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Digitized bv U»00QIC 

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1^ 1930 ^ 



Entered, aee^rdlni: to Act of Gongreu, in the year 1863, by 


la tbo Cl&rt^£ Odlce of tbo District Ooart of the United States for the Southern 

District of New York. 

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While living in Brazil, I was often told by my 
English and American friends, that there was no book 
to assist them in acquiring the Portuguese language. 
I resolved to supply this want, as far as it was in my 
power to do so ; but circumstances prevented me from 
carrying out this purpose, until I came to the United 
States. The undertaking was one of considerable 
difficulty, owing to the almost total want of books for 
reference. But I endeavored to overcome all impedi- 
ments by faithful labor and diligence, and am confi- 
dent of the correctness of the rules as well as the 
appropriateness of the examples. 

Should the present volume fill, not unworthily, a 
long-felt vacuum ; should it contribute, in however 
small a degree, toward extending the knowledge of 
the beautiful language of Camoens^ the rival of Tasso, 
the warrior-poet, I should consider my labors as more 
than compensated. E. F. G. 

Cleveland, 0., May, 1863. 

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Pronondation 11 

Orthognphj « • . • . M 




I. Present mdicatiTe of Leonjugation • • . • S7 

II. PreseDt indicative of ILooiijiigaiioa • • . . S9 

III. Present indieatiTe of IIL oonjagntioa • ... 80 
lY. Present indicatire neffoHotlf (of all three eonjogationa) ; 
omission of the subject, pronoon; nniperaonal and 

impersonal Terfoa 81 

V. Present indicatiTesntfrro^aflMfy/ i^ if/, ete. • 8S 
VI. Present indieatire negaiitdy and inUrrogativily ; pn>> 

nonnsofcirilitj 85 

YII. ImperatiTe mood 87 

YIIL Fnture imperfect 88 

IX. Recapitulation; preliminarj remarks on the plursl of 

nouns snd the agreement of adjectires ... 89 

X. Historical preterit 42 

XI. DescriptiTC preterit 45 

, XII. Perfect; past participle 47 

XIII. Pluperfect (compound 4Dd simple) 49 

XIY. Future perfect .^ 61 

X Y. Recapitulation of the tenses of the indieatire mood • 62 

XYI. Conditional mood . 64 

XYII. Present participle; the Terb ular; periphrastical con- 
jugation 66 

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Lesson. Paga 

XVIII. Orthographical changes of the verbal character when a 
consonant (verbs ending in c(»r, gar, gar, eer, ger, gir) ; 

cardiilal numbers ; date 58 

XIX. Euphonic changes in yerbs with a vowel for character 
{cahtr, sdhir, trahir, verbs m ear, tor, oar^ uar, oer) ; 

ordinal numbers -62 

XX. Preterits ofter^ estar, ier; haver ; impersonal verbs . , 64 

B. PredicaU is an Adjective {Numeral, Birtidple). 

3t3tL Gender and number of adjectives ; agreement of the pre- 
dicative and adnominal adjective 67 

XXn. Ser and eOar 71 

XXIIl, Comparison of adjectives 73 

XXI v. Absolute superlative; indefinite pronouns; negatives; 

owe after adjectives not expressed .... 76 

C. PredicaU is a Noun {I^vnoun, l7\finitive). 

XXT. Plural and gender of nouns 81 

XWI. Agreementof predicate and subject; predicative 'm> / in- 
finitive as sul]Qect and predicate 85 

XXVII, Augmentatives and diminutives 88 


XXTIII. Declension; d«anda * . 91 

XXIX. Article . . . . ... . . . 95 

XXX. Determinative adjectives; position of the adnominal ad- 
jective 101 

XXXI . Genitive of qualitj, quantity » etc. ; English compounds 105 
XXXI t. Present subjunctive (formation) ; full paradigm of the 

imperative mood . . * 109 

XXXIfl. Imperfect subjunctive 113 

XXXrV, Future subjunctive 115 

A.. Objbct or Yebbs. 

A, Ol>;ect is a Noun, 

XXXY. Position of the object ; irregular verbs of I. conjugation 118 
XXX VL Object governed by a/ factitive object; irregular verbs 

of II. conjiigation .121 

XXXYIL Dative and genitive objects ; irregular verbs of II. conju- 
gation .... 125 

XXXYIIL Irregular verbs of II. conjugation continued . .129 

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\ 00JIXKJM19. 1^ 

Le«oo. T»g», 

XXXIX. In^fnUrTerbsoflLcooJiigationooDtioiied • . . 18S 

XL. IrreguUr TerbB of IIL oonjagmtion . . . • IM 

XLL PassiTe voice ; verte with m double past participle . Ul 

S, Obfid ii • Pronoun. 

XLII. Beflexire and reciprocal rerba and pronoaoa 145 

XLIIL Decleneioii and poution of the penonal ooojunciire pro- 

noana : eophonic chaogea in theae and the goTerniog 

▼erb 149 

XLIY. Another form of the fotnre and oonditional tenaea ; dia- 

jonetire personal pronoana 154 

XLY. The indefinite subject ons rendered by the reflexive pro» 

noun; poeaessiTe and demonatratiTe prononna • . 158 

a Otjed tf a r«rft {h\fnUU€), 

XLVL Infinitire aa subject, object, predicate ; without prepoal- 
iion, gorerned bj dt and a; accompanied bj the defi- 
nite article . .163 

XLVII. Auxiliary verba 1«7 

b. OBjxct or Aniacrrm. 
XLVlil. Objective adjecarea (with rf€, a, IHifo) .... 174 
c. Outer oip HouKS. 

XLIX Objective Boona . - . ^"® 

L. Adverbs and prepositiont . * • • • ^^* 

A, Local AdMrbi. 

LL Local adverbs and prepositions ^87 

B. Temporal Adverbs, 

111, Temporal adverbs and prepositions IM 

. C. Modal and Oatual Adverbs. 
LIU. Modal and causal adverbs and prepositions; compari- 
son of adverbs • • ' ^^'^ 

UX. Paratactical conjunctions ; ellipses . . • ^ • 208 




LaasoD. Pag*. 



LV. AttribatiTe sentence (with the yerb in the indicatire 

mood) ; relattTe pronoun 212 

LVI. Attribatire sentence with the Tcrb in the subjunctire 

mood 217 


LV^. RelatiTe sentence used BubstantiYelj' .... 219 

LVIII. Substantive sentence ; subjunotiYC mood . .- 222 

LIX. Indirect question and speech {praUo obliqua) . . 228 


1. Local and Temporal, 

LX. Localand temporal conjunctions; subjnnctiTe mood . 282 

2. Modal. 

LXI. Modal conjunctiona 236 

a. Cautal, 

LXII. Causal conjunctions ; subjunctiye mood .... 240 


LXIIL Participles; infinitire; flexible infinitiTe ... 245 

LXIV. Gerund 251 

Vocabulary 256 

Appendix $80 

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A a 


ah (ItaL a, as m/aOer^ 

B b 






D d 



E e 


ai On hair) 

F f 



G g 


• • • 

H h 



I i 



J J 


• • • 

K k 



L 1 



M m 



N n 






P P 



Q q 



R r 



S & 



T t 



U n 



V V 



X X 



Y J 



Z z 



In the names marked with an asterisk, the final e is to bo 
. pronounced, but sofUy. 

For ff soft, and j^ there are no corresponding sounds in £ng- 




lish (see these letters under IV.) ; they are in the same relation f 
to the English sh (Port, eh), as 2 is to < sharp («9, e). 

The letter h is not properly a letter of the Portuguese alpha- I 
het, heing used only in words of Greek and Arabic origin ; even 
there it is avoided, its substitute being e (as kalendas or ealendas, 
' alkali or alcali). The letter w is only found in proper nouns be- 
longing to the English or German; it is generally called douhle 
vi (from the French). 

I. The Vowels. 

a long, i. e. when it has the tonic accent (whether marked or 
" not), is. the so-called Italian a, as iafatJier, though not quite 

so broad. Ex. dmo, dr^fscdl, da. 
a short, when it has the accent, is almost like a in a4it (French 

animal), Ex. alto, hdsta. Id, pdto. 
a short, when unaccentuated, is nearly like a in umbrella, Ex. 

msnina, alludo, Ma^ 
e open (e) is = aHn hmr. 'Kx.fe,fera, hta, ella, poU, 
. e close (e) = ai mfain, Ex. ISr, tSr, sSllo, mSamo, 
e dull' is pronounced almost as in belong ; at the beginning, when 

followed by s, it is almost inaudible ; at the end, its sound 

approaches the short i, Ex. estdr, estpero, ferbz, liberddde, 

rude,f6Ues, dntea. 
i long = ee, i short = % mfit. Ex. Jina, sino, rio; isto,Jita, in- 

open {6) = in for, not. Ex. no, rdsa, nota, 
close (^ = <? in note. Ex. B6ma, Svo, hSa, eSmmodo. 
dull and short, almost = m> in hoot, ^om2, principally at the' 

end of words. Ex. (Article), povo, porto, ramo, licros. 
u long = 00 in poor; u short := 00 in hooh. Ex. rua, uva; 

bulla, trihu. 

n. The Diphthongs. 

ae, ai (ay) sound almost like the English word eye, Ex. pae (or \ 
pat), taee, vai (or vae). 

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ao,4XH=(nDm cow, Ex. patuc^ pdo (or pdv\ mda (or mdu\ 

ei (ey) has no corresponding Mimd in English ; it Sa a compound 

of i and i. Ex. grei, lei, tei, teima. In Tcrbal forma, and 

in the termination -^ro, the t ia ahnoat inaodible, aa m^ 

heiffaUeii primeiro, wrdadeiro. 
eo,eu^\BA componnd of ^ and o (doll, s «), or «. Ex. Ewropa^ 

eu, hreu, deo, ^ineo (or deu, titeu). ^ or ^ are two sylla- 

blea: ehapSo, eio 6r eiu. 
oe =s oiin mamt or oy in lay, Ex. herSe, doey/a/rdes, 
oi is not oi, as in English, bnt 6i. Ex. hoi^ fox, doiM, 
ou is a compound of o and «, the latter being almost inaudible. 

Ex. wnu, eUou, Untea, loueo. In a few words the « sounds 

' here = «, and these are often written so, though in good 

) authors the orthography ou prevaila, Ex. otaro — Mtv, mgou- 

ro—agowo, doudo—doido, cotua — mio, daue^-^doii (in the 

last three the pron. oi ia moat generally ad<^>ted). 
tie, ui = oo-i. Ex, ag/&€9, fui, euidado. In mui, muito, the i is 

nasal (9ee HI.). 

III. The Nasal Sounds. 

Their pronunciation, having no equivalent in English, con 
only be learned by hearing them pronounced. They are, at least 
in part, similar to the French nasal sounds. 

Each vowel has its corresponding nasal sound, which is indi> 
cated either by m or n following, or by the sign called tU (^) 
placed over it: the tU is now only used over a and o. Thus we 
have d, am, an (do, in the terminations of some nouns subst and 
adj., pronounced = an); em, en; im, in; d, om, on; um, «n. 
These syllables have always the nasal sound, whether at the end 
of words, or when foUowed by a consonant. (Ex. rda or ran, 
'bem, Jim, lorn, um; amol, emprigo, instante, honr'a, funeho). 
When followed by a vowel, they lose it (comigo, amar, etc.), 
except in uma, the fern, of the de£ article um, and in lem^a- 
venturado and similar compounds of bem, well. 

Ifa»(d diphthongs are: Se, Si, ao; de (dee, dee, were formerly 
written aens, oene). 

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IV. The Consonants. 

^ is = & in English ; its pronunciation :±= « is dialectical and 

(7 as in English ; with the cedilha 0;) it is = «, as ea^a, ago: 

eh:=i 9h ia she; ex. ehd, ehoro^ aeho. Before a consonant, 
.- and in some words derived from the Greek, it is pronounced 
, = e in 1^2 (or = ib); Christo, ehrdnica; pdroehoy fyoeha^ 

anarchia^ ehimiea, ehimSra^ Arehiloeho (these are hj some 

authors written pdroco, ipoc€^ cmarquia, quUniea^ quinUrOy 

(7, before a, o, «, as in English; before e, », y, it is = j, which 

see. In order to give it the hard sound before e or a, an u 

(silent) is added: entriguey guia. 
H is aXwiy% silent, except in a few words, where it has a very 

slight aspiration, as avhda/ry IMitOy hakd. 
J is pronounced like the t in meaawrey eoUiaum (it is the same as 

in French). Ex. jdta, jarro, nSjo, sujeito. 
Z as in English ; Ih = li id. mUlion (the Spanish 11, or the 

French I mouille). 'Ex,filho, malha^ trahalho. 
M and 
jV, when at the end of a syllable, give tte preceding vowel the 

natal sound (see III.) ; nh = ni in pinion (Spanish A, French 

gn), Ex. ninhOj tanhar, sonho, 
Quy before a and <?, as in English, except in quatorze, fourteen, 

,and in quo at the beginning, as quoeiente, quotidiano. Be- 

,fore e and i it is = ib; ex. quero, quilate, except in conse- 

quenda, ft'equente, ubiquicUide, extorquir, antiquimmOy 

where the u is pronounced. 
B has the rolling sound of the Spanish or Italian letter ; it is 

very strong at the beginning of words, and when double ; 

soft at the end, or between two vowels, and before a con- 
sonant (in the latter case far more distinct than in English). 

Ex. roMy raho; ferro, harra; ira, ora, eostureira, JUn'ta, 

parte^farga, eurto, forma, 
iS' as in English, sharp at the beginning, softer at the end of 

words (though not quite so soft as in English), very soft, = 

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c, between two Towels. Ex. Bobdo, tko; ro$a^ ham; Uoroi^ 
nds. It is always ^arp after a consonant (Ex. eansaday $ub- 
9iito,Jim). B^ore one of the Mo/t consonants it is also 90/t 
(before b, d, g, 1^ m, n, y). Ex. mamoy desde^ *w^tf, roiiuir, 
eUne. It is iharp before a hard consonant (c, t, p, q, t) ; 
ex. eama^ etforfo^ raapar^ e$queeery hatta: le asin English. 
At the end of words or syllables, when a wrutmant follows, 
s is very frequently pronounced almost like the j, and this, 
indeed, seems to be the genuine Portuguese pronunciation 
(even in ereteer, fumi) ; it is, however, not generally adopt- 
ed, rather avoided by the nugorityt 

T is always like t in time; th = L 

JT \b = eh (sh English) at the be^nning of words, and between 
two vowels. Ex. xarope^ eaixSOy luxo. In compounds with 
the prefix es, it sounds 3= $ sharp, when followed by a con- 
sonant (expdr, extreme); = s, when between two vowels 
exame, exietir^ exenerar, exhortar, for h is silent). It sounds 
like X in the English fex^ in the words eexe^ nexe, eomplexo^ 
contexo ; = # in eexto^ texto^ pretexto ; =es in JluxOy d^ttxiio, 
trouxe (perfect tense of the verb traeer). 

Z as in English ; at the end of words it is sharper. Ex. stma, 
aza; ferde^ voz, atedz. 

\i Mute ob Silent Lbttxbs. 

Vowels are always pronounced, except u ip gue, guij que, qui 
(see g and q under IV. Consonaiits) ; i and u in diphthongs, 
though hardly or not at all pronounced in some words when 
speaking rapidly (sei, fallei, haixo, eaixa, falloUy potteo, see II. 
Diphthongs), are dbtinctly, though feebly, heard when the 
words are spoken slowly. 

Of the eomonants are nlent : 
h in eubdito, auhetaneia, eubtU, eubeereoer, tuhecrippSo. 
e before another c or p {aefoo, aecidente, sueeeeeo), and before t 

(actOy facto, teeto\ 
g before another g (suggerir, exaggerar), and in -dgn (digno, 

h see under IV. 

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m before n (hymno, danmoy 9olemne), 

p before e (djeecripfdo) and before t (eaeripto, prampto^ exempto), 
$ at the end of words, when the following word begins with an 
r (a$ roBos, dtusentat reis), . 

These tales are neither general nor strictly adhered to, as in 
declamation there is a tendency towards pronouncing consonants 
which, in conversatliHi, are generally silent. They refer mainly 
to words of daily use, whereas in words of less freqnent occur- 
rence (such as scientific terms, words directly and recently taken 
from other languages, etc.)i those rules are disregarded. Thus, 
e is sounded mfldccido^ occident^^ aedelerur; meompacta, acHtar, 
octogmnw; g in lenigno^ malignoyignorar ; p in apto^ rapto^ cor- 
mpto, etc., etc. In poetry the suppression of the above letters 
is preferred, and carried to a great extent, fat the sake of 

•>•'■■' • , 

VI. Peosodt and Accentuation. 

We can only treat of the most general laws of prosody in the 
Portuguese language. Prosody t;eaches the distinction between 
long and short, cuxentuated and unaceenttiated syllables^ In most 
of the modem languages, the tonic accent (i. e. the accent of the 
word, the stress laid on one syllable of each word) has super- 
seded the qutmtity (length or breyity of syllables) ; so also in 
Portuguese : therefore we shall give the principal rules of accen- 
tuation, and, by using the terms lonjg and short, merely indicate 
> the variations peculiar to vowels, already mentioned in L 

■ 1. Th^. tonic accent of a Portuguese word can not go beyond 
the antepenuU (third from the end). 

2. On the last syllable are accentuated words ending in a 
diphthong, a nxtsal sound (except em), i, I, r, t^,' Exceptions : seve- 
ral verbal forms (for these see the rei^ective, Lessons), rtiim, 
qiidsi ; arrdtel, crivel, eitel, nivel, consul, and the adjectives in il 
when derived from Latin acy* ending ini^ B»/dcil, util, hdbil, 
. and those ending in vel, as amdvel; accdrdao, henfSo, or/ito, 
^gdo, rdbSo (horse-radish, ra^, horse with a docked tail), 
UtSo; alj^ar, ambar, assucar, nectar, mdrtyr; armaeimy tin" 
tinhf aUm, aqnhn, and compounds like desdim, parabim. 

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3. On the ant&penult. are aocentaated the soperiativea in imo 
{eeUberrimo^ altissimo, 6ptm&, mdaimoy,^ worda ending in mIq 
{eumuloy te%ttbulo\ in ico (publiea, rustieo)^ and a great manj 
others which can only be learned by practice. A knowledge of 
the Latin (and Greek) proeodj will prove very nseftil, though 
not in all cases decisiye. 

4. The remainder, by fiir the greatest nnmber, have the tonic 
accent on the j^^m^ (last syllable bat one), principally when the 
pennlt contMns a diphthong (verdadeiro^ repatuo\ or two con- 
sonants {enterro^ eondemno\ except words belonging to Bale 2, 
as JxutSd^ eontracfdS, 

5. There are, in Portngnese, two signs called accents, the 
acute (J_) and the eirewn\/Ux (_1). A system f<Mr the regular ase 
of these accents has not, as yet, been established ; therefore, 
great uncertainty prevails, some of the best authors using them 
only for grammatical reasons (in certain verbal forms, contrac- 
tions, etc.)) or in order to distinguish homonyms, or in words 
accentuated on the last syllable (/)^, «^, n^, ta/etd^ jaearS, etc.), 
while others make a very extensive use of accents; and yet in 
very few books great consistency is to be found. The following 
contains only the most general observations and rules about 

a) Both accents have a doable destination, jf^f, to mark the 
tonie accent of a word, i. e. that syllable which is pronounced 
with greater force than the rest (it is never used over a diphthong 
or a vowel followed by a dovhle consonant^ as such syllables al- 
ways have the tonic accent, unless comprised under one of the 
rules above) ; in the second place, in order to indicate the nature 
of the vowel, whether it has the open sound (/ ) or the close 
sound ( /^ ). In syllables Tiot having the tonic accent, and in 
words which it is not customary to mark with the accent, it is 
left to the readers knowledge of the Portuguese language, to 
give each vowel its right pronunciation (see below, 5). This-is 
the use of accents with regard to prosody; but they also serve 
certain grammatical purposes: 1. They distinguish homonprn* 
when having a different accentuation (dd [he] gives, da^ of f 
e»td [he] is, stands, e«to, this ; continuo, continual, eontr 




continne) ; 2. they are used in certain 'cerbal forms ; 3. they 
indicate contractions (d for aa, to the ; larris for harries, for- 
merly written barriis; lir for leer), 

b> Each vowel has a hn^ and a short pronunciation; this, 
however, does not affect its sound, which may be open or close, 
whether, long or short. In un accentuated syllables the vowel is 
generally done and &horL Jo the syllable with the tonic accent 
this ia different. Tho voweU i, w, can, according to their nature, 
have no t>ther vai-iation than that produced by quantity ; a, when 
^hort, approaches the Enf^Iisk a in act, villa; these three, as they 
offer little or no difficulty^ can have only the acute accent for the 
uses mentioned in a). But the vowels 'e and o require great at- 
tention ^ as the difference between i and e, 6 and o, is very dis- 
tinct, and one of the greatest difficulties for a foreigner. Their 
several sounds see tinder I. Yowbls. It is impossible to give 
rules even approaching generality; the follo'^ing remarks, how- 
ever, will be found useful :— The termination a generally indi- 
cates a in the preceding syllable, o indicates 6; ex. rbsa,f&ra; cSmo, 
f&TQ ; thns, in adjectives ending in oso, the masc. has S, the fem. 
0, as gtncrSi&j generha. Also substantives having 6 in the penult 
in the singular, change it into 6 in the plural: 6vo, 6vos; povo, 
p6^o». Before m^ n^T^ the pronunciation is i, 6, as leme, amino, 
£6ma^ Mnay rer, termo^ Mr^^.J^pa, veador, forma (mould). In 
homonym Lc substantives and verbs, the former have S, 6, the lat- 
ter I, Oj as eamifo^ the beginning, comipo, I begin ; almd^o, the 
breakfast, almofo^ I breakfast, 

c) The acute is always jdaced over the vowel terminating a 
mono»yllaMe substantive or adyective (and also in their plural), 
and in some verbs ; ex. pd, chd^ pS, si, no, so, nu, cr^. Also, in 
words of two or more syllables, having the tonic accent on the 
last^ this being terminated bj a vowel, as ta/etd, pole, javali, 
Jilhot penL Over the vowel i the accent is, however, generally 
omitted (see 2), 

6. There are combinations of two vowels, in which the second 
f^.owel has the stronger accent nation, the first being pronounced 
jt^^f^apidly as to make it partake of the nature of a consonant (e 
timi VUke y in Engl, yes, o and u^w; there is no such com- 





bination with a), Theee are by some grammartAns called diph- 
tjiongs, but erroneously, aa, in poetrj, thej form one or two 
syllables, according to the wish of the poet Thos Ideteo^ lAeUOy 
may be considered i^ having Udo or three syllablee, glvrieee as 
having three or four. Snch are dgoa^ Ugo€L^ Uregoa (now gene- 
rally written with u instead of o\ eoalhar^ eenikguo^ drea^ glS^ 
ria^ etc 

7. I>ouble coneonanU have not the effect of sharpening the 
preceding vowel, perhaps rather the contrary; they are pro> 
nonnced almost as separate letters, or rather, they are lengthened^ 
as it were; ez« hello = lel-lo^ fottee ^sfoUUe^ terra = tir-rc^ 


(We leave it to the teacher to point ont such pecnliarities and 
distinctions as have not been mentioned in the rules and obser- 
vations above.) 

/. ViweU. 






d ' 
















































(def. article) 


6 (verb) 


1 moco 
















esta ' 
















feroz arroba c6rte lobo 

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e e 

-e dull 




mancebo at6 





azedo qu^da 





conter chap^a 





vender era 





igreja entrego 





tempero s6 





ti^Mo ^^a 





verde papel 



p61vora commodo 






pae (pai) 



vao (Tai) 


















fall aid 





ouro ' 




(in these ou 

iDiio (ra4u) 



is also pro- 




nounced oL) 





vendeu (-eo) 







8. Nasal Sounds, 

a ^ 



laa (Ian) bem 




irmaa cem 




T»a sem 




cbi-istSiL tern 




dancer vintdm 




Tniinso tens 




niaaoha yint^ns 
































































































(7.— cara, fraco, cnrto, c^o, oifra; caca, la^o, a^ucena; (ch = tA) 

acho, cbamma, cbeio, chifre, chorar, chn^o ; (cb = k) dpocba, 

p&rocho, christao, monarcbia, chronologia. 

-garra, gola, agudo ; gelo, gemer, ooragem, gisso, frigir, affli- 

gir, vestigio, relogio; (ga = ^ in game) guerra, pague, 

a^ongne, guincbo, gnia, guindasto. 

-habito, herva, historia, bora, bomilde. 
•^•— j^ jarro, Jesus, jejum, justo, Joao, jogo, foija, esbaiyar, 

arranjo, figa, eigo. 
Lh. — ^albo, batalba, orelba, velhioe, olbo, pilbar, Ibe, Ihes. 
Kh, — ^banbo, brenbas, tenbo, moinbo, sonbo, nnba, manbaa. 
Qu.— quadro, quatro, qnando, qnid ; qnero, rebenqne, quem, aqni, 

qninta, qnilate, riqmssimo, qnotidiano, qnooiente. 
R. — ^ramo, resar, risco, rosa, rtimo, roubo, renda, raso ; barro, 

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ferro, embirrado, jorro, burro, enterro, forro ; ar, caro, ge- 
rarj quererj farao, mira, parar, digerir; pranto, crespo, en- 
rolar^ fraoRo, bra^o, tra^ar, cr6r ; farto, perna, divirto, porta, 
ccrvftj bflrb!% momo, orbe. 

S. — aanta, eer^irt sino, sogro, snsto; caso, consa, odioso, nso; 
jaspe, c&sc% basta, asco; desde, musgo, marasmo, asno, 
ciano, desrelo; manso, dansar, penso, absoluto; nascer, 
iiaanimeDto, crescer, cresga. 

Z— tio, tifi^ gniarantia, consentia, fatia, Santiago, tiara; tbermo- 
motro, tlict>Iogo, matbematico. 

X — (= fib) xadrez:, puxar, baixo, caixa, roxo, enxofre, xarope, 
lixa, luxo, rouxinol, paixao, peixe, xerife, xiz; (== ss) de- 
fluiito, syntase, tronxe; (= cs) sexo, nexo, complexo, con- 
veso ; {— 2) eialtar, exame, exemplo, eximir, exbibir, exor- 
bitante, esultar, exigir, existencia, exhortar, exacerbar; 
( = s) sexto, pretexto, texto, mixto, extenso, expedir, exceptp, 
extremoj estincto, expresso, excellente, exclusivo. 

5. Silent Letters, 

K — subditQ, subatancia, subtil. 

C7- — fflt-to, recto, afflicto, activo, tecto, contracto, olfacto, as- 

petto, frin;to, conducta; ac^ao, construc^So, predilec^ao, 

G, — ai^alj int^i^Da^ao, assignar. 
^*— 4amno, condemnar, solemne, indemnisa^ao, somnolento, 

P* — prompto, asBPmpto, escripto, redemptor, exempto, optimo, 

captivo, descrip^ao. 

6. Accent, 

la^t iylhibU, 





















Digitized by GoOQIc 



last syllable. 














































































































Digitized by VjjO( 





last syUdble. 




























Tbo FoHuguese orthography is, as yet, in a very unsettled 
stite, the great number of letters or combinations of letters of a 
similar iironanciation facilitating frequent interchanges." 

Tlie moat common of these interchanges are: 
e and / ; pa^ — ^pai ; vae — vai ; sahe, eahe — sai, cai ; 
o and i( : mao— mdu ; Deos — Deus ; abrio— abriu ; 
% and y : iistema — systema ; 

c(£i)andt (w): la^o — ^lasso; aQucar — ^assucar; can^ar — cansar; 
c and ck : epoca-^pocha ; 
ch and J : chelim — xelim ; 

cha^ndqu: chimica — quimica; monarchia — ^monarquia; 
/and/>A.- filosofo— philosopho ; fisica — physica; 
ff and j ; sugeito — sujeito ; gerarchia— jerarquia ; 
8 and z : caaa— oaza ; 

gimpk and double eoMonants : falar — ^fEiIlar ; -exaggerar — exagerar 
(never, of course, where this would produce a different pro- 
nancvation, as would be the <utse with r and «) ; 
mttis letters omitted: escripto — escrito; prompto — pronto; 

frocto — ^fruto; damno— dano; sahir — sair; 
!n nasal sounds: forao — foram; vaa — ^van, etc., etc., etc. 

There is, however, in the best authors of the present age, a 
tendency to wards regulating the Portuguese orthography by ety- 
mology^ which we shall also follow, and for which the student 
who is unacquainted with the Latin and Greek languages may 

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eonsBlt the English orthography, as there are many thouaanda 
of words common to the English and Portogoeae languages. 

Thx Ditisioh of Wokds. 

- 1. Monosyllables, diphthongs, and two consonants represent- 
ing om sonnd (cA, M, nA, ph^ rA, <A), can not be separated (jU-nha^ 

2. One consonant between tuio vowels belongs to the second 
vowel (e-nu-me-Tar), 

3. Double consonants are always separated (Jal-lo^ guer-ra). 

4. The vowel u after g and q can not be separated from these 
consonants {Jin-gwi-gemyjirfu&^moij, 

5. Any combination of two consonants mnst be separated, ex- 
cept where the second consonant is Z or r (ae-cr€«-cer, pro-da-' 
mary inr-eis-Hr). From this role some exclude jp, sf, dividing 
re^i-rar, re-ti-^tir^ de-itro. 

6. The letters e and p, when mute before f, are drawn over 
to this letter: fru-eto^ eg-pe-eta-^u-lOj ee-cri-pto. 

7. In combinations of three consonants the fiT$t is separated 
from the two others (rtf-^tt-frar, in-epi-rary eon-een-trar), 

8. Prejixee retain their last consonants in every case (in-ier^ 
ee^j trane-mit-tir^ eulhor^nar), 

Oapital Lbttebs. 

The roles for the use of capital letters are in Portngnese al- 
moot the same as in English. Proper nonns, i. e. particular 
names belonging to only one individual without regard to the 
species to which it belongs, such as Christian and family names 
or names of penone^ plaeee (countries, towns, etc.)) anirnah (as of 
horses, dogs, cats, birds, etc.)f of rivers, mountains, seas, lakes, 
woods, vessels, houses (hotels, palaces, etc.), are written with 
capital initials; also 2>am, God, and the attributes of Divinity 
when used instead of Deo$ (as a Frovideneia^ o Omnipotente), 
Adjeethee derived from proper nonns are not written with capital 
letters: franeez^ French, eeedreo^ Caesarian, o portuguez, Portu- 
guese (i. e. the Portuguese language), though a substantive, is 

Digitized by VjjOOQ IC 


written with a small initial, while o Partuguez^-wxih a capital 
initial, means an individual of the Portngnese nation; thus o 
inglez^ the English language, um Inglee, an Englishman. Titles 
are gi^nerallj written with small initials, but when abbreviated, 
always with capitals: S. M, o imperador D, Pedro IL^ =: ma 
magestade o imp. Bom Pedro 11.^ H. M. the emperor Don Pedro 
IT, Ttie word Dom (Sir, Lord), and the common titles Senhor 
{Sr^\ Senhova (J3ra,\ Dona (2>., i>*.), when added to names of 
persons, are mostly written with capitals. 

Digitized by VjjOOQ IC j 






First cQigogation : infinitiye, falUir^ to speak. Present ia- 
dicatiye : 

eu (7) f/Jl-o {tfpeal^ 

tu {fhmi) fim-as (i^kesf) 

elle, ella (he^ she) fall-a (speahy 

n69 (we) fall-dmos (speak) 

v6s {you) fall-4is 

elles, ellas (they) f411>ao (or fall-am). 

O fogo brilh-a. A bora 86-a. Tu cham-as. Ella cant-a.. 
^ N6s consider-amos. Elles escap-ao. y6s tard-ais. Oarlos fall-a 
X^ portuguez. O inimigo amea^-a. A £0rti5a _nad«-a. N6s esper- 
amos. Ellas bord-ao. Ella toc-a piano. Tu tard-as. O espe- 
ctaculo comog-a. As boras pass-ao. Os soldados avang-ao. 


Tbe Portuguese verbs are divided into three classes called 
eonjugationSj according to tbe vowel wbiob prevails in tbe ter* 

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minations of each. The characteristic vowel of the so-called 
Jvrst conjugation (the most numerous of the three) is a, that of 
the second «, that of the third «. The infinitive mood is gener- 
ally (and properly) chosen in order to indicate the coi]jugation 
to which a \ntb helongs ; its termination in the first conjugation 
la ar^ m the second conjugation er, in the third conjugation ir. 
By cuttiDg off the termination of the infinitive, we ohtain the«^em 
[often, but erroneously, called the raof\ of the verb:/i?^ar, ter- 
mination ar^ %t^m fall. 

The examples in A. exhibit the tense esM^preunt indicative 
jf the first co^jngation; its terminations are: singular, o, cw, a; 
plurai, amo8^ ais^ do (or am), which are joined to the stem of the 
verb. The tonic aeeent, which in the infinitive is on the last 
syllable (the termination), recedes in the present tense on the 
penult, as iadicated in the paradigm. Some use the circumfiez 
over the a in am09, in order to distinguish this form from the 
first person plural of the perfect; this is unnecessary, as the lat- 
ter la most generally accentuated (pres. fallamoSj perf. faUd" 

In anticipation of the respective rules, let the student observe 
that the proper termination of the /emi'ntn^ gender in a^ectives 
and pronounj^ is a, as in the pronoun of the third person ellcy 
/if, eliitj abc, and in the definite article 0, a, the ; also, that the 
termination of the plural number of nouns, pronouns, articles, 
etc* is «, a» : elle, ella, he, she ; elles^ ellas, they ; a hora, the 
hour, as Jioras^ the hours' soldado, the soldier, 08 eoldados^ the 

0. ^ 

He spef^s English. She cries./ The gale continues. The 
weather threatens. We doubt. You recoil. They (fem.) 
sing. 6he embroiders welL The vessel rolls. Thou waitest 
In vain {tm too). They (masc.) dance. We hesitate. John 
ganiblea. Tfie ice bursts. This (isto) suffices. The concert be- 
(^na. Tiie waves thunder. The horse stops. The horses stop. 
We hope. The children play (hrinear). The rivulet murmurs. 
T!ie birds smg. Thou arrivest in time. I believe this (isto). 
They (masc*) despair. 

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LESSON n. 29 


Second coiyngation : infinitive, tem-er^ to fear. Pr696nt in* 
dicative : 

eii tem-o, I/ettr 

til tem-es, ih^ufearat^ etc 

el!e t^m-e 

nos tem-^mos 

Yos tem-^is 

elles t^m-em 

Pedro aprend-6. Nob aprend-emos. Ellaa aprend-em. £a 
comprehend-o. Yos conced-eis isto. Elle yend-e farinha, yinho, 
etc. Elles Tend -em tudo. Oi cavallos corr-em. A agna corr-e. 
03 ratos ro-em tndo. Vos promett-eis muito. Nob ced-emos. 
Joao escrey-e bem. Tu pergnntas, e (and) en respond-o. A 
crian^ a morr-e. Ellas entend-em tndo. Ella coa-e benu Eu 

/escrey-o cada dia. Elle dey-e mnito. . Ea trem-o. A letra 
yenc-e hoje. Oi irmaos de Gai'los viy-em ainda. 


The cbaracteriBtic yovel of the 9eeo7id conjugation is e (Q, as 
b seen in the termination of the infinitiye, er. By this yowel 
alone the present indicative of the second conjugation is distin- 
guished from the same tense of the first conjugation, the termi- 
nation of the first person singular being the same in both (first 
conjugation, 0, m, a, amo$^ ais^ &o or am; second coi\jugation, o, 
68, e, emos^ eUy em). The accent is the same as in the first con- 


The water boils. I understand. He writes well. She lives 
still. They sell paper, ink, pens, etc. You fear, but I hope. 
The water rises (= eregeer). The day breaks. We correspond. 
'She learns welL They promise everything. This (este) dog 
bites. The snow melts. Yon break the armistice. The banner 
waves and trembles (estremeeer). He drinks only water. 

