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Full text of "A New Historical and Descriptive View of Derbyshire: From the Remotest Period to the Present Time"

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I 



MMaHHaniMMMttiiHiii 



NEW 

HISTORICAL ANp l^BSCRIPtlVE 

Derbys'hii^e* 



m • ••, • 
• • • • • • 



• • , •• • • • 
••• •*••• • 






; ( 










NEW / ^^^ 

HISTORICAL AND DBSCRIITIVE 

VIEW 



OP 



DERBYSHIRJB, 

* 9BOM THB 
RBMOTBST PSBIOD TO THB PRBSBNT tlMB^ 



BY THE REV. D. P. DAFIES. 



-V 



EMBBLLISHSD WITH A MAP AND PLATES^ 



Antiquam ffiquirite Matiem— ^ixg. 







9tlpnx 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY AND FOB 8« MASONS 

Sold also, bf Drorf, WiUdnt, Pritchard, and Stensoo, Derby i Bradlen 

mod Fold, Chesterfield t Pirkes, Ashboumi Cotes, Wirkswortht 

Dunn, Nottingham t Gale% Sheffield i Longn^n, Hurst, Keen 

Ormcy and Browi^ Patemoster^Row, and B. Crosbf andCs* 

•utioners-Coert, Lottdto. 



1811. 



YA/\ 



'•'.' •' 



/ 



PUBLIC ^IBRARX. 

WG47f9 ' 

AST OR, LENOX AND 
TILDCN fOS^hfiATIOHB 

\H 1916 L 



•• • t 



• '•' • 



• ••• • • ,•• 



TO 

THE REVEREND 

DAVID PETER, 

TUTOR OF THE DISSENTING COLLEOE, 

CARMARTHEN} 

THIS 

VOLUME 

IS INSCRIBED, 

AS A TOKEN OF THE GRATEFUL 

REMEMBRANCE OF THE BENEFACTOR 

AND INSTRUCTOR OF HIS 

EARLY YEARS, 

BY HIS 
SINCERE FRIEND, 

AND !•:•:. W r '-..•!•' 

AFFECTIONATE NEPtof' i: : : ('. 
DAVID P^l^'ft^fpAVisk 

Makeny, \ 
April \Othy 1811./ 



>>••/) 



• • • 



••• • • •« • •• 



BSKsa 



PttMi'j.cik. 



X HE plan of tlie following work has been 
already amply detailed in the proposals for its 
publication : but a& these may not have been 
seen, by etery one, into whose hands \% may 
*foll, a recapitulation of the mode of eondoet- 
ing it, may be necessarjr. 
" Mr. Pilkington's valuable History, has been 
used, as a text- book ; ilnd so copious was the 
new matter which presented itself, that, wvth 
a very few exception^, that work forniis the ba- 
sis only of the present. l*be other publica- 
tions tiiat have been consulted,* are; — Button's 
History of Derby—* Aikin's Histoi^ of the 
Country round Manchester—Warner's Nor- 
thern Tour—Lipscomb's Matlock— Mawe's 
MineraJogy of Derbyshire— Third Volume of 
the Beauties of England and Wales— together 
^ith numerous other works, to which referen- 



▼i. PREFACE. 

•w are made at the bottom <rf the page. Moat 
of the plaees described, the author haa him- 
•elf ▼kited : The npiibap^ jM»d fooet interest- 
ing part of the county, lias engaged a great 
portion of bis attentioBi jund its remains of an- 
tiquity, and objects of curiosity, were person- 
jtUy iaspeeted daring the Aoarse of the 1«st 

^NUMIMtr. 

H^ben the deser^itiona of t|be Tqiumti|i mk^ 
h»A pretttMMly sisit^d Ahein, .are Dpncept ju^ 
4onOM«.>th0y nce^isepi liiirlJbwr im» .wmrds, dis- 
tinguished by inverted fiOmn»»fi byat,FhAn,Ji|Kp 
toooMnt. Qr-4ifiMe, ^ p^o^gmphs j^e 4ie«n 

4i«s. t»ndtelif^l»<«f;»MentioB, .have bea^.sppf- 
4eii. deUneatiBd and pointed put hf A^hei)|, it 4p 
ttoipeadble to bn outualy ,oTii^h^r^4tte ftf^ 
:l-are8iof •«tafe<rimi»io lhe.«iHne, as .when fifft 
described ; Andibein^pipseiiBents.bmugh(»bo^ 
^bjfTart.-aie.slo^^.'thoiigbipv^ressive. T|i».Qb- 
^Mti^.kkeipmeeut mmkt Is p<)t n»^yr>,b«t 
lonciseness.; md it h^A-bctsn ihe.auUior'is yifp 
>|0 ibiiag together, in .Agsmail^coinpiiw, ^i)d |P 



witeiaifitt ita a dutep wvifc^ •r«ff tbuii^llile- 
MMlog «Miscnrittg ilM«MMiy of JDm^. • 

tnns, b ooi»id«Mlili ; «#iU bi mMi p«rMv«d 
bf^^AM^t<fliiiimiibd wii^tfc* fentterBitioties 
«f the Cmtntf* Aad^ hwte, tU attlkor fteli it 
Wi <i«iy)«»««Hini lib tiMAttolbaie 0«Btl«^ 
Wfai>iNittt«MiiHlMft€Ni, hf iknit-ctmai^ 

iKMdi iM« |>lciMif r^ltt UMMitiAttiiig tbeir nimen 
liiit<itoiKoMMci«u«Mtfe«rteteg<be petwniittt 
whom this acknowledgement is dae, wiH, 1i* 
doabts not, be more agreeable to them, than « 
more pabiic and personal avowal of their kind- 



It cannot be expected, that a wwk «bDand- 
ing in kical difsetrtptioni, nvA intjBKjperse^ with 
mmm4t{ piaoes) dnt we Wten .difierentlj 
spelt, should be eni^r^'lne from errors and 
mistake*: fbte 'author flatters <m>t bimself with 
so delosive a hope'; and lie would ' remind the 
captions reader of the couplet of our elegant 
critics— 

« WtNevw tUakt I fialilcn |i«ct M Me, 

" Thinks wtat M'et ww, an I^ nor e'er wOl bfc" 

ra(«P(BMr*»Crii. 



m. ..nu^^c^. 



u 



iHw «<»w»t>Bm*wv>f :p |i w w , ,Kn,priiitod in 
Italics* iWid^rfN ^hwfl/, 4ii)ctiv Xmn Abe;Tcam> 
lli^ii, <t£:tlie .O onii i dii7 ..BflB»mi„J||iinly.ffib. 
Iiib0d .by :th«, Rei^^ Mr. ;B«tR4irmi« • 

> Foritb^ lUMrf4<lppp<Mrt,tifUd»; ili»JNMr,IIi». 
0rj^ XMf bf sUie^ iM« pliet:.with,iiroiB.a.nu<. 
nfimuianA,ne^f9fltlihh Urt •£ .SiibMrib«n« the 
milber. M to) exi^i^ bM .iMuilu: .wdWhO*^ 
Iltid8.](ip«^<ir)l if!it^,tJhe.ifit«rM, ,b««AtMtidMia 

«p4j9b.t#fn; lK#^iVb«t«9i)</»f >lhe ^Public at 



BRRATA. 

t57 14 for Corporation» read Countf • 

t68 .^ &6fof^MiiRi4nP9re^,mccly4Qisiii« 

189 •> for assyltinit fead asflunu 

1^6 I J for Premonsutentian. read PremonstratenaUii. 

.§t$ 4>«urarHai^^t^iMhGsap»«AMrH'iig^«ltc|«aiu: 

339 7 bot* for wettera, read eastern. 

488 ^ 7 f or benefact«r» read benefactors 

491 3 bot.f6rp6wets.^MMbHI« 

511 ti for miteiiy read written* » 

570 1 Dot. for cemeErfr read ^emeferx* 

617 1 ho^ after rat^ ^^^ ^ 



CONTENTS. 



CHAP. J. 

Caranied — Owiddilian Ftchti—Romatu—Sax^ 
mt'T^DanM'—Nwma'M^ Sfe. 

CHAP. 12. 
Derhyshire^ts situation and bimndarie$'^ 
ancient divisiang'^^Raman roads'-^/lgure — ex^ 
tent'^populationrr^enerafapjpearanee — rivers^* 
canah— atmosphere and clifnate'—eoil — agri^ 
culture^^'produeej ifc. 

CHAP. III. 

Subterraneous geography^^mines'^and mine^ 
rals^ Sec. ^ 

CHAP. IV. 

Civil divisionr--<ourts— ecclesiastical dnnsions 
•— <Ae town of Derby J t^c. 

CHAP. V. 
(continuation of bbrby.) 
Remarkable occurrences^-sntry of the Pre^ 
tender-^^'eminent men^^the inJirmary^^Ordnance 
depbt^ tsc. 

CHAP. VI. 
Description of the deanery of Derby. 

CHAP. VII. 
Description of the deanery o/Repington. 

CHAP. VIII. 
Description of the deanery of Castillar. 

CHAP. IX. 

Description of the deanery of Ashboum. 

CHAP. X. 
Description of the deanery of Chesterfield. 

CHAP. XL 
Description of the archdeaconry of Derby. 



AN 

HISTORICAL & DESCRIPnVE 

VIEW, 

Sfc. Sfc. 



CHAP. I. 

fntroductionr^Britaih peopled hj/'^the Ce/to— 
Corqnied — Gwidditian Fichtir^-^Romans"^ 
Saxons — Danes-^NormanSf Sfc. 



T< 



O the naturally inquisitive mind of nian, 
nothing more gratifying can present itself than 
the historical and descriptiTe page. The deeds 
of former times, the manners of those who 
have preceded us on the stage of human life» 
afford ample and pleasing employment to the 
man, whose views are not confined within the 
narrow boundary of his own life or generation* 

B 



2 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

But while the presentation of the scene of 
the world at large, jields so much gratification 
to our curiosity ; the more contracted view of 
the portion we inhabit of it, affords more 
satisfaction and true delight to our understand- 
IPgt The cQiiotrj which ba3 given us birth, 
the soil whose nutrition has supported us, the 
fields among which our childhood has been 
spent, and the s^ oi| ^icb thos^ that are most 
dear to us in life reside; — these, and many 
like them are the ties, which rivet the heart of 
man to his native country, and lead him' to pre- 
fer it to all others, though they may be attend- 
ed with many superior advantages of climate 
or soil. To be informed of the state of our 
country some centuries ago; and how those 
ac4idf w)^o then trod the same ground as we 
MMT 4d ; gives us an opportunity Qf fiirming a 
contrast, .which if duly attended to, cannot 
less than afiTord us instruction, as well as shew 
Mr attainwfiits ^nd ifQprovementfc Indeed a 
eufsofy view of the difiTereBt nations, who ihu 
inhabited this island i» necessary, fofcforf we 
^n be qtialifiedf ta as^^tsiin the origin of t\^ 
different monuments 9f antiquity, wbieh ve 
to be met with in eveiy part of it ; and moie 
particularly in that* portion of it, whii^h is to 
be the subject of our description ia the follow- 
ing pages. 



VIEW OF toERBYSHlRfe. S 

Jbfpert of MdNtaouTH,* a writer of lh6 
tirelfth ceiltttrj^ says, that Grd^t Britaiti WM 
ori^imlly peopled by a party of Trojans; WiM 
beaded by Brut«, a ^eat-grand$on of JEhca^i 
the hero of Via^iL, esbiaped ffOm OiTeet^, trtieM 
they had beeobefd \t captivity, rfnte their ^* 
pdlftioh ftom Italy. Bill; fiattefit^g as tliid a<M 
eoufit may be to that pride of artcestry, \v\At\i 
k 60 ttattttal to the Cttifo^a Britm; and «u](^ 
ported as it T»^ by m^hy mei of l^^raiii^ of th^ 
the lart and jpretedtag eetitariest it inttA b^ 
pronouaced AAoI^Mis #ad roiV^afttf^, by ^v^y 
eae who has paid any attention to the GitfA 
and Latin authots ; and tatindt fyt a taom<eM 
be suffered to ront^ aiMag tr^ h4slOri«^. 

It wiH be found) a teiy difi]i^t« If MM aw 
iflftpractieable tdsk, to afew^erlaiti #irti MrtaiMy 
who were the first inbabitanis Of ihh Mafid.'^ 
But the researcHesof the anti^tv^ry) mA the iilli-* 
strations of the oritie, hwt of late yi^ar^ Ihrowf 
flMcfalightmifhesubject» k«eemfii\i^rypitiba)ble^ 
that Britain was lifSt peopled fey aisOlotiy ofCet^ 
ia; a people w4iod#elt in ttienorth'^w^t ^f Qeiv 
many.t This nation is repre^MtoA by tirraek 
aiithors4 who approjbriate to tbem i^e name of 

* In prhnls svi. ITbris. 

f Davies's Celtic Researches p* 122* 
t Strabo L* i. Ptolomyy Quad. L. U* 



4 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

Cimmerii as well as CelUBj as a very extensive 
and powerful race of Europe; and as consti-> 
tuting some of its first inhabitants. The emi- 
gration of the Celtae, from the northern banks 
of the Danube, to the shores of Britain, was 
an event which took place in very early times ; 
many centuries before the commencement of 
the christian sera. From the faint light which 
history throws on the customs and manners of 
this nation, they appear to be a people, fonder 
of the tranquillity of a life of peaces, than of 
the turbulence of a warlike one^ Literature 
and science, (if in this infant state they de- 
serve the terms) wece neither unknown nor 
neglected by them. Their Druids, an ordet 
of men, chosen from the first families among 
them; were at once their priests and legisla- 
tQi^:« — ^and had their readiness in communica-- 
ting, been as great, as their progress in ac- 
quiring knowledge, the nation at large would 
have made a more respectable appearance on 
the page of history than it does at present. — 
This, however, was not the case ; the know- 
ledge which they possessed, was imparted to 
the initiated only; while the vulgar, deprived 
by their plebeian descent of an admission into 
the sacred order, were suffered to remain in 



• C«s. Bell. Gall. V. xiil. 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE; 9 

their ignorance, and to revere and admire what 
the impenetrable veil of mystery prevented 
them from understanding. 

The lapse of so many cetrturies, has left us 
bnt few monuments of this primitive race; 
But their temples, those rude fabrics, displayed 
at Stonehengej and the many other Cromlechs 
and Logans, to be found in different parts of 
the kingdom, can be ascribed to the original 
settlers only — our Celtic ancestors. 

But the Celi^ were not long left in quiet 
possession of the island. In one of the ancient 
British triades,* we find mention made of *^ the 
^^ three usurping tribes that came into the 
^^ island of Britain, and never departed out of 
" it.^'t The first of these is the Coranied; 
who the original document allies, came (^^ 6 
. •' wlad y Pwyl'*) from the land of pools or wai- 
ter. No country on the continent answers thiij 
description but Holland: and fbrthis and other 
reasons, it is thought that this hostile nation 
came from that country. On their arrival, 
they took possession of the country about the 
river Hnmber; and of the coast on the shore 
of fmor Tavech) the German ocean. The ex- 
istence of this nation is confirmed by Csesar,^ 

« Welsh Aich. ii. p. So. f «el. Res. 156. % Ccs. Bf U. GalL iv. xiU 



$ HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

Who upon hit landing in Britain^ found, thit 
the Aborigines did not dwell on the coast where 
he made a descent ; but on the western onoi 
and in the interior parts. And what proves, 
that the people he mentions were no other than 
the descendants of the Coranied^ the districts 
which thej inhabited are called, by old geo* 
graphers, Coriiani, Corii^ and Coriani) terms 
sjnonymons with the name of the people. 

The hostile tribe which next invaded, and 
made a settlement in, Britain, is called in the 
triades, the ^* Gwiddilian Fichti^ who caoM 
'* over the se^ of Lljrchljrn ;" that is, from the 
coast of Denmark, and most probably were 
inhabitants of that country. They settled in 
the northern parts. But as these as well a^ihe 
(]!oranied, appear to have sprung from tlie ori* 
giiial Celtic stock, their language and manners 
could have differed but little, from those of 
their less warlike brethren, who had first peo^ 
pled the island. 

But leaving these traditional accounts, we 
come to a period, when the history of our 
island assumes a more authentic and accurate 
appearance. In the fifty*fifth year before the 
christian sera, liome already mistress of almost 
every part of the known world, extended her 
conquests ^to Britain. Her armies, under the 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. « 

direction of Ccesar, had OTer^^ruii «11 Gault 
and flushed with victory, that ainbitious lead? 
er, took advantage of a short int^erml of peace, 
in making a conquest of this inland. After 
having oiet vrith some resistance frqni the inbiM 
bttants, he landed, as is generallj supposed^ at 
Peal in Kent ; and his superior quode qf wwr 
fare, soon compelled the rude and miskilful 
PritODs to give up the unequal contest,-p-^They 
gave hostages for their future obedience ; and 
Caesar vrithdrew, to spend the winter in GauL 
His departure was the signal for revolt : but 
the ensuing summer> the general returned with 
9L greater force, and chastised them £>r tboif 
. disobedience.* However, during the reign of 
Csesar, and those of the succeed ing emperors, 
the turbulent spirit of this nation often shewed 
itself; and it was not until more than a ^enta* 
ry after the first invasioi9> that the Roman arms 
had made any great progress in the suhj^ugation 
of the island. In the reign of Cl^udius^ Ostor 
lius Scapula, gained a victory over Caractaeus, 
one of the most distingui^^ firitnJ] general^, 
and brought into subjection a great part of the 
country •! But notwithstanding th^se misfor^ 
tunes, the Britons were not snbdued : and Rome 

■ ■ ■■ -'- ■■ ' ■■ 4 

* Cxs. Bell. Gall. L. ?i. f Tacit. Ann. L. tii. 



§ HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

had not completely established her dominion in 
the island, until JuliusAgricola was sent over in 
the reign of Vespasian. This able general, by 
his promptitude and valour, brought the great* 
est part of the island into subjection, and laid 
the foundation for that ascendency, which the 
Romans held over it, for nearly four hundred 
years after.* 

ft was the practice of the Romans, to intro- 
duce the arts of peace, with those of conquest, 
into the countries which they subdued ; and for 
that reason, their subjugation of this island can- 
not but be considered, as a very important aera, 
in its history. The introduction of laws and 
civilization, of arts and sciences, must have 
had a very great influence in polishing the man- 
ners, and in dispelling the ignorance of the 
Britons ; and the long intercourse which sub- 
sisted between them, and that highly cultiva- 
ted nation, must not only have reconciled them 
to the Roman language and manners ; but in- 
stilled into their minds, a similar taste for the 
conveniencies and ornaments of life. The 
British youth were sent over into Gaul, to be 
educated in the academies, established by the 
conquerors in that country.^ 

• Tacit. Agr. 
f *« 6«lUa causUUcoi Uocnit facunda Britunos."— Juven* 



VIEW OF bERBYSHIIlEs * 

The ^0lKflg$ of tlf^ oi^gtMl inhabifaniis 
miere nolbing more than bafs^ baik ef clay; 
boi tbe Romans introdoced the Grechin style 
of arcbitectnre avMmg th^m, as may be seen 
IB Ibe ruins of tbe ampUtbeatres, and otber 
rsmains of BonoaiA odlfiots, wbteh are to be 
aiet witb in many parts of the island, Tbe 
militaty nmds also, wbiob iraver^ the eonn« 
tiy in Aflerent directions^ must bave iicSitated 
the means of commwifeatioa between the dif* 
lerent provinoss i and thaa hai^e oecasbved a 
more speedy and exIMsive dfffiisioii of know** 
ledge. In sbcnrt^ tlife adrantagtis wbicb tbe 
Britons enjoyed, from tbeir becoming aBomaii 
proTiace are so many; aad tbe inflnenee of tbe 
union witb tbeir con^ueiors so great, that their 
national character seems to have nndergone a 
total change, and lead as to consider them in a 
amre respectable light than that of rude bmw 
barians* 

In tbe beginniag of the fifth century, the 
Homan empire, wbiofa bad floorisbed ibr so 
many ages^ began to £mI the declension of b^ 
poweiv Tbe hardy and wavHbe nations of the 
Nortk^ to whom she bad tiiagbc tbe^ase of arms^ 
teak advawtagf ef that want of military spirit, 
wladi usaally atstenda tbe intredaetien ef ImU' 
avyi andnlon^seffaaef mecesses;' and made 



10 HISTORICAL ANb DESCRIPTIVE 

daily (ebcfoacbmento ofll the power and terri- 
tories of their conquerom. The emperors, in 
order to avert the danger wbieh threatened 
them, were under the necessity of recalling the 
armies; which were distributed in the most dio* 
tant provinces, to protect the seat of empire. 
Among those which were called home, were 
the legions which defended Britain; and though 
some time after, a small body returned to 
assist the Britons in the defence of their king- 
dom, the Romans took their final leave of that 
island about the year 448, after having held 
the greatest part of it in subjection, during the 
course of almost four centuries. 

The Romans, at their departure, informed the 
Britons, that they must arm for their own de- 
fence, and no longer look up to them for pro- 
tection. But. they were not in a condition to put 
in practice this salutary advice. The Scots and 
Picts, preferring the fertile plains of the South, 
to the mountains of the North, bad for some 
time cast their eyes on that part of the island, 
as a desirable acquisition: and- when they 
founds that the Romans had- left the Britons to 
their own d^etice, they thought it a fovourable 
opportunity for executing their project. They 
attacked tbe northern wall, which the Romans 
bad built at their departure, for the security o£ 



..VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 1,1 11 

ftba- Britons, and pasMd. Jii<!1flirge. bodies to thfe 
iSovlili* liBfieUed |ij^th|evf native ferocitjS 
. iieighteBied by tbe hope wi plimder, they can- 
fifid devbsftadon and ruin ^vbein^ef they wenti; 
and tike .Britons fled before l^betnin erery diftde^ 
lioAb. Redikced to: ^m. greatett diHtt^,! tbeiy 
JHitiplicatod tbe HiMbaiieiifbriiaGbiBi^iiee r ' bii( 
ithtty,wefenoitin*a)5it«aiion tb /vender them anyl 
^ortopalely^ hfkwever, tl^aiibTkdersfioon fouud 
Ahe eflectof their own iiiiprudent conduct^ and 
Jbiegan to&elitiie pfessuceiilHjtf' fkinhtiB,.!^ a. 
4Qwnlry ivbicb they ihem^Ires had^ ravaged .---<• 
IThfity retreated with tbeir spoils itito their own 
pa^s ;. and the Britonfe were 6n€e mere left in 
tbetpwi^eaMerpossefisiorn of the'&m^iit'y. 
. The Britoosv knawing, thirt 4liey W^re'^ 
longer to expect dny afisis'tance frodi ntime; and 
tfnenaoed vrith .anotUer inTacfion^ from • their 
northern neighbonvSt "^mt^ indued; to take a 
Mep the most &till to thefmselfes, and^infortn- 
itate foi: their posterityi 

The Saxovs, vrere a people who iivfaobited 
^hat part of Germany, which extend8 sltbng 
the sea-coasti from .the Rhine as fhr as Jutland. 
like other Germans of thai ag^, tbey were dis* 
;tinguished for their valour, and their love of 
liberty. The pursuits of agriculture were des^ 
pised and neglected by them ; and all the re^ 



It HISTORICAL AND DESOlirTIVE 

4bed arte of life vrhdlymkBOwn. TtMysMi* 
tolMY6 snbflisted^ fririneifialty^ ottllie fralte«ir 
the ckmUi aad the pkmwAa iflwh thef Mt|iiifdl 
in dieirflhiUtaffy ckpediticte. They bad Umf; 
infested the eMUffm mad aoutfem coasts #f Un- 
iain by their piracies; alid.tiieir daring eaMk^ 
priaes bad instilled into tlMs minda of the iptiak 
bitants, a vetj higft idea ^f ikeir courage, atii 
!ararUke aocomplishraents. Tba Britode^ tker#- 
feie, thott{^t that thej canld do no better tba* 
npf4y to each a dkitingnisbeda nadoa, for that 
auccour which had been refused them by tlie 
Iloaian& A deputation was aeat into Clenaap 
ny, inviting the Saxons to their prateetion : kM 
in 449 or 460$ an army a£ me Uumsand aik 
hundred men, was embariked, a»d soom after 
landed in the isle of Thanet This body of 
•3axons was headed by Hengiat andilofMi, twio 
brothers, and distinguished leaders of that na^ 
tion; and in conjunction with the natiTo 8ri^ 
tons, they soon compelled the $oots and Picts 
to retire to their northern territories. 

After the defeat of the juMrthem intadei^ 
the Saxons had leisure to e^camine the vomtryi 
into which they had been invited as anxiliaries;; 
and finding that it possessed many advantage^ 
above their own, they came to a determipation 
tomakeasettleipentinit. This, from the 



VIEW O^ DMSYSHZSjCi It 

wmrUke mppmnMOB of <he inhidMliiiits; and tlm 
Mwmlh whicli t|ip5.h«4 MiMliied the Scoto 
nnd Pict8» t^y ^^^WsMlet^ wjno.very diffictilt 
pudertelung; .Heogpst mud Uorsa, tb«r«foitfi 
a^t hitflligeipoe into SamQy»:i9f the richoiahd 
^iHty of Britain; tepreMit«d %ht inhshU 
tontSi as a race unused to ftrmfm and. <bo whola 
iskwdasoifi easy oonqaat^ An infitotion* tbo 
rontf^ooo mA widrh aeeoiod to pwniiae so 
m^^y odi^aotnsea, and ao IpMlo danga r, #ai 
ombraced ndth audonr, bj.iliair fBtarpriziiig 
rowntrjrmon; a large reinftmeement iraa amt 
oyer; oii)id,.tbey thongbt thorns^ vaa anfficiantly 
powerful to effect their plirposa. They imine» 
4ffte|y:tbveiirofi'tbejMak,^aM9rttf those hy 
arhoai tb«iy had been rantedi a»d whom they 
wer0 bound to protect; forafted an allianca 
with tfiose who th^ cane to fijght ag»nat ; and 
pioceadedto^^pen hoatUities.againatibe Britons. 
So tfftH&heroua a conduct roused the indigo 
iiatioa of the uoisaspeoting nati vta ; Mid braaight 
to aotaoo that iaber^fit courage, .t?bich had hst 
4berto ItiA dormant in tb^ir broasts. A most 
lyloody war ensued ; but after a cootattof na^ 
uy years, the Saxotis, continiiaUy reiaiforced 
hy ftosh munbers from Germany, overpowered 
the Britons» and ibrced them to retire into 
Wales and Comwali and in these remote situ- 



W HISTORICAL ANl> DESCRIPTIVE 

ati6^ «b^y #e^ ibr hiatiy ye^rs left, in the 
tttiduiturbed pMilMsiM of. tfiei^ laws andliber^ 
ties* l^he Saxdns, being' thte 'left masters of 
tke greMe&t part of th^ island, in 4i38 esta^ 
blished*)* under their successful leader Hengisf; 
the Umgdoindf' Kent; the first reguliar.Saxoii 
gbvernnifeiit knoi«^n in Great Britai^n :--^and iii 
the course dfod^ hundred and fifty y^airs, after 
their finit jntrddoction, tfale^ kingdom was dii 
tided into aeten^ ^etty soi^rcignttes, Icnb^ii by 
ihe^iameof Saion tJeptarchy. These in th6 
course of time, were united- by conqueiit^and 
hitermari^gest^and in 827' Egbert Wa» prb^ 
claimed king of England. '-^ ^ •' 

. Thua did tfae.^xoYis, Originally, lay fhA 
foondation for tb^t great aess as a nation, wfaicR 
in Arture^agea they have arrived at. This, how(* 
ever, was done by the sacrifice of every honor- 
able principle, axid at the expence of the arts 
fcnd civiltzatiott. The Britons, during their 
connection with the Romans, had made sucli 
aidvances in the arts and civil manners^ that no 
less than twentyleight considerable cities^ were 
built in their provinces ; besides numerous vil- 
lages and country-seats, which were interspers* 
ed every where. But no sooner did the Saxons 



-9 OUdasy Bed^y U !• 



VIEW OP 0EKBV8filR£.' ^'^ 'n 

begin to exercise theii* power, than^verjthin^ 
IKSis thrown back in^ its ancient barbarity z-^ 
*' the private and pubtic edifices of the Britons 
*> were reduced to. ashes; the priests^ were 
^' slaaghtered on the altars of those idolatrous 
^^ ravagers; the bishops and nobilitj shared 
!' the fate of the vulgar ;^^* and carnage and 
rain spread desolation over the land :-*^and we 
find, that it was not until some centuries after 
that the J began to emerge from that gloom of 
ignorance which (bey themselves had paused. ' 
Though the internal divisions of the Saxons 
^med settled bj the union of the kingdoms 
of thie Heptarchy under one head; their peace 
was disturbed hj a formidable external enemy; 
The DanbS) driven to f xtremilies by the inhu« 
man bigotry of Charlemagne, entertained a 
rooted antipathy' against the neighbouring 
christian states ; and possessing, what in : those 
times was thought, a formidable naval force, 
they made frequent invasions on their enemies' 
territories. Their first appearance in England 
was in the year 787, when a small force landed, 
with a view of learning the state of the coun- 
try :t but in the course of time, they came in 
very large bodies ; made very extensive settle- 

* Hume Ml. t Cluon. Sax. p. 64. 



If HISTORICAL AND ABSCIUFTIVE 

naitsiA Many parte of the kingdooi; andini 
ftw yean* formed no inoonadereble portion of 
the inbabltnnls of the ooontry, 
- The latt settlement of any eonae^inence, 
made by fcnreigners, in this island, was that of 
the NoMOm, in the year 106& Williaai the 
Conqueror^ wae followed by a gppeat number of 
his eonntrymen, who came or er midw his pus* 
tection ; and particularly by the nobility, on 
whom he bestofviiU veiy extensive pants in 
landed property* « rewards of the serriem 
which they rendered hiou 

Soch is the sketch of the diitfcnt tribm^ 
who have peopled the island of Great Britain} 

4 

whidi it waa thought necesmry to gi? e, belbm 
the description of any particolar county in ii» 
corid be wdl entered iqion. We now see these 
mriooa nations united tQgethet info one peo«i 
pie ; the distinctions of lani^nage and manners, 
lost in thelapas of ages; and as they aresubjec^ 
tedtoooehflSdf soabo they are known by one 



VIEW 6? DERBVSHIREs ' l» 



CHAP 11. 

Derhjfshtre^ts situation and bimndane9--^af^ 
cient divisions — Roman roads— -Jigur^^ 
^xtent^poputation-^general appearance— 
rivers^— atmosphere andclimaie-^oil — agri-^ 
culture — produce^ {fc. 



Ti 



UE county, of D^cbj, is sitaaled in the 
^^ddle of England; being at an equal distance 
from tlie Gelnnan ocean (m the East, as from St. 
George's channel on die West: and on the 
North and South, the extremities of Northnm« 
berland and Hants, are nearlj alike remote.— 
On the North it is bounded bj Yorkshire and 
a part of Cheshire, which is separated from it 
by the river Etherow ; on the South by a part 
oif Leicestershire ; . on the East by the county of 
Nottingham,. and aaother part of that of Lei- 
cester ; and on the West^.it is divided £rom 
Staffordshire andXheshite, by the Tr^nt, the . 
Dove, and the Goyt. ! 

In the time of the Britons, Der1>jshire is 
found included, inithe number of the counties 
that made up Jhe kingdom. of the Cpritaqi; 
who' lik^ewise inhabited, the counties of Not- 



4f HISTQHIQAL A><n QSSCRIPTIVE 

tingham, Leicester, Nortbampton« Lincoln, nd 
Rutland. But the Romans, when they had 
gained possession of the island, made a new 
division of it, intp^rttaiifijajpriina, Britannia 
secundaj Maxima C^esariensis^ Valentia^ and 
Fiavia de^ariefuis.^ Under the division of 
Flavia Cmsariewns^ which reached from the. 
TThames to the Humb«rs w«^ included the 
county of Derby. The RonmM have left indu- 
bitable proo& of their having inhabited this 
county; this will be mere clearly shewn, when 
we come to describe the places, where any re- 
mains of them have been discoveied. One very 
•trong evidence is, the military mads, vhiob 
may be traced, traversing the county in dilfe- 
rent directions. That learned antiquarian Mr. 
P^^gft, about fsirty years ago, investigated and 
descfibed two pf the principal ones, which have 
been discovered in this county, f The road 
whick has claimed most of his attention, ie 
that whick passes, in a north-east difsction^ 
Abrougk Derbyshire. 

This Ilkemild^$tT^§ij be has discovered, eamo 
out of Staffordshire, and entered this county 
at Mon.k^8 Bridge, about two miles to the 
north-east of Bwrton; and passing we§ Eg* 

• Camden, GibiOB's p. cIktU f regie's JPena^ 



VIEW OF BBRBYSiilRB^ 1 %$ 

ginton heath, to Little Over, nm ui a.tiorth* . ^ 
east direetioD to the west side df the towb of 
Derby : then eromug pirn's. Greeoi it rMched 
Little Chester, by a bridge throwa ilvef the 
Derwent at thajt plate* Frelii theacd it pro» 
ceeded to Breadsall Priory } and afj^^ rbnning 
across Morley moor, it is very yisibk about one 
hundred yards to the Sast of Brackley ghttf. It 
is then lost, till we tbwoe to Horstty park; all 
ter that it crosses the road leadiitig ftom Not- 
tingham to WirkswdHh, dear Horslfay WobA" 
faoase ; and naay be traqed to a hohae called 
Cumbersome, vrhich is built . upoa it; l^er 
crossing Bottle-brook, it (;oes by the Smithy 
houses i it may be se^ in the StretftJabef and 
crossing the fiehfe between Ueage and BAplbj^ 
it appears opposite Hsardiay'^hous^. Then dU 
recting its bourse to Cony-greeA faddse, and 
passing on' the easttfide of the 4aBbp on( Pen- 
tricfa common, it extends towafds Okertitbrfie; 
from hence it runs to the Peacotk inn, and 
crossing the road goes into the fields on the 
right hand, and appears again <m the Me of 
the hill, on the other side of tfate rofad. From 
this place, it extends in a direct line tot High- 
am, through the demeta« lalid of Shirland Haii ; 
then following the turnpike road to Clay-cross, 
it reaches a farm caUed Egston ; and crossing 



to HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

Mine idcletsdres, the Qaaker^s burying- ground, 
andapart'of Tupton moor, neat the Black- 
smith's diop it is lost ; and beyond the middle 
of Sir Windsor Hnnloke's avcfnue, no traces of 
it are disoorerable ; -but it is thought to [have 
extended as far as Chesterfield. 

The other road which Mr* Pegge has inves- 
tigated, is that supposed to have extended from 
Buxton to Brough near Hope, called the Bath^ 
way, or Bathing*gate. This is not so discern- 
ible as the other ; but this gentleman has as- 
certained its existence : and beginning at its 
north-east extremity, has traced its course with 
clearness and certainty. It is said, that there 
as another Roman road, in the neighbourhood 
of Buxton, extending from Hurdlow House to 
Pike Hall, in a parallel line with the turnpike 
road which leads to Asihboume. 

When the Romans had quitted Britain, and 
the Saxons had made a conquest 6f it ; the PeU" 
tatchy of the former, was succeeded by the 
Heptarchy which the latter established. Der- 
byshire, with seventeen other counties, was 
included in the kingdom of Mercia;^ and its 
inhabitants, in conjunction with those of Not- 
tingham, from their being situated North of 

fi I ■ g ggggggga ' ' • I w .1 

• Camden cUvl. 



Ae Tretity Were distiaguished by the name of 
(Mercii ^^Icfuif^s^'th^ northern Mercian8.<*- 
These two i^ountiies, appear to :have been con* 
nected Jn the administraiiOn of their, civil po- 
liej; and. to have ;been; governed bj the same 
civil officers, until the reign of Henry the 
Third: (about the year 1940) when the bur* 
gesses of Perby, purchai^ the privilege of 
having their a$9ize8 held alternately, at their 
own town: but from the year 1566, when an 
act was passed for allowing a sheriff to each 
(Qounty, th^yhave been held, with a few ex«> 
ceptions, pt. Derby. 

The %ure of Derbyshire is so irregular, and 
its potlines so variable, that it* can hardly be 
said to bear a. resemblance to any determinate 
figure :^t approaclies nearer to tliat of a tri- 
angle than any other ; but its numerous* curves 
and projection^, make the resemblance more 
iniaginary than reaL From the best survey 
that has been takefi of it, it is ascertained, that 
its greatest length, from North to South, is 
nearly fifty-five miles ; and its breadth at the 
noVthern extremity, is reckoned to be about 
.thirty-three ; but from thence it gradually di«i 
mini&bes, so that at its southern extremity, it 
narrows almost to a point. Its circumference 
is about 304 miles. It contains 730,640 acres 



M HISSrORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

of Imd: of tfacfee above 500,000 are cultivatedl, 
arable^ and paMure ; whilst the mnainder con^ 
Hats^dtieflyt of bleak moontaiiioiAi tepoMj and 
opea flom i pons^ The whole cotiiity h divided 
forto six hoiidMds, 116 parishes; and includes 
adbout 94^000 houses. 

BeoB) a Saxon writer of the eighth centurf , 
sajs, that the inhabitants of Nottinghamshire 
and Derbyshire, ** possessed the land of seven 
thousand lamilies.^^ Now taking half of these 
lor Derbyshvfe, and allowing tea persons upon 
an avetage^ to constitute each family, we shalll 
find upon this calculation, that the population 
at that' time, was no more than 89,000 ifnhabi« 
idnts. in the beginatng of the reign of George 
the Second, it is asserted, that they amounted 
to 136,000 ; anA a few years ago, it was thought, 
that they were increased to 181,143: and it 
nwy. be expMted from the flourishing state of 
the cottons and other manufactories, in the 
county, that their number is much augmented 
cinoe that thus. 

TlKre is no other county in England, which 
presents such a variety of scenery as Derby^ 
shire :-~the northern and southern parts exhr- 
biting, such a striking difference and contrast 
Ht geographieal features. The Ibrmer abonndii 
Willi kill and dale, ** and the scenery, is in 



VIEW or 9»(&YSHf JtS. n 

inaiiy (tarts, romaaiicfin^iiibliBM: butontb* 
whole inferior in piqtnreiqae eflBoct to tl^at d 
Qtk»r moantainons eoontriet. JSeaaty indved 
is oplj resident in the TgUias ; thq high groond 
appearing dreaiy, and destitute «f •ntartain* 
ment: and in 'nianf situation) sot a liag^ 
boiifie or tree, is seen, to divert the eye of the 
tiayeller, or relieve the weannesa, that arises 
from the contevplatioa of aterilUjand naked- 
ness, Unpleasing h<nrever, and even disgust* 
fnl to the imagination, as the mooraare, thej 
aerve l^ wi^ Qf eontrast, to heighten the hean» 
<7 of the dalea and valliea, hy ishioh thaj are 
ioteirsM^ed; and the siMUbnchuige which tkwr 
WMsion in the appearanee «f the conntrjr, at 
«n«» emprises and inlwieste :-^-<4dnnnitioa i» 
«9(cited bj eon^arisen i and the miad nMgr 
admits, that its pleasuve would have been less 
pen^tk a the pweeding acenes had been mflm 
beantiful/'* 

The eonntjy gradnally lisea until we come t» 
theneighbonrhoodofWirksworth: andthmit 
b^ns to assume that fHeturesquevad memitmn* 
onsapfieanmee, whichit oeatiouee topnssess t9 
jteevitnmity : ** that ehaJA of httlamisei^ which 
efif etQhing northwaRd% is continued in a gieater 



UkWM 



t4 HISTOklCAL AND MSCRIWIVE 

or les3 breadtb, quite to th€ borders of Scot* 
land ; and forms a natural boundary, between 
the East and West sides of the northern part of 
the kingdom. ItsoDurse in this county is in« 
clined a little to the West. It spreads as it ad« 
vances northerly, and at length fills up the 
whole of the north-west angle, also o%*erflowing 
a little, as it were, towards the eastern partsr. 
The hills are at first of small elevation ; but 
being in their progress pile^ one n]pon another, 
they form very elevated ground, in the tract 
called the High P4?a^, though^ without any 
eminencieis^ which can rank among the loftiest 
^mountains even of this island/^ The most 
considerable however in height, are the moun- 
tains Axe-^edge and Kinder-scout. The former 
situated to the south-west of Buxton, accord- 
ing to Mr. WhitehurstV calculation, rises 
2100 feet higher than the level of the town of 
Derby, and 1000 above that of the valley in 
which Buxton Hall stands. The height of 
Kinder-scout has not been ascertained ; but as 
it overlooks all the surrounding eminences, it 
is supposed to have a still greater elevation.*-^ 
From the great elevation of these mountains, 
the clouds are observed to rest upon them, 

jwessggte ' ' ' • I ' ' ' sgaaee 

• AUUa's Deicrlp. of the Country roiuid Mimcbciteri p« 65. 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE; 9$ 

when tl»ey pass over the high land, with vrhich 
thej are surrounded. The prospect from these 
emioences is very extensive ; it is even allegedt 
that on a clear daj, the vicinities of the 
towns of Liverpool and. Manchester, the moun- 
tains of North Wales, and the Wrekin in Shrop- 
shire, may be distinguished with the naked 
eye. In that part which is called the Low 
Peak^ lying near thexentre of the county, there 
are eminences of Various heights and extents* 
Brassington-moor, Alport near Wirksworth^^ind 
Crich -cliff, are the most conspicuous. There 
is also a ridge, extending from Hacdwicke to- 
wards the borders of Yorkshire in m northern 
direction. The southern part of 'Derbyshire 
is, upon the whole, a pleasant and fertile coun- 
try ; not distinguished in its appeiutince from 
the other midland counties. The banks of the 
Trent is a range of low meadows subject to in- 
undations, for the most part well cultivated, 
but presenting no variety of scenery. 

Like all other hilly countries, Derbyshire 
abounds in rivers : the principal are, the Trent, 
the Derwent, the Dove, the Wye, the Erre- 
wash, an4 the Rotber. 
• The Trent,* which, from the length of iU 

• Some Aatlquarians derive the name of this rivet from tiic French 
vwdZAAVTtt and to support this derivation Imvc assecttd, that it Is 

B 



tB HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

It then enters the cultivated and extended vale 
which reaches the town of Derby; where sud- 
denly turning to the East, and crossing a wide 
plain, it mixes its waters with those <^ the 
Trent, near Wilne on the Leicestershire border. 
The length of its course is estimated at about 
forty-six iniles; — and it has been observed, 
that, owing to the rapidity of its current, and 
its reception of the many warm springs, that 
jnix with its waters, the temperature of the 
Derwent, is warmer than that of rivers in 
general; and that in summer, it frequently 
raises the thermometer to 66 degrees. 

The DovB^ also rises in the High Peak, at a 
little distance to the South of Buxton, on the 
Staffordshire limit : and holding a course nearly 
parallel to the Derwent, it " winds amidst al- 
ternate angels of mountain bases, which some- 
times jut out in a bold and naked rock ; and at 
others, in a promontory covered with trees, or 
a gentle sloping bank of grass.^^f In its pro- 
gress it passes through the veiy romantic spot. 
Dove Dalcy a place far-famed for its wild 

mi^s^sssssssssBassss^ssa^issssaBSSsss^sss i M i sasssssss 

• « DoiTK I il z tirtr fiom a level graundf it has its name from tfie 
British Do« tame, but if a swift river, it is of the same origin with the 
l>ovi and Trvt in Wales t" whkh siiniff « rivtr burled between deep 
banks. Ibid, p* 34it <97- Others derive the name from the colour of its 
water, wliich has a gref ish tinge, approaching that of the bird of the same 



t Gnnt's Tour to the Lakes. 



YU5W OF r^pYsimt;^ %? 

9C aeverpl rills, flowing moang th^ mQ«Ha«iivi 
ons r^oiw qf the PigU P^ ;. ^i|4 after h^^ 
muT^atg^ ]fy \ht(. ^ariQU^ t<>ritat9 which f\/m 
q\er t|ie^ dr(^rj ^^stifS, it, V^Cfun^ ^ «P»Wi 
4ev9ble stratum 9t t^if litUf! tQW» 9f D«np;«At} 

from whicfc it t»k^ i^ QAinii* AvH?i;fe«fJag*ii 

it is avgt9ente4 by apolh^r f^l^d^l^le bra^cl)) 
ffom the mor^ Wf«t«c|l J»?rt pf tb^ jPff^^; hh^ 
taking; a 8Qvth«rly ^imctiQ^ iDoline^ «^ U^tle tq 
the East, Ijp^s rapidly 9v<er ita Hnf veq l««^, W^ 
passes through C|ia)»tw<^rth p^rM, ^low whiol? 
it receives t^ Wy^, fK^n^ili^ ^9"^ f«>.flR Pv^? 
ton and Bakew^ll. Af^^ p^t^infif t^hrctP^I^ 
Rowsley, it heightens the bfi^^tJr Qf the pjea* 
sant vale of D^t\ej by i0 progre)|s, ; its cpfuc^ 
Hi well as \\a ^ppeara^pe i? then thwgf^ ; !t 
tak^ a more eastf rly direction, j^^d it^ sttfifm ' 
is" ingulphed between thK^ \|igh «»nd PJraggy 
rocks, whicj^ overhang it Qiit^ch s,\^e, ^nd isr 
close it |n a narrQw <?banneli t|}l it iti freed fro^ 
its confinement, 9pd ppeps with & peacefql 
stream into the rQ9iap|ic di^l^ Qf M^t^pck.— r 
From there it windf IM cppr^, (hnmgh ^ »^»- 
TQw vale, to the tpwp of SelpfN^;«9d the di^ 
iitrent prospects, which present themselves to 
the eye, for the eight qailee which separate these 
places, can hardly be (equalled |»r pictnme^iqna 
beauty, or in- richness and variety of scenerj. 



( 



^ HISTQIUCAI. AND DBSCRXVTIVE 

' Hie Rirnimi^ hM its floarra in tht jmietmB 
of mrenk mull rtreams in tke iridnity of Oim* 
terfieM; wbicb town il poasts in its oounot 
when faking a norih^easterlj direotioD, it en« 
ters Yodcihiro bet wean Kilmarsh and Bcigliton« 
. Those rif en aie stell stocked, with jrfmost 
ovaiy ' kind of fresh« water fish. Foiwerij a 
groat 4]iiaiikitrf of ialmon was caught in the 
Derweut; bat owing to the wears, tfaatbavo 
been erected, and the many other obsCrnctions 
these fish find in their progress np tha streans^ 
tbeie hare baen baL few, if any, caught during 
lasbe yearn. The Dove and the Wye are fisfned 
for the quality and quantity of their trout ; and 
the grUyling isafish which is seMom met with, 
>aeept in the Trent sind DoTe. Besides thesflb 
the pikfe, the barbel, the carp, the chub, and 
tfaegudgiton ase fi^and in very greaU plenty, i 
Derbyshire is not daficient of thoeo advaar 
tages, whieh arise to an tnbuid eountryi .from 
the possession of the osenns of water carriage. 
As«arly as the year 1739, the Trent was renp 
idered naTigable as iar as the town of Burton?: 
Irat since that period, an unspeakable, benefit 
has been conferred on the commerce of this 



sA 



* ROTHEE« from the Briultli Rhv0deii» or Rxvd-bwiIi reddish minstf 
mf water flowios over a reddish bed of clay or stones« 



yiSW or OERBYSHIRE. . 9k 

eoAtf, hj the oommmiiMtioii whick ttu been 
opened t]^t:wMft it tind «¥ery part of the king** 
dcNn^ bjT ibe ihmm of wufigcbh C0m^. Of 
these, tbernvrenolesfitbaaflmeDi which croM 
Uie oauAty in diflerent dinecttons. 

The fisst that, was opeaed ia this couatfi, was 
that#hick wbs plsmscd hjr Mr. JBris|dJe|r, ^ 
goatlelnan of DerbjnshiM; an acoomst aif whose 
life #ill Jbe siven, ifffbaR a e «oina to treat xd tho 
parish ia wbich lie was faonu He aude his 
sarv^ ml?4W; and ia 1766 the bill for .maksag 
a wtv^aUe fostmd from the (rtyer Treait near 
Wilde»-fen7 ta Ste A|thiret to the riwr Alecaey 
ae«r|luiieom*gap» was broai^ into PariuHBeai^ 
aadfiaftfied. 

/' Xhis canal whiicfa, hj its plamari^ was in.- 
gentously 4enaaed the^gtmud tnmk :(in aUasioji 
to the foaia artery of tbe4iDd|ry irooi tehaoflBo 
branciies are seDt off» for the nonrishment of 
the distaat parts,) and whiah is cOmtoai^j 
loao^M^ ib J the MBse 4tf the Steibadsbve Q^^ 
takes its oouDse fsom the north-west to Ait 
aaoath-east,. across the ooant^ of Chester^ taad 
dienee wross Staffordshire bsf^Ml ito'aiiddl<« 
Jtihen ftarariog'shoft in a .aonlhHsaatem ;dtMctMi 
^r^U|eltotheTw«^, *t acKlompaiiiesihail rarer 
mpp, J}^hfAit», .tad oaleDi ih aelMriih^ phmk 
uhere the high road f com. Pttby «a iLeiceita^ 



/ 



jt HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

crosfles the Trent over a bridge, substituted to 
the former Wilden-ferry. In length it is nine- 
ty-three miles. Its fiill o£ water, from its great-> 
est elevation at Harecastle-hill, is 326 feet on the 
northern side, and 316 on the southern; the 
former effected bj tbirty-five locks, the latter 
by forty. Six of the most southern locks are 
fourteen feet wide, adapted to the navigation 
of large barges, and one of the northern is of 
the same width. The common dimensions of 
the canal are twenty-nine foet breadth at the 
top, sixteen at the bottom, and the depth four 
feet and a half. The canal is carried ^ver the 
Dove in an aqueduct of twenty-three arches, 
the ground being raised to a considerable height 
for the space of a mile and two furlongs. — 
Over the Trent it is carried by an aqueduct of 
six arches of twenty^one feet span each ; and 
over the Dane, on three arches of twenty feet 
span. There are besides near 160 lesser aque- 
ducts and culverts, for the^x>nveyance of brook» 
and small streams. The cart bridges erected 
over it are 109 ; the foot bridges eleven. This 
great work was begun on July 17th, 1766. It 
was carried on with great spirit by Mr. Brind- 
ley, while he lived, and was finished by his 
brother-in-law Mr. Uensball, who put the last 
hand to it in May, 1777.^^* 



VIEW OF DZRBYSHIltEi M 

Cfli»TEBFiELi> CA2iAii-*»In'176Qi,Mr. Brind* 
Uj Mnrey^d the course of an intaided oanal, 
frona the towa of Chestei^idd, to the rirer 
Trent ; and m 1770 an act was obtained Ipr 
patting, his plan into exi^eatron. The traM 
of the canal is from Chesterfield hj Rickett^s^ 
mill,, near Stavely-ibrge, by Starely town and^ 
eoal-works, the Hague> and near Be^iogton 
aiid Killimarsh» to Uanfshill, which it pene- 
trates by a tunnel; thence to Worksop and 
Relford, where it crosses the Idle and at length 
ar rifles at the Trent^ whieh it enters at Stoek^ 
wilhi a liule below Gainsborough/ • Its whole 
length is about forty -six miles :-^tB rise from* 
ChesterfieU to Norwood is forty-i?e feet ; and 
its fall from thence to the Trent 935 feet, for 
#which it has sixty-five locks. The tunnel at 
Norwood is SSfiO yards; and that at Drake-^ 
hole IfiS yards. This canal was completed, so 
as to be navigated in 1776; bat the expence of 
the wofk amounting to £160,000, was so much 
b^ond the estimate, that shares fell to a very 
depfneiated value; but lately th^ have re« 
covered themselves considerably. 

liAJiOLBT^BRIOGE, OT EkREWASH CaNAL^--^* 

In the year 1777, the owners of the extensive 
coal-mines, lying in the sbuth^^westem part of 
this connty, obtained an act, for making a iia« 

F 



94 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

vfgablb ' oaoal froia Langley-bridge to the 
Trent dpposite to tbe entraaoe of the Soarw*^^ 
This canal commences in the Trent near Saw- 
ley* tad rana nearlj^ parallel to, tke little boan« 
^wy river Errewa$h; and after ]M»siBg the 
colliei^iesjQ the neigUbourhoodof Langleyand 
Ueanor, it terminates in tlie Cromford canal at 
Laiigley-^bridg*. It is joined bj the Derby 
cana]^ ^beCween Saridiacre and Long^Eaton^ 
and there-is an iron raii-ovay branch to Brins*^ 
ley coal-works. The general direction of this 
c^nal is: nearly North for eleyen miles and a 
ijpiarter ; i i t^ fall 108 feet eight inches, by meanisr 
of fourteen' locks. 

. PBAK-FoR£sT<>CANAL.-^Tbe act for cutting 
tl)is» was obtained in 1794, and it was finished 
in 1800. It proceeds from the Asfaton«under« 
hjm canal near Dunkinfield-bridj^e; and cros-* 
sing the river Tame passes Denton, Chad- kirk 
and Maple-Chapel to Whaley-Bridge, (to which' 
a branch is carried) where it-enters Derbyshire; 
and is carried forward to the bason and lime-> 
kilns at Chapel* Mil ton, where it terminates. 
From the latter place, a raiUway passes Cha- 
pel-en-le-Frith to Loads^knowl limestone quar- 
ries in the Peak. The line of canal is fifteen 
miles in length, and that of the rail-way six; 
Mr. B. Outram was the engineer; and not- 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE; ; 5s 

withstending its being earned through the most 
hilly country, there are no locks. This canal 
at present pays thirty per cent. Mine-wjaters 
may be used for the supply of this Canal, but 
only the flood-waters of rirers. 

Cromfo&d Can At., begins at Cromibrd near 
Matlock, and running for some way parallel 
to the Derwent, passes Cricb, Bull-bridge, 
Fjitchley, Heage, Hartshay, Loscoe, Heanor, 
and joins theErrewash canal at Langley-bridge. 
It runs in general in a south-east direction for 
fourteen miles; of which the ftrst eleven sire 
level; but the latter three have a fall of about 
eighty feet. Besides several smaller tunnels^ 
there is one, near Ripley, 2966 yards in length ; 
over this, there is a reservoir of fifty acres of 
water when full ; the head or embankment of 
which is 300 yards long, thirty-five feet in 
height in the middle of the valley, «the base 
being there fifty-two yards wide ; the top of 
tbe bank is four yards wide. This reservoir is 
aaid to have cost ^1600.* There is a cut to 
Pinxton coal-works, of three miles in length : 
another to Swanwick coal-mines : and also a 
collateral one of near half a mile, from the 
Derwent aqueduct- bridge, to Lea-bridge, stone- 

-^ ■ ■ III! II I » 

• Dr. Rees' Cf dopwUa* 



/ 



96 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

•Bwing-mill and wharf; but this liUter cat k 
^vate property. There is a laiUif aj branch- 
ing to Crich lime-works^ for a mile and a half t 
imd another to Beggarlee coal- works, an eqnal 
distance. The principal engineer to ibis canal 
was W. Jessop, Esq. and it was completed be* 
fere the year 1794. The total cost is said to 
have exceeded ^80,000. Sevend new cuts 
have been proposed to be made from this. In 
1797, it was in contemplation to make one 
from the snmmit-level to the collieries in Cod- 
nor Park. Notice was given in 1801 of an in* 
tended Bdper canal, which was to join this 
near Bull-bridge ; and in 1802 a cut was pro« 
posed to be made from the Dem^ent aqueduct 
on this canal, to near Dethick, and thence near 
the Derwent and Wye rivers, to the town of 
BakewelL « 

AsHBT-DE*LA-Zoi;cH Cakal. The act for 
this canal was obtained 34th Geo. 111.. It joins 
the Coventry Canal at Marston-bridge, about 
two miles to the South of Nuneaton ; it then 
passes Hinckley, Stoke Golding, Dadliagton, 
through Bosworth-field, and near Market*. 
Bosworth ; then crosses the river Sence to Gos* 
pal Park, goes to Snareton, and through a 
tunnel to Measham, Oakthorpe, and across 
Ashby-woulds, and through Blackfordby to 



VIEW OP DKRBYSHIKE. S7 

Ashby-de^lapZeudk Tkis canals vilh. all M 
branches, is fifty miles long, and 3A2 feet 
lockage.^ 

Derby Canal ; the act for wM^h, was ob« 
tained dSrd Geo. llh comaienoes in the. Trent, 
at Swarkestone-bridge; and crossing the Trent 
and Mersey Canal terminates at little Eatoni 
about four miles North of Derby. The length 
of this, branch is about eight nules and a half, 
with a rise of about tweoty*nine feet. There is 
a rail* way branch of feur miles and a, half to the 
Smithy ^Houses.; and thence to the collieries 
near Denby. Another branch of this canal be« 
gins at Derby, and holds an easterly direction, 
nearly parallel to the road leading to Not^ 
tinghara, which paases Chaddesden, Spoon- 
den, Burrowsash, and joins the Elrrewash canal 
between Long Eaton and SagKliacre : its length 
is eight miles and a half, with a fell of twen« 
ty-nine feet. This canal is forty-four feet 
wide at top, twenty-four at bottom, and five 
feet deep; except the upper level at Little £a* 
ton, which is made six feet deep, to retain the 
waiter of wet seasons like a reservoir ; the locks 
are ninety feet long, and fU^teen feet wide with* 
in side. Adjoining the town of Derby, is a 



gaBMgae— gaiys II ]■■! i 1 1 i' 
• FhiUtps* Inland Navicationf p« 329« 



/ 



9a HISTOmCAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

htf^ Mfeast^ where the canal crosses the Der-* 
went, which was navigable to this place for 
many jears before this canal was undertaken ; 
and the proprietors thinking that the tolls 
would Becessarilj fidi off on the coinpletioii of 
thia canal» agreed that the Companj should 
purchase the whole concern for <£3996. A lit- 
tle West of the Derwent, the canal crosses a 
brook in a cast-iron aqueduct. This canal was 
finished in 1794; the companj were authorised 
to barrow ^90|000, the value of shares being 
^lOO. Manures are to pass toll-free, and pun- 
cheons or clogs of wood, to be used as suppor- 
ters in the adjacent coal-mines, and road mate- 
rials, excepting for turnpike-roads. If the 
Mansfield turnpike-road tolls, are reduced be- 
low four per cent, on their debt, this company 
is to make them up to that sum. The profits 
of the concern are not to exceed eight per cent, 
and after <£4000 is accumulated, as a stock for 
contingencies, the tolls are to-be reduced.-^ 
Five thousand tons of coals are annually to go 
free of all rates, for the use of the poor of the 
town of Derby ; and three members of the 
corporation, and the same number of propri- 
etors, to be chosen annually to distribute them. 
Horses pay one penny, and cattle a halfpenny 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE/ : : 9 

each, for the liberty of passing along the rail* 
way branch. 

The ATMOSPUBRE and CLinfATBof J)erby$hir«i 
vary very much in its different parts. From itsr 
i^ortherp situation, even thesouthehi part of thfe 
county is colder, and more frequently visited 
by rains, than many of the more central Goon4 
ties of England. In summer, cold Wid thick 
fogs are frequently seen hanging cn'ertbe riVml^ 
and surrounding the basis of the hills; ahd 
hoar»frosts are n6t unfrequent in the month of 
June« Old people seem to think, that the sea-* 
sons have undergone a change within the last 
forty or fifty years : suid .though it is natural 
for age to magnify the advantages of its youth, 
yet many observers, endowed with philosophi- 
cal skill, and candid judgment, .ibave agreed 
that some change has taken plaC0, in the tem« 
perature of the year. Thus, it ist^id, that 
the winters in this county, are found in gene- 
ral to be more moifiit and mild, and the sum- 
mers more humid and cold than they formerly 
were ; and that consequently, the seasons ara 
later and more backward. 1 

Owing to the great elevation of (he northern 
part of the county, it is found much coldec 
than the southern. Some kijij^L^f .grain will 
not grow at all in the Peak } and even that 



40 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

which is sown in the most sheltered Tallies, is 
seldom ready to be cut till late in the year.— « 
The winters are, in general, very severe ; and 
the frost continues so long in the ground, that 
it cannot be broken up until the season is far 
advanced: the consequence is, that the corn 
has seldom sufiicient time to ripen, and is cut 
down, and left to wither in the sun, and to b^ 
dried by the air. 

The motmtains are so high in the Peak of 
Derbyshire, that they attract and intercept the 
clouds in their progress over them : this region 
is therefore distinguii^d from all others by the 
greater quantity of rain which falls upon it.— ^ 
Sometimes it descends in torrents, accompa* 
nied with violent storms ; carrying every thing 
before it, and causing great ravages on the 
side of the hills, and in the cultivated dales : 
but they are seldom ot long duration, and of* 
ten disappear as suddenly as they come on. 
" We arrived,^* says a late tourist,* who wit* 
nessed one of these storms, ^* just in time to 
take shelter amongst those massy rocks, from 
the most tremendous storm of thunder and 
lightning I had ever witnessed .^^Fixed, as it 
were, not only on the summit of a mountain, 



« nmrhlnsBa'f TMt ftmtiih tfie Hisb Feak of Dcibysiiire^p. 9<* 






yi£W OF DERBYSHIRE 41 

but en the highest land in the ^untiy, for per- * 
haps on^ hnndred miks round ; and in a than* 
der storm when the hills echoed the loud peals 
9^m and again, with almost as loud responses; 
while the vivid lightening was playing from the 
ckmds beneath; were altogether such a sublime 
^98emblf^9 that I ceuAd not bat think myself 
fortunate in having arrived at this momentous 
period* 

" I (clearly observed the clouds pass with the 
DMSt aiM^iag rapidity, on the sides and sum^t 
nits of the monntains ; in one moment veiling 
the whole country in impenetrable mist, and 
then as instantaneously passing from the sight. 
Another flash of lighteningy and anether awful 
bunrt of thunder; and in a single moment, the 
aeene wm again cleared up, by the impetuoue 
passing clouds. I had mver before ei^perienced 
such a singular sublimity; I could scarce think 
it natural ; it had mnre the appearonce of ma* 
gie or enehnntment V 

These sudden and viedent stonn^ however, 
dear the air of every thing noxioue: the at* 
Biosphere is found to be pure and healthful ; 
and, tike most high situatiansi free from epi- 
demic diseases,, though it is found, that in the 
deep veUies and narrow dales, agues and fevers 
are not uncommon* 



43 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

One disease, however, is endemick in these 
parts, anrd extends as far South as Derby : it is 
the Bronchocele or Derbyshire neck. It is a 
swelling seated on the fbre-part of the throat, 
occasioned by the enlargement of the thyroid 
gland; but not utifrequently the gland becomes 
subdivided into several fleshy portions, con* 
nected closely to each other by cellural mem* 
branes. The form and contents of this tumour 
are very various : during the first years of its 
existence, it is reddish, and moderately com* 
pressible; endowed with little sensibility, highly 
vascular in its texture, not readily going into 
suppuration, and leaving the exteraal skin of 
its natural colour. It is generally believed 
that the swelling, in the greater number of 
cases, is truly sarcomatous or fleshy ; while 
some have said, that the- bronchocele consists 
of a honey-like matter ; others, that it contains 
little portions of bone and hair ; others, that 
it is inflated by air; and sdme,thatit is distend- 
ed by a watery, or piiriform fluid : all these 
opinions may be occasionally true. Females, 
children, and persons of relaxed and delicate 
constitutions, are more subject to this aflfectiou, 
than males, adults, and persons whose habits 
are rigid and vigorous : but sometimes persons 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 43 

of apparently good constitutions, of either sex, 
are affeeted by it. 

No satisfactory canfles have been assigned for 
this disease. Some have attributed it to the 
drinking of hard, cold or snow water ; the use 
of food not sufficiently nourishing ; the repul- 
sion of some cutaneous disorder ; the abuse of 
vinous or spirituous liquors : but the broncho- 
cele will be found to prevail where none of these 
causes exist It is found in many countries 
besides Derbyshire, and particularly in Swis- 
serland :* indeed it predominates in most couu-> 



* The inhabitants in one put of this country, particularly 
in the republic of Vailais, are very much subject to goitres^ or 
lai^e excrescences of flesh that grow from the throat, and of- 
ten increase to a most enormous siae. The causes which pro- 
ducea frequency of this phaenomenon in this country form a 
very curious question. 

The springs that supply drink to the natives are impregna- 
ted with a calcareous matter called in Switzerland tuf, nearly 
simtlar to the incrustations of Matlock in Derbyshire, so mi- 
nutely dissolved as not in the least to affcft the transparency of 
the water. It is not improbable that the impalpable particles 
of this substance, 'thus dissolved, should introduce themselves 
into the glands of the throat, and produce goitres, foi the 
following reasons : because tufj or this calcareous deposition, 
abounds in all those distrids where goitres are common. 1 r ere 
are goitrous persons and much iuf in Derbyshire, 'i var* ous 
parts of the Vallais, in the Valteline,at Lucerne. Fre\ ho t'^, and 
Berne, near Aigle and Bex, in several place > of the lavs-dc- 
Vaud, near Dresden, in the valleys of Savoy and P.eclTrmnt, 
near Turin and Milan. But the strongest proof in favour of 



U HISTORICAL AND DftSCMfTIVE 

tries, affected by great humidity <of the atttioH- 
phere, joined with excessive heat : it augments 
in the spring time, and diminishe^-in the au- 
tumn ; it is less prevalent in a cold and dry 
winter, than during a season of dampness and 
moderate warmth. It is purely a local com- 
plaint of the neck, unattended with the least 
danger, unless it extend to a size to aiTect the 
breathing, wl^ich is seldom the case. The re« 
medy is simple ; and if the patient be of a mo- 
derately good constitution and under twenty- 
five years of age, the cure is almost certain : 
but at a more advanced period in life, it is im* 
probable, and seldom if ever sncceeds.* 

The SOIL of Derbyshire, is almost as various 
as its appearance. In tlie northern parts of the 



this opinion, says the author, h derived from the foUowiog 
h£b. ** A surgeon whom I met with at the baths of Leuk 
informed me, that he had not unfrequently extracted concre- 
tions of f/i/'-j^onf from several goi ties; and that from one in 
particular, which suppurated^ he had taken several flat pieces, 
each about half an inch long. He added, that the same sub- 
stance was found in the stomach of cows, and in the goitrous 
tumours to which even the dogs of the country are.mbje£l.-— 
He had diminished and cured the goitres of many young per- 
sons by emollient liquors, and external applications; and pre- 
vented them in future, by removing his patients from the place 
where the springs are impregnated with tuf; and if that could 
not be contrived, by forbidding the use of <vater which wis 
not purified." Guthrie's Geoorapuy, p. 526. 
• Cyclopaedia, v. Bronchocde. 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRS. 88 

cowity, very exienrive peat«bog$ exist; in 
whieh hmve been fouttd buritd at a cotiftiiiembk 
djataace below the sarface, large pieces of tiiii« 
ber, vejy little decayed* The eoil in these 
parts, consists chiefly of ligneous particles, be« 
ing the roots of decayed TegetaMes, mixed with 
argiUaceoas earth or sand, anda coalysttfastanace 
derived from decayed ^regetaUe matter. The 
aar£Me presents nothing but the barren black 
moesy thinly clothed with heath or ling. But 
in many parts of the Peak thcM is to be foand» 
what the natifves caU a ^m iomn : this seems to 
consist of a virgin eartht impregnated with ni* 
tre. Where this corn loam is in sufficients 
quantity, and meets with a stratum of marl 
or <^ay, it £»rms a desirable field for calti?a^ 
4|oa; bat these spots are over^balaaced by 
vast tracts of barren hills and moontaina, 
whose sides present very little soil, beingjchie^ 
ly composed of rocks. When the limestone 
Arms the mount&io, the soil though scanty, is 
^odoctive of the finer grasses, which form 
,good pasturage for sheep.* On that part which 
is called the East Moor^ there is scarcely any 
vegetation ; not a dale or a glade wliich seems 
to have received tbef cultivating hand of man, 
or the Ibstering saule of nature. 

* Vide Reports to she Boaxd of Asriculture* 



tf HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

Tiie most common soil in the son them parts, 
is, a reddish claj or marL This' soil, which 
in this: district has little or no stone beneath the 
Burfiice, is also found to prevail, through the 
middle part of the extensive tract of limestone, 
which lies on the norlh«west side of the county; 
and consists of much calcareous earth, which 
readily effervesces with acids. It is thought 
that the colouring principle of this soil, is the 
calx of iron ; as the water which passes through 
it, has been found to be slightly chalybeate. 
Some parts of the southern district is inter- 
spersed with small beds of sand or gravel; 
which are in general siliceous, and therefore 
insoluble in acids. The large tract of country 
which produces coal, is covered with a clay of 
different colours ; black, grey, brown, and es- 
pecially yellow. This kind of soil is also found 
in some parts where the grit-stone is met with ; 
but there, it is frequently of a black colour, 
and bituminous quality. That on the north- 
east side of the county, where limestone pre- 
vails, is of a brown cfolour and loose texture. 
The M>il on the banks of the rivers, and in the 
Tallies, is different from that of the adjacent 
parts, and evidently has been altered by the 
depositions from the frequent inundations. 

Owing to the barreness of the soil, and the 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 47 

coldness of the cMmate,' there is but little corn 
grourn in the northern parts ; and the atten- 
tion of the farmers, is chiefly tamed to grazing 
and breeding cattle. Of these, large herds 
are brought from Cheshire and Yorkshire in 
the spring, and fetched back in the autumn; 
for their pasturage daring the summer, the 
owners pay a shilling a head per week; which 
but ill remunerates the poor tenant, who, in 
general, pays from ten to fourteen shillings an 
acre in rent, for this naked and unyielding 
ground. At Chelmorton and Stoney Middle- 
ton, a considerable number of cattle are year* 
ly fattened, and disposed of, at the Manches- 
ter and Sheffield markets. The land in, and 
about the parish of Glossop, is chiefly used for 
pasture: and very little corn, except Uack 
oats, is grown in this, or in any other part of 
the High Peak. 

But as we approach the southern extremity, 
tillage becomes more frequent^ and on the 
eastern side of ^ the county it chiefly prevails. — 
The midland tracts, have a mixture of pasture 
and arrable land, according to the soil and si« 
t nation : but the banks of the Dove are chiefly 
occupied with dairy farms. About the town of 
Derby all kinds of grain are cultivated: and 
the produce is in general very abundant. lo 



m HISTOKICAI. AND DBSCRIFTIVE 

the ^ctenaive fiddi in the Beighboathood of 
ChadMeaden end CheUaaton, a graEit quaatitj 
ef vheat, and that of apartkulaiif Hme sort, is 
raised : theconrteof tillage inmnahly purswd 
there, is~-£illow, vheat, barley^ beans, or 
peas. The groand here is aMstly prepased bj 
a wbeel-ploagh, drawn bjr two hones going 
a<>breast : thoagh the double farrowed plough 
ako has. been intraduced into the aoutbem 
parts of the oounty. Barley is much cnltiva* 
ted in many parts of the coanty : but .more 
particiilarly at Gresley and R^ton. Theas 
parishes lying near the extensiye breweries ef 
finrton, the fiinners have been induced to grow 
this grain, because of the ready sale they find 
fer it there : the whole prodoce has been esti* 
mated at AOOOqoarlera annually. The prodiicf 
of wheat in tke county is scarcely equal to the 
consumption : that of beans and oats acarly 
answeiB the home demand. Extensive crops of 
eabbageand turnips are raised : and the eulti* 
nation of artificial grawes, seems more attand^r 
ed to now, than it has been for some years : in- 
deed the whole agricultural system of the coun« 
ty, is in a state of progresrive improvement. 

But an uncommon species of culture, in 
which about 900 acres of this county are em* 
ployed, is that of camomie. ^^ A toamy soil 



VIEW OP DERBYSHIRE; 4B 

k chosen tot its cultiyation, and, nftw 
tl|e ground is well prepared by thorough clean- 
ings, about the end of March, the roots of an 
old plantation are taken up, and divided into 
small slips, which are planted in rows about 
eighteen inches asunder, and about the same 
distance in the rows. The plants are kept clean 
by frequent hoeing and weeding with the hand. 
In September the flowers are fit to gather : their 
perfection depends on their being fully blown, 
without having stood so long as to lose their 
whiteness; the flowering continues till stoppled 
by the frosts. The gatherings are repeated as 

' often as successions of flowers appear ; but 
this depends very much on the season, dr^ 
open weather furnishing more successions than 
wet or dull weather. When the florwers are 
gathered they are carefully dried, either in 
kilns very moderately heated, or on the flkx>rs 
of boarded rooms, heated by slow fires : the 

^object is^ to keep the flowers white and whole, 
and this is best eflected by drying them a^ 
alowly as possible. The produce varies fron^ 
two hundred weight, and evto less, to four, 
five, and, in some few instances, six hundred 
weight per acre. The price has also varie4 
from 40s. to £7. per cwt. The plants usually 
stand three yean, of which the first affords the 



:$o HISTORICAL AND DESCSIIPTIVE 

sftiEllest prodttcie ; tnd the second Ae gVMtesfc 
mad the best. When the plants art continued 
bejond thre^ years^ the ground becomes foul, 
uxfd the Sowferg weak« When dried, tbe ilowem 
UK packed in bags; and afterwards sold to 
peraoBfi in the heigbbourhood) ^ho transmk 
them to the drijq;g^ts iti^London/* . 

Bilt upon the whole, DM'bj^shire is more of a 
grazing and dairyings than % com county .~-' 
Great attention has, of late years^ been paid to 
the breed of Cojo€; and the country gentlemen 
have spared uo expence in improving it. Tbe 
cows are in general horned, large, and hand^ 
some ; yield upon an average about ten quarts 
of milk a day, and M good grass fatten very 
soon. They are most commonly speckled, witli 
large aod well^turoed horob ; thoagfa of late 
the shprt-horned Lancashire breed has been in«- 
troduced) and seems to be preferred^ As but«> 
ter making is not the primary object of the 
farmer, tbe quantity and not the quality of 
tbe milk is chiefly attended to. The Derby- 
shire cheese . is of a good quality, generally 
mild, and ia taste though not in richness, vt* 
cembling the Gloucestershire. The process of 
making it varies considerably ; the uMst con<- 
mon is tbe following : *' When tbe milk i&Mrfl 
/iciently cold, (the c<dder it is, when put to- 



§9Afir fqr niakwf i}tie««p, i^ hmi ^Otoddered the. 
boittef) » snQfli^nt q««9ti(j of fenn«t is put to 
i( <o w»k9 il oo»«« in an hour. It is theq utirt 
ndt 9X bfok^ with the b^vd verjaoiall, andi 
UU to fettle abdat thirty mumtmi then the: 
wb^ }4 got fh»iQ the curd «a mncb as powible. 
Vtd ii^ latter gathered; in a .fifiin ^te iato thtf 
«he«8&rpi}B. A vat: M, then p)aQ«d 0K#tr the 
V$m» «od tbeicurd htokm sli^htf^ ,mU> it, and;, 
allterwards pmned by th« hand in tbe vaU 
whiUt any crtMAtn^« will ru» from it : ««maU 
qumtity q£ oun) i» ih«tt cHt 00" vq wvi th« edgn 
of the vat, «q4 bcahm «W9U in the middle of 
the cheese, fwhich* »fter a lit tie Atone pnes^pg, 
ia turned id thev^t, and the mmn mth<o4 ol 
ontting tbie edge ^fiC is agsUo p^ryad.: i^tRtf 
ward« a plean dry plotb i» put o^er ^td under 
the £hee$e in the.vAt, 9nd it i»i<¥)iwig»«i4 toiba 
j^was j^ «ne ho«rv U M-. then .9gi}iii .Mrnt^d in 
the vat, and pinested. ,tfi(i hMJi^n^.y^hi^n it is ta^ 
liien (9M, And salted pn bptii t^de^ M' Mie cheese 
i|) pfi t4HB freight. .pf ^Wielye pf»niyl^, a large 
h^nd^i of vlt '» -p^d^r each ^id|t\ After- 
W«ids it is ag^ifi put in t^ T;at,. wrapped in 
another dean dry q|otb» ignd p^ri«4 h^ok to 
the press, whene it is kept, two.nr three d^ys, 
but turned eveiy tweb^e haur:> : .theJast time if 
is turned, it is put into a dry vat without a 



<t HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

cloth, to take awaj anj impreflBiom. Thk 
kind of cheese is in perfection, at a year and 
a half, or two years old. To keep it dean and 
make it look well, it is rubbed while soft, twice 
a week with a linen cloth, and afterwards once 
in .every week or fortnight with a hair-cloth,*** 
It is expected that the produce of each cow for 
the season, on a good dairy farm, should be 
about 300 weight of cheese ; of which it is cal- 
culated that nearly 3000 tons are sent annually 
to London, and for exportation to the ports o« 
the eastern coast. It is all made of new milk^ 
and the whey which it produces is gathered in« 
to large earthen cream pots, every twenty«fbur 
hours, and there left to cream : this is skimmed 
off, and boiled twice or thrice a week, and in 
some dairies removed to clean vessels every 
three days, in order to keep it sweet: to thi9 
is added a small quantity of milk cream, and 
they are churned together. If the butter thus 
produced be eaten while it is fresh, it will be 
found very little inferior to milk butter ; but a 
few days* keeping makes it nmcid and strong. 

Nature seems to have adapted the Horses in 
Derbyshire, to the different regions in which 
she designed them to labour. In the northern 

• Bvqwq's YUw of tlie Afitrulmre qf th« r»«nir)r. 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. M 

districts, the breed is small, of a light and 
slender make ; and shew great agility in ascend- 
ing and d^ending the steep mountains, over 
which thej are employed in carrying limestone 
on their backs. Accustomed to a scanty fare, 
they are very hard, and able to undergo very 
great fatigue. In the southerh parts, the horser ,* 
are, in general, of a strong and heavy kiiid; 
but well adapted for the pursuits of agriculture. 
However, this beautiful animal, may be found 
in the perfection of its symmetry in the stables' 
of many gentlemen in the county. 

The Shtep also, in Derbyshire, vary in tlieir 
size: those that are bred in that part which 
borders upon Leicestershire, differ but little in 
weight from that county breed ; weighing from 
twenty to thirty pounds per quarter. But they 
gradually diminish in size as we proceed north- 
wards ; so that in the High Peak they weigh 
no more than from fourteen to seventeen pounds 
the quarter : those on the grit^^stone land being 
three pounds lighter, than those on tlie lime-^ 
stone land. But the difference in their fleeces, 
is still more remarkable ; those of the grit-stone 
alieep being much lighter and thinner than ihat 
of the other. 

CoaUj in former times, appear to have been 
much attended to in the county; bnt it is a 



^ HISTORICAL AND p»8CW«TVE 

flpMief of.anitmis wbicb.wp Mldom or mtw 
iDMjt vUU QOj«f, Swme, m aU (beir ^ificirant 
1ii«Nd9» .miQr Im nel ^ith Qf^ry where: and 

Of 4he X>Mr lund, the fallow; j^ the onlj 

lpiig(,heird» «f fhese may be ^e^n in the parkA 

9^Ch9t^9irthaediUdl®^*^* Other ^niw^W 
ttune^end wUd, wwimn ta ^ber cpHDtie9,.ii2af: 
beifoiindijp.tbi^;. Affoe of .Tvbicjf^.bow^rer, ofn 
fer any thing, remarkable, ♦ i .. . 
.The m^Mralhiftory of the hnd^ of PerVj* 
fifcirsy. wiU ;diiref b^t Httle frAw.that of otk^t 
Epglidi. eoiiqtie$* The black, er ruig tailed 
mgiA, «eemii w fornoer tiumfh to have been an 
ifihai>itapt of the ivortheri^ |iart# : but it is now; 
mom tban iifty years sio^e the l^^t has beea 
wep^ The ospreyf pother species of eagle* 
bM alse been seen of l^tfi. y^am- .The folio w<* 
Hig« aqcor^Iing to Mr. Pjlkingtoii, i^ s^ list of 
the Urds. that are comwen to the comity, iind 
«^ those ilessso, which h^ve beeaseen at various^ 
ti«iies» in different parts of it : . 
: Q}mmon :-*-The white, the brown, a94 the 
tawney or screech owl ; the cuckow, i^ry neckf 
kiog'sfihlier, red grouse, partridge, the common 
iiigieQ& <w stockdove;. the staring, Jiniss^tp«i> 



VVEW at DERBYAMIAS. ^ 

tbnuii^ field fiure^ tfarasde, md the wfttcV^i 
xel; (he buHfinoh, broivn buntug^ yellows 
lifHnner^ reed^ hotifte, and hedge sparrow ; the 
ebaffittchi goldfiacb, tke brown and red bead«- 
ed Imneti and the shy the wood and the tit 
Ifiitk; the gi«y wagtail, the redbreast and ved^ 
atart ; the yellow or willow and comtiioa wren; 
white ear) whia chat, and etotte chatter; the 
white throat, the swift, the house swallow, aftHl^ 
tin, and the gn^t Uue, the^ote, and the long 
taafed titmoase* 

Leae commoa ><-Tbe aierlin) honey bosaaHK 
moor boaaard, ring tail) and Spotted Mdon; 
the long and sboftieaMd owl, the gt^M^r aiid 
amaller batcher bird^: and' the greiEiter mA 
aHialler spotted Wood pecker; the liiithatcfr, 
ciwper,, the Mack eock, quail, and the rock 
pigeon; thering^oosd and vose-eo)iiHired mt^ 
iwly the Bohemian cbattever) htfw grosbeak, 
crossbill, and. bramling^ -the fly eateber,'night^ 
ingale, petty chapSi golden erorted^wTCn, and 
the gdat sucker. 

Water fowls. Common : — ^The heron, wood- 
cock, corncrake or landrail, moorhen, and the 
coot. Less common: — The curlew, godwit, red- 
shank, lapwing, grey sand piper, ruff and reeve, 
spotted sand piper^ oyster catcher or sea pie, 
grey scollop toed sand piper; the tippet, the 



rt HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

dusky and the leaser grebe, paffin or fire eyed 
grebe, the great grey gull, black headed gull, 
greater and lesser tern, the goosander, red 
headed smew ; wild swans^ white fronted geese> 
the barnacle, the pochard or dun bird; thr 
brent goose, the long tailed, the velvet, the 
golden eyed, the white throated, and the Gar* 
ganey duck; the shiel drake, and the cormo- 
fant.^ 

The produce of the manufactories in the 
county, are various and totensive. The ma- 
nufactories, of cotton, into thread, stockings, 
and calico, at Cromford, Belper, Derby, and 
other parts ; of wool into hose, and cloth, on 
the borders of Nottinghamshire, and in the 
neighbourhood of Tideswell ; of iron on the 
north-east side, adjacent to Yorkshire ; ofsilk, 
and also of ornaments made of spar, at Derby ; 
are the prinV;ipa1, and will be taken notice of 
when we come to treat of these places. 



• PHUngtoii, I. p. 480. 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. «7 



CHAP. III. 

Subterraneous Geography — Mines — and 
Minerals, ifc. 

I HE SUBTBRRANE0U8 GEOGRAPHY of Der- 
byshire may be considered, under the three 
divisions, of limestone, coal, and grit, land: 
and in the following pages, the tracts of land, 
where these are found; some general circum- 
stances relating to the dispositions, properties, 
and probable formation, of the various kinds 
of strata which compose them, will be stated. 
Limestone. — The most extensive tract of this 
land, is in the north-west part of the county ; 
and may be considered, included within a 
boundary line, commencing at Hope, and pro- 
ceeding in a south-westerly direction, on th« 
west side of the Peak Forest, by Buxton to the 
head of the Dove ; and following the boundary 
of the county on that side, for twelve miles, 
extends into Stajflordshire. In the South, this 
line commences again, at Thorpe, and proceed- 
ing to Ashbourne, Wirksworth, Matlock, Win- 
ftter, Bak^well, by the East of Stoney Middle- 
toil to the North of Hope, where it terminates. 

I 



5S HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

There is also a smaller tract of limestone land, 
on the East side of the county, forming the 
ridge from near llardwicke by Bokover and 
Barlboroagh to the borders of Yorkshire, 
through which it pusses with little interruption, 
as far as Tinmouth Castle in Northumberland. 
It spreads also in an easterly direction into the 
county of Nottingham. There are several de- 
tached beds of limestone, situated at Ashover, 
Crich, Turnditch, in the parish of Dofiield, 
Muggington, Ticknall and Osmaston; none 
of which, however, exceed two miles, in length 
or breadth* 

Coal: the tract of country where this is found 
may be included under a line, commencing in 
the South, at Stanton, on the borders of Not- 
tinghamshire ; and proceeding in a north-west- 
erly direction, through Morley to the neigh* 
bourhoqd of fielper, and thence in a xig*ug; 
northerly course, by the West of Pentrich, th« 
East of Dethick ; through the parishes of Ash* 
over and Dronfield, to the Yorkshire border.—* 
The eastern line enters Derbyshire, from Not- 
tinghamshire, a little to the South of Hard- 
wicke-Ilall, and proceeds northwards by Bols- 
overand Killimarsh; and is bounded by the 
ridge of limestone, which has been already de- 
scribed as lying in that part. It is said that 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE^ 69 

this tract of coal, which has received the name 
of the great northern rake^ extends even to the 
borders of Scotland ; with the exception of a 
limestone bed, of three miles in breadth, whiiSh 
interrupts it near Ferry-bridge in Yorkshire.-— 
Coal has also been found at Chiiiley-hili, near 
Chapel*en-le-Frith : at Newball, in the parish 
of Stapenhill; in Hartington near Buxton; 
and at Church Gresley, Caike, and Measham, 
in the southern extremity of the county. But 
th« ground where it is fQuhd in these places, is 
not extensive; as it appears to be no more than 
three miles in length and two in breadth. 

Grit'Stone: though thisdoesnotcomprehejid 
all the county, which does not fall under the 
two former divisions, it occupies a much greater 
extent of land than either of them. In the 
North and north-west extremity of the county ; 
and through the tracts which lie between the 
principal beds of coal and limestone, it uni* 
formly prevails : but the most extensive tract 
of grit-stone is found in the East-moor, ^ hicli 
extends, in various breadths, as far South as 
tlie town of Derby : small ))eds appear at Al« 
lestry. Mack worth, Langley, and many other 
places in the county. 

To these three subterranean district.^ may be 
added a fourth ; in which no beds of stone of 



60 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

any kind are to be met with, near the surface. 
Tbat part of the countj lying to the South of 
a line, drawn through Derby from Ashbourne 
to Nottinghamshire, (with the exception of 
those small spots already pointed out) will 
comprehend this tract. 

Strata. — " The book of nature,'' €aid tbat in- 
genious philosopher, Mr. Whitehurst, ^*is open 
to all men, written in characters equally inteli* 
ligibie to all nations : but, perhaps, in no part 
of the world more than in Derbyshire : for 
amidst all the apparent confusion and disorder 
of the strata in that mountainous country, 
there is, nevertheless, one constant invariable 
order in their arrangement, and of their vari- 
ous productions, or impressions, of animal, 
vegetable, and mineral substances/'* 

^^ The uppermost stratum, h hich, for the- 
sake of perspicuity, we shall denominate No. 
1 , is Argillaceous grit, and its accompany- 
ing beds c/ay, coal, iron^stone^ &c. its thick- 
ness is various, according as the surface is more 
or less uneven. It is an assemblage of sand, an^ 
adventitious matter, in a base of argil: frac- 
ture, granular: of a dull colour: smell, earthy, 
when breathed on: does not effervesce with 

• Enquiry, &c. into the Formation of the Earth. 



VIEW OF DEftBYSHIRE. 61 

acids : does not take a .polish : may be easily 
scraped with a knife : has often brownish red 
Teins: and is often ferruginous: by exposure 
to the atmosphere, it decomposes. This stra- 
tum generally indicates iron ore, which is fre- 
quently found under it in laminae and nodules* 
The iron-stona is both sulphureods and argil- 
laceous, but the latter is the most common: 
it lies in irregular beds ; is of a brown colour, 
and compact nature ; smell, earthy ; aud yields 
about thirty per cent. The strata of argilla- 
ceous grit and iron are generally incumbent on 
coal, which lies in laminae, of various quality 
and thickness, and frequently abounds with 
pyrites, and argillaceous iron ore in nodules : 
fracture, generally splintery, laminated, some- 
times regular, with a bright gloss,, and very 
brittle : contains much sulphur and petroleum. 
Between the layers of coal, and frequently in- 
cumbent on that substance^ are various strata 
of a schistose clay, called by the different names 
of undersoil^ bind, clunch^ hard-stone, metaty 
plate, &c. according as it is more or less indu- 
rated. All these are of unequal' thickness; 
being sometimes only a few inches; at' others, 
. several feet. Nodules of iron ore are frequent- 
ly found, which easily divide, and she^v very 
fine impreesions of plants, flowers, coralloids. 



62 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

and shells. All the strata, indeed, incumbent 
on coal, whether argillaceoas stone, or clay, 
contain a great variety of impressions of vege- 
tables; and particularly the bamboo of India, 
striated, and jointed at different distances: the 
•aphorbia o£ the East Indies ; the American 
ferns, corn, grass, and many Other species of 
the vegetable kingdom, not known to exist in 
any part of the world in a living state. These 
vegetable forms, and the strata containing 
(hem, are said to be a certain indication of 
coal, not only in Derbyshire, but in every 
quarter of the kingdom. The stratum of ar- 
gillaceous grrt may be observed in the vicinity 
of Smailey, Ileanor, Derby, Heage, Alfreton, 
Camfield, Chesterfield, and many other pla- 
ces. The surface of the country where it ap- 
pears, is in general uniform ; the hills are nearly 
regular, and rise by an easy inclination, form- 
ing vales of conbiderable extent. 

•• No. 2, Coarse Sjliciou» grit ; composed of 
granulated quartz, and quartz pebbles, of vaii-. 
otjs sizes, but seldom exceeding a quarter of an 
inch in diameter : some retain the sharpness of 
fragments newly broken; others appear to have 
be< a rounded by attrition. This stratum is 
about 120 yards in thickness, and variable both 
in appearance and texture: near the surface it 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE; 6^ 

is very friable^ and not nnfrequently containg 
adventitious matter. It gives fire with steel, 
resists acids, and is often coloured by iron: 
fracture, irregular; does not take a polish. It 
is not stratified, but contains varieties of grit« 
stone in laminse : soma are called free-stone, 
and employed for buildings: others are termed 
mill-stone grit, and used for milUstones. A 
particular variety is laminated with mica^ and 
is somewhat elastic : it easily divides with a 
knife, and being an excellent substitute for 
slate, has become an article of commerce: lliis 
stratum is not productive of minerals; but 
there are some instances of kad ore having 
been found in it; frequently it contains cfarys* 
tallized fluor, and barytes, and is incumbent 
on shale or schihtus, from which it is separated 
by a thin seam of clay. This substance forms 
long and narrow mountains, rather than hills ; 
it is uppermost at Wirksworth Moor ; Crom* 
ford Moor, near Winster; the East Moor; 
Birchover; Matlock Town; the Edge-side Hills; 
from Eyam to Castleton, and various other 
places. No impressions either of animal or ve^ 
getable figures ha?e been discovered in it. 

** No. 3, Shale, or Schistus ;, pf a dark 
brown, or blackish colour, bituminous, and 
lappearing like indurated day. Its thickness. 



64 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

acoording to the respective measurements of 
Mr. Wbitebarst and Mr. Ferber, taries from 
130 to 150 yards. This stratum is not consi- 
dered as generally productive of minerals; 
though iron-stone in nodules, and thin beds, 
has sometimes been found in it : and also veins 
of lead ore : the latter arise from the limestone, 
on which the shale is incumbent, but become 
less and less mineralized as they ascend. In its 
sparry veins^re frequent cavities, called lochs 
by the miners, which are incrusted with a great 
▼ariety of fine and rare crystallizations of calca- 
reous spar. It contains no impressions either of 
animal or vegetable bodies : but impressions of 
marine substances are sometimes discovered in 
it, much impregnated with pyrites. By expo- 
sure to the atmosphere, this shale decomposes 
in laminae: its fracture is dull: it absorbs 
moisture: contains sulphur, burning with a 
blue flame, and becoming of a reddish-brown 
colour : frequently resists . acids : but some- 
times effervesces slowly, and more quickly as 
it approaches the limestone, from which it is 
separated by a thin bed of clay : in some cases 
it even contains a large portion of calcareous 
earth : the limestone, in return, partaking of 
its dark colour, to the depth of several feet to 
where they are in contact. 1 he waters passing 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 65 

through it »re cbalylieate, and frequently 
waroi. SIhale most commonly appears upper- 
mwt in Tallies formed by limestone mountains 
ph one side, and gritstone on the other, where 
it is generally covered with ratchelj a name 
^ven to a confused mass of loose, irregular 
stony substances, that has probably been com-* 
posed of shattered pieces, fallen from the ad- 
joining eminences. 

^' No. 4. — ^LiMESTONB regularly stratified, 
but varying considerably in thickness, being 
in some places not more than four fathoms, yet 
in others upwards of 200. This stratum seems 
wholly composed of marine e^uvia^ and abounds 
yritb a variety of shells, entrochi, coralloids, 
madrepores, and many other species of crusta* 
C0OUS animals. In it are found the principal 
vcjns or figures which contain galena, sulphu- 
ret, and native oxyde of zinc, a variety of 
ochres, fliiors, barytes, calcareous crystalliza* 
tiops, pyrites, &c. h lies in laminse, more or " 
lessMi^ck, and is frequently separated, atirre* 
gulajr distances, by a marl, containing adven* 
titious substances ; in some places only a few 
i^ch^s thick ; but in iOthers two or three feet. 
This tUiEiestone forms a variety of beautiful 
Vfurbles ; some Uack ; others of a brown red, 
|n«ch ufted for chimney-pieces, and different 

9^ 



66 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

I 

ornaments ; some mottled grey, and some of a 
light stone colour. All the varieties have a 
fcetid smell, when rubl>ed with a harder sub- 
stance: when calcined, they become white, 
and compose a strong cement. The limestone 
in the Peak Forest is regarded as the best : it is 
compact, and sonorous when struck ; its frac- , 
ture, scaly bright. It is much used for the 
purposes of agriculture, and burns to a fine 
white lime, losing nearly thirty per cent, of the 
carbonic gas during the operation, which oc« 
cupies about thirty hours in a strong fire. On 
the surface of this stratum, rotten-stone is 
sometimes found, particularly near Wardlow 
Mire and Ashford : it is generally accompanied 
with a silicious substance, in nodules, called 
chert} which is likewise found in large detach* 
ed masses, and thin strata, within the lime- 
stone. This substance is full of marine figures, 
and animal remains : its origin has been com- 
monly attributed to a partial dissolution of the 
limestone stratum* The forms and general ap- 
pearance dt the limestone mountains are great- 
ly diversified; they exhibit evident marks of in- 
terior convulsions of the earth, which have 
dislocated and thrown the strata near the sur- 
face into every tariety of confusion. In many 
parts they are perpendicular, and overhanging; 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. €7 

presenting bare and rugged forms, and pursu- 
ing the wildest directions. Various openings 
or caverns, locally termed shakes^ or swatlows^ 
exi^t in the limestone : these are large fissurefi, 
the depths and coni^munications of which cao- 
not be ascertained ; yet they have been ren- 
dered of great service in several mines, through 
being made reoeptacles for the deads^ or rub- 
bish; and have also been appropriated as aque- 
ducts to carry off the virater. This stratum is 
uppermost at Winster, Ashford, Eyam, Bux- 
ton Hills, Moneyash, the southern vicinity of 
Castletoid, and various other places. 

** No. 5. — ^ToADSTONE ; a substance exceed- 
ingly irregular in appearance, thickness, and 
disposition; not laminated, but consisting of 
one entire mass, and breaking alike in all di- 
rections. It is sometimes of a dark brown co- 
lour, with a greenish tinge, and superficially 
full of holes ; but at a greater depth more com- 
pact: the holes are sometimes filled with calca- 
reous spar, and sometimes with green globules : 
— this variety is apparently in a state of de- 
composition: the fracture irregular. Other 
varieties have the appearance of % basalt, or 
whin^stone, and are of equal hardness; they 
contain hornblende, with patches or streakes 
of red jasper : some specimens, found near 



68 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

Buxton, jcontain zeolite, and calcedony. These 
varietieft assume so many different ebaracters, 
according to their various states of decompo- 
sition, that their primitive qualities are difficult 
to be traded. The exterior, or what has been 
exposed to the atmo^bere, resembles a scoria, 
or vitriiied massr the fracture of a dull colour; 
earthy smell when breathed oh. * Toadstone,' 
observes Mr. Whitehurst, ^ contains bladder 
holes, like the scoria of metals, ot Iceland lava, 
and has the same chemical property of resisting 
acids. It does not produce any minerals, nor 
figured stones, representing any part of the 
animal or vegetable creation ; nor are any ad* 
ventitious bodies enveloped, in it : neither does 
it universally prevail, as the limestone strata ; 
nor is it like them, equally thick ; but in some 
instances varies in thickness, from six feet to 
600. It is likewise attended with other cir- 
cumstances, which leave no doubt of its being 
as much a lava as that which flows from Hecla, 
Vesuvius, or Etna/ This substance forms the 
surface in many parts of the county, begin- 
ning in the neighbourhood of Matlock, and 
dividing the limestone for a considerable dis- 
tance: near Buxton, and particularly at Worm- 
hill in that neighbourhdbd, it is of consider^ 
ble extent^ uneven Hud rocky : but far less so 



VJEW OF DSRBYSHIREi 90 

than th« precediDg stratmn. Tbe raiDeiv in 
difiereiit jpairts of Derbyshire distittgaish it by 
the Tarioiis names of black-stotiej chmimei^ eat'^ 
dirtj and Maek^day ; but tbe same appellations 
are very frequently given to substances wbich 
scarcely resembie toadstone in any respect but 
colour ; hence, mistakes have arisen, and pro** 
perties 4niv« been attributed to it which it does 
net possess. 

** No. 6.-^-4^iM£SToi9£ of the same tqaalities 
as No. 4, aaid productive of similar minerals 
amd figured stories : below this, no miniers in 
Derbyshire have yet penetrated. It should be 
remarked, that vegetable forms have never yet 
been discovered in afnyof the limestone strata.^^* 
Though the above be, tbe general disposi* 
tion of tbe strata, yet in particular instances^ 
this ord^ is diversified, and the numbers mul- 
tiplied. The inferior measures are not always 
arranged with equal regularity ; sometimes they 
separate each stratum, the thickness differing 
from three inches to three feet, and appearing 
of various colours, from the ochre yellow to tfie 
brown and ash green ; small ^pieces of pyrites 
are generally found in them. 

Of tbe ioadtione^ of which no more than three 

'* Beauties «f Englandy UU p. ixo. 



70 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

beds haye been discovered in any part of the 
countjr, there are some peculiar circumstances 
worthy notice. The mineral veins, or fissures, 
in the limestone strata are always cut off and 
intersected by this substance, when it alter- 
nates with the limestone. For when a vein is 
exhausted in the first bed, that is, in the first 
black limestone; the ore disappears on reach- 
ing the toadsione, and no vestige of it is found, 
until the bed of toadstone is entirely dug 
through. The toadstone also, so completely 
separates the different strata of limestone, that, 
though the gallery over the miners' heads be 
inundated, yet they can carry on their work 
undisturbed by the water, so close is the tex- 
ture, and so free from fissures, is this substance. 
Another peculiarity of the toadstone, is, that 
it is found to fill up the fissures in the lime- 
stone strata, immediately under it, in propor- 
tion to tl^eir width. 

These peculiar circumstance! attending the 
toadstone have led Mr. Whitehurst to believe, 
tJiat it was formed by a different law from 
others ; and that the origin of its formation, 
was greatly posterior to them. He supposed 
that the substances that go under the names of 
toadstone^ channel, cat-dirt, and hlack-clay, is 
actual lava. He imagined that a central fire 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 71 

must at some former time have existed, which 
by its expansire force, elevated and burst the 
incumbent strata, and threw them into theiv 
present state of disorder and contfusion. ^' Fis* 
sures being thus opened over the melted mat- 
ter, the violent pressure might cause it to 
ascend, till it met an obstruction superior to 
the impelling force ; and the lava being thus 
circumstanced, would consequently hav^ a 
proportionable lateral pressure, and might 
therefore penetrate between the strata, and 
force its way till it lost its fluidity by the cool- 
ness of the adjacent beds. Bein^ thus ex- 
tended to some distance, and passing over 
other fissures, it might fill them up more or 
less, as they happened to be more or less wide, 
and the lava more or less fluid/'* This seems 
to be confirmed, by the discovery, that the 
stratum of clay lying under the toadstone, is 
burnt to the colour of a brick for near a foot 
in thickness. This hypothesis, however, has 
been controverted by M. B^ Faujas St. Fond, 
a member of the National Institute at Paris; 
. who says, that this substance is no other than 
that known on the coatinent by the name of 
trapp. But Mr. Mawe has re-examined the 

• Whitchunts* Enqvarj* 



I 
7f . HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

mine yisited by M. St. Fond, and seems to' 
think, that, that respectable geologist' was de- 
ceived hy the ignorance or imposition of the 
miners ; and that the toadstone is as much a 
laya, as that which flows from Hecia, Vesuvius, 
or Etna. 

It has been observed, that the position of the 
strata is governed by a uniform law ; their de« 
clination always tending towards those parts 
of the country, where the grit-stone has ap- 
peared on the surface ; but the degree of their 
dipping is various and irregular. In some 
places they dip at the rate of six inches in a 
yard ; in others twelve, and even eighteen in a 
similar space. In particular places, this dip- 
ping seems to be much influenced by the val- 
lies ; the strata on one side being nearly hori- 
somtai; while on the opposite they have an ob« 
lique, and sometimes perpendicular direction. 
At Cliesterfield and Heanor, the strata have a 
peculiar position . They dtp for a considerable 
space towards one common centre, and by this 
means form a kind of bason, or deep circular 
figure. 

-The strata of day-stone land, yielding coal, 
are foitod to be exceedingly various in their ^r- 
der, thftduess, and quality. They are in ge» 
neral compoi^d^ different sorts of clay, smut 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. , n 

or soft coal, bind, black shak, clanch, and ^ 
hard ooaL The position of these strata is very 
seldom found horizontal, but dip in almost 
every direction. o 

Having thus taken a cursory view of the sub- 
terraneous geography of the county, and 
briefly described the difierent strata ; we come 
to treat of its minerals and mines. These are 
provinces which afibrd ample room for investi- 
gation : at all times the mineral kingdom is 
worthy inspection ; and as its productions are 
not only to be met with, in great variety in 
Derbyshire, but as they constitute a very greirt 
part of its natural riches, it will deserve parti- 
cular attention. 

Lead. — ^The lead mines in Derbyshire appear 
to have been worked in very early times: Cam- 
den is of opinion, that Pliny alludes to this 
county, when he says, ^' in Britain, on the 
surface of the ground, lead is dug up in such 
plenty, that a law was made on purpose to 
stint them to a set quantity/^* Bpt whether 
this be the case or not, it is certain that lead 
mines were known 9nd worked in the time of 
the Romans ; as several pigs have been found, 
at difier^it times, with Roman inscriptions on 
them. 

■p 

» • C^mA^n, p. 494t 



74 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

The first of these was accidentally discovered 
bj a labouring man in 1777onCromford moor, 
lying in an oblique direction, about a foot be^ 
neath the surface of the ground* It was par<» 
chased by a gentleman in the neighbourhood, 
for a trifling sum of money, and is now lodged 
in the British Museum. It bears this inscri}i- 
tion : — LMP« CAES. hadriani. aug. mei. lyi ; 
which has been interpreted:* The sixth legion 
ifiscribes this in memory of the Emperor Hadri^ 
an. It is therefore supposed, that this pig was 
casl about A. D. 130. In 1783 a second block 
of lead was met with in Mat locks the letters 
on this are in sharp relief, and very perfect : 
but as the words are very much abreviated, and 
likewise consist of compoundedletter8,it is very 
difficult to ascertain the meaning of the in* 
scription. But the learned antiquarian to 
whom we have just alluded, thinks that it may 
admit the following construction: — lucius, 

ARUCONIUS VERECUNDUS MERCATOR LUNDINEN- 

sis : The property of Lucius Aruconius Vere^ 
cundus, lead merchant of London. This block 
on the upper surface, is nineteen inches in 
length, and three and a half in breadth ; on 
the lower, it is twenty-two inches long, and 
four and three-quarters in breadth ; and weighs 

• By Mr. Pegge iu Arcbaelog. Vol. IT. 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 75 

aightj-four pounds. Since the above, another 
block has been found at Matlock, bearing the 
feUoiving inscription : — xi. cl. tr. lvt. UR-i 
exAii^ : which the Rev. Mr. Giffbrd supposed 
stood for the words; Tiberii^ Claudiani^ Trium^ 
viriyLutudari^Britannorum ex argentaria. This 
pig weighs Iwelve stones and five pounds. 

These different inscriptions afibrd undoubt*' 
ed evidence, that the tead mines in the neigh* 
bonrhood of these places, were worked by the 
Romans: and it is very probable, that from thsrt 
time tp the present, none of the different na* 
tions who inhabited Britain were ignorant or 
negligent of this treasure. We have reason to 
believe, that the Saxons and Danes, %vho, im- 
mediately succeeded the Romans, availed them- 
selves of this source of national \w2^Uh ; as one 
of the mines in the neighbourhood of Castle- 
ton, is called Odin^ the name of one of their 
northern deities: and this name, also proves 
that this mine was opened before the prevalence 
of the Christian Religion. 

Dugdale says,* that Eadburga, abbess of 
JRepton, in 714 sent a leaden collin to St. Guth- 
4ac, patroa^saint of Croyland abbey, who died 
that year : and in the year 835 Kenewara, ano- 

* Mod* Ang!« V. T. p. 88. 



76 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

ther abbess of Repton» granted her estate at 
Wircesworth^ to Hambert, the Alderman, on 
condition, that he gave lead to the value of 300 
shillings, to archbishop Ceolnoth, finr the use 
of Christ Church at Canterbury ; so that lead 
must have been in common use and well known 
before those times. The Castle of the Peak» 
built as earlj as the time of William the Con- 
queror, appears from a survej taken of it in 
queen Elizabeth's time, to have been covered 
with lead. In Doomesday*book mention is 
made of three lead mines at Wirksworth, one 
at Crich, one at Ashford, one at Bakewell, and 
another at Metesford, a manor which is de» 
scribed as situated in the neighbourhood of 
Matlock. 

In the sixteenth jear of Edward I. Reginald 
de Leye and William de Meynell, were ap« 
pointed by the crown, to make enquiry ^* con- 
cerning the liberties which the miners of the 
High Peak, claim to have in those parts, and 
which they have hitherto used ; and how, and 
what manner, and from what time and by 
what warrant/' At the proper time and place, 
the privileges of the miners were enquired ia- 
to, and confirmed to them. These are con- 
tained in sixty-four articles for the High Peak 
Hundred ; and fifty-three for the Wapentake of 
Wirksworth. 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE; 77 

The regttlatioas reBpeotiiig the rights of the 
miners are numeroiw and Tarions. Two great 
courts are to be held every year ; at East^ and 
Midbaelmas: and if required may be called 
erery six w ^ks.* Those of the High Peak are 
held at Money- Ash ; aad those of the Wapen-* 
take at Wirksworth. At these bourts a Bmv 
master presides ;t who with twenty-four jury-» 
men determines all disputes that may arifiB 
amosig the mitters* The Bar-masters are cho- 
sen by his Majesty's farmers of tke mineral 
duties 4 these have from time immemorialt 
been let on lease. The present farmer of those 
in the High Peak, is, the Dukeof Devonshire; 
and of those in the Wapentake of Wirksworth^ 
is, Mrs. RoUes. They have a steward each^ 
and Bar«masters in the districts w|iich they hold 
of the crown. 

The duties of a Bar-master, are various and 
perplexing; his principal office is*to put the 
miners in possession of the veins they have dis* 
covered; and collecting the portion of ore due 
to the lessee. When a miner has discovered a 
vein of ore, in any part of the king's field, tie 
may obtain eicclusive title to it, if it be not in 
• an orchard, garden, high road, or dwelUng- 



• Article XVI. f Alt. agreed to at the Great Court Bar-mote 1665, 
X Note to Art. I. 



78 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

boose.* Possession is to be given bj the Bar- 
Bnaster, in the presence of tvro jurymen, marking 
ont in a pipe or rake work two mearf^ of ground, 
each containing twenty*nine yards; and in a 
flat work, fourteen yards square. But should 
a miner neglect to avail himself of his disco- 
r^ry, beyond a given time; then, the Bar- 
master may take possession of the vein, and 
disjtose of it to another. The Bar-master is 
also to superintend the admeasurement of the 
the ore, and to receive the dues of the lessee of 
the crown : this part of his office is attended 
with some difficulty^ from the variety of claims, 
which differ greatly in different places. By 
the articles, a thirteenth of the ore is due to the 
king; but there is seldom more than a twenty- 
fifth taken. There is also a due for ty the ; and 
another called cope^ which is paid by the buyer. 
In mines which are private property, such tolls 
are paid as the parties agree upon. 

The ore is measured out in a dish, containing 
in the High Peak sixteen pints ; but only four- 
teen in the Low Peak. The brazen dish, by 
which the measures in the Low Peak are regu- 
lated, appears from the inscription upon it, to 
have been cast in the reign of Henry VIII. — 
5^ This dishe was made the iiij day of Octobr 

• Article XVI. 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE, ?§ 

the iiij yere of the Reigne of Kyng Henry the 
vijj before George Erie of Shrowesbury Steward 
of theKy ng mostUonourable houeshold and ail- 
so Steward of all the honour of Tatbery by the 
assent and consent as wele of all the Mynours 
as of all the Brenners within and adioynyng the 
Lordshyp of Wyrkysworth Percell of the said 
honour This Dishe to Uem^yne In the Moote 
hall at Wyrkysworth hanging by a Cheyne so 
as the Mchanntes or Mynours may have resorte 
to the same att all tymes to make the trw Me- 
sure at the same/' v 

The articles before alluded to, contain many 
privileges which the miners strenuously contend 
for. By article X1V\ the Bar-master or his de- 
puty, is to lay out a road for the miners to go 
and come from their work ; and also for car- 
rying to and from their work the running wet- 
ter to wash their or6. Tl^ is done in the foU 
lowing manner: — The Bar-master takes with 
him two of the twenty-four jurymen, and walk- 
ing betiveen them, with his and their arms ex- 
tended, they walk from the mine, to the most 
convenient' place, they can soonest come to the 
king's high road, pricking down peggs or stakes 
' on each side as they go along ; and withiri those 
stakes, the miner may carry to, and from, the 
mines, whatever and whenever he pleases; evea 



80 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

if it was standing corn.* By article XLIV. it 
is provided, ** that if any miner be killed or 
slain, or*daniped upon the- mine, within any 
groove ; neither Escheator, Coroner, nor other 
officer, ought to meddle therewith, but the Bar- 
master 01^ his Deputy/^ By article XIII. it is 
enacted, ^^ that no person ought to, sue any 
miner for debt, that doth belong unto the 
mines, in any court but the mineral court ; and 
if any person do the contrary, he shall lose his 
debt, and pay the charges in the law/' By 
article XXXII. it is provided, that '^ no officer 
ought for trespass or debt, to execute or serve 
any writ, warrant, or precept, upon >Any mi- 
ner being at his work in the mine ; nor when 
the miners come or go to the Barmote Court, 
but the Bar-master, or his deputy only.'' By 
article XLVIIL it is also enacted, *' that if any 
person or persons, Teloniously take away any 
ore, or other materials from any groove, shaft, 
or meare of ground, houses, coves, or smelting- 
housds, or elsewhere ; if it be under the vSilue 
of thirteen-pence halfpenny, the Bar-master 
shall punish the offender in the stocks, or other- 
wise, as it is fit Ybr such ofienders to be pu* 
nished. But if the ore or other materials, be 

gggqggg I . I , ■ sagagggg ■■ i , i — L-i 

• Miner's GuidCy p« 34* 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. %i 

above tbirteen^ence halfpenny in value, then 
we saj it is felony/' 

The method of discovering veins of lead are 
is various; but the practical miner is led to 
believe, where a vein is likely to be found, by 
the nature and quality of the ground and stone: 
and as most veins that are situated in the 
bowels of the earth, have some branch that 
proceeds from the main vein, nearly to the 
snrface of the earth, he need only turn up a 
little of the earth to be satisfied. Veins of lead 
ore, are commonly distinguished by the names 
of Pipe, Rake, and Flat works. 

A pipe work lies between two strata of lime- 
stone regularly extending above and below. 
The whole body of the pipe, generally consists 
of several ranges or branches, that run parallel 
to each other, and tend to one level at last.— • 
Sometimes the rock is pierced through by these 
branches ; and, in that case, it is best to fol- 
low its course, as they often lead to a fresh 
range. Should no ore be discovered on such a 
pursuit, the breadth of the work is ascertained : 
its length is indeterminate, dcfpending much on 
the dipping of the measure. A pipe work has 
commonly two levels, which are called the up^ 
per and nether levels ; and sometimes more. 

A rake work is known by its being bounded. 



it HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

hy two solid sides of rock or stone ; ruaning in 
a direct line from its foundation for several 
Hieares, and sometinies miles ; and penetrating 
nany fathoBis into the earth. It seldoqn varies 
from the first range in which it was discovered ; 
unless, (as is the case sometimes) it lead to a pipe 
work; and then it is called both rake and pipe. 

Ajlatwark is not confined between any two 
sidesyor bounded to any particular by-skirt com- 
pass; but spreads itself every way, and keeps 
one level. It does not lie very deep in the 
earth ; but resembles the pipe work by being 
confined between a roof and sole; but it spreads 
wider, and seldom extends above a hundred 
yards. It is sometimes found near the surface 
in the solid rock, atad is very weak and poor, 
being seldom thicker than a man's finger. ^ 

The veins of lead o^e, are generally enclosed 
in a yellow, red, or black soil ; and are found 
connected with cauk, spar, or some other mi- 
neral. The pipes seldom penetrate the strata, 
but follow the dip of the country in which they 
are found. The rakes, are still more irregular 
in their direction : in the High Peak they, ge- 
nerally, point East and West ; and in the Wa- 
pentake^ North and South. It is not uncom- 
mon, for two veins, to cut each other at right 
angles ; and sometimes, the pipe and rake unite, 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. is 

and run together for a considerable way, thos 
forming a rich and strong yein. 

The lead ore in Derbyshire, like that found 
in most other places, contains silver i bat not a 
sufficient quantity, to repay the expences at» 
tendant on the separation. This was found, by 
the attempts that were made, some years ago, 
to extract it ; bnt the erent not answering the 
expectations of those who were engaged in it, 
the object was given up, and no such works 
now exist in the county. 

The lead ore, most commonly found here^ is 
that known by the name of galena: it lies ge- 
nerally in larger and smaller veins and masses ; 
frequently in nodules with catiA:*-another name 
for barytes. One sort of galena is found crys- 
tallized in cubes, with the angles truncated ; 
this is of a bright lustre and flaky fracture. — 
There is another variety, which, when broken^ 
is remarkably bright and foliated ; and by ex- 
posure to the atmosphere becomes tarnished, 
and decomposes. Another kind of galena, 
from its being very bard, is called, the steel- 
grained lead ore: this when broken, has a gra« 
nulated appearance, resembling the fracture of 
steel. Small holes, with their sur&ces black, 
as if corroded, are frequently observed, in the 
maases of galena. Carbonate of lead is some- 



64 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

times seen on it, in various forms and states ; — 
some of the crystals appearing semi^metallic, 
others a dirty white, and some transparent. 
The prism and the double hexagonal pyramids, 
joined at the base, are the most general shapes. 
** Slikenside^ is a singular variety of galena, of 
a bright metallic lustre, with a reflection ap- 
proaching that of a mirror. It appears thinly 
plated on one side of a substance called kevel 
or keble^ and usually forms the side of a vein, 
or cavity; but sometimes composes a kind of dou- 
ble vein, the smooth surface on each side being 
closely in contact, though without the least de- 
gree of cohesion. When pierced by the miner's 
tool, or divided by a sharp iron wedge, it first 
begins to crackle, and in a few minutes, rends 
with considerable violence, exploding with a 
noise as if blasted with gun-powder. The mi- 
ners are sometimes wounded by the fragments, 
when, regardles of the danger, they neglect 
to retreat sufficiently early; in these cases, 
they are often cut violently, as if they had been 
stabbed in various placto with a chisseL This 
extraordinary phenomenon^ has never been sa» 
tisfactorily explained : its occurrence is chiefly 
confined to the Haycliff and Lady -Wash mines 
at Eyam, and the Odin mine at Castleton. In 
the former a prodigious explosion happened in 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE; $s 

the year 1738 ; at which time Mr. Whitehurst 
affirms, the quantity of 20Q barrels of minerals 
were blown oat at one blast ; each barrel being 
supposed to contain, three and foiir hundred 
weight. During the explosion, the surface of 
the ground was observed to shake, as if bj an 
earthquake/'* 

A variety of carbonate lead sometimes oc« 
curs, not adhering to the galena. Masses of a 
horn colour, semi-transparent, and crystalliz- 
ed on the surface, have been found ; and other 
carbonated nodules, easily reduced to a sandy 
powder, are often found in a loose ferruginous 
earth. There is an argillaceous variety, called 
wheatrstone found in a large vein : this, in ge- 
neral, contains arsenic; |s of a light stone co- 
lt>ur, heavy, with black spots. It is not transr 
parent ; the fracture earthy, with a few metal- 
lic scales : this is extremely easy of fusion, and 
during the operation it emits a strong smell of 
sulphm* and arsenic. Phosphate of lead, of a 
leek green colour, in hexagonal prisms, is some- 
times discovered on barytes attached to a Sand 
atone. Nolybeate of lead, of a fine yellow co- 
lour, sometimes appears in the cavities of gale- 



• Beauties of EnsUnd, p. 324, 



88 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

Ba, and of carbonated lead : but this variety it 
not often met with.* 

The miners have four terms bj which the/ 
denominate their ore, according to its qualitj: 
the largest and best is called Bing; the next 
which is almost equal in quality and size, is 
termed Pesey; the third, which passes through 
the sieve in washing, is named SnUtham; and 
the fourth, which is caught by a very slow 
stream of water, is stiled Belland; this is in- 
ferior to the rest, owing to the admixture of 
foreign qualities. All the ore that comes from 
the mine, is beaten and knocked into small 
pieces, and afterwardisi washed and sifted be* 
fore it is sold: this part of the business is per« 
formed by women and children, who are em- 
ployed by the miners for a very trifling rernu- 
Deration. 

The ore being thus prepared, is taken to the 
smelting furnaces. In former times, the busi- 
ness of smelting thcrore into lead, was accom- 
plished by the means of wood fires ; and on the 
western side of the highest hills in the neigh- 
bourhood of Wirksworth and Crich, the work 
was carried on from time immemorial. But this 
imperfect method was laid aside, and followed 

• Mawe's Mineralogy. 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. «7 

by 9 mode of smelting, which though rude 
and defective, was an impiroTement upon it.-^ 
The hearth furnac€y consists of large loogh 
stones, placed so as to form an oblong cavity, 
about two feet wide, fourteen long, and two 
deep ; into which fuel and ore are put in alter- 
nate layers : the heat is raised by a large pair 
of bellows. The fuel is wood and coal ; and 
when the heat becomes sufficient to smelt the 
ore, the lead runs out at an opening in the 
the front of the furnace, into a trough placed 
before the hearth ; from whence it is comreyed 
into nioulds, and cast into blocks^ called half- 
pigs. This lead is very soft, pure, and dnc^ 
tile ; but owing to the imperfection of this man* 
ner of smelting, a considerable quantity of men- 
tal remains mingled with the slags : these are 
therefore thrown again into the furnace, and 
the metal disengaged from them^ by a power- 
fttl fire of cokes : but the lead produced by this 
second process, is inferior in quality to the 
former. 

At present, ho wever» there is but a small por- 
tion of ore smelted in this way ; and the hearth 
has almost entirely given place to the intro- 
duction of the copula furnace* The ccqpnla 
furnace, invented by a phy&ician of the name 
of Wright, is of an oblong form, resembling a 



S6 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

long, but not very deep chest; the top and 
bottom being a little concave. The fire being 
placed upon iron bars, at the height of three 
or four feet, at one end, and a . chimney being 
built at the other extremity ; the flame is drawn 
over the ore placed in the body of the furnace, 
and by its reverberation, smelts it, without 
coming into contact with the fuel. One of 
these furnaces will hold a ton of ore ; but the 
usual charge is, about eighteen hundred weight. 
The time required for fusing this quantity, is 
indeterminate ; as some kinds of ore will be 
ready in six hours, while others require seven, 
eight, or nine, according to. the nature of the 
substances attached to them. That which is 
united to spar, is the most easy of fusion ; and 
it is customary, sometimes, to throw a small 
quantity of this mineral into the furnace, to 
accelerate the progress; but in genera], the mi- 
nerals which are combined with the ore, ai^ist- 
ed by a little coal slack, are sufficient to smelt 
it. The lead, after it is smelted, is poured into 
moulds of various sizes ; for the Slocks are of 
different weights, according to the markets 
for which they are intended: either HuUy 
Bawtry, or London. Two of these blocks make 
a pig, and eight pigs make ^fodder. 
But all the lead in Derbyshire, is not disk 



Yf£«r OF DERBYSHIRE. ' « 

fi#aid0fiji ibis state or ibisd. A portion of 
it is .roiled, in works efocted'for the parpose, in 
^he iM^bouriiOQid fif At Aurnaces, ibIo sfheets 
for ^irfirious «ses; A eonsidorable qaantity k, 
oJi$o, oonvenled into Red Lead^ by the mer- 
chants and smelters, yaho reside in difierent 
parts of the county. This process is accom- 
plished ia a kind of oi^n^ having its floor di- 
irided into three apartnuents: the middle -one 
.coniains ithe metsd, and the two others the fire. 
The heat is reverberated from the roof on the 
jnetal, and conviorts it to a calx or powden — 
Xjrreat care is requisite for the d«e regulation 
4if the heat : but wiib the nicest adjustment, it 
mI^^i iiappens that the metaiiic principle, is 
«ntii^Iy destroyed by the operation : it there- 
^e,b^i;»es necessary, to separate thecalci- 
4ie!l pait^fimpit; for this purpose, it is ground 
iverf MiallinajniU, and then washed. Afler 
t^^|!tj|ac|llained part is again exposed to the 
kfai%:tf9f the fi|niace» and being continually 
stjirr^ ^t^uiies a red oolour, and is fit for use. 
,. .,Tiw>«ntMial produce of lead from the Derby- 
^im mines, is not raocdy ascertained; but 
may. be estimated at an Average, between i9ve 
iiad six 'hundred tons. It is generally thought 
to be .op 4lie decline; aamettf the richest mines 
being either exbaasted, or betojne more difli^ 

N 



90 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

cult to work ; bat on the other hand, from the 
•improyements in the art of smelting, and the 
more effectual methods employed to clear the 
mines of water, bj new levels and improved 
fire engines; advantages have been gained, that 
may perhaps supply the deficiency.^ 

The greatest impediments, that the miaens 
find in vrorking the mines, are foul air and win- 
ter. To relieve them from the first, a pipe or 
tube is generally introduced down the shaft, 
and extended along the roof of the gallery, to 
the place where the miners are at work ; pnd 
thus a free circulation of air is obtained. Ma- 
ny adits^or as they are here called, soughs^ have 
been opened from the bottom of some ne|gk» 
bpuring valley, and made to communicate 
with the works by different channels or gaUeriee^ 
for the purpose of carrying off the water. The 
most considerable adit in Derbyshire is at 
Youlegrave, running from the Derwent to Al- 
port ; and called the Hilcar Sough. It is two 
miles in length, and was driven at the expense 
of £30fi00. The miners pay a certain pro- 
portion of lead ore to the proprietors as a duty; 
^but as they have now penetrated below the le- 
vel of the adit, their works are but ineffectu- 



• AUm'sDcKrip.p.8i4 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. gi 

ally drained by it, Bot the relieving of tbe 
nines at Wirkswortb, is only tC secondary ob- 
ject of this adit at present ; as the water deli- 
rered by it at Cromford, bas proved of very 
great value : — ^The stream is employed in work* 
ing the extensive cotton vrorks, that are carried 
forward at that place ; and. as it is not liable to 
any considerable increase or diminution, it has 
proved to be of very great advantage. 

