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Fbom thi IUbbakt of 
chase salmon osborn 

h ^L 





* ^ 





^^ «s * 

»ii^ • • 







(rev) J: 5LICHARDSON, 

Head Afasier of the L, M, S, Normal Sckcol, 
AniaMananvo, tie, etc. 



531 Iff 







£ 'TpHE first complete Malagasy Dictionary was prepared by the mis- 

J. sionaries of the London Missionary Society, and printed at their 

press in Antananarivo in the year 1835 ; it consisted of two parts, 

o English -Malagasy and Malagasy- English, — the former was prepared 

^ by the Rev. J. J. Freeman, and the latter by the Rev. D. Johns. They 

JL were assisted by three natives, and doubtless embodied in their work 

* the result of the studies of their companions. It was the L. M. S. 

^ missionaries who reduced the language to writing, and laid the 

^ foundation of Malagasy literature by writing and translating many 

important books, including the Pilgrim's Progress, the Bible from 

Genesis to Revelation, and the two parts of the Dictionary above 

mentioned; and all in the short space of 17 years. One of their 

companions was a printer, and all they wrote was printed by themselves 

at the Society's press in the Capital. See an article by the Rev. 

W. E. Cousins, Antananarivo Annual, 1884, pp. 43-47. 

The second Dictionary, Malagasy- French and French-Malagasy, 
was prepared by the Jesuit Fathers, and printed by them in the island 
of Bourbon in 1853. This work was a great improvement upon that 
of the Rev. D. Johns, and remains a very valuable book of reference. 
Having had to compare these two dictionaries paragraph by paragraph 
and line by line, I have no hesitation in saying that the Dictionary of 
the Rev. D. Johns was drawn upon to a much larger extent than the 
slight reference to it in a foot-note to the table of abbreviations would 
indicate. The Hova explanations of numerous words are simply literal 
translations of David Johns' definitions. 


The present, the third complete Malagasy Dictionary, is based upon 
the two preceding dictionaries. We have used the one as freely as 
the other, and we hereby express our great obligations to the Jesuit 
Fathers for the many provincial words and phrases Uken from their 
valuable work, as also for the great light some of these words throw 
upon Hova words and phrases. In a few cases we have been unable 
to verify some of the words and phrases, and they appear in this 
Dictionary as copied from the two earlier ones followed by a note of 
interrogation in brackets. 

The words in Clarendon capitals are either roots or derivatives that 
have acquired a special meaning of their own ; but when a compound 
word or a secondary root appears in Clarendon capitals, the primitive 
root, when known, is given in brackets. 

Coming immediately after the root we have tried to show whence 
the word has come, from Arabic, Swahili, Malay, French, English, etc. 

Then with a slight inset, and in small Clarendon type, we have given 
the derivatives, trying always to follow this order : — (i) Tafa-, (2) VoA- , 
(3) A-, (4) the passive from the root formed by a suffix, (5) the form in 
Ml-, (6) Man-, (7) nouns, and idiomatic phrases illustrating the use 
of the word. Before proceeding to another root, we have given in 
ordinary small capitals (i) the compound words from the preceding 
root, and in nearly every case giving the elements in brackets, and 
occasionally words similarly spelled but from different roots; and 
(2) the various simple passives derived from other roots. At first sight 
many of these passives seem to be out of alphabetical order, but we 
believe we have been quite right in putting them where they are, rather 
than by mixing them up with the compounds of the preceding roots. 

In many cases we have given references to synonyms, and have called 
attention to words where there is some similarity in spelling or meaning. 
We do not, however, say which are synonyms and which are not. 

It will be noticed that we have placed Tafa- among the passive 
prefixes, and that we have always given the passive derivatives before 
the active. As to whether these verbs should be called passives or not, 
we would refer the student to some interesting papers by the Revs. L. 
Dahle and G. Cousins in the Antananarivo Annual for 1878, 1881, 
and 1883. Mr. Dahle's papers on "Studies in the Malagasy Language" 
in various numbers of the ANNUAL are also worthy of careful reading. 

We have not thought it necessary to go beyond the simple Ml- and 
Man- forms of the verb, except in cases where some different meaning 
was attached to the word, seeing that every Ml- implies a Mampi-, 
M1FAMPI-, etc., and that every Man- implies a Mampan-, a 


MiFAMPAN-, etc. We believe it will be found most helpful to beginners 
to find nearly every relative, and every passive, active, and relative 
imperative given. 

In the names of plants, birds, etc., the names in brackets refer to the 
names given by the natives of these provinces to these plants where 
the specimen was obtained, while the wider word provincial (Prov.) 
is put after words or derivatives not in use among" the Hova, We 
could have localised many words, but we fear that, had we done so, 
with our imperfect knowledge of many provinces, we should have been 
restricting the use of the word. Many of them we know to be in use 
in some cases in as many as eight, nine, or ten parts of the island ; and 
others, which we have only heard in one or two, may possibly be in 
use in five or six or more. We must wait for further knowledge, and 
for the preparation of a dictionary three or four times the size of this, 
before attempting the localisation of all provincial words. In the 
meantime it would be a preparation for that if residents in various 
parts of the island would note the use of such words in the places they 
reside in or may visit. 

On pages 410-413 we have gathered up all the active verbs in 
Mam-, and on pages 4x5-423 those in Man-, where there has been a 
rejection or strengthening of the initial consonant of the root in forming 
verbs in Man-. 

We have accented every word, and two kinds of accents appear, 
the grave and the acute, but this has been caused by our not having 
enough of one kind. There is no distinction implied between grave 
and acute. Not having the proper accent mark we have been obliged 
to use two when we wished to show that (lo and ai were not diphthongs, 
at, and ib show that the vowels are to be sounded separately with an 
accent on the t and o. It will be noticed that in the earlier sheets we 
divided some words by putting the accent mark after a consonant, but 
throughout the rest of the work we have put all accents on the vowels. 
In a few instances a mistake has been made by an accent on an a 
preceding an 0, thus ao, in such cases ab was intended. The same 
applies to oy or ot in two or three cases, by or 6i was intended. 

Every definition has been revised in consultation with J. Andrianai- 
voravelona, the intelligent pastor of the church at Ampamarinana, with 
whom the Editor has had 108 sittings lasting from two to three hours 
each ; another native, J. Rajaofera, who has been with the Editor 
as student, teacher in the Normal School, and secretary for thirteen 
years, has spent nearly three years in copying and compiling under our 
direction much that appears in this work. In addition to these, An- 
drianony, the pastor of the Ambohitantely church, sent in a list of old 


words and phrases ; but no other natives have taken part in the work, 
except as occasional referees. We have gathered up much useful 
information from a Ms. dictionary of over iioo folios written by Mr. 
Edward Baker, formerly L. M. S. printer in Madagascar, ; we have 
also consulted two large Ms. dictionaries in the L. M. S. library, Anta- 
nanarivo ; the sheets of 24 pages, A to A lotraiona, and the whole of the 
letter B, left by Mr. Louis Street (See Antananarivo Annual, 1884, 
p. 49) ; various pamphlets written by missionaries during the last 10 or 
15 years ; and many valuable papers in the eight volumes of the Anta- 
nanarivo Annual. The Revs. G. Cousins and T. T. Matthews placed 
their interleaved dictionaries at our disposal, and the Rev. L. Dahle 
and Mr. Wm. Johnson have also sent in a short list of words, most of 
which are in the Appendix ; while nearly all the Arabic derivations have 
been taken from Mr. Dahle' s papers in the ANNUAL. The Rev. W. 
Montgomery also sent us a few words. 

But we are under greater obligations to the following : (i) The Rev. 
W. E. Cousins, who not only has revised his CONCISE Introduction 
and allowed it to be incorporated in this work, but placed at our 
disposal his interleaved dictionary, which embodies his notes over a 
period of twenty years, and has sent nearly all the Malay, Polynesian, 
etc., derivations. (2) The Rev. J. Sibree, F.R.G.S., who has made 
the birds and animals his special study, and has also sent occasional 
references to Malay, Polynesian, and Swahili. (3) The Rev. R. Baron, 
F.L.S., who has contributed the valuable botanical information with 
the scientific names as given by Mr. J. G. Baker, F.R.S., of Kew, 
from specimens collected by Mr. Baron, and printed here as sent in, 
the Editor being responsible for the derivations and arrangement 
only, except in a very few instances. Mr. Baron wishes it to be under- 
stood, however, that even after the greatest care has been exercised, 
there must always remain a certain amount of uncertainty in plant 
nomenclature, especially in regard to the rarer and less important plants, 
inasmuch as native names are often loosely applied and vary much in 
different localities. This remark also holds true of birds, insects, etc. 
(4) W. Clayton Pickersgill, Esq., Her Majesty's Vice-Consul, who has 
supplied numerous provincial words, and nearly all the Swahili deriva- 
tions and references. 

The four gentlemen above mentioned have also read all the proofs 
of this work, and have given me much valuable assistance as I have 
carried it through the press. To them and Mr. Parrett this Dictionary 
owes a great deal. 

We have placed the errata in the Appendix, which contains words 
received too late for insertion, or gives meanings and derivations result- 

ing from a careful reading of the sheets as printed. Any suspected 
error should direct the student to the Appendix. 

Finally, a word of praise is due to the L. M. S. printing office and 
its able staff of Malagasy printers, who, while having no knowledge of 
English, have in exactly twelve months completed the work ; the whole 
expense of which has been met by the printing office funds without any 
grant from the Society. 

We believe this work will be found to contain more information than 
is usually found in a Dictionary proper, and that it will prepare the 
way for any future editor to commence a more thorough and complete 
work than this can lay claim to. 


Faravohitra^ Antananarivo ^ 
May ist, 1885. 

•,• The Editor has made arrangements for the reading of all 
papers contributed to Teny Soa, etc., by natives, the Kabary, the 
new Edition of the Proverbs, the Malagasy Gazette, etc, etc, and 
for collecting the words not embodied in this Dictionary, so as to be 
able, should he return to Madagascar in 1886, to issue a supplement. 
He would esteem it a favour, if those interested in the subject would 
note any omitted words, meanings, or derivations, and send to him, 
care of the Secretary of the Imerina District Committee, Antana' 
narivo, or to the Mission House, 14 Blomfield St,, London Wall, 
London, E.C, endorsed Dictionary, giving name of book and 
page. Should the Editor not return, the work will be ready for 
any one else who would like to take it up. 


«dj,^ adjectiTe. 

A^., adverb. 

art,y article. 

OHtt., causative. 

cf,^ compare. 

comp., compare. 

</m/., distributive. 

yfj?'., figuratively. 

/«/., future. 

imp,, imperative. 

inter. , interjection. 

initrrog., interrogative. 

Hi., literally. 

mod, s,f modal substantive. 

obs.f obsolete. 

opp.t opposition. 

opt, imp,, optative imperative. 

pott,, passive. 

//., plural. 

prep*t (Hreposition. 

prti,, present 

pro*i pronoun. 

redup,, reduplicative. 

rtl,, relative. 

rel, imp,, relative imperative. 

rel, s,, relative substaintive. 

s,, substantive. 

suf. Pro,, suffix pronoun. 

V, comp,, compound verb. 

V, imperf., imperfect verb. 

V. int., intransitive verb. 

V, past,, passive verb. 

V, recip,, reciprocal verb. 

V, tr,, transitive verb. 

Ar.y Arabic. 
Arch., Archipelago. 
Chal., Chaldee. 
Eng., English. 
Fr., French. 
Germ., German. 
Goth., Gothic. 
Gr., Greek. 
Heb., Hebrew. 
Hind., Hindostani. 
Jav., Javanese. 
Lat., Latin. 

Loy. Is., Loyalty Island. 
Mai., Malay. 
Norweg., Norwegian. 
Polyn., Pol3mesian. 

Portug., Portuguese. 

Sans., Sanskrit. 

Soc. Is., Society Islands. 

Sp., Spanish. 

Swa., Swahili. 

Antand., Antandroy. 

Antank., Antankarana. 

Antsih., Antsihanaka. 

Bets., Betsileo. 

Betsim., Betsimisaraka. 

Prov., Provincial. 

Sak., Sakalava. 

Tan., Tanala. 

Tank., Tankay. 

Vak. Ank., Vakin' Ankaratra. 





AT the request of the Editor of this Dictionary I have prepared a 
second edition of the Concise Introduction to the Study 
OF the Malagasy Language, written by me twelve years ago. The 
substance and general arrangement of the book remain unchanged ; but 
I have abridged some parts, rewritten others, and carefully revised the 
whole. Expansion, rearrangement, remodelling, and fuller illustration 
would have been more in harmony with my wishes than the abridgment 
necessitated by the requirements of the present work ; but I have yielded 
to the wishes of the editor and publisher, who required an introduction 
of about 50 pp., and preferred using my book to making a new one. The 
twelve years that have passed since the first edition was printed have 
been fruitful in results bearing on the study of the Malagasy language. 
During that time the third edition of Ny Gramara Malagasy Le- 
HiBE, by the Rev. G. Cousins, and Malagasy for Beginners, by 
the Rev. J. Richardson, have been issued, and many important papers 
discussing separate points of Malagasy Grammar have been published 
in the different numbers of the Antananarivo Annual. I should 
also mention the French Grammar of Marre de Marin, Paris, 1876 
(Grammaire yLAiJQACKU.t/ondSe sur les principes dela Grammaire 
Javanaise), The Concise Grammar of the Malagasy Language 
by G. W. Parker, published by Trubner and Co, 1883, does not unfor- 
tunately contribute anything new, as it is simply an unacknowledged 
abridgment of my own book. In revising for this edition I have freely 
availed myself of any hints I could gather from the above-named 
sources, and have made many small changes for the correction of 
misstatements and the removal of ambiguities. The reader must bear 
in mind that it is impossible in so limited a space to give the modifica- 


tions which many of the statements require. The book falls very far 
below my own ideal ; and I conclude with the hope that some student 
of the Malagasy language may be able ere many years have passed to 
prepare a Grammar that shall be abreast of our present knowledge of 
the language, and be enriched with an ample collection of well selected 
and arranged examples. 


The Grammar of P6re Webber (1855) W. 

Do. P^reAilloud (1872) A. 

Do. Rev. G. Cousins (1882) C. 

Malagasy for Beginners, Rev. J. Richardson (1884) R. 

Antananarivo Annual A. A. 

The figures refer to the sections, unless pages are expressly named. 
The figures in brackets refer to sections of the present work. 

Abundant examples illustrating almost every form given in this book 
may be found in the Gramara Malagasy, by the Rev. G. Cousins, 
and in Malagasy for Beginners, by the Rev. J. Richardson ; and 
to these two books I would refer those who are seeking fuller illustra- 
tions of the rules here given. 







a in father 

e „ a „ Ute 

i yy «f y, meet 

o „ 00 ff too 

1. — ^T!he Malagasy Alphabet (called by the natives, iVy Ahidy) contains 
twenty one letters ; yiz., all those contained in the ihigUsh Alphabet, with 
the exception of e, q, u, w, and x. 

8. — ^The yoweli have the open continental sound ; thus : — 

irkMO, the eye 
efaj done 
mahiiay to see 
od^f a charm 

8. — ^T represents the same sound as i, but is used at the end of words, and 
is soonded ver^ lightiy. 

In recent editions of the Bible y is used in the body of words taken from the 
Greek to represent the letter Upnlon ; thus : — 

Egypta, Egjrpt Synagbga, Synagogue 

4. — is sometimes sounded like o in hop«, but only when used as the sign of 
a vocative case, as : Andriamanitra 6, or in introduced words, as : Baj'Sna, kapdty. 

6. — In tpeakinffy a final a, when unaccented, is usually elided before any 
other vowel ; thus : — 

ids Mildga dwy is pronounced m«^' dsy 

e) Mpandrdva if a „ tnpandrdv*^ efa 

i) Mandla irio „ mandV ireo 

o) Manddtsa oUma ,, manddU^ olona 

6. — In like manner a final o is usually elided when immediately followed by 
another o. Hius mamono olofta, is pronounced mamon^ olona; but in writing 
both words should be given fully. 

7. — ^Final e is always accented ; as manotne, to give ; mamonj^, save ! ka/e, 
coffee. This rule is so well established, that no mark of accent need be used in 
writing or printing. 

8. — Care is needed to pronounce all vowels with clearness, especially final 
vowels, as a single vowel is frequentiy the only mark of distinction between 
two words altogether unlike in meaning ; e.g. olona, person, and olana, 
twisting ; manhiina, to regret, and tnanhwnay to weave ; mdnana, to possess, 
and mdnina, to long after ; vola, money, voly, planting, rolo^ hair. 

9. — ^When 1 or y precedes g, ng, h, k, or nk, a similar sound is heard after 
these letters, as : mikidtsa&a, to seek ; mikidsa^ to purpose ; minffidso, to swear ; 
ary ki6a, and also ; anankirdy ki6a^ another too ; midinffia, to start. This 
usage seems to be confined to the Hovas. In printing this euphonic i is usually 


10. — ^When in the derivatiTes two vowels would oome together, one of which 
would be the firat letter of the root, and the other the final letter of the prefix, 
an h is aometimee inserted between them for the sake at euphony ; thus : — 

Ihaviany (not iaviany) from dvy 

Mihahosa i „ mihaoia) „ 6»a 

ffahotdna i „ haotana) ,, om 

Mahanth^ana ( „ haanterana) „ dniitra 

IL-p-The only true dlphthongi in the lang^uage are two :^ 

^1) ai, ay* pronounced like i in might. 
(2) ao pronounced like ow in now. 

18.— The double Towels ao, io, which occur very frequentlv, are smnetiinaa 
caUed diphthongs ; but unless they are pronounced very quioldy, the sound of 
each vowel can eaaUr be distinguished ; and in forming passive verbs, etc., the 
accent advances to the second vowel, as : diOf diovy ; iMhaleo, mahaleova. 

18. — ^The following combinations of vowels also occur : ia, oa, oi and oj, 
06, aoe, and oai. 

14. — In the combinationa ai and ao each vowel retains its own sound, when a 
is the prefix used to form passive verbs, e.g. t^dina {idina), aorina (orina), 

16. — ^Most of the eons onaats are pronounced as in English ; g, however, ia 
always hard, as in gold ; j has the force oidt;u before i, and sometimes in a 
less degree before o, is sounded like a soft «A. The distinction between i and i 
is always maintained, the former being pronounced like « in sun, and the latter 
like z in zone. 

16. — ^The Malagasy does not allow the free combination of consonants com- 
mon in European languaffes, and many of our words appear to the natives 
extremely harsh. The allowable combinations of consonants are very few, and 
the tendency of the language is to use short open syllables ; at the dose of a 
word no exception is allowed to this rule. 

Hie following combinations of consonants are found at the beginning of 
words : dr (drddradrddra), ds, i.e. j U^ry), tr (trano), ti {Uara)^ ng {nffidinjAj mb 
{mbola), mp (mptindrajitra). The three last possibly arose out of the fuller forms 
ang, amb, amp. Gomp. W. 243, and notloe the common pronunciation toy 
ambdlana for tty mbola. 

17. — In forming derivatives and compounds n combines with the dentals d 
and t, or with the gutturals g and k, and m with the labials b and p. Thus 
the only possible combinations are nd (including ndr, ndi, i.e. i^), nt (including 
ntr, nts), ng, nk, mb, and mp. 

K and m oominf in the middle of a word before another consonant have usually, 
and I think justinablv, been regarded as dosing the preceding syllable ^thus 
mdn-da, fan-Jaitra) , though this is disputed by some. At any rate they should be 
so regarded in compounds, e.g. an-ila (not a-nila), ntanam^bola {xkotmana-mbola), 

18. — ^The above being the only allowable combinations of consonants, certain 
changes are necessary in forming compounds ; these may be easily compre- 
hended, if the classification and affinities of the various consonants are borne in 
mind, as the changes naturally arise between consonants of the same class. 
Hie following is a convenient and useful arrangement : — 


Pure bpm gkn dj(:ds)tn 

Impure ▼ f h 1 r i i 

* Ai, ay are ooouionAUy written, oipeciaUy in older books, ei, ey. 


The oonsonanta named impure aie not able to maintain their poaition in the 
formation of oompounds, but axe changed into their ooiresponding pure oonao- 
nants (▼ into b, f into p, h into g or k, I into d), or strengthened by the insertion 
of a dmtal (thus r becomes dr, i becomes J (i.e. ds), and i becomes ts). 

V is placed both with gfuttorals and dentals, because its pronnndation vaxieB, 
as it combines with the one class or the other ; this may be easily perceiyed by 
noticing the pronnnoiation of snoh words as mdnga and mdnda, Ilie French 
ennmerate as many as four vaxietiee of n in Malagasy ; but the Hovas do not 
make these distinctions. 

19. — ^The above changes are required : — 

(1) In forming derivatiyes that take a prefix ending in n or m (an, in, man, 
mam, san, tan, etc.). 

(2) When n or m ia inserted between two words as the sign of an indefinite 
poasessiye or ablatiye case (124, b 1), as volom-bava (volo n vava), 

(3) In contracting words ending in na by throwing away the final a, and 
so anortening the word one syllable ; thus numan (a) vola heoomesmanam'bola.* 

90. — ^The examples giyen below illustrate these yarions changes : — 
















: thus 


t miinam-b&ya 


yidi-B-pariiky „ 

f yidim-parilky 


an-fd , 

^ am-pd 


man-hiitaka „ 


yda-n-hizo „ 

, y6an-kizo 

nd : 

siiron (a) Idha ,, 

, siiron-ddha 


naian-re „ 



an-iambo „ 


Hi 1 

iral-n-i^y „ 

» iraln-J^y 

91. — The final syllable na has been already referred to as liable to contraction 
by rejection of the a. Words ending in the syllables ka and tra are also frequent- 
ly contracted by i^e rejection of we entire final syllable. Thus : mangalatra 
aia, to go away without permission, becomes manffdla'dia ; and tapaka tongotra^ 
broken-legged, becomes tdpa^tongotra. When one of the impure' consonants 
(18) follows a word so contracted, it is chaxiged according to rule, as if the 
letter m or n closed the preceding syllable. Thus : — 

f changes to p 
▼ ., b 




di (i.e. j) : 

thus t&naka fg 

halatra T6at&yo 
sidrotra h^natra 
mit&rikA llOana 
mis^aka iMna 




becomes t&pa-pe 









99. — ^Words ending in the light terminals ka, tra, and na haye many pecu- 
liarities in common, and form a dass by themselyes. F6re Webber caUs these 
syllables mates ; they are not actually mute howeyer, but are sounded yery 

• (o) Before a word beginning with m orn the whole syllable na ia rejected ; thus manam- 
ptna-moM becomes manampi-maw ; fofonti-nahandro becomes /v/o-naAantlro. 

{h) Similarly the n of posseMon (134, b 1) cannot stand befbre a noon beginning with m or 
n ; thus: rtmxMiuuo, water of the eye (i.e. tears) ; akai^o-iUfy, the ^[arment of fM' teeth (i.e. 
guns) ; so too tori-ma«o, At^a-m^Jo, tompo-Mmakely, vokMneuo, dtdi-Nanohoryf tendrcnuh' 

f Notice that snch combinations and contractions as those giren in \\ 19-21 cause no change 
in the accentuation (oomp. ) AS). 


lightly, eepeoially when the aooent of a word f alle on the antepenult ; but eren 
then tkej are aonnded. The final a is at tunes ohanged into y (12i a 2), the 
aoond of whioh, however, is so light that an apostrophe might be almost as 
appropriately UBed. When followed by a consonant, the sound of the final a is 
distinctly heard: — e.g. mangataka itra, to beg salt; hevitra marina^ a true 
thought ; zavatra nangalarinay something stolen. 

28. — ^When a word ending in ka, tra, or na is followed by a noun or piroiioiui. 
in the possessiTe oase beginning with a vowel, the final a is rejected, and ita 
absence is marked by an apostrophe (124 b 2) ; thus : — 

Sdtrok* 6lonaf some one*s hat 

Fdntatr* IkotOf known by Ikoto 

NaldW Izy roa Uhy, taken by those two men 

84. — ^The Malagasy appear to regard contraction, according to the euphonic 
laws stated above, an eleg^ce of speech ; hence they indulge in it very freely, 
and contract words that stand in almost any relation to one another. Thus, of 
two words joined according to the rules of contraction, the second may be : — 

A PossESsrvB Casb, as : Idva-bitsika {Idvaka vitaika), an ants* nest. 

Thb Aoemt of ▲ Passive oa Reiativb Vbbb, as: tlam'bddy {liana, vddy), 
beloved by (one's) wife. ' 

Thb Objbot of ▲ Vbbb, as : mamela'pdmdrika {vilatra, fdndrika), to spread a 
A liDCiTora Aoodsativb (127 0}, as : matU'po {ditra, fo), obstinate of heart. 

A Noun ik Apposition ; as, andrtan-drdf/ dmoH'drenff (oaiHana, ray, dmana, 
reny)i the nobles who are as father and mother. 

A Pbeoicatb pbbobdbd nocBDiATBLT BT ITS SuBJBOT, as : nyfimotin-do^ the 
thing wrapped up is rotten ; so too in : ny fanambadiam-bairobaroira ; fahfidatam" 
pictrena, fihendrem^pisondrotana. 

Am Adjboiivb, as : olon-kendry {ohfM, hendiy), a wise man. 

A Vkbb in thb Infintcivb mood, as : fuudi^nando (dia, too), bidden to do. 

An Advebb, as : mipetra-poana {petrakat /Sana), to sit about idly. 


85. — ^The variety and regularity of the derivatives (51) contained in the 
Malagasy language render a careful study of the roots from which they are 
form^ absolutely essential to an exact and thorough knowledge of the language. 

86. — Boots may be used as verbs active {avi/f coming), and passive (r&«y, 
conquered), nouns {iranOj house), and adjectives {taara, good). 

87. — Some of the pronouns, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and inter- 
jections may also be considered roots, as ft is no longer possible to trace them 
to simpler forms. 

88. — ^The same root is sometimes used for different parts of speech. Thus 
dltsika may be a noun, meaning the dust blown into one's eyes ; or an adjective, 
used of the person into whose eyes dust has been blown. 

89. — Roots may be divided into two classes : — (1) Primary roots, as zdra. 
(2) Secondary recti, as tsinjdra (zara)y hmnehy {hehy). 

80. — ^Primary recti consist of one, two, or three syllables; never, if the 
theory of secondary roots be fully accepted, of four, or five. 

t^— Bran^^ qf primacy ro^ :* 

(1) MoHOfTLLABUH : «y, ivon; m, blood. Tlieae arenure ; aee ht, ia^fi, fy, Ut, 
lo, /q, r§, ro, to, to. 

(2) BiasTLLABUKB : rdno, water ; tin^, esrth ; mdio, an eye ; <rii<ra, overtaken ; 
kiiOf a wedge ; laina, mind; iiso, got. 

(8) TwHTMiAWLW ! fmUUrm, Imown; tdniaira, flrst-imita; tdpaka^ ont off; 
r^Mibi, conTenatkni ; uMiifiOy regret ; oktuit persoDB. 

88. — It will be notioed that all the examples of trtByllabio roots end in the 
light teaninals ka, tE», and na. There stiU remains the possibility that all the 
pimary roots in the language were monosyllables or dissyllables, as the foUow- 
ukg facts tend to show thiat we terminations ka, tra, and na are affixes that 
have been appended to shorter words : — 

(1) They are sometimes disused. Thus we have i$a and Uaka, one ; irdjf and 
irdiia, one ; nama'ldhy. and ndnumOf a companion ; Idka and Idkana. Of. W. 12. 

(2) In certain words th^^ are interchanged. Thus p6tHka snd potHtra occur 
In the same sense ; so too ekmilana and HMlaka ; robihina and robdtina; fdoika 
tmd/dnna, and even /«iy. Of. W. 24. 

(8) IMssyllabic roots used in a sense allied to that of the longer fonns are 
by no means rare. Oompaze for instance: tnaria (rui), riakoy Hana, tsoriaka, 
llie dictionaiy will afford many examples of such families of roots. 

(4) They often obscure the real root. Thus sdkatra is not so near the Malayan 
forms tinffopf ukkap, as is the passive 9okafana. 

88.— The general rule for the accentuation of a primary root is that the 
accent must be placed on the first syllable. 

84. — ^Pkobably this rule would be found to hold universally in purely native 
words. Hundreds of examples analogous to those given above (31) may easily 
be found. Some of the apparent exceptions are to be explained by foreign 
derivation: e.g. from theJmnch, katiy cachet; kafe^ oaf 6; laldna, ialodna,lBi 
loi ; from the Arabic, mizdnuj miz^ (scales). In other cases, even if a primary 
root can no longer be found, we may, as a general rule, assume its former ex- 
istence, andrefer a syllable mreceding the accent to the class of monosvllabic 
prefixes noticed in j[37. This, or foreign derivation, will doubtless be the 
explanation required to account lor an apparent anomaly. 

86. — Secondary Boots. Besides the primary roots above described there is a 
large class of enlarged roots, which may be conveniently named secondary, as 
they are for ordinary grammatical purposes treated precisely in the same way 
as the primary roots. The enlargements the primary roots receive are of two 
classes: — 

(1) Many of them take a monosyllabic prefix : an-, ba, bo, eto. See below, 
{ 37). Thus to the primary roots oAofta, Amiui, dia, may be added the prefixes 
ro-, tain-, ko-, thus forming tlie secondary roots rodhana, tsingerina, kodia. Theae 
again may take the reg^olar prefixes and affixes ; thus rodhana may take the 
active prefix mi- and booome mtronhafta ; Uxnghina may take the passive prefix 
a- and become aUinghrina (imp. ainngtrhiu^ ; kodia may take the passive affix 
-ana and become kodidvana, 

(2) Others again, comparatively few in number, admit of an infix (om), 
which is inserted immediately after the first consonant. Thus from tdnt/f crying 
or tears, we get tomdnff, and from this again the derivatives, mitomdny, mitoma' 
nia, itomcmiana^ ampitonuinlna, eto. So too with lomdno {Idno), homehy {hehy)^ 
tomoetra {t6etra), and perhaps homana {hdna {f), oomp. hdnp and Malay makan 

ifood), though ihe aooent makes this somewhat uncertain. The word karainkona 
ktUnkoma) appears to have an infix ar, with which may also be compared Uard' 


paia and UiptJcoy tirhUothUo and «AiM, kmrh^ dnd hii^. A oarofnl analyaifl 
of the roots would probably disoloae other varietieB. 

86. — Infixes are not niied ezdnnvely to form aeoondary roots, but often to 
form adjeotivee, as: wmiry (tiiry), resembling, likely ; iomamotamo {tdmotdtno)^ 
yellow (as turmeric) ; they are also largely used to form a dlass of passiyeSy as : 
iindpaka (tdpaka), wnokatrm (Matra); see { 82. 8. On the importanoe of thla form 
as bearing on the question of the aflbdties of the Malagasy lang^nftge we A.A. 
iv. p. 20, with refezenoes there giyen. 

87. — ^nie AB-ia prsflxei. The monosyllabic prefixes noticed above I naxne, 
from the first and last example in the subjoined list, the aa-ia prefixes. They 
are very various, and axe used not only to form secondary roots aa already 
explained, but also to form nouns and adjectives which do not admit of the 
various prefixes and affixes used in forming derivatives. Their predae efPeot 
on the meaning of the primary root is not easy to perceive. Their use often 
appears to be merely ornamental, and one or another may be used indifferently ; 
thus from raingoy we have baraingoy faraingo^ karaingo. with no dear distinction 
of meaning ; often, however, 6Si)ecifL[ly when used to form nouns and adjeoti vee, 
they have a definite modifying influence on the meaning of the root. OAiis may 
be easily seen by examining such words as kifafa {fafa)^ kofehy (fihy)^ eatovo 
{tovo), tanddhatra {lahatra), tan^ndrika {omHka). 

88.~The following list exhibits the chief varieties of these ab-m preflxM :— 






























































rehetra (P) 





















































1%6 peixei ending in m follow the roles giyen in } 8 16-21 . Tlioae without a 
deriYsaye oppoidte tbiBm (hi, kan, lah, re, m) are not, eo far as I ha^e observed, 
need to form true eeoondary roots. 

S8.-*BednpUeated Boots. Boots both primary and seoondarjr may be doubled, 
in Older to express the repetition (A. A. iii. p. 42), the dimmntion, or (more 
rarely) the augmentation of the idea conyeyed by fiie root in its sing^ form. 
Thus many roots may appear in a fourfold form ; see } 60. For examples see 
W. 77-90; A.A« 36-46; G. pp. 61-68. 

40. — As only the primary root is doubled, all that need be said about redn- 
pUoadon will be giyen in the following sections (41 — 49), although this will 
neoeesitate the introduction of yarious deriyatiyes that haye not yet been 

41. — Some roots are found only in the reduplioate form, as : Idoldo (or, laiio)^ 
play ; s d U ud Ut^ doubtful ; rihariha, oyerbearing conduct. 

4t. — ^In roots that end in syllables other than ka, tra, and na, contraction is 
not allowed. Thus : fSts^, white, becomes f6t9if6tty^ whitish ; (oro, crushed, 
beoomes torotorv, crushed to pieces ; martky speckled, becomes m^^roimaTOy speckled 
all oyer. The only changes oyer caused by doubling such roots are those 
illustrated in } 49. 

4S. — All trisyllables ending in ka, tra, and na, and accented on the antepe- 
nult (that is primary roots ; see 31, 33), are contracted according to the rules 
given in \\ 18-24. 

Thus : ino/ra, counsel, becomes dnatrdnatra, repeated, or unimportant, counsel; 
hritrOf thought, becomes hritriritray meditation, reflection; rhaka, fatigued, 
becomes reradrhraka^ slightly fatigued ; fdntatra^ known, beoomes fcmtapdn" 
tatra, imperfectly known; tarofut, a coyer, beoomes tdronUdrona, a partial or 
insufficient coyer. "Die learner ^ould seek for examples, and classify them 
according to the various euphonic changes they illustrate. 

44. — Boots beginning with h, and ending in ka and tra, lose that letter in 
the second part of a reduplicate form ; Uius : hevitra^ thought, beoomes hhntri' 
vitroy and not hevikSvitra, according to the usual rule of contraction. 

^ 45. — Dissyllables in ka, tra, and na are sometimes contraoted, snd sometimes 
simply repeated ; thus we haye : mitdntdna, to hold ; mitdnatdnay to be open 

ias the mouth) ; mahavdbdtraf to be raUier perseyering ; mivdtravdtra^ to pour 
as rain). 

4B. — It has already been stated that nothing but the primary root is affected 
by reduplication ; the following examples will illustrate this fact more fully : — 


VkUka TsimbkUka Tsimb&dibJidika 

Blipaka Kor&paka Xikoriipadriipaka 

Fdtotra Af6totra Af6topdtotra 

Dlo Xadio Xadiodlo 

Malahelo seems to be a compound word ; however this may be, the m«fo- is 
treated as a prefix, and the reduplicate form is malahilohih, 

47.— -When an affix requiring an advance of accent is added to a word in the 
redupUoate form, the first part of the word suffers no change. Thus : — 

Mamdtop6totra Mamdtopotdra 

Manamj^rimllrina * Manam&rimarina 
Fotsifdti^ Fotsifottiana 

4t.^Oontnust6d adjeotavM (128, /, g, h) retain the a of Uie preoent and 
tenses instead o£, or in addition to, the flrst letter of the root. Xhns : — 
M&rina f&rina) beoomes mArimArina fnot, m&rinAriTUt) 
MMoka (h^ka) „ m^m&loka (not, m^ok^oka) 

In a somewhat analogous manner monad beoomes in its reduplicate form i 
not numaotdo, 

Jimilariy, a is sometimes inserted in reduplioate forms. TliuA : — 

Man^ (M) becomes man^n^ 

Manampy (Ampy) „ manlimpinAmpy 

MandA (la) „ mandlUidA 

Z6ky „ z6kiaj6kin7 



AO.— The deriyatiyes are formed by appending to the root :— 
(i.) A Prefix :— 


Primary form 
Secondary form 


Ttimary form 
Secondary form 







(ii.) An Affix :— 


Secondary form 


Secondary form 





(ui.) Both a Prefix and an AfSx :~ 

snroui BOOT. 

Secondary form 


Secondary form 











01. — ^Ease in detecting roots and in reoognising the foroe of deriTotiYefl can 
only be aoqnired by familiarity inth the various forms given in the following 
chapters. In the above examples the root is hardly obscured ; often, however, 
it is more difficult to discover, owing to the loss of its first consonant, as in 
nuMdta {tdta) ; or to a change in one of its vowels, as in vot^'hw {v6t^) ; or to some 
alteration in Ihe consonant of its final svUable, as in aok^ana \t6katriA, In the 
irord ampifamohina {poka), made to stri^ against one another, the o is the only 
UTichanged element A the root. 

US. — ^The one fundamental rule for the accentuation of derivatives is that 
nothing makes a change but an affix, and that in words of two or more svllables 
tide causes the advance of the accent one place whenever the nature of the root 
will allow it. (Seenoi.) 

However numerous and complicated may be the familv of derivatives to 
whidi a root gives birth, every example will be found to follow the above rule ; 
and the habit should be formed at leiuning at once the root and one derivative 
with an affix (the passive in -tfui or -ana, if it exists), and this will give a key 
to the accentuation of any member of the family. 

V.B. — ^Among affixes must be reckoned a, the characteristic tennination 
of the active and root imperatives, even when it is absorbed by the final a of 
the root ; thus : mikud, from miliza; ttard, from Udra : these are to be consi- 
dered equivalent to mt^i-o, Uard^a, 

58. — In a few instances the accent, contrary to the usual custom, appear» to 
leave the root and to rest on the first syllable of the affix. Thus : ivididtuma 
(vH^y) ; ankatodvina (to) ; etc. 


54. — ^Malagasy verbs may in the first instance be divided into two main 
classes according as thev require their agent to be separated from them 
(as mamom azy aho^ I kill him) or to be joined (when expressed) to them as a 
possessive* (as vonoiko itff, he is killea by me; vonoin' ny 6lona izy, he is 
kUIed by the people). These main divisions are well named by Mr. Dahle 
tiie sejunctive and adjunctive forms (A. A. iv. p. 79). 

The sejunctive division comprises all the active forms both transitive and 
intransitive, and the verbs in this division (with the exception of a few roots 
used sejunctively (e.g. avy, tonga, tamy) are formed by the addition of prefixes 
only (79). 

The adjunctive division comprises all the passives, and also a class of verbs 
peculiar to the Malagasy and called relatives (96). The verbs in this division 
are either roots or derivatives formed by a prefix only {a»ehOf from who), an 
affix only {fotolnOy from loto), or by both (as anyatdhina, from hdtaka). 

We have thus in Malagasy three voices : the active, the passive, and the relative. 

55. — ^Each of these voices has two distinct mood forms. One is perfectly 
general, and, for want of a better name Ukely to be generally accepted, we 
continue to oaU it from its commonest use, the indicative, remintung the reader, 
however, that it is used not only as an indicative, but also as a participle, and, 
with certain particles, as conditional, optative, cohortative, or prohibitive. The 
second mood is the imperative, and is formed by the affix a for sejunctive verbs, 
and by or y for the adjunctive. For the changes that take place on appending 
these affixes see (101. The imperative is ue^ only for expressing positive 
commands and wishes, but cannot be used in prohibitions, for which aza and an 

* For the reason why verbs and nooiu are treated alike see A. A. rii. pp. 85-98. 


indioatiye miut be used (e.g. tnamonoaf kill ; aza mamono^ do not kill ; wmdy ny 
amb^y kiU the ox ; axa wmoinany wnbyf do not kill the ox). The imperative of 
the adjunotiye yerb is as truly adjunctive as the indicative, but the agent is 
seldom expressed unless for the sake of emphasis or for making it quite dear 
that it is plural (ttuaonareo^ be washed bj jon), or when the agent is of the 
first or third person {anaronUika izy, let us reprove him ; mtaovin^ My ztuuUuio 
0nao tsofiy / may your child do so to you !). Usage has fixed the meaning of 
these imperatives as commanding actions to be performed by the person or 
persons addressed ; hence tatdo ny lamba does not mean indefinitely : be waahed 
the lamba ! but : be waehed by you, and is in fact equivalent to MWMmao ny 
lamba. It therefore follows that an indefinite passive imperative has to be 
expressed in some other way ; thus : Hallowed be thv name, is JSohamatimnm 
am$ ny anaranao, JSamoiino would mean, be hallowed by thyself. 

56.— The imperative is sometimes used where in English a subjunctive would 
be required (169, 1, 0, <^ «) ; it is also used optotively (84). 

67. — ^Eaoh mood has the three simple tenses, present, past» and fatore (102). 

M. — "So changes are made for number, gender, or person. 


69. — ^The various forms used in the active voice may be arranged thus :— 

60. — ^Tabub 07 THB AonvB Vbbbs. 


(1) Boot. 

(a) Primary 
{b) Secondary 

(2) Boot with Sdcplb 

aotzvb prefix. 
Mi- with primary root 
Mi- with secondary root 

Causative of ^2) 
Bboipbocal of (2) 
Bbcipbooal Causa- 
tive of (2) 
(6) Causative Bboipro- 
OAL of (2) 


Hom^y (h^y) 

Miliitsaka (ItLtsaka) 
Mianjdra (z^ra) 
Mihatslbra {tskn) 
Mahita (hito) 
Mandso (6so^ 
Manats^a (takn) 
Maharo (^o) 
Mankamamy (hlUny) 

MampiUtsaka (Utsaka) 
Milan^so (^) 
Mifampicra (^ra) 

Mifampifan^ (heo) 


to come 
to laugh 

to fall down 

to fall down 

to become better 

to see 

to taunt 

to improve 

to be able to protect 

to delight in 

to cause to fall down 
to taunt one another 
to ask permission of one 

to cause (people) to teunt 

one another 

61. — The simple active prefixes. The three simple prefixes most commonly 
used are mi-, man-, and maha-. 

62. — Mi-, or m- before i and 0, as : miditra (iditra), mbnina (onina), momba 
{6mba)f when prefixed to primary roots, forma verbs either intransitive, as : mipe- 
traka, to sit ; or transitive, as : mikapoka, to beat. The intransitive meaning is 
the more common. Many of these verbs have much the same meaning as Greek 
middle verbs ; e.g. miakdt\jOy to wear clothes ; mUdtroka, to wear a hat ; mtfd/y^ 
to receive seed or have seed sown in it (as the ground). 

Mi- with secondary roote forms only intransitive verbs. 



The prefix mi- is oooaaonally used with a phnue, as : minuuon* njf mpanira^ 
to have eyes of one arranging ootton, etc., in hanks ; so too : mitetida fdrardno, 
mididn' Ingory^ mitarehim^bdlamina^ mivdlom-lwrahinay mit6§tr^ andrttma, 

68. — ^Verbs in mi- from secondary- roots are so essily found that no examples 
need be given (C. p. 74^. One class, howerer, deserves special mention, viz. 
▼erbs in mian- (or miam-). These have been appropriately called '*yerbs of 
tendency,*' as many of them indicate tendency or motion in a certain direction ; 
e.g. miankohokaf to prostrate one's self; mianavdratrOf to go northwards; 
mitanindrikay to have the head bent down. 

64. — ^ICan- nsoall^ forms transitive verbs, as : mananaira {dnatr(i\^ to oonnsel, 
r epr o ve ; but some mtnuudtive verbs in man- are found, as : mandihy (dlh^Y to 
duioe ; mandeha (^Aa), to go. Some of these forms are more properly adjec- 
tives; e.g. tnan^atiUka {hattiaka)^ cold; mangdrahdra (hdrahira), thm, as a 
worn Umha. 

This prefix may be appended to : — 

(1) Primary roots, as in the above examples. 

(2) Secondary roots, as : mtmM^dra^ to divide into lots, from M#|fif0| primary 
root »Ara. 

(3) Numeral adverbs, as: manintelo, to do something a third time, from inUlo, 

66. — Thid appending of the prefix man- to roots beginning with consonants 
other than d, g, j, occasions the following changes (for examples, comp. the 
DionoMABT, pp. 410-423) : — 

(1) The simple rejection of the first consonant of the root. The consonants 
BO rejected are k, s, t (including ts, and tr) and (sometimes) h. 

!1) . k Man-kjdkitra becomes man&ikitra, to bite 

21 B Man-sJUia „ man&sa, to wash 

3) t Man-tsiry „ maniry, to grow 

4) h Man-h2ihy ,, manj^y, to dry 

(2) The substitution or strengthening of the first consonant of the root. 
Thus: h sometimes becomes g; 1 is changed into d ; r and i are strengthened 
by the addition of d, and become dr and di (i.e. J). 

ib\ h— g Man-h^tra becomes mangMatra, to steal 

61 1 — d Man-lona ,, manddna, to steep 

7J r — dr Man-r6so „ mandrdso, to advance 

8) I— J Man-B^hy „ maxg^y, to span 

(3) The rejection of the first consonant of the root, and the change of the 
prefix from man- to mam-. The consonants that require this change are the 
Ukbials f, p, b, T ; but b is occasionally retained, as in marMatra^ mambdnga, 

(9) f Man-f&ha becomes mam6ha, to wake 

mam6traka, to set 
mam6ha, to open 

10) p Man-pdtraka 

;il) T Man-v6ha 

[12) T Man-v6atra 

13) b Man-b&bo 

^14) b Man-b&nga 

mamb6atra, to prepare 
mam&bo, to take captive 
mamb&ng^ to make gaps 

(4) Before m and n the prefix becomes ma- (19, 3, note). 

ild) m Man-m6savy becomes mamosiivy, to bewitch 
16) n Man-n^nina ,, manhiina, to regret 
66. — ^Boots beginning with a vowel, or with d, gi or j, require no change, 
a Man-asa becomes man&sa, to sharpen 
e Man-SHotra „ man^sotra, to take away 
i Man-iry „ maniry, to desire 


iSO) ICan-oro beodmes man6ro, to bom 

2n d Ha2i-d6iia „ manddna, to knook 

22) g Man-^^hy „ man^hy, to bind 

28} J ICan-j&ka „ manj&ka, to present i^jaka 

67. — (1) From a oompaiiaon of Nos. 2 and 17, 3 and 19, 9 and 11, 6 and 21, 
it wili oe seen that theire is freqnendj no difference in spelling between two 
verbs in man- derived from different roots. In such oases the context is the 
onfy guide. tMtexL however, whilst in the indicative mood the verbs are alike, 
differenoes will be found in their imperatives. Thus the Imperative dF mtum6A€t, 
to Wiike, is mamohdMa ; that of mamohay to open, is mamohd, 

68.^The prefix maha-, or mah*- before a vowel, forms what is nsoally called 
the Potentifli Verb. The prefix maha- is jprobably derived from the verb taiihmft 
to be able (111). Its use is wider thah that of the other prefixes, as it maiy be 
added to almost any word or phrase in the langoage. 

It is used to express : — 

(1) Ability or power {fahdizana) to perform an action. Thna : mahAvakjf 
tmy Izy {ssmakay mamdky Uny iry), he is able to read. Tiiy mahcudkana dxy 
dhOf I cannot (have no ability or power to) hinder him. 

(2) The bringing a thing into ^e state indicated by the root. Thus: mtmao' 
va toy irony Uena : Uy miantto, ka mahavory. Mahavory here means not mere 
ability to collect, but the actual causing to assemble, and maha- indicates 
operative and effective power. This use is espedally common with a past tense ; 
e.g. toy nahavory Hoatrinona iay^ he scarcely succeeded in gathering any. 

(3) That which constitutes or makes a thing to be what it is (as the Malagasy 
say, **ny moA* izy azy'*). Ny haldvan'Udndry tty mah^ Andrlana, lengtii of arm 
does not make (one) a king ; ixany no mahokna ny olona, that makes men to be 
men. Comp. Prov. 2373. 

09. — Other simple active prefixes are mlha-, mana-, manka-, and ma-. 

70. — ^The verb in miha- is intransitive. It is called the Progressive Yeib, as 
it convevs the idea of '^becoming gradually.'* Thus mihatMora means to become 
gradually better, to improve. 

71.— The prefix miha- may be added :— • 

(1) To roots:— 

(a) nouns, as : miha/dna if ana), to grow warm 

{b) adjectives, m: mihardUy {ratay), to grow bad 

(2) To adjectives in ma- : — 

(a) unoontracted, as : nUhannadio (dio), to become dean 

[b) contracted, as : mihamdrina [arina), to grow truer 

(3) To intransitive verbs : — 

(a) in mi-, as : mihamisdraka {sdraka), to get farther and farther apart 
{b) in mao, as : mihamandritra {dritra), to grow stronger (after an ill- 

(4) Occasionally even with transitive verbs : mihatnahalala an' Andrimanitra^ 
to grow in the knowledge of God. 

78. — Verbs in mana- are similar in meaning to those in man-. Hr. Baker 
says that mana- implies continued action. P^ Webber gives **rendri^ as its 

Thus : fnatiatsdra is to make or render good, often implying continued aotioo. 
Hana- may perhaps be a contraction of manao, to make. Care must be taken 
not to coniound mana- and maha-. When the same root produces verbs with 
both prefixes, the distinction between them is easily seeu. Thus : manatudr^ would 


be 'to perform some action for the unproTettient of a thing ; whilut niahatsdra 
wonlct be naed either ot power to make a thing good, or of some quality exhibit- 
ing or proving its intrinsic exoeQenoe (68). An abnormal form in mano- is 
sometimee met ; e.g. manon^ff (^'^fyh to dream, manor6bona (robona), to gro^^ 

73.— The prefix maaa- may be added :— 

(1) To roots :— 

la) nonnSf as : numadio {dto), to make clean 

{b) adjeotiYes, ss : mantudrotra {tdrotra), to render hard 

(2) To oontraoted adjectiyes in ma, ss : manameloka {keloka), to condesm 

74. — Xanka- is a transitiye prefix, less used than man-, or maiia-, Often it is 
not easy to deteet any oharaotexistio meaning by which to distinguish it from 
those forms. OooasionaUy it hss the meaning ''to regard as," thus : mankamdm^ 
means to regard as sweety to delight in, so too mankaUlina and mankqfy. Some- 
times it has a causative power, as : mankardryf to make ill ; mankaUof to intoxi- 
cate. Sometimes it impues motion, as : mankdny, to go there ; in this sense it 
is used with all adverbs of plaoe ; see { 175. 

75. — ^The prefix tta-, occasionally contracted to m- before a vowel, as in mdka 
(aA-a), is usually employed in the formation of adjectives (128) ; but it is also 
oooasionally used to form transitive verbs, as : mahtta (AUa), to see ; matdhotra 
{tdhotrdj, to fear ; matoky {toky), to trust. 

76. — ^The causative prefix mamp-. By changing the m of the above prefixes 
into maap- a series of verbs is formed meaning to cause to be or do wnatever 
the simple form signifies. 

Thus : miteny iiy, he speaks ; mampith%y dzy dhoy I cause him to speak. 

77. — ^Again, by substituting mif- for the m of any of the simple prefixes that 
are used transitively (maha- excepted) reciprocal verbs are fonned. 

Thus : tnahita itlka, we see ; mifahttay we see one another. Mifahttay however, 
is rarely used (see, as an example, Frov. 170), as m^fankahUa is preferred. 
Mam6no Uy, they lail ; mifamdno Uy, they kill one another. Beciprocals may 
be formed ^m verbs in man- whi(3i are not now found in the language ; e.g. 
mi/anma (to^fia), to meet one another, as if from manena, 

78. — By combining the above prefixes causative-reciprocal and reciprocal- 
causative verbs may be formed as required. 

Thus : mampifanddhtUra dzy rba Idhy dho, I make those two men plead one 
against the other ; mifampahasototra izy, they cause one another to be vexed, 
or they vex one another. 

79. — ^The subjoined table will assist the memory to retain the mutual relations 
of these various prefixes. 

















Maha- m-amn-Rha. 

*•*•■■ *••• 














K.B.-»For the signa of causality and reoiprooity look op and down the table ; 
for the simple forma look across it. WhetEer amp and ix are to be regarded as 
infixes or not cannot be diaoussed here ; but for arguments against so regard- 
ing them see A.A. iy. p. 91, etc. 

80. — In the formation of the imperative mood of aotive yerbs the foUowixi^ 
changes are required : — 

(1) The appending of the eharaetorittie termination of the aotive imperatiTe ; 
yiz. a. 

Thus: ind. wumdly, imp. mojiui^ ; ind. mamonOf imp. mmnmiitk. 

When the root ends in a, no addition is required, as the final a of the root 
absorbs the aifiz (62, noU), 

(8) The advanee of the aooent one syllable. 

This is the usual rule, but with certain classes of roots no advance of aooent 
is possible (101). 

(8) Oeeaiionally ehanget analogous to those required in forming paeiiTe 
▼erbi in -ina, and -oim. 

To prevent repetition these are given in { 101. 

81. — It is impossible in so small a space to enter into the syntax of verbs ; 
but the following hints may be found useful. 

(a) Care should be taken to ascertain in every particular instance whether a 
verb governs a direct accusative, or requires Uie preposition amy before its 
object, as E ngl i sh and Malagasy usage are often at variance (190). 

Most of the verbs marked as intransitive in the Diotionakt require amy. 
Some verbs have two constructions, thus: miteny aminy^ to speak to him; 
mitmy dgy, to reprove him. 

(b) A large number of Malagasy verbs take two aoousatives. 
These accusatives may refer to : — 

(i.) Person and thing : manomi v6la ando, to give you money. 

(ii.) Instrument and olgeet: mamely tdbatra dsy, to strike him with a 

(iii.) Limiting aoonsative (127, e) and objeet : manambdka JiandrUnana dzy^ 
to cheat him as to his royal plosition and righta. 
For examples see G. p. 133, note, 


The various forms of the passive voice may be classified as follows : — 



1. Root fassivb 

T&paka Cut off 

2. Root with tafk- 



3. Root with voa- 

Voas^ (s&sa) 
As6ho (sdho) 


4. Paahtvb in a- 


5. Fasrtve in -ina 

(a) From primary root 

(b) From secondary root 

Zaridna (zjira) 


TiinjarMna rzi\ra) Divided into lots 
Hatsaridna (ts^ra) ' Made Rood 

Ib) From abHtraot noun 

hi) From compound preposition 
{«) Retaining an- of verb in man- 

Ampoisina (an-fo) 


Antsak^ina (ts^Lka) 

Fetched (of water 

from the well) 


Moved northwards 







(g) Betaining amp- of verb oansa- 

tivd in mamp- 
(h) Retaining ampif- of verb oansa- 

6. Fassive in -ana (from rootB only) 

7. Fassivb in -ena 

8. FA8BIVB with Infix 

AnkahaUina (hUa) 

Fotaiana (f dtsy) 
Vonj6na (v6njv) 
Tinf^paka (tiipaka) 


Gaosed to tell or 
be told 
CauBed to plead 
against one another 
Saved, helped 
Cat off 

68. — ^Soot PaiaiTei. The root passiye states in the most general way that an 
object has been affected in such and such a manner ; e.g. tdpaka, out^ rMy, 
oonquered. When both a root passive and a passive in -ina, or -ana, or a-, 
derived from the same root, are both in use, a difference in their use and 
meaning will generally be found to exist. 

Thus : tdpaka and tapihina, cut off, are both used as passive verbs, tdpaka 
conveying the idea of something accomplished, and leaviaff the agent almost 
oat of oonaideratioa ; whilst tapdMna at once suggests the idea of an agent by 
whom the act specified is performed. So too vaky, vakina ; Uvona^ Uvonina ; 
retfff reaena, 

84. — ^The imperative mood of a root passive is formed by adding a ajs in active 
imperatives (80), and has usually an optative meaning. 

Thus : reWf means, may {he) be conquered ; aitrdna^ may {he) be healed ; twa 
volana^ may your promise be fulfilled. See what is said of the unperative mood 
of adjectives (135). 

86. — ^Boot with tafii-. Tafia prefixed to a root conveys the idea of complete- 
ness, and often corre-nponds with the perfect of an English neuter or re^Bxive 

Thus: tdfapetraka dho^ I am seated, or have seated myself; Uy mbola 
idfawry wy olona, the people are not vet all assembled. It differs from our 
perfect, however, as it may be usea of something altogether past, thus: 
td/avory izy ofndly, they were all assembled yesterday. It frequently implies 
the idea of casualty, thus : tafatelina^ accidentally swallowed. Pere Webber's 
rule is useful : he says that tafii- gives an appropriate answer to an intransitive 
imperative, thus : mipetrdha hiando^ sit down, is appropriately answered by, 
tdfapetraka dhoy 1 am seated. He also says that tafa- implies internal agency, 
as contrasted with voa-, which implies the operation of an external agent. 
Although there is little doubt as to the general correctness of this statement, 
instances of the use of tafSa- which do not readily harmonise with it are not 
unfrequeut, thus : tdfavoako ny omby, the cattle have been taken out by me. 

See W. 155-157 ; Die. Fran-Mai. pp. 628, 629 ; A.A. 71, 72. 

80a. — Soot with voa-. Voa- (literally, struck) is a prefix analogous in 
meaning to tafa-. With but few exceptions (e.g. voampdkatra (dkatra), voampi' 
dina {Idina), it is prefixed only to roots. It conveys the idea of completeness, 
very much like a perfect passive in English. It may be used as the passive of 
verbs either in mi- or man- that are used transitively. 

Thus : voattdsa ny Idmbay the clothes have been washed, or are washed ; efa 
no$mdko hatry nardina ireto lamba iretOy fa t»y mbola voasdsa izy, I have been 
washing these lamba ever since morning, but they are not yet all washed. Voa- 
(see preoeedinff paragraph) answers to the active transitive and passive 
imperatives ; tnus : mananydna ny tdto, or anydny ny t'dto, collect the stones ; 


the answer to which would natnnlly be, tf/a wdn^ona by (they are or have been 
ooUeoted). Hie people in a ohurch, on the other hand^ would be desoribed ae 
tafdngma^ i.e., as having aosembled voluntarily (84). 

66. — Paitive in -ina. B^ far the lar^ number of paaoive verlM end in -ina ; 
henoe the nnmerona sabdivuiona fonnd in the table ofpanive verbs (82) ; none 
of them, however, present any peonliar diffioulties. Tne oharactetistio affix for 
a passive imperative is o or sometimes y if an o has preceded (66.) 

daases 5 (a) and 6 (b) are nsed as the passives of any verbs in itti- or auui- 
whi(^ are nsed transitively, thus : mUdta^ teUs ; lazmna, told ; mandpakOf oots 
off; tofNfiAMia, oat off; tnamt^'dra, divides into lots; ttir^'anina, divided into 

Glass 5 {e) is similar in fonn to the abstract noon in ha — ana (116, /), the 
only distinction being that the abstract noun ends in -ana, but the passive verb 
enoB in -ina. The similarity between the two forms may easily be accounted 
for, if we allow a causative power to the passive, thus: haUardna means 
goodness; hatsardina, caused to possess g^oodness, made good. Passives of 
Sub dass usually serve as correlatives of the active verbs in mana- (72). 

Glass 5 (d) is not numerous. The following examples have been noticed : — 

AlohMna fa-16ha), sent before 

Alal&nina (a-lldana), sent for, summoned 

Antenaina ^an-tena), hoped for 

Ambohoina ran-v6ho), having the back turned against 

Ampofoina (an-fofo), taken in the lap 

Glasses 5 {e) and 5 (/) are simply passives of active verbs in man- and maaka- 
respectively. They are not numerous. 

Glasses 5 (^) and 5 (h) are the regular passive causatives. The active causa- 
tive and causative-reciprocal verbs (see table of active prefixes § 79) are made 
passive by omitting the m of the prefix, and adding the passive termination 
-ina, making such other changes as the character of the root requires, just as 
in the formation of simple passives (lOU. All passive causative verbs end 
in -ina (or -ena in a few instances). Tnis rule holds good even when the 
simple passive ends in -ana. Hius tordttOM becomes ompanordtiJikA, caused to 
write, or to be written. 

The 1 of the affix is the only distinction between the passive and relative V 
voices of causative verbs. Thus : — 

Passive : ampanold-ina (t6lo) ; Relative : ampBnol6-ana 

„ ampanantlr-ina {dnatra) ; „ ampananlUr-ana 

67. — Paiiivsi in -ana are (1) often similar in meaning to those in -ina, and 
are used simply as passives of verbs active transitive in mi- and man-. 

(2) Often, however, passives in Ina- and -ana are made from the same root, 
and used in different senses, thus : from tdmpoka^ are formed tampdhina^ being 
surprised, tampdkana^ having cold water added (E. pp. 91, 92.) 

(3) The most important use of passives in -ana, however, is as correlatives 
of passives in a- ; see § 89. 

66. — Passives in -ena. The affix -ena is simply a contraction, thus : vonjma 
(v6njy)s=vonjiana. Where this contraction takes place in the simple passive, 
all the relative forms and the causative and causative-reciprocal passive forms 
retain the -ena ; thus : vonjena^ ampamoty'ena, ampifamwyena {yonjy) ; el^na^ 
ampanekenaf ampifanekena {diki/). 

69. — ^Ths PaHive ia a- is of very frequent oocurrenoe. 

(1) Its primary meaning ia said to be that an object is plaoed in snoh and 
audi a position, as : afindra^ moved ; mdndratra, raised ; apaka, made to touoh 
(A. A. 83). 

(2) The most diffionlt use, however, to a learner is when it is made a correla- 
tive of the passive in -ana (and occasionally -ina) (87, 3). Many verbs that 
gpovem two aoonsatives, one of an object to which something is done, and the 
other of the instmmenl^ means, etc., with which the action is effected, make 
tlie former the nominative case of a passive in ana, and the latter of a passive 
in -a. 

Thns in the sentence, mandW'tsdUka dzy dho (I anoint it with oil), the body 
anointed would be made nominative case of the passive hosdrana (kotorako 
MoHka tzy), and the oil of the verb ahosotra {ahototro dsy ny toUka). llie non- 
observance of this distinction may lead a foreigner into gross absurdities. For 
fuller illnstration see R. pp. 90-93 ; C. pp. 133, 134. ' ' 

90. — In accordance wiui the rule given in § 52, clumge of accent with verbs 
of this form is required only in the imperative mood. Tnus : — 






91. — In forming passives in -Ina, -ana, and -ena the accent of the root is 
nsnaUy, in harmony with the fundamental rule already given (62), advanced 
one place ; and in certain classes of roots some further internal changes are 
required. To avoid repetition these are given, together with the chanses 
required in forming relatives and imperatives of every class, in one tabfe ; 
see § 101. 

9S. — The use and eonstruetion of passive verbs. The Malagasy, in harmony 
with their national diaracter (A. A. v. p. 90), use passive verbs with far great^ 
freedom than is allowed in English. In many instances where we should be 
content with making the object of an active verb definite or emphatic, they 
would prefer to adopt the passive construction. Usually the nominative of a 
passive verb is definite. Thus : hitako ny v^ronay 1 saw the birds ; but not, 
hitako vorona, 1 saw birds; this would be,, nahita vorona dho (167). To say 
nahita ny vcrona dho would be perfectly correct, and often either sentence 
might be used at the option of the speaker. The distinction between them 
appears to be that when the mind dwells more upon the agent and his act, the 
active voice is employed ; but when the object affected by the act forms the prin- 
cipal thought, the passive verb is more appropriately used. 

98. — ^Passives may however have an indefinite nominative in any one of the 
following constructions : — 

(1) If the noun is preceded by izay in the semi-definitive sense noticed § 167 «. 
Thus : dido dry izdy tiando, take then which you like. 

(2) If the anarthrous noun is followed by the emphasising no. Thus : fa- 
nohdrana no ataoko, a figure is what I use. 

(3) If mUy is used in the sense given in { 116. 

94. — ^Verbs that govern two accusatives sometimes occasion difficulty when it 
is necessary to use the passive construction. The general rule is tliat either 
aeeuaative may be mwfr the nominatitr of a pastive verb. But to this rule are many 
exceptions, and the different classes require fuller illustration than space will 
allow. Gf. G. pp. 133, 134. 


05. — ^The relative voice oauses muoh perplezify to EuiopeanB on aooount of 
the entire abaenoe of any analogous form in tne lang^oages with whioh they 
are acquainted. This form is of great use and often enables a speaker or writc^ 
to be very oonoifle ; but it labours under a most tormenting vagueness, and 
often causes serious ambigfuity. 

06.— The relative has affinities both of form and construotion with the aotiva 
and passive voices. 

^i) The termination (-ana), changes of consonants, etc. (101), are identical, 
in ooth moods, with those found in passive verbs in -ana. At the same time, 
however, part of the active prefix (79) is retained. Thus : from the root tita 
are formJed : — 









(b) This blending of the features of the active and passive voices is found 
also in the oonstnuSon of relative verbs. The sufKx pronoun is added to express 
the agent, as in the passive voice (65) ; the government, however, is still 
that of the active verb. Thus : nildza (active) ny tmindo taminy dho omdly ; 
omdUf no nilazdko (relative) ny tmindo ta^niny. llus of course does not apply 
when a relative verb is usied partitively (99, a), 

K.B. — It will be seen that the only special rules to be remembered for 
forming the relative voice are : — 

(1) For the present tense to throw away the m of the active prefix. 

(2) To append the characteristic termination -ana (sometimes ena, see { 88) 
for the indicative mood, and o or y for the imperative, making the same 
changes as are required in forming the passives in -ana (101). 

07. — Some relative verbs are used indifferentiy for the passive or relative 
voice, e.g. andnana, \n6ana ; for full list see first edition p. 30, or B. 84. 

08. — ^The meaning of the relative verb cannot be clearly understood without 
carefully noting the character of its nominative. 

In English we say that the nominative case of an active verb is its agent 
(or subject), and the nominative case of a passive verb its (direct) object. In 
addition to this, we may say that in Malagasy the nominative of a relative 
verb may be : — 

(1) A direct objeet eonsidered partitively. 

(8) An indirect object. 

(8) A word or clause indicating time, place, manner, etc. 

00. — ^The subjoined examples will serve to illustrate these various uses. Let 
it be observed that they are all simpls sentences of which the relative verb is the 
predicate. For the in^rect and dependent uses of this and the other voices see 
§ 105, etc. 

(a) The nominative case may be a direct objeet considered partitively. 
Hanalftna ny vblanyy Some of his money was taken (literally, his money was 


Efa ttahaUnUna* U hidnp, Amio, ny vdUm^y Huoh of biB money, it is said, 
baa been spent. 

It is tbia use of Uie relatlYe verb tbat often makes it weak in aasertdye and 
stroni^ in negative sentences ^aker, p. 16). Thus : Tjy mUjf tty hananawao ny 
tmiiftm* Mjf rtaka. There is nouimg bj which you shall not possess this island^ 
i.e. you shall aanixedly possess it. 

(h) The nominative case may be an iadiraet oliject ; i.e. an object that would 
be preoeded by dmy (81, a), if it followed an active or passive verb. Thus : — 

AonvB : Nlldxa ny tinindo taminy iiho 
Passivb : Voaidzako taminy ny tenindo 
BsLATXVB : Nilatako ny teninao iiy 

TUa use of the relative voice may be com]^ared with the way in which the 
SQ-caUed preposition verbs are made passive in Englidi. Thos: nidnkina 
tmnimy ny Mkdtamy, his friends relied on him ; he wajs relied on by his 
frienda, nimtkinan'' ny Bokdixany izy. 

Any active or ^Musive verb with an indirect object may thus be exchanged for 
a relfttivB, if the mdirect object be made its nominative case. Praotioe in su<^ 
transpooitions will be found a useful exercise. 

(0) Hie nominative case may be a word or elause indicating time, plaee, 
■ajuur, etc. 

'Diese may be thus olaasified : — 


(Pom aw^ : Ka fdty no iaarahana, And death is the time of separa- 

(DuBATXOM of) : TVfy ny tdmn^dndro hariva, ka khly no anawana dzy^ like the 
sunslune at eventide, it is only for a short time that (one) has, or 
enjoys, it. 

(Bbpritiov ov) : Implry no hanaovako azy ? How many times shall I do it P 


(B»z dt) : Trdmo atsimo »y avdratra, ka itdy ttv mahalina iaUfana^ Houses 
north and south of one another, the one that does not make (us) wet 
is where (we) take shelter. 

(Monov to) : Izio fw^okdko izdo no hiangonan' ny madtnika rehetra. This 
(my) kingdom is the place to which all the small ones will gather. 

(Moraov waom) : Tba ifa nialany tdpa-bdlanoy hdno^ Toamdsinay Tamatave was 
left by him, it is said, a fortnight ago (i.e. He left Tamatave a 
fortnight ago). 

(8) MODS. 

(KAMMma.) : Fa izdo kdta no itondrako anareOf For this, on the contrary, is the 
way I govern you. 

(Scajnuxn) : Ify mdrika nomendo hidny no hanaovako azy, The plan you g^ve 
me is that according to which I shall make it. 

(4) CAirss. 

(CAiTn on Oooaszoh) : Hdla^boatdvo no niadiany, The theft of a gourd was the 
occasion of their quarrelling. 

* On the peeoliaritiM of the reUtive from verbs in maba- see ) 100, and the referenoes there 

(BBAflOv) : Ka isdn^ no n^anoMko anark. And tl^it is tlie renwrn wlij I 
aaaemble you. 

(M&ura OB Imstsuiebnt) : Mon-kinan* ImatuUawUo, ka ny alia ttff Idnff tut^^w* 
tdngotroy Brotii of the Imandiav^to : with what is left (they) wmah 
(their) feet. 

(Pbios} : Sdingy kily no niYarotanao My, Seeing a small sum was the prioe 
for whioh you sold it. 

VJB. — ^The above examj^les illustrate some of the more general olasaco of 
reUtions indicated by relative verbs, but no snoh list of examples oan indnde 
all tiie varieties of meaning that are met with. Instances are oonstantly 
occurring in which the relation between the person or thing denoted by t^ 
nominative case of a relative verb and the action denoted by the verb oan only 
be indicated by such words as *'/>r trAi«A," ^^ooneeming toAi«A," "m relation to 
whiehf^* etc. ; benoe the appropriateness of the name ''relatiWf^* first suggested 
by P4ze Webber (W. 136-147; A. A. 65, 66, 368-380). 

100. — ^The distinction in meaninK between relative verbs derived from the 
various active forms enumerated in J 79 does not usually cause much trouble to 
a learner, as the specific meaning (causative, reoiprooal, eto.^, is the same in 
boUi voices. The only forms likely to give any difflouli^ are tkose derived from 
verbs in maha-. It should be oaroully noted that, as m Uie aotlve, so in the 
relative voice, these verbs have a twofold meaning. 

(1) They bear a strictly potential meaning, and govern an aoousativB oaae. 
This use is analogous to me first use already treated of (68, 1). Thus : izdny no 
toy ahazakdko azy, that is how I am not able to bear it. Here the suffix pronoun 
'4o*' denotes the agent who is not able to bear, and ^'osy*' denotes the object he 
cannot bear. 

(2) They have also a use analogous to the second ascribed to verbs in maha- 
(68, 2). This may be called the intramitive use of the relative form of the verb 
in maha-, as, when so used, it does not admit an accusative case. Thus : Hdtr* 
izdy nahafatesanyy from the time when he (entered on the state indicated by the 
root fail/ f i.e.,) died. Here the suffix pronoun does not denote an agent who 
performs an action affecting something external to himself, but the subject of 
whatever state is indicated by the root from which the verb is derived. 

Owing to this use an important distinction in meaning often exists between 
relative verbs derived from active verbs in mi-, man-, mana-, etc., and those 
derived from the verb in maha-. Thus: andro nanafdhakOf means the day 
when I set (some one or something) free. Andro nahafdhakot the day when I 
was, or became, free. Notice the use of such verbs, as : nahaterdhana^ nahasa- 
zdnuy nahalavoana, nakapotrdhanaf naharariana, 

101. — ^The various internal changes that arise in the formation of such deriva- 
tives as take an affix are best understood and remembered by classifying the 
roots. The three main classes are as follows : — 

Class I. Boots of more than one syllable ending in firm a,* or in o or y. 

Boots of this class are aU accented on the penult (33), and on receiving the 
affix they simply advance the accent one place. The final a of the root and the 
a belonging to the affix -ana coalesce (voha-ana becomes vohana), and i-a often 
beoomes e (voly ana becomes volena) . 

* By firm a is meant an a not belonging to one of the weak tenninals /7m», tra^ na). It should 
be noted, however, that though these syllables are not mmally able to maintain themselves un- 
changed before the affizoa, in some few instances they do so ; e.g. rhtra, ratra\na ; thnaUkna^ 
aUlnatana6t etc. 






















mum -Uia 


















a»i -on6-y 



























Some few roots of this olass follow the analogy of Glass II. and insert a oon- 
eonant (v, <, or z) before the oharaoteristio affix ; e.g. fihaf foheizina ; finoy fmo' 
Mina ; drOf ardtana ; klky^ kikUana ; and some roots in y change this letter into 
« or # before this consonant ; e.g. dndry^ andrdsa/ia ; fafyt fi^azana ; vHy, veli" 

Olam n. Honosjrllabio roots and their reduplicated forms, roots ending in 
two Yowels (whether they form a true diphthong or not), and roots ending m e. 

The chief peculiarity of these roots is the insertion of a consonant (v or s) 
before the charaoteristio affix. The accent does not leave the root : but when 
two vowels do not form a true diphthong it advances to the second ; e.g. dioy 
diMna; mahaUo^ mahaUbva, 










































man -tko 

































▲crnvB TOiOE. 






















Class III. Roots ending in the light terminals ka, tra, and na (32). 

If the acoent is on the antepennlt, it advances one plaoe ; but the disting^uiah- 
ing pecidiarity of this class is that the root itself undergoes some change on 
receiving the characteristic affix ; thus ka becomes h or f {tapaka^ tapah^ina ; 
hohoka^ hoho/-y); tra becomes r, t^ or/, the t being chiefly used when r or v has 
preceded {dnatraf andr^ina ; toratra, iordt-anay dtvira, av6t'ana) ; na occasion- 
ally becomes m (veUmoy vehm'ina) ; the i of the termination ina sometimes 
becomes (fdntinaj fant^-ana,) 










ma H'ohoKA 



hoh6f' ana 







mam- a6ka 








t-p^h -a;/a 

anar- i»a 

mi -pfli-fl 



man -£matra 










































i;m»> -clona 












t-fantdn-o , 


tkn- ana 















108. — ^Ilie indicative mood of all cloHaes of verbs pomoMeB the three ahnple 
tenses : present, past, and future. These tenses are indioated ihuM : — 

(1) Roots aotire (60, 1), and passive (82, 1), and all verbs with ta&- <8'.\ 2), 
or vot- (82, 3), make no change for their past tense ; their future teiiHe is 
indicated by ho. Thus :— 



PAST tense. 


Boot Pabbzyb 
Boot with Ufa* 
Boot wrrHfwi- 




ho tia 
ho r6«y 
ho tAfav6ry 
hi» v6av6ry 

(2) Verbs with anv of the active prefixes (79) change the m of the prefix into 
a for the past tense/and into h for the future tense. Thus : — 


i voxx. 



* VSBB IH m>- 








Verb nr maha^ 




Causative Vbbb 




\ Rbcipxocal Vebb 




. Oaub.-Rectp. Vebb 




! iCECiP.-CAUS. Vebb 





(3) All passive verbs in -ina, -ana, or -ena ^82,5,6,7), that begin with a 
▼owel, all passive verbs in a- (82, 4), and all relative verbs, add n to the present 
tense as a sign of the past, and h as a sign of the future. Thus : — 





Passive nr -ma 












Passive in -ana 



ho V una 

Passitb nr -ena 




TAaajTE in a- 







Reultive fbox 

Vebb in mi- 




Relative fbom 

Vebb in pum- 




Rblatitb fbox 

Vebb in moAa- 





(4) PaMnves In •!&«, -ana, or -ena (82,6,6, T), beginning wiihaoonaonant, add 
no- as a sign of the past tense, and lio- as a sign of the future. Thus : — 




ur -ftMtf 


Passztb nr -ana 


Passivb nr 'tna 






















Some think tiiat these signs of tense (ao- and ho-) should be printed with a 
hyphm (no-ron/^Mn, ho-vonjhta) ; formerly they were printed as distinot words 
{no vonjina, ho vonjena), 

108.— To any of these tenses the auxiliary ^/a, done, may be added. Some- 
times efa oonvejTS the idea of completeness ; oftener it must be translated by 
'^reall^f** ^^aetuaHy,** with an incomplete tense. 

Thus : efa manao means, is doing, is really doing, has begun to do, and is 
now in the aot of doing. With an adjeotiTe it means, '<has become,** e.g. efa 
madto izp^ he is now, or has become, clean. Efa with a past is sometimes 
translated as an English pluperfect, as : efa nandoeitra Uy vao tonga teo aho, 
he had escaped before I got there. This, however, is not owing simply to 
the efa ; for we may just as correctly say : efa nanao dzy \zy tdtnin izdho tony a 
teOf he was in the aot of doing them when I got there. Efa with a future has 
the meaning ''on the point of,** "just about to.'* Efa hofity tzy, he is on the 
point of death ; efa haudeha aAo, I am just about to go. Thus, the Malagasy 
have no forms that necessarily correspond with our perfect, pluperfect, or 
future perfect tenses. 

104. — A compoimd future is formed by placing ho before a past tense. 

yando Ao nankaty ity^ he intended to oome here ; t6kony ho nantUha hiattdc^ 
you should have gone. 


105. — ^The indicative mood may be used in any voice and tense as an adjec- 
tivo or participle. Thus :— 

AonvE : Zazaviry mandthy^ Dancing girls, or girls dandng. 
Passive : Vbla nangalArina, Stolen money. 
Relative : Antey handidlana^ A knife for cutting with. 

This adjectival use is common when a noun is to be understood. Thus : — 

AcrrviB : Ny manana. The (men) possessing, i.e. the rich. 

Passive : Ny natao. The (deed) done. 

Bblattvb : Ny handidtana. The (instrument, etc.) fur cutting. 

106. — ^The indicative mood is also frequently used, where in other languages 
an InflnitiTe would be required. 


(a) ttmply aa a nova, ntuallj with the artiele (188 a.) 

AcnvB : Ny manffdlatra, Stealing. 

Pajbbitx : iVy hoheUxatta, The haying the hair out (at aome fntnre 

Kklatitb : ify nat^iirtma, The (past) act of aewing oonBidered in con- 

neotion with all its cirDiimstanoee. 

V.B. — Such oonstnictionB aa the above are equivocal, unless their meaning 
ia rendered oertain by the context. Thus : **nff mangdUUra^^^ may mean '*the 
thieree/' aa above (106). 

{h) Aa dependent on another verb. 

AonvB : Atdiko mando Uy, He is bidden by me to do (it). 
Fasbivx : MananUna hatdo kapithiy isy, He hopes to be made captain. 

Naadiko naUfa izy, I oroered him to be set at liberty. 
BxLJLTiVB : Nidndry hanirdhako uy, He waited to be sent to by me. 

107. — ^An imperative may be followed by a present or fatore of any vdoe. 

AcTXVX : £nio mody izy, Take it (to go) home. 

Pasbivb : Enio hotatdna izy, Take it to oe washed. 

Rblatzvx : £nto handovana akdf^'o izy, Take it to make a drees of it. 

108. — ^No ooaditioiial mood exists. Conditional sentences are indicated by 
Uie conjunctions raha, ntmy, etc., used with the indicative. 

109. — Cohortative lenteneea may be rendered : — 

(1) By an iadieative ftiture preeeded by aoka or andkha, Thui : — 

Aoka hihira i$ika^ Let us sinff. 
Aoka hotakdnanttika tzy. Let nim be hindered by us. 
Aoha hamanianUika tzy^ Let some of them be killed by us. 
Andeha hampodintsika izy, Let him be sent home by us. 
Andeha is sometimes followed by a present tense, as: Andeha 
maka rano. Go and fetch some water. 

(2) By an imperative with the sofllx pronoun- ntttka. Thus : — 

Anarwttsika Uy, Let him be reproved by us. 

110. — ^The imperative mood is not used in prohibitionf. To express these 
the present indicative preeeded by ^^azd*' must be used. Thus : — 

AoTTVB : Asa miteny hiando, Do not speak. 

Asa hi€Mdo no mitiny alohay Let it not be you who speak first. 
PamvB : Asa ambdrando isdoy Let not this be told by you. 
RUiaTiVB : Asa analdndo itony. Let not these have any taken from them by 

Asa izdho no andovando izdny^ Let it not be to (or fur) me that 
you do that. 

.^20 may be similarly used with adjectives. Thus: Aza tnlnatra foana i$ika^ 
Let us not be needlessly ashamed. Aza ib often used in deprecations. Thus : 
Asa Utniko^ Hay I not be blamed ; Azafddy dho. Excuse me* 



111. — ^Tbe verbs named above are in very common uae, and it ia important 
to notice both their meaning and their oonBtniotion. 

Mahiio implies praetieabilitjf or permitaUm : 2Vy mahdzo mando itdny dho, I 
cannot (or most not) do that, for something hinders (or forbids) me. 

Xahij implies abilitjf or tkiU : T%y mahdy mando izdny dho, 1 have no ability 
to do that. 

Mdtj implies eotuent : Tty wUiy mando itdny dho, I am not willing to do 

Tla implies detiro : Toy td'htmdo izdn^f dho, I have no desire to do that. 
119. — ^The following forma of these verbs are in use : — 











Tla (ta-, te-)* 






Ahaz6ana i 

Ahazdyt ; 









118. — The active and relative forms of mahdzo, mahdtj, and mety require to be 
followed by an active. Thus : — 

Mahdzo mando izy^ He has an opportunity of doing. 

Izdny no tsy nahalzako nando dzy. That was the reason I could not do it. 

114.— The passive forms dzo and hdy require to be followed by a passive or 
a relative. Thus : — 

Azoko iordtana. Able by me to be written, i.e. can be written by me, for 
nothing hinders. 

Tay hAiko anordtani io pcna io, I cannot write with that pen. 
Azony nanaldna va irony Idmba ireny, Had he an opportunity of taking any of 
those kimba / 

The pronoun i8 ai&xed to the auxiliary, as in the above examples. 

116.— if^y often serves to show that the verb it precedes applies only to 
some of the persons or things indicated by the subject. Thus :— 

Miala midina Ho hianarh, Let some of you come down here. 

MUy tnandainya ny olona, There are people who tell lies. 

Miay hatdoko tdtroka va / Is there anything I can make into a hat P 

• The contracted form ta- is geuonaiy lued with the ftiture of verbs in man-, maha*. 
mamp., otc. ; the form te- with the ftiture of Terbs in mi-, or belbre ho. Thus: (n-hnnAo 
twhampildta, fe-Ai/Ata, tfhofhty, 

t Seldom UMd. 


116. — ^The principal noun forms are those exhibited in the subjoined table :• 

Table of Noun Fobmb. 




, f Single root 
^ J Single root, an-M prefix (37) 
^ ; Beduplioated root 

I. Beduplioatedroot, an*ia prefix 

f Verbal Noun in -ana 
« 1 Habitual Noun of the Agent 

'li Habitual Noun of the Mode 

^ 1 
. V Habitual Relative Noun 

-§ ( Abstract Noun in ha- 

S ! Abstract Noun in ha — ^ana 

% ] Abstract Noun in fiiha- 

^ y Abstract Noun in faha— ana 



Kof ehy (f 6hy) 


Xivaziv^y (vazivJizy) 

Vondana (v6no) 

Xpamdno (vdno) 

Famono (v6no) 

Famondana (vdno) 
Halalina (l&Una) 
Halallnana do. 
Fahalalina do. 
Fahalallnana do. 
F6to-k6vitra (fdtotra 



overbearing oon- 

a joke [duct 


one who frequent- 
ly kills 

usual mode of kill- 

usual place, etc., 

depth [of killing 






117. — ^The verbal noun in -ana follows the analogy of passive verbs in -ana 
(82, 101) ; hence its name, which must be considered as referring to its form 
rather than to its meaning. 

118. — ^The forms marked as verbal follow the analogy of verbs in formation, 
meaning, and government (C. pp. 65-67, 124-127). The f and mp usually 
convey the idea of hahituality. 

The name mo«i^/ for nouns like /<f mono has been chosen because all nouns of 
this form mai/ be used to express the mode of the action indicated by the verb 
in mi-, man-, mampi-, etc., from which they are derived. When thus used, 
such nouns are often preceded by an adjective, thus : tadra Jildzat good as to 
the manner of speaking. 

This form is also used to denote : — 

(1) A CuBTOiLUiT Ikbtbukekt, as : fat^jditra, a needle, from tnanjditra {zditra)^ 
to sew. 

(2) A Cttstoicabt AoEirr, as: fanddinga, a habitual liar, from manddinga 
{l4iinga)y to lie. 

(3) A CusTOiCABT Object, as: fandtitra^ an offering, i.e. a thing usually 
offered, from inandtitra {diitra), to offer ; fammpoy a person usually served, 
from manampo (tompo), to serve. See G. p. 126. 

119. — ^The relative noun has a meaning as wide as that of the relative verb 
from which it is formed (96-90). The f simply adds the idea of habituality, 
and converts the verb into a noun. 

The meaning of a relative noun is often rendered clearer by placing another 
noun before it to show whether it is used to express a relation of time, or place, 
etc. ; thus: trdno Jivavdhana^ a house of prayer ; ny dndro JiCsardna, the day of 


190. — ^A noon of the agent should not be rued of a penon who casnallj or 
rarelj peif orms the aot Quoted b^ the verb from which it is formed, thiu : a 
man who onoe utters a falsehood is not to be called mpanddinpa, but, lehilnhff 

181. — ^The distinotion between the yaxious abstract nouns is thus given bj 
P^ Webber (239-241) : Aa^«ara signifies intrinsic goodness ; hmtwi^na^ eztritude 
goodness, or goodness embodied in deeds ; fahaUarmia^ goodness as a souioe or 

grinciple of g^od deeds ; but in practice it is difficult to peroeiye any^ distinctiou 
etween them. 

The ioTmfahMlina is similar in meaning to haldlina. These two forma are 
seldom used without the suffix ponoun fiy. They are really habitual modal 
nouns derived from verbs in maoa-. 


188. — ^The Malagasy language has no deolensionB ; and the cases of nouns 
oan often be known only from their connection. Sometimes, however, there are 
other indications. 

188. — An aoouiatlTe oaie may be known : — 

(a) Sometimes by its position (189, 8). 

Nahdndro ny vhrombe ny ankizivdvjf^ The servant cooked the goose. 
Nahandro ny ankizivdvy ny virwnbe^ The goose cooked the servant. 

{b) Sometimes by the particle any (used before proper nouns and some pro- 

IfaHome vdla an^dRamena tzy, He gave Ramena some money. 
XanonU v6la any ir$o 6lona irh izy, He gave those people some money. 

184. — A posiesiive case may be known : — 

(a) When the noun in the possessive case is made definite by the article my : 

(1) If the governing word does not end in one of the light terminalsi by the 
addition of n' to the governing noun or verb. Thus : — 

Trdnon* ny aakaisako, House of my friend. 

VoardvOD.* ny bUma ny trdno. The house has been destroyed by the people. 

(2) If the governing word ends in na, this is replaced by the n'. Thus : — 

Andran^ [anarana) ny zdza^ Name of the child. 
Naldin^ {fuUaina) ny tdmpony, Taken by his master. 

(3) If the governing word ends in ka or tra, by changing the final a into y. 

Sdtrokj ny midramllaf Hat of the soldier. 
Fdntatry ny olon-kendry^ Known by the wise. 

{b) When the noun in the possessive case is not preceded by the article : 

(1) In words of the first class by the insertion of n or a, which may be 
regsjrded as fragments of the suffix pronoun ny. Thus : — 

ffdlam'bah6akaf Hated by (the) people. 

Kitdpom'b6la, A money bag. 

FanihiUfjazay Disposition of a child. 

Ran' osyt Ooat's blood. 

Vodravan* izy tompony. Destroyed by its owner. 

FJ^n' irmy, The money of those. 


(2) Wlien the governing noon or verb ends in ka, tm, or na, by oontraotioa 
•oootding to H 18-21 :— 

Foto'kdgOf Trunk of a tree. 

Andra-noiyf Name of an island. 

SdviH'kazOj A leaf of a tree. 

SdroH* ilo^ An nmbrella oover. 

LdunC ohna, Taken bv some one. 

Nolan/din* ifa-dahiff Carried by fonr men. 

Shfitr' izy unidn^io^ A thought of him and hie child. 

Some noons nsoallj omit B or m before a following poeeeesive ; e.g. /onii 
loA«, Ma, t$mtU9Hm, vmva^ om^, and aometimee kena and maw; thus we have: 
/arm-'Ump, Mm-'hevitut, 909a*rano, matoandro, etc. "niiB answers exactly 
to an ordinary Malay usage, as exemplifled in saoh words as matahari 
(eye of dMj)'BiiUUoindro, ana may perhaps be a survival of an ancient and 
simpler nsage. 

1S5. — ^A Tooativs oaia may be known : — 

(s) By the use of rj, ray, rey, ra, before it, or o after it. 

(b) Sometimes by the omission of the article (163, b), 


U6. — ^The Aominative oasa is often used absolutely at the beginning of a 
sentence, where in English we might say ^'as to,** or, "in reference to,** 
etc This is what is called the "antidpative, or pendent, nominative,^^ 

/k fiy mitidff ny ratty, dia hofyi azy izany. But as to him that seeketh mis- 
chief, it shall come upon him. 

Bibildpa vonono : tey mdntm»tanan''kamdly, fa Andriamanitra no andrtuana, A 
snake that has been IdUed : it has no hands to avenge (itself), but it waits for 
Gk>d. So too frequently in the Proverbt. 

187.— ^The aeeusativa, besides indicating the object, may be used : — 

(a) AdTsrUaUy, either of time or of place. Thus : — 

Miiem iHna, To work by night. 
Ntmkiny lUfy Uy, He went to Dafy. 

(b) Of an iastmmaiit. Thus: — 

Namily edbatra ando tzy. He struck you with a sword (81, b, ii.). 

(e) To limit the application of an adjective or verb. This is the ^^aeeueatire 
efetoMT 9pee\fieai%on,^^ Oft **Hmitiny aeettsative,^' In Malagasy its use is extremely 
common. It may follow : 

Ah Adjxotzvb : Taara endrika, Good as to appearance. 

Ah AcnvB VsaB : Hiova fandhy^ To change in spirit. 
A Passivb Vbbb : VwUcafanahy, Changed in spirit. 
A Bklatxvb y BBB : Izdny no niovdny fanahy, That was how, or why, 

he changed in spirit. 

See C. pp. 130, 131, 107, note. 



188. — The following table shows the various adjective forms : — 

Table or Abjsotzvb Forms. 

Single primary root 

Single root with an-ia prefix (37) 

Boot with infix (35, 36) 

Beduplioated primary root 

Beduplicated root with an-ia prefix 

Beduplioated root with infix 

Boot with affix -ina, -ana, -•na(B. 63) 

Adi. in ma-, nnoontraoted 

Ad], in ma- (a forming a diphthong 

with following o or i) 
Adj. in m-, before a or e 
Adj. in m-, before ha- or he- 
Beduplicated adj. in ma or m' 
Adjeotive with * 'limiting ace. * * ( 12 7, c) 
Antithetic compound adjective 

Somary {skry) 
Nof osaaa (noio) 
Maditra (^tra) 

Miozatra (6zatra) 
Miirina (iirina) 
lafy (h&fy) 
][adlo(Uo (dlo) 
Tskra bika 



resembling, likely 
tolerably good 
sUffhtly perplexed 
saflron coloured 

level, true 

rather dean 
beautiful in shape 
small but renowned 

129. — Adjeotivei are oomparatiyely ioarce in the Malagasy language. This 
deficiency, however, is to a large extent supplied by the free use of verbs as 
participles or adjectives (lOo). The place of our adjectives of material (wooden, 
golden, etc.) is supplied by nouns, thus : trdno hdzo, a wooden house. The 

Elace of English adjectives in abh and ibl€ is supplied bv passive verbs preceded 
y dzo (114), as : dzo hdnina, eatable ; isy dzo resena^ invmcible. 


180. — ^The reduplicate form of an adjective usually lessens its meaning, thus : 
fotsy means white, but/o^«t/o^«y, whitish. By inserting rfia between the repeat-ed 
adjectives the opposite effect is produced, and the meaning is intensified, thus : 
f6i9y dlafbUy^ intensely white. 

181. — No changes are made in the form of an adjective to indicate degrees of 
comparison. The signs of the comparative degree are nohoy koa noho, kokoanoho, 
lavitra noho ; the superlative degpree is shown bv amy, or indrindra amy. Thus 
the positive and comparative have each three divisions and the superlative two, 
as follows : — 

(1) Thb Positive. 

exphatio : 

Tsara ^ good. 

T»ara dia Uara^ intensely good. 

Tsdrataara^ somewhat gt)od. 

(2) The Goxfabative. 

Simple : Taara noho, better than. 

Emphatio : Tsara laritra noho, far better than. 

W»^KKB»: \^C:J,t'::>f:;noko, } --what better *«.. 

(3) The SuPEBLATiyB. 

SucPLE : Tsara amy ny .... rehetra, best of all. 

ExPHATio : T^ara indrindra amy npf very best of. 


Itt. — By onutting noho and amy together with the noun f ollowing) any of 
these forma may be used absolutely, leaving the compared objects to hd supplied 
mentally. Thus : tsiraisdra kokoa io^ that one is better (i.e. than some other) ; 
Utira indrindra iny, that is the very best (i.e. of them all). 

The simple form of the adjeotiTe may be similarly used as a superlative, 
thus : Iza no Uara f which is the good one P i.e. the preeminently gfood one, the 

A somewhat similar idiom is what may be called 'the conditional superla- 
tive ;" thus : mafy koa rdha mdfy^ hard (or harder), if there be any thing hud 
{Anffmw xii.). For the same construction with a verb see Luke xzii. 16. 


1S8. — ^Unoontraoted adjectives in ma- change this prefix into na- and ha- to 
indicate the past and future tenses. Thus : — 













1S4. — Other adjectives do not change. The forms given in the table serve 
for the present and past tenses, and ho is used to indicate the future. Thus : — 






ho tsilra 



ho sahlrana 



ho tsaratsara 



ho m&ozatra 








186. — Any adjective may be made an imperative or optative by changing it 
after the axialogy of the active verbs, or of the root passives. Thus : Sodva {soa) 
tsard; mav you be good and excellent. Marena {mariftay drina) tdkan-trdno, 
may your home life be true (a form used in saluting newly married people). 
Maaina {mdtina, Aonna), may you be sa<3red, i.e. fwtn. the assaults oi witch- 
craft, etc. Mazotda (mazotOf zoto)^ be dilif^ent. Faingdna {fdingana), be quick. 

Either the meaning of the adjective or the context will generally determine 
whether a command or a wish is intended to be expressed. 

conTBVcnov of adjectiyes. 

186. — Many adjectives take an accusative case as their complement. Thus : 
fdaatrm dzy dho^ I am tired-of him ; fino dzy ny trdno, the house is full-of them 
(C. p. 130, note). 

187. — Some adjectives mav be followed by passive or relative verbs. Thus : 
tdrotra atdo, dii&cult to be done ; mdra aldina^ easily fetched ; mora anytUdna, 
easily taken from. 




188. — The personal pronouns have separate and inseparable forms, 
lowing list shows both forms in all persons, numbers, and oases. 

Table or the Pebsokal Pbonouits. 

The fol- 













FiBST (ex- 




















-ny ' 





189. — Izaho is generally used when the predicate follows, and aho when it 
precedes. This usage, however, is sometimes neglected, as in the construction 
of the verb Aoy, say, saith, which more commonly takes izdho than aho after it ; 
thus : hot/ izdho J say I. 

140. — Isika includes the person or persons addressed, while izahdy excludes 
them. Thus : An leJia hiaraka dry iiika rehetra^ Let us then all go together. 
Taiayfa iiahiy hidny no handiha ; fa hianareo kosa dia hijdnona eto, No, for we 
only will go ; but you, on the other hand, shall stay here. 

141. — The separate forms for the possessive case (iAy, andoy dzy^ etc.) are used 
either (1) as predicates, thus : dhy ny vola, the money is mine ; or (2) with the 
article prefixed, for any case, a noun being understood, as : Ento ny ando^ bring 
thine (fiterally, the of thee) ; Sdmy mi tondra ny azy izy, they brought each of 
them his own (literally, the of them). 

142. — The Malagasy shrink from using the second persons of the pronoun in 
direct address. For the manner in which they avoid doing so, see A. 181-183, 403. 

148. — ^The suffix prononas, though properly only possessives, will be found 
to correspond to other cases in European languages ; thus they may be 
translated by : — 

(1) A Possessive Case. Thus: — 

JVy rd/^-ko, The money of me, my money. 
yy loha-nhOt Your head. 

(2) Ak Ablative Case, indicating the agent of a passive or relative verb. 

Voa^rtJia'lLOt Wanhed by me. 
NaHaldn'itilUL, Taken from by us. 

Sometimes they may be used with adjectives in the same sense. Thus : — 

Firy ny ohna izdy efa hcndri'lkAOt How many are the people who 

have become wise through you. 
Hardlrany^ shall be hurt by it. 


(3) Av Ihdzbbot OsnonvB Gao, after verbs, adjeotiTes, prepositions, eto. 

MUeho ^iiift-ko, To appear to me. 
7^ dmin-nj, There with him. 

(4) Rabblt as ▲ Dativb Gasb. Thus : — 

X^a-ko, Woe to me. 
Mdmi'iMj, Sweet to ns. 

14i. — Thta^ body, is often used as a reflexive pronoun w*i>^«fag «#(^, as: 
Namono tena Izy, he killed himself. 

146. — ^Words ending in syllables other than ka, tra, or na reoeive the full 
forms of the sufSx pronouns without oontraction or change. Thus : — 

8. y6U 

p. V61a*Ba7 





























146. — ^Wordsending in na reject this syllable before appending the suiBz . Thus : — 
Noun, Verb, Preposition, 





















147. — ^Words ending in the syllables ka or tra, with accent on the antepenult, 
take one or other of the contracted forms of the suffix pronouns, and either 
shorten or throw away their final syllable. Thus : — 

a. S&troka 

p. 8litrok-ay 




V.B. — ^The forms marked * are used when a noun made definite by the article 
follows in the possessive case (see 124. 0, 2, 3). The y takes the place of ^e 
a* used with other nouns (124, a, 1). 

148. — ^With words ending in ka, tra, or na, but having the accent on the 
penult, usa^ varies. 

Thua we find trdtro and trdtrako : tdomj and tdonany ; hhtako {hhrn), Idohandy 
(Uokm)^ toetro and toetrako, toeny and toetrany. 

Bat all passive and relative verbs and relative nouns ending in -ana are con- 
tracted, thus : «M4J-ko, from »asdna ; aiMMait-tsika, from mnudna ; fanatdn' 
arso, tramfanoMdna, 

Ttub appending of the pronominal suffix makes no change in the accentuation. 



140. — The demonBtratiye pronoune are very numerous; and the use of one 
rather than another is regmated by the distance of the objeot pointed out. They 
become plural by the insertion of the syllable re; and by inserting sa 
another class is formed to express the unseen, the remembered, the eoneeired, etc., 
as opposed to what is seen and actually pointed out. The following table 
exhibits some of the more common forms, and shows their mutual relations ; for 
oonvenienoe of comparison, the adverbs of place, which follow the analogy of 
the demonstrative pronouns, are placed in the same table. 

Table of Demonbtbativb Pronouns and Aovbbbs oj Place. 
















Ito ioha.) 






























160. — Speaking generally we may say that itp means "Mi*," and ir</y, ireto, 
these; to, itsy, iny, ir6a, and iry, "that;" and ireto, iretsy, ireroa, irery, 
"those." Still the natives by no means consider it a matter of indiiferenoe 
which form is used. 

For additional forms and detailed explanations see W. 311-330; A. 187-206, 

151. — ^The demonstrative pronoims are used after the word or phrase they 
qualify as well as before it. 

Thus : to hdzo to, that tree. With a long phrase this is convenient, tiB all the 
connected words are bound together by the two pronouns, thus : ireny Uhilahy 
hamokamo hltantsika nipHra'poana teny am6ron'dalana ireny. 


158. — ^The interrogative pronouns are : — 
Iza, zory, who, which P 
Itiona, whatP 
An* iza, an-Jory^ whose? 
An* tnona (used of places), where, what ? 
153. — ^By doubling the interrogatives t^^i, inona, and using na (thus : na iza 
na iza, na inona na inona), they become indefinite, Uke the English *^whosoever,*'* 


164. — The relative pronoun is izdy. It is undeclinable, and may be used for 
either gender or number. 


156. — Although the numerals belong to different parts of speech, it has been 
thought more convenient to put them together in a separate chapter, that tiieir 
mutual relations may be more readily seen. 


-g ^ ^ S nnmbera. 

■3 S ^ ^ They lie treated u nonns, take tlie 

9^ a "I "'ffl* pftmoim 117, Mid are often 

£S,A^ foUowed by a poaaeadre owe. 






36 B 







106.— The ordinals are often naed as traotionalB (as : /sAMtM-Ai^, the sixth 
of a measaze of rioe called Mry tray). Thev are also used of measurements, 
as : Fakafiry m6ti ny trinonio f How many fathoms is your house P 

The fractionals are seldom used without the sufBz pronoun or a poasessiTe 
case. To give the numerator of a fraction the oaniinals are used, as in English, 
thus : roa tanpahifany^ two fourths of it. 

In counting the units come first ; thus 695 Is expressed : dlmy amby tivi'foio 
dmby inin-Jito, 

167. — ^DistribntiTes are made by doubling the oardinals and prefixing /#•-, as : 
isiroaroa, two by two ; tHfSlofSlo, in tens. 

168. — Some of the numerals haye corresponding yerbal forms. Thus : — 

Mifiry f Miroa, MiUlo, Miefatra, etc., to be divided into 2, 3, 4, etc. 
Firina $ TeUina, Teloy, Ffdrina, £firo, etc., divided into 3, 4, etc. 
Mamndr6a Manintelo^ etc., to do a thing twice, thrice, etc. 
Indraotina, Inteloina, Inefdrina, etc., are sometimes used for being done twice, 
thrice, four times, etc. 

169. — Kimiber of days is expressed thus : — 

H^firiana^ How many days P 
Indroa dndro. Two days. 
ffateloana. Three days. 
Hefdrana^ Four days, etc. 

160. — ^The numeral is often placed before a noun. 

Telo tdona^ Tliree years. 

Roa Idhy^ Two men. 

Xy roa dmby ny fdlo vdvy, The twelve wives of the Sovereign. 



161. — ^Ny is the definite article. It is used before common nouns, and 
possesses &e defining and specifying power of our English artide the. Hay is 
also used as an article, but is somewhat more strongly demonstrative, and is 
usually singular. 

Nisy niplka tdmy ny tdny va ny ra ? Did any of the blood fall upon the 

168. — ^The following special uses of ny deserve attention : — 

{a) It is largely employed like the Greek article to turn other parts o 
speeoh into nouns. 

For illustrations, see G. p. 128 ; A. 265, 266. 

{b) It is used when the whole of a class is referred to (i.e. as a generie 

Thus : Ny vdrona ay ny biby, birds and beasts ; Xy M^aJagdey, ny Talnctra, ny 
VasdhOf Malagasy, Arabs, and Europeans (i.e. m nations), ffdvan* Andrtana 
ny Andriamdeinavdlona^ The tribe of Andriamasinavalona are relatives of the 
Sovereign. This is the only sense in which ny can be used with proper nouns. 

(0) SiBM ffy li utd afttf Muka, iSa, Maira, Uraka, etc., ia gtn^ral 

Toy nff voMvo ty ny to^ezy, lake rate and mice (or, the rate and the 

(if) Vfiudlj whan a novB is mada deflBita bj a snfflz proaoiiB. 
Ny tompothft His master (or, ik€ master of him). 

(#) With abstraet neims (oompaie la wrtu in Erenoh, and ks hagap$ in Greek). 

Njf mirina, Tmth. 
Ny r^riny, Jostioe. 
JVy Udiny, Betribntion. 

(/) With the words anankirdfj tdtany, mdro, and rehitra, the article is often 
nsM la Xalagasj, when in English it can be dispensed with. 
iVy Uhildhy anankirdyf A oertain man. 
Kp iJona adtany^ Some people. 
Ny olona rMtra^ All (the) people. 
Ny 6Uma wutro^ Many people. 

16S. — Th» artide is oommonlj omitted : — 

(a) BefDre nonns in apposition. 

S9r6dra mpanjdka, Herod the king. Kanavalomanjaka^ Totnpon* ny 
tany, Banavalomanjaka, Sovereign of the land. 

{h) With nonns in the vocatiTe.t 

BMndy Itdy dny an-ddnitra, Onr Father who art in heaven. 

{e) Before predieates.t 

Drdnondo to, That ia your house. 
{dj With the classes of accnsatiTes noticed in { 127. 
(e) After wo (see { 168, ill.). 

IM. — Hie Malagasy possess an article for proper names, viz. I. 

16i. — Sometimes the common personal prefixes Ilehy^ Ifay, Ra, Si, Rdy, and 
AndrUma, take the place of the personal article. 

Perhaps it would be more correct to consider i simply as one of these prefixes, 
rather than to call it an article. 

106. — ^miongh usually employed with proper nouns, both i and ra are at 
times prefixed to common nouns used as names of persouH. Thus : — 

/fWtfiiNM, your wife ; iMkdizando, your friend ; iz6kindOf your elder brother or 
sister ; itdndrindoj your younger brother or sister ; itimpokoldhyy sir ; itmnpoko' 
rdvy, madam ; etc. 

MaUhildAyf the or that man ; ramatda^ the first bom, used of females only ; 
ramydhy, a title of respect, generally used of old men ; razdzaldhy^ the lad, etc. 

167« — ^As no indefinite article exists, ite place is supplied : — 
(«) Haiply by the omission of fly. 

• In modem MalagMjr ny ia rarely omitted in general comparisons. In the Frorerbs, how- 
" ^ is' 

Tsr, its omission after t6a is hy no means rare. 

t la the euunples giTen under b and c it wm tM noted that the article usnauy require 
•eootdiag to I ISS, 4 is omitted. A predicate introduced by dia (199, 3, h) may take the arttde. 


yahlta omhy dho, I saw an ox. 
Zdcatr' 6lona, Somebody's things. 

(&) By the use of anankirdy and sdtany, in the semi-deflnite sense of some, 

certain (162, f). 

(e) By using the relative prononn izdp in an indefinite sense. 

Iza no hatdhy izdy addla. Who would trust a fool, or one who is a 

(d) By using the rerh mity (116). 

Ni9y 6lona namdngy dzy, A person visited him (or, some persons). 
Miaia manhaty ny ankxzildhy. Let a servant (or, one, or, some, of 
the servants) come here. 


168. — ^The correct or incorrect use of the particle *<no" is no unfair criterion 
of the skill a European has attained in speaidng Malagasy. 

To avoid one of the most frequent causes of error, &en, let it be dearly 
understood that ''»o*' must on no account be considered a simple substitute for 
our logical copula '*m." It serves to make an emphatic assertion, and at the 
same time implies the exclusion or discrimination of some object or objects to 
which the predicate used in that assertion does not apply ; often this discrimi- 
nated object is stated in the following clause, as in the proverb : Ky kitbza no 
imra mihantona ; fa ny tiny tty tsdra mihdntona.'*^ It is kitoza (dried meat) that 
Ir good (when) hung ; but words are not good {when) hung ; i.e. they are 
better spoken. The Proverbs afford many similar illustiations. 

"JVb" may have been originally an article : — 

(i.) Its form is nearly identical with that of the article *'n^J' 

(ii.) In some idiomatic phrases it seems to have simply the force of an article 
or relative pronoun ; e.g. Hoy no navdliny dzy^=hdy ny^ etc. Mt»y be no mpo' 
ndo^=^mhy he ny, or izdy, mando. These may be considered either as forms of 
expression that are incorrect, or as relics of an older use of **ny^^ as an article, 
probably the latter. See A. 395. 

(iii.) It also renders the use of the article superfluous ; thus ; Iza no ftdra, 
which are the g^ood ones (not : Iza no ny tsdra ?), 

109. — The various uses of *'no" as a discriminative partide may be classified 
as follows : — 

It may be used to emphasise or discriminate (I) a subject; (2) a clause 
indicating time, place, cause, etc. ; (3) a statement. 
(a) In assertive sentences. 

Fa izy no natdony hitdndra ny tdny. For it was he whom he appointed 

to gfovem the land. 
Fositra no tsy hamboUm^bdavdhy ! Is it because offiritra that vbavdhy 

should not be planted ! 

(h) In interrogative sentences.* 

Amy ny inona no Uarbanao mahardry f In what part is it that you are 
conscious of pain ? 

* When the answer to an interrogative sentmoe would be a subject, no should be nned ; 
when no in not ueed, the answer would be a predicate. Thus : Ita no tzy t moans. Which is 
it? The answer would be. This is it ; but Iza izy f Iza mSa izy f Who lb he ? the answer to 
which would be, He is the pastor, my brother, a soldier, etc. etc 


{e) In imperatiTe MntanoM. 

Nyfitwy hidny no ario, The white only are the ones of which one would saj, 
Throw them away, or, that should be thrown away. 

(d) In hortative sentenoes. 

Fa iHf dsa no doka hovonjM ny dlona^ For agriculture is that about which we 
suggest that it should be attended to by the people. 

(tf) In prohibitiTe sentences. 

JVy minta hiuny no dza hdnina. It is only of the unripe ones one would say, 
Eat them not ; or, It is only the unripe onen that should not be eaten. 

H.B. — Such sentences as c, i/, <?, are often used whero in English we should 
say '*M to bey'' ''thould be,'' etc. (A. 396). 


10 Addio, 1848, no vtta ny v6h%tra, It was on the 10th of Adalo, 1848, that 
the enclosure was finished. 

Aizano mdnina isy. Where is it that he dwells P 


Ny hdndrina no ley maniry rJ/o, ny henatra. Shame is the reason why the 
forehead is not covered with hair. 

So is often added in such cases. Thus : — 

Ny akoho no ho lehibif ny volony. The feathers of the fowls make them appear 
great. Ny rahardha no ho Idvordry^ ny teny tfanatrehana. The business will be 
soooessfnl, mutual consultation (will render it so). 


170. — ^The Malagasy language is rich in adverbs of place (171-177), and 
time (178) ; adverbs d quality are not found; but see in ^ 181 how the want 
of them is supplied. 


171. — ^Fourteen of the most commonly used adverbs of place are given in the 
comparative table of demonstratives (149), with which they are closely connected 
both in form and meaning. Some useful examples of each class are given in the 
following sections ; but for fuller lists and explanations see W. 355-372 ; 
A. 213-226; B. p. 74. 

Atjfj ety, dtOf and eto, answer generally to our here ; whilst the remaining 
ten (do, eo, dtay, etey, etc.) signify tfiere or yonder. Still the different forms 
cannot be interchanged at pleasure : the choice of one form rather than another 
depending upon the distance of the place spoken of. The forms beginning 
with a more properly belong to what is vague and unseen ; and the forms in a 
to what is seen and clearly pointed out. 

Thus : Aty an-tdny^ here on the earth ; ety an'tdtmkoy here in my hand ; 
0/0 a/EoAan^t'Ara, somewhere in front of us ; eto an-trdno, here in the house; do 
am'bdta, in a box ; eo ambony latdbatra, on the table ; eo imditony, before his 
eyea ; ao an^katakinana, in concealment. 

178. — The adverbs of place are sometimes repeated like the demonstrative 
pnmouns (151). Thus: any an'tfitra dny, there in the desert. 

ITS.— TiMy all take past and fatoM tenaec. nrna :— 








ho aty 
ho ao 
ho any 

174. — ^When repeated with ho inaerted between them, they have an indefinite 
meaning ; thoa ato ho dto, hereabouts ; tio hoio, thereaboutB. 

176. — ^By addinff the actiye prefix auuik- (74) they are made into Terba, thna : 
mankatOf to oome here : mankarjf^ to go yonder. Of these verbs only mtmkdft^ 
has an imperative mood (mankanesa), or a relative voioe (ankaneMna), These 
are made to serve with aU the other adverbs of plaoe, as : Mankaneta aty Amnmm, 
Come here ; Izany no tty nankanewko tar^, That is why I did not go yonder. 

176. — ^With dvy (ooming) prefixed they imply motion from, and are equiva- 
lent to our English words henee, thence. 

177. — Adverbs of plaoe are often used to express relations of time. TSo, 
recently, just then ; tdto ho dto^ lately. 


178. — ^The following are the principal adverbs of time :— 

AniOf to-day (the part to oome). 

Andro ifiy, fiy any, to-day (the part gone). 

Omdly, yesterday. 

AmpittOf rahampiteo, to-morrow. 

A/ak^ otnaly, the day before yesterday. 

Loak^ andro a/ak* omaltf, three days ago. 

Rehefa^ rehefefa^ presently. 

Raha dfaka dtey ho dtty kok6a^ after a time (e.g. some days). 

Raha avy ny taona (pronounoed rahtHdn-taona) toy isoo, tms time next year. 

Rdhatrizdy^ hereafter (indefinite future). 

Fahmy^ formerly. 

Fahizdny, fahizdy, at that time (faha» is used with many words to express 

past time). 
Hatrizdy^ smoe the time of. 

Hatrizaihatrizdy, from of old, from eternity (indefinite past). 
Ankekitrhiyj ankehitrio, izaoy dmin* izdo, now. 
Vdo fdingana (or, hdinyana)^ quite reoently. 
Xhntolo dndrof mandritra ny dndrOf all day long. 
Sdtry nardina^ ever sinoe morning. 
JIfdndrakarha, continually. 
Mdndrakizaff for ever. 
Ldlanddm^ mcessantly. 
Matetika^ often. 
Jndrdindrdy, sometimes. 
Itan'dftdrOf daily. 

Isam-bolana^ monthly {iaany m&f be thus used with many words). 
Tty — inttonyf no longer, not any more. 
f Tdinui' izdy, upon thati 
Midraka dmin^ izdy, upon that* 
Sdhddy, already, so early. 
MahatiOf already, beforehand* 



179. — The ohief adverbs of manner and degree aie the following : — 

Fitraira^ eamestly, strenuously. 

Tiimoramoraf easiJj. 

Ttikelikfljf, by small degreefi. 

ntip6tip6tika, pieoemeal, in small quantities, etc. 

XMi/rs, ezoeedingly, too. 

Jttiinka, rao maiuka, rather, all the more. 

JToa too, 

X4»M, on the other hand, on the contrary (implying a contrast). 

Kokoa^ more and more, a little more (131). 

Aza, even. 

Ary, even. 

^liki TJika \ ^^^'•^ *"* *^® P*'^^* ^^ (°*®^ ^^ something not effected). 

Medira ho^ efa madtra ho, rfa nadxra hoy almost, on the point of (used of 

Bomethins' that will be, or was, accomplished). 
Smm^y arokoa* respeotiTely, individually, wholly. Smny prsoedes, and 

mrokoa follows, the word it qualifies. Thus : Satny marina izy reheira ; 

marina arokda ivy reheira^ They are all (individually) true. 
Ary^ apiece, individually {Nmnena tikajy tiry izy, They had sixpence apiece 

given them ; Jm ivy no andrany f What individually are their names F). 
Bakttro.f to the heels. 
Ma9ira,f to the mouth. 


ItO. — ^The adverbs of negation, affirmation, and doubt, are the following : — 

Ktty, yes. 
Tsia, no. 
7*«y, not. 

Azaj let not (the sign of prohibition, see } 110). 
Aftgahuy anffamha, perhaps. 
Tokofty hOf probably. 
Srudra, perchance. 

Tahiny^ perchance, (used only of suppositions, thus : Eaha Uhiny mahita 
izy hianaoy If you should chance to see him). 



181. — Adverbs of quality or manner are rare ; their place is supplied : — 

(1) By a^eetiTM. 

Tlius : mihWa ttdra, to sing well ; or, by reversing the phrase, and allowinff' 
Unra to retain its adjectival force, tsdra Jlhira^ good as to the manner ox 
singing (127, e). This latter is an extremely common and useful idiom. 
See W. 353; A. 118, 210. 

(S) By prepofitioiial phrases. 

In forming these phrases the prefix an- may be joined to : — 

* Hie cmstmetMfi ■ha«» that Umm woida are not adjectives, though it it often easier to 
tnoMlate them by ad^eetivea in English. 

f The praAz ha- aijaiSiyinit *hxp to" (compare hUtra) is used with the name of ahnoet any 
pan of ths body, thus ; haf6Md\a \alohllLlika, hafSlo-pff havanUna, hahilika^ h0tinda, eto. 


(a) Root Nouns, m : an-drariny^ justly ; am^pUakaf deceitfollj. 

(b) AB8TE40T Nomra, as : an'kamehttna (from the adjeotiTa mdika) hastily ; 
mt'kafetsitia (fttfy), ounningly. 

(#) RBLA.TiTBNonir8, as : am-pifihezana (fehif)^ with authority, authoritatively. 

(<Q Vbbii^l Nouirs nr -ana, as : an^invMnana {viUna), orossways. 

Rarely an is added to the future tense of an aetiTe verb, as an^kamJimdrika 
[fdndrika)^ deceitfully, with a view to entrap. For more example see A. 211, 273. 

(8) Byvsrhs. 

Thus : apitraka miUivdlana (vdlana)^ plaoed orossways ; madio mangdrangi^ 
raiM, sparkliugly clear ; mma numfotrakdtrakaf brilliantly red. 


188. — ^The interrogative adverbs are the following : — 

Ov Plaob : Aiza, tdita, where F 

Ho dizif going where P 

Avy tdizay wheaoe? (176) 
Of Tixb : Oeiana^ when h (of the past) 

Jtahoviana, 'when P (of tne ruture) 
Of HurKEB, etc. : Akory^ howP (often used in exclamations) 

Ahoana^ howP 

Mando ahoana (nando and HaHoo oAoona too), in what 
manner, of what kind, quality, etc. 

Atdo ahoana (naido and hatdo ahomi too), how P (implying 
difficulty or impossibility) 

Atdo may take a suffix pronoun or a noun as its agent, thus : ffatdoko ahoama. 
How can I do this P ffatdon' ny mpandmy trdno ahotma no fand6ntra (a common 
use of the modal noun), How should a housebreaker escape P 


188. — ^The number of prepositions in the Malag^asy language is somewhat 
floanty. There exist, however, a large number of prepositional phrases, or 
oompound prepositions, fonned by the union of nouns wiUi the prefixes a-, an-, 
am-, and i-. See {186. 

184. — ^The principal prepositions are : — 
Amy (for its meanings see { 185). 
Any^ Wonging to (A. 454). 
Akdikyy near to. 

Afa'Uy^ except (fully, dfaka tty). 
Ambdraka, until. 
Araka, according to. 
Hdtra, from, or to. 
Ho, ho dny, for, to. 
IfohOf on account of, because of. 
Mdha, as to (P). See A. { 460.* 
Tandrify, opposite to. 

* Still it seems better to consider rnha as alwrnys a ooninncdon, and to explain it^ use in the 
idioms noticed by Pdre Aillood by regarding them as elliptic, and snpplying *'is considered," 
"thonght of,'* etc 

186. — Amy has to do aervioe for many English prepositions. Indeed it would 
be more correct to saj that it has no meaning- of its own, but serves simply to 
indicate an indirect object (81, a), or an adjunct of a verb. The following 
•examples will show what a variety of English prepositions must in translation 
be used in its place. 

Miteny dminy oAo, I spake TO him. 

Midraka dminy dho, I go with him. 

Mba dminy (mbdminy), together with him. 

Midla dminy dho, I go away fbov him. 

Mankdny dminy dho, I go TO him. 

Sdtnpy tdmy ny rdnomatina try, It was cast into the sea. 

Amin'' izdto AiakamUy ho ary, Ox Thursday next. 

Omco ti'h dmin^ ildy rdo tonga dko, Give ine three fboh those that have 

recently arrived. 
Notsindrbniny tdmy ny idbatra izy. He was pierced by them with the 


186. — Compoiind Prepotitioiu. The prepositional prefixes a-, an-, am-, and 
i^i may be added to nouns, thus fomung a class of compound prepositions. 
The following are among the more commonly used : — 

(a*) Afovoana {fo and roa .'), in the midst of. 
Aloha {ldha)f before. 
Aortana (sometimes ariana), behind. 
Amorona (m6rona), on the Drink of. 
AteimOf south of. 
Atsindnana {Uinana ?), east of. 
Avdratra (varatra .'), north of. 

(aa-) Anatrehana (dtrika), in the presence of. 
An-dty {dty)y inside of, withiu, among. 
An-ddfy {lafy)^ on the other side of. 
An-ddny {Idny), do. 

An-d6ha {loha), on, or at, the head of. 
Andrefana, west of. 
An-elaneUina {elanelana)^ between. 
An-ila (t/a), at the side of. 
An-kbatra {hbatra), beyond. 
An-kavia (havia), on the left of. 
An-kavdnana (havdnana)^ on the right hand of. 
An-ktla (hilaS, on the side of. 
An'tenatena (thta), in the body of. 
An'tdmpona {tdmpona) on the head of. 

(am-) Ambdny (vdny /), beneath. 
Ambbny {v6ny /), above. 
Am-bbdy {voiy)^ at the bottom of. 
Am'pov6any (fb^ and voa .'), in the middle of. 
Am»bddika {podika), on the other side of. 
Am-pUa {ita)t on the other side of a river, etc. 

^-) Ifototra {fototra)^ on the tree. 

Imdno {mdso), in the eyes (sight) of. 

Ivela (rela /), outside of. 

Ii:6ho (f^Ao), at the back of, behind. 

187. — OoTanuneat of Prep<|^iticnt. Most of the prepositions, whether simple 
or compound, are followed by the possessive (124). 



Jfdtra is usually joined with imy, as : katrdmjf iiy aUininana ha Aatramy ny 
mndrtfamaf from east to west ; or with adverbs of plaoe, thus : hatreto, thus far ; 
hatrdntf, to there ; sometimes it is simply followed by a noun with «ty or isdf 
before it, thus : kdity «ty omdijf, sinoe yesterday ; hdtr* izay nidinako, sinoe my 

Amhdrttka and mdndmka are usually oontraoted and joined with habitual 
modal nouns, or with adjectives or phrases jweceded by fitha-, thus : mnbdra' 
pirrril'o (imiMi), until my return; mdndra^pamdoH^ dzy^ until his doing' it; 
omhdrti'paKametuUrdo (hetnUrd)^ until thou art ashamed; mdndra^pdha/dtiny, 
until his death. More rarely the^ are followed by a relative noun, as : omMfv- 
pofutovando dzy^ until your doing it. 

Ho takes after it the pronoun nty {ho dzy, for him ; i.e. to be his) ; with 
other words it requires ffisy, as : ho dntf ny zdnakoj for my child ; A« an^dRttbe^ 
for Rnhe ; ho an'tena^ tor one* a self. 

y6hoy afn'tty^ and any are followed by a nominative. 

Akdikif sometimes governs an accusative {akdihj dzy ; see § 136) : not always, 
however {akdikiHy^ akdikindo). 

Akdikff and tandrify may perhaps be compound preposi^ons (the a- and tan- 
being prefixes) ; but if so, their roots have not yet been ascertained. 

188. — Substitutes for Prepositions. As substitutes for our prepositions im- 
plying motion to and from, the verbs dry, midla, mandtona^ mamdky, etc., are 


Vdo tonga dvy tdny T^mdtina izy^ He has just arrived /rom Tamatave. 
Xorodhiny hidla tdo att'trdno dho, I was driven by him otU of the house. 
AkxBdho handtona dhy uy rdtOy Push the stone towards me. 
Nhitiny namdky ny tandna dho^ I was led by him through the town. 

189^*— Many verbs not expressing motion are similarly used, like our partici- 
pies reapecting^ according to^ etc. 

MftHodtdina dzy^ around it. 
Mittolo dhy, instesd of me (/»/. substitutes me). 
Mandraka ny hcvitro, according to my opinion. 
Jfidraka dminy, accompanying him, wiui hhn. 

190. — Many verbs which in English require a preposition are in Malagasy 
followed by a direct aocuMative, the verb itself containing the force of the pre- 

Mlfrtdy hdiiina^ to abstain /ro»n food. 
Miery dzy^ to hide /rom him. 
Afisdngy dzy, to play with him. 
Mattddinga dzy^ to tell a lie to him. 

191. — The relative voice often obviates the necessity of using a preposition, 
the relation for the expressing of which a preposition woUld be required being 
involved in the relative verb. See § 99. 

Nitoftdrdfiy ram dho, I was the person to whom he brought water. ■ 

192. — Many of the verbs that govern two accusatives (81, b) would require a 
preposition in English before one of them. Thus : — 

MauoBO'tsolika dzy^ to smear it with oil, 

198. — For the way in which by before the agent of a passive or relative verb, 
and o/ before a possessive case, are expressed, see §j 124, 143-147. 



IM. — ^The principal oonjnnotioiLB axe fhe following : — 

(1) OoFUXi4TiVB : Arjft <y» dmana^ dmin\ and. 

Sdd^f kia^ also. 

Sddf^—no, both — and. 

J)iaf even. 

Mba amy {mbdmy)^ together with. . 

Amhdnff (or : mbmiy)^ and, inclndiag. 

Ary oBoally begrins sentenoee, or ia naed for the sake of variety in enwnera- 
tions together wiui fr. Anuma oonplea nonns that nsoally go in pairs, as : riy 
umnn-drtnyy faflier and mother. Sady adds a supplementary adjeotire or rerb, 
or even a sentenoe containing an additional statonent. 

(2) DiaJuncTXVB : Na^ or. 

Na — noy whether — or. 
6^0, /a, or P 

8m and fa are naed in asking altematiye questions, thus : Sandeha vm uUdhy, 
M (/«) t»U ? Will you go, or not f 

(2) AiyvxBBATiVB : Fety but. 

Nefoy andiifay yet. 

Kdn/o, howerer, but. 

Sangy, tdinyy, (sometimes) but. 

Kdtijo implies that the reverse of what was expected happened. Sdinfy some- 
times means but^ as : SiUcy nakhy «Ao, tdinyy niolaka, I was all but viotorious, 
but I slipped. 

(4) OovDinoirAL : Bdha, nony (with present or future), if. 

ydny tty, haid it not been that. 

(3) GAimAL : jPo, for {reammS, 

Na dia-—dia, although (eoncesiion). 
Satriaf because {eau§e). 
Sdinyy, seeing that, sinoe. 

(6) DecziAAAtivb : Fa^ no, that. 

Fa is commonly used in introducing noun sentences after verbs of declaring, 
believing, hoping, etc. Thus : — 

Mildxa aminareo dho, or latdiko aminarioj faUyho idhy hando izdny izy» 
I tell you that he will not dare to do that. 

(7) IsmmsNTiAL : Dia, then, therefore. 

Ary, then. 

Ary when it means then is not placed at the beginningof a sentence^ thus : 
Andehit dry isikay Let us then go ; Iza dry no hirdhina f Who then shall be sent P 

(8) FnrjLL {remit or consequence) : 

Ka, koaj and so, so as. 

Dta, then. 

SdOj andrda, andrdOf lest. 

Ka is at times used in an adversative sense, meaning **and yet,*^ thus : Maldza 
ho Idhy, ka tty tndndry an-Sfitra, Having the reputation of a (brave) man, and yet 
not lying (i.e. afraid to lie) in the desert. 

(9) Tbkforal : Mdha, rehefa, f&ny, nony, when. 

Dleny, whilst. 


I'Sny relates to tbe peei, as : Fomy Utf wMia dry ny tany^ when the earth was 
not yet created. Sony usually implies a sacoession of events. Lieny is used of 
something passing away, some opportunity to be seized, etc. Behifa means Ufken 
in the sense of after. 

106. — ^The Malagasy often join conjunctions. Thus : — 

Aiy dia Ka nefa Nefa kba 

Ka dia Fa tir/a Nefa kosa 

Rdha dia Koa nefa Fa tatria 

Xa dia K* andrda Fa tdinyy 

196. — It will be seen from the lists in \ 194 that one word has to do service 
for several different conjunctions. Thus : — 

Fa^ for, giving a reason. 
Fay but, making an exception. 
Fa, that, intrcMUunng a deelaration, etc. 

Dia, even, and, pointing out some important word, as a noun in appo- 
sition, a predicate (199, 2 h), etc. 
Dia, therefore, drawing an inference, 
Dia, then (of time) signifying progreeeion of events. 

107. — ^In Malagasy conjunctions do not usually couple the same oases of pro- 
nouns. Thus ; — 

Miteny amindo sy izahdy izy. He speaks to you and us (literally, tee). 
See Baker, p. 40 ; A. 325-327. 


198. — ^The principal interjections are the following : — 

OF Sttbpbibe: Edrdy, endri, adre, odre, hdy, hdnky, hi, Idhy, 

Denial : ley, city, aoe, eanatria (forbid that), 
Desibb : Ante, enga ka, endra, dnga, 

OR Callino: } ^» ^' ''y* '*''y» ''*y» »«^^y» ^*^^ or,hony, 
„ SoBKOW: Indriey, 
„ Rbobet : Indy, 
„ ExxTLTATioir AT Galaxitt: Sakoaizdy, 



100. — ^Much liberty is allowed as to the order in which words are arranged in 
a sentence. Still there are several general rules to be remembered : — 

(1) The usual place for a predicate in a simple sentence is at the beginning. 
JHefia ny vdry^ the rice in red ; handcha izy^ he will go ; andy ireo, those are outh. 

(2) It may, however, follow the subject : — 

(a) Simply, with nothing but the sense to indicate it. Izay tsy mahay eobiky 
mahay fatam-bary. They who cannot make big baskets can make small rice 
measures. So too in the following : Ny any ny Maty'aka lolohdvina ; Ny dnatra 
vahlny ; Ny andrana tsy io. 


(h) Preceded by dla to point it out more dearly. Izay mahaymdnana dia md- 
nmtm indrha. They who are able to have have two-fold. Thia is an extremely 
common usage ; the Bible affords thousands of examples. 

(e) Preoeded by fw, if it is intended to apply exclusively to the subject. See 
} 169. 

(3) The olijeot of an BCtive verb usually follows it immediately (123). Thus:— 

Nandnatra dzy mdfy dho, I reproved him sharply. 

(4) But occasionally an adverb doa^ connected with an active verb may 
stan^ between it and its object (94). Thus :— 

Aza mamdly $drotra dzy hiando, Do not answer him roughly. 

(5) With a passive verb the adverb and ace. (94), if there is one, with its con- 
nected words unless too long, are placed near the verb, the nominative foUowmg 
at the end of the sentence. 

Nandriko tndfy dia mdfy teo imdson-drdiny %zy mirdhaldhy, The (or those) 
brothers were reproved W me sharply in the presence of their father. 

Natolotro dzy omdly ny v6lay lie money was given to them by me yester- 

V.B. — Of course when it is necessary to throw the subject into a more promi- 
nent place this can be done in accordance with rule (2) above. 

(6) A qualifying adjeetive follows the noun to which it refers. Thus : — 
Zehildky itdra, a g^ood man. 

(7) But sometimes a word closely connected with the qualified noun may 
oome between it and the adjective. Thus : — 

Ny vahoa-dRanavdUma rehetra, All the subjects of Ranav&lona. See Baker, 
p. 39 ; and A. 276. 

(8) A possessive case follows its governing noun immediately. See § 124. 

(9) But exceptions similar to those noticed in rule (7) are sometimes found. 

Ny tdnana ankavdnan-dRaldmhOy Tlie right hand of Ral&mbo. 

(10) No such separation is allowable between a passive or relative verb and 
ita agent. See {{ 54, 124. Thus :— 

NovonHfC nyjioldhy \xy. He was killed by the highwaymen. 

This rule holds good even of compound verbs like mamxndra f6y miova sdina, 
mamela-pdndrika ; the nouns /cJ, adina, and fdndrika, though so closely connected 
with their respective verbs, have to be separated from them when the relative or 
paaave construction is used, and an agent is specified, as then the agent and all 
words closely dependent upon it must be placed immediately after the verb. 
Thus : — 

AonvB : Namtndrafo tdmindo va ny timpon-trota ? Did the creditor show 

meroy to you ? 

Bblativx : Namindrdn' ny tompon-trosa fo va hiando ? Were you shown merey 

to by the creditor ? 

Aonvn : Niova adina ireny oUma irony tidho ny dnatra uatdondo. 

REUiTrvB : JVy dnatra natdondo no niovdh* ireny 6lana ireny »dina. 

Active : Namela-pdndrika dzy isy tvlo Uihy. 

RsiATrvB : Nameldran'* tsy teh Idhy fdndrika %zy, 

AcTXVB : Mandao-dcko dzy ny mpando sdry. 

~ ffosoran* ny mpando sdry loko izy. 

Ebbata : for A. A. in §{ 85, 89, 99 read A. 



A. The first letter of the Malagasy- 
Alphabet ; in accented syllables it 
has the open sound of a as in father, 
bat a somewhat lighter sound in 
unaccented syllables. 

A ! inter. An exclamation of surprise 
and approbation ; Ah ! There now ! 
It is also used like o or e after 
names, as Rabe a ! 

A-. A verbal prefix joined to roots 
and forming a passive verb. Thus 
from PAFY, sowing, we ^t ArArr, 
used of the need Boicn, in correla- 
tion to the passive verb Fafazana 
from the same root, used of the 
ground sown. • 

A-. An addition made by some of the 
tribes to nouns beginning with o, as 
Ao'xBT for OifBT, an ox ; Ao'ndbt 
for OwDBT, a sheep, etc. 

A-. A prefix used like tff}-, am-y andt-, to 
make a noun into a preposition ; e.g. 
MoBOKA, (the) edge, Axoboxa, at 
the ed^ ; Nosy, an island, Angst, 
on an island, etc. 

A3A, 8. Father, chiefly used by 
children. See Rat, Tkaitt, Baba, 
Ada, Dada. 

A'babe', $. [bb, great.] An ancestor, 
grandfather. (Prov.) 

ABI'BA, $. A tree affording an edible 
fruit, which, however, if indulged 
in freelj, the Sakalava say brings on 
an attack of malarial fever in those 
subject to it. The fruit is used by 
tiie Sakalava for tattooing. (Sak.) 
Pn>bably the same as Madiba [Swa. 
hibo, plu. mahibo\ the cashew apple. 
T^ie cashew nut is called Koboso. 
[Swa. koro9ho.'\ 

The juice of the apple is used in 
tattooing, but the fever-producing 
quality is not attributed to the 
cashew only. The same thing is said 
about all acid fruits. Medical 
science has established the correct- 
ness of the native observation. 
ABI'DY, 9. A provincial name for a 

A'BIDT', 8. The name of the Malagasy 
Alphabet, so called &om the names 
of the first three letters. 
A'BY, adj. All, the whole, every one, 
each. (Prov.) See Avt. The letter 
b frequently takes the place of i; in 
the provinces. 
ABriY, 8. A slave (Prov.) ; a term 
of reproach in Imerina. 
Ablly, 8. Probably connected with 
ViLT, MrviLT, prov. form of Mivi- 
DT, to buy. [Ar. abid^ and ibdd. 
Heb. ebed."] 
Miabily, v. int. (Imp. miabilia ; Bel. 
iabilianay Rel.lmp. iabillo.) To be in 
a base condition. Almost obsolete. 
Abilimbdrona, 8. [vobona, a bird.] A 

name given to the bird Toloho. 
A'BO, adj. High and round; great, 
tall. flProv.) See Avo, and Aicbo. 
A'boaboina, r. pas. (Imp. dboabby.) 

To be exalted, to be elevated. 
Mi&bo&bo, V. int. (Imp. miaboaboa ; 
Kel. idboaboana^ Kel. Imp. idboo' 
buif.) To be lofty ; to be elevated, 
as stones piled in a heap ; to be 
haughty. See Eboebo. 
Xan&boabo, v. tr. (Imp. mandboa' 
boa ; Bel. andboabbana, Bel. Imp. 
andboabby.) To elevate, to raise 
higher, to honour, to exalt. 


Habdana, «. Height, elevation. 

A'boha'nitba^ $. fHANiTBA, fragnuicy.] 
The seed of a migrant herb. 

A'boto'nona, *. [tonona, joints.] An 
herb, the leaves of which are used 
as food. 

A'BA, «. Father, papa. (Prov.) See 
Aba, and Rat. 

A'dabe', 8, [be, great.] Either a grand- 
father, or a father s elder brother. 

A'dakb'lt, 8, [KELT, little.] A father's 
younger brother. HE^rov.^ 

A'dava'vt, m. [vavt, leminine.] A pa- 
ternal aunt, either a father's sister 
or oousin. (Prov.) 

ADA'BO, 8. A tree. There are two kinds : 
the Aj>abolahy [laht, masculine] 
and the Adabovavt [yavt, femi- 
nine] ; the fruit of both may be eaten 
in small quantities ; that of the 
former is the best, though smallest 
in size. If eaten to excess, the fruit 
is said to cause a vomiting of blood. 
The wood of the Adabo being Ught 
is used in making canoes. A large 
tree. fSak.) Ficm itp. 

Ada'bobb, 8. [be, great.] Same as 

Ada'bono'lona, 8. [OLONA, a person.] 
A large tree with small edible fruit. 
Fieu8 8p. 

Ada'bonom'bt, 8. [oicbt, an ox.] A 
large tree with large fruit. (Sak.) 
Fieu8 sp. 

ADA'LA, adj, and «. Foolish, unwise, 
imprudent, ignorant, infatuated; a 
fool, an idiot, a lunatic, one desti- 
tute of reason. 

Adalaina, v. pa88, (Imp. adalao.) To 
be befooled, to be imposed upon, 
to be deluded. Adalaxa is used 
in the provinces. 
Miadfda, or Hiad&lad&la, v. int. 
(Imp. miadaln ; Bel. iadaldna^ Bel. 
imp. iadaluo.) To be simple, un- 
wise, or silly. 
XanadsUa, v. tr. (Imp. manadala ; 
Rel. anadaldna^ Bel. Imp. anada- 
lao.) To befool, to confound, to 
perplex, to infatuate. 
Xankadala. Prov. for the precedina^. 
Hadalana, and Fahadal&na, «. Fool- 

Ada'labe', 8. [be, great.] A great 
' **fool," great in size, but not neces- 
sarily foolish in mind. 
Ada'lala'ht, 8. [lahy, masculine.] A 

clever fellow ; anything very strong, 

and astonishing. 
Ada'ia hen'dbt, 8. [hekdbt, wise.] A 

person ignorant yet wise in some 

things; half-witted. 
Ada'lava'vt, «. [vavt, feminine.] A 

clever woman or girl. 
Ada'lava'tana, 8, [vATANA, the body.] 

A tall grass common in the rioe- 

ADA'LO, 8. The name of the eleventii 

month of the Malagasy year. [ Ar. 

Ad'dalvu — Aqnar%u8,'\ 
A'DAKA, adj. Slow, peaceful, tranquil ; 

grave and prudent in action. Koot 

not used in Imerina. [Mai. Adu, to 

repose (?).] 

Ad&nixia, t*. ptu, (Imp. addno.) To be 
made slow, to be retarded, to be 
made unoppressive. 

Miidana, v. int. (Imp. miaddmi ; 
Bel. iaddnana, Bel. nnp. iaddno.) 
To advance slowly, not to be in a 
hurry ; to be in comfortable cir- 
cumstances, having no anxiety or 
care ; to be at peace ; not to be 
hasty in forming Judgments. 

Xan&dana, v. tr. JIuip. manaddna ; 
Bel. anaddnana, Kel.Imp. anaddno.) 
To render prosperous, peaceful, 
or quiet ; to cause to go slowly. 
Not used in Imerina, where Max- 
PiADAXA takes its place. 

Fiad&nana, «. Slowness, composure, 
tranquillity, happiness, prosper- 

Xiidam-panddha, adj. or r. int. [fan- 
DEHA, from LEHA, to go.l To paoc 
slowly, or go gentiy ; lit. to be 
genUe as to (his) g^ing. 

Miadam-pd, adj. or v. int. [fo, the 
heart.] To be slow to anger. 

Miadam-pan&hy, adj. [fanaht, the 
soul or spirit.] To be in a tranquil 
state of mind. 

Mi&dan&dam-bitana, adj. [vatana, 
the body. J To be in good health. 

Mi&dan&dan-tdna. Same as above, 
but used in Imerina. 



ADAOIU), «. The name of the Hecond 
month of the Malagasy year. [Ar. 
Att'tzauru — Taurtu.'] 
ADA'BT. Torbulenoe, agitation, up- 
roar. (Sak.) 

Xaaadiry, v, int» To be in an up- 
roar, to be turbulent, to be restless. 
A'ST, «. A fight, combat, quarrel, 
oontention, battle, dispute, contest, 
attack, assault, war. Also of things 
fitting well, as a door and its posto, 
two straight pieces of wood fitting 
well together, two bricks, etc. etc. 
With suffix pronoun -nt, as Asnnr, 
it means a something difficult to be 
done. [Jay. Adu(?) ; or Ar. adara.^ 
AdiTinA, v,paat. (Imp. adivo,) To be 
fought a^^ainst, contested, or dis- 
puted with. (PlroT.) In Imerina 
the relative f onn Ixdiajxjl is used 
for the passive. 
MUdy, V. int, (Imp. miadia ; Bel. 
iaduma, Bel. Imp. iadlo.) To fight, 
to make war, to quarrel, to con- 
tend in words or deeds. 
MUdy fidy. [fast, anything ta- 
booed.] To discuss about what is 
unbecoming or tabooed. 
Miidy IkiyaldLaa. [fanjaxana, from 
2AXA, the kingdom.] To fight for 
the crown. 
Xiidy f&ana, r. int, [foana, cause- 
lessly.] To fight without cause 
or reason ; also used of a sham 
battle or pretence of fighting ; to 
fight but get nothing. 
HiiAy Uhy. [laht, masculine.! A 
dispute for supremacy or leaaer- 
ahip ; also used in speaking of two 
women quarrelling over a man. 
Miiidiliona [laona, a rice mortar.] 
Lit. fighting for the rice mortar. 
The name given to the constella- 
tion of the Pleiades. Ikotokely 

lOADT LAOXA is slso USCd. 

Miidy lohilika, adj, [lohalika, the 
knee.] To be knock-kneed. 

MiUy aina, v. int. [auta, the life.] 
To put forth great exertions ; to 
accuse some one of that which 
must end in death to the accused, 
if true. 

Xiidy ta&ra. [tsasa, well.] To fit 
well, used in speaking of the work 


of carpenters, bricklayers, etc. ; 
to agree with one another, aa 
accounts, or a description of events. 
Xampiidy tdratra. [sohatha, writ- 
ing.] To hold an examination, or 
to be examined. 
A'dt ax-pa'na&a'hana, 9. [fanasaha- 
NA, rel. noun from xanabaka to 
follow, root A&ASA.] A fight or 
quarrel not entered into before others, 
or in presence of witnesses, but 
taken up in secret. 
X&nao idy am-pinar&hana, v, int. 
To fight without instigation from 
others, as bulls; or quarrelling 
with people when all witnesses 
have departed. 
A'dt Ax'-PABnc'BOirA, «. [aict, fabuc- 
BONA, root BDCBONA, altcTcation.] 
Beating or pounding anvthing by 
two persons, either togemer or al- 
ternately ; a quarrel of many ag^ainst 
the few. Adibdcbona, «. (Prov.) A- 


BONA, «. (Prov.). Same as preceding. 

A'dt anxo'any, «. [hoatba, measure.] 
War admitting of an armistice. 

A'dt an-ko'tboxa, b, [ant, zotboka, 
noisy.] A bidl-fight, so called from 
the noise attending it. 

A'dy a'noa'no, «. [anoano, trifling.] A 
quarrel without any adequate cause ; > 
contention about something that 
may be or may not be. 

A'dy an-ta'bana, a. [tabana ?] Same 
as above. (Prov.) 

A'dt ajt-tba'no, «. [tbano, a house.] 
Civil war; legal disputes between 
members of the same tribe or house- 
hold. Pronounced Adt an-dbano. 

A'dy aktsan'ga, *. [antsanoa, a heap of 
sand or earth tmown up by a tor- 
rent.] Wrangling; noisy, trifling,- 
and unmeaning contention ; angry 
bickerings that lead to no charges 
in law. 

A'dt fo, «. [fo, the heart.] Ardency, 
great eagerness in contention or 
pursuit, self -exertion ; a striving to 
accomplish something. 
Xiady f6, i\ int, (Imp. miadia fo ; 
Bel. iadiatn-pOf Bel. Imp. iodic 
fo.) To make violent efforts, to 


put forth one's whole strength, so 
as to finish something before the 
sun sets, or accomplish what one is 
A'oT fox'-pana'nana, 8. [po, the heart, 


Eagerness to g«t more than an equal 
share ; dispute to get some additional 
advantage; fierce litigation about 
A'dt HK ' vrfR A, ». [hevitra, thought, 
intention.] Discussion, dispute. 
Mi&dy hdyitra, r. int, (Imp. miadla 
heritra ; Rel. iadtan'keritray Bel. 
Imp. torfto hevitra.) To argue, to 
]Iana6 iAj hdvitra. Same as pre- 
Mampi&dy hdvitra. To make ex- 
cuses to get out of one's proper 
share of work or duty. 
A'dy jk'ey, «. [jEBY, a look.] Same 

as Ady hevit&a. (Prov.) 
A'dy lo'va, *. [lova, an inheritance.] 
A dispute or lawsuit about inherited 

Hi&dy Idva, r. int. (Imp. miadla lova ; 
Rel. iadlan-dova^ Rel. Imp. iadto 
lova.) To contend for, or prosecute 
a lawsuit to get an inheritance. 
A'dy ilafa'na, ». [mafana, root fana, 
warm.] A somewhat tferce fight or 
A'dy hanoo'tbasa, «. [kanqotbaxa, 
boiling. ] A fierce fight or quarrel. 
Adin* Ain)si'ANA, 8. [ahdriaka, the 
sovereign.] A war agreed upon 
by the government ; a quarrel in 
which both parties show great 
respect for each other. 
A'dy milon'oo, ». [lonoo, a friend.] 

Fighting among friends. (Prov.) 
A'dy box'baka, s. [bombaea, plimder.] 
An attack upon defenceless persons 
or places for the purpose of plunder. 
Ady saha'la, «. ^sarala, alike.] A 
battle or quarrel m which the parties 
are equally matched, no advant-age 
accruing to either. (Prov.) Ady 
lOBA, Ady mitovy, Ady samby etsa- 
KA, are also used in the provinces. 
A'dy tsy abi'sika, «. [tsy, not, risiica, 
prompting.] Same as Ady tby bajc- 
BDTA. (ftov.) 

A'dy TSY atbb'ka, «., Ady tsy oeobhi- 

NA, 8. Same as preceding. 
A'dy tsy bam'bina, «. [tsy bambixa, not 

arranged.] A quurel in which no 

weapons are used. 
A'dy tsy vf nitra, ». [tsy vinitra, not 

^^^tO -^ quarrel in which no 

anger is shown. 
A'dy va^gana, «. [tanoa, selling.] 

Prov. for Ady yasotba. 
A'dy ya'botba, a. [vabotba, selling.] 

Disputation as to price, bargaining, 

stipulating the price. 

Voadyv&rotra, r. /)«»«. Agreed upon 
as to price by the seller, but not 
yet taken by the buyer. 

Mi&dy virotra, v. int, (Imp. miadla 

vdrotra ; Rel. iadlam-hdrotra^ Bel. 

Imp. iadto vetrotra.) To bargain, 

to chaffer. 

A'dy vidi'ana, «. [vidy, price.] Prov. 

for Ady vabotba. 
Adi'vina, r. pass. See Ady. 
A'dy vo'loicbala'la, «. [volo, hair, 

VALALA, a locust.] A quarrel about 

something of no consequence; a 

causeless brawl. 
A'DIBIJA'DY, 8. The name of a certain 

column in the arrangement of the 


ADI'BO, s. The name of a small bird, 

same as Tsintsina. 
ADI'DY, 8, [root didy ?] Blame, cen- 
sure, responsibility, something for 
which one is held responsible. See 

Adidina, r. pass. (Imp. adidto,) To be 

charged with responsibility, to be 

liable to be blamed for, censured. 

Miadidy, 4;. tr. and int, (Imp. mio' 

didla ; Bel. iadidiana^ Bel. Imp. 

iadidto.) To be responsible for; 

to undertake a contract involving 

personal responsibility, so as to be 

liable to censure in case of failure. 

Xanadidy, v. tr. (Imp. manadidia ; 

Rel. atiadidianUy Rel. Imp. anadi- 

dio.) To blame, to censure, to 

criminate, to attach the blame 

arising from responsibility. In the 

provinces Ady is used for Adidy. 

A'DIJA'DY, *. The name of the tenth 

month in the Malagasy year. [Ar. 

A I'dseltadiu — Caprieomua . ] 


A'DIXASA'JT, 9. The name of a certain 
column in the airangement of the 


A'DDOZA'KA, «. The name of the sev- 
en^ month in the Malagasy year. 
[Ap. Al-mizanu — Libra.] 
A'oTSAj t. Examination, scrutini- 
sing. Only used in oompoimds or 
denvatiyes, as Tbarjl adhta. 
VoiLdina, v. pa»$. Enquired about, 

Adinina, v. pass. (Imp. adino.) To be 
enquired about, to be investigated ; 
to be examineid, as in a public 
examination of a school, etc. 
ManMina, v. tr. (Imp. manadlna; 
Bel. anadinanay Bel. imp. anadlno.) 
To investigate, to enquire into, to 
ask about, to search into ; to con- 
duct an examination. 
Fanadinana, «. An examination, or 

a book of questions. 
Mpan&dina, «. An examiner. 
A'DIVXI'ST, a. The name of a certain 
column in the arrangement of the 


A'DISAaHA, «. The extremities of the 
gums, where the molars are tdtuated. 

A'BISA'OHA, «. Addition in Arith- 
metic. [Eng. Addition.] 

A'BirSIlKAY, «. The name of a certain 
column in the arrangement of tJie 


A'SIZAO'ZA, s. The name of the third 
month of the Malagasy year. [Ar. 
A l-'dsehauza' u — Gem int.] 
A'DO, root not in common use. 

Mi4do, r. int. To squander, or waste 
one's property. (Prov.) 
A'BOKA'DOHA, s. Pnde, haughtiness 
of spirit, contemptuousness. See 

XiiULonidona, v. int. (Imp. middo- 

nadona ; Bel. iddonadonanay Bel. 

Imp. iadonadbmj.) To be haughty, 

to be contemptuous. 

ADRA', int. A word used to exprest^ 


Miadr4, c. int. To express contempt 

by using the word Adra. 

ADRAT', inter. An expression of fear. 

ABBS', inter. An exclamation of 

suiprise or approbation ; Beally ! 

You don't say so ! See there ! 

ABBI'SA, «. A species of locust, the 

female of the Aueta. 
Ab'kao'xbe, s. An herb, Crotalaria 
striata^ DC. (Bets.) Same as Ko- 
BiNTBAicpoTST and Besavixpoist, 
which latter see. 
ATA, root not in use. 
Xiifk, V. int. Imp. and Bel. not used. 
To be recoverinfl^ from sickness. 
ATAKA, V. pass. (Imp. Opt.' afdha.) 
Free, free from, separated from, 
disengaged; unlocked, untied; pass- 
ed over ; emptied, as a bag ; taken, 
as applied to a town in war ; dis- 
charged ; passed, as an examination. 
O'lon-afkka, s. A freed slave. 
Afiiha 16sa &man-ant&nibo. May 
(you) be free from all danger and 
Af&hana, v. pass. (Imp. afdho.) To 
be released, disengaged, or set 
free. Afahina. (rrov.) 
Miafaka, t'. int. (Imp. miafdha ; Bel. 
iafdhana^ Bel. Imp. iafdho.) To be 
in the condition of one just escaped 
from a blow or calamity. (Pro v.) 
Xanafaka, r. tr. (Imp. manafdha; 
Bel. amt/dhana^ Bel. Imp. ana/d- 
ho.) To release, to set free or 
redeem, to disengage, to exempt, 
to exonerate, to clear from obstruc- 
tions, to unlock, to pay (debts). 
Fan&fany, s. That wMoh gives free- 
dom or release. 
Fanafddy (1), «. [ody, acharm.] Me- 
dicine of all kinds. Lit. that 
which will put away the power of 
charms or enchantments. 
A'fa-bara'ka, adj. [baraka, honour.] 
Din jf raced, dishonoured. 
Xahafa-bar&ka, r. tr. (No impera- 
tive ; Bel. ahafdham'bardka.) To 
dishonoiu*, to disgrace. 
A'fa-baby, 8. [vary, rice.] The end 
of the harvest, when the ground is 
cleared of the rice crop. 
A'fa-bo'xina'hitra, adj. [voninauitba, 

honour.] Same as Afa-babaka. 
A'fa-boeo'ka, adj. [boboka, honour.] 

Same as Afa-babaka. 
A'fa-do'za, adj. [loza, calamity, dan- 
ger.] Free from pain or trouble, 
released from danger, rescued from 
an impending calamity. 



water, fanala, frost.] Early morn- 
ing, just after sunrise, 

A'fa-bsao'hao', adj, fBAORAO, rough- 
ness.] Free from all that could giye 
anger or blame. 

A'fa-dsa'tsiai'ka, adj. [hatby, bad, 
AiNA, life.] The condition of a 
pregnant woman who has eaten 
that for which she had a great long- 

A'fa-dbo'ft, adj. [boft, disease.] Free 
from disease. 

Afa'hana, v. poM. See Afaka. 

A'fa- ja'za, adj. [zaza, a child.] Used 
of abortion or miscarriage. 

A'pak-a'dy, adj. [adt, aiight.] Hav- 
ing finished some difficult business ; 
cured of some severe disease. 

A'fak-a'fo, adj. [apo, fire.] Free from 
calamity or distress. 

A'fak-a'hia'ht, adj. [ahiaht, suspi- 
cion.] Free from anxiety. 

A'fak-ai'na, a4/.[AiNA,life.] Deprived 
of life, dead. 

A'fa-ka'ja, adj. [haja, respect.] No 
longer reopectea. 