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30 LESSON ni. 


Third conjugation: iiifinitive, part-ir^ to depart, start, etc. 
Present indicative : 

eu pdrt-o, I depart^ etc, 
tu part-es 
elle part-e 
^ nos part-imo9 
vos part-is 
elles p&rt-em 

O mensageiro part-e agora. Nos admitt-imos isto. Elles 
repart^em o dinheiro. Vos partis? Tii applaud-es! Deos re- 
znitt-e OS peccados. Eu applaud-o. Nos consent-imos. A cam- 
painha tinn-e. Joao abr-e a porta. Vos possu-is um grande 
tbesouro. Elles resid-em em Lisboa. As tropas resist-em com 
coragem. V63 reprim-is os abuses. Nos insist-imos. Ella 
desist-e agora. Os geographos divid-em a terra em cinco {five) 
partes. Este bomem resid-e em Londres. Esta macbina com- 
prim-e o ar. Os perigos diminu-em com o medo.. Esta casa 
remitt-e muito dinbeiro para Lisboa. Estes documentos ainda 
exist-em. As moscas zun-em. O gato mia, o cao lat-e {or ladra), 
o cavallo rincba, o gallo canta, etc. 

The characteristic vowel of the third conjugation is 1 (as seen 
in the termination of the infinitiye, ir). Xliis conjugation has 
manj forms in common with the second conjugation ; thus, in 
the present indicatiye, all unaecentuated terminations of partir 
are the same as those of temer; the characteristic vowel appears 
in the accentuated terminations of the first and second persons of 
the plural, imoSy is. The latter is always marked with the acute, 
being a contraction of ies or lis. The third conjugation is the 
least numerous of the three. 


I resist. We resist. He insists. They desist. This vice 
pervades all (todas as) classes. The bees hum. I admit this. 

Digitized by VjjOOQIC 

I.E880N IV. 31 

He nnites great conrage with incredible strength. Yon illade 
the people. We own a little (pequena) houae. The laws pro- 
hibit this. Yon possess gpreat riches. The ejes express everjr 
(eadd) emotion. These things exist. The vessel leaves (= «a- 
hity to go out) to-daj. We distribnte the rewards. 8he con- 
founds these two («9to« duos) circumstances. I attribute this to 
(a) various (tarias) causes. He shares every thing with his (ieu) 
brother. You demand much. Thou liest 


En n(lo nego isto, = / do not deny thi$, Tn nflo obedeces« 
r= thou dost not obey. Elle ncLo vende a casa, = he does not ull 
the house, Nos ndo queremos isto. V6s nHo admittis esta razito. 
Ellas nda tocao piano. Aquelle homem nfU> conhece estas oousas. 
En -ndo escrevo hoje. Elle n^ manda aqni. Antonio nito falta. 
Ella n8>o mora la. Tu nSo confias em Deos. Maria nflo cose 
bem. Estas mo^ as ndo bordao mal (t. e, pretty welt). Men pai 
nd4> falla francez. Aquellas arvores nda crescem. O juiz nHo 
conhece as testemnnhas. N6s nSo consentimos. Tal (ettch q) 
livro nS4> existe. Eu nd^t receio isto. 

(Eu) nao entendo. . (Nos) moramos all. (Elles) nao ousao. 
Nao comprehendo isto. Nao eonheoemos aqnelle homem. 
Basta (= it it enough). Chega (= this will do). Chove (= it 
rains). NIo chove. Ju nao chove (= it rains no more). 


The negative form of assertion, in Portuguese, differs mate- 
riallj from the English mode ; the auxiliary verb to do is not 
employed. The negative adverb not is nilo ; it has its place be- 
tween the subject and verb. Thus: I do not write, eu nao es- 

In Portuguese, the subject of the verb, being a pronoun, may 
be omitted^ the terminations of the verb and the context being 

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33 ' LESSON V. 

"sufficient to indicate the subject. This omission is most frequent 
in the fir%t person singular and plural; in the third person it is 
much less frequent, and can, of course, only take place when the 
• person or object to which the pronoun {elU^ ella, etc.) should re- 
late has already been mentioned ; a restriction, which, for ob- 
vious reasons, does not apply to the first and second persons. 

As there are only ttoo genders in Portuguese, the masculine 
and feminine (see, however, Lesson XLY.), the so-called uniper- 
tonal and impersonal verbs can take no pronoun like the English 
tV, as : it rains, ehove, it is enough, basta. 

The omission of the pronoun does not affect the collocation 
of ndo. 


I do not believe this. Thou dost not forsake the poor (os 
pobres). This does not count. We do not deny this fact. You 
do not perceive your error. They (fem.) do not sing. My (meus) 
brothers do not live here. She does not hear. This thread does 
not break. We do not fear those individuals. My sons do not • 
earn much. This rain does not injure the crops. This is not 
enough. Tou do not work. I do not understand this rule. My 
(meu) father does not smoke. This girl does not lie. Now he 
does not suffer. The ostrich does not fly. The play does not 
begin yet. Those men do not respect the laws. This key does 
not open that door. We do not demand (exigir) all this {ttido 

(I) do not doubt. (We) do not know (eonheeer) those ladies. 
(I) doubt. (I) understand. (We) know (saber) all. 




Quern? whof que? oque? what? 

Sou, lam; es, thou art; 6 (or he), ^, she, it is; somos, we 
are; sois, ffou are; sao, they are. 

Quern entra la? £ (it is) meu prime. Quern desce a escada f 

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I.E880K T. 83 

£ n crfads. Qaem me (me) ehaniAf Boa ea. Qaem acrediU 
isto? Ningnenu Qaemoonheoeaqaellasenhontf QaemgriU 
assfzn? Sao elles. Qaem eflcrere estee artigosf Son en. — Que 
^ isto? <^di2eis aistof O^tM^ o homemf Oqve^xmM 
chimera! que aprende elle la? O que prora iitof (= what 

Quand0 chega o yaporf Hoje. Qwmdo Toltasf Como 
paasa o Sr. (=z senhor, Mr,) Antonio! (kow i$ Mr. A, t) l£aito 
h^miwrywsU). t7om«6l8to! <}iuiAto ensta este lirro ! Onds 
morao eUaa ! Porque cfaoras ! 

TocSo «22a« piano! Sim, senhor; nlo, senhora. FaUau t6§ 
hespanhol! FtMoi^Ido), Gomprehendeis agora! Gompre- 
hendo. Soispobres? Somos. Sao elles parentes ! Sao. 

IkU9enh{Mr((ifenileman)eaen(four)imio^ Kio6. AqueUa 
familiae poderosa! £. AqneUe senhor ensina inglez! Sim, 
fienhor. Tea pai sabe isto ? Nao sabe* Isto 6 Terdade ! (it thi$ 

The eonstraction ot interrogative sentences is as follows: 

a) The aaxiliary Terb todoia never employed. 

b) The euhjeet being an interrogative pronoon (guem t who ? 
^ue t o que t what), the eonstraction b the same as in English : 
quem entrat who enters! o que aeontecet what happens! (o que 
ts much more used than the dmple que\ 

c) In all other cases the subject ought to foUaw the verb. 
But this rule is only strictly observed when the sentence hss an 
Interrogative pronoun, acyective, or adverb (^uanto^ how much, 
qttanda, when, eomtf, how, onde^ where, porque^ why, etc.). I«t 
the student analyze the respective sentences in A. In all other 
sentences, i. e. where the expected answer is either yes or no^ or 
theu* equivalent expressed by a nerb^ the subject may also be 
placed hrfare the verb, as : elle sahe latim t does he know Latin ? 
This form is also expressive of douht or asUmishment^ just as in 

d) The subject being a tubetawtive^ it is generally placed 5e- 
fore the verb (aquelle eenh&r ensina ingUzt), In conversation, 

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the subject, whether a pronoun (not interrogative) or a substan- 
tive, generally precedes the verb, the tone of the- speaker being 
sufficient to indicate the question. 

T,he adverbs «m, yes, ndo^ no, are generally, for the sake of 
politeness, accompanied by senhor, sir, senTiara, madam. Very 
frequently, instead of these adverbs, the verb of the question is 
repeated, in the same tense, and in the person and number 
required by the sense ; for instance : faUais franeez f Fallo, = , 
do you speak French 1 I do. Sometimes the adverb is even 
used together with the verb, as in this example, we may say 
/alio, sim, senhor, or simy /alio. This answer is more emphatic. 
It is to be noticed that, in answering with the verb, the pronoun 
is nei^er added (not eu/allo). 

The phrases it is /, it is you, etc., are rendered sou eu^ sots 
Tos, the verb ser, to be, always agreeing with its subject in per- 
son and number. 

Who sells this paper? Who runs there ? Who writes tliis ? 
Who is that gentleman ? Who lives here ? ' Who knows these 
boys? What is this? What causes this movement? What is 
• wanting (to be wanting =: /altar) here? What does this mean? 
When do you depart ? When does his father write ? How much 
is it?. What (= how much) does this book cost? Nothing. 
How is this? Where does the sun rise (naseer)! Where does 
he set (entrar) ? Why dost thou say this? Why does the child 

Do you know that man ? Yes, sir. Do you expect some- 
body? No, madam. Does she write well? Do your children 
(vossos /Ihos) obey? Do the ladies know (saber) this? Do we 
break {in/ringir) the laws? Does Joseph {Jose) draw? He 
does. Do they owe much ? They do. Do you believe this ? 
Yes, sir, I do. Is the child a girl? Yes, she is. Are they 
(masc.) poor (pobres)^ No, madam, they are not. Do the 
pupils translate this author ? They do. Does the boy learn t 
Ho does. Do you doubt? No, sir. 

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LE880V TI. 85 


Nao comprehendes isto? Nao aereditait esU hiftoriaf Tal 
eondacta nao inspira oonfiancft? Nio sabemosiatot K6a nSo 
diyidimos os trabalhost O Sr. A* (Mr, A.) nlo 6 tm homem 
alto? Ella nao 6 bonita? Kao son ea Tono amigof Este 
livro nao 6 tea? Kao oonheoes esta leira? (letra = hat^writ- 
ing). Eata fazenda nao 6 forte? Aqnelle districto iuU> elege 
dons deputados? Nao sao elles parentes? Este dinheiro nKo 

[Vm!^, Le, Tossa rnerc^, pnmouneed ▼60m^o^, if vsed^ a« a 
term o/politenemy in$tead ^ tn and t68; aho^.o aenhor, a so- 
nhora (or abhreeiaUd o Sr., a Sra.), ani V. S., t. €. rosBa aenho- 
ria; t\eiu terjM being eubetaniieesy they require ths verb in the 
third penon^ eingular or plural^ according to the number qf per* 
eons addressed; the plural of those terms is marked thus: Vm^, 
V^ 8\] 

' Oomo passa Ym'^ ? (=s how do you do f) Quern 6 o senhor ? 
(= who are yout) Vm®* nao 6 myope? Sou, aim, senhor. V. 
S. falla bem portuguez. O senhor nao sahe hoje? Porqne nao 
toma (V m"^) uma cadeira ? A senhora nSo conhece aqnella gente ? 
Vm*'* nao mora com sen {your) pai ? Porqne nao compra (Vm**) 
estes cayallos ?. Ym''^ nao parte hoje ? Y. S. nao me {me) co- 
nhece ? O senhor Mia francez? A senhora nao passeia hoje ? 

Sentences at the same time interrogative and negative are 
subject to the rules given in Lessons lY. and Y., i. e. n(lo precedes 
the verb, the subject may be placed at the beginning of the sen- 
tence or after the verb, etc. ^^ 

The second person singular is seldom used in ^|(^Hanguage, 
the second person plural never. The use of the fornr is limited 
to the conversation between intimate friends, and towards slaves 
and animals; it b also employed in poetical language, though 
rarely. The second person plural is used in poetry, speeches, 

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prayers, in short, in what is called the elevated style. The ex^ 
pression most frequently used in addressing persons (for the Eng- 
lish pronomen reverentioi tou) is vossa mereS (literally yovr 
grace), pronounced timiCce, and always written abbreviated, 
Vrnf^ or Fm. (all similar abbreviations are written with capital 
initials). In its stead, o ienhor, a eenh&ra may be used (just as 
in French Moneieur, Mctdame), but never in letters. A corrup- 
tion of Vm^, written and pronounced vocS, abbreviated F., is 
very frequently used, especially amongst friends and relations, 
towards children, servants and people of inferior station. The 
Portuguese grammarians disown and condemn the word; this 
does not, however, interfere with its very extensive use in com- 
-mon language. The terms vo98a aenJtoria^ literally yimr lordship 
(F. A, F« 8^% and vosm exeelleneia (F« £xc^, V, -El), belong 
of right to the higher classes of society ; the former is, however, 
by many applied to any gentleman, — ^AU these terms require, of 
course, the verb in the third person, and any pronoun relating 
to the same (English you, your, yours, yourself, etc.) must be of 
the third person. When two or more persons are addressed, 
those terms receive the regular termination of the plural, s 
( Fm<^, F«* >S«*, Ftf* jEwjo*, os Senhores, etc.), and the verb is to 
be put in the pluraL For instance: you know, tu sales, tos 
saheis, Vm^ (p Senior, a Senhora, F. S.) sabe, Vm^ (os Se^ 
nhores, etc.) sahem; you and your brother, Fm«^ (o Senhor, 
Vm<^, OS Senhores, F. 8., etc.) e sen irmdo. All these terms 
may also be omitted, like the personal pronouns. In the sen- 
tences in C, the student should, if the sense allows it, translate 
you in every one of the ways indicated (by tu, vos, Vm^, o Se- 
nhor, a Senhora, V, SJ), the possessive pronoun for tu being teu 
(feni. tua), for 96s--vosso (fern, tfossa), for the rest seu (fem. sua), 
all of which take s, when their substantive is in the plural (sens 



Do not the ladies dine here ? Do not the children play ? Do 
you not correspond with your father? Does he not speak 
French? Are you not our friend? Do you not understand 
this f - Why do they not speak ? Why do you not write ? Don^t 

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UC860N vn. 87 

70a think 80? Does not Mr. A« belong to this society! Does 
not this joamal accuse those deputies? DonH yon smoke! Does 
she not know this? Do I not woik? Are yon the landlord? 
Do you desire any thing {alguma eauia)% Do you remain here? 
Are you not our guest? Do you sell drugs? You draw well. 
Yon are my only friend. Are yon relations? Do you prefer 
this book ? Do you not hear this noise ? Am I your servant ? 



First Gonj. tu/dll-^u^ thou speakest; fdll-a^ speak! 

v6s/aU-Msj yon speak ; falUdi, sneak ! 
Second Conj. tu aprend^, thou leamest ; aprend'e, learn ! 

90$ aprend-Sis, you learn ; aprend-^i^ learn I 
Third Goig. tupdrt-eiy thou departest; pdrt-e^ depart I 

tospart-Uy you depart; part-iy depart! 

Applau-di! Vend-ei tudo! Corr-el Aprend-eil Trabal- 
bail Oheg-ai! Fic-aaqui! Arred-hl (stand back f) Caroinh-a! 
And-a! Atir-ai as armasi Avanc-ai, bravosguerreirosi Fug-il 
Besist-i com coragemi Escrev-eil Olh-a! Admir-ai tanta 
virtude! Respeit-ai as leis ! £scolh-ei! Romp-e aquellesla^os! 
Implor-ai a misericordia de Deos ! Confi-ai em Deos ! Respond- 
ei! £sper-al Escut-a'.I Oav-it 


The imperaHve is formed by dropping the final s of the second 
person singular or plural of the present indicative, the pronun- 
ciation and accentuation remaining the same. See the paradigm 
at the beginning of this lesson. The forms for the first person 
plural, and the third person singular and plural (the latter being 
also employed when the subject is Fm*^, Ff»<^, etc.), and the 
prokibiUve (negatM) imperative are taken from the iuhjunetive 
mood, and will be treated of in Lesson XXXII. Translate each 
of the following examples in the singular and in the plural 

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38 ' LESSON vm. 


Advance, soldiers! Comedown! (=z descer,) Try!- Bum - 
every thing ! Qo on ! (= eontintiar.) Stop ! Run ! Take this 
sword ! Mount ! Beflect ! Work ! Distribute the arms I 
Write! Wait a little! Forgive! Kill this traitor! Desist! 
Obey! Eat and drink I Begin! Die! 



Tirst CoDJ. eu fallar-ei^ I shall speak. 

tu ds^ thou wilt speak. 

■ tlh dj he will speak. 

^(5^ itnos^ we shall speak. 

tos eis, you will speak. 

elks ~ — M^ they will speak. 
SecOBfl Conj, eu aprender-ei, I shall learn. 
Third Conj, eu partir-eif I shall depart. 

A mala chegnr-i esta tnrde. Chegar-emos la amanhaa. Eu 
Tnandar*el oa Hvros em poucos dias. V6s perdoar-eis os nossos 
peccados. Ym** chegar-i em tempo. Qnando acabar-ao Vm**" 
aqnelle trabalho ? Eacrever-ei a men pai. Tu sofirer-ds grande 
i^Qominia. Mle venderii tudo. N63 estender-emos o negocio. 
Saber-eia isto em tempo. Estes campos pertencer-ao um dia a 
me us filho3 (children), Ea nm consentir-ei a isso. V6s punir-eis 
03 per versos. NSo desist ir-emos. Os inimigos invadir-ao a 
noasa pat Ha. Seu pai nao pemiittir-a isto. Ter-emos chuva. 
Tcr-ei paciencifl. Ella niio ter-d bastante coragem. Nao com- 
prar-ei esta casa. Kao cliover-a? Isto nao bastara. Pagard 
elle f Vm*:^ verd. Nao tereroos bastante dinheiro. O ministro 
domlttird aquelles empregadoa, Quando voltard V. S.? Vol- 
tarei cedo. Nao ficarei Id multo tempo (long time). Quanto 
custard esta meza ? Qnem a^reditard isto 1 

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The/uture (imperfect) is formed from the infinitive^ by adding 
the terminations eiy ds, a, emot^ eisy dOy the accent of the infini- 
tive advancing to the first vowel of these terminations. The 
'second and third persons singuhir are always marked with the 
accent For another iorm of this tense see Lesson XLIV. 

I shall go on with this work. They never will finish thb 
bnilding. The musicians will play (toear) nine pieces. Yon 
will know this. My children, yon will soon (em hreve) lose your 
father. The messenger will return to-morrow. His (eua) sister 
will go this week. Yon will arrange all this. The steamer will 
sail to-morrow. I shall not go out to-day. We shall pay the 
costs. He will not suffer mnch. I shall not faiL When will 
they come back ? He will have the place (poeto). The govern- 
ment will protect this institute. They will not insist. This will 
produce great animosity. Will they learn French ? Mr. N. will 
sell that house at auction. We shall not hesitate. The troops 
will march to-morrow. Who will accompany this lady ? We 
shall have few (poueos) guests to-night (= this night). When 
shall you go ? I shall wait here. He will be rich one day. All 
this property will belong one day to this young lady. 


Eu tenho, / have; tu tens, thou hast; elle tern, he has; n6s 
temos, toe have; v6s tendes, f/ou have; elles tem (t^em), they 

Quanto custa este livro? Quanto custao este-* livro-*.' 
Vmc<^ 6 men amigo. Vmc* tem muito-s amigo-s. Somos vizi- 
nho-s. Teremos novidade-s.— -Conheceis aquelle A<7m«m7 Quern 
sao aquelles homenst Tenho ainda algum dinheiro. Perdere- 
mos alguns contosde r^is. Quern tem o men lapis f Quanto 

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40 ' LESSON IX. 

custao estes dons lapU f As nossas for^as atacarlio a fortaleza 
por mar e por terra. Aquelles mar-es beo mui (very) perigosos. 
Qaem conhece esta flor f Aquell&s Jldr-es sao mui bonitas, mas 
tern um cheiro desagradavel. Esta mo^a tern mna bella voz. As 
isoz-es de mil passaros accompanhao o sol nascente.^ Y. S. 6 mui 
cortez, Aqnelles homens sao cortez-es, porto falsos. Uma vez, 
= once; muitas vez-es, = often; tros vezes, = three times; esta 
vez, =: thi8 time, 

Gumpr&rei um cavallo, um-a carrnagem, est-e jardim, est-a 
ansa. O seuhor conhece aquelUe homem, aquell-a senhora? 
Comprai est© hellro cavallo I Teremos uma lell-a noite. F. (= 
fulano^ Mr. so-and-so^ 2f,) 6 um grand-^ charlatao. Os Francezes 
sHo uma f^and-« na^ao. — ^V6s encontrareis muitas difficuhides. 
Elk 6 teu amigo. Files sao teus amigos. Ellas serao ricas um 
dia. Keceiamos uma sorpreza. Esta carta nao chegara em tempo. 
Ta serds um grande homem. Os Ohins sao um povo industl'ioso. 
mundo ^ a obra de Deos. Meu irmao nao completard esta 
obra, A/eus (my) irmaos nao alcangarao isto. Minha {my) 
irmlia^ tern um bom piano. Minhas irmaas bordao hem. y6s 
tender este direito. Grandes acontecimentos sao muitas vezes 
ca efifeitos de pequenas causas. Os trabalhadores nao apparecem 
Jioje. O vento dispersard as nuvens. A lua ^ um planeta. Este 
piano tern boas vozes. Onde acharei um fiador? Nao tendes 
fi adores ? Ym<^ nao vender^ estas carruagens e aquellas cadei- 
rasf Aifastai aquelles homens! Fugi, mulheres! — meu ca- 
vallo ja e velho. A minha casa 6 nova. O Sr. F. vender4 a sua 
c^i^ara. Ob nossoa vizinhos venderao o« ecus bens em leilao. 
Ym«50 nio perderu o seu posto. 


- Thii lesson is a recapitulation of the preceding lessons. At 
the same time, it contains some new matter, which, though an> 
ticipated, is necessary in order to enable us to vary the examples 
of the following lessons, and part of which has already occurred 
in the preceding ones. 

1) la Lesson I. it has been said that the termination of the 

plural of nouns, articles^ etc. is «, which is affixed to the singu- 



UE860H EC 41 

lar. Certain terminatioiiB of the sliignlar oaiue 0Oine oiodifiea- 
tions or exception to this role, of which we give here onlj the 
three following (being onlj orthographical changes or enphonic 
necessities) : a) There are a few words ending in «, as l^iSj lead- 
pencil, ybl^ bellows; thej do not change in the plural, b) 
Words ending in i» change this letter, in the ploral, into n (the 
pronunciation remaining the same, L e. nasal), as hom-em^ horn- 
ens; alg-um^ alg-uns; bom^ bon$, c) Words ending in r or f 
take e» instead of «, as mar^ mar-^; vozy tw-es, 

2) The student will alreadj have obserred, that a^j^tires, 
articles and other determinatires (demonstratiTea, posseasires, 
etc.) offree with their substan tires in number and gender. For 
the number of these words see 1). [The gender of sabstantires 
designating perMne depends on the sex of these; for all others, 
see the Yooabnlarj at the end of this book.] The proper ter- 
mination of the feminine is a, which in the pronouns elle, e$te^ 
essej aqueUe substitutes e (ell-a^ etc., changing in these words the 
pronunciation i fore); in nouo^ voseo and all a^ectires ending 
in it takes the place of this vowel (noM-a, bonit-a^ changing the 
preceding 6 for 6, as wsw^ W8$a^ generSeOy gentraea) ; it is affixed 
to ttm, algum; most of tiie adjectites ending otherwise exhibit 
no change in the feminine. — Cardinal numbers (except urn, one, 
uma^ and doue^ two, duae) do not change at all. 

3) Passesme pronouns (meuy mj, minha; teu^ thy, tua; uu^ 
his, her, its, their, your [when relating to Fm<^, etc.], noeeOy our, 
noeea; to$BOy your, tmea) are generally accompanied by the defl- 
nite artieUy except when their substantive expresses a degree of 
relationship: o meu eavallo^ a minha easa; but meu pai, minhc$ 

All these rules will be treated of at length in their proper 


God is my strength. This is a favor. You know your duties 
(dever). The duties (direito) on (sobre) liquors are very high. 
Your sufiferings will cease to-day. The princes of P. are descen- 
dants of B. The colors of those snakes are very brilliant. The 
travels of F. are celebrated. Their carriages are not worth much 

Digitized by VjjOOQIC 


(to be worth = valer). Those din^e^s will cost much money. 
Your education will be your only inheritance. I have several 
books of great value. Your country (patria) confides in you. 
My uncles have many horses. I shall deliver the letter to your 
cousin. These bills are due (= tJ«w(rer) to-day, those will be due 
to-morrow. These last words explain everything. You will not 
find many flowers now. The prices will rise (mbir). Are not 
these gardens magnificent? The rain falls in torrents. You 
will not convince those people {gente^ fem. sing.). Will she 
come with her daughters? We shall depart in a fortnight (= 
em quivze diaa, in fifteen days). Those tribes are very ferocious. 
Will they fulfil their promise ? This will be his last undertak- 
ing. This will be your ruin. Their success is doubtful. Where 
shall we meet our friends ? When shall you send the books to 
your tiftther ? Humble your pride I Who has [got] my lead-pen- 
cils? Will your friends come? She will lose her fortune. 
They do not know their situation. 



First Oonj. Itpohe; Second Oonj. I told; Third Coi^. I opened, 

eu fall-e» vend-t abr-» 

tu fall-a«^<5 vend-eate abr-iste 

elle ou eu iu 

n68 dmo8 Smos — imos 

v68 astes e8te8 ^ — iatet 

elles — drdo irdo — 'irdo 

Compr-ei hoje dous bellos quadros. Onde compr-aste isto ? 
Quern compr-ou aquella ch&cara? Oompr-amos o outro dia dnas 
vaccas. Com o vosso sangue compr-astes a vossa liberdade. Os 
caixeiros do (= d'o = de o) Sr. F. compr-drao o outro dia um 
barril de cerveja. As hostilidades comec&rao hontem a meio 
dia. O Senhor fallou com o ministro ? O menino borron o seu 
papel. Oomo passdrao Vm«^ a noite ? Paramos em casa do Sr. 

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F. Tn qnebraste esta caizs. Nao esperei estes caTalheiroa tSo 
cedo. — ^Aprend-i esta lingua com o Sr. N. Ta aprend-esto iato 
por tua propria ezperieada. Minha irmSa aprend-en o tnncez 
em dons amios. Kos tree apreDd-^mos o mesmo officio. Aprend- 
estes ponco em tanto tempo. Minhas filhas aprend-^rao o francez 
e o italiano. Os Romanos estend^rao as fronteiras do sea im- 
perio at^ (<u far as) o no Enphratea. Eate negociante perdea 
muito dinheiro por sna propria culpa. Escolhi estes tres livros 
entre milhares. Corremos desde o mercado at6 aqoi. 'Perdestas 
a minha amizade para sempre. Estas caaas j& (imee) pertenc^rao 
a mens pais (parentsy^-FvLg-i com men filho para a Inglaterra. 
Porqae nao fng-iste da (= d^a = de a) tentacio? O inimigo 
fug-in com precipita^ao. Kao fog-imos como covardes, maa 
combatemos como-soldados. Fng-istes, sols desertores ! Muitos 
dos (= d'os = de os) seas escravos fug-irao {ran ateay). A me* 
nina cahia da meza. As senhoras distriboirao dinheiro entre os 
pobres. V6s alladi^s a certas circanstancias da minha vlda. 
Nao reparti os mens bens com elles? Algamas das (= d'as = 
de as) senhoras exigirao isto. 


The historical (or narrative) perfect simply states, relates, 
denies, e^c. a fact belonging to the past. The paradigm, at the 
head of A., shows that its forms, in the three conjugations, differ 
from each other only by the characteristic vowel of each (a, «, i). 
The terminations of the third person singular of the second and 
third coigugations are also written eo, io instead of 6i/, iu^ the pro- 
nuniciation remaining the scone ; for do, in the third person plural, 
many write am. The terminations are affixed to the stem of 
the verb, the accent advancitig to the^«* vowel of the termina- 
tion. The first and third persons plural are to be marked with 
the accent (as is done in the paradigm), in order to distinguish 
the former from the same person of the present tense, the latter 
from the same person of the future. .[It will not be amiss to 
warn the students of two very common errors : many people say 
tufugist-es instead of fugist-Cy asidfall-^moB instead of fall-dmos,] 

The preposition de, of, from, generally loses its e before .a 

Digitize'd by VjjOOQIS 


TOwel, OS d^e^te = de este^ cPaquelU = de aquelle, d*um = de 
um; with the definite article it is always written in one word, 
as : de =s d*o =: do, de a =z d^a = day etc. (the same is often 
done with eUe^ dla, eate, esse, aquelle, as delle. date for d^elU^ 

Hannibal {Anmbal) gained many victories over {aohre) the 
Romans. Nothing was wanting. "Why did you not try ? Did 
they pay the bill ? Yes, they did. The troops of the enemy 
attacked the forts, but without success. I rejected the proposals 
of our adversary. Thou siivedst my life. You (second plur.) 
hoped in vain. Who perpetrated this crime ? When did you 
arrive ? What did they gain by {com) this ? My horse won. — 
My father wrote a treatise on {aohre) this subject {assumpto), I 
did not write for {por) want of news. Our grand-mother died 
this week. This happened yesterday. A deta^Jiffiient of soldiers 
protected the travellers. You promised this." What did I prom- 
ise? We sold our furniture. They- committed many crimes. 
You did not know my mother. I did not deserve this rebuke. — 
My cousin fell from the fourth {qua/rto) story and died immedi- 
ately (logo). He demanded the fulfilment of our promise. You 
infringed the laws of the country (paiz). Who opened this win- 
dow ? I did not go out this morning. We heard loud screams. 
The last storm destroyed the orchards of this village. They re- 
sisted to (ate) the last moment. Why did you not insisti-^l 
heard their conversation. — Bid you put out (= apagar) the light I 
He went out on horseback (a eavtUlo), They plotted against the 
life of our monarch. I found a key. What did you find there ? 
The companions of Mr. L. crossed the desert in two weeks. His 
partner left a great fortune. Did you bny those horses t Who 
won the bet t I translated the documents. Did it rain yester- 
day t Some of the passengers died. I did not understand those 

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first CoDJ. lipoie; Second Ooiy. Isold; Third ConJ. 

(r= Second G>i\i.) 
eu fkU-dea vend-ia 

tu dfuu 

elle dva 

n6s dvamo 

v6s d/ceii 

eUes — dtdo {avam) iOo (*am). 

Ea era {Iwq»\ ta 4ras, elle 4ra, n68 ^ramos, v68 6rei% elles 
^56 (6ram). ^ . . > 

Men pai fall-ava cinoo idiomas. As nossas ferias come^avao 
no (= em o) primeiro UirBt) domingo d'este mez. Pass-aya- 
mos as noites n'uma (== em uma) miseravel clrotipana. .EUas 
nao esper-avao isto. Os meiji^^t-aTao. A chnva oontina-ava. 
N6s prepar-avamos a casa para a recep^ao dos hospedea. En 
cont-ava com (on) este dinheiro. Entao oant-aveis? dan^ai 
agora. — Qnando era menino, en aprend-ia com maita facilidade* 
Ta tem-ias a minlia vingan^a. No anno passado men cunhado 
escrev-ia de vez em quando {=from time to time). Ka (= em 
a) prhnavera e no yerao n6s yend-iamos leite, manteiga, ovos, 
frangos, etc. Y68 estend-ieis os yossos fayores sobre todos. 
Estes prMios pertenc-iao n^aqnelle (= em aqnelle) tempo a 
mens pais. — ^£u resist-ia com toda a (all my) for^a. Nos (=: em 
os) dias da tua prosperidade ta repart-ias os tens bens com os 
pobres. Elle sempre descnbr-ia am on oatro erro. Nos exig' 
iamos o pagamento do nosso soldo. Quando as circnnstancias 
o {it) exig-iao, y6s exbib-ieis uma firmeza Inabalayel. — As c6res 
da bandeira erao aznl, branoo e encarnado. Eramos yizinhos, e 
nas (= em as) boras yagas tocavamos on passeiayamos juntos. 
A agua corria com uma yelocidade de cinco milbas por hora 
{an hour), Eu yisitaya os mens amigos cada mez. Durante 
aqnelle mez o Sr. F. e sen irmao residiao em Londres. Por {for) 
algum tempo n6s receiayamos uma repeti^ao d^aquellas soenas. 

Digitized by VjjOOQIC 


£lld sahia todos os dias (every day) a nma hora (at one o^cheh). 
En nao sabia isto. 


The descriptive perfect (often, but improperly, called imper- 
fect tense) has the tonic accent on the first vowel of its termi- 
nations, though the accent is never marked. In this tense the 
secpnd coi^jagation does not differ from the third. 

The difference between the historical and descriptive perfects 
(or preterits) is of great importance, and of no little difQculty for 
foreigners, ^e two tenses admit of no compromise. While 
, the historical preterit states a fact or facts which lias oi' have 
occurred but once^ the descriptive preterit indicates a continuation 
or a repetition (or habit). For instance: eu entrei^ I entered 
once, the other day, yesterday", in 1850, etc. ; but eu entrava, I 
entered often, always, seldom, during that time, etc., or I used to 
enter. The meaning of the sentence must decide which of the 
two tenses is to be employed. [For those who know Latin -or 
any of its daughter-languages, this point will offer little or no 

The preposition em, in, into, before a vowel or h (but not be- 
fore nouns) is changed into n\ as n'*este := em este, n'aqueUe = 
em Orquelle ; with the definite article it becomes one word : em o 
^= n'o = no, ema = tCa = na, etc. (which some do also with 
€Mte, aquelle, die, writing neste, naquelle, without the apostrophe). 


At (em) that time I frequented the school of Mr. 0. When 
A. held that post, he never permitted this. My father always 
dined at one o'clock. We spent (passar) our evenings at the 
house (em casa) of our grand-mother. They were cousins, and 
studied at (em) the same university. He paid the interests with 
great punctuality. At (=: in the) church she always occupied 
the same place. — The place offered a beautiful view. This hap- 
pened every night. Every year, in the month of September, we 
made an excursion among the mountains of S. The little house 
shook (estremecer) with every wind. Did yon know this? The 

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x.E88oir zn. 47 

prlnoea of thk home always protected the eommerce of our city. 
I received a small salary. — Oar unde always slept in a room of 
the second (9egundo) floor. In yonr yonth yon did not follow 
the advice of yonr parents and friends. This city did not exist 
yet. Above aJl (= sobretudo) I felt the wapt of books. Every 
year we covered their graves with flowers. I My circnmstances 
did not permit so (too) great expenses. — The colonel of the regi- 
ment was my enemy. The Egyptians embalmed their dead 
(mart09, drfuncto$). We were students, when this happened. 
Formerly (outr^ora) this country produced and exported great 
quantities of wheat. '^ What did you do daring the summer ? ** 
asked the ant. ^* I played and sang,*' answered the erioket. 
" Well ipois), now diuice I " 



First Ooi^. fiUl-ado, tpoken; Second pb^j. vend-ido, m>ld; 
Third Ooig. part-ido, departed. Present perfect : 

en tenho fallado, I haw tpohen 
tu tens acabado, thou haetfinuhed 
elle tem vencido, he ha$ eonqtiered 
n6s temos tido, we hate had 
vos tendes sido, you have been 
elles t^m cahido, they have/alien 

Yrn^ tem trabalhado muito. Temos contractado o fome- 
cimento dos viveres para o exercito. Y6s tendes experimentado 
a nossa olemencia. Para (to) este fim elles t^m espalhado aqudle 
boato. Tenho acabado (done) com isto. Tenho almo^ado (= / 
have done lyreahfaatirhg^ I shall eat no more). — Yds tendes perdido 
grossas sommas. Tenho percorrido todas as ruas. Elle tem 
perdido muito da sua for^a. Temos sido muito infelizes. Elles 
t^m tido todas as vantagens dMma boa educa^ao. — A rebelliao 
tem succumbido. Quantos reinos t4m cahido e desapparecido ! 
Todos \km ido para fora (put o/town^ into the country). Temos 

Digitized by VjjOOQIC 

48 ' LESSON XU. 

oonseguido o que (tohat) desejavamos* — ^Beflectil Tenho reflec- 
tido. Temos respeitado ob direitos de todos, temos eoonomizado 
Tima graade sonuna de dinheiro, temos 0apprimido mnitos abuaos, 
e por isso (therefore) temos merecido a vossa approva^ao^ Tenho 
concluido aquelle negocio. Tendes merecido a nossa gratidao. 