There is another sough driven from the level 
of the Derwent, and is called Wirksworth- 
Moor sough : — it is situated to the East of that 
lawn, and nearly thr^e miles in length. It has 
been observed, that a low level, in the lime* 
stoee, drains a large tract of country ; all the 
waters foiling into it for a considerable dis^ 
tance.* * * 

/rotr;'— the ore of this metal is found in very 
great abundance, in all those tracts of country 
where coal has been discovered ; the Chinlcy- 
hills in the vicinity of Chapel-en-le-Frith ex* 
cepted. It lies at different depths in the bow- 
els of the earth : and, frequently, from the 
great dipping of the strata, appears on the sur* 
face of the ground. When this happens to be 
the case, a hole like the the shaft of a coal pit, 
■I.. . i^— — — — ^^—a 

• Beauties of England, III. p. 302. 



gt HISTORICAL AMD DESCRIPTIVE 

i« made : whieU l|€mg gr«daally aidarge^ every 
wmy, io tbe search after the ore, aasumes the 
shape of a belL After peBetralbg in this way» 
for about eighteen yards* the pursoit theiv, ia 
given up, and a fiew pit sunkr of a sinrikir 
depth and foria. Owiii§^ to this practice of arix^ 
log the lower beds» with the soil near the sar- 
£ice ; the land receives greater injury by work* 
ing of iron mines, tlian those of coal s whence 
if, is not thought worth while, to dig for iron 
pre, unless the beds are thought to be very va<« 
luable. ^ 

The beds of iron ore^ are various in their 
thickness ; but generally fisotn two to twelve 
inches. The most valuable that have hitherto 
been found, iire those in Morley Park near 
Heage,at Wingerworth, Chesterfield, and Staves 
ly. The ores found at these places are various 
in texture and colour : — Those of the argillace* 
ous kind} aire the most common, and most fre- 
quently used in the iron works :— ** They form 
a thin stratum in the coal countries, and some* 
times enelose shells and coralloids« CalcareonSt 
or sparry iron ores, of a fine brownish red co^ 
lour, sometimes bright yellow, scaly, and dirty 
brown, are found in amorphous masses, near 
the surface, and filling insulated places. - The 
calcareous matter seems predominant : the cry&r 



VIEW OF DER»YSHI»E; got 

telliaatioii is frequetttly preaenred^ (Mr.a^ipeaffs 
io diffefeol; stages o£ ^eoompositXHi^ Tbis 
kind is very useful to max witk <Mber iion oieSy 
and is snid to maka a g;ood irbn for conveitiiig 
into steel."* 

The ore, after it is taken oat of the.iiiine» ia 

burned in tke opeipi aiir^ in bedsi first witk.coka. 

and tben with slack ; aa^ afiterwards bioken iai^ 

« to pieces and screei^ed. It is then taken to tka 

fiiroaees: these are ofaeircular or conioalfomi:; 

having a fire with the blast at bottonir Afttt 

thefornaoe is bailt, tone time is requisite toi 

prepare it for use* A small fire ia first made 

under the timp, and fuel is continaallj added, 

antil it is raised as high as the mouth of the 

newly erected furjMice : when it is filled to about 

half its height, the blast is employed.; so tbafc 

the walls are not liable to be injured by : a toa 

midden and strong heat. When the fnmaee ia 

thus duly prepared and seasoned, the prooeM 

of smelting the ore begins. Fuel, oie^ and 

flux, in alternate layers, are eontiMiaUy p»t in^ 

day and night ; and the fire is not sofieved to 

go out, till the furnace wants repairiag ; which 

is sometimes a period of many years. The Aiel 

k generally coke, though charcoal is sometimes 

^ ataiiti«^Kfi»Cl«nd, til. 386. 



4 



94 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

wed ; and the flax is, uipveraally, limestoiie. 
The proeeM of smelting, oocupies difiereiit 
times, aooording to the sice of the furaace, and 
other eircmnstances. Diflereiit sorts of iron 
are produced bj Tarying the proportions of ore, 
llox, and fuel. The smelting of the ore is ac- 
celerated bj the application of a blast, pro- 
duced bj a pair of cylinders, which are work- 
ed by a fire engine or water wheel. When the 
fusion of the ore commences, the smelted me- 
tal passes through the layers of coke and lime- 
stone^* and collecting at the bottom of the Yur- 
pace, is let out into beds of sand, moulded to 
the Ibrms required : these are called pigs, about 
three feet and a half in length, and weighing 
about 100 pounds. The metal first obtained, 
is brittle and void of due malleability ; but to 
giim it Ibis property^ and to adapt it to the ra- 
i^ns uses for which it is employed, it is carried 
to the forge, where it is wrought into bars. — 
The quantity of iron produced annually in this 
county, Msonnts to between fifteen and sixteen 
thousand tons. The principal Ibunderies and for- 
ges, are those at Butterley near Ripley, Morley 
Park, Wingerworth, Chesterfield, and Stavely. 
Calamine: or native oxid of zinc, is found 
at Castleton, Cromlbrd, Bonsall, and Wirks- 
worth. It occurs of ¥arious colours, and dif- 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 95 

iereot qualities. It is found in nodules, after 
enveloping calcaieous spar, mrhioh it soon de- 
composes. It has sometimes been found in the 
figure of the rhombic and dog*tooth spar; 
and frequently occurs in the form of grapes.—- 
It is sometimes in an ochreous state, combined 
with ferruginous matter ; but the compact kind 
is the best, and is most esteemed when of a 
waxy colour. It generally contains about six* 
ty poundd per c\v t. of zinc, and some iron. It is 
found at various depths, but generally near a 
vein of lead ore. Sometimes the two minerals 
are mixeil, and run by the side of each other 
fpr a considerable way : but generally the veiii 
of one mineral ceases, where the other begins ; 
and a good vein of both is never found in the 
same place. Calamine generally lies in a bed 
of yellow, or reddish brown clay. The beds 
resemble pipe works^ and their direction is the 
same with the dip of the measures. 

The calamine, when got out of the mine, is 
fillet washed in a current, and then again in 
sieves in a vessel of water; and all the foreign 
particles, as cauk, spar, and lead ore, are 
picked out from it. . It is next calcined in a re-^ 
verberatory furnace ; nearly of the same form 
and construction with the copula, .but having 
a flat roof and bottom ; after which it is again 



«8 HISTOmCAL AND DESCIUPTIVE 

l»ieked, gmuiid into m fine powdor^ wmd wished : 
it is tlien fit (hr iu». The qoaatity of c«l«aiiiie 
at present ammally pradoeed in Derbyshire, is 
4ibout AOO tons. Ite value in its crade stnte, is 
itook thfee to four pounds per ton ; but in ite 
prepared state, it is sold at nine or ten.* 

A oenturj and a half ago the ^miners were en- 
tirely ignorant of the properties, and value, of 
calamine ; and it is not fifty years since its use 
in the composition of farass, and beli metal, was 
made a secret of in this county. After being 
cidcined and poivdered, ft is mixed with dnur- 
4)oal and cofiper, in thin plates, or in grains, 
and exposed to a heat, at first not suffeient to 
melt the copper, but afterwards increased ; so 
that the mass, which is a compomid^f the two 
metals, is fiised, and is nowcsdled brass.'f*^ 
Zinc, which is the name of the metal produced 
irom the ore of calamine, has ^of )ate years 
been rolled, by a gentleman of Deriiy, into 
sheets ; and recommended as a substitute for 
sheet-lead. But a more vaktable purpose for 
which Zittc is used, is &r exhibfting the phse* 
nomena produced by Galvanism ; a science as 
y<et iu its tsfiincy, but promising very great 
discoveries in the material world. 

— —aBSM3ftgettaa8«aegsgsagag= ■! '■ sssa 

«» JikUi's PciorlstloB. f Skriasiiire's Chf ndcal £ssays, Vol. II. p. 6i. 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. ^ 

Blende^ or Blaek^JMk^ also got in Derbj- 
tfaire, is another ore of srinc, less valuable thaa 
csilamine. It ocears in various colours and 
qualities, frequently crjrstalliMd, and general* 
Ij accompanying fluor and barjtes. The eo» 
Ipur of this ore is a blackish 4>rown, inclining 
to a metallic lastre, and partially transparent. 
There is a variety of this ore, called rulnf httende^ 
which is crystallized on calcareous spar, and of 
a beautiful transparent red* Another variety, 
is called pigean^necked blende^ from its iride- 
scent hues. 

Copper .-—-This metal, has hitherto been 
found only in a small quantity in the county. 
Pieces considerable in size, detached from any 
vein, have been frequently met with, at Mat- 
lock and Bonsall. A slender vein of this ore 
has been discovered some years since at Great- 
rock Dale, between Tideswdl and Buxton; 
and another has been met with kt Russop-Edge, 
near Chapel-en-le-Frith : but at present neither 
is worked. 

Pyrites ;~--^ combination of sulphur, with 
iron, arsenic, and vitriol; are found in very 
great variety, in almost every part of the conn* 
ty. Some are found in a bright coloured vein, 
running through transparent fluor, and very 
beautiful, at Ashover : and also.other varieties 
4 o 



98 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE , 

of a golden colour, sprinkled orer the surfiiGe 
of the fluor. The pyrites generally found, are 
exceedingly liard, and strike fire mith steel. 

Black^wadj an ore of manganese and ircn 
has been found in difl^rent parts of tbe'county^ 
in masses, of a dark brown, or blackish co- 
lour: when broken, capillary veins, of ame* 
taliic lustre, appear. When mixed with lin<* 
wed oil, it becomes ignited in the space of for- 
ty or fifty minutes. It is esteemed by painters 
for its drying quality ; and is Very much used 
for ship painting. Manganese is one of the 
principal ingredients consumed for producing 
gas for the process of bleaching: but that 
which is met With in Derbyshire, has been 
found of too weak a quality for that purpose. 
In an analysis of this mineral, by Mr. Wedge* 
wood, twenty •^two parts, were found to contain 
nearly two of indissoluble earth, chiefly micace- 
ous, one of lead, about nine and a half of iron, 
and the same quantity of manganese. 

Martial ochres^ are extremely abundant. — 
They are supposed to result from the decompo- 
sition of iron ores ; which is accomplished by 
water and fixed air. - The best, of a rich yel« 
low colour, is found in a cavern, called the 
Water-hull, near Castleton. Dark brown ochre 
is met with in the lead mine, under the High 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 99 

Tor, at Matlock; a pale jellow dchre is to be 
found in a mine near Winster ; and balls of a 
darker jellow are found in the shale at Hassop. 
The colours of these ochres are said to be the 
most durable pigments in nature. 

Coa/«*-*-Wbetber this mineral had been dis* 
covered in Derbyshire, in the time of the Ro« 
mans, is uncertain; but as. it seems probable, 
that it was dug up in a neighbouring county,*!' 

* l*he most probable suppositioa- with respect to the 
origin of coals is:— that at some former time, (perhaps at 
the time of the deluge, according to Moses's account) the 
earth was covered vfilh water ; aad that the trees and o(ber 
vegetables, collecting in strata at the bottom ; and mixing 
with an immense quantity of seaweeds and sea animals; 
and being afterwards covered with clay or sand, and un« 
dergoing a gradual decomposition ; have ' formed so many 
strata of coal. That coal is of vegetable origin, is evident 
from the variety of vegetable remains and impressions, that 
are found both in the strata of coal, and in the earthy 
strata above and below them. That it is of submarine ori- 
gin, also appears from the presence of shells, petrified fish, 
and other productions of the ocean. The erroneous po- 
pular opinion, that coils grow like vegetables; so that mines 
that have been once worked oui, may be opened and- work- 
ed again in a series of years ; is, like many other ridiculous 
opinions, given up, from its inconsistency with reason and 
experience, 

+ In the West-Riding of Yorkshire, are mapy beds of 
cinders, heaped up in the fields ; in one of which, a num- 
ber of Roman coins, was found a few years ago. From 
Horsley, it appears, that there was a colliery at'fienwell, 
about four miles West of Newcastle-up<m-Tyne| supposed 
to have been actually worked by the Romans. 



lot HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

coal is but little sulpbureoas, and yields a 
large quantity of ashes. That which is found 
a^ New hall and Measham, is Terj nearly of the 
same kind. 

The coal near Buxton is shattery and ex- 
ceedingly sulphureous/'* 

Coals are always found under strata of grit, 
which is a mixture of sand and day ; or under 
schistus, which is clay hardened, and splitting 
into layers, forming either slates, or a substance 
called shivers, according to its fracture. When 
a stratum of coal is come to, that is considered 
worth the woi'king, it is dug out from the su- 
perior and inferior strata, which are generally 
grit, or schistus, and which are then termed 
the roof and floor. In doing this, care is al- 
ways taken, to leave columns of the coal 
standing here and there, sufficient to sup- 
port the roof. When a roof is shivery, it is 
frequently necessary to support it with a roof 
of timber. These means being taken to sup* 
port the superior stratum, the miners proceed 
to very considerable distances from the original 
pits; and occasionally new shafts or pits are 
sunk, to facilitate the removal of the coals, and 
to afford a proper ventilation in the mines. 

«:^=X=SSS±SSSSeS9S===aS==SSS!SS=SSSSSSBBSS==5S5S===9 

• Pilkinston^ Vol. I. p. i79« 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE; 103 

The first operation after sinking the engine* 
pit of a coal mine, is^ the working or drrving in 
the ^oal, and sinking the first coal pit After 
the pit is sunk to the coal, the miner begins hi^ 
work: he first digs or undermines with his 
pick-axe, at the bottom and one side, into the 
seam or stratum as far as he can; he then 
forces down the great pieces of coal, by a wedge 
and mallet. The coals thus procured are brought 
to the bottom of the pit' in corves or baskets, 
which are hooked upon a chain/ and drawn or 
wound up by a rope to the surface. This is 
often effected by a machine called a gin, 
wrought by horses. But of these winding ma* 
chines, there are various kinds ; some worked 
by water, and Qthers by fire engines. 

There are two very great evils, to which coal 
.mines are subject; the hydrogen gas, called 
by the workmen, fire damp; by the explosion 
of which many lives are lost: and carbonic 
acid gas, commonly called choak damp^ which 
is not so fatal as the former. Hydrog&n gas is 
principally generated by the contact of pyrites 
with water, in sdme of the old workings of the 
collieries^ which have been neglected, and not 
sufiicieutly ventilated: it there accumulates 
until discovered by the occasional visit of some 
of the overmen, whose office it is to examine 






104 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

the old workings, called wastes. Sometimes 
for want of due caati6n it catties the death of 
maojr of the miners, being set oih fire by their 
lights. On these occasions the men throw 
themselves on their faces, on the ground, to 
avoid the return of the blast, as there is more 
danger to be apprehended, from the vacuum 
formed by the total consumption of the infla- 
mable gas, than from the effect which the fire 
has upon them. It seldom happens after the 
explosion, that the men are much burnt ; they 
suffer more from the violent concussion of at- 
mospheric air, rushing into the workings to 
fill up the vacuum, than from any other cause. 
After an accident of this kind, it is considered 
dangerous to enter the pit for some days, on 
which account it is 4o be feared, many lives are 
lost, which might have been saved by immedi- 
ate assistance. 

But the only efiectual method of preventing 
accidents of this nafure, is to pay a due atten- • 
tion to The stale of the old works, and to cause 
a thorough ventilation by the methods usually 
adopted, which are the following : — The air is 
put in motion, by means of a furnace placed 
near the edge of one of the shafts, inclosed in 
a covered building, from which is a tube de- 
scending into the pit. The heated air thus as- 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE, lo; 

eending through thecfaiiiinej, issacDeeded by 
the cold from the shaft,- which in its turn is 
replaced from the low^st part of the mine. — 
The whole is thus successivelj removed, and 
its place is supplied by air which finds its way 
from above, through another communication- 
shaft open to the day. 

Choak damjpis rarely attended with any ill 
effects, and is easily discovered, by its ex- 
tinguishing a candle. The safest method of 
exploring collieries subject to this evil, is to 
walk as erect as the place will allow; for 
ehoak damp being heavier than atmospheric 
air, occupies, of course, the lower part of the 
mine, it is more difficult to exhaust this gas 
by "isentilation, than fire damp; as the latter 
ascends, from its being lighter than atnioppbc^. 
ric air ; whilst the other, by its gravity, is ibrced 
upwards with great difficulty* It is Hot exact- 
* ly determined, by what means choak damp' is 
generated ; but it is generally supposed to pro« 
ceed from the putrefaction of vegetable sab- 
flftances..* 

Pieces of coal of a y^ry large size^ sometimes 

weighing upwards of three and four hundred 

pounds, are found in the Derbyshire mines: 

but what. quantity is got every year, it is im? 

■ , . I ■ - ■ '■ ' - ''II'.., 

* Cyclopoedia, v. CtAi.. 
4 9 



10$ HISTORICAL AND D£SCRIPTIV£ 

possible to aseertem exactly; it is certainly 
veiy large c for besides the bome consiimptjon, 
whicb is Tery great, a ooasiderabie portion is 
eonveyod hy the Errewask canal into Leicester* 
shife^and by the Chesterfield into Nottingham- 
shire; besides the large quantities, that are seat 
to Sheffield and London. 

Sulphur; has been met with, in the cellural 
pat ts of baroselentte, and also in galena. It 
has been Ibnnd in a layer four inches thick in 
die iniaes at Haslebage near firadwell ; and in 
afeyerof one inch thick in the toadstone at 
Tideswell-moor. It was in sK> pure a state in 
these pkicfs, that it. wonld flame with a can- 
dlou Siul|ihuv basuilao been discovered in the 
Qdin.nmK at Castleton ; and sometimes in the 
shafts in different parts of the county. 

BiU €if all the ^^ inflammable substances dis- 
eoTered itt this county, the most peculiar and 
lemarkable is the eloiiic bitumen, or mineral 
0mhquicho9tio.^ This has b^n found in rarioos 
states ;. and has apparently the same properties, 
as the common vegetable lodia rubber. It ift 
geneisilly fomid betwe^a the stratum of the 
sehastua and the Iknestone ; rarely ia snail ca* 
vities, adhering to tlie ^an^'^r^,* and aometilties 



^ Vangert^ a term derived from tiK Gwaispi, » syiwiqnaoiii 

Vifh the matrix ^ 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 107 



\ 



containiiig lead ore^ floor, wmA other bodies.**^ 

Wbes first detached^ the taste is rerj stjptic} jm 

if blended with decomposed pjritea. It Tanrtas 

in colour, from tbe blackish or greenish bfoini» 

to tbe light nod red broms, and is easily cam^ 

jNCSsed ; bat sometimes tbe miie piwe is leas 

elastic in one part than another: on banlag it 

the smell is rather pleasant. One vairietj, but 

Terj rare, contains nodolesof indaratedsbiMsg 

black bitoHoen, resembling jet. Aootber r» 

net J has been seen in a marine d$eU^ ha a piece 

of limestone. A third variety^ b«t extrenasi^ 

scarce, has been found of a doll red oalsair, 

and transparent, in crystalliaaed flaor. h ira^ 

riety yet more Fare, but less ekutie, apf^ars to 

be composed of fiknnevls,. and hats a ssngiidar 

acid taste^ 'The charactetialics^ are vary dHfe* 

rent from any othdr soift^ and mfigbl probaUy, 

if investigated, account tar the orvgin; of t\m 

aifrbstanee: on cutting, aod m other circuiti*^ 

stances, it resembles soft cmrk, or oU baaic from 

a tan-yard.' ^ Indurated bitmnsny appeanng 

like jet, has been fevnd in ainm*phens masses, 

and in globules of a sksning U«ok^ bat wmm^ 

times liver-coloured: tlis kind ia electric, 

when rubbed, and ia soavetimes foaiKl m ba» 

ry tes. A specimea has been met nrith in the 

centre of an anomia at Castleton. Petroleum, 



108 HlStORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

or rock-oil, is foand in veins of the black mar* 
ble, at Ashford ; when the sun shines upon the 
■tone, it gently exudes. Stones containing a 
considerable quantity of rock-oil were former- 
ly met with near Stoney-Middleton ; and were 
so common, that the miners used to burn the 
oil they produced in lamps/^ 

Limesi&ne; which is found in the plac^ be- 
fore noticed,* isof varioas qualities. At Box- 
ton, Peak-forest, and Stoney-M iddleton, it is 
of a light grey colour: at Ticknal and Knive- 
ton, it is very dark : at Hopton it is of a . Ijght 
colour, harS, and abounding with small frag- 
ments of etrochi. When burned into lime, it . 
is much used for the purposes of agriculture in 
the county ; but particularly in the northern 
part. A great quantity is sent into Chebhira 
and Lancashire. The Crich lime is remark- 
ably white, and much valued for ceilings and 
other ornamental purposes. The Kniveton 
lime, is thought nearly equal to that of Barrow 
in Leicestershire. 

Marble. — ^The marbles formed from the lime- 
stone, are extvemely varigated and beautiful. 
That which is called the Hopton stone, is found 
at Hopton near Wirksworth ; it is of a light 

• Page 57. 



VlJiW OF DERBYSHIRE. 109 

colouV, hard, but incapable of much polish :. 
it abounds with fragments of etrochi, and is 
much used for hearths, floors, and staircases. 
The mottled grey marble is found in many 
places, but particularly near Moneyasb : and 
though there is a great diversity of shade in 
its ground, it may be divi<led into two kinds ; 
the one with a slight tint of blue, the other a 
lightish grey, rendered exceeding beautiful 
by the number of purple veins, which over- 
spreads its surface in elegant and irregular 
branches. But that which renders the mottled 
grey marble so beautiful, is, the abundance of 
etrochi; which being intersperced through 
every part of it, the transverse and longitudinal 
sections produce an infinite variety of forms. 
It has been observed, that the more superficial 
the beds of marble, the lighter its colour, and 
the mor^ abundant the etrochi. A variety is 
found near Wettop, of a darker colour, pre- 
sentingvery small %ures, whence it has ob- 
tained the name of bird's-eye marble. The 
black marble is found chiefly at Ashford, where 
it may be obtained in very large blocks : but 
the strata in which it is found diflTer in quality." 
In general it is of a close solid texture, and 
will bear such a high polish, as to reflect like a 
ttirror. It bears a strong resemblance to that 



^ 



110 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

broaght from Namur in the Netherlands. Co- 
ralloid marbles, exbibitiog a variety of ma- 
drepores, are found in laminse in various parts 
of the limestone strata* 

The black and grey marbles, are calcareous, 
effervefrce with the mineral, and are corroded 
by the vegetable acids of the fermented and un- 
fermented kind. The specific gravity of the 
black kind, when compared with the grey, is 
as twelve to thirteen. 

Platet'^mey Gjfp9um^ or AlabMlev^ has been 
found at Elvaston and Chellaston, iti large 
masses, filling up cavities, in the argillaceous 
grit. It never forms a stratum, but is attended 
witb gravel, strong red clay, and an earthy 
covering, which often contains innumerable 
shells. Some kinds are very hard, and of a 
close texture ; but it is in general so soft, that 
it may be scraped with the nail. This sub*^ 
stance derives its names, from the difiTerent 
uses to which it is applied. A considerable 
quantity is used for laying floors in buildings, 
and it is thence called plaster-stone. To pre- 
pare it for this purpose, it is first burnt about 
eight hours in the open air: when this is done, 
the fire is put out, and when properly cooled, 
it is beaten fine with flails, and made into 
mortar. It is then spread^ about two inchat 



VIEW OF OZRBYSHIIUt. lu 

ia tkiekness upon reeds or ktiMi catered with 
straw; and being afterwards left to drj, in. a 
&w days, a floor, almost as solid and darable 
as stone, will be formed. The expence of these 
floors is but trifling; but to a stranger tfaey 
have a carious and oncmnfortable appearance ; 
as in many houses, not only are the floors of 
the ground story composed of this substance, 
but those also of the upper ones ; thus appear- 
ing like one large cold flag, cut out to fit the 
the dimensions of the room. In its calcined 
state, when mixed with water, it fonm the 
substance called .Ptagter 0/ Park^ It is alsoi 
extremely nseful, when calcined, for moalds of 
figures, and even for the figures themselves :. 
asid for this purpose, it is an article of great 
demand at the potteries in Stafibrdshtne. in 
this state it is also mixed with quick lime, to 
make the mortar set more strongly; and is 
therefore found very useful in the formation of 
cernices, and monldii^^s, and other orna^ 
mental purposes in arcbitectuie. In its native 
slate it is odled AlaJmsUr and Q^jmum; md 
as it takes a very high polish^ it is mannfac« 
tured into IsMrge <^lumos, chimney pieces, va- 
ses, small obelisks, and an infinite variety of 
oraaments. Gypsum forms an article of com* 
merce, and considerable quantities are convey- 
ed to London and other plaices.. 



lU HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

mcrr : prftucid quarts in frngmeiits, colourlen : 
flotne taclosiiig bttamen; these ttirieties are 
hwrie in the limestoile : thin laminated bediv of 
ichetij Aom-»f<me, or petrostlex, are fiitind near 
BmdweH, BtuUxm^ Middleton, and other pla«- 
bes« In tlie Peak-forest, Are niloierouft chert 
betlft of virioUfi thicknesses ; some are in con^ 
tact with the granulated limestone, tbongb lime- 
atone fuU of shells IS both above and below it) 
its colour is dove blue* Largd quantities of 
this substance are annually used in the ttianu«> 
ftpeture of earthen ware in Yoiks^ire and Staf^ 
fbrdbhire. Dark green chert, bearing a ekisi^ 
resemblance to ja6(>er, has been found near the 
high Tor at Matleick/^* 

'' Of the Barytk order, the most geneV*! is 
the substance called catUc or emwkj from its re* 
aembling chalk, which is not found in the North. 
It occurs in ^reat quaMities, being commonlj 
attendant on lead ore ; the colomr is often white, 
*but more frequently a greyish white, inclining 
to the cream tinge, which ' sometnnes rises to 
the oclrre yellow. It is soft, bnt ponderous ; 
iracture earthy, sometimes scaly : it often con- 
tains small Veins of lead ore, as thin &s threads ; 
^nd sometimes small veins of finoi* and blende. 
Barytis occasionally occurs crystallized in ta- 



^ Beauties of EngUDd, III p. }i5* 



VIEW OB OWPYSHIRB. us 

l>u)$Ue4 rbomfas, or gric«-staiie ; biU more g^«e- 
mUjr in df^iicate lahalated ery^tal^, wbicbf hy 
Minbiwition, form apberical Mis. Ojaue iwri- 
etj is stalactitic, sometimes witji tramiiaire^t 
crystek and oativo sulphur. Ttie arboreffpant 
barytes, is eompbsed of tigapoaniU of vaj^iomi 
ooloans, interveniog eaicb .otbitr, Ai^^ring 
sanewbat hjke brawbss mth faliagu : ^eine yar 
rifiiy exhibits dark hrowa and lilac figureifi 
beautifully iuterspibrsed with blu$ in fi gM^^iir 
phie fprm, or like a ^olouned laap, and aftisMsd- 
iog bcsaaftifui contrasts, fiarjfteft baa latalQr 
baea f^und, coo£asedl j .crystalljttd, of a d^r 
Uiae colour; the fraoture fcdiated. Oth^spie* 
pimens Ojcpur ia tabidatad icry«tols, opake, 
l?)^te, half an inoh in diannater^feiiit^sithiii as 
leaf @(>jkl, on a.oallttral.g7pfleoos onatxix, mth 
native siiJ4>har. Another ivariel^r .h^a a pki* 
mose .appearance, bfiiag .oo^ered .w|itrb tran&pa- 
rant crystals of flnar.^'^ 

'Pjorceiotin .Ciayoi vl delijcate white ^ptottr, 
apd {fine itei^tMre, has hean^ot fioom . a Jaad mine 
near l^ia^in^n. 6ome . of ibis has been »used 
at ibe.4K>rcdai« jKrarks ia Jikerfay; but the 
greatest fiactof tivhat is.nov dug up, ia sent to 
the Staffiirdsbure potteries. 

t * . * gggagggaggeeaa 

-• Itowc's Miner, of Derbythlre* 



11« HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

Pipe Clay^ of a pretty good qaality, is got 
at NewbaTen and Bolsoven At the latter and 
some other places, pipes are manufactured from 
it, in its native and unmixed state. 

Potter's Clay^ of a jfijlowish or grey colour, 
is found at Brampton, Stanwich near Chester- 
field, M orley-moor, Ueage, Smalley, and Hor« 
sley. Some of a red and grey colour is found 
at TicknaU ; but this is never used for the gla- 
zed ware, because it corrodes the lead. Thait 
which is called indurated clay or hind, and 
used for the improvement of land of a light 
and sandy soil, is found in most coal pits. — 
Clay -stone, is found in a great extent of coiiq* 
try on the eastern side of Derbyshire. 

TVrra tripoliiuna ; or as it is generally called, 
totten-stone, is found in the neighbourhood of 
Bakewell ; and is much used by the lapidaries, 
in different parts of the county, for polishing. 

Marl, a compound of clay and calcareous 
earth, is found in great plenty in almost every 
part of Morleston hundred. It is generally of 
a red colour; but sometimes it is met with, of 
a grey, aiid light flesh colour. One sort 
of red marl, which has the appearance .of a 
thin shattery stone, contains bat little calca-* 
reous earth, and is found very beneficial to 
light or boggy land. But there is another kind 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. n? 

of red marl, whfch is more valuable; as it is 
found to be a very efficacious and durable ma^^ 
ntire : especially when mixed with a proportion 
* af dung. 

Slaie^ or schiatua ieguktris, is dog up at Hay« 
field) and in Cbinley-hills, nes^r Chapel-en*le- 
Frith. What is found is of a grey colour, and 
lamellar texture, shines n'ith mica, and does 
not strike fire with steel. Though thick, and 
consequently very heavy, it is much used in 
covering houses, in the lieighbourhood of the 
places where it is got. 

Flint is found in small pieces, in the gravel 
pits in the neighbourhood of Derby ; and in 
large lumps, in those at Stenson in the parish 
of Barrovv* They are pure, and almost tran* 
spanent. 

Cherts a substance less hard and more opake 
than flint, is found in strata ; and may be dis- 
covered running through the rocks in the Peak. 
A large quantity of it, is carried from the neigfa- 
, bourbood of Bakewell, into Staffordshire and 
Yorkshire; where'it is used in the manufacture 
dt earthen ware. Some kinds of chert are 
made into mill-stones. 

Moor^stoneJs found in the north-west part of 
the county, and the East-moor. JM ill-stones 
are made of this substance, ^on Kinder«scout 



IM HISTOlUCAL AND DESCitlFTIVE 

in ttiepftciih toi Glossop; and at Grindlefcrd 
Bridge in ibe {Htrish of Eyaai. 

Freeittme is found in many plaoes in the 
the county ; and in some quarries it is of a 
very fiae tmxtM9^ The most oiagnifioent and 
beantifiil houses in Derbyshire, are built of this 
stone. 

Peat^ cither mihite or red, according to tho 
quantity uf ooHre or pyrites, which it contains, 
is found thvaaghout the nordi-west extreoii^ 
of the Peak, aad most parts of the East^moor. 
When the peat is dug up, it is soft, smooth, and 
•tiy ; bat being eat into oblong pieces, and 
exposed to the iniaenceof the son and air, d«« 
ring the warm euaimer months, it becomes brit* 
tie and iaflammable, and is in many places 
nsed for fuel. Turf is a substance that gene« 
rdly covers the peat ; bat in some places it is 
foand akaie. It is a yeiiowiEdi or brownish hu 
taminous aardi, interwoven with the mote of 
nmss, heath, and other shrubs. 

The exinpome^m JbmU Ibuad in Derbyshire, 
are worthy of notice, on accoimt of tbeiramaZi* 
tng number and variety. They occur in al- 
most every part of the county ; but some das* 
ses are more nufaerons than others. The etro- 
^i, a special of star fish, are^eRtremdy aban* 
dant : and tho<npiHber of anaaiise, is, lifkemse 



VIEW OF OERBYSHIRSs itfl 

werj ^ttt : eontinued beds of the fonaer mwf 
be traced for upwards of twenlj miles* Indeed^ 
the mountaiiis of limestone^ whioh extend 
through the High and Low Peak, seem to be 
composed of marine productiAna* 

CoraUoida. The cone within cone coraUoid, 
is found in a bed ten inches deep, on the snr^ 
feee of the shell marbk) at Tupton near Win'* 
gerworth ; the ccmes in this, are very xiistincr. 
Another fine specimen of the same species, has 
been fouad at Blackwell ; and a third at the 
^epth of fbrtyHseven feet at Aldercar, in the pa*» 
rish of Heanor. Coralloids, with amiLU tmhm^ 
have be^n met with at Eyam, agnseing in eretf 
particular, with the coral, lately fomid i«i the 
red sea, named ^buimrea pmpunu: potpUtn 
and mmdrepores^ have also been obtained at the 
same ]^ce. , , 

At Stoney^Middleton, some very pevfect spe^ 
eiitens of peri fungitm have been net vitb % 
totnim fungiUB at Adovep^ -as well as the els^ 
gant screw stone. Millepopres, ooral, 4>rancli^ 
ed, with the^ur^see and eatramity pimctafed, 
as if with the point of m needle ; and tabipOL 
sea, a congeries of icotalline tubes, pftraHrfed 
or variously oiurv<ed, have been prMured tk 
Middletoo Dale; Aumonhes, ooisitt Ammai- 
ais or nautilis, serpent stone, 0at, spiiai, repn>- 



im HISTORICAL AUD DESCRIPTQ/E 

seating a worm or sinall serpent coiled up^ are 
very abundant in the black marble of Ashford : 
asiroiiesj -coral of tabular texture, with small 
stars on the surface, and honey-comb work 
within side, is likewise procured there. 

At Castleton have been found, the coralUna 
reticulata^ or sea fan: plates of echini^ very 
curiously formed, the plates pentagonal, with 
a small point, rising in the middle : spines of 
.echini : belemnites^ cylindrical, but conical at 
one, and sometimes at both ends, about three 
inches long, and three quarters of an inch 
thick: anomiae, bivalve, one valve gibbous, 
and often perforated at the base, the other 
plane: retepores^ terrebratulety and astreapeis 
tine$* Grjfphites^ bivalve, oblong, somewhat 
resembling a boat, but narrow, and remark- 
ably curved upwards at one end, the valve 
plane, has been met with in the red clay over 
the gypsum at Chellaston. Rushes^ branches 
^of yewi and a substance greatly resembling a 
caufifioweTj have been found petrified at Mat* 
k>ck. A regular stratum of muscle shells baji 
been discovjered, eleven yards deep, at Swan- 
wick : and muscle shells have been found in 
iron stone at Tupton, Chesterfield, and Cot* 
menhay : at the latter place, they were obtaifi" 
ed at the depth of eighty-four yards. 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. isi 

Animals and Insects. — At Ashford, a small 
alligator J and groups of flies, bare been found 
in the black marble. The tail and back of a 
crocodile^ are said to bavte been found there 
. also, and to be preserved in a cabinet at Brus- 
sels. A beetle and a butterfly have been found 
in iron-stone at Swan wick. 

Vegetable Impressions. — Anentive sun-Jlower 
with all the reeds perfectly marked, was dis- 
covered in ijfon^tone, oyer a bed of coal/ at 
Swanwick. The follo>ving ibssils were alap ob«- 
'tained thfere: the resemblance of a bamboo^ a 
flower oi chrysanikemum^ very perfect; a flow- 
er of coltsfoot; several, kinds oi fern; equise^ 
turn or horse-tail^ very peifect;. a plant of 
maiden-hair; the cone o£^pim tree; a branch 
of a box tree; a small branched uto^^; these 
were found in iron-stone. At Holm^field, a re- 
semblance of the flower, of a cactus has been 
found. Various other vegetable impressions, 
have been met with in the irdn*stone, and bind* 
both at Newhall and Chesterfield. Indeed 
there are few beds of iron-stone in Derbyshire, 
in which they do not in some measure appear.^ 
4 R 



l«2 HISTORICAL AKD DESCRin'lVE 






CHAP. IV. 



Civil divinonr^Courts — Ecclesiastical division 
—The town of Derby ^ ifC. 

jL he eiTil diTisidn of Derbyshire is into six 
i^Uddreds : — ^Tbe High Peak Hundred^ in the 
Vlolth-tvesi ; Scarsdale Hundred^ in the north* 
east; Wirluworth Wapentake^ in the West; 
'Appktree Hundred^ in the south-west; 3for- 
leston Hundred^ in the south-east; and Rep-- 
pmgton Hundred^ in the South. At what pe- 
riod, this division of the countj was made, is 
very uncertain ; but it seems to be of later date 
tiian Doomesday book. There we meet with 
the Scavedale wapentack, Hamelestnn wapen- 
tack, Morlestan ivapentack, Walecross wapen* 
Uck, and Pechelers : a dr«nsion which appears 
to be of Saxon origin ; and bearing but little 
« correspondence to the present one. 

At the time of the Norman survey, the land 
in Derbyshire, like all others, in those feudal 
times, was divided among seventeen proprie-- 
tors ;— King William, the Bishop of Chester, 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIBR; ]^ 

the Abbey of Bitftoi^, Hqgh the Earl« Roger; of 
Poictou, Henry de Feri^res, WiUtam Peverdl^ 
Walter de Ainciirt, Geoffrey Ahdln, B^Hpk 
the son of Uabert, Ralph de Buniiit ,U»AQtiit 
Musard, Gilbert de Gsmd, Nigsel de StiKibrd; 
Robert the son of WiHiaai»,Rogier de Busli, tbo 
1 hanes of the King. . . \ 

Some remaiue, of wb^t. ao elc^^jmt bi$tQri9l^^$ 
calls, *' the encroachiheDts of the feudal no- 
bles on the prerogative of ^h^ir afo^^rchsj 
their usurping the admi^ij^^r^^jon of jiisli^e 
with supreme authority, , bfoth in civU. ^iid fitit* 
jninal causes^'' are yet. to be fpHifd jo Pe^ byr 
bhire : these are the. court of the dnchy of L^qk 
caster, and the Peverel cpprt. To.thed^chy 
of Lancaster, belong the honor. of Tutbury apd 
thehuudred of Appletree; and the.pour|s,(yf 
pleas, (or as they are generally called the threp 
weeks courts) for the former, ^|ie, regularly he][d 
at Tutbury, and for the latter at Sudbury. In 
these courts a steward presidjss : and all debts 
^nd damages under forty shillings, due fqr 
goods sold, serrant^s wstges, labourer's hire, 
agistment of. cattle, rent, au>ney lent, trespas* 
ses, assaults, and several .other things, are re- 
coverable, f 

■,.II.L ' I II ass=sssss!B=gsssB=ssstem 

• Roberuon-: Charles V* yoI* X* p* 66, 



124 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

In the Peverel coart, which is held at L^n«» 
ton, near Nottingham, a steward also presides; 
and soaietimes actions for theretoferv of small . 
debts are bfoiight into it : as its proceedings are 
less expensive and more expeditious, than those 
in the courts of Westminster. Most of the 
towns and villages in the county, are comprised 
wfthin the jurisdictibn of these courts. 

The county of Derby sends two members to 
parliament; a priviledge, which it is ascer- 
tained, it enjoyed as early as the twenty-third 
of Edward I.; but how much sooner, has not 
been discovered with certainty. The assizes 
are held at Derby, twice a year, spring and au* 
tumn : The Epiphany, the Ea;»ter and Michael- 
mas sessions for the county are also held at 
Derby; but the Midsummer at Chesterfield. — 
' With respect to the common judicature, Derby- 
shire is included in the Midland circuit. 

In ecclesiastical concerns, Derbyshire forms 
a part of the diocese of Lichfield and Coventry; 
and is divided into one archdeaconry and five 
deaneries : — wliich are the following; Archdea* 
conry of Derby. Deaneries of Ashbourne^ CaS" 
tillar^ Chesterfield^ Derby and Reppington. 

In the following description, the ecclesiasti- 
cal division Hill be adopt ied : beginning with 
the southern deaneries ;- but ginng the prece^ 



VIEW QF DERBYSHIRE. 125 

dency to that of Derby, as the capital of the 
coonty is situated in it. 



DERBY. 



The town of Derby is situated in a valley ; . 
extending and opening as.it advances south** 
ward, into a fine and well cultivated plain. It 
stands upon the western banks of the Derwelit, 
on ground a little elevated above the level of 
the surrounding vale : its situation is, therefore, 
very pleasant; and the scenery in its environs 
extremely beautiful. 

Antiquarians do not agree, in the derivation 
of the word Derhj/. Historians inform us, that 
during the Heptarchy, the Saxons called it 
Northworlhig; but of this appellation, not a 
trace now remains. In tlie time of the Danes, 
it was called Deorhy; a word said to be com- 
]K>unded of two Saxon ones, signifying a habi- 
tation for deer. To support this derivation, it 
is alleged, tlrnt the ground on which the tow h 
now stands^ was once a park, stocked with 
deer. This appears to derive n^ome probability 



106 HISTORICAJ. AND DESCUPTIVE 

Aom the towm's arma, exhibiting a buck conch* 
ant in a park ; and from one of the lanes ad- 
joining the town being called Lodge*lane. — 
But when it is recollected, that a park was not 
known in England until the arrival of the Nor- 
mans, and a coat of armourj |intii a period 
much later, and that Derby was a considerable 
town before the introduction of either ; it does 
not appear verj likel/, that it ilerived its name 
from deer in a park. The most probable con- 
jecture is, that the name of the town, and that 
of the river Derwent have the same origin ; 
that originally it was called Detwenthy^ or the 
town by the Derwent ; and that in process of 
time this name was corrupted or abbreviated 
into Deorby or Derby. 

Derby is undoubtedly a place of great antU 
quity ; but in what age, or by what nation, it 
was founded, is impossible to determine. It 
is supposed to have been a place of some con- 
sequence prior to the Roman invasion. That 
people generally fixed their stations in the vi-* 
cinity of some British town ; and as it is ascer- 
tained that J>ert;en/io or Little Chester was one 
of these: Perby therefore appears from its 
small distance from it, to have existed before 
the time of the Romans. 
After the departure of the Romans, Derby 



VIEW OF I$£ILBYlSKIR& idt 

became a place of consequence, ander tlmt 
successors the Saxons. In the reign of Alfred, 
k vras constituted the metropolis of the countj: 
and in the beginning of the same reign, it was 
occupied by the forces of Haldene, a Danish 
chieftain, who took up his quarters there, for 
the winter of 874.* Alfred,afver his memora* 
ble defeat of thc^ Danish Prince Uabba, and the 
consequent submission of his followeri, in 860, 
settled a colony of them at Derby ; thus pro* 
posing to repeople this place ; which, like ma« 
ny others in the kingdom of Mercisiv had been 
laid waste and totally desolated, by the frequent 
inieads of those barbarians. t During the de* 
stroctiva conflicts, maintained between the 
Saxons and Danes, in subsequent reigns, Derby 
was alternately in the possession of both par« 
ties. In 918, the Danes being roasters of it, 
were attacked by surprise^ and completely 
routed, by the heroic Ethelfleda, daughter to 
Alfred, and Princess of the Mercians, who 
took possession of the town, and all that be- 
longed to it.X Shortly after, the inhabitants 
were deprived of the protection of this omscu- 
hnelmd ambitious heroine, by her death ;§ and 

I .' ' ■ ssaasssssstBBBas^aatmmmssm 

•• Cbxoii..Saj(. p. 8a. f HuiMf vol* U p- 84. t CJuofU Buu p. to6. 
§ W. Malmes. lib. li. chap, r* Matth* West, p. 182. 



198 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

ihe town OQce more feO into the bands of the 
Danes. But in 942 king Edmund invaded 
Mercia, and drove the Danes out of Derby, to- 
gether with five other towns.* 

Soon after the consolidation of the lleptar- 
chj into a monarchy under Egbert, we find 
that Derby was made a royal borotigh ; or pri- 
vate property of the prince. The privileges 
which it enjoyed by charter in these early tim^,' 
muM have been very great: as, in the reign of 
Edward the confessor, ^(1040) Derby contained 
no less thau 243 bargesses or freemen ; posses- 
sed of property equal to many thousands in 
our times. Forty*one. burgesses had twelve 
plough*gates of land belonging to the borough 
divided among them ; besides this, they held 
twelve plough*gates (as much land as twelve 
' (earns usually ploughed in the year,) of their 
own. The meadow grounds were divided into 
doles, and the tillage by meers. The freemen 
held their land by a kind of copyhold right : 
the King, the Earl, and the Church, being the 
chief proprietors.. The annual rent paid by the 
borough to the crown, was twenty*four pounds. 
At this time, there were fourteen corn-*mills in 
the town. Two parts of the profits arising 



* Cbroo» Sax. p. 114. 



VIEW OF ]»llRBY9HiRXi itS 

longed tb the Kiog, and the tkird io tli6 Btrh 
At the time of the Nofnantatvtff, Utnfhj 
was viir^ oracfa reduoed. It oooM boost of bo 
more thah A hutidind borgeMeA, and Ibity who 
were niao^s. Tbt fonr'tteb <mn-mi\lk wer« 
reduced to ten ; sad thei« w^re a hitndRd and 
three dirftlhn^ iraste aiid iemptf. Tiai uu- 
prosperous state was occasionMi Hff dtf(d>t, b^ 
the cbauge af gov^nmefit ; Uld b;f tb« loMk of 
livety it ike crideinrottr to MpfKth Httibld 
agMuM the Nomcfhiii md !f dhnati Aiobsti'clU. 
0» the deatft Of Edwatfd th« GoillieiM>i>; 
Harold atKcodM A« tiirott«; afid #b«ri Itt^ 
diMa, king a^ Norway, ittVid«d IfdrthaAlMA 
land in the ^r IM», he wcfe joittM by this 
iwftit w d s and wa th w Sari toMig, HiifMd^ 
bro<li«r. fidvlrlB Earl of Ai«fdii wa« cMteh at- 
taiebedjtolUHiIff; aid iw ordW ttf a«Mt Midi 
dgaiiMl Hie nmrie^, ridsed bk Va«M8,.Whi6b 
very much Ahtaiid Datby. lMh«i« jdiA^ Mb 
feroMititb thtow' aoBMaitdwil by MordaMi ^1 
of NoMhmHberlarid } arid b^MillMKAct HttM. 
ndtsttea, gaVi baitio ta thi «fiiMfiiy, and Wtt 
deibaMd. HtmeTer, fir a few dltys flM Nor> 
wegian ni6naMh fNu Ul»wlf dlift&t«d by Ha- 
rold, who had arrived from the aeuthem coast. 
By this time the Dah« of Normandy had 
5 s 



130 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

lauded at PeFensej", and Harold was under the 
neoessity of returning to the coast of Sussex. 
Edwin, with his scattered forces, joined him 
in his march; and passing through Derby, 
aga^n drained it of many of its inhabitants to 
recruit his ranks. They left their homes never 
to retui*n! In the battle of Hastings most 
of them fell, and Derby for years did not re- 
cover its population. 

I Harold being slain in this decisive battle, 
William :took possession of the English throne, 
by a pretended destination of king Edward, 
and an irregulac election of the people ; while, 
in reality, he ascended it by the right of con- 
quest. The conqueror, in order to establish 
himsdf firmly in the public interest, had pro- 
mised his daughter in marrii^e to Edwin Earl 
of Mercia ; but when that nobleman claifned 
the fulfilment of his promise, William gave him 
an absolute denial. This disappointment, ad- 
ded to many other reasons of disgust, induced 
Edwin to concur with several others of his in- 
censed countrymen, to make a general efibrt 
for the recovery of their ancient liberties.* But 
the king, supported by many powerful leaders, 
advanced with celerity into the North, and 



• BuAeI.p.245.^ 



VIBW OF DERBYSHIRE. KJi 

came upon the rebels before they were in a con-« 
dition to make resistiEmce ; and finding no other 
means of. safety, they had recourse to the cle« 
mency of the victof. The property of the Mer- 
cian Earl was confiscated ; and Derby, with a 
considerable rent-roll, was given to William 
Peverel, a Norman captain,* and the illegiti- 
mate son of the Conqueror. In order ta en- 
courage industry and to. increase the popula- 
tion, the new possessor augmented the privi- 
leges of Derby by a new charter. But the 
winual rent was raised from £24 to £30 ; and 
twelve thraves, or about eighteen bushels of 
corn; and as an equivalcJht for the surcharge, 
the hamlet of Litchurch, was added to the 
tqwn. 

Henry I. by a charter signed at the Devizes, 
granted the town of Derby to Ralph Earl of 
Chester. But Mr. Hutionf is of opinion, that 
this grant extended not beyond the minority of 
one pf the Peverels. In the reign of this prince, 
Derby was made a corporate town. The char-i 
ter by which this was done, was altered and 
improved by Henry IL ; and renewed and en- 
larged by Richard 1. and John. . In the. begin- 
ning of the reign of the latter, the corporation 
and burgesses were sued in the Court of Ex- 

• Order. Vital, p. sn, f History o£ Dcrbyj p. 9o- 



>• 



134 HISTORICAL AND DBSCftlPTIVE 

chequer) for untj^MX rnvks* which they owed 
|br vent and the coBfinnatioii of their KheHies : 
and lA the sixth of the siine reign, they weM 
eyed for sixty marl|LS,t and two palfreys for 
rent, and ten pounds lor services ; and having 
such a charter as the bmgessesof the fown^of 
Nottingham : and ^gaip in the twelfth year of 
the same reign* the burgesses of Derby wom 
charge4 forty pounds, for the foe-farm of the 
town. 

In the reign of Henry lil. ft power was grant* 
ed to the burgesses of Derby and their heira, 
of not permitting a Jew to Kve in the town. 

Edward III. in th^beginping of his reigii de«* 
prived the corporation of their liberties, and 
summoned the burgesses to answer at the King's 
Court, *< By what authoi4ty they took a toll 
and paid none ? Why they claimed the eiK>lii«* 
sive privilege of dying cloth, and prohibiting 
It in every place within thirty miles, except 
Nottingham ? By what right they had to be 
toll-free throughout the king^ dominions; to 
ehoose a bailiff every year ; and to have a fair 
on Friday in Whitsun*week, another at the 
festival of St. James^ which continued seven^ 
teen days ? What right they had to a coroner ; 
and not to be sued out of their own borough? 



V«W OF DERBYSHIRE. w 

And by what authority tbey held qoarkets od 
Snn^ayf MQnday^ Wednesday, and from Thur9«- 
day-«ye to Friday* eVeiy week ?'' 

To sbeiy that they wore justified in their 
proeeedinf^, the bvrgessee produced the char* 
teni they bad received from their different mo^ 
narchs ; and for the privilege of toll, laid he-' 
fore bioh one which he himself had granted 
them in the ^rat year of his reign. Upon this 
he >v,^ cpnvinced of the justice of their cause ; 
9nd| on their eonsentiag to pay a jBae of forty 
mark^f restored to them the ei^oyment of thoiie 
liberUep which he had sso unjoHtly questioned 
and iieized : and when they had promised to 
pay a yearly rent of ^46 16^. he established 
them in the rights, eigoyed by their ancestors 
from time immemoriaL 

James I- by a charter dated at Westminster, 
the ^Tenth of March) in the ninth year of his 
1^01^, (16)1) recapitulates and confirms mafuy 
of the privileges which had, bean granted in 
former reigns ; and further franta»-«^'^ that the 
^ailifis. Recorder, and Town Clerk, or any 
three of them, shall have a power to keep a' 
Court of Record upon Tuesday in every second 
week ; shall bo justices of peace for the year, 
and the year ensuing their election to the office 
of b|i:liisi; shall have the return of all writa, 



134 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

and process, without the interference of any 
foreign justice; shall have a power to keep 
Quarterly Sessions, two Court Leets, and six 
Fairs yearly ; shall be toll-free throughout the 
whole kingdom, and take toll and tillage from 
all, except the Duchy of Lancaster, which shall 
pay but half 

In 1638, Charles L authorised, that the 
power of the bailijfFs should in future, be vested 
in one person, ^ho was to be chosen annually, 
and called a Mayor. ' At that time there were 
two bailiffs; and it was agreed, that one of 
them should enjoy the new honour for the first 
year, and the other succeed him : but the suc- 
cessor dying before his mayoralty comihenced, 
the first mayor continued in office for two 
years. 

But this charter was surrendered to Charles 
II. in the year 1680, and the present one ob- 
tained at the expence of nearly j£400. The 
corporation consists of a Mayor, nine Alder- 
men, fourteen Brethren, fourteen Common 
Council Men, a Recorder, a High Steward, a 
Town Clerk, and six Constables. 

The borough of Derby sends two Members 
to Parliament; the right of whose election is 
vested in the freemen and sworn burgesses; and 
the mayor is the returning officer. It is impos- 



VIEW OE . DERBYSHIRE; 135 

sible to ascertain, when the borough was first * 
represented in Parliament:. the perfect list of 
representatives commences, with the twentj- 
third Parliament of Edward 1. in. the year 
1294. 

A Court of Requests is held everj third Tues- 
day at the Guildhall. It was erected in the year 
1766. The principal inhabitants of the town 
are commissioners, three of whom constitute^ a 
bench, under the direction of a clerk. 

William, after his subjection of England, 
was sensible that the want of fortified places 
had greatly facilitated his conquest, and might 
at any time facilitate his expulsion. He there* 
fore made all possible haste lo remedy the de- 
fect, by building magnificent, and strong cas- 
tles in all the towns. ^' William,^ says Mat- 
thew Paris,* ** exceeded all his predecessors, in 
building castles, and greatly harassed his sub- 
jects and vassals with these works.'' In this 
reign, or in the reign of Stephen in the subse* 
quent century, " when every one that was able 
built a castle, and the whole kingdom was co« 
vered with them,''f probably was erected the 
Castle at Derby. " On the south-east comer 

of the town,'' says Mr. Gibson,:^ " stood for« 

n 

* Hist. p. 8. col. 2, t Cbron. Sax* p* 2 jSt 
:; In his Camden, p. 496. 



laf HISTORICAL AMD DCftCHl^TIVE 

nierly a Ca«tl«; tbMgb thei« lMt« beeli no re- 
matM of it within the m^tnoty Of mm.* But 
that ibei« was ofie» dppMn fVoM the MMie of 
liichi)), called Cow-^astl(f*hiI! ; itnd tbe irtffiet 
that leads West from St. Peter's church, ill tai- 
<Maf deeds hearing the nam* of Castk-gate/^ 
Mr. Hmton, however, ntneteeti years ngo, with 
the aekaowlodged etithosiasm of an Afttiqdffiy, 
and the iiidelhtigaMe zed of '* an did cAsiie- 
Aun<er,''t discovered the vestiges of ttn^ casfte 
in an orehard on the summit of the hitl. ^ One 
0i the tt>o n nd s eighty yarcb long, funs parat- 
lel with the hoMes tpon Cock.pit-hill, perhaps 
one hundred yards behind them ; aJto paralfel 
with those m jSt Peter's parfsfv, but twice the 
dMsCanee. . This pface of secnrity, theh sttood 
nwt of the towir in an open field ; no houses 
wef€ near k. ft Wds guarded by the Derwent 
ow one side, and on the other ran i&e London 
»D«d. Tbi» I apprehend Wd^ the chief approach; 
beeause Ae passage afterwards bore the name 
af CmHe-^ftreet. Prom thence also the fields 
tommrih Ae'^EiM aci^tred the naime of Castle* 
JkUh.'^ Thi^ airthor is^ of opinion, that the 
Berby Castte was destroyed during the civil 



• Tht»^w«l wriimi lit the fear 1695* f R^st. p. aj. 



Vm^ Of IttRAYSHikE; I3f 

wart bctWeeil the HMiMi of York and Lancas^ 
tmt; wfaicb is aot at bU improbable. 

W« ate infcnrmed by ancieitt autbotB^ that 
thiare were six religious hottses itt the town of 
Derby. Settral of ihoie were in existence at 
the rappresi^ioii of the orders by Heilry VIll ; 
but some of tbeih bad preriovsly decayed. 

The Monastery of Si. Helens, belongio^; to 
ibe order of Austin Friars, was situated on th< 
spot, Where the Spar Manufactory belonging tti 
Memite. Brovrn and Son note staodsi neM* the 
npper laid. of Bridge-gale. It was erected iU 
the reiga of hiag Stephen, by Robert de F^ 
viereBf seciond Earl of Derby. He plac^ ad 
Abbot arid Canons in it ; and for their snp4 
port, gare them the Chntdhes of Crich and 
VttoiEeter, (he tithe of his ireveiiae in the toWtl 
of Bevby, the third part of a ineadow lying oti 
tbe side Of Oiklebroo^ between Derby and Market 
eatoi, kiid in AUwefk and Osmaston, and as 
mdcb wood te they oottld draw with One eart 
ham Suffieid or Chaddeeden. But early id 
the reign of Henrys U. Hagfa tbe Dean of Dtir^ 
^fi gaa^vc M bis lands in Derby aAd Derlej^ 
with tbe patronage of (At. Peters to Albiv/ 
then Abbot of 1^. Hekms, upon condition of 
his buildiag an Abbey at Dsrley. This pro* 
position was accepted) and\he Abbot and 



MS HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

Canons quitted the noise and bustle of a town, 
for the more pleasant and peaceful banks of the 
Derwent. St. Helens, however, continued a 
religious house some time longer } for in the 
twentieth of Edward 1, a Magister Domus S. 
Heletue DerbeyiBi is mentioned, as distinct from 
the Abbot of Derley. 

On the north-west side of NunVgreen, in 
the meadow that was called Nun^s^Cloie, stood 
a priory of Benedictine Nuns, dedicated to St. 
Mary de Pratis. It was founded by the Abbot 
of Derley in the reign of Henry II, in the year 
IIGO. The Bishop of Coventry committed its 
care |o its zealous founder, and granted him a 
licence to consecrate the virgins that were re- 
ceived into it. Henry III. ordered five pounds 
to be paid every year by the bailifTs out of the 
fee-farm of the toi^n of Nottingham, to pro* 
cure the prayers of the Prioress and Convent, 
for the salvation of his father King John. Hen-* 
ry IV, by charter in the thirteenth year of his 
reign, granted to this religious house several 
acres of land, in Alsop-in-tbe-Dale, the Peak* 
forest, and in Fairfield in the same focest. It 
was also possessed of land in Langley and Trns* 
ley,, and of several messuages and parcels in 
Aston-upon-Trent. The mills anciently situ- 
ated on the Markeaton-brook, and the green 



VIBrtr OF DERBYSHIRE. 139 

tm whith the Ninnery stood, belonged to it.— 
Tfatee, and some other valuable revenaes were 
estimated at the dissolution at eighteen pounds 
six shillings and eight pence a year. 

A Priory of DoiwintVan or Black Friars, once 
stood on the spot where the mansion and garden 
of M. Henley, Esq. are now situated in the Friar- 
gate. It is thought to have been founded in Very 
early times; and was dedicated to the blessi>d 
Virgin. Three roods and a half of land w^re 
granted to this house in the reign of Edward 1 ; 
andin thato££dwardIl, in 1296, a patent was 
obtained to purchase ten acres more. Nine cot- 
tages, eight acres of land, one meadow, and 
one croft situated in the parish of St. Wer* 
burgh, were also attached to it. At the disso- 
lution, the revenue of this priory was estima* 
ted at twenty-one pounds, eighteen shillingK, 
and eight pence; and in the thirty-fifth of 
Henry VUl^ it was granted to one John Hinde; 
from whom, by different purchases, thescile has 
descended to the present possessor. 

Near the brook on the North of St. James'.s- 
lane stood a cell of Cluniac Monks. It is of 
Saxon origin, and was founded by Waltheof, a 
nobleman of that nation, who was beheaded 
by William the Conqueror, in the year 1074. 
He dedicated it to St. James^ and presented it 



140 HISTORIQAf. Al^Q D^SCftlPTIVE , 

to tlM} Abbey of BfrmwidMj In Sant^ii^^rlL.*^ 
In tb? war« between Henry V, and tl^i Freneb, 
the Priory of St. Jame$ ivv detac)ye4 ffom tbe 
Abbey of Climy in Fnipqe, to wbioh (he ivheU 
order was subject, and afterwards depended up- 
on one of the same order i^t Xenton near Not<- 
tingham. Though protected a3 9 peo^r hospi^ 
tal by Henry ^I, and considered as an alien 
Priory by Edward (, at ^he suppression, it waK 
taken possession of by Henry, when it was eb- 
timated at the yearly value pf ten pcwiids. ' 

A Maisan de Dieu^ a hospital for lepioas pw« 
sons, was founded in Derby as early as tbe 
reign of Henry 11. Thif wa« intended.for the 
reception of lepen, ^nd superintended by a 
master. 

There was also ip Qefby an old hospital of 
royal foundation, consisting of a master and 
several leprous brethren, dedicated to St Leo- « 
nard. It in thought^ however, by some, that 
there was but one house fi)r the vcception of 
lepers, and that these two are the same; but 
if therefore two, one in vet have stood «t the 
Newlands, and the other 4t St. MfiiyeBrid|^ 
gate. 

St. Marjf^s was an old buildieig in the Sasnn 
style^ situate upon the iieige of the Derwene, 
and forming a part of tihe eld btidge; it ii 



VIEW QF n?R6YSHlR?. Ui 

tbpiugitt iQ bftve be^q on« of the «ix charehfl3, 
Dientioned in Domesday.* During tb« r^ign 
of Cbarle$ H, th? Pr^ubjtf riaw$ ro©t for th« ce- 
lebrutioQ df divip^ worship within its waU« ; 
with the Qxoeption of that «hQrt period, it hud 
4iot been o^ed a& a church for mapy ages. In 
th^ d$qr« of it^ prosperity, Hwnor cQnetitut^d a 
part of itft-appropriHtion. 
. Such ware the t^mple^ in which tba Deity 
was worshipped tbr^e eanturtfs ago; whea it 
.WW thought a crime to give full scope to the 
aocifl afieotiow of our nature^ and a I'irtua to 
repress and annihilate the strongest and most 
plca3ing emotiona of the human heorr. We 
turn, then, with plaa«ure, to contempfote 
those straotureSf whose walls, so far from re^ 
aqundingwith the praiseaof monkiafa seclusaon, 
and the eflE^a^y of porpatnal virginity ; re-«cho 
ihe precepts of that amiable i^l^on, which 



^ Tke ctofckei mentioMd thei<t M-e ; — •« Tn tlie\oreu^ 
Uiere w^s in th^ depiw^c^ obe c^burck with iev«n ckrk«, 
who held two carucates of land free in Cestre (Little Che«- 
ter). And thert was also another church of the King's, in 
^nbMi aU ckrks heW aiiM oxgans of hni in Cowmn and 
D^^<<m likewise free." « In Deriii (Dcrhy) Ccoffry AUelia 
has one church, which Tochi had. Ralph the son of Hii« 
^flVly one chtiMt^ 'which was Leunc% with one carucate 
of land. Norman de Lincoln one church, which w«i 
Brun's* Edric has one church there, which was hii fa<i 
ther Coin's.*' ©rig, 280, a 2. 



Mt HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

4^onfirms and encourages every virtuous feeling 
of the breast. 

Derby contains five churches, the principal 
of which is All Saints ; or as it is found written 
in old writings Allhallows. The first mention 
made of this church, is, in the time of Henry 
III, when it is said that there was a church in 
Derby dedicated to All Saints. In the suc- 
ceeding reign, it was made a free chapel of the 
king, and uith its prebendaries, and other ap- 
purtenances was exempted from all ecclesiasti- 
cal jurisdiction, excepting that of the Pope 
himself: this freedom it still possesses. - This 
church was at that time collegiate ; bad a rec« 
tor, who was the Dean of Lincoln ; and seven 
collegians, who it is thought resided in a house 
situated to the North of the cbiirch, which 
even to this day bears the name of The €01- 
lege. The college possessed lands, tithes, and 
other emoluments in the reign of Henry VIII. 
to the*amount of £3S 14jr a year clear ; a sum 
equal to twenty times as much of our money. 
Henry, however, took possession of it all ; but 
Mary, in the first year of her reign, returned 
a part of the property, and vested it in the 
hands of the corporation, whose gift the curacy 
now is. 

In the reign of Henry VIII. or Mary, the 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. I43 

steeple, being in. a very decayed state, was ta- 
ken down, and the present elegant piece of 
architecture built up in its place. This beau* 
tifal Gothic tower is the object of admiration 
and praise to every one that sees it. The 
workmanship is of a superior kind, and rec- 
koned excellent ; it is richly ornamented with 
tracery, crockets, pinnacles and battlements; 
and rising to the height of 180 feet, it towers 
above the other churches and houses, and forms 
a beautiful and striking object from the sur- 
rounding country. 

*^ Majkstic Pilk ! whose towr'd summit stands 
Far eminent above all else that rise 
In Db aby's peopled vale ;•••••• 

4t ' every eye, beholding Thee, 

From the f ar- travel 'd tasteful Amateur's, 
That with impassion'd gaze contemplaj^es long 
The Gothic grandeur of thy tow*r, to his, 
The simple peasant boy's, bright glistening 
With nature's fire, instinctively shall own. 
Thou art indeed a noblk Edifice." 

Edward's All Saints. 

There is a tradition, that this tower was built 
at thesoleexpenceof the bachelors and maidens 
in the town ; and that it was formerly the cus« 
torn, when a young woman, a native of the 
place, was^ married, for the bachelors to ring 
the bells. Upon a fillet on the North-side, is 



144 HISTORICAL AND DEiCRlrt^lVE^ 

an inseription, in old English, V^ungMcnand 
3imd$i which memn to corrobdMtte the tale ; 
bat upon the whole, the opinion is considered 
to be merely conjeclnrali 

Between this tower, ftnd the body of th« 
churoh, there exists en uncottiaion instance 
of architectural incongruity ; for to this beau- 
tiful specimen of Gothic architecture is added 
a Givcian body, of the chastest proportions, 
and most classical design* It was built from tf 
demgn by Gibbs in the years ITSS^'-^^-^ t tod 
was opened for public worship dfi the twetlty* 
first of November, 1725. TbeexpenMs of the 
erection were defrayed by ▼oiootary subscrip- 
tions, which were raised and directed Inr Dr. 
Hutchinson ; of whom Mr. UuttOh* speaks as 
follows: — ** The curate. Dr. Hutchinson, not 
only Subscribed ^0 ; but being a man of gen- 
teel address, charged himself with raisisg the 
whole nK^^9 and eafiecuting a masterly work» 
without a sbiiling ei:pene6 to his parish. He 
was a complete triaster of the art of begging. 
The people to whom he applied were not able 
to keep tlieir money ; it pasisd froas their pack- 
ets to his owft, as if by magic. Wberdrer be 
coald recollei^t a person likely to contribttte* 



• Hist. p. 15J. 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 145 

to this desirable work, he made no scrapie to 
visit him at his own expence. He took a jour- 
ney to London, to solicit the benefaction of 
Thomas Chambers, Esq ; ancestor of the Earl 
of Exeter, who gave him one hundred pounds. 
If a stranger passed through Derby, the Doc- 
tor's bow and his rhetoric were euiployed in 
the service of the church. His anxiety was 
ui^gent ; and his powers so prevailing, that he 
seldom failed of success. When the Waites 
fiddled at his door for a Christmas box, in- 
stead of sending them away with a solitary 
irfiilling,he invited them in, treated them with a 
tankard of ale, and persuaded them out of a 
guinea. I have seen his list of subscribers, 
vHiich are 589; and the sum £3,249 11«. (Id. 
But it appears, he could procure a mhn's name 
by his eloquiencct easier than his money ; for 52 
of thesubscribers never paid theirsums, ainount- 
ingto^l37 I6s. 6d. The remaining ^£3,111 
Us. being defective, he procured a brief, which 
added £S08 5». 6d. more. Still, though as- 
ridttity was not wanting money was; be there-* 
^re sold six burying places in the vault for ^x 
guineas ; and twelve of the principal seats in 
the church, by inch of candle, for £41S 13#. 
which were, purchased as freeholds by the first 
inhabitants.^' 

5 u 



I4ff HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

Tlie interior of this church is large, light, 
and ej^nt ; five columns on each side support 
the ro6f ; the windows are large and handsome: 
and the symmetry and harmonious proportions 
of the building, have a pleasing etkcU It is 
divided into two unequal parts, by a rich open 
screen-work of iron. The western diviftion is 
appropriated for the celebration of public wor- 
ship, with a spacious organ-gallery, furnished 
with a good organ. The eastein division is se- 
parated into three parts: one is used for chosing 
the^Mayor, and jfbr the vestry business; the cen- 
tre is an elegant chancel ; and the southern side 
is the dormitory, and contains the moifuments, 
of the Cavendisii family; and many persons of 
th£it illustrious house, are buried in the vauh 
beneath/ 

On Ibe South side of this repository, there 
n a monument erected to the meoMry of the 
illustrious and celebrated Countess of Shrews- 
^ 1>nry, constructed during her life time and un- 
^r her own direction. The Countess is seen, 
arrayed in the habit of her time, with her head 
reclining on a cushion, and her hands placed in 
the attitude of prayer. Underneath is the fol- 
lowing inscription in Latin :— 

** To the memory of ElizalMtb, the diughter of Join Hird- 
vrike of Hardwike^ in the county ^f Derby, esq; and U leagth 
oo-heiren to her brother John: She was married, irstf to 
Robert Barley of Barkyi in the aaid county of Dobys esq; 



VIEW OF J>ERBYSHIltEi ' 147 

•fVBxyfix6$ to William C«veiidttb of Cbatsworthi kntr treasurer 
' of the chamber to the kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. and 
queen Mary, to whom he was also a privy councellon She then . 
became the wife of Sir William St. Low, captain of the guard 
to queen Elizabeth. Her last husband was the most noUe 
George, carl of Shrewsbury. By Sir William Cavendish alone 
she had issue. This was three sons, viz. Henry Cavendish of l\it* 
bury, in the county of Stafibrd, oq ; who took to wife Graee^ 
the daughter of the said George, earl of Shrewsbury, but died 
without legitimate issue; William, created baron Cavendish 
of Hardwike, and earlof Devonshire by his late majesty king 
James; and Charles Cavendish of Welbeck, knt. fither of th« 
most honourable William Cavendish, on account of bis great 
merit created knight of the bath, baron Ogle by right of h\$ 
mother, and vtacount Mansfield, eacl, marquijH and duke of 
Newcastle upon Tine, and earl Ogle of Ogle. Sh^ l^ad also an 
equal number of daughters, namely, Frances, married to Sir 
Henry Ficrpoint ; Elizabeth to Qiaries Stuart, earl of Lenox : 
and M^ry to Gilbert, earl of Shrewsbury, This very celebra- 
ted Elizabeth, countess of Shrewsbury, built the houses of 
Chatsworth, Hardwike, and Oldcotes, highly distinguished by 
then: munificence, and finished her transitory life on the thir- 
teenth day of February, in the year I607, and about the eighty* 
seventh year* of her age, and expecting a glorious resurrection, 
lies interred underneath." 

Another monument in this division of the 
church, stands near the centre, and was e^ect* 
ed to th§ memory of WilKam Earl of Devon- 



• •* This statement of the age of the Countess is certainly er- 
. roneous ; as it appears from Collins's Peerage, Scc^^ that she 
was fourteeo when she married her fint^ husband, Robert Bar- 
ley, esq ; who died on the second of February, 1532— 33 ; con- 
sequently, if her own death did not happ^ till l607,«hemu6t 
have been (at leaat) in her ninety-fim year." 

Beauties of England. 



14* HISTORICAL AND DESGRIPTIVE 

Hhire, wiio dkd am tlie aothof June IMS, ud 
Christiana liis Coantesa, the onlj- daughter of 
Laid Brace, of KiAloam in Sootbuid. k is of 
the height of twelve feet, haviog its ndea open; 
and in the middle under a dome, ate the wholo 
length figures in white marUe, of the Earl 
^nd his Ladj standing upright. The busts of 
their four children are placed on the angles, on 
the outside. Among the other monuments de* 
serving notice, is one by Rysbrack to the me- 
mory of Caroiui€ of Besborough ; and another, 
by Nollekins, displaying the medallion and 
arms of William PammUf^, Earl of BesboiDugk, 
and husband to the above lady, who died in 
the year 1763. 

There is also a tablet against the South wall, 
to the memory of the worthy minister by whose 
industry and exertions the building was carried; 
forward. 

In Memory 
Of the Rbv. Michael Hvtchikson D. D. 

'Laic Minister of this Church, 

Wkojfomdpitms ztal^ and unwearied a^lkoHon^ 

Obtatned Subicriptio&s^ 

And afterwards cdUacted and paid, 

Three thooaand, two hundred, and forty nine pounds. 

And upwards, for the rebuilding of this Church : 

He died the tenth day of June, 

In the year of our Lord God 

MDCCXXX. 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 14$ 

AgviBst llye wall on the North-side of the 
church, there is a monoment Erected to the 
neiDory of Richard Croshaw, Esq. He is said 
to have been the son of a poor nailer in the 
town, and to have gone to London in a suit of 
leather to seek his fortune. There, by industry 
and perseverance he gained afortnneof <£10,000. 
It appears from the inscription, that ** he was 
Master of the Company of Goldsmiths, and 
Deputy of Broad-street Ward ; that during the 
plague in 163ff, he neglected his own tofety, 
abode in the city, to provide for the relief of 
the poor; performed many pious and cbarita* 
ble acts in his life ; and bequeathed above 
j£4,000, to the Corporation of Derby and other^ 
trustees, for the maintenance of Lectures, relief 
of the poor and other pious uses. The donation 
called Croshaw's dole^ is distributed in this 
church every Sunday morning to ^even poor 
persons, selected alternately from the five dif- 
ferent parishes, who receive a sixpenny loaf and 
three-pence each. 

He died in 1631, and was buried in tlie 
church of St. Bartholomew by the Exchang;e, 
in which parish he lived thirty-one years. This 
monument, erected by his executors, repre- 
sents him clothed in his leathern' doublet, with 
a nail-hammer in his hand: by this means 



160 HiarroRiCAL and descriptive 

shewing that poverty is not a crime, and Aat 
industry and honesty, reflect the most valnable 
and lasting honors on the memory of man. 

When the church was rebuilt, a tomb-stone 
was discovered bearing the date of 1400. It is 
an alabaster slab, having the figure of a priest, 
as large as life, holding a sacramental cup, car- 
ved on it in scrolMines; and round the edges is 
thefollo wing inscription : SubiusmejacetJekan^ 
nes Lawe^ Quimdam Cananicusy EcclesuB Colle^ 
giaiiB Omnia Sancti Derby ^ ac subdecanui ejug-^ 
dem Qui Obiit Anno Dni Millimo CCCCmo.pro^ 
piiiaiur Deus. Amen. This stone is still pre* 
served, and placed iii the Korth aide of the 
church. 

Su Aikmund^s Churchy stands at the North* , 
end of the town ; and was erected about the 
middle of the eight century. Tradition informs 
us, that Alkmund, son of Alured king of North* 
umberland, heading a party to restore his de- 
posed father to tfie throne, was unsuccessful, and 
put to death. He was considered as a saint and a 
martyr ; and his canonization soon followed. He 
was interred at LittleshuU in Shropshire.; but 
on its being discovered, that miracles were 
wrought at hisshrine, hiscredulousadhereiits, re- 
moved his remains to a more respectable ceme- 
tery. Derby was fixed upon, and the church of 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE, 151 

St. Alkmund was honored with hU relics and 
his name at the same time. The voice ol fame 
and superstition, ranked his hhrine next to that 
4if the holy Beeket at Canterbary, in its power 
or working miracles; and kis tomb was Ire^ 
quently honored with the presence of many 
pilgrims from the northern nations. 

In very early times, this churcrh was present- 
ed to the abbey of Derley ; to which it was suh* 
ject till the dissolution, .when it was seized by 
Henry. In the following reign, Mary made it 
over to the Corporation of Derby, who, ever 
jiince, have had the presentation. In the kin^is 
books, St* Alkmund is represented as a vicar- 
age of the value of<£ll 68. 6<2.* and since the 
year 1734, it has enjoyed an 'endowment of 
sixty pounds a year; bequeathed by an old 
bachelor, of the name of Goodwin, who was 
descended from an ancient family in the town 
of Derby. 

The steeple contains six belb : and the build* 
ing has a number of Tu4e heads, and other 
scttlptoces designed for ornaments, in differetU 



^ ** T&ii f&Qst have been a mistake, or some of the emolu- 
flMotttveitf lost ; for in the xtign of George I. the income was 
wdf dghit poundlf, per Annttnh tnd divine service, was per** 
ismicd but once a quarter." Huiton, p. 138, 



15t HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

parts. In the parisli are incladed, Chester, 
Derley, QuaradOn and Little Eaton; and the 
two last have chapels of ease. 

The church of. Si. Petet^ is situated near the 
southern extremitjr of the town: and is thought 
to be the same as the one mentioned in the time 
of king Stephen, dedicated to the same apostle. 
In that early age it was given to the abbey at 
Derley« In 1590, a chapel was founded in 
this chnrcb, by Robert Liversage, a dyer, of 
Derby ; be endowed it for the continued sup- 
port of a priest who was to celebrate divine' 
worship, and say mass every Friday ; and a£» 
terwards he was to distribute thirteen snher 
fencey to thirteen poor nien or women, who 
might then be present. In this church was 
also a chantery fi>unded in honour of the Vir- 
gin Mary. It was endowed with various mesi- 
suages, cottages, gardens, lands, tenements, 
meadows, and hereditam^ts, which were 
granted by queen Mary to the Corporation of 
Derby. The living is a vicarage ; and when Der- 
ley abbey was dissolved, theadvowson was grant- 
ed to the Corporation* The steeple contains 
six bells ; and the villages of Normanton, Bol* 
ton, and Litchurch, belong to this parish. 

St. Werburgh's is situated on the western- 
side of the town, upon the Markeaton brook. 



. VIEW OV DERBY SHIAE. .143 

Tbiftcbarcii was, tdso» garea in t^e reign of 
Stephen to the abbey of Derley; bpt at the 
dissolation it wa^ MGOvefai, aiu) ihe vioange 
16 new in the bands of the king. It is pMba- 
biey t^at Ihe ancient chnrcK.on this spot, was 
built before Ihe conquest ; but being sitintad 
so near the Mariseaton^rbrook,. its foundation 
was sapped by floods, and in 1601 the tower 
^ell to the ground. To prevent .the nseurrenoe 
4>f a like accident, a new one was built on Afi 
Mast^sideot the body of the church, oontoaiy 
to the situation of ste^psin general : but diis, 
tlike the former, fell on ishe fifth of Nofamber, 
1606. The present steeple has fixe bdk, and 
the interior of the churehi is light, aod hand* 
*soase. Theve was a chaoter^/to ihe blessed 
JMku-y in>bis>€harchiilso; which wns.endowisd 
witl) various messuages, gardens, cottages, and 
iandp; which in the reign of Mary, wereinthe 
tepure and occupation jof len daifer^t penons, 
^nd by her. wesej^ranted to the CQrpof«ti(» /$£ 
-Derby. Osmafton is j>art of the parish. 

^L Micha^s ehurch stands in Queett-^strwt, 
at no gfeat distaface from that of St. Alkmund^s* 
Jt belonged ^to. the abbey >of Berlegr, .and was 
takien po«sessionu)f by.Henryj^t tbe^dissoJUttinii ; 
but Mary gave it to the bailiffii and .burgesses 
iof tlietown of Derby. Xhe living is aviear- 
5 X 



IM HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

age; being united with St. Werburgh's^ and 
has service once a month. The village of Al- 
veston belongs to this parish. 

Besides the above mentioned churchestlhere 
are several other places of public worship in the 
town of Derbj. 

The Unitarians have a meeting-house in Friar- 
gate. This is a very old interest : — as early as 
the reign of Elizabethi they had their private 
places of assembling; and in the reign of king 
Charles II. they obtained a licence, for .cele- 
brating divine worship, in the old chapel stand« 
ing on St. MaryVbridge. In the reign of 
James IL they left the old chapel, and removed 
to a large room near the Market-place. There 
they continued to assemble till the erection of 
the present meeting-house, mthe reign of king 
William. 

The IndependenUy or Calviuists^ have a place 
of worship near the Brook-side. This^apel 
was erected in the year 1785, by persons who 
had seceded from the congregation in Friar- 
gate, owing to a difference of opinion on reli* 
gious doctrines. 

The Baptists both (reneral and Particular; 
the Quakers; and the Methodists^ have their 
respective chapels. 

One of the most considerable charities m 



VIEW OF J>ERBYSHIR£: 155 

Derbj, is the Devooshire Alms-houses^ situated 
near All Saints ; and fonndisd by the famous 
Countess of Shrewsbury in the reign of qaeen 
Elizabeth, for eight men and four women. To 
each is granted two rooms, a sufficiency of 
coal, and haIf«a*crown a week. They are clad 
in dark cloathes, badged with £. S. f Elizabeth 
Shrewsbury) on a silver plisite. The original 
building, which was of stone, was taken down 
about for(y years since, and the pretont edifies 
erected from an original plan, at the expence 
of the Du)(e of Devonshire. The design of the 
front isunKke the style of architecture which 
generally characterizes establish nvents of chari- 
ty ; and would lead us to suppose, that it was 
the entrance .to a nobleman's park, or pleasure* 
ground. The rules for 'the observance of the 
inmates are : — '* that they are not to marry or 
get drunk^ wilhout expulsion ; to lie one night 
out incurs a forfeiture of four-pence ; if absent 
one day, six-pence; to miss prayers at AIU 
iSaints two-pence ; to strike a blow one shilling 
and if three blowsj a discharge." 

In Bridge-gate there are eight alms«houses 
for an equal number of poor and aged of both 
sexes. They are called the Black Alms-houses. 
from the black gowns worn by the inhabitants, 
who receive eighteen-pence a week each. Thi9 



IM HISTORICAL AND DESCRlPtlVE 

IbmiMtioii wm laid by the fainil;f of WiltHOt 
«f Chaddesiden» hear 300 years ago ; ivho or-^ 
4ered £40 a year, to be paid from tb^ tithes 
of Denby, for its sapport. 

Another altiis-bouse fot tbe widows of d^r- 
gymen, is situated at the top of Friar-gafe; 
Imd was instituted in the year 1716, by Edward 
Large of Derby, who endowed it with an 
estate, which produces .£17 a year each, to the 
five residents. 

A fourth charity of this class, called The 
Grey-coat Hospital^ from the colour of the 
dress, once stood in Walker Vlane. It was^up« 
ported by ample endowments ; but the estate 
has vanished, and the building converted to 
other purposes. 

For the education of the children Of the poor, 
there is a Pree^School in St, Peter's church- 
yard/ It was originally erfected by the Corpo- 
ration of Derby, with a part of the donations 
belonging to the abbey of Derley, which had 
been presented to them by Mary. It is endow- 
ed with lands, set a-part for its use; the re- 
ceipts of which now support two masters. Se- 
veral Sunday Schools have, likewise, been re- 
cently established in the town. 

The principal buildings in Derby, besides 
the churches and meeting-houses, are a County 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. i&l 

iiiid Town Hall, a County Gaol, an elegant 
Assembly Room, and a Theatre. 

The County Hall is situated at the bottom 
of St. Mary Vgate : it was erected in the year 
1660; and is a lai^ge and heavy building of 
free-stone. The TWn Hall is a handsome 
structure, built by the Corporation, about the 
year 1731, on the scite of a more ancient one 
of wood ^d plaister, on the Soath*east side of 
the Market-place. 

The County Goo/ is situated on the western* 
side df the town^ nesir tike upper-end of Friar^ 
g^te. It was erected in the year 1756, at the 
expiB^nce of the Coiporation, aided by a dona- 
tionbf J400, presented by the Duke of De-^ 
Tonshire. It is a solid, plain, and respectable 
building of brick, well adapted for the pur* 
pose of its destination. The front, is from*^ 
an excellent design, displaying solidity and 
strength; without that ajSectation of incongru- 
oos ornament, so frequently exhibited in nio- 
dern buildings of a similar character. 

The Asnemhlt/ Room^ h an elegant building 
of stone, jiituated on the North-side of tha 
Market-place. Il^ fonndation was laid in the 
year 1763, and conHpleted, by subscription, in 
1774. To this, also, the Duke of Devonshire, 
with most of th<s nobility and gentry of the 



l^ft HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

cooatj, was a very liberal confributw. A va- 
riety of musical instruments are sculptured on 
the pediment, figurative of the design of the 
building* 

The Tkeatrei a neat building of brick, stands 
in Bold-lane, and was erected in the year 
1773, at the expence of Mr. James Whitley .-r-* 
The interior is plain and commodious. 

Concerning the Trade of Derby, old aulhors^ 
are nearly silent. It is thought that the oldest 
carried on in the town was that of a dyer: and 
to corroborate this opinion, reference is made to 
tlje privilege enjoyed by the inhabitants in tfeie 
reign of Edward 111,^ and to the name of Full^ 
street^ which is said to have been the resiaence 
of the professors of* that art. It is certain^ how- 
ever, that Wool was among the articles of its 
most early commerce : — this was brought from 
the beautiful sbeep«walks of the Peak, and re- 
tailed in the neigiibourhood. Malt was ano- 
ther article, for which Derby was famed.r— 
** The reputation of Derby," says Camden,^ 
^^ at present proceeds from the assizes for the 
county being held there, and from the ejpcellent 
good ale brewed in it" 

Trade was confined to these articles until th^ 
■ ■ ■ II I I" 

* See p. 132. f Britannia, p, 402. 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. ' I5g 

commencement of the eighteenth century; 
when the stocking-frame machine, said to have 
been invented by *a clergyman of Calverton, 
near Nottingham, in the reign of James I, was 
mtroduced into the town. This was a consi- 
derable additon to the commercial interests of 
the place ; but what gave it a pre-eminence in 
thU respect, was the erection of the first mill 
in this country for the manufacture of silk. 

'^ The original mill, called the Silk-miU 
to denote its pre-eminence, being the first 
and largest of its kind ever erected in England, 
standi upon an island in the river Derwent. 
Itn history is remarkable, as it denotes the pow- 
er of genius, and the vast influence which even 
the enterprizes of an individual has on the 
commi^rce of a country. 

" The Italians were long in the exclusive pos« * 
session of the art of silk throwing, and the mer« 
chants of other nations were consequently de- 
pendent on that people for their participation 
in a very lucrative article of trade, and were 
frequently deprived of their fair profits by ex^ 
oribitant prices charged for the original mate^ 
rial. This state of things continued' till the 
oooinDiencement of the last century, when a per* 
son named Crotchet erected a small mill near 
the present works, with an intention Qi intro- 



IM HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

ducing the s»ilk maaufacttire into England ; but 
bii» Qiacliioery being inadequate to the purpose, 
he quickij became insolvent, aud the design 
WHh for tkOme lime abandoned. At length, about 
the >ear 1715, a similar idea began to expand 
in the mind of an excellent mechanic and 
draughtsman, named John Lombe, who, though 
youngt resolved on the perilous task of travel* 
ling into italj, to procure drawings, or models 
of the machines necessary for the undertaking. 
. *^ In Italy he remained some time; but, as 
admission to the siUi-works was prohibited, l*e 
could onlj obtain access by corrupting two of 
Ihe workmen, through whose assistance he i^- 
apected the machinery in private ; and what- 
ever parts he obtained a knowledge of, during 
these visits, he recorded on paper before be 
dept. By pernerverance in this mode of con- 
duct, he made himself acquainted with the 
^hole ; and had just completed his plan, when 
liis intention was discovered, and his life b^ng 
in extreme hazard, he fle%v w ith precipitation, 
and took refuge on ship-board. The two I^ali- 
4)nswho had favoured his scheme, and whose 
lives were in equal danger with his own^ <^o- 
companied him, and they all isoon landed in 
safety iq England : this happened about the 
year 1717. 



View op dsrqyshirs. lei 

^' Vm9g w Perby ^^ « pi^IM»r pla^e iw his 
patpose, be agreed with the corpomtkm for an 
inland, or swampy ia tb^ river, fiQQ feet long, 
wul 52 wide, at a rent ^omewbut below eight 
pounds jearly« Here he establisihed his mUet 
mill ; but during the time emplpjed in its coup 
strttctioui he erected temporary machines in ' 
the Tpwn-HaU, and rarious otbei places ; by 
which meam he n^t only reduced the prices of 
silk far below the ItaUansi but was likewise 
enabled to proceed with his greater undertak- 
ing, though the charges amounted to nearly 
i£30,000. 

^ In the year 1718 he procured a patent to en* 
able him to tecure the profits^ thus arising from 
bia address and ingenuity, fev the term of four- 
teen years ; but his days verged to a close, and 
before half this period bad elapsed, treaskery 
nnd poison bad broifgbt him to the grave. The 
Italiana, whose trade vapidly deemascd^firom the 
success of th# new establishment, were exaspeu 
rnted to vcngsancoy and vowed the dtstraetion 
of tbe man whose ingl^iimty bad fkie turned 
the currant of their business into atto^er chaa^ 
net. An aitfol wonmn wae sent fintan Italy in 
the chavacter of a friend ; she assaeiated wiik 
the parties^ and was permJNkted to asaisli in the 
pre{mration of the silk. Her influel^e was 
6 Y . ^ 



l» HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

privatelj exerted oh the .natives who had fled 
with Mr. Lombe from Italy, and succeeding 
with one, she prepared to execute the long* 
meditated plan of death. The victim lingered 
in agony two or three years, when the springs 
of life being completely exhausted, he breathed 
his last. Slow poison is supposed to have been 
the means employed to deprive him of exist- 
ence ; and though suspicion wasalmost strength- 
ened into certainty, by the circumstances that 

transpired on the examination of Madam , 

the evidence was not decisive, and she was dis- 
charged. Her associate had previously ran 
away to his own country. The other Italian, 
wbose name was Gartrevallij continued in Der- 
by, and afterwards worked at a silk-mill erect* 
ed at Stockport, in Cheshire ; but died in po- 
verty. The funeral of John Lombe was cele- 
brated in a style of considerable magnificence. 
*' The death of this lamented artist did not, 
as the Italians hoped, prove fatal to his patri- 
otic scheme, for the machinery was in full ac- 
l^ion, and the business becoming more success- 
ful, gave> employment to about 300 people. — 
John Lombe was succeeded by his brother Wil- 
liam, whose melancholy disposition led him to 
commit suicide ; on which the property de- 
scended to his cousiif, Sir Thomas Lombe.--* 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. |«» 

ShoTtlj afterwards, August 20th, 1724, the 
lease of the ground was signed hy the corpora^ 
tioo; for, though the building had been long 
completed, the deeds had not hitherto been 
exchanged. 

*' Previous to the expiration of the patent 
Sir Thomas petitioned Parliament for a renew* 
al; pleadings 'That the works had taken so 
long a <ime in perfecting, and the people in 
teaching, that there had been none to acquire 
emolument from the patent/ This statement 
was not altogether correct, as it appears that 
the petitioner had already accumulated up- 
wards of ^80,000. The application, however, 
wosi not altogether unsuccessful ; for govern- 
ment, willing to reward the promoters of nation* 
al benefit, and at the- same time to spread the 
knowledge of such a useful invention,, granted 
him ^14,00 in lieu of a new patent, and on 
condition that he should suffer a complete 
model of the works to be taken : this was ac- 
cordingly executed, and afterwards deposited 
in the Tower for public inspection. 

*^Sir Thomas Lombe dying on the 3d of 
February, 1738, the silk-mill became the pro- 
perty of his lady, and was twice advertised 
for public sale ; but the trade being greatly 
decayed, through the erection of mills in other 



1«4 HISTORICAL AND OESCRIFTIVE 

]^aeet> no bidders eould befoand^ though Ui# 
Moond time the woriis were put np at as lovr a 
ram ae ^1000. On the 20th of February, 178f», 
the lease was assigned from Lady Lombe t» 
Richard Wilsbn, Esq. and \p July following 
the agreement was completed, and the proper* 
ty transferred to the latter, for a sum not ex- 
eeeding ^£4000. The premises have been oc« 
copied many years by Mr. «*— - Swift, who 
htt made various important additions to the 
machinefy, and employs about 240 hands, 
(principally women and cbildreB)i.* 

^' The extensive fabric which contaia8*the ma* 
chinery, stands upon huge piles of oak, double 
planked, and covered with stone* woHl, on which 
are turned thirteen stone arches, that sustain 



"* ** As the above account of the introduction of thestlk- 
intU into England essentially varies from atmost every odier 
that has been publisfaed>on the subject, it becomes expedient 
to mention, that the chief authority on which it is relatedi is 
the * History of Derby,* by Mr.-Huttoo. This gentlemitt 
was personally known to GautHk valli ; and in bit infancy 
Vas well acquainted with the names both of the other lulian^ 
and of the female to whose arts John Lombe, fell a victillis 
but the lapee of threescore years, as he okservii^ in e letterwith 
which he has ftvored us, < has driven them out of bis mtnd.' 
Various ptrticulars of his statement we have substantiated by 
local enquiries, and by referring to origu^ doeumetiui htm 
which aoms particulan are insdited in the text, thait Mr« Hut* 
too was probably unacquainted with,"-- Beauties of £ngland| 
vol. ni. p, 368, 



VliW or DERBYIJHIRE. iCS 

tl^ #aite. Ite viihole tengih is ll<y feet; its 
krreadlli, thirty-tiine ; and its height, fifty-five 
iset, i5i& inches. It contains ^e stories, beside 
the tiodet works, aiid is lighted by 468 win- 
dowft. In the three upper stories are the Italian 
winding engines, which are placed in a regu* 
Jar manner across the apartments, and fprnish- 
ed with many thousand swifts and spindles, 
and engines for working them. In the two 
lower rooms are the spinning and twist mills, 
which are all of a circular form, and are turn* 
ed by upright shafts passing through their 
eeritres, and communicating "with >ha As from 
tbe water-wheel. Their diameter is betweeii 
twelve and thirteen feet ; and their height, 
aineteen feet, eight inches. The 'spinning mills 
are eight in number, and give motion to up^ 
wards of 25,000 reel bobbins, and nearly dOOO 
Star wheels belonging to the reels. £ach of the 
four twist mills .contains four rounds* of spin- 
dles, about 389 of which are connected ^^th 
each mill, as well as numerous reels, bobbins, 
star-wheels, &c. The whole of this elaborate 
machine, for <me only it is, though distributed, 
as we have mentioned, through five larg€ apart- 
ments, 18 put in motion by a single waterr 
wheel, twenty-three feet in diameter, situated 
jon the west side of the building. 



1G6 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

"An adequate idea of this complicated as-' 
nemblageof wheels and movements cannot be 
conveyed by words; to be distinctljr concei ved, 
it must be seen : and even then considerabljr 
more time is requisitue to obtain a knowledge 
of its parts, and of their dependence on each 
other, than is generallj allotted by the casual 
visilant. All is whirling, and in motion, and 
appears as if directed and animated by some 
invisible power; yet mutually dependent as 
every part is, any one of them may be stopped 
and separated at pleasure. This arises from 
every movement being performed by twowheels^ 
one of which is turned by the other ; but when 
separated, the latter preserves its rotorary mo- 
tion, while the other stops as the impelling 
power no longer operates. The whole number 
of wheels is about 14,000. 

^^ All the operations are performed here, from 
winding the raw-silk, to organizing or prepar- 
ing it for the weavers. The raw-silk is chiefly 
brought in skains, or hanks, from China and 
Piedmont; that produced in the former coun- 
try is perfectly white, but the produce of the 
latter is of a light yellow colour. The skain is 
first placed on an hexagonal wheel, or swift; 
and the filaments which compose it are regu« 
larly wound off upon a small cylindrical block 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 167 

of wood, or bobbin. To wind a single skain 
is the work of five or six days, though the ma- 
cbine is kept in motion for ten hours daily ; so 
tt^tonisbingly fine are the filaments of whidb it 
is formed. In this part of the process many 
children are employed, whose nimble fingers 
are kept in continual exercise by tying the 
threads that break, and removing the burs and 
nneven parts, some of which are the cases that 
the si Ik- worm fabricates for its own grave, or 
rather for its dormitory, while Nature prepares 
it for a new mode of existence. The silk thus 
wound upon the bobbins, is afterwards twisted 
by other parts of the machinery, and is then 
sent to the dovblers^ who are chiefly women, 
stationed in a detached building, which stands 
on the same island, on piles like the silk-mill ; 
though not half so broad is nearly thirty feet 
longer. Here four, seven, or ten, of the threads 
are united into one, according to the uses for 
which they are designed ; the fine kind going 
to the stocking-weaver : the others to the ma- 
nufacturer of waistcoat-pieces, &c. 

" It has frequently been remarked, among 
other absurdities, that when the machine is 
completely in motion, f it works 73,726 yards 
of organize silk-thread by every revolution of 
the water-wheel,' which turns once round 



a«9 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

erery nineteen seconds. TlM mert vikw olibm 
macbine is suflicieBt to eonviBce any penoiiy 
that the quantity of yardft^woubd tvery circatt 
of the wheel cainnot be told; neither, laiked, 
is it open to calculation ; for the threads are eo 
continually breaking, (not to mentioii other 
difficulties that render the attempt iasnperable) 
that the power of numbers most ever be hiade- 
quate to ascertain the auiountr^ 

Besides this mill, there are sereral other 
works of a similar natiure> now established im 
Derby. The situation of the town o» the 
blanks of the Derwent renders k firroraUe f» 
the institntion and carryian; on» of manolacturea 
which require the aicl of watcv: and theim* 
provements in madianism are no wfaetv mora 
obvioua> than in the various and extensive 
works constructed here» fi>r a variety of pnr« 
poses. The mills estabtished by the MessfSL 
StrattSi for the manufiictnre of silk and cotton, 
are particnlarly ingenious ; andtbefiualityat- 
tained by them in working the several articlea 
of manufacture, has oontributfid to the isaiteo* 
sion of these branches ef basinessina very^emi* 
nent degree. 

The Porcelain MtmufMiary wan estabttibed 
about the year 1750, by a gendeman of the 
name of Duesbury. Since the decease of the 



VIEW OF DBRBYSBIRBt I6» 

(Mril^iMl iMtatutor, veiy g(Mt iin]pi«««ttl6iiil 
hare, been ittade, is die pi«pftrMion iif this taft. 
terM^ Mid in the ippeutUM of th6 ik'lUr^. It 
istb»i^;ht to be (equal ill 6aieiMm of tektHre 
WiUi ibe Freuth and Saion^ while it fiUr i^ik-- 
pantes thtnJ in irorktbanship, and etegancb.'^ 
The paintibgd kra in g^fileiral ridi iUid i^dl 
taecttbd : and ihe g;ildiiijip and bUfnishifagVii-^ 
beantififl. 

The m^ttriak from wbieh Ibis urair^, balled 
pttfcdiin, i« ndanafbetnved, is pttk»U«d itbia 
Cornwall ; and i» a fine pbj fela^, teixed Witlk 
flnftibg itiatiw. Thass tii^iethm, finl tinder, 
go the operafiatt 6{ griflding, aiid thiiii ai^ 
mtda iihto a pUftttt; Whlbb, whenjt is perfected, 
iattiMli t» tlte workiMA, Wb6 Ibrtti H ittib4 
fflfNff J df oMiftti attd orilanienf al ibtiel«s. V6^ 
i^ of k Mtiail ihiipe, lire farmed by a pefooil 
ctfMd a tkroweir: Wh6 sbap^ th^m on a circd' 
W MMK, ttdviiil; iMinttttttmf oil a terttcal 
^A^. Tlfef Are thto taken to a lathe, wherd 
Hkiy i,H iettactS to tbei# proper tbicknesi, and 
jtll^rWitrds finish^ and handled. When ihii 
pM^ik h g<m« tbrAngU, they jtte conreyed to i. 
sMft 16 dry, and wlteh lill the moisture is era- 
poMt^i ih(^ be<»yjbi fit fbr bakiiig. The 
Wnttf is {dated in iarflien ^eMeb, of diAereni 
6 « 



t7» HISTORICAL AND DESC&IPTIVE 

ftepes^aod diOMiiioiis, anMing a white Mmd^ 
to prevevl tkmr adhering to one another ; and 
set in a kiln or oven, piled one on another to 
the top. When the kiln is full* the aper- 
turei fffe carefvUy closedy and the ware baked 
b^ the heat proceeding from the flues. After 
the ware has undergone this first baking, it is 
taken to another apartment, where it is dipped 
in a glaze of the colour and consistence of 
cream : it is.then taken to the glaze^kUn^ where 
Jt is baked in a less intense heat than the lor* 
mer, ^nd receives its glossy appeacance* 
^ After the ware has been glazed, it is taken 
to tlpe .painters, who ornament it with land* 
scapes, figures, &c. . The colours used are pier 
pared from mineral bodies; and in order to 
fix, and give them a proper degree of lnstie» 
they are conveyed to a kihi, where every coat 
of colour receives a fresh burning. Two burn- 
ings are generally sufficient for the ornaments 
of common porcelain; but the most elq^ant 
wure, has the colouVs laid on at difierentpe- 
nods, and therefore rejq^uire the action of fire 
several times, before ^tl^y attain their full ef- 
fect and beauty* When th^ wai^ is omameiit- 
ed with gold, ^that mietal is used in an amalga- 
mated state, and laid on by a brush: in this 
case, it is necessary to commit the vessel once 



. VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE* 171 

won to the kiln» wlrai:e the gold K-agrame8 its 
solidity, and bcang rubbed mfiter it comes out, 
with some polishing substwce, acquires a bril- 
liant appearance. 

At this mannfiictofy, many very elegant bis^ 
cint^Jigureiy or white ware, are constructed. — 
The miriierials for the construction of these 
figures, are reduced to a liquid of the consist- • 
ence and appearance of thick cream, knd then^ 
poured into moulds of plaster or gypsum.-^ 
The moisture contained in the mixture, being 
yery soon absorbed by the mould, the paste, 
which composes the^ figure^ becomes hard and 
tenacious, and easily separates. The different 
parts of the^gnre ; the head, the arms, the legs» 
and numerous other i^ipendages, which belong 
to many of them, are cast in separate moulds; 
and when dried, and prepared, are joined to 
the principal figure, by a paste of, the same 
kind as the figure itself. When the figures 
have^their limbs, &c. complete, tikey are con- 
veyed to the kiln, and by the opwation pf a 
regulated and continued heat, are rendered 
beautifully white and deliclite. They then Un- 
dergo the same process as the other ware in 
laying on the different colours. The manu-^ 
fiustory belongs at present to Messrs. Duesbury 
and Key ; who epiploy about 900 workmen. 



171 HISTOILICAL AND D£SCAI»TIV£ 

Tkamaaaftctary of Mesftm. Biowa amT don, 
situated at tba ttpiM;r*eiid ol Bradga-gate^ <br 
saviagaad fydUslMag marbli^ and fiiraung the 
4nor spar, or Blue John, into a groat larioty 
oCoraanobBnts^ is ^1 wor^ky notioe. The ohu 
diinerjr employed here, whicli is novel and( 
sioBiple, but rery ingenioaSt is set in potfon by 
alai]g^8teamneiigim8. ; Tbensacbiaefy for saw* 
ing and polisbing tbe marble, oonwts ol a set 
o£ sanrs, niade of tbi^ plates at iron, inclosedl 
iyi a sUding firame, attached to the vibrating 
poles to which the cranks are fixed. Th^Be 
eaiKs, by the assistanoe of sand and water, cut 
Ibe marble in a perpewHcajbr direction. A set> 
q{ saws conabts of many plates, so that tbe^ 
I^Jock to which they areapplied, may besepa- 
i^ted by one process into as many slabs as m^ 
be tlKHight necessary. When tbe dabe aro 
sawn, they are taken to be polished by an equal* 
ly ingenious method. 

^* When the Blue John is to be made into-a 
vase, or any Qther ornamental form, that ren- 
ders the use of the lathe necessary, it is carved 
with amajlet and chissel, into a rude reseni-> 
blance^f the olgect intended; to be prodncech 
and being afterwards strongly cemented to. » 
ping or cho€k^ is screwed upon the lathe. At 
slow motion is then given to the work ; and a 



VISW Of OE&BVSHIlUEs m 

iMif of tleel; abo«rt lUra feet long, and half >n 
iMh 9q«iarQ» properly temp6ined» aai poiatad 
at mab wdr » appllad tb tlwflMa, oa wbidt 
waileff b daatinaaUj daoppkig, to kaep the tool 
cQl4t praseme it fraap Iriction, and enaUe it 
themme,wndiij toecdueatbe Mbakaace apcai: 
vbiebkacto. AatlMsurfiK^ebeaaaitainiootb*' 
eV). the tool ifii ap^Ikd with aurft frasdom^ attd. 
tjha att>tioB of the latba aaadfetated, till tha 
flHor baa asuuned itftdeatisc^ alegaaca <tf fornu 
When the turning is completed, pieces' of gfilH 
atottbt 0i dfiflfereoi degrees of fiaeBasB^. an; ap- 
plied with wateo to bring the article to* a pro* 
per ground for poltabing mtb fineemeryr tvi*- 
foU^ and pattjr, or calx of tin. Tbesameana 
are continued till <)be flnor iaJncapabfo of re« 
cwrimg a bigbei? degree of poUA ; vrhich it 
]uiovjQ,vhen: water thrown on it will no longer 
increase its luttne.^ 

The manufacture of stockings, as befiura nof 
tioedi^ baa long been introduced and pursoed 
at Derby; and no where, siuoa the invention 
of the stQckinJs^franse, . baa that basineas raeei v- 
ad so important! an improremant as Ul tbia* 
town. About the year' 1756, Meaws. Jedediab 
Sbmtt and. Wiliiam WboUatt obtained a: patoot 

* Sfee page I5S^ 



17f HISTO&ICAL AND OBSCRtPTlVE 

bridge of three arches hat alto beea thrawA 
•?er the Derweot, on the NorCh<«att tide df 
the towot to the road leading to Nottiaghain : 
whichi together with the eilk-^milli the WMM^ 
and the braacl expanie of the ri?ef| fortkis a 
very pleasing prospect, on entering 'the town 
from that side. 

There are a yarietj of very pleasing Wtlks i* 
the vicinity of Derby. Following the bttttke.^ 
of the Derwent in a noitfaem direotioo^ tb* 
vale presents some very fnetttffeeqtte seeiies ; 
while the samasits of the hilk of the LMr^eiJc^ 
ibra the distant boundary of the h4ite>tt«^^ 
The walk through the grove to Dorley, and 
that OB theeasterh sideof the tfiver to Utfl6^ 
Chester, independently of the objects of cnri« 
eeity which may be traced in the letter, ai^ 
highly d^ghtfal and agreeable. And, in-^ 
died, in almost ev eiy direetioii, th« ftMMfiuMa 
may find seenes, whero they amy enjoy A 
bealthftd exercise, u well as, grafiiy thd 
sight by a snceesMon of pfei|iMfi^ diitingeisli- 
ed by the softer features that attend cilltiva* 
iion. 



y^lW Of DERB.YSHIRE, »77 



/• > 

y CHAP V. 

(CONTIHVATION OW DbBBY.) 

Remarkable occurrences^ — Entry of tfie Preten' 
dcT'^Eminent menr^The ' Infirmary^^Otd^ 
nance D^wt^ ifc. 

X tt£. iteta^ l>f ]>«rbj iu early tim^ kas been 
ikmdy notioed :* the waQt of records prevents 
4M &om emunentiiig mairir of the interesting 
.€irietita>. whioh must bate happened doring the 
Jspepof 4h» wiefial.saccee^Qgcentariefli; but 
41. eluNTt akrtph. shajl be given of tbo$e ivhieh 
Jnve been r«epided»t and.whicli Iwve taken 
ylmcia the toitrn. since tber year 15jl3. 

y Is the year 1614* Sir WiUiam Milnes, On 
jn d gi» waeohfig^ to keep hie aww and coui^ 
ty eomrty at.tbe.lferket4ssocm, 

^ lo. 169A« two gaUows. were erected for 
«- Aa 

* See p««Q 1S0. 

f << The artkt^ distinguitKed by inTertcd commts, are 
cxtncted ftem. a parcfamenl roU, in' which itmarktble 
events, for a long series of years, are recorded by difierent 
ittomies of the town of l!>erby/''^Pilkington. 



bangiog prisonent and in 1536, thediMolutuMi 
of the id>biesin the neighbouAood comoMnced. 

" In 1545, Mr. Griffin was at St. Peter'K 
church, and woaki hw taken Mr. George 
Corson away, being a ward. The town bdl 
was run|^, and reskaance made." 

In 1554, Sir Jpbn Marriott, ^icar of St. Alk- 
mi»d, busig himjMtf b7one''of the beU'iopeit, 
in the belfry. 

" In 1555, Joan Waste was burnt as a heretic* 
i*1Mi»di»W>i>ilS miem tbe Med kMttklgta Btr- 
fM." Tkitf WhiMit who tras pcw#«nd Uind^ 
bud biMa itt th« halMtof attmding.thef mtnm 
ol? tbe^<AMM)h dMklg tk« pctiga «r fidwatdVk 
#ien tliv^teRtarttdMt^iilei leeve taagfbt } wi 
Whe« Mary oame t« Mle thvenei she bmmm 
Hm* 4b>wfr o# ^MeiNi^oftc A» tlMoikristeM dP 
that foriouK big«f, iMMtisi of liet disbvliif iaf 
nlfe dooi^^ 44 MRifliAstitiiilhlifnii, 8be> «a« 
■iMiMMd.«f-liiw«Eiy b«AM filet bfi»Mp afrthcdiv. 
cese, and comma gdi t ^a utotNiiMid h4r ^Moo^ 
iMit pmMiiig iv faw MMr, ektf wM eonntoitted 
to the custody of the btiliffs, who t«lbk care of 



martyr to the p r sfH rti t Mth. 

"In .the year IMO^ the ptagfue earned away 
■taMy Iff nie IfiMbitiMittf w St^ PBllW'li pnAitf, 

'*" rii T587, a gieat^tfodd broke down StV Ma^ 



vitw Of w^rmuKSi flv» 

ated at the 1)Otjto«B oif ^. |!li«lMMl's4BJM. 

" J* 1988, tbare nm » grotl atHmfbtti^een 
Mr. V^rnoo an4 J^r. JU«ei{9e4's «9«Pi wfao vam 
jMted bj the bui^essf^ an4 tbp wWUtadti 
collected bj tbe riagiffg lof tM AM»vn Ml/' 

l«95.r>Sir Th^as Wb^ ffff» dAm 6m tjbe 
nw of the town. 

1^1. — ^A womao borvt ia WladaiilU>pit» iot 
pfuaoning her husband* 

** In the year 1603, the burgesM^ bfgwi to 
Iwoak open the commonji, 9v|iiflh h^ bean in- 
fiosed* The jear ensoiog Miegr ^atwaed tbt 
practice, and the jottic^s of |p«a«e wfiie eant 
A»r, to decide the matters wyflV^ »V» indicted 
aod Mifiered imjnrisoniiieitt/' it i^ tlioiight 
that the land, which Ues bietwee^ St. Alk* 
motid'o and Jhtlfift on tbe banki 9t the 0eiv 
went, was the oommon 4i» di«pn^ 

*' I0p^, daring tb^ xi^ of jhm» I. (bo 
«rit«hes qf Onlcowett wj ?« efKM oHfid. 

tmtm the «lafiMoR«erping|pfH^^f|f£ir Philip 
Slwbope j||i4 jitr GWMrgo JCwriejr; in 4»iwe' 
g^ncf of wbicbj the i^Mtes^br that fear uro* 
bold at Anhbonmo/' fo<tbe ofwe jrotr three 
prisoners were diOWAod in ibo |^, by a iM^deo 
file pf the brook. 



IM HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

1634.*^A great snow^ in which four penoiik 
perished between Chaddesden and Derbj. 

*' In 1635, king Charles I. visited Derby^ on 
his return from Ripton in Yorkshire, and slept 
at the great house in the Market-place. The 
corporation presented the Dlike of Newcastle; 
hy whom he wasattended» with a fat ox, a calf, ^ 
six fat sheep, and a purse of gold, to enable th^ 
king to keep bosjiitality in the town. They 
also presented the Elector Palatine with twenty 
broad pieces. 

*' In the year 1036, the spring was uncom- 
monly forward; and the plague again ma^de 
its appearance in the town*. 

^' In August 1643, king Charles I. marched 
through Derby, and erected his standard at 
INottingham/^ On this occasion he borrowed 
JE300>of the corporation, and all the small arms 
they could procure, which he promised to re^ 
turn at the end of the war ; but this promise he 
was never able to fulfil. ** In the November 
following, Sir John Gell took possession of the 
town, and garrisoned it for the parliament; 
keeping the main-goard at the Town-hall.*— 
About the end of the summer of 1645, the 
town was disgarrisonisd and the soldiers dis- 
banded. The Bfisaes were held this year in 
Friar's-ckises owing to the plague raging in the 
town. 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE; i»i 

' ** In the year 1653, daring the Comihoh* 
wealth, the eeremony of marriage was per- 
ibnned by ttie justices of the peace/ 

*^ In 1659, ao inshrrection was raised against 
the goremment of Richard, son to Oliver Crom- 
i^ell ; who, a short time after, resigned the Pro** 
tectorship. 

" 1000.~-The present mace was made; be« 
fi>re this time the mayor had two old ones, for- 
merly nsed by the bailiffs. 

" In 1661 the Derwent was dried up, and in 
many places the' water was so shallow, that 
people might walk over its bed dry-shod. The 
hall was also regulated this year ; and Sir Si- 
mon Degge chosen recorder.^ 

1662."-^A terrible hurricane blew up trees, 
l^ke down the pinnacle of St. Werburgh's, 
untiled the TQwn*hall, and many houses in the 
Market-place, Full-strieet, and the Souih of 
All Saints ; but on the North not a tile, nor 
aearcely a straw was moved. A woman drown- 
ed herself at St. JamesVbridge : a young child 
in her arms, was carried down the stream to a 
Band*bed, where, recovering breath, it cried, 
was taken up, and saved. 

1665.-«-Derby was again virited with the 
plague, at the same time in which London fell 
under th^t severe calamity. T^e town was 



19$ Hisx)oijQ4i Ajso nESomrnvi 

place; 8iidgiM»iPreva|iMltUfp)ir^llMii(W 

•opports of life had iiew Mid* To f «if#iit » 

Atimiie» thi ii^Mbitnta «iwted at ike top of 

NuaVgraeo^ a little vaf eat ef the town* 

wiiat boia iba name of Headleii»croi»» coniiffU 

ing of about £>ur qaadrangalar stepi^ eovetei 

in the ce0t«e iviib one laige atone; the erhole 

near fivefMthtgb*. Hitber tbe market-people, 

having their moutht primed arjth tobaeoo ae a 

prei5enratiFe« brought their proriebM; taking 

care> at the eeme tm% to etead at a divtanee 

fnam their prepertj » and at a greater from the 

towo'e-people* with wbom tfaej were ie tra& 

fie. The bujer wae aot ea0S»red Ie tooeh aaj 

of the articke befon parahaM; bat wfaeaiha 

*agreeoieAtwaemade« he teak the goedii aad 

deposited tbe mowf m a vwidi filleA #ifii #i^ 

negarj eet for that purpose. A coafideace, 

rai^ bj necesflity, took fdaee VfiwmH tfhe 

bo/er and selkr* which ae««r eaieted hefera ar 

eiQee; the first coald iioteKamifieitbavidtteef 

hisparchaae* nor theaeeaad thatofhm WMnef. 

It was iibaerved* that <hie dnsedlal aiKelMi 

never entered the preaMMS of m tobaoeaaist, m 

/tanner, auap-boiler* or««hoe<«Mker. 

in 1^3, them was a gieat flood eipoa tibe 
Markeatonhcook, wUeh earned ain^ the hi^r^ 



/ . mimr or nwatataa^.' 



fiUe4.lhe UXImm^i hmmm tit th« m ff t » <ud «f 



" 1674, on the 18th of Febraary, the ^feWmil 
«r ChrirtiiBii Gbiiiit*i«f D«vMul4#e,tMd M- 
lniihiMrt in giMt itetcr . Tto E«r) o# AylM^ 
kmr^ «itk Uk. son^ niA iBU^o«h«M' boMwM* 
a|ld g M t k M HW t. Miid Ibfr.hMaldk «t 

M IM alMvaaon s^mMbI MaJiov -wmfbwiaitf 
Mfc(. Ntabr ftoi4 ik SihmI vllftp iii. M, in 
•MBVKimratkni aad :«bntaMn(dUitMNi;&f CoflAMl 
CiHlrli•€lwrMkiU^ «tho wm sUftift id tiM iiit«». 
tiMiMNthMt N«#Mk,wtto7«ar lM3t «HHM6 
liMiek #er0 biivagiil atth»saB»ti«fli» attdlike>. 
4|Wi liiia)i ib.theivaiiliiitiyUMib#»«btft«li^ 

itM Dwpvmimi «MasioMd ^bit» tbrty-nm*. 
mattf, Mliiti¥e t9 tti iittfl<tfttHM< A fltffr Al N^bi 
ani|ftMl) 4MMf«i ihbit iif t]k«4aviMl. Tberilki. 
iMlt ii mO 4f Swbf » tMlk of cMlfiMllitfli, lint 
{ltotfiiibfiM4ia6t MMlMif.O«Gy» tb«i^««wii>i 
ctKwLf twpnty. 

•* In the year 1680, the aasMiadon df tba m« 
habitants tofUUMrva tMr figlna afaih^t the 



Ji4 HISItt&ICAL jmO DtSCKUVIVE 

iMioopfltoiMte of th0 jorawn ww bunt; the 
Itwn-cluMlir fitveo uf^ and ike pmnnt iim p«o- 
curedi at the ezpenoe of neerlj fowr liiiwfaiad 



'' On tlie twmty^tmt of fiormab^r, 10S8, 
tbfl fi»rl of Devonshire come to Derbjr jettfa m 
f elinoe of five fanndred .mep. He iniiatod nm^ 
nj gintfemen to dinner* end openly dednrad 
hie flentimentain £Mwrjif the Piiaceof Oicaage, 
who had jwt iabdad in Eng^bnd. After ranA- 
leg to theaagror* and ikt eonmonalty, die dek> 
elanttionoftbe prince, he delivered mollter 
jpadB by faineBli^ and the nobility and gentry 
in eoneertimth him; declaring,-^^ dint they 
woa)d, to their utmost, defend the protaataiit 
jpelifieo, the laws oi the kingdom, and thn 
j^gllts and liberties of the enfcgcyt.^ Bntthrongh 
l^ar, the inhabitants did not tpmediately do* 
dare themselves the supportfil^of the .Prinoe^ 
fv a detw^hnient of his troops eoteriiig the 
lefffp a liltle tieae alter, the, mayor durst not 
btU^t them.:. 9. spirited constable, hoivever, of 
the jmme of .Cook, senttbem into quarters. 

*^ On November 6, 1009, agreat flood eauaed 
a great partof St. WerbufgkV church to.&lLf 



* This produced a paltry rhyme from a ^person of the 
of JoHM Pbgck : 

Fifth bf November, Guisppwder plot, 
The Church is fall's ; and why not ? 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE; I6K 

17O69* farnicbes the annaHst with m dcMd^ 
ial ah iMtance of human Aepfaiitj^ atod the 
iraot of parentid and bf otherl j afi^ctioB^ as 
ever has beefi fecorded.--«About the reign of 
Oliver Cramwelly or the beginning; of that of 
Charles II, a trhole family of the ntime of 
Crmland were tried at Derby assizesi, and eon- 
demaed^ for horse^-stealiag. As the offisBice 
was not capital, the Beoob, after sentenee^ en*- 
tertained the croel whim, of extending mercy 
to cme <tf tlie criminals; Imt upon this barbA^ 
rone eaudition^ that the pardoned man, should 
hang the other two. When power wantons in 
cruelty, it becomes detestadiilei and give! great* 
err oiieace tbaii even the eulprita The offiw 
was nnade to the father being tbe senior. Ai 
distress is the season for reflection^ he repUed 
6 Bb 

i ■■ II a^^<^^i^i>i H I n H lil i ■ I t ■HHil> li \ ^A^m^^^^m^m^ 

wfaicl) w» thought it that thtt^ (tfa6Ugb to us their leu scr- 
IcKtf doMSsdantfi k tppean m devoidef itSM alof kimoay) 
of so criminal a nature^ and of so much consequence^ that i% 
raised the clamour of the fistablishment against iu rhyming 
author, and the hody ct Chrkiin^td nthieb iM MongedL 

^ It is necessary to observe, that the memorandums which 
sie tioi itMlosed m itrrerted totaMu^ aretdatai od the autbd- 
rityof Mr. HtfTXON ; which, like the foUowing account, 
are sometimes delivered in his own words ; but the peculiarity 
6f hnrstyte, will, in general, reffder an acknowledjpnent un- 



186 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

I 

witk meekness, ^ was it ever known that a far- 
ther banged hui children ? How can I take 
awaj those lives, which I have given, have 
cherished, and which of all things, are the 
most dear?' He bowed, declined the offer, and 
gave up his life. Barbarous judges! I am sorry 
I cannot transmit their names to posterit j. — 
This noble reply ought to have pleaded his 
pardon. The offer was then made to the eldest 
son, who trembling answered; * Though life is 
the most valuable of all possessions, yet even 
that may be purchased too dear. 1 cannot 
consent to preserve my existence by taking 
away, his who gave it; nor could 1 face the 
world, or even myself, should I be left the only 
branch of that family which I had destroyed.' 
Love, tenderness, compassion, and all the 
appendages of honor, must have associated 
in returning this answer. The proposition was 
then of course made to the younger, John, who 
accepted it with an avidity, that seemed to tell 
the court, he would hang half the creation, and 
even his judges, rather than be a sufferer him* 
self. — He performed the fatal work without re* 
morse, upon his father and brother, and ac- 
quitted himself with such dexterity, that he 
was appointed to the office of hangman in 
Derby, and two or three neighbouring coun* 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 18? 

ties, and continued it to extreme old age. So 
void of feeling for distress, he rejoiced at a 
murder, because it brought the prospect of a 
guinea. Perhaps he was the only man in court 
who could hear with pleasure a sentence of 
death. The bodies of the executed were his 
perquisite: signs of life have been known to 
return after execution; in which case, he pre- 
vented the growing existence bj violence.*— 
Loving none, and beloved by none, be spent a 
life of enmity with man. The very children 
pelted him in the streets. The mothers endea- 
voured to stop the infant cry with the name qf 
John Crosland: He died without regret about 
the year 1735. 

In the year 1715 frequent riots, were raised 
in favor of the house of Stuarts There were 
several persons in the town, who wished for 
the re-establishment of the Pretender on the 
throne of England. Among the Jacobites 
three of tiie established clergymen of the town 
ranked themselves : Sturges of All-saints pray- 
ed publickly for king James; but after a mo- 
ment's reflection, said, *' / mean king George.^* 
The congregation became tumultuous; the mi- 
litary gentlemen drew their swords, and order* 
ed him out of the pulpit, into which he never 
returned. He pleaded a slip of the tongue; 



lU HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

bnt had he been as conversant in hU New Te»* 
tanent at in politiclus he might have pleaded 
as an excuse the commaodnient, to pray for our 



1735. — ^The steeple of AlUsaints church was 
within a few minutes of being consumed by 
fire. This was occasioned by a plumber, who^ 
going to close some leaks in the leaden roof« 
made a fire on the top of the steeple upon a 
hearth of loose bricks, which he carelessly left 
unextinguished. Some days elapsed before a 
smoak was observed issuing from the battle- 
ments : and it was some time before any ooe, 
would vepture up on the dangerous, bnt neces« 
sary business of exploring it. At last, how- 
ever, thi» was done : the aspect was dreadful ; 
the roof was melted, the sleepers burnt, and 
the main beam consumed to the very edge of 
the wall which supported it.-«^Thus a master* 
piece of elegant workmanship was snatched 
ftom the flames in the moment of destruction. 

