penfionairln. 

(Continued Jrom page 67.) 

8) SRcine crfic SRa^Ijeit. ©uj)pc, ja ©u^))c ! 

2Bir tjerfugten un6 attc bort^in. Sluf cincm langcn 
3;ifd{fe, an bcm tt>ir ^piaft na^mcn, jlanben jwci 3;errincn 
mit 9KiIcl^fupj)e, unb Sutter unb S3rob. Slntonic, cin 
junged 9Jiabd^en, ttjcld^e^ bercitd conftrmlrt ifi, abcr ju 
i^rer tt>eiteren Sludbllbung nod^ in bcr 5)}enfion \)crtt)eilt, 
Icgtc "OCX, Sll6balb begann ein ®emurme(} cine 
Seurt^eilung ber ©iH)^)e folgte bcr anbercnj jle fei ju 
bunn, }u bid, c^ fei SCaffcr jugegoffcn, ftc fei fait, furj, 
ein ganjc^ 9Renfd^cnlebcn fann nx6)t fo t)iel ihritif 
^ctt)orrufen; ate bicfe arme 9RiI(^fuppe binnen tt)enigcr 
Slugcnblidc. 9iur bie itleincn, fed^6 an ber S^^l; ^fen 
fc^tt)cigcnb, abcr fef)r ^ergnugt. 

3c3^ ap nid^t fe^r ttergnugt, abcr glcidf^faOd fd^wcigenb, 
nnb crfunbigtc mid^, tt>afjxtnb tt>ir und Sutterbrobe berei^ 
teten, nad^ bcm ©tunbcnfurfu6. !Dic 2lnttt)ort lautetc : 
„^(tf, lautcr fatale ©tunben, franjoftfd^e ®^)rad^e, 
franjoftfd^e 9iegcln, franjojifd^ Dictiren unb ©d^on^ 
fd^rcibcn. 2lm 5Rad^mittagc 2)cutfd^c Sitcratur unb 
SRaturgefd^id^tc. 3n bcr ©d^ulftube t|angt cine !£abelle, 
ba fannjl 2)u aOe^ fcf|cn. ©d^rcibbud^er unb allc 
SSfid^cr, beren 2)u bcbarf|i, Hegen in ber ©d^ulftubc fur 
Did^ bereit." 3d^ erfu^r, baf jn)anjig ^enjtonairinnen 
(mid^ mitgcja^lt) fid^ in ber Slnfialt beffinben, bag 
ftinbcr au^ bcr ©tabt mit un^ an bem Untcrrid^tc Xijdl 
na^mcn, unb baf bicfer in brei 5Haffen crt^cilt njcrbc. 

{Continuation onp, 81) 


68. — ^A Northern Legend. 

(Nowhere is the Gennan muse more at home than in the 
romantic Swabia, where the spirits of the departed Hohenstaufen 
hover over the rains of their medieval castles. 

This Schwaben or Swabia was the cradle of the Imperial 
House of the Hohenstaufen, which reigned over Grennany in the 
twelfth century ; and the same land has brought forth a noble 
line of philosophers and poets, like Keppler^ JSchellingj Hegely 
Wielandj SchiUer^ and Uhland, 

Ludwig Uhland, bom 1787, died 1862, a famous ballad- writer 
of the present century, and next to Heine the most natural and 
genuine poet of modem times, is the author of the present poem. 
Many of his ballads, like " Roland the Shield-bearer " and '^ The 
Minstrers Curse" (See " Fischart's Advanced German Reader*'), 
are of pre-eminent beauty, and not inferior to Schiller's and 

SRorbifd^e ©age. 

SBo^l fiftt am 5Dlcere6flranbe 
©n jarte6 Sungfraulcin ; 
@ie angelt mand^e ©tunbe, 
Jtcin glfd&lein beif t i^r ein. 

©ic 1)at 'nctt 9iing am ginger 
mt tot^em ebelfieitt, 
2)en iinVt fie an We Slngel, 
SBirft i^n in'^ 9Reer ^inein. 

2)a ^ebt fid^ an^ ber 3;tefe 
'9lt »^anb n?ie (Slfenbein, 
2)ie laft am ginger blinfen 
2)a^ golbne SRingelein. 


3)a ^c6t fi(]& a\a bm ©runbe 
(Sin mtet, iung unb fcin, 
@r ^)ratt8t in golbnen ©d^iH)pett 
Unb fplelt {m ©onncnfd^ein. 

2)ad 9»abc^n fprid&t ctfd^torfen : 
„9iein, ebler Slitter, ncin, 
Saf bu mein Siinglein go(ben ! 
@ar nld^t feege^rf id^ bein.'' 

„9Ran angcU nid^t nad^ gifd^cn 
aRit ®oIb unb (gbclficin ; 
3)06 JRingleltt faf id^ nimmet, 
SReitt eigen muf t bu fein/' 

69.— !Kad^t ber IBtanttl ben $^{lofo^)^ett? 

(The tattered jdoak and long beard, worn by those who claimed 
to be philosophers, were oft^ made the object of ridicule by the 
Greek satirists.) 

2Inttji^ene6 glng in cinem aerriffencn aWantel um^er 
unb fud^tc ^lerin cfncn dtnf)m unb dnc @^rc. 2)a 
fpxadf bet tt)eife ©of rated ju i^m: „3d^ fe^e burd^ 
bie Sod^er beincd QRantete einen gro^en ©tofj unb 

70.— ©j)rid^tt)6rter. 
3ebem bad ©eine. 2)ad fleinfiet^aar f)ai feinen ©d^atten. 


71. — Legend of the Emperor Frederick 


A legend so lofty and sublime as that of this emperor has not its 
equal within the confines of legendary lore. It has been handed doirn 
through well-nigh seven centuries; and With the memorable erents of the 
year 1870, which brought about the re-establishment of the German 
Empire in the beginning of the year 1871, this famous legend has appa- 
rently been fulfilled. 

The hero of the legend, Frederick I., the second emperor of the house 
of Hohenstaufen (p. 72), was bom in 1121, and died 1190. From the reddish 
tinge of his beard, he was (like the English Ruftis) sumamed " Bothbcart^ or 
Redbeard, that is in Latin, " Barlarossa" He was a great warrior, and 
undertook at the age of seventy the third crusade to the Holy Land, the 
same in which Richard I. took so active a part. On his way to Jerusalem, 
he was, while crossing the river Saleph, swept away by the current and 

His subjects, who loved him with the affection of children, could not bring 
themselves to believe his death. According to the popular belief he was 
not dead, but dwelling spell-bound and asleep in a subterranean castle in 
Mount " KyjS^usen," the " KyffhUuser" which rises in the golden plain {die 
goldmA Aue) of Qermany, situated between the Hartz-mountains and 

He is to awake from his long sleep when the ravens no longer hover 
round the mountain, and then he will bring back golden days to Germany. 

Ever and anon, after an interval of a hundred years, he beckons to one of 
his attendants, a dwarf, and in his sleep he says: ''O boy, unto the 
entrance hie, see if the ravens still around the mountain fly! And if the 
ancient ravens are flying round and round, I still must dumber here, a 
hundred years spell-bound." {See Poem, p. 80.) 

Still round the mountain the ravens were circling, . 
When far westward the eagle appeared ; 
Then in a moment they vanished for ever : 
Lo ! Barbarossa has dreed his weird. 

For out of Versailles has come now the Kaiser— 
The mightiest Kaiser the Reich has seen — 
He rides home by his princes surrounded, 
And wreathed round his brows with laurels green. 

The emperor has risen, and the German Empire has been re-established. 
It was on Wednesday, 18th January 1871, that King William of Prussia 
was proclaimed Emperor of Germany in the Hall of Mirrors at Yersailles 
(in the palace of the renowned Louis the Great), under the eagle-bearing 
standards of his victorious armies, and in the presence of the princes of 
his empire. {See Poem, p. 82.) 


gticbrid^ fRotf)haxt auf bcm fti^ff^Jufcr. 

{Briider J. und W, Grimm. See biographical notice on p. 66.) 

aSon bicfcm Jtaifer ge^en t)iele ©agen im ©d^mange. 
©r foK nod^ nic^t tobt fcin, fonbcrn 616 jum jungftcu 
3;agc Ie6cn. S5i« ba^in filter in bcm 93erg it^fffjaufen 
unb tt)ann cr ^crt)orfommt, tt)irb er feincn ©c^ilb ^fingcn 
an cinen burren Saum, bat)on tt)irb bet Saum gruncn 
nnb cin befferc ^cit mcrben. 3utt)eilen rcbct cr mlt ben 
Scuten, bie in ben 93erg fommen, jutt)eilen I&pt er ftc^ 
an^toart^ fe^en. @en)6f)nlic]^ ft^t er auf ber Sanf an 
bem runben Peinernen S^ifd^, tjolt ben ffopf in ber ^anb 
unb fd^^Iaft, mit bem «&au^)t nicft er jiatig unb jtt>infert 
mit ben Slugen. 2)er Sart ifl i^m grof gemad^fen, 
nac^ einigen burd^ ben jieinernen !£ifd^, nad^ anbern 
urn ben S^ifd^ ^erum, bergejialt, baf er breimat um bie 
3iunbung reld^en mufi, bi6 ju feinem Slufwac^en. 

(Sin 93auer, ber 1669 au6 bem 2)orf 9leblingen fforn 
nad^ 5Rorbf)aufen fat)ren woOte, tt)urbe »cn einem f (einen 
SRSnnc^en in ben Serg gefu^rt, muf te fein 5torn au6^ 
fc^utten unb [xcS) bafur bie ©adfe mit @olb fuUen. 
!Diefer \afj nun ben itaifer ftften, aber ganj unbettjeglid^. 

2lud^ einen ©deafer fu^rte ein 3tt)erg ijlnm, ba jlanb 
ber itaifer auf unb fragte : n^licQin bie JRaben nod^ 
um ben ®erg?" unb auf bie Sejatiung be6 ©d(?afer6 
ricf er: „9lun muf id^ noc^ ^unbert 3a^re Ifinger 


72,— Silber au« bem fttiege t)Ott 1870. 

8) 2)eutfd^e (Scfd^ufte unb beutfd^e ifanonicre. 

©trafiburg tt)ar unfer ! 81m 27. ®cj)tem6cr abenW 
f)attt ftd^ tie gejlung ubergcben unb fd^on bcr 3Rorgcn 
bed n&d^flen JEaged fanb mid^ in ben ^ataBeln, bie fo 
tt>acfer unb brat) gegen bie SBaHe »or i^nen gearbeitet 
fatten. 9Bte bie SRannfd^aft, fo ^ten aud^ bie ^ox^ 
tref^id^n ©efd^u^e i^r ganje ©d^ulbigfeit get^an, unb 
je$t, ba bod lange etfe^nte 3i^l erreid^t toax, umgaben 
mic^, n>enn id^ gu einer S3atterie trot, bie brat>en Sa^ 
noniere unb erj&^lten leud^tenben Sluged t)on bem, n>ad 
i^re e^rnen ^Pflegebefo^Ienen geleifiet. 6ie flatten faji 
bur(^tt>eft Slumenjiraufe in bie Bu^blod^ ber ®efd&u^ 
gejiedft j bie SBac^en trugen oben in ben 3Jlunbungen 
ber ®ett)e^rlaufe Strau^e j ja bei ben ebenfattd blumem 
gefd^mudften Stiefenmorfern, mlS)c ©prenggranaten t)on 
^unbertt)ierunbfed^}ig ^4^funb f<^iefien, t)er{td(^rte mid^ 
ber Dbergefreite, inbem er bad bianfe Ungefium ^itfd^lte 
unb fheid^elte, bie Jtugein feien fo fanft ba^ingeflogen 
„tt)ie eine 3;aube." @ine fd^one J£aube bad ! 

993ie ))olIenbet gut ubrigend bie beutfc^n ©efi^u^e 
bebient n)orben finb, mag "oon ^unbert Seifpieien ^ier 
nur eind bejeugen. 

3n einer n)urtembergifc^en 93ierunbjtt)angigj)funber* 
batterie in ber erjien ^ParaUele bei ©d^iltig^eim fianben 
am 9Rorgen bed 27. September me^rere ^o^ere preuf ifc^e 
Dfficiere unb fprac^en o^ne Siudf^alt i^re t>otte Slnerfen^ 


nung fiber bit Stafd^^eit unb ®enaittgfeit ber &^n^t 
au^, burd^ tDeld^e eine gegenuberliegenbe fran}o{tf(j^e 
SSottcrie jum ©cj^weigcn gcbrad^t tt)orbcn war. 3n bem 
fHugcnblicfc [a^ clncr bet *&erren burd^ fein ®la^, ba^ 
auf bem gejiung^tt)aKe ber ffierfud^ gemac^t tt)urbe, elne 
neue itanone an\tatt ber jerfd^metterten aufjufa^ren. 
3)er DberfeuertDerfer fa^ feinen t^auptmann an, blefer 
nirfte lad^elnb, bie Officiere legten ftc^ mit i^ren ©lafern 
in bie Sufen, nai) jtt)ei ©ecunben frad^te ber Sd^u^, 
unb 5tanone unb Sebecfung^mannfd^aft auf bem ienfeis^ 
tigen SSoQe foUerten ubereinanber unb ))er{iummten 

fur immer. {Botert Heck,) 

73. — 5Kein 3iwmer. 

(M, G. Saphir, 1795-1858. Seepage 51.) 

3d^ tebte in bem t&aufe melner ©tiefmuttcr. 3n 
bem erjien ©todftt)erfe biefe^ ^aufe6 tt)ar ein Sintnter, 
tt>elc^ id^ mlr in eine ganje SRci^e t)on 3'nintern 
eint^ilte. SSermittelfl fc^marjer ©trid&e, bie Of auf 
bem xottjcn Siegelboben biefe« Blmmere jog, t^ellte id^ 
ee in eln ©d^Iafjimmer, in ein ©c^reibjimmer, in 
ein Sefud^djimmer, in ein ©peifejimmer, in ein 
SBibliot^ef^jimmer unb in ein aSorjimmer. 3d^ 
bett>o^nte alfo nid^t nur eine ganje SRei^e t)on Simmern, 
fonbern idj^ fonnte fogar nad^ Selieben jeben Sttugenblicf 
in einem anbern ^Srbftrid^" tt>of)nen. 


75. — ^The Old Barbarossa. 

{Priedrieh EUckert, bom 1789, died 1866, a renowned orientalist 

and poet. Seepage 66.) 

2)er alte Sarbarojfa, ber itaifet gricberid^, 

3m untetlrb'fc^ctt ®d(>Ioffe ^dlt et t)erjaubcrt jtd^. 

@r iji niemate geftorbcn, rr Icbt barin noc^ jeftt j 

^r ^ot im @c^(of t)erborgen jum @c^(af ftd^ ^ingefefrt. 

@r ^at ^Inabgenommen bed JRcid^cd ^errlid^feit, 
Unb tt)irb cinji wicbcr fommcn mit i^r ju fciner 3cit. 

Der ©tu^l {ji elfenbeinern; njorauf bcr italfcr ftftt ; 
S)er a;ifd^ tji marmeljieinern, tt)orauf fcin ^m)fi tt 

©eltt ©art fji nid^t t>on Slad^fe, et {fi t)on geuetdglut^, 
3fl burd^ ben %\\6) gettjad^fen; wotauf fein ftinn audi- 

®t nicft ate h)ie im JEraume, fein Slug' §aI6 offen 

jn)lnft } 
Unb je nad^ (angem Siaume et elnem ifnaben tt)inft. 

@r fprid^t im ©d^laf jum 5tnabcn: @e^' ^in ^or'd 

Unb fte^'; o6 nod^ bie JRaben ^etfliiegen urn ben Serg. 

Unb n)enn bie alien Staben nod^ ^iegen immerbar, 
©0 mup \6) a\x6) nod^ fc^lafen \)erjaubert ^unbert 3a^r. 


76. — Die juttfle ^Penfionairin. 

{Continued from page 71.) 

7) SJlcin erjiet Slbcnb. 2)ic SBorberettung^flunbe. 
My first Night The Preparation of Lessons. 

Stun ^ief ed t>on aOcn ©citcn : ,,SBcif t 2)u 2)cine 
franjoftfd^cn SRegcIn?" „2)u Deinc gioturgefc^icl^te ?" 
wSd^ mu^ nod^ Siterotur uberlcfen." „^(S) Snglifd^/' 
.,f^^ muf Slfrifa Icmcn, auf ubcrmorgen." „3(j^ bie 
©d^n)cij." „^6) muf ben (StlKnig motgen audttJenbig 
tt)iffcn." It f. tt). !Daatt)ifd&en ttjurben »iele gragcn an 
mid^ geric^tet; benn e^ n>ar auc^ n)id^t{g ju erfa^tcn, n^ie 
Hug ober bumm x^ fei. ©inige Ucfen in ben ^of 
^inab, urn ju f))ielen, m&^tenb anbere (afen, audkoenbig 
lernten, ober obfd^rieben. Urn neun U^r tterfugten tt)ir 
und {Jmrntlid^ gu Sette. SJ^ein ®ebet mat furj, abet 
inbrunfiig ; @rmubung unb S^raurigf ett fcl^(ofj|en meine 

Slugen. (Continuation on p. 85.) 

77.— 2)er Xob, bet Settler unb bie ftrudfe. 

®n Settelmann tparf feine JTriufe 

aJott Unmut^ in ben tlefen SR^ein 

Unb fprad^, erjftmt auf fein ®efd^i(fe, 

„D J£ob; tterfurje meine ^ein !" 

2)er JEob etfc^ten i^m aud ©rbarmen. 

f,(Sl/' frrad^ ber SBettler, „bifi bu ^ier? 

SKein S^roji unb ©tab entftel mir Strmen, 

^df fc^n>imm' i^m nad^ unb ^ol' i^n mir I" 



78.— gr{cbrid^ SRot^bart. 

(Emantiel von Oeibel, bom 1815 at Ltibeck, studied at Bonn and 
Berlin, and is now Professor of German Literature at Miinich 
or MUnchen.) 

JEief im ©d^ofic be^ it^ff f)aufer^ bei ber 2lmpel tot^em 
©iftt ber altc itaifer grlebrid^ an bem fEifd^ toon 5War^ 
3^n umtt)allt bcr ^urpurmantcl ; i^n umfSngt ber 
JRuflung ^xa^t 
2)od^ auf feinen 2i[u9entt)lmpern licgt be0 Sd^lafe^ tiefc 
aSorgefunfen ru^t bad Slnttl^, brin ftd^ ©rnfi unb 
SJRltbc ^)aart, 
2)urd^ ben 3Jiarmortifd^ gcujad^fen ift fein (anger, golbnet 
9lingd tt>le etjrne S3ilber fie^en feine Slitter urn i^n 
^arnifd^glanjenb, fd^ttjertumgurtet, aber tief im ©d^Iaf, 
n^ie er. 
^einric^ aud^, ber Cfterbinger, iji in i^rer fiummen 
SKit ben llebcrreid^en iipptn, mlt bem blonbgelocften 
©eine ^arfe ru^t bem ©anger in ber Sinfen o^ne 
3)od^ auf feiner §o^en ©time fdj^Iaft ein funftiger 


2KIe6 fc^mcigt; nur fjin unb wicbet fSBt tin Xxep^tn. 

t)om ©cjiein, . 
®i^ bet grofie SJiorgen plbi^li^ bxi^t mit Seuer^Iut 

^creln ; 
a3te ber Slblcr fioljett gliigc^ urn bc6 Scrgee ®i))fcl 

3)af ttor feinc0 Sittid^d 3laufd^ctt bort bcr 9iabenfd^tt)arm 
8lbcr bann tt)ie fctner !Donnct roDt e^ burd^ ben Scrg 
Unb ber itaifer gtefft jum ©d^tt)erte, nnb bic Slitter 
toadfm auf. 
8aut in feinen Slngetn tonenb; frringet auf bad e^rne 
Sorbaroffa mit ben ©einen fleigt im SBaffenfd^mucf 
2luf bem »§e(m tragt er bie itrone unb ben ©ieg in 
feiner J^ani, 
©d^tt^erter bliften, »&arfen Kingen, too er fd^reitet burc^ 
bad 8anb. 
Unb bem alten itaifer beugen jtd^ bie 936Ifer allju^ 
Unb aufd neu ju 2lad^en grunbet er bad ^eiPge beutfd^e 

79. — Siebendarten. 

einen Sod fd^ie^en. Sinem auf ber 5Rafe ftften 
5Rafen?eid fcin. Qimn bei bcr 9?afe um^erjief)en. 


78.— Sriebtid^ Kot^bart. 

(Emanuel von Geibd, bom 1815 at Liibeck, studied at Bonn and 
Berlin, and is now Professor of Glerman Literature at Miinich 
or Muncken.) 

3;ief im ©d^of c be^ ^^ff^aufer^ bei fcer Slmpel rot^em 

©i^t bet altc ffaifer griebrid^ an bcm %\\ii) »on 5War^ 

3^n umttjallt ber 5Purj)utmanteI j i^n umfangt ber 

JRuftung ^Prad^t. 
2)od^ auf feinen SlugentDlmpern Iicgt be^ Sc^Iafe^ ticfc 

aSorgefunfert ru^t bad Slntlift, brln ftd^ @rnft unb 

SRilbe ^)aart, 
2)urd^ ben IStaxmoxti]^ genjad^fen ift fein langer, golbner 

9iing6 tt)ie e^rnc ©ilber fic^cn feinc JRitter urn xf)n 

t^arnifd^glanjenb, fd^njertumgurtet, abet tief im ©d^Iaf, 

n)ic er. 
»&einric^ aud^, ber Cfterbinger, iji in i^rer fiummen 

SDlit ben Uebcrreid^en 2ij)j)en, mit bem blonbgelodften 

©eine ^arfe xnf)t bem ©anger in ber Sinfen o^ne 

2)od^ auf feiner ^o^en ©time fd^Iaft tin funftiger 



SIDed fc^n>cigt, nur ^in unb tokbtt fSBt cin Zxcp^cn, 

"oom ©cficin, > 
Si6 bet grofe SRorgen plb^liS) brid^t mit Seuer6g(ut 

^crein ; 
Ste bet abler floljen gluge6 urn be« Sergei ®i))fel 

3)af »ot feine6 gittid^ Kaufd^n bort bet Stabcn\d)toaxm 
8lbet bann n)ie femet iDonnet tollt e« burc^ ben Serg 
Unb bet ffaijet gteift jum ©d^wjette, unb bic Siittet 
tt>ad^en auf. 
8aut in feinen Slngeln tonenb, frringet auf bad efirne 
SSatbatoffa mit ben ©einen fleigt im SBaffenfi^mudf 
8luf bem ^elm trSgt et bie itrone unb ben ©ieg in 
feinet «&anb, 
©d^wetlet blifeen, ^atfen Hingen, tt)0 et fd^reitet burd^ 
baa Sanb. 
Unb bem alten jfaifet beugen {td^ bie SSoIfet aUju^ 
Unb aufa neu ju Slad^en gtunbet et bad ^eiPge beutfd^e 

70. — Siebenaatten. 

einen Sodf fd^lef en. Sinem auf bet 5Rafe fiften 
9lafett>eia fcin. iJInen bei bcr 9?afe um^erjief)en. 


80.— The Stork. 

(As few German villagei are withoat their annaal visitor the 
stork, the g^phic description of a German village by Thomas Car- 
lyle may find a place here. He says, ** Most German villages are 
made on one type. Two rows of dusty farm-yards {^aurenhdfe)^ 
huddled together and surrounded by their stalls [StSUe) and 
bams {Sdieimen), A broad negligent road between, seldom 
mended, never swept except by llie elements. On either hand 
of the road is generally nothing to be seen but thatched roofs 
{StroMScher) [how fast supplanted by tiles, Ed.], dead clay 
walls {Lehmwdnde), and rude wooden gates ; sometimes a poor 
public-house ( WirthihanSf n. or Kruff, nt.), with probaUe beer in 
it; never any shop; nowhere any patch of swept pavement 
{PJUuter, n. or Trottoirj n.), or trim gathering-place for natives 
of a social gossipy turn : the road lies sleepy, littery, good only 
for utilitarian purposes. In the middle of the village stands a 
churefa {Kirche,/.) and churchyard {Kirehk&fj m.}. The ohoich 
often larger than you expected.") 

!Der ®tord^, bet im Bibtn flbcwintert, unb tm 
©ommer bci un^ ifi, fennt fcin 8anb, fein 3)otf, fcinen 
Stixci)ttjntm unb fein alM Weji ft)o^I. (Sr fommt juerfi 
attein, tJifttirt ba6 alte 5Refi, bann reifi er tt)iebec ai unb 
fommt mit feinem SBeiW^n. ©efn fd^atfe^ 8luge 
bef)crrfc^t bie ganje ©egenb. SBurmet, ©d^neden, 
SHnbfc^leld^en, 9Riufe, gifc^ frift er fe^r gernj 
^^eufd^retfen unb S3ienen jtnb i^m nid^t unangene^m, 
aber am Hebfien jlnb i^m bod& bie gtofc^e. ©r jlid&t fte 
juetfl mit feinem ©d^nabel unb mac^t fte burd^ einen 
©tof }ur %bxii)t untud^tig. 


81. — 3)lC jUttgC fPcnftOnaitill. {Prom page bl.) 

8) My First Lesson. 9Wcltt erjler Untcrrid^t. 

8lm nad&jien SRorgcn jianbcn tt>ir urn ficben U^t atif. 
Urn a^t Vifjx befamen toix S^ee otet ^affee unb Me 
j^Ieinen Wlil^ tinb Sutterbrob. Urn neun U^r begannen 
bte @tunben. ^d) tarn in bit erfie j((a{fe, n)o^in i^ 
meinem SlUer nadf ge^rte; €6 foUte jtd^ jebod^ ttfl 
audtoeifcn, ob ici^ bort bletben fonne. 

2)en Unterric^t in ber beutfc^n @^rad^ ert^eiUe bie 
5Profejfbrin felbji; fie Suf erte tt)iebet^olt, tt)ie nott)tt>enbi9 
cine grunt)Ii(^e fienntni^ berfelben ^eut ju S^age fel 
3^r tt)urben auf i^re gragen Diele t{<i^tige unb tolele 
t)erfe^rte Slntworten gegebenj bie melnigen na^m fie 
mxt einem aufnmntemben S3Ii(f entgcgen. 35ie altere 
^i^tt, Sranjidfa, gab am 9Rorgen bie ubtigen (Stunben, 
am 9lad^mittage nntettiti^ete bie ^rofeffotin ktiebev. 
3n ber bentfd^en Siteraturgefd^td^te befd^&ftigte und eine 
furje Siograp^ie Sejfmg'^ 2)ie ^rofejtorin lae un6 
@iniged aud feiner ,,9Rinna ton 93arn^e(m'' unb feinem 
„9lat^an" "oox, unb ba6 entjuAe und aUt. !Die bcutfd^e 
Siteratut fd^ien fie fe^ ju intcrejfiren, unb fie fagte un0 
uber bie ©d^riftjlellcr berfelben »iel Unter^altenbed. 
aSon Seffing erja^Ite fie, bap er eined Sibenbd nadlgi ^aufe 
lam unb an [eine Zf^ux Ho))fte. !Der Scbiente fa^ -au^ 
bem genfier, erfannte feinen ^errn im !DunfeIn nid^t 
unb rief : „T>er ^err iprofeffor ifl nid^t gu ^aufe." 
„@c^abet nid^td/' antn)orttte Seffing, ,,id^ n>erbe eiu 
anbermal tt)ieber torfommen/' unb ging ru^ig fort. 


82.— a»citt etflcr 8cfud& auf« ©d^Iof. 

(Deutsche Liehe, p. 9.) 

{Max MilUer^ M.A., FeUow ofAU Souls and Tayhrian Professor 
of European Langtiages and Literature at Oxford.) 

Stid^t mit tton unferm »&aufc unb gegcnubcr bcr alten 
itird^c mit bem golbcncn itreuj, ba ftanb tin groped 
©ebaube, nod^ grofier al6 bie ^ird^e, unb mit t>ielcn 
S^^urmen. 2)ie fa^cn aud^ ganj grau unb alt an^, abcr 
ftc fatten feln gotbcncS ifreuj, fcnbern ftcincrnc Slblcr 
faflcn auf ben ©piften, unb einc grof e weip unb blaue 
ga^ne patterte auf bem ^od^ficn Ztjmmt gcrabc ubcr 
bem ^o^cn 2;^orn>cg, tt)o bie @tufen ^inaufgingen, unb 
tt)0 an beiben ©eiten jtt)ei ©olbaten ju ^JJferb @d&ilb^ 
tt)ad^e ^ielten. !Dad *&au0 ^atte ftiele Senjier, unb 
Winter ben genjiern fa^ man rotf)e feibene ffior^ange (or 
©arbinen) mit golbenen Cluafien, unb in bem »§ofe 
flanben ring^ ^erum bie alten SinbenbSume — bie uber^ 
fd^atteten im ©ommer ba6 graue 5Kauern)er! mit i^rem 
grunen Saube, unb bejireuten ben 9iafen mit i^ren 
mi^m, buftenben Slut^en. !Da f^attt i^ aud^ oft ^im 
aufgefd^aut, unb bed Slbenbd, mnn bie Sinben bufteten 
unb bie genfter erleud^tet tt>aren, fa^ id^ t)iele ©eflalten 
tok ©d^atten ^in ^ unb ^erfd^weben, unb 5Dtu|tf tonte 
tton oben ^erab, unb SBagen fu^ren t)or, au6 benen 
grauen unb 50lanner ^eraudfiiegen unb bie JEreppe 
^inaufeilten. 2)ie fa^en alle fo fd^on unb gut aud, unb 
bie Scanner fjattm ©terne auf ber Sruji, unb bie grauen 
fatten buftenbe Slumen im ^^aar — unb ba bad^te id^ oft : 
tvarum ge^ji bu nid^t audfi ^inein? (Continued on p, 90.) 


83. — ©))rid^tt)6rtcr unb S)pxi(S}tt>oxtU^t 


Beit gcttjonnen, tiki 9ett)onnen. ©ilc mit SBeilc. . 
9iom iji nictft in cine m S^age gebaut (erbaut) n^orben. 
Uebung mad^t ben 9Kcijier. 

2)ie ^Pferbe Winter ben SBagen fpanncn 

SQBiber ben Strom fc^tt)immcn. 

Sr n)in ben ©d^nee im Dfen borten. 

84.— The Betrothal. 

(l^heodor K'drner, bom 1791 at Dresden, a patriotic and 

heroic soldier, and a promising poet, had joined the celebrated 

Black Volunteers known as " Liitzow^s Frdschaar" and his odes 

stimulated his countrymen to vindicate their liberty in the war 

of liberation {der Befreiungskrieg) of 1813. He is truly the 

" German Tyrtseus." When reciting the last stanza of his 

famous " Song of the Sword," or " Schwertlied" to his comrades 

during a halt in a wood, the signal for attack was given, and 

whilst in pursuit of the French, he received a ball and died 

without a struggle. He lies buried imder an oak near the 

village of Wobbelin. The French bore testimony to Komer in 

these words :— 

** Ce qui fait le gdnie de Koemer, c'est son patriotisme et son ^ntbousiasme : 
ce n'eet x>oint un Tyrt^e de cabinet qui, au coin de son feu, fait des chansons 
guerriires; c'est un soldat, c*est un vo,lontaire des chasseurs noirs, T^p^e au 
flanc, le mousquet sur le dos : il s'est enrdld pour sauver sa patrie, pour punir 
ses tyrans. Poete et soldat, son gdnie comme son courage s'^hauffe au feu 
de la guerre. Tout est po^sie pour lui, la flamme du mousquet, c'est I'^tin- 
celle de la liberty; le sang qui rougit les campagnes, c'est la pourpre de 
Taurore, de Taurore de la liberty." (Journal des Dihats, 1830.) 


3){e SBerlobung, wrUten in 1811. 

(Joh. Heinr. Voss's fiimoas poem Lux$e^ written in 1788, was the first 
Genxuui epic composed, after the manner of Theocritus and BEomer, in hexa- 
meter verse, a verse of six measures or fset. Every subsequent writer of 
German hexameter verse, even G5the in his universally admired " Her- 
Maim vmd Darolhea!* written in 1797, took Yoss's poem for his model. Voss'a 
Lnlse describes the uneventM family life of the Ffatrtir, or parson, of 
Grttnau ; GSthe's is more interesting on account of its historical associations. 
It gives us an Insight into the life of a German citisen in the days of the 
French Republic of 1792, when many German families were exi)elled from 
Alsace and fled across the Rhine. Kdmer'a " Verlobwng^^'* again, describes a 
domestic in<ddent in the fkmily life of the Forater, or ranger, of Buchwald. 

The old ranger, with his wife and only daughter Josephine, is gone for the 
sake of his health to Karlsbad, a much-freqaented little spa in Bohemia. 
He has left his affairs at home in the hands of his fldthful assistant and 
adopted son Rudolph. It is now a week since they have heard firom home, 
and Josephine manifests g^^at anxiety for Rudolph. Bu t the latter is already 
on his way to Karlsbad, for the following Monday is Josephine's birthday, 
and he comes to offer, as the choicest birthday present for Josephine, "his 
heart and hand," or " himself;" as he says. 

Though, as a poetic production, Komer's little poem (from which the 
present extracts are taken) is less finished than the great masterpieces 
mentioned above, yet, on acooant of its simple and homely language, con- 
taining so many conversational phrases, it commends itself to the young 
student of German, to whom it will impart a taste for the more elaborate 
and difficult poems of Yoss and GSthe, from which extracts are given in 
"Fischart's Advanced German Reador.") 

Sanger ficlcn bic ©c^atten M^ Zfyd, c5 farbte ber 

©id^ tm glu^cnbcn 9iotf) ber fc^cibcnbcn Sonne j bU 

©uc^ten ein fceunblid^e* Dbbad^, unb jiitter ttxirb *& auf 

ben Strain. 
2)a tarn aud^ bie SBiefe enttang ber Sotfier \)on S5ud[^ 

Slue bem JJ^de jurfttf mit feinem SBeib unb ber Xoi^Ux, 
Unb ite ellten, benn fd^tver unterfogt toax bem franfelnben 



degltd^e feud^te Suft unb bie b&mmetnbe JK^Ie bed 

S5alb crrcid^t toax ba« jicincme ^^aud j ftc tratcn jur 

Unb ber gorfier bcgann : ^^or*, 5Wuttcr, id^ raud^tc 

tt)o^I geme 
„5Ro(^ dtt ^Pfcifc^ett {m greien, 6i6 bu bad Sffen bereitcfi ; 
„8af mir 3ofep^e nut ba, tt)it feften und unter ble 

Saumc." — 
„„5lbet bic Slbcnbluft/'" cntgegncte angjilic!^ bic 9Kutter, 
f///3|l c0 blr nid^t ju feud^t? in biji noc^ crf^i^t t)om 

„„Hnb bad aWabd^cn ifi ja fo gcnefgt ju ^ujlen unb 

fn,^tin, fomm* liebcr ^inaitf/'" — „6l tt)ad,^ ^crfefetc 

ber ante, 
„53in ein SBaibmann, unb foH bie fu^Ie Suft nidfit 

t)ertragen ? 
if^Ci^ 3ofep^en ben OberrodE anjie^'n, unb fd^idP jte 

i,^xt\f, tt)it plaubern bann nod^ ein fro^Iid^ed ©tunb^ 

d^en jufammen, 
,;SBid bu 3um gjfen rufjl. ®ett)if, ed foB i^r nld^td 

fd^aben." — 
Ungem liefi bie aRutter ed ju, unb fd^mudfte bie S^od^ter 
@rji mit Mantel unb SEud^, bann ging fie beforgt in bie 


(Continuation on p. 92.) 


86.— SKeitt erficr S3efud& auf^ ©d^Iof 

{Continued from p, 86.) 
{Professor Max MuUer^s " Deutsche Liehe") 

@inc^ SEagc^ nun naf|m mid^ mcin SBatcr 6ei bcr 
»&anb unb fagte : ^SBir ttJoHen auf bad ©d^Iof gcf)cn. 
2)u muf t aber ^ubfd^ artig fcin, tt)enn bie gurjiin mtt 
bit fprid^t, unb mufit i^r bic J^anb fuffen." 

3d^ tt>ax ettt)a fed^d 3a^re alt unb freute mlci), tt)ie 
man jtd^ nur frcuen fann, tt)cnn man kiifi Sa^rc alt 
ifi. 3ci& ^attc mir fd^on fo t>iele ftille ©ebanfcn gcmad^t 
ubcr bie ©d^atten, bic i^ abcnbd an tm crleud^tetcu 
genftcrn gefe^en, unb ^attc ju ^aufc fo^iel Outed t)on 
bcm gurfien unb t)on bet gurftin ge^Srt, tt)ie jie fo 
gnabig toaxm unb ben Slrmen unb ifranfcn ^ulfe unb 
Xroji brad&tcn, unb n)lc jte t)on ©otted ©naben baju 
auderfc^cn fcicn, bic ®\ittn ju fd^uften unb bie Sofen 
ju firafen. !Da f)attt i^ mir benn langfi ailed auds? 
gcmalt, n)ie ed in bem ©d^lojfe ^erge^en mujfe, unb bet 
gurfi unb bie gurftin tt)aren mir fd^cn alte Sefannte, 
bie id^ fo gut fannte n)ie meinen ^ni^tnaitt unb meine 

bleiernen ©Olbaten. {Continuation on p. 94.) 

86. — JRebendarten. 

Slud bem 9iegen unter bie S^raufe !ommen. 
^^la))pern tt)ie bie ^eiben. ©d&nottern tt)ie bie ®anfe. 
aid^ unb SBe^ fd^reien. ©id^ n)id^tig mac^en. 
Semanben fd^ief anfe^en. Sinen ind Sodfd^orn jagen. 


87.— SBar ©ocratc6 cin 2Bcifcr obcr ein S?arr? 

{M. O. Saphir, horn 1795, died 1868, aatiriat and humorist.) 

"SRan fagt : ©ocrated tt)ar cin SBcifcr ! SBa^ tt)ir 
tjon if)m n)iffcn, fd^eint un6 ba^ ©cgent^cil ju bcircifcn. 

6ocrate6 tt)ar brei^ig 3a^rc alt, aid cr ftc^ bcr SBeid^ 
^cit tt)ibmete, cin S3cn)ci6, baf ct !cin ©d^wab' tt)ar, bic 
jid^ crji mit tjierjig 3a{)rcn ber 2Bcidf)eit tt)ibmen. 2)ad 
iji bcr Untcrfd^icb jtt)ifd^cn ben ©ried^cn unb ben 
©d^mabcn, bic ©riec^cn n^urbcn urn jc^n 3af)rc fru^er 
gcfd^eibt! !Dic 5S[t^cnicnfcr fonncn ben Stuttgartern 
gc^n !3af)rc SBcidftcit »orgcbcn ! 

©ocratee ^od^ftcd toax : „8crnc bid^ felbfl fcnncn !" 
aOBcId^c 5Rart^cit ! (Sd gef)t ben 5Kcnfd^cn mit fid^ fclbfi 
ttjic mit anbcrcn STOcnfd^en. SKan ^alt t)on bcm SWcn^ 
fd^cn nur fo lang ctwad, aid man fic nid^t fennt j mnn 
man ftc fcnncn gelcrnt fjat, fo fagt man oft : ^^^atf 
id^ nur ben SKcnfd^cn ni(^t fcnncn gclcrnt !" So gc^t 
ed ben 9Rcnfd^cn auc^ mit fid^ fclbjl j tt)cnn man fi^ 
felbfl genau crfcnnt, fo ^atte man aud^ oft Orunb ju 
fagcn : ^^^atf id^ mic^ fclbft nur nid^t fcnncn gclcrnt !" 
®ef)r fcltcn ^at bcr 5Kcnfd^ Urfad^e ju jtc^ fclbji ju 
fagcn : „@d frcut mid^, 3f)rc ^crfonlid^c SBcfanntfd^aft 
gu madden, id^ J)ab* f^on fo t>iel ©cloned t)on S^ncn 

gcbort ! " ( Continuation on p. 95. ) 

88.— ©prid^tt)ort. 

S33cr bad SBcnn unb bad ?lbcr erbad^t, 

^at fid^cr aud ^cdcrling ®olb fd^on gemad^t. 


89,— 3)ie fficrlobung. 

(Continued from p, 89.) 

Slber 3ofcj)^c faf auf ber 33anf bei bcm frcf)Iid^ett Sllten, 
Unl) fte gebac^tctt beibe mit ^erjlid^en SBorten ber 

Unb e6 blinfte trie Zf)a\i in ben fanften Slugen 

„„SBa5 nut bet 9lubo(p^ mad^t?"" fo begann bad lieb^ 

lid^e 3Rabd&en, 
„„©dbon aci)t Xa^c fxn\)% bafi ti)ir feine 5ftac^ric^t 

„„Unb er fd^reibt fo gem, er ijat e6 mir ^ei(ig tjerfprod^en. 
„,,ih:anf n)irb er bod^ nid^t fein?"" 

8lber obeti jog auf bem Oipfel bed SSerged efn 3ungling 
grofjlid^ bie ^rager <S>txaf am fleilen Selfen tjoruber. 
Stubolp^ tt)ar'd, ber Sager 5 i^n trieb bte ©e^nfud^t nad^ 

Unb mit frof)em ©efang begruft er bad Xf^al fciner 


ff^itff, 3ofe|)^e/' begann ber Sllte, ,,tt)er fommt ba fo 

„9iod^ bie SBiefe ^erauf j ein 9ieifenber fd^eint ed; ein 

„„9Bo?"" fo fragte 3ofe})^e aud i^ren JEriumen er^ 

ttjad^enb j 
!Da erblidEte jte i^n, itnb erfannte ben ®ang bed 



9luboI|)^/'" rief jte, unb flog i^m cntgegen, ,,,,mcin 

,,®t, n)tUfommen Sutfc^e!'' trat jc^t \i)m bet SSater 

„!Da6 ifi ein Huger @tret4 unb mad^t mir ^rjltd^ 

©j)rad^'6 unb brurftc bcm 3ungling bic ^anb. — ^,/„9Rein 

©0 entgcgnetc er i^m geru^rt, „,,lDu bifi boc^ «d^ 

„„93ifl bcc^ rec^t frifci^ unb gcfunb?""— ,;®ott 8ob!" 

toerfcfetc ber 8Hte, 
„Unb mlt bcr SRuttcr ge^W aud^ urn t^lclcd beffer/' — 

giel i^m ber Singling einj — „tfi<S), lajft mid(> ^Inauf 

gu ber @uten, 
,,„2)a|l id^ i^r {uf[e bie <&anb, bie fo miitterUd^ urn mic^ 

forgte V*** ( OMmtMi<»o» on i>. 96.) 

00. — 3)er !£)orn unb bie 3)ernen. 

©in Sfel tjermafi fid^, mit einem 3agbpferbe urn bie 
^t^z ju laufen. 2)ie 5Probe, n)le ju ertt)arten, pel 
erbarmlid^ aud 5 ber Sfel tt)arb au^elad^t. ,,3^^ »^^^^ 
nun xotHjl" fagte er, „n)oran ed Ilegt ! 3d^ ttat mir ))or 
elnigen 2Ronaten einen 2)i)rn in ben guf } ber fc^merjt 
mi(^ nodb." 

Ob ee n>o^I me^r fold^e Dornen in ber SBelt giebt ? 


91.— 5DZcin crjler Sefud^ auf6 ©d^Io^. 

{Continued from p. 90.) 
{Professor Max MiUler's " Deutsche Liebe.'*) 

!I)a6 »&erj pt>(i)k mir, ate ic^ bie ^o^e Xxt'ppt mit 
mcincm SSater ^inaufjiieg, unb tt)a{)rcnb cr mir nod^ 
fagte, ba^ id^ ble gurfiin „^o^eit" unb ben gurjicn 
„2)urc]^laud^t" nennen muffe, ba gingen fd^on bie 
3;^urflugel auf, unb »or mir fa^ td^ eine f|o{)e ©efialt 
mit butd^Ieud^tenben Slugen. @ie fd^ien auf mid^ M^ 
jufommen unb mir bie Ǥanb ju reid^en. @in 2lu6^ 
brutf tt>ar in i^rem ©efid^t — ben ^atte id^ fd^on lange 
gefannt — unb ein ^eimlic^e^ Sad^eln pog uber i^re 
SBSangen. !I)a ^ielt e^ mid^ nid^t me^r, unb n)a^renb 
mein SBater nod^ an ber 3;^ur fianb unb, id^ tt)ufte 
nidjft n>arum, ftc^ tief t)erbeugte, fprang mir ba6 ^erj in 
bie ite^Ie unb id^ lief auf bie fd^one grau ju unb fiel 
i^r um ben ^al6 unb fuf te fte n)ie meine SJhttter. 
2)ie fd^one ijofjt grau lief e6 ftd^ aud^ gem gefaCen unb 
fireid^elte mir ba6 ^aax unb lad^elte. 5Dtein SSater aber 
na^m mid^ bei ber Ȥanb unb jog mid^ fort unb fagte, 
id^ fei fef)r unartig unb er ttjerbe mid^ nie njieber 

^ier^erbringen. {Continuation on p. 100.) 

02. — SQBa^ war. 

35ie ^offnung trug ben Slugenblicf 
3)e3 ®ludf6 t)on 3af)r ju 3a^r 5 
©0 flo^ bie 3eit, fo ^of) ba^ ®ludf, 
Unb tt>a^ entflo^, fommt nie jurudf : 
e^ tvar ! 


03. — SBar ©ocratcd ein SBcifer ober tin 9iarr? 

{M, O. Saphir, horn 1795, died 1858, satiriat and humorist.) 

{Continued from p. 91.) 

SBomit ^at ©ocrate^ ferncr fcine SBei^^eit an ben 
Xa^ gelcgt. 

er f)at bie ©d^u^e »crfd^maf)t! (Sx iji barfu^ 
gcgangcn! 3fi e6 gcfd^eibt bie ganje ©d^ujierjunft 
gegen jid^ aufjubringen ? SBer tt)ei^ ob bei bem @e^ 
f(^tt)orttett9erid^te bei ©ocrate^ 5Procef nid^t ein paax 
©c^ujier unter bm ©efd^toornen tt>axm, unb ba6 tt)ar 
fein ^ed^! Unb glaubte benn ®ocrate6, tt)enn man 
feinc ©c^u^e trfigt, fo tt)ei^ man nid^t, ba^ unb tt)o 
cincm ber ©d^u^ bruit ? 

©ocrate^ tt)ar aSolKIe^ter! @in ©dbulle^ter! 
3e^t tt)ijfen tt)ir, ttjarum er nid^t aud^ ©d^u^e i)atk ! 

©eine bofe grau betrad^tete ©cerate^ ate „ein tte^ 
bungSmittel feiner ©ebulb unb ©elbjlbe^errfd^ung !" 
3)er Start ! ©aju iji aud^ eine gute grau ganj jmedf:* 
maliig ! „S93enn fie tobte, ging er auf ben SWarft unb 
le^rte SBei^tjeit !" 3fi bad nid^t ein Slarr, ber anjiatt 
ber grau auf ben SSRaxtt ge^t ? 

©Derated 9Ret^obe tt>ar ed, bie itntt audjufragen! 
8lber ate man bei ©erid^t i^n felbji befragte, tcoUtt er 
leine Slntwort geben ! ©o jinb bie SB e i f e n ? 5p u b e t 
narrifd^ ! 

SBad xt)ax ba^ @nbe ^on ber ©ocratifd^en ^^iIofoj)^ie ? 
@r tt)urbe angeHagt unb jum 5£obe t)erurt^eilt ! 


94.— Die aScrlobung. {Fr(mp.9Z.) 

\ln\> fie fu^rten i^n freubig ^inauf ju bet fiaunenben 

!Die ben jungen JJreunb mit ^ergllc^en SBorten begruf te : 
„©ei mir njiUfommen, mein ©o^tt, fei bet SRutter tt)ill^ 

fommen in itartebab. 
„9lecl^t uberrafd^t bin id^ j jtt)ar ^ab' id^ e^ immer gea^net 
„2)od^ id^ jtt)eifeUe b'ran, baf bu ab!ommen fonnteji. 
„@^rid^, tt)ie ge^t e* ba^eim, ifl aBed nod& pint unb in 

Drbnung ? 
,f^tiijt ba6 ©etraibe ^od^, unb jtnb bie 5Pflaumen 

gerat^en ?" 
,,,,aBo^I ijl attee nod& flinf unb in Drbnung,"" ent^ 

gegnete Slubolp^, 
„„^a^ ©etraibe jle|t ^od^, unb bie ^flaumen |inb 

^errlid& gerat^en. 
„„3Rart^a ^utet bcA *&aud unb f)hU bie ihiec^te jur 

,„,®ie empfteWt fid^ auf « befle j aud^ 5Prebiger« gruf en 

red^t ^eralid^."" 

„@i ba muft bu un^ aQed etn (ange9 unb htitti^ 

erjaf)len !" 
giel bie 9»utter i^ ein.— ,,,,©, laf bod^ ben ©urfc^n 

erjl au^u^'n."" 
©0 entgegnete if)x bet gorjfet; ^^fd^afft SBein unb ju 

„„2)enn bet SBeg ijl lang, unb grofi v»« bie *&lfte be6 



,,„@e^e btd^, @o^n, unb ru^e t)ld^ aud, bann magft bu 

Slbcr 3ofej)^e war lanflji fd^on ^i}iau^ j jte brad^tc blc 

Srad^te tie gtafd^cn herein, unb 9RcInccfer petite im 

greubig ergriff ber Sllte bod ®Ia6 unb ixaS)f e^ bem 

Sungling : 
„©ei un6 tt)iKfommen im fieinernen ^auf !" — ^^^Sled^t 

^erglid^ tt)lKfommen !"" 
JRiefen bie SOSeibet i^m nad^ j ed Hirrten bie ©lafer im 

itreife. — 
„3>anf fur ben freunblid^en ©tup," ^erfefete bet ttefflid^e 

2)tudfte bem SSatet bie .^anb unb neigte fld^ gegen bie 

Slbet 3ofe<)§en jog et an'6 ^etj. (Continued <m p. loi.) 

06. — ©^)tic^tt)6ttet. 

SKit gefangen, mit ge^angen. 

5^unft fann man nid^t faufen. 

SBet f)Oii) fieigt, fallt ^od^. 2)et Seftte mad&t bie a;^ut ju. 

3ebet iji feine^ ®ludfe6 ©d^mieb. 

@in faule^ @i tjevbirbt ben ganjen Srei. 

9Kit gro^en ^erren ifi nid^t gut ifitfd^en effen. 

®tof e ^etren ^aben lange ^anbe. 

Sin ben gebetn erfennt man ben aSogel. 

^unbe^ bie loiel bellen, beif en nid^t. 

. E 


96.— 2)cr ®afltt)iftVgu Sngcl^eim am JR^ein 
nnb Me brei ©d^neiber. 

(Karl Herloszsohn, bom 1802 at Prag, lived since 1826 as 
" SchriJUteUer" Author, at Leipzig, and died there in 1849.) 

@^ famen brci ©d^nciber n)oI ubcr ben SR^eln 
Unb fe^rten beim ©ajiwirt^ gu Sngel^eim ein, 
?lm St^ein, am JR^ein. 

@ie fatten im (Bad feinen fetter me^r, 
3)od^ burftete jieben tjon i^nen gar fe^r 
gfJad^ SBein, nad^ SBein. . 

,,^err Sffiirt^ ! n)ir ^a'n !eitt' Ifreujer ®elb, 
SEoc^ tt)arett tt)ir tt)eit Return in ber SBelt, 
2lm 3l^ein, am 3t^ein. 

SBir fonnen ein jeber ein 50lei|ierjiu(f, 
2)a§ le^ren tt)ir 3^m, ba« bringt 3^m ®IM, 
gut 2Bein,fur 2Bein." 

////3^t Surfd^en ! {c^ tt)itt @ucr Starr nx^t fein, 
3d^ bin ja ber ®a|ltt)irt^ t)on Sngel^eim 
8lm 5R^ein, am 3i^in ! 

Unb Knnt 3^r nid^t jeber ein 9Reifterjiudf; 
©0 bred^' id^ aud^ jebem "oon ^n^ ba& ©enidf, 
©tatt SBein; fiatt SBein."" 

!Dcr (Srfie nun fing elnen ©onnenfira^t 
Unb fabelt i^n ein in bie 9iabel tjon ©taf)I, 
2lm 9i^eln, am Sttjcin. 


@r nafji cin jcrbrod^ne^ ® eingla^ jufamm'n, 
!I>af man aud^ bie 9la^t nid^t et&nnen fann 
3m Sffiein, jm aBeiti. 

2)er 3tt>cite barauf cine SDludfc fing, 
2)ic grab' ubcr fcinc 9lafc ging, 
81m Stfjtin, am 9l^m. 

5)ic SKurfc, Me ijaiV in bm ©trumpfe cin ioi}, 
®o Hein e6 aud& tt)ar, er fio<>pe ed bod^^ 
gur Sffieln, fur SBeln. 

S)er IDcitte, bet na^m nun bie 9label gur ^anb 
Mnb bo^rte fte mad^tig unb tlef in bie SBanb, 
Sim 5R^ein, am SR^ein, 

©r pog tt)ie ein Sliftjira^l butd^6 ftaidbfjv, — 
3d^ ^ab e^ gefe^en bei meiner @^r*! 
Seim 9Bein, beim SBein. 

2)er SBirt^ fl)rad^ : ,,®o xts^ f^ab i^ nod^ nie gefe^n, 
3)rum foil aud^, 3^r S3urfd^/ ®ud^ mein 3)anf 
nid^t entge^n 
8lm ai^in, am St^cin." 

(£r na^m einen ginger^ut, fd^enfte i^n »oIl : 
„2)a, Surfd^en ! nun fauft (Sud^ tJoU unb toll 
3m SBein, im SBein !" 


97.— SReln erjier Sefu^ auf^ ©d^lof. 

{Continved from p, 94.) 
(Professor Max MHUer'a ** Deutsche^ Liebe.") 

3)a tt)urbe e$ mir ganj tt)irr im itopfc unb bad Slut 
pog mir in blc Sangcn, benn i^ fu^lte, baf mein 
SSatcr mir unred^t tfjat Unb id^ fa^ bic gurjiln an, 
ba^ jte mi(^ tjert^cibigen foHtc ; aber auf i^rcm ©eftd^tc 
lag cin Sludbrurf ntilben @rnfte6. Unb bann blirfte i^ 
' . anf bie ^cncn unb 2)amcn, bie im 3intmcr marcn, unb 
glaubte, ba^ jtc mir bcific^cn tt)urben. Slbcr tt)ic i^ jtc 
anfa^, ba fa^ id^, bafi jie aHe lad^tcn. 2)a tratcn mir 
bie 2;^ranen in bic Slugen unb id^ lief fort, jur 2;^ur 
^inaud, bie Xxcppt ^inunter, bei ben Sinbenbaumen auf 
bem Sd^Iof ^of tjorbei unb nad^ ^^aufe, bid ii) ju meiner 
9Kutter fam unb mid^ in i^re Slrme toatf, unb fd^Iud^jte 
unb tt)einte. 

,,Unb tt)ad iji bir gefd^e^en ?" fagte fte. 

„2ld^ 3Kutter/' rief id^, ,,id^ mx bei ber gurfiin — unb 
jte toot eine fo gute unb fd^one grau, fo ganj tt)ie bu, 
meine liebe SKutter, unb ba muf te ic^; i^r um ben ^ald 
fallen unb jte fiiffen." „3a/' fagte meine 9Rutter, bad, 
^atteji bu rtid^t ttjun follen, benn bad jtnb frembe Seute 

unb ^O^e ^errfd^aften." (Concluded on p. 103.) 

98.— @))rid^tt)6rter. 

Sung gett)u^nt, alt get^an. 

SBad id^ nid^t m\% mad^t mid^ nid^t ^eif . 

SBie bie 8llten fungen, fo jn^i^ern bie Sungen. 


09. — Die SBetlobung. (Fromp. 07.) 

„„?ltniolpf)/'^* begann barauf bcr wurbigc gorficr tjon 

/r«3eftt crjaf^r utt6 getrcU; tt)ie bu fd^neH bid^ jur 5Reife 

,,„S3Sic bu ben SBeg i>oUixaS)t, ob UngWcf, ob ®Iucf bit 

„„®tpfi6)tn, bring' mir \)or^er nod^ ben 9Weerfc^aumfoi)f 

unb bie 2)ofe, 
,;„!Denn mic^ gelujief^, babei bad leftte ?Pfeifd^en *ju- 

,,„®ie^' einmal, 9tuboIp^, ben ffo))f, id^ ^ab* i^n erji 

gejlern befommen j 
„,,g8ier 8oui6b'or iji et mxti), '^ ifl aii)tt turflfd^e 

3ener bewunberte fe^r bie jierlid^e Sorm unb bie Sarbe 
Unb bad teid^e Sefd^Iag'j bann begann er mit folgenben 

SBorten : 
„©e^t, i^r Sieben, fd^on ftnb ed brei SBod^en, bap i^r 

und t)erlaffen ; 
„Oebe toax mir bad ^an^, unb mit ©e^nfud^t jft^If id^ 

bie 3;age. 
//Sleipig ^atf id^ tjoflbrad^t, wad ber 98ater gur Slrbeit 

„S3alb ttermeflen ben gorjl, unb ^oUenbet ben ja^rli^en 

„?lud^ im ©arten war id^ nid^t faulj id^ ^atte ben 

„2)ed ClUartald nur nod^, aud^ bamit fam id^ ju ©tanbe. 


,,2)er auf ben STOontag faW j uberrafd^en tt)oIIf Id^ cud^ 

„Unb am fcfilid^cn 3;ag mlcf) fclbjl 3ofej>^en bcfd^ercn. 
„3:o))Ii^, fo bad^f id^ mir, ^&(t bid^ einen S^ag, aud^ 

tt)o^I linger, 
„Unb fo ging id^ am SDonrictjiag audj cm ^errlid^er 

.„6tra^lte bem fro^lid^en SSlirf au^ taufenb Slut^cn 

,;8angd bcr SWuglift fu^rte ber SBeg mi($, ber t)iclfad^ 

,,S)urd^ be$ gelfcnt^ate t)erfd^Iungcne bilfictc SBinbung. 

(Continuation on p. 104.) 

100. — ®^)rid^tt)6rter unb 9tebcn6artett. 

Sffienn bad 5f inb crtrunfen iji, bedft man ben Srunnen ju. 
SBenn man bie ©aitc ju ^od^ \pannt, fo xd^t fte. 
9Kand^cr fud^t einen pfennig unb t)erbrennt babei brei 

iturj angebunben fein. 2)ie ^erlen t)or bie ©Sue tt^erfen. 
©id^ 8n)ifd^en jn^ei ®tuf)le fe^en. 

101. — 8ogogr^))^. 

mt bem a iji 'd reid^ an SBoff, 
SKit bem i ganj fternent)ott, 
mt bem u mad^t '^ ^Pferbe toH. 

(Jlammel — Himmel — Hummel. ) 


102.— 3Rein erficr Scfud^ aufd ©d^Io^. 

{Cimtinuedfrijmp. 100.) 

„Unb tt)a^ itnb bcnn frembc Seute ?" fagtc id^. „35arf 
t(^ benn ntd^t alle ^enfd^en lieb^aben, bie m\6) mtt 
i^rcn licbcn frcunblid^cn Slugcn anfc^cn V* 

„?icb^abctt barffl bu ftc, mein So^n/' crtt)iberte bfc 
9Ruttcr } „aber bu barfjl c6 nid^t aeigen." „Unb iji c8 
benn etn>a^ Unred^te^/' fragte tdl^, ,,baf id^ bie SOtenfd^en 
lieb^abc ? Unb xomxm barf id^ c^ bcnn nic^t jeigcn ?" 
„9lun, bu ^afi fd^on red^t/' fagte fie; „aber bu mu^t 
tl^un, tt)a6 bit bein SSater fagt, unb trenn bu Altec ttjlrji, 
fo tt)irfi bu ed fd^on begreifen, warum bu nid^t alien 
fd^onen grauen mit lieben fireunblid^en Slugen urn ben 
^ate faDen fannji." 

2)a6 tt)ar ein truber Sag. 2)er SSater fam nad^ 
^aufe, unb blieb babei, id^ [ei ungejogen genjefen. ?(m 
Slbenb brad^te mid^ bie SWutter gu 33ett unb id^ betete, 
aber ic^ fonnte nid^t fd^lafen unb bad^te immer, xooA 
benn bie fremben 9Kenfd^en feien, bie man nid^t lieb^ 
^aben burfe. — 

3)u arme5 9Renfd^en^etj ! fo tt)erben bit fd^on im 
Senje bie Slatter gefnirft unb bie gebern au6 ben 
glugeln gerijfen 1 

2Bir lernen fte^en unb ge^en, unb fj)red^en unb lefen ; 
aber Siebe le^rt un^ niemanb. ll)ie ge^ort un6 n?ie 
bad Seben, ja, man fagt, fte fei ber tiefjle ®runb unferd 

5)od^ ad^, n)ie vvenig bleibt ^on biefer Siebe, ef)e n)ir 


nur ben fatten SBcg unfcrcr Sebendrcifc \)onenbct 
^aben! ©d^on bad Ifinb Ictnt, baf ed frembe 9Ken^ 
fd^en gibt, unb ^ort auf ein itinb ju feln. (The End.) 

103.— 2)ie aSerlobuttfl. (Pnmp. 102.) 

„2lte id^ flctt Sirenjiettt fam, jur alten bujicren Scfle, 
„5tc§rf id& bcim gorjicr eln j benn aJllttag toat'd, unb 

bie Sonne 
,,^rante glu^enb ^elf jurfltf t)on ben SBanben bed 

„9Berner tt)ar nid^t ba^eim, blod bie junge grau mit ben 

^i^erglld^ emj)ftngen |le mid^, unb fte eilten, zxn 9Ra^( 8U 

„5tud^te, @ier unb SRild^, wad f^re iWd^e tjermodi^te ; 
;,2)enn bie ©egenb ii^ arm, unb nid^td xoax im Dorfe gu 

^aben : 
„^od^ tt)ir waren tjergnfigt unb gebad^ten »ergangenet 

„®erner unb ic^ jtnb jugleic^ in bie ©d^ule gegangen j 

ba tDUff idb 
,;Denn fo man(^en ©treic^ ju erja^Ien, j[e toller je beffer. 
„9(ber ))Io^(id^ erfd^ioQ'd ))on ber ©trape : ad^, rettet bie 

itinber ! 
,/d ifl ein tt>ut^iger ^unb ! ©d^neH rif \i) bie glinte 

))om 9lage(, 
„©turjte ^inaud unb fa^ bed gorjierd itinber unb anbre 


„9Sott bcr Scjlie \)erfoIgt j Me SRuttcr fd^riccn urn «&ilfe. 
„2lIfo [(j^lug idji an unb fc^of , ta fiurjtc bae Unt^icr, 
„Unb bie 3Kuttcr jubcltcn laut : id^ f^attt ben Slebling 
/,3ct^^ 8^^^^^* } umringt toot i^ t)on banf enben 9Wen^ 

fd^en." — 
nn^^cco, mein So^n/'" fiel ber ?Hte i^m ein, „„ein 

©d^uf , ber fld^ lo^nte ! 
„„©oId^e i^aten ja^lt ,®ott; mag man jte ^ier unten 

„„^hb6)m, gieb 'mal bem Sungen 'nen ihift ted^t »oII 

unb xt(f)t ^erglid^ !"" — ((7oncZM<fe<i<wi|>. io6.) 

104.— aiobert 95ruce. 

2)iefer ritterlid^e itonig »on ©d^ottlanb, tt)ar burd^ 

bic langen itampfe, in benen er fein 9leid^ gegen bie 

©roberung^fud^t ber ©nglanber ju »ert^eibigen Ijatte, 

enblid^ fo tx\^bp% baf er ftd^ mit njenigen ©etreuen 

nac^ ber entlegenen SJorbfujie fluc^tete. * 3n jeiner elen? 

ben gifd^er^utte brutete ^ier ber ta'p^txt SRann SKonate 

lang, unb fd^on trium))^irten bie (Snglanber uber ben 

JEob bed 5Berfd^ollenen. 93ruce aber fann Jlag unb 

9lad^t, tt)ie unb tt)o er ben itampf erneuern fonne. 

Umfonji ! @6 fd^ien i^m feine anbre JRettung gcblieben, 

al6 glud^t, ober Srgebung. @o in bujiern ©ebanfen 

^ttloxtn, gtt)ifd^en ^^offnung unb SSerjmeiflung get^eilt, 

lag er eined 9Korgen6 auf bem ©tro^Iager. !Da pel ber 

erjie ©onnenjha^l auf bie S)e(f e ber bunfeln ^utte, unb 

SBruce, beffen 33Iitf tt)ie trSumenb bem fiid^te folgte, 



kmetfte eine ©pinnc, bie bemii^t n^ar, ftd^ "oon eincm 
Salfcn jum anbcrn ju fd^wingcn, urn bort i^r SReft 
onjutnupfen. 3)ie @j)innc ftcl ^crab, ma^tt aber 
augenblidlid^ einen jweitcn SScrfuc^. Dad cmftge Spiel 
tt^erftc ben ^onig aud feinem «&infiarren, ber nun mit 
Sebauetn fa^, tt>ic bad Snfect aud^ jum gtoeiten SWalc 
Sururf pel. ©ed^dmal tt)leber^oIte bie ©))inne ben SSer^ 
fud^, unb fed^mal -mi^gludfte er. Smmer aufmetffamer 
^otte inbef ber ffonig bad 9lingen bed JS^iered betrad&tet 5 
ein ©ebanf e blifttc auf in feiner ®eete. 3e^t enblid^ — 
ed tt>ar bie jiebentc Slnjirengung — etteid^te bie uner^ 
mublid^e ©pinne bad 3iet. f,2luf !" rief Sruce, inbem 
cr \>om Sager emporfi)rang, „auf I bied t)erad^tete 3nfect 
f)at mid^ Sludbauer gelet)rt} feinem S3eift)iele njiH id^ 
fotgen. Unterlag id^ nid^t aud^ fed^dmal bet Vicbtxma6)t 
meinet geinbe? SBo^lan, t>iefleid^t gibt bad jtebentc 
©efec^t meinen SBaffen ben ©ieg unb meinem aSater^ 
lanbe bie grei^eit" SBenige fSage barauf fd^lug SRobett 
SSruce bie ©c^ilad^t t)on Sannodbum (1314), in bet bie 
englifd^e 3tt>ing^etrfd^ft gebrod^en toatt 

Sftl^t jeber n>anbelt nut gemelne ©tege. 

2)u fte^fl bie @))innen bauen tuftge SBege. {Odthe.) 

106. — 3)ie aSetlobung. .(Concluded from p. 105,) 

D'tauf begann bie 3Ruttet : „„(Si, ©o^n, etja^P und 

bod^ mltti 
tnf^on ber ®e»atterfd^fit j bu mi^t, mid^ freut bad t)or 


SIbct btx Satcr ftel i^t M^ SBort : M SKuttet, m^ 

„3lubolp6 fef)nt ftd^ gett)if jur 9tu^ nad^ fold^er ermu^ 

bung 5 
,;!Drum gute Stac^t, mein ©o^n! 3ofe))^e, jcfg' i^m 

ba$ Sfinmcr." 
,,,/d ifi aud^ tt)a^r, id& bad^te nid^t b'ran/'" t^erfefete bk 

„„ed^lafc njo^I, unb fcgne bi($ ®ott !"" 3^r banfte 

ber 3iingling. 
®ab bcm Satcr bic ^anb unb g{ng. g^ fu^rf i^n 

greunblid^ fd^lofi fte ba$ Simmctd^en auf : fie f^atk mit 

3^m ba^ gcnfier gefd^mudft, ben lieben @aji ju b^gru^en. 
3nnig n)ar er erfreut unb banft mit ^etglid^en aSScrten. 
Slber fie eilte ^inau^, ein flud^tige^ SebettJoi^l nidfenb. 
„@d^Iummere fuf !" fo flufterte fie unb fd&tt>ebte t)on 

Sange fa^ er i^r nad^ j dn ftiller ^eiliger griebcn 
SBe^'te burd^ feine Sruji, n)ie ^rii^Iing^traume ber Siebe, 
Unb t^ ttJiegte bie SRad^t in felige a;raume ben 3ungling. 


106.— The Lion's Eide. 

(i^. Freiligraih is one of the living poets of Germany, who, 
like Georg Herwegh, Gottfried Kinkel, and others of less repute, 
went into a forced or voluntary exile on account of their advanced 
liberal and democratic views, which, often too freely expressed, 
gave offence to the Court party, die Hofparteij of Prussia. 


Ferdinand FreUigrcUk was bom in 1810 at Detmoldf a little 
town on the slopes of the Hercynian mountain-range, known as 
the " Teutoburger Wald."* He was originally a merchant in 
Rhenish Prussia, but devoted himself also much to poetry, and 
was even fayoured with a small pension by the King of Prussia, 
which he, howeyer, declined. In 1848 he left Germany, and 
liyes at preseht in London, ^holding the position of correspondent 
in a large mercantile firm. His poetry is remarkable for its 
sometimes weird and wild yet deep melodious chords, and its 
gprand pictures of tropical life and scenery.) 


SBuficnfonig ifl ber 86tt)c; \t>m er fein ©ebiet 

SBanbclt cr nad) ber Sagune, in bem ^oi^en ©d^ilf ju 

SEBo ©ajcKcn unb ©iraffen trinfcn, fauert cr im diof)xc, 
Sitternb ubcr bem ®ctt)a(tgen raufd^t ba6 8aub bcr 


2lbenb6, tt^enn ble ^eHen ^cucr glu^n im . ^otten^ 

SBenn bed ja^cn 3)afclbergc« bunte, tt)ed^fclnbe ©ignalc 
Siid^t me^r glanjcn, mnn bcr itaffcr cinfani fc^n^cift 

burd^ bie Xaxoo, 
SBcnn im 8ufd^ bic 2lntiloj)c fd^lummcrt unb am ©trom 

bad ®nu : 

* This extensive forest possesses more than a passing interest It vaa 
in the year 9 the scene of the deadly struggle between the Roman legions 
under Yarns, and the G-erman tribes under the heroic Oherusker-FUrst Her- 
mannf or Armlnins. In this famous battle, called " die Bemumn»sehlaehtf" 
the Teutonic race asserted for the first time its superiority over the Latin 
race. "Yams, Yams I give me back my legions!" cried the £mi>eror 
Augustus when the news of the complete annihilation of the Roman legions 
reached Rome. 


©ic^! bann fd^reitet maieftatifd^ burd^ bic SBujic 

bic ©iraffe, 
3)af mit bcr Sagunc trubcn gluten fte bic ^ci^e, fd^Iaffc 
Sungc fu^lej led^jenb eilt jie burc^ ber 2Bufic nadttc 

itnieenb fd^lurft fte langcn ^al\t^ an^ bem fd^Iammgc^s 

fuUten S3c(fen. 

^Plo^Iid^ regt e^ jtd^ fm SRo^rc j mit ©ebruH auf 

i^rctt Sflarfen 
(Spxin^t ber S6tt)c. SBSeld^ cin 9leitpfetb! fafi man 

reic^crc ©d^abradfcn 
3n ben SKarftallfammern einer foniglic^en ^ofburg 

Site ba^ bunte geU be^ 5Rennet^, ben ber 2;^iere Surfi 

bejiiegen ? 

3n bie 5SRu6feln be6 @eni(fe6 fd^l&gt er gierig feine 

Mm ben S5ug be6 3iiefen^)ferbe6 mtjt be6 SReiterd gelbe 

aRa^ne j 
9Rit bem bnmpfm ©d^rei be6 ©d^merjed frtingt e^ auf 

unb flie^t gej)einigt j 
©ie^ ! tt)ie ©d^nefle be^ itameele^ ed mit ?ParbeI^aut 


©ie^ ! bie monbbejlra^Ite glad^e fd^Iagt ed mit ben 
leid^ten guf en, 
©tarr aud ifjrer ^^of^lung treten fcine ?lugen 5 riefelnb 


8ltt bem braungefledEten *&alfe niebcr fd^warjcn ©luted 

Unb m ^etj bed flud&tgett S^lered ^ort bie ftiae aBufie 

©leid^f ber SBoHe, beren Seud^ten 3frael im Sanbe 

Su^rte, tt)ie ein ®eiji ber SBufie, tt)ie ein fabler luftger 

(Sine fanbgeformte SErombe in ber SQBujie fanbgem SReer, 
.SBirbelt eine gelbe SSule ©anbed Winter i^nen §er. 

3^rem 3uge folgt ber @eler, frSd^jenb fd^tt>irrt cr 

burd^ bie 2ufte j 
3^rer ©pur folgt bie J^x/am, bie @ntn)ei^erltt ber ©rufte, 
golgt ber ^Pant^er, ber bed itaj)Ianbd ^urben rauberifdj^ 

t)et^eerte ; 
S3Iut unb ©d^weifi bejelc^nen i^red ^onigd graufen^oUe 


Sagenb auf lebenbgem iS^rone fe^n fie t)m ©ebieter 

Unb mit fd^arfer fflaue fefned ©tfted bunte ^.jjoljier riften. 
JRafilod, bid bie ffraft i^r fd^tt)inbet, muf i^n bie ®iraffe 

tragen j 
®egen einen folc^en SReiter l^ilft fein S3aumen unb fein 


3^aume(nb an ber SSujle ©aume flitrjt fte ^in unb 

rod^elt (eife. 


3^obt, bcbedft mit @tau6 unb ©d^aume, toixt) bo^ fRo^ 

be6 JReitcre ©^)eifc. 
Ucber 9Rabaga6far fern im Ofien jiefjt man Sru^lic^t 

©0 burd^fprcngt bet 3;^iere ilonig nad^ttic^ feined SReid^ed 


107. — ^Alliterative Poetry and Phraseology. 

The alliteratiye is the oldest form of Teutonic poesy. It consists in the 
regular repetition of the same letters or of similar and corresponding sounds 
at the beginning of two or more syllables or irords of the same line—Thus, 
*' Wind und Wetter ; " wind and weather. As early as the ninth century, 
this form of poetry was displaced in Old-High-German by the rhyming 
verse, or the recurrence of corresponding sounds at the end of verses. 

In the Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian languages, the alliterative form 
remained much longer in use. The ''Romance of the Holy Grail," which 
dates from 1360, is one of the oldest pieces of alliterative poetry in the Old 
English dialect. The oldest fragment of Old-High-German alliterative 
poetry is " Das Lied von Hildebrand und Sadruband," which dates from the 
eighth centiuy. 

The alliterative form of poetry has up to the present time retained some 
hold upon the High-German language, and has been perpetuated in some 
well-known proverbs, nursery-songs, and phrases, of which the subjoined 
specimens may serve as examples. 


©ludf unb ®la6, JDie balb brld^t m, 
(SUid) unb ©leid^ gefettt fic^ gem. SRajV td^, fo toff id^. 
®eij mad^ft mit ®clbe. ©d^am ^inbcrt Sd^anbe. 
^aI6e6 ^au6, ^albe JqvUc. SBie ber ^irt, fo bie Ȥerbe. 
^offen unb ^axxcn ma6)t mand^en jum 5Ratren. 

^au^ unb ^of, — mit ^aut unb ^aax, — auf unb ai, 
au^ unb eln, — fur unb fiir,— iiber ©tocf unb Stein, 


franf unb frei, — mtttn unb tt)agcn, — ®elb unb @ut, 
fromm, frifd^, fro^Iid^, frei, — burd^ bidf unb bunrt; 
g&ng unb gcbe, — jittern unb jagcn, — flngcn unb [agcn, 
8anb unb Scute, — 9tof unb 3ieiter, — ganj unb gar, 
bei 3la^t unb 5ftebel,— mit 5Kann unb aWau^, 
gcuer unb glamme, — mit ^erg unb ^anb. 

108.-^The Glove. 

{Priedrieh von Schiller^ bom 1759, died 1805, poet, dramatist, 
philosopher, and critic ; a friend and rival of Gothe, and next to 
him the greatest poet of Grermany. The most remarkable of his 
poems are — " The Song of the Bell " (see Fischart's Advanced 
German Reader), "The Glove," " The Diver," " The Fight with 
the Dragon," *' Knight Toggenburg," " The Cranes of Ibycus," 
"The Walk to the Forges," and "Hero and Leander.") 

2)er ^anbfd^u^. 

(Mne Erz&Mung.y 

Francis I., King of France, the peers of his realm, and a blooming circle 
of ladies, are arrayed on the balcony in fh)nt of the royal lion-court {L6v>en- 
garten)f to witness a fight between a lion, a tiger, and two leopards. 

9Sor feinem Sowoengarten, 
3)a6 i?ampffpiel ju ewarten, 
@af 5t6nig %xani, 
Unb urn i^n bie @rof en ber 5hone, 
Unb ring^ auf ^o^em Salfone 
2)ie Damen in f^onem ihanj. 

Unb tt)ie er tt>lntt mit bem Singer, 
Sfuf t^ut ftd^ ber tt)eite 3tt>inger, 
Unb ^inein mit bebfidfitigem ©c^ritt 


ein ibm txiit, 

Unb fte^t fx(f) fhtmm 

3ling5 urn 

SKit langcm ©a^ncit, 

Unb f(^uttcU bic SWa^nen, 

Unb jlredft blc ©licbcr 

Unb legt jtd^ nleber. 

Unb ber if onfg tt)inft tDicbct; 
2)a Jffnct fid) bc^cnb 
©in jttjcitc^ 3;f)or, 
2)araud rennt 
9Rit tt)ilbcm ©prungc 
@itt JJiger ^cr^or. 
393 ie bcr ben ibmn crfd^aut, 
SruHt er lant, 
©d^Iagt mit bcm ®($tt)cif 
iSinen furd^tbaren Sleif 
Unb rcrfet bie 3nnge, 
Unb im £reife fc^eu 
Umgef)t cr ben 8eu, 
©rimrnig fd^nurrenb 5 
!Drauf ftredft er ftd^ murrenb 
3ur @eite nicber. 

Unb ber ifonig n)inft tt^ieber, 
2)a freit bad boppelt geoffnete ^au« 
3tpei Seoparben auf einmal au6. 
!Die jiurjen mit mut^iger 5tanH)fbegier 
2luf bad 2;igertf)ier ^ 


2)ad ^)adft fte mlt feincn gtimmlgcn Xa^tn, 

Unb ber 8cu mit ©cbruH 

gjic^tet ftd^ auf, ba toixVi ftitt j 

Unb Return im ifrcld, 

gSott 3Rorbfu(]^t ^eif, 

Sagern [x6) bie graulid^en itafecn. ' 

It 60 liappcuB that fair Lady Oanigonde drops one of her gloves from the 
balcony, and it falls just between the lion and the tiger. She, thereupon, 
turns to the Knight Delorges, her admirer, and bids him to prove his love 
by fetching her glove out of the arena. 

2)a faOt t)on be$ Slltand JRanb 
@in Ȥanbfd^u^ ^on fc^oncr *&anb 
3n)ifcl^en ben 2;iger unb ben 8eu'n. 
SKitten I)inein. 

Unb ju Siitter iDelorged ]>ottenbern)ei6^ 
2Benbet ftd^ graulein £unigunb : 
„^m JRitter, iji eure 8ieb' fo ^eif, 
SBie if)r mir'e fd^tt)6rt ju jeber ©tunb', 
(Si, fo ^ebt mir ben ^anbfd^u^ auf I" 

The gallant knight, nothing daunted, descends into the arena, and from 
the midst of the bloodthirsty animals snatches boldly the glove. 

Unb ber SRitter, in fc^neHem Sauf, 
©teigt f)inab in ben furd^tbaren 3tt>inger 
ma feftem ©d^rftte, 
Unb au6 ber Ungefjeuer 9Rltte 
Sftimmt er ben ^^anbfd^u^ mit fedfem Sing«. 

On his return he is gpi^eted with great applause by the whole company. 
With tender looks fair Gunigonde receives him, but the gallant knight throws 
the glove unceremoniously into her face, leaving her instantly and for ever, 
with the words, "Your thanks, my lady, I do not want I " 


Unb mit Grfiaunen unb mit Oraucn 
@ef)en'6 bic 3iitter unb Sbelfrauen, 
Hub gelajfen bringt er ben ^anbfd^u^ jurucf. 
!Da fd^attt i^m fcin 8ob aii6 jebcm SKunbc, 
Slbcr mit jartlid^em 8icbe^bIidE — 
(Sx ^er^eift i^m fein na^c^ @(ucf — 
@nn)fangt i^n graulcin ifunigunbe. 
Unb cr n)irft i^r ben ^^anbfd^u^ in'^ ©ejtc^t : 
„2)en 2)anf, 2)ame, bege^r* {d^ nid^t !" 
Unb »erla^t fte jur felben ©tunbe. 

109.— aSon iEleibern. 

(Berthdld AueTbcuih^ bom 1812, still living, is one of the most 
distinguished German novelists of his time.) 

Novels (Bomane) and novelettes (NoveUen) occupy now such a very pro- 
minent place in the literature of the day, that the student of German must 
become acquainted with at least the names of some of the principal novelists 
of Germany. 

Those elegant and agreeable little tales, called novelettes or NoveUen 
belong to a class of literature in which German writers generally excel. 
But nothing is more diflBcult than to produce a readable German novel* in 
three volumes, ein Boman in drei Bdnden. Yet there are many novelists 
who have shown the ability to achieve this feat. The following authors 
especially must be mentioned : — W. Alexis, Laube, Anerbjchf Freytag, Stifterj 
Guizkow, Lewald, Beuter, Spielhagen, GerstUcker, HacklSnder, ilUhlbach, Biehl, 
Bodenbergf and Hermann Grimm. 

Among the writers of novelettes, the names of Tieck, Heyse, ZsehoJcke (see 
No. Ill), Eichendorff, Banff, Jacobs, Schefer, Stifter, Auerbach, Broihera 
Grimm, and Amdt, stand foremost. 

SBenn bu einen glerfen an beinem if leibe ober irgenb^ 
n)o einen 9ii|i ^afi, benfji bu oft : „?Pa^ ba^ fie^t man 
nid^t, unb bie 8cute ^aben anbere^ jii tf)un ate immer 
aKe6 an mitau^jumuftern." 2)u gef)fi bann franf unb 
frei umf)er, unb e^ fann oft fein, bu ^aji 9ted^t, e^ fie^t 
niemanb ben glecfen unb ben 5Jiif. 


SBcnn bu aber cttt)a6 ®d^onc6 auf bem Scibe ^afi, 
fel e6 nur cin fd^on »&al6tuci^, ober ein telnet *§cmb mit 
ttjcigcr Srufi, ober einc golbcne 5Rabcl unb bcrgl., ba 
gef)fl bu oft mit f)erau6forbcrnbcm Slid f)\nan^ unb 
fd^lagft bic Slugcn bann nfebcr, urn c6 nid^t ju bemerfen, 
tt)ic allc Seutc, toa^ fte in Ȥanbcn ^aben, ficfjen unb 
licgen laffen unb gar nid^t^ tf)un, ate bcinc ^crrlid^feit 
betrad&ten. — So meinft bu ; aber ba6 iji aud& gefef)lt, 
fein SBlidE n)enbet fxcf) nad^ bir unb beiner 5Prad^t. 2)a6 
eine 9Kal meinft bu, man fte^t bid^ gar nid^t, unb ba^ 
anbere 'Sftal, bie ganje SBelt tjat auf bid^ gett)artet, um 
bid^ JU befd^auen ; aber beibe^ iji gefe^It. 

©erabe fo ift e^ aud^ mit beinen S^ugenben unb 

SBenn bu einen bofen SBeg ge^fi, meinfi bu, e6 fennt 
bid^ fein SKenfd^ unb feiner ftef)t ftd^ nad^ bir um, unb 
e6 ifl jiocfbunfelj mnn in aber bem 3?ed^tfd^affenen 
nad^ge^ft, rebefi bu bir oft ein, jeber ^Pflajierfiein ^at 
2[ugen, jebe^ £inb fennt bid^ unb beine ©ebanfen unb 
taufenb ©onnen fd^einen. Slber ba6 @ute n)ie ba^ 
©d[;Iimme n)irb oft t>on ber SBelt iiberfef)en. Gin ?luge 
aber jte^t alle^, ba^ ifi ®otte^. (Auerhach.) 

110. — 2lu6 bem SRibelungenlieb. 

{Das Nibelungerdied or the Lay of the Nibelungs, from which 
the present extract is literally translated, is the grand national 
epic of the thirteenth century, and the loftiest relic of German 
poetry of the middle ages. It has been aptly styled the " Ger- 
m;ui Iliad." The Nibelungen were a race of dwarfs, and their 


king Albericb was vaDqaished by Siegfried, son of the King of 
the Netherlands. Siegfried took from the Nibelungen that mass 
of gold and precious stones, known as der Nibdungenhort^ the 
Nibelnngs-hoard, which he presented to his wife Kriemhild for 
her marriage portion. See Fischart's Advanced German Reader. ) 

2)cr %xQxm ber 5fricmf)ilb. 

@6 traumtc ffricm^ilbe In 3;u9cnben, bcren ftc pflag, 
SBie ftc cincn tt)ilben galfcn joge mand^en Xa^ 
3)cn i^r jwccn Slbler crttjurgtcn j ioii^ jle ba^ muf tc 

3^r fonntc in biefer SBcIt nlmmer leiber fcin gefd^c^en. 

!Den S^raum jte ba fagte if)rer SDiuttcr Utcn ; 
©ic f onnte i^n nid^t befd^eiben bcfier bcr @uten : 
5)er galfc, ben bu jie^eji, ba$ ifi cin ebler STOann, 
3^n tt)oCe ®ott be^utcn, bu mu^t i^n atebalb tjerlorcn 

aOBo^ faget t^r mir t>om SDlanne, meinc t)icl liebc 

JDIinc ^clbcn Sicbc tt)iC id^ immer fein j 
Sllfo fd^on tt)lll id^ Mciben bi^ an meinen 3;ob, 
2)a^ id^ foil t)om SKannc nimmcr gcwinnen feine 5Rotf). 

9lun tjerrebe c^ nid^t fo fe^rc, fprad^ ^innjiber f^rc 

aWuttct ba ,• 
©oHjt bu immer ^erjlid^ jur SBelt tt)erben frot), 
2)a^ gefd^le^t t)on SKanne^ Siebe : bu tt)ir ji eln fc^one^ 

S33enn bit ©ott nod^ t)erbinbet eine6 red^t guten 9Jitter8 



111.— gRax etolpxlan in ©cfellfdjiaft. 

(Autobiography of Max Blunderer, by Heinrich Zschokke.) 

(Adapted from the original.) 

1) Hmr 8tolprian*s ednoation and its resalts. Good manners. 

e^ giebt cin gett>iffe^ UngludE in ber SBelt, liebcr 
Sefer, ba^ man freilid^ fur fein UngludE ^cilt unb bod^ 
ein^ ift. 3d^ Mn ba6 rcbenbe SScifpiel ba^on. 9Jlein 
aSater i)klt mii) flei^ig jur ©d^ulc; id^ lerntc n)a^, 
n)icn)ol unferc ©tabtfd^ulcn bamate nod^ jiemlid^ fd^Icd^t 
cingcrid^tct ttjaren. ^an fagtc uberaH t)on mir : „^crr 
SKai @toI))rian ift ein gar gefd^idEter 9Kann ; aber — man 
fann i^n nid^t ftraud^en, er mi^ ftc^ nid^t in bic SBelt 
ju fd^idEen 5 er ttoci^ nid^t mit ben Seuten umjugef^en ; . 
^r mi^ ni^t, tt)o er »^anbe unb ?$ufe l^infiedEen foC. 
©onft ifi er ein guter, brat^er 3)?ann." 60 fagte man 
t)on mir. SKerfft bu jej^t, tt)o e^ mir fe^lte ? 3Reine 
@rjie{)ung toax t)erfaumt. 3d^ war in ber ©d^ule 
unb bel ber Slrbeit p^if ig, aber in meinen ifleibern un^? 
reinlid^ unb unorbentlid^. 3d^ tt>ax fromm, bienftge^f 
f allig, reblid^, aber fd^ud^tern j lief ba^on, mnn frembe 
Seute famcn, n^upte nid^t, tt)o mit ben Slugen ^injulaufen, 
mnn mid^ m Unbefannter anrebete, unb mnn i^ 
enblid^ gar einer !Dame artig unb freunblid^ begegnen 
follte, fianb id^ jieif unb bumm ba. Oenug, n)a6 man 
i^oflic^feit unb feine ©itten nennt, ge^ort jum 8eben 
unb Seben^gliidE, fo gut tt)ie ©rot unb ©rbapfel (ifar^ 
toffein) unb ein ®(a6 3Bein. SSiele unferer jungen 
»^erren ^ben^ in biefer ffunfi ancfy nodi) nid^t tt?eit 
gebrad^t, n)ie id^ merfe. SWand^er, n^enn er in ®efett* 


fc^aft fommt, ttjeif nid^t, tt)c^in ct mit Slrmen unb 
Seinen foD unb man fic^t6 i^m an, cr ^attc ftc lieber 
ba^eim gelaffen. !3d^ Uttt bidf) baf^x, meine ©efd^id^te 
unb mein Ungldd ju (efen unb anbern befannt ju 
madden ; bcnn mand^cd bofc ©d^idffal ^abe id^ mlr burd^ 
meine Unbe^olfen^eit ^ugejogen. 

3) Herr Stolprian inherita some property, and seeks a wife. Max Stolprian 
In full dress. 

©obolb meine 95afe ®<)ar^afen gejiorben unb id^, 
ate l^r einjiger @rbe, jiemlld^ !)erm6genb gett)orben mar, 
tt)ollte man mir in meinem brei^lgften 3af)re eiaSKdbd^en 
JUT grau geben, ba^ fd^on war, ^au6W)irt^Iid^, tugenb^ 
^aft, freunblid^ unb ^ermSgenb. fjr&utein 93ert^a gefiel 
mir. 2)ie <Ba(i)t follte in SRiti^tigfeit gebrad^t werben ; 
id^ foKte Sraulein Sert^a na^er fennen lernen ^ td^ ttoaxi 
»on i^rem aSetter ju @aji gclaben, tt>o id^ fte finben 
foUte. 3d& ging nid^t gern in grof e ©efeHfd^aft, weiJ 
ic^ burd^ fd^led^te (Srjiefiung fd^eu unb fc^ud^lern toax, 
Slber tt)a6 t^ut man nid^t einer ^raulein Sert^a ju 
©efaHen ! Sd^ jog meine ©onntag^Reiber an, n^eifie, 
feibene ©trum^)fe, unb einen grunen SiodE mit ?Pert 
mutterfn6<)fen, genug, ic^ fa^ au^ tt)ie ein Sr&utigam. 

3) Berr Stolprian meets his imde in the <^ce. The ink-pot and the sand- 
box. A sad mistake. 

Site id^ aber »or ba^ |>au6 be^ ^rrn ffietierd fam, 
Uopfte mir bad ^erj r>ox Slngji, ate ^tte id^ eine 
aBanbu^r in meiner SSruft. „Sa3enn nur feine ©efeU* 
fd^ft ba ifi ! bad^t id^. SBenne nur erft t)orbci tt^dre !" 
Bum ®ludf traf id& ben ^errn SSetter aKein. @r fc^rieb 


ncc^ clnc Sled^nung in fcincm 6onH)toir. „^tjx fommt 
ctnoa^ fpat, »&err @toli)rian!" fagtc cr. 3d^ mad^te 
gttjanaig iJtaftfu^e linU unb rcd^td, lad^te i)or Slngfl 
urn ^oflid^ au^jufe^cn, unb ^attc nur immcr bie gro^e 
©eftflfd^aft im £opfe. 3nbem bet'^err SSctter bie 
JRed^nung fertig fjat unb ben ©treufanb fuc^t (Sofc^^^ 
i)apier tt)ar nod^ nid^t erfunben !) faring id^ gar bienfi^ 
fertig ^inju, tt>ill ben ©anb auf^ ^capkx fireuen, greife 
ungefd^idEter SBeife ba^ iEintenfaf jiatt be^Oanbfaffe^, 
unb fd^utte if)m einen fc^tt)arjen Strom ber beften 'JSirtte 
uber ba^ jierllc^e Sonto. — 3d^ glaubte id^ mufte in • 
D^nmad^t fallen t)or Sd^redEen^ natint in ber 93ertt>ir^ 
rung unb (Sile mein fd^neeweife^ ©d^nu))ftud^ au^ ber 
StodEtafd^e unb tt)ifd^te bie iSinte bamit auf. 

„(Bi be^ute, tt>a^ mad^t i^r aud^, «&err ©tolprlan !" 
rief mir ber «^err SSetter lad^enb ju, brangte mid^ mit 
meinem fd^tt)arj^tt)eif en S^afd^entu^ jurucf unb brad^te 
feine ©ad^en in Orbnung. 

4) Herr Stolprian in the drawing-room. The veal-pie. A good joke. 

3)ann fu^rte er mid^ in ba6 aSifttenjimmer'^ttJO bie 
©efellfc^aft fd^on beifammen n)ar. Sd^ folgte i^m 
nad^, ^aiit aber fd^on fein gut ®ett)iffen unb bemerfte 
beim 9lieberfef)n nic^t of)ne Sntfe^en einen t^alergrofen 
S^intenfledt auf meinem n)eipen ©eibenjlrum^jf am 
linfen Sein. — „^ilf »&immel ! feufjte id^ bei mir, tt^ad 
n)irb bie liebe ©efeCfd^aft fagen?" 3)ie JE^ur be6 
3immer6 ge||t auf. 3d^ fteifer, ^oljerner Summel 
n>ia mic^ gar gett)anbt unb galant, jierlid^ unb leid^t^ 


fuf {g ficDlen, ^upfe in btn gro^en ©aal ^inein j mad^ 
Sutflinge ^inten unb t)orn, fra^e mit itn Suf en linfd 
unb rec^td aw^, fe^e gat nid^t, baf bx6)t t)or mir eine 
SWagb fic^, bfe im SBcgriff i% einc ^aflcte jum 2;ifcl^ 
l^injutragen, fa^re i^r mtt bem i^opf in ben SSucfen, baf 
bie fcflbare ^aflete t)on bet Sd^uffel auf ben lieben 
(Stbboben faUt, unb fo fpajiete icS) mit meinen Sonnplu 
menten unb 9let)etenjen blinbling* "ooxtoaM, — e^ tt>ax 
mit gu 3Rut^,aId flanb id^ in einet SatatQe "oox bem 
Seinb unb foUte ind Seuet tucfen. SQeld^e J^ompUmente 
bie gtof e ©efeUfd^a^ urn mtd^ ^etum madfit, n>ei|i id^ 
nid^t : benn i6f f^aitt nod^ ntd^t ben 9Rut^ aufjufe^en, 
fonbetn fu^t xok befeffen mit Ittaft^f en, 93udHingen 
unb ge^otfamen 3)ienetn um mid^ Return fott, bid ein 
neued UngludC meinet ^b^i^Uit ^kl unb @ten}en fe^te. 

6} Serr SMprian loses his eqoilibritiin, and upsets two chairs and one 

3d^ Moot nAmltd^ bei meinem elftigen ffDm))Iimenttten 
mit ben guf en bid jut ^Pofiete atjancitt, bie nod^ ba lag, 
tt)eit jtd& bie 9Ragb t)on intern futd^tetlid^en ©d&tetfen 
nod^ lange tiid^t et^olt ^atte unb mit flatten Slugen auf 
bad SKeijietfiudf bet ito^funfi am 93oben ^inblidfte o^nc 
ed aufjune^men. !Da fa^tt bei einem neuen Itompli* 
ment mein tintenbefledftet guH in bie ^afiete ,♦ id^ \a\) 
nidbtd, benn mit tt)at t)ot «&6flid^feit ailed blau t>ot ben 
Slugen gewotben. 3d^ glitfc^e in bem ^JJafietenteige 
fc^ma^Iic^et, bod^ ^5# natiitlid^et SBeife aud, mlxtxt 
mein ^jetpnlid^ed unb i)olitifd{)ed @!eid^gen>id^t unb falle, 
fo lang id^ bin— unb \6i meffe funf ©d^u^ fteben 3ott 



— auf bie @rbe, jum nic^t gcringcn ©d^recfen unb ®c^ 
l&iSfUx etner ganjcn, gro^en, e^rentDcrt^en ©cfcttfc^aft. 
3m gallctt rlf id^ no(^ imi ©tfi^lc mit nicber, an bcncn 
id) mld^ fatten tt)olItc ,• unb cin junged, artige6 grauen^ 
gimmcr, bod jtd^ auf clncm berfelben »ermul^lid^ nicber^ 
lajfcn tt)oUte, lag ebcn fo fd^ncH ate i^r ©tu^l ncbcn 
mir am Sobcn. — O ^immcl unb bad tt)ar mclne 
Scrt^a! @d er^ob ftd^ nun ein entfeftlic^ed S^tcrgc^ 
ferret; unb id^ am Soben fc^rte aud^^ benn ba id^ 
neben mir an bet @ibe auper }tt)ei @tu^len nod^ ein 
Sraucnjimmcr liegen fa^, glaubtc id) feji an ein fiarfed 
©rbbeben. 3um ^od^jicn ©liicf toax ed fein Srbbeben, 
ba6 biefen erbormlid^en gall »erurfad^t fjattt, fonbem 
nur, tt)ie gefagt, eine italber))ajiete. 