The present perfect indicates a j?^^ action or state with refer- 
ence to the present. In Portuguese, the use of this tense is very 
limited (principally in conversation) ; it is generally employed in 
order to indicate a conelusion^ a completion^ as in t^e following 
phrases : tenho jantado^ I have dined, i. e. I shall eat no more, I 
hav€^ done dining; a este respeito temos cowcersado^ it is no use 
talking any more about that, etc. 

This tense is formed, as in English, by the auxiliary verb ter^ 
to have, and the past pa/rtieiple. The terminationis of the latter 
are tido in the first conjugation, ido in the second and third con> 
jugations, accentuated on the penult. With the auxiliary yierb 
ter (or hater) it is invariable. 

' I have endured your extravagances long enough (= Jnixtante 
tempo). We have found little assistance. This gale has caused 
great damage (plur.). Many sorrows have blanched this hair. 
You have studied the laws of your country with great (muHo) 
zeal. I have done (acabar) with this. I have met this gentle- 
man very often (= muitas v&ses). The defendant has confessed 
every thing. They have sent money every day of this week. — 
We have received a large assortment of goods. I have answered. 
The waters have decreased since yesterday. He has had many 
friends. We have read your book with great pleasure. JSany 
years have elapsed since that event. «tliis lad has grown much 
since last year (1. y., = o anno passaio). You have not deserved 
tills favor. The month of July has been disastrous for (para) 
our navy.-^I have followed yonr example. You have contributed 
much to this state of things. We have attained the object of 
our wishes. The enemy has united all his forces on (em) the 

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LE880]r xm. 49 

left baok g£ the river. — The government has g^ven orden for the 
reeonstrnction of that bridge. We have been irienda aince onr 
childhood. I have not obtained the license. Three centuries 
have passed since that remarkable event. Your conduct has 
been the object of severe criticism. You have suffered much. 
I have had this honor. ^^ I have been th j emperor I '' 


En tinha, / had; tn tinhaa, elle tinha, n6s tSnhamoa, v6a 
tlnheis, elles tinhao. Preterit perfect : 

eu tinha fallado, / had spoten ; en tinha tido, / had had, 

{Another form,) 

First Conj, Sec&nd Conj, Third Conj, 

ea fall-6ra vend-^ra part-fra 

ta fall-^ras vend-^ras part-fraa * 

elle — dra etc. etc 

n6s — dramos 
v6s — dreis 
elles — 4rao (dram) 

Eu tinha acabado as minhas tarefas, quando tu entraste. Tu 
tinhas apenas chiegado, quando eu voltei. A criada jd tinha 
fechado as portas. Tinhamos alngado dous oavallos e duas mulas. 
y6s tinheis recebido a vossa recompensa. Os hospedes j4 tinhao 
partido. Ellas tinhao voltado muito antes (Umg before). O fogo 
j4 tinha consumido quasi a metade do edificio. O Senhor Ja 
tinha lido o livro ? A viuva tinha ganhado o sorte grande. N6s 
tinhamos chegado um momento antes. 

J4 antes d^aquelle acontecimento eu fallara com o ministro 
da fazenda. advogado contestara a competencia do tribunal. 
O coronal F. resigndra, mas o ministro da guerra nao aceitou a 
sua resignaoao. K68 desejdramos outro (another) desfeclia — O 
Sr. M. recebera muito dinheiro para este fim. A propriedado 
revertera a meu pai. O soldado desapparec^ra d^uma maneira 

Digitized by VjjOOQIC 

60 LESSON xin. 

mysteriosa. — O vapor partira no dia 20 de Maio. Ea ezi^a isto 
dos mens companheiros. Beuniramos todos os nossos amigos e 

The preterit perfect (oommonlj called pluperfect) has a nmple 
and .a compound form. The latter {eu tinhafallctdoy I had spoken, 
etc.) is analogous in form to the same tense in English, and re- 
quires no explanation. The simple form is shown in the para- 
digm at the head of A ; it is generally marked throughout with 
the iiccent. Both forms have the same signification; as to their 
use, that of the compound form is hy far the more frequent, 
whereas the simple form is considered as more elegant (it is, 
the^ore, oftener met with in book-language than in conversa- 
tion). Of the latter, the singular is chiefly used ; the third per- 
son plural is even avoided, as it may cause ambiguity, being 
equal to the same person of the historical perfect. Another use 
of this form will be shown in Lesson XVI. 

Every verb in the following exercise should be translated 
both ways, except the verbs marked with an asterisk as being 
irregular, which are to be translated in the compound form. 

When we arrived, they had already taken possession of the 
house. I had fallen sick (= cahir doente, adoeeer). She had 
lived until then in a little town of this province. The earthquake 
had thrown down (derrubar) many houses. The enemy had cut 
off (eortar) all (toda a) communication with the capital. He had 
gone* to (para) Portugal. Some of our companions had been* 
prisoners of war.Ji^wo of these houses had belonged to my 
mother-in-law. These circumstances had contributed much to 
(para) the good success of his enterprise. Death (a morte) had 
spared the innocent child. My grand-father had completed his 
eightieth (oetogesimo) year. The baggage had remained behind. 
The news of his death had produced a profound sensation. The 
play had already begun. We had reached the end of our long 
journey. The packet had not yet (ainda ndo) sailed. The boy 

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had deliyered the parcel to a serrant of ICr. B. Too had already 
started. I had bought a horse and a cart 



Ea terei fallado, / $haU haee ipoien^ ta ter4s fallado, thou 
wilt have »poien^ elle terd faUado, he wiU have epoheuy etc. 

Terei trabalhado em yao. A estas horas {at thit time) v6s 
tereis recebido a minha ultima carta. AmanhSa os carpinteiros 
terao apromptado o grande portao. Tu teH» qnebrado algama 
coasa. Amanhaa a estas horas teremos passado o eqnador. No 
mez de Novembro elles terao concluido aquelles trabalhos. Teras 
merecido este castigo. Mnitos d'elles terao fugido. Elle ter& 
roubado este relogio. £Ue tera perdido no Jogo. 

The future perfect is formed in the same manner as in Eng^ 
llsh, i. e. by the fatnre of the aaziliary verb ter^ to have, and 
the past participle of the principal verb, thns: I shall have 
spoken, eu terei fallado. The signification and ase of tbis tense 
are in both languages the same. 


They will have perceived their mistake. We shall have over- 
taken our companions in six (seis) honrs. Oar friends will have 
remained in (no) town. Some accident will have happened. 
To-morrow I shall have conquered all these difBcnlties. You 
will have worked for nothing. They will have arrived there 
yesterday. At the end of this year we shall have paid oU our 
debts. The concert will have finished Jate. This will have 
frightened the horses. She will not have waited until now. 
Shall we have fought in vain? You will have set (dor) the 
example. They will have applied (reeorrer) to the governor of 
this province. 

Digitized by VjjOOQIC 



Este offici-aZ tern sido prisioneiro durante seis annos. Tres 
do8 nossos offici-ae« caliirao mortos. O meu cachorro 6 nm 
anim-a^ muito sagaz. O cao, o gato, a gallinha, o boi, etc. sao 
BJiim-ctes domesticos. O Sr. F. tinha sido coron-^Z do nosso 
regimetito. Hontem o ministro demittia dons coron-e^. Este 
phar-fl^ tern uma altura de oitenta (80) p^s. O vento de hontem 
derrubou dons phar-oe« pequenos. Minha irmaa trazia nm fita 
tLz-ul nos eabellos. As ra^as do norte da Europa fem olhos az- 
ves. ComisreL hoje nm harrM de assncar. Chegarao hoje cem 
(100) biirr-i* de polvora. — ^Eu comma nicara este incidente ao{= 
& 0^ to the) Jornal do Oommercio. Mandarei uma copia d'esta 
carta aos (^ & os, to the) jornaes da c6rte. Os antigos preferiao 
a niorte d (= a a, to the) escravidao. Preferimos isto a« (= a 
B3, to the) propostas do Sr. M. Tudo tinba ficado no mesmo 
^stado. Nmguem esperava isto. Becebiamos jornaes, tinbamos 
nma peqncDa bibliotheca de livros instmctivos, instrumentos 
muaioaes, c mfim, nada faltava para o nosso entretenimento. A 
tneiitii a ti uimpbou sobre a verdade. Este anzol nao presta (is 
good for nothing), Quantos anzoes tem Vm^^? Ambos erao 
coronels na guarda nacional. Meu pai probibira a men^ao 
d^iquelle Individuo. O governo concedera estes privilegios so d 
eidade de B. Jantaremos ds duas boras {at 2 o"" clock). Elles 
terao particij>ado isto ao presidente. Os antagonistas erao iguaes 
em for^a. Mentiste ! Nao menti. O navio bateu n^nm banco 
de coraes. Limpou aquelles costi^aes? Quando escrevereis 
outra Tez {again) ? Escrevi hoje. Temos dado provas da nossa 
boa vontadep Irei a Pariz no mez proximo {next month), 

, B. 
Tills Lesson recapitulates the tenses of the indicative mood. 
Let the student make a paradigm of them all with the verbs 
£6petar, to hope or to wait, comer ^ to eat, renstir^ to resist, simi- 
lar to the paradigm of the future imperfect, Lesson VIIL 

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Substantives (or adjectiyes) ending in al, ol, ul make their 
plural in 4us^ oe$y ues; those ending in el change it into eis, those 
in it make U (see Lesson XXL). 

The preposition a, to, at, always becomes one word with the 
definite article and with agv^lle, thas : a o = oo, a m = oat ; a 
a = d, a(uz=zdi;a aguelle = dqtulUy t^ (iquella = dquella. 
The accent on rf, di^ dquelle is always written, in order to indi- 
cate the contraction which took place. 

A net of canals facilitates our commerce. The officers of our 
battalion demanded a court-martial. The combats of gladiators 
and of wild beasts were the principal entertainment of the Ro- 
mans during the empire. The fire had seized (ataear) the bar- 
racks of the first regiment. Rockets and bonfires will be the 
signals of our success. These brushes (pineel) are not good. 
He bad stolen a watch and two rings. I had many rivals. This 
pair of sheets costs four (quatro) mil reis. [A real, plur. reis, is 
an imaginary coin worth about ^d. ; mU reis, 1000 r^is (writ- 
ten 1$000 rs.) is about 5s. 7id. ; this is Portuguese currency, 
called moeda forte; in Brazil, the real is worth about half as 
much, therefore Brazil money is called moeda fraca; 2|000 rs., 
in Brazil, are in the southern provinces called umpatacQo; this 
is the Spanish piaster, worth a little more than a dollar.] We 
have three nightingales in our garden. — At 8 o'clock he died. I 
shall write to the president. They attributed their misfortune 
to the indiscretion of some of their Mends. Mr. L. left all his 
fortune to the hospitals of this town. I had noticed this circum- 
stance. They had crossed the river at (em) two difierent places. 
Many suspected the honesty of the new administrator. How 
much did they offer? "Will they accept our proposals? Our 
firm had suffered great losses. Some of the newspapers deny 
this. I sold my horses to two ofScers of your regiment. We 
arrived at the same time. She will not betray our secret. You 
have promised your assistance. He will not have escaped. He 
will have run away. She explained the matter to the poor 

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54 LES80N XVI. 



First. SecoTid, Third. 

en fallar-ia, vender-ia, partir-ia, 

I should speak, I should sell, I should depart, 

tn fallar-ias, vender-ias, partir-ias, 

thou wouldst speak, thou wouldst sell, thou wouldst depart. 

(All three conjugated like the descriptive preterit of the aeo- 
ond or third conjugation.) 

Sem esta interrup^ao eu agora fallar-ia inglez. Tu ser-ias 
infeliz. Ser-ia. verdade? (6 verdade = it is trtte). O governo 
recompensar-ia taes serviQos com generosa liberalidade. Em tal 
caso n6s partir-iamos &s 2 horas da tarde. Yos ter-ieis esta 
audacia? Sem isto (but for this) ellas estar-iao ainda em Pariz." 
V^ S. ser-ia vincapaz de semelhante baixeza. • Mens pais nunca 
consentir-iao. N'este caso vos ter-ieis a approvals© de todos os 
cidadaos. Em pouco tempo ter-iamos uma revolu^ao. Eu sen- 
tir-ia muito (= he very sorry for) a perda d'este escravo. Sem 
o vosso auxilio os mens filhos soffrer-iao os horrores da fome. 
Ninguem dar-ia credito a semelhante accusagao. No tempo da 
inquisigao Vm«« nao escapar-ia & fogueira, 

(Conditional preterit : eu ter-ia fallado, I should have spoJcen.) 
Eu teria pagado esta divida sem demora. Muitos teriao pro- 
cedido d'outra maneira. Com um pouco de paciencia Vm^fi teria 
vencido este obstaculo. Ella teria consentido, mas sen pal nao 
attendeu ds minhas supplicas. A morte d'este homem teria sld^t 
uma calamidade publica. Semelhante (such a) medida teria^ 
sado immensa dissatisfa^ao. N6s nao teriamos rejeit 
conditio. Muitos outros teriao succumbido a tantas fadigas. 
V68 terieis abandonado o vosso bemfeitor ? Poucos teriao atu- 
rado tammanha insolencia. O que ganhdra (= ganharia) Ym<^ 
torn isto t Eu desejdra (= desejaria) a vossa assistencia. 

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LE880K XYI. 55 

The conditional present and future is derived from the fhtnre 
imperfect, hj changing the terminations of the latter into tn, 
ta«, etc. (these are also the terminations of the descriptive pre- 
terit of the second and third coigngations). The conditional 
preterit is a compound tense, formed, as in English, hj the con- 
ditional of the auxiliary verb ter^ to have, and the past participle 
of the principal verb. The terminations dra^ ira^ %ra (of the 
preterit perfect) are sometimes used instead of aria^ eria^ trto, 
principallj in certain standing phrases (as eu desejdra^ tomdra^ 
qmzera [from querer]^ I should wish), in elegant language and 
in poetry. In conversation, the forms of the descriptive preterit 
are very commonly used, as eeerevia for eioreteria. 


You would not understand a single woril. t should drive 
such an individual A-om my house* He would not believe this. 
Without this delay we should i^rrive at 10 o^i^lock^ I should not 
brook the interference of those people. They would r^ect your 
offers. You would commit a great mistake. The narrative of 
this journey would fill a book. This would be sufficient. This 
would prove his guilt. In this way you would avoid a collision. 
Your interference would spoil (perder) all. What (qnal) would 
be the result of this proceeding ? What (quanto) would they 
not give for (por) this document I 

I should have preferred cash to all these promises. You 
would have lost your credit. 6he would have gone mad (to go 
mad = enhuqueeer). We all should have died with (de) hunger. 
They would have departed last week (a semana pauada) ; but 
the consul had not signed their passports. But for this they 
would have lost the battle. 

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56 LESSON xvn. 



fall-ando, speaking ; vend-endo, selling ; part-indo, departing, 
Estar, to he; prea, ind, estou, estas, esta, estamos, estais, estao. 

Estou escrevendo (= I am writing). Qaem esta chamando?. 
Sou eu. Ella estava chorando quando eu entrei. Estava cho- 
vendo, quando sahimoa. Esta chovendo muito. Esta casa esta 
cahindo (= is ready to fall), Tenho estado trabalhando toda a 
manhaa. O menino esta cahindo de sono. Estava escurecendo. 
O que estao elles fazendo? Estao estudando. Porque estas 
chorando? Que esta Vm«6 dizendo? As erian^as estao dor- 
mindo. A agua esta fervendo. Por duas horas seguidas {run- 
ning) estou fallando sobre a mesma cousa. Minha mai estava 
escrevendo d irmaa do Sr. F. O que esta Ymc« lendo ? Esta- 
vamos jantando, quando elles chegdrao. Os criados estavao 
esperando k porta. V. S. estd gracejando. O que estao Vmc^ 
aprendendo ? Estamos aprendendo o desenho. 

Onde esta o Sr. Antonio agora ? Esta vi^ando na Europa. 
Onde estas? Estou aqui. O almogo esta na meza. Isto nao 
estii em raiuhas maos (= in my power). Meu primo esta no Rio 
do Janeiro. Nos nao estavamos em casa, quando isto acontecexu 
Vm='^ nao sabe aonde bote! o meu panivete ? Estd na gaveta. 
Eu estava entao nos Estados Unidos. Eu tinha botado os jomaes 
emcima d'esta (on, upon this) meza, agora jd nao {no more) 
estao XL 


The original form of the present participle (as derived from 
the Latin part, in -ans^ -ens^ -iens, Portuguese -ante, -ente^ -inte) 
i^ nearly lost. There are still some thirty or forty words with 
these teiminations, which are now either substantives {instante^ 
iujatant, lentey lecturer, professor, ouvinte, hearer) or adjectives 
{degradant4^ degrading, seguinte, following), some even preposi- 
fciong {durante, during, mediante, by means of). It now partakes 

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LSS80N xvn. 57 

&/tbe terminations of the gerund (as is also the case in English), 
which are -anda, -endo, -indo. 

The periphnutieal conjugation, formed by the present parti- 
ciple and the anxiliarj verb to he^ indicating duration (/ teas 
foriting^ it uxis raining)^ is the same in Portngnese, to he being 
rendered by estary not ser. We beg leave to direct the attention 
of the student to the rarions uses of the verb Mtor, as it is one 
of the principal points of difference between the Portugnese and 
English languages, and offers considerable difficulty to the 
learner. The primitiTe meaning of eetar is to fte in a local sense, 
aatobOj stand, lie (in, on, with, without, below, etc.), as Is shown 
by the examples in the second part of A. Hence its use for ex* 
pressing a passing state or condition. Farther on we shall see 
the verb estar in connection with the a<]ycctive and past parti* 

Is it Gaining ? What are the boys doing ? They are playing 
(hrincar) in the garden. Who is playing piano i It is my sis- 
ter. You are getting (Jicar) very lazy. It is getting late. At 
tliree o^clock he was still writing. I was conversing with some 
of my friends. We are calculating our losses. At four o'clock 
in (de) the afternoon the water was still rising (ereseer). We are 
expecting some guests. I was trying the strength of the ma- 
chine. They will be dining now. The soldiers were preparing 
their breakfast. Tlie missionary was explaining some passages 
of the Bible. Some of the girls were sewing, others reading, 
others drawing. I was sleeping when you came back. They 
are waiting for (par) you. Are you dreaming ? The steeple of 
our church was already burning (arder). 

Where is your son ? He is in Lisbon. Some trees stood in 
the centre of the square. At (em) that time I was in Berlin 
(Berlim), Some books lay on (emcinia de) the table. They were 
at (= in the) church when we arrived. The children were at 
(= in the) school. 

Digitized by VjjOOQIC 

68 LESSON xvni. - 


Ob debates sobre a nova tarifa comefdrQo hontem. dnneeei 
esta obra no dia 2 de Margo do anno passado. Elles pagdrdU? 
parte d^esta quantia em letras. J& paguei esta conta. Os ontros 
jficdrdo em Pariz. Eu Jiquei em caaa. Arranjdmos aqnelle ne- 
goclo ao contentamento de todos. Arrangei tndo conforme os 
vossos desejos. Algnns dos mens conhecidos e amigos/at^^edt^ 
outro partido. Eu tislo fa/tore^ semelbantes projectos. Estas 
leis nao protegem os nossos direitos. Nao protejo vagabnndos. 
YWe^fagir&o, Eu fvjo da sociedade d^aquelles homens. A se- 
nbora danffout Daneei. O tempo est4 ameapando, Ameacei 
08 nossos adversarios com outro processo. Entregou aquelles 
cartas ao Sr. L. ? EntregueL Y6s ewnagastea a revolta. . Es- 
maguei o meu cbap^o. Apagaste as yelas? Apaguei, EUe 
replicou em termos asperos. Nao repliquei a isto. As duas me- 
ninas arrancdrda todas as flores. Arranquei ao ladrao a bolsa 
que (which) elle jtl tinba segurado. Elles nao me (me) conhectm, 
Nao conhe^o este bomem. Este negocio exige grande cautela. 
Nao exijo isto. 

Yendemos hontem um cavallo, e boje dous. Duos vezea 
dmts fazem quatro. Tinhamos quinze (15) cayallos, vinte e duas 
(22) mulas, eineoenta e dotts (52) boia, cem (100) vaccas, duzentoa 
e trinta e eineo (285) cameiros, etc. Cento e quarenta (140) 
. prisioneiros cbegdrao boje. Estamos no anno mil oitoeentos e 
sessenta e um (1861). Milbares de individuos estao morrei^do de 
fome. Aquilie ministerio gastou centenares de contos de r^ia 
para o exercito. Aquelle territorio tem am areal de quasi dnas 
mil (2000) leguas quadradas. O anno bissezto tem trezestos (e) 
sessenta e seis dias. anno tem doze mezes, que sao : Janeiro^ 
Fevereiro, Mar^o, Abril, Maio, Junbo, Julbo, Agosto^Setembro, 
Outubro, Novembro, Dezembro. [The names of the months may 
also he written toith small initials,'] Estamos boje em ainte e 
nove (29) de Julbo. meu dia natalicio (or dla de annos, birth- 
day) cahe noprimeiro (first) de Mar^o. Aos (or a) 25 de Abril 

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LEseoN xym. 69 

chegaei em Londres. O dla d£U»eu (16) do mez pasMdo foi 
(i0a«) am dia fatal para esta cidade. A criada comproa libra e 
meia de ch& perola. Qaanto casta o cento de oatras ? a d^zia de 
OYOs? IJma arroba tern trinta e duoi (82) libras. Tenho so 
trinta e utna libra, 


The character, of a verb (or any other flexible word) it the 
latt letter of the root or stem, the letter which inmiediately pre- 
cede* the terminatioiia. It may be either a eoneonant or a towel. 
Of the TOwels as characters we shall speak in the following Les- 
son. Of the consonants only two require particular notice, e and 
g. The pronanciation of both varies according to the tmeel that 
follows (let it be remembered, that, in Portngaese^ all verbal 
terminations begin with a vowel) : before a, o, u they are palatal 
(or hwrd)^ before «, «, y they are etbilant (or $o/t). In regular 
Terbs, the whole stem must remain unaltered, its orthography 
only being changed when the preservation of the pronunciation 
of the stem requires it. In Jiearj pagar^ the characters e and g 
are palatal (hard), and must remain so throughout the whole 
conjugation; and as, for instance, in the historical perfect, ./2ce», 
pa^ei would suggest a different pronunciation (0 »: m, pr as j), 
they are written ^u^i, pagueiy the qu and gu (before «, i) being 
only orthographical equivalents for c and g palatal. In comegar 
the character is e sibilant (= m) ; this accounts for the cedilha 
before terminations beginning with aot o; in comecei the cedilha 
is superfluous. Jnfanorecer^ proteger^fagir the characters c and 
g are eoft; therefore, before a and o^ they become g and ^, as 
favorego^ pratejo, fnjo. This gives the following rules : 

1) verbs ending in -cary -gar change their e and g into gu 
and gu before e (i does not occur as first vowel in any termina- 
tion of the first conj.) ; 

2) verbs ending in -par drop the cedilha before e; 

8) verbs ending in -cer take the cedilha before a and ; 

4) verbs aiding in -ger^ -gir change their g into j before a 
and o, 

Arranjar changes j into g before e (the g being radical, as 
the word is derived from the French arranger, from rang) ; so 

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60 LESSON zym. 

also Ttajar; the other verbs in -jar retain their j. In analogy 
with the above rules, the few verbs in -gusr, -guir ought to drop 
the u before a and o as useless; this is, however, not' usual ex- 
cept in seguir^ to follow, and its compounds. 

The cardinal nunibers (see the list in the Appendix, page 334) 
are inxariable^ except «m, one, fem. uma (the plur. uns^ utnas 
signifies somey a /ew% dons (dois), two, fem. ditas, hxid the hun- 
dreds, duzmtoSy -as J trezentas, -as, etc. Cem, 100, becomes cento 
when another numeral follows ; mil being an a(yective like the 
other numerals, we must say dtuu mil leguas^ not dom m, I, 
In compound numbers, the conjunction «, and, should stand be- 
tween the hundreds and tens, and between the tens and units ; 
but generally it is used only between the tens and units : tre- 
zentos e sesaenta e seis (366) or trezentos sessenta e aeis. — ^Numeral 
eub9tantive8 are: unidade, dezena^ centena^ milhar^ dezena de 
milTiareSy etc. (in arithmetic, units, tens^ etc.) ; urn cento, a hun- 
dred, ttm milheiro, a thousand (as of eggs, bricks, and the like), 
uma dusia, a dozen ; centenares, hundreds, milhares, thousands 
(in this sense only used in the plural, = same hundreds or thou- 
sands, a great many, etc.) ; um conto, one million, but only to- 
gether with reiB (written 1:000$000 rs.). Meio, meia, half, 
admits no article. It is remarkable that, when a compound 
number ends with um, the following substantiai^ is generally in 
the singular, as trinta e uma libra, cento e um tiro (or tiros) ; in 
all other cases the substantive is put in the plural, as two pair 
of shoes, dous pares de sapatos, — The date is expressed by car- 
dinal numbers, except the Jirst day of a month {o primeiro de 
Mar^, dous de Abril), which are always followed by the pre- 
position de, of. On the Vith of January 1861 is to be translated 
ao8 (a, em, no dia) dez de Janeiro de 1861. After anno, year, the 
preposition de is also employed : o annjo de 1861, no anng de 1861 
(or em 1861). — Time, as measured by hours, is expressed thus: 
what time (o^clock) is it? que Tioras sdof e uma hora, e hora e 
meia (half-past one), sao duas horas (horas may be omitted), sdo 
tres e meia (half-past three), cineo e um quarto (a quarter past 
five), falta um quarto para as Twve (a quarter to nine) ; twelve 
9*elo€h is expressed by meio dia, noon, meia noite, midnight ; half- 



I4S880V xym. 61 

past twelye = meia hora^ a quarter past twelve = am quarto 
depoU de (after, past) meio dia or meia noite; at two o'clock s= 
ds dttas horag. — ^The best way of learning the cardinal numbers 
would be to make all kinds of accounts in Portuguese.— See Ap- 
pendix, page 384. 


Did he pay that bill ? Tes, he did. I paid all. I communi- 
cated these &ct8 to several persons of my acquaintance {ptnoat 
eonheeida^. When will yon commence ? I commenced the day 
before yesterday. They deserve all praise (plur.) for their con« 
duct. I do not deserve this treatment. Who arranged this? I 
engaged a cook and arranged everything for that occasion. God 
will protect His holy religion against its enemies. I do not pro- 
tect your enemies. She demanded the payment of the rent for 
the last seven months. I demand this as a proof of your faith- 
fulness. Who put out this lamp ? I put out all the lights in the 
house, except a little lamp in the passage. The two cabinets ex- 
changed several notes on this subject (astumpto). I changed the 
piece (moeda). They are intriguing against their own interest. 
I never intrigued against you. 

Five of my companions died during the voyage. I have two 
sisters and three brothers. Last night (a tunUpas$ada) I played 
with Mr. B. and lost ten guineas. Our battalion had lost 126 
men (soldados) and 4 officers. A day has 24 hours, an hour has 
60 minutes. In the last battle the enemy lost 2788 men between 
killed and wounded, besides (aUm de) 8759 prisoners. The let- 
ter bore the date of (the) 13th of May, 1854. The first French 
revolution (transl. reooL French) broke out in 1789. My grand- 
father died in 1881, at the age of 92 years, 11 months, and 16 
days. I arrived on the 9th instant {d^este mez, do meg eorrente). 
The birthday of the emperor falls on the 2d of December. I re- 
ceived your letter on the 20th last (do mez pasaado). This hap- 
pened at 8 o^olock in (de) the morning. At half- past ten all 
were asleep. I embarked at 12 o'clock. The fire broke out at 
a quarter past nine. It was a quarter to eleven when we finished. 
The concert will begin at 8 o'clock precisely (preciMoa). 

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A criada est4 penteando a sua senbora. Ella nnnca penteia 
as crian^as a horas proprias {at the proper time), A nossa divisao 
ftanqueou a ala esqaerda do inimigo. Doas torres flanqueido a 
muralha. O Sr. sea {your) filho grangeau a estima de-todos. 
Assim Yniod grangeia o amor do povo. S. M. o imperador me 
ndmeou oamareiro m6r. Qaem runneia estes empregados, o go- 
verno geral ou o presidente? ym<^ ja copiou aquella carta? 
Copeio isto da obra do Sr. A. Quem agenciou aquelle posto « 
sea irmao ? EUe ageneeia no interesse do sea amigo F. O me- 
nino eahiu n^agna. Nao cdio, Vm«« sdhef Nao sdio hoje. 
Ella DOS {us) trahird, Nao trdto os meas amigos. Aquelle ho- 
mem nunca perdSa nma offensa. Ella perdoou a minha peqnena 
indiscriQao. Os rates roerdo os meas llvros. Isto me roe o 

Partirei no dia primeiro de Agosto. Moravamos no segundo 
andar d^uma casa que estava em frente da igreja. Na terceira 
noite elle expirou. O quarto livro da Eneida de Yirgilio 6 o 
mais {most) interessante. Os dias da semana sao : domingo, se- 
gunda feira, ter^a {iwt terceira) feira, quarta f., quinta f., sexta 
f., sabbado. O rei David morrea no quadrageBtmo (40th) anno 
do seu reinado. Eu era o decimo sexto (16th). Este anno 6 o 
millesimo octingentesimo sexagesimo primeiro da ^ra christaa. 
Dom Pedro V. {quinto\ rei de Portugal, 6 filho de Dom Fer- 
nando I. {primeiro). Aquella passagem estd no livro segundo^ 
capitulo decimo. Men tio deixou a quo/rta parte da sua for- 
tuna ao hospital d^esta cidade. O discurso do Sr. F. duron 
tres quartos de horas. Qaando F. quebrou {to fail), elle pagon 
dous terQos (f). Oinco septimos mais dous nonos fazem cin- 
coenta e nove sessenta e tres dvos (f + | = U). Quanto fazem 
tres onze dvos {^{) divididos por dous ? — ^Ella nos escreveu s6 uma 
rez {one time^ = once), Ghamei duos vezes {two timeSy = twiee\ 
mas ninguem responden. Tres veus quatro sao doze. Esta 
fazenda 6 barata, mas aquella custa o dSbro d^esta, e vale o tri- 
pliee {or triple). 

Digitized by VjjOOQ-IC 



The verbs whose character la a rowel are comparative! j few, 
1) With a there are only three, eahir^ to fall, iohir, to go or 
come oat, trcthir, to betraj, with their compounds; the h is only 
written in order to separate the two vowels (ai being a diph- 
thong), bnt it IB not used hj all. These verbs take a euphonic i 
(consonant, = ^ in yes) when an o or a follows, dropping the A 
in these forms : cdioj »dio, trdio. Those who do not write the A, 
put an cbceent over the i in the other forms (saki, eaiu^ etc.)* 2) 
With e there are some in the first conjugation ; they take the 
euphonic i in those forms where the tonic accent falls on the last 
syllable of the stem (in the whole singular and third person 
plural of present indicative and subjunctive), as nomear^ nomeoti^ 
bnt nameio^ nomeias^ nomeia^ nomeido (and second person singu- 
lar imperative nameiay but plural nomeat), 8) With % there are 
many in the first conjugation, some of which change their % into 
ei^ like those in ear^ as mediate to mediate, medeio ; they are : 
abretiar^ agendaTy alumiar^ eopiar^ odiaVy remediar^ premiar, 
and perhaps a few more; but even some of these are of doubtful 
authority. 4) The character owS in the first conjugation, 6 in 
the second ; it remains unchanged, as also u. 

The ordinal numbers (see their list in the Appendix, page 
Sd5) are not formed from the cardinal numbers, but directly 
t^en from the Latin, with few alterations. In compound ordi- 
nals, ectch number takes the form of the ordinal (not only the 
last one, as in English), the conjunction «, and, not being used ; 
f. i. the 469th, o qttadringentesimo 8exage$imo nono. The ordinal 
numbers following names of sovereigns, chapters, etc. take no 
article, as Bom Fedro I (primeiro; no stop after the Roman 
figures), eapitulo tegundo. The denominators of frctetion^B are 
also ordinal numbers as taf as ten (one third is urn ferpo, not ter- 
ceiro) ; all others are formed from the corresponding cardinal 
numbers with the substantive dvo, dvos (a meaningless word, 
probably taken from oitato)-, f. i. three quarters, tre$ quartos; 
) = oito nonos; {} = onze quinze dvos. All ordinal numbers 
agree with their substantives in gender and number. — The multi* 
plicatire numbers are formed by the substantive feminine iwr, 

Digitized by VjjOOQIC 




time, as uma vez^ once, dtuis vezeSj twice, trss f)eses^ three times, 
etc. Others are : o ddbro, the double (snbst.), dobrado, duplo, 
' duplieadoy double (adj.) ; triple, tripUce, Mplicadp, triple^ qua- 
druploy fourfold, etc. 


Why do you not comb the children ? The author grounds 
his argutoent on {sobre) a passage of the letter of Mr. B. They 
manifested their indignation by shouts and hisses. Hb face 
shows (paientear) the ferocity of his disposition. We were 
walking (yassear) on the beach when the steamer ran aground 
(= encalhar), I walk every day {todoB o% dias) for (par) two 
hours. (The^ Money is getting scarce (= escaeear). The wind 
^slackens {escacear). Who copied this ? He copies every article 
from the Gazette. This does not remedy the evil. I hate these 
people for (por) many reasons. I fall I She will not fall. When 
shall you go out ? I go out every morning at 8 o'clock. 

These were the first houses of the town. Frederic William 
IV., King of {da) Prussia, died in the twentieth year of his reign. 
Mr. N. has finished the sixth volume of his great work. Vol- 
taire wrote the life of Charles XII., King of Sweden (da Sueeia), 
This is the 128th day of our voyage. Two-thirds of our crew 
had died with (de) the yellow fever (= f. y.). I paid five- 
twelfths, my brother four-ninths, and our cousin the rest. He 
has been three times in London, twice in Madrid, once in Lisbon. 













' estiveste 



















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f5ra estiv^ra tiv^ra h<Hiv6ra 

O qne foi isto ? Fui mnito feliz na minba escolfaa. N6s doas 
fomos camaradas d'escola. Y68 fostes o meu bemfeitor. Os dis- 
cursos de hoje forao pouco interessantes. Tq foste mn escravo 
tiel. F. f6ra o valido do monarca. Nunca estire em Roma. 
Onde estiyeste? Elle estere ainda agora (Just now) aqni. Ko 
anno de 1854 estivemos na Franca. Estivestes na c6rte? Os 
senhores nao estiverao em casa. Meu filho esoreven qne no dia 
28 de Abril elle estivera com Y. S. Estivemos calcolando as 
difficnldades da nossa empreza. Gramas a Deos (thank Ood)^ en 
nunca tive este desgosto. Tiveste nm bom pai. AqucUa festiyi- 
dade teve lagar (tooJc place) no dia 16 de Jnnho. Hontem tive- 
mo9 a yisita de S. Exc* o barao de M. Y63 tambem tiyestes ama 
mai ! EUes nao tiyerao esta audacia. 