A'fa-kaba'tsaea, adj. [haaatsaka, 
dean-stalked.] Having done all 
that is necessary to accomplish what 
one has attempted. 

A'fak-a'i.ana'lana, adj. [alanalana, 
obsolete.] Freed from trouble, ex- 

A'fakampi'tso, adv. [ampitso, to-mor- 
row.] The day after to-morrow. 

A'fa-ke'natba, adj. [henatba, shame.] 
Free from all sense of shame ; 
having done all that could be expect- 

A'fak-eiy'tana, adj. [kntana, goods.] 
Free from anything that can give 

A'fakoxa'lt, adv. [omaly, yesterday.] 
The day before yesterday. 

A'fak-o'laita, adj. [olan a, a twisting.] 
Free from inconvenience, impedi- 
ment, hindrance, or misimderstand- 
ing; frequently used of women in 

A'fa-ko'trana, adj. [kotrana, unar- 
rang^.] The state of the web in 
weaving when cleared from the 
healds, called Ha&aza. 

A'fax-o'lait-tb'nt, adj. [olana, twist- 
ing, TENY, speech.] Free from 

Afa'vana, v. pass. See Afaita. 

A'fa-ne'nina, adj. [nbnina, regret, or 
remorse.] Free m>m regret ; with- 
out painful recollections of having 
been neglectful of one's duty. See 


A'fa-pana'la, adj. jFAirALA, ohill.] 
Tepid, as water m>m which the 
ohm has been taken. 

A'fa-pa'ty, ai^'. [faty, a corpse.] Res- 
cued from imminent danger ; capable 
of self-defence, as full-grown fowls ; 
disheartened; used of something suc- 
cessfully completed without defect, 
as a capital (stone- work), a water- 
pot, etc. 

A'fa-po', adj. [fo, the heart.] Satis- 
fied, satiated ; disheartened, discour- 
aged; to be free from painful 
regrets after having exerted one's 
self ti) the utmost in the unsuccessful 
pursuit f)f an object. See Ala fo. 
Xahskfa-p6, v. tr. To make free from 
regi^ets for what one has lost ; to 
cease to have confidence in an- 

A'fa-po'fona, adj. Tfofona, odour.] 
Free from odour, sieam, or vapour ; 
also same as Afa-babaka. 

A'fa-tavo'ny, adj. [TAVomr, the pla- 
centa.] Having expelled the pla- 
centa ; used mostly of animals. 

A'fa-tsao'na, adj. [saona, mourning.! 
Having put aside all outward sigprns of 
grief over the dead. See Ala saona. 

A'fa-tsa'botba, adj. [sasotra, diffi- 
cult.] Released from difficult. 

A'pa-tsa'satra, adj, [sasatba, tired.] 
Free from fatigue. 

A'fa-tsi'ny, adj. [tsiny, blame.] Free 
from blame or censure. 

A'fa-tsy', prep. [t8y, not.] Except. 

A'TAlS(Af s. The sprinkling the body 
with water which has been conse- 
crated to the idols ; putting lines or 
points of white earth on the fore- 
head ; putting charcoal on the 
forehead ; wearinir pearls on the 
foet ; a necklace oi herbs ; drench- 
ing the whole person while still 
clothed, for the removal of impurity 


contracted by contact with a corpse 

or anything nnclean ; or seeking 

freedom from some witchcraft or 

A ceremony performed at the 

graves of deceased relatiyes, or at 

times of general sickness or epidemic. 

Voifuuif V. pats. Purified by the 
ceremonies of the Afaka. 

Afinana, v, pass, (Imp. afdno,) 
To be purified by ^e ceremonies 
of the Afana. 

WAflma, V. int. (Imp. miafdna; 
Bel. iafdnana, Bel. Imp. iafdno.) 
To be purified ; to be sprinkled 
with ^e water in the ceremony 
of the Afana. 

Kanifana, v. tr. (Imp. tnanafdna ; 
Bel. anafdnanay Kel. Imp. anafd- 
no.) To sprinkle the water in the 
ceremonies of the Afana ; to per- 
form the ceremony of purification 
for another. 

Xanad i£ana, r. tr. To perform 
the ceremony of the Afana at the 
graves of the dead. 
A'YATKk, 8. A piercing cry. (Prov.) 

See Dbadbad&adha and KiAxiaka. 

XiiiktriL&tra, r, int. (Imp. mid- 
fatrafdra ; Bel. id/atrafdrana, Bel. 
Imp. idfatrafdro.) To vociferate, 
to utter piercing cries. fProv.) 

ICanilfiitriiatra, v. int. (Imp. ma- 
ndfatrafdra; Bel. andfatrafdrana^ 
Bel. Imp. andfatrafdro.) To speak 
forcibly, to declare earnestly. 
AFE'KAHA,«. The arm from the elbow 

to the wnst. The upper part of th(> 

thigh. Amon^theSakalavaitisused 

as asynonym for Atbehana (atbiza.) 

ArE'NtNA, r. pass. See Afina. 
AFSHO, 8. The bile, the gall, the 

gall - bladder, bitterness, costly. 

ntfal. ampadu (?).] 

Binon-a&ro, «. Bile. 

Viky afero, adj. To vomit bile ; fig. 
bitter, greatly ashamed. 


Lage.] Anherb. (Betsim.) Tachiadenua 
earinatu8y Griseb. 
Afb'bom-bo'bona. [yobona, a bird.] 
Hie name of a kind of green beads. 

Afb'bon-eb'na, a. [hsna, beef.] The 
bile of slaughtered bullocks; but 
also used of that of other animals. 
Afe'bon-ta'nt, 8. [TAirr, earth.] A 
small herb, a decoction of which is 
drunk as a remedy for whooping- 
cough. MoUuffo nudieaulis. 
Afe'bina, v. pass. See Afitba. 
A'FY, 8. A grandchild. See Zaft. 
Xiify, r. int. To be in the relation 
of grandparent and child. 
AFIATY,*. A tree. (Sak.) 
ATIKA. Boot not used except in 
reduplication, as Tia afinafina. 
To love doing things in secret. 
Voiflna, r. pass. Concealed, hidden ; 
buried, in speaking of a deceased 
Afdnina, v. pa88. (Imp. afeno.) To 
be hidden, to be concealed, to be 
put in secret ; to be buried, in 
speaking of a deceased sovereign. 
Hiaflna, v. int. (Inm. miafvna ; 
Bel. iafmana^ Bel. Imp. iafeno^ 
To be concealed, to be in hicUng. 
Xandfina, r. tr. (Imp. manafetia; 
Bel. anafenatta, Bel. Imp. anafe- 
no.) To hide anything, to conceal 
anything ; to bury a deceased sov- 
Tiy tuon-afSnina, adj. Used of any- 
thing that cannot be concealed or 
A'FITBA, root not in use. See Ato, 
Andst, Janona, Tsahatba. 
Afdrina, r. pass. (Imp. qfero.) To 
be stopped, hindered, or impeded. 
Xiifltra, v. int. flmp. miafera ; 
Bel. iaferana^ Bel. Lnp. iafero.) 
To stay, to halt, to be arrested in 
one's progress. 
Xan&fltra, v. tr. (Imp. manafera ; 
Bel. anaferana^ Bel. Imp. ana- 
fero.) To make to stop, to make to 
halt, to impede anything. (Prov.) 
Mascfiafitba is used for this in 
ATO, 8. Fire; fig. calamity. [Found 
in many Mai. Arch, and Polyn. lan- 
guages, as a/?i, yafoy yaf^ apin^ etc.] 
Afak-ifo, adj. Besoued from calam- 
Xamdlona afo. To light a fire. 
Xam6&o ifo. To put out a fire. 



X&ty &fo. To miss fire, as of a ^pxa ; 
not to appear at the appointed 
time, or business, when others 
have oome. 
Miidrona &fo. To tend a fire. 
Xanisy &fo. To put fire to any- 

A'fobb', 9, [bb, gi]o&t.] A children's 
game, but not with fire. 

Ato'nina, V, pa89. See AjfONA. 

A'foea'boka, «. [kasoka, rubbing.] 

A'fola'va, 8, A tall herb. (Bets.) 
Hypt%8 peetifuUay Poir. Same as San- 
OASANaANAin)EyoLAHT and Sanoa- 
SANOANiXABiNA, both of which see. 

A'fon-do'lo, «. [LOLO, ghosts.] The 
ignia fatuu», 

A'pontai'nako'ho, ». [tay, dung, ako- 
HO, fowl.] The name of a species 
of firefly, so called because, say the 
people, poultry dimg shines in like 
manner. (Prov.) 

A'fora'no, «. ^EANO, water.] The 
sulphuric acid formerly used in 
match bottles. Phosphoric acid. 

A'fova'to, «. [VATO, a stone.] A fire- 
stone used as a flint. 

A'FOHA, root not in common use. 
gVov.) See Tsinxafona, Efona, 
£}iCB0NA, Kexbona, Kbbona, Kb- 


Af&nina, v. pass, (Imp. afdny.) Float- 
ed, made to swim, or to rest on 
the water. (Prov.) 

Miifona, v. int. (Imp. miafdna ; 
Rel. iafofuina, Bel. Imp. iafony,) 
To rest on the water, to float, to 
swim. (Prov.) 

Xanafona, t\ tr. (Imp. manafona; 

Rel. atmfdnana^ Kel. Imp. atiafd- 

ny.) To launch, to make to float. 

ATOHA'FOHA, a. [Redup. of Afona.] 

Fury, violence, rage, impetuosity. 

Xi&fon&fona, v. int. (Imp. midfona' 
fona; Rel. idfonafonanat Rel. 
Imp. idfonafony.) To be furious, 
to be enraged, to be violently 
impetuous ; to be vain, proud, or 
A'fo'vo'any, adv, [a, in, fo, the heart, 

voANY, its kidney, kernel.] In the 

midst of, in the centre of. See 


A'OT, «. A shrub with stinging hairs; 
an insect found on the Tapia tree ; 
and the name of a climbing plant 
found among the Sakalava having a 
pod covered with painfully stinging 
hairs, which plant is probably a Mu' 
cM»a. Same as TAiraiLOTBA. (Sak. and 
Bets.) Also IpomcMt Wtyhtu, Ghoisy* 

A'oila'ht, «. [laht, masculine.] A 
shrub with stinging hairs on the 
leaves. TraytacortUfolia. It is known 
in Betsileo also by the same name. 

A'orvA'vY, «. [VAVT, feminine.] A 
climbing plant with a densely naiiy 
pod. (Ant-sih.) 

AHAY', pro. We, exclusive of person 
or persons spoken to. (Fix>v.) See 


AHAY', adv. Rather, in some degree, 

upon the whole, slightly preferable. 

Somewhat like Aleo. 
AHAY', «. A name for the aye-aye. 

(Betsim.) See Alat. 
A'HAKA, «. A pausing at a door- way, 

and thus becoiming an obstruction. 

See Sauana, Sajlana. 

A'ham-birav&rana, 8. [vA&AYABAif a, 
a door or window.] An obstruc- 
tion in the door- way. 

Alian-dr&tty, r. [ratsy, bad.] Hin- 
drance. See Sakpoka. 

Xi&hana, r. int. To hesitate sud- 
denly, to falter, to pause ; to lean 
or depend upon another. 

Xanihana, v. tr. (Lnp. manahaHa; 

Rel. anahdnanay Rel. Imp. anahd' 

no.) To get in the way of, to 

obstruct, to hinder. 

AHAKAHAKA, ». [Redup. from Aha- 

NA.] Doubt, hesitation, indecision, 

frequent pauses. See Afitba, Aho- 

NA, Sahana, Sakana, Sampona, Ja- 


A'hanahdjiina, r. pass. (Imp. dhana' 
hdno.) To be made to hesitate, 
or be undecided. 

Xiahanahana, v. int. (Imp. midha" 
nahdna ; Rel. idhanahdnana^ Rel. 
Imp. idhanahdno.) To hesitate, 
to waver, to fluctuate, to be per- 

Xi&hanclham - b61ana. [yolana, 
speech.] To hesitate in speech or 
conversation. (Prov.) 


HinihBnM, [boa, two (P), ahana.] 
To be of two mindB. 
Axmn'NA, r. pass. See Ahiaht. 
Ahi^ha, V, poM. See Aht. 
AfHXHA, r. paM$. See Aika. 
Ah^exva, V, past. See Ahotra. 
A'HT, pro. Me, my, mine ; objective 

caae of Ako. Occasionally this word 

is found with the suffix pronouns, 

as A hdco, mine. 
A'HT, 8, Solicituide, inquietude, anx- 
iety, care, attention. 

Ahana, r. pass. (Imp. ahio.) To be 
cared for, to be concerned about, to 
be feared, to be suspidous about. 

Mihina (1), adj. Full of anxious 

MUkhj, V. tr. (Imp. miahia ; Bel. 
iahlema^ Rel. Imp. iahio.) To be 
solicitous for, to be careful of, to 
be in an anxious state for ; to 
maintain or support others. 

Manihy, v. tr. and int. (Imp. mana- 
h'ta ; Bel. anahiana, Rel. Imp. 
anahto.) To be solicitous about, 
to have suspicions of, to disturb, 
to perturb, to render solicitous 
and uneasy. 

Fanihy (1), «. The mind, the seat of 
thought, anxiety, or care; care 
for, thoughtful concern ; tact, 
disposition, character, intelligence, 
knowledge ; the soul, the immortal 
part of man. See Nahy. 

Fanihy Xisina, «. The Hol^ Spirit, 
the third person of the Tnnity. 

A'ry fianiUiy, adj. [art, created. J Of 
an age when able to form judg- 
ments or opinions. 

B« IknAhy. One who seeks to do 

F6tay fitnihy, adj. [fotsy, white.] 
Lewd, vulgar, indecent, one of 
indelicate conversation ; a cheat. 

lAtaam-panihy, s. [latsa, a re- 
proach.] Reproach, as used to a 
person whom you have sought to 
benefit, but who has not mfule uie 
of the opportunities you have 
afforded him. 

Kaldmy fim&hy, adj. [haleky, soft.] 
Kind, gentle in disposition. 

Xahitay fiuuLhy, tu^. [uahitst, 
straight.] Of good judgment. 

Xila fanihy. To want or seek in- 

Olona manaxn-panahy, «. A person 
of upright liG^e and conversation. 

Bitty &Jiihy, adj. [batsy, bad.] 
Of evil disposition, malevolent, 

Tsy impy fanihy, a^j. [tst, not, 
AXPT, enough.] Not able to con- 
duct one's self properly. 

Ti&ra fianihy, adj. [tsaba, good.] 
Of good disposition; one free 
from disease. 
A'HIA'HT, *. TRedup. of Aht.] Dis- 

trust, suspicion. 

A'hihina, r. pott. (Imp. ahihto.) To 
be Huspected, to be distrusted, or 
regarded with suspicion. 

Xiahiahy, v. int. (Imp. tniahiahla ; 
Rel. idhiahtana^ Rel. Imp. idhia- 
hto.) To be distrustful, to be 

Kanihinihy, r. tr. (Imp. tnandhi- 
nahia ; Rel. andhinahlanay Bel. 
Imp. andhinahxo.) To distrust any 
one or anything, to be auspicious 
A'HITBA, s. Grass, weeds, herbs in 

general, litter, sweepings ; the pla- 
centa, the afterbirth. See Tavont. 

Fig. the common people. See Bo- 


86ngon-ahitra tty may, ». What is 
left. Lit. a blade of grass not 

A'hibaho'axa, «. [vAHOAKA, the peo- 
ple.] The name of a species of grass. 

A'htbala'la, *. A plant which the 
Botsileo give as an antidote when 
the poisonous insect (;alled Tsinoala 
has accidentally been swallowed. 
A decoction \& made of it mixed 
with leaves from the plants called 
SiHANAKA and Vebofehana, and 
given to drink. (Bets.) 

A'hiba'no, «. An herb from which 
a Muperior kind of straw hat is 
made. Oyperm {/) ap. 

A'hiba'ry, *. [vary, rice.] A tall 
grass common in the rice -grounds. 
(Bets.) Echinocloa (^nm-galli^ P. B. 
Same as Tsimparifarifotsy. 

A'hibi'dila'va, 8. [biby, animal, lava, 
long.] An herb. 



A'hibi'ta,' «. [vita, done.] A grass 
growing in rice -grounds, etc. An 
infusion of this plant is sprinkled on 
those who are recovering from illness 
to ensure them against a relapse. 
An herb. Floscopafflofnerata. 

A'htbi'tsika, «. Aa herb. Oldenlandia 
laneifoliay Schweinf . 

A'siboan'jo, 9, [voAirJO, earth-nuts.] 
An herb. 

A'hidam'bo, 8. [lambo, a wild hog.] 
A grass with very sharp-pointed 

A'hid&a.'ko, 8, [bang, water.] The 
name of a grass much used as for- 

A'hidra'tsy, 8. [eatst, bad.] Grass 
which grows among the rice, and 
which is used as a fdditra. See 

A'HiDmyDKiNA, «. [bindbina, shut, 
locked.] An herb. (Bets.) The Be- 
tsileo make poulticea for boils of the 
leaves. Dicrocephala laiifoliaf D.C. 
Same as Tbebotbisbonaicboa, which 

A'hikon'gona, 8. [konoona, a bug.] 
A grass. Sporoboltu ap. Same as 

A'hila'va, s. [lava, long.] An aqua- 
tic plant. (Betsim.) 

A'hihai'na, 8. [maina, dry.] Hay. 

A'hiuai'tso, 8. [maitso, green.] d-reen 

A'himo'ka, «. [moka, a mosquito.] A 
species of grass frequented by mos- 

A'mPA'iiANA, «. [PALANA ?] A grass. 

A'hipi'baka, 8. [fisaka, flat.] A grass. 
(Betsim.) Stenotaphrum sp. 

A'hipo'dy, 8. [poDY, a bird.] A com- 
mon gfrass. (Bets.) Setaria gUmca, 
P.B. Same as Taindalitba, Tain> 
dambo, and Tenindalitba. 

A'hipo'tsy, 8. [fotsy, white.] An herb. 
(Bets.) Gynaphalium !Stcudeln^ S.B. 

A'hitbakan'oa, 8. [akanga, guinea- 
fowl.] A grass. Fanicum semialatum^ 
R. Br., or Andropogon np, 

A'hitbako'ho, 8. [akoho, a fowl.] 
A grass. 

A'hitbako'hola'hy, *. [lahy, mii^cu- 
line.] An herb. Helichrysum tana- 
oetyflorum. Baker. 

A'HrrBAKO'HOVA'vY, 8. [vavt, femi- 
nine.] An herb. Onaphalium UUeO' 
albwH, L. 

A'hitbakon'dbo, «. [AK02n>BO, a ba- 
nana]. An herb. Antheriettm JPar^ 
kerif Baker. 

A'HITBO'XBYy 8. [OMBY, au OX.] An 

A'hitbo'bana, a, j]o&ana, a lobster.] 

An herb. (Betsim.) Folygonum «p. 
A'hitsi'tby, 8. [siTBY, a lizard.] An 

herb. Stocky 8 brachiatay Bojer. 
A'HO, pro, I, myself. Tlds word is 
chiefly used after the predicate, and 
IzAHO is used before. [Med. ako ; 
Polyn. ai*.] 
A'HOA'HO, 8. Stupidity, dullness of 

Miihoelho, v. int, (Imp. midhoahoa ; 
Bel. idhoahoana, Rel. Imp. iafkiM' 
hoy.) To be dull, stupid, silly, 
half-witted. See Ahonahona. Said 
to be obsolete now. 
ASXyL^adv. Used for Ahoama. (Prov.) 
AHO'ANA, adv. How? What? Used 
in answering a call. Why ? What 
is the cause of it ? It is also an ex- 
clamation, as Ahoana aby ! Well 
then ! It admits of the sufflx pro- 
nouns and tensed. 

Ah6ako 1 adv. An expression of 
dislike. What should I do with 
it ? What is the good of it. 
Ky UXj asa ah6ako. I care not for, 
or I trouble not myself about 
death ; death has no roar for me ! 
Ahdanad ii&ny 1 What is that to 

][ana6 ahdana 1 A common form of 
salutation. What? How? Some- 
times contracted to Manauoana. 
The past tense [nahoana] gener- 
ally means Why ? and the present 
[ahoana] How? 
Tsy ah6ana tsy ihdana, adv. Cause- 
lessly, without reason. 
A^O'INA, verb. Merely doing any- 
thing without thought. 
AHOI'ZO, Imp. Do it, do it so, set 

about it. Imp. of preceding (?). 
AHO'LO, 8. The howling of a dog. 

Manah61o, v. int. To howl as a dog. 
A'HOKA, root not in use. 



mJlOBA, V, int. (Imp. tMohona ; Bel. 
iahcnana^ Bel. Imp. wiAoity.) To 
halt, to oeaae, to stand faltermglj, 
to hesitate, to leave off. 
Man^hona, v, tr. (Imp. manahona ; 
Bel. anahbnanay Bel. Imp. anaho' 
ny.) To stop a person or thing, to 
cause to halt, to cause to leave off. 
A'HOVA'HOKA, «. [Bedup. of above.] 
Fc^Y, foolishness, sillinees. 
KUkaonaliona, r. int. (bnp. midho' 
nahcna; Bel. idhonahimanay Bel. 
Imp. idfumahony.) To be foolish, 
to be silly. See Afttba, Ahana, 
Ahona, Ahotra. 
AICOTSA, root not in common use. 
Taflhotra, v. pass. Come to a stand. 
Toihotra, r. pass. Brought to a 

Ahbrins, v. pass. (Imp. oAory.) To 

be arrested. 
Xi&hotra, r. int. (Imp. miakbra ; 
Bel.iaAora»tf,Bel.Imp.taAory.) To 
pause, to come to a stand, to halt. 
•AY, pro. 9uf. Contraction of -nay 
after words ending in -xa or -tra, 
as Satbokat, our hat ; Fantatray, 
known by us. 
AY, adr. int. An expression of like or 
dialike, gladness, or astonishment. 
Nay, not. (Prov.) 
A'I'A, or AI'A, adv. Where ? (Prov.) 

Same as Aiza. 
AI'AT, «. The aye-aye, a singular 
nocturnal animal endemic in Mada- 
gascar, to capture which, the natives 
say, causes ulness or death. Same 
as Ahat (Betsim.), and Haihay 
[Antsih.]. Supposed to receive its 
name from its peculiar cry. Chei- 
romy» Mada^aacariensis. 
AYdcta, s. [Boot iDiNA P] The Saka- 

lava name for g^rease or fat. 

AYditba, for Iditra, which see. (Prov.) 

AI'KA, s. A species of indigo plant 

largely used in dyeing. Indiffo/era gp. 

Ai'xabb'ba'vina, 8. [be, many, bavina, 

leaves.] A species of indigo plant 

used in dyeing. Imligofera iticanOy L. 

Same as Aikavaty, and Kibixtsa. 

Al'KAJfATBAY', «. (PATBAY ?) A plant 

which, along with ginger, in biiniod, 
then licked or sniffed for headache 
by the Betsileo. (Bets.) 

AfKAMA'iTQA. [xANOA, bluo.] An herb 
used in dyeing. Indigofera »p. Same 
as Manoataho. 

Ai'kava'vy, «. [VAVY, feminine.] An 
herb largely used in dyeing. (Sak.) 
Crotalaria ineana, L. Same as Atka- 


AI'XA, adj. and 8. Compact, close ; a 

compact assembly, congress, or army, 

gathering together for the war. 

voaika, v. pa88. Brought into close 

E'hina, or Ai'hina, v. pass. (Imp. eho.) 
To be collected, assembled, brought 
into dose contact. 

Kiaika, v. int. (Imp. mieha ; Bel. 
iehana^ Bel. Imp. ieho.) To come 
close together, to assemble, to meet 
in congress ; to proceed to the 
army, to go to the war. 

Manaika, v. tr. (Imp. nianeha ; Bel. 
anchana, Bel. Imp. aneho.) To 
collect others, to cause to assemble, 
to cause to come together in dose 

Fampodhana, s. [From the causative 
of HI- with euphonic o.] A buckle, 
a strap buckle. 
AI'KY, root only used in compounds, 

as Lany aiey. Eky is also used. 

[Mai. aku, mengaku.] 

Voaiky, r. pass. Assented to, agreed 
to, acquiesced in. 

Ekena, r. pass. (Imp. ekh.) To be 
granted, consented to, surrendered 
to, submitted to, or agreed to. 

Hiaiky, v. int. and^r. (Imp. miaike; 
Bel. iaikcna^ Bel. imp. iaikeo.) 
To confess, as sins or faults, to 

Manaiky, v. tr. and int. (Imp. ma- 
naike, or maneke ; Bel. atiaikena, or 
anekiwiy Bel. Imp. anaikeOy or ana- 
keo.) To assent to, to agree to, 
to grant, to consent, to confess, 
to own, to submit to, to surrender. 
The reduplicate is Manaikinaisy. 

Manaiky ambdny hiiny. Tu agree 
readily to anything without con- 

Manaiky be. To agree to anything. 

Manaiky lembdnana. To yield im- 
plicitly, to assent tamely, to follow 
the multitude for fear and shame. 



Man&iky lempona. [lexpona, a hol- 
low.] Same aa above. 

Manaiky tsy sisoka. To yield reluct- 
antly to an unjust demand. 

Fanekdna, orFaxiaikdna, «. A treaty, 
an agreement, a covenant. 

Fanek§m-piliav&naiia, a. A treaty of 
peace and friendship. 
AI'KANY, adv. A vulgar phrase ex- 
pressing assent. Yes indeed ! True ! 
Ai'lany. [Root lui.] (Prov.) Same 

as Ajtilany. 
AI'HA, «. Life, animal life, strength. 

ThreLtry ny aina. According to one's 

Kiaina, r. int, (Imp. miaina; Rel. 
iainanaj Rel. Imp. iahto.) To live, 
to have life ; to respire, to breathe ; 
to be happy, prosperous, revived. 

Miainaina, r. int. (Imp. not used; 
Rel. ialnkiairuDKtj Rel. Imp. iain- 
kiaino.) To catch one's breath, 
to breathe feebly. (Prov.) 

M&nanaina. [makaxa, to have.] To 
have life, to be alive. 

Mahafaty ain* 61oiia. To take life. 

Miaim-pdana, adj. Having no con- 
cern for anything, merely exist- 

Miaina an-taikekana. To be puffed 
up with pride; lit. to respire 
from the gfi:szard. (Prov.) 

Mi&la aina. [miala, to go away.] 
To expire, to die, to cease breath- 
ing. See Ala aina. 

Xiferin-aina, adj. Utterly unable 
to be happy or comfortable. 

K§ly aina, adj. Weak; of little 
strength, said of persons or things. 

Mikdly aina. [eely, little.] To put 
forth great exertions, to do unre- 
mittingly ; lit. to make one's life 

Mitsdakaaina. [tsoaka, pulled out.] 
To express surprise by breathing 
very hard ; also same as Miala 


MiB6ndrotra aina, adj. Continually 

sighing and groaning. 
Misy aina, adj. Not yet dead ; able 

to be revived or set agoing, as a 

watch by being wound up. 
Kahiio aina. [azo, got.] To breathe 

more freely, to become stronger. 

M&kaaina. [maka, to fetch, or get.] 
To cease from work a little, so as 
to get fresh vigour. 

Mani^ aina. [hanao, to do.] To 

Man&o m68alakin-aina, adj. Beck- 
less as to consequences. 

Mana6 yy very ny aina. To risk 
one's life, to make life as worth- 
less as a lost nail. 

M4nan • t6mbon - aina. [tokbo, in- 
crease.] Stronger than others ; to 
outlive others, or to live long. 

Mit6yy aina, a^/- Of the same oon- 
sistency, or strength, as of stones 
and bricks built together, etc. etc. 

Tsy maha^ miaina. Not to be able to 
conduct one's self with propriety. 

Be aina, adj. Hearty, lusty, strong. 

B6in-aina, adj. Utterly indifferent 
to one's welfare. 

Satfliaina, adj. Hankering after, 
earnestly desiring ; used primarily 
of women in pregnancy. 
AI'NGA, root not much used. 

Voainga, v. pans. Ldf tod up, raised up. 

Aingaina, r. pass. (Imp. aingao.) To 
be lifted up, to be raised up. 

Miainga, v. int. (Imp. miaitigd ; Rel. 
iaingdnuy Rel. Imp. iaingao.) To 
rise up, to be elevated, to be 
raised up ; to set out on a journey. 

Manainga, v. tr. (Imp. mafMingd; 
Rel. anaifigdfMf Itel. Imp. anai' 
ngao.) To lift up, to elevate, to 
raise up; to send forward on a 
journey ; to fetch to a feast or 
meeting ; to ask a person to rise. 

Manainga l&vitra. [lavitea, far.l 
To raise or set up a reed on a hiJi 
by direction of the Mpisikidt in 
order to bring some one home ; to 
set up a landmark. 

Manainga tsy ritra. [tsy, not, bi- 
tha, dried up.] In a hurry, and 
not willing to wait for the proper 
time; a charm erectod to obtain 
something longed for. 
AI'NOINAI'NGINA, s. [Redup. of 

alKJve.] A seat on an elevated place. 

Miainginaingina, <-. int. (Imp. mi- 
almjinaingena ; Rel. iahigiiuiingc' 
nanay Rel. Imp. ialtujinaittgeno.) 
To be seated on an elevated place. 



AI'BA, s. A word applied to cotton wool . 
AI'ST, inter. No I A word expressing" 

dislike and grief. Est is alk> lued. 

MiaisialBy, r. int. (Imp. miaisiaisia ; 
Rcl. iaisiaistanaf Kel. Imp. iaisiai- 
»io,) To express dislike or grief 
by the repeated use of the word 
AiST ; to reject contemptuously. 
AI'SOTSA. See Esotba. 

Toalsotra, see Esotba. 

Aiidrina, see Esotba. ^mp. aisory.) 

Miidtotra, see Esotba. (tmp.miaisdra; 
Rel. iaisbrana^ Rel. Imp. iaisbry.) 

Kanaitotra, see Esotba. (Imp. ma- 
naUora; Rel. anaisbrana, Rel. Imp. 

Xaxudf otra andro. [andbo, day.] To 
put off, to adjourn to some other 

Kanaiso-balidaka. [vahoaka, the 
people.] To depopulate, as is 
sometimes done by orders of the 
government or lords of manors, 
who only have the right of deter- 
mining where people shall live. 
AITO. Same as Ito. 

Kuiaito, r. tr. To break in two or 
more, as a spear. 
AITO, *. [Root ivo ?] Anything in 

the middle ; the children of a family 

between the eldest and the youngest ; 

when there are more than two, it is 

applied to the second eldest. Much 

n^ed in forming names, as Andbia- 

3rAivo, Inaivo, Ranatvo, or Naivo, 

names given to males ; while Raivo 

is the name given to females. 
AI'ZA, adv. Where ? Whither ? In what 

place P How ? When followed by No 

it means, by what means ? See Aia. 

Maakalia, v. int. To go where ? To 
lead to where? as of a road. 

Ho aiza 1 Where are (you) going ? 

Kb^la aisa izy ! Far off. 

Aiza ho aica 1 Wberealx)ut8 (is it) ? 

Ka aiza na aiza, adv. Wheresoever. 

Tty aiza tay aiza, adv. Not far away. 
AI'ZAHA, 8. The youngpcst child in a 

family when the mother is again 

pregnant, also used of the youngest 

child but one. 

ICanalzana, r. int. Imp. and Rel. not 
used. To be again pregnant after 
having borne a child or children. 

Xi&naizana, adj. The condition 

of the two youngest children in 

a family. 
AI'ZIKA. See Izina. 
Ai'ziM-piTO, adj. [fito, seven.] Exceed- 
ingly dark, pitch-dark. 
AJI'MA, adj. Prodigioiis, extraordi- 
nary. (Ptov.) 
Kamgima, adj. To be extraordinary. 

Used with Raha, prov. for Za- 

VATBA, as Raha xanajuca, a 

A'jojca', s. Friday. (Prov.) See ZoiCA. 
A'KA, Same as Aza. (Sak.) 
A'KA, adj. Accustomed to, familiar 
with, clever, skilful. Not used as 
a simple adjective, but only in such 
phrases as, Manao azt ho aea izt. 
He makes himself out to be clever. 
AKA', root not in use. 
Akaina, r. pass. (Imp. akab.) To 

be deluded, deceived, imposed 

Kanaki, v. tr. (Imp. manakd; Rel. 

anakdnOy Rel. Imp. anakab.) To 

delude, to befool, to treat craftily. 
A'KA, root not in use. 
tf&ka, r. tr. (Imp. makd ; Rel. akd- 

luty Rel. Imp. akab.) To fetch, to 

bring, to take.- 
M&ka am-bilYany. [vava, mouth.] 

To cross -examine prisoners or 

accused persons. 
Mflka &ina. [aina, life.] To cease 

from work a little, so as to gain 

fresh strength. 
Mflka am-pandairana. [laitba, en- 
durable.] To strive continually 

for something. 
Mika an-kihitra. [hihttba, great 

desire.] Same as above. To pore 

over one's work. 
Maka fanahy. [fanaht, the soul.] 

To tempt, to try. 
M&ka hdvitra [hevitba, thought.] 

To seek information, or advice ; 

to consider. 
Mflka rivotra. [bivotba, air.] To 

take, seeking fresh air. 
M&ka Baina. [saina, mind]. Same 

as above. 
M&ka vadin-dlona. [vady, wife, 

OLONA, a person.] To commit 




Indra^ nuLka, adv. Once, one tune. 

See also Insbat xandbha. 
ThiB verb Maka forms its passive 
from the word Ala, alaina (Imp. 
alao). To be fetched. 
AKA'BO, «. A word used in the Sikidt 

KSJtCl\ inter. An imprecation ; a mode 
of playfolly expressing fondness, 
pleasure, etc. 
Atat'na, inter. Same as Azaito. 
AzAi'2n)HAT', inter, [indbat, again.] 

Almost ! Nearly hit ! 
Akai'ho'ana, pro. [iboana, yonder.] 
That fellow ; that one ; the scamp ! 
rogue. Used in pointing out an 
individual wiUi some degree of scorn 
or contempt. 
Akai'to', inter, [to.] Ah! Hit! Ex- 
actly so ! That*s it ! 
Axai'tt', inter, [ity, this.] Same as 

Akai'tsy', inter, [itst, this yonder.] 

Same as above. 
Akai'tb^ana, inter. Same as Akaiboai^a. 
AKAI'KT, adv. and adj. Near, near 
together, near by, close at hand. 
Voakaiky, r. pa»8. To be near 

something or somebody. 
Akekdna, or akekezina^ v. pass. (Imp. 
akekeoy or akekho.) To be approach- 
ed, drawn near to. 
Manakaiky, r. tr. (Imp. manakeke, 
or tnanakekeza ; Rel. anakekena^ or 
anakekezanay Rel. Imp. anakekeo, 
or anakekho.) To draw near to, 
to approach. 
Kamdly akaiky. To ^*make the cap 
fit,^* where not expected; to fire 
a gun at random. 
Mia&y hlloka. To confess sins. 
Miaiky ana6. Like Mueot [koy], 

which see. 
L&yitra akaiky, adv. Near, but 

cannot bo reached. 
M&ndry akaiky. To make short 
stages on a journey, and then 
remain for the night. 
Hivana akaiky s. [havana, a rela- 
tive.] A near relative. * 
Akai'na, v. pass. See Aka. 
AKA'KA', root not in u»e. 
Miak&k&, v. int. To stutter, to 

AxA'sAiCAfNTT, s. [aeaka, andxAniTT, 
black.] A water-bird. (Bets.) Same 
as Anoaka, which see. 

AKA'KT, s. Same as Anqaka, which 

AKA'LAITA, s. a chopping block. 
Akal&nina, v. pass. (Imp. akaUno.) 
To be chopped, but not on the 

Aka'laxan'ta, s. a chopping-board ; 
a chopping-block without feet for 
cutting up raw meat. 

Aka'lant. Aka'lak-bat, «. ['▼AT, a 
boil.] Its core (said of a boil). 

AKA'LO, s. a pestle, ^fenerally a long 
wooden pole which is used to hasc 
rice in the mortar. (Prov.) 

A'kalo'ha, adv. A children's word, 
same as Aoxa aloha. Wait a little. 

A'KANA'KANA, s. Hesitation in 

speech, demur. See Ahanahana. 

Miakanikana, r. int. (Imp. midka' 

nakdna ; Bel. idkanakmiana^ Bel. 

Imp. idkanakdno.) To hesitate 

in speaking, to demur. 

AKA'H0A,». The guinea-fowl, Xumida 
mitrata^ PaU. ; a rascal. (Prov.) 
[Swa. kdnga.'\ 
Miakanga, v. int. To go about like 

the guinea-fowl. (Ptov.) 
Nifin-ak&nga, s. An herb. 

Akan'oaha'zo, s. [hazo, a tree.] The 
name of a tree. 

Akak'oala'hy anxo'va. One whose 
mind is with his beloved one, wher- 
ever he himself may be. 

Aka'ngaba'no, s. [bano, water.] A 
plant from the fniit of which oird- 
lime is obtained. Its juice is poison- 
ous. (Betsim.) 

Axa'nqa tsy bo'a vo'lo, s. [tsy, not, 
BOA, two, voLO, feathers.] Aji as- 
semblage of people who are subject 
to the same sovereign ; lit. '^birda 
of a feather.'* 

AKA'KY, s. The nest or roosting 
place of vrild birds. 

Axa'nin'ke'na, s. [hena, beef.] A 
sinew, but applied only to sinews 
of beef. 

AKA'NJO, s. A coat, outer garment, 
dress. [Swa. kdnzu^ or Fr. eanezou.\ 
Voak&njo, v. pass. Worn, put on, 
as a dress. 



Akai^oina, r. poM, (Imp. akanjby.) 
To be dressed. To be clothed. 
Ajcanjoana also used. 
XiakiigO) r. int. (Imp. miakatijoa ; 
Bel. and Pass, iakanjbana, Rel. 
Imp. iakanjoy,) To dress, to be 
dressed in. 
IKanakiigo, r. tr. (Imp. manakan- 
jia ; Bel. anakanjbanaj Bel. Imp. 
anakanjoy.) To dress another, to 
put olotnes on another. (Prov.) 
IIaicfiakanjo is more frequently 
UAed in Imerina for this. 
Kitena ak&iyo. To be dressed entirely 
in European fashion. 
Axa'kjo a'bo, ». [abo, hig-h.] Same 

as Akanjo lava. (Prov.) 
Aza'hjo ana'tdtt, 8, [anatt, inside.] 
An under g^arment which is worn 
next the skm. 
Aka'njo BB, «. [bb, great.] An over- 
Aila'njo bb fb, 8. [bb fb, great 
thighs.} Garments like short draw- 
ers, ana waistcoats, tied round the 
thighs and forearms. 
Axa'njo bali'asa, «. [baijaka, seen.] 

Same as Axanjo manatbika. 
Aka'njo bilao'zy, 8, [bilaozt, Eng. 
blouse."] A blouse, a garment witii 
a string round the neck. 
AjCA'irjo bo'bt, 8. [bobt, sleeveless.] 

A vest, a jacket. 
Axa'kjobo'biza'ny, 8. [BOBizAirr, civil- 
ians.] Civilian dress, ordinary dress. 
Axa'njo doze'na, 8. A whole suit of 
clothes made of the same material, 
so called from bundles of similar 
mts being bought in dozens. 

jo doidna, v. int. To wear 

a whole soit of clothes made of 

the same material. 

Axa'njo panaiq'ana, a. [fanamiana, 

root, NAXT, official.] Official dress of 

officers of the army or government. 


Aea'njo jo'loka, 8. [JOLOKA, an en- 
trance.] A garment with holes for 
head and arms, and having no but- 
tons or fastenings. 

Axa'njo la'ya, 8. [lava, long.] A 
gown, a robe, a cassock. 

^xa'njo u>'baka, «, A shirt. 

Axa'njo ma'laba'bt, «. [xalababt, 

Malabar.] A long shirt reaching 

from the neck to the feet, worn by 

men only. 
Axa'njo xana'tbixa, 8. [atbixa, in 

front of.] A woman's spencer which 

opens in front. 
Axa'njo mzambo'ho, 8. [aicboho, at 

the back.] A woman's spencer which 

opens at the back. 
Axa'njon-ooaika, «. [ooAXXA,aorow.l 

The white feathers on the neck and 

breast of crows. 
Axa'njo ni'fy, ». [nift, the teeth.] 

The gums. 
Axa'njo be'babb'ba, «. A very long 

garment, introduced by the Arabs, 

which sweeps the ground. 
Axa'njo ton'ootba, «. [tonootba, the 

legfs.] Trousers. 
Axa'njo sa'lotba, «. [balotba, waist- 
coat.] A waistcoat. 
Axa'njo ta'pant, 8. [tapant, a part 

of.] Same as Axanjo bobt. 
Axa'njo tby le'na, «. [tst, not, lbna, 

wet.] A waterproof outer garment, 

i.e. a mackintosh. 
Axa'njo va'xt amboho, «. [vaxt ax- 

boho, opening at the back.] 
Axa'njo vity, «. A frock-coat. [Fr. 

Axa'njo vo'ho, *. [voho, back 

of.] Same as Axanjo ioaxboho. 

AXA'EAHA, 8. A shell. See Ka- 


Axa'bant, 8. [Boot AKATRA.] The 

length of a mat. 
Aka'bina, v. pass. See Axatba. 
AKA'BO, 8. A kind of fish. 
AKA'TA, 8. A grass used for forage ; 

rice in the husk. (Prov.) 
AKA'TATEA, a. Unhusked rice. See 

AKA'TBA, 8. A trap, a snare. (Prov.) 

Aka'tBAK-BO'aLA'vO, 8. [VOALAVO, a 

rat.] A rat-trap. 
A'KATBA, 8. Ascent, upward progress. 
Boot not much used. 
Tafakatra, v. pass. Ascended. 
Voakatra (1), r. pass. Taken up, 

brought up to a higher position. 

The following is more froqueutiy 

used: — 



Yoampikatra, r. pass. Taken up, 
brought to a higher position. To 
have been brou>rht home, as of a 
bride, hence married. 
AUtrina, t*. punt. (Imp. akdro.) To 
be broufrht up, to hd fetched up ; 
to be taken up, as words, letters, 
or persons from inferiors to supe- 
Xiikatra, r. int, Tlmp. miakdra; 
Rel. and Pass, iaharana, Rel. Imp. 
iakdro.) To ascend, to go up, to 
mount up. 
Kampikatra, v, tr. (Pass, ampahd- 
rinaf Imp. mampahdra ; Rel. am- 
pakdranOf Rel. Imp. ampakdro.) 
To send for ; to procure ; to fetch 
up, or carry up ; to marry (a wife). 
Kamp&ka-bidy. [vidt, a partner.] 
To obtain a wife, to marry a 
Ampak&rina, «. When used with 

Ny it means a bride. 
Kamp&ka-biry. [vabt, rice.] To 

get in the harvest. 
Kampika-dr&no. [bano, water.] To 
fetch water, especially applied to 
the water u^4od in the ceremonies 
of (ririMimoision. 
Mamp&ka-tdny. [teny, words.] To 
send a mesHage to those in author- 
Fampak&ram-bady, m. The marriage 

ceremonies, a wedding. 
Fampakiran-drino, h. A pump. 
AKA'VO, «. Tlie name of a shrub or 

AXE', inter, A word used to express 

surprise, i^rov.) 
AXE'BO, «. The gizzard. (Prov.) 
AKEI'KY. Same as Akaixt. 
A'keke'na, f. pass. See Akaiky. 
AXE'KY, adt\ (Prov.) Same as Heny. 
AXE'TA, s, A species of locust, the 
male of the Adbisa. Also called 
Ake'tsy', pro. That one, that fellow ! 

Same as Akairoana. 
Akk'tsi'ajta, pro. Same as Akairoana. 
A'KY, *. The largo intestines. (Prov.) 
A'kike'ly, 8. [kely, small.] The 

small intestines. (Prov.) 
AKI'O, s. The shark. (Prov.) See Ax- 


AXI'SA, adj. Affable, agreeable, play- 
ful, jocular, amusing ; good, pret^, 
MiakitaldM, r. int. To be affable, 

pleasant, good-natured. 
A'KO, 8. An echo; a reverberating 
Manako, r. int. Imp. and Rel. not 

used. To reverberate, to reeoond ; 

to throw back an echo. 
AZO'FA, 8. Chaff, light rioe, bligfated 
rice, husky rice. 
Kanakdfa, r. int. Imp. and Bel. 

not used. Used of the rioe light 

in the ear, to be husky, to be 

more chaff than rioe. 
AZaHO, «. The domestic fowl. [Sw. 
k'nku (?).] 
Voakdhokoho, v. pas: Used of the 

calling of fowls by their owner or 

K6hokoh6iiia, r. pass. (Imp. kohoko- 

hoy.) Used of the noise made in 

calling fowls. 
Mik6hok6ho, r. int. (Imp. mikckoko' 

hoa ; Rel. ikohokohoana^ Rel. Imp. 

ikohokohoy.) To call fowls. 
Manak6hok6ho, v. tr. (Imp. numa^ 

kbhokohoa ; Rel. anakohokohoanoy 

Rel. Imp. anakohokohby). To call 

fowls ; the noise made by a cock 

in calling a hen. 
Man&ngana ak6ho. To partially 

bury a fowl with its head above 

the ground to be thrown at ; lit. 

to set up a fowl. 
Ako'hoke'ly, 8. [kbly, little.] A 

y&ntotrakdlLO, s. A large chicken. 
Axo'hola'hy, s. [lahy, masculine.] A 

Slniakdho, s. A hen. 
Axo'hola'himba'by, 8. [vaby, rioe.] 
The name of an insect; a roll oi 
cooked rice (?). 
Ako'hola'hina'la, 8. [ala, forest.] 
A forest bird. (Bets.) Lophotibit 
cristata^ Gm. 
Ako'hola'hindba'no, 8. (Bets, and 
Tank.) [rano, water.] A water 
bird. CaniraUus f/risei/rons G. R. 
Gray. Same as Otbisa. 
Ako'hola'hinandri'ama'nitba, s. [an- 
DBiAiCANiT&A, God]. The name of 



aamall beetle with redwing-Bheaths. 
Pxobably a Bhyneophora. 

Axo'hO ICA.'SOXBZ'kA, «. [XAflOKBIKA, 

Moiambiqiie.] A fowl with frizzled 

feathers. G. erispus, 
Ako'ko xita'ht, 8, [xiFART, fattened.] 

A fattened fowl. 
Ako'hona'la, 8, [ala, a forest.] Same 

AkO'HO ftA'TBOXA, 8. [SATBOXA, a hat.] 

A crested fowl. 

Ako'ko ta'zara, «. (>a8aha, foreign.] 
A long-legged and large fowl. 

Ako'ho to'hitsa, t, [voHiTaA for vohx- 
nu, village.] Same as Akoholahi- 
VALA. (Betsmi.) 

Axo'bo to'bomba'to, 8, [yoBONA, a bird, 
ta'to, a stone.] A fowl resembling 
the AxoHO VAZAHA, but with a smafi 

Ako'bo to'sztra, 8. [V08ITBA, gelded.] 
A capon. 

AK01LA,8. Thenameofabird whioh 
has a quick motion, but stops fre- 
quently as if inyitfaig its porsuers 
to follow it. (Prov.) 

AXO'MA, 8, The name ot a species 
of boa-constrictor ; also called Do, 
and AifzoxA. Ptlophiltu fnadaffa8' 

AKO^HSRO, 8, The banana tree; 
die fmit of the banana. The steni, 
after being chopped, is given to oxen 
as food. The ashes obtained from 
burning the root are used in soap- 
making. Mmd sapifntum, L., and if. 
panuHsmieay L. Same as Ontst 
(Sak.), andOrsT (Bets). Theplantain 
tree and its fmit. [Mai. galu {?) ; 
Jav. gudanf (.*); Lazika kora (f); 
Swa. mkwngn ; Tapania hula (/).J 

Axo'iTDBOAFo'imnr «. A variety of bana- 
na whioh grows well in open spaces. 

Ako'ndboba'tavi'a, 8. [batavia.] A 
variety of banana very low in 

Axo'hdbobo'bobo'axa, «. A variety of 

Axo'xdbofe'lata'najca'mba, 8. [fela- 
TANANA, palm of the hand, icamba, 
a crocodile.] A variety of banana. 

iVxo'in>BOFo'DT, 8, [tobt, a bird.] A 
variety of banana wiUi small, red, 
sweet fmit. 

Ako'nsboha'zo, 8. [hazo, a tree.] The 
traveller's tree. (Prov.) Ravenala 
madaga8eanens%8^ Sunn. Same as 
Bavixpotst (Betsim), and Bakabia 
fSak.^, Bexato (Prov.), Fontst 
(Betsmi.), and Bavinala, which last 

Ako'ndbola'ht, b. [lart, masculine.] 
A variety of banana. 

Ako'hdbola'va, «. [lava, long.] The 
name of a children's game. 

Ajco'vdboxahi'a, «. [xAHiA, lean.] A 
variety of banana that hardly ever 

Ako'ndboma'voxe'lt, 8, [mavoxblt, 
pink.] A variety of pink ba- 

Axo'ndbonja'za, 8, fzA2A, a child.] 
An herb. Na8turt%um harbartafolium^ 
Baker. Same as Anajcfisaxa (Prov.), 
and KncALAO (Bets.), which latter 


Axo'itdbosa'biea, 8, [sAsiKA, bark.] 
A variety of banana, the leaves of 
which are used in making a kind of 

Axo'ksbotsi'bns'kboka, «. [tst, not, 
EXBOKA, peeling off.] A variety of 

Ako'nbbotbz'oxx'-bo'a. 8, [tst omsva, 
not given, boa, two.] A variety of 
banana with very large fruit, one of 
which is sufBcient to be eaten at once. 

Ako'ndbova'ht, «. [VAHY, a creeper.] 
A shrub with large edible fruit. A 

AXO'NDBOVl'DIirA'NOKA, 8, [VIDT, pricC, 

ANOKA, peaceful.] The sale of one 
article to get money to purchase 
AXO'EA, 8, Shoutmg, applause; a 
noise such as is made over a conquest, 
or in time of joy. See Host, Ho- 


Toakdra, v. pa88. Hooted at. 

Akoraina, v. pa88, (Imp. akoray.) To 
be shouted at, hooted at, as when 
a criminal is caught, or any one 
gets into trouble over which others 
may rejoice. 

Manucira, r. tr. (Imp. manakord ; 
Bel. anakordna^ Kel. Imp. anako' 
ray,) To about at, to hoot, to 



fhjnj mkhn, Thereualnint of 

TdleBA Bj aktoa. The ahoating 
broaks out. 

Axo'bi. ul'ya, t, [lava, long.] A pro- 
longed or continaoofl ahont. 

AXaBA, t. A sheU ; a shell-fiah. 

Axo'BAirr, «. A shell ; a ahell-fiah ; an 
emptied ooooon; a bamboo which 
la to be made into a mnaical inatni- 
ment, the aonnd of which aomewhat 
reaembleathatof a guitar; the strings 
are formed by separating strine from 
the bodj d the bamboo, leaving 
them attached at each end; these 
stringa are tnned hy moTeable 
bridges. SeeVAUHA. It is alao a 
name for bnllion. 

AKo'BAX-BT'y t. [vT, iron.] Unwrought 

Axo'iuiaii'BTy «. [bibt, an animal.] 
The hard coyering of animals, such 
aa the carapace of a tortoiae, etc. 

Axo'baicbo'la, «. [tola, money.] 
Uncoined money. 

Axo'sAXBo'LAKs'irA, «. [voLAiCBKA, red 
money, gold.] Unoomed |pold. 

AxD'aAHDAynT, t, [laitdt, a silkwonn.] 
An empty ailk cocoon. 

Ajco'BAHDBfAKA, t. [bzaxa, a straain, 
or the aea.] A aea-ahell. 

Ako'bantsi'fotba, t. [siPOTBA, a snail.] 
The shell of a snail. 

Axo'saya'to, «. [tato, stone.] Loose 
ohipa of atone. Bubble walling or 

AXO^T, int. How! How great! aa, 
Akobt lakt mr fahabbtsahav' 
mr OLOVA ! How numerous are the 
neoole ' 

Siirj isftto liy 1 How is this he P 

How are you P A aalutation ad- 

dressed to those below the rank of 

AiTDBiANA or nobles. 

Ak6ry ialUiy 1 Ha ! What think 

you of that ! 
Akdryit^l How is this? A phrase 
used to surprise or startle some 
one. That's it I Same as Akai- 


][ana6 ak6ry 1 Well ! what news P 
In some of the provinces it is the 
usual form of salutation. To sal- 

Tiyakftzy, adv, or Tay akftry. 

Not aU, by no means, on no ac- 
AKOTT, t. The name of a kind of 
cloth imported by the Arabs. [Ar. 
al'ketien, or al^qoinJ] 
AXO'TBT, «. Rice in the husk, paddy 
Xamiky akdtrj, adf, [taet, split, 
brokoi.] Splitting gndnadPnoe; 
hence a penurioua peraon, nig- 
gardly, one given to hair-split- 
AXO'TSO, 8. The border of a native 
cloth or Laxba usually having five 
stripes, one red or yellow in the 
centre, and four blue. 
Toakdtao, 9. pa$8. Having had the 

Akotbo aewn on. 
Akotadina, v, past,' (Imp. akoU6y.) 

To have the Axorso put on. 
ICiakdtao, v. int. To be bordered 

by the Akoibo. 
Kanakdtao, v, tr, (Imp. ma n a k o t id a ; 
Rel. anakottdanay Bel. Imp. aimko^ 
t9oy.) To put the Akoxbo on a 
Axo'tbo bb, 8. [bb, great, many.] A 

many-striped border. 
Ako'tbo Dfinr, «. [duct, five.] A five- 
striped border. 
Ako'tso fo'ht, «. [fokt, short.] A 

slight edging for a border. 
Axo'tso tb'noka, «. [tbnona, woven.] 
A Laxba with a large border 
woven on. 
Axo'tbo to'kava, «. [tokaita, one.l^A 
Laxba with a striped border. The 
above worda axe oxuy uaed with xx- 
added, aa Laxba ioaeotso bb, eto. 
A'LA, 8, A forest, a wood ; a provin- 
cial name for a serpent. [Mai. niSM.] 
MianUa, v, int. To go to the forest. 

Imp. and Bel. not used. 
Xirihitr' ftla, «. [bibihitra, smaU.] 

A wood of shrubs or small trees. 
Tan&la, «. The dwellers in the forests. 
A'la bb, 8. [bb, great.] A great or 

thick forest. 
A'la fa'dy, «. [fadt, tabooed.] A grove 
in which there are graves, and thus 
is forbidden nound. (Prov.) 
A'la kb'lt, 8. Tkblt, little.] A little 
forest, a wood, a grove. 



A'la XAx'cDrA, 9, [XAZZZNA, dark.] A 

denae forest. 
A'la ka'noa, t. [xAiroA, superior.] 

An ancient name of the capital. 
A'l4 xa'siha, «. [iCASiNA, sacred.] The 

trees around or about the palace of 

the sovereign, and where there is a 

royal tomb. 
A'lA xa'tt, «. [xATTy dead.] The 

charred stumps of trees in a forest 

that has been burnt. 
A'lam-bs'bo, «. fyEBO, a species of 

grass.] A patch of high grass. 
A'lambn'oa, «. A Sakalava encamp- 
ment. (Sak.) 
A'uL josisi'bdbo, 9. [edundbo, thick.] 

A very thick forest. 
A'uL vob'tboka, «. [nobtboka, dark.] 

An exceedingly thick and trackless 

forest, owing to the number and 

doseness of uie trees. 

A'UL IBT VA'KT lay, «. [VAKT, OUt, 

ULT, a tent.1 A forest in which no 
spaces have been cleared for encamp- 

A'xA vo'bt, 9, [voBT, assembled.] A 
small iscJated grove or wood. 

A'LA, adj, and odv. Without, on the 
outflide of, removed, freed from. 
Much naeid in making compound 
words and phrases. See Afaxa, 


Toilk, V, pas». Removed, taken 
away, released, fetched, with- 
drawn, freed from. 

AliaA, r. |MM. (Imp. alao.) To have 
•omethuig taken from so as to be 
reduced m number or quantity ; 
removed, taken off or out, ^B a 
TiAiffBA, a tooth, etc. This form is 
similar to the relative of Miala. 

Alaina, r. poM. (Imp. ala6,) To be 
fetched ; to be taken, to be sum- 
moned, to be called, to be invited ; 
to be ciiosen, to be preferred. 

Alaim-panihy. [fanaht, the soul.] 
To be tempted, to be tried. 

Alain-am-pandairana. [laztba, en- 
dured.] Wrought unremittingly. 

Alain-an-kihitra. [hihitba, deter- 
minationj Same as preceding. 

Alain-dr6. [bo^ gravy t sauce.] Beef 
or fowls that are to be used for 
making gravy« 

Alain-jiiabddo. [zazaboix>, a child.] 
Payment made without dispute, as 
to a child who is not capable of 
driving a sharp bargain. 

Alain-jiia tsy mitdny. [tst, not, 
xiTEinr, speaking.] Same as pre- 

ICiila, r. int. (Imp. miald ; Bel. ta- 
Idna^ Rel. Imp. ialdo.) To go out, 
to retire, to go away, to leave. 

mUa imy. To go from. 

Mana6 fiiJ&na. To make excuses. 

Xanila, v. tr. (Imp. manald^ or 
manffald ; Rel. analdna, or anga' 
IdnUf Rel. Imp. analao, or angdlao,) 
To take away, to remove from, 
to subtract, to withdraw from. 
Manoala IB provincial. 
A'la ai'na, t, [aina, life.] Used in 

compounds and in the verb in la-. 

Miua aina, v. camp. (Imp. miald 
alna ; Rel. ialdn-alna, Rel. Imp. 
ialao alna.] To die, to expire, to 
cease to breathe. 

FialiA-alna, «. Death, expiration of 
Al'a axa'njo, 9. [akanjo, a garment.] 

Used in m- ana its dependent foims 

to express disrobing. 

MiUa akiigo, v. eotnp. (Imp. miald 
akdnjo ; Rel. ialdn^akdnjOy Rel. 
Imp. ialao akdty'o.) To undress, 
to disrobe. 

Xanila akiigo. Same as above. 
A'la a'ndbo, 9. [andbo, day, time.] 

Used in mam- and its dependLent forms 

to express play, or waste of time. 

Manila indro, v. eotnp. (Imp. mana- 
Id dndro ; Rel. analdn-dndro, Rel. 
Imp. analad dndro.) To waste 
one*s time, to spend one's days 

in play, to play, 

Fanalin-indro, «. Means of passing 
away one's time wisely or un- 
A'la a'tt, «. [aty, the pith.] Used as 
follows : — 

Kan&la ity, v. camp, (Imp. manald 
dty ; Rel. analdn-dty, Rel. Imp. 
analao dty.) To remove the pith 
from rushes, etc. 
A'la baba'ka, adj. [babaka, honour.] 
Same as Ata-babaza. Used as fol- 
lows : — 


Toilft btfdka, V. jmm. Disgraoed, 

Alim-btxtta, r. /mm. (Imp. oJlao 6a- 

rdka.) To be disgraoed. 
Miila liarUca, v. comp. (Imp. mta/^ 
hardka; Bel. iaUm-haraka^ Bel. 
Imp. ta^ iaraJta.) To do some- 
thing beneatli one's dignity. 
y»Ti41t barika, r. eamp. (Imp. ma- 
fuUd hardka; Bel. atuildm'bardka, 
Bel. Imp. ai>tf2ao bardkaJ) To 
disgrace, to diahonoiir, to put to 
A'lJL bo'kotka, «. [boxotba, Eng. 
Mtott.'] Used as follows : — 
Xanila b6kotra, r. tr. (Imp. manald 
hokotra; Bel. analdm-bokotray Bel. 
Imp. oimAio bokotra.) To unbut- 
A'l4 d^ka, «. [cncjL, exoroism.] Used 
in XAN- and its dependent forms to 
express exorcism. (Proy.) 
Xanila dika, r. rom/y. (Imp. manald 
dika ; Bel. anaUn-dika, Bel. Imp. 
analao dika,) To exorcise. 
A'LA.Di'aAKA, «. [DI8AKA, fatigue.] Used 
in iLLN- and its dependent forms. 

Xanila dlaaka, v. eomp. (Imp. ma- 

ftaid dUaka; Bel. analdn-dhaka, 

Bel. Imp. analad dUaka.) To rest 

a little so aa to be free from 


A'la. e'ntana, s. [sntana, goods.] 

Used in iCAir- and its depend^it 


Xanila dntana, v, eomp, (Imp. ma^ 
nald hitana; Bel. analdn^entana, 
Bel. Imp. analad ^tana.) To 
unload, as of the cargo of a ship, 
canoe, cart, etc. 
A'UL fa'dt, «. [fast, a thing tabooed.] 
A present of beef or money from 
the chief mourner at a funeral to 
those attending the ceremonies con- 
nected with the Afana. 
Alim-pidy, r. pasa. To be presented 

with the Ala fady. 
Xiila fitdy, r. eomp. (Imp. miald 
fdfhj; Bel. ialnm-pady^ Bel. Imp. 
iaimfddy,) To be free from the 
Fady or ceremonial defilement 
supposed to be contracted at fune- 
ral oeremonies. 

Xanila fftdy, r. eomp. (Imp. mamaU 
fady ; Bel. amaldm'pddy^ Kel. Imp. 
analao fddy.) To act tiie part of 
chief mourner in presenting money 
or beef to the attendants at a 
funeral or at the Afana. 
A'la fa'ditsa, «. [faditba, an ofPer- 

ing.] Used as follows : — 

Xiila filditra, r. eomp, Hinp. miaU 

fdditrd ; Bel. ialdm-paditra , BeL 

Imp. ialao fdditra.) To make an 

offering to avert evil. 

Ajla'faxa, r. pat. See Aiaka. 

A'la fa'no, «. I^FAiro, a tree.] Used 

in la- and its diependsnt fonmi. 

Xiila flbio, v. eomp, (Imp. miaU 
fdno ; Bel. ialdm'pdno^ Kel. Imp. 
ialao fdno,) To go out of mourn- 
ing, BO called because of some 
ceremonial rite in which the seeds 
of the Fano were used in working 
the SniDY. 
A'la fato'rana, 9, [fatorana, fetters.] 

Used in xi- and its dependent 


Xiila Hatftrana, «. eomp, (Imp. miaU 

fatorana; Bel. ialdm'patoranay Bel. 

Imp. ialao fatorana.) To be set 

free from bonds or fetters. 

A'la fa'totba, 9. [fatotba, bonds.] 

Same as Ala fatobana. 
A'la fo, 9, fFO, the heart.] The 

removal of the pith from rushes to 

prepare them for plaiting; a final 

effort ; without regret ; precaution 

in taking every care necessary for 

the acomplishment of anything so 

as to leave no cause for regret 

or remorse in case of failure ; 

discouragement ; without heart. See 


Alaim-pd, v.pa99, p[mp. alaofb,) To 
be having the pith extracted. 

Alim-pd, V. pa99. To be pacified, 
to have the heart put at rest ; to 
be made disheartened. 

Xiila fo, V. eomp, (Imp. miala fo ; 
Bel. ialdm'pOf Bel. Imp. ialao fo,) 
To be cleared of pith, as ruAheM ; 
to do one's utmost; to leave no 
stone unturned ; to exhaust one's 
refloitrces ; to do everything that 
would preclude self-reproach; to 
be disheartened. 



Bel. analdm'^, nel. Imp. analad 
fo.) To extract the pith bom 
rashes; topadfj, to appease, to 
assuage wrath. 
A'la oa'da^ «. [qabba, fetters, chains.] 
Used in xan- and its dependent 

MaaUagUrt, r. tomp, (Lmp. manald 
fddra; Bel. anaUn^gidra, Bel. 
Imp. analab gidra.) To remove 
chains or fetters from the limbs. 


ronning.1 Used only m oomponnds 

and in tne reciprocal forms of the 


iri^wAi > li A«afcA«« Va ,;. ranp. (Imp. 

mi/2iiM/a hdzakdzaka; Bel. i/bna- 
2«ia hizakazaka, Bel. Imp. i^ma- 
fa^ hdsakdxaka,) To run races for 
wagers or fun. 
A'la. TOluxEXy 8. [ke^lokjl, gpi^t*] 

Used in uaS' and its dependent 


ManMa hdloka, r. e<nnp. (Imp. ma- 
nald kiloka ; Bel. aTUtldn'keloka^ 
Bel. Imp. amUao h^loka.) To re- 
move gtiilt, to propitiate. 
A'i.A hx'dt, «. [hibt, a bolt or lock.] 

Used in xan- and its dependent 


IfanAla hldy, r. «omp. To nnlock, 
to remoTe bolts, etc. 

7aailahid7, «. A key. See Laxhj!. 
Alai'va, V, pa$8. See AziA. 
A'l^ ja'nona, «. [jAiroNA, a stopping.] 

Besting. Used mxi- and its d^iend- 

ent forms. 

XUUa jinona, v, oomp. (Imp. miald 

jdruma ; Bel. xMna jawma^ Bel. 

Imp. iaiao Jdnona,) To rest after 

exertion, to lecniit one's strength. 

A'UL kayo'bo, «. [XAFOBO, abjoct.] A 

name used in astrology for the first 

and third days in AnoozAirA, Hie 

serenth month of the Malagasy 


jKUUs kafteo, r. eomp. (Imp. miald 
kafiro; Bel. ialdna kafiro, Bel. 
Imp. iaiao kafho.) To be desper- 
ate on account of abject poverty ; 
to be stubborn or inflexible, as a 
aiminal who has lost aU hope. 
A'XA MtmtAJKA, A star, (Pkor.) 

A'la la'9t, $, [z-aht, mascnline.] Used 
only in ^e following ward : — 
PaniUliky, «. A ohann used to 
create dislike in a man for a 
A'uL la'xba, t. [ziAiEBA, a gannent.l 
Used in componnds, and' in xi- ana 
XAN- and their dependent forms. 
Miila limba, v, eomp. Omp. miald 
Idmba; Bel. ialdn-dimba, Bel. 
Imp. ialao Idmba,) To pnt off 
one^s clothes, to undress. 
ICaniU Umba, V. tr. (Imp. mandlA 
Idmba; Bel. analdn-ddmba^ Bel. 
Imp. analao Idmba,) To take off 
one own or some one else's dothes, 
to undress one's self or another. 
A'la lo'ndoita, «. fLONDONA, pumpkin 
flowers.] Used m xi- and its de- 
pendent forms. 

ICi&la Idndona, r. eomp. (Imp. miald 
londona; Bel. ialdna londofta, Bel. 
Imp. iala6 londona.) To become 
free from matter and swelling in 
the eyes, said of an infantile diseaHe. 
A'la lo'za, «. [loza, calamity.] The 
name of oertam ceremonies peitormed 
after expurgation by the Tanoena 
ordeal; the beef or money first 
received by a person after such 
expurgation; first communication 
with the other sex after the decease 
of husband or wife. 
AUln-d6ia, r. pats. (Imp. alao loza.) 
Purified by the Tanosna ordeal or 
the ceremonies of the Afana. 
XiAla I6sa, r. eomp. (Imp. miald 
loza ; Bel. ialdn^doza, Itel. Imp. 
ialao loza.) The becoming exempt 
from calamity after taking the 
Tanoxna ; to purify one's self ; to 
perform the ceremonies after ex- 
purgation by the Tanobna ordeal ; 
to hjive communication with the 
other sex for the first time after 
the death of a husband or wife. 
Xanila I6sa, v. eomp. (Imp. manald 
loza; Bel. analdn-doza, Kel. Imp. 
analao loza.) To purify from the 
Loza ; to cause the performance 
of the ceremonies subsequent to 
the Takcibka expurgation, but es- 
pecially to ^ve the cattle killed 
on the occasion. 


AJuL wl'vdvt, 9, [iLUffDET, lying 
down.] Used in the following : — 
Xi&la m^ndxy, v. pa$9. (Imp. mUUd 
mdndry; Bel. iald-mdndiy, Bel. 
Imp. ialao mdndiy.) To epend the 
nignt away from home, and yet 
be baok in the early morning as if 
neyer haying been away. Used 
only in a bad sense. 

A'UL xo'kotba, i. [koKOTBA, tired.] 


Xiila mdkotra, «. eomp, (Imp. miald 

mokotra ; Bel. taU'tnokotray Bel. 

Imp. ialao mokotra,) To rest from 

fatigue. (Prov.) 

A'la. ko'niha, 8. [xoNUfA, dwelling in.] 

KLila m6nina, v. eomp, (Imp. miald 

mitmna ; Bel. iald-monifM^ Bel. 

Imp. ialao monina,) To change 

one's residence. 

A'la OTs'ioNA, «. [yENiWA, regret.] 

Freedom from regret or remorse. 

See Ala fo, and Apa-nenika. 

Voila ndnina, r. pa99. To have been 

Miila ndnina, r. eomp. (Imp. miald 
mttina ; Bel. iald-neninaf Bel. Imp. 
iaiao ncnina.) To re-assnre one s 
conscience ; to prevent subsequent , 
regret by making the best use of 
one's opportunities; to work off 
remorse by penitence. 
A'la o'lana, ». [olana, twisting.] 

Xiila dlaka, r. eomp. (Imp. miald 
olana ; Bel. xaUn^ohtna^ Itel. Imp. 
ialah olana.) To do that which 
bringfs relief ; to remove misun- 
derstanding ; to become free from 
impediments; to stretch one's self . 
A'la o'in>BANA, s. roin>aANA, foolish- 
ness.] Used in me following : — 

Al&n-^ndrana, v. pats. (Imp. aldo 
ondrana.) Used of persons who 
have contracted an incestuous 
marriage, or a marriage -vHthin the 
prohibited degrees, and for whom 
certain offerings have to be made 
to remove the stigma attaching to 
such an act. 

KanUa 6ndraaa, i^. eomp. (Imp. ma^ 
nald ondrana; Bel. anaUtn-ondra- 
na ; Bel. Imp. analdo ondrana.) ' 
To make the above-mentioned 

A'XiA BfTOTBA, 9. flirVOTEA, iHitd, aiT.] 

Used in the following : — 

Xiila riyotra, v. eomp. (Imp. mtoU 
rivotra; Bel. iaUn^dHvotra^ Bel. 
Imp. ialab rlvotra.) To take exer- 
cise for the purpose of getting 
fresh air. 
A'la bo'hona, «. [bokoha, swellings.] 

Same as A'la o'laha. 
A'la SAFAy, 8. [bafat, trifling.] Used 

in the following : — 

Xiila aafiy, v. eomp. fEmp. miala 
Mfay; Bel. ialdn't8afay, Bel. Imp. 
ialao 8^fap.) To trifle, to act per- 
functorily, to do a thing for mere 
appearance's sake. 
A'la sao'na, 8. [saona, mourning.] 

Groing out of mourning. 

Xiila ia6na, r. eomp. (Imp. miald 
8aona; Bel. ialdn'tsaona^ Bel. Imp. 
ialao 8aona.) To go out of mourn- 
A'la sa'satba, «. [sasatba, fatigue.] 

Best from fatigue. 

Xiila tiiatra, «. eomp. (Imp. miald 
sdsatra ; Bel. ialdn-ttasatray Bel. 
Imp. ialao sdsatra. To rest from 
fatigue, to refresh one's self when 
weary or tired. 
A'LiV sa'zt, «. [SAZY, a fine.] Used 

in the following : — 

Xiila iiiy, V. eomp. (Imp. miald 

adzjf ; Bel. idUn^Udzy^ Bel. Imp. 

ialao 8dzif.) To taste food before 

giving it to a stranger. (Prov.) 

A'la sixrDT, «. [siKinT, divination.] 

Used in the following : — 

Xiila tikidy, r. eomp. (Imp. miaU 
tikidy; Bel. iaUn-ttikldy, Bel. 
Imp. ialao tikidy.) To change 
one s place of residence to get 
freedom from a disease. 
A'la tba'katba, «. [tbahatba, rest.] 

Same as Ala sasatba. 
A'la tbe'mtsina, s. [' ingnTUA , a oorik, 

stopper, or bung.] 

Xanila tsdntima, v. eomp. (Imp. 
manald tsenttina ; Bel. analdn - 
tsenttina, Bel. Imp. analao Uen' 
t8ina.) To take out a cork or 

Fanalui-tstataina, ff. Aoork-sorew. 
A'la tsi'kt, «. [Tannr, blame.] Freedom 

from censure or blame. 


Miila tsinj, «. wmp. (Imp. miali 
tam^; Bel. ialdn^Uln^, Bel. Imp. 
M^ t«tny.) To apologiae; to 
offer ezonsea, to clear one's self 
from oensore or blame. Mostly 
applied to the apology almost 
always made in the introduotion 
to a speech. 

Manila tiiiiy, «. comp, (Im^. monoid 
temy ; Bel. amUdn - Utfif, Bel. 
laxp. attoloi tsinjf.) To justify 
another, to dear one of goilt or 
A'la. va'tt, ». [vAVY, female.] (Prov.) 

Used only in the following word : — 

FanilavaTy, s. A charm used to 
create di^ike in a woman for a 


A'la toa'dt, «. [voADY, a vow.] -The 

fulfilling of an oath or yow; an 

oblation, a sacrifice, a propitiation. 

ifffcuki^ Toidy, V. eomp, (Imp. ma- 
nolo roddy; Bel. anoldm-hoddyy 
Bel. Imp. analao voddtf,) To per- 
foim a sacrifice in fulfilment of 
a TOW, so as to be free from obli- 

Fioalimboidy, «. A sacrifice. 
A'la vo'ia, 9, [voLA, money.] 

Miila y61a, v, eomp. (Imp. miold 
9olo; Bel. ioldm-bolOf Bel. Imp. 
uUoo volo.) To spend money. 
A'la vo'lt, i. [voLY, benumbed.] 

IQila Tdly, v. eomp. (Imp. mioid 
voly ; Bel. ioldno voly, Bel. Imp. 
ioki6 voUf.) To seek tu free one^s 
self from cramp ; to amble, to trot, 
to jog along, as workmen gfoing 
home at the close of the day. 
A'la ▼o'lofo'wy, *. [tomiotsy, grey 


Maiiija y&lof6tsy, v. eomp. (Imp. 

monoid volofitay ; Bel. anoidm^ 

bolofotay, Bel. Imp. anoiod voio" 

fiUy.) To pick out grey hairs. 

A'la YO'mNA'KITBA, «. [vondtahitba, 

honour.] Same as Ala basaxa. 
A'la TO'ifKiNA, «. [tonxuta, bent.] 

Same as Hdoly aina. 
A'la to'by, «. [toby, a grun charge.] 

Used only in the following word : — 

VkBi]AT6ry, 9. A ramrod with a 
screw for remoTing a charge from 
a gun. 

A'LAHA'BT, «. Sunday, the first 
day of the Malagasy week; the 
name of the places where the mar- 
kets were formerly held on that day. 
[Ar. Al-ahodu—Firat.] 

A'tAEAMA'BT, «. The name of the 
first month in the Malagasy year, 
when the festiyal of the Fandboa- 
NA is observed. [Ar. Al'homoiu — 


The north-east. 
A'LAHASA'TT, 9. The name of the 
fifth month of the Malagasy year. 

tAr. Al^euadu — Zeo mtyor.'] 
.AHE'LO, 9. [ALA (?), helo (?) .] Orief, 

sorrow, depression of spirits, melan- 
choly, dejection; longing after. 
Sieving for ; poverty, penury, 
ilahdlo, adj. To have pensive 
feeling lilro those produced by 
plaintive music or singing ; to be 
poor; to be poverty stricken; to 
be bereaved. 

M&lahdlo, r. int. and tr. (Imp. ma- 
lahelova; Bel. alafielovana^ Bel. 
Imp. alohelbvy.) To be depressed 
in spirit, to feel sorrowful; to 
g^eve for, to long after. 

Mahilahdlo, r . tr. (Imp. mahdlohe' 
lovo; Bel. ahdlohelovanOf Bel. Imp. 
dhdlaheiovy.) To grieve another ; 
to awaken melancholy ; to produce 
pemdve feelings. 

Mit6ndra &lahdlo. To mourn; to 
carry sorrow ; to be in sorrow. 

mtsipa &lahdlo. To offer consola- 
tion, to sympathize with the af- 
flicted, to make visits to persons 
in trouble. Manalady alahslo is 
also used. 

M&lahdlo am-p6. Sorrowful at heart. 

T6mpon-&lahdlo. A mourner, the 
one on whom the trouble falls. 
ALAI'MO'EA, 9. The name given to a 

certain column in the arrangfement 

of the SiKiDY. 
ALAI'TAKA, 9. An herb. Heliehry 

9um 9p. 
ALAITAKA, 9. An herb, ^ts.) 

Antho9permum emirnenae, Baker. 

Same as Hazonobana, Alaxienoa 

2 lets.), and Kuamqa (Beta.), which 
st see. 


ALAI'ZA'VT, 9. The name givot to a 
oertein odLamn in the Smmr. 

A'LAKA. Same as AxA, XAXA. (^rcfw,) 
With pronominal anffinws aa Alaxo, 
it meaos^ I do not know. (Fkov.) 

Alifkaa, 9. ^«w. (Imp. ai4/v.) Same 

XUaka, v. <r. Same aaMiSA. (Ptor.) 

AT.AXAMT'SY, i. Thnzaday; the place 

wliere Tfaiinday*a maiket ia held. 

[Ap. Al-ehamisu— Fifth.] 

A'tiAKAMTSY, s. Atreenaedinlioiue- 

buUding'. It is said to be Inonght 

from the forest only on Thnzadays, 

hence its name. Chips of the 

wood aie used as a remedy for 

colic and indigestion. 

A'LAKAMI'BT, «. Probably the same 

as the preceding. Used by the Sa- 

kalava as a medicine for pains in 

the head. (Prov.) 

A'LAKAO'ST, «. The name of the ninth 

month of the Malagasy year. [Ar. 

Al-qatisu — ArctUy amd Sagittarius; 

Hcb. goBliety and ga%haf\, 

A'LAXAEA'BO, «. The name of the 

eighth month of the Malagasy year 

[Ar. Al^aqrabu — Scorpio; Heb. a'- 


A'LAKASI'HIirA, V. poM. (lmp,alaka- 
kino,) To be beaten. Kot nsed in 
the root form. 
ALA'LAKA, s. [▲, prep.^ and lalana, 
way, road.] The agent or person 
between parties in oommnnication 
with one another; a messenger, a 
mediator, a "go-between;'' the 
communication carried by an inter- 
mediate person. 

Toal&lana, r. pans, Fromnlgated by 
a seoond person; deliTered as a 
AlftlAnina, r. pass. (Imp. alaUno.) 
To be sent for or snmmoned 
through an intermediate; to be 
made known through another. 
ManaMlanai r. tr. (Jxap. manaldlana; 
Rel. anaialdnana, Bel. Imp. ana' 
laldno,) To send repeatCNl mes- 
sages through a third person; 
to send a messeng^ repeatedly; 
to be in the habit of employing 
another to oonvey messagee. 

first, the beginning.] For ever and 
ever. Used with Ha-ndbakizat. 

A&A'MAf s. A diitiiigiaaiiiaff 
that by which a tiling ia known. 
ALA' Alnn. ^ng. «faa».] 
ALA'VA,«. Sand. (Pioy.) 
ALA'VAVA,*. A word applied to the 
sand or fine gnaTel naed m woridng 
the Sqeidt. 
AXAVAXAVA, t. The waiting ufln- 
qnired of, aa ia a trial wEen one 
parly does not appear to vindicate 

MiilawAlaiia, r. int, (Imp. miiiana' 

lama; BeL idlmmaUnoHa, BeL 

Imp. ialanmli mo.) To wait for the 

appearanee of the other party in 

a trial. 

ALAOTBA, s. The name of a lake in 

the Antmhanaka {wovinoe ; the sea. 

[Mai. latit ; Ar. al-lutatf the sea.] 

Taladtra, «. The Arabs; lit. the 

people from beyond the sea. 

ALAO'VALO, adv, [Ar. al-acdlu, the 

ALABOBr A, t. Wednesday ; the place 

of holding Wednesday's market. 

fAr. Al'arbdat»— Fourth.] 
A'LASI'BT, a. The afternoon about 

half -past three. (Prov.) 
A'LATIhAI'HY, i. Same as Ai.atbi- 

KAINY. (Prov.) 

A'LATSnrAI'HY, «. Monday; thepUoe 

of holding Monday's market. [Ar. 

A /- itztMH i — Second*] 

LLK'WhJBiK^t. SameasAuNA. (Prov.) 

ALS'O, r. past, Prefeixed, preferable. 

[See Leo.] 

Alioko manddha t6y iia^ inipitraka. 
I prefer going to remaining, or. 
It is better to go than to remain. 
It is generally followed by Tot 


A'LT, «. Same as Aldta. (PM)t.) 
ALI'KA, «. A dog. Used alao in con- 
tempt for a human being. See alao 

AitVft^nfc, r. pass, (Imp. aUkao,) To 
be abused, to be treated as if 
unworthy of respeot. 
maUkalika, vAnt. (Imo. mialihaliki; 
Bel. ialikalikdnay Bel. Imp. ialika' 
llkao.) To be too fami&ar with 
others, to aasome impertinent airs. 


■AiuUika, (Imp. wumMU; Bel. 

mmaUkdnUj BeL Imp. a$iaUkao,) To 

pflB oppTobrioiu words to anj one. 

AXIKI'SA,, a(^'. [alixa, and zba, nnm- 

ber.] In immnniie numbers^ innu- 


AXXXAMA'KAft. AnalmannQ. [£ng. 

AUVA, M^'. Ten tbonaand. [Mai. 

faOa m ; Sanao. Uuha.] 

A'liiiiima, a^'. and A/r. nxonsandB 
upon thonaanda ; innumerable. 

rdlftilindiltij, «. The ten ten thou- 
sand men, which is the name given 
to the army. 
A'LIVA, f. Ni^ht» darkness, pertain- 
ing to the ni^ht. [Mai. mi/am, 

MvBol makh^ night.] 

AUnina, «. paas. (Imp. tUtno,) To be 
kept from going until night. Used 
of misspent days and hours. 

Xiilina, r. int. To partially pene- 
trate ; to remain a night before 
being used, as mud for m^ing 
walls, ete. 

Xiilin-koririka, v. int. To have no 
rioe to eat, and thus eating the 
leaves of an arum called Saonjo. 

ManAlJTia, r. tr. (Imp. manalina; 
Bel. analinanaf Bel. imp. ancUinoS 
To detain till night ; to misspend 
one^s days and hours. 

Hilina, adr. Last night. 

An-Utlbia, A^'. ForHAUWA. (IVov.) 

Aaio ilisa, adv. This evening, to- 

Alin'lo. The night of that day. 

A'lin' iny. Same as preceding. 

A'lin' ny Zomi. On fViday night. 

lAha Alina, adj. Same as Baha 
AUVA. (Prov.) 

B4ha ilina. Same as Anio ajjva. 

A'liniUna, adj. Bather dark, dual^, 
obscure, murky. 

MiiAsaka iliaa, [sasaxa, half.] Mid- 

MamAtonilina. [matoka, middle.! 
Same as above. Matokaxjka and 
Maz^kaldta alao used in the 

XltouAly. Prov. for preceding. 

Mifaiaa ilina, v. int. To meditate 
atniffht; to lie awake; to keep 
watoE at night 

Fialtoiaiia, t. l^ht time. (Prov.) 
In Tmerina it means, The last 
meal at night. 
A'uacAfifTT, #. [XAXHTT, blaok.] Same 

as AuicpiTO. 

A'loc-pa'haita, f. [PAHAJTA, a pcescnt 

of food.] Used in following : — 

XiAlia-piluuiA, v. int. To be late 

in presenting traveUen stopping 

in a village with the customary 

nft of provisions; to delay in 

snowinff hospitali^ ; used also of 

aloadedgnn laid aside for a time. 

A'ldcfz'to, t. [kto, seven.] Very 

A'uNALz'imffA, V. pan. See Aldta. 
A'undbo'a, s. [boa, two.] lit. two 

nights ; sleeping in the daytime. 
Ali'nina, v. pass. See Auka. 
A'linxb'lt. Very cloudy or dark from 

burning wood, ete. 
A'lin-tao'na, €Kij. [taona, a vear.] 
Precocious ; premature, as of fniite. 
Kiilin-tadna, r. int. and adj. To be 
kept from one annual festival 
[Fandboana] to the next, said of 
the Jaka. 
A'liiN-TO'BAirA, f. [tobajta, faintinff.] 
Hooping-cough. Same as Xdha-di- 
yardny. SeeJ^OHAXA. 
A'LIHA. Prov. for Adina. 
A'linalinina, r. past. (Imp. dUnalino.) 

Provincial for AnnmrA. 
A'Unaldmina, v. pass. flmp. dlimUe- 

tno.) Same as preceoing. 
Kanriiniilina, v. tr. (Imp. mandlina' 
Una; Bel. andlinallfianay Bel. Imp. 
andlinalino.) Provincial for Ma- 
NADiNA. See AniNA. 
A'LIHJEHS'BT, s. A name given to 
the class of men who carry the 
sovereign. [Eng. en^ineer.^ 
AUZrHT, s. A technical worddeacrib- 
ing the working of the beans or small 
pebbles in divixuition by the Sixidt. 
A'lO, Sf root not used except in 

Youo, V. pass. Moistened with gravy, 
as rice ; removed, as of provisions 
from the plate of the master or 
superior to be eaten from the hand 
of inferiors or servanto, yet so that 
they may not use the same plate 
or spoon. 



(lB^.«tfBy.) To 
hftve one's noe mouteoed with 
grsTj; to be scmplied with pro- 
whidb oATe been taken 
the plate or apoon of a 
orsiq^wnor; tobe brought 
thxongh the medium of another, 
aa meanges brought bf one person 
to another. 
MUlo, 9, int. (Imp. muUosa; BeL 
iatieaua, BeL Imp. imlmif.) To 
moisten, aa above ; toiemorepro- 
TirionSy as abore, and plaoe in the 
hands of inf eriois ; to carrj mes- 
sages from one to another. 
AXO9 a. A tie used in separating the 
yam into hanks previous to its being 
woven. Aloalo also used. In the 
provinces it means a pestle. 
Aloftlom-pdly, s. [folt, a hank.] A 
tie used in separatingthe hanks of 
A'LOA'IiO, 9. A fosse, a ditch, a pre- 
cipice. (Prov.) 

Alon-taiha, s. [saha, field.] The 
bottom of a ravine ; the bed of a 
river. (Prov.) 
Alon-6ny, #. [okt, river.] The bed 
of a river, (Prov.) 
A'iobo'tra, «. [BOTBA, plomp.] A 
disease of children which makes 
Uiem look plump. 
A'lofi'basa, a. iFiaAKA, thin.] A 
disease of children which makes 
them look thiu. 
ALOX'SY, a. Aloes. [Fr. aloea.] 
Alo'fana, 9. paaa. See Aloka. 
ALO'HA, a(^. [a, prep, and loha, 
head.] First, before, previous, pre- 
viously, ahead. [Mai. aluan (/}, the 
front part of a vessel.] 
Alohalna, v. paaa. (Imp. alohajf.) 

To be sent on ahead. 
Kialdha, v. tr, and irU, (Lnp. miu' 
loha; Bel. iiUohdna, Bel. Imp. 
ialohay,) To precede, to go before. 
Xanaldha, v, tr, (Imp. manalohd; 
Bel. analohdna^ Bel. Imp. analo' 
hay.) To do or act first, to begin ; 
to be ripe first, as of fruits. 
Tal6ha, prep, and atiy. Before, for- 
merly, former. 
Y6aldhany. The first in ordinal 

Vkulttaaj. Pkor. for pnoeding. 
AIOHITTBT, a. Thenameof the twelfth 
month in Uie Malagasy year. Called 
also VoLAK-PAoarA. It used to be 
oonaidend an imlni^ month, when 
d lso a sos wero snppoaed to be more 
frequent, and woanda inoombJe. 
During thia month the Sakalavn do 
not change their wwidenoe; they 
abstain from all rough work in which 
they might be hurt ; and when the 
moon is full, ohiefB vstiie to their 
houses and give up all busineas. 
During the mat five days of the 
mondi the Hova f otmeriy aToided 
shedding Mood of any kind. [Ar. 

Maaad Tiatana Alohdtqr* To act in a 
rash manner, to act precipitately, 
to be hairbrained or thoughtless. 
AI/yY, a. A qiecies of gnat or mus- 
quito ; the name of a small bird ; ^, 
small, minute. In the provinces it 
means mosquitos in general. 
AXOKA, a, A shelter against sun or 
rain ; a shade or shadow ; a shed. 
(Prov.) An umbrella, a parasol. See 

Yoftloka, r. paaa. Sheltered, shaded. 
Aldftuuk, r. paaa. ^Imp. alofy.) To 
be sheltered, to be overshadowed. 
Miiloka, r. int. (Imp. mialofa ; Bel. 
ialofartOf Bel. Imp. ialofy.) To 
take shelter from rain or sun. In 
Imerina the reduplicated form is 
more frequently used of shade 
from the sun. 
Xaniloka, v. tr. (Imp. manald/a; 
Bel. anaUfanay Bel. £np. analofy.) 
To cast a shadow ; to cover so as 
to afford shelter ; to obscure from 
the light. 
Miloka, adj. Cloudy, dark, over- 
shadowed, lowering. 
Kilo-ddhaidha, [lohasaha, a val- 
ley.] Towards evening. 
A'LO-BAHfmr, a. [vAHnnr, a stranger.] 
A house of entertainment for 
strangers. (Prov.) 
A'lok-ali'ka, #. [aloea, a dog.] The 
gable end of a projecting roof; a 
verandah. Lit. that which affords 
shelter for a dog. Alox-axboa is 
also thus used. 



k'uoK'AMFa^iaiKAf t. [axpbvixka, a 
stnoger.] Same as ALO-BAKnrr. 

k'uyK'AYfymjL, a^. [tetxtba, near.] 
Near at hand, as a time for meeting, 
etc. AiOBiYTTBA and Aloicbivitba 
also used. (Prov.) 

A'Lo-Kx'nA, #. [xKRA, rice-plants.l 
The rioe-plants when large enough 
to oast a anadow. (PtOT.) 

A'lo-px'hxtsa, «. [raoTBA, a oattle- 
flj.] A guard-house, so called per- 
hi^M hecanse affording protection 
fnnn the bite of the Fikitha. 

A'LOKO'LA, 8. The name of a certain 
column in the arrangement of the 

AXOKaLA, #. Spirits of wine. [Fr. 

A'LOKOTS'HA, «. The name of a 

fish. (Prov.) 
A'LOVA, «. A wave, a billow. See 

OxjA. [Mai. alwn ; Port Moresby 

a/tf, a current.] 

Xainilona, r. int. To swell as the 
sea, to rise in billows. See Sa- 


Alondrino, «. [bako, water.] A 
wave. Ai^kdbiaxa also used. 

Alosilona, «. Small waves. 
AXOVA, 9. Envy, jealousy. The 

relative FLAiOKANAismore commonly 


Al&aina, r. pan, (Imp. atony,) To 
be envied. 

|f|Aim>>^ 9. ifi/. and tr. (Imp. mimt- 

lona; Bel. xatonana, Bel. Imp. 
t4ii!9iiy.) To be envious, to be 
jealo us ; to envy others. 
ALO'ZniA, r. /MWff. See Alo. 
AMA'KT, «. A hatchet, an axe. fProv.) 
AMAIiOVA, «. An eel. [Mai. ma- 
lung {TjA 

XanaiAiiona, r. int. To oatoh or 
fish for eels. 
Axa'loma'uta, «. [xAirrA, unripe.] A 

shrub. Ptychotria «p. (Prov.) 
Ama'loicba'ndana, #. [VAKDANA, Strip- 
ed.] Name of a species of eel. 
Ama'loitobi'atba, #. Name of a black 
species of eel. 

AMA'LOHZt/BAZA, #. [hOBAZA, ricc- 

grounds.] Name of a species of 

Axa'lohtbo'boivdba'ko, #. [soboicdba- 
HO, flooded.] Name of a spedes of 

A'XAKA, eo^j. With, together with, 
and. It is used between nouns or 
verbs, as: Bat axak-dbbnt ; Mi- 


used for Amt, as Ajcan-zbnatba, 

with shame. 

Andraka. Prov. for Axana. 

TdUiy fana-mdaina, #. The dwellers 
in the same neighbourhood. 
A'XAKAMAirA, «. (Prov.) Boot of 

the following : — 

Ifiiiinanainaiia, r. int. To run about, 
to ffo here and there ; to go about 
without reason. (Prov.) 

MiimanAmain - bdlana. [volana, 
speech.] To wander from the 
question, to make many digres- 
sions. (Prov.) 
AMA'HY, «. Urine. 

Maminy, r. int. (Imp. mamanla; 
Bel. and Pass, amaniana^ Bel. Imp. 
atnanio.) To pass urine. 

Famaniana, «. A urinal, the ure- 
Ajca'nino'mbt, #. [oxBT, au ox.l An 

herb. Anthirotoma N^audinif Hook. 

AxA'NnrrBA'BOKA, s. [sahoka, a frog.] 

The spawn of frogs. 
A'MABAT, adv. [a, and mabat, morn- 
ing. ] To-morrow. (Prov.) Same as 


AMA'TO, 8. A paramour. (Prov.) 
Xanamito, r. int. (Imp. manama" 
tUa ; Bel. dnamat68anay Bel. Imp. 
dnamatoinf.) To commit fornica- 
tion. (Prov.) 

AXB-, or AMP-. A prefix found at 
the commencement uf most names of 
places. Itis tiie preposition Ax- be- 
fore the initial consonants v, 6, and 
/, as, Ajcbohitba [yohitba], Ambon- 
oo [bongo], Ampabitba [fabitba]. 

A'MBA. Same as Mba, wnich see. 

AMBAT, 8. The name of a hard wood 
used for spear-handles. 

AMBAT' 8. The name given to the 
various breadths of cslico, or any 
other material, joined together in 
making g^annents, tents, curtains, or 


Axbai'nt ma'bo. Uaedof manypieoee. 
Akbai^nt TBLOy etc. Used of three 

pieces, etc. 
AMBA'EAf (uff. Excelled, exceeded, 

Tiy mdty r&lia ambftka ndho ny biby 
isika imy ny fltUyana i&aaka. It 
is not right that we should be 
excelled by animalu in the love of 
A'MBA&A, acff. Of the same volume 

or bulk. (Prov.) 
AMBA'KA, root not used. SeeFzTAKA. 
Yoamb&ka, v. pats, Deoeiyed, de- 
frauded, imposed upon. 
Ambakidna, v. past. (uaip. ambakdo.) 
To be deceived, to be defrauded, 
to be deluded, to be cheated. 
XanambsUca, v. tr. (Imp. manam' 
baled; Kel. anambakdnoy Bel. Imp. 
anambakdo.) To deceive, to de- 
fraud, to impose upon, to over- 
reach, to take an unfair advantage 
of, to circumvent. 
A'XBAKaAHY, «. A bundle of bul- 

AMBALAKA, «. The south. (Prov.) 
Sec ATs mf o 

AMBALAHAJ adj. Squint-eyed. (Prov.) 
AX'BANA, 8. Menacing gestures with 
the hand or arm. 
Yo&mbana, r. pass. Threatened, 

pretended to be struck at or aimed 

Amb&nana, v. pass. (Imp. ambdno,) 

To be pretended to be struck at. 
Manimbana, v. tr. (Imp. manambd- 

na ; Rel. aruimbdnamtf Bel. Imp. 

anambdno.) To pretend to strike, 

to pretend to throw or aim at 

AMBAHGK)HY, s, [am-, bango, a 
mass.] A collective mass, an undi- 
vided mass, assemblage ; thoughts ; 
agenus. See Bango. 
iJiMlL'VY^prep. [BootvAXYj Under, 
beneath, below, down. The west. 
Ambaxiina, r. pass. ^Imp. ambanlo.) 

(To act BO as) to be lightly thought 

of, or to be lightly spoken of ; 

to be put down, as a palanquin ; 

or carried lower, as of a heavy 


HanaiiMiiy, v. tr, (Imp. mQnam b&» 
nia; Bel. anambanianij BeL Imp. 
anambanio.) To speak lightly of, 
or consider lightly of ours self or 

ranambiiilny, # . The foundationg 

of a house, or of any building ; the 

bottom or under side of anything. 

AjCBA'mA'NDBO, f. [akdbo, the day.] 

The name given to the Hova by 

the other tnbee ; the Hova. 

AMBA'imJL'NITBA, 8, [UlNITBA, the 

heavens.] The whole of the subjects 
of the sovereign, — ^nobles, Hova, 
and slaves. 


down.] That part of the body on 

which we may be lying down. 
Axba'nhla'vinka'zo, s. [bavina, a leaf, 

HAZO, a tree.] The people outside of 

Axba'nivo'bitba, s. [voHirBA, a town.] 

The people of Imerina not living in 

Antananarivo or Ambohimang^ and 

their immediate vicinities. 
AxBA'invo'LO, s. [voLO, rushes.] Same 

as Ambanibavinilazo. 
AMBAOITT, s. A tree. (Tan.) 
AMBABA, V. pass. (Imp. anAardo.) 

Told, declared, revealed (of things). 

This word, although a root verb, 

takes n and h for past and future. 

Yoamb&ra, v. pass. Told, declared, 

Manambflra, v. tr. (Imp. nutnamba' 
rd ; Bel. anambardnoy Bel. Imp. 
anambardo.) To tell, to announce, 
to disclose, to reveal. 

Famb&ra, s. A portent. 
Ajcba'rama'so, s. [xaso, the eye.] A 

telescope, spectacles. (Prov.) 
Axba'baba'ht, s. [vahy, a creeper.] 

The largest kind of banana. 
Ajcba'baso'motba, 8. [soxoTBA, a 

beard.] A false beard. (Plt>v.) 
Akba'bato'noa, 8. [ajcbabaka, until, 

TONOA, arrived.] A ladder, steps, 

stairs ; gradation. 
AVBABADE'DA, s. Indian shot. 

Canna indieoy L. Same as DnraiZA 

(Betsim.), yABAin>ENDA fTank.), 

Kaxoibotba (Betsim.), Gikoijul 

(Tank. I , and Tsifizofiko (Bets.), 

which last see. 


Ajoji'BAaiL'KA, f. [baha, e field.] 
Something lued for beameariiig the 

AHBA'SAXA, prfp. Until, till. 

This WOTd IB much naed with 
Terbal noons in /, the weak syl- 
lable -KA dropping ottt» and the 
/ changing to ji, as Axbaba- 
Fahssba. AiCRABATOVOA, a lad- 
der, is also derived from the 

Amhirak-Aaklhitrliiy, aIp. Up till 

now, till the present time. 
Ambirmkarlya, adv. Always, oon- 

AmMraUsa^, adv. For ever. 

AXBAUT, f . A kind of seed thrown 
np by the sea. (Prov.) 

AXBA'SiyA'TBY. See Axbebivatbt. 

AxBA'BF^A'TBiNno'LO, «. [lolo, a bnt- 
terfly.l An herb used as a medicine 
for scabies and other diseases. Cro- 
Maria cyUsoidet, Bojer. 

AUBATBA, aty. Tongue-tied. 
MiiUnbatra, r. int. To be tongue- 
tied, to speak inarticulately, as in 
a severe illness. The provincial 
word is Taxba-lbla. 

AMBA'TRY,«. Aseed; rarely used as a 
single word, but, joined with Ebaitt, 
it means the 72nd part of a dollar. 
A shrub, the leaves of which are 
boiled bv the Betsileo and applied 
locally for sprains and dislocations. 
It is also largely grown to supply 
food for silkwoims. Cajanus indieutf 
Soreng. (Bets.) Same as Antbotbt 
(Betsim.), Axbabivatbt, and Akbb- 
BXTATBT, which last see. 

Axba'tbdcbo'hitba, #. [voHTTBA, vil- 
lage.] A leguminous plant used by 
the Betsileo in vapour baths for 
malarial fever. (Bets.) 

AjcaA'vAHo'AKA, a4j\ [VAVA, and hao- 
VA, meeting.] Near deaUi, just on 
the verge of death ; also just come 
to the point of birth ; of any appoint- 
ed time being close at hand. 

AKBA'ST, f. A tree. 

AMB ATY, f . A tree. 

AMBA'VIJfy, 8. The four looser 
strings of the Valiha ; the end of a 
drum which gives a shriller sound 

than the other, being beaten with 

the hand only. 
AOOAZA'EA, f. Manioc. (Prov.) 

See Manoahazo. 

see Vela, Vblt, and Vbnty. 
Axbb'nana, r. pas9. See Ambika. 
Aicbe'ntintb'kt, a. rvsRTT, substance, 

TENT, word.l A by- word. 
AMBB'O,*. Overplus, reserve. (Prov.) 

See AiiBT. 
AXBB'BAVA, t, A shrub with sting- 

ing hairs. (Bets.) Urera amberana^ 

AUBSBS'VA, «. The north. (Prov.) 


AXBEBI'O, #. An island. (Prov.) 

AMBYBIYATBT, f . A shrub largely 
cultivated to supply food for olk- 
worms. The seeds are also eaten 
by the natives. The leaves afford 
a green dye for cotton. It is known 
in Mauritius as Ambrevade. Cajanut 
indieus, Spreng. Same as Artsotbt 
(BetsimOi Ambabivatbt, and Ak- 
batbt (BetB.), which last see. 

AMBCTEAXA, 8, Anv carriage used 
for conveying a heavy burden, 
usually borne by four persons; a 

AXBFZO, f . Boot of following. See 

Xiambdao, v. int. (Lnp. miambezoa; 
Rel. iambezoana, Kel. Imp. iambe^ 
siy.) To go about begging cra- 

A1EBT, #. Excess, surplus, the thing 
over. It is much useid in counting, 
as, RoA akbt NT FoLO, two in excess 
of ten, hence twelve. In the provinces 
we have Folo boa axbt, and 
so with all the other numbers. It 
was also used formerly in repeating 
numbers in the ceremony of droum- 
dsion, as, Isa axbt boa, one 
and two ; Boa aiot boa, two and 
MiLnaBa imby, v. int. To have a 

surplus of , to be in excess of. 
MAiiana imby impy. To have 
enough and to spare. 

A'xbik-ja'za, 8. [zAZA, child.1 A child 
less loved by the family than the 
other children. 



A'UBDX'TA&VAj a. [taona, year.] Name 
g^ven to the old rioe after the new 
rice has been gathered in. 

AXBrA ATT'. A phrase used by 
children and others playfully for 
AyiA ATTy Come here. 

AXBrAlTA^or AMBIE'lTA. [axbt, ex- 
cess.] An excess ; used flulverbially 
for ''more than;" as, Mist zato 
AacBZAKA, There are more than a 

A'XBIA'SA. ProY. for Oxszaba, which 


A'XBIA'TT, f . A shrub, the leaves of 
which are pounded and applied to 
sores. A bundle of the leaves tied 
together and put in ponds or marshes 
is used for catching 9IF0TBA (a kind 
of snail), the Sifotra clinging in 
numbers to the bundle. The flow- 
ering' of the plant is a sign to the 
people that the season for sowing 
the rice has come. Vemonia ap' 
pendicuhta. Less. See Vakt ax- 


A'hbia'texx'lt, #. [kblt, little.] The 
name of an esculent vegetable. 

A'kbia'tila'ht, 9. [laht, mascidine.] 
A composite shrub with verv bitter 
properties. A decoction of it is 
orDnkforTAXBAViN-JAZA. (Antsih.) 

AXBrDT. Prov. for Amtdt, from 
ViDT, which see. 

AXBrKO, #. The name of an animal 
like a hedsehog, probably a Cenietet ; 
a crab. fProv.) 

AXBriiOirA. Prov. for ViLOirA, which 

A'JIBILA'ZO, 9. A plant used by the 
Sakalava and others for charms. 
Perhaps the same as Axbilazona. 

A'XBILA'ZOITA, #. A shrub, which 
if burned is supposed by the Be- 
tsileo to nulliiy any evil charm 
that may have been placed in the 
house. (Bets.) Calliandra tUUmatUf 

A'MBIHA, 8, Watch, guard, patrol. 
See Andby. I 

Voimbina, r. /HIM. Watched, guard- i 

ed. patrolled. 
Ambdnana, r. pass, (Imp. amtfeno,) ■ 
To be watched, guarded, patrol- I 
led. I 

Xiimbina, r. int, and tr, (Imp. 
miambena ; Bel. iamienana, Bd. 
Imp. iambeno,) To be on the 
watch, to be on guard, to keep 
guard ; to guard, to watch. 
Y&vA tsy imbina. Unguarded 

Tr&no flambdnana, #. A guard- 
Mpiimbina, s, A g^uard. 
A'xbixda'ht, s. [laht, masculine.] 

(Prov.) See Andbilaht. 
A'XBUrA. Used in the foUowing :— 
Ambinina, v, pass. (Imp. ambtno.) 
To be prosp^^ed in getting what 
one is seekuiff ; to be prosperous ; 
to be lucky, fortunate. 
Maaimbina, v, tr, (Imp. muiimnpi- 
blna ; Bel. anamhtnana^ Rel. Imp. 
anamblno.) To prosper, to flour- 
ish ; to be made lucky in what 
one undertakes. 
A'XBIBaA, #. The ffhost of the dead, 
the spirit of the living. [Ar. ar- 
ruh,'\ See Oxbiboa.. 
AXBrSOBrTBT, «. Nameofabiid. 

AMBI'VITBA, f . Pulling of the ears 
in play ; **havinga pig by the ear.*' 
See ViviTBA. 
AMBI'ZO, s. Sweet potatoes. (Prov.) 

See VoxANOA.. 
A'XBO, adj. High, lofty, long, over- 
A'xbolo'ha, #. [loha, head.] Kame 

of a tree. (Prov.) 
A'icbonta'na, #. [tana, for takaxa, 
the hand.] The back of the hand. 
A'xbota'ka, #. Kame of a tree. (Sak.) 
A'mboto'nona, «. [tonona, a joint.] 
The name of a small shrub. Sper- 
macoce sp. 
A'xbovi'tsiza, «. [viTSZXA, an ant.] A 
shrub. Pittosporum sp, ; possibly 
P, Senacia, Putterl., or near it. 
(Bets.) The name is also applied to 
other shrubs. 
A'MBO, 8, The name of a disease 
coming suddenly, somewhat resem- 
bling- epilepsy. 
AMBO'A, «. A dog. [Swa. ittboOf adog.1 
Hanambda, v, int. To get out ox 
the way like a dog. (Prov.) In 



Imerina it is -osed for treating 
some one like a dog. 

Mity ambda, or Kdsy ambda, adj, 
Proyed b^ the Tanoena ordeal 
to be guilty; so called perhaps 
because the ordeal was often 
administered to dogs. 

Vttona ambda, adj. Flroved inno- 
cent by the Tamoena ordeal. 

Xaaad ambda ditiika. [ditsixa, 

having something in the eyes.] 

To act in a most reckless fashion. 

Ajcbo'abb', «. [be, large.] A spider 

that lives in holes in tne g^und. 

A species of MvgaU. 
Aicbo'asz'a, «. [dia, T?ild.] A dog 

nm wild. 
Ambc/afitbi'tba, adj. [tbitra, orepi- 

tation.l Used of a person who be- 
haves Eke a dog. 
Ambo'akao'lo, «. [haolo, wild.] A 

dog run wild. 

Amo'AZB'LDrAHDBl'AlCA'NIT&A, «. [aH- 

DBZAiCAinTBA, Gk)d.1 Something 
beloved and protected by Gtod. Ad 
old phrase. 

AjCBO'AZB'LnrDBA'VO, 8. [KELT, little, 

BAiro, water.] The name of a small 
insect, which is sometimes eaten; 
fomidprinoipaUy in water, or marshy 
gitmnd ; same as Tsilbxita. 

AxBo'AJCB'LniTB'iiDA, «. [textda, the 
throat.] The tonsU. 

Auo'ala'ht, t. [laht, masculine.] 
A species of chameleon. (Prov.) 

Ajck/ala'xbo, f . [laxbo, a wild hog.] 
A man who lives by trade, but 
never works ; one who eats the fat 
of the land from what he has got 
in trade; the name given by the 
Sakalava to the Hova. 

AjOK/ALA'XBOKE'LT, 8, [KELT, little.] 

A species of earwig. 
Axbo'ala'mbontahte'lt, 8, [taiitblt, 

honey.] A species of bee, the 

AMB&AXFEff 8. [fb, the thigh.] The 

upper and front part of we thigh. 

See VoA. 
Ahbo'ana'la, 8, [ala, a forest.] Generic 

name for lemurs. 
Axbo'axdba'njo, 8. [banjo, the leg.] 

The calf of the leg, more commoDly 

called Kibondbakjo. See Voa. 

Axbo'anxb'ka, f. [keka, beef.] A 

leg of beef. 
Axbo'ako'lona, #. [oLONA, B pcrson.] 

A rascal, a low fellow. 
AXBOA'BA, «. A sheaf. 
AM-BaHO. SeeVoHo. 
AXBO'KAirA, adj\ Said of rice just 

sprouting, (rtov.) 
Haniraka ani-b6kony, v. int. To 
follow tamely and unresistingly ; 
to imitate slavishly. 
AMBO^LA, adj. Prov. for Mbola. 
AMBO'LO, #. A species of green lo- 
Axbo'lobi'taka, f. [bttaka, dancing.] 

Same as the preceding. 
Ajcbo'loxe'lt, 8. [voLO, a reed, and 
KELT, little.] A small reel made 
of stoaw used for twisting on; a 
reel or ball of cotton, etc. A sinall 
species of locust. 
Ambo'lovaba'hina, #. [axbolo, and 
VABAHZNA, brass.] A species of 
locust but of a bright colour re- 
sembling brass. 
AXBaKOO, 8. A district inhabited 
bpr Sakalava west of the Betsiboka 
AXBO'FT, adj. aaadprep. [KootvonT.] 
Above, over, higher in nuik. The 
onposlte to Axbant, which see. 
The east. (Prov.) 
Ambonina, v. pa88. (Imp. amhonio.) 
To be thought much of, or made 
much of. 
Xanambdny, v. tr. (Imp. manam' 
bcnia ; Bel. anambontana^ Bel. 
Imp. anambonlo.) To make much 
of one's self or of another. 
Fiamboniana, «. Exaltation in rank, 
showing forth of one's rank or 
Amb6ny rihana, adj. [bihana, the 
ceiling.] Up-stedrs, in the room 
Xan&il^ ambdny. To confess before 

any formal charge is made. 
Y61ana amb6ny. Next month. 
Ahbo'niampa'koa, adj. [amfanqa, ac- 
cuf^tion.] Said of thingH taken 
without reason or right, as Home 
one's possessions seized by another. 


Ajcbo'hxfa'bafa'sa, adj, [fasapaiu, 
a bedstead.] One's own property, 
to which no one else can have any 
olaim to; relieyed out of, as of a 

Akbo'ndca'ndbt, 9. (XANDBT, lying 
down.] The side of a person lying 
down which does not touch the bed. 
The ridge of a house. (Proy.) 

AxBO'imrjA'TO, «. [, a hundred.] 
A person who has the command of 
a hundred civilians; a centurion; 
a captain of a hundred men, not 

Axbo'nivo'hitba, «. [voHiTBA, a vil- 
lage.] The dwellers in the town as 
distinguished from AxBANxvoKZTiLk, 
which see; the dead not yet 

AXBO'BA, f . The name of certain 
shrubs or trees ; onespecies is used in 
houses built for the sovereign and 
a few of the noble families ; used also 
for making cofSns. Tambouritta 
parvifoliOf Baker, and other species 
of Tambouriua. 

Akbo'rala'ht, f. [laht, masculine.] 
Name of a shrub. Tamb<mritta 

AxBo'nAXASQfjyXf s. [icanqidt, bit- 
ter.] Name of a shrub. Tambou' 
rissa sp, 

Aicbo'basca'nttba, s. [xanitra, fra- 
grant.] Name of a tree. Tambouriua 

A]CBo'&Ain)&AfNiVB'ziONA, f . [BAnnvs- 
LOiTA, the name of a num.] Name 
of a shrub or tree. 

Axbo'baivtolo'ho, «. [toloho, a bird.] 
A shrub used by the Sakalava in 
house-building. (Sak.) TambouriS' 
aa if) sp, 

Akbo'basa'ha, s, [saha, a field.] A 
shrub, from the leaves of which the 
Sihanaka make a decoction and give 
to those who are possessed^ by the 
Vazimba, as also to those who have 
gonorrhea. The fruit is also pound- 
ed and rubbed on the fontanelle 
of newly-born children. (Antsih.) 
TambouHssa sp, 

Akbo'batse'voka, «. [tssvosa, a grass.] 
A tree whose wood is used in house- 
building. Tambourissa sp. 

AxBO baya'to, s, [yato, stone.] Name 
of a shrub. Tambourissa parvifolia. 

Ambo'bava'vy, s. [vayt, feminine. J 
Name of a shrub. (Bets.) Tambou- 
rissa sp, 

Baised sewn borders or designs; 
gold brocade on uniforms; any 
raised ornamental sewing. [Fr. bro^ 

AMBO'SDBA'BA, #. The kind of 
embroidery made by cutting holes 
in calico, Maddra work. [£ng. 
embroidery, 1 

A'xbosa'noa, «. [axbo, high, aAMOA, 
crest.] Name of a bird. cSua eristaia, 
L. (^tsim.). 

AMBO'ST, s, Flatteiy, deception by 
raising false hopes, creating undue 
cunfidence ; prompting to ^ht, yet 
not in a fair quarrel. 
Yoambdiy, r,pass. Deceived, cajoled. 
Ambotinai r. pass, (Imp. amhoslio,) 
To be deceived by flattery or cajol- 
ery, to be duped, to be wheedled. 
Xanambdiy, ^, tr, (Imp. manam- 
bosxa ; Rel. anainhosXamt^ Rel. Imp. 
anambosio,) To flatter, to incite to 
fight by raising undue confidence, 
to cajole, to wheedle, to dupe. 

A'KY, prep. Used before Nr, as AxT 
NY, or Aiay* before a vowel. With, 
in, at, to, from, etc. In past tense, 
Tahy, When, on, among, from, etc. 
The prepositional prefixes A-, Ax-, 
An-, appear to be contractions of this 
word, and form a large number of 
prepositional phrases. Axy is used 
after nearly all intransitive verbs 
when governing an indirect accu- 

A'min* iza^, adp, [ueay, that.] Im- 
A'min' isad, adr, [izao, thus.] Now, 

Xda imin* isa^, or is&ny, adr, [zoa, 
also.] Therefore, consequently. 
Tamin' isa^, or TAmin' iiiny, adr. 
At that time or place. 

AMI AHA, s. Shrubs with large sting- 
ing hairs. The wood of Urera radula 
is very soft, and when on fire 
smoulders for a long time like peat. 


Tlie tmnk of some speomiena of 
tiha AxiAirA in sometimes five or 
■ix feet in dzcumf erenoe. Urtra 
rw duia . Baker ; U. olipoloha. B«ker ; 
Oittia morifoUa^ Baker; 6, pinna" 
t^ftda^ Baker; and 0, laeiniata, Ba- 

Jda^AMAMX/vo, t. [azoro, a fowl.] An 
herb with stinging leaves. (Sak.) 

Axz'AxnA'HT, f. UART, masouline.] 
A spedes of the Axzaita. 

Aia'AirDA'iCBO, f. [laxbo, a wild hog.] 
A dimbing plant. (Bets.) Same 
as SAMFiTATOy whlch see. 

A MTP Y. Irrw, r. pau. See Vidt. 

A'XIBOT, a. Same as AxBiBOA, which 
see. n?pov.) 

AlKyilBsA, a. Same as Adbisa. 

AMOHOT, #. Same as Monot, which 

AMO'VOO, #. Bran, soft hnaks of lioe 
adhering to the winnowing pan in 
sifting. See Axfoxbo. 

AXOirLl'KA, a. AmmoniA. [Fr. Am- 

AMO^VTAHA, #. Large trees, of which 
there are AjcoirrAMRATT and Axov- 
TAHDAHT. The nulkv jnice is boiled 
and made into bird-lime. Ficiu Ba- 
rom, Baker, and Fieua triehophUbiaf 

Ajo/vtamba'tt, «. [yatt, feminine.] 
A large tree. See Amomtana. 

Axo'htakda'ht, #. [laht, masculine.] 
A large tree. See Axohtaka. 

AXP-. These three letters are seen at 
the oommenoement of many words. 
They may indicate three thmgs : (1) 
the nreposition Ajct or Airr oom- 
binea with the initial consonant of the 
root, as : Ax-pastisa, from Fabitra ; 
(2) the commencement of all caosa- 
tire, passive, and relatiye verbs in 
Haxfi- and Maicpan-, as Ampanao- 
▼AKA and AxpANAOYiNA, which are 
respectively the relative and passive 
forms of Maxpait- ; (3) thebegmning 
of nouns in Mp, as Ajcpanjaxa, 
TOov. for Mpanjaka. 

A'kPA, a. A tree, the wood of which 
is n eed in making shields. (Tan.) 

AKPA'HA, a. The name of a cat run 
wild. (Prov.) See Kabt. [Swa. 
jMtkOf a cat.] 

AMPA'HA-. A prefix joined to nu- 
merals, making Uiem into fractional 
parts, as Ampahaboakt, o^e half; 
Ajcpaeatklont, one third, etc. 

AMPAHIBE'MA'80, a, [fabttba, an 
ox-pit, BB, great, XAso, cjye.l A 
public place. Lit. an ox-pit where 
many eyes can see. Adv, Publidy, 
opemy. See Fahxtba. 

AWAI^eO, or AMPA'EAFAIireO,^. 
taidadj. Chains on the legs, allowing 
a person to walk while yet bound ; 
a string tied round the two legs of 
poultry, yet so as to allow them to 
move. [Swa. pingu^ fetters.} 

AXFA'KA, f . [Maka, to fetch.] Used 
in the following forms in speaking 
of certain ffames : — 
Ampftka tfio. [telo, three.] Three- 
fold, three tmies. 
Ampftka r6a. [boa, two.] Two- 

AMPA'LAXI'A Prov. for Mabaika. 

AMPA'LY, a. A shrub or tree, the 
leaves of which are used as a sub- 
stitute for sand-paper. Ficua aorO' 
eeoidea^ Baker. [Mai. ampalaa, Fietu 

Yoampftly, v. paaa. Smoothed. 
Ampaldsiiia, or Ampalina, v. paaa, 
(Imp. ampaUao^ ampalto,) To be 
smoothed with the Ajcpalt leaves ; 
fig. used of any business well ar- 
ranged and conducted. 
Manampftly, v. tr, (Imp. mdnampa" 
Uaa ; Rel. dnampaUaanaf Bel. Imp. 
anampaUao.) To polish wood with 
the Ampalt leaves. 

AXPA'LT, «. Perhaps the same as the 
jraeoeding. Ficua ap, (Sak.) 

AMPAliIBS', «. [be, hiTge.] The jack- 
fruit tree. Artoearpua integrifolia^ 
L. (Betsim.) 

AXPA'IfOA, «. Ferns in general ; the 
Austrian dollar, so called from the 
fancied resemblance of its device to 
a fern ; a mode of plaiting women's 
hair on some great day of rejoicing, 
giving it the resemblance of fern 
leaves. [Mai. paku.] 

Ajcpa'noafb'naxo'bo, a, [fe, the 
thigh, axoho, a fowl.] The royal 
fern. Oatnunda regalia^ L. Same 



A kind of fern. Pteris ap, 
Ampa'noascpa'tt, #. [fatt, a corpse.] 
A very oommon fern used in stop- 
ping np holes in a tomb before 
being plastered or bnilt up. 
Ampa'noanama'lona, «. [amalona, an 
eel.] A name given to several large 
ferns, among which is the common 
English male fern. 
Ampa'noandba'no, #. [&ANO, watcr.] 
The royal fern. Same as Ampanoa- 
FBNAKOHO. Osmunda regalia. L. 
Ampa'noaba'vina, #. [ravxna, a leaf.] 

A kind of fern. 
Ampa'noatbi'bixa, #. [tszbzxa, hol- 
low.] A very common large fern. 
Oleiehenia tUchottnna, Willd. 
Ampa'noato'laxe'ka, a. [volaxbha, 
gY>ld.] A species of gold fern. 
Gymnojframmg argentea^ var, aureay 
AXPA'ITOA, f . Accusation in a court 
of justice or elsewhere ; the accuser ; 
the accusation. See Tobt. 
Yoampftnga, v, paaa. Accused, de- 
Ampangalna, v. paaa, (Imp. ampan- 
gad.) To be accused of, to be 
charged with. 
Xiampanga, v. tr, (Imp. mtom- 
pangd ; Hel. iampangdnay Bel. 
Imp. iampangao.) To accuse, to 
AxPA'NQi^SAKA. f. [fkbaka, thin.] 
An accusation made in very great 
AjfPA'NOALAfNQA, a. [laznoa, a lie.] 
A false accusation. Its forms in 
VoA- and Mi- as above are used. 
AXPA'VOO, «. The burnt rice which 
sticks to the bottom of a cooking- 
pot on which water is poured. 
Ydntin-aoipingo, a. The burnt rice 
sticking to the bottcm of a cook- 
B&non-ampftngo,*. The water poured 

on the rice as above. 
XiampAngo, v. int. To buy rice. 
AKPANOO'BO, a. Rice so cooked 
that the water has been well evapo- 
rated, and there arises a fragrant 
smell from it. 

Aicpakqg'boicba'bt, #. fvABT, zioe.l 
The name of a small sweet-scentea 
herb which is found in rice-fields. 
AXPA'EASI'LT, «. Silk or satin. [Fr. 

AXPA'BASO'LT, f . An umbrella. [Fr. 

paraaol.'] (Prov.) 
AXPA'BT,^. Frost, ''i<dcles*'(P) which 
hang on the leaves of trees. (Prov.) 
AH-FAEI'lIBOVA, a. See Rixbona. 
Used only in phrases such as Ma- 
opposition of two or more againjct 
one. See Adt am-pabdcboha. 
Ampa^b cta, V , paaa. See Ampatba. 
AXPA'BITBA, f . A particular kind 

of dollar. 
AXFA'BITBA, #. The bit of a brace 

used in. carpenters* work. 
A'HFATBA,«. Root of the following. 
Also a variety of Spanish dollar. 
Yoimpatra, r. paaa. Stretched out, 
as the legs, or a corpse imme- 
diately after death. 
Ampftrina, v. paaa, (Imp. ampdro.) 

To be stretched out as above. 
Hiimpatra, v. int. ^np> miampdra ; 
Rel. iampdrana^ Rel. Imp. iam^ 
pdro.) To be stretched out as the 
limbs ; to lie stretched out as a 
corpse ; to stretch one's self out. 
Xi&mpatriUiipatTa is used in speak- 
ing of the dead who have been 
slaughtered and lie about ; or of 
the hving lying carelessly about. 
Hanimpatra, v. tr. (Imp. fnanam' 
pdra ; Rel. anampdrana, Rel. Imp. 
anampdro.) To stretdi out the 
Manimpa-tsiina, V. in^ Toactonn- 
i^8>ly» to impose upon, to take 
advantage of. Fahendreni, Hb- 
BT, Fahaizana, are also used 
with this verb to express a good 
meaning, e.g. to show one's 
wisdom, strength, or cleverness. 
The words are also used by others 
in reproaching those who have so 
AKPE'LA, a. A girl, a woman. Com- 
pare with Ajcpbla, a spindle. See 
Aicpe'la am-ba'tsa, #. [ahbatba, a 
shelf.] An old woman. (Prov.) 


Toathfnl.] A widow. (Frov.) 
AinfisL WTO, 9, [toto, young.] A 

young gM. (PA>y.) 
AjoS'latao', #. [tao, new.] A 
W€Biui who haa just given birth to 
a child. (Pft>y.) ui Tmftrina it 
maana a woman who haa jnst died 
in ohild-birth. 

PXXA, t. A snindle, uaed for 
nming or winomg cotton, silk, 


Kampaafihy ampdla. To nae a 
apindle, to twirl a spindle. 
AxnriABB', f. rBB, large.] A large 

^iadle on wnioh ia wound what 

haa been spun. 
Ajos'laeb'lt, #. ^[krlt, little.] A 

small spindle for spinning. 
Ams'xaHDOHA'LiKA, «. [lobalcca, the 

knee.] The kneepan. 
A]fFifi.*irxA'NANA, f. and ai(j, [ah-, 

fXLAVA, the ^^alm, and takana, 

hand.! Anythm^ greatly beloved, 

a darang, an obje^ of affection; 

Ajos'xjunsi'roTBA, #. [bifotha, a 

kind of snail.! Ipomcsa Uueantha^ 

Jaoq. A dimbing plant. (Betsim.) 

AllTB'l.AaA'LAaA'LA,^. [SALAaALA, doubt- 

fuLl^Aspindle of a medium size. 

AKF^XBT, 9. A ]plant eztensiyely 
cnlthftted ; the gram resembles i>eel- 
ed zioe and is eaten; the stalk is 
need in making fences, etc. Doura 
or Indian millet. Sorghum vulgare, 
Pen. Same as Vabzaxfsicbt (Bets.), 
and YABmncBA (Betsim.). 

Akfb'kbim-basa'ka, «. [VAZAHA, afor- 
eJgner.J A kind of white millet. 

AXFBUFA, «. A cake, a loaf. See 

AifPB'ifPA KAirfFT, 9, [iiAiriFT, thin.] 
Thin cakes, wafers. 


KA, a grape.] The Bible grape 


Ajq'S'icpah-taiitb'lt, 9, [tahtelt, 

honey. ] Cakes of honey. 
AXPXVA, 9, Name of a shrub. 


«. [axfiava, added to, taitt, earth.] 
A oLay or mud wall or fence. 

9, Brass finger rings. 

^Prov.) SeePsKATBA. 
AJCPBTRIXA, #. AsmallsUverpot; 

a small and pretty cooking-pot. 
Ampb'tribo'la, #. [AifPETBiKA, and 

voLA, money J A small silver pot. 
A'XPT, adj. Sufficient, enough. It 

governs the accusative case, as Ax- 

FT AiTAO IZAHT, That is Sufficient 

for you. [Mai. 9ampaiS\ 

Anuipy, r. jnmi . With euphonic f». 
No Imp. Used of something 
added to something else, followed 
by accusative case. 

Amplana, t^. /mm. (Imp. omplo.^ To 
be added to, to have an addition 
made to. Used of that to which 
an addition is made. 

MULmpy, r. int, (Imp. miampia ; 
Bel. iamptana, Bel. iamplto,) To 
grow larger or g^reater in number 
or quantity. 

Manimpy, v, tr. (Imp. manampia, 
Bel. anampianaf Bel. Imp. anam" 
plo,) To add to, to make larger 
or greater in size or number ; to 
help, to assist, to give assistance 

A'mpy fantiiy, a4f' [fanaht, the 
sold.] Well conducted, good, 

A'mpy misdratra, adj. [sobatsa, 
writing.] Sufficient in number 
to supply at once the different 
persons requiring help. 

A'mpy miiira, ad/, [iozaha, to 
divide.] Sufficient for all when 

A'mpy mihira, adj, rxiBZRA, to sing.] 
A sufficient number to perform tiie 
various parts in singing, from two 
upwards ; a sufficient number. 

A'moy impy, a^j. Enough and to 

Vy tsy fihampiany. Its insuffi- 
A'XPT, 9. A shrub (or treeP) from 

the fibre of which a kind of string 

is made. (Betsim.) 
A'MFT, 9. The thunder which comes 

near. (Prov.) 
Axpi'ana, r. pa99. See AsfFT. 
AltPrFT, f. Boot of foUowing. See 



XiampUy, 9. int* (ImD. mimnpifia ; 

Bel. iampifianay Bel. Imp. iam- 

pifu>^ To press against anytfaing 

as if idding. 
Ai-nuampify, ai^. Faina, life.] At 

the point of deata. 
Trino tampify, «. A hoose leaning 

against a bank, wall, or another 

AXFIlIBAirA, f . The south. (Proy.) 

See Atsimo. 
AXPrXBA'TO, «. A shrub or tree said 
by the Betsileo to produce death if 
sniffed. (Bets.) 
AXPrVGA, t. A shield, a budder. 
An-trinon' ampinga, at^. Of one 

family, tribe, or dan. 
AxpfNOA i/i'^ajL* Used as follows : — 
Kanio ampinga 16ha. To put forth 

great exertions. Same as Mavao 


Ydaka ampinga. The exultations 

of a multitude of people aooom- 

panied by waying of shields and 

brandishing of spears. 

AxpfNOAYA'yA, a^. [yAYA, mouth.] 

Loquacious and plausible. 
A'MPUrOA'BATBA, «. A gun used by 
the Sakalaya and other tnbes. [Por- 
tug. Mpingarda,"] 


gold.] A name giyen to the soy- 
AXPrrr, «. a fish. (Proy.) 
AMPrBUTA, f . The name of a fish 
resembling the Toho. 
Xiamplrina, v. int, (Imp. miampi" 

rima ; Bel. iampxrimana^ Bel. Imp. 

iampirifno.) To act like a fish, 

to be like a fish in going to the 

side of a room. 
AXPI'BIKA, 9. The tying up of 
packages or luggage, eadi in its 
proper plaoe. 
Yoampirina, r. pasi. Tied up, 

arranged in order or in proper 

Ampirimina, v. pan, (Imp. omptW- 

mo.) To be arranged, as the goods 

in a house preyious to leaying it. 
Xampirina, r. tr, (Imp. mampirima ; 

Bel. ampirimanaf Bel. Imp. ampi- 

rifno,) To arrange, to tie up goods, 

etc., as aboye. 

A'MPISA'FT, «. A woman. (Bak.) 
See Saft, VEmyAVT. 

AXPrBOBOHAirA, «. [soaoNA, a sac- 
rifice (?).] Theesst. (Ploy.) See A- 


AMPrTIKA, f . A small rod thrown 

at a mark in a game. 
Ajcfi'tike'lt, f. [ZBLT, little.] Same 

as aboye. 
A'XPITBA (1), t. A prop, a support. 
Tafimpitra (1), v. pan. Propped 

XUijnpitra (1), v. int, (Imp. stuNn- 
pira; Bel. iamptfuna^ Kel. Imp. 
iampiro,) To lean upon, to ayail 
one's self of a support. 
AXPriSO, adv. To-morrow. Same as 

AM-PO', adv. and adj. [amt, in, fo, the 
heart.] In the hearl, in the mind, 
inside of ; rogaided, attended to. 
Ampoiiina, v. pass. (Imp. ampoUo.) 
To be expected, antidpated, look- 
ed for. 
Manainp6, v. int. and tr. (Imp. in«- 
nampoiza ; Bd. anampotzana^ Bel. 
Imp. anampolzo.) To haye in one's 
mind, to expect, to intoid, to 
Xanao s6a am-pd. To act without 
asking leaye of others. 
Axfo'nta'nt, a^j. [tant, earth.] Cen- 
tral, in the oen^ of a plain ; the 
int^or of the earth. 
Amfo'ntsa'ha, adj. Fsaha, a fidd.] In 

the centro of a yalley. 
Ampo'tomo'tt, a^. rvoTor&A, a root, 
MOTY, a tree, etc.]. Kear, dose, quite 
at hand. A yulgar word. 
Ampo'yo'aitt, prep. fvoA, kemd.] In 
the middle of, in the centro, amidst. 
AXPOA'SA (1). [fo, and asa, work (?).] 
Boot of following. See Kaju. 
Yoampo&sa, v. pass. Provioudy in- 
formed, apprised beforehand. 
Ampoasaina, v. pass. (Imp. smjNM- 
say.) To be told beforehand of 
work to be done. 
Xampo&sa, r. tr. ^mp. mampoasd; 
Bel. ampoasdtui, Bel. Imp. am/HMi- 
sao.) To tell beforehand. 
A'MPOKA, a^f. Soaked, wet. See 
LoNA, Lbma, Maivdo. 
Yoimpoka, v. pom. Soaked, steeped. 



Awp^hawm, v. pau, (Imp. tmpohy,) 

To be soaked, to be drenohed. 
■aafeapoka, v» tr. (Imp. manampd^ 
ka; Bel. anampokima, Bel. Imp. 
ettampokif.) To soak, to stoep. 
Xaaimpokii aina. To 8atiflf7 one's 
ap peti te. 
AMF&mT, f . Tbe elders of brothers 

or sisters. (Sak.) See Zokt. 
AKFO'LT, f . [ampolt, prov. for axfo- 
mr, aee xodt. J A shrub used to bring 
back derarting wiyes. (Sak.) 
AjtP&uojifiaKYf M. [fold, ten, xelt, 
little.] A sabdi-nslon into tens of a 
cdJeetiTe body. 
AMPCKIEA, #. Name of two speoieeof 
parrot. Coraeoptis mgroy L. ; and C, 
Msa, Shaw. (Tan.) 
AKFO']CBO,«. Hnsk, bran. See Akova. 
Ajcfo'mbqmahs'sy, «. [MAHSBTyheaTy.] 
The large hnsks or bran. 

AjIFO'MBOlCALB'irr, #. [XALEMT, SOft.] 

The very small husks or bran. 
AKPaVDO, «. A horn. (Piov.) 
AXPaVDBA, «• A mule. [Swa.|MMufo, 

an asB.I 
AMPaTOA,!. A drum. 
AmfO'voaiib', «. [bb, large.] A big 

AxpO'IIOAXX'lT, #. [KELT, little.] A 
little drum. 

Axpo'koala'ht, #. or Hueolaht [la- 
HTy masculine.] A peculiar kind 
of drum beaten in a procession 
following the soyereign. 

AxFc/iraAVDBA'NO, #. rBANO, wator.] 
A kind of pitoher-pumt. Nepenthe* 
madoffMearieneiSf Poir. (Betsim.) 

Axe&iSQAsmc/wrsA, a, [sofota, the 
ear.3 The tympanum of the ear. 

Amfo'voata'paxa, «. [tapaxa, broken 
off.] A tambourine. 

pomegranate. The leaves are employ- 
ed by the nativee in dyeing black, 
and in making ink. The skm of the 
fruit is used for diarrhooa. The fruit 
» used in making a kind of wine. 
The bark of the root is used as a 
▼ermifnge. Funica gratuUum, L. 
[Apparently a Malag^asy word — 
freat drum of heaven^ but really a 
oonToptian ii the Kugliah word 

AXPaveO, f . A bug. (ProT.) See 


A'VA, (u^j. Faint, exhausted, from 
hunger, cold, or toil ; embarrassed. 
Ifiinina, v. int. No Imp. or Bel. 
To be confounded, alanned, per- 
Miaiia ny aiko. I am tired. (PlroT.) 
A'HA Boot of following : — 
XiiBa, 9. int. To carry something on 
one's shoulders, as a sack. (Frov.) 
AVABT, «. A coat. [Er. nm AoM^] 
AVA'HT, pro. Me, mine. (Prov.) 

See Aht. 
AVAT', pro. Us, ours (but not yours) ; 
used as accusatiye or possessiye 
plural of Aho, or Izaho. 
AN AT, or AITJAT, inter. Would that ! 

Oh that ! 
A'KAXA, ». A child, the young of 
anything; any one treated with 
affection ; an affectionato and re- 
spectful mode of address. AyiA, ana- 
KA, Come, child. This word Anaxa 
is also always used in the provinces 
where Zanaxa (which see) would be 
used in Imerina. TMal. anak.'] 
Miinaka, adj. iTsed in speaking 
of jparent (father or mother) and 
child. If there are two or more 
children with the parent, the word 
Telo, eto., is added, as Tblo ioa- 
iTAJEA, eto. 
Mputnakiyy. A family. 
Fi&nakayiana. The relationship of 
the various members of a family. 
Mftaaaa inaka, v. int. To be with 
child, to be pregnant. See Bb- 


A'kaba'vt, 8. [VAVT, feminine.] A 
man's sister. Used of women when 
men are speaking. See Rahalahy. 

A'naba'ht, #. [iiAHT, masculine.] A 
woman's brother. Used also of men 
when women are speaking. See Ba- 


lUinad&hy, adj. Used of persons 
holding the relationship of brother 
and sister. 
A'nado'naea, 8. [lonaka, a palace.] 
The name of a coloured doth intro- 
duced by the Arabs. (Prov.) 
A'naxa'ht, prov. Same as Aht, and 
Anakt. (Prov.) 


A'nAMAMBo'AfTA'vAy «. The arm' from 

the elbow downwartU. fEVov.) 
A'nazaicpo^ ath. [akaka (P^, fo, the 

heart.] Within one's self, in one's 

mind, kept within one's own 


Ibuiad Jinatotinp6, v, int. To think 
within one's self ; to g^iess at, to 
act at random. 
A'kaxa'vaju^ 9. or Eia'naxa'naka. 

An allowance madeforaloan or debt. 
A'nAKA'NDaT, #. [andst, a post.] 

Tent pegs, the small posts of a 

house. (Pit)v.) 
A'naxaitdbi'ama'so, #. [mabo, the 

eye.] The pupil of the eye. 


prince.] Petty princes among the 
various tribes. (l*rov.) 

A'naxandui'aki'ft, 9. [nitt, a tooth.] 
The eye-tooth, eye-teeth. (Pit)v.) 

A'naxa'ndbo, «. [andbo, day.] The 
name of a slight cutaneous aft'ection, 
but which in some cases develops 
into leprosy. The eggs of the Adrtha 
put on the face are used by the 
women as a charm against this. 
A'nakandrdina, (u{j. To be affected 
with the above skin disease. 

A'NAXANfFT, 4. [mIFT, a tOOUl.] A 

snake. (Prov.) 
A'nasatbo'tbt, 9. Name of an herb. 

Phyllanthm 9p. (Bets.) 
A'naza'vy, *. A man's sister. (Prov.) 
A'NAKfNTANA, f. [kditaka, a star.J 

The stars. (Prov.) 
A'nakoat', «. A land of sensitive 

plant. Mimo9a pudica, L. (Betsim.) 
A'xAXo'vA, 9. [hoya.] Petty prinoes. 

All A'LABO'SA, #. A plant used as a 

medidne for dysentery and spitting 

of blood. 
AHAXBO, o^. On high, lofty. See 

AxBO, Ayo. 
Ajtamfy, V, pa99. See Ampt. 
A'ITANA. Boot of the following. 

fJav. dfki, same.] 

M&nana, r. tr, and int. (Imp. ma- 
nana; Bel. and Pass, andnana, 
Bel. Imp. andno.) To have, to 

Xanana Anaka. To be with ohild. 
See Anaka. 

jUiuunbdaiiLUiitnt, #. and o^r- [vo- 
HiNAHiTBA, hououTB.] An offioer 
in the army, a person of rank. 

MAnana anirana, o^f. [axabajta, 
name.] Holding rank, famous^ 

Uomm-bdla, or lUnan-trAia imin- 
dBinona iho. So-and-so owea 
me some money. 

lUnaa-ttoy, aty. Being under 
censure, having a dharge pref eired 
against one. See AzoN-Tsirr. 

Xinian-kabiry, adj. Same as the 

Xinan-tsy mam&nga, a4f\ [tamoa, 
trade.] Being ricdi without la- 
bouring for it. 

Xiaan-jira, a4f. Happy, lucky, 
A'VAVA, 9. The name given to all 

esculent herbs. 
A'KAMAFAfTRA, 9. [mafaitba, bitter.] 

An esculent h^b. SoUmum m- 

ffrunty L. 
A'naxala'ho, f. [kaiaho, weak.] 

Esculent herbs, of which there are 

several spedes. See Anamalahobx, 

and AnamatiAKOKklt, etc. 
A'namala'hoa'la, 9. [ala, a forest.] 

An esculent herb. WedeUa (/) 9p. 

A'namala'hobb', 9. [bb, large.] An 

esculent herb much used by tlie peo- 
ple. Sjfilanthe9 0leraeea,j9io^ Same 


A'namala'hozb'lt, 9. Fkblt, little.) 
An esculent herb much used by the 
people. Spilanthe9 AemeUa^ L. Same 
as KncoTODOHA. (Bets.) 


foreign.] An esculent herb. 
A'namala'honko'va, 9. [hova, the 
Hova.] An esculent herb. 8piimUk€9 

{?) 9p. 

A'najcala'hoya'yt, #. [yayt, feminine.] 
An escident herb. OonyMaheUidtflUiay 

A'kajcala'za, 9. [LA2A, ronowu.] An 
esculent herb. AUemantkera ««»- 
9ili9y B. Br. Same as Akaxbalaba. 

A'NAXA'Bnr, e. [iCAXT, sweet.] An 
herb used in the form of a decoction 
as a oough medidne. SoUmmn nodi^ 
JUrm^Siasi. Same as ICazlo (Ftor.), 


AjSAwraanoLLKJL ^etmm.), and A- 

VMiPtBASSLL (Bets.;, which last see. 
A'saxataVt, f. [tatt, fat.] An 

esculent herb. 
A'xAJOujiA'zA, f. An esculent herb. 

AUemanthera setHlis, B. Br. Same 

as Ajiakalaza. 
A'vajcba'bt, 8. [tabt, rioeO Anherb. 
A'lKAMBsf, ». [bb, many.] The tomip. 

The leares are used as a vegetable. 

BrasHea eampeatrity L. ^ets^ Same 

as AjrAHTBOHOA.. See Natx. 
A'vAMBi'BixA'yA, #. [bibilaya, a ser- 
pent.] An herb. 
A'naicbo'dihb'na, t, [voBT, the rump, 

moTA, beef.] The sowbane, used 

as an esculent. Chenopodium murale, 

A'vAMBc/uo, 8. [voLO, bamboo.] Name 

of an herb. (Betsim.) 
A'xAacBo'u)TA'RA, 8. [yolotaba, a kind 

of reed.] An esculent herb. Iponuea 

A'naxbo'baza,«. [voraza, evacuation.] 

The common sowthistle. Sonchu8 

oleracetu, L. The leaves are used 

as an esculent by the BetsQeo. 

(Bets.) Same as Bbbobxboka. 
A'vambo'bivo'bt, 8. [voBivoBT, round.] 

An herb. 
A'kamb'osaka, f . An herb on which 

tiie BetBimisaraka feed young geese. 

A'vaxpa'boo, f. [fango, sign.] An 



ter-carrier.] An nerb. Coleu8 8p. 
A'9AMPA.'TBJi, 8. [PATBA, a shrimp.] An 
herb used as an esculent. Amaran' 
tkttt »pino8U8f L. Same as Kocoab- 
LAHT (Bets.), and Sabotbaboat 


down.] An herb. 


drum, LAHT, masculine.] Name of 

a oomposite herb. 
A'kaxfo'za, 8. [foza, a crab.] An 

esculent herb. One plant known by 

this name is used by the Sihanaka 

as a medicine in ^Borders of the 

A'vAJCFO'BAiiA'HT, f . [I'^kBT, mascuUneJ 

Aneaoulentherb. UMysaAtrfoMsyDC. 

A'wAXPo'zAyA'yT, 8, [tayt, feminine.] 
An esculent herb. ConyzabellidifoUa^ 

A'irANAKo'in>BO,«. [AXONi>BO,abanana.] 
An esculent herb. CeloHa trigyna^ 
L. (Sih.) Same as Kdcabokofanoko 
(Bets.), and Masokopakoko. (Bets.) 

A'nana'la, f.fALA, a forest.] Name of 
an herb. (Sets.) 

A'trANDAfNOO, 8. Tlaingo, b cTceper.] 
Name of an hero. Lobelia natdintU^ 
A. DC. 

A'vabdba'mbo, f. [baicbo, tail.] An 
esculent herb. Uynura cemua, Bth. 
Same as Madcbobb, and Fxtanoo- 
BANA (Bets.), which latter see. 

A'lrAHDBA'NO, #. [bano, water.] Wa- 
ter-cress. Nuturtium offidnaU^ R. 

A'kakdbi'aka, 8, [bxaka, swift water.] 
An herb. 

A'nanoi'tazb'lt, #. [noita, woolly, 
KELT, little.] An esculent herb. 

A'nanooai'ka, 8, [oOAixA, a crow.] 
Name of an herb. Hypericum japou' 
itfiMfi, Thunb. Same as Anaihia- 
TATBA, and MANmoBOHiNA (Bets.), 


A'kastabao'na, #. An herb. Iponuta 

8p. (Sih.) 
A'kasta'bixa, f. [tabika, leading.] 

An esculent herb. Amaranthu8 

tri8ti8f L. 
A'namta'bobaza'ha, #. [taboka, tender 

shoots, VAZAHA, foreign.] An herb. 
A'namta'tatba, 8, [tatatba, a rut.] 

An esculent herb. Syperieum Japott' 

ieumf Thunb. Same as Anan- 

OOAIZA, and Manitsobohitba (Bets.) , 

A'naivto'ho, 8, [toho, a kind of fish.] 

An herb. 


An herb. 
A'NAinBABi'TAXA, 8. [sABiTAXA, disar- 
ranged.] Name of an herb. Dry- 
maria cordata^ Willd. 

A'NAinSATBl'A, 8. fSATBIA, boCBUSe (?).] 

An esculent hero used by the Betsi- 
leo as a remedy for hydrophobia in 
the following manner : The skin 
of a banana fruit is zoaated, and 


tfaejnioeof tibia plant aqneend on 
it; it IB then applied to the part 
bitten, ^ts.) Solanum nodifUtrum, 
Jaoq. Same as Hjlux) ^^y.), 
AKABTBiBDiuirA (Betsim.}, aiid Aha- 
XAXT, which last see. 


TBAorooxA, pecked.] An eacnlent 
herb. (Betom.) 

▲'vjjrrai'iozBA, «. [buohu, a anaiL] 
An herb. 

A'nahtsina'ht, «. [tbt, not, hakt, in- 
tended.] Eacnlent herbs, of which 
there are Anabtbinahilaht, which 
see, and Aitastszhahivatt. Bidena 
btpinnatUf L., and B, kueautha. 

A'NANTsnrA'HiLA'HT, «. [lAHT, maacu- 
line.] An herb nsea in cases of 
malftTJal fever. Bident bipmnatUf 
L. Used also as an esculent. Same 
as Teaxajxa. (Bets.) 

A'nahtsina'hiya'tt, ». [yayt, femi- 
nine.] An esculent herb. Bidetu 
leucauthay Willd. Same as Tbaxa- 
YOLA. (Bets.) 

A'irAiiTSi'2n>BANA, «. [TsnrDRAKA, mov- 
ing.] An esculent herb. Solimtim 
nodi/hrum^ Jaoq. (Betsim.) Same 
as Anakaict, AwAirrBATBiA (Bets.), 
and Mailo (Ptoy.). 

A'NANTsnroi'TA, «. [tbt, not, voita, 
woolly.] A small esculent herb. 

A'nantsinoi'iazs'lt, 8, [eblt, little.] 
Name of an herb. 


▼ALT, a horse.] A small esculent 
herb. Senebiera didyma^ DC. 

A'nantsifi'ka, «. [tbifixa, an anow.] 
An herb. 

A'nantsifi'tika, «. [iviFiTULA, drop- 
ping'.) An herb. 

A'NAinSl'BT, «. [ifil&T for TBIBZKT (P), 

a water-bird.1 An aquatic herb. 
MarHlea »p. (Betsim.) 

A'RAirrso'NOA, «. [bonoa, removed.] 
The turnip. BrasHca eampestrU, 
L. It is cultivated for its leaves, 
which are used as a vegetable. 
Same as Anaicbb. (Bets.) 

A'NAirrso'NaANA'LA, «. [ala, a forest.] 
Name of an herb. Genmium simentey 
Hoohst. Same as Tonqotbamboabb, 
and Labatanana. 

, «. [hbaza, thin.] Name 

of an herb. NMiurtium barbarMt- 

folium. Baker. Same as Azokdboh- 

JA2A, and Kdcalao (Bets.), which 

last see. (Bets.) 
A'VAVAO', pro. Same as Asao. 

AflA'HBBO, <. [axdbo, day.] Tom, 

in one*8 turn, alternation. 

mfiaindro, v. uU. (Imp. mi/attrnt- 

dr6a; Bel. ifamamdrwma, Bel. Imp. 

ifanamdriy,) To take in tQzn, to 

be recip rocal, to alternate. 

AVA'ajlulAT, tt4j, [iBAT, one.] One, 

a certain one. 
AVA(K, pro. Thee, thine, you, yours. 

Aocnsative and poasessiYe case of 

HiANAO. (Fiji angao.) 
AVA'RAHA, «. Name, appellatioii, 

honour. (Sunda, etc, ngaran,) Tsr 


moment, or of no rank. 

Ydry awiiraTia. To have lost rank 
or position ; to have changed one's 
name, as parents not of noble 
rank so frequentlv do in taking 
the name of their first-born 

X6dy imy ny aairany. To be rein- 
stated in rank or position. 
AVABX'O, pro. You, your, youza 

(plural). Accusative and posseaaiYe 

case of HiANABEO. 

Aka'bina, v. pau. See Avatba. 
AVA'TT, prep. Within, inside. See 


An&ty rino, or Aaitin* ny rAao. 1^ 
the water. 
A'VATEA, «. Advice, ooonael, instrao- 

tion, admonition, correotiony ze- 

«roof , rebuke. 
Sinatra, v, past. Advised, admon* 
ished, rebuked. 

An&rina, v, pau, (Imp. tmthro,) To 
be advised, oounseUed, cozveotecl, 
or chastised. 

Xianatra, v. int. and tr, (Imp. 
miandra ; BeL and Pass, itmdrmio, 
Bel. Imp. ionaro.) To learn, to 
study, to receive instruction ; to 
gain knowledge of, to imitate, 
to mimic. The oausative of 
this (Majcfxanaxba) meana to 



Bel. aiMm^rMMi, Bel. Imp. «MiMi- 
ro.) To advise, to warn, to admon- 
iflh, to rebuke, to chastifle. In 
the provinoes it meana to teaoh. 
XpanpiAiiatxm, «. A teacher. 
Xpan&natra, «. A teacher. (Froy.) 
Mj XpaaiiiAtray «. One of the 
names for the Holy Spirit. 
A'MAOXBASA^pr^. [UootAxaxxA..] 
Before, in the raesenoe of. 
A'natrihako. in my presence. 
. A'natrihan* ny 61oBa. In the pre- 
sence of the people. 
A'VATSOT, «. A species of son-bird. 
Neetarmia 8ouimanga^ Gm. Same as 
80X8OT. (Bets.) 
AV-OATT, a4j. and prep. On the 
other side of, beyond, across. Com- 
monly nsed for abroad, in another 
conn try. S ee Laft. 
AHBA'HIVY, «. The bass end of the 
drum ; the treble chord of the Va- 


AHBAT. See Endat. 
AHBAKAMBaHO, adj. [laxana, 

canoe, yoho, back.l Along the 

spin e of the back, behind. 
A'nAXI'BA, «. Something veiy far 

AHBA'LA. Apparent root of the fol- 

^it^ai^aifiR^ 1;. pott. (Imp. andaldso.) 
To be beaten. 

«. ir. J^Etel. andaU- 

u) To beat. The IndicatiTe 

and the Imperatiye are obsolete ; 

bat the Belanve is constantly used 

for that with which a thrashing 

is given. 

AVDA'liAVA, 8. and a4j' [lalana, 

a road.] Arrangement in rows; dif- 

larent, varions (as to kinds). 

^^^i^iAfijtia.^ 9. |MU«. (Imp. andald- 

no.) To be arranged, to be done 

w^tiiiAi^iia^ IT. int, (Imp. mianda' 
Una; Bel. iandaUnana.) To in- 
orease or diminish by degrees, to 
increase or decrease gradually, to 
abate gradnally ; to be arranged, 
to be in order. 

Minaiidilana, v. tr. To take in 
ovdar, to anange. 

AiVDA'iiAaDBA'iCBO, «. [&A1CB0, fringe.] 
The folded ends of plaito in the 
edging of baskets, hats, and mats. 
Awpala' bina, v. pan. See AimAx^. 
AHBA'HIHT, t. [Boot laht.] Aparty, 
a side, as in two (or more) parties 
pitted against one another. 
HiandiiiLy, 9. int. (Imp. miandania; 
Bel. and Pass, iandanuma, Bel. 
Imp. iandania.) To be on one side, 
to be of one's party. 
Xifiuiipiandiiiy. To take opposito 


collecting, and raht, diying.] Sna- 

pected of witchcraft. 
AaDA(K. [An irregular Imperative 

from Makdbka, to go.] Xjet ns go, 

let us be off. See Lsha. 
AHBE'FITBA [Boot leitiba.1 Oil 

the further side of the bed ; dose to 

the wall. 
Anbb'fdca'ndbt, 8. [XAITDBT, lying 

down.] Abed-fellow; a wife; the 

one lying on the inner side of the 

bed or mat. 
AHBE'HA. [An irregfular Imperative 

of Mandhha, to go.] Let us go, 

let us be off. It is often followed 

by another verb, as Audksa xomr, 

Gk) home. See Lsha. 
AHBETO, «. A slave. 

Andevdina, or Andev6iixia, v. pats. 
(Imp. andevoy, or a$uUv6zy.) To 
be enslaved, to be reduced to 

Xianddvo, v. int. Pronounced laov- 
DBVO. To be in the relation of 
owner and slave; to act like a 

Xananddvo, v. tr. (Imp. mammde* 
voa (/), ornuuuindevoza ; Bel. a/nam" 
deviana (^), or atMndwoeana, Bel. 
Imp. anandevoy (/), or anandevowy.) 
To enslave, to leduoe to slavery^ 
to make a slave of any one. 
Anbx'voho'va, 9, [hova, name given 

to petty princes in the provinces.] 

A provincial name for an overseer 

or governor. 
Ain>ffvoEOBo'vA, 9. Aspedes of bulbul. 

TyUu Eduardi, Hartl. (Tan.) 
AVDIAinr, 9. A company, a flook, 

a herd. See Du. 