But the most renoarkable event, that has 
happened in Derby within the last century, ts 
the entry of the Pretender, in the winter of 
1745. 

James, son of James il, after his two un« 
successful attempts to reinstate himself on tfau 
throne of his ancestors in the years 17M and 



view OF DERBYSHIRE. 199 

17U, was compelled to takt ui aMylam at 
Raoe : wh^re Pope Clement VIL granted htm 
afffDouity of about iS30Q0. ThkfugitiTeprinco^ 
doriog hin residence at Rome, publicly pro^ 
feMed tbe popish religion* and was treated 
with ^very external appearance of royalty.^^ 
Hi$ eldest son was styled Prince of Wales, and 
treated as the presumptive h^r of a. crown ; 
and the younger son retained the imaginary 
title of the Duke of York. 

Charles Bdward, which was the name of ths 

elder son, and the second who bore the name 

of Pretender, was now in the twenty-fifth year 

ojf his age. His person was tall, genteel, and 

graoefttl: his manners free, generaus, affable, 

and engaging: bis spirit brave, active, and en*- 

terprising. Since his disappointment of the 

intended invasion of England in 1744, the 

yoong adventurer was wholly intent on raising 

nn insurrection in that conntry. The atnbitif. 

oqs hopes of ascending a throne perpetually 

^re4 his heart; this was his principal meditai- 

tion, and this he was determined to attempt. 

A stmng party had been forming in his favor, 
among the discontented and disaffected e hiefs 
of the iiorthern. parts of Scotland; which, to* 
gether wttb the succours expected from the 
Fneuch, raised very sanguine hopes of ^luroess 



1^ HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

in the breast of the joong Prince. Impatient 
to visit Scotland, be took leave of tbe old Che- 
valier (for that was the title which the firs»t 
Pretender had assumed after his Scotch expe- 
dition in 1708,) at Rome, and went to France, 
where he was furnished with some supplies. — 
On the fourteenth of July 1745, be embarked 
on board a frigate of eighteen guns, with seven 
of his exiled adherents at port St. Lazare in 
Bretany ; and on the twenty-seventh of tbe 
same month, landed at Moidart, between tbe 
islands of Skey and Mull. 

He was joyfully received, by tbe chiefs of 
many of the clans, who resorted to their favor- 
ite prince, and paid him every external mark 
of respect ; and the young Pretender soon as- 
sembled upwards of two thousand men. About 
tbe end of the month of August, the rebels, 
left their encampment in the neighbourhood of 
Fort William, and directed their march through 
, Badenoch and Inverness to Perth and Dundee, 
where they proclaimed the. Pretender and in- 
creased their numbers to four thousand men. 
The young Chevalier marched from Perth on 
the eleventh of September; he passed the 
Forth on the thirteenth; on the sixteenth, at 
night, he arrived in the neighbourhood of 
Edinburgh ; and at five tbe next morning, the 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 19I 

city was surrendered to him witboat any resist* 
ance. He made his public entrance in the 
bijfbiand habit, at the head of one thousand of 
his best looking men, who conducted him to 
the royal palace of Holy rood-house. 

The Pretender's army, amounting to up* 
wards of five thousand men, advanced to the 
village of Duddington* and from thence on the 
twentieth of September to the neighbourhood 
of Preston-Pans. There, the young Chevalier, 
after a short and animating address, led bis 
men against the royalists, who were soon thrown 
into confusion, broke, dispersed, and totally 
routed. About four hundred of the royal 
forces were killed in this engagement, and the 
prisoners amounted to near twelve hundred 
men. Among the slain was Colonel Gardiner^ 
who fell, covered with wounds, near the walls 
of his own garden. The loss of the rebels was 
very trifling. The consequences of this victory 
were highly advantageous to the Pretender. — 
Great ntimbers of eminent persons now openly 
professed their attachment to him, and his ar- 
my was continually increasing^ till they be- 
came sufficiently formidable to think of in- 
vading England. 

This determination was put in execution 
very shortly. On the first of November they 



19!l HISTOklCAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

decamped in three divisionft ; the flmt eolumn 
ted by the yoong Pretender, the second by the 
Duke of Perth, dnd the third by the Earl of 
Kilmarnock ; who taking diflTerent routs, through 
Tweedale, LAuderdale, and Tiriotdale, asMm- 
bled near Carlisle on the eighth, invested it on 
the ninth, and summoned it to surrender on 
the tenth: which, however it did not do until 
ilie fourteenth. The rebels had no ftitentiofi of 
continuing at Carlisle ; but to march forwards 
with all possible expedition, in hopes of arri?-- 
ing in London, while a general panick wftsacaf^ 
tered over the nation. They left a garrison of 
two hundred men in the castle of Carlisle, and 
began their march southwards on the twenty^ 
first of Nof ember. Afiter entering Penrith, they 
advanced to Lancaster on the twenty^fourth : 
from whence they proceeded to Preston on the 
twenty-seventh, and the next day took posses- 
sion of Manchester. Here they continued 
only one day, for they set out on the thirtieth 
for Derby, in two* divisions, which united at 
Macclesfield on the first of December : the next 
day they resumed their march in two columns, 
one of which entered Congleton, and the other 
passed near Gawsworth : on the third, the one 
divison proceeded to Leek, and the other to 



VIEW OE DEKBYSWRE. : ; i^ 

Atfthbourne: from whence theyvoBt^^tfi $n the 
fourth and united at Derby^ '• ^ ... > 

. The inhabitants of Derby, aware of the dan"- 
ger which threatened them, had done-^all in 
iheir power, to provide for their own safety. A 
general subscription was made by the town And 
country gentlemen, which had enabled (heili 
to raise near six hundred men ; which they 
added to the one hundred and fifty levied and 
maintained at the sole expence of the Duke of 
De vooi^hire* The confidence which they placed 
in this small corpsi together with the «3tpecta* 
tion that the Duke of Cumberland woiild i^ontie 
to an engagement with the rebels the ne3:t<lay» 
put the town's people in high ^trits* But 
when they were informed, that a divi^on of 
the Pretender's army had arrived at Ashbouroei 
the greatest terror and confusion prevailed.-^ 
About ten o'clpck the night preceding the en* 
try of the Chevalier, the drums beat to arms» 
and the soldiers, on whom they bad a few hours 
before rested their, hop^, igarched, by torch* 
light, to Nottingham, with the Duke .of De* 
vonshire at their head. Several of theprinci* 
pal inhabitants of the to.vi^n, after havin|^ con7 

• 7 • c.c • • 

♦ Meihotn of the Duke of Cumberland, • - ' 



m HIStORICAL AND OESGRIPTIVX 

tey«l awttj or sacrcted their most Yoliiahle 
effecto, departed tbemselves with t|ieir families: 
nothing but distraction appeared in eveiy cOUp- 
tenance* while ine?itab)e destraction seeiMd at 
their very doors. 

About noon the following day, (the fourth of 
December) the Pretender^s vanguard entered 
the town ; 'and, after sekdng a valuable horse, 
belonging to a respectable inhabitant; t|iey 
proceeded to the George Inn, and demanded 
billets for nine thousand men. They then en« 
quired for the magistratesi bnl upon their l^e* 
iag Harmed they had fled» they seem^ satis- 
fied r however, they afterwards found an^idder- 
nan, whose lameness had prevented his. flight, 
andeeiaing upon him, he was obliged to pro* 
daim the Prince. Ta prevent any unfovorable 
impression being made on the mindb of the ar- 
my, the bells were rang, and several bonfirea 
werekindledk About two o'clock in theaf. 
temoon, Lord Balmarino arrived^ accompanied 
by thirty of the life-guards. These cooipoeed 
the flower of the army, and being dielned m 
the same uniform, n^tcb was blue, with scarlet 
waistcoats trimmed with gold lace, made a fine 
appearance. They were drawn up in the mar* 
ket-ptsoe, where they continued t^l three» 
when Lord Elcho arrived with one hundred 



^ . VIEW OF OER&YSHIRt. 401 

mA BHf^tutn,th» rmnaioderof tb» gF»'d9^ 
th«w, upon the whole, WMW fine figiur«»» bat 
tbeit fabnet xren TOty oioob Jaded. 

Soon after; the main body of the Peetondei^* 
army entered the town in toletabW; »rd«r, 
marching ftix or eight a-braast; carrying eight 
white sta&daNh with red croqjse$;. Thianartof 
the array, eompoMd of all«geeand8iMi,.W«* 
dad iH almost ereiy kind of dreai, and marlbed 
with «iUgiie and dirt. Theit mow© wa8:chtef. 
iy the bagpipe, which it i^ well known has a 
snrprinng etfeet on .the martial spirit of. the 
hardy Highlander. Ordfers were immediately 
issaed to proclaim the Prince, whidi was done 
by^ the common cryer.^ At djukthe yonag 
Chevalier arrivedt he entered the town on fi>ot, 
accompanied by a part of his guards. Althoogh 
anxiety and latigae had made some impressions 
- vpon him, he yet was handsome t He was 
dressed in a green bonnet laced with gold, a 
white bob wig, the ftshionrof the day, a high- 
land plaid, and a broadsword. He was sur- 
nninded by a large body of men, who conduct- 
ed hitt to Lord Exeter's, now N. Edwards's, 
Esi|. in the Full-street, where he.iooknp his 
Quarters. The Pukes of Athol and Perth, 
Lord BabaariiN^, Lord Geoige Morrag^i Lord 
PUiBgo, old Gordon of QIenbncke(». Uird 



I9« HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

NaiiPiH...8tid other persons of difitinGtkm, with 
th^ir ahM aad» general officers, took possession 
of the best houses in the town. Many of the'' 
inhabitants had fertj, and some fifty mlfo each, ' 
quaftered upon them, and some gentlemen's 
houses nearly a hundred, 
^ On Itheir arrival at Derby, the rebel chieft 
held a council of war ; but the only resolation 
they appear to have formed, was that of levy- 
ing money on the inhabitants. Having ob- 
tained a list of those persons, who bad sub- 
scribed for the support of the lawful govern* 
nent, th^ obliged them to pay an equal, sum 
towards the support of the Pretender. They 
demanded the produce of the land-tax, excise, 
2lnd post-office; the latter was refused them; 
kut from the two former, added to the contri* 
Imtion, they actoally procured a sum little 
lAort of jE8,000. Articles of dress were every 
jwhere applied for, for they were i^ery much 
wanted, . as many of the misguided men, were 
l>ut half covered : some they procured with 
money, but when that was wanting, they did 
jnot hesitate to take them without payment. 
.The conduct of the inhabitants towards their 
.nnwdcome visiters, was hnmble a[nd obliging, 
tad every care was taken to prevent insnlt and 
depredation : but all effi»rts to attain this end 



I 



• vWHf &F ^fifck*Y&miG& : . m 



\¥ere meffetUtal. - <ihi'tlMsseicond> day, they 
seized on all kinds of ^fwopeirly, mid behaved 
lAiM oatrageoufraVMKiniier, thai ^tlvanydf' the 
more tfe^peetable inllabitlints, ^thboght-it pra^ 
dent U^'&mcealtb^m^re^* - D^orflig^l^i^tr sniy 
they beat up for volunteers/ at^ fi^^ si^iiHmg^ 
advant^e, and five guineas, wh&h ifli&t«0:b6 
paid on iheii^'arrivai-'in London : but? tbty^trenfe 
joined by 'only three unprUidipled'^Ad Sd]ii4eU 
tows 'r^Cooky a travelHhg ' jourQbyitian i>la0k^ 
smith ; Bd^^rd H&vrit^ 'Oihuttlt^h' sMd< Jmmm 
Sparks; a%tbckit)g-^Riitkert nieno^ degraded 
lives and'sUtlied ehuirtHHets. . '* 

Qn the ^v^^ng'iif'fb^ second- day; lhsteadt4 

marching Ibtw&rdis; iai^ was^ Sstp^cied, unoillc<r 

council'of^ar was privately b^Id at the bead** 

quartersf. Their •situation^ by this t i nto' appeiir- 

ed critical ; and rfaaiiy of the chiefs assumed a 

bold and commanding tone:' so iyarm at last 

did th^ir debaMs graw,^that they were -over^ 

heard by ^Idef man Eaton, who eoqst^tlyat- 

teodedthe Duki^'bf Pitrtb, and was Waitinj^ for 

hifil %ear tbe^ l^riii<ie^s lodgings It was urged 

t^y the chiefs, that¥—^'^ tbey had follo^v^ltbei^r 

Prince with alacrity; that their love for his 

cause, was equ^l to the hazard they i^an. Thdt 

ihtt French had not ftilfilled' their engagements 

in tending the necessary snpj^lies, nor in mak- 



%m HISTORICAL AND D£SeiUPTIV£ 

ing a dif«r$ioa in Um West to dm«r tbe milite* 
ry i^tootioo^ That the English promises weve 
still sora delosire ; finr they had been given |p 
nnderatand, as soon as the Prince's standaiyl 
should be .evocted in England, the majority 
woald ran with eagerness to join it ; instead ^ 
whichy they had raised only one slender r^- 
ment in their long march, which barely sup- 
plied their travelling losses. That the English 
were extrraiely loyal to the House of Stuart, 
•when warmed by a good fire and good liquor; but 
the warmth of their fire, their liquor, and their 
loyalty, evaporated together. That they were 
then in the centre of an enemy's country, with 
•a handful of men : to retreat was dangeroub ; 
but to proceed must be certain destruction/' 

The situation of the Pretender at this time 
was most critical : the Duke of Cumberland 
bad encamped his army on Meriden-common, 
near Coventry ; while Marshal Wade was ad- 
Tancing by rapid marches from the town of 
Newcastle. These dispositions of the rojal 
^forces, threw the rebels into the greatest per- 
pl^ty, as they found themseWes endosed by 
two considerable armies; and the nearest of 
tbem under the command of a young, intrqpid> 
and^well-esteemed General. Their ftar natn- 
jally bred confusiott, and their danger created 



VIBUr OF DSRBYSHUtB* ig^ 

Tli«ir comieik were i^iitedl witk 
aU ihe diwrder and pamoD, attendant aa meii 
ie their dangerotte ttlaation) and desfierate cir- 
euDBtancee* Some wen for adYaneing, and 
giving the Doke. battle : hiit the majority wer*^ 
ibr returning to Seotland, and joining the foroee 
under Lord John Drummond, before they woe 
cot off from all pomability of eftcting their 
retreat. 

It waft therefore determined upon, tore^^read 

their steps towards Scotland: and early on 

Friday morning the drums beat to arass, and 

their bagpipes played about thetowi|» The pass 

at Swarkeaton-bridge had been previously, je* 

eured^ and it was therefore eapected, thatihey 

would march thitber> and pursue their rout 

towards London;. But d^ut serea o'clod^ 

they left the town, and took the road to Ash* 

bourne. In their letreat the Prince rode a black 

horse, said to have been Colonel Gardiner's» 

slain at Preston-Pans. Their hussars rode into 

the adjacent country, and plundered the inha- 

' bitants of horses, and every other kind of vn» 

luable property. Two of the rebels went to 

Clifton near Ashbourne, and demanded a horse, 

which being refused, they shot the person to 

whom it belonged. They likewise in the same 

Tideat manner, took away-the life of the inn- 



MP HISTORICAL ANO BESClUlfriVE 

keepee at Hanging^bridge, between Ashbourne 
and Leek« . 

. When the rebds had4|aUtec| Derbj^ the m&s 
gis»Cr4te8.ofdered a.retom of tfaeir-^nmnber in 
«very heofle to be laade, during the two nights 
io£ their stay; when it appeared that there 
were. 

Flirt night, .....tfi98. 

Second night, 7,148.^ 

; The Pretender's army, on their abandonment 
oCDerby, mancbe^ i^ilh soch expedition f hrbugll 
Ashbourne, Leek, Manchester, Leigh and Wig*^ 
' %g*n, that they re-entered Preston on the twelfth', 
and tMmtinned their march northward with the 
sanis- celerity; but they shewed a warm spiiit 
o£ resentment for their disappointment, by 
fdnndering the eountiyv and levying contriba- 
tions wherever they could. Soon after the de^^ 
parture of the rebel army f#om Preston, the 
royalists under the Dnkeof Cumberland came 

* Th^ following is an exact account, as they were quartered . 



in the several pariabes : 






Parishes, First nighu 




Second nights 


All-Saints, •.. 2,979, 


••.. 


3,027. 


St. Werf>uiigh% . 1,590, 


.••• 


1,641. 


St. Pete, .• l,091f 


•••• 


1,00U 


St. Michael, ... 734, 


•••• 


7fi4- J 


St. Alkmund, ... 714, 


•#.• 


755. 



7,098, 7,148, 



VIEW. OF DtRBYSHIRB- »t 

up, and Terymudh harnused' its rear : which, 
together with tbaf of Marshal Wade in; front, 
placed ib€( rebels in a dangerons situation. But 
slfer a skirmish at the village of Clifton, t|ie 
Pretender led fais t roops to Carlisle, from whence 
thejr proeeeded unmolested ; and crossing the 
Eden and Solway, re-entered Scotland, in two 
columns, and directed their march for Glasgow. 
From Glasgow tiiey proceeded to Stirling^ in 
the neighbourhood of which, thej had an en* 
gagement with the royalists, and defeated 
them. ^ On the twenty-ninth of January, 1746, 
the rebels left Stirling, and. retiring over the 
Fortk at Frew, proceeded to Perth ; there they 
separated into three columns, with the intent- 
tion of fimning a janctjon at Inverness. Here 
they remained until the fifteenth df April, when 
the army under the Duke of Cumberland ar« 
rived in the neighbourhood of the town. The 
young Pretender, immediately drew out his 
nrmy on Straghallan-moor, near CuUoden- 
house, four oniles to the East of Inverness, 
where he intended opposing the progress of 
the royal army. 

The hour was now approaching, to determine 
all the expectations of the rebels, who princi- 
pally depended on their personal strength, and 
dexterity in the management of the broad 

7 Dd 



MS HISTftkiCAJL AHD OISCRIPTIVE 

pirMd. The foj$l amy 4e«Biped Ahmii Nium; 
and tfter |iM»iag a HiorttB, cavie in foil new 
oi tha rtbelSf wIk^ weie drnwa ap id liae of 
liMtle^ behind Mipa httto and old waUf,^a«iM 
a»oor« aear CiiUodao^baiMe. Aboat one o'clock 
90 ibe laxtfentb of April the angiqiaaMnt com- 
apefiped; aad tba i^ls, after a desperate 
ttiroggla of Iweatjf-five minutm, difiperBed in a 
general Mafaiio«i< Their flight was preeipi- 
t^e ; and the yoyaltsta paiaoed them with a 
drea4ial daughter. 

The AiUl battle of Calloden dttpelled ewerj 

remaining hope of succeas, entertained bj the 

f reader and bia adbepenle. Aianj of the 

priodpai Spottish^ <bieia were made (Nrieoners 

bj the roja4^iii, and afterwarda fell hy the 

hand of the ejbeentbaer: while the young 

Chevalier biHI^cU* e«fcaped with the greatest 

di^culty. lie sustained an innumerable va- * 

riety -ftf baidi^hips, befofs b^ coedd leava Sent- 

hind: bpt be €pntin«allyeladed the most yifi^ 

lant s^ar^h a( |he roy;*! fi>rcee> nntii the third 

of September, when a privateer from St. Maio, 

arrived at LoGhanach, and deliveved him from 

bis midanpboly iat«ation» ^ owying him to 

Morlaix i^ Fn^nce ; aocoinpained by a lew of 

hi& faithful i^imdfs wbo bad kaiff wandftced 

with, or followed hiin from &hase to sborei and 



view OF SKRBYSmiU. W» 



frbm lilaaMl to idbsd; wnoiiiid«) #itlr ii 
ntot dangers, enoomiterkii^ ilmlidibk cK^oIni 
|je«, attd iNHPtakMg of ail bis (BlrtatHttes. Sam 
jrfkev thiamiKOcMnftiftejcpliiAitidD^thePro^ 
retired, to B#n», wharci^ thto liUt b«t one,* <tf 
tbe kipitiidMf Stdiirfey ^i^ifa* tdie jeiv 1980; 
Thus ^VM a i^bieillio»,- wfeti«h had created a 
most anpreMdiateli ataMUbtoajghout feiwwbfde 

e=sssa===s==a==sa=ae5SS====ssBsss=s=Es=s=5Sss9SSB^ 



* Henry Benedict Marie Clciptnt', CxtAfi^t foHb, md 
brother to Ghtilet Bdwud StiAtft,. t)m Brclepdnv diddNMf 
Rome in the year 1807. At (he close ^f the y^ar 1743) he 
went from Rome where he constantly resided, to Dunkirk, 
r^ piit himself at ffir head of ItftOOO* lAen, -who weitf tof 
kave Unde4 ui ^gUad» toi suyp^str li^ Motlan Char]flii» 
fiut these troops having not embarJcc Sefor«) intelligenco 
was received of tlie fssuc of the battle or CuIIoden, he re- 
lumed to Rtome; %Htore,> niudi agmmt the content of kk 
brother and the- friends of his f^^mily, he tooJt orckn^ and 
in I747i was made Cardinal, and afterwards Bishop of Fres. 
cati, and Chancellor of the CHufch of Rome. T^rom that 
tiao Gordiiiil Yorkyv (iftenmrhe assuotcd oa; hir pi»imc»« 
tion) devoted himself to the functions of his ministry, and 
seemed to have laid aside all worldly views till his brother's 
death; when Ire had* medals strtick, wit!ithe following iti- 
sntJilionST-rVtBv on the o^vene. if(Vt« iX. lda$* flnt. itv 
tt. Hib. Rex. Fid. Def. Card. Ep. Tusc. and oa the leverse^ 
a city, (or Rome) with a figure gf religion, a lion Couch- 
ant at her ftet, aid ihm dtstdtnit Mofimm^ sid voikn$ai^ 
J^fu It is in larg« bronze. The Cardinal \m& the last of 
the Stuarts ; of whom Voltaire says, " few princes have 
beeti more imfbftUfiHe; iit>r have we my insfnice ia his& 
tory of a itmily so unhappy lor nach a number of years." 



904 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

CMRitrjr, happily quelled : and thoogh it is to 
be regiietted^ that after so coinplete a vtctoiy 
as that of CoUoden, the scafibld fthoald have 
fltreamed with bleed ; yet« e7ery liberal miadL^ 
most rejoice, that his country, escaped the tyr 
ranny of a usiirper, who believjed in the d^ 
Yine right of kings, and their absolute power, 
and was a slave to the grossest superstition. 

1768. The King of Denmark arrived at the 
George. 

The town of Derbyi. during the lapse of near 
700 years, has given the title of Earl to s»everal 
potent and noble families. It is asserted by 
some writers, that the honor was first conferred 
on one of the Peverels, Lords of Nottingham: 
however this may be, it was certainly ei\joyed 
by Robert de Ferrariis, a grand^u of Henry 
de Ferrariis, who came over with the Conquer- . 
or, and settled at Tutbury Castle. This no« 
bleman,. having v»ith some other northern chiefs, 
opposed and defeated David king of Scots, at 
the battle of North* AUerton in Yorkshire, was 
created Earl of Derby, by king Stephen. But 
he enjoyed the title no more than one year ; 
and in 1130 was succeeded by his son. Robert : 
he founded the religions house of St. Helen's,^ 

• Page 137. 



VIEW OF D£&BYSHIltE; aog 

I 

built and. endowed the Abbey of Afefry-vale, 
near AibemtoB, ira» a liberal benefactor to the 
Priorjrof Tutbary; and ordered at bis d^aih, 
that his body should be wrapped in an ox's 
hide and interred in the Abbey of Merry*yale. 
He died in 1147, and was succeeded by his son 
William: who married Margaret, the heiress 
and representatire of the Peverels ; with whom 
he retseived the vast fortunes of that house, and. 
became immensely rich* He lield 303 lord* 
ships, 114 of which were in Derbyshire. Uo* 
bert, bis son, inherited his title and property ; 
and died in 1173, the 19th of Henry II. The 
title wu next enjoyed by William d^ Ferrariis, 
son of the latter. He rebelled against Henry 
II. and against his successor Richard.!, who 
deprived him of his honors and estates. The 
castles of Nottingham, Lancaster, and Derby, 
with the honor of Peverel, were given by king 
Rtcbard to his brother John Plantagenet. — 
When John, however, mounted the throne, he 
restored the confiscated ]»tates of the £filher to . 
the son, William, whom he created Earl of 
Derby, by a sfiecial cbarter at Northampton, 
in the first year of his reign. The king girded, 
on- his sword' with his own band; and restored 
to faiaa bis third^peony, enjoyed by the Sax^n 
Earls^ with other property. The year follow* 



906 HISTQMCAL AHO ABSCRIFTIVE 

ittg tM UiAg WMMd Earl, king Mku gvaalcd 
hML the Mnrioa #f William de Gresfejr, aodlM^ 
heirs, tor bis lands at Orakekpir, io hoU bj 
th9 anniwl pajaaant #f a b6w, quiver, and 
^weKe armwa. He died io 1247, and van 
soeoeedcd bj his nefhow. WillianH whn sur* 
yivod hini only seven yean^ spent bia time in 
improving his ealale> and stadjing the Imrs at 
his conntrjr, in whiek he^ waa weU versed. As 
ha i^as verf infirai, he generallj^ vndk in a cha- 
riot; which, onfin^ to the capelesoesaof the 
driver, was overtomed in passing ihe bridge etf^ 
8t« Neots, in Uuntingtonshire, and he killed ; 
he was interred in 1254, with bis nnc^stera iit 
the Abbey of Merrj*vale. Robert his son waa 
.a ininer at the death of his father ; bat when 
he came to maturitj, he joined the Barons ilk 
a rebellion against Ueary 111. whQ sent bis son, 
afterwards Edward L to destroy the £ari'aea- 
tates in the counties of Stafford and Derb^^*** 
By this revolt, Robert lost his title, and a lafge 
part of his estates ; which Heniy bestowed on 
his soil Edmund. Robert made an attempt to 
purchase of Henry hisconfi^ated property; 
but not being, able to raise the enormoitt suwr 
agreed upon, {dSQjMiO!)^ he never recovered hid 
title or lands. Thms^ in 1965, after the i^r- 
rem had eojpjed thn BnfldMi 1^7 years, and 



▼IKW OP DUfiYSRIIlE. m 

A^ estate 180; by ihe iso|Anideiice of one^ tb« 
tlie wMhh and hoaor werefor tfnt los^ ta tbeif 



: Tfiis aneieBt family ^ hating been d«prif^ bf 
the Barldom, the title was net disposed of Hit 
the year iaSO; wfaea Edwaid Hi. hjr aa act of 
Parliaawot, eveated Heorj Ptantageoet, serf 
of Henry. Doke of Laoca^ter, Eari of D^rhy^ 
This E|irl had a diftughtelr, Blaaoho, who mar^ 
ned John oi Gaant, to whom, of ooarae, the 
SarkhNtt passed. U was then inherited by 
Ihfir son Uenrfy in right of |iis Biotaef ; aatil 
he mounted the throne under the title ol Henry 
IV. when it was tested in the erowa, and the 
title of Mori was sapeneded by that of JKing. 

The title, however, wfts not long uooceii- 
liied ; ior Henry VJI. in M86, bestowed h on 
.Thoaaas Loed Stanley, of Knocking, in tha 
oyiVBtty of Lancaster. The attcester- of this 
lisiaily, came into England, as an offieer in the 
ar>iy of WiUia» I. uader the name irfilad£r$r« 
Nicheilas de Andley , a descendant of Ihssoffieer^ 
was ciealed by Edward I. in laSS^ Baron 
Andhey of Mighieigh, in the county of StaflM; 
b«t ia ia9h *h]s title became extinct. One of 
tbia dually, being proprietor of the manor ef 
Himky ^ in the eoamty of fiei^iy, IwAl it Ilht 
bis sainame ; a praotioe tery ceosmoa ist those 



tat HISTORICAL AND DfSCRIPTIVB 

tionei. JoIhi, the seveath in descent* from the 
fiiBt who 9f«amed the naiAe* of Stanley^ »8s 
married to babella, heiress of the hoaae of La- 
tham* by which marriage he acquired a great 
Idrtone. Richard 11. made him Lord Deputy^ 
and L4Md Lieuteoant of Ireland ; aad Menry 
IV. created him Steward of his Household. 
Henry Vt. conferred upon him the title of Baron 
Stanley of Latham^ in the year 1456: He died 
in 1460, and was succeeded by his son Thomas, 
the first of the fiimily of Stanley, who bore 
the tide of Earl of Derby. He was renowned 
for arms; and ^commanded the right-wing of 
the army which Edward sent against the Scotchi 
under the Duke of Gloucester. He marriedfot 
his first wife, EleancH', daughter of Richiird Ne- 
ville, Earl of Salisbury ; and fi>r his 8econd,Mw- 
garet Countess of Richmond, who with her son, 
afterwards Henry VIL were the only remaining 
heirs of the House of Lancaster. He- was a 
firm adherent to Edward V. — and Richard I Hi 
endeayoured to conciliate his esteeim by making 
him Steward of his Household, and Lord High 
Coasuble of England for life. But at the bat- 
tie of Bosworth^field, Lord Stanley^ deserting 
Richard, espoused the cause of RicfaDiond; 
who. beiog successful, Stanley seized the crawn 
of Richard, and placed it npon the brow of 



Vmtfiift tkn «wi ^m mlnmm^ v» Urn 

From the dead templet of this oloody wretch 
Jim l phidt'd ofl^ to ^ce thy hrowt with^ ; 

Alll««g thf «pitl»9<|t ii^» vfi^V Pert»f \m 
fldifiu t|i« lir^ jp/^ V tp pri^pty of tippi?.-. 

M«9* Hit P«rt^.*ff «y- P« F«i>t ftpv %>* >j? 

A)|-fWMs i?«4lf8e» .9^P^» Ifh^ Jte p^nwf4 

7 E e •'. 



il& HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

and was pronounced hy the Dakeof Toscany, 
who shewed faitti manj favors, the politest 
scholar of the age. On hiir return to England, 
he took his doctor's degree, and was made pro* 
fessor of physic at Oxford. After t^t be took 
up his abode in London, and became first phy- 
sician to Henry VII. who appointed him pre* 
Ceptor to Prince Arthur: — be also was ndade 
physician to Henry VIH, Prince Edwatd, and 
ihe Princess Mary. He founded two medico] 
lectures at Oxford, and one at Cambridge: btot 
that which most effectually immortalittd his 
name among the faculty, is his being the foun*' 
der of the College of Physicians in London. 
Grieved at the wretched state of physic in 
England, he applied to cardinal Wolsey, and 
obtained a patent by which the physicians '<of 
London were incorporated ; and by this means 
prerented illiterate and ignorant quacks, to 
practise the art of healing; He erected the 
edifice oh the sciteof his own building; in 
Knigfat-Rider-Street, which was afterwards de-' 
istroyed by the great fire in 1686. Linacre irm 
the first President of the College, and held the 
ofiice as. long as he lived. In 1500, be entered 
into orders, and obtained the Precentorship t>f 
York, which be resigned oh being made Pre- 
bendary of Westminster. He died in 15041 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE* SU 

aged 64, aod was burkd Modera stately mo- 
nuiBeiit at St. PiEialf8« Ue was a man of great 
natural sagaeit j^ a skilful pbysician» a pro- 
found graminanany one of the best Greek and 
LatHi scholars of his timet and intimate witb 
G>llet| Erasmus, and most of the eminent li- 
terary characters of the age. Ue published ; 
1, A Latin translation of Proclus's Sphere, 
144d; 2. The. Rudiments of Grammar, for the 
use oi the Princess Mary,; 3. Oe emandata 
Structura Latini Sermonis ; 4. A Translation of 
some of xhe; Works of Galen. Ue was not /or- 
getfttl of his native town, for he left an annual 
benefaetionto Derby, which even to this day, 
is called lina^^r*^ charity. Some of his de- 
flcendancs, or those of a part of his family, aji^e 
jstiir residents in the town, and go bj the name/ 
of Linoey. 

John Fi.AMST£itn, the great Astronomer, it is 
generally supposed, was born in Derby ; though 
some.affirii|, that the village of Denby, bad the 
bonof of giving him birth. At present it seems 
impossible, to ascertain which was the place of 
.his nativity ; as the rcigbters^ of the parishes of 
De^by, an4 that ^f Dev^y^ have been elwqi« 
ned,.: without afibrding any sutisiactpry eyj- 
deuce., lie. was born on the 19th of August, 
Jfl46; at which perio4, or very shorlly after. 



h.% msTOKiekb Alio BfeaentniVE 

lAsiiuh^reliid)iaMtt)«ttl#ir. IftMedHKsltift 
toi¥t pttrt at Uk'^htktioniA HA 9ik$^Mim ih 
St. PteteFb dfaforeb-jM^ ; Mt fMUfW^elNIHl hf 
m health ftdhi ^^MMeiitfai^ hk UlMmt Mril 
^iy preparib^ hirifMf «Mr the fJbi^tMlr^.^ 
Daring hte confiflemdot, Ht ac<MantUI^ iJMA 
with an astronomicid Mok, tfa^^pMNfticl «r«i»MBJh 
pleased him, aiid det^rtniliM Ae 'edb^Mgaeb 
of hi» futtti^ life. Wheh \*eify ^tfong he dW:^ 
Tereda tastr Ar mfcUfenmtical leairtfni^ ltai4 
punned it with nhiihlltttd ttirdor to dibtMid «f 
bis days. <llis HiM AtfA^ts m AktMiMWIf, 
which %ieM$i eiloiilatlalMOf thto ftklcte (tflr'ttto 
plancfs, and of ate i^iplfe "of tM vuh tijr vMe 
CardHnetabtas prdco^fed him thte pMMttagie 
of Mr. Emaitud Hsatbn, n MytlMnDiftoiMi '«if 
flontb eminericle, i^ho mMnii kt Whl|(fiigMiilki- 
nor. This gentleman very liberalfy Hff^UM 
theybUt%ttMft>ii6merwith ^e HiHkits*^'^. 
sedating, bh ^Atvdnte Mildiis, attd p^«i6fi«d 
him with -thb be^ ItMiltb'theli ^Ktaiit> HMlhb 
teieikib. ¥tom ibis time, hb ftiftdb h'l^iNitM 
'progrtte ia his aiiaiiifalMfB ; 'iMd "in 'iMB. «tt 
the i^MnrWenty^hii«^ lib^kteakMMlvaiflM'Vi- 
ttmildibte ^l^fces 6f the ^BiMi- sfaSTs, wMlh 
Wtie to hatliMli ttelbtfe'^lttg jrek(r, <Mkd seHt'ft 
'iSoiMe RttTJlBodet^. fbr tM8*|*q|ier, 'Ite i^ 
mind Hbt tBiiSlsW4htftiM»i«d .Mdf,'«iid 



Vt&w Of MUiBY«aiftfi. mm 

vdwdMoMfl a ttomfo/riMM witt 4WV8«b1 «f 
4tota0it>i«lp«MiiUe«»cliibwsi ^Sbw ttft^r dik' 
to f utMd bouAm, Ami %a» iHftradoMd to the 
miHit 4eatfiB«i mftllMttntmaiis of tlM-Bg»: and 
4ki ^KdHl* t# InbMM iiis kaolrleclg*^ «da |)m- 
••ir««t «htr •i^iHrtrflioB Ire had iaketdgr aaqvined, 
ile«trt«i«l liiintelir ««tad«lit of JbtaR <C3tUi||e, 
CbMMTidgK. hi<t]ieffairallfit|Min9dir(Mi|;h 
hamiam, in Mt >«r«y to Ae Vnhfimitj^, lie mm 
b^^/k tUMMi Moikie, ilwt« trot «». 
t^fAe <tde8 mould lw«cocptiU«4o>tln 
Mt^ ^Uvfcfc41w) luid>«idifind lii« to vootfoin 
•iMOMdl GpheBd*rk "Ar fck au^jeslgrVi <«•, m tt 
<verf t|if«^Mr>taM»toiileadatMm-«lf Jindsrif to the 
•ngrai'laror. fif thikteeaH^liefiteaiiferod«ao«l 
^tbe kngs; aadtfanM^ ftiie/rielM%«#ees of 
8lr tloMB^ 'Hrha, ota crtljr ocoadoa, '^xMiMied 
tkkt. Awte'of Mk inauftrgr^ouB w^imaiwnts, In 
^mm^ in t\m ft llow h ig ytjw «p|>*>'>>*>*^ ostfOMO- 
-toei'toltelri^, «illiiii<iBla«7>of.ieiOO«'j«nr. 
TMb affiOfaCnvMCididtuOt Itoflen 1m incIkiMMn 
tej|^(Mto the clMfMh:; 'in im ttievr taMaridi»4tf. 
tortrmdi, ^be -<«1aB (ikdanied hf iiw SoiMp't^ 
<£ljfv^ omi -ia theywrUiM, nMto fiMmitad% 
'ilibagiviliB, •wHfatbe lfVing4»fiB«WBlowHovSDn|^, 
«lH'#lUf «t:b*rchtpnibitagteat ifae 4vor.rac(M«i. 
«ii4iie4#tVof dlntpiM,:li9ff, doni^ 'fab ^«Mi. 
idmic«it ttramiridi, 'b^taiA the »itk stone of 



tM HISTORICAL AND DESCUPTIVE 

the Roj/id Ob$ermUory^ baHt by king Cfaailw 
IL at the wlicitatioQ of StcJenas Moore, then 
surveyor-^neml: of the ordnance. He Cook 
posseasion of the observatory in 1670, as .fitwt 
astronomer royal, and directed his whole at- 
tention .to the advancement of that sciaoea, 
which had been the means of raising him to 
the honorable station he then held, and on 
which his future disoOTeries threw so orach 
light. Most of the instruments which thisin« 
defatiguMe man used, were miade by himseK^ 
and bis ingenions assiiBtant Mr. Abraham Shaip^ 
the prindpal of which, were the great, sextant 
and mural quadrant, which after his death were 
delivered to his heirs. A/ter having made ma- 
ny important discoveries in astronomy, he died 
on the last day of December, 1719, aged7S, 
and lies buried in his own church«yard at Bur- 
stow, where, at present no remains erf any tomb 
or monument to his memory, can be found ; nor 
does any one in the place know in what part of 
the churcli*yard he was buried. He was mar* 
ried, but left no issue. In 1735 appeared his 
great work, Historia CtBleitis JBrttoaniM, in 
3 vols, folio : — it bad been prqmred, and m 
part printed, before his death. In the Philoso* 
phical: Transactions; are many of his pftpem, 
and in Sir Jonas Moore's System.of Mathania^ 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. ^5 

tics, it a*tract by him on the Doctrine of the 
Sphere. Mr. Flamstead was intimately ac-^ 
^oainted with Sir Isaac Newton, and most of 
the learned men of the age in which he lived ; 
many of whom have spokisn of him in terms of 
the highest admiration. 

Thomas PARKER,£ar/ofMacci!es/Se/</, though 
not bom in the town of Derby, yet claims our 
notice, as having spent the active part of his 
life in the place^ and having there laid the fodn- 
dation of those riches and honors, which, in 
mere mature life, he acquired. He wa^ born 
somewhere in Stafibrdsbire in the year 1Q67; 
and* early in life came to live at Derby, and 
resided many years in Bridge«gate, practising 
as a common attorney. Possessing good abili« 
ties and industry, he soon came into g;reat prac- 
tice ; which) raising him to wealth and conse- 
quence among his fellow-citizens, he was cho- 
sen to fill the oflSice of Recorder. This opened 
a wider field for his talents. The man who is 
conscious of his abiliries, and assisted by acti- 
vity, seldom stops in his progress towards ex- 
cellency^ or is disappointed in his expectations. 
Mr. Parkevspon after his being made Record- 
er^ became! a pleader at the bar, and was es« 
teemed aif eminent counsellor on the Midland 
: circuit. Bis r^^utation was so great as a 



m HlSTWIQAi. AND MSAAHriVE 
aiMilHir, dNlt lie WM 44iMBiimt«f| ^ tX^HHri 

n yrjMtvi foKtnfw. $e gieM wmi ki^ inttiwt.. 
iatb«t9WII< tMtP 17<>^* bfi im cbDMII..<«ft 

James Cavendish, son of \kp ^ Ovkff sf Dsn 
KkWhive: «»# lit (h^ 9iwti9ft ^ l^D?* ft liwU 

Uur honor wM«:o«ifrr^ «p»i> ^m, Tliw wr. 
ti!Od««ei| on th» SiVftI llm^ i»f Itie 9Q)i$}«aJ^ 

Uonie 9f ComwoiM, §»^h 9i Ut ppfviii Apn 
fointeA him on^of tlw mMa9s»rs» ^ tkfiHmk 
9fJ)r. $Msher«reU, 19 17(|0, w/kwk ^ / ww ^Mh 
ed mth crvdjl to |ii«»s«]lfi t)n4 fMii#l9tP»q t» 
the Hqiwn. .F«o«i t\m fkejn^^, It* «|dfMyw^ 
t9ir«i^ prefiiniMill with n4N4 ^trjtdus: .^^r. 

be^M tM #shif«pm oif I7.u>, k9 vu im^ft l«^ 
Qi»9fJwim 9iih» KiBg'f jBwcti. 0^ Dws 
t|)poiiii«ii^ kfiv^tte^ Pv^j» w4 fmatt^ i% 
ih« StkttinppUs, j^fi4»flBTfKt»s9p»%^m^ 

«)io«d l|h|iftCM||t|m«e, JwfWWF Mb f w> .ti) i wtff i 

nistiy. 9a» Qisprfe |. i9fM»r4«i)«ng ^^ JMf^ 
QflifliWP «^Ms UMiyt, i^%7Mt,,«mi$t^ \m 

17I8; iipoii wjb^«h >e iioQBp^ ^ 4>i«f ui 



^hl in 1V91( ^^ coBtiiitted Lord CbanceUor 
^ m years; n^eii Mng fipcii^ of selHag 
pMum m Chancery, he was bnwgtit to triaU . 
jGiiiQ^tguiUy,' and condemned ^o paj a fipe of 
w£iMM)QO, and to be deprived of Ibe Chaaeeb- 
lor^ip; T)ie>kii^^9 in .^^singhisroameoat of 
the councU^boofc, is said to have diropped %tear, 
/or Uie ^oss of his belpi^ fiiniater. The last 
eight jrearspf his life, wens spent in retirdnnfeBlr 
And aft«r,4trngg|ii|gwitii.po|i^^ broils, for 
jthie greatest ,part of his daj^i he died w the 
araifi qf pfaUospphy aodrfriend^it^, on the 98th 
<tf April, 17a^ a| the age of 8ixty«*fiveu In 
the lieighth of )i)s protsperitjr, lx>rd Milcotesr 
iield WBB not /ofgetfi}! qi the place wheie the 
atrene of his, future gr^atoe^ had opened.' In 
119^ tvrelye years after he bad left JDdrby^ he 
contiil)qted one hundred guineas, and hiawn 
Ila^ JParfcer^ twenty pioi«, fyr the erection of 
the.chmcch of uSLU^saihts. 

•Mft.,^oH^ WniTBwasTtan Hig^iottsmediar 
nicaqd philo9CipbQr» lil^e. i^eirimite-mentioiied 
iipbl^oian^ was not a native .of J>erbys bttt 
Jiaying spent Ibrty yews ^ H^e prime 4^ Mb 
life in the placer and hwK^ingeufqiiifed baspapn- 
larity during that jnasidMioe; ha dcservaaour 
notice, m cine df jits aii«nnn< fnbn* This war- 
• 7 • ■ jrf 



tlft HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

thy man, was bom, in the year 1713, at Con" 
gleton in Cheshire; where, hu ancestors are 
tmid to have resided upon a ismall estate, dbriki^ 
the lapse of 700 years. He was brought lifp to 
his father's business, which was that of a clock 
and watch-4naker. This gave him a taste for 
mechanics ; which increased to such a degree, 
that even while yet a young man^ he went over 
to Ireland, for the sole purpose of inspecting a 
curious clock to be found in that country •«— 
About the year 1735, he opened a shop dt Der- 
by as a clock and watch-maker ; but that be- 
ing a corporate town, and he hot a freeinanr, 
some objections were made, as to the legality 
of his practising his trade. But in 17ti7, he 
set up a clock of his own workmanship in front 
of the Gnildhalt, at bis own expence; in re- 
turn for which, the corporation presented him 
<with the freedom of the town. Sometime after, 
he made a clock, and constructed a set of chimest, * 
fer the tower of All-saints^ church. In 1775, 
he was appoitited stam|>er of the money* weights, 
for regulating the gold coin, at the mint, on 
which be left Derby iind his occupation, and 
rettioved to London. While he lived in Derby- 
shire, th^ Peak could not less than attract his 
attention, aad'Anmisii an ample field fmr his 
philosopihic mind. Hie book of nature Uy 



V;£W OF D^9YSiilR£. at» 

r 

;qgpea befi^re him ; audi he has perused' i1» pagM 
a^d .examiived its jiataral pbenomena, with a 
jpati^QG^aipd ansiduitjseldpiii equalled, *^ Thesa 
appearanoes^'^ he sayjs,^ '* engaged his atteiif ion 
verjr eaclj in . life* to 8ear<:h and. inquire into 
tlie various eauses of them:'' the fruit of thia 
raseaieh vpu^ an ^* Enquiiy into the Or^^t|gl 
State and .Eorumtioa of the Earth/' in ope Vol* 
qu9rto ; a work by which he is advwttagepusly 
known in the world of letters. It , is Ahe labor 
of years, bearing evident marks of leflectioii 
aqd minute examination; he treads upon new 
groundt advances pgsiti^tes unknown to former 
philc|9ophy« and* to use his own language* ietii* 
deavQitrs ^ to derine the nature of things^ from 
js^aUuM irutjf f^(e»t^ and to jnqmre after thote 
faw by whiph the ereaiar chose tQ form tf$4 
world; and not <AoscQn which he might have 
/brmed, it^ had. he so pleased/' This work was 
first published in 1*778, and again, with im^ 
pravements, in 1786. He also wrote Ther* 
iDometrical Observations; an Account of a 
Machine for raiiiting Water; Experiments. upon 
Ignited Snbst^ncei ; .an Attempt tof^ards ob- 
taining invariable Measures of Length, Capa- 
city, and Weight, from the Mensoiatioii of 

^ Prefiioe to EDqttifjr, ^ 



M> HlStORICAL AMD DESCRIPTIVE 

Timi a treiitke oil VeA«ilktiM» {Mttiettliilgr 
•n SttiMky GtiiMii^jFA; Md some 9ip»9 ink 
Hm PbiloM^tMfil TMDSMtioiii. Ifeft^ alM «taM 
•riMd tlie iiatof« of garden stoves, th^pnfKit^ 
ties of ai^ and th^ la%v» of Binds. Mbr. WMni- 
hum died on the Mth of February, 1988, iM 
the age of sevetity^flve, in Bolt^Conit, Loidmt 
ill the vety honse, as Mr. Hvttoa vemarksvivhMe 
a few years beforev died that great self-taught 
^losopher, James Ferguson. He was Hear 
sbc ftet in heiufht, straight, and weN made ; bat 
as it ttp]^rs, from an excellent likeness of Mm 
by Wri^l) (now in the possession of bis ne* 
phew, Mr. Whitebarst of Derby), thi^, and 
wore his own dark-grey bashy hair r he was * 
plain in his drsss, atid appears to have h*d a 
oontemplatire coantenanee; Mr. WbitehOrst 
was a Fellow af the Royal Soeiefy, belbre%hit1l 
he laid some reryeurioM papers: bewa)raTii6 
a member of several otber Philesophfeitl Sbi6U 
eties ; and his homte was^ the resort of tngeAii- 
aus and soieAtifle men, of whatever nsftibtt or 
rank. 

Ma.* JosfePH WrigAt, the late celebrated 
Painter, was a native of Derby: he was born 
4on the 9d o^ September, 1794, and was th^ 
omft of BiieBpeetable attorney kt the plaee; A 
taste for mechanieal emplnymants discovered 



. yi£W OF DERBYSHIRE: SSI 

Sridcih were yen^nUy mmuu M hj bmy* of a 

*iP»riB pttned bjr bim ill tbeooflqmiqr^. medHi-' 
flk% .fvh^ce perforflMUces «b6 frcqaMdy iariti^ 
led. B^ verf ewlj.ililife. Us iniadaeeoMd^ 

meoft of the art cf drawing ; and tlia omqHM 
nrtlTe cOnreclBosB of bi9 Itti^licsli^ at iiria Itmoi 
yoft A promitiog indicatftM of that getitos^ \ 
yfhkb^ in a£lwr life, Wm to intaoitalnB^ Iiii 
,mMii0i . Xbe diaooir^ of the bentof hiiiliwd^ 
!H9ii.qotto»t ippoaliis.fiareiits: J^ was sent to 
]UopdoiH and vplacdd mder t&e tiation of a 
jportrait-fiaiafev of Ibonaaseof Hadson*, wliov 
tbimgll . BOt a peraoB of extvoordioary tatent^ 
:iraa |i^oiiiiarIf fprtaaatev f ither ia. hia vode of 
. fioaunamoatiog iBBtf»ction» or in Ihogeiiiaaaft 
fji bkptHpiU^ aft he bad the honor oCiaatroot- 
Mg tbnee of the laaat emnnt fttiwlerft. of tbe 
1^:— &r Jofihiia Reynolds, Mortiaser^ aiiid 
Waght. With Mr. Hudson^ ywing Wr^ht 
eoBtiniiedlwo years; upon the If rtniaatl(nf of 
^wtnohi he cMwrned to Derby, wJiese beprabtited 
m the pmtrail liae. Not satisfied, faowevet, 
.with' bis xrtra perfdrMMUcea, he retwned to 
JUoadoa m ITMt.aad^porsaed his. etodies for 
j6fteeiiJBM»tba» uridertbe diveitioaof Usifiis- 



2t8 ^ HISTORICAL AND OESCatimVK 



iMrpraeepnr. HatlieBMnelMick torDeribg^ 
after tenng Slide CMndemUe pragnti m tka 
art» Md aaaeated mmni poftraili in « tqpMor 
«tjrla« AiMHit Um ymu 1960* he pradnoed.eiet 
ef UiMMibal pictares. whieh detqrvedi j mak 
eUNig the etfflieit veluaUt prodoeliottB ot. Ike 
Eaglish Mlieol: IpenM prior to. tbia tiMw 
scuoelj mttf peintingt o£ eopiequeiioe io tlie 
hktoricil Use* had beta prodaoed. The piia- 
cipal in :tfaii aeU were, the Gladiatar, Orreiy* 
Air*Panp, Heraiit, aad BlaehHiith^s Foige; 
patntii^ whose excelleiicy, ertriiKthed Ins re- 
puttt^ipQ as aa artist, on so firm a basisb that 
neither the jeafeusy aor the calaasaiesof hia 
brrthrea in the professioat ooold e?er ^over^ 
turn. The Royal Aoadeasjr ares established 
some !lime after the production of tliese pieoes, 
buithroagh the inridious^loiisjr of some of 
the aiemheri* Wright was not elected a It A* 
71iis disliacti^n, was afterwards grataitoosly 
offered him, by the hands of their Seeretaijr, 
Mewtton, who was deputed to visit. him at 
Derby* and solicit his itcceptance of a diplomt^ 
which he then indignantly rejected* In 1799* 
at a matiu re age, he] went to Italy, to nsit thepm«> 
cious rmnains of art to be fouad in that eoaiptry. 
Jlere lie resided two yesiiSy improving htamel^ 
and stadyingtheworicsof tbegres^testmastei^; 



: VISW OIP DERBYSHIRE. M» 

farliBnfaiirlj, the hihnHftble ^inMliaKstiomof Mi- 
cbad Angblo, in the Capella SMtintf of the 
Vatiera/froni which be tbde several c6rreet 
copitf . DnriBg his abode in italjr> 'he had the 
^ood fbrtnne to witnem an extnierdinarf eitip- 
tioo 4^ VcsoTia^ whieh increased his passion» 
aadrefy much- improved his tasf^l, for repre^ 
acntio^ the jopenor effects of light: and h» 
diftfeat paintings of this sufaSitee phenome- 
non, af« deservedly ranked as ehejf^ d* tettorttt 
intbat style of cofoaring. His moonliglits art 
also partiealarly beaotifol ; and his mountain 
and lake scenery sdperior to most similar pro- 
ductions :— for, MnKke many artists who study 
nature withindoors, be passed his days And 
evenings, in contemplating the beautiful and 
delicate hoes of objects uiidtt- the various air- 
cumstances, attendant updn scenes of this des- 
cnptkm in the open air. On these kind df 
sulgecis, his pencil was last emptoyed ; and his 
view of Vlk-water Lake, from Lyulph's Tower, 
may justly be considered as the ftsest of all his 
landscapes, and a prodnctJun, which alone 
would rank him, among the moKt eminent 
nrtiato of the English school. On his return 
fiov Italyi he settled in his native town, where 
be died, on the aOth of August, 1797, esteemed 
and laaiented by all who were favored with'his 



M4 HISTORICAL AMD DBSCRIPnVE 

Aiendsbip; bat the time he devMed ta bmtiM;^ 
iemonid studies, prevented the oirele ef hn 
MqoaintWM^eihNB'beeoknitig estensb^ ^^ It is 
plemipg tP wofd,** observes hu biogmpher^^ 
'* Umt 19 his works, the attentiwi irevCT diroe^ 
t«d to the i^aeseof TtrtAe; that his early hist^ 
ri«al iwsturss, tooaiast of ank^eots other of tap 
tioaal or moral improTemeiik ; and he has sae*- 
«ead«d adiairalUy ia arrestiag the gentler fesU 
ingsof humwity; fiir ir hat eye or heart ^er 
nmained aamovBd at the sight of Maria, 
Startle's Cafnive, or the Deed Soldier? tn his 
wprks,aot * oaainuaoialtonecorrapled thought^ 
«iCar%.to wouad tlie eye of delicacy, or induce 
a wish, that so exquisite a pencil had not found 
ainployneiM on more worthy subjects/' 

The kUe celebrated INtl Ea/isiifus Darwix, 
equally famed as a Physician and a Poet, spent 
ffae last twenty-one y^ars of his life at Derby, 
and its iricinity. He was the son of a pnrate 
gentleman, of Elton, near Newark, Notting- 
bansihire; where he was bora on the 12tb of 
December, 173S. He w«nt through the usmd 
rantine of Grammar*scbeol education at Chefi- 
terfield^ under the tuition of the Rev. Mr. Bur- 
roub^; and was sent to St. John's , CoHegfe, 



^E«V. TboBiM Gnbornc: Moathly M»g, Oct. 1797. 



yifLW Of DERBYSHIHE; fM 

Canbndlge. Tliere be continued until . the 
7eir:17565 when he took his batidbielor's de? 
glee 10 medicine;; and in his thesis on that oc* 
eision, mi|ii|tained .that the moYements of the 
heart and arteries, are immediatelj produoed 
by the stimulus of the blood. While at Cam- 
bridge, he compo^ a. poem in 17ftl, on the 
death of Frederic Prince of Wales: it was 
printed among the Cambridge Collection of 
Veraes on that occasion, but in merit does not 
rise sibove mediocrity. From Cambridge he 
went . to Edinburgh, to complete his studies; 
which being finished, and having taken the 
degree of doctor of medicine, he went to Litch- 
field, and there commenced his career of prac- 
tice. 

At this time he was four and twenty years of 
agie; *^ somewhat , above the middle size; his 
form athletic, and inclined to corpulency ; bis 
limbs too heavy for exact proportion.* The 
traces of a severe small pox; features, and 
countenance,, whiebt when they were not ani- 
mated by social pleasure, were rather saturnine 
than sprightly ; a stoop in the shoulders, and 
the . then professional appendage, a large fkill- 
bottomed wig, gave him at that early period of 
life, an appearance of nearly twice the yeaiv 

a G g 



Ml HISTORICAL AVU DEdCAlPTIVE 

ii^boM. n<]rridliMkb, BoAtlldeariMitik^gMd 
bunow, M imany smile) mi Mtefii^ a roon, 
nd*Mi flm MeMtilig fab friMtk, rendcrcd, in 
liii yostbf thtt Mt^rior a^fUMblei to whkh 
huwilj ani 9f«ifiietry had not been propi- 

Soon iftir th# afrifal of Dr. Darwm at 
Litcbield» Inask^ and disceitiineDt an a phy* 
eician were pat to the imt. Being sent for to a 
yonag* gentkman of family and eonseqnenoe 
in tinr aeigkboorkood, who lay nek of a daa- . 
gerMHi fafilr, atid whose ease had been pro- 
nounced hopeless by a celebrated physieieoi 
who had for many years possesied the business 
and eonfidenoe of the litehfl^ neighbourhood ; 
he, by a reverse and entirely novel coarse of 
treatment, gave his dying paiieat back to a 
fond asd dtspairiag mother, with mnewed ex* 
istence and roiovated health. This success 
gave him so high a degree of rcpatation at 
Litchfield, and m the neighfaaaring towns and 
villagM, that hb eompetitov findk^ himself 
neglected, and his reputatioa eclipsed^ by his 
yontbfol and ingenious rival, garte tip the cosi- 
tMt and left the place* From tfiat momeat hit 
practice became vary extensive ; andUsfotava 

« Miss Seward's Memoirs df the Life of Dr. Darwin. 



viEar OF oMiRAYsmauL tty 



«ffiirt», wwe attoodtd Jbj a imoms ^uwi to hit 
fiivt fiirtunate BxcrtiM* 

' la the year 17tf7, km ■nrrfcd Miss Howard, 
of tka CloM of LitebfieU, who ^ roprMaoted 
as ^' a blooming and lovelj young lady of ^igh- 
toen :'^ possessing *" a mi^ vbich bad native 
stmaglb; aa awakeaed taste ^ tiie works of 
Moagittation; iogenaoas sweetness; detiefic^ 
aaamated hj sprighdiaess, and soetained by 
ftirtitaide, asade ber a capable as well as fasei« 
sating compaaion, even to a oian'Of t a ka i U pm 
9yi0SlrioBs.-^To her Im coald with oonfideyce 
eooMsit 4fao inporCant task of venderiog bis 
chsldrens^ nsisids, a soil & to racaiwe, and btHng 
to frait the stamina jof wisdom and aeieiioe. 
BaAalasf upon her osrfyyoatb, and a too do- 
liooto^eoostiiation, Ike fraqaeaey of iier foa^ 
taraalsitBaiion, dariog the first ive yoaiaof 
bar asariiags, had probaMy a baneful ofbct. 
Tlie potent skill and assiduoas cares of Am, 
^heAne arhom disease . daily vaaiehed from the 
ihaaeof dken^ ooald tiot oaipei it radiceily 
from that of her he loved. It was however 
kept at liay thirteen years. Upon the distin* 
gaished happiness otf those years, she spoke 
With £wor, to two intimate. feaMtle friends, in 
lliolart weak of ker existence, which closed at 
Ike latter «nd of the sammer 1770/'^ By this 

eeW5Wrs5=5se5BaB5sm*saBs=s5s=*BS5K55s^^ 
* Memoirs; p« 11* 



tM HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

ladjr he had three eons, who lived to the i^ 
of manhood : two of them he sorvived ; the 
third Dr. Robert Waring Darwin, is now iit 
eoBfiideraUe practice as a physician at Sbrews«i^ 
bury. 

Dr. Darwin's house daring his residence at 
Litchfield, is represented as the resort of a knot 
of philosophic friends, who frequently met to- 
gether. Among these are enumerated ; — ^l^he 
Rev. Mr. Michel!, a skilful astronomer ; the 
ingenious Mr. Kier, of West Bromich, then 
Captain Kier; Mr. Bonlton, the celebrated 
mechanic ; Mr. Watt, the improver of the steam 
engine ; the accomplbhed Dr. Small, of Bir- 
mingham, who bore the blushing honors of his 
talents and virtues to an untimely grave ; Mr. 
Edgeworth, well known in the literaiy world; 
Mr. Day, author of The Dying Negro, The 
Devoted Legions, and the ingenious story of 
Sanford and Merton; Sir Brook Boothfoy; 
F. N. C. Mundy,£sq. of Markeaton ; and Miss 
Seward, who wrote the Memoirs of the Doc- 
tor's Life. 

In the year 1781, Dr. Darwin married a se- 
cond wife ; Mrs. Pole, the widow of Colonel 
Pole, of Radbnrn, Derbyshire. This lady ho 
had first seen in the year 1778, when she had 
brought her children, who had beea. injured 
by a dangerous quantity of the cicuta^ injudi- 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. f2gf 

ciofialy administered to tbem in the booping 
coogb, by a physician in the neighbourhood, 
$o be under his care# Mrs. Pole remained with 
her. children at the Doctor's house ifor a few 
weeks; till the poison was expelled from their 
oonstittttibns and their health restored : and by 
her external accomplishments and internal qua- 
lifications she contributed to inspire Dr. Dar* 
win's admiration, and to secure his esteem.— ^ 
In 1780 Colonel Pole died; and an opportune 
ty was thus afforded the Doctor of disclosing an 
lection, which he had long entertained, but 
wbicb he was obliged to confine within his owki 
breast. His addresses were accepted : and as 
Mrs. Darwin had taken a dislike to Litchfield, 
be removed directly on his marriage to Derby. 
His reputation, and the unlimited confidence 
of the public, followed him thither : and he 
oace more became a happy husband with a se« 
cond fiimily of children, springing up fast 
aroond him. About the year 1801, Dr. Dar- 
win removed from Derby to the Priory, a house 
about two miles distant from ihe town, which 
he had fitted up for the place of his future 
abode. But alas ! his residence there, was des. 
fined to be of no long continuance. On Sun- 
dity the 18th of April 1802, Derby and its vi- 
cinity I and the lettered wortd of genius, were 



980 HISTORICAL AMD DBSCUmVE 



deprived by death of Dr. Iltrwui« Dmriag a 
^w preceding jeers, he had been enbjact to 
eudden and alarmiog diiorders of the eheet, ki 
which he alvraye applied the laaeeti iattaatij 
and freely: he had rapaatedlj risea in the 
night and bled himself. The jemt preceding 
his death, he had a very dangeioos iUiwes. It 
originated in a severe eeld, eaoght by obeying 
the eummoos of a patient sn Deikj^ after he 
had himself taken soma strong medieioe. Uis 
skill, faisooorage, his ' exertion, straggled ve- 
hemeatly with bis diiiesse. Repeated and-da** 
ring use of the lancet at kogtb enbdoed it; 
bat, ia all likelihoed, inieparably weakened 
the systemu 

He seemed to have e preseniteieat of hts ap* 
preftehing dissolution; as on the eveM^gpre- 
ceding it, while io oonversatioii in the gofdea 
of his new resideace, the Priory, 'with M f«. 
Darwin and her female friend, he reoMrked, 
that it was not lik^y that he should live to see 
the effect of those improvements he had frian- 
aed. The blowing morning he arose in health 
and spirits ; and after taking a large drawght 
of cold buttermilk, aeoording to his usual caa- 
torn, he proceeded to write aome letters. Bat he 
had written no more than eae page, of a very 
flpdghtly one to Mr< Edgewartb, descnbing 



VttW OF OSRBYSHIRE. ^m 

tt^Vnofy^ aiid kis intended alteratiMs there, 
when the fSfttal signal waa giveo. He rang the 
Ml asd «fderad bisaervaat to send Mrs. Dar* 
iria to bini. iShe came immediately, aecohi«- 
fMaBded by one of her daughters. They saw 
him sbiTerittg and pale. He desired them to 
aaiid dinectly to I>erby, for his surgeon : but he 
was dead before he eould arrive. It was the 
^soeral opiaion, that a glass of brandy might 
imve sayad him for that time, its eflTects would 
ba?o been more powerful from his utter disase 
€f spirits i and perhaps^ on such a sodden chill 
of the blood, its application might have proved 
Matofing. The body was opened, but no traces 
of a peculiar disorder were found; and the 
atBte of the viscera indicated a much more pro- 
tracted eaiiteiice. «* Yet thus (to use the words 
of his fittr memorialist^ from whose work this 
aketcb is {Mrincipally taken) in one hour, was 
extinguished the vital light, which the precedi. 
ing hour, had shone in flattering brightness, 
promising dnratiotH^such is often the ^ cunning 
flattety of nature ;^ that light which through 
lialf a ceiitiiry« had diifhsed its radiance and 
ito warmths^ widely; that light, in which pe- 
nary bad been cheered, in which science had 
CfXpandad : to whose orb poetry had brought aH 
bar images: before whose influence disease had 



dS3 HISTOmCAL AND DEftCRIPTIVE 

COD tinnally retreated, nod death iiad te oftitt 
tarned aside hie levelled dart V' 

Dr. Darwin died in his sixty-ninth year.^ 
As to his person it has been reinarked, that lie 
.was rather pnwieldly in his ai^pearance, bar- 
jng a slight lameness, caused by an incnrabla 
weakness, proceeding ftom an accident wbicb 
befel him at Litchfield, of breaking the patel^ 
la of his knee. He stammered exceedingly^ 
and his tongue seemingly too large for his 
mouth, made it rather difficult to onderstand 
him. But whatever he said, whether gravdy 
or in jest, was always worth waiting for: and 
the intelligence and benevolence, with which 
his features were lighted up, in conversation, 
did away every unpleasant sensation, which 
mig^t haxre been excited by an apparent defor* 
mity. Conscious of great native elevatiott, 
above the common standard of intellect, he 
became, early in life, sore upon opposition, 
whether in argument or conduct, and always 
revenged it by sarcasm of very keen edge. — 
Nor was he less impatient of the sallies o^ 
egotism and vanity : even when they were, in 
so slight a degree, that strict poUteness would 
rather tolerate than ridicule them. : Dr. Dar* 
win seldom failed to present their caricature 
in jocose but wounding irony. He carried his 



Y1£W OF BSRBflrSHIftEi 



of honantenlhwlar, that h^eftta 
clmiegarded, the acoottntehis paliento gaiFtf of 
thamaJlffB, aadiiatlierclvMe, to^oollMtihiiiln- 
AnMiion Ify wdkeet iaquiiT^ aftd fayciMi- 
enoaminii^ tJiemi. tbaa ftovi tbeir voknterjf 
tentunoofw Dr. Damn avowed a eonviotSott 
of tkM'pertoidiiMHi efieotttof aUvmoneflttids-on 
tl%9. jiomhIiiL and bealtkj. ootiftCitution^ aad^ to^ 
tpUj abstained horn apmu of aU wrts, and 
finpfli lit 1009 malt liqoor. Aoid frai«H witb 
aiftgWi^and all 8ort& of creams, and butter, wsM 
bier llumnea^ but be alwajs ate plentiAdljr of 
aoimal AkmL Tbe^ Doctor was ^* not ftunons 
far bolding Teligioos subjects in^ veneration t'^ 
bot bowerer skeptical be might have been in 
bia belief; be ezbibitedian bis>conduct, what is 
more beneficial to the worid, than the tenacious 
aidbereace to any speculative opinions-— firm 
integnty and a benevolent heart. PrafessioBal 
generosi^s distingnished his medical practice. 
DJiigentif did be attend to the heatth of 
tbe poor at Litchfield and Derby; supplied* 
ftiwir necessities by food, and every kind of 
charitable assistaoce. In each of those towns, 
his was th^ cheerful board <tf almost open- 
beuused bospttaUty, without extravagance or 
parade ; ever deeming- the -first upjust^ the lat- 
8 H b 



^ 



»€: mSTOIUCAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

tor wiilMly* GmMntiif, wir, and tetone^. 

To %hMt,saMnj.nA.mndoWme9t$, ^hMi wm^ 
ton-bostowcd upon tbe nNsdof Dr. Darwim 
•|i0 added a h^hly. poatie imagiiiaiion. "^Fbe 
^tEmom 9( hh aarlj aMna, were occasiooaUy 
imit, to oat or otker.of the monthly puMica- 
tioM; but wtthontlHsaaaie: eoaeeiYia^ from 
thf esiaiaplei^AkaBaide.andAriiislroDg, that 
th< repatatioa he ought aioquire by hia poetry, 
woald operate at a bar to his advaaeemeat in 
^practice of medietne.. His *^ Botanic Gar- 
den,'' in which he celebrates what he calls, the 
Lovelof the PfauitSf (the first of his poems to 
which he pnt his name) was not published un* 
til the year 1781 ; when his medical fame was 
so well established, as to make it safe for him, 
to indolge his taste in any way he should chuse. 
This poem consiste of two parts ; the fir»t oon- 
toios the Economy of V^;etetion> the aeoond 
the Loves of the Plants. Each is enrtchedt by 
a number of philosophical notes; stating a 
great variety of theories and ezperimenta in 
botany, chemistry, electricity, mechaniicks, and 
in the various species of air. The^ also con- 
tain explanations of every personified plant, its 
generic history, its local situation, and the na- 
ture of the soil and climate to which it is indi- 



yWff: Of IUNlBYaHllt& «s 

nn ittvernQn «nif all ciMtoaat,' ]>r« Danrin psbi. 
Ii«bed tbe. Mopnd volttoie of li^ poem ^rst; 
^ving ai» a reftsao, m -aa adtvertiMmettk, tbat 
ifta appearanceof the.first part bad bwn de- 
ifirrred till anotbar jeari for the purpose of ra- 
peattng some experioieiiti in Tegetation; tBut 
the real cause was, tbe eonsciousuess bo enter- 
tained, that the second part of his work, would 
h(B. more level than the tint,* to the comprehen- 
siofn, more congenial to the taste of the super* 
Aeial reader; from its being muieb less abstract 
and inetaphjsick, while it possessed more 
than sufficient poetic matter, to entei^in and 
charm the ehlighteued aud judicious few. The 
novelty of the design, and the brilliancy of 
the diction, full of figurative exprassions, in 
which evety thing was personified, rendered 
the poetn for, some years^ extremely popular. 
But the fame which.it acquired, has, in a great 
di?gree subsided, and it is now but little no< 
ticed. 

la 1794, the author published the firet vo- 
lume of ^' Zoonomia, or the Laws ef Organic 
Life,'^ 4to. The second volume was printed in 
1796. The purpose of this work, the gathered 
wisdom of threCi^and^twenty years,, was, to re- 
ibroi or entirely new model» the whole system 



HISTORICAL AMD DBSCRIPTIVE 



«f mtdieaM, pMfamjlg no leM, than txi 
mtmmt'tor tbt nraoaw in wImgIi nm, aimnals, 
Mid T«g6tsble8 AM fenwd. It wm his ofmiimit 
ttuut tl»j4di took dioir origia fram H^ng fila^ 
jDontef BUBoeptiUo of irritation, wiiicii is the 
agent that sets tbem in motion. Archimedes 
said, '* give me a ylaoe to stand on, and-1 will 
move the earth ;^'^ so great was his confidence 
in the power of the lever. Our author said,f 
^* giw me a fibre sosoeptibleof irritation, and 
I will make a tree, a dog, a bone, a man/- 
The Zoonomia, has long ceased to be popular ; 
its doctrines are not always infallible ; and ite 
aof^Msms are many. Nevertheless, it is an ex- 
hanstless repository of interesting fiicts, of en- 
rions experiments in natural productions, and 
in medical efiects. 

About the year 17959 Dr. Darwin pnblished 
a small traet, in 4to. on Female Education. It 
is said to contain some good rules for promot- 
ing the h^aith of growing children ; but on the 
whole, to be a meagre work of little general 
interest, and that conseqn^itly that it attracted 
but little notice. 

Early in 1<SOO, Dr. Darwin published another 

• Plutarch's Life of Marcellui* 
f Zoonomia, vol. 1. p. 499. 



VIEW* or DEkBYSHIRE. «37 

4a9^ ^410.: vdlimie, rntitfed, ** HiytologiJi, ot 
the Pliilmo^ of i^gricultwe and QaHleniog.'* 
Br^ShrwAm^H cowfidtoii, that vegetables are 
nmote tmks inthJechninof sentient existence, 
oliten. Untdi at in ' t^ nol«s to the Botanic 
Gfl«dea» is hereivto^red in a regular system.-— 
Tlie Plr^tolegia tnmsts, that plants have vital 
orguitatiim, sensation, and even volition; and 
a number of instances are adduced to support 
Ifce Ibeorf. This work obtained but little at- 
kemtMn from the public, and was suffered to 
paas alnaost unnoticed. 

The Jast poetical production of Dr. Darwin 
18, ^* The Temple of Nature, or the Origin of 
Society^'^ 41o. with notes. This work, " the 
setting emanation of this brilliant daj-star,'* 
the Doctor had prepared for. the press, a few 
months beftire bis death, and was published in 
1803. it treats of the production of life ; the 
re^production of life ; the progress of the mind ; 
of good and evil. Its aim is simply to 
>, by bringing distinctly to the imagina-. 
tion the beautiful and sublime operations of 
nature, in the order, in which tite author be- 
lieved, the progressive course of time presented 
them. This work contains, Kke all his pro- 
dactioins, *some beautiful and innimitable pas- 
sages. These, togeriier with some pnpers in 



^58 HISTORICAL ANJ» DESCRIPTIVE 

the Philotophteal TnosMtioiii» and the dbwe 
ht btd in the forttiatioo of the Sjstem of V^ 
l^tables of LinnfleoS) imWtshed in the nalne Of 
the Botanical Society Utdifidd, are all the 
pnblished works of Dr. Darwiiu Bot if report 
fiajs true, there is yet a production* tmly Dair* 
winian, with which the adinirers of learning 
and genius, may at some future period be (a- 
Tored. 

In perspicuity, which is one of the first ezceK 
lencies in poetic as well as prose composition^ 
Dr. Darwin has, perhaps, few equals. He is 
clear, evjen when describing the most intricate 
operations of nature, or tb« most compter 
works of art ; and there is a lucid transparency 
in his style, through which we see objects in 
their, exact figure and proportion. He delight j^ 
the eye, the taste, and the fancy, by the strengllr^ 
distinctness, etegance, and perfect originality 
of his pictures; and gratifies the ear, by the 
' pch cadence of bis numbers. But the pasaiotts 
are generally asleep, and seldom are the nerves 
thrilled by his imagery, implressive and beau- 
teous as it is, or by bis landscapes with all 
their vividness. The greatest defect in Dr. 
Darwin's poetry, is the want of sensation :— that 
MTt of excelkncy, which, while it enables us 
to see distinctly the objects described, makes 



VIEW or XIERBYSHIRE. Mf 

oiL lad.. them aetiag on oar nertcs. iir ib<i 
90t« io Im diflbrent worlu^ wo discover the 
botanirt, the pUlompher, aad the maoof iio 
esttited and daring genioe: bat though 'be 
often appears to advantage, it must be eoniS^ 
sad, that, in many instonees, he sacrifices too 
miftcb.to iuiagioation. 

The DerbjfikireOenerallnfirmary^ is sitaated 
a little way out<rf the town, on ll» southern 
sidet near the road lending to London. — 
The ground on which it stands, was parcbasM' 
of the Corporation of Derby, at the price of 
jSSOO per acre : and to prevent in fnture the 
toQ near approach oi offensive objects, the 
cammittee have secured, for the exclusive use 
of the institution, above fourteen acres of the 
^wnvnnding land. ThjS healthfulness of the 
'ftniff'^^ has likewise been very particularly 
fitnnded toi-^it is elevated, airy, and dry, 
slioiinding with excellent water, and accessible 
bf a good road. The design of the building 
was arranged by Wm. Strutt, Esq. according 
to which, working plans were drawn by Mh 
Brawne, who also superintended the construe* 
tion of a model, executed with architectural 
skill and ingenuity. The building is con- 
structed of a beautiful, hard^ and durable 
' whitish stone ; of a cubical form, with an ele- 



•i» HISXOIf»AL AMD BdESCRlFTIVE 



mHon haw^Mwe, yet maofk aad.i 
«d; conteining a light ccnlral halLvitk a^doo*. 
Ue stawcaM« It ia.tbrte ftomaliigh, ani «oi«» 
iii«r8«Ujr admiwd aa^wdl on aomant.of ike mn^ 
iverQiM CQiH/^ni^ai^ea it ^ootaftitti aa for ks ale«^ 
gMt bimpliiutj. Oa. a dew, inspectioa, the 
workoianship is found to bawcelhwit; and ft^ 
auihility suolHtJiMitiiithawboIfi.biiildiiig,4faere 
does 9^ a^p^M ta be ibiQ siightest.shaice or 
cjcaqk. The iion ^snam^ the wide stone gallery, 
aQ4 the V6rj{ larg4>fitoiiQ£taii«afias raBttngnpaa 
tkiB perforated floor of tbi). baU^ wbicb^ co^^epm 
pnrt of tbe bascimnt ^tof j» exciteadoiM^aMioii; 
beoau^e^ being tbe parts meat' difficult of exe^ 
cjUi<V), U»€y appear nevertbelesi to. possast tt^ 
most perfect 9 tr^ngtb and solidity « 

Tbe commit teet before the crectsan bi^giui, 
directed ibeir attention to tha maaaaof obteM- 
' ing the best plan ; and in order to form a oor-^ 
tect judgment on tbe subject, endeaYored to 
learn fi-om the experience of similar astabliab-: 
ment$, wh.'it were the principal objeets to be 
kept in view in the const ruotioR of aA edifice 
of tbiK nature. The result of their enquiries, 
suggee^ted several improvements, which have 
been carried into execution ; and which have 
brought this In^rmary to a degree of perfec- 
tion siaknawn to similar establishments. One 



VI£W OF DBRBYSHlRfi; Ml 

w nw d ttr a ble imprDV^tnfent, and whkli centft^ 
btttes much to the health and coilifoM of the 
imtients, i», the eon&truction of two light and 
9|>a€ioas lOduis, (one for eadi tax) called Da^ 
(or convalesoent) Rooms; ia Whieh those pa* 
lients, to whom it aiay be agreeable, iuhj eat 
tbeir meals and pass the day, instep of being 
confined to the same room day and night, as is 
tbe osnal practice. Another very gi'eat im^ 
prOrement^ is, the construction* of a Feoer^ 
Hou$e^ a place where relief is administered, lA 
oases of infectioas diseased. Such an establish* 
meat as tfais^ has, genersilly'iti largie towns, 
been separate from the Infirmary ; but here a 
portion of it is properly con^tracted, tor the 
reception, not only of those, whose infectious 
diseases nmy commence in the Hospital, bnt of 
those also, which may occur elsewhere. The 
entrance to* this Ferer-Hoase, is on the side of 
the building, directly opposite to the front, and 
has no internal conneodoft whatever with the 
bfirmary. 

Beside the Convalescent Rooms^ and FeveN 
House, above mentioned, another circumstance 
in which the plan of this Infirmary surpasses 
others, is, in providing soperior aCcommoda«> 
tion for patients labouring under acute dis^ 



948 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 



In g^mral, the wiigical and medicalt 
th« acate and qhronick diseases, are assemUed 
in one large ward, day and n^ht ; that tUa 
mnst he always painful, and in some cases high- 
ly pr^udicial, cannot be denied. The better 
ac^nunodation consists, in. providing for each 
sex, a set consisting of ibnr small wards, cour 
taining one, two, three, and four beds reqpec- 
tively, with a water-closet, nurse^s bed-room, 
and scuUeiy. This arrangement enables the 
medical attendants to separate the diseases 
from each other, as may best suit their natures; 
and the whole of each set of rooms being shut 
off from the body of the house by one door, 
these together, procure for the patient silence 
and darkness, (which is essential in some cases) 
as wdl as every other convenience, in a degree, 
perhaps, superior to many private houses. 

This plan, however, might not be eligible, 
unless it was constructed with another improve* 
ment; one which is of great importance, and 
which has hitherto been a desideratum in all 
Hospitals ; tfiat is a cheap and simple, and, in 
every respect, unobjectionable method of warm- 
ing and ventilating effectually in cold weather. 
Both these have been effected perfectly in this 
Infirmaiy ; and thus the ventilation will be co- 
pious, while at the same time, the warmth may 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. d4S 

he regelated at plearare; many lives will be 
presenred, which owing to a eertain state of 
time air generally pervading Hospitals, might 
have been inevitable lost. Particular attention 
has been paid to the constraction of the water- 
closets, which it is said have not yet been ma- 
naged, so as to be unobjectionable in Hospi- 
tals ; for if they are; ventilated externally, the 
draft) which should be from the house outwaids, 
18 the reverse, especially if the house is warm* 
A mode of construction, has been invented for 
the occasion, in which every objection of this 
kind has been done away. 
' A small steam engine has been erected, to 
pump water, wash, &c. Warm and cold hkihn 
have also been constructed; — ^in short, it is 
furnished with every convenience, while in the 
construction and arrangement of all the offices, 
every attention has been paid to adapt them to 
the various purposes with the greatest oeconomy* 
A statue of Esculapius^ emblematical of the 
object of the Institution, has been modelled 
by Mr. Cbifee, and placed upon the centre of 
the dome. 

The magnitude of the building, is equal to 
the accommodation of eighty patients,* beside^ 
those with infectious diseases. This is doubtless 



tM HISTOUCAL AND DISCRIFnVE 

agister number, thu «m likely atpienoiit t» 
want relief at mtj one time ; but eqnaidering 
tlM increasing population of the eountf anA 
town» it oaonot be considered ts too large. .« 

The original estimate of the building >waa 
J6l0,fi00; but owing to some large expenees, 
having been incurred which were not estimated^ 
and other parts of the Institution being finish* 
ad, which it was intended to defer to some fku 
tare time, the ezpence of >the erection verji ' 
much exceeded the estimate. By the report of 
the committee, dated the 1st of June, 1800, il 
appears, that the expenditure, for land par* 
c&ased and building the Infirmary, &c. amount- 
ed to ^7,870 St. id. From the same paper 
it also appears, that the donatiims, received by 
the treasurers for the institutieny amount with 
their interest to ^£31,338 10c Od. so that the 
balance lodged in the difiTerent funds, &c. con- 
etituting the funds of the Infirmary, amouat 
to ^£13,368 16s. 8d. 

Three Physicians, four Surgeons, and a house 
Apothecary^ have been appointed to the Instil 
tution. The Infirmary was opened for the re* 
ception of In, and the relief ef Out-pataents, 
oa the 4th of June, 1810. 

Not for fo>m the h^maryt and about the 



VIEW OP DERBySHIKE. 9M 

fMM^taRce from the town, is tbt Ofdmrna 
J>ept. The gfotind m whieb tbte ImiMiiig 
an MM and a qaartef , was pa? « 
fcr tlie parpose by tbe Baatd ^ OfA^ 
I ilk dM jear 180S. The reirpeetive boHd- 
ingK,effiected according to a plan bf Mr. Wyatt^ 
the Architect, Were compleated in 1805. These 
consist of an Armory in the centre-; the room 
on the gronnd-floor, being seventy-fiye feet long 
by twenty*fi?e broad, is calculated to contain 
fifteen thousand stand of arms ; these are difs« 
posed here in the same order as those are in the 
Tower of London, and present a very pleasing 
appearance, on the entrance to the room. — 
Above this is a room of the same proportions, 
irontaining accoutrements for the use of tb<» 
army. On the North and South sides of the 
amofy, are two magazines, capable of con- 
tsoning ISOO barrels of ammunition. These 
are iafternally arched with brick, to prevent 
accidents; and, for the same purpose, condno- 
tors have been erected at a little distance from 
each. Four dwellings are situated in the an- 
gles of tlie exterior wall ; two of which are 
Barracks for a detachment of lloyal Artillery, 
and the other two, are the residence of Officers 
hi the Civil Department of the Ordnance. — 



9tf HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 



thete buildings, suitable workshops, 
fcc. ha?e been erected on the inside of the sur- 
rounding wall. The establishment is under 
the sqperintendance of an Ordnance Store- 
keeper, who is appointed, by the Masters-Gene- 
ral of the Ordnance. : 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 347 



CHAP. VI. 
Deseription of the Deanery of Derby, 



Ti 



HE first place worthy our attention in the 
Beaaeiy of Derby, after the town itself, is 
the Roman' city Denentioj now called Little 
CansraR. TIm village stands on the East 
bank of the Decwent, aboat half a mile from 
I>erby, and contains from^ thirty to finrty honse^. 
There are several circamstances which combine 
to fm>ve, that this spot was once a^Roman sta^ 
tion« The present name (Chester) is endentiy 
derived from the Latin word Catirum^ (a camp) 
from its once having been a Roman military 
situation. . *^ Now/' says Camden,^ *^ where 
the Serwent titms its course to the eastward, 
stands Little Chester, i. e: a LiitU Ciiy." But 
the vestiges of ita Roman origin, though few, 
may be yet traced. Dr. Stukely, in the year 
1731.,: endeavored to ascertain its form and ex- 
ten|; a|id was so far successful, as to trace the 
track of the wall all round, and in some places 

^ Brittnnuii p. 491* 



Mt HISTOMCAL AND BISCRIFTIVE 

disGOTered nnder gromid, its fotmdatioH hi 

the pastures, and some vaults along the side of 

it. He disooYered, that the cellar of one ci the 

then existing hooses, iras boiit on a side of the 

wall, which was three yards thick. He ob* 

served, that the station was of a squate form, 

and that the castrum was five hundred foc^ by 

six handrad : it was sitimtad between the Rooifea 

road eaUed the Bknmg and the river Derwnnt. 

Within the waUs^ he found foundations of 

Jmoses; and in the fields, round what is oailed 

the castle, he traced the diraetion of streets 

overlaid with gMrel. Near a Mr. HodgUn's 

house, he thought it probable that oooe a ten^ 

pk stood ; a stag's head haTing been dug up 

in his cellar. Besides the Boman road called 

MiemiHg. he mentiouB another, which he was in^ 

foraMd went up the hiU, directly foom the 

street of the eitj by Chaddesden. Part of it, 

Jie says, had been dug up near the town, and 

its ridge was visible in IJM. These observa^ 

tioas of the Doctor, might have been just and 

accurate at the time they were made ; but foam 

the iterations made since, no tracts of strsets 

are now to be discovered in the pastures; and the 

only way, overlaid with gravd, is one, which 

runniag East and West» nearly iateiae«ts the 

ktation into two equal parts; and a second 



VIEW OP AZRBYaBUliE; HMO 

wiMdi extends from tbe north-east corner, in a 
direct line across the pastures towards Breadsall. 

In one part of the station, human bones 
have frequentlj been dug op ; and about five- 
and-twenty years ago, tho bones of a body 
w«re discovered, with allthe teeth in the head, 
as firmly fixed and undecay^, as if they had 
been laid only a few days in the ground. All 
the bodies are found without any stones, or 
other covering to protect them from the earth. 

" The antiquity of Little Chester is suffici- 
ently attested," says Mr. Gibson,* « by the 
many pieces of Roman coins found, both in 
digging the cellars, and ploughing. Some of 
them are of copper, isome of silver, and some 
few of gold, bearing the inscription and image 
of several of tbe Roman Emperors." Of tbe 
two former kinds, Mr. Pilkington saw several. 
The copper ones were so much corroded arid 
de^Med, that the legends were mostly destroy- 
ed. He was, however, able to make out the 
following inscriptions upon some of the silver 
coins: — Tetrietu Senior et Junior. Galianut. 
Pictorinut. Posthumus. Julia-—. Vespatiamts. 
AnUminua Piu$. Hudriawm. Faustina J\thior. 
8 Kk 



Bsee 



In his CaiiitUn, p. 497. 



M» HISTORICAL ANb DESCRIPTIVE 

MMT^m. StrtUmi iJnAMmut. Ata^^im Anionic 
IMM. CrUfina. Gmdiamm. AnUmmm A^gtu^ 

T1|0 dRte «i Qae of these coins, is asearly as 
tiw 9^e»r 14» md another as late m ai8. li 
.MVnots howevar, he iniermd finam Ifais, that 
Ij^ Rpmanft wess stationed at X)«rtiai<io for the 
fpBoeefAOOyaarsk But we may safely concladei 
thai they were therei as late as the beginning 
9f tb^ fonrth century : abont whidi iiine, they 
iHVan gradually to withdraw frwn every part 
of Britain. 

We faav« in a former chapter^ taken notioe 
of the Ik^nild-street, or greater Roman road, 
wbi<)h proceeds from Monlc's-bridge near Bur- 
tofi, through Little Chester to CbestarfieM. It 
is iHid, that the foundations of an ancient 
bridlge, carrying this road acroas the Derweat, 
was ifisible near a century ago when the water 
W9a clear-t Some pains have been Jtaken to 
determine its precise situation : Some writer 
h?v>e fixed it a little to the North of the waUs 
of the station : but it is the opinion of eome of 
the inhabitants of tJie plaoe, that it was in the 
same line with the street, which apfMsrs to 
have been carried thiongh the midst of it, 

• Pigc IS. i Gil^pn'sCflnden, 497*' 



VIEW Off DERBYSHIRE. Wi 

At tb^ time of ibo Nonmin aufv^y, hiitU 
Ch^ter WW a ^ace of moie note ; as it is tbcio 
noticed,* undtt the naoM of Cestre. HMir« 
ever, ad preseat, no inoauiaente of its aneieMi 
^ndeor remain. - The oawp of the Remaa 
Legions, has ibr ages been the pastikre of eaft« 
tie : and the peaceful plough has passed Ofe? 
that gi^und, on which oikce stood a ciilylfitmAd 
fmr its magnificence, and faoikored witb tbepte* 
senee and genius of the mighlty maatett of 
the world. 

DcftLBT or ]>AR]!iBY, is a populous bamlfili 
situated on the West side of the Derwent, abeot 
one mile from Derbji. lis popnlalion, has in- 
creased consideraWj, within late years, otkriag 
to the ewction of witim and paper mills,. fot« 
longing to the Messrs. Evtiiis. 

In our account of the M<Niasti9rj of Sf. He-> 
len,t we ohservedt> that the Dean of Derbjv^ 
gave to the Master and Canons of that HoasOi: 
bis possessions at Darley, for the erection of a 
church and habitation for themselves. This 
being acooosplisbed to his wish, he ^dowed 
the new foundation) with his patrimonial estate 
in Derby, and the pntronage of the cbnrch of 
St. Peter, witbaU appurtenances. This grApt 

^ Domesdty Ofig. see; a. tf. Trans. $98. ♦ Page iSf. 



Mr HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

wis afterwards renewed and eonfirmed, by the 
eharters of the burgesses ef Derby, and of king 
Henry li. Bnt these endowments, consticuted 
bat a rery smdl part of the wealth of this reli. 
gions House ; for many valuable gifts were af- 
terwards bestowed by other persons. In par- 
ticular, it became possessed of the churches of 
St. Michael, St. Werburgb, and the School in 
Derby; also the churches of Crich, l^ttoxetek*, 
Pentridge, Asho?er, Wingfield, Bolsover, and 
Scarcliff, together with the emoluments and 
privileges, of which they were respectivety 
possessed. 

^ Derley Abbey was also endowed with many 
tracts of land of great extent in various fterts 
of the county. Several entire manors were 
granted to it. Of this number were Rippley, 
Pentridge, Ulkerthorp, Crich, Lea, Dethic, 
Ibol, Tanesley, Wistanton, Oggedeston, (Hog- 
naston) Succhethom, Aldwerk, and Sewelle- 
dale. Lands in other places were likewise given 
fer the support of this religious house ; in par- 
ticular, nineteen ox-gangs in Chilweli, and five 
in Aneleg, (Annesley,) a moiety of Blackwell, 
a moiety of Kildulvescot, a moiety of Newton, 
eight ox-gangs in Rutin ton, and four in Her- 
diwic, one manse in Nottingham, and two 
hundred acres in Burley. It was endowird too 



VIEW or DERBYSHIRE. ua 

with the mill at Hondef ^ two mills upon OdU 
debroc, near Derby, and two milk in the same 
town. This religions honse likewise heldi by 
Tarions patents, tenemoits in Derby, Alvaston, 
Normanton, and Wessington ;^ in Crichv Hasle<- 
wood, and Puffield; in Litchorch^ Weston^ 
Mqginton, Normanton, Spondon, Chaddesden, 
and Little Chester ;t ia Tborleston, Alvastoo, 
and Ambaston;^ in Rippley, Waring*grene^ 
Codnor, and Derby :§ The abbot also eiyoyed 
several peculiar privileges. All hts lands in 
tillage, and indeed all his other property were 
exempt from tithe. He was appointed dean of 
all the. churches in Derbyshire, which were 
given to the abbey, but more especially of 
those situated in the town of Derby. He was 
empowered to hold a chapter of the secular 
clergy, and in conjunction with them to judge 
of those things, which appertain to the office 
of a dean, without the interference of any per- 
son whatever, excepting the bishop. Nor should 
I omit to mention, that the abbot and canons 
of Derley, were allowed as much wood as they 
eould draw from Chaddesden with one cart."!! 



• " Pat. Edw. III.~f Pat; 44 Edw. III.— t Pat. Ric^. 
II.— ^ Pat. II Hen- IV.'' 

I Pilkm(too, Voi. Iltpaye 10?. 



U$ HISTORICAL AND DISCRIPTIVE 

of je35. The church, according to Ectofi, for* 
merlj belonged to the priory of Derlegh : bat 
it appearing from the charter of Hugh Earl of 
Chester, that it was given towards the close of 
the twelfth century, to the priory of Calke, he , 
w thought to have been mistaken in hb state* 
ment. The Earl of Huntington is the patron. 
The liberty contains about sixty houses^ and 
the inhabitants are principally engaged in agri- 
cultural pursuits, though some of them are 
employed in spinning jersey, and making stock- 
ings. 

Dale Abbbt, was a religious house of the 
Premonstatentian Order, and dedicated to the 
Virgin Mary. The following particulars of this 
foundation are related by Mr. Pilkington. 

«< A monk, who belonged to it, bas left in 
manuscript a history of its foundation as related 
by Maud de Salicosamara, who built the church 
belonging to the abbey. 

^* The following are the principal facts, and 
circumstances recorded in this history. — ^We 
are told, that there once li^^ed in the street of 
St. Mary in Derby a baker, who was particu- 
larly distinguished by his great charity and 
devotion. After having spent many years in 
acts of benevolence and piety, he was in a dream 
called upon to give a very trying proof of bis 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 547 

*^ood principles ; he was required by the virgin 
Mary to relinquish all his worldly substance, 
to go to Depedale, and to lead a solitary life 
in the service of her son and herself. He ac- 
cordingly left all his possessions and departed, 
entirely ignorantof the place to which he should 
go. However directing his course. towards the 
east, and passing through the village of Stan- 
ley, he heard a woman saying to a girl, take 
with thee our calves, and drive them to Depe- 
dale, and return immediately. Regarding this 
event as a particular interposition of Divine 
Providence, he was overwhelmed with asto- 
nishment, and drawing nearer, he said, tell 
me, where is Depedale; when he received this 
answer, gowitl^ the girl, and she, if you please, 
will shew you the place. Upon his arrival he 
found it a very marshy land, and very distant 
from all human habitations. Proceeding from 
h^ice to the east, he came to a rising ground, 
and under the side of the hill cut in the rock a 
small dwelling, and built an altar towards the 
south; and there spent day and night in the 
divine service, with hunger, thirst, cold, and 
want. 

'' It happened one day, that a person of great 
consequence, by name Ralph, the son of Gere- 
9 L 1 



Ml HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

iiMd, tam* in tipe pumiiit of the dif«fiioa of 
llwMiftg^ into him woodv at OekbiMk; mud 
i^eH ke approaclMd the plaMi wk^it tkisker- 
Mt KVedt and 8*ir tke soMtk risMg frooi kit 
Hgfitf k# was filfed with indignation and asto* 
■Untaent, tktt an j one »bonld have the nadi* 
BiawandeflTroiitarj to build for htmstflf a dwal. 
ling ih kit woodik, ivitboat bis permuiion^-^ 
Going then to the plaoe, ha foand a man 
aloathed with old fags and ikiaa, and Mquir- 
ing into the cause and circnnutances of kis case, 
kia anger gare waj to the emotioDs of pity, and 
to axpHMi his conpaaeion be granted him the 
ground where bis hermitage Was situated, and 
tythe of his mill at Burgh (Bdf rowash) fer hk 
support » 

^* It is related, that the old enemj of (he ho- 
maa mce then endeavoured to reader him dis- 
satisfied with his condition, but that ka 
lutely endured all the calamities of kia, 
atioti. One of the greatest etils, which he 
suffered, waft a wsfft of water. However from 
this he was relieved by discovering m springia 
the western part of the valley. Neat this ke 
built a cottage and an oratory in honour of tke 
blessed irirgin, atid ended bis dayb in the ser- 
vice of God. 

'' Serlo de Grendoa, lordof Badely, a knigbt 



of f^MBeni t«l9iK, grm «c«lli^ wkI diHtiii- 
gPlMi Mbi :WIm| worried 6mt Mai^geij, ^be 
4w|f^t«r af tlw Hbora Ralph, aitd aftsnfai^f 
Maud, My of Cflston, gave to his GwlaM»UMir 
4iin^g h«r ttfp the place of Papedale «nth it| 
9ifffarti^im9^ aM ^om^ oth^r laad i^i th« 
nei^i^tirhpod. , S^e had a «on, -vh«n» lh« 
educated for holj prdfif, th9< ha ipug^t itftr- 
HfHPia diviiwjMrvica in her ch^va) «t Oepfd*'«> 
and b«i««hr repined at ^ pnaH di«taa^ Mtith- 
ward of thi« f^tal^ioll• 

** Bill in a vhort tini^ afterwards, with thf 
«ooaaf)t and jfpfahat<Q« of this vfaqp?j})it p^^ 
Iron, Hheidipve Seilo d« Qreodon ipvitfd «a^ 
QOfis ffspi^ Kiilhffi aad gave thew fbe pla<^.fiC 
Popedale. 

. " When these fanops were settled here* thejr 
with immense labour and expcn<» bnilt a 

9hwph aod other elloes* dieir prior also went 
tothe«ovrt of j^foe and obtained sevend im* 
p0rtaot priTileges ffT the^a, and the plai}e wae 
mmk ^eqiieated bj persone of all ranks* sonie 
nf whpip Hreee large beae^ow to this t^li^ 
f ions esijabtishfaept. 

" However in process of time, when the efi- 
a^ns, elreadj.moitieBed, had been loag sepa* 
lated fipsot theeo^l eoprenatienof mea» aad 
bccanie «orrfq[4e4 by Ihe prMpeHty of thi^r 



969 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

situation, they began to grow negligent of the 
divine service. They frequented the forest more 
than the church, and were more intent upon ' 
hunting than prayer and meditation. But the 
king, hearing of their insolent conduct, com« 
manded them to resign every thing into the 
hands of their patron, and to return to the 
place, from which they came. 

^' Depedale was not long left desolate. For 
there soon came hither from Tupholme ^ix 
white canons of the Praemonstratensian order. 
To them was given the park of Stanley, but 
how or by whom, the writer of this history ac- 
knowledges, that he cannot with certainty af- 
firm. But I hope I shall be able to throw some 
light upon this doubtful point by meaiis of the 
obliging information of the Rev. Robert Wil- 
inot of Morlcy. 

*^ One of the windows of the church at Mor- 
ley consists of painted glass with inscriptions, 
which are plainly designed to record some re> 
markble event. The glass was brought from 
Dale abbey, when it was dissolved, and was 
intended to convey an idea of the following 
circumstances. 

^* According to tradition, the keepers of the 
park or forest, being disturbed by the encroach- 
ments of the monks, carried their complaints 



View Of i>erbyshir£: * set 

to thd king. ' And with a view of representing 
this fact they are painted upon the glass in green 
ftabits, standing before him,, with thisinscrip- 
tion, * whereof we complain unto the' king ;* 
when they received this answer, * go and tell 
him come to me/ In another part of the win- 
dow, the person, against whom the complaint 
is lodged, appears kneeling before the king. 
With a view of adjusting the matter in dii^ute, 
and giving satisfoction to both parties, the king, 
it is said, granted to the canons at Depedale aji 
much land as betwixt two suns could b^ encir* 
cled with a plough, drawn by deers, which were 
to be caught from the forest. This is • expres- 
sed by two other inscriptions. ' Go take them, 
and tame them/ ' Go bcmie, take ground with 
the plough.' We find that this determination 
of the king was afterwards carried* into exeoa*^ 
tion. For upon the glass is painted a man with 
a plough drawn by deer, with these words un- 
derneath. * Herie St. Robert plougheth with 
them.' What extent of land was incompassed 
in this way cannot now be ascertained. But 
it is probable, that it comprehended the pi^* 
cincts of the abbey, or the whole liberty of 
Dale. 

** I'he canons, in whose favour thifi grant was 
made, experienced many difficnhies and dis<> 



^^ HISTORICAI. ANi> BtfiQKimVE 

ir«H» in tji^if mw §itU»tioR. Having ifi^iK 
m ywfh w ^ccms»v« poverty* tb«y em the tops 
of ti»m wliA m tbf p«rk« sold tbeni wd retarmd 

«• N«w the cbuvoli At Depodale was for a tea* 
•M di^ived of i4» wonhippers. To supplj 
IiImi km WilUf^m d# Gr^odon, wbos« name baa 
btaa alraady nMtiomdi »ent for, and prooured 
6vf cupons of tba Pri^moortrateosian order 
fimM Walbaokr But they experienced oo Jena 
Kriarwii Mifferingi^ than tbeif predecassori^, apel 
I «oop replied by tbeir abbot« 

^^ Wo fm% tbatevory attempt, wbiob had yei 
made tO^eftablisb a roiigioui bouse at Pe-> 
pladale, proved uiKHHSoesafUl. But now by the 
ODMurfOMO and pio«^ wal of several different 
parfonaaaob it^pe ware taken, ae were effectual 
lar tba amciitioiiof their purpo^» 

*^ QtiSwef 4e Salteomaiara or Saucen^eiB, wiw 
bad OMrried Maud the graodaugbterof WilKara 
Geramund* bad a promise of the village of Stan^ 
h^ aa part of bus wift's dower- But banogno 
ohildraii, tb^ aarne»tly ootreated tbeir father 
to offer it to God, and to build a.retigious hauso 
in tba park of the mme vjiile^for an abbot of 
the Prsemonstratensian order. This requefC woe 
vaadily franted, and to cat ry tbeir deeigp more 
eActuaily into caecoekm, tbe &thor sent fi>r 



WflHMI de Glretidoii \miimtet^n§oia^ who wm 
iovd o# OckhfK^y dnd requaited hiixi to G<m. 
tribiite towttidii the a^e6mpItriitAet]t of theit- 
pioos intentions. He told bis nephew, that as 
lie was patfod of thaandent place of Depedale, 
wfaefe several diffetvnt coii]g;regations of reli- 
gions men had successively resided^ bat bad 
been dnrea away by extreme poverty, be wish* 
ed htm to resign it fbr the plantation of a new 
society, and to join with faim in praviding ibt 
its support oiit of the lands, possessions, and 
goods, which 6od bad granted them.'^This 
proposal was immediately complied with. The 
nephew was ready to resign the boose witb idl 
its appurtenances, on coiklRticn, that divine ser- 
vice should be ceiebnted every day by a priest 
in tbc cbapd of tDepedsle ibr Ms own sou}, and 
the souls of his ancestors and posterity, and for 
tbe souls of all those Who tested in Christ there : 
and that in an inn tfaetie should be pliKced upon 
a large table a daily supply from the convent 
of bread and beer, and distribnted among the 
poor of the neigbbooring for*st. Thisr^rant 
was grateftflly accepted by bis uncle ; and the 
isajecuCioti of the^whol« business was committed 
to Geffirey and Maud Saticemere. Nor did 
th^ dek^ naiBgie moowtti tbe aeeomplishment 
of a design^ which tbcy had themselves origi- 



964 HISTORICAL AND DESPRIPTIVE 

nally suggested. Having received chartew and 
other instruments necessary for the foundatio0 
of a religious house, they departed by the or-^ 
der of their father to Newhouse in Lincolni^ife, 
and brought from thence nine cations, who 
were admitted into th^ order already establish- 
ed at Depedale.* 

^' Besides the endowments, which hare been 
noticed, the abbey at Dale received several 
other valuable benefactions, of which the fol- 
lowing are the principal : — Four px-gangs of * 
land in Sandiacre ; three ox-gangs with their 
appurtenances in the same liberty; two ox^ 
gapgs of lands with their appurtenances in Al- 
waldeston (Alvaston) and Baletone; all the 
possessions, excepting three acres of land, of 
Jordan de Tuke in Hyltone ; an ox-gang ol 
land with its appurtenaujces in the same village ; 
the homage and service of the men of Robert 
de Lexintone in Essoure (Ashover) ; eight 
acres, and the moor below Paystanhirst ; four 
ox-gangs of land with their . appurtenances ia 
Knyveton ; two ox-gangs, and a messuage.witb 
their appurtenances in the same place ; forty 
acres of land with their appurtenances in Bras- 
sington ; land in Hallam ; one ox-gang of land 



• « Mon, Angl. voh II. p, 620.' 



* VIEW OF OEkBYSHIRS. 9te 

wt|h its apparfenances id Selestone and Wan- 
desj^ye, the same extent of laa4 with twenty- 
four shillings and eight*pence rent in the same 
liberties; ten ox-gangs jnrith their appnrtenanees 
ioWindesley, (Windley); land inBroydestone; 
lands in Mnshampe, Holme, and Baley; two 
jeKons in the last of these liberties.; a^moiety 
of the mill of Backer, and three selibiis near 
it; a moiety al a fishery in Trent, and an 
island in the same river; land in Michelbergb; 
tbirty-eight acres of land in Croxton ; a mes- 
luage and an ox«gang of land in Steyntona, 
(Stanton) ; two ox^gangs of land in the same 
place ; five messuages, and nine acjres and a half 
of land in Derby ; and all the land of GejflTrey 
deSalicosamara, and Maud his wife in Notting- 
kam. These grants are recited and confirmed 
b a charter of king Henry HI. 

'' Dale abbey was also endowed with the ad- 
▼owson of the churches of Heanor, Ilkeston, 
and Kirk*Hallam; with land in Eggington, 
and Etwall ; with Thoroton wood in Cossale : 
and with tenements in Stanton, Alvaston, Thur- 
lestone, Bolton, Stanley, Kirk*Hallam, and 
Spondon. 

'* At the dtssoltttipn the whole yearly revenue 
ef this religious house was .^144 12«. Od. ; and 
9 Mm 



i« HIS-miUeAL ANfD DESeatVtlVE 

Oerfai Kiogttone, Esq. wu tiM HipMA palboiif . 
It WM ittulided in th6 year IflOi; lktid«km«n- 
dirttd the eighth of October 1580^ by Jdhti 
StMnti^ll the Ittt iibbott and rijfttetn tmmkt*— - 
Tbb iite of it ivtt granted in )the ^irty-fifth 
yehr of Htory VIII. to Francis Pioole, Esq. 

^ In the y tor liSSO the abbey dock sold Ibr 
rix shillings; Ae iron, glass, fmying stones, 
nnd gmrb stones w«re sold for jgi», and tbere 
were sht bells 47 cwt. 

** The whole nomber of the abbots of TMe 
was eighteen, and the period of their govern* 
ment was three hundred and twelve years, six 
weeks, and one day/'^ 

The church belonging to this Abbey, wds, 
according to tradition, a very grand and mag- 
nificent structure :--4t contained stevera! lafrge 
windows on the North and South sides, aitid tfne 
at the Elist end in the chancel, wbicb was very 
^^cious and 1ofty« But hardly any part of it is 
now i^tanding, esteept die arch of the East win* 
dow. Which is partially covered wifh ivy, niid 
forms a pleasing object. The chapel, butlfby'the 
godmother of Serlo de Grendon, still reiHiieilibs 
standing at a little distance from the abbey- 
ruins, and divine service is yet regularly per- 



# l€ 



Mong. Angl. vol. III. {lige ?).'* 



«?riw^ff it. \t is nffi^f th*^ tlie »b% wa» 
£^fgierl|r epclgci^d \^j a handaoaie stone wall^ 
ffffl $fl!^t jt^^ ^?9 !^ V^^ entrapcfi to tlif^ 
?^f^* Tj^ip ^ 9lw a tradition, that 9II tra- 
Yj(l|ers f|fi4 ?tniPg««?> who pas^4 that way, 
ftm entertained and lodged at the inn one 
nighty an4 }n the morning funf jshed vrith {iqph 
sapulfes^ B9 were necessary to 9wist jtjbe^i ^n 
tl^ejf ^lirnejr. 

A Jittle waj beyond tl^e ^bl^ey, .on a pl.ea« 
saot wooded hill, is tl^ie hermitage or c^ye, 
cut in the rock by the poor baker* This in 
overhung with trees, and had originally 9 win- 
dow on each side of the doo/-\iray. T;^^ f^bfi^gf:- 
buildiogi seem to have been of considerable ex* 

teat* as Tarions-par^ whiph yet remain hare 

* /•• • ' . ^' •. .0 ,«i ?} 1% 

(tee^i cojfiy:ertod into dwelHpg-^QiiMv Andbarivi. 
Some of the windows of these houses, contain 
minted gla^ with inscriptions. 

Aston. — When theMorman survey was made 
'' in JEsipne (Aston) buA Serdelau (^hardloiv)" 
\hei;B were '* «pxo;i-gapi£^ and a half of land to 
be taxed. There is one plough in the demense, 
and four villanes^ and :tiRro bordai^t V^A iOQP 

\ ^ 

* VUUmUf ViUiiTiSf or VilUnns^ were so cmlled br^ai^^^^fy 
liVid clikfly in villages, sod were employed in rustic works 
of Ij^^pqsi tqid^d ,l^iiv4s« ^O^.ifitkna^Ulaa^ to the 



tm HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

pitf eight atid Ibnr acred of meadow. Uctebnnd 
holds thti of the king. It is worth five shil- 
fings.* *^ Id £»fim€,LeTenot had two earocttea 
of land to be taxed. ' Land t6 two ploughs. 
There are now three ploughs in the demense, 
and eight villanes, and four bordais, haviiig 
two ploughs and twentj-four acres of meadow. 
Wood pasture half a mile long, and half broad. 
Value in king Edward's time sixty shiHings, 
now forty. Alcher holds it.f ^ in Estuue^ 
Uctebrand had one carncate of land, and two 



Lord of the Minor, and were transferable by deed frbm one 
Lord to another. They could not leave their Lord without 
Ilia p«nni»ton s but if they ran away, or were purloined' 
from him, might be claimed and removed by action, like 
renta or other chattels. A villane could acquire no proper- 
ty, either in lands or goods : and h» children were bom to 
the same state of bondage m their parenta. They beldtbesr 
small portiona of land upon viUawe services^ that is, tp 
oarry out the dung, to hedge and ditch the Lord's de- 
menses *nd any other mean ofice. 

' f BcrdarSf boon or husbandmen, holding a little house, 
wiilh jone land for husbandry, bigger than a cottage. They 
were distinct from the villanes, and seem to have been of m 
less servile condition. They held their cottage and land on 
condition of supplying the Lord with poultry and eggs, 
and other small provision for his board or entertainment. 

^ Domesday. Hammenstan Wapentake, Orig, 272* ^< I . 
Trans. 996. 

+ Walecross Wapentake, Orig. «73. a. t. Tcani. 3^; 



VIEW at DERBYSHIRE: M|t 

OK*gaiigs and a half iolce,* to be ta:Ced and itta 
acres of meadow. Value in king Edward'a 
time riz sli£HingB^ now eight 8hilling8.t ** In 
JSdme^ Tdf bad five ox-gangs and a half bf 
land to be taxed. Land to one plough. There 
are now two Mkenien,^ and six Tillanes, and 
one bordar having three ploughs. There are 
two acres of meadow. 'Wood pasture seven 
q^aarentens long, and four qnarentens broad. 
Value in king Edward's time, and now, twenty 
shillings. Lewin holds it under the king."§ 

At present the liberty of Aston contains 
aboat one hundred houses, and five hundred 
inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in 
the king's books at j£29 ISs. and yearly tenths 
£2 19s. ed. The church is dedicated to All- 
saints ; and several ol the Uolden family have 
been baried in it. From the charter of Robert 
Ferrers^ junior. Earl of Derby, it appears, that 
two parts of the lordship and tithe of Aston, 
were given to ^ the priory of Tutbury. The 
hamlets <^ Sharlow and Wilne lie within the 

' * Soht his the tame signification as carucate, which st^ 
page 19S. 

t Orig. S75. b. %. Trans. 318. 

t SckenM^ those that were free of blood, and fit for ho- 
»o«ible acnrice. In our days called Ytmai* 

S Und of the kjpg's thanes* <?rf{. S79. Tran. 39^. 



f|P HIST9IUCAI. AMD AMCMTTIVE 

j^^ of M»9>^i!tm famvf .«PPt)HW ^^lw«l 
•even^. boiw^ and the Jitter ^«llt|i«p. 4 A^fT 
ftoekmn'fnm^t «<« |h» only f^n^ij^o^^^l' 
iqaii^f(i«tni« to be met wit|i m tfie fiip»k i >ll| 
f epnuderable pumjli^r of b»iid» 9n «fiv}<wiil. 
in pavigstipg the bargw up tbe TfoH' 

Wmtw.—Ai tjie I^or^ao »i»nre3r, W9i ^nA 
thai in fFiw<ta»0 (Weston) •* with tif a Ber9Vi«ll«i> 
Earl /Igar had Mo iC|ir|ap^te« of |»Dd> fwd 
two pxr^iisaiid a half to b9 tw«d» . hf^ in 
as paojr ploughs* Th^ceffHB nov in Uie dfi^ 
ineo«e three. ploughs a^id twciOtj-^^ i^ltwea 
aDd;»xbovdai|B, having «w<elve ji)loiighs> mA 
fovr fiiraiecs pajing sis^teje^ ,«Mliqe«. .Th#i9 
aie two ehorches and a priest, jm4 09« IPtflflf 
niaeteen shillings .^nd , four-pence, ^d fi ^o 
pood and aieriy of thiirteiBn :shi)ling!> wd ^nr. 
penee^ and Aitj'QM wavf* of imqadffV* . f9§^ 
tore half a mUe loqg, «i«d lihree quan^ntfjpp 
broad% Value in kiug JEdward's time My iiwr 

, Wei)toB wa» distkPgttiiJied bj mm^ .RMsidi^r 
priTil^;es, in the reign of King John. Pj ji 
patent granted in the :M«^eepth j^eftr gf his 
reign, the inhabitants were exempted from lAl 
semoes of counties, hundreds, tithings and 

• Oaaeidair Orig, tTt. «. 1. Txvt».99fi. 



^^iiteUi { A«M apf»jitaiite of fhUikMpledgcf; 
froniaid^ AMI dhkttties; fiiMhidisttMiiids, ]^1 
tf<i€ttikMfi) M4 Mm^ainto, to wfatdi tillagei 
add biiiHwf cks aM sal^Mt. The dilirth ia da* 
dicated to St. MMy; and tbie lii^gitaiM- 
iwy, under Hie patMnage of Sir R. ^Hmot. 
Its valoe in the IlId^'s books is i£ll \B$. 3d, 
aod ^dMy feHtlis i£l 9«. Yid. Tlie parisli of 
WastOA b ttbt vkr^ ^^'xtensrre, and the Yiumber 
ef ho^moB mm ^reat The tillage h isitaated 
iMiir the eaaid and the Trent» and the inhabi- 
'turts have bc^en moeh ^tti^lbjred in the naviga« 
ti<m upoti each. 

Ei.vi^tOK;«^Wh^ t>oinesday^ ivas compo- 
!|Nd, ^kere were ** in jEhealdatuht (Alvaston) 
-tad jJ^mto/tf^i^MM (Ambaston) and Tomlfestune 
(Tfa^rktob) had Aiew624eituM (Alvaston) ti 
priest and a'chfdrch ; one nrill of twelve shiF- 
lii^, and one smith, and flfty-tno acres df 
miefldOW) and an e^oal quantity of toppice 
wood/' 

*' Theinhalyiftants bf^lvastoniind'Ockbrook 
%*re iforfaseriy required^ by ihUtual agteemertt 
'to brew fowr ales, and every 'ale of onequarter 
of malt, and at their own costs and ebarges, 
betwixt tlmaiidtbeieastof St. John the baptist 



*^4>rig. 9?76, a;'8. Trtos. dW. 



m HISTOIMCAL AND DBSCIUPTIVE 

next coming. And eveiy inhabitant of Ock^ 
brook shall be at the iweral alesi and every 
husband and his wife weie to pajr two-^peneOt 
eTeiy cottager one penny, and all th* inhabt* 
tants of the said townsof SWaston, Thuflastoii^ 
and Ambaston, shall hare and receiipe all the 
profits and advantages, coming of the said alei, 
to the use and behoof of the said church of Ei* 
vaston; an4 the inhabitant^ of the said towns of 
Elvaston, Thurlaston, and Ambastmi, shall brew 
eight ales betwixt tUs and the feast of SU Jcrim 
the baptist, at the which ales, and every one of 
them, the inhabitants shall come and pay as 
before rehearsed, who if he be away at one ale 
to pay at the t'oder ale for both, or else to sedd 
his money. And all the inhabitants of Ock- 
brook shall carry all manner of tymber, being 
in the Dale wood now felled, that the said 
prie&t chyrch of the said towns of Elvaston, 
Thurlaston, and Ambaston shall occupy to the 
use of the said church/^* 

Elvaston, is the seat of Stanhope, Earl of 
Harrington, and has long been the residence of 
that femily ; though neither the situation nor 
the house have any particular beauty. The 

* " Inter. MSS. Dodsworth in Bib. Bod. vol. 15S. p* 
97*-*-*This appears to be the ancient method of paying 
money for the repair of country churches.'* 



Vl&W OF BBRAVanM^ fW 

gKfMlftw w4 gioA^Kb are laid aut in tM ancf- 
ant maoaar j bat wbme of tka apartneate ia tJie 
aumsbin ttava beea fitted up hy the pi a wit 
liavdi in the madtrn sijrle. Several Amity 
panv«il% and a feai dtber paiatings e# n^ati 
ata piasarved beie» 

Wai-iBK Biiuv?^ wbo wae raised by Edwari 

lV»ta tie dfgndty of Baioii of Mouatioy ^as 

rbarb ai tbia place i be» as well ai aiaaj of bis 

Ascendaals, Was eminent for karntng. From 

4be fkoAly of (be filonts^ the istai6 Hometrahe 

beflciffe the reign of Henrj VKL passed to the 

Mea of Radburii ) but about (he end of the 

MDle aeiga^ it oame to the posiessioii of the 

SlteAfly^ Williaai Stanfaope^ the first Bail 

ef ttarriagldii^ tfas a peraoa of dieiioguisWd 

ahilitiea: and earlj iq life ares apposnttfl eave^r 

mutt^tiAm^ to ibe Coat ( of Spaia; Bii di- 

pfeaniic talenta wflm not bis onlj qdaHfiea- 

tioBa^. Sat hm hnvlferf appearis to bate been 

«|iaL On tbe accessmi of George Ibe irst, 

be bad been madel €tilonit} oi nregioffieat of 

dngoelMi; and ia KIA headed adetaebmeat 

la ttaiat tbe Ebglisb squadreoy in Ibe attack 

m«le art tbe eMai^a shipam PmiSt. Antboay . 

His conduct greatly c ut tt iii witedf ta tbe sneeess 

efthe exp^tiott; imr when tbe boats ap- 

9 NO 



474 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

proached the shore, be was the first who landed 
into the water ; and the destruction of three 
men of war, and a very lai^ quantity of naval 
stores, was chiefly effected through his contri- 
vance and courage. By George the Second ^ he 
was nominated ambassador and plenipoteoti<- 
ary to the Congress at Soissons ; and in 1729 
advanced to the dignity of a British Peer, by 
the style and title of Lord Harrington of Har* 
rington, in the county of Northampton. In 
the year 1742 he was created Viscount Peter* 
sham, in the county of Surry, and Earl of 
Harrington ; and having filled some intermedi- 
ate offices, was in November 1746, made Lord 
Lieutenant-General, and Governor-General of 
the kingdom of Ireland. In 1747, he was consti- 
tuted general of his Majesty^s foot forces, and 
in 1751, was succeeded by the Duke of DonM 
as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. He died in the 
year 1756. The life of William, the second 
Earl, offers nothing particularly remarkable^: 
that of Charles, the third and present Earl, 
abounds with vicissitudes, and splendid ac- 
tions; to display which, with their various con- 
necting circumstances, will occupy the pen of 
some future biographer. 
Barrow^— i<* In Bammt^'^ (Barrow) says 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE; 273 

Domesday,* ** Godwin and Colegrim, had three 
oxgangs of land and a half to be taxed. It is 
waste. One villane has there four oxen, and 
eight acres of meadow." ^^ In JSareii^ are twelve 
oxgangs of land to be taxed. Soke to MiU" 
6«me/( Melbourne). There is a priest and a 
church, and one sokeman, with half a plough 
and eighteen acres of meadow.^'-t' The living 
IS' a vicarage ; and the church is dedicated to 
St. Wilfred. Upon an alabaster slab, at the 
entrance into the chancel, is the effigy of a man 
in armour. The name of John Bothe, and the 
date MCCCLXXXU. are yet legible. On the 
windows on each side of the church, are paint- 
ed different coats of arms. Six oxgangs of * 
land in the village, and without it, with all 
their appurtenances, formerly belonged to the 
priory of llepton. Barrow contains the liber- 
ties of Arleston and Sinfin. The chapelry of 
Twiford, and the hamlet of Stenson, are also 
in the parish of Barrow. The inhabitants of 
these villages are principally supported by 
agriculture, and the navigation upon the river 
Trent, and the canal. 

ts^B=ssssss:ssss=ssssss=sssss=ss=^s=s ggga 

^ Land of Henry de Ferriexs, Orig» 275f a. 9. Trans. 310. 

t Land of Ralph the son of Hubert, Orig. 277» a. 1, 
TiiiH.390. ' 



p^l ifi d^icate4 |q AU-saio^ 9»i SirliQiiett 
Wilmot is.the patf^.. 

^ot, <i. de$ceDdaot of a y^j^aaeifi^ fiatwij^^^.* 
Speed luentionB a pob^eviaii of t|ii$ naiae trlia 
Ijvcd io Essexi in the reiga of King ]glh^}rad.'-r^ 
Iq tl|« eleventh century a family^ of the n9i$e^tt 
WjUimot,^ resided at ^ttttonruponSptr^ hi A^ 
CQuaiy of Nottingham. The ptresent BuriMiei 
ia a dfscepdant of a younger bn^inch of lli« dpr 
mily» which settled at Cbadde^dem aarI|F im 
the sixteenth century* The estatfi at QstnaA* 
ton has been in the family of th« pireseol pw^ 
sesior for neari^; tW9 oenturies^ The h^ae wall 
erapted in l§06b partly of bri.qkami f»ti\f pi 
s^M ; btti the bricK Mmk hmMMm^ bwnalno- 
coffd. It has. two firopitat ^imi to thm ^onth 
measures 19d feet m lengthy; that t» ih#> Nort«lp» 
217 : the hitter bm ^ veiy haftdaaoie ^appear*- 
an<?e wJiien vieired from the luondM raaA ivU^h 
passes within half a mile of the mnrtikm^ This 
building is furnished with a well chosen library, 

V. 

and contains a variety of painting. 

caaBaaesssssssssBSSsssssssssssss^ssssSBaaaBtma^ 

• Land of kenry'de Ferriera, Ofig.^Stb. uTmamMT* 



VaWQt DKRBYSHIHE. WT 

lo th« Hall, th^n art wveral original whole 
Uoftb portraits, but ^oorod in a hard drji 
st^fo. The principal are^ Phiiip tkt Sedtmdof 
S/MMOt witli a distant Tiew of the EB^uriai itt 
tbebacl^fEioond; Ctrutkm the Fm^4k, king 
of Deamafk; 4aKrf>i»» Dallo of Savoy; and 
itfbmf^iietfr de SmUnu. 