6) The Dinner. Herr Stolprian gets a seat next to F^Uulein Ber(ha^ hla 
intended. The soup is served. A n^ishap. 

SBir fianben auf. 2)et SBetter mad)it aud ber ganjen 
@ad^e einen @))a|i. @t Igiatte gut fpafen. 3d^ ^&tte 
n>einen mogen unb fd^&mte mid^ fafi tobt. 3d^ fiellte 
midff an ben JDfen unb fagtc fein SBort ju meiner 
@ntfd^ulbigung, fonbetn, n)eil aHed um mid^ ^er lac^te 
unb fid^erte, lad^te id) aud) unb fa^ nur t>erjii)^Ien nad^ 
ber jerfd^metterten italberpafiete. 9Ran mu^te ftd^ enblid^ 
gu S^ifd^begeben. 2)er ^txx Setter xoax fo galant mid^ 
neben Sert^a ju feften. 3d^ ^atte lieber neben einem 
feuerf^)eienben Serge gefejfen, ate neben biefem fd^6nen, 
guten if inbe. !Denn ee n)arb mir wunberlid^ ju SJRut^e 
neben meiner funftigen 95raut. — 3d^ fa^ bie grofc 
©efedfd^aft am S^ifd^e nur fe^r pud^tig an. 2)a warb 


bic ©u^pc ^crumgcrcici^t. St&ulein Sert^a hot mix einen 
Sadler t)oIl, i^ fonntc bad unmoglidj; annc^mcn. ©ic 
f}atu nod^ feinc ©uppc. 2)a gab6 tt)ieber itomplimentc 
uber bic ©u^j^jc, unb id^ fa^ ttorau6, baf c6 mit ben 
ffonnjlimenten n)icber ubcl ablaufen tt)erbc. 3)arum hat 
id^ bic fi^onc Scrt^a gar bringcnb bod^ bic ^Bnppt ju 
icijalUn, unb fa^ i^r bittcnb in bic fd^oncn, blaucn 
Slugcn unb fa^ nid^t auf ben XdUx, unb bic jtcbcnb 
^cifc ©uw^ flof tid^tig auf Scrt^a'6 ©d^oof unb 
^Icibcr 5 unb ba id^ nun fd^ncll bic ©u^)^)c jurudEjog, 
tarn bic anbcrc «§alftc auf mcincn ©d^oof unb ubcr 
mcinc ©crt)icttc unb itlcibcr. 6^ wjar brubcrlid^ 
flct^cilt. 3d^ »crgcp cd nic ; c^ iji mir ailed riod^ tt)ie 
^cutc. (Sd tt)ar cine ifrcbdfu^)^)c. !Dic gutc SBcrt^a 
tjcrlicf ben S^ifd^. 3d^ fiammcltc (Sntfd^ulbigungcn, 
aWan trofietc mid^ unb gab mir cinen anbcrn !£cllcr. 

7) fferr Stolprian with a black face. A ludicrous sight. 

3njn)ifd^cn bampften meinc Scinflciber noc^ tjon ber 
Ucbcrfd^tt)emmung ; id^ fnu))ftc mir jiatt ber ©crt)icttc 
cincn 3i<>frf ^om Jtifdbtud^ in bic SBejic. Sert^a ^attc 
abcr bic itlcibcr wed^fcln muffen. ©ic fam n)icbcr unb 
id& cntfc^ulbigtc mid^ taufcnbmal bei i^r, fo gut id^ 
fonntc. ©obalb id^ \<x% baf ftc frcunblid^ lid^eltc, tt>arb 
mir aud^ tt)icbcr tt)of)l ju SJlut^ unb [6^ trodEnctc mir 
ben 2lngftfc^tt)ei^ t)om ©eftd^t, ^erjie^t ftd^, nid^t mit 
ber ^anb, fonbern mit bem JSafd^cntud^. Slbcr bad 
ungludtfelige ©d^nu^)ftud^ ! — 3c^ f)attc bic Sintcnge*^ 
fd^id^tc rein tjcrgejfen uber allcm, tt)ad fcitbcm SBid^tiged 


gefd^e^en. 3(^ rieb mir bcim 2lbtrocfnett bed ©d^weified 
bad ganje ©eftd^t fo mit Xinte ein, baf, aid x6f bad 
©d^nupftud^ tt>icber elnjiedfen njollte, ble ©cfcUfd^aft 
mlc^ »ertt)unbetun9dt)oU in einen SKo^ren t)crtt)anbelt 
fa^. 2)a cr^ob fid^ abermald tin grof cd Oelad^ter unb 
Setcrgcfd^rei. 2lud ^opid^feit fd^rle ober lad^te id^ bcnn 
cine ganje S33eile mit, bid id& merfte, baf fii} ble grauen 
t)or meinem feared lid^en S^intengepd^t furd^teten. 9iun 
faf) ii) erft ein, ba^ mid^ ba^ ©d^nupftud^ gum Slarren 
im @))ie( gemad^t ^atte unb id^ ein furd^terUd^ed Sludfe^en 
I^abtn mujfe. 

8) i7(srr Stolprian and the table-cloth. The company startled. 

^rfd^rodten unb eilfertig fprang id^ t)om S^ifd^e auf, 

urn na^ ber ffud^e ju pud^ten unb midfi ju wafd^en. 

2)a gog {^ bad S^ifd^tud^, bad unglutffelige S^ifd^tud^, 

beffen Bipfel ic^ in bad itno^jflod^ ber Sffiejle unten 

befejiigt f)aik, Winter mlr ^er. Sttle Speller, Sraten, 

©alate, ^pinaU, SSouteiHen, SWeffer, ©abeln, ©lafer, 

gifc^e, SRinbfleifc^, Soffel, ©aljfa^Iein u. f. tt). liefen 

mir tt)le narrifd^ in ber ©tube nad^ mft grofem 

©etofe. 3)ie ©afte fafen mit offenem 9Kunbe tt>ic 

t)erfieinert ba unb fa^en ble ^errlid&en ©erid^te fammtlld^ 
t)or i^ren Slugen t)erfd^tt)lnben unb fo mand&en 8edfer* 

blffen, auf ben fie ftc^ fd^on innerlld^ gefreut t)attm. 

Slnfangd, ba Id^ fa^, tt)le alle ©d^ujTeln unb Seller 

winter mlr ^er toaxm unb mld^ t)erfolgten, ftlett i^d fur 

^^ererel, bid ber »&err SSetter mit belben Selnen aufd 

2;if(^tud^ fptang. ^ad rlf ben 3lvfel an^ meiner 


SBcfle. Sd^ abcr in toollcm ®aIopp nid^t me^r (n Mc 
Svid)t, fcnbern bic Srepjje ^inuntcr uber bic ©ttafe 
unb in mcin ^au«. SBicr SBod^cn lang Iic|? i^ mid^ 
t)or fcincm 3Renfd^cn mc^r fe^en. 3d^ bad^tc t)on ber 
3eit an nid^t tDieber and »5elra%n o^ne Sd^tt)inbel 
unb nic^t an grof c ©cfellfd^aftcn o^nc ba6 falte gicbct 
jit befommen. 

©rja^Ie, lieber 2efer, immcr^in meine Scibendgcfd^id^te 
beincn greunbcn tt)icbct. 3c^ lad^e jeftt fclbft ubcr meine 
Ungefd^idflid^feit. 8lber meine ©efd^i^te fann mand^em 
unferer jungen ^erten jum Seifpiel 3n>ar nid^t, bod^ 
jur SBarnung unb Se^re bienen. 

112.— ®eifllid^e Sieber unb iJirt^enlieber. 

{Sacred Songs and Church Hymns.) 

The following are the principal hymnologists from the 15th 
to the 19th century. The more distinguished authors hare the 
year of their hirth and death added :-^ 

IGth CentVLTj :~~MarHn Luther (1483-1546), Paul Speraiut, DeeUu, JonaSf 
Spengler, Eher^ Mathenus^ Alberus, N. Herman^ B. Waldis. 

16th Centnry:— ^. RingwdUU (1530-98), Selneeker, Nieolal, Helmbold, Lob- 

17fth Centnry:— J". Eeermann (1685-1647), Paul Gerhardt (1607-76), Simon 
Daehf J. Franek, J. Schfffier or Angelas Silesius (1624-77), O. Neumarkf 
Joachim Neander (1610-88), Herzog Antcn Ulrieh ron iSraunachweig, Knrfilr- 
still Luite Hmriette, Spener (1635-1706X F^ncke (1663-1727), Dessler, Martin 
Binlchart, and the pious and enlightened Jesuit Friedrich von Spee (1566-1635), 
Professor at Koln, Hildesheim, and Trier. 

18th Century :— Arnold, FrepHnghausen, Bambaeh, B. Schmolek (1672-1787X 
E. Neumeiater, Tersteegen, Qraf von Zineehdor/, the founder of the BrUderge- 
nteinda, the Moravian Brethren, at Herrenhut, C. F. GeUert (1715-69). 

19th Century, and latter half of the 18th Century \—E. M. Amdt, Garve, 
von Albertini, Albert Knapp (1798-1864), Theremin, Philipp Spitta (1801-59), 
and JuUua Sturm (bom 1816). 


(Sin' fejlc Surg iji unfer ®ott. 

{Martin Luther^ bom 10th Nov. 1483 at Eisleben, Professor 
at the University of Wittenberg from 1608, died 18th Feb. 1546. 

One of the most momentous changes in the religious and political lile of 
central Europe was brought about by the Reformation inaugurated hj Dr 
Martin Luther. The labours of this great reformer may be summed up in 
these wordR :— Firstly, emancipation of the human mind, and freedom of 
theological inquiry ; secondly, restoration of a religious family life, and of a 
church in conformity with the letter and spirit of the New Testament. 

The first he furthered by his numerous polemical writings, and espedally 
by his ninety-five theses which he affixed to the entrance-door of the castle- 
church (JSchloazkirehe) at Wittenberg, and which, it is said, he wrote with a 
quill-pen (G&nsf/eder, f.), so long that it reached to Home, touching the 
threefold crown of his Holiness the Pope, and making it to totter on his head. 

The second, the reforming of the church service, he furthered by making 
song and sermon the principal parts of divine service ( Gottesdumst, m.). Hymns 
had hitherto not been encouraged by the clergy ; Luther, however, wrote and 
composed many hymns himself, which became the first models of German 
hymnology. The hymn before us, the so-called Reformation hymn, of which 
Luther composed both text and music, dates from 1630, when the Reichstag 
(diet) of Augsburg was sitting. Luther's fellow-labourer in the work of the 
Reformation, Philip Melanehthon, beheld in Luther a third Ellas, and other 
contemporaries have named him the second David. 

His greatest work, his translation of the Holy Scriptures, he began in 
1621, and completed it in 1684. It is, up to the present day, the only recog- 
nised German version, and one of the greatest monuments of the High- 
German language. 

Not only does Germany recognise in Luther the founder of her Lutheran 
Church, but, both by Protestants and German Roman Catholics, he is looked 
upon as the father of her present language and literature.) 

&n' fcjie Surg ift unfer ®ott, 
©in' gutc Sffic^r unb aBaffen, 
©r ^ilft un^ fret aud aHer 5Rot^, 
2)ie und je^t tjat betroffen. 
!Der alt' bofe geinb, 
mt emfi er'd je^t meint ; 
@rof aWad^t unb ^iel Sift 
©eln' graufam' 9iujiung iji j 
2luf erb'n ifi nic^t fein'6 ©leic^en. 


3Rit unrrcr 9Rad^t ifi ntd&tt flct^an, 
Jffilr jtnb gar iali t)eriorcn j 
e^ jircif t fur und ber rcd^te SKann, 
2)cn @ott felbjl f^ai crforcn. 
gragji btt, tt)cr bcr iji ? 
er ^eif t 3cfu6 S^rifi, 
3)er t^crr 3^baot% 
Unb ifi fein anbrer ®ott j 
2)a^ gclb mup er be^alten. 

Unb tt)entt bie SBclt t)oB 3;eufel toftr' 
Uttb tt)onf tt un^ gar tjerfd^Ungen, 
©0 furd^ten tt)ir un6 nid^t fo [c^r^ 
(S^ fen unS bod^ gclingen. 
5)cr gurji biefer S33clt, 
ffiie fatf r er jld^ jieHt : 
3;^ut cr un6 bod^ nid^t j 
2)a6 mad^t, cr ifi gerid^f t ; 
ein SQBortlein fann i^n fallen. 

2)a6 SBort fte follen laffcn jia^n, 
Unb !ein'n 3)anf baju ^aben ! 
(Sx iji bel un6 tt)0^l auf bem ^J^lan 
Wilt feinem @eiji unb @aben. 
9le^men jie ben 8eib, 
@ut, e^r', ff inb unb SBeib : 
8af fat)ren bat)in! 
®ie f)aben'6 !einen @ett)inn 5 
2)ad SReic^ muf und bod^ blciben. 


113.— 2Bir flnb bc^ ^crrn. 

(From AoZter und ffar/e, by Spitta.) 

(PhUipp Spitta, born 1801 at Hanorer, studied tbeology at GSttingen, and 
officiated as a Lutheran paator (Lu^AirtMAer Pastdr) or clergTman (ein G^iat- 
Ueher or der GeisUiAe) from 1830 to 1847. In the latter year he was pre- 
ferred to the office of Superintendintf an office bestowed on the more success- 
ful and able clergymen of the Lutheran Church, who in this capacity exercise 
authority over the other clergy (die Oeistliehkeit or die Oeiatlichenf pl.)> 
similar to the bishops of the Church of England, with the exception of the 
confirmation rite, which can be administered by every Lutheran pastor or 
parson {Pfarrer). I^ilipp Spitta died as Superintendent of Burgdorf, near 
Celle in 1868. 

His numerous sacred poems and hymns, of which the present is one 
of the simplest, breathe the purest and loftiest spirit of devotion, and are 
couched in a language unsurpassed for its beauty. He must be ranked 
among the foremost, if not as " the besf writer of sacred poetry of the first 
half of the 19th century.) 

SBir ftnb be* ^tnn, xolx Icben ober jierbcn ! 
9Bir fmb bed ^txtn, ber ein|i fur alle jiarb ! 
SBir ftnb bed ^errn, unb tt)erben ailed erben ! 
SBir flnb bed ^errn, ber ailed und ern^arb ! 

S33ir ftnb bed ^errn ! ©o laft und t^m aud^ leben, 
©ein eigen feln mlt 8eib unb ©eele gem 
Unb ^txi unb SWunb unb SaSanbel 3^wgnid geben, 
©d fci gett)lf llc^ tt)a^r : SBir ftnb bed i^errn ! 

aOBir finb'bed ^errn ! @o fann im bunflen 3;^ale 
Und nimmer graun, und fc^eint ein feller ©tern, 
!Der leud&tet und mit ungetrubtem ©tra^le j 
Sd Ifi bad t^eure SBort : SBir ftnb bed ^errn ! 

SBir ftnb bed JQttm I So tt)irb er und bewa^ren 
Sm lefeten itam^)f, tt>o anbre ^ulfe fern j 
itein 8eib n)irb und t)om 3^obe tt)iberfaf)ren, 
3)ad aSort blelbt ett)ig toaf)x : SBir ftnb bed ^mn ! 


114. — German National Song. 

The OermarOa Fatherland. 

{Smsi Morits AmcU, born 1769, died 1860, Professor of History at the 
University of Bonn ; a venerable German patriot, who, by his spirited songs, 
inspired the popnlar rising of the German nation against Napoleon I. in 1818. 
The other patriotic poets of this memorable period, which is known as " die 
Zeit der Be/reiungs-Kriege '* or " the time of the war of liberation," are Tlieo- 
dor KdmeTf Max von Sehenkendorf, de la Motte Fouqui, and Friedrich SUckert.) 

!De6 25eutfd^en aSaterfanb. 

2Ba6 iji bee 2)eutf(^cn Satcrlanb ? 
Sji'e qjrcu^enlanb? iff 6 ©d^tt)abenlanb ? 
3jfe, n)o am 5R{)em bie JRcbc bluf)t? 
Sjfe, tt)o am Sett bie mbm jie^t? 
£) nein ! nein ! nein ! 
©eiu aSaterlanb mup grSf er fein. 

aSae iji be3 3)eutfc^ett S3aterlanb? 
Sffe Saierlanb? ijf6 ©teietlanb? 
3jre, m bee SRarfen 5Rinb fiS) ftredft? 
Sife, m bet WtaxUn @ifen rerft?— D nein! ic. 

SBae iji bee 3)eutfd^en aSaterlanb? 
Sffe^ommerlanb? SBejifatenlanb ? 
Sffe, tt>o ber ®anb bcr 2)unen n)e^t ? 
Sjfe, tt)o bie 3)onau braufenb ge^t ? — D nein ic. 

aaSae iji bee 3)eutfd^en SSaterlanb ? 

®o nenne mit bae gro^e 8anb I 

3^e 8anb ber ©d^njeijer? iji'e Sirol? 

3)ae Sanb unb aSolf gefiel mir tt)of)I. — 2)od^ nein ! k 



SBa6 tji bed 2)eutf($en SSatcrlanb ? 
@o nenne mir bad grojlc Sanb ! 
®en)ifi, ed ifi bad Dejierreid^, 
?ln @^rcn unb an ©iegcn reid^. — D nein ! jc. 

aSad ifi bed 2)eutfd^en SSaterlanb ? 
©D ncnne mir bad grof e 8anb ! — 
&o tt)eit bie beutfd^e 3unge flingt 
Unb ®ott im ^immel Sieber fingt.— 
'S)a^f n^arfrec !Deutfd^er, nenne bein! 

':£)a^ ijl bed 2)eutfd^en SSaterlanb, 
SBo (Sibe fd^njort ber 2)rudf ber ^ant 
933o Sreue ^ett t)om Singe bli^t 
Unb Siebe warm im *&erjen ft^t — ^a^ foK jc. 

"Da^ ift bt^ !Deutfd^en SSaterlanb, 
2i3o 3<>tn t)ertilgt ben tt)alfd^en S^anb,* 
S33o jeber granjmann ()eif et S^inb, 
SBo jieber 2)eutfc^e ^ei^et greunb — 
2)ad foH ed fein ! 
2)ad ganje 2)eutf(i^Ianb foH ed fein ! 

3)ad ganje 2)eutfd^lanb foK ed fein ! 
O ®ott »om .^immel fte^ barein 
Unb gib and red^ten beutfc^en 5!Mut^, 
2)a|l tt)ir ed lieben treu unb gut. — i)a^ foH k. 

* Another reading is:— 2Bo SSatu^ feineit J^ermann fanb. 
See footnote, p. 108. 


115. — Gennan Patriotic Song of the year 1870. 

The Watch on the Bhine, 

Die WaefU am Rhein, rendered famons by the seven months' war in 1870^ 
became the war-song and battle-cry of the German soldiery in the 150 
▼ictorious engagements and the 17 great, dedsive, and Tictoriois battles 
foaght in France in the memorable year 1870. It stimulated their courage 
at Forbach, WSrth, Weissenbarg, Hetz, Sedan, Gravelotte, Paris, and 
Orleans. It is a four-part song, and only when thus rendered Is its innate 
beauty and grandeur brought out. 

The author of the poem, Max Sehneekenburger, was bom in 1819 in Wttr- 
temberg. In 1889 he became a partner in the firm of " Schnell & Schneck- 
enburger," iron-founders, at Burgdorf near Bern in Switzerland, and died 
there in 1849. He lies buried in the churchyard of the little town of Burgdorf. 
Among the small circle of friends by which he was surrounded, he was 
esteemed and beloved as a warm patriot, a true friend, and an agreeable com- 

The composer of the song, Karl WilheUn, was bom in 1820 at Schmalkaldcn 
In Thitringia. For many years he was musical conductor, Mugikdireeior, and 
teacher of music, MusikUhrerf and retired from his profession on account ot 
iU health. He is the author of several " Lieder fUr trier MUnnerstimmen/* 
those favourite four-part songs for men's voices, or glees. In which German 
music abounds, and he lived to see the great popularity of his " Bhine- Watch 
Song" In 1870. 

Die SBad^t am JR^cin. 
@d brauji cin 5Ruf tt>k 2)onner^aU, 
SBic @d^n)crtgcf lirr unb a33ogeiH)raU : 
3um SR^cln, jum SR^ein, jum beutfd^en Sl^cln ! 
aajct tt>iU bc^ ®trome6 ^utcr fein? 

2icb aSaterlanb; magji ru^ig feln, 

gefi fie^t unb (reu bic SBac^t, 

2)ic aaSad^t am 5»^cin ! 

3)ur(^ «&unbert4aufenb jurft e^ fd^nclf, 
Unb aller Slugen bitten ^ell ; 
3)er IDeutfd^c bicber, fromm unb flat!, 
Sefd^uftt bie ^cirge 8anbc6marf. 
8ieb SBatcrlanb, ac. 


(St mat ^inauf in ^immtl^Wn, 
2)a ^clbcnt)&ter nicberfd^aun, 
Unb fd^tt>6tt taxi fioljcr 5tampfe^?ufi : 
2)u Si^dn bicibfi 3)cutfd^ n)ie mciue Sruji !— 8ieb ic. 

®o lang cin Zxop^tn 93Iut nod^ glu^t, 
9iod^ cine gaufl ben 2)e9en jle^t, 
Unb nodf) tin 2lrm bie Sud^fe fpannt, 
Setrltt fefn geinb ^iet beinen ©tranb !— 8ieb k. 

!Der ®d^n>ur erfd^alft, bie SBoge rlnnt, 
2)ie ga^nen flattern ^o(]^ im SStnb : 
8lm 3l^ein, am SR^ein, am beutfd^en 3l^ein ! 
SaSir alle n)oUen »&uter fein !— 8ieb k. 

lie.— 2)eutfd^e SBoH^rieber. 

' {Oerman Popular Songs,) 

3)er ©d^u^e or ©d^ufcenlieb. 

(Fr. V. SchiUer, 1759-1805, poet. Seep, 112.) 

SWit bem 5PfeiI, bem SSogen, bmOf ©ebitg unb S^^al 
j^ommt ber ©d^u^ gejogcn frit^ im SRorgenftra^I. 

Sa, (a, (a, k. 

aSie im 3leid& ber Sufte ffonig ifi ber SBei^, 
3)urd^ ©ebirg unb itlufte ^errfd(>t ber ©d^ufte frei. 

2a, (a, (a; k. 

3^m ge^ort ba« SBeite 5 n)ae feIn ?PfeiI erreid^t, 
2)ae ifi feine S3eute, tt)a« ba freud^t unb peugt. 

ia, la, la, tc, 

{From " WUhelm TeU,) 


117.— ^eibcntB^Ieitt. 

(J. W. von Obthe, 1749-1832, the greatest poet of Oermany.) 

®a^ ein SnaV tin 9l66lein flc^n, 9i66lcin auf ttx 

SBax fo jung itnb morgenfc^in I Sief er fd^neU e6 naf) 

«u fc^n, 
©a^'« mit t)ielcn grcubcn. 9i6«leltt, 9l66lcltt, SRo^lcin 

xotij 5 JRo^lcitt auf bcr «&elben ! 

i^nabe fi)rad^ : 3cJ^ brcd^e blc^, Siodlein auf bcr *&ctben j 
Siodlein fprad^ : 3d^ jled^ie bic^, baf bu et^ig benffl an 

Unb id) n)iff6 nic^t lelbcn ! SRo^Icin, SRo^Icfn, Dio^Iein 
rotf) } 9l66Ie{n auf bcr ^cibcn ! 

Unb bcr tt)i(bc itnabc brad&'^ SRo^Icin auf bcr ^cibcn ! 
JUMIcin TOc^rtc jtd^ unb ^ad), ^alf i^m bod^ fcin SBc^ 

unb a(^, 
9Ruff c6 cbcn Icibcn. 9l66lcxn, 5R6«Ic{n, JRo^tcin 

xotfj ; JRodlcIn auf bcr Ȥcibcn ! 

118. — ©olbatcniiebcr or Soldiers* Songs. 

!Dcr gutc itamcrab. 

{Ludwig Uhlandy 1787-1862, a famous baUad-ioriter. Seep. 72.) 

3cl^ ^atf c incn ilamcrabcn, cincn bcffcrn finbft bu nit. 
2)ic iErommcI 'fd^ilug jum ©treitc, cr ging an mcincr 

3n fllcid^cm ©d^ritt unb 3;r{tt, in flldd^em ©d^itt unb 



Sine itugel f am gcpogcn : gllf 5 mir ober gilt e6 bit ? 
3^n f)at c6 (ftc) n)cggcriffen, er liegt mir toor ben guf en, 
Site wfir'^ ein ©tucf t>on mir, ate tDar*^ ein ©tucf t)on mir. 

SBitt mir bie ^anb nod^ reid^en, bertt>eil id) eben tab'. 
„ffann bir bie ^anb nid^ geben : bleib' bu im en^'gen 

SKein guter itamerab, mcin guter itamerab." 

110.— The Song of the Field-marshal Bliicher. 

(G. L. von BlUeher, 1742-1819, was the hero of many battles. At the Katz- 
baeh he routed the French by the fury of his attack. His battle-cry was 
" VorwUrta I Forwards I " which procured him the name of "Marshall Vor- 
wdrts/" among his soldiers. At the decisive day of Waterloo he reached 
the battlefield at half-past four by a forced march, encouraging his exhausted 
soldiers with, — " Children, we must forwards 1 I have promised it to my 
brother Wellington.") 

2)a6 Sieb t)om gelbmarfd^aH. 

{E. M. Arndt, 1769-1860. Seep. 129.) 

SQ8a^ blafen bie J£romj>eten ? ^ufaren, l^erauS ! 
©^ reitet ber gelbmarfd^aH im fliegenben ®au5, 
@r reitet fo freubig fein mut^ige^ ^ferb, 
@r fd&tt)inget fo fd^neibig fein bli^enbe^ ©d^ttoert. 

D fd^auet, tt)ic i^m leud^ten bie ?lugen fo Har ! 
D fd^auet, tt)ie i^m tDallet fein fd^neeweiged ^aax ! 
®o frifd^ blu^t fein Sllter tt)ie greifenber SBein, 
2)rum fann er SSerwalter bed ©d^Iad^tfelbed fein. 

3)er Wtann ifi er gett)efen, ate ailed t)erfanf, 
2)er mut^ig auf gen »&immel ben 3)egen nod^ fd^tt>ang ^ 
2)a fd^n)ur er beim @ifen gar }ornig unb ^art, 
2)en aBelfc^en ju n)eifen bie preuf ifd^e ?lrt. 


3)en ©d^ttjur f^at er gc^altcn. 21(6 ffrieg*ruf etf lang, 
^ei ! tt)ic bcr woei^c Sungllng ln*n ©attcl jid^ fd^Ujang ! 
2)a iji er'^ gett)efen, bet ite^rau^ gemad^t, 
Win eifernem S5efen ba^ 8anb rein gcmad^t. 

Sel gfl^en auf ber 2luc cr ^ielt fold^en ©trau^, 
2)a^ t)ielett taufcnb SBelfd^en ber Slt^em gieng au^, 
aSiel S^aufenbe liefen bort ^aftgen 8auf, 
Sefintaufenb entfd^Uefen, bie nie tt)ad^en aU(. 

2lm Sffialier ber itaftbad^ cr'^ aud^ ^at bett)a^rt, 
2)a f)at er bie Sranjofen baS ®d^tt)lmmert gele^rt j 
ga^rt wo^I, i^r Sranjofen, jur Dftfee ^inab ! 
llttb nef^mt, D^ne^ofen, ben SBaKfifd^ jum ®rab ! 

Set SBartburg an ber @lbe, ttjie fu^r er ^inburd& ! 
2)a fc^irmte bie granjofen nid^t ©d^anje nod^ Surg^ 
2)a mu^ten jte fpringen wie ^afen uberd %db, 
Unb ^ett Iie|i erflingen fein «&ujfa ber ^elb. 

95ei 8ei^)jig auf bem ^piane, o ^errlid^e ©d^Iad^t ! 
!Da brad^ er ben ^tanjofen ba^ ®ludf unb bie 9Rad^t, 
3)a lagen fie fld^er nad^ blutigem gall, 
2)a toaxi ber «&err Sludger ein gelbmarfd^aH. 

2)rum blafet, i^r JErom^jeten ! ^ufaren, ^eraud ! 
2)u reite, JQtxx gelbmarfd^aH, tt)ie @turmn)inb in ©au6 ! 
2)em ©iege entgegen jum SR^ein, ubern St^ein, 
5)u ta^)ferer S)egen, in granfreidgi ^inein ! 


120. — ©tubcntenlicber or Students' Songs. 

ga, (ja, gcfd^maufct, loft un6 nid^t rapj>elf6j)ftfd^ fcin ! 

SBcr x\x6)i mit ^oufet, ber WW ba^cim ! 
Edite, bibite, collegiales \ 
Post mnlta saecula pocula nulla ! 

2)er ^err ^Profcjfor Hefi ^cuf fein SoUcgium j 
2)rum iji c6 bcffcr, man trinft cln'6 'turn. 

Edite, etc. 

S^rinft nad^ ©efaflen, bi6 i^r bie finger barnad^ Icdft ; 
iDann ^af 6 un6 alien red^t tt)o^l gefd^merft 

Edite, etc. 

2luf, auf, i^r Srubcr ! er^ebt ben Sad^ud auf ben JS^ron, 
Unb feftt eud^ nieber, ttJir trinfen fd^on. 

Edite, etc. 

©0 lebt man immcr, fo lang' ber junge 8enj un6 blinft 
Unb 3ugenbfd^immer bie SBangen fd^minft. 

Edite, etc. 

itnafler, ben gelben, ^ai un6 SlpoKo pra^jarirt 
Unb un^ benfelben recommanbirt. 

Edite, etc. 

§at bann eln jcber fein ^Pfeifd^en itnajiet angebrannt, 
@o ne^m* ec n)ieber fein ®Ia^ jur »&anb I 

Edite, etc. 

©0 lebt man lujiig, tt)e{l ed nod^ flotter Surfd^e ^el^t, 
S3i6 baf man tujiig ad patres reift; 

Edite, etc. 


35i^ baS meiit ^kitx ttom Corpus juris tt>irb bcjtcgt, 
©0 lang', i^r ©ruber, leb' iS) ocrgnugt ! 

Edite, etc. 

2)cnft oft, i^r Srubcr, an unfcrc Sugcnbfro^Iid^feit, 
©ie Uf)xt nid^t tt)ieber, bic golbne 3«t ! 

Edite, etc. 

121.— 2lltce ©tubcntcnlicb. 

3(^ (obc mir ba^ SBurfd^enlebcn, cin jebct lobt fid^ 

feinen ©tanb } * 
3)cr grei^eit ^ab' id^ mid^ ergcbcn, ftc bleibt mein leftte^ 
(C%ort«r.) ©tubenten ftnb ftbelc SBrubcr, 

5tein UnfaH fd^Iagt fte ganj barnicbcr. 

2)ic 'Sirfd^e, ^afcn unb ©tubenten crieibcn glcid^cd 

Denn jenen jagen 35ger, ^unbe, unb biefen bie 5p^ilifier 

nac^. — {Chorus.) ©tubenten, 2c. 

Sra\) ©elbcr muf ber SSater fd^idfen, mnn ber ^err 

©o^n fiubiren foH, 
2)cn Scutcl mit 2)ufaten fpfdfen j tiur bann gerat^ bad 

©o^nlcin tt)of)I. — (Chonu,) ©tubenten, ac. 

!E)ie SDWi^len fflnnen nid^td ermerben, fobalb ba6 SBaffer 

ite nid^t treibt } 
©0 mu^ benn audb ber Surfd^ ^erberben, tt^enn i^m bet 

SBed^fel au^en bleibt. — {Choms.) ©tubenten, jc. 


Unb fjat bet SSurfd^ fein ®elb im Seutel, fo ^)umpt er 

bie ^P^ilijier an unb fprid^t : 
©d ifl boc^ alle6 citel, t)om SBurfd^cn 6i6 jum Settct 

mann. — (O^onw.) ©tubenten, k. 

?ld^ n)cnn blc lieben ©Item woufitcn ber ^crrcn ©o^ne 

SBie jte fo flott t)ctfeilen muften, fte tt)eintctt fl(^ bie 
Sleuglein rot^. 
(C!feon«.) Snbcffett t^utt bie ^erten ©o^ne 

©id& bann unb tt)ann gat trefflld^ bene. 

Unb f)at ber Surfd^ nun au6flubiret, fo reifet cr in 

5lRit feinem »^efte au6fiaffiret, unb ^eif t tin gruhbge^ 

le^rter SKann. — (Chams.) ©tubenten k. 

Unb faUt ber S3urf($e burd^'^ (Sxamm, fo fd^ert er ftd^ 

ben S^eufel brum ; 
@r reifet bod^ in ®otted Seamen ber ganjen 

SBelt ^erum. — (CAori£«.) ©tubenten, jc. 

©on id^ fur Sf^r* unb ^tei^eit fed^ten, fur's 95urfd^em 

n)O^I ben ©c^Iager jie^n, 
©leld^ blinft ber Sta^l in meiner dttcfytm, ein ^reunb 

n)irb mir jur Seite fie^n. — {Choms,) ©tubenten, ic. 

©ing', bet' unb ge^' auf red^ten SBegen, unb t^u' bad 

3)eine nur getreu, 
Unb fommt ein fd^oneS itinb entgegen, (af ed nid^t 

ungefupt t»orbei ! — (Chorus,) ©tubentf n, k. 



Sefanntmad^ungcn, or Slnjcfgcn in 3ettungcn. 

(Adyertisements in Newspapers.) 

1 . — ffictlobung^anjcigc. 

(Announcement of a Betrothal or Engagement.) 

Men il^ren SScttt>anbtctt unb Sreunbeti em^fel^tcn jtd^ att SScrloBte 

Subtoig »on SSaiern. 
SQBid^elmine ©etmanien. 
3Kund^en, ben 7. Sanuat 1871. 

©crtitt unb ^iuW^axi, ben 28. geBruar 1870. 

Unfem gefd^d^tcn au^todrtigen SSertcanbtcn unb Srennbcn Ui^xtw 
ti>ir un^, unfete SSerlobung gang ergebenfl angu^etgen. 

SBitl^elntine »on SBranbcnBurg. 
Jfart »on SBurtembcrg. 

Sottifc ilto»)ilo(f. 
©brijloj)]^ ffiietanb. 

granffutt am SRain unb SBien, ben 11. SKarj 1871. 


2. — SBcrbinbung^anjcigc or ^elrot^danjefge. 

( ABnoonoement of a Marriage.) 

9lm 19. b. 5Kt«. feierten toir ben Xag unferer e^etid^en SSctBin* 

bung. 2)iefe0 gut 9lac!^ric!^t fur unfere entfemtcn aSerttanbtcn unb 


SS^itl^elm ©ermanien. 

©eotgine ©ermanien, 
geB. ))on Hannover, 
^annotter, ben 29. SlprU 1869. 

Unfere am 18?« b. 9K. gu SSerfailled Bet unferer getieBten Sxinte, 
ber ))ertotttn)eten ©el^eimrStl^in )Don ill^ierd, ^^oKgogene el^elid^e 
aSerBinbung, Beel^ren toir un« unfem entfemten aSettoanbten unb 
Sreunben ergeBenfl angugeigen, unb l^iermit gugleic^ yxcx bie Sort; 
bauer i^re^ fd^&^Baren SDol^ltocKend gu \Mivx, 

^er ©e^eintratl^ bon ^o^engollern. 
Srangi^fa )9on ^ol^engoUern 
geB. @(fa{i$fiot]^ringen. 
aSerfailted, ben 3t£n a»drg 1871. 


Sernl^arb Xauc^nij^ 
SKinna ^effing. 
Seipgig unb a)re«ben, ben 21. Sutti 1870. 

3. — JEobe^anjcige. 

( Announoement of a Death.) 

Sim 31. b. 9RW. ftarB meine gute grau Seonore, ®mitie, geB. ». 

^afen. ^iefen fd^mergUc^en SSerlufI geige id^ unfem f&mmtUc^en 

lieBen SSertoanbten unb J^eunben l^ierburc^ ergeBenfi an unb Bitte 

vxa beren flitte S^^eilnal^me. 

(Rein^olb ?Paffau, 

^oln, ben 30. Sluguji 1871. neBfl meinen fteBen JTinbem. 



Unfer ditefier gelieBter ©ol^n, ^einrid^ %xii^, jlatB am 6. b. ^ti. 

an einatt Sieber in feinem 18. ^al^te. Sml^tten Steunben unb 

tl^euren S^emanbten loibtnen biefe Slngeige bie trauembm (Sltetn 

iinb <Slef(i^n>ifler bed (Sntfd^lafenen. 

IDer ilaufmann 3a]^n, 

SRaitt), ben 8. ®e))tember 1870. beffen ffrau unb JTinber. 

IDod am 2. b. Sfttd. erfotgte SlBleBen unfered guten iBatetd, be6 
S^uTgemeiflerd l^iefiger @tabt, $etnt Sol^ann @(^ulge, madden toir 
unfetn Uebtn S^enoanbten unb ffreunben l^ietbutd^ fc^ulbigfl befannt. 

3)ie ^eetbigung toixt ndd^fien Sl^ontag urn 2 Ul^r jlattfinben unb 
Xl^eilnel^menbe loetben gebeten, fid^ urn l^alb )tt>ei auf bent dtatl^ 
l^aufe einguftnben. 

auQUJl 8. <Sd^utge, 

im 9lanten ber ^intetbliebenen. 
S3cnn, ben 3. October 1871. 

4, — Stabliffemcnt^^Slnjcigen. 

(Business Announcements.) 

©roffnung cine^ 9Ranefacturn)aaren:j®efdf^afW. 

3d^ beel^re nttd^ l^ier butd^ ergebenfl angugetgen, baf id^ untet 
l^eutigem ^ato eine 

Manefaotnrwaaren-HaiLdlung t 

auf l^ieftgem ^la^e, griebrid^djlrafe Oir. 115, errid^tet l^abe. 
JDurd^ au«gefu(]^te fci^one ©toffe unb biHige ^reife l^offe id}, mix 
Pete bie Bufriebenl^eit meiner tocrtl^en ©onner unb Slbncl^ttier ju 
emerben unb en^jfel^te niid^ mit biefer SSetftd^erung ben geel^rten 
S3ett)o^neru unferet ®tabt unb Umgegenb beflend. 

S9temen, ben I. ^mmltx 1871. ®. SKfiUet. 


5. — ©cfd^aft^anjclge unb ©mpfe^Iung. 

©ertin, 1871. 
C. Sohliekeyaen, S^afd^inetugoBrifant unb ^ant^f ^iegelei^: 

em^jfiel^tt fic!^ Bci bcr Slngeige feiner SKafd^inmsSaBrif in ber 
Slnfertigung »on Sicgel^jrcffen gum $ferbeBetrieB »on 2^8 twi^ 
Xagrtteijlung ; einfad^c 2)attH)fgieget^)reffen »on 545 miUe, 2)aui^f» 
jiegeljjreflfcn uiit SBBatgtocrf unb (Sle»ator tjon 15?50 wwYfo Staged? 
tei^ung ; ^Prcffcn fur ffiafferteitung^rol^rett t)on 3 SoH Bid 3 gufi 
©eite u. f. ». 

2)iefc aRafd^inctt finb auf ben SBcttaudfieKungen gu fionbon unb 
$arid ^)rdmiirt unb toerben auf bod $ronn?tejle tool^(t>ct^)acft fter^ 
fenbet. ©rofiere 3)attH)fantagen toerbcn and} in ben cntfernteflen 
©egenben bet drbe burc^ bie Sngenieure ber goBrif aufgefleUt unb 
in 93etrieB Qefe^t. 

»&anl)cl6corrcf))oni)enj, or ^^anblung^bricfe. 

(^Commercial Correspondence, or Commercial Letters.) 

(Through the kindness of two Leitb merchants, the author has been 
enabled to place before his readers a select number of really practical 
letters, vhich possess the gnreat merit of having passed between business 
houses in Germany and this country. Similar productions of commercial 
correspondence in letter-writers are frequently the most uncommercial letters 
imaginable. Instead of multiplying their number, the author selected care- 
fully, fh>m a great number of letters kindly placed at his disposal, the sub- 
Joined specimens, with as few alterations as possible. The letters selected 
are such as pass daily in the export and import trade (known as the Baltic 
trade) between London, Hull, Leith, Glasgow, Newcastle, etc., and Hamburg, 
Bremen, LUbeck. S.ettin, etc.) 

[In commercial letters, English text and ornamental round- 
liand {see specimens appended) are largely employed for all 
words and sentences intended to be made more prominent 
than the rest. Where they occurred in the originals, they 
have been retained, and are indicated in the subjoined copies by 
English Italics.] 


No. 1. — Order for Goods, 

From Merchant at Leith to Firm at Berlin. 

W. Colterjthn, 

«sto.*i2S. Leith, den l^ October 1871. 

Herren G. H. Schroder & Co, in Berlin, 

SKit Oegmtodttigcm erfud^e id^ <Sie frcunbtid^fl, tnir 
24 3)<^. 9lo. 7 PetroUum greibrenner, unb 
1 3)^. Sih). 804 $anbtaiiH)en m\i guBci^origen JDod^tm unb ©tdfern 
per 2)atn^)fer via Hamburg, vermittetfl -Hm^ C. Fodckenberg 
bafetbfl, ©Uemtl^pt^Mdfe 9^. 6, Batbm^gtic^jl gu fmben. 

Sld^tung^voH unb ergeBenfl, 

TTiZAe^m CoUerjdhn, 

No. 2. — ^Acknowledgment of Order, 

By Firm at Berlin to Merchant at Leith. 

G- H. fdttjjw * Co.. B&rlin, den 6««» November 1871. 

* wSi Berita'?** J&errn W. CoUerjahn in Leith. 

3u JDanf »etBunben fut bie un^ mit Si^ww ©eel^rten »om 16. ». 
9D{. ett^eitte ^ejleHung, beel^ren loir ma Sl^nen ubet Slu^rid^tung 
berfelben angeBogen mit JFVxc^i^ra aufgutoatten, ®ie erfud^enb, aud 
biefer 9lai^ered gu erfel^m unb un^ beten fi&tttf) t^on abguglid^. 

iZ^Zr. 49 . 6 . 6 JPreusz. Court, 

@conto 4 % 1.29 .0 

mit Rihlr. 47 . 7 . 6 toie ubtid^ gefattigjl eingufenben, 
bamit toir bie SBaaren auf ben SBeg Btingen fonnen. 

Q. H. Schroder <& Co. 



[app. q. 

No. 3. — ^aUmOf Sled^nung, or Invoice of Order. 

Fol: 864. Berlin, den 6'f» November 1871. 

Wilhelma-Straaze No. 18. 
Bechnung/ur ^tttn W, CoUerjahn in Leith. 

3iel 3 SWcnatoberp. C(mpt 4.\Sconto. 






Sandten fur Ihre toerthe Rachmmg 

und GefahTy 
|)r. JBal^n, »ermittetft ^crrn C7. FaJU 

ckenberg in Hamburg. 
1 JhSe. 

5)^. PetroUum grctkenner, Silo. 7 
,, 9lo. 804 ^anbkmpen mit ^o(^^ 

ten unb ®(dfem 

^fie unb $et)Hi(!ung . 




8 24 
12 6 

49 6 6 
1 29 

47 7 6 

N.B.— JDer »on Sl^nen fur 9lo. 804 notirte ?Jtei« ThJr. 8 . 20. 
ifi )a>of)l ein ^(^Teiiifel^ler ; biefe 9b. fofiefl laut $reidcourant 
X^tr. 82 . 4. 

No. 4. — Letter enclosing Remittance in Bill of 


From Merchant at Leith to Firm at Berlin, for Goods ordered. 

LeUh, den 12««» November 1871. 
J&emn G, H. Schroder d Co,, JBertin. 
3m ©eflt 3l^re« SBettl^en »om 6*ftt b. Wlt9., bel^dnbige id) 
Sljnen einliegcnb in SolawechseL {or in Tra^te, auf 8onbcn*) ben 
SBctrag ft. Factura de: 

* At the ease maj be. 8«e Nos. 6 and 8. 


BtMr. 49 . 6 . 6, ®ie erfud^enb, mir ben @m)>fang berfe(ben 
gefdttigfl ht^ati^tn )u tooffen. 
3^rer gcfdHigen ^nttoort entgegenfel^enb, jeid^net 

W' CoUerjahn, 

No. 6. — Bills and Drafts. 

Bills of exchange, in the form of promissory notes, or 
^©olalDed^fel/' are made payable so many days, weeks, or 
months after date, or „na6) bate." Drafts, or ,,$timan)ed^fel/' 
are made payable so many days, weeks, or months after 
sight, or „naif ^id^t" — that is, after being presented for 
payment to party on whom they are drawn. If the drawer 
„bcr 9lix«fle((cr/' or „Zxafiani/' or ^SBexISfelgebet/' has an account 
current with the party on whom he draws, „bet Sejogene/' 
or „%xafiai," he sends a letter of advice, or „eitt Sl»i«brief/' 
giving notice of the amount drawn, when payable, and in 
whose favour. The drawer then puts into the bill the 
words „lavii ©erid^t/' or „laut Sl»id/' i.e., as advised. If 
the drawer does not send a letter of advice, he puts into 
the bill „of)m ^txxd^t" i.e., without advice. 

If there is no account current, then the drawer sends the 
draft, before putting it into circulation, for acceptance to 
the party or firm on whom he wishes to draw, who writes 
upon the draft „aut)ptixt/' or ^angenmnmen/' i.e., accepted, 
adding name, address, and date. 

' Of drafts, which are also known by the general name of 
^Xratten/' or ^gejogene/' „traffirte 9Be(^fet/' there may be only 
one copy, called a f,^ximatDi^\ti" (which, properly speaking, 
should in this case be termed a „^o{amd}\d'), or there may 
be two copies, the first called a „^rimai»ed^fel/' and the 
second a „@ecunbah)ed^fet/' both, of course, payable as one. 
The drawer keeps the „<Secunbatt)ed^fef" in case the „$rinia" 


-^ a^vwof 

•- mftae: SbHcI 


seeks Stlbgr. unb seeks P/.^ Preusz. Cour. neBfl Sinfen ju funf 
Proceia. <Den SBertl^ {Valvid) l^obt \^ in SBaaren em^jfangen, 
unb wetfrrcd^e jur aSerfaHjeit rid^tige Sal^tung m^ 9Bed^fette(^t. 

Sola. W, CoUerjahn. 

No. 7.— 2l»te.33rief. 

(Letter of Advice addressed by drawer of bill to party on whom he draws 

the draft giyen below.) 

Leiih^ den 12*^ November 1871. 
^erren C. F, Mutter & Comp, in London, 

fyuit )mx id^ fo fret, d, Conto meined ©ut^aBend auf <Sie ju 
entnel^men : — 
Cour, Tklr. 49 . 6 . 6. Dtbte G, H, Sckrdder, 4 2Bo^m 

• na(Sf Sichtj 

bie ®ie Bei aSotfcmmen gefdnigft l^onotiten unb mix ben ^ettag 
BelafUn tooflen. 

9[(^tung))on unb ergeBenft^ 
W, CoUerjakn. 

No. 8. — !Iraffirtcr or gejogener SBcd^fel. Tra^^e. 

(Bill of Exchange or Draft upon another party or Firm.) 
'^— v**^ ♦ Leith, den 12<«» November 1871. 

gur ^iA?r. 49. 6 Sgr. 6 iy., Preusz, Cour. 

aSier SQBo^en nad^ ^id^t gtl^ten @ie gegen biefen Primawecksel 
an bie ^erren G. H. Sckrdder <& Co. ober Drbre bie ©untnie Mon 
5Weununb»ierjig %f)aUtn, fed^« @gr. unb fed^« $f. $reuf . ©our., 
Fa^Mto in Sffiaaren erl^atten, unb Bringen @ie in Oled^nung lant 
Sbmd)t (9l\)i«). 

Herren C, F. Muller & Comp, 

in London, W, CoUerjahn, 


No. 9. — Secunbamd^fel. 


^■^-V"*^ Leitk, den 12^ Novemh&r 1871. 

gut mhr, 49 . 6 Sgr, 6 iy. iVeiwa. Cour. 

93{et Sodden nad^ ®id^t jal^Ien <Sie gegen biefen Secwndatoechsel 
{Prima nid^t) an bte $errcn G, H, Schroder & Co. ober Drbtc 
bie ©umme »on 0leiinunbt>ierjig ^\x. fed^^ @gr. 6 ^f. $reuf. 
G^out, Fa^Mto in 2Baarett erl^atten, itnb Bringcn @ie in dted^nung 
taut SScrid^t (5l\)i«). 

Sqvcxvx C. F. Muller & Comp, in London. 

W, CoUerjahn, 

No. 10.— 2;ertian>cd&fel. 

'^— -V"*^ Zei^A, dm 12<<w November 1871. 

5uif i?i^»'. 49 . 6 . 6 Preusz. Cour. 

93ier SBod^en nad^ @id^t jal^len @ie gegen biefen TerUawechad 
{Prima unb Secunda nid^t) an bie J&erren G. H. Schroder (fb-Co, 
ober Drbre bie ^vlwom »un S'leunttnbtiiergig %^\t. fed^d ®gr. 
6 ?Pf. 5Preuf . ©our., aSaluta in 9Baaten er^alten, unb bringen ®ie 
in Oled^nung taut SBeti^t (5l»i«). 

^etren C F. Muller & Comp, in London, 

W. CoUerjdhn, 


No. 11. — Acknowledgment of Remittance, 

And Notice by Firm at Berlin of Despatch of Goods per rail, to Consignee 

at Hamburg. 

®' "■ ^*Sr * ^' Berlin, den 20«^ November 187 1. 

J&crrn W. CoUerjahn in Leith, @(l^ott(anb. 

SSir Befennen un^ gum @mpfange 3l^re^ @lee]|[|tten )}om 12t£n b. 
SDStd. mit gutigen €!t]^r. 47 . 7 . 6 unb btad^ten fold^e banfenb 
nnUx vAlidftm fBoxUfjoiU gut. IDie baburd^ Begal^lten, Bereitd 
facturirten SBaaren gingen t^orgeftem per 93a]^;t in 1 Kiste, gej. 
@. <]& @o. A 1314, an $erm Falckenberg in Hamburg, guc 
SBeiterbefotberung an @ie ab. 

^eflen @m))fang to)unf(^enb, trnpftljUn toix und ingtoifd^en 3^ten 
femeren toertl^en Drbrcd. 

^it tJorgugUd^flet ^od^a^tung, 


G. B. Schroder & Co. 

No. 12. — Notice to Consignee at Hamburg of 
Despatch of Goods per rail. 

To be shipped to order in Leith. 

^' "• ^i^ * ^" Berlin, 18««i November 187 1 . 

Herm C, Falckenberg in Hamburg, SSurften^unb ^infcl^ 
Sabrifant, Ellernlkorsbrikke No. 6. 

SBir fanbten 3^nen l^eut ^er ^atjxi im Slufttage be6 @m))fdngevd 
cine Xiwfe ge§ei(^nct 5. <fc Co. A 1314, unb erfud^en @ie bicfelbe 
gefdHigfi, untcr See-Assecuranz mit ?fitf). 48, incl. 10 ^^/^ intagis 
ndren ®etoinn«, na^guglid^ 3^rcr @^efen, an ^errn W. CoUerjahn^ 
©d^ifpl^dnbler, 46 Shore, in Leith, in /ScAo«fem/n?eiterjubef6rbem. 


pr : 6r. H. Schroder & Co, 


No. 13. — Consignee's Notice of Arrival of Goods 

at Hamburg, 

Of Insurance and Shipment of the same, with Expenses incurred. 

Hamhurg, Nov. 22/71. 
^tnn W, CoUerjahrij Leith. 

93on ©enbung bet ^crren G. H, Schroder & Co., Berlin, 
l^attc id^ ba^ SSergnugcn 

1 ^tfle Metallwaaren geg. S. <& Co, A 1314 

fiir <Sic gcjlcm per Sa^n ju em^jfangen. 

^ie ^jle l^abe i^ l^eute ju400 Mark Banco toerjid^ert (unter 
Banco 100 Mark fann man l^ier nici^t^ tterfld^em) unb toerbe 
bicfelbe morgen per JDam^jffd^iff Cumberland, CapUmn Parker 
an @ie »ertaben. 

©inliegenb bcl^dnbige i(i^ Si^nen Connossement baruBer unb 
erIauBe mix auf bemfclben Assecuranz-Praemie, Jrad^t unb 
@i)cfctt, im ©efammtbetrage »on Thlr, 6 . 5 i^. 6 Pf, nad^? 

aj^it frewibf^afttt^em ©rupe em^jfel^te id^ wid^ 3^nen, 

^od^a^tungdOoH unb ergebenft, 

C. Falckenberg. 



Ifillii « 

I %i ^ — 


No. 16. — Freight-Account, with Expenses, 

Famished by Commission-Agent to Party hj whom the vessel 
0. Raue, " owned or chartered. 



Baltic Street, Lelth. 

FrachhEechnung fiir bie Brigg Louise, Capt, 
T, TUchseiiy eiitgcfomwen wit fiabung J^ves t)on Memd d, 
15«^ October; au^clarirt via Dysart nadf Cappeln, d. 21*^ 
October 1871. 

Pr. %xad)t fut au^gcUefertc : 

16580 @t. Staves = 6 Mille, 337 St., h 
£11, 10s. p. Milk , . £72 4 7 


Sin ^odmtU^xtn 92 T. Beg, k Is. £4 12 

„ Sootfcn, eingcl^enb unb Boot . . 16 8 
„ JDam^ffd^iff einfommenb, 2jd. p. 

Ton 19 2 

„ geucrgelb 13 7 

„ Sriefrcrto 2s., fficd^felficttHjel 6d., 2 6 
„ eonfutatj@ebu^rcn . . .069 
„ Qin unb Slu^ckritung unb Incasso 

d, ffrad^t 2i % . . . 1 16 
„ SBefrad^tungg? Cowrfei^e 7 ZiecZ k 

„ £11, 10s. 5 °/^ . . . 4 13 6 8 

£58 17 11 
„ Oiim. : a\ London 10 Tg. 'U . £50 
„ Casm 8 17 11 68 17 11 

S. E, <& 0.* 
Leith, d. 2\s^n October 1871. C, Batze. 

♦ S. E. & O. stands for Salvo Errore et Omissione In calculo, that is. 
Enrols Excepted, or E. E, as noted in Invoices, Account Sales, etc. 

Dunpf-n. Scgdwhiffk- 
Rbeacrai n. Anntu: 
Baltic StTMt, Ldth, 


No. 16. — Freight- Account, with Expenses, 

Famished by Commission-Agent to Party by whom the vessel 
c. Ratxc, is owned or chartered. 

n. Agentur, 

FrachURechnung fiit bieSad^t " Wiihdminey'* 
Capt. H. Koppdgaard, angcfommcn wit Sabung Hafer, 
Ebeltoft d, 24»^», einclaritt 25«^ Afa*, aw^clatirt Jiad^ Bvjch- 
haven, den 3*^ JurU 1871. 

iV. grad^t ffir 1184 Tf . Hafer^ ara^tlitfttt : 

550| qrs, Gevo. 336 lb. I, Is. 6d. p, qr. . £41 6 11 


$[n ^o(f^®eBu]^ren 58 T. Reg. a Is. £2 18 
■„ gootfe, einfomwenb, iinb 5<?o« . 16 8 
„ @(!^le)>)) ^ ^am))fet, einfommenb, 

2id. p. Ton . . .0121' 

„ geuergclb 7 10 

„ @cfprotefl 38. 6cl., ^ptanfcngetb 

28. 6d 6 

„ ffied^felftem^el 3d., ©riefrottc 28. 

4d 2 7 

„ SiJot»onbct€ibebe(Dtbreju]^oten) 5 
„ ^rBeitdlcl^n (ei dntlofd^ung Is. 3d. 

p. qr 15 3 

„ Xtinfgelb on JDocfleiUe .026 

„ Gin^unb ^udctarirung unb Incasso 

t>n%xa^t 2iX .10 8 

„ Sefrad^tungd^ Courtage nad^ Kiel, 

44 JTee?, £8, 58. p. Ked kbVo 1 17 6 9 3 1 

„ (Rim : a/ London 
„ Cassa *. 




. £25 

. 7 






>8f. jK. d O. 
Leith, d. 3<«*» Jwni 1871. C ^£?e. 

















O ^ CO 




t^ CO <o 

•^ »-H T-l 





o oa O 




lO Cd CO 







« e S 





erj • 





<» • 

ao ^ * 


"5 • 

th O 00 


C^ Ol C4 



J§ ft fc 


s? . 



c^ ^^ 

«-► ^ij ^ 


.>< s 

gj CT fex 



^ s 




. od od ^* 


O 1-1 (N (M 



t^ ^ . 


oo u ^ s> 

?5 c 

^-^ S- »5e ^ 

iH S 

^® ^ 



o o 




t* o 




«0 kO 




O T*< 






• -kS 


• ^ 



e o 


^ ** 






si. ft, 



-^ « 



8f$ cfj 



c ^ 


5$ ' 

• • 


. O CO 


O <N c^ 



t:: . • 



GO M Oi 
rH «. St 












No. 18. — (Eoxd(h%intOf i.e., Pro forma Account. 

(A fictitious, sappoaed, or imaginary Account of Sales, submitted by Agent 
to Party who wishes to sell Goods, in order to show the amount of expenses 
and the probable profit to be realized by the sale.) 

C. Ratse, Amentm 

der Nordd. Rchiffban. 


Bidtic 8tz«ec, Leith. 

Verloaufsrechnung iihtt 10 %&^tx Butter^ 
totldft per Dampfer via Hamburg em)}fangen unb l^iet hut 
Dtbre unb fitt Died^nung bed ^erm Chr, J* MoUer gu Flensburg, 
tme folgt, vctfauft tocrben, 

10 S&flec BuUer, ®t\o : 

JBnrffo 10.1.0 Tara^ 1.3.421 20 lb. 

Netto 8.0.24 21118/ 3iel 3 gKt. £49 18 9 


gra^t ^ 30/ p. Tm unb 10% Primage £0 17 

SBrudcngetb 2t Id "0 10 

Sul^rtol^n, Slufnel^men, Sicgen, 5lBtie? 

fern 3 4 

aBe(i^fclfletrH)el Is. 3d., «Porto Ifl. 4d. . 2 7 

Disconto £49, 188. 9d., 3 3Kt. a, 6 % 15 
Commission unb Dekredere ^ 3 % . 1 10 3 8 9 

NeUO'Provenue £46 10 

Xct«*, 26** Decftr. 1870. 0, Eatsie. 


No. 19. — Factura. 

(InTOloe sent by Leitb Merchant to Order of Goods on day wlien Goods are 

shipped direct firom Lelth to Kiel.) 

C. Ratze, 

Commiasiom-n. Speditions- 


Baltic Street, Lelth. 

^errn Chr, Mordhorsty Kiel, Debet 

5ln Factura uBer tt. Drbre unb fur Sl^te 
to/ Oled^nung unb ©cfal^r mit "Dresden^" Capt. Drever, »cr? 
laben : 

9ln 3 To. feinfle gr. Matjes ^dringc @ 43s. .£690 
„ 2 „ feine bo. bo. @ 38s. . 3 16 

£10 6 
Unfcflen : 

Connossamentj ^ctto \c. .£016 

Pr<m8ion2X . . .040 056 

£10 10 6 

Leithj d, 18^ Aug, 1871. 
C Batze. 


No. 20.— ©pebitionebricf. 

(InToioe and Letter of Advice sent by Meiehant at Amstexdam to Agent or 
Warehonseman at Hamburg, called in German " BpediteWt" or GoBslgnee, 
-vrho has a Wbarf or Warehouse for Goods in transitn,— to forward the 
Goods to their place of destination.) 

^emt Ed. Schmidt, Hamburg. 

Amsterdam, den 5 Febr. 1870. 

^uxdf ben ^mButger ®(^ocnet ,fP/eil,'* StiOpitSM Jansen, 
^abt i^ l^eute an <Sie fur (Red^nung bed $erm Th. MuUer in 
Gotha ixi grad^t a gl. 12. ^r. fiajl Kaffee unb gl. 5J ^jt. gcgger 
^roA? nebjl 10 7o Primage cerlaben 

A. B. Ni 1-30, 30 Ballen Kaffee R*s isio K^, 

Werih FL 1800. 

C. D. M 31-32, 2 2^5^er -4raA ^i*' 1300 £^, 

Werih FL 600. 

)oeI(i^e ®ie na(]^ bev SSerfugung bed gebad^ten ^aufed bel^nbeln 
tuoHen. Connossement folgt l^ier bci. 

9^it aHer 9d^tung, 


Nicolatia Bugl. 
This letter is also given in German handwriting. 



[app. iir. 


(Monetary, Mercantile, Shipping, and Weather Reports.) 
No. 21,-1. gonb«^S3ertd^te, ®etb unb aBed^fetj^ourfe. 

(Funds— Money Market— Stock Exchange Price Lists, etc.) 
Hamburg, den 11. Mai, Vachmittags 2^ Uhr. 


Hamb. Feuer-Cassen-Staats-Anleihe 

Norddeutsche Sondes- Anleihe 

Oesterr. Creditbank-Actien 











Disoonto 2Ja8i7, 


Norddeutsche Bank 

Yereinsbank 20 X Einz. 

Internationale Bank40*'/o do. 


Bergisch-Markische '. 





Div. 1870. 


Div. 1869. 



Oesterr. Nordwestbahn-Prioritaten.. 
Oesterr.-Franz. Staatsbahn 




Hamb.- Amer.Pckt.- Act.- Ges. 



Lete. Div. 














116fetw. 116 
13f 14 etw. 18f 

122 a 121 


140 a 2 


Hamburg 2^ a 3^ 

Amsterdam St 

Berlhi 4 




Bremen 8} 7 

Frankfurt S} „ 

St Petersburg 8 „ 

Bremen, den 17. Mai. 

Odd- und Effeden- Course. 

Gold in Barren u. MUnzen pr. Pf. fein Gd. ITUr. ... 

Preuss. Gassen- An weis. u. Banknoten 11 

Preuss. Gourant 11 

G. — bez. 


Frankftirti den 12. Mai 11. Mai. 

Wechselr Course : 


Hamburg . 

Wechselr Course in 6st Wdhr. 

London, pr. 10 £ «. 3 Mt 

Hamburg „ 



den 11. Mai 
Brie/e. Geld, 








No. 22.— II. ^anbcfej urtb aBaarcn^SBcrid^te. 

(Mercantile Reports. Prodace MarketSL) 
Berlin, den 13« Mai. 


pr. Mai 


jpr. MadlJuxd 


pr. Mai/Juni 



pr. Mai/Juni 






12U. 17M. 

... Thlr....8gr. 
16 >r 26 ^ 


2U. 80M. 
70| TAZr.G. 

60^ » 

261 # -r 




12. Mai. 

16 # 24 # 


Roggen and RttbiSl matter, SpiritUB feat. 

Stettin, den 12. Mai, 

Qetreide. — Weizen wenig verandert, pr. 2000 /y. loco geringer gelber 56 
k 60 Thlr.^ besserer 63 k 67 Thlr., feiner 73 k 77 TA2r., weisser und weiaabunter 
76 k 79 3!&/r. 

Roggen etwas feater, pr. 2O00 Pf. loco 49 h 62 Z^^r. 

Gerate matt, pr. 2000 /*/. loco 46 & 49 TMr. 

Hafer atlller, i)r. 2000 Pf. loco 46 & 49 Thlr. 

Erbaen stille, pr. 2O00 Pf. loco Fatter- 46 it 48 Thlr., Koch- 60 & 61 Thlr, 

WinterrUbaen pr. 2000 P/ pr. Sept./Octbr. Ill Thlr. nom. 

Biibdl geschaftsloa, pr. 200 Pf. loco 27 J TMr. Brf. 

BegiOimngspreiae : Weizen 77, Roggen 60f , RUbSl 26^- 

Berlin, den 12. Mai. 

Yom 6. — 11. Mai warden nach Angabe der hieaigen Waageanatalt rer- 
wendet : 

Weizen Boggen Qerate Hafer Erhsen 
Zar Yerladang |7r. Babn 131 617 ... 74 19 Wapl. 

ZurLagerung 144 232 130 676 ... » 

FUrdenConsom 23 729 ... 66 17 ir 

Leith Oetreide-Markt, den 10. Mai, 

Die fremden Zafahren aeit dem 2. d. betragen : 6 Tons Weizen, 99 Tons 
Bobnen, 142 Tons Gerate, und 1957 S. Mehl von Hamburg. 

Breslan, den 12. Mai. 

Wolle^ — Der letzte Wochen-Umsatz betrug nur wenige Hundert Centner, 
bei welchen fast alle bier gangbaren Qualitaten vertreten waren. Die 
Preiae haben ihre ateigende Tendenz beibehalten. 

Hamburg, den 13. Mai^ 2 J Uhr, 

Getreide.— Weizen in loco fest; bezahlt 121 P/. Mark. ISlMk., 12Q Pf. 
LUchow. 152 Mk. 

Weizen ab Aaswarts rahig; angeboten 126/7—181/2//. za 164 Thlr. pr. 
S3O0P/. Netto. 

Weizen auf Termine rubig; pr. Mai 164JfJl;. Br., 163 if A;. Gd., |>r. 2000 
Pf. Netto. 

Roggen in loco rubig; bezahlt 120 Pf. Meckl. 110 If A;. Bco.; pr. 2000 Pf,, 


Gerste ab Auswarts fest; 112— 116 iy. ab cUtn. Inseln 10 IflciSeh. k 11 Mk, 
Bco. pr. Tonne zu notiren. 

Hater in loco rabig; besahlt feiner Hoist, 110 JTA^ Bco, pr. 2000 Pf. 
Netto am Markt. 

Bubol geacbSftslos; loco undpr. Mai 3!d^Mh.,pr. Oct. 071 Mk. 

lieindl still; loco TS^Mk. Br., pr. Mal/Juni 22$ Jfft. Br. 

SpixitUB gescbSftslos. Kartoffel-Roh- pr. 8O/4 80 7. 

Oaffee.— £8 fand beute bei mhiger Btimmimg nor ein geringfligiges 
GescbfUt in dem Artikel statt. 

Butter unveiiindert, feine Hof- bedingt willig 64 Thlr.f geringe Qoafitilten 
scbwer yerkauflicb, Secunda 69 k 61 Thlr. 

No. 23.— III. ©d^iffal^rt^.' unb @ec^S8crld^te. > 

(Shipping Intelligence). 

BlanlcaneBe, 17. Mai. — Laut telegraphischer Nacbricht ist der Blanke- 
neser Dreimast-Schooner Konig Wilhelm I., D. Breckwoldt, auf der Reise 
Ton Pemambuco beute Morgen 8 Uhr wohlbehalten in Falmouth angekom- 
men und sofort veiter nach Hamburg gesegelt. Am Bord AUes wohL 

Bremen, 17. Mai.— Lant Telegramm iat daa hiesige Schiff Bepablik, 
Fortmanfi, von Bremen in Newyork angekommen. 

Norden, 18. Mai, 9 Ubr Morgens. (pr. Tel.)— Das Schiff Georg, Pauls, 
Ton KragerS mit Holz, ist auf Langeoog gestrandet; Mannschaft gerettet. 
Ob die Ladung zn bergen sein wlrd, ist noch ungewiss. 

OnzhaTen, 12. Mai, Nachm. — Der seewSrts bestimmte dan. Schooner 
Joh. Catharine ist mit einer bier auf der Khede ankeruden engl. Bark 
in Collision gerathen. 

Hamburg, IS. Mai. Hamb.-AmerUcan Faoketfahrt.— Das zu dieser 
Linie gehSrende Hamburg-Newyorker Post-DampfschifF Holsatia, Capt. 
Meier, welches am 2. d. Mts. von. Newyork abgegangen, ist laut telegr. 
Mittheilung hente friih 6} Uhr in Plymouth angekommen und hat um 62 
Ubr die Reise nach Hamburg fortgesetzt. Dasselbe Uberbriugt 283 Pas- 
sagiere, 1260 Tons Ladung, sowie 126,090$ an Contanten fUr England, 
19,700 S ^r Hamburg und 66 Briefaacke. 

Iiiibeek, 12. Mai. — Laut Depesche ans Reyal ist das Dampfschlff Sirias, 
Neumann, gestem daselbst wohlbehalten angekommen. 

Kopenbiagen, 12, Mai.— Der Dampfer Statira, Steel, von Riga nach Lon- 
don, versah sich heute Vormittag mit Kohlen und ging weiter. 
Passirtden Dampfer: Calliope, Cawcutt, von Hull nach Cronstadt. 

Oronstadt, 6. Mai. — Der ganze Raum auf der S&daeite von hier bis zur 
Oranienbaumer KUste ist frei vom Eise. Die Dampfschiffsyerbindung 
zwischen hier und Oranlenbaum geht jetzt ungehindert von statten. 

HelBing&r, 12. Mai. — Aus dem Hafen gegangen: Brigg Helena, Liedquist, 
von Mobile nach St. Petersburg. 

Von nordwarts passirt, gestem Nachmittag 2} Uhr : Emilie (D.), Witten- 

Helsingor, 17. Mai.— Das Dampfschiff Fary Bell, Hodgson, welches, wie 
gemeldet, Scbaden an der Maschine hatte (m. s. u. gestr. Bl.) ging gestem 
Maohmitt. im Schlepptau eines Dampfers nach Kopenhagea 



; I 

. ft ill 
1 |1 Hi 

s fill! " ■» ^ 

1 |i^| s - 3 

1 p- 

1 « 8 ? !; 8 

» b -i ' • • 

J J S !! S 

! 5 S 5 
1 1 s s s 

■i s D ti 
1 2 • - 

162 WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. [app. iv. 


1. — 9lcuc 5Dlaafie unb @ett)id^tc be^ bcutfd^en 

New Measures and Weights of the Imperial German Empire. 

The decimal or metric system is of French origin. It was introduced into 
France as early as 1799, and offers many advantages over the oltf pendulum 
system. By measuring along the imaginary circle of the earth's surface 
from Donkerque to Barcelona, the distance of a quadrant of a meridian 
between the pole and the equator was ascertained. The- ten-millionth part 
of this quarter of a meridian, or the Tv^\ftnrvth part of the whole meridian, 
equal to about 8 feet 3| inches English measure, and called un mitre, was 
adopted as the unit of the metric system. 

In Italy, Spain, Holland, and Belgium this system was introduced many 
years ago, and for scientific calculations requiring great accuracy it has been 
in use almost since its inyention. 

By a law passed by the Zollveretrif or the Customhouse-Union of the 
former North German Confederation, the metric system became permissive 
in ^ermany from the 1st of January 1870, and from the 1st of January 1872 
it will become compulsory for the whole German Empire. 



The 100th part of a Meter is called a Centimeter or NeuzoU, 

The 1000th part of a Meter is called a MHUmeter or Strich, 

10 Meter make a Dekameter or Kette, 1000 Meter make a Kilometer. 

A mile or MeiU is equal to 7500 Meter^ and is adopted as the 
measure of distance. 

The former yard or EUe is replaced by the Meter. 

EUenwaaren become Meter- or Stah^waaren. 

What was formerly measured by the EHe^ Fuaz^ Zdl^ Lvnie^ will 
in future be measured by the Meter ^ Decimeter^ Centimeter^ and MWi- 

To measure the length of railroads, canals, and roads, the Deka- 
meter or Kette, and the Kilometer or NeumeUe, will in future be 

The following lineal measures will be stamped or branded by the 
German Imperial Goyemment: — 20 Meter; 10 Meter; 5 Meter; 2 
Meter; ^ Meter or 5 Decimeter , equal to 50 Centimeter; -^ Meter 
or 2 Deoimeter =: 20 Centimeter; -^ Meter or 1 Decimeter =z 10 


A. SangetttnaafC. Long Measure. 

(The unit of lineal meuure it the Meter or Stab. ) 

10 Strich (Millimetre) = 1 Neuzoll. 

100 Neuzoll (Centimetre) = 1 Stab. 

10 Stab (Metre) = 1 Kette. 

750 Ketten (Decimetre) = 1 Neumeile. 

B. Slad^enmaaf e. Superficial or Square Measure. 

(The unit of square measiue ia the Quadrettmeter or Quadratttab.) 

100 Quadrat- Strich =: 1 Quadrat- NeuzoU. 

1000 Quadrat-NeuzoU = 1 Quadratatah. 

100 QuadrcUstab or Quadratkette = 1 Ax. 

100 Ax =1 Hehtar. 

C. if OrJJermaa^e. Cubic or Solia Measure. 

(The unit of aolid measure it the Kubikttab or Kubikmeter.) 

1000 Kubik-Strich = 1 Kiibih-NeuzoU. 
1,000,000 Kvbih-NeuzoU = 1 Kvhihstab (cubic metre). 
1000 Kvbikstab = 1 Kiibik-Kette. 

^^OljItlClCl^. Measure of Wood. 

(Wood is measured by the KuUkttitb.) 

4 Kvhikstdb (or 1 Stab Kloberddnge^ 2 Stab hochi 2 Stab Umg) 

=1 1 Neuhlafter. 

16 Kvibikstab (or 1 /^^a& Klobenldnge, 2 ^ifod Aoc^, 8 i^^oi Zam/) 

= 1 Neuhaufen, 

D. Sluffigf^it^ttiaaf. Pluld Measure. 

(The unit of fluid measure is the i^oo^Ii part of a KiMknuter, and is caiied a Liter or Kanne.) 

2 Schoppen = 1 iTan^n^. 

100 Kannen = 1 i^cwaj. 

E. @CttcibcinCl(lfl . Cereal or Dry Measure. 
^ 50 Kannen = 1 Neu-Scheffel. 

(The metric system does not recognise any difiexence Iwtween Dry and Fluid Measure.) 

F. ®en)id^te. Weights. 

(The unit of weight is the Kilofframm, equal to 3 Pfund. It is the weight of a LUer of 
distilled water at 4 degrees Centigrade.) 

10 Tatuendstelgramm = 1 Hundertstelgramm. 

10 Hundertstelgramm = 1 Zehntelgramm. 

10 Zehntdgramm = 1 Qrarrim. 

10 Chramm = 1 Nevloth. 

50 Neuhth = 1 P/mtw?. 

100'P^u«^(50 Kilogramm) = 1 Centner. 

20 Centner = 1 jPonne. 

2 ra»ne» = 1 Preuszlache Schiffhhst. 



[APP. IV. 

2.— aSerglcid^cnbe ©tfinj^S^abeUc. 

Comparative Money- TtJjIe of Miglish, Frencik, Qerman^ American, 

Russian, and Dutch Moneys. 

Dit MUnatn tind in rtmdar Sumimu b«- 
terkmet und naek dem nUttUtn Curie. 

The Coins are Tilued in a round Buin 
and according to the average value. 

Gold Coins or Oold Miintfexi 

Wahrang or Standard Value. 


English Sovereign 
^nglische Sovereign) . 

20-Franc piece or Napoleon 
(20 Francs-Stucke) . . 

Prussian Fredericksd'or 
{Preusz. Friedrichsd'or) 

German Louisdor . . . 

Crowns, German interna 
tional {Kronen) . . 

Ducats, Dutch [HolldndiscJie 
Ducaten) .... 

Russian Half-Imperial 

1 American Dollar (or 100 
Centimes or Cents.) . 

Silver Coins or Bilber 

1 English Shilling . . 

1 French Franc piece 
(1 Francs- Stikic) . . 

1 English Crown {Englische 
Krone oder 5 sh.) . . 

1 French Five-Franc piece 

1 Prussian Dollar \Ein 
Preuszischer Thaler) . 

1 Russian Silver Ruble . 









5 • 























Fl. Kr. 
















Fl. Kr, 























Dolt. Ccnti. 














Th. or Thlr. for Thaler = 3/ ahllls. Fl. for Florin or Gulden. Kr. for Kreuzer. 
30 Sgr. or Ngr. = 1 Th. or Rthlr. 1 Austrian FJ., or 100 Kr. = Is. lid. 
Dels, for Dollars = 4s. 2d. 1 South Gar. Fl, or 60 Kr. = Is. 7|d. 

Bgr. for Silberffro8chen,'SgT. for Neugroachen =z little more than Id. 
Ktblr, for ffeich thaler, or Imperial Dollar, means the same a-s Thlr. 

AVP, IV.] 



3. — New Coinage-System of the German Empire. 

Its object is the introdaction of the Decimal Systeni, and of an 
International Gold Currency. 

The new gold pieces coined or to he coined are : — 
10 Mark = ^ English Sovereign. 
20 Mark = 1 English Sovereign. 
30 Mark = 1| English Sovereign. 

The standard and nnit of the whole coinage-system is 1 Mark 
SUber = 1 English Shilling ; and the new gold pieces are worth 10 
Mark SUber, 20 Mark SUber, and 30 Mark Silber respectively. Bnt, 
strange to say, Ihese Silver Marks, thongh originally intended to be 
coined, have at present no existence, and are a purely imaginary 

Imaginary silver pieces Icomnared with-f "^^ present silver-pieces 
not coined. j \ ^^ currency. 

3 Mark r= 1 Thal&r, 

1 Mark = IQf) I^ennig [\0 SVhergroackerii. 

} Mark = 50 Ffenmg (5 Silber groachen). 


aee accusative. 

adj. adjective. 

«Mfo adverb. 

otbA adverbial. 

comp compound. 

eompar comparative. 

eonj. conjunction. 

2>.or dau dative. 

dim diminutive. 

«a^pr. expression. 

/. or /em feminine. 

G.orgen genitive. 

gov*. governed. 

imp/. unperfect tense. 

ind... inmcative. 

tnded indeclinable. 

inf. infinitive. 

inaqt inseparable. 

int. or in^ interjection. 

m literally. 

m. or moM maculine. 

n. or neui neuter. 

fmm numeral. 

orig original. 

P'-r page. 

jpp past participle. 

jter/...... perfect tense 

pere person. 

pi. or plur plural. 

pr^. prefix. 

prep preposition. 

prea present tense. 

phr. or J*kr phrase. 

pron pronoun. 

refi reflective. 

eent sentence. 

sep separable. 

aing singular. 

at strong inflexion. 

«t to (in the case 

of nouns) strong sing., weak pi. 

aubord subordinate. 

auperl superlative. 

awj subjunctive. 

«y» synonymous. 

to weak inflexion. 

to at weak sing., strong pi. 

^jSf Anglo-Saxon. 

Engl English. 

Fr French. 

Gael Gaelic. 

G^r. or O^rm.... German. 

Gr Greek. 

Icel Icelandic. 

Lat Latin. 

Ohg Old high German. 

Mhg Middle high Geiman. 

Nhg New high German. 

Scand Scandinavian. 

Sana Sanscrit. 



The author of the "Reader" first introdnced the notation v (for weak), 
*t (for strong), v it (weak sing., strong plur.), ■* ^(strong slpg., weakplur.), 
into his " Elementary German Grammar," and sees no reason for discontinu- 
ing the same in the present work. 

The terms weak and strong, which have replaced the former appellations 
regular and irregular, suggested themselves to the master-mind of the grett 
grammarian Jacoh Grimm. They are characterized as ill-chosen and vague 
by some more recent philologists, who, however, neither offer nor suggest 
anything better in their place, and even condescend to retain the very 
terms they condemn. If vague, it is their vagueness which renders them 
so comprehensive. 

For the practical purpose of becoming acquainted with the inflexional 
changes of the German language they are invaluable, for they enable us 
to divide the inflexional changes of nouns, adjectives, and verbs into two 
great, comprehensive, and distinct classes, the weak (or modem) and the 
strong (or ancient) mode of inflexion. 

The terms themselves almost suggest their own meaning. Weak means 
faint, alightf not powerful ; strong signifies /uU of force, powerful 

Strong nonns are such as have distinctive case-endings, marking 
almost every case. Thus, esor s for the genitive sing., en orn for 
the dat. plur., and e for the other cases, if required. And mdst 
strong nouns still observe their ancient mode of inflecting or modi- 
fying the radical vowels a, o, u, au in the plural. 

weak nonns are such as are wanting m distinctive case-endings, 
their only and uniform case-ending being en or n, which is added to 
feminines throughout the plur., and to masculines for all cases, sing, 
and plur. No weak noun is capable of inflecting or modifying the 
vowel in the plar. 

Acfjeetiyes, when declined weak, take the case-ending en or n; 
when declined strong, they take the ^tinctive case-endings of dieser, 

Strong verbs, which are limited in number^ comprise all the ancient 
roots of the German language. Hence they are called root-verbs. 
Their principal means of inflexion is a regular change of the root- 
vowel in the impf. and participle past. To call Uiem irregular 
verbs is a misnomer. Their personal endings are the same as 
those of weak verbs, and their only distinctive and characteristic mark 
is the vowel-change in the impf. and past participle. 

Weak verbs, which are unlimited in number, comprise all ^erbs of 
more modern origin, all those derived from root-verbs, from nouns, 
adiectives, and other parts of speech. There are also some root-verbs 
which have abandoned their ancient vowel-change and become weak. 
All Weak verbs are wanting the regular clumge of the radical 
vowel in the impf. and pp., which is the distinctive feature of the 
strong verb. The only mark whibh indicates the impf. and part 
past of weak verbs is a £ or et (Engl, d), which is addea to the radi- 
cal syllable. In the impf. the t or et ia followed by the personal 
endings as usual. A list of strong verbs is given in the 6th Edition 
of Fischart's ** Elementary German Grammar." 



aor% n.y the vowel a. 

k or @, at, to] thus^ k Is. (See Letter No. 15, p. 152) meanSf 

at Is. each ton. 
a/, dbhrema^on of anf {in letters and accounts) j meaning: for, 

upon, drawn upon, etc. 
Slad^en, n. (-«;-), ike German name for Aix-la-Chapelle, an 

important toum in Rhenish Prussia, founded by 

af>, adVs andsep. prefix, off, away ; (p. 144, No. 3) deducting. 

auf unb ai, up and down. 
.5lbenb,»* m, (-«; -c), evening. 

am SlBenb/or an bcm 5lBenb, in the evening. 

atte 5lBcnb, pi., every evening. 

l^cute 5lBenb, this evening, Ut. to-day's evening. 

bc« SlBenb^ or abenb^, advi gen., in the evening, of 
an evening. 

elites 5lBcnb0, ad't^ gen., one evening. 
SlBenbIuft,'«^Bt/. (-; -tuftc), evening-air. 
abet, co-ord. conj., but, however (w one of ^ co-ordinate 

conjunctions which do not affect the order of words), 
51 Bet, ba6, n. (-^;-), the but, signifying an objection (awj/ 

^ar^ of speech mny he used as a neuter noun). 

Proo^ saying : 9Ber bo« 2Benn unb ba^ 5lbcr crbad^t, 


f)at ft^ft ava ^edfei^ing ®oIb fd^on gemad^t, lit. The 

man who invented the if and but Aa« surely turned 

ckopped'Btraw {such as is mixed wUh horses' fodder) 

into gold, 
aBcr bo(i^, but still. 

abermal^, adv., over again, once more, 
abgcf^jannt, i>p. q/" abfpanmn,^ w/?., ftjannte, aB, aBgeft>annt; 

to unyoke, unharness, 
ab la u fen,"* sep,, lief ab, abgelaufen, fi^. to run off, to end, 

come to pass, turn out. 
$[bleben,Bt n. (a ver^Znoun), decease, demise, 
abgegangen, pp, from abgcl^en,"* sep., to sail {of ships), to 

start, set off. 
^bliefetn,^* n,, the unloading and delivering of goods. 
5lbne]^mer,B* m, (-0;-), customer, purchaser. [abne^>wen,«* 

sep,, to take off one^s hands, buy.] 
9lbfd^ieb,»* m, (-e0;-e), leave, departure; beitn Slbf^iebe, 

when taking leave. [abf(!^eiben, fd^ieb cA, abgefd^ie* 

ben, to separate, depart.] 
5lbf(i^luf,"* m. (-e0 ; -fd^lujfe) settlement {of account), [ab? 

fc^ltepen,"* to conclude, settle.] 
abf(^rieben,im2)/'./rom abfd^reiben,"* sep,, fd^rieb ab, abgefc^e^ 

ben, to copy, transcribe, 
abflcigen,** sep. (ie, te), to dismount, alight, get off, down. 
Slbtroctnen,"* w., the wiping off or away, lit. drying up. 

\a verbal noun from abtrocfnen.] 
abjugeben, inf. with ju,/rom abgeben,"* sep,, gab oA, abgegeben, 

to give up, deliver (No. 56). 
ab^uglic^, adv., with deduction, discount, allowing, [ber 

Slbjug,*"* m., the discount.] 
abj uliefern, inf. miih i u, from abliefeni,^ sep. , to deliver, 

give up. 
ad^ ! int., expressing emotion, grief, 6^., ah ! alas ! oh ! 
5ld^ (n.) unb 9Be]^ fd^reien, phrase, lit, to cry Oh and woe! to 

break out in lamentations. 


a^d)tvLn^€^oU, adv., respectfully. [»of(, full; Sld^tung, /., 

> esteem, respect.] 
^l^tung,"^ tnit af(er (signature in Letters), with all esteem. 
$ld^t l^en au^, phrase, to pay attention to, take heed of, 

care of. [bie Sld^t,"'^/., care, attention ;-outlawry, 

ad^t (or better, td)t), adj., genuine, real, [related with el^elid^, 

legitimate, lawful; akin to Lat. aptus and Icel. 

ac^t, num. adj., eight; ad^t unb otergig, 48. 
ad^tgig, num. adj., eighty (composed of ^6:iif 8, andf bod 3ig, 

the number of 10, tens). 
^tixZf^f. (-; -tt), share ijna company or loan) ; pron, Ak'- 

ii Conto {commercial), on credit, on account. 
$l(f eT,Bt m. (-d ; ^(fer), a cultivated ground or field ; akin to 

the Lat. ager, E}ngl. acre ;-bet ®otte^a(f er, the god*s- 

acre, burial-ground ; auf be« 5l(fer'« SKitte, No. 68, 

lit. in the midst of the ground, i.e., in the soil of the 

tilled ground. 
51 bier,"* m. (-6;-), eagle, [a contraction of 5lbetar, /row 

$lbel and ^cct, i.e., ebter Slar, or noble bird, ^ar t9 

probably akin to the Sanscrit root ar or har, which 

means to get, take, seize ; Slat therefore signifies a 

bird of prey.] 
abetjiotg, adj., proud of noble descent. [9lbe(, m., noble 

rank, nobility, is of the same root as Adeling, Sthel.] 
abUged, neuter of ablig, adj., noble (/row* bcr 5lbel). 
Sl^tif a, n. (^^n. in i, or vnth bed, without the i), Africa (stress 

on 5l'::fTifa). 
dl^nlid^er, comp.from ftl^nlid^, adj. (gov, dot.) similar, like. 
?l^renfd^nitt,"* m. (-a ; -e), lit. the cut of ears of the coim, 

the ears. [^^xt,f., ear of com. @d^nitt, m., cut, 

from f(^neiben,8* to cut.] ^ 

$l'CariA, jw. n., Alaric (accent on ^^ilaxidf). 



aUein, adv.j alone, solely, by oneself (when tued as a con- 

junction it has the meaning " bnt, only, however "). 
aiUx,m.\ f {dedined Uke iitfn), pronominal adj., 

aUe,/. >pL alirl indefinite pronoun and numeral^ all, 
aUe^, f». ) t entire, whole, every, each, any. Before 

the article, or mtva, bein, etc., a(( is also used. Thus, 

we have in No. 52, all' fein ©trcl^, all his straw, or 

all the straw. 9K(cd or oKcd {neut. sing.) is used 

abstractly for everything, all; and atte {plur.)for 

everybody, all people, etc. 
aHeit, von (No. 29),, gov. byprtp. oon, see aKer. 
aUemal, adi^ expr.for afle SRaU, all times. 
aUet Dtten, gen. phar.fram nom,pl. aUt Dttt, on all sides, 

in every direction. 
alUxUi, indecl. adj., all sorts or kinds of, Ut. in every manner 

and way, for aller 9lrt unb SBeife (-(ei signifies 

originally " way, street, jonrney "). 
alUm, xihtt, No. Ill, p. 123, after aU that has happened, 
alle ^A^tn, vAtt, lit. beyond all measure, greatly, to a great 

degree, [bod ^afl, n., the measure.] 
aHegeit, adv., at all times, every time, always, 
allerbingd, adv^ gen.y for aller ^inge, Ut. considering all 

things, by all means, undoubtedly, (No. 56) to be 

aUgemein, adv., general, [gemein, common.] 
aliinQUid^, adv., Ut. all alike, all. [syn. with aUtfccmmt, 

iitfgefammt, fdwintttc]^, a forcible expr.for aUe or af(.] 
al9, conj. 1.) Subord. conj., expressing coincidence of time^ 
and placing the verb at the end of the sentence^ 
when, at the time when, as : 

2.) aU, aU oB, aU toit, subord, conj. of manner, pro- 
portion, comparison, etc., as if. oia ^btengrijlet. 
No. 74, p. 78, the complete construction of the 
sent, would be, aU oh, or aU totnn fie Xobtengeiflcr 
tcaxtn, as {if they u)ere) ghosts of the dead ; al8 


^id^tet, No. 64, aa poets, in the character of 

8.) al8,qfteracomparative, than; mel^r al^, more than. 

4.) nid^td aUf nothing bat. 

6.) fo lange al^, as long as. 

e.) fo ^Ul al8 m6^ii^, as much as possible. 

7.) aid bid (No. 56), than that, than till, till, until. 

a) fo loentg aid (No. 34), as little as. 
alilalh, adv,f at once, forthwith, no sooner {thia done), 

very soon, immediately. [ba% soon.] 
alfo, adv. in that way, in this manner, thus (No. 74), con- 
sequently, therefore (No. 45). 
alfofortr adv., forthwith, immediately, 
alfo koann, adv^ conj., therefore, when. . 
alt, adj., old, aged, ancient (dltec, &ltefi). 
aU\for alte. 
Sllta'n,"* m. (-e« or e; -c), balcony, a gallery outside a 

building (from the Italian altana, elevation ; akin 

to the Lai. altus, " high.'* Slltan ie syn. ivith S3alco''n, 

balcony, and ©oiler. Lot. solarium). 
9lte, bet, m., the old one, for ber alte Wlann, etc. (the adj. 

used substantively, hut reimning the adj. inflexion). 
alte, ber, m., No. 8 (the adj. after toords like ber, biefer, etc., 

takes for the nam. sing. m.,f., n., and for the acc.f. 

and n., the ending e ; for aU other cases sing, and 

plur. tn),fi'om alt, old. 
9lten, bie, for bie alten fteute, SBcfgel, etc., the old people, 

birds, etc. [The adj. is used here as a noun, re- 
taining its adj. declension.] 
Sllter, ba«,«* n. (-« ; -), old age. 
filter, comp., older, 
alter, etn,m. (adj. vcith strong ending er after such words as 

ein, mein, etc<),from alt, old. 
alterer, ein, m., No. 8, the comp. alinof ^e adj. alt, old, 

with the strong case-ending er added after ein. 

A ' VOCABULARY. . 172 

d(teflen, bte, nom,, plur, of the mperl alt, declined, when 
jpreceded by bet, according to the weak deal, 

dttefler, unfer, euperl m,, our oldest. 

Witonatx, adj.jformedlikehoxidoner,from London, Jetliner, 
from ©erlin, etc., from the proper name $lUcna, a 
German town and seaport at the Elbe, dose to 
Hftmbarg. Inh* 44,000. 

am for an bent, see an. 

amXa^z, l^eut {poetic and emphatic), this very day* 
am ^lad^mittage ornad^mitta^, adv^ expr,, in the 

am Uebflctt, adv^ superL for an bem liebflen, from 

lieB, dear (No. 80), likes best, 
am 9)torgen, adi^ eacpr., in the morning, 
am S3oben,on the ground, on the floor^ 
am Sorb, on board (of a ship). 

91 met. or 9lmerifan./or Slmetifanifd^, ac{/. American. 

$lme^rt!a, n.,prop. n. America {notice accent on eO* 

9imptl,^f (-; -It), solemn lamp. [9lmpe(, Lat. ampulla, is 
synonymous with i^amipt, lamp. Both are vessels 
containing oU which ts burnt by means of a wick. 
The term 9lttt^e( is especially applied to the sacred 
lamp kept contintudly burning before the High Altar 
in Roman- Catholic Churches. S)ie Sampe is the more 
common word used in everyday life.^ 

9(mj!erbam, capital of Holland. Inhab* 243,700. 

att, prq>. with dat. and ace. {mostly used of position, locaUby, 
vfith dat. ; of direction and motion to, toith ace), at, 
On, at the side of, by, close by, by the side of. 
Many verbs and some adjectives are followed by this 
prep., thus, gtauben an, to believe in ; benfen an, to 
think of; ric^ten an, to address to; getid^tet on 
(p. 14), addressed to; reid^ an, rich in; vertoren 
fein an, to be lost or thrown away upon. 

an ben Sebern, dat. pi. gov^ by an, by the feathers. 


atiBtid^t, Bd pers. sing, pres, Jrom attl&red^en,"* »«p., htckSf an 
an^thtedftrif to begin to break; to dawn, appear 
{said of the break of day). 

Slnblicf,"* m. (-c«; -e), sight, view. [anUidtn,^ aep., to 
glance or look at.] 

an'0, for an bod, to the, etc. 

anbad^ig, adj, and adv., devout, devoutly. [Slnbaci^t, /., 
devotion, devotional thought, from anbenfen or 
benfen an, to meditate on anything.] (©tunben bet 
^Inbad^t, or Hours of Devotion, a famous popular 
work of religious thoughts, by ^eint. Sfd^offe.) 

anber, pronominal adj.^ indef pronoun, 

1.) etn anberer, eine anbere, tin anbetea, another, a 

s.) bet, bte, bod anbete, the other, the second. 
8.) anberer, wi., anbcrc, /., anbered, n., other; pi, 
anbere, other people, others. 

anbre/or an\)ttt,from anbcr. 

anbrer /or anbcrcr, masc, nom, after cin, fein, etc., see anbcr. 

Slnbcre, mand^t^, indef pr., many other things. 

anbermal, adv,for ein anbered 9)l{a(, n., another time. 

anbetn (No. 53) einen Xag in ben anbern, phr,, from 
one day to the other. 

anberd in gan} load anberd^^Ar., quite a different affair. 

Slnto''nie, /. pr, n., Antonia (ic pronounced separately like 

aniutnvipUn, inf. with ^nfrom onfnu^jfen,"'^ ««p., to tie on or 
to,' to join to (by means of a knot or othenvise), 
fnupfcn, to tie, connect, is akin to Jtno^f, m., 
button, the Engl, knop, knob ; fncpfen, to button, 
and Stnanl, m, and n., ball {of wool, etc,). Of 
the same root are Jhtcten, m., knot ; the Engl, to 
knit, which is, in Low Germ., !nitten, in High 
Germ, fhri(fen. Compare also the Engl, to knead. 
Germ, fneten, and several others, A U these have 


pyr iheir ham Hie root knu, which gives to the 
word the idea q^ tying, joining together, closely 
nniting, in shorty the idea of compactness. 

91'nfang,"* m. (-tf; -fange), beginning, commencement. 

Slnfangd or anfangtf, adv^ gen,, at first, [bet 9(hfang, the be- 

anfdngUd^, adv., at first, at the beginning, [^nfang, m., 

anfangen,*** eep., ftng an, angefangen, to begin, set about, to 

Slnfertiguttg,^/. (-; -en), manufacture, making, production, 
[anfertigcn,"^ «^., to make ; fertig, ready.] 