Xanad aadlany, «. int. To go in 
fl oclcB, oo mpaniea, or herds. 
AHBrnVT, «. Avene. SeeDnmcA. 
A'HDO, 9. The dew. [Ar. an-naad, 

or Mai. om^Mfi (/), dew.] 
Ajtdo'hala'icbo, s, [TJORLf head, and 

iiAiCBO.] An aroh, a ourcalar frame, 


ASDO'HABfANA, 8. fl^OHA, and BXANA, 

a cascade.] The final instmotlons of 

a person on the point of death. 
AVwVT, 8. Name of a bird. Same 

as Bailoyt, which see. (Bara.) 
A'HDBA. Boot of following :— 

Andraina. Chi high. 
A'HBSABAT, «. Name of an herb. 

AHDSAT', inter. An exclamation of 

surprise. In truth ! Indeed ! Oh ! 
AVDRAI'KITSA,«. Something held in 

one* s charge, that for which one is re- 

roonsible. See lUixiTaA, and Adidt. 

Miandriikitra, r. tr. (Imp. mian- 
drtuketa ; Bel. iandraiketanay Bel. 
Imp. iandraiketo.) To be respon- 
sible for, to have in charge. 
AVDBAI'HAZT, adj, EasUy led, 

persuaded, or cajoled. See Bainazt. 
A'HBSAKA, prep. As far as, until, 

till, even, up to. See AifBAKATA, 

Maztoraka.. (ProY.) 

A'ndrak-ankdhitrlny. Up to now, 
up to this time. Same as Man- 


A'ndrakariva. Up to eveninif, al- 
ways, forever, perpetually. (JP^v.) 
Same as MAimaAKiZAT. 

A'da iindrak-a^jftry, «. Father and 
mother. (Prov.) Same as Bat 


Ain)BAXA Boot of following : — 
mindraka, v, int. To fall upon, 

to be perpetuated, to reach up to. 

A'HDRAHA, 9. Attempt, trial, taste. 
Yoindrana, r. pass. Tasted, tested, 

tried, commenced. 
Andrimana, v.past^ (Imp. andrdmo.) 

To be tasted, to be commenced, to 

be tried. 
Han&ndrana, v, tr, (Imp. manan' 

drdma; Bel. anandramana, Bel. 

Imp. anandrimo,) To taste, to 

try, to prove, to oommenoe. 

A'HBBA'ffBBA, «. Ereotneas, upright* 

ness of mien. 

A'ndraadraiiLa, v, pat8, (Imp. dn- 
drandrao.) To be raised, to be 
erected, as the head; also used 
in speaking of the things seen by 
an erect look. 

Xiindr&adra, v. int. (Imp. miiii- 
drandrd ; Bel. idndrmtdrana^ Bel. 
Imp. idndrandrdo,) To look up- 
right, to hold the head erect ; to 
look up to for help ; to be proud 
or self-confident. 

Xaniindriindra, v. tfi^ and tr, (Imp. 
mwtdndrandrd ; Bel. andndran* 
drdna, Bel. Imp. tmdndrandrdo.) 
To erect the hea^ ; to cause one to 
look upright; to expect some- 
A'HDRAHAHDRAHA,«. Haughtiness, 

arrogance of disposition ; sometimes 

used in a good.sense. 

XiiUidranuLdraaa, r. int. (Imp. 
nUdfidranandrdtia ; Bel. idndranan^ 
drdnaruit Bel. Imp. idndranandrd' 
no,) Tobehaugh^,tobearrogant, 
disdainful, or lofty ; to be bold 
and confident (in a good sense). 
AVDBA'HDEA, «. The name of a 

A'ndeandkai'na, v. pa98. See Aitdsa.. 
AVDBAO', adv. Lest, peradventuie, 

fear lest. Same as Fandiiao. 
AVDBABE'ZIHA, «. Name of a shrub 

or small tree. Trema grisea^ Baker. 

The Sponia tifini8f Planch, allied to 

this, is known in Mauritius as 

Andaraise. Same as Tbilaibabatba. 

(Bets.), which see. 
AKDBA&B'ZO, «. Same as ANnaARB- 


Ain>BA'BANA, V. pass. See Aitdbt. 
AVD&A'TKA,in^. Would that! May! 

Let it be that ! (Prov.) 
AVDBATAHA, «. Singing or other 
diversions connected with funerals ; 
playing without any thought. 
miandriTana, v. int. flmp. miandra- 
vana; Bel. iandravana^ Bel. Imp. 
iHndravdno.) To make diversions at 
funerals; to play without any 
AHBBB', inter. An expression of 
aatoniBhment. See Adbs, Odbb. 


UnfBXYKtConj, Keyertibeless, though. 
Same as Anbfa, but not at the 
begnming of a sentence. 
AnBE'FAVA, », The west. 
Aakandrefiliiiiia, v. pan, (Imp. an- 
ktmdre/dno.) To be put westwardB. 
Miankandrdfiuia, v. ini, (Imp. mian- 
kambrgfdtia; "B/el. iankandrefdnana, 
Bel. Imp. ianktmdnfdno,) To go 
to the west, or westwards. 
AJn>SS'HT,9. Name of a bird. (Prov.) 
AJTDBFVBBT, a. A fool, an idiot. 
Xanad andrdndzy, v. int. To act as 

an idiot. (ProY.) 
Handrendriana, «. Idio<7^ (Prov.) 
AJroSVO, pro. Same as Mianabbo. 

AflBBS'TA, a. A bird, a spedes of war- 
bler . (Bets.) £Uiaia Zantzii, Ghrand. 
A'VDBT, «. A piUar, a post. 
A'hdkt ▲'xbo, «. [aicbo, high.] A 

high post or pillar. 
A'jTDBT ▲n-tai'noina, «. The queen 

pos t of roof timbers. 
AirBBT, a. and v. Waiting, watch, 

voAndry, r. paaa. Waited for, ex- 
pected, watched. 
Andrisaaa, or Andriiana, r. paaa. 
(Imp. ondrdao, or andrdto,) To be 
waited for, to be watched, to be 
tended ; to be expected. 
Xiindzy, v, tr. (uop. miandrdaa; 
Bel. iandrdaana, Bel. Imp. ian- 
drdao,^ To wait, to be expecting ; 
to wait for, to expect, to watdi, 
to tend, to herd. 
Uiadry fity. To remain with the 
dead before burial. 
A'hdbUiA'ht, a, [laht, masculine.] 
The state of a town having a few 
personB left as a guard till the actual 
approach of an enemj, after it has 
been deserted bj its inhabitants 
A'ksbima'so, a. [xASO, the eye.] A 
guard kept over people who are not 
bound. Bee Fito-bava. 
A'nOBT. Boot of following. [Mai. 
difon, numdijfanA 

Tkflndzy, or Tuiiuidrlana, v. paaa. 
Lain down. Tataitdbxicabsbt also 

Kiindry, v. int. (Imp. mandria; 
Bel and Pass, andriana, Bel. Imp. 
andrio.) To lie down, to be lying 
down, to go to sleep ; to be at 
peace, as the kingdom ; to become 
thick, congealed, etc. 

Kiindry iUUana. To go to a place 
and sleep there or somewhen on 
the road before returning. 

X&ndry tiy Amana 4fo. Used in 
speaking of soldiers keeping guard 
at some distance from tne camp. 

M&Bdry fbtiy. To go to bed without 

Xampindry liia. To put a child 
to sleep. 

Kampindry fdta. To mix day or 

Fandriana, a. A bed, bedding. 

BoB6nom&ndry. Butter. Lit. milk 
lying down. 

BiUiom&iidry. Ice. 

Xana6 rinomiindry. The regular 
beating of a drum at a dance ; a 
mode of carryiog a palanquin 
without noise or bustle. 

Xi&la miiiidry. See under Ala. 
AHOBI'A. Same as following. (Prov.) 
AHDBI'AHA, a. The Sovereign, the 

nobles ; a title of respect, as Bao- 

BDBiAKA,' Sir. [Hal. aatriyan (/) ; 

for omission of a compare Amft, 

Omr, Ompa, etc.] 

Andriinina, v. paaa. (Imp. andrxAfw.) 
To be made or treated as a sov- 
ereign. Used also as a personal 
artide before names. See bdow. 

Xiandriandriana, v. int. (Imp. mton- 
driandridna ; Bd. Umdrtandridna' 
nay Bel. Imp. iandrlandridno.) To 
act with great circumspection. 

Handriinana, a. Kingship, sov- 
ereignty, royalty. 

Xanandrlan-teBa, r. int. To carry 
one^B self high or with droum* 
speotness ; to be lofty in behaviour. 

Zuakandriana, a. The near rela* 
tives of the sovereign. 

Tiindriandrlana, or KindrlaiidriaiLA, 
a. A children's game. 
AiTDBi'AiiA'inTBA, a. J^XANITBA, fra- 
grant, never becommg corrupted.] 

God. The word up to recent times 

was used in speaking of idols, 



ohaiiDfl, the deoeaaed sovereigjas, 
the leigiimg soTereign, anythmg 
valuable or wonderful; in these 
latter senses it seems equivalent 
to divine, supernatural, extraor- 
dinary, or surpassingly exoellent. 
It is still so used in the more dis- 
tant parts of tikie island, and among 
the unenlightened people of the 
central province even. It is said 
that the name was so given beoause 
while the body might not be seen, 
there was a fragrancy attending the 
name. See Zanahabt. 


ZAJLA, reigning.] The reigning sov- 


holy, VALONA, folded up.] The name 
of a class of nobles second in rank, 
so called from an old sovereign of 
that name. The Zazamabolaht 
Twhich see) being first after the 
xamily of the sovereign. 

AlTDBfAMATO'A, 9. [XATOA, the first- 

bom.] The name of the eldest male 

in a family ; a title of respect. 
Ardbi'axbavb'iitt, «. [vAVBVTT, large.] 

The judges. 
A2n>Bi'A]CBA'vT, 8. [vAYT, feminine.] 

The female nobili^, a princess. 

AKDBfAXBA'viFO'HT, «. [fOHT, short.] 

An herb used as a charm by the 
Sakalava to prevent the destruction 
of the crops by locusts. The leaves 
are used in the manufacture of rum. 
Asi>bi'ajcba'vila'nitba, 8. [lanitba, 
the heavexis.] A title of respect in 
speaking of me ladies in enumerat- 
ing olaeBes of people at a public 

Andbi'axba'viba'ko, 8. Mythical be- 
ings livinff in the water. 

AiTDBfAKBT, «. [be, gtcat.] The sov- 
ereign, a chieftain. (Prov.) 


TST, silver.] A shrub used by the 
Sakalava to exorcise evil spirits, 
the persoft possessed being bathed 
in water into which the juice of 
the leaves of the plant have been 
AimBi'AMBi', «. [yt, iron.] A magnet. 

Ain)Bf ampa'bavt, «. [vabaht, last.] 

The name of the youngest son <^ a 

ANBBfANAFBsaB'A, «. Anameof God 

among the Sakalava. 
Andbi'anai'vo, 8, [aivo, the middle.] 

The name of the seoond eldest eon 

in a family. 


going up.] A name for Qod among 
the Sakalava. 
Ain)Bx'ANAxo'Bo, 8. [axoho, a fowL] 
A plant, an infusion of which is 
drunk by those who, after eating 
fowl, suner from indigestion. Used 
also as Odt bast, whidi see. (Sak.) 


A name of God among the Sakalava. 


above, olona, people.] The fourth 
class of the nobles. 

Andbi'ananaba'bt, «. [nahabt, past 
tense of xahabt, to create.] God, 
the Creator of tiie universe. This 
word is the most universally used 
in speaking of Qod. It is often 
combined with Andbiakamitba. See 

A!n>Bi'Ain>A'HT, «. [laht, masculine.] 
A nobleman, a prince. 

Andbi'an-dbat' a'man-dbbkt. a re- 
spectful way of addressing the older 
men in a company. Compare Ajr- 


AKDBfAiTDBAi'NA'zT, «. [bainazt, pli- 
able.] A person who agrees to 
anything becoming or unbecoming. 
One easily led or cajoled. 


name.] The fifth class of nobles. 
AKBiA'mNA, r. pa88. See Andbiana. 


HO ANT, will be there.] An agent. 
Andbi'anto'mpokoindbi'ndba, «. [tox- 

FOKO, Sir, INDBINDBA, especially.] 

The third class of nobles. 
ANBBf anto'xfoxbo'divo'na, «. [toxfo, 

lord, voDivoNA, a tract of country.] 

Lord of a manor, a feudal lord. 


lord, XENAXELT, a manor.] Lord 
of a manor, a feudal lord. 
A'HDSIKA,BootoffoUowing. (Prov.) 



Aadrhdaft, i^. pan, (Imp. Muirlfio.) 
To be aztniiBed, put upon one's 
mettle. (Pray.) 

Xamiadiiiia, v, vnU (Imp. manan" 
irima ; Bel. atumdrinanOf^l/A. Imp. 
mtattdrino.) To be excited or 
axonaed, so asto lookeanestlj at, 
as if preparing for answering or 
resistmg ; to be on one's mettle. 
AVSBI'BA, «. The anchor of a ship. 

(Prov.) See Vaxofahtsiki.. 
AMJOarnKA, «. a bud. (Sak.) 

Same as AjomaerA. 
AVSBITOLA'HT, «. [laht, mascu- 
line.] A shell ; also a bottle-gonrd. 

CuetarHta loffenaria. It is sometisMS 

oaUed Abitolaht. 
AV'BBO, s. The dav, the daytime ; 

a period. [Mai. kari ; Dyak on- 


Xanaadro, v. in<. (Imp. manandroa ; 
Bel. siMMidroana, Bel. Imp. anon- 
droy.) To practioe judicial as- 
trology; to calculate or foretell 
lucky days. 

Xaagitaka indro. To procrastinate. 

Andivanindro. On ordinary days. 

AakdlMUiAndro. During the week. 

A'atodadro, adv. In broad day- 

A'ntodadro bd H ibiaUUrj. Same as 


idro t. The sun. 

AwhinlAndTO, «. The Hova. 
A'hdbo a'nt, adv. [ahy, there.] The 

past part of the aay. 
A'sDBO Ain'o, adv, [anio, the future 

£ at of the day.] The part of the 
y to come. 
A'voaoBAMX^, t. Name of a bird. 

(ProY.) Same as Anoayb. 
A'wbbobb', f . [bb, great.] Epilepsy, 

so called because the attacks are 

supposed to come on in the middle 

peart of the day. 
A'itoboio'tst, or Forr, #. [fowt, 

white.] Sunday. ^4oy.) 
ABDBc/HnrA, r. pott. See Ahdiioka. 
A'bdboiebala'la, «. [yalala, locust.] 

A windy day. 
A'wnBOXB'irA, ». [mena, red.] Friday. 

A'ssBdaTAfKr, «. Thursday. (ProY.) 
A'SDBOSBT'^ adv. At that tune. 

A'HDBOTBi'irr, ad^f. [orr, that.] That 
day, at that time ; always used in 
speaking of some time well known 
to both parties. 

A'ndbotbizat', adv. [izat, that.] That 
day, at that time ; used generally in 
speaking of times of which the 
speaker only is cognizant. 

A^NDBOTSAfXT, 8. [T8AZKT, a oMld. 

(PioY.)] Saturday. (ProY.) 
A'mDBoraDCA'TY, «. [tbt, not, xatt, 
dead.] A day granted for general 
sensual indulgence. 
A'kbboya'laka, s. [yalaza, weaiy.] 

Wednesday. (Prov.) 
A'HDBO. Boot of following :— • 
Yoampiindro, v. pats. Bathed. 
Xiindro, r. int. (Imp. mandroa; 
Bel. androanay Bel. Imp. androy.) 
To bathe ; to observe the native 
new year's festival. 
Fandr6ana, *. The Malagasy an- 
nual festival, so called because 
bathing is one of the chief points 
in its m>8ervance ; a bath. 
AVDBCKA, eonj. Lest, peradventure. 

Same as Anbiiao. 
A'HDB0KA,«. Aheap, amass. (Prov.) 
Andrdhina, v. pan. (Imp. androhy.) 
To mass together, to come to- 
gether, as cattle, or water in a 
hollow i^aoe. (ProvJ 
Kanindroka, v. tr. (Imp. manan' 
drbha ; Bel. anandrbhana^ Bel. 
Imp. anandrohy.) To gather cattle 
together, tomasstogeSier. (Prov.) 
AHBBvHOO, 9. A species of lizard. 
Xanaadrdiigo, adj. Kneeling so as 
to crouch like a lizard. 
A'lTDBOBO'ST, 8. [Boot bobost.1 A 
company of beggars going about 
and singing as tney beg. Kobobost 
is the name of a smooth rock where 
people assemble for play ; some of the 
mhabitants in its neighbourhood 
are renowned beggars, hence the 
above meaning. 
AVDBOTO, «. A kind of top. (Prov.) 
Xanandrdvo, v. int. To flee with 
all possible speed. (I¥ov.) 
AVBBO'VT, 8. A bodv of young men 
going about plundenng. Andboyi- 
LAinr is also used. 


AMVTO, or AXTTO, adv. Now, to- 
dar. (ProY.) See Anio. 

A'H OA, adv. An expletiYe, ezpreasiYe 
of desire or wiab. (Ptoy.) See 
Ekoa, Anxb. 

AVOA'BOHT, «. [SeeBONOA.] Aheap, 
a xnaas, an nmrambered oollection 
of thingB, throwing things together 
without oonnting mem. 

AVOADE', inter, A shout or expres- 
sion of reproach used to shame any 
one. Used only in a bad sense. 

AVOA'DY, M, A spade. This word 
is OYidenUj from the root Hadt, 
Manoadt being used in the moYinoes 
where Mihadt is used in imerina. 
See Fanoadt. 


out.] A worn-out spade blade. 
A»aA'Di&A'PAKA, 8. [sAPAKA, Seizing.] 

A new and lonff spade bhide. 
AVOATO, t. Hemp. (Ptoy.) See 


Manangtfo, v. int. To smoke hemp. 
(Prov.) See Foka. 
Ahoa'fo-ba'bit, «. [yabt, rioe.l The 

husks of rice. (Itoy.) See Axofa. 
AVOAHA, and AHOAMBA, adv. 

Perhflj>8, peradYenture. 
AVOA'u, «. The name of a species 

of wild duck. Anas Melleri, Sclat. 
AVOA'LT. Boot of the following :— 

Ang^nwA^ i;. pass. (Imp. anffalio.) 
To be pleased with something, 
to haYe a hobby for something. 

Miangily, <m(^'. Capricious, change- 
ful. Used of children. 
Akoa'lipa'tst, a4;'. Used in speaking 

of somebody exceedingly doYer. 

(ProY.) See Noalifatst. 
Anoa'ldc-fo', 8. [fo, heart.] Caprices 

of children. (Ptoy.) 
A'VOALI'SA, «. A flmt-look musket. 

(£ng. £nfflish.) 
AKGALaHA, adv. [ajjokjl.] First, be- 

fore, proYiously, m the meantime. 

AoxA ANOALOHA, Wait in the mean- 
A'HOAXBA. See Axqasa., 
A'HGAME'HAYATA s. A camel ; the 

A'HGAXIA,9. Acamel. (ProY.) [Swa. 

A'WAHA, i. Blue sUk or thread. 

A'HeAVA Boot of the following. 

See TsANaAKA. 

Angjjniwa, v. pass. (Imp. anffdne.) 
To be lifted up, as tbe head, or 
rice thrown down by the wind. 
Miaiigana, v. int. To stand eroot 
or upright again, to stand upright, 
to hold up one's head after bend- 
ing. In the redup. it means to 
be proud. 
Waiiaiigani, v. tr. (Imp. manmt* 
ffdna ; Bel. ananadnana, Bel. l^p. 
ananffdno.) To lift up the head. 
Tiy asluia mlingaim. All kiUed, 
no suTYiYors. 
A'noant Ho'ya, 8. A ohild or grand- 
child of a HoYa and a Betsimisaraka. 
AVOAVJA, or AVGBirJA, oA;. Per- 
haps, it may be, possibly. See Av- 


AHOAHO, 8. A tale, a story, a faUe ; 
fig. trouble, calamity. [Swa. m^omo, 
a tale, a fable ; Ar. algina, pi. a/. 
ganif a song, a ditty.] 
Angiui6ina, v. pass. (imp. anganoy.) 

Of something related at great 

leng^ and made fabulous. 
Miangino, v. int. (bnp. mianpanoa ; 

Bel. ianganoana, Bel. Imp. ianga" 

fKfy.) To trifle, to trifle with one, 

to waste one's exertions on things 

of no importance. 
Angftnongaiio, aeff. Amusing, droll, 

facetious. (Ptoy.) 
Mila angino, v. intr. To act as if 

wanting to get into trouble. 
Xahlta angiino. Same as ICahita 

LOZA. OYertaken by misfortone ; 

sad to say ! a lamentable affair ! 
AVGAO", pro. You, thou. (Ptoy.) See 
HiAKAO and Anao ; sometimes used 
for Andiiao. 
AHGAO'TBA,«. Aflsh. (Ptoy.) 
AHGABABE',9. [bb, great.] The name 
of a star. (Prov.) [Swa. ngara, gUt- 
AHGABALA'HY, s. The senrants of 
the soYereign. (Ptoy.) Same as 


AHGARAHA'BY,«. Afire-ball. (£ng. 



AVOABB'DOlf A, «. Cooked rice upon 
wMoli water is poured. 
Hanad ingmrddona, r. int. To put 
water on oooked rioe before eating 
A'VOABB'SO, 9. Ornamentation, ec- 
Akoa'xika, V, pats. See Anoatiul. 
AjrGAXOdSA, «. A large shell blown 
hj the attendants on uie sovereign. 
See AKTexvA, and Aw jombova. 
AVOATT, «. A spiral black freeh- 

water shell, ^ipv.) 
AJI'OATBA, ». Spirit, ghost, demon. 
Aiigdrina, 9, pats. (Imp. angaro,) 
To be possessed by a spirit or 
demon. (Prov.) 
LaUfln-iacatra, <k(r. Applied to 
hair f amng off, or to anything 
planted, oranyliyingihingspoiled 
(by the; influence of the Anga- 
A'NOADBA'ifO, », [bano, water. I Scurf 
of the head, duidruff ; mist^noating 
over water. fProv.) 
A'hoamat', «. [HAT, burning.] An 
herb found in rice-grounds and 
said to injure the rice crops. (Tank.) 
Rhamphiearpa Umgijhra, 
A'hoame'&ana, t. [misa, equal.l Name 
of some «tTiitnft.f of which the skin 
is imported to make knife-handles, 
rings, or ferrules. (Prov.) 
A'VOATBA, «. Partiality, unfair 
dealing, unfair judgment ; also 
false praise, flatteiy. 
Miiagatra, v. int. (Imp. mxangdra; 
Bel. and Pass, iangdrana, Bel. 
Imp. MMi^iro.) To show partiality, 
to be partial, to act or use unfairly , 
to praise falsely. 
Maaai taira miingatra. To decide 
unfairly, to act with partiality. 
AVOATBA, «. (Gonorrhea, dyschuria ; 

occasional pain in micturauon. 
A'hgabc/bibo'bt, «. ^BOBiBOBY, round.] 

Suppression of urme, isohury. 
A'itoama'tt, 8. ][matt, dead.] A par- 
tial suppression of urine, stran- 

A'sOAYE', 9. A bird, a species of cuc- 
koo-shrike. Cottipephaga cana^ Ghn. 

AVOATY, «. A reouest, intreaty. 
See Ajibbzo, Fona, Hataxa. 

Yoaag&yy, v. pan, Aaked, request- 
ed, solicited ; applied to the toings 
asked for. 

Miangivy, v. tr. and int. (Imp. 

miangavia; Bel. and Pass. iiM^a- 

viana, Bel. Imp. iangavto.) To 

request, to entreat, to crave. 

AVOATO, 8, [avo, high.] A large 

bat. (Prov.) Also the fruit QoA- 


AVOATO, 8. The name of a moun- 
tain on the eastern boundary of 
Imerina. Many mountains axe so 
called. Boot Avo. 

AVGATODrAVA, s. Shrubs whose 
wood is used in house-building. 
Agauriasalieifoliaf Hook.fil., and^. 
poPgphylUiy Baker. One of thespedes 
affords a remedy for scabies. The 
leaves are applied to sores. Same as 

AHGA'ZY, 8. Labourers hired for a 
certain time or term. [Fr. m- 

Anguina, v. pass. To be engaged 
as above. 

AHOFA, 8. An herb, (^ts.) Bpal- 
lage anomonafoUa, DC. 

AHOETA, eonj. Same as Akbfa, but 
rarely used. 

AHGE'HA, or AVGE', adv. An ex- 
pletive diiefly used with commands, 
or earnest requests, as Avia anobha, 
Now just come here. 

AHOFLY, 8. The name of a species 
of cricket. Also called Ajitsoimdaet. 
The children are much given to 
catching these insects and making 
them fight. 

Anoe'linooai'xa, 8. [ooAixA, a crow.] 
A very black species of Ajioelt. 

Amoe'ijnxa'by, 8. [xABT, a cat run 
wild.] A species of AxavLY which 
chirps in the night. 

AVGFLOHGE'LOirA, «. Inclination 

to weep, pout, or be capricious. 

(Prov.) S^ Anosntsana. 

Miangdlongdlona, v, int. (Imp. muifi- 

gehngelofta ; Bel. iattgelongelonana, 

Bel. Imp. iangelongeUny.) To have 

an inclination to weep or pout. 


AHGE'KTSAITA, «. Difficully in being 
pleased, whim, caprice. See above. 


AagentiAwlna, 9. pau. (Imp. angen' 
ffofw.) To be made wnimmoal, 
to be treated aa capricioiiB, to be 
indulged in one's fancies. 

Miangintsaaa, v. int. (Imp. mian- 
fenUina ; Bel. itmgewUmwMLy Bel. 
Imp. sangtnUiOM^ To be difficult 
to please; caprioioas, whimsical, 

Xanaagdntsaiia, «. tr. (Imp. ma- 
wungenUdma; Bel. ofMN^ffit^aiuma, 
Bel. Imp. imangenU&no^ To render 
wbimBi»ELl. (Prov.) Bednp. idso 
used in same sense. 
AVeE'BOVeS'BO, «. Singnlarity, ec- 
centricity, oddity, droll^, fan. 

AngdiOBgeidina, v. paas, (Imp. on- 
ghaongetby,) To be behaved drolly 
towards, to be amused: used of 
the things towaxds which one 
exercises drollery or eccentricity. 

Wangdsongdso, v. int, (Imp. mian- 
ghongewa ; Bel. ianffetongesdana, 
Bel. Imp. ianffUongetoy.) To be 
singular, to be eccentric, to be 
droll; tb^ word implies a tendency 
towards contempt. 

Angdson-tdny. Ilowery speech. 
AVOS'TBIXA, 9. A yam which is 

poisonous unless carenQly mepared 

before cooking. (Tank.) I>io9a>r»a 

AVOS'ZA, adj. Proy. for NaszA, 

which see 
AVeFZOKA, i. It is probably the 

same as Andbabbzo wmch see ; also 

a tree the bark of which is made 

into cords. 
A'lrOT, i. Father. (Ptot.) See Ba.t, 

Ab^, At>a, etc. 
A'noiva'vy, s. [vavt, feminine.] A 

father's sister. (Prov.) 
A'VOY, 8. An ornament, an embel- 
lishment. (Prov.) 

YoiUkgjf V, pas9. Ornamented^ em- 
bellished. (Prov.) 

Angina, or Angiana, v. pass. (Imp. 
angio.) To be ornamented, em- 
bellished, made brilliant and good. 
Bedup. also used. (Prov.) 

XianguUigy, v. int. (Imp. midngian' 
gia ; Bel. idngiangiana, Bel. Imp. 
iangiangio.) To be of a nature 
bving neatness, etiquette, outside 

appearances; to be affected bi 
everjrthing. (Prov.) 
Xaningy, v. tr. (Imp. manangla; 
Bel. anangiana, Bel. Lnp. anangio,\ 
To decorate, to ornament. (Piov.) 
L6ko miingy. Paint of a good 

colour. (JPpov.) 
Tftratiay mUngy. Paper-hangings. 

(Prov.) See Tbiotsa^ 
A'ngim-p6. Same as Haxbom-fo. 
A'VGIA'ITGT, s. Pride, arroganoe. 
KUngUagy, v. int. (Imp. m«i#»- 
giangla; Bel. idngianglana, Bel. 
Imp. idngiangU>.) To be proud, 
to be arrogant, to be too bold and 
too self-confident. 
AVGrDIHA, s. A species of dragon- 
fly. Libeilula sp. 
ANof nncBB', s. [bb, large.]. A largo 

species of dragon-fly. 
AHGrKA, s. A variety of lice. The 
provincial words are Ajioska, and 
AsQKSY. See Bojo. 
ANofKAFO'TST, s. [fotbt, whitc.] A 

variety of the above. 
Anoi'kaicb'na, t. [lOBNA, red.] A va- 
riety of the above. 
AHOrLT, s. An herb used in diseases 
of the heart; the root is edible. 
AKOILI'ST, «. The English. 
AHGI'BA, s. Name of a wood; a 

term of reproach. 
AirerBA, «. a stick. (Ptov.) Same 

AHOI'SA, s. A provincial word for 
a goose. Q18A. also used. [Bng. 
AJiGrUKA,«. A mouse. (Ptov.) See 


A'HGITBA'VOITBA, s. Wanton gaiety, 
pride, haughtiness, concert, friski- 
ness. AKOATBJLNaATBA also used. 
A'ngitrangirina, v. pass.^ (Imp. in^ 
gitranglro.) To be frisky, to be 
under the influence of a msky or 
proud disposition. 
Xiibigitrftngitra, v. int. (Imp. mt- 
angitrangWa ; Bel. idngitrangWa^ 
nay Bel. Imp. idngitratigiro. To 
frisk about, to be gay, to be con- 
AVGI'TBT, t. Name of a bird. 


ASeXTT, t. The Bame of a parioklj 
■hrab. S oh m ntm trytkr^umUkumy Bo- 
ier. Same as Hest, Voamoivt, and 
BaENOZTT (Boia.), whioh last oee. 

MMWAMA^ t. A largetz«e-frog; alao 

Aaroo'A-Fs', «. [ra, the thigh.] The 
thiflrh. (PiOT.) 

Asoo'AXB'inu, #. [tdtoa, throat.1 A 
aoog, and mode <n amging hy dhudren 
in play, imitatiTig the cij of the 

Xanad aagdatteda. To imitatethe 
CIJ of a frog in plaj. 

AVeOAVeO. Boot of following :— 
Xiiageingo, v. itU, (Lnp. Miin- 
pomtgia; BeL umgoaiudma, Bel. 
Imp. iangoangdyj) To be piled 
up in a heap. (Iroy.) 

AVOifBT, «. The meaaaxe oontained 
between the tqpe of the ^nmba and 
the two forefingen fonning a oirole. 

AVeO'XAt. A frog. (Prov.) 

AveoxA, or AveciiveoiA, #. 

Self-indnlgenoe, waywaidne8a» pet- 

tiahneea. See Hakta. 

Aagdlangolaiaa, v, pats. (Imp. an- 
f6 UMg ol a o,) To be indulged, to 
be tzeated so as to become waj- 
ward, to be sailed ; need also of 
a way of singing in which many 
tarns and srace notes ace used. 

Mlang^langfla, v. int. (Imp. mian^ 
poUutfola ; Bel. ianffolan^Um^^ 
BeL Imp. tangolangolaif or iangb' 
langolajf^ Tobewaywaxd; to sing 
witii many tarns and grace notes. 

Vanaagdlaagdla, v. tr, (Imp. jimi- 
ntm^QlangM ; Bel. amMgoUmgo' 
IdttB, Bel. Imp. ammgolangokio.) 
To make to be wayward or indol- 
ged. (Prov.) 

V^tay aag61a. Used of the ashes of 
the wick of a candle, or the ash 
at the end of a burnt cigar; fif. 
having no power left, completmy 
bereft of power to affect anything. 
A'VGOLA'YA, t. A species of palm, 

from which the Betsimisaraka obtain 

a sweet liquid, and also a kind of 

string used in fishing. (Betsim.) 
AMQOLAI VA, adj. fbid state of the 

shins when scorohed by sitting too 
the fixe. Probably nomANQOiLA. 

AVeCLY, t. Aztifioe, frand, deceit, 

snare. See Axsost, Ambata, Fita- 

KA, Samdoxa, and Soloxt. 

Yoang61y, v. pan. Cheated, en- 
. Aagolina, 9, pat$. (Imp. amgoUo.) 
To be cheated, defraooed, or en- 

Xanaagdly, v. tr. Qmg. mtmangoU ; 

Bel. ananffoUna, Kel. Imp. anon' 

goUo.) To cheat, to deoeiye, to 


AHeOVA Boot of the foUowiag. 

See AiKA, VoBT. 

Tattngona, «. jMM. Aaseinbled, con- 

▼oangena, 9. jmm. Collected (by 
some one), assembled, congrega- 

Aagdniaa, v. pat$, (Imp. ang^.) 
To be collected, nssomblod, or 
gathered together. 

XiangoBa, v. int. jimp, miaag^ ; 
Bel. ianaonofta, Bel. Imp. iaagb' 
ng.) To assemble, to congre- 

Xaningona, v. tr, (Imp. manangd- 
na ; Bel. ananginana, Bel. Imp. 
anangony.) To ooUeot, to assemble, 
to gather things or persons to- 

71aiig6iiaiia, #. The church; the 
people who assemble legolariy 
together for worsl^ip. 

TriiM Jlang^nana, «. The house of 
assembling, church, or chapel. 
AVeaHGO, «. Name of a bird. (Tan.) 

Same as Abost, whioh see. 
AVeaVTSDIA, «. Shivering from 

cold or fear. (Prov.) See Hobo- 
hobo, JlBUXKT. 

XaBgdntsina, v. int. (Imp. sian- 
gonUina; Bel. angontsinana, Bel. 
Imp. angonttino.) To shiver, to 
shudder, from cold, fear, or bites 
of Doisonous insects. 
AVOO'XO, M. The virile glands. 

A'VGOBO'ST, t. Jaundice. (Prov.) 

See N00BONQO6T. 

waddling yet firm kind of gait; 

speech in which head and voice go 

together in emphasis. 


Kianffity, orMiaiigdtiiigdty, r. int, 

(Imp. miangotingotia ; Bel. iango' 

tingottanOy Bel. Imp. iangotingo' 

tU,) To adopt the aboye gait, or 

to speak as aboye. 
][iaiig6ti]ig6t7, v. int. To bewaU 

oontiniiallir, to be full of oom- 

pUunta. (IVoY.) 
][£uig6tiiig6tim-b6]iiBihitra. To 

maJce barn solioitatioiiB to get rank 

or favour; to weep in order to 

get something. (liroT.] 
iJIGOTiA,#. A fish. (ProT.) 
AVeOTT, «. Taking by foroe. 

Xanaft ang^. To get by foroe. 
L'VI^prep, Belonging to, for. Ni- 
KiNT is used in the provinces for 
this. Amr is also used oetween tran- 
sitive verbs and proper nouns in the 
aoousative case, as Mamblt ant 
Jaora izt, He strikes John. Be- 
fore vowels it is usual to write an 
apostrophe for the final y; and 
before consonants which require to 
be strengthened from close prox- 
imity ton, the y is substitntMl hj 
a hyphen, and the consonant is 
strengthened accordingly. Thus we 
have : Mn>wiu an* A^obxamanitba 
zzT, He praises God; An-dBabb, 
Babe's; An* olona, Somebody's; 
Ah' iza, Whose P Ah-jovt, Whose ? 

In the provinces Anaht and Ana- 
KAHT [ant and aet] are used for 
mine; andAKAcrforAzr; and very 
probably the An- of thepronoims in 
the objective case comes from this, 
asANAO, Anat, Antbika, Anabbo. 
Bo kny ny mahiintra. For the 

A'ny ny ralko. My father's. 
A'ny ny Andriana. The sovereign's. 
A'HT, adv. Used with Andbo, as An- 
DBO ANY, the past part of the dav, 
to-day. It IS generally past in 
Anio. The part of the day to come. 

A'ny ampitio. Prov. for Anikehbo. 
A'ny intoindro. To-day (past). 
A'nikehdo. Used in speaking of 

some part of the past day. 
A'nymindrakariva. Thoughoutthe 

past day. 

A'ny naraina. This morning (past). 

Anio tOBt61o indro. All day (pre- 
sent or past). 

Anke'hitrmy, or Ankoliitrio. Now. 

Tadna iny. Next year. 
A'HY, adv. There, in that place, but 

distant and unseen. Thepast tense 

is Tant, and the future Ho ant. 

Kankiiiy, r. int. (Imp. mankaneta ; 
Bel. ankoftesana, Bel. Imp. anka- 
n^.) To go there. Mankaxt is 
also used for this, or Manxajon' 
before a vowel. 

Xankandia at^. Gome here. 

A'ny ho iiny. Somewhere there, in 
some place not seen. 

A'ny ho isij kokda. A little further 
A'HT. Boot of foUovring. I&a is 

used in the provinces. 

▼oiiny, V. pass. Prepared, as yam 
on the four sticks for the loom. 

Anina, v, pats. (Imp. anio.) To be 
prepared, as yam for the loom. 

Ifanfaiy, v. tr. (Imp. mananla ; Bel. 
ananlana, Bel. Imp. ananio.) To 
prepare yam finally for weaving. 

Auana, *. Yam finally prepared 
for the loom. 

Fananiana, «. The four upright 
sticks used as a reel; aU the 
various appliances used in pre- 
paring yam for tiie loom. 
Ain'AVA, 9. An oath. 

Hianiana, r. int. (Imp. mianidna ; 
Bel. ianidnanoy Bel. imp. ianidno.) 
To take an oath, to swear. 

Mianian-tit to. To swear falsely. 

AmpianiAnina. Passive from verb 

in Mamfi-, it takes the place of the 

passive from the root. To be 

adjured, put on oath. 

A'VIA'VT, adj. PufFed up as with 

wind, bloated, swollen. Used of 

the stomach only. 

Mi&niAay, v. int. (Imp. midmanla; 
Bel. idniantanoy Bel. Imp. idnia- 
nio.) To be puffed up, to be 
bloated, to be swollen. Used 
only of the stomach. 
AVIS', inter. An expression of wish, 

desire, either of good or ill, warning, 

and grief, as May it be that ! Would 

that! Be sure that! It is often 



joined with Enoa, as Ehoa amis xa 


that this war were at an end ! 

Eo filty raid hianad! You will 
sorely be killed ! 

Hotahln* Andriaminitra anid ! Maj 
(yon) be blessed of (}od ! 

llatdta aaid ftho ! A very forcible 
way of apologizing for some seem- 
ing rudeness. May I die ! I 
would rather die (than do such a 

It 18 fdso nsed when no direct 
wish is implied, as : Nthbrtanib 


Strength cannot be compared to 

A'nXA. Boot of following :— 
Tafinika, r. jMm. Climbed up, 

ascended, mounted up. Used of 

the person having ascended a hill, 

tree, post, etc. 
Yoiaika, v. pan. Used of that 

which one has dimbed, etc. 
Aiiihina, r. pau, (Imp. oniAo.) To 

be climbed up, to be ascended, as 

of a bill, a tree, a post, etc. ; 

attacked, as a town in war. 
■BAnika, v. int, (Imp. mianXha; 

Bel. umlA4»ia, Bel. Imp. ionUo.) 

To climb, to ascend. 
Maniwika, v, tr. (Imp. manoniha; 

Bel. ammihanay Bel. Imp. anani' 

ho.) To dimb up something, to 

ascend ; to attack a town ; fig. to 

attempt to do a difficult thing. 
Kaniai-drira. [bota, the palace.] 

r. eomp. To steal from the palace. 

On e of the capital crimes. 
A'JbUIA, «. Breeze, wind. (Prov.) 

[ICal. mMffin.] 
A'mivba'laka, «. A breeze from the 

south. (Prov.) 
A'aniBA'BAiBA, f . A breeze from the 

north . Q[^rov.) 
A' J IMA. Boot ca the following. See 
OiroirA, Tomr. 
YoiaiiiA, or Ydampiliinina, r. pau. 

Stopped, suppressed. 
fr^Aiwi^^ 17. tn/. (Imp. mumina; 

Bel. ioMtnama, Bel. Lnp. ianltto,) 
To oease, to stop, to stop crying, 
to have one's jRpnef assuaged. 
Ajo'xia, v. pa$$. See Amt. 

AVI'BITRA, t. [Boot ibitra.] A 
temporary biirial with a view to 
disinter the corpse and bury it again 
when the appropriate tomb is pre- 

AaITO, 8, A spedes of palm. 

AVITOllA, «. A palm used in house- 
building. The wood is also used as 
a torch by the queen's messengers 
who travel by niffht. 

AVITOHY, #. and at^. {BootzTO.] 
The centre, the middle of an^thinff ; 
the thin pieces of wood fiUinff we 
groove of two adjoining planks or 
posts fitted together. The Anzvona 
was used for Sus, hence its name ; 
compare Arvo. 

Aniyon' ny riaka. lit. that between 
the seas ; a phrase used in speak- 
ing of the w^ole island. 

AHJA'DY, 8. Lot, share, fortune. 

ajY.) See Anjaba. 
idi-hftsina. [hamzna, food.J An 
allowance of food. In Imenna it 
means gluttonous, but is only 
used of animals. 
Aig'&dy r&tiy. Bad luck. (Prov.) 
Aig&dy tiira. Qood luck. (Prov.) 
Anja'hina, v. pass. See Anjaka. 
AHJAT, inter. A word expressing 

desire, good or ill, and reg^t. 
AVJAI'KA, 8. A concourse of people 
splendidly arrayed, as on occasions 
of public rejoicmg. 
Miaojalka, r. int. Imp. and Bel. 
not used. To assemble in grand 
AVJATHOY, 8. Same as Akjon/ant, 

which see 
AVJAI'VOY, 8. Walking on one's 
hands, the feet being turned up- 
wards, as in certain children's 

Manad aigaingy, v. int. To walk 
on one's hands. 
AHJAI'VOY. Same as Ambost. 
Yoaiyaiagy, r. jmm. Flattered, 
cajoled, prompted to do something 
with one s whole strength. 
Aiyjaingaina, r. jmm. (Imp. attain' 
ffoo.) To be prompted or encour- 
aged to do somethmg with one's 
whole stiengtii. 


Bel. anat^aingiina^ Bel. Imp. afum- 
joMu/ao.) To prompt some one to 
put forth his strength in hnrt- 
nd things. 
MJfJMXLt ». A bar or blook of any 

metal ; solid rings ; a thong or strap 

of leather. 

Aigihiiia, v, pau. (Imp. at^dho.) 
To be lengfthened out into bars, 
as iron, etc. 

A'lgakaojihiiia. Same as Ahjahiha. 

Mi^iigi^, 9. ^. (Imo. mananjdha ; 
Bel. anat^dhanaf Bel. Imp. anon- 
jaho.) To make metal up into 

MaaiigaUUgaka. Same as MAVikv- 


A'nja-basi'hiha, #. [taiubzka, brass.] 
A bar of brass. 

A'nja-bt', «. [vT, iron.] A bar of iron. 

A'rja-bo'la, #. [tola, money.] A bar 
of silver. 

A'rja-bo'lavo'tbt, #. [voLATonnr, sti- 
ver.] A bar of silver. 

A'nja-la'va, 8. The spring of a gun. 

A'VJAKA'HJAKA, «. Violenoe, forae. 
Probably redup. of Awjaka. 
Maa&^Jalaligaka, v, int. (Imp. ma" 
nd^jakaf^dha ; Bel. ankr^tJcanjd" 
hanUf Bel. bnp. andf^'akatydho,) 
To treat with violenoe, to foroe. 
HaniigaluU^a-bdlana. To prolong 
a speech or discourse. (Prov.) 

AVJA'LA, «. A doth worn round the 

A'VJAMA', t. A pubUo place. 

AVJA'XBA, Mb'. At random. See 

A'VJAVA'V JAVA, *, A plant com- 
mon in rice-grounds. (Bets.) Also 
a hard- wooded tree used in house- 
building. Lgptolofut paueijhraf Ba- 

AirjAHAVJAirA, 04^'. WeU-formed, 
noble in mien, of an imposing ap- 

Aigana^jAnana, «. Imposing ap- 
pearance or stature. 

AVJA'VO, s. Allusion, indirect dis- 
course. (Ftov.) 

Avjaadina, v. pa$9. (Imp. aiyiXMy,) 
Tobealludedtoindizeotly. (Prov.) 

Maaaqjiao, v. tr. (Imp. manm^anoa; 
Bel. ananjanbanOy Bel. Imp. ofum- 
janoy.) To allude to some one, to 
speak of one indirectly, at the 
same time laughing at or deriding 
him. (Prov.)" 
AVJA'BA, «. A share, a pcntion, a 

lot. Ses Zaba, and Awjadt. 

ANJA'BAlLkHA'ZO, «. [XAHASO, tO get.l 

Anything thrown to be soramblea 

AirJAYI'DT, «. A kind of heath used 

largely for fuel, as it gives great 

heat but UtUe smoke. FhiUppia 

Jtoribunda, Bth. 
A'rjavi'dxla'hiicadi'heca, «. [i^AaT, 

masculine, iCABiNizA, small.] A kind 

of heath. Pkilippia »p, 
A'HJAYIXY, «. Provincial for Ajfja- 


AVJELT, #. An anoel. [Eng. tmgel.'\ 

A'HJT. Provincial for Azr. 

AVn'KA, «. An herb. (Sak.) 

AHJiKT, f . A bird. SameasAvATBOr. 

A'HJOLOTO, «. Spearmen; execu- 
Xanaft iljol6fo aina, adj. Fearleas. 

AVJOMA'BA, 9. A small wind in- 
strument, a flute, or flageolet. [Swa. 
amarij a pipe, a clarionet ; Ar. as- 
sam ara.l 

AMJOrKBOBA, «. A shell used as a 
horn ; it is smaller than the Ahqa- 
BOHA. See AzroABOHA, Antsiva. 

A'VJOHA, «. Soomfulness, disdain. 
Xiiojona, v. int. (Imp. mia^jona ; 
Bel. ia^jonana^ Bel. Imp. iatyony.) 
To be scomfol, disdainful, or 
XiiiyoniLig'ona, v. int. Bedup. of 
above. To be extremely haughty 
and soomfnl. 

AHjaHJAKT, «. A ring or ferrule of 
iron added to the top of a native 
spade-handle to increase its momen- 
tum. See HoNKONA. 

AHJCKBY, «. Name of an herb. (Bets.) 

AHJO'BO, 8. The corner of anything, 
or at the comer of anything. See 


A»J0'B0Ff basa'zaha, t. [sAST, chant- 
ing, prayers.l The north-east comer 
of a house where the Babt is sung 
and the Soboka is usually made. 


Avto'sohaxc/ho, #. [akoho, a fowl.] 
Dm souih-eaBt oomer of a honBe, 
where the fowls rooet. 

AKK*. A prefix found before many 
urovineiai words, ae AmAinr, f<v 
AvT ; Ajtxbo, for £o ; Anmo, for 
£fo. Also ftret syllable of paniTB 
and relative rerbs from M^ni, as 
AxzAiiASAiVA (from z*a2a) ; and be- 
fore abstract nouns like CUmaboaita, 

A'sxabia'eaht, #. [bb, many.] A 
great number, very many, a great 
majority. See Mabo, Bb. 

Abba'bont, t. [abo, high.] Very many, 
a large quantity, a heap. 

Aar AnTT.A 'waba, «. [dilana, small in 
the middle.] A neck of land joining 

AVXAT', «. Any open space near a 
forest, or smroimaed by forest ; an 
exposed sitoation ; also the name 
of a large upland plain to the east 
of Imerina. See Hat. 

A'bxaxb'haha. See Maxka. 

AjnLABnBBTA'vzNA, V. pou. See Ah- 


AVXA'HeA, t. ProT. for Axaboa, 
which see. 

AnLA'VT, ». Dispute, quarrel. See 

Wiankiiny, v, int. To dispute ; to 
seek a quarrel. 

A'HXAEA'HAITA, «. Name of a tree. 
(ProY.) In TmifiriTia it means that 
which is yet in the womb. Used of 
persons or animals. 

Abka'bomata'fina (r'), ad€. In conceal- 
ment, in secrecy, as Izabt tent 


word is said only in secrecy. 

AVXATflA, or AVXA'SA, #. A pair. 

A'bxatsi'o-dbi'totba, «. [tsioza, blow- 
ing, BiTOTBA, wind.] An airy place. 

Abba'todi^aba, «. A shrub, a decoction 
of which is used as a lotion for 
scabies. Agauria ieUici/oliay Hook. 
fil. Same as Aboatodiaba. 

Abza'bobt, 8, [kazo, a tree.] A large 
plait insertea for oniament between 
wnalW plaits on hats, baskets, or 

AVXATT, «. A kind of fish. (Prov.) 

AVmJTff. Befnsaltoobey. (Plrav.) 
AnktijiDa, «. pan, flmp. amketifio,) 
To be made unwilling to pay obe- 
dience. (ProT.) 
ManaaUidy, v, tr. (Inip* sNWMm- 
kef\fi ; Bel. atumket^lnafOeL Imp. 
antMkef^eo.) To resist those m 
au thority. (Prov.) 
AVKYBA, «. A thing placed aside 
to be taken up afterwards, as food 
reserved for a subsequent meal; 
something placed in another's keep- 
ing. (Prov.) 
Abbb'zaka, or Abki'bxitba, ath. By 
force, by violence. See Es&axa, Hnr- 


AirXI'HT. Used in the following :— 
Abbi'hibb'bta'baba, «. [bb, large, 

TABABA, hand.] The thumb. 
Abki'hibb'bto'bootba, f. [tobqotba, 

foot.] The big toe. 
I ABXi'mxB'iJBTA'BABA, «. [kblt, little, 

TABABA, hand.] The little finger. 


the little toe. 


foot.] The little toes. 
Abki'himbi'tt, 8. Prov. for big toe. 
ABBi'HiaAi'BKo'BOOT&A, «. Prov.fortiie 

little toe. 
Aitxz'hibai'bta'baba, 8. Prov. for the 

little finger. 
AHXI'LAHI'LA See Hila, from ila. 
AirXI'LAMAT. Only used with Ma- 
BAO, as: — 

Manad aukilamat. Togo about get- 

ti^all one canfrom others. (Prov.) 

A'lrXIHA. Boot of following :— 

YoiakiBa, v. pa88. Placed against, 

reclined upon, caused to lean 

upon ; put to be supported. 

Ankiiilna, v, pa88. (Imp. anktno,) 

To be placed against, to be put 

against for support, to be rested 

upon something or somebody. 

miiikilia, V. int. (Imp. mianktna ; 

Bel. ianktnanoy Bel. Imp. iankino.) 

To recline on, to lean against, to 

depend upon some one, as persons 

in poverty dependent upon others. 

llanankliia, v, tr, (Imp. manankl^ 

na ; Bel. anankinana, Bel. Imp. 

atiankino,) To make to recline 

on, to plaoe against, to put under 



the care of another, as in poverfy ; 
to prop or s upp o rt ane, used in 
this sense of persons on -whom 
A'HKiic-BO^LAirA, #. ["VOLAVA, speooh.] 
Fig. a promise. 

Kan infam-b^lana, «. int. To gi^e 
one's word to another, to make a 
promise. (Proy.) 
A'mur-Ai'RA, «. [axna, life.] Swearing 
^ one's life. 

■anABkiiiaina, «. tfi^. To make 
one's life a surety for the truth 
of what we afBrm or do. (Prov.) 
A'nxik-do'ha, 8. [loha, the head.j 
Restinp;' upon others. 
Kiinkin-a^ha, r. int. (Imp. mianki" 
na,t6ha; Bel. ianklnan^doha^ Bel. 
Imp. ianklno loka.) To depend 
upon others, not to be self-depend- 
A'lmBE'HGO, 8. The hard pith of 

oertain trees. (Proy.) 
AVKI'TIHT, a^j. Proper, suitable. 
(Prov.) Same as Mabuta or Mahttbt. 
AKXX'YY, 8. An herb. Solatium in- 

dicum^ L. (Betsim.) 
AHXI'ZT, 8. A ohild, children, ser- 
vants, youths of both sexes. 
Bankisy, «. Vooatiye case of aboye. 
AnkiiilUiy, «. A male seryant, a 

Ankiiiyiyy, «. A maid-senrant, a 

AnkiiT madinika, «. Little children. 
Ankinlfthy madinika, «. Boys. Fre- 
quently pronounced Majznika. 
8i£indran-ankiiy,«. Touthsof both 
A'HKO. See Anoana. Root of the 
following : — 

A2ik6ina, r. pa88. (Imp. ankoy.) To 
be lifted up, or set up, as a tree 
or person fallen down. (Proy.) 
Xiftnko, V. int. To lift one's self up 
after bending, reclining, or after 
a faU. (Proy.) 
Maninko, r. tr. (Imp. manankoa; 
Be}, anankoana, Bel. Imp. anan- 
k6y.) To assist some one to rise, 
to giye assistance to the sick or 
poor. (Proy.) 
XuUiiko TOlan*. To recapitulate a 
speeohilessoniOrdisoourse. (Proy.) 

AVKOAT, or AVKOB", «. A _ 

of sea-eagle. HaluiHm voe^^roidt*^ 
Des Murs. (Proy.) 

AVKOAliA, 8. JjdKEL oxen that have 
been brought up frcnn the town 
called Ankoala. 

AVKaBOHCKBO, ocfr. [Boot hoboho- 
Bo.] Ckmcealed, not shewn, using 
imposition, as in selling goods with- 
out fairly showing the article. 

AVKCKBT, t. [Boot hodt.] A word 
used in games of chance toenreas 
the final throw or pitch, when if he 
who has won wins again his gains 
are doubled, and if he loses he 
throws back all he has gained in 
former throws. 

AVKOHaHAHA, 8. [lUxyt hohoha.] 
A family, a household. 

Anko'ina, V. pa8 8. See Airxo. 

AHKOLATIHT,«. [Boot laft.] Union, 
close contact. 

AKXOLA'HY, «. A palanquin, or the 
poles used in canying burdens. 

AKKO'LATBA (1), 8. Turning from 


the question. (Proy.) 
Ankolirina, f;. pa88. (imp. ankoidr^.) 
To be replied to indirectly or 
Kanankdlatra, v. tr. (Imp. manm^' 
koUra ; Bel. anankoldranoy Bel. 
Imp. anankoldro.) To speak indis- 
tinctly or indirectly to a person ; 
to respond indirecuy to questions. 
Anzo'la-bo'lana, 8. [yoLAKA, speech.] 
A rambling, or indirect speech, 
irony, or punning. 
AHKO'MA, 8. A large snake. (Proy.) 

See AxoiCA and Do. 
A'VKOHA, a^. Cold, chilly, frigid, 
benumbed, confounded. See Ana. 
AVKO'HJT, 8. The yirile glands. 

AKK0'&A,«. a shell. (Proy.) See 


AHKO'SOTBA, adj. fBoot hosoika.] 
Gilded, overlaid wiui ; using deceit, 
putting on a false appearance, over- 
re aching. 

Xanad ankdsotra, v. tr. To gild, 
to overlay with ; also to deceive, 
to impose upon by a fair outside 
or sample. 



AVO. FroY. for Tao. Aho proTinaial 
for Anona, pro, 
ATiAiiia» V. patB. (Imp. m^y.) To be 

done, etc. Same as Atao. 
■aai^o, r. tr, (Imp. manamova ; 
Rel. AVMNovafM, Bei. Imp. cwm- 
Mory.) ProY. for Mahao. 
Kpaii2iiotdna,t. A widow. Sameaa 
Mfitosd&a tbita, which see. 
A'VOA'VO, «. Fraiae, bleaaing. (Fiov.) 
See DzBA. 

A'wemiJXiift, v. /»»«. (Imp. onooiMy.) 

To be praised, to be blessed. 


Wawiiioiiio, r. ^r. (Imp. mandnoa" 

noa ; Bel. andnoanoana, Bel. Imp. 

MMMMnoy.) To offer praises, to 

bless, to exalt in worship. (Prov.) 

A'VOAirO, «. A species of field-bug. 

A'HOA'VO, 8. A guess, anything done 

at random. 

XanmA inoiao, v. tr. To guess at, 
to make gpiesses at, to act at ran- 
A'koako'ina, r. paas. See Anoabto, 

Airo'HiirA, r. pau. See Anoza. 
Am/nrA, r. /mm. See Amo. 
A'VOKA, «. Perfect contentment in 
sacking and drinking; used pri- 
marily of children or the yonng of 
animals at the breast. 
AnbhiiiA, r. pau. (Imp- onoAy.) To 

be made to go slowfy. 
IflAiiolra, r. int. (Imp. nuanoha; 
Bel. imtdhana, Bel. Imp. ianohy.) 
To be slow, to move along lei- 
surely ; to sock in perfect content- 
WaaiiKHb^laiia, v. int. To narrate 
or speak leisurely and slowly ; to 
be distinct in utteranoe. 
AMQTKASY. See 0hatr4. 
A'VOLO'AirA, adj. [Boot oloana.] 

Before, in the presence of. 
ASO'MBY, a. Prov. for Oicbt. 
A'VOVA, aty. Arrived at maturity, 
pcxfect. (P*ov.) 
■awinoiia, v. tr. To complete. 

XttuUio-Mlaiia, v. int. To finish a 
speeoh, to have said all one in- 
AwofnmMbUk^adj. Corpulent. (Prov.) 

A'nona iaa, t. A oomplete number. 

A'nona ^iirj, ajf. Arrived at the 
age of discretion. (Prov.) 

A'nona &mby, t. A full-grown and 
fat bullock. (Prov.) 

VMana inona. A oomplete phrase. 
A'HOHA, pro. Such an one, such a 

thing, so-and-so. [Mai. aniMi.] 

Anonovina, v. pau. (Imp. anonovy.) 
To make incomplete sentences ; 
to be ''so-and-so-ed.'* 

Xaninomi, v. tr. and int. (Imp. 
numanova; Bel. ananovana^ bS. 
Imp. anamvy.) lit. to "so-and- 
so' *^ anything. 

Note the Imp. and Bel. from 
Ano, used here. 

When referring to persons the 
personal article I- or Ka- is pre- 
fixed, as : — 

Idnona. What's-his-name. [Hal. 

Bdaona. Mr. So-and-so. 

Andnona. At such a place. 

A'mana inona. Used like the Latin 
et cetera in English. 
A'HONAHOHA Boot of following :— 

Miinoniaona, r. int. (Imp. midno" 
nanona ; Bel. idnonanonana, Bel. 
Imp. idnonanony.) To retire to a 
little distance aiter having con- 
quered in a fight or lawsuit, or 
after having successfully accom- 
plished any^iing. 
AHOrVDST, s. Provincial for Ondbt. 
AHO'HOOHA, 9. A children's game of 

hiding things in small heaps of sand. 
AXOnXlAXEfO, adv. Now. CfroY.) 
AHO'TBA. Boot of the following. 


Voandtra, v. past. Betumed back- 
wards, sent back backwards. 

An&rina, v. pau. (Imp. anory.) To 
be put back backwards. Used 
either of persons or things. 

Kiandtra, r. int. (Imp. mianora ; 
Bel. ianbranay Bel. Imp. ianory.) 
To move backwards, to back as 
a horse, to backslide. 

Dia miandtra. A stepping back- 
wards without turning away the 



to stq^ backwards; lit. to make 
stem bttokwaids. 
AHTA'DOIA, or AHTA'DT, t. A yam. 

^TOT.) BeeOrr. 
AVTA'EA. Boot of the fbllowing :— 
Mlanttta, «. int. PrinoipaUy used 
of imits or products of the earth. 
To defer getting in, to leare for a 
time, not to be solioitoas aboat ; 
to refrain from food, to use spar- 
ingiy*. It is also used somewhat 
likeMxAVOAVT, to beg, to entreat. 
AHTA'KA,«. A stinking herb. (Prov.) 
AHTA'LA, «. AlargeUzard. (Prov.) 
AHTA'MBA, «. A mythical animal, 
whose onr is said to be ominous of 
evil. Often applied to the cries of 
cats, dogs, etc., howling together at 
AHTA'MBO, «. Great calamity, dis- 
tress. Often joined with Loza, as 
AHTA'H-, AHTAX-, AHTI-. Prefixes 
put before certain words denoting 
provinces and the inhabitants m 
various parts of the island ; like our 
-mA, -tan, etc., as : — 
AwtankArana. Those who dwell in 

the northern part of the island. 
Antambdmbo. Those who dwell in 

the interior. 
Antimdnabd. Those who dwell in 
AHTA'NOHA,*. Proximity. 
Antan&nina, v. pan, (Imp. antano' 
ny.) To be approached, to be 
drawn near to. 
Xuiantinotta, tr. int. (Imp. mnnan- 
tanona; Bel. anantanonanay Bel. 
Imp. anantanony.) To be near, to 
be m proximity to some one. 
AHTACy, 9. A ouadmped. (Prov.) 
AVTAO'LO, «. The andents ; ances- 
tors. (Prov.) SeeNTAOLO. 
AHTA'SA, t. beep water. (Ptov.) 
Ahta'bajb'bt, «. [JBST, a look.] A 

profound genius. (Prov.) 
AHTA'RA, €dj. Gold, frigid. 
Antirantira, «(f . Extremely cold. 

Aota'sata'ta, t. I^VATA, tiw moofii.] 
A new-bom child not yet able to 
sock. Lit. of a cold nuratii. 

AnTA'BA^zoirA, «jf . [vBCoau, living.] 
Bxtiemely cold. 

ASrVFA. Boot of following. See 

AKTA'BAva AMA, «(f . EverUstuig. Used 
after ICaitobazxsat. 

Antelkina, 9. pom, (Imp. amttfiii.) 
To be ananged, to be settled, to 
be decided. (I^ov.) 
Xianttfi, V. int. (lia:^. mitmUfi; 
Bel. itmtrfinm^ Btt. Imp. imUt^.) 
To light upon, as a bira upon the 
ground; to pitch upon a mark, 
as a bail or stone; to be in a 
settled state ; to be arranged, as 
public business. 
KanantdiSa, r. int. (Imp. fnmu m tefi ; 
Bel. anantefiniay Bel. Imp. tmantt^ 
fad.) To terminate a Kabaxt, or 
a speech at a public assembly. 
Slightly, superficially, imperfectly, 
indifferently. See Tehaka. 
Manai antdfaka, or antttiaka, r. 
int. To work negligently, to do 
a thing superficijuly, to perfonn 
tlh antdkaka ny fUuiTUo. The 
en e my i s almost here. (Prov.) 
AHTE'HimA. Boot of the following. 
See TozT. [tekitiia (P) ; compare 

Miantdhitra, v. int. (Imp. mimnU- 
hera; Bel. ianteherunafOel. Imp. 
iantehiro,) To confide in one im- 
plicitly, to trust to, to venture on. 
Akte'hi-ta'nana, a. [tbhika, a stick, 
TAKAXA, hand.] A term used to 
express the posture of leaning on 
one^s hand and kicking out back- 
wards ; also of placing the hands 
behind to support one in falling 
backwards. Used in games of kick- 
ing and leapinff . 
AVTS'LT, a. Honey. (Prtiv.) See 

AVTE'LO. Same as Axtbpaxa, and 

AHTS'KOKA, atf;. Shallow, near the 
edffe of anything, and on the point 
of falling ; fiff. not profound, futile, 
silly. See ILoovo, SVxkt. 



UaauA lAtlmoka, «. nU. To be 

shallow in thought, or oarelesB in 

LivakA ■tttteolcA. AahaUowhole. 
Tiliaj aatteokm. A ahaOow TOMel. 
VUaaa antteoka. Inngnifioant 

sp woh. 
ASnrVA. Boot of the following. 
Awtanaiiia, v.pou, (Imp. oniMiao.) 

To be hoped for, to be ezpeoted. 
Maaantina, v. ir. and. int. (Imp. 

Imp. MMMi^ma^.} To hope for, 

to expect. 
Maaaattea Ik hihaAaa. To expect 

to meet. 
Maaaattea sda. To hope for or 

expect to get some good. 
A j Ti' M ^ amu va 'bt, t. [norDBT, touched, 
TABT, rioe.l Orerreaching, taking 
an unfair adyantage of, fhiudnlent 
tmpoeition, rigorous exactment of 
a demand. See AnrsoKooTSOiroo, 


XanaA antindriyiry, v. int. To 

orerreaoh, to impoee on, to exact 

rigorously, as in the tenns of a 

ouu tract. 

ASmrOHA. The name of a shrub. 

PkfUoHiktti eatHeum, Willem. 
ABTg^MWA , r. pa8$. See Ahtitba. 
AMTVTY^pnp. and adv. Upon, abore. 
^roy.) See TAzncrr. 
Hteba aatdtj. To go by land. 

Vm aataty ny T&laaa. The moon 
isnew. (ftoy.) 
AnTJcZA, «. A leap, a jump. See 

SAMBo raA, VmwA. 
AutjjlA, «. A forward meddling 
person, a busybody. Bedup. also 

Wiatikiiitika, r. int, (Imp. midn- 
tikantiha ; Bel. iantikantihana, 
Bel. Imp. iantikant^ho,) To be 
fo rward, officious, or meddlesome. 
ASn'KA, aih. Same as Anoka, Ano. 
At "so-and-so,*' at ''Hr. So-and- 
so's." (P*oy.) 
A Jrai^ICA , «. A species of lemur. 
A'jiTixj&A, a^. Mature, ripe, aged, 
old, permanent, durable, gone 
throogn with, oooipleted, perfected ; 

deep as applied to ooloozs ; old in 

liie sense of used up, or worn out, 

as a pen, a coat, etc. 

Antdrina, v, pau. (Imp. mtt^o,) 
To be examined, scrutinised, 
done repeatedly so as to impress 
somethmg on the memory ; to be 
made deeper, as applied to colours. 

Xaaiatitra, «. int. (Imp. manan' 
Ura; Bel. MumteranOj Bel. Imp. 
ammtiro.) To ask minutely, to 
scrutinise, to enquire into repeat- 
^7» to go oyer a lesson again 
and again, etc., so as to impress it 
onthememory; to age; tomaketo 
last, to make to endure ; to render 
deeper and permanent, as colours. 

XiCuiintitra. Bedp. (Imp. mifanan' 
tera ; Bel. ifemanUrana, Bel. Imp. 
iftmantero.) To gfrow old together ; 
to liye as long as one another ; to 
liye to be old together. 

A'nti-biyy, «. An old woman. 

Anti-d&hy, s. An old man. (Proy.) 
The two preceding words if used 
in Imerina are contemptuous. 

Mitdetra iatitra. To look like an 
old man. 

Trir&ntitra. fTBABA, Opt. Imp. of 
TRATBA.] May you reach old age ! 
A common form of expressmg 
thanks, or of bidding g^x>d-bye 
to one of noble rank, or highly 
respected; also used to the soy- 
ereign after she has replied or 
spoken to any one. 

LAhy intitra, «. An old man. 

Viyy ftntitra, «. An old woman. 
A'mti-pana'ht, b. [fakaht, the soul.] 

A person of mature age or judgment ; 

a ^ble old man, or woman. 
AKTCAVA 9' Steps, stairs, order, gra- 

Antoinina, r. pott. (Imp. antodny.) 
To be surrounded by others in 
haying one's digfuity made mani- 

Kiantdana, v. int. (Imp. tniantodna ; 
Bel. iantodnana, Bel. Imp. ian^ 
todny.) To adyance by gradation. 

Tdlo miantdana. By three steps. 
Other numerals are used in the 
same way. 


¥aii>iit^na, r. tr. (Imp. 

todna; Bel. oHotUodnana, Rel.Imp. 
anantodny.) To support the dig- 
nity of a petBQEi by being placed 
under hie oommand. 

In the provinoes Ahtoana ia 
used in tbo eenae of paiticnlar 
regard, favour, attention, etc. ; 
ai& the verb transitiye means to 
regard with affection or favour. 
A'VTOA'VDBO, adv, ^ahdbo, day.] 

Full day, broad daylight. 

Kaaintodiidro, v, int. To make it 
full day ; to detain, as by procras- 
tination, until the day has far 

A'ntoindro be H&nahiry. In broad 

A'ntodiidro ny indro. It is getting 
AHTO'DT, «. Prov. for Atodt, an 

Ahto'hiicba'to, 9. [tohoa, juatle, 
▼JkTO, stone.] Overreaching, fraud- 
ulent imposition. 

Anto'hina, v. pats. See Aittoka. 

A'VTOHO'HO, «. Same as Kitoatoa. 
Kana6 &ntoh&no, v. int. Same as 
Manao xitoatoa. 

AKTCHOVAOKA, s. See Vaoka. 


A'NTOKA, s. Surety, pledge, surety- 
ship, responsibility. See Adidt, 


Xiintoka, v. imt. and tr. (Imp. 

miantoha; Bel. and Pass, ianto- 

hana, Bel. Imp. iantdhy.) To be 

surety for. 
Kity dntoka. The phrase used bv 

sdlers when they say they will 

lose by selling at such a price. 
A'NTOKA, «. A nod of assent. 
Antdhina, r./^oM. (Jjap. antohy.) To 

be assented to oy a nod; to be 

moved, as the head in nodding ; 

to be pointed to by a nod of the 

mdiitoka, r. int. (Imp. miantdha; 

Bel. iantohana^ Bel. Imp. tan- 

tohyJ) To nod assent. 
Xanintoka, r. tr, (Imp. manantoha ; 

Bel. anantoKanay Bel. Imp. anan- 

tohy,) To nod the head magnifying 


The wtftAwmg of the nod is very 
wide ; and it may be noted that 
while a nod gives assent^ a shake 
of the head betokens refnsaL 

Anto-bdla. A surety. 
AHTO'KA, ». Same as Avtoko, a 

trivet. (Prov.) See Tcso. 
AVraXA,*. Akind offish. (Pk<ov.) 
AHTO'MBT, «. Same as Gababa. 

AHXaXOTBA, adj. Near at hand, as 

to future time. See Toxotra. 
AHKyHDA, «. The country ; in the 

country. (Prov.) See Saha. 
A'VTOnJLAI'HA, a^. Having a sore 

behind the lobule oi the ear, arising 

from some injury caused in boring 

AVT(KH0O'MBT, «. [oxbt, an ox.] The 

act of jumping ag^funst an antagonist 

in the play of Diaxanoa, so as to 

strike him with the feet. 
A'lTTOinr, 8. Cause, origin, object, 

design, chief agent, superintendent. 

Probably this word is from Antoka 


Tsy misy &ntony. Without object, 

A'ntom-pondnana. A settled home. 
A'ntonta'ny, 8. [TAinr, country.] A 

sort of constable or agent. (Prov.) 

See Vadintaitt. 
AJTTO'HOITA, adj. Suitable for ; of 

a middling size ; about the right 

thing, used of actions or things. 

AHTO'HTAKT, «. [Boot tokta.] A 

heap, a collection of things, a mass. 

See ToBT, Avosa. 
AHTO'BAKA [Boot tobaxa.] Used 

as follows : — 

Xiantdraka, v. int. (Imp. mumfo- 
rdha ; Bel. and Pass, iantardhana, 
Bel. Imp. iantordhy.) To throw 
stones, spears, etc. 
ANTo'BABi'irrsT, 8. [vi2n!ST, a king- 
fisher.] A cave. 
Anto'rabo'dt, 8. [voDT, the rump.] 

Jumping and coming down on the 

butto cks ; falling on the buttocks. 
A'lmA, a. Pity, compassion, tender- 
ness, charity. 

XahAntra, atfj. Poor, wretched, 
miserable, a^oted. 


XUntift, 9. uU. and fr. (Imp. mum- 
<r^; Bel. and Paas. um/riiMiy 
Bel. Imp. %tmtrt».) To be oom- 
peafionate, to be tender ; to oom- 
paasioiiate, to pity, to sympathize 
with ; to giTe alms to. 
TahantriBa, «. Wietohedneea, poy- 

ertjy destitatioii. 
naatHtaa, «. GharitableneflSy alms, 
ah nfl'deedB, pit^oompaaaion. 
AIT&A'VDRA, 8. The leaTes of the 

Bajivala.. (Proy.) 
AVTRA'TBA, «. [Boot tbatra.1 Any 
extra number of people taken a 
short distance only in an expedi- 
tion to supply vacancies occasioned 
by sickneeSy death, etc. ; anything 
put aside for future use. ^ee Fi- 
TAiZA. Some natives say this word 
shou ld be Aitaxitiu, from Aittba. 
AVIBS'VDBT,*. Dates. [Swa. <<ffi^.] 
AuxbA, «. Chanting; amode of sing- 
ing by the attendants on the sover- 

Antaaisa, v. pat, (Imp. anisao.) To 
be chanted to, as the sovereign 
or any of the rojral family on 
special occasions. 
Antsiyina. (Prov.) 
Uimtaa, v. int. (Imp. mianisd; 
Bel. ianUdna^ Bel. Imp. ianUao,) 
To chant in praise of the sover- 
eign. Bedup. also used. 
Xpiantsa, «. ttoyal singers. 
A'mtbak-bau'ha, 8. [vALZKA, the na- 
tive guitar.] A low or bass sound 
of the Vauha, used in accompany- 
ing chanting. 
AinA, 8. Defect, fault, imperfec- 
tion. (Prov.) See Tszirr, ^zdt. 
Awtiiiiia, V, pa»8. (Imp. ant»a6.) To 

be found fkult with. (Prov.) 
Ifaitintaa, v. ir. (Imp. mananUi; 
Bel. ananttinaj Bel. Imp. anon' 
Ua6.) To point out the defects 
of some one, or something ; to re- 
pi Toach. (Prov.) 
AHnATA, 8. Enquiries about things 
of which one is fully cognisant 
beforehand. Used in enquiries after 
tbe sovereign and her kingdom. 
Awtaafalna, r. pa88, (Imp. dnt8afao*) 
To be inquired into, or inquired 
atf aaab(y?e. 

Xaaaiitaifa, v. tr. (Imp. mantmUafi ; 
Bel. anantsafdnOf Bel. Imp. anan- 
t8afao,) To make enquires about 
persons and things, as above. 
lEanantsifk mahlta. To ask about 
something already seen and 
lEanantaifi Andrlana. To ask after 
the sovereign and the kingdom. 
Antsa'babe'nt, 8. [baha, a field, bb, 
great.] Things or persons reckoned 
by wholesale or bulk. 
AVTSAHOVA, 8, A frog. (Prov.) 

See Sahona. 
AnTSAi'iTA, r. p€U8. Sco Antba. 
AHTBA'KT, «. A bow with a single 
arrow. (Prov.) See Tsifika, Beni- 


Antsakina, v. pa88. (Imp. ant8ak%o.) 

To be shot with uie arrow from 

the above bow. (Prov.) 
Bdnin' antsik^, «. The bow alone. 

Ziaak* antsftky,«. The arrow alone. 

Antsftky ydrona, «. Bird-shooting. 

AHTSA'XT, ad%\ Almost, nearly. 
Same as Saikt. Autbaet ho nanai- 
KiTBA AZT irr ALULA, The dog was 
on the point of biting him. 
AHTSA'HBOTBA, 8. A jump, a spring; 
jumping at, so as to obtain some- 
thing out of reach. See Vixina. 
Antsambdrina, r. pa88. (Imp. an- 

tsambory.) To be tossed up, to 

be pitched up; to be raised or 

overrated in price. 
ICiantsibnbotra, v. inU (Imp. mian^ 

t8ambora ; Bel. Pass. ianUamho" 

ranay Bel. Imp. %ant8anUf6ry,) To 

jump, to spring up at, to fly at 

Amtsa'mbo-ba'to, 8. [sAiCBOTBA, Catch- 
ing, VATO, stone.] A gpame of toss- 
ing up a stone and picking up 
others while it is falling into the 
A sling. 
76itra antiibnotidy, «. The place 

for the stone in the shing. 
AITTBA'XPT, «. [BAKFT.] Used as fol- 


Xiantsiaipj, v. itU, (Imp. muui- 

Uampiza ; Bel. and Pass, iantsam^ 

pdztmoy Bel. Imp. iantsampdzo,) 

To raring upon, to leap upon. 

AHTBA'VOA, «. A heap of sand 

thrown up by the rain or a 


Anliawgiiiia, if. paaa, (Imp. ontMn^ 
gab,) Used of words or oharg^ 
repeated so often as to lead to a 

Antsinga tay imaaa 6num. A lonf 
rambling discourse, of which 
one can neither make head nor 

A'dyantsinga. Wrangling; trifling 
AHTSA'ITGA, «. A red wild pig. 

(Prov.) See Laxbo. 
AITTBA'ITGA, «. Boot of the follow- 

Miantiinga, or Kanaatsinga, v. 
int. To go to seek honey in the 
woods or forests. (Prov. ) 


A'HTSAHGO'ST, «. Carrying people 

on one shoulder, or across the 


Antsangorina, v. pats. To be carried 
on the shoulder. 

]Iaaa6 dntaangdry. To carry as 
AVTSA'inr, adv. Before, previously, 

whilst, dining the time ot, 
AKTSA'NJT, 9. A small crab. (Prov.) 
AHTBA'NTSA, «. A shark. See Axio. 

In the provinces it is the name 

fiven to highway robbers. See 
lOLAHT. Name (k a small lizard, 

called in Imerina Aittsiantst. 
Ai9T8A'irT8ALA'sT, «. [laht, mascu- 

line.] A man who is very tall, 

strong, robust, or clever. 
ANTSA'NTSAifao'BT, 8. A shark. (Prov.) 
Amtba'ntsava'vt, «. [vAVT, feminine.] 

A woman who is very clever in sew- 
ing, sinking, etc. 
AVTflA'PATBATAXA, phrate. In a 

rash way. See Tsapaxa. 

AVTSA'SAKA, t. Artifloial ripening 

of fmits and tobacco. 

Awtsarthiwa, v, pau. (Imp. antsa- 

$dko.) To be ripened artifloially. 

Manaiitaiiaka, «. tr, (Imp. maman' 

tsMdha; Bel. anantuudhoHa, Bel. 

Imp. atumUasdho.) To ripen fruit, 

etc., by artificial means. 

AVTSATI, «. A crab. Same as Av- 

TBANJT. (Prov.) 

MamoBtsiyy, v. int. To look men- 
acingly. (Prov.) 
Miao manumtsiyy. A threatening 
look. (Prov.) 
AirTBATOlTT, adj. Used only with 
Vebt, lost, as Vbbt AniBATOinr, 
unprofitable expenditure of time 
and labour, by turning the attention 
to too many objects ; an undecided 
and wandering state of mind that 
wastes time without attaining the 
object sought after. 
AHTSS'FA, s. A play with the hands, 
by which the opponents try to hurt 
the back of each other's hands with 
the fingper nails. 
AXTSSaHBIKA, adif. An elegancy of 
raeech, almost like the Hova Hiavt, 
Kblt. (Prov.) See Tsendbika. 
AVTBE'TBA, 9. A piece of iron like 
a small spade-blade put on the lower 
part of a spear-hancQe as a balanoe 
or ornament. 
A'lTTBIA'NTST, 9. A smaU lizard. 

See AmsANTBA. 
A'HTST, 8. A knife. 
A'ntsiasa'ba, «. [a&a&a, eager.] A 

sword, a cutlass. 
A'ntbibb', 8. [bb, large.] An axe, a 

bill-hook, a cleaver, a natchet. 
A'ktsibb'n' Ain>Bi'A]CA'2nTBA, «. [av- 
DBiAXAiaTRA, Gk>d.l The rainbow ; 
more commonly called Avana. 
A'ntbzfiha'batba, 8. [habatba, shav- 
ing.] A small knife used as a razor. 
A'ntbipo'ht, 8. [foht, short.] A 

cutlass, a dagger. See Mibo. 
A'ntsipo'tst, 8. [fotbt, white.] A 

sword, a cutlass. 
A'ittbocba'bt, 8. [VABT, rioc.] A 
knife used for cutting rice, a sickle. 
A'ntbdcbi'loita, 8. fviLONA, fodder.] 
A small knife used for cutting fod- 
A'ntsdcpa'nafo^dt, 8. [fanavodt, 
medioine.] A sorgioal Imife, 


Al-anmn^TA^ ». [vxka, ahutting.] A 
knife wboae bladee open and shut, 
hence a pocket-knife or penknife. 

AirSXTA, «. Catting of ruahes ob- 
liqnely in play. 

AXtSI'aA, pro. Us, ours (including 
the persons addreased) ; used as 
aoGoastive and poasesslTe case of 

A'VTUHA'HAXA, «. [haitaka, spread- 
ing.] The name of a province and 
its inhabitants lying north of Ime« 

AVTSTKAVA, t. A small shrub. 
Xtroehhmy fnloM^ Baker. Same as 
H^rnxAifiL, which see. 

AHTSI'VA Same as Aotbo, a call, 
which see . (Proy.) 

AMTBVWIKA, «. Something veiy 
small. (Pr ov.) 

AHTII'HTb7,«. a mouse. (Pror.) See 


AVTSrOKA, adj\ [imoxA, a breeae (?) .] 
Dist ant, far off. See Avdaziba. 

AVTSrOHA. A name given to the 
Anoelt. (Ptov.) 

Aarai'oKJL'sT, 9. [xABT,acat.] A small 

AarTBi'oiiTBK'oimA'HT, «. [lakt, mas- 
coline.J^ An herb. 

AHTSX'FiT, «. Ttbift, a throwing.] The 
pebbles usea in the play called An- 
TStFXLAYAKA.. See foUowing : — 

Astbi'piul'vaka, 8. [lavaka, a hole.] 
A game of pitching pebbles into a 
hoSe at a given distance. 

111811091, «. A fish. (Prov.} 

A1T8ITA, «. A shell whion is blown 
in following the petty soverelffns in 
the provinces, or to assemble the 
people. Same as Aitoaboea, and 


AV-TSXYALA'SAITA See Tsivalana. 
AHTSXTT, «. A word used in the 

game oaUed Favobona, signifying 

nine in length from right to left, 

and five in breadth from bottom to 

top . 
A'nSO, «. A call or summons; an 


Yototso, V. pats. Called, summoned. 

Antff^Bft, or Antidyina, v. pasM. 
(Imp. anttotfy or anttory,) To be 
oalledy to be Bummoned. 

Mitotic, 9. fr. (Imp. miMt td a ; Bel. 
iitnUoanaf Rel. Imp. ianUojf.) To 
call, to summon, to invoke. IIa- 
VAinno is used in the provinces 
for this. 

A'ntso an-tdngoiia. A defiance. 

AHT80ALAVT. Used in the follow- 

O'mby aiiptsoUany ny mitj. Pro- 
pe rly b uried. 

AVTSO'DraSO'nrA, «. An herb used 
in cases of scabies and oondylomA. 
£milia eitrinay DC. 


vUlage.] A plant which gfrows 
freely in the villages, a variety of 
the preceding. 
AHTSO'DT, «. The winding off from 
hanks to a reel. 

Voantaidy, v. pass. Wound off. 
Antiodlna, r. pass. (Imp. antsodlo.) 

To be wound off, to be twirled. 
Xanantaddy, v. tr, (Imp. immmmi- 
tsodidva ; Bel. atumUodiawMay Bel. 
Imp. anantsodidvo.) To wind on 
to a reel, to twirl. 
lEanantsidy Idfona ly unpinga. To 
wave spears and shields. 
A'HTSOHA'aA, s. Seasoning or tem- 
pering on a fire of a new earthen pot. 
Antsoharaina, v. pass. (Imp. antso' 
karoo.) To be seasoned or tem- 
pered, as above. 
IfanantaohAra, v. tr. (Imp. manan' 
tsohard ; Bel. anantsohardftOy Bel. 
Imp. anantsohora6.) To season or 
temper a new earthen pot. To 
enquire what a thing is when one 
knows already. 
AsTBo'iVA, V. pass. See Antso. 
AHTSO^JA, s. Stretohing out or slid- 
ing out at one^s full length in a play 
of jumping, so as to reach or over- 
reach with the heel the boundary or 
mark. See Soja. 
AHTBOLA'TAXA, s. Censurinpp for a 
trifling error of speech; rigorous 
exaction of a demand. See Solafaxa. 
AHTBO'LT, 9. A pipe or flute. (Prov.) 

See SoDZNA, Sobaba. 
A'VTSONA, adj. Grounded, come to 
a stop ; arrived at a port or harbour, 
as ox a ship. 


TafiaUona, v./NMf. Ghfonnded unin- 
VoAntaona, 9. pat*, Ghroimded, as a 
canoe on the bank of a riTsr after 
oroflsing ; brought to shore ; stop- 
yfintiona, r. int. (Imp. miantMiHa; 
Bel. ianttdnana. Bet. Imp. um- 
UonyJ) To be aground, to stop, to 
strike, to nm awore, as a canoe. 
FiEBtsdnaBa, «. A landing-place, a 
A'HTBOHA. (Ptov.) Boot of the fol- 
lowing : — 

Antidnina, v, pa»», (Imp. anUony.) 

To be scented from adistance, as by 

a dog before entering a hut. (Prov.) 

Manintioiia, r. tr. and int. (Imp. 

manantwna; Bel. ananttonanoy Bel. 

Imp. anantMontf.) To smell or 

snin before entering a house, as 

a dog does. (Prov.) 

Fanaatidnan' ny mpa^jftka. The 

nose of the king or chief, (^^rr.) 

A'ntbonai'na, a4f. ^^ina, Itfe.] Huge, 

Aj^rao'muAf v. pott. See AjfTSONA. 
AHTBO'NTSANA, a^;'. Infamous, 
abominable. (ProT.) See Tsontba. 
Xanantsdntiana, v. int. (Imp. mw 
nanttontsdna ; Bel. ananttonttana^ 
na^ Bel. Imp. anantwmttdny.) To 
do something abominable, to com- 
mit incest. Bedup. also used. 
Xaaaiitsontsaai-biYa. To give ut- 
terance to shameful things. (Ptoy,) 
AHTSOHT. Bootof thefoUowing:— 
Voaiitsbry, v. pat$. Led. (Prov.) 
Aatsorina, v. pau. Tlmp. manan' 
tsorto; Bel. anantwrtana, Bel. Imp. 
anantsorio.) To lead. (Prov.) 
AHTBO'SO, «. A ffrass (or cvperaoeous 
plant ?). It is chewed ana the saliva 
swallowed for colic. In the provinces 
it is the name of a large chisel for 
hoUowing out canoes, and a spade. 
Aktbo'bokboa'njo, «. [voANJO, earth- 
nuts.] An herb. Fimbrittyli* ap. 
AHTSaSOKA. See Soboka. 
AVTSO'TBT, 8. A shrub. Cajanut 
indieusy Sprang. (Betsim.) Same 
as AiniATBT fBets.}, and Ahbebi- 
VATBT, both 01 which see. 

Aktbo'vxna, r. ptua. See Aarso. 
AO, adv. There, in that place, in; 

usually means in a place where the 

object is not seeu. Past, Tao; future, 

Ho AO. See Ant, Eo. 

Xaakad, r. int. Imp. and Bel. not 
used. To go there. 

Ao ho ao, adv. Somewhere about 
AOE", intn. An expression of disaent 

or denial. Pshaw ! 
AO'KA, aty, and adv, SuffioieiLt, 


A6ka aliha, or Angal&ha. Wait a 
little, in the mean time. 

A6ka iry. Well, that's rights i.e. 
I anee to it, be it so. 

A6ka itst* I>o not do that. A pro- 
hibitive expression. 

A6ka iia^. That is enough. 

A6ka iiiay ! Did you ever ! 

A6ka iia6. That will do, it will do 
as it is. 

When AoKA is followed by Ho, 
or the verb in the future tense, it 
means, Let us, as Aoza hxainoa 
zsiKA, Let us set out. 
AOBI'ANA, adv. Back, behind, back- 
ward, passed. 

This word admits the suffix pro- 
nouns and tenses. 

Af&ra and Ambdho are used for this 
in the provinces. 

Ao aorlako. Behind me. 

Taorlako iiy. He was behind me. 

Xiaorlaaa, v. tr. (Imp. miaoridnm; 
Bel. iaoridnana, Bel. Imp. iaorid- 
no.) To be behind, to be long in 
AO'ISA, «. Scratching. 

lliadtra, v. int. To scratch. 
APAHATAHA '. Vacillation. See 

Papapapa, Bapabapa. 

Mi&pan&pana, r. int. (Imp. mia/M- 
napdna; Bel. idpanapdnanOf Bel. 
Imp. idpa9tapdno.) To go about 
foolishly, to stagger, to vacil- 
A'POXA Boot of the following. See 


Ki&poka, r. int. (Imp. miapoha ; 
Bel. iap6hana, Bel. Imp. iapohy.) 
To fall prostrate, to fall at full 
length, to be prostrate. 


AP(K8T, 9. A small ahmb from which 

a kind of baaket (Shjnuaxmo, etc.) 

and in catching fish etc. ia made. 

(Beta.) Aealffpha sp. 
A'U, «. A species of wild duck. 

(ProT.) See Asosr. 
A'lA, 9. Name of a tree. (Bets.) 

Fietu 9p. Same as Voasa, which 

see. [ICal. araJ] 
A'bata'itja, «. Name of a tree. (Bets.) 

FituM ^, 
AXA'BO, «. An Arab. See TALAonuL, 


AXATA, «. The juioe of the rofia 

palm used as food. 
AaAOSA, prep. ProY. for Ambont, 

and Aloha. 
A'EAHA'BA, «. Salutation. [Ar. m- 
AtfAs, to be made wide and spadous; 
Heb. raehmb; Swa. marahaha, thanks, 

A'lahsbauia, r. pats, (Imp. draha- 
boo.) To be sainted ; to be con- 
, gratulated. The past tense is of- 
ten shortened to noharabaina. 
mirahiba^ v, tr. (Imp. midrahahd ; 
Bel. idrahabdna, Rel. Imp. tira- 
haba6.) Tosalute, to congratulate. 
A'rahiba, ho arlTO tritry ny ta6na ! 
A new year*s salutation. Lit. 
may yon be a thousand (times) 
reached by the year ! 
A'rahiba, nomdn'AndriaaiAaitra ny 
Hzm ! A salutation to parents on 
the birth of a child. 
A'rahiba, t^nga ida imaa-tiira! 
A salutation to any one safely 
returned from a journey. 
A'rahiba, tsy mity fo imaa-aina! 
A salutation to those returned 
from the war, or a journey. 
AnA'HDC-BA'vA, V, potB. See Aba-bava. 
Aba'huta, r. paw. See A&aka. 
Aba'hut-di'a, v. pats. See Aba-dia. 
T'. Same as Rat, or Rt, which 

A'XAKA, prep. Used of the high 
land wbnioe come the rivers. (Prov.) 

AHAXA, ». Rum. (ProT.) [Ar. araq, 
or Fr. araek.'] 

A'XAXA, prep. According to, follow- 
ing. It governs a direct accusa- 
tive, as .Ajlaka azt. [Mai. araka, 
a prooeanon.] 

TAfiraka, v. past. Gkying together. 
Voiraka, r. pass. Followed. 
Arihina, v. pass. (Imp. ardko.) To 
be followed, to be pursued, to be 

Srosecuted; to be sued for, as 

Miiraka, r. int. (Iinp. miardha; 
Rel. iardhana, Rel. Iinp. iardho.) 
To g^ together, to accompany, to 

Maniraka, v. tr. (Imp. numardha; 
Rel. anardhanaf Rel. Imp. anard' 
ho.) To foUow, to pursue; to- 
obey, to agree to, to prosecute. 

Fifiaarihaaa, s. Agreement, con- 
cord, union, fellowship, harmony. 

Kantotka am-bdkonTf r. tr. and int. 
To follow sedulouuy or implicitihr. 

XaaintkA dndro m6dy, v. int. To 
seek for the heat of the sun, to 
bask in the evening. (Prov.) 

Xaaira-biyy. To follow a wife, 
i.e. to be henpecked. 

Xaaira-drian-^dno. To go with 
the stream. 

Xaaira-drdnirino. Same as preced- 

Maniraka dfa. To do as others do. 

Manira-p6ritra. Same as Manabaxa 
AX-BOKomr. (Prov?) 

Maiia6 hiiakiiaka arihin-tdsika. 
Riumiiig with others, vet pushing 
them down so as to gam an unfair 

Mana6 kitapo miira-ptoo. Joining 
others in bad deeds. 

Maaad rinomiso tsy miiraka iLmam- 
pity. Doing something at the 
wrong time. 

Kofdhy manira-pa^jaltra. Acting 
as a thread follows a needle, i.e. 
implicit following of others in 
good or bad. 

Tiadroka miiraka taan-ts6flna. 
Used of persons who have seen 
something from its very com- 
mencement. Lit. horns going 
together with ears. 

Mdnimaniraka, s. [mont, speckles 
on the skin.] One who nan no 
choice of his own, but must do as 
others do. 

Mifan ira-b6amiso. Acting together 
as the eyes in looking.* 


A'ba.-]ul'ta, «. [TATA, moath.] 8ing« 

ing aooompanied by a mnaioal in- 


Voira-biTft, r. jM»f . Sung with in- 
stmmental aooompanuneiit. 

Arihim-biya, v. jmm«. (Imp. ar<2Ao 
Miva.) To be sung with instra- 
mental acoompaiumeiit. 

Xanira-biTa, v. ir, (Imp. mtmttrdha 
vdva; Bel. anardhani'bdva, Bel. 
Imp. oisaraAo v<kw.) To sing a 
Bon^, etc. f aooompanied by a mnai- 
oal mstenment. 
A'ba-bb', «. [bb, many.] An open 

^aoe or road througn a oamp or 

village, the main road. 
A'BA-Bifir-nA'LAKA, i, [laiiAXa, rood.] 

Same as preoeding. 
A'ba-bb' to'kaha, «. [tosaha, single.] 

Same as preoeding. 
A'ba-dz'a, 9. [dia, step.] Qoing along 

with ; tracking by tne steps or loot- 
prints. See TsoHOO dia. 

Tiilija^41a, v. pau. Going together, 
as in a journey. 

Yoira-dia, v. pa»M, Followed by the 
steps, or tracked. 

Ar4hin-dia,'f;. paw, (Imp. ori^ho dia,) 
To be aooompanied, to be tracked. 

Xiira-dia, ih int. (Imp. miardha dia ; 
Bel. iardhatt'dioy Biel. Imp. iardho 
dia.) To be in a company with. 
Used of company going together. 

Kanira-dia, v. tr. (Imp. manardha 
dia ; Bel. anardhan'diOf Bel. Imp. 
anardho dia.) To track, to trace 
by the steps; to follow after- 
A'KA-DBi'iaTRA, i. [bdotba, or BOXO- 

TBA, fleeinff.] Used as foUows : — 

Xanira-dnmitra, v. int. To involve 
one's self in another's calamity by 
seeking to extricate him. (Prov.^ 
A'bak-a'fo, adv. [afo, fire.] Immedi- 
ately, in immediate suooession. 
A'BAK-AfziNA, $. [azzina, darkness.l 

Hiding one's self under oover d 


]Iaaa6 irak-aiiina, i;. int. To hide 
one's self as above. 
A'bax-a'loka, 8. [aloka, a shadow.] 

Gtoing in the shade or shadow. 

Xaniraka Uoka, v. int. To go under 
the shade, to walk in the shade. 

A'aAKA a'mdbo, t. [AJn>BO, the day.] 

Used in the following : — 

Maairaka Andra, v. int. To follow 
and tend cattle. 
A'baxa'baxa, 8. Bednplioation of A- 

BAXA. A claim to recover one's own 

property when stolm. Baxa hxbt 


If any one has a daim (to what lam 
buying or taking), I look to yoo to 
miuceit good. 
A'BA-XB'viirr, «. [KsvinA, thought.] 
Proportion, in Arithmetic. 


border.! Winding along the edge 

of a hill. 

Manira-kMimlrana, t>. int. To wind 

along the edge of a hill; topiooeed 

b^ a path round a hiU or by ita 


A'aA-xfaxTBA, «. [mzbztba, diving.] 

Used in the following : — 

ICanira-mirltra. 9. int. To dive 
after a person in the water. 
A'EAXBOTA, 8. [vola, money.] A 

large silver ring worn in a hole 

formed in the lobule of the ear. 

AaA'Xz, 8. A large tree from which 

oozes a kind of resin. (Betsim.) 
A'BAHA, 8. A drag or oart for convey- 
ing large stones or other heavy 

burdens. (Prov.) See T^aicha^aw^a 
A'B&irA Boot of the following :— 

Voirana, r. /mm. Indulged, grati- 
fied, satiated, tolerated ; all refer- 
ring to self and hurtful indul- 
gences. (Prov.) 

Aiiaana, r. jmm. (Jmp. ardno.) To 
be indulged in, to be gratified 
with, to be satiated with, to be 
tolerant to. 

XlAraBa, v. int. flmp. miardna ; 
Bel. iardnana^ Bm. Imp. iardtto.) 
To indulge one's self, to gratify 
one's wiwes, to take one's delight, 
to satiate one's self in lusts, riches, 

Manirana, v. int. (Imp. manardna ; 
Bel. anardnana^ Itel. Imp. anard^ 
no.) To indulge another in any- 
thing, to gratify, to satiate, to 
tolerate faults or failings, to be 
remiss in oorreoting. 


W^TMi-kHw. To indnlgo a aenflaal 

appetite. (Fror.) 
^T^'^'^'^^V aiid]Caa4na-tr6ka. 

Same aa preceding. 
XiaUnfrjiM. To spoil a ohild by 
Mug too tolerant of its f anlto or 
▲'BAX-fo', «. [fo, the heart.! 8elf- 
Indnlgcnoe, giatifleaiion, deUght. 
KaBixam-p6» i^. int, (Imp. numordns 
fo; Bel. a$uurinam-'p6t Bel. Imp. 
mUrdmo fo,) To indiilge in any- 
thing to one's entire satiaf action. 
Used with a good meaning aa 
well aa a bad one. 
AfBAVA, «. Fish strong together on 
a string. (Prov.) 
1fn**T^*^i «. A water-bird. (Fror.) 
▲ba'vana, r. /MM. See Ajuva. 
A'BAVOfT AXA, «. Ashmb. (Pfov.) 

Tephnmm if) or Munduha (J) $p. 
ABA'BA, A^. Glnttonons, eager to 
take one*sduirebefore others. (rtOY.) 
rSwa. kitara, a oorred sword.] 
Vy arira, «. A sword. (Froy.) 
AaA.'BaiiiA'BT, «. A droll faoetions 
person, awag; a person of wandering 
onaetUed hisbits ; a rover. (Brov.) 
AjtAf^AUL'KYf 9. [uunr, mascnline.] 
The pcinoipal members of a oom- 
mimity, as the wealthiest, the re- 
nowned, themost influential. (ProyO 
Li InKorina it means a person bou 
whimsical and false. 

XBA, intentional injnry, l^kama, a 

canoe.] Used of one persistent in 

donig that which uiTolyes oensnre 

or trouble. 
ABA'TBA. See AimBATaA.. 
Ans^mNA. f . pata. See AanrA. 
ABVO. PrimitiTe root of Hxanabso 

and Ahabbo. 
ABEUT, atfy\ Pore, without any ad- 

mixtoze. (PlroT.) 

Y&la ardry. Pure money. (Ptot.) 

FaaAhy ardry. A pure spirit, i.e. 
a good man. (Ptot.) 

Harwi aBB, «. Purity. (Ptot.) 
A'BETE'KA, «. Name of a species of 

water-hen. (Prov.) OalUnuia pyr- 

rkorhoOj A. l^ewt. 
ABB'TIBA, «. IHseaae, malady. This 

is probably a noun from the yerbal 

root Abixba, and so means what 
is endured. 
Abb'tota, fr. /Mff . See Abitba. 
A'BT, rofy. And. Generally used alter 
two or more nouns connected by 
St, the last of the series being con- 
nected by Abt. It is like the word 
And used in oommenoing T'C^gMa^ 
A'BT, adv. Then, aa Acsa abt. Well 
then, be it so. Ataoyt abt, Do it 
then. It can eaail^ be distinguished 
from the conjunction Abt by never 
being the first word of a sentence. 
ABT, adv. There, yonder, signify* 
ing a distant place not seen. 
Xankar^, v. int. Imp. and Bel. not 

used. To go yonder. 
Arlkitni, adv. There, Tonder, but 
more used in the provmces than in 
Anf av-dx'a, «. jMft. See Abt bza. 
A'BT, verbal root. (Opt. Imp. airU.) 
Existed, formed, produced ; being. 
Xahiry, or Xihary, v. ir. (Imp. 
maharia ; Bel. ahariana, Bel. Imp. 
ahario.) To be able to create. 
[Mai. ada ; Jav. ana.J 

It means also begotten, collect- 
ed, had, as : Nababt baba mT 
HiAMABBOP How many children 
have you had (or begotten) P The 
past tense only is used. 
A'ry fkmihy, a^y. Tfanakt, the soul.] 
Of an age wnen able to foAn 
judgments or opinions. 
A'ry saina, atf/. [saina, the mind.] 

Of sound judgment. 
A'rlm-piadiaaa,a4;. [habiaba, wea- 
pons.! Having weapons, being 
A'ry staiotra. [soxotba, a beard.] 

Having a beud. (Prov.) 
A'ry t^Bgotra imaB-tinana. Hav- 
ing hands and feet, i.e. having 
become a living being. 
Z&nah&ry, «. Qod, the Creator. 
Andrlananahiry, «. God, the Su- 
preme Beinff. This is the most 
universally known name for God, 
and is used by all the tribes 
throughout the island. 
Tifo-Binah&ry, «. The heavens; a 
house without roof. 


A'sT Fjk'mr, adj. frABT, tabooed.] Hay- 

inft eveiytliing wanted for under- 
taking the bnnneBS in hand. Abt 

FOXBi. also naed. 
A'btfa'naxa, oih'. [FA.NAXA, fumitnre.] 

Fully sapplied, completely eqnipped, 

A'bt hat', «. [hat, open oonntiy.] 

Hair left on the head after the rest 

has been oat off. 
A'bindba'no, «. [bano, water.] Name 

of a well-watered district in the Be- 

tsileo province ; also a Laxba with 

black stripes woven there. 
A'bt iifFT, at^'. [nift, a tooth.] 

Having cJl the teeth. 
A'bt voa'ba, a4f'' fyoABA, a species of 

fig-tree (F).] Rich, complete in 

everything' needful to make one 

happy. (Frov.) 
A'ST. Root of the following :— 

VoiUry, v. pan. Rejected, thrown 


Arlana, v, pata. (Imp. ario,) To be 
thrown away. 

Xaniry, r. tr. (Imp. manaria ; Rel. 
anariana, Rel. Imp. anarto,) To 
throw away, to reject, to abandon ; 
to disown (a child). 

Xaniry liaa, v. int. To disown a 

Arlanaftmy nyTdlatayTtty. Used 
of a child disowned by presenting 
Hasina to the sovereign. 
A'bt ba'no, «. [bano, water.] A trench 

for taming water aside. 
A'bt DfA. ^»XA, step.] Boot of fol- 
lowing: — 

Arlan-dla, v. pa»$. (Imp. arU> dla.) 
Used of that whic^ is left, tamea 
aside from, or made to waste one's 

Xaairy dla, v, comp. (Imp. manarUt 
d\a ; Rel. afiaH«M-^ia, Itel. Imp. 
fmario dla.) To diverge from the 
path, to waste one*s time or la- 
boar, to divert attention. 
AUT. Root of the following. See 

Hataka (moving aside), Soboka. 

A'riarina, v. paaa. (Imp. driario,) 
To be tamed aside from a stone, 
a precipice, etc. (Prov.) 

XUry, V. int. (Imp. miaria; Rel. 
iaHana, Bel. imp. iario.) To torn 

aside so as to avoid oontaot with 

anything. (Ptov.) 
LUana iry. A deviating path or 

road. (Prov.) 
Hy ftty tay mlsy flarlaiia. There 

is no escape itom death. (Prov.) 
A'siDAfNA, s. A palisade, a ram- 
part. (Prov.) [Fr. jardin (f), oomp. 
Zabidat.] See Majtda, Rota. 
A'bia'hdbo, i. Herbs. Pteroetmlon 
Bmtri, Baker; and Laggtra alatay 
S.B. The latter is osed as a disin- 
A'BIA'SY, $. A dollar ; osaaUy used 
of cat money. [Ar. al'Vialy from 
Sp. real. ; Swa. reale.] See Fabav- 


Manad ixUaj lito am-pandrlaiUL 
' 'Bailding castles in the air*' ; rev- 
erie, fancy. Lit. to make a hun- 
dred dollars in one's bed. 
A'BXABf AKA, r. pau. See Abt (ti.). 
ABPFT, «. Ashrab. (Sak.) 
A'BIXA, $. Memozy, imagination, 
idea, thought. 
Mirim^rika, atff. Suspioioas, mis- 

Xity ftrika, at^\ Oblivious, having 

a bad memory. 
Tdlona irika, ad^. Having a good 

memory. (Prov.) 
Beftrika,a<(f. FuU of spirit. (Prov.) 
A'BDCO'T. Provincial for Axbibqa, 

which see. 
A'BnrA,«. A thorny ahmb. (Betaim.) 
A'BIVA, t. Charcoal, soot. [Mai. 

Xijtey irina an-tAya. To notice a 

blotch on the face, without telling 

of it, hence not to tell a person m 

his faults. 

A'bznta'nt, 9. I^TAHT, earth.] Goal. 

A'BIVA, 8. Uprightness, equilibrium, 


Tafirina, i;. pats. Set up straight. 
Voirina, v. past. Set up, put up, 
raised, erected, elevated, excited. 
Ardnina, v. pass. (Imp. arena.) To 
be raised, to be elevated, to be 
erected, to be levelled, 
mirina, v. int. (Imp. miarena; 
Rel. iarinanaf Rel. Imp. iarenc.) 
To sit up, to rise up as one in bed, 
to be erect. 



Kaniliiui, r. tr, (Lnp. manarena ; 
Bel. anarmana, Kel. Imp. anu' 
rino.) To set up, to raiae, to 
erect, to elevate, to level. 

Miiiiia, adj\ Level, true, just, right. 

Wawitiiiia 4dy. To renew a fight. 

KUrin-d&lui, r. int. Used of a per- 
•on lifting hia head when lying 

lUn iBJiiiiia. Used of persona 
with their heads to the 


A.'Snnr, «. The milt, the spleen. 
Abt is the root, hut it is never used 
alone, hut always with the suffix 
ISTBA, f . A legend, a fahle. 
Ariraina, r. pasM. (Imp. ariraS,) 

To he amused, to he heiooled. 
Hiarira, r. int, (Imp. miarird ; Bel. 

imrirdna, Bel. Imp. iarirao.) To 

tell fables, to divert, to jest. 
Xanarira, r. tr. Jimp, manarird; 

Bel. anarirdna, Bel. Imp. anari' 

TOO.) To amuse, to befool. 
Abe's!, bb', «. [bb, great.] A fabulist* 
one who amuses with tales, a prao- 
t ical joker. 
A'XITBA, 9, and r. /m»«. Endurance, 
forbearance, patience, continuance. 
See Tabtt, Zaza. 
Aiitiiia, V. pau, (Imp.. «a4to.) To 

be borne, to be sustained, to be 

Ktiitra, «. int. (Imp. miareta; Bel. 

and Paas. iaretana, Bel. Imp. 

uarHo.) To endure, to sostain, to 

bear with, to bear. 
Xaniritia, adj\ (Imp. Opt. mana^ 

reta.) Getting better from sickness 

or disease, convalescent. 
Ardtina, t. Disease. 
Xahilritra, c. tr. and int, (Imp. 

mahareta; Bel. aharetana, "Rel. 

Imp. ahareto.) To endure, to 

Sersevere, to be capable of en- 
FaharStaBa, t. Endurance, patience, 
A'bi-po'. [vo, the heart.] Boot of 
the following : — 
Xahiri-p6, adj. Long-suffering. 
A'bx-to'by, «. [toby, sleep.] Endur- 
ance fnm sleep. 

Xi&ri-tdry, v. eomp. Tlmp. miarita 
tiry ; Bel. iaretan-tiry, Bel. Imp. 
iareto tory.) Used in speaking 
of those who keep awake m tend- 
ing the sick, etc., or doing any 
work at niffht. 
AUTO, o^*. A thousand, a thousand 

times. [Hal. riAo; Ja,y. riwou; Swa. 


XanarlTO, v. int. To be rich, to be 
opulent ; «. A young bull. 

XpanariTO, $. A rich man ; com- 
pare the Eng. word millionaire. 

Anvoarivo, adj. Innumerable. 
ABfvoL^'KT, 9. [lakt, masculine.] 

A bottle-gourd, called also Abdbz- 

YOLAHT. Cueurbita lagenaria. 
ABsfYOTAO'sBfiA)Vk, 9. An herb. 

(Bets.) Polygonum 9en9ffalen8e,'M.eiBn. 

Same as FoTsncBABiNAXOHOi.AST, 

and Dayt (Bets.). 
A'BO, f . A defence, a protection, a 

ramjMirt, that which gives protec- 

Voire, V. pa99. Protected, guarded, 

§ reserved from, prevented, 
vana, v. pass. ^bnp. arovy.) To 
be guarded, to oe protected, to 
be preserved, to be forbidden, to 
be prevented. 
Xiftro, V. tr. (Imp. miar6va ; Bel. 
iarovana, Bel. Imp. iardvy.) To 
defend, to guard, to protect, to 
' forbid, to prevent ; to watch with 

Xahiro vddy titatra. To take 
good care <rf one's ancestral rice- 
grounds, by attending to the 
water-courses and embankments. 
HUxo flhitra. Mosquito netting, 

or the act of driving away flies. 
Tiiro-tsing&la. A sieve or strain- 
A'bo AN-DJk'LANA, 9. [lalana, road.] A 

A'bo fa'nina, 9. [pAWDTA, dizzy.] A 

balustrade or railing. 
A'bo'xbt, 9. [oicsT, an ox.] A fence. 
A'bon-do'ha, 8. [loha, the head.] A 

A'bon-do'vt, 9. [low, an enemy.] A 

bird which attends the croco(ule. 
A'bo ba'no, s. [banc, water.] Same 
as following. (Prov.) 


A'bo bi'axa, «. [biaza, a flood.] An 
embankment put up for keeping 
water in its proper cWmel. 

ABO'A, adj. Yonder, at that plaoe, 
but not seen. 

Ardana, adv. Same as preceding. 
Artekatra, adv. Same as Aboa, 
but more frequently used in the 
prov inces. 

ABI^TT, «. A shrub used as a medi- 
cine. (Sak.) Probably ooxmeoted 
with BoFT, Maboft, to be ill. 

AEOT, a4j, ProY. forRoA, and Aboa. 

AEO'KT, adv, Prov. for Abt, yonder. 

A'BOHA'BOHA, «. A kind of wood. 

ABO'BT, «. A wild duck. Sareidiior' 
nU afrieana, Eyt. 

Abo'vana, v. pata. See Abo. 

A'SA, adv. Don't know. 
A'la ana6. You ought to know. 
A'la isy. He ought to know. 

A'BA 8, Tillage, labour, work. [JaT. 
peuah ; Heb. ^asah ?'] 
Vo&sa, V. pata. Tilled, dug up. 
Asaina, v. pass. (Imp. m 
be tiUed, to be wrought. 


Mi&sa, V. tr. (Imp. miasd ; Bel. 
iasdna, Bel. Imp. iasao.) To till, 
to labour, to work. In the pro- 
vinces it means to count. 
Xpi&sabd, s, A steady- going person. 
A'sA ba'st, s, [bast, gun.] Bme exer- 
A'SA D^A, «. [dia, steps.] Walking 

m&ia dia, v. eomp. (Imp. miasd dia ; 
Bel. iM^^n^dloj Bel. Imp. iasab 
dia.) To take walking exercise. 
A'sA ta'nt, s. [tant, earth.] Tillage. 
A'ba va'di-dba^no, s. [vadixa, turned 
over, BANC, water. ] Working in 
rice-grounds where uiere is water. 
A'sA za'xa, 8. [zAiCA, a grass.l The 
digging up ox land where tnere is 
mu^ grass. 
A'ba za'xana. Same as preceding (?). 
A'BA. Boot of the following :— 
Voisa, V. pass. Invited to a feast, 

summoned, bidden. 
Asalna, v. pass. (Imp. asad^ or asao- 
vy.) To be invited to a feast, etc. ; 
to be bidden, to be commanded 
to do something. 

Xanisa, v. tr. (Imp. manasd; Bel. 
anasdna, Bel. Imp. anasadJ) To 
invite, to bid to eat, to chaUenge 
to a lawsuit. In the provinces it 
means to send. 
Fanasiaa, «. A feast, a banquet. 
A'BA. Boot of following. See Ba- 
NiTBA. ptfal. asah.] 
Voisa, V. pass. Sharpened, whet- 
Asaina, v. pass, (Imp. asao,) To 
be sharpened, to be whetted, to 
be pointed. 
Xanasa, v. tr, (Imp. numasd; BeL 
anasdna, Bel. Imp. anasao,) To 
sharpen, to whet^ to grind, to 
put a point on. 
Xuaa, adj. Sharpened, whetted. 
Vito asiaa, s, A stone used for 
grinding knives, etc., a grind- 
A'BABO'TBT, s, Saturday ; the plaoe 
of holding Saturday's market. [Ar. 
As'sdbtu; same root as Rabata, 
which see.] 
ABA'HA, s. Swearing, cursing, abu- 
sive language. See Aioana, Noobo, 
OzoNA. Sahato. 
A s ah ai na , v. pass. (Imp. asahao.) To 

be cursed, to be abused. HProv.) 
Xanas&ha, v. tr. Imp. and Bel. not 
used. To swear, to curse, to abuse. 
Xanasftha riiana. To speak Ughtly 

of a person's ancestors. 
Aiiha ImiLao, s. Contumely. 
Asiha ivdho, s. Secret inquiries. 
Abai'ita, v. pass. See Asa. 
ABAI'TT, s. A bird belonging to a 
family (Faictida) endemic in Mada- 
gascar, **most remarkable and iso- 
lated, ' ' probably allied to the ground 
thrushes (Pitta). (Sak.) Fhilepitta 
Schlegeliiy Pollen. 
ASA'LT, s. A woman's garments. 

(ProvO [Swa. shali f] 
ABA'XOTBA, s. A stout climbing plant. 

ABA'SA, s. The rainy season. [Ar. 

As'Sahr, the month.] 
Asa'bakai'zina, s. [xaizina, dark.] A 
provincial name for one of the 
Aba'babe', s. [bb, great.! A pro- 
vincial name for one of m months. 


Aai'&AicAi'MBO, «. [xmEBO, Btmldiig.] 
A pfToyincial name for one of the 

ABi'BAXiL'ifiT&i, 9. [iCAinTRi, fra- 
grant.] The month in which the new 
jear'B festival, called Faudboaka, 
IS held. See Alaeamadt. 

Aba'bama'sta, 8. rxAMTA, Unripe.] A 

ABA'BAiCA'NTBiirA, «. [xAinisiKA, stink- 
ing.] AjDrovinoial name for Adaobo. 

A'BT, t. Kespeoty veneration. (F^v.) 
Wiaift V. tr, Himp, miaala; Bel. 
iasianOf Bel. Imp. iatlo.) To show 
respect, to honour. (Prov.) 

AITDT, or A8IXT, «. The ohild of a 
man's sister. (PlovJ 

ASI'DBA, «. Add. [£ng. aeid."] 
Aiidraina, v, pass. To have acid 
applied to or mixed with. 

AsrxV, $, A bird allied to the ground 
thmahes. (Prov.) Fhilepitta jala, 
Bodd. See AsAiTT. 

ASTTT, inter, Kow then ! Now for it ! 

ABOBO'Y, «. Early morning. (Prov.) 
rSwa. tutuhiu,'] 

A'ftOXBO'LA, «. The name of the 
sixth month of the Malag^y year. 
[At. Aa-BumbulH — Spica Vtrginis, or 
tM Tirffo."] 


goinfl* down.] Name given by the 

astrologers to the waning of the 

fdxth month, which was considered 

unfavourable for the commencement 

of any new work. 
A'sovcbo'lajoa'katba, 8, [akatba, ^- 

ing up.l Name given to the waxmg 

of the sixth moon. 

Names of certain columns in the 

SiKiDT divination. 
ASO'BOTA'VY, «. The name of the 

fourth month of the Mala^^asy year. 

[At. A8'8aratanu — CatieerA 

Aso'BOTA'XITSiaA'TBY, odj. [TBY, UOt, 

SATBT, intended.] An orphan. (Prov.) 
ASaXBY, or ASaTBA, «. Winter and 

autumn. (Prov.) Also called Main- 

ATATA, 8. A tree whose branches 

STOW out horizontally, and the 

Semel of whose fnut is edible. 

Termtnaiia Catappa^ L. (Betsim.) 
Same as AisMrkSK (Betsim.), Hataja 
(Betsim.), and Hatafaka ^tsim.). 

Alk'TAlXk, Same as preceding. 

ATAI'HA,«. firewood. (Prov!) See 

ATA'LT, 8. A dimbing shrub with 

' edible root. 2)io8corea (f) w. 

Bdations. See Havana. 

A'TATRA. Boot of the following :— 
Xiitatra, v. int, (Imp. miatdra; 
Bel. iatdrana, Bel. Imp. iatdro.) 
To eat voraciously or ravenously ; 
to weep much ; to be confounded ; 
to be dead. 

A'TATRA, 8. Pickinjn ; the bad. 
XanUa itatra. To pick out, to 

ATA'TRA, «. Same as Axotbt. 

Atb'&ax-fa'ko, v.pa88. SeeATi-FAXO. 

Ate'hana, v. pa88. See Atttra. 

ATE'RAN-xfaA, r. pa88. See Ati-kira. 

ATS* RIKA, r. pa88. See Atitba. 

A'TT, 8. The liver, the inside. [Mai. 
ati; Pt. Moresby ateJ] See Akaty. 

A'tido'ha, 8, [ix)HA, head.] The 

A'TiNAin>Bi'ANA, 8. [andriana, the 
sovereign.] The blood royal, be- 
longing to the royal family, princes, 
nobles of the highest hereditary 

A'tin-dba'mbo, 8, An herb. Vemonia 
ochroleucay Baker. 

A'tinisce'bika, 8, The divisions of 
the country near to Antananarivo : 
the districts within thirty miles of 
the capital. 

A'tin-ka'vana, 8. [HAVANA, relatives.] 
Near relations, consanguinity. 

A'tin-kk'na, *. [hen A, beef.] A bul- 
lock's liver, 

ATY', adv. Here, in this place. 
Mankat^f r. int. To come here. 
Atlkitra, adr. Here. 

ATI'MO, 8. The south. See Atsdco. 

A'TINANAHA, 9. The east. SeeATSZ- 

NANANA. (Prov.) 

A'TITRA Bootof thefoUowing. [Mai. 

Yodti^, V. pas8. Presented, con- 
ducted, conveyed, sent, returned. 



AtdriBA, v.pau. (Imp. aUro.) To 
be offered, to be presented, to be 
sent, to be returned. 
AtdraoA, v.patt, (Imp. aUro,) Used 
of the person to whom anything 
is sent, etc. 
XanJLtitra, v. tr, (Imp. numatera; 
Bel. anaUranaf Bel. £np. anatero.) 
To present,, to oonvej, to send, to 
A'ti-dbjl'noma'so, t. [sAHOiCABO, tears.] 
Boot of the foUowmg : — 
XUti-driUiomftao, v. eomp. To weep 
with relatives who have snfiered 
bereavement; to go up to the 
palace to weep on the decease of a 
A'ti-ki'ba, a, I^HiSA, singing.] Boot 
of the followmg : — 
Atdran-kira, r. pass, (Imp. atero 
htra,) Used of the persons or 
places to whom the singing is 
If aniti-kira, v, eomp. To go in a 
company and join in a singing 
contest. Lit. to take singing. 
A'zz-pa'eo, 8. [faxo, sweepings.] A 
mode of recovering stolen property 
without detecting the thief ; aU the 
servants or employees are required to 
bring something, as a small bundle 
of grass, etc., and to put it in a 
general heap; this affords an op- 
portunity to the thief of secretly 
returning the thing stolen. 
Atiram-pftko, v, pasB. (Imp. atero 
fdko,) Used in speaking of the 
owner of the stolen property to 
whom the Faxo is taken. 
Mi&ti-piko, V, eotnp. To perform 

the custom of Ati-paeo. 
ICanitt-pftko, v. eomp. (Imp. tnana- 
tera fdko; Bel. anateram'ptiko, 
Bel. Imp. anatero fdko.) To take 
back, as above. 
ATO, adv. Here, dose at hand, but 
not seen. 

Atdana, adv. Here, same as pre- 
Atdakatra, adv, Prov. for preced- 
A'to 110 ito, ad(\ Somewhere here- 
abouts; (Portly, in speaking of 

Tlioh.0 lio, adv. Past tepue of above. 
• Somewhere about ; and in npfialring 

of time, recently. 
A'TO. Boot of the following. See 
Ahona, Jakona, Tbakatra. 
Yo&to, V. pau. Stopped, impeded, 

Atdina, v. pats, (Imp. ntdy.) To be 

stopped, to be delayed. 
Xiito, V. int, (Imp. miatoa ; Bel. 

iatbanoy Bel. Imp. iato^,) To stop, 

to stay, to detain. 
XUtoAto, V, int, rimp. midtoaiSa; 

Bel. idtoat6ana, Kel. Imp. idtoa- 

tdy.) To linger; to procrastinate. 

ATO' A, 8, A song sung m honour of 

the sovereign, the idols, or at the 

time of droumcision. 

Ato&vina, r. pass. (Imp. atodvy,) 

To be sung to, to be oelebrated, 

as the sovereign or the idols. 
Xanatda, r. tr, (Imp. manatodva; 

Bel. anatodrana^ Bel. Imp. aica- 

todvy.)^ To sing the Atoa, to sing 

in praise of the sovereign or the 

ATO'DY, 8, An e^^g, [Mai. telur ; 
Dyak ttUu; Nias adulu; Jav. an» 
doy ; other dialects, toli^ tolo, telli, 
tentnif atuluy etc.] 
Manatddy, r, tr, (Imp. manatodiza ; 

Bel. anatodizana^ Bel. Imp. anato» 

dizo.) To lay eggs. 
At6dy ira^ f6totra. Three eggs. 
At6dy r6a f6totra. Six eggs, and 

so on, every three being called a 


Taf 6tsiny, «. The white of an egg ; 

lit. the white of it. 
Taminany, «. The yolk of an ^f^ ; 
lit. the red of it. 

Ato'diaxa'noa, 8. [akanoa, ffuinea- 
fowl.] The head of the thi^^ bone. 

Ato'dinabe'tina, «. [abetxna, a dis- 
ease.] Swollen glands in the groin 
or the aimpit. (l*rov.) 

Ato'diayi'vit&a, 8, [avtvitba, near.] 
An Q^^ laid by a fowl that is ex- 
pected to produce many, but which 
suddenly ceases laying ; hence used 
of a ohlld whose mother was not 
expected tu bear, but who beoomea 
a mother, and then does not bear 



Waah atddiATivitn, v. eomp. To 
Ibj the e^ called the Atodiavxvi- 
OLA. ; to bear a duld unexpeotedlj, 
aa when ^ery Tonng and expected 
to be prolifioy but oeaaing with the 
first; or when advanced in life, and 
not ea^peoted to be a mother at all, 
then hiavizig a child. 
Afc/niBB, «. ^B, lar^.] A large 

egg, ominous of enl or ^pood. 
Aio'sz^Tsnrr, «. [votbt, white.] The 
iriiite of an egg. (Pror.) Sfune as 
Axo^DUCJLLB'irr, «. [uonr, softness.] 
A wind e^\ an ^%% without the 
oater shell, ominoos of evil. 
Aso'inifTA'inr, «. [tant, earth.] A 
tough mushroom ; used also of all 
edible roots. 
Ato'dibtabx'va, «. [tabima, leading.] 
A swelling in the groin or armpits 
arising from hurts or wounds in the 
hand or foot. 
Ai</i>inta'zo, <. [tazo, fever.] An 
enlarged spleen, arising from fre- 
quent attadES of fever. 
Ato'dzo'xbt, «. [oxBT, an ox.] A 
ball of hair sometimes f omid in the 
stomach of cattle. 
Ato'dio'boko'boka, t, [oBOKA, Smell- 
ing.] Infancy, state of pupilage, 
minority, incapacity on account of 
youth to conduct one's own affairs. 
Ato'dio'st, «. [oer, goat.] A kind 

of bead. 
Aio'nrcAiCB'NAirT, «. Djcbna, red.] 
The yolk of an e^%, (Trov.) Same 


Aro'nrA, v. pan. See Ato (n.). 
AIOTA, or AiaVAHA, «. Prov. 

for Sahasa. 
ATRASA. Boot of the following : — 
Yaitraaa, v, pats. Cocked, as a 

Atriaiiia, v. pan, (Imp. atrano,) 
To be cocked, to be ready to fire. 
Kam&traoa, v, ir. (Imp. manatrd- 
na; Bel. anatrdfutna, Bel. Imp. 
amatrdno.) To cock, to fix the 
cock of a gun so as to be ready to 

lEiitnuia, adj. Cocked, ready. 
AzBB'FzyA, V. pats. See Atbixa. 
AxBi^HiKA, 1^. pan. See Atbixa. 

ATBIATBT, adj. Of medium size 
or age ; moderate ; neither the one 
nor me other ; to be either too small 
or too large; in uncertainty be- 
tween two measures. See Sala- 


A'TBIKA,«. ThefEont. (MaL otn/; 

Jav. adep.) 

Yo&trika, v. pan. Fronted, faced. 

Atrihina (or Atrdflna, Prov.), v, 
pan. (Imp. atrhho^ or atrifo,) To 
be fronted, to be faced. 

XUtrika, v. ikt. Omp. miatreha; 
Bel. iatrehana, Bel. Imp. iatriho.) 
To face, as antagonists ; to meet 
face to face ; to answer, as a de- 
fendant ; to meet, to stand to. 

Xanitrika, v. tr. (Imp. manatrkha ; 
Bel. anatrihana, Bel. Imp. a#ia- 
triho.) To face one, to stand in 
presence of, to see, to witness, to 
act as spetitators or witnesses. 

Mifiliiatri-m&so. To face one another. 

Anatrdhana, pr^, Beforo, in the 
presence of. 
ATST, or AT8T, adv. There, yonder ; 

used of a place well known and 

conceived of, but not seen at the time 

of speaking. 

Atsiakatra, adv. Same as preced- 

Atslana, AtsUdtra, and Atiiny 
are also used. 
ATSIA, or HATSrA, : The name 

of one of the months. (Prov.) Pro- 
bably connected with Hatbiaza, 

ATSrif 0, «. The south. Atoco, and 

AxBALAKA used in the provinces. 

Anatsinimina, r. pmb, (Imp. ana" 
Uifwm^.) To be moved south- 

Xianatsimo, v. int. (Imp. miana^ 
ttimma; Bel. ianatnndmanaf Bel. 
Imp. ianatainomy.) To g^ to the 

Atiimom-p&tana. South of the 
fire - place, whero the inferiors 
and slaves sit. Comp. Avaba- 


ATSINA'NAKA, ». The east. Ati- 
NANANA used In provinces. 
A'tsinaxUnina, v. pass. (Imp. dtn' 
nandno.) To be moved eastwards. 


A VA—A rt. 

MUatiliitaanft, v. int. (Imp. fman- 

Mntmihui ; Bel. itmMntmiimtmay 

Bel. Imp. MM<fifMwino.) To go 

to theeeiiit. 

ATA. Used in oomponndB, as Tba&a. 

▲TA, eto., androot of the following: — 

▼oAta, v. /m«9. deeded, cleared 
from weeds ; oat up or pnlled np 
by the roots, as weeds. 

ATua, V. pa$s. (Imp. «mi^.) To 
be weeded. 

XliTa, «. ir, (Imp. wiiavi; Bel. 
ia^ina, Bel. Imp. mkuo.) To 
weed; fig. to dear away any- 
thing bad, to purify. 
ATA, tu^\ Lower down, as applied 

to the ooimtry towards which the 

water flows; lower in oomparison 

with some other place. (Frov.) See 

AxBANT, and Ira. 
ATAXA. Boot of the following :— 

YeftTaka, v. past. Separated. 

Avfthana, v. pas8, (Imp. atfdho.) To 
be separated. 

Mi&yaka, v. int. (Imp. miavdha; 
Bel. iavdhana, Bel. Imp. iavdho.) 
To be separate, to be asunder, to 
separate one's self. 

Manayaka, v. tr. (Imp. manavdha; 

Bel. anavdhanay Bel. Imp. ana- 

vdho.) To separate, to sever, to 

put asunder ; to segpregate. 

ATAXATAXA, t. An irregular and 

uncertain division; separation or 

division at random. 

A'Takivahana, v. pass.y and Miata- 
KAVASA, axe also used. 
ATAHA, 8. The rainbow. See Av- 


ATAHATAHA, a^\ Sharp, keen, 
clear-headed, skilful, clever, shrewd, 

Tiy hlta ivaniyana, adj. Used of 
something that is unique. 

AYAO', adv. Prov. for HiAinr, Foava, 

AVAO'TBA, i. A climbing prickly 
plant, a decoction of which is drunk 
by those who desire to have children. 
Smilax Krauasiana, Musn. Same 
as Fandrieibodibt (Bets.), and 
AvBTBO (Betsim.), which latter see. 

AVA'BAKA, 8. The north or north-east 
wind. (Prov.) 

AYA'BATA'ZT, t. T&e sofotii-east 

monsoon. (Prov.) 
AYA'BATBA, t. The nortii. (HaL 

utara ; Sans, utara f) 

Aftatariltiiia, t^. pa88. (Imp. ono- 
itardto.) To be moved north- 

Xianaviratite, 9. tnl. (Imp. mUma' 
pardta; Bel. ianavardtmna^ BeL 
Imp. ianavardto.) To go north 
or northwards. 

ATira-pitana. North of the ilte- 
nlace, which is the place of honour 
m a house. 
AVX'LO, ». A spirit, soul, ghoet^ 

shade of dead or living. See Am- 


AYX'OTBA, i. A climbing priokly 
pla nt. Same as Avaotra, whioh see. 

AvE'TBO, «. A dimbing prickly plant 
used by the Betsimisaraka as a 
remedy for boils. (Betsim.) 8milax 
Krau88iana, Musn. Same as Ayao- 
TBA, which see, and Fakdrikibo- 


A'VY, verb€U root. (Imp. avia.) Is oom- 
infic, comes. 
ICmivy, obsolete. The modal noun 

in / (Fihavt) and the relative, 

however, are still in use, as : — 
Ihaviana. (Imp. ihavio.) The time, 

place, means, manner, or object 

of coming. 
XanAvy, r. int. (Bel. anavlana.) To 

be ill with fever. So called per- 
haps because of its intermittent 

O'lona ivy iny . A native of ... . 
O'lona ivy tiny. One who has just 

come from 

A'vy nariry. Used of one just 

recovering from an illness. 
A'yy nihinana. Used of one just 

coming from a meal. 
Tihayiana, 9. The place whence 

anything comes. 
A'yy iny. From thence. 
A'yy imy ny. From thence. 
ATT, adv. Apiece, each. In the 
proverbs it means even. 
Omte iiki^y ivy iiy. Give them 

sixpence each. 
A'yy siiaka, adj. Increasing at the 

rate of 100 per cent. 

A rtJINA-^-A r08A. 


Jfvy rt« Uko, 4dj Increaaiiig at 
tihe rate of 60 per oent. 
ATIAI'ITA, adj\ Strong, atfaletio, 
. fti ited, powerfnl, mnflcnlar. 
ATIATT, s. A tree, the white jnioe 

€i wfaioh afltofda a >dmd of bixd-ume. 

A'TiA'fTMA'ia(/wn, t. [MAn, sweet, 
OUT, an ox.} A tree wbich is 
poasiltlyoiily a iraxietj of the AnATt, 
AVu^fnouLEA'aA, <. [vasama, a for- 
eigner.] The fig-tree, which has 
been Introdnoed. Fieut Cariea, 
A'rtA'-wnamA'vOy t. [bavo, water.] 
A tree. Fiata triehopoda. Baker. Same 
asZjLTr (Betsim.). 
A'vuiA, «. Qofaig to or oaHing on. 
See Yanot. 
▼oiTiBa,r.iMiM. CSalled on, inqiiired 

AvIaiiiA, c. /NiM. (Imp. ovmo.) To 
be visited for enqniiy, to be in- 
quired about. 
IbaiyiAa, v. tr. ^np* manavena; 
Bel. mtavenanaf jRei. Imp. ana' 
WHO,) To go to inquire into ; to 
renew an enquiry or search ; to 
call on for uie purpose of an 
enquir y. 
AVI'ViTiiA, adj. [BootTiviTBA.] Near, 
on the Tery edge, at the versre; 
almost come, usea of a specmed 

ATO, adj. High, lofty, eminent. See 
Aao, AicBO. 

A'ToaTiisa, r. pass. (Imp. droavoy.) 

To be made haughly, or of much 

importance by one s own words 

or the words of another. 

XiiTeiTO, adJ, To be piled up 

Tiaim-bftry iTorino. Rice-grounds 
higher than the usual water- 
A'to sfA, my, [bxa, steps.] High, tall 

in stature. 
A'to fb'o, a<y\ [fbo, voice.] Having a 

loud and high-pitched voice. 
A'vo ra'zana, adj. [razaka, ancestor.] 

Of prinoely nmk. 
AVO'AVA. Bootof thefoUowing:— 
Avoiaina, v. pott. rimp. avodny,) 
To be had in regara. (Frov.) 

ICaiiaTftaiia, v. tr. (Imp. puumwtdHa; 
Bel. anawdnana^ Bel. Imp. tfna- 
vodny.) To show condescension 
to those who are beneath one. 

Avo'AinsA'sA, t. [tsaba, good.] A 
word used to express the fact that 
the BoFXA strings used in weaving 
are too long. TProv.) 

AYO'HA, 8, A plant whose bark af- 
fords a fibre which is made into 
string and cloth. H^.) 

AYOXA', t. The Avocado pear or 
Alligator pear ; a native of tropical 
America. (Betsim.) Ftraea gratis-' 
«f«fMi, Grsertn. 

AYO'XA, «. A species of roller bird. 
(Bets.) AUkmm pittoidea, "Lair. 
Same as Sakoka. 

AYO'KO, «. A small straggling herb, 
the root of which is eaten in times 
of scarcity. Vipna angivetma, Baker. 
Same as Kixaotba (Beta.^. 

Avo'xoxbi'bt, s. [bibt, anmial.] An 
herb. A9tf9tasiaffanffetiea,T,Andi0hi, 


hawk.] A small straggling herb. 
AYOKaA, adv. All, the whole, every 
one, altogether. See Abt, Avr, and 
AYONA, a. Pride, haughtiness, arro- 
gEuice. See Anjonanjona, Eboebo, 
Kbhabeha. The reduplicated form 
is most generally used. 
Xiivoaavona, v. int. (Imp. midrona' 
vona; Bel. and Pass, iavonawnanay 
Bel. Imp. idvonavoHff.) To be proud, 
to be haughty, to be insolent. 
A'voh-ba'va, 8. [vAVA, the mouth.] 
Haughty words. 

Xiivom-biva, v, comp. To be in- 
solent, to use high words. 
A'voH-Po', a. Pride of heart. 


thought.] Having proud thoughts. 
AYONA, a. The core of boils. (Ptov.) 

AYO^SA, a. A heap. 

Avosaina, v. paaa. (arcway, or avo" 

aa6.) To be heaped up. 
Xiavbia, v. int. (Imp. miavoad ; Bel. 

iaroadna, Bel. Imp. iavoaao, or ia^ 

voaa^.) To be in a heap, as rice, 

manioc, etc. 



ATOTBAf «. Bansoni, redemption, 

prioe ; means of eff eotiiig a raiuom. 

VoAyotn, 9. JMM9. BediMmed, ran- 

Aydtana, v, pau, (Imp. avoty,) To 
be redeemed, to 

Xiiyo-tdiia, v, eomp. To purdiase 
^eedom, as a slaye who redeems 

XaniTOtra, v, tr. (Inxp. mama/vota ; 
Bel. tma^Uma^ Bel. £np. tmtno^,) 
To ransom, to redeem. 

Xiiyotra, a^. Being likely to be 

Vanaydtana, «. Bedemption. 

Vy If paniTotea, §, The Bedeemer. 
A'yotra ai'ha, ». [aina, life.] Seeking 

freedom from imminent death. 

Xanivotra aina. To put forth all 
one's strength in escaping from 
imminent death, as when escaping 
from a wild beast, or stmg^ing 
in deep water, etc. 
ATOTBA. Used in the following. 

See Ombotba, Onootra.. 

YoiYOtra, v. patt. Plucked up, root- 
ed up, eradicated. 

Avdtana, v. past, (Imp. avoty,) To 
be plucked up, rooted up, or 

Xaii&yotra, orXi&yotra, v. tr, (Imp. 
miawtra ; Bel. iavotanaj Bel. Imp. 
iavoty,) To root up, to pluck up, 
to eraaicate. 

Fiavotra, «. A pair of tweezers for 
removing hair. 
A'vo-ba'to, s, [vato, stone.] Benewal 

of a dilute which had been pre- 
viously settled. 

Xi&TO-bftto, V, camp. To renew a 
dispute previously settled; to do 
something again that the laws of 
the kingdom have forbidden. lit. 
to root up stones (which had been 
fixed as witnesses of agreements). 
AYO'ZO, t. Same as Havozo, which 

A'ZA, adv. An adverb of prohibition 
or deprecation, followed by a present 
tense. Do not, may it not, be not, 
as : AzA mandbha. Do not go. 
A'la fiftdy. An apologetio expres- 
sion meaning, £xcuse me, nave 
the goodness to, etc. 

A'lamitj. An ex pr o Bsion of eonfee- 
sion and entreafy. Forgive me, 
I begpazdon. 
A'la Idia, itUer, An expresnon of 

wonder. Strange ! 
A'la ay iiiny. May it not be! Far 
be it! 
A'ZA, iuh. Even, even though. 
Vy kiry 4ia maliiio mihinaiia. The 
oat even may eat. Used also with 
Va dia mftty in iho. Although I 


Va dia isiay iia. For all that^ 
even though. In the provinoes it 
is used for Tokoa, reaUy. 
AZA'FO, or EAZATO, «. (Proy.) 

Same as Tbutkafonkaiona. 
AZA'BT, 8. Soroery, witchcraft. See 
MoBAVT. (Prov.) 

yoasiry,f>./NiM. Bewitched. (Prov.) 
Aaarina, v, past. (Imp. azario.) To 

be bewitched. (Prov.) 
Xanaiiry, v, tr, (Imp. manazaria; 
Bel. anazariana, Bd. Imp. ttma- 
zario^ To bewit(^. (Prov.) 
AZE'KBT, t. BoFiA doth. (Prov.) 
A'ZY, jn-o. Him, her, it, them; his, 
hers, its, theirs. Accusative and pos- 
sessive case of IzT. 
AZT', pro, Prov. of Iza, Zovy. 
A'ZO, verbal root. Had, got, posses- 
sed, understood, permitted, allowed, 
can, may. It is used before any 
passive or relative verb, in the 
sense of can or may, as : Azo atao. 
May be done. It also takes the 
place of our English -o^fe, and 'ible 
in making words into adjectives, as, 
Azo HANiNA, edible. 
Mahiio, V, tr. (Imp. mahazoa; Bel. 
ahazoanay Bd. Imp. ahazoff,) To 
get, to have, to obtain, to possess, 
to win, to acquire, to compre- 

The relative Ahazoana is most 
frequently changed in pronuncia- 
tion to Ahazahoana. 
A'loko ay Y61a. I have the money. 
A'foko ny tdninad. I understand 

Ai6n-tday. Aooused of something. 
Ai6n' dlana tiaaaa. Caught in the 
very act. 



AftOL'BO, aty\ Fleawd witib, prefar- 

nd, grateful. 
A'soAM-Po'. Used in the following : — 
WrtJBO am-pdy v. comp. To under- 
stand (a person). 
KiSuikahiio am-pd, v. eomp. To 
thorongbly understand and trust 
ooe anotlier. 
A't/taoA'TY, «. [tavt, feminine.] A 
lore QbrniBL, (Ptor.) 


B. The second letter of the Malagasy 
Alphabet. It is sounded as 6 in 
English. After the elision of one 
of ttie weak syllables, -na, -ka, and 
-TSA, in a word wldck is joined to a 
seoond beginning with v, b always 
takes the plaoe of r ; tiius -ita or -mr 
and h ooming together, the -ka be- 
comes m, ana the b becomes v, as Ta- 
nM-BABT[TANT and vabt] ; Olom- 
BBBT [OLONA and tert] ; when a 
word oidingin -xa or -tba is united 
to another beginning with t', the 
-KA or -TRA is mjected and the v 
becomes b^ as Tonoo-babika [ton- 
ooTBA and yabika], Satbo-bshi- 


When the yerbal prefix Man- is 
joined to a word beginning with b, 
the b is sometimes elided, and the 
n become m, as Mamabo [mam- and 
BABo]; or tiie n is changed to m, 
while the b is retained, as Maxbeta 
[mah- and bbtaJ. 

B^. A prefix jomed to many roots, 
as Baublaxa [pximary root ublaxaJ. 

BA, «. StookingB, socks. [Fr. b<u.] 
BBbA, r. int. To wear socks or 

BA, «. A £rub. (Sak.) 

BA, «. Bar in music. [Eng. bar."] 

BA'BA, #. Father. See Aba, Aj>a, 
Dada, Ikajct, Bat,. 

Ba'babb', ». [be, great.] An uncle, 
the father's elder brotner. Qfrov.) 

BA'BASffi'LT, », [HXLT for KELT, little.] 

An uncle, the father's younger 
brother. (Prov.) 
Ba'baxc/to, 8. [koto, a child's name.] 
The largest species of lemur which, 
when wounded, the natlTes say gets 

leaves, chews them, and puts them on 
the wound. It has a short tail with 
white markings. Liehmioiut hrmn* 

BAfBASTA'tTTf odj. [tabtt, earth.] 
Enormous, used of any thmg ; mar- 
yellous, used of any act ^[ood or bad. 

BA'BA, inter. An expression of sur- 
prise mingled with pleasure. Beau- 
tiful! capital I famous! [Swa. A^^ 
root of verb with the same mean- 

Bibara^! Bibardny! inUr. Was 
there ever the like ! marvellous ! 

BA'BABABA, «. A cry, a soream, an 
outciT. See Nananana. 
Xibftbabftba, v. int. (Imp. mibdba- 
baba ; Bel. ibabahahana^ Bel. Imp. 
ibabahahah.) To Bcream, to vocif- 
erate, to cry out for help. 

BABAY', %. A children's game; a 
mountain in Imerina; in the pro- 
vinces it is used for father. 

BABAT', inter. An expression of lam- 
entation uttered bv the officers ap- 
pointed to seize those suspected of 

BA'BAXA. Prov. for Bebaka. 

BABA'KA, 9. The pumpkin. (Sak.) 
Cticurbita Fepo^ L. Same as Tayo 


BABA'LA, adj. Prov. for Babakqoana. 

BA'BALAI'NA, v. paa$. To be carried 
roughly. Prov. for Betaiaina. 

BA'BAJTOA'LA, adj. Used of a house 
the roof of which is in a very dilap- 
idated condition, and whose doors 
and windows have been removed. 

BA'BAVaaAHA, aty. Empty, void, 
as of a deep hole. 

BA'BA BA', adj. [ba, blood.] Bleeding 

mibftbara, v. int. To bleed profusely, 
to let blood fiow. Same as Man- 


BABA'ZO, adj. Simple, ignorant, silly. 

BA'BY, t. Carrying on the back. [Jav. 
babUf a nurse.] 
Yoab&by, v. pass. Carried on the 

Ab&by, V. pa9$. (Imp. abahh.) Used 
of the person or thing cazried on 



Babdiift, V. pan, (Imp* bMo,) To 

be oarried on the back piok-a-back 

Bin&by. PaaslYe of preceding with 

Xibiby, v, int, and tr, (Imp. miba' 

hi; Bel. ibMna, Bel. Imp. ibabeo.) 

To oairy on the back. 
Xaabiby, v, tr. To carry, to bear, 

to support. (Prov.) 
lUai&biby. Same as preceding. 
Tiibibibftby, or Kibibibiby, s, A 

pUy in which children cany one 

another on their backs. 
If aaad tsibibib&by. To plaj by car- 
rying on the back. 
Mitimb&by, v, int» To lean on a 

block of wood, or to He on a 

lliT&yy is used in the proyinces for 


BABO*, or BABO'HA (1), «. A twining 
plant with a large snoonlent root, 
which is eaten by the Sakalava to 
quench thirst. Bioaearea (/) sp. Also 
called Bekandbt. 
BA'BO, s. Booty, spoil, captives; 
plunder of any kmd. See Sahbot&a, 
and ToHA. [Swa. balntay root of 
verb to strip off.] 
Yo&babo, v, past. Captured, seized, 

taken captive. 
Babdina, r. pass, (Imp. bahoy.) To 

be taken captive, to be captured ; 

to be seized, as of goods. 
Binibo. Passive of preceding with 

Xam&bo, v, tr, (Imp. mamaboa ; Bel. 

amaboana^ Bel. Imp. atnabby,) To 

capture, to seize as prey, to take 

captive, to carry off as spoil. 
Ba'bohta'wt, ». [tawy, country.] Cap- 
tives divided among the whole army, 
and not exclusively among the indi- 
viduals who have caught them. 
BA'BOKA, «. Prostration. See Ba- 
BQKA, Bbbaxa. (Prov.) 
Abiboka, v, pasB. (Imp. ababoky.) 

To be laid prostrate, as a fallen 

tree. (Prov.) 
Kibftboka, v, int, (Imp. mibaboha; 

Bel. ibabbhanaf Bel. Imp. ibabohy.) 

To lie prostrate, to fall prostrate. 

Kamiboka, v. tr, (Imp. manutbbha ; 

Bel. amahohana^ Bel. Imp. ama^ 

bbhy.) To put down in a prostrate 

condition. (Prov.) 

BA'BOKA, 8, Same as Bsbaka, which 

BA'DA, Mg, Barren, sterile, used of 
fat cattle; closed up, obstmoted, 
Yoab&da, v, pan. Closed up aa a 

road, etc. (Ptov.) 
Badina, v, pan, (Imp. baddo,) To 
be closed up, to be obstrnoted. 
Mibida, v, int, (Imp. mibadd; Bel. 
ibaddna^ Bel. Imp. ibadab,) To 
be dosed up, to be obstructed. 
Ba'da lb'la, adj, [lxla, the tongue.] 

BA'BiJiA'BA, 8, Unmeaning and 
confused expressions, such as are 
made under the infiuence of fear or 

Bidabad^na, v, pa88, (Imp. bada-- 
badao.) To be spoken incohe- 
rently or in confusion. 
Xibidab&da, v, int. (Imp. mibada' 
badd ; Bel. ib^dabadana^ Bel. Imp. 
ibddabadao.) To express one's self 
inooherenUy; to blab, to betray 
BABE'NDf A, adj\ Dizzy. 
BADrAXA, adj. Badl^ done, as work 
done perfunctorily, imperfectly fin- 
ished thouffh negligence or indif- 
ference. (Prov.) 

Badiihina, t;. pa88. (Imp. btuiidho.) 
To be done badly, to be done 
carelessly. (Prov.) 
Mibadiaka, v. int. (Imp. mibadidha ; 
Bel. ibadidlMfWy Bel. Imp. ibadid^ 
ho,) To be imperfectly done, to 
be a failure. (Prov.) 
O'lona badla-jdry, «. An idiot, one 

who looks silly. (Prov.) 
Y61ana bidibadiaka, «. Trifling 
and useless talk. (Prov.) 
BADI'KA, 8. The trunk of a palm called 

DniAKA, with edible fruit. (Sak.) 
BA'BOBADOKT, adj. Compact; well 
proportioned, as a horse; plump, 
as a young woman; chubby, as 



BA'BXAHO'BBA, A^'. Flumip yet awk- 
ward, cliuxisy, clownish, inelegant, 
dull , he avy looking. 
BA?aHT, «. A fish. (Prov.) 
BA'HAJIA, », Sitting or standing in 
a straddling manner. 
Abihana, r. jmm. (Imp. ahahdno.) 
To be stretdied apart, as the feet 
in straddling. 
■Ibihana, v. int, (Imp. mibahdna ; 
BeL and Pass, ihahananoy Bel. 
Imp. ibahino,) To sit or stand 
on anything in a straddling 
BA'HAVA, », An impediment, a 
hindrance, a bairier. 
Abihawa, v. past. (Imp. alnMno.) 
To be nsed for an mipediment, 
to be made a hindrance. 
Bahiaana, v, pau. j(Imp. bahdno,) 
To be closed up, to be blocked up, 
to be impeded, to be hindered, 
WimLhana, v. tr, (Imp. nUbahdna ; 
Bel. ibahdnana, Bel. Imp. idoAii- 
iM.) To stretch one's tielf out so 
as to block up the way ; to pre* 
▼ent commnnication. rig. to be 
B^'bam-ba'ta, 8. [taya, the mouth.) 

A gag. (F^v.) 
BAHA'BA, adj. Ignorant, stupid, 
obtuse, incapable of instruction. 
(ProY.) See ^adsahodba. 
BAHA'BT, t. The sea. (Ptoy.) [Swa. 

Baharia, «. A sailor. (Prov.) 
BAHE'ZA, ff. A song sung by men 
when attending the dead. (ProY.) 
BAHIIfO, *, Bi^uctanoe to speak, 
mbahimo, v, int. To be unwilling 
to speak. 
BAHOXIXA'SO, adj. Fine-eyed, haY- 
ing beautiful eyes. See Babdcaso. 


BAY, $. A wound, a hurt, a boil. 
(ProY.J See Fbby, and Vay. 
Toabay, r. pau. Wounded, ^^y.) 
Kiba^, s. A cudgel, so called, it is 
said, because it wounds. 

BAY, t. A grandfather or grand- 
mother. (Ptoy.) 

BAfLA'HT, 9. [laht, masculino.] A 
grandfather. (ProY.) 

Ba^ya^yt, t. [yayt, feminine.] A 

g^randmother. (Ptoy.) 
BAI'BAY', 8. A scolding, a rej^roof . 

Baibaisina, v, pa88. (Imp. batbaizo.) 
To be scolded, to be ruled at. 
BAI'BAY', 8. Disorder, confusion. 


Abaiba^, v. pass. (Imp. abalbako.) 
To be routed, to oe cUspersed, to 
be put in disorder. (Ptoy.) 

Xibaiba^, v. int. (lMp> mibatbaUa; 
Bel. ibaibaizanaf Bel. Imp. ibatbal- 
Ko.) To be put to rout, to be dis- 
banded, to be dispersed. (ProY.) 

Xaabalba^, v. tr. (Imp. mambai' 

baiza ; Bel. ambaibatganoy Bel. 

Imn. ambaibaizo.) To put to rout^ 

to disperse. (Ptoy.) 

BAI'BO, adj. Obstinate, stubborn, 

contumacious, headstrong, foolish. 
BAI'BO', 8. A field, a plantation 

near the water. (ProY.) See 


Am-baib6. In the field, in the 
countiy. (ProY.) See An-tsaha, 


BAI'BO'LY, 8. The Scriptures, the 

Bible. nSng. Bible.] 
BAIKABAl'KA, «. A mode of walking, 

an affected step. 

Baikabaikaina, t'. pass. (Imp. baU 
kabaikao.) To be made to walk 
in an affected manner. 

Mibaikabalka, v. int. (Img. mibai- 
kabaikd ; Bel. ibaikaoaikdna, Bel. 
Imp. ibaikabaikao.) To step or 
waUc in a mindng and affected 
BAI'KO, 8. Foreign words ; words of 

command; password. 

Yoabalko, v. passJ Commanded. 

Baikdina, v. pass. (Imp. baik6ff.) 
To be spoken to in words of a 
foreign lang^uage; to be com- 

Binalko. PassiYe of preceding with 

Xibaiko, v. int. and tr. (Imp. mt- 
baikba ; Bel. ibaikoana, Bel. Imp. 
ibaikoy.) To speak in words of 
a foreign language ; to use words 
of command. 

These wosds originally came 
into use in dnlling tSbe soldiers. 




BAI'NGA, «. A olod of earth. See 


BAI'VGT, or BVVeT, ». A goat. 

(Prov.) See Obt. 
BAI'NGOBAI'VGO, 9. Grookednefls. 
PMEal. A;<imMfl^.] 

Baingobaiiigoma, v, pan. (Imp. 
haingoboing6ff.) To be made orooK- 
MibaiiigolMdngo, a^. Distorted, 
BAJI'VA, «. Sand, grayel. (Prov.) 
BA'JOBAJO, adj. Used of aaythingr 

badlj finiahed. (Prov.) 
BA'KA. An expletive used in oertain 

BA'KA, at{j. Branching out into two 
parts, having horns diverging in 
the form of a V. 

Abftka, 9. jpoM. (liDj^. abakao,^ Used 
of anything to oe made to diverge, 
as above. 
Bakaina, v. pass, (Imp. bakab,) To 
be maide divergent, to be made 
to resemble the letter V. 
Xibika, V, int. (Imp. mibakd ; Bel. 
ihakdna, Bel. Imp. ibaktA.) To 
diverge so as to lorm an angle, 
to diverge in undue propor- 
Xambika, v. tr. (Imp. mambakd; 
Bel. Ottibakdna^ Bel. Imp. amba- 
kao) To make to diverge. (Prov.) 
Xanabika is used in Lnerina for 
Ba'kala'nzsaea'la, atff* [bahala, 

equal.] Same as the following. 
BA'ZALA'NiBAHA'zA,ai^'. [lant, exhaust- 
ed, BAHAZA, equal.] Incomparable, 
matehless, super-excellent. Same 
as Babahtant. 
BA'xANTfNY, «. A smaU bird. (Prov.) 
BAKABIA, 8. The traveller's tree. 
Ravenala madagasearieims. Sonn. 
SameasBEMAVO (Prov.), Bavdcfotsy 
(Betsim.), Fontst (I*povJ, Axon- 
DBOHAZO (Prov.), and Ravinaui, 
which last see. 
BA'KAXA, adj. Bulky, enormous. 

BAXA'KA, i. A kind of millet (P). 