Jo the library ia a teiy fi>aa faintiag ol TAi 
Jif^eUng pf H^et9¥ wd AkinmrnA^ at tlia 
S^a«9.Cr«lr> bjCignarati, nine feetiabagth^ 
bjr fleven in breadth* Thi«^ wat ^Imgned frtno 
tbe passages to the Uiad : 

^ WiA baste to ttcct hi!», «J>rting XYst joyful fidr, 
flue bismelcw wtfifii wilji A'Stioa'ftiivorthy Mr: 
The nurse stood near, in whose embraucn* p;mt, 
Hb only hope hung smiling at her breast, 
"Whoat «Mb soft ehartey a^wd^arly gracfe aitem, 
fairsa tbf-neiMr-bcM itf^ tbatftUsfth^ imrh. 

SileiatbfrwMribrnmT'ia, Iti^^IettnliestgiVd 
To tender f^lom. ^ Me fUfghty wamA. 
His beauteous princess cast an)i«mifiil.laok«. 
Hung on his hand, and then dejected spoke;. 
Ks bovobi Itbofd tinih^ Ibodltig sig)i. 
And the big tear stood trembling in her eye.'* 

The expression in the counteaanoe of Afidro* 
inache is remarkably forcihlei, and. her lahole 
attitude seems perfectly in^accoidaooe. with the 
idea of the poet : the other figores^ceeq^aally 
well conceived ; and the colouriof is exeottted 
in a umfbrmly masterlj manner. 



■0 HISTORICAL AMD MSOklftlVS 

snnMMd to aA>rd. Th* «t«te if tikitUy 
wooded ) and the TWisity o# tke bouie im- 
^nMredbyan omanestol .Mi^pond* mid j^eg- 
•ure ground : tht ktter, with the kitohea gftf^ 
den, inclodee nboot Ate aevee ol kind.^ 

SwARKBiToir, calkd by the Norman survey* 
09% 5erdkeilim,t ie a smell village, a few tniles 
to the South of Otmaeton. The living telt 
^eotorjr; valued in the king's l^keat j£&, end 
yearly tenthe 10«. The ekoieb ie dedicated to 
^St JaflMi* Smarkut09^bru^49 which cresses 
the Trent, and low neadowe salgect to be 
over&owed by that river, stande near this place. 
k wae conelraeted several centuries ego, but 
the particular time eennot be ascertained.-^ 
Aceording to the tradition of the neighbour- 
hood, it wae built at the expence of twtf mai'^ 
den sisters. Their names, however, kmH not 
ibeen preserved; and when the great length of 
the bridge, which extends to the distance of 
above three quarters of a mile, is considered, 
it lenders the tradition improbable ; as tfaie^x- 
penceof suchen nndertaking must, informer 
ages, have exceeded the ability of private iHdi- 
vidnale. The number of arches, stendmg art 



* Beauties of EogUnd, Vol. III. ptge 893. 
f Domesday Orig. f75. h. S, Trans* dU. 



v^Okqw|^^i«tlln9^9.fIO«l eachjothier, is saidtabe 
t¥f«ntj-iu«ie;>of lata.years, thutpart of.tlie 
|yi^|g€;w]|M€ii:crowed the Tr»t has ^been.^re* 
bi^lt. . . I, 

MaceWohth, in Domesdayf.called^^itfMA- 
eitorde^ w. a place of wnte antiqaity. The ma- 
wr in the tiiqe of lUenry.Vi. belonged. to. a 
family of tbs name of Mackworth;' one^qf 
wh^cb, in the third and fourth years of that 
|(|qg'is reign, represented the oonnty of ^Derby 
in Paprliament. There wa» formerly a. castle 
bete, bfit the only remains of it now visible, is. 
the Soath-gate» which is nearly entire. The 
time it was built is uncertain, as well as who 
were its original proprietors ; but it& site ismow 
t|ie prc^rty of Lord Searsdale. In the fourth 
of .Pbiltp and Mary, it was held under the 
Ci^o^n^-in.the .same manner as the honor of 
Totbury, fey. soceage and fealty.. .According 
to t^e- tradition of the village, it was demo^ 
lished during the civil wars, between Chaises 
I. apd the^ Parliament ; and some high ground 
in theneighlwmrhood, ia sitill called Cannon* 
HiDs, because it is reported, that ordnance 
were planted there, when the Castl^ was de- 
stroyed. 

9 . o o 

♦ Orig. 273. a. «. Trans. 298. 



Mt HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVB 

The Uviag ol Mackwmth is a Tkatage ; ike 
dmrch is dedkmted to AlKSaints, and is said 
to haye once bdoaged to the Monastery at 
Darley. 

. At MAaKBTON, a snail hasolet, belonging 
to the pariah of Mackwortk, is the seat of F. 
N. C. Mandj, Esq. an able, diligent and re- 
fpetitoble magistrate. Ttfe manor of Mark* 
•ton (of which Mackworth and AUestry are 
members), belonged, at the Norman sarFey, to 
the End of Chester. Sometime afterwards, it 
was possessed by the T^mchets; one of whom 
married the heiress of Lord Andle7,of Audley, 
in Staffordshire, and acquired that title. In 
the time of Henrj VUL this estate was sold bj 
Tonohet, Lord Aodlejr, to Sir John Mnndy, 
Knight, a wealthy goldsmith; and sometime 
fjord M^ja^ of London. This was the lineal 
ancestor 6f the present possessor, in whose fs* 
rail J the estate has now ^mained neatly three 
eentaries. 

WiLLiNOToii, called in Domesday* fyelU'^ 
dene and WiUetune^ was then partly possessed 
by the kii^ and partly by Raipfc the eon of 
Unbert. The living is a vicarage: the ciittrch 



* Orig. 378> a. «. Tnns. 991. and Orig. 377i a« U 
Tmu. 3S0« 



VIBW OF DJBRBYSHUUC. 9tt 

is d«diea(«d to St. Miehaalt and accordiiig to 
JBetoi^ l!Kiner)}K.be]*iiged to the priory, of Rap^ 
loo. Tbe patrons are, the governors of Etwril 
Hospital. 

.MiOKUB*OvBB, or GaciAT«OyBR; the Ufre 
of Domesday,* was when that hook was oom«- 
piled, iaeladed in the land belonging to the 
abbey of Burton. The living is a vicarage, va^ 
ined in the king'e books at £9. lU. Sid. and 
jmuxly tenths Idr. Id. The church is dedica«* 
ted to Ali*Saints: aad in the presentation^ 
JLoid Scarsdale has one turn, and -"— Wilnot 
two. . , . 

FkNDBasr and Littls-Ov^u^ are connected 
with .Mickle*Over^ It is said in Domesday, 
^ tliree berewicks beloag thereto : Parua Ufte 
(Latde^Over), Findre (Findem), and Potlae 
(Potlock)/'f hot there are only two now. The 
lirii^ of Findem is a donative curacy. The 
Pf«sbyteriaas have also a place of worship 
here. The Chapd at Little-Over is also a do* 
native curacy, connected with the church at 
ftfidde*Over. 

IUdbouhn^ at the time of the Norman sur- 
vey, belonged to Roger of Poictoo : but ^^ Ralph 

• Orig. «73, *. 1, Trans. S97. 
f Domesday f^r^. «73. *.!• Traiw. «97. 



HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

tile son of Habert clatmed a third fMirt of Emb- 
b^me^ and the jury of the wapentake' gave 
Aeit verdict in bis favor /^* Since that tiine^ 
it has been the seat of several vrealthy and re- 
spectable families. At an early period, Ro- 
bert Walkelyne resided here ; whose yoongest 
daughter, a co-heiress, conveyed it by marriage 
to Sir John Chandos, Knight. Sir John, the 
fourth in descent front this nobleman, here 
laid the foundations of '* a mighty large bowse, 
withe a wonderful cost;''t but it seems doubt- 
ful, whether it was ever completed. From the 
Chandos family, the manor was conveyed to 
that of the Poles, by the marriage of its heir- 
ess to Peter de la Pole, of Newboroogfa, in 
Staffordshire, sometime in the reign of Edward 
the Third ; when Radboum became the seat 
of the fomily of Pole, in which line it yet re- 
mains; Sacheverel Pole, Esq. being the present 
inheritor. The old family mansion stood near 
the church, and is now in ruins. The present 
house, was built by German Pole, Esq. about 
seventy years ago: its situation is elevated and 
pleasant, and commands some bieautiliil and 
extensive prospects of the adyacent country. 

• Ibid* Ong. 97S9 ^« d» Tnns. 311. 
f LeUnd's Itenenty. ' 



VIEW OF DSR3YSHIRE. S85 

Tke paridi of Radbourn is a single hamlet ; 
the liyiog is a .rectory : The church is dedica- 
tied to St. Andrew, and contains several mbnur 
jp^fits, erected to the memory of the Poles ; 
hot some of. the inscriptions are much injured, 
and almost defaced* 

,. KaoLSSTON, in the Conciueror's time called 
Chetekiune^* and then included in the land of 
Henry de Ferrieres, is a parish of small extent. 
The living is a rectory, and the church is dedi* 
cated to All-'Saints. 

Kedleston is the celebrated seat of Nathaniel 
CurzoD, Lord Scarsdale. '* The first account 
we have'^ says Mr. Pilkington,-)* '^ of the family 
being seated at Kedleston, is in the time of 
Edward I. In the twenty-fifth of his reign, 
Richard de Cursun died, possessed of the ma- 
nor of Ketleston, which was valued at twenty 
marks a year ; and also the advowson of the 
church, which was estimated at £4. a year. — 
Bohert Ferrers, Earl of Derby, made him a 
free and full grant of the manpr and advowson 
of the church by his charter, on condition of 
Ft^ndering him homage and service.^^ From 
him. it has descended to his present Lordship, 



*' Domesday Orig. 375. «. 2. Trans. 310. 
f Hist. Vol. II. p. 130. 



HISTORICAL AND OE8CRIPTIV£ 



mkom fiither was raked on the temth of April, 
170Q» to the digoity of a Peer, bj the style 
and title of Baroo Searadale of Kedletton im 
(be county of Derby. His Lordship was, da- 
ling three parliamentSi chairman of the Hoose 
of Peers. 

KeMiUon^houUf the splendid mansion of 
Lord Scatsdale, is ritnated abont thrae miles 
to the north-west of Derby. On the road which 
passes to the right of the mansion, a comfort- 
able Inn has been erected, as well for the coa«^ 
venience of such strangers, as curiosity may 
lead to view the house, as for the accommoda« 
(ion of tliose, who come for the benefit pf the 
waters in the neighbourhood. The house 
(erected by the late Lord in 1761) sunds half 
n mile to the West of the inn, from whence it 
is approached by a foot-path. This path is 
carried through the park, which is about scToa 
miles in. circumference, and diqdays ^aome 
flourishing plantations, together with a num- 
ber of lai^ and venerable oaks ; some of wUch 
are of the enormous size of twenty-fonr foet in 
girth, one hundred and eighteen fort in height^ 
and are thought to haTe stood for more than 
seven hundred years. Following thi^ path 
shaded by the antiquated arms of the^e^'' forest 
monarchs/' it conducts to an elegant stone 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE; S87 

bridge of diree arches, thrown orer a piece of 
wafer, amplified to its present extent, byjudi-^ 
eionsly catting away, the banks of the little 
brook Weston, which formerly rilled througb 
the park in quiet insignificance. The surface 
of this wide sheet, above the bridge, is broken 
into several falls; and a handsome cascade falls' 
gracefoUj under the arches, which is adran- 
tageously viewed from the principal rooms on 
tfie North front of the building. From henccf 
a gentle ascent leads to the house, whose front, 
measuring three hundred and sixty feet in 
length, is a grand specimen of Adam^s archi- 
tectnral skill. The front, which is of whit^ 
atone, hewn mi Lord Scarsdale's estate, is di* 
vid^ into three parts: — a centre, and two piai« 
vilions, connected to it by corridors of the 
Doric order, taking a sweeping form : that on 
the ri|^t (as we approach it) comprising the 
kitchen and offices, that on the left, consisting 
ef Lord Scarsdale's private apartments. 

in the centre of the North front is a double 
flight of steps, leading to a grand Portico, whose 
pediment is supported by six pillars [several of 
thmi in one single stonej of the Corinthian or- 
4^9 thrae feet in diameter and thirty feet in 
height, which were proportioned from those of 
the Pantheon at Rome : These support the Tym- 



988 HISTbRICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

panum, on which are thre6 elegant stataesof 
Venui^ Backus and Cere$; and in niches with- 
in the portico, Two Mmes and a Vesial: and 
basso-relievo medallions, by Collins, of Vin-^ 
iag€. Pasturage^ Harvest^ Ploughing^ and Boar 
Hunting. From hence is a beautiful bome- 
yiew, of the improvements of the late Lord 
Scarsdale; whose gigantic plan, included the 
transplanting of a village that stood in front 
of the house to a distant part ; the removal of 
a turnpike road, which ran within fifty yafrdtf 
of it, to its present situation ; and the exten* 
sion of a trifling brook into a noble expanse of 
water. 

Descending the flight of steps, beneath the 
portico, at the basement or rustic story, is a 
door conducting into a large room, called Cae- 
sar's Hall, from its containing busts of the Cfe- 
sars. Hence the stranger is conducted through 
the tetrastyle, which is furnished with busts of 
Alexander^ Marcellus^ Antoninus^ &c. and 
ascending the great staircase, decorated with 
busts from the antique, he is ushered into, 

The Hall^ a room the most striking that 
fancy can picture, planned after the Greek 
Hall of the ancients. Its dimensions are sixty- 
seven feet three inches, by forty-two feet, add 
forty feet high : t|ie coved ceiling of this apart- 



• . VIEW OF 1»IIBYSHIRE. M»^ 

■Aentf. iUominated with thtee skyrlighte, rises 
to the top of the house, and is supported by 
tweaty Corinthian columns of beautifal van- 
gated Derbyishire alabaster, twenty-five feet 
high, and two feet six inches in diameter; with 
rich capitals of white marble, proportioned 
fcom the throe columns,in the Campo-VicinQ at 
Rowe^ which are supposed to have belonged to 
Jupiter Stator. Behind the columns are the 
following paintings, in chiaro oscuro, . from 
the llmd : — 

Qa the West side i-^^Helen going to the field 
accompanied by Paris. The Judgment of'Fa^ 
m. The Meeting between Hector and Andro^ 
machc. Juno and Minerva^ preparing to assFst 
the Grecians^ are forbidden by Iris sent from 
Jupiter. 

On the East side: — Helen reproaching Pa^ 
ri$ for his retreat from Menelausj is silenced by 
Venus* . Achilles receiving from Thetis' thie ar- 
mour which Vulcan had made at her entreaty. 
Achilles delivering his armour to Patroclus. 
Mercury delivering a Message at the Throne of 
Jupiter^ in' the presence of Juno and Neptune. 

At the North end : — ApQllo and the Hourfe. 
Sacrifice to Sylvanus. Sacrifice to Diana. 

At the South end: — Night distributing her 
10 F p 



I9» HISTORICAL Al«t^ DBSCftlFFIVE 

Mam. 

Ita At oiroiM ovtv tile doOT»!««4»tiodiiemg 
tlto kiteii^^ Bridfc Tbe fiV^tdtfi Marriage. 
WMhis9tlM»Mt. R0liriB9 to Rest. Under 
Umm^ Tiopkies. 

Qh«9 tlM fUnMf pieceS) wbioh m of tta* 
tm^yvaaMe^^^oUowtd HyMmtk m a fter 
BaminiGkiBeL C^rw aad A^U hum ■ aft er Gfa- 
velat; kaeiffolea. 

In the niches, are twelve casts front tbe an- 

ftehink JUdi Vmm. Fawn. ApoU». ViL 
Madtei. JJrania. Fawn. VenuSk OamytneA. 
Amimmu. MBreui^. Of these, the ApoUp and 
Meleager ate the best. There arerako t we tab* 
lets with Lord Scarsdale's Arms; twelve seate 
after tbe. aneieiit Sarcc^pbagas^ and the grates 
are alter the ai^aque tpipoda. 

Th€ Miuk^ MooMj tbiity^six 6e» by twenty* 
fottv, and twenty*twn ftet bi^ ; finasbed wilb 
stucco, and Ionic entaUatare, antiq«e cei&ig^ 
compartments and wnaments; contaias^ 

At the West end>-*A& Orga^. Bacchm mA 
Ariadne r byGnido. JBhfy FawUfy; Leonasdi 
dj Vinci* Lamheape; HonsDonti. DofvkPs Tri^ 
umph; Gnercino. 

On the chimney side >*-jLiinifoc<9M with Fr- 



TIIW OF OBRBYSHIKfi. «| 



At the Bast end r-^ flarpn^iior^., Tt^wo^ 
i\f M^tcbmi l.««.GidrdAlM». T)k» .is .» &i» 
paintiag^ tbe %are ef Bae^ns baftfitifui an^ 
q>irited, as deserilMd b^-MUton^ 

** With ivytATies wreath'-t^ and blitI»4Bf)r«utk." 

Skipping: WliiiiiM. dldSlktH*i Hmdt AMofw 
kandt. JeMMkC^ui^; 6igttMr& i^o«ii. ifr)* 
4{f «A* ^« Wii ^Smrik ^t TtrmpMft. Ttrft tlkhn*. 
My pl«ee 4s trf" tKaftiiaty tiiM^Ie; TkbWt, Mi 
£|^alathKim froM tlie^iift. RMn. in tta«M> 

%kft) abd tWiiHty<<ifcigtl% UmI; bigh, Mmg with 

•Ute fianiMttk ; anti^foe MHitig co?ed', Venetiato 

-i«4iido«r : -tend oAeKfr-ctfiies'fitibhid Mritfa Corik- 

%Mlin tolttWna of d^yb^fawe* alabaster. Heve 

ate, ... 

• HHgmpittWcid Ofktnioi a hdt^Ife |»reti»re, l^ 

AttiiibalOartiMi. ^/^tfmter.tcc.PiittlVerolieM. 

NuatHtmf^Story ; thejoint composition of M«tt- 

pen, Brilghtil, Tetttet^, and Old FrkHkB. The 

vom|N»ritidtt «f thib fMti6t« is ^Ood, And the 

distant lAonntains fine ; but, altogether, it is 



HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

harsh, and the eolouns are too vivid. A fiiM . 
Land9cap€j by Cayp. . The Salutation of EH^ 
z^ieth; Andrea del Sart. Landscape; Domi^ 
aichino: Death of the Virgin; Raphael, Mb 
earliest manner. Landscape; Soaneveldt. — ^ 
Magdalen; Ann. Caracci. Holy Family ^ 
Goido. Holy Family in LamUcape; Polenii- 
berg. Time on the Wing; Teniers. The Wo* 
man anointing our Saviour^ sfeet^ by Benedetto 
Ltttti : a painting, of which it is not possible to 
speak in terms of praise too high. Scripture 
History^ the Woman of Samaria and St. Johkr; 
Bernardo Strozzi, vv^o Prete Genoese. A 
small beautifal Landscape^ by Claude Lorraine. 
Holy Family; Raphael, probably a copy. La 
me Champetre; Dom. Fetti. Cain and Abet; 
Benedetto Lutti. This is a masterly performr 
.ance, in which the chain of light is powerfully 
fine; and the horror and remorse of Cain, aC» 
. ter the murder of his brother, horribly natural* 
Holy Family; Tintoret. Holy Family; Gio- 
seppi Chiari. A sleeping Cupid^ by Qiiido; a 
most admirable figure, possessing all the sweet- 
ness and grace of this artist. Holy Family; 
. Nic. Beritoni. Virgin and Child, by Parme- 
giano. 

The chimney piece is of statuary marble : 
.twQ whole-length Figures, by Spang; Tablet-r- 



VIEW OP DERBYSHIRE. «9Sr 

Virtue rewarded with Riches and Honor, in 
basao relievo, by Spang. 

The£t&rary, thirty r six feet by twenty .four« 
and twenty ^two ieet.high ; finished with stucco, 
and mfihogapy book-cases^ Doric entablature 
«ad Mosaic ceiling. The paintings are, 

Diogenes^ a pbwerful figure, by Lueca Gior^ 
dano. Adam,s,nd Eve — Lot and his Daughters; 
Carlo Lotti. Daniel interpreting jPelskazzar^e 
Dream. This is one of the finest productions 
of the pencil of Rembrandt. The solemnity of 
DaniePs figure ; the attention and alarm in the 
different faces; the grandeur of the King; and 
the splendid light emanating from the mtMra, 
or emblem of the sun, behind the king's throne, 
ftce all indications of transcendent genius and 
skill. MarCe Head — A Man in Armour; Gu*- 
•ercino. Shakspeare^ a copy, by Vandyck.* 



. ♦ "It would have been desirable" says Mr. Warner, 
from wboxn the criticisms on the paintings are chiefly taken, 
** to ascertain from what picture this copy vras made, since 
commentators have not differed more on the abstruse pas* 
sages of our immortal bard, than collectors have dene - as 
to the originality of heads called Shakspeare. . It was ibfr 
some time determined that there was no original portrait oJF 
him, but that Sir Thomas Clarges, soon after his decease, 
caused a painting to be made from a person nearly resem- 
l>ling him. Then came Mr. Walpolc , (whose deep vf^ 
searches in all questions- connected with the arts, entitle' 
him to the character of an arUtftrJ^ with an opinion, that 



ili HISTOftVCUL AHD BBSCKSTtVE 

Whaer^MptmmteA ^ aH wf^^mtm; Andnk 
Saecbi. Old Man, haW^leogtb, by Salmtar 
lUM^'taiy fiM tod fi|Mrited. Ably i^Mi%»« 

TaMo ; NIc. PMi6iQ« Anf^r^medu cbaioed C# 
the Roeki byGnido: giteve m tha figun^ bM a 
want of a0qire*ioii n tha caanteaaam. 

O* tiw IqM 6f tha bealMMMi are tbe baM 
^i; iSiMMr, Suppko^ S9mit99i VirgU^ ifiKMrMai 
Pmdmr, and jfifol-MK The ebiaMl^y piMe ^ 
anriebad with Doric ei^ttiai af «latiiiiry ttar« 
Ua. SKenda iMrble grotnid* Tablet kifm Ah 
pk^ af Rhpfaaal's Cupid and Pnjt^ in baaaa 
mlMvai^ by Wilion. 

Orte the Door are^^^CdnfatMc^ bf Scifih,-^ 
iHafm af ^u SMtm, by M. A. Baono Rotti.^^ 
SmiiH bnmtt of N€)^ltme, by FiMmigo. 

Thb fibr^oaa, is a mast alegant kpartilitiM: 
exact in its {NroportioniBi aMgaificent in ilaai^ 
name0ts» and eoatainingan assemblagaof rich 
and ^c||Aat d«»ign, perhaps, tunparaHd^.^^ 
This beaotifal room in its %ure is circnlar^ 
crowned with a donia^ brataiaieaftad wifli tiak 
Mwstfa work, Bttish^ With octagoii coikipaft* 

Mn K«di% piotvn, engfivti by KTtftus, wii Sif^htl'; 
woe Aattec z^wimy of hteii 'Imv^^Meii 4Moir«tal, 
^nd the mnt^ «ffi«dd wiliiMit iMdAitkm. CN>itt iSl^» 
At. 69.'' Wtracrli NnrtlMna 1b«f, 'VM. 1. ^. i%\. 



vtJBW OP mffivsmM. 



•ilk raMBi by M9$et: k» diaMiiniHK 
are, ,i9it7-two feet in lyaaieter, twe»lywibtir 
ibt tA t^Q otraiDe, (wUq)i is eKtraiMly rich) 
iftjNfive fteft toi the t^p o£ the copula, and 
nxt7»two ta the extfeniitf of the skylight. 
BMMtin tha tttoMi it divided inta four reoeaBes» 
et akoves,. havii^ fire plecee» representing^ «1^ 
tM% adorned milb iphmsieft in base rdief ; and 
aeman^ doors; tft^ Hsholo pointed and ohm- 
aMn|iediva|k white and gold. 

Tfaa candle kranehes ke^e faass reliefs of 
bey 5 wndev tbem, nAer Rafdiaol; Albano, IH>^ 
Bttaicbine, Fteni^inno»PoisBWi^ Pietio di €W-» 
tena» 4ui. Tho doora bavo seagliola pilastres^ 
lerd-antique, by Bartoli. 

Ovop- tho doom aio^ Pietores of Ruins, hy 
Bsmitton :«~theH^ frames omamehted with re- 
combont litres of IViendBkip and Liberality^ 
Over tko alcoves^ are delineatidtoin ehiaro os» 
emoy by Rebeeea ^ the subjects from the En^ 
^Mk HSatory : riz. 

The Dnkes of Ne^tkumJ^brnd and Suffolk 
eatrealingLady Jan&Gpey tq accept theCrown; 
eipvianL Edmmrd the Blaek Prince, serftng 
the French King (when bis prisoner) at sapper. 
EMkab€ikj widow o#Sirt/alM Gray^ (afterwards 
Owen) knpldritig king Edwerd the Potfrtk to 
restore her husband^s lands ;3iin^e/9ca.N jS^h- 



fltff' HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

ncra sacking the:poi80ii fihom her hasbaiid Ed- 
ward the First's wound. 
. The bases and capitals of the door pikutres, 
are after the Temple of Erecthmu^ king of 
Athens ; 1409 years beibre Christ. . . n 

This noble room forms the South entrance, 
which is designed after the Arch of Constan- 
tine, and is adorned with statues of Fhra 
Famese^ and Bacchus^ in niches, with medalli-* 
ons of Apollo and Diana over the pillars, the 
statues of Pastoral^ and Comic Musey Prudence^ 
and Diana^ above: and, by the steps, the Me« 
dicean and Burghesian vases. On the pedi- 
ment is the > following hospitable and liberal 
motto:— 

A. 0» 1705. N. BARRO D£ SCAMDALK AMICXS BT IIBI. 

The Ante^Chamber^ is twenty-four feet by 
twelve, and twenty feet high. It contains, 

A Landscape^ by Grimaldi J. Bolognese. A 
fine St. John^ by Carlo M aratti. Two Land^ 
scapes J by Heusch: and a pair of beautiful 
pieces, in chiaro oscuro, in imitation of ivory; 
representing a Cupid in a Car drawn by Cu« 
pids ; and Cupid carried on the shoulders of 
the Loves. 

Principal Dressing Room^ twenty*four feet 
square, and twenty feet high ; hung with blue 
damask. Paintings, 



VIEW QP. DERBYSHIRE. §gt 

\if$AtmUl LardfScarsdale^ siaS. Catherine hin 
wife ; Hofae. Charles h by Vandyck. . . Euper-^ 
Af, ottcffal Daughter of Prince . Rupert, : bj 
Afadame Hoglies, an actress.; Sir Godfrey Knel« 
li^. A Lemdeeape^ by Sahator Rosa. AMiind 
Beggar^ &c. by Jean Stein. Landscape znd 
Figures: Bei^em. 

Jotea Dmicie of Omumd^ by Leiy ; . an active 
dbanuBter in the reign of Chaiies L by whom 
be was nominated, Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland ; 
and faithfttUy attached to his son^ wtiom he 
fellawed into exile; ibr which he was, on the 
Ssstoration, again appointed to the government 
of Irektnd, and enjoyed other places and ho. 
Qors. Ue was created aDake in 1682, and 
died in 1688. 

Henry Jermyn Earl of St Alban^Sj by LeIy, 
was second son to Sir John Jermyn, of Sofiblk. 
Of the taany who evinced their attachment to 
the imprudent and anfortunate Charles, no o^e 
appears to hatve more readily risked tile and 
fertune tban this personage ; i^hose zeal, indeed 
has been construed into more than, mere loyal* 
ty, as he is reported to have been early favored 
by, and finally married to, Queen r Henrietta 
Aferia: on whom, dariog.the'trouhlesof her 
hwbaiid, he finthfully and diligently attended 
10 Q q 



wm HisToiucAL AMO moGumvi 

^iMWiranMwiiii tke^ title 0f> iMdJnainr; 
vnd «FWi Uf oMtmvedl mrnosi tolteifrMly 
iMiitow todMf IlliikiMliiiiiy idMlBdl Xiii if St. 
^UtaB% by Okarkb 11. to wlmn 1» wu ap* 
^inttdCluuBberina. If to ware dkttoipBtab^ 
cd by bis oounge and mt ro pi iiiy io Iba^mi- 
MM rriga of CbtrksL he wm not ksstUe to 
iUne, fiom the al^^enee ef his p^nu mi 
mmanetBf in the liMiitaoiis eeurt ef Ms sasess* 
eor; i hi^rofc e B we em net saiyrbed te iod mea* 
4ioQ of him is Grettmoiit's MeoMiie. . 

JW Imd$oapi$^^ CieMwli. Vieivof Mat^ 
Mk High Tort, by Zaccamllu Bamdiuii 
lioegherbourgb. 

Prme^Ml Bed-chamber; thiftyieeftby iwen« 
tj^two, and twenty feet high ; hang arith;blae 
damad(. The ebimney-pieoe is of elatpMHry 
oarbk; whli an oval tablet, ecmtainiagaf tee 
•speeiaien of Berbyshire Blue John. The jpaints* 
uigs aMf 

Sir 2Vatiafiie/ and Lady Curzan, grsudfelhor 
and grandmother of the pvesent Lend Scars* 
dale; Bichaidson. Tim whole-length JPor^ 
traiU; Lely. Keemch Labe^ and a Jftsw m 
Cumherbmd, byBanret. Dntehea ^ ¥aHki 
liely. BuiehesB of PeflmmUh, and iKtf sMjpse^ 
(by Vandyke) on whose son, the title of Dake 



CiMdHlll. together witb a ^rai^t <^ MeiMk 
1^ per diaUnn, on aU «mi1» Bh^po^ w-^ 
lifer Tyae ; wluck wa* coammtad kf h» Qmm 
«# RidiBondiD 1800, for a peiiietiial aMBWtj 
^jSltyOOOr per anaimi, seiraiiRd . bjr Acttraf 
Pavttanent on the oomolidatad fond. . 

Cath9m0 ^ 9t mU m of Dcirttt (alter AfjrtWf^ 
b^Haauhmi) waedaiighterof.SirCie9igeCii|^ 
xaa, aid Go^eraets to the Pruoeai Afarj, a»d 
^ Oofce of Yorii. Her dnw is eitreiDelj ui^ 
gaJar, being carioiMily fRovkedi and pift An» 
9ffwr a large hoop ; the vaiM contracted, bj a 
ciose bodice; and her neck enoiided by a 
laige nn. 

Two Lmdtieupe$; Zaccarrelli, 

In the Wordrobei twenljrtiro |eet by, i»ar- 
teen* and twenty feet high.; hung wifh ^ne 
dNwwh : are thirty-six smaH pieees in enajgiiel, 
after Albert Dorer» representing a . series, of 
events in the life of oor Savionrr The peiUit> 
•«g»«re, 

A fine pnintiiig of TWAey*, fcc. .by Van 
Utretdrt. Qmlk»iMCiim$tMti(fp9rckt9Ur^\>y 
SirXSedirey Knellet. Tliie lady va» dangfater 
fl€ Sir Charles Sedlqr» and mistiest, to Jaoies 
the'Setofed; ;by. whom she was raised to Uie 
mAoi Countess; a situation which hfr iatiier 



S0Oi 



HISTORICAL AND DS^ClliniVE 



6V€r*€0iisidei^ 88 a splmdid indi giiitT- •MIWJH* 
to'*kis fkvBoij.' An itrjory fio sensible ^MWk^ 
sekreety be forgotten, or remain unresetitM, 
iihen opportunity offered, On the firrt agitft-^' 
tkm of the qaestic^ns, which brought nbodt* 
the Revohition, l^r Charles was a distingiMhed^ 
parttzan, and at once indulged the parent*^ n^^ 
sentment, and wit^s spleen, when he said, ** Thfe 
King did me the honor, to make mjr da'oghtiir 
a Countess, and I should be ungrateful indeed^ 
not to assist in making his daughter, (Marjr 
Frincess of Orange) a Queen.'' When the re- 
monstrances of his confessors, had induefed 
James to break off the connection with the 
Countess of Dorchester, she married ''Dltirid» 
Earl of Portmore, and 'died 1717. 

A Lady; Sifr Godfrey Kneller. Jupiter and 
lo; Andrea Sacchi. Thieves Gamngr^ihi^ 
boccio. Sir PeUr J^eaut, by Vandyck. He 
was employed in the diplomatic line, by the 
two last' of the Stuarts, and their successor 
William ; and has left us, not only proofs of 
hb talents as a negocwtor, but also as an his- 
torical writer. Whilst secretary to the emlrtis- 
sy at Constantinople, he composed, "An Ac- 
count of the Ottoman Empire, and a conti- 
nuation of Knolles's History of the Turks.**— ^ 
Whilst resident at Smyrna, he published, "The 



' VIEW OF DfiKAYiSHIRE. SMr 

jfsmtmi' '9tate irf* llie Greek* aEnd Arnteniaii 
Chimbcft:^' Ob. 1700. 

Jffi$ W^^d ChiU, hy tiie ^mar himseir, 
QuiDtin Metsys. Tins arlist wluta Mtite<tf 
if imtwerpi where he carried on thetrade of a 
fciacfaanitb ; but becoming enamomred of the 
daa^itor of a painter, who was willing to 
vntte his dnld onl^ to one of bis own profession^ 
CMir. son of Vulcan, quitted his forge for the 
«asel, and soon made himself sufficiently nias<» 
tor of the art, not only to entitle him to his 
wife, . bi)t to the character of a celebrated 
palter. His niost esteemed pii^ture is known 
by the title of Tk^MiurSy and is in the Royal 
Goilectioii at Windsor. 

Nathaniel Baton. Creme^ Bish^jk of Durham^ 
one of the vaost despicable characters in the 
avnals of James 11. by whom^he was selected as 
gcand-inquisiter of the ecclesiastical commis« 
sion, at which he rejoiced, '^ because it would 
render his name famous (or rather in&mous) in 
history.^' On the reverse of fortune which de- 
servedly attended that misguided Prince, this 
obnoxious prelate, hoping to cancel the vre- 
membramce of his former offences, basely de*^ 
serted the sovereign, who had raised him, and 
nActed to fspoose^he cause of liberty, which 
he bad so loi^, and so lately, insulted. Ob. 
1721. JEt. 88. 



Mi HISTOttlCAL AND 0B8OlinVtVB 

mdi-hoiise, daily, and 0^ hsAiAor iOmf:. 
Tk6»oorridaf whkib Indr to tM ftiniiy fnTiKoHs 
k hui^ vitb green gpaper and priat$, Volteimt, 
nws, fcd. thrw marbltf medallions, and 8e?e- 
ml ttm^n Staines, after Flamingo. TiiblSt, 
C^ipid and Piyi^, by Wedgewood. Tke4iu 
olMBn ooffridor is finisliad mtfa > stnceo, and or- 
namented with prints^ *Hiere is also tkete, a 
model' of the Ftelory Mfoi war, and of a 
EienebSftMipVeonstrnoted by Frmch prisotteta* 
Medallions of Atmibai Ctmraea, R^phAel, Mi^ 
chad Angela^ and Cwrregio. Above this cor- 
rider, ate cistierns ciipable of eontaiaittg ISO 
bogehcads of water,: for the use of the hoasew * . 

Family Pafillion. AntuRaamj contains a 
good pictmre of FUk. Hercules and the jBty. 
manthean^ Boar. Laiubcapes and colouned 
prints. Theehimney-piece is of marble ffom 
^ B^aLof Derbyshire. 
' The -Jirtfaij^Mt-jReoiiH is eighteen feet ^iiaret 
finished with frmco paintings, and antique or- . 
naments, after the Bi^s of Diodesian. The 
chtfoney-^ptece of statuary marble, partly gilt. 

Lady Scarsdal^s Dtemng^Boam^ i» twenty- 
four feet W eighteen, hung with paper,. and 
contains the following paintings :«^A ImuI^ 
scape, bj C. Lorraine; and another by Caspar 
Pouss^n. Two pieces 'representing i TmrUeh 



. WtW OF SBRBYSHIRE. 305. 

CwMMMyl^yFetOTB. . JkLand^Mpe.; Bragbel; 
A UfiU^apei by Wooton. Another, by Ber- 
ckom. Nymf^voA Pawns; Van Uden. Merry 
Mgkmg; Pandolfo. Villa Madama; Wilson; 
Two Drawings of Dead Game. Plants and 
Blottonas in 'water-eolours. Santa Christiana; 
Casio Dolci* The Nativity ; Jao. l^uasan. The 
chimaey^pieee is of statuary marble, haviog an 
oval taUet of rtot of Emerald. 

JLmfy Searsdale's Bsd^Chamber^ is eighteen 
feet sqnwe, and contains, 

XMrd MiUintomny by Hone. Small pictures 
bfMoriand. 

ZcM^d Scarsdale^s Dressmg^Rown^ is twenty* 
foor ieet by eighteen, huog with* green paper, 
and .eol«fti*ed prints upon it. Landscape^ by 
Paul Brill. Venus and Cupids^ a cartoon, by 
C.Afaralti. Christ delivering the Keys to Pe«« 
ter ; Old Palmn. A Badger and Fruity by 
Snydtrs. I^ady. Scarsdale ; Hone and Hamil- 
ton. A Flemish Fair; Velvet Brughel. Two 
Heads <if tbe Fenii^of Medici; G. Hamilton. 
Hon. JMiana Curzon ; Hone. LafidscapCy by 
MareoKied. A Dutch Landscape; Varderneer. 
Atfticks. Crimson Damask Bed'Chamber^ 
contttas, a drawing in red chalk, from Ra^ 
phfsePs Fanassus. A Lady and Ckildj by Par- 

10 a r 



3*5' HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

targe Dremf^-J^om^ hw a CjfiMft Md 
Tphigenia, by Claude: and in the SmaU^Dm^ 
smg-JHaomj a Caf o, by SpagnMet ; md a^i9l. 
Cathermet byKedt. 

' In tbe OreevtBed^Chamber are ; J?#/y fViift- , 
iy, by Cdntarini. Prince ^f Orange; Cerae- 
liu8 Janseti* View of Caprea. View of the 
Coast oi Baia. 

The Dressing-Room^ contains, JRs^te Phra- 
Uaj by Zuccarrelli, after Vandyek. 

From the above short account of Kedlestoa- 
Hoosei it will be seen, that elegance and taste 
characterize every thing within and about it ; 
but to these let us not forget to observe, lliat 
comfort mnj be added : the apartments are not 
reserved for shew alone, but are constantly lafaa* 
bited by the family, sind the numerous friends, 
which his Lordshtp^s hospitality invites. -The^ 
statci rooms are not many ; and the rest of the 
house consists of excellent offices, and comfort- 
able apartments. The plan of the whole is 
easy and intelligible ; and the nkill of the ar- 
chitect, AdamSf was, perhaps never better 
displayed than by this mansion. 

Besides tJie extent of the Park, and the um- 
brageous dignity of the noble oaks, which 
adorn it, already noticed; the Lodge at the 
entrance, built by Mr. Adams, after the Arch 



view OF DERBYSHULE. 8O7 

i)f OMRMH^the Uylj «l^iit.manii0r in which 
Ae'gudf^ BM laid oat*~the admirable inge- 
oukj ' with whicih the bonadaries of the river 
are concealed— and the disposition andfibape 
ef the water, and the plantations, merit par- 
^lealar attention ; insomuch, that the stranger 
will fiad his curiosity amply gratified, and his 
trouble delightfully recompenised, by a viisit to 
KedJestoo ;* the amateur and the virtuoso^ will 
experience the sublimest gratification. 

In the Park, and almost in front of the 
House, are the Baihs^ a simple, elegant build* 
log, ambushed in fir« trees, having accooMno*' 
dationd for hot and cold bathing :— Between 
fifty and sixty years ago, it was, that the late - 
•LordlScarsdale erected this building, enclosing 
the spring. In the pilrl fronting the house, is 
a portico supported by a colonnade; and on 
each- side of the well, which is situated in the 
middle of the open area, are the baths, with 
suitable <»aveniences« 

The spring is pretty copious; and the water, 
in a glass, looks very clear and transparent ; 
bnt in the well, it appears of a blackish blue 



* His Lordship generously gratifies the Public, by a per- 
mission of inspecting the interior of his Mansion, between 
tbcteurs of eleven and two, every day, Sundays excepted. 



306 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

c(dour, tinged wilk purple; and aoy sol 
thrown into it, assumes the same afqiearanoe* 
Its smell is fcetid, and though on its first being* 
put in a glass, it appears clear, yet, when it 
has stood for some time, a duskiness comes om^ 
which is soon followed, by a total loss of scent 
and taste. That it is impregnated with sul-* 
phur in some state or form, is not only evident 
from its strong taste and smell, but likewise, 
from its changing silver to a dark copper €u^ 
lour ; and in its passage from the well, depo- 
siting a yellowish-green sediment, like alkalized 
sulphur, on the stones, and in the baths,— 
From the examination of Dr. Short, it appears^ 
that it is impregnated wilh other substances 
also. He says, that eigb t pints of it evaporated^ 
left two scruples of sediments, twenty *one 
grains of which, were a dark brownish earth, 
and the rest salt. Mr. Lipscomb says, jthat it 
contains thirty-eight grains of sea salt, and 
forty-two grains of calcareous «arth, in a gal- 
lon. In these respects it appears similar to the 
waters at Uarrowgate. 

Kedleston water is principally valued for its 
anti-scorbutic qualities. When taken inward^ 
ly, it acts as a diuretic, 9nd has afforded relief 
to persons afflicted wilh the gravel. By exter*. 
nal appJicHtion, it has been found efficacious in i 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 309 

Ta^rioQs eutaneoos diseases, but more particu- 
lai^ in ulcerous complaints : indeed, it has 
keen found highly serviceable in the cure of old 
and indolent ulcers. In the summer, it is fre- 
qnentlj used by the neighbouring inhabitants, 
as a substitute for malt liquor at their meals ; 
the. charge of carriage being but trifling, and 
affording sustenance to a few poor people of 
the Ticinity. The temperature of the water in 
the spring, is fif^y-three degrees. Two or three 
half-pint glasses may be taken in the course of 
the morning. 

' QnAnMDON, is a Chapelry in the parish of 
St Alkmund, Derby. The village contains 
about sixty houses, is esteemed very healthy, 
aad is much frequented in the summer season, 
on account of its chalybeate spring. The well . 
issitnated by the road-side, and at the distance 
of about three miles from Derby. 

This water is a carbonated chalybeate, with 
the addition of a saline substance. These waters 
aie known to be chalybeate, by their striking a 
porple or black colour with an infusion of galls, 
or other vegetable astringent; by their pecu- 
liar inky flavour; and by their depositing a 
yellowish ochre, when exposed to the air. They 
an impregnated with fixed air, iron, and such 
ingredients as are found in the most common 



010 HISTORICAL AMD DESCRIPTIVE 

qprings. It 16 by means of the #xed air^ tbit 
these waters retain the iron in solatioii; if, 
therefore, they lose the gas, which they gra* 
dually do, by mere exposure, and more quickly 
,by boiling, the iron is precipitated,' in the form 
of ochre, and the water loses all its firtoes, 
and peculiar properties. If well corfcedj they 
may be kept good for some time. 

Quamdon Water ^ is turned to a very deep 
purple, with the infusion of galls, and al the 
bottom of the glass a dark greeii colour is pro- 
duced. From the experiments made by Br^ 
Short, it appears, that a pint contains one 
grain of fixed salt, and that two gallons, whta 
evapourated, left half a dram of light-eolonved 
sediment, half of which was nitrous earth.^-* 
The temperature is nearly forly^nine and a 
half. 

This water, when taken in sufficient qoan* 
tities, is found by some to be purgatire; others, 
however find, that without using a goiMl deal of 
exercise, it does not pass through the stomach 
with ease. Its medical Tirtues^ are ohiefiy as a 
tonic, producing a genial glow, improvitig^tlre 
digestion, and giving' strength and tone to the 
whole system. It is particularly serviceable in 
chlorosis, and other diseases of females; infla* 
tulency and indigestion, and in all cases of de* 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. .^ . 5tt 

bflUy horn ine . Uf iig or debauchery. Personi^ 
of a iwakand rdattd babit, have been mucli 
beoefitid by the v^ of the Quaradda water. 
Aft^r drioking it a few d^a, they have fbfind 
their spirits and stren^h return in a surprising 
manner: and in the BpAce of a month, a cure 
has bem enii^ly effected. 
. The proper qnanftity to be taken is, from a 
a pint and a half, to three pints daily : and the 
Me of the water, should not be continued, more 
thte from ax to eight weeks, without a consi- 
Arable intermission. . 

. The Chalybeate at Qoarndon, is a good deal 
^qiJMBnted every sucamier. It is drank, not only 
by. tbese, who take lodgings in the village for 
that purpose, bnt sometimes also, by company 
who resort to Kedleston, which is not more 
thant a mile distant. 

..Kirk Lajngley, in Domesday called Lang* 
to', where, at that time, ^^ Levenot had four 
earocmtes, of land to to be taxed; Land. to 
HX piottghs. There is now one plough in the 
dettesii0i aiid two villanes, and four bordars 
have two ploughs. Wood paiture one mile long, 
and three qnarentens broad, a&d an equal 
qdaatilfy ^f coppice wood. Value in king £d« 
jWard's time, IWk. now 40s.^'* 



^ Land of Ralph tie soii of Hubert. Ofig. 937» a. 1. 
^Trails. 320. 



sia HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

The living of Kirk Lwgley is a rectory, m^ 
Itied in the king's books at ^13. tk. Id. and 
yearly tenths £1. A$. 2d. In the church there 
are several monuments of the Meynil and Beces- 
ford families. The parish, which is a single 
hamlet, contains from sixty to seventy houses. 

MuGoiNTON. ^* In Mogmlvn^^ say the Nor- 
man surveyors, ^* Gamel had two carucates of 
land to be taxed. Land to three ploughs. Then 
is now one plough in the dem^Mie, and e^lit 
Tillanes, and eight bordars have two ploughs. 
There is a church and a priest, and one mfllof 
three, shillings, and three acres of meadow.-— 
Wood pasture, one mile and a half long, and 
one mile broad. Value in king Edwaid-s tioie 
forty shillings, now twenty shillings. Chetel 
holds it."» 

In the parish of M ugginton are included the 
hamlets of Mercaston a^d Weston*under-Wood» 
which, together with that of M ugginton, are 
supposed to consist of about one hundred and 
twenty houses. The living is a rectoify. Its 
value in the king's books is ^. \ils. 6id. The 
church is dedicated to All-Saints; and formerly 
paid 68. 8d. to the priory of Tntbury. 

MaacASTON, called in Domesday ,f Merche^ 

* Domesday, Land of Henry De Ferieres, Orig. ^6. a» 
1. Trans. 312. t Orig. ^6, a. 1, Trans, dl2« 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 313 

tuHttne^ was-held at that time hf Gamel under 
the Earl of Ferrers. There was one plough in 
the demeane, lind^six villaipea and fonr bordara, 
having one plough. There were fourteen acres 
of meadow, and the site of one mill. 

h is thought to have been, in ancient times, 
a place of greater importance than it is at pre- 
sent. Several old coins have been found in one 
part of lh« village ; and it is generally supposed 
to have once contained a seat of one bnftich of 
the Kniveton family. At a small distance from 
the village, a part of an ancient road may be 
traced, which probably led to some other 
eunnent place in the neighbourhood* 

SoRAPToir, which is situated near the banks 
of the Dove, lies detached from the other pa- 
rishes of which t'^e Deanery of Derby consists; 
At the conquest, Scrotune was a place of con* 
siderri>Ie consequence. . There were thirty ^two 
villanes and twenty bordars there. There were 
also a priest, and a church, and one mill, and 
the site of another mill : Valued altogether at 
ten pounds.* Henry de Ferieresf who then 
10 ss 

* Domesday. Trans. 303. 
f He was one of the commissionen appointed to take a 
general aurvey of England, and iteeived Tutbuiy Castle al 
a gift from the Conql^eror. He possessed one hundred and 
fourteen Lordships in Derbyshire} besides several in other 
counties.^— Dug. Bar. v. I. p; 975. 



914 HISTOUCAL AND OKSCRinnVE 

held t\m mimt.t betto^ed flie tiAe .irf Im 
Leidiliq[l'of Son^Mim to the Prioiy of l^ittMiiy^ 
in the ciefveiith eeiitiiry« . The ehUrab ii^ dfedfr- 
cated t9 St. Pavlv^sod in fori^ev timei^ belong- 
ed to the^ chantevy of dcnqiteii. The whole 
pavMb donMtB o# the liberties of Scrapton end 

FoBtOB. 

At FoeTOK» whioh is soppoiied to be the Fa- 
tulmutmot DoiMsday, was borm in the year 
1640, ^^ Arthnr Agard, Ibrt^five yearfrDepaty 
Chamberlain of the Exche<)aer, who died iti 
1051. Mr. Camden calk him 4MiqwmuB in- 
ngnii. Walter Achard, or Agard, cfeim^ to 
hold by inheritanoe the office of BscHeator and 
Cbronep of the whole Honor of Tutbai^, in 
the county of Stafibrd, and of the Bailiwick 
of L^tke) for which he prodneed niyotfaer df^i- 
dence, than a white hunting hoi^ adorned 
with silver giltin the mid^, ^nd^i^eacli end 
with a bell of black silk,. set wiA sitter gilt 
buckles^ and the arms of Edmoadi second son 
of Henry III. This horn is now in: the posses* 
sion of Mr. Foxk>we, of Staveley , in this county, 
who enjoys the posts of Feodary, or Bailifi-in- 
Fee, Escheator, Coroner, and CTerk ^ the 
Market of Tutbury Honor, by this tenure, and 
by Tiftne of hisr being in posses&itew of tbiri 
Horn, which he purchased of Christopher Stan- 
hope^ of Elvaston, Esq. into whose family itk 



wafiMj amarrij^^ i^th.the heiress of Agard. 
The arms,' as Kfipre^eoted b^ Mn Pegge,^ are 
lealljr thos^ ^ tlie jHouse of Laocasjter, impaling 
Fenfur^ Qf.Tami^ortbt w^o probably held, those 
offices before Agard; for Niqholas Agard of 
Tulbtti7« who was llyiog in 1560, piarried. Eli- 
zabeth, daughter and co-heiress of , Roger .Fer<- 
rars, ctleTepthsoQ of Sir Thpinas F^rrars of 
Taniworth/'-f 

Cqadde^pen, palled in Domesday C^cf^sdei^, 
is a small Cbapelry* of about the distance of 
two miles f^am Derby. The churcl\ is (}gdi<;a» 
ted tp Su Mary ;- ^nd i& said to have been ^bjailt 
before the lime of Edward the Third: For in 
the twenty -'ninth ye^r of bis reign, a grant was 
made of oae m^mage and thirteen a^res of 
land, to three .chaplains in the chunch of Chad- 
4esden ; and in.the foarth year of Richard the 
Second, were given by different persons,. for 
the singers at the Altar of the blessed M^ry in 
the cha|>el of Chaddesden two messaages, 9{ie 
toft, and sixty acres of land, held of the Duke 
of Lancaster. 

At Chaddesden is the seal of Sir Robert 
Mead Wilmot,.a descendant of the same family 
as the Baronet of the same name, mentioned 

* Archaeologia^ 3. 6. f Gou'^^h's Additions to Camden. 



^ 



->::i 



S16 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

foefbfe;*' The mansion is pleasantly situated, 
and has a bandsorae appearance. 
' LdCKO, is a Chapelrj, consisting of a few 
houses. Here it is supposed, was situated the 
Preceptory or Hospital of Laekhay: it was de- 
dicated to St. Mary Magdalene, and is said to 
bave been of the order of St. Lazarus of Jeru- 
salem, and subject to a foreign House in France, 
to which was annually paid from hence, a rent 
of JBSO. But upon a war breaking out between 
France and England in the reign of Edward 
III. the revenue of the Hospital was seized, aod 
given by the king to King's Hall, in the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge. 

Locko^Parkj is the seat of W. Drury Ixine, 
Esq. and anciently of the Gilberts and Coopers, 
The surrounding grounds consist of agreeable 
slopes, and pleasant inequalities, enlivened by 
an extensive artificial lake. The style of plaut- 
ing,. or rather of pruning, which was adopted 
during the last century, is, however, too apa- 
rent : the rows of trees in some places, forming 
right-angled triangles, and the clumps appear- 
ing tasteless and formal. 

Stanley. During the Norman survey, Stan^ 

hi^ belonged to Robert son of William, and 

■ . ■ - 

• Page 276. 
t Domesday. Orig. 278. a. 1. Trans. 324, 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 317 

was valued at teo flbillingB. The church at 
Stanley is dedicated to St, Andrew, and its 
' clear value is ^10. The whole libertj contains 
aboot fifty houses. 

OcKBBooKfOT' Ockbruke^oT (as it is in Domes- 
day) Ochebrocj i» a parish* including the ham- 
let of Borrowash. The living is a curacy, and 
the.chun^h is dedicated to All-Satnts. It for- 
merly belonged to the Abbey at Derley. WiU 
liam de Grendon gave the village to Dale- 
Alibey. 

The Moraviansj* have established a society, 



* The Moravians sirosei under Nicholas Lewis, Count 
of Zinzerdorfi a German Nobleman, who died in the year 
1760* Thiy were for sometime called Htmhuttrs^ from 
Hcmhuth^ the name of a village, ^here they were first iet» 
tied. The followers of Count Zinzerdorf are called Mo- 
nviansy because the first converts to his system, were Mo-^ 
nvian families: the society,, however, assert, that, they 
srt descended froqi the Old. Moravian and Bohemian Bre- 
thren, who existed as a distinct sect, sixty years prior to 
the Reformation, They also style them^lves Unitas Fro* 
trum, or the United Brethren: and, iji general, profess to 
adhere to the Augsburgh confession of faith. When the 
first Reformers were assembled at Augsburgh in Germany, 
the Protestant Princes employed Melancton, a divine of 
learning and moderation, to draw up a confession of their 
faith, expressed in terms as little offensive to the Roman 
Catholics as their regard for trutl) would permit : And thit 
creed, from the place where it was presented, is called, the 
Confession of Augsburgh^ It is not easy to point ou> the . 
leading tenets of the Moravians, 0|>inions and practices 



I HISTORICAL AND. DCSCRIFTIVE 

d erected a place of «M>r«htp, at Ockbrook ; 
»y have a «iiiii$ter .of their own, to wboae 
pport tbey all contribute; and are under tho^ 
re and direction of a governor and ffMemem; 
le Moravian brethien, are clufifly employed 
ibe mstntf Aifetare of stockings, and tbe sUU 
s, in tambour, needle- vvork, and embroideiy. 
$AWLBT, in Domesday called Sa/Ze, is a very 
tensive parish : containing tbe chapdries of 
Une^ Long'Eaton^ Breoion^ Riiley^ and the 
mlets of Drayeot and Hopewell. At the tiiHie 



re been attributed to them, of an exceptional natitit» ' 

ich the more sensible of them disavow. They direct 

fr worship to Jesus Christ (addressing hymns even to the 

und or hoU in the side of the Saviour) ; are much at- 

hed to instrumental as well as vocal musit, in tbeir reli* i 

us services ; and discover a predilection for forming , 

mselves into classes, according to sex, age, and charac- 

They revive their devotion by celebrating Agapa^ or I 

e-feasts ; and the casting of lots is used among them, to . 

)w the will of the Lord. The 5oIe right of contract* 
marriage lies with the elders. The men and women al- 
fssit separately at their places of worship. They have 
> distinct habitations, and all mutual intercourse is deem- 

anlawful. The conduct of the Moravians as religionists, ' 

in general, honorable to their virtue and piety : But to 
itional observer their devotion stems to spring, more 
m enthusiasm, than from just views of a supreme Being* 
long this sect, it is thought, Mr. Wesley first imbibed 
)se extravagant notions, which he afterwards preached 
:h such success ; and which from their tendency to pos- 

I the minds of the ignorant and superstitious, bid fair to i 

:lude every trace of rational religion from our country. 



^nlXP OOP DBtAYStllHlii $f^ 

of Ike KemaJQ'MlrMT; fhiM ftmre '' itt Stttte, 
and Dracoi^ and Opeuuelk^ a j^riest and tvm 
' dmiches, a mill, ob« fi^i^*; and Ibirtj -acres 
of meadow/^* The living of Sawlej is a cu- 
racy, and the church is dedicated to AlUSahits. 
The churah ac WilM is dedicated' to St. Chad : 
that at Long- Eaton to St. Lawrence : and that 
at Breason te St. AftidMeK 

Risky. ^' Henry de Laci Earl of Lincoln, 
at his death was seized of a certain Wi^^take 
at Rislej, in the «owMy of Derby, held etery 
three week of the mano^df Knesale and Wa« 
pentake of Alkrtoo;: in the county of Notting* 
bam.^' in the reign^ of Edward the Thirds 
Rbley watf graMed^ M €reflfrfeys son of Ro^r 
Mortini»,£antl4if M^rch-,*b^hig']p!e^of the land 
of th«EHi»l of iCent Mt^iiafe#. ^ Some tttne ^ 
terwards it becdib^ the pVofperty of thcf Lords 
of Sheffield, ancestors te 'Hre Duke of Buck<^ 
inghafffivof whom H^as'piih^hased by the WiU 
leughbgrs df RMltey in' tht^ yeaV 1567. ' Of ihtsi 
ian^ >was iSir Hugh Willoughby, «irho iiS the 
last year of Ediif^rd' Vl.' wa^ eitoplbyed in keek^ 
ing a DQ!Vtli«.^Mt paifsajgte' in- tlve' frox^notenn, 
borwatf starVkl'tb d^latli^^itli stUhis counijaay; 
near Wicmik&USi irt Scandid;f iihd whdse m<>- 

♦' bom^ay. Crigi «73. h. I. *Trans. 296. » . 
f Camden, p. 49S. 



380 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

laocbolj fiite is thos deltaeated bj ThomfMm, 

in his Seasons: 

« MtsenUeth^I 

Who, here entangled in the gathering ioe^ 

Take their last look of the deicending tun ; 

While, full of Death, and fierce with tenfold frott. 

The long, long night, sncumbeot o'er their heads 

Falls horrible. Such was the B n t t o m 's fi te ; 

As with first prow, (what have not Bnton's dar'd 1) 

He for the passage aought, attempted since 

So much in vain, and seeming to be shut 

By jealous Nature with eternal bars. 

In tl^se fell regions, in Arsina caught. 

And to the stony deep his kils ih|p 

Immediate seal'd, he with his hapless crew, 

Each full exerted at his aevenl Usk, 

Frotc into sutues | to the cordage glu'd 

The sailor, and the pilot to the hdm-" — Winter, 9iO. 

The family of the Willooghbjs, is now ex- 
tinct : the last of them, a daughter, dying in 
1720, or 1721, unmarried. She is represented 
as a very charitable woman ; and the foundress 
of the free-schools at Risley. 

Near tHe site of an ancient Manor*House be* 
longing to the Lords Sheffield* in the mote at 
Risley- Park, was found in the year 1729, a 
large silver dish, or salver, of antique basso 
relievo, and of Roman workmanship. Dr, 
Stukely, by whom an account of it was read 
before the Antiquarian Society, observes, thai 
it was twenty inches long, and fifteen 'broad; 
and weighed seven pounds. Upon the face. 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 1» 

them were a variety of figures, repreflentiiig ru^ 
ral jports, employmenls, and religious rites.^-*- 
It stood upon a square basis or fiipt; andramsi 
the bottom, and on tbe.outside» th^ ittNsnfiK 
taon was rudely cut with a sharp, pdnted i»- 
strnment, in Roilian characters of the fonrHi 
century:— % 

. UU^yPBRITS BViSCOPTd ECCLESI^ BOftlBNSIS 
DBDIT. 

Intimating^ that it '* was giren by Exsuperius, 
who was Bishop of Bayeuz and Toulouse in 
the year 405, to thechurdiof Booges:'^ near 
which a battle was fought in the year MSlj 
between the Scots, under the Duke D^Alenson^ 
lEflio were quartered in pie chusefa^ amd the 
English, under Thomas, Duke of Clarence^ bro» 
ther to Henry the Fifth, who was slain them. 
At this time it is supposed to have been taken 
Irons the chqijcb as a trophy^ and given^ to Dale 
Abbey* 

A few miles to the South of Risley^iACAVBii- 
joish-Brioob; so named jfromiits having been 
Jmilt by the Cairendidi family afa^utfifiy yeisss 
•ago. ForoMrly there was u fen)i at thia place, 
YvJiich, from theoverflomngofvthevTrenty.was 
11 T t 



* Stukeley's Disien^tioiM on it,-i^uoted by Gough. 



829 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIFnVE 

sometinMB very inconvenient. Tfae present 
bridge is a handsome modern fabric of three 
aschesy composed of free-stone, brought from a 
neighbbartng quarry : it crosses the Trent, and 
miites the counties of Derby and Leicester. 
Near the bridge, the great Staffordshire Navi« 
gation, or Grand Trunk Canal, falls into the 
Trent, and, by its various connecting branches, 
facilitates the removal of goods to every part of 
,the. kingdom. Some good houses hav^ been 
ereoted here, by the geutlemen viho have the 
direction of the wharf; which, together with 
other buildings raised near them, go under the 
name of Cavendish-Bridge. 

Sandiacrb. At the time of the Norman 
•survey, there were at Sandiacre^ *^ a priest, 
.and a church, and one mill of five shilh'ngs 
•and foK^r-pence, and thirty acres of meadow, 
and an equal quantity, of coppice- wood.'^* 
^* Near this'^ (Risley) says Camden,t '^ stands 
SatuUacre^ or as others would have it Saini^ 
Didcrej the seat of that noble family, the Oreys 
oiSandiacrej whose estate came to Edward 
Hilary in right of his wife; his son took the 
name of Gny; one of whose daughters wad 

* Domesday, Orig. 278. a. 2. Trans. 327. 
f Britanaia, 492. 



VIEW OP DERBYSHIRE. Sii 

heirs some years after, was married to Sir Jahn* 
Leak, KU the other to John WehhJ' The Hy- 
ing of Sandiacre is a curacj, of the cleftr Ta» 
lue of <£23. The Prebendarj of Litchfield Ca* 
thedral, is patron and proprietor 

West-Hallam, in Domesdaj called HaleUi 
is a small i^illage, containing from seventy to 
etgbtjr houses. The living is a rectoiy, and the 
cborch is dedicated to St Wilfred. 

Heanor. This parish contains the hamlets, 
Codnar, Loseoe, Langley, JMilnhayikhA Skip'^ 
ley, ' When Domesday was compiled, there 
was a church at Hainoure :^ and it appears, 
from the history of the foundation of Dale- 
Abbey, that there was a chapel as well as a 
church there, in the reign of Henry the Second, 
belonging to the parish of St. Mary in the town' 
of Derby. In the thirteen! h year of Edward 
IV. the church was appropriated to the Abbey 
at Dale. The living is a vicarage, and the 
king is the patron. 

Codnor, in Domesday Cotenovre^ is a smalF 
hamlet, remarkable for the ruins of a Castle. 
In the early part of the thirteenth century there 
was a Castle here ; and in the reign of Henry 
the Third, it was the chief seat of Richard de 

• Qng, 27fe» *. 1. Trans. 314. 



9t4 HISTOtlCAL AND DSSCRimVE 

Gn^f .whow doaccttdaats^ tbe BaroiMi Gtey q€ 
Cod9or» posseflsed it till the eleventh. of Ibniy 
th» SeTenifa, when it passed to Sir John Zoneb, 
(the yojongoit son of Williaoi Lord. ZoQch of 
Harriogworth), who had married the aant o>£ 
the l9st possessor of this family. John Zoneb, 
Esq. the last of the £unily who resided atCod* 
imRf sold his land ,and coal in the neighbour- 
hood about, the year 16S2, and leaviaqg the 
kingdom, settled in Ireland. It afterwards be- 
came the property of the Masters^ one of whom, 
it is said, inhabited the Castle in the year 1712: 
but even then it was in a ruinous stiite, and 
since that period, it has almost entirely fallen 
ifito ruins. 

Codnor Castle was situated on elevated ground 
commanding an extensive prospect to the £ast. 
Thewallron the East side, is yet standing to a 
considerable height; and in the inride me se- 
Vjeral recesses, formed in a singular manner^ — 
These remains indicate its having been a place 
of considerable extent. To the South, there 
appears to h^ive been an extensive square court, 
from which were two entrances, or gates, iftto 
the Castle, The wall on 4he West side of the 
court, which is yet entire, has two large reces- 
ses in it, supposed to have been used as watch- 
houses. On the eastern side was a broad deep 



vVIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 995 

ditch or inoat : and pnthebank gn^w adonbl?' 
row of treesy wbieb were out down about ttm 
year 1738. The park belonging to the CaMle 
was very extensive ; comprehending about two 
thousand and two hundred acres of land. 

Shipley was formerly the «eat of the Vava* 
Mttr«9 and afterwards of the SireU^s^. oae^of 
whom was inarried to the heiress of VavasoAn 
In the time of Charles the Second^ Shipley was 
the property of Sir Edward Leche, Knt. Master 
in Chancery, whose heiress married one Miller; 
and the heiress of Miller married Edward M un» 
dy, Esq. (a younger branch of^the Mundjrs 
of Marfceatoii) whose only son, Edward Miller 
Mundy, Esq. is the present possessor ; .and hm 
represented the county of Derby in several Par- 
liaments. 

^ KiJELK Hali^am. This parish contains the 
hamlet of Maperley : The living is a vicarage ; 
and the choreb is dedicated to AlUSaints. It6 
clear value is.dll. 6s. 2d. and yearly tenths 
8f. Hid. Sir Windsor Uunloke is the patmn. 
The church was formerly impropriated to the 
Abbey at^Dale. 

luusTOK, in Domesday called TiicheHiune^ 
is an extensive village. Tbe parish contains 
the hamlets oi C^tmenhay and. Uttk Hallam. 
Near the end of tbe fourth centorj, there was 



8tt HlStOKICAL AMD DBSCRIPTIVE 

^£40. iflsoing oat of the towtt of Derby .^ John 
de Hollaod^.tfaird mhi of Tbomaiveaii of Kent, 
ia the fifteenth year of Richard IK had a grant 
of Honieton caetle (or life. In the. thirty-fifth 
year of Henry VI. Edmund Hallaoi, earl of 
Richmond, died possessed of the castle and 
lordship of Horeston. In the year 1514, the 
eastle of Horeston and manor of Horsley were 
granted, in special tail, to be held by the ser- 
vice o£ one knight's fee, by Henry VUL to the 
duke of Norfolk. They were part of the re- 
ward, which was bestowed on him for the very 
in^rtant serviccy which he had rendered the 
Jking during bis expedition into Franoe, having 
prevented the ineumon of the Scots, and de- 
fisated them at Flodden^ near the Cheviot hills. 
On this remarkable occasion one archbishop, 
two bishops, four abbots, James IV. king of 
^Scotland, and about ten thousand men were 
«Iaan, and their whole artillery taken. Upon 
the attainder of the son of the duke of Nor- 
folk, these possessions most probably escheated 
to the crown, and were granted to some of the 
•Sttfihope familj. At least Thomas Stanbope 
iwaspoesessed of the castle in the tenth year of 
^ueea.EIiz^beth. At whit time it was destroy- 

^ • Bwt Ang. vol. 1. page 786. 



VI&W OF DERBYSHIi^ 39» 

ed, I bure not been able to discover. At pre- 
sent a very small part of the rains is visible;- 
The scite of it belongs to the earl of Chester- 
field/* 

Pbhtridgb, Pencrizy and in Domesday Pen^ 
irice^ is a parish containing the hamlet ofRip^ 
k(f. The living is a vicarage, and the church 
is dedicated to St. Matthew. It formerly be- 
longed to Derley Abbey. The Duke of De- 
vonshire is the patron. Waingriff in this pa- 
rish, was presented by Ralph Fitz-Stephen, to 
the Knights Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusa- 
lem, for the erection of jsi house of thiit order 
at this place. There is a Calvinists' place of 
worship at Pentridge. 

Ripx-BY, or Ripelie^ is a very considerable 
hamlet, which owing to the extensive coal and 
iron works carried on in the neighbourhood, 
has of late years experienced a very great in- 
crease of population. The iron works at But- 
terley, belonging to the Messrs. Jessop and 
Co. employ a great dumber of hands, while 
the different collieries find occupation for se- 
veral more. There is a Unitarian Chapel, and 
also a Methodist Meeting House, at Ripley. 

Chich. In the time of the Normaii Purvey, 
Leuric and Levenot held a lead-mine at CriceJ'^ 
11 vu ' 

• Domesday, Orig. 277. *. 1. Traw, 318. 



a||» HISTOMC^L AND OESCRIPTIVE 

la dro reign of Slepbwi, Rohart Feiv«r% Ettl 
. qI Derby, gete tbe church of Crich to the Ab* 
bqr.et^ Derlejt wA it is rappoeed, that it was 
about thif time, that a church was/ first erected 
tbart« In the forty-second year of the reign of 
E^icacd the Third* a chantry was founded in 
. ^ chvrch. The living is a vicarage, and is 
dedicated to St. Mary. 

. The town of Crich has the appearance of 
antiquity; and is supposed to have been known 
to the Romans. Some years ago, a^ collection 
of iKMsieiit coins, was found in the neighbour* 
hood ; and by the superscription, it appeared^ 
that some 9f them were coined in tbe reigns of 
Damitiany Adrian^ nnd Diochsian. 

The inhabitants are supported, chiefly, by 
working lead-mpnes, burning limeRtbne, and 
the manufacture Df stockings. 

A little to the IVorth of tl)e^ town is CricK^ 
elifff one of the highest hills in the Low^Pesik: 
on its summit, is a Tower of Observation, wjiich 
was erected /Mine years ago; it is seen from se- 
veral points of the surrounding country, and 
from tbe top, the eye is gratified with a very 
extensive prospect, commanding a view of parts 
of the CQunties of Leicester, SiafiSird, and 

The town and liberty of Crich, consists of 
about ninety houses ; and tbe parishjcontaina 



VIEW OF D£itBY§HIRK. 9b\ 

clie Unlleffl of, Cedmgtahj Fntehlof, WhidU 
crofts Edg^'Moar^ We$imgtm^ Und Tknak^. 

9i^es:\irBLL, iii Dometdiiy called, Bbuh* 
iuueiy^ 18 a parish, contaiaing bat one ham- 
let of the same Hame. The livhig of Bliltk- 
well is a vicarage, and the church is dedicated 
to St. Werbnrgh. In former times, it belonged 
to the .priory of Tkurgartonj in Nottiiighaflii- 
shire. The clear value is JEIO. Os. and yearly 
tenths 10^. 5d. The Duke of Devonshire is 
the patron. 

Brah^on,* Brandune, or Bruntune^^ is it 

■BB— gaMagggMgggjgBggg I I', II saegasa— ggggggeg^eaa^ 
^ About tbc yen- ITSO, the Rev. Mr. CA&TWCioaTy 
wfiU known as the inventor of that zbaiter-piece 0f mecha* 
BSfitl ingenuity, th^ Machine for Combing of Wool, and 
IS the author of that degant and justly admired Poem 
^ndme stut EhtrOf resided at^ and (1 believe) bad tb# ba- 
iley of, Brampton : and it wae here he made that moi^ Vi-* 
tuable {^overy, that yeast aA>rdii an antidote for the moat 
(bngfTons disease, with which the human body can be af» 
fiietcd. • Tbe hct it thus comnmnicited to the world, from 
himself, in the Gentleman's Magazine for September 1796r. * 

*' Seventeen years ago I went, " says this benevolent 
clngymuv, *' to reside at Brampton, a populous village 
nut Chesterfield. I had not been there many months before 
3 putrid fever broke out amongst tis; Finding by &r the 
greater number of ,my parishioners too poor to affonl them- 
selves medical assistance, I undeitook by the help of such 
Wks on the subject of medicine as were in my possession, 
to prescribe for them. I early attended a boy about fouf. 
tien yews of age, who was attacked by^he fevci-. He had 
f See Domesday, Trans, p. 315, and 522. 



m HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

Tery exfeDsive parish, and the most tiorthera 
in the Deanery of Derby. The living is a cu- 
r^ty, and the church is dedicated to St. Peter. 
King Henry 11. gave it, with all its appurte- 
nances, to the Cathedral at Linccrfn ; and the 



not bern ill many days, before the symptoms were evident* 
ly putrid. I then administered bark, wine, and such other 
rmedi^s as my books directed. My exertioni were, how- 
ever, of no avail ; his disorder grew every day more un- 
tractable and malignant, so that I waf in hourly expecta- 
tion of his dissolution. Being under the necessity of taking 
t.jouniey, before I set qff I went to aee him, as I thought 
for the last time ; and I prepared his parents for the event 
of his death, which I considered as inevitable, and recon- 
cikd them, in the best manner I was able, to a loss which I 
knew they would £eel severely. While I was in conversa* 
tion on this distressing subject with his mother, I observed, 
in a small comer of the room, a tub of wort working. The 
sight brought to my recollection an experiment I hadsoqi^ 
where met with, * of a piece of putrid meat being made 
sweet, by being suspended over a tub of wort in the act of 
fermentation/ The idea flashed into my mind, that the 
yeast might correct the putrid nature.of the disease; and I 
imtantly gave him two large spoonfuls. I then told the 
mother, if she found her son better, to repeat thi* doie 
every three hours. I then set out on my journey. Upon 
my return, after a few days, I anxiously enquired after the 
boy, and was informed he was recovered. I could not re- 
press my curiosity, though I wa> greatly btigued with my 
journey, and night wu cpme on. I went directly to where 
he lived, which was three miles off, in a wild part of the 
moors. The boy himself opened the door, looked »ur« 
prisingly well, and told ae, he felt betur from the instaut 
he took theyeast.^'^ 



VIEW or DERBYSHIRE. ssii 

Dean ii nav the patron. Tbe church contains 
Beyeral ancient monnments, chiefly relating to 
the hmily of Clarke of SomerBall. The pa- 
rish contains three hundred and twenty-five 
houses ; and in that part of ii which lies near 
Chesterfield, there has been a considerable in« 
crease in population, owing to the iron works. 
This part of the country is said to be remark- 
ably healthy, and the grave-stones in. the 
cbarch-yard, afibrd many instances of great 
loogevily. 

Allbstrt, Allesireey or as it is called in 
Domesday, Adelarde$treUy is a village, situated 
about two miles to the North of Derby. The 
living is a donative curacy ; and the church is 
dedicated to St. Andrew. It formerly was one 
of the churches belonging to the Abbey at 
Darley. 

' Brbaosall. At the time of the Norman 
survey, ^' there was at £ratifesAa/e a church and 
a priest, and one mill of thirteen and fourw 
pence, and twelve acres of meadow.* 

There was a House of Friers Heremites foun- 
ded here, in the reign of king Henry the Third; 
which, afterwards was converted into a small 
Priory, for the Order of St. Austin, and dedi* 

* Domesday, Orig. S75, «• 3. Tnuis. S09. 



|M HISTORICAL &MD DBSCUPTIVE 

fatfd to the Holy Trinity. It wm eadoiMA 
with oae mepsiMge and twenty aeres of imid 
in Hoidey fOMl llentoa ;^ with tenemeiits in 
Derby, Chaddeideo, SpondoD^ Doffield, Wind* 
ley, Bretdeall, Morley, ^iidllaBlewoed;^ with 
teBements in Mug^nton, and a nuMety of the 

<Dborch4 

The Priory at Breadeall wae also endowed 
with three meaBuages, two oottagcjs, and eletrnt 
aereeof hind in Derby; with one cottage and 
eight acres of land in Cbaddeeden ; with one 
toft and two acree of meadow land, and ten 
aeies of paisture in Windley ; with one toft and 
two acresof land in Breadsall ; and with one 
acre and a rood of land in Haailewood. 

Bot at the diawlatioatit wae found, that the 
vevenue of all these posiessions, did not amonnt 
to niopre than JEIS. 0$. Bd. total, or to £lQ. 17f . 
9d. clear* The Priory at Breadsall was git en, 
in the sixth year of Edward the Sixth toHaniy^ 
Dnke of Suffolk. 

The l>arish of Breadsall is but smalls MOf 
sisting of a single hamlet. The living is a rec* 
tory, and the church is dedicated to AH-SaintAr 

LiTTLB Eaton, is a diapelry, under St» 

^ Pat. 2nd, Edwani UL f PaU l^lh,. Rich^rdJI. 
t Paf. Slid, Haary IV.^ 



VIEW OF DERBYailKE. $H 

AHuiiiiidV, Derby. It coBtans aboift Homy 
i; aad has, pf l«te years, experienced an 
f of popalatbo, fmm its vicinity to tba 

Divruz.D» is Domesday called Duuelkf 
wheia at ibattimev there were a priest and a 
chnrch and two mills,* i& a very extensive pa* 
i6ah; (Mnprebending the chapel ries of Heagt^ 
IMper^ Holbrooke and Tnmditch; and tlia 
faamlets of Makenejf, Millford, Windley, Shot^ 
Ikf and' Pmiem. 

In former times, Duffield was a place of great 

CMseqaence ; as it. was the rei^ence of the 

Ferrers, Earls of Derby, On elevated ground^ 

at the north-west end of the village, stood their 

Castle:, bat a piece of groimd, which now 

hears the name of CMtle-^Orchardj is the mIc 

remaining help. to point out its site* At the 

eam^ttsion of the thirteenth century, or the 

begiairing of the following, this fortress was 

destroyed. For Robert de Ferrers, the l^t; 

Earl of Defby,f joining the barons in a rebel* 

lion against Henry the Third; that mons^ch, 

in 1064, sent his son, afterwards Edward tfaii 

First, ** into the connty of Derby, in order to 

ravage with fire and jBword the lands of theEarl 



^ Domesday, Orig. S75, a. S. Tnmi. 309* f See p. sd6. 



S36 HISTORICAL ANO DESCRIPTIVE 

of thftt name, and take revenge of him for hnf 
didoyalty/'^ At this time, I thihkt it most 
likelythat this Castle was demolished: and so 
complete was the rain, that not a vestige can 
now be traced of its ancient grandeur ; not a 



• Hume, vol. XL p. 203. 

+ Mn Pilkington siys, thtt «* Robert de Ferrers the se- 
cond Earl, in the nineteenth yctr of the reign of Henry 
II, hearing that the territorief of the king of France were 
invaded by the adherenU of young Henry, whom his ^ 
ther caused to be crowned during hin own life, joined in 
rebellion against his sovereign, and manned his Castle in 
Duffield. However, some time afterward, to obtain the 
favor and pardon of the king, he surrendered his fgrtren 
to him, and he commanded it immediately to be demolish- 
ed. This order was carried into execution in August 1525*" 
There must be some mistake in this statement: for ** Ro* 
bert de Ferrers the second Earl" wu dead thirty-four years 
before 1173 (the nineteenth of Henry II.) But if Mr. ?• 
means, the second Earl of tke name of Rohctt^ who iitd in 
the nineteenth of Henry II. the account u still attended 
with a difficulty; as he says, that he sonu time afterward 
(after the nineteenth of Henry II., in which year he died,) 
endeavoured to obtain a pardon. And besides all this, the 
time when the king's orders for immediate dtmolishment H 
carried into execution is August 13SS, one hundred and 
fifty-two years subsequent to the nineteenth of Henry IL 
From the whole it appears, that the period which Mr. P. 
assigns for the demolishment of .Ouffield Castle, which 
seems to have taken place at the close of the letgn of Henry 
III., or the commencement of Edward the First's, is nearly 
correct: and that the error lies, in the auigning it to a 
wrong reigup 



VIEW OP DUlBYSHiRB; . syji 

itOM MDi^, to teU the in^isitire asti^a^^ 
riapj wjleiei oiiee it stood. And though a 
haughty Feri^rs might liere have once plumed 
hinifielf upon the eattent of his power, and the 
splendoiHT of his retinae, — 

'< Now, what avails that o*er the> vassal-plain, 

His rights and rich demesnes extended wide ?* ' 
That Hon^r and her Knights compos'd his train. 
And Chivalry stood marshall'd by his side? 

'* Tho' to the clouds his castle seexn'd to dixnb^ 
And frown'd defiance on the desperate foe ; 
Though deem'd invincible, the conq'roc Time ' 
JLevcU'd the fabric as the fptinder low.'^ 

Cn^NIJfCSAIi. 

It appears from Dopiesday and som^ other 
records/^ that there was formerly in the.netghr 
bourhpod of Du£BeId an extensive forest ; and thf 
appearsince of charcoal- hearths, now visible after 
the ground is ploughed, confirms the tradition^ 
that the syrrounding hills, were once entirely 
covered with wood^ Tbe^e fprests^ appear to 
have belonged to tfee Earls of Derby ; for in the / 
twenty-si^tl^ yea^ of Henry IIL William de 
Ferrer^ g^e t^e IMppi^ of Tixtl^ipry, for the 
health of the soul of Agne^ bis wife, and those 

* See. grant flf^WMd «9 the Mi^i^tcryi of St^ Ifetcns,. 
fi^tS^ 137. 



Ma HISTOUCAL fANO DESCRIPTIVE 

olUs aiiMitorst tithe of all puniuige, venuioiir 
hoa»j^ and rent arising out of tlie forest- of 
Doffield. WiUiaui Lord Hastings, who wa« 
beheaded bj Richard the Third, was eoostable 
of Tatbarjr, chief ibrrester of Duffield, and 
sarvejor of that honor, with a salarj of twelve 
povnds a year, for life, 

Daffield was once the property of the Earls 
of Lancaster ; and the^ manor, the advowison of 
the church, the whole forest, with other Iand» 
in Derbyshire, were gi?en as a dower to the 
daughter of Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, se- 
cond son of Henry IlL The tithe of Duffield, 
with the exception of a third part, was given 
by Henry de Ferrers, in the reign of William 
the Conqueror, to the Priory at Tuibury. 

The Tillage of Duffield is partly situated 
in a fine semicircular plain, formed by the 
river Derwent flowing on the eastern side ; 
jand generally attracts the notice of those who 
pass through it, as well from its rural appear- 
ance, as from its containing several good 
houses. The church, which is dedicated to St. 
Alkmund, and formerly belonged to the college 
of Newark in Leicestershire, is situated a little 
out of the village ; and its veneraUeapire, wh^h 
is seen towering above the surrounding trees, 
attracts and gratifies the eye, while it wanders 



VI&W OF DERBYSHIRE. 9» 

evertlie beautkttl seenery €»f the sarrouaduig 
vale. Duffieldifra place of no trade; its po^ 
poiation being prineipally made up, of that 
class in society, which is termed, the middle;^-- 
a class in which |ihilosophers have, in all ages, 
directed us to look for a true pictore of hamMi 
life ; and in which we often disco? er many true 
ornaments to learning, many warm and prac- 
tifai friends to virtue jand ''religion. 

Besides the established church, the Unitari- 
ans, the General Baptists, and the Methodists, 
have their respective places of worship here. 

About a quarter of a mile to the South of 
Duffield, in an enclosure, not far from the 
road leading to Derby, there is a small chaly- 
beate spring, of the same impregnation and 
quality as that at Quamdon,^ but not so strong. 

Makbnet, a small hamlet, situated on the 
western side of the Derwent, was a^ place of 
tome consequence at the time of the Nomian 
survey, and is noticed theref by the name of 
Machenie. 1 1 contains about twenty-five housas, , 
and one hundred inhabitants. 

UoLBttROOKE, by the Norman surveyors writ* 
ttu Ihlebroc^ is situated on ^ an eminence, at 



♦ Sec pai^c 3A0. 
• Domesday, ^n^. 275. tf. 'i. Trans. 309. 



4ii HISTOMOAI^ ANO DESCIttmVE 

Ihi dMiMM of abonla nile te the Bast of iha 
iMt-ouentioiied plaee. JSmne yeani i^, a eka^ 
fid was bttill beta, and eadawed b|p the kiia 
M r» Bradf»haw» 

. MubvoRDii ia Dooiaidaj MuUfwrdt has of 
late yaan, risen froad a few bouses^ to a coush 
derable bamlet. This iocreaie ia size and |xk 
pulation, is owing to the erection of two larga 
Cotton Mills, on tbeaame constraction as those 
at Belper, and an extensive Bleaohing Mill, 
belonging to the Messrs. Strntts. TheCottoa 
Mills employ about six hundred bandf^, and 
the Bleaching Mill sixty more. 
. Bleaching, which consists in remoTing the 
coloured matters intermixed with Vegetable 
^and animal substances, in their natural stale, 
or such as hav^ been subsequently imbibed bjr 
accident, or some artificial process, is accom*- 
plisbed ia this mill, by the following opera** 
tions: 

The calico, when received from the weavers, 
is first steeped ia lukewarm water for 60 hours, 
or in cold 144, until a fermentalson takes 
place. It is then well washed, ia what is call- 
ed a )FaM*fFAe«/, where the sizing and other 
materials used by the weavers, are entirely se- 
parated from it : by this operation, it is pre- 
pared for that of Bucking or Boilings in a so- 



Yttm or wmmxmmoL. mi 

ktbo #C p9t« pearl, or ^omhrny ashes, aoda, ts* 
Usei wbkriiever the Ueaober loay think mort 
|m|^« The dMh i» to reiMin^ daring the 
pioeew iAf backing, for jtbput eigbt boors in 
tiisidlolipsi, wbieh M firrt is eoU, but is gra* 
4n$i\f inoreased to S19 d^(re«sof beat; after 
which, it is coatinned in for two hours. The 
eriiM IS then taken, and well waslied in cold 
wAler in a tiuu^h^ wheel; and then it is taken 
0at» unfolded, And left to drain far 12 hours. 
U is ffffict imoiersed in oxygeniated muriatic 
SMd, diluted to a proper strength. (This gas 
is produced by distilling six pounds of com- 
BK>n 6aU» four pounds of manganese, four pounds 
nf vitriolic a$id, and five pounds of water. — > 
The gas produced from these ingredients, is 
impregnated with lime and water, l)y conti«« . 
nnal agitation)^ In this mixture the calico is 
8teq>ed for eight hours, when it is taken out; 
and the operations of bucking and steeping are 
repeated as often as the bleacher may think 
pioper. Great care is requisite to wash the ca« 
licQ clean from the oxygeniated muriatic gas 
^very.time it is steeped in it. The next opera* 
tiop Ike cloth undergoes is $ouriny^ which con- 
eistxia immersing it for ten or tweh^ hours, in 
a mixture of vitriolic a«id and water; in a luke* 
warm states ^^d of si^h a strength as the 



9«4 HISTORlOAL AND DBSCRimVE 

aiiMing the towns in Derlrfiliife, ,wm^ prior 
to Ae year 1770, as low in popnkttuyn as It iras 
baekward' in mility; and considered as lli# 
insignifieant residence of a. fyw nneivilfsed 
nailers, 

BcLpaa WHB formerly arritton B&aMfpoir4t end 
though not noticed iih Domeid^y by that or any 
name similar to the present, has yet some olaiais 
to «Dtiquity. About eight yeafs ago, a smaU 
gold coin of ^gu$tm$ C«ag«f, in high presir* 
ration, was found in the neighbourhood ; and 
military weapons, generally « thought to have 
been Roman, have been dug up in several pla-^ 
ces : these remains ^say lefid i^ to suppose, that 
though the Romans might not have had a settle- 
ment here, the place was not unknown to them. 
It has been handed down, by immemorial tm« 
ditioo, that John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancas- 
ter, and son of Edward 111. once resided at 
Helper: but after every possible inquiry, no 
confirmation of the tradition, or ascertainment 
of the fact, has been acquired. A &w frag- 
ments of old walls, of great thickness, buried 
in the ground,; are indeed discoverable near the 
dwelling called the Manor-House, the spot 
where this Duke of famed strength and stature's 
mansion (the Manorial palace) once stood : but 
this goes but a short way to prove, that Johaof 



y UW OF: DSRBYSHIRJI. . 349 . 

G^offt, mor? th&n no^ other peiMs, reiMded 
hmi The same tmdition says, that the pre- 
s9ot ebapel, and the old bridge^ which ^ad 
arnift (sup^posed to. have been hU) o«t in stone 
placed in front,* were bailt in his time, and at 
hisexpence. However, whether the Duke of 
Lancaster tired here or not, it certainly |ias, 
some time or other, li^en the residence of some 
person ef note. Not lar from the qK>t where 
this asansion is thought to have stood, scfveral 
cuius have been dog op ; two of which I have 
seen: they are silver; and judging from th? 
inscriptiQns, which are much defaced, I think 
tlrat one is, of the First Edward's reign, and 
the at her of Stephen's. 

Whatever, therefore, might have been the 
grandeur, or the extent of Belper in. former 
times, it appears now impossible to determine: 
but its present flourishing state is discernible 
to all, and, perhaps, interests us more. In 
the year 1801 the population of Belper amount;* 
ed to 4,500, and in 1809 to 5,635. ThiU in- 
crease of population, is owing to the extensive 
11 Y y 

^==ggBggBaggBa ,' " ■ , issssssssss^fossssssssssemsssssKS^ 

^ This Stone, a wood^cut of which is given in the title- 
P^gc, was placed, when thi old bridge was uken down, in 
the wall of one of Mr. Marshall's pxemisea^ onfir^dge-hill, 
and nay be seen there now. 



S46 HISTCmtCAL AND DKSCltmtVE 

Cmm MflUi eracted hMe^ belon^g to llk« 
Mmm . Srratto; wl^rt between 1,300 and 1,300 
p»tMt^ find daily «iiiployt»eiit. 

lliMfe Milts art four in miaiber, tKe first of 
WhiOh ims ^rMt^ in I77O5 hj tht late Jede^ 
disdi Sir att^ Esq.^ The principal <^ tkdse nofr 
MMfedingff is 200 feet l50g, 30 feet wide, and 
•iM stories high ; and its floors being construct-* 
ad of brick arch«s, and pared with brick, it is 
bonrider^ absolutely indestriictiUe by fire, 
and tberefefe proof against the bavec of that 
'd^tadfol element. This mill has three water- 
tvhecl s attached to it ; the largest one, which is 
wied in floods only, is remarkable, as well for 
its magnitude, as for its singular constraction. 
It is upwards of 40 feet long, and 18 feet tn di- 
aneter. It being impossible to procure timber 
sufficiently large to form the axle, or shaft, «f 
this wheel in the usual mode of structure, it is 
made circular and hollow, of a great number 
of pieces, hooped together like a cask : the shaft 
is between five and si% feet in diameter. The 
other two, which are used when the water is at 
a common height, are composed principally of 



^ ScjB an Account of tiiis Gentlemui't Lifc^ undfcrthe 
head << Soutk Norman to a/* 

f The MSU bttOt in 1770, Vm lately pulled down for 
re-erection. 



VISW OF I>£RBySH»& |47 

irpD, and are n^mark^l^ for tbeir siinplicilj^ 
mtieBgtby and ligbtness of appearaoM. Jk^ 
were constrocted by Mn T* C. Hewes, mnm^ 
Dion engineer and mechanic of Maqi^hMtar* 
Tlieir diameters areSl feet 6 inches, apd If ^gth 
14 feeU fiacb 9hafiL is o^ cast iroj», jind jthf 
arms whicb conneet tb^ni vitb the fofe, (^ i^ i« 
comnaonljr termed), or that part of the wb^ 
to which the buckete or ladles are attached, are 
sii^pljr, round rods of wrought iran» an ipicb 
and a half in diaipeter. Each wheel has eight 
of tbeae arms, and thej are supported m th# 
direction of the shaft or axis, by eight d^ago* 
nal rods of the above dimensions. 

The operations* which cotton undergoes m 
its passage from the raw material to the sjti^ 
of thread, are various and mnltiplied in pro* 
portioji ^9 the fineness required, and the,di£&<- 
rent uses to which it is destined. 

If we analize these operations, they resolve 
themselves, into the following : Picking, <iard^ 
ing, doubling, drawing, and twisting. The 
three latter are never performed singly, bat 



"* For the following- Description of Cotton Spinnings 
tbe Author it indebted to a Gentlemvi} whose acquunt-t 
mc€ with the process, is best exemplified by a penlksd of 
the correct and interesting account itself. 



948 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

afe wioasly joined in the same machine ; and 
the same elementary processes are oftentimes 
npeated in different machines, with Tarious 
aild different effects. 

With reference to these effects, the opera- 
lions which cotton undergoes, may be denomi- 
nated picking, carding, drawing and doubling, 
roving and spinning. 

Picking is that operation which prepares the 
cotton for carding, by opening the hard com- 
pressed masses in which it comes from the bales, 
and in separating it from seeds, leaves, and 
other adventitious matter. 

This operation was formerly, and is now in 
some degree, performed by beating the cotton 
with sticks en a square frame, across which 
are stretched cords, about the thickness of a 
goose quill, with intervals sufficient to allow 
the seeds, &c. to fall through. 

When a hard, matted, or compressed mass 
of cotton, is smartly struck with a stick, the 
natural elasticity and resiliency of its fibres, 
gradually looseu and disengage them, and the 
.cotton recovers, by repeated strokes, uW its 
original volume. During this operation the 
seeds, &c. which adhere, are carefully picked 
out by hand, and the cotton rendered as clean 
as possible. 



VI£W OF DERBYSHIRE. S« 

The operatimi of beatrag or batting by hand^ 
is now almost entirely superseded by the in- 
vention of machines, whith have the advan- 
tage of more completely separating the dirt 
ifom the cotton; and consequently much ma« 
Boal labour in picking is avoided. 

The machines in general use for this purpose, 
are the Devil and the Batting machine. The 
former consists of two large cylinders, covered 
with spikes, which are made to revolve with 
great velocity. The cotton is applied in small 
quantities by means of a pair of rollers, itnd 
the lumps and hard masses of cotton are thus 
torn in pieces; and at the same time separated 
from a considerable quantity of dirt, which 
they generally contain. 

The batting machine performs, by mechanic 
cal means, what was formerly done by hand : 
viz. beating or batting the cotton with stickit 
on .a corded frame ; and by a number of inge- 
nious, biit complicated movements, this object 
is completely attained; but on account of its 
complication and short durability, to which 
engines of this kind are particularly liable, 
from sudden jerks, and the irregular motion of 
their parts, this machine is daily growing into 
disuse. 

Carding is that operation in which the first 



3A0 inSTORICAL JMD OBSGUmVE 

mdiMMts of tlie thread mb ibnaed. It is per- 
ftnMd by cylindm coverad wiib wire cwdst 
reyolviDg, wUh coMiderable vinftnest, in opp^ 
^ite direcliomi, nearly in contact with each 
other, or umler a kind of doqM or coreriagt 
the under surface of which is coFerad with n-* 
piiar cardsi whoee taeth are inclined in a di« 
taction opposite to the cylioden By this ineaaa 
the aeparatioa of almost every individual fibre 
u effected, every little knotty or entangled 
part ie disengaged, and the cotton spread 
lightly and evenly over the whole surface of the 
lait or finishing cylinder, from which it is strip* 
ped by a plate of netei, finely toothed at the 
edge, and moved in a perpendicnlar direction 
rapidly up and down by a crank. The si;ght, 
but reiterated, strokes of this comb, acting on 
the teeth of the cards,, detaches the cotton in a 
fine and uniform fleece ; which being contrac* 
ted by passing through a funnel land rolievts , 
forms one endless and perpetual carding; 
which is interrupted or broken only when the 
can that receives it is completely filled. 

Drawing and doubling, or passing three or 
four cardings at once through a system of rell* 
crs, by which they are made to coalesce, is in* 
tended to dispose the fibres of the cotton ion«^ 
gitndinaUy, and in the most perfect state of 



VIEW OP DSRBYSfiIIt& $it 

panUeKam, and. at tfaeaametiaw^ to correct 
ad/ ioeqaalitka in the thickneil of tlie eard# 
inga. The operatioa of carding effects tbift, in 
n oertein degree, yet the fibreis attboagh paret 
M are not straight bat doubled, as may ea&tly 
be supposed from the teeth of the cards cateh-^ 
ing the fibres, sometimes in the middle, ^vhich 
become honked or fastened npon them. Their 
disposition is also farther disturbed by the ta- 
IcCT-ofl^ or oomb, which strips them from the 
^^Mshii^g cyfinder; and though the general aN 
rangement of a carding is longitudinal, yet 
they are doubled, bent, and interlaced in such 
n way, as to render the operation of drawing 
al^soltttely necessary. 

Tho drawin«^ fram^ consists of h pair Of cy-> 
Uoders, slowly revolring in Contact with each 
other, at a little distanoe^ ftom a second'pair re*' 
Tohing with greater velocity, the lower cylin- 
der of each set being furrowed, or fluted in 
the direction x>f its length, and the upper ones 
neafly covered with leather. If we suppose, 
the end of a carding to be passed throagh th^ 
first pair only, it may be reaitily ic^aginedi 
that it will be gradually drawn forward, and 
pan through the cylinders without suffering 
any bVher sensible cteinge in its fi>rm or texture, 
than a dight compresaon from the weight of 



$9^ HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

the incumbent cylinder. But if from the first 
pair it be iHiflfered to pass immediate! j. to the 
second, whose surfaces revolve much quicker, 
it is evident, that the quicker revolution of the 
second pair, will draw oui the cotton, render*- * 
ing it thinner and longer, when it comes to be 
delivered at the other side. 

Three or more cardings. coiled up in d^p 
cans are applied at once to these rollers, io 
their, passage through which they not only co- 
alesce so as to form one single drawings but 
are also drawn out, or extended in length.—* 
I'bis process is several limes repeated : three, 
four, or more drawings, as they are now term* 
ed, being united and passed between the ro)l« 
ers ; the number introduced being so varied, 
that the last drawing may be of a size propor- 
tioned to the fineness of the thread, into which 
it is intended to be spun. 

Boving is tbat operation by which the pre- 
pared, cotton, as it comes frpm the drawing- 
frame i$ twisted into a loose and thick thread, — 
In the state in which it comes from the draw- 
ing-frame, it has little strength or tenacity; 
and is received into similar deep cans from 
whence it was passed through the rollers. To 
enable jt to support the operation of winding, 
it is again passed through a system of rpllers. 



VIEW or DERBYSHIRE. u» 

msultiatUi those in the last machim, and re« 
G«i^v:6dma round conical can revolving with 
considerable swiftness. This gives the draw* 
iog a slight twisting, and converts it into a 
wo£t and loose thread, now called a roving, 
which is wound • by the hand upon a bobbin, 
hj tke smaller children of the mill, and then , 
carried to the spinning, or twist-frame. 

Jo some cases, where great evenness, or mora 
than ordinary fineness^ is required in the 
yam, the roving undergoes another operation,' 
beibre it receives its final twist. This is called 
stretching; and is performed on a machine 
nearly similar to the mule. It c^onsistsof a 
system of rollers like, those of the drawing and 
loving frames, through which the roving is 
drawn and received upon spindles, revolving 
like those of the mule; and from which it ac» 
qoires the twist. The carriage on which, the 
^indies are. disposed is moveable, and receding 
from the rollers somewhat quicker than the 
thread is delivered, draws or stretches it in a 
stight degree : hence the name . of stretching'- 
frame. 

In other cases, where less nicety is required, . 
the operation of stretching is substituted for 
that of roving, by the roving^frame above des- 
13 . z z 



$64 HISTORICAL AND DBSCRIITIVE 

ciibad : the op«ratioii ti windii^ by band, by 
die smaller childreD of tbe miO, h tbas nii- 
dered anneoefisary. 

The roving is now carried to theiqpiaaiiig^ 
frame, oB^wbiob it is to receive its final exten- 
' sion and twist. This macbiae consists ef n 
system of rollers similar to, and acting npon 
principles tbe same as, those already deasribed 
in tbe drawing, roving, and stretching frames, 
, to which is connected, with little alteration, 
the fly, bobbin, and spindle, of the oommon 
flax wheel. 

The ywm is now reeled into banks, each con* 
taimng 840 yards, and being packed in bmi^- 
dies of IQlbs. each, is sent principally to Not- 
tingham, Leicester, and Lancashire, for the 
iiie of the hosiers and calico manniactnrers. 

Another branch of business carried on at 
Belpfer, and which once gave celebrity to the 
place, is the mannfactnre of nails; bnt within 
the few last years, it is supposed that the trade 
has been on the decline. 

Belper is a market town, with a market on 
Satnrday, which is, generally, well isupplied 
with all kinds of provisions. Its chapel, which 
is dedicated to St. Jphn, is valned in the king's 
books at jSS. Oh. 6d* and yearly tenths 6$. Od. 
The Unitarians^ the Independents^ and tbe 



VIEW OX 0£KfiYSHIR& m^ 

Methodius^ bare also their respective meting- 
houses. Four hundred children are taught at 
the Sundaj-school, supported here hy Mr. 
^tmtt;. who has adopted several of 4he plans 
of education recommended, and so successfully 
practised, bj that benefactor to his country, Mr. 
Laneasten The Independents and Methodists 
bave.alsp3unday*schools, whereabout 700 more 
are instructed. 

A lit Me tathe North of the mills, is a hand., 
some stone-bridge of three arches, erected 
over the Derwent at the expenceof the county ; 
the old one, which from the arms placed in the 
centre, was thought to have been built by John 
of Gaunt, having been washed dowp,in the year 
1705» by a great flood. 

Of the remarkable events that have happenr 
edatBelper, there are but few upon record. 
The plague, that dreadful scourge^ of the hu- 
man race, raged here in 1609. From the first 
of M^y to the thirtieth of September of thfU 
year, fifty-one persons died by it, and were 
buried near the chapel. 

Sometime prior to the year 1686, Thomas 
Bfomfield, a travelling beggar, was gibbeted 
on the bridge*hill, for murdering an old wq- 
aian, with whom he lodged* This old woman 
lived in a house situated where Mr. John Gil- 



V 



UH HISTOilCAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

• 

lottos OKhard now is ; and the gibbet was erect- 
ed at no great distance from that place. 
. December the eleventh, 16S6, Matthew HaN 
xison was killed in a coal-pit on gtbbet-hilL 

With its increase in extent and popolation, 
Belper is also improFing in civilization and res* 
pectability. Immorality and ignorance, which 
were once thought the characteristics of the 
place, have, in a great measure, disappeared; 
and improved morals, and more enlarged views^ 
supplied their places. 

About the centre of the town, is the mannon 
of Jedediah Strutt, Esq. and a little above the 
bridge, pleasantly httuated, is Bridge*UiU, the 
seat of G. B. Strutt, Esq. The wear above the 
bridge is well worth attention; and the fine 
expanse of water, extending for a considerable 
way up the river, interspersed with islands co« 
vered with joung trees, has a pleasing effect* 

Ueage is a small straggling village, coki- 
. taining, together with the whole liberty, about 
two hundred houses. The dear value of the 
established, chapel there is JBIO. 

In this liberty, near the road leading from 
Crich to Belper, and about midway from both 
places, is a martial vitriolic spring, the only 
,one of the kind that has yet been found in ^e 
county. It is situated in a black boggy aoiU 



VIEW OF DEI^YSHIRE. $5f 

and ifMs dfBGOvered about the year 1767, *> b j 
a labooriog man, who wa» employed in form- 
itig a songb, with a view of draining the ground 
in its neighbourhood. He had been a long 
time troobled with an ulcerous disorder in one . 
of his legs, but found, during the prosecution 
of bis undertaking, it gradually disappeared, 
and that by the time it was finished, a cure 
was entirely effected. This circumstance led 
bim to suspect, that the Water was possessed of 
some medicinal virtues, and upon examination, 
he perceived the vitriolic taste, by which it is 
distinguished/^ 

This water afibrds very strong and decisive 

evidence of its being impregnated with iron 

aad vitriol. Its ta^te. is sour, and is thought 

to contain fixed air in some quantity; not only 

from the bubbles which may be seen id it, 

when first poured into a glaiss at the spring, 

but likewise from the circumstance, that when 

tightly enclosed ill a cask or bottle, it will 

burst it with a slight degree of agitation ; an ef*^ 

feet attributed to the efforts of the fixed air to 

escape. Besides the efficacy of Heage water 

] a ulcerous complaints, it has sometimes also 

been found beneficial in stopping inward bleed* 

jng ; and when applied outwardly, it is said to 

bave this effect as soon^ and as completely, 



$H HISTORICAL AND OBSCRIBTIVE 

M the £tf ract of Saturn. It ba« abo bwo 
found efficacious in fasteniag the teeth, and ia 
healing sore and inflamed eyes. But its salo- 
tarj influence is naost conspicuous in oertaia 
.ulcerous disorders : and yet in these external 
applications^ it should be used with great 
caution, as sometimes a paralytic stroke ia tha 
diseased part, has followed, the too suddea 
dryiag up of the humour. 

TuaNDiTCH, contains about forty houses; 
and its chapel is set down, at the clear valua 
of •64. 

Shotixe. In the northern ||>art of this ham* 
let, is a mlphureom spring :^ but from the scent 
and t^ste, the impregnation seems to be but 
small. The sulphureous quality of this water, 
like that of Kedleston,* depends oponUhe pi^^ 
^enceof inflammable air holding sulphur, and 
a small quantity of purging salts in solution ; 
but as these are found but in small quantities, 
its medicinal virtues cannot be great, it luis a 
sharp acid taste, and when swallowed, occa-* 
sions a dryness and irritation in the throat and 
slomach. Its virtues, though not so powerful^ 
are similar to those of the Kedleston water. 

* See page SO?. 



VIEW OV DERBYSHIRE. S5« 



CHAP. VII. 
Deanery of RepmgUm. 



H> 



lAVING taken a rarvejof the Deaneiyof 
Derby* and noticed 4he objects most worthj 
attention in its di^rent parishes, we . ww re- 
turn to a des<Mription of the Deanery of Rep^ 
ington. 

Cbilcote, in Domesdaj called Cildet^U^ 

and then belonging to Clifton in Staffordslure,^ 

i» quo ;Of the most sonthem parisbeB in the 

coofity of Derby. It is : small, and cotitaiat 

but few chouses. A large and ancieiit Hall, 

which was one of the seats of Gokifrey Bagnall 

Clarke, Esq., who represented the eonnty of 

Derby^inthe early parliaments of the pr6#ent 

reign, and who died about the year 1774, is 

aitaat^ in this parish. Having been fl»inba^ 

liited for many years, it is now in a tery ruitt- 

9W state* 

AmBBT. This parish, atthe eomfHlatioii 
of Domoday, belonged to the Abb^ «f Blir. 

• DovDLui»i07ig. S7Si i* «• Tnns. S^S. 



I 



M0 HISTORICAL AiMD DESCMPnVB 

ton ; whose Abbot bdd five carucates of ImA 
thefe. Apldn was at that time a considerabrt 
village, and valued at sixty shillings.* It is 
situated partly in Derbyshire, and partly in 
Leicestershire ; the church standing in the lat- 
ter county. The nianiifaiciure of stockings, 
and the pursuits of agriculture, form the ptin* 
cipal support of the inhabitants. 

Stabttoii, is another small parish, contain- 
ing about thirty houses. At the Norman sur- 
vey, iit was part of the lands of Henry de Per* 
rers ; and Sireitun^ at that time, consisted of 
sooBie arable and meadow land, and one mill ; 
dlc^ther valued at fifteen shillings. 

. The living is a rectory, and the church is 
dedicated to St. Michael. Its valuation in the 
king^s books, is £d. 10». 5rf. and the yeaiiy 
tenths, 10«. O^d. 

' * Mbasham , in Domesday Metsehafk, which 
at that time belonged to the king, and was af- 
terwards the property of the Priory at Gredy, 
is a considerable parish, containing nearly two 
iMiBdred houses. The living is a donative cii- 
racy, of the clear value of JS2. 7s. The chnrdr 
is dedicated to St. Lawrence. 
* DoMiSTHOBP, is situated partly in Derby- 

• Domesday (?n^, f7S, *. 1, Trim. §97. 



VIEW OP OBUYSHIKE. , mt 

i4iwe and partlj id l^eieeslenlnra.. The nam. 
I^r of bouses in tbe fo^er is aboat twen^: 
the/ belong to the different neighbonring pa. 
fishes. 

The Tillage of Okbthobp, in Domeadaj 
4chetorpf is sitoated in the different parishes 
of Meathamy Stretton^ and QruUjf, 

WiuLBT, in Domcsdaj called Wmleile^, ii 
a small vilhige, containing bat few booies. It 
was, for some centnries, tbe residence of the 
Abaey family. They had a seat at Wilsley as 
earlj as tbe reign of Ueorj the sixth ; and at a 
still later pieriod, 1656, James Abney, of WiU 
aiey, Esq. was High-Sheriff for. tbe county of 
Ikrbj. The li?ingof Wiklej, is » donative 
cnracj, of the value of ^12. The chapel is. 
dedicated to St. Thomas, and formerlj beloi^* 
cd to the Abbej of Barton. 

PAOKivoToif, is a large village, situated in 
tbe two counties of Derby and Leicester: thei 
greatest number of its bouses standing in the 
former, saad its church in. the latter county. 
, LvuiwoTov. " In LulUmmt^** say the Nor* 
man surveyors, *' there is a prif^t, and one mill 
of six shillings ami eight-pence, and .tifetve 
acres of meadow : value four pouuds<"* ..Tha 
12 A3 



BBSSSSBS 



OameMUy Orig. «78, ^. », Tram. 38?. 



S» HISTCHaOAL AK& DBSCIIDTIVE 

Uraig of Lttllingtofi is • Ticafage, df the cktr 
rtimot £48. 16§. md yearly tentliii 9^. aid, 
TIm ehtirch is dedicated to AlUl^ints, and was 
presented by Edward HI. to the Priory i»f 

' The hattletof Coton, which was anciently 
called Coton Cofe^, and belonged to the Abbey 
of BnrtM, is situated in the parish of Lolling* 
ton. It is pretty considerable in size, bntisa 
piabe of no mannfiu^tnre. 

lUtJiiSTOif, called at the time of the Con* 
i|iiest Bavenstune^ was then the property of 
BHgel de Statibrd. This village, thpngh' be- 
longing to Derbyshire, is totally surrounded 
by Lricestershire ; and lies about three milcB 
•outh-east of Ashby-de*la-Zouch, in the latter 
eoonty. The living of Raunston, is a rectory, 
Talued in the king's books at £S. Is. Of <i. ex- 
dnsite of yearly tenths. The church is^iedi- 
oatied to St. Michael* and the king is the 



CaostBALL, in Domeadsy^ Cr&ekeshaUk^ is a 
small Tillage on the borders of Leieestershlie. 
The living is a vicarage, and the cbnrch is de* 
dicated to St. John the Baptist. The value in 
the king's books is five pounds. It formerly 
belonged to the Priory at Repton, and the king 
is the patron. 



VISW Of nCRBYSlU&E. ^ 

BIr. Cibod^en recor4f»^ tbat ia lii8 (ime a,|i«it 
of thefaoiiljpf the Cursons, dwelt «! CfOV^ 
top ; and Mr. Pilkingtaa, says, Uiat ** Bichai^ 
Carson or Cojrzoni (second son of Giraline ^ 
Corson pr Curzon, who came oyer with WiUiafp 
the Conqueror) held a considerable isifMfi in 
the coonty^ of Derby in the reign of H«nrj L 
U is probable that CfoxhaU.was part of tJ^fif 
estate: for Thomas Coi^on died posses^: of 
the manor, in 33d of Henry VIII. This braxifh 
of the family terminated in an heir feroali^, 
Mary, daughter and sole heiress of Sir George 
-Corson, knt« who was married in tberejgpof 
James L to Sir Edward Sack vlU?» knt. after- 
wards fourth, earl of Dorset, and .aiice«i|or to 
the present duke* 

^ It is supposed, that cardinal Robert Cwr* 
son was of this family* Having applied with 
great diligence to the study of sacred and pro- 
line learning, at the university of O^jcford^ he 
acquired a distinguished reputation in hiso^irn 
^ohtry. Afterwards meditating greater things, 
lie went to Paris and Rome. At the first place 
he was honoured with the degree of doctor in 
iii?kiity, and at the latter he was created a 
cardinal, by the title of St. Stephen in moiint 

* ficitannU,: p« 401. 



WU HISTORICAL AMD DESCRIPTIVE 

Cellm. It the year lS18i when the tity ef 
Balmatia in Egypt was taken in the reign of 
John Brenn, king of Jernsalem, Cardinal Cnr- 
son accomfianied Pelagios the pbpe's cardinal. 
He wrote several books, and came into Engl 
land as legate in tlie reign of Henry III.'' 

Cattok, in this paridi, b now but a very 
small hamjet ; but at. the time Domesday was 
composed, Chetim belonged to Henry de Fe* 
riers, and was valued at the very considerable 
sum of sixty shillings. 

Walton»on-Trent. At the time of the 
Norman survey, there were at Waletune^ *^ a 
church and a priest, and a mill of six shillings 
and* eight-pence, and forty acres of meadow, 
▼alue ten pounds.''^ The living is a rectory, 
and the present church is dedicated to St. John 
the Baptist. 

** In the fifteenth year of the reign of Ed« 
ward II. Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, being 
pursued by the king, placed bis foot on each 
side of the bridge at Burton, to prevent his pas- 
. sage over the Trent. By this precaution he 
obliged the king to ford the river at Walton. — 
When the earl discovered this, he drew his men 
out of Tntbury castle, expecting a reinforce. 



* Domesday Orig. 879, a. t. Tnns. £98. 



VIBW OF DERBYSHIRE. tiS 

mmBA^ bat being diiappointed, beited tow^ardi 
ibeNoilh-''* 

RQiUiTON} 18 acbapelFj belonging to tha 
pariab of Wafton. U was written RedlaueBtnn 
bf tbe Narman sufVjeyora ; and in their tiin^ 
tllere^were,/'^acllta^eh and a priesf, and one 
ar^Uof six cAtHUngs aad eigh^pence, and forty 
aeies of meadow there, valued at ten pounds.^ 
Atitbattione it waatbe^ptoperljof tbe king. — 
The pmenl ehaipel k dedinitfcd to $r. Mary, 
and tbe wholes hamlet contains about ^ty 
.boaiiiea. .;•■/.':•. ' - •' » 

GaaitfiBY 18 an exlennvetparidi, ioutaining 
lh« lia*n»let8 ^ Chunk Chresleyi Castle Oresleyy 
iS^adimcogtf (SiuaidingeBcote) Lintdn^ (Line* 
IftHe) aodi>raiaeio]i^^(Dracbeiaiire). The living 
il^a donative curacy, and its elear value JS6. 

There w^ formerly in Chnreb Gresley, a 
Pnoiy belonging to the Order of St. Austin, 
wbifob waa foiunded by William, son of Nigel 
de Gresley, in the r^n of Henry the First, 
and dedicated to St. Mary and St. George. In 
tbe ibird year of Edward II. a patent was 
granted, for appropriating the church of Lul« 
JingtOQ to it; and in the thirty-seven Hi of the 
Allowing.reign, it was endowed with tenements 

■ - ^ Fttkingtofi. •• - - 



•M HISTORICAL AMD DISCIUmVE 

« 

at HsMlMttte* SvMdiagDite, tad Oittf^ 
leyr; and in the third year eiUemry VL Mrtain 
Umds in Okethoip, and DnathoriH wme giten 
to this raligioaa hoiiaa» At the DiaM»lntmit ito 
n?eniiai» ware, acoofdingtaDngd^ jttl. et. 
In the thirty.fifth year of Uanry VUI. it wae 
granted to Henry Crache. A tnadl partof iti 
niins was lately remaining. 
. In the ehundi is a awnnment to the nwBMfy 
^of Sir Thomas Greeley^ who was Sheriff of €iie 
eoonty of Derby in the year UaS: he died ia 
1669; and is represented on the tomb in m 
kneeling fKwtnre^ obid in the dtem of fesa tiam. 
There i^ also, n^ar tUs^ another momtmentt to 
the memory of the AUe^ies, who were boned 
in this chorcb, and who onee were peasesssd of 
a part of the manor. It appeaie fiom the 
long inscriptioni oontain)ng the^genealegicnl 
aeconnt of the family from the time of Hemy 
Vlll. to the commencement of the last eentwiy , 
that, the AUeynes of Crrariey^ were descended 
from Sir John Alleyne^ knight^ who was twite 
Lord Mayor of London, and Pmy ComsaelbH- 
to the abpve monarch. 

The hamlet of Casth Oreshy^d^mm its imaae 
from, a castle, hating beencieotod here bj the 
iiords of Gresley. .Camden sayst* that in bis 

«HBBaBBae99«ps9aaBssB9isaaeB«HOS9sasBasBBS9esBsaBB9Bf 
^ firitannu, p. 400. 



VIBW OP DIRBYSHIltE. ^ 

tiflM, '^ OreUk^ Ca$tU was a mere rain;'* and 
noWftcarcelyanj traces of ikis ancient fortress 
can he found; tke irregularity of the ground^ 
alone marking ont the spot where it stood. 
. At Drakehw is the seat of Sir Nigel Bowyer 
Ciesley, the present bead of the family of that 
Mune* The pedigree of the Gresleys, is traced 
1>ack to very ancient times ; and they are said 
to have q»rung from Malaholcius, whose bro^ 
ther was an ancestor of William the Conquer- 
or. From him was descended, tloger de Toent, 
standard-bearer of Normandy; whose two sons, 
Bobert and Nigel, accompanied theConqaeror 
into England: and from the general surrey 
made in 10V0« it appears that Robert possessed 
UO Lordships, of which Stafford, the place 
of bis lesideace, was one. In Domesday boofc,^ 
I>rakalow is set down, among the lands belong. 
ing to Nigel de Stafford. At what period the 
'fomily assunwd the name of Gresley, is unoer- 
tnin ; Irat it is sapposod to hare been prior to 
the year MOO, for William de Gresley, at that 
taaM held the manor of Drakelow, in capite^ 
by the service of finding a bow without a 
atifag, one quiTer of Totesbit, and thirteen 
arrows; twalire fledged, or feathered, and one 



aOi HISTORICAL AND DEBCRimVB 

ttofeathered.* The pment Sir N. B. Greriey, 
was Sheriff for Det bjAire in the jear 1780 i 
and some of his ancestors^ have represented the 
county of Derbj in Parliament. 

The residence of Sir N. B. Gresley at Drake* 
lowt is situated rather low ; but upon the whole 
it is a pleasant situation, surrounded by the 
luxuriant meadows bordering the Trent, oppo- 
site Stadfbrdshire. I'he house is a large irre* 
gular pile, of brick building, whitened OFcr^ 
but not presenting any thif^ remarkable. 

Hartshorn. Heorteshome at the time of 

* Norman survey, belonged to Uenry'de Ferrers. 

The living is a rectory : its vidue in the king's 

books is £3. 12$. id. and yearly tenths 0$. 9id. 

and the church is dedicated to St. Peter. 

Stapenhilk., or Slapmhilh. The living ie ' 
a vicarage; and the church, which was former- 
ly part of the endowments of the Abbey of 
Burton, is dedicated to St. Peter. M^nyof 
the bouses, which compose the village of Sta* 
penbill, stand within the parish of Burton. 

NfiWHALL, is a hamlet, lying within the pa- 
rish of Stapenhill. It contains but fow houses ; 
^nd the inhabitants are chiefly supported hj 
collieries, which are worked at the place. 

* Veredict. de Singulis wapen;. in com* Not. eC Derby. 
filoUnt'i Tenures. 



VIEW Of DSRBYSHlkE. iQft. 

CaiiBwbll, is another small hamlet^ sitoatad 
ID this parish. In Domesday it is said, ** that 
the king gaye the manor of Caldewelle to the 
Monks (I suppose, of Burton) in Benefice and 
not in Fee;''^ At Caldwell is the seat of — ^ 
Martimjer, Esq. 

Calke or Calc. The number of houses in 
this parish is not many. The living is a donar 
tive curacy: the church is dedicated to St» 
Giles ; and about the middle of the twelfth 
century, was given to the Priory of Repton. 

A convent of regular canons of the order of 
St. Austin, was founded at Calke, sometime 
prior to the year 1161. ^^ It was dedicated to 
St. Maiy and St. Giles, and received endow- 
ments from various benefslctors, but chiefly 
fromRanulph, second earl of Chester, Matilda 
his widow, ai|d their son Hugh. These en^ 
dowments weie a wood betwixt Sceggebroc 
and Aldrebroc, a piece of land in tillage be- 
twixt Aldrebroc and Sudwude, the little mill 
at Repindon, six ox-gangs of land in Ticknal], 
the chapel pf Smithby, one manse of land in 
Tamworth, the liberty of fishing with one 
boat at Chester, and one manse of land for th^ 
oonjremf ni(;e/of the fisherman, a portion of Jand 
12 B 3 

. * Domesiday Orig. 973, ^. 1. 



ffa HisTomoAL AMD DBsenmivE 

exten^g frmift the well, w you f mtmA fUm 
Btepton, to the boondiirieft ef the liherly of 
Mfltcm, ami the whote lnii^ o^ B«wm^ £segar 
ef Trengeivteit. The monks w€r^ !• ^"joj^ these 
posBemons^ frM from all secalar sem^ and 
customs whateveis Besides ibes^ gva0tfl» Hog^, 
fhe third eart o# Chester, gavo tbent their court 
]» Repindon, and as much wood as they want- 
tA eiCber for their hutldings or for fire. He al- 
w appoiirted, that they should enfoy the abore 
mentiotied possessions and privileges nk ^ free 
and qfitet manner.^ 

** This religious bouse waa also en4bw^ 
with the working of a quarry at Riepifndon Heal* 
the rfver Trent, and with the ad^owson of the 
church e# Su Wicstan at the same place, ro< 
gellter with all the appurtenamred behmging to 
]«• ' The countess of Chester maile these grants 
on tirifrcendftion, that the coaveM at Re^ton, 
when- a convenient oppoMmity e#»red, shonM 
htdtime the bead, to i;^hicfa Caike shodd be 
only a member. 

«^ The charter of Edward H.' recites and con- 
firms^ other privileges. It granter the canons at 
Calke possession* of a plongh^gattt- <^ land in 
Le4ey and ihiieti aerea of mead*w land n the 

BBsssassssssi ' | M I aeg^ggtfsae— eaagggg* 



view OF DEftBYSHIRjE. 371 

$MmenUf^. It alio relraaed tliem from an 
(^Migatioii of furiu$hiii|; sixty men tp labow 
aoB dgy every y^r, for tJie pririlege of pa3tQi« 
Ht Stanton.* 

" To aU tht» endowments may lie added tbe 
^urch at Leke. But afterwards they were 
trapsfiirred» a^d tJbe canons removed to thf 
priory at Repton. At the dissolution they werf 
granted i|i tbis finst year of Edward VI. to^Iol^ 
^arl of Wajrwick/* 

M Calke, is Calie Abbey, the seat of Sir 
Henry Crewe, (late Harpur) Bs^rt. It is a spa* 
^'OHS and jb^iadsoine nuuinsion, built round a 
quadrangular coi|rt ; buC the situation is bad ; 
a» the risiiig grounds ivhich almost sorroui^d 
it, ^cliide the vjejv of the adjacent comitry.^ 

The Harpor&f ;arei a very ancient fami^; 
and were) according to the first aocpiijQt w^ 
have of them, of Chesterton in Warwi^Jk:-^ 
bhire ; where Hugh, son of Richard le Harpur 
resided as early as the reign of llenry the First; 
and where his descendants continued to live 
during several suci^eeding generations. Dif- 



n n$ 



* hlwx/Angm vol. li. page Sa2* • • 

f That i$ the x^xse of the preMpt^fiaropet's Aacefton, ^ 
though he has lately taken the name of Crewe; which was 
that of his grahdroother, who was the daughter of Thomas 
Liml Crewe, of Steneby • 



^f% mSTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

ferent branches of the family, afterwards set* 
tied at Rushall, in Staffordshire, at Little- 
Over, Swarkston,' Twjford, and Calke in this 
oonnty : bat all the family becoming extinct, 
esoept the branch at Csrike, the estates devol- 
▼ed of coarse to the surviving one. The title 
was first bestowed in the second year of king 
Charles I. (1636) when Henry Harpar, Esq. 
was created a Baronet by that monarch. 

TiCKNALL, in Domesday Tichenhalk^ is an 
extensive parish, and a large village, consist- 
ing of near two hundred houses. The living 
IS a donative curacy, of the clear value of JES6. 
The church is dedicated to St. Thomas Becket; 
and in former times was part of the endow- 
ments of the priory at Repton. Sir Henry 
Crewe is the patron. The lime kilns find em- 
ployment for many of the inhabitants during 
die summer season; while the pursuits of a- 
griculture employ several more. 