Em toda a costa d^aquella proyincia ha (third pers, $ing. 
pres, of hayer, = there U) um 86 porto. Ma (there are) mnitos 
milliares de especies de animaes. Ma ponca difficuldade n'isso. 
Entre a mnltidao hwcia (there were) mnitas mulheres e crian^aa. 
Home (wa^e <Aere) concerto hontem? Nao honve. Haverd 
(there will he) pouca frncta este anno. Ultimamente (0/ late) 
tern ha'oido muitos oasos de febre amarella. N. morrea ha cinco 
annos (5 years ago), Meu sobrinho partiu para a Inglaterra ha 
oito mezes. Ella chegou ha pouco (tempo). Ea muitos annos 
ique elle desappareceu. Ambos tinhao fallecido hwoia muito 
tempo. Quanto tempo ha que isto aconteceu? Ha uma semana. 
— Choterdf Ohoyeu hontem todo o dia. Nao tem choyido 
desde o dia 11 do mez passado. Hontem gelou, Aqui nunca 
g^la. Nao tem nevado (or cahido neye) todo este inyemo. No 
Brazil nunca n6va. Trov^ou f Est4 troyejando. Est4 fuzi- 
lando. Est4 yentando muito. 


Let the student put together all the forms of the yerbs ser^ 
estar^ ter, which we haye had of the regular yerbs, except the 
imperatiye (future, conditional, and participles of these yerbs are 

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regular). Hmer^ when not auxiliary, is little used except as an 
impersonal verb. Of all four we shall treat more fully under the 
head of irregular and auxiliary verbs. 

It has already been said, that there is no neuter in the Por- 
tuguese language, and that, consequently, there is no pronoun 
which could represent the subject of impersonal and unipersonal 
verbs, as is done in English by the pronoun it {it rains, it seems) ; 
so these verbs are left without any pronoun. There is no gram- 
matical diflSculty attending these verbs, except haver. This verb 
signifies to have; but it is no longer used in the sense of top&g- 
sees, to own, which significations have been transferred to the 
verb ter. Haver, used impersonally, signifies : 1) to exist, and 
is rendered in English by there is, there wa>s, etc. ; it retains its 
nature as an ohjeetive (transitive) verb, having an undetermined 
subject, and the substantive connected with it being its object, 
whereas in English it is the subject. This explains the reason 
why this verb must always be in the singular (just like the 
French il y a); f. i. there is a God, ha urn Deos; there are such 
men, ha taes homens, 2) It indicates past time, in English gene^ 
rally expressed by ago, as: some time ago, ha algum tempo; 
three years ago, ha tres annos; long ago, ha muito tempo; a 
short time ago, hapouco tempo (tempo may be omitted). 

Who was it? Who were the murderers of Crosar? I was 
judge in this cause. We were witnesses of that horrible sc^e. 
You were the cause of all our misfortunes. The battle was 
obstinate and bloody. I had been his friend. How long (quanta 
tempo) were you in (no) Brazil ? I was fifteen months in (no) 
Rio de Janeiro. Who was here this morning ? We were some 
time with Mr. O. Two ladies were here this afternoon. You 
were in great peril. I never had this honor. She had two sons 
and two daughters with her first husband. We had a very good 
passage. You had your fortune in your hands. They had an 
audience last Monday. The christening took place>^on (■&) the 
2l8t inst. Both (amhos os) marriages took place on the same day. 

I arrived here two years and a half ago. Two days ago be 

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LE880K XXL 67 

was stm in P. We had news of our friends some time ago. I 
knew this long ago. It will be now ten yean ago. There is 
little hope for his recovery. There are many who (que) believe 
this. (What is the matter? = que hat) At that time there 
were few rich men in our town. There was not a single horse 
in the village. There was great confbsion among the crowd. 
There will be great festivities on that day. Is it raining! It 
has been raining since six o^clock. It had not rained for three 
weeks. It is thundering and lightening. There are few flowers 
now. In that desert it never rains. It has not rained for a long 
time (= it is long ago). There will be a concert to-night Was 
there (a) ball at Mr. K.'s t (= em ea$a do Sr. y.) There are few 
railroads in Brazil. There are still many millions (milhdei) of 


Um heU-o jardim; ufnra lell^ fi6r; hM^ jardins, hell^u 
flores. Que (what a) homem alt-of Que mulher alt-af O Sr. 
F. comprou o outro dia uma honita casa na Rua direita. A lin- 
gua portugiiez-a nao 6 fadl. Moravamos nMm lugar eneantador. 
Ella tinha uma voz eneantador-a. O Sr. F. nao come presnnto 
enL Eis a verdade erua e nua (thie is the iimple truth). EUe 
chegon ha oito diss, s(io e salvo. Uma ida moral 6 o caracter 
distinctivo d'aquelle livro. V&oe esfor^ost vdae amea^asl O. 
Senhor entende alemdo t A lingua alemdLa 6 mui di£Bcil. — ^Temos 
um grand-e assortimento de fazendas de laa e de seda. A sua 
morte foi uma grand-e perda para o paiz. O Sr. A. 6 um mo^o 
muito agrador^l, Aquella senhora tern uma voz fraca, por^m 
ogradnHoeL Vm«* julga que este retrato ^ Ji-el t Ella tem sido 
uma criada fi-el. Este ./tf^ts acontecimento causou immenso 
prazer a todos. Tu es uma creatura feJria. Aluguei um horn 
cpzinheiro. Esta tinta nao 6 loa. mdo comportamento do 

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sea filho ^ a oansa da sua grande affliccao. Uma md oouBcienoia 
4 om grande tormento. Cheg4mo8 em mi hora (= inoppor- 
tunely). Este papel k muito ruim. Tenho um id cavallo. Ella 
estava 96 em casa. Coda (every) anno Sr. F. manda nm rico 
presente a sua nora. C<ida (each) senbora ter4 nm ramo. — 
Vm«* (o Senhor) 6 8olteir-o t Ym^ (a Senhora) ser4 ric-a um 
dia. En nao son ingrat-a. 

Aqnelles paizes sao ruyoa em mineraes. Estes homens sao 
invejos^s. Nos seculos XIY e XY aa cidades hanseaticas erao 
poderoe-as, Elles cheg^rao eaos e mIvos. Os mens criados sao 
jfi-eis. Elles sao inimigosj^^a^-o«« do novo presidente. Os via- 
jantes soffr^rao tormentos incriv^U. Isto nao 6 JUc-il, D. 
(dona) Maria nao toca senao (plays only) pe^as fae-eis. Que 
homem vil! Fi« traidores ! EUe comprou todas asfitas, boaa 
e ruim. A raposa 6 nm animal mnito suhtU. Os advogados do 
vicio sao hab-eie e suh-tis, Na sua mocidade ella era nma simples 
costureira. En g6sto muito de vestidos simples, — Sois felisf 
(art thou happy f) V6s 8o\9 felizes; tendes bons filbos, uma 
grande fortuna, nma posi^ao elevada, parentes e amigos pode- 



Tbe attributive adjective agrees witb its substantive in gender 
and nuniber. Subject to tbe same rule are all otber words par- 
taking of tbe nature of adjectives (numerals, articles, demon- 
stratives, possessives, etc.). Wbat bas been said of tbe latter in 
tbe preceding lessons, is sufficient for tbe present. . 

Gender. Tbe proper termination of the feminine is «. 

1) A<]Uectives ending in cbange tbis vowel into a, as hell-o^ 
heUra ; sOj alone, onlj, does not cbange in tbe feminine. 

2) A^ectives ending in u, and tbose in dor^ tor (properly 
verbal substantives) add a, f. i. nu, naked, nu^j ameofOrdorj 
tbreatening, ameapador-a. 

8) A^ectives ending in So make &a (or an), as: v&o, vain. 
TdLa or van; alemdo, German, alemda or -an, 

4) Irregular are bom^ good, boa ; mdo, bad, md (for maa). — 
All otber a^ectives do not cbange in tbe feminine, except tim, 
um-^^ and its compounds algum^ -a, some, nenhum^ no, nen- 

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LEssoir XXI. 69 

Ai£m-a, (eommu-a for tlie feminine of eommum, common, is no 
longer nsed ;) and acyectives derived from the names of oonntriet 
or towns, as hetpanhol^ -a. 

When the subject is a pronoun of the first or second person, 
or any substitute for the latter ( VmP^^ etc.), the geuder of the 
adjective predicate is determined by the sex of the person desig- 
niU;ed by the pronoun or its substitute. Thus we sbonld say to 
a lady : tu es (t6s saisy Vmfi^ i) ingrat-^^ and she would answer : 
eu nSo sou ingrat-a, 

NuM BEB. The plural of a4]ectives is subject to the same rules 
as that of substantires (bell-^y -os; hell-^j -oi ; fd-Uy f€la-€9 ; 
exteri'or^ -or-es; ru-im^ ru-im; ger-al^ -ixes; az^ul, ^tuM; ftrtl^ 
fi-eis; agradd-^ely -veis; iub-tU, itdhtii). Adjectives ending in 
il, this syllable not being accentuated, make eiiy as fdcilyfaeeU; 
uttl, uteis. Only pensile pensile, has peniila. SimpUsy simple, 
has simples or simplices (the latter is rare). 

Of the position of attributive adjectives we shall speak in 
Lesson XXX. For the present it suffices to say that adjectives 
indicating p%9t(^; qualities (dimension, color, etc.), those derived 
from names of countries or towns, participles, and very long ad- 
jectives usually stand after their substantive. 

SanetOy saint, when before a proper name beginning with a 
consonant, becomes s3o or S&o, as sSo Francisco (usually abbre- 
viated, S. Francisco) ; before a vowel or A, it becomes sancf or 
Sdnct\ as S. Antonio, read SaneV Antonio; with feminines it is 
always saneta (abbr. Sta.), — Grande, great, is abbreviated grdo, 
fem. grda or gran, in grOo-^nque, grand-duke, grdo-senhor, the 
grand seignior (sultan), €fr<ia Bretanha, Great Britain. — Ambos, 
both, and todo, all, have always the article after them (both 
hands, ambas as moos, all men, todos os homens). 


God is almighty. Our house is large. The distance was not 
great. They were great impostors. Unripe fruit is very un- 
wholesome. He already has white hair (plur.). You know the 
house ; it has a green door in (na) front, and a high roof. The 
yonng ladies (young lady = mo^) had red ribbons in their hair. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


JC* Mr. K owns a pretty house in Ohurch street (na rua da Igreja). ' 
A small portion of the ground (^^rr^TK?) belongs to an old servant 
of the family. The iupessant civil wars in those countries are 
the chief cause of their poverty. Have you good pens ? We 
have pens of excellent quality. Your bad conduct is a shame 
for your family. The glorious campaign of 1862 terminated the 
war. During this long time he stayed (Jicar) with his sick 
friend. Their long (hngo) quarrel ended in 1816. He had a 
long (comprido) beard. A broad river separates the two States. 
The first chapter of the book treats of the principal causes of the 
late revolution. The second part of the work is very interest- 
ing. Some of our great capitalists and land-owners founded last 
year an agricultural society. All these circumstances wore a 
frightening aspect. I bought to-day five barrels of Spanish olives. 
The French language is not so easy as (como) many think. We 
received a fortnight ago two vessels, one with French wine, the 
other with German goods. This is [a] bad sign. This boy has, 
a bad disposition. 

These calculations are difficult and tedious. His courage w^s 
indomitable. Your means are insufficient. The scars of his 
wounds are searcely perceptible. These plants are very useful. 

' Your lead-pencils are very bad. Our fields are fertile, our cattle 
is excellent, our men are strong, our women are fair (Undo). 
The Arabs (Ara^es) are strong and agile. These ideas are ridicn^ 
lous. Idle (tdto) words I All men are equal before (perant^) 
the law. All the trees of our garden are old. The savages 
killed all the men and some of the women. Both sisters died 
last year. Both steamers arrived on the same day. Who is the 
patron-saint of this parish ? It is St. Francis, St. Ann's day 
(= the dar of St. A.) falls on the 28th of July. Who was St. 
Hilarius (Hilario) ? There will be great fire-works on St. John's 
day. The grand-duke of Toscana had been very popular. Grand 
seignior is a title of the Turkish sultan* 

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O sen filho nSo e doentio? Nao, senhor, por^m agor* eitd 
doente. P. e rnna cidade triste {dreary, tiresome), Porqne 
estaii triste ($ad) ? £ste yestido e feio. A nosaa casa agora eetd 
feia. £lle S urn bomem secoo. A roapa estd Beoca. O Sr. L. i 
alto e m^gro. Tea filho J& utd alto. O clima da Siberia i frio. 
Esta agaa e»td fria. Ck>mo estd Ym^ ? {haw are you t) Ektou 
bom (/ am imZQ. Como esta o Sr. sea pai? £sta am poooo 
incommodado {unwell), Hontem estivs maito doente. Hoje 
estais ricos, amanbaa talvez eetareii pobres. O veato e$td forte. 
Esta came e moito g6rda. Men irmao agora e$td g6rdo ; mas no 
anno passado elle estevp magro como am esqoeleto. Aqoellea 
b omens sdto felizes {happy). Hoje esiou feliz {lucly). £$tou 
rouco. Elle i am louco furioso. Eatait loaco? Sea pai e$td 
fnrioso. O Brazil i van paiz qaente. O ferro j4 e$td qnente. 
Bstou certo dMsto. Esta clarol {of course/) Quanto custa a 
jarda d^esta fazenda? 1|500 rs. Isto nao e oaro. A farinba 
e$td cara. Durante todo este mez o milbo eeteve barato. al- 
mo^o eatd prompto. Ella sempre/oi pallida. Como estd pallidal 
Fallai, estamos s6sl Estd bom! {it is welly all right). Estais 
oontentes? Elle sempre estd alegre. N'aqaelle tempo eu era 
empregado {officer) da alfandega; agora estou empregado {em- 
ployed) n^uma casa de commercio. Esiou com fome {or tenbo 
fome, / am hungry) ; estoa com frio (/ am or feel cold), estou 
com side (/ am thirsty). Estd direito I {right /) Nao estoa por 
isso (/ will not stand this). Qae estais com os bra^os crazados) 
{why are you standing idle t) Mnba filba estd de cama {in ledj 
ill). A nossa casa nao estd longe d^aqui. A cidade estd perto. 
Esta manteiga estd fresca. 


In Portuguese, the adjective predicate is connected witb its 
subject eitber by ser or by estar. These two ways of connecting 
the predicate witb the subject dififer materially from each other. 




and their use requires great attention. Ser indicates an inherent^ 
essential^ Ictsting quality, estar an accidental^ temporary or piu- 
sing quality or condition (always with a reference to time). The 
following examples will illustrate this. A agua 6 transpa/rente^ 
water is transparent, L e. transparency is an essential quality of 
the matter called water; a agtta estk/ria, the water is cold, can 
only be said of a certain quantity of water, being cold through 
some catue^ for a time, Ella 6 honita^ she is pretty, i. e. she has 
always been so, she has that kind of features called so ; dla est& 
honitay she is pretty, i. e. now, on account of her tasteful dress 
or the like. Ella ^ pallida^ she is pale, i. e. paleness is her na- 
tural or usual color ; ella e8tkj>alliday she is pale, i. e. now, from 
fear or sickness. Estar also indicates a termination^ as estar 
promptOy to be ready ; estar complete^ to be complete, estar oMt- 
hadoy to be finished (see Lesson XLI.). With substantives (and 
relative superlatives, as they always accompany a substantive, 
plain or understood) estar can not be used ; f. i. elle sempre esta 
alegrcy he is always merry, hxiielle 6 um hom>em alegre. 

How is your mother? (a Sra. sua mai). She is well, thank 
you (obrigado). Those books are very dear. Sugar (o ass,) is 
dear now. Are you ill ? Yes, I am. We are free from danger. 
My horse is lame. It is a beautiful horse. It is already dark. 
This looking-glass is dark. All our children have been sick with 
(de) the meazles, but now they are well. Why is your brother 
so sad? He always was melancholy. Our young (jovem) 
monarch is absent. These pigs are very fat. This season is al- 
most always rainy. After his last illness he has been very weak 
and nervous. They will be content. The third series is not yet 
complete. Some astronomers say that (que) the sun is a dark 
body. The river is very low now. They are not content with 
their share. Our bread was (as) hard as (eomo) a stone. Now 
I am old and infirm. She was very pretty at (em) the last ball. 
Your boots are dirty. The doors were open. You never are 
ready in time. Your translation is incorrect (errado). He was 
an a^ectionate father and a faithful friend. This glass is not 

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LssfiON xxm. 73 

cleaa« 'fhe blossoms of this tree are white. The heat was in- 
tolerable. Our roads are yerj bad. The roads were verj bad 
on account (por eatua) of the heavy igrtmo) rains which had 
fallen last week. This ink is yery pale i]>ranco). This line is 
crooked.— Are' jon hungry? The children are sleepy. I am 
not thirsty. I was very thirsty {com muita tSde). Is this right f 
No, it is wiong (= it is not right). Is it far from here f Ko, it 
13 cLoee \>j (aiuito perto). Are yon ready? Every thing is ready. 
My sister i£ ilL Is she in bed ? It is cold in your room. 


O climb do nosso paiz 6 saudavel. ferro nao 6 Uio pewdo 
eomo o ouro. Para muitas pessoas o frio 6 maia wudavel do que 
(than) o calor. De todas as bebidaa a agna 6 a maii iatidatel, 
Este rapaz sera muito alto ; elle j4 est4 maii alto do que o sen 
irmao maia velho. Elles sao tdo rieoa eomo nos. AqueUa mon* 
tanha k a maia alta de toda a provincia. 'Ella 6 a mai$ horUta 
moQa d'esta cidade. A vacca 6 o mai$ util dos animaes domesti- 
cos. Ym<^^ 6 mais lico do que en. Qual (uhich) 6 o mais dnro 
dos metaes? Yirgilio 6 o mais celebre dos poetas romanos. 
Esta passagem nao 6 tao difficil como a oatra. Este arranjo 
seria m^noa dispendioso e mais satisfjactorio para todas as partes 
(parties). F. ^ o menoa desconfiado dos homens. N^isto eu nao 
son menos escrupuloso do que Ym*^. Isto 6 o menos importante. 
— lu 6 o homem maia rieo da cidade. A inveja 6 o. meio maia 
despreziveh Oarlos 6 o menino mais pregni^oso da minha classe. 
Este foi o acto mais impmdente da minha vida. Sou o homem 
mais infeliz do mundo. Elles morao na maia hella eaaa d^^sta rua. 

O Sr. K herdou uma grande (great^ large) fortuua. A Asia 
6 m^aior (greater^ larger) que a Africa. Uma mk consciencia 6 o 
maior dos males. As maiores difficuldades cedem 4 perseveran^a. 
A distancia entre as duas ald^as era pequena (smally little). O 
numero de doentes 6 menor (amaHer^ leas) do que no mez passada 

Digitized by VjjOOQ IC 


74 LESSON xxm. 

Ella punia a menor oppoei^ao como tnn crime imperdoaveL A 
nossa oasa 4 mais pequena do ^e a vossa ; ella 6 talvez a maia 
pequena d^esta ma. A (at) pouca distancia da cabima havia um 
P090. Tenho menoB (less) for^a do que elle. Isto 6 o menbs (the 
hast), Ella ainda 6 de idade menor {under age). Dos males o 
menor ! Ao menos (at least) pagai o que deyeis. Isto 6 muUo, 
Q Sr. R. falla mais linguas do qne ym<^. Elle tem 18 annos ao 
mais (at most). O mais 6 historia (that is aUy ths rest is stuff). 
Estes livTos sao obras theologicas, os mais (ths rest) sao authores 
olassicos. A maior parte d'elles (most of them) sao Yagabundos. 
Isto 6 mais do que des^ira. Elle conhece mais gente do qtis 
n6s todos juntos (together). 8eu pai ter^ mais de 60 annos. 
(Tenho 60 annos =z I am tO years old.) Mais de 2000 pessoas 
estiv^rao presentes. Nao menos de 22 criangas morr^rao da 
escarlatina nos ultimo tres dias. Tinha defe;ido este trabalho 
para a aemasia, proxima. 


The comparison of adjectives is effected, in the positive^ by 
the adverbs tdo-^como, as— as, so— as (tdo alto eomo, as high as) ; 
in the eomparatiw by mais^ more, or menos, less (mais alto^ 
higher, mais prudente, more prudent, menos prudente,* 
dent) ; in the superlative, by o (os, a, as) mais, the most, or o (os, 
a, as) menos, the least (o mais alto, the highest, o mais prudente, 
the most prudent, o menos prudente, the least prudent). Irregu- 
lar [or rather, what remuns of the simple Latin gradation] are 
the following: 




lorn, good 



mdo, bad, ill 



grande, great, large 



pequeno, little, small 


muito, much 


pouco, little 


Pequeno, in the sense of small, is generally used as regular; 
in the sense of little or insignificant, it is as above. 

The coi\}unction than is que, or, more frequently, do que. 
When mais, more, compares quantity, it is followed by de, not 



LESSON xxm. 75 

^ue or do que; f. L elU faUa mais Unguat do 4iae eUy L e./aUof 
bat mai» de ein^Mnto petsoai eUwerOo Id. 

The tuperlative relatke (for the snp. abflolote see next Les- 
son) is generally placed qfter its suhstantive withoat the article; 
f« i. o acta mau imprttderUe. Superlatives of short atyectives are 
also {daced he/ore their sahstantive (a mai$ heUa ea$a) ; the ir- 
regular superlatives almost always precede their substantive. 

My proposition is as advantageous as yours (a wma), John 
is not so strong as Frederick. These difficulties are not so con- 
siderable as you think. He is as proud tm you. The tiger is 
more ferocious than the lion. Tour brother was more generous 
than you. That province is more fertile than ours (a nofta). 
Of all our servants Antonio was the most faithful. Ton are the 
most generous of {doi) men. The most guilty of the whole (todo) 
set is F. The circumstances are the most favorable. Our street 
is very lon^g; but the two priucipal streets of our city are still 
longer, thofite hiUs are uot high^ but they are very steep. 
Flour (a /.) is cheaper now than it was last month. The straight 
way is tiie shortest. You are not taller tluin Joseph (Joie), 
Who is the tallest of those young ladies ? It is Miss Anna (Dona 
Anna\ daughter of the richest proprietor of this neighborhood. 
Mr. L. is the most skilful physician of this city. The finest gar- 
dens in the suburbs belong to our uncle. — Is he a good man ? 
Oh ! he i» the best man in (=: of) the world. How is your 
mother to-day? She is much better than she was yesterday; 
she is almost well. So much the better (= tanto melhar). 
They are now the best friends. This doth is very bad; but that 
other is stiU worse. You are the worst of the lot (tueia). The 
bad state of the roads caused a great dearth in the provinces of 
the interior. The roads are worse than ever (nunea). You 
have lost almost all the territories which your great ancestors 
had conquered. The danger was greater than I had imagined. 
He was the greatest man of his age (seeulo). The larger, the 
better (= quanto mawr^ melhor), I have little confidence in 
those people. They encountered less difficulties than they ez- 

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pected. This will cost more monej than he has. 8. is a little 
town on (em) the coast of the Atlantic ocean. This bird is the 
smallest of its species. I spent more than 20 doubloons in these 
three weeks. More than 8000 persons accompanied the funeral. 
He owes more than we four together. This is the hottest day 
which we have had this sunmier. He is the greatest scoundrel 
that lives. 


O baile de hontem esteve muito esplendido = uplendidrimr^ 
mo, £sta renda 6 muito fina = Jin-Usima, Becebi hoje uma 
noticta muito triste =s trist-isnma, Elle 6 um grand-iBsimo vel- 
haco. A muslca era helUismna, Os decretos do AU-immo (the 
Most High) sao inscrutaveis. Mens queridos irmaos! Minha 
queridissima esposa ! — ^Estamos ri-eos^ xi-quiBninos ! Esta crianca 
est4 mui fra-(^ = ftdk-quiMima, Um Ion-go silencio seguia estas 
palavras. Este anno me (to me) parece lon-guieeimo. — ^Alfieri foi 
um celebre author italiano. Dante, o eeleberrimo author da Di- 
vina Oomedia, era natural de Flonen^a. O tubarao 6 um animal 
maito feroz = feroeissimo. Damasco 6 uma cidade muito antiga 
= antiquissima. O dina ialuherrimo de Nizza attrahe cada 
anno numerosis»imo$ hospedes. Sua Magestade Fidelissima (S. 
M. F.) el rei Dom Pedro V. Os reis de Franca tinhao o titulo de 
Sua Magestade Christiani»ima. Os habitantes da .c6rte feste- 
J^rao este felieiesimo acontecimento com o maior enthusiaisma 
A deputa^ao teve uma recep^ao frigidia^ima (or Jriisaima), O 
Sr. F. reprehendeu sen filho com palavras asperrimas. Os me- 
ninos volt4rao em misero estado. Que vida miserrimaf 

Os vossos conselhos sao optimoe (= muito bons, exceUentes). 
Todos OS trastes erao de optima madeira. O tempo estava 
pessimo (= muito mdo or ruim). O maximo (the highest penalty) 
^ 20 aunos de prisao com trabalho (forced ldbor\ o minimo ^ 6 
annos. Li (from l^r) a vossa carta com summo prazer. O tes- 
temunho d'um homem tao sabio 6 de tumma importancia. Tra- 

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ctaremos agora d um assnmpto da mius alia knportaacia. 
sammo pontifice = o papa. 

^Weste Mtto ha nma peqaena oracno para eada dia. Men 
fallecido tio legou 3:000$000 n. a eada um dos sena aobrinhoa, e 
5:000$000 ra. a eada uma das aaaa innaaa. Elle esta fioando 
eada vez mais (more and more) surdo. Os Atheniensea mandavao. 
eada anno (or todos os annos) um navio sagrado para a ilba de 
Delos. Todas as manhaas temos o mesmo baralho. Todot os 
h omens sao igaaes perante Deos. Elle sahin com toda a pressa. 
Durante toda a noite ouviamos os gritos dos infelizes prisioneiros. 
£u passeiava horas inteiras no pequeno jardim atraz da (behtjul 
the) casa. Todo o homem que nao cnmpre a sua palarra nao 
merece confian^a. Um conta isto, otUro aquillo. Un$ estavao 
lendo, outros escrerendo ou conversando. ITni poueoi d'elles (a 
few of them) sabiao o que tinha acontecido. Desde aquelle 
tempo elle 6 outro homem. Em outra (a*oatra) occasiao folia* 
remos n^isso (o/thii). £ este o lirro que Vm^^ desejava ler? 
Kao, senhor, 6 outro (it i$ another one), Nenhum dos mens filhos 
sabe d'isto. Conhece Ym<^ algum d^elles? Coohe^o algtuu, 
Nenhuma rela^ao tenho com elles, = n&o tenho reta^ao alguma 
com elles. O Sr. deseja alguma consa? Nao, aenhor, nada, 
Entron alguem t Ntnguem eateve aqui. N<U> conhe^ ninguem 
n^esta cidade. Niio ouvi nada, 2^ tenho nenhuma confian^a 
n'elle, =: nao tenho confian^ alguma n'elle. 

Ndo tenho dinheiro (= / have no money). Ella ndo tem 
parentes mais proximos do que eu. Xdo ha (there are no) cobras 
yenenosas na Inglaterra. Nao teremos uvas n^este anno. Nao 
houve concerto hontem. Ha homeip mais infeliz no mundo do 
que eu? Nao ha (there it none), Nao comprei peize, porqne 
esteve muito caro. Ja nao ha prophetas (there are no more pro- 
phets), — Qual 6 o sen chap^, este? (thU onpt) Nao, aquelle 
outro. Este cavallo nao presta; quero outro melhor (a better 
one). Que (what) chap^o comprou, um preto on um bronco ' 

The so-called aheoluie tuperlatiee indicates a tery high degree 
of the qualitj expressed bjr the a^ective. It has no proper form 

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78 LESSON xxrv, 

in English, in the place of which the adverbs very^ exceedingly^ 
highly^ most and the like are used. In Portuguese, these adverbs 
are generally rendered by muito^ much, very, or its abbreviation 
mui (in both words the i is nasal) ; but there is also a proper form 
for the absolute superlative Sxtimmo, Not all adyebtives, how- 
ever, can take this termination, and its general use is limited to 
few adjectives. When the adjective ends in a voxoel, this is 
dropped, as hell-o^ beautiful, hell-mimo^ very or most beautiful ; 
grands, great, grand-iasimo, very great. Adjectives ending in 
CO or go change c, g into qu^ gu, as pou-co, pou-quimmo^ Ion-go^ 
Un-guimmo (but antigo makes antiguissimo^ the u being pro- 
nounced). All other adjectives take this form directly from the 
Latin: JeliZy /elUcmimo; aspero^ asp'^rrimo; celebre^ celelh' 
errimo ; /cu;ily /ac-illimo ; nohre^ nob-iiissimo ; amavely amo-bi- 
lissimo ; and the irregular forms optima, peasimo (bonmimo, ma- 
liasimo are also occasionally used), maxima, minima, summo^ 
supremo, injima, extremo, intimo, proximo. Of the latter, maxi- 
ma, minima and summo have, in certain phrases, retained the 
signification of relative superlatives (the greatest or highest, etc.)- 
A list of the, more frequent superlatives in errimo, iUimo and 
other peculiar terminations will be given in the Appendix, page 
838. Adjectives ending in a eanaOnant (except some In s and 
nel), or in a vowel preceded by another vowel (except frio^ 
/riissimo or frigidisaima) generally do not take this termination. 

Of the so-called indefinite pronouns some are acyectives, 
others substantives, others both, and even adverbs. In this, they 
do not differ from their equivalents in English, and the following 
remarks will be sufficient to teach their use. 

Coda, every, each, is invariable, and only used with a singu- 
lar ; cada urn is every one, each (also eada qtial). 

Todo, all, every, is used in the plural as well as in the singu- 
lar; it means also whole; todo' a dia, the whole day; tados os 
dias, every day ; tados os homens, all men. In the sense of every, 
when in the singular, it is more comprehensive than eada, the 
latter being distributive. Tudo = all, everything. 

Um, one, is, as an indefinite pronoun, only used together with 
outro, another ; uns = some (also used for alguns, before sub- 

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etantires). OutrOy other, does not take the indefinite article. 
Outrem = somebody else, another, is now rarely nsed; in iU 
stead autro or outrapessoa may be said. Another, meaning one 
more^ is outro or mau urn. 

Alffum^ some, any; when ndo precedes, algxtm jsrasi follow 
its substantive {nSo eonhe^o penoa alguma) ; eyen without ndo, 
it means no, not any, when placed after its substantive. Alguem 
= somebody. 

Nenhum (for nem itm\ no, none ; meaning not one^ it Sb writ- 
ten nem urn, Ifinguem = nobody. 

Nada = nothing. 

The negatives mnhum, ninguem^ nada, when coming tufter 
the verb, require the negative adverb nSo before the verb, as 
ndo egpero nada^ I hope nothing. 

Ko more, no longer , is rendered by jd ndo when relating to 
ihepMtj by ncU) — male when relating to the future; f. L jd ndo 
chove, it has ceased raining ; ndo ehote mats, it will rain no more. 

The adjective no, when accompanying the object of a verb, is 
not rendered by nenhuMj but in the following manner : I have 
no time, ndo tenho tempo; there are no slaves here, ndo ha 
esera/ooe aqui (hacer is a transitive verb, see Lesson XX.). 

The indefinite pronoun one, which, in English, substitutes the 
substantive which ought to come after an a^ective, is not ex- 
pressed in Portuguese ; as f. L I want a better one (say a hat, a 
chair, etc.), quero urn methor (or outro melhor) ; is it this onef e 
estef (here outro could not be employed, as in the first example, 
for obvious reasons) ; or, in the common phrase, " this is a good 
one," i. e. idea, ironically, eeta i boa, 


It was a most beautifcil day, when we left the town. There 
were extremely few people at (em) the concert. 8he wore a 
very rich dress. He was exceedingly pale. The battle was most 
obstinate (renhido). The enterprise seemed most difficult. 
This undeniable fact is a most important circumstance in our 
favor. I found the house in a most wretched state. It is a most 
perfect likeness of the late Kr. B. He was a man of a most 



80 LKSSOK xxrv. 

noble character. I find this cloth very dear. A very ancient 
temple stood on the brow (cume) of the hill. The very long 
speech of Mr. M. had little effect on the audience. The conduct 
of your son is very good. The dinner was very bad. 

Do you know anybody in that city? Nobody. I was stand- 
ing (estava) with some of my friends on the balcony. Some 
deputies attacked the ministers with great acrimony. Some In-, 
dian tribes attacked the settlement, burning most (a maioT parte) 
of the houses and devastating the fields. Not one of the robbers 
escaped. None of them were sick. Some few died of th^r 
wounds. At '{em) no hour of the day I am so busy as from 1 1 to 1 3 
o^clock. Each of them received a present. Each room had a 
separate entrance. Each company elects its captain. At every 
moment we heard an explosion. He stumbled at every step. It 
is every day the same thing. Nothing of the kind ! {nada /)- In 
the last crisis they lost everything. This is all?. Every citizen 
is subject to this law. — ^This is of no importance. I do not exact 
this from anybody {ninguem). I owe nothing to these people. 
Is there no hope ? We have no friends here. I had no books. 
There are no flowers now. My father had no enemies. There 
was not room enough (= en. r.) for all. There are no ghosts. 
Some of them had no shoes, others had no shirts^^There was 
no other chair in the room. This is no joke. He is no coward. 
This requires no great strength. Are you not ashamed? (= have 
you no shame ?) I am no impostor. He is (exUtir) no more. I 
have no more children. Henceforth we are no longer your 
friends. There was already no watefr in the well. It will not 
rain any more to-day. Which of these boys is your son, this 
onef Every carriage was drawn by a black horse and a white 
one. Have you (got) pianos to let (para alugar)^ Yes; we 
have some very good ones of one of the best manufactories of 

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O hamem virtuoso nao teme a morte. Poacos 1umen$ sSo 
coDtentes com a sua sorte. O 8r. C. 6 o melhor &rador da assem- 
bl^a. QaaesforaoosprincipaesofiAiarMf Este estado de coiuaa 
dnroa mais de mn ma. Ha seia meui que nao reoebo noticiaa 
d'elles. Sen pai era ouritet. ITesta ma morao oito imrive$, A 
resignagao na vontade de Dem 6 o melbor conforto na adyersi- 
dade. Os deoset dos antigos nao erao ezemplos de moralidade. 
£ na zona torrida que existem ob animae$ mais ferozes. Todoe 
estes male9 sao a conaequencia da vossa imprndencia. Qnaai 
todos OS consules residentes protestdrao. Tenbo nm 86 irmao. 
Onde estao os sens irmStM t Ken primo 6 taheUido, Os tahelli^a 
sao empregados pnblicos. Os edes nas mas de Constantinopla 
sao nma Terdadeira praga. O Senbor tern razSo (you are right). 
Estas raedes nao sao sufficientes. Qnem foi o ladr^ f Aqnella 
casa era o escondryo d'nm bando de ladrbei e assassinos. O Sr. 
harao de M. 6 nm cavalbeiro de alta integridade. Os harde9 
normannos erao nma ra^a Talente, altiva e crnel. Os Egypcios 
erao, na saa opiniao, a na0o mais antiga do mundo. A maior 
parte das nafde9 da Asia pertence k ra^a mongolica. — Os anncte^ 
da bistoria cont^m exemplos da mats alta xirtude como da maior 
perversidade. Os m'oeres escacearao de dia em dia. Alviyaras I 
Esta tesoura nao ^ minba. Quanto custon estft teneizf 

O honuan 6 o rei da crea^ao. Nao precisa muita coragem 
para tjrrannisar uma/raca mulher, Qnem k o noMo vmnho t A 
mzinha nao esteve em casa. O onro ^ o mais precioso dos metaes, 
mas o ferro 6 o mais ntil. Era nma completa desordem. Um 
senhor e ducu senhoras cantarao ura teroeto. Aquelle collegio 
tern agora 120 alumnos e 67 alumnas, O mestre estd ausente. 
Eatao quero fallar com a mestra, ft cdo on cadela f Temos nm 
gato e duas gaUu, O filho do Sr. R. maton o outro dia nma 
loba. Quern d o director d'este estabelecimento ? E o Sr. F. ; a 

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sna filha 6 directrw (or directora) d^om collegio de meilinas. S. 
"HL o impercubr estava apenas sentado, qnando & imperatriz 
entron, acompanhada por siias damas de honor. SS. MM. II. 
(= Suas Magestades Imperiaes) honrdrao o asjlo dos surdos-^ 
mudos com a sua yisita. S. A. R. (= 8aa Alteza Beal) o prin- 
eipe Carlos e as seTenjadmsa prineezcu parti rao para B. Temos 
nm poeta e uma poetim entre nds. O author d'esta peca nao 6 
conhecido. ^^este processo a justi^a 6 authora. O Sr. F. tern 
um ledo e tuna leda no' sea mus^o. O ganso, o pato, a gallinha, 
o peril sao aves domestioas. Esta perua pesa 8 libras. Vendi 
hoje 5 canarios, tres mctchoa e daas /emeas. O animal macho ^ 
geralmente (generally) maior e mais forte do que a femea. Ma- 
t4mos um crocodUo fimea, — A Franca 6 um paiz .muito fertil. 
Portugal nao k rico em mineraes. Os rios principaes da Europa 
sao: o Tejo, o Ebro, o Loire, o Sena, o Bheno, o Bhodano^ o 
Elba, etc. — O Sr. F. foi a teetemunha mais importante. JEsta 
gente nao 6 respeitada. ^' . 