SlngaBe,"^ /. (-; -n), account, statement, return. [angeBen,** 
«ep., to give up a report or account.] 

an geBc gen/ 2^., bye-going, subjoined, enclosed [from an? 

biegen,"^ «ep. (0,0), to bend towards]. 

angeBoten, pp.y from anHcten,^* sep,, Bot an, angeBoten, to 

a^'n geBunb en, !>/>., ^om anBinben,<^ sep., lit, to tie to; to pick 
a quarrel; er ifl fur} angeBunben, phr,, he is 
short-tempered, snappish, easily provoked, irri- 
table, etc. 

$[ngel, /., seldom masc, fish-hook {also used for the whole 
fishing-rod) ; hinge of a door or gate [prohably from 
the Lot, angulus, angle], 

angetn,"*^ angelte, geangett, to fish tmth a rod, [bie Slnget, the 

9lnge(n (No. 78), dot, pi. from Slngel. 

angefcttimen, pp. of anfcmmen,** sep,. Urn an, angefommcn, 
to come upon, befall, arrive. Phr,, fd)Ud}t or uBel 
anfomnten, to fare badly, to be unlucky. 

angenontmen, /^.,yrom anne^men,"^ sep, (a,o.), to accept. 

angeri(]^tet,i?p.,yro»ianri(^ten,'^ sep,, to prepare, get ready 
(No 61). 

angeneT;m, adj, and adv., agreeable, pleasant [angenef^m = 


angenommcn, from armel^men, «ep., to accept ; angc^ 

Slttgfc"^ ■*/ (-; -Sngjie), anxiety, fear, /ii^. mental pressure. 

3n ber ^ng^, in great anxiety, [akin to enge, 

narrow; Lot, angustus, angere.] 
9lngflfd^tt)ei6,8* w. (-e«j -e), c<wip. o/" Slngfl,''^ »* /., fear, 

anxiety, and @d^n)nf,8t ^i., sweat, perspiration; 

perspiration caused by great mental excitement. 
angflUd^, adj. and adv., anxious (ly), in anxiety; greatly 

anQttla^t, PP'jfrom antla^tn,^ sep., to accuse, charge with, 

lit. to complain against [an and flagen, to complain.] 
angefel^en, mit (No. 50), see anfel^en. 
angefangcn, pp. from anfangen,^* sep., j!ng an, angcfangcn, to 

commence, begin. 
ariQt^tdt, pp. qf an^tdtn,^ Sep., fledte an, angcjledft, to infect 

with ; set on fire. 
Sl'nna,pr. n., Annie (gen. bcr Slnna or §lnna'g). 
anne^men^Bt sq>.y naf)m an, angenommen; to accept, 
anrid^tete, imjrf. of ann(i)ttn,'^ sep., rid^tcte an, angeri^tct, to 

do, occasion ; get ready [syn. toith an^iftm]. 
9lttf (^lag,«* m. (-« ; -fd^Iage), butt {of a gun), lit. the striking 

against anything. 3m ^nf(!^lag Uegen (military), to 

he ready with the butt-end of the gun raised to the 

shoulder, ready to strike or fire any moment ; 

ready to fire. 
Sl'nflrengung,'^^/. (-; -en), exertion, effort, 
antreten,"* sep., ttai an, ongettcten, to enter upon something, 

lit. to take steps to begin anything, [treten,"^ to 

a'nf unft,^/. (-; -funfte), arrival, coming [anfomnien,^* s^., 

to arrive]. 
Slnleil^e,"^^/. (-; -n), loan [leil^cn,^* to lend], 
anferbcn, dot. sing., from anfernb, pres. p. from anfern,"'^ to 

lie at anchor. 


a'nfel^f n,"* ««p., fal^ an, angefcl^en, to look on or at, regard ; 
mit anfel^en, aep.^ to witness, behold, to be a looker- 
on at, a spectator of {princ, pts,, \af) mit an, mit 

a'nfel^nlid^en, einct(No. 21), gen, fern. sing. preceded by iin; 
anfel^nlii^, adj., Ut. thai which hears looking at; con- 
siderable, important, etc. [from anfel^en, to look at]. 

Sl'nfiaU,^/. (-; -en), institution, establishment. [anjIcKen, 
to set on foot, institute.] 

anfla^'tt^i^^ip. vnih gen.^ instead of. 

Slngeige,^/. (-; -n), advertisement, announcement. 

angiel^'n, /or angiel^en,"* w^., gog an, angegogcn, lit,, to draw 
or pull on; to put on; ftd^ angiel^en, to dress one- 
self; xHf ixz^t mi(^ an, etc. 

angujeigen, inf, vM. in, from angeigen. 

angeigen,^ sep.^ geigte an, angegeigt, to announce, advertise, 

angufletfen, tn/"., with gu or supine of anfledfen, jlerftc an, 
ongejlecft, to set fire to. „3)ie ©tl^eune angufleden" 
(No. 52), is an annexed clause joined to and 
governed by „toarb er Siatffi" {This construction 
of the inf with gu after certain nouns, adjs,, and 
verbs, abounds in German prose, and it must be 
noticed that this inf with gu is always placed last in 
the sentence, — Fischart's Elemty Ger. Gr., p. §9.) 

9lntli(^,** n. (-c^; -e), countenance, face [a poetical and 
rhetorical term like ^ngefld^t, n., countenance. Both 
are synonymous with ©efld^t, n., the more common 
word for face]. 

a''nttt)ottcn,'»^ insep., antttjortete, gcanttoortet, to answer, reply. 

a'nttoottete, impf,from anttoorten. 

^nti^^f)int9, pr. n., Antisthenes, the founder of the Cynic 
School in Athens. He wore a ragged cloak and 
carried a staff and wallet like a beggar. 

51 n toe id. for Slnlveifmig,^ /. (-; -en), bond; if issued by the 
Treasury, called ©affeusJlnHjeifungen, i^/. 


Sl'nttoott,'^/. (-; -en), answer. 

91))o''no, m. (a Roman divinity)^ the snn, the god of Mumc. 

9i^x\% m, (-e)f April (accent on last RyU,) 

9i'xQLi, m., a fine rum^ dUtiUed from (he juice of sugar-cane, 

Slraber, ^u,pL ofttt Sltabcr,** m, (-6 ;-), the Arab (Slrabkn, 
n., the Arab country, Arabia). 

Sl'rbeit,^/ (-; -en), work, hibour ; §ur SIrBeitybr gu bcr Arbeit, 
to work (No. 94). 

5l'rBeiter,»* m. (-0;-), workman. 

Sltbeit^Icl^n,"* m. (-e0 ; -Icl^ne), wages for work done, work- 
men's wages. 

o'rbeiten,"^ insep., atbcttete, gearbeitet, to work. 

arbeitenben, einem (No. 35), dat, sing, of thepres.p. atbei* 
tent, used here as an adj.y see arbeiten. 

9l'rbeitdleute,|>/. of 9rbeit6mann,"* m., workman, hbonrer. 
[Slrbeit,/., work ; iBeute,^Z., people.] 

argerlid^, adv, , feeling angry or vexed, annoyed, [bet irger, 
m., the anger ; jid^ Srgem, to feel veied, from the 
compar, &tger of at%, bad ; the original meaning is 
getgig, stingy.] 

arm,"* m. (-«J ; -e), the arm (pi. bie Slrme, the arms). 

SLrmen, ofhn 5(rm. 

Slrwcp^Mr. ©/"ber 9lrm. 

91 r men, bie, pi., the poor, /or bie Sltmen 8eute, poor people. 

airmen in in ben airmen, dat. pi, go««* by in, in his arms. 
[The def. art. is used instead of the possessive a£lj» 
mein, bein, fein, etc., when the possessor is already 
sufficiently indicated by the context.] 

arm, adj. and adv.y poor (firmer, firmejl) [fi'om the Sansh'U 
root BXj to gethy working ^ to move ; tJie same root as 
in the Lot. ar-are, the Greek a^.«iiv, to plough, i.e., 
to get on£s living by tilling the ground], ein ^Irmrr, 
a poor man ; bie Slrme, the poor woman, 
mir Slrmen /or mir armen SWanne, lit. me, poor man ! 

Slrnl^eim, surname ; pronounce Am'-hime. 

H2 • 


Sltt,"^/ (-;-ett), nature, kind, race; manner, way/ mode. 

auf totld^ ^ttf phr,f in what manner? how ? 

auf bie or btefe %tt, phr,^ in this manner, way. 
Slctitlerie'pferb,"*n. (-e«: -0> horse of the artillery, 
attig, adj, and adv,, nice, well-behaved, well-bred, agreeable 

{said of a person), [attig meons "oon guter 51rt, of 

good natare, kind, etc.] 
Sltti'f el,8* m. (-9 ;-)j article. 

Slrjt,"* m. (-e«; -Slerjte), physician, medical practitioner, 
af, IH and ddpers. sing, impf oftfjtn, a$, gegeffen, to eat. 
a fen, let and Sdpera, plur. impf. oft^tn. See af. 
(I jf e c tt t'a n g s 5^ t a e m i e, /., insurance-premium. 
Sltljem,"* f». (-^;-), breath («yn. with Dbem, m., which is 

more used in biblical and religious language), bet 

^t^tm^tf)t einem aud.^Ar., life is departing. 
Sltl^emgugen, <^. j?/. of Slti^emgug,"* »i. (-e«; -jwge), deep 

breath or sigh, a long, deep, audible breaihing^ as if 

Sltljettie'nfer,^* m. (-«;-), Athenian. 
Slue,"^ /. (-; -n), plain, field, a wet mead, lowland. [5luc 

means originally ^^ flowing water ^^^ and is probably 

related to the Latin aqua, water. It is syn. with 

mpt, anger, mattt, Xrift, SBiefe, Seibe, all being terms 

applied to pasture-grounds,] 
aud^, adv, and conj, [the Engl, eke, in addition to, ahin to 

the Lot. augere, to increase], also, too, likewise; 

even {as conj., it removes the nom. after the verb), 

toai-au^f toad i^ au(i^ (No. 17), separated by the 
nom. intervening, whatever. 

aud^ iebem )Don @ud^ (No. 96), every one of you 
in like manner ; or even every one of you. 

aud^ bie IRal^t, even the seam. 

fo fUin ti au(^ n)ar, however small it was, no 
matter how small. 
8lug.,/(?r Slugu'fl, m., month o/" August. 


auf,prq>, with dat. or ace, up, upon, on {it governs the dat. 

if it answers to the question where ? (he ace, upon 

the question whither? whereto?) 

auf« for auf ba0, forms the superl. absolute, and 
denotes the highest point which the quality expressed 
by the adj, has attained, without comparison; thus, 
aufiS Bejle, m the best possible manner. 

auf6 neu, advi expr,, anew, afresh. 

aufi9 ®d^Icf ; to the castle. 

aufiS or auf ^ieberfel^en, au revoir. 

aufiS ndd^fle Sal^r, for the next year. 

ouf uBennorgen, adv^ expr, for the day after to- 
morrow {in a prospective sense), 

auf bap, in order that. 

SeposrdbU prefix in auffel^en, to look up, auf unb 
aBgel^en, to go up and down, etc. 

{Sometimes it is in conversation used where e^vx, 
open, should be employed, as, ^ie Xlfvx fiel^t auf, 
better offen.) 
Slufbctoat^rung,"^/. (-; -en), <*« safe-keeping of goods or 

articles [aufbetval^ten,^ s^., to lay up in a store, 

keep, hoard up ; betoal^ren, to beware], 
aufbinben, einem tttoca, lit, to bind or fasten something upon 

a person; to stuff a person with some absurd 

thing or nonsense, [aufbinben,"* sep,, banb auf, 

aufgebunben, to bind up ; unbind.] 
Slufgang,** m, (-e^j -gange), rising {of the sun and stars), 

^er ©onnenaufgang, sunrise. [From aufger;en,"^ s^,, 

to rise, open, etc.] 
aufgingen, impf q/*aufgel^en,8* sep., ging auf, aufgcgangen, to 

go up, to be opened, to open, 
aufgelaben,^. o/auf(aben,»* sep., lub auf, aufgelaben, to put 

up (a had), to load with, charge with'. 
^VL^^tJpa^ifPp.from aufpaflen,^ »ep., to be on the look-out, 

keep watch. 


anf^txtQifPp.Jrom auftt^tn,"^ sep., to stir up, excite, rouse up. 
Sluftegung,'^/. (-; -en), excitement. 
auf^t^anltttfpp.from aufflel^en,"* *^., jlaitb auf, aufgeflanbeit, 

Ht. to stand up, to get ud, rise. 
<iuf^tfitllt,pp.Jrom auffterien,** sep,, to put up, set up, erect. 
auf^tfitdtfpp.jrom aufflerfen,'^ sep,, Ut. to stick up, to fix. 
aufgetifd^t,27p. from auftifcfecn,'*^ sep., lit, to dish up, t.e., to 

place the dishes on the table, which signifies generally^ 

to provide a sumptuous repast, regale, feast, etc. 
attfgetootfett,/?p./row aufteerfen,"* sep,, toaxf auf, aufgetoorfen, 

to throw or cast up (a rampart, wall of earth, dyke, 

auf merff am er, compar. of aufmerffatn, adj., attentive. 

[aufttierfen, to pay attention to.] 
aufmuntetnb, pres. p. of aufmuntem,'^ sep., to encourage. 
Slufnel^tnen,"^ n,, Ut. the taking up, loading of goods, 
anftaffenb, mx&j, pi*es. p. from )t(^ aufraffen,^ sep,, rafftc fic!^ 

auf; {!(^ aufgerafft, to pick oneself up, to rise quickly 

by making a great effort, to recover oneself, 
auffel^en,"* sep,, fal^ auf, aufgefel^en, to look up. 
auffd^ieben,** sep,, ftl^oB auf, aufgefd^cBen, Ut, to shove up, to 

postpone, delay. 
a u f f al^, impffrom anfftf)tn,*^sep., fal^ auf, aufgefel^en, to look up. 
Sluftrag,** m. (-ed; -trage), commission, order; errand; im 

Sluftrage, by order of. 
51 u f to a d^ e n,8t n. (-«;-), awaken ing, waking up. [ The inf 

is here used as a noun.] 
auf J ubr in gen, inf, with gu, from aufbnngcn,^* sep,, hxad^tt 

auf, aufgcbrad^t, if followed by prep, gcgcn (lit. to 

bring up against), to stir up, excite, rouse against, 
aufgufal^ten, inf with gu, Jrom auffa^ren,"* sep,, fu^r auf, 

aufgefal^ren, to bring up, drag up (No. 72) ; to start 

up in anger (No. 42). 
aufguforbern, inf. with gu, of aufforbem or auffobern,"^ wp., 

fcrbevte auf, aufgeforbert, to summon up, to invite 


{to a dance), to call upon some one to do something , 
to challenge. 

oufgufel^en, inf. with iu,from auffel^en; see auffal^. 

oufjunel^inen, inf. tmth ^vi,from aufhel^men;"* *ep., nal^m auf, 
auf%tnommm, to take np, pick up. 

auf jutoarten, inf. with ju,/rowi aufwarten wit,^ »ep., lit. to 
wait upon with, to call upon some one with an account, 
to send or submit a hUl for payment. 
einew feine Sluftcartong madden, phr., to pay one's 
respects to a person hy calling upon the same. 

Slttge,^ ^ w. (-0 ; -n), eye [Lat. oculus ; Fr. oeil; the Goth. 
^ug6 } Ohg. ougS,, originally signifying sxi aperture or 
opening disclosing anything, thus the eyes are termed 
the windows of the soul, of the mind , etc. Compare 
also the words, ogre, ogress, ogle, killogie, logic]. 

Sltt^genlitid,** m. (-5; -c), Ut. the txoinkUng of an eye; mo- 
ment, instant [from 5luge awrfSlicf^m., look, glance]. 

augenblicfU^, a^. and adv., instantaneous, instantly. 

augenblicf d, adiH^ gen., this very moment, instantly. 

iuglein or Slcuglcin,** n. (-^;-), little eye {diminutive 
form in lein,/rom 5luge ; the avi being rru)dified\. 

$lugenf^etnli^ed, neut. of the adj. of st. decL, used as a 
subst. case-ending ed; ttmaS ^U9enfd^einli(i^e^; some- 
thing apparent, self-evident, lit. something shining 
into ofn^s eyes ; phr. e« ftjringt vx bie Sliigen. [f d^einen,^* 
to shine ; X\^, like.] 

Slugu'ji, m. August. 

Slu'0entt)im^)ern, pi. of Slugentuim^er,^ /. (-; -n), eyelash, 
[bie SSittHJcr, the eyelash; possibly related to the 
Scotch wympil, a fold, to wympil, to wrap, fold.] 

aui,pr^. with dat., out of, from {denotes egress from). 
ava bem ©tunbe, from the deep, the ground, 
ani bem $afen, from the harbour {?iaven). 
aia 2)eutfti^(anb, from Germany. 
ava (Sxbatmtn, from pity, out of^mercy. 


aitf SDoUe, made of wool. 

ava, adv,, out, at an end, gone ; oUed i|l ava, all is over. 

ava, sep. partide, out, <u in ava unb eingel^en, to go 
in and out. au^faUen, to fall or turn out, often 
compounded wWi ^er, as l^erautf «n l^erau^fommen, 
to come out of. 

faugen ava, to Buck from ; ^agen avA, to carry out of 
or from, 
autflbefi'etn,'^ «^., Befferte wa au^geBeffert, to repair, t.e., tojnit 

in better condiiion, to mend, [aud ane? Beffer, bet- 
ter ; fid^ Bejfrm, to better oneself.] 
Slutf^ilbung,^ /. (-;.-en), lit, shaping out; the finishing 

education, culture (of mind), development. 
au0^c(atiren,^ «^., clarirte ava, audclarirt, to clear. (V^bs 

in itnt or teren, like ^ubiren, regiren, etc., reject ge in 

the poet part.) 
5ltt6'ctat:irttng,^/, clearing (of vessels), 
Sltt^btudf,** m. (-rt; -brucfe), expression. 
Slu^bauer w/.(-j no. pi.), perseverance, [ava and JDauer,/,, 

au^'^erfel^en^Bt insep, (syn, toith toaffUn, axooXjUtn, au^ettoal^Ien, 

etfuten), to choose, select, single out, destine. 

(Thepres. and imperf. tenses ofavatt\tf^ are hardly 

ever used. The pp, au^erfel^en, singled out, destined, 

is used in forming the compound tenses of the active 

and the whole of the passive voice.) 
audfliegen,"* sep, ^g ava, audgejiogen, to fly or go out. 
audgeUefett, pp. from avalitftm,^ «ep., to deliver, unship, 

au^geBeU;"* sep.y gaB au0, au^gegeBen, lit. to give out, to 

spend (of money), 
au^'^tladft, pp. from audlad^en,'^ «ep., (ad^te ava, au^gelaci^t, 

to laugh at, ridicule, laugh to scorn. 
ani^^ila^ixi, pp. 0/ avaiaffm,*^ s^., liefl aia, au^gelaffen, to 

let out, give vent to ; leave out, omit. 


audgelaffett fein, to be frolicsome, wild; full of 
. pranks. 

andgemalt, /?p. from audmalen,'^ «^., to picture. ThU verb 

M t«e</ (M a reflexive with ^e d&t, of the reft, pron, 

ftd^ tittxa ausmaltn, to picture something to 

oneself) as being ^ etc.; to fancy something to 

be, etc. ^d^ male ti mix ava, etc. 

att0gefegeU, pp. from au^fegeln^ *^., fegelte au^, au^gefegett 
{conjugated with fein), to set sail, to sail out of the 

audgefu(]^t, j)^. from audfud^en,^ «€i>., /tV. to seek out, to 
select, choose. 

QiVi9''pQidtn;^ Sep., ^a(fte aud, audge))a(fi, to unpack. 

^udpaif en,Bt n. (-^ ;-), unpacking {the infinitive is converted 
into the subst. by prefiodng the neuter article, and can 
be inflected through all cases). 

Slud^'tid^tung,'^/., carrying out, execution {of orders). 

au^'riil^'n/or au^rul^en,"^ sep., to rest, repose. 

au^tul^t; pres. from au^tul^en,^ sep., tul^te au«, au^gerul^t, to 
rest. \In the subordinate sentence, toorauf fein Jtinn 
au^rul^t (No. 75), the verb rul^t is removed to the 
end of the sent, and thus become, accidentally, as 
it were, re-united to its sep. particle and.] 

aud'f^utten,'^*^., fci^uttcte aud, audgefci^uttct, to pour out, 
empty. [See f(^utten.] 

aitd'fleigen,"^ sep., ftieg aud, audgefliegen, to get out, alight, 
[aud and fteigen, to mount, climb.] 

5ltt«fe]^en,** n. (-«;-), appearance, look. 

au^fiaffiret, from au^jlaffiren,"^ sep., to rig, fit, ^g, trick 

aui^iSi)ftlxxtnf^ Sep., ta^)ejirte au3, au«ta^)cjirt, to hang com- 
pletely with tapestry, line with paper-hangings, to 
paper. {Observe that the verbs in ieren or ireti r^ect 
uniformly the prefix ge in the past p.) [ta))egiren,'^ 
to paper.] 


au^fiubiret Jrom an^^utixtn,'^ sep., to finish study iog ; to 
finish one*s studies at the university. 

aui%&tti^f adv. {an easpanded form of au^mart^), from 
abroad, foreign. (Sin ^lu^martiger, is a man coming 
from another part of the country ; @tn $ludldnber, 
is a man coming from an outlandish^ foreign coun- 
try. Compare also, gegento&ttig, present. 

ane^to&xti, adv.y outwards, outside; aB au^mdttd {commercial), 
from abroad. [The gen, form iDdrt^, Ohg, wartes, 
must he traced hack to the Sanscrit root writ or 
wart, to turn towards, the Latin vertere and thence 
the prep, versus, or the German todrtd. The latter 
is otdy used in compounds like audlodrt^, outwards ; 
eintt>drt0, inwards; rurfwdrt^, backwards; »cmdrt«, 
forwards; feittDdrtd, to the side; alkmaxii, at all 
places, everywhere; aufwdrtd, upwards; abtodrtd, 
downwards ; i^timtoaxti, homewards.] 

ani^xotintUf fid^;^ s^., toeinte f!d^ aia, ftd^ au^geto^tnt, to 
have one's cry out, to have a good cry [from 
ata and toeinen, to cry, weep, akin to the Engl, to 
whine, to utter a plaintive cry], 

au«'»eifen, fi(i^,»* sep. refi., tcle^ ftd^ dvA, f!<!^ au^getoicfen, lit. 
to show itself out; to prove, decide. 

au^menbig, adv., by heart. 

auf et,^''*^* ^Jf^ith dot. out of, without, outside of, beside. 

auper ftd^ fein, phr., to be out of one's mind, beside 

aufienBleibt, for aw«Mcibt, from aw^BteiBen,** «^., to remain 
or stay out ; not come to hand. 

Super en (No. 61), dot. sing, ofx^x Slufiere^, n., outward ap- 
pearance. {The adj. is used here substantively, a 
noun Uke ^u^fel^en, n., appearance, heing understood.) 

dttpette, impf. of dufern,"^ to intimate, express, utter. 
[aufer, adj., outward, o\xieT,from aui, out.] 

an^'jufragen, inf. with gu, from au^fragen,'^ iep., fragte ava 


(strong form^ frug au^), au^gcfragt, to ascertain 
something from a person by questioning, to sound, 
wig. to pump \syn, with au0](>olen, au«]^6ren]. 

aud'gul^clfen, inf, with ^vl, from au^l^clfen,"* sep,^ (a. o) to 
help out, to assist in ; to assist a person in a diffi- 
culty with helpy advice^ or money. 

au^'gumufiern, inf. with gu, from au^mufkcrn,"*^ sep., to pass 
master, to inspect, examine. 

au0gufe^cn, inf with ju, in order to look, appear. [au0i 
- fel^en,8* sep., fal^ oxa, au«gcfcl^cn, to look, appear.] 

avail cfrt, pp. o/'a»anciren, attancirtc, avandrt, to advance to, 
to get or come as far as, to move forward. 

^"oV^f m.y advice {t?ie French^ avis, opinion, advice, notice, 

5l»t0brief,8tm., or Sltjifo^kief , letter of advice {commercial 


^Qi^tfPl. o/SBa(^,«t m. (-e«; -a-c), brook, rivulet [AngL 

Sax. becc ; Scotch beck]. 
SBa'cd^u^, w., Bacchus (Roman deity) ^ the god of wine. 
f&a^toxtt (No. 45), dot. sivg. q/'SBabeort,^* m. (-e^; -orter), 

bathing-place; bath, spa. (The words dntm 

. . . ©abeorte, are placed in apposition to ©aben? 

$8aben, and are gc^^ by prep, in.) [baben,"'^ to bathe ; 

ber Drt, the place.] 
Saben^^abeti; «., a famous spa in the grand-duchy of v 

S3aben. Inhab» 8900. In the summer months it is 

frequented by 40,000 visitors (called in German^ 

9Ba^n,'«^/. (-; -en), way, path, road, railroad (bie @ifenBal^n), 

pr. 58a]^n, by rail ((Srbbal^n, OJeitba^n, J^egclbal^n ; bcr 

SBa^rew / (-; -n), bier [from Ohg. beran, Nhg. Bdrcn, to 


bear, carry ; the Nhg, verb is only to he found in 
gebaten, to bear, bring forth]. 

SBai'erlanb, n., or fdwxn, n., Bavaria, [bet SBaicr, m., the 
Bayarian ; bo^ £anb, n., the land, country.] 

(alb, adv,y soon, shortly, quickly \1he Engl, bold, ^ origi- 
nal meaning heing^ bold, quick]. 
ba(b...balb, conj, {implying oUemation), at one 
time — at another ; sometimes — sometimes. 

b a I b m 6^9 U d^fl, adv. , as soon as possible, [bolb and m6glt(^, 
possible ; ntogUd^fi is ike mperl. form, if possible.] 

93a^f en,"t m, (-« ;-), a heavy piece of timber, supporting a 
building, ceiling, etc., a beam [the old Engl, balk, 
Scotch, bank]. 

SBaUo'n or fdaUon, m., balcony [akin to ©atfen]. 

©alien,"* m. (-« ;-), bale, a package of goods. 

S3alle, dot. sing, of ©all,** m. (-c«; ©df(e), ball [/row It. 
ballare, to dance]. 

©a'mberg, n., a town in that part of Bavaria called DBer? 
Sfranfen. Inhab' 23,600. The tomb mentioned in 
No, 6 must be that of Henry II., The Holy, who 
endowed the bishopric of Bamberg out ofhisprioate 
purse, and was made a Saint. 

banb an, impf. of anbinben,"* sep., banb an, angebunben, to 
bind or tie to. 

93anb,»tn. (-e«; SBanbe), bond, tie, fetter; in SBanben, in 
chains (bad $aldbanb, the neckcloth, scarf); bie ©dm 
ber, the ribbons ; bte ©dnbe, the vols, of a book 
[from Bittben, Banb, gcBunben, to bind]. 

Bang or Bang e, adfj. and adv., afraid, timid, in fear ; (Si mirb 
if)m. angfl unb Bange, phr., he gets very anxious and 
afraid. [Bange is a contraction of Be^ange, and con- 
nected untk enge, narrow, Ohg. angi atid Nkg. 9lng{l, 
see SlngftJ 

S9an!,"«^ •*/. (-; Sdnfe), bank, bench, form, seat. 

SBdnfen, dai. pi. ofhanU 


SBanfnote,/. (-; -n), banknote. 

B a n c o, ^ SDSar! ^attf o {Hamburg money) . 

Bco., vl ^t S3co. = 16 hamburger ^d^iflinge = 1 sh. 

Banko, ) 5j^d. Engl. 

Bannen,'^ Bannte gebannt, to banish, ».6., to put under a ban. 
[ber ©ann, the ban.] 

SSarBaro'ffa, m.<,from ihe It barba rossa, ».e., red-beard. 

Sa^'renfiein, m., /i^. bear-atom, a grimy old stronghold in 

Ba^'rfttf, adj, and adv.y barefoot, barefooted. [boXf bare, 
uncovered ; %Vi^, m., foot.] 

Sar!e <w Sarf,'^/. (-; -en), barque. 

!8atoTnc'ter,B* m. (-3; -), barometer. 

SBaro'nin,^/ (-; -inncn), baroness [derived from ©aron by 
means of fern, affix in]. 

IBatrett,"* m. (-d;~), bar {of gold, silver, etc ). 

JBart,^ J». (-e^; S3atfte), beard (cowipoi/wfe, ©c^nutrBart or 
JtneBe(Bart, moustaches ; SSacfenbatt, whiskers). 

IBafc or SKul^mc,'^/., fto<^ old expressions for %axiit, 9,\mt. 
. [Safe is connected with ihe Ohg, buosam, Sufen. 
Engl, bosom. SU^ul^me is probably derived from 
Lat. mamma, mother^s breast, mother.] 

SSa'f geige,"^/. (-; -n), bass-violin, viol. 

S3ataine,'^/. (-; -n), battle, engagement [Fr. la bataille]. 

Bat, impffrom Bitten,"* Bat, geBetcn, to beg, ask. 

SBatterie',^/. (-; -n), battery. 

Bauen,**^ Baute, geBaut, to build, to construct with a beam or 
S3ouni ; (No. 60) to sow, cultivate {afield), {From 
Bauen is derived bawn, any habitation, a term 
used by Spencer and Svnft,) [See SBauer, Saunt.] 

Sauev, ^ 8* m. (-« or en; -en), declinedUe aSauren, bem aSauren, 
ben a3auren, pi bie SSauren, etc.), the Engl, boor, 
a plough-farmer, peasant, rustic [from Bauen, to 
build, settle down. The Dutch settlers at the Capt 
are known as the Dutch boors ; see SBaum]. 


S3 aunt,"* m. (-ed ; ^B&ume), tree [EngL, beam, or the stock 
of a tree ; Jirom it are derived hautn, to build, bet 
Sauer, the settler, fanner, ».e., the man who huiU a 
dwelling and settled down. 5Dad ^auer, the house 
or dwelling, now only applied (o a oage. In the 
^ilbeBranbdlieb, in bnre slande for in bent ^aufe, in 
the house. The old £ngl. hour e or bower meant 
orig, an inner chamber, a parlour, and is now 
usually applied to some shaded garden-recess.] 

^anmdftn^, gen. sing, of ^Baumd^tn,'^ n. (-«;-), little tree 
[dim. off&anm, au being modified. All dim* are 
neuteTy see Jtcrbd^en]. 

©dume^st nom. and ace. pi. of^aum. 

93 a u wen,"* offBanm {case-ending en). 

a3dumen,"»* n. (-«;-), rearing, t.e., rising on the hind-legs 
{as a horse), [fid^ bdumen, to erect oneself like a 
beam or tree, thence to rise on the hind-legs (of 
animals) ; to resist violently against.] 

a3aum'flafen,8* m. (-«;-), an upright piece of a tree 
pointed at one end ; a post. [@tafen, m., or bie 
<Sta!e, is the Engl. 8take,/rofn flecfen, impf^ fiaf, to 
stick. 5Da^ ©tacfet, the palisade, palmg.] 

bauten, 1st and M p. pi. impf. of baiien. 

^edfen,^^ bo^, n., the basin {the hollow place in which a pool, 
pond, or lake is dammed up) ; a vessel or dish 
[possibly related with S3a(^, m., beck, brook]. 

itf separable prefix, akin to prep, bct, by, forms transitive 
verbs from intransitives. and extends the action of 
the simple verb all over the object ; thus befragen. 
Many verbs with be have a causative meaning, 
and imply an endowing or providing with the 
object or quality expressed by the noun or adj. 
from which tliey are formed; ihus^ beleibigeu, 
befeftigen, begeid^iien. The syll. tg is often inserted 
before the termination en. 


6eba<3§tigetn, dat sing., strong decl. from Bebd(]^tig, adj,, 
thoughtful, deliberate. [^eba<^t, m., delibera- 
tion ; see Bebenfen.] 

bebarf^, 2d p, s. pres. of Bcburfen, Beburfte, Bebttrfi, to have 
need of, to want. 

S9ebauern,8* n, (-« ;-), verbal noun, regret, pity. [Bebauern, 
to regret, pity.] 

Bebecft, pp. from Bebe^en,*^ insep., Bebedfte, Bebecft, lit, todeek 
or cover with ; envelop in ; protect from, [becfen, 
to deck, cover.] 

Sebetf ung^ mannfd^aft,^/. (-; -en), detachment of men {or 
SKannfd^afit, /.), forming an escort or convoy (bie 

Bebenfen, insep,j Beba(]^te, Bebad^t, lit, to bethink or think t^pon; 
to consider, ponder, weigh (No. 53) ; fl(^ Bebenfen, 
reft, (No. 39), to bethink oneself of, to reflect, etc. 
[Be and benfen.] 

Bebenft, Sdpers. s, pres. from Bebenfen. 

htitttttn,^ insep.f Bebeutete, Bebeutet, denote, indicate, signify, 
mean. In No. 38 it has the meaning: ^^to make 
plain, to give to understand.^^ [beuten, Ut " to make 
plain to the people,^'' i.e., interpret; and beutfd^, adj., 
German, or lit, *' that which is plain to thepeople,^^ 
have both for their root the Goth, thiuda, A,8, 
theod, i.e., people. — See beutfc^.] 

Bebeutenb, adj., full of meaning, i.e,, important, considerable. 
[pres. p,from Bebeuten,] 

B e b c u t e n b ft e, b e t,*** superl, of Bebeutenb. 

Bebeutete (No. 38), impf o/ Bebeuten. 

Bebien%i?p. ©/"Bebienen^^eWep., Bebiente, Bebient, to attend or 
serve upon, to serve (guns, etc.) ; fid^ Bebienen, to 
help oneself. [Be and bienen, to serve. Z^ biene, 
I serve. 5)er JDiener, the servant.] 

S3ebien'te,'w^ m. (-n; -n), servant, footmaii, attendant. 
[This word is a contraction ofUx SBebienenbe (from 


(he pres. p. of Bebienen), ue., the man serving or 
mAn-servant. Or toe may say: the pp. is used 
instead of and in the sense of the pres, p. For IDer 
S3ebiente in a literal sense is ^^ the person waited upon *^ 
and not " the person waiting upon another J'^] 

htt^xtn,'^ fi^, refl.j to do oneself the honour, to have the 
pleasure or honour {Pres. idf Utfpct midf, bu Utf^vt 
tid^, er beel^rt fid^, koit beel^ten ma, etc.). [be and tffxtn, 
to honour, ^ie Qf)xt, the honour.] 

JBee'rbigung,'^ /., lit consigning {(he body) to the earth 
((Srbe,/.) ; burial, interment. [Beetbigeti, to inter.] 

befanben, fid^, impf ind. of fl(^ befinben, befanb fi(^, fEd^ 
befunben, to find oneself, to be. 

befdttben, fid^, impf subj. of ^^ befinben, befanb f!c^, fi<i^ 
befitnben, Ut* to find oneself (No. 67), to be found, 
to be. [The sub}, is here dependent upon the terb 
erfu^r in the principal sent. The subord. sent, ia 
introduced by baf, and contains a statement or 
assertion made by another person, and in 
all such cases the verb of the subord. sent, must be in 
the subj., chiefly after verbs of saying, declaring, 
narrating, fagen, erHdren, bel^au^ten, erjfil^ten ; reply- 
ing, anttocrten, enoiebeni ; learning, erfal^ren, etc.] 

befel^ten (No. 36), o/befel^ten, see befo^len. 

lt^of^Un,pp. of befel^len, UfafjH, befol^ten, to command, order, 
bid, enjoin, [be and fel^len, to fail.] 

befejli9t,2?P' q/'befefligen,'^^ insep.j to make fast, firm ; to tie 
to or into (No. 111). 

?^efinben,«»*n. (-«;-), state of health. Phr. SBie bejinbeii 
@ie ^d}, How do you do? [fldj^ befinben,"* rejl., to 
find oneself; to be {unth regard to health, con- 
dition, etc.).] 

befleifligen,^ fld^, refl., to devote or apply oneself to, to 
study. Syn. toith fld^ bef eifen »* [from gteifl, in-, 
application ; ^eifiig, diligent, industrious]. 


befra'gtf, impf, of Bcfragett,^ tTw^p., Befragte, Befragt, interro- 
gate, examine (in court, etc.)* [be and fragen, to 

S5efracl^tung0$6^ourtage, /., brokerage, freight, or com- 
mission charged bj broker or agent. 

befola** i?P' ^y^ befotgen,^ »fw^., bcfolgte, befotgt, to follow 
out, imitate ; to obey, [folgeit, to follow ; folgfam, 

begann, l8^ and Sdpers. sing imj^. o/'beginnen. 

begannen, 1«< anc? Sd.pers.pL impf, o/'beginnen. 

begebeti,"^ fi(]^, re/., begab jid^; {!d^ begeben, to betake oneself 
to (^u), repair to. [be ancf geben, to give.] 

begegnen^*^ insep,, begegnete, begegnet {vjith dat) to meet, fall 

in with, come upon ; befall (comp, tenses toiih fein). 

ed begegnete mir ein Heiner j^nabe (No. 12), I met a 

little boy, lit, there came towards tm a little hoy, 

einer ^atne freunblid^ begegnen (No. Ill), to meet a 

lady in a kind or polite way, to behave politely 

to a lady. 

Sod tfi 3l^nen begegnet? What has happened to 

you ? What befell you ? 
[begegnen contracted from be^gegemen, to come 
against; %tQm,prep,, against, towards.] 

begegnete, impf, o/" begegnen. 

begegnet, jRp. qf begegnen (construed with fein). 

begel^ren,'^ insep,, begel^rte, bege^rt, to yearn after, long for, 
desire, wish for. [connected with Engl, to yearn, 
Ut, to run after, and the Germ, gem, willingly, 
desirous, wMch is of the sam^ root as, bie @iet;,/., 
the yearning, longing, desire.] 

b e ge 1^ r t' for begel^tte, impf, of bege^iren. 

b e g e 1^ r ' for begel^te, pres, of begel^ren. 

b e g i n n e, Ist pers, sing, pres, of beginnen. 

beginnen,^ tn«e^., begann, begonnen, to begin, commence; 
undertake, [be and ginnen, to strive, endeavour.] 


ht^enntn, pp. of beginnen {in No. 17 f)at is understood). 

begluden,^ insep.y i>eglfi(fte, Beglucft, to make happy, give 
happiness or luck to. [®ivid, ti., luck, happiness.] 

begreifen,B^ insep., lit. to have something in one's grip by 
laying forcibly hold of it; thence to understand, 
comprehend, to grasp {mentally), [greifen, to seize, 
Scotch to gripf lay hold of, to grasp. JDer ©riff, 
the handle, that which is laid hold of with the hand. 
2)er ©egriff, a comprehensive idea.] 

SBegriffe, im (with ftin), oM expr., on the point of (see 

begru'fien,^ insep., begruflte, bcgriifit, to greet, welcome, to 
receive in a welcome manner ; hail, [be and gruf en, 
to greet. 2)er @rufl, the greeting.] 

begtugt, Mpers. sing. pres. oj^ bcgruficn. 

begtuf te, \st and Mpers. sing. impf. of begrugen. 

begruf ten, Iff* and Mpers. pi. impf. of bcgrufien. 

bel^alten,"t insep., bel^ielt, bel^alten, to keep, Ut. to keep hold 
of; retain ; to remember {mentally), 3d^ l^abe ed 
nid^t be^ialten, I do not remember it. [be anc? fatten, 
to hold. Compare Engl, behold, t.e., to keep or 
hold the eyes fixed upon any object^ 
^ad Selb bel^alten, to be master of the battlefield. 

bel^alte (No. 54), 2dpers. sing, imper. of bel^atten. 

bel^anbeln,^ lit. to handle; to deal with, dispose of {com* 
mercialj p. 157, No. 20) ; also to treat, [l^anbetn, to 
act, deal, carry on a trade, ^er $anbel, the trade.] 

be^ian^igen,^ insep., to hand in, to remit. 

bel^au^tet, 3^ pers. sing. pres. and pp. of UffavLpttni^ insep., 
UijavLpUU, htf}aupUt, to maintain, t.A., to make a 
chief point or head of. [bad ^anpt, the head, or 
that which w heaved {hovedj hov'd) or raised above 
the shoulders. From A.S. heafan, Germ, l^eben, to 
heave ; thence also Eng. heap, Crerm. ^aufen. The 
original root seems tobehw^ akin to Lai. cu tn cu- 


mulus, a heap. Of the same origin ta prohaJbhf 
iijoUlf high. Compare note to bel^uten.] 
Bel^enb or Bel^enbe, adj. and adv,y is the Ohg. hantic^ Low 
Ger. l^anbig, Engl, handy, t.6., that which comes 
ready, quickly to hand; therefore, nimble, 
nimbly, dexterous, and thence gently. No. 108. 
htfftxxfd^t, 3rf pers, sing. pres. of Bcl^etrfd^en,'^ insep., lit, to 
lord over; to command, have the command of. 
[l^ertfd^en, to rule, lord, govern. $err, m., lord, 
ruler, master, Mr.] 
B e)^ ft ittti^ insq)., Ut. to bestow heed upon ; protect, [^itten, 
to heed, to look after. S)ie @c^afe l^uten, to tend 
the sheep. IDie $ut, protection, charge; auf bet 
^vi fein, to be on one's guard. The Bkigl. hide, 
i,e,y to protect, is possibly connected with ^uten ; also 
bev ^ut, the hat, hoodj or that which affords pro- 
tection to the head. According to othersy ^ut, hat, 
hood, and head are derived from the past part, 
hoved or hov'd of "heave," signifying anything 
h e a V e d or raised. See be]^au))tet.] 
bc^&te! (No. Ill) or l^itte bi^! Take care! Mind I ^el^ute 

®ti\i ! God forbid ! See bel^uten and jid^ l^uten. 
bei, pr^, with dat, Engl, by {the same as the iiisep. prefix be). 
1.) Of place and position : near, at, by the side of, 

with; at the house of.(jFV. chez). 
(Sie faf auf ber fdoxd bet bem ^(ten (No. 89), she sat 

on the bench near the old man. 
bei iBeuten (No. 37), at people's houses, 
bei unferer Xante (p. 140), at the house of our aunt. 
M mix, chez moi ; Ui bit, chez toi ; htx x^m, chez lui ; 

bei il^r, chez elle ; Id und, chez nous ; bei eud^ or 

Ui Sl^nen, chez vous ; bei il^nen, chez eux or elles. 
2*) Of time and other relations: by, at, in, etc. 
beim finil^flen Sxigen or bei Xa^aanhxnd^ (No. 36), at 

(the earliest) daybreak,dawn. bei ^adjt, at niglu. 



ki bet ^anb nc^men (No. 85)) to take by the hand, 

to take hold of one*8 hand, lead by the hand, 
bei ntHner (Sfff (No. 96), upon my honour. 
Bei gttter (Skfunb]^eit, in good health. 
8.) Sepctrabk prefix: by, beside, as in Btijiel^en, to 
stand by or beside a friend, to succour (No. 97), 
bobeibleiben, to persist in a statement (No. 102). 

Beint^. bn bent, brim Slbfd^iebe, vhen taking leave. 

beibe^a(tcn,"t «^., be^iett bei, bribel^atten, to preserve, main- 
tain (p. 159). 

beibe, adj., both, two. In the ting, fjoe ham only ihe neuM. 
nom. and ace,, Iti^ti, the one and the other, both 
things, etc. The plur. foUowa ihe adf, decL, thus: 
1.) bribe,"* briber, beiben, beibe, both ; a.) biefe betben, 
• biefet bribeit, eic., both these, these two, etc. ; 8.) il^te 
beibett, il^tet briben, etc., both her, her two, etc. 

SBeiti,"* n. (-e«; -e), leg [EngL bone], wit briben ^rinen 
(No. Ill), with both feet. 

SBeine, dot. sing, o/^tin {case-ending e). 

93einen, of S3rin {case-ending en). 

fBeinfleiber, trousers, breeches, pZ. ^^einHetb^n. (-<0 ; -rt), 
lit. leg-dress, [bod S3rin, the leg; bo^ J^Crib, the 

bet fa^ men, adv., lU. beside one another; together, in each 
other's company, [fammeln,*^ to collect.- Boot: 
Ohg., sam ; Engl, same, like.] 

©ei'fjjiet,"*. n. (-e«; -e), example. [ITie orig. meaning t# 
parable, fable. ^)pitl is the Ohg. spil or spel, a 
narration, discourse. Thence die Eng. spell, a 
form of words of magic power; and the Scotch 
byspel, a person or thing of wonderful guaUHes.] 

bei''jle]|Jett,»t«ep., jianb bei, brigejlattben, Mt. tostandby or 
beside one ; to assist, [bei, by, near ; ftel^en, to stand.] 

be{fen,Bt U^, gebiffen, to bite. [SBif , m., bite ; ^iffen, m., 
morsel, bit.] 


htifttin (poeUcal), for beift an, Sd pers. sing, prea, from 
einBei^en or anbn^en,"* «^., to bite at, nibble, ^ie 
Sifi^e Ui^ta nidl^t an, the fish won^t bite. 

SBeja'l^ttng,"^/. (-; -en), affirmative answer. [Bejal^cn,'^ to 
reply in the affirmative. 3a, adv,<, yea, yes.] 

( e f a m e n, 1«< pera, pi. impf, of befommen. 

bcfann^t, adj. and adv,, known, familiar, acquainted. Us 
fannt ma^en, to make known. {Mtmtn, Befannte, 
befannt, to acknowledge, confess ; fenncn, to know.] 

^efann^'tem, dcU, wng. oflhs adj, Befannt uaed mthatanUvely. 

®e!annte, altt,pL of ein attet Sefanntev, m., or eine aTte 9dtt 
fannte,/., an old acqnaintence. 

Sefann'^tntad^un^,'*^ /. (-; -en), advertisement, Ut, the 
making known, 

S3 elan n't f d^ a f t,^ /., (-; -en), acquaintance. 

Befennen unt gu (p. 149, No. 11), frotn fidl^ Befennen ju,"* 
refi. vMep.j to acknowledge, niak« profession of 
(a religion, etc.)* 

Bef ommen,"t «rw^., Befam, Befontnten, to come to, upon, by; 
thence^ to get, receive, obtain. TBe or Bei^fommen.] 

Bef omnten, rp. (No. 99), o/Befommen. 

Befommt, 3^ pera. sing, prea, of Bef omnten. 

Belagetten, einer, gen, aing. fern, after fin;>^m Bela^er^, 
pp.from Belagem,'^ Bela^ette, Belagert, Ut, tohdeaguer; 

BeCeibigte,/)^., uaed adjecOvely with caae-ending e for nom. 
after ber, from Beteibifien,'"^ Beteibiftte, Beteibiftt, to 
offend, insult, [bad l^eib, the harm, injury.] 

SB e It eben,"* n. (-4;-), a verbal noun, liking, pleasure, in- 
clination, will. 

na<^ SBelieBen, phr,, as one feels inclined, at will. 
[BelieBen,^ to like, wish ; toie'd 3^nen, BelieBt, as 
you like it ; Engl, lief, loved, dear.] 

Be((en,^ Bellte, QeBeHt, to bark ; Engl, bellow, bark. 

BeUBt, jpi?. of BeUben w BeloBte, BeloBte, UL to bestow praise 


upon; to praise, [bod iob, the praiae; UUn, to 

®elt,"^ m. (-ed; -e), M« £^2. belt (a girdle or band) ; th^ 

Great Belt endrdee ike East, and the Little Belt 

the West, ^Sunen, on^ ofihe Danish Isks. 
htmtt^ttn^tDtxiff, adj* andadv., lit, worthy of remark; re- 
markable, [bed SBenterfettf, of remark, notice; 

toertl^, worthy.] 
bemcrfte, trnpfi of bemcrfen,"^ insq>., htmttHt, Bemerft, to 

observe, notice. [U and mevfen, to mark.] 
SBcnel^men,"^ n. (-d;-), demeanour, deportment. [ftc^ 

htntf^mtn,^ to behave oneself.] 
bemfil^t, \oax, from Umt^t fein; Umuf}t is pp, from ft(^ U$ 

mul^en,'*^ bemu^te ft^, ftd^ bemul^t, to take great 

trouble, give oneself trouble. [SRitl^e, /., trouble, 

htnannt, pp* from benennm, insep,, benannte, benannt, to give 

a name to, to call, name, 
bene, Zci<. ocfo., well, beautifully. @id^ bene tl^un, phr., 

to live or feast well; luxuriate, slake the 

a3e'oba(!^tttng,^/. (-; en), observation, [bciob^ad^ten, to 

beraubet, d£? pers, s. pres. su^, from bnrauben,'*^ uuep., Bes 

taubte, betaubt, lU, to bereave of to deprive of, to be 

robbed of. 
beraufd^'tf n ftd^, impf of fid^ brraufd^en, brraufc^te ^^, {t<^ 

beraufd^t, to get into a stute of intoxication, get 

drunk. [(Raufdj^, m., state of intoxication.] 
b ere it, cw/;., ready, prepared [from reit. Root ri, Ohg,, 

re it], t.6., orderly, in order; connected voUh (Rei^, 

/., order, row, ted^t, right], 
b e r e i t e n,'^ insep, , bereitetc, bereitet, to get r e a d y (m order) ; 

prepare [/romlbereit^ ready], 
beteitefl, 2d pers, s,pres, q^beteiten. 


Beteiteten, 1«/ imp/, o/Uxtittn. 

Bereitd, adv^ gen,, already. 

htxtut% 2dper8. sing.pres, ofUxtvim, insep., htttmtt, Bcreuet, 
to rue anything, to repent, have to repent of. 
[(Reue,/., repentance, Borrow; reuen, to regret.] 

fdtxid^t,^ m. (-€«; -e), advice (p. 148, No. 8); report. 
[beri(!^ten, to set right, to report ; xt^t, right.] 

^ctg,Bt in. (-etf* -e), mountain [denotes originally^ place of 
safety, hiding-place]. 

S)ie ^urg, burgh, borough. [Boffi are akin to Bergen, 
Batg, geBorgen, to hide, protect.] 

Bergen,"* Barg, geBorgen, to hide; (p. 160) to save, recover 
{from toreck of a ship). 

9Betge«, gen, sing, q/*S3erg (case-ending e«). 

SBerg'mann,"* m, (-e^; -leute), lit mountain-man; miner. 

Setlfn, n., ike metropolis of ike German Empire^ at the 
navigable river Spree, in the Mark or Province 
Brandenburg; surrounded by a wall 2\ Germ, miles 
in circumference; 632,400 Inhab*; the great staple- 
mart of Central-European trade. 

IBetU'tter,"* m, (-^;-), sing,, a man from Berlin; plur, bie 
' Berliner, the people or inhabitants of Berlin. 

SBe'rtl^a,/. {gen, ber ©ertl^a or ©ertl^a'^), Bertha, Bertie. 

Betftd^ tiger, ein, masc, of the adj,, with case-ending et, after 
tin, from Beruc^tigt, ac(f, {originaUy app,), notorious, 
[bad ©etud^t, the rumour, report.] 

Btriil^mten, ace, sing, masc, {case-ending en), after the 
article, demonstrative, etc., from Beru^mt, a^,, 
famous, renowned [titl^men,^ to praise ; bet Otul^m, 
the praise, fame]. 

Befi^&ftigte, impf ofjjidi Befcl^dfitigett,^ insep,, Bef(!^aftigte jld^, 
fi(6 Befd^aftigt, to occupy oneself with, to be en- 
gaged in [from fd^affen, to shape, do, make, etc.]. 

Bef^ imt, pp. from Befd^men,^ ins^., Bef^dntte, Befci^amt, to 
make to feel ashamed of oneself; make ashamed. 


[{!(^ fd^dmen, to feel ashamed; bie ®^am, Bhame, 

ht\^antni^ ins^., to inspect {by looking at)j to gaze at, 
syn, loith Befel^en. [fc^auen, to look, gaze, akin to 
EngL to show, to present to one^s view. Booths 
at fairs where anything is shown are termed 

Befcl^elben,^* tnae^., htfd^U^, befd^ieben {or JBef^cib geBcn, to 
inform, give a decided answer, to send one about 
his business). In No. 110 t^ has the meaning, to 
interpret, au^beutettr to explain, erflaren. [Sefd^eib, 
m., information, decision ; fd^eiben, to separate, sift.] 

befd^elnigen,"^ in«ep., to certify, attest, acknowledge. 

bef^eten,^ insep., befc^erte, befd^ert, lit. to bestow something 
upon a person, as Ai« share ; syn> with juertl^eilen, 
gutl^etlen, to present, make present of, give, 
[fd^eten^to cut, shear ; A,S. sceran ; Engl, to share, 

^ shear, or divide into parts; hence ^ffuc^fd^at, 

ploughshare. @(j^ere,/., scissors; @i^aar,/., divi- 
sion of troops, crowd, band.] 

^efd^Uge, n., or ^efd^lag, m., Ut. thai which is fastened on to 
something by striking ; the metal which lines, binds, 
covers anything; the mounting. [berd^Cagen,"* to 
mount {apipe loith metal, etc.), to shoe (a hors^\ 

befdjfi^t, iidpers. sing. prss. of befd^ujjen,^ insep., to protect, 
[bet @d^ujj, protection.] • 

S3efen,»t (-« ;-), besom, broom. 

befeffen, ac^. possessed of a demon, influenced by demons 
[pp. ofbt^i^n, possess]. 

b c |! e g t, 2?p. from befiegcn,'^^ insep., to defeat, beat, [ber ©ieg, 
m., the victory.] 

SBefit «* m. (-e« ; -e), possession, [bepten, to possess, have.] 

bcjl|efl, bu, 2dpers. s.pres. from beji^eurt insfp., befag, bcfefs 
fm, to possess; lit. to sit by or near something; 
therefore, to have near one, possess. 


befonber, ad^., special, pecuHar [compound of U and fonber, 
EngL sunder, in asunder. Compare ako Germ. 
fonbem, to sever; ein @onber(ing, a singular person, 
oddity ; and fonber, jt^., without]. 

Befonbetd, adv^ gen^ separately, especially, particularly 
[Jrom Befonbet]. 

beforgen,^ beforgte, befbrgt, to get ready, manage ; have care 
of^ to be in anxiety about, to be uneasy, in a fear, 
in care about [bie ®orge, the caire.] 

beforgtid^, adv.f solicitously, anxiously, full of care. 

bef or g t, pp. toed as adj. from beforgcn. 

beffcr, compar. of^ beffer, ber, bie, bo^ befle, am beflen, good, 
better, the best. 

befferer, nom. masc. of the compar. vnth the case-ending tx 
added after tin, etc See beffer. 

ht^Siti'^tn,^ insep., ponfirra i acknowledge (a eun^. 

beftatteten, impf. of beflatten,^ tn«ep., lU. to consign to a 
place; to bury, inter, [bie ^taii or ^tatttf /, 
stead, place.] 

fitfttlU,pp.from bejlenen,^ insq>., bejiettte, bejieKt, to arrange; 
give order for ; to cultivate a field, i,e., to plough 
and sow it [Ut. to put inplace^ in order, from ^ttUt, 
/., place, and fleHen, to put.] 

ffieftellttttg,^/ (-; -en), order. [bejletten,w to order.] 

f&tfitf bod, n., superl tised substantively ; see beffer. 

bejle, ber,«e6 beffer. 

befien, bet (No. Ill), gen f sing, of bie befle, see beffer. 

be^en, ace. sing, of best (case-ending en). 

b e fi e n 0, adv^ superl, and gen. ; lit. in the best possible manner, 
fidf beflen« ew^jfel^len, to take leave respectfully; or 
(commercially) to recommend oneself most obe- 

befleiflen,«* ttw^., beflieg, befliegen, to get or mount up, as- 
cend, [be and fleigen, to rise, mount.] 

SBe'flie,/. (-; -n), beast, brute animal. 


befficgen, pp, from bcfldgen. 

beflimmt, pp, used adjectivdy from Befliminen,'^ insep.,, to 

appoint; to be intended for; to destine (p. 160); 

determine. \ht and fiimmen, to give voice to.] 
Bcfitettten, Ist and Sdpers, pi. impf, ofUfixtntn, lit. to strfiw 

vfith ; strew over, scatter, spread, [be and fheuen, 

to strew.] 
Befud^ten, ace. of the pp. UfudjttUsedadjectivelyfi'om Befuc^, 

befud^te, Befud^t, to visit, freqaent. [be and fu^en, 

seek, seech tn beseech.] 
©eftt<!^,«* m. (-rt ; -e), visit, call. 

gum S90fu(^, on a visit. 
®efu(!^4)i muter, n. (-«;-), room for visitors, drawing- 
Itt&nht, pp* of bet&uben,^ bet&ubte, UtavM, to make deaf, 

stupify. [taub, deaf.] 
bet', 2dper8. sing, imper. ofUttn. 
beten,^ htttit, gebetet, pray [from bitten, to ask for], 
betete, impf. <jf beten. 
betrad^ten,^ tnaep., betrad^tete, betrac^tet, to look at, view, 

scrutinize ; consider (No. 93). 
betrad^tet,2>p* ofhttvad^ttn. 
betra^tete, impf. of betrad^ten. 
S3etrag,«* m. (-ed ; -trfige), amount, 
bettagen, betrug, betragen (p. 159), to amount to. 
JBettagen,** n. (-« ;-), conduct, behaviour, bearing, [trageit, 

to bear.] 
Settieb,"* m. (-e6; -e), pursuit, exercise; activity; in ©e* 

ttieb fej^en, to put into working order {of madhinea). 
betteiben, to carry on a business.'] 
betritt, 3d pers. s. pres. of betreten, betrat, betreten, lit. to 

tread upon; set foot on. [be and tteten, tread, 

bettoffen, pp. of betteffen, betraf, betroffen, lit. to hit upon; 

come upon ; befall, strike with surprise ; concern. 


betro'getti pp. from Bettfigen,"^ nu^., bettog, betrogen, to de* 

ceive, cheat ; outwit. 
Bet tug, vmpf. c^/" bettagen. 
Betrunfen, pp. of^^ Betrinfen, Betranf fld^, fid^ Bettmifen, IaL 

to b ^'driiik (meHif; t o get d r a n k. [Be and trinf en, 

to drink.] 
Sett,"* n. (-e0; -en), bed, ^2. bedding. 
Sette, doL sing.o/^ttt (No. 38) ; dot gcf^ by an. 
Betteln,^ Bettelte, geBetteU, lit. to go chbegging; to beg, ask 

for alms or charity [akin to Bitten, and Beten] 
SBetttet,"* m. (-<;-), beggar, mendicant^ 
aSettelmann,"* m, (-e«; -Itviti), lit, begging-man ; beggar, 

fBettelfarf,«*m. (-e«; -ficfe), beggar's wallet. 
Bettelt, Sdpers. 8. prea. q/'Betteln. 
Bengte, tmgf. o/'Beugen,^ Beugte, geBengt, to bend, bow [from 

Biegen,** bend]. • 
fBeu'rt^eilnng,"^ /. (-; -en), criticising, criticism; esti- 
Benttl^eiU, i?p. o/ Beuttl^eUen,^ insep., Benrt^eifte, Beurtl^eilt, 

lit to pa88 judgment or opinion on ; to criticise. 

[Urtl^eil, n., judgment.] 
SBeute,"*^/. (-; -n), booty, prey; lit. wha^ ia tohe shared or 

©eu^'tel,"* m. (-« ;-), bag, pouch; purse. 
Betoa^ten,'*^ inaep., to keep, preserve, guard, [lit. be- 
ware, Be and toal^ren. ®ott BetoaBte ! God forbid.] 
lt}»&fixt,pp.from Beto&l^ren,"^ ineep., Betofil^tte, Beto&l^tt, lit. to 

ehow (0 56 true (UKi^r), to verify, confirm. 
SBeto'egnng,"*'/. (-; -en) motion, movement. 
5Bett)ei«,*t m. (-e« ; -e), proof. 
Be»elfen,»* «ruep., Betote« Betoiefen, to prove, give proof of. 

[Be and tteifen, to point, show.] 

©etool^net,** m. (-<;-), inhabitant. 

I 2 


Betool^nte. impf, of Betool^nen,'*^ tR«^., Betool^nie, Belool^nt, to 

dwell in, inhabit, occupy (a house^ etc.). 
betonnbette, tm;/. o/'betouttbern,^ inaep.y to admire, look at 

with wonder, [bod SS^unber, n., the wonder.] 
begal^lten, i?/?. mUi plur. -ending en /rom Bejal^leR, see. 

bejal^lt, 3flf ^tf. sing. pres. of begal^lm,^ bejol^fte, Bejal^tt, to 

pay, pay for ; discharge ; pay out. [be oand ysiijim, 

pay; gal^leQ, to count, number, tell.] 
Segal^lung,'^/, payment 
htitxijmn,"^ insep.f lit. to mark with signs j to point out, 

mark. [Seid^en, n. sign, token.] 
Sejei'dJnunQ,'^/. (-; -en), /tt betokening; designation, 
begeugeh,^ insi^., to testify; attest, bear witness, [bet 

Seuge, the witness.] 
IBibIiot^e'f« gimmer,Btn. (-«;-), a library (SBibfiDti^ef,/.) 

-room (3immer, n.). 
bieber, ac^'. and adv.., true-hearted, honest; Ut. true and 

reliable in toord and deed [originally j useful in need ; 

connected with beburfen, to have need of]. 
Siene w/. (-; _«), bee. 

©ie^nenforb«t»i, (-<«; -Ktbe), beehive. |>ie 8iene, the 
bee ; bet J^orb, the basket.] 

93ilb,B* n. (-e«'; -er), picture, image [prig, shapo, ^ffM^^. 

!Bilber,i?Z. o/Sitb. 

Silbung,^ /. (-; -en), education, culture. [Bitten,''^ to 
form, shape; feinen ®ei^ or S3et^nb bitben, to 
shape or train one's mind.] 

bin, \8tpers. s.pres, of fein, toax, gekoefen. 

binben,"^ banb, gebunben, to bind, tie. 

binb't^ binbct, Sdpers. s.pres. ofbinben. 

binnen,^^. with gen. or dot., within. 

adv.y within, towards the inner apartment of a 
house. Thus Scotch: "gae ben the house," ».e., 
go into the inner apartment. ** To take ben," i.e., 


to carry into the house or room, ^innenfef , inland 
• sea [from be or bei and innen, with-in]. 
Siogra^^lie',/., biography. 
Birgfl, 2dpers, e.pree, o/betgetu 
bi0, subordinate oonj, (a amnediive of the advi sentence^ and 

removing the verb to the end of the clause), till, until. 

bid gu (p. 160), as far as. 

bid bol^in^ till that day or time [originally a contrac- 
tion o/hnha$or biefl. To distinguish it from bet 
IBif , the bite, it became spelled bit]. 
bifc bu, 2dpers. s. pres, of\tva, toax, gemefen. 
bif, imp/, o/beifien. 
bitte, i4, Istpers, s,pres, 0/ bitten, 
bitten,'* bat, gebeten, to ask, request, beg [connected with 

bieten, bid, offer]. 
bittenb,jpre9.j7. 0^ bitten (No. Ill); imploringly. 
SBitte,^/. (-J -n), request, 
blan!, adj,, bright, polished, shining, [blinfen, to shine; 

Engl, blank, Toid of marks.] 
b la fen,"* btied, geblafen, lit. to blare; to blow or sound (fhe 

trumpet), No. 168 ; to breathe hard, 
blafet, pi. imperative of blafen. 
blaf, adj., pale, wan. 
SBIatt,"* n. (-ed ; blotter), leaf, newspaper ; the Engl, blade, 

anything thin and flaJt like a leaf of grass, the blade 

of a sword, etc. Compounds: J^ol^Iblott, cabbage- 
leaf; ^(umenblatt, leaf of a flower ; S^gedblott, daily 

paper ; $lbenbblatt, eyening paper. 
^Uiitx,pl. o/»latt. SUttetn, o/SIatt. 
blaue, ber (No. 10), nom. masc. o/b(au, adf:, blue. 
IBlau' or S3(aue, bod, n. (adj. used substantively), the blue 

IB lei,"* It. (--ed; nopL), lead; pL, kinds of lead, aSleiforten 

or arten S3tei, Gotten ©lei. 
bteiben,"* blieb, geblteben, to remain, stay, stop. 


BlctBt, Sdpers. sing, pres. ind. o/'Bleiben. 

^U'ihtifM pen. ting, pres, mbj. of Meiben. 

Bleib' or bleibc, 2dper8. 8, imperative qfUtibtn, 
BUiben bei, to stick to (No. 64). 

hUitvntn, pL oftheadj, with cage-ending en ; fivmhUittn, 
made of lead, leaden [derived /rom Slei by means 
of era. T?ie endings era and ra are used to form 
adjs, from nouns which denote a mass, material^ etc. 
Thus golben, fUbera, ^olgera, {ial^Iera, lebera]. 

HBleTminen, pL of^itxxmt;^ /., lead-mine; (No. 66) vol- 
ley of lead or bullets. 

blenbenb, pres, p. from Menbra,^ to dazzle; to blind, dar- 
ken, to make blind [from blinb]. 

IB It df,"* m. (-e0 ; -e), look, glance. 

^ lid tn, dot, pi of mid. 

hlidtn,'^ hlidU, %tbixdt, to look. [b(i(fen is related with 
bleid^, which signifies originally to glimmer with a 
faint lastre, colourless, white; Engl, bleak.] 

blicfte fld^ Xivx, impf. of^df umblirfen,'^ sep., to look round. 

btid te an (No. 38), impf. from anbUrfen,"*^ «ep., to look at. 
[See Slnbttrf .] 

blieb, impf. ofUvAvx. 

blieb babet, impf. from babei bteiben,"t sep., Ut. to remain by 
thatf stick toU; to maintain, support by argument, 
assert ; will have it. 

blinblingd, adv^ gen., lit. blindly and awkwardly, [linqfi 
is probably the same as linU, left-handed. (Sv ifi 
Unfd, he is left'-handed, and therefore awkward.] 

Slinbfd^feid^e,''^ /., slow worm, Ut. hUnd-snake or worm, 
formerly erroneously considered to be eyeless: ^^the 
eyeless, venom^d worm.^^ — Shakespeare. [\d)iitidftn,*^ 
to creep.] 

blinfeii w Blinfte, geblinft, to glitter, shine. [Eng. blink, 
from blanf, bright, glittering.] 

blinfte, impf of blinfen. 


blittf t, Sdpers, sing, pres, o/UinUn, bcr |ungc Seng bttnlt ma, 

the youthful days of spring smile upon us. 
SSlit,** m. (-f«; -e), flash of lightning, flash [akin to mid 

and Ht(fm (not to blinfen), which became blicfgen, 

BUren, and thence Bli^en, to flash, to lighten, and 

SU(, the flash of lightning]. 
^lUti, gen. sing. offQlil^ {case-ending e^). 
Uil^txt,^ Uiitt, 9ebli(t, to flash, lighten [see 8Ii(]. 
Bli^enbe^, neut of the pres. p. Bli^enb; used objectively [see 

Stitfltal^t,Bt "w m. (-ed ; -en), a beam or flash of lightning. 

[mil^ and ®tta% m., beam.] 
hlil^itauf, imp/. ofanfhlii^tn,'^s^.f lit. lightened up; to come 

upon one like lightning (No. 104) ; spring up like 

blo'ttbgelotft, adj., lit. fair curled {of hair), in golden 

ringlets, [btonb, fair, light; getocft, curled; bie 

8odPe, the curl, lock.] 
b(0d or blof, adj., bare, naked ; mere. 

adv., solely, simply, merely, only, 
btulfen,"^ WHfitf geblul^t, to bloom, blossom ; flourish. [Engl. 

blow. Thus: "the early blowing tulips."] 
b I ul^ t, 3c7 pers. sing. pres. of blwl^en. 
©Ittttie,"*^/. (-; -n), flower. [Engl, bloom.] 
blumengef(i^mu(f t, adj., adorned, decorated with flowers. 

[fii^mudfen,"'^ adorn, make smooth.] 
. a3lu'menf6tb(!^cn,»* n. (-6;-), little flower-basket, [ber 

Jtorb, the basket.] 
©lumenflrduge, ph of 93lumen<ltaufi,B* m., bouquet of 

flowers, nosegay. 
5Blttt;»* n. (-e; no pi.), bleod; race, 
blutigcnt, dot. sing, q/^btutig, lit. bloody; sanguinary, 
blutenbem, dot. of the pres. p. used adjectively ; from btuten,^ 

to bleed, 
g^lutl^e,^/. (-; -n), blossom [see blu^en]. 


^e^dt^oxn,«^ n. {-a ] -f^otnn), lit. horn of a buck; goafs 

horo. (Situn in'^ ^ocfdl^orn iagen, to frighten one 

out of one^s wits. 
58obett,"*i». (-^;-)i Id- bottom; ground, floor; garret. 
©09en,«»*w. (-0;-), bow, arch, bend, [hit^tn, Bog, geBogen, 

to bend.] 
^cf^ntn,pl o/aSol^nc,^/ (-; -n), bean. 
hoffttt, imp/, ofhei^ttn,^ lii, to bore; No. 96, to thrust, stick. 
f&ontt,n., a town on the left bank of the Bhine, within 

sight of the Riesengebirge, 20,000 Inhab^. 
aSottBott'gdl^tte,^^. of ?bovhoti^i^n or Reefer gal^n,"* m. (-c«; 

-gdl^ne), sweet-tooth. 
S3onBpn''0, Ut* goodies, pL of bonbon, m., a sweatmeat, 

sweets. [Fr, un bonbon.] 
g3oot,«* n. (-a ; -e), boat. 
aBotgcn,"* w. (-« ;-), borrowing. 
f8ox)>, n., board, deck {of a ship). Sm Sorb, on board. 
93 6 fen, bie, pL of ber S3cfe, acj/. i«a^ a« a noun, SD^ann or 

«ome other word being understood. See bed. 
bo fen, a£c. sing', masc. of ho^. " « 

b60 or b^fe, adj., bad, evil, wicked. 

adv., angry, vexed, out of temper. 
Sofed, ne«^. «n^. of bod. 
SBotttei'Uen, pi of SSouteiCe ^ /. (-j -n), bottle. [jFV. 

brad^'« for brad^ ba« (No. 117), from bred^n, bra<^, gebro^en, 

to break. « 
brad^te, impf. q/'bringen, btaci^te, gebrad^t (a verb of str. infl, 

on account of the vowel change, and at the same time 

ofw. infl. on account of its endings te and t), to bring. 

ettood gu (Snbe bringen, to bring something to an end 
or issue, to accomplish anything. 
Ibt&d^ten, impf subj., corresponding to the ind. Ixa^ttn of the 

verb bringen. [The subord. sent, toie fk . . . btdd^ten, 

No. 85, M dependent upon Jid^ l^atte gel^^rt," and as 


it contains the VH>rd$ repeated from other pereone, ike 
verb tepid in the ettbj.Ji 

hxad^tt in Drbnung, imp/, of in Dtbnung Bringen, to put in 
order, put straight. [See kingen.] 

hxa^tt bal^in (No. 74), impf, of bal^in (ringen,c>t sip., lit. to 
bring to it ; to get to it, to induce. 

(rad^ten ^ui, impf. of ^vii Bringen,** sep., to enter on the 
credit side of an account, to put to one*s credit. 

S3raten,«t m, (-«;-), roast-meat, [katen, Briet, geBtaten, to 

(RinberBraten, roast-beef. @(|bxineBtaten, roast-pork. 
^ammelBraten, roast-mutton. J^alB^Braten, roast-veal. 

brattd^cn,'^ Brau<]^te, geBraud^t, to use, make use of, employ; 
to be in want of. [Engl, brook; Scotch bruik, 
bruke. Ohg. pr^hhdn,/rom the root yrHj possibly 
aJdn to Lat. frui, enjoy, make use of, possess.] 

braud^te, impf o/Btaudl^en. 

broufen,'^ to move forward violently with a rustling or 
rushing noise. Wee the wind; No. 115, to resound 
in deafening, thundering notes, to roar. 

b r a tt fe tt b, i?re». jp. o/" Brauferu 

b V a u jl, d£? pers. sing, pres, of Braufen. 

S3 taut,^ "*/• (->. SSraute), ^. brid e ; an engaged or betrothed 
lady; affianced bride. [Ut. the cherished, nour- 
ished one, from pp, of A,S, bredan, to cherish]. 

I9rautigatn,°t m, (-ed;-e), bridegroom {&he man who 
guards, takes care of the bride ; A.S, guma, 
Scand, gumi, i,e,, the ^ man, guardian, and AS. 
gyman, to guard, take care of.] 

btaungefledten; from Braungcjlccft, adj,, brown-spotted, 
i.e., covered with brown jspots, [Brauti, brown; 
fleden in Bejletfen, to cover with spots; ber %Udm, 
the spot, 
brat), adj. and adv., brave, bravely; gallant (No. 72) ; ex- 
cellent, worthy (No. 111). 


braoM as an easdamatum or itdj.^ well done! Ut. 

hravdy done I 
brao, used adverUaUy in No, 121. 93tatf ®e1bet 
muf bet 93ater fd^tcfen, the father has to go on 
sending money (funds) liberally. In the same 
way: 93ra)) Sl^ebecin finne^men; Brat) f))telett ; Bra)) 
ged^en ; Brat) toad^en ; Brat) ))Iaubem. 
Brat)er, ein, ma«e., tmitft case-ending tt, after ein, «0e Brav. 
B raven, bie^j?/. q/'Bra)9, tiTt^ case-ending en. 
Br ed^'ybr Bred^e, jpre». of Bred^en. 
Bremen,"* Brac^, geBrod^en, to break. [Lat frango.] 
SBrei,«* m. (-e^; fio^Z.)i porridge; pap; broth [broth toos 
formerly in England^ and is still in Scotland, called 
brewis, brew, bree, Germ. ^xnf)t, from Brauen, to 
brew. — „^rei, Ohg. pri/* is, however, probably akin 
to the Latin root fri in fricare, to rub down, and 
not to Brauen, as some suppose]. 
Breit odj-i broad ; toeit unb Breit, adv^phr,, far and wide. 
Breitnen, Brannte, geBrannt, to bnm. [See SBrunnen.] 
B t e n n t, Sfl? pers, sing. pres. of Brennen. 
93 rem en, n., a seaport at the right bank of the Weser, one 
of the so-called free Hanse-towns, 70,700 Inhab^, 
hxidft,Sd pers. sing. pres. , from Bremen. 

Brid^t l^erein, from ^ereinBred^en,"* sq>., Ht. to come 
breaking in upon {the world, etc.)', to dawn, 
99rief^)otto,"* n. (-«; no pi), letter-postage. 
Srieffadfe, pi of ©rieffadf,"* m. (-e«; -e), letter-bag, bag 
with letters, [bet ©tief, the letter; brief; bet 
<Sadf, the sack.] 
»tt90 w/. (-. _0), brig. 

Btingen,"* Btad^te, geBtai^t, to bring ; to yield (No. 23). 

Bringt Sdpers. sing. pres. ofBringen. 

Btingenb, pres. p. of Bringen. 

Bringt ^uxUd,pres. of gutudEBtingen^'t sqt., to bring back. 


©rot {not g3tob),»* n. (-c«; -e), bread; loaf of bread; food 
in general [derived from Ohg, priuwan, A,S. 
breodan, Nkg. Braucn, to brew. That which ie 
brewed or brod, m termed broth or 58rot, 93tob. 
JDic Srfil^e, the brew or broth {see 93tei). Compare 
also ike later Latin, brodium ; It. brodo ; Fr, 

S3ru'tfen0clb,»* n. (-e«;-er), toll paid at a bridge, [tie 
ffirucfe, the bridge ; ba« @elb, the money.] 

fBtttbeT,B*w. (-«; ©tuber), brother. 

btuberlic^, adj, and adv., brotherly. 

bruUt, Sdpers. s.pres. ofhxiiUtn,^ to roar (as a least). 

S3tu''mBaf,«* m. (-e«; -bdfe), lit. the growling bass-viol; 
bass; bourdon (of an organ), bassoon. 

brummen,"^ to growl, grumlile ; hum. [TJie very sound of 
the word Brumtnen is suggestive of the bumming or 
humming noise made by some animals, like the bum- 
ble-bee, (he hear, etc.] 

brum me (No. 27), Sdpers. s.pres. subj. of brumtnen. 

SBrunnen,** (old form S3r©nnen), m. (-«;-), spring, fountain 
[from the old form of btennen, to bum, i.e., brinnen, 
btann, gebtonnen, lit boiling up Uke water, 
blazing up like fire; ^cxn, m., spring, source]. 

©rujl,"''^ ■*/. (-; -u-e), breast, chest, bosom. 

©rutto, r The weight of goods, inclusive of the weight of 
B^ \ material used for packing. 

Su^et, pi of f&u^,«^ n. (-e«; -u-er), book. [Derivation 
uncertain; according to some from f&n6ft, beech- 
tree, since the ancient Germans are supposed to have 
written on the bark of beech-trees; according to 
others from biegen, bugen, to bend, fold, see ©ug.] 

© u (3^ b i u b e t,»* m. (-5 ;-), bookbinder. 

58 u(^ flab en (No. 28), dat. pi. of fdvL^^abt,"^ m. (-n;-n), 
letter. [S3ud^, n., and ^iobf staff, rod.] 

IBu^l»alb,i?rqp. name, lU. Beech- wold (i,e., wood).. 


aSiidJfew / (-;-n), box; rifle town). [SBud^fe or Buxe 
is the Engl, box ; in Low Qerm, also used for 
breeches.] * 

bucfen,^ fid^r ^^-^ ^iHx^ fi(^, {t^ gebfiift, to bow, stoop down 
[related with the Scotch to beck, which is used of 
making a cttrtsey, as distinguished from bowing], 

Su (fling*, pi. from bcr SBfidfling,** m, (-f«; -«), a very cere- 
moniouB bow, excessive obeisance ; a red herring 
[from Wtfcn]. 

23 u 9,** m. (-^; -SSuge), bow, bent; therefore shoulder {of 
horsesj etc,), [biegen, to bend.] 

a3unbe6*9lttUil^e,^/., loan of the (North -German) Con- 
federation, [ber S3unb, the Confederation, bond.] 

bunt, adj., checkered, checked, coloured; gay; (in No. 
106) bright, flashing.' [A combination of colours^ 
and hence erroneottsly allied vjith ^unb, m., bond, 
whilst it should be connected vnth Lot. punctatus, 
Germ. ))un!tirt, dotted {compare Engl, punctured). 
In Ohg., bunt was applied to the fne fur-coat of the 
Russian squirrel; and in its modem accqttaticn 
in Nhg.f "alternately marked with different 
colours, striped, checkered, etc.,*^ it can be traced 
back to ihelGth century , when it occurs as pund<^t 
{i.e., $ttn!ti(i^t), and thence hrmti^ and bunt.] 

bunted, ntetn (No. 53), neut. of the adj. {case-ending ti) qfter 
mein [see bunt]. 

bunten, (No. 55), of hunt. 

S3ttrg,^ /. (-; -en), Engl, burgh, borough; citadel, 
stronghold, fortress [see SQtx^ bergen]. [Compare 
Engl burglar, t.e., Lat. burgi latro, the robber of 
the burgh. '* The kynge and his meyne went to the 
burgh Konan."] 

Sftrgemeifter or ©urgermeifter,"* m. (-«;-), burgo- 
master, i.e., the burghers^ or citizens* master ; Lord 
Mayor ; Provost {in Scotl.). [" The cities sent one of 


their bnrgbmasterB into the town of Hagwin 

©ur'gcrlid^er, dn, nom. masc, afUr cin, caae-ending tt, from 
Burgertid^, o^;., lit, burgher- Uke; a citizen, plebeian, 
civilian. [bet SSiitger, the burgher, citizen. 
" Who compt the quiet bnrgher^an a««e."] 

^urgerlid^en, einem, dat. of the above. 

SButfd^c,"^ m. (-n; -n), student, fellow, comrade; lad, ap- 
prentice [akin to Lot, bursarius, a bursar; bursa, 
a purse; Fr, bourse, Gr, fiv^^a, skin, hide]. 

SSur f<!^ \for gSurf^en (No, 96). Sl^r SBurfd^w ! you fellows. 

S5ttrfd^enteben,»*n. (-«;-), student's-life, college-life. 

fbuxfd)tntoo\)l,^ n. (-«;-), lit students^ -weal; students^- 
cause ; in behalf of students. 

^ufd^,"^ m, (-e3; S^ufc^e), bush, brushwood [Lot. boscus]. 

93ufe,"^/. (-; -n), repentance, penitence, Ut, bettering or 
SSeferung. [S3ufe, Bitfen, to make amends for, 
and Befftr, ore more or Use connected with the old 
word Bag, stiU found in futBaf, better, further, 

SButtet,^/. (-; nopl.)^ butter ;.jp;. kinds of butter: ®crten 

SBttttetBrobe,i?i. o/'SuttetBrob,"* «., a slice of bread with 
butter spread on it. 


I, as an initial, is a letter which migJd he very well dispensed 
with in German, Generally it hoe the simple power 
ofSt*j hence many words Uke „ (Eomplimtni," „ ®a|fee/' 
etc., are usually written unth a St, (§. before t, i, Xf, 
has the sound ofi, thus (Sentner, tttgarrc, Si^ttnbrr. 
{§il is sounded like St except in a few words like 
e^rtotte, d^auffee, e^cwic, etc. 


9a (FSreneh)t m^., expresses a command ; Let ub ! now ! 
Ca'ffee or Staff ftt,^ m, (-f<; no pL% coffee [Turkish^ 

(iaffa,^/or (Saffe, cash-box, money-box, exchequer, treas- 
ury; balance of cash. @^ajfen^$Inta>efung, /., ex- 
chequer-bill ; treasury-bond. 
Gc^ntnrr or 3entner,«t m. (-4;-), hundredweight. [LaL 

centum, 100.] 
Ql^ata^t,^/., (-; -n), charade, an enigmatical description 

of a word. 
(J^auffee,"^/ (-; -n), high-road. [The French chauss^e; 

the Oerm. ^eerjhafe,/.] 
^^atlo'tte,/, Charlotte. 
Q^tifl w Q^rrfiue, m., Christ. 
GotIegittm,"t n. (-6; pL, ^oHegien or @o((egia), lecture (in 

a College or Univereity), 
C^ollifio'tt,^/, collision. 
So. or (&omp,, for (Som^Ktgnie^wy:^ company. 
(iommiffio%/., commission {charge for), 

Q[otnmiffto'nd 8tr<^&ft» n., agency-business. 
(Som)pnme^ttte, pL of @ont))time'nt or Stovxplimtnt,'^ n. 

(-rt ; -e), compliment. 
C^om^toi^*^ n.(-6;-e), counting-house; office. [F)r, le 

comptoir, originally a long table or counter; 

thence counting-house.] 
Qi omptf for tomptant or G^ontant, ready money. 

pxo (Scmptv for ready money. [Fr, argent comp- 

tant, m., ready money.] 
confitmi'rt, pp. of wnflnniren,^ conflrmitte, confttmitt, to 

Gonnoffeme'nt, n., \ 

donnaffament, n., Lbill of lading. [Fr. connaissement.] 
Sonnoiffement, n., ) 

Sonto,"^ n. (-0 *j pi, -^or Sonti), account, bill. 
Sour., for (S u t a^'n t,«* n., currency ; money-current. 


iSonx\t,pl, of (Eonxi,^ m. (-cd; -e), course {of exchange), 
^onJinWU®thuf)Xtnf plj fees paid to the Consulate. 
(Son^um,^ 171., immediate use. 
©otrefponbe'ttt,"^ m, (-en; -en), correspondent. 

b a, adv. ofplaccj t h e r e, on the spot, present, in that place, here. 
[Its original form was bar, which BUrger stiU uses, 
,,m(^t loeid^en, nod^ toanfen von bar.'' This adv. must 
he well distinguished from the conj. ba, which is of 
different origin. Thus, b a (fhen, at that time) to>aren 
ba {ihere^ in that place) xvx Selbe bitten. The adv. 
ba or bat is the word employed in those numerous 
comihinaiions, like boBet, which arise from the 
coalescing of the demonstrative tmih a preposition^ 
the pronoun being represented bg^aor bat. Thus, 
for bei bem or Bei btefew, we say babei. TJiese com- 
binationa are used instead of the cases of the pronouns 
gov^ by prepositions, but only in referring to ammals 
or inanimate objects; they are also used as adverbs 
and sep. particles, and in some instances as adverbial 
conjunctions or conjunctive adverbs.^ 

b a, 1.) adv^ conj., caressing time and pointing to any moment, 
either past, present, or future: then, at that time, 
at that moment {and rmumng the nom. case after 
the verb. 2)a, afe i« ben JBogenjltang wxiti%f bamal^ 
%t\sM xHf, Schiller). 

2.) svhord. conj., caressing coincidence ofUme: 
when, at the time when, while {and removing the 
verb to the end of the sentence). 
8.) «u&orc^. oo9|/., esc^^resAin^ ca u 8 e, m 1 i V e, r e a s ' 
B^, since, because {and renuwing the verb t( 
end of (he sentence). 


tahtx, adv,, thereby, by it, by that, with it. [ba and Uifor 

bei biefent.] 

bobei bleiben, to stick to it, maintain. 
lDa6,"t n. (-e^ ; lDa(!^et), roof [the same as the Eng. thatch, a 

cover or roof of straw, reeds, etc* Compare the Lot, 

tectum from tegere, Ger. bedfen, to cover. JDad 

JDBbad^, t.e., tteberbad^, a shelter or roof overhead], 
baijjte or bac^^t', impf of ben!cn. 
bad^tett baran,i>2. impf (^f baran benfen, <6p., to think of it, 

remember, bear in mind. 
babur(^, adv.^ by that, by means of that, through it, by it, 

. by this, [ba and ^vcciijfor bttrd^ bitf or bod.] 
bafuT, ado,y for it, on account of it, as a reward of it. [ba 

and fur /or fur biefe«, bie« or bad.] 
bagegctt, adv,, against this, against it. 

acM (xm;., on the other hand, 
bal^eittt, adv.^ there, at home, [ba, there; l^eim, home.] 
balder, adv. and sq9,part., thenee, from thence, from that 

place, along there, [ba, there; 1^, hither, this 

way, indicating motion or direction from a place 

towards the speaker,] 

adv^ conj,^ therefore, for that reason, on that 
bal^in, adv. and sq>. particle, thither j to that place, [ba, 

there ; l^in, thither, the other way, indicating motion 

or direction to a place SkW9jfrom the speaker.] 

Baffin btingen,Bt sqf., to bring as far, to bring or 
induce to it. 

SafI fal^ren bal^in (No. 112), let it all be lost or gone, 
ba^ingeftogen, jTp. of bal^injlicgen,** sep., jlog bal^in, bal^ingc^ 

f[ogen ; to go flying off, to go off thitherj to an 

appointed place (like a shot, arrow, dart, etc.). 

fte feiett bo^ingejlogen, perf subj. 
bal^itttft, adv. and sep. part., behind it. [ba and l^inter 

biefent; behind this or it.] 


bantat^r adv, and advi conj,^ then, at that time, [tt may he 
considered as an eacpanded and more expressive form 
of^a, then, at that time. From ba, theii| and the 
gen. form M ^al^ or tRa(0 from bo^ SItal, the 

^amt, f H -n), lady [Me I^l, dame, dwiioed {hrough 
iheFr, la dame, ^ottT^ iJat, domiha, the mistress 
of a family. Compare also damsel , The word lady 
as a tkUy ihuSf Lady Fielding must he rendered hy 
„5tatt »Dtt Si«lbing,"„greiftAtt »on gielbing/' c^c] 

JDamett?$enfiona%^/. (-««; -e), ladies' boarding-school. 

bamit, adv. and sep. part., therewith, with it, with this, 
ado^ oOi\j.i in order that ; lest, [ba and mit for 
mit biefem, Um, with this, it.] 

ID a mm,"* m. (-e6; ^dmme), dam, bank, any obstruction 
huilt of woody stonSf and earth, to keep back water. 
^er ^n6), the dyke, is a mound or hank of earth 
ordy, the earth being dug out and thrown up. \JPhr., 
einm ^qlxom fe^n or bammen, to put an obstacle 
or obstruction in the way of; to stop.] 

b&mmernb,i)ra9. i?. ^ b&mmem,"^ to dawn (No. 84), ap- 
proach; grow dark or dim. [Root: dam or dim, 
Engl, dim, Sanscrit tam, dark, dim. 3loielt<!^t, 
twilight, m/ea^ StoeifeKi^t, i.e., doubtful light, 
whether light or not ; neither dark nor light, but 
between the two.] 

S)&mm?rung, /., the dawning or approaching darkness or 
light, if used of the dawn of morning. 

IDam^f,"* m. (-ed; ^&m)}fe),' steam, vaponr [^^n^;.damp; 
the root is dam or dim, ^ same as of b&mmem 
and SJdmmerung. 3)am^)f signifies awy " exhaled or 
evaporated moisture "]. 

3)am^fer,»* m. (-« ;-), steamer. 

a)am»)f^anlage,'«^/. (-; -en), erection of steam- work«. 

JDamj)f f^iff,»* m. (-e« j -e), steamer. 


JDaiiH)ff(l^iff«»erBinb«ttg,^/. (-; -tn), communication by 

steamers, line of communication by steamers. 

[t>erbinten, to connect.] 
bam)>ften, j>/. t/?i^.q/'bain^fen,^bain))fte, gebam^ft, to steam, 

to throw forth steam. 
3)am|) f jieg€lei^©«fi^cr,«* m. (-« ;-), tompound of ^awpf, 

steam; Siegelei, /., tile- works, brick-kiln; fdts 

f{|et, m., proprietor, owner. 
^ampUu^tlpxtf\txi, pi of JDaw^jfjiegerpteffe w / (-; -n), 

camp, of ^ant^f, m., steam ; Siegel, m., tile, brick ; 

$wff«#/i press. 
3)anf,"t m. (-€0; nop/.), thanks. 

gu ^onf (p. 143, No. 2), with thanks, thankfully, 
banfen,'*^ banfte, gebanft, to thank, return thanks, to be 

grateful (toiih dot). Sd^ banfe bit, i^x, if)m, 3l^nen, 

I thank thee, her, him, you. 
ban!te, impf oftanUn, 
banfe! impf. for banfe ^ir, or banfe S^nen, thank you! 

IDanf e ! w often used in comnum conversation for 

'* no, thank you," if you wish to decline anything. 
banfenben, von, dot pi. ofpres. jp., used adjecHvely, case- 
ending en [from banfen, to thank, to be grateful], 
b&n.,.^ bdnifd^, a^;., Danish, 
bann or benn, adv. of time, and adv^ conj., then, at 

that time; thereupon; (No. 56) in that case, 

under such circumstances. [As an adv^ conj. 

it removes the nam. case after the verb. Inverted 


The coT\f. benn, for, is historically the same word as 
bann ; the distinction that bann should he used of 
time and benn of motive, reason, or comparison 
{see Fischart^s £1. Ger. Gr., p. 95, 42) is con- 
trary to the history and derivation of the word. 

bann unb ivann, now and then. 

ba is often used in place of bann, as an abbreviated 


form^ as it were^ hU really as a synonymous and 
kindred expression {see ba). Thus : Senn er ba 
(i.e., bann) nod^ leBt. 
battnen, adf>, {used in conjunction with von), t)on bannen, from 

thence; ))on battnen laufen, to run away from 

bat in barfleUen,^ se^., to represent, i,e.j to place before 

one^s eyes ; barbrtngen,** «ep., to offer, i.e., to bring to 

the spotf is the same as ba or bar, adv. of places 

signifying to the place, spot, etc., there. It 

stands J if we may say so^ for batl^in or bal^in, "to 

that place or spot." 
baran, od^. and sep, part,, thereon, on or upon it, of it; 

No. 66, by means of it. [ba or bar and on for an 

biefem or an bie6 or bo^J 

baran fein^ to be situated. 

batan glauben (No. 17), to belidve in it. 
bataitf, adv.j thereupon, upon that, on it, upon it; ba(b 

barauf, soon after that. 
bar and, adv, and sep, pdrt.y thereout, out of it. 

adv^ conj.y froiti it, by reason of it. 
barf, 1st and Sdpers. s. pres. of bihrfen. 
barffl, 2dpers. s.pres. (?/*burfen. 
barein, adv., into it; bareinfel^en,"^ «^., Ut. to look into it ; 

Imperative (No. 114), ©iel^' barein, deign to look 

upon us ! 
barin, adv. and sep. part., therein, in it ; in that point (No. 

56). [bar and in for in biefem.] 
barnac^ or banad^, adv. and sep. pref, thereafter, after it 

{longing afi/et it), [bar and na(^ for na^ biefem, 

b a r n i e b er, adv., down, 
b a ruber, adv., thereof, over that, of it. [bar and uhtxfor 

fiber biefem or fiber bad.] ' 

baviiber ftanaen, to hang over it. 



barum, adv., thereabout, around that, for that. 

adv^ conf,, therefore, on that account, for that 
^ reason, [bat and um/or nm bie^ or ba«.] 
bad, neut. ofthedemon8iradve,farUt\a or bied (No. 4), that ; 

bad alia (No. 62), all that, 
bad, neui, of ike def, art-, the. Declined: Sing. N, bod, G. 

bed, D. bcm, Ace, bod ; Fl, N. bie, G. ber, D. bm. 

Ace. bie. 
badfetBe, n. of the determ. adj. and pron. bedfelBe, biefelBe, 

badfelbe, the s e 1 f-same thing ; if referring topereons^ 

he, she, it, ^2. they. 
3)afcin,«* «^(-d;-), existence, being, [ba, there; feln, to 

be, exist.] 
bafelBfl, adv., there, i.e., at the place mentioned before; the 

self-same place, [ba^ there ; felbfl, self.] 
baf, subordinate conj., that (removing the verb to the end of 

the sentence, and often foUowed by the svhjunc^ve). 

No. 6, bafi bie SBelt untetgel^en n>etbe. No. 12, baf 

man fal^e. [Thie is one of the oldest and most 

frequenJdy usedsubord. oonj. in the German language.'} 

bap nic^t, lest, auf bafi, in order that. 

fc \>a% in such a manner that, to such a degree that. 
JDato,B* n. (-d ; no pi.), date. 
bdu(3^te, impf. of bunfen, bfiud^te, gebdud^t, Sdpers^ or impert^ 

verb, seem, appear {with dot.). 

ed bdtt(!^t mir, it seems or appears to me [derived 
form o^benfen, bad^te, gebac^t, to think], 
bat) on, adv. and adv^ cor^., from or of it. [ba and ^on for 

t>on biefem.] 
ba§u, adv., thereto, to it; into the bargain. 

adv^ conj., for that purpose (No. 93). 
bajtoifc^en, adj., between, in the midist of it. [ba and 

gtoifd^en/or gtoifd^en biefem or bem.] 
S)e(fe,"»^/. (-; -n), ceiling, cover [from betfen, to deck; ber 

^ecfel, the lid, cover]. 


bedfen,^ htdie, gcbedft, to deck, cover, put a roof on; to lay 

a table. 
bed', 2dper8. sing, imp/, of bcrfen. 

becftiiiangtt, Sdpera. sing.pres. of ^nUdtn,"^ s^-, to cover. 
JD egen,B* m. (-^ ;-), sword [aJcin to the Engl d agger, a short 
pointed sword for stabbing. The original meaning 
of the toord is hero, warrior ; thtie in ihe Slibelungen* 
Ueb we havey $aft bu 2)egen bod getl^an? Have you 
"hero" done that? and the now obsolete word 
ID e g e nl^eit was used for braveness. In the same sense 
the word occurs in No, 119, ^. 135. ^u tapftxtt 
5Degen! You valiant knight or hero! We also 
say: (Sin alter beutfd^er ^egen!sto))f, a good old 
German warrior]. 
bein, masc. of the poss. pron., thy. 

Declined: Sing. N. bein, G. beined, D. bcinem, Ace. 
beinen ; PL N, Mm, G, beinet, D. beinen, Ace. beine. 
bein, nevi. of the poss. pron., thy. 

Declined like ihe masc. (see dbove)^ loith the exception 
of the Ace. sing., which is Uke the nom., t.6., beitt. 
beine, ym. oftheposs.pron., thy. 