Nbwton-Soln^t, Newetun^ is a small village 
situated on the banks of the Trent ; consisting 
of about fifty houses. The living of Newton 
is a donative curacy ; the church is dedicated 
to St. Mary, and is supposed to have formerly 
belonged to the Priory, either of Repton or 
Gresley. 

WiNSHiL^i, Wineshalle^ is a hamlet situated 



Vn^ Of DERBYSHIRE. ^ <»• 

in the pamh of Newton-Solnej, though it be- 
lODgitothat ofBurtonvin Staffordshii^. Itooii* 
taina fifty houses, and the inhabitants rely 
•Dtirelj on agriculture for their support; no 
manufacture being carried on in this part of 
JDierbjrshire. 

FoBBMARK, by the Norman surveyors writ* 
ten Fomewerche^^ is a parish including the 
hamlet of Inglehy or Englebij which contains 
about thirty houses. The living is a donative 
curacy ; the church, which was built and eifi- 
dowed by Sir Francis Burdett, Bart, and con* 
secrated by Bishop HasiJ&ett, in the year 1602, 
is dedicated to St. Savior, and belonged in 
former times to the Priory at Gresley. Sir 
Francis Burdett is the patron. 
' Foremark^ in this parish, is the seat of Sir 
F. Burdett, Bart, one of the present representa* 
tives of the city of Westminster. The mansion, 
which is pleasantly'situated on the southern 
banks of the Trent, was buitt about fifty years 
^gO) by the late Sir Robert Burdett, on the 
site of a very ancient one, belonging to the fa- 
mily. The present house, is a handsome stone 
building, with a portico projecting from the 
North front, which is in other respects uniform 



• Domesday Orig. «78, a. 1. 



414 HISTOKiCAl. ANp DBSdUfTIVE 

«i|b Ihe South, consbtiag i»f t^qwin oentmi, 
flMked with bow«, t^rmioatiDf in davie moAit 
which h^ve a rather heai^y appearanee. £acb 
h^tkt has an elegant double flight of atept, Tkm 
fiffifiett are connected witii the £ast om oiMm 
hoQ&e» bj a covered walk, leading throagh tkm 
enclosed court* 

^ A apaciouf handaome Hall, forty-eerea 
Aet long, by thirty broad, extends through tbm 
fentre of tlie edifice from North to South ; 
having windows, and an entrance at each end* 
opening on tlie steps before-mentioned. Thu , 
apaces on each side of the hall, are occupied 
fciy various convenient apartuents, and a atair«- 
case of oak, very wide and handsome. Thia 
leads to the bed-chambers and dressing-rooms: 
over which is an attic story, distribute into 
oommodious rooms. The internal, as well urn 
the external, part of. this building, is very neal>- 
ly finished, and reflects considerable eredit oa 
the abilities of the architect. All the floom 
and doors are of the the best oak, nicely fitted. 
The rooms contain some good family portraits; 
but none of particular celebrity^ 

'' On a rising ground, near the West end of the 
housed which is ornamented by a small hiwa» 
shaded by a grove of young oaks, stands the 
village church;' a plain humble febric, with a 



DMrM'vtvr; yet Airfliirhig a pleasing dfcyett, in 
eMBeetkHi with the eoDligMNis scenery. ffMi 
ie?eml pdiofs of view. The old pdrish cffoiitJI 
er chapel, stood ia the baiolet of Inglebjf, M 
the banks of the Trent, about a mile to the 
fiiist: bat when that fell into decay, tha^pre^ 
sent edfeflee was erected. 

*VA pleasant secloded walk, betireeft twa 
iwr^of ^geA Mks, rttm from the East end of 
the faa«Me/ and is skirted eft the North side by 
a'cAoM thieket of underwood, interspersed with 
willows, asb, androak trees, through thvinteiw 
fidsr of which, tbe prospect of an irregaiarty 
rismg hrvrn is admitted-, pieasingly Tacisd bys 
saatteredoaks) iboras, and beeches; and bounds 
ed by plaatatioDs. But the eiiort striking ofc 
nfflfiaaa of the grounds is- a grove of aMrjeA^o 
oaks, which extends from the vicinity of the 
heuee tana piefde of water at some dvitaace, op- 
posita A» North freat. Were the dinMasio^oa 
of this pdlumd sheet somewhat more enlarged^ 
ift wonld become a very interesting featare in 
theaeanery: but itkis at present too'diminiiL ' 
tive ; aod.eflbeept fVoas the walk in^ the* grova^ 
wbeni its baondariea ails not visible, oonveya 
a&jdeaof insigaifieaace rather than grandeur. 
BeyvMid the grove, the land declines northward 
to the riafa meadows wataracL by tb^ Ti«at. 



^ HISTORIC^ ^o DiocRimy^ 

'* Opposite to the boiuet on the Sooth, ihfi, 
gfound gently swells into a hill; nsoendipg 
irhich, and proceeding in a southerly dir^tion* 
the. road leads to Foremark-Park, where the 
ix>nntry asaumes a down-like appearano!e» .con- 
sisting of green swelling eminences, which 
agreeably contrast with the flat meadows, en* 
li?en(ed with the silver winding Trent, on the 
North. These rising grcMmdswere,fimD6rl74iaf 
posed in a spacious park* but aie now enclosed. . 
. ** Foremark has bem noticed by Borton in 
his ' Anatomy of Melancholy,' a9 particularly 
jfieasantf whole$ome^ and eligible; and with 
reason, for, Jl>esides the agreeable disposition of 
the scenery, the soil is dry and fertile, it lying 
\fiTj WAV a stratum of gravel. It is also ?ery 
favorable to the production of game, particn- 
larly pheasants. 

'' At the distance of somewhat more than a 
quarter of a mile from Foremark, in a north- 
east direction, is a singular rocky jbank, which 
terminates abruptly above the extensive mea-. 
dows on the margin of the Trent The summit 
is only a continuation ofthe high grounds of 
Foremark ; but from its rude and sodden break, 
singularity of form, and neighbouring object»» 
it constitutes a very curious piece of scenery, 
particularly when viewed from the lowgmunds 



vitw en vnM^muuL m 

•fetti febt« %m eefttrft WiMM fhetMk pioj^ets, 

and it ttott. ^Mik^ md precipitoaiii p n w tiitt 

thtappctaraiiM of a CkMbic ruiti, With <ipM» 

iBgf to adniit light, and a deor-iH[|f tudefy 

fittinaiitd 4Qt of the raclc^ feadilig iiittf ievMd 

aatcairatioos, dr eells, Whieb coHuiimiieaM "Mftli 

each otbcrr^ and give a probabilif j t^ flM^mi- 

dition, of its having been the residence of itk 

Anchorite ; itbenee it has derited f be liMI^ df 

ifais^or Church. The foek is ehiefl^ denlpcMd 

of roogh gric-stone, and & congeries ef sattd 

and pebbleS) possessing the appearance «|f hiVw 

tag bee» formed by water. The riyer nrhieh 

now flows at a short diManee^ formerly ran 

ehMe under the rocfk, as is evident fronf a de*d 

fMi of water yet tteniaining at its AM, and 

maamotitcatii^ with tiM present ehanitel. The 

snaMBit of thcp rock is crested by old oaks and 

in^ and is irrefgnkrly l^^en by deep fissniM 

and abrupt prominenees, half covered with 

brasbwood and ivy, wbiteh nraitttling over tAe 

6othie-like dMf and wind^s^ cf the herifih- 

age, give a very picturesque tfppeiirattte fd ttm 

whole mass. Iknnan bones huitbeetL dug uji 

oa this spot ; and the faint traees of at figttre, 

somewhat sep*tebral» are fit Mt bett'e^th tlte 

roefc.^* 

13 O a 

J ill TsTBOBBsasmmsstiaBmBseas^^ 

* 'torodnAPUR, V'ot II. p. 40» 



9ft HISTQMCAL AMD IIESCRI^TIVE 

The family of Bardett is rery sncieat sad 
iwpeetaMe. The first of them, that we haw 
ao aeooaut qf, is, Hugh Bardett, who came 
iatOi England with William the Conqaeion — 
Uis descendant, Williun Bardett, Lord of 
I^MiiBehj, in Leicestershire, who lived in the 
Ijiine of Henry H. ibanded the Priory of Aueote, 
Mar Spekin^on, Warwickshire, to expiate the 
morder of his wife, whom he had slain, oa hie 
KUtnm from the Holy Land. Sir Robert Bur- 
4ett, Knt. lived at Arrow in Warwickshirei and 
represented the coanties of Warwick and Lei* 
cester in parliament, during the reigns of 
Edward the First and Second. Nicliolas Bor- 
dett, Knt. served in the wars of Henry the 
Fifth and Sixth, and was slain at Pontoise.-^ 
Thomas, his heir, a person of great eminence; 
was in the commission of the peace; from the 
seventh to the fourteenth of Edward theFourtli; 
|>utfor his attachment to the Duke of Clarence, 
and the utterance of some rash* words, was be- 
headed as a traitor. He was succeeded by Hia 
grandson, Thomas Burd^t ; whose great-grand- 
son Thomas Bardett of Se<ikingdon and Bram« 
cote, Esq. was created a Baronet on the Lwen-% 
ty.fifth of Feb. 1618. This Baronet married 
Jane, daughter and heiress of William Fraoa- 
cys, of Foremark, Esq: by whom.Foremark^ 
and the' estates connected with it^ were con ^ 



VlEfW or DIRBYSHIRE. n§ 

leyad to the Bardett femily. The preiiDiit be- 
nendent andilUistrtoiis Barmiet, and omwer 
ofrForemark) is I befiwe the fifth ib deseent 
(nm the above mentioned gentleman. 

Kkowle Hills, abeautifttl and retired qwt, 
HirrouDded by fine woods, and jplaiitationr of 
oak and beeeh, is situated a little to the soath.* 
east of Foremark. Here, at the entrance of^tf 
namnr dell, once stood a pleasant hoose^ built 
bf Waller Burdett, younger son to the first 
passessor of Foremark; to whom it was be-* 
qoeathed by bis father. Walter, baring dis-* 
i^reed with his relations, either gave or sold 
the estate at Knowle Hills, to a gentleman 
aaaned Uardinge, who inhabited the mansion* 
for some years. ^ From his heir it was purcha* 
sed by th^ late Sir Robert Burdett, . who re* 
sided in it, while the HalL at Foremark waa 
re^building; and afterwards dismantled it.-— * 
To a ruin of the upper part of the house, that 
was left standing, a neat little room has been 
attached, with ornamental doors and windows 
opening upon a small grass- plat, or terrace. — - 
The prospect from this room is confined by a* 
grove of lime and beech trees, through which 
a narrow walk leads to a pond surrounded hj 
alders, but admitting through their intervals, 
a v»w of a wood of oaks, at some distance.—^ 



igt Hitranokt MO msoiviive 

«id aoilhveasC mmA prMMts th^ eye «itk«iiMi 
ikm^^kt exleMiveineadows, wbicb shirt the 
Tiettt» in wMeh SwarksCon Bridge, eppema 
TCirjr eraamental #bje€l. Bj'Umi marfMi of a 
tfaydpodliw ene part of thischamittg' m» 
tilWBnt, is aa aacient and venerable beaeh, of 
fiWtlwaaty, aad aaeemaMn magaitode. 

MsuiovENt iu Doaieaday it iocloded in tiM 
loud beloBging to the kilig; aad at that tiiac, 
there were** at MUebmme^ a priest aad a choKh^ 
arid one mill of three shillingiiv aad t«en*y^ 
hn aeres of meadow.^'* Uenr^ the Seooad 
fnmled Melboam to Hugh de Beaaebaasp* 
Whwaaldest son gave it to Willaai Fita^-Oeoily 
with hie daaghter in marriage. 

Edmnnd of Woodstoek, Eariof Keat^ 
opad soa of Bdwaid I. obtaiaed, ia the 
tmath year of his^ firther's reign, ftee warren, 
m MeUAmme^ in ])erbyskive.t And Robert 
de Holland, obtained from the king a gnmt in 
lee» of the manor of Mekbum$^ together w^b 
sevesal others in the county of Derby, with 
diveis libertim and privileges, via. ratoma of 
wilts, pleas of WythevnaoH ftfons goo^ %l^.% 

'mmasasssssBsss^Bsasssassssssssassssssassassssgsssss^^ 

^ Domesday drig. «7«» «. «. Trtns. S92* 
t lWgdik*t Barott. Vol. I. p. 779* % IbM. VoL I. p. ^« 



MMtf^^ JkdBiJkfi^j, brotiiw to ThMiM,Bail 
nfljiiirartrf, obtmMd. ft gnpt for ^mmdstt at 
JMolbown, in the^geooiid yMrof Edimid Jtl. 

Tbo twligcaof an apoieni Cartk maj fet bt 
moei in this irittaga; bat by wbom,^ or at 
labftt fitnodt it was built, it is now impoiftlW* 
toaacartain^ That it existed in the tina of 
fidt«w4 tfaa Third isvoartaii^ ; as TboBMia, £a^l 
#f hmmmwi dkd piteested of M^^urn Cof* 
lAi, in the first jreir of that monancb. Caasdoik 
aaOMH^ ^* not flir from tha Trent stands MMom^ 
a ^qastl# of the king's^ now decaying; whors 
JobOi Dokoof Bonrbon, tsd&an prisoner in tfaa 
batlio of Agiacoart^ was kept ninoteen yaari. 
In the, onslody of Nickaloi Mcntgmmmf tbe 
Yonngar/' TUs Di^ was couNmtied by 
llenrj.V. and released hy bis snooessorv HiBmy 
^ In tbe year 14C0 this lbrti«sa was <&nan<» 
tiedi by order ^ Margaaet, qneen to the left* 
■Mitioned monarch :t y^U Leland says, that 
tnbistiina (ahnnt UM> it was in tolerable,- 
and HI msfd^'^foed refun. 

I#id Melbourne baa an agreeable^seat, n^ar 
the i^illi«e.; but it is jatnatbd, in a valbor ^co». 
iMiAiitnalfen: tbe^Mnly but ¥Wy seldom «»• 
aide bere» 



9M HISTOMCAL IkND DESCRIfTIVE 

, The-parish of Melboorn » large, and incladct 
the hamlet of iTtiig^-iVavlM. its inhaWtantSt 
ako, are numeioiu ; — they are pribeipaHy em- 
ployed in combing and spinning jersey, and 
working on the stocking^rame^ a small mann* 
liBu^tnre of scythe^stones, is likewise carried on 
here. 

. The living of Melboorn is a vicarage, valued 
in the king's books, at £9^ ISt. 4d. and yearly 
tenths, 19i(. 4d* The church is dedicated to 
St. Michael,, and the Bishop of Carlisle is the 
l^tron. Sir Ralph Shirley, who died in 1516, 
bequeathed lands in Melbourn and Worthing- 
ton to the Cbantery of St. Catherine, in St. 
Michaers church Melbourn, for ever, to pray 
for his soul. The variety of religious sects, ex* 
istiog in so small a place as Melbourn has been 
remarked ; as the Presbyterians, Calvtnistt, 
Baptists, 'Quakers, and Methodists, have each 
a place of worship here. 

Stanton is a parish of , small extent, con*^ 
taining from thirty to forty houses. The liv- 
ing is a rectory of the value, in the king's 
books, of ^6. 128. Sid. and yearly tenths, 13s. 
Sid. The church is dedicated to St. Michael ; 
and Sir Henry Crewe, is the patron. 

Repton, though now but a small villaga^ 
was once a considerable town. Some histori* 



^ VI£W OF D£R9tSHIRE. Ml 

tns say^ tbiit it wias an ancient ^coldny of thd 
Roauins, called Rapandunum^ but this asser- 
tion cannot be proved by any aathentic ine«^ 
morials. Ttie earliest account we have of Rep** 
ton, goes so far back as the year 660^ previoM 
to whicli9 ** a ndble monastery of religious men 
and women, under the government of an ab- 
bess,'^^ was established here : but the Danes on 
their arrival in England destroyed it. * 

Repton was called by the Saxons, Hreopan* 
dune^ and in ancient deeds, is written, ReppeU'- 
dune, Rapandcnj Repihdon^ &c. It is cele« 
brated by antiquarians, as the principal city in 
the Saxon kingdom of Mercia, and as the bu- 
rial place of many of the kings of that nation. 
About the year 750 Ethelbald, king of the 
Mercians, after an attempt to march, into Wes- 
se^, in which he was opposed by Cuthred, with 
all his forces, and driven back to Sceadane near 
Tamworth, where the Mercians were routed, 
after a decisive battle, was slain by one of hia 
own Chieftains, and buried in the cemetery 
belonging to the above-mentioned monastery. 
Merewala, another Meridian sovereign, and 
Kyneebairdns, brother of Sigebert, kioig of the 
West Saxons, were likewise interred there. 



mma^ 



• Edbur^^a filia Adulphi regis Orientaliuxn Anglorum Ab- 
batisia in R«apendune. Lib. Elinsis. MS. lib. I. c. 9. 



Mt HIStOltlCAt AMD DlfCRtfTIVE 

a«M te ^fb ; Md an aeM i« WyaoM ; Ae 
«lli» «t WiHtftgim with all tiidr appaitmaa- 
««f; iiv«^f(iin0ofla«diath«aaiiMnllag*;if» 
MrM «f \iiM Witb their appftrteiHm««« in the 
Utterty df Willift^taii ; an atra in PHardaaoMft 
togitber Witb pMtUM ^# one bane, tbne eo«M, 
atid their caltee till they are two yean oM; all 
tbnif WAtet- with the whole fisbaiy ia the river 
TMitt fiotA the diviiloiis ef the water of Kew- 
«MMi (NeWtofi Solney,) a* Ikr a* beNw Vil. 
Hflgton.* The impropriate reetoty aod «U 
t*wMitf of the ti«atage of Great Baddow, «ad 
1b«adtowsott of the ohareh of Little Baddow, 
lid Etteit ;f the adroWson of tbeobaich of LAm, 
ia*NMtiogbafnBhire;$ freenrarven in ReploMt 
<?idhe, ingkby, and Ticktial, in Derbyabire, 
vtiA Or*itkl«ii M. in Huatingdoiiihire;§ and a 
iborth part of the tnanor of IleptOtt.'*|| 

III tba Chirtf^tlMoiUl of Henry the Eighth, 
the priory, and itt poteenioos at ftqMxin, we>« 
teited ia'Thomas Tbaeker, Etq. who was serw 
tttitto that monarch: When Mr. Tbaeker was 
pat in poMcttion t^ the fiihrie, there Moain- 
ed four belli nneold. At first he neglaeted 

<*d*Bai£MaiMa«iiS9aMt9ias±das^:«es(SMB«eeaMfe«et(s«d9» 

* All tYnitt gmkta tat ttcited io Md Mefimed bf a char- 
Mr of Htatjr III. f M«iaat'«SHMC,Tal.ii. p. eo.9S. 
% • Bdw..I. v«l. I. ^ Cart. M. Edw. I. w. is. | Pat. i. 
Hen. V. 



VIEW or J>UUIYfi]CItX« «M 

«ak»f tbe dwffdi down,bf»t,h^iw§ aJitmttA by 
• np B H ^ dbat qaaea Uwy would M-flstaMiifti 
AlilMjt, lie Wftd, OD « Swday, all tha oitr 
ppiiHiii Mii «Moii0, of tkp i^ghlioaiiBg ami^ 
ty, Mid in a migle day pirilad 4loirai tlia iqatf 
iwaiitilM ckavch; sayuig^ be woold 4aiitBi|r 
%lie <m$A^ ImI the birds alM>oId aettie 

ftt the feoMiy ef Ciie Tiiackew, the 
cwf kitted till the reiga of q«een Anaet 
«he firoperty was divided, bebneea twm c6» 
the elder «f wboai eoiHreyed bar 
to ib^Stnn h a y n of Eivaeioa; bat aiie 
younger, at ber deatb ia 1728, davi«ed Jier 
I^Mo Sir Rabeit Bardett, Bant, of Fooeauick, 
'wbeas geaaiMoD, 8k Francis, is naw Um |Ntw 
l^rietar. The site of the Priory, and MaasiiMi 
now used .as the. hoase of the liead asastor ;of 
ReptOB 8ohoe4, are included in the fosseesioii 
of the latter, t 

• Fttlkr^s Church History, Book VI. p. SOS. 

f That part of the manor of Repton, which was not 
yctt^ in Ae^prioryy dQ«fen4td tbcough t^e 4i9nlks oi 
Lord Segrave, and Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, to the 
FindenUf of whom, John de Findem was possessed of an 
estate at Repton, in the 6rst of Henry the Fifth. This, by 
the marriage of the only daughter of Thomas Findem i^ith 
Sir Richard Harpur, Judge of the Common Pleas in the 
leign of Henry VIII. was conveyed into that family, in 



HISTOMCAL AMD DUCftlPTIVfi 

..Mr. GibsoD says, that *^ nnce the Djswkh 
tioB, l^r John Partj of EtmaU^ in this eoiioty« 
by hb last Will, ordered a Frae^^school to be 
Mwted at Repton, appointingcertaiii kmda in 
the counties of Derby and Lomcofter £9^ its 
maintenance/'* lajMiriaaace of this will, the 
achbol was founded. This gc^ntlemaD* was, by 
a grant of Henry the Eighth, possessed of se» 
vend estates belonging t6 the Priory atUeptoo, 
which in 1556, he de'Vised for the support of a 
Grammar'school there, and for the .foundation 
of an Hospital at Etwail. His executors pufw 
chased, of Gilbert Thacken Esq. part of the 
Priory, and fitted.it up for the reception of the 
scholars, and residence of a master and tidier. 
By Janes the First, the master and poor men 
of Etwail Hospital, with the school-master, 
nshers, and poor scfaolam, of Repton, were 
incorporated ; and the appointments, and he* 
reditary government of these foundations, were 
Tested in the families of the Earls, Chesterfield 
and.Moira, and ■ ■ Gerrard, Bart. 

Repton is a large village^ situated upon the 



which it still remains. The msnor-house of the Findem 
and Harpur estate, was pleasantly situated a little above 
the town, where they had, till within these few years, « 
pirk| n«w converted into farms, — England and Wales. 
* In his Camden, p. 496. 



VIEW or OEHBY&HIRE. a§» 

cdgt of a Yalley, thrcmgh wbieh the Treal 
floiri; • It consists, principally, of ooe street of 
ttiattered Iiooses, extending from North to 
Soetb,; aboot a mile in leng:th ; and li» a h^ook 
ranning through, emptying itself into tb^ 
Trent. At tho lower part of the village, ptear 
iantly elevated above 4be meadows, stands ibe 
dmreb, a large handsome structure, ornamented 
by an elegant spire, sixty-six yards in height » 
Tradition says, that this is the third church, 
that baa stood on the same spot. The pre- 
sent edifice, has, evidently been erected d(t 
two dtflbrent periods: by the style of the. win- 
dows and arches, the nave and side isles, seem 
to be of the reign of Edward the Third; but 
tbe chancel appears to be more ancient, and 
to have been, formerly, higher than at present. 
The arclies, which divide the aisles from the 
nave are. pointed, excepting the two, iliat ad- 
join tbe chancel, which are circular. 

*^ Beneath the chancel is an ancient Cry/it,* 
discovered of late years, which is supported by 
two mws of round Saxon wreathed pillars, with 
passages at each corner of the West end, leafd- 
inginto the church, and another on the North. 



* Crypt, is a subterraneous vault or chapel, used in 
ancient times for preserving the bodies of martyrs, or 
stiicr saints ; ^nd for the performance of divine worship; 



3«l HISTCkWCAL ^O ^iSCRlPTIVB 

!>• opennrft the J^idx pf tJbe iqmiior havis^ Ibr- 
bHUenit. 

^' Tlus w» attMle4 to us bj fie?dfai ol^ per« 
■onSi virlhi had smo and UK^aftured tWskeletott/^ 

Nmr ihe shuki place, wa^disi^vered iq 1740, 
an aacieni grava-»tone. . It had an inscription 
upon it; bat bjr exposure to the air, the charac- 
ten were much defaced, and so imperfect, that 
thej w^re scarcely legible. The legend up^ 
pears to have been in verse» as is evident from 
the Hemislic, it bore, irte tegit tumulatumi 
aad was undoubtedly ancient, thejre being a 
mixture of Saxon characters ; but more recent 
than the ^onnan conquest, — ^probably of the 
twelfth, or thirteenth century. The verse was 
of. the Leonine kind, and the first line read 
thus— RVDVLPHVAI GRATVM LAPIS IS, 
TE TVMLATVMt.by substituting the thraa 
letters in italics. The rest was so imperfect^ 
that nothing could be made out of it, though 
some detached words^ such as— ABAT IPSVMT^ 
and AMABAT, co|tld be read : There seemed 
also the name of a ^nt, BADEGES, whic^ 
is not found in the Calendar. 

'VFrom the fields acyacent to the churdi^ 
yard, may be traced many foundations of build* 
ings leading to the nonth^end, and joining to 
the priory itself. In the area before the church. 



VIEW 09 OERfiYSHIR^ i09 

it an old Btoae^cmss, consiBtiog of eight octa^ 
gonal steps, terminatiog in a column ; and a 
laige plain pointed arcb, or gate- way, leading 
into the priory, or school-yard. On the east^ 
side of this inclosure, are the remains of (he 
priory, now converted into the school, with ha* 
1>itations at each end, for the upper master 
and first usher. The school-room, as appears 
from the windows, and other traces^ was the 
refectory, or hull of the priory. This is sup* 
ported* by a roi^ of strong round Saxon pillars, 
evidently of very ancient date, which formerly 
extended to the end of the priory ; but several 
were removed a few years ago, when some al« 
terations were made in the house of the first 
usher. The dormitory*was at the north end of 
the hall ; and on the east side, was situated 
tbf cloisters, the area of which is converted in« 
to a garden for the master. 

** Adjoining to the cloisters, stood the priory 
church, which, from the remains that have oc- 
casionally been laid open, appears to have been 
an el^nt fabric, supported by pillars of ala* 
baster, extending 180 feet, and upwards, from 
the school building. 

*^ In the adjoining orchard, extending over 
several acres of ground, are the foundations of 
13 B 3 



9^ HISTOSUCAL AND DSSCRIPTIVE 

the olber Iniildtngi^ of the^iriory, whkb m^ 
b4 plainly traced in various direQiioos, At tb# 
north end of tlie priory yard, on. the banks ^ 
a piece of water, called the Old Treat, is m 
bmmaon that was rebuilt by the Thackeii about 
1^ century ago* upon the foundation of the pri* 
or^s lodging, and uhich of late years bas bee» 
lippropriated for the residence of the bead* 
master. This house exhibits towards the water, 
a Qurious brick tower, with battlements, and an . 
prnainental cornice. This is one of the curliest 
specimens built with such kind of materials now 
remaining: and is of the date of Henry Vi. m 
the rebus and initial letters of Overton, (oof 
of the prioreintbat reign) evidently point out: 
the rebus, &c. is in the lower room. 7^he nutu*^ 
ber of houses in Repton, as returned under the 
late act, is 330: the inhabitants 14SH; U^ir 
chief employment arises from the opetatioiis of 
agriculture/^* 

Milton, is a small hamlet belonging to tiie 
parish of Repton, and stands at the distaai^ 
of a mile from the town. It contains about 
thirty houses. 

Bretbt, is now but a small cbapelry^ bt^ 
longing to the parish of Repton : formerly, 

* Betutist of England, 



VltW or ; DfiRB Y8HIR£. $» 

iiotrerer, U nppearfi to bate beeti iii<yre^ti^de^ 
rable in siM, its T€stig^ of walls, fonndatioftift, 
wells, &c. have frequently been diseo? ered, in 
the adjacent ground. 

In former times, there was a castte tit BfeC«> 
hy : In the reign of Ricbtlrd II. it bel^n;{ed td 
Ttiomas de Brothertofi, Earl of Norfolk, knA 
second son of Eilivard the Firsrt; from whoM^l 
descended to the Mow brays, Dukes of Norfolk. 
The estate afterwards ^descended to the Berk* 
lejtj, from whom, through a faimiiy of the name 
of Mee, it passed lo the present possessor, 'the 
Earl of Chesterfield, The si^e of this CfHrtk^ 
majr ^^ discovered from tlie mie?enness of the 
ground, no other vestige remraining, as the wtlk 
were entirely levelled. 

Oa the spotJirherc BaisfBYrPAiMt, tire resi- 
dence of the present Earl is btrift, formerly 
siood a v^nentbie ai>d maj^nificeut mansrOn, 
whidi, according to tradiiion, ivas erected of 
the materials of which the castle consisted.**- 
This ancient edifice, which his Lordship, in' 
his yoQth, was, by an artftfi st^war^^ persnaded 
to p«U down, as being in a dam^eroiis state of 
decfiay, though it was afterwards proved to hare 
been very 6rm and substa^fsnl, « was furnished 
with rich tupestry and due paintings, and sur- 
roauded with gardens, disponed after .the plan 



3S8 HISTORICAL AMD DESCRIPTIVE 

of those at Versailles, in the old gnmd style* 
with terraces, statues, and foantaios. 

Stanton, near Dai.b» at the time of th« 
Norman sorvej, waaealled Sianione^ and be* 
longed to Gilbert de Gand. The parish is npt 
extensive^ The living is a curacy, and the 
church is dedicated to St. Michael, and for- 
merly belonged to Dale Abbey : Mr. Thornhill 
is the patron. 

SpoNDON,^ is called Spondune in Domesdaj.f 
'At which time, there were, a priest, and a 
church, and one mill of five shillings and four- 
pence there. The living is at present a vicar- 
age, and the church is dedicated to St. Mary^, 
In former times it belonged to the Hospital de 
Lazarsj at Burton, in the county of Leicester, 

Spondon, is a large parish, including' the 
chapel ries of Stanley ^ Chaddesden^ and Locko.'^ 
The village itself is large, containing nearly 
two hundred houses ; and, standing in an airy, 
elevated, and pleasant situation, is inhabited 
by several genteel families. 

* This parish ought to have been inclucied in the Dean-* 
try of Derby, and inserted after Foston, page 316. 

\ Orig, 275. a, 2. Trans, p. SOp. 

J Which sec p. 3 15. . 



VIEW or Derbyshire. «•? 



CHAP. VIII. 



Deofiery of CattUlar. 



E< 



jGGINTON. At the time of the Norman 
lurvej, there were at Eghintune^ ^* a priest 
and a church, and one mill of five shillings, 
and six farmers, paying fourteen shillings and 
four-pence/'* The parish is not extensive; 
and the village though small, is pleasant. 

Near it, on the banks of the Dove, is the seat 
of Sir Henry Every, Bart. This family came 
originally from Somersetshire; and Sir Simon, 
vrho was created a Baronet by king Charles the 
First, ill the seventeenth year of his reign, was 
born at Chard in that county. He became 
possessed of the estates at Egginton, by marry' 
ing the eldest daughter, and co-helre^s, of Sir 
Henry Leigh, of Egginton, Knt. The estate 
continued in the possession of his lineal de- 

* Domesday, Orig; 276. K 3. Trans, ^l^« ^ 



9«i HISTOKICAL AMD BSSCRtPtlVE 

toendants, till about 1760, when, the Rev. 
John Everj, the last direct heir, dying with- 
out issue, the property was claimed by. Mr. 
Edward Every, an Attorney of Derby, who 
descended from a aon of Uie first possessor, who 
lived at Burton ; in his family the estate at pre- 
sent continues. 

In the year 1736, a fire consumed the great- 
est part of the house, in which Sir Simon E?ery 
then lived, and the present mansion was erec- 
ted in its place. 

It is said, that Walcbeline de Ferraries, and 
Margaret Peverel, his wife, formerly lived at 
Egginton. 

Marstok, caHed Merstun in .Domesday^ 
where at that time there were, a church and a 
priest, was held by the Monks, under Jlenry 
de Ferrierest This living is a vicarage, and the 
church is dedicated to St. Mary. It formerly 
belonged to the priory of Tut bury ; and the 
Duke of Devonshire is the patron. The pa- 
rish contains also, the hamlets^of Hilton, fHiU 
tune) Hat ton, (Hatune) and Home. 

Chellaston, by the Norman surveyors writ- 
ten Celerdestunej and Cellesdene^ is a small 
farming village; containing about fifty houses. 
The tiring is a donative curacy ; and the church 
which formerly belonged to the priory of Dale, 



VIEW O^ OIRBTSHIRB. Uli 

i» dedicated to St« Peter. In the cbarcb *ii A 
Mied tondbf with this inscriptioii >-*- 

Barredon quondam Cdppelanwi A* D. Mf^ 
D, XXIIIJ. €t/^u9 mo propitktUT Dew. Amm^ 

Etwalu There were tit Eiewelle, in the 
Conqaecar's time, a priest and a church«^-^ 
John of Gaunt, granted a lioence to Sir Wtl>* 
liam Finebenden, Knt. and Richard de Rat^tti* 
aer, archdeacon of Lincolrt, to giva the manor ef 
Starally to Beau?ale priory, to pray for the 
aoal of the said William whilst he lived, aad 
the sonls of him and his wife after their deathii 
The church at Etwall was once, part of the 
priory at Welbeok: It was given in the reign 
of king Stephen, by Thomas Cuheney, wbd 
waa the foutider of ibis rejigiotie house. 

We have before lYoticed, under Rppton, that 
Sir John Port, who endowed the school at that 
pbce, lived at EtwalL Jin the reign of queea 
Mary, (abont the year 1557) he left lands for 
the erection and endowment of an hospital at 
tbis place* It wad at first built for the recep* 
tioo of six persons only ; but in consequence of 
the lAQieased value of the lands, it has been 
ponsiderably enlarged. It was taken down and 
wbuilt, itt the year 1680, spon such a plan, 

, ♦ Domesday, Orig. «76. 5. 1. 



I 



40ft HISTORICAL AND D£SCRIPnVK 

that it will pow accommodate sixteen pencmrr 
it now consists of sixteen distinct dwellings.-— 
The government of this hospital is vested in 
the same persons, as that of Repton school. 

At Etwall is the seat of Rowland Cotton^ 
Esq. who is descended from an ancient and n^ 
spectable iamily. His father represented the - 
town of Newcastle in parliament, and died in 
the year 1753. 

The parish of Etwall ^contains the hamlets 
of Burnaston, (Bernulfestune) and Barrow* 
coat, (Bermrdescote). 

DovBRiOGE, Dovebridge, or as it is in Domes- 
day Dubrige, had» at the time of the Norman 
survey, a church and a priest. Doveridge was 
held by Edwine, the last Earl of Mercia, at 
the time of the Norman Conquest: but this 
prince being betrayed and slain, it was given 
to Henry Ferrers, under whom it was held bj 
the Monks. Berta, founded a priory at Tut- 
bury, in Staffordshire, and endowed it with 
lands of considerable value at Doveridge. When 
this religious house was dissolved, in the time 
of Edward the Sixth, those lands were granted 
to Sir William Cavendish, Bart. 

At Doveridge is the seat i>f Sir Henry Caven«- 
dish, a descendant of the last-mentioned Baro- 
net. The house, which is a modern and hand- 



VIEW OF OBRBYSHIRE. 401 



soiae . buildipg» was erected about the year 
1770, apd is pleasantly situated. It stands up- 
on an eminence, commanding a view of the 
town of Uttoiceter, the river Dove, the rich 
pastures which extend along its banks, and of 
a range of distant hills on the opposite side of 
the valley. 

The family of Cavendish, settled ^t Dove- 
ridge, is supposed to h^ve had its origin, jn 
William Cavendish, Esq. who was i^eriff of 
Derbyshire in 1591, and was nephew of Sir 
William Cavendish, ancestor of the Duke of 
Devonshire. The title was first bestowed on 
Henry Cavendish, Esq. who was raised to the 
dignity of a Baronet, in the year 1755. 

At Eaton Hall, in this parish, liyed Sir 
Thomas Milward, Chief Justice of \ Chester, 
who entertained king. Charles the First: The 
bouse is now in ruins. Over the door is placed 
the following inscription : — 
F. T. placet Deo sic omnia fiura^ anno Do- 
mini, 1576, Junii 12. 

The living of Doveridge, is a vicai^age ; the 
church is dedicated to St. Culhbert ; and was 
given by . Henry Earl Ferrers to the priory 
at Tntbury. The Duke of Devonshire is the 
patron. 

13 r 3 



403 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPHVE 

SudbvrV. At the time of the Noraian sur- 
yey there were, a cborch and a priest at SuiU 
$€rie. 'the living, at present, is a rectory, and 
*the chlirch is dedicated to AH-siEunts. It for- 
merly belonged to the priory at Tutbury.— 
'£4)1^ Vernon is the patron. 

The manor of Sudbury, belonged, in the 
time of fidwi^rd the Second, to the Montgo- 
thery family, who held it until the time of 
'Henry VIII, when the youngest daughter, and 
co-heiress of Sir John Montgomery, conveyed 
it, by marriage, to Sir John Vernon, son of Sir 
Henry Vernon of Haddon-Hall ; whose descen* 
cKanf, 6eorge Venables, Lord Vernon, is the 
pr^nt proprietor. 

"f he mansion, which is the *seat of his pre- 
sent Lordship, was erected about the year 16IO, 
by Mary, widow of John Vernon Esq. grand- 
son to the above Sir John. Though the hous^e 
is so ancient, yet it contains several good apart- 
ments, fitted up in a neat and elegant manner. 
It is a respectable building of red brick, inter-^ 
misted with others of a darker colour; and 
though- hot very large, is well proportioned, 
and has two small wings. In the dining^-roond 
are some good paintings; particularly. The 
Rape of the Sabines^ Sloth and Industry. In the 
parlour are several family pictures. In the with* 



VIEW OF Effi^BYSMRE. ' ; 4^ 

dia^wuig*ropiD,.a(e,£orc/an0.i^ ,^^f^ham 
H<nfar4^ . a Ckopalrat and a ^ary Magdalene. 
lathe ^bi^ary.is an epi^cellent pamting of J%f 
Mmr^ ffhich is.fsaid to. be a copj of ^Quintin 
Melsjs's at Windsor-Cas^. ^The. ipomfi^f^fi 
parlo^ir con.tains some faouly portraits. ,Oii 
the stair Case, is the,Jff.aUle f^dtexatiiler;^^ 
inagood gallerj which riro^ through jthe bomei 
are port^raits of Lords, CromweilfVtnd St4fjffinr4f 
aod Sir John Vernon^ three of the favorites of 
Charles the first. 

The family of the Vernons, is of great anti^ 
quity. They are descended from the Lords of 
Vernon in Normandy ; one of ^vtiom, Richard 
de Vernon,, accompanied William the Conque- 
ror, into England, and was one of the seven 
Barons, . created by Hogh Lupus, .the great 
Earl of Chester. Sir Ralph de Vernon, who 
was alive in the reign of Edward IL was sty- 
led the Long^ Liver ^ from his great age, which 
is said to have been 150 years. The first of this 
family invested with a peerage, was the Jate 
George Venables Vernon, who was raised to 
that honor by his present majesty, in the year 
1762, by style and title of Lord Vernon, Ba- 
ron Kinderton, in the county of Stafford.^ 



♦ For a further account of the Vcrnons, see «* Hadoon 
Hall/' 1 



4114 HISTORICAL AND DBSCRIPTIVE 

Sudbury Church is an ancient £ibric, stand- 
ing in* the garden near the house; and beipg 
Inxuriantlj covered with iyy, becomes a pic- 
turesque object. Here the ancestors of the fa* 
milj, for more than two hundred years, have 
been deposited, and several monnmeots have 
been erected to their memories. An inscrip- 
tion on a neat mural monument, raised to the 
memory of Catherine^ daughter of the late Lord 
Vernon, is a very elegant tribute to her worth ; 
is was written by Whitehead, Poet Lau- 
reat: — 

'** Mild as the opening mom's serenes! ny, 

Mild as the close of Summer's softest day ; 

Her form, her virtues, (ferm'd. alike to please 

With artless charms, and unassuming ease ;) 

On every breast their mingling influence stole. 

And ih sweet union breath'd one beauteous whole. 

This fair example to the world was lent 

As a short lesson of a life well spent : 

AlaSy too short ! — but bounteous heaven Best knows, 

When to reclaim the blessings it bestows." 

Hill Somersal, is a hamlet, which belongs 
to the parish of Sudbury, and contains about 
twenty houses. 

Church Brouguton, Broctune^ is a pretty 
considerable parish, containing^ upwardsof fifty 
liouses. Hie living is a vicarage, and the 
church is dedicated to St. Michael. According 
to Ecton, it formerly belonged to the priory at 



VIEW O^ DERBYSHIRE. 405 

Tudmrj. Dugdale^ Bays, that Robert de Per- 
ref% iiecoiid Earl of Derby, gave the tillage of 
BroeUm to tbia religions house. 

Sutton on the Hill; wbeti Domesday was 
compiled) Sudtune, was a part of the lands of 
Henrj d< Ferrers, and there were a choi^cb and 
a priest there, at that time.f Tbe living of 
SottoD is a vicarage, and the cbarcb 10 dedi* 
eated to St. Michael. 

Dalbury, called by the Norman surveyors, 
Dellmgeherie^ and Delhebi^ is not a very ex- 
tensive parish. The living is a rectory, and 
the charch is dedicated to AU-saints. It for- 
merly belonged to the priory at Trentbam. 
' ■ Cotton, Esq. is the patron. 

Barton ; at the Conquest, there Were at 
Brctctume^' 9L church and a priest, which were 
tbe property of Henry de Ferrers. 

Barton once belonged to tbe family of Le 
Blunt.;^ In the ninth year of Richard the Se- 
cond, Walter le Blunt, obtained a charter for 
free Warren, in all bis d^SMsne lands, at Al- 
kemonton, Sapperton, and Hollington, Wil- 
liam le Blount, Lord Monntjoy, by his will, 
bearing date, the thirteenth of October, in the 
year 1534, directed, that in case he t^hduld die, 



* Mon. Angl. yel. I. p^ S94. 
t Dom«sday, Orig. 874. h. 8. % Sec page 97^. 



106 HISTQIUCAL AND DESORIPTIVE 

wUhm the countifes of Derby or StaiSbid,. ;his 
body dlQold be conveyed to the piuridi ehiueli 
of Barton, there to be buded qnder aniurcht on 
the South .side of the altar. 

During the civil wacs, • in Charles the Fiial's 
time, an eogegeaient took. place, (Febmary 
15th« 1046,)^ bet!vreen the Parliamesltary Army 
atatipned at Bartqp«Bloont«»hpuse, and a de- 
tachment of the Royalists quartered atTntbury. 

The parish of Barton contains but very, few 
bouses. Tlie living is a reetpry, and Samnd 
.Croni'}]|«iA« Esq. is the patron. 

Trusl^t, supposed to be the Toxmai of 
Dowesd^y,^ is a sqiall parish, not containing 
many bouses. The living is a rectory, and the 
church isdedicated to AU-siunts. 

A very respectable family of tbe\ name of 
Coke, formerly resided at Trusley. Sir Fran^ 
CIS, who lived here in the time of Charles the 
First, bad a brother, whose name was J<d»n, 
who was Secretary of State in that .king's reign. 
He spent many ye«rs at Cambridge, and there 
acquired such high reputatipn for. his learning, 
.that he was chosen poblic Professor of Rheto* 
i-ic to the University. . He: afterwards a^compa- 
jui^d a person of corls^qi(i^ace, in his.'travekon 

* Bee Orig. iJ74. *. a. 'tratii^. 304. 



VIEW Oi? tiiRBVSHiRE. 40^ 

tbtt'^KtUient, and ott bis return; Vetftried inth« 
«a^abiiy of a private g^tttlemdji; W^ienhewis^ 
a#rkM M the age ofUhy years, he' was appbint* 
ed SMretary to the- Naty, then Master of Re* 
q|Mste« and in the year 1620, Secretary of 
Swue. The honor t>f Knighthood was, shortly 
4ifter, confertned upon him, and he was chosen 
fbe Representative of the University of Cam* 
4Krfd|«'itt Parliameaf . 

lil^he third parliament of Charles the First, 
Sir John Coke made a considerable "figure ; and 
w the iiin^rtant bo^tness transacted at tfafti^ 
time, he appears to have conducted himself 
<#ith such moderation, that though he was of- 
ten obliged,' froin his ofiicial character, to de- 
liver messages which were far from being agree* 
able to th^ members of the house at that time, 
fie yet, by his discretion and lenity, took care 
4o secure himself from their personal resent- 
ment and displeasure*. After having continued 
Secretary of State fot- about twenty years, he 
was removed from his office, and died on the 
eighth of September, 1644. 

6eorge> another brother of Sir Francis Coke, 
was, sikecessii^ely, fiishop of Bristol and Here- 
ford; He vras involved in the same condemna^ 
tion with th^ rest of the Bishops, passed, ibr 
their signing the protest in pai'liument, in or- 



4m HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

der to secure the preaervatioa of their privi- 
leges ; and is said to ba?e died in reduced cir« 
camstances, on the tei^th of December, 1646. 

BoYLsTON. The manor of BtnUstun was 
given by William to llenrjr de Ferrers, and 
vras then valued at thirty shillings. The pre- 
sent paribh, contains from forty to fifty houses. 
The living is^a rectory ; and the church is de- 
dicated to St. John the Baptist. Its clear va- 
lue is <£49. 0$. and yearly tenths, \2$. OidL 

SoMERSALL. In Domesday, SumersaU^ is a 
parish containing the hamlets of Church So- 
mersall, and Herbert'SofnersalL The living is 
a rectory ; the church ^is dedicated to St. Peter, 
and the Earl of Chesterfield is the patron. 

The mansion of Fitzherbert, Esq. 

stands in the liberty of Herbert-Somersall, and 
is supposed to have been built with the mate- 
rials, which were collected fr6m the ruins of an 
ancient seat of the Montgomery family, which 
was situated near the church at Cubley. 

CuBLET. In Domesday it is said, ** there is 
now at Cobelei^ a priest and a church, and one 
mill of twelve pence, and eight acres of mea- 
dow.'^ The living is a rectory, and the cbai:ch 
is dedicated to St. Andrew : The Earl of Ches- 
ter field is the patron. The number of houses 
in the liberty of Cublev is thought to be about 
eighty. 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 409 

MIrston Montoomery, is a cbapelrj be- 
longing to Cublejr, containing, nearly, dne 
hundred houses : The chapel is dedicated to St. 
Giles. Here the site of the hpuse, where the 
family of Montgomery once lived is shewn. — 
It is said that dame Margaret Stanhope was the 
last who inhabited it. In the year 1659 a new 
bouse was built with its ruins. 

No manufacture of any consequence, is car- 
ried on, in this part of the county of Derby, 
and, therefore, the inhabitants, are principally 
engaged in the pursuits of agriculture, and rely, 
chiefly, upon its produce for their support. 

Longford, or Laganford^ is a parish con- 
taining the hamlets of, Longford, Hollington 
(HolintuneJ Rodsley, (Redlesleie) Alkmonton 
(AlchementuneJ and Bentley (BenedUge). — 
The living of Longford is a rectory ; and the 
church is dedicated to St. Chad. It wi)s given 
by Nicholas deGriesly, alias, deLonglbrd, and 
Margaret his wife to the Monastery of KeniU 
worth, in Warwickshire, Edward Coke Esq. is 
the patron. There was formerly a Chapel at 
Alkmonton, but the font is the only present re- 
mains of it. Walter le Blount^^ by a will da- 
• 18 o 3 

• See page «73. » 



4l« HISTQ^CAL AND D^CRIPTIVE 

M the ^igh^lior J^Iy 1474 " diracted that his 
^}f/^uffim fhoqld pMf9luyse l^d« ta the yearly 
ig^iMOf tmp9»»^ and «ppcopriat($ them to 
^« hmpit^l «f $t. Leonard liAMated betwixt 
Aij|M«QaV>A4iid VeAtley* t« pray (of thesoukof 
^ 9Me«tQn), loir hiS;9W9 «ott(, andf«r the souls 
((k£ ^lA Vfife and chil^fcp. for U)«. spnls of Ham* 
phrey, Duke of Ba^JmpS^iViV Richard, earl Ri« 
visnh $"r Jftt»i Wodpy^e. i^Jt- i|.nd,fQr the soul* 
o^thft aqqi^nlt k»i)d%9/tba^ hospjytal. 

" iMior^vw h|^4|^int^, that the master of 
t)i^^bpT,^bpspita) should continuiilly fiud seven 
poor D^Dt whQ vrere either tp b^ chfts^n from 
Yl}9, ovf.n domes(ic^ or d^pejidfint^ or vi^ere old 
Bfifysm\f, Qf thft lord, apd patrQn. pf U»e lord, of 
U^,qwimr <^Cft»rton.oi^d of, t|ia.Hai9«. hoi^iM^ 
Q£l^t„ I.i^onAid., Btfftin c»BQ.tl|(^^€Qid4 nq^be 
n^t.witi^ inJtimy.^y* they \rierf tabe^coHectied 
&f»afk, tlie.oJd t«nwiM of all, tbf^ iprdiliipp .ofi tli« 
sud.lftrdi andpatromwjUiin.tliQi pRHR^es of 
IHrhj and Staffiud. And he.via^!. qe^ir«4> *« 
pay «i^eeWy to tbese 8evfin.pQpr.i«c«n two, sfiiU 
Ung«.aiid fonr-penciB. But nPi persota^^^.^ftro^lQ 
he considered a^ pfO|ier objects, of t^Hl.c^Hyi, 
till they .had a^tnined to the., age of fiftyr4>« 
years. When thes^.s^ven men vftfe chosen, 
they, were to. hanL s^en. kin&. (fiftVEs) going 
within his park atj^B^q^^ and seven load of 



VJEW OP DERBYSHIRE; 411 

wood yearly for their fewe}^ which were to be 
t$keii' within his lordships of Barton, Alkmon- 
ton, and Bentiy^ or other lordships in A^pte* 
tree hundred, in the eonnty of Derby. 
* '* The master of the hospital was also obliged, 
«€very third year, to give to each of these ^even 
poor men a gown and an hood of white or ros* 
set of One suit, and of these two colours alter- 
nately; the gown was to be marked with a 
Tayewe cross of red, and hone of these poor 
men were allowed to ask alms upon pain of 
removal from the hospital. — Moreover every 
one of them was obliged to repeat our Ladies^ 
psftlter, tw'ice eyery day, within the cbapet of 
the hpsi^ital. — It' was also appointed, that there 
should be a mansion with a square court adjoin- 
ing to the same chapel without any back door, 
tbnt the roof of the chapel should be raised, the 
wall heightened, the wnidow*s made with strong 
iron work, witb a quire and perctose, and aU 
fara virithout the quire. — Moreover the master 
was forbidden to uear either red or green, but 
upon bis gown of other colour, a Tayewe crosft 
was to be placed uik>u his left side^ and he was 
allowed to enjoy no benefice but the Parsonage 
of Barton. 

** Lastly he directed, that a chapel of St, Ni- 
cholas should be biiiit at Alkmoqton, that the 



4M HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

master of the above hospital should say maw 
there yearly on the feast of St« Nicholas, and 
at oth^r times, when he thought proper.*^' 

Longford Hall, is the seat of Edward 
Coke, Esq. one of the representatives of the 
town of Derby in Parliament. It is an ancient 
and spacious fabric; with wings, which have 
the appearance of being more modern, than the 
body of the house. The surrounding grounds 
are pleasant, and the neighbouring country 
furnishes a variety of agreeable prospects. 

The estate at Longford, passed through se» 
veral families^ before it became the property of 
its present respectable possessor. It was, for- 
merly, the seat of a family, who-seem to have 
derived their name from the place. As early 
as the seventeenth parliament of Edward the 
Second, ibout the year 1321, Nicholas de 
Longford, represented the county of Derby- 
Sometime after the year 1620, when the last of 
the Longfords died, it became the seat of a 
descendant of Sir Edward Coke, Lord Chief 
Justice of England, in the reign of James 1. 
In this family I^ngford continued till the y.enr 
J 727, when, Sir Edward Coke dying vrHbuut 
issue, it became the property of Edward Coke, 



* Dugcklc's Bar. vol. I. p. 5-^0* 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 41S 

Esq. of Holkam, Norfolk, a desoendant of ano- ' 
ther branch of the. Lord Chief Justice's family. 
Djing unmarried, in 1733, he left his estate to 
liis younger brother, Robert Coke, Esq. who was 
vice*ehamberlain to que^n Caroline. He died 
in the year 1750, and Wenman Roberts, son of 
his youngest sister, Anne, was bis heir; who, 
upon succeeding to his uncle's estates, in the 
counties of Derby and Lancaster, took the name ^ 
of Coke, and in the year 1772 was chosen one 
of the representatives of ihe town of Derby in 
parliament. From this gentleman the present 
£dward Coke, Esq. is descended. 

Brailsford, in Domesday,* called Brailei- 
ford, and also, Breilesfordham^ ahd where there 
were then, a church and a priest, is a conside- 
rable village. It is situated on each side of the 
road leading from Derby to Ashbum, and near* 
ly midway between those places. The inha- 
bitants are chiefly engaged in the pnrsuits of 
agriculture. 

The manor of Brailsford, was held in the 

twenty- fifth year of Edward 1. by H. de Brails-* 

ford. In the .reign of Edward IV» it wafs held 

*by Ralph Shirl#>y, under Duke Clarence of 

Tuthurv'. In this family it continued till it was 

• Orig. «74. b. «. And aSQ. ^l 8. 



414 HISTORICAL AND DESbniPTlVE 

dMpoiecl of by tlie late Earl Ferrtiai td a Mr. 
Webster, formerly d Derby. 

Tbe living is a rectory ; the charcfa is dedi* 
eated to All-saints; and the Rev^ Mr. Gardiner 
is tbe patron. 

Shiri^bt ; at Sheki there were lit the cooh 
pilation of Domesday, a cboreh atod a priest^ 
and one mill. The living is. at present a viear^ 
age ; tbe cha rch is dedicated to St. Miehael.--^ 
It (brinerley bdong^ to the Monastery at Der* 
ley ; it has the same patron as Bmil^rd. 

At Shirley stood, some years ago, tbe anei-* 
ent seat of the Etendon family, which assumed 
the name of Shirley, in the reign of Henry the 
Third ; at which time, James Shirley had free 
Warren granted him, in all his demesne lands 
in this place. The manor, pailsed through tbe 
same persena a^ Brailsford^ to the late Earl 
Ferrers, when thefoross, of which it consisted, 
were sold to different purchasers. 

Yeayely, in Domesday, Gkevelij is a cha- 
pelry under Shirley, consisting of about Siiy 
houses. Here there was formerly a Hermitage^ 
whach in tbe reign of Richard I* was given by 
Ralph le Futi, with all its ap rurtenances and 
revenues, to the Knights Hospitallers of Saint 
John* at Jerusalem, and afterwards became a 
preceptory to that order. Sir William Meynil, 



Y1£W or DBKSYSfHRB. «« 

gfreat beBf^faolw to thia t^gioaa h««Q ; U vkm 
ifedbatod to St. Mavy^ md St.: John iba Bnp- 
tiA. 

At thfl Di^aobitfiia^ ito PtTanaes^ togfithtr 
widi Ihasa^of aa^thec piemptory al; BarMia» i* 
CJMptiMa, van; naku^d i«k i!90i Sf^ 4d irUi 
ktmse^ waftgamtaAr imtliB tlnranty^fi^tb3E8arof 
Henry VIII. to Charles, Lord Moqntjoy. 

QftMMXnYi. U^ Domftsday,. writtea Qwumr 
distune^ is a sm^aUi U9iu)#t in the parish of 
Brailsford, containing, together with the whole 
liberty, about fifty houses. The chapel is de- 
dicated to St. Martin, and valued at ^15. 

Dbnbt, is a parish, containing a single ham- 
let of th« same name : This village is large, 
containing about one hundred and sixty dwel- 
linga. The living is a curacy ; and the church 
18 dedicated to St. Mary: — ^Its clear value 

iajeo. 

Denby appears to have been a place of some 
importance, about the commencement of the 
fourteenth century ; as in the eighth year of 
JBdward the Third, Richard, Lord Grey of 
Codnor, obtained a charter, for holding a mar- 
ket at Denby, with a fair, on the eve and na- 
tivity of the blessed Virgin. The inhabitants 



410 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

are, chiefly, supported by working the collie^ 
riet, and the manufacture of stockings. 

Denby, disputes with Derby, the honor of 
giving birth, lo that great and celebrated As- 
tronomer, John Flamsfead; but, as it cannot 
beascertained to which it is due, and the pro* 
bability being in favor of Derby, we have given 
a sketch of his life, in our account of that 
Town.* 

•SMpafcfU. 



CHAP. IX. 

Deanery of Ashbourne. 

^^^STQiy, Pdolnmn, and ^uppos^ U^ 
he the Pubieflitn§ of poniesdaj, ijp fi miiH: 
parish, containing about forty liPM&w* Tb«^ 
liTing is 9 rector}' ; and the cliurcb is dedicated 
to $t. Jaines. 1| is set down in tl|«i fcingV 
hook, at tbe cl^ar value of ^46. and. Jtftarljr 
tenthS) 7^. lOd. The l>«an of MncffJlii is llio 
the patron. 

^Oi^EURY. At t|i^ ti^ie of the jVorn[i9lp mr* 
x^y^ there were a priest and a cJiurch 9t /^4r^ 
6fr£r.* The liberty of Nprbiiry is b^t SQOoU: 
it includes tU^ hamlet pf Hqston^ a^d the ^)^ 
pelry pfSnelson^ [SnellestuneJ ivhpie ctv^l 19: 
dedicated to St. Peler. The living of JNwbufj^ 
is a rectory r and the church isd:edyvi^ed t^ 3t. 
Mary. 

i^t Norbury wa^ the ancient se^t^f the.JFV/^ 
Aer^fitJiit ^Q whom the wa^iptr wap,.giv«fi» in 
.14 , H 3 

• Domesday Orig. 275. ^- 2. Trans. S07. 
t Camden^ pag;e 491. ' 






iU HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPnVB 

1135, by William de Ferrers, Prior of Tutbory; 
and in whose possession, it has continued to 
the present time. Several of this family, haye 
been celebrated for their learning, but none 
more so, than Sir Anthony Fitziierbert. He 
was born at Norbury, and educated at Oxford^ 
from whence he removed to one of the Inns of 
Court. In 15123, he was made a Jud^e in the 
Court of Common Pleas, where he presided 
during part of tlie reign of Henry VIIF. and is 
reported to have opposed Cardinal Wolsey, in 
the plenitude of his po%ver. He wrote, 1. Tbo 
Grand. Abridgment of the English Law; 2. A 
Collection of Laws; 3. The Office and Autho- 
rity of Justices of the Peace ; 4. The Office of 
Sheriflfs ; add 5. New Natura Brevium ; works 
w^hich are still in reputed among the students of 
bis profession. He is also supposed, to have 
written a book on the Surveying of Land; and 
another on Husbandry. He died in 1538, and- 
was buried in Norbury church. 

There were, also, two of Sir Anthony^s grand- 
sons, who signalized themselves, in the repub* 
lie of letters. - 'Thomas Fitzherbert, whose 
writings are wholly conti-oversial, was a Jesuit^ 
and rector of the English CeUi^ at Rome, 
ivhere be died in 1640. Nicholas Fitzher- 
bert, wrote, 1. A Description of the University 



. VIEW OF DJSRBVSHIRE; .4l« 

of Oxford ; ^ On the ]^ntiqt|itj andX^otatina- 
afioo.of the Catholic Religion in England; 3. 
'The Life of Cardinal AUen. Hewent to Italy 
in 1572, where he resided with Cardinal A]lep» 
till 1612, when he was drowned. 

The last possessor of the estate was, William 
Fitzherbert, Esq. whose death was occasioned, 
bj imprudently venturing into a cold bath, af- 
ter having heated himself by walking. This 
gentleman^s ividow, is the celebrated Mrs. Fitz- 
berbert, so weil knowh in the fashionable world, 
for having excited the admiration of an illus- 
trious Personage. 

Bbadlet, Braideleiy is a parish containing 
from fifty to sixty houses. Tlie living is a rec- 
tory ; and the church js dedicated to All-saints. 
The Dean of Lincoln is the patron. 

At Bradlcfy is the seat of the family of the 
Meynells. In the year 1625, Sir Gilbert Knive- 
ton, resided here ; but in the year 1655, the 
manor was purchased by Francis Meynell, Esq. 
Alderman of London, from whom it has de* 
scended to the present proprietor. The anci* 
ent family seat at Bradley has been taken down, 
and the stables converted into a dwellrn'g- 
house. It is now seldom used by Mr. Mey- 
nel, except for the convenience of hunting in 
the neighbourhood. \ . 






MO HIStOUGAI. 3MD OSSCRimVB 

«f icftatylMate i«r«ter, Irlliob bean a j|;t«it f«- 
tti*b1aA(M td ihoib ttt Chetteriflbld tia^ i>af. 



^^^ 



ii«tBtt!iajS£9,i^ 



ASHBOURN. 



AsHBouRN, Ashbourne^ or Ashhurn^ is a neat 
Market town, imbosomed amid hills, i^bich 
rise around it on every bide, and confine with* 
in them a rich valley, through which, the river 
Dove, rolls its water. The view of the toirn^ 
from the top of the hill, on approaching it 
from London, is particularly delightful. In 
the deep rich valley below, the town is seen, 
overhung with beautiful high grounds, at the 
back, as well as the front. The descent to it 
by the turnpike road, is the finest walk ioiagi* 
liable, being fenced on the inner steep side with 
a handsome railing, and having a thorn hedge 
on the outer side. A small rivulet, called the 
ilenmorei divides the town into two parts 
the most southern of which is denominated 
Compton, anciently Campdene. The houses, 



VIBW W IttilBV«|{nUL Ifti 

«TO| dii^bntit of bHok, ftiid rIttiM tte siAi 
ui a hiN; 

•At tlie thnebf tbte Nortnun suh^ey, JSkuBfticfMe 

was a royal manor, and had **aprre^ and a 

ckiirch/'* At thm time, (he town alM!i ^an tUe 

fyropertj of the king. Ring John granti^d k lb 

Willtatu deFen^rk, ^Tfof i>iei-by ; b«t onille 

TM)«ifimiof hisson Wi41iaia Ferret's^ iu tliie^i- 

nccMdiitg rrfgn, it wn^ Mised by the diwim.^^ 

£dwaiU llie l^rst beMotried it An }fA% brotbtff^ 

iMvkmkA Croudtbfl^k, EatI of lAAcMrer. Ro- 

^gBt Mortimer, ivart of Mardi, proeutvd frOAi 

£dwarri 111. forliiKSon, a ghint of the WafMii- 

takenf Rislej nnd Anhfeoni-n in the P^ak, b^- 

ing {larcefs of the lands of the lafe EdnMiui, 

• 'EsttX of Kent, attarinted. 

^ Tlie manor of Atiirboom then tiechiM tJfe 

^pmp^rtjof the Cockaynes, a very ancient fe- 

intly, wbo»6 priticrptil seat, was at thin pkne 

for many generations : the last of this famitjr, 

died at the end of the seventeeth oeatory witlu 

•out issue. 

Tile manor of Ashbtfufn ibcfo became the 
)Ht^erty of tlie Cokes of MelboUrn, from u^'hoin 
it was ptii'cha^dt in the reign of Charles 4he 
4Set!4ind, by Sir Wiliiatn Bodthby, (Knt. tfild 
Barf. Yhe'fodiily of 'Rdothby is thoffght tobo 

* Domesday, Orig, 272, a. % 



4m HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPHVE 

of great antiquity, and is supposed to hare 
sprung from a person of that name,' mentioned 
in the reign of king Egbert, who lived near a 
thousand ipears ago. The first Mho is ascer* 
tained with certaintjr to be an ancestor of the 
present Baronet, is Richard Boothby, who was 
living in the third year of queen Eiizabelh. 
His grandson, Henry Boothby, was created a 
Baronet by king Charles the First, by letters 
patent, dated November the fifih, 1644: but, 
owing to the civil wars, the title did not pass 
the grept seal. However, his son William,' was 
knighted by Charles 11. in the field ; and at 
the restoration, the king renewed his patent 
gratis, by the name of Sir William Boothby, of 
Broadlow*Ash, the former patent being of 
Clator-Ciote. The present Sir Brooke Booth- 
by, (well known as a great classical scholar and 
an elegant poet,) is a lineal descendant and 
the male heir of the above. 

The present church of Ashbourn, which is a 
fine specimen of Gothic building, was erected 
in the thirteenth century, as appears from a 
memorial in brass, commemorating its dedica* 
tion to St. Oswald, discovered a few years ago* 
on one of the walls of the church. The in* 
scription is in Latin, in ancient abbreviated 
characters : the following is a translation i — 



': VIEW or DERBYSHIRE* 4» 

; *^ In tbe year from the incaroation of oar 
Lord, 1241, on tlie tnehty-fourih of April, 
this church was dedicated, and this altar con* 
secrated, in honour of St. Oswald, king and 
martjr, by the Tenerable Hugh de Palishul, 
lord Bishop of Coventry/' 

* This church at Ashbourn, together with the 
cbapek, lands, tythes, and other appurtenan* 
ees, belonging thereto, were given in the timo' 
of Edward t lie Confessor, by William Rufus, to 
the Cathedral church at Lincoln. 

. In former times, there stood in the neigh- 
bourliood of Ashbourn, a chapel dedicated to 
St.,IMlliry. Some years ago its remains were 
takeq dpwn, by Sir Brooke Boothby ; prior to 
wh^h tioie^ it had been used as a malt* 
house* 

• Th? present church is built in the form of a 
eroftfi, with a square tower in the centre ; ter- 
minated with a lofty' octagonal spire, enriched 
with ornamental workmanship, and pierced 
by twenty windows. The roof is support- 
ed by several pointed arches ; the interior is 
spacious, but not commodiously disposed, 
though galleries have been erected for the con- 
venience of the congregation. It contains se« 
veral monuments^ erected to the memories of 
the Ci^kaif^^ Bradburne^ and Boothjby^; anil 



4i4 HISTORICAL ASaiUSGRIFnVB 

in theviadowf am nmaeraiia shields of tbetrais 
qf different famiiief , io stained glass. 

The beaulifail momiineiit erected in tbisohuwfi 
a femr years ago, exeoutad hjr tlie dass^ chis- 
el of Bsinkst in remembrance of liie daagbtea 
of Sir Brooke Boothby, bis only dfiughier, a 
ohild^ six yearKof uge, does as much credit to 
tba abiliti^ of the artiiit, as to the feelingf of 
tfaa parent. Nobod j ought evef to werlook tbi» 
t^nih, as it is, perhaps, tbe most intoreatin^ 
and pathetic olveel iii England. Smplicit/ 
and elegance appear in the vmrkniaosbip; tea* 
derness and innocence im the ioiage^ Oo a 
a^arble pedestal and slab, like a low t^iMe, ia 
a mattressi, with a child lying on it,t>oth bein^ 
cat ottt of u tiite marble. Her cheek, express 
si ve of suffering mildness, reclines on a pillow r 
and her little fevered bands, gently fasten each 
other, near to her bead. Tbe plain, and only 
drapery, is, a frock, the skirt ibwing easily oofc 
before, and a ribbon sa&h, the knot twisted 
forward, as it %vere, by the iwtlessneisof pain^ 
wd the two ends spread .out in the same direc- 
tion as the frock. Tbe delicate iiaked feet, 
a^e earelesly folded over each otlier, and tbe 
vbole appearance, is, aa if sbe had jnst turned, 
ip the tossings of her illness, to seek a cooler 
Q^jSisi^plaQe of res(« Tbe man whom thiy 



VIEW OF DSRBYSHIRZ. A'M 

6oeft not affc<;t^ wants one of the finest sources 
of genuine sensibility ; his heart cannot be 
formed, to relish the beauties, either of nature 
or of art f 

The inscriptions round this pleasing memo- 
rial of evanescent life, frail beauiy, and de- 
parted innocence, are in, English, Latin, French, 
and Italian. The English has ;— * 

!• Left hand on the slab. 
I wu ii«l in safety, neither had I rest, and the trouble came* 

Beneath on the pedestal ; — 

TO PENELOPE, 

Only child of Sir Brooke Boothby, and Dame Susannah 

Boothby, 

Bom April 11th, 1785, died March 19th, 1791. 

She was, in form and intellect, most exquisite. 

The unfortunate Parents ventured their all on this frail Bark, 

and the wreck was total. 

3. Latin side at her head, on the slab; — 

Omnia tecum una perierunt gaudia nostra.* 
Beneath on the pedestal ; — 

Tu vero felix 

. £t beata 

Penelope mea, 

Qu« tot 

Tantisque 

Miseriis una 

1 Morte perfuncta es.f 

14 1 3 



* All oar joys are perished with thee alone* 
4- But thou art happy and blessed, my dear Penelope, 
who, by one touch of Death, hast escaped so many and 
so great miseries. 



Son cercueil 

Ne kconticnt pu 

. Toute entierc} 

II atl^a k reltfe de u ^!^ : 

H^ «e I'atteadn p« 

Longtems«f 

4. Italian side ; — 

Lei che'l ciel ne mostn tern a'^sconde.^ 

JBeneath on the pedestal ;— 

Le crespe chiome d'or puro lucenU, 
£'1 lunpegffiar detl Angetico riso, 

Poca polvere'^h tixe huUt sente.^ 

There are also, three otW mdntimenti, to 
j^Admof the teme'lbnifly, Mwribed w^tii some 
beautiful verses by ^h BfObke Bootbbj, and 
the late l^iss^'ewiird. 

Near tlie cliurch, a ndble mbniiihcfiit of phir 
lanthropy presents itself, in the l^ree-Grammar- 
School, which was founded, in the timeof queen 
Elizabeth, by the y^/hMUifj contributions af 
Sir Thomas Cokaine, tint. William Bradbnme, 

* BftfiAy, thiathtnii tfcy Mt asylum ! 

f Her tomb does not yet cooUtn all ; it waits for the 
rest of its prey :■■■■ ■ ■ v it will not wait Ioi\g, 

t Those thatdcseeiid into the grave «m ii4l concealed 
fromHeaven. 

§ Tfayciuiiag locks of pure shining gold^ the l^i^ht- 
ening of thy angelic smile, which used to make a Paradise 
on Earth, aie now become only a little senaelcss dust» 



fy^. wb4 •* dirers well^b^fe^ citizens 9f 

on tfa? ^?9}f% C99}hini|?S ^l^^ii* loving be{ievo- 
\f^f^ tpi^eib^r, built there, with copvenifnt 
lp4gip^ far a oiaslert and liberal iqainfenance 
a|low^ theretp/* 

This scbopl is un^er thf patronage and di- 
rection, of three governors and twelve assist- 
ants, to be choisen from among the resident 
^oasebolders of Ashbpurp, u^hp are ipcprpor- 
ated according to the patent pf Queen Igliza^ 
t^t^. T^e lifja^ Ms^fpr fs tp hf of ^^fi (Je^ree 
9f M??t<?r <lf Artji f»P<| ha^ a hosise and ^ajrden 
6)jr ^|i)^9lf sin^ ^«»Uy»?d|oii|in|» toUi^sphool, 
yifi%k»^9^$ ^J^!^ VwnJ^rfi^ jPWp^ls a ^ear s^lar^ : 
th^ q|i4§rr««»stpf >|»J5, S^Iso, a jipuse, pnd al)out 
thirty ppqipj^s pgr pqnuinf The jcbjldren aid- 
l^iiie^ }ntff t^k «9^QQlt must be those of the 
|«wp, o^r i>» i|pnii?<Jifite neigfabourhopjd. Ther^ 
19 aqotb^r Frj^e-rJ^hpol at Ashbopru, for edu« 
i^tini; popr i^js fi|i4 ^i^K the ma&fer apd 
mistr^ of which, have a $§lar^ of about lejpi 
ppl^ld$eacb. 

There is also, at the sooth-east of the town, 
a neat chapel, and a row of alms-houses, for 
the admission of six poor men or women, erect- 
ed and endowed, in 1800, by a native of As|i- 
boorn of the name of Cooper. This persop. 



4U HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

when a boj, followed the humble occupatioa 
of brick-making, but having been disgusted 
with the employment, he went to London, and 
by frugality and persevering industry, acquired 
a considerable property. Hospitals for the re* 
ception and support of aged and decayed house- 
keepers, have also been founded here ; as well 
as one for the maintenance offour clergymen's 
widows. 

The town of Ash bourn, according to the 
ascertainment of the late population act, coU" 
tains 459 houses, and 2006 inhabitants. The 
markets, which are held on Saturday, supply 
an extensive neighbourhood. It has also a con- 
siderable support from its cattle-fairs, of which 
no fewer than seven, are held here yearly, to 
which great numbers of horses, oxen, sheep^ . 
pigs, and wares of various descriptions, are 
brought for sale. The trout caught in its 
river, the Dove, afford a delicious treat, of 
which most travellers choose to partake. Its 
fame for cheese, it is unnecessary to mention ; 
an article supplied by the dairy-farms in its 
neighbourhood, which are chiefly engaged in 
the manufacture of it. 

The parish of Ashbourn, extends partly in 
the Wapentake of Wirksworth, and partly in 
the Hundred of Appletree. in the latter aro 



VIEW 6f DERBYSHIRE. 4tft 

the hamlets of Clifton^ Ofivote^ Un^^rwood^ 
iteldersky^ and Hulland^ together, containing 
about 105 bouses. 

Near the town, is Ashbourn-Hall, a seat 
belonging to Sir Brooke Boothbj. It was from 
ftmote antiquity, the residence of the Cokaines^ 
one of the moiit eminent families in Derbyshire. 
Their residence here may be traced, with cer^ 
tainty, from the time of Henry the Third, to 
that of Charles the Second, when they sold the 
estate to Sir William Boothby. No architec- 
tural beauties adorn the eij^terior of this man* 
aion, though within, every part is disposed with 
taste and elegance^ Many of the pictures are 
valuable; and the books are a judicious collee* 
tion of classic and polite literature. The situ- 
ation is low ; but the park and gardens, are 
laid out in a style of beauty and gracefulness^ 
which compensates for the want of more pic* 
turesque scenery. 

Of its ancient possessors, the Cokaines, we 
find a John Cokaine, who represented this 
county in several parliaments atid councils du- 
ring the reign of Edward the Third. Another 
John Cokaine, was knighted by Henry the 
Fourth, at the battle of Shrewsbury, (1403) 
and killed in that conflict. liis younger son, 
was Chief Baron of the Exchequer in the third 



#• HISTCmiQAI^ AKO Q^QRJFf IVE 

of Htnry the FMfth; Md » im^m «C C<mm 
990 PlfM i« the siK(b 4/ tbf sam« Iriug. 
mod second of Uenrj the^Sixth. Ua lien bo^* 
md w th? «hi4ri}li M AshtioqrQ ; hW tomb be* 
mg dMorated vith thp f^ffigies of hioiself uid 
hi» lady, mrved in alebaatefi the latter ie 
ederoed with a Turfciih bead^drew. The t^ 
miljr <^ Cokaioe, resident till of late yeaie at 
Cok»nt'ff¥4letf in Bed^rdsfaire, descended 
frem this famoiu Judge. Theoias Cokai«e, ^ 
Aiibbaiim, the "representative of the eldept 
branch, vas knighted for his ?aloar at the batt 
tie of Speirs, under Henry VHl. Sir Charlee 
Cetkaine, in the time of Charles the Seoeod, 
was the last of this &mily who resided at Ai^ 
boora. He vas a considerable sufferer ier hie 
loyalty to Charles I. and gave the finifbiog 
blow to an old Tenerable inheritance, whieh 
began to decline in the reign of James* Ha 
was a great writer of verses, the chief merit ai 
which consists in genealogical history ; a snb> 
ject but ill-adapfed to accord with the smooth 
current of the Pierian spring. Sir William 
Cokaine, of a younger branch of this fiimily^ 
was Lord Mayor of London in the year IfilO ; 
and bis son Charles was raised to an Irish peer- 
age, by the title of Viscount Cullen, in 164S. 
The following article is found inserted in the 



vttw m EtMYSimttv m 

ikmHh mfgiHiMt at Ashteon ;<i^* i«45 A^i^ttiiti 
kini^ Clnrlitt mme to tin <i^r«b; «ttd HMtf 

About iMdf ft floHe to t^ ftrft «f th« voftd l««il<i 
)% frMn A^tbouYtt tb Wiirkswoi^di, afed alMMt 
<lit<B6 dlAes ftoM the Ibrinier platt«, ara tw* 
6ia^liArMu* t(prittj|;i, kMOWft in the n6i^i>oarb 
IkMid fry tiife Hamta tff if ^^rm and Mm4g4 A§»v- 
'9Mb<Sjf¥ip%X TlMeyafeBitttat^attfceidiMaiic* 
«if *Un4^ ^ i^uarter «f ti mile Awm Mck e«hc»« 
Md In ^l%e$r ^jaatiti^ and tfirNutt i«MnbIe di* 
Kedleston wat^lr. 

Mkipn:.«)roK, MaphhM^ H a email village, 
\fitig \k a Tall«y to the i^foitfa of AMibeota, oh 
'Ate biiAlM of ^ IDo«>«. Th« liriagfls a too* 
ttitf ; and the ■choi'^li ift dedioat«d to St. Mopf . 
UteliHeVty i» tlM>ti|flit 40 eootaiu, about mH 
bondt^ ahd Mfrtrity inbabitaotn. 

Tatfli^, in {H>itt«aday «aH«d T»rp, r&^yttj 
agfteeoMe little tillage, with a «Miaill -c^rtoh, 
lieaiod ftpon the brow of a hilt, awd m Burroofti- 
'dlfift #iVb tr^s, as to be Ine^red higbly ^- 
liMOaqnate. The liviog it a rectory, and tire 
Tbo^ebis^edieatedtoSt. L$»oiiatd: the Dean 
tf ti;it,0(d& is (he ptetron. 

A litHo to the NoHb '6{ tbei^ltige, is TImp 
OUnld, a oonvM^ hilt, otf y^ Meep OMsetit, 
%ki<% :t4k*ft to a g^eait lieigfct; Near tMs is a 



^t HISTORICAL AND OSjSCRIPTIVE 

tolerably good descent, into a deep holloa 
called, Buniter-Dale; one ^ide of which 
bounded by a i^teep acclivity, finely covcired 
with wood ; and the other by a range of lofty 
crags^ of wild, uncoulh appearance. Passing 
through this narrow ravine (where the eye » 
prevented from excursion, and the mind thrown 
back upon itself) for half a mile, a sudden turn-, 
preiients the eye, with the southern entrance, 
of the far-famed, and romantic, Dotb^Dalii;, 
a name it has received from the river Dove^ pour- 
tng its waters through the valley. 

On entering Dove-Daky it is impossible not 
to be struck with the, almost instantaneous, 
change of scenery, so different from the sur* 
rounding country. Here, instead of the brown 
heath, or the rich cultivated meadow, rocks 
abrupt and vast, their grey sides harmonized 
by mosses, lichens, and yew-trees, their tops 
sprinkled with uiountain-ash, rise on each 
side. The mountains that enclose this narrow 
dell, rise very precipitous, and bear on their 
sides fragments of rock, that, at a distance, 
look like the remains of some ruined castle. — 
After proceeding a little way, a deep and nar« 
row valley presents itself, into whose recesses 
the eye is prevented from penetrating, by the 
winding course it pursues, and the sbutting4n 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 413 

.of its precipices, which ibid iDto each other, 
and preclude all distant view. 

On proceeding, the scenery [of Dove*DaIei 
gradually increases in majesty and rudene&s. — 
Now, those objects which at a distance seemed 
to have been ruins, are found to be huge py t'a- 
mids of rock, and grand isolated masses, orna- 
mented with ivy net-work, rising in- the middle 
of the vale; and were the scene oh a sandy de- 
sert, divested of its woods,: it might delude tlie 
mind with the fancied plains, in the neigli- 
boorhood of Cairo. The rocks which enclose 
the Dale, rise perpendicularly to a very great 
lieight, forcing themselves into the clouds, their 
scathed and uncovered heads overhanging the 
narrow path, that winds through the dark re- 
cesses of the Dale ; and frowning with craggy 
: grandeur, and shaggy with dark oaks that grow 
oi^t of the chinks, and cling to the asperities of 
' the rock, forin a scene in romantic beauty, 
unrivalled.: The mind regards it as a seques- 
tered solitude, wli^ere contemplation^' to the 
. crowd unknown,^^ might take her seat, and ex- 
tend her musings through' the M'ide range of 
existence, neither interrupted by jarring sounds, 
nor distracted by discordant images. The lone- 
liness and .silence that reigns here, entitle it to 
14 k3 



4S4 HISTORICAL AMD DESCRIPTIVE 

the appellation of the Vale of Panej or aBOthet 
Vaucluse; and as there b but one ragged, narrow 
footpath, it has more the air of being the haunt 
of iflsaginaty beingis, than human ones. 

After proceeding about a mile in the Dale, 
the walk petpetuallj diversified by new laotaa- 
tic forms, and oncontk combinations of rock on 
all sides, a rest mural mass of detached rock,, 
extendmg along the edge of the precipice on 
tile right, is seen: this is called R^nanPs 
Hole. It consists of three parts ;-^^ tnasa of 
mural riwk, in front of the £fa//, perfect! j de- 
tached from it, and perforated bj nature into 
a grand arch, nearly approaching to the ahape 
of the shaiply^pointed Gothic, about fortj<-fife 
feet high, and twenty wide. After climbing 
the rock, and passing through this arch, a«teep 
asoeadiag ^b leads to the first cavern called 
Rtjfnard's HmIL This is a natural cave, of 
forty«five foet in length, fifteen in breadth, and 
thirty in height. From the mouth of this ca« 
vern, the scene is singular, beautiful, and im- 
pressive. The face of the rock which coataias 
the arch, rises immediately in front, and would 
effectually prevent the eye from ranging be- 
yond its m^hty hairier, did not its centre 
open itito the above-mentiened arch, through 
which, is seen a small part of the opposite side 



VIEW Of ©ERBYSHIR* $94 

of the Dalei a oaais of gplooBiy wood, from 
whose 8faa4e a huge dista^h^d rQ€k» 8oIitftfy» 
craggj, aikd pointed, starts out to a great 
height, and forms an object trolj sublime.-*^ 
This rock is known by the appellation of Dove 
DdU Churchy and is pleasingly contrasted by 
the little pastoral river, and its verdant turfy 
bank below« At the end of tihi$ cave, there is 
a narrow opening, which some of the Qountry-» 
people, in the neighbourhood, sopposie, leads to 
other very extensive caverns, and terminate! 
in a place called Parwicb, about two miles and 
a half distant. 

'- To the left of thif^ cavern, and a little above 
it, is another, cvtW^Reymrd^sKUcken. Tbis 
is about forty feet in length, fourteen in breadtb« 
and twenty*»x in height. From the inside of 
this, a pleasing view is presented, of the upper 
part of the Dale, its river and rocks. 

The approach to these natural excavations, 
is very difficult of access even on foot, bilit im<* 
practicable on horseback : the latter however, 
was unfortunately tried .about forty years ago. 
The Rev. Mr. Langton, Dean of Cloger, in 
Ireland, being on a visit to a family in the neigh* 
bourboodof Ashbourn, a party was formed^ to 
make 'an excursion jnto Dove-Dale. As they 
were proceeding alon^' the bottom of the val- 



^$6 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

ley, Mr. Langton proposed to ascend od horse- 
back, a very steep precipice, near Reynard's 
Hole, apparently between three and four hun- 
dred feet high ; and Miss La Roche, a young 
lady of the party, agreed to accompany him 
on the same horse. When they had climbed 
the rock to a considerable height, the poor ani- 
mal, unable to sustain the fatigue of the task 
imposed upon him, fell pnder his burden, and 
rolled down the steep. The Dean was precipi- 
tated to the bottom, where he was taken up so 
bruised and mangled by the fall, that he expi- 
red in a few days, and was buried in Ashbourn 
church : but the young lady, whose descent had 
been retarded by her hair entangling in a bram- 
ble bush, slowly recovered ; though when disen- 
gaged, she was insensible, and continued so for 
two days. The horse, more fortunate than its 
riders, was but very slightly injured. 

After passing Reynard's hole, the Dale be- 
comes narrower, admitting only a foot-path 
between the fiver and the rock, which now 
rises mot-e abruptly on either side, and appears 
in shapes more wild and singular; but softened 
and diversified with shrubs and brush-wood. 
This scenery continues to the northern extre- 
mity, when two vast rocks, rising sublimely 
to the right and left of the brook, form the jawa 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. Wi 

or portals of this wonderful valley, which now 
drops at once the grand picturesque, its boU 
torn gradually widening intaan indulated Bat, 
and its rocks sinking into round stony hills. 
The rock on the right hand of the termination 
of the bale, has two large natural excavations 
called the Dot;^-^^!;/^^. The first is a regular 
arch of about isixty feet in span, and thirty-four 
in height; and a few yards higher up, is >lhe 
other bole of the same shape, but- of «Auoh less 
dimensions. Neither of these penetrate far in- 
to the rock. Opposite the Dove*Holes, on the 
Staffordshire side of the river, is th^ othermass 
of rock, which is called Dove-Hole^Church^ 
bearing a very strong and striking resemblance 
to such an edifice. 

, The length of Dove-Dale, is, nearly three 
miles, but the views are more limited from the 
sinuosity of its course and its projecting preci- 
pices. Through the whole of this majestic fea- 
ture of conn try, the river Dove leads his stream, 
murmuring innocently and transparently over 
its pebbly bed, in the halcyon days of summer, 
but swelling into rage during the winter months: 
little tufts of shrubs and underwood, form 
islands in miniature in the river, that enlarge 
and swellthe rest of the objects. 

On the riglit, or Derbyshire side of the Dale, 



4it HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

ibe roclu are mora bare of vegetatMHi, than on 
tbe left, or Staffi^rdshire side, where tbej are 
tbickljr covered) with a fioe banging wood of 
wild pear, applet and cherrj trees, the nut, the 
yew, the buck-thorn, tbe birch, and a great 
variety of other trees and odoriferous sbriibs 
and plants, which from its various combina- 
tions with the surrounding objects, presents a 
succession of beautifully picturesque and ro* 
mantic views. But the character of the sceneiy 
is greatly diversified by the varying forms of 
the rocks, and the changing current of ^he 
Dove, the motion and appearance of which iis 
perpetually changing. *^ It is never less than 
eight, nor so much as twenty, yards wide,, and 
generally from three to four feet deep; and 
transparent to tbe bottom, except when it is 
cotered with foam of the purest white, under 
falls which are perfectly lucid. These are na« 
uierous, but very different: in some places they 
stretch straight across, or aslant, the stream ; 
in others, they are only partial, and the wafer 
either dashes against the stones, and leaps over 
them, or, pouring along a steep, rebounds up-^ 
on those below: sometimes it rushes through 
the several openings between them, and at other 
times it is driven back by the obstruction, and 
turns into an eddy. In one particular spott the 



VIEW OP DERBYSHIRE. 499 

^lAley, Almost closing, leaves hardly a passage 
iw the river, which, pent op, and straggling 
fer vent, rages, and roars, and foams, till it 
* has .extricated itsdf from confinement. * In 
oAer parts, the stream, thoogh never languid, 
is often gentle, flows roond a little desert is;* 
land, glides between aits of bnlnishes, disperses 
itself among tufts of grass and of moss, bubbles 
about a water-dock, or plays with the slender 
threads of aquatic plants which float upon the 
swiaoer^ ^ 

The raggied, dissimilar,^ and frequently gro» 
tesqne and fanciful appearance of the rock!^ 
distingnbh the scenery of this Dale from, al- 
most every 4>ther in the kingdom. *' On the 
whde'^to use the words of Mr. Gijpin,t**it 
is perhaps, one of the most pleasing pieces of 
scenery of the kind, we any where meet with. 
It has something peculiarly characteristic. Its 
detatched, perpendicular rocks, stamp it with 
an image entirely its own, and for that reason, 
it afibids the greater pleasure. For it is in 
scenery as in life: — We are most struck with the 
pecoliarity cf an original character, provided 

^MW%fW^ an IIU^UAUK vOWfDTTO VWrn It* 



^ Wheatley's Obscr. on Modiem Gardening, p. 114. 
f in his Morthevn Toux. 1 



440 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

At Wootoxi-Hull near.Dove-DalQ, Uuipe.pro* 
cared a place of retreat, for that singular: cha- 
racter and ingenious vf riter, Jean Jacques Rou9' 
nau. Flying from a persecution which his ex- 
uberant imagination 'pictured, as thickening 
around him on the continent, he Graved in Loti- 
don in January, 1766: he first intended taking 
up tlis residence in Wales, but about tlie latter 
end of March, he settled in Derbyshire. "Here/^ 
sajs he, " I have arrived at last, at an agreeable 
and sequestered asylum, where I hope to breathe 
freely, and at peace/'* The spot was, indeed, 
every way adapted to his melancholy and ro-* 
mantic mind, and suited to his genius, afford- 
ing him scope for his favorite study, Botany. — 
From this abode, however, he issued in April, 
1767, with his usual eccentricity, inflamed bj 
an imaginary aflfront, and heaping reproaches 
on persons, to whom he stood most indebted, 
for their attention to his welfare and felicity, 
and returned to the continent. While Rous- 
seau lived at Wooton-Uall, he planted a num-' 
*ber of curious seeds in Dove- Dale, the scenery 
of which he much admired, and often visited. t 

♦ Correspondancc avcc, M. Pcyron Tom, II. Lcttrc, 45. 

+ To those who visit Dovc-Dalc (and who that has an 
opportuuity will not do »o?) it may be acceptable to know/ 



VIEW OP DERBYSHIRE. 441 

Fsmnr Bbvtlst, in Domesday called JSen* 
tdbge^ b a parish containing about thirtj 
bonaea, and one hundred and forty inhabitants. 
The living is a rectory ; the church is dedica* 
ted to St. Mary Magdalen ; and the Dean of 
Lincoln is the patron. 



that there are in its immediate vicinity several objects wor. 
thy their attention : but being on the western iide of the 
Dove, they are situated in the county of Stafford, und 
iberefore cannot be introduced into the body of this work. 

After inspecting the Dale, and returning to its southern 
extremity, a small winding of the Dove to the right, will 
lead to the road leading to Islam, a small ancient village, 
one mile from the Dale; situated upon the united .rivers^ 
Manifold and Hamps, which join their streams in the plea- 
sure grounds of Mr. Port. This gentleman's mansion is an 
old Hall, surrounded with pleasing walks, and commanding 
a very fine prospect. 

Proceeding one hundred yards from the house, a little 
wooden bridge, is arrived at, thrown over an abyss in the 
rock, out of which boils up, with surprising force, the 
riv^ Manifold, after having pursued a subterraneous course 
tar five miles, from the point where it ingulphs itself in 
the earth, called Weston-Miil. At the distance of twenty 
yajds further, a similar phasnomenon occurs; for here 
there is another fissure in the rock, from whence the river 
Hamp throws its waters into day. This river disappears at 
JLcek Heater Housts^ a place half-way between Leek and 
Ashboum ; thus punning a subterraneous course of seven 
miles, before it again emerges into light. Qn their emer. 
aion, the temperature of the two riven difiien two degrees 
and a half; the Hamps being thus much colder .than the 
Manifold. 

14 L 3 



449 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

Towards ^he end of the fift^eoth cenlarff 
Fenny Bentlej was the residence pf the Beres^ 
fords, of which the Marquis of Waterford, is 
a junior branch. The familj cai^e originalljr 
from Beresford in Staffordshire; and settled 
here about the reign of Henrj the Sixth ; when. 



Ascending from this phcr, « flight of st^ne-stept con- 
ducts to a higher walk, which pursues a zig-Mg coursey 
through the wood that covers the face of the rock, and 
overhangs the river just quitted. In this solemn abstrac- 
ted scene, safe from the obtrusion of the busy crowd, and 
secure from every discordant sound, lulled to peace by the 
river that flowed beneath him, and the sacred whisper of 
the wood which waved above his head, Congrtvt, wbeo 
scarcely nineteen, in a little grotto, (his. favorite and ac- 
customed retreat) wrote his comedy^ called the " Old 
Bachelor/' Thb recess is built with gray atones, having a 
stone-table in the middle, and an elegant drapeiy of ivy, 
privet, young beech, and laurel branches, crown the roof, 
and hang from above ; — the whole is so romantic, that we 
might expect to perceive, *^ inspiration breathe around." 

In the church at Islam, are some ancient monuments of 
the Cromwell family ; but two of still greater antiquity 
are found in the church-yard, which, from the Runic 
knots, and other Scandinavian ornaments carved on their 
faces, are supposed to be Danish, and attributed to the tenth 
century. 

At Oakover also, which is not far from Dove-Dale, there 
•re several of the best paintings of Raphael, Titian, Ru* 
bens, Luca Giordano, Varelst, Vandervcli, &c. The 
visitor is permitted to sec one room only in this house ; but 
in this one the exquisite pictures by the above muters art 
to be found. 



VIEW Ol^ DERBYSHIRE. 443 

a Tbdmas Beresford ELsq. is said to hive mas- 
tered a troop of horse in Chesterfield, consist- 
ing of his sons, and his, and their servants, for 
the service of the Icing in the French wars. — 
He lies buried in the chancel of the church, 
with a Latin, and an English inscription on his 
tomb ; from which it appears that he died in 
1473. ' The ancient Manor-House, of which 
tbe little that is left, retains somewhat of a 
castifiiated appearance, passed by an heir gene- 
nil, into the familj of Cotton^ of Beresford ; 
but the male heir, of Thomas Beresford, still 
posseses some landed property here. Bentley 
church, contains several monuments to the 
memory of the Beresfords. 

KiRR Ireton, anciently Hiretune^ contains 
mboiit one hundred and fifty houses, and above 
•even hundred inhabitants. The living is a rec- 
tory ; the church is dedicated to the Holy Tri- 
nity ; and the Dean of Lincoln is the patron. 

UooNASTON, in Domesday, Ochnauestun^ is 
a villMge containing about fifty-five houses, 
whotie inhabitants are chiefly supported bj agri- 
culture. The living is a rectory; but not in 
charge ; the king is the patron. 

Not far from the last-mentioned place, is 
Kniveton, anciently Cheniueion, a pretty con- 
ftiderabk hamlet, lying on the road to Ash- 



444 HISTpRICAL AND OZSCRIFTIVS 

burn. '' KniTeton/'^ snys Camden, ^i buth gi^ 
yen both name and seat to the faiooos fiuailj^ 
of Kniveiofi, from whence the KaivetonS' c^ 
Mercaslon and Bradley^ of whom is S. Looia 
Kniveton, to who&e study a|id diligence I am 
much indebted." 

Tis^iNGTON, Tizinctun. The liberty eontatnm 
about forty-tour bouses ; and one hundred and 
ninety-two iuhabitadts. The living is a caracy ; 
and the church is dedicated to St. Mary. It 
formerly belonged to the priory at Tutbury* 

Near Tissington is, Tissinglan^HaU^ the an-^ 
cient seat of the Fitzherberts, who have resided 
here, since the end of the fifteenth century^ 
The estate, in more remote times, belonged to 
the Savages^ and from them descended to the 
HerthulU and Meynelis. That portion oi the 
estate which belonged to the latter, came by 
inheritance to the Fitzherberts, (who came ori* 
ginally from Norbury) through the families of 
Ciintim and FraunceySf about the commence-* 
mentof the fifteenth century. The part that wa« 
in possession of the Hert hulls, descended from 
them to the Cokain?s of Ashbourn, who sold 
it to the Fitzherberts, in the reign of James 
the First. William Fitzherbert, Esq.. of this 
place, who died in 1773, left two surviving sons, 
William and Alleyne. William, who was Re^ 



VIEW OP IDERBYSHUIE, 

corder o/ Derby in 1783» was raised in the i 
jear to the dignity of a BaTon«t, and died in 
1791. He left several children* the eldest of 
wbom» Sir Henry Fitzherbert* Bart, isnowposr 
Mssor of the estate and title. 

Alleyne, the brother of Sir Williani, has at- 
tained some degree of political eminence. Hf 
bas been mini&ter at Brussels, Petersbui^h, and 
Madrid ; secretary to the Marquis of Bucking* 
bain, ^hen Lord Lieutenant of Ireland; and 
in 1783 negociated the peace of which prelimip 
naries uere Kigned at Paris, in the January of 
the tbUowing year. He was raised to an Irish 
Peerage in 1791 ; and to a Peerage of Great 
Britain and Ireland in 1801, by the title of 
Saron of Si, Helenas. 

Bradbourn ; at the time of the Norman sur- 
rey there were at ^^ Brudebumey a priest and a 
chorcfa. and twelve acres of meadow/' The 
village of Bradbourn, is pleasantly situated on 
a hill, and contains about thirty houses. The 
living is a vicarage, and the church is dedica* 
ted to AlUsaints : the Duke of Devonshire is 
the patron. It formerly belonged to the priory 
of Dunstable, in Bedfordshire. 

The parish of Bradbonrn, includes the cba* 
pelriesof Atlow, (Etelauue)^ Ballington, Bras* 
siogton, (BrazinctwieJ^ and the town»bip of 



4i6 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

Aldwark; contaiDing, altogether, about two 
bundred bouses, and eight hundred inhabitants. 

Near the road leading from Brassington to 
Pike-Hall, an ancient monument, called 3fin- 
inglow, has been noticed. It is situated in the 
centre of a plantation, and is a low barrow, 
supposed to have been an ancient burial-place. 
The higher part of the mount seems to have 
been removed, as several of the vaults were ex- 
posed to view. The diameter of the barrow is 
•bout forty jards, and tbe vaults appear to 
bave been carried around the whole circumfe- 
rence. The stones with which they are formed, 
are very large ; and one of the vaults, was from 
six to seven feet long, three wide, and six deep: 
it consists of five stones, one on each side and 
end, and the other for the cover. 

Carsington, Chersingtune^ is a parish con- 
taining about ferty-six houses, whose inhabi- 
tants are chiefly supported by agriculture and 
the mines. The living is a rectory ; the church 
is dedicated to St. Margaret ; and the Dean of 
Lincoln is the patron. 



VIEW OF DEllBYSfllRE. 447 



WIRKSWORTH. 

WiRKSwoRTH is thoogbt to be a town of great 
antiqaiiy ; but its existence canaot be traced 
back beyoikd the Conquest. At the Normaa 
aiir?ey (1083) there were in ** Werehefw^rde^ a 
priest and a church, and sixteen villdnes^ and 
nine borders, having four ploughs. There Mft 
three lead mines there, and twentj^^six acres of 
meadow/'^ At this timie, the manor was inclu* 
ded ill, tbe Wa|)entake of Hammenstan^ and 
the property of king William. In the reign of 
king John, it became the property of the Earl 
of Finrrers's family, at the same time as Ash- 
bourn« )t was afterwards annexed to the EarU 
dom and Duchy iof Lancaster, of which the 
Manor and Wapentake of Wirksworth are sitill 
members. The present lessee is, Richard Paul 
Joddrell, £^. a gentleman well known in the 
literary world, as an elegant classical scholar. 

The Dean of Lincoln has a manor within the 
town, in right of bis church ; and the Gelh of 
Hopton, have another manor in the town and 
neighbourhood, called the Holland or Rich- 

* Domesday, Orig. 872* a* <• Tran5. 29U 



440 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

mond Manor, from its having belonged to the 
HoUandi^ Lords Holland, and Dukes of Exeter; 
and afterwards to the Countess of Ricbmond, 
mother to Henry the Seventh. In the Uoliand 
Bfanor-House, the uanafactore of PorcelHin 
was attempted, about forty yearv ngo,. bat pro?<» 
mg nnsnceessfiil, it was relinquished. 

Wiilcsirorth lies in a low valley, almost sur^ 
roanded bjr hills : geAeraliy enveloped in the. 
smoke, issuing from the neigbbmirtng lend and 
sblamiaeworks. Here the featuresot* lite coun- 
tsy, begin to assume a bold and prominent np* 
|Maranoe ; cultivation becomes lei»h geneml, and 
the enekiattres, instead of being encoitipHssed by 
hedges, are, chiefly, fenced with «toue walls. 

Thechnrch, which is dedicated to S^. Mary, 
is a haadsomle Gothic building, apparently of 
the fourteenth century. It consists of a nave, 
and A&e aisles, a North and South transept, a 
chancel, and a square tower, supported on four 
large pillars in the centre. On the northern 
side, is the dormitory belonging to tlie Gell3 of 
Hopton, in which are the tombs of Ralph Gell, 
and his son Anthony, who, in the time of 
QoeenJSFizabeth, was a Bencher of the Inner* 
Temple, and Feodaiy of Derbyshire; there are 
also tablets, to the memory of three Baroneta 
of the asaoe Csmily. The church contains, also. 



VltW OF DERBYSHIRE. 449 

noniiineDts of the Lowe$^ and Hurts^ of AI- 
derwasley, and of the Wigleys, of Wigilrell. — 
On the tomb to the memory of Antowye Lawe^ 
Esq. who, from the inscription, appears to have 
been employed by the sovereigns, Henry the 
Se?enth, £^ward the Sixth, and Queen Mary, 
18 placed a recumbent figure of the deceased, 
having round the neck, a representation of a 
cbajn of gold, and a medallion of Queen Mary, 
now in the possession of Francis Hurt, Esq. of. 
AJderwasley, his lineal successor. 

Near the church-yard, is a Grammar-school^ 
founded by Anthony Gell, Esq. of Uopton, in 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth ; to which, one 
Agnes Fearne, was a very considerable contri- 
butor.^ The lands left for the maintenance of 
this charity, produce a rental, equal to the sup* 
port of a better establishment, than is at pre- 
sent kept up. 

There is an Alms-house, established by the 
same Anthony Gell, at Wirksworth, for six 
poor men, and endowed with twenty pounds 
per annum. 

The Moot-Hall, is a respectable structure of 
brick, erected in the year 1773 : here all causes 
mespecting the ,Iead mines within the Wapen- 
take are tried ; and here is also deposited, the 
15 M 3 



450 . HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

ancient brass dish,* which is the standard from 
which others are made, to measure the lead 
ore. 

The weekly market at Wirksworth, which 
is held on Tuesday, was obtained in the year 
1307, by Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, grand- 
son of Henry III. The number of houses, with- 
in the township, is thought to be about 674, 
with a population of about 2979 inhabitants. 
The latter derive their chief support from the 
working of the lead mine^; but between 200 
and 300 hands are employed In the cotton-mill 
in the neighbourhood. The town contains 
some good houses, and is the residence of a few 
genteel families. 

Wirksworth, has scarcely any supply ^f com« 
mon watel*, but has a strong medicinal water 
ofthe sulphureous kind. This spring is situated 
at a small distance from the town, near the 
road leading to Ashbourn. It contains both sul- 
phur and iron, and is said to be also impregna- 
ted with a purging salt ; but the quantity of 
each is very inconsiderable.- 

Alderwaslet, is a chapel ry belonging to 
the parish of Wirksworth : the village contains 
about sixty houses ; and the inhabitants are, 

* For the curious inscription on this dish, see page 78. 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 451 

chiefly^ engaged in the pursuits of agriculture. 

Not far from the churchy on an eminence, is 
the mansion of Francis Hurt, Esq.; it is plea- 
santly situated, and commands an extensive 
prospect. The manor of Alderwasley^ together 
with Ashley-Hajf^ and part of Crich-Chase^ 
were granted bj Henry the Eighth, to Anthony 
Lowe, Esq. In the reign of Charles the First, 
Alderwasley, was a seat of a descendant of the 
above- mentioned gentleman, who by his fide- 
lity and attachment to that unfortunate mo- 
narch, became a considerable sufferer, from 
the civil wars, which then distracted the king- 
dom* Tradition says, that a party of the par- 
liamentary soldiers from Hopton, paid this an- 
cient house three different visits, and stripped 
it of every thing that was valuable. 

HoPTON, in Domesday, Opelune^ is another 
small hamlet in the parish of Wirksworth ; con- 
sisting) but of a small number of houses. This 
hamlet is planted in lh6 bottom of a deep vat- 
ley, embowered in wood,' and guarded by lofty 
gray rocks, under whose projecting heads, the 
cottagers have built their little crouching dwell- 
ings. 

Here is the seat of Philip Gell, Esq. the 
present Member in Parliament for Malmes- 
bury. The family of Gell, has been resident 



45€ HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

bere since the time of Queen Elizabeth. In tlie 
seventh year of her reign, died R* Gell, Esq. 
who was succeeded by his son Anthony. John 
Gell, who was Sheriff of Det'byshire in the. 
year 1634, and in 1643 created a Baronet hy 
Charles the First, was a very active partizan, in 
the cause of Parliament, during the civil war^ 
and performed several spirited actions in it& 
service. M^hen the royal standard was erected 
at Nottingham, he marched into the town or 
Derby, and placed a garrison in it. The year 
following, he took Wingfield Manor by assault, 
and was attended with such success, that at 
length, no part of the county of Derby, had 
the courage to declare in favor of the king. It 
appears, however, that his conduct was not al- 
ways satisfactory ; for having been appointed 
receiver of the money, arising from the sequeH^ 
tration of the effects of those persons, who were 
suspected of being friendly to the king, an or- 
der was issued, to enforce the payment of six 
thousand pounds. He was tried in 1650,. for 
misprison of high treason, and sentenced to 
forfeit his estate, and to be imprisoned for life; 
but within two years he received a pardon. 

The ancient Manor-llouse, occupied in for- 
mer times, by the Gells, was, a few years ago, 
pulled down, and a neat modern building erect- 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIltE. 455 

«d on its site. The grounds also have been 
very much improved ; and a new road, distin- 
gaished by the name Via Gellia from its maker, 
has been carried towards Matlock through a 
fomantic valley, which affords several beautiful 
Tiews. High and steep hills, covered with 
yonng firs, like a nursery, and, sweeping in 
bold bases, guard it on all sides. Down the 
hillB, numerous narrow falls devolve, and at 
their feet, all the way along the road side, fre- 
quently gray seats appear, covered with turf. 
The little river in the valley, is formed by art, 
for the purpose of angling, into several large 
basins. Falling from these, over walls of gray 
stones, having apperlutes formed for the dis- 
charge, it forms tnany pleasing cascades. Cot- 
tages among the wood, and mills at the verge,, 
add to the picturesqueness of this charming 
road, whose projector, and executor, deserves 
unusual praise for his public spirit* in bringing 
a new road, through such delightful scenery. 

* It is to be deplored, that this spirit is not more preva- 
lent among the Gentlemen, and Proprietors of Land in Der- 
byshire ; as it certainly does them no credit, that the roads 
in their natiye county, a county if equalled, not surpassed 
in beauiiful scenery by any other, should be carried over 
precipitous and barren hills, while they might have been 
«l]rected through the most charming vales, and thus be ren- 
dered capable of affording both facility and delight to the 
invcller. 



4jf4 HISTOmCAL AND DE^RIPTIVE 

In making this road, an iron da^ger^ and 
some iron heads of qpears, were found, covered 
"^to the depth of three feet beneath the surface 
by small stones. About one mile South from 
tke valley, on a rising ground, is a large bar- 
row, 196 feet in circumference, in which an 
urn of coarse baked earth, full of bones and 
ashes, was discovered by some labourers, who 
were preparing the ground for a plantation. — 
The urn fell to pieces, on endeavouring to take 
it up ; its circumference was four feet, three 
inches. It was covered with a piece of yellowish 
free-stone, much corroded, on which the fol- 
lowing lines, forming part of a Roman inscrip- 
tion, were legible : 



GELL 
PRiB C. Ill 
L. V, BRIT 

which has been thought to signify: Gellius 
Priefectus CohortU Teriim Legionis Victrices^ 
BritannicfB. The finding a rough stone with a 
Roman inscription, covering au urn in a barrow. 



. • Others have read Quints here ; but it docs not appear 
that the fifth Legion, ever was in Britain, and therefore it 
is supposed to signify Viciiices^ " the title of the sixth Le- 
gioto, which probably remained sometime in Derbyshire 
before they marched to the north**' 



VIEW OP DERBYSHIRE. 4^ 

is, perhaps^ the only instaikce of the kind upon 
record. 

M iDDLETON, Middehufie^ is a hamlet, situ- 
ated near the sanitait of a lofty hill, belonging 
to the parish of Wirksworth. It contains about 
sixty houses^ The inhabitants are chiefly sup- 
ported by the lead mines.— The inhabitants of 
Ibol (Ibeholon) and Grange, which contain 
about twenty-three houses, are supported in 
the same way. 

Cromford, in Domesday called Crunfardy 
is another hamlet in Wirksworth parish. It 
lies lotv, surrounded by the beauties of nature, 
and enlivened by the busy, hum of human 
labour 

The Manor of Cromford was purchased of 
Peter Nightingale, Esq. by Sir Richard Ark« 
Wright, in the year 1789. Soon afterwards, the 
population of the place began to increase, ow- 
ing to the extensive cotton mills erected here 
by the last- mentioned gentleman, the first of 
which had been built about twelve years be- 
fore. At present about 1300 hands are em- 
ployed at these two mills; *^ whose operations,^' 
to ute the words of Mr. Warner, '* are so ele- 
gantly described by Dr. Darwin, in a work 
which discovers the art, hitherto unknown, of 
cloathingin poetical language, and decorating 



U6, HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

with beautiful imagery, the onpbetical opera^ • 
tions of mechanical processes, and the dry d^ 
tail of manufactures:"—- 

<* So now, where Denvent rolls his dusky floods. 
Through vaulted mountains, and a night of woods. 
The Nymph Go ss ypia,* treads the velvet sod. 
And warms with rosy smiles the watery God ; 
His ponderous oars to slender spindles turns. 
And pours o'er mossy wheels his foamy urns ; 
AVith playful charms her hoary lover wins, 
And wields his trident,— -while the monarch spins. 
-—First with nice eye emerging Naiades cull 
From leathery pods the vegetable wool; 
With wiry teeth revolving cards release 
The tangled knots, and smooth the ravell'd fleece; 
Next ^oves the iron hand with fingers fine, 
Combs the wide card, and forms the eternal line; 
Slow, with soft lips, the whirling can acquires 
The tender skeins, and warps in rising spires ; 
With quicken'd pace successive rollers move. 
And these retain, and those extend the roue : 
Then fly the spoles, the rapid axles glow. 
And slowly circumvolves the lybouring wheel 
below.'* 

Botanic Garden, Canto 11. lineS5^ 

< 

The building where this process is carried 
on, has one hundred and twenty windows in 
front, and is full of the improved machinery 
for making cotton into thread, all of which is 
moved by two master-wheels. ' Adjoining ta 
this, is a paper manufactory, employing about 

^Gossipium : the Cotton Plant. 



VIEW or DERBYSHIRE. 457 

forty people, in making the brown, bine, and 
writing paper. Old ropes cut into small pieces, 
untwisted, and ground, form the material of 
wiiich the first article is made; coarse cotton 
and white rags are used for the second and 
tbird. Here it is manufactured, pressed, se« 
parated, sized, dried, and packed; and the 
process ia so rapidly performed, thattwo men 
can make tc^n reams a day. 

According to the returns made in the. year 
1801, the number of inhabitants at Cromfbrd, 
was 1115, and that of houses, 208; but the in* 
creaw in both, has been considerable since that 
period. The village has a good Inn,. and a few 
respectable shops, built around an open space, ^ 
where a market is held every Saturday. 

At a little distance from the village is the 
Chapel; a small,, but very neat structure of a 
reddish hewn stone, began by Sir R. Arkwright, 
and completed since his decease by his son 
Richard Arkwright, Esq. It was opened for di<» 
Tine service, on the fourth of June 1797, and 
consecrated, on the twentieth of September the 
same year. It contains a handsome marble 
ibnt, an organ, and two small galleries, at the 
West end, for the use of the children, ihat.at* 
lend the Sunday SchXKiIs. On the left of the 
15 N 3 



458 HISTORICAL. MfD Df $C^IFX(VE 

road leadji^apCit^ai^rdtovaitls Wiijb^ 
stands aa Alms-hoase, or as U is.gen€ra11j call- 
ed, f Bead*hoiVie, fvljich was foanded in ifne 
year 1651, for six poor widows^ bj paoye Itfar]^ 
Talbo^, widow of S^r WiHiam Armyne, B^rt. 
and daughter and co-heir of Henry. Talbot, 



•^ <« I^jTear the. road ^eacling ^m CipmiiDid. tp Widu- 
Worth| is a mine called Godbchere*s Foundtr^^ in which the 
following remarkable event occurred at the commencement 
of the year 1797. Two miners, named Job Boden and 
Anthony Pearson, went into the ii\ine o|i th;^ WP?^l^^ 
tie thirteenth of January, and while they were, at work, 
Pearson at the depth of forty-four yards, and Boden at the 
dfpth of twenty, tbs earth above them^ together with. » 
quantity of water, suddenly rushe^Kn, and. filled the mine 
to the depth of about fifty- four yards. The other minen 
immediately began to draw out the rubbish in search of 
their lost companions, and on thf tbi|;4 d^y tftfftt Pearson 
was discovered, dead| in an i^right posture. The miners 
would have discontinued their exertions, as there seemed 
little pro&bility of their labors being of any avail ; but 
being encouraged to proceed, (chiefly by the influence apdt 
persuasions oiF Charles Hurt, Esq. of Wirkswotth) tbcy 
at length discovered Boden, about three o'clock in the mom* 
ing of the twentieth ; and though he hful not received any- 
kind of nourishment during the ei^ht da^ of his confine-.- 
ment^ he was still living, but greatly emaciated. On being 
taken out, and treated with proper care, ' he so far recover-* 
ed, as to be able tp returq.to his w.oik^in the spuce of four-, 
teen weeks. 

'^' To render the particulars of this extraordinary escape 
more intelligible, it should be observed, that the entrance 
to the mine is by a perpendicular^ shaft, forty-four yards^ 

t This is generally pronounced Godber's Founder, 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 

Esq. todrtb son of George, Ear) of Sbrewsbiirj. 
At Stdrthin^NicJc^ a perforated rock near 
Cromford, about 200 Roman copper coins were 
found about ten years ago. They were chielBy 
of tbe lower empire : and several of them were 



deep, from the bottom of which extends a gaU% or irijtf 
(a pillage in an horizontal direction) eight yards in length, 
it the end of which descends a second shaft, (or as the mi* 
nen term it, a tum^J to the depth of sixteen yards. . At 
the bottom of this is another gair, about twelve^ yards ta 
length, from the extremity of which another shaft extendi 
to the depth of nearly twenty-four yards. At the top of 
every shaft a windlass was placed, for the purpose of draw-t 
ing up whatever miglit be extracted from the mine; and 
reaison's employment Ms to draw up to the top of the sc« 
cond shaft the ore, &c. that was obtained by Boden at iho 
bottom. 

" At the distance of twenty yards hohi the entrance to 
the mine was a pool of water, which, though generally 
containing but a small quantity, had, at the time of the 
accident, been much increased^ thrdugh wet weather. The, 
^und between the mine and the pool, had been under* 
mined in searching for lead ore ; and it is supposed, that 
the additional weight of water over the vacuity, had forced 
down the earth, which filled the mine to the depth of ten 
yards in the second shaft. As the earth that rushed in de* 
scended below, Pearson's station at the mouth of this shafts 
was closed^ he was consequently jammed in there, and was 
discovered dead, as already mentioned. The remarkable, 
circumstance, that the rubbish did not sink into the mine 
so low as to reach £oden, but stopped in its descent a few 
yards above him, may in some measure be accounted for, 
by observing, that the part of the mine where the fall 
ended, was somewhat straightened by the projection of a 



466 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

io good pretcrvation, and are now in tbe paa* 
86Mion of Charles Hurt, Esq. junior, of Aider- 

wasley. 

The parish of Wirksworth, contains, besides 
the before. mentioned chapelries, the hamlets of 



Ur^ fttone, an obtucle which Boden had ineffectii»Uy tU 
Unplcd to remove. 

«* It appears from a conversation lately held with the man 
diui slnng^ly preserved from death, that after contemplac* 
ing his horrid situation awhile, during the first houis of ha 
imprisonment, he lay down and slept. On awaking, the 
idea of perishing for %kranl of food rushed upon hb mtr.d, 
•ndrhe recollected thatiie had four pounds of candles with 
him in the mine ; with these, when pressed by hunger, ho 
endeavoured to appease his appetite; but after two or three 
vain attempts lo swallow such loathsome food, he desistedt 
•ad the candles were found after his release: hii thint, 
which he had no means of alleviating, was excessive- 
Feeling extremely cold, he tried to remove thb inconve- 
nience, by exercising himself in turning the windlass at 
the further end of the drilt ; but having the misforttmc to 
let the handle fall into the shaft below, he was deprived of 
this resourse. 

. •' After the space of three or four days, as he imagines, 
being almost in a state of disttaction, he ascended, by means 
of a rope that hung down, to that part of the mine where the 
rubbish had stopped in its descent, and by laboring hard, 
caused a large quantity of it to fall to the bottom of the 
•shaft. lie was employed in this manner, when, at length 
he heard the miners at work above him, and by the ext>c- 
dient of knocking with a stone, continued to apprise them 
that hewu still alive. Though it is evident from this cir- 
cumstance, that he retained his senses, he can hardly be per- 
suaded but that he was deprived of them, and fancies that 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. - 4fl 

Cauh^t Biggin^ Italion, Hitheridge-Hay^ and 
Anhkjf^Hay^ consUting altogether of about 
eight J houses. In the middle of Biggin, there 
is a considerable sulphureous spring, of the 
same impregnation as that of Kedle&ton. 



be was prompted to make the signals by some friendly voice, 
receiving from it an assurance, that if he did so, he ihoutd 
be rescued from his dreadful prison. 

*VThe signals he made were heard by the miners abotit 
eight hours before they reached biro ; and he describe 
himself as so much tcrriRed by their noise, and by appre* 
hentions that persons were coining to murder him, that he 
should certainly have destroyed himself, if he had not been 
closely confined by the earth which he had drawn downt 
and which so filled the lower part of the shaft, that he was 
ahDost prevented from moving. In the midst of the panic 
that agitated him, he swallowed a considerable quaniity of 
canh, which was afterwards expelled by proper remedies. 
He complained most that his legs were benumbed and dead; 
but their natural heat being restored by friction, tlo bad 
consequence ensued* When the accident happened, he 
was forty nine years of age, and then weighed upwards of 
twelve stones ; but imagines that he was reduced to half 
that weight by his confinement in the mine : yet, as he Was 
not weighed, this account cannot bs affirmed with certain- 
ty. The anniversary of his deliverance from his subterra- 
neous prison, he regards as a day of thankfulness and jubi- 
lee; and surely few individuals have ever had more reuon 
than this man, to express their gratitude to a pioiecting 
Providence." 

Beauties of England, Vol. III. page 534* 



«M HtSTOlUCAL AND DBSCHimVE 



MATLOCK* 



The name, Matlock, ioclades, botE the vil* 
Imge ef Matlock, and MATLOC£.frAf a. Tb^ 
feroier w aa aaGienC as the C(MK|aeiit, and IM 
chiefly situated on the eastern bank of the riveF 
Perwent. When Domesdaj wsm compiled, 
Matlock (then ealied MeslackJ vTds a hamlet 6{ 
the Manor of MeUetfotde^ which was pait o# 
the demesnes 4>f the oroirn. It aftiit^wiifds be- 
name a part of the estates of William de f'errers,. 
Earl of Derby, who had a charter of free Wai'^ 
mo. granted to btm, ibr bis demesne lands 4ieVe. 
On the attainder of his son Robert de Ferrers^* 
for espousing tlie cause of Simon de MottWbi^i 
Earl of Leicester, Matlock, which was ihen 
become a Manor, reverted to the crown; and* 
was granted in the seventh of Edward the First, 
to Edmund Earl of Lancaster, and* continued a 

nr— r r- — ■^-— *— ^— — — ■ ■ ■ n ■" i i n i i hj ■' ^ 
* Although this place was the head of the Manor, in the" 
time of the Conqueror, it is not now known. There 'is i hill 
near Matlock-Bath, called Nesta^ which was foftnerly cde-' 
braled for having several rich lead mines upoir it, from whence 
it is supposed, there was a Jord across the river Derwent» 
which was at the foot of this hill \ which ford, or the houses 
of the miners which were built near it, probably gave the name 
to the Manor of Metes/ordc or Neiesfordim 



dodhj of Lai»pw(Wr Will tbe.feorcb of(€barhs^ 
tiM First,. #(f9n( it wm grantedt by tjial king, to- 
gptjlfti; i^b ar great mimjber of other manoni 
aftfi 9ftfht^ (A,E^s^rd Pkcbfield and ol^hera^ 
iiil]Cq3t» £m ^>n^or and oitizens of Loitdon;) 
a^i||«tl|%.fQl}Qwing fimr it va^sold by Diiteft* 
%|d«,^,tb«^olji|»r trustees, to the copyholdew 
Q^tfifti^n^ qi iM(aiiock» and is oowditidcil^ 
iBtP ff^y^inl^wmll «sbares* Aceordiog to there** 
t|^ifa4«k o9dwthe:]al;eaot, theparisbocm^' 
i9/m,49^bfffmy apd 4344 inbahitaiit& 

T^I^f^ llflQgf if a rectory; aod! thecbureh im 
d|i^yif^lf;i||^tfv$4^QileSv. The Dean of LioGoln: 
%:^^P^tmir. U.staadft on the vei^ of a to." 
^Wtic rofikt a^disarsmaU edifice, unoma.' 
Jmlfe^^^f^ d^itUote^ of) nwHUimeiital records*. 
U.cpf^aiQiiAjOWr^.side aisl^St^anda small cbaa*' 
^i .tbApi»t$i4e is enb^ttledy baring aa ancient i 
t(|K«(,i^itb. p^nacjes. 

ptfi.aihiUi above tbfi chwcfa, . called /it(er'» 
i^fV^ afis^tb^ i^i^aipi^.of »^bA( baa beettv? sup-^^ 
pQ«ed«to,b«ii#4>eeiKa J)(Fai{iical Altar. It'iai 
csUlt^ the Iiin$iHston^h and ^consists of four » 
riHto,;!!}^^^ of,igritTi(tMi#^..OQe of n Web, ap^. 
I>?Wii|^^th»tSfqaAle^ is placed oa the others^: 
aod ia>.tbpMgbt to w«igb*abAiit tvo t^ns. Im 
the upper stone is a circular bole, six laohes' 



4t4 HISTORICAL AND -DESCRIPTIVE 

deep, and nine in diaitieler, wherein' about Half 
a century ago, stood a litone pillar. 

MatlocK'Bath, is nearly a mile to the 
Mulb west of this village ; and in approaching 
it 'from Cromford, a specimen is presented, of 
the scenery by which the dale is distinguished. 
The entrance, is through a rock, which baa 
been blasted for the purpose of opening a con- 
tenient passage :-^and here a scene bursts at 
once into view, impossible to be desicribed ;— ^ 
too extensive to be called picturesque, toodi* 
Terrified M be sublime, and too stupendous to 
be beautiful ; but^ at the same time, blending 
together all the constituent principles of thes^ 
diflferent qualities. Through the middle of this 
narrow plain the Derwent flows along, over- 
hung by a profusion of luxuriant beech, and 
other drooping trees : on tlie eastern side of the 
river, stands the elegant mansion of Richard 
Arkwright, Esq. backed by rising grounds, 
whilst the huge mural banks of the Matlock 
▼ale, stretch themselves on the West, the white 
face of the rock which compose them, occasi- 
onally shewing itself through the wooded clothe 
ing of their sides and head; this magnificent 
scenery is singularly contrasted by the vast ma- 
nufactories and lodging-houses at the bottom 
of the vjale. 



vow M DnBYSBUE. m^ ' 

Bol t# ite diiB magii: sp^t to tht f^i^itiit 
ttdvftntagiey it sfaoidd be entered at its oorthttim 
eBtremiljr, an its beauties then succeed pack 
other ia fi proper gradatiout and their grai^ 
dear and effect are rendered more impreasivi^ 
The first object that attracts the atienlian, is 
the grand iind stupendous rock, jcalled the 
Migh-T^r^ appearing, like a Tast fihrupt vaH 
af Unest^Nae, rising almosl: perpei^ioqlarly 
Irovi the fiver, to tiie j^eiglit of more thanSflO 
Iset. The lower part of this niaiestic. feature 
jb shaded ji>y yew-trees,.eluis, limes, and uadei^ 
Mmd of Tarioas foliage; hut the upper-pattt 
ior %ky or sixty yards, presents a rugged froiiA* 
lof que broad nuus of perpeudicular rock^frr 
From the summit of the High-.Tcur, tlie .vala is 
aeen k^ all its glory ; diversified by wfMMJb of 
mioua h«ttiuid species; the windiogs of tha 
idenr^m^ the greyiali etdQured rocks, and 
jrbitoned chouses Jmhosmned aiaid^tgraTes of 
(tmn^ arhioh spioating jfrans .eveny orevine in 
the.pfecs|noes, giw variety and animation; tpn 
*setae of wooderfal. beauty. 