The general rule for the formation of the plural of substan- 
tives is already known to the student. The speciled rules or ex- 
ceptions are seven : 1) m is changed into n; 2) nouns ending in 
r or 2 take es instead of 8 ; 8) those ending in < do not change in 
the plural (except deos^ which makes deoses) ; 4) those in aly ol^' 
ul make aea, oes, ue» (except mal, males, and eonaul, consules) ; 
5) those in el make eis; 6) those in il make U; 7) of those end- 
ing in So some are regular (-dkw), as irmSo^'irmSos; a few make 
their plural in des, as edo, eSes; by far the greatest number (al- 
most all abstracts) make des; as raedo, ragdes. See the list in the 
Appendix, page 880. Other irregularities are appendix, appen- 
dices; index, indices; edlis (caliz, ealix, t and x = «), wine-glass 
does not change in the plural ; when signifying a ekalice, it makes 
cdlices. — ^There are a number of substantives only used in the plu- 
ral, as annaes, annals, alieerces, foundations, pulmdes, lungs, eto. ; 
others that are used in the singular, being plural nouns in Eng- 
lish, as uma tesoura, scissors (or a pair of scissors). These 'are 
best learned by practice and the dictionary. Some English sub* 

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LESsoa- zzv. 88 

staatives take no • in the plural in certdn phnsefl, ts .P^V, 
pound^ 9(dif head^ etc. This is not the case in Portuguese. 

The gender of suhstantiyes may he ascertained either hy their 
signification or their termination. Both wa/s, however, are far 
from infallible ; the general rules suffer many exceptions, which 
are subject again to other exceptions; the best guides are again 
the dictionary aiid practice. Notwithstanding, we diall endeavor 
to give here the most reliable rules. 

By their signification are masculine all names of maleijfemi' 
nine all names of females. Exceptions: a genU, people; a 
canalhd^ a gentalka^ mob, rabble; a testemunha^ witness; aper- 
eonagem, personage (also masc.) ; a multidSo^ crowd. Karnes of 
rivers, mountains, months, and (generally) vessels are masculine; 
names of countries and cities follow the rules about the termina* 

By their termination are masculine 1) the. substantives end- 
ing in i, 0, « (except a grei^ a lei; a enxS^ a fXhby a md, a ndo; 
a tribu) ; 2) those ending in 7, m, f*, s' (except a eal^ a eolher^ a 
c6r^ a dor, a fior; a ordem)."^Feminins are those in a (except o 
diay o guardaroupoy o mappa, most of those in i, and a number 
of words of Greek origin, as o planeta^ o eometa^ o systema, o 
elima, o idioma^ etc.), «, gem, Qo^ s. 

The sex of men or animals is often, as in English, designated 
6y particular names for the nude and female, as marido, husband, 
esposa, wife ; hoi, ox, vOfCea, cow. Other names effect this dis- 
tinction by taking the termination of the feminine, a, under the 
same rules as the adjective; f. i. vizinho^ vizinha; leitor, leitora; 
eidaddo, eidadda; some in dor, tor make triz, as imperador, im- 
peratrie; actor, aetriz; substantives with other terminations 
than o, do, r, z can not change (except mestre, gigante, infante, 
which change their e into a). Irregular are reo, defendant, re; 
deos, deosa ; leao, lion, leSa; viUdo, boor, vilUa; harao, ta/roneza ; 
eonde, count, condeza; principe, prince, princeza, and some more. 
See the list in the Appendix, page 831. Names of animals, 
which, on account of their termination, can not change, or the 
feminine form of which is not used, supply this want by adding 
the adjective macho, male, or f^mea, female; f. i. urn croeodilo 




macho, a male crocodile ; um erocodilo femeoy a female crocodile* 
In-order to avoid the incongruity of having the article (and coa- 
sequently the substantive) masculine and the acyective feminine^ 
^ or vice versa, it Is preferable to say f. i. o m^acho da, aguia^ the 
male eagle, ajcmea do elephante^ the female elephant 


His real estate (bens de raiz) is worth more than 20,000£ 
(librae eaterltnas). Partridges (ps jp.) are abundant in this part 
of the province. Both his sons were ensigns in the same regi- 
ment The ancients had about (perto de) 80,000 gods and god- 
desses. The advantages will be equal for both parties (partes). 
The cruel persecutions of the dictator were less ruinous than this 
anarchy. Yesterday we received 10 barrels of gunpowder. His 
hands were bloody. Both were orphans from (desde) their child- 
hood. The chaplains in our army have the rank of captains. 
We are sister nations. These conditions are the apex of (da) 
impudence. The foundations of the old house were yet sound 
and strong. You held in your (= in the) hands the reins of the 
government. Did you find my scissors ? 

She was the most celebrated actress of her time. H. M. the 
empress of France departed for F. "Who were your companions ? 
Two Englishmen and a French lady. The marchioness of B. 
and the baroness of A. married on the same day. Our hunters 
killed a she-bear of enormous size. In the zoological garden of 
P. there is a female crocodile, a tiger, a lioness, etc. The female 
whale defends her young (filho) with incredible ferocity. Ths 
last winter was most severe (rigoro8o%\ The four seasons _of the 
year are : the spring, the summer, the fall, the winter. Portugal 
is a very fertile country. [Names of 'ild^intries take the article, 
except Portugal and Castella.] The city of Lisbon is the capital 
of this kingdom. The river Elbe passes by several large cities, 
as Dresden (JDresda), Hamburg (Haniburgo\ etc. The dmoken- 
ness is a very low vice. There was little or no order in his 
affairs. Those languages have a common origin. These men 
were the champions of our liberty. The best coffee grows in 
Arabia. Paris is full of fugitive Poles (Polonez), The English 
are very fond (jgostar muito) of the Spanish language. The 

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LESBOS zxn. 85 

Spaniards diflcovered and oonqnered Kezico and Peru In the nx- 
teenth century. The climate of Gaiana (at Guffanoi) is peeti- 
ferous. The United States of North America (Am. d^ KwU) 
export an immense quantity of flonr to {para) South America 
(Afn, do Sut). The heroine of this novel b an Italian singer. 


Muitos dos soldados nem (not even) tinhao sapatos. O 8r. D. 
e en somos primos irmaos (Jint eounns). \6i e vossos filhos 
sereis infelizes (better: sereis inf., v68 e v. f). O Sr. R. e sua 
senhora (Mr. and Mn. JR.) sao inglezes. Toda a tripolacao pere- 
cen, menos (except) o piloto. A maltidao era harulhenta. Mais 
da metade do nosso hatalhao estava doente. Ym<^ 6 capttao ? 
Um dos mens filhos 6 padre, ontro £ doutor em medicina, o mais 
mo^o.esta estudando as leis na academia de P. Vm^ tambem 
6 pal. 

Minha irmaa 6 myope, mas eu o (w) sou muito mais. Nao 
estoa contente com o men caixeiro; no anno passado clle foi 
muito pregui^oso, mas agora elle o 6 dez vezes mais. Se (if) 
estas ac^oes t&o louvaveis, as segnintes o sao ainda mais. — Sois 
men amigo? En o son de todo o coracao (with all my heart). 
Sois mai ? Eu sou desde ha pouco tempo. Somos inimigos, e 
o seremos at6 o fim dos nossos dias. 

Morrer 6 renascer. fi impossivel viver sem ar. seu maior 
prazer 4 viiyar. Oomprar e vender ainda nao»6 ser negociante. 
Dormir com as janellas abertas ^ perigoso n^esta esta^ao do anno. 
Nao basta ter aprendido, precisa saber, fi mister curaprir a 
minha palavra. Becuar agora seria traicao. Isto seria faltar 
aos mens deveres. Nao chamo isto viver ; i existir, vegetar. 
vii^iar n'estas partes nao 6 sem perigo. descer sempre 6 mais 
facil do que subir, por^m tambem mais perigoso. 


The rules of the agreement of the predicate with its subject 
are the following : 

. Digitized by VjjOOQIC 


1) Verh: 

ft) Wlien the sabject is in the plural, or when there are more 
than one subject, the verb is always in the plural; 

b) whea there are two or more 8ubje>cts of ditferent personSj 
tbo Jirat person has the preference over the second and third, 
and the 9ccond over the third \ tL nos e vds temos, fi6$ e ells 

o) colkclkes are never construed with the plural, as in Eng- 
lish , IL a tripolofdo foi salvaj the crew were saved; a maior 
parte J the greatest part, op- most, is construed with the plural, 
when tho sense requires it. 

S) Atfjectke: 

a) The niljective predicate agrees in number and gender with 
its subject; 

b) there being two or more subjects of different gender, the 
adjective 13 in the masculine; f. i. Carlos e sua irmcLa sao ambos 
muiU dtos ; 

e) when there are two or more subjects, each in the singular^ 
the adjective must be in ih^ plural (see the ex. in l^. 

Z) Stihstantlre : 

a) The predicate being a substantive, it can agree with its 
subject in gender only when designating a person or animaly ac- 
cord ing to the rules given in the preceding Lesson; 

b) it agrees in number with the subject according to the sense 
of t]ie phrivsc; f. i. os cdes de C. (collectively) sQo uma praga; os 
i?i*u« dous cilet da Terra Nova (Newfoundland) fordo os meus 
companlieiros ; 

c) when it indicates a ranlk, profession, relationship, nation- 
ality^ it stands without the article; f. i. eUe e eapitdo, he is a 
captain ; die e h^mem honrado, he is an honest man. 

The adverb so, when taking the place oiih^ predicate, whether 
an adjective or one of the substantives designated in c), is ren- 
dered by the personal (neuter) pronoun o ; f. i. I am shortsighted, 
but she is still more so,^eu sou myope, mas ella o ^ ainda mais, 
Est4iT c-an not be used here. 

The infimtive of verbs may be considered as a substantive 

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LBB80K XXVI. 87 

(without losing its nBtare as a yerb) ; it can, therefore, be sub- 
ject, predicate, object, etc., and even takes the definite article 
(masc). The English preposition to is, in this case, not expressed. 
In English, the present participle {pt rather gerund) is mostly 
used, when the verb is made a sobrtantive; bat in Portogaese it 
is always the infinitiye. More of this later. 


He and I were schoolfellows. Ton and your brothers have 
committed a great crime. Oar crew was the best possible. The 
whole crew were sick with (de) the scorbat Floor and sagar 
are dear now. Mr. and Mrs. F. {p 8r, F. e 9ua $enhara) are Bra- 
zilians {Brazileiro), His son and one of his daoghters are still 
living (vito). All these birds are camivoroos. He is a consum- 
mate hypocrite. Are yon the brother of Mr. G. ? Our father 
had been a captain of artillery. Are yoa an Englishman ? No, 
sir, I am an American. 8he was mother of eight children. Is 
be a Jewf He is not an honest man. This is (a) falsehood. 

Since when are yon blind? I am so since my childhood. 
Now yon are ill, and you will be so for [a} long time. She is a 
great talker, no doubt (nOo ha duvida) ; but her daughter is so 
still more. I have been your fHend these (por estes) 25 years, 
and I shall remain so until my death. You are a fool, and will 
ever be so. 

It is sad to die far from our friends. It was impossible to 
penetrate into the interior of the church. To describe that scene 
is impossible. - To live in such (a) hole would be to die by inches. 
To be sick and alone is one of the saddest things in the world. 
He used to say (cnstumava dizei) : To cheat an enemy is a venial 
sin ; but to rob a thief is a merit. Gambling with other people^s 
money (dinheiro alheio) is almost as bad as stealing. Orying 
alone is not a sufficient proof of repentance. This is preaching 
in the desert The art of cutting {talhar) precious stones is very 
old (antigo). To waste the time in such trifles is to shorten the 
life. _ 

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88 LESSON xivn. 


Qnem 4 este rapae-inhof {little hey), £ meu filho. Que 
flor-zinha bonital (t«^^ a pretty little flower/) Achei este 
livr-inho (little hook) na escada. Os teas passar-itihos fagirao. 
Elles estavao ao p6.da (near the) mez-inha, Boc^ga I (be quiet) 
o teu irma(Hiin?io estd dormiDdo. ym«« era entao uma rapari- 
guinha de 12 annos. Oh! mens pobres fllh-inhoB! Perdi 
hontem ama chav-inha d^oaro. O que estd n^esta eaix-inhaf 
Heu bem-zinho / (my dear [etceet] tittle creature !) O dinheiro 
estava n'um saqu-inho (little sacJb or hag). Ella parece (is like) 
uma honeqU'inha. Sois men anjo tutelar I Hontem enterrdrao 
um ang-inho (little angel^ a child under 10 years). Encontrdmoa 
& porta da igreja uma criane-inha morta. J4 principiirao o novo 
canal? Elle morava entao na Bua do eanalete. O meu criado 
era um rapaz-ote de 16 ai^nos mais ou menos. — Coitado! (poor 
fellow. f) Coitadrinho! Que menina engra^ad-inha / (what a 
mice little girl /) Ella 6 honit-inha. O Joaosinho j4 esta grand- 
ote. Que maos pequen-inas ! Vm«^ estd so-sinho t 

P. era um homem-zarrcU) (tall, big fellow) de mais de seis p^s 
de altura. A estalajadeira era uma vmdher-ona de propor^ea 
quasi gigantescas. Quem 6 aquelle^wr-oo f (tall man.) Quem 
mora n'aquella cae-onaf (big houae.) Elle 6 um dos nossos figu- 
roes (great or important men). Que narigOo ! (what a big note !) 
O Sr. F. 6 um bona^ho de pouca intelligencia. Aquelle rapa-gao 
6 meu criado. Tudo isto estava n'aquelle caix-cto, 

Heitor (Rector) morreu pela (= por a) lan^a de Achilles. Esta 
cicatriz 6 o signal d^uma lanp-ada (thrust with a lance) que 
(which) recebi na batalha de M. Elle nunca sabe scm o sen 
porrete. . F. morreu d'uma porret-ada (bhw with a cudgel) que 
apanbou no dia de S. Joao. Um bando de negros, armados com 
paos, percorreu as ruas. Apanbdrao paulada (blowSy a licking). 
Os punbaes dos assassinos amea^ao a yossa vida. Cesar recebeu 
23 punhaladae. A populaga perseguiu o raonge 4s pedradaa, Os 
soldados ferirao varias pessoas com baionetadas (or baioneta^os). 

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LESSON zxYn. 89 

Augmentatives and diminutive$ are very freqaently used in 
Portuguese, especially in familiar language. The former indi- 
cate greater $ize than the original word (often together with 
clumsiness); applied to persons, the aagnientative is not verj 
respectful. Its principal termination is masculine 3o (pi. des\ 
feminine ona; the final vowel is dropped before this termination, 
and feminine substantives generally become masculine ; f. i. caix-a^ 
chest, box, catx-do^ a big chest ; velhacOj scoundrel, wlhaC'do, a 
great scoundrel ; mulherj woman, mulheronay tall, stout woman; 
homem makes homemzarrdU>j a tall, big, heavy man ; rapaz, nariz 
make rapagSo^ narigdo; tolo, fool, makes toleirOo, ioleirona, — 
Far more numerous are the diminutives. They indicate princi- 
pally smallnesSy but also prettinesSj and often contempt^ and are 
frequently used as expressions of endearment. Their principal 
termination is inJio or einho (also sinho after a vowel), feminine 
inka, zinha; the latter is always nsed when the substantive ends 
in a consonant, but also after a rowel. When inko is used, the 
final vowel of the noun, aot o^\& dropped, e and g become qu^ 
gu^j becomes ^, p loses the eedilha (see Lesson XVIIL); f. i. 
jhr-zinha^ irmdo-zinho; hiquinho from hico^ amiguinho from 
amigOy anginho from anja, Iraeinho from Jmifo, Substantives 
ending in an accentuated vowel, in a diphthong or in a vowel 
preceded by another vowel, take tinlio or sinho^ not inho^ as 
pe-sinho, mcUhsinha, chapeo-sinho. Other terminations are ete^ 
ote, as palaeio^ palace, palaeete (mansion of a nobleman) ;^a/^(?, 
nobleman, fidalgote (contemptuously). — Even culjectives are ca- 
pable of this kind of augmentation and diminution ; f. i. bonito^ 
pretty, bonitinho; poueo^ little, pouquinho; grande, grandote; 
augmentatives generally become substantives, as riea^, from 
rico, = a very rioh man; vila^, from «t7, a great coward; tjie 
latter are rare, the superlative in issimo being used for this pur- 
pose. Pequeno makes pequenino ; horn makes bonaeho, a good- 
natured man, or a simpleton. ^ 

A blouoj stroke^ thrust^ stdb^ throw with an instrument gener- 
ally used for that purpose, is indicated by the termination ada 
or a^j added to the name of the instrument, as lanfada^ a thrust 



90 LESSON xxrn- 

with a lance, punhalada^ a stab with a dagger, facad<ty a cut or 
stab with a knife, ehicotadoj a whipping, baionetada or -ope?, a 
thrust with a bayonet, espada^^ a cut with a sword, eta, 

A little chapel .stood near the entrance of the village. I 
bought at (em) the auction a sofa, a dozen of chairs, and two 
Utile tables, all (tudo) of mahogany. The premium was a little 
book with engravings. Where is your little dog? Poor little 
'Children! Poor little o&es ! {pohrezinhoe ! eoitadinhoe I) What 
a big fellow he is! Is he not your great friend? (amigalhdo.) 
He turned his (= the) face towards the wall. He is making 
faces {caretoB) at {para) you. Johngot a blowing up (J. apanhau 
um eardOy familiar). This mansion contains two drawing-rooms, 
nine other large rooms (1. r. = sala\ a very large dining-room, 
and twelve bed-rooms. The jewels were in a little box of ivory 
inlaid with mother-df-pearl. The papers were kept (ffuardar) 
in a tin box (eaixa de folha). F. had been cashier in a banking 
house. In a comer of the room stood a chest containing (= 
with) French and Latin books. He tore the letter into frag- 
ments (= little pieces). The house has a gate in front, and a 
door on each side. We have paper and paste-board of every 
quality and size. Do you know that tall fellow ? What a great 
fool yon are I He is a little man of 50 years, more or less. ^ Yon' 
will hurt your little foot. The little bonnets that are now in 
the (d) fashion are at least more elegant than those old ones. 
She lias pretty little hands. Where is my little doll ? Why do 
you not play with your little friends? I had put (metier) all 
into a little bag, which I hid under (debaixo de) my coat 

A sabre-cut severed the hand of the robber from his arm. 
More than one officer bore the mark of a cut of the horse-whip 
of Murat, The throwing of stones continued for (p<fr) more 
than half an hour. This negro killed his master by a blow with 
a club. 

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Sabimos de Londres ds 9 boras da manbaa. A cbicara cabin 
ia meza e qnebroa. Bel^m dista de Lisboa poncas legaaa. £sta 
4>alavra ^ derivada do latim. For eate ac^ao V. 8. deseen da ana 
dignidade. J>o sublime ao ridiculo ba 86 nm passa Elles nito 
morSo longe dTaquL — As produccoes lyricas de Camoes siio 
menos conhecidas do que os Lusiadas. As fabalas (T Esopo sao 
oeleberrimas. A catbedral de Londres 6 nm edificio magnifico* 
Ym<^ sabe a casa do Sr. S. ? A cidade de Lisboa esta na margem 
direita do rio Tejo. A foz do rio doe Amazonas 6 mnito larga. 
b filbo do conde de T. 6 embaixador & c6rte de X. monte 
Yesuvio 6 nm volcao. Nao temos retrato do nosso aT6. Mi- 
Ibares cTaqnelles bravos perec^rao no deserto. A revolu^ao fi*an- 
oeza de 1789 foi o principio cTuma nova ordem de consas no 
mnndo politico. Dous doe mens amigos tiv^rao a febre amarella. 
Os Srs. A. e 0* {Mesere. A. aihd Co,) embarc4rao boje 600 barris 
de farinha, e nma grande qnantidade ds came seoca. Hoje tenbo 
tido nm ponco de descan^. Qnanto cnsta a pipa (Teste vinbo? 
— Os antigos considerayao o amor da patria como a principal 
Tirinde. Fallavamos de Ym^, Este livro tracta da immortati- 
dade da alma. N6s todos precisamos do anxilio dos nossos 
proxhnos. Recebi bontem nma carta cbeia de insnltos. Elle 
morren coberto de gloria,— Perdi a minba corrente d^ovro, O 
vizinbo gnardava o sen dinbeiro n^nma caixa de folha, Parece 
que tens nm estoroago de borracba. Uma ponte de pedra liga 
as dnas margens do nosso rio. O lagar estava cercado por uma 
grade de ferro. — Vm«« jd cornea (did you ever eat) came de 
oavallo? Esta came (20 porco est4 podre. Men primo tinba uma 
loja de livrofi. O fogo destrain nma grande fi&brica de papel na 
Bua de S. Paulo (St. PauVs street). A porta da frente estai^a 

Diflitized by VjjOOQIC 

92 LE8S0K xxrrxL 

fefrolhada. O asylo dos c^gos em 0. 6 nm edificio espa^oso e 
bem situado. 

Irei a Pariz. Ella tenciona fazer rnna yiagem a Boma. O 
general mandoa os prisioneiros d fortaleza de S. Ao Jado da 
porta estava uma rude imagem de S. Antonio. — ^Esta chacara 
pertence a daas senhoras solteiras. Devo a esta firma a somma 
de 8:000$000 rs. J4 escreven a sea pai? F. contoa isto ao 
doutor. Mandei alguns livros d irmaa do Sr. ]^. Quando entre^ 
goa ym<^ aqnellas cartas ao caixeiro do Sr. A. ? Partleiparei aos 
Senhores quando a ceremonia tera lugar. Nao emprestarei mais 
pe^as de musica, ds filhas do Sr. L. — capitao est4 a bordo? 
Yisgar a cavallo nao 6 tao agradavel como o Sr. pensa. Quando 
eu estava na Europa, eu fazia cada anno uma viagem a p6. Esta 
chovendo a cantaros. EUe sahe s6 d noite. Ao romper do dia 
subirao mil foguetes. Ella tocou aqnella pe^a d primeira vista. 

I>e quern {whose) i esta quinta? £ do Sr. general M. A quern 
(to whom) entregou Vm«« o embrulho? Ao Sr. Dr. (doutor) L, 
Isto nao depende de mim (on me), Nao esperei outra cousa de 
ti (of thee), Estive ao lado d'elles^ duellos (at their side). 

There is, properly speaking, no declension in Portuguese as 
well as in English, with the exception of a few instances among 
the pronouns (and, in English, the so-called possessive genitive). 
The terminations of the different cases have been substituted by 
pr^ositions^ except in the accusative, which is only known by 
its position and the sense of the phrase (see, however, Lessoh 
XXXVL). The preposition for the genitive case is de^ of, that 
for the dative is a, to. For practical reasons we. shall retain the 
well-known denominations nominative (for subject and predi- 
cate), genitive^ dative^ and accusative (for the object of transitive 
verbs and the case after prepositions) ; to speak of an ablative^ 
either in Portuguese or in English, is absurd, originatkig in the 
old-fashioned and improper desire of shaping the grammar of a 
modem language after the model of the Latin grammar. — ^Let 
U8 consider the nature of the prepositions de and a, as far as 
necessary here. 

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LESSON XXYin. ' 93 

DeyB of Qir from ; 

1} PaHvmM de Londres^ we departed /nrni London; loeaL 
2) As poenas de Camdet^ the poems ofQ,\o fiUio de Jl, the 
son of^.'yO seeretario do minu^a, the secretarj 0/* the minister ; 
a ordem do general^ the order o/'the general ; iuhjeetive genitive. 
8) A COM do Sr. L., the honse ^Mr. L. ; oi ramo9 da arvore^ 
the branches (>/' the tree ; pouemoe genitive (related to the pre- 

4) Frivar uma mUi do ieu JUhoj to deprive a mother 0/ her 
child ; tractor d'alguma eausa, to treat qf something, o amor da 
patria; gostar^ gozar d^alg, c, to he fond 0/ (= to like), to 
eigoj something; ^ft^^ive genitive. 

5) Um par de iopatos^ a pair 0/ shoes; mZAar«i de homenSy 
thousands 0/* men; genitive of ^uan^ity. 

6) Uffi relogio d^ouroj a watch ^gold (= a gold watch) ; um 
ntenino de iei$ annoSy a boj ^6 years; uma ponte de ferrOy an 
iron bridge ; genitive of quality. In this way all £nglish adjec- 
tives indicating the matter of which something is made, must be 
translated, as there are no such adjectives in Portuguese (aureoy 
ferreOy a/rgenteo and the like being only used in poetical language). 
Compounds of substantives, so frequent in English, are almost 
unknown in Portuguese, and must be expressed by the genitwe, 
as: house-door = doof of the house = porta da easa; glass- 
frame, eaixilha de vidro; the sense will indicate whether the 
article must accompany the genitive or not. 

Tlie so-called possessive genitive is always to be translated 
thus : my father^s house = the honse of my father, a easa de 
meu pai. 
A IS tOy at, 

1) Irei a Pom, I shall go to F.; local. 

2) Empresta/r alg. cousa a alguem, to lend sth. to somebody ; 
contar alg. c. a alguemy to relate or tell sth. to somebody ; dative 
or terminative (indirect object). 

3) Andar a i?V* cavallo, to go on foot, on horseback (to 
walk, to ride) ; modal. 

4) A este momentOy at this moment; id duos horaSy at 2^ 
o^clock; temporal. 

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94 LE880K zxvni. 

. Of the contractions do^ da^ ao, <£, etc. we have already spoken. 

' These prepositions can never be omitted (as is sometimes the case 

in English,. f. L a dozen times, uma dueia de vezee; I lent this 

gentleman some money, empreetei algum dinheiro a este tenhor), 

Mark also the position of the dative, always after the accusative 

(the ol^ect of the verb), when the latter is not accompanied by 

an adverbial phrase or a relative clause. 

Pronouns governed by prepositions do not change their torniB, 

except eu and tu, ^hich become mim, ti (as de mim, of me, de 

tiy of thee), but d*elley d'ella^ de n^, a vos, a elUsy etc.). The 

pronoun interrogative tohosef (=r who's) Is de quem^ to whom ss 

a quern. , - 


The steamer will leave (= saMr de) Rio de Janeiro on the 
16th ^the ne^t month. The audience lasted from 11 a. m. till 8 
p. M. [A, M. is rendered by da madrugada for the time from 
midnight till sunrise ; from then till noon it ib da manh&a; P. M. 
is rendered by da tarde for the time froip noon till sunset ; for 
the time between sxmset and midnight it is ^ noiteJ] I got (re- 
ceber) several letters from P. Our cousin arrived from Hamburg. 
Have you no news of your brother in the United States ? None. 
The family was once (jd foi) the most powerful in (= of) Eu- 
rope. Bixtns y. was of low origin, yet he'was one of the greatest 
men of his time. Spain will be one of the great powers (potencia) 
of Europe. The gulf of Naples is one of the finest spots on (sobre) 
the earth. I bet my whole (= all my) fortune against a pinch 
of snuff, that he is an impostor. The grandson of Mr. B. mar- 
ried (easar com) a rich widow. His nucleus wife is my sister.. 
Which is Mr. A.'s house? That man^s conscience is very wide. 
Our house is at (em) the comer of this street and the market* 
place. In what bookshop do you buy your books? At Mr. L.'8 
(= na loja do Sr. Z.). Here are your bed-dothes {roupa de 
Camay sing.). Where is my tooth-brush ? The thief jumped over 
{por cima de) the garden-fence and escaped. Take this powder 
(p6Sy pi. masa) in a glass of water. What a beautiful rose-bud 1 
In the window stood some flowers in china vases. Is this wheat- 
flour ? Mr. M. has in his collection a most beautiful marble bust 

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of "S, The stranger wore » cap of deer-akin. We want (pre- 
eisar de} two iron bedsteads. My pocket-book (earieira) con- 
tained some gold and silver coins, to the amount of 4£ more or 
less. Paper-monej is a ver/ modem invention. Is this mj 
aleeping-room ? (quarto de dormir). 

To whom are yon writing ? To-day I shall not go to Mtf 
mass. They carried the woonded to the hospital. I shall send 
my servant to Mr. P. The failing of some of the most consider- 
able banking houses in France contributed much to the ruin of 
our commerce. The aft of piunting in (a) oil is older than you 
think. The iron gate resisted to all the efforts of oor men (genU), 
Our regiment crossed the river swimming (a nado), I have tra^ 
veled (over) more than 2000 miles on foot To me you did not 
write. At every step we met a family of emigrants. What 
were you doing here at midnight f Did I not lend yon this book ? 
This would be contrary to our laws. 


O cigado e a raa sao amphibios. 0$ soldados d^este destaea- 
mento commett^rao muitas desordens. As plantas careoem de 
chuva. Um homem d*este caracter nunca tem amigos. Uma 
semana depois eu cahi doente. 

. O commercio de Pemambuco 6 importantissimo. Londres 6 
a cidade mais populosa do mundo. Rio de Janeiro e a Bahia 
sao as cidades mais importantes do Brazil. A Havana 6 a capital 
da ilha de Cuba. Porto 6 a segunda capital do reino de Por« 
tngal. Onde esta seu pai agora? Estd em Roma. A Franca 6 
dividida em departameutos. Qual (which) 6 maior, a Prussia ou 
a Italia? Os Estados IJnidos sao a republioa mais poderosa que 
eziste. As Indias Orientaes t^m um clima tropico. 0» Paizes- 
Baixos pertenciao n^aquelle tempo 4 Hespanha. Portugal ^ um 
reino mui pequeno. Para Homero a Siciiia era ainda uma regiao 
fiEtbalosa. Am Hhas Jonicas estao sob a proteccao (2« Gran-Bre- 




tanha. A ilha de Sta. Helena pertence aos Inglezes. — Lmz de 
Gamoes 6 o mais celebre poeta portngnez ; elle ^ chamado o Ho- 
mero lusitano. Bocage foi o Archilocho dos Portaguezes. Tenho 
lido Camoes. Joao ainda nao 6 velho. velho Joao morreu 
hontem. Etna 6 um volcao na Sicilia. Eheno separava a 
Gallia da Germania. Jupiter era o deos supremo dos Homanos. 
Venus era a deosa da belleza. A Venus de Canova 6 uma 
bellissima estatua. Beos 6 omnipotente. Hoje 6 domingo. Elle 
cbegard sabbado ou segunda feira (or no sabb., na seg. f.) Nasci 
em Mar^o. Mar^o d^aquelle anno foi um mez fatal para mim. 
verao do anno passado foi muito chuvoso. A primavera 6 a 
estalpao pr^dilecta dos poetas. c6o nao 6 86 para os ricos. — 
Sr. A. 6 um rica^o d^este lugar. general Lafajette morreu 
muito velho. S. M. a rainba Victoria 6 filha da duqueza de 
Kent. Dom Pedro V. 6 filho de Dom Fernando. Dona Anna 
casou com o filho <^duque de B. -4 Sra. D. (Senhora Dona) 
Emilia 4as Neves 4 a mais celebre actriz e cantora portugueza. 

A inveja 6 o vicio mais baixo, mais repugnante. fanatismo 
religioso ^ muito mais feroz do que o fanatismo politico. A 
pobreza nao ^ o maior.dos males. A arrogancia 6 quaal sempre 
a companheira da ignorancia. medo causa as vezes ataques 
epilepticos. Isto ^ o cumulo da impudencia. A belleza 4 um 
dom precario. A historia ^ o men estudo predilecto. ^^A expe- 
riencia ^-a mestra dos tolos." 

d>*homem nunca foi perfeito, e nunca o serd. O principio da 
historia do genero humano se perde (loses itself^ is lost) n^uma 
impenetravel escuridao. A agua nao 6 tao elastica como o ar. 
ouro 6 mais pesado do que o chumbo. troco estd muito 
escasso. Os principaes productos d^esta provincia sao o assucar, 
caf<6 e o arroz. A manteiga ingleza 6 mais g6rda do que a nossa. 
Os habitantes de S. exportao sal, azeite, sardinhas, vinho, etc. 
vinho tinto (red wine) k geralmente mais forte do que o vinho 

Esta oerveja custa um xelim a garrafa. Ninguem venderd 
este panno por menos de 2|000 rs. a jarda. Quanto custa a libra 
d'este ch4? 

Sou soldado, e conhe^o o men dever. Na campanha de 1852 

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LESSON xroL. 97 

elle era fdnda capitao. O pai dhiquellas mocas 6 dontor em 
medicina. F. 6 advogado. Qoemr 6 d advogado do oatro par- 
tido? Nao sabia que D. Maria era poetisa. EUe 6 pai de seit 
filhos. Dionjsio nascen principe e morrea mendigo. Ym^ 
parece ser homem de bem (an honest man), Ym^^ sao uni pre* 
gm^oaos (laspy fellotDa), Aqaellas mo^aa sao unuu tagarellaa. 

Nanoa OQvi tal coosa. Semelhante proposta 6 qoaai nin in- 
snlto. Tammanho bamlho honye qne ea nao entendi nem uma 
palavra (but houye urn baralho tammanho). Que bella creatnra 1 
Tao grande zelo n'um homem d^estes (ofthii Jnnd) 6 snepeitoso 
(hut nm zelo tao gr.). 

As iigmdas e males qne estamos soffrendo sSo inoriveia. O 
embaixador nao obteve as instmc^des e reoursoa necessarios. 
Os habitantes manddrao €U mnlheres e crian^as para o matto. 
Esperai'tado da inflnencia e poder dos tossos amigos e parentes. 
Defendembs as nassas vidas, fazenda, liberdade, e honra. As 
illegalidades e absnrdos d^aqnelle processo patenteiao a parciali- 
dade do Jniz. 

£ f^cto iiinegavel qne a religiao christaa 6 a mai da civiliBacSo 
iiiodenla., * F. pedin descnlpa da sna impmdencia. Nao son 
homem para isso. Tammanha cmeldade nao cabe em peito de 
homens. A persegni^ao tomon nova direo^ao. Tenho esta no- 
ticia de pessoa fidedigna. F. esti preparando a segnnda edicao 
da sua ezcellente obra. mesmo acontecen hoje segunda (ontra) 
vez. For tal acto ym<^ perdeiia a sna repnta^ao de homem de 
bem. As grandes descobertas e inven^oes d^aqnella epocha 
abrirao caminho & civilisa^So. — ^Ella coron, signal evidente qne 
ella sabia do segredo. Philippe de Macedonia, pai de Alexandre 
grande, foi tambem nm grande principe. 