BAXA'KA, adj. Stupid, dollaah, im- 
prudent ; in the provinces it means 
oadly woven, as a piece of doth ; 
badly plaited, as mats. 
BAXA'ZniA, inter. A term used in 
congratulations. Good ! Well done ! 
Bakiiuia, v. past. (Imp. bakasino.) 

To be congratulated. (Prov.) 
Mibakiiina, v. int. (Imp. miha" 
kazina ; Bel. ibakaglnanay "ELeL. 
Imp. ibakasino.) To congratulate. 
BAKS'LA, t. The spleen. (Prov.) 
See Abott, Att. 
Xividi-bakila. (Prov.) Same as 


Be bakila. Full of spleen, splenetic. 


BAXB'LAKA, s. A coarse plait, used 
of mats, etc. 

BAXI'AXA. $. The name of an ani- 
mal. (Prov.) 

BAXI'LAKA, 8. [bakt for vaxy, bro- 
ken, iLA, one Bide.] A piece, a scrap, 
a morsel, a fragment. (Prov.) 

BAXl'LAX-BILA'irr, 8. [VILANY, a pOt.] 

A potsherd. (Prov!) 


canoe.] A piece of a canoe. (Prov.) 
BAKfLAN-DA'MBA, <. [laxba, gaimeut.] 
A piece of doth, a raff. (Prov.) 

BAKfliAK-TA'aATA'ST, 8. [TA&ATAST, pa- 
per.] A scrap of paper. (Prov.) 
BA'KO, or BAiOBA'KO, a<f;. Wdl 
f ormJed, well shaped ; delicate, 
weary, exhausted. See Bieaka. 
Ba'kola'va, adj. [lava, tall.1 Hand- 
some ; tall and well formea. 
BA'KO, 8. An enclosure, a cattle-pen, 
a cattle-fold made of poles ; a mound ; 
a tower ; a small iron hook used for 
catching birds. (Prov.) See Vaul. 
BA'KOBA'KO, 8. A savage animal 
resembling the ass or zebra. Pro- 
bably the SoNQOXBY, a mythical 
animal. (Prov.) 
BAKO'LY, 8. Crockery, a dish, a cup, 
a bowl. [Swa. bakuli ; Ar. bouqal.^ 
Bakdly kitsol6ha. An urn. 
Jiro bak61y, «. An earthemware 
BAKO'BA, 8. A large shell. (Prov.) 
See Autbiya. 



BAXIKXAXA, A^y. Bulky, but feeble. 

Oliam bak6raka. A stout but flab- 
by peracm. 

liaba bak6raka. A ooane cloth. 
lAliA, i. A ball, a bullet. [Eng. 

iotf ; or Fr. balU,'\ 

AbilabAla, v, pau. (Imp. abdlaba' 
lad.) Tobethiown as a ball or 
stone. See Tosaza. 

BaUaa, «. pats. (Imp. balad,) To 
be thrown at with a ball or stone. 

yamilahila, v. tr, (Imp. fHamila- 
bald ; Bel. amdlabaldnoy Bel. Imp. 
amdMalao,) To throw a ball or 
stone. (ProY.) Same as Miro- 

Ba'xjlxa'so, adj\ [uaso, the eye.] 

Used of an intense stare. 
Ba'IiA xxha'ivta, <. [hamta, entreaty.] 
A fatal shot, a ball which rests in 
tiie body. Fig. a heavy charge 
which cannot be refuted. 
Ba'lav-tapo'iidbo, ». [tafondbo, aoan- 

non.] A cannon-ball. 
Ba'x.a ba'batba, t, [babatba, tired.] A 

spent bullet. 
BA^LA, «. Poles, etc., used in carrying 
beayr burdens. (Proy.) 
Itolaina, or Bilabalaina, v. pan. 
(Imp. balao.) To be carried on a 
Utt^, to be carried roughly, to 
be treated roughly while being 
carried. (Prov.) 
KbiU, 9, ir, (Imp. mibald; Rel. 
ibaidna, Bel. Imp. ibalad,) To 
carry a heavy burden by means 
of a litter or poles. (Prov.) See 
BsTA, LurjA, ToNDBA, Takoita. 
BA'LAPAjrA'PAJCA. [tapaka, broken off.) 

Same as the following. (Sak.) 
Ba'laha'zo, ». [hazo, a tree.] The 
manioc or cassava. By the Betsi- 
leo the leaves are pounded, and the 
juice pleased on sores or wounds. 
Manihot utilUnmaj Pohl. Same as 
Kajahj (Bets.), Mbazaha (Betsim.), 
BaiiAYaxapaka (Sak.), and Manoa- 
HA20, which last see. 
BA'LABA'LA, «. A piece of wood 
which is rolled like a hoop. (E*rov.) 
Bala'dta, r. poia. See Baui (n.). 
Bala'na, r. p4xs$. See Bala (i.V. 
BAXALA'KA, «. Prov. for Bara- 
BUKAy which see. 

MibiUUka, v, int. Prov. for Mx- 

BABASEOKA, whioh 800. 

BALA'NGOKT, adj. Same as Bado- 
BADONT, but chiefly used of children. 
Plump, well set, compact. See Bo- 


BALAO'. Prov. for EiyAnvAJST, which 

BALB'LAKA, adj. Having large and 
beautiful eyes. See Babdcabo. 

BA'LY, 8. A district near Gape St. 
Andrew, probably connected with 
Swa. mbalif far off, separate. 

BALI' ASA, adj. Same as Balblaka, 
but used also in the following com- 
binations. Also provincial for Ba- 


Mibaliaka, v. int. (Imp. nUbalidha ; 
Bel. ibalidhanaf Bel. Imp. ibalid' 
ho.) To be wide open, as large 
eyes ; to be exposed ; to have fine 
Aka^jo baliaka. A spencer or jacket 
which opens in front, such as is 
worn by the Betsimisaraka. 
Vntana mibaliaka. Qoods exposed 

for sale. 
Tiny baliaka. An open country. 
BALO'NA, «. Balloon. [Eng. balloon.] 
BA'MBA, a. A fallen wall. 
BA'MBA, a. A fortification. 
BA'MBA, or BA'X BIBAT', adj. Spiead- 
iDg over, covering, as eruptions in 
cutaneous diseases. 
BA'MBA, «. A single-poled palanquin. 

BAMBA'LA, a4f. Without divisions 
or apartments, as a house having 
one room only. (Prov.) 
BA'MBAHA, a. A boundless space. 

Ba'mbak-dba'nobb', a. [bano, water, 
BB, great.] The ocean, the boundless 
BA'MBO, a. Prov. for Babo, which 

BA'NA, adj. Prov. for Banoa, which 

Banaina. Prov. for Bakoaxna. 

Manambftna. Prov. for Manabakoa. 
BA'NA. Prov. for Bena, which see. 
BA'NA, a. A shrubby plant with 

edible fruit. It is known as the 

egg-plant, egg-apple, Aubergine, 


Brinjal, etc. Solanum M^Umgmay 
L. (Betsim.) 
BA'VABA'VA, adj. WvdiQ opoo, tm- 
olofled, as a door. 

Abinabina, v, pass, (Imp. abdna- 
banao.) Used of the aoor opened. 
Biaabanaina, v. pass. (Imp. bdna- 
banao.) To be set open, to be 
onolosed, to be opened. 
MibiBabiaa, v. int. Imp. and Bel. 
not used. To be wide open, as a 
door; to be exposed to view; to 
be unoonoealed. 
Xaminabina, v. tr. Imp. and Bel. 
not used. To make wide open, 
as a door or lid. 
BAKAI'KA, <K^'. Used in the fol- 
lowing: — 

Mibanaika, «. m<. (Imp. nUbaneha ; 
Bel. ibanihanaf Bel. Imp. ibaneho.) 
To walk slowly. Gomp. Bohaisa.. 
Banai'ha, v. pass. See Bana. 
BAKA'VA, s. A kind of fish resem- 
bling the ToHO. (Sak.) 
BAHSA'BT, s. A harbour, a landing- 
place. (Prov.) [Swa. bandari.] 
BAnrBVEA, s. A Wd of red doth 
introduoed by the Arabs. [Fr. da»- 
ifer;i; a flag (Prov.). 
BAHDrA, s. A pile or package of 

cloth. See Qora. [Ft. bander f] 
BA'VBBOLA'HT, s. Youths of about 
the same age and size, equals ; one 
who sells himself ; a rascal. 
BA'VOA, 8. An endemic species of 
shrike. (Prov.) Vdnffa eurvirostriSf 
6m. Same as Vanoa. 
BA'MQAfadJ. Having gai|^ as hedges, 
etc. ; having lost teeth, as a person, 
or a saw, etc. ; wanting some to 
make up the required or stipulated 

Bangaina, v. pass. (Imp. bangab.) 
To have gapft made in as hedges, 
saws, knife- blades, etc. 
Bin&nga. Passive of preceding with 

Mibinga, v. int. To have gaps, to 
be nicked as the edge of a Imif e, 
etc., to be toothless. (Prov.) 
If ambiLnga, v. tr. ^mp. mambangi ; 
Bel. ambanffdfta, Kel. Imp. amban- 
gao.) To make gaps, to puU out 
teetn, to nick, to notch. 

Xanabiaga, v. tr. (Imp. manaban' 
gd ; Bd. anabangdna, B^. Imp. 
anabanaao.) Same as Maxbakqa. 

Binga uiig. Having lost teeth. 

B&ngab&aga, o^;. Jagged. 
' Ba'noaui'dana, 04;'. [BU>AJrA, fled.] 

To be toothless. 
BA'NGO, s. a plait or knot of hair, 

a large plait or knot of hair. 

▼oabango, v. pass. FUited in the 
form called Banoo. 

Bang6ina, v. pass. (Imp. bangby.y 
To be plaited into a Banoo. 

Bin&ngo. Passive of preceding with 

Xib&ago, V. int. (Imp m%ba$^ba; 
Bel. ibanghana, Bel. Imp. iba»igbyS 
To wear the hair in the form oi 
the Banoo. 

Xamb&agOi v. tr. (Imp. fnamhtm* 

g6a ; Bel. ambangiana^ Bel. Imp. 

ambangbg.) To plait the Bakqo, 

to have one's hair plaited. 

Ba'noo anda'ni-bo'txna, s. [lant, side, 

80FINA, ear.] A mode of plaitinff 

the hair. (Prov.) Banooboa is used 

in TmeriTia for this. • 
Ba'ngo an-xa'toka, «. [hatoka, the 

nape.] A large Imot of hair resem- 
bling a chignon. 
Ba'noo to'xana, s. [toxana, single.] 

A single plait or xnot resembling 

a chignon. 
BANGO, adj. DeHghted. It is only 

used in Imerina with the sufiSx 

pronoun -NT. Delighted with some- 

Bangdina, v. pass. (Imp. bangdg.) 
To be made delighted with, to be 
made happy, to be filled with 
enjoyment. (Prov.) 

Xib&ago, V. int. (Imp. mibangia ; 

Bel. ibang6ana, Kel. Imp. iban^ 

gby.) To take enjoyment, to 

take delight in something. (Prov.) 

BAHGO'A, s. A narrow valley, a 

defile. (Prov.) See Hoaxa. 
Banoo'anta'nt, «. [tant, earth.] 

Same as preceding. (Prov.) 
BANOOBANOO, s. The bulk, the 

general mass. Probably connected 

with Banoo, a plait eto. 

B&ngobangiina, v. pass. (Imp. M»- 
gobangbg.) To be placed m one 



geBcnd wBm, to be taken with- 
out ipeoifio examinatiQn, to be 
deeczioed in few words, to be 
taken wholesale. 
Taiiabiiigobinyo, v, tr. (Imp. ma- 
ndbdngobangoa ; Bel. anabdngoban' 

ffMUM, Bel. Imp. anabdngobangdy,) 
To put together in gxonps wiw- 
oat deflnito regard to numbers, 
BA'vooBuro</ixA, V. pats. See Bah- 

Bahoo'xna, r. p€U8. See Bahoo. 
BA'nA'VT, «. An Indian trader, 
pro|>erlT applied only to those who 
retain &e Hindoo beliefs. See Eui- 

BA'VJAVA,*. A plain. Ground with- 
out oover. (Prov.) 
lA'VJIHA. Boot of the follow- 
ing: — 
▼oabi^lina, v, pau. Stared at, 

looked at earnestly. 
BaiglniTia, r. pate. (Imp. bar^tno.) 

To be stared at, to be looked at 

Xibi^jina, .«. tr, (Imp. mihaiyina; 

BeL ihoHJtnana^ Bel. Imp. ihati' 

Jtno,) To stare at, to look mtently 


Ebitba, Jbbxana, and TsBVDBorA 
are all used in the provinces for 
Bajtjzna. See DnriKA, Habtxa, 


BA'VO, «• A small ^inted iron hook 
naed in oatohinf birds. (Prov.) 

BA'VOv «. An herb from which a 
siqperiar kind of straw hat is made. 
See under Ahxtra. 

BA'VOXA, «. A rush used in the 
manuf acture of hats. 

BA'XXY, s. A beetle, the female of 
the Aw oBLT. 

BA1TT, ». A palm. Flanks for 
flooring are made by catting the 
tiees in two horizontally and extract- 
ing the pith. These planks have 
various names which the rVench Dic- 
tionary gives, as : BAirmc-BONoraA, 
Bahtoc-paxotst, Bantin-dimaza, 
BAsrmf-xzNDBO, Baittin-konala, 
BAimif-oyAJAYAVT, Bahtin-tanavt, 


BA'VTT, t. Land very far awav; 
also a word used after playing line 
last domino. 

BA'NTOTBA, «. Same as YAMTonu, 
which see. 

BAO, «. The leaf -stalk of the Bofia 
palm; it is much used for poles 
for carrying burdens, and in the 
manufacture of ladders and palan- 
ouins, hence a palanquin is very 
nequently called %A0, and aU poles 
for carxying burdens are so designa- 
ted. [Comp. Greek baiis^ a palm- 
brandh, derived from the Ck)ptic 

Bao'icba'bt, <. [VABT. rioo.] A le- 
guminous herb found in rice- 
grounds. Same as Bakianoza. 

Bao'n-dra'njo, ». [banjo, the leg.] 
The lower part of the leg from tiie 
knee to tihe foot. (Prov.) 

Bao'k-ta'nana, «. [takana, the hand.] 
The fore-arm. ^^toy,) 

Bao'-ba'njo, adj, [ilamjo, the leg.] 
Having a thm spindle-shaped leg, 
so called from its fancied resem- 
blance to the Bao. 

BAO'KDY, «. The ace in playing-cards. 

BAO'BITBA, 8. Boards used in 
bookbinding; a blackboard. [£ng. 
hoard S\ 

BAO'TT, 9. Boots. [Eng. hoott."] 

BA'BA, «. A tribe of people and 
division of the country in South - 
central Madagascar; also a prefix 
put before certain roots, as Ba&aba- 
BT, Barabboka, etc. [Comp. bar in 
Zanzibar, irhich is Zar\j, and barra^ 
za^j, a negro, Swa., barra^ a tract of 
country .] 

BA'&ABA'aY, 8, A large species of 

BA'&ABANJA, «. A plant. (Betsim.) 

BA'&ABA'BA, adj. Hoarse, having a 

rough voice ; foolish. See Fabdcpbo. 

Mib&rabira, r. int. To be hoarse, 

to speak hoarsely; to be open. 

(Prov.) See Banabana. 

Birab&ra fdo, «. A loud and hoarse 

B&rab&ra saina, adj. Shallow, tri- 
fling, silly, having no brains. 

BAEA'BOKA, «. A rat-trap. (Prov.) 


BAltABO'BT, a^\ Huge, larse ; blpB- 
tering, tarbulent ; simple, mild, 
easily imposed upon. (^*ov.) 
BA'SASAT, adj\ Foolish in speech. 

BA'EAHaA, «. A fish. (Prov.) 
BA'BAHO'BAXA, $. Name of amoim- 
tain near Anorontsanga, oomipted 
from the SalcalaTa Bveakoda. 
BAEAI'NGO. Boot not in use. See 

Abaraingo, v. pau. (Imp. abarain' 
gby,) To be made twisted, to be 
twisted, to be ouryed. 
Baraingdina, 9, past. (Imp. barain- 
ffoff.) To be hooked np by a bent 
Mibaraingo, v. int, (Imp. mibartUn-' 
g6a ; Bel. iharaiftgSana, Bel. Imp. 
iharaing^,) To be crooked, to 
be twisted, to be curved. 
Xanabaraingo, v. tr, (Imp. rnana- 
haraingba ; Bel. anabaraingdana, 
Bel. Imp. anabarainffdg.) To 
make crooked, curved, or oent. 
BA'BAKA. Primitive root of Axba- 


BAEA'KA, «. Honour, fame, respect, 
reputation. It is only used with 
Apasa, and Ala, which see. [Heb. 
herdkahy blessing ; Swa. baraka, bles- 
sing. Babakoa is the mask used by 
Maliommedan women.] 
Yoabarftka, v, pott. Dishonoured, 
disgraced, put to shame. (Prov.) 
BA'BAKAI'KA. Boot of the foUow- 
ing. See HAWAgA, Pariaxa. 
AbirakiUka, 9. pau. (Imp. abdra^ 
kiho,) To be scattered, to be 
dispersed. (Prov.) 
Xibirakalka, v, int, (Imp. mibdra^ 
keha ; Bel. idtiraA^Aana, Bel. Imp. 
ibarakeko^ To be dispersed m 
every direction. (Prov.) 
Xaabarakaika, v, tr, (Imp. mant' 
bdrakeha; Bel. ambdrweehana^ Bel. 
Imp. ambdrakeho,) To scatter, to 
disperse , to p ut to rout. (Prov.) 
BA'BAlTA'HnrY, «. Heedlessness, in- 

Xibiranihy, tr. tfi^ To live without 
care or anxiety, to be without cause 
of disquietude, to live in a free 
and unrestrained manner. (Prov.) 

Xaiiad biraaUiiny. To live heed- 
lessly and carelesalv, to live with- 
out the restraint of the laws. 
Faqjakina biranUdny. A kingdom 
where lawlessness is frequent. See 
BA'EAHT, s, A cross-bar of wood or 

iron. [Eng. bar, or ¥r, barre,^ 
BA'BAHAE'LT, 9, The effg-^ant. 
[Fr. bringellet,] (Betsim.) Sm Bava, 
and BxsANJBLT. 
BA'EAVTSB'BAKA. Same aa Baba- 

KAiKA, which see. 
BA'BABA'KA, «. Flowing profusely, 
vomiting violentiy , gushing, rushing 

Kbirarika, v, int. Imp. and BeL 

not used. To vomit violentiy, to 

gfush forth violentiy, to flow 


BAEA'BAKA, s. The name of a shrub. 

Seavola Kcmigii^ Yahl. (Betsim.) 
BA'BABA'TA, «. A tall grass or i«ed 
found in marshes, edges of ponda, 
rivers, etc. The plwts growing 
in the water and shaken by it 
are used by the Betsiteo in the form 
of vapour baths for malarial fever. 
This is given on the homodpathic 
principle of like curing like, the 
fever causing people to make. The 
Baiubata was formerly used in the 
ceremony of circumcision ; it is yet 
used for various purposes. It is 
said that the Vaziicba often dwell 
near it. Pkragmite* communis, Trin. 
Same as Yolotaba, and ECatbaoxa. 
BA'aABA'TARDBfASA, 8, The name of a 
small herb. Cypirui tp, (Betsim.) 
BA'BABFOKA, «. The bleating of 

Mibirardoka, v. int. To bleat as a 
BABB'NGO. Same as Farahoo, which 

see. Comp. BASAnroo. 
BABE'BA. Boot of the follow- 

Mibarira, v, int. To be unable to fly 
high any longer, as a tired bird ; 
to wear loose and flowing gar- 
ments draggling on the ground ; 
to be loose, as tiie sides of a tent 
not properly stretched. See Bbba- 



♦. Ml/. (Imp. mtter^i / 
Bel. titfrmlfM, Bel. Imp. iharc' 
rwdJ^ To go about freef^r, to be 
■t hberty, to be mtreetrained, as 
the air, birds, sayages, etc. (Ptov.) 
Kbabarira, v. inl. To spread the 
ninga to cover up aojthing, as 
birds do; to strut» as a turkey 
eoA . 
BAXSltA, «. A woman. (PMt.) 
lA'XT, Sift'. Fine, large, brilliant, 
used ol toe eyes. 

Bariaa, «. jmm*. (Imp. ftsrio.) To 
have the eres made brilliant (bj 
drink). (Prov.) 
Ba'bt ▲'mbbo, «. [avdbo, day.] Bum. 


Ba'st ]C4'bo, m{r. [iCASO, eye.] Fine- 
eyed, haying fine fuU eyes. 
BA^JBA'XT, a4f. Large, full, weU- 
made, dear, oonspiouous. 
AMaribiry, v, pats. (Imp. ahdriba' 
Ho.) To be made clear or bright. 
XibiribirT, v. int, (Imp. mibdriba^ 
ria; BJ. UiribaAana, Bel. Imp. 
MrUmio.) To be conspicuous, 
to appear distinotlT, to oe well 
defined; to hold the eyes open, 
as one completely absorbea in 
thon^t. See Habzhabt. 
BABI'KA, «. A cask, a barrel. [Fr. 

Am-b6di4Mrlka. Used of property 
pledged for drink. 
lA'XIXA, «. The name of a disease 
iHiioh suddenly proves fatal to 
fowls, etc. Same as Bxabxka. 
Babi'ica, «. jMMf . See Baby. 
BABTBA, s, A peculiar plait made 
for the edge of a bat or basket, 
MMbbarira. A square loaf of bread. 

Oloaa baarlra Idha. A person who 
has a long and thin visage, n^v.) 
Mtro-barlra. A flat hat. (rrov.) 
XABI'tA, ff. A strong intoxicating 

drink. See Toaka. 
BABz'aAM-PA'BT, 8. [fabt, sugsr-oane.] 

Bom made from sugar-cane. 
BA'BO, 8. The name of a shrub from 
whicJi a kind of fibre is made. JTi' 
kimu Hhaemu, L. (Betsim.) Same 
asYABO. (Betsim.) 

Ba'boba'la, 8. [ala, forest.] The 

name of a shrub. (Bets.) 
BABO'A Same as Babababint. 

Faqjakina barto. A state of 
BA'BT, «. A muflket, a rifle, a fowling- 
piece. See BosT. [Ihitoh, hu, 


Yoabisy, v. pass. Shot. 

Ibu&Aham-bisy. To dhazge a gun. 

B4sy ToafihaBa. A charged gun. 
See Fahaba. 

Mbisibisy, or Kibisibasy, «. A 
Ba'sza'xbia'tt, ff. [axbiatt, a shrub.] 

Apop-gnn or toy made from the 

stem of the Axbiatt. 
Ba'siba'bt, ff. A pop-gun, or a toy 

gun of any kind made for the 

amusement of children. 
Ba'sihabo'koa, ff. [haboboa, a wood.] 

A toy gun made from the wood of 

the HiUBOBOA. 

Ba'soca'tbaxa, ff. [katbaka, maize.] 

A toy gun made from tiie maize 

Ba'sdcb'lt, ff. [zBLT, smsll.] A 

toy gun, or a small fowling- 
Ba'bifolb'ta, ff. A pistol, a revolver. 

[Ft. pUtolet,! 
Ba'szba'bo, ff. [BABO, Water.] A sy- 
BA'sxflB'BA, ff. TsBBA, s shrub.] A toy 

gun made from the stem of the 

Ba'bito'bootba, <uh\ [tobootba, foot.] 

Large-footed, clumsy, awkward in 

the leet. 
Ba'bhta'va, a<(f.rvAVA, mouth.] Noisy, 

lA'BT, ff. A pickaxe, a mattock. 


Bisy kdvika. A curved mattock. 
BASrA «• Prov. for Kibtaba. 
BA'TA. Boot of the following :— 

Yoab&ta, v. pa88. Lifted, raised. 
See Bbta. 

Bataina, r. pass, (Imp. batac.) To 
be lifted, to be raised, to be car- 

Binata. Passive with infix. ' 



: MiMta, or Xaab&ta, v. tr. (Lnp. 
mibatd ; Bel. ibatdnaf Bel. Imp. 
ihatao.) To lift, to raise, to carry. 
Mibitabita, v, tr. To lift fre- 
quently ; to be near the time of 
BATA'lf - BA'SAYA'EAirA, «. The 

batten of a door. [Eng. batUn.'] 
BATA'TAy «. The sweet potato. 

(ProT.) See Yoicamoa. 
BATATTYO, a. The calf of the leg. 

(Prov.) See EiBONrDSAirjo. 
BA'TAYI'A, 8. A variety of banana. 

See under Axohdbo. 
BATX'UA, «. A tobacco 'box. [Er. 

tahatUreA See Tokoobolo. 
BA'TIBT, or BA'TEBT, s. A bat- 
tery, a military fortification ; a stone 
embankment. [Fr. batterie, orEng. 
BATrSA, i. Baptism, the adminis- 
tration of Christian baptism. [Eng. 
baptUm.'] See Tso-dbaito. 
l^ta bausa, v. pau. B(u>tized. 
Atad batisa, v. pa$$, (Imp. ataovif 

bati$a.) To be baptized. 

]Caxia6 batisa, v. tr, (Imp. manaova 

batUa ; Bel. anadvam'battiOf Bel. 

Imp. anaovfjf batisa.) To baptize. 

XambaUia, v. tr. This form Lb 

rarely used. 

BATO', s. A small boat without sails. 

(Prov.) [Er. bateau."] 
BATO'LA, *. A fish. (Prov.) 
BA'TBT, adj. Having large teeth. 
Ba'tsoa.'try, adf. Largish, used chiefly 

of maize and teeth. 
Ba'tbibb', a4f\ [bb, large.] Large, 

as applied to plaits, stitches, etc. 
BATBrTBA, «. and adj. An insect; 
low, coarse, vulgar, immodest. See 
BA'ZABA'ZA. Boot of the following. 
See Baka. Comp. Bahaka. 
Yoabiiabiia, v. pata. Opened, 
spread out, as the legs, diverged. 
Abaiab&ia, v. pau. (Imp. abdzaba- 
zoo.) To be distended, to be made 
to open wide. 
Biiabazaina, v. pass. (Imp. bdza^ 
bazao.) To be made to diverge, 
to be stretched apart, as the legs. 
Kibisabiia, v. int. (Lnp. mibdza' 
basd; BeL ibdtabazdtia, JBel. Imp. 

ibdtabazad.) To distend, to open 
wide, to be spread apart. 
BA'ZAITE'TT, s. A bayonet. [Fr. 

bayonette."] See Bbntfra. 
BE, adj. (Opt. Imp. bidxa.) Mudi, 
many, numerous, large, great, loud. 
See Bbtsaka, Lxhibb. 

This word is extensLvelv used in 
compound words, especially before 
nouns, as Bxvava, Besofota, gieat- 
monthed, large-eared, etc. ; before 
other words for names of tnbes, as 
Bbisilbo, etc. ; and after other 
nouns, as Baibb, great grandfather, 
SzNiBB, a big water-pot, etc. It 
governs the accusative case, as : Asr 
AMXKAT NO BB AZT, There are many 
{pi them) with us. [Mai. besar^ Jav. 
Be adala ny dlona. There are many 

fools among the people. 
Vy lihibd, s. The chi^ people ; the 
first in command; the onief of- 
ficers of the government. Bee 

By bdn' ny liny. The chief people 
from the various districts. 

Manabd, v. tr, (Imp. mamMoMa ; 
Bel. anahidzana, Itial. Imp. oimi- 
bidzo.) To augment, to increase, 
to make large, to maJce many, to 
make great. 

If ankabd, v. tr. (Imp. mankMdta ; 
Bel. ankabidzana^ Bel. Imp. anka^ 
Hdzo.) Only the relative of thia 
form is in use. 

Xahabd, 9, tr. (Imp. mahabidsa; 
Bel. ahabidzatta, Bel. Imp. oAc- 
bidzo.) To make large, to multi- 
ply, to make great ; in speaking 
of the place where one grew up 
the past tense of this verb is used : 
Kt tant nahabb ahy. The place 
where I grew up ; lit. which made 
me to be grown up. 

Eabiny, s. Its size, its quantity, 
its number, its extent. 

Habiaiina, v. pass. (Imp. hahidzo.) 
To be increased, to be augment- 

Habi&iana, s. Greatness, quantity. 

Ankabiasany, adj. The majority, 
the greater number. See Asxa- 



It Huihy, <M(r. One who seeks to 

do good. • 

le krritra, a^. To be oniming. 

Be saiiui, a^j, \ery wise; very 

MAaam-bS. Used in speaking of a 
person's poesesaionB, or in speak- 
ing of illness, as : Azi. xanam-bb, 
May you not haye mnoh. 
Bi^ABA'iiAy «• [iJ>AUL, foolish.] A 

larse bulky tree whose wood is of 

litue Talue, heooe its name. Its 

bark is used by the Sakalara in the 

manufaotnre of mm. (Sak.) 
Bs'AHno'HA, a, [loka, the head.] Name 

of an herb. Offpenu sp, 
Bi^a'sika, 9. [aiusa, ideas.] A disease 

of the brer which proves fatal. 
Bi^nfA, «. [niA, stops.] A dimbing 

plant, ruis tp. (Bete.) 
Bk^boha'ka, «. [dohaza, loud.] A 

mui^et giving a loud report. 
Ba'no'xo, adj. [doko, feathers]. Large 

crested (?), uised of poultry. 
Bb'pa'kana, 8, [vahana, a charge.] A 

musket of the largest kind. 
Bi^fa'hata'ht, adiB, Reokessly, at 

BifFx'i.AWA, 8. [fblana, palm of the 

hand.] A grasp made at the horns 

of cattle in play. 
Ba'Fx'xATA'NAirA, 8, [fbultanana, the 

palm of the hand.] A kind of fan 

Be'fo'xsba, «. [yoztba, the navel.] 

The name of a tree. (Sak.) 
Btt&wf, «. [oa (?) J Sweet potatoes. 

(Prov.) See Batata, voiiamoa. 

[Hind. Ghee (f), butter.] 
Bx'ha'ba, 8, [haba, mother-of-pearl. ] 

A fowling-piece. 
Bb'kabz'ta, 8. Assembling in the 

evening for unlawful purposes. 

Maaa6 bdharlva, v, comp. To assem- 
ble in the evening, generally used 
of oonspiraoies or meetings for 
fomenting dissatisfaction with 
the government. It is a crime. 
Bb'kasi'ba, adj\ Phasiba, angry.] 

Hazd-hearted. (Frov.) 
Bi^ra'toka, 8. [hatoxa, the nape.] 

A spedes of tobacco with long 

stalks ; an inferior kind of rice ; a 

kind of dollar. 

Bb^ho'tbo, adj. [hotbo, a hoof.] Same 

Bb'ka&ao'ka, 8, [kabaoxa, noise.] A 
plant, an infusion of which is used 
as a purgative. 

Bb'ki'bo, adj. [kzbo, the belly.] Big- 
bellied, gluttonous; used also of 
pregnancy; «. The name of a 

Bi'ki'ba, 8. [zzBA, midrib.] A species 
of tobacco with long fibrous leaves. 

Bi'kivx'bo, 8. [ziviBO, ear-rings.] A 
large drum. (Prov.) 

Bb'ko'tbo, 8, [kotbo, hoof.] Soldiers 
discharged on acooimt of long service 
or old age. 

Bi'la'ht, or BfiiA'HT, 8. [last, mas- 
culine.] A tree with an aromatic 
bark, which is used to flavour mm. 

Bb'la'xa, 8. [iiAZA, cross lines.] A 
particular kmd of dollar with many 
lines engraved upon it. 

Bb'laka'ba, 8. [lakaba, ? ] a 
kind of musket. 

Bb'la'mbana, 8. [laxbana, width.] A 
kind of musket. 

Tsihy be limbana. A wide mat; 
all the people except those of 
noble rank. 


width.] Said of calicoes or other 
very wide cloths. See Laxba. 

Bb'lakja'na, 8. [lakjana, a burden.] 
A name given to a heron or kite 
when it happens to cross a person's 
path. This is considered an omen 
of great good or evil. 

Bsfijfj or Bblb'na, «. [lsna, wet.] 
The sweet potato. (Bets, and Sak.) 
Batatas edulis, Choisy. Same as 


(Bets.), Mbzzo (Bets.), and Tsi- 
XANOA (Prov.), etc. 

Bb'lb'lo, 8. [lblo, mucus of the nose.] 
A kind of musket. 

Bb'lb'xbt, 8. fLBXBT, deserted.] The 
small-pox. (Prov.) So called because 
of the deadly character of the 
disease. See Nbkdba, Laviba. 

Be'lo', adj. [lo, rotten.] Ancient 
disasters, carnage ; it has special 
reference to ancient massacres. 

Bb'lo'ha, a<(^'. and«.[L0HA, head.] Used 
of a compact body of men, as abat- 


of aoldien or a band of xob- 
ben. ThenAmaof anherb. O^ptrm 
eUffamtf Vahl. 

MMDMlb bdl6ha. To maioh in a 
oompaot body, as a battalion <rf 

Bb'loka'uka, «. [losaijxa, the knee.] 
The name of an herb. AnAoantfaad. 

Bb'mai'icbo, «. [xazxbo, stinking.lThe 
name of an herb. (Antsih.) Casiia 
odtid^iUalu, L. Same as VoAinacBA.- 
iTAUKA, VoAinncBAirAicBOA, Sabot- 
OOA20 (ProT.), Tbobokahahoatba, 

Bb^xa'nuta, «. TxAVANA, to have.] A 
large biid of prey, a species of 
hawk or faloon. 

Bs'MAimBo'iau, adj. Having a large 
and ill-Iuoking head. 

Bs'xa'uxa, 8, [makixa, a mark.] The 
name of a kind of calioo. 

Bi'xa.'boza'ndst, «. [XABO, many, 
ZANDBT, younger.] A mode of plait- 
ing the hair. (Prov.^ 

Bb'ma'vo, 8, [mavo, brown.] The 
traveller's tree. (Prov.) Mavenala 
madagaaearienaiSy Lt. Same as Ri- 
vncpoTST ^tsim.), Bajulbia (Sak.), 
FoMTST (Betaim.), Axovdbohazo 
(Prov.), and BAViKiXA, which last 


Bb'xa'zava, 8, [XAZAVA, oloar.] A 
clan of Sakalava on the North- 
west coast. 

Bb'io'hibatba, «. [lOHzaATBA, togroond 
as a canoe in shallow water.] A clan 
of Sakalava on the North-west 

Bb'xiambo'ho, 8. [voHO, the back.] A 
mode of plaiting the hair. (Prov.) 

Be'iohi'mpa, «. [hucpa, gone. J Bands 
of fugitive slaves and others going 
about and living by brigandage. 

Bb'ioiut', «. [mBAT, togeuier.] Patoh- 

Be'mo'lotba, «. [xoLOTBA, the lip.] A 
fish. (Prov.) 

Bb'mo'tt, «. [xoTT for MomLA, crush- 
ed.] The name of a kind of calico. 

Bb'xfa'xo, «. [fazo, sweepings.] Cakes 
made of arrowroot, which is the chief 
artiole of diet among some of the 
Sakalava. (Prov.) 

BB^irA'irASA'BT, «4f'. [raxakaxt, God.] 
Watched over l^ providenoe, goatd- 
ed from danger. (Pkov.) SeeBssA- 

Bb'na'itdbo, «. [ahdbo, day.] Bioad 
day. (Prov.) Same as Abtoabsbo. 

Bb'itabx'vo, «. [abivo, a thousand.] 
The chief of a thousand ; the name 
of a apeoiee of locust. 

Bb^vtama'ka, «. [tavaha, a town.] 
Cattle left to strar about in the 
oountry villages without being tend- 
ed; persons remaining unemployed 
in a town, especially u. reluctant to 
leave it for other woric. 

Bb'pa'ko. Sameas Bbkpaxo, whibh see. 

Bb'fo'axa, «. [PQAXA, craoUinff.] The 
name given to a native silk doth, 
so called either from its pattern or 
its crisp feeling to the hand ; beads. 

Bb'bat', 8. [bat, father.] A name 
of the third month in the Malagasy 
year. (Prov.) 

Bb^bao', 8, The name of a bird, a spe- 
cies of hoopoe. (Prov.) Uptipa mar' 
ffifiota, "Pet. SameasTAKADABA. 

Be'rao'na, 8. [baona, a sound.] The 
plumes of certain birds, such as that 
of the cockatoo. 

Bb'ba'vocfo'tst, «• [baviha, a leaf, 
FOTBT, white.] A plant, the leavea 
of which are pounded and ap^Ued 
to sores. Crotalaria 8triata, JDC. 
Same as Abbaokbb (Bets.), and 


Bb'ba'vxva, 8, [baviha, a leaf.] A 
large-leaved species of indigo used 
as a black dye for silk. See under 
AiKA. A fool, a simpleton. (Ptov.) 

Be'hb'oka, «. [bboxa for bbkoxa, 
phlegm.] A bad cold, a hard oough 
with expectoration. (Prov.) 

Bs'BiBx'iiiirA, 8. [bibxhina, winter.] 
The birds that come up into Imerina 
during the winter cmly ; people who 
go to fever districts for tnde during 
the winter ; a kind of porodain. 

Bb'sa'kabat', a4f* [sakabat, suspicion.] 
Over cautious, exceisively scrupa- 
lous, anxious, hesitating, suspioious. 

BB^BAvfLT, 8, [sAViLT, B hinse.] A 
sheep, a name given in iest beoraae 
of its large swinging tail. 



Bafsc/vDEByk'YY, «. [tatt, feminixie.l 
'Die name of an herb. (Prov.) 
Trimmfetta rhomboideay Jaoq. Same 


and TsnxAicoTT, which hut see. 
Bs'so'viHA, «. [sonvA, the ear.] A 
ahmb. fAntaih.) Fammia Bojeri, 
Baker. Same aa Tbohisova, which 

Bb'xavd'axa, «. [tavoSlka, bubbling.] 
A ftli-wihfng phuit naed in the maan- 
factnre of native rum. 

Bb'iax'icpaba'st, «. [tat, donff, paba- 
81, a flea.] Tiie name of a Jdnd of 

Bb'za'x.t, «. [talt, a oord.] A chain 
or belt oompofled of orocoaile'a teeth 
or ailTer links and beads. It was 
worn by oifioialB and others in the 
oeremony of drcumciflion ; also in 
the pioTincea, channs worn by 
eddiers going to war as a preserva- 
tive against mjury. 

Bs'xAMPA'iro, «. [taicpavo, P] a fish. 

Bs'xa'mixb'na, 9, [tant, earth, xena, 
red.] The name of a tribe. 

Bk'tb'paxa, «. [tefaxa, britUe.] A 
pidmirom the leaf -sheaths of which 
Aats are made. It yields a kind of 

Bi^Ts'ui, 8, [tblo, three.] A kind of 
ancient musket. 

Bs'Ts'imA, adj. [tbkda, the throat.] 
Strong-voiced, gluttonous. 

Bs'toha'za, «. [tohaza, loud.] A 
kind of musket. Same as Bbdohaka. 

Bx'Toaroo'A, t. [tonooa, surplus.] The 
act of grasping cattle by the hump 
on the should^ in play. 

Bs'fBiBo'XA, 9. [tot, not, BOSA, leprous, 
or insipid.] One of the largest 
rivers of Madagascar, which empties 
itself into the Mozambique Channel. 

Bs'muB'o, 9. [tot, not, lbo, conquer- 
ed.] A trioe inhabiting the South- 
central parts of the island. 

Bs'm'iam'uLXA, «. [tst, not, xihi- 
xjuTA, inclining.] The leaves of the 
water-lily cal£d tataxo. 
Bi^Tn'iaaA'BAKA, «. [tot, not, xisa- 
bjola, separating.] The name of the 
tribe innabiting part of the east 
ooMtk north and south of Tamatave. 

Bs'va'va, a4j. [VAVA, month.] Loud 
voiced; great> exceeding, dear, 
Hdloka bdviva. A great offence or 

Hardna bdviva, or Harim-biyiTa. 

Great riches, untold wealth. 
Mahabdviva. To cause to speak 

Kanabdv&ya, v, tr. To make large, 
as the mouth of a stream; to 
Bx'va'vt, 9. [VAVT, feminine.] A 

grandmother. (Ftov.) 
Bb^to'ho, ad. [voHO, the back.] Hav- 
ing many followers or dependents. 
Be'voho'xa, adj, [vohoxa, the belly.] 

Bb'vo'tsaza, adj, Fvotraxa, the belly.] 

IVov. for preceding. 
Bb'za'naha'bt, adj. [zanahabt, Gk)d.] 
Watched over by providence, guard- 
ed from danger. [Gomp. Greek eri" 

Be'ZA'NOZA'NO, 9. [ZANO, for ZANA (?).] 

The name of a tribe on the eastern 

boundary of Imerina. 
BB'A, «. The name of a shrub. (Sak.) 
BB'AKA, adv. Same as Biaxa. ^rov. i 
BB'AHA, adv. Same asBiANA. (Prov.) 
BB'BAKA, 9. Bepentance, imploring 

forgiveness, confession. See Babo- 


Mibdbaka, v. int. (Imp. mibebaha ; 
Rel. ibebdhtMa^ Bel. Imp. ibebdho.) 
To repent, to soUcit forgiveness, 
to comess guilt, to be contrite. 

Fibebfthana, «. Repentance, confes- 
sion, condition. 

Bdbabdbaka, «. Fickleness, re- 
BB'BAKA, adj. Shallow, used of a tub, 

a basket, or a pot. (Prov.) See Ta- 


Mibdbaka, v. int. To be flattened, 

to be shallow, to be sunk in ; to 

be dejected about one's self. 


BB'BOBE'BOKA, 9. Incoherency, 

confused expressions. (Prov.) See 

Badabada, Boebikebixa. 

Bdbobeb6hi2ia, v. pa99. (Im^. bhbo* 
bebohy.) To be expressed incohe- 


XibdbobdbokA, v, %fU, (Imp. mihe- 
hobehoha ; Bel. ibibohebohanaf Bel. 
Imp. ibibobehohy.) To speak inco- 
herently, to nUer words not well 
understood. (Pioy.) 
BVDA. Boot of the following. See 

Tana, G^eta, Haeova, Fihitba, Sax- 


Voabdda, v. pan. Seized, grasped, 

Badftaa, v. pats, (Imp. bedao.) To 
be grasped, to be held firmly, to 
be gapped. 

Bindda. Passiye with infix. 

Mibdda, v. int, (Imp. mibedd; Bel. 
ibeddnaf Bel. Imp. ibedao.^ To 
seize, to grasp firmly, to gnp. 

Kamblida, v, int, (Imp. mambedd; 
Bel. ambeddna, Bel. Imp. ambe' 
(ioo.) Same as preoeding. 
BB'BIBE'BT, «. Tattle, loquacity, idle 

talk, chitchat. [Onomatopoetic ; 

comp. Gr. battologien; Heb. bata ; 

Eng. babble,'] 

B^dibeddna, or Bddibeddtina, v.poM. 
(Imp. bedibedeOf or bedibedeao,) To 
be talked to incessantly, to be 
tattled to. 

Mibddibddy, v. int. (Imp. mibedibe- 
de, or mibedibedeaa ; Kel. ibedibe- 
dena, or ibidibedetanaf Bel. Imp. 
ibedibedh, or ibedibedho,) To talk 
much, to tattle, to be loquacious, 
to chatter. 
BE'BIKA, «. Baillery. (Prov.) 
BFHAMBS'HAHA, s, A mode of 

walking by lifting up the feet 


Abdhambdhana, v, pass. (Imp. ahk' 
hambehdno.) Used of we gait of 
one who walks in the manner 
described above. 

Mibdhambdhaaa, v, int. (Imp. mihe* 

hamhehdna; Bel. ibehambehdnana^ 

Bel. Imp. ibehanibehdno,) To walk 

in the manner described above. 

BBHE'Z A, s. Mournful ditties recited 

at funerals among the Sihanaka. 
BEHO'TT, s. Boots. [Eng. boots.l 
BS'KABS'XA. Prov. for Baka, which 

BS'KO. Prov. for Bazko, which see. 

Bekdina, i;. pass, (Imp. beHy,) 
Prov. for Baxsoina, whioh see. 

XibCko, V, ir, (Imp. mUekoa ; Bel. 
ibekdana, Bel. Imp. ibekoy.) Prov. 
for MxBAiKO, whioh see. 
BBXAXA, A^'. FuU-faoed, broad- 
faced, large; s. Name of apartioa- 
lar kind <n doUtfr. 

XibUaka, v, int. (Imp. mibeldha; 

Bel. ibeUhana, BeL bap. ibeUho.) 

To exhibit a full face ; to show 

one's face fully, to eaat a glance 

by opening the eyes. 

BE'BA. Boot of foUowing. See 

Baka, Bkfa. 

Voabftna, v. pass. Lifted, raised, 

removed, carried carefully. 
Benaina, v, pass. (Imp. benao,) To 
be lifted, to be raised, used es- 
pecially of heavy weights. 
Mibdna, v. tr, (Imp. mibend; BeL 
ibendna, Bel. Imp. ibenao,) To 
lift up, to raise, to remove, to 
carry carefully. 
BB'NABE'BA, s, A large wound, a 
spreading ulcer ; to wear the dnea 
in a slovenly manner. 
Benai'na, V, pass. See Bbva. 
BB'HGY, s, A goat. (Piov.) Same 

as OsT, Bazkot. [Hal. kamhinff,^ 
BB'BCK), s. Curvature, tortuosity, 
crookedness. (Prov.) See Baxhoo. 
Abingobdngo, v. pass, (Imp. ahhtgo- 
bengoy,) To be made orooked. 
XiMngOMiigo, 9, iwt. ^mp. iiiiMi- 
gobengba ; Bel. ibengob§ngbaSMy 
Bel. Imp. ibengobengbff.) To be 
crooked, to be tortoooa. (Prov.) 
BB'VITRA, s, A bayonet [Eng. 

bay<met.\ See BAEAmrr. 
BB'NJAMriTA, s. The name off aa 
herb. Impatiens sp, [Gorraptio& of 
the Fr. balsamine.'] 
BB'HOA'BA, s. The dow Mir of 
Mauritius. [Fr.] Same as BunrABA, 
which see. 
BE'KTSY, V. Provincial for VnnST, 

which see. 
BE'O, s, A word used in oalBng 

BB'BAHJEXY, s. The egg-plant. 
[Fr. bringelles.] See Bana, Baban- 


BB'BI'BrBT, t. Kame of a dlaoMe. 


ri «. Braces. [Fr. hre* 
BBTtOtA, «. ExpTesmoiiB qniokly 
uttered bnt not understood, provin- 
cialitieB, foreign idioms; quarrel- 
ling. See BoxBiBOXBixiL. 
BardUnm, v. pass. (Imp. berdhffJ) 
To be spoken to in a strange dia- 
lect, to be perplexed by hearing 

KMroka, V. int. fLnp. fmberoha; 
BeL iberohana, BeL linp. iber6hy.) 
To use words or ioioms not 
understood, to speak a strange 

■ibdrobdroka, v. int. (Imp. mihero- 
ier6ha; Bel. ibhoberohana. Bel. 
Imp. iberober6hy,) To speak oon- 
fnaedlj and indistinctly, to gibb^: ; 
to nse provincialisms not under- 
stood, to speak several languages 
at the same time. 
BSHOBS'BOKA, s. The common 

sowthistle. Sonehus oleraceus^ Linn. 

Same as Ahambobaka. (Bets.) 
Bx'bobs'bokaxbo'a, s. [axboa, a dog.] 

The name of an herb. 


HT, a nun.] The name of a bitter 
n^BO, s, Bass, in mnsio. [Eng. 

BETA. Boot of the following. See 
Baza, Bana, Bbva, AnroA. 
Toabdta, v. pass. liHed up with the 

hands, raised, carried, removed. 
Batalna, v. pass. (Imp. bstao.) To 

be lifted, to be earned. 
Bindta. Passive with infix. 
Kibdta, or mambdta, v. tr. (Imp. 

mibetd; Bel. ibetdnaf Bel. Imp. 

ibetao.) To lift up, to carry. 

«. A kind of dhow. [Swa. 


Prov. for VanvFTT, 

whic h see. 
BVTBO, s. The brains, the intellect, 

the forehead. (Prov.) 
BVTKOKA, «. Inflation of the soft 

protoberant parts, as the throat 

when it is swollen, or the chameleon 

when it pnfls out its body. 

Mibdtroka, v. int. (Imp. mibetrbha ; 
Bel. ii$tr6hmaj Bel. Imp. ibstrd- 

hy.) To be nnifed up, to be 

inflated, to oe swollen; fig. 

shameful, blameworthy, mistaken. 
Xamiky bitroka. To convict of a 

Kifiuiuiky bdtroka. To reveal one 

anoth^s secrets. 
BE'TBABB'TSA, s. Bum distilled 
from the fermented juice of the 
sugar-cane. (Prov.) 
BVTSAXA, adj. Much, many, in 
great quantities, in great numbers. 
Bee Maro, Be. [Mai. besar.'l 
Mahabdtsaka, or Manabdtsaxa, v. 

int. (Imp. mahabetsdha ; Bel. 

ahabetsdhana, Bel. Imp. ahabetsd' 

ho.) To make to mcrease, to 

cause to become many. 
Mankabdtsaka, v. tr. Prov. for 

Habdtsaka, or Habettihana, s. The 

number or quantity. 
Imb^tsaka, adv. Many times. 
BE'ZABE'ZA Same as Bazabaza, and 

Behabeha, which see. 
BE^ZAHY. A form of Be rarely heard, - 

meaning something like Betsaka. 
BI'AKA, adr. Perhaps, possibly. 
(Prov.) See Anoamba. It also 
means : in order that, to the end 
that. (Prov.) See Mba. 
BI'AHA Boot of following. See 


Voabiana, r. pass. Opened. (Prov.) 

See VoHA. 
Binifina, or Bidaina, v. pass. (Imp. 

bindfo.) To be opened. (Prov.) 
Xibiana, r. int. (Imp. mibindfa; 

Bel. ibindfana, Bel. £np. ibinifo.) 

To be open, to be unclosed. 

Mamiana, v. tr. (Imp. mamidna; 

Bel. amidnana, Bel. ^P* amidno.) 

To o pen, to unclose. QProv.) 
BrBAIA:HT, s. A plant used as 
a medicine for dysentery and diar- 
rhcea and sj^tting of blood. 
BrBA'BT, «. The loquat tree and fruit. 

Eriobotrya Japoniea, 
BI'BT, s. An animal, an insect; 
something extraordinary; in some 
provinces it is used in speaking of 
the petty kins', and in others of the 
wives of such. It is also used of 



children in Imerina. Fig. sensual. 

beastly. [Swa. Hby^ my lady, my 


Xamdno biby. To refrain from 
visiting, to keep away, to estrange 
one's sedf. 

Bibiana, a^, HI with worms. 
Bi'biaoicbb', 9, A mythical animal. 

Same as Sonooxbt. 
Bi'bibi'bt, a4^'. Bratal, obstinate. 
Bi'bikb'lt, «. [kblt, little.] An insect 

of any kind. 
BfBiLA'vA, 9. [lava, long.] A 

name for snakes. 
BfBDCiu'BT, 8, [vABT, rioc.] An 

insect found on the growing rice. 

B^BIM-BOXA'sraA, «. [VOXANOA, the 

sweet-potatoj^ A large caterpillar 
found on the Voxaitoa ; the name of 
a kind of cloth which resembles the 
skin of a caterpillar. 
BfBixo'BA, «. txoBA, gentle.] A 
species of small, brown, harmless 
niake. Same as Bibikpbamaha- 


B^binako'ho, 9, rAzoHO, a fowl.] A 

poultry tick. See Haonakoho. 
B^bina'via'vt, «. [aviavt, fig-tree.] 

A caterpillar foimd on the leaves 

of the AviAVT. 
BiBi'ir-ANzi'Bo, adj. [kibo, the belly.] 

Troubled with wozms. See Kan- 


B^binda'nst, a, [landt, silk.] A 


LT, name of one of the iaols.] Same 


BfBiNo'LOKA, «. [oLOKA, a person.] An 

extremely savage person. 
Bi'bio'lona, 8, A made-up figure 
used in a children's g^ame. 
Xanad bibidlona. To play the game 

of Bibiolona. 
Xan&la bibidlona. To remove all 
the make-up of the figure in the 
game of Bibioloka. 


TANDBOZA, a hom.] The name given 

to the unicorn. 
BrDA', 04/ . Bought or sold on trust. 

llanad bidi. To buy on trust. 
BI'DABI'DA, «. Spots, stains, marks, 

tracks. (Fxov.) 

Abidabida, v. pan. (In^. abidabi" 
dao.) To be spilled, to be used as 
a stain. (E^v^) 

Xibidabida, i;. int. (Imp. nUhidabi' 
dd; Bel. ibidabidanOf Bel. Imp. 
ibldabidad.) To be sootted, to be 
stained, to be markeo, as the foot- 
prints of a multitude of people 
on the sand ; to be scattezed, to 
be dispersed. (Prov.) 

Xamidabida, i;. ir. (Imp. mamlda- 
bidd ; Bel. amidabiddna, Bel. Imp. 
amidabidao.) To spot, to stain, to 
mark, to smear. (Prov.) 

]Iana6 toiram-bidaDida. To live 
scattered. (Prov.) 

Hinina mibidabida. A quantity of 
viands. (Prov.) 

86mabida, and Baoida, are also used 
for BiDABiDA. ^rov.) 
BITOHA. Boot of the following :~ 

Mibifona, v. int. (Imp. mib\f&na ; 
Bel. ibifSnana^ Bel. Imp. ibif&nyS 
To turn aside, to run away . (Prov.) 
BFHA. Boot of the following :— 

Xibiha, v. int. To be protoberant, 
to be bulky, to be convex, to 
bulge. (Prov.) See Boivtsima, 


BrKA, 8. Shape, figure, form, make, 

appearaiLce, mien, contour. See 

Endbika, Tsanoaka. 

Bikaina, v. pa88. (Imp. bikao.) To 
be shaped, to be inspected, to be 

Xibika, v. int. (Imp. mibikd ; Bel. 
ibikdn4i^ Bel. Imp. ibikaio.) To 
observe, to inspect, to examine 
minutely, to notice one's appear- 
ance or shape. 

Bikina, ae{j. Well formed, of a 
good figure. 

Blkan' 61ona. The appearance of a 

Blkan-j&yatra. The appearance of a 

Ts&ra Bika. Of a good shape, good 
looking, comely, portly. 
BI'LA, adj. Crooked, crooked-homed. 

Said of cattle whose horns do not 

correspond in position or direction. 

lAmba triatra bila. A piece of 
doth not torn straight. (Prov.) 

Likana bila. A oiooked canoe. 



ttoo Wa. a crooked spoon. 

BrLABIlA, «. lRegolant7^ orook- 

«diiew, tortnooBnefls^ 

BJIfcMlalna, 9.pau. (Jm^MlMlM.) 

To be made or done crookedly ; to 

be polled or dragged about tIo- 

lenuy, as a aimiiial bemg taken 

to exeoation ; to be hapked or 

berwn, asaoaroass, without proper- 

hr diyiding it into joints. (Frov.) 

MiUlAblla, a^. Crooked, tortoous, 

irregular, nneren. 

MikoMlfthila. Same as preceding. 

■amllablla, v. tr, (Lnp. mamtlaH- 

id; Bel. amilabUdna, Bel. Imp. 

maUlabilao.) To make crooked, to 

maltreat, to dislocate the members, 

to tear to pieces ronghly. 

tllA'HT, «. A tree. Same as Be- 

LAHT, wbicsh see. 
SI'LAXA. Same as preceding. 
Bilihina, v. pass. (Imp. ^Idho.) 

Same as Bilasilaxna. 
Xibllaka, adj. Same as Mibilabila. 
Ksobllaka, 04^'. Same as preceding. 
BI1AXA, adj. Missed, failed, wrong 

as to. (Pn>T.) See Diso. 
BHA'KT, s. A block or pulley. 

[ling, block.'] 
BlL&^TBA, s. A blot. [Eng. blot.'] 
BILTSIRA,*. A blister. [1^. blister.] 
BILITIKA Same as BrmcA, which 

BILCK, s. An herb. (Betsim.) Cf^pe- 
ms 4squahs^ Yahl. Same as Zozobo, 
winch see, and Zobozobo (Bets.). 

BniaeailA, «. An introduced tree. 
The blue gum. Acaeia sp. 

WM'f m BOB-. Three letters found 
before certain passive verbs of which 
the nr or ON are infixes, as : Bimbta, 
from BiTA, etc. 

BTVA, s. The name of an insect. 

BrVABrBA, A(f. Swelling, protu- 
berant, tumourous. 
UbiiiaUna, atff. Swollen, puffed 
up, prominent, protuberant. 

BcrA'nvA; r. pass. See Biana. 

BrVeT, s. A drum. (Pn>v.) 

VnWtodJ. Bandy-legged, bow-leg- 
ged, crooked in me Imees or joints. 
llCal. bmgoky crooked.! 
Biafo b« Uia, or mtlan. Exoes- 
■tfely bow-legged. 

Bingo tinans. Crooked at the el- 
Tdmboka bingo. Crooked legs. (Pn>v.) 
BI'BOOBA, s. A bugle. [Eng. bugU.] 
BrHIXA. Prov. for Binabina. 
BrBTSY, s. Prov. for Viwtst, which 
see ; the name of a kind of calico in 
BI'BA, s. A charm; also provincial 

for Zaea. 
BrBT, s. The name of a water-bird. 
(Bara.) Coreihrura insularis, Sharpe. 
Same as FAiroAz.ATBoyT. 
BrBIBraY. Root of the following. 
See KoDZA. 
Ablribiry, r. pass. (Imp. abtribirio.) 

To be rolled, as a ball. (Prov.) 
ICibiribiry, v. int. (Imp. mt^tW^tria ; 
Bel. ibiribirianOf Bel. Imp. ibiri' 
birio.) To roll as a ball. (Prov.) 
Kamiribiry, v. tr. (Imp. mamtribi' 
ria; Bel. amtribirtatuif Bel. Imp. 
amiribirio.) To roll a thing, to 
make to roU. (Prov.)^ 
BXBrKT, s. A brick. rEnflr- brick.] 
Biriky tanim&nga, or Biriky yoadd- 
tra, «. Burnt bricks. 
BrBINA, 8. A water-bird. (Prov.) 
BIBI'OKA, s. Deviation, crookedness. 
See SiA, ViLT. 
Abirloka, v. pass. (Imp. abirioho.) 

To be made crooked. 
Mibirioka, v. int. (Imp. mibirioha; 
Bel. ibiriohana, Bel. Imp. ibirio- 
ho.) To deviate from a straight 
course, to turn aside, to g^ crook- 
edly, as a ball or spear thrown at 
a mark. 
Xitiibirioka, v. int. Same as pre- 
ceding. (Prov.) 
BI'BIBrBniA, s. The name of a 

bird. (Prov.) 
BrBlBI'OKA, s. A whi2, a buzz. See 
BizizioxA, Bdcobdco. 
Abiririoka, r. pass. (Imp. ablririo' 
hif.) To be made to whiz, as a 
ball passing through the air. 
Xibiririoka, v. int. (Imp. tniblri* 
ribha ; Bel. ibtriribhanayUJA. Imp. 
ibiririoho.) To whiz, as a ball or 
arrow flying through the air. 
tremely small. See BrnxA, and 



BI'dA, inter. Same as Bitsa.. 
BrSAXA, «. ProY. for BrmxA. 
irBAHTflAT. SeeBiTBA. 
BISrOKA, or BI'SOKA. Root of fol- 
lowing : — 

Abiiiokft, V. pott. (Imp. abinoho,) 
To be made uneven, to be made 
to deviate from the point or 
strai^t line; evaded, tamed 
aside, distorted, indireot. 
Mibiiioka, ai{j. Devious, uneven, 
irregfular, serpentine, not straight, 
not direct to the point. 
BrSKITBA, «. Bisouit. [Enfir. HtcuiW] 
BriABriA, 04;. Big- bellied. 

XibiUbiU, f. int, (Imp. mibitahiU ; 
Bel. ibitabitdna, Bel. Imp. ibita- 
hitao,) To have a large belly, to 
be swollen 
MibitobiU dla. To go swifUy, but 
with short steps, to waddle as a 
stout person, or as ducks when 
they are pursued. (Prov.) 
BI'TAKA, «. A bound, a jump, a 
spring of the body made in giving 
erpression to joy or exultation ; a 
danoe in warlike orations expres- 
sing defiance. 

Bitahina, v, pau, (Imp. bitdho.) To 
be made to dance or jump for joy. 
Ubitaka, v. int. (Iinp. mibitdha; 
Bel. ibitdhanaf Bel. Imp. ibiidho.) 
To jump or dance for joy, to dance 
and brandish spear and shield, as 
is done at times of public rejoic- 
MibiUbitaka. This form is fre- 
quently used for preceding. 
BITIEA, tuff. Diminutive, extremely 

small, a jot, a morsel, an atom. 
BITI'TIKA. Same as preceding. 
BFTBA, inter. A word used to express 
aversion. (Prov.) 
Bitrata^, Usa, and Bisanta^, are 
also used for the preceding. 
BriBO, or BABI'TBO, «. A rabbit. 

[Eng. rabHt.] 
BrTsiBiTSi'Hiif A, v. pass. See Bitbdla. 
BI'TSIKA. Same as Bitika, Bobitxka, 

BriSIKA, 8. A whisper, a oonver- 
sation oairied on in a low voice; 
a soft mutmuring sound. [Mai. 

Voabitaibitaika, «. ptut. 

Bitiibitslliiiia, v. pass. (Imp. bUsi- 
bitsiho.) Used of that which is 
whispered to any one, or of the 
person whispered to. 

Mfbitiibittika, v. int. and tr. (Imp. 
miHtsibitsiha ; Bel. ibitsiHtsihsma, 
Kd. Imy. ibitsibitsiho.) To whis- 
per, to speak in a low tone, to 
disclose secrets. 

Xambitiibittika, v. tr. (Iinp. mom- 
bitsibitstha; Bel. ambitsibitsihami, 
Bel. Imp. ambitsibitsiho.) Same as 

BXTSI'TSIKA. Same as BmxA, which 


BI'TSOKA. Boot of the foUow- 


Abitsobittoka, v. pass. (Imp. o&t- 
' tsobitsohy.) To be scattered about, 
as embers of fire. (Prov.) 

Mibitioka, v. int. (Imp. mibitsdha ; 
Bel. ibit»6hana^ Bel. Imp. ibi- 
tsohy.) To be scattered about, to 
fly off, as sparks, to fiy back, as a 
spring. (Prov.) 

Xamitsobitsoka, v. tr. (Imp. maiM«- 
tsobitsdha ; Bel. amltsobitsdhanaf 
Bel. Imp. amitsobitsbhy.) To make 
to fly, to scatter about, to hurl, to 
throw, as may be done by the 
thumb and forefinger. (EVov.) 

Bitiokaifo. Sparks of fire. (Prov.) 
See Ktt«alaonafo. 

O'mpaka mibitioka. The sparics 
which fly from red-hot iron when 
it is hammered. (Prov.) 
BI'ZIZrOKA, s. A buzzing sound, a 

whizzing noise. See Bibxbioka, Bi- 


Abiiiiioka, i*. pass. (Imp. ablsi' 
siohy.) To be made to buzz or 

Bisisidhana, v, pass, (Imp. Mmno- 
hy.) To be made to buzz or whiz. 

Xibisitioka, v. int. (Imp. mi(t£i«io- 
ha; Bel. ibiziziohana. Bel. Imp. 
ib%2\z\6hy.\ To buzz, to whiz. 

Xambisiiiojca, v. tr. (Imp. mambi' 
zizioha; Bel. ambinsiSnatM, Bel. 
Imp. ambitisiohy.) To make to 
buzz or give f oxth a whining 
sound. (Prov.) 


BO, «. A kind of thistle-down nwd 
for BtoiBng mattrewes ; tinder ; the 
snlphnrons oompodtLon on the end 
of a match which takes fire. 
Mib^, •. int. To rifle in the air, as 
smoke or dnst. 

BaABOA'VGA, 9, The tomato. (Prov.) 


BOA'DA, or BOA'DABOABA, «. Con- 
foflian of n>eeoh, irregnlaritj, indis- 
tinotDeas, huny of mind, indistinct 
ntteninoes, medley. See Boadaza, 
Bada, Bedt, Bobbixa. 

Boa'daboasa'kima, V, pass. See Boa- 


BOADAXA, «. An herb with a 

large fruit. (Betsim.^ Ipomtsa (1) sp. 

A taberoQS root wnioh is edible. 

BOA'BAXA, «. Irregfalarity of speech, 

a oonfnsed state of mmd, tomnl- 

taonsneas, flnny, flutter. 

Boidahaadihina, v. pass. (Imp. 
hoddaboaddho.) To be made con- 
fnsed in speech, to be made 

Miboftdaboidaka, v. ifU. (Imp. m«- 
boddaboaddha ; Bel. ihoddaboadd^ 
koMo, Bel. Lnn. iboddaboaddho.) 
To be oonfosea, to be flurried, 
to be perturbed, to be hurried, 
to be tumultuous. 
BOA'BIBOA'DIXA, s. Incongruity, 

tnoonsistenoY, contrariety. p^T.) 

Mibomboidlka, v. int. (Imp. mi- 
hoddiboadsha ; Bel. iboddiboadiha- 
na, Bel. Imp. iboddiboadiha.) To 
be inoongraous, to be contradic- 
tory, to oe inconslBtent with, to 
contradict one's self. (Prov.) 
BOAI'ZA, or BOE'ZA The name of t^ 

gnj parrot. (Betsim.) See Bo- 


BO^AXA. Fioyinoialfor Vqaxa, which 

BOA'LABOA'LA, s. Closeness, density, 
imperviousness, as of thickets, trees, 
grass, etc. See Bolobolo, and Lobo- 


XiboUaboila, r. int. To be thick, 
to be dense, to be impervious. 
BOA'LIVA, 8. An insect. (Prov.) 
BO^AVA, s. A sound like that of a 

gnn fl— >i^^iy in the pan. (Ftov.) 

Mibdaaa, p. int. To explode, to give 
an explosive sound, to flash in 
the pan. JProv.) 

In Imenna tms word is used 
for MiBTOTBA, which see. 
BOATA, «<(;'. Short in stature but 

plump. Used of children. 
BOATBAXA, adj. Brownish yellow, 

as soil. 
BO'BA, a4f» Cheap, a good bargain. 
See MoBA. 
Bobaina, v. pass. (Imp. bobao.) To 

be obtained at a cheap rate. 
Xambdba, v. tr. (Imp. mambobd; 
Bel. ambobdnay Bel. Imp. ambo^ 
bad.) To buy at a cheap rate. 
Bo'baba'vo, aty. [BAHO, water.] Ex- 
tremely cheap ; lit. cheap as water. 
BO'BA, iuy. ProY. for Mabo, which 

B6ba dmby. The Tankaiana name 
for the northern end of Mada- 
Tiny bdba toby. A country plen- 
teous in cattle. (Prov.) 
Bo'bavo'la, adj. [vola for volana, 
speech.] Of many words. (Prov.) 
BO^AXA, offf. SwoUen greatly, infla- 
ted to a great degree. See Boboka. 
Mibdbaka, v. int. To be swollen, 
to be inflated, to become gangre- 
nous, as a tumour. 
BO^BAXA, s. A plant, the leaves of 
which are used to make coarse sacks. 
BOBAKT, s. The name of a bird. 
A speoiea of buzzard. (Sak.) Butso 
braehffpterusj Pelz. 
BO'BAHA, s. Calumny, slander, con- 
versation tending to the injury of 
another. (Prov.) See FoaA, £n- 


Bobinina, v. pass. (Imp. bobdno.) 
To be slandeied, to be calumnia- 
ted. (Prov.) 

Mibdbana, v. int. (Imp. mibobdna ; 
Rel. ibobdnana^ Bel. Imp. ibobdna.) 
To backbite, to nlander, to speak 
evil of one in his absence. (Prov.) 

Mamdbana, Prov. for preceding. 
BO'BO, adj. and s. White, chiefly 

anpHed to cattle and sheep; an 



Fdtiy b6bo. A peouliar white. 
BO^BO, 9, The womb. (Pn>T.) 
BO'BOBO'BO, «. A gurgling aoond 
of water, or the cry made bj the 
bird ToLOHO. 

Mibdbobdbo, «. ifU, (Imp. mih6hobO' 

b6a; Bel. iUbobobitma, Bel. Imp. 

iUbobohdy.) To ffnrgle, to make 

a bubbling Bonnd. 

BO'BOXA.A^'. SoaJrad, Ml of water, 

saturated ; satiated, eated. See Bo- 

Bebdhaaa, «. jmm*. (Imp. hohohy,) 

To be filled to exoeae, to oe dienoh- 

ed, to be satiated. 
Bobdhiiia. Prov. for preceding. 
Mibdboka, v, iiU. rimp. mibMha; 

Bel. ibMhana^ Bei. Imp. %bob6hy,) 

To drink to exoees, to imbibe muoh, 

to saturate ; to be satiated, to be 

Xiab^boka, v. int. To bloat, to 

swell out as a corpse. 
Xisabdboka, r. tr. To swell out, 

to enlarge. 
Fiila b^boka. The oonfluenoe of 

waters when the channel is full. 

Hisobdboka. Touchwood, so called, 

perhaps, because it is prepared by 

Boakinff in the rain. 
Ftotabeboka. [fauta, an oath.] A 

false oath. (Irov.) 
B6boka mAndrj. l)regs. (Prov.) 

BOBO'XA, «. The large pot for hold- 
ing water. (Prov.) Me SunBii. 
BaBOiraaLO, «. Mould, mildew, the 
concretion foimd on damp objects 
tending to decay. See Vovoxa. 
BO'BOVOO'LO, «. The name of a wild 

animal which resembles a cat. 

BaDA, or BO^DABaBA, adj. Soft, 
tender; muddy, as boggy ground; 
pappv, as bananas over-ripe. 
VoaDOda, v, pass. Made soft by 

pressure of the fingers. 
Bodaina, v, pass. (Imp. boda6.) To 

be made soft by pressure of the 

Xanabdda, v. tr. (Imp. manabodd; 

Bel. anabodandy Bel. Imp. anabo-- 

dad, or anabodajf,) To make soft. 

BO^BABODA, «. A hawL a cry, snoh 
as is made in anger. (Prov.) 
Xib6dab6da, v. int. (Imp. nUboda- 
bodd ; Bel. ibddabodina, Bel. Imp. 
ibbdaboda6.) To bawl out, to utter 
an angry cry. (Prov.) 
BoDA^NA, V. pass. See BosA. 
BODAVGIBA, offf. Prov. for Bolam- 


BODVIAVA, a^f. Prov. lor Boura. 

BODrAXA,A(f. Prov. for Babzaxa. 

BO'BO, adj. Ixifantile, childish, yonnff, 
simple; in one's dotage. [Hu. 

This wordis frequently given to a 
female infant before it is designated 
by a chosen name, and is aometimea 
retained as a woman's name, or a 
prefix, as the name of the first 
Banavalona, viz. Babodoitaiidbza- 


Xib6do, V. int. (Imp. mibodda ; Bel. 
and Pass, ioodoanaf Bel. Imp. 
ibodSy.) To be childish, to be 
selfish, to whine, to be peevish, 
to be froward, to be churlish ; to 
hold another man's wife. 
]Ianab6do, v. tr. (Imp. manabod6a; 
Bel. ttnabodoanat Bel. Imp. oim- 
bodojf.) To commit adultery by 
keeping another man's wife; to 
make one infantile. 
Ziiab6do, s. A little child. 
BO'BOBO'BOVT, adj. Childish, be- 
having in a childish manner. 
BO'BOBvDO, s. A roaring noise, snoh 
as is made by fiames of fire. (Prov.) 
Gomp. Dbdadxda, RgPAaKnA. 
Xib^dobddo, v. int. To roar, aa 
fiames which are blown by a cur- 
rent of wind, to bum briskly. 

BO'DOFO'TOT, s. A blanket, flannel, 
a coverlet made of wool. [Ar. hurim 
abiadi?), a blanket.] 
BOE'BIXA, s. Words or expreesiona 
not understood, provincialisms, jar- 
gon, gibberish, confused sounds. 
The reduplicate ^ebikxrixa) is 
used for the same, see Bada, Boada. 
Bodriboerihi&a, v. pass. (Imp. M- 
riboerehc.) To be spoken to in a 
provincial dialect, to be spoken to 
m words not ondaiatood, as of 


len imperfeoily aoqnamted 
with the lanflTiage. 
Kboteika, or &iboteiUrika. (Idid. 
miboereka ; Bel. iboerihana^ Rd. 
Imp. ibotrthc) To use words or 
ezpreasioiiB not well nnderBtood, 
to nae proyindalianifl, to speak as 
foreigners imperfectly acquainted 
with the lanffoage. 
BOTOVA, tidj. Chubby, phmip, stur- 
dy. Sometimes it is used as an 
appellatiye expressing fondness and 
familiarity, a child being addressed 
as Ibofova, or Rabofona. 
BO'FOVA. Prov. for Etotba. 

Bel. ihofinmta^ Bel. Imp. ib^ony,) 
Proy. for MAKOBixmu.. 
BOTTATA, 04^*. Fastened at one end 
and loose at the other, as a mop, a 
brush, a tassel ; to be plaited at one 
end bnt loose at the other, as braids 
of hair. 

BohAiliia, V, past, (Imp. boh4fy.) To 
be plaited, as the hair in the man- 
ner called Bohasa ; to be dishevel- 
led, as the hair in monrning. 
Bohihina. Prov. for preceding. 
Mibdhaka, v. int. (Imp. mibohdfa ; 
Bel. ibohifanaj Bel. Imp. ihohify,) 
To wear the hair in plaits in 
the manner of the Bohasa; to 
be dishevelled, as the hair in 
mourning. Same as MTHAKAitATA 
■ib6ha-b^lo. To be dishevelled, 
as the hair. JProv.) 
KKHAXA, adj. Cheap, easy, soft. 
BehAflna, v, pan, (mp. hohdfy,) To 

be easily obtained. 
■ibdhaka, v, int, (Imp. mibohdfa; 
Bel. ibohdfana, Bel. Lnp. ibohdfy.) 
To be cheap, to be easily obtained. 
BOnST. Used only in the follow- 

BoMhy, V. ir. To carry on the 
sho ulder. (Prov.) 
Bvnz, «. An inflated and puffed up 

aspect, as that of a turkey cock ; 

obstinacy, a swaggering appearance. 

Mib6hy, r. int. (Imp. mibokiza ; Bel. 
and Pass, ihohlzamiy Bel. Imp. 
ihohieo,) To be stubborn, obsti- 
nate^ or unyielding; toswelli to 

swagger; to assume an air of 
importance, to give one*s self airs. 
BOHI'A, adj. Choked. (Prov.) 

Mahabolua, v. tr. To cause to choke 
while in the act of swallowing. 
BamBO'HT, a, Bedup. of Boet. 

Assumption, self-importance, con- 
ceit, arrogance. 

Xib^hibd&y, v, int, (Imp. mibohibo' 
hiza ; Bel. iUthihohlMona^ Bel. Imp. 
xb^hihohUo^ To swagger, to piSff 
up, to assume airs of importance, 
to be inflamed with vanity; to 
swell, as with wind in the stom- 
BOHrET, aij. Obstinate, perverse, 

frowaid, self-willed, contumacious. 

BoBiKA, and Bohiko, also used. 

Xlbohlhy, V, int. To be obstinate, 
intractable, or perverse. *» 
BO HI'Ki f. See the preceding. 
BO'HITBA. Boot of the following. 


Abdhitra, v. pass, (Imp. abohlro,) 
Used of that which is nuide convex. 

Bohlrina, or Bohlna, v. pau. (Imp. 
bohiro.) To be raised or placed 
in a convex manner, to be made 

Kibdhitra, v. int. (Imp. mibohira; 
Bel. ibohtrana, Bel. Imp. ibohlro.) 
To be convex, to be protuberant. 

Mit8imb6hitra. Also used for pre- 
BO'HO. Prov. for Voho. 

Boh6ina,f7.jMM«. (Imp. boh&yjj).) To 
be carried on the back. (Prov.) 

Ub^ho, V. int. To be on some one's 
back. (Prov.) 
Bo'iboi'hina, v. pass. See Boiboixa. 
BO'IBO'IKA, s. The bubbling or gur- 

^ing, as water in a spring. 

Mibdibdika, f . int. Imp. and Bel. 

not used. To bubble up, as water 

in a spring, to emit bubbles, to 


BO'IBO'IKA, $. A foul protuberant 


Bdiboihina, r. pass, (Imp. bdiboiho.) 
To be diseafled with the ulcer 

Xibdibdika, v. int. To suppurate, 
as an nicer. 


BIKniA, tt^, £Ai7> unoonoenied, not 

careful, not solioitons, squandering 

in one*B habita. 

B6im-b61a. Free in spending monej. 

B^im-panAnana. Generous in part- 
ing with one's property. 

Bdln-aina. One who is oazeLesB or 
raah in his habits. 

B6in-kardna. Free with one's wealth. 

Bdaj b6in<4iiaka, An indifferent 
BO'KA, «. A leper, leprosy. [Ar. 

bahak (/).] 

H&bokina, «. Iteprosy, 
BO'XA, at(f\ Scabby, as applied to 

sheep and the bark of trees, etc. 
B0'KA,a4^'. Ezhausted, spent, spoiled, 

worn oat, tasteless, insipid, unsa- 
voury ; proved to be false ; to have 

lost one*B title, position, or honour. 


Bokaina, v. pass, (Imp. bokao,) To 
be spoiled, to be diluted, to be 
unnaturalized ; to be convicted of 
falsehood or imposture ; to be 
deprived of one*s title, position, 
honour, or rights. (Prov.) In 
Imerina it means to be spoken 
scornfully of. 

Vaaabdka, v. tr. (Imp. manabokd ; 
Bel. anabokdnaf Bel. Imp. anabo- 
kao,) To alter the natiue of, to 
destroy the savour, to take away 
the virtue or quality of a thing ; 
to prove one guilty of falsehood 
or imposture; to dethrone; to 
take away one*s title, etc. 
rProv.) In Imerina it means to 
oetraot, to speak sneeringly of 
persons or things. 

Bokab^ka, adj\ Insipid. (Prov.) 

H&nina b^ka. Insipid food. (Prov.) 

XpanJ&ka b6ka. A dethroned king. 

bI&o b6ka. Brackish, hard, or 
insipid water. 

Ziyatea b6ka. Something unreal, 
counterfeit, or a mere imitation. 

Bdtsibdka, s. A river which empties 
itself in the sea on the north- 
Bo'xaxb'na, s. [hena, red.] The 

name of a bird. A species of bulbul. 

(Bara.) Ti/las JEduardij Harti. Same 

as Ahdbvokoboya. 

Bo'kahxaza'eo, «. [kaxazo, a tree.] 

An herb used as a remedy for dia- 

orders of the stomach in children. 

Hydrwotyle sp, (Antaih.) 
Bo'kjjsa'va, or Bo'zaza'vo, s, A bird. 

A species of bulbul. (Prov.) TyUu 

albigulariSf iwr. Schleg. 
BO'XABO'KA, s. The small knots in 

thread or yam badly spun. 
BOKA'KA, s. Tinder made of tlie 

fibres of the banana. (Prov.) 
BOXA'LA, s. Sweet potatoea. (Prov.) 

See Bataza, Voxahoa. 
BO'KAirA, s, Prov. for Bokotba, 

which see. 
Bo'kaicfb'la, «. [fsla for vblaita, an 

ornament.] A tin ornament worn on 

the forehead. (Prov.) See Fb- 


BO'KABA, «. The green fruit or aeeds 
of certain plants; unripe beans. 
Bdkan' amb&try. The seeds of the 

AXBATBT. ^Prov.) 

BOKA'HA, «. A speciea of silkwonn 

which feeds on a bush caUed Voa- 

EOY. (Prov.) 

Large, used of the wick of a 

BOXE'TBA, «. A provincial name for 

a frog. 
BO'KT, «. A book. [Eng. hook,^ 
BOKI'VT, «. Madagascar. (P^v.) 

rSwa. bukini.'] 
BdKI'BA or BO'UO, f. The box 

shrub. [Eng. box,"] 
BOKI'TBA. llsed in the foUow- 

ing: — 

]IU>okitra, v. int. (Bel. ihokirtma,) 
To suppress one's laughter. 
BO'KO, s. The abdomen. (Prov.) See 


B6k61oiia. A rake, a good-for- 
nothing, a libertine. (ra>v.) 
Bo'kolo'ha, a4f. [loha, the head.] 

Big-headed, applied to owls, or to 

men in jest. 
Bo'koxbo'la, s. a species of lemur, 

brown and grey in colour. (Prov.) 

Hapalemur griaeus. Geoff. 
Bo'kont, 8, [nt, suffix pronoun.] The 

heart of a cabbage. 
I Bo'xoht, t. The giznrd. (Ptov.) 



Bo'xoB^'vo, «. rmAVOf water.] A mode 
of diTidmg tne hair into two parts, 
ooe hanging on the forehead and 
the other at the back of the head. 

Bo'kovo^zo, «. [voLO, the hair.] A 

kn ob of hair. (Prov.) 
BCKXOTSA, «. A button. [Eng. 


XaniU bdkotra. To nnbutton. 

BUntra miUnj, «. Sweets, sngar- 
BOXOTOILO. Fnr. for Vokovoxo. 
BOXABOUL Same as Vou^tou.. 
BOLA'LY,^. A dip, a stumble. See 

AboUlj, V. ptus, (Imp. a^AMto.) 

To be made to slip or stumble. 
KboUly, V, ini, (Imp. mibolaHa; 

BeL ihoUluma, Bel. Imp. «&>&i^.) 

To slip, to stumble. 
BOXAJIA, s. Speech, oonTersation. 
^BroT.) See Volaita. 
mMlaiift, V. in<. To speak, to 

cofnTerse. (PtoT.) 
■ibdlaaa iUUana. To listen to vain 

rumours, to act upon flying re- 
ports. (Prov.) 
BOLA'VOnrA, adj. Flump, chubby, 
tat, sleek, well-oonditioned. Used 
mostly of children. See DoNOAnoiroA. 
■tboUagiiia, r. int. To be nude, 

t o be n aked. (Proy.) 
BQLA'SnXA, «. A slip, a stumble, a 
slide. See Bolalt. 
BalnriTJna, «. pa$s. (Imp. doi^lro.) 

To be made dippery, to be slidden 

KMUsitra, v, inL (Imp. miboht' 

sira; BeL ihoUuirana, Kel. Imp. 

iiolMlro.) To slip, to slide, to 

Xiholisidititra, v. i»<. and adj. To 

slip about, to be somewhat slip- 
pery, as a path. 
Short, dwarfish. 
UholdtaldU, V. int. To be dwarfish, 

to walk in a dwarfish manner ; to 

waddle, as ducks. 
BOLS'TAZA, tu^'. Same as preceding. 
BOLI'AKA, or BOLrABriXA, adj. 
Open, fine, large, beautiful. Applied 

XiboUaka, adj. To be full, to be 
fine, to be wide open. Used of 
the eyes. 
BO'LIBO'LY, a^'. Young and tender. 

Used of tobacco leaves cut while 

young. (Prov.) 
BOirBY, or BOLrDIUDY, s. Con- 

oealment, concealing one*s self so 

as to avoid paying a debt, skulking 


XiboUdiUdy, i;. int. (Imp. miboH- 

dilidia; Bel. ibolldilidfana, BeL 

Im^. ibolldilidio.) To soiUk, to 

avoid public observation. 

BOLI'LA, ». An evasion, a stumble, 

a slip. 

AboUla, V. pats. (Imp. aboHlao,) 
To be made to shp, stumble, or 
turn aside so as to evade some 

Xibollla, V. int. (Imp. miboliU ; 
Bel. iboHldna, Bel. Imp. ibolilao.) 
To slip out of the way, to evade, 
to avoid meeting any one, to 
BO'LOTA, ». A ball. [Eng. ball.] 

Comp. Bala. 
BOU'SATBA. Same as Bolasit&a, 

which see. 
BOU'TIKA, adj. SmaU, minute, 

extremely little. See Bilitika, 

BiBiTixA, BoBrnzA, Ejtixa. 

Manabolltika, v. tr. To make 
small or minute. (Prov.) 
BaiOBOXO, t. A thicket, a dense 

vegetable growth of any kind, close- 
ness, ranlmess. (Prov.) See Boa- 


XlbdlobMo, V. int. To be thick, 
close, dense, rank, exuberant. 
(Prov.) In Imerina it refers to the 
hair badly dressed. 

Kanabdlobolo, v. tr. (Imp. nutna- 
bblohoUa ; Bel. anMhhoUana^ Bel. 
Imp. anabdloboldy.) To induce a 
luxuriant growth, as is done by 
cidtivating the ground or by 
irrigation. (Prov.) 
BOLO'BY. Prov. for Bolidt; also 

a sl ugg ard, an idler ; potatoes. 
BOLO'&x , 9. A parrot ; the generic 

name for the two species, Co- 

racoptis nigra, L., and C. vaea, 



BOLO'KT, «. Stocks, instrumentfl of 
punishment, irons worn by oriminals. 

BvLOHA, adj. Maimed, lame. (Prov.) 
Same as Folona. 

BO'MBA. Boot of the following : — 
MamMmba, v. tr. To cover, as a 
hen covers her chickens. See Ma- 


BO'MBA, 8, A shell, a bomb. [Eng. 

BO'HA. Pzov. for Boza, and Bokaxa. 
BOHABO'llA, «. Inflation, turges- 
oence, bnlkiness aiisinK from disease. 
]Cib6nab^na, v, int. Imp. and Bel. 
not used. To swell, to grow 
large and bulky, to puff out, to 
in&te, to appear plump. 
BO'VABOHA, «. A boast, a brag. 
(Prov.) See Hakbo. 
Kibdnabdna, v, int, rimp. mihhna' 
bond ; Bel. ibonabonana, Bel. Imp. 
ibonabofMo.) To boast, to brag, 
BONAI'KA, 04/. HUd, gentle, quiet, 
naoiflc, easy, bland, affable, 
mibonaika, r. int. (Lnm. miboniha; 
Bel. ibonihanay Bel. Iinp. ibonehoj) 
To act mildly, to be gentle, to be 
Fibondhana, or Habondhana, s. 
Grentleness, quietude of manner. 
BO'Hj^UBuI, 8. Inflation, turgesoence, 

Mibdnaka, v, int. Imp. and Bel. 

not used. To be inflated, to be 

blown out, as a bladder, or dough. 

Mitab6naka, r. int. Used for the 


BO'KAKA, 8. A twining herb. (An- 

tsih.) Cu8euta chinensis^ Lam. Same 


BOHA'XA, adj. To be large, round, 
and full, as the moon, or large, full 
eyes. Q^v.) See Baliaea. 

BOKA'NAXA, adj. Flump, fat. See 


Miboninaka, adj. Same as prece- 
BOVA'BA, «. A tree which supplies 
a remedy for syphilitic tumours. 
Albizzia Lebbek, Btn. The Sakalava 
use the bark in tattooing, and the 
scent of the flower is said to produce 
malarial fever. [Fr. boia noir.] 

BOHBOTOKA, adj. Not pointed, not 

sharp. (Prov.} See Doicbo. 
BONE'XA. Prov. for Bonaika. 
Mit&bondka, v. int. To be tranquil, 
to rest easy. 
Bone'eantsiko'tbont, 8. A species 
of black parrot. (Betsim.) Coracopsis 
nigra^ L. 
BO'VGA, «« A clod, a lixmp of earth ; 
a hill, an eminence. [Polyn. nia- 
Xibdngab^nga, v. int. To be full 

of clods. 
B6ngab6nga, o^r*. Cloddy. 
Be bdnga, adj. Cloddy, rough, 


Mitdty b6nga, i;. int. To walk 

across a newly dug rice-fleld, 

stepping from clod to dod. 

BOVGS', 8. The larva of certain 

species of beetle, as of the Voah oobt, 


BaHGIBA, «. Nudity. (Prov.) 
BoxLginina, v. pa88. (Ii^> b<m4f\no.) 

To be made naked. (Prov.) 
Xib6ngina, t^. int. To be naked. 
BO'VOO, 8. A shrub used for dyeing 
silk black, or put in the water in 
which silk is washed in order to 
give it a firmer texture. It is also 
used as a reme<^ for syphilis. J9u>- 
nychia Bojeriy iNaud. ; ^so a species 
Bo'noola'hy, 8. [laht, mascuHne.] 

A tree. Chry8opia 8p. 
Bo'noona'la, 8. [ala, a forest.] A 

tree or shrub. 
Bo'noonxa'bavo'la, 8. [habavola, a 

grass.] A tree or shrub. 
Bo'noono'icbt, 8. [oxBT, an ox.] A 

tree or shrub. 
Bo'noonta'ny, 8. [tant, earth.] A 

tree or shrub. 
BO'VGO, 8. A nest or bed in a hole, ^ 
such as is made by rats, mice, 
tenrecs, or wild boars. 
Bong6ina, v. pa88. (Imp. bongoy.) 
To be put snugly to rest, as rats, 
etc., in their nest. (Prov.) 
Mib6&go, v. int. (Imp. mibongoa ; 
Bel. ibongoana^ Bel. Imp. ibongby.) 
To nestle one's self, to sit or lie 
snugly, as rats, etc. (Prov.) 


Itego rftTfta-timponj. A nest de- 

stzored bj its owner, usedfigura- 

tiyelj for oapridoiiBnefls. 

liniOO, «. A hill, on eminence, a 

monntain; a mass of anything of 

the same nature. (Proy.) Notice 

that only the last two words are in 

use in Imerina. See Bokoa. 

ItefobongMiLa, v. pa9$. (Imp. dofi- 

g^9ngoff.\ To be put in a mass, 

to be oouected together. (Prov.) 

■amftngob^igo, v. tr. (Imp. ma- 

momgobengoa ; Bel. am^obonffo* 

«fMi, Bel. Imp. amingohtmgdy.) To 

ooDiect togetner, to pat in a heap 

or mass. (Prov.) 

Bingo miao. Swollen eyes, heaTj 

alxnit the eyes. 
Triao bdngo, «. A booth, a log 
or mnd house, a hnt, a cabin. 
Bo'iraoMBA'TO, 8, [VATO, a stone.] 

Stony land. (Prov.) 
Bo'sooMBo'io, «. [tolo, hair.] A toft 

or knob of hair. (Pror.) 
Bo'voona'ul, 8. [aiLl, a forest.] A 

wooded hill. (Prov.) 
Bo'soondha'ha, «. [baha, a thing.] 

A mass of anything. (Prov.) 
Bo'vooko'lona, ff. [OLONA, a person.] 

A mass of people. (Prov.) 
Bo'soorta'ztt, 8. [TAifT, earth.] A 

mofo nd. (Prov.) 
BOVTA (1), 8. Bands or bandies. A 
termaJsed by soldiers. The name 
of a mythical hero of the Folk- 
lore. ^^ 
BCnnBCnrr , «. PnfSness, unnatural 
aweUings, protuberances; measles. 

KMnibtoy, v. inU To swell, to 
rise in protuberances. 
BO'JIJUlA (1), 8. A quiet, good-tem- 
pered child. 

KMnika, v, int. To be quiet, to 
be still, to be nuld, to be easily 
ma n aged, as a child. 
BOinBOinKA, oeO*. Soft like a pillow 
or cushion. (Prov.) See Lesct. 
Kabtaika, or Kab6nib6nika, adj, 
TeDdeTf mellow ; soft as a pillow. 
BOirOBO'VO, 8. Pimples, cutaneous 
eruptions, such as cover the skin in 

Mib6nobdno, v. int. To lise in 
small pimples, to be ill with the 
BCnfOXA, 8. A covering, as a cloth 

or blanket. See Bonoo. 

Bondhina, v. pa88. (Imp. b<m6hy.) 
To be completely covered over 
with a blanket or any covering. 

]tib6noka, v. int. (Imp. mibondha; 
Bel. ibwidhanay Bel. Lnp. ihonchy.) 
To be snugly covered up in a 
blanket or covering, to be com- 
pletely enveloped, to nestle or lie 

Xambonoka, v. tr. (Imp. mamhO' 
noha; Bel. ambonbhana, Bel. Imp. 
ambtmohy.) To cover up snugly. 
BOVO'KA, adj. Prov. for Bonbxa. 
BOVaXAff. A kite. (Prov.) Same 

as Papanoo, which see. 
BO'NONaXA, adj. Gentle, quiet. 

Mibdnondka, v. int. To be gentle 
in gait, to be quiet in one's steps. 
BO'KTASA, adj. Prov. for Boboxa. 

Bontihina, v. pa88. (Imp. bimtdho.) 

Prov. for BOBOHANA. 

Bindntaka. Passive with infix. 
ICibdntaka, r. int. (Imp. mibontdha ; 
Bel. ibontdhana, Bel. Imp. ibon- 
tdho.) Prov. for Miboboka. 

BO'HTAHA, 8. A mode of dressinflr 

the hair so that one large tress flhau 

fall on each side of the head. 

Tiy mahayftly b6ntana. Not to be 

able to reward one as has been 

done to him. 

Bo'ntana an-xa'toka, 8. [hatoxa, 
the nape.] A mode of dressing the 
hair in one large knob hanging at 
the back of the head. 

BO'HTAHA. Used only in the follow- 
ing^: — 

]Cn>6ntana, r. int. To swell up, as 
the result of a blow, or boil, etc. 

BOHTA'HA, 8. A fish which swells 
up when out of the water, of which 
a poison called Baiboboxa is made. 

BO'HTO, adj. Ignorant of that which 
is useful and beneficial. Said of 
one who ignores the value of amu- 
lets and charms. (Prov.) 

BO'HTO, 8. The crest of poultry and 
other birds (P). 



BOVWIA^,adJ. Qunusy, luapy, large, 
awkward, stubborn, or inelegant. 
O'lona bont6lont6lo. One badly 
formed, large, ooarse, atubbom, 
or inelegant. 
Limba boiit61ont61o. Piecee of ooarae 
BONTO'NA, a, A species of baobab 
tree. Adamonia maduffascarietmif B. 
The wood soaked in the water is 
given to cattle to drink to fatten 
them for the market, the fat, how- 
ever, being of an unnatural charac- 
ter. Same as Za and Mboio (Sak.). 
BO'NTSIHA. Boot of the following. 
See BoBAXA, Bokaza, Boet, Vonto. 
Voabdntiina, v. pau. Swollen, 

inflated, bulged; cheated. 
Abbntsixia, v. past. (Imp. abontsino.) 
Used with the same meaning as 
the following : — 
Bontiinina, v. pau. ^Imp. bontsino,) 
To be made to swell, to be made 
to bulge oat or protrude; to be 
deceived hj charges made against 
some one. 
Mibd&tsiiia, v, int. (Imp. n^ibon' 
tsina ; Bel. ibontslnana, Bel. Imp. 
ibontsino.) To swell out, as a 
bladder, to bulge, to be protu- 
berant, to swell from the e^cts of 
a blister, to be large in the ab- 
domen, to be convex. 
Xanabdntsina, v. tr, (Imp. mana- 
bontsina ; Bel. anabontsiftanay Bel. 
Imp. anabontstno.) To make to 
swell, to make to be convex, as a 
tin vessel, etc. ; to lead others to 
believe false accusations. 
Bdntsibdntiina, a. Blotches, tu- 
mours, pimples. 
BiyiBLABOlSLA, adj. Slack, loosely tied ; 
inert, not firm, flabby. See Beba- 


Bdraboraina (T), v. paaa. (Imp. ^- 
raborao.) To be tied loosely, to 
be worn loosely. 

Xibdrab^ra, r. int. (Imp. mibora^ 
bord; Bel. iborabordna, Bel. Imp. 
ibdraborao.) To be inert, to be 
lax, to be loose, to be tied in a 
loose manner, as a bundle of fag- 
ots, to be flabby, to wear one's 
garments loosely. 

BO'BABO'&A. Boot of the fdlow- 


Aborabdra, v, paaa. (Imp. abdrabo' 
rod.) To be spilled, as rice from 
a hole in a sacx, or as water from 
a pot which is too full. (Prov.) 

XibSrabdra, v. int. (hap. mibdrabo' 
rd; Bel. ibdraborana, Bel. Imp. 
iboraborao.) To be spilled, to over- 
flow; to leak, as a ahip. (Prov.) 

]Camdrab6ra, v. tr. (Imp. mambra' 
bord; Bel. amdrabordna, Bel. Imp. 
ambri^orad.) To spill in abun- 
dance, to waste lavishly, as a 
person who permits rioe to run 
from a hole m a sack, to make 
to overflow. 
BOBA'DAKA, a^f. Same aa Boxbika, 

which see. 
BOBA'HASA'KA, «. A oloUi of which 

the warp is Baofza flbre and the 

weft cotton. 
Bo&a'eina, v. paaa. See Bobaka. 
BOBAI'KT, a, Prov. for Bobut, 

which see. 
BO'BAKA, a. A oompoaite herb, which 

is used for diseases of the bowels. 
BO'BASA, a^;'. Loose, unbound, un- 
tied, relaxed. See Vobaza. 

Voabdraka, v. pass. Loosened, untied, 
opened; revealed, as thoughts; 
made lax. 

Borihina, v. paaa. (Imp. borahy.) 
To be loosened, to be untied, to 
be opened; to be revealed, as 
thoughts ; to be made lax, as dis- 

Bonoraka. Passive with inflz. 

Xibdraka, v. int. (Iznp. mibordhm; 
Bel. ibordhanaf Bel. Imp. ibordh^.) 
To be loose, to come xmtied, to be 
xmbound, to speak all one's mind, 
to be loose in discipline. 

Mambdraka, r. tr. (Imp. mambora^ 
ha; Bel. ambordhana, Bel. Imp. 
ambordhj/.) To loosen, to untie, to 
unfasten, to unbind, to speak out 
one's thoughts, to relax discipline. 
BO'RAKA, a. An egress in a mass. 


•][ib6raka, v. int. (Iinp. mibordha ; 
Bel. ibordhanay Bel. tmp. ibordhy.) 
To come forth in a mass, as people 
from a building, etc. (Prov.) 

BonAKiTRAson r. 


BOKA'XmA, «. A braaket. [Eng. 

BOHAXSITA, adj. Ruddy, lued oon- 
temptnooalj of the face. 

fall of water in abundance, as poured 
from a pail or barrel. See Babaza, 


▼oftboriraka, v. jmim. Poured out 
or on Tiolentlj, spilled in great 

Aberizmka, v, pass, {Imp, aborard' 
ko.) Used of that which is poured 
out or spilled. 

BorarihanA, t, pats, (Imp.* borard' 
ko.) To be spilled upon, to be 
poured out upon. 

Mibor&raka, r. int. (Bel. iborard' 
hana.) To gush forth, to flow 
down in a mass, to be spilled iu 
abundance, to fall in great quan- 
tity, as water. 

Kanaborftraka, v. tr. (Imp. mafui' 
borardka; Bel. anahorardhanaj Bel. 
Imp. anaborardho.) To make to 
guah out, or fall m great quan- 
BOUATAKA, adj. Flump, chubby, 

corpulent. See Botbabotba, Don- 


Kboritaka, adj. To be large and 
corpulent, to be extrem^ fat. 
Said of persons. 
BOBTBA, «. A taU herb, said by the 

natiTes to have been recently intro- 
duced into Madagascar. An infusion 

of the leaves used as a lotion is said 

to dear the head of lice. Nieandra 

pk^faloidet, Gtertn. 
BOIUPDnCAt adj\ Same as Boebiza, 

which see. 
BOUnU, or BOBE'EABE'BA, a^/. 

Weak, feeble, infirm, loose, slack; 

cowardly, faint-hearted. See Bbba, 

Boreraina, r. pata. (Imp. borera6.) 
To be weakened, to be enfeebled, 
to be loosened, to be worn loosely, 
to be done feebly. 

■ibordza, v. int. rimp. mihorerd; 
Bel. iborerdna, Bel. Imp. iborera6.) 
To be weak, to be feeble, to be 
loose, tobedaok; tobeoowudly; 
to be untidy, to be slovenly in 

one's dress ; to be on the point of 
settling on the ground, as a bird. 
BOBE'BASA, at^'. Loose, untidy, 
weak, feeble. (Ftov.) See BaaA, 


Abordraka, v. pasi. (Imp. ai&rerdko.) 
Used of that which is made loose, 
weak, feeble, or untidy. 
Borerihina, v. past. (Imp. borsrdho,) 

To be made loose or untidy. 
Mibordkaka, v. int. (Imp. miborerd' 
ha; Bel. ibwerdhana. Bel. Imp. 
iborerdho.) To be loose, to be 
untidy. (Prov.) 
Xaiiabordraka, v. tr. (Imp. mana' 
borerdha ; Bel. anabitrerdhanay Bel. 
Imp. anaborerdho.) To make to 
be loose or untidy. (Prov.) 
BOBE'SA, adj. Short but plump. 
BOBE'SY, «. Braces, marks of paren- 
thesis. [Eng. brace8.'\ 
BOBE'TAXA, adj. Soft, watery, spon- 
gy. Used of mud, day, or dough. 
Abordtaka, r. past. (Imp. aboretdho.) 
Used of that whi(m is to be made 
soft ; to be made to cower, to be 
made to squat on the ground ; to 
be made to bow down, as the 
branches of a tree. 
B[ibordtaka, v. int. (Imp. miboretd' 
ha; Bel. iboretdhana, Bd. Imp. 
iboretdho.) To be soft, to be 
watery, to be spongy, as mud, clay, 
or dough ; to hang down, as 
branches; to be idle, to cower 
down, to squat upon the groxmd ; 
to shirk, to lounge about instead 
of worki ng. 
BOBFTIKT, 8. The name of a bird, 
a species of warbler of a genus pe- 
culiar to Madagascar. (Betsim.) 
Siliaia typiea, Hartl. 
BO'BY, adj. Bound, deprived of, des- 
titute of, shorn, cropped, shortened, 
poUed, as the hair ; cut off, as the 
tall or horns of an animal. 
Voabbry, v. pass. Shorn, cropped, 

Boriana, r. pass. (Imp. borlo.) To 
be cropped or shorn, to be cut off 
or shortened, as the tail or horns 
of an animal, to be deprived of 
a limb. 
Bo&dry. Passive with infix. 



Xibdry, v. int. (Imp. mibona; Bel. 
ibor\ana, Bel. Imp. ihorlo.) To 
be cropped, to be shorn, to be 
polled, as the head, to be cut off, 
as the horns or tail. 

Mambbry, v. tr, ^mp. mambor%a; 
Bel. amhorianoy Kel. Imp. ambo' 
no.) To cut the hair, to shorten 
a tail, to out off a head, horns, or 

^fti^Jo bbry tftnana. A jaoket 
without sleeves, a waistcoat. 

Akdho bdry. A fowl without a 

Am-bdrj. Within an indosure, sur- 
rounded, besieged. (Prov.) 

Faxg&ya bbry. An ancient coin, 
either silver or g^ld. (Prov.) 

Kirdbo bdry. Any coin equivalent 
to a KiBOBO, iiiaed in contradis- 
tinction to EntoBo VAST, a Kibobo 
in cut money. (Prov.) 

MahdUa-b^ry, s, A pond, a pool. 

O'mby bdry. A bullock without 

Tabdry, «. The testicles. 

T&ny b6ry. Firm ground; fig. 
childless. (Prov.) 

YdaliTO bdry. A rat without a tail. 

Viliny bdry. A cooking-pot without 

a rim. 
Bo'bila'ht, b. [laht, masculine.] A 

kind of insect. Also called EIibobi- 


Bo'by lo'ha, a4i' [loha, the head.] 

Bald. See Sola. 
Bo'bt ba'xbo, €ulj, [raxbo, the tail.] 

Without a tail. See Folona. 
Bo'bt sao'xa, adj, [saoxa, the beard.] 

Without a bea^. (Prov.) 
Bo'bt so'fina, adj, [sofina, the ear.] 

Having the ears cropped. 
Bo'bt ta'wana, ae{j. [tanana, the 

hand.] Without hands, or fingers. 
Bo'bt to'nootba, ac{j, [tonootba, the 

foot.] Having lost one*B feet, or toes. 
BO'BY, adj. Without a motive, for 

nothing, without labour or trouble, 

cheap in price. (Prov.) See Foana, 

Fotsint, Maina. 
BOBI'A, <. The name of a bird. 

(Prov.) Same as Sobohxtba, which 

BO'BIBO'BY, adj. Bound, spherical, 
circular; obstinate, stubborn. See 
Kibobibobt, Vobiyobt. [Mai. ^- 

lat n 

▼oab6rib6ry, v.paaa. Made Vound 
or spherical. 

Bdriborina, v. pata, (Imp. horihoreo.) 
To be made round, to be made 
spherical, to be made circular. 

Xuidribdry, v. tr, (Imp. manUri' 
horxa; Bel. amiribottanaf Bel. 
Imp. amoriborio.) To make round, 
to make spherical or globular. 

B6rib6ry f iMka. Bound and flat. 

Bdribdry maydny. Bound and 

spherical, pp'^"''*) 
BOBI'AXA, 8. Exagsreration, vagar- 
ies, boastfulness. ^rov.) 
Xiboriaka, v. int, (imp. miboridha ; 
Bel. ihoriahana, Bel. Imp. ibcrid' 
ho.) To exaggerate, to boast. 
BOBI'BAB A, adj. Going off in haste, 
flying off together, as birds. 
Xiborldana, v. int. (Imp. mvboridd-' 
na ; Bel. iboridanana, Bel. Imp. 
iboridano.) To go away together 
in haste, as a flock of birds when 
startled, to run together, as a 
company ; to go naked. 
XibondAndrldana, v. int. To start 
off suddenly in different direc- 
Fib^ridinana, 9. Nakedness. 
Boridana is also used, in the pro- 
vinces for BoBT. 
BO'BIOB'DBY, «. A brigade. [Eng. 

BOBI'KA, inter. Used only with Lo, 
as follows : — 

Borika lo. An expression of scorn 
or anger. (Prov.) 
BOBI'KY, ». An ass. [Fr. bourrique.] 
BoBi'sANA, V. past. See Bobttba. 
BOBI'TIEA, adj. Smidl, minute. See 

BinxA, EirncA. 
B^BITBA. Boot of the follow- 

Voabdritra, r. pass. Having had 
the end cut off, as a plank or a 
board. (Prov.) 
Boriiana, v. pass. (Imp. boriao.^ 
To be cutoff, as the end of a boara 
with a saw. (Prov.) 



Xaindxitrai v. ir, (Imp* tnamorUa {?); 

Bel. amorUana (?), Bel. Imp. amo" 

n'M {?).) To cut off the end ; to 

plane a board ; to square off the 

end of a piece of wood. (Prov.) 
S'raa-pamoriiana. A square, a rule 

hy which the end of a plank is 

made square. (Prov.^ 
Ufy funorifaaa. A npping-saw. 
Small, minute. See BmKA, Eitixa. 
BOSTTSAKA. Boot of the following. 
See BoLAsmiA. 
mborltsaka, v, int, (Imp. mibori' 

tsaha; Bel. iborxUdhana, Bel. 

Imp. ihoriudho.) To slip away, 

to slide off, to pass away rapidly. 

B(rBIZAHO, or BaBOZANY, «. a. 
vilians, the common people, those 
not employed in military service; 
sometimes used for the carriers of 
Koods from the coast to the capital. 
rFr. bi»irgeoiaJ\ 
Mtro-b6xisino, «. A tall hat, the 

English '*chimney-pot.*' 
BO'BO, «. A scoundrel, a rascal, an 
idle and base fellow. (Prov.J 
Xib^o Itena. To live in i^eness. 

BOBaAXA, s, and adj. A hole wHch 
penetrates through ; having^ a hole 
through, as a pl^ik or wall. GrOBO- 
BAXA also used. See Loaka. 
Ttifiibor^aka. v. pass. Used of the 

instrument having gone through 

in making a hole, 
▼oabordaka, v. pass. Pierced through, 

Abordaka, r. pass. (Imp. aborodhy.^ 

Used of the instrument employea 

in making a hole. 
BoroAbana, r. pass. (Imp. horodhy.) 

To be pierced tnrough, to be 

bored through. 
Xibordaka, r. int. (Imp. miborodka ; 

Bel. iborodhana, Itel. Imp. iborod'- 

ky.) To pierce through, to bore 

through, to penetrate through ; to 

go to a person and express anger 

to him ; to spit at one in anger. 
Mambordaka, r. tr. (Imp. manabo' 

rodha; Bel. anaborodhiHa^ Bel. 

Imp. anaborodhy.) To pierce 
through, to penetrate, to trans- 
Manat&bordaka, v. ir. (Imp. mana- 
tdborodha ; Bel. anatdborodhana, 
Bel. Imp. anatdborodhy.) Also 
used for preceding. 

Bobo'baza. Same as Boboasa; it 
forms verbs in Voa-, -ana, Mi-, and 
Man-, in the same way. 
Bor6boka aina, adj. Large and 

corpulent. (Prov.) 
Batita bordboka. Large, red, and 
spongy pototoes. (Prov.) 

Bo'boboa'hana, v. pass. (Imp. biro' 
bodhy.) Another form of the passive 
from BoBOAKA. 

Bo'bobo'aza, s. The name of a 
variety of banana. 

BaSOBO'SY, adj. Daring, bold, reck- 
less, stout-hearted, (rrov.) 
In Imerina it means huge, and is 
appUed only to persons and ani- 

BO'BOBO'SY, s. A poison or charm 
which is put into the food of slaves, 
under the belief that it has the power 
of destroying the desire to run 
away. (Prov.) 

BOBO'KA, s. Same as Babaza, which 
see. It is used only with Afaxa 
and Ala, and their derivatives. In 
the provinces it is used of an animal 
which has ceased to suck. 

BOBO'NA, s. A shrub from which a 
decoction is made and drunk for 
dysentery or diarrhcea. The juice 
of the plant produces violent vomit- 
ing; it is also applied locally for 
scabies. From the fibres of this shrub 
a dress was once made for the idol 
IxELiHALAZA, sincc which time it 
has never been used as fuel by the 
people of Amb6him^amb6la, whero 
the idol was kept. For a somewhat 
similar reason the Temina and Obon- 
OBANO are never used as fuel in the 
same village. Tetradenia fruticulosa, 

Bobo'icba'vt, *. [Vavt, feminine.] A 
shrub. (Bets!) Tetradenia sp. 

Bobo'ndaht, s. [laet, masculine. 1 A 
shrub. (Bets!) Tetradmia fnttivvk* 
losa, Bth. 



B01U>VA, a^. Havinff notlimgr with 

which to pay money u>0t in betting. 

Voab6ronA, «. p<u». Haying no- 
thing to pay debts with. 

Bordnma, v, pata, (Imp. hor6ny,) To 
be made to have nothing to pay 
money lost in betting. 

Xambbrona, v. tr, (Imp. mambord' 
na; Bel. ambor6nanaf Bel. Imp. 
omW^y.) To make a person be 
in the state of haying lost all his 
money in betting. 

Mibdrordaka, v. int. (Bel. and Pass. 
ibororodluma.) To pour out in a 
straight continuous stream, as 
water from a hole in a barrel, 
rice from a hole in a sack, etc. 
It differs from Borabaza (which 
see) in being a continuous stream, 
while BoRARATTA implies a disper- 
sion in any direction. 
BOBO'ST, 8. A brush. [Eng. bruBh,"] 

See Fafa, Hooo. 

Voabordsy, v. pass. Brushed. 

Boroslna, v. past. (Imp. borosio.) To 
be brushed. 

Mibordiy, v. int. (Imp. miborosia ; 
Bel. iborosiana, Bel. Imp. iboro' 
910.) To be brushed. 

Xanaoordsy, v. tr. rimp. manabo' 

roaia; Bel. anaborosxanay Bel. Imp. 

anaborosio.) To brush, to clean 

or cleanse by brushing. 

Bobo'sila'ht, 8. [lahy, masculine.] 

A curry-comb. 
All the various names of brushes 

have been introduced, as under : — 
Boro'sin-a&a'njo, 8. [AXAirjo, a gar- 
ment.] A clothes-brush. 
BoBo'si-NfFT, 8. [nift, a tooth.] A 

BoBo'siN-Bo'HA, 8. [loha, the head.] 

A hair-brush. 
Bobo'bin-sira'bo, $. [kibabo, shoes.] 

A shoe-brush. 
BoBo'snr-TBA'wo, 8. [tbano, a house.] 

A broom, a house-brush. 


horse.] A horscrbrush. ' 
BOBO'TBAXA, M(f. Loose, slippery, 
sinking down ; used also of a person 
who is always ready to say what he 

Tafabordtiaka, v. pa88. TTsed of iiiat 
which has slipped away from the 

Abordtiaka, v. pass. (Imp. ahoratsd' 
Ay.) Used of that which is to be 
slipped away or dropped from its 

XiborotiBka, v. int. (Imp. miboro^ 
tsdha; Bel. ib<frot8dhima, Bel. Imp. 
ibitrotsdho,) To get loose, to slip, 
to fall, to rush upon, as an ox let 
loose, or a person rushing to a 

Xanabordtaaka, v. tr. (Imp. numa^ 
borotsdha ; Bel. anaborotsdhama^ 
Bel. Imp. ant^orotsdhff.) To re- 
lease, to push off. 
BOBCTSAXA. Boot of the follow- 

][amor6tiakA, v. tr. To pierce 
through, as a spear or musket 
ball (?) ; to approach daringly for 
a struggle, to make an assault^ to 
r ush upon. 
BOBOYT, 8. A shrub with edible 

fruit. (Sak.) Brehmia spinosa, Hary. 

Same as VoAyoTAKA, and Hokotba. 

BOBA'SAXA, 8. A fall of water, as 

poured from a pail or barrel. Same 

as Borabaka. 

VoaboslUiakA, v. pass. Same as Yoa- 


AboslUiakA, v. pass. (Jmp. abosasdko.) 

Same as Abobabaza. 
Bou9LBi}iKDM,v.pass, (Imp, bososdko.) 

Same as Bobabahana. 
][ibo8d4Uika, v. int. (Imp. mibosa' 

sdha ; Bel. ibosasdhanayxJ^ Imp. 

ibosasdho.) Same as Miboba&aka.. 
XanaboslUiakA, v. tr. (Imp. muma" 

bosasdha ; Bel. anabosasdhanOf Bel. 

Imp. anabosasdko.) Same as ICa- 


BOSB'SIXA, 8. A forcible entry, aa 
through a crowd ; pushing through 
violently or obstinately . SeeSsaiZA,. 
Tafabosdsika, r. pass. Used of th&t 

which has pushed through. 
Voabosdsika, t^. pass. UsmL of that 

which has been pushed through. 
Abosdtika, V. pass. (Imp. oboseMo.) 

To be made to rush, to be pushed, 

f oroed, orowded, or onunmed. 



Bomttiaiia, 9. /Muf . (Imp. hote^ho.) 
Used of those who are pushed aside 
bj one who is forcing his way in. 

Kboadiika, v. pan. (Imp. midoMc^- 
Ka; Bel. iboeetihanaf Bel. Imp. 
i^oies^Ao.) To rash, to force onrs 
way, to oe crowded together, to 
be over urgent or obstinate in 
pushing one^s way in. 

Hiuaaboidaika, v. tr, (Imp. moiui- 
hotneha ; Bel. anabottsihana, Bel. 
Lnp. oHoboseMho.) To force any- 
thing or any person into a room, 
BO'ST, $. A blnnderbuss. See Bast. 

n>atch btu, hu9ehe,1 

B6sy Tarihina. A small brass can- 
BO'ST, t. A joke. (Prov.) See Voso- 


BosiiiA, V. pats, rimp. bosio,) To be 
joked. (Prov.) 
BCKbz , t. A cat run wild ; a eunuch. 

6ho b&sy. A capon. (Prov.) 
BaSIKA, or BO'SIBi^SIKA. Boot of 
the following : — 

▼oabiflibdsika, v. pass. Devoured 
greedily, eaten hastily, swallowed 
AMaibdsika, r. pass, (Imp. abdsibo' 
seAo.) Used of that which is 
eaten up greedily or hastily. 
Mlbteibdnka, v. int. (Imp. mibdsi' 
hasiha ; Bel. ibSsibosehana^ Bel. 
Imp. ibSsibosiho,) To eat groedily, 
to snatch and devour food impet- 
uously. fProv.) 
Mambdiibdaika, v. tr, (Imp. mam' 
bisiboseha ; Bel. amoSsibosehanay 
Bel. Imp. amb6sibosiho.) To devour 
hastily, to swallow food vora- 
BOSI'llA, adj. Free, not in slavery. 

BOSrOKA. Prov. for the following :— 
BOSO'A, 8. A stopper, a cork. [Fr. 

btmeAott.l See TsEXfTsiKA. 
BOTA, or BaiABaTA, adi. Plump. 
Applied to children. See Bonu, 


Flujnp, stout, fat, healthy, slees. 
See BoTBABonu, DovoASOzroA. 

Mibotitaka, aty. To be fat, to be 
plump, to be sturdy. 
BOTS'TA, adj. Short, dwarfish. 
BOTB'TAXA, atg. Short, low, shrub- 

lubotdtaka, v. int. (Imp. mibote- 
taha; Bel. ibotetdhana, Bel. Imp. 
ibotstdho.) To be low, to sit down 
low, to squat, to grow low and 
aiona botltaka. A dwarf. (Prov.) 
BO'TT, 8. An orphan. (Prov.) See 

Kaicbott, andboxAiTT. 
BiXTT, s. A button. See Bokotba. 

[Fr. boutan,'] 
BO'TIHA, s. The end, the termina- 
tion. (Prov.) [Fr. bout.] 
BOTI'BfA, V. pass. To be cheated, 

imposed upon. 
BOTTTIKA. Same as Bitika, which 


BO'TO, s, A small boy, a lad; fea- 
thers at the back of the head of 
birds. See Koto. 
Ib6to, or Babdto. A proper name 
given to lads. 
Bai^LABO'TBA, adj. (Imp. Opt. 
botrabotra.) Large, plimip, fml- 
made, stout, fat. Mostly applied 
to chUdren. See Donoadonoa. 
Bdtrabotraina, v, pass. (Imp. bSira^ 
botrao,) To be made plimip or 
fat. (Prov.) 
Xanab6trab6tra, v, tr. (Imp. ma- 
nabdtrabotrd ; Bel. anabdtrabotrdna, 
Bel. Imp. anab6trabotra6.) To 
make plump or fat. (Prov.) 
Mahabitrabbtra, v. tr. (Imp. ma' 
hoMtrabotra,) To have the power 
to make fat and plump, spoken of 
BOTBAI'KA, s. and a^J. Obstinacy, 
perveneness, stubbornness ; obsn- 
nate, self-willed, headstrong, per- 
verse. See Haitbaitba. 
Manad botraika. To act obstinately. 
Same as Manao ditba. 
BO'TBAKA, s. A button. (Prov.) 

Same as Bokotba. [Fr. bouton."] 
BOIBA'BO, s. A vessel for storing 

rice. (Ptov.) 
BOTBBTONA, adj. Sleek, plump, 

fat. See Botbabotba. 
B0TU1EA. Prov. for Botbazza. 



BOTBE'NTBA, <. A ohann or amulet 

imagined to have deadly power. 

BOTSE'TSA, adj. GhildiBh, puerile, 

weak, imbecile, siUy. Used mostly 

uf children. 
BaiBY^o^/. (Imp.Opt.^fria.) Stunt- 
ed, dwai^flh, little, short; destitute, 

helpless, half starved, ready to die 

from neglect. 

Mahabdtrj, v. tr. To stunt, to 
dwarf, to make destitute. 

B6trib6trj, euiy. Somewhat desti- 
tute, deficient, rather stunted. 

Botriakdly. An imprecation. May 
complete poverty be your lot ! 

Botrla mila. An imprecation. May 
you never prosper ! 
Bo'tbi-fo'tst, 8. [roTBT, white.] A 

large kind of serpent. (Prov.) 
Bo'tm-vave'nty, 9. [VAVBNTT, large.] 

A variety of rice. 
BO'TBT, «. A boat. (Prov.) [Eng. 

BOTSA'TSAXA, adj. White, perfectly 

white. Also provincial for BosASAKA, 

which see. See MANOATfiAKATSAKA. 
BOTSY. Prov. for Votst, which 

BO'TSIBaTST. Boot of the follow- 
ing. See BoNTBiNA. 
][am6tsib6t8y, v, int. To commence, 
to enlarge, to be formed. Said 
of fruits and vegetables. (Prov.^ 
B6tfib6tsim-b6atfLTO. The small 
pumpkins newly set. (Prov.) 
BO'ZAKA, «. A grass. (Bets.) An- 

dropogon GrylluSy L. 
Bo'zada'mbo, $. [lambo, a wild boar.] 
A grass from which a very dura- 
ble kind of basket is made. 
BO'ZAKA, «. Dried grass, which is 
much used as fuel ; fig. vast in 
number, a multitude, a large 
mass ; see the following: — 
Bdiaka ftmana &hltra. The common 
people} the multitude, the mob, 
the rabble. 
Mifiko bdtaka. To gather dried 
grass. (Prov.) 
Bozs'hina, v. pasa. See Bozsxa. 
BOZB'KA, adj. Pressed, squeezed 
together, cramped, orowdea. See 

Aboidka, «. pass. (Imp. abosiho.) 

To be crowded together, as many 

in a house ; to be put in heaps, as 

luggage in a store-room. (Prov.) 

Miboidlui, V. int. ^Imp. mioozeha; 

Rel. ibozehanay B^. Imp. iboziho.) 

To be crowded together, to be in 

heaps. (Prov.) 

Mamoidka, v. tr. (Imp. mamozeha ; 

Bel. amozehana, Bel. Imp. amo^ 

seho.) To crowd, to tmrow in 

heaps, to press together. (Prov.) 

Famosdhana, a. A warehouse, a 

magazine. (Prov.) 

BOZB'NT, a^. Short, very Uttle, 

dwarfish. See Zsmr. 

O'lona boidny. A dwarf, one of 

low stature. 
Sikina bosdny. A short garment. 
BO'ZY, or BaZIBO'ZY, adj. Stunted, 
dwarfish, diminutive in stature ; 
short but pleasing. Used in speak- 
ing of children. 
BO'ZY, a. A catheter. [Fr. bougie.'\ 
BOZI'KA, a. luflexibleness, stubborn- 
ness, resistance, annoyance, claim- 
ing a debt with vehemence and 
importunity. (Prov.) 
Boidhina, v. paaa. (Imp. bozeko.) 
To be dunned, to be importunately 
solicited, to be annoyed, to be 
resisted. (Prov.) 
Miboiika, v. tr, (Imp. mihozeka ; 
Bel. ibozehanOf Bel. Imp. ibozcho.) 
To dun, to be importunate in 
one's demands, to annoy, to vex, 
to resist, to outstand. (Prov.) 
BOZrXA. Boot of the following :— 
Miboiika, v, int. (Imp. mihoztka ; 
Bel. ibozehatta, Bel. Imp. ibozefto.) 
To adhere to steadily, to stick to 
work which one likes. (Prov.) 
BO'ZO, a. A baobab tree. (Prov.) See 
BoNTONA, and Mboio. 


B. The third letter of the Malagasy 
Alphabet. It is pronounced as d iii 
English. It undergoes no change 
in combinations. It is interchange- 
able with I in many of the pro- 
vinces. Thus DiDT becomes Lilt, 



Vadt beoomes Yalt. The wozd 
Kblixblt of tJie Hots beoomes 
Kbdicbdt in some provinces. Wlien 
/is the first consonant of a word, 
and words endings in -va [or nt], 
-ZA, or -TBI. are to be joined to it, 
the / always beoomes d, as : Laian- 
DATA (lalasa and lava) ; Lskadb- 
MAZA (leicaka and udcaxa) ; Ton- 
eo-DAUTBA (xoirooTBA and laijtba). 
When the verbal prefix Man- is 
joined to roots beginning with r, d 
18 inserted to bridge over the sound 
of n and r, as Mandbb (ican- 
and Bs) ; and when Man- is pre- 
fixed to roots beginning with /, the 
/ is changed to </, as Mandsha for 
(itAN- and lbha). 
BA, 8. Renown, celebrity, success, 
happiness. See Laza, Zo. 
Mioa, 9. int. To do one*s plea- 
BA. An expression often nsed after 
the word Mena, as Mena da, very 
red. Ka and Ja are used in the 
same way. (Prov.) 
BA, ifUer. An expression of admira- 
tion. (ProvJ 

Ba ! miro. How many ! (Prov.) In 
Imerina it is used after the loud 
report of a gun or the fall of some- 
thmg. It is also used for the Hova 
DiA between two adjectives, as 


TBABA, Very good. 
BA, adj\ Prov. for Folo, which see. 

[Hind. (?) das, ten,'] 
Hir^kDhriK, «. and o^^'. The sound 
made by stepping into or splashing 
into water ; full, filled to the brim. 
Midibadiba, v. int. (Imp. middba* 
daha ; Rel. iddbadabdna, Bel. Imp. 
iddhadabao.) To be full to the 
brim ; to make the splashing 
sound when a person steps or 
plunges into wator. 
BAOBABrAXA. Same as Badiaxa. 
BA'BAKA. Boot of the following :— 
Midibaka, v, int. To overflow, to 
be plentiful. Applied only to 
BABS'BAXA, a4;'. Shallow, applied 
to baskets ; full-cheeked, as a child. 
See BxBAZA (ii.)» Tabsbaxa. 

BA'BHIO', s. A school desk, form, 

or bench. [Fr. etabli, a bench.] 
BABO'AK A, 8. A kind of doth used 
for putting round the waist. (Prov.) 
BABO'BOKA. Boot of the following. 
See Daboka, Toztta, Zeba. 
Adabdboka, v. pass. (Imp. adabobo- 

hy.) Used of anything thrown 

or dashed down violently. 
Babobdhana, v. pass. (Imp. dabobb- 

hy.) To be dashed at or upon, 

to be thrown on. 
Midabdboka, v. int. (Imp. midabo' 

bbha; Bel. idabobohana, Bel. Imp. 

idahobohy.) To fall with violence ; 

to dash upon ; to proceed in a 

large concourse. 
][andab6boka, i*. tr. (Imp. manda" 

bobbha ; Bel. andabobbhanay Bel. 

Imp. anddbobbhy.) To throw down, 

to dash with violence. 
BA'BOKA. Boot of the following :— 
Yoadiboka, r. pass. Beaten, struck, 

flogged, hit with force. 
Adiboka, r. pass. (Imp. adabbhy.) 

Used of that which is thrown 

down violently. 
Babdhana, r. pass. (Imp. dMhy.) 

To be beaten, to be struck forcibly. 
Xidiboka, r. int. (Imp. midabbha ; 

Bel. idabbhana, Bel. Imp. idabb^^ 

hy.) To fall, to fall against, to 

strike, to hit with violence, to lie 

XandfLboka, r. ir. (Imp. mandabb' 

ha ; Bel. andabbhana, Bel. Imp. 

andabbhy.) To beat, to strike, to 

throw down, to dash. 
ManadfLboka, r. tr. To throw any- 
thing down violently. 
BA'BOBA'BOXA, s. Beating, thump- 
ing, banging, drubbing. Bedupli- 
cate of Daboka. 
VoadibodfLboka, v. pass. Beaten, 

thumped, cudgelled. 
BftbodaD6ha]La, v. pass. (Imp. ddbo* 

dabbhy.) To be beaten, to be 

thumped, to be cudgelled. 
XidfLbodiboka, v. int. To fall 

frequently, as drunken men or 

persons on a slippery road, or as 

foods falling down ; to lie about 
ere and thc^ in a house ; to fall 
down, as embankments after rain. 



Xtndibodftboka, v, tr. flmp. man- 
ddhodaboha; Bel. aNdaAcMJa^oAaiMy 
Bel. Imp. anddhodabohy.) To beat, 
to thtimp, to bang, to cudg^ 
to dmb. 

Da'bo-db'la, «. Flxla, the tongae.] 
One in the habit of opening his 
month 80 as to show his tongue 
projecting and rolling a little beyond 
the teeth, and 3ret not able to speak. 

DA'BO-D&^'iro, aA\ [bavo, water.] 
Yonng, not full grown, feeble. 
Applied to duoka. 

Da'bok-a'ndbo, $. [Ammo, the day.] 
Oxen that are to be fattened, but 
allowed to wander about when 
satiated with food. 

BA'BOLFEA, «. The lining of gar- 
ments, hats, eto. [Fr. doublure?] 

DA'BOVFXA. Frov. for Bonaika. 

DA'BA, a. Father. See Aba, Bat, 

Da'dabs', s, [bb, great.] A grand- 

DA'BA, 8. A mode of danoing, in 
which the feet are made to imitate 
the beating of a drum. 

DA'DAXAKAfNOA, S, [aINOA, Set off.] 

A mode of danoing the Dada, in 
which one foot is kept up more than 
the other. 

Maiiad didamanalnga. To dance 
the Dada. 

BA'BABA'BA Same as Basabada, 
which see. 

BABAT, s. Father. (Prov.) See 
Aba, Bat, Ixakt. 

Dadai'zb'lt, <. [zblt, little.] An 
uncle. (ProvO 

BA'BAXA, 8. Chattering, idle prat- 
tle, talking at random. 
Midftdaka, r. int. To chatter, to 

BABA'SIXA, a4/\ Wide and level, as 
a plain, or a house with one room 
without balconies or galleries. 
Midadisika, adj. WidB and level, 
as aboire. 

BA'BY, «. A grandfather or grand- 
mother. (Prov.) See Baibe. 
Mididy, atfj. Used of a grand- 
father and grandchild. 

Da'dila'kt, 8. [laht, masculine.) A 
grandfather. (Prov.) 

I)A2>f xnrA, r. pa88. See Dadhta. 
Da'diva'tt, *. [vAiVT, feminine.] A 

grandmother. (Prov.) 
BADIHA, 8. The shoots or tendrils 
of a creeping plant. (Prov.) See 
Voadidina, r. pasa. Twisted lound, 

Adidina, v. /m»«. (Imp. adadlno.) 
Used of the shoots or tendzils of 
dimbing plants laying hold of 
that on which they climb. 
Badimina, v, pa88, (Imp. dadlmo.) 
To be encircled or wreathed by a 
climbing plant, to be Ued, to be 
Mand&dina, v, tr. (Imp. mandadU 
ma ; Bel. andadlmana^ Bel. Imp. 
andadimo.) To twist, to wreathe, 
to entwine, to tie. 
Xandidim-bdTO. To make a net 

for fifihing. 
Mandidin-dat. To bend the sails 

to the yard. (Prov.) 
Xand&din-tirat&sy. To bind a 

book. (Prov.) 
Xandftdin-tsihitra. To make a 
sieve or riddle. (Prov.) 
BATO, «. A unripe cocoa-nut. (Prov.) 

[Swa. dafu."] 
BA'FY. See liAFT. 
BAHO'LO, 8. The whole, all, altoge- 
ther. [£ng. the whole.} 
BAI'KA, 8. Trousers ; a proverb. 

(Prov.) SeePATALOBA. 
BAI'XA. Boot of the following :— 
Xidalka, v. int. To walk in a 
straddling manner. 
BAIKA', or BEKA', «. An aide-de- 
camp. [Fr. aide'de^eamp.'] 
BAI'HA. Boot of the foUowmg. See 
Kapoxa, Velt. 
Voadaina, r. pasa. Smitten, beaten, 

flogged, struck. 
Bainana, v. pa88. rimp. dalno.) To 
be smitten, to be struck, to be 
Xandaina (1), r. tr. (Imp. not used ; 
Bel. andnlnana^ Bel. Imp. andai^ 
no.) To smite, to beat, to flog. 
BAI'HA. An expression which gfives 
the idea of perfect evenness, as 
Hahxist daina, as straight atf an 
upright stroke; Yosr daixa, as 



zoand m if drawn hj a pair of 

oompaaaea. (Prov.) 
Di fgAW Ay r. poM. See Dazva. 
DAI'VBAI'VA, «. Sultriness, oppres- 

siTeneaa of heat; an unendurable 

ionnd. See Gainoaina. 

ifi^^JTi^^^tia^ t*. int. To be sultiT/ 
to be oppressively hot; to be 
nneudnraole, as a sound. 
SA'XA, «. A Hck, kicking. PAr. 

daqqa (/).] See Diajcavoa, Tsz- 


▼oAdika, r. past. Kicked. 
Bakina, r. pan, (Imp. dakao.) To 

be kicked. 
Dinika. Passiye with infix. 
Maud ilka, r. tr. rimp. mandaka; 

Bel. andakanoy Bel. Imp. amfciXrao.) 

To kick. 
Xaindly d&ka raftsana. To commit 

adultery with a mother-in-law. 
BA'XADA'iA, «. Straddling, strag- 
gling, as with outstretched legs 
blocking up a path. See Bahana, 

Midikadika, v. int, (Imp. midd^ 
kadakd; Bel. iddkadakdna, Bel. 
Imp. iddkadakao,) To straddle, 
to stretch out the legs across a 

XitcidAkadAka, r. int. Used for 
the preceding. 
Daxa'ha, v. poM. See Daxa. 
BA'KOTBA, vtrhal root. Cudgelled, 

beaten, bnffetted. (Prov.) See Da- 


OakMui*, V. pats. (Imp. dakbfy.) 

To be ondgeUed. 
Xaadikotra, v. tr. (Imp. manda^ 
kofa ; Bel. tmdakhfana^ Kel. Imp. 
^tddkofy^ To cudgel, to buffet. 
(Prov.) Note that only the 
passive is in use in Imerina. 
BA'LABO'BOKA, t. Concussion, a 
violent fall. See Daboboka. 
Kdilabdboka, r. int. (Imp. mxdd^ 
lahoboha; Bel. iddUthobohana^ Bel. 
Imp. iddlabobohy.) To fall vio- 
lently, to dash; to go in large 
BA'UA', ». Dahlia. FEng. dahlia.'] 
BA'LO, adj. Used of persons who 
have missed each other. (Prov.) 
Comp. Lalo. 

Same as the Hova Mzfahdiso. 
See DiBO. 
BAKA', 9. A kind of print-oalioo. 

[Fr. damaa.'] 
BA'MIZA'NA, 8. A jar, a demi-john. 

[Fr. dame •'Jeanne,'] 
BA'NA. An expression which conveys 
the idea of exactness, as Folo dana, 
just ten ; liCAiro bana nt Aurr, his 
life was cut off in a moment. 
(Prov.) Comp. Dazna. 
BA'BTABA'BrA, 01^'. Wide open. See 
Banabaka, Savasava, Tanataita. 
Adinadina, v. pau. (Imp. addna' 
danao.) Used of a door, box, 
cupboard, etc., opened wide. 
Biaadanaiaa, v. pass. (Imp. ddna* 

danao^ To be opened wide, 
mdinadtoa, r. int. (Imp. middna" 
dand ; Bel. iddnadandna^ Bel. Imp. 
iddnadanao.) To be wide open. 
BAKA'NAXA. Same as Donahaxa, 

Tirhich see 
shrub with larg® leaves. Antharium 
tetraponum. Perhaps the same as 
BAKE'SAKA, «. Slowness, tardiness. 
Xidandsaka, v. int. (Imp. midane^ 
saha ; Bel. idanetahanay Bel. Imp. 
idaueadho.) To go slowly. 
BA'BfOA, ». A grass with very sharp- 
pointed awns. Andropogon oontortus, 

BAHOABA'BrOA. Boot of the follow, 
ing. See Ave, Lajtoalakoa, Lzhqi- 


Xidiagadinga, adj. Tall, high, 
BA'BTOY, a4f\ Dead, lifeless ; stopped, 
as water. 

B&ngin* ay hdhy. Overcome with 
BA'BfOO, 8. A mortar. (Prov.) See 

Binffodiago viva, adj. Extremely 

talkative. (Prov.) 

BAKOO'BO, 8. A heron. (Prov.) 

Ardea purpurea^ L. SeeVANO. [Mai. 


Danoo'rofo'tsy, 8. [fotst, white.] 

Prov. for VOROMPOTSY. 

Danoo'boxai'nty, h. [vaintt, black.] 

Prov. for FOTflXSLATRA. 



DA'VY. TJaed only in the following. 
Midinidiny'iiy kibo. Used of a 

full and nrotaberant stomach. 
Dinin' ny idbo. One's will, one^s 
own pleasure or desire. 
DA'BIXA, 8, Sultriness, oppressive- 
ness of heat. See Daindaixa. 
Danihina, v. paaa. To be oppressed 

by the heat of the day. 
Xidinika, aty. To be sultry, to be 
oppresaiTely hot. 
DA'KlSF, «. Dancing in European 
fashion. [Fr. danser."] See Diht. 
Manad duisd. To dance in ihe 
Eur opean manner. 
BAVTEXT, 8. Lace. fFr. dentells.] 
BA'KTT, 8, Tatting. Shortened from 
preceding (P). See Aicbobodao, Am- 


DAO'A, 8. Medicine. (Prov.) [Swa. 

DAO'NDAaVA. Used as follows :-- 
Midadndabm-bftTa, adj. Loud and 
impudent of speech. 
DA&A', 8. Twilled calico. [Fr. drop,] 
DABA'BOKA. Root of the following. 
See Daboboka. 
▼oadar&boka, r. pa88. Fallen with 

violence, dashed down. 
Adariboka, v. pa88. (Imp. etdarabb- 
hy.) Used of anything thrown 
down violently. 
Midariboka, r. int. (Imp. midara- 
boha ; Rel. id^rabohana, Kel. Imp. 
idarabohy.) To fall with violence, 
to dash upon. 
Miandariboka, v, int. Same as 

Xanadariboka, v. tr. (Imp. manadO' 
rabbha ; Bel. anadarabohana ; Hel. 
Imp. anctdarahohy.) To throw 
down violently. 
BABA'JA, 8. A staircase. (Prov.) 

BASA'Jx, 8. Corrosive sublimate. 

BABA'SAXA, adj. aownish, silly 

in looks. 
BA'KAZAY', 8. Sweetmeats. [Fr. 

drayhe. ] 
BABE'SAXA. Same as Daneraka. 
BAST, adj. Slow, dull of motion. 
Used only of animals. 

BA'BT, 8. An upper floor. (Ptot.) 

[Swa. dari.^ 
BABIBABY, adj. Swollen, inflated. 
Used of the stomach. 
Mid&ridftry, v. int. To swell, to 
puff up, to inflate. 
BABO'BOKA (1). Boot of the foUow- 

Xidardboka, t^. int. (Imp. mida' 

roboha; Bel. idarobohimaf Bel. 

Imp. idarobohy.) To squat, to lia 


BA'BOKA. Same as Daboka, which 

BABOBfA. Not used alone, but as 
follows : — 
Bftro&y, or Birodftro&y, adj. Freah, 

young, vigorous. 
Kid&rona, v. int. (Imp. midtn'wta ; 
Bel. idaronana, Bel. Imp. idard' 
ny.) To speak plausibly but yet 
deceitfully ; to pretend to go but 
not setting out. 
Da'bonaxbo'lo, 8. A spedes of lo- 
BA'BONBABOBfA, 8. Insolence, an- 

Xid&rond&rona, v. int. (Imp. mtdtf- 
rondardna ; Bel. iddr<mdar6nana, 
Bel. Imp. id4rondar6ny.) To vex, 
to insult in anger. 
BA'SIBASY, 8. and adj. Walking 
steadily, uprightly, or majestically ; 
full-faced. See Dosy, 
mdlUiidlUiy, V. int. (Imp. middsi^ 
da8xa; Bel. iddaidaaiana, Bel. Imp. 
idd8ida8io.) To walk majestically, 
in a stately manner, as a king or 
a fine bullock, 
▼ilftny miditidlUiy. A wide sauce- 
pan, frying-pan, or pot. 
BAVO'LANA, «. The light of tlie 

moon. (Prov.) See Diavolana. 
BAVY, 8. An herb found about rice- 
grounds. (Bets.) Polygonum aene' 
galense, Meisn. Same as FoTsncBA- 


(Bets.), Tamboloana (Antsih.), Fl- 
BABT (Bets.), and Varinaxoho- 


BX'BABE'BA. Same as Debodsbo, 

which see. 
BFBAKA, a. A pledge, a hostage, 

an assurance, a security. (^x>v.) 



See AsTOKA, Tanana, Faxfztaiiana, 


Midlhaka, v. int. To be depressed ; 
to sink down, aa mortar, or jam. 
Xamitra-ddbaka, v. comp. To give 

a pledge or a hostage. (Prov.) 
Ddte-paBAtdhaiLa. A pledge given 
in assurance that the person will 
afvpear at the appointed time for 
trial. (ProY.) 
DFBO, 8, A species of fish. (Prov.) 

Same as Toho, which see. 
D^BOBZIM), adj. Short, dwarfish, 
snail and fat but well formed. De- 
BODEBOVT also nsed. Used of per- 
sons and animals. 
DYBOKA, «. Splashing of water from 
something thrown in. 
Middboka, r. int. To be splashed, 
to resound, as water splashed. 
DIDADS'BA, «. Blazing, flaming. 
Comp. Redasbda. 
MidMadMa, r. int. (Bel. ididade- 
ddna.) To blaze, to flame. 
DXDAXA, a. The crackHng of flames ; 
boasting, bragging, exulting. 
Midddasa, r. int. (Imp. mideddha; 
Rel. ideddhanuy Kel. Imp. idtdd- 
ho.) To blaze, to bum fiercely ; 
t4) boast, to brag, to exult. 
DEDE'BOKA, 8. A drum. (Prov.) 

See Amfoxoa. 
BETOKA. Same as Lefoka, which 

see. 2*rov.) 
BS'HADB'HA. Same as Daizadai- 


BB^O, 8. Vtov. for Domoeika. 
BEZAS or DEKA'HA, «. An aide- 

de-camp. \Ft, aide'de-eamp.'] 
DsKA'XAni'iriXA, «. [madinika, small.] 

A division of the aides-de-camp of 

the Prime Minister. 
BE'KA. Boot of the following :— 

Xiddka, V. int. To plunge in, to 

sink to the bottom of the water, 

as a crocodile or a heavy weight. 


DBLI'O, 8. A species of fish. (Prov.) 

BEKA'HT, 8. The sheet of a sail. 

fProv.) [Swa. demam.'] 
BE'lEBA, or BE'KPA, adj. Sunk, 

yielded, given way, as the lips when 

the front teeth are lost ; turned on 

the edge, as a knife, axe, etc., when 
the metal is too soft, or as the horns 
of oxen, one of which hangs a little, 
or a clay vessel warped by the rays 
of the sun. 

▼oaddmba, v. pa88. Sunk in, hol- 
lowed, turned aside, as above. 
Bembaiiia, v. paaa. (Imp. demhab.) 

To be bent, turned, notched, or 

Middmpa, v. int. To yield, to give 

in ; to leave a hollow. ^Prov.) 
Manaddmpa, r. ^r. To bend, to make 

to sink in. 
Manddmpa, v. tr. To make to vield, 

to bend, to make to sink in. 

BEXaAnrA, or BEXOT, 8. Prov. 

for DoxomNA. 
BE'MOKA, adj. True, just. (Prov.) 
See T^ATtTTffA 

BE'MOKA, 8. A trivet. (Prov.) See 

BE'XOBE'XOKA, «. A species of 

wood-pigeon. (Prov.) fiiee Doxo- 


BENBE'XS, <. A small tree. (Bets.) 
Same as LAimExr, which see. 

Dende'xela'ht, 8. [laht, masculine.] 
A tree. (Bets.) Authoeleiata mada^ 
gaacarien8i8f Baker. Same as Va- 
riahy, which see. 

BEHBE'XONA, 8. A plant, a decoc- 
tion of the bark of which acts as a 
purgative, and is used by the Be- 
tsimisaraka for disorders of the 
stomach. (Betsim.^ 

BE'NOY. Prov. for AwTAiA. 

BE'RA, 8. Praise, fame, honour, 
celebrity. See Da, Laza, VoimrA- 


Voaddra, r. pa88. Praised, commend- 

Beraina, v. pa88. (Imp. derad.^ To 
praise, to celebrate, to gloriiy ; to 
speak well of a person. 

Xiddra, v. tr. (Imp. miderd ; Bel. 
iderdnaj Bel. Imp. idei'a<).) To 
praise, to celebrate, to glorify, to 

Fiderina, «. Praise, glorification, 

Xaddra, adj. Conspicuous, promi- 



Xuapiddra hardna. To show off 

one's riches, to make it appear 

that one is rich. 
Xampiddra fahaiaana. To show 

off one* a cleyemess. 
DEBA\ «. Cotton or linen drill. [Eng. 

DB'BODSIftOXA* Used as follows :— 
Middroddroka, v. int. To be on the 

yeiy point of death. (Proy.) See 


BXHOVA, «. The upper part of the 

throat of animals ; a swollen state 

of the throat in sheep, deyeloping 

sometimes into a fatal disease. 

Derdnina, v, pass. To be affeoted 
with the Dbbona. 
DE'BOHDBHONA, «. Perching up 

in anj high and oonspiouous poei- 


Xiddronddrona, r. jM»f. (Imp. mi' 
tUronder&na; Rel. ideronderonatM^ 
Bel. Imp. idhnmdermy,) To sit in 
a high, prominent, and dangerous 
position; to be haughty, lofty, 
or proud. 

Ddronddrom-biya, «. Boasts, boast- 
ing. See AvONA. 
Dbbo'kina, V, pass. See Dsbona. 
DE'TSAXA, «. A tiee. (Tan.) 
DEVO'LY,«. Thedeyil. [Eng. dm/.] 
DE'ZA. Root of the following. Comp. 


Voaddsa, v. pati. Erected, placed 
upright, made perpendicular. 

Adlia, V. pass. (imp. adezao,) Used 
of that which is set up straight. 

Deiaina, t*. pa$a. (Imp. deza6!) To 
be placed upright, to be made to 
stand in an erect posture. Used 
of one*s own body made upright 
by one's own act. 

Middza, v. int. (Imp. tnidezd; Rel. 
idezdna, Rel. Imp. ideza6.) To be 
upright, to stana erect. 

Middta, adj. Steep. Used in speak- 
ing of an ascent. The word used 
to describe a descent as steep is 


DY, Prov. for Dina. 

DY, or DI'A, adj. Wild, roving, sav- 
age. (Prov.) 

Dizina, r. pass. (Imp. dizlo.) To be 
made wild or roving. (Irov.) 

Mid^, V. int, (Imp. midiza; Bel. 
idltana, Rel. Imp. m^^so.) To re- 
main wild or savage. (Froy.) 
Kand^, v. tr. (Imp. mandxta; KeL 
andlzana, Rel. Imp. andtzo.) To 
render wild or savage. (P)roy.) 
Xankad^, v. tr. (Imp. mankadlsa; 
Rel. ankadltanQy Rd. Imp. anka^ 
dlzo.) To render wild. (Prov.) 
Kad^, adj. Savage, wUd, as one 
unaccustomed to mix in aooiety. 

Lt andMALy are used in some 
of the provinces for the preceding. 
DI'A, emj. Probably the same aa the 
following, and used oriffinally to 
indicate tiie next 9tep in £e narra- 
tive, etc. And, and so, them, even, 
in the next place. It is used to 
complete phrases, as : Aet vataoxo, 
DiA VITA i£T, And I did it, and so it 
was completed. It is often preceded 
by Ea, as: KantsoinaO aho, ka 
DIA TONGA, You Called me, and ao I 
have come. It is often a mere ele- 
gancy of speech. It is also used 
between two words, makiTig them 
emphatic, as: Tsaha dia tbaba. 
Very ^^ood ; Kataoko dia nataoko, 
I did it again and again, or, I really 
did it. 
Ha dia..aia, duft'. Even, though, 

Bia hod, adv. No, not so, by no 
Br A, <. A step, a footstep, a mark, 
a journey. [Probably connected 
witn Swa. f^ia, or ndia, a path, a 

Voadla, V. JMM4. Having been gone 
over by the feet, travelled over, 
Biftvina, v. paaa, (Imp. didvo.) To 
be trodden on, to be walked upon, 
to be measured by the foot. 
Mandia, v. int. (Imp. mandidtfa ; 
Rel. andidranOf Rel. Imp. andid' 
4-0.) To tread, to step ; to mea- 
sure with the foot, to fall in with 
one* 8 planM, to coincide with, to 
follow, to hit on the same idea, to 
Tsy mandii tiny. A phrase used in 
old songs in honour of the sover- 



ci^ ; lit. notto touch the groim& 

with the feet. 
Xiira-dla. To go together. See 

■lain^dU. To track, to follow. 

See Aba-dza. 
Sitatefo-dk, To track, etc. See 

Via* dia. To take walking exer- 

oiae. See Aaa bza. 
WiiH^^dla. Totraoe anythiiig to 

Its aoaioe. See Voaza nzA. 
Xaateodia. To get into step. See 


Kahayiry dia. To divert one's at- 
tention from something. SeeYsBT 

Xaaiiydia. To diverge from, to di- 
vert attention from. See Abt dia. 

■anaA aadlany. To go in com- 
panies, flocks, or herds. 

Irat dia 1naW^^^ina. A great number 
of people going together. 

Yanoiamiika, «. A species of sand- 

Siper; lit. sand-st^per. Aetitis 
ypolmcutf L. 
DfA a'loka. [aloza, shade.] Boot 
of the following : — 
Xaadia iloka, adj\ Coincident, 
ooiTioiding, concurrent; lit. to 
walk on Sie shadow. (Prov.) 
]>i'a aka'raha. fANARANA, a name.] 
Boot of the following : — 
Mandia anirana, adj\ To be of like 
character with one's name. 
DfA BX, f. [bb, great.] 
■anaA dia be. To go together in a 
great company. See Ajn>iAKT. 
Dz^aica'boa, «. ^iCAMOA, excellent.] 
A game of kickmg backwards. See 
Daxa and Tsipaxa. 
Afllana diaminga. (Imp. 0*10 dia- 

mdfifa.) Kicked backwards. 
Xamily diaminga. (Imp. mamelha 
diamima; Bd. ameUzan^diamdn" 
£«, Bel. Imp. ameUto diamdnga,) 
To kick backwards. 
Mifamdly diaminga. To play the 
game called Diahanoa. 
Dz^A mxawo'tra, <. Groing backwards 
without turning the face. See 

Kaaad dia miandtra. To go back 
without turning away the face. I 

DfAX-PABJA'vA, «. [fabjava, the 
moon.] Moonlight. (Prov.) See 


game.] Hie cross marks made on the 
ground or a board for playing the 
game Fanobona. 


a fowl, FAHAVABATBA, summcr.] A 
mode of plaiting the hair. (Prov.) 


prince.] A slow progress, but joined 
oy others constantly. 

DfAB-ZA'MiNA, c. [eanuta, food.] Dif- 
ferent varieties of food. 

Di'an-xa'poxa, «. [kapoka, a blow.] 
The wales or bruises made by a 
whip or anything else used in nog- 
g^g. See Vatra. 

DfAN-O'UTBA, «. [OLITBA, a gTub.] A 

zigzag motion like that made by 


][ana6 dian-dlitra. To move in a 
zigzag manner. 
Di'an-o'icby ja'hba, 9. [oxBT, an ox, 

JA3CBA, blind.] Tlie steps of a blind 


][aBa6 dlan-6mby jimba. To floun- 
der and rush about like a blind 
Di'an-o'ndrt, «. [ONDBT, a sheep.l 

The quick hurried stepping of 


Manad dian-6ndry . To act in a hurry. 
The phrase : Maika tsy fainoana 
TOT NT DiAN-ONDBY, IS an apt ren- 
dering of our English saying 
'Tbe more haste, the less speed.' 
DfAN-TA'NA, a, [tana, b ohamcleon.] 

The step of a chameleon. 

Xanad oian-tina. To act with great 

caution, as the chameleon, one 

eye looking before and the other 


DfAK-TSzafBT, 8, [tsibiet, a wild 

duck.] The marks of the Tsibibt 

on the sand ; a small kind of beads. 
Dia'sana, v. pa88. See Ducbt and 


Dz'a te'lo. [tblo, three.] Boot of the 
following : — 

Mandia tdlo. A three-legged sup- 
port for the weaving sticks ; a 



DfA To'NoonuL s'fatba, «. [tonootba, 
a foot, EFAT&A., four.] Gk>iiig on 
all fours. 

Xanad dla t^ngotra d&tra. To go 
on all fours. 

J)fiiL TST xa'nina, «. [tbt manina, not 
longing after.] A slow and deliber- 
ate movement, yet not pleasure. 

DfA T8Y Bo'TrniA, «. [tbt botitba, 
not nimble.] A deUberatelj slow 

Dia'yika, t, paa8. See Dia. 

BIAXO'VA, «. A deacon. [Eng. 

Diako'm-ba'yt, «. [tayt, feminine.] 
A deaconess. 

BrAJrsrABTA, «. The name of a bird. 
(Bets.) Neetarinia angladiana^ Sh. 

DrABY, ». A diary. [Eng. diary.'] 

DrAVO'LANA, «. [volana, the moon.] 
Moonlight. The former part of this 
woid is probably from an obsolete 
root Dia meaning brightness, 
purity, light. Comp. Dio, Zava. 
[Ar. taha^ luxit, spienduit; Heb. 
and Ghal. ziv^ splendour; Sansk. 
root div and dlo^ luxit, spien- 
duit, from which is the Lat. dwiu 
and de\i»t as well as /wpiter 
(/oris), and the Greek Z^ms (i>tos), 
d%alQ»--dee\oA and de\o%j bright. Also 
the Angels. Tiv ; Gk>th. tiui (cf . the 
Eng. Tuesday) ; Old Norweg. tyr 
(pi. tivar^ gods), and Old Grerman 
Zio is the same word.] 

BrBADI'BA, 04/. To be fuU to excess; 
distended, ssid only of the abdomen. 
See DiBOXA, DntmiBT. 
Xidibadiba, v, int. To be full of 

DrBIBI'BT, adj\ Full, as baskets, 

etc., replete, crowded, as a room. 

See DiBADiBA, Safotba, Tondraza. 