JDiraotly opposite to the)lligh-iror,is.AfiMieii- 

stecip ascent tbon the ^'or. The summit of 
15 o3 



4M HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

Aant,* and overlook;^ the oonntry to a rast ex* 
tent, and furnishea a Tiaw of almost the wbola 
length of the valley. Bdng considerablj ele- 
vated above every surrounding objectt their 
general size and appearance are greatly chang- 
ed:even the High-Tor is coasiderably dimi- 
nished in grandeur and sublimity ; but this ef«- 
feet is in part compensated, by the extent of 
the prospect, and the variety of objecta which 
it includes. The height of this eminence is 
about 760 feet : the path to its si^mmit bis 
-been carried ia^a winding, or zigrzag direcuon, 
4hrough a grove>;: and about half-way up is an 
alcove, from which an extensive view of a great 
<{iart oi Matlocfe-Dule may be seen tbrougb an 
•opening avenue. 

On proceeding towards the Bath, the ftatures 
of the vale assume still moi:e mafesty ; the left- 
.handiiide forming itself into rocky crags, which 
''!Overhang the Derwent. The screen to the 
light is formed by steep meadofvs, surmbuated 
by naked downs. In front is a mountainous 
bank, at whoseroots is the lodging-house culled 
the Temple, a few other residences, and what 

* This ntme, it u nipposed, wu given it, from ia n* 
milarity to the Heights of Abraham near Quebec, rendered 
so memorsble by the enterprise of the galltnt Wolfe, in 
17*9. 



VIEW Olr DERBTSHIkK, m 

i tb« llioteL Following the road the plat* 
Ibrm belbre the latter hduise is arriTed at^ where 
the Dertvent loses its peaceful character, and 
fts foaming wateVs roar over the obstructing 
masses of dit^inted rocki with restless rapi- 
ditj and^considerable noisii. A small cascade 
la seen (ailing down the bank in front ; and ia 
the rear, is a grand face of white rock, rich! j 
netted With iyj, and decorated with shrubs. 

Foflowihg the lower road, which leads to 
tbe Old Bath, another house of public recep» 
tion, a new and most pleasing point of view is 
reached. Here the river recedes iit a curve from 
*tbe road, forming a litrle meadow as a fore- 
gfoond to the picture. This is firmlj opposed 
and backed, bj a line of rock and wood, a mass 
of trees rising to the right, and shutting out, 
for a short time, all the other features of the 
aeenerj ; amongst which the stream is lost, while 
its murmurs are still beard. A broader face of 
wkite rock quickly discovers itself, and^the 
road ascending to Sancton's Bath, affords, not 
otilj an indiscribable fine prospect of the track 
that has been, passed, but opens another in 
front, still superior ;-^a reach of alternate rock 
and wood, nearlj half a mile in length, con- 
traated to the right by desert downs, scarred 
with crags. 



m HISTOMCAt AND DBSCftlPRVE ^ 

Ofi ehMAng thd rivcir nt»t the Old BAtli^ it 
WMf hf observed^ that tbe Dataral beauties tff 
flie place, havi reeeived Muae improvetaenti 
fremart. On landing, three walks are see* 
poiDting ihreugh tbe wood, ia ditRirtat direet 
tiotts. Tivo of them, by various and freqaeiftt 
windings, along Ihe side of tbe dale at laal 
lead to tbe summit, %vbich is attained with liti* 
tie difficult J, tbrougli tbd judicioub mode ob- 
served in forming tbe slopes; though the accli- 
vity is exceedingly steep. The other ^|>ath» 
which is called tbe Lover^s Walky lias been car- 
ried along tbe margin of the river, and Iim 
been cut through the wood, and is beautifolljr 
jsrched by the intermingled branches ef tte 
trees which enclose it. 

Some have thougitt that Matlock, somefean 
ago, was infinitely more desen'ing of admira- 
tion, than since tbe increase of its buildinge, 
jund its having become the resort of gay and la- 
abiotiable visitors. Be thatasit may, itstillpioa- 
aesses a thousand charms, of which tt is scarce* 
ly possible for pea or pencil to convejr a jaat 
.representation : and to use the words of Mr. 
Lipscomb, <^ Matlock must be allowed to poa- 
asss superior advantages to the generality of wa- 
tering places. It has giiiety without dissipa* 
tion, activity without noise, and ^ility isf 



VIBir or OBRBTSHIRB. t# 

iMilfntHJcartion witb «tlitor psHs Of the Mmrtifj^ 
SMiKttirM by tlMi bnille^ u ptibK* road. It 
ig traikiuil witlidni dulneas, elegant withduc 
pMip» and splendid WHhodt extr4?agancew la. 
it tki man of fiudiion may at All tinres find 
aoMMliiant^'the nuintif riink nHijr meet f^iih 
toctaiy hy wilich he #ill not be disgraced, and 
4be philasi^iber a toul-ee of infinite gratifioa^ 
4i9m; fvinle Iheywho travel insearchof healih, 
#fH here find a silter clafe that iead:s to her 
Abode." 

DiTenified beautjii is the j(^reirailing ehalrae^ 
^slic of the eountry «*oiind Afailock; and 
tiM valley in which Matlock«*Balh is Mtaal»dt 
is enckised, aiMl eonripltetefy shut iA« by tm> 
Images of bold and romantic ^emtoeiicefi^ washed 
fiy the OerwMit. Th^ village is bat emalUaind 
tontsts prinoiptaHy of the Old fiatii, the Ni^- 
Alitli, two Lodging* HoAsfto) a Mnaeam ISmt ifae 
Oeibyehir* spar, and a few shops add |»rivalto 
houses, all of them situated tm thi^soulrh-^ivest 
aide of the river. 

Although the aoeaery of Maftiltok been beau* 
4fftr],«t was not onltl^Obe'disksovery of ils wbrai 
q y ri fn j ;s , that it begim to attract aoUce. Prior 
'to the year i608s it Wae 'the Tebidenoe of 41 £eW 
iMners anly.; but tat that. period^ ** (he original 
bath wds built end paved by the Rev. Mr. 



47« HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

Ferni of Matlock, and Mr; Hejwani, of Crom- 
ferd; and pat into the bandsof George Wragg-; 
tvho to confirm his title took a lease from the 
several Lords of the Manor, for ninety-nine 
(some say 999) years, paying them a fine of 
J6160, and the yearly rertt or acknowledgment 
of six-pence each. He then boilt a few small 
rooms adjoining to the bath, which were but a 
poor accommodation for strangers. The lease 
and property of Mr. Wragg were afterwardii 
purchased for about £lOOf), by Messrs. Smitb 
and Pennel of Nottingham, who erected two 
large commodious buildings, with stables and 
oHier conveniences; made a coach-road along 
•the river's side from Cromford, and improved 
the horse- way from Mallock- Bridge. The 
whole estate afterwards became the property of 
Mr. Pennel by purchase; and on his death, 
about 1733, descended to his daughter and her 
husband;" and since that tiqne has become the 
.property of several individuals. 

The judicious means thus exerted to render 
the accommodations attractive, and Ihe increa- 
sed celebrity of the waters, occasioned a great 
ioflux of visitors; and a second spring having 
been discovered, within the distance of about a 
quarterof a mile, a new bath was formed, and 
another lodging-house erected, for the recep^ 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. #71 

tion of oompaoy. At a aiifl later, period, a 
third spring was met witb, tbriee or four bun* 
drad jarda eastward of that whidh was first no* 
tieed ; but ita teniperatdre being some degrees 
lower tban either of the other springs, it was 
not brought into use till a level bad been 
made in tlie lull, and carried bejond the point 
where its waters bad intermingled with those of 
a cold spring. Another bath and lodging* 
bouse were then ereeted. These buildings are 
reapeetirely named, the Old Bath, the New 
Bath, and ihe UoteK Tbej are, like all the 
nther buildings at Matlock, of stone, neatly 
finished; and the general cleanliness of thf 
inns, lodging*houses, and inhabitants, cannot 
escape the notice of travellers. The number 
of persons that m^j, at the same time, be ao» 
commodHted at these, is upwards of 4(X> ; and 
since the taste for contemplating: beautiful 
scenery, has become so general, more than this 
number has been frequently entertained. 

The warm springs at Matlock, issue fncim be* 
tween fifteen and thirty yards above the. level 
<if the river : higher or lower, the. springs are 
cold, differing in nothing from common water. 
The quality of these springs has been examined 
by several medical gentlemen^ who have .borne 
testioiony of their beneficial effects. The. late 



4|f HISTCKIfiAL AMD DtSCUrriVB 

Dr. Peieifai 4if Miochestftr, hu o^emrtd that 
AiadoekirmteriftgcaCefiilto tlie palate, of mi 
afreeafaU warintb. (68 degrees 4>f Fafareiibeil'e 
tlmwcMiieler) but eKbibita ao proof of a mu 
aeial epifit:. Ue adds that k U impn^gnalad 
mlb selenite, at earthly salts,, aad also thioka 
itptpbable tbat a smaU portioa of sea** salt is 
floaioiiied M it Xh. Pearson bays, ^^ It baa 
Haea aeported to/oantaint itf a gaUoa of .irater« 
Ibfftjr jgrauM of sflditneAt mUi^U, is^sailed aitcab 
aUuiliaa earthy Jiad aea-^i«^^ Ue abaervea 
bsaisclf that ^ .it ia impregnated. witli ratber 
^aienfiiiad airtb^n BajKlou wat^, and.tbat.a 
fiat weiglsi eigbt )grato& beaviar than diatillql 
SMler.^' M^. PiikitiglMHi eoneluded, 'Miiatrtft 
aontaiasaaaiaU qaaivlity ef fossil alkadi.V Xlftb 
9eoaln0toa of CaaAridgeK oonours arith Div 
aUliott, in firinir l#e d^reeiof its lieatat«» 
dagssas; avdiaapfll that aUuilies aande the mtt^ 
«itr doudy.aadanHcj4 said itkBi when a gait- 
Ion was evaporated, tbirty-»seyen or ibirlf^ 
«igbc grasns of aedsaseal; ware depoaitedl; of 
lbia» aiasid; 4aislra.or tbirleea srere aatiae asab- 
ecTt' i^ofaafd'Of ealeaiaoos nittre, t(mtrialatei 
—gaiiiia) land twcgaly-foar lOr tareatjHAra 
ffmimuA e a faa iau aa , ipa i it|t fir. 'JSIiort ai|kanad 
ibe oeskbuiaHWiddtMiMeKpd aoaia.paslicte^isi 
at|.<iabib1i lasaaantiaciidrby iiieload^ytaaa> . 



t^aoMnntfbrtbe natttnil keait of th% Maitlook 
audi 0akt6flr wateta; tlie most ingeiiiMtt ni 
^rimh is {iropoMd by Dr. Darwin, in bis lottery 
iassTfad is Mr. PilkingtonV History. He par*' 
tiealariT^ notioes libe pheeiioMKeiloii whibb takos 
pIsrc^at'Mbtloth, »A the production of a'Spttogoi 
Kke taleareoos stoM in Ibe oottfso of the 
ifNliDgs, ivrbich be 'Considers as strongly eorrohi 
bomtiveof his Aeory^ 4bat this origin of these 
Mttersis, in *^ the steam raised Irossdei^ eub^ 
temmesm 'fires, and ^ot from the decompott* 
*ioa -of pyrkes,' as bad been affirmed by MR 
^Sist Bgton* The Doctor refers to Wbitehiifst^s 
fWory of the £^nh, iA pi^aof that '' «he stMtm 
•b ifbis par* of Derbyshire consist of htA^mi 
iimeflCone and lava (toad-stone) which Ite ncd- 
pmesdiy on one another/^ «»id «dms ap» the 
mhmH argameat by staling ^ me stipposifisw, 
tbai ^« itho steam. rising fioas snbtMraMomflrea 
s# osviDg paMly to water dowly siibsidjfig«poii 
those fires, and to limestone graduiilly eaknmd 
Jsy^iAem*; 'fra«i irbenoe^ (bo sivppose^' it asnst 
happoi, Ldia«iibb4t«faai rising ithso9ghtitope#« 
fMMdiosbnP45lefts in tfie suptsisicnmbeal oaplBS, 
nmst 4>e t epieft v%h calcarcfam>(eajrb€mi««Mid) 
»gM, widbsoAioiillGgistilisaad a|r..> If^^' eovti- 
i, ^MbmflteiMtsodmpilagqBtelibe i 
15 F 3 



474 HISTOIUCAL AND OISCRIPTIVl 

aed in limestone strata, the fixed air in thislkit 
steam will suppersaturate itself again with cal* 
carequs earth, wbi<^ is what precisely happens 
at Matlocki wh^re the waters are replete with 
calcareous particles, as appears by the copioni 
deposition of tupha, or calcareous incnista* 
lion along the channels in which they flow/' 

To this theory it has been objected, thatit 
is difficult, to. admit that a subterranean fin 
can be maintained for a long series of years, so 
ais to keep up a r^ular and undiminished heat, 
capable of producing the efllect abore descri^ 
bed : and that whatever validity there may be 
in such an argument, it will be quite as diffi- 
cult to imagine, that a bed of pyrites should be 
snore inexhaustible than a body of enkindled 
fire: and, besides, we hare positire proof of the 
existence of beds of pyrites of vast inagnitude 
and extent ; while the idea of central, or sitb* 
terranean fire, at least in the present instance^ 
is merely a vague conjecture, and cannot bo 
proved. 

A nev^ theory, has, therefore been Mhraaoed; 
by Mr, Lipscomb of Birmingham, in his I>ea« 
.cription of Matlock. This gentleman ooitt- 
mettces by observing, ** Firstt it b well knpwn 
from the experimentr of Dr. Percival and 
otbeflSy that a portion of saline mirtttt b dstee- 



VIEW OP DERBYSHIRE. 475 

ted ill these watere.— Secondlj, It is inell known 
that the acid of sea-salt will disso1?e lime in 
considerable quantity:^* from which he con- 
jectures* that the water of these springs, being 
previously impregnated with sail, becomes sa* 
tarated with lime in its passage through the 
strata before described, and is afterwards de* 
composed by the addition of pyrites dissolved 
in the rain wi^er, which percolates through the 
•opercttmbent strata : for pyrites containing 
sulpbui*, the heat which takes place during the 
solution of the pyrites, will nece.^sarily dii$en« 
gage a certain proportion of acid: and suU 
pharic acid will immediately unite with lime, 
when held in solution by the weaker acids, and 
when united with it,, fall down in what is che- 
mically denomiQHted calcareous sulphate ; and 
heat is again generated/during the process,^ 



^Toftuppcn this hypothesis the following circumstances 
ire brought forward;—* 

*^ lit. That there is present in the Matlock water t much 
gieater quantity of calcareous matter than common water 
is kquwn to be capable of holding in solution, without the 
aisistance of an acid, 

^ f ndly. That muriate of iron, which would be neces- 
sarily formed by the marine acid unitiiig with the iron of 
the pyrites, after the former had .been disengaged from the 
lime, by the sulphuric add which had previously existed 
m combiiiittOn with the*. pyrites, is perfectly soluble in 
,.water^ but may be detected therein by the purple colour^ 



«• HiSTORICAI. ABD DSSCRIPTIVE > 

^ » 

Tbe leases in whieh Matleck Watem mb 
ncoameBded, and in ^rhich tbeir beneficial 
tendency has been cbieflj expericnoed^ nan 
glandular affectiont, rheiramtifim, and itaieo»i 
seqoeilt debility ; the first stages of oonsuaspt 

which if communicated by the addition of the iofuaion oC 
plls^ as in Dr. Pennington's experiment. 

*'ddly. That on a chemical analysis of the calcareous en* 
erustatiofis deposited by the water, they have been IouikI 
to contain a small portion of iron mixed with sulphate p£ 
lime: and Du Short detected the presence of iron also, in 
the residuum procured by evaporating the ivater, u before 
mentioned. 

*< In this manner all the phenomena observable at Mat^ 
lock and in similar springs, may, I think, be reasonably ac* 
counted for, on principles well understood, and capable of 
the clearest demonstration; without resorting to mere hy* 
pothetical conjecture, which is both difficult to be compre* 
"^ bended, and incapable of proof. 

** I must beg leave to add, that since the above rematb 
wer« committed to .paper, a circumuance has been^present* 
' ed to my observation, which so strongly corroborates 
them, that it may be considered as HttW short of thsdaaoHu 
itration resulting from a synthetical experiment. 
. '* Having at the suggestion of my learned and ingeniou9 
friend Dr. Bache^ been induced to investigate the effects of 
carbonic acid upon lime watery— by blowing through % 
small tube into a glass containing a portion of that liquid* 
carbonate of lime was speedily produced in considerably 
quantity:— we then dropped in a little sulphuric acid« 
which occasioned the precipitate to be re-dissolved with 
great facility : and the liquid thus restored to its original 
transparency was suffered to stand undisturbed for several 
days, at the end of which, the sides and . edge of the glaa« 
were covered with a transparent crystallization exactly ai-r 
milar to the spar and stalactite found in the subterraaeaft 
caverns near Matlock*** 



VUW or DBRBYSfitltC 4Tr 

I 

tbti) acrofala, calculous complaints, diabetes, 
gout, cachexy, obstructions from biliarj con* 
cretions, Jicemoptoe, ^d those iadispositions 
which are promoted and continued from relax* 
stioh €ff the muscular fibres. 

The osual time of bathing [and drinking )be 
water, is, before breakfast, or between break- 
Ant and dinner. A small quantity, is at iirsf 
teken, increasing it gradually as the stomach 
will bear. ** The best and strongest recoui- 
mendation of this excellent bath,'' says Mr. 
lipscomb, ^ is the acknowledgment of the nu- 
■lerons patients, who, fbr more than seventy 
years, have annuatty resorted to it, have tasted 
largely of its e^cacy, and returned con vales- 
eentto their families and friends, aAer hanging 
tip the votive crutch, an impressive trophy of 
the yictory which Matlock had obtained for 
them over disease.*^ The Matlock season com- 
mences about the latter end of April, and con- 
tinues' till November. But even in Winter, 
Matlock is not devoid of charms : when its hitrs 
are clothed in snow, and the drooping woods 
covered with rime and spangled ice, the scene 
is beautiful beyond expression ; and will furnish 
4mple materials fiur contemplation, ta the mind 
who loves to admire,. 

'« Nature, gieat parent, wboK uaceaing hand 
Rolls round the seasons o£ t)ie changeful year." 



«a HISTORICilL AND tftSC&imvS 

The western bank of the Derirent, for life, 
whole distance between the turnpike at Mat* 
lock and the old Bath, is one vast bed of tt^« 
phus, or petrified moss, as it is vulgarlj called^ 
a strata of calcareous incrustation, about twen* 
ty feet in thickness. It seems to have had its 
formation from water which had passed tlirough 
limestone, and thus become replete with earth; 
and had then formed itself upon a morass, or 
collection of moss, shrubs, and small treesp 
which having incrusteds the vegetable matter 
graduiallj decomposed) and left nothing but 
the stony evelopement. The Petrifying Springs 
iiear the New Bath, has aflfbrded inuumerabte 
specimens of these kind of tramhiutalioiis of 
vegetable, animal, and testaceous substances^ 
which have been exposed to its influence. The 
collection exhibited by the person, who t»hew8^ 
the spring, contains several extraordinary spe» 
cimens of its petrifying powers. 

On the side of a hill to the west and north- 
west of the village, are three appe^tores in the 
rock, which are respectively named, the Cum^ 
berland^ ihe Smedley^ and the Rutland Caverns. 
The .Cumberland Cavern,* formerly communi- 



• The following description of Cumberland Cavern, w«» 
written by my respected friend the Rev. J. Evans, A. M. 



VIEW OP DERBYSHIRE. 479 

catcd with ibe entrance of m lead- mine: the 
btber, named Smedley Casern from itn propri* 
etor,^i^aa first discovered by searcliing for lead- 
o(^ The entrance is near the top of the bill, 

of I^ington, on hit return to the itin after he had visited 
hi aii4 which he calfa <* a sketch warm from the heart/' 

** Cn^rl^nd Cavent it sfiiiaied cii the biow of a steep 
Jii)i, ao4 its mouth is dosed with a white«wa&hed .%vooden 
^oor, which beini; opened, the man took his taper out of 
bis lanthem, with which he lighted three candles to guide 
our steps through the bowels of the earth ! Whilst thie 
ceremony was performing we stqod at the entrance, and 
turveyfd with pleasure the scenery which surrounded us* 
Wc'weire taking, as it weiVi a hit\9t\\ of the light of day» 
when our leader informed us that the lights were ready, and 
having taken them into our hands, we followed him in slow 
procession* The first thirty yards of the way were ptrtly 
snificial, he having himself piled up stones at each sidct 
that the entrance into the cavern might be gained with fa» 
cility. We now descended into this abode by steps, fifty- 
lour in number, which scetaed as if we were going down 
towards the centre of the earth i At the bottom of this de* 
Kent the cave opened upon us in solitary grandeur. The 
profoundesl silence reigned in every comer of the recess* 
Huge masses of stone were piled on each other with a tre- 
mendous kind of carelessness, evidently produced by some 
violent conc;ussion, though at a period unknown to any 
human creature. From this place we ascended, as it were, 
the side of a steep hill, and at the top ^^meto a long regti. 
lar passage of some extent. The foof had all the regule* 
ricy of a finished ceiling, and was bespmigted by span of 
cvtry description. From above, front below, and from 
the res^pective sides, the rays of our candle were reflected 
in a thotisand different directions^ Our path hud so brilli« 
aot a copoplevtiont Ihat my e^ were far soipe tittie fixed 



4M HISTOMCAL 4M0 DBSCMPUVE 

«ad ke^ps tolemhly leml for aboiit tvtedt^ 
yvdU, when the fvay b^M to desoead, and 
theo winds irregolariy to the right and left, 
and somelimes Mcendwg and descending, jwi 



fuponiti though I tnist adi with the same temper aI mind 
with <Mhi^h Milton hes mede «ne •£ thn AUn «ngdkeoif« 
^(4;9^Ute thfi gwr^mcU 'Of hoaiieai-if* < 

' '^'Vammon, the least erecud spirit, that fell 

Pro» heBT'Of'for e'en in heav'n li!s looks and thouifhts 
WRtie alwajs^ovukwanlliBnty adiDlif of iwMe 
The riches of hea^repUyavempa^ tftdden|;Bl4» 
Than aught divine or hol/^ else enjoj'd 
In the vision beatific f 



•« Whea I ^rithdiew myr afttcniim fiwm «]m«olttntiA^ 
fpt^eo^i I wMehfimm Iktle cevitiee on ey^liend, vrhidl 
contiined eptn in thdbr innnmerable forms of cryHalliM* 
iion- Xho weptonneie of rnture in theie |ier operetxons U 
.iii<mdeefal| and .oftentunei escecdi«ur coneeptione. The 
^Qt q{ the €ev«m that is-omimentied by -the hrifUmcy tii 
j^ tpaiv end ones, 'we were assured deli|^ted the ladies; 
mh€^ notwithstflnding their qhsraOteristiG timidky, have 
jKenAMaed.iailolhts dark >abode ifartfae ytffict ion of^tlieir 
curiosity! Proceeding onwards a few yards we came t6 
Mm^ tflat stoae^ which lay oa one another, not alHygether 
jttnlibs jyUchcs of bacon* How they came there, and for 
4lirW*raaSQn they oowkl be thtn laid 'together baffled our 
^^mprehensinn. • In the next :compartBient we observed 
.xooksiheappd «m rocks, in terrihle amy, and on descend- 
ing /nun ithii part, * tbese^rQcks-aasume a threatening aspect, 
jMieiiiuig.u )fitheyiwould<fiii& downrntd crush you to atoms! 
'^lAnother scene surpriaes you, and is peculiartygrat]f3ring 
Xo t(ie«fBS9ai An cpatiitmenl is dtooMted wi€h what is 'hens 
•CJ^Ud thtjnsm fusil. This- species <of stonets, both from 
its ftgwre aed ooloiisv a^vcseiablance of snow. Its 'fairness 



prooMii Ibmard, «di»b person Imyuig a candle. 
lA bi» band^ .througb this dark and surprisioip 
workoC natorti irber^ art has on] j amootlmA 
oni tii9 Kangbn^ss benea<b, an4 hewn ant rtepa 
in the ajaba9t«r spm or jAt rock ; bem and tfaarn 
u aim . a rode brancb to lean on or bold b j« in? 
dcsMmyng the most rapid dedivUiesi fbat tiM 
penetmtion into this abode of sileacei and woif^ 
derail^ t be efieoted witb proper seearity.-!^ 
The visitor ia-lead ;&r several buadrcwl y&cdii 
tbroogh a nnnilKr of vaiklts,^ or hollow4« tba 
largest of which is about fifty feet.lojftg» twen^ 



so sUfncd by tbis fossil, thai it posiossed peculUr charms* 
It had just the appearance of a cavity, into which the snow 
Lad been drifted by the winter storm ! This apparent imita- 
tion of nature is certainly a beautiful curi(>sity« Kear the 
extremity of the cavern was shewn* a part of it, whidi 
might, on account of its internal appearance, be denomi* 
nated'tlie ^tVcaf(^ry hall I Here are seen, fishes petrified and 
fixed in the several strata, which form- the surrounding rt** 
cess. What kind of fish they were could not be ascertain- 
ed,* but they were clearly discernible. One of the fishea 
liad itt batk jutting out of the side of the earth, as if petri- 
fied in the a«st of swimming I >What an indispuiable pnoof 
that the earth was once in a sta^e of fluidity ! We might 
have seen another branch of the cavern, where was to be 
found a well iff considerable depth*; but waving any fiit- 
'thcr re-warch, we returned the wiiji we game* After mmy 
an ascent and descent, together with numerius meanderingp, 
we reached the entrance, and hailed thp cheerful light of 
day WUb renovated- ialisfiicliof^i'' 

16 « a 



Of HISTORICAL AND. DESCRIPTIVI 

ty wide, and twenty-two in height. The boC* 
totti consists of immenie maiiefl of rock broken, 
itnpendotts and grotesque in their shape, Ijing 
in all directions, and forming a rugged ceilikig 
ibr another vault below, into which is a de* 
•cent by a flight of natural rude steps. A can- 
dle, judiciously placed at a distance, gives to 
the snow fossils that line some of these vaults^ 
the appearance of immense mountains of snow, 
piled one upon another, and gives to the whola 
an effect truly grand and sublime. Hie pro- 
prietor, cleared away with his own hands, by an 
Herculean toil of seventeen years, all the ob« 
itructions, and numerous projections of rock, 
which impeded the passage, and thus rendered 
the way through it safe and easy. 

' Pursuing Matlock Dale in a southerly direc- 
tion, WillersLbt-Castlb, the spacious and 
elegant mansion of Richard Arkwright, Esq» 
presents itself to the view ; together with tho 
numerous dwellings of the persons he employs. 
This is indeed a different scene from the cahn 
and sequestered environs of Matlock; but it ia 
by no means an unpleasing one; ^r industry 
and neatness ace combined to give an air of 
comfort and animation to the whole surround- 
ing district: and cold and unfeeling mtist bo 
the heart which does not estperienoe gratificai^ 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. . 4«l 

tioQ at the jHgbt of happj haoiair 'iaees, or 
lunQnr a fenliment of delight at hearing the 
sounds of nMrrimeDt and cheerfulness amongst 
the poorest of their fellow mortals. 

Willerslej-Castle, is beautifully situated o^ 
a verdant knoll ; and though the native beaur 
l^esof the place, may in part eclipse.the pride 
of art« jet this structure cannot less than com- 
mand addairation. At the back, or to the North 
of the house, is a commandiing eminence, nvhich 
mns from East to West, and terminates the 
extensive range of rocks, that forms the eastern 
beundarj of the Derwent in its course through 
the dale. Round the foot of the hill, the rivet 
flows in .a grand sweep for some distance to the 
East, but afterwards resumes its former direi^ 
tion to th? South, and pursues its course tliroug^ 
a more open country. In front of the castlft 
OD the western side of the Derwent, rises a 
lofty per|iendicular rock, through which is the 
passnge before mentioned into the dale. From 
this spot the view of the building is highly ini- 
.preasive; its castellated appearance, judicious 
proportions, exact symmetry, and beautiful suis 
rounding scenery, form, altogether, a most 
pleasing prospect. 

'' The Castle consists of a body, in the form 
of an oblong square, having a circular tower 



4t4 HISTORICAL AKD DBSCRDTnTB 

rising from the centre of the roo( and c i 
circular tower projecting ironi the front on^eaek 
eide of the entrance, and two wings, with a 
round tower at each angle: the whole stftieiara 
is embattled ; and the walls are of white fret- 
stone. The spot on which it stands, was orU 
ginalljr occupied bjr a large rock, in the rt* 
moTal of which about three thousand podnda 
were expended by the late Sir Richard Ark» 
-Wright, who purchased the estate of the late 
Thomas Hallett Hodges, in the jear 1782. The 
Architect was Mr. William Thomas, of Lon^ 
don. This edifice was covered in 1788 ; bat 
before it was inhabited, it was set on fire by a> 
stOTC that was over-heated, and all that wan 
combustible in it consumed : this accident oc* 
curred on the eight of August, in .the year 
1701. 

^* The interior of this mansion is fornisbed 
with great taste and neatness: indeed it cannot, 
be more graphically characterized than in the 
expressive words of the Poets, simplex mundi^ 
tits; the general arrangement being more for 

use than ornament It contains several excel* 

* 

lent family portraits by Wright of Derby, par« 

. ticularly a whole-length of Sir Richard Afk* 

Wright; and also some smaller pieces by the 

^ame ingenious artist, as well as the siri>linM 



VIEWIIF<mRBVSIIIllE. . «M 

vMf«ii«f 'I^-MterHLafosJdready ^notieed ieis one 
of Im bat ficrfiiriiiaii€66^ and iwhicb is^ perhaps 
e%«il to the grtatest efforts of art in lainkiiiape 
puAtiag that thiseountrj baa ever prodoeed. 
Thtf was parchased by Mr«Arkwrightibra00 
|;ahieaa. 

** The grounds of WiUerslej posMai great 
▼aHetyand beauty, ' Between the Ctetle and 
tbe Derwent is a vetdaat lawn^ which slopes 
somewhat preeipitoosly from tbe house, but af- 
lefwards inelineS more gently to the river. The 
east-end of the lawn extends toCromfbrd Bridge 
which stands about a quarter of a mile from the 
Gastk) near the entrance to the grounds, which 
' open by a small, but very neat lodge. The 
aanamtt'of Cromford rock, which has been no- 
ticed as rising directly in front of Willersley, 
is beaulifiiUy fringed with trees and under- 
wood ; and though towering to a consideraUe 
b^;hty it doei not terminate the prospect from 
the siastle, which being elevated in situation 
alflMSt as much as the top of the rock, com« 
oaandsaviewof thehill that rises beyond it, 
trt ft great height above the village of Cromibrd« 
Near the summit of the* latter eminence, are 
aaveral rude names of grit-stone, which are 
piled on each other in a very singular manner. 
Tlie adjacent parts being formerly moorish^ 



\ 



49i HISTORICAL ANJ> DESCRIFTIVB 

and having a naked, unclieer Ail appeafanee, 
liave been planted with a great number of UeeBi 
wbich^ when armed at maturity, will greatJj 
imprdve this portion of the scenery. Toward» 
the west, the prospect includes the rivet^ an 
eminence beautified with trees and copses, and 
a sharp indented ridge of rocks ; with here and 
there a cottage perched on the summit of a elifit 
half hidden in. a de^ recess, or emerging from 
a thicket, 

/' The hill behind the Castle, rises to a con* 
siderable ^ight, and is covered with wood to 
its. summit, as is also* that portion of it which 
extends eastward! J. The coadi^^house, stables, 
bath, ice. which stand near the mansion on this 
side, though in a somewhat more elevated si- 
tuation, are almost concealed by the trees. In 
the midst of the wood are several romantic 
rocks, round whicli, and on the acclivity ofthe 
liill, the principal walk winds in a circuit of 
almost a mile. The walk leading from tlie 
G^tle on the west, gradually turns to the norlh^ 
taking a direction parallel to the course of tbe 
river, and passes under some perpendicukir 
rocks, though yet elevated to a great lieigbt 
al>ove the stream. Tbe rocks are in some parts 
bare of vegetation, but are occasionally fringed 
to their tops with trees, particularly the yew 



VIEW OP DERB^HIRE^ 407 

mA$Af ihe roots of which iiiM&iiate tbeni^ 
telfe^into the clefts and fissures in astnguldr 
oannen Advancing up the walk, towards 
the point called thefFild Cat Tor, the eje ii 
dcKgbted by one of the finest, scenes that na« 
tare e?er produced. It consist^ of the long 
impart of rocks opposite Matlock; the wood 
that clothes the decHvity.frooi their bases- fo 
tbs river; aind the tall trees on the opposite 
iid^ tbat stretch their branches down td the 
miter, which appears dark» gfobmyi*^ arid al^ 
nostmotionless^ till it . reaches a weir, down 
wiiich it rushes in an impetuous torrent* almost 
ittasdiataly under the feet of the spectator, 
bfvrhom it cannot be contemplated. without 
wme degMe of terror as well as iadnii^ation.-^ 
TheBathK,' the Heights of Abrahanii the hodj 
ef MaasOii^Hill, and the summit of the High- 
Ter, are also seen fromr this part of tbe grounds; 
tbroogh which various, othei^ walks extend in 
difiereat directions, and lead to a diversity of 
Keqery, that can hardly be paralleled - within 
I rimilw. extent in any part of the. country. — 
The greea*.house,-gardeni, and hot- houses, are 
ailwosthy of notice: the latter ar^ plentifnlly 
Aioked with ananas^ and a great variety of ex- 
csellent vines.. The walks were laid out under 



4» mSTOlUCAX. AMD DlSCUmVI 

ikB direetioii of Mr. Webbi mdmM k^i witii; 

The late proprietor of tkkekgalit seatt Sia 
RlOHARO AltKVlilQHT^ Kilt. WW ooe of tfaofe 
great characters, which nature teeaia to have 
destined^ bj the endowonent of snpenor powem^ 
to be the bene&ctor of their ftttow^^creatocee^ 
Bom of pareotSy- who weie^chuttedaiioiig the 
inferior rank of society, and brought up to one 
of the . most lumible' ocoopations in life« ha 
yet, bjtheaidofgeniiis and pecseveranoe, rase 
to affloenee and honor. Richard Arkwright, 
%ho was the yoongest of thirteen ohsMten^ was 
bom at Preston inXAncashire^ sometime jmtke^ 
year 1.73ft» In that neighbonrhood^ diewwas 
ir conriderable mannfaetory of linen gooda^ 
and of linen and cotton mixed, carried on; 
end his acquaintance with the operationa lie 
witnessed there, seems, in early lU^ to have di- 
rected bis thoughts to the improvement of the 
mode of qpinning. This however, he . cBd not 
accomplish till mady years ifaad elapsed; far 
prior to the year 1767, he followed his tnide^ 
which was that of « barber ; but at ihat- period, 
he quitted his original business and situation at 
Wirksworth, and went about the 9>niitry itayKi. 

'm^mm^ III II ■ ■ I ■ L ■ ■ .1 ^ 

• Beauties of England an^ Walet. 



VIEW OF DSRBYSHlIUt 4l» 

I iag hfir. Cbniog to Warrington, he projec- 
ted n OMefaanioai contrivance, for a kind of per- 
petitai flMtipn^ A ckkck-msiker of that town, 
of the naoie of John Kaj, dissuaded him from 
it, aind sQggested that oiuch money might be 
gained by an engine for spinning cotton, which 
Kay premised to describe. Kay and AdLwright 
tben applied to Peter Atherton, Esq. of Liver- 
pool, for assistance in the construction of such 
an engine^ who, discouraged by the mean ap^ 
pearanoe of the latter, declined; though he 
soon afterwards agreed to lend Kay, a smith 
and watch*tool maker to prepare the heavier 
part of the engine, whilst Kay himself under- 
tMkr to make the clock-maker's part of it, and 
to tflfltraet the workmen. In this way Ark- 
wright's first engine, for which he aftc^rwards 
took a patent, was made. 

Mr. Arhwright experienced many difficulties 
before he eould bring his machine into use : 
and €^n> after its completion had sufficiently 
demonstrated its value, its success would have 
faten for ever retarded, if his gen'ras and appli- 
cation bad been less ardent. His circumstan- 
csa iMre by for too unfovorable, to enable him, 
to eattmoAoe biisiness on his own account, and 
few were wiMiiig to risk the loss of capital on a 
establisbment. Having at length, how- 
16 R 3 



400 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

eyer, the good fortane to secure the co^opem* 
tion of Mr. Smalley of Preston, he obtained 
his first patent for spinning cotton by means of 
rollers : but their property failing, they went 
to Nottingham, and there by the assistance of 
wealthy individuals, erected a considerable 
cotton-mill turned by horses; but this mode of 
procedure being found too expensive, another 
mill, on a larger scale, was erected at Crom* 
ford, the machinery of which was put in mo* 
tion by water. 

This patent-right was contested about the 
year 1772, on the ground that he was not the 
original inventor. He obtained a verdict, how- 
ever, and enjoyed the patent without, further 
interruption, to the end of the term for' which 
it was granted. 

Soon after the erection of the mill at Crom- 
ford, Mr. Arkwright made many improvements 
in the mode of preparing the cotton for spin- 
ning, and invented a variety of ingenious ma- 
chines for effecting this purpose in the most 
correct and expeditious manner ; for all which 
he obtained a patent in the year 1775. The 
validity of this second patent, was tried in the 
court of King's Bench, in 1781, and a verdict 
was given against him on the ground of the in- 
^sufficiency of the specification; but in 178&* 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 401 

<he question was again tried in the court of 
CooiiDon/PleaH, when he obtained a verdict.-^ 
This verdict, however, raised up an association 
of the principal manufacturers, who instituted 
another cause by writ of scire facias^ in the 
court of King's Bench, when Mr. Arkwright 
was cast, on the ground of his not being the 
original inventor. Conscious that this was not 
the case, he moved for a new trial, the rule, 
however, was refused, and on the 14th of No- 
vember 17S5, the court of King's Bench gave 
judgment to cancel the letters patent. 

The improvements and inventions in cotton 
spinning, for which we are indebted to the ge« 
nius of Sir Richard Arkwright, and which com- 
plete a series of machinery so various and com- 
plicated, are so admirably combined and so 
well adapted to produce the intended effect in 
its most perfect form, as to excite the admira- 
tion of every person capable of appreciating 
the difficulty of the undertaking. And that all 
this should have been accomplished by the sin* 
gle efforts of a man without education, with- 
out mechanical knowledge, or even mechanical 
experience, is most extraordinary, and affords 
a striking instance of the wonderful powers dis- 
played by the human mind, when its powers 
are steadily directed to one object. 

Yet this was not the only employment of 



410 HISTORICAL AND DZSCRIITIVE 

thte ewiMnt van ; for ^ the tame liwe fhi* 
be.^w iii/¥«(ikiog and improviog the machinery^ 
he was also engaged io other undertaAiffDge^ 
vhich aoy person, judging horn general expo* 
rience, uiasft hare proooaneed incompatiMe 
with such pnrsuite^ He was taking measnree 
to secnre to himself n fiur proportion of lire 
fruits of his industry and ingeooit j ; he wae 
extending the busiaess on a lai^e scale ; he was 
introducing into every department of the ma-- 
nufacturet a system of industry, order, and 
cleanliness, till then miknown in any manufiic*. 
tory where great numbers were employed toge- 
ther^ but which he so efiectually accomplished, 
that his example may be vegarded as the origiii 
of almost all similar improvements. 

When it is considered, that during this 
entire period, he was afflicted with a grievous 
disorder (a violent asthma) which was always 
extramejy opprestt ve, and threatened sometimeflf 
to put an immediate termination to his exist- 
ence, his great exertions must excite astonish-* 
menu For some time previous to bis deaths 
he was rendered incapable of continuing bisT 
usual pursuits, /by a complication of diseases, 
which at length deprived him of life, at Crom- 
ford on the third of August 1792, in the six- 
tieth year of his age. 

He was knighted by bis present m»jesry, on 



VIEW OF DIRBY9IIIft& m 

th» S3ad of Dscmbeiv 1786» on MMsiotf of 
pramiling %n uddttrnf u Ugh sheriff of the 
eoiiaty of Derby. 

la the iefieincy of the inTention Sir Riekurd 
Arfcwriglrt expressed ideM of its iitiportanee, 
vbich to persons less ecqaainted with its me* 
rit» appeared ridicoloiie ; but he Nred long 
anottgh to see all Us eonceptioas more than res- 
•lised i» the advanta^ derived from it, both 
to bimself aad to hie country; and the state to 
wbieh those mamriiictnipes dependant on it have 
been advanced since kie death^ makes M that 
had been pserioafily effected appear eompara* 
Ifttely trifling. The merits of Sir Richard 
Arkwright HHty be sunnied op by obsenring^, 
** tlmt the object ia which he was engaged, rs 
of the highest pablic iialne ; that thongh bis 
fymUy were eariched, the benefits which bate 
aecmed to the nation, have been incalcolably 
greater ; and that upon the wbote he is entitled 
to the respect and admiration of the world." 
The portrait of htm by Wright, in esteeined a 
Tery cbaraeteristie and striking likeness. He 
is represented sitting in his study, with one 
band resting on a table, whereon is placed a set 
of roHers for spinning cotton, in allusion to the 
most essential part of bis ingenious machinery.^ 

^ Vide Dr. Rfiss'^r Cydopabdiai. Articles, Ar^wright 
and Cotton* 



194 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

BoMALt, in Domesdaj Bunteshale^ is a ree« 
torj, of which the Dean of Lincoln is the pa- 
tron : the church is dedicated to St. James. 
It contains about two hundred and fifty houses. 
Its inhabitants are employed in the mines, and 
iit the works at Cromford. Here is a Free- 
school, built and endowed by Robert Feme of 
this place, ancestor of the Femes of Snitterton. 

Parwich, written in Domesday, Pevrewic^^ 
is a chapelry belonging to the parish of Ash- 
bourn. The church is dedicated to St. Peter. 
At the time of the Norman survey, Parwich 
was a royal manor, and passed in the same man« 
ner as Wirksworth, till the time of Charles the 
First. In this manor, was included a subordi- 
nate, yet more valuable one, which belonged 
to the Fitzherberts of Norbury, and afterwards 
to the Cokaines of Ashbourn, who sold it in 
the time of James the First ; in whose reign 
it was purchased by the family of Levigne^ a 



• To this Manor there belonged then " three here wicks, 
ElUshopt^ (Alsop) Hanztdone^ (Hanson Grange) and£fl«ii, 
(Eaton); and five manors, DertUi^ (Darley) MtsUsfordCf 
Wcrchjuordc^ (Wirksworth) Esstbume^ (Ashbourn) and 
Peureuuicy (Parwick), which with their berewicks, paid 
in king Edward's time thirty-two pounds, and six secu- 
rie$+ and a half of honey, now forty pounds of pure sil- 
ver-"— Domesday, Orig. 272. a. 2. 

} A sectarx is four poundi* 



VIEW Of DERBYSttlRE. 40& 

descendant of which, Sir Richard Levigne, 
is the present possessor of the estate. 

Half a mile to the North of this village, there 
are some faint vestiges of a Roman encamp- 
ment or station. The spot is called Lomhard^s 
Green^ and is a level piece of ground, on the 
summit of a very high eminence. It is of an 
oblong form, and occupies about half an acre 
of ground. It consists of about twelve divisions, 
made by walls, the foundations of which are in 
many places still visible. I'he size and shape 
of the remaining divisions are various, some 
being oblong, some semi-circular, and others 
square. The ground has been much disturbed 
by searching for lead ore ; and it was by a mi- 
ner, about forty years ago, the . discovery was 
made, which led to suppose that it was occu- 
pied by the Romans. About the depth of two 
feet and a half, a military weapon, a conside- 
rable number of coins, and an urn of great 
thickness, in which the coins, had, most pro- 
bably, been deposited, were found. The coins, 
consisted, principally, of Roman Denarii^ in 
good preservation. They were altogether about 
eighty, and stamped in the Upper empire, and 
were some of them as high as the Trium-virate of 
OciaviuMj Lepidus^ and Marc Antony; and 
others as low as the emperor Auretian. Near 



4Sfi HISTORICAL AND DESCRIFIWE 

tbiBancientfttatioOtOii the mmait of thehilUw 
a bank about two feet bigb, aad tluw broad, 
^kkh extendi Oiearlj two nults and a balf, in 
a. direction £a»t and W«&t : at the westera ex« 
treaaity it eater» the road leading frooi Ash- 
boorn to BaxUm. About, foar buadred yaada 
below i8 a necond aarrow ridge of eartli, wbick 
extend^ aboat half a mile to the West in a di- 
rection nearly paraUel to the former. Whether 
these banks were fiwnerly conaeeted with tho 
station, or only intended as boaadaries^tt seeasa 
iupoasible to ascertain. 

Ai^sop, anciently Elleakope^ is another cha^ 
pe Iry in the parish of Ashbonm. The cbarch 
is dedicated to St. Michael ; and the whole lU 
berty contains aboat foorleea hoases. 

Hartinoton, in Domesday called Hartedmne^ 
is.a large parish, extending nearly twelve miles, 
along the western boundary of Derbyshire, and 
comprehending all that tract of laad> which 
lies between the maaors of Baxfeon and Thorpe. 
It is divided into, the Uartinglon town quar- 
ter, the Lower qnarter, the Middle quarter, 
and theU|^r quarter; altogether oontaiaing 
about three hundred and forty houses. The 
Tillage itself contains about 370 inhabitanla: 
the living is a vicarage, and the chnrch is dadv 
cated to St. Giles: it ibrowerly bebaged toDo^ 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 487 

Mta MinoregSj in Xondon* but the Duke of 
Sevonftkire is the preseHt patron. 

This Manor gives the title of Marquis to his 
gfrace the Dake of Devonshire, who is possessed 
of a large estate in land here, and indeed of al- 
flsost all the surronnding country. In the viU 
Yage of Hartington, the entrance of which has 
some interesting rockj scenery, there was, in 
^mner times, a castle; and some remains of 
ancient works may be discovered in several 
places in the vicinity. l*he manor formerly 
I belonged to the Ferrers^ family, and afterwards 

I to the Duchy of Lancaster. In Charles the 

I -Ftfst's time« it becaane the property of VillierS). 

I Dake of Buckingham ; but in the reign of king 

Charles the Second, it belonged to the Caven- 
dishes, Earis and Dukes of Devonshire. 

There are several traditions handed down, 
leapecting bat'tles which have been fought in 
this neighbourhood. It is said, that the Britons 
bad a most bloody an^ obstinate conflict, with 
the Roman Genera! Agricola, on llartington- 
common ; and that when it was finished, the 
blood ran down the hill into the town. It is 
also reported j that the Republicans and Roy* 
alists during the Civil Wars, had a severe en« 
.gagement on a hill near the village. The for- 
16 s 3 



4» HISTOmCAL AND DESCRIPTIVS 

mer tde is not supported bjr aa j MOMdi«g civt 
comstances ; t>at the latter has iMieii eatrobor 
rated, by tke finding many moaket balk, which 
had been lyashed down with the soil, from the 
high groands, after heavy rains. 

'« About a raile and a half to the southeast 
of Hartington, is a high eminence, called Wo\f!$T 
CoU^mU^ on the stunmit of which is a Barrom 
or Low.^ This ancient remain, is a large bea|p 
of stones of various sizes. The smallest am 
the most outward, and over them is a thia oo* 
Bering of moss and grass. It rises about three 
yards above the common surface of the ground 
around it, and is exactly circular. The cif* 
cumference at the base, is nearly seventy yards: 
at the top, tbe diameter is about ten yards; and 
in the middle is a cavity one. yard deep, and 
thi^ wide. This Low has been opened a small , 
way towards the centre ; and in its iuward con* 



* Barrowsi or TumuUt pr Lows^ or Cairns^ are the 
nonumenUy which the ancients used to niso over thets il- 
lustrious dead« They consist of hillocks or mounds^ raised 
of earthy or stones,' and are considered as the most ancient 
aepulchnl monuments in the world. The custom may be 
traced to the remotest antiq^uity, and instances of it occur 
in all quarters of the globe. Those that are found in Der- 
byshire, are generally supposed to have been raised by ihe, 
Britom, befoR the Roman invuion« over tkoir deceased 
heroes, and penons of distinguished characters. 



VIEW OF DERBVSHtRE. m 

ffractioti appeals greatly to resemble that^ 
frh\th Will Im described at Cbeltnorton, near 

In the Lower quarter division of Hartington, 
at a ]Jlace called Castle* liillsy i^ituated on the 
banks of the Dove, is a sharp ridge df rocks, sup^ 
posed to have been reared by huitian kbor, and 
rising to the height of six Or eight yards in the 
^hape of a sugar-loaf. Adjoining to this, ihexA 
ire some embankments, and several- Lbi^s of dif« 
/erent shapes. Near a place called Crditdicote^ 
are the foundations of a buildings erroneously 
supposed to have been an Abbey. The ground 
about it has been searched for treasure, btit none 
could be found. — In the Middle quarter of 
Hartington, there is a chapel, called East'* . 
Stemdale. 

About three miles to the East oi Hartington, 
is, Ne^havbn, where the Duke of Devonsiiire 
lias erected, a large, handsome, and commo- 
dioas inn, 'where travellers may meet with ex« 
cellent accommodation. The country aroond 
tliis place is very bleak, and was, formerly, an 
open and barren waste; but a bill of inclosure 
fal^ving been obtained some years ago, it begins 
to assume a less wild appearance, and several 
bundred acres are now in a state of cultivation. 
Many extensive and thriving plantations, which 



500 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

have been made, near the inn, will in a few 
years occasion a change in the appearance c4 
. this tract, and may cause similar improvements 
to be effected in the neighbourhood. Theie is 
an. annual fair held here for the sale of horses, 
cattle, sheep, &c. which is generally attended 
by a great concourse of people. The spot of 
ground where the booths are erected, and pot* 
houses established for the entertainment of the 
company, is so broken and diversi6ed, as to 
have the appearance of the site of an ancient 
encampment. At a little distance from this 
place, is a lead«mine, now not worked, wherein 
rich specimens of wheaUistone^ or white ore of. 
lead, have been frequently obtained. 

About three miles to the West of Newhaven- 
house, the Dove rolls along: and though tTie 
scenery here is not quite so romantic as that of 
Dove-Dale, it yet partakes of a great deal of 
its character. The rocks are not so elevated, 
but the singular and rude forms into which 
they are broken, have a very striking eflfeet ; 
and the frequent changes in their appearance^ 
are particularly interesting. One rock distia- 
guisbed by the name of the Pike^ from its spU 
ral form, and situation in the midst of the 
stream, has been noticed in the second part of 
the Complete Angler^ by Charles Cotton, E.sq. 



. < vmW OF DJBRBYSHIRE. «0l 

iRpih» Kfiided at Bkrbsfoed-Hall, ati ancient^ 
bot extremely pleasant maoaiQii on the Staf* 
fiifdsbire side of the river. The Hall^ novr 
looks old and ruinoos; and ' the adjoiotnggar* 
deaa and grounds exhibit a scene of neglect 
and deflation; bat in Mr. Cotton's time they 
m&e kept in ^Kcellent order. 

Below the house, the stream (fiimous for trool 
&bir^ flotws in a rapid current betwixt the 
craggs of steeps which form its boundariest for 
Moie distance; when it looses itself under 
ground, ** and after a mile's concealment, ap«i 
pears again with more glory and. beauty than 
before^ running through the most plea^^nt Tal^ 
lies, and fruitful meadows that this nation c^JI 
justly boast of/'* 

Hither it was that the venerable Isaac WaU 
Um^ the father of anglers» came from London* 
that during the summer months, he might wilh 
bis friend Cotton, enjoy the sport of angling. — 
In return for these friendly visits, Mr. Cotton 
built a small fishing*house, on a kind of penin- 
sula on the banksi of the Dove, the remains of 
wbi^h are stiU visible.f It was erected in the 



• Complete Angler. 
*f .Sir John Hawktos, in his edition of Walton's Conn* 
plete Angler, gives two Views pf this Fishing- House, and 
writes, that several years ago, he employed a person to visit 



lot HISTOUC&L: AMD DUOUFBIVB 

j^iBf tO74,*aiidkai4iig'iM00ldLte litlle^iiiiii^ 
Arfg^vOTtl yeanpaiti' it :hmMlm iuba4eaBy. 
Here, Are, however, to'be Meo^heef pber^m^er 
tiieilDor,'<€onlarining tke inilialft of tUe osaiet 
b0(9fttrf GottOD «nd Waitein, immwm€»m eaeb 
0tli0ry.Mid^be inscription Bbove it, 4»k€aoi« 
PI8CATOR1BU8 f$acred tojishermen^j Ntf'flHcjd 
Irith'mast) and ahnoBt oMiterfited. It-ivas in 
1km Kttle deserted, tcpeiple of frimdship. that 
ihepkMiug diafe»giie foiind in the Comffktt 
Ttkgkr^tef^pectm^ * tbe IbrnMtion of an artifi- 
rial fly^ «0^ ptsrce. 

' lii dtfe of the reeks which hfiing over the ri* 
▼^, ie'H^diall cttVity, only to be appmticfaed by 

it, and send him a description of it. From iJbal .account 
the -fallowing panj^^raph is extracted; by which some idem 
may be formed of its former condition :— 

** It Is of stone, and the room in the inside a cube of 
ll>0Ui'ffteen feet; it is ako p«v«d with black and White 
marble* In the middle is a square black marble table, sup* 
ported by two stone feet. The room is wainscotted with 
curious Aiouldings that divide the pannels up to the ceil- 
ing ; in the large pannels are represented in painting, some 
ef the most pleasant of the adjacent scenes, with persons 
fishing; and in the smaller, the various sort of tackle and 
implements used in angling. In the fWther comer on the 
left is a fire-place, with a chimney ; and on the right a large 
beaufet with folding doors, whereon are the portrait of 
Mr, Cotton and boy serv»nt, and WaUon in the dress of the 
times. Underneath is a cupboard, on the door of which 
are the figures of a 7/ Mel, ttnd'aho of a GrayUng well poar« 
traycd," 



VIUW 08 QERBYSHIIUG. lift 

an intricate and hazardous path, in which Mr. 
Cotton 18 said to have eluded the pursuits of 
the officers of justice, after 45ome offence of 
which he had been guilty. The depth of it is 
about fifteen yards; but even in this small 
space are several windings, which render it 
difficult of ii^cess, and 'Well adapted for the 
purpose of concealment. 



OT4 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVB 



CHAP. X. 

Deanery of CheiUrfield. 

South WINGFIELD or Winfibld, called 
in Domesday Winefieldy and Winnefelt^ is an 
extensive parish, including a part of the manor 
of Lea, and the whole manors of Ufton and 
Okerthorpe; in the latter of which stands the 
parish church, though it bears the name of 
Wingfield church. The living is a vicarage, the 
church, which formerly belonged to Derley 
Abbey, is dedicated to All-Saints, and the 
Duke of Devonshire is the patron. The whole 
parish contains about eight hundr^ inhabi«» 
tants, who are employed in the pursuits of 
agriculture, working at the stocking-frame, and 
at the cotton-mill. The number of houses is 
about 170. The commons and waste grounds 
of Wingfield, were enclosed under an act of 
parliament, in the year 1786. 

South Wingfield appears to have been the 
seat of several distinguished persons, at difie« 
rent periods of time. Prior to the Norman. 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. &oi 

Sdrvej, Roger of Paicloii held it, but at that 
period it ivas held by William Peverel, under 
Earl Allan, who accompanied the Cont^neror 
into England, and (Commanded the rear of his 
army at the battle' of Hastings. About the 
eight of Henry the Sixthi it came to the pos- 
i^e^on of Ralphs Lord Cromwell, who chnmed 
it as a cousin and heir at law of Margaret, wifii 
of Robert de Swyllington, Knt. to wtidin' if 
had descended through the families of' 97mV 
and Belters^ the former of whom had held it 
for several generations from the time of com-^ 
piling Domesday-book. The right of tlie Lord 
Cromwell to Winfield, was contested by Henry 
Pierpoint, Knt. the heir at law of John de He* 
riz, who died in the third year of Edward Hf. 
bat, on a compromise, was allotted to the for- 
mer, and by him the reversion was sold to John 
Talbot,' second Earl of Shrewsbury, in this 
iamily it continued till the decease of Gilberjt, 
the seventh Earl, in the year I6I6, when it be- 
came the property of William, Lord Herbert, 
Earl of Pembroke; Henry Grey, Earl of Kent; 
and Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel and Sur- 
ry ; who had married the three daughters, and 
co«heirs of Earl Gilbert. The manor being di-* 
Tided between these noblemen, became still 
16 T 3 



506 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

'^ further divided in succeeding jears, and now 
belongs to several perBons; but the greatest 
share is the property of Wingfield Halton, Esq. 
by whose ancestors it was purchased in the 
reign of Charles the Second. In the year J666r 
Emanuel Halton, who was the first resident of 
that name, lived at Wingfield Manor; he was a 
good Mathematician, and some of hjs pieces 
are published in the appendix to Foster's Ma- 
thematical Miscellanies : in the Philosophical 
Transactions for 1676, is an account of an 
eclipse of the sun observed here by him : but 
the principal of his manuscripts were destroyed 
through carelessness. 

The ancient Lords of this manor, had 'two ex* 
tensive parks, on the border of one of which near- 
est Okerthorpe, are a moat and other vestiges of 
an ancient mansion, said by tradition, to be c^lU 
eiBakewell'HalL These parks, which conlain<» 
ed above 1000 acres of land, are now disparted 
into farms. The early mansion-house of the 
Lords of Wingfield, (unless it were at the place 
already mentioned, BakeweliHall) was near 
to the Peacock-Inn,. on th% turnpike road be- 
tween Derby and Chesterfield: for the siie/>f 
Vfton-Hall, (Uftune) which was unquestioU' 
ably one of the houses of the Lords of Win|^- 
field, is within a hundred yards of the inu ; 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. $m 

wbich is believed to have been built on the site 
of the offices belonging to it, and is sometimes 
called Ufiori Barns. 

The Manor-house, the remains of which are 
still seen, and which even in its ruin8,*exhibifs 
many specimens of its original magnificence, 
Was (according to Camden) built bj Ralph, 
Lord Cromwell, in the reign of Henrjr the 
Sixth. This stately and noble mansion, con- 
sists of two square courts; one of which to the 
North, has been built on all sides, and the South 
side ef it forms the North side of the Sooth 
court, which has also ran^ of buildings on 
the East and West sides, and on part of the 
South : the latter court seems, principally, to 
have consisted of offices. The first entrance is 
under an arched gate-way, on the East side of 
the South court : from hence the communica« 
tion with the inner court, is under an arched 
gate-way, in the middle of the North side of 
the South court. One half of this range of 
building seems, originally, to have been used 
as a ball, which received light through a beau- 
tiful octagon window^ and through a range of 
Gothic windows to the South, now demolished, 
and a correspondent range to the North, alter- 
ed into two ranges. This hall, measuring 
twenty-four yardsr by twelve, is, like the other 



M* HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

parts of the .boilding, completely dilapidate^. 
Beneath the ball ie a vault of nearly the same 
dimensions, curiously arched with stone, having 
a double row of pillars running up the middle. 
This part of the house, subsequent to the first 
erection, was divided and subdivided into se- 
veral apartments, which have suffered the samte 
fate, as the noble ball, whose magitificence their 
erection destroyed. In the other part of this 
range, are, the portal, and the remains of the 
chapel, and of the great state apartment, light- 
ed through another rich Gothic window* Mo 
part of the building on the East side of the 
court, except a low wall, now remains: and 
of the range of buildings on the West side of 
the North court, only the outer wall, and some 
broken turrets survive. 

This mansion was castellated and embattled ; 
at each corner stands a tower ; but that at the 
south-west rises higher than any of the rest, and 
commands a very extensive prospect. Its situ- 
ation, though the neighbourhood of Wingfield 
has not those romantic features, by which Per- 
byshire landscapes are generally characterised^, 
is bold and majeslic, with the advantage of 
beautiful prospects in almost every direction. 
The distant approach to it from the North, when 
assisted by a sun nearly sunk in the liorizoDt 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. «0t 

has a most afffc^gw^ir, of grandeur :-^Here 
imagination eagerly: plunged into Ib^facinating 
scenes of antiqaitj, and the mental eye gazes 
in rapture on the splendid and hospitable revels 
of the dajsc^ chivalry :< but a nearer approach 
calls us back to cootemplate the sad devasta- 
tions of time :^^we see walls which erst feared 
their heads in proud <defiaace of the tempest, 
spread in disorder and confusion : — and here» 

*• • • the pilgrim oft^ 

At dead of night, 'mid his oraisons, hears ^ 

Agast the voice of Time, disparting towers.'* 

Dyer's Ruins of Rom(^« 

During the reign of queen Elizabeth, Wing- 
field was, at different times, made the place of 
confinement of Mary queen of Scots, first un- 
der the Earl of Shrewsbury, and afterwards 
under Sir Ralph Sadler.^ Her suit of apart- 
ments, tradition informs us, was on the West 
side of the North court : this, in the memory 
of persons lately living, was the ^most beautiful 
part of the building: it communicated with 
the great tower ; from whence, there is also a 
tradition, she had an opportunity of seeing 
the friends approach, with whom she held a se- 
cret correspondence. It is in^possible to justify 



* See his State Papers and Letters, lately publishedf bf 
Arthur Clifford, and Walter Scott, Esqrs, 



•!• HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

Elizabetb^s conduct towards the beautiful^ 
tboagh impradent, Marj : and while we yiew 
the remains of her prison, the bosom that 
can feel, most recal the memory of a great and 
unfortunate Princess, indulged in her jouth in 
thesoft enjoyments of pleasure; but, owing to 
female jealousy, tasting in the succession of 
years, a succession of refinements on misery. 
The mind here yields, alternately, to the im- 
pressions of sorrow and indignation : and here 
the Englishman, in despite of his enthusiastic 
regard for his sovereign, cannot recal the me- 
mory of Elizabeth, amidst her parade of mer« 
cy and justice, without pronouncing it detes- 
table. 

Her imprisonment here probably commenced 
in 1569 ; in which year an attempt was made 
by Leonard Dacre, to liberate her from her 
confinement at Wingfield. On the 6th of De- 
cember, 1584, the Earl of Shrewsbury obtain- 
ed permission to resigh his charge into the bands 
of Sir Ralph Sadler, after he had been her 
jailer for sixteen years ; and in the execution of 
this revolting employment for so long a period, 
be had experienced a multiplicity of troubles 
and vexations. Eli^beth, though she had no 
reason to doubt his fidelity, yet her own male- 
Tolent jealousy, made her perpetually mistrust- 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 511 

fulof ^very person who had the custody of 
Mary» who was so much her superior in per- 
sonal attractions. In Shrewsbury's wife, Eli- 
zabeth found a convenient instrument for gra- 
tifying her spleen against her rival, and for ob- 
taining secret information respecting the beha- 
viour of Shrewsbury towards Bis charge. The 
Countess of Shrewsbury appears to have been 
a narrow-minded, peevish, and suspicious wo- 
man; and hence we may suppose,^ that the 
domestic feuds which the Earl had to encoun- 
ter, while they aggravated the punishment of 
Mary, constituted no small portion of his own^ 
infelicity. 

The length of the time which tradition says 
Mary was confined at Wingfield^ is nine years* 
She was certainly in the custody of the Earl of 
Shrewsbury from 1568 to 1584, when she was 
removtfd^ to Tutbury; but in that time she 
I "' , ■ 

• Sir Ralph Sadler's Slate Papers, Vol. II. In No. 
XLIX. of this work, ** we have several questions proposed 
and answered relative to the custody and domestic establish- 
ment of the Queen of Scots. From these we learn that 
there were in all 210 gentlemen, yeomen, officers, and ioU 
diers employed i<i the custody of the queen at Wingfield, in 
Nov. 1584. Sir Ralph Sadler says that 15e men would 
suffice for a guard at Tutbury, and not leas, as 15 or 1 6 
must watch nightly. The domestic establishment of the 
Queen of Scotland is said to have consisted of < 5 gentilmen, 
14 sfrvitours, 3 cookS| 4 boyes, 3 gentilsmens men^ 6 gen- 



5t« HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

was at iBukton, Hardwicke, Chateworth, atid 

other places as well as Wingfield ; and if her 

confinement here continued any thing near so 

great a length of time as nine years, it must 

have been with many intervals of absence. 

The Manor-House' is supposed to have first 

suiTered from an attack of the Royalists, in the 

* 
time of Charles the First, a party of whom, 

under the command of William Cavendish, 
Marquis of Newcastle, in the month of No- 
vember 1643, took it by storm'. But shortly 

fil women, (2 wyves, 10 wenches and children.' The diet 
of the queen of Scots on ^ both fishe days and ficshe days,* 
is said to have been * about l6 dishes at both courset^ dress- 
ed after there awne manner,, sometymes more or lesse as the 
provision servithe. The 2 sccretaryes, master of her hous- 
kold, the physician, and de Prean, have a messe of 7 or 8 
dishes, and do dyne alwayes before the quene, and there 
own servants have there reversion ; and the rest of her folk 
dyne with the reversion of her meat. Also her gcntilwo- 
n^en and the 2 wyves, and other mayds and children, be- 
ing 16, have 2 messes of meate of Q dishes at both counea 
for the better sor^, and 5 dishes for the meaner sort.' 

** A queston is proposed respecting the price of provi- 
sions at the time, and it is answered, 

* Wheat is about 20s« a quaner; malt about 16s, a quarter; 
beef, agoodoxe, 4l.; muttons, a score, ?!•; veal and other 
meates reasonable good charge, about Ss. ; hay about lds« 4d* 
a lode; otes, the quarter, 8s.; pease, the quarter, about 12s/ 

*^ The queen and her train are said to consume about ten toa 
of wine in a year. These particulars are of no great impor- 
tance; but several of our readers, who will never see the&tt 
volumer, will regard thcoLas matters of curiosity," 



VIEW OP DERBYSHIRE, 5id 

afterwards. Sir Joha Cell, of Hopton, having 
Taised a regifneat of horse for the service of 
Parliament, sent Major Sanders, one of his of- 
ficers, with the horse, to attack the party .who 
kejpt garrisoin at WingfieYd, vrhere they took 
prisoners, two Captains, and several other of- 
ficers and soldiers of John Fitz Herbert, a Co- 
lonel on part of the king. The assault was be- 
gun on the East side with cannon, planted on 
Pentridge common,^ and a half-moon battery 
raised for its defence in this qaarter, was soon 
carried. But a breach being found impracti- 
cable, the ordnance were removed to a wood on 
the opposite side. From thence they played 
with terrible efiect ; and a considerable breach 
being soon opened, the besieged were compel- 
led to an immediate surrender. ** I saw/' says 
IMr. Pilkington, ** the breach by whi^h the as- 
sailants entered, and several of the cannon- 
balls whifch were employed on this memorable 
occasion— one, which' was lately found in the 
hills, weighs thirty-two pounds. Colonel Dal- 
by, who was governor of the place, was killed 
by a deserter who knew him, as he was walk- 
ing, disguised as a common soldier, in the sta- 

* On this Common is a Roman encampment. It it 
mearly square, and consists of a double vallum* 

17 u a . 



Me. Tbe hvjfi tbroagb whioh he uitradnD«d 
himpotfli^etis stUi to b« s^n near t)ie pcr^r^s 

XM papers of the neighboving genl(rjr, ai^ 
%\{e traditions of tbe inhahi^ts 93»^t^ Wing^i^ 
ft^Id, iatimate it to k^re been tbe scene of 
apqae other trifliiig difirmifibesi. A few jeam 
9ftet i/i ba4 been taH^ poiseision of bj thfsi 
Parliameat, an order was issued^ dated Jiiii^ 
tbe twenty-third, 164Q» lor dismanrKng it.— • 
From this time for mai^. years H wa^ neg^cte^; 
and it had been fortunate i^x the adnpirepi qf 
so venerably an edifice^ bad that, negligen<;e 
bteev uniform from thenee tq th§ pn^nttjoyq': 
bult a small part of it baling be^n oc^cupied bj 
the family of Haltpn, and a partijupu of tl|e 
estate taking place some years ago« under a df- 
^ree of the Court of Chancery, tbe mansioift 
was aUotte^ to. the late; ]Mlr..^a)tQn, who begafi 
to build a bouse, at the i^t of tbe hin« near |o 
the manor ; andt since that: time» spm? of the 
most beaqtiful parts of the old bmldiog; ba^^e 
been pulled down for the sake of the mft^nal^^^ 

^ Sfe <* Hfktory of tbe. Man^r and. M^iaor^Hoi^scof 
South Wiafield," by T. Blore, F. S. A^ 



iVUWJOF •ULBY6HnA flf 



ALFR:ieTON. 



ALrRETON, in Domesday called MbltetUne^ 
^as at the compilation of that record included 
in the ldnd$ belonging td Roger de Busli ; and 
the marfor itas hetd hf on^ Ingrado, at the an- 
taual rent of thirty shillings. Tradition says,^ 
(hat this town i^as built by Alfred the Great; 
add that its name is derived from its founder i 
It is also said that he resided here, vLiid ev^ti 
the spot is iriiewn oh Which the palace stood. 

In fofmer times, the totvA ^ild fiberty bre« 
knged to a family, that took its name' from the 
place; one of whom, Robert, sdd (if Ranillphi 
Lofd of Alfrelon, l;ras the founder of Beaochief 
Abtiey, and has erroneously been noticed uik A 
(nstrtidpatef in the morder of Thomas Becket,' 
Arfehbisliop of Canterbury. Mr. Camden says 
tbat ** a few years after the building of the 
Monastety de Bella Capite^ commonly Beau^ 
thief J (about the time of Henry III.) the estate' 
of the Lords of Alfreton^ for default of heirs 
male, went with two daughters to the family 



* And fO does Csmdetii p. 493tt 



klft HISTORICAL AND DBSCRIFllvs 

of the Cadurci or Chawofthj and to the £«« 
thanis in the county of Lancaster.^ The Asin 
of the latter, was sold to Chaworth, in whoae 
fkmily and name the estate continued till the 
time of Henry the Seventh, when it was con- 
veyed, by the marriage of an heir general, to 
John Ormond, Esq. whose heir general carried 
it in marriage to the Bahingtem of Detbick, 
by whom it was sold to the Zauches of Codnor- 
Castle. It was afterwards purchased by the 
Morewoods, and in that family it continued from 
the early part of the seventeenth century to the 
death of the late possessor, who left it to hia 
widow, since married to the Rev. Mr. Case, 
who afterwards assumed the name of More- 
wood, The family seat stands in a high and 
pleasant situation. 

The living of Alfreton is a vicarage; and 
the church, which is dedicated to St. Mary, is 
an ancient rude structure, having an embattled 
tower, with pinnacles. It is a market*towii| 
with a market on Friday. The number of 
houses in the parish,' is about 472» of which 
ab6ut 300 are situated in the town, and contains 
3400 inhabitants ; they are chiefly employed 
in weaving stockings, and in the neighbouring 

^ BritapnicAy p. 49S« 



VIEW OP OSftlSYSHIRE. M7 

eonieiiM; and a few derive sapport from the 
numafiicttire of brown eartben-ware. 

SwANwiCK, 16 a small hamlet a little to the 
Sottlh of Alfreton. Here there is a Free- school 
fiir tweotywfaur poor children, who are instroe* 
ted in reading and writing. This school was 
bnik in the year 1740, at the ex pence of Mrs. 
Elizabeth Tarner, and by her endowed mth 
£500. for the support of a master. At a place 
called Greenhill'Lane, at some distance from 
this place, an urn, containing about seven hon* 
dred Roman coins, was discovered some years 
dgo, by a laboring man, who was repairing a 
feace. 

PiNXTOK, is a parish containing about 
ninety bouses, and. four hundred and twenty* 
fivejnbabitants. The living is a rectory, and 
church is dedicated to St. Helen. There is a 
considerable porcelain manufactory at Pinxton, 
wliich finds employment for several hands. 

South Normanton, is a small parish, in- 
oloding a village of the same name. The nimi» 
her of houses in the parish is, one hundred and 
twenty-one, and of inhabitants, fire hundred 
and ninety; who are chiefly employed in the 
collieries, and the manufacture of stockings^ 

Jeobdiah Stbutt, Esq. the ingenious |n-^ 
ventor of the machine for making ribbed stocks 



iSP HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

. Aboor tke year 1771 » Mr. Stratt entered in^ 
to pmrtnersbip with the celebrated SirRichafd 
Arkwright, who was then engaged in the im* 
provement of hU judicious machinery for 'cot- 
ton spinning.' But though the most excelleni 
yarn« or twisty was produced by this ingenious 
machinery, the pr^udice which often opposes 
new inventions, was so strong against it, that 
the manufacturers could not be prevailed upon 
to weave it into callicoes* Mr. Strntt, there- 
fore, in conjunction with Mr, Samuel Need, 
another partner, attempted the manufiictare 
of this article in the year 1773, and proved 
successful; but, after a large quantity ofcal- 
. licoes had been made, it was discovered that 
they were subject to double the duty (viz. six- 
pence per yard) of cottons with linen warp, 
and when printed, were prohibited. They had, 
therefore, no other resource, but to ask relief 
of the legislature, which after great expence, 
and a strong opposition from the Lancashire 
manufacturers, they at length obtained. In 
the year 1775, Mr. Strut t began to erect the 
cotton works at Belper, and afterwards at Mill- 
ford, at each of which places he resided ma- 
ny years. I'hese manufactures were carried on 
for a number of years by Mr. Stratt himself, 
nud are continued to the present period, by the 



. VIEW Of DERBYSHIRE. : , i $%l 

Mertins. Stratts, kis^ three $ons. A little be^ 
fore his d^ath, Mr. Sttott, feeliog his health 
dedimDg) removed to Derby, where he died 
fDrroQnded by his family in the year 1707, and 
lias bpried with hk brother, in the. burying 
ground of. the Chapel which he erected at Bd* 
pen At Th^tUtim'Grange^ the residence of 
Samoel Fox, Esq. is a fine whole length por« 
trail, by Wright, of this eminent mechanic, 
whose daughter that gcfotleman mani^. 

Shirland, writen in DomesdayiiSire/ienf^ i^ 
a parish, which incladfes part of the hamlets 
of St ret ton (StreUimJ^wABx^^vi^ arid^con« 
tains about one hondred and eighty hbnses.^- 
The living is a rectory, ^nd the chnrch is de^ 
dicated to St. Leonard. . There was a chnrcb 
here, as early as Edward the Second's time : for 
in the first year of hisr^gn, Reginald de Grey, 
was pQssesiied of the nianor, atid advqWson of 
the church. This person was one of the Greys 
de Wilton, whgonce resided at Shirland, which 
wi|8 the seat of their bsirony^beli^re; they were 
styled, de Wilton. The estate was. sold to TaE- 
hot. Earl of Shrew:sbory, dbqut Edward the 
Fourth's time ; and rather mote than a cefitury 
after^ was .divided an^^ng the heirs goMral of 
that femi^y. - In the., d^iirch is a monument of 
17 X 3 



^ HISTORICAL AND DBSCttlPnVE 

eife of tke Lords Gr«j, of the tiioeof Edward 
the Tliird, with many shields of arms. 

Morton ; at the eompilttioii of Domesdajf 
there were at MwtuH$ a ehorch and a priert^i 
The liberty of Morton is httt of small extentt 
oentaining aheot^ tweaty*fi?e houses. The liv** 
ing is a rectory, and the church is dedicated 
to the Holy-Cross. 

. BraekenfiM^ is abamlet beloiiging to this pa& 
rish, coDtaioiog aboot thirty houses : its chapel 
is dedicated to the Holy Trinity, y 

TiBSHSLP, b by the Nonnan Surveyors writ-» 
ten Hbeeel. in the ninth of Edward the So. 
cond, there was a church at this place, the adw 
Towsott of which. Was appropriated to the 
priory of Brewood. The present living is a 
Ticarage, and the church is dedicated to St. 
John the Baptist. The number of inhabitants 
in Tibshelf is about six hundred and eighty, 
who are principally employed in a colliery, and 
in the maauiacture of stockings. 

There ia a chalybeate spring at Tibshelf; 
but the impregnation is not very great. Aboot 
« century and a half i^, it was in great re* 
pate, and drank throughout, the summer sea* 
eon : now, however, it is not much frequented; 
» AiBOTsa, is thought to be a place of great 



VIEW OP DERBYSHIRI. «i 

attlHiaHy, as in Dmnesdaf^ EUmte^ had • 
cbaroh and priMt. The liviDg is fi raetorf, 
and the choreh is de&cMed to AlUSaints^ In 
tkis chilrcb, is a yerj ancient font, snppesed 
to be Saxon : the pedestal upon ithieb it stands, 
is of stone; the lower part is hesEagonal, Ifce 
a pper part cirealar, and somnnded * iritk Iwea^ 
tj figures, in devotional attitndes, embossed in 
lead, it^hich are cast in small eompartmciits. 
There are in the ebnrcb, also, severiri mofcin- 
ments, coats of arms, and inscriptions^ relate* 
ing ehieflj to the ancient ftmily of the BMng* 
t&ng^ one <rf whom was iinighted by Edwaid 
the Third, at Morleux in Brittanjr, of whidi ha 
ms appointed governor. 
• The n amber of houses iq the^ liberty of Ash^ 
over is about 331 ; the inhabttants are, chi^j^ 
employed in the mines, and the mariuflictn're of 
ntockiags. 

' On the declivity of a hill on Ashover comi* 
raon is a rocktng»stone, oalled Roirn Hood^t 
Muiky which measures about twenty-six feet 
In circumference ; and, from ^^ its extnuHdinaiy 
position, evidently appears \not only to have 
been the work of art, but to have been placed 
twtth great ingenuity. About two hundred 

,^IMKS=9=SS±SSSS:ESSS9SS5aS5SSSSSeSSBSSSaSS^^ 

• Ofig. 277, *. 1, Trans, p. SIS. 



M4 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

yafds to die North of this, 18 a mgularlj shaped 
rock, called the Turning SUme^ nine feet in 
height, and supposed to hairebeen a rock idol.'^ 
Dbthick, a small chapelry in this parish, 
was daring a long period the seat of the Ba* 
bington family. Anthony, who was a princi«^ 
pal actor in the conspiracy formed against the 
life of Queen Elizabeth in 1686, resided here. 
Thb young gentleman possessed a plentiful 
fortune, had discovered an excellent capacity, 
and was accomplished in literature, beyond most 
of his ynrs or. station. Being zealously de« 
T0ted to the catholic religion, be had secretly 
made a journey to Paris some time before; and 
had fallen into intinncy with Thomas Morgan, 
a bigoted fugitive from England, and with the 
Bishop of Glasgow, the Queen of Scots' am- 
bassador at the court of France/ By continu- 
ally extolling the amiable accomplishments of 
that Princess, they impelled the sanguine mind 
of young Babington to make some attempt in 
her service; and they employed every principle 
of ambition, gallantry, and religious zeal to 
give him a contempt of those dangers which 
attended any ^enterprize against the vigilant 
government of Elizabeth. They succeeded too 

• Arch?Bologia, VoU XU. 43. 



. VIEW or OSRBYSHXaE. 6M 

W«U: lie ea^e to Eoglaiid5 bent upon the ai» 
nvmation of Elizabeth, and the delivoraoceoC 
the queen of Scots. In the prosecotion of these 
views, he employed hioisdf in increasing the 
niHnber of his associates; and secretlj drew in- 
to the conspiracy, many catholic gentlemen 
flisconteyited with the governmei|t. Bat their 
desperate projects, did not long escape the vi^ 
giJance of Elizabeth's council, ^ particularly 
Walsingham» who procured the names of all 
the conspirators, and obtained intelligence of 
eyerj motion they made : at last they became 
aware that their designs were discovered, and 
fled, covering themselves with different dis« 
guises, and lay concealed in woods or barns ; 
but were soon discovered and thrown into pri« 
son. In their enminations, they contradicted 
each other; and the leaders were obliged to 
make a full confession of the trtith. Fourteen 
were condemned and executed in September 
1586.* John Ballard, a priest of the English 
Seminary at Rheims, the primary instigator of 
this rebellion in England, suffered first ; and 
Babittgton undauntedly beheld his execution, 
while the rest, turning away their faces, fell 
upon their knees* He ingenuously confessed bis 

• Sute Trials, VpI. I. p. 135, Hume Vol. V. p.2S*. 



JtS HISTORICAL AND SISCRIPTIVB i 

oibnoe ; and being taken down ftoin the gdi» 
lowB» and about to be .eot np, he cried aloud 
aeveral times, paree me domine ifcrni— Jiave 
mercy upon me Lord JesoB.^ 

One of the hauses at Dethteki which bean 
the appearance of antiqoitj, is thought to be 
aoade up of a part of the original seat of the 
Babington fiunily. But from this, it is impos* 
sible to asoertain the form or the size of the ori« 
ginid building. Traces of walls^ which are 
now levelled, and ^windows and doors which 
havie been blocked up, are visible 'in several 
places. Some old arches are still entire, and a* 
little ornamental work^ over what is now the 
principal entrance, remains. 

Lea, in Domesday JLeiir, is another small 

mssssss ' ■ I ^s^asBSsssstsssssss^ 

* Queen £lisabeih and her minuten wished to pentuad^ 
the nation, that Babington and his associates, were instruU 
cients employed by the Queen of Scots, against her life 
and the peace of her kingdoms* Mr. Pilkington, follow-' 
ing Hume, and other historians, has believed this tale^ But 
f he impartiality of succeeding ages, has rescued the memory 
of the unhappy Mary from this foul calumny ; and her 
elegant historian, Robertson (see History of Scotland, Vol* 
III* p. 37.) has proved that she vfu not privy to the con- 
spiracy. Unfortunately, however, it answered the end of 
)ier enemies: Mary was irregularly tried as an accomplice 
In the conspiracy, most unjustly condemned, and beheaded 
at Fotheringay Castle, in Northamptonshire, on the se- 
venth of February, 1687, in the forty- fourth year of her 
4ge, the last nineteen of which, she passed in captivity* 



vw/r or DlaCBYiHViki uvt 

Iduilet iA tlie pxHski of AsboV«r. Bei^ tbere 
kvMttM mill, eriEMited Hboot tv^o-aftd-lH^iity 
y^ ^S^j by ibie IttW Peteir Nightingale, Esq. ^ 
it now belongs to -— ^ Shoire, Esq. Near this 
cotton mill is a cnjpota fttnaee for smelting 
Imi, belonging to Mr. Alsop. Above these» is 
Lea-Hallf a large house, with a stone fronts 
fomierly the reindeneefOf Mr. Nightingale: and 
at a little distan<ie frowit, is a smsdl Unilariah 
ttSiCiiigwbefase* 

lo' the fide betbtr, is Lea^Wo6d^ the resi-t 
defltee and manufaotory of Thomas Saxon, 
B14. who employs abont 190 -hands at the hat^ 
ftetory adjoining the house, ** The dwelling* 
kotwe stands by tbb sid^ of the road fromCrom- 
ibrd to Nottingham, and immediatdy behind it, 
th^ workshops, warehouses, and some of the 
dwellings of the workmen — sdlare constructed 
of -the stone of the country, and, together, form 
a considerable duster of buildings. 

^^Uilis covered with Wood, rise veiynear the 
frbnt and the back of the house, and at a great- 
er distance^ tUs is the case on all stde^^it is 
litendly imbosomed amidst hills and hanging 
woods. The multitude of trees is really won- 
deifiii, when one considers^ that a very little 
below tbe sarfiMset the wkole country seems to 
be astone quarry. From the garden, the aque- 



588 HISTORICAL AND DESCMTOVE 

duct, a handaome, weH-areked bridge, whMb 
carries the canal over the river, is seen to gma* 
advantage. The canal and the Derweat rai* 
for a considerable way aide by side, and botb 
pass through a narrow valley, the sides oC 
which, are the wood-covered hilb before taenia 

tioned. 

'* The villages of Lea and HoUamay are soaU 
tered over a considerableeKtentof rising ground, 
to the North and West; and from various parte 
of them, command delightful and eKtensive 
views into the vales below. Lead mines an* 
iime works are scattered over ^ the n««gb- 
bourhood."* 

At a little distance from Ashover, is Overtem 
Hall, a small but pleasant seat belonging to 
Sir Joseph Banks, the intelligent Presideatof 
the Royal Society, whose continued exertions in 
promoting the best interesu of sdence and 
philosophy, have rendered his name deservedly^ 
illustrious. The ancestofs of this Baronet, be- 
came possessed of this estate, by marri^se with 
the heiress of the Hod^kinson fomily. 

North >ViNGriBLD. When Domesday waa 
written, . WitMefelt was included in the manor 
of Pinnesl^ (Pillesley); and there. were a 



« Butcher's Ezcunion from Sidaouth to CItester, p. S3S. 



. view OB DSkBYSHIRE. 5if 

dMnrdi and m priest beloDgiog to it.* ^ The 
Kviagis a rectory, aad the church is dedicated 
to St. Lawrence. In the liberty of North- 
Wingfield, are the hamlets of Williamthorpe, 
fWUemest&rpJ^ Pilsley, (Pinneshi)^ Strettoii» 
fS*reiiimJi Ford, Hanly, ^^m/^«), Clay-cross, 
Topton, (TVip^fttn^), Weodthorp, and Ainmoer) 
containing, altogether, abcmt 1335 inhabitants. 

PikAASLBY, is a parish and hamlet oontaining 
aboat ninety houses. As early as the time of 
Edward the Second, there was a church at this 
place : for in the tenth of that, reign, Roger 
Wiiloughby, died possessed of the manor and 
advowson of the charch. The present living 
is a rectofy, and the church is dedicated to 
St. Michael. 

Hault-HccknaiiL ; this parish includes the 
hamlets of Rowthom, (Rugetom)^ Stanesby, 
{Stehtesbi)^ Astwood, Arstaff, and Uardwick; 
coataiaing, altogether, about one hundred 
houMs. 

The living is a vicarage^ and iu former times 
belonged to the priory of Newstead, in Not- 
tinghamshire : the Duke of Devonshire is the 
patron.. 



• Domesday Orig. 97^, a. 8, Timns. $IS. 
17 Y « 



090 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPnV£ 

In the chancel of this church are seyeral mo* 
Dumenis, among which there is a slab, with a 
Latin inscription, in memory of the celebrated 
Thomas Hobbes. This gentleman, whom the 
bigotry and ignorance of his age set down as 
an atheist, and another Machavel, was born at 
Malmsbury in the year 1588, and educated at 
Magdalen*Hall, Oxford. In 1608 he became 
tutor to a son of the Duke of Devonshire; and 
in 1643, was appointed matheil^atical tutor to 
the Prince of Wales. He returned, however, 
to the Devonshire family, under whose patron- 
age he lived till the year 1679, when he died 
•at llardwick, in the ninety-first year of his 
age. He was well known at home and abroad 
by his reputation for learning. The most fa- 
mous of bis works are, 1. his book De Cive; 2. 
that on Human Nature; 3. oneD^ Corpore Po* 
liiico; 4. his well known work called the Levi^ 
aihan ; 5. bis translation of Thucydides, &c. 

Hardwick-Hall, a celebrated seat belong- 
ing to the Duke of Devonshire, is situated in 
the parish of Hucknall. This stately mansion 
is situated on a ridge of elevated ground, near 
the eastern borders of the county. It stands in a 
fine and extensive park, well wo6ded ; and Jbe- 
tween the trees, the towers of the edifice emerge 
with great majesty, their summits appearing 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE^ 531 

covered with the lightly shivering fragments of 
battlements: these, however, are soon disco- 
vered to be carved open-work, in which the let- 
ters E. S. frequently occur under a coronet;, 

I the initials and memorials of the vanity of Eli- 
zabeth, Countess of Shrewsbury, by whom this 
edifice was built. The bouse is of stone, and has 
a lofty tower at each corner: in the front is a 
spacious quadrangular court, surrounded by a 
high stone' wall. This building, which a^ords a 
Sf)ecimen of English architecture in the 16th 

I century, was built by the Countess of Shrews- 

I bury, daughter of John Hardwick, Esq. who 
died in the nineteenth of Henry VIII. she had 

! been twice married before she became the wife 
of th« Eaii of Shrewsbury—first to Robert 
Barley, Esq. and, secondly to Sir William 
Cavendish.* This house was erected after she 
became Countess of Shrewsbury. 

Hardwick-Hall, it is generally supposed, was 
one of the prisons of Mary Queen of Scots; and 
it has been thought, that it was originally fit- 
ted up for her reception, and with a vievi^ to a 
Visit, which though long talked of^ it is very 
probable Elizabeth never seriously intended 
paying her. Several of the apartments derive 

f See Inscription on her Monument, p. 146* y 



IH HISTORIOAI. AMD DESORIFUVE 

great iaiterest irom the frnmitttre^ and other ar- 
tioles preseiTed mremembraiiceof that injared 
PrhioeM. 

The Hall^ which is large, is hung with U* 
pastry^ contaitaing the history of the Paiieni 
OfizzUi and has a pair of gigantic elk's borns^ 
placed between the windows opposite the en* 
trance. Ascending the grand stair-case, yon 
enter the chapel, where the chairs and eosbions 
nsed by Mary still remain. It is hung with 
tapestry, in which are wrought several pieces 
of scripture history ; particularly, the conver- 
sion of Paul, the punishment <^ Elymas the 
sorcerer, Paul pleading before Agrippa, and 
Ins shipwreck at Melita, 

In the Dining'Room are several lamily pic* 
tnfes :— the first is Sir H^iliiam CaveiidUh^ hos- 
Iwnd to the Countess, £t. 4e> dressed in a fur 
gown, with a small flat cap, a glove m bis left 
band, a long pointed beard and whiskers. — 
Elizabeth^ Countess of Shrewshury^ represented 
in a close black dress, a double ruff, long 
chain of five rows of pearls, reaching below 
ber waist, sleeves down to her wrists^ turned 
up with small pointed white cuffs, a fan in her 
left band, and brown hair.* William^ the first 



• " Mr. Walpole records a tradition concerning this lady, 
which if founded on truth, proves the rage for building 



VIEW OF DBRBirSfa&Ii . Mi 

DukedfDfsvomkireiuBtm^t^ C^hnei Charles 
Cmfmdiifhf hh brother, taken 'wben attetp; 
L$^d Harry Cavendish^ brother to Ihe seooild 
Duke; one of the Einrk of Devonshire; £ord 
Treasurer Burleigh; Lerd Burkigh^ son to the 
Countess of Exeter ; Robert CeciU third son of 
the Earl of SnKsbnry^ a saaaU whole-lengthy 
a picture marked Eramive^ but having ibe.C»- - 
veodisfa arms over it. Over ihe chinm^-pieM, 
are the arms af the Countess ef Shrevirsbaty, 
with this inscription benenik ; TAe Mrie/tmoli 
of all things is to /ear -Oodf and keep Jns cem- 
mandments. E.S. 1507% 

The-Drawing* Room is wainscotted, ia a cim- 
siderable height, and hitng above with upei^ 
try. Here is another picture of the Countess^ 
wherein she is portrayed o( a more Adfranced 
age than in tbe former, FrQm this^an engrapr- 
iog was made by Veftue. Over tfae ^himneyw 
piece are her arms, in a loflcenge, nod ^woeta^ 
£oT supporters, under which is this inacpiptien ; 

~SANfiCtN£ CORNd COaO* MUIiO PB0B CBRVHB 
BT AC&B NOBlLISATCLAB^PONDMe^OBrUOR. 

ufaaaao ■ u i iMWi ^taattssss^ ^' ■!■■■ v, ;■ ¥'■'!» 

that distinguished her conduct^ to have originated i^ a 
superstitious weakness. The tradition is, that she was told 
by a 'foTtanfe-teller, that hel: death should not'happen whiU 
she continued bailding; and aftfclMtlitighy she ^rnpltfyed'a 
great deal of wealth in that way ; yet she died in » bu4 
frost, when the workmtn could not labor*" 



«84 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

In one of the Bed-chambers on this floor, is 
a bed, a.set of chairs, and a suit of hangings, 
aHworkM by Mary and her attendants, when 
•he was in the custody of the Earl of Shrews- 
bury : on these hangings is a figure adoring a 
crass, and various other figures, with these al- 
lusive mottos ; — Conttam — Artimesia — Pietas 
•'-Chasiity—Lucretia, fcc. These have been 
pieserved with great care, and, considering the 
length of time since they were worked, are com- 
paratively fresh and entire. 

Ott the grand stair-case leading to the state- 
apartments, is a portrait of the first Duke of 
Devonshire on horseback, in an embrt)idered 
4»at, a large wig, and a feather in his hat. 
^ " The second floor is that which gives its 
chief interest to the edifice, as nearly all the 
apartments were allotted to Mary, (some of 
tJiem for state purposes;) and the furniture is 
known by other proofs than its appearance, to 
remain as she left it. The chief room or that 
of audience, is of uncommon loftiness, and 
strikes by its grandeur, before the veneration 
and. tenderness, which ite antiquities, and the 
plainly told tale of the sufferings they witness- 
ed, excite. The walls, which are covered to a 
considerable height with tapestry, are painted 
above with historical groups. The chairs are 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. ^4 

ef black velvet, which is nearly concealed by a 
raised needle-work of gold» silver, and colours 
that mingle with surprising richness, and re'<# 
main in fresh preservation. The upper end of 
the room is distinguished hy a lofty canopy of 
the same materials, and by steps which sup- 
port two chairs* In front of the canopy is a' 
carpeted table;, below which, the room breaks 
into a spacious recess, where a few articles of 
furniture are deposited used by Mary : the €ur« 
tains are of gold tissue, but in so tattered a 
Gonditibn, that its original texture can hardly 
be perceived : this, and the chairs which ac« 
company it, are supposed to be much earlier 
than Mary^s time. A short passage leads from 
tke state apartment to her own chamber, a small 
room, overlooked from the passage by a win- 
dow, which enabled her attendants to know 
that she was contriving no means of escape 
through the others into the court. The bed 
and chairs of this room are of black velvet, 
embroidered by herself; the toilet of gold tisr 
sue ; all more decayed than worn, and proba- 
bly used only towards the conclusion of her 
imprisonment here, when she was removed 
from some better apartment, in which the ail- 
cient bed, now in the state-room had been 



«• HISTORICAL AND DBSCHIPTIVK 

placed/'^ Of er tbe door of thU room, are th& 
AmiB of Ibe Queen of Scots carved in wood, 
with M. R. in a cypher, and roand it-~M«rrM 
Siuari, par le grace de Dieu^ Royne d^ Eeosa^^ 
Douariere de France. Crest, a lion ; the mot- 
tO'^In my defene. 

The gallery of portraits occnptes the whol^ 
extent of the; East front of the house t it b IM 
feet long, and ie lighted from windows fixed 
in deep sqnore recesses, and projecting beyond 
the wall, it contains portraits of several il« 
lustrious' characters, the principal of which are 
the following; 

On the right hand side of the entrance is a 
portrait of Queen Elizabethj in a gown painted 
with serpents, birds, a sea-horse, swan, ostrich, 
fcc. the hair golden : a whole-length of James 
V. of Scotland, in the 38th year of bis age, and 
bis Qoeen, Mary of LorraiiMj in her 5i4th, in 
rich dresses, with long thin faces, both in one 
piece: Countess of Exeter: Henry VIL^ and 
William^ Second Earl of Salishury. 

On the South ^ideof the chimney-piece;-— 
Charles /.; Calherif^ Countess of Salidfury; 
Henry VI. ; Countess of Shrewsbury ; Henry 
VllL ; Queen Mary ; Sir WilHum Caoenduh ; 



^ Mrs. Radclifie's Tour to the Lakes. 



VIEW OF DBRBYSaiRE. Mdt 

aged fbrty-ibor ; Edward VI. ; Cardinal Pwli 
Hobbes^ aged eighty-tiine ; James J. in the 8th 
year of his age; Stephen Gardiner j the cruel 
and sangninarj bishop of Winchester; Lad^ 
Jane Otey^ seated before a harpsicord, on which 
a psalm-book is opened ; on this picture is rn« 
scribed, Mara potkis quam dedecus 1591, mta^ 
lu 19. ; Sir Thomas More^ in a fur gown and 
black cap ; Mary Queen of SeotSj in black, 
^ her countenance much faded, deeply marked 
by indignation and grief, and reduced as to the 
spectre of -herself, frowning with suspicion up^ 
OB all who approached it ; the black eyes look-* 
lag out from their comers, thin lips, somewhat ' 
aquiline nose, and beautiful chin/' Under it is 
iilscribed—- ilfartaD. 6. ScotuB piissima regina* 
FrdneuB Doueria 1578, ana regni XXXVI: 
Anglicm captive X. At the end of the gallery 
and near the window are some pictures greatly 
injured, ahd others nearly defeced: of this num- 
ber are, Arrabella Stttart^^Lord Damley^-^Sir 
Thomas Wyaf'-^ztid King Richard HI. Most 
of the paintings in this gallery have suffered, 
in a more or less degree, from the damp. 

By ascending another flight of stairs, which 
are of solid oak, you conie to the roof of the 
hoise, which is covered with l^ad. From this 
17 « 3 



tfSS HISTORICAL AND DESCRIFnVE 

ele?8ted 8itiiation> there is a, very extentire 
prospect into the adjacent country; and in a 
clear day the cathedrals of York and Lincolu 
may be faintly distinguished. 

At the distance of a few yards froin the pre- 
sent Hall, are the dilapidated remains of the 
more ancient seat of the Uardwick fieunily. A 
few apartments, though approached with great 
difficulty through the fragments of others, are 
yet almost intire: — one of them, £incifully 
called the Giant^s Chamber, has been remarked 
for the beauty of its proportions ; and is said, 
by Kennet, in his Memoirs of the family ofCa^ 
vendiihf to hare been *' thought fit for a pat- 
tern of measure and contrivance of a room at 
Blenheim." At what time this ancient mansion 
was built, is uncertain, but it is known to have 
been the residence of the Hardwicka in the time 
of Henry the Eighth : for John Hardwick died 
here in the nineteenth year of his jreign. In 
this house Cardinal Wolsey lodged one night in 
his way from York to Leicester Abbey, where' 
he died November, 1536. 

Heath, the whole parish contains about six-* 
ty-four houses. The living is a vicarage, and 
the church is dedicated to All*Saints: it for- 
merly belonged to Croxton Abbey. The manor 
of Heath was presented by Robert Ferrers, Earl 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 53^ 

of Derbj, to the monastery of Grendon, in 
Leicestershire'; but it now belongs, together 
with the patronage of the church, to the Duke 
of Devonshire. It is supposed that it came into 
the possession of the present proprietor, when 
in the sixth year of Edward the Sixth, Mr. 
Cavendish had, in exchange for his estates in 
Hertfordshire, several lands and manors be- 
longing to dissolved priories and abbeys in 
Derbyshire. 

WiNGERWORTH, iu the time of the Conque- 
ror, was a soke of the manor of Newbold, and 
is written fVingreurde. In the twenty. fifth 
year df Edward I. there was a church here ; as 
Henry de Brailsford was possessed of its ad- 
?0W8on. The living is a curacy, under the pa- 
tronage of the Dean of Lincoln. The parish 
is thought to contain about 310 inhabftants, 
many of whom find employment at the works, 
carried on here, for smelting iron ore. ^ 

Wingerworth-Hall, the mansion of Sir 
Windsor Hunloke, Bart, is a spacious building, 
standing in an elevated situation, and com- 
manding several extensive prospects into the 
neighbouring country. The family of Hunloke 
is of considerable antiqiiity ; and in the reign 
of Henry Vlir. was possessed of some conside- 
rable estates in Middlesex and Nottingham- 



«M HISTORICAL AND DBSCRIPTIVB 

•hire. - The WiiigBrwortli Mtate was .^n^illy 
the profertjof the .Brailtfardf^ and deseeDd^ 
from theipd to the dcraoM of Kedleston, who 
«old it, in the time of Queen Elizabeth, to Ni* 
eholas Hunloke. Henrjr, the fonrth in descent 
from the first possessor, was distiogaished .for 
his attachment to CharV» the First; He lent 
the king Aoomiderahle sum of money: raiiNd 
and accoatered a troop of horse for his servipe : 
and in the twenty-second year of bis age, sig- 
nalized himself at the battle of £dge«U)ll, where 
he waa knighted: soonalterwardshewascmated 
aBaionet» During the ComnMWi-wealth, the 
£unily were obliged to qnit Wingerworth, which 
was converted into a garrison for the forces of 
Parliament : but Sir Henry Hanloke's widow, 
marrying one of Cromwell's Officers, theman- 

'. akm did not suffer any great injury, and the 
estate was preserved in the ismily • Since that 
period, the family have rc^^ularly resided here, 
with the same title as the original pr^rietor, 
to the present time. TheHtdl, now standing, 
was built between the years 1726 and 1730, by 
Sir Thomas Windsor Hunloke, grandfrither to 
the present possessor, 

*• On Stamedge Cliffy which forms a part of 
the Wingerwordi estate, are seyeral rock*basios, 



I 



VWnr OP MttBYSBIKB; mx 

and "two §mt% ftopfNMad liy 4^^'Rooke* to 1^^ 
iMen apfiropriated to fhe^rj^dhMof aagoiy. 
ScABfiLivFt in Domeaday SwrdeeUfr inekid* 
mg the hamlet of PallertOB, (P^lirHuneJ eon« 
teuie about ninety hooted. Anker de Freteb* 
TiUe was proprietor of the manor of Scarclifi^ 
at ike ^mmencemefit of the reign of Henry 
the Third ; bat aboot its ckMe» it wae seized by 
the kii^t beeaose the eaetle and town of Norths* 
ampton were, in a hostile mraner, detained 
from huM^ by the above Ailker^ Simon de 
Montlbrd, Hngh de SpeVM^ and others, "Some 
time after, the town of Scareliff was pveseoted 
by R<4>ert Lexington to the prior and oanons 
ef Newstead.. The advowsbn <tf the charch 
was given to Derley Abbey, by Hdbert the son 
of Ralph; bat the Doke of Devonshire is the 
present patroti. The living is a vioarage, and 
the charch is dedicated to All-Saints. 

Ovbb-Lamowith. This parish is small, eott«i 
laiiiing but afew honses, whose inhabitants rely 
entirely upon agricoltore for employment and 
eopport. In the time of Ueniy the Second, 
Langwith church wa^ given to Thorgaston Pri« 
oty, in NcMttinghiimshire. The living is a reo* 
Iwy ; 4he church is dedicated to &• Hdena; 
and Ae Diike of Devonshire is Uia patron, 

* Arcbftologiai Vol. XII» page 43. 



nt HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

fioLSOTBB) i» a small market-town, contain^ 
ing together with the whole libertj, about two 
hundfed pod twenty bouses, and eleven hun- 
dred inhabitants, who are chiefly employed ia 
agriculture. The living is a vicarage* the eborch 
is dedicated to St. Mary, and the Duke of Port- 
land is the patron. In the time of Henry the 
Second, there was a church at Bolsover ; as it 
was in that reign given by William Peverel of 
Nottingham, to the Abbey* at Darley. In the 
church, is a noble monument to the memory of 
Sir Charles Cavendish, the father of the first 
Duke of Newcastle, with a long and remark- 
able inscription, expressive of his virtues, 

At the time of the Norman survey^ the manor 
of Belesaver^ was the property of William Peve- 
rel, who is supposed to have built a castle here. 
in the reign of Richard the First, this fortress 
passed to the hands of John, Earl of Mon- 
taigne; when Richard del Pec was appointed 
governor. How long it remained under him is 
uncertain;, but early in the following reign, 
king John made his favorite, Briuere, possessor 
of it: it was, howeYer, soon afterwards seized 
by the. rebellious Barons, who4«tafned it till, 
the year 1215, when it was retakto for the king 
by William Ferrers, Earl of Derby, in re- 
eompence for this service he was appointed go- 



/ VIEW or mOLBYSHIRE.' : A45( 

yernor^ and^ wiA the! exoe^timi of ap-interval 
of a'8b(ttt(ti0ie, .when: it was beldl by Bfjim dd 
Ulsle, and Hugh deSpiemdr, he enjoyed thii 
honor for six years. Ih the reign of Henry the 
Thirds the Manor andCastie of BdsoWr, Were 
granted to Jdhn Scot, j Earl of Chester, who 
dying wiithout issue, it.wasialhrtted to Ada, hit 
fourth sister and oo^heir, who married Henry 
de Hastings, Lord of Abergavenny, About 
tbi^ time it became again vested in the Crown, 
iind waa not afterwards in the possessjon'of a 
solgect, till the year 1514, when Henry VIII. 
grapted it to Thomas Howard, Duke of Nor- 
fi)lk, in reward ibr his service in the .expedition 
against France, to be held by rthe service of otie 
koigbt^s, fee : but on the attainder of his son, 
in the thirty-eighth of the same monarch, it 
escheated to the crown. In the reign of Edward 
the Sixth» George Ts^bot, Earl of Shrewsbury, 
had a gf^ak of it in fee-farm : it continued in 
this family until the reign of James I., when it 
was sold by £arl Gilbert to Sir Charles Caven- 
dish. H^nry, second Duke of Newcastle, grand«* 
son of Sir Charles, dying without issue, the 
estate became the property of Margaret, his 
sister, who had married John HoUis, Earl of 
Clare, afterwards Duke of Newcastle: their 
4aughUr» vguirried Haxley, Dirl of Oxford, from 



MA HISTORICAL ANB^DISCRmtVB 

wliMi#.bf a dttigliter dio, BokDverw«»«ni« 
ngrad to tbeBaitiMtBr DnkM of PdMiHid, w 

vllOM pOIMMRCm it still MOtillllMb 

la the time of Lelaad (abovt 1550) tkis as- 
«Mt lortran waB Ait deci^g; wlmi it waa 
pnrchaMd by Sir Ckarles CivrendiA ia 1613^ it 
was in raiiia; and now, not a Testigeof it ra- 
naiaa» lis eooMtsitaatioiicaanot be exactly as- 
eartaiiied; bat it iasoppoied liiat it Mood near 
the eame apot as' the preaeirt niaaflioa* The 
hoikliiig which ia aow called BotooTerwCafltie, 
fttanda apoa a poiat which projects a little lato 
the valley below, and overlooicaa great extent! 
of country, k waa built in the years IdlS*-- 
14—15, by Sir Charles Cai^endishi «id is a 
square and lofky &bric of brown stone, having 
atowerateadi angle; that to the north*east 
being much larger and higher duui the rest,— 
The enlmnce is by a flight of steps on the. east 
side, and leads through a passage to the hall, 
which is of a OMiderate siae, and baa its ceiling 
supported by stone pillars. The only other 
room on this floor designed for hdiitation is the 
parlour; this apartment has an arched ceiling, 
sustained by a pillar in the ceatie, around 
which is a [dain circular dining table. There 
are, also, a smaller apartment, and two lodg* 
iog rooms on this floor; and eight on the attick 



VIEW eV MUUBYSHUUE. ta 

riloiy, whioh aM iJt vwj nbaU: the fld^r •( 
eFeiynMHnisofaloiaorplairter: •ntlfevhde, 
it 18 ma ill^Qtfivttdr und VMjr weomraiieiit 
A^mertic miidenoe* 

Sir Cbailes Cavenduibs died eboat two yeMt 
efttr be bod iaiehed this benae^ and vnm amas^ 
eeeifid hy bis wb, William CaTendieb, J>tdBi 
of Mewca«tle» a warm friend^ and ataady e«ip 
povter 0f Charles the FIrat. This nobleman 
was hoDored with two, if not Uiiee, irisitsAMn 
Ihe King and Qneen; ferwhom be fitted up 
Hm lu>use at Bolsorer, apd pravided soperb 
eotertaioments. All the neigbl^onring gentry 
were inrited to p^ake of the festival, and to 
{Hiy their respects to the royal^ guests : Ben 
Joason was employed in devising speeohes, and 
fitting*ap scenes; and the irfaole entertainment 
was conducted in such a magnificent style, that 
the expencesof the second visit only, amount- 
ed to £lSfiO0. 

On the bvealu9g oat of ^ the Civil Wars, the 
Duke, owing to his attachment to the royal 
cause, was obliged to leave the country, and 
resided at Antwerp till the restomtioin; when 
he letnmed, and Ibegi^ to build extensive aA- 
dinoBS to the old house sA, Bokover to the West 
of the former mansion : hut these were never 
18 A 4 



§4$ HISTORICAL AND DSSCRIPTIVE 

completed^ and the outside walk oaly^ are now 
•tandiog. In front was a fine tecrace^ from 
which a spacious flight of steps, led to the ea* 
tmnce. The proposed extent of this strnctore, 
maj be conceived from the dimensions of the 
gallery, which waa 330 feet in length, and 38 
feet wide. At the Southland c£ the garden, is 
a Tory curious decayed fountain, standing in an 
octagon reservoir, six feet deep, ornamented with 
satyrs, masks, birds, and other figures. On 
the pedestal is a figure of Venus in alabaster* 
represented holding wet drapery, and in the 
action of stepping out of a bath. 

GiiAPWBLii, anciently GlapewelUy is a ham- 
let in the parish of Bolsover, containing about 
twenty houses. Here, is, also, the seat of Bra^ 
bazon Hallows, Esq. 



CHESTERFIELD^ 

CuBSTBRFiBLO, is thought to be a place of 
some antiquity, though not one of the moat 
ancient towns in the county* The late Dr. 
Pegge,* supposes it to have originated in a Ro- 

^ £ifay on the Ronua J^oadit 



VIEW OP DERBYSHIRBt . mv 

mm statimift on. the road from Derby to York, 
^ch he thinks was fixed oi| an eminence 
called Tapton or Topton, at the point named 
Windmill-Hill, but distinguished in several old 
writings by the appellation of CMtU^Hill.^^ 
'' As to the site of Chesterfield,'' he says, '' ic 
lies so under the Castle-Hill, at Tapton or 
Topton, that when it became a place of note, 
it wonld rationally be called, Thejkld of th$ 
Chester, or Castle.'' 

At the time of the Norman survey, Cestre^ 
feld was a place of so little importance, that it 
is only noticed as a bailiwici belonging to the 
manor of Newbold. Soon after this, however» 
it began to increase in size and importance : in 
the eleventh century there was a church at Ches* 
terfelt; for William Rufus gave it at that time» 
to the Cathedral at Lincoln. In the reign of 
king John, the manor was presented by the so* 
vereign to his favorite William Briwere or Bru« 
ere, through whose influence with that monarch, 
the town was incorporated ; by the same grant, 
the same liberties were procured for Chester- 
field, as were enjoyed by Nottingham ; and an 
annual fair to continue eight days, and two 
weekly markets, on Tuesday and Saturday, ob-^ 
tained. From the de Brueres^ the manor, went 
by the marriage of an heiress to the family of 



01k HIStDRtCAL AND DESCRIFnVE 

IIWArr lAdafltofWMdilMeaiiie the property 
Bdaraiid Pltiiiq;«Mty Barl of Ktnt, wha mar- 
iMd MiirgaMt Wmke; and was inherited bj 
lib desceadaiiti for asveral gmeratioas. Id the 
twenty^Biath year of Edward the Third, it was 
lidd by John, Meond ton c»f Edmnad Wood^ 
klook, tad gran^ben of Edward I. ; and m the 
yeai^ 19S»^ by Sir Thomat Holland. In 144S, 
Ghetfeerlleld belonged to WilUam Neville; and 
in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, to George 
Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury. It afterwardt 
became the property of the. Cayendifihes, by 
pwchate ; ftom whom it descended to the late 
Dnke of Portland ; but has since passed in ex- 
dumge to the Duke of Devonshire. The Stan« 
hopes, derive their title of far/ ^ CheHerfieid 
fimn this town. '< Philip, lord Stanhope of 
SheUbrd, in Nottinghamshire, was created earl ' 
o^hesterfieM in the fourthyear of kingCharles 
I. The title has been continued in the same fii^ 
mily ever rinee to the present day *^' 

The charter originally granted by king John, 
has been eoafirmed and enlarged in several 
succeeding reigns. . The government of the 
towiit till the reign of queen Elizabeth, was 
ezereised by an alderman and twelve brethren ; 
but the charter of ipM^orporation granted bj 
Mmt tovweiga, vesto it in a Mayor, six Aldef* 



VIEW Ot DERBYSHIKE^. «|» 

mm, Ml Bivllirai^aild twdw capital BurgesMi, 
wfco are atmted by n Town^Ckrk^ 

TIte fHMMAt clHif«b 18 stit>poied to btve been 
oracled aboDt ike begiming of the thirteenth 
ctntory. In one of the windtowd) ere the arms 
of Edttond PlanUigenet and Margatet Wahe» 
kniiahai to^tban It id beih in the fom of a 
<treBt, and is a spacion« and handsome bniM- 
iog: it is partkoiaiiy remarkable ibr the a^ 
^earanee of its s]rire, whioh rises to the h^ht 
of $80 feet, and is So singolarfy twisted, ibat 
it seems to lean in whatever direetion it may be 
apprrached. Among several other antiquated 
monuments, there are in the cbaneel, two large 
altar^tombs, belonging to the rsspectable £b* 
mfly of Foljambs^ whose ancient seat was at 
Walton, in this parish* In the tranmpt is mi 
inscription mcofding a charitable legacy of 
41800, for patting out boys to trade, or sea^ 
ssrviM ; inclnding a etauser limiting the bene* 
fit of the charity to those who reside in the 
bofough^ and do not reeeivealms* 

From another inscriptton it appmrs, that 
Aere was femMrly a Gmld at Cbesterfieldl, de« 
dieatod to St. Mary and the Holy Croas, fowid* 
ed by Richard tbe Second, who mainsamed 
two or three primts in this church :«>Mieyeral 
other guilds are mentipBed in an^nt wii« 



UO HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVX 

tings bdonging to the Corporation^ endowed 
with coonderable revenaes : from the chapel of 
one of them, called St. Helen's, the grammar-* 
sdiool is supposed' to have received tfa^ name 
of Chapel School^ by which it is generallj dis- 
tinguished. This school was founded in tho 
reign of Elizabeth, and was formerly the largest 
in the North of England. The present school- 
house was erected in the year 1710. 

An ancient hospital for Lepers, was founded 
in this town, before the tenth of Richard the 
First, and dedicated to St. Leonard. John 
Earl of Kent, held it in eapUexn the twenty- 
sixth of Edward IIL : but in the ninth year of 
king Richard II. it was seused by Joan Princess * 
of Wales ; it flourished, however, until the 
time of Henry the Eighth. 

Chesterfield, is not a place of great trade, 
nor is there any considerable mtoufacture car- 
ried on in it. By an enumeration made in 1788| 
it was found, by Mr. Pilkington, that Chester- 
field contained 801 houses, and 3,626 inhabi- 
tants Sinc^ that time both the size and popu- 
lation have increased, as appears from the re- 
turns made under the late act, by which the 
number of houses, was ascertained to amount 
to 990, and of inhabitants to 4,267. The sup<> 
port of the latter is principally derived from 



VIEW OP DERBYSHIRE. Ml* 

ike iroD-wwks in the town and neighbourhdodi 
and the manufacture of stockings. Some addi* 
tional employment arises from three potteriesi 
for the manufacture of coarse earthen ware^ 
ako from a carpet manufactory; and from the 
making of shoes, a laige quantity» of which, are 
annually sent.ta the metropolis. 

In the market-place^ is a neat Town*Hall, built 
a< few years ago, under the direction of Mr. 
Carr, of York ; the ground floor of which is 
coiivert^ into a gaol for debtors, and a resi- 
dence for a gaoler : and on the second floor, is 
a large room for holding, the s^ons, and trans- 
acting the town's business. Several Alms*, 
houses hav.e been endowed in different parts of 
the town. At the Castle-lnn, an elegant As^ 
sembly-Toom has been recently built, for the 
aniusemeqt of the more respectable inhabitants 
of the town and neighbourhood. 

In the reign of Henry the Third, the church 
at Chesterfield, was made use of as a plaoe of 
refuge by Robert Ferrers, the last Earl of Der- 
by. After the discomfiture of the rebellious 
Barons at Evesham, jn the year 1265, this Eart 
bound himself by an oath, to a forfeiture of bia 
estate and honors^ if ever he Joined their party 
again ; but after soine proceedings in the Par<^ 
liaaaeat) held at Northampton, which wer^ 



get HISTOtlCAI. AMD DESCamnVR 

putknlaity oborakHU to the Bavmu, he, « 
Ott spring of the eMoug yewr, agun aMMtbled 
his &Uow«n» in his oaideat Doffield, ind being 
jened hy several diseflheted nobles, advanosd 
end took post at Cheiterield; Here he wee 
•nrprised hf the Horoes of Heniy, (he eldest son 
of the king of Akinine, «nd, after » serera 
conflict, mw defeated,aiid all hie foieol tonted: 
the Eail was one of those who escaped; h* 
«t fini was eonoeded m tie diavch mnder 
somebags of wool ; but by the tnlaxdiery of a 
woman the place of his retreat was diseoveredt 
and he conveyad jn irons to Windsmr: but after 
« co^ncment of three years, he was set at li- 
Iberty, on MftMn conditions,* wUch he proveil 
viable to pei«fi»nn, and was, aft length, depii- 
Y«d of hisestate and «arldoei. Fran the regis, 
isr cf the dnirdi it appean, that the Earl of 
Newcastle, was at <%eBter6cld wtfli his -forces 
in MEsy 16^ and again in December foRow->' 
■ng. It is not impvoiMble, Chat at one of these 
^mes he engaged the fercesef Parliament: bat 
k is eerlain, that daring the civil wars, he'ob- 
laiaed a victory over them at ikk place. 

The Unitarians, Ind^endents,'Omdcers, and 
Methodists, have Iheir- respeotive places of wor- 
ehipatChestorfieM. 

• See page 30$, 



VI£W 0P DERBYSHIRE. 66$ 

Ttepari£(k' of Chester^ contains tbe fof. 
lofrifi^ chapelrles and hamlets;— Brimington 
(Bfiminiunejj Tmnple Normanton, Newbold^ 
Dantone» Walton,* (Wahtunt)^ Tupton, Ca^ 
tofr, atnd HasliAnd ; cQntainhig altogether abont 
600 hootes. 

There is a chalybeate spring at Chesterfield; 
bat it is weak ; however, when drank insuffiv 
dent quantity, it is pttrgative, and has been 
fomd iisefal in disorders, arising from weakness 
and i^Iaxation; 

Si7TT0N-m-LB*DAL£, whtich wds in former 
titnto connected with the living of Dnckman- 
\snk fDochemaneutunJy is a rectory, and the 
church is dedicated to St. Mary. The church 
at Duckmanton, which is not now standing, 
wa» dedicated to the Saints, Peter and Paul ; 
and belonged, in former times, to the monastery 
of Welbeck. The liberty of Sutton contains 
about twenty-three houses; and . Duckmanton 
fifty^tfaree. The inhabitants are chiefly sup- 
ported by agriculture. 

Sdtton-Hall in this parish, is a large and 
ancient mansion, standing upon elevated ground 



♦ « Walton," «ys Mr. Camden, ** descended from the 
Brc^finSf by Laudham to the FoUjamb^ a ^at name in thcfe 

18 4 4 



554 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

and eommandiDg some beaatifal views over tbe 
adjacent countrj. At different times, it hat 
been the seat of several respectable femilies.*^ 
In the time of Henry the Third, it belonged ta 
the familj ofHarstanCt whose^eir general marw 
ried a Gretf, a descendant of a younger brancH 
of the Lords Grey of Codnor Castle. In the 
fourth year of Henry W. the heir general of 
Grey was married to Jo. Leak, whose descend* 
ant, Francis Leak was raised by king Jaoi^ 
the First, to the dignity of a baronet ; after«» 
wards created a baron of the realm, by (he 
title of Lord D'Eincort of Sutton : and in tstM- 
sideration of his services to Charles the Fivsti. 
was, by.th!it monarch, advanced to the degree 
of £arl of Scarsdale. After the death of Njf^ 
cholas, the fourth and last Earl of this family^ 
who succeeded bis uncle in 1707, the Snttoa 
estate was sold, and again re-sold to Godfrey; 
Clarke, Esq. of Chilcote : it is now the proper*- 
ty and residence of Thomas Kinnersley, £sq« 
who succeeded to the estate, under the will of 
Godfrey Bagnall Clarke, Esq. 

Elmton. At the time of the Norman sur* 
vey, there were at Helmetune^ a church and a 
priest. Ralph de Aincurt gave it to the priory 
of Thurgaston, in the timeof ^ward HI. The 
living is a vi<;anige, add the church is dedicated 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRBb , 5^ 

to St; Peter. The parish of Elmton, together 
with the hamlet of CresweH, contains about 
sixty houses. 

In this parish was born, in the year 1707, 
Jbdediah Buxton, a person deserving to be re- 
corded on account of his singular memory and 
^ powers of calculation. He was. the son of $i 
schoolmaster, who lived at Etmton; but not- 
withstanding the profession of his father, his 
education was so much neglected, that he never 
was taught to read or write ; and with respect 
to any other knowledge, 'but that of numbers^ 
leemed always entirely ignorant. Uow he first 
came to know the relative proportions of num- 
bers, and their progressive denominations, he 
did not remember; but to this he applied the 
whole force of his mind, and upon this his at* 
tention was constantly fixed, so that he fre- 
quently was entirely regardless of external ob- 
jects; but when he did pay attention to thern^ 
it was only with respect to their numbers. If 
any space of time was mentioned, he soon after 
would say it was so many minutes: and if any 
length of way, he would assign the number of 
hair-breadths, without any question being 
asked, or any calculation expected by the com- 
pany. When he once understood a question, 
he began to work with amazing facility, after 



fi9§ HISTOEIPAL 4MO DESCRXFnVE 

Jus own niAlbodt witboat the useof a jp^b^imqiw 
cil» or chalkf or eveii un^nfeuidiiig the poiup 
mon rules of arithmetic as taught in the whoob. 
ife Voiild stride over a piece of land or a fields 
and calcolate the.oontents of it,, almost as ex- 
actly, as if it bad been meaiared by a chain. 
In this manner he measured the whole lordship 
of Elmton, of some thousuKl acres, and gave 
tbhe contents, not only in acres, roods, and 
perches^ but even in square inches. His me^ 
mory was so great, that, while resdving a ques* 
tion, he coold leave off^ and resume the oper 
mtion again where he left it, the next vomui* 
mgf or At a week, a month, or at several months, 
and proceed r^ularly till it was comideted. — 
His memory would doubtless, have been equaU 
]y retentive with respect to other olyects, if lu^ 
had attended to tfaras with equal diligence; butt 
his perpetual application to %ures prevented 
the. smallest acquisition of any other know* 
ledge. Ue was sometimes asked, on his ret«r9 
from church, whether he remembered the text, 
or any part of the sermon ; but it never ap- 
])jeared that he brought away one sentence : hia 
mind, upon a close examination, being found 
to have been busied, even during divine ser« 
V|ce, in his favorite operation ; either dividiug 
some time, or some space, into the smalleafc 



VIKW IBF DBftaVSHlRK. My 

Jiffowl pwtf, w ratohng mnei^mrtMii tlmt 
liad been gsVea trim a» a test of iiiB abilities. 