Declined: Sing. N. beine, (r. beinct, D. beiner, Ace. 
beine; PL like the masc. {see above). 
be in (No. 68), mtin, fein: thine, mine, his, or thee, me, 
him, are the original genitives sing, of the personal 
pronoun, instead of which we now use the extended 
forms, beiner, meinet, feiner. 
The original forms are still current in some stereo- 
typed phrases, like SSetgifi wein nid^t! Forget 
me not I and they are always preferred in solemn 
and poetical language, thus, ®ax nid^t begel^rt' 
l^ bein (No. 68). 
beinent, dat. sing. masc. and neut. o/bein. 
S)eine, bad (No. 121), thy duty (fiie possessive is used here 


^cUrebere, guarantee; a premiam or commission charged 

for becoming responsible for the buyers of goods 

or underwriters, 
bent, an (No, GT),for an totldftm, rei.pron,, at which. 
bemfelBen, dot. wng. masc. or neut. of berfelbe, ba^felbe. 
ben (No. 68), ace, masc, of the demonstnUive ber, bie, bad, 

instead of btefet, t, 9S, this, 
benen, dat.pL of the rehpron, ber, who, which, that. 

ntit benen, yor mit toelc^en, with whom, those. 

an benen (No. Ill), by which. 

9xa benen, out of which, or from which. 

in benen, in which. 
ben!en, bad^e, %thad^t, to think; benfen an, to think of. 
benfe, id^, Istpere, eing.pres, of benfcn.* 
benf jl, 2dper8. sing.pres. of binfen. 
benfe bran, 2d pere. s. imper. of bran^ benfen, to think 

of it. 
ben!enb(e), pres. p. used adjecHvelpj thouglitfnl, pensive, 

meditative, [benfen, to think.] 
benn, t,) co-ordinate cov^^y for {which does not invert (he 

clause at the head of lohich it staTids, Ofihe same 

class are aber, adein, fonbent, nnb, foto)«l^( . . old 

QM6fj. benn toenn, for when. 
s.) subordinating conj.j than {used afUr ^ eompojNir- 

tive in place of aU). 
8.) adv, and eoepletivef then, to be sure, snrely, pray, 

unless, etc. {never standing ai the beginning 

of a sentence, but inserted far ornament^ em- 
phasis, euphony, or fluency of style, and sometimes 


Unb to)a0 flnb benn frembe Seute? (No. 102). And 
pray, what is meant by or who are . . . ? 

IDarfid^ ed benn nid^t t^un? Am I then not al- 
lowed . . . ? 

ffier finb benn bie (No. 62). Who can they be ? 


@^dren benn (No. 62) . . . Unless it were, or 
should be . . . 
benfelBen, ace, sing, masc, of berfelBe. 
JDejJc^ci^e,^/. (-; -n), despatch. %tU^ap))\^d^t JDe^'fd^e, 

message by telegraph. 
betB, adj,, bold, massive, tough, strong [the Scotch derf ; its 
original meaning is " baked " or " dry." It is of 
the same root as haxbtn, to starve ; bctrett, to get 
dry or withered ; burre, dry, withered ; 3)arre, /., 
kiln-drying. Compare also verb e r 6 en]. 
bet, 1.) masc. ofthedef. art, the. Declined: Sing, bet, be^, 
bem, ben ; Plur. hit, bet, ben, bie. 
2.) demonstrative pron. used substantively {the same 
word as the art. hut receiving more emphasis) ^ 
this, this one, he, she, it. 
Declined: Sing, bet, beffen, bent, ben; Plur. bie, 
beren (or beret before a relat.\ benen, bie .... ; it 
pains . . . (No. 90), ber fd^merjt. 
8.) relative pron. (removing the verb to the end of the 
clause ; subordinate order of toords), w h o, w h i c h, 
that. Declined: Sing, ber, beffen, bent, ben; Plur. 
bie, beren, benen, bie. 

Example: ber (dem.), ben (re/.), bu meinji, him, 
whom you mean. 
4.) ber. No. 16, answering to a loer in the preceding 
clause ; ihusy 2Ber liiqlt, ber jiiel^tt. Who tells lies, 
he {that person} is also capable of stealing. 
SBer . . . ber, he . . . who. 
beren, gen. pi. See benen. 
b e r g 1., for b e r g t e i (^ e n, adv. , the like, [gleid^, like ; filei(!^en, 

to liken, resemble.] 
bergeflalt, adv., in such way, to such a degree {Jrom in 

ber ®ejlolt,/., lit. in that shape, figure, respect], 
berfelbe, m., biefelbe,/.,ba«fetbe,n.,i?Z. btefelben, etc. 
1.) determ. adj. , the same, lit. s e 1 i-samc. 


1.) pron.y he, she, it, they, etc. [comp^ of ike def, art. 
bet, which in declined Uiroughovt, and of felB, de- 
clined like an adj. of weak injlexum]. 
berfelBen (No. Ill),, of the above. 
berioeil, adv.^ whilst, meanwhile, at the same time that 
[for tofil^renb bet ffieitc, during the wh il e or moment. 
Compare also: bei ndd^tUdl^er Seile. 5Die J^urgloeiL 
5Die Sangetoeil. $ier ifl gut ^dltn (toeKen,^ to stay, 
linger, abide)], 
beffetben, gen. sing. masc. and neui. q/'betfelbe. 
^t\\tn,g€n.sing.masc.\ AU these are expanded ^rmv of 
^txtvif gen. sing. fern. \the def. art. bet. They are used 
^t\\tnf gen. sing. neiU. VsubBtantivelj, that isj withovi the 
^txtn, m.^f.,n. I noun to which they refer, but never 
^tntn, m.,f.j n. J before U—aaid in place of the regu- 
lar forms of the following words: 
1.) the demonstrative bet, which is the same as (he' art, 

but pronounced with more emphasis. 
8.) the relative totl^tx, which is the same word as the 

interrogative totidftx. 
8.) the relative bet, who, which, that. 

Examples: in bet en ®eftd^t(No. 61), in whose face, 
beffen fld^ bet ihanfe ttettounbetn tooKte (No. 74, p. 
79), at which the patient expressed great as- 

beten bu bebatffl (No. 67), of which you . . . 
betet before a relative pr. bod Slnfel^n betet, bie i^n 
umgaben, the authority of those who surrounded him. 

(These enlarged forms date ftt)m the second half of the 15th 
century, and the older, original, and simpler forms, still in nae, 
are far more pithy and expressive. Thus: Die Toehter 
des . . .; Det freuet tieh . . .; Ihr toUt dor Keins thun . . .; Wea 
das fferz voU ist, des gehet der Mund Uber.) 

be^toegen, oe^v. and conj., therefore, on that account, for 
that reason, [koegen, prep, with gen.^ on account of; 
bed or beffen, gen., of that.] 


beutfd^, adj.j German. [The Engl Dutch or Old Engl, 
Douche. From the title-page of Coverdale^a Bible, 
1 535| and from manypaasages in the old Engl, plays, 
it is dear that Dutch or Douche means German ; 
and up to the present time the common name for a 
German emigrant in America is a Dutchman. The 
original signification of the word *' Dutch t>7* beutfc^ " 
is, " as the common people speak, known to the 
people, pertaining to the people," ^rom the Crothic, 
thiuda, the people, and Uience thiusdisks, diutisc, 
diutsch, beutifd^, which became allast beutfd^. Of the 
same root are: beuten,^ to interpret, explain, i.e., 
to render into plain language, or toetbeutfd^en; Untlid), 
adj., clear, intelligible ; ^eutlid^feit,/., distinctness ; 
bebeuten, to mean, etc.] 

5D e u t f ^ e,""^ b er, m., the German [tJie adj. is used suhstantively 
but retains the adj, decl, unth the case-ending tnfor 
all cases, sing, and plur, , except nom, sing. In other 
words, its declension is the same as the weak declen- 
sion of masculines like S3Sr]. 

IDeutfi^en, bed, gen. sing, of the above. 

IDeutfd^er, ein, a German {the adj, used substantively, but 
retaining the adjective declension; thus, N, Qin 
JDeutfd^er, G, time JDeutfd^en, Z>. einem 2)eutfd^en, 
Ace, einen 2)eutfd^cn). 

3)eutf(^tanb,«* n., Germany (gen. sing, in i, JDeutfd^knbd, or 
»on JDeutfd^Unb, bed JDeutfd^tanb). 

bid^, ace. sing, of bu, beiner, bit, bid^; PI. i1)x, euet, tndf, tuif}. 
b^ felbjl, thyself. 

JDi'd^tcr,"* m, (-d;-), poet, [bitten, to invent, the effort of 
imagination and of thinking.] 
aid ^ic^ter, as poets, in the character of poets. 

JDicti'rejt,"* n. (-d ; no pi), dictation. 

bidf, adj., thick; stout, corpulent. 

Phr., ©r ^at'd bicf {or faujlbid) l^intem Df)ttn, he is a 


deep fellow and no fool. [Ud is related to bi^t, 
close, solid, whu^ is derived from the Mhg, 
betl^en, to dry up, drain off, and thus by evapor- 
ation to render dense and compact. Not de- 
rived from gebei^en, to thrive, prosper.] 
hit, fern, of the def, art^ the. Declension: JSing. hit, htx, htx, 

hit ; PL hit, htx, ben, hit, 
hit (No 13), fern, of the rel. pron (removing the verb to the 
end of the clatise, bie . . . flel), who, which. 
Declension: Sing, bie, beren, ber, bie; PL hit, htxtn, 
benen, bie. 
3) i e 16,8* wi (-e^ ; -e), t h i e f. [ This word must be traced back 
to the root da, the same as is found in bunfel, dark ; 
iief; deep; and hitntn, Wiener, to be a slave of 
something, either for good or bad^ therefore the 
general idea underlying the word ^ith seems to be 
that of ^' being a deep fellow, a slave of darkness, 
secrecy, and stealth.'* Compare also the Mhg, 
dube, which signifies *' a thing stolen," a theft or 
^itU,"^ f (-; -n), plank, a long board; an'entntnce or 
lobby {of a house), [The word 3)iele, deal, origi- 
nally a plank cut fiom a large block of wood by 
sawing or dividing the block along its whole length 
into planks, is rekUed with ti^eilen, to divide, deal. 
A 3)ie(e, therefore, is a board dealt or divided from 
Hie trunk, A f&xttt, n., or board, again, is only a 
part or portion of a 2)iele. From the deals used 
for the flooring of rooms and lobbies, the word JDiele 
became at first applied to any deal-paved fiat, 
floor, or surface^ and then to the firm, dayey, and 
level ground of the large entrance-passage or floor 
(Slur, ^au^jlur) of farm-houses, which is made use 
of for thrashing com. Thence we got the word 
^itit, entrance-hall, applied to the passage at the 


entrance of German dwelUngSf eepeciaUy those of the 
middle and lower classes,] 

bienen,"^ bientf, gebient, to serve; 3<^ bien', I serve; bienen 
gu or bagn bienen, to be of service to, to be useful 
for, to serve a purpose, end. [Boot : deo or diu, 
a slave or servant ; the Ohg. diondn, Nhg, bienen, 
signifies there/ore " to be a slave or servant of." 
Connected with it are: Ohg. deolih, humble, and 
Ohg. diu, Nhg SJSagb, or maid-servant.] 

2)iener,»* m. (-^;-), servant, attendant. [3)iener, m., in its 
modem acceptaiion does not always imply " menial 
service." GentUmen in high official positions are 
termed ,, @taatdbiene¥/' and clergymen „Jtir(^em 
biener." Compare 33ebiettte and bienen.] 

f^itntxn, dot, pi (No. HI), in: mxt ge^otfamen ^ienem, i,e., 
with obsequious or slavish gestures. This expres- 
sum originates in the phrases : „ )u bienen or in 
JDienjlen," at your service ; 3l^r gel^orfawet JDiener, 
your obed^ serv^, a signature in Utters ; and may 
be explained by supposing that SRox ©toU'rian not 
only indtdged in these obsequious gestures^ but made 
even use of one of the above phrases. 

btenfl'^fertig, a£(j\ and adv., officious, obliging, [^ienfl, m., 
service ; fertig, ready.] 

bienft'gef alUg, adj. and adv., obliging, lit. pleased to render 
a service, [^ienfl, m., service ; gefaUig, obliging.] 

2)ing,"*«. (-e«; -e), thing. The pi. 2)inget is used in a 
contemptuous sense. 

gnter ^inge fein, phr., to take things easy, to be in 
good spirits. 

Vxti, biefed, bad, neui., this, that, it. 

These neuter forms are used in a similar way like 
a, impersonally, as it were, that is, as grammatical 
or indefinite subjects to the verb " to be," fein, the 
real subj., following after. Thus (No. 29) 5)a« 



lixit bie tr&ge Wtat^axtiff, (No, 33) (Sd ifl bet ^ater, 
biefet, nuuc, of the demonatrativej this; 

{withotU the noun) this one, the latter. 
Dedennon: Sing, biefet, biefed, biefentr biefen; PL 
biefe, biefer, biefen, biefe. 
biefet, gen, and dai, sing, fern , and gen, pi of Sing, biefe, 
biefet, biefet, biefe; PL biefe, biefet, biefen, biefe, this ; 
this one, the hitter, 
biefelben, nom, and ace, pL q/^betfelBe. 
biefelbe,/., «c«betfetbe. Declined: Sing, biefetbe, G, betfelbcn, 
D. betfelben. Ace. biefetbe ; Plur, biefetben, G. ber- 
felben, D. benfetben. Ace. biefetben.] 
bit, dot, sing. of^vi,pers, pron., 2dp€rs., thee, to thee, you. 
Declined: Sing.^ bu, beinet, bit, bid^ ; PL tl^t, euer, 
tVL^i, eu^, thou, you. 
3) it)., /or JDittibenbe,^ /. (-; -n) {commerciaL), dividend. 
JDi«co'nto,»* m. (-« ; nopL), discount, 
b. a^. or b. ^te., far biefet ^onatB, of this month (the 

same as the EngL " the 3d inst.," ben 3'f b. 5W.). 
bo(^ !•) co-ordinate conj, and conjunctive adverby used to 

connect co-ordinate sentences '(and removing the 
nominative afUt the verb. Inverted order of 
v>ords). It is adversative in Hsforce, contrasting 
the meaning of the united sentences : b u t (No. 17); 
yet (Nob. 11 and 96), nevertheless (No. Ill) ; 
in spite of it, though. 
2.) adv. and expletive^ after all, to be sure, pray, 
I hope, doubtless, is it not so? With^e 
imperative it answers to EngL '' do." SBel^Ite fte 
bod^ (No. 64), pray do keep them ; — nic^t bodl^, 
not so. 
JDod^ten, dot. pL of^o^t,^ m. (-e«; -e), wick. 
^c(XQt}>{if)xtn,pLf dues or charges paid by ships entering 
a dock. 


^cdituU,pl,f people employed at the docks. 

JDoctor,"* "^ wi. (-^; -en), doctor, physcian. 

JDonner,"* m, (-rt; nopl.)j thunder [of the same root as the 
Ohg, diun^n, A.S, dynan, Nhg, tonen, to make a 
loud noise, Uience the Engl, din, from the Sanscrit 
dhwan, to resound. Lot, tonare]. 

f^cnntt^all,^ m. (-«;-c), echo of thunder. 

JDonnetjiag,** m. (-c«; -e), Thursday. [Conner, to., 
thunder ; Xa^, m., day.] 

3) o'tt a tt,"^ /, Danube. 

\>c)pptlt, acfj.j double, twofold ; 'o^v., doubly, twice. 

bc^))elt ge^ffnet (No. 108), the doorer of two dens 
opened at once. 

5Dcrf,»* n. (-€« ; fDorfcr), village. [Old Engl, thorp e or 
thorp. '* Within a litUe thorpe I staid at last." 
— Fairefax. The word is still to he found in proper 
names of Engl, villages.'] 

S)orn, ■*^ »». (-rt; -tn), thorn, anything prichly, trouble- 
some^ or harassing; phr., (Sin 2)orn im Sluge, a 
thorn in the flesh [supposed to be related with A.S. 
taeran, to tear, pp. toren, torn]. The pi. 2)crncr, 
prickles, is surely little better than a provincialism, 
A pointed thorn, ein flad^eliger ^orn. 

^oxnttifpl o/a)om. 

iDornflraud^,"* m. (-e«; ^fhaud^er), bramble, a plant or 
shrub having thorns or spikes. 

borren,"^ bottte, geborrt, to dry, to make dry. [burr, dry; 
borren or verborren, to dry up, wither.] 

bott (or older form bortcn), adv.^ there, yonder, i.e., in yon 
place (a far more compressive term than ba, there), 
^a ifl ber Staf)n unb bort bet @ee! Here is the 
boat and there (yon) the lake. 

bottl^in, adv.y there, to that place. 

^ofe,"*^ /• (-; "ii)> * small Box [possibly the same as Engl. 
dose, Gr. h^tgy "a thing given." The Engl. 


word is applied to a small portion of medicine gitfen. 

The German word signifies the box for containing 

a smaU portion of anifthmg]. 
bran', /or baran. 
bt&ngte midf ^nxud, impf. of ^uxu^x&n^n,^ Mp., to posh 

back, force back, [^tong, m., throng.] 
h'xauf, for batauf. 
brauf',/or braupen, ac^v., without, out of doors; away 

from the house, 
brei, ntim' adj,, three. 
2)reiblatt|l\jBe,w/. trefoil-room, [btei, three; aSlott, «., 

leaf; ©tube,/., parlour.] 
breil^unbert, num^ adj., three hundred, 
breimal, adv,, three times, thrice, [brei, three; 9Ka(, n., 

^xti^maiii^^oontx, m., a schooner with three masts, 
btei^ig, numi culj., thirty, [btei, three; Qi^fn., number 

brei^igflen, in tneinem, dat. sing,, in my thirtieth, 
brefil^en, btofd^, gebtofc^en, to thrash, beating the ears of 

corn to separate the grain, 
bringenb, pp. qf bringen, brang, gebrungen, throng, press ; to 

insist upon something, auf ettood bringen. 
britte, num^ adj., third. 

^xittt, betr m., the nnmi adj. used substantively, the third, 
britten, auf ben, ace. sing. masc. gov^ by ^.from bet britte. 
b rub en, adv., yon, yonder, on that side, 
btuber^ybr baruber, adv., over it, above it ; meanwhile. 
2)tu(f,"* wi. (-e«; no pi.), pressure, 
brud en,^ btiidfte, gebrucft, to press, squeeze, to pinch (No. 

93) ; to be or lie heavy (No. 17). 
brucf te, impf. o/"brutfen. 
b 'rum, /or barum. 

^%.,for JD«tcnb,B* n. (-«;-), dozen, 
bu, 2dpers. fflhepers. pron., thou, you. 


DecUmd: Sing. i>u, beiner, bit, bidj ; Plur. il^r, eutt, 

Fkr, Jt(^ 5Du nennen or ftd^ bufcn, to address each 
other by 3)u, lywteflw;? ofutnng the Sdperg. pl^it ; 
t^ signifies Ui^refore^ " to be on intimate terms ; " 
ihence^ m 2)tt|bnjbet, an intimate companion, 
crony, an old chum. 

buftcnw buftete, gebuftet, to exhale fragrance; smell 

\>Vi^iznJ>t,pre8. pari, used adjectivdy [see buften]. 

tuftig, adj.y fragrant, sweet-smelling, [ber JDuft, exha- 
lation, odour, scent.] 

InftXQtn, im (No. 31), dat, sing, o/buftig. 

a)ttfa'ten,B* m. (-«;-), ducat. [A gold coin. The first 
Sicilian pieces bore this Lot. mpersGription, " Sit 
tibi, Christe, datus, quern tu regis, iste ducatus 1 " 
i.e., May to you, Christ, be devoted, this duchy 
which you rule I (ducatus, It. ducato, Fr. duch^).] 

bumm, adj.y dull, stupid [probably akin to Engl. dumb]. 

JDummer, id}, No. 17, nam. masc, case-ending tt, I stupid 

bttw^f, adj. J dull, hollow. 

2)unen, bet, gen. pi. of JDfinew/. (-; -n), down; akin to 
down, which f whether as prep, or as adv., expresses 
descent, either in space or time; possibly from. A. S. 
dufian, to sink, or from A.S. deop, Germ, titf, deep]. 

b u n f e t, adj., dark. [ The affixes fi)tit and -Mi, which form a 
great many dbstra^^t-nouns of fern, gend., either fvm 
other f^ouns or f ram adjectives, were originally nouns 
themselves, denoting a state, condition, or kind, and 
therefore the words thus formed are, properly speaking, 
compounds and not derived words. Thus : 

JDunfell^eit,'^/., darkness, lit. the state of being dark.] 

JDuttf ein, im, dut. sing, gov^ by in, from bo^ JDunfel,»t n, 
(-d ;-), the darkness, dark of evening, or night. 


bunn, (idj.^ thin; butd^ Ud unb bunn, lit. through thick and 
thin, i.e., passing through everything, no matter what, 

IDttn'ftfpannung,"^^/., intensity of vapour. 

bur (^, prep, toith ace,, through ; by means of, by, a prefix of 
verbs, both s^, and insep. Thtts, burd^^reifen, sep.^ 
to pass through whilst travelling, butd^rei'^fen, 
insep,, to travel all over (a country or district). 

birtil^pie'gen,"* ins^,, burd^flog, butd^fogen, to traverse flying. 

the sep. verb toith burd^ is butd^^^iegen, thus burd^ bod 

Senflet ^iegen, to fly or pass through the window. 

JDurdJIaud^t,''^ /. (-; -en) (a tide given to members of 
Eoyal Ducal Houses), Serene Highness, High- 
ness. @e. ^m6fiavLd}t, his Serene Highness. 
@ure or (Sto, ^utd^laud^t, your Serene Highness 
[from the pp, btttd^leud^tet, illustrious, distin- 
guished, a German rendering of the Lot, illustris, 
which was in later times bestowed on high Baman 
officials. (SxiavLd^t, from etteuc^tet, is a similar tUle^ 
of less degree, bestowed on the former Counts of the 
German Empire or Oleid^^grafen]. 

^uid^Uu^dftttif'^ insep., to encircle, pervade, adorn with 
lustre or light; irradiate. 

but df% for burd^ ba«. 

burd^fd^nitttid^, adfj,, average, on the average. [JDurd^s 
fd^nitt, m., cutting through ; section ; average.] 

butd^f^)re'ngt, 3rf pers, sing.pres. of burd^fpte'ngelt,^ insep,, 
to pursue one's way, flying through; gallop 
through {Uke a horse or wild animal). 

but^toeg, ac^t?., throughout, lit. throughout the v)ay. [burd^ 
and SBeg, m., way.] 

b fir fe, /»•€«. subj. ©/"burfen. 

bur fen, burfte, geburft, to dare, be allowed. 

burr, adij., dry, withered [must be traced bach to Sanscrit 
trish, tarsh, to thirst ; Gr. ri^^cftat, to be or be- 
come dry or parched; Lat. torrgre, to parch, 


thence also Nhg, butflen, to thirst ; bcr JCurjl, the 

thirst ; butflig, thirsty], 
bur ten,, ©/"burr; case-ending en. 
3)utfl,8* rn, (-cd; no pi), thirst, lit. the desire to drink, 

cavsed by dryness [see burr], 
burjlete, imp/, ©/"burjlen,"^ biirflete, gcbiirjlet, to thirst, have 

thirst, feel thirsty [see ^urfi]. 
bufler, adj.y dusky, gloomy; melancholy, 
biifleren; ace. sing. masc. o/'bufler {case- ending en), 
buflern, dat. sing, o/^u^tx {case-ending n/or en). 


(Shhti^f. (-; -n), ebb-tide, the ebbing or rehiring tide. 

eben, adj., even ; 'level, plain (bie @6ene, the plain). 

adv. J just ; just now (No. 13) ; bad eben nid^t (No. 

21), not precisely that. 
eBenfo, even so, equally so, just so. 

eBenfalld, adv., lit. in like case; likewise, also, in the same 
or like manner, syn. with gleic^faUd. [e^en or gteid^, 
even, like; fa((d, adv^ gen. ofUx Sail, the case.] 

drfe,^/ (-; -n), corner [Engl. edge]. 

ebel, adj., noble, high-minded, precious, [ebel, the same as 
obetig, Engl. Ethel, of high or noble birth, Jrom 
bet 9lbe(, orig. descent, birth, race, and thence " noble 

d^etfrau,*^/. (-; -en), noble lady, lady of nobility. 

@beXflcin,«»t m. (-e«; -e), precious stone, jewel. 

ebler, nom. masc. of the adj. ebci, after ein, etc., with case- 
ending er, and elision of e before liquid I, folloufed 
by another e. 

dbtoindBurg, fictilioiis name for Edinburgh. 

6f f e c'ten, pi, stocks. 

el^e, adv., before, formerly; Engl, ere, Scotch air; compar. 


el^et, Booner, rather; Scotch airer, earlier; superl. 
ti)tx% contracted into tx% first, at first; Engl. 
erst) Scotch airest. 

t\^tli6), adj.f legitimate, lawful; matrimonial. 

cl^ern, acfj.^ of copper, bronze; brazen, massive [possibly 
connected with Lai, aes, EngL ore, Germ, (St), 
Dan aar, a vein, or with (ii\tn, iron, but its real 
derivation is not dear], 

(Sf^xt,^/, (-; -n), honour, esteem. 

bet meiner (Sf)x\ by or upon my honour. 

(Sffxtrif an, dot. pi, gov^ by an; in honours. 

e^f'rentoettl^, atff.j Ut. worthy of honour ; honourable, [bet 
@^ren, gen. sing, o/* honour; Wcrtl^, worth.] 

G%tgeij,«* m, (-e«; fw> ^Z.), *™bition. [®eij, m., greedi- 
ness; d^re,/., honour.] 

el^rne, neut. of the ac{;., after ^ciiffrom el^ente (toith elision of 
e before x, followed by another e). 

cl^tnc, nom, or ace. pi. oftf^txn, 

(Si I intj,y ay ! indeed ! to be sure 1 well then I why I 

©i,«t«. (-e«;-er), egg. 

(ix6^tn,pl, ofm^t,^f, (-; -n), oak. 

eib,Btm. (-e«; -e), oath. 

(Sitx,pl, of®i, 

eifrig, adv,j zealous, [bet (Siftx, m., the zeal, j^o^5/yyrom 
einfal^rig, Ohg, ainferi, to set upon with fervour, 

etgen, ac(j., own, belonging to one, possessed by one, pecu- 
liar to a person, etc. [akin to G txuv, Goth, aigan, 
A.S. agan, to have, possess]. 

eigentUe^, adv,, really, actually. 

adj., real, actual, proper, [eigen and It^, with 
i inserted.X 

(5i0entl^uitt'U(^e«, the neut, of the a^, eigentpwl^, pecu- 
liar, strange, vsed substantively [from digentl^um, 
n, possession, property]. 


Qilt,^ {-; no pi.), hurry, haste, speed. 

tittn,'^ iiiii, geeilt, to hurry, hasten, speed, to be in a hurry. 

eilfettig, adj. and adv., hasty, precipitate; hastily, pre- 
cipitately. [eiUn, to hurry ; fertig, ready.] 

eilig, adj. and adv., hasty, hurried; in great haste, hastily, 

eiU,3d pars. sing. prea. of eiten. 

eilten, \si and Sdpl. imp/. ofdUn. 

tin, masc. and neiU. of the mdef. art., a, an. Declension: 
Sing. N. tin, G. tinti, D. einem, Ace. einen, ein. 

tin, numeral adj., one ; used substantively or as indef. pron., 

eiaer, m., eine, /., tim^, n., or dta, one person, 

any one, one ; the neut. tim^ortini, one thing, etc. 

adv^ genitives, cined ^age^, one day ; time W>tn\>e, 

one evening. 

ein, adv. and sep, prefix, the same word as prep, in, in, into. 
Thus, tin tl^eilen, to divide into, etc. 

tinan^tx,adv. and pron. {indeclinable), one another, each 
other; mit einanber, with each other, together; 
untet einanber, among each other, [einer, one ; anber, 

SinBilbung,"^/. (-; -en), fancy; imagination. 

ein'clatiri,^^?;?. o/" cittclariren,"^«ep., to clear a ship at the 
custom-house by paying all dues, and dbtaining per- 
mission to enter the port. 

(Sitt'claritung,"''^ /., clearance of a ship at the custom- 
house on entering apart. 

tint, fern, of the indef. ait. Declension: Sing. N. and Ace, 
tint, G. and D. ciner. 

cinfa^, <7^'., lit. onefold ; simple, single; simplified, plain, 
[ein and ba^ Sad^, the compartment.] 

(5infaU;»* m. (-e«; -fd((e) idea, thought. [einfaHen, to fall 
or occur to one's mind.] 

einfangen,****?/?., fing ein, eingefangen, //<. to catch in; to 
catch, seize. 


ein'gebilbet, fid^, pp. of fid^ einbilben, bttbtte fld^ ein, ft(^ eim 

gebilbet^ Sep., refl, (toith refl, pron. in dot,), lit. to 

shape or form something in one's mindj theneSf to 

fancy, imagine, [tin and Hlben, to form, figure ; 

bo^ ^i(b, the image.] 
eingel^auen,^. o/mS)antn,^ sep., f^ith tin, eingel^auen, Ut. to 

hew into; to carve, chisel (in stone, etc.). [ein 

and ^auen, to hew.] 
tin%tfitn^,pres.p. of nn^tf)tn,^ stp., ging tin, eingegangen, to 

enter into (harbour, etc.). [ein and gel^en, to go.] 
tin^^ttommtxifpp. o/'einfcmmen,"*«^., !am ein, eingefommen, 

to come in ; to come or sail into {harbour, etc.). 

[tin and fommen, to come.] 
einfommenb, jpre9. part, to the above. 
eingetid^tet, pp. of eintid^ten,^ sep., xidftttt tin, eingeti(^tet, 

Ut. to make right; righten, to manage, order, 

arrange, [ein and xidfttn, to set right; red^t, 

einig or tini, adv., of one mind; einig or tini fein> to be of 

one mind ; to agree, 
einig e, adj. and pron., some, a few. 

[pi. of the adj. einig, one, united.] 

@iniged, the neut. of einig, used substantively in (he 
sing. nom. neiU., something, a little, a few 
eintiegenb, pp. used objectively, lit. lying-in; enclosed 

[akin to einlegen, to lay in, enclose], 
ein ma I, adv. {of past time), onetime, once, for once, once 

upon a time. 

{of future time), some time, some day ; auf einmal, 
all at once. 

eapletive, jnst, only. Thus: ^itf)' nnmal (No. 99), 
just look here, [ein and bad ^al, the time.] 
tinifSee tin. 
einfamer (No. 37), dot. fern, oftinfam, lonely, lonesome. 


[ein and fam from Baman, Nhg, gufammen, to- 

tin\(fylaft, Sd pers. ring. prea. in iubord, sent, from eim 
fd^lafcn,"* 9^., fd^tief cin, eingefc^tafen, to fall asleep. 
{All inceptiv€8 €r verba eacpressing a tranrition from 
one state or condUum to another, form (heir com- 
pound tenses with fein; thus, ic^ Hit eingefd^tafen, I 
have fallen asleep, did fall or fell asleep.) [ein 
and f(^Iafen, to sleep.] 

ein ft, ado, {of past time), one time, once, once upon a time; 
{offrUure time) einfien^ or cinji, some day. [einefl 
or einfl is Of genitive or superlative form of (he num^ 
ein, and signifies the same as tixL S^^at or einntat] 

einjletf'en,'^ sep., flecfte ein, eingeflecft, to put into {the pocket, 
etc.), to pocket ; to lock up. [ein and flecfen, to 
stick or put in.] 

eintl^eilte, impf. o/^ entl^eilen,"^ ««p., t^eitte ein, eingetl^eift, to 
divide into, [ein and tl^eilen, to d eal out, separate.] 

(Sintritt,"* m. (-ed;-e), setting in, commencement; en- 
trance, [ein and Xnii, m., step, tread; tteten, to 

(lintool^ner,B^m. (-d;-), inhabitant, lit. indweUer. [locl^; 
nen, to dwell, live.] 

eingiger, after tin, ntein, il^r, etc., case-ending for nom.masc, 
tx,from einjig, adj., only, single, lit. the only one of 
its kind; thence, unique, excellent. 

eingttfenben, inf. vnth iu,from einfenben, to send in. 

(Ii«,»* n. {gen. bed (Bi^ci), ice. 

(lifen,B* n. (-«;-), iron {names of metals are ofneut.gen, 
except bet ®tai)l, the steel). 

eifernent/c^. sing, from eifetn, adj., made of iron; iron, 
see bleiem. 

eitel, adj. [Engl, idle; original meaning, empty, connected 
with cbe, desolate], thence vain, fruitless, useless. 
Phr., eitel Wlu^t, nothing but music, pure music, 


all musie, etc.; eitel 93rtt, nothiug but bread, 
plain bread {toith no htiUer to it) [compare oho 
addle, adj,, £6ul, empty; an addle egg]. 

eitle (No. 29), /w citcle, fern, of^itl, with elision oft before I 
Uquid, when followed by another e in next eyU. 

elenb, adj.^ miserable, wretched. [(Slenb, n. exile, misery, 
Ohg, alilanti or elllenti, lit. out-land^ exile ; comp4 
of ali {Lot. alius, another), and lant, land, thence 
misery, want, for an exiled or banished person had 
to leave all his property be^tind.] 

@Ie»a'tcr,**"^ m. (-^; -en), an apparatus for raising heavy 

©Ifenbein, n., ivory. 

f IfenBeinern, a^'., made o/" ivory. 

QlUxntf)oxeUUdt,'^ /., the bridge (©rfidfe, /.) of the 
(Siittntfjox (door, gate). 

@lfaf ^fiotl^Ttngen, German name for Alsace-Lorraine. 

@lt(rn or ^Itern, pL, lit. the elders; parents, [bie 
dlterert, the older or elder ones ; from Alter, older, 
compar. of alt, old.] 

@ ttt i t i e, /., Emily (pronounce ie like ee-ay ) . 

(Smma'e, gen, sing. of(imma,ff Emma. 

@iiH)fa''ng,B* m. (-ed; -e), reception; receipt (commercial), 

eunjfa'ngen,** insep., empjtna, em^jfangen, to receive, accept. 
[tmp and fatten, to catch.] 

empfangen,i?p. o/e«))fangen. 

@itH)fdn9er,8t m., receiver (of goods); acceptor (of a bill), 

empfdngt, Sdpers. s.pres. o/emvfangen. 

enn>feyien, jic^, rejl. and insep., mpf<ii)l jl^, ftc^ tm^^foffltn 
(No. 1, p. 137), to announce oneself with a re- 
commendation ; (No. 94) to present one's com- 
pliments, to wish to be remembered to a person ; 
(No. 4, p. 141) a signature in letters ; id^ tmpftfflt 
mid) 3^nen, I commend myself to your notice ; to 
take leave, [tmp or ent and fel)(en.J 


(SttHjfe^lung,"'^/. (-; -en), recommendation. 

em^jfiel^tt, fid^, 3dpers. a.pres, qftmipft^itn, 

trnpfiuQ, 1st and 3d pens, «. imp/, ofmpfan^tn. 

tmpfxxtQtn, Ut and Bd pera, pL impf. q^empfangen. 

etnpot, ado. and 8^. part, upwards, up, on high, aloft. 

em^ot^fa)^, 1^ pers. sr impf. in the subordinate clause 
(No. 39), the verb fa^ being removed to the end of 
the sentence and becoming thus re-wiUed to its separ- 
able prefix tvftpox*,from empotfel^eTi,** sep.y fal^ tmpm, 
tmpetqitft^ett, to look up. [mpot and fel^en, to see.] 

tmpox^pxan^ imp. in ^esttbord. sent., from em)>crf))ringen,*^ 
sq}.j fptariQ tmpot, tmpox^tfptun^tn, to jump up. 
[tmpcx and fpringen, to spring.] 

(tnfig, adj. and adv., diligent, assiduous, busy. [Accord- 
ing to Grimm^s Law of Interchange of Consonants, 
emflg corresponds to Engl, empty, German e 
answering to Engl. t. This connexion, unsupported 
by any internal evidence, must be accepted with great 
reserve. In many instances where the Engl, word 
has acquired a meaning Just the reverse of the mean- 
ing of the German word from which it is derived, 
the connexion is dear. Not so in this case: the 
Engl, empty is derived from A.S. emptian, to cast 
or clear out, akin to empta, leisure, rest; but the 
Nhg. etnflg must be traced back to Ohg. emaszic, 
or constantly busy.] 

dttbe,"* ^n. {-e ; -n), end, close, termination; m(i)U gu SnU 
brittgen, to carry nothing out, to accomplish nothing. 

(Snben; in phr. aKer Dttcn unb @nben {gen. pi.), on all sides, 

in all places, in every direction. 
dnbe^untetfd^rieBenet, nom. masc. after m {case-ending 
tx), the person signing his name at the end {of a 
letter or document). [@nbed, gen. of (Snbe, n., end ; 
unterf^rieBen, signed, pp. used substantively with 
adj. inflexion, from unterfd^reiben, to sign.] 


tn^Hdf, adv., finally, at last. 

tnh loi, cuij,, en die 8 8| without end. [(Snbe, fi., end; lod, 

loose, having lost, without.] 
ttt%l.,Jor englifd^, or (Snglif(i^en (ace. masc.), English. 
GngUnber,"* m. (-9*,-), Englishman [Jrom England, %.e., 

land of the Angles]. 
(Snglifd^, adj.j English, 
ent/ inseparable prefiXf Ohg. ant, int, " against," <' contrary 

to," »mp/te9^enera%a transposition, removal, 

depriving, severing. Hence verbs compcnded 

wUh this prefix express : — 
1.) The opposite of what the simple verb denotes. Thas, {at(/eii, 

to run ; «n(2au/«n| to run away, escape. 
2.) A disposaessing or taking Vway of the thing expressed by the 

noan firom which the verb is formed. Thus, da$ BlaUj the 

leaf; eniblSUern, to strip off the leaves. 
8.) A springing or rising up. Thus, brmneHf to bam; eHtbrennen, 

to break out burning, to flare up; springen^ to spring; ent- 

apringen^ to spring forth. 
4.) A transition tnm one state or condition into another. Thus, 

entachlafen^ to fall asleep ; to die. 
6.) The reversal of the meaning imparted by prefix fte. Thus, 

heJUeiden^ to clothe, dress; entklnden^ to undress. 

cnt has become changed into emp,* in : em))fangen, to 
receive ; em)}finben, to feel ; em^fel^lett^ to recom- 
mend. [Compare Gr. Atr!, prep., against, in op- 
position to, and Lot. pre/*, re, dis, ex, ab.] 

* If we consider that Amt is almost pronounced as if it were 
Ampt^ the change from aU into emp wUl become clearer. 

entbe'(fett,"'^«n5ep., entbedte, entbecft, lit. cover open; to dis- 
cover ; detect, [ent and bedPeit, to deck, cover.] 

cntfernen,"^ ww^., remove; fld^ entfernen, re/?., to go away 
afar, get at a distance, [ent, off, away; fern, 

tni^ixui, PP' used ac(jectively, distant, remote; residing at a 

entfetttte fid^, imp/, o/^d} entfemen. 

e n t f ( t n t e fi, superl., most distant {see entfentt). 


entfiel, impf, of entfaf(cn,»* tmep., entflet eittfatten, Ut, to fall 
away; to drop, to let go or drop. 

entflie^en,"* insep,^ entflo^; entfol^en, to flee from, to run 
away, escape. 

entfliel^t, Sdpei^s. sing. pres. of the above. 

entfU^, impf. ofvxi^it^n. 

entgegen, prep, with dat.j which precedes it, against, to 
meet. ThuSj bent @iege entgegen (No. 119), to meet 

adv. and sep. prefix in na^m entgegen (No. 81), 
impf of entgegennel^tnen, to receive ; entgegenfottu 
men (No. 121), to come to meet; entgegengel^en 
(No. 3), to go to meet; fog il^nt entgegen, flew 
towards him, to meet him; trat il^nt entgegen, 
went to meet him, etc. • 

entgegenfe]|^enb,i)reff.^. of entgegenfel^en,"* sep., to look for- 
ward to. 

entgegentraBten, 3<f impf. of entgegentraBen,"'' sep., 
to come trotting or tramping towards one. 
[troBen and trotten are related with treten, to step, 
tread ; Fr. trotter, i.e., aller le trot ; from the sound, 
trap, trap, trap, or trot, trot, trot.] 

entgegnen,"^ insep., entgegnete, entgegnet, to reply by way 
of a rejoinder. 

entgegnete, impf. of (he dhofce. 

t^i\l(x\U,M pers. sing. pres. subj. of tVLi^^oXitti,^ insep., to 
contain, hold. 

entlang, adv., along, or the length of anything [from in 
and tang, for in bie Sdnge ; often mistaken for a prep. 
It governs generally the ace. case, which is placed 
before it, as bie SDiefe entlang, or the gen., which 
follows it, entlang bed 99erged, hut rarely the dot.]. 

Snttauf en;Bt n. (-0 ;-), verbal noun, escape, running away. 

entlegen, cujfj., lying far off, distant, remote. 

(Sntlcf^nng,'^/. {c<mimercictl), unloading of vessels at the 


indicated port of delivery, or Sofd^plajj. [Kf<^en 

(com.), to unload, discharge.] 
entne^men auf (commercial), to draw upon ; to take from. 
©ntf^tafenen, bed, gen, of \>n dntfd^tafene, the deceased. 

entfd^Uefen, 3rf per«. pi. imp/, of entf<!^lafett,"* ins^., lit, to 

sleep on and on, away; thence, to die, expire. 
etitfd^Icffen, J9p. q/^ jtd^ entfd^iefen,"* rejl. a/nd ineep., tttU 

f(i^lo{i fid^, fid^ entf^tojfen, to resolve, fix, determine 

upon [ent and ^dflu^tn, to lock, close], 
entfd^ulbigen,^ \xd^, insep. refl., entf<3^ulbigte fl(^, jid^ tnt^ 

fc^utbigt, to beg to be excused \IU. to free oneself 

from guiU, (Sd^ailb,/., or of being guilty, fc^utbig]. 
entfd^itlblQung,^/. (-; -en), excuse; am (Intfd^utbigung 

Bitten, to beg to be excused, to beg one^s pardon. 

[fc^ulbig, indebted; ®d§uQ>,/., debt, guilt.] 
(5ntfe^en,B* n. (-d;-), consternation, shuddering, 
e n t f e I U d^r a^j. and ado. , dreadful, horrible, frightful. [fEd^ 

entfe^en, Ut. to ^^toneae^foi^ of composure of mind; 

to be shocked, horrified, etc.] 
Snttoeil^etin,'^/., desecrate [enttoei^, to desecrate.] 
entgud t,i>p. of jid^ entj&tfett,'^ ins^,, to transport oneself, 

to get filled with ecstasies ; to delight (No. 81). 

[guifen or gu<f en,"*^ to draw or move suddenly and 

with intensity, E>ngl. to tug away; from giel^en^'w' 

to draw, pull.] 
entjiidfte, impf of the above, 
tXf 3d pers. masc, of the persi pron., he, it. DecUnaion: 

Sing, tx, feiner, il^m, i^n ; Plur, fie, il^rer, i^nen, fte. 
er, insep. prefix {answers to prep, aud, out of, m meaning, hot 

is not derived from «f]. It indicates generally a 

development from within (or withaut), and the verbs 

compounded toith it express — 
1.) A bringing into the state and condition ezpieaaed by fbfe acy. 
from which the verb ia f(»med; erkUhren, to make olear» ex- 
. plain. 


2.) A coming into existence, a bringing within the reach of our 

fecultiee, and a growing npwarde. Thna, erJHuen, to rejoice ; 

erepiOeH, to spy out; tnHhien, to relate; erhauen, to boUd np. 
&) The attainment and acquisition of an object; thecentinnatloii 

of the action leading to the accomplishment of its aim ; er- 

lemenj to acquire by learning, to learn. 

erBatinen,B*n. (-«;-), pity, compassion; ava (SxUtmmJrom 
pity, [jld^ erbannen,'^ to have compassion on ; er 
and haxmtn, to pity.] 

etBarmlii^, at^., miserable, wretched. 

txhaut,pP' of erbauen,'^ wwep., to build up. [er (ml Bauen, 
to build.] 

(Sxht,^ m. (-n ; -n), heir, [bad (SxU, the inheritance.] 

txitn,'^ crBte, getrBt, to inherit, to possess as heir. 

erBUtf te, imp/. o/txbUdm,-^ ins^,, to catch sight of, to per- 
ceive, [ct and Bticfen, to look.] 

(5rBfen, pi of ®rBfe w/ (_; -n)," pea. 

txt>a^t,pp. oftt\>tnUn, insep,, crbad^te, erbad^t, Ut, to obtain by 
t h i n k ing ; to invent, [er and benf en, to think.] 

(Sx^apUl, pi, pommes-de-terre (a Sou.^ Germ, provincial 
term), for J^artojfelit, potatoes, [^rbe and SCpfel, m., 

(IrbBeBett,^* n, (-«;-), earthquake. 

(lrbBoben,"*f». (-«;-). ground, soil. [(Srbe, earth; ©oben, 
bottom, ground.] 

Grbe,^/. (-; -n), earth; No. 35, ground. 

auf (Srb'n,/or auf bcr (Srben, on earth. 

®rbf lo]^,»* TO. (-e0 ; -jloll5>0> ^*^- ground or earth-flea; spring- 

^rbflrid^,B*m. (-e0;-e), quarter or region of the globe. 
[Grbe,/., earth ; ©trid^, tract of land, region.] 

(Srbto&IU«r dot, pi of di^XooXi, m. (-e0; -ttjatie), wall raised 
from earth, earthworks thrown up. 

erfal^ren, pp. used adjecHvely of erfal^ren,"* w«cp., erful^r, 
erfal^ren, to learn, experience; endure, [er and 
fal^ren, to fare.] 



txfolQt, pp. of erfolgen,"^ inaep,, to take place, ensue, result. 

[er and folgen, to follow.] 
txj[ttui,pp* o/'erfceuen,'^ ina^,, to make glad, rejoice, [er 

and fnntn, to gladden.] 
(Stfrifd^uttg,"^/. (-; -en), lit, refreshment. Phr,, (Id ijl eine 

Sr^fd^ung, it is refreshing. Refreshment-room, 

fReflauration,/. To take refreshments, ttsoca genieflen, 

ftd^ tvLxdf @^)eife unb Xxanf erquitfcn. [jt(^ erfrifd^en, 

to refresh oneself; frifc!^, fresh.] 
e r f u 1^ r, imp/, of erfal^ren. 
(StfttUung,^/. (-; -en), fulfilment, carrying out. [erfullen, 

to fulfiL] 
erfunben, pp. of erflnben,** insep., erfanb, erfunben, to find 

out, invent, [er and jinben.] 
ergangen, pp. of ergel^en,"* insep.f erging, ergangen (toiih fein), 

to fare ; to go forth. 

e« foHte mir ergangen fein, I should have fared. 
etgeBen, pp. (No. 121), in fid) ergeben l^aben, from fi^ ttf 

geben.Bt refl. insep., to give oneself up to; to 

devote oneself to. 
ergeBenfl, adv^ superl. (signature in letters^ etc.), most de- 
votedly, obediently, humbly [from etgeben]. 
SrgeBung,^/. (-; -en), the giving up, surrender, 
ergriff, impf of ergreifen,"* tjwejp. etgriff, ergriffen, to get 

something in one's grip, to enter upon, etc 

[Compare (egreifen, to seize, catch.] 
erl^alten, pp. of erl^alten,^* inaep., txf)itlt, erl^alten, to get 

something into one's hold; to receive, [n and 

l^alten, to hold.] 
txf)if>tn,^ ftd^, insep. refl., tx^ob fid^, ft(]^ erl^oBen, 2t^. to heave 

up ; 1 arise, rise up, begin . [er and f^thtn, to heave.] 
erl^eBt, 3d pers. a, prea. of tx^ibm,^ inaqp., to raise, Hi. to 

heave up. 
erl^i Jt, pp. oftxi^ii^m,^ inaep,, to heat, to get or make hot. 

t*&i^r f') heat ; l^eifl, hot.] 


erl^ob fid}, tmpf. of^df etl^eBm. 

txi)6f}t,pp, of txf)6f}tn,'^ insep., to raise, elevate [lU, to raise 
to a height or ^of)t ; f)o6^, high]. 

ttf)oU, pp. of ^df erl^oten, insep. refl,, to get one's breath, 
recover oneself, [er and f^oltn, to fetch.] 

ctinnere mid), id}, Ist pers, s. pres. of fidf erinnem,"^ inaep, 
refl. J to remember, recollect, [inner, inner.] 

ttt ann t, pp. of erf ennen. 

exfanirtc, impf. of cr!ennen. 

etfennen, imep.y erfannte, erfannt, to recognise; in No. 42, 
to declare, admit. 
in erfennen fein, to be recognisable, to be capable 

of being recognised or known. 
(No. 87) fid^ felbjl ctfenncn, to get to know oneself; 
erfennen an, to recognise or know by. 

etfennt, 3d pers. s.pres. of erfennen. 

erfUng, impf. o/erfUngen. 

erfldren,"'^ insep., to make clear or flat; explain. 

erf Umnten, insep., erflontnt, etflontmen, lit. to get up by climb- 
ing ; to climb, ascend, [er and fiimmtn, to climb.] 

erflingen, erfkng, etflungen, to resound, to sound loudlj. 
[et and fUngen, to sound, tinkle.] 

erfoten, pp. of etfuren,** insep.y erf or, erforen, to choose, 
select, single out {see anderfel^en). [fiefen and f6ren 
or tuxtn,from Ohg. chiosan, A.S, ceosan, Ut. to try, 
prove, Engl, choose.] 

erfunbigte mxd^, \st pers. sing, imperf. of^di erfttnbigen,"^ 
insep. refl.y to inquire after [generally wiih preps 
nadf, after; Bei, at; loegen, concerning), [funb, 
adj., known; bie ^nbe,/., information.] 

erlaube mir, id), Ist pers. pres. from fid^ ertauBen,'''^ insep. , 
tt) allow oneself, to take the liberty, [er and 
(auBen, related toith UeBen and glauBen.] 

ertegen,"^ w«ep., ettegte, eriegt, to lay or pay down, [et and 
tegen, to lay, put.] 


txUi^tn,^ insep.y txliit, erlitten, to suffer, endure, [txand 

Iciben, to suffer.] 
txUu^iftit, pp. of txiiXLdften,^ inaep., to light up, illuminate. 

[et atid leu^tm, to light, shine.] 
evlettcftteten, pp. tuied acffectively, toUh case-ending en. See. 

Grifonig or Q[r(enfditig,"t tn. (-d:-t). See eaiplanaiian 

on p. 38. 
drmiibung,^/. (-; -en), weariness, f&tigue. [ermuben, to 

tire ; mube, tired.] 
erneuern,w ineep., to make newer ; to renovate, restore. 

[emeuen, to renew; nvx, new.] 
(itnfl,Bt fti, (-ed* nopL\ earnest, seriousness, gravity. 
@rnfte0, gen. sing, <^@mfl (caee-ending ed). 
etnfl^aft, adj. and adv., seriously, gravely, earnestly, 
drnte, /., harvest, [emten/ to reap, oorreeponds to*EngL 

earn. Root, ar, see arm.] 
(SroBerungdfud^t,'^ /.) lust of acquisition by c<mquest. 

[erobent, to conquer; ^nd^t or ©eud^e,/., a chronic 

malady, sickness, from fied^, sick. Of the same 

root, JEngl, sot, Fr, sot, a person in a state of 

mental disease.] 
(Sr5ffnung,w f (-. _en), opening {of a businesSf etc). 

[cffnen, to open; offen, open.] 
etreid^en,*^ insep., erteid^te, ttttid^t, to reach, arrive at, 

attain ; gain (one's end). 
erteid^te, impf. ofttrnd^tn. 
errei d^f, pp., and Sdpers. sing. pres. of the above. 
txxid)ttt, pp. ef errid^ten,^ insep., lit. to erect, set upright, 

tfieace, to set up or commence a business, etc 

No. 41. [er and xi^tm, to right en.] 
erfdjallen,"* insep., etfc^oU, etfd^otten, or weak form, erfc^aHte, 

erfd^af(t to sound forth, resound, [et and ((^Hen, 

to sound ; ber ^6}aU, the sound.] 
txf^allt, Sdpers. sing. pres. oftxfd^Utn. 


tt\ dfaut, 3d pers. s, pres. of crfd^aoen,^ insep:, to behold, 

come in view, [cr and fc^auen, to look, Engl show. 

Compare befd^auen.] 
erf^einen,"* insep., etfc^ien, trfd^icnen, to appear, [et and 

fd^einen, to shine.] 
ecf^Iagen, pp. of erff^Iageit,"* tnsqf., ctfc^tug, etfc^tagen, to 

slay, kill, [er and fd^Iagen, to slay, strike.] 
e t f d^ It impf. of erfd^Ken. 
txffii^pftf PP' of tt^6)6pftn,'^ insqf., exhaust; to draw out 

the whole of. [et and \d^epftn, to draw water.] 
tt\ dfxtdt, pp. of erfd^re(!cn,w etfd^redte, nfd^xtdt, to frighten, 

to caase to be frightened [weaJc and transiUoe or 

caiualvoe form of erfd^recf en,"*] . 
etfd^roifen, pp. of etfd^tecfen,"* ttw^., erfd^racf, etfi^toden, to 

be frightened, [tt and f<^te(fen, to frighten ; bet 

@d^re(f, the fright.] 
crfc^en aud (p. 143, No. 2), to see or ascertain from hy 

exAnining. [erfel^en, erfa^, ctfel^, to perceive, 

erfe^nt PP- of erfel^nen,'^ Mwep., to long, desire for. [er 

and fel^nen, to long.] 
evf^al^t, i^p. of erfpftl^en,**^ imep.^ to spy out, espy; to 

erfi, adj. and adv.^ first, for the first time, but just, only. 

(No. 99) erjl gejleni, only yesterday ; nut er jl, but 

only [Engl, erst, superl. oftf^t, ere, see tfft]. 
(Stftauntn,*^ n. (-d;-), astonishment. [evflaunen, to 

etfie, bet, bie, bo^, adj., often ueed euhetanJlivelyifiie first, 
etfien, be«, gen. mng. o/'bet or ba« erfle. 
etflen, ben, ace. masc. ©/"bet etjle. 
et^eigen,"* wwep., etflieg, etftiegen, Ut. to reach by mounting^ 

to mount up. [et and fleigen, to mount.] 
etjlet, wein, masc. of etjl, wUh case-ending et after tin, mm, 

etc.y my first. 


erfliifen,'^ ins^.y to stifle, choke. [ev and ^dtn, to 

erfud^en,^ ins&p.f to request, beseech, [er and fud^en, to 

seek, seech.] 
txtJ)tiUni^ insep., lit. to deal aut^ to impart. 

Unterrid^t tttf^tiUn, to give lessons or instruction, 
[et and if^ditn, to share, deal, divide.] 
tx t^ t il t, PP' of txtf)tiUn, 
ertl^ elite, imp/, ©/"ertl^eitett. 
ettrunfen, pp. of ertrinfen,"* »n«ep., ertranf, ertrunfen, to 

drown, die by drowning. [et and trinfen, to 
■ drink.] 
ettoac^enb, prea, p, of ertoad^en,^ insep,, to wake up. [er 

and toad^en, to wake, watch.] 
erko&l^nen,'^ inaep,, to make mention of, mention, [er and 

to&l^nen, to fancy, imagine.] 
ertoarB, impf o/*ertt)etben. 
ertoarten,^ insep., to expect ; to await. 

Phr,, xoxt gu ertDarten toar, as might be expected, 
[er and marten, to wait.] 
ettoerBen,"* insep,, ertoarb, ertoorben, to gain or procure by 

effort ; to make money, acquire, win. [et and 

toerben, to woo, sue.] 
ettoiebetn or ertoibetn,'"' insep,, ettoiebette, ertoiebett, Ztif. to 

give hack again; to reply, retort [see toieber]. 
ertoiebette, impf, o^ertoiebem. 
ettotttgten,, impf, of ttmux^tn,'^ insep,, to choke 

by chucking one by (he throat, to deprive of life, 

to worry to death, [et and tourgen, to worry.] 
etg&l^r or etjdl^le, 2dpers, sing, imper, of ergdl^Ien. 
ey&l^len,'^ insep,, etgal^lte, ergal^lt, to relate, narrate, [et 

and gal^ten, to tell.] 
etgdl^tte, let and 3dpers, s,impf. of etgdl^Ien. 
etgdl^tten, 1st and 3d pers, pi, impf. of ergd^len. 
etjd^It, 3fl? pers. s. pres. of ergdl^ten. 


Gtgiel^ttng,^/. (-; -en), edacation. [rrgiel^en, to educate; 

litiftn, to draw.] 
ecjittnt auf, enraged at, from ergfimen,^ »7w«p., to make 

angry- [«^ ««<3^ jiinien, to be' angry ; bet 3crn, 

the anger. ] 
ed, Sdpers* neut. of the per$, pron. it. DeelensUm: Sing. t9, 

feinet, i^m, e< ; P/. fie, il^ret, listen, fie. 
®fel,«* III. (-« ;-), donkey, ass. 
effen,"* af, gegeffen, to eat. 
tiffen,"* n. (-<;-), rer&oZ «omw, eating, meal; (dinner and 

supper, SRittagdeffen unb Slbenbeffen} ; dffeu unb 

S^rinfen, food and drink. 
®fft0;»*»». {-t9; no pi,) J vinegar, 
etkoa, adv., about, somewhere about. 
tttoai, indef. and indedinahle pran, or adj.f lit, somewTuxty 

something; tttoai ^pai, a little kte. 
eu (^, ace. of the 2dper8. of the pera, pron. you ; with reflective 

veriej yourself, 
eud^, )oon (No. 96), of bu, of you. 
euer, m., eure,/., euer, n.^poss. adj. and pron., corresponding 

to the second pers. pi. „\\)x** your, 
eurer, von, dot. sing, oftntt, gov^ by prep. »on. 
e»ig, adv. J eternally, /or ever (No. 117). 
(Stoi^ttitf^ f. (-; -en), eternity. Imi^, Engl, ever, eter- 
(5iettH>el,»*». (-^;-), example, 
©ragmen,"* n. (-0;-), examination. 


gabrif,^/ {-; -en), factory. 
Sabrifa'nt,^ m. (-en; -en), manufacturer. 
Sa^'cit,^* (gen. -6), sum (Oiat makeSf amounts to), 
gactu^ra,/., account, invoice. 


f&belt tin, Sd pars, sing, prea, of einf4beln,^ sep.^ to thread 
(a needle), [bet {^aben, the threat.] 

fa 1^1, adj., fallow, pale-yellow^ fawn-coloured [ahv/i to fa(B, 
pale-gray ; /rom IaU. pallidas, pale, yellowish]. 

gal^ttc,"^/. (-; -n), flag; standard. 

gfdl^te,/., ferry, ferry-boat [eee falfttcn]. 

fa 1^ ten,** ful^r, gefalfften, to drive (a carriage, to ride or go 
(in a carriage). Conjugated vnth fein if ike verb 
expresses motion to or from a place, thus, 3d^ Hit 
na^ bet ®tabt gefal^ren ; tuith ffaUn if the continued 
action of driving is expressed, thus, 3d^ l^abe ben 
ganjen ^g gefal^ren. Other iniransitives are used in 
the same way, thus, eilen, (aufen, rennen, marfd^teten, 
fd^toimmett, fprlngeti, «fc. [6rerm. foj^reii, A.8* 
faran, Engl, fare, to go, gel on. Thence again, 
far, fern; further, fetrter; ferry, gdl^ire, gdl^rte, 
and Sutt; before, vor; forth, fort, awayi 
JJerfe, hed; gurcJ^e, furrowj ful^tett, to lead; 
and insep» particle 'ott. Root, var or far, akin 
to Lot, per tn per gore, to go on umnterruptedly ; 
Gr, «'i/(.fif, to go clean through.] 

faf)xt Ijiinab,, imper. ofl^inabfal^ren,"* sep,, to go, 
drive, sail, etc., don^. 

gal^rte,"^/., trace, track, trail [see faljten]. 

galfe,"^ m, (-n; -n), falcon, hawk. 

fallen,"* fiet, gef alien {intrans, with fein), to fall ; stttmble ; 
to go down (No» 2). 
urn ben ^aU faKen, to embrace, 
im i^aKen,"* n,, whilst falling, stumbling. 

fallen,^ fdllte, gefdllt (transitive and causative), to make 
or cause to fall ; to fell, strike or hew down. 

fall tp3d pers, s, pres, of fallen. 

Phr., fdllt l^od^r ^ftUs ^ sinks deep, low (Ut, high), 
fdllt bur^ from bur^faKen, to be plucked (at an 


falten,^ fafteie, gefattet, to fold; to clasp. 

fanb, impf. of fnbett. 

fattgen,"^ ftng, gefangen, to catch, seize [Engl fang, (hat 

which dutches or seizes Woe the fangs or Sang^ 

gfi^ne (the teeth), of a ravenoas animal; fanged, 

having fangs]. 
fangt an, 2dper8, pi, pres, of anfan^tn. 
Sarbe,'^/., colour, hue. 
fdrbte, imp/, o/faxhtn,'^ to dye, colour; fi^ fitBen (No. 83), 

to become tinged with colour, 
faffctt,^ fafte, gefagt, to seize, ky hold of [lit, to contain^ 

hold, akin to %a% n., a cask ; EngL vat, a tank; 

Lot, vas, a vessel]. 

fofit an, Sd pers. s. pres. of anfaffni,"^ sep., to 
seize on, to take hold of hy somethingy touch, 
fanb ^Qiii (p. 1^0), from flattfinb<n,«»* «ep., to take place, 
fafi, adv.y almost, nearly. 

fatar, adj., lit, fatal; disagreeable, vexatious, annoying, etc. 
fau(, adj,, lit, foul; rotten, bad {pfeatahles, etc) ; lazy, idle 

{of animate beings, etc,, applied to idle boys), 
fault 9, nom, sing, neut, after ein, ntein, etc, [Jrom fauf]. 
Sau{i,"t m. (-; S&ufie), fist, clenched hand. 
5cBrua'r,«t m, (-«; no pi,), February, 
fed^ien, foc^t, gefod^ten, to fight. [Scotch, to fecht, the old 

Scand, fikta, connected with fika, to turn about 

quickly, to move rapidly.] 
geber,^/. (-; -n), feather; pen. 

an ben Sebem, dot. pi,, by the feathers, 
fegen,'^ f«0tc, gef egt, to sweep, to clean [from Old Scand. 

fUga, to clean, to make bright. Boot, fagar or 

fagr, clean, beautiful, bright; Hience, to fag, 

a fag, said of young schoolboys forced to drudge 

for their older companions. Connected with the 

same root is fugen, to put together, and hence 

fagot, or & bundle tied together]. 



fe^ten,^ fel^Ite, gefel^It, to fail, miss, err, to be missing, to 
be wanting. Phr. SBa« fel^It S^nen? What is the 
matter with you? (50 (ft gefel^tt! No. 109, You 
were mistakemi Used Sd-personally with dot. of 
person^ t9 fel^lt mir, e« fel^lte rait, I was deficient in, 
I was wanting or in want of. [fel^I, wrong, amiss, 
from French faillir. Lot, fallere, Gr. r^axxiiv, lit, 
to make to fall, to be deceived; thence also Lot, 
falsus. Germ, falfd^, Engl, false.] 

ftxtxttn,pl' impf, offtittn,'^ to celebrate. 

fein, ady, and adv., fine, delicate; refined; excellent. 

gcittb,«* m. (-««; -e), Engl, fiend; enemy. 

geinbe«, gen. sing, of ffeinb. 

Setb,"***. (-e«; -er), field, auf bem Selbe, in the field or 

gelbmat^f^ftU,** m, (-«; -mScfd^dHe), field-marshal. 

geU,»t n, (-C0; -e), fur, skin. 

i:;?;r- }(-'-)• '^^'^- 

gelfent^al,** n, rocky valley. 

genjlet,"* n, (-6 ;-), window. [Fr, fenfitre, Lot, fenestra.] 

genflern, clot, pi. <?/■ Sfenfler. 

fern, adj. and adv., far, distant, remote [see fasten]. 

fetner, adv., further, far off, distant, adv^ cot^,, also. 

fertig, ac(j., ready, prepared [lit, fdl^r tig, fitted out for a 
journey or 5a^rt,/.] 

Phr. J ftr unb fertig! done and ready! quickly 
* done I etc. {This might be said of Dame 

Quickly, in Shakespea/re^s ^^ Merry Wives of 

fefl, adj. and adv., fast, firn\ (No. 14), firmly-rooted, deep- 

fefler (p. 159), compar, offc% 

fejllid^, adj., festive. 

grefiung,^/. (-j -en), fortress. 


ScjiungdtoaUBt m. {-te; -to&fle), rampart or wall of a 

feud^t, adj.j damp, moist. 
geuer,«* n, (-«;-), fire. 
Scuergelb, »., lit, fire-money, 
gcuer^Qlut,^/ (-;-en), glow of fire. 

»on jjeuer^gtut, red like the glowing fire. 

wit ffeucrggtut (No. 78), bright as the glowing fire, 
fcucrf^jeient, lit. fire-emUUng ; volcanic. [Sfuer and freien, 

to spit.] 
f ibtX adj,, jolly merry ; jlbele ©ruber, jolly good fellows. 
8ieber,B* n. (-« ;-), fever, 
ft el, impf, 0/ fallen. 

fiet au«,/ro77i au«fa((en, sep,^ to fall or turn out. 

flel Ijttix^from l^eraBfaKen, insep,, to fall down from. 

jlel m (Nob. 89 and 103), ixC^ 2Bort faUen or einfaflen, 
«^., to interrupt, 
fielen, let and Sdpers.pL impf, offaUm, 
finben,8* fanb, gefunben, to find, meet with; consider, etc. 

ffnben auf (No. 35), to find in. 
finbfl, bu, 2dper8. a.pres. w/^flnben. 
fing, impf. q/'fangen. 

fingen axifpl, impf, o/anfangen,"**^^?,, to commence. 
Singet,»* m, (-^;-), finger, 
gingern, <fo^.^/. 0/* Singer. 
Singerl^ut,8* m, (-€«; -pte), thimble. 
gifd^,Bt,ii. (-e^ ; _e), fish. 

8 i f (^ e tt, dat, pi. of gifd^. 

Sifd^erl^utte,/. (-; -n), fisherman's cot or hut. 

gif(!^tein,Bt n. (-«;-), little fish. 

8itti^,st 771. (_^j _e), wing (of birds, etc.), pinion [formed 

from jjeber hy means of Ohg. svffix, -ah or 4d^. 

I'/^w*, Federah or Sebcrid^. In the same way, 

(Sp^i(^, m., parsley]. 
5lad^f,^/ (-; -n), plain [see Jim]. 


gla(]^«,«* m. (gen. $. -H), flax, 
glac^fe, dut. sing, of glad&«. 
%lammt,^f. (-; -n), flame. 

glafd^cn, pi o/glaf^e w/ (-; -n), bottle. [Engl flask.] 
^aiitttt, imp/, of flottern,^ to flutter; to waft, float (in 
the air like a flag). 

|}|J;^'^-}Hn«;>en), spot, stain. 

f (eif ig, adj.f diligent, ado., diligently. [Steif , m., diligence; 
be^pcifcn, to apply oneself.] 

fleuc^t, old form for fiitg^i, Sdpers. sing, prett. offEicgen: 
ftidt, Sd pers. sing. pres. of flirfcn,^ to mend, patch; to 

cobble, [ber SUcfcn, the patch ; akin to %lt{itxi.'\ 
gUege w/ (-; -tt), fly. 
^\it%tn,pl of^it^t. 
fliegen,*** ftog; geflogeti {with fcin), to fly. ftiegen au« (No. 

34), poetically for aw^jltegcn, to fly or go out. 
flicgenben, pres. p. of fEiegen, used adjectively {case-end. en). 
fUe^ett,"* fief}, gejol^en {untk fein), to flee, flitl^en bal^in, pass 

or move quickly, pass away. 
ftiefen,«*ftog, gcjioffen (vfith fcin), to flow, [fliegm, ^te^cn, 

tlicfcn, have all three the same root, fUe, Ohg. fliu, 

f 1 ti, V 1 u ; Lat p 1 u, a« tn p 1 uere, to rain ; Gr. «•>.» — 

Sansc. plu, to be flowing, etc.] 
fiint;adj.y quick, busy, ftinfd, adv., quickly. 
9lintt,'^f, gun, musket {fire-lock of old guns with o flint 

for striking fire). 
f(og, impf. of jliegen; jlog uBer, No. 91, spread, came over, 
flog if)m entgegen, impf, cntgegenfliegen, see entgcgen. 
floff i^pf of jlief en. 
flott, adj., Ut. afioat; jolly. 

pott tebcn, to live luxuriously, well. 

fJott werfeilen, to get quickly or lustily rid of some- 
thing by selling, 
f lotted, nom. and ace. sing. neut. of^aii. 


8ttt(!^t w/ (-; -eit), flight. 

^udflud^t,/. (pi. Slit^fluc^te), excnrftion ; Babterfuge, 
' excuse [see llud^ten]. 

flud^teit fi^, to flee {in order to seek refuge) , to take to 
flight. [^u(^ten, akin to ^tel^ctt, hut with a more 
intensified significatuyn. bic Stttd^t, the flight.] 

flud^Ute fid^, impf, of^d) flud^ttn. 

flui^tig, adj., Ut. flighty; hasty [from glud^]. 

glugel,"* m. (-« ;-), wmg. 

glugeln, of %iu%tt 

glur,^/ (-; -en), the green fields, plain. JDie glur or 
^audflttt, the entrance-passage or hall (especially of 
farmhouses, etc.) [EngL floor, a flat, level sur- 
face of a building; Germ, Slur. Soot: fla, 
via, the same as Lot. pla in planus, flat, level; 
Germ. fU<l^; Gr, «-a^^ anything flat; Germ. 

gtttf ,»* w. (-a ; g(uffc), river [/»wi» fJief cti? to flow. Ca/i- 

nected with it are fleet i float, flit, flood]. 

am SCuffe, dat., at or near the river. 
Slut,"^/. (-; -en), the flowing, fleeting water; flood; the 

waters ; high water ; tide [from f iefen]. 
%lut tn, pi of^nt, the waters, 
f 6) t, impf. of fec^ten. 
fotgett,^ folgte, (|efo(^t (w*^ l^Ben an«? fciti. ^ fal^ten), to 

follow, go after; to obey, 
f 1 g e n b, pres. p. of folgen. 
fol^t, 3d pers. sing. pres. o/folgen; tote fotgt, as follows. 

folgte bet, from beifolgeti, sep., to be bye-^omg, en- 
folgte, impf. o/fotgen. 

forberte auf, impf. of aujforbetn. See aufjufotbem. 
gorm,^/. (-; -en), form, shape. 


formlt d^, adj. (No. 56), downright, absolute^ real ; lit, form- 
like, formal, 
gorjl, ber,»* m, (-e«; -e), the forest. 
S 1 jl e r,c^ t». (-0 ;-), lit. forester; ranger, forest-keeper 

[from got jl]. 
fort, adv,j away; EngL forth [see fal^ren]. 
%oxt\>CLVitx,^f., continuation. 
fortgefe^t,i?p. o;^ fottfe^cn,'^ se^., to continue. 
%tad)tf'^f. (-; -fn), freight, cargo, 
fragen,'^ fragte, gcftagt, to ask, inquire, 
gr a g e n, i?/. q/" Srage,"^ /. question, 
fragji, 2dper8, sing.prea, q^fragen. 
fragte, or fragt', impf, o/fcagm. 
fran!r ac(;., frank, free; adv,, free, openly, 
granf furt, n., ift^. ber Jranfen gurt, the ferry or place where 

the Franks crossed the river (Main). 

granffiitt am SKain, or a. 9K., formerly a free town, 
Inhab» 76,000. 
gran!¥ei(^,Bt n.^ Ut, ^er granlen Of^eic^, the empire of the 

Franks; France, 
grang, m., Francis, 
grangmann, m.. Frenchman. 

gtangofe, bet, the Frenchman, pi, bie grangofen, the French. 
franjofifd^, ac&'., French, 
grau,"^/. (-; -en), woman; wife; Mrs. grau tton ^ . . .,' 

Lady P . . . 
grauengimmer,"^ n. (-d;-), /i/. woman^s apartment, and 

thence applied to a female, woman {sometimea in a 

contemptuous sense). 
grduteitt,"* n. (-«;-), young lady, grdulein »on S3..., 

Lady B . • . 
fret, acfj.f free, at libert}'. Phr. fo fret fein, to take the 

greiBrennet,"^ m., a kind of patent burner for lamps, 
greie, ba«, the open air; im greien, in the open air. 


Suif)tit,^f. (-; -en), freedom, liberty. 

fteilid^, adv.y certainly, to be sure, of coarse, I must owni 

indeed [lit, freely], 
fremb, cuij.y strange, 
fref en,"* fcaf, gefre^en, to devoar, to eat to excess, swallow 

greedily (like animals) [contracted from »ereffen, to 

eat to excess ; A.S. fretan ; EngL fret, to devour, 

etc., and (hen applied to the mental disposition of 

those who feel vexed at what they cannot digest], 
gfrenbe,^/. (-;-n), joy. 
f r enbig, adj., joyous, joyful ; adv., joyfully, 
freuen, fid^, f^euete midf, {Id^ gefreuet, to rejoice, to be glad, 
greunb,"* m, (-e«; -e), friend. [Ohg. friSn, t.e., freien, to 

woo, love.] 
freunblid^, adj., lit, friendly; kind, No. Ill, amiable, 

polite ; adv. kindly. 

freunblid^ed, neut. nom. and ace, of freunbli(^. 
greunblid^feit,"^/., kindness, 
freunbfc^aftlic^, adj., friendly. 

freunblid^fl, culv^ superl. , in the kindest manner, very kindly. 
fxtut,M pers, sing, pres. of fid^ freuen; ed freut tnid^, I am 

gtiebe,«t), ^ , 
Stiebrid^, m. (gen, -6^), Frederick. [Ut, xtid}, rich, mighty ; 

in grieben, peace.] 
frieren,"* fror, gcfroren, to freeze; ti friert mid^, I feel cold, 
ftiert, 3d pers, sing,pres, offtinm, 
frifdl^, adj, and adv., fresh, cool, refreshing; active, healthy, 

vigorous; alive, etc. [Engl, fresh and frisk.] 
frif t, 3d pers. sing.pres. of frcffen. 
gri^, m,, Fred, [for grieberid^, Frederick], 
frol^, adj., glad, joyous [ahin to jld^ freuen]. 
frol^lid^, adj., joyful, merry, jovial [related with Engl, 

frolic, frolicsome]. 


frol^Ud^er, fein (No. 65), compear, of ftoffiid), merry; case- 
end^ t$ (to agree with Xf^itxdftn, n.) is omitted, 
fromm, adj., religious, pious. 
'grof<^,»* m. (-«; ffrofd^e), frog. 
9r6f(^e,pl. o/grofd^. 
grud^t,^"*/. («j grud^t«), fruit. 

SYu4te,|>Z. of ffruc^t, vegetables, fruit. 
Sru^tbarfcit,"^/ (-; nopL), productiveness, fertility, 
frug, old and strong form fir fragte, tmpf of fragcn. 
frul^, adj, and adv., early. 

Beim frul^fien (No. 36), superl., at the earliest. 
Stul^ting,"* m. (-«; -e), spring, season of spring; prime or 

youth of life, [frul^, acfj., early, and (ing or ing.] 
Srul^ting^tag"* m. (-e«; -c), spring-day. 
Srul^ting^toetter,** n., spring-like weather. 
gu^«,»* m. (-e« ; gu^fc), fox. 

fugte l^in^u, impf ofl^injufugen,^ «<?p., to add [»« fegen]. 
ful^len,"'' to feel, to perceive by the touch; to be con- 
scious of, ».6., to feel or perceive by the senses of 

the mind. 
fu^r auf, impf. of auflfa^ren, see auftufol^ren. 
fu^t l^inburd^, impf. of l^inbutc^fal^rett (No. 119), to cut or 

drive one^s way through, 
fttl^r urn mid^ l&erum (No. Ill), I went or turned round 

about myself, turned on my toes, reeled about, 
ful^reti,'^ ful^tte, gcful^rt, to lead; to take, 
ful^ren ttor, impf. of ©orfaljiren, sep., to drive to the door, 
giil^rer,** m. (-«;-), guide, leader, 
fu^rt, Bdpers. s. pres. of ful^tm. 
ful^rte, impf of ful^ren. 
fullen,^ to fill, to make full. [moU, full.j 
funf, num. adj., five. 

f u n f ( 1 Ijl i g, weighing five ounces, [bctf 8otl^ ; see £o«tfe.] 
fhx,prep. with ace, for, instead of. 

fur unb fur, for ever and ever. 


gurd^t,^/. (-; nopl\ fear, fright, 
fttrdjltbar, adj.f terrible, dreadful, frightful. 
fur<!^t*en,^ to fear, apprehend ; fl«l^ fftrd^tcn, to be afraid. 
furdfttttjifpl. impf. offttxHftttL 
futififam, adj. and adv,j timid, timidly; afraid, 
furd^tetlii^, adj.j frightful, 
fffirfl,'^ m. (-en; -en), prince [thefiret]. 
gfirfliii,^/. (-; -nen), princess. 
ftttflHd^, adj.f princely, 
furkoal^r, adv., in truth. 

gttfl,"* w. (-rt ; Sttfe), foot ; gu gufe geljm, to walk on foot. 
%u^tn, of ^n$. 
^u'^f^ali,^ m.f lit. Jbothold ; a firm footing. 
Sutter,"* n., fodder, food for cattle; ffutteretfcfen, pease for 
feeding cattle, poultry, etc. 


gaB ©tunben, impf. o/<Stunben geBeit, to give lessons. 
® aBe,^/. (-; -n), gift ; grace. [geBen, to give ; gaB; gave.] 
fi&Be, Bdpere. sing.pres. 9ubj. of geBen. 
®aBel,w /. (-; -n), fork \relaJted with ©affel, WeUh gafi, a 

fork; the gaffle of a cross-bow; the gaff of a 

fore-and-aft sail]. 
a B «, for g a B tt, impf. of geBen. 
gdl^tten,"^ to yawn, gape, 
g a la nt, adj., gallant, polite. 
® alo^)^,«* m. (-e0 ; -<), gallop. 
®ang,«* m. (-e« j ©dnge)^ step, walk; gangway, passage, 

lobby, corridor, [gel^en, to go ; impf ging, pp. 

gang unb geBe, phr., current, recognised, well-known. 

[gel^en, to go.] 
gangbar, adj. (comTn^moQ, saleable, marketable. 


@an«,^»t/ (-; ©Snfe) goose. 

gang, adj., whole, entire, adv., entirely. 

gan) n>a^ anberd, quite a different affair, 
gatt} Befonbetd, in a quite peculiar manner; eine 
gange SBeile, for some time ; ganj unb gat, totally, 
entirely, completely, from first to last. 

® a tt J e, ba«, n., the whole. 

& tt g I i (^, adv. , entirely. 

gar, acfv., quite, very, adj., done; ready, finished; before 
a noun or pronoun, even. 

gar ni^t, not at all ; gar \tf)X, very much ; gar Balb, 
very soon. 

©arbine,'^/. (-; -n), curtain. 

®arn,»* n. (-e«; -e), yarn, thread. 

®arten,»*m. (-«; ©drten), garden. 

®drtner,«*m. (-«;-), gardener. 

®afl,"* m. (-e« ; @dfie), guest, visitor. 

®a^toixtf),^m. (-e«; -e), inn-keeper, landlord^ host. 

®auttet,»*m. (-«;-), sharper. 

©ajeUe,''^/. (-; -n), gazelle. 

ge, I.) Inseparable prefix qf nouns. — 11.) Past participial 
augment of verbs. — III.) Inseparable prefix or par- 
tide of verbs. ®e u>as originally a prq>. meaning 
together with, like Lot. con or cum. 

I. 1.) Ab prefix of nonns it has aeollectiveforoe; thus, 
Gebirge^ n., a chain, range, or compact mafw of moon- 
tains ; Oesteiti, n^ a compact mass of stone, etc 

8.) It has the force of constant succession in words like 
GeifrUttf n^ roars upon roars; GeUtehter^ n., roars or 
shouts of laughter, etc. In these it marks the noons as 
being of neuter gender. 

8.) There is another class of nouns (masculines) in which 
it appears. 

a) In those formed from verbs, as Oerueh, m., smell; 
Guang, m., song; Ota^madc, m., taste. Neuter is 
das Oediehtf the poem, •'.«., das GediehtetSf etc 

b) In those expressing companionship or consort- 
ship, as Ge/UhrtSf GeseUf Genoss, m., fellow-eom- 


panion ; Oemahlf m^ consort, etc. ; GeachwisteTf brothers 
and sisters. (In Glaube and OlUek^ &6 became con- 
tracted into g.) 

II. As participial augment (the old Engl. 7 in yclept) it is 

prefixed to all simple verbs, except those in ieren. It is 
inserted after the prefix and before the verb proper 
in all separable componnds, and it is rejected by all 
verbs wiUi the prefixes, fte, ent, emp ; er, gt, v«r, aer\ mx$M, 
hinter^ idderf voU. 

III. ge^ in composition irith verbs, modifies, expands, or 

intensifies the meaning of the simple verb. Here we 

have to discriminate : — 
1.) Verbs which have no longer any independent exis- 
tence without their prefix ge^ as getoinnen, genieszenf 
gtschehen^ glauhen, gdtmen, geneaen, eto. 
2.) Verbs which occur both with and without gg. 

a) Among these we find verbs with ge^ which have 
historically accepted a meaning totally different trom 
that of the simple verb. Thus, fallen., to fall, and 
gt/aUen, to please, like; gekdren^ gehaben^ gtre^hen^ 
gesUhen^ etc. 

V) And we have verbs with ge^ in which the diversity of 
signification between the simple verb and its compound 
with ^«, is analogous to the relation between a verb 
where the action is momentary (lasting only a moment) 
or complete, and a verb where the action is going on 
or not completed. Thus, denkm^Xo think, and ge- 
denken, to have one's thoughts fixed upon, etc. ; rtnn«fi, 
to run, and gerinnenf to curdle; reuen and gereuen; 
/rieren and ge/rieren. This distinction between verba 
I>erfecta and verba imperfecta, shows itself now and 
then in German, especially in Mhg.; but it has no- 
where become established, as in Greek. 

Qtafinti, pp^ of al^nen,'^ to have aD inkling of, to have a 

foreboding, to have an idea. 
Qtaxhtitttfpp, ofaxhtitm. 
geb.,/or geborcne,/. n^e. 
©eb&rbe,^/. (-;-n), gesture, [fld^ geBa^tctt or geMl^rbcn, 

to behave oneself.] 
gebSten, gebar, gcBoren, to bear, bring forth. 
® eb&ube,Bt «. (_e0 ; -e), building. [ba« ©ebauete, that which 

has been built ; Bauen, to build.] 
9ebaut,2?p. o/bauni. 


QcBen,** QaB, gegeBeit, to give. 

@e6et,"* n. (-e« ; -e), prayer, [htttn, to pray.] 

geBcten, pp. of Bitten, Bat, geBeten, to pray, request, beg 

[allied to Bieten, to bid]. 
0eBetet,i)p. ofhtitn. 
Qthtu^tfPp. o^Beugen,"'' to bend down. 
®cBiet,8* n. (-e«; -e), territory, dominion. 
©eBietet,"* m. {-4 ;-), ruler. 
®eBiTge,Bt n. (-d;-), mountain-range, mountains, 
g c B i f f c n, pp. of Bfigen,** (i ; i). 
^thlithtn, pp. </BlciBen,«* (ie; -ie). 
Qtboxtn, pp. (of geBdren) used adjecHvdy^ born. 
0cBra(l^t,/?p. o/ Btingctt,"* Bra^te, geBra^t; phr. einen um aUt 

feine 3eit Bringen (No. 16), to do one out of all one's 

time; toeit geBtad^t, Ut. brought far; come far, 

advanced much. 
geBraud^ett,'^ insep., to make use of, etc. [ge and Brau^en, 

to use.] 
%thxod}tn,pp. ofhxtdjtn,^ (a; o). 
® e B r u n,"* n. (-rt ; -e), a continued roar, roaring. [BruWen,^ 

to roar.] 
gcButtben^i?/?. of Binben. 
®eBurt0tag,»t m. (-e«;-e), birthday. [®cBurt,/., birth; 

i£ag, f»., day.] 
geba^ten, impf. and pp. o/gebenfen ; bed gebad^ten 

^aufed (p. 157), of the above-mentioned firm, 
©ebanfe, m. (-nd; ~n), thought; reflection. 

in ®eban!en, dot. pL, lost in thought. 

auf einen ®ebanfen fommen, a thought striking a 
person ; to take something into one's head. 

fld^ ©ebanfen madden fiBer, to ponder over, to feel 
uneasy about. 
gebe<ft,i)p. of beef en,"*^ to cover, to lay the table, see bedPen. 
gebeil^en,"* gebiel^, gebiel^en, insep., to prosper, flourish, get 

on well, [ge and bei^en, akin to Gr. n»uf and 


rtMTtn, to prodace, give birth to; and German 

Ixdft, close ; dense, compact. With the pp. gebie^en 

is connected, gebirgen, adj.^ that which t« sound and 

solid, andf at the eame Hme^ pliant and flexible.] 
gebenfen, gebad^te^ gebad^t, to think of, remember. 
® eb i c^ t,** n. (-cd ; -e), poem, [bad ©ebid^tete, or, that which 

has been poetized or expressed in poetic and 

imaginatiye ^language; bici^ten, Goth, deigan, to 

shape, form, signifies in its modem aocepUxtian^ " to 

write poems," to invent, imagine.] 
® eb range,** n. (-e« ; -«), crash, crowding, [btingen, brang, 

gebrungen, to press.] 
eb ttlb,"^/. (-; no pi.), patience, [bulben, to suffer, endure, 

bear ; akin to old Engl, thole. " / have with you 

thole d." — Chaticer,] 
geel^tt, j?p. oftf^xtn, to honour, esteem. 

mit 3]^rem ©eel^rten (supply <S6fxnUn, n.), with your 
esteemed voriUng or kind note. 
gee^rten, b<«, of^tt^xt. 
Oefal^rw/ (-; -en), danger; risk, 
gefallen, gefiel, gefaHen, Ut. to fall in toUh on/is taste, thence 

to please, to like. (Se geftel stir )Mffi, I liked it 
very much. 

SBmnd Zfyitn gefdUt, if you please ; if you like it. 

ftd^ gefaUen lapen, to be pleased, to let or allow to 
be done ; to put up with, 
©efalten,"* m. (-6;-), liking, pleasure. 

nAd) ®efa((en, as you like it, to one^s liking. 

gu ©efatten or einem etmod gu ®efaUen ti^un, to do 
something to please or oblige a person. 
gefaUigfi, adv., kindly ; if you please. 

^tfan%tntpp. q^fongen; bet Ocfongcne,'^ m. the prisoner, 
©efangenen, if^xm, dot. sing, moscofx^^x Oefaitgener, w., 

their prisoner. 


©efangener (No. 59), gen, pL of {nom. pL) ©cfangene, 

@ef&ngnifi,«* n. (-ed; -e), prison, 
©efed^t,^* w. (-e«; -e), fight, engagement. 
^tft^it, pp. of ftf)Un, to fail, a ifi gefe^tt, it has missed 

fire ; it was ineffectual ; it was a mistake, 
gefiel, impf of gefaKen. 
geflogen fomtnen, to come flying towards one, to alight 

near or on one. [jliegett, to fly.] 
%tfUf)tn, pp. of^itfftn. 
gefragt,jRp. o/fragcn w. 
^tfuf}xt,pp. offuffxtn,^. 
gefuttbett,i?p. of^nhm. 
gegangcn,^. of^t^tn. 

ava bem ^afen gegangen, sailed from or left the 
gefreut auf, jlci^, pp. of jl(^ freuen auf, to anticipate with 

joy, to look forward to. 
^t^tttf prep, vnth ace., against, opposed to; towards; 

©egenb,"^/. (-; -en), country, district, neighbourhood, 
©egenben,^?. o/*®egcnb. 
®egent]^eil,B* n. (-«; -e), contrary, opposite. 

im ©cgentl^eite, on the contrary, 
gegenuber, adv, and sep. part., opposite, 
gegenuberliegenb, pres. p. of gegenuberliegenb,"* sep., to lie 

®egenn)&rtigem, mit, dot. sing, of gegetttv^tttg, usedsuhstan- 

iwely; with or in the present note, 
gegeffen, pp. of ejfen; gu SWittag effen, to dine, ».«., to eat at 

gcgraBett,/>p. o/'graBeti,** grub, gegraben, to dig. 
gel^otten fur,^. off^alttn fur, l^telt fur, gel^alten fur, to take 

for, to mistake for, to take to be. 
%tf) antn, pp. offfautn, f^Uh, gel^aueit, to hew, cut. 


toit aui <Stein ge^ouen, as if carved in stone ; petri- 

gel^alten, pp, of ^alten. (linen ^di)nrxt fatten, to keep a 
pledge, to carry oat an oath. 

ge]^angen,|7p. <2^^angen,"* (i^; o)) to hang ; to be suspended, 
l^angen, to hang up, to cause to hang, to suspend, 
is the causative form of l^angen. No. 95, „ mit ge$ 
fangen, ntit gel^angen/' or, A man caught in com- 
pany with thievee and rogues, wiU he hung with 
ihem. The pp. ge^angen stands here for gel^dugt 
koerben, to be put to death by hanging. 

gel^eilt,^. q/l^ei(en;^ to heal, restore to health. 

©el^eitttratl^in,^/ (-; -nen), wife of a Privy Councillor, 
[gel^eim, secret, privy.] 

gel^^ 2d pers. s. imper. of gel^en. Sing, @e]^' or ©el^en ®ie ! 
PI. ©el^t ! or Oel^en @ie ! 

gel^en or geVn/«* ging, gegangen, to go, walk, dntgegen gel^'n, 
to go to meet 9Bie ge^t'd? How do you do? 
©e^en (etnen, to learn walking. 

ge^fol^r^faw, adj., obedient; obsequious [from gcl^oren]. 

^ti^bxtni^ insep., to belong to (toith dot. ofpersovC). 

ge^ji ]^inaud;/ram ^inaudgel^en,>^t ^,^ to go out among the 
people (No. 109). 

gel^t, Mpers. s. pres. ©/"gel^en ; e^ gel^t (No. 87) ben SKenfc^en. 
it is with man ; fo gel^t tA, so it is, so it happens, 
etc. ; ))on flatten gel^en, to go on, to be continued. 

gel^t ^VL^ffrom aufgel^en (No. Ill), to fly open, to open, 

@eier,»* m. (-^ ; -e), vulture. 

geigen,*^ to play on the violin, to fiddle, [tie ©eige, the 
violin, fiddle.] 

®eifl,»*»i. (-e«;-er), ghost; spirit; phantom; genius. 

Oeig,"* m. (~e«; nopl.)^ avarice, covetousness. 

ge!annt,/>p. of fennen. 

gef ni(f t, pp. q/'fnicfen,^ to nip, to break, to check the growth 
of; to bend; to fold, crumple {paper, etc.) \from 


the sound of ln\d\ mterj,; thence, ber Stnid, a 
flaw in glass; ter ^ir, a courtesy. In the 
same way, fnacfen, to crack, snap, and ber Staad, 
the crsLckyJromfttAd, interj., crack! snap I AUo^ 
hadfen, to crack ; ber ihad^, a loud crash or sharp 
noise, from the sound of frad^, crash! crack! 
Phrases: ^x fnirft tin @i; bet @turm fnicft 
(Sid^en ; m\i ben Sin^^nt fnadfen ; 9luffe fnacfen. We 
have here three graduated sounds, fniif ^ !na^, fracf I 
Compare also bet i^naU, the \jiQ]\.,andBhgL nick, 
a^/s^G? &7 fnicf.] See also ®eni(f. 

0eIommen,i?p. ofUvxmtVL^\ in'^ Seucr fommen (military), to 
get under fire. 

0e!rummt, pp. of frummen,"^ to curve, bend, [ftumm, 
crooked.] • 

®tla6)tt r,8* n. (-« ;-), laughter, shouts of laughter, [ta^en,"^ 
to laugh.] 

gelaben, i?p- of kben lub (tobete), gelabni, to invite (to be 
one^s guest or visitor) ; to load, etc. 

9 eta f f en, i?p. q/'laffen,**. 

^tla^^tn, participial adj, andadv.^ quietly, unruffled. 

gelb, acfj'i yellow. 

@elb,B* n. (-ea ; -er), money. 

getebtrP/?. q/'teben,'*^ to live, to be alive. 

gelegt, ^^p. o/legen ; an ben ilag legen (No. 93), K^. to lay or 
bring to ^ Z^^^ of day, to prove, show* 

0etel^rt,i;!P. o/tel^ren,'^ to teach, 

Q e I e i fi e t, i?p. o/'teifien,"^ to bring about, aecomplisb. [EngL 
to last, Ut, to tread in one^s footsteps, Aence, to 
follow, to fulfil, Germ, teijlen ; -bet ^^ta, a shoe- 
maker^s last.] 

Qeletnt, pp* of lemen,^ to learn; fennm totm, to become 
acquainted with, to make an acquaintanco. 

gelingen,^* getang, geXungen, to suioceed. 

%t\\tltfpp, <2f lieben,^. 



©elieBte,^ m. andf^ (-11; -n), the beloved one. 
geloBen,'^ insep,^ to vow, promiBe) take a vow or pledge. 
• [ge and lobett, to praise; VH. to extol as praise- 

worthy, ani thence^ to give by solemn promise, to 

Qeluflet'd, 3^? pen. sing, pres, of geluflen,'^ to long after. 

[bie £ufl, the lust, desire.] 
®etnad^,B* n. (-ed ; ®em&(^er), room [criginaUy "a place of 

retreat where one could enjoy rest and quietude 

away from the huaUe and noise of the market.^'* 

Compare bo^ Ungemad^, discomfort, adversity ; ^u 

mai!^, 6M^'., comfortable; gem&(^U(l^, gently; unge^ 

m&^lid^, uncomfortable], 
gemaj^t,/^. o/mac^m,^ to make, do; to fashion. 

ed nrnf grmad^t loetben (No. 38), it must be done. 
^tmtWiti, pp» from mc(ben,^ to announce, 
gemeffen, ^. of meffen, niafl, gemefen, to measure; ein ge^ 

mcffenc^ ^mifrnta, a dignified bearing, deportment. 
®emuTittel,Bt n, (-4; no pL)j murmur, iaJking in a low 

gemein, adj.^ common. 
geittictl^et,2?p. q/'mietl^en,^ to hire, rent. 
gcmorbet,jRp. o/*incTben,^ to murder, kill. 
®tvxxii^,^ n. (-e0;-eT), disposition, state of mind, mind. 

[^ut^, m., mood, courage.] 
^tn,prep. with ace, towards [abbreination of gegm]. 
genannt^p. o/*netttt«i. * 
genau, adj.y close; strict, stingy, exact 

adv., minutely, well (No. 33). 
©enaugfeit,"^/., accuracy. 

geneigt^^:^., inclined, prone, disposed, [neignt, to incline.] 
©encratio'tt,"^/. (-; -«n), generation. 
@cnt(f,"* n. (-e« ; -e), nape, neck [the prqjecting Joint of ike 

neck. Engl, neckw allied to 9la(fen andnd^tn*, 

but (Hetticf bears more relation to fnicf {see gefnidPt). 