Ftao midiby. Filled to excess, as 

a water-pot. 

BrBOKA, a(;. Full, crowded, covered, 
as with water. 
Fdno diboka ny trino. The house 

is quite full. 
Bib6hana, v. pats, (Imp. dibhhy,) 

To be filled. 
Xidiboka (t), r. int, (Imp. midihoha ; 
Bel. idihohana^ Bel. Imp. idihohy,) 
To be fnU, to be brimful. 

BIBFBY, t, A simpleton, an idiot, 

an ignoramus, an imbecile. (Fror.^ 

Biderdna, v. pan, (Imp. diderho!) 
To be made simple, foolish, or 
imbecile. (Prov.) 

ICanadiddry, v. tr. To impose upon 
a person, to make a person appear 
foolish, to turn a person's head. 
BrBY, t. A cut, a command, an 

order, a law, a will. fMal. Utah,^ 

Lilt is used for this in the provinoea. 

▼oadidy, v, pass. Gut, commanded. 

Adidy, r. pass, ^Imp. odMlio,) Used 
of that with wnich anything is out. 

Bidlana, v, pass, (Imp. didto,) To 
be cut, to be ordered. 

Binidy. Passive with infix. 

Mididy, a^. Cut in a groove. 

Xandldy, «. tr, (Imp. mandidla; 
Bel. andidiana^ ue\. Imp. andidio,) 
To cut to command, to order. 

Vfttodidy, s. A soft kind of stone, 
used in ornamental stonework, 
and making lamp -stands and 
hearths. It is probably a Idnd 
of actinolite schist. 
Di'dt aka'vjo, s, [axanjo, a garment.] 

Used in speaking of the cutting out 

of clothes. 
DfDT ambo'nt va'nkona, s, [ascbokt, 

above, vaivzona, a plane.) Acting 

without the authority or permisaion 

of a superior. 
Dm^AM-Po'iTBA, V, pass. See Dn>i- 


obsolete except in this woidTj 
. Obstinacy, stubbornness. 


NA, s, [fananava, possessionB.] A last 

will and testament. 

Xandidy faninana. To make a last 

will and testament. 
Maadidy hardna is also used with 

the same meaning. 
Di'dt FfsAXA, s, [fisaka, flat.] Beef 
cut up in very thin pieces. 
Kanad didy nsaka, v, comp. To cut 

beef as above. 
DfDY Fo'iTRA, s, [foitba, the navel.] 
The cutting of the navel string ox 
newly-born children; also used in 
speaking of circumcision when 
women are present. 



JKdiaa-pMtrm, v. ptus. To be cir- 

Xaadidy Attn, p, &amp. To dr- 

Di'dt kra'fo, ff. [siTifOy a bag.] 
Catiiiiff into tarumgnlar pieoes to 
be stitohed together like a bag. 

Wtft x^'mba, «. [laxba, a gar- 

My liate, v. eomp. To oat 
• gazment to steal auniejr oat of 
it. Thepeopb generallj tie up 
their money in a oomer of their 
TMinu or outer garment. 
Dx'dT XA'jTAll-JA'nA, «. [kakaka, to 
have, SABA, a bt.l A method of 
catting ont women^s ffannente. 
Maaad didy miaan-jAra, v. comp. 
To be olothed in gannente oat as 
Dx'mifA'so, ff. and Ajp. [icabo, the eye.] 
A peraon haying sore ejree, blear- 
Di'vT xa'tt, ff. [iCATT, dead.] An 

obsoleto law. 
Di'Dnr-DBA'sAJTA, ff. [baeava, a fore- 
father.^ Laws handed down from 
the anciente or forefathers. Lildt- 
DBAZA is used in the proyinoes for 
Di'DDr-TA'irT, ff. fTAinr, earth, country.] 
The laws of the land, the customs 
of the country. 
Dx'Dor-TOo'KiHA, ff. JsoxxNA, a small 
hedgehog.] An mjory, or chaps 
under the toes. 
Dfmr soMFfBAMA, ff. [soicPiBANA, nar- 
lowing.] A method of catting wo- 
men s garmttits. 

■anad didy somplraaa, v. eomp. To 
be clothed in garments out as 
Dx'bt t^uova^ ff. [YEXxntAy living.] 

An old law, but yet in force. 
Di'dt ys'imBAjTA, adj, [txkdban a, sore 
eyeM.1 Sore-eyed, oy having the 
eyelias tamed up. 
DrBIT&A, ff. BoUincT, twisting. (Prov.) 
See Fadxditba, y AnmiTRA ; Lilitra 
also used. 

Adiditra, r. paag. (Imp. adidt/o.) 
Used of that which is to be twisted 
or rolled, as tobacco leaves, ete. 

Didifiuia, v, pau. To be rolled, to 
be twisted. (Frov.) 

Xandiditra, r. tr. (Imp. mandidlfa; 
Bel. andid\fana, Bel. Imp. andi' 
d\fo.) To twist or roll. (Prov.) ' 

Diditr* dlona. A casto, a tribe. 

A'n-diditra. Free from twistings. 

Ma&Ua diditra. To ontwist any- 
thing from that on which it has 
twirled or twined. (Prov.) 

Vahteo diditra tsAra. Bom of a 
good fsmily. (Prov.) 

Vahiso didi-dritfy. Bom of a poor 
family. (Prov.) 
BIS'HT, adv. Before that, during, 

whilst, if when ; inter. Would that I 

May ! This word is generally used 

of an opportunity that will not last 

BI'FT, ff. Taming aside ; a mode of 

plaiting the hair by dividing it on 

the f ONhead and oarryinff it behind 

the ears ; a border plaited in mats, 

baskets, hats, eto. Lift is used in 

the provinces. See Vilt, Hodivit&a. 

Tafsdifjr, r. pa$$. Used of 'one who 
has turned aside and is no longer 

Adify, V. pasa. ^Imp. adifio.) Used 
of the hair plaited in the above 
manner, or of something turned 

Dilkina, v, pau. (Imp. di/ao.) To 
be turned aside ; to be plaited in 
the above manner. (Pjrov.) 

Xidlfy, V, int. (Imp. midifia; Bel. 
andifiana, Bel. Imp. idifio.) To 
turn aside ; to have the hsir plaited 
as above. 

Xandify, V. tr. (Imp. mandifia; Bel. 
andifiana, Bel. Imp. andifio.) To 
plait mats, baskets, or hats in the 
above manner; fig. used of an 
affair or business concluded, or a 
law ratified. rProv.) 

FandiHana, ff. Conclusion, termi- 
nation, ratification, confirmation. 
A, ff. A frasment, a splinter, 
anything which flies off with vio- 
lence from a hard substance. See 



ToUlflka, V. pan. Hit with a | 

nBaier, or a fngnMut. 
XUkkft, V. in/. (B«L itUfikana.) \ 
To fljr oily to cbp off; to ifnit > 
npon, to drop on : to err. : 

lfaii<HHk>, V, tr. (Imi>. numdifiha; \ 
Bel. andifihmn0t BaL Inqi. a#Mli- 
/iA4>.) To chip off, to strike off, ; 
to wfkxt upon, to wander from the ' 
D^FX-BA'ainiA, «. [TABAnu, thunder.] 

A ol^» of thmider. (Pidt.) 
Di'fx-ba'to, ff. [tato, aetone.J Aohip 

of etone. 
BfFX-KA'co, «. [haco, wood.] A chip 

(Mf wood. 
DryOTSA, a4r. Submerged, over- 
whehned, deluged. See Savoxia, 

Xandifotra, v, int. To OTerflow, to 

ezoeed or be deeper than one's 


DriSY, #. A dance, dancing in the 

natlTd style. See Dahibb, Tsor- 


BihiiMltf V, pati. (Imp. dihito,) 
To be danced to, as was usual in 
visiting sick persons, or in paying 
honour to the idols, etc. 

Xiuidihy, V. int. (Imp. mandihha; 
Rel. and Pass, andihizana, Rel. 
Imp. andihUo.) To danoe. 

Xandihy tsy ifa-taTdny. To danoe 
before all danger is past ; lit. to 
danoe before the placenta is ft way . 

Xandihy tsy torakan-dimba. To 
danoe before one*s turn comes; 
lit. to dance before a Laioa 
is thrown to one. 

Xampaadihy ampdla. To twirl a 

Xampandihy ampinga. To brandish 
a shield. 
D^HT va'lt, «. [VALT, glad.] A dance 

of gladness. 
Di'KXNDi'KzxrA, «. A particular kind 

of gait in walking ; a busybody. 

Kidihiadihina, v, int. (Imp. mufi- 

hindihlnn ; Rel. idiMindiMmtutaf 

Bsi, Imp, idlAindiAino.) To walk 

as above ; to be a busybody. 

Dfirr ba'toha'vo, «. [ravobato, exul* 

taut.] A dance of exultation. 
Dxsx'iAHA, V. jMif . See Dnrr. 

BIXA Boot of the foDowing. Bee 

DunaxxA, VznxAy Vokdu. 

▼eadika, 9, pan, Ovenfeepped, 
crossed ; translated, as words mm 
one Isngwagc into another. 

Adika, r. pan, (Lnp. aJMuu,) Used 
Off thai which ii made to 0¥ia crt a p 
^nfm4»t^^it^g elsB, OT translated fron 
one language into another. 

Dikalma, 9. pan, (Jm^, dikao,) To 
be oventniped, to be trsnslated. 

Diaika. Pasnve with infix. 

Xidika, V. ini. To perform the 
ceremony of caxTjring acoipse over 
cattle killed for the occasion, or 
over slaves lying on the ground ; 
to perform the directions of the 
8nm>T on the administration of 
the TAKasiTA ordeal. 

Xandlka, v. tr. (Imp. mandikd; 
Rel. andikdnUf Bm, Imp. andikao.) 
To overstep, to trsns^ess a law 
or command, to translate or inter- 
pret; to bear at uncertain or 
distant intervals, as cattle. 

Bikany, i. Its translation. 

Fandika, $. A charm. 

Fandika ULlana, «. A provincial 
name for a wild cat-like animal. 

Kana6 rino dikaln* ny slnga. Not 
getting or taking what one is 
entitlMi to. 

Biao mandika nftmaaa. Used of 
water under which a channel has 
beoi cut for a stresm to go 
under; lit. water crossing over 
its fellow. 

Xandlka s6« Viaahiry. To alter 
the orders of the king, to disobey, 
to reject some lawful authority. 
Used idso of one who does not 
appreciate what God gi^os him. 

Vy M^n^^v^ miadry. The ridge of 
of a house. (Prov.) 

Xaaila dika. To exorcise. See 
under Ala. 

In the provinces Dika, or Lixa, 
is used in salutations, etc., expres- 
sing servile submission to any one, 
or m our polite sense of, I am 
vour servant. 

Ukaaa6 ay Idhako. I prostrate 
myself before you, and you may 
step over me. (F^v.) 



SrXADrXA. Boot of the following ; 
probably rednp. of preoeding. 
Dikadilcaiiut, v. pau. (Imp. dXhadi- 
kao.\ To be wrougnt unmethod- 
ically, to be OTentopped, as the 
letters of the alphabet pointed at 
but not in regnuar order. 
KldiVidlka, v. int. To be irregular 

in one*8 work. 
gawdilradHra, v, tr, (Imp. man- 
dikadikd ; Rel. andtkadikana, Bel. 
Imp. andikadikdb.) To work 
unmethodically, to oyerstep. 
Dikai'ha, f . poM, See Dika. 
DIYAXBA. Uaed as follows :— 
LiUUhymadikatra. Agoodpedes- 
tri an. fProv.) 
Di'JLXy ff. Dung. Uaed of human 

dnng only. See Tat. 
SrXIDrKT, «. Vexation, annoyance. 
See SoeoTBJL, Tssttba. 
Hakadikidiky, r. inU and tr. To 
Tex , to annoy, to worry. 
DrKIVA, Mfc*. Three times, thrice. 

DrXITBA, t. Anger, displeasure. 

See I>ixxi>iKT, SoeoraA, Tezitra. 

Makadikitra, v. tr. To anger, to 
dirolease, to annoy, to yex. 
DFXBIOVA'BT, t. A dictionary. 

[Eng. ift«<i«iMry.] 
9rLA, «. ProT. for Ajcfqmbo, which 

DrLA, A(f. Not caught, imperfectly 
heard. (Proy.) 
DUa ny iMko. I have not heard 

well. (Prov.) 
Dilm TiTa iko. I was wrong in 

what I said. (ProT.) 
Dilm lUaaa. (I) got into the wrong 

war. (ProT.) 
IMlaaiiaka. Not having found one's 

child. (Prov.) 
DFLA. Boot of the following : — 
ifi^n«^»^ fr. tn^ To be slender 

and high, as a chimney, a hat, or 

the hump of an ox. (Prov.) 
Dx'iasi'la, 8. A provinoiai name for 

tiie game Avooatskda, which see. 
DFLASA, «. and adj. The slender 
and middle part of any long thin^, 
as a chandelier, a cup, a defile m 
a mountain, a gorge, or a forest; 
amall in tiie micQle. 

▼oadllana, v. pm»$. Made small in 

the middle. 
Bilinina, v. ptus. (Imp dildno.) To 

be made small in the middle. 
Mandilana, v. tr. (Imn. mandildna; 

lifil. andildnanaf Bel. Imp. andi» 

Idno.) To make small in the middle. 
Xadllana, Mff. Small in the middle. 
Andilana, #. The loins. 
ATikadiUnana, «. A neck of land 

joininff two hills, having a valley 

on ea<m side. 
Bz'LAM-Bo'ifoo, i. [bonoo, a hill.] A 
passage between two hills, a pass. 
Dtlak-a'la, i. [axjl, a forest.] A 
forest pass, or a depression between 
two wooded hills. 

DfLAN-DUA'KO, S. [BANO, watCT.] A 

Sorge through which the water 
DFLATBA, s. Sedimentaiy deposits 
of earth. 

Tiny dllatra, t. Clay, fine soil de- 
posited by a stream or current. 
See Takt xanoa. 
DriiATBA,a«fr Almost, nearly. (Prov.) 
DI'LO, ». The pain or sensation of 
havinff the teetn set on edge. Lilo 
is used in the provinces. 
MakadUo, v. tr. To set the teeth 

on edge. 
Madilo, Mf/. Being set on edge. 
Xadllo, t. The tamarind tree. 
Mt^OfOdJ. Smarting, in pain. (Prov.) 
DI'LO. Boot of the following. Prov. 
for Bkbaka, Valo, KsioirA. 
Dildvina, v. pau. (Imp. dilovjf.) 

Prov. for Ibbbahama. 
Madilo (or Malilo), r. int. (Imp. 
madilova; Bel. adilovana, Bel.Imp. 
adilovy.) To repent, to beg pardon. 
Mankadilo, r. tr. To punish, to 
make to repent. (Prov.) 
BrLOI'LO, 9. liinoeed oil, olive oil. 

[Ft. de VhuiU.'] 
BrJjOTKK. Boot of the following :— 
Yoadilotra, r. ptus. Made to creak 

by being rubbed. 
Adilotra, r. pass. ^Bel. adilbry.) 
To creak. Used of that which is 
used in rubbing so as to be made 
to creak. 



Dildrina, v. pau. (Imp. dilorif,) To 
be mbbed so as to oreak. 

Midllotra, v. int. (Imp. idilorana.) 
To oreak. 

Xandllotra, v, tr, Hjnp. tnandilora ; 

Rel. andilorana, Bel. Imp. andilo- 

ry.) Tomb so as to make to creak. 

Dzlo'tzka, V, past. See Dzlo. 

BI'MA, s, A small wooden vessel 

used in baling water out of a oanoe. 

YoadimEi v. paag. Having had the 
water baled out, as a canoe. 

Bimaina, tr. pass. (Imp. dimac.) To 
have the water baled out. (ttoy.) 

Xidima, V. int. To bale water out 
of a canoe. (Proy.) 
DDIA't t. A great feast. 
BrMAXA, «. A palm with edible 

fruit. (Sak.) S^ Babika. 
BI'MA'VTST, s. Sunday. (Proy.) 

See Alahadt. [Ft, Ditnanch^,'] 
BIXA IT, 8. A small kind of leech 

found in the forest. 
BI'MBAN A, 04^'. Irregular formation, 

as the horns of cattle which grow 

irregularly ; also, in the provinces, 

notched, chipped, cut, defaced. 

Mandimbana, v, tr. (Imp. mandim- 
bana; Rel. andimbdnana, Bel. Imp. 
andimbdno.) To notch, to chip, 
to deface, ^^v.) 

Bimbadimbam-bdlana. Words taken 
contrarily to the sense intended. 

Bimbadimban-iia. Work contraiv 
to what it ought to be; work 
spoiled. (Prov.) 
BI'MBT, 8. Succession, substitution, 

change ; a child. See Solo, Sosoka. 

Yoadimby,!;. jMw«. Succeeded, chang- 

Adimbj, v, pass, (Imp. adimbdso,) 
Used of that which takes the place 
of or succeeds something else. 

Bimbiiana, or Bimbiiana, v, pass, 
(Imp. dimbdso.) To be substi* 
tuted, replaced, or succeeded. 

Biiiana, t;. pass, irreg, (Imp. didso,) 
Same as preceding. 

Mandimbj, v, tr. (Imp. mandimbd' 
say or mandidsa ; Kel. andimbd- 
tanaf or andidsana^ Bel. Imp. om- 
dimbdsOf or andidso,) To sabsti- 

tnte, to Bucoeed, to take the place 

Bimbin' lo, adv. After that, nearer. 

Fira ty dimby, t. Children. 
Di^mbim-ba't , 8, [vat, a boil J A name 

given to the disease called Fababiba, 

which see. (Prov.) 
DfMBiNA'LA, s, [ala, a forest.] A 

shrub. JBmbsha eoneinna^ Baker; 

and Salleria teiragona^ Baker. 
DfMBiN-A'NTST, ff. [amtbt, a knife.] 

The aftercrop growing up of itself ; 

lit. ^at which is after the sickle. 



hand.] The after-growth, or that 

which grows after the real crop has 

been plucked up or picked off by 

hand. (Prov.) 
BI'MT, a^. Five. Lnrr is used in 

the provinces. PFound in numerons 

Mai. Arch, and Polyn. languages 

as lima and rtma. j 

Bimina, v, pass, (Imp. dimio,) To 
be divided into five. 

Midimy, v, int. To divide into 

Bimam-pdlo. Fifty. 

Biman-j&to. Five hundred. 

Fahadimy. The fifth ; five fathoms. 

Ampahadlminy. The fifth part, one 

Indimy. Five times. 

BimyvdntytyTdamdna. Two-pence 
plus a sixth. 

Hadimiana. Five days. 

Anttiia-pahadiminy. Fivevaxdsof 
calico ; lit. half of five fauioms. 
Di'mam-ja'tola'ht, s, [laht, mascu- 
line.] The five hundred men ; a 

name given to the guards in Anta- 
DficANJE'HT, 8, [exht, a Span.] A 

young soldier. 
Df xinaicba'tbt, ff. [akbatbt, a kind 

of seed.] Fourpenoe less a sixth. 
BUCaHT, ff. A kind of bird with a 

bro wn b ody. (Prov.) 
BI'MPITSA, ff. A provincial name 

for the bird Railott, which see. 
BIMPO'AHA, a^j. Feeling squeamish, 

nauseated, sickly. 
BrMPOTBA, ff. A bird of ill omen« 

LzKPOTBA is used in the provinoes. 

Mir—mirGiDiNO r. 


9IV-, or DDC-. These letters are often 
found at the beginning of oertain 
words ; they are the sign of a passive 
with infix. See DiNiPTy under Di- 
DT, etc. 
DIHA, «. A fine, a penalty, a forfeit, 
a mulct, especially imposed for the 
nan- p^ormance of a contract or 
for neglect of a pnblio order. 
■ftBEd dina. To publish the wishes 
of the sovereign ; to come under 
an engagement of some public 
serrioe ; to impose a fine for neg- 
lect of a command or of some 
public serrioe. 
DfNA'sA, «. [aei, work.] Used as 
follows: — 

Xaaad dinisa. To perform some 
service whioh is binding upon all 
the people. 
BIHA, or DT, «. A declaration, a 
pnbUc or solemn protestation before 
heaven and earth. (Prov.) 
■aaad dina. To make a solemn 
declaration, to announce publicly, 
to make a promise or a solemn 
vow. (Provji 
Ydlona dina. Holding to what one 

has sworn. (Prov.) 
Mity dina. Having violated one's 

vow. (Prov.) 
■ahtaiby dina. Having no fear of 
taking an oath or making a vow. 
DIVA, a«y. Not entire. (Prov.) 
Dinaka, r. past. To be cut off. 

Kaniiina, v. tr. To cut a piece off. 

DniASI'XA (1), 04;. Swollen, hard, 

BrVAKA, s. Flogging, beating vio- 
lently. See Hayokavoka. 
Diainina, r. pass, (Imp. dindho.) 
To be beaten, to be cudgelled. 
Bedup. also used. 
1faii^i*^^«^^«^, r. tr. (Imp. man- 
dlnadindha ; Bel. andinadindhanaf 
Rel. Imp. andinadindho.) To 
beat, to flog, to thump, to cudgel. 
DtvjLSA, V. pass. See Dixa. 
Dxka'na, f . pass. See Dint. 
DmrLO, s. An herb, a decoction of 
idiioh is used in washing the hair. 

DrVBrVA Same as Eutzzna, which 
BrVDO, s. The soul. See Ambiboa, 


Mamtta dindo. To bid adieu, to 
prepare for death, to bid adieu to 
me; to give a feast; to oome 
into notice by any unusual cKffort 
and then to m overtaken by de Ath. 
BrVaADrvaAVA, «. a kind of fish. 

BI'VaABrvaAHA, ». a shrub, the 
leaves of which are used for anneal- 
ing new water-pitchers; the latter 
are heated and then rubbed wi^ 
the leaves. The leaves are also 
used for condyloma ; the Sihanaka 
use them for scabies. Fsiadia dodo* 
naafoliUj St. 


European.] A small shrub, a decoc- 
tion of the leaves of which is used 
as a purgative. Gendarussa vtUgaris. 
Di'noadi'noakdba'ivo, s. [banc, water.] 
A shrub whioh grows in damp 
situations. In the provinces it means 
a black and round animal resembling 
an enormous leech. 
BI'VGAITA, s. A step, a leap. See 
DiKA, VnmrA. 

Tafitdingana, r. pass. Having step- 
ped over. 
Yoadingana, v. pass. Stepped over. 
Adlngana, v. pass. Tlmp. adingdno.) 
Used of that which is made to 
Binginina, r. pass. (Imp. dingdno.) 
To be stepped over, to be jumped 
over, as a log or a ditch. 
Mandi n ga n a, r. tr* (Imp. manditt' 
ffdna; Bel. andingdfiana^ Bel. Imp. 
andingdno.) To step over, to leap 
over, to jump to from a distanoe, 
to skip in reading. 
Di'koanda'bt, s. [laht, masculine.] 
A shrub. (Tan.) 

DfNOAN-DA'VA, S. [lAVA, loug.] A 

long step. 

Manaft oingan-diTa. To take long 
BrHeiBrVGT, «. Height, loftiness, 
as of a peak or tower, or the cocked 
up tail of a dog. See LnroxLXKOT. 



Xidlngidingy, a^. To be high, 
DrireiDrVeT. Boot of the foUow- 


▲dingidingy, v. pass. (Imp. adingi' 
dinglo,) Used of a lanoe fiixnly 
fixed in an ox, or in the trunk of 
a tree. (Prov.) 

Midlngidingy, v. inU (Bel. idingi- 
dingiana,) To be stlif, as the tail 
of an ox in running, or as a lanoe 
fixed in the body of an ox, or in 
a tree. 
BI'VOIVA, «. Going beyond others in 

honours, marks in examination, eto. ; 

advance, excess. 

Adingina, v. pas*, (Imp. adinglno.) 
To be made to have more than, 
to be made to go beyond. 

Dinginana, v. p€U8. (Imp. dinglno,) 
To be exceeded, to be left behind. 

Midingina, v. int, (Imp. mtdingina; 

Eel. idinginatMy Bel. Imp. idingi' 

no.) To exceed, to advance, to 

go beyond. 

DIHOrZA, $. Indian shot, ^tsim.) 

Same as Axbabadeda (Betsim.), 

Vabandenda. (Tank.), BANaiaoTBA 

(Betsim.), Gingiza. (Tank.), and 

TsiPiKOPixo (Bets.), which last see. 

which see. 
DI'HY, adj. Supportable. (Prov.) 

See Tanty. 

Bin&sana, orDl&tana, v,pas8. (Imp. 
dindWf or didso.) To be attended 
to or endured patiently. (Prov.) 

Mandiny, v. tr. (Imp. mandindsa; 

Bel. andindsanay Bel. Imp. andind^ 

80.) To wait patiently for. (Prov.) 

Dini'hina, v. pass. See Dinika (u.). 

DI'VIXA, 8. Anything small, mmute 


Madinika, ae(;. Often pronounced 
Majinika. Small, minute, slen- 
der, little, fine, of cloth, etc. 

Malinika. Prov. for the preceding. 

Madini-b61o. Close grained, fine, 
as fine granite, stone, etc. 

Madini-drdndiika. Same as preced- 
DrNlKA, «. Conversation, rumina- 
tion, private examination, secrets, 

affairs in detail. ' See the preoeding. 

Yoadinika, v, pat8. Examined into, 
talked over, admonished, told 

Pinlhina, r. pa88. (Imp. diniho.) 
To be examined into, to be 
talked over minutely, to be ad- 

Xldinika, v. int, (Imp. midiniha: 
Bel. idinihana, Bel. unp. idinihoJj 
To converse secretly, to talk ovu- 
affairs minutely and singly. 

|ftTi^<n41ra.^ (7. tr. (Imp. mandiniha ; 
Bel. andinihanaf Bel. Imp. andi' 
mho.) To scrutinize doeely, to 
admonish minutely, to specify, to 
relate individually, to partionlar- 
ize; to ruminate, to chew the 
cud ; to investigate, to pry into. 

Andininy, «. A verse. 

Aii«»fiiii^nilrA, adj. Looked at mi- 

nutelv, examined carofully, talked 

over m detail. All the forms of Di- 

NiKA are frequently reduplicated. 

DrmTSA, 8. Sweat, perspiration. 

LiNiTBA. (Prov.) See Tssmboka. 

Yoadlnitra, r. p(U8, Made to per- 
spire. (Prov.) 

Binirina, v. pa99, (Imp. dimro,^ To 
be made to perspire. (Prov.) 

Bindrinf , <k^'. In a state of per- 
spiration. (Prov.) 

A'ta mahadiniriiia. A fatiguing 
work. (Prov.) 

Binitr' dmbU&hy, or Binitr' a6mby. 
(Yvov,) 8. The oold sweat of a 
ayinff person. 

Xiyda-dinitra (or Yda-dlnitra) . [voa- 

ZA, gone out.] To perspire freely. 

BI'lTTA, 8. A leech. Lxkta is used 

in the provinces. [Mai. lintah.'^ 
Di'ntambo'rona, *. [voEONA, a bird.] 

A species of leech that attaches 

itself to the heads of water-fowl. 
DfNTANA'LA, 8. [ala, a forest.] A 

species of leech found in the forest. 

Probably a speoies of ffoenuuiipsa. 
Di'ntandba'no, ». [rang, water.] A 

species of leech found in water. 
BIHTTHIVA,*. A tree with strikingly 

red flowers. Sgmphonia ehmoidet. 


An anvil stand, an anvil block. See 




DriTUKA. Same as Ditbdea, which 

BrO, ff. GlcanlineBfl) purity, bright- 
ness. Lio is used in some proyinoes 
for Dio. [See note to Diayolana.] 
Tm^o, p. past. Cleansed, purified. 
UMna, V. pau. (Imp. diovff.) To 

be cleansed, to be purified. 
Kdio, r. int. (Imp. midUva; Bel. 

idiovana, Bel. Imp. idiovy.) To 

purify one*B self, to undergo the 

TAHOzir A ordeal as an expurgation. 
■aadio, v. tr. (Imp. mandiova ; Bel. 

andidv€ma, Bel. Imp. andwvy.) To 

cleanse, to purify, to brighten. 
Xaaadlo, v. tr. Same as preceding 

and more frequently used. 
Xadlo, tuy. (Imp. madiovay,) Clean, 

clear, pure, unoontaminated, free 

from guilt. 
Eadidvanm, or FahadidTana, «. 

Cleanliness, purity. 
Faadiorino, s. A species of water- 
MPA'TY, t. A tree. (Prov.) 
OIPLTO, 8. Small shot, pellets. [Fr. 

d^ plotuh.'l 
OXPOATATBA, t. Pepper. [Fr. de 

DI'BIDI'BT, i. Tenseness, . tension. 
See DiBABiBA. 
Adiridirj, v. past. (Imp. eidiridirto.) 

Used of that which is stretched 

or made to be tense. 
Uridirina, v. pass, (Imp diridirlo,) 

To be made tense, to be stretched ; 

to be looked earnestly at. 
Xidiridiry, tub'. <uid v. int. (Bel. 

idiridiAana.) Stretched to the 

full, tense, swollen hard ; to stare 

DfaiNA, V. pau. See Ditra. 
dl'KO, 8. Tartness, acidity. (Ftoy.) \ 
Xadlro, adj. Add, tart» bitter, 

sour. (PiroT.) 
Xadiro, or Madllo, «. The tamarind 

tree. ^*roy.) See Madilo. 
drKOVDCZA, 8. An imprecation, 
equivalent to "Hay calamity befall 


.*9 it 

Be accursed." See Ioitba. 

DI'BOTA'ITTT, f . Iodide of potassium. 

From the French. 
BrBA. Boot of the following. Lisa 

is also used. 

Yoadisa, v. past. Pounded in a 
mortar, as rice, etc. (Proy.) 

Disinina, v. past. (Imp. disdno.) To 
be pounded. (Iroy.) 

Mandisa, v. tr. (Imp. manditd ; Bel. 
tmdisdna, Bel. Imp. andisac.) To 
pound in a mortar. (Proy.) 

Xadiia, a4f. Tired of waiting. 

Bisadisa, m^. Tired of wsiting, 
tired of lying down, etc. 

Lilana maoita. A road covered 
with g^rass and shrubs ; that which 
has been much trodden on. 

Madisadlsa, adj. Tossing, restless, 
sleepless, weary. 
BI'BAKA, or BrSADrSAXA, adj. 

Broken to pieces, smashed, bruised, 

dashed ; exhausted, as money ; tired, 

wearied. See Sasatra, MOkotra, 

Trotroka, Valajca. 

Yoadisaka, r. pass. Smashed, brok- 
en ; exhausted, wearied. 

Bisihina, v. pass, (Imp. disdho.) 
To be broken to pieces, to be ' 
exhausted, to be smashed ; to be 
made weary. 

Mandisaka, v. tr. (Imp. mandisdha; 

Bel. andisdhana, Bel. Imp. andi' 

sdho.) To break, to smash, to 

dash, to weary, to exhaust. 

DiSA'inNA, V. past. See Disa. 

BIBE'LT, t. Epsom salts. [Fr. du tsW] 

BrSO, adj. and t. Wrong, mistaken, 

in error, guilty, absent, missing ; 

an error, failure. Used also in 

speaking of the death of the rela* 

tives of the sovereign. 
It governs the accusative case in 

the sense of missing some one, as : 

Diso azt aho. 

Tafadlso, v. past. Used of one who 
has intentionally turned aside ibo 
avoid meeting some one. 

Yoadiio, V. p€itt. Made wrong, etc. 

Bisdina, r. past, (Imp. d%s6y.) To 
be transgressed, to be erred ag^dnst, 
to be offended, to be made guilty. 

ICandiio, v. tr. (Imp. manditda ; 
Bel. anditdanay Bel. Imp. andi* 
t6y.) To err, to transgress, to 
offend, to miss, to cause to err, 
to lead into error. 


i>130 FAMPA^A—DlfSl^A. 

EadiidAiia, or Fahadiidana, «. Error, 
guilt, oriminality, failure, defi- 

BIm luajM. In the wrong road, 
having lost one'B way. 

DIm TAva. A ^p of the tongue, 
an unbeoominff expression. 

▼aiiha diio namana. Used in 

speaking of a native with a fair 

skin; lit. a European who has 

lost his companions. 

Dfso fa'icpana, «. [faicpana, a chasm, 

a precipice.] Excess, superfluity. 

Probably from water flowing over m 

excess. See Mihoa-pahpana. 
Dz^BO la'xana, s. [laxana, a canoe.] 

A river which has changed its 

course, and hence used for excess, 

superfluity. (Prov.) 
Dfso o'katba, «. [oHATiLA, a measure.] 

Excess, being beyond the measure 

or limit. 
Dfso va'la, a4;. [vala, an enclosure.] 

An ox that has got out of the 

enclosure; used for abundant, plen- 
tiful, much, many. 
BrSO. Boot of the following :— 

Adiio, V, pass, (Imp. adisoy.) To be 
moved, to be put back. flVoy.) 

Xidlfo, V, int. (Imp. miditoa ; Bel. 

idiaoana, Bel. Imp. idiady,) To 

move, to change place, to be put 

back. (Prov.) 

BITE', ». Tea. [Fr. du the.] 

BI'TY, i. Gum, resin, anything viscid; 

obstinacy. Lxtt is used in me pro- 

YoAdity, V, pata* Joined by gpum. 

Aditj(1), v.pasa. (hap. aditio.) Used 
of anything that is employed as 

Bitiana, v. paaa, (Imp. ditio.) To 
be gummed, to be inade to adhere 
to. DxTiviNA is used in the pro- 

ICidity, V. int, (Imp. miditla ; Bel. 
iditianaf Bel. Imp. iditio.) To be 
sticking together, to be obstinate. 

Manditj, v. tr. Tlmp. manditta; Bel. 
anditiatMf Bel. Imp. anditio.) To 
g^um, to make anything adhere to 
something ebse by pasting, gum- 
ming, or fflueing. Used also of 
mortar and olay. 

Xidity, eu(f. Gummy, viscous, glu- 
tinous, tenacious, adhesive. 
DfTiLA'xANA, «. [laxana, a canoe.] 

A tree, from which oozes out a 

gfummy substance used in s'lueing 

together broken or cracked pots, 

canoes, etc. (Bets.) 
DfTiNo'NOXA, «. A shrub, from the 

juice of which bird-lime is made. 

Probably a species of Rolarrhena. 
BrXBA, 8. Obstinacy, contumacy, 

stubbornness ; hardness, as of wood, 

string, etc. See Kibt, Hxsmu.. 

Blrixia, v, pan. (Imp. dtro.) To be 
persisted in, to be made the sub- 
ject of constant dispute. 

Xanad ditra. To act stubbornly, 
to be contumacious. 

Xifanditra, r. recip. (Imp. mifan* 
dira; Bel. ifandWana^ Kel. Imp. 
ifandiro.) To contend, to contest, 
to quarrel, to dispute. 

Tifandirana, «. Dispute, contest, 

ICadltra, adj. Obstinate, stubborn, 

Wet, soaked, drenched. See Akpo- 


Yoaditaaka, v. jMiM. Soaked, drench- 
Bittfthina, r. pats. (Imp. (j^taiho.) 

To be soaked, to be drenched. 
Xanditsaka, v. tr. (Imp. matidi* 
tsaha ; Bel. anditadhanay Bel. 
Imp. anditadho.) To drench, to 
Ma&dltsaka, adj. Soaked, drenched. 

Xandltsa-bdlana. Eflfeminate in 

speech. (Prov,) 
Xandltsa-diya^. Full of wine or 

rum. (Prov.) 
Y&ry mandltsaka. Bice well moist- 
ened with water. (Prov.) 
BFTSIKA, 9. Dust in one^s eye, any- 
thing in the eye exciting pain ; the 
condition of a person or animal whose 
eyes are hurt with anything that 
has got in; a person overwhelmed 
with grief; sand or fine earth put 
on writing instead of blotting- 
paper; anvthing filling up holes, 
as the small hol^ of a sieve. 



▼oaditiikii, r. pan. Pained by hav- 
mg something in the eye ; ooyer- 
ed with Band; stopped up. 

M trihim , r. pats, (Imp. diuiho.) 
To be caused to have dust, etc., 
in the eye, etc., as above. 

KlditrilfR, V. int. To hare dust, 
etc., in the eye. (ProT.) 

Mandltilka, «. tr. (Imp. mandiUiha ; 
Bel. trndxttxhtma^ Bel. Imp. andi' 
tot'Ao.) To cause one to hare dust, 
etc., in the eye, etc., as above. 

■aaad ambda ditfiJui. To act like a 
dog* who has dust in his eye, and 
bites and growls at everything he 
can reach : to act recklessly. 
DFTA. Boot of the following : — 

SiTaiiia, «. /mim. (Imp. <fit?ao.) To 
be made to be almost used up. 

XanadiTE, «. ir. (Imp. manadivd; 
Bel. anadivdna, Kel. Imp. anadi' 
TOO.) To make to be on the point 
of arrival at the time. 

XadiTE, adv. Almost, nearly, on 
the verge. Comp. Saixt. 

KadlTa ho tdnga iiy. He is on the 
point of coming. 

Madiva hitringa. On the point of 
DIVAT', J. Wine. [Fr. du vin,] 
DIVAT'. A small shrub, the flowers 

of which are used in making a kind 

of wine. Hihiseus SabdarifayJj. Same 


DIVAI'VA, s. A kind of mulberry 
tree and fruit. (Prov.) See Voabot, 


DIZS'HA. See Dozsna. 

Dizz'na, r. poM. See Dt. 

00, ». A species of boa ; the natives 
say it receives its name from the 
noise it makes. Pekphilut mada' 
gOMearienna, Same as AzoiCA, and 
lUimbo do liy. He has a strong 

and offensive odour like the Do. 
D6bd, adj. Huge, enormous. 

DO'ASO'A, <m(;'. Extravagant, prodi- 


daddft, V, int. (Imp. midoadodvOf 
Bel. iiloadodvanaf Bel. Imp. idoa' 
dadvy.) To be prodigal, to waste, 
to act like a spendthrift; to be 

DOA'FAKA [root not known], v, pau^ 
(Imp. dodfy.) To be beaten, to be 
cudgelled. See Tonafana. 
DO' AHA. Boot of the following :— 
Yoaddana, v. pats. Knocked at, 

pushed at, pushed open, forced 

open with violence. 
DolUuma, v. pass. (Imp. dodny.) To 

be pushed violently, to be opened 

forcibly ; to be fired off. 
Manddana. «. tr. (Imp. numdodna; 

Bel. andodnana^ Bel. Imp. andod* 

ny.) To strike or push violently 

at a door, to force open. 
DOA'HA. See Ladoakt. 
DOBE'BAXA. Boot of the following :— 
See Bebaxa, shallow. 
Xidobdbaka, v. int. To fold down, 

to bend down, to double down, as 

a basket when filled with rice. 
DOBrBIXA, s. Collecting together 
without any cause, assembling with* 
out occasion ; a collection of any* 
thing not intended for use. fProv.J 
Adobibika, v. pass. (Imp. adwihiho.) 

To be collected, as above. 
Kidobibika, v. int. (Imp. fnido" 

bibiha; Bel. idohibxhana, Bel. 

Imp. idoHbiho.) To collect, as 

DOBI'BIKA, s. A provincial name 

for tobacco. See Pabazt. 
DO'BO, s. A pond, a pool, a reservoir. 
See Fabiht, Kajiobt. 
Ldka middbo. A canoe which has 

upset or has beoome full of water. 

DO'BOXA, s. A sound, resonance, 
reverberation, noise, especially the 
noise of a drum. 
Yoaddboka, v. pass. Beaten, as a 

drum, or a person struck. 
Dobdhana, or Dobdfana, v. pass. 

(Imp. dobbhy.) To be beaten, as 

a diiim, or a person struck. 
Xiddboka, v. int. (Bel. idobohana.) 

To sound with a loud noise, as a 

drum, or the noise made by a 

turkey in strutting. 
Xanddboka, v. tr, (£mp. mandoboha; 

Bel. andobohana, Bel. Imp. ando* 

bohy.) To beat a drum. 
DOBO'KA. Provincial for Pkebaza, 
which see. See Daboka. 



XUobdka, v. int. To ait, to flqaat. 

IKKDAN A, o^r*. Consumed by fin ; in 

a hnzzy. See Dodona. 
DO'DO. Boot of the following. See 
Boddina, i^. past, (Imp. dodo^.} To 

be trodden on. |^*iot.) 
]Duid6do, V. tr. C^np- mafidbdtfa; 

Bel. ofidio^tfafiay Bel. Iinp* aiufo* 

if^.) To tread i^Km. (ftOY.) 
DOBO', i. and m^'. A spendthnft, 
a prodigal, a thonghtlefls rake; 
danng, adTentorouBy imxaovident^ 
waetcSnly boasting, ostentatious, 
showing off, prodigal. 
Xidodd, V. int. To waste, to be 

prodigal, to liye loxnrioiudy. 
Xanad dod6. Same as preceding. 

IK^DOBO'IH), «. Bunning, galloping, 
speed, celerity ; the noise that is made 
by the feet in running or groping. 
See Ky.ATA, HAr.ATAZATA, Maona, 
]Cid6dod6do, v, int. (Imp. midSdo* 

dod6a ; Bel. id6dodod6ana^ Bel. Imp. 

%d6dodod6y.) To gallop, to run 

with speedf. 
Ma&d6doa6do, r. tr, (Imp. mafi^- 

dodod6a ; Bel. antUdododiana, Bel. 

Imp. andddododojf. To make a 

person or a horse to gallop; to 

run after. (ProT.) 
Dono'iNA, V. pats. See Dodo. 
BO'BOXA, a4f\ In haste, hurrying, 

bustling. See Bono, Dodona. 
BO'BOHA, atff. In haste, ardent, 
Tehement. See Dodo, Dodoka. 
Yoadddona, v./Mwf. Hastened, hur- 
Boddnina, v, pats, (Imp. dodony,) 

To be urged, to be set to. 
Xand6doiia, v, tr, (Imp. fnattdod6' 

na; Bel. andoddftatia^ Bel. Imp. 

andoddny,) To hurry a person. 
BOBO'SUTA, r. pass, irreg. (Imp. 
dodoty.) To be followed, pursued, 
run after. 
BO'FA, t* A word used in making a 
proper name, etc., as Badofa, Ifr. 
][id6fkd6£a, adlj. Clumsy in build, 

or obtuse in mind. 

BCKFITBA (1). Boot of the follow- 
Yoaddfltra (1), v, pass. Hit against, 

struck, as with a hammer. 
Bofirina (1), v. pass. (Imp. doflro,) 

To be hit, to be struck. 
XidMltra (1), i^. int. To hit against, 

to strike against. 
Ma&ddfltra (^, i^. tr, (Imp. mando' 
fira ; Bel. andofirana^ Bel. Imp. 

andofiro.) To hit, to beat, to 

strike upon. 
Tiddfltra (t), s, A hammer. 
BOTOKA, a^. Blunt, dull, as a 
knife, swoid, pencil, etc. ; full, 
stout. See Doxbo. 
B^FOTBA, a^. Full made, large, 

BOOA'aA. Boot of the following :— 
Xidogftga, V. int. To be astonished 

at the non-arrival of something 

waited for or expected. SeeGAOA. 

BO'EABaHA. Bootof thefollowin^:— 

Xiddhadbha, v. int. (Imp. midoha' 

dohd; Bel. idohadohdna, Bel. Imp. 

idokadohay.) To be proud, to be 

BO'EAKA, at(;\ Same as Doadoa, 

which see. 
BOHA'XA, a^y. Loud and strong, as 
the voice, or the report of a gun. 
BddohUca. The name of a kind of 

BO'XA, t. Flattery, praise, adulation. 
Yoaddka, v. pass. Flattered. 
BokUkna, v. pats. (Imp. dokdfy.) 

To be flattered, to be compliment- 
ed with false praise. 
Middkaddka, v. int. To flourish, 

to appear luxuriant. 
ICandoka, r. tr. (Imp. mandokd/a; 

Bel. andokdfanay Bel. Imp. ando' 

kdfy.) To flatter, to caress, to 

praise excessively. 
Fandok&fuia, s. Flattery ; boasting ; 

Xanddka, or Kiddka Una, r. int. To 

boast of one*B self, to praise one*s 

self, to applaud one*s own merits. 
BO'XA. Boot of the following : — 
Yoad6ka, r. past. Used of a hole 

first chipped with a hammer 

before bemg finally bored for 




DokiiUk, V, past. (Imp. dokay.) To 
be chipped, as the stone where 
s hole u to be made for blasting 
a rock. 
Xanddka, v, tr, (Imp. mandakd; 
Bel. anadokina, Bel. Imp. ofutdo' 
kah.) To chip a stone as above. 

Note that the Bel. is from the 
form in Majta. 
BO'XA, ff. A hollow bamboo which 
ia luied for striking the ground to 
enoourage a person dancing. 
Xaaddlnl, or XaadftBdMLa d6ka. 
To beat the groimd with the 
BouL to encourage a dancer. 
DO'ZA, s. Anything placed with 
another to be sold on commission, 
a skcqp. (ProT.) [Swa. duktmi, 
locatiye case of dukay a shop.] 
TriUioii-dbka, A shop. (Proy.) 
Ddkany, s. A shop. (Proy.) 
DouL'yANA, V. pa9$. See Doza. 
DOHO, a4f, and adv. Isolated, as a 
house in the country; having 
nothmg to do; abandoned, being 
without parents or goods (Prov.) ; a 
mode of dressing the hair in many 
knobs ; the feathers at the back of 
the head of birds. 

Addkod6ko, v.past. (Imp. adokodo- 
kojf.) To be placed here and 
there, as houses in a street. 
]Iiddkod6ko, 04^. Wide apart, as 
of many detached houses in the 
country. (Prov.) 
AkAho doko. A xowl whose fea- 
thers are very thick on the throat 
and neck. 
Triao adod6hAiiA. Detached houses. 

Iiaho atMBao d6ko. You have left 
me here alone without work or 
aasistanoe. (Prov.) 
DO'KOTS'BA, s. A doctor. [Eng. 

doe tor.'] 
DO'KOTBA, s. A large duck, the 
musoovy duck. Cairina sp. [Eng. 
DO'LAjfO'LA. Boot of the follow- 

Aadlad6U, v. pau. (Imp. adolado' 
loo.) Used of that which is made 
to shake, as the head ; to reel. 

]Iiddlad61a, 9. int. (Imp. midolado^ 

Id; Bel. idoladolina, Bel. Imp. 

idoladolao.) To shake the head; 

to reel. 
Xanaddladdla, t;. tr. (Imp. manado" 

ladold ; Bel. anadotadolanaj Bel. 

Imp. anadoladolao.) To make the 

head to shake, to make to reel. 
DOLA'LAKA, «. A loud and long call 
followed by a prolonged 0. 
YoadoULlaka, v. pan. Called by a 

long call. 
Dolalahina, 9. pats. (Imp. dolaUihy,\ 

To be caUed by a long and loua 

AnjadolaUhana, v. rel. (Bel. Imp. 

anadolaldhy.) Used in speaking 

of the place where one bias been 

making the Dolixaxa. 
Note that the Ind. is not in use. 
DOLO'LO, o^/. Same as Doirro, which 

DO^iaO, A^. Blunt, dull on the 
edge, obtuse, speechless. [Mai. /uin- 

Ycwddmbo, v. pott. Blunted. 
Bombdina, v. patt. (Imp. domboy.) 

To be made blunt. 
Dondmbo. Passive with infix. 
Xanddmbo, v. tr. (Imp. mandomboa; 
Bel. anehmboana, "Rei. Imp. andont' 
boy.) To blunt, to render dull. 
BOXE'LIV A Same as Donto, which 

DOXE'flTrXA, t. A domestic servant. 

[Fr. domettiqnt.'] 
DvXY, «. Dominoes. [Fr. domino.'] 
DOMO'HDIA, t. A wild pigeon, a tur- 
tle-dove. Tttrtur picturatutf Temm. 
Dbmohzva, DzHO, and Doxot are 
used in some provinces. 
DO'MOHA A provincial word for 
Dona, which see. 

Domdnina, 9. jMw«. Same as Donika. 
DO'VA. Boot of the following: — 

Tafiad6na, v. patt. Struck against, 
as a canoe carried by the wind 
and water against the bank. 
Yoaddna, v. past. Struck against, 

kQocked against. 
Addna, v. patt. (Imp. adony.) Used 
of that which is struck against 


Ddnina, 9, pau. (Imp. donif,) To 
be knocked, to be stniok, to be 
knocked at. 
Donaina, v. pass. (Imp. donao.) 

Same as preoedinfl^, 
Xiddna, v. int. (Ret. idonana.) To 
knock one*8 self, to kit one*8 sell, 
to strike against ; to collide. 
Ma&ddna, v. tr. (Imp. not used; 
Bel. andonanm, KA. Imp. andony.) 
To knock, to strike, to imodk at ; 
to reproach, to vilify. 
]lid6na nj 6raiLa. A phrase used 
in spealdng of distant thunder; 
lit. the rain knodcs. 
]>6ad6na, s. A reiterated noise, as 
of some incessant knocking. 
Do'k-ta'itt, s. Pressing one to confess 

a fault he has not committed. 
DO'VA. Boot of the following :— - 
Ddnana, v. pass. (Imp. dano.) To 
be feared, to be made apprehen- 
sive of. (ProY.) 
Xiddna, v. int. To be in fear of 

anything. ^roT.) 
Tgf d6nako. Regardless of. Used 
m the sense of Tst ahoako. 
(ProY.) See under Ahoana. 
BO'S A <• A. snake found in the Bb- 

TBILBO province. 
Donai'na, 9. pass. See Dona (i.). 
BO'VAXA, s. Smoke of a fire. 
Voaddnaka, v. pass. Smoked. 
BonAfitna, v. pass. (Imp. dondfff.) 
To be smoked, to be suffocated 
with smoke. 
Middnaka, v. int. (Bel. idon^fana.) 
To smoke, to steam, to ascend, 
like smoke from a fire ; to be hot. 
Ma&ddnaka, v. tr. (Ibaip. mandondfa ; 
"ELeX.'andondfanat Bel. Imp. andond* 
/y.) To smoke ; to put smoke to. 
Kanddaddnaka lisa. To beat a 
child. (Prov.) 
Bo'nak* a'fo, s. ||afo, fire.] The 
smoke of a fire ; a signal made by fire. 
BOHA'VA Probably from Don-, a 
prefix, and Ana, bewildered. Used 

in the following : — 
Midonina, adj. tfnemployed, saun- 
tering, idle, unoccupied, listless, 
indolent, dull, inactive. 
BOHA'HAXA. Same as preceding. 
The verb in Mi* is also used. 

Hadonanihana, s. Nonohalanoe, 
indolence, idleness. (Prov.) 
BaiTBA'. Solidity. 
BO'VBO'VA Bedup. of Dona. 

Yoaddnddna, v. pass. Enodmd at. 

Bdnddnina, v, pass. (Imp. dindony,) 

Manddnd6&a, v. tr. {Jmp. none; 

Bel. andondonanOj Bel. imp. «!•• 

dondmiy.) To knock at repeatedly. 

BO'VBOVAO^XBE', s. A ihrab (or 

treeP). (Bets.) 
BOITBOBOrA, s4;. Tired of waiting. 

BO'VBBOHA, a^. Foolish in one's 

ways, stupid. See Doneni>bina. 
Donb'hina, a^. See Donixa. 
BOVFVBBIVA. Same as Donava, 

which see 
BaireA, or BO'VaABCnrOA, atU. 

Plump, full made. See Botba. It 

is also root of the following : — 

Xiddngaddnga, atU. Uneven, rough, 

uncouth, mfficult, obstinate, vain. 

BOVaAI'VaT. Boot of the follow. 


Adongaingy, v. pass. (Imp. «Imi- 

yaingeo^ Used of the snoulders 
shrugged up, whether from a 
heavy burden or any other cause. 
Bonga^igdna, v. pass. (Imp. dbn- 
gaingeo.) To be pressed on, so 
that the shoulders are shrugged, 
to be burdened, to be loaded. 
Midongaingy, v. int. (Imp. midon" 
gaingeo ; Bel. idongaingena^ Bel. 
Imp. idcngaing^.) To be pressed 
down by some weight on the head. 
BOVGA'BA, s. A species of grasshop- 
Donoa'ba bb, adj. [bb, great.] Large, 

corpulent, bulky, big. 
BO'NGT, orBO'HGIBO'VeT, adj. Sul- 
ky, morose. 

ICiddngy, aey. and v. int. (Imp. 
midcngia ; Bel. and Pass, idongia^-' 
na, Bel. Imp. idongio.) To mur- 
mur, to be sulky, to appear sullen. 
Xiddngy an-kinina. To be unwil- 
ling to eat from anger. 
B6ngy an-dilana, adj. Unwilling- 
ness to proceed on one's way ; 
sulking as one eces. 
BO'HIXA, s. A sw^ng of the glands 
of the neck, the mumps. 



I^OBttdna, adj. AfPeoted with the 

Do'inNA, p,pa$i, Dona. 
BO'VTO, adj. Rendered clownish by 
labour, hardened, stupified; obsti- 
nate, determined. 
BoatMsa, i^. pats. Hmp. danioy.) To 

be made olowniui and stapia by 

freqnent reproof. 
B6ato Mina. Of a itapid mind. 
Mnto Tttona. Uied of a harddied 

and stupid person ofwhom nothing' 

can be maae. 
■ahaddato, v. tr. To make angry, 

to cause annoyance to one. 
MVTOHAVA, #. A tree whose wood 
isnsed in carpentry, and for maldnff 
canoes. Probabfy a species m 
WWWn, 8. A shmb. Urophylhm 
LyalUi, Baker. Same as Yiditobt 
(Bets.), VovaoTANB (Bets.), and Fa- 

DO'EA, or IKTBADinUL, «. 

talking oonceitedhr. See Doka. 
Mid^ra, v. int. To boast, to brag. 
][iddrad6ra, v. tr. (Imp. midarado- 
rd ; Bel. idoradordna^ Bel. Imp. 
idiradtfrao.) To talk much in a 
boasting manner. 
Do'aA ya'ta, adj. [yaya, the month.] 

(Klona d6ra Tiva. A swaggerer. 
Do'raita, r. pass. See Botba. 
BOKAllAXA. Same as Don ANA, and 
DoNANAXA, which see. 
Mid erirak a, atf;. Indolent. 
DOBB'HITBA,a<^'. [bshitba, burning.] 

Very red, scarlet. 
BOBBIUULA Same as Donaka, and 

DovANAXA, which see. 
IKKBT. Boot of the following :— 
Borlna, v. pass. (Imp. doHo.) To 
be pounded, bruised, crushed, or 
smoothed out. (Fror.) 
Mld&ry, v. tr. (Imp. midoria {fj ; 
Bel. idariana (?), KeH. Imp. ido- 
rio {?).) To smooth a mat with a 
smooth stone ; to bruise, to crush, 
etc. (Prov.) 
Bdrin-dobika, A roll of tobacco. 
DOBI'A, Mh. Everlasting, for erer 
aaderer. Hiisword is only used 

after Mandbakuat. [Ar. dauro; 
Heb. dor.] 

In the provinces it means great 
grandohiloren. See Zafiatt. 
XAndrakisa^ dorla. For ever and 
BOWVA. Boot of tiie following :— 
Xiddrinai v. int. (Imp. midorina; 
Bel. idifrinana, Bel. £np. idorino.) 
To be drowsy, to be sleepy in one's 
work. (Prov.) 
DoBi^NA, V. pass. See Dobt. 
WyJLO. Boot of tiie following. See 


Yoaddro, v. pass. Burnt, consumed 

by fire. 
Doroana, i^. pass. (Imp. dar6y.) To 

be burned, to be consumed by 

Doadro. Passive with infix. 
Xanddro, v. tr. (^p. tnandorda; 

Bel. andoroana, Bef. Imp. ando' 

roff.) To bum, to consume by 

]M)lU>B<ntO. Boot of the following:— 
]Cid6rod6ro, f>. m<. Tobeverymgh, 

as the masts of a ship. (Erov.) 
BOBO'XA, s. and adj. A boast, a 
brag, lofty pretensions; a species 
of earth-worm ; to be tired of. 
BOBaXA, a<(^'. Unimpeded. 
Xidordka, r. int. (Imp. fnidor6ha; 

Bel. id<>r6hana, Bel. Ijinp. idordhy.) 

To proceed uninterruptedly and 

contmually, as flowing water or 

a ship. (Prov.) 
BO'BOBO'KA, s. A noise as of water 
falling. (Prov.) 
Xiddrordka, v. int. To roar as a 

torrent. (Prov.) See Koboboxa, 


BaBOTAHTT, s. Iodide of potas- 
sium. DiBOTANTT also usod. 
BO'BT, s. An ornament. (Prov.) 
]Cid6iy, V. int. (Imp. midosia ; Bel. 
idastana, Bel. Imp. idoslo.) To be 
vain, foolish, in the display of 
riches, etc. (Prov.) 
Vikana ddsy. A kind of bead. 
BO'TBA. Boot of the following :— 
Yoaddtra, v. pass. Burned with fire. 
Bdrana, v. pass. (Imp. d6ry.) To be 
burned with fin. SeeDoBO, Do- 
TBA, Obo. 



Ma&d6tra, v. tr. (Imp, mand6ra; 

Bel. attd&rana^ Bel. Imp. andory,) 

To bum with fire. 
DOTT, «. An enemy, one snppoeed 
to be injuriouB. A word cniefly 
naed in thie Snm>T divination. [Ar. 
aduvMf an enemy.] 
Ma&dlaka dbyj. Same as Manala. 

FADITBA, wluoh liOe. 

BOTT. A proyindal word for eight. 

B0TIB0T7, a4f. Short, Bhortiah, 

BOZS'HA, or BIZSHA, «. A dozen. 
nSng. doten."] 
MtMb ftUigo doidna. To be oloth- 

ed in a suit of olothes made of the 

same material. 
BBA'DBADBA'DSA, t. Shouting, to- 
dferating, crying, loud weeping. 
BriULradradralna, v. pau, (imp. 

drddradradrad.) To be vociferated, 

to be expressed in crying. 
Xidridradxidra, v. int. (Imp. mi' 

drddradradrd ; Bel. idrddradra' 

drdfMf Bel. Imp. idradradradrao.) 

To ozy oat, to weep, to bemoan, 

to vociferate. 
BBA'BSAKA. Bootof thefoUowing :^ 
Xidridraka, v. int. (Imp. midra* 

drdha; Bel. idradrdhana, Bel. 

Imp. idradrdho.) To begin to 

weep profusely. 
BBA'B&AEA, wfj. Buined, lost, done 
for. pProv.) 
Bradihina, v. past. (Imp. dradrdho,) 

To be made to hope for nothing, 

to be kept without being paid. 

Xandr&draka, i^. tr. (Imp. mandra- 

drdha; Bel. andradrdhana, Bel. 

Imp. andradrdho.) To ruin; to 

promise but not to pay, to retain 

one*s salary. 
Tiibo maadradraka. A plantation 

which produces nothing. 
BBA'FAHA, adj. Startled, frightened. 
ICidrifana, v. int. To start with 

BBA'HO, orB&A'HOBBA'HO, s. Cinm- 
siness, awkwardness, silliness, dull- 
ness, doltishness. 

Xidrihodr&ho, a^f. Awkward, clum- 
sy, silly. 

BBAT, s. A kind of fan-palm. (Sak.) 

Same as Mokott (Sak«). 
An unseemly gait, an awkward 
mode of walking, limping. 
Xldraikodraiko, v, int. To walk 
awkwardly, to limp, to halt. 
BBA'KABBA'KA, i. An ornament 
worn on the head, used in the oere« 
mony of dioumoiaion ; a soldier on 
the look out for the enemy ; ixvegn- 

Adrikadrtka, v.poia. (Imp. adrd' 
kadrakao.) Used of that which is 
badlv tied or badly arranged, as 
goods or hair. 
ICflriLkadrika, v. int. To beplaoed 
atrandom, to be irregular, without 
BBA'KAKA, t, A species of crab. 

Midruaka, v. int. To walk like a 
crab. (Prov.) 
BBA'XIBBA'ST, s. A duck. (Sak.) 


BBA'KO, s. A friend, a comrade. 


Kidriko, v, int. To be friends with 
some one. (Prov.) 

Xandrftko, v. tr. To treat as a 
friend, to call one a friend. 
BBA'LA,«. A dollar. (Prov.) [Eng. 

dollar. ^ 
BSE'BBIBBE'BBT, t. A groaning, 

as from pain ; creaking, as a door ; 

scraping, as hinges wanting oil. See 

Dbidbedbidrt . 

Midrddridridry, v. int. (Bel. idrt^ 
dridredrena.) To gfroan, to ay 
out with pajn, to creak. 
BBE'HT, adj. Aged, old. (Prov.) 
BBS'HOBBE'HO. Same as Draixo- 

naAiKO, which see. 
BBI'A, s. Used for Dia, a step, a 

foot. fiProv.) 
BBI'ATEA, 8. A whitish species of 

eel. (Sak.) 
BBI'ATSA, «. A species of eel. (Sak.) 
BBFBBA, «. An ulcerous disease ; 

the name of a grass which is sup- 
posed to cause the disease. 
BBI'BBIBBI'BBT. Same as Dbbdbi- 



BXTHDEA, inUr. What pleasoxe ! 

What happiness ! (Prov.) 
BBO'DBOXA, adj. Softened, rotten. 

See BoBOKA, Mohaxa. 
]nunn>BA,«. a bird. (Ptoy:) 
DBO'H'OO. A species of king-crow, a 

family of birds sometinies called 

DBONQO-shrikes, probably from this 

member of the family. ProY. for 

BAUxnrr, which see. 
BBCKKOBBOVAI'VA, v. past. To be 

oarried roughly, as when taken to a 

place of execution. 


S. The fourth letter of the Malagasy 
Alphabet. It is pronounced as the 
English ay in bay. It always takes 
the accent in a root word. It under- 
goes no change in combination with 
prefixes. In many passiYe Yerbe 
ntrni roots ending in y, the y is 
changed to 0, as : v on jt, Von jiota ; 
Tbst, Tebena, etc. In the pro- 
irinoes it frequently takes the place 
of ai; and frequently in Imerina 
the e is used for at, as : Axext, for 
AzAiKT ; Manekt, for Maitaixt ; 
Faiisxxna, for Fanaikena. 

S ! inter. Beall^ P Truly P Used alone 
when something has been seen or 
heard that excites feelings of joy or 

I ! inter n An exclamation used at the 
beginning or end of prayers, saluta- 
tions, songs, requests, etc., implying 
raspect, as: £! Andbiamanitba, 

AimfilAlTAirAHABT ! O ! BT ANONA B ! 

Tbajll HiAinr b! 

Boot of the following. See 

VoaMiaka, v. past. Despised, vili- 
fied, treated contemptuously. 
Bbtiiina, v, pasi. ^Imp. ebdho.) To 
be despised, vilified, or treated 
with contempt. (ProY.) 
XftndbakA, v. tr. (Imp. manebaha ; 
Bel. aneiahana. Bel. Imp. ofitf- 
hdko.) To n>eax evil of, to vilify, 
to treat with contempt. (Prov.) 
VXAXB'BAXA, s. The middle, in- 
termediate space, that between. See 


B'BAKE'BAN A, ». and adj. The train 
of the royal dress, the train of the 
dress of those whom on certain occa- 
sions the sovereign appoints to wear 
it ; pieces of silk fastened by a belt 
round the loins, and allowed to float 
in the wind during the ceremony of 
drcumoision ; wearing one's dress 
loosely or untidily, as if floating 
in the wind. 

B'baaAbinina, v. pass. (Imp. ebane' 
bdno.) To be worn loosely, as the 
native Laxba. 
BLidbandbana, v. int. (Imp. miiba^ 
nebdna; Bel. i^banebdnana, Bel. 
Imp. iebanebdno.) To wear the 
native Laxba in a loose manner. 
In the provinces it means to live 
freely, idly, without law or re- 
B'BO, or E'BOB'BO, «. Boast, osten- 
Voadbo, V. paea. To have been 

treated boastfully. (Prov.) 
Midbo, V. int. (Imp. mieboa ; Bel. 
iebdanOf Bel. Imp. iebdy.) To be 
filled with ostentation, to be vain, 
to be conceited. 
Midbodbo, v. int. (Imp. mieboebda ; 
Bel. iiboeb6ana, Bel. Imp. ieboe- 
boy.) To give one's self airs, to 
assume consequence. 
Viivy Ibo. A loose woman. (Prov.) 
BOS', inter. An exclamation at seeing 
ainrthing improper. 
Bddddna, v. pass. (Imp. ededio.) 
Used of those of whom the excla- 
mation is made ; fig. disgraced. 
Manedddd, v. tr. (Imp. none ; Bel. 
anededena, Bel. Imp. anededeo.) 
To use the exclamation of Edb. 
i'. Originalformof Dexa, which 
[Er. aide'de'camp.'] 
B'DT, adv. This wont is use^ in 
the provinces where Hiant would 
be used in Imerina. 
BDIXB'BIKA, 8. A oonoeited and 
supercilious mode of vralking. 
MiMikddika, v. int. (Imp. miedike- 
diha ; Bel. iidikedehanay Bel. Imp. 
iklikedeke.) To walk in a super- 
cilious fashion. 


VDnrFSniA. TIub word is only used I 
preposltioiially, as : Nasbst ait-edz- 
HSDiN-TAMT, eto., DnTen far from 
one's oountry. (ProT.) In Tmftrina 
it is used with the same meaning as 
Et>txw)Ttca, or of a person exceed- 
ingly proud, and nnwiUing to speak 
or commttnicate with others. 
MiddinMina, v. int. To be plaoed 
high, as : MutDnnsDiHAAir-ABO NT 
TBANO. (Prov.) In Imerina its 
meaning is as above. 
VBITATS tutor. No! that cannot be ! 
A term of reproach. See HadiA- 


SDSE', inter. An expression of joy 
or sorrow in sudden surprise. See 
B'BSOFDSO, «. Pride, haughtiness, 
^rov.) See Ayonavoka, Aboabo, 

MiidroMro, r. int. rimp. mvedroe^ 
dr6a ; Bel. iedroedtiana^ Bel. Imp. 
iedroedr6y,) To be proud, hau^h^. 
XTA, verbal root. Done, computed, 
finished; also used before many 
words in the sense of our English 
has, or really had, e.g. Efa yita. 
It has been finished; Efa xahao, 
(He) is really doing. It takes the 
suffix pronoima, as : Epazo, I have 
done it. Followed by Ho it means 
on the point of, almost, nearly, as : 
Efa ho ayt zzt. He is on the point 
of coming. See Madiva. 
Yoai&, V. poet. Paid, as a debt^ 
returned, as of something borrow- 
Xfaina, v. poet. (Imp. efaS.'^ To be 
completed, to be aocomplished, to 
be paid; to be killed. 
Miifia, V. tr. (Imp. miefd ; Bel. 
iefdna^ Bel. Imp. iefao.) To com- 
plete the ceremonies attending a 
funeral. Used of the very last 
ManMa, v. tr, (Jmp. mamfi ; Bel. 
anefdnOf Bel. Imp. anefaoJ) To 
finlflh, to complete, to effect^ to 
pay, to acquire par. 
mUUf^, V. int. (Imp. mUfaefd; 
Bel. iifaefdna, BJ. Imp. i^faefao.) 
To be angry, to be yoxed, to give 
yent to one s diqpLeasnre. 

][ah)2a, v, tr. (Imp. mahefd; BeL 
ahefdna^ Bel. imo. ahefa6.) To be 
able to aooomplian, to haye power 
to finish. 
FahefiLna, «. Authority. 
Manlfa hdloka, v. eomp. To com- 
pound fluilt. 
Mantfahilatra, v. comp. To com- 
pound theft. 
Mandfa tr6sa, v. eomp. To pay 
E'fa izat' lo'ea, adj. and adv. [zkat, 
what^ LOZA, danger.] Amaidng! 
E'fa izat' tst fzr, adj. and adv. [tst, 
not, izT, it.] • Wonderful! Ex- 
E'fa lo'za, adj. and adv. [loza, dan- 
ger.] Amazing, prodigious. 
E'fa tbt fzr, adj. and adv. [tbt, noi^ 

IZT, it.] Incomparable. 
S'FAXA, a. Anything branching like 
a fork. (Proy.) See Saxpaha. 
ManJiftika, adj. To be branohing» 
to be forked, as trees, etc. (Proy.) 
S'FAKB'FAXA, «. The split hoofs of 
animals; also same as Efiksfzsa, 
which see. See Vakt kitbo. 
VFATBA, a4f. Four. [Mai. ampmi ; 
found in many Polyn. lang. bb fa; 
and in seyeral ICal. Arch. lang. as 
fet, faat, faht, BudfiU, etc.] 
SflLrina, v. poet. (Lnp. ef&ro.) To 

be diyided into four. 
Ifidfatra, v. int. To diyide into 

four parts, to be in four. 
Inifatxa. Four times. 
Kaninifatra, v. int. To do anything 

for the fourth time. 
Vfla-pdlo. Forty. 
Ffla-Jito. Four hundred. 
7ahi£atra. The f ourtJii, four fathoma. 
AmpiAifaaj. One fourtli. 
Hefiraaa. Four days. 
E'fa-dbz'ra, adj. gma, an edge.] 

Four-cornered. (Ptoy.) 
E'fa-jo'bo, atff. [zoBO, a oomer.] 

Square, four-cornered. 
Efb^bawa, v. pose. See Efixba. 
inXXnKA, «. Shaking, toaring, 
as the wings of birds, tiie leayee 
of trees, or the hands of ^lildxm 
in dancing. (Plroy.) See 



TttttMUflkA, v.pa99. Shaken, tooaed. 


AMkdflka, r. pan. (Imp. mifihe- 
fikc.) Used of that whioh ia 

ahaken. (Ptot.) 
Vflkefiliiiia, v. pass, (Imp. ijlks- 
fikc) To be shaken, to be agita* 

ted. (Prov.) 
WiJilWilka, r. int. (Imp. miifike' 
Jeka; Rel. i^ksfehafia, Bel. Imp. 

ie/Ukrfeho). To shake, to be in a 

atate of motion, as leaTee, the 

hands, etc. (Proy^ 
■andflkdfika, v. ^r. mnp. mani/lke^ 

fika; Bel. atiefikefekanay Bel. Imp. 

ame/ ikefeho.) To shake as above. 
XTITRA, «. A separation, a division, 
a compartment, a border^ a border 
tenitory, a wilderness, a desert. 
Yoadfitra, t>. past. Having been 

divided off. 
Sftarana, v. pass. (Imp. efiro.) To 

be divided off, to be kept on. 
XUfltra, t. int. (Imp. miefira ; Bel. 

iefiranaf Bel. Imp. is/ero.) To be 

£vided into compartments or 

rooms ; to be secluded from others. 
Xmaifltrm, r. tr. (Iznp. mansfira ; 

Bel. ansflranay Bel. Imp. aneflro.) 

To partition off, to divide from 

Xilfltrdfltra, r. int. To be mnch 

divided, to have many separate 

compartments or rooms. 
Tanifltra, s. A charm to keep off 

A'nj an-Mtra inj. In the desert. 
Vwi'TAo'vA, «. [taona, the year.] 
The Milky-way, the galaxy. (Prov.) 


Vwrra,* A'lrDBO, s. [uidbo, day.] A 

fixed day. (Prov.) See Fsnu. 
X'vi-tba'ko, 8. [tbako, a house.] A 

room in a house. 
"BwroL* tuL, #. [hjl, one side.] Be- 

at riction, reserve. (Prov.) 

XTOKA, or FFOXSTOKA, #. Angry 

pride, haughtiness, vanitr, conceit. 

See Atohavova, Ebobbo, Kbbabeea. 

KitfoUfoka, V. int. (Imp. miifoks- 

fhha ; Bel. Hfoksfohanay Bel. Imp. 

ikfoktfoky,) To be vain, to be 

dated, to be superdlioua, to be 

V70VA,orE'70]rST0VA,ii. Breath- 
mg hard, or panting with anger. 
See Afona, Ehaxa, Hanahaka. 
mdfona, or MDfonifona, v. mi<. 
(Imp. miifimef6na; Bel. Hfimef^'^ 
nana, Bel. Imp. i^fonrfony.) To 
breathe hard in anger. 
MLI'ST,*. Thechurdi, the Boman 
Catholic church. See Lbolizt, £- 
XLB8IA. [Fr. eglise.] 
S'HA, intsr. An expression of dialike. 

Go away! Be off! 
FHAKA. Same as Ebo, which see. 
Midhaka, r. int. Imp. and Bel. 
not used. To breathe hard, to 
Xuandhaka. Used also for the 
S'HA]nr(1), adv. That's all, the total. 
S'HS', inter. An expression of scorn. 

Missed ! Done nothing ! 
S'HE, adr. Yes. (Prov.) See EzA, 

E'bina, v. pass. See Aixa. 
ST, adv. and inter. Yes; astonish- 
ing ! An old form of writing E. 
I S'IKA. An old form of writing Aika 
(indigo), which see. 
X'lVOA. An old form of writing 

Enoa, which see. 
SIHGAKA. An old form of writing 

AnroA, which see. 
FIST, or S'ISIB. An old form of 

writing Est, which see. 
S'lYOKA. An old form of writing 

EvozA, which see. 
S'JA (T), s. A proud gait. 
Midja, or Miljadja, v. int. (Imp. 
miejaefd ; Bel. isfoejana, Bel. Imp. 
iejaejab.) To walk with a proud 
tHY. Used only as follows : — 
IfUJy tdrana, r. int. To have a 
neat and appropriate appearance. 
FKA, adv. Yes ! Precisely ! It is 
true. It is used in expresaing 
approbation. (Prov.) SeeEmr. 
S'KA. Prov. for Aixa (compact, close), 
which see. 

Its various forms will be found 
on pag e 11. 
WKkVY, adv. Yes. See Eka. 
Ekk'va, r. pass. See AxxT. 


An old f omi of writixig Aibt> 

which see. 

Its yaiious f onns -will be f oimd 

on pages 11 and 12. 
S'LA, adj. Long, as to time, longsinoe, 

ancient, old. 

Slaina, r. paw, (Imp. elao.) To be 
lengthened in time, to be detained, 
to be made long about a .thing, 
to be made to be a long time. 

Maailftf V. tr. (Imp. maneld ; Bel. 
aneldnUy Rel. Imp. anelao.) To 
defer, to dettdn, to pos^ne, to 
prolong, to procrastinate. 

B'U dia dla, a^'. Very long, of 
long duration. 

Ela be, adj. Very long time. 

E'la ydlona, adj, Long-liyed. 
VLAXE'LAXA, «. The middle, inter- 
mediate space, that between. See 


Andlakdlany, prep. Between. 


Voadlakdlaka, r. past. Flaked. 

S'lakelihina, v. past. (Imp. ilakeld- 
ho.) To be made into flakes, to be 
removed, as the bark of trees, eto. 

mdlakdlaka, i;. tfi^ (Rel. ielakeld" 
hatM.) To be peeling off in flakes. 

Ifan^lakMaka, v. tr. (Imp. manklm-' 
keldha; Rel. anelakeldhana, Bel. 
Imp. anelakeldho.) To flake. 

Takilaka, «. A sheet of paper, a 

cake of honey, a thin metal plate 

or sheet. 

E'ladba'no, 9. [aANO, water.] IGoa. 

E'labaka'ka, «. [baxaxa, stapid.] 

Mottled colouring ; the diaphrann. 
B'LAKA, or S'LAHSXAVA, «. Tlie 

middle, intermediate space or time 

between ; a mediator, an interme- 
diate. See Elaxei^aka. [Kal.«lteii$r; 

s often omitted.] 

Voadlandlana, v. pa»s. Used of 
that which comes between. 

Adlanilana, v. pmn. (Imp. a^lamld- 
no,) Used of the thing or pemon 
useid as an intermediate, or to 
fill up tba intermediate space. 

Eflanelanina, v, pan, (Imp. eUme' 
lano.) To be made to haye 
something between ; to be arbi- 
trated, to be intermediated. 

Xandlandlana, «. tr, (Imp. manela- 
neldna; Rel. anelaneldnana, Bel. 
Imp. anelaneldno.) To go be- 
tween, to arbitrate, to arrange 
between two parties at yarianoe, 
to mediate, to intervene. 
Mampodlana, v. int. To be irroga- 
lar, as a hen laying at irreg^ular 
Xifimilandlana, adj. Intermingled, 
not consecutive, not succeeding 
in a perfectly regulated series. 
Mpandiandlana, «. A mediator. 
Ampifianel&niiia, recip. pass. Cbaap. 
ampifaneldno.) To be made to 
succeed in an irregular manner. 
Andlandlany. Between. 
E'lane'lax-pana'hy, 8. [fanaht, the 

soul.] A mediator, an intercessor. 
E'lanexan-a'ndbo, «. [andbo, the day.] 

Intermediate day or days. 
E'lane'lan-ka'vana, ». [kavaka, a rel- 
ative.] A poor and friendless per- 
son ; a person friendly to both sides. 
E'lanb'lan-o'lona, 8. [oLONA, a per- 
son.] The overplus men in a di- 
vision ; poor and friendless persona. 
S'LATSA, B, A wing. 
Voadlatra, v. pott. Taken ofl^ 

removed. See Elaxa. 
Slitina, or El&rina, v. pan, (Imp. 
eldtOf or eUro.) To be removed 
or taken off in flakes or sheets. 
Xidlatra, adj. Wearing a Laxba 
loosely and untidily, so as to show 
some part of the body which 
ought to be ooveied. 
E'latranoi'dina, 9, [ANomxNA, a dr»- 
gon-flv.) A plant whose wood ia 
used for spear and axe handlea. 
E'latee'lant, 8, and o^f. Tb» inner 
cuticle of the skin of animals ; thia, 
as pieces of beef, or bread. 
S'lT. Boot of the following. See Ha- 


Tafatty, v, pau. Soatteied, dis- 
persed by themselves'. 

YoaUy, v. paw. Scattered, dispersed 
by somebody. 

Adly, V, paw, (Imp. aeUao.) To be 
scattered, to be diffused. 

SIdiiaa, V, pan, (Imp. «ttso.) Same 
as preceding. 



Httly, V. imt, (Imp. mieUza ; Bel. 
wIcMMM, Bel. Imp. ieleto,) To 
floatter, to diffuse, to apread a- 

Muiilj, V. tr. rimp. manelha; Bel. 
mt elegama ^ Bel. Imp. aia^l^.) To 
diffnae, to dispone, to scatter. 

mXij fthihj, V. tif^ To scatter 
aboat, to disperse about. 

■iilitty Jdry. To be distracted. 

A^jakiaamidljahiliy. A kingdom 
without laws, widiout miity, 
without gorermnent. (ProT.^ 
BXY, J. An imprecation, rilifymg. 


ASij, V. poM. (Imp. aelaeo.) To be 

MaaUj, V. tr, CImp. manelka ; Bel. 

a me Ue a naf Bel. Imp. «iie/iM0.) To 

BXO, J. An umbrella, a parasol, 
fiee Aloxa. 
▼aailo, 9. jMM. Gorered by an 

umbreDa or parasol. 
Xlftana, f. jww. (Imp. «%.) To be 

shaded with an umbrella or 
Kilo, r. int. (Imp. mielSa; Bel. 

and Pass, ieloana^ Bel. Imp. 

wl^.) To shade one's self wi&i 

an umbrella or parasol. 
mMlo, r. int. To use a shade, 

to shade one's self. 
Minailo, V, tr. and int. (Imp. smm- 

Im; Bel. aiulotmoj Bel. Imp. 

flMl(0y.) To shade, to shelter, to 

■oreen; to be unwell. 
E^-dba'vo (P), 8, [&4MO, water.] A 
dttch, a ahaded brook. 


a door.] Sunshades fixed abore win- 
dows and doors ; window curtains. 

B^ xj^VA, #. [mbha, red.] The 
■aariet umbrella used to shade the 
SoTereign and those of royal descent, 
and hemse a mark of roralt^. For- 
merly it was used for the chief idols 

Cx^nc-PAaixBi'iJrA, «. [FiimBZAirA, a 
bed.] A oorering or shade abore 
bedsteads; bed hangings. 

STLrac-pA'BArA'BAy #. [fabajtaxa, a 
bedstead.] Same as preceding. 

E'&ov-tba'icbo, «. rsAiCBO, s ship.] 

Hie awning of a skip. 
B'MBAKA. ProT. for Expaka and 

Emdaxa, which see. 
XHBAITA, 8, Pounded and fried 

SUBITBA, adj. Prarented, hindered. 
^^T.) See Saxfoka, Sazana. 
Xmbdiina, or Bmbdrana, r. jmfm. 
(Imp. embero.) To be hindered, 
to h& j^revented. (Ptot.) 
Xanimbitra, v. tr. (Imp. manem^ 
hh'a ; Bel. amtttMrana^ Kel. Imp. 
tmemhero!) To prevent, to hinder. 
B'MBOKA, 8. A gum, incense. [Swa. 
emhoe or mbw€^ gmn, glue.] 
Voadmboka, v. pa88. Burned as 

Bmbdhana, v. pa88. (Imp. ewthdhy.) 
To be perfumed with Exboka, to 
be perfumed as under. 
Maatinboka, t. tr. (Imp. tmemhdhy.) 
To perform the ceremony of burn- 
ing a piece of gum or fat orer 
the fire so as to produce smoke, 
oyer which the idols were held so 
as to be perfumed by it; to perform 
a similar ceremony of burning a 
piece of the hump of an ox at a 
graTo, and opposite to the head 
of the deceased ; to bum hair that 
has fallen off, the smoke of which 
was supposed to effect a cure of 
any sudden illness, especially in 
the case of children supposed to 
be bewitched. Amon^ the Boman 
Catholics the word is now used 
for the burning of incense. 
E'lEBOZAZo'innto, «. I akoivbho, a ba- 
nana.] The head of the fructification 
of the banana tree, so called, per- 
haps, because a gum oozes frcnn it. 
B'xBozoifBx', 8. [oxBX for oxBT, an 
ox.| A flhrub used as a charm 
againat oxen's horns. It has sweet* 
scented leaves which are used Irr tiie 
Sakalava for stnfSng cushions. (Sak.) 
IHBOirA Boot of the following :— 
Maaimbona, v. int. To remember 
with sorrow that from which one 
has been separated, as a child 
being weaned and remembering 
its mother, the mother remem- 
baringthechild, etc., or a foreigner 



in Madagascar wishing to return 

to Mb own country. See Azahelo, 

VKBONA. Root of the foUowing. 
See Afona. 
Midmbona, v. int. (Bel. iemb6nana,) 

To float on the surface. (Prov.) 
Mandmbona, v. int. (Imp. manem^ 

bona ; Rel. anemb6nanaf Rel. Imp. 

anemh6ny.) To fly. (Prov.) 
SfMON£'MONA,«. Murmuring, grum- 
Midmondmona, v. int. (Imp. miemo- 

nemona ; Bel. iemonemonana, Bel. 

Imp. ieinonemdny.) To murmur, 

to grumble, to mutter. In Ime- 

rina it means to be well seated in 

a chair, etc., in a position above 

The above word is also used 

with the meaning of Dbbondb- 

BONA, which see. 
S'MPAXA, o^'. Blistered, whether by 
poultices or by friction, 
voadmpaka, r. pan. Blistered. 
Empahina, r. pan. (Imp. empaho.) 

To be blistered. 
Xidmpaka, v. int. To blister, to 

rise in blisters. 
Xanimpaka, v. tr. (Imp. tnanem" 

pdha; Bel. anempahana^ Bel. Imp. 

anempaho.) To blister, to raise a 

ETJCPAKA, adj. Satisfied, satiated, 
content, having no further desire 
for, sufficient, enough. (Prov.) See 
Etsaka, Afa-po. 
Emp&hina, f\ poBB. (Imp. empdho,) 

To be made satisfied with, to be 

made to have no further desire of. 

Xaadmpaka, r. tr. (Imp. manem' 

pdha ; Bel. anetnpdhanay Bel. Imp. 

anempdho.) To satisfy, to give 

one all one desires, (rrov.) 
Kuidmpaka aina. To satisfy one's 

tastes or passions. (Prov.) 
Xaadmpa-po. Same as preoedmg. 

VKPO. Boot of the following :— 
Yoaimpo, v. pass. Melted, dis- 
Bmpdina, r. pau. (Imp. emp6y,) 

To be melted, to be dissolved. 

Midmpo, V. int. (Bel. iempwma.) To 
melt, to dissolve. 

Xaadmpo, v. tr. (Imp. manempia ; 
Bel. anempoana^ Bel. Imp. anem- 
poy.) To make to melt, to make 
to dissolve. 

<yioiia midmpo. A person showing 
passion or anger. 
E'MPOKA. Boot of the following :— 

Emp6hana, r. pass. (Imp. empohy.) 
To be covered with, as the ground 
covered with stagnant water. 

Xandmpoka, v. int. To spread out» 
as water, to be spread out on 
damp ground, as a mat, to cover 
with, as water covers the earth. 
E'MPONE'KPONA, «. Difficult and 

quick breathing occasioned by 

night, running, or disease. 

Kiemponempona, v. int. (Imp. miim' 
ponemp6na\ Bel. ietnponemponana^ 
Bel. Imp. ietnponempony.) To pant. 
ENa>A'HANA, V. pas*. See Ekdaka. 
BKDAT. Boot of the following :~ 

Endaisina, v. pass. (Imp. endalso.^ 
To be taken, to be carried. (Prov.) 

Kenda^, or Minda^, r. tr. To take, 
to carry. (Prov.) Same as Mi- 


E'VDAXA. Boot of the following :— 

Voadndaka, v. pass. Flayed, exco- 

Adndaka, v. pass. (Imp. aenddho.) 
Used of that off which the ski^ is 

End&hana, v. pass. (Imp. enddJko.) flayed, to be peeled, to be 
skinned, to have the bark remov- 
ed, to have all one*s clothes taken 
off by force. 

Miindaka, r. int. (Bel. ienddhama.) 
To scale, to peel off in thin land* 
niB, to rebel against the soverugn 
by disclaiming allegianoe. 

Xaadndaka, v. tr. (Imp. matundd^ 
ha; Bel. anenddhana, BeL Imp. 
anenddho.) To scale, to skin, to 
peel off, to flay, to remove olothea 
from a person by force. 
FEBAHY, s. The above with suflkt 

pronoun, meaning a part of the 

shoulder or thigh of beef. 



SVBY, «. Anything fried. 
yiMidii.d7, r. jNiM. Fried, as in a 

XBdatina, or Endiiina, v, pass. ^Imp. 

emdiwy or endazo^ To be fned. 
Xaadndj, r. tr, (Imp. manendasa; 
Bel. unenddsano, Rel. Imp. anen- 
iMm.) To ^. 
■dndj, <»(/. ^ed. 
Mantady, s. One of the divisions 
of the tribe Olo-xaivit. 
E'hdiba', s. [ba, blood.] The blood 

and the inner parts fried together. 
£'n>rvo'BAZA, s, [vo&axa, split open.] 
Fmit, maize, earth-nuts, etc., fried 
nn peeled ; dried fish stewed. 
juijIaAY', inter. An exclamation of 
astonishment shewing joy or lamen- 
JUJlBE', inter. An exclamation of 
astonishment and disapprobation. 

EiroB B^HiHA, r. pass. See Endbixa. 
XVBSET. An old form of writing 

E mpbat'. 
XEBBEEDSA, s. Tin. (ProT.) See 

Vi roTST. 
XVDES'BY, inter. An exclamation of 
_ ap probation or praise. 
SirBEY,«. Mother. (ProT.)SeeRE2iT. 
Sin>BY, s. The name of a species of 

bnzzard. Euteo hraihypterus, Pelz. 

(Betsim.) Same as Faviudbt, and 

Hnn>BT (Bets.). 
B ! BBBI'A. A term used in bidding 

good-bye. (ProT.) Used for E ! 

A»D BIAlfA. 

XTBBBIXA, adv. Generally nsed with 
TsT, as TsT BNBBiXA, or TSEimBIXA, 
Hot yet. (ProY.) Same as the 

Ho va TsT MBOLA. 

cMjiBIXA, «. Feature, likeness, Tis- 
age, resemblance, image, form. 
irMtodrika, r. pass. Madebeauti- 

Badrihiiia, r, pass. (Imp. endriho.) 

To be decorated, to be beautified. 
Xaatodrika, v. tr. (Imp. manen^ 

driha; Bel. anendrehana^ Bel. Imp. 

anendrekc.) To adorn, to decorate, 

to beautify, to do what is beoom- 

ing to our condition or profession. 
Hitedxika, or Mtadrika, «•. int. and 

adj. (Bel. wmfWAofia.) Fit^ proper, 

worthy, suitable, corresponding 

Mdnana dndrika, adj. Well fea- 
tured, good looking, beautiful. 

Tij endrehim-pitahlana, a«^. Un- 
worthy of any blessing. 
E'bbbi-ba'botba, adj. [tabotba, trade.] 

Polished, or trimmed up for sale. 
E'ltDBix* A2n>Bi'ANA, adj. [andbiana, 

prince.] Having a noble appearance. 

Ifidndnka andriana, adj. Of a 
noble aroearanoe. 
ElTBBIEE'irDBIKA, s. Calumny, 

false accusation, falsity, slander, 

vague conjecture, insinuatioD, lies. 

Voadndrikindrika, v. pass. Calum- 
niated, falsely accused. 

S'ndrikeiidrdhina, v. pass. (Imp. m^ 
drikendreho.) To be calumniated, 
to be slandered, to be insinuated 
against, to be charged falsely with. 

Kanindrikdnchrika, r. tr. (Imp. ma^ 
nendrikendreha ; Bel. anendriken^ 
drehana, Bel. Imp. anendrikendrt" 
ho.) To calumniate, to slander, 
to insinuate, to criminate, to 
c harge falsely. 
ElTBBIlfA, s. A species of lemur. 
ElTDBniE'irDBIKA. Root of the 

f ollowin g. Bedup. of preceding (P) . 


S'ndrinendrdnina, v. pass. (Imp. 
endrinendreno.) To be maae to 
be boorish, clownish, etc., by what 
one is doing. 

Midndrinindrina, v. int. and adj. 
(Imp. miendrinendrena ; Bel. ien^ 
drinefidrenana, Bel. Imp. ihidri" 
nendreno.) To lose one's head, to 
turn about as a fool ; rustic, 
clownish, boorish. 

Maaindrind^idrina, r. tr. To make 
one lose his head or act like a 
fool. (Prov.) 

Hadndrinendrdnana, s. Maladroit- 
n ese, downishness. (Prov.) 
XKBBI'BY (1), inter. Alas ! O ! Same 

as IlTDBlST. 

EBTK'MiirA, V. pass. See Eitina. 

SITGA, inter. O that ! Would that ! 
This word is often used with Ainx, 
which see. It is usually followed 
br Ea and the future tense. 

SW^A. PzoY. for Ajnqa, whioh see. 



Voadnga, v. past. See VoAurciA. 
Kngina, v. pats. See Auxhaisa.. 
Kilnga, v. int. See Miajnoa. 
Maadnga, v. <r. See Masaisba.. 
Mandnga yidj. To take a wife 
home, to many a wife. (Piot.) 
S^VGAITA, «. Wings of birds. (Piot.) 

See £latba. 
Enob'na, r. /NM«. See EifOT. 
XVQE'SOiraE'BOirA. Same as Akcix- 

BONaESONA, which see. 
S'KOY, «. Praise, admiration. (Pror.) 

Engena, v, paa». (Imp. ^n^^o^ To 

be praised, to be admixed. (Proy.) 

Kandngy, v. ^r. (Imp. manendi ; 

Rel. afiengenOy Bel. Imp. aMtfM^«o.) 

To praise, to oelebrate, to exalt, 

to admire as beautiful, dever, or 

good. (Prov.) 

S'VGIKE'NGniA, r.jDOM. To be placed 

high, or to be high, as a bird on a 

tree, and thinking only of flight; 

to be in .a high and dangerous 

position. (Proy.) See Aotanr- 


Midnginengina, r. int. (Imp. mi- 
h^ginengena ; Bel. imginengenanaf 
Bel. Imp. ienginengeno.) To be 
seated on an elevated or high and 
dangerous place. (Proy.) See 


WGIIBA. Pioy. for Aula (indigo), 
whioh see. 

E'NOIT&ATAfNAKO'HO, «. [tAT, dung, 

AZOHO, a fowl.] An herb. (Betdm.) 
Indigofera h irttU a, L. 
B'VOITBE'KGIT&A. Pioy. for Anrai- 


Kiingitriagitra, r. int. To be list- 
less; to be wantonly gay, con- 
oeited, frisky. Same as Axix- 
TSAVOiZBA, which see. 
F VGO. Boot of the foUowinsp :— 

Bagftana, r. pmt. (Imp. engojf,) To 
he made to so home, to be made 
to go to one s work, to be made 
to set off. (Proy.) 

Mingo, V. int. (Imp mtngom ; BeL 
iengotmm, Bel. Imp. iengojf.) To 
go to find something ; to set out. 
Q^roy.) The aboye word and its 
aeriyatiyes are probably used for 


E'VOOKA, «. Crookedness, ouryatioB, 
tortuosity. (Ptoy.) See FAnrooKA- 
Voaingoka, v. pass. Made orooked 

or tortuous. (Proy.) 
Aingoka, v. pat: (Imp. aengokp, or 
aengofy.) Used of uiat which is 
made orooked. (Ptov.) 
Xanengoka, v. tr, (Imp. nuuu$ifghfa; 
Bel. anengofanay Bel. Imp. wimi- 
gofy.) To render orodke^ or tor- 
tuous. (Proy.) 
Kdngomdngoka, a(/. Crooked, bent. 
(Proy.) Same as MTCT/>iniT^¥A 
(from hbloka), whioh see. 
Kdngoka, «. A soorpion ; also called 
Mainooka, whioh see. 
S'lnr, adv. Yes. 
S'ny hoi ! You assentto that ! YesP 
Is it not so? Say yes then. [Oomip. 
Swa. «0e, yes.] 
S'lTY, adv. Tbisre^ yonder, in a place 
not exactly designated but in sQfht ; 
it is much used of objects scattoBd 
about, as: Nt xzHTAirA Birr amt 
NT LAmTBA. Past, Tbnt, futuzv. 

Ho SVT. 

Xankiny, v. int. To go then. 
S'ny ho iny, adv. Somawhen^ 
E'FY. Proy. for EimrA (six), whioli 

SKI' AHA, or SHI'SVA. Same as 

Anzana, which see. 
S'lriHA, oiy. Six. . [Mai. mumi. In 
many Polyn. languages omi, and 
in many Mai. Aroh. langoages mmn^ 
onam, nome, ennoi^ eto.] 
Enimiiia, r. /mm. (Imp. enSmaJ) To 

be diyided into six parts. 
XidBina, v. int. To diyids into 

¥anini«a, r. tr. To divdt into 

six. ^^▼O 
Vnim^polo. »bcty. 
S'ftin-Jito. Six hundred. 
FahiniBA. Thesixtlu 
Ampakiniay. The sixth part, oma 

Iniaiiia. Si^^f timfts. 
Baaimana. Six dm* 
Litaa-pahiiriay^ Two-penoa leaa 

one sixth. 
VEIVA, atff\ Haying epon gh , all 
fomished, all stippliod. 



Vain-tfl^, iMfp. HaTing what others 
have got. 

tsf teua iij. Not havinff one^s 
ahare of what one expected. 

Wahinlwai t>. tr. To aaTe enough 
toa appiy alL 
XVJIXA. Boot of the following. 

VUal. panfOffoka, xparxkjzka. (?).} 

Voajhjilra. «. jnim. Puniied after 
having fled, chased, followed. 

l^jdhina, V. pats. (Imp. ei^eho.) To 
be pnrsaed, to be onased, to be 
followed after, to be persecuted. 

Udi^ika, V, int. (Bel. iet^luma,) 
To flee, to run away. In the 
proTiooes it means to fall. 

■andigika, v. tr, Qp^V' mmm^eha; 
Bel. omnjeKamt^ Bel. Imp. mim- 
j^ho.) To porsoe, to ohaae, to 
follow after, to persecate. 

AapA^fika, <. A stranger. (F»nr.) 

Miii^jikd^jika, v, int. To depart 
qniokly, to leave hastilT, to diwp- 
pear pneoipitately, to slip away. 

Maimgahtiiy Zinahiiy iko. Qod 
has revealed that to me. (Frov.) 

V^iky ZiaahiUry no noioritaa- 
irio. They were written by the 
inspir a tion of Ghid. (Plov.) 
nrnnrVJIVA, «. sharp reproof, 

reprimand, rebuke. (Prov.) 

V^jiM^jdnina, «. ptut. (Imp. ^- 
nenjeno.) To be reproved, repri- 
msinded. (Fhyv.) 

Kaadnjiaiqjiiui, v. tr, (Imp. ma- 
mit^nmitnm ; Bel. mt^jinm^huma^ 
Bel. Imp. animinm^hto.) To re- 

rve, to rebuke. (Prov.^ 
Fiobably the primitive root 
of Nkvo, whion see. 

In the pfovinoes we have :— 
▼4tim tesb A mnsioal box, an 
organ, an aooordeon, a piano. 
^h»v.) In Imerina we have 


Bttftiao. Air instrument of moaio. 
^Mf,) In Imerina we have 


BTTOE A. Fkov. lor HsmXA, whiohiee. 

iniTA Prov. for Entaxa, whioh see. 

WTAVA, «. A burden, a pad^ a 
load, a package, lugmge, goods in 
oeneral ; also dependants, as of a 
oeosased or poor iriative or friend. 

Tafdntaaa, v, pau. Having been 
made to stand iq» from sudden 

Voadntaaa, v, poMt. Lifted up, 
raised up. 

Entiniiia, v. jmm. {Imp. enttim,) 
To be lifted up, to oe raised 19. 

Mii^ntaiia, 9. int. (Lnp. mientii$ui; 
Bel. ientdnana, Bel. Ijnp. imtdno.) 
To rise from the ground, to 
move its place, as uiings on a 
table when struck, to stut sud- 
denly, to set out. See Miazxo-a, 
under AzirciA. 

Maadntaaa, v. tr. (Imp. manentdna; 
Bel. anentdnanoy Bel. Imp. oimm- 
tdno.) To lift up, to raise, to 

S'ntany malaina, «. A heavy bur- 
den ; an attempt to carry more 
than is convenient. 

Xaadntaa-ts^ ritra. To take out 
the rice before it is suificdentiy 
cooked, i.e. before all the water 
is dried up ; fig. to depart witih 
a partial Imowledge of the mes- 
sage to be taken, to set out 
without proper preparation. 

Mitdndra totan-tsy voafihy. Same 
as preceding. 

ZAaak* dntaaa, s. [zavaka, a child.] 
Small packages canied in addition 
to large ones. 
E'htam-fo'tbt (P), #. [voTVT, white.] 

ProvisionB, pacicages, or luggage of 

an inferior kind. 
Emtb'eaha, V, pMi. See Entitba. 
B'VTT. Boot of the following. See 

Jbbt, Zaha. 

Kntdana, v. pan. (Imp. enth.) To 
be looked at. (Prov.) 

Kaatoty, t. tr. (Imp. manentia; 
Bel. anentkmoy Bel. tmg. anenth^ 
To look at. (Prov.) 

gandn ty, ». The eyes. (Prov.) 
ranXA, verbal root (/). (Imp. hUo.) 

To be brought) to m carrieo, to be 

led, to be taken, to be used. Its 

past is Nbntina, future Ho nr- 

TDTA. This word is often joined to 

other verbs, as : — 

S'nti-maaa^. Taken to do some- 
thing with. 

E'nti-mamdly. Taken to strike with. 



with, ■ 

to I 


To be taken 
i: Nt 

FAHAYALO, The soldien 
taken by the oommander to attack 
E'iitiic-ba'tt, adj. [tatt, feminine.] 

Hen-pe cked ; Ut. LmI hy the wife. 
VJTintA. Boot of the following:— 
Xntdrana, r. past. (Imp. entero.) 
To be applied to yigorooBlv, to 
be deroted to, to be abandoned 
to, to be addicted to anything, 
nun, money f work, etc. (Prov.) 
Xitetitra, r. int. rimp. mienttra ; 
Bel. ientirana^ Bel. Imp. imtero.) 
To give one's self up to, to be 
entirely engroMed wiUi or addict- 
ed to any thing as work, mm, 
money, etc. (Ptot.) 
Vientdrana, ». A passion for 
something, faithfulness, attach - 

m ent. (Krov^ 

BVTBIVA, adj. Having a nasal pro- 
nunciation. (Prov.^ SeeEsivA, Ebona. 
Mdntfina or Xidnttindnttiiia, v. 
int. To snuffle, to speak through 
the nose. (Prov.) 
E'HTsniBx'BrvA'TT, t. [TZHiVArr, a 
woman.] An herb which is used 
as a medicine after an accouche- 
ment. (Prov.) 
XHTBIirE'KTBlirA. Boot of the 
following : — 

XUntsindntsina, r. int. To be too 
fullf as a box, a trunk, etc. ; to 
be badly arranged or without 
order. (Prov.) 
V0| adv. There, close at hand, in 
sight. Its past is Teo, and future 
Ho bo. 8ee Airr, Ao, Ent. 
Xankdo, r. int. To go there. 
S'o ho do, adr. Somewhere there. 
B'o no ho do, adr. Here just now, 

just gone. 
Tic no ho do, adv. A very short 
time ago. 
S'BA, 8. Consent, arreement. 
▼oadra, r. /n?m. Fetched, applied 
to a woman fetched for an im- 
moral purpose. 
Xndna, r. pats. (Imp. tra6.) To 
be fetched for another for immoral 

■Ura, r. int. and tr. (Imp. 

Bd. iermnoy Bd. Imp. %€rm6.) To 
ask leave <xff a person, to beg leave ; 
to beg leave for. 

Mandra, r. tr, (Imp. mmnerm ; Bel. 
anerinm, Bel. Imp. anemo.) To 
fetch a woman for another tor an 
immoral purpose, to pimp. 

Tday midra, or Teny idnma, «. An 
agreement, mutual consent, words 
for request. 

Ifidra iminad iho. I ask leave of 

iMj aminad aho. I ask leave 

for him of you. 
Alainaira. Consulted, having con- 
sent asked. 
E'BAirA. Used only in derivatives 
and with the suifix pronoun Kt, as 
Ebakt. Full, complete measure, 
that which fills, as : Eban ' mr sonto, 
a spoonful. 
Kaiidrana, r. tr. Imp. and Bel. not 

used. To fill a place, to pervade. 
Mifiandrana, r. reeip. To be equal, 

to oo-eztend with ; to exchange 

by giving weight of money for 

weight of goods. 
Xandrana ny trino ny 61ona. The 

people fill the house. 
Kandrana iza6 toat61o iia6 Andria- 

m&nitra. God pervades the whole 

E'ran' Antaninariyo. Through all 

E'ranahba'trt, «. ^AHBATBT, ashrub, 
seed.] A small piece of money, the 
weight of the 72nd part of a Span- 
ish dollar; the 72nd part of an 
E'bajc-paka'ht, 8. [fakaht, the soul.] 
What the heart ukes, what fills the 
E'bax-po', 8. [fo, the heart.] Full 

E'bav-akki'ht,«. [amzxbt, the thumb.] 
The breadth of the thumb ; an indi. 
E'bam-ki'bo, «. [xiBO, the stomach.] 
What the heart likes, what fills the 

E'RAN-TA'NAMfliA, 8. [tAVAITA, tho 

hand, ha, one side.] A handful. 
Ebb'tiwa, r. jNiM. 8c« Ebitba. 
FBY. Boot of the following :~ 


llidry, V. int. and tr, (Imp. miere ; 
Bel. ierenoy Bel. Imp. i^eo.) To 
oonoeal one's self, to hade one's 

■ampidrj, r. ^r. (Imp. mam/n^^ ; 
Bel. am/?i«r^Ma, Kel. Imp. ampte^ 
rio,) To conceal, or to hide anj- 

■anad fanilaia-pidry. To plaj at 
hide and seek. 
E^bll'kdro, s, [jkNDBO, the day.] An 

herb. Same as AjiiAin>BO, which see. 
XBT*, adv. There, yonder, at some 

distance. The past is Tbbt, and 

the future Ho b&y. 

Hanker^, v. int. To go yonder. 

Srlldtra. Used in the same way as 
B'BIKA, 9. Drizzling rain, thick 

mist. Ebik' andbo idso used. 

Xirika, a^j. Drizzly, misty. 

Xaadrika, r. int. ^Ul. anerehana 
(Pirov.) To be drizzly. Used 
only when joined to the word 
AsDBO, as : ILlnebika my andbo, 
The dav is drizzly. 
XIUKA. An expletive, used as fol- 
lows. See Hujrr, Tskbiaxx. 

Ata^Tj drika. Do it again, continue. 

AVia irika. Come now. (ProT.) 

Sakisairika. Quite enough. (Prov.) 

nako dnka iiy. I love him still. 

Taj atadko irika. I wiB do it no 
more. (Prov^ 
gai XA^ r. poM. »9e Eriu.. 
BimrA. Boot of the following :^ 

Xidriaa, t. int. (Bel. ieremana,) 
To a^ insatiably, to crave for 
more, to be dissatisfied, to be 
discontented. In the provinces 
it also means to disregard the 
sovereign, the laws, etc., or to 
deceive a superior, or a neigh- 
B'bxm-pitz'a, «. [tza, to like.] A 

desire for an increase of love, an 

effort to increase friendship. 

llUriiii-pitia, v. eomp. rSel. iere- 
nam-jntla.) To seek tor an in- 
crease of niendship. 
VtaX'KA'jmtA, •. [hanina, food.] 

Qrumbling for more food. 

Ifidrin-UUiiiia, v. eomp. (Bel. %er^ 
man-kanina.) To grumble for 
more food. 
Kbin-ka'vana, «. [HAVANA, a rela- 
tive.) Grumbling at one's neigh- 
bours. (Prov.) 
EHIVE'BniA, «. Something occupying 

a conspicuous place, prominency, 


Kiirinirina, v. int. (Imp. mihrine" 
rena ; Bel. itrxntrhiana^ Bel. Imp. 
ihrinereno.) To be alone in a con- 
spicuous place, to appear prom- 
inent; fig. to separate one s self 
from a company. 

Kandrindrina, v. int. To be dear, 
calm, bright, unclouded, elevated, 
prominent, open. 

Kandrindrina ny indro. The day 
is clear and bright. 

Kdrina, adj. Clear, bright. (Prov.) 

Imdrina, «. The land of the Hova. 

tation, meditation, thoughts. 

yoadritrdritra, v. pa»a. Cogitated. 

Erdtina, or E'ritrerdtina, v. pom, 
(Imp. eretOf or eritrereto.) To be 
thought of, to be meditated. 

mdritra, or Kidritrdritra, v. int, 
and tr. (Imp. mieritrsrita ; Bel. 
ieritreretanaj Bel. Imp. ihHtrerito.) 
To think, to cogitate, to meditate. 

Vilona dritriritra. Seta-thinking. 

Tidritrerdtaaa, «. Befiection; the 
S'BITBA. Prov. for Intsoky, which 

SB(KA, adv. There, yonder, at that 


ICankerda, v. i$ti. To go there, 
to go yonder. 

Er^akatra and Brdana are also used. 
SBOT, adv. There, yonder, but ra- 
ther more distant tluui Eboa. 

Erdikitra, Srdkitra, and Srday ace 
also so used. 
FBOVA, s. A growl, a roar. 

mdrona, r. int. (Bel. ieronana,) To 
growl, to snarl, to roar. 

Xaateona, v. tr, (Bel. anerortana.) 
To growl at, to snarl at ; to mur- 
mur, to grumble. 

Xampiirona, v. tr. Same as preced- 



VSOKA, ». Something burnt, or burnt 
too much, as rioe or bread reduced to 
oharooal, or sheep's wool burnt. 
Erdnina, v. pass. (Imp. erfmy,) To 
be burned too muoh ; in the pro- 
yinoes it also means to be wasted, 
as riches, etc. 
Mandrona, v. tr. (Imp. manerona ; 
Bel. anerhnanay Kel. Imp. anerh' 
ny.) To bum food, to destroy by 
fire, to consume ridiee. (Prov.) 
Vrom-biULny, s. The burnt portion 
of rice, etc., which sticks to the 
cooking-pot. (Prov.) 
IfiwlTia drona. Burnt food. (Prov.^ 
Taadron-kardna. A prodigal. (Prov.) 
Taadron-tiny. A scourge, a calam- 
ity, an epidemic, a war, bad kings. 
BSCnnr, adv. There, yonder. See 

Eboa, Ebot. 
Ebo'nina, v. pass. See Eboka. 
mOTSA, s, A snore. 
Xidrotra, v. int. Imp. and Bel. 
not used. To snore. 
BHAVE'SAHA. Boot of the foUow- 

mesana, or Xidtandsana, r. int. 
To swell out, to be inflated, as 
the stomach ; to be gross, down- 
iah. (Prov.) 
Eta'HnrA, V. pass. See Esixa. 
VfT. Same as Azbt, which see. 
S'8IE'8T. Boot of the following :— 
Voaiiietj, v. pass. Called, as 

B'seidna, v. pass. (Imp. heseo.) To 
be called, as dogs. 
VSDLA, inter. An expression of de- 
nial. No ! (Prov.) 
V8IKA, s. An obstruction to any 
passage. See Taxpina. 
voadilka, v. pass. Arrested, ob- 
structed. (ProvJ 
Bilhina, v. pass. (Dnp. esehc.) To 
be obstructed, to be impeded, as 
water by a dyke, etc. (Prov.) 
Xandflika, v. tr. (Imp. mansseha; 
Bel. anesehana^ Bel. Imp. aneseho.) 
To obstruct or turn aside water 
by a dam ; to stop up a passage, 
to close a road ; to put obstacles, 
moral or physical, before one. 

E'n-D&A'iro, s. [bang, water.] A dam. 

B'dlKS'SIXA, s. S(»enees arising 

from a blow or a bruise; the 

feeling of distension from a too full 

stomach. Probably redup. of pre- 


Midtikdiika, v. int. To feel beaten 
or bruised, to feel uneasy owing 
to the distension of the stomach. 

Xandtikdsika, v. tr. To make to 
feel sore by beating ; to cram to 
excess ; to cause uneasiness from 
over distension of the stomach. 

S'BIVA. Boot of the following. See 
Emtsina, Esona. 
Xidtina, or Xidiindaina, r. int. 

(Imp. miisinesena; Bel. i^nese- 

nasMy Bel. Imp. ihineseno.) To 

breathe hard through the nose, 

to sniff. 
S'SO, s. Irony, soom, contempt, ridi- 
cule, a soon, a sneer, a gibe, a 
voadio, V. pass. Scorned, sneered 

at, ridiculed. 
Bsdina, v, pass. (Imp. esoy,) To be 

scorned, to be sneered at, to be 

XandflO, V. tr. (Imp. mannba; Bel. 

anesoanay Bel. Imp. anesoy.) To 

scorn, to sneer, to scoff, to ridi- 
cule, to despise, to jeer. 
E'son-tb'kt, s. [tbnt, a word.] A 

scornful word. 
S'SOVA, s. Hard respiration. See 
Miisona, or Xidflondtona, v. int. 

^[mp. miesbna ; Bel. issonana, Bel. 

jjmp. issony.) To breathe hard 

through the nose. 
VBOTBA. Boot of the following. 
AxsoTBA and Isotba also used. 
Voateotra, r. pass. Bemoved, taken 

away, cleared off. 
Aiteotra, v. pass. To be removed, 

to be taken away, to be cleared off. 
Bsdrina, v. pass. (bap. ssory.) To 

be removed, to be taken away, to 

be dearedoff. 
Xidtotra, r. int. (Imp. miesara ; Bel. 

Mtorowa, Bel. Imp. iuory.) To 

go away. 



HMoHolTAf V. tr, (bap, manetora; 

Rel. ane$aranay Rel. Iinp. anetorf/.) 

To take away, to lemore, to dour 


E'bo-pahdbi'ana, #. [faitdbxaha, a bed 

(root andst).] a present made to 

a first wife on marrjins' a second. 
XTAXA. Boot of the foUowing. See 

Etbt, Onoana. 

Talitaka, v. jhum, Pat down, low- 
ered, humbled. (Prov.) 

Voadtaka, r. pas*. Abased, made 
lower, humbled. (Prov.) 

Aitaka, r. pass. (Imp. aeUho.) Used 
of that which is to be lowwed, 
abased, or to be made humble. 

Betaka, v. int. flmp. mietdha; 
Bel. ieUhana^ Rel. Imp. ietdho.) 
To stoop, to huddle up the limbs, 
as in eyadinff a projectile; to 
humiliate one s self. ^Pror.) 

¥aTidtaka, v. tr. jimp, manetdha; 
Bel. anetdhanaf Bel. Imp. anetd' 
Mo.) To make lower, to hold down 
the head, to lessen the height of a 
wall; to rednce the piton of a 
tone. (ProT.) 

MUta-p6. To humble one's self, to 
demean one's self. (Ptot.) 

Xaadta-p6. Same as preceding. 

Mfuidtaka aliia and Maiidta-b^taiia 
are also used in tiie sense of Ka- 
mcTA-PO. (Prov.) 
VTAKE^TAXA, s. Ckmoeit, pompool- 

tj, boasting. See Akciitbakoitba. 

Wi^UMtaka, v. int. (Inq». mietak^- 
taha ; Bel. ietaketdhana, Bel. Imp. 
i itaketdho.) To be conceited. 
STT, oflj. Narrow, strait, dose. 

▼oaity, V. pass. Narrowed. 

Bttea, v.pass. (Imp. et^.) To be 
straitened, to oe oonfined, to be 
made naziow. 

MaaMjt v. tr. (Imp. mamtS ; B«L 
anetima, Bel. Imp. amtSo.) To 
flteaiten, to confine, to deprive of 


BIT, adv. Here, dose at hand, 
■aaket^, v. int. To come here. 
'Et^ ko et^, adv. Hereabouts. 
Xfikitra. Used frequeniij for the 

FTIKFTIKA. Same as EntcsinxA, 

which see. 
E'TO, adv. Here, dose at hand, in 
this place. 

Mankdto, v. int. To come here. 
E'to ho dto kokte, adv. Nearer. 
E'to haya6 aha^. Come in ! (ProT.) 
£t6akatra, Etdana, Etdy, Btdkitn, 

and Et6ny, are frequently used in 

the sense of Ero. 
E'TOXA. Boot of the following : — 
Midtoka, V. int. (Imp. mietoha ; Bd. 

ietokana, Bel. Imp. ietdhy.) To 

slink away, to e^^Etde some one. 

S'TOhA, «. Fumes, vapour, steam, 
smoke. See Setboza. 
St6nana, v. pass. (Imp. etbny.) To 

be fumed, to be steamed. 
Maadtona, v. int. (Bel. anetonana.) 

To emit vapour, to steam, to 

BTOTRA, s. Breaking wind down- 
Mangdtotra, v. int. (Imp. mang9t6' 

ra; Bel. and Pass, angetorana^ 

Bel. Imp. anffetdry.) To break 

wind downwards. 
Fanget6rana, «. A person who is 

in the habit of breaking wind 

Muigitomiadry, #. A shrub or 

tree. (Bets.) 
E'to-ba'va, s. r^AVA, the mouth.] An 

insolent word. 
SnntA. Boot of the following. See 
Bavaxa, HAXifao. 
Voadtra, v. pass. Adorned, decora- 
ted. (Prov.) 
Xiitra, V. int. QLmp. mietrd; Bd. 

ietrdna, Bel. Imp. ietrao.) To 

prepare, to decorate one's self, to 

be well dressed. (Ptov.) 

VTBA, 8. A girdle, a bdt. (Prov.) 
Yoaitra, v. pass. Qirdled, bdted. 

Vrina, or Strdrina, v. pass. (Imp. 

hro, or etriro.) To have a girote 

or bdt put on. (Prov.) 
Xidtra, v. int. (Imp. mistrd ; Bd. 

and PaM. istrdna, Bd. Imp. 

ietrao^ To wear a girdle, to bo 

saddled. (Plov.) 


Maiiltn, r. tr. (Imp. mtmttrd; 
Bel. anetrdma, Bel. Imp. anetrao,) 
To put a ghdle on, to raddle. 
TiUrika dtnt. A bnoUe. (Ptov.) 
Tandrandiliy. An herb, from the 
root of wluch a laxative decoction 
is made. 
JTTRAKA. A provincial word for 

VmuzA, whicn see. 
Etbb'va, r. past. See Etbt. 
ErBs'BiirA, r. ptm. See Etba. 
B'TBY, verbal root. Beduced in rank, 
lowered, lerelled, hnmbled. See 


Voadtry, v. past. Same as Etbt. 
Aitxjt V, pass. (Imp. aetreo.) Used 

of that which is to be leduoed, 

lowered, or hnmbled. 
Strdna, v. pass, (Imp. etrio.) To 

be rednoed in hononr, to be low- 
lUfttry, V. int, (Imp. mietrh ; Bel. 

ietrina, Bel. Imp. ietrioS To 

decrease in honour, to sink lower. 
Xanitry, v, tr, Qmg, manetri; Bel. 

anetrina, Bel. imp. anstrio.) To 

reduce in honour, to bring lower, 

to degrade. 
Xandtry ttaa, r. eomp, (Imp. ma- 

nstre thta; Bel. atistrm'tena, Bel. 

Imp. anstrSo Una,) To humble 

one^s self. 
Xaadtry mdntotra, p. eomp. To seek 

an occasion of aoousinff the rich. 
Taadtribd, s, A insect tnat eats the 

earth-nuts or rice ; a despoiler. 
\ Prov. for Err (narrow), which 

VTBOKA, s. Slovenliness, filthiness, 
dulness. (Prov.) 
▼oaitroka, v, pass. Made dirty, 

tarnished ; obscured, as of the sun 

or moon. (Prov.) 
Xtrdhina, v, pass, (Imp. strbhy.) 

To be made dirty, tarnished, or 

obscure. (Prov.£ 
Manitroka, v. tr, (Imp. manstr^ha; 

Bel. anetrohana^ Bel. Imp. ofM- 

trohy.) To tarnish, to suUy, to 

obscure. (Prov.) 
Xaltroka, atff. Tarnished, sullied, 

obscure, dim. See Matboka. 


Xadtro-p6, adj. Used of one who ia 
vile, or who is uncharitable, (^nov.) 
Xadtroka kibo, adj. Same aa pre- 
ceding. (Prov.) 
Etba'eana, v. past. See Etsaza (n.). 
X'TSAXA, adj. Sufficient, enough. 
Used prixnarily of that which 

auenches thirst, and then of any- 
liing which is sufficient or enougn. 
Xaaetiaka, v, tr. ^mp. manetsaha ; 
Bel. anetsahana, Kel. Imp. anetsa- 
ho.) To quench thirst, to ratiafy, 
to make fully content, to assuage 
anger, passion, ete. (Prov.) 
Xahdtiaka, s. Water. (Prov.) 
Rtba-di'a, adj. [piA, a step.] Satis- 
fied with travelling. (Prov.) 
Ftbaxa a'dt, adj. [adt, a fight.] 
Used of one who ha« had enough 
of fighting. (Prov.) 
E'Ta&XA taVt, adj. [tant, tears.] 
Used of one whose grief is assuaged. 
E'tba-tsa'xbo, adJ, [bambo, a ship.] 

Same as Etoa-dia. (Prov.) 
E'TBA-Tso'iCA, adJ, [soxA, play.] Tired 

of playing. (Prov.) 
FTBAXA. Boot of the following :— 
Voaitsaka, r. pass. Beaten, struck ; 

Xtsihana, r. pass, (Imp. stsiAo.) 

To be beaten, to be struck. 
Xidtsaka, v. int. (Bel. ietsdhana.) 

To fall or sink down. 
Xaaitiaka, v, tr. (Imp. maneisdha ; 
Bel. anstsihana, Bel. Imp. atte- 
tsdho.) To beat, to stnke, to 
smite, to throw down. 
STBAKFTBAKA. Used only in the 
following: — 
▼oaitsakdtsaka, r. pass. Beaten 

E'tsaketsihina, r. pass. (Imp. etsa^ 
ketsdho.) To be beaten or struck 
Xaaitsakdtsaka, r. tr, (Imp. ma- 
netsaketsaha ; Bel. anetsaketsdha-- 
iM, Bel. Imp. anetsaketsdho.) To 
strike, to throw down. 
X'TST, or ST8T', adj. Then, yonder. 
Xankdtsy, or Kankets^, v. int. To 

go there, or yonder. 
X'tsy ho itiy, adv. Somewbero 



and B tiikitra, an also vaed. 
XnrVT, «fv. There, jonder, but 

further than Bxst. 
XTA. Boot of the following :— 

Mtira, or XUrmlra, v. int. (Lnp. 
mUvmevd ; Bel. Uuuvinay Bd. 
Imp. Uvaevdo.^ To be fall of self - 
lore, to be vain, to brag. (ProY.) 

MuiiTS, r. tr. (Imp. mon^ ; Bel. 
mM^dnaf Bel. Imp. «meva6.) To 
embellish, to adoni. (Prov.) 

Xtra, or JUira, adj\ Beautifnl, 
good, excellent. Maitana is also 
used in the proyinoes for this. 

TaadTS, M, A war flag, a standaid. 

XTAJfXTAlTA, adj. Standing in an 
intermediate place, interyening, nea- 
tral. See Elanblana, Elakblaka. 
MidrandTana, v. int. To be neutral, 

to stand aloof. 
B'Taadraa' dlona. One who keeps 
himself neutral ; neitiier a soldier 
nor a ciTilian. 
Xaaa6 dTandrana, 9. int. To be 

neutral. (ProT.) 
XftBddha dranirana, v. int. To go 
to an i ntermediate space. 
XTA'VJSLI'BT&Af t. An evangelist 

PBng. mom^Wm^.J 
XrniAv «. 8nee2ang, a sneeze. 
Xiftvina, r. mf. Imp. and Bel. 

not used. To sneeze. 

ITOBTO. Boot of the following :— 

Wdrodro, v. int. To be proud or 

conceited. (Prov.) See Ebokbo. 

VTOKA, 8. Steam, rapour, a vapour 

bath; insolence. See Etoka. 

XrftUaa, r. pata. (Imp. er6hjf.) To 

be pounded, as rice. 
Xr^haiia, v. pan. (Imp. evohy.) To 
be steamed, to be exposed to steam. 
KNoka, r. int. (Imp. miev6ha; 
BeL ievohma, Bel. Imp. «#t^Ay.} 
To use a vapour bath ; to be dose 
and sultzT ; to pound rice ; to be 
insolent (?). 

Bel. anepohana, Bef. Imp. afi«- 
wAy.) To steam ; to oppress, as 
wiui heat ; to poimd rice. 
■iroka, adj. Pounded, as rice, 
used of the first pounding only. 

STOXXTOKA, ». Mere outside ap- 

E'YOKA, or EYOVSTOVA, ». Pride, 

insolence, impudence. (Prov.) See 


Midvonai v. int. (Imp. mievona; 
Bel. ievdnana, Bel. Imp. itvinyS 

To be insolent to others. (Prov.) 

XTOTBA, verbal root. To be plucked 
up, to be retracted, to be with- 
drawn, to be recanted. (Prov.) See 


mdvotra, V. int. and adj. To be 
uneven, to be protuberant, to be 
convex ; to withdraw, to retire^ 
to abandon, to recant. 

Xandvotra, v. int. and adj. To 
leave no impression, to rebound, 
to return ; to recant ; impene- 
trable. (Prov.) 

KidTOtrdyotra, v. int. To shake^ 
to totter, to falter, to stag^, to 
recant frequently, to be m the 
habit of withdrawing. 

The first and second meaninga 
only are used in Imerina, t£a 
others are provincial. 
X'ZAKA, or E'ZAKX'ZAKA, 9. A race, 

a run, a stretch, a supreme effort. 

See Hazaxazaza. 

Voteaka, v. pass. Lengthened out. 
Applied only to metslB. 

Siihina, 17. pau. (Imn. etdho,) To 
be lengthened out, uke metaL to 
be stretched, as a cord; to be done 
with energy. 

Eiikeiihina, v. pan. (Imp. kah9» 
tdho.) To be beaten or stmok 
with violence. 

Mifaaka, r. int. (Imp. mitUkm ; 
Bel. ietdhana, Bel. tmp- mmUo.) 
To run, to stretch, to distend, to 
strive ; to stretch out in yawn* 

Maneiaka, v. tr. and int, (Inm. 
fnanezdha ; Bel. anttahana, BeL 
Imp. anesdho.) To lengthen out 
metal, to stretch a cord ; to put 
forth great exertiooa, to put forth 
tJl one's strength aftor some- 

The former meanings ace pro- 
vincial, Jihe latter two only are 



adj. High, diffionlt. 
■ateaka, mff . Straight and long. 
B^EA-XAi'vA, «. [iCAiHA, siinply.] Boot 
of the following : — 
mtea-malna, r. inU To nm away 
without cauae ; to be stnbbom in 
doing anything ; to take by force. 
X'ZAVA. Prov. for Aikaita, wmch see. 
FZAVrZAVA, 8. Loitering, linger- 
ing about. 

X&anteana, r. int. (Imp. mika- 

nezdna; Bel. ihanetanana^ Bel. 

Imp. ietanezino.) To loiter, to 

hesitate, to be in doubt. 

VZIVE'ZIKA, t. A loud report, a 

loud noifle, as of artilleiy, thunder, 


XiAiiBliiiia, V. int. To resound, 

as a falling stone or the report of 

a cannon, etc., to reverberate 


VZOfZO, odj. Spare, lank, lean and 

long, thin. 

MUioiio, adj. Long but lean, 
spare, slender, meagre. Proba- 
bly this word should be Hbzo- 
SBZO, which see. 


V. The fifth letter of the Malagasy 
Alphabet. It is sounded like / in 
father^ otff in off. When a word be- 
ginning with /is joined to another 
word ending in -na (or -mr], -za, or 
-TBA to make a compound word, the 
/ becomes ji, the -va becomes m, and 
the -ZA or -tba is omitted, as: 
AirAJtAJC-FODT (anabana and fodt) ; 
SzTBA-PO (8ITBAZA and Fo) ; Tovoo- 


When the verbal prefix Mait- is 
joined to words beginning with /, 
the /is elided and Uie n becomes m, 
as Mametba (man- and fetba). 
VA, A contraction of £fa. (Prov.) 
VA, conj. For, but, therefore, because, 
Tandrlmo, fa maiiata ny dmby . Take 

care, for the ox is fierce. 
Ba, 2a mangidy. Much, but bitter. 
Kliia 2a haaddha lay. He says 

that he will go. 


FA'BY, 8. (Imp. Opt. fadla.) 

nenoe, fasting, prohibition ; unlaw- 
fulness, incest; anything tabooed. 

It often takes an accusative case, 

as : Fast aht ieant. Falt is xtaeA 

in the provinces. [Comp. 8wa. /«/«, 

an omen.J 

Voafiidy, v. pau. Spoiled, made 
useless; refrained from. 

Fadisa, c. past. (Imp. fadio.) To be 
abstained from, to be refrained 

Mifidy, V. tr. (Imp. mifadla ; Bel. 
ifadiana, Bel. Imp. ifadxo^ To 
abstainlhrom, toenaure abstinenoe ; 
to cany marks with them to show 
that their husbands are away at 
the war, as women do. 

Xaha£Uy, adj. To be able to ab- 
stain from ; to be continent, to be 

Be fidif&dy, adj. Superstitioua. 

A'la fidy 4ho. Excuse me, paidon 
me, by your leave, please. 

A'la mahafady Uiy. Used with 
same meaning as preceding. 

Kiidy fildy, v. eomp. To discuss 
about what is unbecoming or 

Maadta fidy, v. eomp. To do some- 
thing which is unlawful or un- 
becoming ; to commit incest. 

Miila fidy, or XaiiiU fidy. See 
under Ajjl fast. 

Fadia, Be accursed. Only used as 
a malediction. 

8Aro-pidy, adj. Scrupulously exact 
in observing all ceremonies and 
prohibitions ; superstitious. 

TiBf fidy. The rascal ! An insult- 
ing phrase. 


of FOHZHATBA, be destroyed.] Hay 
you be accursed. An imprecation, 
a malediction. 

Fa'difa'dt, adj. Indecorous, impudent, 
indulging in indelicate remarks. 

Fa'dy fohs'hatba, aiff. [fohxhatba, 
disastrous.] Infamous, viUainous ; 
extraordinary (P), excellent {?). 

Fa'dy fo'tst, 8. [fotbt, white.] Pre- 
tended abstinence, indulgence with- 
out violating the strict letter of the 



FA'imrT, 9, [nt, soifix pitmoon.] En- 
trails, bowelfl, -nsoera. 

Fa'din-ks'na, a. THBirA, beef.] The 
whole of the ixuiae of a bnUodk, viz. 
heart, longs, stomach, entrails, 

Fa'bzm-za'vt, 9, fTANT, land.] Any- 
thing prohibitea or tabooed by the 
laws or onstoma of the ooontry. 

FA'nzv-iBBBA'HAirA, f. [bsbanaita, a 
port.] Cnstoms does. 

Fa'pio'i toa, f . NameofUzd. (Pror.) 

FADrBIXRA, f . Entanglement. Used 
only of oordor thread. See Didxtba, 


Afiididitra, v. pau. ^mp. afadidlro,) 
Used of that whicm is twisted on 
something else. 

Fadldirana, v. pats. (Isixp.fadidiro,) 
To be entangled, to be twisted on 

Kiladiditra, v. int. (Bel. and Pass. 
i/tadidtrmma,) To be in an en - 
tangled state. 

XaniMidi-bdlaaa. To make a ram- 
bli ng sp eech, ^tov.) 
FABrDnrSA, «. The name of a 

dis ease , neuralgia {?). 
FA'DITBA, a. Any offering made to 

avert evil, a piaoulnm; fig. off- 

soouring. Ckmip. Sobova. 

AfUitzm, V. pa$t. (Imp. afadiro,) 
Used of anything offered to avert 

Fadirana, v. pats, (hsxp.fadiro,) To 
be saved bom evil by the offer- 
ing of aFASZTBA. 

Manwditra, v, tr. (Imp. mamadtra ; 
Bel. amadirwta, Bel. Imp. amn' 
dlro,) To offer the Faditba, to 
pay anything to some one acci- 
dentally injured as an acknow- 

Miila filditra, v. eotnp. To make 
an offering to avert evO. See 


■iliditra, adj. Having the Fadi- 
TRA offered for one. 
Fa'totra a'hxtr^, 8. [ahit&a, grass.] 

Used as follows : — 

Mifiditra fthitra, r. int. To throw 
away a portion of grass, as expres- 
sing sorrow for one*s sin, or 
for others' sins. 

Ea'ditra o'vana, a. [ovana, a chip, a 

shaving.] Boot of the following : — 

Miiilditra dvana, v, int. To be 
Sony for some nndeserved calam- 
ity hAppening to another ; used 
also as loUowB : Mifasitiia ovak a 
AHO, Andbiamanitha ! May not 
sochathinghappentome, O OM ! 

Fadlrana dvana, adj. Wretched, 
miserable, calamitous, tormented, 
in agony. 
FADBO'tOA, a. Name of a bird. 

FATA, f. Sweeping, cleaning off. 

See Faoka. 

▼oalUa, V. pau. Swept, cleared 
off, wiped, cleansed. 

AflLIk, V. pau. (Imp. afafao.) Used 
of that with which the act of 
sweeping is done. 

FaflUia, i^.jMMf. (faxo. fafah.) To be 
swept, to be wiped, to be cleared 

FinAfk. Passive with infix. 

MifAfk, r. tr. and int. (Imp. m«/a/i; 
Bel. ifafUna, Bel. Imp. t/a/oo.) 
To sweep, to wipe, to clear away. 

Xamifli, V. tr. (Imp. mamafA ; Bel. 
amafdna^ Bel. Imp. amafao.) Same 
as preceding. 

i JMUSm ^adj. Euansted, empty, gone. 

Xanad f&& vindana, v. eomp. To 
sweep partially or carelessly. 

Xifilfia, or KofUa, a. A brash, a 
FA'FAm-xo'HDBT, adj. [moitdbt, minus 

a finder or ear.] Ckmipletely cleared 

off. used chiefly of the confiscation 

of property. 

Finni-bdlon-tdndro is also used with 
the same meaning. 
FA'FAKA, a. A piece of board for 

writing on, a lesson-board, a black- 
FA'FATBA, adj. Squeezed, pressed, 

forced ; hard, stout, firm, durable. 

See Fatriltba. 

▼oaflUiatra, v. pat*. Enlarged by 
cutting, as a hole in the trunk of 
a tree. (Prov.) 

FafArana, v. poM. (Imp. fafdro.) 
To be pierced or enlarged, as a 
hole in the tronk of a troe, so as 
to make the honey visible. 


Mimiliitra, v. tr. (Imp. mamafira; 
Bel. oma/irofia, Bel. Imp. mna- 
fAro,) To enlarge a hole in 
the tronk of a tree where there 
is a hive of bees, so as to be able 
to pass in the hand and extract 
the honey. (Prov.) 
FA'FT. Used only in componnds and 

as follows : — 

▼oafUlf , V, paat. Sown, scattered. 

AfiUy, V. pa99, (Imp. afafitto.^ To 
be sown. Used of that which is 
oast, as the seed. 

Faftiaiia, v. pau, (Imp. /i(/Uso.) 
To be sown. Used in speaking of 
the land on which the seed is oast. 

Xifify, 9. iiU. and tr. Imp. and Bel. 
not need. To have seed sown in, 
to take, to require, as : Mxfaft 


That patch of ^(Tound requires 
three bushels of noe to sow it. 
If amity, V, tr, (Imp. mamafixa ; 
Bel. amafiztmay Bel. Imp. ama^ 
fdzo.) To sow, to scatter, to 
disperse, to disseminate. 

Fa'tt ka'tkana, *, [katbana, not 
yet germinated.] Sowing dry or 
unmoistened rice, in opposition to 
the usual mode of first soaking it 
until germination [tazt taeaka] 
has commenced. 

FA'HA*. Ptefix of past time. Before 
▼owels Fah- only is used. The 
following words will illustrate its 
use : — 

Fa'haoo'la, or Fa^haoo'lanta'stt, adv. 
[ooiJL, used only in this word.] 
Anciently, in former times. 

Fa^haiu'eajta, adv. [eazana, an an- 
cestor.] In ancesla^ times. 

Fa'hata'satba, t. [tasatba, light- 
ning.] The rainy season, the sum- 

Fa'havb'lont, *. [vBLOVA, living.] At 
the time when one was living, as : 
Fahayblon-dBadaxa, During Ba- 
dama*s life. 

Fa'haza'za, «. At the time of one^s 

Fahi^nt, t. [iNT, that.][ Formerly, 
in times past, at that tmie. 

Fa'hzrb'nt, adv, [iBEirr, those.] At 
that time. 

Fa'hxzat', or Fa'bxba'ht, adv. [ieat, 

that.] At that time. 

MAadry fihaint* v- ««<• To be 

peaoefnl, quiet, etc. Used in 

speaking of the kingdom at peace. 

FA'HA-. A prefix to numerals, makinff 
them ordinal and (rarely) fractumaC 
Before vowels Fah- odIj is ad- 
ded. This prefix may be added to all 
except IsAT, one, for which number 
VoALOHAiTT (which see) is employ- 
ed; but when the I&at occurs in 
oonwounds, eleven, twenty-one,eto., 
the Fah- can be added ; it is used 
however in speaking of the Prime 
Minister's chief aide-de-camp, who 
IB FAHzsAnnr. [Of. yaoa, used in 
an exactly similar way in the Mela- 
nesian languages.] 

FA'HAsfvT, t. The anoeatoara, or 
spirits of the ancients, lit. the ninth. 

Fa'hatb'ix), t. The third person in 
rank in a Sakalava principality. 
First, the Prince rZAHAx\AEn)aiAKA}, 
second, the chief minister (makah- 
tant), and third, the deputy miniHter 

Fa hate'lo, t. An enemy, an antag- 
onist, lit. the third. It gets na 
meaning (an enemy) from certain 
arrangements in the Sikzbt divina- 
tion. Fahatelobb is also used. 

Fa'hava'lo, t. An enemy, lit. the 
eighth. Its meaning, an enemy, 
comes from certain arrangements 
in the Sekidt divination. 

Fa'hava'loka'zo, 8. [raco, a tree.] 
The name of a priddy shrub. Sola- 
num eryihraeanthum, Bojer. Same 
as Hbbt, Anoivt, Voavoivt, Bonr- 
oiVY (Bets.), which see. 

Fa'hibat', «. First, but used only of 
the sovereign as a mark of respect, 
and in the provinces for Voaxo- 
hant, first. 

FA'HA-. The commencement of all 
abstract nouns formed from the verb 
in Maha-, as : Fahalalana, from 
liALA ; Fahenobxna, from HmrDST ; 
Fahadiont, from Dio, etc. 

FA'HAHA, «. That which is the 
sustinenoe or support of another. 
Taftif&haaa, v. pas*. Supported by 
something. (Ptov.) 



V. jMuw. Supported. 

AttlHTO , V, jMUw. (Imp. ^cAiiM.) 
Und ol tiittt wliion supports 
Mnetiiiiig else. (Fwr.) 

ya li i naiia, v. jyowt (Imp. ySiA<i«M.) 

To be hsld up, as a Doose kept 

'lUjnff \fj a prop; or a 

beuf ii|>_aiia prerented 

ip, as 

from ^MlM^iff by a 

up ai 
faUing. (ProT.) ~8ee To- 

V. int. (Imp. Mt/oAimi / 
Bel. t>SaiiMMM» Bel. Imp. ifahi- 
MO.) To be opposed to aome- 
thmf^, and thus, to resist. 
WaiBJUiam, v. ini, (Imp. momaAifM ; 
Bel. omaMnana, Bet. Imp. oma- 
A«flM.) To hold fast to scwnetblTig, 
as a balustrade or oord ; to place 
the feet firml j on the groimd in 
supporting anything or resisting 
anj one, or as a oat pnlled by the 
tail clings to the gnmnd -mm its 
eUws; to rest npon something 
or some one, as in resting oonfi- 
dently on God ; to detain, to pre- 
Tent from g^oing or being drawn 
away; to hold to what belongs 
to another. 
Ziaahiry tsy Ohaa-drftha. God 
cannot be resisted by anjrthing. 
Wamihawa ny didin' ay Mpaqjika. 
To resist tiie laws of the sover- 
eign. (ProrJ 
FA'HAVA, «. That without which 
nothing has any oonsistenoy ; nour- 
ishment, streng^ ration, subsis- 
tence, complement ; that which has 
been made firm, complete, or solid ; 
a g^on charge; a present of food 
to strangers ; the weft in weaving. 
The meaning of this is in all proba- 
bili^ derived from theprececung. 
▼oanhana, r. poM, Charped, as a 
gun; fed, as a child; having weft, 
as a piece of cloth, etc. etc. 
Afthawa, r. paM. (Imp. afahdno,) 
Used of that which is presented 
or employed as a Faeana. 
Fahiuana, r. pai$, (Imp. fakitno.) 
To be supported, to be nourished, 
sea child fed by its mother; to 
be filled up, as holes in a wall, 

eto. ; to be woven, or supplied 
with weft; to be charged, as a 
gun, cannon, etc. ; to be presented 
with food ; to be wound up^ as a 
dock, etc. 

Mifthaiia, Ajp. Charged, as a gun, 

¥amihftaa, v. tr, (Imp. mamakd' 
na; Bel. amoMnatta, Bel. In^. 
amahdno,) To feed, to tend, to 
treat hospitably, to make a present 
to strangers, to weave, or pass 
the shutfle through the warp ; to 
wind up a spring ; to load a gun, 

XiJUiiiii-pikaiia, v, eomp. To be late 
in presenting travellers with the 
eu^omary present of food ; to 
delay showing hospitality; to put 
a loaded gun aside. 

Mikdrordsy fUuaa. Used of walls 
not properly built falling down, or 
of a person who is too readily dis- 
turbed or troubled. 

Kamfchaa-ts^fia-jiia, v. eomp. To 
attempt to satis^ a child's wants 
by promises of food, lit. to feed 
the ears of a child (instead of 
its mouth). 

M4ty fihana. Used of a gun that 
has missed fire ; or of an intended 
marriage broken ofP. 
FA'BAJC-BAHf inr, 8. [VAHINT, a strang- 
er.] Hospitality to strangers. 

IDuniham-bahiny, v, eomp. To show 
hospitality to strangers. 
Fa'hajc-bai'noa, t. [bainoa, a clod.] 

Large dods used tor making huts. 

MawbA fiham-bainga. To build a 
hut with large clods. 
Fa'ham-ba'st, 8. [BAST, a gun.] A gun 


Mamftham-bisy, r. eomp. To load 
a gun. 
Fa'ham-bo'dt, adj. [vodt, the hinder 

part. ] Used of abreeoh -loading rifle, 

fowling-piece, or cannon. 
Fa'han-da'utba, 8. [lalitra, a fly.] 

Cheating a superior, deceiving the 


▼oafUian-d&litra, v. pass. Cheated, 
as above. 

Fahinan-d&litra, v. pa88. To be 
cheated, as above. 



Mamihan-dilitrft, v.eomp. To cheat 
a saperior or thie Bovereign. 
FA'HAv-DA'inyr, «. [lasdt, silk.] Cloth 

made of cotton or Bofia warp and 

silk weft. 
FA'HAir-DKcnrQo' VT, «. [BOHOONTyhemp. ] 

A piece of cloth made of Bofia fibre 

as warp, and henm as weft. 
Fa'han-ka'miha, f. [KAVZKA, food.] A 

present, chiefly money, oiade to the 

near reUtiyes, or to the chief monm- 

ers before a fnneral. 
Fa'hav-tb'nant, «. [TBiTAinr, itself.] 

A doth in which warp and weft are 

of the same material. 
FA'HAV-ra^NoirA, f . [TBrovA,weaTUig.] 

The weft. 


horse.] Food given to noraes. 
FA'HAtBA. Boot of the following. 

See Fahaka, Vahatba. 

TaCafihatra, v, pau, Omie to a 
standby pressing against some- 

▼oafUiatra, v, pau. Brought to a 
stand by pressing against some- 

Alihatea, v. past, (Imp. a/Miro.) 
To be put against something so 
as not to slip. 

yifUhatra, v. int. (Imp. mifahdra ; 
Bel. and Pass, ifahdrana, Bel. Imp. 
ifahdro.) To be firmly placed so 
as not to be moved. 

Kamihatra, v. int. (Imp. mamahd' 
ra; Bel. amahdrana, Bel. Imp. 
amahdro.) To resist when drawn, 
as roots clinging tenaciously to 
the soil; to ba^ as a person 
dragged against his will ; to stand 
firm ; to act obstinately. 
FA'HY. Boot of the following :— 

▼oaClhy, r. pau. Fattened, as cat- 
tle; confined, surrounded, as a 
besieged town. 

Afihy, I'. pa$8, (Imp. afahdeo,) To 
be made fat by food, to be fed ; to 
be besieged. 

XifiUiy, V. int, (Bel. ifahdeana,) To 
be fattened, confined. 

Mamft h y, v. tr, (Imp. mamahdza; 
Bel. amahdzana, Bel. Imp. ama- 
hdzo,) To fatten, to feed. 

Ak6ho milU^, «. A fattened fowl. 

O'mby mifihy, «. A fattened ox. 


FAiKA, dregs, Bovovo, milk.] A 
shrub or tree, belonging to the 
myrtle order. Perhaps a speciea of 
Buffenia. (Bete.) 
Fa'hxla'st, 8. [laht, masculine.] 'Die 

practice of fattening bulls. 
Fa'hiba'nq, f. [bamo, water.] a siege, 
▼oafihiriiiio, v, pasg. Sesieged; 

kept from having water. 
AfUuHUio, v.poBt. To be besie^ped. 
Mamihirino, 9. eomp. To besiege 

(a town). 
]Cana6 fihiriUio. To besiege a town. 
TAfKPfAo'y t. [tag, new.] Cattle newly 

put to f attmi. 
FA'HXTBA, 9. A catUe-fold, a cattle- 
pen, apitinwhich oxen are fattened. 
voaiiULitara, v, pas*. Enclosed, made 

into a pen or fold ; dosed, as a 

door. (Pftv.) 
Afihitra, r. paas. (Imp. afahiro.) 

Used of that which is endosed in 

a pen. (EVov.) 
Kamfthitra, v. ir. (Imp. mamahlrtk.) 

To pen up cattle ; to dose a door ; 

to put in prison. (Pn>v.) 
Ffthitr' Mona, «. A tribe, a com- 
pany, a corps. (Prov.) 
Manana fihitra. The chief of a 

tribe. rProv.) 
Xaiiad tsioi-p&hitra, r. eomp. [Tsmi- 

XA, peeping.] To peep at, but 

not to join m what is going on. 
"pA'BxsBi'f t. J[bb, lar^.T A wide 
space for domg public ousiness or 
play. See Eianja. 
Ampihibdm&so, t. and adv, A public 

place ; Ut. an ox-pit where many 

eyes can see ; publidv. 
Fa'hipa'hitba, f . A children's game 
of making endosures like Fahitba. 


also used. 
FA'HO, adj. Mixed, in a mixed state, 
as Vabt faho, rice mixed with 
herbs. See Habo. 
Fah6ana, v. pass. (Lnp. fahoy.) 

To be mixed, to be min^irled. 
Xifilho, V. int, and adj. (Imp. mt- 

fahwi; Bel. ifahbana^ Bel. Imp. 

ifahby.) To mix ; mixed, united 




^ 9. tr. ^bnp. mamahoa ; 
BeL amahoanay Kel. Imp. ama- 
A«y.) To mix, to oompoimd. 
VA'HO, f. A handsome palm-like 
flhrub which jields aago, but care 
must be taken in its preparation. 
(Betafan.) Cyeaa cireinaUs, Same aa 
VoFAHO (Betsim.). 
Faho'ava, r. |NM«. See Faho. 
VAY, verbal root. Sickened of, snr- 
f eited, diagosted, having a distaste 
far in conseqnenoe of some loss, 
pnniahment, or calamity ; disliked, 

Faiaaaa, v, jHut, {Imp. faizo.) To 
be made to disrelish ; to be made 
to fear suffering again ; to be 
Mama^, r. tr. (Imp. mamaha; 
Bel. amatzanaj Bel. Imp. amalzo,) 
To punish, to correct, to make to 
disrelish or dread, to create a 
dislike of. 
HankafSa^, v. tr. (Imp. fnanka/aixa ; 
Bel. ankafatzanaj aeL Imp. anka- 
faizo.) (Prey.) Same as prece- 
FAY, 8. and adj. A kind of fish with 
a rough akin ; rough. (Prov.) 
Xifia^ hiio, v. int. To scrape or 
polish wood with the skin of the 
^AT. (Prov.) Comp. Ampalt. 
Faz'bo'ka, a. A tree with durable 
white wood, but which is difficult to 
dry. It is used by the Sakalava 
for water-pitchers. (Sak.) 
FAI'FAT. Boot of the follow- 
ing: — 

XlfidiSa^, V. int. (Imp. mifaifatza; 
Bel. ifaifahsatta, Bel. Imp. t/at- 
falze.) To be fuU of enthusiasm 
or joy, to be ardent, eager, ear- 
nest, aa on the arrivsJ of a beloved 
parent. (Prov.) See Maimat. 
FAITO, adj. Five ; fig. an indefinite 
number. (Prov.) See Duct, Paipo. 
FAI'KA, or FAI'KAKT, «. Dregs, 
lees, sedimenta, feculence. 
Faikina, adf. Feculent, dreggy. 
FAI'KOH A, 8. A provincial word for 

an axe. See Famaky (vakt). 
FATVOAVA, adj\ and adv. (Imp. 
fcUnffina.) Quick, speedy, in haste. 

Fafaiwgftnina, v. paat. (Imp. ha- 

fainffdno.) To be humed, to be 

Manafaingana, v. tr. (Imp. mana' 

faingdna; Bel. anafainaeimma, Bel. 

Imp. anafaingino.) To hasten, to 

hurry, to make to be quick. 
Faingam-b4va, o^'. Haaty in 

Famgan-dia, wff. Quick-footed. 
Faingan-tinana, at^'. Nimble fin- 
gered. Used botili with a good 

and bad meaning. 
Faingan-tdngotra, atff. Same aa 

Faingan-taaina, a4j\ Sharp, of a 

receptive mind. 
Xaika tay faingana. Much haate 

but little speed. 
FAI'KOOKA, 8. A bend, a curvature, 
a hook. See Ba&ainoo, Fasainoo. 
▼oa£aingoka, v. paaa. Curved, or 

Afaingoka, v. paaa. (Imp. q/am- 

ffohy.) To be made to be bent, to 

be made to be crooked, as a hook. 
Faing6hina, i^. pa88. (Imp. fain- 

gbhy.) To be hooked by some- 
Mamaingoka, v. tr. (Imp. tnamain' 

goha ; Bel. amaingohana, Bel. 

Imp. amaingdhg.) To bend, to 

curve, to make crooked. 
Mifalngoka, adj. Curved, bent, 

FAI'NY, adv. At that time (past). 
(Prov.) Same as FAHnnr, under 
Faha (i.). 
FAI'SAKA '• A wound, an injury 
to body or mind. 
Mitdndra faisana. To carry the 

mark of a wound or injury ; to be 

no longer trustworthy. 
FAI'TBA, 8. Bitterness, as the taste 
of quinine. [Mai. pait.] 
Mi^tra, adj. Bitter, brackish, 

Mafal-m&my, «. A creeping shrub. 
Ma£ai-k6ditra, adj. Disagreeable, 

detested. (Prov.) See Manoidt 


B6ra mafaltra, 8. The first spittle 
in the morning whidi is used as 
an eye salve. 



A^itfcinftfliitra, i . See under kML- 

NA fl.). 

FAI'TBA, a. A babj, one josl bom. 

(PtoY.) SeeTB&AUL. 

voaikltra, «. pma. Bora. (Ptov.^ 

Afidtra, «. jmim. Used of a child 

tkat has just been born. (Ftov.) 

Xauaitra, ir. tr, (Imp. mamaira; 

Bel. offialraiia.) To give birth to a 

child. (Prov.) 

^ivy fii-D&vy. A woman who 

E birth to a female child, 
ProY. lor Entzsa, and 

ToNDBA, which eee. Probably from 

precedinff. [Oomp. Eng. ^r, to 

bear children.] 

BUia ampaitra, i . A oommipBion ; 
anything one is oommiaaioned to 
carry. (Prov.) 

Tairina, v, pau, (Imp. /olro.) To 
be taken, to be carried. (Prov.) 

Ampairana, v. pass. (Imp. ampatro,) 
Used of the peraon to whom 
something is sent. (Prov.) 

Manampaitra, p. tr, (Imp. manam' 
paira; Bel. aM^MnjMftrana, Bel. 
Imp. (mampatro,) To send some- 
thing to some one. (ProY.) 
Faz'zana, v. pass. See Fat. 
FAIZA'NY, inter. There it is ! That's 

it then ! (Prov.) 
FAJI'BT, s, A Ifurge star or planet. 

(Prov.) See Kuttana, Fctauza 

ANDRO. [Probably from Swa. a^a- 

jirij the dawn.] 
JA'KAjS. A root. [Mai. aAar (/).] 

In the provinces it also means tne 

private parts. 

voafika, v. pass. Scrutinised, ex- 
amined closely. 

Fakaixia, v. pass. (Imp. fakaS,) To 
be searched to the root, to be 
examined minutely. Bedup. also 

KifUEa, V. int. (Imp. mifiM ; Bel. 
ifakdna, Bel. Imp. ifaka6.) To 
contend, to argue. (Prov.) 

Xamika, v. int. and v. tr. (Imp. 
mamakd ; Bel. amakanaj Bel. Imp. 
amo^oo.) To root, to send forth 
roots ; to go to the bottom of a 
thing in making inqnixies or in 

lAtaa-pika, a^. Booted ; ehKAic, 

aa a disease ; really beloved ; 

having ffiven bivth to a oluld and 

thuB mairimg the marriage real. 

PA'KAXALAO'y f. Ginger, (^v.) See 


FA'XAFA'KA, i. A fall grown or 
stout person. (Prov.) 
Mif&kalika, a^. Fall grown, stont. 
Faxaj'na, «. jMuw . See Faka. 
FAKA'SATO, «. [Bel: s. from kaxa, 
to fetch, and avo, fire.} A siBiall 
earthen pot used in oarxying em- 
FAXO, or FAXOFA'XO, s. Sweep- 
ings, rabbish, litter; fig. a great 
number, a multitude. 
▼oafAko, «./MM«. (fathered togetlier, 
asrubbiiii. In the provinces it 
means seized to do government 
Fak6ixia, v. pass. (Imp. faki^.) To 
be gathei«d up, as rubbish for 
fuel, etc., to be swept together. 
Miftko, V. int. and tr. (Imp. mifa^ 
kda; Bel. ifakbana, B^. Imp. 
ifakoy.) To gather up rubbish. 
Mif&ko b6saka, v. comp. To pick 
up rubbish for fuel. It is used 
in the provinces with the meaning 
to ravish or plunder, 
mfilkoiilko, V. int. and atff. (Imp. 
mifdkofakoa ; Bel. ifdko/akdana, 
Bel. Imp. ifdkofakoy.) To snatch, 
to act negligently or disre- 
spectfully ; to be picking np bits 
of rubbish; wretched, destitute, 
Fa'xox-ba'bt, s. [vast, rice.l Leaves 
of rice. The stalk is called Mo- 


FA'LA, s. Vulva. (Prov.) 
FA'LADI'A, s. The sole of the foot. 

Ck>mp. Fblatanana. 

HafUadla, oiff. Up to the ao&e of 
the foot ; shallow. 
FALASBA'KO, s. [Mod. s. from xa- 

LAKA, and BAMO, water.] A bucket. 

FALA'FA, s. The midrib of the 

banana leaf. A palm (Betsim.). 

n^al. palapah.] 
FAliATAirA. Prov. for FAXtAiA. 