His ^efaritj fcr extraordinary ^cilitj in. 
HMking arithai^cal calcalatioM,* and solving 
4be most difficak pwblems in aritlimetic, by a 
ssMMlite flsethod 'peraKar to Ins own mind, at- 
traeled the notice of Sir George Saville, >vrho 
iuidbiin broi^t to London, jn 1764, whM be 
was iolrodnccd to the Royal Sbciety, and an- 
swwed various arithmetical qoestions m eatis* 
fMtprily, that his dismissal was aoeompanied 
mih a handsome gratuity, in this virit to the 
sietraiiolis, the only object of his onriosily e^« 
«ept figures^ was a sight of the king and the 
royal family; hat they being just removed to 
Kensington, Jedediah was disappointed. Da- 
ting his stay in London, he was taken to see 
ki^ Richard III. pei^med at Drnry-lone; 
nd it was expected, either that the novelty and 
splendour of the show, would have fixed him 



^ A person tince prcfposed to him this question ;— la ft 
W4y the. three aide$ of which, ere, 2a,14%7W T«f^ 
$,642,733 yardsy and 54,965 yards, how many cubic 
dghths of an inch ? In al>out five hours, Jedediah accu- 
lilaly solved this intricate problem, though in ilht midst of 
huaiaefla^ snd surrounded by oiore than one hundred labor* 
era. Even mixed company, conversation, and confused 
zioisei, could not distract his mtnd| when intent on a prob^ 



9fiB HISTOUCAL AND DESCRIFITVB 

io ttrtonishment) or kept his inoragination in m 
continual hurry ; or that his passions would, in 
some degree, have been touched by the power 
of action* if he had not perfectly understood 
the dialogue* But Jededtah's mind was em- 
ployed in the theatre, just as it was employed 
in every other place« During the dance he 
filled his attention upon the number of steps :-« 
lie declared after a fine. piece of music, that the 
innumerable sounds produced by the instru- 
ments, had perplexed him beyon^ measure ; 
and he attended even to Garrick, onlj^to count 
the words that he uttered, in which he said he 
perfectly succeeded. 

. Jedediah returned, to the place of his. birth, 
where, if his enjoyments were few, his wishes 
did not seem to be more. He applied to his 
daily labour, by which he subsisted, witli cheer- 
fulness; he regretted .nothing that he left be* 
bind him in Londen; and it continued to be 
bis opinion, that a slice of rasty bacon, ajfTorded 
the most delicious repast This extraordinary 
character, living in laborious poverty, bis life 
was uniform and obscure. Time with respect 
to him, changed nothing but his age ; nor did 
the seasons vary his employment, except that 
in summer, he employed a ling-hook, and in 
winter, a flail. He prolonged his life to the ago 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRZ? 3« 

of sevent J years : he was married, and had se- 
veral children. His portrait has been engraved 
froin a correct draining of him by Miss Hart* 
ley in January 1764, at which period, accond-* 
iDg to his own calculation, he had existed 
1,793,330,833 seconds. 

Whittington: at theedmpUationofQonies^ 
day, Wiiintune^ was^ a bailiwick in the manor 
of Newbold. The living is a rectory, and the 
church is dedicated to St. Bartholomew. The 
riUage is small. 

WJuttiogton had the honor of witnessing the 
b^notngi of that association, which does so 
much credit to those wlio embarked their lives 
and fortunes in it, and the happy result of 
which we are' feeling at the present time* Na' 
longer able to bear the arbitrary measures of 
James the Second, nor the jd^rpctipn of the 
protestant religion, which he evidently 4|iedi* 
tated, a few Wotihiea^ whose, namea will ever > 
be dear to the lovers of British freedom, in the. 
year 1688, met eaefa other on Whittington-moor, 
for the express purpose of devising some meaiiSt: 
for resouiiig/their country from the double sla- 
very wiih^-wbicb it w^s threatened. The only 
persons who are certainly known to have been . 
at this meeting, were, the Duke of Devonshire, 
Earl of Danby, (afterwards Duke of Leeds,] 



tfV HISTOKICAL AKO OSSCXIPnVE 



' ud SHr Mm HUhnyr^om Md bur of Co^i^ra) 
BmtI of HoUtoMM. The spot od tbe moor 
where they met» wceordiag; to tbe tnditicm of 
tbe coMitfy, wm'' el a middle pkMe between 
Kitreton,* ChaMirortby and Aston ; and that a 
shower of rain happening to fall^ they removed 
to the .yiUajge for flbaltery add finished their eon- 
temitioa'at m pobMeiJmiiie there, the sign of 
tim Coekand Pynait'^f^ The oottagi^ thos dii^ 
ti«guished) stande^ wbeto the mad from Cbee* 
terfield branches off for Sheffield and Bother^ 
btim^ and has ever sinoe been edtted the Revo^ 
kUiim-HouH. Tbe smidi aqpartment witfahh 
wherein the noUemeii' satt had the name of 
PioUing Chamber; but lAis appelktion being 
thoogbt opprobrious, has been changed to the 
devolution Parhwr. An akieieat chair is pMM 
served^ hMe» in whioh the Dake of Devoashiffo 
is beHev^ to have been seated* 

On the Atb of November, I78B^ the CMMen* 
•r/Mmmemoraiion of the Eev^mien, was ce^ 
lebmted with great magnifieence at Wlutting<» 
ton and Chesterfield. The commemoration 
^com^menced at Whittingftonywrth divine aervice 
ia the church. The Rev« Dt<. Pegg^, the late 
learned antiquary, being rector of tbe parish, 

^ The provincial name for a magpie* 



VIEW OF OSRBYSHIREb m 

ddhveed « aankion, and tbe descendants of tke 
iihi8tri6iis iMiiiltoi wbo were conceroed in elt 
fectiagtbiB memorable event,-~the boosts of 
Cavetdish, Osborn, Bootb, and D'Arcj, wei^ 
praent, at well as a great niunber of other 
pernms^ After the service, tbej went in pro^ 
cession to view the old JUvolutumMlfquse^ and 
tbe chair; and then partook of a verj elegant 
cold poUation, which was prepared in the liew 
rooms annexed- to the cottage : tbe procesnoip 
moved afterwuds in regular order to Chester* 
field) where the remainder of the daj wa^i 
fpMit with the utmost cordiatitj and rejoicings 
On the day previoos to the Jabilee at Whitf 
tington, the committee appointed to conduct 
the proceedings, dined at the Revolution^ 
House ; and a considerable sum was afterwards 
sobacribed, for defraying tbe expences of a mo^ 
namental column, proposed to have been*erec« 
ted on tbe spot, as a lasting memorial of the 
meaamres by which the liberties of tbe king* 
dom were so happily pi^eserved. . Tbe subscript 
tion remained open several months ; but the 
breaking out of the French Revolution, and its 
coasei)uent horrors, occasioned the erection of 
the coiuran to be deferred, 
Ifi an enclosuTe not far from the village, is a 
18 C 4 



Md HISTORICAL AMD DESCRIPTIVE 

cbaljbeate spring, which from the tests e^nploy* 
ed, has been found to contain aboat the same 
quantity of iron, as those, situated at Quara* 
don and Buxton. The respect in which it dif- 
fers from them most materiallj, is, that it parts 
inore iVeelj with the fixed air, with which it is 
impregnated. 

Stavblt, is a parish, containing the chapel- 
ry of BarloWi and the hamlets of Netherthorp^ 
fVoodtkorpj and three of the name of Hanly; 
containing, altogether, about 408 houses. At 
the compilation of Domesdaj, there were a 
church and a priest at Stavelie. The living is 
a rectory, the church is dedicated to St. John 
the Baptist, and the Duke of Devonshire is the 
patron. 

In the time of Edward the First, the Manor 
of Stavely belonging to John Musard ; after 
which it became the property of the family of 
Fresckeville^ a branch^ of the family of that 
name, who were barons of Crich, in the reign 
of Henry the Third. John Freschevifle, Esq* 
of Stavely, was, as a reward for his attachment 
to Charles I. advanced by Charles 11. to the 
dignity of a Baron of the realm, by the title of 
Lord Frescheville of Stavely. There are in this 
parish some valuable beds of iron*stone ; and 
furnaces have been built for converting it into 
install which employ many hands. 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. KSs 

^CiiOWH> contains about eighty-five houses: 
the living is a rectorj^ and the church is dedi* 
cated to St. John the Baptist, and the king is 
the patron. In Domesday it is written Clune. 
In the reign of Richard the Second, Ro. Fol- 
ville, held some land inthis parish. 

Whitwjbll. In the tiqoe of the Conqueror, 
there were a church and a priest at Wiieuuelle. 
The living is a rectory, the church is dedicated 
to St. Lawrence, and the presentation belongs 
to the Duke of Rutland. The parish contains 
about 142 houses; and the inhabitants rely 
chiefly on agriculture for support. 

Barlborouoh. Barleburg^ is in Domesday 
iacluded in the same manor as the last-men- 
tioned place ; and in common with it, had a 
considerable population. The living is a rec- 
tory, the church is dedicated to St. James, and 
— — Rodes, Esq. is the patron. 

The family of Rodes^ who resided here for 
many centuries, was of great antiquity : they 
were lineally descended from Gerard de Rodes, 
a baron who lived during the reigns of Henry 
II. and the three succeeding monarchs, and 
was employed by king John, as an ambassador 
to foreign courts. Sir John Rodes, who was 
living in 1727, was the last lineal descendant 
of this ancestor, and the last that enjoyed the 



t»4 . HISTORICAL AMD DEBCRIPTIVE 

tide. The estate^after hU death, went by the 
matri^e of his sbter to a Mr. Heatheote, whose 
desoeodants assumed the name of Rodes, a&d 
are in possession of the estate at this period. 
' Dhonfibld, Dranefeld^ is a small, but neat 
town, pleasantly situated in a Talley, and is 
the residence of many respeetable inhabitants. 
The church, which is dedicated to St. John the 
Baptist, is a handsome building, 132 feet in 
length, halving a tov^sr at the West end^ ter- 
minated by a spire : most of the windows are 
pointed. The rectory of Dronfield, before the 
reformation, was appropriated* to Beauchief 
Abbey; and that fine and lofty building the 
chancel, which is equalled by very few, in our 
common parochial churches, was erected by 
the Abbot and convent of that house, long he* 
fyre the year 1535, when that religious founda- 
tion was dissolved ; but, however, not till after 
the 13th of Richard the Second, or 1300, when 
this rectory was appropriated to the Abbey. 

Henry Fenshaw, Esq. a native of the town, 
and Remembrancer of the Exchequer, founded 
a free-grammar-school here in the time of queen 
Elizabeth. The number of houses in the pa- 
rish, is about 245, and of inhabitants 1,190« 

In this parish, are the chapelries of Dare^ 
and Holmesjield; and the hamlets of HUHop^ 



iBcKiNOTOlfr. The tnaiHMr of Echintone^ be* 
loftged, m Wtllmm'ii time, to BaJph the son of 
Hubert. At which period^ there was a priest, 
7bat AD cliiiroik'fhei^ :* lloMrev^t-, aboot the be<* 
gintihig of the fourtieentb century, there was 
one there. The present living is a rectory, and 
the chnrch is dedicated to St. Peter and St. 
PbuL In the time of Edward I; the manor of 
Eekington was held by. J. Langford. The 
township of Eekington cent^ns, q^arly 20a 
boases. 

This parish includes the chapel^ of Killi- 
marsh, (Chinewoldmaresejy and the hamlets of 
RenishaWyTrowey, Ridgeway, and Mosborongbi 
4y>ntaining, alto^ther, about 621 houses^ 

Beiohton, Bectune, was, at the compilation 
of Domesday, a soke in the manor of Eeking- 
ton. The living is a vicarage, the church is 
dedicated to St. Mary, and the Duke of King- 
ston is the patron. Beighton contains the ham- 
lets of Hackenthorp, Southwell, and Berley ; 
containing, together with Ihe whole liberty, 
about 130 houses. 

Norton, in Domesday iVorton^, isaparishi 



# DomeJday, Orig. 277^ «• 1. Tntiw* p. SI? 



HISTORICAL AND OESCRIFTIVB 

CQDMSting. of sereral hamlets, and contaiaiiig 
Bbo^t 300 hoases. The present living is a vi- 
carage, and the church is dedicated to Sunt 
James. As early as the conclusion of the 12tb 
century, there was a church At Norton : . for Ro« 
bert son of Ralph, Lord of Alfreton, Norton, and 
Marnham, who founded the abbey of Beauchief^ 
gave it to that religious house. JeiTery Blithe, 
bishop of Litchfield and Coventry, who died 
in 1534, built a chapel at Norton, and an 
alabaster tomb over his parents; and appointed 
a chantry for them. 

In former times, two great courts were held 
at Norton every year ; where a variety of bn« 
siness belotiging to the parish was transacted.* 

* ** The principal business transacted on these occasions 
was examining into, and punishing ofiencesi by which the 
inhabitants of the manor were or might be injured. The 
following in particular are noticed ; incroachments upon 
the waste, altering vrater courses, neglecting to scour or 
cleanse ditches, turning a scabbed horse on to the common, 
shutting up a bridle road, giving an account of wafes and 
strays, examining those, who baked or brewed for sale with« 
out a licence from this court and amercing them for »uch 
offences, fixing the assize of bread and ale, and also the 
price of the latter (which appears about the thirty-fourth 
year of queen Elisabeth to have been one penny per quart)^ 
and fining such as broke thn assize* Two men were sworn 
in as frank pledge, two as tithing-men, and o^e u consta* 
ble for the year ensuing* 

** Twe ale tasters yrttt ako appointsd at the court ;. and 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 597 

^liefe is a congregation of Uiiitariaiis^ at Nor- 
ton; wim, as earij as tb^ reign bf Charles the 
Seoond, performed divine ^rvice in a private 
iNMise in thef Tillage. 



il apptars, that there were bfemred in the pArish love-ale, 
help-ale, and unwbol9on;e-al«^ for all wiikhi fines were lei 
vied, — Those who had committed an asaault, and drawii 
blood, were fined seperately for each ofience. Some also 
were fised.foc carryittg stovos or cliihst lodgibg isuspictous 
persons, and remaining in alehouses after eight o'clock at 
night. 

'* The inhabitants of the parish were also obliged to make 
tw9bu|tf tpahootat, and keep them in repair under cer« 
tain penalties { and to provide their sons and men servipt^ 
with bows and arrows, as, la^e as the thirtieth year of queen 
XUsi^cfth. ■ The stocks werv to be kept up^ and every gap ' 
in their fen^fs. to be ma^e ^pjbefore Lady-d«y. 

** In the thirty-fourth year of queen Elizabeth, upwarda 
•f one hundred and thirty suitors were amerced for non- 
sfvpetrance, and other offences. Of this number were 
tleven biewers for selling ale unlawfully, and twenty^one 
persons for playing at unlawful games, as huddlings. If 
a frank pledge neglected to appear at court, heavy penalties 
were inflicted. ' 

** There is no appearance of cock-fighting, horse-bracing, 
throwing' at cocks, no cards ,or dice, nay what is more 
wonderful, no ducking of witches, or even a ducking 
fiool is neiticed.'* ' 

* This body of religionists, like most others now called 
Unitarians, were formerly improperly termed Prisbyte* 
jiiANs, though the Scotch mode of church government was 
Mt adopted by them. Until about the middle of the last cen* 
Uiry, most of the Presbyterians adhered to the Calvinistic 
tenets ; but since that period, the major part of their congr»> 
ftfkma have changed their cnfed, and, as their denoininatioo 
impUeSi bdicve b the Unity of God, 



Ml HISTQRtCAL 4»D DBSGIUynVB 

T^ viUf)0S of Qri^ Norton^ is pleaaiatfy 
sitiuited» a^ <:9^t«^, feven)! laige amd gwd 
hoiuiefl. Here,^NartjOp)ipI^i tberaudeneeof 
Samuel Shore, Esq. who is pcppcssed of tki 
manor of Norton. Norton-House, in the sam^ 
TiUage, is ttie s^| of — — ;: Nen.ton, Esq. : and 
at a small distance firtMn it, is an andliiit man- 
sion of John Bagshftw, Esq. Th6 manu&ctur^ 
pf scythes, is^ camedoa to a gteatex^ 
parish. 

Bbauchuf, is fm cg^tra-parochial hamlet, 
derifing its name from a rel^ous heine^ of tiai 
wAtt of Prs&inoiiMratensiaA^ or white canons. 

The Abbey of Beaochie^ or do Bdlo capites 
was situated at this pUoe^ m a beitutifiil little 
Tale, near the ndrtbem boundary of the co^« 
tj, within a shprMistancaofSheffidd^ Itww 
fimnded, betweenl the years 1172 and 1176, by 
Robert Fitz*RaIph, Lord of Alfreton. It was 
dedicated to Thomas a Becket, and the Vir^nr 
Mary ; and from the former paitron, has Erro- 
neously been supposed, to have been erected in 
expiation of his murder, by its founder, who 
has been represented as one of the executioners 
of the proud archbishop of Canterbury. Be- 
sides the endowments of its original founder, 
many other grants and privileges were bestowed 
on it, by various other pevaauBi in diftraat 



Vm^OrDBilBYSMIRE. m 

parte of the qoontiy. On the disaolation of 
this honse, in the twentj-sixtb bf Henry the 
Eighth, its revenues, according to Speed, were 
estimated at j6157. IO9. 2d. The Abbey was 
granted, in the twenty-^gfath year of the same 
reign» to Sir Wich. Strelley ; and several of the 
lands belonging to it, were purchased by Sir 
William West. Of this extensive building, 
only a small part of the chapel » now remain- 
ing. 



18 D.4 



ffTO HISfXUaCAL AND DESCRIfTIVS 



CHAP. XI. 



Arehdeacanry of Dwlgr^ 

C^N^ of the mo§t flouthem parishes in thii 
division, is Darlet, in Domesday called Dere^ 
kie. The living is a rectorj under the Deutt 
of Lincoln, and the church is dedicated to St. 
Helen. The whole parish contained about 400 
houses, when an ascertainment was last made ; 
but their number has increased very much of 
late years, owing to the erection of a cotton* 
mill, belonging to the Messrs. Dakeynes. 
. The village of Darley is small, pleasantly 
situated on the banks of the Derwent, in the 
beautiful dale leading from Matlock to Bake* 
well, furnishing a most enchanting ride. The 
church is ancient, and in the church-yard 
stands one of the oldest and largest ye w» trees 
in the kingdom. No traveller^ can pass with- 
out noticing its appearance, which gives solem- 
jiity to the lonely cemetry which it oversba* 



V»W OF D£RB¥SiUR& 671 

^iidows. This veneralile tnee» is now robbed of a 
great part of its pristine honqrs, but still ez« 
bibits a specimen of unusual vegetation, mea- 
furing in girth 33 feet. It is supposed that it 
has been decaying for more than 300 years, 
and in its prime to have covered a space of 100 
feel in diameler. The church contains seve* 
ral ancient monuments : against a window on 
the South side, is a recumbent statue of a Knight 
Templar, with his feet crossed, a sword by his 
aide, and his hands crossed on his breast : tra* 
dition says his name was John of Darley, and 
that he lived at a place in tbe neighbourhood 
called Darley-UalL Beneath this is an ala- 
baster slab, with an inscription in old English, 
now defaced. There are also some old monu- 
ments to the memory of the Rowsley family. 
There is likewise in tbe church a stone fountain, 
inscribed with letters, and coats of arms, which 
is supposed to be very ancient. An antiquated 
atone cojfEn is seen in the church-yard, proba- 
bly belonging to some great family.ip the neigh* 
.boorbood. ^ 

Snitt£Rton»Hall, formerly the property of 
the SacheverelSf is a curious old mansion, stand- 
ing near the summit of a hill to the West of 
the village, on the western bank of tbe Der- 
fient. The front has two projecting wings^ 



m HisTtMucAL And descriptive 

witA poititeA^gttbieBt tfemtNittled Bideii and Iflf^ 
WWed wtndo^. Tbeentmnte insteild of be- 
ing ui the centre, as edstooftarjr, is on toe side; 
th^ whole structure is of stone, endoribd witbiti 
bigfa waHs. 

•YouLORATis, by the Norman iBunreyors call* 
ed Oielgravej is a parish iind Tillage, contain- 
ing about 140 houses, and 660 inhabitants^ who 
ave pffinci|Mdly supported by agrieuiture and 
the mining business. The living is a rectory, 
and the church is dedicated to All*Saints« In 
the reign of Henry the Second, it was given, 
with its chapels, to the Abbey at Leicester; 
but it was presented by Edward Vi. to William 
Cavendii^h; whose descendant, the Dukfe of 
Devonshire, is the present patron. The whole 
parish contains the ohapelries of Witoster and 
Elton; the hamlets of Alport, Krchover, Stan- 
ton, Stanton-Leys, Middleton, Gratton, tad 
some other smaller places. 

WiKsTER, anciently Wifutemef is a small 
town, where a weekly market is held ; it con- 
tains about 330 houses, whose inhabitants, isre 
employed in working the lead mines, and in 
preparing cotton for spinning. On the com* 
mon, near the town, are several edimsj or stone 
barrows, and also, two or three barrows of earth. 
One of the latter was opened in the year 1768; 



VIEW or mRBYsmat. m 

and ftt it wen fbiiod two gins VeH»hi» bel^recMi 
eight and ten iockeskiar he^bt^eoficmniiig about . 
a piot of Ugfat^'gTean colooied lia^i>id it at^,«^ 
At tlie same time were^iacoveied, a silver eol* 
Isr or braoekt) studded with fanmanlieads, ttf* 
getber nithsome'other small wnamedta; one 
of which was of fillagree-workof gold andsil- 
ver gilt, and set with garaetor red gkiss. There 
were also, several square and' round beads of 
various oolonfs, of glass and earth ; and some re* 
mains of brass clasps and binges, with a piece of 
wood, which appeared to be a part of a box ill 
which the ornaments had been deposited. Se» 
veml of these are now in the possession of a 
gentleman of Bakewell. From the above an* 
tiquities, it is supposed, that the barrow waa 
raised over some Briton of dastihction, shortly 
after the Roman insasion« 

Near the hamlets of .Birchotbr, and Staw* 
TON, the former of which contains about eigbtj 
houses, and the latter seventy, there are^seve- 
ral objects well worthy of particnlar no- 
tice. . 

At RowTOR, near Birchover, is a remark- 
able assemblage of grit*stone rocks, extending 
in length between seventy and eighty yards, 
and rising to the height of fiom forty to fifty. 
This massive pile is distinguished by the nam* 



^4 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

of Rauteff or Roo^tm^raelUJ'^ Its general po*- 
Mtioa, Mi, oiido«btedly natural, and was, per* 
liapa« occasioned by the sinking. of the sar* 
lonndiog strata ; but the forms and arrange- 
ment of many of the stones on the opper-part, 
display evident traces of their being placed 
hen by design. 

Near the East end of this pile, is a large stone 
of an irregular shape, twelve feet high, and 
thirty-six in circomference, and estimated to 
weigh about fifty tons : its bottom, has some- 
,what «f a convex form ; and the rock on which 
it staa^Bf appears to have been hollowed to re- 
ceive it. When Mr. Pilkington wrote, this 
stone was so exactly pois^ upon one end, that 
a child might easily give it a vibratory motion ; 
but it is now fmmoveable, through having been 
forced from its equilibrium by the mischievous 
efforts of fourteen young men, who assembledf. 
for the purpose on Whit*>Sunday, in the yeaf 
1700« At a little distance to the North, is a 
second rocking-stone, resembling an egg in 
shape, which may be moved by the strength of 



* *' This appellation appears to have been derived from 
4 the* various rocking- stones near the summit; as it is a com- 
mon expression in, the provincial dialecti that a thing rcos 
backward and forward."— Archaeologia, VoU VL p. llOi 



Wm at DEEtBVSHIR& m 

a single finger, though twelve feet hi length; 
and fimrteen in girth. Fwther to the North, h 
another rocking^stone, resembling the hittei^ 
bolb in figure and facility of motion ; aiid to 
the West, are seven stones; piled on each other, 
Tarious in siae and form, hot two or three very 
lai^ ; all which may be moved by the pressure 
of one hand, and thi& at various places. 

''It should be observed, that th^ huge mas- 
ses which occupy the summit of Router*rocks, 
range from east to west along the middle of the 
hill, and Have a narrow passive, and twb cham- 
bers or caves, cut within them. The largest 
cave has a remarkable Bcho; its length is six- 
te.ea feet, itil width twelve, and its height about 
nine. The origin of these excavations cannot 
hare been very rmnele, as the marks of the pick 
an the side^, are very visible and fresh^ ' They 
were, probably* formed about the same period 
as an elbpw-cbair near the west end of the 
North side, which has been rudely shaped on 
the j&ce of a large: mass of stone, and has a 
seat for one person on each side of it* This, 
we have been informed, was executed by the 
direction of Mr. Thomas Eyre, who inhabited 
the ancieift manor-house, called RauUr-HaU^ 
near the foot of the hill on the south, about 
sixty years ]^, and used frequently to enter*' 



t0^ HISTCNUaUi^.AND nESCBlffTIVX 

fll^ i«9lDfiuiy ;oii.llmjel<lcatod:spot. A hoUoir 
i» Al^Mlpj^ m^wk fotnus. the higbMb foiut of 
4ifii«roclit9 Mt* Rftol^eiilippafWifo^havft bem 
^ItMllrMit^ JMfib^.nwHtiQiitaae«|Nid:rack- 

'' N«wr^ a qMtrteiiofAtiiiileweiift of Rowtor» 
if ancktiliee ^^amWtgtt! ofi large tracks, loraiiiig 
a 8iiiitl«r kind of hill, cM6i BnuU^Tar; oa 
tjf» oppwr pMrt.of wjuch, is a rocking^stooe, 
thirtjTriwo feat in DiroomfoBen^ of an orbico* 
lur.sbppflf and raised above the gnmnd by two 
ilftlMiBb baviag: a paM n ^ e between tbem. Its 
fO|if4Mrfni^ to. the deBcriptioa>€f the Tolmen 
^iven h^ Dr. Borl^Minhieaiitiiivideeof Cora- 
ipnU, hM induced an opinion of ite having been 
9 ra^k.idoL^' 

3T49T0JI, SioMiune^ 19 a niaiv>r, the joint 
prpperty pf the Dake of ^tland, and Bache 
ThftiwhiUi Esq. the latter of whom has an ele- 
gant mansion hem, on a denesne, that has 
\nt0n the property of his ancestors, of the snr- 
Dfuoel, of Bache and Thomhi}!, for more than 
two centuries.* 

JNear the sootb*we$t side of Sianian^moOr^ 
(a rocky nncuUirated waste about two miles in 
l/engfh, and one and a half in breadth), is an 
darated ridge, which riises into three craggy 
eauaences,'respepti«ely called^ Cardiff^ Back$^ 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE, $77 

Gramd Tor^ and Durwaod Tar. On the top 
ef the former, are several basins, varying in 
diameter from two to three feet ; and about 
nidwaj to the bottorot towards the west, is a 
small cave, called the Hermitage^ supposed to 
have been, in former ages, ^he abode of some 
mistaken and zealous devotee. To the right 
hand on entering it, is seen a crucifix about a 
jard high ; it is in relief, and almost perfect : 
in the inner part is a.seat and a recess, apparent- 
Ij intended for a sleeping place. 

** Graned Tqr^ called also Robin Hood^s 
Stride^ and Mock Beggar^g Hall^ is a singular 
heap of rocks, which Mr. Rooke supposes to 
have been ancientlj a curious group of Druid* 
ical monuments,* On one rock, that seems, 
from its position, to have fallen fVom the top, 
nnd is twenty-nine feet in circumference, are 
four rock- basins; and at the bottom of another 
a rock*basin of an oval form, four feet in length, 
and two feet ten inches nide, which ^evident- 
ly appears to have been cut with a tool.'t This 
basin is sheltered by a massive* stone, placed in 
a sloping direction agains^the rock. The up- 
permost points of this Tor, are two vast stones, 
19 . E 4 

• Archaeologia; Vel. XIL p. 47. t Ibid. 



i7t HISTORICAL AND DESCRimVE 

itanding opright, each eighteen feet high, and 
aboat twenty-two yards asunder, which at a 
distance resemble the chimneys of an ancient 
mansion-house, from which circumstances the 
pile obtained the appellation Mock Beggar's 
Hall. Round the bottom of the hill there seems 
to ha?e been a fence of broken masses of stone. 
On the top of Durwood Tor, are three rock* 
basins, artificially formed ; and an impending 
crag, or rock- canopy, which OTerhangs whi^ 
has been denominated an * augurial seat/ At 
Durwood^ on removing a large stone, an urn 
was discovered half full of burnt bones ; and 
near it, two ancient Qtiems^ or hand-mill-stooes, 
flat at top, and somewhat convex on the under 
sides, about four inches and a half thick, and 
nearly a foot in diameter ; the upper stone so 
much less than the under, that being placed on 
it, it could be turned round within its rim.* 
Similar stones have been found in Yorkshire 
and such are yet in common use in the Hebrides. 
^* In a field north of Graned Tor, called Nine- 
Stone-Close, are the remains of a Druidical 
Circle^ about thirteen yards in diameter, now 
consisting of seven rude stones of various di- 
mensions ; one of them is about eight feet in 

^B^y^"' ■ ■ — — — — ^^— ^M^— ^— — ^»i— — gy 

* Cough's Additions to the Britannia. 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE, 97A 

height, and nine in circumference. Between 
6e?entj and eighty jards to the south, are two 
other ston^ of similar dimensions, standings 
erect. 

*^ About a quarter of a mile west of the lit- 
tle vallej which separates Hartle-moor from 
Stanton-moor, is an ancient work called Cm- 
tk-^Ring^ which Mr, Rooke supposes to have 
been a British encampment. Its form is ellip* 
tical ; its shortest diameter from south-east to 
north-west, is 165 feet; its leqgth from north- 
east to south-west, 343. It was encompassed 
by a deep ditch and double vallum, but part 
of the latter has been levelled by the plough. 

*^ In a small enclosure, adjoining the north* 
west end of Stanton-moor, are some r^ark- 
ably situated rocks ; on two of which the foU 
lowing inscriptions were cut in Roman capitals, 
about 170 years ago, by an ancestor of the Cal^ 
ton family, who possessed the estate. ^ Re8 
ruitica qum sine dubiiaiione proxima et quasi 
cansanguinea sapieniiiB esU iam discentibus eget 
quam magistris.^^^^''^. Nihil est homini libero dig* 
nitis^ et quod mihi ad sapientis vitam proxime^ 
videtur accedereJ^ 

*^ About half a mile north-east from the Row* 
tor-Rocks, on Stanton-moor, is a Druidical 
Circle, eleven yards in diameter, called The 



$m mSTORICAL AMD DBSCRimVE 

Nm$ LadUi^ composed of tba same namberof 
nide 8t0De«» from three to four feet tn heigbtt 
and of different breadths. A single stone, 
named the Kmg^ stands at the distance of 
fhirty^four yards. Near this circle, are seve- 
ral cairns or barrows ; most of which have been 
opened, and varioas remains of ancient ens- 
toms discovered in them. In one of the bar- 
rowsi opened by Mr. Rboke, an urn of coarse 
clay was fonnd, three feet three inches in height, 
having within it a smaller urn, covered with a 
piece of clay ; in both of them were burnt 
bones and ashes : two other nrns, similar to the 
former, were discovered in the same barrow.— 
Urns with burnt bones, kc. have likewise been 
met with in some of the other barroit^. Under 
one of the cairns human bones were fonndj to- 
gether with a large blue glass beadi 

** On the east side of Stanton-moor, near tba 
edge of a declivity overlooking Darley Dale, 
are three remarkable stones, standing about a 
quarter of a mile from each ofeher, in a north 
and sooth direction. One of these, called Cat^$ 
Stane^ is on the verge of a precipice, and has s 
road leading to it, cot through a surlaceof loose 
stones and rock: the second is named Garu^ 

• Arcbaologia, Vol. VI. p. 113, 1 14. Mr. Rooke aup- 
poNt this nimeto have been derived from the Brituk C^* 
siddw : bttt ii it not more likely from the ihrub, G^rst t 



VIEW or OlttBYSHIRB. mi 

jAtoM'r^and tbe third, which is the largMti is« 
called Heart SiaiUj and measares eighty-three 
feet in cireadiiefeiice. SeveraL other stones of 
siagnlar forms may be observed on different 
parts of the moor; 4ind particularly one called 
' the Andle Stone^ about a quarter of a mile 
eastward of the Rowtor Rocks : this is nearly 
fiftew fieet high, aind appears to have beei^ 
shaped by art. At a little distance is anolher 
larger stone, named Thomas Eyre^s chair, fihich 
has been rudely cut into the figure of a chair, 
and was ibrmerly elevated on some smaller 
stones; but has been thrown down/^ 

AiiFOftT is a hamlet, containing about twen- 
ty-two houses, whose inhabitants are chiefly 
employed in the pursuits of agriculure. 

MiDDLBTON, Middeltuw^ is a village; situ- 
ated in a deep and narrow valley, and contain- 
ing about fifty houses. Near this place, is one 
of the most remarkable monuments of anti- 
quity to be found in Derbyshire. This is the 
Arbb-lous, or Arbor-lows, a circle of stones, 
within which the ancient British Bards,* were 
accustomed to hold their assemblies. > 



* Bardism: by this is meant, what is generally con* 
ceiyed amongst the English o£L the term Druidism^ which 
10 a mistake, by giving the appellation of a particular 
branch to the whole of the order ; for a matter of convt- 



«lt HISTORICAL .AND OESCRIFnVB 

This intereatiiig. remain conristeof an. aiWt 
encompassed by a broad ditch» which is bound- 
ed bj a high mound or bank: its form is that 
of an ellypsis, or imperfect circle, measuring 
forty-six yards, from East to West, and fifiy. 



nience an appropriate set of Bards, f were distinguished by 
the name of Dcrmddion or Druids, The Bards were di- 
vided into three essential classes }— >the Bardd Braint^ D«rw 
widd^ tnd Ovyddm * 

The Bardd Braint was the title of the corporate degree, 
or fundamental class of the order. On all occasion^ when 
he acted officially, he wore the unicoloured robe of sky« 
blue, which was the distinguishing dress of the order, be-, 
ing emblematic of Peace, and also of Truth, from having^ 
no variety of colours. 

The Derwiddion or Druids, were such of the BahIi of 
either of the three orders, that were set apart to, or em- 
ployed peculiarly in, the exercise of religious functions* 
The dress of the Druid was white, the emblem of Holiness^ 
and peculiarly of Truth, as being the colour of light, or, 
the sun. 

The Ovyddf was an honorary degree, to which a candi- 
date could be immediately admitted, without being obliged 
to pass through the regular discipline. The requisite qua- 
lifications for aA Ovydd were, in general, an acquaintance 
with valuable discoveries in science ; as the use of letters, 
medicine, languages, and the like. Thus Bardd Braint was 
peculiarly the ruling order ; Dtrwidd the religious func- 
tionary ; ^nd the Ovydd^ was the literary, or scientific order. 

Bard ISM was instituted long before the Christian sra, 
in a very early period of the world ; and we must attribute 

f The present vulgar acceptation of Bai.sd, whence the'Enslish word 
B4RD, is, simply, a Poet. The literal meaning of the word is, one that 
maketh conspicuous; and the Idea intended to be conveyed is,aTa4CKSK 
•r PaiiLotopMiR: and ttt import it well defiatd la Masom^s epithet* 
MAiTBft or Wisdom. 



VIkW OF DERBYSHIRE. Mi 

two fTOU North to South. Thie width of the 
ditch, which surrounds the area, on which the 
stones are placed, is sil yards; the height of 
the bank, or vallum, on the inside, is from mx 
to eight yards ; but it varies throughout the 
whole circumference. The bank seems to have 
been formed from the earth thrown up from 
the ditch; 'which is not carried entirely round 
the area : but both at the northern and south- 
em extremities, they 'terminate, and allow a 
level passage or entrance of about fourteen yards 
wide. On the East side of the northern en- 
trance, is a barrow standing in the same line of 
circumference, but entirely detached from it. 
This barrow was opened some years ago, and 
in it were found a stag's horns. 

The stones which compose the circle within 
the area, are rough and unhewn masses oflime^ 
stone, about thirty in number. Most of them 
are aboiit five feet long, three broad,, and one 



its formation, to an age^ now dtemed, by the learned world, 
to have been involved in barbarity. The principal doc- 
trines of the drder were ; — the belief in one God, the Crea* 
tor and Governor of the Universe — Universal Peace and 
Good-will :— «in short, it was a system embracing all the 
leading principles, which tend to spread liberty, peace and 
happiness among mankind ; and for that reason, perhaps, 
too perfect to be generally adopted by any nation, or body 
of people. Vide Owen's Llywarch M6nw 



«4 HISTORICAL AND OESCRIFTIVB 

thick; tbew* hoire?er» areyarteble, and tlieir 
rwpectWe shapes are different. They all lie 
(M the groaDd\ atid generaliy io an oblique po- 
sition ; hiit the representation of the narrowest 
end of eaoh being pointed towards the centre^ 
in order to represent the rajs of the sun, which 
tJbe: Bards are erroneously suppofied to have 
made an object of worship,^ nuMt hare arisen 
from an inaccurate obserf*tion ; for they as 
frequently point towaids the ditch as other* 
/wise. In . the middle of the area are three laige 
stones, whi(b i^ i^ probable composed originally 
but one, the Maen Oor$edd (Stone of Assam* 
biy). Within thejeircle are aonie smaller stones, 
scattered irregularly* 

Whether the stones that compose the cirde 
erer stood upright, as most of the stones of the 
Bardie circles do, is an enquiry not easy to d^ 
termina; though Mr. Pilkington was informedt 
that a very old man living at Middleton, re- 
membered, when a boy, to have seen them 
standing obliquely upon one end. This se- 
condary kind of evidence, does not seem en- 
titled to much credit ; as the view of the stones 
thiemselves, and their relative situations, are 
almost demonstrative to the contrary. "^ 

This, most probably, was one of the pro- 
vincial places of meeting of the ancient Bardt. 



VltEW Of DBRBYSHIRE. ' 'S9S 

They befd tbeit Oorseddaui or meetiogs, ia the 
<»peD aif t and (to use oae of their own mottosr) 
M the face of the ran, and eye of the light. AH 
their places of assemblage were, like this, set 
apart bj forming a circle of stones around thb 
Maen Gorsedd; and at theiif meetings, the 
Bardic traditions were recited, and the most 
interesti ng' topics discussed . The Bards always 
<tood bare-headed and bare-iboted, in their 
unieoloured robe, at the Gorsedd^ and within 
the Cylch Cyngrair^ or Circle of Federation^ 
The ceremony used on the opening of a n^eeling, 
was the sheathing of a sword, on the Miien Gor^ 
eedd, at which all the Bards assisted ; and this 
was accompanied with a very short pertinent dis- 
course;^ When the business was finished, the 
meeting was closed by taking up, but not un- 
sheathing, the sword, with a few words on the 
occasion, when all covered their heads and 



^ The foUowitig is the purport of what was said at the 
0peiungQf.we;«-*^*TBB T&utr ukCAiNsrTiit Woklb: 

Under the protection of the Bard$ of the isUofBritainf «rr 
all who repair to this place, where there is not a nailed 
weapon against them ; and all who seek the privilege apper-' 
uining to science and Bacdisxa, let tfaem demand it ftou' 
. hlo Morganwgf W. Mcckain^ Hywd Etyri^dLud D.Ddu Eryti^ 
-and they being all graduated Bards^ according to the privi* 
)»^cixhtBafdfofthi hk of Britain. TkbTrutr ACAitrsT 

THtWoJll.0.'* , ., 



19 F 4 



M6 historical and DB8CRIPTIVB 

feeU At the meeting therairas always oM, 
called ibe Dadgeiniad^ or the reciter, wboie 
busineM was, to recite the traditions and poems, 
to make proclamations, announce candidates, 
open and close the Ganedd^ and the like* 

The spot on which this British plaee of As« 
sembljr was held, though considerabljielevated, 
is not so high as some eminences, in the neigb« 
bouriog country ; it however commands an ex- 
tensive tiew, more especially towards the East, 
and seems to be well suited to the purpose, to 
which it was undoubtedly appropriated : and the 
contemplative mind, feels a sensation approach^ 
ing to veneration, when he treads the ground, 
rendered so interesting^ by having, been, the 
theatre on which the Briton, perhaps, some 
thousands of years ago, displayed his eloquence, 
his knowledgCj and his love of his country. 
• *^ About the distance of half a mile from 
Arbor^low, to the West, is another large bar-^ 
row, called End-law^ in which ashes and burnt 
bones have been found. From this, numerous 
barrows may be seen, on the distant eminences; 
and in some of them, urns, human bones, ashes, 
and other memorials of the customs of remote 
ages, have been discovered* The names of se» 
veral places in the neighbourhood are indica-. 
tive of antiquity, though the places themseltes^ 



VIEW OP DERBYSHIRE. ^87 

are now of little account : as Aldwark^ five 
miles from the Arbor-low, on the Roman road 
from Buxton to Little-Chester; Aldporty on 
another anetent waj leading from Aldwarkto* 
wards Bakewell, and some others. 

«* On a waste piece of ground between Money- 
ash and Arbor-low, about one mile and a half 
from the latter, is a huge block of limestone,' 
lying on the heath, and having a circular cavity 
on the top, which those who discover remnants 
of Droidism in every singular shaped or hollow 
stone, wonld probably denominate a rock-basin. 
Ita diameter is, about nine or ten inches, and 
its depth eighteen or twenty. The interior is 
ragged and uneven; and has somewhat the ap- 
pearance of a corkscrew ; though the hollows 
do not alt tnn into each other. Scarcely a 
doobt'can be entertained of this excavation 
being natural, though the particular cause of it 
cannbt perhaps be assigned/'* 



BAKEWELL. 



BakbwelL, is the most extensive parish in 
Derbyshire; measuring in length from north- 
weat to M>oth east, more than twenty miles, and 

• Beauties of £ngland, Voi. III. 



98. HISTQmCAL AN!) DKSCRIJPTIVE 

in braadth-eight li contains^ tune diapelriMy 
besides, several large hamlets; eontaiaing alto- 
gether, aboiil 1300 booses. 

The town of Bakeweii is of great antiqoitj. 
It is generally granted, that it existed in the 
. time of the Saxons : for in the year 084, Ed- 
ward thie Elder, marched from Nottingham into 
Peaelohd^ as far as a place called BadecamoyU 
lam^ which he converted into a boroagh, and 
ordered a. city to be built in \\a neighbourboodt 
and to be strongly fortified.* From ibis cir* 
cnmstance, it is supposed that there was a town 
here before that period, which derived itanama 
(Bath^qaelle) from a Bath situated in the plaee, 
which had been in use long before the visit of 
this monarch. The place where this ancient 
"bath was situated, is now occupied by the rest* 
deuce of Mr. White Watson, who forms mine- 
ralogical collections for private cabinets; and 
whose own CoUecti&n of FomU attcacta many 
inspectors. 

. At the time of the Norman survey, there 
were ^* at Bmdequelta two priests and a church,''^ 
at which period the manor belonged to the 
king, with the exception of one oarucate ua 
Hadune^ {Haddon) claimed by Henry de For« 

* Gibson'i Saxon Chronicle, p. 110. 
+ Demesdayi Orig. 272f *. 2. Trans,, p. ^4. 



iferai. *Siim«tfiiie afteiwacdi* ' it/ beeanie the/ 
pilDpertyiof William Pefer^l, whMeisoo ^ve^ 
two parts of his tithe-ef his' denoMna of Bake« 
well, ta the mooastery of Leatooi ia Nottto^^* 
baoishire. The remaining paft of the tithes, 
with the glebe and patrooage of the ebuveb/ 
was^sea to the Dean> and Chapter of Litch^ 
field, by John Earl of Montaigne, in wbom.. 
the estates of t^ Pevecels became vested. The 
manor afterwards belonged to the Gtrmmt of 
Essex, one of whom, had a grant of a fair to be 
held here, from Henry the Third. In this fa* 
mily it ccMitinoed till the reign of Henry the 
Seventh, when it was sold to the V^timu of 
Haddon, from whom it basdeseended to his 
Grace the Dnke of Rutland, the present pos- 
sessor^ 

. Bakew^U church is situated on an eminencCt 
above the principal part o( the town ; it is an' 
SQcient structure, and built • in the form of a . 
cross, with an octagonal tower in the centre, 
terminated by a lofty ^pire. The varioas styles - 
of architecture which* may be observed in this 
church, pipove it to have been erected at tbi^ 
different periods* The weiitei^n part of the nave; 
ia of plasn Saxon aroUteeture; but theeMer. 
nal arch of the West doos-way, is enriched ivitk 
Saxgnomamentsy atfd supposed to ba. the most ' 



099 HISTQAICAL AMD ZMISeRIPtlVE 

of trmVy^eoBkiioiDg many qiiafteringswitb thoie 
of Veroooi: his ladies ^u^e so much alike, tbatt 
a. trifling, varialion io tbeir dresses excepted, 
ibey aiqpearas if east in the same mould. Tbe 
other monumeats are large and costly; but 
there is nothing particularly excellent in thb 
fWorkmahship. 

Thia church has latdy been endowed with 
oiglit new bells, of the value of j£500. ; and an 
organ, has just been erected which cost jSSOO. 
The living is a vicarage, and the church is de^ 
dicated to All-Saints ; and the Dean and Chap« 
ter of Litchfield are patrons. In the church- 
yard is an ancient stone cross, said to have been 
conveyed hither from some other place. The 
sides are diversified by ornamental sculpture. 
On tbC' front are several rudely carred figures ; 
the upper compartment appears to have repre- 
sented a crucifixion ; but as the top of the cross 
is broken oflf^ the intention can hardly be de« 
termined : this ancient remain is supposed to 
be nearly eight hundred years old. 

Bakewell is a Market town, standing on the 
western banks of the river Wye : its market* 
VKhiehis now on Friday, was formerly held on 
Monday, and at present is but very thinly 
attended. The Tawn^Hally an obscure build* 
ing, was erected in 1709: nj^r it are.sisLii/nw^ 



VIEW Of DERBYSHIRE. ' 9^ 

komes^ for six hachelorst or soie-men^ endowed 
by tbe Manner^, with ao estate in Wenslej, in 
Darley, and a rent-charge on an estate in Not- 
tinghamshire. 

Near the entrance into the town from Ash* 
ferdy is a large cotton mill, belonging to R. 
Arkwright, Esq. in which from 300 to 350 per- 
tons of both sexes, are employed, inclusive of 
tbe mechanics, who keep the works in orderi 
The number of houses at Bakewell is about 
840; that of inhabitants nearly 1400. Between 
thm grit^stone and limestone strata about Bake^ 
well, is a thick -stratum of shale, which beingf 
of an argillaceous nature, and retentive of 
moisture, the pasturage on it is remarkably 
good. 

' About two miles to the South of Bakewell,' 
is HADbON-HALL, u Venerable mansion belong- 
ing to the Duke of Rutland : it is situated on 
a bold eminence, rising on the eastern side of 
the tiver Wye, and overlooks the pleasant vale 
of. Haddon. When the desolate turrets, and 
the princely miM of Haddon, are first seen 
amid a luxuriantly swelling gtoup of old and 
dark trees, thfey appear to be those of a strong 
fortress; and- even oa a nearer approach, the 
idea is apparently confirmed : but though thu3 

: • '-19^ '. • ' ^.4 — • • 



fit4 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

4a#tolliit#d^ it does oot tppMr ever to faa?e' 
VideA fiiraithed nitk the owns oi eflfeetudi . k* 
fii»t«li0«. Tli#iiuiMioii€0Mbte4ifftevemleimrt<* 
ments and offices, erected at diffisretit periods^ 
ttmnd t«r# jquadrafigular eourtei The most 
eocieet pwtU i* tbe tower oYor tke gateway, oa 
the Ewt aide of Uie vpp«r quadraagle, and waa 
the giraild entrance in the timeof the Peverekx 
this partf w«« jHfobablj b«ilt» about the re^a 
of Edward the Third—thhii howe^er^ caiwot 
Mw be exactly a^certaioed. The chapel. wae 
ewcted in Henry the Sixth's time ; and tlie. 
lower at the north-west corner, on whidi. iM'tt 
Ihe armsof tlie Verneu» Pipes, &€• may be 
awgned to the same reign. The gallevy on 
the South front was built in the reign of Etixa- 
hitbt by Sir John Mauners ; and the North side 
by the first Earl of Uutlaod^ of the second 
lirai^h: over this are the armsof Manaewaad 
Vfrnonsw 

> The principal entrance is. at the aorth-weat 
f ngie, under a high ^ower, thr&ugh a hmgf^ 
arched gateway, leading by a flight <tf aajgular 
Steps into the great couft: — ^From the g«c^ 
court is a flight of steps, leading to the gteat 
porcht over the door of which we tifoshidcia 
oi arms carved, in stone^the one contatniiig 
those of Vernon^ and tbs other, of Fuied de 



VIEW or DBIAYSUIML $m 

Pimbridftf Lordef Toi^^m 8hito|»iliiit^ wIm« 

ibaghtcr and bnra» babdia^ marritd 6tt 

Sidiard Venfon, aid con^Mbmbtjr lacreMed tkl 

faatly Mtita bj ber poascfisiooa^ On the rigbt 

0f the. pam^. leading ftom the foreh la tlii. 

Gr^al Aa//, having a comiaimicaliiMi mlh liia 

grand staircase and atiite apartimnts ; aitd on 

the kft» ranging in a li<ie, are font lan^ doar^ 

wn^&y with great pointed nUme arehtai wbicb. 

connect with the kitcben, buttei^, winn^eeUar) 

and miaieroas small apartments^ duit appeat 

to have been used aa lodging- roome, for the 

guests and fbeir retamess* Ih tbs .Utcben nm 

tvro large fire-plaeeS) with itena for a> pecnoKi* 

giouB number of spita; varifMss stoves^ grea£ 

do^lo ranges of dressers, sled aai cnoraious 

ehoppm^ block, wbeveew ass ax mi^kt Me #illl 

ease. ^ The contignoM kM^r,'* says an eni 

tertaintng Tonrist, ^ basaleadenliathtngt^tnH 

snfiieient to koM neat (m b garrisen, together 

wtik a pbice like a ton Isr smallist promib»t 

tka dbivy is of equat dKmensions/^ 

*^ The Hall must have been tbe gnMi pnUie 
dining-room, for nn other apattment is sufioi^^ 
ently spacions for the pnrposei At «ke appear 
endia.a raised floor, where the inMe .Isr ilie 
Lord^and his principal goestti was spread; and 
on two' sides is ugaliery, siipport(sdFOn piUkifiL 



«8 HISTORICAL AND MESCRIFTIVE 

From the soadi-east comer in a pasnge, leeiv 
ing to the great fitair-4)aie, formed of huge 
blocks of stone rudely jointed; at the tap of 
which, on the right, is a huge apavtaseat hoi^ 
with arras, and behind it a little door, opeiring 
into the hall^gallerj. 

'' On the left of the passage, at the head of 
the great stairs, are five or six semiciroolar aleps, 
formed of solid timber, that lead into the lAmg 
Oalleryf which occupies the whole south side 
of the second court ; and is 110 feat in length* 
and seventeen wide. The flooring is of oak 
planks, affirmed by tradition to have been oat 
out of a single tree, which grew in the garden^ 
The wainscotting is likewise of oak, and is cu- 
riously ornamented : on the firieae are carvings 
of boars^ heads, thistles, and roses; these, wkb 
the arms, &c. prove it^ in the opinion of Mr* 
King, to have been put up after the house aaaae 
into the possession of Sir John Manners, yet 
before the title of Earl of Rutland desceadad 
to that branch of the family. In the midst of 
the gallery is a great square recess, be«des se- 
veral bow windows, in one of which are the 
arms of the Earl of Rutland^ impaling Veraon» 
with its quarterings, and circled with a.gartpr* 
Sec. ; and in another, the arms of EogUnd, si* 
milarly encircled, and sunqpunted with a 



' viSWOFOBUBySUIRE. ' tSff 

ttmm. NMr iIm end of the galierj tea aborl 
fMMge, that opeMs iirt» it room, having a ^-icta 
ond-a cornice of renfbpla)8ler,«doriMcl with 
.fMMWcka, ■ and boan^ beads, in kiternnte sac- 
ccsbion: an adjoining apaitoaent is ornament- 
ed in the same manner; and over the chimney 
is a Ycrj laige bass.relief of Orpheus charming 
the heasts, of similar composition. 
• ** All the principal rooms, except the gaU 
lery, weas hong with k)08e arras, a great part 
of which still remainsf and the doors were con* 
eeakd every where behind the hangings, so 
that the tapestry was to be lifted up to pass in 
«iid-out; only <lbr«onr«i|ienee, there wove great 
inm hooks (many of which are still in their 
places,) by means whereof it might occasion- 
sdly be held back. The doors being thus con. 
cealed, nothing can be conceived more ill-fo- 
daened than the workmanship ; few of these 
ft at all close; and wooden bolts, rude bars, 
and iron hasps, are in general *^^' best and 
. onlyftwtenings.f'* 
.. The chapel is in the south-west ai^le of the 
great court; from whence the entrance leads 
SDder » sharp pointed aiijjh. It has a body and 

• ^rchcologia. Vol. VJ. f. 349. beauties of England, 
. Vol. 111. 



«t HISIORtOAL AJfP WtOUmVE 

Hro w)mr 4ividea Irom th« I^qmt bj pMlMt 
•iidpoiiiMd arclMk lAlhe vwdoiManaMM 
goorf mwniMof pttiofed glMi» Imitnf thd 49Mi 
mUmma CCCCXXVIL By th0$ uiim oi tki$ 
9k»^ iMm-mcht and a basin fer baljp water : aa 
tDoimt steae font in UkawiM pfemtvedkem.^^ 
Near the eairaoce iata tbf ehapal« stiNida tba 
KoniaD Altar Mmlioaad hy Mr. GiboiNi*^-^ 
*^ It waa d^iged qp^'^ saya ba^ ^^ in 4ba § raimda 
bekiii§ia|p ta UtuUom^hoHi^t^ aaar JBaAwrtf ^ aad 
Ml eut in a raajg^ 9owt oC rtanab < aiN^b aa tba 
baiiia itMlf ia buill af.''-*Tba inaanpiiaa m 
noar iiearlji obUtan^adi bat atscafdtag.to.iha 
abote^^iaantioaed an(tiqnarinn» waaabe fiirfliur* 

MO 

RRACIAGiB 

OSITTIVS 

CiECILIAN 

PRiEFECT 

TR© : : : 

V. S. 

Had<foo-Hall, is considered as ona' af our 

most complete baronial residtenoes now teiaaini^ 

ing ; and tboo^ nol; at present inbabiafed, nav 

ifr very '^vNKi repair^ •- w rtraa wiy' fa^arassHi^ la 



* In bis Camdeoi p. 497f 



r VIKW4W DMBVimilt^ 4Mi 

lfaijurtiqwir^« fifon ibe mtiy iii0ic«tioii8 il 
ioihibililirf * the ftttive nuniMM and UospiUlitf 
of MiraMHtoi«t md of tb^inMAvtmteii^ ye< 
gMalt armpigeiatfiit by wkteh tb«tr ttode of lift 
mm regidalid, TfaU Micknt itemieh wbukl 
li«Te4iMii flifll wore iMe(«sting) had it hot; 
fbomi'itftyyeiknmg^ bMtf fttrty^ped/Of ite iftif«* 
M«Qr«y iv^iiicb>irM, ftl rimt tiikie, lUHiTtyisd to 
BolMbrC^lo, in Loiee&i«rdiif^ HMtlmr Mat od 
th% Doke of Hatfeiid. 

' Thdwmiiiive'pftrk, which bdooged to thb 
liMise, was plotlghipd up and etihivatedK about 
ibe ^IM tittle nsp the ramoral of tba-fornitttre. 
Ti» gandiM ODMkt entirely of 'terraces ranged 
otteabote another ; eaoh^fingaeortofatoae 
b rft i i C ra de. Tbe^ pioa|ieeft h^m one br ' two 
tdUMtHiiift, are^ eatroiiieiy fine ; aittd in the vici-^ 
Mcy of 4he hooM, is a sweeping group of bhoa* 
rmwt old frees. ' 

•a Ooas en d ay linddmi, is set dewti » a be^ 
r«4irieh in- the manor of Bafcet^eil) «nd as be- 
hingi ng t»tbe king: ftut^snokafcenj^irasenn^' 
adtatii iMHO ^ asahor^ and beeame'dio^prapor^ 
tf #f tba jlM»«J(r, nifbiao ee^helni mi^fkmd tw 
I^Kraonahd iBMMi« inthe nrigwof Hicbaid she 
l%at. la the faMiiyiof fiassetsev balf »tfa^ esa 
sasi^oavrinuiidia the iSiaa of king Edaraifi tie 
Vbkd. fnte^beiasiB ol Vetuan 



ttti. HISTflfttCAI. AND DSiCRimVE 

t 

FranetySf who wmtmeAf^e Miroaaie of VemxM^ 
Md the wbok estete, wm tkeeatmwmfmrtj a£ 
Sir RMwi^ Vemoii, in II«M|r ikejStttVs.tioBe.^ 
TIu9.geDtl«iiiaa waaspMJktr.of Uie parUaomit; 
keldiat.Lcmcler, is tke hnnh yrar of Hearji^ 
the. Sixth {14M) bymhovibewee^eftemaTdft 
eoastituted treararer. fdi Calois, and died in 
the ^ear )4A2. He wm •ncceedkd by. hifr Mit^ 
who im^alio af^p^iiited Coastabk of JBngited, 
and was the labt that heU:lbfit:i«apojrtaiitoftoe» 
Sir. Henry. Veiraon' hb/son and ancoeiwr, wm 
goTi^or and tmiwrer to Prince Afllbnr» the; 
eldeiitoDaiid heir afipMvatoC king Uinfjr thci 
Seventh. . Theie.ifia,tradititin.thet.4he Prwee 
fniqnMtly lived with Bifi Henry at rUaddooy 
vherejibeflewai an apartment calted the Prinna^ 
Cbamfaisriiivtith bis arms entinsewralfAaeee.* 
SiiKjieQige, the son of .Sir Heniy. VemoHy won 
ao mnch distingnished for his mugnilteeot poet 
and .hospitality, that ,he .acqoirod the name 
Be, King ef ike Peak^ TOn hie.denth*. ia;«ha 
seimith year of Queen. Cli«!ib«b, hie pofMH 
sinnfv t^hish amounted. tOi thiatyt m w t oifc dA«s 
eeended ;to his two dM^pht^ MAi|^etiaMl 
Bteroihy.: the fonnar stas n|arried.t6; 8ic.Xb9-« 
mas4Silnn]ey, KbU seec»i«d asn of .thejEiud «C 
Dferh^r,. aind the ; latter to Sir i^pt;Mwwiwa^ 
Ktai soaand ee«trte Thonnn, fiietE^H of Rut? 



VIBW or DERBYSHIRIL M 

hmA /9{ that naiB#. 9f lli» narmge, Had* 
dM, w4tb 8e?end manovs in Derbyshire, thai 
bed been held by Ibe Veraons, became the 
property of the Manners; and have regnlarly 
descended to the preseM Dake of Rutland. 

The heirs and desctadantsof Sir John Maa^ 
iierfi) ^x^ntioued to reside at lladdon, for eome 
centnnes; hot at the bsginiiing of the last, 
tt was quitted for fielvoir ^Castle. In the 
time of the first Duke of Rutland, (eo created 
by <2ueen Anne^) seven score seryanta were 
OMiatained here; and the bouse was kept open, 
in the true style of Old English ^Hospitality, 
daring twelve days after Ckristasas. I^ncethot 
period, it has, occasionally been the scene of 
nasith and revelry; and the cheerful welcome 
•f ibrmer ages, so far as the despoiled condi- 
tion ef the mansion would admit, has not been 
wanting to increase the pleasure of the guests. 
The joyous festive board was spread here, 
elMftly after tlie oopciuslon of the Peace with 
America, when' nearly 190 couples danced in 
the long gallei^. 

AflUFORD, Amifofdy ;fs a chapc3#y in the pi|- 

rish of ^Bakewell ; the village is situated on the 

iMUikc of the Wye, and fi<eqatn«ly- from it» low* 

iM68^ -caHcMl Aikfvfdm cA<i IVaUr. The wirak 

1© ■ 4 



608 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

liberty contains, about 130 bouMs, and 600 in- 
babitants, who are employed in ootton spin- 
nfng, agricnlture, and at the marble manu- 
factory. 

Here, Edward Plantaganet of Woodstock, 
£arl of Kent, and after him, the HoUandsy 
Earls of Kent, and more recently, the Netnlie$^ 
Earls of Westmoreland, bad a residence; of 
wbich the only vestige now remaining, is the 
moat that surrounded the castle. This estate 
was sold by the Earl of Westmoreland, to Sir 
William Cavendish, the favorite of Wolsey, and 
still continues in the Cavendish family, being 
the property of the Duke of Devonshire. 

** The Marble Works in this village, where 
the black and grey marbles found in the vici- 
nity are sawn and polished, were the first q£ 
the kind, ever established in Great Britain. 
.They were originally constructed about seventy 
years ago, by the late Mr. Henry Watson, of 
Bakewell; but though a patent was obtained 
.to secure the profits of the invention, the ad* 
vantages were not commensurate with the eic- 
•pectations that had been formed. The present 
proprietor is Mr. John Piatt, of Rotherham, ia 
Yorkshire, who rents the quarries at Ashford^ 
where the black marble is obtained, of the 
Duke of Devonshire ; as well as those where 



VIEW (A DERBYSHIRE. Qog. 

the grey marble is procured, at Rkklow Dde^ 
Mar Moneyasb. These are the only quarries 
of the kiod now worked id any part of Derby «^ 
shire. The machinery is somewhat similar in 
construction, to that described in the mar- 
ble and spar %vorks at Derby; but it is worked 
by water. One part, called the Sweeping Mill^ 
from its circular motion, is also different ; by 
this, 9l floor i containing eighty super^cialfeet 
of marble slabS} is levelled at the same time/' . 
Monsal-Dalb, is a most pleasing sequester* 
ed retreat, at a little distance to the West of 
the road leading from Ashford to Tideswell; 
On entering this Dale from the above-mentioned 
road, the river Wye is seen, winding its cur** 
rent, through a rich and verdant valley. In 
some places, the scenery is diversified by dark 
rocks, which jut out on the South side, like the 
immense towers of a strong fortress, with the 
stream of the river sportively flowing at their 
feet. Lower down, the crags soften into ver- 
dure; the Dale expands, and the eye dwells, 
enraptured, on the rich prospect that presents 
itself. The mountainous banks on each side, 
are diversified, with fine masses of wood, which 
occasionally slope down to the margin of the 
river : in other places, the grey colour, of the 
rocks, is beautifully harmonized by shrubs, un- 



OM' HISTCXtlCAL AND OESCRIFTIVE 

dcn^ood, aad green turf^ wbieb intermix tbeir 
Tftfjing tints, and increaae the general ricbneM 
of the scenery. More distnntt the bosom of 
the Dale spreads wider ; and the stream soitlj 
meviders through lozoriant meadows, hav^g 
its margin occupied by a smallfarm*booseften* 
compassed and partly concealed %rith wopd^^ 
and with its accompaniments, of a rustic wooden 
bridge, broken rocks, and green turf, i^m* 
posing a very picturesque scene* The scenery 
of Monsal«Dale, is in some places romantic ; 
but its general character is picturesque beauty^ 
which it possesses in a most enchanting degree—r 
and the man must be destitute of taste for the 
beauties of nature, who can travel this way, 
and look into it, without being filled nritb the 
bigbest degree of admiration and delight»«-r 
Standing upon the edge of a high and steep 
precipice, which forms the background, aiid 
casting the eye down into the valley, almost 
every object is beheld, which can contribute to 
reader a small scene beautiful; and the sight is 
delighted with one of the most pleasing viewai 
that the plastic hand of Nature ever arranged* 
** Peaceful Monsal-Dale ! let us look down on 
thy sequestered hamlets, and thy huts of hapr 
piness! long, long may it be, ere the emissarias 
of darkness create among thy inhabitants^ ei^ 



VIIW or DERBYSHIRE. 60$ 

▼ies, aiwieticA, and wretcb^||M»,Or lucre le§4 
Ihcn fvom tb^ir ^native parndise V* 
* *^ Or the auniniit of ibe emioetice that OTer# 
laoks MonsalrDale, and iahiere called tbe 6rf«« 
JFifin, was a large barrQW» about 16a feet iq 
oirctitiifet'ence, cbiefly eonoposad of broken mas-' 
aes of limefitDne, to obtain whicb, tbe barrow 
Waft destroyed, at different times, in tbe y«ars 
1794, ITSS, and 1706. Witbin tbis tumulm, 
tarioas skeletons were discovered, as well as s^ 
iT^eral urns^f coarse clay, slightly baked, con* 
taining burnt bones, ashes, beaks of birds, &c. 
Two of the skeletons were of gigantic size, and 
)ay in opposite directions, with their feet pointr- 
4ng to an orn placed between them. In one 
part, at the bj»ttom, was a cavity cut in tbe 
«oiid rock (two feet nine inches broad, and two 
ieet one inch in depth,) wherein lay tbe bonei 
of a skeleton with the face downward; and on 
ibm top of the skuU, where it appeared to have 
been fixed by a strong oetneat, a piece of blafsk 
Derbyshire marbte, dnessed, two feet in length, 
•nine niches broad, and six inches thick: under 
the head, were two soaall arnow-heads of ti\at» 
hk another cavity immed in tbe soil, with flat 
•tones, at the sides ami bottom, wem aaiies and 
iiumt bones« A spear^head, and some olhi^ 
BemorjJAj^ of apcieut.cwtomib wejre alMi found 



«09 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

here. It should be noticed, that, excepting 
the side next the precipice, the summit of the 
Great Finn, is surrounded bj a double ditl^b, 
with a Yallum to each : the distance between 
the Talla, is 160 yards. 

^ Mr. Hayman Rooke, from whose letter, in- 
serted in the twelfth volume of the A rchseologia, 
some of the above particulars are extracted, 
imagines this barrow to^ave been of very re^ 
mote antiquity, and quotes a passage in con^ 
firmation, from the Nenia Britannica; the 
learned author of which, when speaking of 
arrow*heads of flint observes, ' they are evi- 
dences of a people not in the use of malleable 
metal ; and it therefore implies, wherever these 
arms are found in barrows, they are incontes- 
tibly the relics of a primitive barbarous peo» 
pie, and preceding the sera of those barrows, 
in which brass or iron arms are found.'^^ 

Baslow, Basselau^ is a chapelry in the pa* 
risb of Bakewell, containing about 190 bouses. 
The liberty of Baslow includes, the hamlets of 
Bubnal, Froggat, and Curbar, containing al- 
together about 00 houses. 

Great Longstonb, Lqngesdune^ is a cha* 
pelry, containing about 80 houses : the church 

V Beauties of England, Vol. III. p. 483. 



. VIEW OF D£RBY$HIREt §07 

is dedicated to St* Giles* Little Ltrngstone^ an 
adjoining hamlet, contains about 25 houses. 

The charch at Sheldon, Scelhadun^ is de* 
dicated to All-Saints.: the number of houses 
in this liberty i& about thirt j-five. 

Taddington, Tadintune^ is another chapeU 
rj under Bakewell. The church is dedicated 
to St. Michael ; and the number of houses in 
the hamlet is about seyenty. These villages 
are situated in a part of the High*Peak, which 
is but little cultivated ; and therefore, the in- 
habitants depend chiefly upon the. working 
the lead-mines for their support. 
. MomiTAaB, ManeU^ is also a chapel ry in 
the parish of Bakewell : it consists of ab^i^ 
£fty-five houses, scattered irregularly, over a 
Jarge portion of ground, and surrounded with 
distant elevated tracts of country. In the reig<i 
of Edward the First, t^e. Archbishop of Can- 
terbury ordered, that, to th^ twelve acres of 
fertile land, which the inhabitants gave, at the 
foundation of the chapel, to the priest cele- 
brating divine worship there three times in a 
week, they should add one mark every year, 
and the chapter should pay the remainder, in 
.order that for the honor of God, and the in- 
crease of his worship, divine service might be 
continually performed there. The church is 
dedicated to St. Leonard. 



HIST0lt1CAL AM0 DSSCtimVB 



< WitliaiB 4e Lymiwd, who bdd the muamr^ 
MenejMh m Hie reigfi of fidUrard the ThM| 
had « grant of a market and fait to he held 
het«, ia teirard fmt the good ser? icee he had 
perrormed for the kiag «a Scotfaiad; bat the 
l^laee Miftg: *M>w hilt werf thinly iafaabitod, the 
ttiariiet and latr are disoontuiaed^ At the dig^ 
taaee of a mile und ahall^ ma aarrowdale* 
whieh preseats soine pleasaat eeeneiy, ore th# 
l|aarrie8 where much of theJPorbyshiM laarblo 
tt obtained. The rooks frail whieh it U blast* 
Md, seeaniflaiOiftfrholly oonipoeedof etroehfL • 

CaaLMORTOf^ Hi « TvlUge sitaated .«t the 
4itoK of 4 tligk Miioeaice, aaiioontaMiiijf ^nt 
Imtf houteft. The iahabiMott imetimflpj^ 
\^biefly, A the lead miaee, 'and in the purauitt 
of agricalture. The aapaMifiict^ni of rjhando 
4ia8 aho heen ioftrodaeed here. 

in the retgO' of Edward i.. (1380) the wMoaa 
'Cif the chiBipel of Chelmorton, was estimated 
'at m%%y marks; two parte of which, the Prior 
-of Leotoa in NottinghamshiM Mcctv«d| aad 
4he remaioder belonged Mthe chaptee at Litd^ 
*fieM; and the Arohbiebep of CSanteiiiury oi^ 
'4)ered,that the prior a«d chapter rfMMldproirida 
ornaments and books: ia the same proportioau 
The chapter was also obliged to IbrMsbo priest^ 
«nd 4d aUow five marks 4br his support^ 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. ^ 

Were to be taken from the tithes, before they 
Were carried out of the liberty. 
' On the summit of the hill above the village, 
ire two considerable barrows, within a shor£ 
distance of each other. The circumference of 
the largest, is nearly eighty yards,-^that of thd 
smallest about seventy : on the top of both is a 
circular cavity or basin. Another barrow, des- 
cribed by Mr. Pilkington, as situated about a 
quarter of a mile to the north-east of Chelmot- 
ton, was examined in the year 1762. It mea- 
sured at the base about seventy-five yards in 
circumference, and in height, seven feet. A 
knowledge of its inward construction was' ob- 
tained by some labouring men, who were 
searching for stone to build a walled fence in 
the neighbouring field. After removing a thin 
covering of moss and soil from the lower ex- 
tf-emity of the mount, they discovered a kind 
of breast- Work, or regular wall of single stones, 
formed without mortar. Not apprehensive of 
meeting i^ith any thing more extraordinary be- 
yond this wall, they proceeded in their work, 
but were soon surprised by the sight of seteral 
hutnan bodies. They found that the wall was 
at the end of a cell or coffin, in which the bo- 
dies had been deposited. The breadth' of the 
-20 I 4 



61^ HisTpi^ig^v. A^P ^J^s^RVnvE 

fully ascertained-^it ^fssjup^p^d to be aboirt 
a jar^* Th^ suie^ <|on^8tjed of stonef euht 

?? ^)?,^r- ^V.' ""JJ^ f^"'"!''^?.* Hind of wall i^ 
rart^tion: the stones used for the covei;i|ia| 

were from one tq two injches tjbic^, l^u^ not 

large. 

Thougb some of the stones^ ajffi a ¥nay %^^^, 

titj of Ujc^soji hajjl^ 4f'p*>t *??^' '^^ '^*°'^* ^-^ 
several of t^ human bf^dies^or skeletons, mieh)^ 
be clearjy di^tipguishedi ^y}^%^ ^ ^uU length,^ 
with their heads towards the. centre of the bar- 
row. The bones had| n^yer l^ctQ distuitbed^ 
and were apparently unit^^itogelheri^t tl)e 4if% 
ferent joii^s; bot^opth^ slightest n^ptipiyy t|ie^ 
wefe 'opnd to be ^ojlirely loose and^ upcoiy^ij^q-: 
ted : upon^ examiiuiUon, they were discovjei:^fj( 
to bf remarkably stroijg and sou^dr-the rib^ 
in particular, w^re so little^ d^ayed, tjiftt tb^ 
would e^^ily bend without breakjmg^i. Thos^ 
wl^o saw the bones, thouffht, th^^ t|ie;r^ ^'f{V^ 
uncommonly large; and.it w»s ipifg;j|p^(th^ 
the perspns to whom tbejjbj^^ffn^f n|ji|Kt.h^yA 
beei^ when alive, at lea^t^ Sf ?en fee^ hj^b : th^ 
te^th also, were sound and pierfi^pt*. F^i^pj^v^.tl)^ 
number of hopes and skplls^ an4 t|^c^ dimev^ 
sipns of the vault, it w,as^supposed,^tliat it con* 



fAineci Ibar ^r ftve numan liaaies: ana Ij^bagh 
0DI7 one vattU was opened and examined, it 
^as thoQgli^t tk^ otKiers^ wenecarfielldifougti- 
oiil ttie wnol^ i^ircudirl^ence of tbe mount; 
wtiibb, accbrciing t^ ilie iilculatioii made^ 
might coiiiAiii twehiyl 

I'ii'er^ is at 'CiieiihoWoti, a sireain, atleiided 
wilh sbnie singular circumstances. Tbe water 
wnicH rises bdf ot the groiina at the head of 
the village, appeai-s ac first in a very cotisidel 
rable current, but, as it proceeds, gradualij di« 
mihishes, tifl at length, it iritirelj disappears. 
Formerly it ran ttie wKbte lengCh of tne street'; 
out since the very sevei'e ffbsi, in 1740; \i flows 
bnty about hal/ tfie disfaiice irom its source, (i 
did before. This piiWnomenon is thus ac- 
counted tor; — Ttie soil is a ligTit cafd^reous 
^arth, ihrougb wnich moisture vftfl easify pass ; 
anci, as ^his country abbunits wiih chasms ana 
fissures, it is not improbable, that the course 
of the stream may lie over one of these open- 
ings, which will readily receTve tTie water, af- 
ter it has passed through the soil, wilh which 
it is covered. 

Between Chelmorton and Buxton, within 
a\>oul' a itiile of fhie latter, near a hill catted 
Sldden^low^ are fhe remains of some aiicien£ 
ekrtb- works, which Dr. S^tulLcly has noticed in 



619 HISTORICAL AND DESCIMPTIVE 

the sMosd voluiiie of bis Itinerary. Since bi* 
timei the ground has been enclosed and cultU 
vated, bat sufficient vestiges may yet be distin- 
guished to ascertain the form of these memo- 
rials of antiquity. They consist of two divif- 
sionsF— an ellipsis, and an oblong square. Th# 
formefi supposed by that learped antiquary to 
have been a place of public exhibitions and 
games, is encompassed by a shallow dilch, near* 
ly a yard and a half wide; and a mound of 
l>ank, about one foot high, and seven yards and 
a half broad : the enclosed area measures, for* 
ty-five yards from south-ei|st to north- west, 
and.sixty-six, from north*east to sot|th-west.~v 
The square division is bounded by a vallum, 
now nearly levelled by the plough, and. extends 
in length forty-five yards, and in breadth twen* 
ty*four. A small semi-circular cove of earthy, 
is mentioned by Dr. Stukeley as being at tho 
side of the circle farthest from the square. 



BUXTON, 

Buxton, lies in a hollow, surrounded by 
dreary hills, and extensive barren heaths : anc} 
SQ uninviting, and cheerless is thp scenery 



VIEW OF DEBJBYSHIRE.. fit^ 

ttroand it, that were it not for the deserved re- 
putation of its mineral waters^ it would never 
have attracted any notice, and perhaps never 
have become the residence of human beingi;^. 
On approaching this celebrated watering place, 
the country appears naked and forlorn ;:an^ 
nothing but extensive tracts of bleak, elevate4 
moor-lands present themselves to the eye.-^ 
Long before Buxton is approached, its sit^ 
may be disqovered, by the singular appearancf 
of the hill a little beyond, . whose declivity is 
scarred by innumerable limestone quarries; the 
rubbish from which, contrast strikingly with 
the black heath around, and produce a verjr 
remarkable effect. Owing to the hills which 
rise to a considerable height all round, the 
town is not discov,ered,.tillit is almost reached^ 
and its appearance, when the public wsilks and 
rides are thronged with . carriages^ persons on 
horseback, and parties pf gay pedestrians^^ 
must produce a striking e^ect upon a stranger,, 
who, after travelling several hours, over moors^ 
und steril heights, suddenly advances, within^ 
?iew of this sequestered spot, rendered gay 
^nd lively in its. appearance, by its stately 
buildings, and its showy, dashing, temporary 
inhabitants. 

|t appears from a manuscript of the lale Df, . 



iSk\ti t^MM ifa m^H AaOltnhks td thfc tH. 
YittMsi ihkt Miat illlttqttiry }^iekd thb A^ 
or fUif^AHtt kt Bttxtdtt. ThM itt #khfa ipf iilgk 
i*«M kntt#H M (He RbiUaiU, Utid ifat tt^d (^«- 

tiMhiftg wM, Aof ailf i i4««iiliM>tfe, btli k i)^ 
iMteMry prSeHet;. Ift^fid^ift frdol Vkfioki tbi^. 
CBflli^ d^cdth^kUctir. Seftirti dn6i^lit Mildk 
tmlc«Mnrt« ftt tBi* Btxrt, iMftieiiiarfj' <)ilfe cxffM 
file Bdih-kittf, 6f BdthUk^gdU, Whitll cttttt:. 
flkekMW «t firttogfr, a IMttidrt MAtibfi ^Ii^l46ii)^; 
ind ^M MbUS ity iUe \tii^ Mi'. Pi^g^ ; it(A 

Ibttwn ih dHfdHerf< piitik 6f Its i;6(it-s«, Hy M 
kpptiflHti6tiH 6(, ttigh-StredU SH-itVPUUttft 

tttstd #6tk(ttdti«hfp fattire ilKto bl^^H dtb£6^6M 
n<6H6 tft difiei'^tM thIAtei. Bitm^ Citb'ij^ iiren- 

iian ^Xvlitttk, dldse by St. itnhe'^wi^r, ti^b^i 
are t!be'rtihiir 4f /£r nhd^f 5aM.'' Ttfis-Wtf 
fd'feeif cbw*A Itt'<Hey<iiir 1709, Wh^ti Sir Thi- 
difls l/eR^s; tff Ch«ifchff(i, m itfenibVj of If cUte 
|j« Hatf ree<W^ iVoiA (hif ^atifir, «i^^d*sf sdiiill 
Ktdhe ale6Ve' over the itell ; toote ca^abiMM* 
leadcnt cistienfe; anti diff^i'ent aV^itiicfs a^kreirt- 
\y Roman, were found in digging the' fblhlda^' 
tion. The sh^^ and dfihtittsibiis of A*^ ita- 



m^^v vi»<^T«i 4i^v«^ m^ ifm Has 
^T^ iM. ^m wp««nA ^1 ^ w oM(iim 

Vr WW^^f*^ <!9<4r«Pfe», ^ mm 9« ^i*b 

eighteen inches : the water wa^^coj^^jt^ ijlHl 
this room bj a leaden (kipe.* 

Though tv'€|^l»y.<»^jv%,a^ijSpiHrti»ttiit, tJn^ Bux- 
ton vratera were used in tlpe n)iddle ages, it 
«i«<W JKI(V!i».akilP^lMli 4>fil ?ff)m QflMHlPtirely 
forsal^en ; and.it is not i^it|l the beginnin^jOf 
the sixteenth ceptur^, that we have c^rtaii| 



6l« HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

evidence, that thejr were in any high degree of 
repatation. Dr. Jones, who in 1571, published 
Observations on Buxton Baths, gave them ce- 
lebrity, by his account and recommendation 
of them. The first convenient house for the 
reception of vilsitants, was erected a short time 
previous to this publication, by the Earl of 
Shrewsbury, on the same spot as the house 
called at present the Hall^ stands; which is 
composed of a part of the old building. This 
building occasioned the waters to be much 
more resorted to than heretofore, by all ranks 
of people. Mary queen of Scots, being, at that 
time in the custody of the Earl of Shrewi^bury, 
was brought along with him, and his wife Eli- 
zabeth, in one of his visits to this place ; on 
which occasion this unfortunate Princess took 
her farewell of Buxton in this distich, which 
excepting a trifling sdteration, aire Caesar's line« 
upon Feltria : — 

Buxtona qua calida ctUbrabert nomine fynpha^ 
Forti ndhi posthac non adeunda, vakm 

BuxtaUf whose fame thy tepid waters tell. 
Whom I, perhaps, no more shall se^-^farewell. 

Buxton was much frequented in the reign of 
Elizabeth ; and since that period^ the number 
of persons resorting to it, and the buildings 
erected for their accommodation, ' have beea 



VIEW Of OERBY^HIRE^ flf 

^piit49iifilij increasing. About the jear IfiTO* 
the old i|a)l was taken down, and a new. and 
fplarged edifice was erected -^ on the spot, bjr 
William, third Earl of Devonshire. Thif 
building, has, since that time, undergone ae^ 
Teral improvements, and is still one of thf 
^ripcipal hotels for the reception of company^ 
The baths are enclosed in this building; the;^ 
»refive i^ number, all ad[joining each other,bnt 
in different apartments. The gentlemen's bath 
is in a close room, ten yards in length, and five 
and a half wide: along one end and side, is a 
ston.e bench, for the use of the bathers; and a^ 
each corner are steps leading into the bath.— 
Thifi^is twenty-«ix; feet and a half long; twcdfe 
feet eight inches broad, and at a medium four 
feet seven inches deep. On the south*east side 
is a stratum of black limestone, through which 
the two principal^ springs rise; but the water 
.filso bubbles up in various lesser springs, 
through the chinks between the stones with, 
^hich the bath is paved. In the bath for ladies, 
and that appropriated to the use of the poor, 
the water i»si|es through several seams in the 
floonL The two other baths ^re private. It 
has been calculated, that all the springs throw 
but the water at the rate sixty gallons in a 

90 ft4 . 



y 



618 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVK 

minale; the gentlemen^s bath having been fii# 
led H) the height of five feet in fifty minutes; 
and two hours and fifty minutes being required 
to fill the three baths. 

On a chemical analysis, Buxton waters have 
t)een found to be sliglitly impregnated with 
Inineral matter, particularly calcareous earth, 
sea- salt, selenite, and acidulous gas, with per- 
haps some other permanently elastic vapour.— 
The almost invariable temperature of the wa- 
ter is 82 degrees of Farenheit's thermometer'; 
and is clear, sparkling, and grateful to the pa- 
late. The tem|>erature of the baths is extreme* 
1y agreeable to the feeUng ; a slight shock, is 
felt at the first immersion, which is succeeded 
by a pleasant warmth. The beneficial tendency 
of the waters, is particularly apparent in gout 
and rheuin'atibm ; many persons, every year, 
absolutely crippled by these disorders, being 
restored to the use of their limbs: they are 
found beneficial .also in nephritic and bilious 
disorders, and debility of the stomach and in- 
testines: In these, as usual in the adniinistra- 
ti<in of mineral waters, much of the benefit 
must be imputed to theair^ exercise, and change 
of living. The water, when drank in any con- 
siderable quantity, occasions many feverish 
s^ mptoms, such as a sort of giddiness, attend* 



VIEW OP DERBYSHIRE. 6lj) 

-cd witb a sense of universal fulne^ arid drow- 
siness, and is found to possess a binding and 
heating qoalitj ; but in a few dajs ibehe sen- 
rations go off; and it often happens, ibat the 
patient does not feel the full benefit of the wa- 
ters till he has left the place. 

Dr. Denhatn considers the Buxton waters, as 
a more active remedy than is generally sup- 
posed ; and not only dissuades trom its use in 
all inflammatory and feverish complaints, but 
likewi^ limits the quantity to be taken. iu cases 
where it is proper, to a moderate portion. *' In 
common,*' says he, *• two glasses, each of the 
size of a third part of a pint are as much as 
ought to be'drank before breakfast, at't the dis- 
tance of forty minutes between each ; and ode 
or two of the same glasses between breaklast 
and dinner will be quite suflicieiii/' With re- 
spect to bathing, he recommends for invalids, 
the time between breakfast and dini«er as the 
most proper, and directs that the prescri4>e<l or 
usual exercise should be taken bef<ire going 
into the bath : and that the water muNt never 
be drank immediatelv before bathins:* But the 
most general time'at prevent for bathing, is in 
the morning before breakfast, which is thought 
the best. In this respect, the compatiy at the 
Duke's Innii, have an advantage, as they are 



««ft HISTORICAL AMD DESCRIPTIVE 

permitted to Imtiie heibre Bine o'doek, a piv 
Tikge not allowed to the other booseB.^ 

The plape whene the water is usiialljc dia»k, 
it St. Anm^B Well; (to whoB it waa anciently 
eonaecrated) an elegant claasical buildingt in 
the ' Grecian style ; to which it is conveyed into 
m white mai^ble basin, fitHn the original i^ring 
by a narrow grit-Atone passage, so close and 
well-contrived as to prevent it from losing but 
a small portion of its heat ; its geaeral haigbt 
being from 80| to 80i degrees of Farenheit. 

The principal part of Buxton, is siiuated 
near the springs. The Cre9eeni is a noble and 
magnificent range of bailding, erected here 
by the Dnke of Devonshire, about thirty yearn 
ago, from a design anid under the superiaten- 
dance of Mr. Carr, the Architect. Its name 
describes its fbrm^it is of stone dag on the 
Spot, and faced with a fine free-stone, from a 
quarry one mile and a half fi-om Buxtoa on ih^ 



roni 



♦ The poor at their bath, are not only exempt frt 
cbargr, but also meet with great assistance and suppci: 
the charitable cent r but .or.s qf the company ; it being t ti>. j- 
ary ka every new comer, jf he stays more than a day, to ^iv.> 
one shilling for their use. And on bringing a certificate from 
the minister of their parish, and medical attendant, vouching 
for their being proper objects of charity, they arc admitted ^o 
partake of the bi»efit of the fund; from which, neccssaiy 
medicines are purchased, and fourteen indigent persons sup- 
plied with six shillings wedcly for one room h. 



'VSBW OFaXRBYSBlKE. m 

Onkf rowi. It consMito^ef tiriw storiea, Am 

loirMt raslic, iwiBiAgtilieavlifiilooloaBadk.or 

"piMMKLf 88 a dbeker ftmn ike «un «iid heat ; ^ex* 

'teBding the^ wiide length of the fcont, and « 

M^en feot wide withio the pillars, andelevea 

fcat'^ttgh* tleowr '^pilasters ianii ilbe dWwoM 

hetweea the wkidoim above^ aad adfiport «n 

elegant Mastrade that swmounte the £nmU the 

apan-of wfaieh is 067 feet. In the jeeotre ate 

the wms^f the Cairendish fiunilj, neatly out 

in atone, and sanaioinyted with a. pair of nal««^ 

fal stag's antlers. TbeCrescent consists of one 

private Lodging* hoase, and three Hotels, in 

tlie largert of which, is the BalUrooin, a very 

elegant and well proportioned apartment, 

4ighted cnrioasly by small semicircular windows 

just above the • large* pn^cting cornice, which 

prevents* them foom being seen, and gi^'es an 

eHect without an apparent cause. The lower 

rooms of some of the houses composing the 

Crescent,lbrra a series of shops. The number of 

windows in the whole Crescent is about three 

hundred and seventy-eight ; but as this noble 

edifice is situated so low, it cannot be seen to 

*idvantage from anystat^o*^ 

A little to the North of theCrescent, are the 
Stables, an extensive pile, forming on the put-^ 
side, an irregular .poU^on., but having a cir* 



CH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

calar area witbin,. sixty yards in diHineter. — 
They are commodious and extenhive ; colonna- 
ded round the iufeide, for the convenience of 
the grooms in wei weather, and in the centre 
there is a spacious ride. The pillars which 
support ( ht'he arches are about ten feet in height. 
The Coach' houhes Hve also on an extensive scale, 
a little decaclied from the stables, and capable 
of containing abbut three score carriages. 1 he 
vrhole building is admirably planned and ex- 
ecuted, and the public are greatly indebted to 
the taste of the architect, as well as to the mu- 
nificence of' the noble proprietor, who is said 
to ha/ve expended the sum of ^120,000 in com- 
pleting the Crescent and its appurtenances. 

Besides the Hall, and the Hotels in the Cre- 
scent, there are several good inns and lodging- 
houses in the other parts of th^ town ;* and also 
a number of inferior boarding-houses, generally 
crowded with persons !in the less elegant walks 
of life, who resort hither for amusement and 
health, from the ditierent populous manufac- 
toring towns in the neighbouring counties.* 



♦ The charge for bathing at the public baths U one shil- 
ling each time; private ones, two and three shillings. Ihc 
expences at the different house* where company are receiv 
ed during the reason, cjo not differ materially. Dinner at 
the ordinary, is two shillings and six-pence ; tea, on^ shil* 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. M$ 

. The Buxton season commences about the 
end o( [VI a 7, and concludes in Ociaber'; during 
which time, its amusements 'are. various and. 
diversitie<l. Three assemblies are held, every 
w^ek — VIonday and Fri<lay' for an 'rnidress, 
and Wednesday for a dress, ball. An. elegant 
card-room, which adjoins the ball-room, is op^n 
every evening; a small commodious tbeiatre is 
usually fvell filled by a genteel audience, three 
evetiiiigs a vieek ; and .for the diversion of gen* 
tiemen, a pack of go6d harriers are kept by 
subscription: — in short, to the admirerof mix* 
ed societies, such a place as Buxton cannot fail 
of being agreeable ; and it possesses many more 
comforts, thai^ a number of the fashionable 
•bathing and marine resorts can boast of. 

Prayers are read, during the season, in the 
assembly-room, the chapel at Buxton. being 
too small, and in too ruinous a state, fojc the 
company. The allowance for the minister is' 



lin§ ; breakfast and supper, one shilling and six-pence each* 
A single bedded room is halF-a-guinea pei week ; « double, 
fourteen shillings; and a sitting room, according to its 
quality, &c: from twelve to sixteen shillings. The sub- 
scription to the- ball and card room, is one guinea; but If 
a family, the two fir^t only pay a guinea each, the others 
half-a-guinea ; six shillings for a single i)ight. The sub- 
scriptiun to the> news-room, six shillings for the season*— • 
The different billiard- roomS| as in other places. 



«M HISTORICAL AND DESCUrTlVX 

dtfraytd bj rahacription. Butt tut the hefter 
•otwrniiiodatioii of >ittton, the D«ke itf Ilo» 
WMisbire is ereeting an ekgaot new ohnrdt, at 
^ linle duitance to the North of the town, qm 
the bank of the brook which iii?ides the pn» 
nshee of Bakewell and Tideswell, and eepamtee 
the Aocese of Lichfield aofl Coventry fmdi that 
of York. 

In front 4^ the Creacent is a fine rierag lawn, 

yiaated with tives, upon which is an epinence 

called Stam^Cliffs, or Oms^Clif, over the top 

of which a pleasant walk has been made.*-- 

' llere is a low or banow, of dil&fent shape to 

any other that has been diseoiveced iif BmAf^ 

ehire. It is long, narrow at top» and slants oC 

at the sides and ends: the lei^lh at the bottom 

is about fifteen, the breadth six, and its height 

ebout two, yards. This barrow is encompassed 

by a diteh, and has a cavity at each end, near 

the sooth-west, and nortfa*west corners* Som^ 

jT^mains of an ancient settl^me^t, supposed J|o 

be JRoman, were visible about thirty years ago^ 

«oo this piece of ground. 

The nnmber of houses in Buxton is about 100^ 
which are built chiefly of i|tone : that of resi« 
dent inhabitants, about 400. The number of 
visitors, who sojourn here during the season, k 
uncertain ; but, as the .public and private lodg« 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 625 

]i)g*houses contain accommodatioiiB for about 
700, it may be concluded, that a greater num- 
ber than that, are annually entertained ; parti- 
cularly as of late years, many of the company 
ha?e been obliged to seek residences in the 
neighbouring villages. The principal, if not 
the only, dependance of the inhabitants, is on 
the expenditure of the crowds who assemble 
here. 

About a mile to the westward of Buxton is 
Poolb's Hole, a vast cavern formed by Nature 
in the limestone rock, and which was, accord- 
ing to tradition, the r^idence of an outlaw 
named Poole. ' The entrance into this cavity 
is low and contracted, and the passage at first 
so very narrow, that it is impossible to go 
^forward without stooping; but after haVing 
proceeded in this posture for about twenty-five 
yards, the passage widens into a lofty and spa* 
cious cavern, " from whose roof depends a 
quantity of sialaciiie^ produced^ by the drop- 
pings of water laden with calcareous matter.—- 
Part of thi^ substance adheres to the roof, and 
ibrms gradually those pendent spiral masses 
c^\\ed,^ater4cles or stalactites ; another portion 
drops with the water to the ground, and at- 
taching itself to the floor is here deposited, 
20 L 4 



etS HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVS 

and becomes the stalagmite^ a lonipy mass of 
the same matter. One of the former, of im* 
mense size, filled the Jlitch of bacon^ occiira 
about the middle of the cavern, which here be- 
comes very narrow, bat after a short passage, 
Upreads again to a greater width, and continuea 
large and lofty, till we reach another surpri- 
migly large mass of stalactite^ to which the 
name of Mary Queen of Scots' Pillar is attach- 
ed, from the tradition of that Queen having 
paid a visit to the cavern, and proceeded thoa 
fkr iff to its recesses,''* at the time she visited 
Buxton. As this pillaY cannot be passed with- 
out some difficulty, few people venture beyond 
it ; nor does it seem desirable, for by proceeding 
thus far, a pretty complete idea of the cavern 
Aiay be formed. The path hitherto is along the 
^de, and at some height from the bottom of 
the cavern ; bat to visit and examine the inte- 
rior extremity, it becomes necessary to descend a 
few yards by very slippery and ill-formed steps : 
the path at the bottom is tolerably even and 
level for eighteen or twenty yards, when an al- 
most perpendicular ascent commences,* which 
leads to the extremity of the fissure, through 
the Eye of St. Anthony ^s Needle^ a narrow 



^ Warner's Northern Tour, Vol. I. p. iGi* 



VIEW OF DJBRBYSHULE. fit7 

•«lnitt beyoad whicft^ the sdeepMssof the way 
18 only to be sttiweuBted by elavibering oir«r 
irrt^uiar masses of nock* The cavern termi-* 
ftates at about piaety-five yard9 beyond the 
Qaeen of Scots' pillar : near the end is an ap« 
pertare through a projecting rock, behind 
which a candle is gtaerally placedr when any 
person has arrived at the extremity ; this, ithed 
aeen at that distance, af^ars like a dim star^ 
The way by wbieh the visitor retnrns, lies along 
the bottom of the eiaverki, underneath a oonsi« 
derable portion of the road by which he enter^^ 
ed; and by -thus changing* the path, an oppor«4 
tunity is furnished of better ascertaining tte 
height and width of the cavern m every pkrt^ 
and of viewing other aocnmulations of i^Mwf 
icle, some of wh^ch are of a prodigions size and 
extraordinary form. In one part of thisipas- 
sage» is a fine spring O^f tran^areol water; 
and a small stream, which beoofnes more con- 
siderable in rainy seasons, rnns^throagh the 
wh6le length of the cave, and makes the W9j 
a little disagreeable. The various masses of. 
stalactitic matter that are met with in this esc- 
eavation, are distingninhed by different namesy 
according to the objects they are fancied to re- 
semble. PboU?$ Saddle^ his Turlk^imA hia 
Ww^hackf the Lim^ the. Ladies^ ToUet^ Pit- 



69$ HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPnVE 

Kfth and Curtain^ the Tripe^ the Bee-Hive^ 
the Organ Pipes; and a variety of other appel-^^ 
lationft, bestoived from a real or supposed like^ 
ness to the things themselves, are all poialed 
out by the guides, who having the names by 
rote, attend very little to the resemblaiice» 
which b continually varied by the depositions 
left by the water which percolates through the 
roof, aind sides of the rock. The whole length 
of this subterraneous' passage, is about 769 
yards: it belongs to the Duke of Devonshire, 
and is granted by him to nine old women, who 
act as guides, and receive the money given by 
the visitants. 

Above Poole's-Hole, on the side of the hill, 
are the kilns and limestone quarries before no- 
ticed, as pointing put the spot near which Bnx* 
ton is situated. The limestone in this neigh- 
bourhood is of several kinds ; and more than 
a hundred families have been occupied from- 
iather to son, in working the quarries and 
converting it into lime. The workmen and' 
their families, live like the Troglodytes of old/ 
in caverns of the earth ; and though exposed 
to the variations of the seasons, and the raginga 
of the storm, they exhibit a longevity unknown 
to the population of the mor^e civilized parts of 
the kingdom. The name by which this series 



VtEW or DERBYSHIRE. Gi» 

of mole-hills is distinguished is the An^HU^ 

A little ta the Soath of Buxton, is the ro^ 
mantic Dale and Rock called Lotbr^s Lbap. 



• " I looked in vain," says a Traveller who visited thcic 
quarries, " for the habitations of so many Ubouren and 
their numerous families, without being able to see so much 
as one cottage, when I at length discerned that the whole 
tribe, like so many moles, had formed their residence un- 
der ground. This comparison is strictly just ; not one in- 
dividual of them lodged in a house, or even the hollow of 
a rock. Their dwellings were in the midst of heaps of cin- 
ders, and refuse of lime, which formed so many mounts or 
mole-hills. 

*< These materials, which the workmen have hollowed 
into subterranean habitations, have been consolidated by 
rain, into a compact cement, which is now impenetrable 
to the.water. As the excavation is not very difficult, these 
families have taken sufficient precaution against cold and 
wet, by fixing their abode immediately contiguous to the 
lime- kilns, which communicate to them « comfortable de- 
gree of warmth. 

'* The greater pan of these habitations have three or four 
rooms, almost all of a round form, for the purpose of 
greater solidity. They are lighted by the side, when the 
position is such as to admit it ; or merely by the chimney, 
which is nothing else than a round hole pierced through 
the middle of the roof to allow the smoke to escape. Ap- 
pertures are also made by the door of the place to admit a 
little light. Such is the efiect of the whole, that when 
the workman descend into their caves, at the hours of re- 
pilt, and a stranger sees so many small columns df smoke 
issuing out of the earth,^ he imagines himself in the midst 
of a village in Lapland.''— St. Fond's Travels, Vol. II. 



. aM> HISTORICAL AND DISCRIPTIVB 

Emk mle o# tbw bcaotifiil dM h bounded b^ 
elevated r0€ksi 80 near together, that for a eM* 
nderable ^ace, there is hardly nore room than 
for the pawage of the bobbliag eurreat of tim 
Wye : some of them are perpepdicalar, and 
completely bare of vegetation ; others are co- 
vered wildi ivy, yew» and asb-wood, but have 
a craggy steep occasionally starting through the 
verdure. The name of Lover's Leap is giw^a 
to the Dale, from a vast precipice that forma 
one side of a narrow chasm, which breaks from 
the main rift nearly at right angles ; and from 
the temmit of which, a love-lorn female is saitf 
to have flung herself into the rocky golpb be- 
low. A circular road, extending in cireum- 
ierence about three miles, passes in view of the 
most romantic part of this Dale, and forms a 
most pleasant walk or ride from Buxton. At 
the southern extremity, the scenery assumes a 
milder character ; and the hollow takes the ap- 
pellation of Mill^DaU^ from a mill which itf 
turned by the stream ; and, in conjunction 
with a rude bridge, a mountain path, and other 
accompaniments, composes a very picturesque 
view. Another fine scene is formed by a lofty 
Mck, called Swallow^T&ry which soars over' a 
mass of wood, and has the river roaring at its 
base over broken masses of limestone. 



VIEW or DERBVftHIRB, «f 

^ The Mantl 8t&ne$^ a natural otirkMity^ to 

whieb probably Dr. Stukelj alluded, when he 

mentions having heard of what appeared to 

him a Drnidical work near Hop^, is situated 

tboat three miles from Buxton, and two from 

ChapeKin-le-Frith» in a pasture on the right of 

the road. It is a rock of about 280 feet long, 

and 80 broad at the widest part ; but does not 

anj where rise more than three feet above the 

sarfaee of the ground. ^ Thefaee of it is deeply 

indented with innumerable channels or gutters, 

of variouji length, breadth, shape, and depth ; 

from nine inch^ to thirty feet long; from five 

inches to five feet wide. There are also a 

great nnmber of holes ; some round, some of 

an irregular shape, from the size of a large 

basin to that of a large kettle. ^ The channels 

or gutters, generally run. north and south; but 

none of them go quite across the stone : there is 

always some seam or ridge in the rook, termi« 

nating the channel ; and in a few instances ano* 

ther channel commences, which is also crossed by 

another seam or ridge. These seams or ridg^ 

are from four inches to four feet broad; but 

there can hardly be found four feet square, 

wUhoot a hole or ebamid. The stone is not 

jointed, or of a loose kind, bat onei hard, firm 

rock. At the east and west endi^ are a great 



«lt mSiPRICAL AND DESCRIPTIVB 

nnmber of irr^ular shaped stones, standing a 
lew inches from each other; the interspaces 
filled with earth : perhaps, if the.earth was re- 
moved, it would be found that these are parts 
of the same rock. The whole is certainly the 
work of nature/^* 

Three miles north-west of Buxton, near the. 
northern mtreipity of an eminence called Com&e 
MoMBf are some ancient military works, coiir 
sisting of two deep trenches, which run paral- 
lel to, each other to an extent of about 200 
yards. That which lies nearest to the edge of, 
the hill, is carried down the declivity by .two 
traveiaea, and reaches to the distance ctf a. quar- 
ter of a mile ; it it also much wider than the 
other. 

BbAiBT, BegelUf is a village, standing in a 
valley near the banks of the Derwent It con*, 
tains about sixty houses, whose inhabitants are 
chiefly supported by agriculture. The church, 
which is a chapelry under Bakewell, i^ dedi* 
cated to St. Anne. In the year 1280, the inha- 
^ bitants of Beeley paid, in one sum annually* 
five marks to the priest ministering in their 
chapel. 



* Bny'a Tour into Derbyshire, &c. 9nd EdtC p. 837» 
Beauties of England, Vol. III. p. i47« 



VIEW OF OEHBYSHIRB* 093 

Beddes the chapelries which have been men- 
tiooed in the parish of Bakewell, there are 
also a few hamlets, the principal of which are 
deiierving of notice. 

Upfbr Haddon, contains about forty houses, 
and Geeat Rowslbt about thirty ; the inha^ 
bitaots of the former place, rely on the mining 
bttsineas ; but those of the latter, derive their 
support, principally, from agriculture. 

The hamlet of Uassop, formerly belonged 
to the Fotjambsy and from them descended to 
the Plomtansy of Plompton in Yorkshire, whose 
coheirs sold a part of the estate in the reign of 
£dward the Sixth, and the remainder in the 
tiflie of <iueen Elizabeth, to the family of £y re. 
It is at present the seat of Francis Eyre, Esq, 
who is descended from this ancient and respec« 
table family, a branch of which resided at 
Haaeop as early as the reign of Henry the Se- 
venth. The present possessor has a very large 
collection of exotic plants in his green^houses; 
and has continued the extensive plantations 
carriiMi on by his father. 

The hamlets of Rowland, add Caltbr, coq« 
tain one hundred and ten houses. The village 
of Wardlow is tslso within the parish of Bake- 
well, and contains, together with its liberty, 
ao M 4 



tU HISTOUCAL AND OESCRIPTIVE 

uhomt tfnentf houses* In the year 1760> flie 
Bar. Mr. Evatof Ashford, examined a barrow 
fftealed near thi9 tillage, an aeooant of which 
was published in the Philosophies Transactiona 
ibf that year. 

The i^llages of Flago, Bi/Ackwall, Cow- 
9Ahtt and Stadbv» (near which is Siaden^law^ 
ihe aacient work alfftady mentioned) contain 
altogether, about fifty hoosesi and two hun* 
4rad and forty inhabitants. 
' CflATfiwoaxfl, the celebrated and magnifi- 
eent seat of the Duke of Devoni^ire, stands 
on a gentle acclivity, near the bottooi of a high 
hill, finely covered with wood, in a narrow 
and deep valley, b6unded by bleak and ele«- 
yated tracts of land# ^* The broad valley 
through which the road from Matlock to Chats* 
worth ruBs,^' says a Tourist, *' alSbrds some 
good flat landscapeis, regarded, perhaps^ with 
greater pleasure, from the contrast produced 
by the naked hills that hedge tliem on every 
side; thia cireumstanae gives additional interest 
also to the approach of the Duke's seat through 
the park; on entering which, a long reach of the 
Derwent, (whose banks art has both extended 
and adorned) a cascade made by the whole river 
throwing itself down a descent of ten or twielve 
. feet, and a partial view of the hbuse, seated at 



VIEW OP DSRBYSHIIt& ms 

(bt femt tf a'hill^ (a grand mass of wood) sm>^ 
fomded by WNmatoias defermed' With, craga^ 
are all onfoWed lo the eye at once/^ 

Strangers who visit Cbatsworth-Hoase, ge* 
oerally leave their equipage, flic, at the f na at> 
E^iemorrBod then walk throogb the'park, at the 
entrance of which is a modern built Lodge^ wi#b 
an elegant arched gate-way. On gainitigafreasj 
eamence, ornamented with fine oahs, a view vf 
presented of the bouse, offices, and stables, 
with several omamenial buiidmgs in tbtf' ^ar** 
detib. The river Derwent winds gracefolljf 
through the park, overwhieb is. the approadr 
ta the mansion by an elegant stone bridge of 
ttrree arehes, erected by Paine, and" ornament- 
ed with figures sculptured by Gibber. The* 
road then leads to (be northern entranee of this 
stately edifice, when the visitor is conducted 
Uirottgb the porter's lodge to view the interior 
parts of it. 

Tbe estate of Chatsworth, was purchased in 
the reign of Elizabeth, of the aneient family 
of Leeehie, by Sir William Cavendish, husband 
to Elizabeth, Countess of Shrewsbury, whose 
sister married a Francis Leeche of this place. 
Thmogh the persuasion of tbe Countess, Sir 
William began to erect a noble mansion-house 
here, which, after bifr death, in the year 1557, 



636 . HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

. WM carried on, and completed under her ^^ 
tection. This building was tdcen down about 
the ciofie of the seventeenth century, when 
H'illiam, the first Duke of DeToashire, began 
on the site of the more ancient fabric, the pra« 
sent extensive residence, which was finished in 
the year 17(». 

The house, which is built in the Ionic order, 
with a flat loof, surrounded by a nent balu-n 
strade, may be considered as a noble specimen, 
of that highly decorated style of building, im«^ 
ported from Italy, about 130 years ago, and 
so much in vogue in this country for about half 
a century— magnificent but heavy; expensive 
but devoid of taste« its form is nearly a square 
of about 100 foet* 

After passing the porter^s lodge, the visitor 
is conducted through a long court iuto the 
anti«room, and from thence into another courts* 
round which the apartments are built : on the 
two opposite sides is a colonnade-^wbile large 
festoons of armour and military trophies, en- - 
twined with branches of pahn, and wreaths of. 
flowers, carved in stone, adorn'the outside of 
this interior front ; and, in the centre of tfie : 
court is a fountain, with a statue of Orpheus 
in the middle. The principal entrance on the 
West, by a noble flight of steps to a terrac% 



VIEW or DERBYSHIRE. 097 

wUcb extends the Ungth of the whole builds 
log, bae a fine efftct. 

The interior^ as well as the exterior, of Ibis 
sdifice b obaracterized by heaviness and gloom ; 
aod ibongb splendidly ornamented with mag* 
aifioeni walls and ceilings, presents bnt few of 
tbose captivating productions of the pencil^ 
which embellish the apartments of many other 
mansions in this county. It possesses, however, 
iome attractions of another kind, which amply 
repay the visitant's attention ; these are* the 
beantifttl carved ornaments by Gibbon,of whom 
Walpole observed, that he was' the first, artist, 
^ who gave to wood the loose and airy Itghtatte 
of flowers, and chained together the various 
productions of the elements, with a free dh^* 
order natural to each species/' 

The Enirance^Hatl, 60 feet by 27, is grand 
but dark; the ends, ceiling, and one side finely 
painted, in 16D4f by Verrio and Lewis La Go* 
rere, with a repfesenlation of thb Aasembfy of 
the Gods; Julius Cmsar Sacrificing; and his 
Asmssinaiion at the foot of Pompey's statue.-r* 
The paintings in this room were some yean 
ago in a decayed state, but have, since,, been 
judiciously retouched. 

Fsom this room, the approatch to the stair- 
ease is most magnificeat-**ascending by a dou- 



en HISTGRICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

Me flight of steps of mot of ametb j«t, guarded 
bj a rich guilt balustrade, between two rocki 
of varigated alabaster. Tbis part of the* haute 
yraa thought bjr Kenty snficiently elegaai to 
be immitated in the princely seat of Holkham 
in Norfolk. .At the foot of the stair<>case are 
pBveral iguree in chiaro oscuro ; particularly 
one of ^crctt^pf ;***the ceiling is painted with 
the Trimmpk of Cyhtle- Froita the slai r^ease, a 
plain unomamented gallery, extending along 
one side of the quadrangle, leads to the. 

Chapel^ a beautiful room wakiscotted with 
€ifAm^ emaoiented with the exquisite earnings 
of Gibbon, (who was killed bj a fall ki the ac<! 
of fitting it up) ; and painted by La Gncrf'ev 
whose powers are displayed in the akar-piece—^ 
Christ reproving Thomases IncreduHty. On 
each side of the altar, are the ^:af ues of Faith 
and Hope^ the works of Cibber, the draperies ^ 
of which are uncommonly fine^ The w«lls>are 
covered with painting; and on the eeiKng is re*^- 
presented the Ascension. 

The Music-Room, adjoins the gallery of the 
chapel, in which the .Devonshire fomitj are 
seated when divine service is perforoied. The 
organ is placed in this room) and not in the 
chapel, and has a fine effect. Over the chim-' 
ney-piece, in one picture, is a balf-lenglb of 



VIEW or IXERBYlKtt& fli»r 

tkd Jtte Ihtehetf of Devmuhw MKplwff xla«^ 
tor ladjf Geor^nm^ now LadyiMtfttk, wiiew 
8 child, in ber anus.'' T)m .room i» fattt^-witli 
vbite watened tabby, with diaiMatod^softs to 
match. . .. • 

Tb« Dtflw^-R^om, 86 leet . by a», is bung 
with p«a-gr«eA silfc ; aad oT«r the «hMiB«y. 
pieoob is ». whole-length, portrait of. Wittiam 
Duke of Cun^rJand; and has an imawnfie n|. 
rer cbandelwr. •. • 

The Ditmg-Room^ .SO feet by 30, eoiMains a 
fine whole-length, l>j.Sir'G. Knelier, ofiyiitiam 
jirft Dukp of Z>ei>ofMAtre,-who was distingiiUi- 
ed as a wit, a soldier, a scholar^ and a gentle, 
van. The insorijptiion he is reported to have 
left for bis monument, which was never erect* 
ed, is a faithful qntome of his politieal cha- 
ractertr- . 

WILLIELMUS DUX DEVONIiE, 
•ONOBcif miNciPivn sttb'ditvs videlis 

IMIBUCDS Xt INVISim TVBANHf 9. 

The BalLRoom is abbut 100 feet long, bang 
with tapestry, from the story of Signor Fido, 
diirided into conntpartments, by pilasters painted 
in imitation of verd antique. Over the fire- 
place, in basso relievo, are . CupitU in white 
marble. 

The Billiard-Roomy contains several pic- 



Ml HISTOftlCAL AMD I»SCnPnVB 

twci, m^ tm^rngtham^ime of Diana utAAc^ 
teas; and a ?iew ni the former house at CAofe- 
m0rth: — the ceiliag » by TiionifaiH. 
t iThe Best B$d ChanAer^ containa a bed and 
fomitare of white satin, painted. 

The Dnekeu of Dennmahire^s Dtessmg-Roam^ 
comoMndsa vievr of the water, and the fine 
iplaotations in the garden. A Cabinet has a 
good ooUection of the mineral and fossil pro* 
ductionsof Derbyshire, properly- OMirfced, and 
well arranged ;-*-a few curiosities, such as a large 
iQQth,. supposed to be an ekpbant^s grinder, 
foiwd on Cfooim-moarf near Sheffield,— a ring 
with a fiae Vcsnvian Hyacinth, collected by the 
late Duchess, at Vesuvius;— sereral beautiful 
petrefoctions, &c. 

, The Duke of DewmehMM Dremng-Room, 
is hung^with tapestry, from the story of Hero 
and Leander. In the AntuChamher is a fine 
painting of Michael and the PalfenAngeb, by 
Raphael; and Af^romeda aad ike Sea Mm- 
ster, by Sir James ThorahiU, 

" So tweet her frame, to exquiaitely fine, 
** She teems a Statue by a hand divine." . 

The Back Staircase ornamented with statues, 
and painted with the Fail of Phaetoth by Sir 
J. Thornhill, leads to the PainUd Anti-Chan^ 
her^ which contains the Rape of the SabtMh by 



voBv e« onBys«a& 9m. 



Thotaihill:— ^tbe.oetliiig nptemmU Hw 

^ l^anditur inteiti domus offlnipbtentis Olympi 
ConiBioaiq^. vomt OiTum pater atq; hoaumuBriK 
Sideram in aedem.'' 

TJbe Chimtz Apattmmt^ contains pmotiagt- 
itOBk Orlando JFWnaM, and poftraats of the w-^ 
con^ DuohesB ,0/ Depamskire^ her <kther» Lcmd 
William Russell^ and four children. 

Suae Apartmenti, --^in the Dresting^Roomf 

18^ the Sleeping Shepherd^ by Sakator Roam ; 

and the Flight intoEgj^pi^hy Gennari,&6.: T}f» 

Bedchamber is hnng with fine tapestry ; the be4[ 

and fumituDe of crimaon silk damaslf. The 

Drawing^Room^ has its ceiling painted by Var^^ 

fioy with PhisBtan taking charge of the CharioL 

Here are the following portaraits ;-*^«/o&ii9^#« 

Dttke of Rutland; obiit 171<^ fetat 72. Th^ 

mcond Earl of Pembroke. William, Jlr^i Earl 

ef Devonehire : This pic tun in ascribed to My- 

tensi btttjconsidered by Mr* Walpole to be by 

Van Somer, though equal to Vandyck, and one 

of the finest sii^le figures ever 'painted on can* 

vas. Edward Lord Bruccy fitther^in-law oS the 

seeend £a£l of Devonshire. Colonel Caven^ 

diiht. who was killed in the civil wars, .neat 

Newark, in 1043. Jamee, Dukeef Ormonde 

a? ftl N 4 



9m^ HISTOUOAL AND DlSCRimVB 

Cbaiieellor of the Vviwenitj olOxAtd^ fiitfattf^ 
ia^bw of the fint Earl of Devonshire/ Geiid* 
rmlRuaell. Over the chimoej-^piece in this 
room, is a beaatifnl carving of nveral Head 
Fowl, by Gibbons ; and in an adj<Moiog room, 
a carved delineation, bjr the same master, of a 
Pen, so finely ezecated, that Mr. Walpole cha** 
tacteriied it as ** not dbtingoishable from a i:eal 
leather/' 

. The Preience Chamber, is hnng with topee- 
try Irom the cartoons of Raphael, and contains 
the state chairs and footstools, usted by their 
present Majesties at the Coronation, being part 
of the perquisites belonging to the l^te Dake 
of Devonshire, as Lord Chamberlain. The 
rest of the chairs and seats are covered with 
crimson velvet. In an oval codipartment in the 
ceiling, is the Discovery 0/ Mars and Venus. 

The State Dining Boom is ornamented with 
five antique marble busts, and has a painted 
, ceiling. The Aniuckamber is hoQg with ta- 
pestry; and contains an invaluable work of 
Holbein, Henry VIL and Henry VIII. in oiie 
picture. It is in. black chalk, heightened, 
and as large as life. Here is also Our Savmur 
and M^ry Magdalene in the Garden, by Titian. 
No grace in the figures, but a sweet expression 
in the face of Mary. In the Cut-vehet Bed^ 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE iM 

CkafMbet^nfe paintsogs <^ iViMti# Me Ctmittmr^ 
«id Deiamra. The Ctimmm Bed- chamber , coa^ 
taihs the bed id which George the Setond es^ 
pired/ aorotfaer perqaisite of the late I>olte.<^ 
The Dre$9ing^Room adjoining, has a fine head 
in baa^ relievo, oTer the chininej,'of a Knight 
of the Golden Fleeee ;-^perhap8 Phiiipde Va^ 
Ms. 

The Bed-chamber of Mary Queen of Sate^ 
adjoins the last-iiientioned saite. The room is 
so called, from its oontaining a bed, h«ng mtii 
crimson velvet and gold, and cbaita, which nen 
used by that princess, during her confinement 
in' the Old House at Chatsworth: from hence 
she wrote a letter to Pope Pius, dated Oct. 31, 
-1570, which was more than a century before 
the present mansion was erected. i 

in the Crardens, the principal objects of ca« 
riosity and attention, are the Water- Works. — 
The famous Cascade, one of those grand water- 
works, which half a century ago, rendered Chats- 
worth the greatest wonder of Derbyshire, and 
.gave it a celebrity which it has not yet lost, 
lies to the Miuth-east of the house. It consists 
of a series or flight of jsteps, extending nearly 
jtwo hondi'ed yards froin one end to the other, 
down a steep hill, crowned at the top #itK a 
Temple. This £iine, (observes Mr. Warner) 



fM HISTOUCAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 



I ^ft^wij he itdioited to BrlercwT^ 4be 
igodof fimod aiid4leceit, as a piece of rogotof 
« {MPBCtioed nfon the iacaotioiis etrangar wilhiii 
ite very saoctoary ; from the floor of wiiicb, a 
aftakttole of little ibmitaiiis suddmly spoat 
«p, whilst he is admiring the proapect through 
-the portal/ and quickly wet 4iiia to the skin. 
After this practical joke, the cascade is pot in 
aiotion bj another screw» and certainly is grand 
' in .its kind; the water rashes in a vast quantity, 
and with great force and noise, from the donMsd 
roof of the temple, and from a great variety 
of dolphins, dragons, and a number of other 
figures that ornament it; and falling into a 
basin in front of the building, (which also 
throws up aeveral fountains) is thence dis- 
charged, and rolls down the long stages of steps 
bi|fare*described ; and having reached the bot- 
tom, disappears by sinking into the* earth. 
' Theie is also in the wood, at a little distance 
from the Temple, a Copper Tree, made to re^ 
present a decayed willow, the branches of which 
produce an artificial shower : and on turning 
by the same path and descending the hill, a 
large basin presents itself, in the middle of 
which* is a foontain, which throws the watei! 
up to the height of sixty feet ; and at a small 
diitanee is the grand Canal, three hundred and 



view OF DBRBYSHiRE* ma 



Ikeaarih «iid of them «re two S/iAmMt, mi 
laj^baM»,.^»kbMaanMDteio good taMe, well 
executed by Cibber; in this«€aaal is afountam 
er jetdVeau^ wjbieh throws 4be water Mnetgr 
feet high ; -and ip a basin near the hotMe, m$e 
font Sea Horses and a TrtloM,.frDvi whcMie'iiteds 
uDall streams issue. AH these works,- are su|i« 
plied bj a Jaitge reservoir of water, situated on 
the 4op of the hill, and eofering fourteen acres 
ef land, from whenee the water is ednnreyod bf 
pipes laid under ground ; and the garden^*, 
who is with the compan7,gi?es nOtioetoa per- 
ioa,on the hill, which pipe Jie wishes to be filk 
ed. These diffibrenft water- works are still in 
tolerable order; bat they are rather cnriona 
tha,n beautiful ; and generally £Eiil to interest, 
as ifae improved taste of the present day can 
only regard them as formal puerilities. 

At the highest point of eminence, eastward 
of the gardens, is the Hunting Tower^ a build* 
ing. supposed to have been erected as a station, 
wheire the female visitants at Chats worth could 
partake in the diversion of stag*hunting, with*' 
out incurring its dangers; as its height (ninety 
feet) enabled them to overlook the surrounding 
hills. It is of a square form, having a rounded 
tower at esM^h angle. In another part of the 



44B HISTORICAL AND DESCAirriVK 

groonds, near the rivler side, to the north of 
the bridge, is another tower, encompassed hj 
a mote, and called the Bower of Ma^y^ Queen 
of ScoU^ from a garden which occupied its 
ftommit, wherein that princess spent manj of 
the tedious hours of her confinement. 

On the north-east side of the house, and at 
the distance of two or three hundred j aids, on 
a more elevated site, are the Gredt Siahle$^ 
which are magnificent and well contrived: the 
west and north fronts extend about 302 feet; 
These were erected about fifty years ago, by 
the late Duke. On the side of the valley op- 
posite the house, are several small hills covered 
with plantations; beyond which, but more 
especially to the norlh, the mountains of thiB 
Peak rear their lofty heads ;— in short, every 
object in view, appears with an unusual air of 
greatness and sublimity. 

Chat&worth Park is very extensive, measur- 
ing above nine miles in clrcumfere'nee, and is 
beautifully diversified with hill and dale, as 
well as various plantations, which range tn fine 
sweeping masses over the the inequalities of the' 
ground*. 1'he prospects from the adjacent parts, 
are exceedingly fine; and one view, looking 
back from the south, possesses extraordinavy 
grandeur. Immediately below the eye, is the 



^T, VIEW OP DERBYSHIRE. . 61* 

mh fwkt apimated by tUe meandering ourrent: 
of ibe Derweot ; more dblant, is the hoosef 
with a tine back ground of wood, rearing in 
aoleaui majesty ; and far beyond, the blue hilh 
of Caatleton» skirting the horizon. 