The definite article is : masculine o, feminine a, plural oSy as ; 
the indefinite article is i/m, uma. It always stands hefore its sub- 
stantive and any adjective belonging to the latter, except with 
iodo and ambas^ which are always followed by the article. — The 
following are the principal rules for the use of the article in Por- 
tuguese, when differing from the English : 

Digitized by VJOOQ IC 


1) Proper nouns do not take the article. 

Exceptions : a) the names of countries (a Franffo^ o Feru)y 
except Portugal and Caetella (Castile), which never take, the 
article. Also rivers^ mountains^ islands (small islands have gen- 
erally a ilha de added to their names), some cities (a JSoDantL, a 
Bahia^ o PortOy o Eio de Janeiro ; this article is not used on title- 
pages or in the date of letters), tessels^ the four seasons^ and gen- 
erally the names of days; 

b) Christian names, and also family names, when speaking 
familiarly: o Jodo, o Almeida; 

c) the names given to dogs, horses, etc. ; 

d) proper nouns when accompanied by an adjective, f. i. a 
propria Roma, Rome herself^ or, even Home; o celebre Vieira; 
also names of persons when accompanied by st title, aso Sr, Al- 
meida, rei Fernando (more usually with the Spanish. article, 
eJrrei or elrei), a rainha Victoria; Bom (i>.) and Dona {D^, D.) 
do not admit the article ; f. i. J). Pedro, i>. Anna; 

2) Deos, when meaning the Christian God, never has the 
article, not even when accompanied by an adjective^ as Deos om- 
nipotente; but inferno, hell, ceo, heaven, pa^aiso, paradise, ^r- 
gatorio, purgatory, always have the article ; 

8) abstract nouns, when in a general sense, always take the 
article, as : music is his greatest delight, a musica e o sen maior 

4) names of any matter (metals, wood, stone, water, meat, 
etc.), when in a general sense, take the article, as : flour is dear 
now, afarinha estd cara a^ora; also, names indicating a whole 
species of objects, as : melons are cheap here, os meldes sdo ha/rato$ 
aqui; so also o homem, man, a mulher, woman, os homens, men, 
genero humarw, mankind, a gente, people, o parlamento, par- 
liament, govemo, government. 

5) no article is used with names of dignities, professions, 
nationality, religion, etc., when they are predicates (see Lesson 

6) the definite article accompanies some pronouns, as o meu 
cavallo, a sua casa, etc. (see Lesson IX.) ; 

7) the names of measures and weights have the d^nite article, 



LSBSON xxa. 99 

instead of the indefinite article in English^ as: two shillings a 
bottle, an ell, a pound, dous xelins a garra/a^ o eotadoy a libra; 
with expressions of time^ the preposition por is used, as : so mnch 
a year, a month, tanto por ann^, por mez; 

8) ordinal nombers, after die names of sovereigns, have no 
article, as D. Pedro 11 {Dcm Pedro »egundo) ; 

9) appositioTu generally take no article, as 2>. Pedro //, im* 
perador do Brazil^ o Sr, F.^JUho do eoronel F. ; but Thalberg, o 
eelebre pianista ; 

10) when two sabstantiyes are connected by the conjanction 
e^ and, the wcond sabstantive does not take the article, especially 
when they are synonyms, or when their significations are, in any 
way, considered as related to each other; f. L as mulh^rei o 
erianfof soffrerao maU do que oe homeru; eUe reeebeu at imtruC' 
fdes e reeurto$ neeessarioi ; for the sake of emphasis the article 
may be repeated ; 

11) substantives accompanied by tal, iemdhante^ tammanho^ 
eomo (and por after the verbs Unnar^ tcr^ to take), or by adjec- 
tives with que (what), tOo^ do not take the article {indefinite)^ 
when these words precede their sabstantive ; as : toZ (iemelhante) 
prcjeetOj such a plan ; tammanluf desejo^ so great a desire ; e<mio 
soldadoy as a soldier; tomar or ter alguem por homem honrado^ 
to take one for an honest man ; hot um homem tal^ urn desfjo 
tammanho / 

12) in many idiomatic phrases the article is omitted; these 
mast be learned by practice ; the best way for learning them 
(and all other pecaliar phrases or constnictions) is, to note them 
down whenever they occur, and to learn them by heart. 

To-morrow the sun will rise at 6 o'clock precisely (em ponto). 
The moon is a little planet which accompanies the earth. Your 
vacation will begin on the 5th of next month. The brothers-in- 
law of Mr. S. have established a silk-manufactory. France pro- 
duces wine in great abundance, and of superior quality. Spain 
has lost almost all her colonies. The Netherlands have been 
part of the dominions of Philip II. Portugal does not produce 

508112 ft 

100 LESSON xxnc. 

(eria/r) mncli cattle. Lima is the capital of Pera. Brazil was 
the only Portuguese colony in America. Joseph never studies 
his lessons. Did you speak with Charles? Mr. and Mrs. F. will 
be at home {em casa) this evening. — These opinions are incom- 
patible with honesty. Modesty is the most beautiful ornament 
of youth. Life is not worth the sacrifice of honor. Agriculture, 
industry, and commerce are the three principal sources of the 
wealth and power of a nation. Learning is only the ffuit of 
labor and perseverance. Poetry and music are twins. Dancing 
{a danpa) made part of many religious ceremonies among the 
ancients. The bloodiest pages of history are those (as) which 
contain the deeds of religious fanaticism. Patience is not in- 
compatible with energy. — Copper is much softer than iron. 
Linen is much stronger than cotton. Tea was introduced i^to 
Europe abott 200 years ago (ha perto de 200 annos). Mahogany 
grows only in tropical countries. — The glories of Heaven are the 
reward of virtue. Disobedience drove (expellir) the first men 
from paradise. What (quaT) is your traded I am a tailor. He 
is a nobleman. F. was a portrait-painter. Mr. K. is an excellent 
piano-player (pianuta) and violinist. Oamoens was a brave 
warrior and a great poet.^ — ^Man was the, last work of creation. 
Is he not a member of parliament? 

Many merchants sell this cloth at (por) 2$500 rs. a yard. 
This wine costs 860$000 rs. a pipe. He has a salary of 20£ 
(lihras esterlinaa) a month. They charge three shillings a day. 
Dom Pedro I, emperor of Brazil, abdicated in favor of his son, 
Dom Pedro II. Miss Cai^oline is the bride of Mr. L. Queen 
Victoria and Prince Albert departed for the Isle of Wight. — ^This 
shows the character and inclinations of that man. The pro- 
ceedings of Mr. T. are against the spirit and letter of our con- 
stitution. Such a law does not exist. This is much work for 
80 short a time. What a singular man I 

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LE68017 XZX* 101 


caxninho davirtade k escabroso. E»U proverbio k mni 
antigo. Coda dia 6 urn passo para (^ioar<2«) o tumulo. Muitos 
salteadores infestao €tquella9 provmcias. Meu lilho ^stadou em 
Coimbra. Algun$ jornaos negao este facto. Muitoi familiaa 
estao soffrendo pela falta d'agua potaveL Vm«* achar& este 
diccionario em gualquer kga de livros (= livraria, hooh-thop), 
A agna 6 levada por carroQdfli qualquer pernio da oidade. Teria- 
mos aceitado quaesquer condigSes. Qaalquer i>e88oa maior 
(pl^) de 20 annos tern entrada n'este mns^o. Qnalqner d'elles 
6 incapaz de tammanha presmnp^ao. Jsto oSo 6 para qualqaer 
(everybody), Certo individao commnnicoa isto ao redactor d^este 
jornal. Certo morador da Rna formosa inoomm6da os seas 
vizinhos todas as noites coin a sua mnsica exeoravel. For seme- 
Ihantes manolvas aqaelle sigeito adqnirin eerta infloencia noe 
circulos politicos d^esta cidade. Tenho esta noticia de pessoa 
certa, Ouira terrOj ontros usos. Vhi preferemosolhos azues, 
outros OS pretos. Perd^mos outro {or mais mn) cavallo hontem. 
Conhe^o uns x>oact>s d^elles ha muito tempo ; os mais (the rest) 
parecem ser estrangeiros. Amboe sao boDS musicos. Tern havido 
erros de (on) ambos os lados. Ha homens habeis n^m e n^outro 
(in both) partido. Divenae poesias soffriyeis t^m apparecido no 
jornal de hoje. Varioi grammatioos pretendem qne esta con- 
strac^ao nao 6 correcta. S6 duas on tres pessoas presencidrao 
este acto. — O Sr. tem noticias (any news) do sen filho mais yelho ? 
Nenhnmas. Tendes amigos on conhecidos aqni ? Nenhnm. 

Os no^os br<»vos soldados escal&rao as altM mnralbas da for- 
taleza com ijicritel alacridade e coragem. A sarsaparilha brava 
(wild s,) 6 nma herva medicinal. Qne homem bravo! (fierce^ 
irascible), N'este paiz nao ha montanhas altos. Quasi 4odo 
este bairro 6 habitado por gente pobre. O pobre menino (or o 
pobre do menino) estava chorando. Elle 6 nm homem sctbio, O 
nosso sahio professor de latim ezplicou esta passagem da (in the) 

Digitized by VjjOOQIC 


maneira segninte. — ^Preciso d^algumas folhas de papel ixeuL £lle 
jd tern cabellos hrancos, IJma meza redonda 6 pouco commoda 
para escrever. Cesar foi nm grande homem. Olhos grandes sao 
bonitos. A belladona ^ uma herva venenosa, O now passeio 
publico seHi muito extenso. F. mora no Caminho tiovo^ n® 136* 
A lingaa italiana 6 suave e sonora. A memoria dos trabalhos 
{sufferings^ hardships) passados 6 doce. Uma batalha encarni^^ada 
teve lugar no dia 21 d'este mez {or do mez corrente, = instant), 
Kao g68to de came cosida, O tractamento revoltante que elle 
receb^ra n'aqnella occasiao foi o motivo do suicidio. Ofalleeido 
M. sempre dizia que seu filho nao prestava para nada (= was 
good /or nothing). O ceUberrimo 0. foi um grande impostor. 
Elle 6 homem trabalhador, Boatos assustadores voavao de boca 
em boca. Mattos virgens cobrem ainda grande parte d^este im- 
perio. Isto 6 nm caso virgem {unheard-of) na historia da nossa 
cidade. (Ouro virgem, pure gold.) 

As linguas hespanhola e portugueza sao mais differentes uma 
da outra do que mnitos pensao. Os exercitos inglez e franoez 
acamp&rao o ponca distancia da cidade de S. A industria e o 
commercio nacionaes tomdriio dimonsoes gigantescas. 


In Portuguese, the position of the attributive adjective offers 
some diflSculty ; some are generally placed before their substan- 
tive, some after it, others may take either place. In a number 
of cases, the signifioation or the laws of euphony determine the 
position of the adjective, but in most cases the greatest liberty 
is allowed, and it depends generally on the degree of emphoM 
to be given to the adjective, whether it shall stand before or after 
its substantive (in writing, the emphatical adjective is nsoallj 
placed after its substantive ; in speaking, it may also stand h^ 
fore the substantive, as the tone of the speaks will sufficiently 
indicate the emphasis). We give here the most reliable rules ; a 
practised ear will do the rest. 

a) Before their substantive are placed yery sJiort adjectives 
(monosyllables, and dissyllables with a weak termination, as «, 0) ; 
f. L um bom homem, mdo tempo ; also numeraU, except ordiiMl 

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L£8SON XXX. 103 

numbers with the names of sovereigns, and^ often, in qnotationi 
of chapters, paragraphs, etc. (then always without the article), 
b) After their substantive are placed : 

1. very long a<^ectives; 

2. adjectives indicating physical qualities (color, dimension, 
foim, strength, etc.) ; 

3. adjectives derived from proper noune (countries, cities, 
persons) ; 

4. participles, and such adjectives as are originally substan- 
tives (matto virgem, homem trahallutdor) ; 

6. those ending in /, r, «, ico^ ivo, om, eico, flo, inho, io; 

6. adjectives accompanied by a long adverb or an adverbial 

With proper nouns, adjectives generally precede (with the 
usual exceptions, as Alexandre o grande^ Carlos o temerario). — 
When the attribute is supposed to belong to the species^ or known 
to belong to the ihdividtial designated by the substantive, the 
adjective precedes; being a distinctive, the ac^ective follous the 
substantive ; f. i. m valentes soldadoSj o sabio professor, o nosso 
velho tizinho, because' all soldiers are supposed or ought to be 
brave, all professors are supposed or ought to be learned, our 
neighbor is knoion to be an old man ; but we shall say um homem 
valente, um homem sabio, um homem velho, as these attributes 
do not belong to the species. 

Some a^ectives have different meanings according to their 
position : um bravo soldado, a brave soldier — um homem bravo, 
a fierce, irascible man ; um homem sancto, a holy (most virtuous) 
man — um sancto homem {um sanetarrdo), a hypocrite; certa 
pessoa (without the article), a certain individual, somebody — 
pessoa eerta, a reliable person; um homem' -pohre, a poor man — 
um pobre homem, a poor fellow (expression of contempt or pity). 

When two adjectives belong to one substantive, they are 
placed after it, connected with each other by the coiy unction e, 
and (except with proper nouns). 

When one adjective belongs to two isubstantives of different 
gender, it must be in the plural and masculine, as f. i. as instruc- 
fdes e reeursos necessarios. 

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Oonstmctions like cs ca^itulos primeiro e segtindo, as exercitas 
iaghz e francez, need no explanations. 

Any^ when equal to whatever^ is qualquer^ plural quaesquer 
(a compound of qtuil, which, and query third person singular pres- 
ent of querer, will, like the Latin quivia). In questions, it is not 
expressed, f. i. have you any news, etc. ? Vm<^ tern notieias f 
As a pronoun, qualquer means anybody. 

This event had great influence over the development of his 
character. Many of our rich merchants reside during the hot 
season at (em) the little village of N. Some battalions of in- 
fantry encamped in the suburbs of L. Some hotels remained 
open during the whole night This incident created (causar) 
some sensation amongst a certain class of people. He is unfit 
for any employment of that kind. X am ready for any service. 
In courage they are equal to any European troops. He confides 
his secret to everybody {qualquer). 

Blue cloth is dear. Every year the yellow fever visits those 
beautiful countries. In many districts the black (negro) popula- 
tion (gente) exceeds the number of the whites. I want a very 
fine needle. This wind prevails during the rainy season. Fresh 
water is the best beverage. A cold, rain fell during the night. 
He burnt his (= the) hand with hot water. What a long word I 
We had a very dry sunmier. The Spanish sheep are of excellent 
quality. The Asiatic pestilence is a terrible scourge. The Eng- 
lish language cont^ns many Latin and French elements. Zeno 
was the founder of the Stoic school. The catholic religion pre- 
vails (predominar) in the south and west of Europe, and in 
America with the exception of the United States and the British 
possessions, t The principal streets of E. are paved. Matters (as 
eousas) have now a more agreeable aspect. Your speech pro- 
duced a favorable impression on (sohre) the greater part of th<» 
audience. The civil authorities will be responsible for the main' 
tenance of order in their respective districts. He asked this in 
a sarcastic tone. The radical vowel of this word is long (lanffo)^ 
Our town has two large public squares. The dagger is a treaoh- 

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eroQs weap<m. This Is a rerj eomplicated afllur. A warned 
man is worth two. He is a well known gambler. Oenerons 
man I F. is a generons and amiable man. Mjr faithful servant 
accompanied my daughter as &r as (atS) the little town of Z. 
This narrative is a fiuthful picture of those times of superstition 
and fanaticism. Great evils require poweifol remedies. To 
whom does this large house belong! The consequenoe of such 
measures would have been the inevitable downfall of the dynasty. 
We met the inevitable }ir. A. at Mr. L.*s. The fox is a shrewd 
animal. The shrewd lawy^ perceived the mistake at once. 
That holy man used to drink like a sponge. 

He would have aco^ited any salary. Anything will do (mt- 
«ir). They will reject any conditions. A certain person of my 
acquaintance wrote an article on this subject (oMumpto) for one 
of the best journals of the capitaL I received last week several 
anonymous lettersr 


A falta de estradas 6 a principal causa de todos estes males. 
Elle obteve este sucoesso & for^a Q>y dint) de dinheiro. A lucta 
entre os dons partidos era uma lucta de morte. Quanto custa 
O cademo (or quademo) d^este papel de peso? Comprei hoje 
nrna magnifica pelle de tigre. F. 6 um absolutista ifagua pura. 
Elle tem o costume de exaggerar. O habito de fumai^^ espalhado 
sobre toda a terra. Um negociante fie L. participou isto a um 
sen amigo (one of his friends) cTaquL A batalha de M. termlnou 
a campanha. As manchas d^azeite nao sahem. Oomprehendi 
isto n^nm golpe de vista. Elle morreu d'um ataque (rq>oplexia. 
Os soldados romanos davao aos sens generaes victoriosos o titulo 
de imperador. Na sua qualidade de ministro plenipotenciario 8. 
Exc^ procedeu com dignidade. Isto foi um acto de homem or- 
dinario (hose), Eramos companheiros de viagem. Foi trm ser- 
vice ^Tamigo falso. Achamos a sala de jantar n^ima terrivel 



106 LE880N XXXI. 

oonfosao. O Sr. M. 4 um homem de fina edncagao. Para esta 
occ^ao en tinha comprado \im novo unilonne de gala. Procixrei 
tres "bilhetes <2'entrada. A menir.a tinha nma oara de aDJo. O 
juiz era um homem de integridade proverbial. 

O nosso doente nao cornea senao (eat only) nm prato de caldc 
de gallinha. Minha irmaa perdea hontem mn par de brincos 
com diamantes. As snas promessaB nao valem nma pitada de 
tap^I Qner tomar (will you take) nma chicara de cafe, on nm 
copo de yinho? O tribunal condemnon o r^o a 20 annos de 
prisao. A sna phjsiognomia nao tinha nada ^extraordinario. 
As gnerras de Napoleao I cnstirao d Enropa mais (Tnm milhao 
de homens. Acceitarei nm ponoo de vinho. Um ^Telles des- 
cnbrin algnmas gotas de sangne sobre o lagedo. 

F. receben por presente nm riqnissimo relogio ^onro com 
brilhantes. A inangnra^ao da nova estrada de ferro terd Ingar 
no dia l"* do mez proximo fntnro. Ella sempre trtgava nm ves- 
tido de seda preta. Quanto cnsta a groza dV'stas pennas (2^ago ? 
En g6sto mais de (/ like letter) pennas de ganso (gooM-quilU).- 
A porta principal do edificio serd omada por dnas estatnas de 
marmore. O sen rosto 6 nma mascara de ferro. Os ladroes 
ronbdrao nma dazia de colheres de prata e nma sopeira de finis- 
sima porcelana. 

O leao ^or^idos animaes. H. 6 o rei dos magicos. A velhice 
diminne as for^as do corpo, e angmenta as Inzes do espirito. Isto 
foi nm acto da mais negra ingratidao. O tempo doM persegni^oes 
sangninolentas por cansa da religiao j& passon. O desejo de 
saber nao 6 cnriosidade, e a emnla^ao nao e inyeja. O temor de 
Deos 6 o principio de toda a virtude. F. era amigo do% bona 
bocados (tit-lits), O fanatismo 6 o inimigo mortal da civilisaoao. 

Temos n'esta cidade dons moinhos de vento. Nao havia nma 
arma de fogo em toda a povoa^ao. Um raio cahin no armazem 
de polvora, mas nao canson estragos consideraveis. Elle tinha 
nma loja de ferragens na Bna direita. £ prohibido trazer ben- 
galas (Testoqne. Nao tenho papel de (or para) cartas. 

Ym<^ 6 nm homem 9em palavra. O men lUmo^o consiste de 
dnas chicaras de caf& com leite e algnmas fatias de pao com man- 
teiga. Isto nao ^ nm jogo de (para) criancas. ^e k homem 




para isso. TJm negociante $em credito k am po^o tern agnA. 
Qnem ^ aqnelle homem com cabellos brancos ? 

O Sr. barao de M., ministro plenipotenciario d c6rte de B., 6 
men padrinho. F. nasceu em Setubal, cidade maritima do reino 
de Portugal. Guilherme, daque da Normandia, conquistoa a 
Inglaterra em 1066. Miguel Angelo, pintor, esculptor e arcbi- 
tecto, foi tambem poeta. Tito livio, o celebre bistoriador ro- 
mano, era natural (a native) de Padua. Maria Stuart, a bcUa e 
infeliz rainba da Escossda, mais que expiou os seus erros. 

Attributes are often expressed by aubstantives (pronouns^ or 
verbs in the infinitive) ; they are, then, connected with the noun 
to which they belong by a preposition, generally de, of (also com, 
with, sem, without, parci, for, and others). In Euglish, this con- 
nection is very frequently effected by forming a compound of the 
two nouns (see Lesson XXVIII.). For instance: fire-arms, 
ariTuts de fogo ; windmill, moinho de vento; sugar-mill, engenho 
d'assuear; winter-clothes, roupa d'invemo; horse-hair, eabello 
de eavallo; book-shop, loja de livros; head-ache, dor de cabepa, 
etc. It has already been said (Lesson XXVIIL), that in Portu- 
guese there are no adjectives indicating the material of which 
an object consists ; in English, the substantive itself is often used 
for this purpose {gold spurs, an iron kettle, etc.) ; in Portuguese, 
the preposition de is required (esporas d'^ouro, uma caldeira de 
ferro). As this mode of expression can not indicate the nature 
of the different kinds of attributes (quality, quantity, mode, pos- 
session, etc.), it may sometimes cause ambiguity ; f. i. wine-glass 
and a ghiss of wine may both be translated by urn eopo de vinho; 
to avoid this, a wine-glass may be rendered um eopo para vinho, 
—In order to know whether the article is to be used with the 
attribute (after the preposition) or not, when the corresponding 
expression in English is a compound, the student has but to dis- 
solve the compound ; the article being used in English, it is also 
used in Portuguese. F. i. the garden-fence = the fence of t?ie 
garden, a cerca do jardim ; = the fence of a garden, a e, d^van 
jardim; garden-fences = fences of gardens, cereal dejardins. 

Digitized by VjjOOQIC 

108 2JES8QN XXXI. 

ApponiionB are also attributes in the form of sabstantiYes ; 
the indefinite article, which, In English, sometimes accompanies 
them, is omitted in Portngaese (f, L Entropins, a Boman author, 
Eutropio^ author romano), — ^There are also attributive sentences 
or clauses, of which we shall treat further on. 

Was it (a) want of energy or of courage? This is (eis) the 
reward for (=? of) my kindness I These papers contain the 
proofs of his guilt. Presence of mind is a precious quality. He 
has not jet lost his habit of exaggerating. Their mania of imi- 
tating the French fashion is very ridiculous. The battle of 
Waterloo decided the fate of Napoleon. The London news- 
-pap&rs bring a refutation of these rumors. Swedish iron (= the 
iron of Sweden, Suecia) is the best. She is a native of Paris. 
He had the features of a woman (f. of w.) and the courage of the 
lion. Your father was a man of learning and of great (muito) 
experience. You broke your word of honor. 

We shall have an iron bridge across the river. The portrait 
was in a mahogany case. The sword of Mr. P. had an ivory 
handle and a silver scabbard. With his wooden leg my uncle 
walked as &st as any man of his age (idade), A brick wall en- 
closed the garden. My cousin lost her diamond bracelet 

I shall want at least two quires of letter-paper a week. 
There was not a drop of water in the welL A great many (= 
grande numero) houses were unoccupied. I found this volume 
amongst a lot of old books which I had bought at (em) an auc- 
tion. Heaps of corpses covered the battle-ground. About a 
dozen persons were present. Most of the vessels which had gone 
out, came back. There are several millions of slaves in these 
States. Your plan has nothing impossible. 

The foundation of Alexandria was the death-blow (jjolpe 
mortal) to the commerce of Tyrus (Tyro). Justice is the soul 
of the laws. He was the best of men. The most remarkable 
of inventioDS is that (a) of typography. — ^The detection and 
arrest of this great criminal is due to the indefatigable seal of 
Mr. N. You have no wish to learn (= of learning). I have no 

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LESSON xxzn. . 109 

appetite <= vontads de eomer). J£j hope of saooeis is very 
alight. The loss of such s friend would be s great miaibrtiuie. 

Our fellow-passengers (eompanheira de tiagem) were not oon- 
J^/i;eDted with this arrangement. She was sitting (ientado) in her 
rocklAg-chair (eadeira de halanpo). I suffer much from tooth* 
ache. My traveling dress cost about 400 francs. He wounded 
his aggressor with a table-knife. In one of the comers stood a 
mahogany book^iase {armario de L), 

William I., King of Prussia, is the brother of the late king. 

Mr. B., professor of rhetoric at the university of L., is a very 

* amiable man. Hamburg, a commercial city of great importance, 

is one of the four free cities of the German confederacy. They 

elected Mr. R., a man of great capacity aad well known integrity. 


sirBJXjKonvK pBEsiorr. 

Fint. Second, Third. 

en &ll-e vend-a (like Second) 

til — es as 

eile — e' a 

nds — emos 6mos 

v6s ^is 4is 

elles — ^m ao 

Precisa {it is neees$(iry) que eu fall-e com o Sr. ministro da 
justi^a. £ possivel que tu detprez-es assim a authoridade pa- 
tema? Eu quero que Vm«6 hoUe estes livros no sen lugar. O 
Sr. F. des^a que traet-emo^ d'este negocio com todo o zelo e 
euidado. Srs. deputadosl os vossos constituentes t^m o direito 
de esperar que falUeid sem medo, que represent-eis ao govemo 
OS innumeros abuses que certas authoridades dVsta provincia 
commettem quasi diariamente {daily), £ ira possivel que as dea- 
pezas import-em em {amount to) mais de 8:000$000 rs. Muitos 
dos meus freguezes querem que eu vend-^ esta fazehda mais 
barato; mas nao posso (/ can not). P6de ser {it map 5^) que 

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110 LESSON xxxn. 

outros logistas a {it) vend-do por menos. Tua mai deseja que 
aprend-as o francez. £ tempo que attend-amos aos nossos pro- 
prios negocios. Desespero da empreza, ainda que (th&ugh) V. 
S. promett-a o seu auxilio. Nao receio que a directoria per^ 
mitt-a semelhantes abusos. O patriotismo pede que n6s todos 
eontribu-amas k conserva^ao dresses monumentos da nossa antiga 
gloria. £ mister que Vmc6» pa/rt-cLo no instante. — Nao querp 
que a minha filha danc-e com um cavalheiro d'indystria. £ 
tempo que eu arrang-e dinheiro para pagar o aluguel da casa. 
Nao 6 preciso que o Sr. pagu-e tudo d'uma vez. O meu desejo 
6 que a casa fiqu-e no mesmo estado at6 a minha volta. Nao 
queremos que alguem semei-e a discordia entre n^s. Todos os 
dias rogo a Deos que nos {us) protej-a de semelhante flagello. £ 
possivel que taes cousas acontegao no nosso seculo? — ^Talvez 
quereis que eu seja {mbj, pres, of ser) mais explicito? B6go a 
Deos que sejas feliz. Vm<^ nao pode (ean) esperar que um me- 
. nino de seis annos seja tao prttdente como um homem da sua 
(your) idade. A religiao prescreve que shames obedientes ds 
leis. Talvez que ella est^a (mbj, pr, of estar) doente. Precisa 
que as cartas estejdo promptas 4s 4 e meia da tarde. Nao penso 
que eu tenha melhores prospectos do que o Sr. Para alcan^ar 
isto, precisa que elles tenhao mais habilidade do que outros. 
Duvido que hc^a (haver) homem mais ordinario do que elle. — 
Nao 6 possivel que a Sra. sua mai tenha permittido isto. Nao 
ha um s6 entre os mens collegas que nao tenha sido objecto do 
escarneo d'aquelle miserav^l. Duvido que estas cousas tenhao 
acontecido antes da minha partida. 

Falla! fallail Fatl^ (i. e. falle Vmc^, gpeahf) Principie! 
(begin/) Esper-em I (i. e. esperem Vmcte, wait/) Entre I (come 
J^n!) Respond-al Des^-aol Fig-al fuj-aol Seja prudentel 
iHejao applicados I Esteja quieto I Est^ao contentcs cono o que 
t6m 1 Tenha paciencia I Tenha mao I (= handi off!) — Se^amat 
prudentes I (= let us he pr.) Fallemos (let us speah) com fran- 
queza, S4ia! (sahir) saiamosi Yendamos tudo e figamosl — 
Que saia (i, e. que elle s.), que m^importa I (what do I care !) Que 
ti\iQ^%rxL\ (let them come !) — Naoraefallesf Nak> desespereis ! 
Nao gritem (i. e, Yxn^) tanto I Nao seja importono 1 Nao 

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LESSON zxzn. Ill 

chore t NSo pense n^isto t NSk) tenbSo medo t Oh Deoe I noo 
permittais que tal (9ueh a thing) scontecal 

The mljunctwe mood has, in Portaguese, three simple tenseSi 
the present, the preterit (imperfect) and the ftitnre, of which we 
give here the present tense. In the first conjugation its termina- 
tions are «, es, «, emosj eu^em; in the second and third conjuga- 
tions a, as^ a, amos, ais, 3o (am). Let the student rememher the 
rnles concerning the orthographical and euphonic changes of the 
character, given in Lessons XVIIL and XIX. (come-^r, oome- 
ce; fi-car, Si-que; pa-^ar, ^SL-gue; arran-jar, arran-^^; sem-«ar, 
sem-eU; aconte-cer, aconte-pa; protc-^«r, prote-ja; fu-^«r, fu- 
ja ; sahir, sdia), Ser makes seja, ettar — ttt^, haver — ht^a, ter- 
tenha, all four after the second conjugation. The present perfect 
tense is formed hj tenha and the past participle : eu tenha fal- 
lado, etc. 

Of the nature and use of the subjunctive mood we shall speak 
in the proper place. For the present it will be sufficient to saj 
that the verb is put in the subjunctive mood after words expres- 
sing a wish, an order, a possibility or doubt; also .after the con- 
junctions ainda que or posto que, though, c^m que or para que, 
in order that, and some others. 

The subjunctive mood also supplies the imperative with such 
forms as are wanting in the latter : 1) The third jierson singular 
and plural, generally accompanied by the conjugation que; f. i. 
que fall-e, que faU-em, let him or them speak (he or they may 
speak). 2) The first person plural : fall-emos, let us speak. 8) 
The common term of politeness in addressing a person bein^ a 
substantive {Vm^, F. 8,, o Sr,, a Sra,, etc.), the verb must be iiv 
the third person. Thus the imperative speak may be rendered 
in four diflferent ways, according to the person or persons ad- 
dressed, viz. : falla (tu\ fallai (vos), faUe ( Vm<^, fallem { F#»«*»). 
In conversation, the third person singular or plural is generally 
used. 4) The whole negative imperative {prohibitive is taken 
from the subjunctive ; f. i. do not speak, ndk? fall-es {tu), ndo 
falUeis (vSs), nao faU-e ( Ffw«0» ^^ faU-eis ( Vm^) ; nao fall- 

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112 LESSON zxzn. 

emo9, let ns not speak. — ^Ilie fdlowing'will thus be the complete 
paradigm of the imperative mood : . 


Second, fall-a (ta) vend-e part-o 

Third. <[ue (elle, ella) fall-e vend-a part-a 

fall-e (Vm«fi, o Sr.) vend-a part-a 


Fvnt. fall-emos vend-amos part-amos 

Second, fall-ai vend-ei part-i 

Third, qne (elles) fall-em yend-ao part-ao 

fall-em ( Vmo^, os Srs vend-Sk) part-So 

Do yon desire that I go on ? (c&ntinnar.) Yonr father desires 
that you return soon. Her mother will not have {ndo quer) that 
she dances waltzes. Is it possible that they frequent such houses f 
It is necessary that we consider these objections. It is hardly 
possible that I remain here to-night* It is probable that they 
arrive in time. It may be {pSde ser^ talvez z=z perhaps) that 
others do not think so. Though I am not rich, I should have 
refused. Do you wish that I protect such miscreants? Religion 
ordains that we assist (aeudir a) the unfortunate. My father 
will not have {n&o qutr) that I visit those people. Is it possible 
that this be true ? (it is true, ^ verdade,) We must (= it is ne- 
cessary that) be more prudent for the future. This man must 
(preeiM que eete h,) have more money than he seems (to) hava 
It suffices that you are present. I doubt that he has the necea*^ 
sary means for this undertaking. It is not true that Mr. F. has 
died. We all regret that you are offended. It is prudent that 
we wait a little longer (maie umpouco). We expect that you ful- 
fil your promise. They want me to give up (= they will that I, 
etc.) my right to this place. I want you to be ready at noon. 
-Though this (should) happen, I shall not alter my opinion. We 
want him to stay till night, y . 

[The following, examples of the second person imperative to 
be translated in the/<n/r different ways indicated in B.] 

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LESBOir xxznL . 113 

Come in! Writel Wait! Runt Gall the terv antg I Stop! 
Work! Leave («a^ir dEa) the house I Mount t Desist! Have 
done! {= acahar,) Bemainl Let go! (= largar,) Forgive! 
Be generous I Have pity ! Be faithful to jour masters I {amo.) 
— ^Let us flee I Let us he united ! Let us go in I Let us work 
together I Let us hope that all will be for the better. 

Do not exact this from me ! Do not go out in this terrible 
weather I Do not hesitate I Do not walk so fast I Do not be- 
lieve such stories I Do not be afraid (to be afraid s ter meio) ! 
Do not be cruel to {para) animals I 



Mnt Second. Third. 

eu fall-asse vend-esse part-isse 

tu — asses coses ^isses 

elle — asse esse isse 

nos — ^ssemos 6 s8emos ^issemos 

v6s &sseis d sseis ^fsseis 

dies — assem essem ^issem 

Maita gente pediu que o espectaonlo principi-asse iA oito e 
meia. Se olh-assem mais aos sens negooios, elles nao estariao 
tao embara^ados. Se recei-assemos tal consa, procederiamos 
d^uma maneira differente. Se eu falt-asse aos mens deveres, os 
mens subaltemos imitariao o men exemplo. O imperador Au- 
gusto recommendou no sen testamento aos Romanos que nao 
procur-assem estender os limites do imperio por novas guerras. 
Seria predso que eu escrev-esse ao Sr. barao de B. Sens pais 
queriao que elle aprend-esse o officio de sapateiro. Ella seria 
inconsolavel, se tal acontec-esse. A nossa ruina seria completa, 
se perd-essemos este processo. Tom4ra que chov-esse (= / wish 
it would rain). De primeiro (at first) ella nao queria que eu 
l^se a carta. O que seria de n6s (what would become of us), se a 

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religiao e as leis nao cohib-issem os crimes I £n cahiria doente, 
86 dorm-isse tao ponco. EUe nao fallaria assim, se nao sent-isse 
quanto a sua sitna^ao 6 precaria. Se Vmc^ reflect-isse nm ponco, 
acharia que eu tenho razao (that lam right), Se permitt-issemo$ 
isto uma vez, dariamos um precedente perigoso. 

EUe foi meu generoso protector durante a minha mocidade. 
Se isto fo88e (were) verdade, eu teria tornado as medidas precisas 
para castigar a sua insolencia. Se muo/assemos pobres, os nossos 
parentes nos visitariao. Tanto luxo seria imperdoavel, ainda 
que elies fossem ricos como Creso {Croesus),— ^vl tive a honra de 
conversar com Y. Exc^ no ultimo baile. Se eu tivesse as van- 
tagens que tu tens, eu seria ontro homem. Ainda que ym«* 
tivesse o poderoso auxilio do Sr. seu cunhado, estou certo qne 
Vmc^ nao succederia. Se tivessemos ^hos^ de certo {certairdy) 
nao morariamos n^um lugarejo tao retirado. Muitos dariao gra- 
mas a Decs, se tivessem recebido tao boa educa^ao como tu. 8e 
eu tivesse esperado at6 agora, j& seria tarde (it would he too late), 
— Hontem estive em casa do Sr. Dr. (doutor) M. Ainda que isto 
fstivesse no meu poder, eu nao o (it) permittiria. — ^Nunca houve 
homem mais teimoso do que Vmc6. Se nao houvesse outro re- 
medio, Vm^^ seria justificado em proceder assim. 