FALA'HXDAKBO, s. A dirab, th« 
zoot Off which iA seniped and used 
by the BetsQeo as a tooth preeerra- 
tave. (BetsO Diehrastaehf$ Utmi' 
fitUa, Bth. Same a« Fucaho, which 
■ee, and Famoaxjjcbo. fTank.). 
FALA'KAKATATA, «. A species of 
open-billed stork. (Tan.) AniU' 
tcmtts lomeUuf&ruty Temm. 
FA'LAHA, f . The condition of one 
whose toes aie nnasaallT tamed 
out; in the pfovinces it means 
early hair. 
FAIJjrA. Boot of the following :— 
▼eafilauft, v. pass. Followed on 
the opposite side, or by some other 
Foad, as when a horse that has 
ran away is followed so as to be 
oiroamvented. (Frov.) 
Ffcltoftna, 9. pass. (Imp. faUno.) 
To be followed by some other 
way. (ProT.) 
yamalana, v. tr. To follow by 
some other road, to follow on the 
other side ; to go to the other 
side of a tree for the purpose of 
chopping it down after one side 
has been hewn. (Prov.) 
Ampilaaa, v. pass. Looked at 
obliquely. See Hbsika. (Pror.) 
Aiwjfc^iAiiiit^^ p, past. flmp. ampa' 

Umo.) To be regardea scowUngly. 
Mawilampilana, v. tr. To go 
round a tree or a house to see 
where to apply an axe or fire. 
Ma»ainpjfclaiia, v. mt. To look 
obliquely at anything while pre- 
tending not to see it. ^^t.) 
FALA'ZAHA. Prov. for SALAZAiri.. 

See Salt. 
FALBTAHA, s. Same ^ Taleya, 

which see. (Prov.) 
Falb^zuta, v. pass. See Falt, to shoot. 
FA'LT. Prov. for Fady, which see. 
FA'LT, adj. Pleased, rejoiced, glad, 
delighted. See Fzvabitka, Mirana, 
Ravo, Sambatba, Tbetsixa. 
Falina, v. pass. (Imp. folio.) To 
be made pleased vnth, to be glad- 
XifUy, V. int, (Imp. tmfalla ; Rel. 
ifaiUma^ Bel. Imp. ifsdio.) To 

rejoice, to show one's joy, to be 
pleased with. 
XmLly tdna, 9. eomp. To rejoice 
on aooonnt of escape from some 
danger, or on recovering from an 
Fily milahdlo, a^. Having joy 

mingled with sorrow. 
HaflOiana, or Fahafkliaaa, s. Glad- 
ness, enjoyment, rojoioing, plea- 
FA'LIFAliY. Bedup. of above. In 
the provinces Falifalt ia always 
used for Falt. 

▼oafililUy, v. pass. Given some- 
thing to assuage grief. 
FUifaUna, v. pass. (Imp. fdUfalio.) 

To be pacified, to be appeased. 
M a m ifc l i f ft l y, v. tr. (Imp. mam4li- 
falla ; Bel. amdUfaUanay Bel. 
Imp. amdlifallo.) To pacafy, to 
Fa'lt ambo'nin-do'za, f. [akbony, 
above, loza, danger.] Delight 
before the danger is past, prema- 
ture joy. 
Fa'lt hava'nja, s. [havanja, a rest- 
incT place for cattle.] Playing, 
skipping, frisking, as young lamlm. 
Fa'ldc-po', s. [fo, the heart.] A 

present for some favour, a gift. 
Fa'lt ea'nony, s. [banc, water.] A 
hollow place in the trunk of a tree. 
(Prov.) ; also same as Falt volont, 
which see. 
Fa'lt ra'tikt, s. [baviwa, a leaf.] 
Pleasure at mere outside appear- 
ances ; lit. glad at the leaves (but 
not knowing whether there will be 
fruit or not). 
Fa'lt vo'lont, *. [volo, hair, colour.] 
Bejoicing in expectation, pleased 
in anticipation, confident, too san- 
gfuine ; Ut. pleasure at seeing fea- 
thers, but not knowing whether the 
fowl, etc., is fat. 
FA'LT. Prov. for Txpitra, which see. 
Yoaf&ly, V. pass. Shot. (Prov.) 
Faldiina, v. pas». (Imp. falho) To 
be' shot with a gun or bow and 
MamUy, v. tr. (Imp. mamalia ; 
Bel. amaliatM, Bel. Imp. amaUo.) 
To shoot. (Prov.) 



FAL fyA, 9. jMWf. See Falt. 
FA'UZBA. ProT. for F^sinuL, which 

FA'LO. ProT. for FonnA, which 

TkiSililo, f>. pa88. Moved of itoelf . 

▼oAfUo, V, paas, Moved. (Ptor.) 
AfAlo, V. pat$. (Imp. o/aJMa.) To be 

moved. (Pik>v.) 
KmiUUo, 9. tr. (Imp. hummi/om; 
Bel. amal&gana, Kcd. Imp. oma- 
A)«y.)To move anything. (Prov.) 

FAX-. The oonmienoement of many 
modal nonoB from verbs in Hur- 
where there has been an elision or 
strengthening of the initial consonant 
of the root, as : Faxoho, from Vovo ; 
Faxakt, from Vaxt; Famafa, 
from Fata ; Faxbata, from Bata ; it 
is also seen in the relative nouns 
from the same, as Faxonjxita, from 
VowjT, etc. 

FAXAFA'KBAZA'HA, f . [Bel. s. from 
MAMAFA (rAFA^, and VAJSAHA, a for- 
eigner.] A plant used as a broom, 
and also as a medicine for stomach 
disorders. (Betsim.) 

Faxafa'ittsa'xbo, «. [SAXBO, a ship.] 
A plant affording a medidue for 
disorders of the stomach. Seoparia 
duleiif L. (Antsih.) 

FAXAHA'VANTS'irOHA, «. [Bd. s. 
from NAMAHANA (fahana), and 
TSNONA, weaving.] A shutUe. 

FAXA'HO, 9, A shrub used as a 
remedy for loose teeth. Dichrot- 
taehjft tenutfolia, Bth. Same as 
Falaribambo (Bets.), which see, and 
Faxoalaxbo (Tank.) Also a plant, 
perhaps the same as the above, used 
by the Sakalava for the same pur- 

F^MLil'KA,!. Agon. (Prev.) See 

FAXA'KT, «. [Mod. s. from xakaxt 
(vast).] An axe, a hatchet. 

Faxa'sia&o'ba, «. A species of bird 
allied to the cuckoos, belonging to 
a genus peculiar to Madagascar, 
j^etsim.) Vochhthramtet DeUUaHdri, 
Temm. Also the name of a species 
of stork, tame as Falaxakavava, 
which — 

s. [BeL 8. 
Maxaxt (vAzr), and tbvt, a word.] 
A reading book or l es son; a lectern. 

VAMA'wnfTAMA.$, [■RAjrA(f), anything 
earried.lA kina of vine with edible 
fruit. (Bets.) VUia mierodipiera^ 
Baker. Same as FASDBZBAnAiBA, 
and yoAmBOVAXBOA (Prov.). 

FAXA'nFA'nT, f. [fast, sogar-oaae.] 
The eye teeth. (Prov.) 

Vama'kiu/bjl, f. [zoRA, the head.] 
A species of mantis. 

Fama'zxsz'foiba, «. r8ZF0T&A,akmdof 
snail.] Abiid; lit. snail-breaker, 
from the manner of proouzing its 

Fajca'kxta'kot&a, 9, [takotsa, a pot 
lid.] A kind of tree. 

FAXA'KO, «. Shrubs and trees of 
which there are several spedes, vis. 
MunduUa TelfaiHi, Baker ; M, tu- 
bero9a, Bth. ; M. pauei/hroj Baker ; 
and Cadui BlH9iana, Baker. The 
first three are sometimes known as 
Fanamaxo ; one of them {M. ptutei' 
Jlora) is used as a fish poison. The 
IsHt is a forest tree. 

FAMA'KDBIKA, 9. [Mod. s. from 


VoBONA, which see. 

FAXAITTABAHA, i. [Bd. s. from 
XAXAirrATBA (fantatba).] a sign, 
an indication, a mark, a symptom. 

FAMAin'A'BAirA'in)BO, 9. [asdbo, the 
day.] A dock, a watch. 

Faxanta'baka'ndbo a'loka, «. [azoka, 
shade.] A sun-dial. 

Faxanta'baitava'ratba, 9, [avabatba, 
the north.] The mariner's com- 


wind J A weather-cook. 

FAMA'ttAV A, 9. [Bd. s. from xaxa- 
TUA (fatba).] a measure for liquids, 
or such things as rice, sand, etio. 

FAMA'TO, 9, A charm used to pre* 
vent cattle from wandering or being 
stolen, also to preserve a town from 
being bedeged. 


{Boot VANT n A joint, the artiou- 
ation of the limbs. 
O'loBAttyaiiyfkmaTiay. Aperson 
who is obstuiAte or unreaaonable. 



VAKSAltA, «. [Boot .43CBAB4.] An 
omen ^ a portent. 

FAXB'FAuJIGA'TT, i . A darter or 
make-bird. (Tan.) Same as VoBOic- 
PI8AKT (Bets.), and Bsmitoat (Sak. 
and Bets^. J^tUUua qfiricanuif Ghm. 

FAKSHS'VA, «. A pot of rioe. 

Faiob'hzfa'bt, f . [Mod. B. from iCAiCB- 
HT Cvsht), and fabt, sngar-oane.] 
Annerbaoeous twining plant witn 
a bine shell-like flower. The root 
sappliee a medioine nsed by the 
•RotanTwiMifcrakii. for stomaoh diflorders. 
It acts as an emetic, but mnst be 
administered with oantion. Some 
obscene practise is also connected 
with it. (Betsim.) Cliteria kueiva, 

FAMSXOH A, f . [Mod. s. from mamb- 
LOSfA (tslona).] a tree which 
affords a beautiful wood used in or- 
namental work. The seeds (or 
fruits ?) are used by Sakalava child- 
ren as charms in the form of brace- 
lets and necklaces. 

Faxb'i^odi'ndo, 8. [nzinx), the soul.] 
A creeping shrub. 

FAMXRVVAVA, ». [Rel. s. from ma- 
XBBiNA (yebina).] A gift or pre- 
sent returned to a person on paying 
money ; luck. 

FAXB'TSiySTSE'irA, «. [Rel. s. from 


charm used to render a person a 
good speaker in public assemblies. 

FAMI'HIFAIIT, ». [Mod. s. from 
HAKIHT, and FABY, sugar-caue.] 
A twining herb. Teramnu8 labialis, 
Spreng. (Antsih.) 

FAMO'A, f. TMod. s. from xajcoa 
(yoa) .] A tall grass used in various 
ceremonies. Fanufum Jumentorumy 
Pers. Same as Tsipabbfaee. (Bets.) 

FAMO'AiiA'XA, «. [Mod. s. from ma- 
MOA (yoa i)f and laka for laxama, 
a canoe.] A gouge. 

Famo'ai^'kbo, 8. [lambo, a wild boar.] 
A shrub. (Tank.) Same as Famaho, 
and FALABmAMBO (Bets.), both of 
which see. 

FAMOA'HAVTA'VA, «. [A corruption 
of the Bel. s. from maiuoxa (faoka), 
■od 1AYA9 the faoe.] A towel. 

FAXO'AKA, 8. [Mod. s. from mamoa- 
KA (toaza).] Any insect used in 
ferreting out the AiiTBiOMnAHT from 
its hole. 

FAXaHAMA'NDBT, i . [Mod. s. from 
XAicoHA (foha), and xandbt, lying 
down.] A hand-bell. See ItAxz- 


FAXOrZAlTA, 8, [Bel. s. from xakot 
(fot).] Any medioine or oharm 
used on reooveiing from illness to 
prevent a relapse; the last cere- 
monies performed for the dead. See 

FAMOLAI'lTA, «. A measuring tape, 
or cord. [Eng. plumb-Une (/).! 

FAM(rLAYCrLA, s. [Mod. s. from 
MAXOLAVOLA (volavola).] The ridge 
of a house. (Prov.) See Vovo- 


FAMOL(rAKA, 4. [Bel. s. from ICA- 
XOLO (vOLo).] A threshing floor. 

FAMO'IiO, 8. [Mod. 8. ^m maxono 
(voNo).] One who is frequentlv 
beaten ; that which is used to kill 

Faico'no'dt, 8. [ODT, a charm.] An 
herb which is sometimes burned in 
the house with the view of thwart- 
ing the influence of any evil charm 
that may have been placed there. It 
is also used in the form of vapour 
baths for pains in the head. Feuee- 
danum 8p, Same as Tsilbondboa- 
HOVAVY, and Tsitonootbaicboabb. 

Famo'nodi'ndo, 8, [dindo, the soul.] 
A climbing plant. Seeanume oUafo^ 
Ha, Dene. Same as Vahixfafanoo. 
Also a charm worn by children to 
prevent ghosts from injuring them. 

Faico'no xosa'vt, 8. [icosAVT, witch- 
craft.] A counter ohann, disen- 

Famo'bo ta'ndboka, 8. [tandbosa, a 
horn. 1 A charm placed on the neck 
of a fighting bull to break the horns 
of its antagonists. 

Famo'noto'tozt, 8. [totozt, a mouse.] 
An herb. Bhodoeodon fnadaga8car%en'' 
8i8y Baker. Same as Tapabataka, 
which see. 

Faxo'no va'to, ». [vATO, a stone.] A 
hard stone used for breaking other 



TMMKm&MX'TB&tLAXRLf 8, [Bel. 8. from 
XAicoNO (Tovo)y and sosatba, writ- 
ing.] An eruer, snoh m india-rab- 
ber, for rabbins out writing. 

VAX O'NTO, «. [Mod. s. from xaxoVo 
TO ( vowTo ).] A benediotion. 

FAMO'HTRA, «. Large rings of wood 
or silver used as earrings. (Prov.) 

FAXOBA'KASA, «. Violent vomiting. 
(Prov.) See Babjula. 

VAKPALAXA, «. [Mod. t. from ka- 
XJLKA, proy. for iUkM±/\ The name 
of a children's game (Prov.). 

VAMPAKA, M. |ld[od. s. from maza 
(aka).] a kina of enigma in which 
a choice is to be made between two 
objects having arbitrary names im* 
posed upon them. 

VAMPAXA'SAHA, «. [Bel. s. from 
XAiiPAXATBA (axatra).] That which 
is the means of raising anything ; a 
hand rice. 

Paicpaxa'bak-ba'dt, 8. [VADT, a part- 
ner.] A marriage ; usually the time 
of marriage, or the marriage cere- 
monies. Comp. Mabiazy. 

Faxpaka'kan-dba'no, 8, [bang, water.] 

VA'mPANA, 8. A precipice, an abyss. 
See Hadt, Tevana. 
Xindry amdrom-pampana. To sleep 

upon the border of a precipice. 
Xih6a-p&mpana. Used of anything 
measured which more than fills 
the measure and goes over the 
sides ; too much. 

VAMPABAHA, 8. [Mod. s. from max- 
PATBA (ahpatba).] Death. (Proy.) 

PAMPI-. The commencement of nouns 
derived from the causative verbs in 
Maxpi-, as Fahpianatba, and Fax- 
PiANABANA, from the root Akatba, 
Maxpianatba, to teach, etc. 

from XAXPIADT (adt), and ankbta for 
AKSTA (T)f a kind of locust.] Small 
herbs. jBuphorbiatrichophyllay Baker, 
and another species of Euphorbia of 
similar habit ; both of which are 
used for Odt taxbavt, and also as 
a black dye for hemp cloth, or flax^P) . 
Same as TAin>aAKTAXY. (Vak. AnJc.) 
FAXPITAEA, 8, [Mod. s. from icax- 
FiTABA (taha).] A children's game. 

VAMPITA'VAVA, t. [Bel. s. fnxa 
XAMPTFAKA (taka)/| A pMge, Se- 
curity, hostage. See Ajitoxa. 

FAXPrrSABA'lTA, «. [Bel. s. from 
XAXFiTBABA (tb4ba).] Money paid 
to the judges and others present, on 
the administration of the Takosita 
ordeal, as a token of consent to its 

FAXPOX'HAHA, i. [Bel. s. from 
yAXFiATirA (aixa).] a bnoUe, a 
strap buckle. 

FAMPOHA'ZA, <. [Mod. s. from 
KAJCFivoHA (foha). J A sledge-ham- 
mer. See AAiroMTA. 

FAV-. The oommenoement of modal 
and relative nouns from verbs in 
Man- before vowels, or where the 
initial consonant of the root has 
been rejected, or strengthened, as 
Fakaikt, andFANSKENA, from AiET, 
or £kt ; Fandbha, and Fandbha- 
NANA, from Lbha ; Fanobatba, and 
Fanobataha, from Sobatba, etc. 
[Gomp. Swa./onya, to make to do.] 

FA'ITA-. The commencement of modal 
and relative nouns from verbs 
in Mana- in which no change is 
made in the initial consonant of the 
root, as Faxaxabina, and Fanaxa- 


NA, adj.j root abxna.] 
"FA^VAf 8. Heat. [Mal./M»M«; Friendly 

Is. mafana; others, bafanetf mofamu,'] 

YoafidAa, V. pa88. Warmed. Applied 
to food or medicine cooked and 
warmed the seoond time. 

Afanaina, c . jnw«. (Imp. afanm,) 
To be warmed. 

Xam&na, v. tr. f Imp. mama$td ; 
Bel. amandnaf Bel. Imp. amanai.) 
To make warm. 

Xiftoa, adj\ Being put to bed to 
be delivered of a child. Probably 
from the native custom of keeping 
a fire burning dose to a woman 
just confined. 

Kafiiliia, adj. Warm, hot. In speak- 
ing of those of royal rank, or of 
one to whom respect is to be 
shown, it means, when redupli- 
cated (Mafanafana), to be unwell, 
sickly, feverish. 

MpifiUMi*. A woman just ooofinad. 



FAVATjUTA, 4. riCod. 8. from ICA- 
VAVAVA (avaita).] Medicme^ or that 
which healB diaease. 

FAVAF<KDY, «. plod. 8. ftam. xaxa- 


and OPT , a charm.] Medicine. 
FAVA'HT, 9. [Mod. s. from kaitaht 

(ahiO.] The soul. See under Akt, 

FAVAHaVAVA, i . [Bel. 8. from xa- 

SABONA (axoha).] A ohann naed 

in ball-fijgfhting to diaconrage the 

FAIAXA, 9. The fcmitiue of a 

honse, the contents of a hoz, a yase, 

a school, etc. ; not need in speaking 

of money, howeyer. 
FASA'LA, «. [Fr. >ia/.] A lantern. 
FAVA'LA, «. Hoar frost, exoesslTe 

cold, snow (?). 

Wamaitila, a^j. Frodnorag hoar 
frost ; having hoar fros^ very 

A'fk-drinom-paii&la, adv. Early 
mominff, just after sonrise. 

A'fi-paniia, «. Tepid, applied to 
water. See Matdcatt. 
FAVA'IiA, 9. [Mod. s. from xanala 

(aia).] That which removes or 

takes away. 
Fava'lafa'bitba, 9. [FAB2TBA, a bor- 
der.] A plant used as a remedy 

for syphilis. 

Faiiila gAdra, f . Akey. (Prov.) Bee 
FAHA'LAHfDT, [ridt, a look.] A key. 

See Tjiyn.TC. 
Faka'ulia'ht, «. [laht, masculine.] 

A charm used to create dislike in a 

man for a woman. 
Faha^laxia'st, f. [miaj>t, to fight 

(abt).] a coloured stripe placed 

between two other stripes m a kind 

of natave doth ; a kind of bead, or 

string of beads of different col- 


excrement from the eyes, voat, a 
crocodile.] A proyincial name of a 
water-bird. Same as Vivt, which 

Fasa'lasi'icba, 9, [sncBA, spoiled.] A 
plant need as a remedy for indi- 

Fajta'laso'mpatra, 9, rsoMPATRA, ohurl- 
ish.l A plant used to exorcise evil 
spirits and to nullify the effects of 
witchcraft; also as a remedy for 
colic and indigestion. 

Fama'lava'yt, «. [tavt, feminine.] A 
charm used to create dislike m a 
woman for a man. 

Faka'lato'st, f. [yoBT, gathered 
together.] A ramrod wiidi a screw 
for removing the charge from a 

FAWALA^JA, «. [Bel. s. from xakala 
(ala).] That which removes any- 

Fanala'na'fo, f. [afo, fire.] Same 
as Fakanafo, which see. 

FANALA'NTBs'irTsnrA, 9. [tbbhtbika, a 
cork, or stopper.] A cork-screw. 

FAVA'LIVA'KDBO, «. I Mod. s. from 
XANALiNA ^ALiirA), anQAiTDBO, day.] 
A kind of fi^. (Prov.) 

FAKA'LOKA, «. A species of ichneu- 
mon. (Pr ov.) Euplere9 gouaotii, 

FAKAXOliA'HT, «. A spearsman. 

8. from MANAXAiNA (xaika), and 
80BATBA, writing. ' Blotting paper ; 
sand or dust used instead of blotting 

FAirAXBA'KIirr, «. [Mod. s. from 

MANAXBANT (aXBANt), with SUffix 

pronoim.] The lower part, the 
foundation, basis. 


shoulder.] The part under the 
shoulder of cattle. 

FAHA'XBT, 9, [Mod. s. from xanaxbt 

(tambt).! Lajring wagers, betting. 

milanuBDy, v. int. (Imp. mifanam" 

baza; Bel. and Pass, ifanambd' 

zana, Bel. Imp. ifanMnbdzo.) To 

lay wagers, to bet. See Loka. 

FASA'MBIVA, «. [Mod. s. from xa- 
NAXBiNA (axbina).] A word used 
to express a ratification of a bargain. 

FAVAXB(rNIKBA'BT, 9. [Mod. s. 
from XANAXBomr (ambont), and 
VABT, rice.] A small sweet-scented 
herb found in rice-grounds. Same 


FAVA'MO, 9, A shrub. (Bets.) Mun- 
dulea pauci/loray Baker. 



FAVAXO'BY, f . A mddfir, or any- 
thinff used for the same purpose. 
See Mpaxobt. 

FA'KAKA, M. JMod. a. from xanana 
(akana).] Used in the following 
and other fomuB : — 

Fakanxabb'n-tsibo'dona, 8. [habsna, 
riches, tsibodona, not fallen.] Im- 
proyidenoe, prodiffalitj, wasteful- 
ness. This may be lit. the riches 
of Mb. Tsibodona. 

FAHAKAHAHA, s. [Mod. s. from 
MANANAiTAKA (anaxa).] The womb. 

FANAKAHA, «. [Rel. s. from ma- 
NANA (anana).] Possessions, pro- 

FAKAKOA, 8, A coward. (Prov.) 

FAKAKOAKAHA, t. [Bel. s. from 
XAKANOANA (tsanoana).] Raising 
up, patting up, that used to raise 
up anything. 

Fananoa'nan-aita'ka, «. [anaka, off- 
spring.] Adoption of children. 

FAKAH6AKY, «. [BeK s. from ica- 

NANQANA (tSANOANA), with SUffix 

pronoun.] The shoulder bone of 

FANA'HY, t. Name of a serpent. 
(Prov.) See Fanano. 

FAKAKil'NAKA, «. [Bel. s. from 
ICANANKINA (anxina).] Anything ou 
which another is made to lean or 
rest. A plant that used to be held 
by the owners of bulls in bull-fights 
with the idea that it would ensure 

FANA'liO, «. A name given to a 
mythical serpent, lizard, or worm 
that is supposed to emerge from the 
graves of deceased petty princes 
and their descendants. (Frov.) See 

Fana'noxpi'tolo'ha, 8, [fito, seven, 
LOHA, the head.] A mythical ani- 
mal said to have seven heads; a 

FAVAKTAKA, «. [Mod. s. from xa- 
NANTAKA(TAirrAWA).] A batten uscd 
in weaving. 

FAVA'NTSO, «. [Mod. s. from XA2f an- 
Tso (antso).] The nose. (Prov.) 

FANAO', «. [Mod. s. from kanao 
(tao).] Usual mode of doing any- 
thing, a custom. 

Fakao' fo'ibt (P), f. [vorar, white, 
simply.] A oonjeotbre, supposi- 
tion, hypothesis. 

FAVAaVAHA, «. [Bel. s. from icA- 
NAo (tao).] The means or way of 
effecting anything. This woid is 
used in many compounds. 

Fanao'yak-da'bozt', 8, [LABpzT, a 
candle.] A candle-mould; acandle- 

Fanao'yan-ji'bo, f. [jiBO, a lamp.] 
A lamp. 

FAKAPFSAHainr.a^^'. [Bel. s. from 


river, or contracted xrom ohont, fit, 
suitable.] Incomparable, matchless, 
perfect, nnal. 

Fanapb'baka aka'baha, «. [Bel. as 
above, and anabaha, name. J Full- 
ness of honour. 

FAKAEAy(rAKA, 8. A shrub. (Vak. 
Ank.) Sesbania punctata, DC. 

FAKAKT. [Prov. for fanabina (abi- 
na).] The outrigger of a canoe. 

gling plant. (Bets.) 

FANABAKA, «. [Bel. s. fromXANASA 
(asa), to invite.] A feast. 


the Lord.] The Lord s Supper. 
Fanasana is very frequently used 
alone for this. 
FAKASANA, «. rRel. s. from xanasa 
(a3a), to wash.] A washing place, 
or anything used for waslung, as 
soap, a stone, etc. 


An herb. Xtrophtfta dasjflirioides. 

FANA8IHA, «. [xasika (hasina), 
saltish.] Salt. 

FAKATAO'YAKA, «. [Bel. s. from 
XANATAO (tatao).] A heap of stones, 
sticks, grass, etc., on which persons 
passing usually throw something for 
luck expressing the hope of a safe 
return, or success in ^niat they are 
about to do. 

FANAT&ONA, «. [Mod. s. from xa- 
NATBONA (satbona).] A basket of 
a middling size. 

FAKATBA'TSOBA'irO, «. [Mod. s. 
from XAiTATBAZBO (tbatso), aad 



BA90, water.] A charm used to 
render the TiiHOBWi. ordeal inefPeo- 

WAMATI, «. FMod. t, from maxayy 
(Arr).] A cnarm against intermit- 
tent fever. 

FJJTAZA'VA, «. [Mod. a. from mana- 
BAYA ^zaya).] Anything that makes 
it lignt, or givee light. Also a 
shmb said to have the property of 
giving light at night. It is also 
used as a medicine. By the Betsi- 
leo a sticky snbstance is obtained 
from the hark and root, which is 
used as bird-lime. EUBodendnm 
otiffOH thum , Baker. 

FAVDA'FIXA, t. [Mod. s. from xak- 
DAFCKA (xjunKA).] A *charm used 
to render the Tahosna ordeal in- 

FAHBAT, 8, (Tloot lay, a nettie.] A 
species of hauy caterpillar. 

FAjn>AI'V0A, 4. [Mod. s. from xak- 
DAnroA (laivoa^.] A liar; one 
who is in the haoit of telling Ues. 

FAHBAHrGA'VA, a. [Rel. s. from 
MANDAiKOA (laikoa).] A dimple 
on the face. 

FAHBALOKAVA, s. [Bel. s. from 


pebble nsed in polishing pottery ; a 
plastering trowel. 
FAVDAXO-DBA'BT, <. [Mod. s. from 


plaiting.] The jaw-bone of an ox 
used in smoothing the plaits of 
mats, hats, etc. 

FAVDA'TSAKA (THO, «. [Mod. s. 
from XANDATBAXA (latbaka), and 
OHO, provincial for akoho, a fowl.] 
A fowl's egg. (Prov.) See Atodt. 

Favda'tsa-boa'y, 8. [voAY, a croco- 
dile.] A crocodile's egg. 

Faxda'tsa - bobo'na, 8. TvoHONA, a 
bird.] A bird's egg. (Prov.) 

FA]n>Ay(rAHA, 8. [Rel. s. from 
XANDAVO (lavo).] A charm placed 
on a fignting bull that he may 
throw down his antagonist. 

FAVDSAI'SrOA, «. Probably a cor- 
ruption of Fastdeha ainqa. A bird. 

FAHBEFA'VA, a. [Rel. s. from xan- 
ssFA (ubta).] a shrub, the root 

of which whenponnded affords a 
purgative. Euphorh%aerythroxyloide8y 
Baker. (Antsih.) Same as Mata- 

FAKDE'HA, or SAKDE'HA, Am/. Yet, 

but. See Nefa. 

FAKBFMT, 8. [Mod. s. from kaet- 
DEirr (lb]Cy).j The name of the 
Fanobo, when given to diseased 
oxen. (Bets.) Oomphoearpua fru" 
tieo8U8, R. Br. 

FAKBBYO'irASA, 8. [Rel. s. from 
XANDEVONA (levona).] A charm 
used to reduce the swelling of the 
bowels swollen from the drinking 
of the Tah OBNA ordeal, or to hasten 
the digestion of food taken in too 
great a quantity. 

FAHDrAFA'SIKA, «. [Mod. s. from 
xahdia (dia), and fabiza, sand.] 
A species of sandpiper. AetitU 

hypoleftetu, L. 

'KALA'LAITA, 8. [Mod. s. from 
xAivniKA (dika), and lalama, a 
road.] A bird, a species of goat- 
sucker. Gaprimulgu8 madagaacarien' 
8i8, Sg. Same as Tatabo (Prov.). 

FAKDrXAlTA'LA, «. [ai^ a forest.] 
A species of lark -heeled cuckoo 
belonging to a genus peculiar to 
Madagascar. Same as Taintoaxa. 
(Tan.) Coua£eynaudiiy'PvLch, (Prov.) 

FANDI'OBA'KO, «. [Mod. s. from 
XANDio (nio), and bano, water.] A 
species of snipe ; also a water-beetle. 

FAkDrSAHA, a. [Rel. s. from xan- 
niTBA (ditba).^ a shrub or tree, 
the wood of which is used for spear- 
handles, etc. Weinrnannia ap. 

Fandi'banda'hy, a. [lahy, masculine.] 
A shrub, or tree. MemeeyUm ap. 

VAXJiTBiit 8, [Mod. 8. from XAia>i- 
8A (disa).] a pestle. (Prov.) 

FAKDO'AXA., a. [Mod. s. from xan- 
noAKA (loaxa).] a charm placed 
on the horns of a fighting bull that 
he may gore his antagonist. Fan- 
DOAHANA [Rel. 8.] also used. 

FAKDO'MANA, a. [Rel. a. from kan- 
BOXA (lon a).] a large earthen pot. 

FAKD0T8(rAKA, a. [Rel. s. from 
XANDOTSO (lot8o).1 Excitement, 
a stimulus, usually applied to food 


given to a weman to produoe milk ; 

enooura^pomeat to a bayer of goods 

by praumg the artiole, puff, praise. 
FA'jTDSA, %. A provinoial name for 

a plane. 
Fjlndra'hana, 9. pau. See Fahdsuea. 
FAVDBAT,<. A species of caterpillar. 
7AHDRAI'8AHA, «. [Bel. s. from 

XAifDiiiLT (aiT).] A piece of wood 

used in weaving ; the Lord's Sup- 
per, lit. the taJdng; the day zor 

celebrating the Lord's Supper. 
FA'KD&AKA, «. A chisel. 

▼oafiLndraka, v. pa$9. Cut by a 
chisel, morticed. 

FandrULaaa, v. pass, (Lnp. fandrd' 
ho,) To be out by a chuel; to 
be morticed. 

FiniEdxaka. Pasnve with infix. 

Maiindraka, v, tr, (Imp. maman- 
drdha; Bel. amandrdhana, Bel. 
amandrdho,) To chisel, to mortice. 

Xifilndraka, ad/. Having a mortice. 

▼dative tsy nufindraka. A pump- 
kin or melon not cut. 
FVitdbaba'to, s, [vato, a stone.] A 

chisel for chipping stones. 
Fa'ndbaba'vt, 8, [vAVT, feminine*.] A 

very large chisel. 
Fa'ndrada'ht, s. [laht, masculine.] 

A very small chisel. 
FAVDBA'KOTBA, s, [Mod. s. from 

KANDRAKOraA (bakot&a.).] A lid. 

FAVB&A'KA, s, [Mod. s. contracted 


ney. (Prov.) See Tantely, Solieala. 

FAHDKAMA'NAKA, s, TBel. s. from 
KA2a>BA]CANA (andha).] An osicr ; 
a charm, or philtre, or love charm. 

FANDBAXA'lfAKA, s, A shrub, the 
leaves of which are used as a 
substitute for tea, also as a medicine 
for gonorrhea. By the Betsileo it 
is used for sprains or dislocations, 
the leaves bemg boiled and applied 
locally. It is also used by them for 
sores or wounds, the stem being 
scraped on the sore. Aphhia 
ihefjpformiSf Benn. Same as Voafo- 
TSY, which Hee. 

FANBBA'MBT, «. [Mod. s. from 
MANDBAicBY (kaicby).] The hand. 

FA'VBBAVA, f . Shrabe, from tiie 
stems of which gutters forcarrv- 
ing water over expressions of uie 
ground are made, henoe^ an aque- 
duct. Two or three species are 
known by this name, from which a 
kind of potash is obtained. The 
leaves are used for thatching. 
rE^rov.) J'landanus n, 

YKwa^MAMlvELk^ s, [VABIKA, a kind 
of lemur.] A shrub. (Betnm.) 

FASDBA'VOOJA'ZA, s, [Mod. a. from 
XAtrDBANOOTBA (savootba), and 
2AZA, a child).] An herb. rAntaih.) 
Achyranthes aspera. L. Same as 
TsiPOTAiODrA (Bets.), and Vatopo- 
SALAHT, which latter see. 



na), and LAMBO, a wild boar.] 

(Bets.) Same as FAHDBAaAUkMBO, 

^B^hioh see 
FABBBAa,' or FABBBCA, adv. [fa 

and ANDSAo).] Lest^ for fear 

FAKDBA(rTBA, s, [Mod. s. from 

XANDRAOTBA (baotba).] Same as 

the following : — 
Fandrao'bo'lo, s, [volo, the hair.] A 

native hair-brusn made of the grass 


FABBBABIBOTiA, s, A corruption 
of the word Fandbobibola, which 

FABBBA'BA, s, [Mod. s. from man- 
DBASA (baba^.] a species of long- 
legged hawK. (Prov.) ScehspisUu 
FrancisccBy Sm. Same as Fibasa. 

Faivdba'saiiA'icbo, s. [laicbo, a wild 
boar. ] A species of harrier or long- 
legged hawk. (Bara.) Circus maerO" 
sceiusy Newton. 

Fandba'sanoa'ba, s. a species of 
goshawk. (Bets.) Astur Hensti, 

FAKDBATALA'KA, «. [Mod. s. from 


in the fanoboxa.] A charm used 
to frustrate a design. 
FANDBAVABA, s. [Bel. s. from 
1CA.NDBAVA (bava).J Tucsday. 
(Prov.) In Imerina it means some 
great calamity or epidemic. 


TAMJOanAUL, f. [Mod. 8. from 


fore^.] A speciefl of tree-snake, 
flo called from its hafait of swinging 
from, txee to tree, as if measur- 
ing the extent of the forest. Same as 
FAVDBBICOKA, $. [Mod. s. from 


for Famakt, wmch see. 
FAVBIUrSY, «. [Mod. s. from man- 
fiKBBT (best) .J A tree. (Bara.) 
Perhaps the same as Atllvt, which 

FAsiaafsiLk'KT, t, [liht, masooline.] 
A ohaim used to ensure suooess 
againstui enemy. 

FAVDBETO, i. [Mod. s. from 
KAimBBTo (bsvo).] The feet. 

VA'HDaiXBaLAirA, «. [Mod. s. from 
XAjroBT (ahdbt) with suffix pronoun, 
and TOLAVA, uie moon.] Having 
the OTes half open in sleep. 

VA'HDBniAy(rLO, «. [ayolo, F .] 
State of being turned oyer, as soil, 
with regularity ; arranged in rows, 
arrangement, proportion, propor- 

Mana6 findrinayMo, a4f\ Turned 
over with regularity, to appear 
arranged in order. 

FAVDSI'AVA, 8. [Bel. s. from mah- 
DAT (Ain>&Y).j A bed, bedding. 


(uprr), soft, LA7IKA, bedding.] 
Wbeedling, coaxing, acting the 

FASDBi'Aia'i.ATO'NovT, «. [lOLA, Want- 
ing, TONONT, joints.] Seeking an 
oocasion for a quairel, laying a 
trap as if to originate a dispute. 

FA'HDBiA'NDBiirr, t. [Mod. s. with 
suf&x pronoun.] Established law, 
custom, customary charge or offer- 
ing. FANDannr is also used. 

Faitdbi'anbo'icft, 8. [loicft, anything 
bad ?] See below. 
Trine fiuidrianddmpy, «. A house 
where robbers assemble. 

FAyDBi'AXTOTo'BOKO, «. [totoroeo, a 
kind of bird.] A shrub on which 
the bird Totoboko is often found. 

FA'VDBIKA, f. A snaxe, a trap, a 
gin. Applied also to words used to 
ensnare any one. 
VoafiUdrika, v. pa88. Ensnared, 

Af&ndrika, t^.jiMt. ^Lnp. a/andriho,) 

Used of that which is employed 

as a snare. 
Fandrlhana, r. pa88, (Imp. fandri' 

ho,) To be ensnared, to be entrap- 
Finindrika. Passive with infix. 
Mamindrika, v. tr. (Imp. maman' 

driha ; Rel. amandrihanay Bel. 

Imp. amandHho,) To ensnare, to 

lay a trap for. 
Kamdla - pAadrika, [yblatba, 

spread.] To spread or prepare a 

Fa'ndbiba'ratba, 8. [tasatba, light- 
ning.] A lightning conductor. 
Fa'ndbiba'satba, 8, A kind of vine 
with edible fruit. V%t%8 mierodip' 
tera, Baker. Same as Faxaxzbn- 
TANA (Bets.), and Voaxitbonaxboa 
Fa'ndbibo'boyo'bo,^. [yoboyobo, loose.] 

A loose kind of snare. 
Fa'ndbikahda'nitba, 8. [lanitba, the 
heavens.] A snare placed aloft ; a 
string tied upon some high place 
and left waving about. 
FA'in>BiKi'BiLi'8T, 8. A spiuy creeping 
plant, probably the same as the 
next. (Sak.^ 
FA'iroaiKi'BonrBT, 8. A prickly climb- 
ing plant. (Bets.) Smikuc Krau8- 
8iana, Musn. Same as Ayaotba, and 
AvETBO (Betsim.), both of which 


FA'NDBiPA'NnBiKA, 8. Bedup. of Fak- 

DBiKA. A snare in words, words used 

to ensnare. 

Findripandrihana, v. pa88. (Imp. 
fdndripandriho,) To be ensnared 
by words, to be caught by an 
artful address, to be inveigled. 

Mam&ndripindrika, i;. tr, (Imp. 
mamandripandriha ; Bel. aman- 
dripandrlhana, Bel. Imp. aman^ 
dripandrlho,) To use ensnaring 
words, to inveigle. 


tba), covered over.] A hidden snare, 



a oonoealed net, a hole covered with 

grass, etc. ; fig. deceit. 

]Can&6 f&adritot^&na. To lay a 
hidden snare, to prepare a net. 
FANDBiaHAHA, «. [Bel. s. from 

XAKDRioNA (bioita).] A oharm naed 

as a preservatiye against an injury. 
FAJTDBO'AKA, «. [Mod. s. from man- 

DBOAZA (boaza).j A dog. (ProY.) 

See AT.TrA, Amboa. 
FAlTDBO'BIBaLA, «. [Mod. s. from 


money.] A game of two parties 
puUing at a rope, etc., as a trial of 
strength, a tug of war. Fandba- 
BiBOLA, and Fardbobibaht (Ftoy.), 
are also used. 
from MANDBOBiT&A (bobitba^, and 
FATY, a corpse.! A funeral; lit. 
stretching out tine corpse, from a 
strange practice of two parties strug- 
gling to get hold of it on its way to 
hurial. yrov.) See under Lbyina. 
FA'HDBOTBA, «. A girdle, a belt, a 
hoop of a barrel, a cord. (Prov.) 
Voafindrotra, v, paas. Bound a- 

round. (ProY.) 
Afftndrotra, v. past. (Imp. qfandro' 
ty.) Used of that which is em- 
ployed as a girdle, etc. (Ptoy.) 
Fandr6tana, v. pats, ^Imp. a/an- 
droty.) To be bound round, to 
be enciroled by a cord or belt. 
Fin&ndrotra. Passive with infix. 
Mamindrotra, v. tr, (Imp. maman- 
drota; Rel. amandrotanat Kel. Imp. 
a/inandrbty.) To bind fast, to tie 
round by a belt or cord. (Prov.) 
FlAdrotnJcAigo, «. A belt, a buckle. 
Fa'ndrodaht, «. [lahy, masculine.] 

A creeping grass. 
Fa'ndbotba'bana, «. A creeping g^rass. 
Cynodon DactyloHy Pers. It is pound- 
ed, soaked in water early in the 
morning, and employed as poultices 
for gout and rheumatism. It is 
also used for infiammation of the 
eye caused by any foreign body 
entering it. Formerly it was tied 
round the pumpkin (Voatavolahy) 
used in the ceremony of droumci- 

sion. Being somewhat tough it ib 
occasionally used as string. It was 
also formerly put in the ancestral 
comer of a newly- built house to 
ensure good luck. The same was 
done with the SomFAVANA, Zozobo, 
and a few other things, all of 
which plants are very retentive of 

FAKE'FA, adv. NevertheleaB, yet, 
still. See Nbfa. 

FAKE'FITEA, $, [Mod. s. from xa- 
nbfitra (bfitba).] a fleshy plant 
used witib orange or lemon leaves 
in vapour baths given for small-pox. 
It is also used as a oharm agiunst 
the same disease, a piece of it being 
hung roimd the necx. 

FAHE'FITSA, 8. [Same as preceding 
with TBA for TBA.I A fleshy plant 
used by the Betsileo as a substitate 
for tea, which is said to be excellent. 
(Bets.) Same as Pabazztbitby. 

FAKS'XJSA', 9. [Mod. s. from haks- 
ly (ely), ana ba, blood.] Any 
warm liquid gfiven after an accident ; 
this is supposed to dissipate the 
blood collected or congealed by the 
accident. Chicken broth is mostly 
used for this purpose. 

FAKE'MBAHA, «. A large fishing 
hook. (Prov.) 

FAHE'NITBA, «. A species of mason 
wasp. [Menang^bow panangit,'] 
This is sometimes called TaxoiiAPA- 
NBKiTBA and Fanqabaza, which 
latter see. 

Fanb'ioora'no, 8, [bano, water.] A 
small aquatic insect with a severe 
bite. (Bets.) 

FAKE'HJIBA'BIXA, s. [Mod. s. from 
xanbnjika (bnjixa), and varika, a 
kind of lemur.] Name of a serpent. 

FANE'NOA'LIHA, «. [Mod. s. from 
MANEKO (nbno), and ALZNA, night.] 
A species of cricket. 

FAKENO'MANA, s. [Bel. s. from 
MAXBNONA (tenona).] A loom ; the 
whole of the implements used in 
weaving, also the place where the 
loo m is. 

FAKE'KTT, «. [Mod. s. from xanxn- 
TT (enty).] The eyes. (Prov.) 



VAS^JfmLA'TJTRAf 8, [Z.ATITBA, far.] 

A telofloope. (ProY.) 'See Kabo- 

f^nrSLAMA, 9. A ahrab. Also a 

small tree (Bets.) Faorotjftermum 

Fanerant^ Baker. 
FAjcz'sANnA'HT, 9. [laht, maaculine.] 

See under £tba. A shrub or tree. 

(Bets.) A oreeping ffrass. 
lAJni'BITBA, $. [Mod. s. from 

XAssRZT&i (bbitba).] The eyes. 

lASWrSLALArBY, 9. [Mod. s. from 
KA9STKA (betba), andTLAHT, mascu- 
line.l ^A ohana. 
lABEtTKOX^ 9. [ICod. s. from xa- 
S2TBT (btbt), and bs, great.] An 
inaeot found among the rice. (Frov.) 
VAVBTA, «. [Hod. s. from luirsvA 
(xvAy or h>va).] a war flag, an 
FANB'vAicBfiCA, 9. [xBNA, red.] A 
white and red flag hoisted on the 
chief palace for calling in the re- 
serres at Antananarivo in time of 
special need; the reserves. Also 
(»iled Saihaxbka. 
fA JET O. Prov. for Ranuto. 
FAVEVO'TAKA, «. [Hod. s. from xa- 

HKvoT&A (evotba)?] A charm. 
FA'VGA, 9, The^ name of the board 
and seeds nsed in playing the game 
called Kat&a. 

Xifinga, 9. int, (Imp. mifang^ ; 
Bel. iftmgdna^ Kel. Imp. t/an- 
qoh^ To jAay the game called 
Katsa. (rrov.) 
FA'VGA, adv, and conj, Kow, where- 
aa» as to ; a word used in bespeak- 
ing attention or commencing a 
statement. (Ptov.) See Fakqt, 

VoafiLnga, v. /him. Used of exact 
words chosen to express some- 
thing. (Prov.) 
Fangina, v, pa99. (Imp. fangaa.) 
To be set about or applied to 
with all attention. (Prov.) 
Xifiiiga, V, int. To make a good 
choice, used of a place of habi- 
tation ; an expression meaning to 
give attention to. 
FAVGA'BT, 9, [Hod. 8. from hahoabt 
(bast).] a spade. See AvaAiyr. 

Fanoa'dt bb lb'la, «. [be, large, lxla, 
tongue, blade.] Unjust force, vio- 
lence, usurpation, united assault; 
lit. a spade with a great blade. Chiefly 
used m speaking of the usurpation 
of another's rice-grounds. 
]Kana6 fangftdy be Idla. To take 
by force. 

FANaA'niFo'HZirr, 9, fvoBiinr, its short- 
ness.] A piece of tne brisket of beef. 

Fanoa'dt tst kahata'faka a'hitba, «. 

[tST, not, TAPAXA, cut ofl, AHITBA, 

grass.] Lit. a spade that cannot 
cut grass ; fig. a person having no 
authority to decide the business in 

FAKOALA'EIHA, 9, [Bel. s. from 
XANOALATBA^ (halatba).] A Con- 
firmed thief. 

FAKOA'LATRA, «. [Hod. s. from 
XANGALATBA (halatba).] Anything 


from YOLO, hair, twigs, grass, etc.J A 

ries of oateipiUar somewhat sim- 
to the caddis-worm, that forms 
its house of bits of wood, grass, 
leaves, etc., lined with silk inside. 

Fanoa'latso'vt, ». [ovY, yams.] A 
bird belonging to the family of 
rails. Corethrura insufnris, Sharpe. 

Fanoa'na, V, pas9. See Faxoa. 

FAKOA'HOA, «. [Hod. s. from xan- 
OANOA (oanoa).] a kind of poison- 
ous HoFiKA. (Prov.) Same as 
HoFiXABA, which 8ee. 

Fanoa'noan-o'lona, «. [OLONA, a per- 
son.] An extremely angry person. 

FAHOAO". An old word used for 
Fandrao, which see. 

FAKOAO'KA, «. and adj. [Hod. s. from 
KANOAOEA (haoka).] A native hair- 
brush ; perverse, stubborn, unman- 
ageable, intractable. 

FAKOAO'KA, «. A kind of bird. 

FAKOAO'KA, «. An imprecation in- 
voking the entire loss of property, 
as: HiT0in)BA fanqaoka an-tba- 


INT, Hay his theft bring on him 
the ruin of all his property. 
FAKOAO'KA, «. Any small instru- 
ment used in giving a smooth surface 
to pottery ware. 


Xangabka, r. ^. To afnooth pottery 
• with the Fanqagka. 

Fakoag'-bt', $, [vT, iron.] A rake 
nfled in raJdng up weeds. 

FAHOA'BAXA, a. A small insect, 
whioh d^>08it8 its eggpi in a caterpil- 
lar and then buries it in the ground. 
Probably a species of ichneumon. 
The FAmsNiT&A is sometimes called 
by the same name. 
O'li-pangiraka, «. Folit&a, a grub.] 
The caterpillar of the Fanqabaxa. 

FAKOABrHAKA, «. [Bel. s. from 
iCAiraABiNA (habzna).J a mill for 
crushing sugar-cane. 

FAHOA'BShA, 8. [Mod. s. fromKAN- 
OABONA (habona).] It is uscd as 
in the three f oUowing^words, in addi- 
tion to its literal sense. 

FAKQA'aoicpo'DT, 9, [fodt, e kind of 
bird.] An insect. 

Fanoa'bojcpo'ht, <. [foht, short.] A 
common millepede found in the 

FANaA'BOicpo'BT, 8, [fobt, the anus.l 
A kind of millepede. Also called 

FAHOE'TAHETAHA «. [Bel. s. from 

let, the lower part of the tiiroat. 

FA'HOY, 8. A piece of bamboo used 
for carrying water. (Proy.) 

FA'HOY. A particle sometimes used 
as introductory to conversation. See 
Fanoa, Sanot. It is also a em^., 
meaning but, but yet. 

FAKOrBmiBI'HAKA «• [Bel. s. 
from MANOiBiKA (hibika).] The 
hollow behind the ear. Comp. Fihi- 


FA'HOITBA, «. A curved mark or 
sign, a curved outline, a boundary, 
an indication. It is not used of a 
parallelogram. See Fabitba. 
Voaf&ngitra, f^. pata. Marked out. 
Fangltana, or Fangirana, v. past, 

(Imp. fangtto, OT fanffiro,) To be 

marked out. 
Finingitra. Passive with infix. 
Mifingitra, v. int. and adj. To have 

boundary lines, to be marked out. 
Xam&ngitra, v. tr. (Imp. mama^ 

nglta^ or mamanglra ; Bel. ama" 

nffltana, or aman^iranaf Bel. Imp. 

amanffitOf or amangiro.) To mark 
out, to place boundary lines. In 
the provinces it means to cut, to 
clip, to dress the edges of aay- 
thbig, to cut a book. 

FA'NQIBO'LAirA, 8. [VOLANA, tilO mOOn.] 

A cirde, a circuit. SeeFABZBOLAirA. 
FA'EOO, 8. A sign, an indication, a 

distinguishing mark. (Prov.) 
Fa'noomo'za, 8. [moxa, a mosquito.] 
A grass. Eragro8ti8 po€M%de8, P.B. 
Same as Finoomoxa. 
FAHGOKA, 8, Deceit, plausible pre- 
tence, guile. In the provinces, both 
in the root and derivatives, it meana 
an obstruction, an impediment, phy* 
sical or moral. 
Yoafingoka,9.|MiM. Deceived, delii> 

ded; obstructed. 
Fangbhana, v. pa8», flmp./ofi^oAy.) 
To be deluded, to oe deceived, to 
be beguiled. 
Finingoka. Passive with infix. 
Xanuliigoka, v. tr. (Imp. hmmom^^- 
ha ; Bel. amangohanay Bel. Imp. 
amangohy.) To deceive by plau- 
sible representations, to deluide. 
FAHOOKA, 8. The loose threads of 
a piece of doth which are out off 
after it has been woven. 
FAKGOLrHAEA, «. [Bel. s. from 
MANOOLiXA (hozjxa).] ApUuitused 
sometimes by evU-disposed personB 
for bewitching or befooling others. 
FAHOOPAHeOXA, <. Gunning, sly- 
ness, craft, subtiety, stratagem, 
guile. Bedup. of Fanooxa (i.^. 
Fingopangbhana, v. pa88. (Imp. 
fdngopangbhy.) To be beguiled, 
to be deluded, to be circumvented. 
Xamiagopingoka, v. tr. (Imp. ma- 
tndngopangoha ; Bel. amdngopango' 
hanUf Bel. Imp. amdngopangohy.) 
To act slily, to act craftily, to 
FAHOOTBA. Boot of the following. 
See Fadiditba, Fanooxa. (Prov?) 
Voaf&ngotra, v. pau. Entrapped, 

taken in, embroiled. 
Fang6rina, v. pas8. (Imp. fangorv.) 
To be entrapped, to be taken in. 
Fin&ngotra. Passive with infix. 


k, V. int. To entrap, to 
take in. (Pjrov.) 
XaaiBgotra, v. tr. (Imp. manui- 
ngira; B^tmtmgWtma, Bel. Imp. 
MMR^ory.) To entrap, to oatoh. 

FlVMBI'lriVA, «. [Bel. 8. from 
XAVQOUNA (bobzha).] The larva 
of a apeoiea of dragon-fly. It ia 
eaten bj the natlTea. 

FIVGKKBOBA'BT, «. [MocL. a. from 
MAirooBoxA (bobosa), and tast, 
noe.] The name of a tree with very 
inflammable wood. 

FlVeonOHAVA, «. FBeL a. from 
lUjreoTtOKA (HonoxA).] An inaeot 
with TBiry ptiokly hairs. 

FA'«x, «. A tree; a river turtle. 
Same as Favo, whioh see. 

FA'VT, «. A fruit used in the SiKODT 

FAK'A, or FAITI'VAKA. Boot of 
the following : — 

Mjftmiiiaiia , v. int. Imp. mifamniL' 
na : Bel. ifminknana^ Bel. Imp. 
t/ifNfiiff0.J To be competing, to 
be emnlating, to be enoonraging; 
to trj to provoke to a duel. 

FAHTBT, «. [Mod. «. from makidt 
(hxdt).] a ahrub used by the Be- 
tnleo as a charm against crocodiles ; 
the akin of the person who is about 
to start on a jonmey being cut a 
little, and the scrapmgs from the 
root of this plant put on the wound. 
l%ey also lick the root of the shrub 
for tiie same purpose. (Bets.) 2W- 
da^ueuUattk^ Fers. Same as BoT 
(Be tafan.). 

FAVI'FnaFI'HAVA, <. [Bel. s. from 
XAKmDHKA ( HiymruA ).] A charm 
for making another man's wife dis- 
liked by her husband, or the husband 
by the w ife. (IVov.) 

FAjiijjiz, «. [Mod. 8. from xanxht 
(hzht).] a bat. Probably a species 
of Pteropua (Prov.) ; see Manavt ; 
also a bird (Sak.). 

FAVTLY, 8. [Mod. s. from mostUT 
(? HILT for hidy).] a bird with a 
serrated bill. (Frov.) 

FAVTLO, «. [Mod. s. from kaiolo 
(tbilo).] a torch, a flambeau; a 
delegate, an ambassador, a deputy 

a conmiissioner. In the provinces 
i t mea ns the eyes of the chief. 

FA'HIK-. A prefix added to numerals 
to express tne number of times, aa 
FANiHnBOAinr, twice, a second time. 

FA'HIHA, a^. Giddy, diiu^. [Mai. 

FaninlnA, v. poai, (Imn. fm^no,) 
To be made ^ddy ; to be detain- 
ed ; to be stnotly investigated. 
¥ahafltniTia, v. tr. To produce 

Hafanlnana, «. Giddiness. 
A'ro-iftni&a, «. A balustrade, Ut. 
a protection against giddiness. 

FAVI'VBBT, «. [Hod. s. from XAitiir- 
DBT (tszhdbt^.J Anything used to 
press something down with. 

Fiun'MDBT, «. A species of bujssard. 
Buteo hraehffpterus, Pelz. Same aa 
HnrDBT (Bets, and Tan.^, Eitdbt 
(Betsim.), Poxpa (Bara), Txnobo 
(Sak. and Antank.), and Bobazy 

FANfHDBi-A'io, 9. [afo, fire.] A poker. 

FANx'HDBi-TB'iroNA, 8, [tbztona, Weav- 
ing.] A small stick used in weav- 

Fan^nika, V. pa88. See Faxtina. 

FAVI'TflM), 8. Zinc; also an herb. 
Ju8tie%a haplo8taehffa, And. 

FAiriTAKA, «. A shrub. (Sak.) 

FA'VJA, «. Marsh land where rushes 
grow. (Prov.) 

FAKJAI'TBA, 8. [Hod. s. from icah- 
JAITBA (zaxtba).] A uecdle. 

FANJAf-BAZA'HA, 8. [vAZAHA, a for- 
eigner.] A foreign needle. 

Fanjai'-bb', 8, [bb, great.] A large 
needle ; fig. a grown-up person, an 

Fahjai-dro'vi-bo'dt, «. [bovitba, torn, 
TODT, the bottom.] The least parti- 
de of property, bt. a broken-eyed 

Fanjai'-kb'lt, 8. [kblt, little.] A 
small needle ; fig. a child. 


doubtful.] A needle of medium 
FAH JAKA'HA, «. [Bel. s. from kan- 
JAZA (zaka).] a kingdom, the 

givemment, honour, dignity, privi- 
ge, an hereditary possession. 


VAHxrr, without order.] A state of 

Fahjaxa'na baso'a, «. [baboa, with- 
out order.] Same aa preceding. 
FahjaxaV ibb'ea'noza'ro, «. [bbza- 
irosAHo, a tribe of people.] A peo- 
ple without king or law ; an anar- 
FAKJAXBA'VA, «. [Bel. a. from 
XAHJAMBA (jaicba).] A oharm to 
blind the eyes ; money given to 
deoeiTe or cajole persona. 
FAKJA'ITA, «. Urging one another 
to do what each one is diaincUned 
to do himaelf . 

KUiuiJina, «. int, (Imp. none ; 
Bel. and Paaa. ifmnji^nMna ; Bel. 
Imp. ifanjdno,) To urge one ano- 
ther to do a thing, to pnt off from 
one to another, to impose on others 
what each one shnna for himself. 
PAKJATO'AVA, «. [Bel. s. from xan- 
JATO (zATo) .] The place of obtaining 
riches. Comp. Mpanjato bb. 
7AKJATA, 8, |llf od. s, from xaitjata 
(zava).] The moon; riches, money, 
wealth ; a charm or medicine for 
colic. (Prov.) 
FAVJI'HITBA, $. A dispute, a quar- 
rel. See ZiHiTBA. 
Xifailjihitra, v. int. (Imp. mi/an' 
jihira ; Bel. and Pass. ifanfihU 
rana, Imp. ifanjihlro.) To dispute 
with one another. 
FAKJO'A, «. Small shot. (Prov.) 

See Fatsaka. 


ITA, «. [Bel. s. from xanjonjona 

( JON JON a).] a charm to assist one 

to strike the mark in shooting or in 

throwing a stone, etc. 

Fanjo'ax-bo'bokpo'tst (P), i, [tobona, 

a bird, fotst, white.] A person in 

confederacy with a thief to receive 

the Rtolen sfoods. 


[fo, the heart.] The pith of the 

papyrus or ZozoBO, which see. 

FA'ITKA-. The commencement of all 

relative nouns from the verbal form 

inMAKXA-, as : Fankatoavana (from 

XAKKATo), duty, obedienoe, aubmis- 

Bion, etc 

FAKKATOTAHA, «. [Bel. a. from 
KAiTKATO (to).] A cfaarm, enchant- 
ment, incantation, soroery, oonjn- 
ration, sleight of hand. 

FAHXAZATA, t. [Mod. a. from 
MANKAZAVA (zava).] A ahrub. 
^rov.) JSkeodendrom oligaHthum, 
Baker. Same as Fanazava. 

FAVO, «. A kind of beetle; the 
sea- turtle ; a fish (P»>v.). 

FA'VO, a. Anaoada-like tree, the wood 
of which is used in miiVing muaioal 
instruments. The seeds were often 
used formerly in working the Sixzdt, 
as indeed is still the case among tho 
Sakalava. In the days of bull- 
fi^ting the root of the shrub was 
taken, pounded, put in water, and 
given to the bulls that were to 
fight, with the idea that it made 
them fierce. An infusion of the 
leaves is now used in oases of colio. 
Piptadenia cKryaoataehya^ Bth. 

FAKOHA'BAVA, «. [Bel. s. from 


speech, a parable. 

Fanoha'kox-ba'bt, <. [tabt, rice.] A 
provincial word for Fatax-babt, 
whi ch se e. 

FAHO'ITBA, «. [Mod. s. from xanoi- 
TBA (oiTB^.] A lever, a handspike. 

FAKO'KO. Prov. for Ebajtt, Sahaza, 
ToKONT, which see. 

FAKOLE'HANA, «. [Bel. s. from 
XANOLiKA (oliba).] A plant, an in- 
fusion of the leaves of which is drunk 
by the BetsUeo for coUc. (Bets.) 

FAirOMA'XO, «. Name of certain 
shrubs. Mundulta Tel/airii, Baker, 
and Af. Suherosa^ Bth. See Fanaxaxo. 

FAKO'HDBAXA, «. [Mod. s. fromxA- 


FAKONDBS'HAHA, a. [Bel. s. from 
manondbika (onbreca).] Herbs. ^- 
pubia ap. and Limn. Ophila torHotdea^ 
Baker. The latter is the same as 
Mabotonona and Bamofabttba. 

FAKaNDBO, a. [Mod. s. from xa- 
NONDBO (tondbo) .] The index finger; 
lit. the pointer. 

Fano'ndboma'noa, a. Horizontal tim- 
bers projecting from the walls of a 
house to support the eaves. Alao 
called ToHDBOiCAjroA. 



f AVOVOVA, «. [Mod. 8. from xaho- 
aoNA (towona) . J a riddle, an enigma. 

rASOHTA'HA, «. [Bel. s. from ma- 
NOMTA (TONTi^.] A preflB, a print- 
ing prefls. The word Fbbst is more 
freqaenily used now. 

Fanohta'x - Bim'xT, «. [bibdct, a 
briok.] A brick mould. 

Fahosta'x-bo'la, «. [tola, mone^.] 
A mould for malring money, a die. 

riVOBA'TAKA [BeT. b. from kako- 
BAT&A (sobatba;.] A writing taUe 
or desk. 

FAVO^BT. «. A shrab, the leases and 
root of which are used by the Saka- 
IftTa as an emetic. (Sak.) Probably 
the same as the following : — 

TAVCKBY, 9. An herb, the hairs of 
whose seeds are used for stuffing 
cushions, etc. The leaves are in 
some countries used as an adulter- 
ation in Alexandrian seima. It is 
given by the Betsileo to diseased 
oxen, etc., when it is called Fan- 
nxirr. Oomphoearptu frutieoausy R. 
Br. Probably the same as Fanobt 
(Sak.), which see. 

FAVCBOBCXA, «. [Hod. s. from xa- 
voBO ToBO^, BOZA, a leper.] Herbs, 
the juice crom the leaves of which 
when applied to the skin blisters 
it ; hence among the Betsileo those 
who have sjrmptoms of leprosy 
thus apply it, the skin then peeling 
off ; hence its name. (Bets.) Clema^ 
tis oHgophylla^ Hook., and C. Boferi, 

FAVCKBOBA, «. The name of a game 
played on lines and spaces with 
pebbles, seeds, etc. See Sobona. 
Mifiuidrona, v. int. (Imp. mt/bno- 
r6HS ; Bel. ifanor6fUMa, Bel. Imp. 
ifanorony.) To play the game 
Mipai-pan^rona. To pick up and 
set down the pebbles in the above 
mentioned game. 

f ABOBX'HAHA, 8. [Bel. s. from xa- 
vofiiKA (tosika).] a thimble. See 


FAVCTA, or FAKO'TAHY, a. [Boot 
OTA ^P).] An odd number, an extra 
numoer, that which is not numbered 
anumg any olaaa. 

FAHO'TO, ». [Mod. s. from kaitoto 
(toto).] a pestle, a rammer, an 
iron crow-bar. 
Fano'tofo'bona, «. fvoBOVA, con- 
sumed.] A kind of oird. 
Faho'to vt', 8. [vT, iron.] A crow- 
bar, or a pole with an iron ferrule. 
FAKO'VO, 8, [Mod. s. from xahovo 
(tovoJ.] a ladle for drawing water. 
FA'HTA, 8. An oath. See Naoeo, 
Sahato, Ozoha, Iniana. 
KifiUito, or Kifi&tafinta, «. int. 
(Imp. mifantd ; Bel. ifaniUna, Bel. 
Imp. ifunta6.) To take an oath ; to 
miss fire (P), as a gpm. 
Fa'nta-bo'boxa, 8. [boboza, rotten.] 

Perjury, (ftov.) 
Faitta^haka, v. |mm«. See Fahtaza. 
Fa'»ta-tbt to, «. [tbt, not, to, veri- 
fication.] A fabe oath. 
Fa'ivta-va'ndt, 8, [vARDT, B lie.] Same 

as preceding, (t^v.) 
FAHTAKA, «. A tall grass formerly 
used In the ceremony of circum- 
cision. It is now used in making 
fishing nets, or rather baskets, called 
Vovo and Tandboho. Arundo mada^ 
ga»carien8%8y Kuntfa. Also the name 
of one of the chief idols formerly 
worshipped in Imerina. 
Akdhoiaky ftotika, adj. Small but 
clever ; applied only to a cock. 
FAHTAKA, «. A small stake for 
tying cords on, a peg, a pin; 
usually applied to the four stakes 
to which the warp frame is tied in 
VoafiUitaka, v, pa88. Pegged down, 

staked. (Prov.) 
Afintaka, v. pa88. (Imp. afantdho.) 
Used of that which is employed 
as a stake. (Prov.^ 
Fant&hana, v. pata, (Imp. fantdho,) 
To be pegged down, to be staked. 
Mifintoka, V. «»^ (Rel, ifantdhana.) 
To be staked down, to be peggea 
down. (Prov.) 
Mam&ntaka, if. tr, (Imp. fnamon- 
tdha ; Bel. omantdhana, Bel. Imp. 
amantdho.) To put a stake or a 
pin on something, to put a lance 
in a tree, etc. (Prov.) 
FAOITAXA. Boot of the following :— 


Bel. ifitntdha9ta, Bel. Imp. i/oii- 

tdho.) To smk in, to light upon, 

to deeoend upon and nuute a nole 

in Uie grooxia, as a stake, etc. 
FA'VTAVA, «. A oomponnd, a jard. 

(Prov.) SeeToKOTAKT. 
TASTA'ilA, $, A meteor supposed to 
fall from the atmosphere and prove 
fatal to those on whom it desdends. 
Omip. TAUfXZMTAirA. 
PA'NTATBA, verbal root. Known, 
Fantirina, v. pais. (Imp. fantdro,) 

To be examined, to be proved, to 

be tried, to be understood. 
Xamintatra, f^. tr, (Imp. ffUHfum- 

idra ; Bel. omantdrofMy Bel. Imp. 

amantdro,) To try, to examine, 

to prove. 
XahafiLntatra, v. tr, (Imp. maha- 

fanidra; Bel. ahafantdrafMf Bel. 

Imp. iUu^fantdro,) To know, to 

recognize, etc. 
Famantirana, t, A sign, an indi- 
cation, a mark, a symptom. 
Famintatra, «. An enigma. 
FA'HTIKA. Boot of the foflowinflr :— 
Voaf&ntina, v, past. Chosen, seleot- 

ed, picked out. Gomp. Fidt. 
Fantdnana, v, pats, (Imp. fantmo,) 

To be selected, to be picked out, 

to be culled. 
Finintina. Passive with infix. 
Mifintina, v, tr, (Imp. mifantena; 

Bel. ifantenanaf Bel. Imp. t/oii- 

teno,) To select, to choose, to 

pick out, to cull. 
Fa'ntim-ba'bt, <. [vast, rice.] Picked 
rice, such as is used in weighing 
FA'VTO, s. Cloth made by the forest 
tribes from the bark of trees. (Prov.) 
Fa'ivtoa'mbo, s, [axbo, high.1 A tree 
whose bark is used to make cloth 
called Famto. 
FA'VTOXA, s. A nail, a brad, a 
spike, side Fantszka, Hoxbo. 
VoafiUitoVa, v, pass. Nailed, spiked. 
Afiintoka, v. pass, TLnp. (tfantdhy,) 

Used of that employed as a nidi, 

Fantdhana, v, pass, (Imp. fantohjf.) 

To be nailed. 

Xamiiitoka, v. tr, (Imp. 

t6ha; BeL.ouMwiAf^MM, Bel. Imp. 

amant6hff,) To nail, to fasten 

with nails. 
Kifilatoka, v. kU. and adf. (BeL 

ifantdhoMa,) To be fixed with 

na ils. 
FAirrOXA, s. litigatioii, Aoousation 
in a court of law. (rrov.) See 
YoaflULtoka, v. pass, Aoomed. 

Afaatoka, v. pass. (Imp. itfantoKp.) 

Used of the persons aoonsed. 

Mamintoka, v, tr. (Imp. suNiMMittf- 

ha; Bel. amant6hana, Bel. Imp. 

amantohff,) To bring an aoousa- 

tion against some one. (Prov.) 
FASTSAKA'H A, s. [Bel. s. from xav- 
TBAXA (tsaka).] A wcll, a spring, a 
fountam. See Lohabano. 
FA'HTSAHA, s. Binsing the mouth. 


Xifintsana, v. int, (Imp. nU/amtsd^ 
na; Bel. ifantsdnana, Bel. Imp. 
ifantsdno.) To rinse the mouth. 
FASTSA'SATBA, «. A bird, a species 
of oriole belonging to a genua pecu- 
liar to Madagascar. Same as Sobo- 


TZ8ATT. (Ptov.) Zeptcptorus viridiSf 
FA'HTST, s. The spur of a oook. See 

FA'NTsnrAXo'HOLA'sT, s, [azoholaht, 
a cock, j A shrub, the leaves of which 
are broiled and used as poultices for 
abscesses. A decoction is made of 
it and given to ^mtnola ill of the 
disease called Toxboxa. Also used 
in the form of vapour baths for 
small-pox. Clerodendron sp, 
FA'HTSIXA,«. A nail, a spike. See 
Famtoka, Hoxbo. 
Voaf&ntsika, v, pass. Nailed. 
Afitntsika, v. pass, (Imp. afanisiAo.) 

Used of that which is employed 

as a nail. 
Fantslhana, v,pass, {lmp,fants%ko,) 

To be nailed, to be fixed by nails. 
Finiatsika. Passive with infix. 
Miftntilka, v. int. and my. (BeL 

ifatttsOana.) To be nailed, aioled. 



yamiatiilm, v, ir, (Imp. manum' 
ttiha ; BeL amanUthana^ Bel. Imp. 
m manin ho,) To nail, to make fast 
with nailfl. 

Yito fintiika, «. An anchor, lit. 
a fixing stone, probably bo called 
becauae a stone was the primitiye 
form of anchor ; also one who 
cannot leave his position or bnsi- 

7intsik» pdta-d6ha, «. Tacks, or 
nails with heads like tacks. 

Yiatsilca tallan-d6ha. Nails with 
one-sided heads. 

7intsika vidmba 16ha. Kails with 
two-sided heads. See Yassdcba. 
FA'imzKA'HTTBA, 9. [asitba, nass.] 

A hard-wooded tree need in house- 

boilding and for walking-sticks. 

FUctnnia tp, 
Fa'xtbzxa'la, $, [hala, a spider.] An 

herb . 
PA'JITSiKA, «. and atfi. Having a 

fixed employment; assigned to a 

certain work ; engaged, wholly fixed, 


•Mifi^ntMiV^^ ^, int, (Imp. mifimtsl- 

ha ; Bel. ifantsihana, Bel. Imp. 
i/anUtho,) To bend down so as 
to have the back hollow, to be 
hollow about the back. It is need 
of persons, oxen, or bent poles for 
carrying, or the covers of books 
curled up. Mxhantbisa and Hi- 
TOFAirraiKA also used. 

Xamintsika, v, int. To break or 
burst its shell, as a bird emerging 
from the shell. 
JAWKl'TSVTRL, $. A syringe. 

Afimtsitsitra, r.^MM«. (Lnp. q/aiit«i« 
Ulro.) Used of the water squirted 
out of a syringe. 

Yantsltslrana, v. pass, (Imp. /a»- 
teltetro.) To be deluged with 
water, as from a syringe. 

Xifantsltsltra, v, int, (Bel. and 
Pass. i/anttUsirana.) To gush 
out, as water from a syringe. 

Ifanafantsitsitra, v. pass. (Imp. ma- 
na/antsitsira ; Bel. anafanttittlra- 
iia, Bel. Imp. anafanttltsiro.) To 
make water gush out, as from a 
syringe or asmall hole in a water- 

FA'HTSOVA. <. A spout, a water- 
pipe, the means A carrying off 
Fants6nana,v./MiM. (Lnp./mfoofiy.) 

To be made to receive a supply of 

milk artificially, to be milked 

into, as the mouth. 
Xifintsona, v. tr, (Imp. mifantsina ; 

Bel. ifantsonana, Bel. Imp. t/an- 

tsonffA To milk from the udder 

into tne mouth. 
Xanafintsona, v, tr. To cause milk 

to flow into another*s mouth from 

the udder. 
Fa'ntsoit - DBA', «. [BAy blood.] A 

Fa'mtsoh-dba'no, $, [bano, water.] A 

spout for carrying off water. 
FA'STSOHA, 9. A wooden peg. rPlrov.) 
Voafintsona, v.pass. Nailed with 

a wooden peg. (Prov.) 
' Afintsona, v. jmm«. (Imp. qfant96nff.) 

Used of a wooden peg employed 

as a nail. (Frov.) 
Fants6nina, v.pas9. (Imp.fant9iny.) 

To be nailed as above. (Prov.) 
Xam&ntsona, v, tr. (Imp. maman^ 

tsona; Bel. amantsonana, Bel. 

Imp. amantsony.) To nail with 

wooden pegs. (JProv.) 
FAO'KA, «. Wiping. 
Voaliadka, v, pas9. Wiped. • 
Afia6ka, v, pass. (Imp. a/ooAy.) Used 

of that employed for wiping. 
Fa6hana, t;. /MM«. (Imp. fa6hy.) To 

be wiped. 
Fa6hina, t;. /MM. (Imp. faoHp.) To 

be carried off, as by a bird of prey ; 

to be torn up. See Paoka. 
Fina6ka. Passive with infix. 
Xifadka, r. tr. (Imp. mifaoha ; Bel. 

\fa6hanaf Bel. Imp. ifaoh^.) To 

wipe, to clear away, to carry off, 

as a bird of prey does ; to tear up 

the earth, as an infuriated bull. 
Xamaika, v. tr. (Imp. mama6ha ; 

Bel. amaohana, Bel. Lnp. amaohi^.) 

To wipe. 
Fao'-dra'noica'so, 8. [raHIomaso, tears.] 
A present given to the near relatives 
of a deceased person. 
Xama^-drinom&so, v. eomp. To wipe 

away tears, to assuage grief, to 
I sympathise with. Sm Fata. 


FAonr-TAKAKA^rAnAirf toUAirt. 

Xanad fa6-dWtxioai&io. To pireseni 
ilie usual gift to persons who have 
been bereaved. 
Fao'n-taha'na, 8y [tanaita, a town.] 
A oomponnd. (Prov.) See Tokotant. 
YAO'HA'HT, 9, Go on, proceed. A 
word used in militaiy commands. 
[Probably a oorraption of the En- 
glish Qo on.] 
YAaTOTEA,«. A kind of tree. (Prov.) 
Perhaps the same as Fototba, whidi 
TA'SA. Boot of the following :— 
Voaflra, v. pan. Scraped, scratch- 
ed, smoothed. See Fabana. 
Farina, t;. pass. (Imp. farad,) To 
be scraped, to be loosened, as 
threads at l^e end of the warp. 
Finftra (1). Passive with infix. 
Xattilra, v. tr. (Imp. mamard ; Kel. 
amardnaf Rel. Imp. amarao,) To 
rub, to scrape, to draw a piece of 
wood over uie warp to keep the 
threads properlv open. 
Mifira, adj. Kubbed, scraped, 
FA'SA, 8. The last ; offspring, chil- 
dren, an hei/, succession, progeny. 
[Ax.farkf pulus (=s=/«rflr). Comp. 
the Heb. par, a calf, ayoung bull ; 
Germ, farr ; also the Heb. bar, son, 
and the whole group of words from 
the same root (as ^araA"=barah ; 
Sansk. *Ar» (Zend, bara) ; Gr.phero ; 
Lat. /wo=:Eng. bear, etc.] 
Voaf&ra, v. pass. Made to be last, 

finished. (Prov.) 
XiaiHra, v. int. (Bel. iafardna.) To 

be last, to be at the end. 
Xamira, v. tr. (Imp. mamard ; Bel. 
amardna, Bel. Imp. amarao.) To 
bring anything to a completion, 
to finish someming. ^Prov.) 
Zinaka amam-p&ra. Children. 
Homdn*Andrlaminitrany fira. See 
Fa'ba a'dt, s. [adt, a fight.] The last 
efPort, the final competition, the 
last meal at a feast ; used pri- 
marily of bull fights. 
]Cana6 fira ftdy, v. eomp. To do for 
the last time. 
Fa'ba a^na, orFA'KAN-Ai'NA, t. [azna, 
life.] The youngest child. 

FA'aABysOKA, 9. fvOBONA (f), ft bM.] 

The very lowest of all. 
Fa'ba ]x>'BOEi, #. [doboka, a beat- 
ing of a dram.] Same as Faba 


■aBa6fftrad6boka. SamdasMAirAo 


Fa'ba FtAfNANA, «. [fiainana, Bel. a. 
from AiNA, life.] The last day of 
one's life. Usually applied to a vio- 
lent death. 

Fa'ba fo, s. [fo, the heart.] Ptov. 
for Vava fo, which see. 

Fa'ba ha'toka, s. [hatoza, the nape.] 
The upper part of the nape of the 

Fa'ba hb'vitba,«. [hevitba, athonght.] 
A final resolve. 

]lana6 fira hMtra. To ezpresa 
one's final resolve, to make what 
one considers one^s last attempts. 

Fa'ba fDiwA, s. [idina, descent.] The 
lowest ranks of the people, the poor- 
est, the wretched. 

Fa'ba xodi'a, s. [kodia, a wheel.] 
The end or stopping-place, the ter- 

Fa'ba la'hatba, s. [lahatba, arrange- 
ment.] The end or edge, tiie close 
of an oration. 

Fa'baiiA'ht, s. [laht, masculine.] The 
last bom male in a family ; a word 
very frequently given to the young- 
est son as a proper name. 

Fa'baia'hin-ta'vant, s. [tavawt, its 
face.] The lowest and poorest of the 
people, the lowest rank, the rabble. 

Fa'rala'mbotba, 8. [lakbotba, P .] 
A water- bird, aspecies of wild-duck. 

Fa'ba lb'tst, s. [lbtbt, going down.] 
The last, tiie end. (Prov.) 

Fa'ba HAin>i'MBT, s. [docbt, sncoes- 
sion.] The generations to oome, 
last succession, latest times. 
F&ra dxaana dlmby. Same as pre- 

Fa'bant, 8. and adv. [nt sniBx pro- 
noun.] The end, the last, the con- 
clusion, the extremity, the close; 

Fa'bant Lo'HAirr, a^\ [loraitt, its 
head.] Successful or unsuoc^sful 
as formerly; lit. its end (aa) its 



Fa'ba c/BAiri, s. [osAxi, rain.] "fhe 

end of the rainy season. 
Fa'baba'vo, s. [sano, water.] Har- 

Tfiet ; lit. the last of the water, i.e. 

the rainB ; tiie harvest season, au- 

tnnm. TlBiially March and Apiil. 

FA'BASA'S02r-AX0'H0,«.[AX0H0, afowl.] 

The eommwnoement of the rioe har- 

FA'BABX'moTBA, «. [sBvoTBA, thesoond 

of aomething craiahed.] Boot of the 

followiiig : — 

■ifftrara&otrs, v. int. To be ready 
to cry, to be on the point of burst- 
ing ont into a great wailing. 
Fa'basi'sa, i. [siBA, that which is left.] 

Hie tertiary state of syphilitio dis- 

Fa'ba lAfzjL, 8. [CAXZA, aniirrfing.] The 
last child. 

Fa'sa TB'irr, 8. [tsnt, a word.] A 
final message, a decision, a verdict, a 
smmning np ; an intention or threat 
to resent an nnkindnefls, especially 
on being refused a favour. 
■ana^ fira tdny, v. eomp. To ex- 
press one's intention of resenting 
an unldndness. 

Fa'ba isai'kxnt, 8. [tbaikt, a child.] 
The last child of the family. (Prov.) 

Fa'ba tbx'na, 8. [tsbna, a market.] 
The last time of holding a market 
before the New Year's festival. 

Fa'ba tbdtai'bb', 8. tsihat, the gut, 
BB, great.! The rectum or doaoa. 

FA'BAVA'TOir UAKQA, 8. and adj. [vato, 
a stone, ijanoa, a man's name.] 
The last stone thrown in any game 
of pitching or throwing, a lucky 
stone, a fortunate stone; last, 

Fa'ba vala'la, «. [valala, a locust.] 
Used of a very yotmg girl giving 
birth to a child. 

Fa'baya'vy, 8, [vAVT, feminine.] The 
youngest daughter in a family ; a 
word frequently retained by such 
daughter as a proper name. 
FAmvftTin-tinana, adj. Used of a 
very slow writer, 

Fa'ba ya'zaita, «. [vaisana, the molar 
teeth.] The furthest molars. 

Fa'ba vasx-LA'iriTBA, «. [voiit, bottom, 
LAViXBA, the aky.] The hraixon. 

Fa'ba to'dy la'taka, «. [vody, flie 
bottom, LAVAZA, a pit.J The rice 
taken hx>m the very Dottom of rioe 

Fi/BA vo'bt Bfimrr, #. [nwr, a water- 
jar. ] The breech of a musket. 

Fa'ba vo'dt ta'tatba, «. [tatatba, 
trench.] A bird. (Prov.) Perhaps 
the same as FiAinDBxvoBiTATATBA, 
which see. 

FA'BAFA'BA, «. Anything made level 
and high, like a bedstead ; a bed- 
stead; the stone shelves in native 
tombs on which corpses are laid; 
a stipulation, terms of compact, a 
condition, an agreement; a dear 
arrangement, a preliminary ar- 
rangement. Perhaps redup. of 

Voaf&rafftra, v, pa88. Told pre- 
viously, declared beforehand, stip- 
F&rafarina, 47. p€U8. (Imp. fdrafa* 
rod.) To be declared beforehand, 
to he given notice of. 
Xamiraf&ra, v. tr. (Imp. tnamdra' 
fard ; Bel. amdrafardna, Bel. Imp. 
amdrafaraS.) To declare before- 
hand, to foretell, to warn, to 

Fa'bafa'ba e'itatba, 8, [bkatba, f .1 
A mode of plaiting mate. (Antsih.) 

Fa'bafa'ba xande'iia, «. rKAin)EHA 
(lbha), to go.] A porteble bedstead, 
a camp bedstead. 

Fa'bafa'bak-tale'vana, 9. [talevana, 
a kind of bird.] Settlement or 
agreement beforehand. 

Fa'bafa'ban-tant, 8. [TAirr, earth.l 
A piece of levelled ground raised 
above the surrounding parts, a 
terrace on a slope. 

Fa'bavo'ane'xba, 8, [voAiTEiCBA, a kind 
of bean.] The name of a kind of 
bird. rProv.) 

FABA'FOTSA, 8, A large tree with 
a very soft cork-like wood which 
the Sakalava use in making canoes. 

FASAI'HOO, 8, A bend, a curve, 
anything curved as a hook. See 
Babainoo, Fabainqo. 
Yoafaraingo, v. jmm«. Hooked, 
caught by a hook. 



Afuraingo, v» pau, ^Imp. afarai' 
ng6y.) Used of anythmg bent 
like a hook. 

7arai2igM]ia, v, pau. (Imp. farai^ 
nfi^.) To be caught by a hook. 

Mi&raingo, v. int. and o^f. (Bel. 
ifarainffdana,) To be ourved, as 
a hook. 

Xamaralngo, r. tr, (Imp. mama' 
raingba; Bel. amaraingbanoy Bel. 
Imp. amarainffaff.) To bend any- 
thing like a hook. 
TASA'XA, a(ff. Eager or desiroiis to 

see, to hear, or to go. (Proy.) 
TA'SAKA, «. An inaeot which bnriee 

its eggs and even itself in the 

Sound. (ProT.) See Fasqasaxa,. 
iho tiy l&raka mahaldyim-b&ta- 
na, I am not a Fasaka to bury 
VA'&AKA. * Boot of the following :— 

Voafirana, v. pau. Made eyen, as 
the edges of anything ; confirmed ; 
oolleoted at the end. 

Faranana, v. past. (Imp. fardno.) 
To- be made eyen, to haye ine- 
qualities remoyed, as the edges of 
a book, doth, hair, or boards ; to 
be gathered up at the end, as 
papers at an examination, etc. 

Xam&rana, v. tr. (Imp. mamardna; 
Bel. omardnarMf Bel. Imp. ama- 
rdno.) To cut the edges, to 
smooth, to make a straight edge 
or border. 

mfftrana, a<^'. £yen, smooth, with- 
out inequalities. 

yamarftnana, a. Asmoothing-knife; 
the final declaration about business 
that has been done. 
Faiu'na, v. pau. See Faba.. 
7ABA'HO0, a, A hooked iostrument, 

a hook, a boat-hook. It differs from 

Fabainoo in that it means a hook 

made intentionally. 

Voafaringo, v. pau. Hooked by a 

Farang6ana, v. paaa. (Imp. fara^ 
tiffdjf.) To be hooked, to be caught 
by a hook. 

Xamar&ngo, v. tr. (Imp. mamara^ 
ngba ; Bel. atnarangoanaj Bel. Imp. 
amarango}^.) To hook, to oatoh 
with a hook. 

Kifarilngo (1), aeg. Hooked, haying 

a hook. 
Mifar^Tigorfago (t),a4f. Not straight- 
forwaid, oblique, inyolyed and 
drouitouB, indirect, ambiguous. 

Faba'koon' zlb'hilo'za, s, [xlbht, 
that one, loka, danger, calamity.] 
A lucky hook, a hook belonging 
to one who is always fortunate ; 
fig. lucky, fortunate, skilful. 

FABA'HTSA, «. A dollar, a fiye- 
franc piece. Used usually of a com- 
plete coin,in distinction from Ajulabt, 
a cut dollar. [Fr. Franeaia (f).'] 

FABAHTSA, a. The class of ofSoers 
next below the judges, collectors of 
taxes, an officer in charge of certain 
defined business. 

FABA'BA, a. The stalk of certain 
plants which is made into a small 
wind instrument like a whistle or 

Faba'ban-tbao'njo, a. [saonjo, a kind 
of arum.] A musical pipe made of 
the central stalk of the Saon Jo ; a 
hard excrescence growing on the 

Abstinence prescribed by a doctor 
to conyalesoents ; a preyentiye ; 
regimen, as not to eat beef, not to 
go in the sun, etc. TProy.) See Fadt. 
Faritana, v. pau. (Imp. /arato.) To 

be abstained from. (Proy.) 
Xifiratra, v. int. To be abstain- 
ing from, as aboye. (Proy.) 
A'fa-piratra, ae{j. Freed from the 

aboye. (Proy.) See Apa-padt. 
Val&tia-p&ratra, a^j^ Partially £ree 
from the Fabatba. (Proy.) 

FAEFHITBA, a. [bbhttba, burning.] 
A tree used largely by the Sakalaya 
as fuel, because it is almost smoke- 
less. (Sak.) 

FABE70 (1), a. Showy appearance, 

finery, adornment. 

Xi£urljo (1), V. int. (Imp. mifar^ba ; 

Bel. tfar^bana, Bel. Imp. \fare' 

jby.) To be showy in dress, to 

use ornaments. 

FABE'HJO. Proy. for Fabaxkoo, whidh 

FA'BT, a. The sugar-cane. Used 
fonnerly in the ceremony of oir- 



Saeekamtm iMtmak^ L. 
nPriendDj Ib. porta (/).] Sama as 
Ebixjl (Bak.). 

TA'vwa&TTRjL^ s. [80ITB4, strook.] A 
Tazietj of aoflar-oaae. 

FA.'BiBA.'eo, «. [ka£0, a tree.] A palm, 
whose stem reoemblee tibat ox the 
BQgar-oaiie, aadufledinhouae-bnild- 
mg. A kind of potaah is obtained 
from it. 

FA'xncAX'aTT, t, [xAonr, black.] An 
herb. CkmtUit uuncola, H. and 

Fa'szhaVoa, «. [XAsaA, blue.] The 
puple-stalked sugar-oane; a tall 
l^rasfl with red iniloreeoenoe, common 
m zioe-groonds. Same as Kaiunot 
(Antflih.), THTin>ARTf4THinpfA, and 

Fa'bimao'xjl, «. [kaola, frisky.] Su- 
gar-cane used either in the ceremony 
of oiroiunoision, or on the first cut- 
ting c^ a child's hair. 

Fa'edca'tt, $. [katt, dead.] Herbs 
used in vapour baths as a remedy 
for headache. The leaves are used 
for blisters. Clematis mauritianat 
Lam., and (7. trifida, Hook. 

Fa'kdcbaza'ha, «. [VA2AHA, a foreign- 
er.] A variety of soffar-cane. 

FA'KTMXTB'TTBB'inr, «. [xinnT (tkft), 
hanging on, bbvt, mother.] Pub- 
liflhing something to another's pre- 
judice, disseminating an evil report, 
meading a calumny. 
mMBM/6 fiby mitdty rdny, v. camp. 
To publish a report to the preju- 
dice of another, to disseminate 
evil reports. 

Fa'xt mn'TT b^ana, a4f. [biana, 
waterfall J Well known, no longer 
secret. (Prov.) 

Fa'sio'tava, $. [ovAVA, a chip.] A 
p«fan. (Antsih.) 

FATIT. A particle expressing the 
certainty of what one has given 
utterance to: Certainly, That is true, 
la it not so P 

FAU'A, «. A small bank, the bound- 
ary of a rice-ground. 
Yuaai-paria, «. The small elevated 
diviaiona oif the rice-grounds. 

FABTDDTA Same as Fabaxdzka, 

FAIUFA'BT, «. Doubt, hesitation, 
indedaion; doubted about. (Prov.j 
Firifiurina, r. pass. (Jmp. fdr^fario,) 

To be doubted, 
yifirifiry, «. int. (Imp. mifdri/a' 
rta ; Bel. \fdrifariana, Bel. Imp. 
ifdrtfarlo.) To hesitate, to doubt, 
to be in suspense. fProv.) 
Xisafiry is used for this in Lnerina. 

FABI'FITBA, s. A bird. (Prov.) 
Probablythe same asthefdlowing: — 

FABITOnUL, «. A bird, a species of 
babbling thrush, belonging to a 
genua peculiar to Hadi^^ascar. 
(Bets.) BsmieriaxosteropSf Sh. Same 
as TBZITBKIAI.A and I^teaxa. 

FABI'BCT, s. A pool, a pond, a lake. 
Larger than EIaxobt. 

Fabi'kibb'ma'bo (P), s. [bb, great, mabo, 
the eye.] In a puolic place, in a 
place of usual resort, openly, in 
sight of the people, publicly, in 
public. See Fahitba. 
Amparihibdmiso (!). Same as pre- 
ceding. See AlfPAHIBBMASO. 

FABI'MBOHA, s. The alternate opera* 
tion of two or more on anything, aa 
two persons pounding rice, digging 
up the soil, attacking a third party, 
etc. Primitive root KiMBONA. See 
also Adt fabimbona. 
Mifurlmbona, v. tr. (Imp. mi/anm- 
bona ; Bel. and Pass. ifarviMna" 
na, Bel. Lnp. tfdrimJbony,) To 
operate, as by two or more, alter- 
nately upon anything. 
FABIHA, 04;. Hoarse. 
Fa'bim-fb'o, adj\ [feo, the voice.] 

Hoarse, having a noarse voice. 
FA'BIHA, s. Small scurf on the nose. 
FA'BIH A. Boot of the following :— 
Xifftrina, 04;'. Used of a child suf- 
fering from constipation. 
FABITBA, s. A mark, an outline, a 
defined boundary, extent. 
Yoalftritra, v. pass. Marked out, 

having boundary lines set. 
Faritana, v. iMM. (Imp. farito.) To 

be marked out. 
Fin&ritra. Passive with infix. 
Xam&ritra, v. tr, (Imp. mamarita; 
Bel. amaritanaf Bel. Imp. amari" 
to.) To mark out, to set bound- 
ary lines, to set dimeniiimiB. 



llifftiitra, adj, Hftving a maik, 
having boundazy lines. 
Fa'bx-ba'va, i. [VATA, the month.] 
A final claim exxxressed, legal ap- 
propriation or declaration, nsnaUy 
applied to the anthoritative deciaiona 
xnade by a aovereign when appealed 
to after his demise. 
na. Settled by Andbianaicfoixi- 

Fa'bi-bo'dt, «. [yodt, the bottom.] 
Anything at the bottom of a water- 
pot, etc. 

voafiribddy, v.jMw«. Uaed in speak- 
ing of the commencement Si the 
digging of the ground. 
Farltam-bbdy, r. poM, (Imp. fwxU 
iwdy,) To be commenced, as the 
diggmg of the rice-grounds. 
Mamfa-bddy, f^. eomp, (Imp. mama- 
rita vbdy ; Bel. amarxtam'body, 
Bel. Imp. amarito vodtf.) To begin 
to work in the rice-grounds. 
Fa'bi-bo'dint, adj\ [vodt, the bottom.] 
At the bottom, used of sediment in 
a pitcher, glass, etc. ; fig. little, not 
enough. The forms in Voa- and 
Mi- are also used. 
Fa'bi-bo'lana, «. [tolaka, the moon.] 
A drcle, a circumference, a circuit ; 
a children's game of making cir- 
Fa'bi-da'nona, 8. [lanona, games.] 
The luminous circle which surrounds 
the moon. (Prov.) 
Fa'bi-ta'nt, 9. [tany, earth.] A 
botmdaiy, a landmark. 
Mam&ri-tiny, v. int. To fix bound- 
aries, to measure off land. 
FABI'TSOKA Boot of the following:— 
Yoafiuritioka, v. pats. Beaten, struck 
with a rod ; whizzed, dabbed on. 
Afiuitsoka, v. pass. (Imp. afaritso' 
hy.) Used of the rod employed 
in beating or striking. 
Faritf^hana, v. past. (Imp. faritto^ 
hy.) To be beaten, to be struck, 
to be dabbed. 
Kamaritsoka, v. tr. (Imp. mamari' 
tsoha; Bel. amaHttohana^ Bel. 
Imp. amaritsohy.) To beat, to 
strike, to dab. 
XifttfitMkft, M^'. Straight. 

Famarittfthana, «. A straight tvHg 
used in beating. 


straight twig, a rod. See Boma- 


FABO'FT, 9. [Mod. s. from icaboft 
(boft^.] a sickly person, a valetu- 
flin ft m^Ty^ a oonfinned inyalid. 

FA'BOMA'SO,*. Anherb. Tktmberg%a9p. 

FABOMA'TT, 9. An herb. ClmaiU 
9p. (Antaih.) 

FA'BOliA, «. A blaeik spot on the 
face. (Prov.) 

FABaBATEA, 9. The small filaments 
which are produced from anything 

glutinous when drawn out. 
aroritana, adf. Used of a rough 
voice. (Prov.) 
Xilar6ratra, adj. Used of anything 
that is thick, like honey or treacle. 
Mamardratra, v» tr. Imp. and BeL 
not used. To produce the Fabo- 

BATBA. (Prov.) 

Faro'ba-banko'b:t, «. [vankoht, a 

kind of spider.] The web of a spe- 
cies of spider. fProv.) 
Fabo'ba-ba'va, 9. [va'va, the mouth.] 

Fabo'ba-da'nst, 8. [lahdt, silk.] The 

filaments of a cocoon. 
Fabo'ba-da'nitba, 9. [lanitba, the 

heavens.] Gfossamer ; light fleecy 

Fabo'ba-xa'koa, 8. [XAKOA, blue.] 

The web of a large species of spider ; 

also a large spider. See Foliala. 

Faro'ba-pb'o. adj. [inso, the voice.] 

Hoarse. (Prov.) 
FABO'BATBA, «. A provincial name 

for a centipede or spider . See Tbaxbo. 
Fabo'ra-bo'la, 9. [voLA, mouey.] A 

provincial name for a centipede. 

FA'SAITA, 8. A grave, a tomb. 
Fa'bakpa'sana, 8. A children's game 

of making graves. Kipasavpawana 

and TsiFASAMPASANA are also used. 
FASA'SATRA, «. A bird with a white 

breast and black back. (Prov.) 
Fase'hina, adj. See Fasixa. 
FA'SY, 8. The leaf of a species of pan- 

danus, used by the east-coast mbes 

for plates and dishes. (Ptov.) 



FA'BIKA, $, Sand ; ^, inniimerable. 

[Hal. jMutr.] Fast and Fasina are 

oaed in the proyinces. 

Fsadhina (or Faaihina), a^. Sandy. 

Fifipasdhina, dM(;. Somewhat sandy. 

MambiLdy am-paiina. Used of per- 
sons Uying together without being 
married. rProv.) 
FA'tlMA, «. A pioyincial word for 

Faszka, which see. 
FA'SOrr, or FA'Sni-KI'E^, «. A 

name dl one of the parts in singing, 

the treble or soprano. [ P Fr. faut- 

tetf falsetto.] 


FAXA'KAirA, «. Probably the name 

of a tall grass. (Prov.) 
Fata'xa-ma'zotba, «. [MAinTBA, fra- 
grant.] Probably balm mint. (ProY.) 
FA'TAHA, «. The place where the 

fire for cooking is made, the hearth ; 

a lime Idln, a brick kiln, a furnace. 

Yiivy miampitana, $. The woman 
who tends the fire. (Prov.) 

ATira-p&tana, «. The place of hon- 
our in entertaining a guest ; lit. 
north of the hearth. 

Attimom-pitana, «. The place where 
inferiors sit; lit. south of the 

Hilam-p&tana, «. The stones, etc., 
forming the frame - work of a 
hearth. See Halana, Halanoa- 


foam-p&tana. The burnt earth under 

a hearth which has a saltish taste. 

Fa'tam-ba'bt, 8. [vABY, ricc.] A very 

small basket for measuring rice. 
Fa'tam-by*, «. [VT, iron.] An iron 

Fa'taitt, «. [nt, suffix pronoun.] The 

touch -pan of a flint-lock g^un. 
Fa'tait-jb'zixa, 8, [zEziKA, manure.] 

The ash pit or dunghill. (Prov.) 

L. Same as Fatbatba, wmch 

Fatb'sana, V, pass. See Fatitra. 
PA'TY, 8. A corpse, death. 
X&ty, adj. (Opt. Imp. matha.) Dead, 
gone out as a lamp, or a fire. 
See Matt, 
Mahaf&ty, r. tr. (Imp. mahafatesa ; 
Bel. ahafatUana.) To kill ; to put 

The Imp. of Hahafatt is both 

a wish and a curse, as : — 
Xahafatdsa miro. May you kill 

many; said to a soldier going 

to war 
ICahafAtiia iU^ fftdy. May the 

wretch die 
Xahaf&tif&ty, v. tr, and at^. To 

engross one's entire attrition; 

delightful, as a chubby child. 
Fa'tt a'ntoxa, 8. [amtoza, surety.] A 
loss sustained in trade by a bargain 
or contract. 
lUty intoka, tuff' liosing by 

Xahafity intoka, v. eomp. To cause 

loss in trade. 
Fa'tt bb, 8. [bb, great.] An ofEenoe 

committed by many. 
Fa'tt di'na, 8, [ddta, a general work.] 
A penalty or fine for the non-per- 
formance of a contract. See Dina. 
Xity dina, a4^'. Being liable to pay 

the above fine. 
]Cam6no dina, v. eomp. [vono, kill- 
ed.] To exact the penalty called 

Fatt dina. 
Fa'ty ha'nina, or Fa'ty an-ka'nina, 
adj. [haiona, f oodj Greedy, eager 
for food. See Tbvdana, Liaiv- 


Fa'tt hi'ta, 8. and a^f. [hita, seen.] 
A certain kind of ornamental cutting 
of the skin ; seen to be in danger ; 

Fa'tdc-bala'la, ai(f\ [vaiiAla, a kind 
of locust.] Greneral mortality, great 
fatality, a general slaughter. 
Kana6 filtim-balila, v. eomp. To 
die in great numb^ ; to die with- 
out having friends to attend to 

FA'TIKA. Prov. for Fatsaza, which 
see. Also thorns, nails. (Prov.) 

FA'TINY, 8. A shoulder of beef. 

FATI'O, or FAKTI'O, 8. A species of 
falcon. (Bara.) Same as Voboica- 
HEUY, which see, and Fanpbasa, 
Fandbasalambo, and Tsipaba. 

FA'TITBA, 8. Incision of the skin so 
as to draw blood. (Prov.) 
Voafititra, v. pass. Incised, cut. 



Fatdrmna, v. pan. (Imp./a<^.) To 

be out so aa to draw blood. (Prov.) 

XanULtitra, v. tr. (Imp. mamatira ; 

Rel. amateratta, Bel. Imp. amaU^ 

ro.) To make an inoisioii in the 

skill so as to draw blood. (Prov.) 

FVn-Bo'LOy $. [voLOy hair.] The hair 

whioh oomes off in brushing or 


Fa'ti-dba', «. [ba, blood.] Blood 

brotherhood; theoeremonjofenter- 

inginto amutoal and solemn pledge 

of friendship or brotherhood. It is 

performed hj each party partaking 

of a small pieoe of kver, etb., mixed 

with the blood of the other party. 

][ana6 filti-dri, v. eomp. To enter 

into a coyenant as above. Mzfa- 

TA-DSA and MiVAZT BA. are nsed 

in the provinoes. 

MifJMniti-dri, v. recip. To exchange 

blood in the perf ormanoe of we 

oeremonj called Fati-dba.. 

There are natives who contend 
that the above words as given in 
the original dictionary are really 
derived from Fatotba, which con- 
stant use has changed to Fatitra. 
Fa'txtbaka'lona, i. [aicalona, an 
eel.] A pieoe of an eel prepared for 
FATO'BA, 8. Shrubs. (Bets.) iftM- 

8€enda »p. See the following : — 
Fato'bala'ht, «. [laht, masculine.! 
A shrub, the wood of whioh is xisea 
by the Betsileo for obtaining fire by 
rubbing. (Bets.) Matitetuia vestita^ 
Baker. Same as Fblaxbabiza. 
Fato'rava'vt, #. [VAVY, feminine.] A 
shrub used in the same way as the 
preceding. (Bets.) Ifastanda tp, 
FA'TOTSA, 8. Used in compounds, 
and in the following : — 
Voafitotra, v.pa88. Bound, confined, 

fettered, enchained. 
Afitotra, v. pa88. (Imp. afatory.) 

To be bound, to be fettered. 
Fat6rana, v. pa88, (Imp. fat^y,) 

Same as preceding. 
Finatotra. Passive with infix. 
Xif&totra, v, int. and adj. (Rel. ifa- 
torana.) To be in a state of con- 
finement, to be bound, to be knot- 

Xamitotra, v. tr, flmp. mamatorm ; 

Bel. ama/^ofia, Bel. Imp. amtUO" 

ry,) To bind, 
f atorana, «. A cord, a chain ; the 

person in chains. 
Fa'to-ba'ta, i. [VATA, the month.] 
Oonfinement, but without being 
bound, in custody. 
Afftto-biva, v. pati. To be confined 

or arrested. 
Xifllto-biva, tuff. To be under ar- 
rest, but not in fetters. 
Xamito-bita, r. eomp. To put 

under arrest, to confine, bat not 

to put fetters on. 
Fa'totba'hxtba, «. [ahztba, grasa.] 
A kind of grass which growB short 
and interliMes. 
FATOT&A, 8. Indigo that has been 

pounded and tied up. 
FA'TBA, 8. A measure for solids and 
Voafitra, v. amp. Measured aa 

Affttra, V. pa88. (Imp. afdro.) To 

be measured. 
Xifitra, aty. Measured. 
Xamitra, v. tr, (Imp. fnmniru ; Bel. 

amdranOf Bel. Imp. amdro.) To 

measure in a rice measure or in a 

T6nga filtra, tuff. At its proper 

measure, aa it ought to be. 
Fa'-ba'ht, 8. [vAKT, rioo.] A xioe 

Fa'-dba'no, 8. [bano, water.] A 
water measure. 

FA'-TSfBA, 8. [SZBA, Salt.] A Salt 

FATBA. Boot of the following :— 

Mifitra, v. int. (Imp. mifdra; Bel. 
ifdrana, Bel. Imp- ifdro.) To 
swear. (Prov.) See Farta. 
FATEAT', 8, A shrub, the leaves of 

which are chewed and put on sores. 

Urophyllum Lyallii, Baker. Same as 

DoNTORT, ViDiTOBT (Bcts.), and 

VoNOOTAKB (Bets.). 
FATBAI'lTA, «. A tree used in the 

manufacture of native rum. Perhapa 

the same as the preceding. 
FATBAVA, 8. An open spaoe in 

the forest. 
FATBATBA. Bootof tiiefoUowiiig :— 



TUUitratra, v. jmm. Confined, 

become dose br one's own exer- 

tions, as ohiloTen erowding a 


▼oafltratra, v, pott, Pat close, 

nreased, crammed. 
Aatratra, v, pau, (Imp. afatrdro,) 

To be put dose. 
Tfttriraaa, i^. pau, (Imp. fatrdro,) 
To be stofled fnll, as a sack, etc. 
■ifttimtra, v, int. and adj, (Lnp. 
mifatrdra, Bd. ifatrdrana, Bd. 
Imp. t/alrffro.) Lying dose, put 
dose together. 
Xaaitratra, v, tr, (Imp. mamaird' 
ra; Bd. amatrdranaf Bd. Imp. 
MM^iifip.) To make to lie dose, 
to make to be crammed (P). 
Haaad fitra-maina, v, comp. To eat 
rice without anj gravy. 
Fa'tka.-tbao'njo, a^'. [baonjo, an 

arum.] Crammed. 
FATBAIEA, a^'. and«lp. Hard, diU- 
gently, incessantly, importunately, 
earnestly, extremdy, deddedly. 
This word is often pronounced 
Fatatba. It is much used in com- 
pound words. 
Fa'tra-da'ht, f. [last, masculine.] 
Boot of the following : — 
MjuuLb Atn-dihj, V. wmp. To work 
strenuously. (Prov.) 
Fa'tba-pakda', f. [faitda. Mod. s. 
from MAHSA (la).] One who refuses 
FA'nLA-piA'sA, $, [KAflA, Mod. s. from 
laASA(AaA).] Aliard- working man, 
a diligent workman. 
Fa'tra-fitx'a, «. rnrzA, Mod. s. from 
lOTZA. (tia).] a dedded lover, one 
who loree in earnest. 
Fa'tba-po', f. [to, the heart.] Boot 
of the following : — 
Mahafttra-pA, v. eomp. and adj. To 
satisfy the heart ; trustworthy. 
Fa'tkatba AfNA, a^. ['^^^ hfe.] 

Bobust, strong . (Prov.) 
FA'TBIFOnVT, i . A mode of dress- 
ing the hair in a number of small 
knobs all close to the head. 
made, plump and strong ; applied to 
young people. See Botba, Dovoa. 
FATlAA^f. Pellets, BnaU shot. 

FA'TSAXA, a4i. Skilful, shrewd, con- 
ning. See Fktst. 

Fa'tba-dho'aho'ho, adj. [boa, two, ho- 
HO, the nails.] Unusual, preterna- 
tural, extraorainary, uncommon^ of 
superior talent. 

FAT8T, f . The spur of a oock. Same 


FA'TSIFA'TST, $. Anything point- 
ed or sharp used as a fence around 
the palace of the soverdgn. See 


VjL'wnuJiKmAi&Tsrf $. fAHiT&A, grass, 

FOTBT, white.] A shrub or tree. 

Fa^tbzka'bxtbala'ht, i, A dinib or 

tree. (Bets.) 
Fa'tbzka'hitbata'vt, «. A shrub or 

tree. (Bets.) 
Fa'tsdcai'stt, $. A prickly shrub. 
Fa'tsiicba'la, f . lyAisA, an endosure.] 

A thorny shrub from which the Be- 

tsileo obtain walking-sticks. (Bets.) 

O^mnoaporia beraberidaceaf Baker. 

Same as Boifavtasa (Bets.) 
Fa'tbikako'ho, f . [akoho, a fowl.] A 

prickly shrub. (Bets.) 
Fa'tbdv-xb'na, f. [hbna, beef.] A 

certain piece of beef. 
FATSOHA, adj. Sly, cunning, crafty, 

tridky, arch. See Hatsixana. 
FE, f . The thigh ; also used for the 

conjunction Fa, which see. L]^al« 

pah; Nias. ^m; Dairi. kae ; Toba. 

hae'ha^. In many Polyn. lan^^uages 

vae, probably aUied to this, is usidd 

for leg.] 
Fb'naxo'ho, $. [akoho, a fowl.] A 

shrub. jHBetsim.) 
FX, «. ProY. for Tolana, which 

Fefb^huta, v. pMt. See Fefika. 
FE'FT, i. A fence, a wall, a hedge, 

an endosure, a defence. 

Yoafdiy, V, pau. Used of that which 
is employed for or made into a 

Fefdna, v. past. (Imp. fifio.) To be 
fenced, to be hedged in. 

Findiy. Paaaiye with infix. 

Mamdiy, V. tr. (Imp. mamefi; Bel. 
amefinay Bel. Imp. anufeo.) To 
enclose; to make a fence, to 



XifKy, a4r. Being walled, being 

Xaiiad rinonULso tfify hdloka. To 

make tears a fence for guilt ; i.e. 

expecting tears to free one from 

the consequences of an offence. 
SVkloha, «. [ix>HA, the head.] An 
embankment, an artificial bank raised 
on both sides of a river, a mound. 
Fb'vt ta'nana, or Fb'fzn-ta'Nana, a, 

1'tanaha, the hand.] Used as fol- 
bws: — 

Xameiy t&nana. To put the hands 
up to the face as a protection. 
Fb'fy ya'to, 9, [yato, a stone.] A 

stone wall. 
VE'FT, f. The name given to the 
beef distributed at the ceremony of 
the Af ANA, usually called Hbnax- 


Xifdfy, udj. Having the ceremony 

of tiie Afasa performed for one, 

i^lied to the deceased. 
7V7IKA, 04;. Grounded, struck 
against the bottom, as a boat against 
a rook or bank. (Prov.) In Tmerina 
it means wrecked. 
Afdflka, V, pass. (Imp. trfeflho.) To 

be wrecked. 
Xifdflka, V. int. Imp. and Bel. 

not used. To be aground, to be 

wrecked. (Prov.) 
Mameflka, v. tr, (Imp. mamefiha; 

Rel. amsfihana, Bel. Imp. ame- 

feho.) To wreck. 
FE'FIKA. Boot of the following :— 
Yoafdfika, v. pass. Having had the 

shell taken off, as a snau or ^gg^ 

etc. ; fig. admonished in anger ; 

hit with the fist. 
FefShina, v. pass, (Imp. fefiko,) 

To be shelled as above. 
Findfika. Passive with infix. 
Mifeflka, v. tr, (Imp* tnifefeha; 

Bel. ifofehana^ Bel. Imp. ifefeho.) 

To take off or break the shell. 
Mamefika, v. tr. (Imp. mainefeha ; 

Bel. amefehanay Bel. Imp. ame- 

feho.) Same as preceding. 
PETIKA, adj. Wise, clever, but 

small in stature. 
FE'HT, 8. A tie, a knot ; superintend- 
ence, ^dance, inspection, control, 
presiding oare. 

Yoafdhy, v. pass. Tied, knotted, 
controlled, managed. 

Afdhy, V. pass. (Imp. afehho,) Used 
of that employed for tieing. 

Fehdsina, v. pass. (Imp. fehho.) 
To be tied, to be knotted, to be 
overruled, to be governed, to be 

Mifdhy, V. tr. Tlmp. mifehka; Bel. 
ifehhana, B^. Imp. ifehho.) To 
tie; to superintend, to oversee, 
to overrule, to govern ; to wear 
sashes across both shoxdders, as in 
the ceremony of circumcision. 

Xamdhy, v. tr. (Imp. matMhmui; 
Bel. amehkana^ Bel. Imp. ame* 
hezo.) To tie up, to knot. 

Fehdiana, s. A bunch. 

Fifehdiana, s. Sashes; presideaoy, 
inspection, punishment. 

Xpifdhy, s. A governor, an over- 

Famdhifilry, «. An herb. See under 

Xofdhy, f . String. 
Fehe'zam-ba'bt a'xan-dbono'no, «. 

[vABT, rice, BOiroKO, milk.] A oake 

of rice and milk ; fig. of good ap- 


slipping.] A tie with a bow, a 

Fe'HT ka'pa, f. [kapa, sandals.] A 

sandal string, a shoe-tie. Fehin- 

KAPA also used. 
Fe'HT KfBO, s. [kibo, the belly.] A 

girdle, a girth. Fbhik-kibo also 

Fe'HT kibb'bona, s. [kibebona, a rush.] 

A mode of plaiting a mat. (Antsih.t 
Fe'ht lb'fitba, s. [lbpitba, endured.] 

A slip-knot. 
Fe'ht lo'ha, s. [loha, the head.] 

A headband. 
Fe'ht ka'tt, s. [matt, dead.] A 

fast knot. 
Fe'hix-babi'ka, f . [babika, a barrel.] 

A cask or barrel hoop. 
Fe'hin-ja'zava'vt, s. [zazavavt, a 

girl.] Money or goods given with a 

wife as a dowry. 
Fe'hin-ta'nana, 8. [tanana, the hand. J 

Silver chains worn on the wrist as 

omamenta; braoeLets of any kii 



F^BSf-vi^VT, «. [tbtt, a word.] A 
\ vnrad Of aent^oQ on which muoh 

depenoB ; 'heaog of & diacofane, 
^jgFr*p25*^>XiA, f. tT0^rQ01a^, the 
fpft.] oOil^ chains wocn on the 
feet ui oniAnientB, or anl^eia of any 


'E^^mf'TBL'TaoKA. «. [SATBOKA, ahat.1 
inbai-band. figged of aU" " 

Fk^BZBA'irc^ «. [^0, water.] Froy. 
" ), whi<" 

fo^ KisiBAiro, which 
Fi^HT soiioo'sT, «. [soKooBT, a slip- 
Imoi, a lie with a bow.] SeeFSHT 

Fi'ht ta'vaita, «. [lAJTAKA, the hand.] 
A preeent given to the Hpzsikidt on 
OBooTery from an illnees. 

Fb'ht TBfwDAf i, [tknpa, the neck.] A 
neek-doth, a neck-tie, a cravat. 

Vb'ht tba'tba, 9. and adj. [ulltsa, the 
oheei.] Tightness at the chest, pain 
aboot the region of the chest, indi- 
gestion; eqniBli^ in sixe. 

Fnr ta'ta. i. [Vava, the mouth.] 
A silTer onain osad to fasten up the 
mouth of a deceased person ; money 

S'Ten for the nse of a piece A 
ae-groond to he retomed without 
inorease or decrease at the appointed 
tune ; inmosing silence upon any- 
body ; to be without food for some 

7ehlii]B-b4Ta, v, jhm. To be rent- 
ed; to be charged not to divulge 
a thing told to one. 
Xamihy TiTa, v. «mp. To advance 
money for a piece of rice-groond 
as above; to impose olence on 
"Fi^m ta'va, adj. Having white 
streaks about the mouth l&e cattle 
Fb'bt VA'vAN-TA'irT, 8. [taht, earth.] 
Same as Fbht vava, renting of rice- 
FiErBT vo'lana, 8. [voLABTA, Speech.] 

A promise. fProv.) 
Fb'bt ▼o'zo, «. [vozo for vozona, the 
neck.] A neck- tie. (Prov.) See 
Fkht tbnda. 
Fb'ht so'bo, «. [eobo, a comer.] A 

oomer- stone. 
jrjrjiixJiA, «. A family, a race, a 
genealogical tree. (Frov.) 

TVBHAT, Same as Fabzbat, which 

FS'JA, 8. A well-formedperson, a good 
. £gnre ; also root of following : — 

▼oalSja, V. fHu*. Squeezed, grap- 
pled. (Frov.) 

Fqiaa, orF^jafiBiJiaa, 9. pat8, (Imp. 
filiah,) To be squeesed, to be 
grappled, to be grasped. (Aror.) 

Finija. Fassive with m£z. 

Xif^a, or Xifijafya, a^j. Well- 
f oimed, handsome, genteel. (Frov.) 

Maf^'a, or lEafiljafdja, <KCr. Same as 
preceding. (Prov.) 

Hamllja, or kam^ftfU** v. tr, 
(Imp. mamejafejd; 'B^L amtjafe^ 
jdna, Bel. Lnp. ami^f^ah,) To 
squeeze, to grapple, to hold fast. 
FS'KAKA. Frov. forFAiXAVA, which 


TBfJjLf or FX'LAHA, «. A oonioal 
shell, of which the upper part of 
the cone is removed, and the flat 
round base, which resembles a 
counter, is worn as an ornament 
on the head, forehead, or breast; 
in the provinces it also means, per- 
haps, a flower. 
Kamdlana, f;. in/. To flower. (Frov.) 

Fx'labo'sona, «. [voBOKA, a bird.] A 
tree. Cfupania 8p» SameasBoNOO, 
which see. 

Fb'laxba'bika, f. [▼^UUKA, a spedes 
of lemur.] Shrubs. DionyMsa JBo' 
j'erif Kaud., and Mu88anda triehophls' 
biOf Baker. For the former see 
BoNOO. Also a palm. 

FE'LAif-Bf TT, «. [vzTT, the foot.] The 
sole of the foot. (Frov.) 

Fx'lan-xo'nootba, f. [hongotba, the 
foot.] The sole of the foot, (^rov.) 

Fs'lan-to'icboka, 8. [tqmboka, the 
foot.] The sole of the foot. (Prov.) 

Fb'la ta'nana, 8. [tawana, the hand.] 
The palm of the hand. 
Bdfilatinana, «. A species of fan- 
palm, so called from the fancied 
resemblance of its fronds to out- 
spread hands. 

Fb'la-to'itootka, f. [tonootba, the 
foot.] The sole of the foot. See 
FaXiABia. [In Fort Horeaby pah-i 
pala means the solo of the loot.] 



nrUXBVfLAXk. Root of the fol- 

lowing : — 

XildlampdlanA, v, int. (Imp. mife- 
lampeldna ; Bel. ifitampeldnana^ 
Bel. Imp. ifllampeUno.) To in- 
terfere' m another's bnsineaB by 
cajoling words or actions ; to be 
ingreat joy in what one is about. 
RXIU, 8. The light companies of 

soldiers who are sent out to harass 

the enemy on the ftanls or rear. 

Safblika also used. 

▼oafSlika, or Yoasafdlika, v, pau. 
Impeded in one's flight by pur- 
suers getting in front; enclosed, 

Afdlika, or AfafSlika, v.paaa. (Imp. 
afeUho,) To be made to turn round 
upon some one or something. 

Velihina, or Safelihina, v. pass, 
{Jmp/feUho^ or iafeUho.) To be 
met or obstructed by one running 
in an oblique direction. 

XifdlikB, 9. int, (hxa^, m^feUha ; 
Bel. ifeUhanay Bel. Imp. ifeUho.) 
To go obliquely, to proceed in an 
indueot or drouitous course, to 
go in an oblique wi^. 

Kisaldlika, v, int. Used also for 

MamdUka, v. int. (Imp. mameleha; 
Bel. ameUhanaj Itel. Imp. amele- 

. ho.) Same as preceding. (Proy.) 
Fb'lixaoa'bo, «. [adabo, a species of 

fig-tree.] An herb. Diehptera 

mieranthea, Nees. 
Fb'uxt, or Safe'lixt, nt ba'xbont, t. 

faAiCBO, the tail.] Used figuratiyely 

for deceit, cunning. 
VFLIPEXIXA. Bedup. of preceding. 

FdlipeUhina, v. pau. (Imp. felipe- 
Uho.) To be entangled, to be 
ensnared by words. 

Kamdlipdlika, v. int. and v. tr. 
(Imp. mamelipeleha; Bel. ameli^ 
peUhana, Bel. Imp. atnelipeleho.) 
To proceed in a serpentine man- 
ner ; to entangle, to ensnare. This 
may be &om rjSLnuL. The French 
Dictionary giyes it as it is here. 

KifdlipdlilEa, adj. Serpentine, wind- 
ing, circuitous, entangling. 
VFLOu, a4f. Cunning. Used also 

for F; 

FE'mA. Primitiye root of Amfsmba. 
or Ampexbt, and VAjtiFBifBA, whidi 
see. (Proy.) 
Fb'icbaxbolo'xy, «. [boloxt, a parrot.] 
A grass. Sorffhum halepenae, Pera. 
VFUFIHA, adj. Stopped, impeded, 
suspended, filled, as a riyer by sand. 
Fempdnana, r. jMM«. (Imp.femp^.) 

To be stopped up or impeded. 
M amdmpina, v. tr. (Bel. ofnempS' 
nana.) To obstruct, as the sand, 
etc., does the course of a riyer. 
FSITA. Same as Entitba, which see ; 
also root of the following : — 
Kiidna, v. int. To witl^r, to fade ; 

to be ready to cry. 
Xifdn-ttUioiia, v. int. ToGmmple, 
to rumple. 
TS'KAKA'EAVA, i. A.smaU palm. 

FX'in)BOFS'in)BO,«. A desire to cry. 
Fdndrofendr6ina, v. pau. flmp./Mt- 
drofendrdy.) To be made to weep 
and mourn. 
Xifdndrofdndro, v. int. (Imp. m«- 
fmdrofendrha; Bel. ifendrofendroa- 
na, Bel. Imp. ifindrofendratf.) To 
be distortea in the features, to 
make a wry face, to pout, to be 
whining, to be evil-looking. 
lEamdndrofdndro, v. tr. (Imp. ma^ 
tnendrofendrda ; Bel. amendrofen' 
droana, Bel. Imp. amSndrofm' 
droy.) To yex, to incite, to scoff 
at, to try to make one weep. 
FSOIBBOTBA. Boot of the follow- 

mlSndrotrft, v. int. Imp. and Bel. 
not used. To be shriyelled, as the 
face or the skin of old people; 
to be on the point of weeping. See 
Feke'na, r. pass. See Fent. 
FE'KOAHA. Proy. for Fainoaka, 
which see. 

Hafengilninft, v. pass. (Imp. hafengd- 
no.) Ppoy. for Hapainoaniha, 
which see. 
Manafdngana, v. tr. (Imp. mana- 
fengana ; Bel. anafengAnana, Bel. 
Imp. anafefigano.) Same as Ma- 
NAFAZNaANA, wMoh soe. 



All the woccLb with which Faih- 
OUTA 18 naed in Imerina are used 
with Fbvoana in the proyinoes. 
wsmX f 9, The hammer of a ffun. 
FEVT, or FX1II7E'¥T, «. A fence, 
ahedfle, an enclosure. See Fsft. 
▼oafiny, v, pats. Fenced, enclosed. 

AOny, 9.jHu$, (Imp. «/Mo (/).) To 

be taken care of. (ProT.) 
Tentea, «. jmm. (Lnp. fmh.) To be 

shut up, to be ooidSned. (FroyO 
■ili&7, 9. int, (Bel. «/m^.| To 

be in safe keeping, to be closed, 

as packets, etc. (ProT.) 
Huiieny, v, tr, (Imp. mamene; Bel. 

amsnma, Bel. Imp. amenio,) To 

pat in safety or in safe keeping, 

to put nnder one's care or keeping. 

Miffiniftaiy, o^f. Having a fence. 
Kaiia6 fdnifdny, «. eomp. To fence, 

to hedM. 
TBinnVT, adj\ Pressed, troubled, 
hnnied, as a hen, etc., going 
about Id an a^tated manner seek- 
ing a place m which to lay her 

^f flixjuA, t. Four strips of rush 
placed diagonally at the bottom of 
a basket, etc., extending frmn comer 
to comer, and forming a foundation 
on which the basket is plaited ; hence 
it means foundation, origin, first 
cause, etc. This word is also used to 
ei.pi m io the continuous succession to 
the sovereignty of a dynasty, as : Tbt 


Tlie people have no change in the 


Sahiry finitra. To lay the foun- 
dation of a dynasty. 

AadrUmpdnitxm, ». A tribe living 

near tiie Ankaratra mountains, 

who say they .live in the very 

centre of the island. 

Fs'vz-tata'xo, «. [tataxo, a kind of 

water-lily.] A mode of plaiting 

mats and baskets. (Prov.) 

of the following. See Fbjaita. 

▼oafiiga, or YoafdigafSi^a, r. past. 
Held firai, pressed, grasped. 

Fdi^afei^&iia, v. pass, (Imp. finja- 
fenjad,) To be held nnnly, to be 
squeezied, to be grappled. 

Findiga. Passive wiui infix. 

Mamdi^afdi^a, v, tr. (Imp. mamht' 

jafinjd; Rel. aminjafef^dna, Bel. 

Imp. amh^afenJM,) To dutch, 

to grapple, to press, to squeeze. 

T^'RO^adj, rOpt. Imp. /«9ioa.] Full, 

oompleto. \jiLiX.pdnuh, Sans.jN«r»Mi.] 

▼oaidno, f. jMM«. Filled, made 

Afdno, V. pass. (Imp. ufmoy,) Used 
of that which fills. 

Fendina, v, pott. (Lnp. /<m3y.) To 
be filled, to be made complete. 

Mamdno, f^. fr. (Imp. mamenoa; 
Bel. amenoana, Bel. Lnp. ofM" 
n6y,) To fin, to fill up. 

lEahafdnofdno, <u(f'. Producing a bad 
odour, suffocating, stifling ; mo- 
rose, easily provoked. 
Fx'iro MA'iTAirA, <. [xAirANA, to have.] 

The full moon. \mal, parnama^ from 

Sans. (P).] 
Fe'ito kul'nta, adj. [icamta, raw.] 

Brimful, wastefulhr running over. 

Used primarily of a cookmg pot 

in which too ^uoh rice has been 

placed to boil. 
Fb'ko xo'bona, adj, [xosoirA, the 

edge.] Brimful, up to the bank, 

fiooded. See Safo-xobona. 
Fb'no ba'no, adj. [sAKO, water.] 

Sad, sorrowful, grievous, mournful, 

Fe'ito tso'ka, adj. [tsoka, marrow.] 

Bioh, opulent. 
FE'HTB', «. A species of fan-tailed 

warbler. (Betsun.) Same as Tsin- 

T 8OTA, which see. 


Sharp, skilful, quick, expert, shrewd. 


ICilSntifdnty, v. int. (Lnp. mifenti' 

fentena.) To adopt a piteous air 

in demanding something. (Prov.) 

FS'O, s. The voice, a sound, a report. 

[Ar. /a'^t blow, breath ; and /wA, 

Jihy fahy fum, all^^Heb. p»h, mouth. 

Gtnnp. Gr. pheioiy phasko, and Lat. 


M inga fdo, aefj. Of a sweet voice. 

FArim-pdo, adj. Hoarse. 



Be fto marftrj, kdly fto ilBiritra. 

To befnllof proimiseB on a sLokbed, 

bat forgetting tfacon when well. 

A'to fto, a4r. Of a load Toioe, not 

neoeeaaruy of a very high pitch. 

7VBA, «. A xugf ft amoottiing izon. 

rSV. /«*.] SeeTsBATBA.. 
FvsAVA, 9. |MM«. See Fbtra. 
VBHAVA, «. A plant used as a blow- 
tabe for shooting birds. (Bets.) 
Same as Tbontboraza and Tsibika. 
WBT, $. A woond, a hart, an oloer, 
a sore. [Mai. ix<f^ 
Yoafdry, v, pott. Woonded. 
Verdna (or Feriiina), adf. Uloerated 

hayinff sores. 
Vdrj mihidy, $, A spreading sore. 
Mamfaigy ftrin-jftia. To visit a 
child newly dronmoised. 
Fx'bin-ai'na, «. rAXHA, life.] Sighing, 

groaning, griex. 

irin-aina, v. int. To sigh, to 
groan, to grieve. 
VX'S^B'BT, «. A olimbing plant ; 
pepper. Also called Tbdcfbbxfbst, 
which see. 
VFaAHA, s. Same as Faisaka, which 
see ; alsodoogh, mincemeat. (Prov.) 
Afdiana, v, pass, (Imp. afadno.) To 
»be made into doogh or a pomtioe. 
Veidaina, v, pass. (Imp. fudno.) To 
be made into dough or a pooitioe. 
Karndsana, v. tr. (Imp. mametdna ; 
ReL. amendnanay Bel. Imp. ametd'- 
no,) To put a poultice on. (Prov.) 
FX'SO, and FX'SOTRA, «. Prov. names 

for the dolphin. Delphinut Sao. 
TE'TA, «. A bird, a species of war- 
bler. (Betsim.) Same as Pttatra.. 
FE'TA,' 8, Clay, mud, mortar. It is 
also used in tiie provinces for Koba, 
which see. 
Yoafdta, V, pass. Having had mud 

put in the cracks of a wall. 
Vetina, v, pass, (Imp. fetad.) To 

be b^meared with day or mud. 
VdtafetaiAa,f^.;MiM. {Jmp,fltafetad,) 

To be kneaded. 
Mamdta, or MamdtafSta, v, tr. (Imp. 
mam^afstd ; Bel. amhtafetdnay Bel. 
Imp. anUtafetao.) To make into 
mod ; to knead dough. 

FBTAXA. Boot of the foUowing. 
Afltaka, v, pass, (Imp. afstdho.) 

Used of that which ia xnade to 

adhere to something else, as mud 

tlffown on a floor. 
Fetihana, v, pass. (Imp. fiidho.) 

To be xnade to have mud on orin, 

as the craeks in a wall, or a floor. 
XifStaka, v. int, and adj. (Bel. ife- 

tdhana.) Adhering, wet, stiokmg 

Kamdtaka, p. tr. (Imp. mametdha ; 

Bel. ametdhana^ Bet. Imp. am- 

tdho.) To plaster, to overlay with 

any viscous substance, to stick. 
FbtVna, v. pass. See Fbxa. 
FE'TIKA, s. Teasing, raillery, mock- 
ery. See EiZAZA. 
Fetdhina, i^. pass. (Imp. fet^ho.) To 

be teased, to be mocked. (P^v.) 
ICifttika, V, tr. (Imp. mifetiha; Bel. 

ifetihana, Bel. Imp. ifetehoS iDo 

tease, to torment, to mock. (Flrov.) 
FXn'UADA'MBO, f. A species of 
pigeon. Vxnago austraHs^ L. (Sak.) 
Same as FrnxxASABO. 
FE'TOXA, s. The torn of the head, 
chiefly used of a bull when about 
to fight ; tig, to be angry. 
ICifttoka, or Xifttopdtoka, v. int. 

(bnp. mifet6ha; Bel. and Pass. 

ifetShanaj Bel. ^p. ifstoh^,) To 

turn the head, to be angry, to be 

enraged, to be violent. 
FXTBA, s. An appointed time, a 
period, a regular period, a flLsed 
boundary, limit, xeatraint, restric- 
tion, law, control, 
▼oafltra, v. pass. Fixed, limited. 
AfStra, V, pass. (Imp. aflro.) Used 

of that which is laid down as a 

limit or boundary. 
Fdrana, v. pass. (Imp. firo.) To 

be restrained, to be limited, to be 

fixed, as a time. 
Mifttra, i;. int. and adj. (Imp. 

mifera; Bel. ifiranaj Bel. Imp. 

ifiro.) Limited, bounded, under 

restraint ; fig. to take an oath. 
Mamdtra, v. tr, (Imp. manth^a ; 

Bel. amirana^ Bel. Lnp. amSro.) 

To fix a time or boundary, to 

restrain, to limit. 



iV-Bo'z.AHj^ «. [voLAHA, a month.] 
An appointed month. 

Yil-TAiwt^ s. t'AiTT, earth.] An ap- 
pointed or meed plaoe. 

Ftf'TAo'jtAf «. [zAOVi, a year.] A 
Innited term. 

Pi'tba. a'rbbo, «. [abbro, a day.] A 
fixed time. 

Tirana 4adro, 9. pan, (Imp. flro 
indro,) To hare an i^pointed 
time azranffed. 
■amdtra iadro, r. epmp. To fix a 

Fb'iba zWho, «. [voHO, the back.] 

FITBIKA, «. The fiti. (Prov.) See 


Note that the root only ia not 
need in Imerina. 
▼oafitrika, v.pau. Boxed, hit with 

the fist ; chiefly used by women. 
Fetrdhina, v, pats. (Imp. fetreho,) 

To be hit with the fist, to be 

liadtrika. PassiTe with infix. 
Xamdtrika, v, tr, (Imp. mam^trika ; 

fiel. ametrthana^ Bel. Imp. ame^ 

triKo,) To hit with the fist, to 

Mofotrdhiny t6toh6ndry iho. I was 

beaten by her with tiie fist. 
FFTBIXA, u4i. A word used of a 
hearty and robust child, pleasing in 

^nfm yttuf l)nt UOt plump. 

FXT8A. Same as Fswja, which see, 
and root of the following : — 
llilStsa, adj. To be wet, watery, or 

7XT8AKA. BootofthefoUowing:— 
Toafdtiaka, v. pau. Struck or 

thrown down violently, beaten, 

AlStiaka, v, pass, (Imp. afeUHho.) 

To be thrown down. 
Tatsihana, v, pott. Hmp. feUdho,) 

To be beaten, to oe struck, by 

hands, feet, etc. 
Vindtaaka. Passive with infix. 
Tetsikina (1), v. past. (Jmp.fetsdho.) 

To be damped, to be wetted. 
Mifitiaka, v. int. (Imp. mtfetsdha ; 

Bel. ifetsdhana, Bel. Imp. ifetsdho.) 

To tumble down, to fall, to strike 

against, to hit. 

Maaiitfaka, o. <r. (Jaaa^w^mmUdha; 

Bel. ametsc^hana, Bel. Imp. ame- 

tsdho.) To strike, to beat; to 

moisten, to damp, to wet. 

FS'TSY,^^'. Gunning, skilful, shrewd, 


▼oantsy, 9. pats. Deceived Vy 

Fetsdna, v. pats. (Imp. fetsio.) To 
be deceived, to be imposed on. 

Finetsy. Passive with infix. 

Xifitsy, V. int. and ir. (Imp. mi/w- 
ts^; Bel. i/etshia, Bel. Imp. {/»- 
ttso.) To deceive, to impose on, 
to beguile, to droumvent. 

Kamdtsy, v. tr. (Imp. wumettd; Bel. 
ametdnOj'B^.lmp.atmtt^.) Same 
as preceding. 

Fitsy ritsy, adj. Intentionally 

Fitsy tuana. Clever with the 
hands. It is also used with other 
parts of the body, the feet, the 
mouth, etc. 

Xapdtsy, adj. Oonfirmedly cun- 
FE'TST, t. Little things trans- 
planted, or planted here and there. 


voafdtsy, V. pott. Transplanted. 

Afltsy, V. pott. (Imp. af$ttio.\ Used 
of young plants transplanted. 

Kamdtsy, v. tr. (Imp. mamett^ ; 
Bel. ametthtay Bel. Imp. 001^- 
t^.) To transplant the young 
rice plants. 3^'^0 
FFZAFE^ZA, adj. JJean, starved, hun- 
gry. Gomp. FB2AXA. 
FE'ZAKA. Boot of the following :— 

Yoafdiaka, v. tr. Shrunk in. 

Aflsaka, v. pott. (Imp. irfndKo.) 
Used of the stomach sunk in from 
want of food. 

Fei&hina, v. patt. (Imp. fezdho.) 
To be made to be sunk in, as the 
stomach from want of food ; to be 
flattened, made to sink, etc., as 
day or mortar. 

Mifdiaka, a^. and v. int. (Bel. 
ifezdhana.) Shrunk, as the stomach 
from great hunger ; meagre, lean, 



Mitofliaka, adj, and v. inU (Bel. 

itofezdhana.) Also used for the 

FI-. The oommenoement of all modal 
and relative nouns from the yerbal 
forma in ICi-, as Ytkinxsi, and 


FT, o^r*. Belicdona, soocnlent, pleasant. 
Maiilrafi^, v. tr. (Imp. mankafiza; 
Bel. ankafwmoy Bel. Imp. anka' 
/uw.) To consider a thing delioioos 
or saooolent, to take pleasure in. 
AwV^fliifia^ 9, pau. (Imp. tmkqfizo.) 
To be made pleasant or agreeable 
to the taste. 
Hinim-p^, i . DeUcaoiee. 
FrA,«. A kind of fish. (Sak.) 
IYavo'tbt, 4. [fotst, white.] A kind 

of fish. (Prov.) 
of the 


TTiL Boot 

following. [Jay. 

Yoafia, 9. past. Scmeezed, pressed. 

FUliana, v. past, (Imp. Jldzo,) To 
be squeezed, to be pressed. 

Xamia, v. tr. (Imp. mamidza; Bel. 
amidzanaf Bel. Imp. amidzo.) To 
squeeze, to press. Used of holding 
fast to a person, or squeezing 
grapes, spongy, etc. 

Famiaiana, a. A wine-press. 
FfA fo'tasa, «. ^FOTAKA, mud.l Tak- 
ing hold of thmgs roughly by the 

hand, as food, etc. 

XanM fia fdtaka, v. eomp. To take 
hold of roughly by the hand. 


a young bird.] Oppression^ extor- 
tion, imposition ; selfish holding to 

Xanad fla s&na-b6rona, v. eomp. To 
oppress, to crush one's inferiors by 
hardship or unreasonable sever- 
ity ; to nold to anything selfishly. 

FI'AFrA, «. Gravel, suppression of 
urine ; a g^ame of wrestlmg in which 
each person only uses one hand. 

FIA'HAHA, or FE'HAKA, «. A tall 
grass. Andropogon Schnerumthm^ 
L. (?) .Same as yEBOVSHANA(Bets. (F) , ) 
which see. 

FrAXA, «. Lees, dregs, grounds; 
refuse of chewed bones or sugar- 
cane. See FixjLA. Also root ox the 
foUowing :— 

▼oaflaka, i^. past. Chewed and 
sucked, as sn^ur-oane, to extract 
the juice, used also of bones 

Fifthini, v. pan. (Lnp. Jiaho.) To 
be chewed and sudred as above. 

Ififlaka, 9. tr. (Imp. n^fidha; Bel. 
ifidhana, Bel. Imp. i/idho.) To 
chew and suck the sugar-cane, 
bones, and fruit of all kmds. 

XifU-drinomiso. Tocry contmually. 

Prov. names for a spedes of hawk. 

Same as Fihiaza, which see. 
FI'AKA, cKjf. Of a brownish red. 

FIAKA, ». The name given to 

certain fish, of which there are the 

following kinds : FrAMATiiNPY, 

DBOKA. ^^V.) 

FIA'SrAVaHO, s. The head of petty 
chiefs. (Prov.) 

FIA'ITDBT, 8. [Mod. s. from lOAjrosT 
(andbt).J The chronic state of 
certain diseases ; a large stone placed 
against the outside of the door of a 
tomb ; gonorrhea. The word is also 
used like Antbatra, which see. 

Fxa'ndbxla'venona, 8. [lavbnona, 
ashes.] An herb which is pounded, 
mixed with honey, and eaten for 
a sore throat. l!he ashes are used 
in soap-making. Mt^ifa criapa, L. 
Same as Miakama (Bets.), which 


FiA'NDBnr-Ax'irA, i . [adta, life.] The 
name of a fabulous worm said to 
live in the stomach of people, and 
which, should it be passed out, in- 
dicates that the sick will surely die. 

Fia'ndbiva'va'la, f. [vAVA, the 
mouth, ALA, a forest.] A shrub. 


bottom, TATATBA, addtch.TA spedes 

of heron. Ardea eomate^'rsll. 
FIAHDBIA'VAirA, «. [Bd. s. from 

MZAiTDBiAMA (aitdbiaxa) .] Boyal^, 

kingship, soverdgnty. 
FIANTSO'KAirA, i. [Bd. s from 

xLunsoNA (ajitbova).j a harbour, 

a port. See Sbbavama. 



FIA'EA, «. A palm. (Bets.) 

TIA'BA, tf . An open palanqnin adorned 
with scarlet in wmoh the soyeieign 
b carried ; a ship ; the saored ark 
of Scripture ; the seats or moveable 
deck of a Lazasc-pzaba. (Prov.^. 

Fia'baxoox'a, «. [xoDiA, a wheel.] A 
carriage, a chariot, a wagon, a 

VIA'BOyX. [Mod.8.fromHZABo(ABO).] 
A chann robbed on a fighting bull 
to preserve him from being wounded 
bj his antagonist. 

Fia'bo a'ndont, 8, fANDO, the dew.] 
The trigger-guara. 

Fxa'bo fo'taxa, 8. [fotaxa, mud.] 
Silver dudns worn on the ancles. 

Fxa'bo la'litba, «. [lalitba, a fly.] 
A fan for driving away flies. 

Fia'bon-ambo'ala'ht A'lmTBA, «. [ax- 

BOAX.AHT, a dog, ANTETBA, old.] 

duster, vain mreats, turbulence 
without effect. 

Kanai flftron-ambdalUiy ftntitra, r. 
comp. To bluster, to hector, to 
threaten and do nothing. 

Fza'bo tsihqa'la, «. [tsinqala, a poi- 
sonous water insect.] A sieve, a 

Fxa'bo vo'ala'voitt, 8. [voalavo, a 
rat.] The name of a piece of timber 
or bamboo put on the corners of a 
house and projecting inside. 

Fxa'bo to'nont, «. [vono, killing.] 
Same as Fiaboandokt. 

FIA'ST, ». [Mod. 8. fromHZAST (ast).] 
The chief woman of a village or 
district; headwoman, forewoman. 

FIAT01XA, 8, [Hod. s. from xiavo- 
TBA (avotba).J Tweezers, nippers 
for plucking out hairs. 

Fxa'zana, 9. pass. See Fia. 

PIUT, 8. Choice, preference, permis- 
sion to choose. Mostly used with 
suffix pronoun, Fmnnr. See Faittina. 
rj/Lal. pilik,'] 
voafidy, v. pcM. Chosen, selected, 

Fidina, v, ptua. (Imp. Jidio.) To 

be chosen, to be selected. 
Fixiidy. Passive with infix. 
IQfidy, V, tr, (Imp. m\/klia, or 
Bel. {fididnanOf Bel. 

Imp. iJUUdno.) To dhoose, to 
select, to prefer. 

Tsy fidiny, adv. Unwillingly, not 
b^ one's own dhoioe. 

Sandy, «. Choice. 

Safldim-po, 8, Same as preceding. 

Tdmpon-tiafidy, «. The one with 
whom the choice rests. 
FIBI'BAKA, 8. [Bel. s. from laiiiTBiL 

(iditba).] An entrance. 
Fidi'ban-dba'no, 8. [bano, water.] A 

gutter ; a hole or passage for water. 
FIBFA'KA, adj, [Bel. s. from xibfa 

(bfa).] Incomparable, matchless, 

super - excellent ; final, decisive, 

FIS'HAKA, 8, A species of grass. 

Same as Fiabana, whidi see. 
FIFA'BAKA, 8. [Bel. s. from.xxFATBA 

(fatba).] a measure. ^*rov.) 
FI'FT, 8. The cheeks. (Prov.) In 

Imerina it means the g^uard iron of 

a plane. [Mai. pipi, the cheek, the 

side of a door or gate.] See Tako- 

Afify, V, pa88, XJaed of that which is 

placed against something. (Prov.) 
Muify, V, inU To press against a 

door, a partition, a wall, etc. 

(Prov.) See under Aicpift. 
Kamiiy, v, tr. To place something 

against a partition. (Prov.) 
Xitampiljr, r. int, (Imp. mitampi' 

fia; Bel. itampifiana, Bel. Imp. 

itampifio.) To press against a 

wall, etc. 
Trino tampify, 8. A house built 

against a wall. 
Xinfy hangilatra iiy. He is about 

to steal something. (Prov.) 
FI'FT. A word used with Mbna, as 

Menafift, adj. A deep red. 
FIHAI'KO, a. [Mod. h. from iohaino 
^AiNo) .] The ear of the petty chiefs. 
FIHAIKO'AirA, 8. [Bel. s. from io- 
haino (haino).] a stethoscope. 
FIHA'LT. [Mod. s. from xihalt, 

Jrov. for MiHADT (hadt).] a spade. 
IAO'KAKA, 8. [Bel. s. from mi- 
HAONA (haona).] A place of resort, 
an appointment, a market, so called 
in a tune of mourning. 


niJL&A TRA^flLjyiLA. 

nSLA'SATEA, 9, [Mod. s. fiom mx- 
HAJUTBA. (habax^).] A sihall raior 
or knife, a lancet. ' FcBLiiSAKi. alao 
na ed. See Kahiwsa. 
TIEA'BT, t. [Mod. 8. from xikast 
(habt).] Prov. for Ombt, an ox, lit. 
7IHA'T8nrT, or TXEATSI-BA'ST, «. 

Th e trigger of a mtDBket. 
TIHE'MBA, «. [Boot hsxba.] A 
kind of flag or fan formerly uaed by 
the idol keepers, and earned before 
th e fetish. Comp. Fanb^a. 
nHI'AXA, tf. [Mod. s. from kihzaka 
(hiaka).] ' A spedes of long-legged 
hawk (gymnogrene). Pol^borwdet 
radiatua, Soop. Same as Fiaet, 
Fdska, I*bkbakt, and Vobonombt. 
FTHIPrHT, «. A dxudder, a tremor, 
a quakiiw, shivering, or shrinking 
^m cola or fear. (^np. Jihuiht. 
Mifihiflhy, v. int. Imp. and Bel. 

not used. To shiver, to shudder, 

to q uake. 
VrHIH A, s. A gnispi a dutoh, seizure 
by both han<u. See Fbhit&a, Fi- 
KiTBA, Fdta. 
Yoaflhina, v.pats, Grasped, clutched, 

pressed, squeezed. 
Fininina, v, pass, (Imp, Jlhino,) To 

be grasped, to be pressed, to be 

Mamihina, v, pass, (Imp. momtAt- 

na; Bel. amihlnana, Bel. Imp. 

amihino,) To grasp, to clutch, to 

press, to hold, to embrace with 

both hands. 
Miflhina, adj. Shrunk, contracted, 

Xamihin-t&nana. v, eomp, [tanana, 

the hand.] To wring the hands, 
y&ry ira^ fihina, s, A sheidf of rice. 
FfHi-MA^MBA, s, [xaxba, a crocodilc.] 
Selfishness, lit. the clutch of a croco- 
]|ana6 am-pihi-m&mba. v, eomp. To 

act selfishly. 
Fz'Hiif-BA'BT, 4. [tabt, rice.] A sheaf 

of rice. (Prov!) 
Fi'hin-ka'la, 8, ^KALA, a Spider.] Sel- 
fishness, avariciousness, churlishness. 
Xanad flhin-kila, v, eomp. To be 

selfish, to be avaricious, unkind 

or unmoroiful. 

FIKIBA'^A. SeeHniA. 
FIHIBI'FAirA, s. V^. a. fibmioki- 

giKA (hibiza}.]. The temples or the 
ack of the ear. Seie HtuxA. 
JthUj Ydlb am-plhHfina, 9^. Hav- 
ing grey hairs just above the 

FI'HITBA, s. A grasp, a catch, a 
grip, as is OLade by a posonholdin^ 
to something to prevent him from 
faUing. In the provinces it means 
a royal guard, bee Fahana, Fm- 


Tafiiflhitri, v. fai». Used of the 

person graspmg something as 

▼daflhitra, 9. pass. Orasped, Uid 

hold of. 
Fihirina, V. jN»t. (Xmp, Jlhiro.) To 

be fpnJBgody to be dutohed. 
MiUhitra, 9. tr, and int. Qmp. mi- 

fihira; BeL ^fihlrotui^ KeL Imp. 

\fihiro,) To lay hold of, to gra^ 

to gzip* 
Kamuiitra, v. tr. (imp. mamihlra ; 
Bel. amihlrana, Bel. Imp. ami' 
hiro. ) Same as preceding. 
FTHITBA, s. A larse stb^^ng fly. 

[Mai. pikat, a gad-fly.] 
s, [Mod. s. from xihitboka (iqxbo- 
KA).] A ramrod. See HiraoKA, Fi- 


FIHCKFAHT, 9. [Mod. s. fromMXHOFA 

(hofa), and suffix pronoun.] The 

belly piece of pork. See Lbxt. 
FIHO'OO, s. [Mod. s. from iohoqo 

(hoqo).] a comb. See Fzxba- 

Fiho'qon-ta'itt, s. [tamt, earth.] A 

garden rake. 
FUOBO'AirA, s, [Bel. s. from mxjobo 

(jOBo).] Apraying-plaoe. (Ptoy.) 
FIKET&A'HAFA, s, [Bd. s. from 

MiXETBAXA (kbtbaza)!] AnamefoT 

a chair . See Skba. 
FI'KITBA. Same as Fihxtba, which 

FIXOPA'HAKA, t. [BeL s. from la- 
KOPAXA (xopaxa).J A fan. 

FIXO'FiJL^ 8, [Mod. s. from xnco- 
paza^xopaxa).] a fan. 

FI'LAFI'LA. Boot of the follow- 



Wamnilaflla, 9. fr. (Imp. mamptlu' 
JUd; Uel,ampilqfildna, Bel. Iiii|>. 
amynltffilao.) To give away a 
thing and then to retain it^ to 
ligree to a thing and to r^ose 

FILAIEAXA, ff. [Mod. a. from loiA- 
._1UXA (xjkXAKA).] A mat. (Prov.) 

nU'XAT&A, «. A straight edge. 

riLA'ltBOTEA, tf. [Mod. s. from mi- 


made of blaok horn. 
PILA'MA, t. [Bel. a. from iola. (ila^.] 

Desire for anything; lust; also 

pitnrincial for Szzidt, which see. 

Filin' ny n6f6. Luat of the flesh. 

TiUaa riha tay mahita. Getting 
another in the event of not getting 
the one intended, i.e. getting the 

aeoond beet. 

FILikVX'LnrA, «. Flannel. [£ng. 

FxLAVJA'HA, «. [Bel. a. from milazt- 
JA (uur^A.] A palanquin; a pole 
balanced across the snoulders for 
ea rrying. See Takona. 

FILAVafAirA, «. [Bel. s. from mi- 
JLAHONA (lahona).] An Open place 
where persona reaort for amusement ; 
a play-gronnd. 

riLAa, «. A tree. (Betsim.) Casua- 
ritta eqmteH/olia, Forst. Same as 
Ftono (Sak.). 

mj'OXBA»«< A flute. rEmg.Jlute,] 

niJ'BA, or FILI'BAHiL, i. A frill; 
a bead in carpentry work. [Fr. 

7I'LITBA,«. A Alter. [Eng.^/^.l 
TTLO, «. A needle; also root of 
the following. (Prov.) 
Afilo, V, past. (Imp. i^/Uoy,) Made 

pointed, (^oy.}^ 
Siliiiia, V. pats, (Imp. Jiloff,) To 

be under espionage ; to be made 

pointed. (Prov.) 
Xmlo, V. tr. (Imp. m^loa; Bel. 

{fiioasta^ Bel. Imp. i/I^.) To act 

aa a spy upon some one. (Prov.) 
▼iry munllo. Bice beginnmg to 

force itself above the ground. 

MinTofllo,a4y. Sharp, pointed, aoute. 
Ffu> vo'lasa, «. [10LAKA9 broken.] A 

Fi'lo vf botba, s. [vixiotba, turned a- 
side.] Large pieces of wood studded 
wiUi sharp spikes, used as a mode of 

side.] Large pieces of wood studded 
with sharp si&es, used aa amode of 
killing people in the days of Bana- 


LASA, «. 


valona X. 

FI'LO, tf. Gross bayonets 
passage or road. [Bng. JUe {f),'^ 
llamiky fllo. To foroe one's "self 

through the guard. 
Miviha, or Xisdkatra ny file. To 
open up the pass through a 

FILO'HANT, «. [Mod. s. frommLOBA 
(loba), with suffix pronoun.] The 
bullock which leads the herd ; the 
leader, the eldest of the people. 

FILO'MAIIA, «. [Bel. s. from iolona 
fLONA).] A bath, a tub, etc., used 
lor bathing. 

FI'MPT', f . A kind of shell used aa 
a charm. (Prov.) 

FI'K-. Three letters seen at the com- 
mencement of passive verbs with 
inflz Iir-, whose roots begin with/, 
as : FiKAOKA, from Faoka; Finabi- 
Tiu, from Fabitba, etc. 

FI'HA, f . The space included by the 
tip of the foremiger and the thumb. 
Yoafina, 1;. patt. Measured by the 


Finlna, v. iMiM. (Imp.>ito(;).) To 

be measured hy the Fika. 
Mamina, v, tr. To measure by the 

FI'V A Boot of the following. Comp. 
the preceding. 
Voaiina, v. pats. Pressed dose by 

the hands, held fast. 
Aflna, v./MiM. (Imp. <;/S>iad (/).) Used 

of that pressed dose, aa the nose 

in being blown. (Prov.) 
Finina, v. /Mw«. (lmp,Jinlo.) To be 

pressed close. JPtoy.) 
Xandna, v, tr. To press anything 

in the flngers or arms, or against 

the breast. 
Xamln-ddlo. To blow the nose. 

Fi'x-ba'bt, t, [vABT, rice.] A bundle 
of rice. 


flower.] A bouquet. 
Fi'h-a'naha, t, [ahama, an herb.] A 
bundle of herbs. 



TINA'SITRA, adj, Happy, joyous, 

healthy, well, oontent, satiafieo, de- 


Ifahaflniritra, 9. tr. and adj. (Imp. 
ahajinaretana.) To please, to ren- 
der hap^y, to gratify, to delight. 

Tiniritra is used in some provinoes, 
especially by the Betsunisaraka, 
as a salutation, as : — 

Finiritra, t6mpoko. You are well, 
Sir ; i.e. How do yon do, Sir F 

Xaiiad flniritra anad ftho. I salute 

The word Finabfcba. may pos- 
sibly be a passive with infix from 
Fakitba ; or a oompound of Fdta 
and Abteiu.. 
FIITOEA, 9, Change of place. [Mai. 


Talkfindra, v.pau. Moved, removed 
(of itself). 