Chalsworth appears to have been, for more 
than tvKO centuries, the property t>f the noble 
family to which it now belongs. Robert do 
Gernpn, the first ancestor of the family of Ca* 
Tendisb, of yrhom we have any certun'acQonnt, 
came from Normandy with William the Con- 
queror, and contributed considerably towarda 
the success of the expedition. Geoffery deGer- 
aon, one of his descendants, resided at Moor- 
Uall in Derbyshire, in the reign of Edward the 
First. Roger, his son, married the daughter 
sod heiress of John Potton, or Potkin, of Co* 
vendiih^ in Suffolk; and bis children, according 
to the custom of the age, and in compliment 
%0 their mother, assumed the name of Caven- 
dish. The.eldest son, an eminent lawyer, was 
appointed Lord Chief Justice in th^ year 1366; 
but was afterwards seized and beheaded, by the 
insurgents of Suffolk, in revenge for the death 
of Wat Tyler, whom his son was reported to 
have slain. John, the second son of the Judge, 
received the honor of Knighthood, and an an- 
nuity for himself and hb heirs for ever, in re- 



•m HISTQBflfflhfc AND BESCRimVS 



wmA hr Ut^tiwYiMs m ^nelUBg tbeu 
(iMis jhat.weretbeo prevulainl: 1m fi)4ed 
•fieoi Mider RidiaKd U« aari Utery V«aiid mn 
piM^Bt at tjbe buttle ; cif A|;iiicQ«tf t. Th«M» 
Cavendish, hid great grapdmat studied the lavr, 
«mI m Ike mgaof Henry VIIL waa. Cktk of 
(be Pipio in tbe^Esii^iequar. He hadiMu; saa^^ 
yilliw»» tbe.seeond^ waapAtroniMd by WoU 
my^ wd after tbe iUl of tbe Cavdinal^ waa 
bvgbted.by Henry, in Ibe tbirty-aighth year of 
Ua rtign» Ha waa married tkree timea ; andLbp 
bia \mV wifld, tbe faaaans Cotistessof Sbwws^ 
bury, bad tbree tons; tbe sedond o£ wliieh, 
WiUiam, waa raised to tbe dignity of m Paaiv 
by tbe title of Baran Carendisb of Uardiiiiick^ 
m tbe county of Derby. He died in 1025, and 
was succeeded by bis son William, tbe second 
£arl of Devonsbire^ wbo waa educated under 
tbe iamotts Hobbes. He died in 1608, and waa 
sneoeeded in bis tkle and estates by hiason WiU 
bam, wha at tbe dealb of bis father was onIy> 
eleven years oU« His education also was a^* 
perintende4 by Mr. Hohbes ; and owing to kia 
attachment to tbe Royal cause during tbe Civil 
W^ars, be waa obliged to go abroad, and bad 
bi3 estate confiscated ; but on tba RestoratMm, 
he was reinsUted in. bis title and posse8aiona.-i^ 
He died at Roehampten in the year l«a4, and 



VltW or MIlEBySHIlUL «# 

WM ra€«eed#d bf hin eMert mn, WilKHni, ^tm 
huHh JBarl of JOevonsfam, who, in wevtnl Mrilt-i 
ing qualities and aeoomirfishiiieiitB equallett, aiid 
in others greatly surpassed all his aaeestorft. ^ 
His name oecnrs in early life, as Lord Ca« 
vendirii, member for the oounty of Derby ; whed 
bis poNtical oondaet evinced those true patriot^ 
principles, which he afterwards so eminentfy dis- 
played in assisting to bring about the glortoui 
Resolution, and persuading the gentry of Dei^ 
byshire and Nottinghamdiire, to transfer t6 
king WilHam, that allegianee and aflbetiM to 
which James had forfeited all Claims. He wa6 
tke inseparable friend of the amiable Lord Rnsi 
sel, and offered to change clothes with him ill 
prison^ and thus contriTc bis escape ; an at« 
tempt so despenite must have proved ihtal td 
on^,if mtt to both, these noble chtfractei^; and 
Wflis therefore declined by Lord RusseL On tK^ 
accearion of William, he was admitted to the 
Privy Council, and appointed Lord-Steward 
erf* the Household ; and very scion after, consti* 
tuted Lord Lieutenant of Derbyshire, and k 
Knight of the Garter. ISi attended Williaui 
to the famous Congress in'Hollaiid; and ouhii 
tetwnii ^M created, in May 1604, Marquis of 
Maittagton, and Duke of Devonshii«. Th^ 
21 o 4 



fiAjit HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPHVE 

SUM ftideot love of liberty as marked the early 
period of this nobleman's life, distinguished 
the latter part of it. He departed this life in 
the year 1707. His Grace, the present noble 
Duke, is the fiflh in deslsent from this illus- 
trious ancestor ; and to the honor of the fifth 
Duke of Defonshire, and his immediate pre- 
decessors, . be it said,«->neither he, nor any of 
them, have deserted thoM principles which 
have secured to his memory, the reverence and 
esteem of hb countiymen. 
. £oBNsoii, Edne99ure^ is a small village near 
Chatsvrorth, containing together with it^ liber- 
ty, about ninety houses. The living is a vtcar-* 
age, the church is dedicated to St. Peter, and 
the Puke of Devonshire is the patron. This 
church was in former times, given by Fulcher, 
the son of Fulcher, to the mcmastery of Roces- 
ter, in Staffordshire. The church contains the 
tomb of the first Earl of Devonshire, with a 
long Latin epitaph, expressive of his virtues 
and offices ; a large and costly monument to 
the memory of Henry Cavendish, the eldest son 
of Sir William, who was famed for his gallant- 
ries : here is also a long Latin epitaph, to the 
memory of one of the domestics of the .Queen 
of Scots, who diedi while in her service, at 
Chatsworth. 



VIEMT OF DERBYSHIRE. fti 

PrLSLBT is a hamlet in the parish of Eden- 
8or, and conteins about thirty-fire houses. 

'Etam, a small village and parish, contains 
about one hpndred and ten bouses, and nine 
bondred and thirty inhabitants. The living is a 
rectory, and the church is dedicated to St. Helen. 

This parish includes the hamlets, of Fawlow^ 
Grindlow^ and Grindelford, containing, toge* 
tber with the Woodlands^ about 112 bouses. 

About one hundred and and forty years ago, 
Eyam.was greatly depopulated by the plague: 
it appears from the register, that between the 
seventh of September 1665, and the beginning 
of November I6t)6, there were two hundred 
and sixty burials.* • ... 



* Tht following is an account of this dreadful scourge, 
extracted from a letter of the late Miss Seward :— * 

** Eyam was one of the last places in England visited by 
the plague. The summer after its ravages in London, it waa 
conveyed to that village in patterns of taylor's cloth.— 
Raging with great violence, it swept away four fifths of the 
inhabitants. Mr. Mompesson was at that time Rector of 
£yam» and in the vigour of his youth. He had married a 
beautiful young lady» by whom he had a girl and boy, of 
three and four years old. 

'* On the commencement of the contagion, Mrs. Mom- 
pesson threw herself with her babes at Jthe feet of her bus- 
band, to supplicate his flight from that devoted place; but 
not even the entreaties and tears of a beloved wife could in- 
duce him to desert his flock, in those hours of danger and 
dismay. Equally fruitless were hia aoiicitations that she 



fp HISTOMICAL AND OZSCRIFTIVB 

b tlie Ittd mintt at Eymm Edg%, the par. 
cnssiiMto of tin ewth^|Mk« whidi dMtrojed 
Lisbon, onthefimt of November^ 17A6, were 
Tery diBtinctly felt; the mil fell from «he joints, 
pr finareB of the rodu, and violeDt explanona» 
•8 if of cannon, were heard by the werlunen.* 
In a drift about 180 yards deep, and above 50 
yards from one end to the other, several shocks 
were felt by the miners; and afitericach, a loud 
rnmhling was heard in the bowels of the earth. 
The interral between the shocks was about four 
or five minutes: tha. secon4 was so violent, as 
lo cause the rocks to grind onie upon another.t 

TiDsawBLL, as a small market town, situ, 
ated in a bottom, which is surrounded on all 



■■ 



•hould mite with her inlaou; The nnilt of chi* {Mithetic 
conteit WM a resolve to fcod their children ewty, .nd to 
»bide together the fury of the pestilence. 

** Mr. Mompesion, coostantly visiting and prayinebv 
thtitck, f f * f 

" Drejr, like ManciUes' {ood bithop, puret bteath, 
•« When nature liciea'd and eacii gale wa« deatfc.* 
from ■ rational belief, that asaenibling in the crowded 
«hurch for public worship during this sumffler heats, must 
V««J "nd iocreaie the contagion, he agteed with his If. 
dieted parishioners, that he would read prayen twice a 
week, and deliver his twocustonary sermons on the sab. 
^ath, from pne ©f the petforsted arches in tb« locks of ik 

• Whitehunt's Theory, p. I89. 
t rhilMQ|>hical TnuM9«tions, Vd. XLIX. 



VIEW OK OERBYSHmS. fli 

lilts by barren aod desblat^ tnoore. It is sopi. . 
' posed la hmri reoeiTed its name, f ron an ebb- 
ing and flooring well, situated in a field near 
tbe losrn, bnt whioh has now ceased to flow lor 
nora tban a century. The manor anciently 
JbidoisgBd to WilliMi Pererei, and beins »fter- 



deep dingle near the village* By his advice they ranged 
th^nielves on its gnnf ticep in a Icvei direction to tiis 
focky pulpit ; and the dell being $• nairew, a speaker, aa 
my lather often proved to us, might be distinctly kdktd 
hcmi that arch. Do you not see this dauntless jami star of 
Qodt atratching forth fcis hands horn the rock, imtructinf 
and consoling bis distressed flock in that little wildamcasF 
How solean, how affecting must have boen the pioos ex» 
I koftations of those terrible houra. 

«* The chMrch.yai4 soon oeaaed to aflbrd nam for the 
dead. Tbey were afterwards buried in a heathy hiil abo^ 
ibe village. Curious travellers take pleasure in visiting, 
to^hisday, the osouotain tumulua, and in ekamiatng iu 
yet distinct lemaias; alao sn ascending, from the upper 
part of Eyam, those clifis and fields which brow the dingle, 
and ^osi whence the descent isio the consecrated rock ia 
f»sy. It is called Lucklet church by the villagers. 

" Mr, Mompesson remained in health dunng the whole 
»vagc a the pestilence ; but Providence saw fit to call 
(lis fortiittde to a usy^wer trial, than if he had seen the 
plague ^pot indurated npen has own body. 
~ " Amongst other piecautions against thtf disease, Mn« 
Mompeason prevailed u|fon her husband to suffer an inci- 
.lion to be made in ha. leg, and kept open. One day she 
obwyed appearances in the wound, which induced her be- 
lief, that the contagion had Sound a vent that way ; and, 
therefore, that its danger was over as so him. Inalead of 
being shocked thtt the pestileni^ had entered her honae^ 
Slid Uut her wsakaefa;(for abe wsxt^t tahaalth) moct 



CM HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVB 

wards nested in ' king John, was given by^ him 
to his esquire, whose female descendant, in 
Rkhard the Second's time, being married to a 
Staflbrd, obtained a grant of a weekly market, 
and a yeariy fair to be held here. The estate 
afterwards came to the MeuriU$ or MeverilU^ 



endure its fury, the expressed the most rapturous joy for 
tht apprehended deliverance of her beloved hushand.**His 
letters, though he seems to think her conviction concern* 
ing his having taken the distemper groundless, make pa» 
thetic and grateful mention of that disinterested joy. But 
Mn. MonpesK>n soon after sickened of the plague, and 
expired in her husband's aims, in the 97th year of her age. 
Her monument is now in Eyam church-yard, protected by 
iron rails, its inscription distinct. 

** When first the plague broke out in Eyam, Mr. Mom- 
pesson wrote to the then Earl of Devonshire, residing at 
Chatsworth, some few miles from Eyam, stating that he 
thought he could prevail upon his parishioners to confine 
themselves within the limits of the village, if the surround- 
ing country would supply them with necessaries, leaving 
such provisions as should be requested in appointed places, 
and at appointed hours, upon the encircling hills. The 
proposal was punctually complied with ; and it is most re* 
markable, that when the pestilence became, beyond all 
conception, terrible, not a single inhabitant attempted to 
pass the deathful boundaries of the village, though a regw 
ment of soldiers could not, in that rocky and open coun^ 
try, have detained them against their will ; much less coul4 
any watch, which might have been set by the neighbour- 
hood, have effected that infinitely important purpose. 

** By the influence of this exemplary man, obtained by 
his pious an4 affectionate^ virtues, the rest of the county of 
Derby escaped the plague; not one of the very nearly 
neighbouring hemlets, or even a single house, being in- 



VIEW or OBRBYSaiRE. «f# 

of Throwley, in StaffiNrd»hire ; and was coo* 
Toyed, by ihe marriage of an heiresa, to Lord 
Cromwell, of Oakham in Ratlandshire, one t>f 
whoM descendants sold il, between the death of 
Charles the First and the period of the Resto* 
ration, to the Eyru of Highlow. Since the 
death of John Archer, Ebq. of Welford, in 
Berkshire, the male heir of this family, the 
manor has been sold, under the authority of 
the Court of Chancery, to the Duke of Devon- 
shire. 

, At the compilation of Domesday, there were 
a church and a priest at TideauuelU; and king. 
John in the year 1315, gave the chapel at Tides^ 
wf 11, as well as the church at Hope, to the 
canons of Lichfield, for their common provi* 
sion of bread and )beer. The present church 
was erected in the fourteenth century, as ap- 
pears from an inscription on a flat stone in the 
chancd, to the memory of John, son of Thomas 
Foljamfae, who died in 1358; and is said to 



fected beyond the limiti of Eyam villtge, though the dit** 
temper remained there near seven months. 

'* In the summer of 1757, five cottagers were digging on 
the heathy mountain above Eyam, whic(i was the place of 
graves after the church-yard had become too narrow a re- 
pository; Tho»e men came to something which had the 
appearance of having once been linen. Conscious of thejr 
situation, they instantly buried it igain* In a few.dsysj 



ftf HISTORICAL AND DISCRIPTIVE 

hftve eontrilMitecl ntadi towards, tlie buildiiigt 
tf tbe edifiw. The efaaick k * bandboaie 
IwiUHigof Ike ooiiTe»twii Ibrni, with Aoeat 
lower at the weal ead, termiiHited bj eight pib^ 
bmIm ; those al the ai^ke miag fgom octa*< 
goaal bates, and being mooh higher Ihiui th« 
late/iMNliate oses. The limg isa?icBrago^ 
the choreh is dedicated to St. John the Baptist; 
aad the Dean and Chapter of Liehficld atw tho 
patioos. 

In the charch is a raised tomb tothemeosory 
of SeiMfMOfi Memiiij who was bora in 1808, and 
died in 1460. It appears Iroas the iaseriptioiii 
that* ia the space of-two jears, he was m. 
efeven battles in Franoe»wfaera he eerved ander 
the oeroaumd of the great Doke of Bedfoid^ 
who knighted him at St. Laee, and made him 
Knight Constabk of England, ke. On hie 
tomfe, bread is given nwaj every Sunday, tie 
some of the indigent parishioaen« Another 
monument records the memory of a native of 



thsy iU tkkened of a petrid fever* nd three of the fhrc 
died* The diiorder wet coBtagioti% tnd proved moitti le 
munben of the iohabiteiits. Mjr &ther, who vm thea 
Caaon of Lklifield» lesided an that city wiUi his ikeiilyy 
at the period wbea the aabtle, ttocatinguished, tiieagk 
eilii;Mbjited power of the moat dieadful of ^U diaeaaw 
swskeoed frooi the drntf ia which it hadeLumbend aiaetpi- 
eeeycam.'' 



VIEW O^ DEttBYSHlRE. 6t7 

Ude^welle^ turned Robert Pursglove^ described 
as Prior of Giftburn Abbey, Prebend of Ro« 
therhaai,*aiKl Bishop of Hull, who died in the 
year lSt9. Henry the Eighth aHowed him a 
peilsiony id reward for his ready compliance, 
with his wishes ; his conduci, as Dugdale rei> 
cords, being so very obsequioim, that, after he 
had surrendered his own house, he was employ- 
ed as a commissioner to persuade others to do 
tire lik^. At the beginning of Qaeen Mary's 
leigfi, he was made Archdeacon of Notting- 
ham, Suffragan Bishop of Uul), &c. but re- 
fuaifig to take the oath of supremacy to Quieenv 
Elizabeth, he was deprived of his Archdeaconry, 
and other spiritualities; in the year 1560. He 
afterwards retired to this town, aiixl founded 
a Grainmar-School, which adjoins the chuVch- 
yavd; and a Hospital for twelve poor people. 
In the south transept is a tomb, with wboie- 
length figures of a man and a woman, of whom 
nothing is with certainty known ; but tradition 
lepresents them as the effigies of Thurslan de 
Bower and his wife, who are said to have built 
the transept. 

The town of Tides well consists of two rows 

<tf low houses, built of rough gray stones, on 

the opposite sides of a clear rivulet. The 

weekly market is held on Wednesday, but is 

21 p 4 



HIS70RICAI. *ttp iwsmvnvs 



«b«at dflO hfivm^t ««d JllOO inhabilmff, fvbo 

|/«T«iK, ii4<i»* IB » ImwbI^I in tlKB pwriili of 
T^d«WP«U> c^NkMPii^ alxiiit 'H Imam, aa4 

WMmuM'y JFiTUffKlfti, 4s another kanilat is 

<i4^pflis(i9dimited4<»8t.MI«i«arat. Nearlhif 
Jiltfp TUk^« is a most fOmiuitic and de^ faot- 
iow, whem tin m«r Wfre-floim beneath a stu* 
^lendops n«89 pf Mwh* ovIM CA«« Tor,— a T«st 
jM^pendioular mass of liPMstooe, nswg awtrf: 
than 3fl0 feet vbQve lbs ie«0l nf jtbe mer whisb 
meandered its base. Thephannelof themaris 
bera oop^iled between bi^ rac^ of liaMstone» 
wbieb seeqa, from their general «ocFespon4enee 
•f ntoation and form, tp l^iee bepn once nai^ 
ted. l» some parts, they are partially cwrend 
viib brushw<¥>d, DBt-tr«es, an4 aH>nntain.ash; 
in othfiis, tbey are totally nakp^* ftneipitons* 
and impending* The chasm rws ip a dvwtfoo 
W nearly circular, that the wblime Cbee Tor, 
and its dependant masses of roc^, af almost 
insplated by the riTer whi^h rolls at their feet. 
Its lepgtb, as &r at least as it possesses ai^ 
ctQfBsiderable beauty, is, between five and six 
hundrfd yards; a distance whi^h presents fi»- 



vimr <Mr BimYSBfiKft em 



feral pibtaresfoe, aadfirftonstHlg^TieMi* Smim 
phiiuitiom on tiM mlgliboariBf> imglrts' hoh 
crease the general effeet e# the tmeanj. Near 
tbe battom of » stee|i deaeent tliat lisada to Oris 
8|N>t horn the villagSi h » aiming^- sprh^. A^m 
wbioh a great quantity of water .iawa* into the* 
nrer. AlM>nt midway up tbe acclivity^ the* 
Kneaiione etratinn icivee way to. a masa o^ tiead- 
etoneof considerable ea:teat» abovewhieh ana« 
Aer etraUiiar of Ifmestone^ocenra.^ Fraaa a fam 
fieiilav station in this fomantie se^Wb^ tiie*foni^ 
raHies of Wye Dale, Chee Dalov l^liig Dale, 
and Water Bale, may be alLseen, together 
irith tbe Tor and river : — tbese daies^iylH mthri 
tbe Dotaniat many eonous plants* 

A small hamlet in tbe liberty of Worm^' 
hilt, bad the honei* otfl gvf ing birlbi to tbat^ 
^Ktraoidinary genius, tbe late Mr. Brindley^ 
so celebrated^ for planning^ navigable Canala. 
We shall copy the interesting' memoir of bim, 
givotirby Dr. Aikin, in hiallblory of tbeComi* 
try round Manchester.* 

** James Brindlbv was bora at Tonsted in 
the parish (liberty) of Worinhill^ Derbysbire, 
in 1716. His father was a small iVeebolder, 
who dissipated his property in company and' 

» 

• Which see page 139* 



J 



i 



660 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

fieUUaiDtfseaients, and. neglected bis familf ^ 
In conseqaence, joang Brindtey %vas left desti^ 
tute of even the cdmmon rudiments of educa* 
tion, and till the age of seventeen, was casual* 
ly employed in rustic labors. At that period 
he bound himself apprentice to one Bennet, a 
mill- Wright, at Maccles6eld, in Cheshire, where 
his mechanical genius presently developed it- 
self. The master being frequently absent, the 
apprentice was often left for weeks together to 
finish pieces of work, concerning which he had 
received no instruction ; and Bennet on his re- 
turn, was often greatly astonished to see im* 
provements in various parts of mechanism of 
which he had no previous conception. It was 
not long before the millers discovered Brind- 
ley's merits, and preferred him in the execu- 
tion of their orders to the master; or any other 
workman. At the expiration of his servitude, 
Bennet being grown into years, he took the 
management of the business upon himself; and 
by his skill and industry, contributed to sup* 
port his old master and his family, in a com- 
fortable manner. 

** In process of time, Brindley set up as a 
milUwright on his own account, and by a num- 
ber of new and ingenious contrivances, greatly 
improved that branch of mechanics, and ac- 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 681 

qQiPed a high reputation in the n^gbbaorbood. , 
His fame . extending to a wider circle, be wae 
employed in 1752 to erect a water engine at 
Clifton, in Lanicashire, for ihe purpose of 
draining some coal mines. Here he gave an 
essay of his abilities in a kind of work for 
which he was afterwards so much distinguish* 
ed,— driving a tunnel under ground, through a 
rock nearly 600 yards in length, by which wa- 
ter was brought out of the Irwell, for the. pur* 
pose of turning a wheel fixed ikirtyfeet below 
the surface of the earth. In 1755 he was em- 
ployed to execute the larger wheels for a silk 
mill at Congleton ; and another person, who 
was engaged to make the other parts of the 
the machinery, and tp superintend the whole, 
proving incapable of completing the work, the 
business was entirely committed to Brindiey ; 
'Who not only executed the original plan, in a 
masterly manner, but made the addition of 
many curious and valuable iroproTemenrs, as 
well in the construction of the engine itself, as 
in. the method of making, the wheels and pini- 
ons belonging to it. About this time toO^ the 
mills for grinding flints in the Stafrordsiiire 
Potteries received several improvements from 
bis ingenuity* 
, ^^ In the year- 1756 he undertook to erect a 



M» HISTORfCAl Affb flESGil»TIVB 



mghM «pM A qeir pfaMH at KeWtuH^ 
tHMkr^Liiie; and wa» ibr m ttine Teiy iateof 
rfpODAvariaty of coAlmrattcai^ Ar impttiflBg' 
tbts mefid piece of medtanisnl. Biit< froM tbeser 
dMigilft, bo was, bappity fertile pabikv caned' 
tmmj^ to^ taibe the lead, ifi' what the event bar 
pfored to be a aationat coa^rn of high^ tm^ 
po r l ao c e .> tbe iMFCjecling <^ tbofiysteoi of €&^ 
Mml Namgathm. The Stake of Bridj;*e«irat<BP 
ff0 whete pattt^nage ike subw^fmrnt $ucee$8 of 
M«9 9g9i9m k^ ime&i^e9tibfy owing} hadF formed ai 
d OB i gn of eaitykfga canal firow hb coal worita 
at Wor^7 to lViaacbe»ter, and waa kidaeed I^ 
tbe reputation ef Mr. Brindley teconsnlt binir 
ae to the qiost judieiow mode of executing it ; 
and haviBgtbe8agaettjtoeoneeivei.and strengcb' 
of mind to coadde in the original and com« 
aranding abtlitiee of this self* taught genius, fao^ 
aommktod to him the management of tbe ari» 
daoos undertaking. 

** In tbe progreiis of this enterpriae, which- 
was attended with complete succeae, jMr. Brind^ 
ley projected and adopted those leading prin* 
eipleg for tbe execution of these kind of worka 
which he ever afterwards adhered to, and in 
aduch he has been imitated by all' succeeding^ 
artists* To preserve as much as possible the 
lavdi of his canals, and to avoid the mixture 



VIBW OP lUMWYMnKC* m 

«iaMliAteKfcr«0M4if nil a^timil rtiMiM, wero 
objacto 4it wbidi li« awstantlj lalMd. To ac* 
Mm^Udi these aeiiher )atM>w bot^sp^imm weie 
i^ivred; bb geniw Memed to Might w ovef« 
pooling all obsteole^ bjr tb^ discoverj of neir 
jud eKliMurflioarF oemtigifiinooi. 

** The most o^perieiiDed ^Bgioeers upoa Ibiv 
mer qrstenis veie aiaafed and iomifiMiiided «t 
bis |iP0w( of e^nedvct biridge^ over navigable 
fivetfb WQiMidsace^MdecipvaUiei, andaabteiv 
xaoepqe JUumeli ; wa eoiild thej believe n the 
pncticabilUj of wwe of these achemee till fh^ 
aaw ibwiteff9CJted« la .tbeegecgtioft> the ideee 
h» Allowed vitfre all bi44>MrB ; ao4 4he mmmtmt 
j|t (vrell ae Ibe ^reateti evpedieoti be ewpl^yed 
JMire the «teiiip of origii^ali^« 

*^ Everj mm ^ geoim as op e o tb o ti e rt ; Mn 
JSriaAlej va^ a« eiitliwia«t in fiivor of the en? . 
pmontj of «aaai oaAigatioM above those of 
^wni and this trimnph of art over nature led 
bim 4p view, with asortQf eontempt^ the wind*- 
i|ig strMnii in which tb^ lover of ratal beautj 
S9 much Migbta, Tbie eentiment he is said to 
have es^ressed in a 8tribix\g manner at an eya^ 
mination hefiiise a tonunitJtee of the Uonseof 
Cpmmons, when on being asJ^ed, after b« had 
vade some cQntemptnans renmrks relative t^ 



M« HISTORKiAL AND DBSCRIPTIVE 

lifers, what he conceived thej were created- * 
for:— *he answered, To feed navigable canals. * 
** After the sucecfssful execulian of the Duke 
of Bridgewater's canal to the Mersey, Mr; 
Brihdley was employed in the revived design 
of carrying a canal from that river to the Trent, 
through the counties of Chester and Stafford. 
This undertaking was commenced in the year . 
1766; and from the great ideas it opened in 
the mind of its conductor of a scheme of in- 
land navigation, which should connect all the 
internal parts of England with each other, and 
with the principal sea- ports by meansof branches 
from this main stem, he gave it the emphatical 
name of the Grand Trunk. In executing this; 
he was called upon to employ all the resources 
of hits invention, on account of the unequality, 
and various nature of the ground to be cut 
through ; in particular the hill of Hare Castle, 
which was only to be passed by a tunnel of 
great length, bored through strata of different 
consistency, and some of them mere quicksand, 
proved to be a most difficult and expensive ob- 
stacle, which, however, he completely surmount- 
ed. While this was carrying on, a branch from 
the Grand Tr^nk, to join the Severn near 
Bewdley, was committed to his management, 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. ', Ms 

and finished in 1772. He was alisb concerned 
Id the prcrjection and execution of several 
othefs; and indeed there was scarcely any de- 
sign of canal navigation set on foot in this king- 
dom during the latter ylears of his life, in which 
be was not consulted, and the plan of Which 
be did not entirely form, or rev^ise and improve* 
** The attention and application which all 
bis various and complicated employments re- 
quired probably shortened his days; as the 
number of his undertakings, in some degree, 
impaired his usefulness. He fell into a kind of 
chronic fever, which after continuing some 
years, with but little intermission, at length 
wore out his frame, and put a period to his life^ 
on September the 27(h, 1772» in the 56th year 
of his age. He died at Tornhurst, in Stafford- 
shire, and was buried at New Chapel, in the 
same county. 

'^ In appearance and manners, as* well as ac- 
quirements, Mr. Brindley was a mere peasant. 
Unletteredf and rude in speech, it was easier 
for bim to devise means for executing a design, 
than to communicate his ideas concerning it to 
others. Formed by nature for the profession 
he assumed, it was there alone that he was in 
bis proper element : and so occupied was his 
21 Q 4 



9m HISTORICAL ANO MSeftlfTIVB 

•Mid iriih Im boMMss, that fa? was woapable^C 
ttluMig in any ^f the ooamimi anittseineBte af 
Uk Aft he had aat the ideae of «ther meft to aoieft 
biii^ wheaever a point of difieidtjr iaepatri vaiia» 
fieettrred, il wtehis emtom to retiie to hie bed» 
V^ieve ill perfact wliiiide, he would lie one^ i4m« 
or three dajs, pondering .the Miil{}ee( in hie 
ttind, till the requisite enpedieat h«d presraled 
itaelf. This is that true im/Hratim which poeta 
have tdnioat exclosi?elj arrogated to themielvefit 
but which men of <Hrigioa|geiiiiie9.i|9ie?ery walk^ 
^M actuated by, when, fvooi the operation of 
tlpe mind, aeting upon itself, without the intfu- 
sionof foreign notions, they create and invent* 
A remarkable retentive aaeoiaif was cKie of tbo 
essenttiahquabti^s which Mr. Btindley bm^gbt 
' to bis mental operations. Tfai& enabled him to 
execute all the parts of the most complex josa* 
chine in due order, without any help of models, 
or dcawings, provided he had qnee settled the 
whole plan in his mind, la his calenlationa of 
^he powers of asachines, he folkHwd^plan poi* 
Guliar to hintaelf; but indeed the onlyiiM^ 
^ttld follow without instruetio» in the ffulea^if 
prt. He would work the questioni son^e fcitne 
pn his head, and then set down the resiftit in 
^gures; then taking it op in this stage^ be 
would proceed by a mental operation to another 



nmK an^ tinis Jm' wmiU «» os (ill 4te ilrlldlt 
was finisbad; and makiag we of igawkimAp 
i» Mark th« iM«iml raaidte of bkoperatkiDkr^ 
Sot, tiKnigli by th^tiiroaderfuhpoipen bf aatWe 
g i mioB , be was tbos enabled te ^et wvtr bis 
want ef ariiieial method to a eertaiA degveev 
yet there is no 4iovbt that when bis evBcemi' 
became extremely complicated, witb aoeoonte 
ef various kinds to keep, and qakolations -of .all 
kiiids to form, be covid noiaivoid that perplex- 
ity and embarraasmeat whieh a readiness in 
tbe processes eawried on by pen and pSiper ca» 
alone obviate. Ifis Mtiasates of expmce have 
generally proved wide of realiiy ; and be stemi 
So have been better 4| nab fied tp have been -the 
eotttriver than the manager of a great design.^ 
Uts moral qualities were highly raspeclaUe. 
He was (ar aboveenvy and jealousy,, sfnd freeiy 
eofnmontcHfed Ins improvemeotsto persons ca^ 
pableof receiving and e^raouting theni ; taking 
a libered s»tisfaetion in fonmng a new genera* 
tiott of engineersi able to {Koceed with tbe great 
plans in the sucoetis of wbich he was so deefdy 
interested. His integrity, and segard to the 
advantage of his empfoyers, weae onimpeadi* 
able« In fine, the name of Brimdky^ will: 
ever keep a place Mioag that small number of ^ 
mortids who form eras in the art or science to^ 



669 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

which thej devote themselves, bj a large and 
darable extension of its limits.^' 

HjLTUNLSJLQUy Hereseigt,aism9}l village situ- 
ated at the foot of a very loftj aad extensive 
hill, contains about 100 bouses. In the direc- 
tion of the streets there is no regularity, biU 
the houses are scattered over an extensive piece 
of ground. The church stands on an eminence 
at the north end of the village: it is a neat, 
clean, light building, with aspire and six bells. 
In the chancel are several monuments of an* 
cient date, belonging to the family of Eyres^ 
who came from HighUm in the parish of Hope. 
Lying against the north wall, is a tomb-stone, 
with brass figures of a man and a woman, and 
several children, indeiited in the stone; and 
also a brass tablet, bearing the following Latin 
inscription, in Old English characters :i—£rtc 
jcLcet Rohertus Eyre, armiger: qui obiit xxL 
Jkic Mensia Maye^ anno MilUmmo CCCCLJX: 
€t Joahne uxor ejus^ qui obiii ix die menm Maye- 
MUlimmo CCCCLXIV. There is'also another 
brass tablet to the memory of Radulphus Eyre^ 
of Offerton in the county of Derby, Esq. and 
Elizabeth his wife, who died in the year 1403. 
The living is a vicarage, the ehurch is dedica* 
ted to St. Michael^ and the Duke of DevoA* 
pbire is the patron. 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 669 

ft 18 band^ down hj tradition, that Litile 
Johuj the companion and coadjutor of Robin 
Hood, lies buried -in this cbnrcb-yard. Hit 
grave is $(bewn to tbe traveller. Two grey 
stQiieSt one at tbe foot and the otber at tbe 
head, mark tbe spot, where this berO lies. The 
distance from one stone to another, is, neariy, 
four yards — a space, whatever might have been 
Little John's ambition while alive, it is unrea- 
sonable to suppose he could occupy when dead: 
bowever the person that was buried in the spot, 
whether Little John or not, was a man of great 
stature, as the grave was opened some years 
ago, and a thigh bone, found, which measured 
two feet and a half. 

la the churcb-yard, there is also, tbe remains 
of a stone cross, around which it was custom- 
ary in Popish times, (and it has been done in 
the memory of some of the present inhabitants) 
to take the corpse of tbe deceased before its iu^ 
teroDient, in order to its more speedy release 
from Purgatory. There are several Roman 
Catholics in the village and neighbouriiood, 
who assemble at a very neat chapel at the wes- 
tern extremity of the village. This place of 
worship was erected about 150 y'ears ago, but 
since that time, it has often been the object of 
popalarfury, and the inside completely dc« 



9m mSTORICAL AMD nBORimVE 

9iMfkA'by the ovwlieatied laai of Pratiisaiit 
WgDtti TlM,ooDgrag«c»n oonristo of aboatX^ 
kidividMs^ anilii'pnatt, who lives id a fanrge 
and handsome boase adjoiDiag the chapel.--^ 
The 'eaaleni gable-ea4 ^eif the chapel^ is onia« 
Bsentedwith a cress of blaoktsh stoae, worked 
iattBHNig, aod {wofeeting aboire^ thefr^e^stMee 
whidb coaspose the bmlding, imd whieb. txmf 
be aM« atJi great 'ditttaaoe. 
. ^* The jsarth here eeenss to possess some r»y 
peculiar properties, as will appear from tha 
Miowing extvaoidinary relalioni cbieflf 9m* 
tracted kom a letter writlea by aClerk af Ha-^ 
tfaeiaage, but corroborated by enquiriea mado 
among other persons who were acquaiated with 
theftct. 

^ On openiag a grave in Haf hersage charcb-^ 
jard for the ioterment of a finDale, oa the 31$t«' 
of May, 1781, the inidy of Mr., Beigamm 
Aahlon, who was buried on the 20th; of Decern^ 
ber 17S5, was taken up, ^ eoogealed and hard aa 
fliiit. His breast, belly, and face, and all the 
parts that lay ander, were nearly the same co« 
loar as when put into the coffin/ The eoffitr 
#as of oak boards., inch and aJialf thick, atid a» 
sound as when first deposited in the. gn^e^ 
which was so extrteiely wet, that men wer« 
eai^loyed to lade out die water, that the ooAa. 



viBw or DnBYsmnB. tin 

wglitbe k«pt firom flteftinf , tfll the bodjrwM 
litaiiMd to it« Tl^ inm wa» fmrtly Atoaysdi 
tHkireyin^ tbeiidMyitkaft the pstrifaetive |»»* 
ccft had commenced prarkMNil J. to that ^Ipcli 
bad haidetted the flesh iato etone; Thto head 
waa jbroke off in remoTing the bodj fraal Uka 
9afittt hat wa& placed iai to fint poaitioi^whaa 
again intenrtd. Mr. Aahton waa a oorpnlent 
oMm, and died ui the fi>Rty«ae0ond year af bia 

. '^ Abovelhe cbnrch^ al fi filaoei caUedl Oany 
Gmm, iaa einmlar area^ 144iMt id diaincter» 
eocoiiipaaBed widftahighaad pretty large mound 
of tortb,; rdiind which ia a deep ditch. A read 
baa baenlcamadaercMa. the acta, from w^it to i 
east; and an outlet and path have abo heea 
fiirn^ on th^ aoutb side. In the eighth to- 
lome ctf the Archeeologia/ia an aeeooiM; hy Mf. 
Bayman Rooke, of some ancient remaina on 
HathervigA Moor, particalarly of a Reeking^ 
tOme^ taiaaly-niBe feet in.circiuu&rencei and 
aiaaritr4.*lai^ ataoe, with a reck^baain^ and 
many tumuUf in wiiiob nraa, beada^ and riDga» 
haae lyeen iband* M a littbdistaaoe be men- 
Ikaa phaerving.anotber reaaaikab^e atone, fhtiv 
toaai le<tt aix inohaa^ in length, which appaarad 
to iiave been placed by art on the brow of a 
precipice, iindfop(K»rt«d b^.twoamaU atonea. 



03f8 RISTO&ICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

On the lop is a large rock-barin^fonr feet three 
iodies in diameter ; and close to this^ on the 
vonth sidot a hollow, cut like a.cbair, with a 
step to rest the feet upon. This, in the tra- 
ditions of the country, is called Cairns Chair. 
Not far from this spot are also some rocking- 
afones, and of such a kind, as seems plainly 
to indicate, that the first idea of forming Rock- 
ing-stones atall, was the appearance of eer* 
tain stupendous masses, left by natural causes 
in such a singular situati^on, to be even. pre- 
pared, as it were, bj the hand of nattfre, to ex- 
hibit snch a curious kind of equipoise/'^ 

DnnwENT, is a chapdry belonging to Ha- 
ihersage ; and the liberty contains about thir- 
ty houses. 

Stokbt*Middleton, is a small hamlet, si- 
tuated among grey rocks, surrounded by a 
wild, dreary, and desolate country. The churcbt 
which is dedicated to St. Martin, is of an oc- 
lagonal form, and was built some years ago by 
subscription, the greater part of which was 
furnished by the Duke of Devonshire. 

MiddleUm Dak^ a narrow, winding, and. 
deep chasm, is, in grandeur and beauty, iafe- 
ferior to most of the other dales in Derbyshire : 

• Munimqnta Antigua, Vol. I. 



VIEW OP ftBRRTSHUtSt fV 

j>et dMr TodB in it wr^ ot m pecufiar a di«p^ 
tint they nerer ftil to imke a strikiag^ impraii* 
mib apoD^ the miiids of those wbo vvat the place* 
On the north side, they bear a strong reseia* 
blanee to the round towen and bnttresses of m 
mined castle ; in other parts, there is^saeh an 
sppearance of mouldings, that one can scarce* 
Ijr help tltinking, that the chissel has been em«^ 
ployed in their formation. The rockSi moral 
especially on the north side, are perpendKon* 
kr, and' rise to the height of three or four hun- 
dred feet ; but every where naked and un« 
sdomed, excepting near the entrance in £fam 
D49U. Thus deprired of every verdant coveiw 
ing, the picturesque is excluded; whilst theti* 
elamsy, heavy, round forms preclude the id^ 
of grandeur. It has the appearance, as if the 
Mcks which Ibrm this chasm had been rent 
aannder by some convulsion of nature ; iind the 
turainge of the Dale are so sharp, as, occasion- 
ally to give the idea of all further progress be*' 
i»g previiitited by the opposition of an insur- 
oKRitituble barrier of precipitous rock. Ita 
ebwractef, therefore^ is rather singularity, than 
BMigaifleenee or loveliness. The roiid* from 
CheiterfiiBld to Tideswell, passes through it, 
aMmttpanied hy a streamlet, which runs iMkideF 
m E 4 



074 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

it, a greatpart of the wajr. Here are some re-' 
markable caverns ; one of which is called Bos* ^ 
sen Hok; but the chief is Bamfarth Hole ia 
Chuleswork, of great extent, and beautifallj 
ornamented with stalactitious petriiactions. 

On • the north side, of Stoney Middleton ia 
St. Martin's Bath, enclosed by four walls, but. 
open 'atlhe top. These tepid waters very much 
resemble, in their chemical properties, and me* 
dicinal virtues, those of Matlock, and have 
been' Ibund efficacious by those who have been 
afflicted with rheumatism. The thermometer 
standi at 63 degrees in the bath ; and, perhaps, 
if the spring were covered in, and a convenient 
room built adjoining it, the place would be 
more resorted to then it is at present ; though, 
its want of charming scenery would preveat 
its becoming so eminently distinguished, or so. 
attractive, as Matlock. Several other warm, 
springs rise in the environs, and also a chaly^p 
beate one. ^ . 

Pbak Forest, is another chapelry belonging, 
to Hathersage. The cbiirch is said to have, 
been built by the Countess of Shrewsbury, and 
is now tinder the patronage of the Duke of 
Devonshire. William Ferrers, Earl <tf Derby, 
, gave to the Monks of Lenton, in Nottingham- 
shire, the tithe of all hb assarts in (he forest of 
High Peak* 



VIEW OF .DERBYSHIRE. ^ 9t$ 

The villi^ is but smalU cahtaioing togetheir 
with the whole liberty 100 houses. The aame 
(Peak Forest) is not applicable to the village 
only, bat to an extensive tract of land, for* 
merly covered with trees, but now naked, for- 
lorn, and apparently unprofitable. The forest 
was anciently called De alto Pecco, and 
included the parishes of Castleton, Hope, 
Chapel, dr.Bodeo, and Glossop, in this coun- 
ty ; aud Mottram in Longdendale, in the 
county of Chester. It was stocked with red 
deer, which, by tradition are reported to have 
traversed the country so low as. Ashford. Most 
of the deer perished in a deep snow, about the 
tiode of Elizabeth, or the beginning of the' reiga 
of James the First. Many petrified homs have 
been found in the limestone tracts. • 

The Limestone Quarries. on the Peak Forest, 
occupy an ektent of nearly half a mile in length, 
and two or three hundred yards in breadth. 
Here many workmen are continually employ- 
ed in boriqg the rocks, and shattering them in- 
to pieces, by the explosions of gun-powder. A 
Hail-way extends from the quarries to ChapeU 
enTle-Frith, where an inclined plane has been 
formed on the side of a mountain, to .convey 
the limestone to the Manchester canalf , The 
velocity with wbiph the loaded carts .descend is 
regulated by mechanical principles^ 



Hi HftTOUCAL AMDJSBSCRIRISVE 

EkiMii lioiJi, IB Mtairtid oo Am ode ol a 
gwtfe Ull abMt a nik to the natih-wMt of «ka 
iPlili^of PeakEoiat ^tisadMpcbaflaiiaibe 
ground, ittftooDdcd bj a w^l of unoeiiitiiited 
pfeMtf^toiNrOTcataccideBtB. Manjreaaggemtoi 
doBcriptioiM, and marfaUoas cepoite^iiave beaa 
|m»pagated4)0«i€eniiag this fiwure: it lias, at 
aaie time, beea represented as peiiectlj^ oafih- 
tlwmlUe ; at others, as teeming, at a ^cef tain 
deptli, witk such impure aic, tiuit no animal 
aoald icspire it without immediate destmetion* 
Cotton affirmed more than a centnr]^ ^;o, that 
hi endeavoured to plumb the cavity with a Una 
i84 jards long, but eould not find thebotlom ; 
and that apon oaminiag the lower end of the 
Ime, he litiund that 80 yards had sunk through 
waten* And a gentleman, whoee account was 
4|aotad ia Catcott's Treatise on the Deluge, 
^B the second number of the Philosophical 
Tiaasections, has asserted, that he let down a 
tine 083 yards, without meeting with a bottom. 
J9at these descriptions of its depth are, for some 
leason or other, certainly erroneous: as several 
peiaoiis have, at different periodis, descended 
lAto it, and affirmed, that the depth of the first 
landing bebw the sarface, was not above ae^ 
veoty jards. 



f Wondeii of the Peak, published in l68K 



About ^ky yam ago, a Mr. Lijnt, ilsm^ni^ 
dljvtoiit^ aild cattinptticatedl •« aommt -ctf 
MadaMMMt, thPWfft iIm MMy-fivrt. ^voUum of 
tho PfafloBoplriori Transaetioiis.^ Hie says, thoi 
fortiie Amttweoly yadk, Iw itfeseendM Mtoofc 
wbol oMiqoely, aod fbatHie 'pesmge then ^b^^ 
tmm dtftcirit iiom progeetkig eragt. At tba 
Aeptii of ten yards oMre, the taflexion of kk 
ro^ vmied at least six yards Aom the perpen^ 
dioolar. Fraai heace, the breadth of the ehink 
was about three yards and the length six ; the 
sides itfegalar, moss-grown, and wet. Witlrin 
Ibnrteen yards of the bottom, the rock o pene d 
Wk the east, and he swung till he reached the 
floor of a caire, sb^ly-two yards only from the 
month, the light from which, was sofioiently 
strong to permit the reading of any prints The 
interior of the chasm, he describes as consist^ 
ing of two parts ; one like an oren ; the other, 
like the dome of a' g^ass-hoase, communicating 
with each other by a small arched passs^. On 
the sooth side of .the second carem, was u 
smaller opening, abouft lour yards long, ami 
two high, lined throoghout witti a kind of 
sparkling stalactite, of a fine deep yellow eo* 
lonr, with some stalactitical drops banging froas 

• Page 850. 



fTt HISTORICAL AND BESCRIPTIVB 

the roef. Facing the entranoe he fenad a ao- 
Ue eoluBiD^ Bbove ninety feet high* of thesama 
kind of inGrastatioQ. As he pioceeded ta the 
north, he came to a lArge stOae which was co- 
vered with the fiaoie sabstance; and under it he 
lbandahole« two yards deep, uniformly lined 
with it. From the edge of this hole sprung up 
a rocky. asioent, sloping like a buttress against 
the side of the cavern, and coosjsliog ot ?astt 
solid» round masses of the same substance mad 
colour. Having climbed this ascent to the 
height of about sixty feet, he obtained some 
fine pieces of stalactite, which hung from the 
craggy sides of the cavern. Descending wilb 
some difficulty and danger, he proceeded ia 
the same direction^ and soon came to another 
pile of incrustations of a brown colour; above 
which he found a small cavern, opening into 
the side of the vault, which he entered. Hera 
he saw vast masses of stalactite, hanging like 
ice^icles from every part of the roof; some of 
these being four and five feet long, and as thick 
as .a man's body. The sides of the Islrgeat 
cavern were mostly lined with incrustations of 
three kinds ;^— the first was a deep yellow staU 
actite; the second a thin coating, which re^ 
sembled a light stone-coloured varnish, and re- 
flected the light of the candle with great spleq* 



VIBW'OP DERBYSHIRS. «r» 

dour; and the third a roug^* eflbrescettoe^ the 
sboot of wbieh had the similitude of ^ kind of 
roMiflower. These are the principal iaots com^ 
uomeated respecting' Elden Hole bj Mr. Loyd, 
the only scientiffic person who visited it, 'and 
whose account is the only one on which aajre-' 
liance oan be plaoed-— this it may be observed, 
farnishes w^ argnmeatsof immeasurable depth. 
'^ We shall now/' say the editoiiB of the Bean* 
ties of England and Wales, ** state our own ob* 
servations, and also the result of enquiries 
made in the neighbourhood. The mouth of 
this diastnl opens longitudinally, in a direction 
irom north to south. Its shape is nearly that 
of an irregular ellipsis; about thirty yards in 
length, and nine broad in the widest part. The 
northern end is fringed with small trees ; and 
moss and underwood grow out of the crevices 
on each side to the depth of forty or fifty feeU 
As the fissure recedes from the surface, it gva* 
dually contracts ; iUnd at the d^pth of twenty 
or twenty-fiveyardis, kiide$ (inclines) consider- 
ably to the west ; so that the eye can no longer 
trace its course. The bu»hes and projecting 
masses of stone, are, excepting at a point on 
the west side, extremely unfarourabie to plumb* 
ing it with accuracy. From ibis point, a weight 
was carefully let down, and, in the opinion of 



tm HISTQtICAL AND MSCaVTIVB 
Mfrenil ptnMur bjr wIioid tiM liiMirMraptttedk 

tonik Tlie line bad heni pnmonly «MflMMd^ 
and tbe de|^tb to wbkb tbfi waigb* ikiwniaiifc> 
HN^foiinitoibe aa inafa tban m mii ^M mf m gmnh 
amdame/oai/ Tbat tkm m the Mmi ief^kdi 
tba fkwmy eraancar it aaoas bei 
the aflMrtkm of tbna aiM«^« 
xatalj^ wbo baae baen let dowai into it» afr dif« 
&rent fierioda, irithia tbe last Ibirljr-foinr aa 
lbirtjr*aMi yean, abnndantly eoaniboBatoa* 

'' Tw« of them iaaagined ite dtptb to be 
dbont sixly^eigbt, ar seven^ jwda^ but aa 
many yeaia had elapsed sineetbe time ^ tbeiff 



* The last of these was, unfortunatelyt dead, wbea the 
MtHor of the present History visited Bideii Hole^ list siist^* 
men The occasioo of their dcsceiil» wis the discovery* 
sometime in the year 1767* of the two faonet of a gentle- 
man and a Udy without their riders near the abyss. The 
•ountry people immediately imsgitied (and* ptthape with 
ijeasoo) that the latter had-beao robbed, murdered, sa^ 
thrown into Elden Hole ; and let down some minen into it 
ih order to search for.thebodio^ but nothing'wu disc<»ver* 
ed to justify the report of the mnider. Aboae the yeift 
1800, s similar circumstance of a man's horse without tta 
msster being discovered near Elden Hole, induced a body 
•f minen to underuke a like expedkioa, but wkh'as litdo 
sucoeu as their predecessors, and without miking any-ad^ 
ditional discoveries. It is said, that some yean ago, s cruel 
vrtelch confessed at the gallows, that he had robbed a tra- 
veller, aad afterwank thmwn him into^this chafem. 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 681 

tolitdf raneooft expedition, thej wotild not speak 
to a 'fathom or two. The third, whose descent 
inlto^be chasm bad been more recent, affirmed^ 
that the length of the rope which enabled him 
to reach the bottom, was thirty three fathoms^ 
and a ttijle more. So nearly do these diffe- 
rent relations correspond, that we can hardly 
suppose the depth of Elden Hole will again be 
made a question. It should be remarked, that 
the risfe of the hill in the vicinity of the chasm, 
is about one foot in six ; and consequently, that 
the variation of a few yards, in divers ad mea- 
jS^urements, may at once be reconciled, by sup- 
posing the stations to have been different/^ 

HoPB, is a small village, on the road between 
Hathersage and Castleton, situated on tbebank^ 
of the Derwent, which is here but an inconsi- 
derable stream. Hope is mentioned in Domes- 
day-book as having a priest and a church, in 
the time of Edward the Confessor. The living 
is a vicarage, the church is dedicated to St* 
Peter, and the Dean and Chapter of Litchfield 
are the patrons. 

It has been aisserted, that William P^verel 

had a mansion at Burgh in this parish, and 

that in the reign of Edward the First, John» 

Earl of Warren and Surry, was made governor 

32 s 4 



mi^ HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

«lf it Id soi«e inannMript papers of ike htf 
If r. John M^der, of Bakew^ll, Hope lias heeii 
^leaef^lied an mi> aii€ie«t naiKet-town ; .b«t 
^ adf anU^e of this privikge it no laiig«r 
alloys. 

^ Thfi noora of Hope parish ^prd an extras- 
av4imr J ii|staDc« of the pr^rv^kion of human 
hadji/» interred in tbem. One Barber, a gra* 
viefi and bis maid servant, going to Ireland in 
the year 1674, were lost in the snow, and we* 
mained covered with it from January to May, 
when they were so offensive, that the Coroner 
Oldered them to be buried on the spot. About 
twenty-nine years afterwards, some country* 
men, probably having observed the extraor- 
diaary properties of this soil in preserving dead 
bodies, had the curiosity to open the ground, 
and found them in no way altered ; the colour 
of the skin being fair and natural^ and their 
6esh as soft as that of persons newly dead* — 
They were exposed for a sight, during tb^ 
course of twenty years following, thaagh thej 
were much changed in that time by beii^ ao 
often uncovered. In 1716, Mr. Henry Brown, 
M. B. of Chesterfield, saw the man perfect, faia 
beard strong, and about a quarter of an inch 
long : the hair of his head iM>ort ; his skin hard« 
and of a tanned leather cdlour, pretty much 



VIEW <»F DtSHBTSHtHB. $$b 

Ike Mnne as the liquor and earth they lay in c 
he had on a broad cloth coat, of whioh the 
doctor iff Tain tried to tear off a skirt. The 
woman was more decayed, having been takitt 
out of the ground, and rudely handled ; heir 
flesh particularly decayed, her hair long and 
ipongy, like that of a living person. Mr. Bar- 
ber of Rotherham, the man's grandson, liad 
both bodies buried in Hope ehnreh, and, upon 
looking into the graves sometifne afterwatt}s,it 
was found, they were entirely consumed. Mir. 
'Wermald, the minister of Hope, was present 
at their removal : he observed tiiat tb^y lay 
about a yard deep, in moist soil, or aoss, bilt 
no water stood in the place. He saw ibetr 
Mockings drawn off, and the man's legs, which 
had not been tincovered before. Were quite lair : 
the flesh, when pressed by his finger, pitted a 
little; and the joint splayed freely, and with* 
out the least stiffness: the other pa-rts were 
much decayed. What was left of their clothes 
not cut off for curiosity,* was firm .and good; 
mid the woman had a }>iece of new serge, which 
seemed never the worse ."• 

BRot'GH, a small hamlet in the parish and 

■ — " ' - ; 

* Cough's Additions to the Britannia, as detailed from 
tlife Philosophical Transactions. 



.«M HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

neigbboarhood of Hope, is supposed to h^ne 
been a place of some importance in the time of 
the Romans. Mr. Pegge, who visited the spot 
in 1761, was of opinion, that it was onccf a^ 
Roman station ; and in proof, mentions, a rude 
bust of Apollo, and of another deity, which 
had been found in the. fields, ^e likewise re? 
marked the vestiges of an oblong square build- 
ing, where a coarse pavement, composed of 
pieces of tiles and cement, was discovered; and 
in searching among the rubbish, he met with 
th^ fragment of a tile, on which a part of the 
word CohorSf was impressed. At Brought mill 
a gold coin of Vespasian had been found in good 
preservation. 

Mr. Bn^, who visjted and examined this 
place at a later period, says, that the Roman 
camp was at the place called the Cdstle, near the 
junction of two small streams, named Noo or 
Noa, and the Bradwell water. The inclosed area 
was of a square form, measuring 310 feet from 
south to north, 370 feet from east to west. 
Many of the old buildings lying on every side of 
this spot, have been turned up by the plough ; 
between the castle and the river, bricjis have 
been taken up ; and on the other side of the 
water, urns have been found. On some of the 
bricks, Roman letters were impressed : and pn 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. H$ 

iha rim of an urn, was this inscription in thr«c 
linM:— VIR .. ViV .. tr the two last letters be- 
ing smaller than the others. Piecds of swords, 
spears, bridle^bits, and coins have also been 
Ibund here : and a few years ago, a half-length 
figure of a woman, with her arms folded across 
her breast, cyt in rough grit- stone, was turned 
op by the plough ; and afterwards sold to « 
gentleman at Bakewell. Not many years ago, 
a double row of pillars crossed . the point of 
land at the conflux of the two*streams : they 
were of grit-stone, and thri^ persons could walk 
a- breast between them. 

'On the road between Hope 'and Castleton, 
rises the lofty eminences called, Win^kill^ and 
Loose- hill J from the event of a battle, which, 
according to tradition, was fought near them, 
between two armies who bad previously en- 
camped on these eminences. On the summit 
of the former of these points, is a mound com- 
posed of stones, covered with heath and moss, 
in the middle of which is a rode seat of stones, 
called Robin HootTs Chair. Under a large heap 
of stones, a little to the eastward of Win-hilU 
pike^ about the year 1779, an urn was discover* 
ed, made of clay, badly baked, and of very 
rude workmanship. 

]$liAi>w£tL, BradewelUi is a large village in 



m HISTORICAL AKt) D&SCRlFtlVE 

the Mine parisB. The whole liberty oontaiM 
nearly TOO bouses^ wboiie inhabitants are chiefr 
1^ supported ^ the mining bnsiness. 

A natural excavation has been recently difik 
QOTered in the neighbourhood of Bradweli^ 
tAilled the Crysialtiztd Cavern : it is situated 
within 900 yard!K>f the village, and is thuft de^. 
icribed by a late Tourist : 

On entering, ^* there is no grandeur in iti 
first appearance, it is rather terrific than otbei^ 
wise, and is as much like going down into m 
deep dungeon, as any thing 1 can compare it 
with. Alter descending about three hdbdred 
stepr, very abruptly, yon then walk, or 
more' properly creeps on an inclined way^ fof 
near Quarter of a mile, the opening being 
so low, that it is impossible, at times, to get 
forward without going on all fours. The diH 
ferelit crystallizations which now attract theat^ 
tention on every side, and abDve and below the 
passage^ cause you to forget the irksomeness of 
the road, and to drive away every idea of fa« 
tigue. New objects of curiosity begin to crowd 
one upon another; here, /there is the appear^ 
ance of the pipes of all organ, in a place called 
the musric chamber. In other places, -the stiil^. 
actites are formed into elegant small colonnadesi 
with as exact a symmetry . as if they had been 



^ VIEW or DE&B YSHIRE. «> 

duMllfd by the greatest artist. Candles jitdt- 
imudy disposed in the inside of tbeni^ give an 
idea of the palaces of fairies, or of sylphs and 
genii, who have chosen this magnificent abode. 
In a recess, on the left, there appears the reaemr 
blance of a set of crystallbed surgical instra» 
menta. , 

*' Bat still you have seen nothing in comp^ 
rison itith what you are to expect ; for, in the 
course of one hundred yards further, creeping 
ai times, and passing down rugged places, you 
rater the Gratia a/ Paradm. This heavenly 
9fiot, ^r it cannot be compared with any thing 
terrestrial, is, of itself, a beautiful Crystallized 
tavern, about twelve feet high, and twenty feet 
long, poftnted at the top, similar to a Golhie 
nrcb, with a countless number of lai:ge stalac- 
tites, hanging from its foo£i Candles placed 
amongst theoi, give some idea of its being 
|igbJ:ed up with elegant glass chandeliers^ 
while the sides are entirely incrbsted, and 
brUliant in the extreme :— *The floor is chequer* 
ad with black and white spat ; and altogether 
it has the most novel and elegant appearance 
fiif any cavern I ever beheld^ This paradisiacal 
npartmiisnt would bo left with a kind of regrets 
should yott not ^pect to see it again on ror 
t«niii^ 



088 HISTORICAL AND D£SCRIPTIVB 

** Still eontjnuing a similar road to what bui 
been passed, and entertained at ▼arionii timea 
with the ciHTiosttieft of the place, and the gea« 
tie droppings of the water, which scarcely 
break the solemn silence of the scene, at length 
you arrive at the Grotto of Calypso^ and iM 
extremity of the Cavern, abdrve 9000 feet from 
the first entrance. In order to see this to ad- 
vantage, it is necessary to rise into a. recess^ 
about two yards high. There, indeed, from 
the beautiful appearances of the diflferent cry- 
. stallizationsf some of them of an azure cast, 
from the echoes reverberating from side to side, 
you fancy yourself to be arrived at the seclu* 
ded retreat of some fabled deity. The water 
also running near this Cavern, brings a cool re- 
freshing air, which from the exertion used, and 
the closeness of the place, is very acceptable. 
The size of this Grotto is nearly equal to 
that of the la^t, and, indeed, it is difficult to ' 
determine, which is the most interesting. 

** After returning by the same path for a con- 
siderable distance, there is anpther Cavern to 
be investigated, which branches in ai south- 
western direction from the one already explor- 
ed. The roads here, are still more difficult of 
access, but certainly the stalactites are most , 
beautifuL Great many of them are pendent 



VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. 6B9 

from the roof more than a jard long, and al- 
most as small as the smallest reed/ The top 
and sides of this second Cavern in manj places 
are remarkably smooth* particularly the part 
called the amphitheatre, in general, this place 
IS of ja Tery dark stone, to which the transpa* 
reM appearances before mentioned^ with each 
a drop of water hanging at the bottom, form a 
fine contrast; and indeed, this cayern is, in 
some degree, a contrast to the one before exa* 
mined. 

^* Returning back, we still admire the curi* 
Ofdties before noticed, and with regret, leave 
this beautiful Crystalliied Cavern ; its repre- 
sentation, in idea, still continuing before the 
mind's eye ; where it will remain so long as 
memory holds her seat/^* 

Fairfibld, is also a chapel rjr in the parish 
of Hope, though situated near Buxton. The 
church is dedicated to St. Peter, and is a tole- 
rably good edifice. The vrllage is straggling 
and small; containing no more then sixty-three 
houses, and about 280 inhabitants. 

Castlbtom is situated in a valley, which, 
owing to the strong contrast it forms, with the 
bleak and elevated tracts that environ it, is the 

.^^^B»—— — »1^»— ^^— MM^— ■»— — ^ till I I ^ ^ 

* Hatchinion's Tour througk the High Petk| p; 80. 
22 T 4 



t&9 HISTORICAL AND OJ^CRjPTIVB 

ndost striking , in the Hi|;h Feajc, QrperhfpsHi 
apj otii£r piirt pf t^fcie .cpynjtj. TH9 iipiiiedMil^ 
approach to tb? to\r<V b^ A rofK| 4Gr9«6 tbp 
qipunlaips frogi Chapel-io^the-Frith, is, " by ' 
a sleep <le8ceitt called the Winnat$, ojr Wio^* 
gattes, from the stre^qa of air that always ^sweepfi 
tjiroMgh .the pbasui. This road is a mile in 
I^qgtb, and .carried on in a finding direction, 
ip order to repder the natural decli?ity of the 
ground passable by carriages. Happy was the 
imagination that first suggested its name — the 
gates or portals of the winds; since^ wild as 
these sons of the tempest are, the massive rocks 
which nature here presents, seem to promise a 
barrier sufficiently strong to oppose their mad- 
dest fury, rrecipices one thousand feet in 
height, dark, rugged, and perpendicular, heave 
their unweildly forms on each side of the road, 
(which makes several inflections in its descent}^ 
and frequently presenting themselvjes in fronts 
threaten opposition to all farther progress* At 
one of these sudden turns to the left, a most ' 
beautiful view of Castle ton vale is ujaexplectedlj 
thrown upon the eye ; refreshing it with a rich 
* picture of beauty, fertility, and variety, after 
the tedious uniformity of rude and hidi^ua 
scenery^to which it has been so longconfined.^'^ 

* Wanier'f Northera Tour, VoL I. p« 1«S^ 



^ VIEW OF Derbyshire, Ǥ{ 

Tli^ brea«Itb of the vsik, is in many parte two 
iniles, its length between five and six, and its 
d^ptb, below the level of the surrounding coun- 
try nearly 1000 fe^t. Several rivulets flow 
through it, and to the north and south form 
lesser dales, opening in different directions.—- 
The villages of Hope, Castlelon, and Brough^ 
are situated in its bosom ; and the former, with 
itssplire and church, forms a very agreeable 
feature in the scenery, when viewed from this 
part of the descent. 

As the road winds along the declivity, a view 
18 presented of Castleton, which appears clus- 
tered near the bottom of the steep eminence at 
%vhose feet, the famous cavern discloses itself, 
and whose summit is occupied by the ruitis of 
the ancient Castle that gave name to the place* 
Near the entrance of the village, a bridge has 
been thrown across the stream which issues 
from the cavern. The number of houses in 
Castleton and its liberty, is, about dOO, and are 
built, chiefly, of stone. The support of the in- 
habitants is derived from the mining business, 
«and from the expenditure of those, who are in- 
duced to visit the remarkable places in the 
neighbourhood. The town was once fortified, 
as a ditch and a vallum, which formerly ex- 
tended in a semi* circular course round it, from 






69% HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

the monntaiD on which the castle standiB, may 
yet be traced in particular directions. The 
living is a vicarage, and the church is dedica- 
ted to St. Edmund : the Bishop of Chester is 
impropriator and patron. 

1 he remains of the Castle are still visible : 
its situation is very elevated, and the almost 
perpendicular chasms, that nearly insulate 
the eminence it occupies, must, prior to the 
invention of gun-powder, have rendered it al- 
most impregnable. The east and south sides 
are bounded by a narrow ravine, called the 
Cave, which ranges between two vast lirae-« 
stone rocks, and on the east is nearly 200 feet 
in depth. On the west it is skirted by the higb 
precipice which hangs over the great cavern, 
and rises to the height of 260 feet. The north 
side is the most accessible ; yet, even here, the 
path has been carried in a winding direction^ 
in order to make the ascent more practicable. 

The Castle-yard is spacious, and would con» 
tain a small army : and the wall by which it 
was enclosed, still remains in several places, 
measuring twenty feet in height on the outside. 
On the north side were two small towers, noi^ir 
destroyed. The entrance was at the north-east 
corner, as appears by a part of an arch*wajr 
yet remaining. Near the north-west angle i& 



VIEW OP DBRBYSmitB. 4§$. 

iheKeq^t the walk of which, on the south and 
west aire still pretty entire, and, at the north* 
west corner, are fifty-five feet high ; but the 
north and east sides are moch shattered. On 
the outside it forms a t>quare of thirty*eight feet 
two inches ; but on the inside, it is not e^al, 
being from north to south, twenty*one feet four 
inches ; from east to west, nineteen feet three 
inches. This diflSsrence arises from the various 
thickness of the walls, which are composed of 
broken masses of limestone, and mortar of such 
•excellent temper, that it binds the whole toge- 
ther like a rock: the facings of both outside and 
inside, are of hewn grit*stone. In the wall with* 
in is a little herting-bone ornament. 

This building, in its present state, has nei- 
ther roof nor second floor ; but anciently con- 
sisted of two rooms— one on the ground floor, 
and one above; over which the roof was raised 
with a gable-end to the north and south, but 
not of equal height with the outer walls. The 
ground floor was about fourteen feet high, the 
upper room about sixteen : the entrance to the 
former, appears to have been through a door- 
way on the south side of the upper room, by a 
flight of steps, now wholly destroyed, but said 
to have existed within the memory of some of 
the oldest inhabitants of the place. The pre- 



«HI. HISTORICAL AND DBSCnU^TlVB 

iMt totniBce k tkitNigh an opeohig iiMdd fal 
the walL Aft tlie Muth-east cdrMr^ k a iiarrd# 
viodiog stair-case, omnmuiicaliiig with tlia 
roof, bat in a ruiooas GondiiioB.* 

This Castle is a place of considerable aflrti^ 
quit J I and is supposed, by Mr. Kingif to batd 
been a forttess and pkce of rojal fesidence, ill 
the Saaon tknes} but other antiqua>ians are of 
opinion, that it is of Norman origtn, and erect- 
ed by William Peverel, natural son of the Con«« 
querot^-^-to him it is abo ascribed by the tra^ 
ditions of the neighboorbood ; and its ancient' 
appellation, of Penerers Plaee in the Peke^ 
oonntenaiices this opinion. Whattf^er is th€ 
truth, it is certain that Peverel possessed it, at 
the time of the Domesday Survey, by the 
name of Castelli in Pechesers, (Castle in tho 
Peak), with the honor and forest ^ Peke^ and* 
thirteen other Lordships in thiscoonty. About- 
thb timcy a tournament is said to have been 
held here, occasioned, according to Mr. Pit-* 
kington, by the following circomsstanoe >^ 

** William, a valiant knight, and sister's son" 

to Pain Peverel, Lord of Whittingtoa, in the 

oounty of Salop, had two daoghters, one 0# 

whom, Mellet, was no less distingoished by a> 

- - - - ■ . - ■ ' 

♦ Bray's Tour into Derbyshire, &p« 
t ArchcologU, Vol. Vlt 



» 

Vfmf^ spirit, Iba^ her jaber. Tbiis appenml 
frpiB the decl^ratioQi she made reipectiog tb« 
€|^>ic^ of a husband. She firmly raiolved tar 
marry none but a l^oigbt of great prowess ;• 
and her fiaher, to confirm her purpese, aod ta 
proc|ire apd encourage a number of visitoffs^ 
ipvited all noble young men, who were inclined 
t0 enter th<^ lists, to meet at Pererers Place in 
the Pel^e, and there deeide their pretensions by 
. th/s i|se of armfi ; declaring) at the same timm. 
that, whoever yanquished his opmpetitowt 
sbojf Id Deceive bis daughter, withr his castle at 
ini^bUtingjton, as a reward for his skill and va^ 
IfKir. Guariuede Me», a.branch of the house 
of (.orraipa, and an ancestor of th^ Lords 
Ifitz-Wfrrine, hearing this neport, repaiied ti» 
the pl^ce ab^e-meationed ; and there engag^ 
with a son of the king of Scotland, and also 
v|ri|b a Baron of Kurgoyne, and vanquishing 
them t>otb, obtained the. priae fof wbidi he 
fought/^ 

But the Castle in the Peak, did not remain 
VJ^HJ' years after this, in the possession of the. 
Pev.enels : for William Peverel, grandson of th^ 
first possessor of this iiame, having poisoned' 
Hanulph, Earl of Chester, was obliged to se^f 
cfire bis safety by flight; and his i>astles^andi 
ctjtbfir possesaonsy ^were le|t at the. lunges die« 



«b« HISTORICAL ANP DESCRIFnV£ 

foml. This monarch, (Henry the Second) 
granted them to bis son John, Earl of Mo'iv 
taigne, who afterwards succeeded to the crown* 
In jthe sixth year of the reign of king Jobn» 
Hugh de Neville was mader Gk>?ernor of the 
Peak Castle; bat within ten years afterwards»^ 
it is said to have been possessed by the rebel- 
lions Barons, from whoiii it was taken for the 
king by William Ferrers, the seventh Eari of 
Derby; who, in recompence for this service, 
was appointed its governor. In the fourth of 
Edward the ^Second, John, Earl of Warren, 
obtained a grant of the Castle and honor of 
Peit#, in Derbyshire, with the whole forest of 
High Peke^ in as ample, u manner as it was 
anciently enjoyed by the Peverels. In thefer- 
iy-ninth year of Edward the Third, the Castle 
was granted to John of Gaunt, and from that 
time, it has descended in the same manner as 
the Dncby of Lancaster. The present Consta- 
ble of the Castle is, the Duke of Devonshire. 

It has been observed by Mr. Bray, that this 
I b rt r e s s was not well calculated for defence, ex- 
cept against any sudden assault, as it was nei^ 
ther large nor furnished with a well. The re- 
mark concerning the supply of water, is cor- 
rect—there is no reservoir within the walls; but 
it has been supposed that the spring, which i» 



X . VIEW OF DERBYSHIRE. ; . 99f. 

laitaated in tbe upper, part of the Cave VaQiByy 
and at nogrMt.disUinGe fi^mtbe Keep, <iKii^. 
formerly, by aome c(M|itmaiioe» lia?e:mpplied 
the garriflon with this n^essary article. * At 
pfoent, its waters sink between theokflii 9t 
the limestone, and fall in continued dropHfroni 
the roof of the great cavern at the place odle^ 
Roger Rain'9. House. . •' 

About half way up the Cave Valley,, is a 
stratum of ;Sa«a//, which appears at the sur- 
face; and in ontf part, assumes the form of att 
hexagonal column, and is similar in texture and 
hardness,, to those of Staffa, in the Hebrides, 
atid of the. Giant's Causeway, in Ireland.— 
Some crystallized quartz is incorporated in it, 
approaching in appearance to chaleedbny.-T* 
This qolumn is a part of a vast; basaltic mass of 
great thickness and considerable dipj whidi 
ranges north and south. for fifty or sixty yards, 
and is covered with a tliick stratum of ^a sub- 
stance ve^erakKng , scoria, or half-baked day. 
In its immediate neighbourhood isa sti-atum'of 
toadstone, some of which is decomposed; and 
appears like indurated clay, full of boles,' anfl 
varigated with gre^n spots, and cpalcareous spar: 
other speciojieus are extnemely bard, with zeo« 
lite, and jasper occasionally occurring in them. 

22 V 4 



HM^ .mnnlM MM cjni^vfanMwy vpcvvfiMRi vi 

iMradirtbig hi&hww tet»« aiwHihr •HMmOiMi; 
iwjr with propriety bs applied lo U^*^- ' 



' ' - « SpcluimdlB iiiii^'^nitoquc imuiiit.Iiuni.'*' ' 

•• : • ii : • . ' VIrg. Jbu' 



tNii,al«ll tMMt bwa Mg«id*4 «k 
taM off Am ^riinpia f«i>Mki» «r 0MliyM4^ 
MdabidMtoibyMwinlpwts. -fcto i rii ut rf 
•^tfasdhUBM «ff«lmit 10» yardk IvMBilK 
.lim at Ca at h t a tty —d w ap pi m tl n i* bf It 
•path dtoog Iha nda «f «daar cmidet, MMtiat 
S]F««nil hri4ia» whtdh candacta to <ha iii- 
4wfe«.ot'fipaMtia»«f Hia taafc, at the e«<i «f 
,#lnflliktl»aamB. ^ taaaUl be diiieslltb 
i^ftaaaM awf«4Migwt, than that whidi 
I itadfM the aikitar, «t the ftnt appeal 
lOffthaiaoatho^theeavMni. Oneadiakf^, 
hIm bUfft fngrvoeha, riM aiaM«t petpMMlicutay- 
%iit» thaiwig^ «f aeailf thive hmai^ fiet=; 
:aa4aM«i(Bfeadi>aih«rat«ighta^|^M, Ihrtth 
4aip and glaoiBf aioaii. ivAnat, thC-dMHith 
.«f the oaf e, a a ai hiia gliy «««it oaiiopy •( tiit- 



r mnr or MxMmBWi. in 

til» n» i iiil w<ii j it viflib« 999. ki|«lr^9ii4 
WmilfSmUKmitk liMglHh»fiMrtf^|i«ii-««lM| DWfAi 
ia^ i^ jOiMt M9^r. I» tfiMUlMlgipfinijH 

hm* pfao Jiavii 4«b4 tM» tMM«t0» iritMiiiiMi 

fbe mtMia Meapiy. AfikMr p«Mtf9Miff.fhM^ 
thirty jtwdt i«C» the «iv«, tU rpfff l<e«N«# 
iai««r,vaii4 • geade dewnit «oi4«etib l9( « 
JsfiMlMd vedt, te the mtMrMr «nlniMi ft lM| 
twnMaMM hollftv. Uara, tht; l«h| pC 49f 
«»hiph gradMUj MAe(ii» wkfUf «<»fl>» » aill | 
and teadiM •f«:iNil nHqi th« hw w df f. Ih«:4lki 
flpeetor, to illmi^iiiite hk kftkm,. pp H i im 
IhnMgh tha siiTfifia 4i«rlUMiifl€;:th« WNTM : I 
/ Afl6Mr|»amnglh(oilgbam«fc«if-i«ili. it^ 

III* iMwprwtef nfrioaht. ike W9f ktumm ki 
and iMnftiMd* 4»Hlt<M¥i4tar i%< i h HiN. »<w» 
fetMl m ;• <it«i|iifeg pwiMifWr t i yi w yf > 4iiiil^ 
yanlB, wh^n he arrive* »t a i^MMMit^imlllg^ 
irhicb Aon* ito tarnf ia ctlied iha .Hitfilftpw. 
Froii^'her% lhie,path«oiidn«t«;t»^^lh»Ji>W|m;llf 
8 m»]l l^ke, loeally tenped thf FSet^ JjFalir aw 
itiS| »b»t jmnrnrn ^aak m ImfHh, Im4 not 



7oa HISTORICAL AND DESGlUmVE 

mkdtre than tn^oor tbr^ feet in depth. A 
lldat; or mtber a tub, provided bythe gatde, 
Ib ready to convey the passenger to the interior 
pitt'ta of 4be cavern, beneath a massive vauk of 
rtfteki «i4yieb' in some purls descends to withrn 
eighteen or twenty incbesof die water. Owing 
to the loWness of the vault, the' visitor is obK-» 
gcUft to stretch himself at full length in the 
bMt^; and the guide entering the lake, and 
bending his head, almost to the surface tif the 
water, pushes forward the skiff whh one hand; 
while* lie carries his light in the other. *< We 
stood some time,^' says M. St. Fond^ ** on the 
brink, and the light of onr dismal torches, 
which' emitted a black smoke, reflecting onr 
pale images from the bottom of the lake, we 
almost conceived that we saw a troop of shades 
starting from an abyss to present themselvea 
before us. The illusion was extremely strik* 
ing.'^ This place, indeed, is very fiivorable to 
the wandiBrings of the imagination; and the 
mtfn versed in classic lore, is immediately re^ 
minded of Ihe passage of the Styx in the fabled 
bark of Charon. 

Landed again on the rock, the stranger purv 
sues his course, like £neas and his guide, 

*' Obsciiri sola sub nocte per umbram, 
Perque domos Ditis vacuas et inania regna j^ 



VIEW OF IttKBTSHIRSi fn 

mdsalten^ sfNmMis ^aemtjr, 380 ftetin lengtk^ 
1MQ feet bMMid»*Mid io some, partft^ 130 feci 
bighy qpeaiBg in tkm boaom of the rocks ; buf 
fir€!«k;the want of Kgbt^ neither the dista^l 
Bideft, nor the roof of this ahyss^ oaa be seen. 
In 4 jpemge at the inner extremity of this vai4 
«iive,.MiQsti'eani whieh flows tfaroogh the whde 
length of the cavern, spreads into what is call* 
ed the Seceurf fFoAsr, whieh is generally passied 
on foot, but sometimes requiring the assistance 
mt the. guide* . Near the termination of this 
pas8age> is a. fiiojecting pile of rocks, distin^ 
finished by the appellation of Roger AUnV 
House; from the circumstance of water incesr 
•antly ftUing. in large drops through the ere* 
Tices of the roof. A little beyond this is an 
extenilive hollow, called the Chancel^ where 
there are many detached pieces of rock; the 
ioof rent .and broken, and large masses of stal« 
acttte incrust the sides, and glitter with the 
Kf^ts. The chancel is not an inappropriate 
name to this cuve, and the illusion is still ren- 
dered strongpsr, when the ears Are suddenly sup. 
prised by the sound of vocal harmony. The 
strains producyd can not be said to be such as 
^* take the imprisoned soul, and lap it in Ely- 
» mm;'^ but being unexpected — issuing, from a 
quarter where no object can be seen — in a plao^ 



tm nmanwdi' mm mnirnvt 



auMMl:cali!iitfi«l •• mmiikmi.-mmMtm, fettf 
fukm^lf mipumt- ikmvmig mutMm ifMf't^ 
4MMfl kMl, «MI tttldMil Im iNMidn^iilMMirtiMe 
■migilaJ '— oi i» n ^•hmr wmI pfaiuMW, wioA 
IrialiaiMit wid4eHglit. After heiwg caan lniMi 
•iMiUe'bjril»wi»vi«H»l««llOMv tin pMMM-bi* 
«Ma»vMttkMMNgbt(Mr t0n,««Mwiiaod ehHdraBk 
kMb M(iMii» Mgbtadl:iMp«p w her bwNl, ninf» 
•i alMiy • iMt«r>i f W w i y itf iIm foek, vfccMit 
4Mfy fe«t ^Mpve th« iMfr; « tkwiiitw 4Im^ ob^ 
«MO( <by ckimlwrMif; qp « «tf(f! MoMt; wIh«| 

l„^ . ... 

• 4|lNtlMig«lM dlSMOlj IIm paA WMMklCtt M 

^Dm&fd Cctfsr,«nd Jk|^:«My.||MMr; «i4 
fiMr 'paiviMf tltesB. tin «Mgr |MiiMed«' bfMMll 
«lireft -mtuMl' Wfpdak mnhtH f» «Mlltfer ttMt 
Mttcaviiy, ««ilHi< ilw 6km« 7<Mi 0^ IAmmM 
Irriu its «aiA»rai belKMw «pi»e«nMNMi TMl 
iXMTt, wImm -illmniiMtMl bj t atioiig ligM^ iMi 
flU'AAtiPenwly |t4wMBi>g^cWwtiiptht ate»t<iiaypifc 
Mtfon.of ilw Todu, the i4mHi> ixming'nt tbmf 
fbt, Md ttM«piK«l«» Hi< ibe «mfi n^lte kvcfiy 
interesting -pivtwre. The (KKianoe ffom «M* 
point t« the temMMrtinn of the t»t«nit ' tt 
not more than tw«lH)'<'ttVe janbt (be.vMkIt 
l^lullytleBoeiids, Ihe pwaay <wi t| i tt i> mi/i 



vitw mtmtMuamMi i 



Itt^kagth JKflrfy clMw» kayiBg ■• 

Mtfeh.Anra (bi««^ ■ MkblcrnuMOW 
flf «MMB smIw^ w the rmtehtOi <wmmI 
liMght iAio tl» €•?««■ *f t«r gnat f^iD% Aom 



ito c«tr«f9it« it»-l«»aiiiuitio«, w«1m<9 
4»9»feeti Md its tkptb, fron tfa* wmtala^H 

]|p«rtsof tlM-oav«*a,ioaifrCMMHaaiotit«MMO|pe« 
mikotbtf finHVWt-biit.«aiie«f t ha a xy mtit^. 
jMm in j^tmt W >ifnHHleor, 1» «xtrMa«if 
4Mfr#MtlM^.tfa«:iiiteribr<aMMM»tM»«iMtedt * 
4i» «i«Mt ^ltt>iip «ir«ilt poiiiMi «f- tlw <ttv«r< 
;md mm 4«. » •atNMmble bMgbt ev to acar (life 
jaihiBii : (ki nmImw ttmn, 4be accew i««ot vcrf 
dii^ak, mii ii|inie .Mife« On (be V!mi(o»y r^ 
.timi, t|M«^ Innruig bad tune 4o •cvommoflalb 
4tMlf. 19* line AwluMKsarottiidi •mbnirM severM 
.•kjecim whitib faid.eMsa^ 4t before; Aidthb 
jffiidiifil iHuiiaari— of rodb, wbieb b«conib 
^^riftbleiw t» lbe>ea*raace ie «ppn)tiefa«d, aii4l 

Ibe cbaNtciied bkute of d»y, Ibat " itborn of tia 
ilMtMl^i'' Urmjts.lbe idttteatolijeeUrittflMrtriag 
MffVHjl, is, ifunbwfiit onevf thcumM^WbltlHfiill 
^cenw, .<(i(i(i tba pewil^outf be tm^fkvftA'lb 

•xhilMt. -^ 



7m HISmtlCAL AND OBSCtlPHVE 

* Mam I'or, or the SsiTRftiHG MoimTAix, 
paoAher of tke wonders of the P«sk, is situstcd 
abont two milM to the west of Caslleton. » The 
BMM 1^ Ham ToTj is said' to be «a aacieiit 
British appellatioii ; bat its nsodern title, the 
Shiim'img McufUam^ seeaBsiohare beea given 
it, because of the crambling of the shale, wliidi 
deeooiiMisiBg aader the actioa of the atmos- 
phere, the fragaieats are perpetaaUjr glidiDg 
down its feee iato the valley below. The vol- 
gar error, that the moantaiB hea enffinred no / 
^tmiaotion in bulk, thoagh the shale and grit 
have been ehivering ftmn its fi^e fi>ri^[es, is ooa- 
fated bj the appearance of the valley- beaeatfa^ 
which is overwhdflMd with its ruins to the ex^ 
.teat of half a mile. At some distance to the 
north-west, is another break in the moantain, 
eiiUed little Mam Tor^ from wJiioh the shale ^ 
and grit frequently shiver, bnt not in. so great 
a df^gree as at the firmer : lor after long frosts, 
b^vy gales of wind, rain, &c« such large qoan* 
ti ties decompose and fiUl from the Mam Tor, 
that the rushing noise it makes in ite descent, 
is sometimes so loud, as to be heard at Castle- 
ton. 

On the summit of Blam Tor, are the remains 
of an apcient Roman encampment. The camp 
was surrounded by a double trench, which is 



VIEW er tttftBYSinte; its 

idM* in pnA pittermfioii; exctfit on ih€ A46 
UmmgCBaOiUm, where it has been deittoynd 
bjr the freqaebt shivering of tfa^ earth. It <6ti 
tended from north-east to south-west, alont^ 
the ridge of the eminence, and occupied some- 
what more than fourteen acres of ground, the 
circumference being abore 1000 jairds. The 
principal entrance was from the west. At tibe 
north-east corner ^s a perennial spring; lind 
near the sonth-westside are two barrows, one 
of which was opened a few years' ago, and a 
bras celt, and some fragments of an unbaked 
urn, discovered in it. Mam Tor rises to the 
height of. 1300 feet above the level of the val- 
Iqr, and on every side is very steep. 

At thefeot of Mam Tor, on the south, is a 
very ancient mine, caHed the Odin^ supposed 
to have been worked by the Saxons, who gave 
it the nameof oiie of the Sc^ditiavian deities. 
It still 'Airnfishes employment for many men, 
women, arid children: it consists of two levels 
running horizontally under the mountain ; the 
upper a cart-gate^ by which the ore is brought 
feom the uAheX the lower one a water- levels to 
drain the works, which have been carried above 
a mile from the entratiClst they are ventilated by 
shafbs sunk iOlO t1ieii<Vfiiom abOVe, at the distance 



708 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

j^«Tei7 thirty yards. At the iiioiith,the level is 
lipt more thao a fathom and a quarter from 
the surface of the earth ; but at the further «c- 
tremity« above one hundred and &hy. It be* 
longs to several proprietors* and sometimes has 
made great returns. The quality of the ore 
difiersin different parts of the mine : but yield* 
i^g about three ounces of silver to the ton weight ' 
of lead. The elastic bitumen, described in page 
100, is obtained in this mine ; and also blende, 
barytes, manganese,. fluor spar* sulphuret of 
iron, and various other substances. At the two 
mines called the Tre^cUJ\ and the, Water^Huli^ 
that singularly beautiful substance the Blue 
John is found. These subterraneous excava- 
tions, will well repay the trouble of explor- 
ing them, and furnish some extraordinary in- 
stances of nature's scenery. 

The only remaining object worthy of inspec- 
tion in the neighbourhood of Castleton, is the 
Speedwell Levels or Navigation i/tne, which is 
situated at the foot of the Winnets, in the 
mountainous range called the Long Cliff. — 
This level was originally driven in search of 
lead ore, by a company of speculators from 
Staffordshire, who commenced thrir undertak- 
ing about five and thirty years ago, but with 
such little success, that after expending ^£14,000 



VfEW OF. DERBYSHIRE. 707 

and cJleren years ceaseless and unavailing la- 
bor, were obliged to relinqaish it. Being pro- 
Tided with lights, the guide leads the visitor 
beneath an arched vault, by a flight of 106 
steps, to the sough or level, where a boat is 
ready for his reception, and which is put in 
motion, by pushing against some pegs driven 
into the wall for that purpose. The depth of 
the water is about three feet; the channel 
through which it proceeds was blasted through 
the heart of the hardest.rock. As the boat pro- 
ceeds, several veins of lead ore may be observ- 
ed in the rock, but not thick enough to defray 
the expence of working them. 

After^ proceeding about 600 yards, through 
various caverns, ^' the level bursts into a tre- 
mendous gulph, whose roof and bottom are 
completely invisible ; byt across which the na- 
vigation has been carried, by flinging a strong 
arch over a part of the fissure where the rocks 
are least separated. Here, leaving the boat^ 
and ascending a stage erected above the levelt 
the attention of the visitor is directed to the 
dark recess of the abyss beneath his feet ; and 
firm indeed, must be bis resolution, if he can 
contemplate its depth unmoved, or hear them 
described, without an involuntary shudder. To 
the depth of ninety feet, all is vacuity and 



70t HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

l^oom; bat beyond that, eommeBcwa^ool^ 
^jfffiBn waters, not unaptly named the B^Uim^ 
Uis Fit; whoM prodigiouft range may. in aoipe 
measure be cooceived, from the cWcuqHkaaee 
of its having swallowed up, mote than 40,000 
tons of rubbish made in blasting the rock, with* 
put any apparent diminution either in its depth 
•r extent. The guide indeed, informs you, that 
the former has not been ascertained ; yet we 
have reason io believe that ihis is incorrect, and 
that its actual depth in standing water is about 
320 feet. There cannot, however, be a doubt, 
but that this abyss has communications with 
others, still more deeply situated in the bowels 
of the mountain, and into which the/precipi- 
tated rubbish has found a passage. The super- 
fluous water of the level, falls through a water- 
gate into this profound cauldron, with a noise 
like a rushing torrent. 

«« This fissure is calculated at being nearly 
280 yards below the surface of the mountain ; 
and so great is its reach upwards, that rockets 
of sufficient strength to ascend 450 feet, have 
been fired without rendering the roof visible. 
The efiect of a Bengal light discharged in this 
stupendous cavity, is extremely magnificent 
and interesting. Beyond the fissure, the level 
has been driven to a similar length to that part 



VIBW Qt OBRByjBHUA 



ccMiwe, l|^l^pcciir»lD.e»cit», tiA ii iwti fcfc * '. , 
. EoAUy didekjh % cbapeky •uder CSMfW 
ton : it 18 dedicated to th^ Holy Triait j^ wmA die 
Camlet and liberty contaio about 70 1 
. Mr. Bray, ia hi» Toar memioail, tittt i 
a mile AQirth-enst of Nefher^booth^ m Edale^ 
there was. a pile of unhewn maMee of atona^ 
wbicb be thought was a DruidU AUar; but 
which have now, for several years been de- 
^ stroyed, for the sake of the stone. The dtar wai 
circular ; about pixty-«ix feet in diameter, com* 
posed of rough stones of various sizes, rudely 
piled together, without mortar or cement, in 
form of a hayx^ock, about eighteen feet perpen^ 
dicular height. The top was hollow, in the 
form of a basiut about four feet deep and sin 
feet in diameter: the stone on the inside of 
this basin was black, and much burned, as if 
large fires bad been often made in it. 

A few years before the last-mentioned Tour- 
ist visited this part, a large stone, lying on the 
side of the hill near the village of Edale, was 
removed ; and under it were found fifteen or 
sixteen beads, about two inches in diameter, 
and about the thickness of the stem of a large 
tobacco«pipe. One was of amber, the rest of 
dififerent coloured glass. He supposes, that 
they were amulets psed by the Druids^, 



710 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 

^* Among the seqaestered Tallies in this qaar« 
4er of Ibe county ii the pleasant Edale^ where,' 
aecloded in the bosom of the monntains from, 
the bustle of the world, the inhabitants appear 
to enjoy all theAjuiet and secudty which per« 
Taded the Happy ^Valley of Rasselas. The 
Dale is wide and fertile, and belter cakivated 
than most others in the regions of the P.eak : the 
bottom is enlivened by a little rivulet, which 
flows near the /village of Edale, and aids, by 
its motion, the operations of a cotton iactory, 
established at a little distance. Various other 
dales branch off from this to an extensive tract 
called the Woodlands of Derbyshire^ the upper 
parts of which display some fine oak, fir, and 
larch trees. The ground of the Woodlands 
mostly belongs to the Duke of Devonshire, by 
whose direction the plough has been intro- 
duced, and many acres brought into cultiva- 
tion.'^ 



CHAPEL. IN. THE. FRITH. 



Chapel.in.the-Frith, or Chapel-bn* lb- 
Faith, is a small, but neat town, pleasantly 
situated on the declivity of a convex hill, rising 
in a valley, surrounded by lofty mountains. It 



, VIEW OP DERBYSHIRE. 711 

if a firM borough, and a market-town ; ted its 
market, which has been on the decline, is new 
represented as being more fully attended* The 
church was erected,- at the commeDcement of 
the fourteenth century, by virtue of » oommis* 
sion ad quod dflmmum^ upon the king's .^oil, 
by the inhabitants there dwelling, in the time 
of *king Henry the Thiid ; And consecrated by 
Alexander dp Savensby, Bishop of Xi^hfield 
and Co??ntry, The chancel is said :to] l^are 
been built by onepf the Bodens, a we^ltb^ fi^ 
mily, who lived at Boden-Hall, in this parish, 
Qow in ruins : the other part of the eburch and 
tower, were afterwards erected by the parish- 
ionecs. The east-end was lengthened soma 
years ago, at the expence of Mrs. Bower, whoso 
daughter bequeathed her harpsichord to .tho 
church, with a salary of about twenty pounds 
yearly, for a person to play, and find coals to 
air it. The living is a donajtive ieuracy,.ai|d 
the church is dedicated to St. Tboipas Beckett 
The High Peak Courts, for the recovery pi 
debts and damages unjier five pounds, are re* 
gularly held at Chapel every three weeks. The 
Market- house, which is a tolerably good build«« 
ing, was erected in the year 1700, by John 
Shalcross, of Shalcross, Esq. The inhabitants, 
who amount to nearly 500 families, are chiefly 
supported by the manufacture of cotton. 



fit 'HISIOUCAL AN1» DSSCRimVK 

. Ifi.tUft pwrteb Hi BtadskmO'B^tt^* whielr wa* 
M0B thesMt and rttideiiee of Lord Presideiit 
BtadshawtCbiel Jmrice of Chester, who mad^ 
m eoMpioMMis a figme in the Citfl Wars, and 
whoaraa ana of Iha judges at the4rialof Charies 
theFinti at whiek^ preankd. » He was bom 
M the year 1M6, at Wikbersiey-Hall, in Chesa. 
hire, and died before irtie RestoratioD, mxA was 
boried with great pomp at Westmioster Abb^*; 
bat,' to 'the disgrace of hunanitjr, at that time; 
hii bbdj was dragged i roni the grave, and po<t 
tnd as it was, exposed upon a gibbet, wrtb 
those of CronweN attd Iretoii. His feanale de-^ 
seendapts* kii« still in possesfton of the estate, 
near Chape1-in-the-Frith; and several other 
bvanehes of the same fcasily, live in the great^ 
est respeelabilitj in the connty. 

'TvB EaatHa and Flowino Wbll, the last 
of the Wonders of the Peak,* is about a mite 
and half fnnn Chapel-en-le-Fritfa, on the road 
to TideswelL It is situated in Barmoor Clough, 
ol^se to the south-side of the turnpike road^ 
and immediately under a steep hill, which rises' 
ta the height of mote than one hundred feet.—- 
This well, is merely a small pool, of an irrego* 

* The following are genei^y oalLed the Seven Wooden 
of the Peak •«— Poole's Hole, St. Ann'« Well, CbaUwoHh, 
EMen Mole, Peak's Hole, Mam Tor, apd the Ebbing and 
Flowing WelU 



VlSRr OP DERBYSHIRE. 713 

ha form, bat nearlj approaching to a square^ 
fipom two to three feet deep, and aboat sis or 
seTeri yards in width. Its ebbifags and flowings 
avefar from being regular, depending apon the 
qnantit J of rain which falls in the different sea^ 
sons of the year. In very dry seasons, it has 
sometimes ceased to flow, for two, three, and 
ibar weeks together ; sometimes it flows once 
in twelves hours; at others, once in every hour; 
and in very wet weather, perhaps, twice or 
thrice within that time. When it first begins 
to rise, the current can oply be perceived by 
the slow movement of the blades of grass, or 
other light bodies, that float upon the surface; 
yet before the expiration of a minute, the wa- 
ter issues in considerable quantity, with a gug« 
gling noise, from several small appertures on 
the south and west sides. The interval of time 
between the ebbing and flowing is not always 
the same; and, of course, the quantity of wa- 
ter it discharges at different periods, must also 
vary. In the space of Qve minutes flowing, 
sometimes the water rises to the height of six 
inches; and after remaining a /ew seconds 
stationary, begins to run back: in three mi- 
nutes, the well assumes its former quiescent 
state. 

23 T 4 



fin HISTOiUOAL AND DIBOMmVE 

Tl^ cauM «| the nteiwHtnt^^iMi^ of tkb 
wbU^ may tie ■ linft i et torily explftiiiecl, 4n the 
fifieeiiflA on wbidb tlie syplkoo aott; aad tiwt 
a nat«fa] oile ofMimiinlicales wttii a oantjr m 
tke kiH, wherd Uie trater aecaoialates >-<4hiI 
fer the phenom^nien of ite e&i^tiij', ao satisiMk 
tosy reason has been given* The epinion of 
a 8ec<md syphon, as ingenionsly advanced by a 
modern Touri&t,^ arhich begins to act irbea tbt 
water rises, is iticonsislent with the appearanea 
of the well, and therefore not well foaiided. 

Glossop, is a parish which oompvehends a 
Istr^ tract of coaatry in the north-west extr^ 
inity of the High Peak. The village ifr sniall> 
and sitaated on a rising bank, sorrbnaded by 
H deep valley. The inhabitants are priactpalfy^ 
empkiy^d in spinning and weaving eottoft ; so- 
Temf iaclories being established in the adjacent 
porta. The church, wbtch is an ancient baild* 
iug, is dedicated to A II* Saints, and the Doke 
of NorlbHc is the patron. It was gWeh by Henry 
thei Second to the Abbey of Basingwark, in the 
couhty of Flint. Within it is a aeat marble 
tablet, wilh» an iniicription to the memory of 
Joseph Ui^ue, Esq. of- Park-Hall, near Hay- 
ield, wjio acquired considerable property by 

«==«= ' =sssssss±am 

• Soe Mavor*s British Tourist, VoU I. p. 227C 



VIEW OF OXRBYSHUE* ns 

jjfnmweihag inimtry; and bequMtbcd thsaa- 
«m1 iDteiest of jSIOM. tot e? eff» towatds ekitli. 
JDg tventy-foor poor man and womaa, oat o( 
Mf^ tewnakipa of Glottdp.Dala : above t^ 
tablet it 8 flaa nwrble bust q£ Mn Uagao, esf* 
Mated bj Bacon. 

, Uatyibldi Hetfiit^ is a long Btraggling 
^lage, in tbe parish of Glossop : it is situated 
Ml tbe road to Gbapel»in.tbe«Frith and Glotsop, 
And is divided inio two parts b j a fine stream ef 
irater. Tbe inhabitants are, cbisif , dotbierst 
iHit several art supported bj the maaofMtUN 
ofcottoi)* 

y MsLi^oaisa cbapelrj tindi^r ObsMp; tbe 
obapelhere is dedicated to Sit. Thomas^ 
r CH4&LaswoRTH, 11 another village, of cofi^ 
aiderable extent in Giossop, with a cbapel de« 
Seated to St. Mary Magdalene. Tbe benses 
are built 00 tbeaoclivitjof Chafleswrn-th^Nie^i 
m name given to a nnge of the highest hills int 
lUs part of Derbyshire. ' Both the wiB and po^' 
folation of this place have been much increase 
ad of late years, owing to the establishtaent of 
cotton mannfactories in the neighbourhood. 
At the distance of oik^r frivo miles southward, 
tbe collieries, which furnish the surround* 

ig villages with fuel. 

At Oanuaijf^ a small bamlet nortii of Cbarlesr 



716 HISTORICAL AND DESCMPTIVB 

worCii^ awMHoe vestiges of an ancient stariof, 
called Mekmdfa Cmtk^ whidi from its appear- 
ance, and an inaeriptbn foand there, issop^ 
posed to haye beeii Raman. The late Rev. Ma» 
Watson, of Stockport, balB giren the folbvinip 
description of it : — -^ 

** It is situated, like many Roman stations, 
on moderatel J elevated ground, within the con^ 
flaenoe of two rivers, and was well supplied 
with good water. \efj fortunatelj, the plongk 
has not deduced it, so that the form cannot ba 
mistaken: the ramparts, which have considerai( 
ble quantities of hewn stones in them^ seem to 
be about three yards broad. On two of the 
sides were ditches, of which part remains ; tiia 
rest is filled up : on the other sides, there are 
such declivities, that there was no occasion foe 
this kind of defence. On the north-east side^ 
between the station and the water, great num^c 
bers of stones lie promiscuously, both abov# 
apd underground : th<rre is also a subterraneomr 
stream of water here, and a large bank of earth,; 
wbi<;h runs from the station to the river. \t> 
seems very plaip, that on this and the norlh-> 
west side have b^en. mai|p buildings ; and thesa 
are the only places .where they could safely, 
stand, because of the declivity between them 
apd the two rivers. The extent of this station 



VIEW or OERBTSHHUL 71? 

is aboat, I9li yards by 113. The four gatw or 
openings, into it, are rery visible ; as is also 
the foundation of a building withing the area, 
about twenty-five yards square, which in all 
probability, was the Pr^Horium.^^^ 

The parish of Glossop is the most northern 
in the county of Derby, and its descriptiottt 
€:onipletes the plan of the present work. 

* Archmdogu, Vol. III. p. 837. 



THB BK»« 




IXDEX. 



Adiii, (or dnimnz iSbe miaei in IMbytibite, fiC^ 

i f^iffff comes to Enritainy S* 

Agard, Arthur, some account of him, 3 14. 

JtmcuUwe of Derbyahixe, 47 • 

jUabader, 110. 

«^M^ settles a colony at Deity, 1«7. 

j|^^fof»-its antiqui^-^ancient possessors^fi 15} chnrdi; 

inhabitants, 510. 
AJderwasley, 450. 

Attetiiy, a village near Derby, SSS. 
jl/poff, a hamlet, 581. 
Auof, a cha]^ry under Ashboum, 406. 
jtnaeni division of Derbyshire, 17* 

AfflAy, 559. 

Arbe-Unu, a Dmidical temple near Newhaven, 581. 

Archdeaconry of Derby described, 570. 

Arkmright, Sir Richard, some account of him, 482. 

AMimrn, 480; iU ancient possessors, 421; church, 
42£; montiment of Sir Brooke Bpothbv's daugh- 
ter, 484; free grammar school, 426; chapel, ani 
alms^iouses, 487; population, 488; its hainletsj^ 
489. 

AMnrnm Hatt, seat of Sir Brooke Boothby, 489- 

Ashlnf-de-la-Zaueh canal, 36. 

Aslj^rd in the Water, a chapehry^ 001; the marble 
works there, 608. 

Adwoer, 588. 

Amies, the Derbyshire, where held, 184. 

Anton, 867* 

Atmosphere of Derbyshire, 39- 

JSabb^on, Anthony, of Dediick, some account of; 
and his conspiracy against Queen Elizabeth, 584. 

Bakewell, 587; its antiquity, 588; church, 589; mo- 
numents in it, 59O; j^pulation, and buildings, 5dSL 

Bardism, an account of the institution, (note) 581. 

Barlborough, the family of Rodes reside there, 563. 

Barmaster, his office and duties, 77- 

Barrow^ the villa^ of, 874. 

Barrow, in antiquity, what, (note^ 498. 



INDEX. 

Barton, 405. ' i • 

Baryte$, 115. ' * 

Bami, a stratiun of, neai; Castleton, G97. 

JSoibv, 606. 

BeauekUf, a hamlet, and a^^, 568. 

Bede, his accoimt of Derbyshire, ££. 

Beel^, 632. 

Be^hion, 565. 

Be^nr, 343; its antiquity, *344; extent and popula" 
tion, 345; cotton manffactor^ea, &c. 347. 

Beresfordrffall, the seat of Cotton, 501; the fishing- 
house, 502. 

Birckover, the hamlet of, 573. 

BmU, of Derbyshire, 54. . 

Biscuit Figures, or white ware, how manufactured, 171. 

Blackwell, 331. 

Black Jack, the ore of, 97. 

Black Wad, the ore of, 98. 

Bleacking, an account of the process, 340. 

Blende, me ore of, 97. 

Blue John, the fossil, 112. 

Blunt, Walter, some account of, 273. 

Bodies, extraordinary preservation of them in the 
moors of Hope, 682. 

Bolsover, its ancient proprietors, 542 ; antiquity, 544; 
the present house erected, 545. 

Bonsai, 494. > ' 

Bordars, what class of people, (note) 268. 

Botanic Garden, Dr. Darwm's poem, 234. 

Boylston, 406. 

Brackenjield, 522. 

Bradboum, 445. 

Bradley, the seat of the Meynells, 419; chalybeate 
spring, 420. 

Bradwell, a viilacre near Hope, 685. 

Bradshaw, Lord President, some account o^ 712. 

Brailsford, 413. 

Brampton, 331. 

Brass, what composed of, 96. 

Breadsall, 333; priory, 334. 

Bretby, 394; Bretby park, the seat of Lord Chestes^ 
field, 395. 

Brindley, the Engineer, som^ account of, 659* 

Britain first peopled, 3* 



BrHmSf a civiliied pebpl<^ 8; retire to Wales and 
Cornwall, 13. . .. ; 

Bnm€ko9id$f oir Derbyshife neck^ AS. 

Brooke BootUy, Bart, his seat near Ashboum, 499. ' 

Brown and Sdn, their marble, and spar raann&ctoiy, 
Derby, 172. ] 

Broughi a hamlet near Hop^, 684. 

Bnnr&Uj sotoe account of the family, 394. 

Buseton, 6lS; its sitnation, 613; its antiquity, 614; 
tepid waters, 615; analysis of the waters, 618; 
its efficacy, 619; St. Ann's well; the crescent 
G20i stables, 621; the season, 623; charges at 
the- inns, (note) 622; population,. See. 624. 

Buxton, Jedediah, an extraordinary character, some 
account of him, 554. 

Casar^M account of Britain, 5; his landing, 7. 

CahoutchouCf or elastic bitumen, 106. 

Calai^ine, 94. ^ 

C^eoreota concretions, 112. 

Ca/dwdl, 369. 

Calke, 369; Calke abbey, 370. 

Canals, the Derbyshire described, 31. 

Caractacut cooquered by Ostorius, 7* 

Carroloids, 119- 

Carsingiof^, 448. 

Corticate, what, (note) 128. 

Castle Gresliy, 36S. 

Castleton,-689; its vale, 690; population and extent, 
691 ; remains of its castle, 691 ; tournament, 694; 
ancient proprietors, 695. 

Catton, 964fi 

Cauk, 114. 

Cateniish, Sir Henry, Bart, his seat at Doveridge, 400. 

Cavendish bridge, 321. 

CelttE, the first inhabitants of Britain, 3. 

Chaddesden, 315. 

Chamomile, its mode of culture, 49* 

Charlesworth, a chapelry under Glbssop, 715. 

CAapeZ-m-fAe-lrtM described, 710. 

Chatsworth, a celebrated seat of the Duke of Devon- 
shire, described, 624; water-work s, 643; stables; 
park, 646; account of the Cayendish family, 649* 

,ehee Tor described, 658. 

23 z 4 



INDEX: 

€hmm, ham nade k Derbfibii^ SO. 

ChdUutoH, 39B. 

CAe/fiioitofi^608; itil|«rr6iwt>G0e;»mgiil8rAtiaam,€lI% 

CAiri, U7. 

CAca^er, 14^, a hamlet; mar Derby, 847. 

Chattrfidd^ the deanery of, described^ iCXL 

Chesterfield, the towiii it3 antkimty, 5i&; aneiettt ino- 

prieton, 647; privUejgpes, 548; chttrcb;^540; no*- 

pitaly trade^ populatigo, 550; battle fought new 

1^ 551. 
Cheti9^€ld canal, S3, 
CkeiUicfiM, tha £arlo( hi8»eat> 895. 
Chilcote, 359* / 

Ckoak-dufg^incoaimiueM, 103.« 
Church Broughton, 405. 
Cimmerii, or Celtie, who, 3. 
Ctvi/ diviaioa of Dclrbyihiie, 123. 
Climate of Derbyihire, 39« 
Clown, the village of, 563. 
Coal, where found in the covrnty^dS; its origin, (not^ 

99; varieties of it, 100; pi U, 103. 
Codnor, 323; castle, 3£4« 
Cokaines, some account of the family, 4£9* 
Coke, Edward, Esq. his seat at Longford, 414* 
Copper, the metal of, 97. 
Copula furnace described, 87. 
Coranied came to Britain, .5« 
Cotton, the village of, 362. 
Cot$9n^spintting, the process dj^scribed, 347- 
Courtif the Peverel and Laocaater, 183r 
Crich, a large village, 329* 

Cromford, 455; cotton-worki, and paper?oitU, 457* 
Cram/brd canal, 34. 

Crosna9tt4 monument in AU-^Saints chuich, Derby, 149Lr 
Crosland, an inhuman character, 185. 
Croxhall, S6«. 

Crystallized cavern, near Bradwell, described, 686. 
Cubley, 409- ' 
Colloden, tl^e battle of, 200. - 

JMhurt^ 405. 
Dale-Abbey, 2S6» 
Jianen come into Britain, I5« 

Darley, a hamlet near Derby, ft51; abbey, 9A2; 
hall, 255. 



INDEXr. 

Darhff H pariih and vilkige, 57(k 

Darmnp ifr. firasmiu, lome account of kinii Vt^. 

Deer J 54. 

Denbyf 415. 

Derbyshire. 17; figure, and circumference, 21; ex* 
tent^ 82; population, 22; rivers, 25. 

Derbyihire neck, or Bronchocele, 42. 

Derwf^ the town of, 125; its antiquity, 125; Daaei 
take possession of it, 127; made a royal boroughs 
128; iu state at the time of the Norman survey, 
129; anew charter obtained, 131; a mayor ap- 
pointed, 134; court of requests, 135; casUe, 135; 
religious houses — St. Helen's monastery, 137; 
priory of Benedictine nuns, 138; priory of Do- 
minician, or black friars — cell of Ciuniac monks, 
139; Maison de Dieu, 140; St. Mary's church, 
141; All-Saints' church, 142; Alkmund's church, 
150; St. Peter's, 152; St, Werburgh's, 152; St. 
Michael's, 153; Unitarian chapel, 154; Inde- 

K indents — Baptists — Quakers-^M ethodists, 154 ; 
evonshire alms-houses— black alms4)ouses, 155; 
for clergymen's widows-r-grey eoat hospital— 
free-school, 156; county hall — town hall — coun- 
ty gaol— assembly-room, 157; theatre— trade, 158; 
silk mill, 159; Messrs. Strutt's silk and cotton 
'mills — porcelain manufactory, 168; marble and 
ftpar manuiactory, 172; stocking manufectory, 
173; bridges, 175; remarkable occurrences, 177; 
entry of the Pretender, 194; Earls of Derby, 
204; eminent men, 209; infirmary, 239; Ord- 
nance Depot, 245. 

Derbif canal, 37. 

Derventio, of the ftomans, 247. 

DeviFs cave^ at Castletcm described, 698. 

Derwentf the river, 26. 

Derwenty the chapelry, described, 672. 

Deikickf a chnpelry, 524. 

Donistkorp, 36 1. 

Dave, the river, 28. 

Dove-Dale, a romantic valley near Ashboum, descri- « 
bed, 432: accident of the Dean of Clogher there, 
435. 

Doveridge, 400. 

Drakelow, 367, 

DranfieU, 564. 



INDEX. 

DruidSf 4; Druidism an account of the order (note) 
581; Dniidical circle on Stanton Moor, 578; 
Druids Altar near Edale, 709. 

Duke of Devonshire, some account of the.First, 649- 

Ealasian, 417. 

Eaton Hall, 40h 

Eblnnf and Flowing well, in Barmour Clough, 712- 

Ecclenattical Dijfinon of Derbyshire, 124. 

Eckington, 565. 

EdaUf the vale of described, 710. 

Edensor, near Chatsworth, 656. 

Edwin, Earl of Mercians estate confiscated, 150. 

Egbert, first king of England, 14. 

E^inton, 397. 

Elden Hole, described, 676. 

Elmton, 454. 

Elvaston, 271. 

Errewoih, the river, 2Q ; canal, 33. 

EtwaU,^ 399. 

Every, Sir Henry, Bart's, seat at Egginton, 397. 

Eyam; account of the plague there, (note) 651. 

Fairfield), near Buxton, 689. 

Fenny Bentley, remains of the Old Manor-house 

there, 443. 
Ferrers, Earls of Derby, some account of them, 204. 
Fi^re of Derbyshire, 21. 
Findem, 283. 

Fire-damp in coal pits, 103. 
Fitzherberts, of Norbury, some account of, 417. 
Fitzkerberts, of Tissington, some account of, 443. 
IJat work, in lead mines, a description of, 82. 
Flint, 117. 
Fluorspar, 112. 

Fluoric acid, how obtained, (note) 112. 
Foremark, the seat of Sir Francis Bmdett, 372. 
Fossils, extraneous, 118. 
Foston, 314. 

FounderieSf and Forges, 94. 
Free sto fie, 118. 
Furnaces, the different kinds, described, 86. 

Galvanism, Zinc used in experiments in it, 96. 
Gardiner, Colonel, slain at Preston Fans, 191. 



index; 

Glofwell, 546. 

Glasaopf the parish and Tillage, 714. » 

GoatSf in Derbyshire, 62. ' . / 

Goodbdhen^s jFotoMisr,. a mine io which a man^ was r^ 

markably piesenred, (note) 459* 
Graned Tor, a Dhddical Monument, 677. 
Great I^msione, 606. 
Gresiey, 365. 
Grii stone, 89- 

Gwiddilian Fichti, cme to Britain, 6. 
GyptuMp 110. 

Haddon-Hall, a venerable seat of the Duke of Rut^ 

land described, 593 ; its ancient proprietors, 599; 

present possessor, 600. 
Hamps, the river near Dove-Dale, its subterraneous 

course, (note) 44i. 
Hardwick^Hail, a seat of the Duke of Devonshire, 

530; the prison of Mary Queen of scots, 53i; 

described, 532 ; the gallery of portraits, 536. 
Harrington, the Earl ofs seat at Elvaston, 272^ 
Hartshorn, 366. , 
Hassop, 633. 

Hastings, the battle of, i30. 
Hathersage, 668 ; remarkable preservation of a body 

in its church yard, 670. 
Hault-Hucknall, 52i. 

Hajifield, a hamlet in the parishiof Glossop, 71^. 
Heage, 356 ; its martial vitriolic spring, 357. . 
Heanor, 322. 

Heath, the parish and village, 538. 
HearthrFumace, described, 87« 
Heptarchjf, the Saxon, 14. 
Hiicar soush, 90. 
Hills, in Derbyshire, 24. 
Hill Somersal, 404. 

Hobbes, the celebrated writer, some account of, 530* 
Hognaston, 443. 
Hollbrook, 339. 
Hope, 63i ; preseivation of human bodies interred in 

the moors, 682. 
Hopton, the seat of P. Gell Esq. 452. 
Horsley, its castle, 327. 
Horses, the breeds of Derbyshire, 52. 
Hundreds, the division of the County into, i22. * 
Hutchinson^ Dr. his monument in AU-Satnts Derby, 14t 



IKDEX. 

Ilkendd dreei in Derbyshire, i8. 

Ilkutoth S^^ 

li^rmaryf the Derby, 239. 

Irtm ar€p where found^ 91 ; how imdted, 93. 

lilam, (notfi) 442. 

J^ery of Monmouth's acooam of Britab, 3. 

Kedlutoty-Hwue^ the celebrated seat of Lord Scans* 
dale, described, 286; some account of the Cur* 
sons, 285; baths and water, d07. 

Kirk-Hallam, 325. 

Kirk-Iretoftf 443. 

Kitk'Langlejf^ 311. 

Kmcttony 443. 

Kmwle-HUh, 379- 

Langlejf Briige canal, 33. 

Xanois^er court, 123. 

JLea, 526; Lea Hall; Lea Wood, 527. 

Lead, and lead, mines, 73; laws by which the miners 

are governed, 77. 
Limeiionef where found, 57; varieties of, 108. 
Linacref Dr. Thomas, some account of, 209. 
Little Emtofif the chapelry of, 334. 
Littie JoluCs grave at Uathersage, 668. 
LUtk Over, 283. 
Litton, 658. 

Locko Park, seat of W. D. Lowe, Esq. 316. 
Lambtf introduces the silk manufacture into Derby, 

160. 
Longford, 409; hospital, 410; hall, 412. 
JLover^s-Leap, a romantic dale and rock, near Buxton, 

described, 629* 
Lullington, 36 1. 

Macclesfield, Earl, lome account of him, 215. 

Mackworth, 281. 

Makeney, 329. 

Mam Tor, near Castleton, described, 704^ 

Mati^aaete, 98. 

Manifold, the rrver near Dove-Dale, its subterraneous 
course, (note) 441. 

Manufactures of Derbyshire, bQ. w 

MappUton, 431. 

Marble, different kinds of| 108; marble works at Ash- 
ford, 602. 



Markiaion, seat of F. N. C. Mimdy, Esq. S8SL 

Marl, 116. 

Mantm, 598,; ManumMoatgomery, 409. 

Martial ochres^ 98. 

Mailoek, ite antiquity, 462; diiircb, 463# 

Matlock ^ Bath, 464; vak; 'high-tcr; masson hill} 
heiehts of Abndiam, 465; lover's walk, 468; 
bat£s, 469; accoounodations, 471 ; causes of the 
heat of the water, 475 ; diseases in which it ia 
recommeoiiied, 477 ;. petrifying spring; cavema, 
&c. 479- 

Marvel-Stones, a natural curiosity near Buxton, 631. 

Meoihanh 360. 

Melandra Castle, a Roman station in the parish of 
Glossop, 716. 

Melboum, 380 ; castle, 38 1 . 

Mercaston, 312. 

Mercia, Derbyshire, a part, of the ancient, dOi 

Mickle Over, 283. 

Middleton^ near Wirksworth, 455. 

Middleton, near Bake well, 581. 

Middleton, Stoney; Middletqn Dale, 672. 

Millford, 340. ^ 

Milton, 304. 

Miners, their privileges, 79- -- . • 

Mining-low, an ancient monument near Bnidbojini,446L 

Jlfoiua/-Daie described, 603. 

Moneyash, 608. , 

Moor Stone, 117. 

MoraviofiSp som^ account oF their owed, (note) 317. 

Morlejf^ 327.^ 

Morton, 522. 

Mugginton^ 8^2. 

Navigation mine, near Castleton descnhed, 706. 
Newhall, 368. . . • 

Newhofcen-Houu, an Inn near Hartington, 409. ^ 
'NewtonrSolney, 372. 
Norbury, 417- 

Normans, come into England, l6. • 
NoroMMi^Qiv South, 517. 
North Wingfield, 528. . . 

Norton, 565; its courts, 56(5; Great /Nortec; Nor* 
ton Hall, 568. 



\^wliy'^^t'lf) 



INDEX. 

Oakovery (nqte) 44^. 

Ockbrookj 317- 

O^fft Mim, near Castleton^ described, 705* 

Okdhorp, 361. 

Ordnance Dep6t at Deifby, 2d9» 

Osmaiiony near Derby, £76. 

O^nMsloii, near Ashbiouniy 415.^ 

OitoriuM Scajndat brii^ Britain to subjectioh, 7; 

Over-Lanmitkj 541. 

jOverion-nall, a seat of Sir Joseph- Banks, 528* 

FacJcingion, S6l. 

Patwichf 494; Lombard VGreen, a Roman camp^ 

. . near the village, 495. 

Peak Forestj described, 674; limestone quarries, 675. 
canal, 34. 

Peak Cavern, at Castleton, described, 698. 

Peat, 118. 

Pegge, his account of the Roman road, 18. 

Pentridge, 329 ; Roman encampment on the common, 
(note) 513. 

Petroleum, or rock oil, 107. 

Peverel Court, 123. ' 

Pig, a Roman one, found in Derbyshire, 74. 

PiUtey, 651. 

Pin:x^on, 517. 

Pipe Clay, n6. 

Pipe Work, in mining, a description of, St. 

Plague, an account of it at Eyam, (note) 651. 

PMtagenets, Earls of Derby, some account of, 207.' 

Plaistcr Stone, or Gypsum, 110; plaister floors how 
laid. 111. 

Poole^S'Hole, near Buxton, described, 625. 

Porcelain, how manufactured, 169; Porcelain clay, 115. 

Potters* Clay, ll6. ^ 

Preston Pans, battle of, 19^. 

Pretendef^s (Charles Edward Stuart) invasion of Eng- 
land, 189. 

Pyrites, 97. v 

Quarndon, the village; its chalybeate water, 309- 
Quarenten, what (note) 255* 
Quartz, 113. 



tUnm of Scots, confined at Sb^tfa-Wingfield, 50d; 
at Haidwicky 531; at Chatswortfa, 643; ^triai, 
condemned, and beheaded, (note) 596. 

Madboumy £83. 

Make-work, in mining, described^ 81. 

Rauntton, 362. 

Red Lead, how made, 89* 

lUftn^on, description of the deanery, 359» 

Reptcn, 382; its ancient named, 383; monastery, 384; 
free-school, 388; ancient ciypt; anticjnities, 390. 

Revolution, of 1688, first planned at Whittmgton,d59* 

Rwletf, 329. 

Ruley, 319. «' 

Romans come to Britain, 6; Roman road in Derby- 
shire, 18; Roman pig of lead, 74. 

Rosluion, 365. 

Rouseeau, Jean Jacques, resides at Wo6toQ-Hall,iieir 
Ashboum, 440. 

Rotten Stone, 116. 

Rother, the river, 30. ' 

Rowter, rocking stones, 574. 

Sandiacre, 322. 

Sawley, and its chapelnes, 318. 
Saxons come to Britain, 12 ; their nncivilized state, l4i 
Scarsdale, Lord, some account of the family, 285*. ^ 
Scarcliff, the parish of, 541. 
Scots and Picts, 10. 
Scrapton, 313. 

Sessions, the Derbyshire, where held, 124. 
Sheep, different breeds of the county, 52. ' \ 

Shipley, the seat of £«.M«Mundy, £sq. 325. 
Shirl^ff 414. 
Shirland, 521. 

Shicerin^ MomUain, near Castleton, described, 704. 
Shottle, Its sulphureous spring, 358. 
Shrewsbury, the Countess of, her monument, 146. 
Situation of Derbyshire, 17. 
£&i^€, or schistos tegularis, 117. 
Smalley, 326. 
Smithesby, or Smisby, 455. 
SmttertonrHall, an ancient house near Darley, 571. 
23 A 5 



INOI^X. 



;££,** ?«dsS!^ what, (u«te) «». 
l^mtk NormantoHf 517. 

^SSfow, ai awient earxk-woik, ww Ghdaortaa, 
611.^ ' . 

Sfonfon, near Repton, 388. 
Stanton, near Dale, 396. . ^ 

.Sl«!(on; new Winrter; and S«mton*ioor, .SKfi. 
StapenhiU, S68. 

tent for. 173. ^ 

S^oney Middleton 67t. 
Strata, those of Derbyshire, 6a 

K'jeSah, Esq. some account of him, 517. 
Subterraneaui Geography of Derbyshire, 57. 
Sudbury, 402. 
AiMur, where fcrod, WxL 

Sii/^oiw^i-fo-Diife, 553; StttlopJIaQ. 554, 
Swanwickf 517- 
Swarkeaon, 9B0^ 

Taddington, <J07.' ^ , , ._. 

Temple^ Vafu^f Dr. Daiwrn'* pbcm, «5T. 
Terra trtpolitana, ll6. 
TAoiy, and Thorp cloud, 431. 
Hbsieff, iuchjttlybeite^pripg, 5^4. 
Ticknall, 372. . u • 

Tidemell^ Q&^\At^Bataf\vx%j, o^S; ehurcH, « 

and population, 657- 
rmi/ig^o«, and Tissington^HaU, 444. 
Trent, the river, 25. 
Trojans people Britain, 3. 
3:«i«%, 406. J 

Turnditch, 358. 



.IVOBX. 

Fcgefaft/e impressions, 121. 
Femon, Lord, Us seat at Sadbuiy; 4<ML . > , 
Via-GeUia, the jMd fiwm Hopioii to Matlpek^ .4M. 
Villanes, what class of people, (note) £67. 

WdUm^onrTrent, 364. 
-/r^ tbfr«UiftgfiBdio«ri&^7iai 

West-Hallam, 323. 

Weston, 270. 

fVhitehurst, some account of him, 217* 

fVhktittgton^ the! parish and riUa^ dttodbed, 559; 
the JS^voIntion of 1688, celebrated th^re, 560. 

trhittweli 563. 

William, coiiqtiA^ Eoglanrf, l6. 

Willington, 282/ ^ 

Wilmot, Sir Robert Mead, his seat at Chaddesden, 
315. ^ 

Wilmot, Sir Robert, his seat at Osmaston, 276. 

Wilhugkby, Sir Hugh, some account of him, 319- 

Wilslejf, 361. 

Willeriley^Castle, the l»at of Sichard Arkwright, Esq. 
482. 

Wingerworth, the viHage and jw'ish of, 539; Winger- 
^ worth-Hall, th(e seat of Sir Windsor Hunloke, 
' Bart. 539. 

Wiugfield, north, 528L 

Wit^eld, south, 504; .it» aakquity, and ancient pos- 
sessors, 505; manor-house, Its ruins, 507; Queen 
of Scots confined there, 509; by whom destroy- 
ed, 512. 

Wimhill, 372. 

Winster, 572. 

Wirksworth, its antiquity, 447 ; situation and church, 
'448; grammar-school, 449; alms-houses and 
moot-hall, 449; market and population, 450. 

WiTksu:orth'-moor''SOt^h, 91- 

Wormhill, 653. 

Wright, the painter, some account of- him, 220. 

Wye, the river, 29. 

Yeast, its efficacy in putrid fevers, (note) 331. 
Yeaveley, 414. 



INDEX. 

York, Cardinal, tome account of him, (nott) S5h 
Youlgrme, 572. ' 

Zinc, oxide af^ 94. 

Zoonamia, Dr. Darwin's poen, 235^ 



DIRECTIONS TO THE BINDER. 

Map of the County, to face the Titk. 
View of Derby, to face Page 125. 
View of helper^ to face Page Z^^ 




Printed bf 8. Masooy Belpef*