Sjportsmen aay, bem SBilb boa ®eni(f (rec^en, bm 

SBcgeln bo« ©cnid cinbrutfcn]. 
genie fen, genof, gencffen, to enjoy; to eat. [^t and ardiaic 

verb ntefien, to take in use, etc. Thence 9ln(en, n., 

use ; 9lief braud^, usus fructus, abnu^en, to wear out 

by using,] 
genug, adv., enough; (No. Ill) in short, 
genugfam, adv., to repletion; long enough, sufficiently, 
©enugtl^uung,"^/. (-; -en), satisfaction. 
9e6ffnet,i)p. ofojlfmn,^ to open. 
® e^j&cf,"* n. (-e« ; -e), luggage. [ba« ©e^jarfte, that which is 

packed, from padtn, to pack ; similar to bod ®ti 

ba(f ene, or baa ©ebdcf, that which is hacked, from 

hadm, to bake.] 
gcjjeittigt, pp. of ^jeinigen,"^ to torment to madness, [bic 

^ein, the torment.] 
ge^cljlert, pp. of ^joljlem,^ to bolster, to provide with 

cushions, [ber $oI{ler, the cushion, bolster.] 
get a be, adj., straight; in geraber Sinie, in a straight line. 

adv., just; @r toiegt getabe 200 $funb, he weighs 
just 200 pound. 
®erdtl^;"t n. (-e0; -e), tools, implements. 
Qtxatf), Sd pers. sing. s. pres. of geratl^en. 
geratl^en, geriet^, geratl^en, insep., No. 94, to turn out. 

gut gcratl^cn, to turn out well, by chance. 

in (Streit geratl^en, to get into a dispute, quarrel. 

in (S^oKifion gerat^en, to get into collision, [ge and 
tatl^en, to guess, to give a guess.] 
©erdufd^,"* n. (-e« ; -e), noise, [raufd^en, to rush, to make 

a noise like the water pouring from a water- 
©ered^tid^feit,'^ /. (-; no pi.), justice, [gered^t, just, aiw/ 

fcit, which forms feminine abstract-nouns from ad^ 
~ jectives.] 
gerettet,2>P- ©/"retten,^ to save. 


®ettd^t,«* w. (-f«;-e), dish; court of justice; hd ®md)t, 

in court, 
gctid^t't, for gerid^tet, of rid^ten w to judge, to condemn, to 

execute ; jld^ tid^teti an, to address oneself to. 
gcwng, adj., littlte, small, insignificant; p. 160, inferior, 
geringf ugig, adj., insignificant ; very little, 
^criffen,^. o/rcigen,«t (i; i). 
gcrn, adv., willingly, gladly, with pleasure, [see Begil^ren], 

gern tan gen, to like dancing, to be fond of dancing. 

gem fd^rei&en, to like to write, 
gerul^rt, pp. as adj., moved, [rul^ten, to stir, move; to 

touch with emotion, to move to tears.] 
©etjle,^/. (-; no pi.), barley. 
•gefaQtijp. o/fagen,^. 

®efamni'tBetrag,8* m. (-f«; -Betrage), total amount. 
®efang,8* m. (-e«; -fdngc), song; lyric melody, [jlngen, to 

sing ; imp/, fang.] 
®efd^dft,B* n. (-rtj-e), business [from fd^affen, to do; 

gef(J^aftig, busy]. 
Qt\6)afteUe, adv., lit. business-less, tmthout doing business; 

inactive ; quiet ; dull season. 
%t\ijh%i,pp.of fd^a^en, to esteem, [bet @d^a^, the treasure.] 
Gef4el^en,8* gefc^al^, gefd^el^en {wUh fein), to happen, take 

place. S3}ie ba« gefci^el^en tear. No. 59, When that 

had been done. SBad iji bir gefd^el^en ? What has 

happened to you ? 
gef^eibt, adj., clever, prudent. 

gef^etbttoerben, to come to the age of discretion, to 
cut the teeth of wisdom (3Bei«^eit«gal^ne) ; Engl 
He has cut his eye-teeth, i.e., He is up to snuff. 
@efd^id^te,'w /. (-; -n), history, story, [gefd^el^en,"* to hap- 
® efd^i(f,B* n. (-e« ; -z), fate [from fd^icfen, to send, dispose], 
gefd^itf t, adj., clever, skilful [from jld^ fd^idfen, to prepare 

oneself for, adapt oneself to]. 


gefd^te^t «on, 3d pen, 8. jn-es,^ is done, accomplished by 

gefd^iel^t, Sdpera. sing. preg. of ^tfdftf^tn. 

@cf<i^ted^t,"* n. (-€«; -cr), race [fivm fd^tagen]. 

0cf^loffeti,i)p. q^f(^ltefieii,«* (o ; o). 

gefd^maufet, pp. of fd^manfen,^ to feast, banquet, to 
carouse, [^er @^mattd, a good dinner, a feast, 

^t\dfmtdi, pp. of f^me (fen,*^ to taste ; Engl smack, [bet 
©efd^maif, the taste.] 

ti^nva kool^t gefd^medft, we relished, liked, it very 

gef(^m&(f t, pp. of fd^mudfen w to make smug or smock, 
to adorn,' decorate, to put one's best things on., 
[bet ^dfxmd, the ornament, set of jewels ; fd^mucf, 
adf,f tidy, smart; studied (in dress). Thence 
Engl, smug and smock. " What smug Amazon 
was that I brought you f " " Goer this hangs my 
^ smocke of a fine white silk gauge.^^] 

^tfd^tittn, pp. of fd^reien. 

©efd^fit,"* n. (-e«; -e), artillery, cannon, heavy guns [from 
@d^u$ and-^^U^tn, which see]. 

gcfd^toinb; adj., swift, quick; €tdv., quickly. 

®t\dfXoi^Jiitx,pl., brothers and sisters, brother and sister. 

©efd^too'tene,^ m. (-n; -n), lit. sworn man; juryman.' 

gcfegelt,i?p. of\tQtin,'^ to sail, set sail. 

^t\ti)tn,pp. o/fel^en. 

©efftrfd^ftfti^/ (-; -«n), company, party; society, as- 
sociation [from ®efeH, companion, and fd^aft, 
similar to Engl, ship, derived from fc^affen, to shape, 

gefent,i?p. of fid} gefcffen, to flock together. Engl., " Birds 
of a feather flock together." Germ., ®lndf unb 
®(nd^ gefedt j!d^ gem. 

gefeffen,i)p. o/ffften, \a% gefeffen, to sit, to be seated. 


^tJitf^tfPP' of fe^en, to set, put; in SBetricB fej^, to put into 

working order, 
©efi'd^t,"* n. (-««; -er), face, countenance; vision, [fe^eit, 

to see ; gu ®e{l(^t befommen, to get sight of.] 

®tj^d)tt,pL, visions; ©eftd^ter, pL, faces, grimaces, 
g e f ^ a 1 1, i>p. of ftxiren,"^ to save [Engl, spare]. 
®t\ptn%'^ n. (-ed; -er), spectre, ghost, apparition, 
©eftatt,^/. (-; -tn), figure, shape, form, 
gefiecf t, pp- of fiedfen,'*^ ^ecfte, geftecft, to place or put into. 

0Bo fteift ft? { familiar phrcue) Where is he? 
®efletn,"t n. (-ed; no pi.), a compact mass of stone. 

[®t and (Stein, m., stone. See ®e.] 
gefiorben,^;?. ©/"fifrben,"* (a; o). 
gejlranbet, pp. of fttanben,"^ to run aground, ashore (unto a 

strand), [ber @tranb, the beach.] 
gefireng, adj., severe, strict. 
gefirettt,|jp.of fireuen,'^ to strew. 

gefir. (p. 160), for geflrigCcn), acff., yesterday's, of yesterday, 
gefunb, adj., sound, healthy, 
©cfnnbl^eit,^/, (-; -en), health, 
getabett, j^. of tabeln,***^ to find fault with, 
get^an, pp. of tftun,** (a ; a), 
getl^eilt, pp. of tl^eiten. 
@et6n,«* n. (~e€; -e), sounds, music, [ber Xen, m., the 

sound ; tonen, to sound.] 
®etofe,«* n. (-e« ; -e), noise, hurley-burley. [tofen, to rage, 

roar Uke a storm.'] 

!(-e€ ; pi. ©ettaibeatten), com, grain ; crop of 
com [lit. bad ©etragene, that which the 
ground bears or brings forth ; thus bet ®rtag, 
the produce,yrom ttagen, to bear]. 
® etreuen, bie, pi., the faithful ones (servants, adherents, etc.). 
getreu, adj. and adv., faithful, faithfully. 
getrttnfen,|?p. of trinfen,Bt (a; u). 
®et)atterf(l^aft,^/. (-; -en), lit. faihership, i.e., relation- 


ship; kinsmen, relations, [bet ©evatter, the god- 
father ; bie ® e)>atterin, the godmother.] 
geloal^c, cuiv., aware; getoal^t metbett, to become aware. 
0e»ad^fen,/>p. q/'to)ad^fen,«* (u; a). 
Q^ttoaU,"^ f. (-; -en), power, force, 
getoaltig, adj., mighty; adv., mightily; with force, 
©etoaltige, bet, m., the mighty one. 
geioaltfam, adj., violent ; adv., by violent means, brutal 

©eioanb,*^ n. (-ed; ©eiodnbet), garment, vestment; an 

ample robe, dress, [from the impf. loanb of Minben, 

to wind round; fold.] 
getoanbt, adj., adroit; clever, [toenben, toanbte, getoanbt 

to turn.] 
9 c tt) a r t e t, jF>p. of toarten. 
@ett)e^r,Bt n. (-c« ; -e), weapon, arms ; gun. [fi^ mffttn, to 

defend oneself; bie fSitf)x, the defence.] 
®eta)e]^rlaufe, j?/. of Oetoel^rlauf,"* m., barrel of a gun. 
0etoefen,2?p. of fein, toax, getoefen, to be. 
@etoi d^t,»* n. (-e« j -e), weight [»iegcn,«* to weigh.] 
@ettjinn,8* m. (-e«; -e), gain, profit.' 
gen)innen,<>^ gemann, getoonnen, to win over, gain, make 

profit, earn. 
® e to i f f e n,^n. {-« ;-), conscience '\ [from toiflen, to know ; 
getoifl, ady. and adv.y certain, surely >Old Engl, to wite, 
getoiflic^r ^'dv.f surely, truly ) to ken, know], 

getocl^nen,^ inst^., to accustom, to make wonted, 
gelool^nen,^ to be accustomed gr wonted; to grow or be 

used to; pp. getocl^nt, wont, used, accustomed. 

ed getool^nt toerben or fein, to get or be used to it. 
getool^nlic!^, a(ff., usual, 
getool^nt,^^. of getoo^nen (No. 32). 
QttoolU,pp. of toof(en, tooUtt, getooKt. 
getoonnen,j9p. of getoiimen,"*. 
genjorben, /j^'. of »erben; »arb, gcirwbcn. 


gejogen^i^p. ofiitf^tn,^ to draw, pull, tug. 

gegogen fommtn, to come marching along. 
®eguc^t,Bt n. (-f«; -e), brood [t.6., bod ®ejc0ene,yro7» jic^en, 

to breed {cattle, etc.)]. 
Qith,2d pera. s. imper. of geben, imper., ®ieb ! ®fBt! ®eB(n 

gibt, ed, or gieBt, there is, there are (used when the locality 

where? is not precisely defined; but if one can 

point to the locality or place ae being close at hand, 

ba ifiorba finb, must be used for there is, there 

Qtebt nad^, Sd pers. s. pres. of na^eBen,"* sep.j to yield, 

give way. 
®ier, ®ietbe, Segiet,^/. yearning, eagerness, greediness, 

greed. [See Begel^ten]. 
flier ig, adv., greedily. [See @ier.] 
gitt*^ mir, 3d pers. s. pres. of QtUtn,^^ (a; o), is it meant for 

gitig, impf. o/gel^en. 

3d^ ging m(^t ger^, I did not like to go. 

@o ging c« (No. 34), So it went on. Thus it was, etc. 

ging fort, impf q/*fcrtgc]^cn, sep., to go away. 

id) ging aui (No. 99), I set out, left. 

e6 ging an bie . . . (No. 60), it came to the . . . 

tf ging in'^ !3al^r (No. 60), a new season or year 
came round. 

uBcr bie S^lafe gel^en, to pass over or before one's 

ging toettet (p. 160), continued his journey, went on. 
®t^fel,«* m. (-«;-), summit, top [is not related with ®icBel, 

m., gable, as erroneously supposed. It comes from 

Mhg. der gupfe, thence @u|)fel and ©ipfet, the 

highest point]. 
®itaffe w/ (_; -n), giraffe, 
glanjenw to glitter, shine; to flash, [bet ®(ana, m., the 


lustre; EngL to glance, "Aer eye glent aside J*^ — 

Chaucer. Allied vnth gleifen, glifl, d^d^if ^n, thence 

glinjen, and also glij^em.] 
©lad,"* n. (-c«; ©Idfcr), glasB; tumbler [connected with 

gteifen, to be bright, shine ; thence also Engl, gloss]. 
® Iafer,«t rn. (-d ;-), glazier. 
®l&fern (p. 144), cfo/. pi. of ®iaa, n., the chimney (of a 

®Ufern (No. 72), datpl. of ®ia9, n.^for ffernglod or gem^ 

rcl^t; n., spying-glass, field-glass ; telescope. 
®iauht,^ m.^(gen. sing, in ni, all other cases in n), 
©lauben, j faith, belief, 
glauben, gtaubte, gegtauBt, to believe, think. gtauBen an, to 

believe in. [ge and \aubtn,Jrom Ohg. galaupjan or 

kelaupan; A.S. gelyfan, lyfan connected with 

Sanscrit root lubh, to desire ; Lot. cup ere.] 
®Iftubiger,«* m. (-6 ;-), creditor, 
gif id^, adj.f like, equal, adv. immediately. 

®Ui(t} unb ®Ui6f, Ut. like and like^ i.e., people or 
things of like character, disposition, or pursuit. 

fein'd ®ln^m, his equal, 
gleid^en,"* glic^, gegltc^en, to liken, resemble, to be like 

[from gletd^, like]. 
gleid^falU, adv., likewise, lit. in a like or similar case. 

[ber San, the case; faiia, adv^ gen., in the case 

®Uidf^itoidft,^^ n. (-ed ; -e), lU. equal balance ; equilibrium. 
QUid)t,Sd pers. sing. pres. of glcid^en. 
©liebet, pi of ®m,^ n. (-e«; -«r), limb. [Ohg. gelith; 

Old Engl. lith,/rom leitan, lidan, to move ; thence 

also leiten, to lead. "She has no lit h without a 

lacke." — Gower.'] 
gtitt, impf. ofcjitxitn, glitt, gegtitten, to glide, slide. 

^xii uber (No. 56), came flashing across, spread all 
over. — glitt au^, /rowi au^gleiten, to slip. 


@Iu<f,"^ n. {"te ; no p/.)« luck, happinesSi good fortune. 

gum @(u(f (No. Ill), fortunately. 

ed bringt ®(fi(f , it is considered very lucky, it brings 
prosperity, a run of luck, etc. 

[Mhg, ba4 ®dudt, prdbMy connected tnUh gelungrn, 
PP' of ^tlin^m, to turn out luckily.] 
^ludlid}, adj.f happy, adv., safely (No. 66) ; fortunately, 
fi I u 1^ e n b, pres. p. of glul^en,^ to glow, glfi^cnb l^eig, burning 

gtul^n, or glii^en,'^ to glow, bum. 
@tut^, i)r ®(ut,^/. (-; -en), glowing fire, intense heat, 
fe n a b e,"^ /. (-; -n), grace, mercy. 

»on @ottc« ©naben, by the grace of God, by Divine 
gn&btg, ac^'., gracious. 
Ottu,"* w. (-« ; -^), gnu, a quadruped of the antelope family, 

of (he size of a large ass, a native of South Africa, 
®olb,"* n. (-e«; no pi), gold, 
golben, adj., made of gold, golden. 
Qotbnet, nom. masc. of^aXbtn. 
@ 6 n n e r,*»* m. (-« ;-), patron ; well-wisher, [gonncn, to wish 

well to.] 
®oiX,^m. (-e«; ©otter), God. 
O^ttin,"^/ (-; -nen), goddess. 
@rab,8* w. (-ed ; ©raBet), grave, tomb [graBen]. 
@taben,»t m. (-« j ©rdben), ditch, trench [graven], 
grab en, grub, gegtuben, to make a grave; to dig; engrave, 
grab', adv., for gerabe, just. 
@taf,^ m. (-en; -en), earl, count, 
©rdfin,"^/. (-; -nen), countess. 
@ra«,"* n. (-er; ©rdfer), grass, 
grdjlic^, adj., Engl, grisly, terrible, dreadful, 
grau, adj., gray, grey. 
®rauen,"tm. shuddering, horror. 

gtauenvoll, adj. horrid. [t)oII, full of; ©wuen, n. horror.] 

M 2 


grault^, adj,^ horrible; shocking; dreadful, [ftd^ gtauen, 

to dread, to be afraid.] 
graufam, adj., cruel. [@rau«, m.; horror.] 
graufen,"'^ Sd-pera^, to shudder [connected vnih Old Engl. 

agrise, to shake, to cause to shudder]. 
Qtaufeftf, Sdpere. sing, of the above, *i/or t6. 
©reid,** m. (-rt; -«), gray-beard, gray-haired old man 

[from %ttvS, gray, connected with grau]. 
greifen, grijf, gegrifign, fo'i. to gripe; to grasp, seize, lay 

hold of. bet ©riff, m., the handle. 
©renabierV* »»• (-^ ; -0> grenadier, 
©renge,"^/. (-; -n), border, boundary; limit. 
© t i e d^ e,^ «i. (-n ; -n), G reek, 
grimtttig, adj,, fierce, of grim, ferocious aspect. 
@ro'6ian,Bt m. (-0;-e), gruff, Tude fellow, [grob, coarse, 

©rof(i^en,** m. (-« ;-), groshen. [See Money Table, p. 164.] 
grof, comp. grower, 1«^ superL, Ux, bie^ bod gto^te; 2 J superL, 

am gtcfiten, acj;., great, grand; tall; large, 
©rof en, bie^^Z., the magnates, grandees, 
grof ere, ber, compar. o^grofl, after art. ber. 
grof eren, bie (No. 54), the older, grown-up children, etc. 

[compar. o^gtofl. 
©rube,^/. (-; -n), Ut. grave, a digged hole; pit. [gtaben, 

grub, gegrabcn, to make a grave, dig.] 
©ruft,"^"* /. (-; ©rufte) tomb, grave. [Lai. crypta, a 

vault, crypt.] 
griin, adv., green, 
©runb,"* m. (-e« ; ©riinbe), ground, bottom, deep; reason; 

foundation, ©runb l^aben, to have cause, a reason, 
griinben,'^ to lay the foundation or ground of, to 

grunbet, Sdpers. dng.pres. q/gtiinben. 
grunbgele^rt, adj., profoundly learned, very erudite, 
grunblid^, adj., thorough, well-grounded. 


grunen,''^ to become green, to prosper, thrive. 
®tufl,^ m. (-ed; ©rufe), greeting, compliment. 
Qtuftn,'^ gvufte, gegruft, to greet; to present one^s com • 

pliments, one*s regards, respects, etc. 
gitlben, adj, (poetical), for golbfit, of a golden colour, 

golden \akin to Old Engl, gild, gilt, from A. S. 

gildan. Thus, " g i 1 d y stremes ; " "gilt tresses ; " 

"richly gilded.^^ See also Germ. @ulben under 

® un jt,"^"* /. (-; ®iin|le), favour, [gonnen, to wish well to ; 

grant.] gu 3. (3]^ren) ®un^en, in your favour. 
®ut,^ n.(-ed; @uter), property, estate, possession, 
gutr adj,, good, good-natured, kind, adv., well; fo gut toit, 

as well as. • 

® nte, hag, n., that which is good, what is good. 
®tttf)CLhtn,*^ n. (-; ~-e), balance in one's favour; credit, 
gutljfetrgig, adj., good-natured, kind-hearted. 

^aar,«* n. (-e6 ; -e), hair. 

l^aBen, f^attt {svhj. l^atte), gel^abt, to have, possess. {The 
fundamental idea underlying the Root ha in l^aben, 
to have, is ^^q/* possessing, holding, containing. 
Compare Lout, habere and oapere. The same root 
may he traced in many other worde like $ag, m., 
^titff, hedge; Iftatten, to hold; Ijattgcn, to hang; 
f)afttn, to cling to, adhere; ber J&aft, hold, haft (of 
a knife) ; bie J&aft, custody ; ^afen, m., l^ven, har- 
bour, that which holds ships, etc.]. 

^afer,B* (-d ; nopL), oat, oats. 

^ai)nf^^m. (-cd; §dl^ne), cock [supposed to he derived- from 
an old verh l^anen, to cry, akin to Lot. canere, to 


King. From ^al^n are again derived ^enne,/., hen, 

and ^ttl^tt, n., fowl], 
^al^nengefd^rei,"* n. (-<« ; no j?/.)» t^e crowing of cocks. 

[poa ®ef(i^tet, the crowing, cry ; bcr ^a^nt n, gen. pl.^ 

of the cocks.] 
l^alb, adj.f half. 

^alfte,^/., half, moiety. 

$alftei^»^* ^' (r^ ;-)» halter. 

^at«,»* m. (-e«; ^dlfe), neck. 

J&al«tu(^,»* n. (-e«; -tud^er), neckcloth, Bcarf. 

i^ait, Sdper8. sing, prea. of fyilttn. 

ffalttn, f^iilt, gel^alten, to hold [gee l^aBen]; ft^ f)alttn m, to 

hold on by ; f)alttn fur, to take for, consider as. 
l^alt, Sdpers. sing.pree. o/'l^altm; gut Arbeit l^aUen, to make 

or keep to work ; to look after one^s work, 
hamburger, ein, a native of Hamburg. 
\)^%for l^aben. 
^anb,^»*/ (-; ^5nbe), hand. Phr,y ava bcr ^anb faflen 

(affen, to let slip away. 
J&dnbd^en,*»t n. (-«;-), little hand [«f/m. o/*^anb]. 
^dnbel,^/., quarrels, disputes, doings. [$anbe(, m., com- 
merce, trade ; " the giving from hand to hand; ** 

connected unth bie ^anb, the hand.] 
^anbgemengc,"* n. (-e«;-e), hand-to-hand fight, scuffle. 

[©emenge, n., medley; tnengen, to mix; r^/f., to 

^anblaiiH)e,w/. (-; -n), a lamp to be carried. 
^anbf(^tt]^,«t m, (-e«; -e), glove. [J&anb,/., and @^ul^, to., 

l^angen,"^ Un^, gel^angen, to hang; to be suspended, 
l^dngen,"^ ^dngte, gel^dngt, to h^ng up, attach to, to cause to 

hang, jid^ l^dngen an, to hang on by. [^dngen w 

the causative form qff^an^m.] 
«&an^,"* m. (-f0; ^dnfe), John [abbreviated from Johannes]. 


$an0d^en,*^ff. (-d;-), little John, Johnnie. 

^atfe,/., harp. 

J&dting,»* m, (-e«; -e), herring. 

l^ar'nifd^glanjenb, cm/;., in armoar*8 radiancy. [dUngen, 
to shine, and fyvcnifdff m., armour, coat of mail, 
through the Romance allied with Fr. harnais, t.e.f 
tout r^qnipage d*un ch^val.] 

^axxtn,^^ n. {-$ ;-)y verbal noun, long, tedious, waiting in 

I^art, adj., hard. 

^ a f (^ cr,«t m. (-^ ;-), constable, [l^afd^fti,'*' to catch.] 

J&afe,"^m. (-n; ~n), hare. 

^ ft fid/ oefj'i ^it' hare-like. (No. 119) ©iel Xaufenbe liefen bort 
l^aftgen £auf, many thousand took {there) to their 
heels, like timid and swift-footed hares ; tin ^afiget 
l^auf, running swiftly away like a timid hare. 

^ dt fd^ el n,^ to fondle, to pet, caress. 

^dtteorl^dtt', impf. aubj, of l^aben. 

id^ l^dtte xxiQ^txif I should have liked. 

^aube,w/. (-; -n), cap \akin to ^vA and 4jau^)t. See be^uten 
atid bel^au^tet]. 

]^auen,"t ^{th ge^auen, to hew, cut. 

^aufe,»t m. (-n^ ; -n), J ^ ^^^j^^^ ^^ prisoners. [See 
«aufen,H;-n), J ^^^^^^^^j 

J&am)t,»* n. (-€«; ^du^ter), head; chief. [See bel^aujjtet.] 

^am)tau«brud,«*m. (-e« ; -brude), the principal or char- 
acteristic expression, feature. 

J&amjtmann,»* m. (-c«; -leute), captain. 

^a«0,»* w. (-«a; ^dufet), house, [bad J&au«, /row an wn- 
known root, signifies originally "a dwelling for 
man.^J nadf $aufe, home. 
\)on ^att« ava, by birth, nature; tin »ornc^me« or 

groped J&aud tnac^eii, to live in a grand style. 
Compounds: ©artenl^aud, summer residence; ®ti 


toad^l^xa, greenhouse; Xteibl^attd, hothouse; 
®ottt9^ava, the Lord's house, church ; ^aiffyava, 
town-hall, council-room; SBol^nl^aud, dwelling- 
house; fS&ixt^iffaia, hostelry, inn; SBaf^l^attf, 
wash-house, laundry; Xxcdtnf)aue, drying- 

^aufen,'^ to house, lodge; mtt f)avLftn, to join in merry- 
making, revelling, and jollification. 

^auif^a^n,^* m,, house-cock; domestic fowl. 

^audljunb,"* w., house-dog. 

^anitaii,^/' house-cat. 

^att6lel^rer,«* m, (-« ;-), resident or private tutor. 

^audrat^e, pL^ councillors of the household, [^udtat^, 
m,j household furniture ; councillor of the house- 
hold ; ^ava^txatf), household goods.] 

^aniil^iix,'^/. (-; -en), front-door. 

$au^tt)efen,Bt n. (-d;-), household affairs. 

ffCLU^toixti^lid^i adv., acquainted with housekeeping, [bte 
^au^loirt^in, the mistress of the house, landlady ; 
^au^toittl^fd^aft,/., housekeeping.] 

^aut,'^"*/ (-; ^dute), hide; skin. 

^a^axit^f. (commercial), average. 

l^ebt auf, 3d pers. sing, pres, of aviff}tUn,^ sep., to take, 
gather up ; to collect ; to keep. 

^etfertinQ,^* m., or better ^adferling, m., chopped straw, 
mixed with horses' fodder. Applied to things of 
trifling value. In the latter sense it might be taken 
in (he proverb, „^tx SD^ann, ber bo^ SBenn unb bod 
$lber erbadftt; ^at debet au^ ^dcferling ®oIb fc^on 
gemai^t." — SBurger. Compare note to 9lber. [^dcfcr^ 
ling is syn. ivith $d!fel, the more common term; in 
South Germany also ^dcfer. AU these forms are 
derived from l^acfen, to hack, chop; bie $a(fe, the 

9eft,8* n. (-e^; -e), a stitched book; student's note-book; 


number or part {pfa periodical), [^efiett,^ to fasten , 

stitch "5 coMsativeform oflj^^ita, see l^abcn.] 
$eil intj,^ hah I 

^eibc,"*^/. (-; -n), heath, heather, [bet ^eibe, the heathen.] 
^ei^enrodlei n,«* n. (-« ;-) , Ut, heather-rose ; dog-rose ; sweet 

briar. [Otodlein, diminutive of Otofe,/., rose.] 
l^etlen,^ to heal, cure, restore {to health), [from l^eU, hale, 

H^cittQ, adj., holy; adv,, solemnly, faithfully \jrom^vX, n., 

health, happiness; haill] 
^eim, adv,y home. 

^ e iin a 1 1^,^ /. (- ; -en), home; native country. 
4 e Vvx a 1 1^ f d^ & ^ e, 2>^. , treasures from home, [^eimat^ end 

^6)QL%f m.y treasure.] 
l^ei'^mltd^, adj., secret, private ; furtive. [Engl, homely.] 
J^tVnxi^^, m.y Henry, [l^eim and rei^, rich and powerful at 

J& e i'r a 1 1^ e n,»* «., (-^ ; no pi.) marrying, [l^eiratl^en,^ to m arry .] 
^eif, adj. hot. l^eifl 9on, burning with, 
^l^eif en,Bt i^iefi, gel^eifien, to bid; to be called; to be said; to 

mean, signify, 
l^eift, dc? pers. sing.pres. of l^eiflen. t6 f^d^t,^ is said; ba 

f)ti^t td (No. 62), then the quesition is, then we 


bad f)nit (No. 56), that is to say. 
Inciter, adj., bright, clear; cheerful, 
l^etgen, l^eigte, gel^eijt, to heat, to warm (a room by lighting 

the fire), einl^eigen, to light the fires {in the house, 

room, etc.). 
^ clb,"*^ m. (-en ; -en), hero, 
^elbentiebe,''^/., hero's or warrior's love. 
^elben))dter,/>2., heroic ancestors, [.^etb, m., hero ; Skater, 

m., father.] 
]^ elf en,"* l^alf, gel^olfen, to help, assist; to be of use. 
J&elfer,»t m. (-0 ;-), helper. 


if til, adj., clear, bright. 

^ctler,"* m, (-« ;-), mite, the fourth part (fr a Pfennig or 
German penny ; generally translated farthing, 
though of leas value than an Engl, farthing, 
^tXvXf^m, (-e<; -e), helmet, helm. 
^cmb,«* "^ n, (-rt ; -en), shirt, chemise. 
f)tt and ^in, I. These demonstrative adverbs and particles 
point out the direction from or to a place or 

1.) ^er, towards the speaker, hither, this 

way, here. 
8.) ^in, away from the speaker, thither, that 
v)ay, there, 
ir. Applied to time. 

L) ^er signifies ago, sinee, or past time. 
(Ss iji f(^on lange f^tx. It is a long time ago, 
s.) l^in signifies time to come yet. 

(Sd ifl no(^ lange l^in. It is a long time to 
come yet. 
m. As separable particles or prefixes they are 
prefixed to all verbs o/'motion either sepa- 
rately or ev^n conjointly, i.) Thus, Separate- 
ly, l^erfommen, to come here, to this place; 
l^ingel^en, to go thither, to that place, there. 
@r fommt l^er. <Bit gel^t f)itt. 
2.) Conjointly, l^in unb ^erlaufen, to ran haek- 
wards and forwards, to and fro, hither 
and thither. Here they indicate either the 
height of activity or the want of decision. 
IV. When prefixed to prepositions or other 
adverbs, they im^&rt their full force; fftx, or 
this way; l^in, or that way, to the new com- 
pound, which again in its tutm is prefixed as 
separable particle to some verb. Thus, f^txah, 


down; ^tnaB, down; l^ftauf, up; ^inaiif. 
up; l^eraBfel^en, to look down; I|ina(ne^men, to 
take down; l^erauffommen, to come up; f^im 
auffieigen, to get up, ascend. 

FVom the above examples it U apparent that I'm Englieh language 
ia quite inadequate to render the full force o/ these eonMnationa by 
equally terse ea^esaiona, 

y. They are aUo found lubjoined to preposi- 
tions or other adverbs. Thue, ^a^tt, there- 
fore; um^er', round about; bal^in, to that 
place; uml^in, refrain from, help it. 
YI. Nouns and adjectives with the prefixe^^ ^tx and 
Iffin, should he traced hack to the verhs from 
which they are derived. Thus ^ergang, m., 
course, circumstances {of a story) ^ from l^er? 
%tfjm, to come to pass4 l^inUngUd^, adj.f suffi- 
Qientjfrom l^inlangen, to suffice. Except ^erjog. 
fftxaV, adv. and s^. prefix, down, downwards. 
f^txaVhtu^tn,'^ sq>., to bend down; cast down; to try to 

, conceal. 
]^ e r a b'g e f u n f e n, pp- of l^erabflnf en, sep. , fanf . l^evab, l^crabge^ 

funfen, to sink down. 
i)txauf, adv. and sep. prefix, up, upwards, up to; along, 
l^erau^^ adv. and sep. prefix, out, out of. l^eraud bamit 1 out 

with it I 
fftxane^fox^txn^, pres. part, of l^erau^forbem,'^ sep., lit. to 

summon to come out; to challenge. 
^crau«'gcnommen,2>p- ofi)txavant^mm,^^ (a ; o), sep., to take 

out ; to presume, 
^etau^fliegen, pi. impf. of l^ctau^flcigett,"* (ie;ie), sep., to 

step out, get out, to alight. 
})txbtVf adv., to the spot ; l^erbeifommcn, to come to the spot, 

on the scene, to make one^s appearance, 
^erbei'fd^leit^^t, 3d pers. sing. pres. of ^crbeifc^lcid^en, to 
approach stealthily (like a thief in the night). 


^erBfl,"*m. (-rt; -e), harvest; autumn. 

^erbe, or J&eerbe,^/. (-; -ti) herd ; flock. 

^etein^, ado, and sep, prefix, in, into, herein! come in I 

l^et'fliegen^* urn, sep. (o; o), to be flying around. 

l^et'gel^en,** «cp., ging l^er, l^ergegangen, lit to go hither; to be 
(of circumstances^ etc.), 

toie e0 l^etgel^en utuffe (No. 85), how circumstances 
were, how things went, etc. 

^etr,»*i». (-ti; -en), lord, ruler, master, gentleman, sir. Titu- 
lary, J^err 58 . . ., Mr B . . . ; ^err loon 93 . . ., Mr de 
B . . . ; greil^ctr »on 9K . . ., Sir or Baron M . . . 
Exclamatory or in addressing a person, J&err! Sir! 
or SKein $err ! Sir ! — SKcin lieber ^crr ! My dear Sir I 
3a, utein J&crr ! Yes, Sir I [.&err, m., literally the 
majestic one, from the compar. f)if)xtx of the adj. 
f)ii)x, shining, beaming, or rising above everything, 
like a torch, Goth, haiga, whence Mhg. h§r, 
Nhg. I^el^r, exalted, majestic] 

H^etrlici^, adj., lit. lord-like; excellent, magnificent, splendid, 
beautiful, exceedingly nice. Exclamatory and 
complimentary phr. 5)a« ijl ja l^etrU^ ! Very charm- 
ing 1 Beautiful I " That's fine 1 " (a favourite Scotch 

^errlid^Icit,"^/. (-; -en), splendour, magnificence, nteine 
^errlid^feiten (No. 54), my beautiful, nice things. 

^errf^aft,"^/. (-; -en), lit. dominion, mastery; master and 
mistress of the house {thus, nteine ^errfc^aft ! as a 
servant-girl would say). The family, bie ^errf^aftr 
as distinct from the domestics or bie ^ienerf^aft. 
Thus, ^ie ^errfd^aft ifl \?erreifl, the family is away ; 
S)ie ^ienecfc^aft \ii\t^ jurucf, the servants remained 
behind, %.e., are not gone. In No. 97, l^o^e ^er? 
fd^aften. pi., people of high rank and position. 

l^erfd^toeBen,"^ i^jxn unb l^erfti^toeben, «ep., to glide, float, 
move to and fro, backwards and forwards, etc. 


l^eru'bergefcMibt^^ljp. of l^eruBetfenben, fanbtc fftxiAn, f}txuUxi 

gefanbt, to send across, over. 
f)txu^njld)idUn, pL imp/, of j^eruberfd^icfcn,"^ aep., to send 

across, over, 
l^etum^ adv, and 8^. prefix, round, all around, about. 

Pkr., um tni(^ Return, round about me. {A8 said 

before, it is very difficult to find any expressive equi' 

valentsfor these corMnations in English, See l^er.) 
l^crum'fal^ren,^* sep, (uj a), to go driving or wandering 

f)ttum^Qttndft, pp. off)itnm''xni)tn,^ sep,, to hand round. 
l^etttm^Iaufcn,8* um, sep, (ie ; an) to run round. Compare 

uml^cr'laufen,"* sep., to run about, to rove, ramble 

about (Wee a streei-arah, vagabond, etc.). 
l^crun''ter, adv, and sep. prefix, down, downwards. 
l^erun'tetfugcUe, imp/, of l^cruntcrf ugctn,"^ sep. , to roll down 

(like a ball, bie ^f ugel) ; to tumble, topple down. 
fltx'oox^fomxai,M pers. sing, pres. of ]^eirt)otfonnnen,»* sep., 

(a; o), to come out; to appear, to make one^s 

appearance. [§ert)or, forth, forward; fommen, to 

l^ervot'ragte, impf, of l^eTtJot'ragen,''^ sep., to reach above ; to 

stick out. {JcjvCOiix, forth, out; ragen, to project, 

rise up.] 
H^erttot'renncn, sep., to come running out of. [l^etvor, 

for\i^ard, forth ; rennen, to run.] 
l^crtJot'rufcnjSt sep., ricf l^ertjor, l^ervorgerufen, to call forth ; to 

produce. p;cr»or, forth ; tufcn, to call.] 
^erg, n. (Sing. G, bc3 ^ctgcn^, D. bcm J&crjen, Ace. ba^ J&erg; 

PI. bie, ber, ben, bie J&crgen), heart. 

Phr., \)on «6«jen gem, or l^erjlic^ gem, with all my 
I^ergti(i^, adj., hearty, heartfelt, cordial. 
^er'jog,8* m. (-« ; '&crj6ge), duke \lit. the leader of the army, 

from Ohg. heri, Nhg. ^eer, «., army, and Ohg. der 


zogo, Nhg. bet Bugfu^ter, Lot, dux, the leader. 
Compare It. duca or doge, ^r. due, anrf Engl, duke, 
^oi» duco, to lead. — jog w «fe*tt to he found as the 
imp/, of Nhg. ^ie^en, joq, QCicgen, to draw]. 

$eu,»* n. (-««; no pi.), hay [cut grass, related with Ijfauen, to 
hew, cut]. 

4eu'f<3^rc(fc,"»<^/. (-; -n), locust; grasshopper, [^eu, «., 
hay, grass, and fd^re(fen, to frighten, to make 
jump, to shriek, which meant originally to 

f)tntt, adv., to-day. l^eut am iJage, this very day. 

l^eutig, adj., this day, of to-day. 

^ererei','^/. (-; -en), witchcraft, [bie J^ere, /., the witch, 
Engl, hag, originally signifying ^^ an ugly, owl-like, 
wild woman ; " l^ewn,^ to practise witchcraft.] 

$ i e b e r,"t to. (-« ;-), broad-sword, [^auen, to hew, cut, impf, 

Iff ie It an, Sdpers. sing. impf. q/'an]^alten,»t«fi^. (ie; a), to stop. 

^ielt id^'d nid^t au6, 1st pers. sing.pres, of au^^alten, s p.^ 
to endure, hold out; *d/or ti. 

(;ielt m'\^ gut (Sd^ute, made me go to school. 

i)\t\itxi, pi. impf q/" fatten. 

l^iet, adv., here. [This adv. is employed in place of biefem, 
dat., or biefe^, ojcc., governed by a prep, 'Thus, 
instead of ^nxd^ btefed tDesayf)ittt)ut^] instead of ^on 
biefem, of or from this, ^iettjon, hereof.] 

f)Xtx^nxd), adv., herewith, [l^iet, here; butd^, through, 
instead o/but(^ biefed, through this.] 

l^iet^et^btingen, sep., to take or bring hither, to this place. 

I^ietin, adv., in this, in this matter. 

l^ietubet, adv., about this, concerning it. [l^iet and ubet 
instead ofubtt biefed, over this.] 

l)ieg, et (No. 74), he bade, ordered, [l^eifen,** (ie; ei), to bid, 

1^ i I f, imperative of l^etfe n. ^ilf ! *elft ! *elfen @ie I 


ffilU, ^pers. sing. pre». of ^elfen. 2Ba« ^Uft ed ? What use 
is it? 

$imittel,8* w. (-«;-), heaven. 

^immeld Slu'n, /^^.^ heaven^s pastures; heavenly regions. 
[See aue.] 

l^in, flcfo. [see l^ct]. 

l^iti unb l^ergingen, p/. impf. of l^itt unb l^ergel^en, to go to 
and fro, backwards and forwards [see ^x\. 

1^ inaB^'geno mm eu, j9p. q/" l^inabnfl^men,"* Mi?. (a;o), to take 

l^i naur# 0^'^' and sep, prefix, up to, upwards. 

l^inaufbticfen,^ sep.j to look up. 

^ittaurciltett, pL imp/, of l^inaafeUen,'^ eep., to huny up 

I^inauf9eft^aut,i?p. q/" ^inauf f^auen,^ sep., to look up. 

l^inaufgingen, Sdpers. pi. impf. <?/• l^inaufgel^en,"* sep., to go 
up ; to lead up to. 

l^inauf f^ieg, Ist and Sd pers. sing. impf. {in the eubordinate 
sentence) t from l^inaufjleigcn,"* «ep. (i«; ic), to go up, 

l^in'bltrf te, impf. q^l^inblirfen,"^ sep.^ to look to or towards. 

l^inbern,''^ to prevent, hinder. 

i)in^uxd}^, adv. and sep. prefix, through. 

^inbu«,^/. q/'J&inbu,wi.(-0;-«), Hindoo, Hindu [lit. hlackey 
or negro]. ( Plurals in i, Uke in Engl, and Fr., occur 
very rarely in German. AU nouns from foreign 
languages become at once Germanized, and are as- 
simUated in i7ifleonon to the Gemum declension of 
nouns with aplur. either in mor t. Among the few 
nouns which have been aUowed to retain their origin 
nal plural-form in d are the following : iginbu^, 
(So^l^oa, Zox!t>9, iamta, %xad9, etc.) 

l^ittQ, impf. off)an^m. 

^in'gefejt,!??. o/^infeften,'^ sep., to place, put 
fld^ l^infej^n, to sit down. 


^in'flarrcn,"* n. (-^; no pl.)y Jrom the verb f^in^axxtn, to 
stare into vacancy ivith a stark, staring, or fixed 
gaze, to brood over, meditate, [flatr, stark, stiff, 

i^Wiitdtn,^ sep.f to put to. 

1^ in ten, adv., behind, at the back. 

f)inttx,prep. with dot. {of rest or motion in a place), behind. 
I^inter l^er, behind, after, following one. 
er (duft l^intet if^m i)n, he runs after him. 
pr^. with cux. {of motion or direction to a place), 
behind. — adv,, sep. pref, and adj., behind, 
backwards^ hinder, back, rear. 

J^interBUe^bcne, ber or bic (-n ; -n), survivor, relict, [^intct^ 
Uitbtn,pp. q/*^intcrblciben, insep,, to remain behind.] 

f)inu^txQtfd)idt, pp. q/'^inuBerfd^icfcn,'^^ sep., to send over, 

I;inun''tcr, adv. and sep. pref , down, down-stairs. 

I^intoeg'geftogen, ^^. impf of ^ntot^^it^tn,^ sq>. (o; o), to 
fly away, off, to go off. 

f)intoi^tx, adv., again ; in return. 

l^ittgu, adv. and sep. pref, to, towards ; to it. 

I^ingu'fugen,'^ sep., to add. [^ingu, to it, and fugen, to join.] 

l^in'jttlaufen, inf. with gu of l^intaufen,"* lief l^in, Ijfingetaufen, 
to run to, turn to. 

l^in'jutragen, inf. with gu o/" H^intvagen,*** trug l^in, l^ingetragen, 
to carry to. . 

J5itf(!^,»* m. (-e«; -e), hart; stag, deer. 

^irt,^m. (-en; -en), herdsman; shepherd; pastor. 

^ii^i^f (-» wo ^Z.), heat; ardour. 

^obel,«* m. {-e ;-), plane. 

l;o(^, adj., compar. f)oi)tx, Isi superl., ber, bie or bad l^o^fte ; 
2d or adverbial superl., am l^od^flen; also aufd 
I^od^fle; l^od^flend; high; tall; lofty; eminent, ^o^ 
drops the c when declined, and in the compar. Thus, 
ber ^ol^e gSaum J ein l^ol^er ©aum ; l^cl^er ©aum. 


The modification of the vowels a, 0, «, in the eomparatiTe «tid 
Buperlatiye of adjs., is in perfect hannony with the nature and 
genins of the German langaage. Yet it applies now only to 
about twenty-two adjs. (see Fischart's £1. 6er. Or^ p. 90), and 
even of these tart and gesund are doubtful. Hence, grammars 
should give a list of adjs. that are modified, rather than a 
long list of perhaps sixty exceptions of adjs. that are not 

^od)^a6)tun%,'^f, (-; -en), high esteem, respect. 

f)od)^aditun%i'ooll, cufv., full of the highest esteem, most 

l^od^fl, adv., highly, most, very, extremely. 

i)odf^tn,m )um ^o^f^en ®lvid, most fortunately. 

^0 defied, neuter of the adj, in the superL, used auhstantively 
(No. 87), highest aim, maxim. 

$of,«* rra. (-c«; J&ofe), court, courtyard, yard; U i$ also 
applied to a large dwelling-house, farm-house, or 
country residence, with the necessary buildings and 
outhouses. Thus, f8ciVLXtni)cf, or simply termed „txn 
$of/' a farm. We have also @a^^of, m., hotel; 
(Sbcl^of, nobleman's estate; flfiitterl^of, manor- 
house ; ^fartl^of, parsonage (in the country), manse ; 
3ager]^cf, manorial or royal residence during the 
hunting or shooting season; i^hooimg-hoj., frequently 
assigned as residence to the head-ganuheeper on royal 

^ofburg,""^/. (-; -en), castle of a royal court. 

^offen,'^^ l^offte, gel^offt, to hope. 

^cffcn,B* n. (-« ;-), hoping. 

^offnung,^/. -d;-), hope. 

l^oflid^, adj., civil, courteous, polite, obliging. 

^ 6 f It i^ { e i t,^ /. (-; -n), civility, politeness. 

^ol^e,^/. (-; -en), h^ght, altitude. 

^ei^tiif^f. (-; -en), titulary, Highness. Sl^te ^ol^eit! Your 

Highness ! 
I^ol^erer, ein, a higher one. p)ol^et, compar. q/^l^o^.] 


^oJ^Cung,^/. (-; -en), carity, a hollow place, sockets {of 
the eye), [^ol^l, adj., hollow.] 

1^0 ten,'^ Incite, ge^olt, to fetch, to go for. 

^oUe w/ (_; no pi), hell. 

^oljl. (p. 160),/or J&olfleinifd^er J&afcr, oats grown in J^oljlein. 

.&olj,B* n.(-e« ; J&olger), wood ; timber. 

^olgerit, adj., wooden, made of wood; No. Ill, awkward, 

J&olj'f(^lag,8* m., wood-cutting. [$olj, f». wood; fd^tagen, 
to strike, fell.] 

$omcn)9^m,B* n. (-ed ; -e), homonym, ».«., a ward which has 
different ambiguous significcUions, 

l^onori^ren,^ to honour (a hiU, by pairing the same). 

$oj)fen,«* TO., hop, hops. 

^oren,^ l^orte, Qel^crtc, to hear. 


^ori jon%«* m. (-g ; -e), horizon. 

^orn,Bt n. (-«« ; J&orner), horn. [Lat, cornn.] 

ijbxif Bdpers, sing.pres. of^oxtn. 

i)oxt anf,from auf^oren, sep,, to cease. 

^o'ttentottenfraal,"* m. (-e«; -e), village of the Hottentots 
in South Africa. [Hottentot, m., a native of the 
Cape of Good Hope. From the prevalence of the 
denial sounds hott and tott in the language of these 
savages, the early Dutch settlers bestowed this name 
upon these South African tribes ; Stxaal, from FV, 
corail, a coral reef; and thence applied by the early 
Dutch settlers to a Hottentot village, which consists 
of huts in a circular form.] 

]^iiBf(^er (No. 54), compar. of l^ubfidj, adj., pretty, nice, 
pleasing. [$of, m., court, thence the adj. ^dfif<^, 
i^offd^, l^obtf(^, l^uBifd^, which at last became f^iAfdf. 
Its original meaning is ^lerefore courtlike, courtly, 
elegant. Compare Fr. (ioyxxioiB, from le cour.] 

^ugel,8*m. (-«;-), hill. 


^u^'nerl^du«d^en,»* n. (-«;-), hen-house. [«&ul^n, n., pi. 
^ii^net, hens ; ^du^d^en, n., a little house.] 

$unb,8* m. (-e«; -e), hound, dog; cur. 

l^unbert num, aclj.^ hundred. 

l^unberttaufenb, one hundred thousand. 

l^unbert^ierunbfed^^ig, one hundred and sixty -four. 

J&unger,Bt m. (-«; nopL)^ hunger. 

l^ungern,"^ to hunger, feel hungry. [tterl^unQcnt, to starve.] 

]^u|)fcn,^ l^upfte, gel^u^ft, to hop. 

^urbe,'^/. (-; -n), fold, herd ; Engl, hurdle. 

J&ufa'r,'^ m. (-en; -en), hussar. [Mathiaa Cormnua^ the 
hoy-hing of Hungary, when seeing his kingdom in 
danger J decreed that one man out of every twenty 
families shouUi enlist in the cavalry, and aU his 
expenses he paid by those twenty families. This 
famous cavalry was thence called " the twenty paid- 
horsemen,'* or huB8&rSf from the Hungarian husz, 
twenty, and ar, paid.] 

J&ttffa'l or ^VLXxaYl n., inij., & loud shout. Huzza! Hur- 
rah I [a battle-cry of the Northmen, and common to 
most naiions. Supposed to be connected with the 
Hebrew hosanna I or with the Scand. Tur-aie, t.e., 
Thor, aid us]. 

J&ttflen,»* m. (-^;-), cough; coughing. [I^ujlcn,^ to cough, 
have a cough.] 

l^uten,"^ to heed, watch, guard, take care of [see Bepten]. 

^tttcr,B* m. (-^;-), guardian, keeper [see l^uten]. 

hy^iUP^f (-; -n), hut, cottage, ©ifenl^utte,/., iron-works ; 
©to^l^utte, /., glass-works \eUher a covered place, 
from l^iitcn, to hide, or a place for protection, akin 
to SQui, hat, hood, see bel^iiten]. 

^^d'ttc,""^/. (-; -n), hyena (a bloodthirsty animal, worshipped 
by the ancient Egyptians). 



3/, p. 154, /(?r S^rcn, your. 

i^, per^ pr.f N. sing., Istpers.j I. 

ii^m, persi pr., D. sing,, m, or »., 3dper8,f to him, to it. 

ii)n, perai pr,, Ace. sing,, m. Mpera., him, it. 

ii^ntn, pers^ pr,, D.pL, Sdpera.j to them. 

^hmn, pers^ pr, in addressing a person (the same as ahove 
except the capital 3, the 3d pers, being used in place 
of the 2d eud^), to you, you. 

i ]^ r, persi pr., N. pL, 2d pers,, you. 

xf)X, m., if)xt,f., il^r, n.fposs. adj,, her {anstoers to fEe, she). 

il^r, m,j il^rc,/., il^r, n.,poss, adj,, their {answers to fte, they). 

^^Xf m,, 3^re^/., ^f)X, n., poss, adj, (the same as above 
except the capital ^, (he Sd pers. (i^t, their) being 
used in place o/ihe 2d (euer, your) when addressing 
a person), your. 

i ]^ r i g e, ber, tie, bad, hers. 

tin, contraction of in bem {dat,), 

imagindr', adj., imaginary. 

immcr, (ttfi?., always; ever; still. 

imtnerbar, adv., always; for ever. 

immer^in, tidv,, always; no matter. 

3mmenfonig,8* m., the king (queen ?) of the bees. 

in, 1.) prep, with Dat, of rest or motion in a place (where?), 
2.) prep, with Ace, of .motion or direction to a place 
(whereto, whither?), in, into. 

inbrunjlig, adj., fervent. 

Sncaffo, n., cashing, getting cashed. 

inbem, subordinate conj., while, whilst, at the same time. 

inbe^ffen, adv. and conj,, meanwhile, meantime, whilst. 

3nbuflrie^$^ctien, pi., shares in any industrial, or com- 
mercial, and entirely speculative undertaking or 


company. Snbufhie $ ©efeKf^afit, manufactaring 

^n^ntxti, fein, n. {cdse-ending ti after fein), one^s inmoHt 

heart or soul [adj. used substantively^ inner, a^;., 

inner, interior]. 
innetH^r odv,^ inwardly, in one^s heart or soul. 
3ngenicu'r,»* m. (-^; -c), engineer, 
in nig, adv,, intimately, inwardly; heartily, sincerely. 
3nfec%«* "^ or Snfeft, m. (-ea ; -n), insect. 
x^'^ffor in ba6 (ace); in'd S^uer !oinmen, to get under fire, 

to be engaged in battle. 
3nfeln, aB ban, from the Danish Isles. 
3n(litu%«»* n. (-e«; -c), institute. 
intetliQc'nt, o^*., intelligent. ,' 
inter effi'^ren,'^ to engage one^s interest, to be interesting, 

to take an interest in, etc 
injtoif^en, adv.^ in the meantime, meanwhile, 
irgenb einer, any one, any person soever, 
irgenbtoo, adv,, somewhere, anywhere. 
3tr'tl^uw,B* m. (-e«; -tl^umer), error. (3trtl^in, to., and 

^tx6)i^um, TO., riches, are the only maaculmes in 

t^um, all others in tf}vatt. being neuter,) [itxtn, to 

err, to mistake ; irre, atfj.f confused, mad.| 
3dtael, n., the people of Israel, the Israelites, 
i ji, Mpers. sing, pres. jyf^iin, toax, getoefen, to be. 
3ta'Uen, n. {gen, -«), Italy. 

{a, adv. {ofa88ent\ yes, yea, ay. 

expletive, I conjure you; mind, be sure; I am 
surprised, dear me, I am sure, of course, cer- 
tainly, etc. 

3a^t,^/. (-; -en), yacht, sloop. 


iagen,'*^ to chase, hant. nadj^jagen, s^.y to have a chase 

after, run after. 
3aget,"^ m. (-d;-), huntsman, sportsman. 
3agb'^)ferb,»* n. {-a ; -e), hunting or racing horse. [Sagb, 

/., hunt ; $fcrb, n., horse.] 
j[d^, adj,y steep, abrupt, precipitous; hasty. 
3a%r,8* n. (-e6 ; -e), year. »on 3a]^r gu Sa^t, from year to 

Salfft^un'bert^B* n. (-«; -e), century; age. 
j[6]^tli<!^, adj., yearly, annual. 
^Cif}Xi9^tit,^f, (-; -n), season. 
3anuar^,»t m., (-«;-<), January, 
{e, adv., ever ; j[e . . . je (or bejlo), the . . . the. 
Jeber, m., iebe,/., Jebed, n,, pronominal adj., every, each. 

pron.f every one, every person, every man, etc. ; 
everything; each one {Jrequently tin Jfbcr, cine 
jjebe, ein Jjebed). Qe arid koeber.] 
{e^edmal, oc^v., every time, each time; whenever. 
It^od), adv., however; adv^ conj., nevertheless, yet. 
{egllc^, adj., every {o/whatever kind). 
3e''manb, indef. pr., some one, somebody, some person; 

any one, etc Declined^ G. 3emanb0, D. 3einanben, 

Ace. 3einanb. 
Jener, m., Jme,/., jened, n., demonstr. a^j-, yon, that. 

demonsir. pron., the former, that person yonder, 
{en^eitig, adj., on the other side, opposite. 
3efu0, m., Jesus. 
\i^t, adv., at present, now. 
Je^ig, adj., present. 
^of)Cinn%m. John. 

3ofe'pl^e,/ar 3ofe|)]^i'ne,/ (-n«; -ti), Josephina. 
JluBeln,^ to rejoice, to be jubilant. 

3u'genb,^/. (-; -n), youth, period of youth, young people. 
3u'0enbfrd]^lid6feit,^/. (-; -en), youthful mirth, merry 

days of youth. 


3ugenbf(!^tminer,Btm., yonthfol freshnese, bloom; youth^s 

Su'genbjeit,^/. (-; -«i), one's younger days, youthful 

days, youth, time of youth. 
Suite,/, (-itf ; -n), Julia. 
Jung, oomjpar, Jungn:, Igtsuperl ber, tie, hca Jungjle ; 2d superl 

am iung^en; adj., young, youthful; recent; {if 

used of vegetables and potatoes) , new. 

bid lam jungflen %a%t, to the last day, day of judg- 
ment, till doomsday. 
3ttnge,^ber, w. (-n; -n), youngster, young fellow, boy; 

errand-boy, apprentice, lad. 

bie 3ungen, pi., the young ones, youngsters. 
3ttn9fr&ulein,»*n. {-$;-), young lady, a lady of tender 

age. [dim. o/3ungfcatt,/., virgin, maiden.] 
Sungling,"* m. (-c«; -e), youth, young man. 
3ttnf er,»* m. (-d ;-), young nobleman ; country squire. 


St&fftt^tf(l[)li6)i,^ n., race of beetles ; a brood or swarm of 
beetles. [.^&ftx, m., Engl, chafer, beetle; ®tf 
fd^ted^t, n., race.] 

J^a'ffcc,"* m. {gen. -«), coffee. 

J^a'ffet,"*"''^ TO. (-d;-n), Kaffir [in Arabic ^^ kr infidel.' 
The Hottentots rejected the Moslem faith, and thence 
obtained the name infidels or Kaffirs]. 

JJai'fer,^ m. (-«;-), emperor. [Lat. CsBsar, a Czar or 
emperor. The German word Jtaifct dates from 
1483, when Albert II., Duke of Austria, was elected 
Emperor of Germany, and added to his empire the 
Danvbian principalities, Dalmatia, and Croatia, 
which since the days of Diocletian were governed by 
a prince toith the title Caesar.] 


Stalh,^ n. (-e« ; JtdtBer), calf. J^olb^eifd^, n., veal. 

StaVhtxpa^t'tt^f. (-; -n), veal-pie. 

tali, oomp. falter, 1«< superl^ bet, bie, bod f&ltefle; 2d superly 
am fattejlen, cold ; chill. 

•ftdtte,^/., cold, coldness. 

JJamm,** m. (-e«; i^amme), comb. 

Jt a m e e I/»* n. (-e« ; -e) , c a m e 1 {this smft-footed animal has 
been aptly styled the ship of the desert, scaling on a 
sea of sand). 

StamtxaVi^ n. (-en; -en), comrade, companion [camerade 
or chamber-mate, Jrom Lat. camera, German 
J^amtner. It is a military term of Spanish origin, 
derived from the custom of distributing soldiers into 
chambers and tenls\ 

f am, \st and 3d sing, impf oftommtn, lam an, arrived. 

!amen, 1st and 3d pL impf, of fommen. famen fftxani, got 

Stam)pf,^^ m, {-a ; J^dm^jfe), combat, struggle [signified ori- 
ginally „^mitam)pf" the single combat, t.e., of two 
persons ; from Lat, campus, field of battle, camp], 
bet (e^te J^ampf, the last struggle, i.e., the hour of 

^am^fbegiet,"^ /. {or begietbe), eagerness for a combat, 

StampU^'^^%f'i ^us^ of battle, combativeness. 

Stamp^^pitl,^ n. (-e«;-e), tournament; prize-fight, bull- 
fight, etc. 

JJa^)lt&n',"* m, {-te ; -e), captain. 

fann, 1st and 3d per s. s, pres, ofUnmn, 

fannfi, 2dpers. s,pres, q^fonnen, 

Stano^nt,^ f (-; -n), cannon, a big gun, piece of ordnance. 

JJanoniet',8* m. (-ed;-e), cannonier or artilleryman serv- 
ing a cannon, 

J{ a n'j el,'^^ /.(-; -n), pulpit. [Engl, chancel; Lat, can- 
celli, an enclosure of wood.] 


Stap^iani,^ m. (gen. -ed), the Cape of Good Hope. 

Jtaxl, m. (-« ;-e), Charles. [See Stttt] 

Staxli^a^, It., a famous mineral bathing-place on the 
slopes of the Erzgebirge, in Bohemia. The hatha 
are mid to have been discovered by Charles the 
Great, and loere named after him, 

Staxoo,f, Karroo ; a Hottentot term for the immense barren 
tracts of table-land of South Africa, which only 
tvant the fertilizing poioer of water to cover them wiii 
luxurious vegetation. 

Staxxtn,'^ m. (-«;-) rear, cart, lorry. 

Staxxtf'^f. (-; -n) \ barrow, wheelbarrow. 

Staxtof ftl,"^ f (-; -n), potato {from the It. tartdffoli, a 
diminutive of tarttiflfb, i.e., truffle. Germ. %xnf(tl. 
Potatoes were brought to Germany, not from Eng- 
land, as is generally supposed, but from Italy and 
Spain. In the ISth century they were known in 
Germany by their Italian name, tartdffoli or tar- 
tufflen, which became eonnipted into «f(attc|feln]. 

Std^tM,^ m. (-6;-), box. 

Stai^tf^f. (-; -n), cat. 

.R a ^ B a c^, /. , lit. c a t s-b r o o k, a small river in Silesia ; in 
1813 t^ scene of a sanguinary engagement between 
the French and Prussians, where 18,000 French 
were made prisoners, and a great many drowned. 
Hence Bliicher is said to have taught here the art of 
swimming to the French. 

fauern,""^ to cower, squat, to lie crouching down. 

Stauf,«^ m. (-e«; Stanft), purchase. Compounds: (Sinfauf, 
purchase; SScrtauf, sale; Sluffauf, buying up; 
Slu0»erfauf, selling off; Staiiftx, m., buyer. 
§u Jtauf (No. 42), far gu faufen, to be bought, to 

be had. [faufcn, to buy.] 
gum SSerfauf or gu J^auf fein, to be for or on sale. 

Jtaurinann,"* m, (-e«; -leutc), merchant. 


fa urn, adv.f scarcely, hardly. 

ltd, adj.y bold, daring, hardy. 

Stt\jU;^f- (-; -n), throat. [Lai, gula. Compare also J^u^le, 
hole, grave.] 

Stt^XQiVi^, m., turn out, clearance, clean sweep, [audfel^ren, 
tfep., to sweep out. ber Jtel^raud, meant ariginaUyy 
^last turn out or concluding dance {Sir Boger 
de Coverley), German fe^ten is the A.S. cerran, 
from whence ^EngL chum, the turning of milk 
into butter.] 

fel^frt' i^ eitt, impf, of ctnfeSren,'^ «ep., to turn in, enter (a 
town^ house^ etc,)^ to alight, put up at, etc. 

! e 1^ r t e n c i n, p/. impf. of einf el^ren. [See above.'] 

fel^rt toiebcr, M pera. sing. pres. of toiebetfel^ren,"^ «ep., to 
return, to come again, back. 

fein, m., fcine, /., fein, n., pronominal adj., no, not any, not 

J^einer, m. itetne,/., iteincd orSttvM,n.pron., none, not one 
person, no man, not any person, etc. 

SttWtx,^ m. (-6;-), cellar. [Lat cella, a store-room.] 

Jtellner^st m. (-«;-), butler, waiter, lit. cellar-man. [Lat, 
cellarius, a steward, store-room keeper. See 

!ennen, fannte, gefannt. Scotch ken, to know, to be ac- 
quainted with, generally applied to knowledge by 
(he senses {Fr. connattre) [cJcin to fonnen, to be able], 
fennen temen, to learn or get to know, to become 
acquainted with. 

fennt, Sdpers. sing. pres. ofUnntn. 

^tnnt^nx%^f (-; -e), knowledge. 

Jtcrt,»* m. (-ed; -e), fellow; a strong, robust man; an un- 
civilized, clownish fellow. ^n^Z. churl. {Scotch 
carl, a man. "A little carl," "a big carl," "a 
rich carl;" carl ish, vulgar, etc.) [Root: Gothic 
kara, Engl, care, A.S. carian, to care, to be 


anxioas. Hence farg, sparing, miserly; (§,i)axi 
freitag^ Good Friday; (Sf^ttood^t, Passion Week 
{should be Stars), Compare also Ohg. charl, a 
girPs sweetheart, " her man ; ** and Start, Charles.] 

Sttttei^ f. (-; -n), chain, fetter, bond. [Lot, catena. 
Compare also Stitt, cement, patty ; fitten, to fill up 
with putty.] 

fic^crn,"^ to titter, to giggle. 

Stittrilitl or Stittrituf^l {the cry of a cock) cock-a-doodle- 

JJinb,«* n. (-f«; -er), child, ein f(^6ne« Stir(b, a pretty girl 
[allied to the Engl, kin, offspring ; kindred, of the 
same family; kind, those of the same race or kin, 
hence natural, benevolent; from A.S. cyn, family y 
race, and A.S. cennan, toproducef bcget^ 

Stxnhtx,pl o/Jhnb. 

Stxn\>f)tit,'^f., childhood. 

Jtinbetf^>iet,«* n. (-c«; -e), child's play,|?i. children's play. 

Jtinn,** n. (-rt; -e), chin [Ut. ^^ the jutting or projecting 

part ^^ of the face, related with Ohg. chtnan, Nhg. 

feimen, to sprout ; bet J^eim, bud, germ, that which 

germinaies, springs forth, juts out. Compare also 

Gr. yivut, the under jaw, chin ; Lat. gena, cheek]. 

Stirdfti^f (-; -n), church; Scotch kirk. [Gr. ro Kv^ta»»v, 
the Lord's house.] 

J^ird^l^of,^* m. (-e« ; -l^ofe), churchyard. 

Jtird^t^urm,** m. {-t9] -if)ufmt), church-tower, church- 

Stirjidft,^f (-; -n), cherry. [Fr. la cerise; Lat. cerasus, 
the cherry-tree, cherry, of uncertain origin.] 

Stiiitf'^f (-; -n), chest, box, cmq for packing goods. [Lat. 
cista, Gr. »i^rti.'\ 

Stla^tf^f (-; -n), complaint. 

flagen,^ to complain, wail, lament. 

Jtlang,"* m. (-e«; ittange), sound. 

N 2 


JJIaffe,"^/. (-; -n), class. [Fr. la classe, Lot. classis.] 

Stiant,^/, (-; -n), claw, paw. 

StUi^f^ n. (-ed ; -er), dress (in its modem acceptaUon mostly 

used ofladiea* dresses, ber ^ngttg, a suit of clothes, 

more of genUemeiCs attire), 
f (etben,^ to dress, {td^ anfUiben, to dress oneself, er fleibet 

{td^ ^Vii or er ijl gut geHeibet, he dresses well. 

ed Heibet i^r gut, it suits her well. 
JMeiber, nom,, gen,, and o/'J((eib. 

iVoo., J^leibei ma(^en Seute, Fine feathers make 
fine birds, dress makes the man {Lai. Vestis 
virum facit). 

^ie Beute ma^en Jtteiber, These people make dresses. 
J^leibern, q^^leib. 
ftein, adj., little, small. 
StUintfiu,/., the little one; pi. bie Jtleincu. 
J^leineren, bie, pi. (No. 54), the younger ones [compar. 

fleinet (/Hein]. 
(let n fie, ba^, n., the smallest [fleinfl, superL ofUnn]. 
JMei'ttob,"* n. (-e« ; -e or -ten), jewel, [fletn and suffix ob 

or ot, signifying a small article, and thence jewelry 

of the highest value, such as diamond rings, bracelets. 

The Imperial Crotan-InsigniajlDie (Reic^^^tetnobien.] 
J^leifler,"* m. (-^;-), paste. [fCeben,"^ to paste, glue, to 

make to cleave.] 
flingen,"* tian^, geHungen, to sound, resound; to be heard, 

to be spoken (No. 114). 
flingeln,"^ to ring the bell. Phr. @« flingett Jemanb, there 

is a ring, some one rings, 
flirren,'^ to clash; clink; clatter. 
Ilo^)fen,"''^ to knock; to beat (of the heart). Phr. SKan 

tlopftf there is a knock; Qi flc^ft jjemanb, some- 
body knocks at the door. 
^ t fi f t e, pi. of Stiuft, /., c 1 e f t, mountain-pass, ravine, [file* 

Urif to part asunder, cleave.] 


f (ng, cu^j'i clever) skilfal, smart ; prudent, sensible, wise, 
judicious. [Hug, ftuger, ber Hfigfle; am flugflen; 
our« Riigjie.] 

J^lttger, tin, m., a wise man {^e reverse ofafool^ %^ex, m.). 

i^lttgl^eit,"^/. (-; -en), prudence, wisdom. 

St\u%^tf ber, m., the wisest man. 

J^nabe,""^ wi. (-n;-n), boy, lad. [Engl, knave, originally 
a boy-attendant, page ; thence sUU Jtna^)>e, a squire- 

fnalten,'^ to sound as a knell, to produce a loud, bursting, 
thundering report [see gefnicft]. 

J^nafiet,«* m. (-«;-), canister, ot canister-tobacco; roll. 

Jlnec^t,"*»». (-rt;-f), servant {especially of farm-servants ^ 
stable-boys f etc.), [Ehigl. knight, originally 
" youthful offspring," boy.] 

Stnit,^ n. (-« ; -e), knee. 

Init^ttih, pres,p. ofinit^tn, to kneel. 

Jtttir,"* w. (-rt ; -c), curtsy, courtesy, bending of the knees 
[see gehtidt]. 

dtnopfio6),^ «. (-«« ; -Kd^er), button-hole. [For JTiw^jf, «ee 
an jufnu^fen, jp. 173.] 

Jlnof^je,^/. (-; -n), bud. 

fnu^jfen,"^ to tie, fasten together [see angufnii^fen]. 

Jlnuttelrcim,"* m. (-cd; -e), doggerel rhyme, verse [lit 
hnohby, knotty rhyme; ber Jtnuttet, or ^niip)pil, a 
knotty and hard piece of wood. Scotch knappel, 
Tories, knapple, or knuppnel, from the North- 
German Jhiubbe, knob (Jtnute, StnoUn, knot), cognate 
forms ofStnopf, See anjufnu^fen, p 173]. 

J^obolb, m., see Expl. p, 58. [Gr, »efiax»f, an arrant 

Sto^,^ m, (e«; Stodge), man-cook; StSd^in, female-cook, 
[fodjen, to cook, boil.] 

JJo c^'« r B f e n, pi., pease for boiling. [Sto^ and (Stb\e, /., pea. 

Jto^f «n jl,/., science of cookery. [Jtod^ and Jtimfl,/., art. 


Coffer,"* m. (-d;-), coffer, large wooden or iron box, 

trunk, chest, etc. 
Sto\}it,^/., charcoal, coal; ©tcinfol^te, coal. 
foUerten ubereinanber, imp/., rolled or tumbled one over 

the other, were hurled, etc. [foHern is less elegant 

than roKen, to roll over.] 
^6ln,n., German name for Cologne, 
fommen, lam, gefommen, to come, get to {compound tenses 

with fein; id) hin, toat ge!ommen); anfommen, to 

arrive, f)txaMommtn, to come down, 
font me (No. 6), 3d pers, sii^g. pres. subj, of fomtnen, was to 

f ommt, or old form fommt, 3d pers. sing. pres. o^ fommen. 
St oni g,8t m. {-e ; -e) , king, 
fonnen, fonnte, gefcnnt (auonllary of moody denoting possibUityf 

ability f liberty ^ eto.), to be able, to be capable of ; 

to know (of languages, etc.). Pres., 3^ fann, bu 

fannfl, er fann, toir fonnen, etc. [Engl can. See 

f onne, 1st and 3d pers. sing, pres, svibj. of fonnen, might be 

able, could, 
fonnt 3^t nic^t Jebet (No. 96), if not, each one of you is 

able to execute, etc. 
fonnteft (No. 94), 2d pers. sin, impf. subj., you were 

fonnte, impf. q^fonnen. 
Jtom^)Hme'nt,Bt n. (-e« ; -e), compliment,^/, respects. 

e0 gaB J^om^Iimente, compliments and ceremonies 
were exchanged. 
J^om)}(imenti''ren, n., the paying or exchangmg of com- 
pliments and ceremonies. 
J^o^jf,"* m, (-e6; Jtopfe), head; bowl {of a pipe), [Lot, 

caput. Ahin to Engl, cap, cape, cope, cop; 

thus, " copp*d hills ; " " Upon the cop right of his 

nose he hade a wert." — Chaucer, Compare also 


cob, in cob-apple, cobweb (cob, Uie Dutch for 

spider)^ and cup.] 

toiffenfd^afitUd^e ki)p% scientific and learned minds, 
intellects, scientific men. 
Jlorb,"* m. (-c^; JtotBe), basket. [LaU corbis, a wicker 

basket; Fr, la corbeille.] 
^orb'(^en;8t n. (-6;-), a little basket, work-basket, etc. 

[The diminutiye endings are ohen, lein, el. The ending 
Chen, now the prevailing one, was introduced from the Low 
Germ, in the 16th centary ; up to that period, Uin, the diminu- 
tive ending peculiar to High Germ., was the prevailing ending, 
which is always used by Luther. The ending lein is more em- 
ployed in poetic and sublime language; thus, Kndblein; and 
ehen more in conversational language; thus, K'drbchen. The 
ending el is almost entirely provincial, in Bavaria, Austria, etc., 
and is only used in very fomiliar intercourse ; thus, Kindelj 
Mddel. A double dimin. ending occurs also in terms of great 
affection and endearment; thus, Kindelehen, Kindleincheny 
KnSbleincJien; pi. dim. Kinderehen, etc.; ling is diminutive in 
Lieblingj darling.] 

Jtorn,"* w. (-e3; Jlornct), corn, grain (aj?pfo'ec? to cereals in 

generalj especially to rye, Imt not to wheat). 

Phr., auf 'bcm Stuxn l^aben (No. 56), to fix upon 

something with the intention of executing some 

set purpose; to single out with the intention 

to fire or aim at, etc. 

fojlen,^ to cost, to amount to in pricCj to come to stand ; 

to taste {of food, misfortune, etc.). 

bie ^o^txif the expenses, 
fojl^ar, adj., costly, valuable, precious, 
^ojl^atfeit,'^/. (-;-en), a thing of costly or precious 

value ; pi. valuables. 
fojl'U^, adj., precious, delightful; excellent; exceedmgly 

valuable or delicious, 
frad^en,"^ to crack, to emit a loud crash, etc. [see gefnitft]. 
fta^gen,"^ to croak, to caw. 
^raft,^B*/- {-; tJ^tafte), strength, force. [Engl, craft, 


crafty, the power of seizing, or of skill. Com- 
pare to crave.] 

frdl^en,"^ to crow, [bie Jtrdl^e, crow, rook.] 

franf, adj,^ ill, sick. [Engl, crank ; cranky.] 

Stx^nltf bet, m. (-n; -n), the patient. 

Iranfelnb, pres.part. qfhanUln, to ail, to be afflicted with 

Stxantfftit,^/' (-; -en), illness, sickness. 

J^rdnf ung,"^/. (-; -en), mortification, insalt, ofience. 

J^ranj,"* m. (-e^; ihrdnge), wreath, garland. 

im fd^onen Stxan^ (No. 108), forming a beantifal 
wreath, a blooming circle or garland [cUlied to 
Stxont, and Lat, corona]. 

ftajje aui, id), Ist pers, sing. pres. of au«f ra^en,^ «^., to 
scratch or scrape behind {in bowing; gee Jtra(fuf). 

Jlrajjfug,** m. (-e«; -fufe), scraping the foot. [The ridi- 
culous custom of scraping the right foot behind in 
bowing, novoadays a decidedly objectionable per- 
formance, was in vogue in the time of Louis XIV., 
and was imitated by the Chrmans of old, who were 
always ready to ape anything French, — French 
speech, French clothes, French dishes, French fur- 
niture, French dances, etc. ; and to the same source 
must be traced the Engl, phr., "He scraped an 
acquaintance with me."] 

Jtraut,8t n. (-cd; Jhauter), herb, plant. 

JlreB«,«t m. (-e6;-c), crab, crawfish [or Sttalhtf akin to 
Stxiipptl, cripple, and friec^en, to crawl]. 

Jtrcbafu^pe,"^/., crab-soup. 

JJreibew/,, chalk, piece of chalk. 

Stttx9,^m. (-e«; -e), circle; iw Stxti^t, all around in the 
circle, [frcifen, to rotate ; ber Jheifel, the top.] 

fxtiidft, archaic form for hitd)t,Jrom !tic(^en. 

J^reug,8t n. (-c«; -e), cross. [Lat. crux, Fr. croix.] 

Stxtu^tx,^ m. (-«H» * *™a^* copper coin of South Ger- 


many, originally bearing the sign of a cross or 
Jheu). See Money table, p, I6i. 

frte(i^en,"* fro^, gcfrod^en, to creep, crawl. 

ma ba fteud^t unb feugt (No. 116), all animals 
creeping {living) on earth and f 1 y i n g in th e air. 

StxU^,^ m, (-ed ; -e), war, hostilities [probably related unth 
!rtegen, to seize, catch. Thtu, Jtriegen f))ie{enl 
Catch who catch can I]. 

.Rtiegdtuf,"* III. (-e« ; -c), war-cry. 

Stxitml)ii^,/., a beautiful Burgundian lady. 

Stxitif,^f.j criticism. 

txodftn, pL impf. of hied^en. 

Stxonti^f, (-; -n), crown. [LaL corona.] 

^xudt,^ f» (-; -n), crutch [related with Engl, crook, 

^rug,"* m. (-e6; »Rrugc), pitcher, tankard, jug; a small 
country inn, public-house [originally an earthen 
dr'inking-yesself possibly 80 named from itspecuUar 
shape ; and being adopted for signboards of inns and 
puhliC'hotises, the word became applied to the inn 
itself The Ohg, crdc and krdg bear much re- 
semblance to the Scotch crogan, Gael, croc, a bowl, 
earthen vessel, still used in the West Highlands for 
holding mUh^from crochen, to make pottery]. 

frumm, adj., crooked, curved; awkward, i.e., turning to 
the left. 

Stvii!tit,'^ f, (-; -n), kitchen [ahin to Jtuc^en, cake, but whether 
derived from coquere, to cook (fod^en), is quite un- 

Stndud, m.y cockoo. in'« ^udvidt Sflamcn {an imprecation), 
The deuce, etc. 

Stn^tlf^f (-; -n), ball, bullet; missile. 

Stuitn, ofStnl}. 
ful^t €idj., cool. 


StuffU,"^/. (-; nopL)f coolness; cold air. 

f u^ten,'^ to cool. 

!unfttg, adj., future, what is to come [alUed to J^unft, an 

action to come, /row fommen, to come]. 
Jtunigunbe,/., Cunigunde. 

Jlun jt,^ B*/., (-; ^unfic), art [related vnth Unnm, to be able], 
fur J, adj., short, brief. [EngL curt.] 

adv., shortly, in short, in one word, 
f uffen,"^^ to kiss. 
Jtuf ,B* m. (-f« ; ^uje), kiss, 
fuf te, imp/, o/^uffen. 
Stu^t,'^/. (-; -n), coast. 
Jtutfd^er,^* m. (-«;-), coachman. 

Jt^ffi^dufer, bet, or \ famous mountain near the Tillage of 
SBetgJ^^ffl^aufen, ) Frankenhausen. Seep.7i. 

iadftln,^^ n., smile, grin, smirk, smicker, chuckle, 
d^eln,^ iad)tltt, geldc^elt, to smile, smirk| simper [dimin, of 
lad^m, to laugh]. 

l&6)tln\>, pres. part. o/*ldd^eln. 

lad^en,^ la6)U, 0ela(^t, to laugh; to giggle. Phr., jtc^ tobt 
lad^tn, or fic^ ftanf lad)tn, to die or roar with 
laughter, to split or shake one^s sides, to burst 
into a fit of laughter, to be convulsed with 
laughter, etc. ; au^lac^en, to laugh at, ridicule ; ftc^ 
an^ia^m, to have one^s laugh. 

£aceb amount er,Bt m, (-«;-), a native of the city of Lace- 
daemon or Sparta. 

lab* (No. US), for IdUffrom labcn. 

laben^Bt (u^^ gelaben, to lade, load, charge, burden ; summon ; 
(p. 151, of ships) to take in cargo. 

fiabung,^/. (-j -en), p. 152, cargo. 


fiobuiigd?@^etn,B* m. (-eg; -e), bill of lading. 

lag, Ximpf. of licgcn,^* (a; e), taQen oben auf, lay or were 

lag en,) lying on the top. 

£ager,8* «. (-«;-), couch, bed; encampment; warehouse; 

la get n,'^ fid^, to lie down ; to encamp. 

Sagetung,"^ /. storing, gut Sagerung, for storing, ware- 

fiagune,/., lagoon ; a lake formed by the overflowing of the 
sea or of rivers, in some cases stagnant and dried up 
in summer, [Lot. lacuna, a pool, pond.] 

gamjje,'^/. (-; -n), lamp [see 5lmpef|. 

8atib,"*n. (-e6; Sdnber), land; country. 

ganbedmdtf,/., border of the countiy. 

lange, or lang, compar. Unger; superL ber, bte, ba« Idtigfte; 
adv'' superL am Idngflcn; tangft; adj., long; tall; 
adv., a long time, a good while, long. Used of 
duration of time, and frequently added to toords like 
3:ag. SBc^e, SKonat, 3a^r, etc. This, SSict Socmen 
lang, for four weeks ; @in 3a^r tang, for a whole 
year; donate tang, for whole months. Phr., fo 
lange aid, as long as ; nod^ lange nid^t, not for some 
time to come yet ; @in langcd unb Breited ergd^lcn, 
to relate from end to end, to tell in detail, to tell 
all the news, to spin a long yarn. 

fiangetoeite,"'^/., weariness, ennui, tedium. 

Idnget, compar. of tang. (Seit tdngeter 3cit, dat. sing, f em. ^ 
for a considerable time past. 

Idngjl, adt^ superl. (o/'tang), for a long time, long ago, long 
since ; tdngfi fd^cn, some time ago already. 

langfam, adj,^ slow. 

tafen, i?^. impf. of tcfen. 

laffen,B* Uef, getaffen, to let, permit, allow; leave. 

8ojler,8* n. (-« ;-), vice. 

la« ttor, impf. o/* vorlefcn,^* sep., to read to one. 


lafl, imper. of taffen. Phr.j £afl 2)ir fagcn ! let you be told, 

let them tell you ; be told, be advised. 
la^t, Sdpers. sing. pres. of laflen. Phr,, jid^ feU^en tajfen, to 

appear, be seen. 
8aub,Bt n., (-e^; no pi.), leaves ; foliage. 
8auf,»* m. (-c^; !&dufe), run, quick step ; course, 
louf en,8* Uef, gctaufen, to run, to rush, or go quickly. \Mhg. 

loufen, EngL loaf about, leap.] 

urn bie Sette laufen, to race or run foi; a wager. 
Iduft, 36? pers. sing. pres. of ianftn. 
J . 'i adj. and adv., loud, aloud. 

U ' 144 (pT^^positional adv. with gen. (p. 144, No. 3 and 

' . * ) 4), according to. 

lauten,"^ to be, purport; bie Slnttoort lautete, the answer 

was to this effect, 
fiebelang, mein bein, fein, etc., my, thy, his whole lifetime. 
leBen,^ leBte, getcbt, to live, be alive. 

laflt uva x^m au(^ leben, let our life be likewise 

devoted to him. 
fieben,B*n. (-«;-), life. 
UhtXi\>,pre8.p. o/'leBctt. 

lebenbe SSilber, plastic representations, pictures. 
2eBcn«gtu(f,«* n., happiness of life, 
fieben^reife,"^/, life's journey, 
lebenb'gem, /or Icbcnbigem, dot. sing., m. anc^n. of lebenbtg, 

adj., living, 
fiebetocl^l, n., farewell, adieu! Seben @ic tool^l! fare you 

led^jenb, i?reff. p. of led^jen, to pant for {water), languish; 

to gape from dryness. 
I c (f e n,"''^ to lick ; 1 1 e a k. 
fiedetbiffcnfS* n. (-«;-), lit. lickerish-bit; dainty, [itdtn, 

to lick ; 93iffen, morsel.] • 
lebevn, adj., leathern, made of leather; dull, stale, stupid, 
leer, adj., empty, vacant. [Old EngL leer, possibly con- 


nected with lieren in )9erlteren^ to loose. Thus^ " A 
leer stomach." ''The horse runs leere away 
with the man." '' A leere (».c., proJUgaie) drunk- 

legen,^ (egte, 9e(egt, to laj, put, place down, to cause to lie 
down \ihe causative form o/iU^m, to lie]. 

Xegte »or, imp/, of ^oxU^tn, sep,, to carve, help, preside (at 
tablcj etc.). 

fitf)tt,^ f. (-;-Ji), lesson; apprenticeship, [tel^ren, to 

le^ren,'*^ to teach. 

gcib,»* m. (-e^ ; -er), body [connected with teBen and bleiben]. 

Seibe^Itaften, au«, with all one's bodily might. 

lei^t, a£^'., light; easy; swift. [Ud^ ten, to make lighter, 
to lighten; thence Sid^ter, lighter, lighter-boat, 

£cid^te, ba«, what is light. 

I eid^t'fu fig, at//., light-footed; nimble; gentle. 

£eib,»* w. (-eg or i), harm, injury. 

leiben,B* \\ii, gelitten, to suffer, endure, bear. 

Sei'ben^gefd&id^te,^/ (-; -n), story of one's sufferings. 

Xeiber, adv, (No. 110), worse. 

Xeinen, adj.^ made of linen, linen. [Seinett, w., linen.] 

8eine»eber,Bt w. (-d;-), linen-weaver; weaver. 

Seinol, w., linseed-oil. 

g e i ^)'g i g, w. , Leipsic. Inhab* 85,800. Well hnoum through- 

out the whole world as the centre of the German and 

international trade in hooh^, works of art^ and 

musical publications. 

The country all around Leipzig was at different periods the 
scene of the most sanguinary contests ; and in the great battle 
of 1813, known as "di« VolkerscMaehtt" it witnessed the defeat 
of Napoleon I. 

8ei^)giger, m., man from Leipzig. 

leife, adv,, gently, quietly, in a subdued voice. 

fiei|ien,8* m. (-6 ;-), last, form. 


letten,'^ to lead, conduct. 

leiteten ah, pL imp/, of abUiUn, sep.j to divert, drain off 

(the water of a river, etc.)/ 
£ en 2,Bt 772.^ spring. [Engl, lent, connected toiihIanQ, long, 

and length, becaime in spring the days lengthen.'] 
ito^axt)^,^ m. (-en; -en), leopard, 
lernen,'"^ to learn, 
ternt, Sdpers. s. pres. of tetnen,''^. 

tefen,"* lo^, getefen, to read, peruse. [Lot. legere, Gfr. xiyuv.'] 
8efer,Bt m. (-«;-), reader, 
te^t, adj., last; final, 
fieu,"^ m. (-en; -en), lion [a Mhg. form for 86tt)e, now only 

used poetically. Lai. leo, Gr. «xiw».] 
I e u d^ t e n,*^ to 1 i g h t, give light, sparkle, shine {akin to £i(^t]. 
leuc^tenb, ^69. ^., shining, brilliant. 
!^eute^i>/., people, persons, 
lic^t, adj., light, clear, bright. 
2id^t,»*w. (-e«; fiid^ter and ?e), light, pi. Siti^tet, lights; 

pi. Sid^te, candles, tapers, dips, etc. [Saxon lucht, 

Lot. lux.] 
Ixth, adj., dear, beloved. [Old Engl, lief, loved, to love.] 
2iebe,^/., love, affection, 
lieben,^ to love, like ; to be fond of. 
fiieben, \iit,pl., my beloved, 
lieber, adv., rather, better [compar oflitb], 
lie bet, nom. masc. (case-ending w) after ein, metn, etc., from 

8ie'be^blicf,Bt n. (-e6; -e), affectionate look; loving eyes, 
lieb'^abcn,^ sep., l^atte lieb, lUh Q^f^ht, to hold dear, love. 
«iebaing,Bt tn. (-« ; -e), darling, 
fiiebjle, ba«, n., the dearest. 

liebflen, am, advi or 2d superl., the dearest ; likes best. 
8ieb,«* n. (-e« ; -er), song, lay. [Ohg. liuddn, to sing.] 

Unb ®ott tm $immel Steber ftngt, and to God in 
heaven its hymns are sung (p. 130). 


lu^\>tttt\^, adj., rich in songs, 
lief, imp/, o/laufen,*"* (te; an). 
Xiegcn^Bt lag, getcgen, to lie, to be lying. 

liegen laffen, to let alone, to leave. 
lit it, Sdpers. sing. prea. ofUftn,^ (a; e). 
lief, imp/, o/'(affen,»*. lief jieften, left, abandoned. 

! lime-tree, lind, linden [so called from 
the softness of its ivood. Lat. 1 e n i s, 
Germ. linb. gelinb, soft, mild, gentle. 
Compare ©etinbigfeit, linbetn]. 

gi'itie,""^/. (-; -n), line. [Lat linum, jlax, rope, linea, 

lin!, ac(/., left. [Engl, link, joint; torch, probably from 
lenfen, to bend, to turn about; ba« @e(enf, joint.] 

fiinfe,'^/ (-n; -n), left hand. 

li^^jeltt,'^ to lisp; whisper. 

^ifc"^/-* craft, cunniTig; subtilty, deceit. 

Sitetatu'r w/. (_j -en), literature. 

lBiterat«r'gef(i^i(^te,'w^/., history of literature. 

io^Bbfi, (-cS;no, praise; pi. 2ob»)reifungen, lauda- 
tions ; ®ottIob ! lit. God he praised ! [connect^ 
toith root in lieb, ©elubbe, erlauben, glauben.] 

loben,'^ lobte, getobt, to praise, laud, commend. j!d^ ettoa^ 
toben, to prefer, like, commend. 

god^,B* w. {-ti ; iSod^cv), hole. [Scotch loch, lake, connected 
with Sufe, dormer-window, 8u(fe, gap, and Engl. 

lodtn,^ to allure, decoy, bait. 

8offel,8* m. (-«;-), spoon, ladle [from Ohg, laflfan, i.e., 
lecfen, to lick, lap, thence, Nhg, Saffe, Mhg. leffel, 
an inaffable dandy, soft fellow, and l^offct, spoon]. 

gogogr^^jl^^ 71., logogriph, an enigmatical puzzle, 

lol^nen,"^ to reward; jt^ lol^nen, to be worth while. 

Sooife,'^ or 8otfe, m, (-n ; -n), pilot [possibly connected with 
Dutch loten, looten, to cast lots, and with %ii% n., 


a weight about half an ounce ; a plummet, or weight 

of lead attached to a line for sounding depths,"] 
id, adj. J loose. SBod ifi ba to^? what is the matter? 
86f(^'^)a^)ier,8* n. (-c«; -«), blotting-paper, 
(cd^koetben, sep,, to get rid of. 
lo^'jubinben, inf with ^u,from (o^btnben; to loosen, unfasten, 

unchain ; to take the manacles off. 
(od'^jufommen auf, inf with gu, from ioehmmtn^ auf, sep., 

to advance towards, [lod, loose ; fommen, to come.] 
8oui«bor,"* *». (-«; -e), see Money- Table, p. 164. A gold 

coin^ first struck in 1640 by Louis XIII. of France^ 

and bearing his effigy, 
iot&t,"^ m, (-n; -n), lion [probably from the Ohg. genitive' 

form lewin, ofl^o, see 8eu]. * 
i 0^X0 1 n^axt tn,^ m.y lion-park, lit. Uon-garden^ similar to 

Engl, bear-garden, 
«uft,^»*/- (-; «ufte), air. 
luftig, ac(;., airy; phantomlike. 
S uf t^lodrme,'^/., temperature of the atmosphere \lit. warmth 

of the air], 
lugen.Bt (eg, getogen/to tell lies, to lie. 
Suife ar Souife,/. |?r. tpamc, Louisa, 
i&ufe,^/., loop-hole, dormer-window [see 8o^]. 
Sutntnel,"* m. (-«;-), lout, clown. 
!Bttmp,Bt rn, (-en; -en), ragamuffin, rascal, scamp. [SuiiM>en, 

m., rag, tatter.] 
luflig, ooj;. and adv., merry, merrily; jovial, cheerful, etc. 

Phr,, lufltg (eben, to live fast ; {tdl^ lufiig madden, to 
amuse oneself, to be merry, indulge in merri- 
ment, etc. [lit. lusty, from in% /., desire, 
Sft^en, n., a famous German battle-field 

In the province of Sachssn in Prussia, where Gnstavaa 
Adolphus fell in 1632; and where the AUies, in 1813, foaght, 
retreating, a desperate but lost battle with Napoleon I. 


ma^tn,^ mai^U, gemad^t, to make, do, produce, cause. 
Fhr,f Befannt madden, to make known ; advertiBe ; 
einem ettood totii madden, to make or cause to be- 
lieve, lii, to make some one wise, or loeife, nmUar 
to toeife tl^un, to pretend to be wise. 

SWad^er,^* m. (-«;-), maker. 

^ad^t,^ ■*/. (-; SKad^te), might, force, power, strength. 

ma6iti^ adj.y mighty, powerful. 

adv., with force, powerfully. 

SD^abaga^'^far, n., Madagascar, the queen of the teles in the 
Indian Ocean, a Ugh table-land of 4000 /eef, with 
mountains rising 12 flOO feet high. 

9)t &b d^ e n,^^ n. (-d ;-), m a i d e n, girl, lass ; servant-girl, maid. 
Compounds: StammtXi, J^inbet^, $au^^ ^tubcm, 
Jtud^en^tn&bd^en [dim. o/Sftagb and S^aib (jpoetic)]. 

mag, 1^ and Sdpers. sing. pres. ({Imogen. 

magfl, 2dpers. sing. pres. ofmo^tn. 

SKcigb,*^/. (-; SWagbe), maid, maid-servant. 

SWdgbtein,** n. (-«;-), maid, girl, lassie [rfm. q^SWagb]. 

91^a^I,Bt n. (e6 ; iRai)ltt), meal, feast, repast {The expanded 
plural SDta^ler is the vernacular form, whilst SRal^le 
is the original, older, and nobler form. Compare 
©etoanber and ©etoanbe ; ^ofetoid^ter and ^dfetoid^te, 
e/c.) [probably from Ohg. mahal, meeting, gather- 
ing ; and thence also ®tmaffl, m., husband.] 

SRal^rjeit,^/. (-: -en), lit. meaUime; thence meal, repast. 

^ai}ttt,^f (-; -n), mane. 

inal^nen,'^ to remind, to sue, to warn. 

SKdlJrd^en,** n. {better SKdrd^en), (-«;-), story, fairy-tale, 
legend [dim. of^af)Xt,f, tidings, news, /row Ohg. 
miri, Goth, mgris, clear, famous, loud, connected 
with Lot. merus, pure, and thence also Engl, mere. 


merely. Engl, mare in nightmare is probably 

connected with Germ. Wlaf^xt]. 
9){aitt}, n.f Mayence, on the left bank of the Rhine^ the 

strongest fortress and the key of Germany, 
m ai e jl d't i f d^, adj., majestic. [aWaJeflaf , /., majesty.] 
SW a I,"* w. (-C0 ; -e and SKatct), time. Compounds : einmat, 

once; gtveimal, twice; aKetnal, at all times; jjebed? 

ntal, at every time, etc. [Its orig. meaning is 

''mark, token, mole," thtts ^enfmal, monument; 

^a^tlmal, marks of nails ; ^nttttmal, birth-mark,* 

mole. In the latter ward it answers to Lat. macula, 

a spot. The word SKal is frequently confused with 

SJ^al^l, meal, which se^.'] 
malen,^ to paint, represent, lit. to make marks, originally 

akin to ^oX. 
SKaler,Bt m. (-«;-), painter, artist, 
nia'lerifd^, adj., picturesque. 
^a\i, n., malt. Phr., ^o^fen utib ^TOal) {!nb an if^m 

^txloxtn, hops and malt (».«., everything, all efforts, 

etc.) are thrown away upon him. 
SKamtna,/., mamma, 
man, indefpron., one ; they, people, 
ntand^er, m,, \pron^ adj., many, pi. some; pron., many a 
mand^e, f,y man or person, many a one ; 9){and^ed, n., 
manned, n.,f many a thing, jpZ. many things. 
ntan(!^mat, adv., many a time, sometimes. 
3Ranefactur'toaareni:®ef(!^aft, n., or ^^anblung, /., a 

business or house selling manufactured goods, 

such as drapery and haberdashery. 
9)^ann,Bt rn. (-ed; Scanner), man, husband. 
9)?dnn(!^en,Bt n., little man, mannikin. [dim. o^SRann.] 
aRannf(i^aft,^/. (-; -en), men. 
STOantcl,** m. (-«; SKdntet), cloak, mantle. 
SD^drfer, m., inhabitant of the mark. [3)?ar!, /., bor- 
der, boundary, border-country; Lai, margo. 


Thence ^axl SBranben^utg ; ^anewarf; @teicr« 

«Karft,** TO. (-c«; 2»dtfte), market, mart. 
SWar'mortif^,** w. (-e«; -e), marble table. [SKarmcr, m., 

inarinelfleinern|a^'.y made of marble, marble-slab or 

or inarm otn, j stone. 
SKarfe, to. (-n; -n), inhabitant of the marsh (bie STOatfd^, or 

bad Sli^atfd^tanb)) i^^»c^ extends from ihe Elbe to the 

fDlaxf^alUammtXf/., chamber of the royal stables, mews. 