▼oaflndra, v. pan. Removed, trans- 
planted, tnmslated, transcribed. 

Aiindra, v. pott. (Imp. qfindrao.) 
To be moved, to be transplanted, 
to be transcribed. 

Xifindra, v. int. (Imp. mifindrd; 
Bel. and Pass, ijindrdnaf Bel. 
Imp. ifindrao.) To remove, to 
chuige place, to migrate ; to be 

Xamindra, v. tr. and int. (Imp. 
mamindrd ; Bel. amindrdna, Bel. 
Imp. amindrao.) To remove, to 
transfer, to transcribe, to trans- 
plant, to step, to walk. 

Xmndrafindra, v. int. (Imp. mi/in- 
drqfindrd ; Bel. ifindrq/indrdna, 
Bel. Imp. ifindrq/indrad.) To move 

Xiliiidra mdnina. To change one's 
place of residence. 

Xariry am-pamindr&na. Used of 
soldiers who are taken ill on the 
march and reported to head- 
quarters as on the sick-list: 
VtmynA. ha'ht, a. [haht, drying.] 

The borrowing of money to pay a 

debt, and thus becoming more in- 
volved in debt. 

Mamindra hihy, v. eomp. To borrow 
money to pay a debt as above. 

Maiiad hndra hfthy, 9. comp. Same 

FIHE'VOO, 8. A provincial name 
for a species of pigeon. Same as 
FoNoxArreo, whidi see. 
Fllf OA, f . A bowl, a basin ; usually 
applied to those made of the cala- 
bash. (FroY.) Also a shrub or 
tree. fBets.) 
VrMOAFraGA. Probably redup. of 
preceding ; used only as f oUows : — 
Miflngafiiiga, v. int. (Imp. mt/t- 
ngttfingd ; Bel. ifingajin^dna^ Bel. 
Imp. ifinffqfittgad.) To walk in 
a loose and awkward manner, as 
if about to trip. Probably from 
the movement of the Finqa, which, 
having a convex base, is easily 
made to move about. 
FI'KOAirA, f . A trip up, a stroke by 
which a person is mpped up. 
▼oafingana, t^. jMiM. ^mp. Jinffdno.) 
To be tripped up, to be supplant- 
Finingana. Passive with infix. 
Ifamlngaiia, v. tr. (Imp. matninffd' 
na; Bel. amingdnana^ Bel. Imp. 
aminffdno.) To trip up, to sup- 
FI'KOITBA. A provincial word for 

FzNaoTBA, which see. 
FrKJIFrKJT, 8. A tremor, a tre- 
mulous motion of the body through 
fear or pain. 

X^injifiigy, v. int. (Imp. mi/tf»- 
Ji/injia; Bel. ifinjifinjiana, Bel. 
^p. {finJiJif{fio.) To shudder, 
to quake from pain or fear. 
Mamugifligy, v. tr. and int. (Imp. 
mamiiy'i/injia ; Bel. amir^ijinjuinaj 
Bel. Iinp. amif^yif^'to.) To make 
to shudder ; to be painful, to be 
PrKOOTBA, 8. A climbing plant 
from which india rubber is obtain- 
ed ; india rubber. Vdhea madagoM' 
earien8%8y Bojer. Same as FnrairaA.. 
FrKGOraA, f . The part of the leg 
immediately above the ande. Comp. 


Yoafingotra, r. pa88. Held by the 
upjper part of the ancle. 

jirana, r. pass. (Imp. Jingbry.) 
To be seized by the small ol the 
leg or upper part of the anole. 



MamlTigotra, v, tr. (Imp. mamin" 
gora ; Bel. omtii^oraMa, Itel. Imp. 
amingory.) To take hold of a 
person by tlie small of the leg. 
liBgdnma (1), adj. Large about the 
1^ immediately aboye the ancle. 
Fi'irooMo'zA, f. [moza, a mosquito.] 
A graaa. Eragrottis poaoidn, P. B. 
Sam e as Fahoomoka. 
Vm'OO, f. A species of pigeon. 
(Antank.) Same as Font, which 
see. Also Fzhingo ^ak.) 
Fdte'ka, 9. pata. See Fiha. 
mo, a. (Tan.) Same as Emio- 

DA XTTRAy which SCO. 

mO^AKA, «. [Bel. s. from hind 

(wo).] Faith, belief. 
JlkOlIAirA, «. [Bel. 8. from minoka.] 

The Tamoena ordeal; in the pro- 

TJno es it means drinking. 
FTHTAHA, a. A hook on a string. 

See Fabakgo, Vihtana. 

▼oftfintftwa, 9. paas. Hooked by a 


Fintinina, v, past. (Imp. Jintdnc.) 

To be oau^t b^ a nook. 
Finintmna. JPassiye with infix. 
My**^"*^^*) r. tr, (Imp. mamin" 
tdna ; Bel. amintdnana, Bel. Imp. 
minnidno.) To catch with a hook. 
FfsTASA a'ndbo. Boot of the follow- 
ing. See VlNTAlTA. 

Mamlntana ftndro, v. eomp. To be 
unpunctual at an appointed time. 
Ghiefljr used by the sovereign in 
thanking the people for their pre- 
sence at an appointed Kababt, 
as: TsT namintana akbbo aht 
BiAVABEO, You have not been 
unpxmotaal at the time (I ap- 
pom ted). 
FI'lTY. Boot of the following :— 

Yoafinty, v. pata. Tied up. (ProY.) 
See FsHY. 

Aflnty, V. paaa. (Imp. afintxo,) Used 
of Uiat employed as a cord. (Prov.) 

Fintiiia, v, paaa. (Imp. Jintio,) To 
be tied up. (Prov.) 

Finlnty. Passive with infix. (Prov.) 

Miflnty, v. inU (Bel. ifinttana.) To 
tie up. (ProY.) 

KamlAtyy v. tr. (Imp. matnintla; 
BeL ammiiana, Bel. Imp. amin* 
Oo.) To tie ap. (FMir.) 

FIVTI'KA,*. Shrinking, corrugation. 

Tafafintina, v. paaa. Shrunk. 

▼oaflntina, v. paaa. Made to shrink, 

Aflntina, r. ptua. (Imp. qfintino.) 
To be made to be closer or more 
compact, as a bundle of wood, 
doth, fagots, garments, etc. 

Xiiintina, v. int. (Bel. ifintinana.) 
To shrink, to grow less, to con- 
tract, to draw one*s limbs to- 

Mamintina, v. tr. (Imp. mamintlna ; 
Bel. amintinana, Bel. Imp. omtn- 
tino.) To contract, to rodnoe to 
a small compass. 

M afintina, oi^. Compressed. 
FnfTi'NA, V. paaa. See Fintt. 
FrKTO, a. Fragrance. (Pror.) See 


Mafinto, a(^'. (Prov.) Same as 
FIHTSA, f. A mode of preparing 

bananas by drying; dried bana- 
FI'HTSAKA, f . The sound of a blow 

from a sword, or the fall of an axe 

or knife in cutting a branch. 


Fintsftnina, v. paaa. Pjo^. Jintadno.) 
To be hit with a sword, etc. 

ICaminttana, v. tr. (Imp. mamin' 

tadna ; Bel. amintadnana, Bel. 

Imp. afnintadno^ To hit with 

a sword, etc. (Prov.) 

FfNTSAM-BA'VA, a. [vAYA, the mouth.] 

A great clam our. (Prov.) 

Mifintfampinttana ny vivanad. 
Tour mouth makes a loud noise. 
FICFY, or FCKFT, a. A piece of 

bone or horn used in dressing the 

hair or in weaving. 
FrOFI'O, a. A tree. Caauarina equi' 

aetifoliay Forst. (Sak.) Same as 

FiLAO (Betsim.). 
FI'OKA, a. Whizzing, the noise of 

the lashing of a whip, lashing. 

Afloka, V. paaa. (Imp. Jlohg.) To 
be made to whiz. 

Fidhina, v. paaa. (Imp. Jiohy.) To 
be beaten, to be floarged. 

Fiaioka. PaBsive witii infix. 



mfloka, V, int, and ir. (Bel. ifio- 
hana.) To hiss, to whiz, to 
make a hissing noise, as a whip ; 
to beat, to flog; to grow 

Xamioka, v, tr, HEmp. mamibha; 
Bel. amiihanaf Bel. Imp. amiohy,) 
To flog, to beat. 
n'OKA, 8. Whistling, whistle. See 


Yoafioka (1), 9. pass. Beaten with 

a whip. 
Fidhina, r. pass, (Imp. Jiohy,) To 

be wldstled for, as a dog. 
Mifioka, V, int, (Imp. m\fi6ha ; Bel. 
i/iohana, Bel. Im^. ifidhy,) To 
whistle, as the wind through a 
roof, to snort like a bull. 
FIO'SA, «. A tree whose wood is 
used by the Sakalaya for making 
fumitiure. (Sak.) 
FI'BA, «. A blow from a sword, 
knife, or axe. See Kapa. 
Yoaflra, v. pass. To be out, to be 

Viraina, v, pass, (Imp. Jirao,) To 

be cut, to be reaped. 
Finira. Passive with infix. 
Mifira, v. tr, (Imp. mi^rd ; Bel. 
i/irdna, Bel. Dnp. ifirao,) To cut 
down, to reap, to feU; to kick 
with the heel. 
Xifiraflra, v, tr. To hack, to out 
in a careless manner, as the 
cutting of a carcase of beef with 
a sword, etc. 
IV&A. ka'zo, «. ^HAZO, atree.] Cutting 
down trees m order to make a 
clearing for planting rice, etc. See 
Fibai'na, v. pass. See Full, 
FI'&AKA, s. Lead, pewter. [Mai. 

perakf eolver (?).] 
IVbjl-icai'ntt, s, [xaintt, black.] 

A soft and black kmd of lead. 
FfaiL-po'TST, *. [poTST, white.] A 

w hite kind of lead. 
FI&A'MBOTBA, s, A tent peg. See 


ly&ANA, V, pass. See Fitra.. 
FI'BAKA. Boot of the following. 

See SoxpiBANA. 

Voafirana, v, pass. Out obliquely, 
made to dope. 

k, v.pass, ijsap. Jirdno.) To 
be cut obhquely, to be cut in a 
sloping manner, to be bevelled. 
Mamirana, v, tr, (Imp. mamirdna ; 
Bel. amirdnanOf Bel. Imp. ami' 
rdno.) To cut a thing obliquely, 
as the prow of a boat, or the four 
pieces of wood for a picture- 
frame, etc. 
FI'BAKA. Boot of the following :— 
M afirana, o^r*. Well-shaped, lAnd- 
FXBA'KOO. ProT. for Fabanqo, which 

FIBA'BATEA, s, FMod. s. from xxbA" 

BAT&A. ^KARATRl.}.] PtOT. for SaHA- 

FA, which see. 

FIBA'ST. See Farast in appendix. 

FIBA'ST, f . The name of two species 
of hawk (Betsim.) : A sparrow- 
hawk, liisus madagaseariensis^ Verr., 
called also Vandbaokibo, i.e. ^Quail 
eater* (Sak.), and another, resem- 
bling the sparrow-hawks, Nisoides 
Moreliiy PoUen. 

FrBATBA (1), f . Shining. See Pb- 


Mamiratra, or Mamirapiratra, v, 

int, and adj, (Bel. ans^xrapirdtana.) 

To shine, to give light, to be 


FXBABA'ZAirA. See Babt, Anjo- 


FIBAZA'KAHA, s, [Bel. s. from la- 
BAZANA (bazana).J Aucostry, lin- 
eage, progeny, pedigree, race, gen- 
eration, genealogy, clan. 

FCElEKE'liA, s. [Bel. s. from mibb- 
NT (P) (bbnt).J a dan, a race, a 
nation, a tribe. 

FIBE'O, s, (Bara.) Same as Kibio- 
DAinTBA. A species of swiftlet, or 
edible-nest-building swallow. 

FIBSBIKGAKFLT, s, (Bets.) Same 
as SiDiNTSiDiNA, which see. 

FI'BT, adv. How many P How often P 
fMal. ptro.] 
Firina, v. pass, (Imp. ^rio.) To be 

divided into how many P 
Mifiry (or M&mlry, Prov.^. Into 

how many parts does it oivide P 
Implry, adv. How often P How 

many times P 
H>flri>n», od^. How many days P 


Kaaimpliy, v. int. How often 

FahAflryiijI What number is it ? 
FI'BT, na FI'SITI'BT, t. Goldnees ; 
in the proTincee it meana grief, 

nrlaa, tdj. Gold ; barren, applied 

to a tract of oonntry. 
nriflxliia, M^'. Goldish, chilly; 

melancholy, soirowfol, grieved. 
Mafiij, itdj. Painful, grievous. 

Xamiiiilry, o^f. Gapable of pro- 
ducing cold. Used in speaidng 

of the weather. 

nSI'SGA, f . A dunghill, a heap of 
rabbiah. Fobikoa is used in the 
provinces. XJaed often in personal 
namea, as Rafibinoa, Kainivi- 

Fnu'voAir-ixB'LO, o^r. [lblo, mucus of 
the nose.] Having mucus about 
the nose. 

Foo'ifeA xzs'Tonu, «. [kvotba, swell- 
ing.] Used in speakmg of a person 
of low rank acting haughtily when 
prom oted. 

Tumiei'TAirA, «. [Sel. 8. from la- 
BoroiTBA (?) (BmoiTKA).] A provin- 
da l word for Sbza, which see. 

7IBI'HT8T, s, A vandal, a destroyer. 

nBI'0,«. A species of swallow. (Tan.) 
Sa me as EnaoDAinrBA, which see. 

nSI'OKA, 9. A bird belonging to 
a genus endemic in Madagascar, of 
doubtful aflSnities, but probably 
allied to the warblers. (Bets.) My^ 
ttseomia Orouleyi, Sh. Also called 


nBTOTSA'VBBO, s. [Hod. s. from 
MiBXOTBA (biotba), and ANDBO, the 
day.] A species of swallow. (Bara.) 
Same as KnaODAinTBA, which see. 

FTBQtl'SOA, f. (Bets.) Same as 
pre ceding. 

FuLITSOKA, «. [Mod. s. from iqri- 
iBOXA (ansoKA).] A twig, a rod, 
a ramrod. Same as Fabitsoka, 
which see. 

FnurVGOK-BE'HiyA'yY, «. [Mod. 
B. from MiBONOO (bonoo), and vbhi- 
VAVT, a woman.] Anything be- 
to a woman, either her 

household goods, servants, or orna- 
ments. In the provinces it means a 

FI'SAKA, tub'. Thin, slender, slight, 

flat) without protuberance. 

▼oafliaka, 9.|MiM. Thinned, attenu- 

FisAhina, r. ^OM. (Imp, JUaho,) To 
be made thin, to be attenuated. 

Finisaka. Passive with infix. 

M amisa l ra, v. tr. (hnp. mamudha; 
Bel. amitdhanaf Bel. Imp. amiad' 
ho,) To make thin, to attenu- 

Mitamplsaka, v, int, (Imp. mitam- 
pUdha ; Bel. itampiadhifMf Bd. 
Imp. itampisdho,) To shrink up 
of one*B self, to appear flat, to 
press against the side of anything. 
See Taxpift (fift). 

Hftio fisaka, t. Flanks, boards. 
Fi'sa-da'nt bo'a, 8, and at^', [LAinr, 

the side, boa, two.] Flat on both 

Fx'bada'hxbo'a, «. The name of a tree. 
Fi'sATs'iroBO, i, [temsbo, the end.] 

A shrub. 
FI'SAITA. Boot of the following :— 

Yoafbana, v, past. Covered with 
leaves and baked in ashes. 

Fisinina, 9. jMM«. {Imv, JUdno,) To 
be covered and baked in ashes. 

Xamisana (1), v. tr, (Imp. mamUd' 

na; Bel. amiidtuina, Bel. Imp. 

amisdno,) To cover and bake m 


FISA'KGA, t, [Mod. s. from misanoa 

iSANOA).] A needle. (Prov.) See 
Tanjaitba, Fzlo. 
Fisa'nina, V, past. See Fisana. 
FI8ATA, s, [Mod. s. from iosava 

^bava).] a plant used as medicine 

for headache. (Prov.) 
FISrA, s. [Bel. 8. from mist (ibt).] 

a basket. (Prov.) See Habona. 
FI8IT0TBA, 8. [Mod. s. from lasi- 

POTEiV (sifotba).] a poker or tongs. 
FIBI'KA, 8. [Boot sika.] The sugar- 
cane. (Sak.) See Fabt. 
FISrBIKA, 8, [Mod. s. from usisika 

(sisika).] a brooch, a hair-pin. 

See Kavina. 
FISITO'KA, 8, A festoon ; scollops of 

embroidery. [£ng. fettoon.] 



FISO'KO, ». [Hod. B. from msoKO 

(boko).] The south-eastern part of 

the house partitioned off for a fold, 

a pen, a sheep-fold, or a goat-fold. 

FiTA ^HnTA, V. pass. See Fitaxa. 

FITAI'KO, s. [Boot tajxo.I A spoon. 

(Prov.) See Somo. 
FITAI'ZA, «. [Hod. b. from xitaisa 
(taiza).] An extra supply of any- 
thing' put aside for use in oase of 
need ; a gun carried by the g^uazds 
of the sovereign ; materials kept 
ready in weaving to lengthen a 
thread broken in we warp ; a mode 
of nursing. See Aivtsatba. 
VI'TAXA, <. Deoeit, fraud, strata- 
gem, duplicity, guile. See Aicbaxa, 
Ajcbost, Anoolt, Fblika, Lainqa, 
Sahdoka, Solokt. 
Yoafltaka, v.jMiM. Deceived, cheat- 
ed, imposed on. 
TitXhJJUL, V, pass. (Imp. Jltdho,) To 

be deceived, to be imposed on. 
Finltaka. Passive with infix, 
jfam^taka, v, tr. (Imp. mamit^ha ; 
Bel. amitdhana^ BeL. Imp. ami^ 
Uho,) To deceive, to cheat, to 
impose on. 
FI'TAK^. Boot of the following. See 
Tafafitaka, v. pass. Sat down. 

Antaka, v. pass. (Imp. qfitdho.) Used 
of that which is made to sit on 
something else, as a child put 

a on its father's knee. (Prov.) 
kaka, V. int. (Imp. mifitdha; 
Bel. {fitdhana, Bel. Imp. ijitdho.) 
To sit on something, to be 


FITA'KOKA, s. [Hod. s. from ktfa- 
KONA fxAXONA H.).] A palauquiu. 

FXTAKCrKAHA, s. [Bel. s. from xi- 
TAXoyA (taxona n.).] Same as 

FiTA'KA, s. [Bel. s. from mita (ita).! 
A ford ; also provincial for the hand 
[tanana, held.]. 

Fita'n* o'mbt, s. [okbt, an ox.] A 
ford for cattle. 

riTA'KAHA, s. [Bel. s. from xrcAirA 
(taxa).] a surety, a pledge, a hos- 
tage ; a pin, a handle, aie Faxfz- 


FITAHOO'SAHA, s. [Bel. s. from xx- 
TANOO (tanoo).] An herb, theleavea 
of which are rnobed, and the juice 
applied to sores or cuts by the Be- 
tsleo. (Bets.) Oynura eemuay Bth. 
Same as Hazxbobb, and Anasdbaie- 


FITAOTAHA, s. [Bel. s. from icrcAO 
J[tao).} AU the preparations made 
in waiting for the enemy, food, 
weapons, etc. 

FITA&AIirAHA, s. [Bel. s. from la- 
TAHAiiTA (TAaAPTA) .J A oompUunt. 

FITA'BATBA, s. [Mod. s. from mita- 
batea(tabatba).] aiasB, alooking- 
glass, a mirror. 

FiSa'bA-ICAZA'vA, S. [iCASAVA (sAVa), 

light.] The judges. 
FITA'KCKA'KDBO, s. [Hod. s. from 
xiTABiXA (tabixa^, and ahdbo, the 
day.] The morning star ; i.e. the 

S^anet Venus. 
A'BITABIKA, s. [Boot tabzka.] 
A gauge. 
FI'TATBA, s. A bird, a srooieB of 
warbler. Pratineola syhilla^. Same 
as Feta, Fttapatatsa, Fetatbhoka, 
"FfTAPAfTATVLA, s. A bird, a species 
of warbler. (Taimoro). Same aa 


Fi'TATB'iroNA, s. (Tau.) Same as 

Fx^tatba'la, s. [ala, a forest.] A bird, 
a species of warbler. Cops^chut 
pica, Natt. Same as Sixziilt and 


FITATOKA, s. HHod. s. from xxta- 
voxA (tavoxa).J a piston used in 
the native bellows ; a charm given 
to a dog to quicken his scent in the 
cha se. 

FITETAKA, s. [Hod. s. from iotb- 
FAXA (tbfaka).J The laths put on 
the roof of a house for holding the 
thatch. (Prov.) See Vabivabt. 

FITELFKAHA, s. [Bel. s. from la- 
TELiNA (telina).] The throat, the 
gor^ ; a delicacy. 

FITEKA'KA, s. [Bel. s. from mitxna 
frsNA).] The genitals of a male. 
(Prov.) See Tiatata. 



firrtiYf t. [Modal noun from xttilt 
(teli^.] a Sakalaya word forminff 
toe first part of many compound 
worda used as the names of birds, 
viz. two swifts, a pigeon, an ibis, 
a starling, a shrike, and a roller. 
Also in the name of a species of 
lemur. See the following words : — 

Fer'lulda'bo, t, [adjlbo, a species of 
FieuM,^ A speciee of pigeon, so 
called from its feeding on the fruit 
of the Adabo tree. (Antak.) Ftnoffo 
mtatraliM^ L. 

FrrfuA'icDBo, *. [ahsbo, day.] The 
name of two species of swift : one, 
Cjfptelug ffraeilis^ Sharpe ; the other, 
a speciee of edible nest-building 
swixtlet, Chatura Orandidieriy Nerr. 
(Sak.) Both also called Manayian- 

DBO and y0B0NANA2n)B0. 

Frn'tiBB'woT, t. [bkwot, a goat J A 
species of saoredibis. (ProY.) T^rea- 
ki&mi* Bemieri, Bp. 

FtTi'LncT', *. The weasel lemur. (Sak.) 
Lepilgmurmmtelinua, I.G. deSt. Hil. 

Fm'LiaAi'ST, 9. ''An exceedingly 
aberrant form of starling, long 
thought to be allied to the wood- 
hoopoes.'* ^ak.) Taleulia palliata, 
I.O. de St. Hil. Same as Kazaza- 
KA and VoBOirjAZA. 

Frn'LiTATE'iCA, t, A species of shrike 
or butcher-bird. fProv.) Calicalicua 
madagMeariefmt, L. Same as To- 


FnT'iiYA'aATSA, a. A bird, the Hada- 
gascar species of brand-billed or 
Tiolet roller. (Sak.) Euryttomm 
madagaacarientUy L. Same as Ha- 


THA BAnogT. and Vobonzaza. 
TirrilOKA, a. [Mod. s. from xm- 
ifOKA (tocoza).] ProY. for Azoho, 
which see. 

FITO, adj. SeYen. JJaY. fitu,"] 

Fit6ina, v, pa»», (Imp. /%.) To 
be divided into seven. 

Kifito, r. int. To divide into scYen, 
to be in seYcns. 

Fahafito. The seventh ; seYen fath- 

Ampahafltony, 9, The seventh part. 

Impito, adp, Seren tunes. 

Kanimplto, v. tr. To do scYen 

Hafltdana, t. Seven days. 
rito-p61o, a€(f' Seventy. 
Aiiim-pito, tuy. Exceedingly dark, 

Hanim-pito 161ia, a. Used in de- 
scribing a feast where every 
kind of food desired is to be 
na^ fito, a. Very heavy rains which 
at some time or other in the rainy 
season last about a week. 
HArom-pito s6sona, a. Close watch 
oYer anything ; lit. a basket with 
seYen folds. 
Hidy fito s6sona, a. Same as pre- 
ceding, lit. a scYenfold fosse. 
Alim-pito, a. Very dark. 
Fanihy fito, eu^. Of superior mind 
or disposition. 
Fi'tole'la, a. [lsla, the tongue.] The 
name of a mythical serpent. Used 
also for FrroYAYA. 
Fi'toba'yina, a. [baydta, a leal.] An 

FfTOYA'YA, atfi, [yaya, the mouth.] 
Incoherent, wavering, fickle, chang- 
eable in one's statements or oouYer- 
sation; a gun fired seYen times, 
seven guns. 
FITODrAH - DA'KAHA, a. [Bel. s. 
from MiTODT (tody), and lakana, a 
canoe.] A proYincial word for Lb- 
la xombt, wnioh see. 
FITOE'BAHA, a. [Bel. s. from xi- 
TOBTBA (toetra).J A plaoc, a posi- 
tion. Chiefly used of mats. 
Fxtoe'&an-da'bozt', a. [labozt, a can- 
dle.] A candlestick. 

FlTOB'BAN-DBA'irOlCAl'NTT, a. [baNO- 

ICAIKTT, ink.] An inkstand, an 

in kwell. 
FITOHI'ZAHA, a. [Bel. s. from xi- 

TOHY (toht).] Joining, that which 

joins two thingfi together. 
Fitohi'zahbala'la, a. [yalala, a kind 

of locust.] The name of an herb 

used in stringing locusts together. 

Cyperus obttMifoliua, Vahl. Same 

as F1TOIAXOLAT8A (Bets.). 
FITOIASO'LATSA, a. Anherb. (Bets.) 

Same as Fitohizaxbalala. 
Fno'DrA, V, pa»9. See Fzro. 



tTtOlKJiiKhnBiL, 9. [Bel. b. from xi- 
ToiTDRA (tokdba).] Goyemment, 
rule, authority, guidance, custom, 

Fno'iTDBAN-DBA'zAirA, t. [Iffod. s. from 
MTsowDRk (tondsa), and razana, an 
ancestor.] The customs of the an- 
cients, an old-established custom. 

Fxtoitoba'n - te'na, i. [tsna, one's 
self.] Conduct, personal behaviour. 

Fno'iTDSA-TB'NONA, 9, [tehona, Weav- 
ing.] A piece of wood by which 
th e warp is fixed to the loom. 

FITO'BAXA, t. [Mod. s. from Mno- 
BAKA (tobaka).! A chanu put on 
the horns of a fighting bull to ensure 
victory; a gouge used in making 
canoes. In the provinces it means 
a spear. 

FITOEI'ANT, 9. [Bel. s. from mroRT 
(tort).] The name of that x>art of 
a buUook which lies immediately 
below the ribs. 

FITOSI'Air-TS'HT, t. [Bel. s. from 
XTFOBT (tobt), and tent, a word.] 
The usual place of making an an- 
nouncement; a party to which a 
thing is usually announced ; preach- 
ing ; a pulpit. 

FITO'BOKA, 9. [Mod. s. from xxro- 
BOKA (toboxa).] The bamboo in 
the roof of a house to which the 
thatch is fastened. 

FI'TBA. Boot of the following. See 

Yoafltra, v, jmm. "Wiped. 
Afitra, V, pa99. (Imp. o/tro.) Used 
of cloth, grass, etc., employed as 
a wiper or duster, 
rirana, v, pa99. (Imp. firo,) To 

be wiped. 
Finitra. Passive with infix. 
Mifitra, v. int. (Imp. mifira ; Bel. 
and Pass, ifirana, Bel. Imp. 
ifxro.) To wipe. 
Kamitra, v. tr. (Imp. mamlra ; 
Bel. amtranay Bel. Lnp. amlro.) 
To wipe. 

In the provinces the above words 
are used where in Lnerina Faoka 
and its derivatives woxild be em- 
ployed; Fttra and its derivatives 
only being used in a special sani- 
tary sense. 

riTRA'BOKA, «. [Boot tbabosiu] A 
provincial word for a comb. See 


FITBB3IKA, t. [Boot tbbbika.1 A 
fork, a prong. See Fxboioiaxa, I*o- 


FITBO'KA, t. pfod. s. from xxtboka 
(tboza).] a provincial name lor 
the Traveller's-tree. SeeBAvi9ALA« 

FITBOKA, «. SnifBng. (Prov.) See 


Kifltroka, «. int, Oim^. miJUroha ; 
Bel. i/ffrdAoMo, Bel. Imp. \fitr6' 
Ay.) To sniffle. (Plov.) 
FrTSAKA. Boot of the following :~ 

Tafafitsaka, v./Mua. Crouched down, 
made flat. 

Yoafitsaka, V. ^MM. Levelled, beat- 
en down, laid down, made flat. 
Applied chiefly to things growing, 
as rice beaten down by uie wind 
or rain. See Bipasa. 

Afitsaka, v. pa99. (Imp. aJU9^ho,) 
To be flattened, to be leveled, to 
be laid down. 

Kifltsaka, o^f. and f. int, (Imp. 
mijitsaha ; Bel. \fit9€^hanay Bd. 
Imp. }fitsdho,) To be lying down, 
as a person crouching, or rice 
beaten down by the wind. 

Kamitsaka, t^. tr. and int, (Imp. 
mamitsdha; Bel. amit9dhttHaf Bd. 
Imp. amit9aho,) To throw down ; 
to He down, to hide one's self, to 
FITBAEA'KA, 9, [Bel. s. from xitba- 

BA (tsaba).] Judgment) the seat 

of judgment. 


holding to, ila, one side.] Partial- 
itv in judgment. 
FITSrKBBOKA, t. [Mod. s. from 
lOTsiNDBOKA (Tsiin>BOirA) .] A fork, 
a prong. See Fitbebika, Forz- 


FITSrKJO, 9. [Mod. 8. from xxtsinjo 
(tsinjo).] a charm given to a 
fighting bull to discourage its an- 

FITSrOKA, t. [Mod. s. from mitsioza 
(tsioka).] a whistle. 

FITSIPrHAHA, 9, [Bel. s. from xi- 
TBiPiKA (tbifixa^.J A ruler, an 
instrument used in drawing UnM. 


•• WfauUing in a jooolar 
Tnanner. (Plrov.) In Imerma it 
BMUM & fod, & hone-whip, & twig^, 
a flexible oane. See Kapoka, Vblt. 
MlfitMka,«&'. Straifirht. 
▼oafitMkih ir. pan. Beaten, itrnck, 

ifltiaW, V. p0u, (Imp. q/U»6hff.) 
Uied of anything used to beat 
fitibhaiiA, or TitaMluui, r. patt, 
nmp.jU$6k^.) To be beaten, to 
be etrook. 
ndtMka. PaesiTa with infix. 
WaaiHiota, 9. tr. (Imp,immiU6ha; 
Rel. mmitsdhmutj Bel. Imp. omi- 
tsokf.) To beat» to flog, to rtrike, 
UMOTMOO, 9, rBf od. s. from kuboivoo 
(noNOo).] A proidnolal word for 
FziTonu, whidi see. 
nT80'78<KXA, «. [Hod. 8. from mi- 
laoKi. (noKJi).] A oommon ground- 
orchid. (Beta.) OynorehU pwrpu* 
_ re$ cem»f Tlioaan. 

nTALA'VAlTA, t, fRel, a. from mi- 
fALkJSA {yajjjka).} The deacent of 
flTATA'HAVA, t. [Itel. a. from xi- 

TATAKA (TAyAZA).] The pUoO of 

praye r; religion. 
nriXT, t, [iCdd. a. fromiovBLT (vb- 
lt).] Anything naed to atrike with. 

Fm^LT rA'NDBAZA, «. [FAlOiaAXA, a 

chiael.] A mallet. 
Fivs'lt ka'tbt. The apleen. (Fror.) 

See A tt. 
TIZEHA, t. [Boot zsaA.] A provin- 

cia i wOTd lor Kafoka, which aee. 
nZI'O, t. A tendril, a twig, nnde- 

yeloped leavea. ^Ptot.) 


a kind of palm.] The leavea of the 
Bo wA palm. fProv.) 
nZI'O, t. A long mnaket. [Fr. 

FI'ZOTTZO. Boot of the following :— 
Xifiaofiio, V. int. To be lean and 

70, 9. The heart, phyaical and 
moral ; the wUl, aentiment, deaire ; 
intention, diaposition. See under 
Am-fo, for aeveral combinationa of 
Uiia word. 

7oiiina, a4f. Crabby, aonr, eaally 
provoked, moroae, impatient. 

Manomd 16, v. tr. (Imp. manomhsa 
fo ; Bel. anomiztmi'poy Bel. Imp. 
anomkofo.) To excite to angfer, 
to incite to evil, to inatigate. 
Generally in referenoe to incite- 
ment to evil deeda. 

A'fift-pd. See under Avaza* 

A'la fo. See under Ajla. 

Be fo, A&*. Gruel. 

Kam6y fo. See under Fot. 

A'lo am-pd. See under Azo. 

O'tri-pd. See under Otbxxa. 

L61om-pd. See under Lozo. 

Kimy fo vUona, adj, Selflah. 

B'ntiaippi, adj. Exceedingly angry. 

Kanontolo fo. To indm^ anger 
to the full. See ToirroLO. 

Ira^ tam-pd, €4J. Uaed of children 
<^ the aame mother. 
Fo b'xboxa, t. [mcBOKA, a gum.] 

Uaed of a peraon whoae anger ia 

eaaily aaauaged. 
Fo lata'kan-a'ndbo, 9. [lava, long, 

ANBBO, the day.] Gonatant anger. 
Fo lb'ntixa, 9. [lbntixa, Bunk in.] 

Same aa Otbz-po and Lolox-po. 
Fo'xahb'bt, 9, [xAHBBT, atroug.] 

Fo'ma'itoa, adj. A word uaed by 

wivea in aaying their huabanda are 

angry. (Prov.) 
Fo mila'fi-kabb'na, t. [lavixa, abed, 

bedding, SABxirA, wealth.] Uaed 

of one who makea riohea ma chief 

object in life ; lit. a heart ropoaing 

on richea. 

Fo^n' NT XPAMS'rT, 9. [XPANSFT (tEFT), 

a amith.] A heart of iron ; lit. a 

amith*8 heart. 
Fo'n' o'lona, 9. [oLONA, a peraon.] A 

human heart; aomebodyelae'awiahea. 
Fo'n' o'xbt icb'na, «. [oxbt, an ox, 

XBNA, red.] A conical red hat, ao 

called from itareaemblanceto abul- 

look'aheart ; hearta in playing-carda. 
Fo'n-tb'na, 9, [tbna, one'aaelf.] One'a 

own wiahea or deairea. 

Fo TBT A'aiTRA, 9. [tST, UOt, ARTTBA, 

enduring.] Fowla, etc., killed on 
the eve of the Fandboana ; lit. the 
heart not enduring (to wait for the 
oxen to be killed on the morrow). 



TUj^mA fo tiy iritra, v, eomp. To 
kill fowlfl, etc., as above. 

Ycf TBT b'MPAXA, 9. [tBT, not, KlfPAXA, 

peelinff off.] Same as Lozoif-FO. 
Fo ▼▲'to, <. and at^. An inaeot with a 
▼ery hard oovering', probably a bee- 
tle : very stabbom. 
FO', or WA. ProT. for Foana. 
FO'A, 9, Benediction, a word naed 
by parents, etc., in prononncing a 
blesaing' on their children. 
FO'AKA, «. An explosive sonnd from 
anjrthingf that has been stmok, or 
that suddenly is set on fire, as the 
flash of a fusee, the drawing- of a 
cork, etc. ; a relish of any kind. 
(Prov.) See Poasa. 
Mifbaka, «. int, (Bel. %Mhana,) 
To niake an explosive sound. 
Xaf&aka, a^. Gluttonous, greedy. 

This word is also the primitive 
root of Safoajla, which see. 
FO^AXA. A provincial word forLoA- 
KA, which see. 
Yoafftaka, v. p<u9. Same as Voa- 

XiOAXA, which see. 
Foihana, v. pa99, (Jmp.fodhy, Same 


Kam6aka, v, tr. (Imp. mamodha; 

Bel. amodhana^ Bel. Imp. amoahy.) 

Same as MAjnx>AKA. 
FO'AKA, adj. and adv. Empty, vain, 
void ; freely, foolishly, uselessly. 
Yoafftana, v. pa99. Deprived of what 

one had. 
Foinaaa, v. pa99. (Imp. fodny.) To 

be emptied, to be voided, to be 

made of no effect. 
Kaiii6ana, v. tr. (Imp. mamodna ; 

Bel. amodnanay Bel. Dnp. amodny.) 

To empty, to annul, to annihilate, 

to make empty. 
F6amp6ana, adj. Foolishly ; a sim- 
pleton. (Prov.) 
Hdvi-p6ana, 9. Foolish thoughts, 

lit. an empty thought. 
TriLno f&ana, 9. An empty house. 
Z&va-pdana, 9. Vanity, a useless 

Miftsa'fdana, 9, To labour without 

object or intention. 

Kana6, or Kanadnad f&ana, tr. int. 

To act perfunctorily. 
Kitdnitdny f6ana. To speak fool- 

ishlv or without purpose. 
K&imaim-pdana, adj. Freely. 


Foa'nana, v. pa99. See Foaha. 

FOABAKA, t. The beef used in the 
ceremony of the Avana.. 

FO'BO, 9. A shrub with a durable 
woodlike mahogany in colons. (Sak.) 

FO'DT, t. The Madagascar cardinal- 
bird, a species of weaver-finch. 
Fimdia madaga9carierm9y L. It is also 
called the rice-bird, £rom the de- 
struction it sometimes causes to the 
rice crops. During the breeding 
season the male bird is, except the 
wing^, of a brilliant scarlet colour. 
Also another species of.weaver-finch. 
(Prov.) Ploeetu Algondm^ Schl. 
Xana6 fbdiltiiy mitslndroka ilina. 
To steal at night ; lit. to act as 
the cardinal bird picking up food 
at night. 

Fo'dia'la, 9. [A.LA, a forest.] A bird 
belonging to a g^nus peculiar to 
Madagascar, but probably belong- 
ing to the family of babbling- 
thrushes. (Bets, and Tan.) 0xylaS$9 
madaffa9€arien9i9f Briss. 

Fo'difb'tsy, 9. rFKPBT, cuuning.] A 
bird that builds a hanging nest over 
streams, with a long cylindrical en- 
trance from below. Ploceu9 9p. 

Fo'dila'hiice'ka, 9. [lAHT, masculiue, 
MEN A, red.l The male Fody ; also 
an herb. Gladiolu9 iffn^eeruj Bojer. 
Same as Eitenindaet (Bets.), and 

Fo'DIlCAfNTT, 9. [HAINTT, bUtck.] A 


Fo'dimb'na, 9, [kkwa, rod.] Prov. 
for FoDT. 

Fo'dibay', 9. The name of two 
species of weaver-finch. (Sak. and 
Prov.) Ploreus 9akalavay Hartl., 
and nyphantomi9 pensilU^ Gm. The 
latter, as its specific name denotes, 
builds a pensile nest, similar in 
shape to an inverted chemical retort. 
Same as Fodisaixa, Fodibe, and 



Fo'sob', «. A bird, same as pre- 

oeding. (Sak.) 
Po^iizaA.'zirA, «. A bird. (Prov.) Same 

as FoDiBAT. 
Fo'DBiAy , §, A bird, aama as Fosibat. 

Fo'bita'vt, <. [taut, tbe earth.] A 

bird belonging to a genua enclemio 

in Madagaaoar, of doabtlnl afBni- 

tiea, bnt probably belonging to the 

f anJly of babbling-tbmahee. (Ty- 

maliidfle.) (Prov. and Bets.) Oxy^ 

Met mada^iuearisfui»f Briaa. Also 

the name <rf another bird, probably 

a spedee ol warbler. OnatUyitt 

smmthophryt, Sh. 
fODT. Boot of the following:— 

Yoafddy, V. pass, Betnmed, sent 
hmcik; applied to a thing sent 
back after bdng bought. 

AAdy, V. pan. (Imp. afodio.) To 
bo returned. 

Xil&dy, V. int. (Imp. mifodia; Rel. 
ifotRana; BeLlmp.ifodio,) To with- 
draw from a ba^fain, to retract. 

Ximpddy. Used for the preceding. 

Kainddy, v. tr. (Imp. mamodla ; 
Bel. amodiana, Bel. unp. amodio,) 
To retom the thing bought. 
FODI'AVA, t. [Bel. s. from xodt 

(opt ).] a return home. See Odt. 
FOTT. Same as Fioft, which see. 
FOTO, f . Covered, submerged. (Prov.) 

SeeDooTBA, Safotra.. 

KamMiD, r. tr, (Imp. mamofda ; Bel. 
4MH»/<kma, Bel. Imp. amo/Sy.) To 
cover over, as water covers the 
ground, to submerge; fig. to 
overrun a country, as an enemy 
does; to be general, as an epi- 
demic ; to be in excess, to be super- 
abundant. (Prov.) 
FCKFO. Boot of the following :— 

Toafftfo,»8. Bespoken, engaged 
beforehand, betromed. 

FofMna, «. pat$. (Imp. fofoy.) To 
be bespoken, to be betrothed. 

Mifdfo, r. tr. and int. (Imp. mifo' 
f6a ; Bel. ifofSanaf Bel. Imp. ifo- 
fSy.) To bespeak, to tell or engage 
beforehand ; to become engaged. 

Xatndfo, v. tr. (Imp. mamofSa ; Bel. 
amofdanoy Bel. Imp. amofdy.) 
Same as preceding. 

Wampdfo, 9. tr. (Imp. miampofSa; 

Bel. iampofSana, Bel. Imp. iam- 

po/6y.) To nurse in the lap. 

Xanampdfo, v. tr. Same as preceding. 

Fo'fo-damo'bina, 8. [lakobina, the 

back.] A present given by grown 

up children to a parent or a nurse 

for having nursed them in infancy. 

See Valzx-babbna. 

Fo'Foif-BA'DT, 9. [vast, a partner.] 

A betrothed wife. 
FOFfXAKA, s. [Verbal substantive of 
Fopo (?).] The lap. 
Am-pofdana. In the lap. 
Ampofdina, v. pau. (Imp. mnpofoy.) 

To be nursed in the lap. 
Fofoiaina, v. pan. (Imp. fo/odnyA 
To be nursed in the lap. (Prov.) 
FaFOFO^FO, ». A breath of wind, a 
breeze, a gentle wind, a zephyr. 
]Cif6fof6fo, V. int. (Bel. ifo/o/ofiana.) 
To blow, as the wind does. 
Fofo'hana, or Fofo'hxna, v. pats. See 


FoFofNA, f . pau. See FoFO. 
FO'FOKA, i. A blow, a cough, a 

cold, a fall. 

Yoaftfoka, v. pa$9. Beaten, struck, 
attacked by disease. 

Afdfoka, V. past. (Imp. afo/hhy.) To 
be beaten. 

Fof6hana (or Fofbhina, Prov.), v. 
pau. (Imp. fofbhy.) To be beaten, 
to be struck ; to be attacked by 

Xif5foka, v. int. (Imp. ifofoJuma.) 
To tumble down, to fall down. 

]Cam6foka, v. tr. (Imp. mamofoha; 

Bel. amofdhana^ Bel. Imp. amo" 

fShy.) To strike, to beat, to attack, 

as a disease. 

Fo'fon*abb'tina, t. [abbtina, disease.] 

The symptoms of a disease. (Prov.) 
FO'FOKA, 9. Smell, odour, savour, 

vapour, steam. 

Yoafftfona, v. pa99. Blown upon, 
as with tobacco smoke, etc. 

Fofdnina, v. pau. (Imp. fofony.) To 
be blown or smoked upon. 

Mamdfona, v. tr. and int. (Imp. 
mamofdna ; Bel. amofinana, Bel. 
Imp. amofiny.) To smell offen- 
sively; to savour. See Maivbo, 


XuB^femp^fMiA, 9, mt. To miell 
rank, to be ill - flsTOured, to 
XftBdrd Iftftnia, «. MMtp. ToperoeiTe 
a smell ; lit. to hear a smell. 

Vo'so-naba'kdbo, », [naxavbbo, a 
oooked meal.] The odour from the 

Fo'fow-ax'va, t. fizHA, life.! The 
breath ; lit. the orea^ of life. 

Fo'FOK-saA'No MAT, », [sAHO, Water, 
MAT, hot.1 The steun of boQing 
water. (Prov.) 

Fo'foniabi'to, 9. [abivo, a thou- 
sand (?).] A shmb or tree. (Bets.) 

Fo'fow-ta'kt, *. Ftaht, earth.] The 
exhalations of the earth ; miasma. 

FoFO'snTA, V, pan. See Fovotba. 

FOFaSABITA. A term of maledic- 
tion, flmper. Opt. of Fofo (P), and 


FOTOTRA,t. The blowing of bellows, 
etc. rHal. pttgmt, to blow.] 
Fofbrina, r. pott. (Imp, fofiry.) To 

be blown by bellows, as the fire, 

MUftfotra, v, int. (Imp. mifofira ; 

Rel. ifoflrtma^ Bel. Imp. ifofhry,) 

To blow the bellows; fig. to go 

at it witii a will. 
Xamdfotra, «. fr. (Imp. mafnofhra ; 

Bel. ttmcfSranay Bel. Imp. amo^ 

firy,) To blow a fire with a pair 

of bellows, etc. 
Tafofbrana, t. Bellows. 
FO'HA. (Imp./bAim, awake, arise.) 
The root also is nsed as an impera- 
tive, as : FoHA, Banzizt, Wake np, 

Tafsfdha, v. pan. Awakened. 
Yoafbha, v, pan. Aroused from 

sleep, awaksd. 
FohiiiBa, 9, van. (Imp. fohAsy.) 

To be roused from sleep, 
mftha, 9. int. (Imp. mifohisa ; Bel. 

ifohizanay Bel. Imp. t/bAisy.) To 

rise from sleep, to awake, to be 

Xamdha, 9, tr, (Imp. mamohdta; 

Bel. amohdtanaj Bel. Imp. omo- 

h^.) To awake some one, to 

make to wake from sleep. 
Famdhamindxy, t. A small hand- 

belL SeeliAxxLCNnr. 

Tiy BahaAha ti&a, 9. comp. Used 
of a person who oannot support 

■amiha ftta-miiidxy, [iocaza, 
mud, XAsinT, lying down.] To 
stir up wliat has bcNsn forgotten ; 
lit. to stir up settled mud. 

L61o mamdha ingatra. f iaxo, spirit, 
AiroATBA, a kind of disease.] An 
indisposition developing into a 

XiAha 61o-mai^to, adp. Early 
mcNrning; lit. when the diligent 
FinaCAFIKHA. Bedup. of pieoeding. 
A word used in the Smsr divina- 
tion. An imperative like FbsA. 
XiAhaftha, 9. int. and adf. Used 
of ground not properiy haxdened, 
but having loose dust about; also 
of aquarrel perpetually renewed; 
to rise up, to be in constant 
Fobaha'riha, 9. pan. SeeFoHBHATBA. 
FiKHAT&A, adj. Witherad, ftwied 
away. Applied to vegetables. See 
FaHATBA. Boot of the following :~ 
YoaAhatra, 9. pan, Benewed, agi- 
tated, renovated. (Prov.) 
Fohirina, «. pan, (Imp. fokdrp.) 
To be renewed, to be agitated; to 
be taken from a hole or grave. 
Xiibhatra, 9. int, (Imp. mifoh^ra ; 
Bel. f/oA<2n»ui, Bel. Imp. ifithiry,) 
To renew a dispute, to revive, to 
rise; to relapse. (Prov.) 
Mamdhatra, 9. tr. (Imp. momo- 
hira ; Bel. amohiirana, Bel. Imp. 
amohdry.) To renew a contest, 
to revive. (Prov.) 
FoHA'znrA. «. pan. See Foha. 
FOHFEATRA, adj. Disastrous, un- 
lucky, calamitous, unfortunate, spoil- 
ed. See SncBA, Bava, and under 
Yoafohdhatra, 9. pan. Injured, 

FohehMna, v. pan. (Imp. foht^ 
hdro.) To be injured, to be 
Fohakftrina (1), v. pan. Same as 



Mifthdhatra, v. int. (Inm. m^oKe- 
kdra ; Bel. ifohehdram^eieL Imp. 
i/oA«A4iro.) To be malignant, to 
do mJBchief. The foUowing is 
more freqnentlj iiaed :— 
■■Bohihatra, v. tr. Imp. and 
BeL not lued. To injnzei to 
hm t. 
WBY, €uy. Short) dwarfish, brief. 
Yeafbhyt «• pou. Shortened, made 

TahMna, v. past. (Imp. fihho,) 
To beehortened, to be made brief. 
Tfifhhjfciina, v. pan. (Imp. hafo' 
A«w.) To be shortened in length 
or time, to be made brief. 
Ibmiblkjf V, tr, (Imp. mamahka; 
Bel. amohetana, Bel. Imp. omo- 
hhoJ) To shorten. 
Waaafehy. Same as preceding. 
Wafahiiana, t. Shortness. 
Fo'ht vui^BT, a4f. [JSET, a look.] 

¥<fKtwiak]f9AMA, oiff. Shallow minded. 
Fo'ht au'NA, adj. [saiha, the mind.] 

Thoughtless, foolish. 
Fo'ht sfaANA, a^f. [squna, the leg 
or upper part of thB arm.] Dook- 
legged ; waddling in gait. 
F^HIKA. ProY. for Fohy. 
Fo^kivji, «. poBt. See Foka. 
YHTTt verbal root. Hatflbed, sappn* 
rated, drawn out, evaooated ; burst 
oat, as a shoat ; secret conversation 
beooming known. 
Foiiiiia, V. /mm. (Imp. fiiio.) To 

be enppnrated, as a boil. 
Mii^, V. ifU. To rush ont of 

■amdj, V. ir, Hmp. mamolMa; Bel. 
MNoisoiM, Bu. Imp. mnotao.) To 

The reduplicates are as often 
need as the simple forms. 
Fd'T hb'ht, dM(/- [HaHT, laughter.] 
Beginning to laugh; applied to 
babies ; a present given to the one 
who fint causes a babj to laugh. 
FOnr, verM root. Forsaken, aban- 
doned, deserted, given up, despaired 

AAy, 9. pau. (Imp. afoizo.) To be 
f oraaken, to be abandoned, to be 
forgotten, as the dead. 

XamAy, v. tr. (Imp. siasioisa ; BeL 
omoiMfM, Bel. Imp. ome^.) To 
forsake, to desert. 

XamAy fo, 9. mt. [10, the heart.] 
(Imp. mamt^aafo; BeL Miouam- 
jM, Bd. In:^. SMM^ >b.) To be 

llamiy aina, v. mt. To be in 

Xahaldy, 9. tr. (Imp. mak^/oiMa; 
Bel. ahafoieana, Bel. Imp. aha* 
fi^.) Same as Mamot, but also 
used to express giving, as: Ma- 
HAJOT VOLA, Liberal in giving 

Hivan-ts^ f&y, s. Dearest friends. 

F6y tilmika, m^. Used of water 
bubbling up from the ground 
after heavy rains ; the name of a 
certain part of the rainy season. 

Famoiiana, 9. A charm given to 
make one forget a past evil, a 
misfortune, a deceased parent, or 
to a child to make it forget its 
mother, etc.; medicine given to 
prevent the recurrence of a disease. 
FaniA, t. A wheel. (Prov.) See 


FO'ITBA, ». The navel, the central 

part of a thing. [Mai. puiat.'\ 

Didiam-pMtra, v. past. To be cut, 
as the navel string : also a euphe- 
mism employed in speaking of 
circumcision in the presence of 
women. See Foba. 

Kandidy fditra. To out the navel 
string ; to circumcise. 
Fo'iaa'inr, t. [bb, great.] The oentrs 

of the lines and spaces in the game 

of Fa^obona ; a centre. 
Fo'i-ja'ea, 9. [zAEA, a child.] A 

grub ; an excrescence ; a fungus. 
Fo'i-ka'zo, i. [kazo, a tree.] A 

knot in wood. 
Fo'itba axbo'ho, t. Same as Foitba 

ivoHo. (Frov.) 
Fo'itb' amfi'noa, 9. [axpzvoa, a shield.] 

The protuberance on a shield. 
Fo^iTBA zvo'ho, 9. [rroHO, behind.] 

An impossibility. 
FofzLNA, V. pott. See For, Fo. 
FOI'ZINA, adj. [fo, the heart.] 

Crabby, sour, easily provokecQ 

moroie, impatient. 



TO'XA, a^. and ». Inflaney mad; a 


76kaf6ka, a^. Bather foolish and 
angrj, improdent, stabbom. 

Xifdkaftka, adj. Obstinate. 
FaXA. Boot of the following :— 

Yoafdka, v, past. Smoked, imbibed, 
sucked in, drawn ont. 

Fdhlna, r. pan. (Imp. f6Kff.) To 
be smoked, to be imbibed, to be 
drawn out. 

]Eif6ka, 9. int. and tr. (Imp. mif6ha; 
Bel. ifihanaf Bel. Imp. if6hy.) 
To smoke, to imbibe, to suoc 
in, to draw out. 

]Cif5ka pariky. [pajujct, tobaooo.] 
To smoke tobaooo. 

Ififdka rino. [baito, water.] To 
suck in water, as dry earth or a 

Fifohana, ». A pipe or a tube used 
as an instrument for smoking or 
Fo'-db'lo, ». [lblo, mucus of the 

nose.] SnifBng. 

Mifd-dilo, V. int. To sniff. 
FO'KA, t. A very Tenomous spider. 

Phrynaraehne foka^ Vins. 
70'KATBA. Boot of the following :— 

Yoafdkatrm, v. pau. Made to 
appear, shown, exhibited. Ap- 
plied to things that had been 
ooyered over or concealed, as 
thoughts kept in one's heart and 
then divulged, or a corpse taken 
out of a tomb, or goods out of a 

Fokirina, v, pau. (Imp. fokdry.) 
To be made to appear, to be 

Xifdkatra (!), v. int. (Imp. mifokdra; 
Bel. ifokdrana, Bel. Imp. ifokdrff.) 
Same as Mzvobazba.. See Foha- 


Xamdkatrm, «. tr, (Imp. mamokdra; 
Bel. amokdranaf Bel. Imp. omo- 
kdry.) To confess, to acknow- 
ledge. Usually applied to persons 
convicted by theTAHOBNA ordeal, 
who then owned that they were 
sorcerers, and disclosed what they 
had done, and where they found 
their charms, etc. 
FOKVXT. Boot of the foUowing :— 

Xamokil^, v. tr. To hold to 
something, to detain, to retain, 
to prevent from departing. 

O'lona famokdky. People crowded 
to gethe r. (IVov.) 
FOKX'HnrA, Mfr*. Having one's head 

pressed down by a heavy bozden. 

FCrKO, i. A family, a class, a dan. 

See FiAJKAXAYtAajL (ahaia), Fnts- 


]Cif5ko, V. Int. (Imp. mifokda; Bel. 
ifokaiBma, Bel. Imp. ifokojf.) To 
join, to unite, to aasoeiate, to 

Fo^KOM-nBBHB'NA, t. [vZBBirSNA, a 

tribe.] A dan, a race, a province. 
Fo'KOir-o'u>VA, s. [OLOVA, a person.} 
Same as preceding, but also api^iea 
to people of the same district. 
FOTiAKA, atff. Bent, folded, tamed, 
broken, weakened, subdued, dislo- 
cated. In the provinces it is used of 
deceased chiefs .and sovereigns. 
Yoaftlaka, v. pau. Bent, broken 

in, tamed. 
FoUhina, v. pau. (Imp. foUhy.) 

To be bent, to be subdued, to be 

broken in, to be tamed. 
Findlaka. Passive with infix. 
Kamdlaka, v. tr. (Imp. mamoUka ; 

Bd. amoldhanaf Bd. Imp. omo- 

Idhtf.) To bend, to break in, to 

subdue, to tame. 
Xamdla-tdko-kiliiiy. [toko, a trivet, 

xsLT, little.] To overturn the 

stones used as a trivet on a heartli, 

and to spread a mat over them 

on the occasion of dioumcision. 

The house is then called a 

Fo'la-ba'noa, t. [vAHOA, trade.] Be* 

duction in price ; accepted. 
Fo'la-ba'nqo, t. [banoo, a plait of 
hair.] A mode of plaiting tne hair 
on attending a funeral. 
Fo'la-ba'botba, i. [VABOTBA, trade.] 
Beduction in price. 
][am61a-birotra, v. tr. To make a 

seller reduce the price. 
Fo'la-ba'via'tt, at(/. 1 vavt, feminine, 
ATT, the liver.] To be in pain about 



Fo'la-juxo'bina, odj. [xjjioBDrA, the 

back.J Very tired and having a 

pam in the back. 
F</l4-dba', odj, [ba, blood.] Bmiaed, 

hurt. (Prov.) 
Po'la.-dbax'rat', adj, [b&dut, beams.] 



the fore-arm.] Dying when young, 

a premature death. 
Fo'laxa a'itdbo, adv. [andbo, the 

day.] Afternoon. 
Fo'z.a-ica'bo, adj, [xabo, the eye.] 

Beduced to obedience. (P^y.) 

HunMa-miUo, v. %nt, and tr. To 
subdue by one's looks. (ProT.) 

F0'LA.-TA'HA-SIAll</in>BO, <. [TANANA, 

the hand, icanonobo (toitdbo), point- 
ing.] IHsappointment, a mortify- 
ing repulse where a friendly reoep« 
tioQ bad been anticipated. 
FO'LAXO'HO, 9, A bottle, a flagon. 
(Prov.) [Fr. Jlaeon.^ See Tatoa- 


FO'LT, «. Silk thread or yam. 
▼oaAly, V. pau. Spun. 
Foleaina, r. jNMa. (Imp. /o2^«o.) To 

be spun. 
FiAftlj. PassiTe with infix. 
Kamftl J, V, tr. (Imp. mamolesa ; Bel. 
amoUtanOj Bel. Imp. amoj^.) To 
Kanad I61y mdna tohlBan-drolla. 
To make bad join to good ; lit. 
scarlet silk having Bofia joined 
to it. 
Famoldiaaa, t. Spinning instru- 
Fi/LT ha'la, 9, [hala, a spider.] A 

Fo'i.T la'hdt, t. [lardt, silk.] Silk 

thread or yam. 
Fo'lt la'ndika'zo, 9. [lanbibazo, oot- 

to p.] Cotton thread or yam. 
rOXIT&A, 9, A small tree. (Sak.) 
Same as Mohtasa (Tank.), Voasan- 
OA (Prov.), and Kaboka, which see. 
FOXO, adj. Ten. [Mai. puluh, and 
polo, 9apuioh, and 9afulu in many 
JCalay Arch, and Polyn. languages.] 
Foliina, f^. ^w«. (Imp./>/oy.) To be 

divided into ten. 
Xii&lo, r. m^. To divide into ten 
parts, to be in ten. 

Impdlo, adv. Ten times. 
]CflAimp61o, V. int. To do ten times. 
Fahafdlo. The tenth, ten fathoms. 
AmpahafdloBj. One tenth. 
Hafoldana. Ten days. 
Ydlaf&lo. Ten shillingB, two and 

a half dollars. 
Ampdlokdlinj. A part, a lot, a 

subdivision, a class. 
T6mpon* am-p61okily, 9, The chief 

of the above class. 
Xitdndra tiaam-pdlo. To cany 

nothing but the hands and Angers ; 

fig. to get nothing. 
Fo'lo va'va, <M{r. [▼'^▼A, the mouth.] 
Same as Fm> tata and Ma&o 


FaLOKA, a^. Having lost the tail, 
or some other member of the body. 

Foldnana, v, pa99, (Imp. foldn^,) To 
be cut off, to be made to lose the 
tail, a finger, etc. 
Xamdlona, v. tr, (Imp. mamoldna; 
I Bel. amolonanaj Bel. Imp. amo- 

lony,) To cut off the tail or some 
other member. 
Brushwood, trees, etc., that inter- 
cept the sight; fig. anything that 
intercepts the sight. (Prov.) See 
Tax ON A. 

F61opol6nuia, v, pa99. (Imp. f6lo' 
polory.) To make to be hidden 
by coming between the eyes and 
the object desired to be seen. 
]Iam61op61otrm, v, tr. To put some- 
thing between the eyes and an 
object, to place one*s self before 
another. (Prov.) See Manazona. 
Tafoldrana. A long wand with a 
noose at the bottom for catching 
birds in brushwood. 
FOLO'LOTBA Boot of the follow- 

Xifoldlotra, v. int. To rise up 
gradually in a column as smoke, 
etc. ; to be straight. 
FO'KAHS'BT, s. Tfo, the heart (?), 

MAiiEKT, strong.] Pewter. 
FO'KA'KQA, adj. Morose, i>eevish, 
churlish. A word used by the wife 
whenthe husband is peeviah. (Prov.) 


70'iaA, 9, [ICod. 8. from mokba.] 
Natuie, qiulity, kind, property, 
sort, eafltom, habit, law, acoompttni- 
ments, appamtus, parts. 

Fo'MBAJi-DBA'flAjrA, t. [kaxaita, an 
anoestor.] Thib oastoms of tme's 

Fb'XBAir-iA'inr, t. [tavt, the earth.] 
The onstom or the law of the ooiin- 

rO'uT, 9. The BoFiA. pahn. (Pzot.) 
Same as Maitaitatt (Ptot.), Bao- 
nA, and Bora, which last see. 
raiOlO, a^. Afraid ; on the alert. 

Foabdlaa, v, pa99, (Imp. fcmboy,) 
To be made to be on the alert 
thzooffh fear of an enemy. (Pkx>T.) 
Xammbo, v. <r. (Imp. mamombda ; 
Bel. amom^MWUi, Bel. Imp. omom- 
My.) To make afraid, or fall of 
fear of an enemy ; to pat on the 
alert. (ProT.) 
Hafnabdana, t. Alertness; alarm. 

Famomboaaa, t. The signal of 
alarm. (Prov.) 
FOMS'LA, 9, A distingfoiahing mark 
on an ox. (ProT.) 
Ai6mby f omtla. An ox which has a 
white spot in the centre of the 
forehead. (Ptot.) 
Foxb'la XAz'NTnrA, a. [xazntxha for 
KAnrnr, black.] A black ox with a 
white mark on the forehead. (Proy.) 
Foxb'la mb'na, «. [mbva, red.] Area 
ox with a white mark on the fore- 
head. (ProY.) 
FO'MPT, t. Same as Fdcpt, a shell 

which is worn as an amulet. 
FOMPO^HA, «. A tree with edible frait. 
(Sak.) Ficu9 »p. Perhaps the same 
as Fopo. (Sak.) 
FOKPO'KA. Boot of the following :— 
Fomp6nina, v, jmms. (Imp./omj9o»y.) 
To be made into skeins, as thread, 
string, etc. (ProT.) 
Xamompdna, v, tr, (Imp. none ; 
Bel. amomponana, Bel. Imp. amom- 
pony.) To prepare thread, etc., 
into skeins. (Prov.) 
FO'XPOKA. Boot of the following :— 
Xifdmpona, v. int. To assemble. 
(Prov.) See Ajtqova, Yost. 


to be 
to be 

FaXPOTBA, t. Akindofpeat. 

Xamtaipetra, «. fr. To gather in 
a heap. (Pkx>T.) 
FofxFo - XA'mr, «. [i 

F</iDonu BA'ao, «. [xAflo^ a 

kind of peat. 


son.] A deoajring coipse. (Prov.) 

FailPOTBA (1), 90rM root. Deprived, 

bereft, extirpated, ended. See Foh- 


AAmpotra (f), v. jMm. (Imp. 
jNffy.) To be expended, 
made to come to an end, 
FO'KA. Bootof thefoUowing:— 

Ififdna, «. int. (Bel. ^fintmm.) To 
fall oat, as the nulk teeth. 
FO^VA. Boot of the following :— 

Ififdna,, V. int. (Imp. none ; Bel. 
i/^uwo, Bel. Imp. ifbnff.) To b^ 
pardon, to entreat, to solioit, to 
supplioate, to intercede. See 
Valo, Tsorai, Bxbaka. 

mfdn-jito, mifdna arivo. To sup- 
plicate very earnestly or humbly ; 
ut. to supplicate a hundred-fold, 
to supplicate a thousand-fold. 
FO'KA, 9. A bird with a Uaok body 

and red tail feathers. 
FO'KAKA. Boot of the following :— 

Fonihaaa, v. pa99. (Imp. fm3iho.) 
To be made weaiy, to be made 
tired, to be made exhausted. 

Xamdnapdaaka, v. tr. (Imp. mamo- 
napondha; Bel. am^ Mp ond A a na, 
Bel. Imp. amonapondhy.) To beat 
hard, to thoroughly take the spirit 
and vigour out of any one. 
FOKA'XA, 9. The noiao of snoring in 

sound sleep. 

Xifoulka, p. int. (Iznp. mi/ondkn; 
Bel. ifondhanOf Bel. Imp. tfonak^.) 
To snore in sound sleep. 
FO'KDBA, 9. A species of golden- 
thrush or oriole, belonging to a 

genus peculiar to Madi^fascar. 

(Sak.) ^anolaniu9 bicolor^ L. Same 

as Post and SABAHxaA. 
FO'KBBA, 9. Low ground, sunken 

KTound, a marsh. (Prov.) 

A'laa-pAadra, t. A forest in manhy 
ground. (Pkov.) 



YOIBXASA, mff. YdUow, a yeUow 
djB ; the stump of tibe baoana uaed 

goniriniiia, 9. past, (Imp. fimdrd- 
no.) To be dyed or coloured witli 
the dye from the bauazka. 
¥aiB^dTana (roAa), v. ir. To give 
a tint to^the Bom. fibre £om 
bu rnt leaTBB. 
JOVDBAVA. Ckmtraotion of Fioir- 

SEAJiAKA. See Ondbaita. 

YOnXA'VAVA (1), «»r»«/ r6ot. To 

be oooled by having oold water 

thrown on. See Taxfoka. 

FosnBA'mMA, r. jMWf . See Fovdbaita. 

YOmiBT, <. A skilled workman, a 

taaoher of an jthing (Fxot.). [Swa. 

wn>BO, t. Hire, wages. (Prov.) 

See KABAyA, Tambt. 

FeairMnyi r. ^^om. (Imp. fondroy,) 
To be hired. (Pfot.) 

mftadfo, V, int. (Imp. mybndroa; 
BeL tybntf^MiM, Bel. Imp. i/b»- 
i^oy.) To hire one's self for 
wages. (E^T.) 

Htoitadro, v. tr, (Imp. mamondroa ; 
Bel. amondroana, Bel. Imp. omon- 
^noy.) To hire or rent anything. 

Fdadrofinidriaiia, tuff. Cheap. 

FO^FDBO, t. Blame, reproach, fault, 

oenaore. See Tsiinr. 

Xaaisy ftadro, 9. comp. To blame, 
to censure. 

Manila fd&dro, v, ccmp, (Imp. ma- 
nald /6ndro; Bel. analdm-pondrOt 
BeL Imp. anala6 f6ndro.) To put 
away blame, to excuse one's self. 

Miila fbndro, v. eomp. (Imp. miaAi 
findro; Bel. ialdm-pondro, Bel. 
In^. io^/iMro.) Same as pre- 

A'fli-ptodro, atff. Free from blame 
or censure. 
FOOrBBOFO'raSO, t. Supplioation. 

Mifdndrofbndro, v. int. (Imp. mi- 
findrojondroa ; Bel. xf^ndroffm- 
droanoy Bel. ^p. if6ndrofondr6y,) 
To beg earnestly or cravenly. See 


Fcmsa&XMA, 9. pmt. See Fovsbo. 
Fonf «A«Ay Afr. See FonnuL. 

FOHVVAVA, a<^'. ObUvious of, loss 
of memory. (Prov.) See Matt abcka. 
FO^VOAVA, fwr^/ ivo/. Spent, con- 
sumed, wasted. 
Fongiaaaa, 9. pan. (Imp.fmffdny.) 

To be spent, to be consumed. 
Findagana. PasslTe with infix. 
Mamdagana, v. tr. (Imp. mamongd' 

na; Bel. amon^dnanOf Bel. Imp. 

anwn^dttff.) To consume, to ruin, 

to make an end of. 
Lania fbagana. An imprecation. 

May you perish ! May the devil 

take you! 
FO'KOO, i. A boil, a carbuncle, an 

abscess. Also called Kuovoo. 
TiyVQOTRJLfVerbalroot. Exteiminated, 
completed, fallen to ruins, rotten at 
the stump, cut entirely off, as the 
hair. See Foxatba. 
Yoafdngotra, v. past. Extenninated, 

fallen in ruins. 
Fong6rana, v. pott. {JjooLp.fonffoiy.) 

To be extenninated, to be torn up 

by the roots, to be extirpated, 
llamdngotra, v. tr. (Imp. tnatmmgd' 

ra; Bel. amonfforana, Bel. Imp. 

amonffdry.) To consume, to clear 

off, to out off at the root. 
Fo'noo-bo'dt, atff. [voDT, the bottom. 1 
Consumed, wasteil ; lost, as the tail 
of a fowl. 
Fo'voo-do'ba, 9. and atff. [loba, the 
head.] A powder horn, a flask 
which is carried slung over the 
shoulders. Its name probably arises 
from the tip of the horn having been 
cut off; having the point or head 
knocked off. 
FO'VT, adv. When. It is always used 
of a past time. 

F6ny fUiavdlony. When he lived. 
FO'VT, t. A|speaiesof pigeon, belong- 
ing to a genus peculiar to Mada- 
gascar. Aleetroenas madaffoaearienaiSf 
L. Same as FoNiiroo. 
Fo'ndcax'tbo, t. [kaitso, green.] A 
species of pigeon. (Tan.) Columba 
JPtilUni, Schleg. Also called Fo- 


FO'HT, 9. The name of a kind of fish. 

Fo^xui'lt, t. A variety of the fish 



Fo'invA,'zA, <. A variety of tihe fish 


Fo'NiTB'NDBAirA, «. A Yaziety of the 

fish Font. 
FOKI'VCK), ». A provinoial name 
given to at least three speoies of 
pigeon. (Tan.) Same as Font, 
Font xaitso, and Fbtzliadabo. 
Foni^nooicai'tso, 9, [mattso, green.] 
AspeoieBof pigeon. (Betsim.) Same 
as Font. 
FO'VITBA, aty. and adv. Hard, ex- 
oeedingly; a short and stout person, 
animal, or bird. 
Fonltana, or Fondtaaa, A(f . Stout 

and short, robust. 
Xankftftnitra, v, tr. To consoli- 
date, to invigorate, to encourage, 

to confirm, to prove. (Prov.) 
Misikim-pdnitra. To gird up one's 

loins in earnest. 
FO'KJA, t, A lump of iron ore ; corps 
de reserve ; a prison. 
Al^aja, v. pass, (Imp. afot^'ao.) 

Used of that which is employed 

to bind anything or keep anything 

in check. (Prov.) 
Xamdaja, v, tr» To seize or catch 

hold of, as a canoe by a cord, or 

a bullock by the horns ; to entrap. 

Xafdiga, or Xafdigafdiga, adj\ 

Fo'njam-bt', 9. [vT, iron.] A bar of 

iron ore. 
FO'KO, s. a cover, an envebpe. 
Yoafbno, v. pass. Covered, dothed, 

wrapped up, shrouded. 
Afdno, V. pass, (Imp. afotUsy.) Used 

of anything employed as a cover 

or envelope. 
Fo&6si&a, V. pass. (Imp. fotUsy.) 

To be covered, to be wrapped up, 

to be shrouded. 
ICifdno, a^j. and v. int. (Imp. mi- 

f<m6sa ; Bel. ifonosana, Bel. Imp. 

\f(mosy,) Covered, wrapped up. 
Xamdno, v. tr. (Imp. matnonosa ; 

Bel. amondsana, Bel. Imp. amo- 

ndsy.) To cover, to wrap up, to 

swatne, to put the burial clothes 

on a corpse. 
Xif&no UUidy. A phrase used in 

speaking of the aead who have 

been buried with all honour ; lit. 
wrapped in silk. 
Fonisana, s. A wrapper, a oover 

for a book, etc. 
Kam6no fi^, v. camp. To wrap 

the dead in Laxba.. 
Xifdno vdlamdna iiy. It is plated 

with gold. 
Kdly am-ponbsana, adj. little when 
wrapped up, but of great value. 
Fo'nom-bi'tt, s. [vtpt, the foot.] 

Stockings. (Prov.) See Ba. 
Fo'nom-bo'ant, s. [voa, the kidneys.] 
Suet ; lit. the covering of the kid- 
neys. See Saboba. 
Fo'non-ja'nant, s. [zanaxa, off- 
spring.] The placenta. Used only of 
animals. See Akttba, Tavoitt. 
Fo'NON-TA'NANT,a. [tanana, thohattd.] 

Gloves. (Prov.) See Ga. 
Fo'non-to'ndbo, s. [tonsbo, a finger.] 

A fing^ cover. 
Fo'movi'lo, s. Jvilo for mLONA, a 
grass.] A kind of insect. Same as 
Fanoalabola, which see. Comp. 


FCKOXA. Boot of the following :~ 
Xifdnoka, v. int. To be wrapped 
up completely in anything, to 
nestle, to be snug. 
rO'KOXA, t. A charm used chiefly 
by thieves to induce sleep whether 
of people or dogs. 
FO'KOKA, ai^'. and s. Beduced to 
nothing, rotten, turned to dust, 
as a corpse ; a grave. (Prov.) 
Kifb&openoka fiana, v. int. To sit 
idly in the house with nothing to 
do. (Prov.) 
F6nop6no-dnuLa, s. A trifle, a baga- 
telle. (Prov.) 
FoNo'sAMA, s. See Fono. 
Fo No'siN A, V. pass. See Fono. 
FO'KTT. Boot of the following :~ 
Xafbnty, adj. Soft, tender ; feeble, 

pliant. (Prov.) 
ICamdnty, v. tr. (Imp. mamont^sa {f) ; 
Bel. amontisana\f)^ Bel. Imp. 
amonteso (/) .) To niake soft, flex- 
ible, plifuit. (Prov.) 
Fontdna, s. An emoUient, oil, 

grease. (Prov.) 
Fontifina, «. Same as 



JOrMTIMAj «. Boot of the follow- 

uzbntiiiA, V. int. Q^np* mifontina ; 
Bel. ifiiuinanay Bel. Imp. ifon^ 
tino.) To entangle, as thraad ; to 
vent one's displMsnre on an 
innooent party in ease of having 
no aathoritj over the goiltj ; to 
xetom to a fight after having 
been defeated. 
XUafftntina, r. int. Also used for 
pr eceding. 
TOVtO, t. A shmb (or tree P) used 

i n the mannfactnre of native nun. 
JiyWlBA. A oontraotion of FoM mu, 

which see. 
FOmSAXA. A word used in anger, 
something like an imprecation. 
(Prov .) 
FOmntx, Mfr*. Frov. for Bbibaxa, 

which see. 
FOHTBCKAXA, t. A long tube used 
as a blow-pipe for lolling birds. 
rProT.) See TazxoLi.. 
MifontrMcE, v. int. To be long 

and tube-like. (Prov.) 
Xaaumtr^aka, v. int. (Imp. maman- 
trodha; Bel. amontrodhana, Bel. 
Imp. amontrodhy.) To chase birds 
witn the above mentioned tube. 
(Prov .) 
VOITTST, t. The traveller's tree. 
(Betsim.^ Same as IUvimpotst 
(Betsim.), Bsmavo (Prov.), Bata- 
xzA, (&iK.), Akonsbohazo (Ptov.), 
and Bavihala, which last see. 
Gomp. Ohtbt. 
FaPa, 9. A tree. (Sak.) Fieut ? gp. 
Perhaps the same as Fompoha. 

FOPaHAlTA, s. A large tree. (Bets.) 
Fietu tp. Perhaps the same as 
Fopo (Sak.), and Fomfoha (Sak.) 
FO'BA, <. GiroumoiBion. 
Toafdim, v. pan. Ciroumoised. 
Foriaa, v. pass. (Imp. forab.) To 

be ciroumoised. 
Kifftra, a^. Circumoised. 
XamAra, v. tr. (Imp. mamord ; Bel. 
amordna^ Bel. Imp. amorad.) To 
Fo'sa-navaha'bt, 8. [nanahabt, Qod. J 
A person who by natoze needs no 

rOBA'HA, adj. and t. Full of joy, 
happy, angelic. (Prov.) [Swa. 
fwraiof gladness, joy.l Also the 
name of a tree which yields a gfummy 
substance used by the Betsimisa- 
raka for bird-lime. The fruit yields 
a kind of oil or grease employed by 
the women in their, toilet. (Betsim.) 
Calophyllwn inophyllum. L. Same 
as VoAXOTBT. (Betsim.) 

An aquatic herb; a4j. mined, de- 
stroyed, burnt. 

Fosa'ka, v. pats. See Fora. 

FOBAKKAHA, ». SnifOinff loudly, 
snorting, as a bullook when it is 
bdng kiUed. (Prov.) 

V. int. To snore 

loudly. ^*rov.) 
FOBA'BA Boot of the foUow* 

Xiforira, v. int. To fall down at 
full length ; to lose, not to win. 
See TsiiiABA. 
FO'BATBA. Boot of the follow- 

Xifdratra, v. int. To go in great 
companies. (Prov.) 
sumed, burnt; in naste, in a hurry. 


FOBE'BA, a4if. Same as Zbxt, which 

see; foul-mouthed. 
FO'BT, 9. The anus. [Jav. hurt, 

the back part.] See Vodt. 
Fo'bt ka'tt o'zatba, at^'. [matt, dead, 

OZATBA, a musde.] Fearless, har- 
dened, unconcerned. 

Xifdry mity dsatra, v. int. To be 
hardened, to be unconcerned. 
Fo'bocboat', 9. [voAT, a crocodile.] 

A sweet-scented shrub. (Prov.) 

Same as Baxbiazzna. 
Fo'bin-da'ka, i. [laxa, a canoe.] The 

end, nature, design. 

Tsy mahaUla fdrin-dika. Not to 
know the desire or object of any- 
thing. A vulgar phrase. 
Fo'bin-o'ndbt, 9. [ovDKTf a sheep.] 

An herb. Thunberyia Cyanea, Bojer. 
FOBI'SATBA, 9. A bird. (Prov.) 
FO'BIT&A. Boot of the following:— 

Yoftfdrltra, v, pan. Folded, wrap- 



Af6ritr», v. past, (Imp. a/oriU.) 
To be f oldad, to be tamed down, 
to be wrapped. 

Xifdritrm, tM. and v. tnl. (Bel. i/o- 
r^to#Mi.) Folded, tamed down. 

Xain&ritra, v. tr, Qbnp. mamar^ta; 

BeL oMoritefia, Bel. Imp. mmo^ 

r$to,) To fold up, to tom down, 

to wrap. 

Fo'bitra'xbo, 9. [ambo, high.] An 

FaSOFaSO, «. PoTerty, indigenoe, 

need, want. See Kafobo. 

]Cif6rof6ro, o^f'. Poor, wietohed, 
indigent, deatitate. 

Mikarofdrofdro. Also naed for 

]Cam6ro2dro, a^, Enormooa, fear- 
ful. (Proy.) 
VOBaFOTiU, «. A kind of scabies 

which rises in small thick pimples. 

Xamordfotra, adj. Affected with 

FOBO'HAHA, «. Cinders; in the 
provinces it means a brand, a 
burning brand. 

Fobo'han-ta'paka, », [tapaka, out 
off.] Oattle having one part black 
and the other white. (Prov.) 

Fobo'han-ta'fitba, », [tapitba, finish- 
ed.] A brand almost entirely burnt 
out. (Prov.) 

FOBOICA'LT,a. Aship'syard. (Prov.) 
[Swa. foromaU.'] 

FOBOKAZT, t. Cheese. [Fr. fro- 

JOrtLOmA, t. The name of a kind of 
grass used in making hats, baskets, 
etc. See Hazondsano. 

Fo'boicba'to, », [VATO, a stone.] An 
herb. (Bets.) Gyperm sp. 

FO'BOKA, a((f. Consumed, burnt, 
reduced to nothing, as an over- 
oooked pieoe of meat, a burnt house, 
etc. (Prov.) 

Fo'bok-ba'bt, adj. [vabt, rice.] Hav- 
ing no more rice. (Prov.) 

Fo'boic-bo'la, oi^, [voLA, mouev.] 
Having no more money. (Prov.) 


Bice taken along with an army 
going to war. 
Fo'box-po'totba, a4f. [fototba, a 
root.] Cleared off, all gone. 

FOUOVA, wrbal root. Fomad; fash- 
ioned as a thing. See Abt (rv.). 
Yoafdrona, w, jHMf .^Fomied, onsMly 

fashioned, prodnoed, arranged. 
Fordaina, v. paot, (Imp. forony.) 
To be formed, to be fawhioned, to 
be created. 
Xamdrona, v. ir, (Imp. mmmorona; 
Bel. omoronana^ Bel. Imp. amo- 
rbny.) To form, to areata^ to 
fashion, to produce, to anange. 

FOBCKBO, a4j. Very sharp, aa a gust 
of wind. (Prov.) 

FO'BOSS'TT, 9. A taUe fork. [Fr. 

FO'BOYATO, adj. Unkind, hazah, 
vigorous, omel, onmeroiful. 

FO'SA, 9, * *A small and graoefnl oat- 
like animal peculiar to Madagascar 
(both the genus and the family of 
which it is the sole member are 
confined to the island), fonneily class- 
ed among the Vivenidn, but now 
considered to form a distinct family 
between the cats and civets." It 
is a plantigrade animal andextremely 
ferocious. Ciyptoprocta ferox, Benn. 
Probably the same as PunsALA. 
Also the name of a species of civet, 
of a peculiar genus, D'Aubenton's 
fossane. Fo99a d^AubenUmii, Gray. 

FO'SA, 9. Backbiting, calumniating, 
scandaliaing. Comp. EvDBiKnmBi- 


Afdta, 9. pass, (Imp. afo9a6.) Used 
of the person wiio is denounoed 
as being bad. (Prov.) 

Foaaina, v. pa99. (Imp. /o9ao, or 
/oMy.) To be backbitten, to be 

Ififdta, V, tr, (Imp. mifo9d; BeL 
t/ottifta, Bel. Imp. i/Majf.) To 
backbite, to defame, to scandal- 

Fifosina, «. Backbiting, slander. 
Fo'ban* o'lona, 9, [OLONA, a person.] 

A common report. 
Fo'sA va'va, 9, [VAYA, the mouth.] An 

idle rumour. (Prov.) 
FO'BAFO'BA, «. Bomour, a flying 


Fdiafdaina, v, pass, (Imp. fisqfo^ 
sa6,otf69^fo9aff,) To be reportody 
to be rumoured. 


MiAtaftMi, V. int. To oironlate a 
mmonr, to report what is said. 
TOfABI'TA. Sune as FoFOfiABiTA. 

See under Fo. 
FofiB'BDrA, and FosB^SAVA, v.pau. See 


TO^SITBA, «. A kind of insect. 

Tosdrana, aty. Eaten by the Fo- 
BiTBA , as sngar-oane, maize, etc. 
TO'SITEA. Boot of the following :— 

Toafftsitra, v. pass, Rnbbed so as 
to produce fire, ignited by fric- 
tion; haying a hole made by 

Al&iltra, V, pass, (Imp. afosiro.) 
Used of the things rubbed to pro- 
duce fize. 

JoaixiJUk^ V, pass, (Jmp, ,fMiro,) To 
be rabbed to produce Hie, 

Uf&sitra, v, int, (Imp. mifosira; 
Bel. i/osh'anay Bel. Imp. ifosho.) 
To produce fixe by friction. 

XamMitra, v, tr, (Imp. matnosh^a ; 
Bel. amash-ana, Bel. Imp. amosk' 
ro,) To ignite by friction. 
TO'SITEA. Boot of the following. 


AAsitra, v, pass, (Imp. afosh^,) 
Used of anything pnt into some- 
thing else, as a brand in a fire, 
or a banana in embers to be roast- 
ed. (Prov.) 

Fosdrsaa, v, pass. To be urged 

Mifftsitra, v, int, (Bel. ifoserana,) 
To enter anything, to hide in the 
earth, to become embedded, as 
locusts and chameleons in deposit- 
ing their eggs, or as a serpent in 
the grass, etc. ; to be continually 
engaged in business with ano- 
Uier ; to urg« importunately. 

■aadidtra, v. tr, (Imp. mamossra; 
Bel. amoserana, Bel. Imp. amose- 
TO.) To thrust in, as a brand, 
etc., thrust into the &ce, (Prov.) 

Kamdsitra. s. Hie bit of a brace. 
rOTAFO'TA, s. Slaver, spittle. Gen- 
erally used of such as is produced in 

vas^T or from eating voraciously. 

Af5taf5ta, v, pass. (Imp. af6tafota6.) 
Used of that which is ejected 
from the mouth in eating vora- 

Ffttafotaina, v, pass. (Imp. f6tafo' 

ta6.) To be eaten voraciously. 
Miffttafito, V. int, (Imp. mifdtafo- 
td; Bel. ifdtafotana, Bel. Imp. 
if6tafota6,) To slaver, to foam, 
to rave. 
F^TAKA, s. Mud, slime, bog; a 

FotAhina, adj. Muddy, oozy, boggy. 
Asiam-pfttaka, « . pass. To be be- 
smeared with mud. 
Xafdtaka, adj. Occupying one's 
time. Probably arising £rom the 
habit of a person diligent in plant- 
ing rice. Always in the mud. 
Xanftso-pdtaka, v. eomp. To put 

mud on a wall ; fig. to vilify. 
Xaiatim-pdtaka, Mf^'. Dyed in mud. 
Fo'TA-MAfsnT, s, fMAiwrr, black.] 
Bark coloured mud used for stain- 
ing wood, etc. 
Fo'ta - ha'wdbt, *. fnANDBT, lying 
down.] Mud at rest. Used in the 
following phfase, something after 
the EngUsh, «*to stir up mud" :— 
Xamftha f6ta-mindry, v. eomp. To 
renew a dispute that had been 
previously settled. 
FO^TAHA Boot of the follow- 

Voafdtana, v. pass. Eaten vora- 
ciously. (Piov.) See Bosixa, 

Fot&Dina, v. pass. (Imp. fotHno,) 
To be eaten voraciously. (Prov.) 

Mif6tampdtona, v, int. Imp. mifd- 
tampotdno; Bel. ifStampotdnana, 
Bel. Imp. ifdtampotdno.) To 
eat eagerly, to devour greedily. 

][am6tana, v. tr. (Imp. mamotdna ; 

Bel. amotdnanaj Bel. Imp. amotd' 

no.) To eat voraciously. (Prov.) 

FO'TAHA Boot of the following :— 

Af6taxLa, v. pass. (Imp. afotdno.) 
Used of a cord, etc., wound round 
something. (Prov.) 

Fotinina, v. pass. (Imp. fotdno.) 
To be twisted. rProv.) 

Mam6tana, v. tr. (Imp. mamotdna; 
Bel. amotdnana^ Bel. Imp. amo- 
tdno.) To twist a cord round 
something, to twist tobacco leaves, 
eto. (Prov.) 


][mm6tftmpdtaiia. Same as the pz8- 
oeding. (Prov.) 

Fotdnina, adj. Gross - grained. 
FO'TAT&A, «. A large tree. (Betsun.) 

Butonica apieulata, Miers. 
FOTE'TAXA. Bootof thefoUowing:-- 

Voafotdtaks, v, pass, Besmeured, 
stained, tarnished, daubed. 

Afotdtaka, v. pass, (Imp. afoteUho.) 
Used of that which is employed 
for besmearing. 

Fotetfthina, v, pass. (Imp. foUtdho.) 
To be besmeared, to oe stained, 
to be tarnished. 

Xifotdtaka, v. int. and. adj. (Rel. 

ifote tdhana.) Stained, tarnished. 

FO'TITRA, s. Beyersement, turning 


yoaf6titra, v. pass. Reversed, in- 
yertod, abused, vilified, subverted, 
cursed. Used of unnatural con- 

Af6titra, t;. pass. (Imp. afotiro.) 
To be inverted ; to be reviled, to 
be vilified. 

Mifdtitra, adj. Inverted; inces- 
tuous ; turning round as an 
enraged animal. 

Xamdutra, v. tr. (Imp. mamotira ; 

Bel; amoterana^ Bel. Imp. amoU' 

ro.) To invert ; to curse, to vilify, 

to use opprobrious language. 

FOTY, adj. A provincial word for 

FoTSY, which see. [Mai. putih.] 
FOTO'AHA, s. An appointed time. 

Same as Fitoaka. 

Foto&nina, v. pass. (Imp. fotodny.) 
To be bespoken at a certain time. 

Hamotdana, v. tr. (Imp. mamotod- 
na; Bel. amotodnana^ Bel. Imp. 
amotodny.) To appoint a time. 
Poto'a-ka'tt, *. [maty, dead.] An 

appointed time which cannot be 

altered, a fixed period. 
Fotoa'ic-paetjaka'na, 8. [fanjakana, a 

kingdom.] Liable to be arrested 

for a crime ; a successor or heir. 
Foto'an-a'ndso, ». [andro, the day.] 

An appointed day, an appointed 

Foto'an-dra'zana, s. [hazana, an 

ancestor.] The manners and cus- 
toms of the andents. (Prov.) 

Foto'an' iTSiB'vnrA, s. [i, personal 
article, tst, not, bvina, a sneeze.] 
A mutual misunderstanding as to 
an appointment. Used only in the 
following phrase : — 
Mana^ fotdan* Itiidvina. To mu- 
tually misunderstand a time 
Foto'an-to'kana, s. JFtokaita, alone.] 
Adistinct and specifiedappointment. 
Foto'an -tst' miha'tra, s. [tbt, not, 
MIHATB4, reaching up to. j A word 
used by the diviners to express fire 
looked at from a distance, alluding 
to a custom in the Faditra. 
FO'TOFaTO, s. Entanglement, dis- 
order, confusion. 

F6tofot6ina, v. pass. (Imp./ofo/b^.) 
To be disordered, to be deranged, 
to be made to be confused. 
Miffttofdto, adj. Entangled ir- 
regular, dissfranged, confused, 
angry, excited; used also of a 
strong wind. 
Xisafdtofdto. Also used for the 

Mamdtofdto, v. tr. (Imp. mamotC" 
fotoa; Bel. amotofotoana, Bel. 
Imp. amotofotoy.) To derange, 
to oisorder, to rume, to confuse. 
FO'TOKA, s. A tree. (Betsim.) Lep- 
tokena turhinata^ Baker. Also a 
shrub (Sak.). Also a large tree with 
hard wood used in house-building 
and whose fruit is edible. Ithodo^ 
Usna altivoUt Thenars. 
FO'TOTBA, s. Boot, origin, source ; 
the foundation of a house ; a stump* 
of a tree in a river bed or mud; 
three eggs. FMal. pantat, funda- 
ment, bottom. J 

Fot6rana, v. pass. (Imp. fotdry.) 
To be held by the roots, or close 
to the head, as one holding a 
hammer ; to be searched out, t>o be 
examined to the very root. 
Mam6totra, v. tr. (Imp. mamotora ; 
Bel. amotbranaj Bel. Imp. amoto^ 
ry.) To take root ; to investigpate 
thoroughly ; to grasp. 
Tsy hita f&totra, adv. and s. In- 
comprehensible, mysterious. 
Amp6to-m6ty. Near, close, quite 
at hand. A vulgar word. 



Ixa^ ffttotra. A nest of three eggs. 

lUsaka ifdtony, Used of frnits 
that are allowed to ripen on the 
trees in contradistinction to arti- 
ficial ripening. Gomp. Otbiza. 

F5to-bd, «. A tree, Barvingtwiia 
9peeio§af Forst. (Betsim.) 
Fo'To-Bo'x.AirA, «. [yolaita, speech.] 

The sense or dnft of a speech. 

Fo'to-bo'lo, «. [told, hair.] A lock 

or plait of hair. 
Fo'to-db'la, «. [lbla, the tong^.] 

Hie root of the tongue. 
Fo'to-pa'tt, 9. [fatt, a corpse.] The 

cause of death. (Proy.) 
Fo'to-fs', «. [fb, the thigh.] The 

top of the thigh. 

Haldto>pd, adv. Up to the but- 
Fo'to-ta'naha, s. [tavaita, the hand.] 

The arm. (Prov.) 
Fo'io-TB'irY, *. [tbwt, a word.] Boot 

of a word, etymology. 
Fo'to-tob'bava, «. JTOESANA from 

TOBTRA, placed.1 The principle of 

life and morals, the motive of 

conduct. rE*roy.) 
Fo'totb* AXSTntA^ s. [AsirmrA, dis- 
ease.] An uncertain event, an 

undefined period, a doubtful issue. 

Mi&a^ry x6totr' ardtina, v. camp. 
To wait about for some uncertain 
event, or for the arrival of some 
one of whose coming there is no 
reasonable expectation. 
Fo'totb* B'LAsrr, «. [elatba, a wing.] 

The wing-bone next to the body of 

Fo'TO-TaA'BiXA, 8. [sABiXA, the sldn of 

the banana stalk.] Business easily 

Fo'to-tso'fiwa, #. [^BOFiNA, the ear.] 

The part immediately below the 

TO'TOTRA, 8. A large torch of 

ox -dung burned in £be ancestral 

comer of the house at the time of 

circumcision. Also the largest piece 

of wood in a native loom. 
POTTRA. Used for Fitba, which 

7(KTRAF0TSA. Used for Botbabo- 
iBAy which see. 

FO'IHAXA. Used for Potbaxa, which 

FOTSI'AXA. Used for Potbiaka, 

^v^hich see 

FOTSaAXA. Boot of the foUow- 

][ilbtr6aka, r. int, (Imp. mifotrod' 
ha ; Bel. ifotrodhinaf Bel. Imp. 
ifotrodhy,) To rise as smoke ; to 
get very angry ; to go in anger 
to a person with whom one has a 

FaTflt; adj. White; disregarded, 
vain, worthless, disparaging. [Hal. 
putih and in many Mai. Arch, lan- 
guages; also tnaphutUj maphuH, etc.] 
voa&tsy, V. pa88. Whitened, clean- 
Fotsiana, or Fotf Ina, v. pa88. (Imp. 

fot8io.) To be made white. 
Fondtsy. Passive with infix. 
Xamdtsy, r. tr. ^np. mamoiala ; 
Bel. amot8%anay Bel. Imp. amo- 
t8\o.) To whiten. 
Mam6tsif6tsy, v. ini. To disre- 
gfard, to speak lightly of. 

Fo'tst anqa'vo, adj. [ANaAYo, on the 
top.] Used of the Dumt wick of a 
lamp which has burned to white 

Fo'tbt anoo'la, adj, [angola, the 
white ash of tobacco.] Used of the 
burnt end of a cigpar, etc. ; fig. 
having all power extracted, depriv^ 
of all power. 

Fo'tsxava'dika, 8. [yadixa, turned 
over.] Shrubs, of which there are 
two species. The Betsimisaraka 
place one of the plants near their 
houses and beds to keep away 
ghosts. Heliehry8wn {?) sp. 

Fo'tbie'latba, 8. [blatba, a wing.] 
A species of heron. Ardea gulari8. 
Bosk. Same as Danoobo icaintt. 

Fo'tst pana'hy, adj, [panahy, the 
soul.] Uoed of one of indelicate 
conversation, lewd, vulgar, inde- 

Fo'tsy fi'aka, adj. Of a whitish 

Fo'tsy he'hy, *. [hehy, laughter.] 
A giggler. 

Fo'tsy hy, #. [hy, a tooth.] A gig- 
gler. (PlOT.) 


Fo'tbt h^aka. White (of wounds). 

Fo'tbt ko'tbo, a4j. [kotbo, a hoof.] 
Cultiyated, renderod fertile, rich, 
opulent, abnndant. Ueed ol soil 
and a kingdom. 

Fo'tsdca'so, f. [iCASO, the eye.] A 
bird, probably the Zosteropa mada^ 
ffosearismiSf or Pabzxaso, a speoiee 
of bneh-creeper ; a white-eyed 

Fo'tszxa'vo, adj. [mavo, brown.] A 
whitish-l«own oolonr; «. A plant 
need by the Tanala as a oharm to 
ensure saooess in any nndartaking. 

Fo^tsdc-ba'bt, s, [yabt, rioe.l Peeled 
rioe, rioe deared from the nude as 
distinflroished from Akotbt. 
Yirj ietsy, «. A rioe whioh is white 
when peeled. 

Fo'tbdcba'binazo'ho, 9. [axoho, a 
fowl.] An herb. (Antsih.) Alternan- 
thera teuilis, R. Br. 

F0'T8Z]CBA.'BZirAX0'H0LA.'HT, «. [aXOHO- 

LAHT, a oook.] An herb. Pohf^ 
gonum teneffaUrue, Meisn. Same 
as Tamboloana (Antcdh.), Pibabt 
rBets.^, Vabinaxoholaht, Dayt 
(Bets.), and AniTOTAOBBLOirA (Bets.) . 

Fo tbdova'dika, s. [laYADzxA, turned 
oyer.] A shrub. (Bets.) Pipturus 
integrifolitu. Baker. 

Fo'tbinanaba'bt, «. [manahabt, God.] 
An herb, the leaves of whioh are 
used for stomaoh disorders. Senecio 
eoehlearifoliuSf Bojer. Same as Ha- 
BANA. (Bets.) 

Fo'tst boba, ae^', [boba, spittle.] 
Used of one who cannot be beiieyed, 
or one whose words are disregard- 

Fo'tbt tb'nt, adj. [tbwt, a word.] 
Same as preceding. 

Fo'tbt tbiwat', adj. [tsinat, the 
intestines. ] Used of one perishing 
from hunger. 

Fo'TBiyAni'HANA, ». [yadixa, turned 
over.] A shrub. Melichrysum eordi- 
foliunty DC. 

Fo'tbt ya'raya'bana, adj, [yabaya- 
baka, a door.] Used of one who 
gads about from house to house. 

Fo'tbt -7^/1/},$. [yoxo, hair.] Agxej- 
headed person. 

Fo'tbiyo'loicano', 9. An herb used 
by the Beteileo in the ceremony 
of Salaxamoa for exordaing evil 
spirits. ffelichrfium tripUmmre^ 

Fo'tbiyo'loicaho'sana, «. [tokava, 
alone.] An herb. Same as Faro- 
boboka (Bets.), which see, and 
KiAVOATAHT. (Bets.) 

Fo'tbxyo'loxano'bo, «. [xahobo (tobo), 
to pcnnt oat.] A medicinal herb. 

Fo't hi v o 'ii t , ». [yoht, yellow. ] An 
herb. (Betsim.) Agerutum ct ttjfmi ' 
des, L. (F) Ssme as HAmTBDmcPAV- 


Fo'tbiyo'eoka, 9. [yoeowa, the nape.] 
A palm, from the leaf -sheaths ox 
wh ich a kind of hat is made. 

FO'TSIVT, adv. Alone, exchulYe of 
anything else, for nothing, insigni- 
fioantly, oauseleesly. See Foava, 
HiANT, Mazna. 

FCKZA, 9. A small fresh-water 

Fo'zaba'la, 9, [hala, a raider.] A 
crab that swims only and does not 
bury itself in the mud. 

Fo'zaha'yatba, 9. [hayatba, a jump.] 
A swelling on the arms. 

Fo'ZAXAUS'lCT, 9, [liALBXT, SOft.] A 

crab without its shell. 
Fo'zandboho'ho, 9. [bonoko, milk.] 

A whitish kind of crab. 
Fo'zandbi'aza, 9, [biaxa, a flood.] A 

small sea-crab. 
Fo'zAO'mr, 9, [our, a riyer.] A riyer- 

There are other yarieties called 


NA, FozAXAXNmrA, and Fozayato. 
7(yZKF(yZA, Boot of the follow- 
ing: — 
Yoafisafbia, v, pa89. Used roughlj, 

squeezed, crumpled. 
Fdsafosaina, v. pa99. (Imp. fizafo' 

zac.) To be treated roughly, to 

be crumpled. 
Xamdiafbia, v, ir, (Imp. num&sa^ 

fozd ; Itel. amozafozdnaf Rel. Imp. 

amozqfoeao.) To use roughly, to 




G. Th« sixth letter of the Malagasy 
Alphabet. It is always sounded as 
the hard ^ in English. Wherever the 
letter » (or y) preoedes ^, another is 
sounded Mlightlr after it for eu- 
phony. Thus Gadba, a ohain, is 
pronounced as sp^ed, but MxaA* 
DiLk is pronounoed Mioiasba.. When 
a trisyllabic word ending in the weak 
syllables -va (or -nt), *ka, or -tba 
is ioined to another commencing 
withy, the 9 remains unchanged, 
but the -KA (or -nt) loses the a (or y)^ 
as : Tbavoh-ooaika [riUNOirr ooai- 
ka]; the -ka and -tea are elided, 
aa TAPA-OZX.ABT [tapaka and oila- 
bt] ; ToHoo-ooAiZA [tonootba and 

When the verbal prefix Man- is 
joined to words oommenciuff with 
h^ the h is sometimes changed to g^ 


In some cases ox roots commencing 
with a vowel the letter g is insertea 
for ou^ony, as : MANOAiiA [xan- and 
alaI, Jf angetotba [man- and bto- 


OA, «. Gloves. [Fr. ganU^ 
XaaaA gA, r. wmp. To make or to 

wear gloves. 
Oa'n-ta'naka, tt [tavana, the hand.] 

OA'BOXA, t. A heap, a mass, a lot, 
a total of many items. Comp. Ka- 
FOKA, ICapo-beny; also AjiroNTAirr, 
Ayoba, Ajcbonoadint. 
Agiboka, r. jdam. (Imp. ayabohy.) 

To be put in a mass. 
KigXboka, r. int. and adj. To be 

in a mass. 
Xaagiboka, r. tr, (Imp. mangahb' 

ha; Rel. anaabohana, Rel. Imp. 

anyabbhy.) To put in a mass, to 

gather in a heap. (Proy.) 
Manag&boka, r. tr. (Imp. managaho- 

ha ; Rel. auagabobanaf Kel. Imp. 

anagabbhy.) Used in Imerina for 

the preceding. 
Ga'bo-ba'to, 9. [vATO, a stone.] A 

heap of stones. 
Ga'bo-ba'baxa, «. [babaxa, spilled.] 
Words spoken in a hurried manner. 

Xanad aagibo-rtoika, r. Mmp. To 

turn out words in a heap. 
OA'DBA, «. A chain, fetters, mana- 
cles ; in the provinces it also means 
a look, generally a padlock. [Ar. 
qaidy root gadJ] 
Yoagidra, v. pass. Fettered^ ehain- 

ed, bound. 
Agidra, t;. past, (Imp. agadrad,) 

Used of &e chains or fetters 

Oadrana, v. pats. (Imp. gadrab.) 

To be chained, to be fettered, to 

be bound. 
Oin&dra. Passive with infix. 
MigAdia, v. int. and adj. (Bel. 

igadrdna.) To be in irons, fet- 
tered, bound by fetters. 
Maagidra, v. tr. HCmp. mangadrd ; 

Bel. angadrdna^ Bel. Imp. anga^ 

drab.) To fetter, to bind, to 

chain, to put in irons. 
Managidnt, v. tr. Same as preoed- 

Xanila gMn, v. somp. To unloose 

fetters, to remove fetters. 
Ga'dba b'tt, s. [bit, narrow.] Hand- 
cuffs, ancle fetters ; in the provinces 
a wooden block for the hands. 
Ga'dba fo'ht, «. [fokt, short.] A 

short chain, a fetter. 
Ga'dba la'va, s. ^laya, long.] A 
long chain stretchmg from the nedc 
to the feet; a man in fetters; a 
Ga'dbak-da'lana, s, [LAZiABA, a road.] 

Guards, sentinels« 
Ga'dban-tba'no, s. Ctbaivo, a house.] 
A lock on the door of a house. 


oo, s. A rod of iron between the 
legs, allowing a person to walk, but 
not to run away. See Akpaiboo. 

GA'DBAOADBA, a. A bird ; the sand 
grouse. (Prov.) 

GA'DBAOA'bBA, s. Harshness of the 
voice, a rough voice, a flaw in the 
sound, as the sound of a cracked 

Xigidragftdra, adj. Having a rough 
voice, having a flaw in the sound. 

OA'DBAXA. Same as preceding. 

Gadba'ba, v. pass. See Gauba. 



OA'FAXA. An imprecation. (Prov.) 
Used only as follows : — 
Oiliftka lo ! Same as Fortsaka. lo ! 

OA'OA, adj. Amazed, astonished at. 
It governs an aconsative case, as 
Gaoa ahao aho, I am astonished 
at yon. See Ankona, Ebhaza, 
Taitba, Talanjona. [Jav. gaget, 
kayet^ to startle.] 
Xiffiga, r. int. (Bel. and Pass. 

iffoffdna,) To wonder at, to be 

Mahagiga, t^. tr, and adj. Imp. 

and Rel. not used. To prodnoe 

wonder, to make astonished; 

Xitog&ga or Mit&lagiga, v. int. 

To be struck with astoniiahment. 
Hagagina,orFa]iagagina, «. Won- 
der, astonishment, amazement ; a 

wonder, a miracle. 
GA'OA', «. A provincial word for 

Gk>AiKA, which see. [Ifal. gagak.^ 
GA'GAGA'GA, «. Sobbing, crying. 
Gomp. Gooooooo. 
Mig&gag&ga, v. int. (Imp. migiga- 

gaga; Rel. i^dgagagana, Kel. 

Imp. igdgagagao.) To sob, to cry, 

to complain bitterly. 
GAGA'XA, $. The act of drinking 
mm from a bottle. 
Mana5 gagika, r. comp. To drink 

rum &om a bottle. 
GA'GILA'HT, s. [laht, masculine.] 
Same as Adalalahy, which see. 
Probably a oorruption of Gaqa- 


GA'GO, ». A lump at the back of the 

head. (Prov.) 

Magftgo, a^. Big-headed like a 
Mozambique. (Prov.) 
GAGO'lTA. Prov. for Ooana, which 

Gaoo'nina, r. pa$8. See Gona. 
GAI'XA. Boot of the following. Comp. 
Feht, Fatot&a, Geht, Hazona, 


Yoagaika, v. pass. Tied, squeezed, 

grappled, grasped. 
Gaihina, or Gdhina, v. pass. (Imp. 

gkho.) To be tied, to be bound, 

to be confined. 
Xigalka, a^. Tied, bound, confined. 

Mawgaika, v. tr. (Imp. manghha; 

Bel. angehana^ Bel. unp. angiho.) 

To tie, to bind together, to 

grasp ; fig. to press, to constrain, 

to force, to urge. Gomp. Hazxa.. 

In some of the provinces Gaika 

and its derivatives are used for the 

Hova Antbo and its derivatives. 

GAI'lTA, adj. Disappointed. See Di- 

80 hevitra, fola-tana-xanondbo, 


Mangaina, a^. Disappointed. 
Mangftin-ti61a, adj. [sola, bald.] 
Disappointed, not getting what 
one expected. 
GAI'lTGAI'lTA. Boot of the fdlow- 
ing. See Daindaika. 
Mlgaingaina, a4j. Sultry, oppres- 
sive. Used of the weather. 
OA'JA, s, A provincial word for 

Gk)AiKA, which see. 
GA'KA. Prov. for Goka, which see. 
GA'XA, or GA'GA'XA, s. The quack- 
ing of a duck. 

MigUn, or lOgftgtta, v. int. To 
GALA'Bni A. Boot of the following :— 
Migal&bina, v. int. (Imp. migala" 
bina; Bel. igalahtnana, Bel. Imp. 
igalabino.) To act according to 
one's own sweet will; to take 
one's ease and enjoy the good 
things of this life. 
OA'LAGA'LA, s. Gondition of some- 
thing (Prov.), as: — 
Migilagftla, o. int. To be too long, 
to exceed in length, as a beam, a 
spear, or bayonet protruding too 
far. (Prov.) 
GA'LIGA'LY, adj. Bad. Used in 
speaking of a gun, or work badly 
executed. (Prov.) 
GA'LOXA, s. A provincial word for 
Aloka, and used as the name of a 
high mountain in the forest visible 
from Pasindava Bay. 
OALO'KA. Prov. for Nqobodova, 

which see. 
GALOSH A, «. Gold or silver laoe. 

[Eng. galloon,"] 
GaloVa po'tst, s. [fotby, white.] 

Silver laoe. 
Galo'na xe'na, s. [hevjl, red.] Gold 



ftA'KAXBA, «. The gamut of music. 

[Engr. gamtU,"] 
GAKEXA, », A tab, a bucket. [Fr. 

GAYA, #. A TOOTizunal name for a 
duck. See Oanaoaita, Vobombji- 

GA'VA. Boot of the following. 

rMal. and Jay. kana^ hit, struck.] 

See PoKA, Dona. 

▼oagiaa, v, pass. Struck against, 
knocked against, asa door against 
its posts. 

Oinliia, r. pass. (Imp. gdno.) To 
be knocked so as to sound loudly, 
as the shutting of a door. 

Oanginina, v. pass. (Imp. gangdno.) 
To be kniMsked repeatedly so as to 
make a report, as the sound of 
the weaving instruments. 

Mgina, t, tr. Hinp. none; Bel. 
iganana, Bel. imp. igano.) To 
Imook one*8 aelf against some- 
thing so as to make it give forth a 
loud noise. 

Xangina, t*. tr. (Imp. none ; Bel. 
angdnana, Bel. Imp. angdno.) To 
kxiook something and make it 

Oiaa htaana, s. [hoxana, to eat.] 
A mode of wrestling witii an ox. 
0A'VAGA'JIA, «. A duck, a word used 

in calling ducks. See Voboicbaza- 

HA. Also root of the following : — 

Oiaaganalna, v. pass. (Imp. gdna^ 
ganao.) To be carriea carefuUjr. 
Pkobaoly a oozTuption of Gena- 
OXVAIKA. Comp. Kakakasta. 

Miginagina, v. int. Prov. for Mi- 
tanatana. See Bavabana, Saka- 
OA'VOA, adj. ProT. for Soa, Tsaba, 

which see. 
Gakoa'nina, v. pass. See Gana. 
OA'lTOniA, s. A small sea crab. 

Ga'itina, v. pass. See Gana. 
OAO'HA, s. A person who lives only 

in the woods ; a boy or lad. (Prov.) 
Gao'k-da'ht, «. [laht, masculine.] A 

youth of immoral conduct. (Prov.) 
Gao'n-o'loita, s. [olona, a person.] A 

savage. (Prov!) See Dr. 

eAaiTA. Boot of the following :— 
Kigadna, v. int. (Bel. igaSnana.) 
To reach up to. See Mipaza, 


OAO'TBA, s. The gout. [Eng. gout.] 

OABA'BA, s. A large open wicker 
basket for carrying Bofia, birds, 
etc. ; a hole in tiie ground ; a water- 

OABA'KA. A provincial word for 
Karaxa, which see. [Qwa. ghttrama.'] 

GABAXA'BO. See Noaraicaso. 

GABABAXA, s. Gurgling in the 
throat from a g^gle. [Comp. Ar. 

Mana6 gftrarika, v. eomp. To use 
a gargle. 

GABA'BO. Same as Hatbixana, which 

OABA'ST. A corruption of the French 
grace. See Valo, Fona. 
Kigariiy, v. int. (Imp. migarasla ; 
Bel. igaraslana, Bel. Imp. igara" 
sio.) To beg for mercy. 
OASFBA, adj. Feeble, imbecile, 
weak. See Osa, Bobbsa, Bbba. 
Migardrardra, adj. To be feeble, 
to be weak. 
aA'BISrST. Used as follows :— 
Mana6 giriiliy. To fire ofP can- 
OA'ST. See Malaoast. 
Gasina, or O&iigaiina, v. pass. 
(Imp. gaslo.) To be put into 
Malaga^, to be done in Mala- 
gasy fashion. 
GATO, s. The guava. (Betsim.) 

fEng. guava.] See Goavt. 
GATOBFAHA, s. A kind of shrub. 

See Anoavodiana. 

GAZE'TT, s. A gazette, a newspaper; 

a report. [Eng. gazette.] 

Mana6 gaiety, v. int. To publish 

something, to make widely known. 

GE'AKA. Ptov. for Gxaxa, which 

GFBAXA. Boot of the following :~ 
Kangdbaka, adj. Bavenously hun- 
gry ; used also of a bap: that had 
been crammed full but is now par- 
tially empty. 
GKBA, adj. A provincial word for 
Lehibb, Maxadibt, Kobza, which 


eVBBA, or eVDRAOEDSA, adj, and 
». JjoobbLy tied ; a gold chain worn 
loosely ; fatigued, tu«d. 
Yoag^edragddra, v, past. Made loose, 

worn rather loosely. 
Agddrai^ddra, «. past, (Imp. ag^ra" 

oedrao.) Used of a oord tied 

Oddragedraina, v. ptut. (Im^. ge^ 

drofredrao.) To be loosely tied. 
Migddragddra, v, int. To be loosely 

XangddragMra, v. tr, (Imp. man- 

ffrdragedrd ; Bel. angidragedrdna, 

Kel. Imp. angedragedrab.) To tie 

up loosely. 
GE'DBOOE'DBO, 9. A harsh noise, 
a rough sound, a bass voiQe ; jargon. 
See Gadbaoadba. 
<Hdro|^edrdi]ia, v, pa**. (Imp. gedro' 

gedrog,) To be addressed in a 

hardi voice. ^ProT.) 
MigddrogMro, o^'. Having a harsh 

XangddrogMro, v, tr. (Imp. mon- 

gedrogedroa ; Bel. angidrogedrbana^ 

Kel. Imp. angidrogedrbgS To lab- 

ber about something. (Prov.) 
GFaFKA. Bedup. of Qbka, which 


GFaY, or GAI'OY, at^\ Imprudent, 
indiscreet, obstinate, foolish, mad. 
Amb6a g^nr* -^ n^ ^8' ^^ 


GVOY, «. The shallow water when 
the tide has receded. (Prov.) See 
GFEY. Boot of the following. See 
Fbht, Gaixa, Gbja, Oia. 
Yoagdhy, v. pa9$. Tied firmlv, 

grasped, squeezed ; governed well, 

Agdhy, V. past, (Imp. agehko.) 

Used of that employed for binding 

or tying. 
Oehdiina, v. past. (Imp. gehezo.) 

To be tied, to be oound, to be 

forced, to be pressed. 
Gindhy. Passive with infix. 
Mighhj.adj. Tied, fastened. 
Hangdhy, v. tr. (Imp. mangeheza; 

Bel. amgehkana, Bel. Imp. angs' 

heao.) To hold something faist, 

to tie, to bind. 

Gb'kzna, v. pass. See Gaixa and Qi 
GE'IXA. Same as Geka, which see. 
GE'JA. Same as Gkht and Qbka, 

which see. 

Yoa^dja, v.pass. Same as Voaoeht. 

Ag^a, V. pass. (Imp. agejab.) Same 

as AOBHT. 

GigAna, v. pass. (Imp. gsjad.) Same 

as Gbhszzka. 
Gindja. Passive with infix. Same 

as GnrxHT. 
lOgdja, a4i. Same as Miobhy. 
Maagdja, v. tr. (Imp. mangejd ; Rel. 

angejdna, Bel. Imp. angejah.) Same 

as IklANaSHT. 

GE'KA, s. Ckmstraint, violence. (Prov.) 
Comp. Gaixa. 

Yoagdka, v. pass. Constrained, oom- 
pelled. (Prov.) 

(Imp. geho.) To be 

to be 

Gdhina, v. pass. 
forced, to be coi 

ICangdka, 9. tr. (Iznp. wumgiha; 
Bel. angihana, Bel. imp. astgiho.) 
To compel, to make one do a 
thing against his will. (Prov.) 
GE'KA. Same as Gaka, which see. 
GFITAGE'ITA, s. Wearing the Laicba 
loosely, a slovenly manner of dress- 
ing, carrying softly. Comp. Gsdka- 


Gdnagenaina, v. pass. (Imn. getut^ 
gena6. ) To be , worn loosely, to be 
carried carefully. 
Xigdnagina, v. int. (Imp. migbna- 
gend ; Bel. igbnagsnana, Bel. Imp. 
igenaasnab.) To wear the Lamba 
loosely, to carry lightiy and care- 
GX'OKA. Boot of the following :^ 
Manfftekteka, v. int. To feel a 
tickling sensation in the throat. 
GE'BA, or GE'BAGFBA. Same aa 

BoBABOBA and its derivatives. 
GE'BEGE'SY, «. A word used by 
children in play, signifying fooliRh. 
GEBI'GA, w^\ FooUaK, imprudent. 
GE'TY, a. Gaiters. [£ng. gait^rs.l 
GE'VIGE'VY. A provincial word for 

Hbvihevt, which see. 
GE'ZA. See Noeza. 
GI'A Boot of the following. Same 
as Gaixa, which see. 
▼oagla, t. pass. Same as Voaoazxa. 



flii«imi,g.jw»t. (Imp. ^fiio.) Same 

WftBgia, V. /r. (Imp. manfidta; 
Bid. on^MavMi, Bel. Imp. an^' 
so.) Same as Mahoaixa.. 
OrUBO, «. A grey species of lemnr, 
the mongooee lemur. Lemur mon" 
fosy L. Also loosely used for other 
■peciee, as Z. catta, Lepilemur miM- 
ieHmis^ etc See AiaoANiLA. [Gomp. 
Swa. tiffedere^ a spedes of monkey ; 
Ar. qirdf an ape.j 
OTBBO, or GrDBOerDBO, «. A 
creaking noise somewhat louder than 


Migldrogldro, v. int. (Bel. ipldro^ 
fidnema.) To creak. 
VVAj adj. and $. Hard, adaman- 
tine, tough, old ; a oontmned sob- 
bing. Comp. Gaoaoaoa, Gooooooo. 
Xigigagiga, (Imp. migiga" 
gigd ; Bel. igwoffigdna, Bel. Imp. 
iffiffoffigao.) To be very firm, to 
be very fast ; to sob. jProy.) 
0rOO, s. The gams in which the 

molarB lie. (I^roy.) 
er JA, or erjAer JA Same as Geja, 

which see. 
erLA, adf. White-eyed; blind. 

GILA'n, «. A drinking-glass. [Eng. 

eiLI'O, s. Glne. [Eng. glue.] 
eiLOTBT, «. A globe. [Eng. yfo^.] 
OI'VA, #. A very loud report. 

Wigiiia, V. int. To be deafened by 
too loud a sound. 
BTHAf a^. Firov. for Noina, which 

ftlVOA'VA, s. Gingham. [Eng. ging- 

OIVOI'ZA, «. A shrub, the Indian 
diot. fFank.) Canna indieay L. Same 
as Akbabadbda (Betsim.), Dihoiza 
^tsim.), Banoibotba (Betsim.), 
Yasaitdbnda (Tank.), and Tsipizo- 
Fixo (Bets.), which last see. 

610'XA, J. Breaking wind downwards. 

IQgloka, V. int. Imp. and Bel. are 
not in use. To br^ik wind down- 

anUk' Junius', ». A grand dinner, a 
feast. [jFr. grand coner,] 

Xaiia^ girftndiad, 9. int. To giYia a 
ffreat feast. 
Qia&QY,a4f. Pkxyy. for Maico, which 

eiBS'VADE'LIirA, 9. The Faasion 

flower. FasH/hra 9tijn$iataf Anblet. 

JTr. grenadilU.\^ 

Gutl'GA, a^. foolish, impmdent. 

Same as Gxbiqa. 
GI'BIGrDT. Firov.forNciABAsaxiiDrA, 

which see. 
GI'BXai'BT, a^. Same as GmiaA, 

which see 
GrBiarBIXA, $. a point, a dot» a 
period, a full stop. 
Yoagirigirika, r. pan. Dotted; 

marked, as a school register. 

Oixigirihana, v. past. (Imp. glrigi' 

rtho^ To be dotted, to be marked. 

Managirigirika, v. tr. (Imp. manu' 

girigiriha; Bel. atutgirigirthanOf 

Bel. Imp. anagirigiriho.) To make 

small holes in anything. 

OrSA, or arST, «. a goose, [Eng. 

Gi^SAOi^ 8. A word used in calling 

Gi'sala'ht, 8. [laht, masculine.] A 

GrsAYA'vT, 9. [yayt, feminine.] A 

OCA, or GCAIIA'SO, a^. Having 
lost an eye, or having an eye very 
sunken. See Poa-xaso, Potsitba. 
G6ana, adj. To have had one's 
eyes put out. 
GOA'GA, 8, A provincial name for 

Gk)AiKA, which see. 
GOAT, or GOAI'BE', 04^'. Huge. 
GOAI'KA, 8. A crow. Oonms eeapula^ 
tu8y Dand. [Mai. and Jav. gagdk.] 
Gaoa, Goaoa, Goaza, €k>AZB, Goakt 
are used in the provinces. 
GO' AHA. Boot of the following. See 
Gana, Bona, Poka. 
Yoagbana, v. pose. Knocked, rap- 
Go&nana, v. pass. (Imp. godny.) To 

be knocked at, to be rapped at. 
]Cig6ana, i;. int. (Bel. igoitnana.) 
To sound, as me door when 
Xigdangiana, v. int. (Bel. igoango' 
dnana,) To sound repeatedly. 



Manf^ana, v. tr, (Imp. mangoina ; 
Rel. angodnana^ Kel. Imp. angod- 
ny.) To knock, to rap. 
Xang^ana atamftnana. The first 
streaks of light before day dawns. 
eO' AHA. Boot of the following : — 
Xig6ang6ana, v. int. (Bel. ig^ango- 
dnana.) To murmur, as water 
falling, or as people ooming from 
a baimmg. (!ProT.) 
OO'AITA. A oorraption of the English 
phrase Qo on. 

voag^ana, v, paa$. Gfone at, hit. 
Oouana, v. past. (Imp. godno.) To 
be made to do something, to be 
made to go at it. 
Xanagftana, v. int, (Imp. none; 
Bel. anagodnana, Bel. Imp. ana* 
godno,) To go over a list ox names 
to see if all are there. 
MA'YAHA, any'. Huge, immense and 

good looldng. See Goat. 
OOA'VT, 8. The guaTa tree and its 
fruit. A decoction made from the 
leaves is used for dysentery. FHdium 
pomiferum, L. 
CJoa'vitsina', or Goa'vitbina'ht, ». 
The Chinese guava. Fsidium catt- 
leyanum, Sabine. 
aOBILE', «. A goblet. [Fr. gobelet.] 
GaBOXA. Boot of following :~ 
Xigdboka, adj. Hollow, as the 

sound of a drum ; hollow. 
Xang6boka, wf;'. Hollow. 
OO'DAKA Prov. for Kotbana, which 


GODA'KA. Boot of the following :— 
Migod&na^ adj. Wide, as a road 
or the floor of a room. 

GO'DBA, or GO'DBAeaDBA, «. Fee- 
bleness about the joints. 
Xig6drag6dra, .o^'. Being feeble 
about the joints. 

OO'DEA, 8. ProT. for Fattta, which 
see; also syrup, oonfections, pure 

OO'DSIKA. Boot of the foUow- 


Xigddrika, adj. Same as Mioodra- 

<K)DBA, which see, but more used 

of the knees than other ioints. 

OOE'XA, at^. Strangled, choked, as 

in drinking water. (Frov.) See 


Oodhina, v. pass. (Imp. goekg.) To 
be choked, to be strangled. (ProT.) 

Xigoika, V. int. To feel as if 
strangled or choked. (Prov.) 
OO'GA, a4f\ Aged. See Konxa, An- 


OCGO, 9. A kind of fish; also a 
species of crooodile. (Sak.) 

Gk)'ooBA'NO, 8. [bano, water, j A little 
pool made by children in play. 

GO'GOGCrGO, s. Weeping loudly, cry- 
ing out, screaming, as with pain, 
lamentation; rolling impetuously, 
as a rapid stream. Comp. Gaqa- 


Xigd^ogdgo, V. int. (Imp. migdgo' 
gogoa ; Bel. igogogogdana, Bel. imp. 
igigogogoy.) To cry, to weep 
aloud, to howl, to lament ; to roU 
and dash along impetuously, as a 
GOGO'KA, 8. A kind of fish. (Prov.) 
Gro'HiNA, V. pass. See Qojla. 
GOTGO'IKA. Boot of the following :^ 
Xig6ig6ika, v. int. To have diffi- 
culty in swallowing water, and 
so giving forth a sound as if 
GO'KA. Same as Gaza, which see. 
GO'XA. Boot of the following :— 
Yoagdka, v. pass. Guzzled, drunk 

G6hina, v. pass. (Imp. gbhy.) To be 

Kig6ka, v. tr. (Imp. migoha ; Bel. 
igohanay Bel. Imp. igohy.) To 
guzzle, to drink in abundance. 
OO'XA, ac^. and. adv. Obscure, dark. 
(Prov.) Generally used as an in- 
tensifying word with Mazzuta, etc., 
as follows : — 
Maisina gdka. Extremely dark. 

Xangdka, a^J. In the dark. (Prov.) 
Xiydry g6ka. Assembling in great 
numbOTS. (Prov.) 
GO'LA. Used only with the follow 

7ahag61a, or Fahagdlan-tiaj, oij^'. 
Ancient, very ancient. 
Go'laooat', ac^ [ooat, huge.] Aged, 

very old. (Prov.) 
GOLS'DA. Boot of the following :— 



W^Uda, 9. int. To be in 
from having been defeated in 
OCMABB', «. An obeoore preoipioe, 
a great hole, a deep barrel. In Ime- 
rina it ia only used, and that rarely, 
for Makadibt. 
QO'HA. Same as Gaita, which see. 
▼oagtaa, V. jMM. SameasVoAOAHA. 
Otaana, or Oagtaina, v, pott. To 
be knocked with the fists, and 
same as Gaioha. 
Xigtea, V. int. Same as Mioaita. 
OOHAOOHA. Same as Bobaboba, 

Go'vAHA, V. pott. See Qona. 
OOVOO'BO, «. The name of a kind 

of doth introduced by the Arabs. 
OOlLAf #. Bondles or bales of cotton 

goods. [Swa. goraA 
6<FbA, or OO'BAOO'KA. Same as Bo- 

KABOBA, which see. 
eOBA'BAKA, ttdj. Pierced through, 
but making a larger hole than the 
word QoBOBAKA, which see. 
eOlLUrA. Root of the following :— 
Kigdrana, v. int. To come or go 
in great numbers. (Prov.) 
eiKBABAI'XA, «. The noise of wind 
in the stomach. 

Kigdxaraika, r. int. To roll as wind 
in the stomach. (ProvJ 
Weak, infirm, feeble, delicate. 
Migordrarira, adj. Being weak, 
8<KBIG<K8T, #. An herb. Kniphofia 

FaiiuUjhra, Baker. 

GoBOBA'KnrA, V. pats. See Gk>BOBAXA. 

GOBaBAXA, 4. Deceit. See Fztaka. 

Xanad gordbaka, v. int. To cheat, 

to deceive 

eOBIKBAXA. Boot of the following :— 

Tidiigordbaka, v. pas*. Having 

forced itself through. 
Toagordbaka, v. past. Thrust 

through, pierced through. 
Agoribuca, v. pass. (Imp. agoroba' 
htf.) Used of that which is thrust 
throucrh something, as a gimblet, 
etc., Uizough a piece of wood. 
OnobUiina, v. pass. (Imp. gorobdhy.) 
To be thrust through, to be pierced 

Kigordbaka, t;. int. and a^. (Bel. 
igorobahana.) To go throng. 

MaAgorftbaka, 9. tr. (Imp. mamgo" 

robdha; Bel. angorobdhana, Bel. 

Imp. angorobdhg.) To pierce 

through, to thrust through. 

eOBaDAHA, s. Used for Oodajta 

and KoTBABA, and as follows : — 

Xigorddana, v. int. (Imp. migoro' 
ddna; Bel. t^oroelifUMa, Bel.Imp. 
igoroddny.) To go together in 
great numbers, to fall upon in a 
mass, as water over a precipice, 
or an ambush upon oth^. 
GOBaBOKA, s. Same as NooBODOirA, 

which see. 
OO'BOKX'XA, «. Same as GoBABAiKA, 

which see 
GaBOBaAHA, s. The noise of fall- 
ing water. 

Yoagiror^aBa, t^.jNiM. Poured upon 

Ag6ror6aBa, v. pass. (Imp. agororod^ 
ny.) Usedoftiie water poured out. 

Odroroinana, v. pass. (Imp. gororod» 
ny.) To have water poured upon. 

Kigdrordana, v. int. (Kel. igororod- 
nana.) To fall upon, to flow upon. 

Xanagdrorftana, v. tr. (Imp. tnana- 

gbrorodna ; Bel. anagororodnana^ 

Bel. Imp. anagororodny.) To pour 


eO'BOSO'A, s. Ten centimes. [Fr. 

grand #om.] (Prov.) 
OO'ST, s. A whirlwind of sand. 

(Prov.) See Tadio. 
eO'ST, s. The tack of a saU. (Prov.) 

rSwa. goski."] 

manddha gosy, v. ewnp. To steer 
so as to turn the head of the vessel 
further from the wind. To yaw. 
GOVE'BIKO'BA, s. ^governor of a 

town or province. F^ng. governor. "] 
GOVE'BKmS'HTA, s. The government. 

[£ng. government.'] 


H. The seventh letter of the Mala- 
ga8y Alphabet. It is always an 
aspirate. It is used for k in many 
provindal words, as Hbly for Ks- 
LY ; Hotbo for Kotbo. Whenever 
it is preoeded by i, a second i 


foUoira it lor euphony, thua Kz- 
BiJ>T 10 proaouzioed Mtwtadt. It is 
added to all derivative passive verbs 
beginning witii a vowel as a sign of 
the future tense; and also before 
all relative verbs, thus Exsna (xkt), 
prQ0.» beoomes Hbksita, fut. ; Anao* 
VAVA (^EAO), ^res., beoomes Hanaova- 
XA, fut. it 16 tbe sign of the future 
in all act. tr. or act. int. verbs, as 
Manao (tao), pres., Hanao, fut. 

It is sometimes added for euphony 
between two vowels, as Mihavt for 
MiAVT, eto. 

When the verbal prefix Man- is 
added to roots beginning with A, the 
h is scmetimes elided, as Manabinq 
[iCAN- and HADuro] ; and sometimes 
chttoged to ^, as IMulmoaxatxa [majt- 
uul halat&a]. 
KA! inUr, An exolamation of appro- 
bation, disapprobation, or surprise. 
Hah ! It is sometimes repeated, as 
Ha! Ha! Ha! Theienow! 
HA-. A prefix to adjectives making 
them into abstract nouns, as Ha- 
TSAEA, goodness, from Tsasa, gpood. 
Ha — ana. A prefix and affix join- 
ted to adjectives, where the accent 
of the root (being of more than 
one syllable) advances one step, 
and sometimes a characteristic 
consonant is added, as Hafohe- 
ZANA, shortness (fohy) ; Hatb- 
LOAifA (tblo), three days. 
KA-, €Ldi}. A contraction of Hatba, 
meaning up to, as : — 
Havaniana. Up to the loins. See 
HA'BA! inter. An exclamation of 
admiration in seeing something that 
makes one laugh, ^rov.) 
HA'BA, 8. Prov. tor Havana, whi6h 

HA'BA. Thank you ; a word used after 

receiving a favour. Gomp. A rah aba. 

Hiba, tompoko d. Thank you, sir. 

Haoaina, v, pats. (Imp. habao.) To 
be thanked. (Prov!) 

Hiba i&to, or Haba arlvo. A hun- 
dred thanks, a thousand thanks. 
Used mostly in the ceremonies of 
the (droumcision. 

HA'BA, •. A large silver tiagr 

as an ornament rotmd Hbe arma. 

Xih&ba, V, int. To wear the 
BLa'bak-ja'za, ». [ZAZA, a child.] 

Childish conduct. The use of the 

word arises from the practice of 

children in making a kind of Haba 

with manioo leaves. 
HA'BA, a. Taxes or tribute paid to 

the sovereign an an acknowledg'- 

ment of submission. 
HA'BAHA'BA, «. A present. 

Xanibahiba, v, tr. To make a 
present to some one ; to act fiber- 
ally to one. (Prov.) 
Habai'na. v. pasi. See Haba. 
HA'BAKA'BAKA,#. Amplitude, apaoe, 

the sky, the firmament. 

Hangabak&baka, adj. Wide, spa- 
cious. Used of tombs, holes, ete. 
HABE'TBO, ». The brains. (I^v.) 

See Atiooha. 
Habia'zina, v. ptua. See Be. 
HABI'BA, t. Same as Abtba, which 

HABO'BO, or HABI'BO, <. The milk 

of a cow on the third dav after 

calving ; fig. a fable, a trick. See 


Haaad habibo, r. eomp. To relate 
fables. (Prov.) 
HA'BOKA. Boot of the following :— 
Xih&bok&boka, i;. inL (Bel. ihdbo- 
kabohana.) To pretend to be or 
to possess somethmg. (Prov.) See 
Haxbo, Hoboka. 
HA'BOKA, $. Orange-coloured silk. 


HA'BT, 8. A ditch, a trench, a moai, 

a fosse. [Mai. aaio, Menangabow 

kati ; Toba A««.J 

Yoahftdy, c. /him. Dug, trenohed. 

Ahftdy, V, pa88, (Imp. ahadio,) Used 
of that employed to dig up some- 
thing with. 

Hadina, v. pa88. (Imp. hadio.) To 
be dug, to be made into a trench. 

Xihidy, «. tr, (Imp. mihadU ; Bel. 
ihadiana, Bel. Imp. ikadM.) To 
dig, to delve; to spread, to in- 
crease, or to deepen, as a disease 
or an ulcer; to go to the very 
root of the matter. 



_ /, #. tr, (Bn>. man§ad\a ; 

B^ <wy rf iiM, Bel. lunp. «M^<Hfl«.) 

To dig, to delTe. (ProTj 

Pftiigidy,^. A spade. See Fanoast. 

Amgmdj, tf. A spade. See Anoadt. 

Ha'di-fx'tbt, «. [fbtbt, ouxming.] A 

small traudi. 
HASix.A'VAirA, #. [An abetraot noun 
from DZLAVA.] A dell, a dmgle, a 
dale ; an istfamiu. Scmb Dilana. 
HAOXLA'iTABr-TSo'nKA, adj. [dilaxa, 
and SOTXKA, the ear.] Inattentive. 
Ha'doc-ba'bt, #. [▼ABT, rioe.] A rioe- 
pit. (Prov.) Bee Lava-babt. 


Ha'bzv-dba'ito, $. [tbano, a house, or 
BASO, water.] A preliminary ar- 
rangement by whion a wife comes 
under some restraint or obligation 
bef<»e becoming dirorood ; it is also 
used in its literal sense of a trench 
made by water. 

Ha'dt ta'paxa, «. [tapaza, cut off.] 
A cat in a road, a passage, an open- 
ing, a moat whose extremities reach 
the surface. 

Ha'dt voa'njo, «. [voanjo, earth- 
nuts.] Digging for earth-nuts ; fig. 
careful attention to one's work. 

Ha'dt Wbt, j. [vobt, collected, 
round.] A fosse round a house or 
town; a country house, so called 
becanae such houses used to be en- 
closed by a circular trench. 

Ha'dt td'dt bi'bdbiha, «. [vodt, bot- 
tom, BOTDBiNA, the wall of a house.] 
House^breakiiig. See Tajct tbano. 
MiUdy yddy xudriiia, r. eomp. To 
break into a house by undermin- 
ing or catting through the wall. 

HADI'A, J. A word ua^ in driying 
away a dog. 

Hadiivina, v. pass, (Imp. haeUdtfo.) 
To be hated. 

Hadi'atat', ifU, An expression of 
strong denial or disapprobation. 

HA'DIHA'DT, s. Many trenches ; fig. 
inTeatigation. Gomp. Hadt. 
YoahidihMy, r. pass. Thoroughly 

Hmhadina, v, pass, (Imp. hddiha' 
dlo.) Tobedog; fig. to be in- 

Mihidihidy, t;. tr, (Imp. mihadiha' 
dla ; Bel. ih4d\kad\anay Bel. Imp. 
ih^ihadio^ To dig ; fig. to in- 
Man&dUiidy, t^. tr, (Imp. fnanddi- 
hadia; Bel. anddihadtana, Bel. 
Imp. anddihadh.) To investigate ; 
to dive (P). 
MangidihMy, aeff. Bare, bazven 
(country) ; bald, as the head. 
Hadi^na, V, pass. See ELadt. 
HADI'VO, verbal root. Forgotten. 
Hadln6ina, v. pass, (Imp. hadino^,) 
To be forgotten, to be neglected. 
HadinbTina, or Halindvina, v. pass. 
(Imp. had%n6vy.) Same as preced- 
ing. (Prov.) 
Hadlnivina, or Halinftvina, v.pass. 
(Imp. hadindvo.y Same as Hadi- 
xoiNA. (Prov.) 
Manadino, v, tr, (Imp. numadtnoay 
or manadinova ; Bel. anadin6anaf 
or anadinovana, Bel. Imp. anadi- 
n6y, or anadinovy.) To lorg^ to 
HA'DBAHA'DBA, s, Tossmg of the 
head, a wild and ferocious look, a 
fierce and threatening appearance. 
Xihidrahidra, adj. and v, int, (Rel. 
ihddrahadrdna.) To be ferocious, 
to rise and shake the head in a 
fierce manner. 
HA'FA, adj. Different, another. 

Simihafik, adj. Mutually different. 
Ha'fa FiAfiTA, ae^'. [viaina (aina) 
life.] Eccentric, peculiar, obsti- 
nate, stubborn, headstrong. 
Ha'fa ba'zana, m^. [bazana, an an- 
cestor.] Different in ancestry, dif- 
ferent m kind, of a different spedes. 
Ha'fa vo'lo, any. [volo, hair, colour.] 
Different in colour, different in de- 
SA'FAHA'FA. Bedup. of Hafa, m^'. 
Different ; unseemly, improper ; 
changed, reversed, peculiar, odd. 
Hifahafidiia, v. pass. (Imp. hdfa- 
hafao.) To be changed, to be 
Xihifahifa, v. int. (Imp. ihafahafd- 
na.) To alter one's behaviour, to 
be different, to appear reserved, 
to be less sociable, to aot the 



Xftnad hiftihilfa, v. comp. To act 
in a manner so as not to be worthy 
of trust. 
HAFAnroA'NiXA, v. pa»9. See Fain- 


HAFA'LADI'A, «. [ha, for hatka, 
and FALADiA, the sole of the foot.] 
IJp to the sole of the foot. 
HAFAKA'ITA, «. I faha, hot.] Heat, 

HATATBA, «. A will, a testament, 
a message, a request, an order for 
something. See Dibt. 
Yoahftfatra, t;. jmm. Bequeathed, 

specified; requested, sent for, 

Hafirana, v. pas: (Imp. hafdro,) 

To be bequeathed, to be devised, 

to be specified ; to be sent for, to 

be ordered. 
Xaniffttra, v, tr, (Imp. manafdra; 

Biel. anafdrana^ xtel. Imp. anafd- 

ro.) To bequeath, to specify ; to 

order, to send for. 
Mit&n-k&fiatra, v. comp. To execute 

or remember a bequest. 
Xahat&n-k&fiAtra, v. comp. To be 

able to carry out a bequest. 
Tws mitelin-kafatra. Not to forget 

a message ; lit. not to swallow a 

Ha'fa-ba'va, «. [tava, the mouth.] 

A verbal request. 
Ha'fa-bo'bonza'haea, a. [yobonka- 
HASA, a crow.] Boot used as fol- 
lows : — 
Manifa-bdronkihaka, v. camp. To 

oonmiit a message to a person 

who will not deliver it. 
Ha'fa-dba'zana, 8, [bazaka, an an- 
cestor.] The law, the will, or the 
requests of one's forefathers. 
HATY, «. Hardship, difficulty, some- 
thing requiring endurance or incon- 
venience. It is generally used with 
the suffix pronoun -27t. See Abi- 


ICihfUy, V. int. (Imp. mihafia ; Rel. 

ihafianay Bel. Imp. ihafio.) To 

endure, to sustain, to bear with 

Xify (1), adj. Hard, difficult, firm, 

Tihafijuut, t . Endurance, patience. 

HATIHA,*. A species of fern. Marat- 
tiafrcucineay Sm. Also a shrub isvith 
edible fruit. 
HAFIBrAHA, inter, adv. [ha- and 
fxbt, how many.] How many 
Hafohe'zina, v. pan. See Foht. 
HATOXA'FOXA. Boot of the f oUow- 
ing. See BosncA. 

Ahftfokifoka, v.pau. (Imp. oAi/b- 
kafohy.) Used in speaking of 
what is eaten voraciously. (Prov.) 
Xanftfokifoka, «. int. (Imp. mand- 
fokafdha; Bel. andfokafihana^ Bel. 
Imp. amfokafih^^ To eat vora* 
douslv. (Prov.) 
HATOTBA, «. Shrubs or small trees, 
the various species of which yield 
fibre or bast used for many pur- 
poses, but chiefly cord ana rope. 
They mostly belong to the genera 
Aatrapaa and Dombeya. 
Hafdrana, v. past. (Imp. hafory.) 

To be stripped, to be peeled. 
Man&fotra, v. tr. (Imp. manaf6ra; 
Bel. anafbranaj Bel. Imp. anafo' 
ry.) To strip the bark off the 
Ha'foba'lo, 8. [VALO, eight.] A 

Ha'foba'to, 8. [vATO, a stone.] A 
shrub or small tree. (Bets.) 

Ha'FOBO'LAXE'nA, «. [VOLAICSKA, gold.] 

A shrub or small tree. Astraptea (.^} 

Ha'fobonb'taza, 8. A shrub or small 

Ha'foda'hy, s. [laht, masculine.] A 
shrub. (Bets.) Croton platantfoUus, 

Ha'foko'bona, s. [hoboita, a kind of 
grass.] A shrub (Bets.). Gretoia 
calvata. Baker. Same as Zozotatt. 

Ha'fome'na, 8. [icENA, red.] A tree. 
(Antsih.) Dwnbeya (?) sp. 

Ha'fopo'tst, 8. [fotsy, white.] A 
shrub. The Betsileo obtain a fibre 
from it which they weave into a 
kind of cloth. AbuiiUm anyuiatumy 

Hafo'tope'. See under Hatba. 

HA'FOTBAxi'AirA, 8. [axiana, a sting- 
ing shrub.] A shrub. 




dumb.] A tree, the fiore of which 
was fcmnerly tied round the pump- 
kin (toatayolaht) used in tne 
ceremony of oircamcision. Dom^eya 
emmMna^ Bojer. For use see Zl- 

Ha'fotbaza'noa, «. rAKANQA, a gpii- 
nea-fowl.] A shrob. (Bets.) P0- 
fOMM Boferi, Baker. Same as Be- 
BOFZMA (Antsih.), and Tbontsona, 
which latter see. 

Ha'potbo'kina, «. [soKiHA, an animal.] 
A shrub. Sparmanuia dUeolor, Baker. 
Same as TbivoLO. 


shrub.] A ahrub (or tree ?) . 
SA'GA, 9. A hat with a brim. (Proy.) 
Mihiga, v. int. To wear a hat ; to 

stop. (Prov.) 
EAQA'y a. An amusing tale, a fable, 
a fiction, a figment. See Avoano, 
AxiRA, Tantaba, Hatsixana. 
SA'GAHA'GA, j. A haughty oany- 
inff of the head. (Proy.) 
Xlh&gahiga, V. int. (Imp. mihd^a' 

hagd ; Bel. ihagahagdna^ Rel. 

Imp. ihagahagab.) To cany the 

head high, as a runaway horse. 

Maniganiga, v. tr. (Imp. mandga- 

hoffd ; Bel. andgahagdna, Rel. 

Imp. andgahagao.) To eleyate, to 

put on high something hesyy. 

HA'HA. Boot of the following. See 
BosAXA, Vaha, Vbiuxa. 
Toahiha, v. past. Loosed, untied, 

Hahina, r. ptus. (Imp. hahdo.) To 

be untied, unloosed, or uxumot- 

Xihiha, adj. Loose, untied. 
Xaniha, v. tr. (Imp. manahd; Bel. 

tmahdna^ Bel. Imp. anahao.) To 

untie, to unloose. 
EA'HAXA. Boot of the following. 
See £lt, Pabiaxa. 
Talshihaka, r. patt. Dispersed of 

itself or by another. 
Yoahihaka, v. pass. Dispersed. 
Ahihaka, r. pass. (Imp. ahahd/o.) 

To be scattered ; fig. to be vili- 
fied, to be reproached. 

MihAhaka, v. int. (Imp. mihahdfa ; 

Bel. ihahdfana^ Kel. Imp. ihahd' 

fo.) To scatter, to disperse ; fig. 

to abuse, to vilify. 
Vy tdkan-trino tsy ah&haka. The 

state of one*s household should 

not be divulged. 
HA'HAXA, «. A parasitic (or epi- 
phitic Tj shrub with which the Be- 
tsimisarakarub their guns to ensure 
gfood success in shootLag birds, etc. 
HA'HAKA. Prov. for Haha, which 


Haha'na, v. pass. See Haha. 
Haha'zana, v. pass. See Haht. 
HAHSTJKA, s. [hatba, up to, hblzxa, 
the aim-pit. J Up to the aim- 
SA'HT. Boot of the following. See 

Yoahihy, v. pass. Dried by ex- 
posure to the sun. 
Ah&hy, V. pass. (Imp. ahahdzo.) 

Used in speaking 01 something 

dried in the sim. 
Hah&sana, v. pass. (Imp. hahdzo.) 

To be dried by exposure to the 

sun. (Prov.) 
Xihihy, r. int. (Bel. ihahdzana.) 

To be drying by exposure to the 

Sim or air. 
Xan&hy, v. tr. (Imp. manahdza; 

Bel. anahdzana^ Itel. Imp. attoAa- 

zo.) To dry by exposure to the 

sun or air. 
Hahiiana, s. The things exposed 

to the sun or air. 
Xana6 findra h&hy, v. eomp. To 

borrow money to pay a debt 

XanAhy dlatra. Used in speaking of 

birds or locusts drying their wings. 

HA'HO (T). Boot of the following :— 

Angah6ina. v. pass. (Imp. angahog.) 

To be begged. (Prov.) 
Xangiho, v. tr. and int. (Imp. 

mangahba; Bel. angahoana, Bel. 

Imp. angahoy.) To beg. (Prov.) 
HA'HOHA'HO, s. Noise, wrangling, 
speaking in a subdued or suppres- 
sed tone of voice, a din. 
Ahfthohftho, V. pass. (Imp. akdho' 

hahdy.) To be dispersed. (Prov.) 


mh&holiUio, V, int. (Im^. miAaAo- 
hakoa; Bel. ihdhohahoana, Bel. 
Imp. ihdhohahoy.) To wrangle ; 
to speak in a low tone. In the 
provinoes it also means to dis- 
Manihohftho, v. tr^ To disperse, 
to scatter. (Prov.) 
HAT, verbal root. Possible, able to, 
oan be done by. In the provinoes, 
to know, to be acquainted with. 
Xahay, ctdj. (Imp. mahaiza; Bel. 
ahataanay Bed. Imp. akatzo,) Able, 
clever, competent. It ffovems 
the accusative, and it is jomed to 
verbs in the same way as the En- 
glish ean, denoting' ability to do a 
Eaisina, v. poM. (Imp. haizo.) To 
be possible, to be in a state to be 
effected, to be done according to 
one*s ability. 
Mampaha^, v. tr. To make to be 
clever, competent, or able to do 
Fahaisana, «. Ability, cleverness, 
competency to do anything. Some- 
times pronounced Fahahatzana. 
Hai'n-ta'ny, adj. [tany, earth.] Nu- 
merous, in great numbers, great 
in quantity. (Prov.) 
Hai'n-te'ny, 8. [tent, a word.] A 
proverb, a figure of speech ; a re- 
partee, an adage. See Ohabolana. 
Hay vao, adj. [vao, new.j Novel, 
new, unusual, a new fasmon. See 

Mana6 hay vao. To startle one by 
an unexpected attack. 
EAT, adj. and ». Open, exposed, an 
exposed situation, an open space 
near a forest, or surrounded by 
Tiny hay, ». Open country on the 

borders of the forests. 
Tanka^, «. A tribe inhabiting 

the land bordering the forests. 
Anka^, s. A long open plain be- 
tween the two eastern belts of 
EAT ! inter. An exclamation of sur- 
prise or scorn. Beally ! Truly I 
Indeed ! It is repeated frequenUy 
as an encouragement to warriors. 

Hat nto'A la'ht ! inter. [noA, yon- 
der, LAHT, an expletive.] An ex- 
pression of anger or eagerness. 
Beally ! Mostly used by old people. 

HAT, «. Burning. A word not uaed 
alone, but in compounds and as fol- 
lows: — 
May, adj. On fire, burning. 

Hai'n-a'ndso, «. [andbo, tjie day.] 
The heat of the day, sunshine. 

HAi'N-A'Ni>so2n>o'LO, «. [lolo, a bnt- 
terfiy ('r}.j The milder heat of the 
day, as in the morning or even- 

Hai'n-tanb'tt, $. [tahhtt, a down.] 
The downs on fire; burning the 
grass on the downs. 

HAfK-TRA'KO, $. [tbano, a house.] 
A house on fire. 

HAT, «. The name of an insect 
found in rice. (Prov.) 

HAI'HAT, 9. Shame, confusion of 
mind, reproach. See Hbna,tsa, 


Mihalha^, or Kangalha^, v. int. 
(Bel. angalkalzana.) To be a- 
shamed, to be confused, to be 
astonished, to be confounded. 

Itampangaiha^, v. tr. To yut to 
shame, to disgrace, to con- 
HAI'HAT, «. A joke. See Haika- 


Maiia6 haiha^, v. eomp. To talk 
in jest. 
HAI'HAT, «. A provincial name of 

the AiAT, which see. 
HAI'HAT. Bootof thefoUowing:— 
Mahaiha^, v. int. To act the 
HAI'HAI'HT, «. Genuineness, reality, 
^rov.) Comp. Tbna. 
Andriana dla haihainy iiy. He is 
the real sovereign. C^^oy. ) 
HAfH'iNA, V. pass. See Haola (n.). 
HAI'KA, 8. A defiance, a challenge. 
Haikaina, v. paus. (Imp. haikao.) 

To be defied, to be challenged. 
Mihaika, v. tr. Hmp. mihaikd ; 
Bel. ihaikdnay Bel. Imp. ihaikao.) 
To defy, to challenge. 
EAI'KA, 8. A call. (Prov.) See 
Aktbo, Gaika. 
Yoahidka, v, paw. GaUed. (Ploy.) 


HAihina, or Hdhina, v. pau. (Imp. 

AoAo, or heho,) To be callea. 

Mihftika, V. tr. (Imp. mtAnlAa, or 

miheha ; Bel. t^aiAofia, or ihehenay 

Bel. Iz^* iAaMo, or iheho,) To 

caJl. (Frov.) 
Manaikft, or Mangaika, v. tr. Same 

as preoeding'. (Froy.) 
HAI'XAHAI'KA, «. Dazing, bold- 
neflB, bravery; joke, je^. See 


Kaikaliailga^Tia, v. pass. (Imp. hai- 
kakaikao.) To be joked, to be 

KUiaikakaika, v. int, (Bel. ihaika- 
kaikdna,) To be daring, to be 
brave, to be jocose. 
Haikai'na, V, pass. See Hat¥a. 
EAI'VOA ! inter. An ezdamation of 
earnest desire. Oh that ! Wonld 
that ! See Enoa. 
which see. 

¥anahaViigaTia, v. tr. To make 
speed, tohnnj. 
Hai'noan-tsa'iha, adj. [saika, mind.] 
Quick witted. Comp. Matsilo sai- 
HAI'VeiHAI'VOT, adj. Bather a- 
shamed, or confused. See Mskatba, 
HATVOO, s. A decoration, an embel- 
lishment, an ornament. SeeBAYAKA. 
Yoahaingo, v. pass. Embellished, 

Ahalngo, v. pass. (Imp. ahaingity,) 
Used of that employed as a 
Haingdina, v, pass, (Imp. haingoff.) 

To be decorated. 
Hihaingo, v. int, (Jxap. mihaingba; 
Bel. ihaingbanoy Bel. Imp. ihain' 
goy.) To adorn one's self, to 
decorate one's self, to wear orna- 
Kampihaingo, v. tr. (Imp. mampi- 
haingda ; Bel. ampihaingoanaf Bol. 
Imp. ampihaingoy.) To decorate, 
to adorn, to beautify. 
HAfNOOLA'YA, s. [lava, long.] De- 
corating one's self continually. 
EAI'ITKT! inter. Indeed! BeaUy! 
See Hat» "EiMXja, 

HAI'VO. Boot of the following. 

See Bs, Taino. 

Yoahaino, v. pass. Heard atten- 
tively, listened to, obeyed. 

Hendina, v. pass. (Imp. henby.) To 
be hearkened to, to be listened to, 
to be attended to. 

Mihalxio, v. tr. and int. (Imp. mt- 

hainda ; Bel. ihainoana, Bel. Imp. 

ihainoy.) To hearken, to hearken 

to, to listen, to obey. 

EAI'ST. A word nsed in driving 

away poultry. 
HArniA, adj. Sprained. (Prov.) 

mhaitra, v. int. To sprain. (Prov.) 
HAI'TBAI'TBA, s. Self-willedness, 

frowardness, waywardness, whim, 


Haitrairina, v, pass, (Imp. haltrat' 
ro.) To be indulged in one's 
whim, to be given preference to, 
to be decided on by one's own 

KUiaitraltra, v, int, (Imp. mihai' 
tralra; Bel. ikaitraWanay Bel. 
Lnp. ihattralrc,) To be whimsi- 
cal, to be fanciful. 
HAI'ZANTOLO'HO, s. [toloko, a kind 

of bird.] A plant whose root affords 

a dye used by the Sihanaka in 

dyeing Bofia doth From the bark 

a kind of fibre is obtained. Danais 

Gerrardif Baker. (Antsih.) 
Hai'zina, v. pass. See Hat. 
HA'JA, «. Honour, respect, regard, 

reverence. See Asr. 

yoahiJa,r.jMw<. Bespeoted, regard- 
ed, revered. 

Hi^aina, v. pass. (Imp. ht^'ao.) To 
be respected, to be revered. 