The subjunctive preterit (imperfect) is formed from the hia- 
torical preterit (as is best seen in the irregular verbs wr, ter, etc.) 
by the terminations asse^ esse^ isse in the respective coigugations. 
The tonic accent is always on thQ first syllable of these termina- 
tions. 8er makes fosse (S), estar^estivesse, ter — tivesse, haver — 


It would perhaps be more profitable tliat I should accept your 
offers. I wanted him to (= eu queria qtie elle) stop at (em) my 
house. If we believed this, we should not remain one day in 
the city. If I spoke French, I should go to Paris. If you knew 
(eonhecer) the dangers of my position, you would not be so ready 
to blame my precaution. - If the happiness of these young men 
depended on (de) our efforts, they would not have suffered 80 

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long (tanto tempo). Thej acted as if (eomo u) those laws did not 
exist. If we preferred our old place (montda) to this one, we 
should go back {voltar} there (para Id). If yon followed the 
advice (pltir.) of joar friends, joa wonid be in better circnm- 
stances. K I were yon, I should publish this affair in every 
newspaper of the kingdom. If she were envious, she would not 
praise her rival with so much rancerity. If we were your ene- 
mies, we should not have given our protection to your son. If 
you were true Christians, you would be more generous to {para 
com) your enemies. If they were sincere in their professions of 
friendship, they would it (o) show by their actions. I should be 
the happiest of men, if I had such children. If we had the means, 
we should rent a country-house in the neighborhood of L. He 
continued his visits, as if nothing had happened. If she were ill, 
she would not go out so late. If I had known ($aber) this, I 
should not have gone to E. How should you act, if you were in 
my place? They would not have the courage to stay, if we 
were not with them. "We should Iiave chosen your city, if there 
were a library there (alU). 



Fvnt Second. Third, 

eu fEdl-ar vend-er part-ir 

tu — ^ares o res ires 

elle ar er , ir 

n6s — armos erm*^ irmos 

v6s ardes e rdes irdes 

elles — ^arem erem ■ irem 

Se elle pergunt-ar (if he [shouM] ask, should he ash), precisarA 
que o Sr. responda. Quando os Srs. F. mand-arem as fazendas 
que comprei, tenha Vm«^ a bondade de chamar meu irmao. Se 
ficar-mos aqui, procuraremos outra casa. Se isto nao bast-ar, 
mandarei mais. Quando os nossos companheiros chegar-em. 

Digitized by VjjOOQIC 


116 LWSSON xxxnr. 

partiremos juntos. Quando Ym<^ esorev-er, nao mencione a 
chegada da minha tia. 80 elles respond-erem affirmati^^amenteiy 
parta no instante. Quando eu morr-er, deizarei toda a minha 
fortuna ao hospital do X. Se vencer-mos esta difficuldade, 
poderemos gritar victoria. Srs. jurados 1 se absolv-erdes este r6o, 
establecereis um precedente pertgoso. Se os inimigos renn-irem 
as snas for^as, nao poderemos mais resistir. Se elle fug-ir outra 
vez, eUe recebera nm castigo exemplar. Se ouv-irdes gritos, 
acudi logo. Quando eu sah-ir, feche todas as portas. Se sue- 
cumh-lrmos n'esta Incta, ficaremos {yat MhaU he) reduzidos 4 
miseria. — ^Vm«* ir4 quando /or (ser) tempo. Se f5r preciso, eu 
mesmo irei la. Se f6rmos felizes n'esta especula^ao, daremos 
um esplendido haile. Se Vm«** f6rem prudentes, nao duyido do 
seu successo. Nao sacrificarei os interesses dos mens filbos a 
quem quer que f6r (= whoever it may be^ to tDhomsoeter), Quando 
tiver (ter) tempo^ escreverei ao Sr. F. Quando Vm^* tiver 
oocasiao, mande estes livros d D. Glara. Se tivermos uma re- 
Yolucao, a ruina d'aquelles estabelecimentos serd inevitayeL 
Quando tiveres acabado as tuas tarefas, poderds ir brincar. 
Quando tiverdes perdido vossos pais, entao reconhecereis a vossa 
ingratidao. Se elle tiver trahido o nosso segredo, elle nao sera 
mais admittido em nossa casa. Guarde os seus conselhos para 
quando eu tiver precisao d'elles. Seja isto como f6r (he ihi$ a$ it 
may), elle 6 o culpado. Se elle nao estiver (estar) em casa, volte 
logo. Quando estivermos em P., Ym^^ terd notioias nossas por 
cada paquete. Acharei este homem, esteja onde estiver (wherever 
he may he), Se houver (haver) espectaculo hoje, iremos 14 com 
OS nossos hospedes. Levarei as minhas filhas ao primeiro baile 
que houver n'este inverno. 

The subjunctive future is also formeo'from the historical per- 
feet, by the terminations or, er, «>, as shown in the paradigm 
JS^i ter, estar, harer make for (always, written with the circum' 
flex), tiver, estiver, houver, — ^Thfa tense is principally used after 
se, if, and quando, when, in connection with a fntiire or impera^ 
tive. In conditional sentences, the conjunction (^ is, in English, 



LEssoK xxnv. 117 

often omitted, which is impossible in Fortagnese ; f. L m Mt achoTy 
if I find or should find, = should I find; m elU titers if ha 
(should) have, shotdd he have. 


If the rain continues, we shall not go ont Should I como 
hack sooner than I expect, we shall have time to {para) go there. 
If yon (second sing.) confess all, you will not be chastised. If 
we annul these contracts, the public will eiyoy greater security. 
If they wait till the end of the year, it will be too late (= jd urd 
tarde). Should they arrive before the 22d of August, it will yet 
be time. If you (second plur.) consider the high dignity of your 
office, you will not give this permissiop. If you undertake this 
Journey, I should wish to be (degejdra ser) your companion. If 
I live until that time, you may ( Vm<>^ poderd) reckon upon (com) 
my assistance. If the directors establish this as (a) general rule, " 
several people (alffuns) will suffer great losses. If the testimony 
of that wretch is worth more than my word of honor, the shame 
will be for you, not for me. If we commit the least indiscretion, 
all our efforts will be frustrated. If the distance exceeds three 
miles, they will receive each 400 rs. per (por) mile. If I do not 
discover the error, I shall lose my place. Should they prefer 
this arrangement, you will have the kindness to (de) famish the 
necessary documents. What shall you answer, if he demands 
those papers ? When we unite our efforts, we shall be invincible. 
— ^If this be true, it will be so much the worse for them. If we 
are true (Jiel) to our principles, we need not fear the enmity of 
such men. Do not refuse, if the conditions are acceptable. I 
shall have no rest as long as (emquanto) 1 have no news of that 
poor young man. If they have good coffee, you may buy 8 ot 
4 pounds. Carry (levar) these patterns to Mr. N., when you 
have dined. When we have finished this business, we shall take 
(dor) a walk. You shall have the place, if it be in my power. 
When the children are tired, take an omnibus. Should there b# 
no grapes in the market, buy some pears and apples. 

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118 LESSON rxxv. 




Present indicative of dor, to give: don, das^^dd, damos, dais, 
dao ; mbjunetive: d^, d^ d^, demos, dels, d^m ; historical pre- 
terit: del, d^ste, den, demos, d^stes, d^rao; pluperfect: d^ra; 
sulffunctive imperfect: d^sse; suly^unctive future: d6r. 

Quanto da Vmo^ por (for) este oarallo ? Nao dou 10$000 rs. 
por elle. Tn me d&s maito cuidado. Gada amio damos 50$000 
rs. & Sancta Oasa {t?M hospital), Y6s dais um m^ exemplo d 
mocidade. Elles dao nm baile no primeiro sabbado de cada mez. 
Nao exija o Sr. qne en d6 satisfa^ao a semelhante velhaco. Kao 
qnero qne tn des nm s6 vint^m 4qnelles vagabnndos. De atten- 
Oao ao qne est4 fazendo ! £ preciso qne demos todo o cnidado 
d edncagao dos nossos filhos. Nao deis ouvidos as insinna^oes 
dos invejosos ! Nao emprestarei nada a estes homens, sem que 
d^m bons fiadores. F. dava mais cnidado a sens pais do qne todos 
OS sens irmaos juntos. Cada semana davamos nm peqneno con- 
certo. Parece qne nao dei corda ao men relogio (dar corda ao 
r. = to wind up the watch), D^ste agua aos cavallos? Dei, 
sim, senhor. O menino estk cborando, porqne den (or bateu) 
com a cabe^a na porta. K ao teoba medo I nao demos o menor 
valor a estas insinna^oes. Y 6s d^stes o primeiro impulse a este 
inovimdnto. As investiga^oes da commissao nao d^rao resnltado. 
Tudo isto den em nada (?iad no result), Ella den a Inz nm par 
de g^meos, um menino e uma menina. 3k d^rao 5 boras ? Elle 
queria qne en d6sse as oostas (= the cold shoulder) a F. Seria 
(era) preciso que Vm®* d6sse com^go ao sen trabalbo. O govema- 
dor exigin de nos que d^ssemos conta de tudo quanto presendA- 
mos. O commandante orden&ra ds sentinellas que dessem entrada 
s6 a pessoas munidas d^nm passaporte assignado pelo (= por o) 
ministro da guerra. Isto acontecen depois qne eu d^ra a minha 
demissao. 'Em breve daremos i Inz (= to ptcblish) a biograpbia 

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do fallemdo Sr. bispo de P. Se elle der parte (in/ormatton^ to 
inform) do acontecido ao sea amo, Ym^^ 8er& infallivelmente 
demittido. Qaando derem onze horas, accorde os criadoa. Ea 
daria a metade da minha fortuna para possuir os conhecimentos 
d^aqnelle sabio. Elles nao dariao ouvidos aos mens queizames. 
Infelizmente elle dea em beber (= took to drinking), Se dermos 
a entender que Bomos sabedores do sen segredo, o nosso projecto 
ser4 frnstrado. Dai esmolas aos pobres I Dem atten^ao I Elle 
4 mnito dado (jtoeiable, affectionate), Aqnelle mo^o 6 dado ao 
jogo (jgiiven to gambling). Ella estd dando a sua lif ao de canto. 
(O mestre toma as li^^oes, o discipnlo dd a sna li^ao ; but alio : 
F. dd li^oes de mnsioa; better^ ensina a mnsica.) 

Eston prompto. Onde est^ ? Esta claro I Eston qne sim 
(familiar: Ithink^ yei). Estamos em Maio. Estais contentes? 
Elles estao a espera (waiting for) de Ym*^. Qne boras sao ? 
Esta para dar 4 boras (= it i$ going to itrihe^ on the $trohe of 4 
o'clock), £ impossivel que estejamos tao perto de 0. P6de ser 
que elles estejao aqni antes d^este tempo. Esteja descansado I 
(= be comforted^ do not be afraid^ Estejamos 41erta I O que 
estava elle fazendo? -'Todas as senboras estavao em p6 (^ere 
standing), Eu estava para sahir (yoat \about\ going out% quando 
recebi o sen recado. Estavamos todos em mangas de camisa, 
E:4tlTe mmtos annos no BraziL Estiveste hem (verp) perto de 
morrer. Minba tia esteve mais de tres mezes de cama. Nao 
estivemos no caso (in the position) de prestar servi^os tao impor- 
tantes. Onde estiverao Ymc6«? Se eu estivesse certo d'isto, 
escreveria logo a men pai para qne mandasse o dinbeiro necessa- 
rio. Se estivesse nas minbas maos, Ym^^ sabiria bem depressa " 
dos seus embara^os. Quando estiver em Londres, irei todas as 
noites ao theatro. Qaando estivermos livres d'estas difSouldades, 
iremos 4 nossa cbaoara. Se elles estiverem ainda dormindo, 
Tolte logo. Ella estiv^ra n'um convento. Tenho estado doente 
por mais d'um mez. 


Tbe object of an active and transitive verb being a substantive^ 
it is generally placed qfter tbe verb, witbout any distinguisbing 

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sign. We shall see in the next Lesson, b j what means' the For^ 
tuguese langnage avtoidfl amWguity in this case. 

There are only two irregular verbs in the first conjugation, 
d^ar and t^tar ; the irregular forms of the former are given in A., 
the latter ia already known. The imperative e»td^ estai is hardly 
ever tised. 

In order to facilitate the learning of the irregular verbs, we 
beg to direct the attention of the student to the following obser- 
Yfltions : 

1. Alw^ays or mostly regular are: both participles^ the imr- 
ptraike mood (see Lessons VII. and XXXIL), the future and 
ttmditional tenses (derived from the infinitive), the descriptive 
preterit in the indicative mood, and the first and second persons 
plaral at i\i^ present indicative. 

2. The present subjunctite is, with few exceptions, derived 
from tlie first person singular of the present indicative. From 
the lirat person singular of the historical preterit are derived a) 
the p^rfc^i preterit or pluperfect (the simple form), h) the «m6- 
junctire imperfect^ and c) the subjunctive future, 

}n the paradigms, we shall give only the irregular forms, in 
their order of derivation. 

Another point worthy of attention is the variety of significa- 
tions and the idiomatic use of some of the irregular verbs, which 
the student will do well to learn by heart. 

The prl broke a glass. I heard voices in the acyoining room. 
My friends here (d'aqui) know nothing of this affair. I feel an 
intolerable coldness in my (= the) back. This king treated his 
subjects like slaves. This gives room for (a) grave suspicions 
agflinit you, I set (give) no value on (a) his promises. Our vine- 
yards yield in good years about 80 pipes of excellent wine. It 
is quite disgusting (= da nSjo). Let us not listen (= dar ouH- 
dm) to such odious insinuations. Give this book to your father. 
I wind up my watch every morning after Xdepois do) breakfast 
Yon pay (give) no attention to what I am saying. The clock of 
St. Paurs church struck {dar) seven. Your speculation will 

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yield (dar) littJe profit (Itiero). They strack (dor em) the old 
man with bladgeona. Our captain ran (dar earn) the vesBel 
ashore. Turn jonr head, so that (de maneira que) the sun will 
not shine (dar, subj. pres.) into yonr eyes. I resigned (dar baixa) 
some years ago. Ton will give account of your conduct to your 
superior. It would be better for your health, if you took a long 
walk every morning,* instead of sleeping till nine o^dock. Here 
is the book which I had given to your cousin. Should he give 
to you permission to (para) go out, would you have (condit.) 
the kindness to deliver this letter to Mr. A. ? This b very clear 
{= isto da nos olhos). 

Our country stands on {eohre) a volcano. I am not ilL You 
are in danger. He was then in Berlin. The books lay on (em- 
eima de) the table. We are in the power of a generous enemy. 
You are lost I (They) say that she is dying (= eetar para 
morrer). Where have you been f (hist pret.) We were at Mr. 
A.'s. The weather was very bad. On the first of June I shall 
be with you. Where can he be ? (fut. of eetar,) If this had not 
happened, we should still be there. Though I am very poor, I 
would (queria) not change [places] with you. Perhaps (takee 
que) she is ill. Should they be absent, deliver the letter to one 
of the clerks. Be ready on the 2d of March ! Let us be pre- 
pared for any contingency. 


Temer a Deos e amar ao§ nossos proximos sao os principaes 
preceitos da religiao christaa. Francois Bavaillac assassinou a 
Henrique IV., rei da Franca, em 1610. Antonio mandou (or- 
dered) matar a Cicero. Os Bomanos expuls&rao a Tarquinio o 
soberbo no anno de 509 antes de Jesus-Ohristo. 

S. M. o imperador nomeou presidente da provincia de P. oo 
Sr.' barao de M. Men cunhado foi nomeado tenente-coronel, A 
sua nomea^ao de collector das rendas fbi revogada. A assembUa 

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©ntfio elegeu um presidente. O Sr. F. foi eleito (elected) seerettM^ 
Ho, poFO o {him) proclamou rei. O governo os {them) fez 
{madi) responsaveis. D'esta inaneira elle se tornon (= became) 
indispensaveL A noite se est4 tornando tempestuosa. Eu o fiz 
(made) socio, De soldado elle se tornou trade. Estd ficando frio 
(= it it getting cold), O tempo est4 esfriando. Estas ficando 
velho {=: envelhecendo). EUes fic4rao ricos (se tom^ao r., 
enriquec6rEo) per especulaQoes pouco louvaveis. Mquei fraco 
CO mo unm criatiQa. Est4 ficando tarde. Ella ficou (tomoa) ver- 
m&lhn como ama. oereja. — ^Eu chamo isto descaramento. Meu 
poi o (Jiim) cbamou de ladrao. 

Kao posso (/ can not) ISr com esta Inz. Nao Uio semelhantes. 
livros, Lda isto ! Eu nunca U aqnelle livro sem um certo sen- 
timento d'hiveja. Passeiavamos juntos, liamos os mesmos livros, 
cantavamoa e tocavamos juntos. O que est4 o Sr. Undo f Jd 
tenlio lido i^to. A leitura de taes livros 6 esteril. Ha um 
gabincte de leitura (reading-roomy library) n^esta cidadet Oha- 
mamo§ a attengao dos leitores a este capitulo. — ^Nao posso erir 
que elle s^ja tao vil. Creio que o filho do Sr. F. 6 padre. Nao 
creia Y. S. que eu seja algum impostor. Os nossos credores nao 
aceibirao estaB condi^oes. A cren^a dos fatalistas 6 pouco con- 
Boladora. — Quanto perdSrdo Yp^. com este negocio? Pouca 
cousa. Oreia D Sr. que in&ia psrisfiiJ^'^isto do que ganho n^aquillo. 
P6de bem ser que elle perca o seu emprego por causa da sua 
neglige Dci a. Nao quero que Vm«fi« perccko um s6 real. As nossas 
perdas forRo pgaco oonsideraveis. — Quanto pode isto Taler f Nao 
tah nada, Um service vale outro. Mais vale (or antes, = 
TuiheT) morrer do que ser escravo. Valeu 1 (= done ! I ctccept /) 
Yalho pouco eomo orador, e ainda menos como poeta. N5o 
creio que isto f^alha a pena (vale a pena, =itis worth while) para 
que Vmc^ se (yourself) incommode. Valha-me Decs I (God help 
me f) que me valeu (helped me^ saved me) na minba desgra^a^ 
foi a minba perse veranda. Este complimento Ihe (to him, him) 
valeu (jjiot^ procured) o titulo de conselheiro. — Quando esereverd 
Vni^^ i\ Bra. sua irmaa I Escrevi hontem. Isto est4 muito bem 
eacripto. A lettra escripta 6 mais difficil a l^r do que a lettra 
impressa. Esta escripta nao ^ feia. Os escriptores nao sao 
(VaoGordo sobre este ponto. 

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The accusative (object.) case is, in Portogoese, sometimes dis- 
tinguished by the preposition a ; this is, however, only the case 
with names of persons (or personal pronouns). It is generally 
done when the object emphatically precedes the verb, as : a meu 
irmao elU odeia como a uma eobra^ my brother he hates like a 
snake. Otherwise it is more a construction of the elevated style 
than of common conversation. 

The faetitite object has no article^ as: the king made him a 
baron, o rei o/ez hardo. The synonymous verbs to tum^ heeomey 
groiD, get are rendered by tamar-se (or tomar) andjiear; the 
original signification of the latter is to remain^ but it is (princi- 
pally in familiar language) used, just like to get, for the reflective 
tomar-ae or the neuter tomar. There are many verbs derived 
from adjectives, indicating a growing or becoming, and tnaking, 
.as enriquecer, to make or grow rich, envelheeer, to grow old, eU' 
gordavy to fatten or grow stout, etc., from rieo, telho, gSrdo. — 
The factitive object of ehamar, to call, to give a name, has the 
preposition de, when it is an epithet of praise or blame, as : ells 
me ehainou de ladrao, de mentiroso, he called me a thief, a 
liar, etc. 

The first class of irregular verbs of the second conjugation 
comprises the verbs lir to read, erir to believe, perder to lose, 
valer to be worth. The present indicative of Ur is Uio, ISa, /«, 
lemos, ledes, ISm (leem); present subjunctive leia; imperative /«, 
ISde; all other forms are regular: lia^ liy Usee, Ur, lira, lerei, 
leria, Undo, lido. CrSr is conjugated in the same manner ; of its 
forms those belonging to the present tense (present indicative 
and subjunctive, imperative, infinitive, and present participle) are 
most in use ; its other forms are, when the sense admits of it, 
substituted from pensar, to think, to believe. (The transitive to 
believe, i. e. to give credit to what is said or told, is aereditar,) 
Perder and valer are irregular only in the first person singular 
of the present indicative, and in the whole of the present sub- 
junctive : indicative eu perco, tu perdes, etc. ; subjunctive eu 
perca, tu per cos, etc. ; indicative eu valho, tu vales, etc. ; sub- 
junctive eu valha, tu valhas, etc. Some write, in the third per- 

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124 LESSON xxXvi. 

son Biogular of the present indicative, val for *vale, but this is 
incorrect and not generally adopted. — JEserever is regular, ex- 
cept in the past participle, eseripto (pronounced, and sometimes 
"written, escHto)\ the regular form escrevido is obsolete. 

The government has appointed a commission of three cap- 
tains; in order to (para) examine the new invention of Lieutenant 
M. The minister of the interior (do reino in Portugal, do im- 
. perio in Brazil) If as appointed Mr. A. president of the committee 
of, etc. Mr. L. was elected speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives (depvtados). She called him a villain. His hair turned 
grey (branco) in one night. My poor father grew old before the 
time. In this way (d'eate modo^ d'esta maneira) you will grow 
rich in less than two years. They are becoming troublesome. 
He is getting very old. From lawyer he turned priest. It is 
growing dark (Jiear escuroy escurecer). He grew pale with (de) 

Where did you read this ? Our boy still reads with some 
difficulty; The old man always read a chapter of the Bible, be- 
fore going to bed (antes de dettar-se). I am reading a very in- 
teresting work on physiology. She had read the letter of her 
nephew, and was rather (assaz) anxious about him (aeerea d^elle). 
Do not read so fast ; read slowly and distinctly (dutinctamente). 
Do you think (crir) that he will come ? I think not (que nSo), 
Do. you believe (acredita/r) this ? Believe me, he is innocent. 
May be (pode aer que) you will lose (pres. subj.) your sight. All 
is lost. I lose no opportunity of being (de ser) useful to my 
country. You will not wish (qtierer) that I lose my reputation. 
If you lose this opportunity, perhaps you will find no other. If 
I had lost this money, I should be a beggar now. They are not 
Worth the salt which they eat. >flow much do yjou think that 
this watch is worth ? It will be worth fifty dollars. This is not 
worth so much .trouble. Perhaps (por Centura) I am not worth 
as much (tanto) as he? It is not worth my while (= ndo me 
^ale a pena). May be it is worth while going there (ir Id). [To 
be worth, in the sense of to possess, to have, is rendered poseuir^ 

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LESSON xsxm. 125 

ter; f . L he is worth at least a hundred thousand dollars, ells 
temy etc.; what may he be worth! quanta terd elUf] Who 
wrote this ? I wrote it (0, before the verb). To whom are 70a 
writing ? He has written several treatises on (wbre) this subject 


ym<^ re^ondeu a esta carta? Oom muita difficuldade esca- 
p4mo8 ao furor da populaca. Resisti oo primeiro impulso da 
c61era ! Ella nao sobreviveu muito tempo d perda de todos os 
sens filhos. Agradeceste a esta senhora por (Jar) sua bondade ? 
Ajade um pouco a este menino t Devo a este homem todo o 
men infortnnio. EUe foi removido do sen posto por ter (/or 
hating) desobedecido ds ordens do sen superior. F. ordenou 00$ 
sens criados que mettessera aquelle si^eito d porta f6ra (to throw 
. . . out of the door), O mestre prohiblra isto oat meninos. A 
quern pediu ym<^ licenca para sahir ? Pedi oo nosso amo. Pro- 
metti dqueUta malandros um castigo exemplar. Quando era 
menino, elle roubava dinheiro a sua mai; agora que 6 homem, 
elle rouba a todos. Isto nao agradard a muita gente. Pergunte 
isto a sen pai ! Eu ensinava o inglez a dous mocos muito in- 
telligentes. Qnero muito hem (querer bem, = to lihe^ to love) a 
ambos. Qnem supprir4 a esta falta? Paguei a importancia 
d'esta conta oo Sr. sen pai. Isto equivale a um castigo. Nao 
posso dar a ym<^ o que recusei ao Sr. sen irmao. 

Ymc^ est4 molhado, precisa que mude de roupa. Mudei de 
intento. Elle muda <f opiniao como de roupa. O men novo 
criado nao me agrada; desconfio da sua honradez. Faltar de 
respeito aos sens pais 6 um gp*ande peccado. F. gozava (Talguma 
reputagao como artista dramatico. ym<^ gosta de laranjas ? ym<^ 
usa de expressoes muito improprias. Nao me foi dado o tempo 
de fruir do repouso esperado. Triumphastes dos vossos inimigos. 

Nao posao sahir agora. Tu nao pddes com elle (/amiliar, = 
he is too etrong or too cUterfor you), Podemos ir ? Nao podeis 

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126 LESSON xxxvn. 

nada contra esta pressao da opiuiao pnblica. Que posso fazer 
para YvaP^ ? Kao creio que o Sr. possa faz6r oousa algnina em 
nosso favor. Tenhao tndo prompto, para que possamos partir 
quanto antes (as soon as possible). Nao pude (pret, hist.) lallar 
com elle. Tu pudeste trahir o tea melhor amigo ? O Sr. nao 
pode arranjar este negocio ? Nao pudemos alcangar o nosso fim. 
Se o men filho pudesse vir, elle estaria aqni ha muito tempo. 
Ymcd pague qnando puder. O commandante nao pudera des- 
cobrir quem era o espiao. Porque nao escreveu o Sr. mais cedo? 
Kao tenho podido, — ^Algum dos Srs. sdbe latim ? En sei. Pode 
ser que elle saibq do negocio. Nao que eu saiba (not that I hnow 
of). Nao sdbia que Ym^ era doutor. S6 hoje eu sovhe (heardy 
learned) que Vm®* estava doente. Tu soubeste isto, e. nao me 
procuraste ? O ladrao soube lograr todos os esforgos da policia. 
Logo que (as soon as) soubemos esta triste noticia, montamos a 
cavallo e partimos pieira a casa de B. Se eu soubesse o que nao 
sei I Qnando tu souberes fallar francez, entao eu te comprarei 
um cavallo. Elle soubera subtrahir-se d justi^a. Ella nao sahe 
nem l^r nem escrever. Saher inglez, e conlieeer a lingua ingleza, 
sao duas cousas differentes. Eu sei f jUar inglez, mas nao pre- 
tendo conhecer esta lingua a fundo (thoroughly). Conheces este 
homem ? Nao o conhe^o, mas sei que elle 6 Inglez. — ^Hoje nao 
pode haver espectaculo, por causa da chuva. S. M. o imperador 
houve por bem (gra^donsly resolved) acceitar o protectorado da 
nossa sociedade. J4 nao havia agua nos tanques e nas cistemas. 
Pcnsei que houvesse concerto hoje.'VQuando howoer flores, eu te 
enviarei um ramo cada dia; agora nao as (tJiem) ha (now there 
are none). Dous proveitos nao eabem n'um sacco [an adage], 
P6de ser que o quadro eaiba n^este caixao. Isto nao cabe no 
meu poder. Na casa nao cabia toda a gente. Coube ao Sr. conde 
de L. de presidir. Seria melhor se o piano eoubesse entre estas 
duas portas. Mas nao eaberia f Creio que nao. — Tenho muito 
prazer em ver V. S. Praza a Decs I (would to God.) Prouve 
(or aprouve) ao Omnipotente chamar a si (to Himself) o meu 
filhinho. Prouvira! (i. e. prouv^ra a Deos, would to God!) 
Nao me apraz (= it pleases me not). A.(\M\jaaem os restos mor- 
taes de F. " Aqui ja« a alma do licenciado Pedro Garcia." 



LEBBON xxzvn. 127 

A number of verbs, that in Engliflh have a direct object 
(accnsative), require in Portognese the preposition a with this 
object (dative). They are chiefly the following : the verbs sig- 
nifying to ash^ leg^ anmoer, ucape^ pleMCy amtre^ teach^ tAanky 
itealy pay^ cMty refuse^ envyy remedy ^ retiety •atiefy, equaly aidy 
and perhaps a few more. There are some other verbs, which 
require the preposition de: mudar, to change, ^Mtor, to like, 
gozar^ to eigoy, preeisar^ to want, tMor, to use, ainttary to abuse, 
eonfiary to trust, deeconjiary to mistrust or suspect, Jhiiry to en- 
joy. The verbs to admity to aeupty which in English require 
the preposition ofy have in Portuguese the direct object : admittiry 
aeeitar alg, eotua. 

Irregular verbs: 1) Poder, to be able (I can, could) ; present 
indicative posaoy podeSy pddey podemoiy podeit, pddem (mark the 
accent); present subjunctive, posea; preterit historical, pudCy 
pudestey pSdey pudemo$y etc.; pudeite; puder; pudira (or po- 
dency podeVy poderay but u is preferable). 2) SaJbeVy to know ; 
present indicative, eeiy eahety etc.; subjunctive, eaiba; preterit 
historical, eoube (pronounce 9tibe)y souheetey ioube (pronounce $6he)y 
etc.; §oubes9e; eouber; eoubSra. 8) Cabery to be contained, = 
eaber, 4) Eaoer. 6) Praur and apraeery to please, and 6) 
jaser^ to lie, are defective and only used in certain phrases; in 
the third person singular qf the present indicative they have 
praz (apraz\j(u; subjunctive, prazoyjaza; preterit historical, 
proutCy jouve (the latter obsolete). 

The difference between the auxiliary yerhB poder (to be able, 
I can, may) and edber (to know) is obvious : ndo posso ISry be- 
cause it is too dark, my eyes are too weak, etc. ; nSo sei Wr, be- 
cause I did not learn it. Not so the difference between eaber 
and eonheeer ; the examples in A. give a correct idea of this dif- 
ference. To know a person is always eonJ^eer, [For those who 
know French, it will suflSce to remember, that podeTy w5er, 
eonheeer correspond exactly with pouvoir^ eavoiry eonnaitre,] - 


- His speech pleased everybody. "When shall you answer my 




letter. of the 25tli last? (= do mez passado,) Wliom am I to 
thank (devo agradecer) for (par) this favor? ^ow are your 
children ? They are all well (bon8\ thank God (grapoi a Deos). 
How much do I owe you ? You owe this to the memory of your 
'mother. He resisted the temptations of wealth and fame. F. 
did not survive long the loss of his wi5e. I taught my children 
to (a) speak the truth and to respect the laws. Who taught you 
(Jihe^ for a Vm<^) this ? I can not refuse this man my assistance. 
You aided my son in his efforts to {para) gain an honorable 
position. In {de) what manner shall we be able to remedy this 
evil ?, This may cost your brother his life (transl. the life to 
your brother). I begged your father to consider (= that he 
should consider) the consequences of this step. Did you ask 
Mr. M. about (acerca de) the house which we were going to buy 
(= iamos eomprar)^ — Do you like (are you fond of) peaches? 
.1 do not like that man. You eigoy the reputation of a most 
honest man. Until to-day I have not changed (my) opinion 
with regard to (a respeito de) his conduct. We want a more 
energetic man than he (is). You mistrust your best friends. 
These rumors want (carecer) confirmation. ^ 

Oan you go out ? I can not dance in these shoes. She could 
not resist the temptation. Speak loud, so that (para que) all 
can hear. If I could alter this state of things, I should not have 
wiuted until now. We shall not be able to attend (a eompanhar) 
the funeral. I shall pay this bill as soon as (assim que) 1 shall 
be able (subj. fut.). You may go. May I came in ?— Can you 
write ? Yes, I can. We did not know where you lived (tnorar). 
Only yesterday I learned (saber) that Mr. and Mrs. F. (o 8r. F. e 
$ua senhora) had arrived. He could not answer these questions. 
I can not answer this question, because the secret is not mine. 
If you knew what I know, you would not go there. When he 
will know this, I believe that he will go mad (tomar loueo). 
This is known all over (= in all) the town. I do not know him ■ 
personally (pessoalmente), but I know that he is an officer of 
cavalry. This lad knows almost every house of the town. I 
doubt that he knows where I am. — So many persons (gente) do 
not go (caber) into this vessel. The theatre did not hold (eaher; 




transl. in the theatre) the multitude of spectators. — No donbt I 
(s there is no donbt.) There was a terrific thnnderstorm in the 
neighborhood of B. Let there be (que ndo A.) no noise here. — 
It pleased Gk>d to visit onr £ftmilj with great misfortanes. Would 
to God that we were out (litrei) of this danger t There lie the 
rains of the mighty city of Carthage (Carthoffo). Here lies onr 
little son. 


Tenha a bondade de me trazer os livros qne Ihe (to you^ you) 
tenho emprestado. *^ Aqoi tos trago gnerra e paz: escolheil " 
O que trazea n^este sacoo ? EUe tras o signal da infamia na testa. 
Qnem estd & testa d^aqneDa empreza ? Algnns jomaes tratem a 
noticia do fallecimento do Sr. bispo de P. Ella trazia (wore) 
nrna rosa no cabello. Qnem trotixe (pronounced tr6oe) esta carta ? 
En a (it) trouxe (on = n). Trouxesto o dinheiro ? Trouxemoo 
OS papeis de que Vm«* fallen. En trarei tudo quanto f5r neces- 
sario. Se tiressemos sabido isto, teriamos trazido algnns amigos 
para %|udar aos Srs. Ym^^ qner que en traga a minha rabeqa ? 
Traga una v61a 1 Traga luz I (bring a light) Traga fogo I (a 
light, to light a cigar with,) Traze o ten irmao. Ella me man- 
don dizer (tent me word) que en trouxesse o retrato da miuha 
irmaa. Quando o Sr. trouxer os liTros que eu Ihe (you) empres- 
tei, entao Ihe darei estes. Trcusei os prisioneiros ! Leve este 
vestido k D. Maria. Levei os meninos a escola. O criado levon 
a carta, mas nSo trouxe resposta. 

Quern 6 aquelle stgeito ? Nao sei dizer. Nao digo o contra- 
no. Que dizesi (= you donH say aof) Ella diz isto por brin- 
cadeira (or por brincar, in jesf), O que dizem os Srs. a isto ? 
Men pai sempre dizia que um hypdcrita, nm adulador, um in- 
trigante e um preguicoso erao igualmente (equally) despreziveis. 
Eu nao dieee isto para offender a Vm«fi. EUe me disse que talvez 
nao podia vir hoje. O que disserdo elles a este respeito ? EUe 
nao disse mais palarra. El-rei dissera que nao abandonaria este 



130 LESSON xxxvni. 

projecto. £a direi tndo ao 6r. sen pd. qne dirdo ellea, 
qnando sonberem isto! Mnitos dirido que elle estava lonco. 
Precisa que en diga isto a meu amo. Nao diga isso ! Diga a 
verdade I Diga-me (I say /). Se en dissesse tndo o qne sei, seria 
peior para Vmcfi. Be ella dialer qne aim, precisard qne Vm«* 
escreya logo k minha mat O qne est4 o Sr. dizendo t Isto nao 
diz respeito {does not regard) a Sra. sna tia. O Sr. padre F. dir& 
amanhaa, na igr^a de S. Pedro, nma missa para o etemo reponso 
do fallecido Sr. N. Diga adeos {good hye) a papai. Isto nao 
qner dizer nada. Qne qner dizer isto? {what does that meant) 
Nao tenho dito isto. Est4 dito ! {done !) 