[bie ^akxt, the mare, horse; bir ^taU, stall, 

stable. Similar to SJ^arfd^aH, from ^aljxt, and 

^dfaU, TO., servant.] 
SKafd^i'ne,^/. (-; -n), machine, engine. 
SKaffe,^/. (-; -n), mass, material. 
STOaf ,«* n. (-ed ; -e), measure ; bound. 
^atltif^axin^t, pLy a fine quality of fat herrings. 
Sroatro7«/^ fn, (-n; -n), sailor, mariner. 
matt, odQ.i faint ; slack (p. 159). 
SKauer,^/. (-; -n), wall. [Za^ murus.] 
SWau'etlduf er,«* to. (-6;-), wall-climber, a man who ascends 

a wall. 
SRau^erkoetf, n., masonry, stonework of a wall. 
SKaul,"* n. (-e«; SKdutct), mouth. 
SKaultourf,Bt to. (-e«; -toutfe), mole-warp, mole. 
«Kau«,^»t/. (-; SKdufe), mouse. 
SKebejin' or SKcbecin,"^/., medicine, physic. 
9Keer,«* w. (-ed ;-<), sea. [Fr. la mer, Lai. mare.] 
aRee'redflranb,** to., seaboard, seashore. 
SKeer'fd^auittfo^f,** to., meerschaum bowl, pipe. 

Meerschaum^ lit. sea-froth. A compound of silica, magnesia, 
lime, carbonic acid, and water. From being found near the sea, 
it was at first supposed to be petrified sea-froth, resembling 
soap, and as such it was used bf the Tarters. The most famous 
Meerschaum-grtiben or diggings are near Bmasa in the Leyant. 



meljr, adv., more ; nici^t ntcl^r, no longer. 

tne^rere, jp/., several, Fr. plusieurs. 

ineit)en,«* micb, gcmteben, to avoid, shun. 

aRenen|leitt,8* m. (-ed; -e), milestone. 

meiit, wi., weine,/., tnein, n.^posa. adj,^ my. 

tnciner, rw., tneine,/, tneineg, n., poss. pron. mine. 

meincn,^ to mean, imagine, fancy, think. 

tncinige, ber, bie or \>ai,po88. pron.y mine. 

9Kcifler,st m. (-^;-), master. [LkU, magister.] 

mci'jierlid^, ac?/., masterly, clever. 

STOei'lterfdnger^st tti. (-«;-), master-minstrel, master-poet, 
an appellation of the prolific poetasters of the period 
from 1300 to 1500, who formed regtdar recognised 
guilds, established poetical clubs or schools, and drevo 
their disciples chiefly from the artisan class: crack- 
brained cobblers, sentimental tailors and weavers, 
enterprising barbers and hatters, etc, 

9Kei'fl«rjlu(f,»t n. (-eg; -e), masterpiece^ chef-d'oeuvre. 

No. 96. — When, till recentiy, the trade-laws of the ancient 
guilds were still in force, the great aspiration of the young work- 
man or artisan (GeseUe^ Handwerksburache) was, after three years^ 
travel, " sein Meisteratuck zu machen" ue., to turn out a piece of 
work, set by the oldest Master of the Guild, in a given time, from 
three to eight days, and under surveillance. Thus the furrier 
or KUrschner was supplied with pelt, which he had to dress and 
make up, without any assistance; th^ shoemaker had to prove 
his skill by furnishing an elegant pair of boots or shoes ; the 
tailor had to turn out a superbly finished coat, etc. If his 
" chef-d'oBuvre," after a minute examination by the council of 
the guild, was approved of and passed, the " Oeselle " or assist- 
ant beci me a new-fledged master or Meistfr (either Schumacher' 
meister^ Schneidermeister, Tischlermeiater, etc.), and was only then 
allowed to settle down and open an establishment in the town 
where the guild held its sway. Now all is changed. Free trade, 
JFreihandelf has become the watchword, either for better or for 

SWeTnedfer, name of a wine, probably so called from ^tlmt, 
at the Moldau. 


SKenge,^/. (-; -n), multitude, quantity. 
SKenfd^,^ m, (-en ; -en), man, human being, parson. 
SKenfd^ettleben,8* n. (-« ;-), man's life. 
SKen'fd^enT^er j,»* n., human heart [see $erg]. 
Tnenf(^'Uci^, adj,, human, 
merfen,"^ to mark; to note, perceive, see. 
merraurbig, arf/., fo'<. worthy o^ mark; <Aence, remark- 
STOeffe,''^ /. (-;-n), an annual fair on a large scale, 

attended by merchants from all parts of Germany and even from 
foreign parts. The "£«ip2t^er (three in number), JVanJb/«''^f» 
and Braunaehtoeiger Measen " are the principal ones. These marts 
originated in the fairs connected with the Ghorch anniyersaries 
or Kirchmesgen, Kirehweihen. in the days when Germany still 
owed allegiance to Roman Catholicity. [Engl, mass, Lat. 
missa, from the words "/<«, missa est" with which the priest 
dismissed the congregation.] 

tneffen,^* ntafl, gemeffen, to measure. 

[Engl, mete, thus, " And in what mesnre ye tneten^ it schal be 
meten agen to you." — Wiclif.} 

SKeffet,fl* n. (-«;-), knife. 

^ttalVtoaaxtn, plj metal or iron wares or goods. 

SKetl^o'be,^/. (-; -n), method. 

mid^, ace, sing, ofthepers. pron. id^. 

STOild^,^/., milk. 

SKild^'fuppe w/ (-.; _n), milk-soup. 

raitb, adj»<f mild; gentle, kind. 

SKilbe,"^^/ gentleness. 

SKiUe, card, num., a thousand. [Lat mille.] 

SD^inna t}on ^arnl^elnt; Minna de Barnhelm, ^ heroine m 

Oie comedy of that name, 
mix, dat. sing, of the pers. pron. (id^), to me, me. 
mif gliicfen,^ insep., to turn out unlucky, miscarry, prove 

abortive, to fail. 
mi t, prep, with dat., with, by. 

adv. and sep. pref., along, together with, in com- 
pany, jointly. 


mit16rin(|e]t, sep., Bra<^te mit, mUgebrad^t, to bring, take, or 

carry along with. 
mit^eBra^t,/^. o/mthxinQtn, 
mii^tlAuftn^pp. of iititla]tfcn,<^ tep., Ucf mit, mitgetaufen, to 

ran along with. 
vxif^t^^fflt, pp. of mitjd^Icn,^ «^., UL to nttmher or count 

wUh ; thence^ to include. 
SRit'tog,"' m. {-tB ; -«), midday ; noon, gu SWittag effen, to 

dine, to have dinner ; bod Sftittagdef en, the dinner. 

In many parts of Germany where dinner is at 12 or 

1 o^dockf the word SSittag has become almost an 

equivalent for dinner [contraction of\)tx mitte 2!ag]. 
ntit^tag^, cM gen., at noon, at dinner-time, etc. 
SRitte,/., (-; -n), midst, middle. 
SWittct"* n. (-«;-), means, 
mitten, adv.^ in the midst, middle, centre of, etc. (generally 

foU^ by prep, in or auf, of). 
SRit'ternad^t,"^/., midnight [contraction of \)it mitU^adft]. 
mitttere, ofmittUx, adj.y mean, medium. 
STOit't^eitung,'^/. (-; -en), communication, 
tnitun^tet, adv.^ sometimes, 
mod^te, impf. ind. o^ntogen. 
mod^ti, impf. subj. (/mogcn. 
mo gen, mod^te, gemod^t {auxiliary of mood), to like, have a 

mind to. Pros. ^^ mag, I may ; Impf. 3(^ mo<i^te, 

I might, liked, would. 
Srool^r,B* m. (-en ; -en), negro." 
mfiglid^, adv., possible. 
aRomen't,8* ja. (-e«; -e), moment, instant. 
9W o'n a t,8* m. (-0 ; -e) , ^onth. Nam^s of the months : 3anuar, 

gebruar, aWarg, Slpril, «Wai, 3uni, 3uti, augufc @ep^ 

tember, October. Sflo^cmber, 2)ecember. 
SKonb,8t 7w. (-e« ; -e and en), moon, 
monbl&eflral^lt, a^'. , moonlit, lit. moon-illumined, [befha^lt, 

pp. of befiral^len, to shed rays on.] 


!Kon''tag,B* m. (-ed; -e), Monday. 
9K 000,8* n. (-e0; -e), moss. 
9K6rber,»*«». (-«;-), murderer. 
SKorb'fut^t,^/. (-; nopL), bloodthirstiness. 
5Korgen,«* »i. (-0 ;-), morning, 

Sftor^gen^, oc^t;' ^en., in the morning ; a.m. 
m or gen, adv., to-morrow. 

mor^genfd^on, adj., beautiful and bright as the morning. 
SKor'genftra^t**''^ m. (-e«; -en), beaming light of morn. 
SKoloe,^ or SKeWe,/. (-; -n), sea-gull. 
Tludi,^/. (-; -n), midge, gnat, 
wube, adj., tired, weary, fatigued, 
^ugli^,/., name of a river. 
SKuner,Btm. (-«;-), miller, 
m u U i p U c i'r e n,'^^ 1 multiply. 
9KultipUci'ren,«*n. (-«;-), multiplication. 
SKunb,** m. (-e« ; SWnnbe or STOfinbe), mouth [not rdaJted with 

fTOunb in SSormunb, guardian, and ntunbig, of age, 

wTdch signifies "defence, protection;" the- Engl. 

mound,/rom Lat. munire, to raise a wall]. 
SKunbung,"'^/. (-; -en), mouth of a river; muzzle of a gun. 

[munben, to discharge through a „?Wunb."] 
mnnter, adj., lively, vivacious; awake; well. 
inurrenb,j?r<w.2>. ofmurten,'^ to grumble, growl; morose. 
SKu^fel,^/. (-; -n), muscle, 
miiffen, wufte, gemuft {aux. of mood), to be forced, obliged, 

to be under necessity, 
muf, x^ijfpres., I must, 
mil fig, adj., idle, unemployed, at leisure. [SKufe, /., 

m u f t e, impf. ind. of ntujen. 
muf te, impf. svbj. ^muffen. 

SKii'f iggang,** m., (-e«; nopl), idleness, [muftg, adj., idle.] 
SKuffelin', or SKouffean,^* m, (-«; -e), muslin. 
SWuffetin'fteib,** n. (-c«; -er), muslin-dress. 


SKufif,^/, music, 
tnuflern,^ to muster, examine. 

^utl^,^^ m. (-ed; no pl.\ courage; spirit; mood, disposi- 
tion. )u ^ntf)t fein, to feel, 
mutl^ig, adj., courageous, bold. 

SRutter,^ B*/. (-; pi. ^utUx, dot pi 3Kuttettt), mother. 
in(itterli(^; cu^j., motherly, like a mother. 


nad^, pr^, toiih dot., after, behind; ftd^ iteigen nad^, to in- 
cline towards, to ; fd^tefen nad), to aim or fire at 

[Jrom na% nigh, near to]. 
9lad^''bar,"*'^m. (-r« or m; -en), neighbour [i.e., the person 

or boor who settles near another ; bar, for fQantx, 

boor, settler; na6^,forndf), nigh], 
nad^bem, subordinate conj., after, after the time that, when. 

adv. J afterwards, after that. 
na(l)^%taf)mt, pp. ofna6)af)mtn,^sep.j to imitate, 
nad^'ge^en,"* sep., to go on, follow, strive after. 
IJla^'mittag,"* m. (-e«; -c), afternoon. 

(Rac^m.,/or 9la(i^mittag«, adv^ gen., in the afternoon. 
^ad^^xid^t,^ f. (-; -en), advice, information, intimation; 

news, tidings, 
ndd^jie, t>er, bie, ba«, adjectitxil superl. of mf^e, the next, 

na^flen, am, adv^ superl. of nai}t, next, nearest. 
Sflad^t,^"*/ (-; S^iad^te), night. 

Phr., gute Silac^t, good night; bet IJlad^t, at night; 
^ad^ti, advi gen., by or in the night. 
S^atl^t'lj^einbd^en,"* n. (-«;-), little night-dress; dishabille. 
n&d)t^lid), adj., nightly; nocturnal, 
nac^'gunel^men, inf. with gu, from nad^nel^mcn,"* sep., to 

deduct, to reimburse oneself. 


nad^'guglid^, a^'., after deduction, with deduction, etc. 

9ladf cn,»* m. (-« ;-), the neck behind ; nape. 

nacft, adj., bare; desolate. 

Sla'bet^/. (-; -n). needle [akin to bet Sflagct, the nail, bie 

Sileffcl, the nettle,/rom Gr, 9v<rirct, to pierce. Thence 

aho ndl^cn,"^ to sew]. 
Sla'belol^t,^* n. (-«; -e), eye of a needle. 
9'la'get,''* m. (-« ; S^agct), nail; peg. 
nal^e, adj,, compar. ndl^er, 1«« superL, ber, bie, ba^ ndc^jle; 2rf 

or adi^ mperly am ndd^flen ; ndd^fien^ j ndd^jl ; nigh, 

near, close. 

adv., near, approaching. 
^ai}ti^ f'i nearness, vicinity, neighbourhood, 
ndl^en,'^ to sew, stitch [see 9labcl]. 
ttdl^er, compar. of nal^e. ndtjer fennen Uxntn, to get more 

intimately acquainted with. 
Sfld'l^ere^, n. {o/naijtx), more particulars, details, 
na^tn, imp/, ofmfjmtn, 

n airmen, Ist and Mpers. pi. imp/, suhj. ofm^VMXi, 
Silal^t,^ »*/• (-; SfJdl^te), seam, [nd^cn, to sew.] 

yiame^B m. l , ^ ^^x ^^^^ ^^^z ^^^^ 9ilamen«, by name. 

or Xiamen,) 

ndm'li^, adv., namely, to wit, that is to say. 

adj., the very same mentioned before, etc. 
Sflarr,^ m. (-en ; -en), fool. 

Phr., jutn Sflarren ()aben, to make a fool of. 
SSiaxx^txi,'^ f, (-; -en), foolery, folly. 
ndttif(]^, adj., foolish, droll, eccentric. 
S^afe.-^/. (-;-en) nose. 

na'fettjei^, adj., would-be-wise; impudent, forward. 
SHatu'rw/. (_j -en), nature. 
9ilaturgef(i^ic3^te,'«^/., natural history, 
natur'li^, adj., natural, adv., of course. 
gieBet,B* m. (-^ ; -), fog, mist, haze. 
Silc^etflteif,st m., streak of fog, misty cloud. 


nthtn,prq9. toUh JD. or Ace., beside, by the side of; along 

IRe'Benjtinmcr,"* m. (-<;-), adjoining room. 
nth% prep, with doL, together with, with, including [for 

nebeitf, adt^ gen, form of prep. neBen]. 
Sledetei'w/ (_; -en), 
ne^'men,"* na^m, genommen, to take, 
neigen,^ to bend, bow, incline. 

f{(^ netgen gegen, to bow to. 
nein, adv., no, nay. '[From Ohg. ni, vxiS^i, not, anJ ein; 

ihu», iri^ein, UL not one, none.J 
nen'nen, nannte, genoitt, to name, mention, indicate, 
Sileft,"* n. (-<«; -er), nest. 
9lettO£$ro))enue, net resalt or balance. 
Slc|j,«* n. (-«« ; -e), net, web. 
ntvi, adj., new, fresh, recent ; auf6 neu, anew, 
n eu er, oompar., more recent; later, 
neu'^gierig, adv., lit, newe-greedy ; curious, inquisitive, 
neun, nnm^ adj., nine, 
neunl^un'^ert, nine hundred, 
ni^t, adv., not ; gar nid^t, not at all; nic^t tnel^r, no longer. 

[ni, not; and SBi^t, wight, whit, the smallest 

thing imaginable.] 
^X(S)tt,^f, (-; -n), niece. 
nidfti, indef pron., nothing, naught. 
^i6)ti^t^un, n., doing nothing; idleness, 
nitf cn,^ to nod. 
nie, adv., never, at no time, 
nieber, adj., nether, low. 

adv. arid sep. part., down. 
ttteberlaffen,"*fi(!^, sep. and reft,, to sit down, get down, 

lie down, recline, etc. 
nie'betfi^auen,"^^ sep., to look down. 
S'lte^erfel^n,''* n., looking down, 
n i c b r i g fl e, superl, lowest, [uiebtig, low.] 


9tie^manb, indtf. pron.^ nobody, no one, no man [compd of 

nit and 3){ann ttdth b added]. Declined: Sing, G. 

0liemanb«, D, Sfliemanben or JJliemanb. 
nimmtt, adv., never, at no time. [From Ohg. ni, not, and 

immer, ever.] 
nint'mennel^r, adv.^ never more, no more, 
ttimmt, Sd pers. sing.pres, ofnt^mttfl^, 
nir^genbd, adv., nowhere, 
nit, adv.f stands for nid)t in the Swabian and South- German 

ntxd}, adv.y still, yet; nod^ mOfi, not yet. 

expletive, into the bargain, besides, another, I fear. 

conj., toebet . . . wjo&jf neither . . . nor. 
nor^ifd^, adj., northern. 
Sflorb'ffifle,^/., northern coast, 
norb^loartd; adv., to the north; tjon norbtofivtd, from the 

9lotl^,'^ ■*/. (-; SSlbi^txC), need, trouble, anxiety, 
notl^tg, adj., needfal, necessary, 
tt 1 ^'» e n b i Q, adj. , necessary. \piai\i,f, need ; toetibig, from 

toenben, to torn.] 
noti'ren,'''^ to note. 

Sflotfrung,/, quotation {of prices, etc.), 
nun, adv., now, then, 
nut, adv., only, solely, merely, but just. 
Sturn'berg, n., Nuremberg, Inhab^ 62,800. The principal 

town of thai part of Bavaria known as SD^itte^Sranf en. 

The great skill and artistic taste of its artisans, raised 

it already at an early date to a flourishing seat of 

industrial labour. 
SlurnBerger, m., a native or inhabitant of Nuremberg. 
Sluf'fnacfer, m., nut-crackers. [Stuf , /., nut; fnaden, to 

crack. See gefnicft] 
^ul^^iidft^, tttoca, n., something useful. 



oB, subordinating conj., whether, if. 

£) b'b a (!^rt n. , shelter. [See ^adf.] 

oben, adv,j above, on high, aloft. 

obet, adj.t upper, higher; chief. 

Dberfcu'ertoerfer,"* m. (-6;-), principal artilleryman, 
[jjeuemcrfer, m., pyrotechnist.] ' 

Dbergefreite,'^ m. (-n ; -n), lance-corporal (a privaU who 
intends to devote himself entirely to the miUtary pro- 
fession^ and is on that account exempt from certain 

D'berrod or Ueberto(f,** m. (-e« j -todfe), greatcoat, cloak, 

Ober{llieu''tenant, m., lleatenant-coloneL 

obe, adj.f waste, desolate, deserted. 

cber, conj.f or; ober fonfc or else. 

Deffnung,'^/. (-; -en), opening, aperture. 

DtViamptf'^f (-; -n), a lamp burning oil. 

De'jlerrcid^ or Deflreidjf, n,, Austria. 

Dfen,B* m. («; Defen), oven; stoye. 

jDfficier',"* m. (-e6; -«), officer. 

offnen,"^ jtc^, to open, go or fly open. 

oft, adv.y oft, often {compar. ofter, adv^gen, ofterd). 

Dfterbinger, ^einridl^ ber, or ^etntid^ »on Dfterbingen, a 
minstrel who is supposed to have given to the famous 
n^iUlvn^tnlW its present shape, at the beginning of 
the 13^ century, 

o^ntf prep, with ace., without. 

Dl^ne^ofen, j7^., sans- culottes. 

Dl^tt'maiJ^t,'^/. (-; -mdd^te), fainting fit. 
in Dl^nmad^t faKen, to faint away. 

Ol^r'ring,"* m, (-e«; -e), earring. [D^r, n., ear; (Ring, 
m,y ring.] 


epfttn,'^ fi(^, to sacrifice oneself. 

ot^tntlid), adj., orderly; regular, proper. 

Drb'nung w/. (_j _cn), order. 

£)rbrc,'«^/. (-; -^), order. 

Dtt,8* m. (-e« ; Dertet), spot, place, village, small township. 

Phr., aKer Dxitn or an atten Drten, on all sides, in 
every place or direction. 
D{ien$®a(fen; surname. 
Dft or Dflen,8* wi., east. 
Djffce,^/., ^li^. «^ Eastern Sea, German name for (kt 

Baltic, in contradistinction to 9lctbfee, North Sea. 

$aat,8* n. (-c« ; -e), pair ; ein ^aar, adj., a couple, a few. 

^PddTc^en,** w. (-« ;-), Jittle parcel, packet. 

$aff! tri(/., bang! puff! 

^apa,^ m, (-«;-^), papa. 

5Pa^)ier,8* w. (-c^ ; -e), paper. 

pa^ni^^, adj. J panic. 

$antl^er,8t w. (-^;-), panther. 

$arabie0^8* w. (-e«; -e), paradise. 

^axaiWit,'^/, (-; -n), parallel. 

^ar'bell^aut,/., leopard's skin. 

$ari'fer or ^ax., adj.j Parisian. 

^affagicr',®* m. (-6 ; -e), passenger. 

^)affenb,^e«. ^. o/pa^m,^ to fit, suit. 

j)affirt,^p. ofpafii^xiti,^. to pass, come to pass, happen. 

$ape'te,'«^/. (-; -n), pie, pastry. 

Fhr., 3Bo((cn @ie ciu ©tucfd^en won btefev ^ipaf^ctc obcr 
»on jcnem Rubbing neT;meu? Will you take a piece 
of this pie, or a piece of that pudding ? 

53afie'teuteig,8t m. (-e«; -e), dough for pastry. 

9) a t f; e or ^ a t f) i n,^/., godmother. 


^t^,^ n. (-e«;-), pitch, cobbler's wax. 

Phr.f id^ l^abe $e(^ gelgabt, I have had bad luck. 

^<a koar fein $e(l^ (No. 93), that was his misfortune, 
ruin, etc. 
5Pein,^/., torment, pain. 
$ e n f i n',^ /. , boarding-school. 

$enfiond'rin,^/. (-; -nen), boarding-school girl or Miss, 
^erlen,^ to sparkle like pearls. 
$erImttt'tetfno|)f,»* m,, mother-of-pearl button. 
$ e r f n^,^f (-; -<n), person, character. [Lai persona.] 
ptx\on^iidf, adj., personal. 
$etro'Hum, n., petroleum. 
$feifew/. (-; -n), pipe; fife, whistle. 
$feird^cn,«* n, (-«;-), little pipe. 
$fei(,«t m. (-««; -e), arrow, dart, 
^fen'nig,"* w. (-«; -€),( penny. See Money- 

or abbreviated ^^., \ table, p, i^^, 
$ferb,»* n. (-ed ; -e), horse. 

$fer'bearBeit,»*/. (-; -en), horses' labour; hard work, 
pflag, impf. {archaic form for <j|Iog),/rom Jjjiegen, ^log, ge* 

)}{Icgen, to foster, cultivate, to carry on relations, 

intercourse with. Weak form : p^t^tn, ^jjlegte, ge* 

))jlegt, to nurs^, tend, wait upon ; to be accustomed, 

to be wont. 
?Pfla'(ierjleitt,«* m. (-f0j -e), paving-stone, flag. [Engl 

Sflau'me,'^/. (-; -n), plum. 
$fIe^9e(efo^Une, bet or bie, one confided to one's care. 

[5^^9«f/-» o*re; befol^Un,^. o/befe^Ien, order.] 
$]^aebru0, m., a Latin fable -writer, j^om 30 before till 40 

q/^ Christ. Being a slave, he received his freedom 

from Augustus, 
^^anta%^ m. (-en; -en), fantastic, odd fellow. 
$^ili'fler, m. {academical expression), townsman, snob. 
$]^l(ofo'p]^,w m, (-en; -en), philosopher. 


^l^ilofo^jl^ie',^/, philosophy. 

$infe(,B* m.f paint-brush, pencil-brush [akin to pencil, 
fi'om Lat, penicillum, a painter^s brush]. 

^ijlo'U,''^/. (-; -n), pistol [from Pistoja, where they were in- 
vented in 1545]. 

$(an,>*fii. (-ed; $(dne), field; battle-field. [Engl plane, 
plan, /ror/i Lat, planus, flat, even, plain.] 

))Ia)}'')>ern,^ to prate; to babble, blab. 

*Plat,"* m. (-e«; $Cd(je), place; town. 

$(a^ nel^men, to take a seat, sit down. 
$(a( vx^a^tn, to make or give way or room. 

plau'^ern,^ to chat, talk, chatter {any uUe talking, especially 
in school), 

^)t6ft'(i(^, adj., suddenly. 

))0(!^en,^ to rap, knock. 

^oirtif^* adj,, political. 

$olijei''biener,»* m. (-«;-), policeman. Modeim term, 

$om%ettant,"* n., or $oinmecn, n., Pomerania. 

$orfler,B*m. (-0;-), bolster; cushion. 

$otto,»* n. (-« ;-), postage. 

4*ojlen,»* m. (-9 ;), outpost, sentinel. 

^xa6)t,^f., splendour, magnificence. 

$rager Strafe,/., the road to or from Prague or $rag. 

pxalltt guru(f, imp/, of inxud^pxalUn, sep., to recoil, to^be 

sent back, fall back. 
|>ramiirt,^i?p. of ^jrfimiiwn, to award a prize. [?prdmie,/., 

pxan^tn,^ to shine, glitter; to be resplendent with. 
}pxapaxi^xtn,^ tp pi'epare. 
pxthx%tn,^ to preach, [bic ^Prebigt, /., sermon, Lat pre- 

dicare, to say publicly, etc.] 
$re'bi0er,8* m. (-0;-), minister, preacher, parson. 

?Pvebiger6 (No. 94), the minister's family. 
^rei«,»* m. (-rt ; -e), price. 


|)rei«'geBcn,»* «^., gab pxdi, ^jrei^gegoBen, to sacrifice, give 

up, expose. 
$teugen,B*n. (-«;-), or fpteufenlanb, Prussia. [The name 

is supposed to he derived Jrom „^oMm^m" orig. 

a Slavonian term meaning " near Kussia," — a very 

undignified derivoHon for the greatest military and 

intellectual power ofihel9ih century ^ but one we must 

acc^tfor want of a better.^ 
^jreufiifci^, adj\j Prussian. 
$riwa'ge,'^/., an allowance of percentage on the freight 

or packages made by the shipper or consignee 

to the captain for loading of the goods. 
$ri'mata)e(i^fcI,B*m., first of exchange. 
$tioritdt'«^Dbligationen,2'^., priority-bonds. 
^xo^t,'^f. (-; -ti), proof; experiment; pattern. 
$rccef',8t m. (-e«; -e), lawsuit; legal action against some 

one, trial. 
^Jrcfefforin,^/., (-; -nen), Lady-Professor. 
}?xomp^ttfit, anfi (adv^ superl, absolute), in the promptest 

manner, with the greatest readiness and despatch. 
pn^tlnaxfxi\(S), adj., Ut, crazy as a poodle; giddy as a 

goose ; infatuated ; having a bee in one^s bonnet. 
$unft,8t m., point, dot; period. 

$ur't)urniantel,8* w. (-«; -wdntet), pui^ple-coloured cloak. 
^Vi%,^m,y (-e0; ph spu^fad^cn), finery; dress, 
pu^ett,"''^ fid^, {of persons) to dress in finery, to rig oneself 

out in one^s best; {of animals) to wash, clean. 


Cluabrat7ufl,Btm. (-e«;-), square-foot, 
quateii,^ to torment. [Ouat,/., torment.] 
€lnalitat',"«^/. (-; -en), quality. 
diavtar,8t n. (-d; -e), quarter of a year ; term. 


auafle,/. (-; -n), jtassel; tuft. 

quitti'ren,^ to give a receipt, to receipt (on paying a biU, 

etc,), [qnitt, adv, quits, even.] 
durttung,^/. (-; -en), receipt. 

(RaKbi or fRaBbiner,"* m., the Rabbi or priest of a syna- 
(Rabc,^ m. (-n; -n), raven. 
Sfta'benfd^toarin^B* m. (-c«; -fci^todrme), swarm or crowd of 

ra^'jjclfo^jfifd^, acj?*., wrong-headed, crack-brained. 
taf(!^, o^;*', rash, quick. 
(R a fc^ ^ ei t,'^/. (-; -n), rapidity; swiftness. 
(Rafen,''* w. (-« ;-), green turf, sward^ sod, 
rajien,"'^ to rest, repose. 

rajllod, adj.y restless, without intermission, on and on. 
(Rat^,"*m. (-c^;-), counsel, advice; pL (Rdtl^e, councillors, 

aldermen, etc. ; (Ratl^^ loerben, to become persuaded, 

to be advised, etc. 
tatl^en,^* tictl^, geratl^en, to advise. 

9iat]^']^au«,*»* n. (-e^; -l^aufer), lit, council-home; town-hall, 
rduberifd^; adj. ,robberlike; rapaciously, plunderingly . 
Tauc^en, to smoke, steam ; to reek [akin to rieci^en,"* orig, 

give forth emanation; thence, to emit smell, to 

smell ; bet ©erud^, the smell.] 
fllautti,"* m. (-ed; Sfidume), room, space, accommodation ; 

hold (of a ship) \ interval; space of time. 
(Rau>>e,^/. (-; -n), caterpillar. 
tauf<!^en,''^ to rush {Uke water j the wind, etc,), 
(Rauf(i^en,«* n, (-«;-), the flapping of the wings (of birds), 

the rushing {of water, etc.). 


(Rebe,^/. (-; -n), vine; grape. 

gie<!^nttn8,^/., (-; -en), bill, account. 

tec^t, adj.y right, just. adv.\ very, quite; red^t ^aBen, to 

be right ; rcd^W, on or to the right. 
(Re^t,** n. (-e«; -«), right, justice; vxxi Sficd^t, justly, truly; 

»on Olcd^trt toegcn, by right of law, justice. 
9le(i^te,/., meine {§anb understood), my right hand. 
(Red^tf(^affene, n., bod, that which is right and honest. 

[reci^tfc^afen, adj., upright, honest.] 
red en,'''' to stretch, extend. 

difen recfen, to forge or manipulate iron. 

bie 3unge au^redfen, to thrust or put out the tongue, 
recontttianbi'ten,'^ to recommend. 
(Rebe,'^/. (-; -n), speech. [See reben.] 
reben,""^ tebete, gerebet, to speak, talk. 

l^eimtic^ reben, to carry on a conyersation in a 
secret or mystifying manner. 
tebenb,|?re«. p., speaking. 
Oie'ben^art,'^ /. (-; -en), a stereotyped or proverbial 

(Regel,"^/ (- ; -n), rule. [Led, regula.] 
tegen,^ to ply, put in action. 

bie <&anb regen, to make use of one^s hand in manual 
labour, to render useful, to work. 
(Re gen,"* m. (-« ;-), rain, [regnen,"^ to rain.] 
(Re'genl^ol^e,^ /., the quantity of the rainfall measured by 

(Regttli'rung«prei«,»* m. (-e« ; -e), regulating price, [regu* 

Uren, to regulate, order.] 
(Rei(^,«* n. (-e«; -e), empire, dominion, 
teic^r adj., rich, wealthy, 
teid^en,'^ to reach, extend; hand. 

bie $anb reic^en, to hold out or offer one^s hand. 
0letf,»* m. (-e^; -e), hoop, ring, circle. 
(Reil^ew/. (_j _n)^ row; series; line;' turn. Phr, an bie 


(Rei^e fommen, to come in turn, to be one*;s turn. 

[See bereit.j 
Oleimerei^^y. (-; -en), rhyming. 
Sftci^'fe,'^ /". (-; -n), journey, travel; voyage (of a ship). 

auf ber Sfieife fein, to be a-travelling, to pass from 
place to place. 

auf bie Sficife ge^cn, to go a-travelling, set out for a 
reifen, reijic, getcijl (W^A feln an<? l^aBen, see fal^ren), to travel, 

journey, ber Sfieifenbe, the traveller [allied wUh 

ticfcn, ricfetn, to rise up, arise, rise, also to come 

gradually down], 
rei7enb,i?re». p. of rcifen. 
(Rei'fetaf^e,'^/. (-; -n), travelling-bag, carpet-bag, leatlier- 

bag, etc. 
reif en,»* riS, geriffeti, to tear away, pull out^ etc. {with violence). 
reitcn;**ritt, geritten, to ride, to be or go on horseback. 

f))agteren teiteit, to take a ride on horseback, a 

pleasure ride. [Root, reit, ri, »«e betcit.] 
9leitctt,** n. (-^ ;-), a verbal noun, riding. 
(ReiteT,st m. (-^;-), rider, horseman. 
0leit'^)ferb,''*n. (-c«; -e), saddle-horse, horse for riding, to 

distinguish from 9Bagcn^)ferb, carriage-horse, Sug^ 

^ferb, draught or dray, horse, 
tcigen,'''^ to charm, attract, allure, 
ten n en, rannte, gerannt, to run [akin to rinnen]. 
Olenncr,8t m. (-0;-), runner, running horse, racer. 
dit[tt''ot,^f. (-; -n), reserve-force, reserves. 
{Retout'waaren,^?/., goods returned, 
rettet tn6}\ pi imper., save yourself! [fid^ tetten, to save 

oneself, to fly for safety.] 
Sfleftung,'^/. (-; -en), safety, preservation. 
flUeue o/M^reuen. iS«« bereueft 
Olettere^ngen^i?^., obsequiou bows, [bie 9le»eren§^ /., bow, 



(R^ebf,^/. (-; -n), road, roadstead. 

(R^eberci',"^ /., fittiDg out of a vessel; chartering of a 

Si^ein,"* m. {gen, rt), Rhine; 160 Ger. miles long, 
r^einl.,/or rjeinldnbift^, adj,, Rhenish, 
rid^ten,^ to set right, make straight; •to direct, to 

rid^tet fid^ auf, 3d pera, sing.pres. ofj^6} aufrid^ten, to get 

up, rise. 
ri(^ tig. adj.f right; adv., rightly, as might be expected 

(No. 111). 
(Rit^'tigfeit,'"^/, correctness. 

Fhr.j in Olid^tigfeit bringen, to bring to an issue, to 
set right, settle. 
rieB ein, imp/, qf einreiben,"* sep, (ie; ie), to rub in {Uke an 

embrocation), to rub all over, 
ric'd^en,"* ro^, gcrc(i^cn, to emit smell, to smell, to scent; to 

perceive. [Engl, to reek.] 
tieftoieber gu, impf. q/" toiebcr gttruffn,^* sep., to call out 

to again, 
r i c f e n, j^l. impf. of rufen. 

ricf entgegen, of eutgegcnrufen, aep., to call out to. 
rie'felttb, pres. p. of riefeln,'^ to trickle, purl, ripple, 

(Rie'fcnmorfer,Bt m. (-«;-), monster mortar. 
OliefctH)ferb,8* n. (-eg; -e), giant courser, giant horse. 
Olimeffe or ^\m.,^ f., remittance. 
(»inb7leif^,8*n. (-e«;-), beef. 

^a(bjleif(3^, veal ; J&ammelfleifd^, mutton ; ©(^ttjeine* 
jleifd^, pork ; Sammjleifd^, lamb. 

[(Rinb, n.j cattle, ox ; ffleifd^, n., meat.] 
fRing,B* m, (-e0; -e), ring. 
(Ringelein or 9iing(ein,«* n. (-«;-), little ring. [Engl. 

(Ringen^Bt ^. (-^;-), striving, endeavour. [Verbal noun 


from ringen, rang, gerungen, to struggle, strive; 

Engl, wring.] 
ringd, adv,^ around, about. 

tingd l^erum, or ringd urn, round about. 
rinnen^B* raim, getonnen, to run, leak; to roll on and on 

{Jxke a wave). 
(Wifi,"* m., tear, rent [from rig, impf f)/rei{len]. 
(Ritter,** w. (-« ;-), knight, warrior, [ritt, impf ofxtxUw.'] 
rijen,"^ to scratch, tear, to rip {cownected with reipen]. 
ro^eln,^ to emit a gurgling sound from the throat, Uke 

a dying person or animal. 
(Rotf tafd^e, compi of^od, ?»., coat ; and 3!afd^e, /;, pocket. 
(Roggen,** m. {-e ;-), rye. 
xof), adj.y raw, coarse; rude, inferior. 
(Ro^r,8* n. (-e« ; -e and (Rc^re), reed, rush ; pipe, tube. 
roUen,"'"^ to roll, to move tumultuously. 
^t>vx,n. {gen. 6), Rome, capital of Italy. [Lat. Roma.] 
(Rofe,"^/ (-; -n), rose. [Lai. rosa.] 
(R fi'n e,^ / (-; -n), raisin. Orofie (Rofi'ncn, pl.y plums. 
(R60'Uin,8*w. (-«;-), little rose, 
roflen,"''^ to rust, grow rusty, [bcr (Rojl, the rust.] 
Olof,Bt n. (-ed; -e), horse, steed, 
rotl^, adj. J red, ruddy. 
Siotf), n., red-colour. 
(Rotl^'^ofe,/., the French soldiers are ihtis named on account 

of their red trousers. 
(Rt^Ir. Seep. 164. 
Sftu'Bc,^/ (-; -n), turnip, rape. 
Sftub'ol,** n. (-e«; -e), rapeseed-oil. • 
(Ru'den,8* m. (-« ;-), back. 

Fhr.y 3d^ fal^re i^r mit bem JTojjf in ben (Rurfen 
(p. 121), My head comes in contact with her 
rurf en,^ to move, push along. 

in'« Seuer tiicfen, to go under fire, engage in battle. 


flU u d^^ a U,«* m. , reserve. 

9iud^tif)x,'^/,, return. 

(Ruf,B* m. (-€« ; -e), call ; cry. 

ru^c bicb au« (No. 94), 2d pen. sing, imp/, of ^^ audru^fn,"^ 

to rest, repose, 
rul^ig, adj., quiet, rul^ig fcin, to rest quiet, remain easy. 
Olu^m,«* m. (-e^j-), glory, 
ruljf^ren,'^ to stir, touch, bic ^anbe or J&anb rii^ren, to work 

with one's hands ; to bestir oneself, 
runb, adj.j round. 

IRun^ung,'^/. or (Rfin'bung (-; -en), circumference, 
rfiflig, adj., lit. wdl fitted out, prepared ; active, vigorous. 
(Rttjlung,^ /. (-; -en), equipment, armour, armament. 

[tujlen, to prepare, get ready.] 
(Rug'lanb, n. (gen. -«), Russia. 


^ capital, and long f, beforeavowel incline in pronuncia- 
tion to Engl, z in zone; thiL8, @c§n, son. But f 
doubled (ff) or final («, f), or wlien standing 
before a consonant, has a hissing sound. 
@ or f be/ore ^ and i (<Sp, fp ; @t, fl), should be 
sounded, according to m o s t and ^A^ b e s t authorities, 
Wee Engl, sh or Germ. f(^, or, to talce a medium 
course, unth only a sUght touch of it ; thus, (Stein 
Uke Sh-tine. But the pure sibilant sound of f, 
which prevails in North Germany, especially in 
Hanover, etc., comes nearer to (he English pronun- 
ciation, and therefore recommends itself more to the 
English student of German. Tkus ©teitt {like 
*' stine "), Engl, stone. Which of these two pro- 
nunciations to adopt is more a matter of taste, and 
should be left to each individual student. For tlie 


orcUor and actor (he first {ifie %\x-BOund) is more 
suitable and effective ; but in common conversational 
intercourse Jhe pure s-sound is more natural, and 
hence more genicU, {Ifthe author is rightly informed, 
the latter decidedly predominates at the German 
Imperial Court,) 

*9, abbreviation of 96, it. 

^ad^t,^ f (-; -n), matter, aflkir ; thing ; .cause ; concern. 
[Engl. sake. See fu^en.] 
pi, <Sad^en, things, chattels, articles of dress, etc. 

©adf,8* m. (-««; @ddfe), sack; bag. 

©a'ge,^/ (-; -n), saying, legend, tradition [from fac^en]. 

fagen,^ fagte, gefagt, to say, tell. 

fal^ au^, 1st and Sdpers, sing, impef. q/"au^fel^cn,8* sep. (a; e), 
to look ; to appear to be, etc. 

fa^ »crau«, imperf o/»orau^fc]^cn,»*«^i>. (a; c), to see or per- 
ceive beforehand. 

^aitt,'^ t (-; -n), string (of a harp, piano, etc.). 

(Salg7afl<!^en,«*w. "((-«;-), little salt-cellar. [(Satj. n., 

@alj7df Icin, n. J salt; gag, box, cask, vat.] 

SarbOr m., balance; residue. 

®albo S^ortrag; transfer of balance. 

fam'meln,'^ to collect ; ft(^ fammeln, refi., to get composed. 

fdmmt^Ud^, aej;., entire, all; adv., altogether, one and alL 
unfern fdmmtUc^en, dat. pi, all our. 

@anb,«*m. (-^;-), sand; gravel, grit. 

@ant>7a?»"*»- (-«^; -ffiifct)! sand-box; pounce-box. 

fanb^geformte Xxomht, eine, a column of sand set in mo- 
tion by a cyclone ; a sandy vortex. 

fanb^gem SKeerc, in bem {dat. sing gov^ by in), in the sandy 
sea ; in the ocean of the sandy desert. 

^anVfad,^^ m. (-e«; -fdcfe), sand-bag. 

fanbten, impf. ©/"fenbcn. 

fanft, adj., soft, gentle; adv., quietly, smoothly. 

^dnget,"* m. (-«;-), singer; minstrel, bard. 


fann, hnpf, of {tnnen,"^ fann, gefonnen, to meditate on, to re- 
flect, devise, etc. 

faf, \st and Sdpen. sing. imp/, \o/^tn, faf, Qefcffen, to sit, 

fa^en, Ut and Mpen. pi. impf. > to be seated, etc. 

@attcl,«« m. (-« ; @atte(), saddle. 

©alt^'tc,'^/. (-; -n), satire. 

@au,^ ■*/. (-; @due), sow. 

faoer, adj., sour, harsh; nasty, disagreeable. 

faufen,"* fcff, gefoffen, to drink {like an animal or heaat)^ to 
drink hard or to excess [related with Engl, sop, 
sup, sip, and with Germ, faugen, Lot, sugere]. 

fauft eud^ 90(1, 2d pera. pi impf. of fl^ \>oU faufeit, to 
imbibe freely, to drink to one^s heart's content, etc. 

fa u gen,"* fcg, gefogcn, to suck; to draw. 

@aule,^/. (-; -n), column. 

©aurn,"* m. (-e«; <Sauwe), seam; border;* extremity. 

®au0,Bt tn. dash, dashing speed; rush, [faufen, to whizz, 
whistle, in imitation of the soundJ] 

fSufeln,'^ to rustle. 

@(^aar,"^/. (-; -n), see bef<^fren. 

©d^abrarfe,'^/. (-; -n), a rich gay covering , of doth laid 
over a war-horae; caparison ; trappings [a term of 
Turkish origin]. 

@d^ad^'tel,^/. (-; -n), a pasteboard or thin wooden box; 
like a hat-box, band-box. Phr., fie ifi eine alte 
©d^ac^tel, or 3uugfer ! She is an old maid I 

<SdJabe,s* m., or @d^aben (-ne; @d^dben), harm, injury; 
damage (p. 160). Phr.^ @(^aben (eiben, to be hurt, 
to be damaged, etc. ; (Si ijl ®(i^abe ! It is a pity I 

fd^aben,"^ to hurt, injure. Phr.^ fd^abet nid^t^! no harm 
done I it does not matter or signify, etc. 

@ d^ &f er,»* wi. -^ ;_), shepherd. 

fd^offen,"* fd^uf, gefc^affen, to create. [Engl, to shape.] 

f^affm,^ W«Pe, gefd^afft, to make, do, work; to 
procure, provide. 


fi^afft 9Bein (p. 96, No. 94), bring or procure wine ; 
supply \)ithtx, to the spot, to the table, etc. 
^6:i^\t,^f. (-;-n), shell, scale; dish, cup. 
fd^ alien, fdj^aHte, gef(3^ant {pldform^ fd^ofl, gefti^otten), to sound, 

resound ; to echo, to be set forth. 
(S<i^ am,"''/., shame; bashfulness. 

fd^amen, ftd^, refl. f(^dinte jtd^, fld^ gef^dmt, to feel shame, 
to be ashamed, fid^ tobt f^dmen, to be killed with 
shame ; not to know what to do for shame, 
©d^anbe,"^ /., disgrace, ignominy, opprobrium; shame; 

@(]^attjc,'w^/. (-; -n), redoubt, field-work, entrenchment, 
fd^arf, adj,^ sharp; keen, fc^arf fpdl^enb, adj,^ quickly 

espying ; keen-sighted, [frdl^en, to spy.] 
@d^atten,8t w». (-A;-), shade; shadow, 
fd^d^'^ar, cdj,, esteemed; estimable, valuable. 

[<S^aJ, m., treasure ; fd^dten;*"^ to esteem.] 
fd^auen,"^ to look, gaze. [EngL show. See befd^aucn.] 
@d^auOT,8t 7/1. (-e0; @d&dumc), scum; froth, foam, 
^d^ef^e,^/. (-; -n), pane (of glcLsSj etc.); slice (pfbreadf 

etc.) [akin to ©c^iefer, slate ; Engl, shiver.] 
fd^ti^tn,^ \d}k\>, gefc^icben, to divide, separate; to depart 
\6^tx't>tn\>, pres. p. (No. 84), departing, setting. 
[Of the same root is Engl, sheath. Germ. (Sd^eibe ; 
and Engl, shed in watershed. Germ. SBaffer^ 
fd^eibe or SQSafferfd^eibung. Shed amicers here 
to the Scotch sched, to divide ; ihuSj " to sched 
~ the hair,^' i.e.f to divide the hair in combing, to 
make a parting or ©d^eitet. Compare also 
scythe, which is possibly of the sams root, 
Oiher derivatives: ©efd^eib, w., information; 
SCbfd^ieb, m., parting, farewell; Untcrfd^ieb, iw., 
difference ; Befd^eiben, modest ; gefd^eibt, sensible ; 
fc^eitern, to be wrecked, etc.] 
®(3^ein,** w. (-e^j -e), shine, lustre, glare; sheen. 


fd^einen,»* f(i^ten, Qef^ieneit, to shine; thencey to appear, to 


uxtS fd^eint ein f)tlkx (Stem, a bright star shines upon 
us, or sheds a light upon our path, 

e« f(J^eint fo ^u feln, it seems to be so. 

\Mhg. shine. Derivatives : ^al^rfcJ^eiuUd^, probable ; 
fd^einbar, seeming; (Srfc^einung, /., appearance. 
AJdn are: ©ci^cmcn, w., phantom; ©d^immer, 
f»., glimmer ; fc^immern, to glimmer, ] 
@d^etw,8* m, (e6 ; -e), rogue, villain. 
@4enien,Bt m. (-g ;-), phantom ; airy appearance, or 

(Sd^attenbilb [akin to f^cinen]. 
f ^enf ett,"^ to pour ; to give or make a present, 
f^cnf tc tJoH, impf, of ©onfd^cnfen,''^ «ep., to pour out to the 

full, to fill (a gla;ss^ etc.). 
fd^eren,"^ fid^, to care for. Phr.y cr fd^crt fi(3^ ben 3^eufel brum, 

he does not care a rap or pin for it. 
f d^et'ien,'^ to joke, to make fun. [@cl^etg, m., joke.] 
fd^eu, adj.f shy, bashful, timid. 
@^eu'ne,^ /., or <Sci^cure, bam, penthouse, a large shed 

for storing com, straw, etc. [orig. meaning, a 

covered place; akin to fd^euen, to fear.] 
fd^idtni^ to send, despatch [lit. to cause to happen; a weak 

form of fd^el^en in gefc^eften]. 
@d^i(f fat,B* n. (-g ; -e), fate, destiny, 
f (^ i e n, impf. of fc^einen. 
fd^iepen,st fd^og, gefd^offen, to shoot; to fire, discharge ; to 

kill. [Derivatives^ ®d^cf, m., shoot, tax; ©a 

fd^og, w., story, missile; @d^og(tng, sprig, strip- 
ling; ^6^VL% m., shot; abf(^uffig, declivitous; 

^d^ni^t, shooter, marksman; ba^ ®t\d)ui^, heaYv 

©d^ieg^d^arte,""^/. (-; -n), loophole; embrasure. [<Sd^arte, 

/., indentation, gap.} 
@dl^ifrbatt,8tm., shipbuilding. 


@ d^ i f f d'^ & n b I f r,«* m. (-0 ;-), ship-chandler ; dealer in ship- 
@(^iff,"* n. (-ed ; -«), ship, vessel. 
@(^ilb,"* wi. (-e«; -<), shield. 

bod ©d^iCb, n. (-e^ ; -er), signboard. 
Sd)xWtoa6^t,'^ f. (-; -n), sentry, sentinel. 

@<i^Ub)oa(^e l^Uen or jiel^m (or fd^itbem), to be on 

sentineVs duty. 
@d^tlf,"* ». (-ed; -e), rush; reeds; rushes. 
@d^in'fen,8* w. {-€;-), ham [oWierf loith ©d^cnfel, shank, 

the bone of the leg]. 
^a^itmtn,'^ to protect, screen, [bet ^ifixm, m., shelter, 

umbrella, etc.] 
^^Xadtii,^ fi (- ; -en), battle, action [corresponds almost to 

EngL slaughter, onslaught; from fdl^Iagcn, to 

slay, to strike. See fd^Iagm]. 
<S<^Iad^tfclb,«* «. (-C0; -«), battlefield, 
^d^lafr'^m. (~e€;), sleep; rest, repose. 
^d^Ufd^en,^ n. (-4 ;-), a little nap, slumber. 
fd^l(ifen,<* fd^lief, gefci^Iafen, to sleep, rest, repose, 
f^taff, oe^!., slack; languid; No. 106, dry, thirsty, etc. 
f^l&ft, 3c? pers, sing, pres. 0/ fci^lafen. Conjugated. 3c^ 

f<I^Iafe, btt \d)laf% et f(^Iaft, tt)ir fcl^Iafen, etc. 
@d^Iaf jimmer,«* n. (-«;-), bedroom. 
^^(ag^B* m. (-ed; ^d^Iage), blow, clap; report {pfagun, 

f^lagen,^^ fd^t% gefd^Iagen, to strike, beat, to slay. 

tobt f(!^Iagm, sep.^ to kill. 

[perwaUves: ©d^Iag, blow; ^^d^legel, m., flail; 
@<l^(agcr, sword, swordsman; ^cj^tad^t,/., slaugh- 
ter, battle; fd^kd^ten, to slay, kill, butcher; 
©d^lad^tev, butcher; ungef<l^(a(^t, uncouth, un- 
shapely ; (S)efd^Ied^t, n., sex, race.] 
@(^Iagen,>* n. (-^;-), ver^l noun, striking out, kicking. 
^i^i^^tXf^ m. {-i ;-). iSfefi fd^Iagen. 



f<|(&gt batnteber, strikes down, depresses ; \6fi&^i (p. 109), 
strikes, digs; f(^(5gt bie ^ugen nieber (No. 109), 
casts down his eyes, feels bashfol. [Sdpers, sing, 
pres. of f(^lagett.] 

f(l^tamm''gefuUt, adj,j fall of mud, muddy or fi^tatnmig. 
[^dfkmm, m., mud ; gefuHt, pp., filled.] 

\^U^tf adj., bad, base, wicked [a corollary form of \^lxd^t, 
smooth, plain, homely, straightforward; EngL 
slight, probably connected toUh fd^Ieid^en, to move 

Jid^Uidftn,^ \d}ii(i), gefd^tid^en, to move softly, gentljr, slowly; 
to sneak. 

©d^le^j^j^bam^jfer,** m. (-«;-), steamer for towing vessels 
into harbour. 

@d^le^)^)tau,«* n, (-ed; -e), tow-rope, tow-line. [fd^tc^J)en, 
to drag, draw; Xau, n., tow, rope, cable.] 

fd^ lie 6 en,** fd^top, gefd^toffen, to lock, shut, close. [Derioa- 
foVe9; ©(^liefer, turnkey; fd^ltefU^, finally ; @d^(of, 
n., lock ; castle ; ^d^loffet, lock-maker, lock-smith ; 
@(i^(iiffe(, n., key; ^6fia% m., conclusion, end; 
f^Iufftg. resolved; S3efd^luf, m,, decision, resolu- 

fd^Umm, adj,, ill, bad, evil ; ba^ ®d^Umme, bad or evil things. 

@d^toffer,«* n. (-« ;-), see fd^Uefen. 

@4lof,»t n. (-e« ; ^Wjfet), eee fd^Ucfen. 

fd^lof, w»^. ©/"[(^Ufgett. 

f4tof auf, twiR/l of auffc^ltefen,"* »«p., to unlock. 

@(i^lofl']^of,»* w. (-« ; -l^ofe), castle-yard. 

fd^tttd^jen,^ to sob. 

f^lug an (No. 103), impf of anfd^Iagen, «<^., to present or 
raise (a gun) ; to get ready to fire. > See 9lnf(^(ag. 

fd^Iuntmetn,'*^ to slumber, repose, sleep softly. 

fc^Iurfen,'^ to sip up, lap, drink; to shuffle along. 

@d^luf^>9^otitung,^/., closing-prices; quotation at the 
close of the market. 


f(^tn&]^(id^, 'adj.y disgraceful, shameful, [fd^mdl^en,^ to 
reTile; (Sd^mad^,/., shame.] 

f^meden,''^ to taste; toc^C fd^ntrcfen, to taste well; relish. 
[Engl, smack.] 

^ifvxtxi,^^ m, (-c« ; -en), pain j grief. [Engl, to smart, 

fi^mergett,'^ to pain, feel pain, ache. [Engl, to smart.] 

f(!^met}^td^, o^/m painful. 

@(^wieb,«*«. (-««; -e), smith, smithy (No. 94, maker). 

^iiimvid,^ m. (-e«;^/. @(^ni«(!fad^en), ornament; finery; 
jewelry [see gefc^mfirft]. 

f d^muden, »ee gefd^mucft. * 

@c]^nabel,»t n. (-«; @^nd6eO, bill, beak. 

f d^nat'tern,'^ to cackle, tattle, to chatter. 

@(^nedfe,'^/. (-; -n), snail, slug. [Originally bie @d^naff, 
Engl, snake, from A,S. snican, to creep, crawl, 
thence also to sneak, ^ie ©di^nafe or bet ®(^naf, 
a laughable idea, merry joke, squib. £)et ®d^na(( 
or @(]^m(f fd^nadf , chit-chat ; arrc? fd^nadfen, to chat, 
chatter, etc., are of different origin.] 

@(l^ne(fen]^du«,"t n. (-e«; -^ufer), snailVhouse. 

(B(i)ntt,^f (-«;-), snow.. 

^c^nee'geflober,"* n, (-« ;-), snow-storm, snow-drift. 

[©ejioBer, «., drift, shower, yroTn fkieben, jiob, gefloben, 
to drive about, to scatter, to drift.] 

@(^nee!finig,»*m., snow-king. 

@cll^tteiber,Bt m. (-*;-), Ut cutter; tailor, [fd^neiben, 
fd^nitt, gefd^ttitten, to cut.] 

fd^neibig, adj., sharp- cutting; sharp-edged. 

fd^tiell, adj., quick, swift, speedy. 

<Sd^netIe,"^/., swiftness. 

@d^nm>fen,"* m. (-«;-), cold (in ihe iead), catarrh. 

[fd^nm^fen, to snuff, akin to fd^nauben, to snort; 
fd^nujfetn, to snuffle, sniff.] 

@c^ttm)ftud^,st n. (-«; -tud^et), pocket-handkerchief. 


f^fenatrea,^ to purr (a» a cat, etc.), to whir (in a low mur- 

mmmgwHMdoMifpndncedhy rapid whirUng), 

9mnd9 fi^namnb, fiercely purring, whirring, etc 
f^cn, odcy already; even. 

<ig>fa<wg, well, sorely, indeed, I dare say, etc. 

fd^m it<^t, right enough, quite right, just the thing. 
f^ jo, <K^, beantiful, handsome, fine. 

\Correip(md» to EngL shone, t^e arig. rMomng 
** bright, shining,** yyiom fi^nnen, to shine.] 
fd^ener, Itt saperl.,.\ftx, W, bod fi^onfle; 2d 
or adv, wperL^ am ft^onfteit; mperl. absohUey 
anf^ ft^cnjle or \d^on^tra, 
f(6ottcii,^ to spare, to treat with consideration. 
6^6nef, n., all that is beautiful, pleasant, or good. 

fo wi S<^enc0 (No. 87), so many pleasant things. 
^^dii'fil^Teibcn,"* «., good writing; copy-book writing; 

model handwriting. 
Sd^ocf,"t m, (^* ©d^ofe), lap, womb, interior (No. 77), 

skirt {of a dras, coat, etc).' 
€c^6<)fttn9,'^/. (-; -en), creation. 
S^ottt'jteiiifeger,"*!!!. (-«;-), chimney-swee^r. 
f^of, impf, q^f^iefen, p. 105, to fire. 

fc^ief en na^, to fire or aim at. 
@c^ott(anb,"* n. (-0;-), Scotland; (Sngtonb, n., England; 

Sttanb, Ireland. 
Sc^ranf,^ m. (-ed; ©d^ranfe), cupboard, press [relabtd wi& 

©d^ranfe,/., bar, barrier; fd^rdnfen, to limit]. 
Sc^t&nf d^en^Bt n. (dim. o/'^d^tanf), little press. 
@4re(f en,"* m. (-« ;-), fright, terror. [^Hfctdtn, to frighten^ 

to be frightened.] 
f(!^re(f (id^, a<^'., frightful, terrible, dreadful. 
@(i^tei,«* m. (-«0; -e), shriek, scream, cry. 
@4reibebud^,»* n. (-«; -Wid^er), copy-book, 
fd^ ret ben, fdjrieb, gefd^ricben, to write. [Lat scribere. De- 

rivattvea : ©d^reiBl^eft, copy-book ; @<3^retbf r, writer ; 


imBefd^tPeibltd^, indescribable ; @d^ft, writing, print, 

work ; fc^riftUd^, in writing, by letter.] 

fd^teiBt an, Sdpers, sing, pres. q/'anfd^teibcn, to note 

down, to put or charge to account, to book. 
fd^teiBen ®ie an ! Put to account I Book I 

©(^reib'fel^ler,** m. (-€)-), alip, mistake (in iDrtting). 

^iftciV^immtt,^ n. (-9*,-). writing-room, bureau, study. 

fd^reien,"* fd^rie, gefd^rieen, to cry, scream, shriek, call out 
loud. [Derkxztives: ®(^rei, m., cry; ©efdj^tei, »., 
a crying ; ©(^reier, crier.] 

f d^reiten,** f^ritt, gefd^ritten, to stride, step, stalk. [Derim- 
fives : unuberfd^reitbar, not capable of being over- 
stepped ; <B^tf^i, step ; Sottfd^ritt, m., progress.] 

f (^ r i e b, imp/, of fd^reiben ■*. 

f d^t if, \9t and M sing. imp/. ) 

fd^tieen, 1st and 3d pL imp/. |«/t^«««- 

©d^ritt,»* m. (-e« ; -e), see fd^reiten. 

@(^ub'(ab<,^/. (-; -n), drawer, [^d^vib,*^ m., push, from 
fc^teb, fdl^ob, gefd^cben, to shove, push; 8abe,/., the 
drawer, box.] 

fdl^itd^tern, a^/., timid, shy. 

@d^tt]^,«* TO. (-€«; -<), shoe, foot {measure). JDer @d^ul^ 
brucft, the shoe pinches. 

@ (^ tt^ f I i (f c t,»t TO. (-« ;-), cobbler. [JlidEf n, to patch, mend.] 

©dj^ttl^'ntad^er,"* to. (-«;-), shoemaker, 
[madden, to make.] 

©dl^ulb,^/., guilt, fault, debt; pi., bie @d^ulbcn, the debts. 
®(^ulb batan fein, to be the fault or cause of. 

fdi^ulbig, a4/., owing, indebted, guilty. 

(Sttoni fd^ulbig fein, to be owing something. 

©dl^ttl'bigfeit,^/. (-; -en), duty. 

@d^ulbner,B* to. (-« ;-), debtor. 

@(^ule,^/. (-; -n), school. 

©d^u'Iecin,'^/. (-; -nen), pupil {female, lady-pupil). 

® d^urgebraud^,»* to. (-e« ; -gebraudffe), custom of the school. 


fd^toimm' na^^ 2d pers. eing. imper, from na(]^7<^touiime«, 

aep,<t to swimm or go after, 
fd^ioimmen, fd^kiHimm, gef^koommtn, to swim, to float, 
©d^toim'men,"* n. (-«;-), art of swimming. 
<S4to>in'^e(,<^ m. (-^;-), giddiness, dizziness [from f^toin^ 

fd^koinben,** fd^loanb, gefd^tDimben, to vanish, disappear. 

bie Jtraft fd^toinbet i^v, her strength fails or leaves 
f(]^to)ingen,B* fci^tDang, gefd^^Dungett^ to swing, wave, flourish, 

^Hj^xx^xtxi'^ \iVix6!j, lit, to w7dz ihraugh; to pierce through 

toUk a shrieking or whirring noise. 
fd^kooH, im^. of ^(f^mllm, fd^tt)o((; gefd^tDolIen, to swell; to 

heave ; to expand ; No. 47, to become oppressed 

or heavy with, 
fd^toot^en,"^ fd^tDot, gefd^tt)oren, to swear; to take an oath, 
fc^tofil, adff.j sultry, close. 

(S^tonXf^m, (-ed ; @d^tt>uce), oath, vow [ses fd^kooren]. 
f d^ to u r, impf, of fd^iocren. 
fed^^, num^ adj,, six. 
f e d^ 6^m a I, adv. , six times. 
@edfel,»* m. (-«;-), shekel. 
@ecutt'^e,"«^/. (-; -n), second. 

®tt,^f (-; -n), sea, ocean ; @ee,»* '^ m. (-« ; -n), lake. 
@eele,w/. (-; -n), soul, 
©ee'mette,"^/, (-; -n), knot, ZtV. aea-mHe, 
©ee'protefl,"* w». (-ed; -e), ship's protest, 
fee'^todrtd Beflimmt, seaward bound, intending to sail, 
fegeln,^ to sail, set sail. [<Seget, n. sail.] 
fegnen,'^ to bless; originally, to make the sign of the cross, 

[Lat, signum crucis ; signare, to mark.] 
fel^en,** fa^, gefe^cn, to see; to look, perceive, behold. 

fe^e miii} an, Sd pers. sing, imper. ofan\ii)tn, sep. to 
look at one. 


fel^t, 2dper8, sing, imper. of^if^tn, 

fel^en'd (No. 108), M pers, pL pres. qf^tf)tn. 

tear |u fel^en, was to be seen. 

fel^nen,'^ to longfor; jid^ jut Sluice fcl^nen, to sigh or long 
for rest, repose. 

@el^n'fu(^t,"^ /• (-;), longing, yearning; ardent desire, 
[fel^nen and ®u(i^t. /., desire, passion, malady.] 

fel^r, ac^, and adv., very; much; very much, greatly [re- 
lated wUh Engl, sore, sorely, a sore, etc. ; ^' Most 
were sorely wounded." — Dryden\, 
er frif t fel^r gent, he likes to eat very much. 

^t[f2d pers, sing, imper. of^dn. 

feiben, adj.^ made of silk, silken. [@eibe,/., silk.] 

@ei^enfirttttH)f,«»*m. (-e«; -firunt^jfe), silk-stocking. 

®eien <Sie, imper, {the 3d person used instead of the 2d) of 
fein, to be. Imperative : ©ei (bu) I be ; @ei er, let 
him be ; feien toit, let us be ; feiet il^t, be ye ; feien 
fie, let them be. ©eien ®ie I be I is used in address- 
ing one or more persons. 

feitt, f».; feine, /. ; fein, n., pass, adj.f his, its {no case- 
ending in ike nom., masc, and neut., and ace. neat. ; 
in aU the other cases, the same case-endings as 

fein, tear, getoefen {auxiliary of tense), to be ; {verb neuter and 
inirans.) to be, exist. fMI fein, is to be. 

©elnen, bie, or bie (Seinigeti, pL, his own people, family, 
relations, etc. [ber, bie, bad @eine or ©elnige, ^e 
poss. pron, used with a substantive import.] 

feiner, m; feine,/.; feined or ^ tine, poss, pron,, his, its. 

feit^i^r^p. with dat.f since; ago. 

feit or feitbem, suhordinative conj., since the time that, 
since that time, day, etc. [Old Engl, sith, 
sithen, sithens, sithence, sithns, etc., 
since; used by Chaucer, Spencer, Shakespeare, 
Hooker, etc.] 

P 2 


©elte,"*^/. (-; -n), side; page {of a book). 

felb, ac^' i.)in conjunction wUh bet, bie, ba€, thus, berfelbe, bie$ 
felBe, baffelBe, the same, self-same ; gm.y beffelben, 
caae-ending en ihroughoyi. 
2.) as prefiXy in conjunction with nouns and adjecdves, 
thuSf ©elbfiBel^errfc^una,/., self-restraint; felBfb 
fu(^tig, adj,f selfish, egotistical, full of egotism, 
[felb, self. Bounded form in tg: felbig.] 

fetben, jur (No, 108, p. 115), contracted of gu (be)rfetten, 
dat. sing, f em, of biefclbe, gov^ by prep. ju. 

felBjl or fclBer, pron., self; id^ felBfi, I myself ; bu felBfl, 
thou thyself; er feCbjl, he himself; toir \tVb% we 
ourselves ; if)x felBft, you yourself; fie felbjl, they 
themselves. <Bit fclbft you yourself, you your- 
selves, the latter used in addressing one or more 
persons. [feCber is a comparative and felbfl an 
adverbial genitive {or superlative) of ftlh.] 

felbfl, adv., even (employed like aud^ and fogor, to point out 
and render emphatic the noun or pronoun which it 
either precedes, as is generally the case, or follows), 
fclbfl cr, even he; fetbfl il^r a3tubet, even your 

3)ie $ftange felbfl, even the plant, the very plant. 

©elbjl'bel^errfij^ung,"'^/. (-; -en), see felb. 

fe'Hg, ac^'., happy, blessed. [Ohg. 9^\g,from Goth, saljan, 
to be endowed with gifts, property, etc. ; and 
thence, happy, blessed. Thence probably also 
Engl, silly, Chauxser^s sely, selinesse.] 

felten, adj., rare, scarce; adv., rarely, seldom, unusual. 

fenbcn, fanbte, gcfanbt, to send, despatch. 

^cn'bung,^/. (-; -en), sending; consignment. 

^tpf)d)tn,^^ n., dbbrev. q/'Sofejjl^ind^en, dim. o/" Josephine. 

©er»iefte,^/. (-; -n), table-napkin. 

feften,''^ fc|te, gefe^t, to set, to put, to cause or make to sit 
\}oeak and causative form of fffen, to sit, to be 


seated], fe^ejl bu no<!^ ettt)a« i)\nin, from l^ingufe^cn, 
sq).j to add. jld^ ^t^m, to sit down, 
fe^t eud^ ttiebet; imper. of fid) nicberfe^en, to sit down. 

No modem language illustrates more A1II7 and more clearly 
the process of vord-formation and derivation than the German. 
Thus the verb 8etjs(0»), to set, appears in the following com- 
pounds and deriTatiyes : 

a5-, an-f auf-, aus-f be-, bei-, dutch-, «m-, ent-, er-, fort-, kfrab-f 
hin-f naeh; Uber-f urn-, ttii<«r-, ver-, vor^, wider-, zer-, cu-, Burilck- 
setzen. GeBetzt,€h*etstheit,Setz-toage,-1ca»teH. 

Ave-, Be-, Bei-, Fori-, Ueber-, Ver-, Wider-, Zer-, -setEung. 

^Qtz^T, Sehrift-aeizer, Fori-aetter, Ueber-setzer ; Seteer-lohn, 

Sets ling, Oeeetz, geeeMoa, geeettlich, Oesetzliehkeit. 

Oeset2-^«5«r, -g^mng, -wmmlung, Natwr-geaetz. 

JSnt-, er-, wider-B e t z lich. Er-, Uber-, ver-, cer-s etc bar. 

feufjen,""^ to sigh. 

@e uf jer,«* m, (-« ;-), sigh. 

fid^, reflective pronoun of the 3d person. 

Sing., himself, herself, itself; PL, themselves. 

reciprocally, one another ; each other, 
fid^er, adj., secure, safe, sure, certain. [Scotch sicker, 

Lett, securus.] 
@i(!^et]^eit,^/. (-; -en), security,^safety. 
^\d)t,f, seep. 146. 
fie {pers, pron, 3d pers. fern.). 

1.) Nom.f she; 2.) Acc.f. her. 

8.) Plur. Norn, they; 4.) Plur. Ace. them. 

Declined: Sing, jte, i^ret, ij^r, fie; Plur. fie, i^rcr, 
i^nen, f!e. 
<Sie, pers. pron. 3d pers. plur. {used in addressing either one 

or more persons in place of the 2d pers. bu or il;r), 

f i e B e n, indeclinable num^ adj. , seven. 
fieBenlJun'bert, indcl. num^ adj., seven hundred. 
fieBente, bet, bie, ba«, declinable numeral adj. {ordinal), the 

seventh; case-ending tn for all cases except those 

like, the nom. sing. 


fie'benb IJeifl, burning hot, boiling hot. [fteben,"* fott, 
gefotten, to seethe, sod, bring to the boiling 

@ieg,"* TO. (-rt ; -e), victory. 

fiel^e! fiel^' {2d pers, imper, of fel^en), used JrequetiUy as an 
tnterf.f behold ! look ! 

fie^ jl, 2d pers. sing, pres, f ^/M^«'"* (« 5 0- 

Conjugated: 3d^ fel^e, bu jlel^fl, cr ^tf){t)tr toix fe^n, 
il^r fe^et, fie fc^ett. 

Phr.j man fie^t'6 i^man, he looks as if, people can 
see at once that, etc. 

fiel^t fid) urn, from pd^ umfel^en, to look round. 
@i9tta%»* n., (-«; -e), signal. 
fil6ern, adj.f made of silver [ba4 @ilber; see bleietn]. 
fin^,Sdpers,pl pres. ^ fein. Conjugated: Sing, Sd) bin, 

btt bifl, et ifl, jte ifl, e« ifl ; Pi. »ir jtnb, il^r ffib, fie 

ftnb. In address, @te finb, you are. 
fin gen,"* fang, gefungen, to sing, einitngen, sep, (No. 33), to 

sing to sleep. 
@t<^,»t m. (-e^; -e), seat, chair, place; abode. 
fi)^en,"t faf, gefeffen, to sit, to be seated ; to remain; to fit, 

suit {of dress), 
fo, adv,^ so, thus ; fo . . . a(^, so or as ^ . .as. 

fobalb aid, as soon as. 

foU)ie, such as, in the same manner as. 
@ operated, or (Sofrated, the greatest of the ancient philos- 
ophers and moralists, a native of Athens. 
<So cr a^t if d^, adj.^ Socratic, pertaining to the principles 

taught by Socrates, 
fofotf, adv,, instantly, immediately, [fo and fort.] 
fogar', adv., even, actually, [fo and gar.] 
foglei<3{>^ adv., immediately, forthwith, [fo and glei(^.] 
@o]Jtt,»tw. (-e«; (Soi^n), son. Declined: Sing, ber ©ol^n, 

bed (So^ued, bem <Sc^ne, ben @o]^n ; PL bie ©cl^ne, ber 


^of^nt, ben Sol^nen, bte ©ol^nen. Most mascuUnea 
and neuters of one syllable foUow this declension. 
@61^nlein,«* m. (-« ;-), pet son, little BOn. [dim. of(Bof}n. 

See also J^orb^en.] 
fold^, adjectival pronoun, such. 

1.) Declined like biefer, thus, fot(^et, fold^ed, «^c. 
8.) Preceded by ciit anc? decUned like an adj. of 
mixed inflexiony thus, Masc. ein fct(^er, eined 
fol^en, einem fold^en, einen fold^en ; Fem. eine folc^e, 
ciner fol(!^en, ete. ; iVgw^. ein fold^e^, eined fold^en, 
einent folc^eni ein fotd^e^, such a one, of such 
kind, such like. 
8.) Followed by einer, eine, einetf, with a substantive 
import, and declined: Masc. fcld^' ciner, fold^ed 
einen (or fol(j^' eine^), foCci^' einem, fotd^' einen ; iTsm. 
fold^'eine, fold^et einen, eto. ; Neut. fold^' eined or ein^, 
.foI(|^ed^inen, foment einen, fold^' eind, such a one, 
such a man, woman, thing, fold^ed l^orenb (No. 
74), hearing this, 
©olbat,^ m. (-en; -en), soldier. 

follen, follte, gefotlt, auxiliary of mood, expressing duty 
or oblfgation. Engl, shall, am to, is to do, 
etc.; impf., should, ought, was to do, etc. 
Sometimes rendered by, is said or reported to 
be. Thus, ©ie foU fd^n fein. 
bu l^attefl bod ni6ft tf^nn foflen, you should not have 

done that, 
toie foUt ed mir .... how should or would I . . . . 
@om'mer,8* m. (-tf ;-), summer. 

fon'^etn, co-ordinative conj., but (iworc adversative than 
aber). /if (foes not invert the clause at the head of 
which a stands. 
©on'ne,'^/. (-; -n), sun. 

fon'^nengebrdunt, a^., sunburnt, Ut. browned, [brdunen, 
to make brown ; braun, brown.] 


Soii'nenf^etn,"*fii., sunshine; sunlight. 

©oii'ttenflTal^t,"*'^ m. (-^; -en), sunbeam; ray of the sun. 

@ott'ntag« fleib,«* n. {-te; -et), Sunday-clothes. 

fon^noerBrannt, adj.f sunburnt, [oerbrannt, pp., burnt; 
q/'»erSrennen, to bum.] 

fonfl, adv. J else, otherwise, in other respects. 

©orge,^ /. (-; -n), care; »of( ©orgen, careworn, full of 
anxieties. [Engl sorrow.] 

forgen,^ to care, take care, feel anxiety; to apprehend 
(No. 74). [Engl sorrow.] 

fo)9ieI aU m6^%lx6^, as much as possible. 

^pannin,^ to span, strain, bie IBud^fe fpannen, to cock or 
handle a gun, rifle, musket, etc. 
anftKinncn,"'^ to yoke to, put horses to a carriage. 

^pat^aftn (No. Ill, p. 119), a fictitious name which might 
be (xttributed to a person of saving habits. Literally 
translated: Spare-haven; Save-all. [fpareit, to 
spare, save ; $afen, m., haven, harbour.] 

@^)ag,»* m. (-« ; @J>dge), jest, joke, sport. 

f^jajen,"^ to joke, jest, sport. 

f)>at, adj., late; compar. fp&trr, later; afterwards. 

f^jajie'ren,"'^ to walk in a pompous, affeded, parading, 
shovdng-off manner. This infinitive is mostly used 
in the foUowing^ combinations: fpagieren ge^en, to 
go for a walk, take a walk ; fpa^ieren reiten, to go 
out for a ride, take a ride or horse-exercise; 
fpagieten fal^ren, to take a drive or airing (tha 
carriage, or to go for a sail or pleasure trip on 
the river; f^^agieten fu^ren or nel^men, to take out 
(a child or person) for a walk or airing, [fpagieren,^ 
Lai, spatiari, to take a walk.] 

©^jajier'gang,"* m. (-««; -gauge), walk. 

@^)a^enfutter,B* n., sparrow's food, rations. 

©pebitton^' gefd^fift,"* n. carrying trade, agency business. 

©pci'few/ (-;-n), food. 


jiptiftrti^ to dine, take food, eat. 

Fhr., Um tocl^e Ui^r {or 3eit) \pcx\m toir l^eute ju 
SKittag? What time do we dine to-day? 

3Bir loecben IJeutc ttor brei U^r nic^t fpeif^n, We 
are not going to dine to-day before three. 
^pt Vft ^ivxmt r,Bt n. (-g ;-), dining-room, 
fpeifl mit, Sdpers, sing, pres, ofmxt\pti\tn,'^ sep.^ to partake 

of dinner with one, etc. 
fpeit am, 3d pers. sing, pres. of ava^\pntn, sep., fpie avA, 

audgefpteen, to spit out, to emit, send forth. 
<S^)et'nng,8t m. (-ed; -e), sparrow. 
fj)errett,'w^ to bar, stop ; f!d^ fperren, to resist, struggle against. 
@))e'fen, /?Z., charges, expenses, costs. 
@^)iegel,»t m. (-d;-), looking-glass; mirror. 
@J)ie(,8* n. (-eg ; -e), game, play, 
f^ie'len,^ fpiette, gcfpicft, to play, trifle, sport, to play {muaic^ 

cards, etc.), Jt(at)ier ftjiclen, to play the pianoforte. 
^pxvL^nt,'^ f. (-; -n), spider. [ftjinnenB* (a; o), to spin.] 
<BpVx\ivii, m.y spirit, alcohol. 
®<>it^"'' f'i point, top, summit. [\Vii^, adj., pointed, 

f^ottenbertoei^^ adv^ expr. for fpottenber SBeife {dat), in a 

taunting manner or way. [fpotten,""^ to scoff, jeer.] 
fprad^/iTiig/". x^ fprad^, bu fprad^fi, er fprad^; toir ftjrad^en, x))x 

fprad^et, jie fpraci^en. See fprc(3^ 
f^)tang, »mp/. q/'f^>ringcn,8t see fpringt. 
fpred^en,*** fptad^, gefijrad^cn, to speak, converse; to talk. 

ftjred^cn mit einem [dat), to speak to a person. 

fprcd^cn uBcr ettoa^ (occ), to talk about something. 

fpreij^en »on einem (G?a<.), to talk of a person. 

einen {ace.) fpteci^en, to see a perspn. 

Pres, i^ fprcd^e, bu ftjrici^fl, er fpr i(^t; h)ir f^redjen, 
il^r fprcd^t, f!e fprcd^en. 

Observe that e-yerbs of strong conjugation change the root- 
Towel e (long) to ie, and € (short) to i, and that a-verbs change 
a to a, in the 2d and 8d pers. sing. pres. indicative. 


©preng'granatc,^ 7. (-; -n), explosive bomb-shell or 

grenade, [f^rengen, to caase to spring, to make 

explode, fly to pieces, etc., weak and cauaative 

/ormo/ fpringen.] 
©j)tid^ ! 2dper8. ning. imper, of fpreij^en. Iviper. Sing, ftjrici^ ! 

Plur. fpred^ctl Imper, of address, ^predjen @ie! 
@^)ri(l^'toort,8t «. (_fgj -njortct), proverb, saying, adage 

\heUer ©pruc^toort or (S^jrud^toort, t.e., tin 9Bort, a 

word or short sentence, which sets forth einen ^prud^, 

a saying or adage], 
fpri d^ to or tU(J^, adj., proverbial [see ©pridj^toort]. 
fpringt, or fjjringet, 'dd pers. sing.pres. of ft)ringen,«* fprang, 

Qcfprungen, to spring, jump, leap. 

( With fein and ^abeu /a^« fal^ren, trAic/i see.) 

fpringet QLVi^,from auffpringen, sep., to fly open. 

fpringt auf (No. 106), /rom auffpringen, «ep., to jump 
or start up. 
@prunQ,8* m. (-cd; (Sprunge), spring, leap, jump, bound. 

nttt toitbem <Sprunge (No. 108), with a wild rushing 
spring or leap, at full speed. 
@pur,'^ /. (-; -en), trace,' track, footstep, [fpuren,""' to 

trace, track.] 
flad^, impf. of flfd^en,^* jtad^, gcjiod^en, to sting, stab, pierce. 

[DerivaUves: ©tedder, Bcfled^Ud^; @tid^, jlid^eln; 

fiidfen, erflidfen; @ta(^et; ftedfen, ©efied, SScrjled; 

SaWod&er; @to(f , |io(f en ; (Stud, fliidfen ; getjlurfeln]. 
<Stabt,'^8*/. (-; @tabte), town; city [akin to Engl, stead, 

Germ. @tatt or <B[^iit,from fiel^en, to stand.] 
©tdbt'd^en,8t n. (-«;-), little town [dim. of<BtM\ 
©tabtfd^ule w/. (_; -n), burgh-school; grammar-schooL 
(Statist m'. (-ed; ©ta^^e), steel, 
i^al^n, Ohg. sti,n (No. 112), archaic and (now only) poetical 

form for ftefien [akin to Lot. stare. See @tunbe]. 

flel^en ta^en, to leave, let remain (standing as it 

were), to let alone, to let stand as it is. 


fk&fe, impf. subj, to indicative ^<d,from jlerfen,** (a*^ o). The 
weak form jleifte is now more in use^ and, according 
to Schleicher y better than fldfe; hut, unfortMnately, 
Schleicher omits to give any reason for it, 

ftatn^ateln,'*^ to stammer, to utter in a faltering voice [an 
iterative form of Goth, starams, Germ, flumm 
dumb. Compare also jiemwen, to Btera, stay]. 

®tanb,Bt m. (-e^; @tdnbe), stand, standing; position (tn 
life, etc,)y state, condition (of droumstances) [from 
the impf jlanb of jiel^en]. 

and) batnit !ant id^ gu (Stanbe (p. 101), lit, also with 
that I came to an end (or stand) ; even that I 
got finished. 

flanb, impf, id) flanb, bu jlanbefl^ et fiaxCo, ivirflanben, il^t fianbet, 
jte (ianben, impf. of jiel^en. 
ftanb auf, impf, of an\^tf)tn, sep., to get or stand up, 

flanb ba, impf, q/" baflcl^cn, »«p., to stand there, 
flanben vimi)tx,fi'om umf)tx^tf)m, sep,, to stand about, 

ftdnbeorfldnb', i(i^, impf subj, of^t^n* 

aid fidnb id), as if I stood, or was .... 

jiarb, impf, offttthn,^^ (a; o). 

fiatf, a«j;., strong; vigorous; co/wpar. jldrfet; IstsuperlUv, 
bie, bad fldrffle; 2c? superl. am jldrfejlen; superl. 
absolute auf'd jldrfjle. [Engl, stark. Ahin to 
fiatr,- stiff. Thence flarren, to stare; fiorri^, stub- 

©tdrfc,"^ /. (-;), strength, force, vigour [noun formed 
from jlarf, with modification of a], 

flarr, adj,, stiff, rigid, numb; motionless; fixed, staring 
(of sight, the eyes, etc.) [lit. unmovable, fixed, star- 
ing; of the same root as jlarf, which see]. 

fldtig or fldt (or jletig, jlet), steady ; fixed, stable, constant, 
uninterrupted [i.e., fefl fte^enb, Lat. stabilis (sta. 


root o/sto)j that which stands firmly; Gr. ^mv§t\ 

Ohg., stin, Nhg. flel^en, to stand], 
©tatiott^'^/ (-; -<n), sftition. 
ftatt, prep. wUh gen,, instead of, in the pUice of; French 

au lieu, [anfiatt, for an ber ^tatt, in the stead or 

place of; &att, /., from ^tf}tn, to stand. LaL 


hoi ©efd^aft %tf)t gut t)on (Statten, the business is 
progressing or getting on well, 
flatffinben,"* sep.j to take place, 
flattti'ten,^ to set {an^ example). 
©tauM* m. {-e«;), dust [^om jlieben, floB, gejloBen, to 

scatter like dust^ disperse], 
fiaunen,'^ to gaze or stare with astonishment, to be or feel 

astonished, to wonder [akin to Engl. stun]. 
ftt&ftn. See ^ac^. 
jle(fen,»* ilaf, gcftorf en, irUrane., to stick. Weakf tranai- 

twe, and causative form: fitdtn, ftecfte, geflecft, 

to make to stick, to place, fix, put into. 

liedten vaa unter (No. 40), impf of jtd^ fktdtn vmUx, 
to hide oneself in or under. 
^U^or @teig,«t m. (-rt ; -e), foot-bridge; stile [Jrom ftdgen]. 
flel^en,"* fianb, geflanben, to stand [originally ioith\tia; now 

generally with l^aben]. 

^el^en lafen, to leave alone (standing). 

)ur ^tiU flel^en, to side with one ; assist, help. 
jle^Un,"* ^a% Qtftof)Un, to steal. 
©teier'Unb or ©teiermar!, n., Styria, a province of 

fie if, a(^.f stiff, formal; awkward, 
fieigen,^^ flieg, gefliegen, to mount, rise, ascend ; to rise, go 

up {like the scales of a balance). 
fletgt, Sdpers. sing. pres. o/*fletgen. 

jieigt empor, Sdpers. sing. pres. of tmpov'finqtn,^ sep., 
to rise up, to ascend. 


. fleigt i)inah,Jrom l^inoBflergen, sep., to descend. 

^eigenbe Senteng (p. 159), upward tendency, a rise 
in price. 
fie it; adj.y steep, precipitous [an abbreviation of the old form 

^ti{Q^)i,from flcigen]. 
®tein,** m. (-c«; -e), stone. 

fleCncrn, adj., built of stone [see hUittvi]; fteinig, stony. 
^itVUf'^f (-; -n), place, site, spot ; station, office, employ- 
ment ; auf bet ^ttUt, on the spot. 
^tiUn,'^ flefUe, gefle((t, to place, put; to arrange, station. 

fld^ flef(ett an, to take a position up at, to go to ; to 
post or place oneself near. 

jtdji fauer fteHen (p. 127), to show oneself sour, dis- 
agreable, hostile, obnoxious. 
fteUt bar, Sdpera. sing.prea, oftat^ttitn, sep., to represent, 
lierben,** jIarB, gefiorben, to die. [Engl, starve.] 

Pres. 3(i^ jlerbe, bu fiirbjl, er jlirbt; tt)ir jlcrBen, i^r 

fierbt, fie flerben. 
<Stern,** m. {-a ; -e), star, 
fier'^nenvoll, a<^'., covered with stars. [ooU, full; tjon 

©temen, cfo^. ^/., of stars.] 
fietd, adv. J steadily, continually, always, ever. 
@tid^,«t m. (-c« ; -e), sting, stab ; im @tid^e lafen, to leave in 

the lurch, to forsake, abandon [fi'om ^td}tn, see fia(j^]. 
©tiefmutter w Bt y. (.j -mutter), stepmother, ffiief, from 

Ohg. stiufan, to deprive of parental love, or of 

fit eg, impf. o/fleigen®* (ie; ie). 

^ieg ane, impf of au^fJeigen, «ep., to get out, alight 
(from a carriage f etc.). 

^ieg ah, impf o/'abfietgen, sep., to dismount, get off, 
down from (a horsCj the box of a cab, etc.), 
^illf adj. J still, silent, quiet. 

^ifte ©ebanfen, secret thoughts. 

fiifrfd^ttjetgen,st sep., to be silent. 


@ttm'me,^/. (-; -n), voice; sound. 

^tim^munq,^ /., state, condition, tenor (of the market, etc,). 

flir bt, Sdpers, sing.prea. offttxUn, 

©tirn,''^/. (-; -en), front; brow; forehead. 

© 1 (!,8* m. (-e« : @t6cf e) , s t i c k. [Engl stock, from flerf en, 

tohich see,] 
ftod^un^ltl, or ficcfftnfler, o^'., lit. etich-dark; pitch-dark. 
@to(!'tt)etf,B* ,1. (»e« J «e), story, floor, 
©toff,*"**?!. (-c«; -e), stuff; material; subject. 
@tor|)rian,s* w. (-^; -e), stumbler; an awkward clownish 

fellow, [jlolpern,"'^ to stumble, tumble.] 
flol), a^'., proud, haughty, stuck-up; splendid. [Scotch 

s t u 1 1, adj., haughty. Akin to Engl, stout, ami to 

stilt, ©tetge, from jienen. Compare Latin s t o 1 i- 

dus and stultus, dull, foolish,/rom sto, stare, 

to stand.] 
flop fen,"*^ to stuff, fill; to stop up; to dam (stockings), 

[Akin to Lot. stuppa ; Ghr. ^ri^n, coarse flax, hemp, 

tow, which is used for plugging. Thence also Engl. 

stopple. Germ, ®tcp[(\, that which stops or closes 

the mouth of a vessel] 
©top>eI,^/. (-; -«), stubble. 
®toxd),^^m. (-e0; ©tord^e), stork. [Gr. ^rt^yn, natural 

affection, love,^om the noted affection of this bird 

towards its parents and offspring.] 
®tof,*»t m, (.-e«; @tofc), thrust; stab; piercing blow. 

[ftof en, flteg, geflcfen, to push, thrust, hit.] 
fir a f en,""^ to punish ; to rebuke [of unknown origin ; it occurs 

frst in Mhg, unth the meaning, to scold. Compare 

Scotch " to say straa to one," i.e., to lay anything 

to one's charge]. 
<Btxaf)l,^^'^m, (-^; -en), ray, beam ofligJU, 
flva^rte entgegen (p. 102, No. 99), from entgegenflraWen.^ 

s^., to shine upon, throw its radiant beams, to 

stream upon, [fltal^len,^ to beam, radiate.] 


@ttanb,"*m. (-f«; -e), strand, seaHhore, bank {of the sea 
or of a river). Thence the name of the weU-hnoum 
London street " the Strand," i.e., the hank-side of 
the river Thames [possibiy connected with the Sla- 
vonian 8 1 ran a, side]. 

^traj^urg. n., the capital of @(faf, a strong fortress, re- 
conquered hy Grermany in 1870. The seat of a 
Protestant university. Famous for its minster, 440 
feet high. Inhab» 82,000. 

©ttafe,"^/. (-; -n), street; road, highway; straits [gen- 
erally connected with Lat, stratum, via strata, pave- 
ment, ^rom stemo, to smooth, level, etc. Compare 
Engl. strait,yrom Lat, strictus, stringo]. 

^trauf i)^trau{i,B^ m. (-ed; ®trauf e, sometimes (Str&ufet), 
banch; nosegay, bouquet. ^inmtti^au^, 
bunches of flowers (p. 76). 
2) ©trauf ,«* o»"w m. (-e«, -tn',pL -e, -en), ostrich. 
8) @trauf r"^ m. (-^e ; @trauf e), a fierce combat or 

struggle, carried on with ^lan (p. 135). 
Sffiinbjhaufi, a sudden gnat of wind. 

flreBen,^ to strive, struggle. 

©trede,"^/. (-; -n), stretch; distance, tract. 

^reifen,'^ to stretch; extend. 

firede ava, 1«^ pers. sing, pres, of ava^xtdmi^ sep., 
to stretch out, reft, to have a good stretch, 
[llracfd, straight, immediate.] 

©ttei(^,»*m. {-a; -e), stroke; trick, joke, prank [frcfm 
ftrei^en."* ftrid^, Qeiirici^en, strike, touch, stroke]. 

fl r e ^(^ e I n,^ to 8 1 r k e, caress [from ftreid^en. See (Streid^]. 

@treit,B^ m, (-ed; -e), strife, dispute, quarrel ; fight, com- 
bat [a Scandinavian word, originally signifying 
<* War "]. 

jlreiten,"* ftritt, gejlritten, to contend, strive. 

' fid^ fireiten, to have a quarrel or dispute among 
each other (with preps, iibit, loegen, um, about). 


^rcngorflrettge, adj.^ strict, harsh ; severe (of winter, etc.). 
[Engl, strong.] 

ftteuen,''' to strew; scatter. 

©treu'fftnbr"* w., lit. Btrewing-sand; a fine sand, for- 
merly scattered over writing^ in place of blotting- 

^txidf,^ m, (-c«; -e), streak; stroke, line. 

in einem ©trid^ (No. 60), in one tract, over the 
whole tract of land [from the impf of ^mdftn. 
See <Streid^]. 

@ttol^,"* n. (-e« ;), straw. 

^ttoffia^tx,^ «., litter of straw ; straw-bed. [Eager 
n., layer, lair, bed, coach.] 

©trow,"*!!*. (-««; ©trome), stream ; current. 

@ttcm'ti)drme,w^., temperature of the water or river. 

^txnmpf,^ m. (-<«; ^ttumpft), stocking. 

ein $aat ©trum^jfe, a pair of stockings. 

^inhti^ f (-; -n), parlour, sitting-room. [Low LaL 
stu£^ stuba ; Fr. ^tuve, originally a small room 
with a Jieating-apparatuSf used as a bath-room; 
thence the term became applied to the heating appa- 
ratus itself thus Engl, stove.] 

@tucf,"* n. (-e« ; -e), piece, part ; piece, play [connected with 
ftedfen and fied^en, see fla(^]. 

©tttbent','^ m. (-en; -en), student. 

©tubentenlieb]** n. (-e« ; -er), students* song. 

ftttbieren,''^ to study; to frequent a college or university. 

®tul^l,«* m. (-e« ; @tfiWe), chair, seat. 

[Bktgl. «tool, related with fieKen.] 

liumm, adj.y dumb, silent. 

®tunH)f,Bt m. (-e«; -e), stump [thence flum^f, blunt]. 

®tunbe,w /. (-; -n), hour; a point of time [from stfin, 
stund, gestunden, old form of jlel^en, flanb, ges 
flanben, to stand]. 

®tflnbdjen,»tn. (-«;-), Uttle hour [dim. o/(Stunbe]. 


<Stttiiben!utfu0, m. (-; pL -futfe), course of lessons, of 
instruction, curriculum. 

@tur«,**w, (-rt; @turme), storm; tempest. [Akin to 
stir, to move, rouse. Of tfie same root care {toren, 
to disturb; flitrgen, to move precipitately; btr 
^imi, the sudden fall.] 
<Sturmti)inb, m., tempestuous wind. 
Stnbfiurm, m,, gust of wind. 

flfitgen,"^ Wtjte, gcflurgt, to move, fall, jump, rush precipi- 

IlitY^en auf {ace,), to jump on, fall upon, fly upon, 
flurgte ii\xiCiva,from l^inau^iiurjen, to hurry or rush 
out of {(he house, room, etc.), 

©ttttfgartern (No. ^), dot, pL of ber (Stuttgattcr,** m. 
(-« ;-), a native or man from @tuttgart, the capital 
of the kingdom of SDiittemberg, the former 

liujjen,^ fl«t*e, Qeflutt, to support, prop up; fid^ fJfl^enauf, 
to lean upon, rest on, rely upon. \A,S, studu, 
Nhg, ©tfijje, pillar, post, support.] 
f u atftVL;^ fud^te, gefud^t, to s e ek ; search ; to look for or after. 
[Compare beseech, to ask or seek from.] 
[fud^en 18 derived from Ohg. sahhan, to prosecute, 
accuse, interrogate ; ask for. Thence also @ad^e 
thing, sake, affair, which has preserved its ori- 
ginal meaning in ^ac^toaUer, legal adviser, attor- 
ney ; SEBiberfad^er, adversary.] 
@fib, or @ubett,8* m. (-«;-), south. 

©ubfeite,/., southern side or coast. 
Cardinal points of the horizon: Slotbeti, @uben, 
Dflcn, SBBefien; adj^: norbU^, fubUd^, oflUc^, 
»efl(id^; adif: tiorbtofirtd, fubtt)drt«, ofh»arb«, 
toefltt)art«; Compounds: SHorbttJeil, @fibh)efl, etc. 
fun 9 en, archaic form for fangen,i>^. impf </ jingm. 
^Vi^^tf'^f, (-; -n), soup. 

8 - T VOCABULARY. 360 

PAj\, SBunfd^en @ie tin toenig @u^j)e? Will you 
take a little soup ? 
fu^r adj., sweet; delightful, 
©ijfomo're,'^/. (-; -n), sycamore, a genus of fig-tree. 

2:aBcne w/ (-; -n), table. 

ta'b etn,^ to blame, find fault. 

Xa'fet,'^/. (-; -n), long table; dining- table ; dinner. 

Xag,B* m. (-e5 ; -e), day. - 

Xa^tn,^^ n., verbal noun, daybreak, dawn; «yn. vnth Xa^tif 

anbrucj^, w». [tagen,"^ to grow light, to dawn.] 
3^a''ge«leijiung,'^ /., amotmt of work turned out in a day. 

[teijlen,^ to turn out, produce.] 
Xa'ge^toSrme,"'^/., temperature during the day. 
tagli(i^, adj,, daily. 
Xanb,8*ffJ, (-e^;-), idle talk, nonsense (of speech); trifles, 

worthless trash ((>f things), [Thence tdnbeltt, to 

trifle; j^dnbelei,/., trifling.] 
XanU,'^/., -; -n), aunt. [Fr, la tante.] 
Xan j,^* OT. (-eg ; XdnjO> dance, tan^'gen,^ to dance. 