Mihija, adj. Kept carefully, esteem- 
ed, valued; respected. 

Manija, v. tr. (Imp. fnanqfd; Bel. 
anajdna, Bel. Imp. anajao.) To 
respect, to regard, to revere. 

O'lona m&nan-kaja, s. A person of 
rank and respectability. 
Ha'jam-bo'lana, a. [volana, speech.] 

A present given out of respect or 

HAJA'BT. Boot of the following. 

See VoATBA, Lahatba, Lamina. 

Yoahajiry, v. pass. Arrange!, 


Hajarina, r. pass, (Imp. hajario.) 

To be arranged. 
Kanaj&ry, r. tr. (Imp. manq/arta ; 
Kel. anajarlanuy Kel. Imp. anaja- 
rio.) To arrangpef to promote. 
Tantlkam-b^, ti6fa vy, h&yaxia 
manajiry h&yana. An iron ham- 
mer, an iron saw, so friend bene- 
fiting friend. 

In the provinoes Hajabt is 
used generally for any arrange- 
ment, but in Imerina it is used 
chiefly of family matters. 
HAJI'A, 8. A tax, revenue, income 
arising from a feudal estate. [Mai. 
hajiay a present.] 
HAjfjijufA. See Jumn, 
HA'KA (1). Root of the following :— 
Xangika, adj. Light, brilBant, 
limiinous, cfimly conspicuous. 
HA'KA, adj. Low, as applied to the 

sea. (ftovj 
HA'KA'KA. ProY. for Eazaxa. 
Xihikika, v. int. Proy. for Mika- 
KAKA, which see. 
HA'KANA, «. An earth-worm. (Prov.) 
HAKA'KT, Prov. for Hateany. See 

HAKE', 8, A species of wild-duck. 

(Prov.) AtMs Bernieriy J. Verr. 
Hakele'zina, v. pa8s. See Kelt. 
HAKI'HO, 8. [hatila, up to, kiho, the 

elbow. 1 A cubit. 
HA'KT, or HA'KKT, «. A custom, 

manners. (Prov.) See Fomba. 
HA'KO, or HA'KOHA'KO, «. Self 
elation, magisterialness, hauteur. 
Mihftko, or Xih&kohftko, v. int. 
(Imp. mihdkokakoa ; Kel. ihdko' 
hakoanay Rel. Imp. ihdkohakoy.) 
To be haughty, to be lofty, to be 
lordly, to domineer. 
HA'LA, 8. A spider; a scorpion. 
[Mai. kala ; Port Morseby makekt.] 
Ha'labe', 8. [be, large.] The largest 
kind of spider known in Mada- 
gascar. Epeira sp. 
Ha'lapanoeto'rana, «. [etotea, break- 
ing wind downwards.] A smal- 
lish dark -coloured spider. 
Ha'lame'navo'dt, 8. [mena, red, vody, 
the rump.] A poisonous spider, 
shining black in colour, but with a 
red spot on the posterior part; its 

bite is said to be fatal. Latrodeetua 

menavodyy Vins. 
Ha'lapa'ta, 8. A species of serpent. 

Ha'labono'no, 8. [bonono, milk.] A 

small narrow-bodied, green, pret- 
tily marked spider. 
Ha'lavo'la, 8. [yoLA, money.] A thick- 
bodied spider with numerous black 

bands across its back, the spaoes 

between which are variously coloured 

(white, yellow, etc.), and are quite 

silky in appearance. 
HA'LA, verbal root. Hated, detested, 


Manila, v. tr. To abhor. fProv.) 

Kankahila, v. tr. (Imp. mankahald ; 
Rel. ankahaldnay Rel. Imp. anka^ 
halao). To hate, to abhor. 

Ankahalaina, r. pa88. (Imp ankaha^ 
lad.) To be hated. 

Mifankahi^, r. tr. (Imp. mifanka' 

hald ; Rel. ifankakaldnay Rel. Imp. 

ifankahalao.) To hate one another. 

Ha'lax-po', 8. [fo, the heart.] Hatred, 

malignity, detestation, abhorrence. 
Ha'lavo'lo, 8. [yoLO, colour, hair.] 

Hatred, abhorrence, enmity. 
HALA'DT, s, [ala and abt (?).] An 

apology, an excuse. 

aaladina, v. pa88. (Imp. haladio.) 
To be apologized to, to be request- 
ed to withdraw. 

Manal&dy, v. tr. (Imp. manaladta ; 
Rel. analadianOy Rel. Imp. ana- 
ladio.) To apologize, to excuse 
one^s self. This word is often 
used in requesting persons to 

Manalftdy misy, v. eomp. To make 
excuses for not giving more than 
is set before one. 
HA'LAHA'LA. Root of the foUow- 


Mangfllahila, adj. Glittering, shin- 
ing, as quicksUver. 
HA'LAHA'LA. Root of the foUowing. 

See Halaxa, Hataxa. 

Mih&lah&la, v. int. and adj. (Imp. 
mihdlahald ; Rel. ihdlahaldmiy Rel. 
Imp. ihdlahalab.) To go apart 
from ; having a space between. 
Hala'uina, v. past. See Halaka. 


HALATTBA, «. A shrab. (Tan.) Com- 

KA'LAXA. ' Hoot of the foUowing :— 
VoalUQaka, r. past. Separated, 

being- made to have a space be- 
Hftlihina, v. pass, (Imp. haldho.) 

To be separated, to he made to 

be apart. 
¥ihila1ni, v. int (Imp. mihMha; 

Bel. ihaUluma, Bel. mp. ihaldho.) 

To be separate, to go apart, to 

have a space between. 
Manilaka, v, tr. (Imp. manaldha ; 

Bel. anaUhana, Bel. Imp. anaU^ 

Ko,) To make to have a space 

EALA'LA, adj, and«. Poor, miser- 
able; a miserable person, a poor 
person. (Prov.) 
kalalalna, v, pats. (Imp. halalah,) 

To be reduced to poverfcy . (Prov.) 
MaakahaUla, v. tr. To reduce to 

extreme poTerty. ^rov.) 
Halala'rika, V, poM, See Laiaxa. 
Haiau'nika, f . pa9». See Lalina. 
Halaxai'ka, V, past. See Laka. 
HALAICFOir A, 8. A tallish soft- wood- 
ed tree much used in some parts of 
Imerina for ridge poles and roof 
supports. The name, however, is 
somewhat general, as various spe- 
cies of Ihmbeya and Maearanga are 
known by this name. Dwnbeya 
moiiiiy Hook. 
HALA']CPOin>A'HT, t. Flaht, mascu- 
line.] A plant afforoing a medicine 
used in disorders of we stomach. 
(Antsih.) Also a shrub or tree. Hi' 
bueu» sp. 
HAXAWA, <. A species of spider. 

(PtoyA Comp. Hjlla. 
HA'LAsA, «. A knot, a roll, grass 
twisted in circular form and placed 
on the head or shoulders as a cushion 
when carrying a burden. 
Yoahilana, r. past. Having had 

a cushion put under, as above. 
Ah41ana, v, pass, (Imp. ahaldno.) 

Used in speaking of that employed 

as a Hal ANA. 
Halinana, v, pass, (Imp. haldno,) 

To be made to have a cushion 

under a burden. 

KihilaBa, adJ, Having a Halaka 

Manilana, v, tr. (Imp. manaldna ; 

Bel. analdnana, Bel. Imp. ana- 

Idno,) To put a Halana under 

a burden. (ProvO 
MahUana, atff, Far apart, not 

Xana^ kilana (ny bibiliya). Used 
of a serpent which rolls itself up 
in the form of a HaUlKA. 
Ha'lamamja'na, 8, An open place, a 

wide space, a conspicuous position. 

Grenerally used witn the preposition 

An-, as An-kalaxanjana. 
Ha'lambo'ro, s, a tree whose wood 

is used for furniture. (Sak.) 
Ha'lah-pa'tana, 8, [fatana, ahearth.l 

A fire-place, stones or pieces of 

wood around the hearth. 
HALA'VAVA, s. Sand. (Prov.) See 

HA'LAHOA'LAHA. Boot of the fol- 
lowing : — 

Yoahftlangilana, r./MM. Separated, 
parted, disjoined, dissociated. 

Halangalftnina, v, pass, (Imp. hd' 
langaldno.) To be separated, to 
be severed. 

HilangaliUiaBa, v. pass. (Imp. hd^ 
langaldno,) To be told previously, 
to be agreed upon beforehand. 

Xih&langilana, v. int, (Imp. mihd- 
langaldno ; Bel. ihdlangaldnanay 
Bel. Imp. ihdlangaldno,) To sepa- 
rate one^s self, to sever. 

ManUangilaxuk, v. tr, (Imp, mand- 
langaldna ; Bel. analangaldnanaf 
Bel. Imp. andlangaldno,) To sepa- 
rate beforehand, to dissociate, to 
HA'LATBA, s. Theft, pilfery, robbery. 

Angal&rina, v. pass, (Imp. angaldro.) 
To be stolen, to be taken away. 

Mang&latra, v. tr, and int, (limp. 
mangaldra; Bel. angaldrana^ Bel. 
Imp. angaldro,) To steal, to 
pilfer, to rob. 

Kang&la-dla, v. tr. To run away. 

Mangila-tihaka, v, tr. To copy 
from another. 

Kang&la-pijdry, v, tr. To look over 
another's work and copy from it ; 
lit. to steal a look. 



KftBgiU-tdt^f V, tr. To pilfer from 
the house and to sell the things 
so taken. 

Mang>lft-b6ty, v. tr, Prov. for 

Buigalirina, $. A confirmed thief. 

FangiUtrdTj, «. A bird, a species 
of rail. Same as Bcbt (Bara), 
Mavoaxjl-tsovt (Bete.), and Tsi- 
npi. (Sak.). Corethrttra inttUarit^ 

FangilaMla, «. See imder Fajtoa.- 
LATBA, p. 161. 

MpaagiU-hariliiiia, «. The rain- 
bow. (FroY.) SeeAvAHA. 

XangiU-tsonia. To forge a sig- 
natore ; lit. to steal a signature. 
Halayai'na, r. paw. See Lata. 


See Layitba. 
HALx'HEBiA'znrA, V, past, SeeLxHZBB. 
Halexb'na, V, pass. See Lsmr. 
HA'LT, s, ProY. for Haot, which aee. 
HA'.LnfA,a^. Lastnig^t. SeeAiJNA. 
HALI'VO. ProY. for Madiko, which 

HALIO'TSE, 8. A species of cuckoo- 
like bird belonging to a genus pe- 
culiar to Madagascar. (Sak.) Coua 
rt^icepSj G.R. Grav. 
HA'LO, or HA'LOHA'LO, «. The 
moYcment of something suspended ; 
going about a house without enter- 

MDiilo, or MihilohUo, 9, inU To 
moYe, to be suspended, to look at 
from a distance, to be insufficient 
to fill a space ; to be at liberty, 
to go about here and there. 
EA'LO. ProY. for Aloalo. 
Ha'lobo'tsa. See Alobotea. 
Ha'lofi'saka. See Axofisaxa. 
Ha'loke'lt, s, [zelt, little.] The 
small ears of rice which appear 
before the rest. Some of the natiYes 
say this should bo Alokely. 
Xitsdngo h&lokely, v, int. To pick I 
off the small ears of rice ; fig. 
to overreach, to take an unfair ' 
Ha'losala'sa, or Sala'ka ha'lo, a. 
[SALAKA, a waist-cloth.] A doth | 
worn round the loins having one ' 
end hanging down loosely in &ont. \ 

RA10,s, Nakedness. (Pror.) See 
MrTANJAXA (tanjaka), Habirabt, 

Mih&lo, V. int. To be naked ; fig. 

to be deprived of CYerything, to 

be without parents or food, etc. 


Ha'lobs', «. [be, great.] A spedea 

of lemur. (ProY.) 
Ha'lozotb'hiva, s, a small species 

of lemur. (Prov.) 
HALOTA. ProY. for Ataha, which 

HALOHA LIKA, adv. and «. [ratba, 

up to, LOHALHTA, the knee.] Up to 

the knees, depth of the knee. 

HA'LOTBA. Root of the foUowing :— 

Yoahllotra, r. pass. Taken from a 

hole by the hand. 
Hal6rina, v. pass. (Imp. halhry.) 
To be taken from a hole by &e 
XihUotra, r. int. (Imp. mikMra ; 
Eel. ikalbrana^ Bel. £np. ihalory.) 
To put the hand in a hole for 
the purpose of taking aomeUiing 
Ha'lo-po'za, «. [foza, a crab.] The 
catching of crabs in holes. 
Mihilo-pftsa, v. int. To take arabe 
fr om th eir holes. 
HAXONTRA'LOHA Boot of the fol- 
lowing : — 

Mih&lontrilona, adj. Bright, flit- 
tering, clear. Used of gold, BilYer, 


8INA, V. pass. See Majty. 
HAXAnvn'BZNA, V. pass. See Maxntt. 
Haxaitso'ina, v. pass. See Maitso. 
Hakaiya'nina, v. pass. See Maiyana. 
Hamaiz^nina, v. pass. See Maizina. 
HAMA'LT, s. A kind of silver chain. 
HAKA'MA, s. A turban. [Ar. ama^ 

HAMANAKA, adj. Prov. for Qaqa, 

which see. 
Haxa'rana, v. pass. See Hamatra. 
Haicaiu'nina, v. pass. See Marina. 
Haharo'ixa, r. pass. See Maro. 
Hamasa'hina, v. pass. See Ma&aka. 
Hamabi'nina, v. pass. See Hasina. 
HA'XATEA, s. A shrub used as a 

medicine by the SakalaYa. 


H&'XATRA, «. and oift. Adiwaaeof 
the ddn : defoimed, maimed. 
HaairiiiA, m&'. Afflicted with the 
above diaease. 
HAHATBA, «. A splint for sappoxt- 
in^ a brolwa limb, etc. 
Wawinina, v. jMMt. (Imp. hmniro,) 

To have a splint pat on. 
Waiiaiatra, «. ^. (Imp. hmmmm)- 
ra; Bel. onamirafia, Bel. Imp. 
mmmmi ro,) To pnt a splint on. 
Haxato^xka, 9. jMM. SeemAVo. 
Indeciaion, hesitation. 
¥i1ii«bahiinba, v, int. Same as 

tlie following. 
XanimbahAmba, v» int. To hesitate 
to depart, to be in doubt, to flut- 
ter about, aa fledglings afraid to 

XA'uAVA. Froy. for EiKBAHA 

( twiiia), whlflh aee. 
Si'MBuTA. Froy. for EiXBDrA, 

whici i aee. 
XA'XBO, «. A boast, a brag, osten- 
tation, showy appeanmoe, preten- 
sion, imposture. 
SaaiJMina, v. jNm . (Imp. hambojf.) 

To be boasted of. 
Kihimbo, «. int. (Imp. mtAom^; 

Bel. ihmMan^^ Bel. Imp. tAaai- 

hoff.) To boast, to brag, to yaunt, 

to pretend, to haye a right to 

Xihimbo Biaana, c. <r. To set up 

a claim to something that cannot 

be established. 
Ha'xbgm-fo', «. [fo, the heart.] Coy- 
ness or pride which declines to 
s«k for or accept a favour while 
secretly wishing to obtain it. 
Xihimbom-pd, v. int. To refuse 

through coyness or pride to ask 

for or accept a f ayonr as above ; 

to feign, to assume. 
HiMEix/BiNA, V. past. See Mkloxa. 
HA'KT, «. Sweetness, excellence, as 
of honey. 
Ximy, 4kiy\ Sweet. See Mamt 

for the deriyatiyes. 
By himiny, «. Its ffoodness, its 

excellence, used only, however, 

in the phrase Tbt mist BAimnr, 

It has no goodness. 

HA'imrA BootoftfaefoOowiiiffi-r 
Haminiua (1), v, past, (Imp. hammo,) 
To be decorated; to be eaten with 
yihimiiia, or ¥1hijniiilriiw1na» v, 
int, (Imp. mihdminkamina ; Bel. 
iMmmkaminana, Bel. Imp. ihd' 
minkamtno,) To behaye well, to 
conduct one's self with propriefy, 
to sit demurely or quietly, to eat 
with care and self-respect. 
HA'XnrA, t. White dotti. (Prov.) 
HA'KITBA. Prov.forHANXTBAfWhioii 

EA'MO, t. Intoxication, drunkenness, 


XAmo, adj. Drunk, intoxicated; 
nauseated. See ICuco for the 

Good, conduct, decent behaviour, 

mildness of disposition, meekness. 

XihimokiUnoka, v, int, (Imp. mi* 

hdmokamdha; Bel. iMmokamoha' 

na, Bel. Imp. ihdmokatnohff,) To 

behave mildly, to be modest. 

Haxobax'na, v. pott. See Moiu.. 

HiJCOIftT. «. The rudder of a canoe 

or ship. See Sokamt. 

Hamorina, v, past. (Imp. hamorio,) 
To be turned by the rudder. 

Xanamiry, v. tr. To steer a 
HA'XPT, t. The smell of urine, but 

used only as follows ; — 

Kaimbo hAmpy, adj. To emit a 
urinous smell. 
HA'XPITBA, 8, Allowance, depend- 
ence. (Prov.) 

AhAmpitra, v,patt. (Imp.ahampiro,) 
To be placed under some one's 
care for support. (Prov.) 

Xihimpitra, v, int. (Imp. miham" 
pho ; Bel. ihamperanay Bel. Imp. 
ihampero.) To depend upon others 
for one's support, to be dependent. 
HA'BA. Aprovinoial word for Ki- 

BABO, or Ejlpa, which see. 
HA'BA. Boot of the following :— 

Vihiiia, V. int. (Imp. mihanA ; Bel. 
ihandnoy Bel. Imp. ihanad.) To 
be ready, to be expecting some 
one or something. (Prov.) 


EA'VA, «. Tjendiiig or borrowing 

money on intereat. 

VoahuiA, r. pan. Lent on interest, 
borrowed on interset. 

Hanidiuk, v. pan, (Imp. kamao,) To 
be borrowed on intereet. 

Mihina, a4j, Bein^ laid ont on 
interMt, money at mtereet. 

Manilla, v. tr, (Imp. matumi ; Bel. 
anamdna, Bal. imp. ammai,) To 
boRow on mtereet. 

Mampanina, v. ir. To lend money 
on interest. 
HA'VAHA'VA. Boot of the follow- 

¥ihinahiTia, v, int. To pant. 
HA'VAXA,«. A lake. 

Ahiaaka, v. past, (Imp. ahamdhe(f).) 
Used ojf anything spread oyer an 
eyen surface, as water on paper, 
oil on oalioo, etc. 

Hibinaka, v. int. To spread ont 
on an eyen sorfaoe, as water 
permeating a piece of blotting- 

Vj Mhtoaka. The name of a tribe 
in the northern central portion of 
Madagascar ; a large bnt shallow 
lake called Alaot&a. oocnpiee the 
N.E. comer of the plain, and at 
no yeiy remote time most probably 
spread oyer the greater portion at 

ItAiihinaka, a. The lake Itast. 
EA'HAVA. Boot of the following :— 

Haninina, v.pau. (Imp. hatSino,) 
To be forded, as shallow water. 

¥ininana, v. imt. (Imp. mihandna ; 

Bel. tAon^fUNM, Bel. Imp. xhanii'' 

no.) To walk through shallow 

water. fProy.) 

HA'HAVGA'ITAVA (1). Boot of the 

following : — 

Manginanginana, adj. Sweet, lus- 
Hana'niva, v. pan. See Hanana.. 
HA'HAHXA'VAVA Boot of the fol- 
lowing : — 

Mihinanktoana, v, int. To be 
brilliant; to shine like ciystiUs 
or dear water agitated, to be 
mirror-like, to flash like a polished 

HA'VATBA,*. A disease, goieraUj 

a disease of tiie glands. 
HA'VBATBA, Afy. Acid, Uke the taste 
of green bananas, or other green 
HA'VBITBA, 9. Fayour, afleotion. 
The word is only used with Mjxjk, 

Kila l&iiiditra, v. wmp. To fawn, 

to seek fayour. See ICxla 


HAV'DBA, «. A defect, anything 

which has a fault or a defect in it. 


YoakiBdra, v. past. Deformed, 
mutilated, made to haye defeots. 
Eandraika, adf. Haying defeots. 

Kaniadra, v, tr. To disfigure, to 

make deformed. (Proy.) 
Asiana hindra, v. past. Made to 

haye a defect. 
Kanlsy hindra. To make to haye 
a defect. 

The latter two axe the Hoya 


HA'VBBA. Used in some proyinoes 

for Anoaha and AireAX ba, which 


HA'VDBAHA'VDEA Proy. for Ha- 


HAKBBrA, a. A word used in the 
droumcision ceremonies inyoking 
blessiniTS npon the children. 
EA'VDBIHA, t. The forehead ; fig. 
the part of the body which oflcvs 
resistance. [Mai. kdnina^ eye- 
brow (?),) 

Eandniiiiia, v.patt. (Imp. handrim.) 
To be stared at, to be looked at 
full in the face, to be threatened; 
to be opposed. See Habdca, Van- 


Hindrinkandrinina, v, past. Same 
as preceding. 

Mihindrina, v. int. (Imp. miAan- 
drina; "Rei.ihandrinana^ Bel. Imp. 
ihandrino,) To fall aslant, or he 
on what is the hardest part, as a 
child falling on the ground, or 
a person sleeping on the bare 


na, f. tr, (Imp. manatidrina; Kel. 
MMfu^rtiMMM, Kel. Imp. anandrino,) 
To appose, to stand against; to 
look sternly at; to nauseate, to 
oanse a loathing. 
H^'KSBiir-T^'HT, «. [tastt, earth.] 

Hazd compact ground which has 
nerer been dug. 
SA'VSBO. Boot of the following :— 

Yoahindro, v. pass. Cooked. 
JLhaadrMaa, or Eandrdina, v. paat. 
(Imp. tthandroy,) Used of any- 
thing to be cooked or prepared for 

AiidrahMna, v.pata, (Imp. oHdru' 
Ady.) ProYincial for prMcding. 

WaktadTO, r. tr, (Imp. mahandroa; 
Bel. uhandr^tmOj Bel. Imp. ahan^ 
dny,) To cook anything for a 

yahJTidTO, «. Anything which has 
been cooked for a mml, a meal. 

Mte nahiadro ny U6ka. The 
relish is weU cooked. 
SA'VBBOHA'VBBO. Boot of the 

following: — 

Wihindrohtodro, v. int. To be 
SA'VDBOITA. Bootof thefollowing:— 

TalklUladroiia, r. pass. Stopped, as 
water in a hollow place. 

AlUadnma, v. pott, (Imp. ahandro' 
nyJ) To be made to stop or made 
to cease to flow, to be made to 
rest, as water in a hollow, or 
blood in a contused wound. 

Eandrtaina, r. pau, rimp. hundrh- 
My.) Same as preceoing. (Prov.) 

Kihiudrena, v, int. (Bel. ihandrina' 
na.) To stop, to become arrested, 
as above. 

Mihtodron-dri, r. eomp. To con- 
geal, as blood in a wound. 

Mantodren-drtoo. To coUect water 

Handrteiana, «. An axe. (Proy.) 

Taaandrdnana intana, «. A place 

for storing goods; a depot. (Proy.) 

HA'lTBBOTaA, «. A bow, a slip-knot. 

See Fbbt, Fahdbot&a. 

Ahiadrotra, v. pan, (Imp. ttkan" 
drdty.) To be tied in a bow. 

Fihy hindrotra, t, A slip-knot. 
HA'KOAHXA'HOAVA, «. A species of 

long-eared owl. (Taimoro.) 0tu9 

eapenais, Smith. 
HA'HOT, ». More frequently Voa- 

HANOT. Coral beads. See Yaxasjl. 
Ha'nozha'itot. «. The name of a small 

kind of beads ; an herb. 
HA'VGIHA'VGT, «. Shame, bashful 


Mikftngihiiigy, v. int. To be a« 
shazned, to be bashful, or timid. 
HA'NT, adj. Single, alone, one in- 
dividual, only, sole. 

HAny malila, $. The one beloved. 

Hiny slsa, t. The last, the very 
last left. 

Hinikda, used for Hakt. 

Hiny &hy. My only one. 

HiByka,0OM;. Andso; as: Babana 


could not be advised, and so he 

is dead. 
HAVI'FIXA, «. An herb. Viola 

mnimenaiSf Bojer, Stond. 
HA'VIHA'NT, «. A laugh, a joke. 
See HoMSHT, Hbht, Tsixt. 
Hinihanina, v, past, (Imp. hdniha- 

nio,) To be teased, to be annoyed. 
Kih&nihiny, v, int. (Imp. mihdni' 

hania; Bel. ihdnihanumay Bel. 

Imp. ihdnihamo,) To giggle, to 

laugh, to titter. 
KanAnih&ny, v. tr. (Imp. mandni^ 

hanla ; Bel. andnihanianaf Bel. 

Imp. andnihanlo.) To tease, to 

annoy in a playful manner. 
HA'NIVA, i. and i;. pass, (Imp. hdno.) 
Food, viotuaU, viands, nourish- 
ment ; to be eaten, to be devoured, 
to be consumed. [Fiji kana ; Mai. 
mahan ; TagalaAraifi ; Battaki)0Aaii.] 


Hinin-koh&nina. Food to be eaten. 

Notice the a. and v. pasa, united 
in one phrase. 

Mihinan-kinina, v. camp. To eat. 
Ad&lan-kiLnina, 04/, Given to much 

eating; gluttonous. 
F4ty an-kinina, adj. Given only 

to eating, having no thought for 

anything but food. 
Fity hftaina, a^ij. Same as preced- 
I ing. 


Hiao yUsBft, Uao flnAritrs. A 
benediotloii : May all 70a eat 
gire Toa life and make 70a happy. 

Lian-kanina, adj. Eager to eat. 

MahiUtM-Mwfiii, adj. Able to 
eat well. 

KAmyhA]iiiiaa]i«tAaaiia,4N{f. Keep- 
ing all to one's self, as a sweist 
morsel in the hand ; selfish. See 


Hiaina tsy miT^iUta. Heat ordered 
by the Sixidt divinerB to be eaten 
entirely by one household. 
Angiaoa-Uiiiiiia, «. Dessert; lit. 

fabnloas good. 
Sirotra aa-ULnina, 04/, Constantly 
at meals, and when there greedy 
and unwilling to let others join 

HA'sra-XAfirA, a#. [icaiva, dry.] Free, 
without cost, gratuitous. 

HA'Ni-xAx'iiTTf «. Tmaimtt, blaok.] 
All edible Tegetaoles and grains 
with the exception of rioe. 

HA'ta-xAfEXNA, «. []£AXzniA, dsi^.l 
A person little known, but treated 
as a confidant ; money reoeiired 
from a trustworthy person without 
any enquiry as to where it came 

Ha'noc-bo'katba, i, [toxatba, pro- 
duce.] Same as Hijn-iCAZifTT. 

Ha'nix-fi'to-lo'ha, •. [fito, seyen, 
LOHA, the head.! A word used to 
describe food all sufficient and of 
all kinds used at a feast. 

Ha'ndt-da'ht, «. [laet, masculine.] 
Food for men; Ajr. strong liquors. 

HA'vnr-JA'YATBA, ». and adj. [zaya- 
TBA, thing.] Anything seized ra- 
paciously, seized and cleared off 
suddenly ; one attacked and insulted 
by several; moth-eaten; to feel iU 
all over. 

Ha'niN-KO'TRANA, «. [XOTRANA, tu- 

mult.] Same as Hanz-xaimtt. 
Ha'win-to'hta, •. [tonta, a trap.] A 

titbit used as a bait for a trap. 
EA'NIVA, $. Longing, eager desire, 
affection; regret. 

Haniniwa, r. pan, (Imp. hantno.) 
To be ngretted, to be longed 

>, V, tr. To long after, to 

S ant after, 
aainana, «. Regret, a sign of 
regret, as mementoes placed upon 
tombs, ete., or souvenirs given 
to remind one of absent friends. 
(Prov .) 
HA'KUBA, «. Fragrance, savour, 
grateful odour; it was formerly 
used for vine twigs, eto., put on tlie 
yoahi&itra, r. pmm. Mads to be 

fragrant. (l4x>v.) 
Yoaliy htoitra, v. jmm. Used in 

Imerina for the preceding. 
Waniriiia, v. pau, (Lnp. hmdrg,) 
To be made to give out a fra- 
grance, to be made fragrant, as 
cooked rice. 
lUnitra, adj. Fragrant, sweet-smell- 
ing, aromatic. 
Hiai-biry taj hariaa. Tfaa fiaa- 
grance of rioe is not wealth. 
Ha'nidbai'so'a,*. rBAi80A,forRAaoA(P}.] 
A shrub whose leaves and root are 
used as a remedy for condyloma. 
Senmo fa^atioidety 'Bakest. Sameaa 
EncBoncBOT (Bets.). 
Ha'uxjato'vo, «. [zawvo, a yonlli.] 

An herb. Selago mwrdUM^ Bui. 
Ha'uxja'zava'vt, «. [zaiavavt, a 

girl.] A sweet-scented grass. 
Ha'nttbavo'xo, «. [avoxo, a small 
herb.] A plant affording a medicine 
for bruises. 


XA (tbaxa), a water-carrier.] An 
herb. Agtnttum cottytrndm^ L. Same 
as FomvoNT (Betsim.). 


b ull.] A sweet-scented grass. 
HA'VITSA. Boot of the follow- 

mhlaitra, v. int. To become hid- 
den in the body, as a ball, or the 
end of a spear. (Prov.) 
HA'VJA, «. A large silver chain. 
(Prov.) See Hakjaxa, Haba, Akjta- 
XA, Vaxoxa, Vako-bola, Rojo. 
HA' VJAHAirjA,* . Nakednees, nudity, 
bareness, openness. 
Xihiigahixja, a^. Naked, unco- 
vered, bai^ exposed, oonspieuous, 
maaifesti ojpaa. 


-RMnaASLklUJlL Boot of the fol- 
lowing. See Hbjahbja. 
Mawfti^fthinja, v. int. To waddle, 
to tmn aboat, to be agitated, as a 
fowl or an animal on the point 
of nnmiiig away. 
HA'VJAKA. rtot, for Ahjaka, which 
flee ; also large bUw ohainfl. See 

. spedeB of aea-eagle. 
ifiroidn^ Dee. Hnrs. 

9. A 

MmHmeiut voeij 
S ame as Ahxoat. 
HA'VXA, ». A spedee of long-eared 
owl. (FroY.) Otu$ capenns. Smith. 
S ame as Haxgaxahoa. 
HA'VXAVA. FroY. for Kansava, 
whicdi see. 
MmHxj tinkana. To be 01 wiili 

worms. (ProT.) 
HA'VXAVA, «. A kind of bird. 
(ProT.) Probably the same as Hah- 
K A, wh ich see. 
HAinCT, inter, IndaedF Beallj? Is 

it so? 
HA'VOXA'ET, t. A plant. (Tan.) 
KA'VTA, «. Entreaty, petition ; indm- 
genoe; submissiTe importunity, if 
done by a superior to an inferior. 
[Mai. mintUf to beg ; Jav. pintOy to 
beg.] See Axqatt, Hataka, Fona. 
Huitaiaa, v. pass. (Imp. hantad.) 

To be gratified, to be indulged. 

See Abana. 
mhiata, V. int, (Imp. mikantd ; 

Bel. and Pass, ihantdnaj Rel. Imp. 

ih4mt4i6,) To crave, to entreat, 

to ask witb earnestness. 
■aaiata, v. tr. (Imp. manantd; 

Bel. anantdnaj Kel. Imp. anan^ 

loo.) To gratify, to indulge, to 

HA'VTOVA Boot of the foUowing. 
riCal. ytmtimff.'] 
Tafiikiiitona, v. pass. Used of 

something thrown and becoming 

soepended unintontionally. 
ToahaiitOBa, v. pass. Hung up, 

hung, suspended. 
Ahiatena, v, pass, (Imp. ahantdny,) 

Hung up or suspended. 
Mikintona, v. int. (Bel. ihantdnana.) 

To be hung up, to hang up. 
■UULatona ny riUioiidraiia. The 

rain keeps off. 

Xikdlatotta ny tlnj. TTwdafwoMfai 

or intentions kept back. 
Maaintona, v. tr, (Imp. manan- 

tona; Bel. anumtimmayr^. Imp. 

anaHt6ny,) To hang up, to sus- 
KaaintoBi-MUly, 9, emnp. {yMXft, a 

wife.] To put away a wife witii- 

out diYordng her altogether. 
ManAaton-Jiia, v, eomp. To diyoroe 

a wife, but arrangmg that her 

ohildrcoi, one or more, by any 

future husband shall belong to 

the man who has divorced her. 
KfUiiiitoiii-bdlana, v, eomp. To 

give a promise. (Prov.) 
Himtdnana, s. A wager, a bet. 

HAITTSAVA, s, A nzeoipioe, an 
abyss, a waterfall. See Faxpana, 
Tevaka, Biaha. 
Ha'ntsaic-ba'to, s. [vato, a stone.] 

A steep rook. 
HA'KTSx, s, A challenge; also a 
word used in making children 
laugh. See Haoea. 
Eantsina, v. pass, (Imp. hantsto.) 

To be challenged ; to be made to 

Mihintsy, v. tr, (l^P* mihantsia ; 

Bel. ihantstana, Bel. Imp. ihan- 

tsio.) To challenge, to tease ; to 

make to laugh. 
Mih&ntsy amboa, v, eomp. To tease 

a dog. 
HA'KTSIKA, adj. Having the back 
sunk in. 
yoak&ntiika, r. pass. Made to 

bend or sink in; fig. struck, 

Ahintsika, v, pass, (Imp. ahantst^ 

ho,) To be made to bend or sink 

Hantsihaaa, v, pass, (Imp. han» 

tsiko.) To be beaten, to be 

Mikintsika, a4f\ and r. int. Bent, 

curved ; to withdraw from a 

Kanintsika, r. tr. (Imp. manan^ 

tsiha ; Bel. ananisihana, Bel. Imp. 

anantsiho.) To smite, to beat, 

to flog, to withdraw from a 



BA'wiBKA'viTRkf «. [abixba, e gnus.] 
A plant whoie wood is used in 
HA'nsniA, «. An odour m of dead 
bodies, a stench; inleotion. See 
FofoiTA, ICaucbo. 
HantsiiiiBa, v. past, (Imp. hMtUimo.) 

To be made to stink. 
Kanintiliia, v. tr. (Imp. maman" 

Ulna ; Bel. anantsinattat BeL ^xip* 

ananUlno,) To make to stink. 

Manamintsina. Used in Lnerina 

for the preceding. 
MAntsinatO^r'. Stinking offensiTelj. 

For derivatlTes see under Man- 


Ha'vtsik-ba'ta, s, [taya, the month.] 
Insolence. (Prov.) Same as Avox- 


Hantbi'na, V, pass. See Hamtst. 

HAifTsi'inNA, V, pan. See Hantsina. 

HAVTSrSAXA, «. Name of an ani- 
mal, probably one of the civets. 

SAO, «. A louse, a tick. 

Hao'n-axo'ho, $. [akoho, a fowl.] 
A poultry tick. 

Hao fo'tbt, «. [fotst, white.] A 
white louse. 

Hao'la'kt, <. [laet, masculine.] A 
rover, a roamer, a wanderer, a 

Hao'mba'bt, «. [VABT, ricc.] An insect, 

Xorhaps a weevil. 
O'DT, <. A word used by visitors 
at the door of a house when thev 
are on the point of entering or wish 
to enter. 

EAO'DIA'HA. The answer given by 
the owner of the hoiise to the word 
Haodt, equivalent to saying come 
in, come forward. 

EAO'KA. Prov. for Faoxa, which 

EAO'XA, or EAO'SACTKA, «. Ear- 
neat desire, eagerness, craving, 

Kihadka, or Miha^kaika, v, int. 

To feel an earnest desire, to long, 

to crave after. 

HAO'LO, a4j. Wild, untamed, applied 

chiefly to wild cattle ; easily soared, 

aft biras frequently tthot at. 

WliaMaha6lo, c. imi. To be 

dering about. 
AmboAhMlQ, «. A dog nm wild. 
HAO'LO, 9, A oobUer's awL pSng^. 

EAaVA Boot of the following :— 
TafahaAna, v. pan. Come together 

at a meeting place, met together. 
ToahaAna, v. past. Brought to- 
Anaj^na, 9, pats, (Imp. ahaSm^,) 

Used of the perKms made to meet. 
Xihadiia, v, int, (Imp. F; BeL 

ihainatta, Bel. Imp. ikain^,) To 

meet witih some one, to ineet» to 

ioin, to unite with. 
Xuia^n-ddha, v. eomp. To meet 

head to head, as the heads of 

oxen, canoes, etc. ; to fit well at 

the head. 
HAO'EAVBBETT, s. A kind of 

fish. (Prov.) 
Hao'bxha, V, pass. See Haotra. 
HAO'ST, «. A word used in driving 

away poultry. 
HACntA, «. Scratching, clawing. 
See Ranootba. 

yoaha6tra, r. pass. Scratched. 
Ha6rina, v, pass, (Imp. hairy,) To 

be scratched. 
]Ciha6tra, v, int, (Imp. mihaorm; 

Bel. ihadra$ia, Bel. Imp. ihaorp,) 

To scratch, to claw. 
HAPArHOT, s, A shrub. (Sak.) 
HA'PAKA'PAKA. Boot of the follow- 
ing :— 
Hipakapihina, v, pass, (Imp. Ai- 

pakapdho.) To be sifted. (Frov.) 
Mih&pak&paka, r. tr, (Imp, mihd^ 

pakapdha ; Bel. ihdpakapalumay 

Bel. Imp. ihapakapiLko^ To sift| 

to sieve. (Prov.) 
Mihipakipaka, r. int. To run, to 

run about. (Prov.) 
EATOKA (t). Same as Apoxa, which 

KUiipoka (1). Same as Mzafoka, 
which see. 

HA'BA, «. Mother-of-peaii. 

Ha'bavo'la, s, [vola, money.] A 
grass used in making native bas- 
kets. SUpa (/) sp, fV'ak. A.) 

HA&A'BT, s, BidicuU), a jeer, a 
gibe. See £so, Vazzvaxt. 



Hanibina, v. pass. (Imp. haraito.) 
To be ridiculed, to be jeered at, 
to be gibed. 

MMUMiiAjf V, tr, (Imp. manarahia ; 
fiel. oHarabianOf Bel. Imp. ana- 
raiio,) To jeer at, to ridioiile. 
HA&ATA. FroT. for Abavjl, which 

EAlUFI'SniA, 9. and Mff. Bust, 

rusty. SeeHxBiKA. 
EABA'FY. ProY. for Fudiaka. Gomp. 

HA'BAHATTSA, «. A tree. Sehis- 

m a to c la da sp, 
Haba'hava. r. ^poM. See Harata. 
HAHAHA'^A Boot of the foUow- 
ing: — 

XaagtatlUIra, tu^'. Bright, shin- 
ing, glittering; yery thin, naed 
of old cloth nearly worn out. 
EA'SAHA'BA, a. A tree whose wood 
is used for spade handles, etc., it 
being* extremely hard. Mistakenly 
called by some Lignum vitce. The 
wood is scraped into water and 
drank as an antidote to the poison- 
ous insect called Tsinqala, which 
is occasionally drunk in water. It 
was named in the Linnean Society's 
Journal, Exoearpus xylophylUndea^ 
Baker, but was afterwards found to 
be a leg^uminous plant of obscure 
affinities. Same as Tblayanoo 
HA'BAXA, a4f. Dried up, scorched, 
parched, exhausted, enfeebled, 
wearied, tired. 
Ha'baxa'vo, adj. [ayo, fire.] Burned 
too much by fire, as bricks, tiles, 
etc., burned in a Idln and breiJdng 
from too much burning. 
HA'BAXA. Boot of the following :— 
Yoahiraka, t*. past. Coyered oyer 
with ropes, as a stone being drag- 
ged along. 
HarAhana, v. pass. (Imp. hardho.) 

To be coyeied oyer as aboye. 
Kangiraka, v. tr, (Imp. ma/iffard' 
ha; Bel. angardhana, Bel. Imp. 
an^ardho.) To coyer over, as 

HA'BAX-AMB0'NT,a^.[AlCB0NY, above.] 

Slightly, superficially, ineffeot- 

HA'BAKA, a. A searching for money 
or property in an unfair way, such 
as IS done by those who make endea- 
Yours to secure part of property 
which has been confiscated ; an 
unworthy desire for money. 
MikiralEa, v, int. Imp. and Bel. 
are not in use. To seek to obtain 
money by unfair or unworthy 
HA'BAKA, <. BovxA. strings used in 
weaying, healds. 

HarAhana, v, pass. (Imp. hardho.) 
To be tied up by Bovza strings, 
as aboye. 
XangAraka, v. tr. (Imp. mangard' 
ha; Bel. a$tgarManay Bel. Imp. 
attgardho.) To fasten the aboye 
HA'BAXA'BAXA, s, A bird, a pecu- 
liar species of roller. (Proy.) Eurys' 
tomus madagaseariensiSf L. 
HA'BAXA'SAXA, s. The name of a 

tree used in making canoes. 
HA'BAKA'KJA, «. A wide pubUc 

place. (Froy.) See Klanja. 
HABA'ICT, s, A tree from which a 
gamboge - like substance oozes. 
)y.] Sgmphonia (?) sp. See 

HA'BAVA, s. A plant from which 
sticks for the ribs of umbrellas are 
obtained. Same as Hazohabaka. 
HA'BAVA, s. A rock, a rocky promi- 
nence, hill, or mountain ; sJso used 
for shells, coral, coral reefs, etc. 
See Vatolaicft, Axoba. 
Harftaina, v. pass. (Imp. hardno.) 

To be made to lie upon the bottom, 

as the shells at the bottom of the 

sea. (EVoy.) 
XiankArana, v. int. To go among 

the coral or shells of the sea. 

Kanankarana. Same as preceding. 

KAty an-karAnana, adj. Bead in 

the shell, said of chickens. 
AnkArana, s. A district on the 

extreme north of the island ; also 

a district on the south-east. 
AntankArana, a. A word used in 

speaking of the aboye districts and 

their inhabitants. 



thJtnmmMKntit '• [iHimiAirA, a 

prinoe.] A rooky tnonntain some 

miles to the aoath of the Capital. 

Tftto harinana, «. Qaartz pebbles 

or stones. See Kabakaita. 

Ha'bax-ba'to, i. [yato, a stone.l A 

hogto prominent rooiL a rooky piaoe. 

Ha'eax-b(/la. ProT. lor Abam-boxiA, 

nrhidh see. 
Ha'bah-do'sa. «. [loka, the head.] 
Used for uie ivxird Kabav-doha, 
Ha'ba'vjo, adv. [hatba and bakjo, 
tiie lower pert OT the leg.] Up to 
the lower part of the leg. 
Ha'bak-jo'vo, «. [JOHO, a fish bait or 

hook.] A fishing rod. 
Ha'ban-xt', 9. [ht, the teeth.] The 
bones of the gums, the jaw. (Proy.) 
Ha'ban-o'lona, «. [OLOWA, a person.] 

A skeleton. (Prov.) 
Ha'ban-tba'no, t. [TBANOy a house.l 
The frame-work ox a house. (Proy.) 
HA'BAHA, adj. Seeking for, search- 
ing for. (Proy.) 
Harinina, v. pan. (Imp* hardno,) 

To be searched for. (Proy.) 
yiTiirana, v. int. To sedc, to 
search. (Proy^ 
HAEA'VAVA, «. The gizzard. 
EA'SAHGAHAVA. Boot of the fol- 
lowing : — 

yoahmngira&a, v. paat. Peeped 
at through a hole, or a small 
Hiningartoina, r. paaa. (Imp. Aa- 
ranffordno.) To be peeped at 
through a hole, or a smsll opening. 
Kanirangira&a, r. ir. (Imp. mana- 
rangardna; Bel. andrangardnanay 
'Bjfii.lmp, andrangardno.) To peep 
at through a hole, or a small 
Xang&rangftrana, adv. Used of any- 
thing like a yexy dean piece of 
doth, so dean as to * be transpa- 
rent, or of yery dear water. 
Hara'nina, r. pata. See Habana. 
HA&A'HXA, $. A provincial word for 

Tbatba ^the chest), which see. 
HABA'VXAITA, adj. and t. Gunning, 
crafty, guilefiil; one who deals m 
fiction, fond of the maryellous. See 

RA'BAJIAOTEA, t. Ulceration; fig. 

aggrayatUyn, following up, *^^**g 

^ opportunity of, adding. 

HtraMifttiiia, v. pott. (Imp. Kdra^ 
radty.) To be made to haye one*8 
guilt or calamity ai^grayated, to 
be purvited suoeessiydy, to be 
subject to general annoyance by 
others when one party has shown 
hostility to one. 

■aairanidtra, v. tr. (linp. mamdra* 
raita; Bd. andraradtana^ Bel. 
Imp. andraradtg.) To a gg r a y ate, 
to add to, to taike the occasion of, 
as when following some one dae 
and seeing him do someHdng or 
take something, to steal and lay 
the blame on another. 

Xaaad lULraraAtra, i^. inf. To ul- 
HABA'BABAI'LA'HT. Proy. fior Aba.^ 

BAXLAHT, which SCO. 

HABA'aO, *. Obstruction, encum- 
brance, preyention, discouragement, 
obstade, impediment, dissuasion. 
(Prov. P) 
Voaharare, v. paa». Impeded, eto. 

(Prov. P) 
Eararftana, v. paa$. (Imp. harardy.) 
To be prevented, to be impeded, 
to be cusoouraged. (Prov. P) 
Earar6ina, v. paaa. (luip. harardy.) 

Same as preceding. (Proy. P) 
Xanarire, v. tr. (Imp. manararda; 
Bel. ofiararfona, Bd. Imp. anara* 
rdy.) To put an obstade or diifi- 
culiy in the way, to discourage, 
to dishearten. (Prov. P) 
Haba'tana, V. pau. See Ttk^^ynk 
Habato'dta, v. pasi. See Habaxo. 
HA'BATBA, ». The purlins in the 
roof of a house. 

XitatiLo hiratra, r. eomp. One of 
the old native dividons of the day 
by the pontions of the sun wiu 
reg^ard to the houses ; and mean- 
ing when the sun is at right 
angles with the eastern side of 
the roof; i.e. at about 9 o'dodc 
Ha'ba-bo'ala'vo, 8. [voALAyo, a rat.] 
Certain laths in the roof of a houee, 
probably put there to prevent rats 
from frequenting the roof (P). 

»AkA fttA^-'iAktl^OLO. 

HaritSBA, v. pan, (Imp. haitdto,) 

Kliiaratra, a^j. Shaven. 
■aainttm, «>. <r. Jimp. fMnarMa; 

Bel. ciMritoMa, BeL Imp. tnarA- 

U.) To ehove. 
flUntrft, f. A mar, a lancet. 

Bee Habhha. 
lASATO, «. A net, net -work, a 
landiiia, v. ptau, (Imp. Aamloy.) 

To be cangfat in a net. 
HaratMaa, v,pa»$. (Imp. haraUvy,) 

To be oanglit in a net, as fish. 


MaaarAto, v, tr, (Imp. numaraioa ; 

Bel. mmartU6(maf Bet. Imp. anaru' 

%0 To fish with a net. 
RABAlTO. Boot of the following : — 
HaratMnai p, pau. (Imp. haratdy,) 

To be pat into splints, as abrolran 

Maaarftto, v. <r. (Imp. manaratda; 

Bel. anaratoanaf Bel. Imp. ama- 

mfoy.) To pat a splinter on a 

broken limb. 
HABATtAKA, $. Oattings, clippings, 
diaTings, the refnse from the Iwttom 
of the stalks in reaping rice; small 
bamboos pat on the roofs of houses 
between ue roof timbers to tie the 
thatch to; often pronoonoed Ka- 

VeaharAtiaka, v. paw. Cat off 
ttraight, pared off reg^nlarly, 
shared, smoothed, removed. Comp. 

Huatrthana, v. pan. (Imp. hara' 
tsdho,) To be cat off straight, to 
be remored, to be cleared away. 

XaaarAttaka, «. tr. (Imp. manara- 
ttdJka ; Bel. anaratBdhanaj Bel. 
Imp. amaraUdho,) To cat off 
straight, to pare off regnlarlj, to 
shaye off ; to pat on the bamboos 
of the roof of a house. 
Hasatcd'ha, v. past. See Batbt. 
EABVA, «. A provinoial word for 

Habeita (habt), which see. 
HABBTO, •. A rash used in making 

mats, baskets, and hats. Eleocharit 

9p,f near S, iphaeelata. A less com- 

mon species is JE, Sutwtif Baker* 
Same as Habbfo fBets.). 
HABXITA, «. Bicnes, wealth, opu- 
lence, property. Often pronoonoed 
Habiaita. See HaIkt. 
XiUian-kartea, tuff. Bibh, opulent, 

HaXB'HA Alr-SO'RA BfANA, t. [lOKA, 

the head, biaha, a rock over which 
water falls.] Wealth portioned out 
by a person on the point of death. 


girl.] A marriage portion given to 
a daughter. 
HABB'if-To'voHJA'KA, s. [tovova, an 
addition, zaza, endured. J Extensiye 

HARX'lf-TST inTO'XBO, 9, FtBT, UOt, 

MiTOXBO, to increase.] Money lent 
out without interest. 
HABFKDBIHA, «. Torches of grass, 
etc., kindled by each family outside 
the house on the two evenings 
immediately preceding the annual 
festival of the Fandboaita. 


rat.] The soot which bums and 
spandes at the bottom of a cooking- 

eIslVTAJUL, t. A bird. (Sak.) 
HABE'ZA, 8. A razor. [Eng. raxor,^ 

See Habatba. 
HA'BT, int0r. Indeed ! Beally ! Is it 

HA'BT, $. A plant whose leaves are 
used for headache and bad dreams. 
HA'BT, «. Wealth or possessions of 
any kind accumulated by one's own 
ezertionB ; substance acquired. 
Ah&rih&ry (1), v. pats. Used of that 

sought as riches. 
Harixia, v. paaa. (Imp. hario.) To 

be accumulated, to be collected. 
HinAry. Passive with infix. 
mkAry, V. int. (Imp. miharia ; Bel. 
ihartanaf Bel. Imp. iharlo.) To get 
wealth, to accumulate property. 
Earina, 9. See above. 
Ha'bivo'lo, 9. [voLO, hair.] Boot of 
the following : — 

]Cih&riT61o, r. int. To allow the 
hair to grow to an equal length 
all over the head. 



HA'BIHA'BT, «. Exposure. 

AlULrihAry, v. pott. (Imp. oAiriAa- 
rio,) To be expoeed to view. 

XUiuihiry, aty. Exposed, open, 
manifest ; fig. ashamed. 
EA'filKA, «. A soowl. 

Harihina, f. jmm. (Imp. AoriAo.) 
To be scowled at, to be looked at 

Manffuka, 9, tr, (Imp. mangariha; 
BjSl. angarihana, Bel. Imp. anga" 
riho.) To look askance, to stare 
at obUquely, to soowl at. 

ICiso maagiri-kivana. Not to be 
pleased when yisited by one's 

The reduplioates of this word 

and its denvatives are used with 

exaoUy the same meaning as the 

simple forms. 

Habx'na, V, pass. See Hart.- 

HA'BIKA. Root of the following :— 

H^riniaa, v.poss, (Imp. harino^ To 
be rolled, to be turned roimd, as a 
cylinder, or rollers for crushing 
sugar-cane, etc. (Prov.) 

Xihirinkftrina, v, int. (Imp. tniha- 
rinkartna ; Bel. iharinkarinana, 
Bel. Imp. ihdrinkarlno.) To roll, 
to turn round on itself as a cylin- 
der, etc. (Prov.) 

Faagarinana, «. A rude native mill 
for crushing sugar-cane ; it con- 
sists of a heavy log rolled back- 
wuds and forwards over another, 
which is channelled at the sides 
to receive the expressed juice and 
conduct it to a trough. 

Kang&rim-piry, v, comp. To crush 
sugar-cane by rollers or cylinders. 


Luim-pangarlnana, «. The roller 

of a sugar-cane crusher. (Prov.) 

Tivim-pangarlnana, «. The trough 

of the sugar-cane crusher. (Prov.) 

Mihixingirina, v. int. To be in 

sight, as a ship out at sea, to be 

evident, to be bate, prominent. 


EABI'BT, <. White cotton doth. 

[Ar. harir, silk ; Swa. hariri,] 
Habi'rt MAiu'ifiXA, «. Fine oloth. 
HA'EIT&A. Boot of the follow- 

Xihirltira, v. int. To appear, to be 
conspicuous ; to reach to, tooome 
EABITA, a. The eyening. [Heb. or 

At. *erebh f] 

Hariyaina, v. past. (Imp. AorieoJ.) 
To be detained until evening. 

XanaiiTa, v. int, (Imp. numaripd ; 
Bel. tmarivdnOf Bel. Imp. amnri - 
vac.) To detain until evening, to 
work in the evening. 

Takariya, adv. About dusk. 

HarlTany iadro. It is getting late. 

Xaiiad be kariya, v. eomp. To aa- 
semble in the evening, generally 
used of conspiraoiea or meetings 
for fomenting dissatisfaction with 
the government. It is a crime. 
HA'BO, s. A mixture. [MaL and 

Jav. arUf to stir up.l 

^^ass. iCixed 

Tafahiro, v. pass. 


Yoahiro, v. pass and o^f* Mixed, 
mingled; equal, coequal, like, 

Akiro, V. pass. (Imp. aharojf.) To be 
mixed. Used in speaking of that 
which is added. 

Hardana, 1;. pass. flmp. haroy.) To 
be mixed. Usea in spealdng of 
that which is added to. 

Har6ina, v. pass, (Im^. haro^.) To 
be mixed, to be mmgled, to be 
put into a state of confused mix- 

mkiro, V. int. (Imp. mikaroa ; Bel. 
iharbana^ Bel. Imp. ihar^,) To 
be in a mixed state, to be in a 
mingled state. 

Mangiro, v. tr, Qmp. mangar6a; 
Bel. angaHana^ Bel. Imp* anga* 
r6y.) To mix, to mingle, to jumble 

Maniro, v, tr» Prov. for preceding. 

The reduplicates of all the 

above forms axe used with the 

same meaning as the primary 


HABO'A, «. Two days. (Prov.) In 

Trnflrina. ImdBOI. AMDBO IS USod. 

Haso'ana, V. pass. See Habo. 
Habo'tama, r. pass. See TTA^ftyA 
HA'BOHA'BO, s. Kausea. (Prov.) 


9. mt. To feel mm- 

Habc/iha, v. pau. See Habo. 
HA'BOKA. «. and «u^. Deceit, fraud, 
duplicity, doable dealing, f eneting 
out; hoUow, hollowed out, as a 

Yoaltiroka, v. pau. Beguiled, led 

on to declare one's thooghts. 
Harftftma, v. pan. (linp. harbfy.) 
To be tempted, to be beguiled, to 
be led on, to be inyestigated ; to 
be hollowed out. 
Xangiroka, v. tr. (Jmp.manfforifa; 
Rd. a9t§farbfa$ta, Itel. Imp. on^o- 
rjfy.) To tempt^ to beguile, to 
circumTent, to mipose on, to silt 
out, to fish out, to find out a per- 
son's ideas in a roundabout way. 
Ha'box-a'tt, 9. and at^\ [att, ihe 
]iT«r.] The name of a disease which 
causes great laxity of the bowels ; 
hollow. See Foak-att. 
EA'BOSA'BOXA, s. [Probably ledup. 
of preceding.] Plunging aoout, as 
a person in water and in danger of 
drowning, floundering, flouncing 
about; searching out, emplojring 
all one's means to effect a scheme, 
scheming, an earnest search. 
XiliiroULroka, v. mt. (Imp. miha- 
rokaro/a; Bel. ihdrokardfanaf Bel. 
Imp. ihdrokardfyA To search out 
as aboye. See ^Kaboxa. 
Ha'bok-ajcbo'a, 9. [amboa, a dog.] 
Swimming in the manner of a dog. 
TsikArokHambba is also used. 
Manai talkirok-ambte, v. amp. To 
swim like a dog. 
RA'BOVA, 9. A medium-sized bas- 
ket, a pannier. [Mai. karong^ a 
sack. ' see Sobdct. 
Toah»roiia, v. pas9» Taken or felt 
by the hand in a basket, bag, 
|date, etc. 
Hartaiaa, v. jmm. (Imp. harony.) 
To be felt by the hand, to be 
OToped for, to be taken by the 
hand from a plate. 
Xangirona, v. tr. (Imp. mangarbna; 
Bel. angarmanoy Bel. Imp. anga^ 
fimg.) To feel with the hand, to 
srope, to take food with the hand 
nam a plate. 

• \dJUf aa-diyaka. 

Do not grope for an animal in a 

hole, i.e. Do not expose yourself 

to a hidden danger. 

Xangiron-dftpa, v. eomp. To steal 

what belongs to the soyereign. 
Xlrikitra aa-kixon-dU-bddy. Used 
in speaking of a person who trusts 
his seryants, who, on their part, 
steal his goods; lit. keeping thinffs 
in a bauet with a hole in the 
Xanad misoibidro an-kftrona. Doinff 
anything without haying obtainea 
Fangirompdry, t . The name of an 

AwkiTomatifltia, adv. In oonoeal* 

8ar6nan-kirona, «. A superior kind 
of coyered basket used by women 
for storing their ornaments, etc. 
HA'BOX-BA'TO-yA'KT, «. [yATO, a stone, 
yAXT, broken.] A particular kind 
of basket. 
Ha'bon-sb'bana, 9. [hbbaka, a kind 
of rush.] A basket made of the 
Hbbana, rush. 
Ha'bon-to'b-bo'dt, 9. [tobiba, condi- 
tion, yony, the bottom.] A particu- 
lar kind of basket that is so made 
that it stands upright of itself. 
Ha'bon-tabb'baxa, 9. [tabbbaka, shal- 
low.] A particular kind of shallow 
EABCirOA, 9. A shrub. (Betsim.) 

See the following. 
EABaHQAHA, «. A shrub which 
is used as poultices for scabies ; a 
decoction of the leayes is used for 
dysentery or diarrhosa. By the Be* 
toleo the leayes are mixed with 
those of the Tbiicandba, pounded, 

Sat in the sun, and used as a reme* 
y for scabies by local application* 
The wood is sometimes employed 
for musical instruments. Saronga 
madaffa9cariensi9f Ghoisy. 
HaroDgftnina, acy. Diseased, scab- 
bed. Used only in speaking of 
Habo'noam-fo'hatea, a4f. [fohatba, 
faded away.] Destroyed, spent, 


'HAM/mxA^ «. pan. See Haboita. 

RAJBJyYO, f . The name of a ohann 
or medicLiifi for a oold. 

HABA'BO, 9. A squaring of aocounts 
by persons who haye traded wilJi 
one another, a reckoning up. Used 
in speaking of debts. BeeoABO. 

BA'iAXA (1), f. and adf, A smaU 
yellow bead ; good, yaluable. It is 
also nsed in the proTinces for Voirr 

Habaso'tina, V, pass. See Sabot&a. 

SA'87, f. A proyinoial word for 
ootton and meaioine. 
Xpanad hiiy, «. A doctor, a drag- 
gist. (ProY.) 

Habza'hina, f . p<u»» See Siaxa. 

SABI'DT. A provincial word for Za- 

NAS' ANABAT7, wMoh seC. 

BA'BniA, f. The ootton plant or 
ootton. (Bets.) Same as Landihaeo, 
which see. 

SA'SniA, 8, A shrub supposed to 
be a favourite with the Vazikba, 
and consequently sometimes planted 
where they are tiiought to dwell, in 
order to secure their goodwill. The 
wood is used for musical instruments. 
Dracana anguatifoliaj Roxb. Same 
as Tavivolavavt. (Bets.) 

Ha'sdcba'tt, «. [VAVT, feminine.] A 
shrub used in the form of vapour 
baths for malarial fever. (Antsih.) 
Draetsna elliptiea, Thunb. Same as 
Hasinoola. (Antsih.) 

Ha'simbo'la, f. [voLA, moucy.] A 
shrub. (Antsih.) Draeuma tp, 

Ha'szxvda'ht, «. [laht, masculine*] 
A forest shrub, an infusion of whose 
leaves is employed by the Sihanaka 
as a remedy for the dancing mania 
known as Ramanenjana. (Antsih.) 
Draetma tp, 


shrub. (Antsih.) Same as Hasdc* 
BAVT, which see. 
EA'BIlf A, 8, Intrinsic or supernatural 
virtue which renders a thing good and 
efKoadous ; the efficacy of a remedy ; 
veracity; salt, savour, the intrinsic 
force or quality of anything that has 
not become insipid; charms, ea- 
ohantments, and objects having a 
▼irtoe in producing a certain effect. 

Voftkiiinfc, V. pa$9. Rendered holy, 

consecrated, sanctified. 
Haaiwina, v. pa88. (Imp. A^wIm.) 
To be treated as holy, to be 
■iiina, <»fr. (Imp. mtukta,) Holy, 
consecrated, sanctified ; in redapU- 
oationit means saltaoh. See under 
Masiha for the derivatives. 
Faniiina, «. Salt. See Si&a. 
BA'SniA, 8. Mone^ presented, chiefly 
to the sovereign, in token of sabmis- 
sion or request, generally after a 
ro3ral message has been delivered, 
and at all public appearanoee of the 
sovereign, or on an appointment, in- 
terview, or ratification of an agree- 
ment to make it binding; money 
presented by an inferior to a supe- 
rior for presentation to the sovereign. 
It probably comes from the f onner 

Ahtoina, r. pat8, rimp. oiUttiio.) 
Used of that whi<m is offered as 
Haalnina, v. pa88. (Imp. Aamho.) To 

be presented witn IIabina. 
ManiUina, v. tr. (Imp. iN«fM»ffMi; 
Rel. aruuinana, Rel. Imp. onoW- 
no.) To present the HABnrA. 
Tritiy ny tate-plhaaiwana. Reach- 
ed by the new year. A form of 
Ha'szm-pandbo'aka, 8, [faitdboana, 
the new year's feast.] ThepoU-tax, 
at the rate of one-fifteenth of a 
penny for eaoh person, given to the 
sovereign by all her people each 
new year. 
Ha'bin-ja'za, a. [baba, achild.] Money 
presented to a child on certain occa- 
sions, such as at the time of oircnm- 
dsion, or cutting the first hair, 
Ha'sik-ta'nana, a, [takaka, the hand.] 
A present given to the MnsnuDT, 
etc., after the core of a disease, or 
to a midwife after the birth of a 
HA'BIirA. Root of the following :-- 
Toahifina, v. paaa. Rooked on a 
doth. Applied only to a child 
rocked to and fro on a doth when 
tired, or too fall of food. 



JMifaa, V. pan. (Imp. aJWm^.) 
Used in speaking A the dhild 

Maiiiiiiii, or ¥awiiiii¥to1iia, v, tr. 
(Imp. mmuuinkasifta ; Rel. afui«tii- 
MuifMma, Bel. Imp. andtinkatim,) 
To itX2k a ohild as above. 
SA'SnrA. BootoftheloUowinff:— 

ToftkMaft, V. pan, Twiateo, or 
flpon, aaootton. 

AhMJBfti If, pan. (Imp. akoiino.) 
To be twisted. 

Khisina, Mjr. Twisted. 

Wanisiaa, v. tr. (Imp. matuuina; 
BeL MMffiiMMMi, Kel. Imp. oimm- 
m.) To twist. 

XaaiaiB-pMy, v. cmp. To twist 

The meaning is probably deriTed 
from the preoeding Hasdta. 
SA'ADTA. Boot of the following :— 

■fliMuft, V. imt. (Bel. ihoHnana.) 
To faU down at foil length. Used 
of living things. 

WltsJBkMiia, V. int. Same as pre- 
KA'SnrA. Boot of the following :— 

Ahisina, p. pan. (Imp. ahoiino.) 
To be made yezy round. 

WihislnkAsina, a!f/. Very round. 
See BosiBOBT. 

¥aiiisina, v. tr. To make very 
nrand, to turn in a lathe. 
Ha'sott, $. The divisions of an orange, 

lemon, or oitron. 
KkEs^vixA^ w.pan. SeeHASDTA. 
SAfll'BA, *. Anger. (Prov.) 

BehnsiTa,Air. Hard-hearted. (Prov.) 
Hasoa'vxha, 9. pan. See Soa. 
HA'BOSA'BO. Boot of the foUow- 

ing: — 

HisohasMm, v. pan. (Imp. hdaoha- 
•djf.) To be s^ken of or to in a 
very appieoiatiye manner. 

Maw^BOhaso, v, tr. (Imp. manatO' 
ha9ia; Bel. amuohat6anay Bel. 
Imp. «fM«oA«f0y.) To speak of 
or to in a very appreciatlTe man- 
SATATA, or SATATAHA, ». A larg;e 

tree, the kernel of whose fruit is 

ediUe. (Betsim.) Terminalia Catap- 

pa^ L. Same as Atata (Betsim.), 

andAx*iaii4 (Betsim.). 

HAXA'KzvAy «. pan. See Havaxa. 
HATAT', «. A provinoial word for 

KiTAT, which see. 
BA'TAXA, «. A request, a thing beg< 
ged, alms. 
voakitaka, v, pan. Demanded, 

prayed for. 
AngatAhina, v. pan. (Imp, amatif 

ho.) To be begyecL to be anked for; 

fig. cheap, used in speaking of 

i£ib things asked for, or the person 

from whom they are begged. 
XangAtaka, v. tr. (Imp. manfiaU' 

ha; Bel. oMatdhan^ Bel. Imp. 

angataho.) To aak, to beg. 
Manad timpony maagAtaka Msa, 

To hold to another person's gooos 

so that the owner again has to 

beg for them. 
Fangat&hina, t . A beggar. 
Ha'ta-pi'so, «. [fiso, a cat.] The 
begging of a oat. 
Xanad hita.-piso, v. mt. To be 

continually begging. 
SA'TAXA. Boot ofSie following. 
The root word, however, is used like 
an imperative in commanding peo- 
ple to clear away. 
Tafah&taka, v. pan, Separated 

Toahitaka, v. pan. Separated, 

being made to have a space be- 
AhAtaka, v. pais. (Imp. ahatdho.) 

Used of the things that are to be 

made separate. 
HatAhina, v. pan. (Imp. hatdho.) 

To be made to be separate, to be 

set apart. 
XihAtaka, v. int. (Imp. mihatdha ; 

Bel. ihatdhana, "Sel. Imp. ihatd- 

ho.) To separate, to go apart 

from, to stand aside or aloof 

Mih&ta-miso. To separate, as the 

joining of rings. 
Hatanja'kina, r. pan. See Tamjaka. 
Hatave'zina, v. pass. See Tavy. 
HA'TAXA, «. A nocturnal animal, 
something like a lemur, and living 
in hollow trees. Possibly CheirogaleuM 
Miliij Geoff. Same as Tsidisa. 
SATELO'AHA, s. [ha-, and tblo, 
three.] Three days. 


SATE'KBA, adv, [hatha, and tbkda, 
the neok.] Up to the neck. 

Hatb'nina, a4f. See Hatina. 

HATE'O. A pnmnoial word for Ha- 
DXTBO, whioh Bee. 

Ha thvj ^ miha , f. /MM. See Katb- 


SA'TT, f. A provincial word for 

Hathia, whioh see. 
SA'TT, «. A word used in praising 

a person. (ProT.) 
EA'TDLIL'TIKA. Boot of the foUow- 

HfiknitikAtilra, f . r«Ap, To tickle 
or to tease one another. (Proy.) 
EA'XnrA, «. The itch, scabies. 
Hatdnina, o^r*. AfFeoted with the 
itch, having the itch. 
HA'TDC-pfsAXA, «. [FiSAZAy thin and 

long.] A kind of itch. 
Ha'tin-dsa'zava, «. [sAJSAKA, an an- 
cestor.] An hereditary disease. 
SA'TO. ±U)ot of the following :— 
XihAto, V, •«•<. To liTe among 
others, to be dependent upon 
others, as an orphan. (Proy.f 
Hato'hina, 1^. pan. See Hatoza. 
EA'TOXA, f. The nape of the 
Hat6hina, v, pan, (Imp. AafoAy.) 

To be opposed. 
XaiL&toka, «. tr, (Imp. manaioha ; 
Bel. anat6kana^ Bel. Imp. anato- 
hff,) To implant or set one's 
sell affainst, as in battle. (Prov.) 
Xaaitokitoka, 4^. tr. (Imp. mand- 
tokatoha ; Bel. andtokatdhana^ Bel. 
Imn. andtokatohff.) To moye the 
neck or nod the head as in anger 
and defiance. (Proy.) 
X&fy hitoka, a4j. Hardened, stiff- 
An-kitoky ny Faadrdaiia, adv. Just 

before Uie Fandboaka. 
Tiry h&toka. Same as Tebt yozo- 
NA. See Tbbt. 
HA'TOS-Airoi'DiirT, 8. [noidint, its bit- 
terness.] The upper extremity of 
the nape of the neoE. 
Ha'to-taVaka, «. [tanana, the hand.] 

The wrist. 
Ha'to-to'nootba, s. [tonootha, the 

foot.] The ande. 
EATOVA Boot of the following :— 

Toakitona, v, pott, Approaohed, 
approximated, drawn near to. 

Hai&nina; v, past. (Imp. hatdnff.) 
To be approached, to be approx- 

Kan&toiiA, V. tr. and int, (Imp. 
manatona; Bel. anatonanot Bel. 
Imp. anatony.) To approach, to 
draw near. 

IQfiUDiitoiia, V. reoip, (Imp. fnt/ona* 

t^na; Bel. ifanatmana^BA. Imp. 

ifanatomf.) To approach one 

another ; fig. to agree. 

Ha'ton-ja'ha, b. [zaba, luck.] I\vr- 

tunate ; lit. approached by what is 

fortunate. (Proy.) 
SATO'TO, 9. A species of pigeon. 

(Tan.) (kna eaperuitf L. &Mune aa 

SA'TBA. A proyinoial word for Za- 

tba, which see. 
SA'TBA. Boot of the following :— 

XankahAtra,v. tr. {Ixap.manlMdra; 
Bel. and Pass, ankahdrana, Bel. 
Imp. ankahdro.) To turn aside, 
to deviate, to err from ; to reach 
or attain by a wrong method, to 
do a thing one is told not to do ; 
to try one another's strength, 
to see which is strongest, to try 
if one can lift a heavy weight, 

Xiftnatra, v. comp. To try one 
another's strengdi, to try which 
is strongest. 
EA'TBA, prfp. Up to, as far as, 

until, from, since. fComp. Batak 

hadaratf up to the wall.] 

Tafah&tra, t^. pat$. Beached up to. 

Ahitri, V. past. (Imp. ahdro.) To 
be made to reach to. 

Khitra, v. int. (Imp. mihara; Bel. 
and Pass, ihdranaf Bel. Imp. 
ihdro f.) To reach to, to come to. 

Xanitra, v. tr. To intend to do 
somethinff, or to do something 
which wifi entail censure, blame, 
or loss. 

Xan&-bda-mity, v. eomp. To risk 
one's life. 

The word Hatba is much used 
in making compounds. Note that 
the -ISA is sometimes elided with- 
out a change of the oonaomant. 


Hata'lasx'a, mh, [faladia, the Bole of 

the foot.] Up to the sole of the foot. 
Haio^tofv, adff, [voTOFB, ^e top of 

the thigh.] Up to the thigha. 
HahX'xxka, adv. [hblika, the ann- 

pits.] Up to the armpite. 
Haxi'ho, adff. [kxho, the elhow.] A 

cabit; lit. up to the elbow. 
Haioha'lojl, adv. [lowat.ttj, the 

knee.] Up to the kneee. 
Haba'itjo, adv. [bavjo, the shin.] 

Up to the •hina. 
Hat^hba, adv. [tbhsa, the throat.] 

Up to the throat. 
HAnukfjEA, adv. [aiza, where F] From 

vp to where? 
HinA'mr, prtp. From to. 

Eatrimy nj ka hatriUay 

ay adv. From to. 

Hasba'nt, prep. JTAHTy there.] As 

far ae then, uaed also with all 

adTerbs of plaoe, Hatbao, Hatbbty, 

eto. etc. 

Eatriay hatriay, adv. The whole 

A'Ty]iatriay,4Mlr. Atonoe, without 
Hatea'tra, adv. [teatba, the ohest.] 

Up to the dhest. 
HAns'iTT, prep, [snt, there.] As 

far as thero. 
Ha'tbt vasai'va, prep, [xabaika, 

morning.] Since the mominff. 
HA'TBxaAT', adv. [xzat, that.] Mere- 


SAtrisat hitrisat, adv. From the 
beginning, a kmg time past. 
HATAZ.A'HA2rA, adv. [TAXiAEAirA, the 

knne.l Up to the loins. 
HAYAjrrAirA, adv. [takiaka, the loins.] 

Same as the preceding. 
Haya.'ta, adv. [tata, the mouth.] 

Up to the mouth. 
Haya'tavo', adv. [yayavo, the stom- 
ach.] Up to the pit of the stomach. 
Ray&zoha, adv. [yozona, the neck.] 

Up to the neck. 
HAnA'FOKA. Same as Ejltbaioka, 

which see. 
EA'TRAXA'TEAXA, <. Levity, dis- 

flipation, liveliness, pride. 

Hatrakatrihina, r. paas. (Imp. 
hdtrakairdho.) To be spoken to 
in pride or levity. 

XanAtrakfttraka, v. tr. To console, 
to encourage those in trouble. 
SA'TRAKA'TEAXA. Boot of the 
following : — 

Xang&trakitraka, adj. Extremely 
red. Used only with Mbva, red . 
EATBBTO, f . An aquatio herb with 
an edible root. (Sak^ Nymphma ap. 
Perhaps the same as Voalbtoxa. 
EA'TBOXA'TBOKA. Boot of the 
following. See Katbokatboka. 
Mih&trokitroka, v. int. (Imp. mi- 
hdtrokatrbha ; Bel. ihdtrokatroha- 
na, Bel. Imp. ihdirokairdhff.) To 
be in a state of agitation, to 
walk quickly, as in anger. (Jnoy.) 
SATBO'TaO, e. Anything congeal- 
ing like jeUy, but bad. 
Haibo'tbobb', f. An Arabian drum. 

SA'TBAXA, 9. Anything which has 
its edge or side cut regularly, such 
as paper, a terrace, mud walls, eto. 
Yoahatiaka, v. past. Gut regiJarly, 
straightened, shaven, arranged 
HatsAhana, v. pan. (Imp. hatsdho.) 
To be cut regularly, to be straight- 
ened, to be arranged beforehand. 
Xanitiaka, v. tr. (Imp. manatadha ; 
Bel. anatedhatki, Bei. Imp. ana^ 
tadko.) To cut the edge regularly, 
to straighten, to arrange before- 
Fihitsaka, «. A knife for cutting 
edges. See Fihabatba, Habbza. 
EA'TBAKA'TflAXA. Boot of the fol- 
lowing: — 

Manytiakitsaka, at^. Extremely 
white. Used only with Fotby, 
Hatsabai'na, v. pasM. See Tbaba. 
HATBA'BT. A provindal word for 

Hajart, which see. 
HAT8ATBA, adj. Pale, wan, sickly. 
Uaed in spealcing of the condition 
of one recovering from an illness 
or just out of prison. 
HATSrAKA, a. Ck>ld, coldness, chil- 
liness, frigidness. See Nara, Ma- 
BixoDrrsA. [Mai. aejuk, cool.] 
Hatsiihina, v. paaa, (Imp. hataidho.) 
To be cooled, to be made oold. 


KftBgatiiaka, adj, Oold, ohffly, 

XaBgatfia-tiaaiia, adj. Havini^ 
power to heal by the touch of the 
hand ; lit. oold-handed. 
SAT8IE', \wt, A word used in cal- 
Unfl^ the attenti(^ of the people 
before oommenoing a funeral ora- 
HATBI'HA, f. Hie name of one of the 

months. (Prov.) 
EATBIKA, 9, The moyement of the 
hands or finirers in beckoninpr, etc. 
Note that the hand is held with the 
pidm downwaid/i. Comp. Hova. 
Toahitiika, r. poM. Beckoned ; 
pnlled back by the fingfers, as the 
trifirirer of a gron. 
Hatfihina, f. pa»%, (Imp. Aaf«IAo.) 
To be beckoned, to be touched ; 
to be pulled back, as the trigger 
<rfa fnm. 
Manitiika, «. it, (Imp. miMaUXKa ; 
Bel. anafAhana^ Bel. Imp. ana^ 
t»xho.) To beckon, to point to a 
person with the intention of cal- 
ling him aside ; to poll back the 
triarflrer of a gnn. 
SATSrKAHA, 9, A small shmb, the 
bark of whose root is used in the ma- 
nufacture of native mm, and as a 
black dye. It is also said to cause vo- 
mitintr of blood if used in too firreat 
quantity. Xeroehlamy* pilota. Baker. 
EATSrXAVA, adf, and ». Jocular, 
jesting, talkatiye: a legend, an 
amusinsT story. See Yosobosotba, 
Vazivazt, Awoako, Abira. 
Xpana6 hatilkana, s. A jester, a 
joker, one who is amusing. 
SATSrVO, a. A cartridpre, a piece 
of small bamboo used for holding a 
sinfirle charge of powder. 
Hatiiyftina, v. paaa. (Imp. hatHvoy.) 

To be made into a cartridjore. 
XanatsiTO, v. tr. To make car- 
tridges, to put powder in bam- 
booR eti^ 
EATSOHA'TSO. Root of the follow- 
in ar. See Hatsakatsaka. 
Kangitsohitio, a^\ Very white, 
whit« as snow. 
HATSCTSO, ndf. Jocular, jesting, 
fabuLouB. See HATaocANA. 

Hata^tiobi, a4r* Same aa the sbnple 

EATALiKAHA. 9. fs^"* ^''^ tai<o, 

eight.] In eight days, the eighth 

SATAHA, f . A relation, an aUianoe, 

a friend. See Sakazza, Loireo. 

HaTftniBA, v, pa99. (Imp. havdmo.) 
To be entered into relatjonahip 
with, to be consorted with. 

Kihivana, v. int, (Imp. nUkmwbtm ; 
Rel. ihavdnana^ Itel. Imp. ihmvd^ 
noJ) To be in a state of friend- 
tBhip with, to be 00 friendly terms 
with, to show friendship towazda. 

Hivana akaiky, «. A near relative. 

Kftyan-tetMna, 9. A distant reLa* 

Hivana mpanftyankiYana, or mpa- 
nivaagiyaiia. TJasd of one who 
likes eyerybody save his own lela- 

Hiyana tty aina, «. [azva, life.] 
An unkind or untma tworth y rel- 

Kibo 6iiiby hAyana, adj. Used in 
speaking of a gentiy disposed 

XaiLa6 hftyako rUia mlay pAtaa. 
To like a person so loner as one 
can get anythinsr out of him ; lit. 
as lonsr as the shrimps last. 

Xanad hiyan* ny lihy sy hiTaa' 
ny yiyy. UaBd of a married 
couple who cannot get on with 
each other's reUtiyes. 

Xanad yftro-mitihy hiyana. Used 
of one who does all for his nria- 
tives, but shows fayour to no 
others ; lit. a bird who does good 
to its own. 

Fitsariaa tty atindry hiyaaa. 
Used of one who acts unpartlaliy 
eyen to those of his own kin. 

Kbfbn - kena mitim - pihayinaiia. 
Used of the beef at the New Year's 
festival gfiven as a mark of re- 
spect ; lit. beef maintainingfriend- 

Ydro-mantaipe hiyana. Used of 
tiie relatives of the sovereign who 
serve her well. 
HATAKAHA, «. The riorht side. 

[Mai. (tanang) ktmaa (/).] 




, mij. On the right 

ui§. and*. ini, RigrH 
on Iha nijl&t ; to be dezterotw, to 
work with the right hand nprwwds 
In holdf&g anything with both 
liattu AalBiiTiBaiiA, # . The right 

k, A(r'. Active, well- 
ooncntionedf oIew« 

Xivriaaa-tatoiiift, M|r. Of higher 

SftTiaa^, #. One's superior in 
portion or niaoe. 

lliai which is Toid or open; a 

gutter, a hole in sand, tiie tonsnze 

of llie head, an open space in an 

aaatimMy, a woima opened to ffaid 

# {horn ; bosmess arrangped pre- 

▼ionsly. It & also naed in the sense 

of Ayazayaza, which see. 

▼oikiivaagiYaiia, i». pau, Stbred 
vp, opened irpi spaoed off; ar- 
lai^gea, ae a fire on the hearth ; 
fi^. airanged beforehand. 

ttlfaagaYdUuma, v, ptt$§. (fmp. 
JU9mtpa0Jku>.) To be stirred up, 
to be niade open; to be held in 
reoer ve; to be arranged before- 

IfajiATangftYaBa, v. it. (Imp. ma- 
ni9mnffa0dna; Bel. wKkon^onka- 
iM, Bel. Imp. tmdwHigavdno.) To 
make a space in the middle of 
loose earfen, sand, or an assem- 
blage of goods or people ; to stir 
up a ihe ; to arrange beforehand ; 
to hold in re set ' t o . 
HATA'VBSA, #. Hall. 

SsTiadn Mtsaka, adf. Extremely 
cold, used of anytiiing oold, as 
hail; Ut. falling hail. 

■anaYiadra, m^'. Haily. 
HA'YAsaAYA'NAirA, V. pois, Soc Hata- 

vAiTA, or Hatanoayaha. 
HATAVTAVA, adv, [hatka, and 

YAHXAWA, flie loins.] Up to the 

HAYA'imrA, t. jm$s. See Hayaita. 
HATA'VJA, #. The sporting about 

of cdttle ; a Msorting place of cattle. 


Fily haYi^Ja, adj. Skipping about 
as cattle. 
HAYAiK. A provincial word for Hx- 

ANT, which see. 
HATATRATAT&A, •. A leap, a 
spring, a jump, a start* 
WhiYatriiYatra, v, int. To leap, 
to jump, to spring, to start. 
XATA'TSA, 9. A pifftioular kind of 
mark made in the skin for orna- 
mentation, tattooing. 
Manad haYitsa, t, eomp. To tattoo ; 
to haye the marks of tattooing. 


HAYATAFO', adv, [satba, andYAYA- 

Fo, the pit of the stomach.] Up to 
the pit of the stomach. 
EAYI'A, a. The left side. 
XaaaYla, adf. and v. inf. Left, on 

the left side ; to be unable to do 

a thing, to perplex. 
Tiaan-ankaYia, 9. The left hand. 

Taitait-zayxa is also used. 
MikaYlaYia, v. int. To seek to do 

something unseemly. 
Eavlany, $. The next below in 

Havi'a js'bt, adt. [jbet, a look.] 

Used ot improper looks. (Prov.) 
Havi'a ts'saka, adj. [tbraita for 
tosrana, a JP^ace.l Of unstable 
habitation. (Frov.; 
Hay^a ya'ya, or ANKAYfA ya'ya, adj. 
[yaya, the mouth.] Improper to 
be spoken, not to be uttered, unlaw- 
ful to be exposed. Hayxa yolana 
is also used in the provinces. 
Ankavian' ny YiYako iitoy. I 

never could say that. 
HA'YISA'VY, s. Osdllation, suspen- 
sion, hanging. See Hbyihbyt, 
AhivihftYy, v. pass. (Imp. ah^viha" 

via.) Used of what is to be 

suspended or hung. 
Mih&vihiYy, v. int. To hang, to 

be suspended; to be reetlees, to 

go a bout. 
ItA'TDTA. Root of the followtng : — 
See Hantona, and comp. Kavdia. 
l^vlnana, v. pass. (Imp. harino.) 

To be suspended, to be dependent 

on. Comp. Anoayt. 
Mihivioa, v. int. To suspend. 


KangftTinft, v. tr. To beg, to 
demand something from some one. 
HA'vIHA. Boot of the following :— 

Kavina, od^, Prov. for MAyBSAXS^ 
which see. 
HA'VDrA, 9, Ear-zings. (ProY.) 


Mihivina, f. tti/. To wear ear- 
rings. (ProT.^ 
SA'VlTkA, «. A pointed iron, a 

poker, a spit. In the provinoes a 

hook, a boat-hook. [Mai. Aratri^] 

EayitiBa, or Eavmna, v. jmm«. 
(Imp. KoxHtOy or haviro {f),) To 
be hooked, as a canoe by a boat- 
hook, or an eel by a fish-hook. 

Man&yitra, r. tr. To hook a canoe, 
an eel, or a drowning person. 

HAYaAHA, «. A hill, an asoent, a 
mountain, hilly ffronnd; also a tree. 
See Abo, Ato, Tbndbombohitsa.. 

HAYCHA, ff. A shrub with beauti- 
fully cut leayes. Possibly a oucur- 
bitaoeous plant. Also a tree or 
shrub, the fibre of whidi is used in 
making doth, cord, and rope. 

SATOXA(!). Rootof thefollowing :— 
Xang&Yoka, ad^. Dried up, dusl^. 

HATOKATOXA, «. The lungs, the 

EAYOXATOXA, «. Flogging, beat- 
ing, striking. See Kapoxa, Vslt. 
HlTokaybluuia, v. pats. (Ijnp. hd' 
wkavohff.) To be flogged, to be 
beaten, to be struck. 
Xan&YoUyoka, v. tr. (Imp. mand- 
vokavoha ; Bel. andvokavohana, 
Bel. Imp. andvokavohy.) To flog, 
to beat, to bang, to pommel. 

EAYCZO, «. A tree, of which there 
are two species, Hayozoxamy and 
Hayozoxanqidt. Their bark is 
used in the manufacture of natiye 
rum. They also afford a medicine 
for boils and swellings. 

Hayo'zoxa'ict, a. [xamt, sweet.] A 
tree with a yery sweet-scented aro- 
matic bark and wood. See Hayozo. 

Hayo'zoxanqi'dt, a. [manqidt, bitter.] 
A tree with aromatic bark and 
wood. See Hayobo. 

SAYiKZOVA, adv. [katba, and Yoso- 

NA, the neck.] Up to the neck. 
SA'ZA, «. A chase, a hunt, game ; 

spoil taken in hunting, as different 

&om what is entrapped, ensnared, 

or shot. See Toha, Rbmbt. 

Eaiaina, v, pttaa (Imp. hazao.) To 
be hunted, to be chased. 

Xihiia, V. int. and v. tr. (Imp. mi- 
hatd ; Bel. ihoMdna^ Kel. Imp. 
ihatao.) To hunt, to chase. 
Ha'zand&a^no, a. [bako, water.] I^ah, 

shrimps, we^ snails, etc., used as 

food. See Laokait-dbano. 
EA'ZAHA'ZA, a. A position yery 

eleyated or yery far away. (Proy.) 
Haza'hina, aty\ See Hazaxa. 
Haza^na, 9. paaa. See Haza. 
EA'ZAKA, a. A kind of scab or itoh, 

chiefly on the feet or legs. 

Kaianlna, adj. SoabM, ooyered 
yrith scabs, affected with the Ha- 
EA'ZAXA'ZAXA, «. A run, a gaUop. 

See Olobiat, Ezaxa. 

Hftiakasihina, v. paaa. (Imp. hdsa^ 
kazdho.) To be run for. 

Xihisakiiaka, v. int. (Imp. mihd- 
zakazdha ; Bel. ihdtaka zd hana^ Bel. 
Imn. ihdsakazdho.) To run, to 

Xaniiakiiaka, v. tr. To run for 
or after a person. 

M^faniila hiiaktoaka, v. aomp. To 
race, to compete in running. 

Eiiakiiaka arihix-titika, «. Ag- 
grayation, exasperation. 

ICana^ hiiaULiaka arihin-t6dka. 
To run with others yet pushing 
them down so as to gain an un- 
fair adyantage; fig. to seek an 
unfair adyantage ; to push those 
already running away, to increase 
the trouble of any one. 
EA'ZAHOA'ZAHA, «. and «(^'. On the 

look out, being on the watch ; yezy 

hard. Used of earth. See Mazana. 

Hiiaagaiinina, t*. paaa. (Imp. Aa- 
zanatKono.) To be spied out, to 
be looked out or after. 

Xanftiangiiaaa, v. tr. (Imp. ma- 
ndzangazdna; "RA.andzattgazdnanay 
Bel. imp. andztmgazdno.) To look 
out| to spy, to seek out» to piok out. 


SAZA'XT, 9, A ohann, an enohant- 
aent. See Mosatt, Odt, Yobika. 
Yoaliuiry, v, past. Charmed, en- 
Haaarina, v, pan, (Imp. kazaHo,) 
To he charmed, to he enchanted, 
to he hewitohed. 
Ifanaiiry, v. tr, (Imp. maimuairUi; 
Bel. anasarianaf Bel. Imp. ofuua- 
rio. To charm, to enonant, to 
Hajutai'va, f . j^oM. See Zata. 
EA'ZIHA'ZT, 9. Nakedneaa, nudity, 

Senneaa, ezposnre. See Tamjaxa, 

Xiliiiihiiy, adj. Naked, hare. 
See Mi TAyjAg A. 
EA'ZnraA'ZIVY, 04/, Prominent, 

Xihiiingiiiiiy, a4f\ To he lean, 
SA'ZO, f . A tree or ahnih ; wood of 
all kinds ; fig. hard. [Mai. ka^,] 
Ziwa-kiio, s. Young plants; the 
small pieces of woed usedin hnild- 
inff mb sides of the wooden houses 
ca&ed Trano kotona. Any long 
four-sided piece of timher cut 
from a young tree. In the pro- 
Tinoes it also means small round 
poles used in house huilding, or 
the round posts in the frame- work 
of a Sakaiava house. 
T6-k^o, 9, [tokaha, alone.] A 
single tree. 
Ha'boa'xbo, 9, [axbo, high, lofty.] 
A Terr large tree. (Sak.) Also a 
tree whose wood is used in natiye 
wheelless carts for dragging large 
stones to grayes. (Betsim.) Unana (/) 

Ha'xoa'xbola'rt, 9, [lakt, masculine.] 

A tree with edihle fruit. (Betsim.) 

Unona {f) «p. 
Ha'zoa'mboya'tt, 9, [tatt, feminine.] 

A tzee. (Betsim.) Unona {?) 9p. 
Ha'zoa'ba, 9. A shruh or tree (P). 

Ha'zofa'dt, 9. [fadt, a thing ta- 

hooed.] A plant used as a medicine. 
Ha'zofi'aka, 9, [fiana, a fish.] The 

name of a tree. 
Ha'zo fi'saka, 9, [fisaxa, thin.] Planks 

and boards. 

HA'zoFfToeo'soNA, 9, [fito, seven, 30- 
SONA, fold.] A plant, an infusion 
made from the stem of which is 
drunk as a remedy for fainting 

Ha'zofo'et, 9. Tfoht, short.] A plant 
used as a medicine. 

Ha'zo fo'tbt, «. [fotbt, white.] A pole 
stuck in the ground by order of the 
goyemment to prohibit people from 
advancing in that direction ; a sub- 
stitute for a flag of truce. See 


Ha'zofo'tbika'naha'bt, 9. [naitakabt, 
Ood.] An herb, the leaves of which 
are used for stomach disorders. The 
flocculent hairs from the leaves are 
used as tinder. Seneeio eoehleairifO' 
Uu9t Bojer. Same as Fotsinaha- 


Ha'zohasa'kt, 9, A plant used as a 
charm against witehcraft. (Tan.) 

Ha'zoha'bana, 9. Same as Habava, 
which see. 

Ha'zo se'lt, 9. [kblt, small.] A rod. 


weaving.] A small piece of wood 
belong^ing to the native loom. 

Ha'zola'ht, 9, [laht, masculine.] A 
tall drum beaten at one end (mly, 
the peiformer standing up. See 
Amponoa, Hatbotbobb. 

Ha'zoxadi'o, 9, [iCADio, oleau.] A 
shrub. (Sak.) Same as AiniRiAXBO- 

LAFOTBT, which SCC. 

Ha'zomafax'tba, 9, [XAFAXTSA, for 
KAFAiTBA, bittor.j A shrub (or 
tree P) . A Bubiad. (Bets.) 

Ha'zokafa'na, 9, [mafana, warm.l 
A plant whose leaves are employed 
as poultices for sores, and also as a 
purgative. It is a species of Dio9' 
pyro9f the genus which supplies 
ebony. (Anteih.) Also the name 
of a plant, the leaves and root of 
which are used by the Sakaiava 
women after childbirth that they 
may be kept warm. (Sak.) Also a 
shrub. Hel%chry9um (J) sp, 

Ha'zoicai'ntt, 9. [MAINTT, hlack.l A 
blackboard. Also a shrub with black 
wood used in ornamental work. 
Erythryoxyjum myrtoide9, Bojer. 
Same as Uazoicbt, and Hazombibt 


(TVm.). Alflo a Tery large tree witli 
aerial roote like thoee of a Pandanna. 

Hjl'zoicax'tbo, «. [iCAiTSO, green.] A 
plant used as a medidney and also 
for poiaoning. 

Ha'boma'lahb'lo, 9, [malahslo, sad.! 
A weeping wOlow. An introdnoea 

H^'soiCALiL'KT, 9, A dunb or tree. 
(Bets.) Alao a tree giving ont an 
unpleasant odour when bnmed. 
(Betaim.} Also a tree with soented 
oBefol wood, naed by the Sakalava 
in tattooing and for outriggers. 
When full grown it is considered 
saored, as &e people think their 
ancestors reside in it, and henoe the 
wood is carved into ornaments and 
placed on graves. (Sak.) 

HA'aoiaxjL'imT, «. [maxiAndt, white.] 
A plant used by the Sakalava in 
tattooing. (Sak.) Probably the same 
as Hazomalant (Sak.). 


ple.] A shrub whose wood is used in 
maldng drums. Ctuearia lueida, Tul. 

Ha'somajct, «. [iCAKT, swcet.l A 
plant whose leaves are used for 
children ill of malarial fever. Its 
barktastes like dnnamon. (Antaih.) 

fiA'EOXA'xo, f. fiLUCO, drunk.l A 
tree whose wood is used in making 
spoons, and whose leaves are em - 
ployed as a talisman to keep away 
ghosts. (Tan.) 

Ha'soka'noa, 9. [makoa, blue.] A 
plant whi<^ is supposed to ward ofP 
cHsflases from catUe if tied to their 
horns. It is also sniffed for head- 
ache. It affords, moreover, a dye 
for silk. This is also the name g^iven 
by the Salcalava to any plant used 
in the ceremony of circumcision. 

HA'EoxA'HiraA, f. [manit&a, fra- 
grant.! A tree planted by some of 
uie Sajtalava on the birth of their 
first chad. (Sak.) 

Ha'zomba'satiIa, 9. [VARATRA, light- 
ning.] Hie name of a tree. 

Ha'sox-ba'st, f . [bast, a gun.] The 
itook of ■ mnaket or rifle. 

Ha'zoxba'to, 9. [vATO, a stone.] An 
herb. (Bets.) Kaktnehoe orgydUtj 
Baker. Also a tree whose wood is 
used in house building. (Tan.) 

Ha'zovba'tobs'ba'vzra, 9, [bb, great, 
BAVXNA, a leaf.] A shrub or tree. 
(Bets.) Panax tp. 


small.] An herb. (Bets.) 
Ha'zoxbt, «. [VT, iron.] Shrubs. 
Brythroxylon myrta%de9y Baker, and 
Homdlium tetramemmj Baker, l^e 
former is the same as HAzoxAnrrr, 
which see, and Hakoxbibt (Tan.). 
Ha'zoxbi'bt, 9. [best, an anixnal.] A 
shrub. (Tan.) Same as Hazombt 
and HAKOXAnrrr, which latter see. 

HA^ZOXBOAy, 9, [VOAT, a GTooodile.] 

A shrub with a disagreeable odour. 
It is much used by &e Sakalava in 
vapour baths for malarial fever. 
(Sak.) Same as Manoabsta. (Sak.) 

Ha'zoxboa'itjo, 9. [voAKJO, an earth- 
nut.] A shrub (or tree fO* (Bets.) 

Ha'zoxb'na, 9. [xENA, red.] A shrub 
or tree whose wood is very durable, 
and is used for the corner posts of 
wooden houses. Weinmannia Mutan" 
heryii, Engler. 

Ha'zoxb'na^si'tba, 9. [labitba, ? ] 
A shrub. Weinmannia 9p. 

HA'zoiOA'voirA, 9» [avona, pride, 
haughtiness.] A general name of 
epiphytic and parasitic plants, such 
as Orchids, Loranthi, eto. Some- 
times called BAnaAVONA. 

HA'zoxo'AirA, ff. [xoAWA, dumb.] A 
plant used as a remedy for sores. 

Ha'zoxpo'bitba, «. [fobttba, folding.] 
A shrub. (Antsih.) CUrodendron «p. 

Ha'zona'fo, 9, [avo, fire.] A tree. 

Ha'zonako'ho, 9, [akoko, a fowl.] *A 
shrub. Same as Fanebana, Tor- 
oobosotra, and Yoantainakoho. 

Ha'zonandbi'ava, «. [andriana, a 
noble.] An herb uaed in vapour 
baths tor malarial fever. StenoeUne 
inuloide9^ DC. 

Ha'zon-damo'stna, 9. [laxosixa, the 
back.] The spinal bone, the spine. 

Ha'zonda'ndt, «. [i^^DT, a silk- 
worm.] The mtdberry tree. Also 
called VOABOT. 



a, [poMOVJaAy ft 
wild pigeon.] A plant. (Tan.) 

H^'jtonufcAHi'iBiXAy «. [hixsxka, a 
bird (F).] Thenameofalacgetoee. 

H^'xoinniL'KO, t. [baho, water.] A 
Jdnd of nuh luea in Tnalritig mats 
and baakets. Seifput ecrymbotut^ 
fieyne. 9ame as FaaovA (Beta.)- 
Aiao a tree from which the poles of 
gentlemen's palanqninfl are made. 
SUtodendron (/) tp. Same as Lakpx- 
tahuba. and JULijioibaiit (Tan.). 

Ha'soadbb^aha, f . [beaha, for bia- 
iTA (P), a rooky waterfall. J A plant 
with edible fmit. (Bets.) 

Ha'boboa'oa', 9, [ttAOA, a orow.] An 
herb. (Bets.) OotoAwSatfy^MOMlM, 

HA'xoHOOAfsA, «. [ooAiKA, a orow.] 
A planty a deooction of the leaves 
of whidi is used for diarrhooa. Cut- 
jofiMf JBiiferi, Seem. Same as TsiH- 

Ha'zohkiso'a, «. [xisoA, a hog.] A 
plant need for the disease oalled 


a shrub.] The name of a tree 
generally used xq making the three 
central posts supporting the roof 
of a house. Same as HiisixiTBZXAy 
which see. 

Ha'zomo'baka, 8. [oRAiTA, a crayfish.] 
An herb. Anthotpermum emimeme. 
Baker, Same as Aiaxvaha (Bets.), 
Ai.AinBiffOA (Bets.), and Eisanoa 
(Bets.), which last see. 

Ha'zokc^vzla'ht, «. [oYT, a yam, laht, 
mascnline.] A plant. (Bets.) 

Ha'zohta'htt, s. [xantt, a basket.] A 
shrub. (ProY.j Same as Tsztiina, 
Taihtoka, and Hazotana (Bets.), 
the two last of which see. 

Ha'zomto'ho, «. [toho, a kind of fish.] 
Shrubs. (Betsim.) Myr»%ne madu' 
gtuetaien»%9, A.DG., and ArdUiafut' 
eopiioaOy Baker. 

Ha'zoitio'hola'ht, a, [laht, masou- 
line.J A shrub. 

Ha'zonto'hota'yt, «. [yavy, feminine.] 
A shrub. Ardisia ap, 

Ha'zota'ita, «. [tana, a chameleon.] A 
ahrub used as a remedy for bubo. 

The stem is socased apd Qsedbytha 
Betsileo as a poiutioe for abscesses. 
rSets.) Same as Hazobtahtt 

(PrOY.), TBNTDlAy and TAUfTOBA, 

which last see. 
Ha'boto'ho, a, [toho, a kind of fish.] 

A plant. (Bets.) 
Ha'zoix/kana, «. [toxaba. aloQe^] A 
hard-wooded shrub, a decoction of 
the leaYcs of which is used as a ver- 
mifuge and also for indigestion. 
The natives used to believe that if 
any part of this shrub were brought 
into the house all the puts would 
break. Vtmoma ap. Same as Ma- 
BABOiSA (Bets.), which see. 
Ha'zoibxla'xt, a. [tbilaxt, F ] 
A plant, an infusion of which is 
drunk to exhilarate people in danc- 
ing. Lyeopodium ap. 
HA'ZOHA'ZO. Boot of the follow- 

Mihiiohiio, V. int. To be in two 

minds, not knowing whether to 

go or stay. 

SA'ZOHA. boot of the following. 

See Tazona, Tanana, Fixitba. 

Yoahiisona, v. paaa. Held, grasped, 

detained, kept. 
Haadnina, v. paaa. (Imp. haz&ny.) 
To be held, to be gra4>ed, to be 
Mihiisona, r. tr, (Imp. nUhasdna; 
Bel. ihazinana, Bel. Imp« %haz6ny,) 
To hold, to grasp, to detain. 
Fihacdnan-t&ratisy, a. A paper 
HB! inter. Behold! Lo! Ha! See! 
HE'BAES'BA, a. Denunciation ; con- 
fession of guilt or intention. (Prov.) 
Yoahebahiba, v. paaa. Denounced. 

Edbahebaina, v. paaa. (Imp. heba* 
hebab.) To be denounced, to be 
avowed, to be accused by one's 
self of guilt. (Prov.) 
Handbahdba, v. tr. (Imp. maneho' 
hebd ; Bel. ankbahebdnaf Bel. Imp. 
anebahebab. To denoimce, to slan- 
der, to deprecate, to divulge an 
afEair ; to confess, to avow one's 
intentions. (Prov.) 
KS'BAKS'BAXA. Same as Habaxa- 
BAXA, which see. 


HFBT. Boot of the following. See 

Yoahdby, v. pats, Preyented, impe- 
ded in one's flight. 
Hebina, or Edbihebina, i^. pats, 

(Imp. heheo^ or h^b%h^>eo,) To be 

impeded in one's flight. 
Mihdby, p. tr. (Imp. mihehS; Bel. 

ihebenaj Bel. Imp. ihebio.) To 

prevent, to impede. 
Maniby, v, tr. (Imp. manebS; Bel. 

anebSttaj Bel. Imp. anabio.) To 

prevent, to impede. 
HFBIHXIIT, 8, Hoyering about, as 
a bird, wandering about, as a person 
haying no place to rest in. Probably 
redup. of preceding. Gomp. Hbva, 
Sebisebt, TEBrFEBT, and several of 
the following words. 
Ahdbihdby, r. paas. (Imp. ah^Hhe» 

beo.) To be made to wander about, 

to be waved about, as a wand. 
Xihdbihdby, v. int. (Imp. tnihebi' 

hebe; Bel. ihebihebena, Bel. Imp. 

ihebihebeo.) To hover about. 
Xihdbihdby miso, v. eomp. To look 

here and there. 
HE'BIKE'BIKA,«. Trembling. (Prov.) 
See HoviTBA. 
Xangdbikdbika, v. int. To tremble 

in all one's members as through 

f ear. (Prov.) 
HE'BUnCE'BniA. Boot of the fol- 
lowing : — 
Xihdbinkdbina, v. int. To dawdle, 

to move leisurely or indolently. 

( Prov. ) 
EE'BIHTBE'BIirA. Boot of the fol- 
lowing :— 
mhebutrdbina, v. int. (Imp. mi- 

hebintrebena ; Bel. ihebintreSenana, 

Bel. Imp. ihebintrebeno.) To waver, 

to be imsettledy to be troubled, to 

be in fear. 
HS'DIHE'DT. A provincial word for 

Edinedina, whion see. 
HE'DEAHE'DBA, «. Frisking, tossing 
one* 8 self about. 
Xihddrahddra, v. int. (Imp. mihe- 

drahedrd ; Bel. ihedrahedrdwtf Bel. 

Imp. ihcdrahedra6.) To fridc, to 

tostj, to play about. 
HE'FAHS'FA, ». Fluttering, fly- 

HMIiTiafkina, v. pan. (Lap. Mfak^- 
fa6.) To be made to flatter, aa a 
bird, a pieoe of paper, a garment. 

]Cihdfiihd&, V. int. To flutter. 

lUndfUidfiii, V. tr. (Imp. man^/aJU- 
fd; Bel. amifahrfdna, Bel. Imp. 
anifahefao.) To flutter, to fim, 
to shake atwut. 

Mandlkiikdfkna, «. tr. Ptov. for 

«. The point at whioh thetwo parte 

of the hoof in doyen-footed ay»w*iJa 

Hefe'naka, v. past. See Hefem a. 
HETIXETIXA, s. Bestlessnese or 

agitation of the head or hands, or of 

things blown by the wind. 

Edftkefahina, v. pass. (Imp. A^^- 
feho.) To be disturbed, to be 
made restless, to be disquieted, to 
be blown about. 

Mihdflkeflka, v. int. (Imp. mihifi- 
kefeha; Bel. ihejikefehana, Bel. 
Imp. ihejikefeho.) To be restless, 
to be unquiet, uneasy, unsettled, 
or immodest. 

Xandflkdflka, r. tr. Hmp. manefike* 
feka ; Bel. anefikefekanay Bel. Imp. 
anefikefeho.) To agitate, to dis- 
K&'YlXLt 8. That which protects 

auything from being spoiled, an 

apron, a protection, a defence; a 


Ahdfina, r. pass. (Imp. tihsfino.) 
Used of anything employed as a 
protection, as ain apron, a knot 

HefSnana, v. pass. (Imp. hstfmo,) 
To be protected as above. 

Kandflna, v. tr. (Imp. manrfima; 

Bel. aneflnanat ^^tel. Imp. asteje" 

no.) To protect, to defend, to 


Hb'fin-tba'tba, s. [t&at&a, the chest.] 

A breastplate, a protection for the 

Ha'piN-TsfxiNA, s. [BiznrA, a waiat- 

cloth, or provincial for laicba.! An 

apron, an under-garment, draw- 

HETOSFFO. Boot of the follow- 


KuifoliM), V, iiU, To be opulent, 
rich, or haughty. 
Hgg g'gim, V. pats. See Hbkt. 
HVHT, «. A laugh. laughter. 

Hekina (or Hehiana, Pnnr.), «. 
jNUf . (Imp. A#A^.) To be laughed 

Homihy, 9, if. and «. int. with in- 
fix. To laugh at, to deride, to 
modk ; to laugh, to titter, to gig- 


Lj, V. tr, and v. int. (Imp. 

Bel. and Paw. iho' 

mehhtma, Bel. Imp. ihamehho,) 


e aspreced 
Tdraka, «. 

BXkf Tdraka, «. [vosaxa, loose.] 

A pretence of laughing. 
INlAigin* ny hXhj, [nAvoT, dead.] 

Splitting with laughter. 
Why hdhy, adj. Used of the fizet 

laughter of a baby. 
LMdn' ny hdhy. [LOinET, dead.] 

Same as the preceding. 
Uteaky ny hdhy. [latsaza, fallen.] 

Bursting out with laughter. 
▼Aky hdhy. A provincial term for 


T6nui* ny hdhy. [tobana, oyer- 
come.] Overcome by laughter. 

Tiipaky ny hdhy. [tbifaxa, hit.] 
Jumping with laughter. 

Httiy rAtto y&ky. [bano, water, va- 
st, btcrst.] Used of the laughter 
of a multitude. 

Hihy yUaka. [vaiaxa, tired.] Half 
and half laughter. 
HS^ST, s. The scratching of the 

Ed by poultry, etc. See Hoht. 
ina, V, pass, (Imp. heheto.) To 
be scratched, to be scratched up. 
mhXbjy V, int. (Bel. ihekkana.) 
To scratch in the ground. 
Hb^hpta, V, ptus. See Haika. 
JOTSSXSJl^ 9. A grasp, a dutch, a 

bite, seizure. 
Hb^hz-babb^zta, 9. [babt, canying on 
the back.] 

Mandhi-Mbdna, v. eomp. To oppose 

one*s parents. 

Hb'hz-ica'xba, 8. [XAXBA, a croco- 

dile.J A'finn grasp ; lit. the grasp 

or b&te of a crocodile. Comp. Ax- 


Tsy maadndra hihitra. Never 
l ettin g go when once srasped. 
HFHITBA. Boot of the folloinng :— 
Xandhitra, v. int. To be pulped. 
This word should be from IShitea, 
perhaps. See the Appends. 
HX'JAHE'JA, 9. A trot. (Ptov.) 
Hihijah^a, v. int. To trot along. 
(PtOY.) SeeEjA. 
KEJAKAf «• Custom, habit, manner, 
fashion. (Prov.) See Foxba, Fa- 
NAO (tao), Lamodt. 
HX'KA, adv. Yes, j^reoiBely. (Prov.) 

Same as Exa, which see. 
HVXA. Prov. for Haika, which see. 
EFLAKA. Boot of the following.. 

Yoahdlaka, v. pau. Skinned, peel- 
EelAhana, v. pa99. (Imp. heldho.) 
To be skinned, to be flayed, to be 

Xihilaka, v. int. (Bel. iheldhana.) 
To skin off, to peel, to scale, to 
Kandlaka, v. tr, (Imp. maneldha ; 
Bel. aneldhana^ Bel. Imp. ane^ 
Idho.) To skin, to flay, to exco- 
riate, to separate in laminaa. 
Hb'ladba'no, 9. [bano, water.] Mica. 
HE'LAHA. A provincial word for 

Hblina, which see. 
SFLATBA, 8. and tuf;'. Lightning, 
coruscation, fulguration ; &. swin, 
quick. See Tbblatba. [Maf. k^lat.j 
Kandlatra, v. int. To lighten, to 
flash ; fig. angry, hasty in tonper. 
Hblx'hina, v. pa99. See Hbuka. 
Hblb'kina, v. pa99. See Hbuna. 
EB'LT. A provincial word for Eblt, 

which see. 
HS'LIHS'LT, 9. Qoing about, hover- 
ing about as a shadow. See Hb- 
una, VsziyszT. 

AhdUhdly, V. pa99. (Imp. ahelihe- 
lio.) Used (^ that which is made 
to go backwards and forwards. 
Edliheldna, v. pa9s. (Imp. helihe- 
leo.) To be interrupted by one 
passina^ repeatedly. 
XULdliheLy, v. int. (Imp. mikelihels ; 
Bel. ihilihelena^ Bel. Imp. iheli" 
heleo.) Togo about, to wander 

mtUUMo,) To MtDDx ona fy 

wming to and fro in leoBi ol a 

o oor eto.9 fto-iniemipt. 

HIXIXA, «. Hio azuipit. 
HriHrfnti 9, pass, (Imp. keUhaJ^ 

To be MisBdniidar tiie amiiiii. 
MftiilUVa, V. tr. (Imp. muneUha; 

BeL ofM^Mofia, Bel. Imp. mMho.) 

To leisB nndar tho arm. 
¥iaaklH1i>, v. tr. To oanj wider 

the arm. 
lUalli-bAdy, «. eomp. [TAmr, a 

Mrtner.l To take a wUb. (Fkov.) 
Xftlrjr liWka. To wear a garment 

drawn tiffht under the arms bat 

leaving uie ahouldera bare. 
HahMika. Up to the armpita. 
HVLDTA. Root of the following. 
Oomp. Hblt. 
Eeldninai v. pan, (Imp. htiUno.) 

To be paaaed by rapidly, to be 

Slided by. HxLiHOBLiirA and 
[BLiincELiKA are oko uaed. 
XihdUna, v, %nt» (Jmp, nUheUna; 
Bel. ihelinanaf Bel. Imp. ihelhto.) 
To fflide by rapidly, to pass by 
swinly, to elapse. 
mrUVOS'LIVA. Boot of the fol- 
lowing: — 
Toahilingdlina, v, paas. Disturbed 

by frequent intemq>tLona. 
Hdlingelenina, t;. pan, (Imp. A^/in- 
gelino,) To be disturbed by 
frequent interruptions. 
Ifih>flngl1ina, t;. int. (Imp. mihi- 
linff$lina ; Bel. %Ml%ng$lenana^ 
Bel. Imp. ih«ling$Um,) To be 
restless, and thus oause annoy- 
Manilingllina, v. tr, (Imp. mani' 
ling^lhoy Bel. wulingeUnana^ Bel. 
Imp. anelingt^itio,) To disturb 
one by frequent interruptioiifl. 
HVLUfu'LIliA. Same as preceding. 
HX'LITBA, <. A basket. (Proy.) 

Hb'ubs', «. [bb, great.] A provin- 
cial word for Sobixt, which see. 
EB'LO, or HS'LOHS'LO, «. Hover- 
ing, wavering, as something above 
a window. See Hbulka, Hxbo- 

UAMim. 9. pom. (inm. 
helA^.) To be ahadadbj 


to aadlro 

orWfHilaMia,r.ig<, (Isa^. 

BeL lop. tMliAcIoy.) Tabover; 
^. to M dieooiiraged. 

Kaatto, 9. tr, and int, ttmp^ mm- 
M&i; BeL mt&mm, BeL Imp. 
tmefip,) To Under, to In^wde ; 
it alao meana to be m. 

¥anjnakMe, «. tr. (Inm. wmmUo^ 
h$l6a; BeL amilMomm, BeL 
lop. amlokel^.) To ahada by 
pasaing to and no, to intennmt. 
Theae worda MAniA and Ma- 
nblobblo, say some el the na- 
tives, axe derived from Blo. 
HS'LO, <. HelL [£n^. Atfff.J 
ES'LOXA, «. Grookedneas, permr- 

sity, crime, guilt, offence, injury, ain. 

Yoahdloka, v. past. Condemned. 

Eel6hina, v, pats. (Imp. hsUkp,) 
To be condemned, to be brought 
in guilty. 

Xdloka, o^f . Crooked, gnilfy, orimi- 

nal, sinful. In the provinces it 

meana angry, displeased. See 

under MRTrf>BA for the derivativea. 

HB'LO-naA'wo, t. [bamo, water.] The 

winding of a river. 
Hb'loba am-fo', 9, [ax-fo, in the 

heart.] Secret dlssatasfaotion. 

Hdloka am-p6 tay ambira, «. Cen- 
suring a person in one*s heart 
without speaking out, oonoealed 
HE'LOTBS'LOHA. Same as Hauv- 

sblina, which see. 
HB'XA, aty. Having the upper lip 

shrunk in, shortened, ourtailec^ 

contracted, shrunk at the edge. 

Xihdmahdma, adj. To have tiie 
lips drawn in as if about to cry ; 
to have shrunken lips. 
HE'XA, «. A hem in sewing. [Bnar. 

HE'VAHA, adj. Full, lepleniahed, 

having ail that is wanted. (Ptoy.) 

See hSnika, Hbxfona, Hdca, Fbro, 


Eam&nina, t\ pati, (Imp. hnmima.) 
To be made to have aU that is 
wanted. (Prov.) 

ag that ia wanted. (iW.) 

Boot of the fol- 

lownix. See Hita, Hsvakbva. 
'khinMhiml ~ 

iba, V. jNUf. (Imp. aMm- 
MUmM.) Uaed in ipeakin^ of 
a flag, eto., blown bj tiie wind. 

Wanlmbalilinba, v. tr. To make 
tofloaL aa a HtLg Uown fay the 
Wind, (rsoy.) 

yitiwba, «. A fan for keeping 
flia s from flie dead. 

[nOAVAff. The flight of birds; 

fig. • flag, an enaign oanied before 


Wihlmhana, v. int. To flj. ^toy.^ 

, r. int. To fly. (Proi ^ 
JCantebaaktebaaa. Another fonn 
of the preceding. 
SXUBITBA. Same as Exbhaa, 

HB'llOlltA Boot of the following :— 

▼oahimotra, r. pan. Palled back, 
drawn back, put back. 

Ahteotra, v. pott. (Imp. ahmnoty.) 
To be put baok, to be witii- 

MlhJhnotra, i>. int. (Imp. mihemora; 
Bel. iAemoranOf Bel. Imp. ikemb^ 
rff,) To draw baok, to retire, to 
retreat, to baokalide, to aposta- 

Xantaotra, v. tr. To keep baok 
the milk. Used only in speaking 
of aoow. 

Wtakteotra, i^. int. To shrink 
baok through fear, to be on the 
point of otying. See Fjjlabexo- 

HXUPA, atff. Same as Hbka, whioh 

mraPAHSUPA Same as Hbxba- 

KSMBA, which see. 
HXUPAHS'IIPA Boot of the fol- 
lowing: — 

Xihtepahdmpa, v. ini» To pont, 
as about to cry. 
EX'lIPIirA Boot of the following:— 
MihiiBpina, r. int. To go without 
motive, as a fool who Imows not 
where he is going. (Fror.) 
mnmVA, a4r. FdU. HnoiMAalso 

EVVA,!. Beef; fledi meat. [Tc 

Kenin; WahaL hela."] 

Kity htea, a^. Used of any part 
of the skin being in such a condi- 
tion as not to feel pain. 

^Die word Hbva is generally 
used for the meat of oxen, and 
when mntton or nork, etc., is 
meant, thenameof me animal, etc., 
is united to it. See the following. 
Hx'haazo'ko, $, [akoho, a fowl.] The 

flesh of fowls. 
Hx'na zuo'a, 9, [kxbqa, a pig.] Pork, 

ham, bacon. 
Hx'hala'ht, t. ^.AKT, masculine.] A 

kind of fish. I^ame as Zompova. 
He'nala'za, 9, [laza, renown.] A 

kind of fish. (Prov.) 
Hs'iTA XiB'irA, f. [UDTA, wot.] Fresh 

Hb'nam-bo'bona, 9, [yoboka, a bird.] 

The fiesh of birds. 
Hb'nam-bo'zaxi, 9, [boeaxa, dried 

grass.] Same as Hsnam-pbft. 
Hx'na xia'liv-tao'na, 9, [aldta, 

night, TAONA, a year.] The beef 

cooked at one new year's festival to 

be eaten at the next. 
Hb^vam-pandbo'aha, 9, [fandboaha, 

the new year's festiyal.J The beef 

kiUed at the Famdboava. 
Hb'nam-pa'tt, 9, [fatt, a corpse.] 

The beef distributed at funerals. 

See Hbha satbt. 
Hb'vam-pb'ft, 9. fFBFT, afcncc.] The 

beef distributea in the ceremonies 

of the Afaha. 
Hx'vam-foa'baka, 9, [fo, the heart, 

ABAZA, according to.] Same as 

Hx'nah-do'za, 9, [L02A, calamit]^.] 
The beef distributed on the oocasian 
I of being found innocent after the 
I administration of the Tahobxa or- 
Hx'nak-ko'boha, 9, [hobova, a grass.] 

Same as Hevam-fbft. 
Hx'na BAi'xrrBA ax-bujl'nt, «. [bai- 
KTFBA, adhering to, TiLAirr, a cook- 
ing pot.] Precedent, custom, aa 
estobushed custom. 
Manad hdna raikitra am-bilany, v, 
eomp. To daim as an established 
privilege or custom. 


H«'ma si'tst, a. [siTST, bad.] Same 

Hb'ha BfTBA, «. fBn&A, dried up.] 
Beef well oookeo. A native mode 

of oooldzig beef . 

Hb'ha yA^HSAKA, «. [vAimAirA, spot- 
ted.] The beef near the hump. 

Hb'ha yao , «. [vAO, new.] The oxen 
killed immediately after the Fan- 


Hb'na taba'sioa, i, [yabahoa, P ] 

Beef well 6ooked and kept for a time. 
Hb'no'mdbt, or Hx'naxo'ndut, «. 

ro2n>XT, a ahera.j Mutton. 
HFITA. Boot of tiie following :~ 

Voahtea, «;. past, Leeaened, dimin- 

Ahdna, If, pass, (Imp. ahsnad,) To 
be lessened, to be diminished. 

Xikdna, v. int. (Bel. ihendna.) To 
lessen, to shrink, to diminish, to 
decrease, to reduce, to assuage. 
KB'lTAHE'irA. Boot of the follow- 

Xangdnahdna, «(/• Bashful, sheep- 
ish ; irritating, used of an ulcer. 
HE'VAHE'lTA, a. Stubbornness, ob- 
stinacy. See Drra. 

Ahdnahdna, v, pan. (Imp. oKena- 
henao.) To be held, to be detain- 
ed, to be kept, to be refused. 

Hdnahenaina, v. /him. (Imp. Aina- 
henao.) Same as preceding. 

Xihdnahdna, v, int. (Imp. mihena' 
hend ; Bel. iKenahendnay Bel. Imp. 
xkinaKenah,) To be stubborn, to 
be obetiLnate, to be headstrong, 
to be intractable. 

Xaadaahdna, v, tr, (Imp. man^fui- 

hena; Bel. OMmoAmiifM, Bel. Imp. 

an^fioA^fMo.) To act stubbornly. 

BS'ITATBA, 9, Shame, disgrace, 

shamefaoedness, bashf ulness. 

Henirana, v, pm, (Imp. hendro,) 
To be made ashamed. 

Xihdnatra, v, int, (j^np. mihendra ; 
Bel. ihendrana, BeL Imp. tA^- 
ndro,) To bear shame ; to work 
with all diligence for fear of 

Tdmpon-kdnatra, «. A person who 
is bound to see that all things 
requisite are done ; one who 
will have to bear the blame. 

BddiL-kiiiatra, a^. Ckmq^iered hj 
shame; doing something for fear 
of those above one without aak- 
ing whether it is ridbt or not. 

Xatui-kiiiatra, «4i' i>oing aome- 
thinff from shame or fear of ridi* 
onle from others and thus getting 
into further shame, or being killed 
by it. 

Xdnatra, a^j, (Imp. mmira,) A- 
shamed, disgnoed, bashful, sulky. 

Manirina, v, pan, (Imp. m^niro,) 
To be made ashamed^ For the 
derivatives see under Mbhaxba. 
Hb'na-dba'zaxa, «. [SAZAHA, an an- 
cestor.] Money subscribed by one's 

relations to assist in any case of 

urgent neoessi^. 
Hb'na-xa'so, «. [iCASO, the eye.] Be- 

roect of persons, awe, respect. 

Mtoamaso, «. The name given to 
the councillorB of the second Ba- 

Manad an-kdna-m&io, v. camp. To 
show respect of persons yet not 
for love of them, to be in fear of 
some one and act to please him. 

Mahamdna-miio, adj. Used of a 
person in whose presence one 
would act droumspectly. 

Bdiin-kdna-miso. Same as Bsaxv- 


Tiy miiira hdna-miio. Not show- 
ing respect to one who should 
be respected. 
Mitin-kdna-miio. Gfetting into 
trouble on account of doing some- 
thing one does not like out of re- 
spect for or fear of some one else. 
HF VDBA, inter. Oh ! Would that ! 
HE'irDBAHS'lTDBA Same as Ha- 

mtAHADRA, which see. 
KE'VDBATBA, a^;. Starting, start- 
led, twitching. 

Hendritina, v, pau, (Imp. hendrd* 
to,) To be startled, to be made 
to jump. 
Xihdndratra, v. int, (Imp. mihen- 
drdta ; Bel. ihendrdtana, Bel. 
Imp. ihendrtUo,) To start, to 
watch, to give a oonvulmve mo- 

The reduplicate is used with 
the same meaning. 



Xaaiadrmtra, v. tr. (Imp. miMMfi- 
drdiu; Bel. oiMfunri^afM, Bel. 
Im p, mundrito.) To startle. • 
HnBUTBSlTDBAHT, «. The der- 
ma or izmer skin of animalB. 
HnrDu'vA, <^. jmm«. See Hxhdbt. 
HUTOXT, a^'. (Opt. Imp. hendri,) 
Wise, prudent, inteUigent; good, 
in the way we speak of a good 

lUhahtadiy, v. ir. To render wise. 
Tahcndiina, or Hahendrina, «. 
Hs'sBST ada'la, o^^'. Silly, simple, 
half-witted. See Asaijl-hendbt. 
Hs'irDfET AVA'Tiinr, <n{p. [am att, 
within.] Wise, bat deficient in 
addreee ; olever, bnt inferior in 
HrisoBiRB'irDXT, a^. Clever, expert, 
canning, crafty ; almost alike. 
MUkaoidrihdndry, r. r$e%p. To be 
alm ost alike. 
HXin>B¥. Boot of the following :— 
Hendrfaa, or Hfodrihendrdna, v. 
jMM. (Imp. kendreOf or hendriheri' 
drio.) To be watched for in am- 
bascade, to be waited for so as to 
be seized. 
Xihdndry, or Xihdndrihdndry, r. 
tr. (Imp. mihendre^ or mihhulri' 
k0ndre ; Bel. ihendrena^ or ihhi' 
drikendrSna, Bel. Imp. ihendreo^ 
or ihindrihendrio,) To lay strata- 
gems, to wait for inaidioosly, to 
■aatadxihindry (1), 9. tr. Same 
as preceding. 
HXHDBT. Boot of the following :— 
▼oahdndry, r. pau. Span, as cot- 
ton, etc. (I^T.) 
Hendrtoa, v. pats. (Imp. hendrh,) 

To be span. (FtoT.) 
Xantadry, v. ir. (Imp. manendri; 
Bel. AiMiM^rma, Bel. Imp. omn- 
rfWo.) To spin. (Prov.) 
HB'VOBtKA, «. A spedes of lemur. 

RkMDBXmA. Boot of the following:— 
Mihdadrintodriaa, r. tn^ To soar 
hig h, as a bird. (Prov.) 
HJTJIDBOirA, «. That which congeals 
on the sarfaoe of cold liqaidis, as 
(BroY.) See Hebotba. 

Xaad&dro, or Manindnma, i^. int. 
(BroY.) To fozm a scam. 
Hknb'hzna, v. pau. See HxiixzA. 
HE'VOAVA. A provincial word for 

Hazvoana. See FAZwaAirA. 
HE'VemX'VeT, a4f. Confosed, 

fearfol, timid. (Prov.) See Hadt- 


Xihdngihingy, 9. int. To be timid, 
to be f earfol. (Plov.) 

KVITGITBA, s. An herb used by 
the BetsimiBaraka as a black dye 
for BoTiA doth. (Betsim.) 

HB'ITOO, s, A provindal word for 
Haznoo, which see. 

HE'HY, «. Fold, daplioation. It is 
nsed with nnmerals. 
Avt roi hiny. Twofold. 
F6I0 hdny. Tenfold. 
Zito hdny. A handredfold. 

KVinr, adj. Saffident for, equal 

Tiy hdnyana^ ny Sikaliva, The 
Sakalava are not eqmal to as. 

HE'HY, adj. and adv. I^ataral, law- 
ful, legitimate ; not incestuous, ap- 
plied to marriage. Also a provin- 
c ial wor d for Hjant. 

HE'HULE'HY, «. A fen, a marsh, a 
bog, a moor, boggy s^und. See 


Xangdnihdny, adj\ Overflowing, 

inundating, nuursh-causing ; the 

condition of a sore the scab of 

which has been removed. 

HE'inXA, adj. Full of, complete, 

having all. It differs from Fmro 

in referring to a space ratiier than 

depth. Oomp. Hit a. 

Voahdnika, v. pa$t. Made com- 
pletely or fully satisfied. 

Hraiihiaa, r. pau. (Imp. henehoJ) 
To be made satisfied, to be made 
to have all one wants. 

Mandwika, v. tr, (Imp. numeniha ; 
Bd. anmihana, Kd. Imp. anen^* 
ho.) To satisfy, to give to one 
sll he wants, to fill. 

Mahinika, v. tr. To have power 
to satisfy sll. 

Mahdnika, «. A provindal name 
for the sun. 

Kdnika ny las 4ka. The sack la 
fall. (Plrov.) 


Hini-drttA, o^f. Fbaea, a thing.] 
Contenti aatii&ea, faniiahed, pro- 
yjded . fftov.) 
KBimCFHIXA. Root of the fol- 
lowing, and nroyinoial for Hbnik- 

KBnvA, which see. 

Hdiilkanjfchaiia, «. Doobt, hasita- 
tion , OTggjoy . 
HVVnreBiraA (1). Boot of the 

following : — 

If angj^nniyjlnlna, a^. OvBEflowing, 
EXinifXBiraiA, «. Busy in azrang- 

ing things of little moment. 

Voahdninkdnina, v^patt, Azranged, 

Hlninkendnua, v.patt. (Imp. Ae- 
ninkmSno.) To be ananged, to 
be made leady. 

Xihdninkinina, v, int, (Imp. mi- 
hhUnkerUna ; Bel. ihminken^fuma, 
Bel. Imp. iheninkeneno.) To bo 
bogy, to be oonstantly oocupied, 
to be always at someuiing. 

Manliiiiikjlnma, v. tr. (Imp. mani' 
ninkenena ; Bel. anhtinkenetutf 
Bel. Imp. aneninkeneno.) To ar- 
range, to make ready, to set in 
order constantly. 
HE'KJA, 8. Halliards. (IVov.) [8wa. 

HE'HJAirA, a4;\ Stout, strong, 

robust, lusty, stiff, tight. See Tan- 


The word Hbn jana is used to 
express yi^ur of the various 
members oxthe body,^yes, ears, 
anns, legs, muscles, and with 
AiNA (life) for vigorousness. 

Voahdigana, v. pau. Tightened, 
stret^ied out tight, as a cord. 

Ahdi^ana, r. pass, (Imp. ahe$^dno.) 
To be stretched out, as the legs or 

Kn^iaina, v, past* (Imp. het^dno.) 
To be stretched out. 

Xihdidana, o^f. "id v. int» (Imp. 
mihef^dna ; Bel. ihef^dnana, BS. 
Imp. ihet^dno,) Stretohed out, 

Xanaujana, v, tr, (Imp. mane^jdna ; 
Bel. arter\fdnanay Bel. Imp. atien- 
jdno.) To stcetoh out, to tighten, 
to oonfirm, to carry out discipline 

strictly. It is lysed also in speak- 
ing of a road along the top of a 
down (Tambtt) as distinct from 
that following the yall^ or a 
road winding about. 
Bawan^ijaaa, s. The spirit sup- 
posed to possess those aiflioted 
with a danoing mania. See Sa- 


HE'VJIESITJY, a. Friskinees, nm- 
ning about, froliosomeness, pran- 
cing. See Falt hayavja. 
H^uugdna, v, pass, (Imp, Am- 
jiief^eo.) To be made to nm 
about here and there. 
Xihinjikdi^jy, 9, int, (Imp. mMt^- 
he9^i; Bel. ihh^ihet^iHay Ael. 
Imp. ihe^jihs^jh,) To frcdioy to 
HE'HnXS'VJIKA. Boot of the fol- 
lowing: — 

Xihdnjikdigika, v, int. To bound, 

to skip. Used of a person going 

away in anger. See Hbhjihenjt. 

HS'HJIKE'HJIaA. Same as Halak- 

OAZiANA, which see. 
HS'KJOHS'HJO. Same as Ezobzo, 

or Hezohbzo, which see. 
HS'lTKIKA. Boot of the following. 
Gomp. Kaihkona. 
Henkdnina, V. jMM. (Imp. henkeno,\ 
To be made to shrink, or ahriyel 
up. (Prov.) 
Xihdnkina, v, int. To shrink, to 
shriTel up, to curl up, as a sleep- 
ing cat. (ProT.^ 
Xaaenkina, v, tr, (Imp. manenkhuL ; 
Bel. anenkenanoy Bel. Imp. oiim- 
ksno,) To shrivel up, to make to 
shrink. (ProT.) 
Heno'ika, V, pass. See Haino. 
HS'HTA, a4i' Aatonidied, surprised. 
(Prov.) See Qaoa, Tssbika, Zkn- 


HS'HTAVA, s, A crack, a fissure, as 
in ground cracking for want of 
Xangdntaaa, adj. Cracked, parched, 

fiwured, open. 
Viky hdntana, o^^'. Same as above. 

Hente'bina, V, pass. See Hbntzt&a. 

KE'NTIKA, i. A notch, an indenta- 
tion, a gorge, a defile. (F^ov.) 
See DzLAKA, Hbhtitba. 


YoAhintika, v.pau. Notched, in- 
dented. (Prov.) 
Hentdhina, r. pats, (Imp. h^nteho,) 

To be indented, to he notched. 

Xaatetlka, v, tr. Hmp, manentiha ; 

Bel. anentihana^ Kel. Imp. oiMn- 

tiho.) To notch, to indent, to 

niBkea gorge or a defile. (Prov.) 
mraiTBA, a4r, Broken off. See 
Toahdntitra, r. pan. Broken off, 

separated, cnt off. 
HentMna, «. pa»a, (Imp. Kentero,) 

To be broken off, to be cnt off. 
Xaatetitra, r. tr, (Imp. manmtSra ; 

Bel. anenth'ana^ Bel. Imp. oiMfi- 

thro,) To break off, to cnt off. 
The above wotcIb are mostly 

Qiied of ciroumcifflon. 
Edntitrdntitra, adj. Used of speech 

broken np into ^ort sentences. 
Tfoy hintitra, t. Concise or terse 

Hx'iiti-bo'ahjl'not, adj. [voabanot, 

a coral bead.] Broken asunder. 
He'hti-so'ha, 9. [loha, the head.] A 
chiael ; sciflsors. See Fandeaza, 
Hbtt . 
HXirT0(1). Boot of the following. 
Hentdina, v. past, (Imp. hmtoy.) 

To be cooked. (Prov.) 
Xanlnto, r. tr, (Imp manmtda; 

Bel. anmtdana^ Bel. Imp. anen* 

tiff,) To cook. (Prov.) 
Hb^stoha'saza, adj. Arrived at per- 

fectio n. (Pro v.) 
HZinrOHXireO, «. Crying, sobbing. 
See ToiCAyT, Gk)oooooo. 
Hdntohentdina, r . pass, (Lnp. Ain- 

tohmtiy,) To be cried about; 

fig. to be bought at too high a 


X&dntohdnto, r. int. To weep, to 

cry ; fig. to buy things at too dear 

a price ; to sing with very marlrod 

emphaids and precisiofi. 
Xandntohdnto, v, tr. (Imp. manen' 

tohentda; Bel. anentohentdana, Bel. 

Imp. anSntoheniSy.) Same as pro- 

SLb'iitobe'stont, I. Strength, activity, 

HsNTo'iirA, r. pat9. See Hmrao. 

HE'irrOir A, «. a plank nailed to the 
three posts of a house, and about a 
yard mm the ridge. 

HE'FTOKA, a4j. Bitter, acrid ; dear, 
costly. See Manoidt (noxdt^, Sabo- 
BiDT. This meaning is probaoly deri- 
ved from the preceding, tho Hbn- 
TOHA being^ so placed tluit it beoometf 
covered with soot, and hence the 
wood is bitter. 

HFlTTSniA, 9, and adj. Sniffling; 
stuffed np. 

HE'D. Boot of the following : — 
Mandohte, r. int. To be ifiustrious, 
as one having renown from what 
he has done m war. 

HFOXX', 9. A species of cuckoo-like 
bird, belonging to a genus peculiar 
to Madagascar. (Sak.) Coua gigas, 

He'-po'tst. See under Hbtba. 

HS'&AEX'BA, 9, Presumption, con- 
fidence, daring, boldness, defiance. 
Hdraheraina, v. pa99. (Imp. hirahe- 

rod. To be dared, to be defied. 
Manirahdra, r. tr. (Imp. manerahe- 
rd ; Bel. aniraherdna, Bel. Imp. 
aniraherad.) To daro, to venturo, 
to prosume. 

HSILAKA, adj\ Full, complete, nu- 
merous, in great numbers. 
Hdraky ny jiolUiy ny tiny. The 
land is full of robbers. See Hs- 

yi KA^ 

HS'BAXS'EAKA, 9, A flrlimmer, a 
ray of light, as that whioh enters by 
a dormer window. See Hzbana. 

Mangdrakdraka, r. int. To glim- 
mer, to gleam, as the moonlight 
through a window. (Prov.) 

KB'BAITA, 9, A sedge commonly used 
in thatching houses. Cyperu9 tati' 
foliu»y Thouars. 

He'banda'hbo, ». The name of various 
species of sedge of the genus Cy- 

Hese'fina, adj. See Hebhca. 

HEBE'FO, *. A rus)i of which hats, 
mate, and baskets aro sometimes 
made. (Bete.) Same as Habsfo. 

HxBa'HZHA, V, pa99. See Hsbiza. 


HmngRK^ziHA. A form of paasive 

yerb from Hbtbetba, which see. 
HsBB^zorA, V. pass. See Hsbika. 
HE'BT, $. A priddj shrub. [Jav. 
arif riy a thorn, a prickle.] Solanum 
erythraconthumy Bojer. Same as 
AjraiVT, VoAiraivT, and BoiKaivT 
(Bets.), which last see. 
Hvbxjcbo'axul'vo, ». [TOALiLVO, a rat.] 
A kind of thistle used in catching 
rats. Alflo a tdant whose root is 
used as a spednc for swollen cheeks. 
Atparagtu vaginellatuty Bojer. Same 
as BoDCBOALAVo (Bets.). 
HB'BT, f. Power, streoiffth, force, 
might ; heayy, as applied to things 
weiffhed. See Adta, Tanjaka.. 
EeniinAy v, pan. (Imp. herko,^ To 
be strengthened, to be fortified, 
to be encouraged in work. [Mai. 
Ifankahflry, v. tr. (Imp. mankahe- 
rha ; Bd. ankaheretanaf Bel. Imp. 
ankaherho,) To fortify, to con- 
solidate, to encourage. 
Mahiry, adj, flmp. maherka,) 
Strong, powerful, robust, migh^ ; 
heavy. See under MikssT for 
other renderings. 
An-kdriny, adv. By unjust force, 

Manad an-keriny, 9. wmp. To act 

AIa6 hdry . Ck> quickly, work briskly. 
An imperatiye phrase. 
Hb'bt ha'ndbina, », [handbxna, the 
forehead.] Impudent threatening. 
Hb^biic-ba'ya, «. [yata, the mouth.] 
A noisy defence, clamour, high 
sounding words, rant. 
HE'Bnc-Bo'AMTAT', », [yoantat, b kind 
of beetle.] Working with all one's 
might for a short time, and then 
desisting from exhaustion. 
Manad hirim - b6anta^, v, eomp. 
To act energetioally for a mo- 
ment, and then to cease from ex- 
Hb'bih-po^a. [fo, theheart.] Strength, 

courage, might, exertion, service. 
Hb'bin-ja'vona, adj. [zavona, mist.] 

Of a pale blue. 
Hs'bivo'kint, 8. fvoNT, primitive root 
ofAicBoinr.] Tne ridge lath or pole. 

EE^T, V. imperf. To be forced to do, 
to be obliged to, to be compelled, 
to be constrained. 
Vanftnatra ftiy &ho fa tsy iioko, ka 

hdriko niila, I admonished him 

to no purpose, and so I went away. 
KE'BIKA, f . The rust of metals, the 
red scum of stagnant water. QProY.) 
Herdflna, or Hurafliina, o^'. Busty. 
HS'BIKA. Boot of the following. 
See ToDiKA. 
Tafahdrika, r. paaa. Looked baok 

of one* 8 self. 
Voahdrika, v. past. Made to look 

back ; looked back at. 
Ahdrlka, v. pau. ^Imp. okeriAo.) 

To be made to look back. 
Eerdhina, r. pau. (Imp. herihc.) 

To be looked at by turning the 

Miro herdhina, or Be herihina, adj. 

Very busy ; lit. many to be look- 
ed back at. 
Xiliirika, v. int. (Lnp. mih^Sha; 

Bel. ihirehanaf Bel. Ijnp. iheriko.) 

To look back by turning the 

HB'BIXX'BT, «. The name of a bird, 
a spedes of rail. (Tan.) Bisntis ma^ 
dagateariensitf Verr. Same as Kb- 
Bi gBBY and TaisozA. 
HB'BIKB'BIKA, t. Looking about. 
Bedup. of preceding. 
HirikerdhiiLa, v. pau. (Imp. AM- 

keriho.) To be looked at again 

by a person turning back his 

Xihdrikirika, «. int. (Imp. mihM- 

keriha ; Bel. ikhilctrihanay Bel. 

Imp. iherikeriho.) To look about, 

to look here and there. 
ES'BIHA, 9. A turn or rotation, as 
that of a wheel, the return of time ; 
a period; return to the point of 
departure. In the provinces it is 
used for Vebima, which see. See 


Tafahdrina, v. pass. Prov. for Ta- 


Ahdrina, f;. pass. (Imp. ahereno.) 
Used of that which is made to 
return at its stated period, or to 
its stated place. FroY. for Ayx- 



Ifihjfcriiift, V. int. (Imp. miUrena ; 
Bel. ih^rhtana, Bel. unp. iA^rreno.) 
To retam to the point of depart- 
ure, to come back to a stated 
pointy to return, as the year or a 
certain day. In the provinces it 
is also used for Mitebika. 

XUitoi-iiiMj, r. 0001^. To retnm 
home. (FroT.) 
Hi'u-xaha'kat, «. [mahucat, nroT. 

for the son, daytime, a day .J A 

week. (ProT.) 
Hs'BDfVNDBO, 8. [ansbo, a day.] A 

week ; lit. the return oi the day. 

Xanteinindro, r. int. To be a fall 

MiiiMidriiiindro, o^f. The next 
week, in a week's time, a week 
Hx'BDias'BiNA. Same as Hatokah- 

omnrT, which see. 
Hs'umtao'ha, «. [taova, a year.] A 

year ; lit. the retom of tlie year. 

kaBdrintadii*, «. int. To be a fall 

Mmadrintadii*, o^'. In a year's 
ti me, next year, a year between. 
BSHOHXHO, ». Indecision, onsteadi- 

neas, wayering, instability, unset* 

tlednees, hesitation. See Hamba- 


Hiroherdina, r. pau. (Imp. heroh$' 
nfy.) To be made to be confused, 
to be perplexed. 
Kiliteohiro. 9. int, (Imp. miMro- 
h0r6a; Bel. Mrohiroana, Bel. 
Imp. ihiroh^r^.) To waver, to 
be hesitating, to be doubtful, to 
be unsettled, 
■aiiteohdro, v. tr. Hmp. manero- 
her6a; Bel. anironeroana, Bel. 
Imp. anerokeriy.) To perplex, to 
confound, to cooiuse, to stupify. 
HVBOKB'BOKA. Boot of the follow- 
ing. See Manoidt (noidy). 
Xaagdrokdroks, adj. Pungent, a- 
crid to the taste ; fig. costly, ex- 
HB^VeSltOHA, adj. and <. Obsti- 
nate, stubborn; obstinacy, stubborn- 
ness. See Hekahxna. 
HX'BOTBA, ». Cream ; also provin- 
cial for india rubber. 
XaalrotrAi V. <r. Toprodnoeoream. 

H)rotr)rony,«. [NT,suiBx pronoun.] 

Youthf ulness ; very voung, used 

in speaking of indian com, or 


Hb'bo-bo'na, «. [yoNA, a bud.] Soft 

pasture. (Frov.) 

kandro-b^na, adj. Yielding soft 
pasture. (Prov.) 
Hs'BOTBB'BOTSo'rorA, t. rsonvA, the 

ear.] The antihelix ox the ear. 
Hx'BOiflA'zo, a. A shrub or tree. 

HxSE'TBIXA, a. A species of blue 
water-hen. (Betsim.) Porphyrio 
Al leni, Thoms. 
HE'BIHS'BT,a4r'. Innumerable. (Prov.) 
Xandiiliiiy, atf;'. Same as preced- 
HSTAHl'TA,*. Thirst. 
Xanila hitahita, r. Mmp. To drink 

a little. 
Xangdtahita, 9. int. (Imp. numyi' 
taheti; Bel. angHah$tdna. Bel. 
Imp. anghtahstao^ To be tiursty. 
Xa&gdtahdta amb^ny likaaa. To 
be thirsty in a canoe ; flf . to be 
in want m the midst of putnty. 
HB'TATBA, t. A tree nearly allied 
to the pines, and espeoiaily the 
yews. Ite wood is much used for 
carpentry puxposes. Fodoearpus 
Thunberffii, Hook. 
ES'TATBA (1), a4f. Bich, opulent, 

great in dignity. 
Hf TT, i. Scissors, shears. 
Voahdty, V. pass. Cut off, as with 

Hetdiana, v. pass. (Imp. Kitho.) 
To be shorn, to be polled, to be 
Xihdty, adj. Cropped, cut with 

Xaadty, v. tr. rimp. nwnetha ; Bel. 
anetezana, Bel. Imp. anetko.) To 
cut (the hair), to poll, to shear, 
to crop. 
HB'Tnr-jfBOia. [jibo, a lamp.] Snuf- 
Hb'ti-ba'no, adj. [bano, water.] Ex- 
ceedingly sharp, having a very 
keen edge. 
Hb'tz-ba'tbana, adj. [satbana, a kind 
of fan-palm.] Inegularly out. Ap- 
plied only to the hair. 


HBTBA, 8. A belt. See Bnu, 7b- 


HVTBA, or HSTBB'TBA, s. A small 
piece of something cut up and di- 
vided, as a pineapple, a roU of 
tobaooo, etc. (Prov.) 
▼oahitrdtra, v.pat*. Oat, separated, 
dit in sevml pieces, bat not final- 
ly divided. (Prov.) 
HitrMiUi, V, pasi, (Imp. Mtrhro.) 
To be oat In Several pieces. 


EitretrdiuiA. Another form of the 

Xihitrdtra, adf. Cat, sUt. (Pror,) 
Mandtrdtn, v, tr, (Imp. mamtrha ; 

Rel. an^trirana, Rel. Imp. anitri' 

ro.) To cat, to slit in several 

pieces. (Prov.) 
Ha'-po'tBT, *. [fOTBT, whitej Oat 
peoe s of manioc. (Prov.) See ImzA. 
KVTSA, 8, The rioe-groond given 
by the government to the people for 
tneir ose, for which an annual tri- 
bute is paid ; feudal land ; tax, 
tribute, custom. Probably the mean- 
ing is a secondary one from the 
preceding Hbtba. (Prov.). See 


Xihdtn, V. int. To hold land from 
the government so as to come 
under an obligation to pay taxes 
and render service ; to hold feudal 

mtindra hdtrft, or ¥tUtiftka ui- 
kdtra. Used of speaking of a 
person who does government ser- 
vice and holds land on that con- 

Fitia tty mba hdtra, «. Volun- 
tary subscription. 
Hb'-ka'vaxa, 9. fHAVANA, a reUtive.l 

Confdderation due to relatives and 

Hb'-fo', a. [fo, the heart.] One's own 

fTweet will. (Prov.) 
HFTBA. A provincial word for Ha- 


HS'TBAHX'TEA (1), a, Daringness, 
frowardness, presumption. 
Xihdtrahdtra, adj, Froward, dar- 
ing, bold. 

HS'TBE'TSA, «. Assuming a right 
to ordeK*! oominandi asBoinptioiii 

"authority, but not thatovuieaci/vw- 


Edtrdtra ata6nar)o irtay, fk tiy 
tdnin* Andrlaaa tsy al^ry, ^lat 
is your order, not the ward of the 

HdtrM&a, «. pan. (Imp. hHrirp^ 
To be ordered, to be oommartflect 
by an assumption of -authority. 

XaaMrdtra, «. tr. (Imp. mankfirm / 
Bel. tmktrhtma^ Bel. Imp. tmHri' 
ro.) To assume, to order, to assome 
aright, to command. Probably 
the above words are only another 
form of Haxtbaitba, which see. 

or iUTTAAKf TJUUUi, ff. 

Babyishness ; pride. 
XihitraMtraka, adj, and «. int. 
(Imp. miMtraketruka : Bel. iA^- 
traketruKana^ Bel. Imp. iKHrake^ 
traho.) To be dhUduh; to act 
like a child in destroying things, 
or in assumption. 
Hbtbx'rxna, f . pau. See HsnuL and 

He'tbbt&is'sana, I'. p<u9. See Hbtba. 
HSTBY, adj. Slow in growth ; also 
a provincial word ror Hzrxtba, 
which see. 
HFTBIKFTEIKA (1), t. Vibration. 
Probably same as SBrancBTsncA. 
Edtriketrihina, v. pan. (Imp. A^frt- 
lUtriho.) To be made to vibrate. 
XihdtrikitrikB, v. int. To vibrate. 

Mantoikdtrika, «. tr. (Imp. hmm^- 
triketriha; Bel. anetriketr^hanoy 
Bel. Imp. anitr^tr^ho.) To 
brandish a weapon. (Prov.) 
Mangltrikitrika, adf. Beeounding ; 
fig. celebrated, illustrious. (Prov.) 

See EjSTBizBrBzxA. 

HVTBIVA, adj. Boggy, marshy, 
sloughy ; fig. numerous (P). See 

Hdtrinkdtrina, atff* Innumerable. 
Hbtse'hina, v. pott. See Hbtbcca. 
HS'TBT, t. One hundred thousand. 
[Mai. and. Jav. keti ; Sans, keti^ 
or koti.l 
'ELsfTSCBsTSTf adf, Oanning, crafty, 
addicted to lying. Probably redupH- 
oatiflu of preceding ; lit. too many. 



«. BetQzn, reounenoa, 

ral^Me, modgn. 
* T»ahdtilka,v.|Nvt, Hade to shake, 
as irlndowB by the explosion of a 
oanTinn, etc. 

▼oahltalka, v. pass. Shaken, moved, 
agitated, stirred up, renewed. 

RaMliiBA, v,pa$t. (Imp. hets^ho,) 
To be shaken, to be stirred, to be 
renewed, to be agitated. 

MihdtsikA, f^. int. Omp. mihettiha ; 
Bel. ihettehana, Bel* Imp. iheisi' 
h>.) To shake, to move, to recur, 

Xaadtsika, v. tr. (Imp. manettiha ; 
Bel. a$ieUehana, Bel. Imp. anette- 
he.) To shake, to stir, to move, 
to agitate, to renew. 

Xihiturjiia, v,comp. [zaz^, achild.] 

Used in speaking of a woman at 

the begmning of the pains of 


HBT8IXA, adv. Again, doing it 

again. Probably the preceding word 

used adverbially. 
HrT8IXS'T8IKA, s. Disquietude, 

restlessness, shaking, agitation. 

Bedup. of HxTsnu. 

▼oahdtrikdtaika, v. past. Moved 

HItiiketalhina, r. pau, (Imp. mi- 
hiUiketaeha ; Bel. ihetsiketaihanu, 
Bel. ihetnketteho,) To shake, to 
be restless, to move about. 

Xaaitsikdtsika, v. tr. (Imp. mafii- 
ttihttuha ; Bel. an^tsikettehanay 
Bel. Imp. MnStHketuho.) To shake, 

to move. 

SXTSCBO, «. The Judges. Used 

chiefly of those who administered 

theTAiroxwA ordeal. In the provinces 

it also means a looking-glass, a 

KBTA, J. A bedstead. (Fk>v.) See 

FjLin>BIANA (AyPBY), Kn)0B0. 

HXnrA, or HB'YAHETA, s. Over- 
hangpmg, hovering, floating in 
space, suspension, penduloaity. 
Ahdvahdva, r. pass. (Imp. ahhahe- 

vac.) To be made to hover over. 
Mihdvahdva, r. int. (Bel. ihivaht- 

tana.) To be overhanging, to 

be hovering over, to float in 


Manivahdva, v. tr. (Imp. maneva- 
heva ; Bel. anevahevdna, Bel. Imp. 
anhahevaio.) To hang, to make 
to hover over, to make to float in 
the air. 
Fandva, a. A flag, an ensign. 
HS'VAXA, a^. A provincial word 

for Mahdta, which see. 
HS'VAXA (1). Boot of the follow- 

Mangdvaks, adj. Bashful, modest ; 
HE'VAKETAXA. Boot of the fol- 
lowing : — 

Mangevakdvaks, at{j. Large, dila- 
ted, open, as wounds. 
Hbve'kina, t\ pa»s. See Hsvitha. 
HE'VY, orHETIHE'VY, o^". Trem- 
bling from fear. Also used for Hb- 
VAHBVA. Oomp. Hbbinoebiva. 
Xihdvihdvy, r. int. (Imp. mikha" 
heve ; Bel. ihevihevenajael. Imp. 
ihevihevSo.) To be on the point 
of falling or falling out, as loose 
teeth or a rained house ; to tremble 
from fear. 
HE'VIKE'VIKA. A provincial word 

f or He vi tkbvi tba, which see. 
HB'YIHGE'YIHA, a. Suspension, 
hanging; a shaking of the head. 
Comp. Hevihbvt. 
Xihdvingdvina, v. int. To suspend, 

to hang, to shake, as the head. 
Mitsingdvlngdvina, v. int. Also 
used for preceding. 
HE'VITBA, ». A thought, an idea, an 
opinion, cogitation, meaning, sig- 
nification, craftiness, proportion. 
See Ebitbbbitua. 
Voahdvitra, v. pass. Thought over, 

Hevdrina, v. past. (Imp. hev^.) 
To be thought of , to be cogitated, 
to be considered, to be meant, to 
be intended. 
Hdvitrevdrina, r. /Miv«. (Imp. AM*- 
trevcro.) To be thought about 
but not very earnestly. 
Mihdvitra, v. tr. and int. (Imp. 
mihevera ; Bel. iheveranaf Bel. 
Imp. ihevero.) To think of, to 
think, to cogpltate, to study, to 
An-kdviny, a4i. Proportionately. 


A'ra-kdyiny, f . Proportion. 
Hdvitra toy iio. Used of Bomething 

done through ignorance. 
Manad hdvitra, v. eomp. To act 

Hs^TE'Diti'yiNA, a, [BiiTiNA, a leaf.] 
A fanoy, a reverie, a mere imagin- 
ation, a day-dream. 
Hb'vi-panjaka'na, 5. [fanjazaita 
(zaza), the kingdom.] Used of 
deliberations as to what will benefit 
the kingdom ; government policy. 
He'vitbaambo'nt,«. [ambont, above.] 
Slight or shallow thoughts, a super- 

ft cial op inion. 

A shaking, a hovering. Co