J£diijer,B* m., gentleman-partner; JCdnjerin,''' /., 
lady-partner {in a dance), 

i£anjfaa(,B* m., ball-room, 
ta^egir^ten aud, «ee audta^egiren, p. 183. 
tx^fer, adj., valiant, brave, gallant. [Engl: dapper.] 
Xa^xa,/., tare; the weight of the material, case, vessel, etc., 

used for packing goods. 
Xaf]^t,^f, (-; -n), pocket. 

Xaf(^entud^,»* », (-e« ; -tud^er), pocket-handkerchief, 
^^a^c,^/. (-; -n), paw, claw. 
Xau,^^ n. (-e«; -e), tow; cable. 
tanh, adj., deaf. 


%9ivfht,^f, (-J -n), dove; pigeon. 

t a um e I n,v to reel, stagger. \%9imxii%^ m., giddiness.] 

taufenb, adj., thousand. 

^ufenbe^ pL^ used substafiHvelj^y tUoasands. 
JCelegramm,"* n. (-cd; -e), telegram, 
telegra^^l^ifdl, adj., telegraphic. 
XtiUx,^ m. (-0 ;- ), plate. 
iCerrfne,"^/. (-; -n), terrinfe, tureen; bowl. 
Xctt'fel,** m. (-0;-), devil; the evil one. 
2:i^at,«t w. (-e« ; Xl^dler), valley, vale. [^w^/. dale.] 
Xl^aler,** to, (-rt;-), dollar. See Money Table, p. 164. 
Xf^atf'^f, (-; -m), deed, action; fkct; exploit \Jrom i^m, 

t^t, Qitf)an, to do], 
tl^at, imp/, incL o/ti^VLn, Imp/, i^ if^ai, bu ii^tt% tx ti)at ; toit 

tf^atm, ii)x tl^atet, fie tl^aten. AddresSj ®ie tl^aten. 
tl^dt', »72jp/. 92i&/. to ^ a&ot»; 3d^ il^Ate, bu ll^&tefl, er ^t, 
xoxt i^i^\l, \\t i^Ui, fit ti^&ten. 4^^m, (Sie t^&ten. 
In lively poetical langtiage the verb tt^un occurs 
sometimea as an emphatic aiuciliaryi like the EngL 
do. Thus in No. 29, „bie tf)&t Qefaden/' she did 
please. „C^iti fetter ^afeti^ul^n,— ^arnad^ bte f&iixs 
ger fonjl, bic gin^ lecfm t^uji."--Oiwte. Fat 
grouse which the citizens otherwise do covet 
and smack their lipi}, Ut. a fat hazel-hen, after 
which the citizens othenoise their fingers do lick, 
S^l^&tigf eit,^/., activity, [tl^atig, adj., active.] 
X ^ a u,"t f». (-rd ;-) , d e w. 

it]^ee,»*m. (-i;pl. %f}u\oxttn), tea; i?i kinds of tea. 
X^«efanne,^/. (-; -n), tea-pot. 
3^^ee5@erttice,Bt »., tea-aervice. 
i£](feetif^,8t m. (-e5 ; -e), tea-table. 
Phr., Xxintm @ie Jll^ee ober Sta^u ? Do you drink 

{or take) tea or coffee ? 
SButben @ie Sl^ocotate »or§i?]^ett? Would you pre- 
fer chocolate ? 3(3^ jiel^e it^ee »or, I prefer tea. 



SQBie fd^medft Sl^ncn bcr X^ee? How do you like the 
tea. @r ift audgegeid^net, It is excellent. 

%f)txl,^ m. (-cd; -e), share, part, portion. 

Xf)txl nel^men^* an, to participate in. 

Xf)tiVna^mt,^f. (-; -n), participation, sympathy, condo- 
lence [Jrom imp/. tf}tilaaf}m of if)nlmf^mtxi\. 

X^tilntf}mtn\>t, pi. of dn X^eitnel^menbet, a person con- 
doling, sympathizing, with another, participating 
in, etc. 

t^ elite ein, impf o/" eint^eilen, «ep., see eintl^eifte. 

Xl^eilung,"^/ (-; -n), division, [tl^etten,"^ to divide, deal.] 

Xi)txm. (p. 161), for 3!]^ermome'ter,B* m, (-«;-), thermo- 

1 1^ e u e r, adj. , d e a r, costly { beloved. 

Xf)Xix,^n. (-e^; -e), animal, beast, brute. [Engl, deer.] 

Zi)itx^ditu,^ n. {-€ ;-), any little animal [dim. q^Xl^ier]. 

Xifex,^ m. (-en; -en), fool; simpleton. 

bo^ i£^or,»* n. (-e« ; -e), gate, door. 

%^ot^nt,'^ f. (-; -en), folly, foolishness, any foolish act. 
[Xf)ox, m., and l^eit.] 

Xl^or'toeg,Bt wi. (-e^; -e), gateway; doorway, [hca %f)cx, 
door, gate; Sffieg, m., way.] 

%f)xynt,^f (-; -n), tear [related tcith^xan,m., train-oil (q/* 
the same root as Gr. i^nvou a wailing) ; the Engl. 
tear M ^ Germ. 3a^re,/. Bolh X^rdne and Siftre 
signify originally any moisture dropping or falling 
from a tree, etc. Hence Xijtvc, m., tar, is possibly 
connected with Engl, tear.] 

3^]^ron,8t m. {-t&\ -e), throne. 

tl^un,^* tl^at, getl^an, to do, accomplish, bring about, per- 
form, act. 

tl^ut, Sdpers. sing.pres. of tf)m\. 

Xf)iiXf'^f. (-; -en), door [from Xf)ox, w., gate, door]. 

XI;urflugeI,Bt n. (-« ;-), one part or wing {^luQtX, m.) 
of a folding-door. 


Xf)uxm,^^ m. (-e«; 3^unne), tower, steeple, 
tief, adj., deep, low, high. 

compar. tiefet [akin to titf, are taud^en,"^ to dip, 

dive ; taufeti w to dip, baptize]. 
Xitft,^/, (^; -n), depth. 
3^iger,»* m. (-«;-), tiger. 

3^i'gertl^ter,B* w. (-e^ ; -e), tiger-beast, tiger. 
Xintt or JDinte,'^ / (-; -n), ink; tint. [Lat. tinctus, 

coloured, from tingo, to tinge, dye, thence also 

tun ^ en, to whitewash, limewash, etc.] 

3:intenf af ,8* n. (-c« ; -fdffetr), ink-pot. [See fajfen.] 

ICintcngejld^t^Bt «. (-edj -er), face covered toith 

Xintengefd^ici^te,"^/. (-;-n), aflGairwith the ink; 
all about the ink. 

3^intenjIe(f,Bt m., ink-spot; blot of ink. 
Xifd^,8t m. (-ed; -e), table; board; dinner. [Engl, dish, 

the same as disc, a round platCy disk, from Lai. 

discus. T^€nc6 a2so desk.] 

Phr., SQ3ann effcn f[e gu 3^ifd^e? {vulg.) When do you 
dine ? ©ci Xifd^e, At table. 

SXktben totr l^eute Jenianb gu Xifd^e l^aBen? Shall have 
anybody to dinner to-day? 
%\\^^Ux,^ m. (-0 ;-), joiner. Declined: Sing, bet Xifd^tetr 

be« Xifd^ter^, bent Xifd^lcr, ben 3:ifd^tet ; P/. bie JCifd^ter, 

ber %\\6)\tx, ben S^ifd^tem, bie %x\^\tt {strong decl. 

contracted form) . 
%\\^'iu(ij,^ n., table-cloth. 
toBen,'"'' to rage, to be furious with anger [related mth tauB, 

deaf, and daff, daft, and to doff]. 
Xo^'ttx,'^ B*/. (-; Xod^tet), daughter. 
Xob,»* m. (-e^ ;-), death ; decease, 
t ob t, adj., dead; lifeless, ntaufetobt, lit., dead as a m o u s e 

tobten,^ tobtete, getotet, to put to death, kill [from tobt, dead]. 


Xo^ttn^ti^tx, pL ©/"Xobtcngeift,"* to. (-etf ; -et), spirit of the 

dead [ffen. pi bet Xotttn, of the dead ; tie ®eifle¥, 

the ghosts, spirits]. 
toll, adj.y mad; frantic, crazy; infuriated. 

j[e toKer {e Beffer, the wilder and madder it was {or 
went 08) y so much the better. [Engh dull.] 
iontxCt, prea. part, ofiontn,'^ to sound. 
%oXi'i\%, n.j name of a small town. 
tr&9, or trage, ctdj., inactive, lazy, idle, indolent. 
traQen,Bt tntg, getradett, to carry, bear, wear; to endure; to 

produce, yield. @crge tragen, to have a care, to 

apprehend. [Of the aame root are EngL drag, 

draw, dray.] 
tx&^tfBdper8,8ing,pre8.oftta^tn. Conjugated: 3(!^ troge, 

bu trSgft, er tragt; toir tragen, il^t tragt, fie tragen. 

AddresSf @ie tragen, you bear, carry, wear, 
trauern,'^ to mourn, to be in mourning; to grieve, lament. 

[Xxamx,/.f sorrow, mourning.] 
Xraufe,^/ (-; -n), caves, [traufen, trfiufen, to drop, drip, 

fall in drops.] 
Xxanm,^^ w. (-e^; 3!t&flme), dream, 
trittwen,"^ to dream, fancy. 

traumenb, pres, p., lost in thoughts or dreams, 
traurig, adj.j sorrowful, sad, melancholy [Jrom Zxavin,f.f 

sorrow, etc.]. 
i£ r a u't i g ! c i t,'^ /. (-; -en) , sadness, melancholy, grief. 

[traurig and feit. See bunfef). 
treffen,** traf, getrojfen, to hit, strike; to fall upon, meet 

with, hit upon, etc. 
3!reffen;"* n. (-«;-), encounter, engagement, battle [v«r5aZ 

noun of trejfen]. 
txcffiidf, adj.y excellent, admirable, capital [from treffen,"* 

to hit the point, to be successful]. 
trei'Ben,"* trieb, getrieben, to drive, move, push on, urge, 

drive along ; No. 37, to carry on ; No. 121, to set 


in motion. [Derivatives: Xxnhtt, 3eih)ettreiB, Xxtih 

f^ava, Xxith, ©etrteB ; Jlrift, trifHg ; burd^trieben.] 

Exercise : Form compounds of ixnUn by means of 
the prefixes, Oc.y given under fe^en. 
Zttppt,'^/, (-; -n), flight of steps, staircase, 
tret en,"* trat, getreten, to tread, step; to go. 

n&l^er treten, to approach, to come in, to enter, etc. 

auf treten,"* sep.y to come forward, to appear, make 
one's appearance, 
treu, adj,f true, faithful. 
Xreue,^/., fidelity, faithfulness, 
trieb, impf. oftxtiitn, 

t r i n f e n,Bt traitf , getrunfett, to d r i n k ; imbibe. 
Xti tt,"* TO. (-e6;-e), step; pace [from the 3d pers. sing, 

pres. oftxHen], 
triunHJl^i'ren,'^ to triumph. [beriJrinttt^^,^., the triumph.] 
trocf en, adj., dry. 
trocfnen,^ to dry; to dry np. 
Xxom^mtl,'^/. (-; -n), drum. 
XrottH>e'te,^/. (-; -n), trumpet. 
Xtopftn,^^m, (-«;-), drop, 
Xxo%^m, (-e^;), consolation, comfort [rekUed toith txamn, 

to trust], 
trdften,^ ttoflete, getroftet, to console, to comfort, to cheer 

up. [See Jltoji]. 
ttitb or tcube, adj., troubled, turbid, thick; gloomy, dark. 

truben, acj;. (No. 31), ace. sing, masc, oftxnbt, 
truben,"^ ft(^, to become muddy or thick. [See txnht], 
%nd^,^ n, (-c«; Xucj^er), cloth. [Engl, duck, a kind of 

coarse cloth for sacking , for saUs, etc,] 
Xu'genb,^/. (-; -en), virtue [from taiigen,^ to be good, fit 

t tt'9 e n b 1^ a f t, adj,, virtuous. [2^ugenb and l^aft.] 
tux'Uadf, adj., Turkish. [%\xxU, m., Turk; 3:urfei, /., 



U. (p. 161), 10 U. a., /or gel^n U^r ^btnU, ten o'clock in the 
evening; 6 U.3K.,/or 6 U^t SKctgen^; 2 U.91., for 
2 Ul^r ^ad^mittCL^. 
u. f. tov/w" Utti> fr toeitcr, and so forth. 
uhtl, adj. and adv. f evil; ill, bad; badly. 

Phr.j ed gel^t mit uBel, I am badly off, fare badly. 
„\><a to&vt mix vM gefagt/' p. 79, that would never 
do, that would be a bad thing for me. 
fiber, 1.) prep, with dot. {of rest or motion in a place), over, 
above, about, during, beyond. 
prep, with ace. (of motion or transfer to a place, of 
time, and other relations), over, across, above, 
on, at, during. vlUx'6 Sal^r, next year, 
^eute fiber ad^t 3^agc, this day week, se'nnight. 
SKorgen fiber ttierjel^n Xage, to-morrow fortnight. 
2.) adv., over, all over ; during. 

bie gauge silad^t fiber, during the whole night, the 
whole night long. 
8.) as prefix of verbs it is both separable and in- 
separable (like burd^, unter, urn). Thus: 
fi'berfel^en, sep., fa^ fiber, fibergefel^en, to look over; 

Pres. i(^ fel^e fiber, I look over, 
fiberfel^en, insep., fiberfa'ft. fiberfe'^en, to overlook, 
to disregard, etc.; Pres. id) fiberfe'^e, I over- 
look, fibetfle'ben, insep., to outlive. 
4.) in composition vnih nouns it signifies upper, 
super, over. Thus: Ueberrorf, m., over-coat, 
upper-coat, surtout; Ueberma(!^t,/., superiority 
(of poicer) ; Uebergug, m., counterpane, bed- 
cover, tick, bed-linen. 
In composition with adjectives: over, too, super. 
Urns, fiberflfijfig, superfluous ; fiberreif, over-ripe, 
too ripe. 


iiBerair, adv.^ everywhere, all over. 

iiUxJ>xin^%tn, insep.y ixUxlxaiSi'it, fibctBrad^f, to deliver, to 

make over, present, id^ uberbrin''0e, I deliver. 

Bcingen iiBer, to carry across, over. 
fiBerbtuffig, adj.^ yi^sxj^ tired of; disgusted with. [Ueber? 

bruf, m., disgust.] 
uBetein, adv,^ in accordance, of one accord ; uBeretn^'fcmmen, 

sep.f to come to an agreement, to agree. 
uBereinanbet, ctdv., one upon another. 
uBerga% impf, o/" uBerge'ben. 

iiberge'^en, fid^, imep,, uberga^ f!d^, ftd^ itbergeben, to sur- 
render, to make over ; to vomit. 
U eb c r ma d^ t;''^ ^f. See ixltt 4. 
ii^ermotgen, adv.^ the day after to-morrow, 
ttberra'fd^en,"^ inaep,, iibcrrafd^te, uberrafd^t, to surprise, take 

by surprise, unawares, [rafd^, quick, rashly.] 
uberfd^at'te'n, imq^.y uberfd^attete, iiberfd^attet, to overshadow, 

to cast shade over, [^d^atten, m., shade, shadow ; 

fd^attig, adj., shady.] 
Uebetfd^toew'mung,^/. (-; -en), inundation, flooding. 
fibetfe'T^en,"* uberfa]^' fiberfe'^en, imep. See ubct 3. 
wbettoin''tern,"w^ tnaep., ubertointerte iibertointcrt, to winter, 

pass the winter, to keep, abide till winter is 

over; hibernate. 
Ue'bergug,*** m, (-e3 ; -guge). See uber 4. [3ug, m., train ; 

uberjie'^en, to cover, put a cover on.] 
ub'lid^, adj.j usual, customary. [uben,''^to practise.] 
it b r i g, adj., remaining, resting ; bie ubrigen, the rest, the others, 
ubrigen^r adv,, for the rest, moreover, besides. \adf^ gen. 

q^ubrig. Compare im ubrigcn, as for the rest, and 

erubrigen,"^ to save, lay by.] 
Uebung«mitte(,«* n. (-«;-), a means of exercise, [uben,^ 

to exercise, practise.] 
Vil^Xt^ f. (-; -en), clock, watch, time{)iece. [Engl, hour, 

LaU hora.] Xaf^enul^r,/., watch ; SBanbul^r,/. , clock. 

n . VOCABULAKT. 368 

Phr.y 2Bte»iel Ul^r ifl tf ? What o'dock ie it ? 

The guarten are eoopressed, looking forward to the 
next hour. Thus : 

tin f&itttd auf fieBeit^ a quarter past six, 

l^oDb fieBen, half-pa6t six. 

brebiertel fieBen, a quarter to seven. 

(S$ i^ fteBen (or f{<Ben U^t), It is seyen oVlock. 

mtoUl i^tenad) Si^ret Ul^tf What is it by your 

. watch? 

(Si ifl ndf)t an ad^t U^t, It is nearly (or close upon) 

um neun Ul^r, at nine o^clock; $imft jel^n U^r, 
punctually at ten, exactly ten. 

bie Ul^t gel^t 190C, the watch gains; bie X^x q^ na^, 
the watch loses. 

IDte Uf)x BleiBt flel^en, the watch stops; bie U^r ifl 
nid^taufgejogen, the watch is not wound up. 
um, 1.) prep, with ctcc., round, around, about. 

um bod ^ava (No. 48), round the house ; nm gel^n 
Salfere (No. 87), by ten years ; utti fo t)iel, by so 
much ; um 6| \Xi)x (p. 160), at a quarter to seven ; 
um Sftittetnad^t, at midnight ; nm ein %unfid, by 
a fifth part. 

Many verba are followed by this prep. Thus: 
frdgen, or Bitten um (Nos. 21, 45), to ask (about) 
for, to beg; tnfett um, to shout for; f))ielen um, 
to play for ; n)einen nm, to cry for ; fommen um, 
to lose ; Bringen um, to be the cause of loss, to 
rob of; um a((e feine 3eit Bringen, to do one 
out of all one^s time, to lose all one^s time, 
2.) adv.f about, over, round, etc. iixde nm ! Left 

about face I Um bomit I down with it I di ift um ! 

The round or turn is up, etc. bev Stopf ging mit 

nm, my head swjun round, I felt giddy, dizzy. 


&) as prefix of verba it is {like bur$, uBer, unter) hoih 

sepcaraUe and inseparable. Thus: 

um^'gel^en, sep., ging mxff, um^gtgangen, to go a 

round-about way; to haunt (uml^erge^en, No. 

37). Pres. id^ gcl^e urn'. 

umge^^en, tnMp., umging^ umgon^gen, to go about; 

to aToid, evade, elude. Pres, id^ umge^^e. 
um^'gel^en mi {dat.\ No. 62, to have intercourse 

with (a person, dai.). 
um^t^Un (No. 38), to surround. 
4.) connective of the adverbial sentence, expressing 
purpose, end, final cause ; followed by ju and the 
infinitive of the verb, which is placed last. Sub- 
ordinate order. Thus: um . . . gumuficm (No. 41), 
in order to look at ... ; uvx $(a( )u madden (No. 
44), in order to make room for ; um grower ^u ttt 
fc^einen (No. 61), in order to look taller ; utn . . . 
l^crab gu fommen (No. 66), in order to get down. 
Um may also be omitted: thus, in No, 47, (um) 
mtd^ audtoeinen ju fcntten, (in order) to have a 
good cry. 
5.) um in composition with \)tt (»ee j?. 280), lucrum', 
round, and uml^et^, about, sep, particles and ad- 

a.) ^erum^ defines the running, turning, or going 
round a fixed spot (in a circle as it were), and 
may be accompanied by another wax {prep,). 
Thus : um ba« ^au« l^erum'laufen (No. 48), to run 
or get round the house; §crum im itrcid (No. 108, 
p, 114), round in a c^le, 
h.) umf^et^ expresses the undefined standing, running, 
turning, travelling, or wandering about in a 
locality without regard to a fixed spot. Thus : auf 
ber S)iete liefm itinbet unb Junge STOdbd^cn nmijtt' 
(No. 41), children and young girls were running 



about in the hall ; bu gel^fl timl^er' (No. 109, p. 
116), you go about; flanben uml^cr (No. 51), were 
standing about, 
c.) l^erum'' and utnl^er'', on account of their similarity, 
are not unfrequently misapplied; thus, in No. 74, 
p. 79, l^etum'gefa^ren should he umj^er^gefal^reii. 
Distinguish l^etutti'laufcn, to run round, from 
um^cr'taufen, to run about, €/c. 

um'Bringcn, sep., Brad^te um, umgebrad^t, to kill, murder. 
See urn 3. 

umfdngt', 3c? pers, sing.pres. of utnfatt'gen,^* insep., uinfing, 
umfangett; to gird round, engird; to embrace, 
comprehend, [um and fangcn.] 

umga'Bett, Sdpers.pL imp/, o/'umgeben. 

ttttiQe'ben,^* insep., utngab, umgeben, to surround, enclose. 
See um 3. 

uin'gebrac^t,i?p. o/ umbringcn. 

um'gel^ctt, «ep., ging um, umgegangen, to go about, round ; 
to haunt. See um 3. 

um'gejogen, pp. of um'jiel^ctt,^* sep., jog um, umgcjogen, to 
change one^s (residencey clothes, dress, etc.), to 
remove, umjie'^cn, insep., to draw round, sur- 
round, encircle. 

uml^et'gel^cn, sep., ging um^tt, uml^crgcgangcn, to walk, go, 
ramble, rove about. See um 5. 

umi)tx'^itf)tn,^^ sep., gcg uml^er, uml^etgejogen, to drag about, 
along (making journeys from place to place)^ to be 

umringt, pp. of umringen,^ insep., umringte, umringt, to 
surround, encircle [lit. to form a ring about, to 
enclose in a ring ; from (Ring, m., ring, and ringen, 
to encircle]. 

um^feften,"^ sep., ftci^, to change (of the weather, etc.). 

umfonji^ adv., in vain, for nothing, to no purpose, gratui- 


nmjiatt'bcn, Sdper$.pl. imp/, o/ umfle^en,** inaep., umjiaub', 
nm^an^m, to stand about, around ; to surround, 
[urn and ftel^ett. See um 3.] 
itmtoallen,'^ tn<^., nmtoaUtt, nmtoant, to enclose, encircle 
loosely and waving, [nm and n)af(en, to undulate, 
wave, etc.] 
um^^vtQtfjtnf inf. with gu q/" umV^en^^t »gp., to go about, 
have intercourse, etc. 

wit fteuten umju^el^en toiffen, to know how to deal 
with, manage (behave in presence of) people, 
nn, inseparable prefix, identical vnth Engl, un-, Lai. in-, 
Greek «r. Thus, ungetoif, unfld^er, uncertain, in- 
secure ; Lai, incertus. 

Its force is negative, for it negatives the meaning of 
the words to which it is prefixed, and answers to 
Engl, prefixes un-, in-, im-, ir-, and to adv. 
not ; also to prefixes dis- and mis- in Ungnabe, 
disgrace; Unglitcf, misfortune, etc., and to affix 
-less, in unbett>egti(^, motionless, etc. Among 
the words which never occur mithout prefix un 
are: UnbiU,/. unfairness; Unflat, r/i., filth; Unge^ 
ti}umf »., monster ; Ungcgiefer, n., vermin ; vin^ti 
ftitm, adj., impetuous, violent, [un is probably 
related with ol^ne, without.] 
un^angenel^m, adj., unpleasant, disagreeable; unwelcome. 

[un and angene^m, which see.] 
unartig, adj., naughty, ill-behaved, ill-mannered, [un and 

artig, which see.] 
itnB&nbiQr <idj,, ungovernable, intractable, indomitable, 
unmanageable, [un and (&nbtg, adj,, under re- 
straint, connected with Banbigen, to restrain, from 
93anb, n., bond, fetter. Unbanb, m., a wild un- 
manageable fellow.] 
nn'Befangen, a«/;., unembarrassed, unruffled, not agitated ; 
candid, etc. [un and Befangen, adj., confused, put 


out of countenance ; befangen,** to implicate, in- 
volve, etc.] 

Unbel^olfenl^et i^f*, clumsiness, awkwardness. [unBel^oIfen, 
adj^t clumsy, awkward ; un and be^olfen, pp. of fi^ 
bc^^elfen,** to manage, contrive, etc.] 

UnBefannter, ein, m., a person unknown to me, a stranger, 
[un and befannt, a<(;., known.] 

unBetoegHd^, ae(/., immovable, motionless, [un and hti 
ttxgltd^, adj.^ movable ; BelDegen,'^ to move, tohich 
tt the weak and causative form of befeegen,^* (o ; o), 
to induce.] 

unb, co-ordinate oonj,, and [the Mhg, und, unt, occurs re- 
latively, similarly to Lot, unde. Thus, ^' ergezet 
si der leide und ir ir habet get&n,'* translated: 
^a6)t fte vergeffen bet Seiben, bie i^r i^r geti^an f^t, 
Make her forget the sufferings which you have 
inflicted upon her. The derivation of unb is not 

U n e 1^ t e,^/., dishonour, disgrace. [Un ojm? ®^te,/., honour.] 

uneingelaben, adv. , uninvited, not invited, [un and einge^ 
(aben, pp. of cinlaben,** «ep., Cub ein (labete ein^) 
eingelaben, to invite, to ask some one to a party, to 
dinner, tea, supper, etc.] 

u n e n b 1 1 (]^, adj. , e n d less, infinite, un e n d Ing, without end. 
[un and enbU(^, which see.] 

unetntiiblic^, adj.^ untiring, indefatigable, [un and tn 
vxv^\\iif,from ennuben, to tire out, to weary.] 

Un fall,"* m. (-« ; -faf(e), mishap, misfortune, [un and gaf(, 
m., case, fall. See un.] 

UttfuQ,"* m. (-d;-e), disorder, mischief; row. [un and 

%VL^, m., right, authority, adaptedness, connected 

with fugen, to fit together, join. See fegen.] 

9lun \i<xV i4 guten gug bie Seber l^in^uUgen, now I 

have a good right (cause, reason) to lay my pen 

aside ; STOit ffug, with right, rightly ; SKac^ gug. 


according to justice and right ; Sefngutf , /., 
authorizatioo, powers ; befugt, ocj;., empowered, 

un^gefdl^r, adv., accidentally; ton ungefal^r, by chance, 
accident, [un onc^^fAl^f;/., ri^k.] 

Uttgej^euer,** n. (-« ; -e), monster, prodigy. 

ungel^euer, adj., monstrous, enormous, prodigious, immense, 
Jrom un and gel^mer, adj., safe, unhaunted, secure 
against antf^ing in the shape of ghosts ; l^euer, 
the Ohg. hiuri, signified originally *^ pleasing, 
lovely, gentle." 

unge^inbert, adj., not hindered, unhindered, unim- 
peded, unintenxpted, f . 160. [un and gel^inbert, 
pp, of l^inbem,"''^ to prevent.] 

nn^tlu^t, adv., unkissed, without a kiss, [un and ^tfn% 
pp. of fnffen,^ to kiss ; bet Stnf, the kiss.] 

Ungemad^,"^ n. (gen. ed), see ®tmadf. 

nmg^tn, adv., unwillingly, reluctantly, [un and gem, which 

un^gefd^icft, adj., unskilful, awkward, [un and gefc^icft, 
which see.] 

UngefiJ^iiflid^f eit,'^/. (-; -«), awkwardness [see above]. 

Ungeflum,"* «. (-« ; -^), impetuosity. 

[migelluiitr adj., impetuous, vehement, boisterous, 
lit. unsiahk, noistabie,violenily, agitated; ftittn, the 
Ohg. stuoni, t^., standing, stable, firm, is connected 
with St a, root q/'jle^en, to stand, Lot. stare.] 

ungetrfi6tr adj. , unclouded, cloudless, not darkened, [un 
and gett:66t, pp. of truBen, to make muddy, to 

ungleid^, adj., unlike, unequal, uneven. 

Ung(u(f,"*n. (-ed ; Ung(u(!0f<atte), ill-luck, misfortune, dis- 
aster, misery. 

un'^gtudfelig, adj., unlucky, luckless, unfortunate, miser- 


Un'Qtu(f^tag,Bt m, (-e«; -c), ominous day, unlucky day. 

Vinlo^tn,^ /., pi,, expenses, charges, costs. 

nnmoq^^Ud}, adj., impossible. [un and woglid^, fi'om 

Unmutl^,** m. (-« ;-), discontent, dejection qfspirite, in low 
spirits; bad humour; displeasure. \miand^Vi% 
m., mood, which see.] 
un'nu^, adj,, useless, in vain, good for nothing, [un and 
nu^, or nu|lid^, adj., useful, Jrom S^lu^ or Sflufcen, 
m., use, advantage.] 
uttotbentli^, adj., disorderly, untidy, [nn and oxUntlii^, 

Jrom orbnen,^ to order.] 
unred^t, adj., not right, wrong, unjust. 

ettoa^ Unred^te^, n., something or anything wrong. 
Uttted^t,^* «. (-^ ;~), wrong, injustice, 
unreinli^, adj., unclean, dirty, [un and rein or teinlid^, 

uni, pers^ pron. of the Utpera,, Dai, pL, to us. Ace, pi., us. 
U n'f c^ u Ib,"^ /. (-; no pL), innocence, guiltlessness, [un and 

@4ufl),/., guilt.] 
unfcr 1.) pera.pron. oflstpers., o/ub. 

2.) unfer, m., unfcre,/., unfer, n.,po88. ac0., our. 
8.) ber, bie ba« Unfete or Unf(e)tige {poss, adj., used 
substantively), ours , pi. hit Unferen or.Unf(e)rigen, 
our people, men, family, etc. 
unten, adv., below, beneath, down [related with untet]. 
unter i.) prep, tviih Dat. of rest or motion in a place or 
locality, with Ace. of motion or direction to a 
place or locality, under, among, in the midst of. 
[Lat. inter.] 
unter ben ®a\im, among the visitors ; unter ber Qaffi 

bet tauten, among the number of ladies, 
untet un^, among or between ourselves. (Sr tfi 
untet bem ^ad^e, he is under the roof; (St gel^t 
untet ba0 ^ad^, he goes under the roof, shelter. 


2.) 8^. or imep. prefix of verhsj under, among, below, 
amid, etc. 
Sep., un'ternci^men, nal^m un'tet, un'ter genommen, to 
take under ; un'terliegcn, lag un'ter, un'tergetegen, 
to lie under. 
Ina^., untemcl^'ttten, untemal^m', untemom'men, to 
undertake, attempt ; untettic'gen, untertag', untet:? 
le'gen, to succumb, yield. 
3d^ untettag bet Uebermad^t metnet geinbc (p. 106), 
I succumbed to the superior power of my 
3(^ tag untct ben 93dumen bed 20albe«; I was lying 
under the trees of the wood, 
unterbrad^^ impf, of untetbtc'cS^en, inaep,, unterBrad^, unter? 
Brod^ett; to interrupt, to break in between. 
@r unterBta^' bic 8eute, He interrupted the people. 
@t Brad^ un^tet bte l^eute, He came breaking in upon 
the people, [unter arul Breci^en, to break.] 
unteretnan'bct, adv., one with another, together, among 

each other, [unter and einanber.] 

un'tergel^en, sep., ging unter, untergegangen, to go down, fall, 

perish, to be submerged ; bie 2Belt toirb untergel^en, 

the world will come to an end. 

Compare: bie @tabt ging unter and bie @tabt, 

toeld^e u n t e r g i n g, toar fel^r grog, [unter and ge^en.] 

un'terirbifc^, adj,, lit. under the earth [irbifc^, earthly]; 

u n d e r-ground, subterranean, 
unterlag, impf. o/unterlic''gen, inaep. [See unter.] 
unterne^^men, imep. [See unter.] 

Un'terpfanb,** n. (-e« ; -J)fdnber), pledge, security, promise. 
[Unter oti^ 5Pfanb, w., pledge, token; possibly con- 
nected with La/t. pannus, a cloth, garment, etc. ; 
Fr. le pan, le pan d'une robe.] 
Un'tetrid^t,Bt m. {-i ; -e), instruction, tuition, lesson [fi-om 
unterrici^teu,"''^ to instruct, teach, inform]. 


unterfa'gen,^ insep., unterfag'te, untetfagt'', to prohibit, inter- 
dict, forbid, [unter and fagen, to say.] 

Un'terfd^ieb^Bt m. (-6; -e), difference, distinction, separation, 
[untetfij^cibcn (ie ; ie), to distinguish. See f^etbens*.] 

unt€rf(^rie'ben, pp. of untetfd^rei't>en, instp., unterfc^ricb, 
unterfdj^rieBen, lit to write beneatfi ; to sign, under- 
sign, subscribe, put one's signature to (a docu- 
mentj etc,). 

unttxtot^i, adv.j lU. under way; on the way, road; 
to be coming, [unter and SSBeg, m., way.] 

Un'tl^ier,** n. (-rt ; -e), monster, wild beast. 

un^'tttd^tig, ac^'., unfit, disabled, disqualified, useless (with 
prep, gu, for) . fan and ivi^iX^, doughty, capable, 
from taugen, to be of value, worth, etc] 

nnt>erdn^bert, adj.^ unchanged, unaltered, [wx and i^txaxu 
ttxtfpp. ofttetfittbern, to change, alter.] 

ancerl^offf, adj., unhoped for, unexpected. [un and 
iDerl^offt, pp. of \>ex()of(en, to hope for, expect.] 

Un'jal^l,"^/., vast number, multitude. [Un and 34^1/., 

Ur'fad^e,'^/. (-; -u), cause, reason, occasion, [ur, the same 
as insep. prejix er {which see) ; <Bad^,f., thing.] 

Vix'tf)tii,'^^n. (-i ; -e), judgment, opinion, decision, sentence, 
[ur, the same as insep. prefix er {which see)', Xi^^ii, 
m. and n., part, share.] 

ViUff.prop. name; Uten, dat. mtg. 

aSater,"* m., (-«; abater), father. [Lat. pater.] 
a3ater(anb,B*n. (-ed; -Idnbcr), fatherland. 
aSaterunfer,8t n. (-«;-), Lord's prayer. 

doB Vaterunaer, a literal rendering of the Lat. pater noster. 
This is one of tbe few instances in Nhg. where the adj^ joined 
to its nonn, is placed after it. Other instances are : " Sin Thaler 


pnustiseh,'* a dollar Pnusian money; "BdaMn roth" (Mo. 117, 
p. 133), red little rose. 

In Mlig. fltf greater liberty was accorded to the adj. than in 
Nhg. Mot only could the a4). be i^aced after its noun^ but 
even when preceding its noun, the adj. could remain without 
any case-ending throughout all cases. Thence we get such 
expressions as "ein hutig IMd^ a merry song, which should 
be eta hu^igw iMd; der tUt und neuen Zeit, etc 

^tx (pronounced ^ fer), is one of the most important of insep- 
arable verbal prefixes* It is closely allied vnth f e r n, 
far; vor, fore, before; ffir, for; fort, forth, 
away; and it corresponds to the Latin prefix per, in 
perdere, to lose, \)erlteten, and to English for, in 
forbid, tjerbieten; forget, t)er9c|Ten; forgive, t^er^ 
QiUn*j forswear, »erf<i^w6ren, and forlorn, pp,, 
^ixlotm, etc. 
It is originally identical icith root var or far in 

Ohg. varan, Goth, farjan, A.S, faran, and Nhg. 

fahren, Engl, to fare, to get on, drive, etc. 

{See fal^ren.) 

I. Hence the fundamental and general idea of v^ is that of m o ti o n 
and movement (transition) away from a place, locality, or person 
(either expressed or nnderatood). Thus: 

tenden, to send; yersenden, to send away. 
treibin, to drive; yer treihen^ to drive away. 

II. But since every motion and movement, either physical or mental, 
is attended by a change of place or condition, which may result 
in destruction, loss, error, etc., the prefix ver has, in composition 
with different verbs, acquired the following secondary Hignifica- 
tions implying ch a n ge. Thus : 

1.) Ohange (sudden, incidental, intentional, inorganic change). 

a) resulting in loss. Thus, verlierm^ to lose; verschwenden, 
to squander; vertrinkertj vergau/en, to spend in drinking. 

() resulting in an error, mistake, slip. Thus, rich ver- 
gpreeherif to make a slip of the tongue ; sieh wrsehreiben, to 
make a slip of the pen ; verlegen, to mislay, misplace. 

c) resulting in obstruction, opposition, suppression, 
and conee al ment. Thus, venchUMzen, to lock ; verriegeln, 
to seal; verbaum^ to obstruct by building; verhahUn^ to 
conceal; versehweigen, to hide, keep secret; veraperren, to 
bar, blockade. 


2.) Change to something different(gradaal, vital, organic 

a) resulting in destraction, extinction, dissolution, 
disappearance, etc. Thus: 

verbrennen, to bum, destroy by fire ; verblUhenj to go ont of 
blossom, to Detde, wither ; verschtoinden, to vanish, disappear; 
vergehetij to pass away, perish ; verderbenj to spoil, corrupt. 

ft) resulting in transformation. Thus: 
versteinerrif to turn into stone, to become petrified ; verfUngen, 
to m ak e young ; vergroszem, to m ake greater, larger, to en- 
large, exaggerate. To this class belong those verbs formed 
from nouns, like Steirif stone ; Glas, glass ; Gold, gold ; Krup- 
jieZ, cripple ; TTitsftf, waste, desert; ^teA<«, nothing, nothing- 
ness; and from adjs., like/un^, young; edel^ noble; hittert 
bitter ; aZ<, old ; finster, dunkel, dark ; eitel, vain ; hurt, short ; 
grosz, great; schlimm, bad; X;2«tn, little ; lang, long. Thus, 
vergoldeui to gild; vencUatenf to lay waste; verkUrten, to 
shorten ; veraeMimmem, to make worse, aggravate ; vemiehten, 
to destroy, devastate, etc. In these verbs the intensity of the 
moving or causing force of ver is very forcibly illustrated. 
The intensifying force of ver is also visible in such verbs as 
verztoei/eln, to despair, from zioei/eln, to doubt ; verzagen^ to 
despond, lose heart, courage, from zagen^ to hesitate, to be 
afraid, etc. 

III. 1.) ver expresses frequently the reversal of the meaning im- 
parted by prefix er. Thus : erUiihen^ to enter into blossom, ver- 
blUhenj to go out of blossom ; erzieken, to educate, bring up, ver- 
tlUhen, to distort, spoil (a child) ; erlemen, to acquire by learning, 
verlemen, to forget what has been acquired ; erbaueitj to build up, 
verbatim, to close up, obstruct by building. 

2.) ver (implying a change of state, place, etc.), may also be con- 
trasted with zer (implying a dissolution of state, a breaking up 
into parts). Thus : ver/aUen, to go out of repair, to go to ruin, 
eerfaUen^ to fall to pieces, to be in ruins ; verrinneitf to dispersOf 
run away, zerrinnen, to become dissolved, to melt, vanish away; 
ver8etzen, to displace, remove, to answer, teraetzerij to break up 
into pieces ; versehneiden, to cut up, cut away, zerschneidetif to 
cut to pieces, etc. 

t)erad^tet,i?p. of ^etad^ten,''^ insep.j to despise, contemn, dis- 
dain. [»cr and ad^tmi^ to esteem.] 

ioerdnbett, pp. as adj,^ changed, [©erdnbern,''^ inaep,, to 
change, alter ; »er and dnbem, to alter, from anber, 


ttetanfwotten,^ insep.^ weranttoortete, weranttoortet, to answer 
for, to be responsible for, justify, [tjer and ant^ 
toorten,"^ to answer.] 

t>erBettgen,^ fi(^, insep.f tjecbeugte j^df, j!d^ ttetbeugt, to bow 
(followed by yre/p. gegen, to), [ttct and beugcn,^ to 
cause to bend, bow ; weak form of biegcn.] 
eine SSerbeugung madden, to make a bow, obeisance. 

tterbinben,"* e/wep., cerbanb, verbunben, to bind, tie up, dress 
(a wotindf etc.) ; to bind together, join ; to blind- 
fold the eyes (No. 7); einem ©etbunben fein, to be 
under an obligation to some one, to be obliged to 
one. [»er a7id binben^s* to bind.] 

S3 e t b i n b u n g,"^ /. (-; -en), connexion ; match, marriage, 
etc. [see »erbinben], 
SSerbinbungdangeige,''^/., anouncement of a marriage. 

ttetbotgen, pp. of tjerbergcn,*** ins^. (<i; o), to hide, conceal. 
[))er and bergen, which see.] 

^txhoUn,pp. q/'»erbieten,«t insep.j 'otxhoi, ttirboten, to forbid, 
prohibit. [»er and bieten (o; o), to offer, bid, ten- 
der, related with bitten, which see ; refer also to ))er.] 

t)etbrennt, Sdpers. sing.pres. q/'t)erbrennen, imep., »erbtannte, 
tjerbtannt, to burn up, consume, destroy by 
burning. [See \)er a'nd brennen.] 
9Biettie( @ad verbrennen @ie? How much gas do 

you bum ? 
@r ^at ftd^ bte finger ^^erbrannt, He has burnt his 

\)erbad^t, i?p. o/^ tterbenfen, insep.^ tterbad^te, ttctbad^t, lit. to 
think iU of; to take ill or amiss; einem ettvo^ 
oerbenfen, to consider or think as not advisable, 
to think not approvingly of anything. [t)et and 
benfen, to think.] 

\)erbanfen,'»^ ww«/?., tterbanfte, »etbanft, to thank for, to be 
indebted to for; to owe. [tter and banfen,"^ to 


©erbauen,"^ insep., verbauete, tjerbauet, to digest. [»er and 

baueit, possibly /rom the A,S. deawian, to moisten, 

to wet. Thence: Engl, dew, Germ. %an, and EngL 

dough or dow, i.e., moistened flour J] 
vcrbcrft, pp. q/'»crbccfen,^ insep,, tterbeifte, »erbedt, to cover 

up, hide, conceal. [)>er and bedfen, which see."] 
»<tberben,»* inaej?., toerbarb, tjerborBen, to spoil, to be spoiled ; 

to go amiss, to perish, [vet and berben, of the 

same root as barben, to be in want, to starve.] 
^crbie'nen,^ insep., tterbicntc, »etbic«t, to earn; deserve. 

[ttcv and bienen, whicJi see.] pp. »crbient, ttsed as adj., 

earned, deserved, dcssrving. 
^erel^rt, pp., as adj., esteemed, respected, ['otxtffxtn,^ 

insq)., to revere, regard with great respect ; el^ren,^ 

to respect-; bie (Sl^re, the honour.] 
tocreinigen,'^ insep., ttercinigte, ttcmnigt, to make one, unite, 

combine ; jld^ ©ereinigen ubet, to agree upon, [©cr 

and einig, which see.] 
fQ it f alV ^tit,^/., time or term when a payment {a,\\& due; 

maturity cf a bill. [^erfarUn,^* to fall or become 

due, etc. See »er.] 
ttcrfolgen,^ insep., »erfoIgte, »ftfo(gt, to follow up, pursue, 

prosecute, persecute ; (No. 39) to continue one's 

journey. [»er and folgen, which see.] 
» e r f u g e n,'^ insep., to dispose, order. [t)er and fugcn, which see.] 

ftd^ bortl^in t)erfugen or bcgeben, is used for bort^in 
gel^en, to go there, betake oneself there. 
95erfugung,^/. (-; -en), disposition, arrangement. 

nad^ SSerfugung, according to order, etc. [See 
vctgan'gen, jRp. as adj., gone by, past. 

oetgangenen ^benb, last evening ; t^ergangene SBod^e, 
last week; vergangenc^ ^af)t, last year [from 
wc^fftn,^^ insep., merging, »crgang«t, to go or pass 
away, elapse ; »et and gel^en]. 


tt et g a g, impf, of »etgcffen. 

jjergeff en, »ergafi, ttetgeffen, to forget, f.«., <o get/or^ or om< 
o/'^e memory y mind; to escape from one^s mind; 
not remember. [>6tt and gefjien, Kngl, to get^^om 
an o6«CMr« root'] ' 

ttergifit, Bdpera, sing. pres. ()f vetQeffen. 

SSetgnu^gcn,"*^. (-«;-), pleasure, enjoyment [verbal noun, 
from »ergnw9Ctt, *ee ©ergnugt]. 

Vergnugt, pp. as adj.y pleased, merry [from ©ecgniigen,'^ 
insep., satisfy, gratify, please, etc., connected with 
genugen,^ to suffice, and genug, enough]. 

»etl^aUfB,8* fid^; inaep.y "otiijXiM fldj^, fid^ ^er^oltcn, to hold 
oneself in a certain state; to behave, demean, 
conduct oneself; to act, etc. [oer and I^alten.] 

93crl^aUni{i,"*n. (-e«;-e), condition, relation, proportion. 
[))er]^altett, to stand in relation to anythingy to be 
circumstanced, etc. ; ))et and ^altm, to hold.] 

©cr^ee'ten,"^ insep., oetl^certe, ^^xf)ttxt, to lay waste, devastate, 
ravage [lit. to overrun with an army ; from bod ^eer, 
the army, host ; bU ^eetbe, the herd, flock]. 

»erf att'f«n,^ wwep., \)erfaufte, »«fauft, to sell, vend, dispose 
of by sale, [wt and lauftn,^ to buy.] 

SBerff. (p. 154),/or SBerFauf.*** m. (-e«; -!dufe), sale. 

SSerfaufiS'red^nung,^/. (-; -ren), biU, account of sales. 
[From »er!attfen, wMch see] 

l>erf claret, or \>txiif)xt, pp. of >otxtif)xtn,^ insep.y »erfc^rte, ^tn 
It^xif to trade, to traffic ; to reverse anything (No. 
42); to turn it the wrong way. [t)er and fel^ren: 
fel^ren, «.e., toeuben, to turn, is the A.S. cyrran, 
cerran, to urge forward, to move backwards and 
forwards; thencey Engl, churn, Scotch kirn, the 
turningo/" miUc into butter. Of a different origin 
is fel^rctt, i.e., fegcn, to sweep, which is aldn to Ohg. 
chirran, cherran, the same as titttn, girren, to coo, 
to make a noise, Engl, to chirke, chirp, charke 


(thence also fnirren, fnarren,"''^ to creak). In the 
word JJcl^raud* (which see) both verbs have become 
intermixed, and it is difficult to which to refer it. 
Compare also ber ^if)xid)t, the sweepings.] • 

* The following words are sung to the dance-music of the 
KehrauB : — Ala der Qroazvater die Orosenmtter nahmf 
Da loar der Groszvater ein BrUutigam, 
Uhd sie war eine Braut, etc. 

'OtxlviXitXi,'^ insep., tterfutgte, »erfurgt, to cut short, shorten, 
to put an end to, etc. [»et and furgcn, from furj, 
short, curt.] 

»erlabeti, insep., tterlub,^* (wertabete,^), Detlabett,^* (»er(abet,'^), 
to load, lade^ despatch (goods, a ship, etc,). [»et 
and taben.] 

SSerta'bung,"^/. (-; -en), lading, shipment, 
gut ©ertabutig, for shipment. 

»ertaffcn, pp. of ttcrtaifen,^* insep., ^nlu% ^erlaffen, to 
leave, quit, abandon, forsake, [vet and (affen, to 

^nla^t, 3d pers. sing. pres. of tterlaffen. 

SSertauf,*"* W2., course of an affair ; lit. the running or flow- 
ing away [from t)erlaufen,»* insep. (it ; an), to flow 
away ; pass on, elapse ; ^er and laufm, to run]. 

ttertegctt, adj., at a loss, embarrassed, confused [pp. of^vs 
legen, to put out of place, to misplace]. 

t)erlie'rcn,B* insep., ^ertoren, to lose; jic^ »erlierctt, to lose 
oneself, to lose one's way, to go astray ; ^erloren 
Qt^tn, to get lost, be lost ; ava ben Slugen »erlicten, 
to lose sight of; ber ttcrlorene ©ol^n, the prodigal 
son. [t)cr and lieren, lit. to get leer or loose. See 

t>erlieg, impf. o/*\)ertaft'en. 

SSerlo'Bung w/. (-; -en), betrothal. [werloBen w to betroth, 
engage, affiance; \>tx and lohm, to vow, promise.] 
»errobt, pp., engaged. SSertcbte, pi, parties 
engaged to each other (for marriage). 


^txUxtn, pp. of»erlietett. 

toermaf \x^, imp/, of jid^ t)crmeffen,8t »enttafl fld^, ftd^ t)entteffen, 
Ut. tome&svLTe wrong, to measure or estimate 
{oneself) amiss. Thence : to arrogate to oneself, to 
presume, to have the audacity, etc. 

»etmeffen,jjp. o/tjetmeffen, ijermaf, ©crmeffen, to measure out 
{chth, etc.), to survey {land, etc.). ["otx and meffen, 
to mete, measure.] 

weruiittetjl, prep, with gen., by means of, by the help of. 
[»et and inittelfl, superl, ofmititl, adj., middle, mid, 
aJnn to : mit, with, bte ^itU,f,, the middle, and bod 
SO^ittel, n., the means.] 

werntod^'te (No. 103, p. 104), impf. of wermogen, insep., tter* 
vxo^U, "otxmod^t, to be able, to have the power, 
means (to do, produce, etc.), 
has 9Scrm6gcn,8* the ability ; property. 
\)erm6Qcnt>, adj., able ; wealthy, possessed of pro- 
perty. [»er and wcgen, to may.] 

»erm6'9enb,jprea. part, ttsed as adj., see ttemiod^te. 

ttcrmutl^'li^, adj., probable, likely, presumable, [ttcr^ 
mntfjtn,'^ insep., to suspect ; \)er an<^ niutl^en, Ohg. 
muot6n, to moot, to show a desire, inclination 
{movement) for ; probably related loith A.S, mStan, 
Engl, to meet.] 

ttcrnal^in, impf. of i>txmi)mtn. 

venie]^men,»* insq)., ^txnaf)m, »ernotntnen, to perceive, com- 
prehend, understand ; to learn. [))et and nel^inett,^^ 
to take.] 

wetnunftig, adj., sensible, adv. (No. 40), rationally, in- 
telligently. [SBemunfit,/., reason, judgment.] 

aSer^jarfung,^/. (-; -«n). packing, [jjet^jarfen,^ to pack 
up ybr despatch.] 

ijetra'tll^cn,** insep., ttcmetl^, »crratl^en, to betray, disclose. 
[t)cr and ratten, to advise, counsel.] 

toerjpe'bett,'^ insep., to gainsay, disown; abjure, renounce; 


f!d^ t^erreben^ to make s slip of tke tongue, [txr 

and teben, to talk.] 
t)errott'«ett, pp- qf »emiuteti,»* msfip., 'otttami, »ewonncn, to 

run, flow away ; to pass away, elapse. [))er and 

tinneti, to run, leak.] 
^txxudi' PP' as adj,y deranged, mad, the head being turned. 

[otttvidtn,^ insep,, to displace, remove; derange, 

turn (the mind, head).'] 
toerfa^ ft(^ mit, impf. of fi6) verfcl^enfi* utit, ingeps, tterfa^ fid^ 

mit, jld^ vetfei^en mit, to provide oneself with any- 
thing, [oer and fel^en, to see.] 
»erfanf, imp/, o^tterjinfen,^* inatp., »erfanf, »erfunfen, to sink 

away, perish, founder. [))er ane^ {!n!en,"* to sink.] 
))erfdu^men,'^ in^^^., )9erfdumte, loerf&itmt, to miss, lose; 

to neglect, onut. [)>er and foyutett, to delay, 

»erfd^ltn'9en,»*tn«^. (a; u), to devour, swallow up, gobble 

up ; to entwine, [^er and fd^Ungen, to sling, wind ; 

fterfdj^tun'gen, pp. as acfj, (No. 99, p. 102), intricate, 

tangled, inextricable. [^afd^Uiigen,^'^ infiep. (a ; u), 

to entwine, swallow up.] ^ 

»etf(!^Tn&l&en,"'^ insep., verfd^mdl^te, \X¥f^mdl^t, to despise, 

disdain, reject with disdain; to scorn, [vet and 

fdj^wd^en,^ to abuse, insult, revile; ^B^inmiii, /, 

shame, disgrace.] 
SScrfcS^onene,"^ bcr, a person who has not been heard of for a 

certain number of years, and is therefore considered 

dead in the eye of the lawv [adjecHval noun, of 

pp. »erf(^or(m,/rom t)ei:f(!^aHen,8<^ (0; 0), to die away 

{08 a sound), to become forgotten], 
tt e r f c!^ to n b, pi. ©er fd^toanben, impf. of »erfd^ti)inben, 
»crfd^toinben,«* insep. (a;u), to disappear, vanish. [t)er 

and fd^toinben,** to dwindle down, perish, vanish. 


Thence: ^ifyam^udft,/., consumption; f^toinbeln, 
to grow giddy, dizzy, to swindle ; bcr @c^»inbler, 
the swindler ; bie @^)oinbelei, the swindling. The 
word fd^loinb in gefd^koinb, swift, quick, meant origi- 
nally strong, powerful, and has thence become applied 
to every strong and powerful movement, and to 
velocity in general j thite: bie ©efci^toinbigfeit bed 
gefd^tDinben $ferbed, the swiftness of the swift 

»etfd^tottn'ben,|)p. qf »erf(i^tt)inbm. 

))erfenben, insep., oerfanbte, t)erfanbt, to send away; to de- 
spatch, export, ['otx and fenbett, to send.] 

^ttjitl^tn,'^ insep,, tterfe^te, ttetfe^t, to set or put away, tna 
different place; to transfer; to pawn; to rejoin, 
answer, reply. [»cr and fcjen,^ to set, j^om fi^en.] 

t>fi:fi'^ern,'^tfMcp., »erjt(^crte, ©crfj^crt, to insure (p. 150), 
to assure (No. 72). [^tx and ftd^er^ sure, secure ; 

SSerfi'^etung,^/. (-; -en), insurance; assurance. 

^ e r f i tt f c n. See »erfanf . 

loctfcffen, oc^*., given to drinking, inebriate [pp. of »cr^ 
faufen,^ (o ; o), to spend in drinking]. 

'otxfptt'xtn,'^ insep.j to bar, barricade; to lock, shut up. 
[vet and \pttttn, to spar ; obstruct, etc.] 

))erfpte^en,B* ins^, (a ; c), to promise ; refl., to make a slip 
of the tongue, [vet and fpred^en, to ^^^peak.] 

Mtx\pxod)tn,pp. <>/^»etft)te<l^en. 

Sl^erflanb^B* m. (-ed or ;), understanding, intellect; sense; 
ber gefunbe aSerflanb, good or common sense ; feinen 
SSetftanb tjerlieteitr to lose one^s senses; out of one's 
wits, the mind losing its balance. [See )(erflel^en.] 

4jerfle'^en,»* insep., loerjianb, verflanben, to understand, to 
comprehend. Phr. : 2)a3 or ed vetjlel^t ^d) ! or S3et« 
^ti)t [i^ ! As a matter of course 1 It is understood ! 
No doubt! etc. (Sx ^txfitf^ tttooil He knows 



something! He knows what he is about! [9er 
and jlel^en,"^ to stand.] 

)>erflernert, pp» as adj., petrified; frightened out of one's 
seven senses; aghast; thmiderstnick, etc. [)>et$ 
fleinem, to turn into stone, petrify. See oet.] 

vetflol^Ien, pp, q» adj., furtive, stealthily, secretly; steal- 
ing a glance, looking furtively, etc - [oet and 
fle^len, jlol^I, geflol^lenr to steal.] ' 

))et|lttinmen,'^ imep,<, to turn dumb, to become speechless, 
to become silent, to cease speaking, [vtr and 
ftumm, dumb. See vet.] 

95etfttd^,8* m. (-e« ; -e), attempt ; essay; experiment. [DftJ 
fut^en,'^ insep,, to try, attempt ; 9er and fu<^, to 

)9e¥t]^ei^igen,^ tiwep., to defend; vindicate; justify \pld 
form oett^nbingen, from )>er4aga^bingen, to argue or 
discourse about a matter before a court of law, to 
defend a matter, etc. The noun, S^gabinc or Zt^ts 
binge, signified originaUg the diet or session of a 
court, fixed for a certain day, and thence the term 
became applied to (he lawsuit and to the law- 
pourt. Compare tagen,**^ to hold a meeting or diet 
on a certain day {thence Sanbtag, m., the assembly 
of the estates), and 5Ding, Ohg. thing, dine, which 
meant a discourse in a court of law, a dispute, etc.] 

oertl^eilen,^ insep., oertl^eilte, ^ntf)dii, to deal out, distri- 
bute ; to divide. [))et and tf}txUn, to deal.] 

^txtii^tVi,'^. insep., to destroy, exterminate, extirpate, [oet 
and ti(gen, to wipe or blot out, originally akin to 
tl^eilen, to deal, to separate, divide, etc. Z^ii, m. 
and n., deal, share.] 

i^erttagen^Bt ins^., ))ertrug, 'otxtta^m, to carry wrong, away; 
to bear, stand {the weather, etc.) ; ftdj^ ))ettragen, to 
agree toith each other, to become reconciled, [oet 
and tragen, to bear, carry.] 


werut'fad^en,^ insep., \>txux\a6itt, t)erurfa^t, to cause, occa- 
sion, to bring about, [vet and Urfadj^e, /., cause, 

ttctttt'tli^cilt, pp. of vetttttl^eiten,"^ tnsep,, to condemn, to 
sentence {to deathy punishment^ etc.) ; to doom, to 
deliver judgment. [t)e¥ and urt^eKen, Ohg, arteilen 
and irteilen (t.e., Nhg. ertl^eilen, to impart, give), to 
give an opinion, judge, decide, etc.] 

9Ser to alter,"* m. (-^;-), manager, steward, administrator. 
Scotch grieve, an overseer, [loettoaltnt;^ insep.^ 
to administer, manage, "otx and toalten, to rule, 

)5ettoanbeU, pp. of toettoanbeln,'^ insep., to alter, change, 
transform. [oer and taHinbeln,^ to walk, wan- 

SSetloanbte,'^ m. and f.^ relation, kinsman, kinswoman, 
mettle SBerttatibtett, ph, my relations, [tjertoanbt, i?p., 
as adj.f related; vertoanbt mit, related to; from 
t)ertoenben, ))enoanbte, oertoanbt; to employ, expend, 
apply, etc. oer and toenben, to wend.] 

©ettoeiten,"^ insep,, to tarry, stay, sojourn, abide. [\)er 
and tmUn, to stay; ©eite,/., while.] 

SSettoit'tttng,'^/. (-; -en), confusion, [^ettoirren,''^ insep., 
to entangle, complicate ; oer and toirren, probably 
connected toith Engl, worry, to harass, attack by 
forcej and Lot. vir, pL vires, force, strength. See 
also ertourgten.] 

»ettoitfl»et,i?p., ^ ^J-i widowed, [tterttjitttoen, to become 
a widow ; bie SBitttoe, the widow.] 

oertounben,'*^ insep., to wound, hurt, injure, [oec and 
toutiben, to wound ; bie SBunbe, the wound.] 

^ettoun'bern,^ t»i«cp., to strike with wonder (bcrt aOButiber); 
ft(^ ^erkounbent, to feel or be astonished, surprised 
(followed by prep, uBet, at). 

l)erta)un^etungd ooU^ac/;., astonishing, surprising, wonder- 


ful, full of wonder, [^ott, full ; SBeitounbetfttiig,^/., 
©ertounbetc, 2?/., wounded persons, men. 

etn aSettounbeter, a wounded man. [pp., wOounUt, 
used substantwdy; from ))erts>unben.] 
»ergauBert, pp., spell-bound, enchanted. [»erjauBeni,'w 
insep.y to enchant, fascinate ; )Der and gaubent, to 
employ magic powers, to charm, conjure; ber 
SauBer, the magic-charm, spell, etc. The rwH 
gauB is possibly to he found in gaufn, to prepare, to 
do, bring about by mysterious means, which may 
he identical with A,S, tawian, to prepare, dress, 
make ready; thus: to dress, tew, or taw hides, 
S5cr g et ]^ ung,"^/. (-; -en), pardon, [^erjcil^en^st ins^. (ie; ie), 
to remit blame, guilt, etc. ; tter and gcil^en, to accuse, 
charge with, akin to Gothic teihan, to say, aOirm 
positively; LcU. dicere, Greek U^k-w/u, to show, 
point out ; thence also Germ, geigen {which Alberus 
uses for gei^en), to show, and ba« Scit^en, the token, 
sign. Compare also : gid^t in SSergid^t, m., renun- 
ciation ; ftergid^ten, to renounce, etc.] 
-^efie^w ^ (-; -n), fortress, firmament, [fcjl, firm, Engl. 
« ter,8t ^. (-«;_), cousin, uncle, father's brother [related 

»ter ^^- "^'^^ ®''^'''' ^**^®''; ^*' pater.] 
»^«I. «^., much, plenteous. 

-A^<^, »ieleB or $8iele«, many things ; mtt SBietem, 
«««. firinflr., with much. Plural.- »iele, many Cpeopfe, 
' ^ e r f a cfi r^ . ['^'^^^'^ «^^ »oK, full.] 

^^ "'^^J^^ld- Net anrf fac^, used as a euffix to 
•g^ rnuhiplicative adf. It » «;ie «am6 csr ba« 
ond'is. con^Partment which holds anything, 

hold ] '^''''^^^ «^ fa^en and fangen, to catch 


t)iel(ei(!^t adv. and conj.y perhaps, by chance, may be. 

[t>iel and ln6)t, light, easy.] 

Viet, num. (cardinal), four. 

»iettf, ber, bie, tea, num. adj, {ordinal)^ the fourth. 

SSietttnbjtoaiijig^jfunberBattetie,'*'/. (-; -n), a battery of 
guns, firing shots of four -and -twenty pounds 

t) i e t j e ]^ n, num. {cardinal), fourteen. [»ier and jel^n.] 

»ietjig, num. (cardinal), forty, [oUx and gig, n., the num- 
ber of ten.] 

SSiotontfl'',"'^ m. (-en; -en), violinist, violin-player. 

SSifi'tenjimmet,8* n. (-«;-), reception-room yor receiving 
visits (or visitors), drawing-room. 

9BogeI,«t TO. (-$ ; SSogel), bird, Engl. fowl. 

fQcXtiUf^xtx,^ m. (-^ ;-), national teacher ; socialist, [bad 
S^olf, fi., the nation, folk; bet Sel^rer, the teacher.] 

)0on, adj., full ; filled, covered with [oftlie same root as met 
ajid Gr. ^-aXu]. 

»of( tton (rfflrf.)> full of> filled with, tiofl (tton) @orgen 
or tooHet @orgcn (No. 17), full of anxiety ; over- 
come by cares, 
fte fingen aue ttoKcr Stif)U (No. 44, p. 52), they sing 
with full voice, in clear notes, etc. 

^oUhxad^i^, pp. o/ t)o((brin'gen, insep., 'oolibxad^U, ttoKBrac^t, 
to bring to a complete issue, to perform fullvt 
accomplish, achieve, carry out. [ooli and bringen.] 

oft em, dat. sing. masc. and neut. of )6otL 

ttoUen'bet, pp. of 'oolitn^\>tn,'^ insep., »oftenbete, ^JoHenbet, to 
bring to a full or complete end ; to complete, 
finish, accomplish. V)or(enbet (No. 72), exceedingly 
completely. [^oK and enben,""^ to end.] 

^olUx, ane (No. 44, p. 62). See »ofl. 

)>6llig, adj., complete, entire, perfect [expanded and intensi- 
Jiedform of »oI(, full.] 

'ooUio^^tn, pp., carried out, accomplished, taken place. 


[voITjie^en, inaep,, voHgog, tJoKjogcn, to fulfil, exe- 
cate, accomplish ; )9o(( and gulden, to draw.] 

^ovx, contraction of )6on bem. 

))ctt {pronounced ion) ^prq), with dot., from, of; by, etc. 

1.) Among the Beveral verbs which are commonly followed by 
this preposition are the following which indicate a Judgment, 
opinion, etc., as : denken voriy meinen von, glauben von, heUten 
von, to think of, etc; sprechen von, »ag«n von, ertUhlen von, to 
speak, say, relate of; trSumen von, to dream of; wisten von, to 
know of; er/ahren von, hdren von, to learn from, hear of; 
gelobt werden von, to be praised by, etc. 

2.) The Engl. prep, of, as sign of the genitive or possessive case, 
is generally not translated, and is always omitted after nouns 
indicating number, weight, measure, and quantity. Thus: 
The boys' books, or the books of the boy, die BUeher dea Kna- 
ben; the boy's books, or the books of the boys, die BUeher der 
KnaJben; two pound of tea, zwei Pfund Thee ; a cup of coffeet 
ctiM Tatae Kaffee; three yards of ribbon, drei EUen Band, etc. 

8.) The Engl. prep, from, when expressing place or time, is 
rendered by von. 

a.) Thus, when indicating a place (wherefirom), it is translated 
by von, as : Er kommt von Wien, he comes from Vienna ; von 
dem (or vom) Theater, from the theatre ; von einem Besuehe, 
from (paying) a visit. When the motion proceeds from 
within a place, atu is used to render from, as: He is 
coming from school, Er kommt aus der Sehule; from 
town, aus der Stadt; aus der Kirehe, from church, etc 

b.) When expressing time, i.e., when the beginning and end 
of the time or the duration of time is indicated, from is 
translated by von. Thus: Von(pTtwm)MontagbisDonner8tag, 
from Monday tUl Thursday; vom Anfang bis sum Ends, 
from beginning to the end ; vom Morgen bis («vm) Abend, 
from morning to night ; von tehn bis elf, Anom ten to eleven. 
But when the beginning of the time is continued to some 
Indefinite period, von is used in conjunction with an. Thus : 
von dem Tage an, firom that day; von heute an, from this 
day ; von morgen an, from to-morrow, etc. 

4.) When from indicates the mental state from which an 
action arises, it Is rendered by aus. Thus : He did it from 
pride, Er that es aus Stolz; from vanity, aus Eitelkeit; from 
love, aus Liebe; fh)m ambition, aus Ehrgeiu. 

6.) When the Engl. prep, of or from defines the matter or 
materia] of which a thing is made, it is rendered by von or 


au9, Thns: Made of wool, amoxvm WoUe gemaeht; this 
table is of wood, dieger Tisch ist aua or von EbU gemaeht; of 
iron, ana or von Eiaen ; of doth, aiu or von Zeug, ete. 

^ox, L) prqf. with dat. 

a.) of rest or motion in a place or locality ; be- 
fore. Thus: »ot ben Xl^uren Miti'O. (No. 29), 
to go a-begging at people's doors ; I&uft )9or il^m 
^er (No. 11), goes running before him. 
6.) of caasality: »or ©dumcn (No. 15), before 
the trees, t.e., on occouTt^ o/'M6 mass of trees} 
Vot Slngfl (p. 119), from anxiety, for fear; »ot 
5rettbe(n), for joy ; \)ot SKubigMt unb hunger, 
from &tigue and hanger; t)or ^ofiid^feit (p. 
121), from a sense of politeness ; oor (Sd^recfen 
(p. 120), from fright. Causality, the working 
of fear, horror, etc., is indicated by »or, when 
ttsed in conjunction with verbs Uke : ^d) furd^ten 
vet, to be afraid of; ftd^ erfd^tecfen tJcr, to t^ke 
fright of; fld^f fd^euen »or, to shrink from; 
fld^ grauen "oox, to be or feel haunted with ; 
gittent ^ox, tremble at ; ftd^ l^uten vot, to beware 
of; entfliel^en »or (p. 83), to flee away from, 
to be put to flight by. 
c.) of time : before, ago; »cr einet (Stunbe, an 
hour ago ; ^ox ^Yoti fQe^tn, two weeks ago. 
((St foH iiox imi ^od^en nid^t fomnten, He is not 
to arrive for two weeks to come.) 
2.) prip, with ace. 
of motion or direction to a place or locality, be- 
fore, in front. Thus: »or bte 9la\t fe^en 
(No. 30), to put before one's nose; jid^ »or 
ben @|)iegel jlcHen, to put oneself in front of 
the looking-glass. 
8.) adv. and s^, particle, before, forward, in pres- 
ence of, up to. Thtis : »crfomnten, to come 
forth, to happen; tjcrlaffen, to admit into pres- 


ence of; vctfal^ren, to drive up to the door, etc. 

[9or w identical vnih fur, t>er. 
See fal^ren. Compare aUo: Gr» 9($^ Lot, pro 
and prae and EngL prefix f o r and f o r e.] 
ootan, odv. and 9q>. prefix^ on before, in front. 

)90¥angel^,(^ eep.f to walk in fronts to go before. 

[«o¥ and an.] 
Dorattd, o^iv. anc? sep, prefix, in advance, beforehand. [)}cr 

anc^ a]t€, out.] 
©orau^'gefanbt, pp. of vorattdfenben, «ep., fanbte »orau«, »oti 

audgefanbt, to send in advance, [ootaud and fenben.] 
SBcr^el^alt,** m. (-«;), reservation, stipulation, proviso. 

[)>otBe^a(ten, aep., to stipulate for reserve ; oor a^u^ 

MfiXitXLf to retain, keep.] 
))0¥Bet^ adv, and eep* prefix^ gone by, past; over, done, 

finished. [t)or and 6ei.] 
9Sor^ereitungd|lunbe,'^/. (-; -n), hour for preparation of 

lessons. [S^orbtreitung,/. preparation; ^tunbe, /., 

toor'Qebcn,"* «ep., gab ttor, »orgcben, to put or set before ; to 

allege ; to pretend, feign. [))or and geben.] 
toor'gefunfen, pp. (p. 82), bend forward, leaning forward. 

[i)or arw? flnfen,** (a ; u), to sink.] 
SBor^ang,8t m. (-e«; -IJange), hangings, curtain. [»cr 

If^angcn,^ to hang before.] 
tootl^er', ac?y., beforehand, previously, [ttor am/ l^er, tc^/cA 

too'tig, a<;(;., former, last, preceding \eixpanded form <)f »or]. 
toor'fommen,** «ep., fam \)or, ttorgefommen, to come before, 

forward, forth ; to come to pass, happen. 

koa^ morgen t^orfommt (No. 61), what the lessons or 
subjects are to-morrow. 

xA fommt mtt Oct, it seems or appears to me. 

idgf toetbe luieber Oorfomntett (No. 81), I shall call, 
look in again. 


Bei SSorfomwen (p. 147), when coming forth, when 
presented, etc. [\)or and fommen.] 

^oxfmitta^,^ m, (-e«; -e), forenoon; »otmittag«, acM gen., 
in the forenoon. [$or and ^iita^, m., midday.] 

^ot^nel^m, adj., genteel; of superior rank; fashionable; 
principid, special, [vomcl^men, to set before one- 
self, to take in hand ; ^ox and nel^men, to take.] 

SSor'faat,*'* w. (-<6 ; -'fate), lit, ante-room of the hrge draw- 
ing-room or saloon ; corridor. 

SBor^abt, /. (-; -jiabte), suburb [lit ante-town; like SSor^ 
jtmnter, n., ante-room.] 

t)orflel^en,B* sep., flanb ^ov, t^orgeflanben, to stand at the head 
of; to manage, direct (a bimnesSy institution, etc.) 
[^ox and jle^cn.] 

»orttefnici^, adj., admirable, excellent, capital. [»or and 
trepc!^ or tteffenb, striking, apt, /rom treffen,Bt (a; o), 
to strike, hit.] 

»ocWdrtd, arft?., forward, forwards. 

Aa a command: SSomartd! Advance 1 On! Along! 
To the front 1 Dottodrtd gel^en, to go forward, 
proceed. [»or and wart*.] 

ttorjuBeugen, inf. with ju of "ooxUrx^iti,^ sep., Beugte ttor, "ooxf 
gebeugt, /i^. to bend beforehand. Thence: to 
prevent, hinder, obviate. [t)or awe/ Beugcn, to bend, 
bow; akin to HeQcn,^* (o; o), to bow, bend.] 

^ot)Agli(i^jl, adverbial mperl. (p. 149), most distinguished, 
greatest. [»orjfigtid^, adj., superior, excellent ; ber 
aScrjug, /»., the preference , \>orjie(;en,«* to prefer.] 


9B, to, «., pronounced nearly like Engl. v. 
8©aar« [or better 2Bare),"«^/. (-; -n), ware; merchandise, 
goods [eiiker from toal^rett, to keep, protect, ward 

R 2 


carefiillj (since wares are wftrely warehoused 
and guarded) y or from an obsolete verb, to a 1^ ten, 
to estimate, set a value upon; to prove to be 
genuine and good (Lot. probare, veriiicare), con- 
nected with Germ, toal^r, true, Lot verus]. 
t»ad)tn,^ toai^tt, gen>ad^t, to wake, be awake; to watch, 
toad^en auf, 3d pers. sing. pres. q^aufbad^en,'*^ «<?p., 

to wake up, awake {from sleep, etc.). 
[toadftn is ike Goth, vakan, A.S. wacan (Lat. 
vigilare), to wake, to be or become wakeful, 
alive, vigilant. Of the same root is toad^fen, to 
grow, A.S. weaxen, to wax, to become larger, 
and toa(]^, adj., awake {I/xt. vigil), and its inten 
sifted and stronger form^ toadtt, adj., on the 
alert ; vigilant, brave.] 
toadfftn,^ koud^d, getoad^fen, to wax, grow, increase; to 

become taller, bigger, larger. [See ttKid^en.] 
SBad^e'fer je w/. (-; -n), or SBac^«Ud^t,** n. (-<« ; -er), wax- 
taper, wax-light; wax-candle. [Sad^d, n., wax, 
A.S. wac, soft, pliant; possibly connected with 
koeid^en, to yield ; bie Stttit, the taper, wax-light, 
from Lat. cereus, wax-light ; cera, wax.] 
todc^jl, Sd pers. pres. of toad)\tn. Conjitgated: 3d^ toadjft, 
to tt)d(^|!, er todd^fl; toir toad^ftn, i^t toad^fet, fte 
SBad^t,"^/., watch, [toadftn,^ to wake, watch, guard.] 
SQ3a(l^ter,a* m. (-«;-), watchman, guard, [bie SBad^t, the 
watch ; toad^tn;^ to wake, watch.]" 
bet ^a6)ia>&d)Ux, the night-watchman, 
toacfer, adj., gallant, valiant, brave, sturdy [an intensified 

form o/* irad^, a w a k e, vigilant. See loac^en]. 
SQBaffe,"^/. (-; -n), weapon, any implement of war or attack 
against the enemy; pi., bie aBaffen, the arms 
[originally bad ffiaffen, n., the weapon, identical 
with bad 2Bapj)ett, the coat of arms, escutcheon. 


Hence toa))^nen,^ to arm, occurs in poetical diction 
instead o/'toajfnen,"^ to ann. Origin doubtful]. 
Saffenft^ mudP,"* m., armour's radiant attire; in SBaffem 
fd^muf!, attired in brilliant armour. [Saffe and 
<Sd^mu^, whi4A, seeJ] 
^CLQt,'^ /' (-; -n), balance, scale, pair of scales; hazard, 

risk. [See toa^tn,^ to venture, hazard, risk.] 

loa^ett,^ toa^Uf getoagt, to venture, hazard, risk, attempt, 

dare [akin to Chth. vigan, A,S. wegan, to move, 

convey, carry; Lat vehere, Nhg. toegen, in ha 

tot%m, to move, induce. Thence: tDiegen (n>cg, 

getocgen), to weigh, t.«., to move, sway^ wag up and 

down like a balance, to ascertain the weight of a 

body by letting itw&g or move up and down in the 

scales; tie SBage, the balance, scales ; hazard, risk ; 

toagen,'^ to venture, risk, t.e., to put into the scales 

to ascertain which way the balance lies]. 

Proverbs: SBagen geloimtt, SBagen ttertiert, venturing 

{or weighing) brings gain, venturing brings loss ; 

nothing venture, nothing have. 5nf(J^ ^^tcc^Qt ift 

^alh %t(oonntn, lustily or well staked, attemptedj 

is half won ; fortune favours the brave ; faint 

heart never won a fair lady. 

Qin ®agel^al«, a venturesome, foolhardy fellow, 

who stakes (toagt) his neck ($a(^, m.) and risks 

breaking it. 

The verb toagen,''^ toao^tt, gemfigt, or t»agen,8* h)og, 
getoogen, to weigh, ponder (crwagcn,^ to con- 
sider), is conjugated both weak and strong, thus 
clearly showing that it is either a derived form 
©/■toiegcn and toagen {like f&((en from faKcn), or 
tiiot it is a misspelt form for loegen in betoegcn, 
beloog, betvcg, to induce, or beu>egen, betvegte, 
betoegt, to move, wUh which it is identical in 
sound. The verb toiegcn,^ to rock, to move 


from side to side, is a weak form of toit^tn,^^ 
to weigh. The Engl, to wage is probably 
connected with tottttn {which see), and not with 
toagen as erroneously supposed, 
2BaQcn,«* m. (-«; pi. SBagen or 2Bagen), waggon, wain, 
carriage, vehicle [the same 03 toagcn, ,Lai. vehere 
{Sanscrit root: wah, to drive, move, convey).' 
Hence also Lat. vacca, a cow ; originally a beast 
of burden, of the same root as Germ. D(i^fc, m., 
an ox]. 
SBal^n'finnigc,^ bcr (-n;-n), madman, lunatic. 

\adjectival noun from toal^njlntiig, adj., mad, lit. 
vain-minded; SBal^n, «i., illusion, fancy, ajid 
finnig, adj., sensible, thoughtful ; ber @inn, the 
sense, mind ; ^et SS^ai^n, the reflected lustre or 
light, a vain or deceptive light, is related to 
Engl, vr An, vain, faint, wanting; Lai. vanus, 
empty, false, vain, deceptive. Compare: toaf^i 
nen,"^ to fancy, imagine ; tie SBanfonne, the reflex 
of the setting sun, the sun being in the wane; 
ber ^(rgtool^n {which should be Slrgtoxil^n, i.e., 
arger SBal^n), suspicion, distrust, and Engl. 
wane, to grow wan, faint, to decrease, fall 
Xoaf)X, adj., true, real, genuine. 

9li^f ttKif)x or 3ft e« nid^t toal^r? Is it not so ? Is it 
not true? [supposed to have been derived from Ohg. 
w^rum^s, i.e., toir toaren, the pi. impf. of Ohg. 
inf. wesan, i.e., toefcn, to be {still to be found in 
pp. gemefen, been, and ba« SSJcfcn, the being). 
Thus tiKil^t seems to indicate originally /*that 
which has being, existence, reality;'* LaL 
toSl^tenb, 1.) prep, tmth gen., sometimes with a dat.j during, 
lit. pending (Fr. pendant, durant), was originally 


the part, prea. o/todl^rett,"^ to last, endure, continue, 
which was used adjecHvely, Thus : unter ttjdl^renbem 
®ef))rd(^e, as long as the conversation lasted, dur- 
ing the conversation; lodl^renbed Stxit^te, pending 
the ^ar, or as long as the war continued; in 
toai)Xtn\)tm fiicbe, in the present song, the song 
going on, etc. In the latter half of the ISth century 
todl^renb was detached Jrom Us ending -c^ (j^^n.) and 
-em {dat) in todi^renb-e^ and todl^renb-etn, and he- 
came employed prepositionally, mostly followed by 
the genitive^ and in conversational language fre- 
quently fbUoiced by the dative* 
2.) conj, (No. 67 and 76), during the time that, while, 
SBa^rl^eit,^/. (-; -en), truth, verity. [maf)x and l^cit.] 
tt>al^rf(^eitt'(i(i^, adj,f seemingly true, verisimilar; prob- 
able, likely. [toaf)t, true, and fd^cinlid^, from 
f^eincn,8t to shine, seem, appear.] 
3Baibmann,»* or SBelbmann, sportsman, [bic Sfficibe, the 
grazing, sporting, hunting, and fishing ground. 
Since all out-door exercise and sport is the source of 
bodily strength and vigour, the word iDcib, especi- 
ally in toeibtici^, became synonymous with "bodily- 
vigorous, well-made, comely, goodly, sightly, 
portly." Thus : eine teeibU(^c 3)ime, cin toeiblici^er 
9)?ann. The word n)eibU(^ is now mostly used 
adverbially in the sense q^ thoroughly, plenteously, 
to one's heart's content. Thus: 
3)a« ?Pfdffd^cn mi^tt jld^ »eibUc3^ am %i\d) gu ^jftegcn. 
See burger. „3)cr JIaifcr iinb bet Slbt."] 
2Batb,8*7». (-c«; SBdlber, dat pi. ffldtbern), wood; forest. 
[A,S. weald ; "a considerable part of the county of 
Kent is called the we aide, that is the woodland 
ground, the inhabitants whereof are called the 
weal dish men." — Fuller, In the name Wald- 


ham-forest, Ihe word Salb is still preserved. Com- 
pare also wold; Uivs^ "the Yorkshire wolds," 
and waldo, a coppice between Lavant and Grood- 
wood in Sussex. The word wold with the omission of 
1 has probably given birth to the Engl, wood. The 
word SBalb is perhaps connected with totlb, adj.^ 
wild, and of the same root a« ioalten, Goth, waldan, 
A,S. wealdan, Engt to wield, rule, govern; to 
hold sway. Compare also Lai, val^re, to be strong, 
and valde, adv,, strongly, very.] 

^aVd^tiu, prop. name. 

SBall,** TO. (-e« ; fflal(e), wall, rampart, earthwork {of afar- 
tres8y etc,). [LaJt. vallum, an earthen wall or ram- 
part set with palisades.'] 

SBall'bud^fe,"^/. (-; -n), a modern rifle of long range used 
in ihe besieging of fortresses against men appear- 
ing on the YTdM^ [$2Pa(( and 93ud^fe, which see,'] 

toaUen,^ toante, getoalft, to walk, wander, trayel; to bubble, 
spring or flow up like the water of a w ell. Com- 
pare EngL wallet, a traveller's bag or pouch. 

to&(f(^ {or toelfd^), adj.y foreign, outlandish, not intelligible 
[anything foreign, outlandish, and thence unintel- 
ligible. The Germans of old applied the term |Dd(f^ 
to the Latin langttages, especially to French and 
Italian, which were unknown to them, and they 
bestowed the name SBelfdJ^Ianb upon Italy. The word 
todlfd^, A.S. wealhas, is supposed to denote '* border- 
ing upon, bordererg," and was applied by the 
Anglo-Saxons to the ancient inhabitants of Britain, 
Hence: Welsh, applied to the- people of Wales 
{the Cymru or Cimbri), Of the same origin are 
supposed to be: Valais, a non-German canton 
of Switzerland; Walloon, a hordi&t-country of 
of Germany; Wallachia, anon- German country 
bordering upon Germany proper; bie SBaHitup, 


the walnut (le., todlfii^e S^lufl, or foreign nut), as 
coming from Persia and being different from those 
native to Europe, as filbert, hazel, and chesuut ; 
Cornwall, ^6 horn inhabited by the borderers.] 

SB a ( J ti) e r f,«* «. {-te j -e), roller, cylinder. [2Bal ge, / , roller ; 
toatjeti, to roll, to revolve ; loatgen, to roll {iron, 
etc.), to move along. Engl, wallow. Thence also 
SlOaljet, m., waltz (a dance),] 

3Banb,'"^B* /. (-; SBdnbc), wall (a term more applied to the 
inner or partition walls of a building and to the sur- 
face ofawaU). [ The word is connected with toinben, 
impf toanb, to wind, twist, turn, turn round, etc. 

SSBanbet, m. walk, course of life, behaviour. [See toanbcln.] 

toanbetn,^ to walk, go {in a path, etc,) [related unth SBanbcl, 
m., walk, /mm tt)cnben, see SBanbercr]. 

2Banbercr,«* m. (-«;-), traveller (on /w<). [Engl, wan- 
derer; tDanbern,"'^ to wander, travel about on foot ; 
akin to ttjanbctn ; both from toenben, toanbte, gctoanbt, 
to wend one^s way, to turn, go ; which is derived 
from toinben,** (a; u), to wind, wind up, turn 
round, etc.] 

SBanb^'ul^r.'w^/. (-; -en), house-clock, a clock hung up at, or 
placed against the wall; lit, wall-clock, to dis- 
tinguish from 2kif(i^cnu]^r, /., watch ; ©onncnul^t, /., 
sundial; %vixvx^\x^x, f, tower or church clock. 

SSBange,"^ /. (-; -n), cheek. [Old Engl, wangs, wang- 
teeth, i,e,, the cheek or big teeth, the grinders. 
An old rhyme says : " And in witnes that this 
is Booth, I bite the wax with my wang-tooth." 
W a n g e r, a pillow for the cheek. Compare Scotch, 
wan-bayn, the cheek-bone. The word is probably 
derived from Ohg, der wane, the flat, level ground, 
field. The common word for SBauge is S3acfe,/.] 

tea nfen,"^ to totter; to flinch. [Compare toinltn.] 

loann, i.) interrogative adverb {of time), when ? at what time ? 


9.) suhardtnaHve conj,, when, i.e., at the time when 
or if, when (No. 34) ; condiHonally, contingentiy, 
where tt>enn is now commonly used. {See toenn.) 
10 a r, impf. of fein, to be. Conjugated: i(^ ttxtr, bu toat^, er 
koar, fie ta>aT, tA toat ; ta)tt toaren, i^r toaret, fie koateit. 
Address, @ie toaten. 
tt>atb, t/n^. q/'toetben, to become, get, grow, etc. {which see), 
[The proper and original form of the impf. is : Sing, 
id) toarb. bu toarbfi, er toarb ; Plur. loir n>urben, if}t 
iDurbet, fte to>urben; but we generally say ncw^ id^ 
kDurbe, bu tourbefi, er tourbe, etc. The verb toerben 
belongs, properly speaking, to the same class as gelten, 
gatt, gegolten; ftnnen, fann, gefonnen, thus, loerben, 
iDarb, getDorbeit. And it is the only one of its class 
which retained the u ftr the plural, wkUst the rest, 
Uke gelten, ftnnen, fd^eften, ftnfen, toerfen, etc., trans- 
mitt^ the Kofihe singular to the plural form.^ 
tea re, impf. subj. to tear, /row fein. 

to arm, adj., warm, compar. xo^xmtt, \st or adjectival superl. 

ber, bie, bod toarmfle, 2c? or adv^ superl. am todrmflen. 

2Barnungwy. (_. -en), warning; caution, [toamenw to 

warn, caution (against, t)or).] 
^artburg,y:,^oper name, Wardburgh. 
war urn, adv. or canj., why, wherefore, on what account [for 

h ~ ^ ' washing, [waf^ena* (u; a), to 

^^ff^Wa^' ^' ^^^' "^^' wash-stand [lit. table for washing]. 
jEfref" "" ^""^ '""^' water for washing, i.e., soft water, 
be^^' ^^'""^ ^*'^^ ^ ravn-^ater (Olegentoaffer) 




SBaffetteitung^rol^re,^ /. (-; -n), water-pipe, conduit- 
pipe. [SBaffer, n., water; fiettutig, /., leading, 
conduit; direction; (Relate,/., pipe, tube.] 
SBaffetjlanb,"* m. (-rt;), water-mark {high or hw), height 
of the water ; state of the tide. [SBafer anc? <Stanb, 
m., stand, state, condition.] 
9BeBer,»* w. (-d;-), weaver. [tt)eben,B* (o; o), or weah^ 
to weave, t.c, to make a web. "The cob- 
webs that spiders weave." — Holland. JDa0 
©pinnengetoeBe, toetc^rt bic Spinnen toeBcn or fpinnen.] 
9Bc(j^fel,8* (-^;~)» change, exchange; bill of exchange 
[connected with LaJt» vicis {gen. eing.)^ change, 
interchange, etc.]. 

SGBeci^fels@our«,»t m., rate of exchange. 
SBe(!^fetrec^t,»* «., the law or Act of Parliament 

referring to bills of exchange. 
2Bed^fetftempet,«t m., the stamp on a bill of ex- 
98e^fe(gef(!^&ft*^ n., a banking business, bill and 
money-broker*s business, 
toec^feln,^ to change; to exchange (mon^^), to get small 
change; to cash, get cashed; to alternate. 
To get small change for a German dollar, einen 

iC^alet iwd^feltt (or uw'toe(^fetn, eep.). 
To cash a banknote, etne 93anfncte toe^feln {or utn^- 

toed^feln, aep.) 
To change one's clothes, bie Jtleibet toed^fetn (f!^ 
um'giel^cn, aep.). 
toecfen,^ tocdte, getocrft, to wake up, to make to wake; to 
awake, rouse up ; to call one {up in the morning^ 
etc.) \/rom toad^en,^ to wake]. 
Phrases: 3(^ toad^e nic (auf) ; bitte, wcrfen <Ste mid^ 
unt fec^d Ui^r, I never wake up ; please call nie 
at six oVlock. 
SBanii {or vm toet^e Ul^t) foH \&f <S(c ntorgen frul^ 


koedfen? When shall I call you to-morrow morn- 
@ie f)ahtn tnic^ gefiem SD^orgen gu fru^ getoecft ; id^ 
l^abe bie gauge 9la(l^t Qttoadft. You called me too 
early yesterday morning; I have been awake 
the whole night. 

toebet, oonj.y meber nod^, neither nor. [Engl 


XotQ, adv. and sepi prefix of verbsj away, off, departed, gone, 

ffieg,»*m. (-e«; -e), way ; road; route [from Goth, vigan, 
Nhg, fid^ betoegen; Uke Lat via, way, firom vehere, 
▼ehi, to convey ; travel, etc.] 

toegen, prep, with gen. (JrequenUy placed after its noun in 
the genitive ; but it is also placed before the noun), on 
account of, for the sake of, for ; about, concerning 
[originally the dot. pi. of 3Beg,«* m., way, governed 
by prep, von; thus^ )>cn . . . xot^vx, 9on diec^td toegm, 
by right, properly speaking, etc. The other prep* 
which are derived from nouns are: anflatt, haft, (aut, 
tro(, biedfeit, jenfeit, )>enn6ge, inmitten, auf rr^atb, gufolge, 
^tben, etc. In the vernacular tongue b)egen is fol- 
hwedbyihedaJt. Thus, Clauditts,inthe^atibiibtdit 
fQoU, writes: b)egen ben ©eburtdt&gen, an account of the 
birthdays. Notice the inflected a in Xa%tn, which 
is now always dropped]. 

toes'getiffett, pp. of tt>egreigen,«»* sep.y rig toeg, t»eggeri|fen, to 
tear, snatch away ; to carry off. [toeg and reifien,'^ 
(i ; i), to tear {toith violence^ force, etc.), thence fllif 
and rij^en, which see.] 

*»«8'9<f^wiffen, />p. q^ toegfd^meigen, sep., fd^mig lofg^toeg^ 
gefd^miffen, to cast or throw away (a less elegant 
and refined expression, frequency used in conversa- 
tion for toeglcerfen, which see), [toeg and fdl^metfen 
(i ; t), to smite ; to throw.] 


toeg'getoorfeH, pp. of toeg'toetfen, sep,, toatf toeg, tocggetoorfen, 
to throw away, [toeg and toerfen.] 

tofl^en,^ to blow, waft; toc^en burd^, to pervade, animate 
(p. 107). 

2B«^t,"^/' (-; -«n), defence; bulwark. Engl weir, wear, 
a ward or dam, [toel^ren,^ to protect, defend, 
Jrom koal^ren, to ward against, to look after, to 
be on the watch; bie Sanbtoel^r, the German 
national militia, bet SDel^rmann, the militiaman; 
jp?. bie SBel^rleitte. (SeefBaaxt.) Connected with Ohg. 
wer, man {Lai, vir), in SBel^rgelb, money paid by 
a man in Ueu of military service ; SB e 1^ r to)o(f, w e r e- 
wolf, a man who can turn into a wolf, Fr, loup- 

toel^tett,"*^ fid^, refl. toel^rte (Id^, fid^ toel^ren, to defend oneself, 
to make resistance. [See tot^x,] 

SBeib,»* w. (-cd ; -er), wife, woman, female. 

[mostly applied to married women. Connected 
with Goth, (bi)y^ibjan, to encircle toith a 
wreath, v^ips, the wreath. Thence SBeib means 
originally f " the (with a wreath) adorned one," 
the wife]. 

SBetB^en"* (-*;-)> mate, the female of birds and other 
animals, [SBetB and diminutive termination sd^cn. 
See St6xb6)tn.'] 

toeid^, adj.f soft, tender. [Engl, weak, ^rom A.S. wican, 
Ohg, wichan, Nhg. toeic^en, to yield, give way, etc.] 

toeid^en,"* icid^, getoic^cn (fein), to give way, yield [akin to 
Yond^, adj., weak, soft, tender; the verb midftn,'^ 
in tinXDiidjtni^ sep,^ has still the meaning, to render 
soft, tender, etc., by soaking ; thus, trocfene ^rBfen 
eintoetd^en, to tfooA; dried pease over night in water, and 
thus render them soft and make them better for 
boiling the next day], 

SBeibe,^ /. (-; -n), willow. [Engl, with, withy, Ohg. 


wida, witu, the wood or twigs of a tree employed 
for fastening, binding anything together, from 
Goth, withan, Ohg. wetan, to join, bind, etc. 
Thence, 2Biebe, /., osier, switch. Compare also 
Engl, withers, the shoulder-joints.] 
toelgern,'*' fid^, reft, iwigcttc fid^, fld^ ge»etgert, to refuse, 
decline; vcrtoeigem, insep.y to refuse [Jrom Ohg. 
weigar, presumptuously, proudly; Ohg. weigari, 
pride, haughtiness; thia the original meaning is, 
to reject haughtily, proudly]. 
SBcil^,"* m. (-ed; -e), kite (o bircl); kite (a plaything of 

paper, etc.), iuffoxa^t, m. 
toeil, suhordinative conj., i.) originally indicating duration 
and coincidence of time, while, as long as, during 
the time that. Thus, ^ca (Sifen tnuf matt ft^mieben, 
toeil ed dlu^t Iron must be hammered while it is 
hot {lit. while it glows). 
8.) generally used to denote reason, primary cause, 

etc., because, since, as. TAt<», SBeil bu t)ott bet 9lf ife 

fommfl (No. 61), since you come from a journey. 
[Older forms: af(biett)ei(cn and anbiett>cile {for attebic 

SBeile), during the whole time, i.e., all the while. 

Thence, btemei( {or berta>ei(, which see), and koeil tin 

its present curtailed formJ] 

Gdckingh*» epigram may serve as an illnstration:— 
" Mein Advocat,Herr Weil^ ist ohne Zwei/el 
Ein reieher Mann; schon Srmer tat Dieweil; 
Dem A lldietoeil ward voerigur nodi etc TkeiX^ 
Und AllditwtHtn ist nun gar ein armer Teu/el.** 

SBeitfw/. (-;-tt), while, time; leisure (No. 83) [held to 
signify " the time turning or passing away,^* and 
connected unth wheel, welk, welkin; thence Nhg. 
S8o(f en, p/., clouds, the Bk.y,Jrom A.S. wealcan, to 
welk, turn, roll; according to others, originally 
signifying " leisure, rest." Thence toellen, to tarry, 
abide, stay awhile]. 


mit SBeile (No. 83), with leisure, taking it easy, 
not in too great a hurry. 
SBeirt,8* m. (-ed; -e), wine. [Lot. vinumJ] 

(Sin SBeiitgtod, n., un verre li yin, a wineglass. 

@in (Blca fBtxn, un Terre de vin, a glass of wine. 

Phrases: SBotten (^ie ein ma€ SBein mit mix trinfett? 
Will you take a glass of wine with me ? 

2)atf id} S^nen ein ®i<a SBein anlbieten ? May I offer 
you a glass of wine ? 

3<^ banh 3]^nen. ^ergUd^ gem. I thank you. 
With all my heart. 

SBel^e <Sorte giel^en <Sie »or, aS^ei^toein ober (Rotl^toein? 
Which kind do you prefer, white or red wine ? 

(Rotl^toetn, toenn e« S^nen betiebt (or totnn i^ bitten barf), 
Red, if you are agreeable (or if you please). 

Sluf 3l^re ©efunbl^eit, tnetn ^etr! Your health, Sir I 
toeinen,"'^ to weep, shed tears, to cry. [Engl, whine.] 
toeife, adj.f wise, prudent, sage [signifies as much as: 

IDiffenb, knowing, having knowledge of; and is 

connected with toiffen, to know ; Engl, wit. Com- 
pare also %ttoi^, sure, certain; Old Engl, y wis]. 
SlBeife,*^ bet (-n; -n), adjectival noun^ the wise man, sage, 

SBeife,"*^ bie (-; -n), manner, kind; method, way. [Engl, 

SOeifer, ein (-n;), adjectival noun^ a wise man, sage, phi> 

losopher (mixed declension of cu^js, : tin 38eifer, eine6 

SBeifen, einem SBeifen, eiuen Seifen). [See hjeife.] 
SBei^l^eit,^/. (-; -en), wisdom, knowledge, [toeife, a((/., 

wise, which see,"] 
toti^, adj.f white, clean, 
n^ei^, id^. Seetoifizn, 
toe it, adj.y compar, toetter, Ist superl, bed, bie, bad toeitefle; 

adv^ superl, am toeiteflen; wide, broad; far off, 

distant, remote. 


toeit unb huit, far and wide, everywhere. 
totittx, adv. {compar.)f farther, forward; besides, 
in addition, more (No. 105). 
!S3eitew bod (-n;), the wide or large fields, the whole 

open plain, etc. [adjectival noun from toett]. 
SBeite,"'^/., ble (-; -n), the width, extent ; distance. 

in bet 9Beite, advi estp*., at a distance [from locit]. 
toeitet. See ttxit. 

toei'terbefotbetn,'^ sep,^ beforberte toeiter, toctterbeforbert, lit. 
to farther forward ; to forward, send on (gooda). 
[todtn, compar. of xotii and beforbem, to further, 
forward, promote ; forbem, to farther ; forbrtr, 
compar. farther ; "ocx, fort, fore, forth.] 
SDeitetbeffrberung,^/., sending on, despatch. 
9Beijen,«* m. (-^;-), wheat [formerly spelt SEBei^, and 
provinciaUy knoum as bet SDeif , bad SBeifmel^I {or 
usually SDeigenme^Q, n., wheaten flour. SBeij^eit » 
probably derived from toci^, adj.f white. 
Compare SBeiflbrot, n., white or wheaten bread], 
loeld^er, w?., toeld^e,/., toelc^ed, n., which, what. 

1.) interrogative adj. and pron., 9Be((^er SKann? 
Which man ? ^eld^en $erm fyiUn ®ie gefprod^en ? 
Which gentleman have you seen or spoken to ? 
SBel^ed ifl 3^t J&ut? Which is your hut? 
mti^tx ij! e«? Which is it? ffield^etf ifl 3l^re 
8tau ©emal^ttn? Which is your lady? (wife). 
The neuter is used as grammatical or indefinite 
subject to the verb '* to be, fein," when the real 
* subject precedes or follows m the same sentence. 

See bied. 
8.) indefinite pronoun^ some, any. Thus : 
3fi no(^ mif)X Zf)tt ba? Is there any more tea? 
(S^ ifl nod^ to (Id} tx ha. There is some more. 
3fi totldftx ba ? Is there any? 
®tnb toeld^e ba? Are there any? 


8.) rekUive or aubordinative pronoun, connective of 
ike subordinate eentence, who, which. 
ThuSf tin jiunged 9R&bd^en, totldft^ berettd conjlrmirt 
ifl (No. 67, p. 71), a young girl who has been 
already confirmed. See beffett; beren, beffen, p. 222. 
[Ut, toUlid^, how conditioned, what like, of what 
body OP nature, yrom toie? how ? and Hi}, Ohg. 
lih, lich {Engl -ly, like), the same as Seid^e, body, 
corpse. Compare Lat. qualis, quale.] 
fBtlfd}tn,t)U,pli the foreigners, borderers, especially applied 

to the French and Italians. [The same as Welsh, 

See ta)d(f^.] 
SBelt,^/. (-; -en), world. [A.S. werold, from wer (vir), 

manj and old, age, thus, " man*8 age or life.'*] 
3Belfau«ft<nung,^/. (-; -en), international exhibition. 

[ffielt,/., world; Slu^fiettung,/ exhibition.] 
toenben, toanbte (iDenbete), getoanbt (getoenbet), to turn, wend; 

{t(^ toenben an, to apply to, to address oneself to 

[from toinben (a j u), to wind], 
ffienbung,'^/. (-; -en), turning, turn [from toenben]. 
toenig, adj., little, compar, toeniget, less, fewer ; adv^ superL 

am koenigflen; least of all. 

1.) n)enig in the sing,, little, not much {expresses 
an indefinite quantity and is not declined when 
used affectively or adverbially), 

s.) loenige, j7^., few, not many (expresses an tnd^nite 
number of objects or articles, and is declined Uke 
pi. of biefct). 

3.) iDenig, when used substantively, is declined like 
biefet, thus (No. 22), mit SBenigem, with little ; or 
like an adj. of weak ded. if preceded by the def, 
art., thus: ,,9on bent SB e n i g e tn toiU id^ bit ein ^ip 
(^en geBen/' "Of the little I will give you a 
little bit " (de paulo paululum hoc tibi dabo. 
— Plautus). {See next page.) 


4.) etn toentg, a little, a bit (is generally indedinahle), 

thus : ein koenig ^tot, a little bread. 
[Supposed to be connected mih toeinen, to whine, cry, 
weep, and Sel^, woe, thence originally signifying 
lamentable, woful. Compare koinjig, tiny, pany, 
which is supposed to he derived from toinfeln, 
to whine, cringe, wince.] 
wentgflen^; adv.^ at least, at the least. 

\adv^ svperL with gen. case-ending 6 from loenig.] 
totnn, conj. i.) of time; subordinative connective of the adv^ 
sentence^ and designating repetition and coinci- 
dence: when, whenever. Thtts: 3mmet, menn er 
faum begonnen (No. 17), always, whenever he had 
scarcely begun, commenced. 
2.) of contingency and condition; subordinative 
connective of the oM sentence, expressing that 
an event is depending on conditionSj contingent on 
something else: if, in c«se, provided, if at any time. 
Thus : toenn bie 3unge in bie SD^itte fomme (No. 6), 
when {or if at any time) the tongue was to get 
into the middle {centre) ; n)enn mid^ niemanb U^a^t 
(No. 21), if nobody pays me ; toenn i^ na^^taffrnt 
IjaU (No. 25), when I have imitated. 
[the same word as toann ; originally an adv. of time, 
mostly interrogative; akin to the interrogative 
pronouns toer, toad, who, what.] 
ta>er, 1.) interrogative pronoun {used when we ea^pect the answer 
to be a person), whc ? 
aOer toirb bie nun Uiai)Un wuffcn? (No. 42), Who 

will now have to pay for it? , 

SBer jtnb beun bie? (No. 62), Who can they be? 
2.) relative pronoun {often accompanied by ber, ex- 
pressed or understood, in the principal sentence), 
who, he who, whoever, etc. Thus, mx aud^ nid^t 
fiogif fennt (No. 4), who even does not know logic 


toet etn iump x% (bet) Bleibt ein inrnp (No. 10), He 
who is a Bcarap, remains a scamp ; mx . . . ber 
(No. 16), whoever ... he. See also No. 30, etc. 

tottbin,^^ toaxb, getoorbeit; to exert oneself, to work, to 
acquire by tarning or moving about. [Ohg. 
hwerban, to turn or move round in a circle. 0/ 
the same root : fBixUl, f»., whirl, vortex ; OeloerBe, 
n., occupation, trade, industry.] 

tocrbe, er, Ut and 3d pers, sing.pres. subj. of toevbeu. In 
conjunction with the inf. of another verb it forms the 
future subj.y thus, etc toctbe mic^ me toieber l^ier^er^ 
btingen (No. 91), He should never take me there 

tt>erben,8i iwirb (tourbe), getootben, to become, get, grow, turn, 
come to be, to be getting, to come into existence, 
etc. {conjugated with fein; thusj id^ bin getDcrben), 
toerben ava, to become of; toerben ju, to turn to; 
«« toirb einem, one begins to feel. 
Hoerben, asauxilary (pp. toorben, which see)^ is used 
1.) toith the infinitive of any other verb to form the 
future and conditional tenses ofihe active voice^ and 
is rendered in Engl, by shall, will, and should, 
2.) with past participle of transitive verbs to form the 
wj^ole of the passive voice {see Fischart's Elemen- 
tary German Grammar, p. 65), and is rendered in 
Engl, by am, was, have been, etc. ; thus^ idf b>erbe 
gel^ott, I am heard. 

[Engl, worth, ihuSy Woe worth, i.e., woe be, an 

expression frequently met tvith in old English 

writers^ and stiU used by Sir Walter Scott in 

hie " Lady of the Lake,'* Canto I,, Stanza IX., 

"Woe worth the chase, woe worth the day 

That stole thy life my gallant grey."| 

toetfen,8* twrf, getoorfen, to throw, cast, fling, hurl. [Engl. 



to warp, to casty throw, Engl, the warp, that 
which t9 w a r p e d {like the threads of textile fabrics 
on a loom), answers to the Germ, bie SBerfte, and the 
latter signifies in German alsOjthe ^viiarf, a landing- 
place for goods projecting yroTw the bank.] 
^txntx, proper name of a person, Werner, 
oett^, adj.j worth, worthy, of value; valued, dear, 
esteemed. Often occurring in letters, thus : {p. 144, 
No. 3), 3^rc toertfte (Rec^nung, your esteemed 
account; ^f)X SBertl^rt {supply ©d^reiben), your 
esteemed letter, gen. ^i)xt^ SBertl^en, etc. [toert^, 
t.e., iverbenb, or that which is coming to be, which 
is becoming striking and remarkable, and, on 
comparison with other things, sets off well. Thence 
also tourbig {formerly toirbig), worthy, and bie 
SBurbe, the worth, dignity.] 
SBertl^,"* m. (-e« ; -e), worth ; value, price. [See toert^.] 
toertl^t)otter(en) (No. 25), ace. sing. masc. of the compar, of 
to>ert^9o(0 <idj., valuable, precious [lit, ^oU, full of, 
2Bfrt^, worth]. 
SB c f ^ e,^ /. (-; -n), wa s p. [Lat. vespa.] 
^tfitf'^f, (-; -n), vest, waistcoat. [Lot, vestis.] 
SBeftfalenlanb, or SBefl^jfa^Ien, n., Westphalia. 
90 c fig oilmen, I?/., Visigoths. 

The Goths came firolh Scandinayia at the beginning of the 
Christian era, and settled neac the Vistula. They were divided 
into Ostgothen, Ostrogoths, and Weaigoihen^ Visigoths^ the terma 
09t and West indicating their original and relative position in 
Scandinavia. They spread gradually over .all the country firom 
the Baltic to the Danube, but were forcibly dislodged by the 
terrible hordes of the Huns, who invaded Europe in the year 
875 or 376. 

toetten,"'^ loettete, getoettet, to wage, lay a wager, stake, to 
bet. [The Germ, toetten is the Engl, to wage or 
g&ge for, to stake, lay a wager; Engl, wage is 
by change of g into w derived from Fr, le gage, a 
pawn, pledge; pi. wages, pay^ the Lat, vas, 


vadis, a surety y in later Lat.j vadium, gnadiura, 
gagium {thence Fr, g&ge),pledge-nwneyy pay^ wciges. 
To the Lot. vas, vadis, corresponds the Goth. 
vadi, Ohg. wetti, Mhg. wette, A.S. wed, a pledge, 
gage, {Hence, to wed, a wedding) Nhg, aOette,/., a 
wager, bet; toettett, to wage, bet. Thus the 
Engl, wage answers to Germ, iDetten, and not to 
koagen {which see). 

SBet'tctBeti^t,"* m, (-rt; -e), weather-report. 

fQtt'tixf)af)n,^^ m.f weathercock, a vane in the shape of a 
cock (ein $a^n, m., a cock). 

By a Papal decree of the 9th century, the figure of a cock, the 
emblem of St Peter, was set up on every church- steeple. 
** The cock shall not crow, till thou hast denied me thrice/' — 
St John, xiU. 38. 

toic^tig, adj., important, of consequence ; full weight ; Engl. 
weighty. [ba^®e»id^t,theweight,yr(w»toie0en, 
to weigh. Ohg. wegan, the same as tot ^tn in Uf 
toe gen. Compare toa^en,] 

SDid^ttge^, n., adjectival noun, something import- 
ant, of importance, 
toiber, i.) adv, and insep, prefix, against ; contrary, counter-, 
anti-. Thus, toibevfa^ren {which see). 
2.) prep, with ace, against, (No. 83) in opposition 
to ; contrary to (jutoibet). [See toieber.] 
toiberfalft'ren,"* insep., ttJiberful^t, toibetfal^rett {with dot,), to 

happen, occur, [toiber and fal^ren.j 
toibmen,^ toibmete, getoibmet, to dedicate. 

fid^ toibmen {with dat.), to devote oneself to, give 
oneself up to. 

[originally to endow, to settle a dower on the wife 

out of the husband's property. In the Burgun- 

dian laws wittemo meant the purchase-money 

which a man had to pay for the bride,] 

h)le, 1.) interrogative adv.: how? in what manner? in 

what way ? in what degree ? 


2.) relative adj,^ tisedas subordlnative conj. of the adv^ 
9erUence, and expressing : 
A.) manner f likeness^ analogy: how, in such a 

manner as, after the manner of, such as; as, 

as if, like. 
IDu Mfi u>ie unfere ^ntttx (No. 25), You are or 

look like .... 
3c!^ tovL^U, toif id^ baran tear (No. 39), I knew how I 

was See also Nos. 31, 34, 37, 40, 50, etc. 

ffiie folgt, as follows. 
h.) of time {point of time, etc.) : when, as. 
IS^ie fte nun \dfon in t)o((er ©lutl^ ^anb (No. 52), 

When it was .... 
SBie ba« geft^e^cn tear (No. 59), When that had 

been done, etc. 
[from an old modal- case ofmx^ who ?] 
toieber (or better to>ibet), adv. O'ld separable prefix, again, 
afresh, anew, once more. In composition with 
verbs, etc., back, again, return, re-. 

[This is exactly the same word as prep, toiier, against, and 
was spelt the same as late as the 17th century. By the fasti- 
dious grammarians of the 18th oeutory it was unnecessarily and 
erroneously turned into wieder. It is identical with Ohg. widari, 
Mhg. wldere, from widh, the same as the Engl, with, and 
affix ar or er, and signifies originally, " an opposite direction, 
against," which reversed gave the aeoondaiy leaning o^ 
" return, bade, again."] 

toMtxf)o^itn,^ insep., toieberl^otte, hncbfrljolt to repeat, re- 
iterate, to go over (a lesson) again, [loieber and 
f)oUn, to fetch.] 

toithtxf)oU^, adv., repeatedly, again and again [pp. of 

toie^etum, adv., again, once more, [iineberand um, ocfr., 
round ; past, over.] 


ein'toiegeu w eep., to rock to sleep. 

toie^etn w to neigh, to whinny. [Lat. hinnire.] 


SBiefe,^/. (-; -n), meadow, grass land, a ground covered 
tidth grass [supposed to he connected with ves, in 
Lot. vestio, vestire, to cover, adorn, Goth. 

toie)ool^(, subordinoHve conj., though, although, [loie and 

toilb, adj.f wild, savag^, fierce; desert. [See §S3aIb.] 

t»xiV, conjugated: id^ totU, bu \»ill% tx toiU; toix YtoUtn, 
etc.fpres. of toolitn. 

2Dine,»* m. (gen, -nd or -n, dat -n, ace. -n), will; mind, 
purpose [frdm tooflen, which see], 

VdXiilevx'vMVi, adj,^ welcome ; acceptable. Used as a saluta- 
tion and interj.y thus: @ci toiflfowmen! ®eiet, or 
feib toittfommen ! @eien <Bxt toinftunuien ! Be wel- 
come ! [0^. willicumo, Mhg. willekumen, Nhg, 
toif(!ominen, i.e., ttod^ SBiUen (dat. sing. Ohg. willin), 
gefommen, come to one^s will, wish, desire, (yoxii 
does not stand for tooi)t) It was the custom among 
the ancient Teutons to offer to the welcome guest, who 
vas received with the words, ®ei toinfommen, a 
brimming cup, a welcome cup, which became thence 
termed bet Sffiinfomm.] 

SBinb,"* m. (-e«; -e), wind. [Lat ventus, and supposed to 
he connected with toel^en, to blow.] 

SBinbe^gefc^toinbigfeit,'"^/. (-;-), velocity or force of the 
wind, [©efc^toinbigfeit, /, swiftness; gefd^toinb, 

toinfen,"^ to beckon, to make a slight movement {with the 
finger, head, etc.), to give a sign or a hint by 
winking ; bev ©inf, the hint, [teinfcn is akin to 
tocLXiUn,^ to totter, and in the Bavarian dialect 
WanUtx is often used for toinfen.] 

Sffi interest m. (-« ;-), winter [supj^osed to he allied to SBinb, 
m. wind]. 

©in'terf ottig^s* m. (-f« or -« ; -e), king of the winter. 


SBintftruBf,^/. (-; -n), winter-turnip. 

@ommm:uben,/>Z.| summer-iornips. ^ 

tfix, nom. pi. ofidf, 

tolrBetn,""^ to go or move rapidly round, to whir, whirl; 
to warble, beat a roll, [ber SfiirBcl, whirl, vortex, 
etc., connected with root qftotxhtn, which see.] 

teirb, ddpers. sing.pres, oftottttn. 

2BirtlJ»*(or SBirt), m. (-rt ; -e), host, innkeeper, landlord, 
the master of the house, a man uoho receives and 
entertains visitors {supposed to he connected with 
OHg, wer, Lot, vir, man. Compare ®e]^r]. 

Sirtl^in,'*' /. (-; -nen), hostess, innkeeper's wife, land- 
lady, etc. 

toifci^ett,^ to wipe; rub; dust. 

ttifd^te auf, impf. q^aufiinf(^€tt w aep., to dry up, wipe off. 

SBiffen,^* n. (-6 ;-), knowledge [verbal noun from toiffen]. 

to if fen, koupte, ^etou^t, to know, to have knowledge of, to be 
aware of, etc. Engl, wite, wit, wote, wist. 
Pres. ind, xij toeif, bu tuetf t, er 'mti^ ; toir toiifen, etc., 
applied to mental knowledge, sometimes answering to 
French savoir, and to be distinguished from fennen, 
which see. 
J^ennen @ic biefen J^etrn? Connaissez-vous ce 

monsieur ? Do you know this gentleman ? 
©if fen @ie feine SBol^nun^? Savez-vous son 
adresse ? Do you know where he lives ? 

to I f'f f n f d^ a f t ti ^, adj., scientific ; erudite. [® iffenfci^aft, /., 
science, erudition. IV. le savoir, la science.] 

too, 1.) interrogative adverb: where? in what place? 
SBo id e« ? Where is it ? 
s.) subordinative conjunction {mostly locative, express- 
ing the relation of locality, etc.) : where, in the 
place where, in what place, etc. 
too SBajfer ijl (No. 5), where there is water, 
too ... . Itegt (No. 11), where .... rests, lies. 


too ed tjl (No. 13), where it is. 
Find other examples in Nos. 34, 38, 50, 52, 63, etc,, 
and in No, 111. 
8.) in composition with prepositions^ too before a con- 
sonant and- toot before a vowel are used instead of the 
dat or accusative cases of toel(]^er and bev, and instead 
of toad. Thus : toorauf, whereupon {instead of auf 
toeld^em, auf toetdjed) ; toofut, wherefore {for fur toad, 
toeld^ed, etc.). 
SBoi^e,^/. (-; -n), week. 
9Bo(!^en$Umfat,Bt m,, weekly sale, the amount sold during 

the week. 
SDogen)>ran,B^ m., the sound of waves broken on rocks. 

[SBoge,/., wave, billow; $rafl, m.^ rebound.] 
tool^in, adv, and subordinative conjunction^ whither, toward 
what place ; in which, to which (No. 81), where, 
[too and t)in. See fftx and t)\n.] 
tool^t, ado.y well (bad SBol^t, the weal, welfare). 

tocl^I (or better tool) is frequently used as an expletive, 
to heigJUen or modify the meaning conveyed by the 
verb, and must then be rendered by perhaps, 
probably, etc. ; bod^ tooiji, j[a tool^l, benn tool^I, no 
doubt, certainly, I presume, suppose, etc. 
[Of{hesamerootas)coo\[iXi, to will, be willing, wish, 
desire, etc. Hence tool as now vsually written when 
expletive, and as it is now generally spelt by most 
grammarians, even by Becker.] 
to o]^ I an', interj,, {encouragingly) well! come on I very well! 
tool^lbel^al^'ten, adj,, all safe, safe and sound, [bel^alten, 
pp., kept, preserved ; be and l^alten, to hold, keep.] 
too()tB&f(^affen, adj., well-conditioned, in good condition, 
[befd^affen, pp., conditioned, made ; be and fd^affen, 
to shape, create, make.] 
SDo^r^erucl^^Bt m,,^ sweet fragrance, pleasantness of smell, 
[©erud^, m., smell, fragrance ; rieti^en,^* to smell.] 


mof)l^tx)padf, artj.^ well-packed. [t)etc^(ft, pp. of ©er^ 

^jacfen,^ insep.^ to pack.] 
XOQ\jVt6oX\t\\, sep.j to wish Well to, to sympathize with. 

[iDolftt and tt>o((en.] 
SBol^ItooUcn,** n, (-«;-), verbal noun, sympathy of a 
well-wisher ; fein SBd^ttDcIlen. his good wishes, 
tool^nen,^ tocl^nte, getool^nt, to dwell, reside, lodge, abide, 

live. [EngLj pp., woned, won*d, won't.] 
ffQoYnntiQ,^/. (-; -en), lodging. 

Fhr. : $ier ifl eine ^cl^nung gu oermtetl^en, Lodgings 

or Apartments to let. 
SOBtettiel SKietl^e »erlangen @te fur bt^fe bctben Sittimer? 
What rent do you ask {demand) for these two 
rooms ? 
3d^ ^Bc bie Simwcr immer fur funf ^alti bie 2Bo(]^e 
aBgetaffen, I have always let the rooms for 15 
shillings a week. 
aBo]^n'gimmcr,»*«. (-«;-), parlour, sitting-room. 

Phr.: ^(S) braud^e ein @d^lafjimmer fotoi« (or unb aud^) 
ein SBol^ngitnmer, I want a bedroom as well as a 
3(i^ fann S^nen biencn, I can accommodate you. {S^ie 
also Simmer.) 
2Bolf,8t m. (-e« ; Solfe), wolf,pZ. wolves. 
ffQolU,^/. (-; -n), cloud. [-EJn^r/. welk, welkin, see 2Beile.] 
aBoUew/ (-;-), wool. 

tooiUfSd per 8, pres. subj. (No. 110), may [of tooKen]. In 
expressing a wish, which ike speaker hopes to see 
realized^ the pres. subj. is often used. 
ticiUn, ttJoHte, getoolU (auxiliary of mood expressing voli- 
tion, intention, inclination, determination, etc.), to 
will, to be willing, to intend, to feel inclined, to 
have a mind to, desire, to want ; to be about to, 
to be on the point of, etc. 


Examples: ©oUt i^r . . . (No. 7), If you want, 

wish . . . 
^attt f!e getooUt (No. 12), if ^be had willed, 

^an^i^^en tt)iH ein Xif^Ux loetben (No. 17), Johnny 

wants to be a joiner, 
eitt Siotonifl, ber nac^ ^aufe ge^cn toollte (No. 27), 

a fiddler who wanted (meant) to go home, 
bie n>onte tie ^anb nid^t regen (No. 29), she would 

not, felt not inclined to, etc. 
toiUjl bu (No. 37), if you wish, want, desire . . . 
SBir tooUen IDit l^elfen (No. 61), we will, etc. 
Srter toillfl ©u f!e ni^t htf)a[Un (No. 54), but do 

yon not want, desire to . . . 
S)ie ffieftgotl^en too It ten (No. 69), The Visigoths 

intended, were about to, etc. 
dlnn toill id^ . . . (No. 60), Now I am determined to 

have . . . 
ber fa^ren tooKte (No. 71), who was {in the act of) 

carrying, taking, who set out with the intention 

of, etc. 
ba^ et toeber effen no(i^ trinfcn tooUte (No. 74), That 

he would, was determined, etc. 
toa« jie toollten? (No. 74), what they wanted, what 

they were going to do. 
tooUte er in i^rer ©efcflfci^aft fcin (No. 74), he felt 

inclined, intended to be . . . 
bcifen ft(^ ber Jtranfe vcrtounbern toolUe (No. 74, p. 

79), at which the . . . was going to (about to) 

express great astonishment. 
See also Noa, 83, 86, 93, 106, 110, 111, etc. 
[A.S, willan, Engl will, Lat. volo, volui, velle, 

Gr. fiouk'«fAM. From tooHen are derived: too^I, 

well ; SBi((e, m., will ; toAl^Ien, to choose, select.] 
too tan, adv. and eubordinative conj.y whereon, by which, 



what, on which, etc. [toot and an, for an toeld^em, 

an mad, etc. See wo.] 

tooran ed Ixioji (No. 90), where the blame or fault lies. 

toorauf, cuh). and subordinative conj,, whereupon, at which, 
what, etc. [toor and auf, for anf totl^te, to^a, etc. 

toet^tn,pp.y is used for getoorben, when ike verb tonften is em- 
ployed as an atudUary of tense. 

Thus, wcrden \& used in the Perf^ Plupf.^ Second Future^ and 
CondUimal of the passive, where the pp. of the conjngftted verb 
precedes. As : ieh bin gehort wwrden, teh war gehSrt warden, 
ich werde gehort worden aein^ ieh wUrde gehdrt worden eein. Sie 
aind gebraeht warden^ they have been brought ; mr sind hedUni 
worden, we have been served. When werden is employed as 
a verb neuter, Its pp. is always geworden. Thus : Was ist au$ 
ihr geworden f What has become of her ? 

ffiort,"* n. (-e«; -e), word. PL 2Bcrte, denotes connected 
words, a sentence. Thus: ^d) l^aBe nut brei SBorte 
nitt xi)m %t\pxo^tn, I have only had three words 
with him. PL SBorter is applied to separate, single^ 
and unconnected words. Thus: IBernt auf uBer^ 
morgen aHe SDorter im 9B6rterBu(]^e ! Learn all the 
words (vocables) in the vocabulary {dicUonary) for 
the day after to-morrow. 

This distinction between Worte and Worter is in no way founded 
npon any difference in their meaning, it is entirely arbitrary. 
It dates only from the beginning of the 18th century, and was 
no doubt considered a grand discovery by the fastidious gram- 
marians of that period. We meet with the plur. Worter 
(formed after the manner of Vdlker, ThUler, etc^ first in 
the 16th century; up to the 18th century, It was used without 
auy distinction, and with the same meaning as Worte, which 
is the original, older, and nobler form. In the 17th century 
we find Wortbueh for our present Wbrterbueh, and we stUl say 
Spriehw'drter (and not Spriehworte), proverbs, notwithstanding; 
tlie above rule. 

^oxt^prcper name, Worth. 

aB6rtlein,Bt n, (-« ;-), a little word, the least word, [dim, 

W VOCABm.ARY. 419 

9Bunber,8* w. (-«;-), wonder, miracle, marvel; prodigy. 

tounberl^aft, adj., wonderful, extraordinary (syn, with toum 
bcrbar) [lit, having wonderful qualities, from 
SBunbet, n., wonder, and suffix l^aft, originally an 
adj,, derived from l^abcn, to have, possess. Thence 
oho: bie ^aft, the custody; l^aften, to cling, adhere 
to ; unb vet^aften, to take into custody. See l^aben]- 

toun^eclid^, adj, and adv.^ strange, odd, queer, extra- 
ordinary [lit, wonderlike, wonderly; SBunbet and 
Ud^, like, Ohg, 1th, Engl -ly]. 

tounfd^en,"^ toiinfd^te, getounfci^t, to wish, desire, long for. 
[SBunfd^, «*., wish; of the' same root as SBonne, /., 
joy, rapture, (ge)toinnen, to win, and Lat venia, 
favour, indulgence.] 

tourbe, Impf, suhj., was to, would, etc. [from toerbcn]. 

tt)utbe« > 

»utben, [^ ""*• 

9Burm,8* m, (-e^; SButmcr), worm, vermin. [Lat. vermis, 

worm, lit. that winds about.'] 
tourtembergi f d^, adj., formed from the name of the kingdom 

n>ufc!^, impf q/'toafd^en,^* (u ; a), which see. 
SBujIe,"^/. (-; -n), waste; desert, wilderness, [ttjujl, adj., 

Lat. vastus, empty, waste, desert, etc.] 
9Buftenf6ni0,8* m. (-c« ; -e), king of the desert. 
tt)upte, impf. ind. id^ xou^it, bu ttJUptefl, et njufitc, etc. [from 

toiffen]. _ 
»iigte, trng/'. »2*6;., idji toufte, bu tougteji, etc. [from ttJtffen]. 
n^ut^ig, adj. (hdter toutig, which has been replaced by iDutenb 
in modem German), mad, furious, 
[bie aBut or fBntf). Old Engl wood, wod, in 
woodnesse, wodnesse, fury, rage, madness ; A.S. 
wod, adj., mad. Thence also, Woden,(he name of 
the supreme and fierce god of (he Scandinavians. 
The word may be akin to ii?i(b, wild.] 


X, X, iB not a German letter. It never oecare as an initial, except in words 
borrowed from the Greek, like : Xenie (epigramX Xerxes, Xmn- 
tippe. In ffexe, f., witch, it represents the combination of ^9, 
and the combinations ehM and eka have sometimes the sound of 
X. Thus : Buchriiaum, box-tree ; Udchael, toaehsetit etc. 

^, \) (like t), is not a German letter. It mostly occurs in words borrowed 
from the Greek, and is generally pronounced like German i 
(Engl, ee), or sometimes like fi (u inflected). 

2)emen or Semen (should be pronounced JDfc^emen), known 
as Arabia Felix, a soutli-western province of Arabia. 
S)emen means "to the right," ».6., 0/ Mecca, 

" Beautiful are the maids that glide 

On summer eves through Yemen's dales."— 2nioma» Moore. 

3, gr and ( are pronounced like ts, and must be distinctly and 
sharply sounded; thus Qtit Uke "tsite," gu like 
"tsoo," ^erj Uke "herts," gtoangig like "tsvan'tsich," 
fe^en like " zetsen," etc. f which stands for {f at 
the end of a word, of id for ff befire a consonant or 
after a diphthong or long vowelf is sounded like ss. 

gagen,^ to be afraid, fear, to feel disheartened; to hesitate 
[from gag, adj\, shy, fearful]. 

3 a 1^1,^/. (-; -en), number, figure; an ber Qdf)\, in number. 
[Engl. tale. "They are received by weight, and 
not by t a 1 e." — Smithes Wealth of Nations. Thence : 
^Cif)Un,^ to tell over, count, number ; erg&l^len, to 
relate ; Qa^Ux, teller, counter, numerator; 


Sal^fwng, A, numbering; SSolfiljaljIung, /., census; 
Grgd^tung, narrative, etc.] 

gal^ten,^ to tell out, pay; to reward [yrom.3a^l]- 

Sal^lung,^ f. (-; -en), payment. \8ee gatj^leit.] 

Sal^n,** m. (-rt; Sdl^ne), tooth. [OA^r. zand and zant, 
G^^A. tunthns, aldn to Lot, dens, dentis, Gr, li^ws, 
oievrtt, Sans, danta.] 

gart, adj., compar, garter {and garter) ; superl ber gdrtefle {or 

gartefie), tender, slender ; delicate, soft. 

[Engl, taft, i.e., teart, sour, sharp, etc., from A. 8. 

tear an, to tear, separate, dissolve, destroy, etc. 

Thence also : Nhg. gel^ren, to grow less, lean ; and 

gerren, to pull, tug.] 

gattlid^, adj., tender, affectionate [from gart]. 

Saunlonig,"* m. (-e«; -e), wren ; lit. hedge-king, king of the 
hedges {also known as Baunfc^lu^fcr, i.e., hedge- 
slipper)., [ber Sciun {not to be confounded with bcr 
Soiint, the team, bridle), the hedge, from gaunen, 
A.S. ty nan, to teene, enclose, hedge, fence. Thence 
A.S. tun, any enclosure, and Engl, town.] 

gel^ntaufenb, numeral adj. {cardinal), ten thousand, [gel^u, 
ten; Ohg. zehan, Gr. Vixa, Lat, decern; taufetib, 
Ohg. thiisunt, thousand, i.e., ten hundred."] 

Seid^en,^* n. (-«;-), token, sign, mark, trade-mark, etc. 
[i.e., that which is brought out, shown, etc., akin to 
getgen, which see]. 

geici^nen,''^ to draw, design, depict; sign, subscribe [con- 
traction of geid^enen, i.e., to make a picture by lines 
and marks drawn ; from Seid^en, which see]. 
Compounds : bod Seid^enbuci^, the drawing-book ; 
ba« Sei^enbtatt, the copy drawn from ; bie Seid^en? 
flunbe, the drawing-lesson ; ber Seic^enlcl^rer, the 
drawing-master ; bie Seic^nung,/., the drawing. 

geigen,""^ geigte, gegeigt, to show, point out, to bring out, 
exhibit, display, indicate. Hence often synonymous 


wWi lel^rett, to teach. Thus : f&itit, ^eigen (Sie tnir 
toie bie beutfd^en a3u(!^)laben gcfd^rieben toerben, Please 
teach (jshow) me how to make the German letters, 
[jeigen, from jeil^en, to pronounce, afl5rm, charge 
with ; like Lot. docere to leach, tell, show, jvom 
dicere, to say, affirm, describe, etc. See also Sergei? 

3cit,^/. (-; -en), time, period, season. 

bie 3al^tedgetten, ph the seasons, i.e., {^ul^Ung, 

spring ; (Sommer ; ^erBjl, autumn ; SBintet. 
[The Engl, tide or tyde {Scotch tid), Chaucer*9 
tidde. Connected with it are supposed to be: 
betide {Spencer^s betight), tidings, tidy. 
Origin of the word is doubtful. According to 
Grimm, it is derived from geil^en, jeigen, being an 
indicator, as it were; according to others it is 
derived from jiel^en, to move. Thus, the tide, 
3eit, is the moment at which anything happens, 
comes or goes, etc.] 
Seitung^menftJ,"'^ m., newspaperman or fellow; a man 

connected wUh a newspaper. 
)er, inseparable prefix of verbs, signifies asunder, in pieces, 
and is identical vjith Lai. and Engl, d is.* Thus: 
di(s)rumpere, to disrupt, gerteifien. 

* The s in Lat dis has become r in Germ. eer. Compare Lat. 
d i 8, which is changed into d i r before e m o and habeo. Thas : 
d i r imo for d i s-emo. 

1.) gcr, in composition with intransitive verbs, ex- 
presses : 

The separation of a whole into parts, a falling or 
crumbling to pieces. Thus, tergehen,** urflieaaen,"^ to 
dissolve, melt, liquefy; xerapringen,** to fly asunder; »ef»- 
rinnen,** to melt, vanish away. (Of this class there are very 
few verbs.) As dissolution and sepfiration is opposed to con- 
nexion and condensation, zer sometimes denotes the opposite 
of the word If compounded with ge. Thus, gerinnen,*t to 
curdle, congeal; zerrinnen, to flow asunder, melt; g^aUenj^ 
to please ; zer/allen,*t to fall to pieces, into rtiins. 


2.) get, tn compoaiium with transitive verha^ ex- 

A destroying, demolition, cutting up, cruBhlng, 
shattering, tearing to tatters, etc. TYms^ zerreiszen,'* 
to tear to shreds, tatters, pieces; urbreeheit,** to break to 
pieces, to shatter, smash ; gerJUUehen;^ to lacerate, mangle, 
cover with gashes; teratdren,'' to destroy, demolish, to put 
an end to; terschlagen,^ to knock, beat to pieces, to beat 
down; terachneiden,^ to cut to pieces, cut up, carve. 
There is sometimes a contrast between the verb compounded 

with Mr, and the same verb if compounded with ver. See 

ver, III. 2.) p. 37a 

gerBrod^en, pp. of jcrBred^cn,** insep.y jecbrad^, jcrbrod^cn. 

[get and brec^cn. See get.] 
geriffen, pp. o^gerrcigen,** insep. (i; i). See g€t. 
je^reif en,B* insep. ^ gcrrif, geriffen. [get cmd reipen. See get.] 
gerreift, Sdpers. sing.pres. q/" gerreifen. 
3eterg<fc^rei, n., cry of murder. [Seter! intj., murder I 

death I and ©efd^rei, cry.] 
Seugttig,"* n. (-e0; -e), testimony, evidence [from geugcn,"^ 

to bear witness, testify]. 
3f. (p. 158), abbreviation of QinSfni, m., thefoot^ measure^ or 

rate at which the interest is calculated. Thence^ 

rate of interest per centum (5 °l^ or 6 $rocent 

is the same as 5 per cent.). [Qini, is Lat. census.] 
giel^en,"* gog, gegogen, to draw, pull, to bring up (No. 110), 

to proceed, go {intransitively with feiu). [Engl. 

to tug, tow; Lai, ducere.] 

Derivatiyes: Bettzieche, tick, cover ; Ziehung, f., drawing (of 
lots); Zeug^ n., stuff, material; Zeuge, m., witness, proof, 
mark ; teugen^ to produce, breed, engender, beget {erztv^m). 
From the Ohg. pi. impf. zugun, Mhg. zugen, Nhg. zo^en 
are derived: ZTerso^ (which see); Zo^Ztn^', m., pupil; zSgerHf 
to delay, heritate; Zug, m., Engl, tug, act of drawing, march ; 
train; Bezug, m., reference; (ezit^UcA, relatively, with refer- 
ence to; ZUgel, m., rein; zUgeln, to curb; Zucht^ f., breed, 
disdpline; zUchtig, well-behaved, modest; zUchtigen;^ to 
chastise ; zueken,"^ to move suddenly ; zUchen in entzUcken (see 
entzUekt). Compounds: ZiehbrUcke, drawbridge; Ziehkraft, 
t., traction-power, etc. 

For practice form other compounds of ziehen by means of 
the prefixes given under ««fsen, p. 847. 


3 if gel,"* m. (-6 ;-), tile. [A. 8. tigel, Fr. tuile, Lat tegula, 
from tegere.] 
tin ^adj^it^tl, m., a roof-tile ; tin Siegelbad^, m., a 

tiled roof. 
Siegelboben,"* m., a floor covered wUh tiles. 
Siegelpreffe,"^/., a press or macAwwybr press- 
ing and moulding tiles. 

3tel,»* «. (-e«;-c), end, limit; aim (en ^n'/i^, efe.), object. 
Commercially: day, limit, period tr^^n payment is 
to be made. [Origin uncertain. In meaning it 
answers to Gr. rtx«;. Supposed to be the same as 
Engl, till, prep.y to the time of, and connected 
with A.S. tilian, to labour j toil, till the ground; 
Nhg. jieten, to aim.] 

ein 3iet fe^en, to put a stop to ; refl. {toith ftc^), to 
set oneself an end to be attained. 

litxafi\(i), adj. and adv., becoming, tolerable, middling, 
rather. [Engl, see m\y from gientcn,"^ to bes e e m, 
seem, to be becoming, to appear fit ; originally a 
strong verb : Ohg. zeman, or jemcn, gam, gegomen. 
Thence are derived : gal^m, tame; gd^men,'^ to tame 
(O. lafMv, Lai. domare, to tame), and Sunft, /., 
guild, society {Ut. an agreement with proper rules 
and principles), *' a fraternity or company." 3ie' 
men or gemen, is akin to Gr. lifAttv, to build, Germ. 
g answering to Gr. 2.] Nhg. ftd^ giemen, and ft(^ 
gegiemen {the latter being more intensive) are used in 
the 3d pers. only. Thus: te gtemt fic^, or gegiemt 
ftd^, it is becoming, it behoves. 

gietlid^, adj., pretty, nice, neat; attractive, ornamental 
[from giereu,"^ to adorn, ornament, probably the 
same as Old Engl, tire, its attire, to adorn, dress, 
clothe. Compare also : bie 3iet or Sierbe, the tire, 
ornament; bet 3tcrratl^, the tirement, articles of 
ornament, ornamental things, ornaments, etc.]. 


3i»ittter,«* «. (-«;-), chamber, room; a structure of tim- 
ber. [Ohg. zimpar, Mhg, zimber, A.S, timber.] 

Compounds: ^Befegitnwer (reading-room); ^avL(i)i 
ginwner (smoking-room) ; SBartcjimuter (waiting- 
room) ; ^d}laiimmtx, @(3^reibgiininer, 58efud^«gitn^ 
mtt, @j)eiffjimmcr (or efgimmer), SSifttengimmer, 
S3ibliotl^eF6gittitncr, JBorgimmer, SBol^itjitnttier, etc., 
tnhich see under their respective letters. 

Phrases : <&aben @ic moblitte cber unmobtirte Simmer 
gu »ermiet]^en? Have you furnished or unfur- 
« nished apartments to let ? 

3d^ toin Sl^nen bic Bimmer geigen? I will let you see 
(or show you) the rooms. 

@ie finb mcbUtt, They are furnished. 

Sauter SJ^al^agoni^^S^obeltt, All the furniture is ma- 

©el^t ba« Simmer nad^ ber ®trage? Does the room 
look into the street ? 

S'iein, mein Jperr, ti gel^t nad^ bem ©arten, No, Sir, it 
looks into the garden. 

©ie fcnnen fein beffered Simmer tounfd^en, You cannot 
wish for (get) a better room. 
3lmmer(i^cn,st n, (-^j-), little ropm [diminutive in 6}tn of 

3immermann,»*m. (-e«; -(eute), carpenter, lit. timber-many 

i.e,j a man v^Jio works in timber, as used in building. 

[jimmcrn,"''^ to work in timber. See Simmer.] 

SimmerI}of or Simmer^jta^, m., timber-yard. 

Simmerl^olj, w., wood for building purposes. 
Sijjfel,^* m. (-e ;-), tip, point, edge, end. [Engl tip, ah'n 

to So^jf, pig-tail; Engl, top, tuft.^ 
jitter tt,''^ gitterte, gegittert, to tremble, shake. Engl, titter, 

to shake loi^ laughter^ with fear ; in imitation of the 

gogan, im2)f <>/"angie]^fi!, trhich see. 


gog er an*a ^erj (p. 97), jog, impf, of ixt^j^tix {which see), 

followed by prep, an, with ace. 
SoK,*** m. (-e«; SoHe), toll, custom, duty; inch. 
3ortt,«»* m. (-e« ;), anger, wrath. 
}U, I.) preposition with ^e dative, to. 

The leading idea set forth by this prep, is that of direction to, 
approach, nearing, nearness, and proximity, with 
regard to a certain terminating point. This final end to be 
reached being often the aim and object of an action, the 
prep, eu is also nsed to express purpose, intent, means, 
etc. The final or terminating point may also become the 
turning-point of an action; hence, with certain verbs, tu 
indicates what a thing becomes, turns into, or that which 
is e f f e c t e d by lin action. 

1.) Bu, with proper names of persons, expresses motion, direction, 
or approach to a p e r s o n. Thus, Lasst mich zu der Guten gehen 
(No. 89, p. 93), Let me go to the good lady or woman (i.e., let 
me go to see and speak to her). Er geht zum Doetor, He goes 
to (see) the doctor. 

The prep, nach is used of motion to a person, if the object is to 
fetch such a person, where we use f o r in Engl. Thus, Er gtht 
nach dem Doctor ^ He goes for the doctor, i.e., He goes to (fetch) 
the doctor. 

2.) «u is used- to express motion, direction, or approach to 
a place, when the terminating point of an action is to be indi- 
cated, and when the staxting-point is at the same time indicated 
by prep, von. Thus, Wir gingcn von Haus su Bdus, We went 
tcom house to house ; von einer Stadt tur andem, From one town 
to another ; von JHund su Mund^ From one mouth to another. 
But with proper names of places, the prep, "naeh " is also used. 
Thus, Wir reisten von Hannover " nach " Braunsekweig, We tra- 
velled from Hanover to Brunswick. - ^ 

N.B.— Of motion or direction to a place or to an inanimate 
obj ect, the prep. " nachj*^ is mostiy used. Thus, Er reUt naeh 
Berlinj He goes to Berlin ; Er schreibt nach Hamburg, He writes 
to Hamburg; Er Uiu/t nach dem Oartcn^ dem Hafen, «<c., He 
runs to the garden, harbour, etc 

But we also find s« nsed of direction and motion to a place 
in the following expressions: 
zur Kirche, gur Schule gehen, to go to church, school, etc. 
zum Fenster hinaus springen, to Jump out of the window. 
zur 7%Ur herein kommen, to get or come in at the door. 


sum HauM hinauk gdun^ to go out of the house, 
sum SeMoste hinanf geJan, to go up to the castle. 
rich su Beiie ver/Vgeni begeben (No. 76), or tu Belt geken, to go to 

8.) zu, with proper names of places, is mostly used to indicate 
where a person resides, stays, or the close proximity to a place. 
Thus, Er lebt zu Berlin, He lives at Berlin (either in or near 
the Blace). But the prep, in is also very frequently used. 
Thus, Er wohnt in Berlin, He resides in Berlin (i^., inside the 
town, in the city). 

The usual style of address on letters is : {An den) fferrn Doctor 
Stem zu Hamburg; but if the person lives in the town itself, 
we also write: (An die) Herrtn Oreiner u. Comp. in Bremen. 
Notice also such expressions as, zu Tieche, at table; zu Hause, 
at home. 

4.) tu sometimes indicates the manner and means of locomotion. 
From the following examples it will be seen that this notion 
proceeds from the close contact with, and proximity to, the 
object. Thus, su Wagen (No. 10), in a carriage ; tu P/erde, on 
horseback; tu Fusze, on foot; zu Lande reieen, to travel by 
land ; tu Schiffe, on board a ship. 

6.) ctt indicates an intent, aim, purpose, final end. 
a.) In the following expressions, as : 

tur Sicherheit (No. 39, p. 4^), for safety; zur Fluche(So. 80X 
for flight, to get away; zum 2ran«e (No. 46), for a dance, to 
dance ; ztu- Av/beu>ahrung(So. 47), for the purpose of keeping, 
holding; zur Theilung (No. 60), to be divided, shared out; 
zum Essen ru/en (p. 88X to call to dinner. 

h.) When sign of the infinitive, in those infinitive-clauses in- 
troduced by um, in order to, expressed or understood. See 
um 4), p. 869. Thus, urn zu beglUeken (No. 44, p. 62), in order 
to rejoice, delight. 

N.B. Any infinitive Joined to another verb requires zu, except 
with the auxiliaries of mood and such verbs as bleiben, hdreri, 
Jahren, gehen, lernen, sick legen, etc. (Elementary German' 
Grammar, p. 88) ; and any infinitive dependent upon a noun 
or adj. susceptible of government, must be accompanied by zu 
Thus, 3Iit wem hab* ich dieEhre zu lament (No. 46, p. 63), 
With whom have I the honour of dancing? 8ie kamen auj 
den Gedanken, ihren Gefangenen los zwbinden (^o. 48), They 
hit upon the thought to uncliain their prisoner. 

6.) tu indicates a final end, or that which a thing becomes, turns 


i nto^ and that wliich a thing is good for to be tamed to, after 

the foDoving ▼erbe and adjeetiTes, as : 
werdem ra, to become, torn into, mmeken su, to make of; tavt- 
gem^ uUizeM m, to be of use for; vfShUnj ememnen sv, to elect, 
choose to lie; gereicken 2U, to conduce to; hinreiehen su, to be 
sofflcient for; taugliehf nStzlieh au, to be good, nsefol for; 
geackidct sm, clever for, etc. 

Notice also : hommen su (No. 39), to get into the possession of; 
MM SekadtH hommen, to get hurt ; cum Tode verurtheUen (No. 
93), to condemn to death; mm F^emide habertj to have as a 
fiiend; 211 Gebote stehen, to be at one's command. 

7.) sai is used to indicate time in the following stereotyped 

wm Jakr zu Jahr, firom year to year. 

heut zu Tage (No. 81), at the present day. 

z* Mittag esaen (No. 36^ to take dinner, lit to eat at mid- 

sit Abend eszen, to take supper, sup. 

Mur reehtett ZeUj at the right time. 

sum letzteu Mai(e), the last time; zum ersten M'tl(e\ the 
first time. 

zu WeUtnadUeUf at Christmas ; zu Oatentf at Easter. 

8.) The Engl. prep. " t o" when sign of the indirect object or dative 
case of a noun or pronoun, should not be translated by zu, but 
is better rendered by the dative case in German. Thus : He 
gave the pen to me, or he g^ve me the pen, Er gab mir die 
Feder; The imtch belongs to my sister, die Tuehenuhr gekort 
meiner Schwezter. 


There is, however, a marked tendency in conversational German 
to express the Engl, t o, when sign of the dati re, by zu, especially 
before proper names of persons. This practice is, however, 
to be deprecated, and not to be encouraged. Thus: I have 
given the book to Annie, should be translated, leh kabe da» 
Buck Anna or der Anna (hot not zu Anna) gegeben. 

II.) zu 1.) as adv. and separable prefix signifies to, over, added to, 
(and thence) closed, obstructed. Thus: 

fftt««A«n,"t Sep., to look on. 

zvgiezzen,** sep., to add by pouring some more to it. 
zu/rieren,'* sep., to freeze over, to be covered with ice. 
zuschneien,'' sep., to be covered with, or obstructed by snow. 
zumaehen,'' Rep., to shut, close. 

S.) As adjunct to an a<y. signifies: too, more than enough, 
over-much. Thus, zu viel, over much, too much; zu echmtcr, 
(No. 17), too heavy; zu heiez (No. 17)^ too hot, etc. 


3u'bc]|^6r,*»* m.f chattels and property pertaining (to the ahip^ 
etc.f p. 151), lit. belonffings thereto. 

gu^bel^otig, adj\ (p. 143, No. 1), accessory, additional [syn. 
toith ba^ugel^otenb, Jrom bagugel^cren, aep,, to belong 

gu^btingett, sep.t Brad^te gu, iviQthxa6)t, to pass, spend {the 
time, etc,), [gu and btingen.] 

gucfen,"^ {and gurfen), to move quickly, suddenly; to pull 
with eflfort, tug [from gie]^«n,*»* to draw, pull]. 

guerfl, adv,, first, at first, first [probably a contraction of 
gum etfien, for the first. Compare gufrteben]. 

Sufricbeul^eit,'^/. (-;), satisfaction, contentment; gratifi- 
cation, [gufricbftt, adj.y satisfied, content, happy, 
lit. at peace, contraction of ^n and Sneben, the dot. 
gov^ by prep. gu. Similar eapressiom are : tocr^ 
l^anben, at hand ; Gfr. vr^ixH^f » votgeiten, in former 
times. Compare gu ^ferbe, on horseback; gu 
.^aufe, at home, etc.] 

Qnfu^Xf'^ f. (-;-ni), supply {of provisions, etc.) [lit. th^e 
carrying or bringing to the spot ; guful^r or ful^r gu, 
impf. of gufal^ren, sep.^ to drive on ; to carry to. 
the spot]. 

Sufle, pi. q/'3ug,s* m. (-« ; Suge), the act of drawing, any- 
thing drawn; tug; trait, feature {of countenance, 
etc.)] train, march; expedition; flight, [giel^en^^^ 
{o ; o), to draw, etc.] 

gugegoffen, i)p. of gugiefm, gof gu, gugegoffen, to add by 
pouring {anything) to a liquid or into a vessel 
{containing a liquid), [gu and gief en,^*. See gu.] 

gu'gcfe]^en,2?p. q/" gufel^en,®* «ep., fal^ gu, gugefcl^en, to look on, 
to be a spectator of; to watch {wiih dat.). 
Qtx l^at S^nen gugcfcl^en, He has watched you, 
looked on. [gu and fel^cn,** (a ; e), to see.] 

gugefd^neit,^. o/guf(^ncien,"^Mi?., to be covered or become 
obstructed by snow, [gu and fd^neien. See gu.] 


gugtei^, adv.^ at the same time; at once, together, [gu 
and glei(i^, like, etc.] To he distinguished from 
fogteid^, adv,, immediately, directly. 

inUl^t, adv., at last, lastly, finally, [ju and (e^t] 

\ViV^,for gu bem; gum gtt^eiten ^X^ate, the second time. 

gunbete an, impf, qf an'gunben,"^ *ep. (*yw. wi^ an'flcrfen,'^), 
to set fire to, to set on fire, to kindle, bum, etc. 
[gunben t9 /8|pencer*« andMiUovCs tine, t in d, ^.iSl 
tendan, to light, kindle. Thence also tinder, 
Germ. 3unber, any maUer used for kindling a fire 
from a spark. Compare Scotch teind, tynd, a 

3 unb'lo^,"* n. (-ed \ -lodger), touch-hole {of a gun). [Sunb 
and god^. See gunbetc] 

SunbnabelfHntc,"^ /., or ©etoel^r,"* n. needle-gun. [dunb$ 
itabet^SIinte. See gunbcte an.] 

Sunge w / (-; -n), tongue; speech, language; pointer 
{of pair of scales). [LcU. lingua, old form dingua.] 

gur,ybr gu bet, to the, for the, etc. ; gur ®ette fiel^en, to assist, 
help one. 

gured^t, adv. and sep. prefix of verhs^ to rights, right, put 
straight, in order, [gu and xtUji, right.] 
gured^t'Ugcn,^ sep. (No. 48), to place or lay in 

gure(3^t'bringen, sep., to put or set to rights. 

gurud, adv. and separable prefix ofverbs, back, back again, 
backwards, behind hand. \IU. gu bem 9{udfe, (Rucfen, 
toward the back; ber Sfiucfen. A.S. hrycg; Gr. 
peix'fi ^^^ back. Thence probably , rickets, supposed 
to arise from a disease of the spine ; according to 
others, akin to Germ, rerfeu, to stretch, rack.] 

guru((7ie(, impf. of i\xt\\d^\ci{[t\\,*'^ sep,, fiel gurutf, guriicfge$ 
faffen, to fall back, relapse, etc. [gurucf and faKen.] 

guru(f0elegt,/>p. used adjectively {p. 151), accomplished, 
/ram gururf'(egen,^ sep., lit. to lay back, to lay 


aside, to get over, to traverse (a distance, road, 

journey, etc.). [gutiicf and Ugen.] 
gutucfQerannt, pp. o/'jutucfrennen, aep., tannte gututf, jurficf* 

gerannt, to run back. [gutudP anc^rennen.] 
jururf'gubenfen, «w/., w;iVA gu tWcrfec? (No. 30), q/* guriicf^ 

benfen, sep., bad^ie gutM, )uru(fgeba(!^t, to think 

back, to recall to memory, [gurud and benfen.] 
gutudjufd^ouen, «»/. with gu inserted (No. 30), to look 

back, [gurud and fd^auen,'^ to look, gaze, behold, 

EngL show.] 
jufam'mcn, adv* and sep. prefix of verbs, together, in com- 
pany, [p and fammen, or famtn, and fam ; Ohg. 

sama, samo, related with Engl, same, and Lat. 

similis, simul, semel, semper, simplex, and Gr. 

ttfia, Ofitog.j 

jufam'mengefd^motgen, pp. of gufattt'ntcnfd^meljen,«t sep. 
(o; o), to melt together, to reduce to a fluid or 
molten state; to dissolve, lessen, etc. [Engl, to 
smelt when applied to the melting of ores, etc. 
Compare Gr. ^jx^«, to melt, grow liquid.] 

gufam^'inenlegen;'^ sep., legte gufammen, gufammengelegt, to 
lay or put together, to arrange, [gufammcn and 

gutucf^gog (No. 45), impf. in the subordinate sentence, in- 
troduced by, inbem, etc. ; from gurudgiel^cn,** sq>., 
goQ gutfidf, guriidgegogen, to draw back, withdraw, 
[gurutf and giel^en.] 

3ttjlanb,8* m. (-eg; -flanbe), condition; state. [guPel^en,^* 
8^., flanb gu, gugeflanben, to be incumbent on, to be 

gutoeilen. adv., sometimes, now and then, ever and anon, 
from time to time, [gu and SBeiten, dat. pi. of 
SBeile, /., while, which see.] In the same way are 
formed: (i0n>eiten, sometimes, once a while; 
untfttDcilen, between whiles. 


wdbaJAy the ta/iit at 

losed upon an alien 
1^ might, not bj 
[iwingni, tee 3«nm 

be ejM rapidly, to 

!«.,-* (a; a). [See 

etween, betwixt; 
7hg. Ewiik, two/old, 
r in urisken, m (Ae 


tptionofintXl 0kg. 
i zwa, two, or, ten 
49«n, ten and two 

eleven, from rinlif 
Uenee rilf, a* t( tea* 


2 to a n g t g, num., twenty [a dialectical corruption of gtoen jig 

or itomi^i^f Mkg, zweinzic or zw^nzic. The Nhg. 

^gtg, Mhg, -zQ(^j -zic, answers to, and is ihe same as 

gel^rt, ten ; Lot, decern ; Gr, y^»a]. 

glvanjigtaufenb, twenty thousand. 
gtDat; adv, and adv^ conj., indeed, in sooth, to be sure, it is 

true \contraction of gu loal^r, i.e., \vx SDal^rett, in 

gh>ecn, masc, \ 

l\QO,fem. > twain, tweyn, twey, two. 
l^otif neut, ) 

zwei is now the nsaal word for t w o ; eween and aoo disappeared 
from Qerman prose with the 18th century, but Schiller still 
ases zwo in his "Robbers/* and in older writers (especially in 
Lnthei's Bible) zween and two oocar frequently. Hence the 
student of German ought to be acquainted with these forms. 
The German numerals from 1 to 10 oorrespond to the Latin and 
Greek numerals. Thus, ewei is Ihe Lat. duo, Gr. ^vm. ewie is 
used in compounds for swei. Thus, ewie/aeh, or awe\/dchf two- 

gtt)ei his brei, from two to three. 

gtoecf^md^ig, o^'., adapted to the purpose, practical, ser- 
viceable, [bcr StoctJ, the aim, purpose, object, 
mark ; pin, peg {in the centre of a target), a cobbler^s 
peg, ©d^uflcrgtoecf ; m&fig, in accordance with, 
of due proportion, moderate; bad SDf^af, the 

StoeifftBt m. (-« ;-), doubt, [gtoeifetn,^ to doubt, 
hesitate. Like Lat. dubftis and dubitare, from 
gtuei (Lat. duo, two). Hence lit. " moving altematdy 
in two opposite directions. ''^ Scotch: swidder, 
swither, to hesitate, to cause to be irresolute.] 

gtoeite, b«r, bie, bod, the second. 

3tt)et0,8t n. (-€d; -e), dwarf. [Supposed to he the same as 
gtt)erd^, adj., croi^, crooked, thwart, forested out of 
its straight course."] 

3h)tngeif,stwj. (-«;-), den, keep, fort, [gtoingen, jtoang, ge* 


gtoungen, to compel by force ; probably the same as 

Engl, twinge, to press, pinch.] 
3tt>ingl^.errf(^aft,^/., a government imposed upon an alien 

or hostile country or nation (by might, not by 

right), ^lencef tyrannical rule, [gtoingen, see Qtom 

Qer ; ^errf(!^aft, lordship, rule.] 
gtoinfetn'^ (No. 71), to open and shut the eyes rapidly, to 

gtoinft (No. 75), /or gtoingt, ^am gtoingen,** (a j u). [See 


ofcn jttJitigen, to force open. 
jtt)tf(^en, prep, toith Dat. or Ace, between, betwixt; 

among [Jrom the dat. pi. of the Ohg. zwisk, two/oldy 

gov^ by a prep., thus: untar or in zwisken, in the 

midst of tufo], 
gt»itf(^ctn,''^ to chirp, warble {like birds, etc.). [Engl. 

twitter, in imitation of the sound.] 
J W 6 1 f, num., twelve [a dialectical corruption of jtoelf, Ohg. 

zwelef, zwelif, i.e., lif, ten, and zwS, two, or, ten 

and two added (according to others, ten and two 


In the same toay is formed elf, eleven, from einlif 

or eittlef, ten and one added. Hence zxlf, as it was 

formerly spelt, instead of the present elf]. 








aVlommtn,^ 8q>.j lam ab, af^tlommtn, lit. to come of, %.e,, to 
get away, get off {from one^a hudneas or house), 

fi^jenbe, pres, p. mth case-ending e, /rom dd^gen,'^ &(^gte, 
ge&^gt, to moaD, sob; Engh aohe [Jrom ^d^! 
the natural cry of pain, tohich is by some gram- 
marians supposed to he connected with the Lot. acos, 
a needle, acles, a point; Gr. «»/;.] 

Slctien^Oefenfd^aft, r^/. (-; -en), company established 
or cMreviated < by the issue of shares. 
5lct.5®ef. (p. 158), ( i^cthnaX m,, shareholder.) 

SI g e n t n%^f. (- ; -en), agency. [Stge'nt, m,, agent.] 

Slmer. (p. 158),^ Slmerifanifci^e), acff^ American. 

Sln'erfennung,""^ /., acknowledgment (No. 72); admira- 
tion, approval, [an and erfennen, to recognise.] 

angeboten, pp.y offered, [anbieten, sep.] 

an''Qti>xannt, pp. from anBrennen, sep., brannte an, angebtannt, 
to set light or fire to ; to light. 

annel^men,Bt stp., nal^m an, angencmnten, to accept, to take, 
take for granted, etc. [an and nel^men, lit,, to take 


antebete, impf, of anrcben,^ sep., tebetc an, angcrcbte, to 
address, accost, speak to. [teben and an.] 

SI n t i t o'p e,'"^ /. (- ; -n), antelope. 

5lr'mbonber, pL of Slrmbanb,** (-e«; -er), bracelet; in ihi 
same way are formed J&attbanb, @tru«Hjfbanb. 

SludcUtirung (p. 182), read: cusUym-houae clearance o/" 
veBseU outward hound. 


fBaijonnet'^Bt «, (_e«; -e), bayonet. [jFV. Baionnette. 
According to Richardson'e and Chambera^s Diction- 
ariesj so caUed from Bayonne in France^ where this 
weapon was supposed to have been first made or used. 
Bvi this is probably a mistake; ^^ La Bayonette,^^ 
being (he name of a lower mountain-ridge of the 
" Montagne d^Arrhune" lent more likely its name to 
this weapon^ which was first made use of by some 
Basque soldiers in the 17 th century f whofixeii their 
knives to their muskets when they had spent their 
^powder, and Hius charged their enemies (he 
Spaniards.] . 

be (p. 188), read: inseparable prefix^ etc. 

bebingt, Sdpers.pres. of bebingen,"*^ insep. (p. 160), to fetch 
(said of the price which an article of merchandise 
fetches in a bargain or in the market), 

iBeftad^tung^^SouttaQe,/. (p. 191), read: brokerage or 
commission for cargo or freight procured. 

betooUt, adj., cloudy, . overclouded, covered over with 
clouds, [bie SBotfe, the cloud.] 

bej. (p. 158),/orbcgap. 

bilbeten, 1st and Sdpers. pi. impf. ofUVotn,"^ to form, shape 
[originally "to smooth, make smooth." Ohg. 
pilid6n, pU16n, etc. Thence 5BUb, Ohg. pilde, that 
which has been shaped, etc.]. 


(inig, a^'-, reasonable, cheap, lit. mitahk, equitable [pro- 
bably connected tritk the root of btlben. See bilbeten]. 

hiitotiUn, adv.f now and then, sometimes. 

tot an, botett an, imp/, of atibitttn,^ sep., let an^ angebcten, 
to o£fer, tender, [an and bietcn.] 

brad^te gu ^ett (p. 103), imp/, of^u Sett Ixia^nt, to put to 

58rief,»* 93rf., S3r., m. (-e«;-e), letter; bill of exchange, 
bank-note, paper money, etc. (seep. 158). [EngL 
brief; ItaUan and Middle-Latin breve {LaL 
brevisi), a brief writing, letter, etc.] 

brut etc, impf, ofWAtn,'^ to brood, meditate; to breed [of 
the same root as braten, to roast ; brul^en, brauen, to 
brew ; S3rot, n., bread, which 8ee\, 

aSutfle,^/ (-;-»)» brush [akin to 93otjle, /., bristle, the 
stiff hair of swine 

^ontanten, an, in bullion. (?) 


JDegen (p. 219), read: not akin to Engl, dagger. 

bid^t, adj., dense, close; bid^t bet, an, neben, etc., close by, 

adjoining [akin to bicf, thick]. 
JDienjlag, w. Tuesday [standi for JDiedtag, i.e., day of the 

god of war (Mars), who lore in the Old Scand, the 

name ofTjr, Gen. Tys]. 
SDi». (p. 158), ^r 3)it)ifton,/., division, dividend. 
2)onnerfiag (p. 227), [i.e., the day dedicated to the god of 

thunder, Saxon Thunar or Thdrr, Ohg. Donar]. 


einigen, einige, Oen. etntger, Dat. eimgen. 
Ace. einige, some, a few ; »or eimgen SSonaten, some 


months ago; nadf eintgen, according to some people, 

etc. [pL of the adj. einig, tohich see], 
Qinigung,^/, agreement [see einig]. 
di^tnhaffnf^ railway-shares. 
tnttonntn, pp. of tntxinmn,^^ insep, , ,mttann, etttronnen, to 

run away. 
erinnecn,^ ftc^, refl.^ to remember, call, or recall, to mind, 

recollect [lit, to put be/ore the inner mind, or to 

draw out of the inner ndnd or memory; ill, in, 
« inner, inner, interior]. 
e»'gen, for ctoigen, from e»ig, adj.j eternal, everlasting, for 

ever and ever [akin to ever]. 


factuviten,'^ to make an invoice of goods, with particulars 
of their price and quantity. 

gaU,"* m. (-e« ; SdHc), fall, event, case, etc. [faHen,"* to fall.] 

SafI, «ee faffen. 

geu^tigfeit,^/., dampness, moisture, humidity, [feud^t.] 

5itmament,8t ti. (-a* -e), firmament. 

9Ufor Storitt,** m., florin, a silver coin still in circulation 
in Austria and South Germany. [So called from 
Florence, where it was first struck in the l^th cen- 
tury. It bore originally the head of St John the 
Baptist on one side, and a Uly on the other. "] 

g(ug,»* m. (-f«; Sluge), flight, act of flying, etc. [] 

ffranjidfa,/., i?rop. name, Frances. 

Sreitag, m., Friday \i.e,, the day dedicated to the goddess 
Frigg, or Fria, the spome of OdXn. arid the guardian 
ofworthen and of marriage (like Lat. Juno). It is 
not, as often supposed, the day of the goddess Freya, 
the goddess of love {Lat. Venus)]. 

fremb^ adj. (p. 159), foreign, strange, etc. 

grieberid^, or gtiebric!^ (p. 255) [mmns, grieben^furjl, or 
prince, ruler of peace. From grtebe, m,, peace, 


and xidf ; connected with Ohg, rihhan, to rale. This 

derivation is preferable to the one on p. 255]. 
fru^et, adv. J formerly, Ut earlier [compar, offxhf}, early]. 
8ru]^Iid^t,"^n., early or first light of day, dawn of light. 

[fru^ and g^t]. 
%vii)Tflo^ n,^ m. J money paid for carriage or cartage. [Su^r, 

f., carriage, cartage, conveying of loads ; £o^n, m., 

pay, reward, wages, etc.] 


geililid^, adj., spiritual, clerical [lit. ghostly, see ©eijl]. 


^amb. (p. 156), >br ^amBurger, pertaining to Hamburg, 
l^eute, adv. (p. 284), [Ohg. hiutd, a contraction of hiil tagd, 

this day, Uke Lot, hodiCj^rom hoc die], 
^immtl; w., sky (p. 161). 
l^iefig, adj. located here, at this place [for l^terig], from 

l^ier, here. 
$6 lie (p. 288), [Mhg, helle, Le., the hidden place in the 

lower world, where the goddess of death, called Hel, 

receives and guards the dead. Compare also Ohg. 

helan, Nhg. hehlen, to hide, conceal, and ^tH/if 

hollow, l^ol^len, to wake, hollow, bie ^ol^U, the cave, 

l^uflen, to cover, veil, bie $uf(e, the cover, covering, 

disguise, etc.] 
^fllfe, or ^itfe,/., help, assistance [from l^elfen, l^alf, gel^olfen, 

to help. ^xX^tfrom the present tertse er l^ilft and ^ulfe 

from the impf. I^alf, Ohg. hulf, etc.]. 


inbefl, ^ same as inbeffen, which see. 

3nnere«, netder after fein, mein, etc., one's inner self, heart, 
soul, etc. 


K I 

f ommen auf, to hit upon. 

! n i g I i d^, adj, , royal, lU. kinglike, [Jtonig and Vitij^ 


Segget, m., a cask {of a certain measure), 

2etj. (p. 158),/or fietjte, last. 

8eu(^ten,"tn., brilliant light, brilliancy, \yerhal noun of 

iudjoto. (p. 159), /or fiu(i^otoifd^et, from the neighbourhood 

of LUcbow. 


!l»&rf. (p. 159),/or 3»&rfifd^et [«6e 3»arfer], 

9)2 at ft [Lat, mercatus], trade, a place for trade, etc. 

9)te(f L (p. 159),ybra){e(!(enburgtf^er, t.6., from Mecklenburg. 

!Ke]^l,8tn., flour. 

mtr tear, I felt, Ut. it woe to me. 

5Kf.,/or 2)?arf,/., mark. 

QRiinje,'^/., coin, mint. 


Slletto, n., net. 

niemaU, crc^v., never, at no time, [nie and 9){at.] 

nob el, adj.^ noble, dignified. 

nom. (p. 159), /or nominel, t.e., nominally. 

S^lorbtoejlbal^n,/., North- Western Railway. 

orb n en; jid^ ba« ^aar orbnen, to arrange one's hair, 
ojl., or ojlerr.,/or ojlreid^ifd^(et), adj,^ Austrian. 


paaren,^ jtd^, to match, couple, unite, pair. 
$aV* if^-i P^h, pooh I 
$ein (p. 324) [Xo/. poena]. 


$trU,w/. (-; -n), pearl. - 

*f. (p. 159),/or f funb,B* n., ponnd.' * 

$f<rbebeH:ieb,»* «i., worked by horses. 

fod^en,'^ ^od^te, ^^od^i, to raf), knock ; to bea^ {of the heart, 

^ott\^ m. (-en; -en), poet. 
px. (p. 159), /or pro, i.e., for. [Za<. pro.] 
^rei<co«rattt,»* w., or $reidli(lf, /., pFice-current, list of 

5?reffe w/ (-; -n), press, 
pteuf.,^ preugifc^, adj., Prussian. 


^taatif^nlti^t, Govemment-loan, [State-loan], 
^eigenb, pres, p,, rising, [fieigen (ie ; ie), to rise/ 


Xenbenj,"^/., tendency. 


»erbronnett, pp. , burnt. [»erbrenueu, tje rbrann, ttetBronnen, to 

bum, see 93runnen.] 
)>erf &uf Ii(^, adj,y saleable, [otxtanftn,^ inKp.^ to sell.] 
©ertteten,^^., represented. [»ertreten, ins^, (a, e).] 
oerlDenbet^jpi?., used. 


SBdl^r. (p. 168), /or ®dl)rung,/., value, standard (of coins). 
SBaageanjialt,/., p. 169 {better SBageanftalt), weigh-house, 

for loeighing grain, goods, etc. 
303 f J) I. (p. 169), /w SIBifjjel, m., a corn-measure, 
loetf bunt, adj., white-speckled, [toeif and bunt, u'AtcA Me.] 

Sebaot^, m.. The Lord of Hosts. [Hebrew "Zevoouth," 
Psalm XL VI. 7.] 




Read and Translate— 

2)ie je^igc ©eneration. — The present Generation, 

No. 1, p. 13. 

SBar c$ immer — was it always . 
tt)ic jc^t — as it is at present 
3d^ fann nid^t — I cannot 
bcgreifcn — comprehend, understand 
ia^ ®efd)Ie(]^t — the race 
Slur ba6 Sitter — only old age 
iji jung — is young 
unb adi)l — and alas! 
bie Sug^nb — youth 
iji alt — is old. 

2)ie SB age. — The pair of scales. No. 2, p. 13. 

bie SB age gleic^t — the balance resembles 

ber grof en SBelt — the wide world 

S)ad Seic^te — what is light 

fieigt — ^goes up, rises 

ba^ ©d^n^ere — ^what is heavy 

fallt — falls, goes down. 

?ln ben Sruf)llng. — (Addressed) To the Spring, 

No. 3, p. 14. 

SBlllfommen — ^be welcome 

fd^oner 3ungling — fair (beautiful) youth 

2)u SBonne— Thou, the delight 

442 FORMS OF CONSTRTHNG. [app. y. 

bcr Slatur — of nature 

mit bcinem 93Iumcnf6rb(^en — ^with thy little 

basket of flowers 
SBillfommen — ^be welcome 
auf ber Slur — ^in the field or on the plain, prairie. 

Si! ba bijl bu— Oh! there thou art 

ja tt)ieber — to be sure again 

unb bifi — ^and (thou) art 

fo licfr— so dear (so lovely) 

unb fd^on — and beautiful 

Unb frcu'n tt)ir und — ^and we rejoice 

fo ^crjlic^ — so heartily 

gu ge^'n— to go 

bir cntgcgcn — to meet thee. 

Sine altc ©age — An old Legend, No. 6, p. 16. 
3u 95 a mb erg — In (the town of) Bamberg 
auf itaifcr ^^einrid^'^ ®rab — upon the tomb of 

the Emperor Henry 
ble ©ottin ber ©ered^tic^feit — ^the goddess of 

Iji einge^auen — ^is carved, cut (in stone or ^larblc), 

is represented 
mit einer SBage — with a pair of scales 
in ber »&anb — in her hand 
2)ie SBage aber — ^but the scales 
{fi fo gemac^t — are so made, carved 
ba^ bie 3unge — that the tongue, pointer 
fic^ neigt — inclines 


cin njenig — a Kttle 

nad) eincr ©cite — ^to one side 

*&icr fiber ge^t — Concerning this there goes, is 

elne alte ©age — an old saying, legend 
baf bie SBelt— that the world 
unterge^en tt)erbe — ^was to come to an end 
tt)ettn bie 3unge — ^when the pointer 
in bie 50iitte fomme — was to get (come) in the 


Exercise. — ^Write out in the same way: 1.) 
No. 12, p. 19, and add the English. 2.) No. 18, 
p. 25. 3.) No. 22, p. 28. 4.) No. 31, p. 36. 5.) 
No. 52, p. 59, etc. 


1.) Form of Parsing a Strong Nonn. 

Parse %ix^cn, No. 4, p. 15. 

%u^tn comes from gu^, a noun, masc, of strong 
inflexion (declension). The characteristic case- 
endings of this decl. are e6 or ^ in the gen. sing., 
and en or n in the dat. plur. ; an e is added to 
all the other cases when required (except to the 
ncm. and ace. sing.), and the vowels a, 0, u, ^n, 
of most monosyllables become a, b, fi, au, in the 
plur. gufi is thus declined : Sing. N. ber %n^, G. 
bed 55uf ed, D. bem Su^e, Ace. ben guf ; Plur. N. bie 

444 FORMS OF PABSING. [afp. y. 

giipe, G. bcr gu^c, D. ben gufen, Ace. bie Su^e. 
gu^en is here the dat. plur. gov^ by prep. ouf. 

Exercise. — Parse, in the same manner: 1.) 
grofc^c (No. 5). 2.) ben itorb (No. 12, p. 19). 3.) 
Saumen (No. 15, p. 21). 4.) Seberi (No. 18, p. 26). 
5.) Serliner (No. 21, p. 28), etc.. 

2.) Form of Parsing a Weak Honiu 

Parse bie Sunge, No. 6, p. 16. 

3un9e comes from bie Sunge, a noun fem., of 
weak inflexion (declension). In the sing, of fenii- 
nines there is no case-ending ; in the plur. most 
feminines add en or n to all cases. Sunge is thus 
declined : Sing. N. and Ace. bie S^nge, G. and D. 
ber 3unge j Plur. N. bie 3ungen, G. ber 3ungen, D. 
ben 3iingen, Ace. bie 3ungen. 3ungc is here the 
nom. sing, or subject to the verb neigt. 

Exercise. — Parse, in the same maimer: 1.) in 
bie aRitte (No. 6, p. 16). 2.) Sinie (No. 8). 3.) 
S^^eefanne (No, 13, p. 19), etc. 

3.) Form of Parsing a Strong Verb. 

Parse licgt, No. 11, p. 18. 

liegt comes from liegen, a ( *) verb of strong 

inflexion (conjugation). Principal parts: liegen, 

* insert here : Separable compound ; inseparable 

compound; both separable and inseparable compound; 
reflective; third personal, etc., as the case may be. 


lag, gclcgcn 5 Ifegt is here the 3d pers., pres. tense, 
indicative mood, active voice, agreeing with its 
nom. or subject, bcr Ȥimmcl. The present tense is 
thus conjugated : Sing, id^ licge, bu liegji, er liegt j 
Plur. toix licgen, xf)x licgt, fie liegen. 

Exercise. — Parse, in the same way: 1.) tarn 
(No. 12, p. 19). 2.) ticf (No. 13, p: 19). 3.) gleic^cn 
(No. 18, p. 26). 4.) ftng an (No. 27, p. 33). 6.) 
unUxixa^ (No. 38, p. 44), etc. 

4.) Form of Parsing a Weak Verb. 

Parse bluf)t, No. 14, p. 20. 

bluf|t comes from blu^eit, a ( *) verb of weak 

inflexion (conjugation). Principal parts: blu^eH; 
blii^te, gcblu^t^j blu^t is here the 3d pers., pres. in- 
dicative, active voice, agreeing with its nom. or 
subject ber Saum. Tlie present tense is thus con- 
jugated : Sing, idb blu^e, bu bluf)ji, cr blu^t j Plur. 
wlr blu^en, i^r blu^t, fte blii^cn. 

Exercise. — Parse, in the same way : 1.) lifpeln 
(No. 14, p. 20). 2.) jieHt bar (No. 18, p. 26). 3.) 
fterfe (No. 19, p. 26). 4.) ma^ntc (No. 21, p. 28), etc. 

* See footnote, page 444. 



State whether the sentence is I. Simple (inde- 
pendent), II. Gompcywnd, III. Complex, TV. Ab- 
breviated, V. Contracted, 

I. If Simple, ascertain the oider of words. 

1.) The natural or direct order. 

2.) The inverted or indirect. 

3.) Say what is termed the natural and what 
the inverted order. Point out the sub- 
ject, object, verb, adverb, and any other 
part of speech in the sentence. 

XL If Compound — 

1.) Give each co-ordinate proposition (sen- 
tence) singly, and show clearly its 

2.) Enumerate the connectives employed to 
connect co-ordinate sentences, and state 
how the order of words is affected by 
these connectives. 

III. If Complex, ascertain — 

1.) Which is the principal and which the 
subordinate sentence. 

2.) Say whether the subordinate sentence is 
a noun, adjective, or adverbial clause. 

3.) Point out the order of words in each sub- 
ordinate clause. 

4.) Enumerate the connectives used to con- 


nect subordinate with their principal 

sentences, viz. : — 

a) The relative pronouns. 
i) The conjunctions. 
5.) Mention any rule at all bearing on the 

sentence analyzed. 
6.) State whether the verb of the subordinate 

sentence is in the subjunctive mood, and 

7.) Point out the position of the subordinate 

with regard to the principal sentence, 

and adduce any rule bearing on the 


IV. If an Abbreviated subordinate sentence — 
1.) Give the subordinate sentence in full. 

2.) State under what circumstances, and how 
a noun, adjective, or adverbial sentence 
may be abbreviated. 

V. If a Contracted Compoimd sentence — 

1.) Point out that portion of the sentence 
which is common to each co-ordinate 

2.) Take each co-ordinate part and turn it 
into a complete sentence by repeating 
the common portion of the whole sen- 

8.) Mention any of the rules on the agree- 
ment of the verb with its subject if at 
all bearing on the sentence analyzed. 

448 JDeutfc^e Silationatl^anbfc^rift. [ 


The acquirement of the German Handwriting should be one of the first 
aims of the student of German. It is not only useful and desirable, and 
almost indispensable, but it also tends to promote the elasticity of good 
penmanship. Different styles of German Handwriting vary in Uie forma- 
tion of certain letters, such as j|, i, ^, U, etc., and the letters are frequently 
distorted and encumbered with nnnecessary flourishes. But the simpler the 
writing, the more tasteful and the easier to imitate. 

Adolf Hense's deiUsehe I¥eis-NBaioiidlhand9ehr\ft,'wh.ich is here Introduced 
for the first time to the English student of German, is unquestionably the 
best and truest model of the National Handwriting of all Germany. It 
dates from 1870, when the Saxon School Commissioner and Councillor 
Adolf Henze offered a prise for the best, simplest, most practical, and 
tastefiil German Handwriting. From 764 competitors, including the best 
caligraphists of all Germany, the writing furnished by the GymneutaUekrer 
Oo^y of Kottbus received the prize, and was pronounced the best and most 
correct model of the National Handwriting of all Germany. 


The Mojide-Schrift, a veiy pleasing and tasteful writing, is of 
French origin. It is easily deciphered, and can, after some 
practice, be written with the greatest ease. It should be rendered 
in a perpendicular position, and may also be rendered slanting to 
the left, but never to the right. The proportion of the small lettos 
to the capitals is as 1 to 3. A short, broad nib is indispensable for this 
style of handwriting, and the penholder most be turned to the right. 

a.) The small letters should be practised,in the following groups : — 
L) i, u, n, m, t. Write: in, nun, mit, ninun, minnit. 

2.) 1, b, h, k, p, j, 7, £ Write : bin, nnll, kiihn, sippt, bliiht, 
flink, lympf: pnnit jnin. 

3.) 0, a, d, q, g, c, e. Write: oben, aohten, driioken, qntilen, 
geduldig; anecdote. 

4.) r, B, z, I, V, w. Write : frisoh, eonvez, iwaniig, nrilie- 
Bzen, sen&en. 

h,) The capitals are grouped thus : — 

5.) 0, Q, A, C, G, V, Y. Write : Otto, QnAl, Aotien, Amen, 
Caffee, Oott, Vater, Yemen. 

6.) X, H, M, B, B. Write : Xenie, Barr, Mnsik, Beichithaler, 
Mark Banco. 

7.) J, H, K, F, L, P, D. Write : Jannar» Herr, KyiEhaneer, 
Frankfttrt, Logogryph, Packet, Bank-BiBconto. 

8.) E, T, S, V, W, Z. Write : England, Tiirkei, Strasibuff, 
vetter, WeltansBteUnng, Zeitung. 

^J'\ ^^l^y Letter, No. 12, p. 149, in German Handwriting, and 
employ BoTtde-Schnft for all words printed in English italics. 

a|> Slfttitfttlltnltriirift. 

BcWMJi eadi capital and its snail kna* an in^ls lure 
lor uiUBEimt.. CLBBCt., and iraclLoe ■ 







Cerman Ornamental Hound Hand. 

.op^^pci^^ So 

6 OUAAyO U/tO/ 

1 2 3 /^5 6 1 8^9 0. 


Model of a Commercial Letter continued 


Coutinuatioii of Letter Jf^ 20 on last page . 






*^* A Specimen Copy of any work toill be sent to Principals of 
Schools, post free, on receipt of one ludf the retail pice in postage 
stamps, by Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh. 

jBncpilBh Beading, Grammar, etc. 

Armstrong's Eng. Composition.. . .P. 7 

Eng. Etymology 7 

Connon's English Grammar 4 

First Spelling-Book 4 

Dalgleish's English Grammars 6 

Gram. Analysis.. 6 

Eng. Composition 6 

Demaus's Paradise Lost 7 

Analysis of Sentences 7 

Douglas's English Grammars 6 

Progressive Eng.Reader. 6 

Selections for Recitation . 6 

Spelling and Dictation... 6 

English Etymology 6 

Ewing's Elocution 7 

Fisher's Assembly's Catechism 8 

Lennie's English Grammar 6 

H'Cnlloch's Reading-Books 3, 4 

English Grammar 4 

M'Dowall's Rhetorical Readings 7 

Millen's English Grammar 7 

Morell's Poetical Reading-Book 4 

Pryde's Studies in Composition 7 

Reid's English Grammar 6 

English Composition 6 

English Dictionary 6 

Sess. School Etymological Guide... 8 

Old & New Test. Biographies... 8 

Shakspcare's Richard II 6 

Spalding's English Literature 7 

White's English Grammar 7 

Wordsworth's Excursion 6 

ObJ eot-IjeBsons. 
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Kingdom 7 

Ross's How to Train Young Eyes 

and Ears 7 

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Atlas 11 

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Reid^s First Book of Geography ....10 

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Beid's Elements of Physical Geography; with Outlines 

of Geolooy, Matheuatioai. Geooeaphy, and Astrokomt, and 
Questions for Examination. With numerous Illustrations, aad a 
large coloured Physical Chart of the Globe. Is. 

Geography and AstronoTmjj History. 11 


A General Atlas of Modem Geography; 29 Maps, 

Coloured. £7 Thomas Ewino. 7s. 6cL 

School Atlas of Modem Geography. Maps 4to, folded 

8vo, Coloured. By John White, F.E.I.S., Author of ** Abstract of 
General Geography," etc 6s. 

White's Elementary Atlas of Modem Geography. 

4to, 10 Maps, Coloured. 2s. 6d. 

CoHTBMTB. — 1. The World; 2. Europe; 8. Asia; 4. Africa; 6. North America; 
6. South America; 7. England; 8. Scotland; 9. Ireland; 10. Palestine. 

A School Atlas of Modem Geography. 4to, 16 Maps, 

Coloured. By Alexander Beld, LL.D., late Head Master of the 
Edmburgh Institution, etc. 5s. 

Beid's Introductory Atlas of Modem Geography. 

4to, 10 Maps, Coloured. 28. 6d. 

Contents. — 1. The World; 2. Europe; 8. Asia; 4. Africa; 5. North America; 
6. South America; 7. England; 8. Scotland; 9. Ireland; 10. Palestine. 


Thb works in this department have heen prepared with the greatest care. 
They will be found to include Glass-books for Junior and Senior Glasses in all 
the branches of History generally taught in the best schools. While the 
utmost attention has been paid to accuracy, the narratives have in every 
case been rendered as instructive and pleasing as possible, so as to relieve the 
study from the tediousness of a mere dry detail of facts. 

A Concise History of England in Epochs. By J. F. 

CORKRAN. With Maps and Genealogical and Chronological Tables, 
and comprehensive Questions to each Chapter. 2s. 6d. 

%• Intended t^iefiy for the Senior CUisaes of SchooU, and for the Junior Students 

of Training Colleges. 

In this History of England the writer has endeavoured to convey a broad 
and full impression of its great Epochs, and to develop with care, but in 
subordination to the rest of the narrative, the growth of Law and of the 
Gonstltution. He has summarized events of minor importance; but where 
illustrious characters were to be brought into relief, or where the story of 
some great achievement merited a full narration, he has occupied more space 
than Uie length of the history might seem to justify ; for it is his belief that 
a mere narration of the Deeds of England in her struggles for liberty and for 
a high place among the nations of the world, is more fertile in instruction to 
youth, and more stimulating to a healthy and laudable ambition than any 
other mode of treating our past 

Kecent events have been treated with more than usual fulness. 

12 Histmy. 

History of England for Junior Classes ; with Questions 

for Examination. Edited bj Heitrt WHrns, B. A., Trinity College, 
Cambridge, M.A. and Ph. Dr. Heidelberg, is. 6d. 

Aihmunun^—'* A cheap and ezoellent history of England, admirably adapted 
for the UM of Jtmior claaaes. Within the compass of about a hundred and 
eighty duodecimo pages, the editor has managed to give all the leading facta 
of onr history, dwelling with due emphams on utose turning points which mark 
our progress both at home and abroad. The various changes that have taken 

Elace in our constitution are briefly but clearly described. It is surprising 
ow snoceMflilly the editor has not merely avoided the obscurity which 
genenlly accompanies brevity, but invested Us narrative with an interest too 
often wanting hi larger historical works. The information conveyed is 
thoroughly sound ; and the utiHty of the book is much increased by the addi- 
tion of examination questions at the end of each chapter. Whether regarded 
as an interesting reading-book or as an instructive class-book, this history 
deserves to rank high. When we add, that it appears in the form of a neat littie 
volume at the moderate price of eighteeupence, no further recommendation will 
be necessary." 

History of Great Britain and Ireland ; with an Account 

of the Present State and Resources of the United Kingdom and its 
Colonies. With Questions for Examination, and a Map. By 
Dr White. Ss. 

Atheiumm.—" A. carefhlly compiled history for the use of schools. The 
writer has consulted the more recent authorities: his opinions are liberal, 
and on the whole Just and impartial : the succession of events is developed 
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the young than is common in historical abstraota The book is accom- 
panied by a good map. For schools, parish and prison libraries, workmen's 
halls, and such institutions, it is better adapted than any abridgment of 
the kind we know." 

History of Scotland for Junior Classes; with Questions 

for Examination. Edited by Dr White. Is. 6d. 

History of Scotland, from the Earliest Period to the Present 
Time. With Questions for Examination. Edited by Dr White. 
3s. 6d. 

History of France ; with Questions for Examination, and a 
Map. Edited by Dr White. 3s. 6d. 

AthtMnim. — "We have already had occasion to speak favourably of Dr 
White's ' History of Qreat Britain and Ireland.' The perusal of the present 
work has given us still greater pleasore. . . . Dr White is remarkably 
happy in combining convenient brevity with sufficiency of information, 
clearness of exposition, and interest of detail. He shows great Judgment in 
apportioning to each subject its due amount of oousideration." 

Outlines of Universal History. Edited by Dr 

White. 2s. 

Spectator.— "malinct in its arrHngement, skilful in its selecticn of leadinir 
features, close and clear in its narrative." 

History. 13 

Dr White's ELementa of Universal History, on a New 

and Systematic Plan. In Three Parts. Part I. Ancient History; 
Part II. History uf the Middle Ages ; Part III., Modern History. 
With a Map of the World. 7s. ; or in Parts, 2s. 6d. each. 

This work contains numerous synoptical and other tables, to guide the 
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Outlines of the History of Borne; with Questions for 

Examination. Edited by Dr White. Is. 6d. 

London Beview, — "This abridgment is admirably adapted for the use of 
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Sacred History, from the Creation of the World to the 

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Edited by Dr White. Is. 6d. 

SaptUt Maffotine.--" An interesting epitome of sacred history, calculated to 
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Elements of Gteneral History, Ancient and Modem. To 

which are added, a Comparative View of Ancient and Modem 
Geography, and a Table of Chronology. By Alexander Fraser 
Tytler, Lord Woodhouselee, formerly Professor of History in the 
University of Edinburgh. New Edition^ with the History continued. 
With two large Maps, etc. 36. 6d. 

Watts' Catechism of Scripture History, and of the 

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Simpson's History of Scotland ; with an Outline of the 

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Simpson's Goldsmith's History of Greece. With 

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Simpson's Goldsmith's History of Eome. With Questions 

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14 Writing, Arithmetic, and Book-keeping. 


This aeetton will be fimnd to contain works in extensiye nse in many of the 
best schools in the United Kingdom. The snceesBiTe editiona haye been 
carefully revised and amended. 

Arithmetic adapted to the ITew Code, in Three Parts. 

By Alexander Ttotter, Teacher of Mathematics, Edinburgh. 
Part8 L and IL^ embracing ikefint four Standards, ars now Beady, 
Each containing 36 pages, 2d., stiff wrapper. Book of Answers 
sold separately. Part III. in Preparation. 

Practical Arithmetic for Janior Classes. By Henry 

G. C. SiriTH, Teacher of Arithmetic and Mathematics in George 
Heriot's Hospital. 64 pages, 6d. stifl wrapper. Answer§, 6d. 

From (h$ Bev. Phii^ip Kxllakd, A.M., F.R.SS. L. & E., late FeUow of Queauf 
CoUege, Cambridge, Frofeswr of Maihemaliee in the Dhwersitj^ o/ Edinburgh. 

"I am glad to learn that Mr Smith's Manual for Janior Classes, the MS. 
of which I have examined, is nearly ready for publication. Trusting that 
the Illustrative Processes which he has exhibited may prove as efficient in 
other hands as they have proved in his own, I have great pleasure in 
recommending the work, being satisfied that a better Arithmetician and a 
more Judidoua Teacher than Mr Smith is not to be found.'* 

Practical Arithmetic for Senior Classes ; being a Con- 
tinuation of the above. By Henby G. C. Suith. 2s. Anawera, 6d. 
Key, 2s. 6d. 

*«* The Exercises in both works, which are copious and originalf have heem 
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Lessons in Arithmetic for Junior Classes. By James 

Trotter. 66 pages, 6d. stiff wrapper ; or 8d. cloth. Anawera, 6d. 

This book was care/My revised, and enlarged by the introduction of Simple 
Examples of the various rules, worked out at length and fully explained, 
and of Practical Exercises, by the Author's son, Mr Alexander Trotter, 
Teacher of Mathematics, etc., Edinburgh ; and to the present edition Exercises 
on the proposed Decimal Coinage have bioen added. 

Lessons in Arithmetic for Advanced Classes; being 

a Continuation of the Lessons in Arithmetic for Junior Classes. 
Containing Vulgar and Decimal Fractions ; Simple and Compound 
Proportion, with their Applications ; Simple and Compound Interest; 
Involution and Evolution, etc. By Alexavder Trotteb. New 
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Each subject is also accompanied by an example flilly worked out and 
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Writing^ ArithmeiiCj and Book-keeping. 15 
A Complete System of Arithmetic, Theoretical and 

Practical ; containing the Fundamental Rules, and their Application 
to Mercantile Computations ; Vulgar and Decimal Fractions ; Invo- 
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Bj Mr Trotteb. 3s. Key, 4s. 6d. 

\* AU the 8400 ^eereises in thii work are new. They ewe applicable to the 
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vUnutelg explained. 

In£pram*8 Principles of Arithmetic, and their Application 

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by Simple Rules and Numerous Examples. BemodeUed and greatly 

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A LEXANDER Trotter, Tcachcr of Mathematics, etc. , Edinburgh. Is. 

Key, 2s. 

Each rule is followed by an example wrought out at length, and is illustrated 
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Melrose's Concise System of Practical Aritlimetic; 

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Involution and Evolution; Progressions; Annuities, Certain and 
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Each Rule is followed by an example worked out at length, and minutely 
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Sutton's Arithmetic and Book-keeping. 2s. 6d. 
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Stewart's First Lessons in Arithmetic, for Junior Classes; 

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Stewart's Practical Treatise on Arithmetic, Arranged 

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Oray's Introduction to Arithmetic; with Exercises on 

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16 Copy-Books^ Mathematics^ etc. 

Lessons in Arithmetic for Junior Classes. By James 

MacIiAREN, Master of the Classical and Mercantile Academy, 
Hamilton Place, Edinbargb. 6d. stiff wrapper. 

The AnswerB are annexed to the several Exercises. 

Maclaren*8 Improved System of Practical Book- 

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A Set qf Billed Writing Books, expressly adapted /or ihis work, \s. Qd. 

Scott's First Lessons in Arithmetic. 6d. stiff wrapper. 

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Scott's Mental Calculation Text-book. Pupil's Copy, 6d. 

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Scott*S Copy Lines, in a Progressive Series, 4d. each. 

The Principles of Gaelic Orammar ; with the Definitions, 

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Parsing and Correction. By the Rev. John Forbes, late Minister 
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Ingram's Concise System of Mathematics, Theoretical 

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James Tbotteb. With 340 Woodcuts. 48. 6d. Key, 3s Gd. 

Trotter's Manual of Logarithms and Practical Mathe- 

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A Complete System of Mensuration ; for Schools, Private 

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Ingram and Trotter's Euclid. Is. 6d. 

Ingram and Trotter's Elements of Algebra, Theoretical 

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Micsicj Dramng, School Registers. 1 7 
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By T. M. Hunter, Director to the Association for the Eevival of 

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1 8 • Frendi. 



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French 19 

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By Jules Caron, F.E.I.S., French Teacher, Edin. Is. Key, Is, 

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Wolski*! New French Grammar. With Exercises. 3s. 6d. 

Ldtin and Greek 21 ' 


Ths acknowledged merit of these school-books, and the high reputation of 
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Greek Grammar for the Use of Colleges and Schools. By 

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* 22 Latin and Greek. 


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