Nao ^oifaaer isto. £n faffo isto s6mente {only) para agradar 
ao Sr. O qne y^z^em elles agora? Isto nao yizis differen^a. Nao 
faz frio. O men relogio me faz mnita falta (/ miss my watch 
very much), Todas as semanas faziamos peqnenas ezcnrsoes. En 
^ (pret. hist.) nm reqnerimento & camara municipal. Fizeste o 
qne en disse ? ym<^ fez o qne nao devia fazer. Hontem -fez 
trinta annos qne chegnei a esta cidade. Nao Jkemos caso {we 
paid no attention) d^essas calnmnias. EUes fizer&o qnanto {om 
much as, wTiatever) podiao. En Jizera todos os esforgos, mas em 
vao. Seria preciso qne en mesmo j^zesse tndo. Se fizer mnito 
frio esta noite, Vm«? poderd ficar em casa. No proximo anno 
en farei nma viagem para Lisboa. Amanhaa fard qninze dias 
{a fortnight) qne elle partin. O qne faremos agora? Se en 
estivesse na posi^ao do Sr., faria o mesmo. Mnitos fariao ontro- 
tanto. Qne qner qne en faga? {what will you haw ms dot) 
Fapamos todos os esfor^os, para qne elles nao nos ^anbem {oter- 
take), l^sio fa^ barnlhol Fa^a-me o favor {or simply faca 
favor, do me the favor, be so Jcind, please) de fechar aqnella porta. 
Isto tem feito mnito mal ao Sr. Para satisfazer k sna vaidade, 
elle seria capaz de sacrificar os iilteresses mais sagrados. Ym^* 
estd satisfeito ? Hontem fiz annos (= was my birthday). Qnantos 
annos fez ? Tenho agora 25 annos. Depois d^amanhaa {the day 
after to-morrow) tn far&s 14 annos. Fa^a for^a ! (= pull, push^ 
etc,, hard!) Os soldados fizerao fogo {fired) sobre a multidao 
inerme. Esta noticia fez com qne partissemos mais cedo (mads 
us, caused us to start sooner), Dito, feito {said and done). 




Irregnilar verbs: traur^ to bring, to wear^ duer^ to say, to 
tell, fazer^ to do, to make. — Present indicatiye, trago^ iraus^ 
traZj trazemas^ etc. ; digo^ dUeiy du^ dizematy etc ; fagOy fauHy 
fazy JiMzemoiy etc. ; present sabjonctiye, traguj diga, fa^; pre- 
terit historical, trouxe, dizse {dice\ fiz^ fizezU^ fez^ JlzemoZy etc. ; 
its derivatives trauxesse, ditsezzej fizzne; trouxefy dizter^ fizer; 
trottx^aj dissera^ Jkera ; past participle, trazido^ ditOyfeito, 

The letter x in trouxe and its derivatives is pronoonced zz; ou 
=^ u in the first person singular of the preterit historical (as in 
zoube^ from zdber), Dizze and its derivatives are written by some 
dieZy dicezzZy etc, and diAto for dito. 

The stadent will have observed that the perianal pronaunz, 
when objects of the verb (whether accusative or dative) are gen- 
erally placed ^^or^the finite veri>; they are in the accusative 
mzy Uy o (him, it), a (her, it), noz^ wt (without accent, o almost 
= u)y <M, az (them) ; dative = accusative, except in the third 
person singular, Ihe (to him, to her, to it, or him, etc.), plural 
Ihez (to them, them). The latter, referring to Vinfi^y stand for 
to youy you; the accusative, o, «, etc., relating to Ffw*^, are 
rather avoided. See Lesson VI. 

Here I bring something which will please the children. The 
empress wore a diadem of immense value. Did you bring these 
flowers ? Our vessel brought from France a great assortment 
<^ ladies^ bonnets {chapeoz de zenhora) of the latest (ultimo) 
fashion. I shall bear (trazer) this in mind (na memorial He 
had brought his cousin, in order to confirm the truth of his 
assertion. Shall I (= will you that I) bring the newspaper of 
to-day ? It would be more convenient for me {para mim\ if 
you brought my bill on the 3d of every month. When they 
bring the chairs, they may take with them (= lecar) the round 
table that stands in the little parlor (salinha). Bring some (um 
poueo de) water 1 Bring your girls [with you], — I dare not say 
what I think. I do* not say that you have stolen the money. 
Nobody says that. You do not say what you think. I did not 

y Google 

. 132 BESsosr XXXIX. 

nnderstand a word of what he said. "Who said so {isto) ? Many 
said that^ he had died of a wound received in the battle of M. 
Though (ainda que) they all (= all they) say the contrary, I 
.know that it is trne. Tell to your master, that I shall go there 
^ this afternooiulf men said all (tudo o que) they think, we should 
hear many unexpected things. My son will tell you where those 
people live. They will say that th^y had no time. What would 
your father say, if he knew this? Who should have said (= 
would say) this of Mr. R. ? I have said this twice, but I shall 
say it no more (=1 shall not it say more). — ^A child could not 
do this. What are you doing ? I do not care for (=faeer <m8o 
de) what they say. The Indians of this tribe make many curious 
things of wood and horn. It is very hot. Never mind I (nOo 
faz mal.) At the time of Homer {Romero) the Greeks made 
their arms of copper or bronze. I made a parcel of some clothes 
and departed before sunrise. This affair did you great harm 
{yauito mal). The rats made a hole in the bottom of the piano. 
We did all we could. If I did what they want, I should be a 
great fool. We took the intrenchments, without that (sem que^ 
with the subj.) the enemies made the least resistance. Should 
he make difficulties, you will tell him that I wish it so. This 
will make little difference. We shall do all that may be in our 
power. What should you do, if you were in my place? Do me 
the favor to tell Mr. L. that I shall be ready in two hours. 
Please give me a glass of water. He has done what was possible. 
This likeness was made in 1830. She wore a bracelet made of 
the hair of her two. children. I do not miss him (= elU ndo me 


Nao quero que os mens filhos sejao vadibs. Que me queres? 
(= v)hat do you want of me f) Quer (Vm^^) tomar um pouco de 
vinho? N6s todos queremoa ser felizes. O que qiterem estes 
homens? Elles nao queriao entrar. Eu quk vir, mas nao pude. 

y Google 


In nao qtiize$U fazer o que eu te dias^ra. D. Anna nao qutM 
aceitar o presente do sea primo. Y m«^ o quieerOo assim ; agora 
ja nao ba remedio. £a quizera {or tomiraj que elle cfaegasse (/ 
wiih hs would come). Men pai qaiz^raqne en estudosse medi- 
cina. y . S. nao qnererd a vergonha dos mens fillios. Ellas nSo 
quererao entrar. O menino o fez sem qnerer {could not help it). 
Ningnem p6de qnerer bem {liiej love) a nm menino mentiroso. 
Mens queridos (beloved^ dear) filbos ! Nao creia o Sr. qne en Ihe 
qtieira mal {hate you^ wish you iU), Ji nao p6de6, ainda qne 
queiroB. Talvez qne elle queira vender a ana cbacara. Queira 
entrar I {please eome in^ etep in,) Vm«* nao quer entrar t 6e 
en quizesse fazer mal aos mens inimigos, esta seria a occasiao. 
Kao poderiamos recnar agora, ainda qne qnizcssemos. O Sr. 
p6de ir qnando quizer {whenever you Hire), Digao o qne qni- 
zerem, nao posso acreditar isto. Elle foi bemquisto {liked^ popU' 
lar) em toda a cidade. Para obter isto elle requereu ao govema- 
dor, etc. 

F. nao quiz tir sen filbo. Kao v^o differen^a entre oa dons. 
Yes as conseqnencias da tna loncnra ? \wF^ ti qne en tenbo 
razao. Vemos isto todos os dias. y6s tSdee a insufficiencia dos 
esfor^os bnmanos contra a fnria dos elementos. Agora elles 
viem qne forao enganados. En via qne nao podia sncceder, por 
isto desisti logo. Oada yez qne viao de longe nma carrnagem, 
ellias pensavao qne eramos n6s. Eu nao vi que Ym^^ estava \L 
Nao viste o men cacborrinbo ? Ningnem me viv, quando entrei. 
N68 vimoa um cavalleiro cbegar & porta do botel. Y6s vietes os 
effeitos da vossa incnria. Muitos virdo este pbenomeno. En 
verei o que poderei fazer. YeremosI Elle diz isto para qne 
Ym<^d wja a sua boa vontade. Ve^a se isto est4 direito. Se 
Ym^ft visee o pobre Carlos, nao o reconbeceria. Quando virmos 
qne elle tem bastante capacidade, n63 Ibe daremos este emprego ; 
antes nao. Yeja so I Vide o qne tendes feito ! Nao o tenbo 
viato ba muito. Minba irmaa 6 tao myope, que nao enzerga 
d'aqui at!^ o fim da ma. Isto faz mal k vista. 

Um s6 dia nao obega {or basta) para p6r isto em ordem. Nao 
ponho em duvida a vossa boa inten^ao. Porque nao poes os teus 
lirros em ordem? Esta declara^ao pde fim ds nossas discnssoes. 




Nnnca nos pSmos k meza sem rezar. V os pondes a Tossa con- 
fian^a em yossos bens terrestres. Agora as gaUiohas nap pdem 
ovos. A qup boras quer Vmc« que eu ponha a meza? P<mha- 
se (place yourself) no men Ingar. O sen descnido punha em 
perigo continno a existenoia de n6s todos. En me pv4t a correr 
(began to run). Tu ptizeste todos os mens papeis na maior desor- 
dem. O exeroito se pSz em maroba. Elle se p6z ao largo (tools 
to hU heeh, cut). Fwsemos a casa em estado de defeza. Elles se 
puzerdo do lado do partido vencedor. Isto pord fim dquelles 
escandalos. Ella desejara que en puzesse isto aparte. Feliz- 
mente elle se tinba posto ao abrigo dos sens i)oderosos amigos. 
Pondo todas as consid^ragoes de lado, eu s6 pensava em salvar o 
meu amigo da perlgosa situa^ao em que a sua impmdencia o 
tinba mettido. Aquelles depntados se oppunbao a q^ialquer 
especie de compromisso. Supponbamos (or ponbamos o caso) 
que isto estivesse em nosso poder. O Sr. F. comp6z nm dicoio- 
. nario latino de grande merito. Forao elles que propnz^rao a 
introducgao dos negros escravos. Ponba-se em p6 ! (stand up !) 

Irregular verbs: 1) Querer^ to want, will, wisb, desire-, pres- 
ent indicative, qtiero (e), querea^ quer^ queremoSy etc.; present 
subjunctive, queira; preterit bistorical, qiiie, quieestCj quiz, etc., 
its derivatives quizera^ quhseascy quiaer, Tbe derivative reque- 
rery to require, demand, petition, bas tbe preterit bistorical regu- 
lar, requeriy etc. ; tbe past participle qukto is only found in len^ 
quistOy beloved, popular, and malquisto, bated (malquUtar-se^ to 
make one's self unpopular, to fall out witb sb.). 2) Vir^ to see ; 
present indicative, tejOy ««», vi^ vemoa, vedes, tSem; present sub- 
junctive, v^a; preterit bistorical, vi, viste^ viu, etc., after tbe 
tbitd conjugation; its derivatives, uira, visae, vir; imperative, ul, 
i}Sde; past participle, visto. 8) Ter, to bave. 4) F6r (for poer\ 
to put, set ; present indicative, ponho^ pdes, pde, pomos^ pondea, 
pdem;- present subjunctive, poriha; preterit descriptive, punha; 
preterit bistorical, puz^ puzeste^ pSz^ puzemoSj etc. ; its derivatives, 
puzera^ puzease^ puzer ; future, porei (losing tbe circumflex) ; im- 
perative, pde^ ponde; present participle, pondo; past participle, 

Digitized by VjjOOQIC 


QuereTy according to its meaning, can have no imperatiye ; 
fueira (like the French wuiUez) is only an expression of polite- 
ness or entreaty, as queira enlrar^ queira perdaar. This verb is . 
both anziliary and independent ; in the latter sense it is ren- 
dered in English by to toant or wiU have, as: nSo quero uto, que 
qtter que eufapaf (what will you have me do?). — ^The difference 
between tSr and enxergar is best seen in the following example: 
o eego (blind) nHo y^, o myope n&o enzerga hem, — P&r, with its 
compounds (eompor, oppSr, euppdr, etc.), has been considered by 
some as a fourth coi^jagation, but without any necessity, as it 
really belongs to the second coigngation {pSr = poer). 

I want to see some patterns of gold lace. Will you not come 
in ? What do yon want ? We will not hare but {eenOo) what 
is ours. He wanted me to give (= that I should give) him the 
money. 8he would not come. They wanted to fire {ineendiar) 
the bridge, but they did not succeed. You will want your 
money, but I can not yet pay so large an amount. I do not 
think that he wants to cheat me (lograr-me). Pray accept this 
little token of gratitude. If I wanted to buy a horse, I should 
choose a better one. If we wanted to do this, we should easily 
(faeilm^nte) find the means. Do as you like. They may go 
out whenever they like. — You see that my mother was right. I 
do not see what this has [to do] with our plan. In such times 
we often see the most sublime patriotism side by side with (ao 
lado de) the basest treason. They see an enemy in every 
foreigner. All this time we saw the danger come (= come the 
danger). I did not see the botanical garden, because I had no 
time. Did you see the comet ? They say that they saw a tiger 
in yonder wood. Let us see ! Let them see that there is justice 
in this. country I If I saw the least chance of success, I should 
not say a word against your project. If you saw what they have 
done in so short a time, yon would be astonished. When we 
shall see the necessity of buying a carriage, then we shall buy 
one. We shall seel That old man has seen six kings mount 
{iuhir a) the throne. — ^I suppose that he has gone to France. 

y Google 

136 ^ LESSON XL. 

This action presupposes a very liigh degree of perversity. Man 
proposes, God disposes. The gentlemen propose a walk ; do the 
ladies accept ? Put aside {de lado) your private enmities and 
defend your country against the common enemy. They suj)- 
posed that we would take part in their enterprise. -VThe rehels 
laid down (depSr) the arms. He laid (depSr) the child on (em) 
the steps of the church-door and disappeared. I exposed my 
motives, and they declared themselves (w dercU) por) satisfied. 
He had put in jeopardy his fortune and even his life. I shall 
dispose of my property (bens^ m. pL), so that (de sorte or maneira 
que) all be satisfied. Put these books in order ! It is time that 
we expose the infamous proceedings of that individual If N. 
put his name at the head (testa) of the subscription, I do not 
doubt but (qtie) you would bring together (ajuntar) a consider- 
able sum. 


Kao quero ouvir semelhantes despropositos. Elle nao ouve 
quasi nada. Ouyi dizer que F. estd para morrer. Vmc6 j4 ter4 
ouvido fallar n'isso. Nao oupo o que Vmc^ diz. Oupa / A igreja 
nos prescreve que ougamos missa em cada domingo e dia sancto. 
Oupcu) isto I Ouvi a voz da consciencia 1 Nao de ouvidos aos 
quejxumes infundados d'aquelles homens. O ouvido (hewring) 6 
o segundb dos cinco sensos. Dizem que a d6r dos ouvidos 6 
peior do que a d6r de denies. Os selvagens Ihe cort&rao o nariz 
e as orelhas. Esta musica ^tord6a os ouvidos. — £ prohibido 
pedir esmolas (mendigar) pelas ruas d^esta cidade. Fepo des- 
culpa ao Sr. (/ leg your pardon) por nao ter mandado os livroa 
mais cedo. Fe^ licen^a ao Sr. sen pai I Nao pefos o que 6 im- 
possivel ! Nao posso perdoar isto, ainda que Vm«^ todos pefSo 
por elle (intercede, leg for him). Pedi perdao dos vossos pecca- 
dos ! EUes nao quiz^rao attender ao meu pedido. — ^Mandimos 
medir o panno (we had the cloth measured), e achdmos tres c6va- 
dos de meiios. Eu mego isto pelo p6 cubico. Mepa este papel) 




O alfSuate me toinoa medida para am 8o1)retado e nm par de 
cal^as de casiinira. — ^EUe nao costama mentir. Nao minto, 
Mentes ! ' Se elle disse isto, mentiii. Nao mintcu ! Qae men- 
tira I Estes pr^gos nao urtem. £a nao nrvo para semelhante 
emprego. N6s servimos a um bom amo. Pckle ser que eate 
papel Binxi. Sirva-^l (help ymirwlf^ O nosso aervi^o nao era 
do8 mats pesados. Ym<^ 1^ tao ligeiro que en nao posao uguir. 
O qae ugue 6 menos importante. £a %igo aempre os vossos oon- 
selhos. Siga-me I {follow me,) Sigamoi o ezemplo dos noaaos 
antepassados I O yapor seguiu Tiagem (continued her route^ 
went on) para B. Qaal d*e8t3S cavallos prtfere o Sr. ? Prefiro 
OS cbap^os de palha aos ontros. Talvez que elle prefira am 
piano de meza (square piano). Deade qae quebrei eate bra^o, 
nao me poaso vestir 86. Nao me visto ainda. Vieta-ae depreaaa! 
Algons jornaea nao cesaao de aggredir a nova adminiatracao por 
caasa daa medidas tomadaa para a anppreaaao daa aociedades 
aecretas. Eate correspondente do Jornal daa Modaa aggride o 
nosso artista com mnita acrimonia. Aa acienciaa, as artea, a in- 
dastria, o commercio progridem aob a voasa generoaa proteoyao 
com paaaos agigantadoa. Deixe as crian^aa dormir ! Nao durmo 
n'este qaarto. Agora elle dorme o a6no doa joatoa. Eaton com 
a6no (/ am sleepy). Fugi daa tenta^oes da ambi^uo I Porqne 
/ogesf Elle nao j^^«. Os inimigos/^^^m / Fujamoe! Aaagnas 
do rio estao eubindo. Sabal (come or go up.) Quem eobef O 
pre^o d^aqnelles generos Buhiu maito desde o anno passado. Uma 
grande maltidao aeudiu aos gritos da pobre molher. Ningnem 
oave, ningnem acode ! Oristovao Colombo deecuhriu a America 
em 1492. Se elle diseobre isto, ta eslis perdldo. — ^A noaaa porca 
pariu hontem. A le6a reaponden ^ zombariaa da rap^a, 
dizendo : " £ yerdade qae pairo nm b6 filho, mas 6 am leao." 
Isto devia produzir nm effeito magico. Aqaella proTincia produz 
vinfao de superior qnalidade. O sol luz para todos. Aonde 
eonduz este caminho ? As pretensoes d'aqaella gente me fAzem 
rir. En m das vossas amea^as. Porqaetemf Este bobo ri 
de tudo. Hoje rides^ amanbaa talvez cborareis. As crian^as 
riem e cborao com ignal facilidade. Elles rid>o ds gargalbadas 
(they shouted with laughter). Porqne estd rindo ? Ea "nao me 



138 X.ESSON XL. 

rL £is aqni a prova do que en disse : ria agora I O riso dos 
perversos ^ mko signal. F. affronton as risadas da plat^a com o 
maior sangue-frio. 

Nao pudemos vir mais cedo. Quando vird este tempo? Eu 
venJio para convidor os Srs. a am peqneno entretenimento qne 
men pai tenciona dar sabbado proximo. Yenho tarde? X^m I 
too latef) Donde vena? Quaado vem sen irmao? N68 vimoa 
para pedir desculpa da nossa falta involuotaria. Y 6s vindea para 
ver vosso triumpho. Estas cartas tSju a tempo. Vm«ft qner 
qne ea f)enha ds daas? Deixe que venhdof (let them come.) 
Venha c4I Eu mnha da igreja, e elles HnMo da casa d'nm 
conhecido. Parece que eu vim (pret. hist.) em mk hora. " Ftm, 
vi, venci.^' J4 viestef Ella veiu varias vezes. N68 memos 
d^aquelle lugar em menos de quatro boras. Viestea em boa bora. 
Minbas primas nao vierSo. Be ella viesse boje, ainda seria tempo. 
Quando mmba cunbada vier, obame ^o doutor. j^e elles vierem 
antes das cinco, iremos juntos 4 igreja. Vem d I Vinde, pobres 
e ricos, felizes e desgra^ados, yiode todos, e y^de o vosso Sal- 
vador I Abi elles v^m vindo (there they are coming), Nao tenho 
vindo por nao ter podido. Os seonlos vindouros vos agrade- 
cerao. Venba ver o que tenbo para Vm«ft. A minba vinda nao 
Ibes foi agradavel. — ^Tenciono ir a Pariz no mez que vem (next 
month), VmoA ird boje ao baile ? /ria, se nao estivesse incom- 
modada. Eu vou (I go) \& todos os dias. Para onde V(u f Oomo 
f>ae (or vai) o nosso doente? Nos vam^oB de mal para peior. 
Yos idea combater os inimigos da patria. Aquellas mo^as taa a 
todos OS bailes. Precisa que eu mesmo va M. Vd levar este em- 
brulbo em casa do Sr. A. Vam^os embora I {let us go,) Nao 
quero que elles tdo la I Isto vae cabir. You e venbo (= I shall 
he back immediately). Eu ia ao mercado todas as manbaas. O 
Sr. N. ia passando pel a Raa do Oommercio, quando isto' acon- 
teceu. Quando eu fui (wenf)^ j4 tinha dado meio dia. Foste 
boje ao mercado ? O menino foi com men filbo. Elles fordo-M 
embora (went away), Seria melhor que o Sr. mesmo fosse IL 
Quando eu for^ Ym©* m'acompanbar^. Elle ja f$ra (tinba ido) 
dizer ao Sr. F. que viesse. Vae ligeiro I Ide por todo o mundo 
prfegar o evangelbo 1 Como vae o Sr. ? You indo (=r lam pretty 




well^. Desde a minha ida a P. nao a tenho visto. Estes sao os 
Taivens da vida humana. 

Irregular verbs of the third co^jngation : 

1) Fedir^ to beg, ask, medir^ to measure, and ouzir^ to hear, 
change their d and v into f in the first person of present indica- 
tiye, and the whole present subjunctive : ptpo^ p^fa; mfpo^ me fa; 
<mgo^ oupa. 

2) In the same forms parir, to bear, changes its radical a 
into at; present indicative, paii^^, parea^ etc., subjunctive, paira. 
There is a number of verbs which change their radical vowel e 
into t, also in the forms mentioned above : ientirj Hnto^ untet^ 
»inta; veatiVj tuto^ vetUs^ vUta; see a full list of them in the 
Appendix, page 342. 

3) Some verbs change the radical u into o before the weak 
terminations e«, «, em (present indicative, second and third per- 
sons singular and third plural), Mfugir^fvjo^fbgeByfbge^fugimon^ 
fugis^f5gem; eubrir^ cubro^ eobres, cobre^ eubrimoa^ eubris^ eo- 
brem; see the Appendix. — Ihmtir. changes its o into u in the 
first person singular of present indicative, and in the whole pres- 
ent subjunctive: durmo^ dormes; durma. The verbs aggredir, 
progredir change e into i in the whole singular of present in- 
dicative and the third plural, and in the whole present subjunc- 
tive (progrido, progridesj progridej progredimoi ; progridd), 

4) Of wftiV, cahir^ trahir we have spoken in Lesson XIX. 
5} The verbs in mir take no « in the third person singular 

of present indicative, as produzir^ produz, 

6) Eir (or Wr-w, .to laugh) is irregular only in the present 
indicative and in the imperative mood; present indicative, rioy 
ris^ ri, rimoa^ ridea^ Hem ; imperative, W, ride, 

7) Vir, to come; present indicative, Tcnho, rena^ terriy timoa, 
tindea, tern; present sulyunctive, venha; preterit descriptive, 
vinJia; preterit historical, vim, vieste, vein, viemoay vieatea^ vierdo; 
its derivative, mera, vieaae, vier; imperative, vemy vinde; pres- 
ent participle, vindo ; past participle, Tindo, 

8) Ir (also written Air, but incorrectly), to go ; present ip- 

Digitized by VjjO'OQLC 


dicaiive, vouy taSy toe (or «a»), vamoSf ides, too ; pre3ent subjunc- 
tive, va^ vas, vaf vamof^ vades^ too; preterit descriptive regular 
(ia); preterit bistoricidL and its derivative are taken from the 
verb wr (Jui^ foray fosseyf&r) ; imperative, ^ae (or tJat), ide. 

The sentinels say that they heard the report of a piece of 
artillery {ym tiro de pegoL), I hear better now than some time 
ago. I heard say that he will be appointed president. N. lost 
his right ear in a riot. When he was a child, he begged alms 
in the streets of Rome. I beg you to direct (= that you direct) 
your attention to this part of the building. Ask permission of 
(a) Mr. B. I asked (perguntar) him what he had done with the 
money. They asked (eonvidar) me to (para) dine with them. 
Ask (fazer) no idle questions I I measure your diflSculties by 
my own. The wealth of a country progresses with its pecula- 
tion. May be he prefers this house. Your conscience shall serve 
' (pres. subj.) you as a (= de) shield against the attacks of your 
enemies. I am very sorry (= sentir muito). Do you consent? 
I do not. Do not think that they will obtain (cofiseguiry pres. 
subj.) this. I sleep better on a straw-mattress. We slept in 
the shade of a large oak-tree. Who discovered the cape of. (da) 
Good Hope ? Thou (vos) discoverest the most secret thoughts 
of our hearts. Gome up I The thermometer rose (suhir) 10 de- 
grees to-day. Some rise, others go down (= de^eer). The 
locusts often destroy the vegetation of entire provinces. The 
stork destroys a great quantity of reptiles. How can you laugh, 
when your brother is so ill ? Who (quern) laughs at (de) every- 
thing, is either a fool or a knave. At this passage of B.^s speech 
the hearers burst (romper) into a loud and continuous laughter. 
He laughs at your admonitions. Laugh as much as (= quanta) yon 
will, it is true what I say. The tittering (as risadinhae) of the 
ladies showed him that he had committed an indiscretion. Who 
ip laughing there ? Nobody laughed. She smiled, when they 
proposed this arrangement. Miss Mary died with a smile on 
her lips, v 

Where do you come from ? I come from Mr. A.'8 (=s from 

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the house of Mr. A.)- We come ia order to redaim oar pro- 
perty. All these words come from the Greek. He wants me 
to come (= that I come) at six. Gome (or call) to-morrow. 
Come to breakfast (venha almdpar). The letter was (= came) 
accompanied hj a small parcel containing (de) books. Come, see 
(infin.) this carious little animal ! When did jou come ? I came 
(or called) the day before yesterda^ We came aboat half an 
hoar before the others. The peasants of the neighborhood came 
m orowds into {para) the town, armed with pikes, gans and all 
sorts of weapons. If he came now, he woald not find the hoase. 
If we did not come pcnctaally at 8 o^clock, we shoald find the 
door locked. Should joa come before that time {hora\ please 
wait a little. As soon as (auim que) the gentlemen come (fat. 
sabj.), call the servants. — ^Whither do yoa go ? I go to London. 
This won't do (= uto nOo vae). We go to the office (eaeritorio) 
at 8 o^clock in (de) the morning. They go to choroh three times 
a day. When I was at P., I went every day to X. Go to (em 
cam de) Mr. L. and stay there until I come. Let ns go I Go ! 
Go with God I Tell the workmen to go (= that they go) to 
dinner (= to dine, jantar). At noon I went to the museum. I 
did not go there, because my sisters had gone into the country 
{d campanha). At what time (horas) did you go ? Why did 
they not go when it was time ? We went as far as (s atS) the 
windmill of Mr. G. They went away before as. Some of them 
wanted me to go too (tamhem). If we went there, we should 
be received as enemies. I did not want them (= that they) to 
go with those gentlemen. When I shall go, you will go also. 
When yoa go to Mr. F.'s, do me the favor to deliver this letter 
to his son. A steamer had gone (to) fetch the deputation. Be 
off I (= go away). 


Todos estimao am homem probo, = am homem probo i 
estimado por (de) todos. Esta capellinha S moito frequentada 

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pelas (=^ por as) senhoras. Anossa cathedral i visitada por 
todos OS estrangeiros. YiHas fordo aeolhidas como filhas da casa. 
EUes 8ercU> tides por (or considerados como) inimigos pnblicos. 
Nelson foi mortjJmente ferido na batalha de Trafalgar. Ella 
f6ra accasada de infanticidio. Este retrato foi feito por mea 
sobrinho. Todos os r6os forao absolvidos. Algumas arvores 
fbrao arranoadas pelo ultimo temporal. En son conbecido por 
mnitas pessoas que eu nao conbe^o. O Sr. L. diz qne aqnelles 
r^os serao condemnados d morte. Estes bordados sSo feitos com 
primor. Ella era qnerida por (de) todos. Mnitas casas forao 
derrnbadas por um terremoto qne duron tres minntos. Os Chris- 
taos d^aquelles paizes sao cmelmente persegnidos pelos Mnssnl- 
manos. Todas estas fazendas serao vendidas em leilao. 

A celebre cathedral de Colonia foi come^ada em 1248, mas 
ainda nao estd acabada. A nossa casa (de commercio) foi esta- 
belecida em 1849, por consegninte estd estabelecida ha 12 annos. 
Os Snicidas nao sao enterrados em terra sagrada. F. estd en- 
terrado (sepnltado) no cemeterio de S. Francisco. Fui persna- 
dido da necessidade d^esta medida, pelo raciocinio do men amigo 
Carlos, ^tou persuadido d^isso. Estamos rodeados de inimigos 
implacaveis. Fomas cercados e desarmados. Esta porta /oi 
aberta (from dbrir} com nma chave falsa; ella estava aberta, 
qnando eu vim para casa. A America /oi descuberta (descubrir) 
em 1492. Semelhante remedio ainda nao est4 descnberto. A 
casa ja estd cuberta (cubrir). 

En sabia qne tinha pagado isto. Esta conta foi paga no dia 
2 de Abril. Todas as minhas dividas e8tcU> pagas. Muitos ontros 
o teriOo aceitado. Ninguem mais serd aeeito. V6b me tendes 
salvado, Todos estdo salvos. Mnitos dos nanfragos fordo sahos 
pela tripola^ao d^ima fragata qne estava anchorada nao longe do 
lugar do desastre. Enxngue esta meza I Ella tinha enxugado as 
snas lagrimas havia mnito tempo. A meza esta enxuta, O vento 
tern secoado as mas. Esta tinta nao presta, porque s^cca mni 
depressa. Antonio era nm homem alto e secco. Elle tinha nm 
armazem de ^seccos e molhados (a grocery and liquor store). 
Os sinos da (igreja) matriz estao repicando ; qnem terd morrido f 
Men primo^i morto (hilled) n^aqnella escaramnga. Estti morta ! 




(she is dead.) Os soldados tinhdo prendido nm espuu EUe foi 
preso logo depois. O Sr. estd preao ! A guarda Ihe deu yoz de 
preso {arrested him). O celebre professor N. tern solvido este 
problema. Todos os prisioneiros/aroo soltos hoje. A nossa so- 
oiedade (partnerihip) est4 dissolvida desde hontem. O Sr. vis- 
conde de M. foi eleito (eleger) presidente do senado. 

Matdrao um homem = urn homem foi matado (morto). 
Arromb6rao a minha portal (= my door has been broken opeih.) 
Dizem (th&y say, it is said) que F. ganhou a sort© grande.— Man- 
dei flftzer uma casaca (/ had a coat made). O chefe de policia o 
mandou prender (had him arrested). Me disserao (/ have been 
told) que Ym<^ tenciona deixar-nos. Mand^rao chamar-me (/ 
have been sent for). 


The passive form of the Portuguese verb corresponds entirely 
with the same form in English : it is composed of the past par- 
ticiple of the principal verb, and the auxiliary verb eer or eitar 
(see belov^) ; the subject of the active verb is then governed by 
the preposition por, by (which, with the definite article, becomes 
pelo^ peUiy peloSy pelas^ for por <?, etc., or rather the obsolete pre- 
position j?er), and sometimes de (with verbs expressing emotions^ 
as to love, to hate, etc.). The past participle must agree with its 
subject in gender and number. Example : active form^ my grand- 
father planted these trees, meu av6 plantou estas arvores; pas- 
sive form, these trees were planted by my grandfather, estas 
arvores fordU) plantad-as por meu avS. 

Very important is, here again, the different use of ser and 
estar; while estar^ with the past participle, expresses a state or 
condition, eer with the participle is only the passive form by 
which an action may be expressed. F. i. eete tumulo 6 ef^eitado 
coda armo pelos orpho^s, etc., this grave is adorned every year 
by the orphans, i. e. the orphans adorn this grave, etc. ; but o 
tumulo est4 enfeitado com flores does not signify, as the former 
does, the action of adorning^ but the state or condition of being 
adorned during a certain time. Thus elle foi morto, he was hiUed, 
but eUe estava morto, he was dead. 

There are a number of verbs which have two forms of the 

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141 LKdSOK XLI. 

past participle, one regular, the other irregular (original Ladn 
forms), as pagado and pago^ morrido and mortOy affligido and 
afflieto^ The regular forms nre used in the active voice (with 
ter and haver)y the irregular forms in the passive (with ser and 
eatar). See the list of these verbs in the Appendix, page 343. 
AbriTy eubrir, and its compounds, as deacuhrir^ have aberto, cu- 
hertOj,descub€rto ; solvido is used only in phrases like solver um 

Of the construction of mandei construir unia casa^ == I had a 
house built, we shall treat in Lesson XLVI. Such constructions 
as: I was told, where the dative (thej told me, i. e. to me) be- 
comes the subject of the passive sentence, are inadmissible in 
Portuguese (I am told, = dizem-me or me dieem), — Sometimes 
the active voice is used, where, in English, the passive is pre- 
ferred, with an indefinite subject in the plural (meaning they^ 
some persons, people, and the like) ; f. i. estc^ ehamando a Ym^^ 
= you are called (wanted). 

My daughter made these drawings; these drawings were 
made by my daughter. Everybody (todos) likes {estifnar) him — 
he is liked by (de) everybody. Some authors condemn these 
acts, others justify them (active and passive). Some churches 
and other public buildings were destroyed by the recent bom- 
bardment of the town. This square will be planted with chest- 
nut-trees. He was killed by a cannon-ball. Some of the unfor- 
tunate sailors were dashed against the rocks. The princess 
Lamballe was literally (Uteralmente) torn to pieces (fazer em 
pedals) by the mob. During five hours I was exposed to4;he 
rays of a tropical sun. Sometimes entire cities are destroyed by 
earthquakes. Our houses are burnt, our walls are thrown down 
(derruhar). All possible means will be employed in order to 
discover the guilty (pliir.). My nephew is employed in the cus- 
tom-house. Three of the prisoners were condemned to die (d 
morte),- They are condemned to the galleys for life (a gales per* 
petucu). The statue of Minerva, by Phidias, was made of ivory 
and gold. My work is done. Those laws had been repealed. 

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lUCBflOK ZIJI. 145 

Tliat law is repeale£^ I ha^e been informed of jonrwiekedde- 
signs. I am informed of all that (tudo o que) has happened* 
This is explained b j the following facts. All is explained. EQs 
estate will be sold next week. It is not jet sold. War will be 
declared against France. T^e war is alreadj declared.^The 
government of B. has accepted mj proposals. M7 proposals 
were all accepted. Onr serrant-girl had not jet delivered the 
letter. Yonr letter is delivered. Dry joor tears! Hehadal* 
ready wiped off the blood which had stained his hands. The 
floor is not yet dry (s dried). This soil is very dry. When I 
shall have paid all my debts, I shall go to England. See if this 
bill is paid or not. If you had come one hoar later, he would 
have died infallibly (ir^fiUlwelmenU). Their only son was kiUed 
by a stone thrown at him (= por fimapedrada). By yoor eon- 
doct yon have afflicted deeply {pn^undammU) yonr parents and 
friends. The poor girl is much afflicted by the death of her little 
sister. Yon have spent more money since that time, than yon 
will be able to earn in five years. Is all that money spent t 8ach 
foolish expenses had exhausted the public treasury. All my re* 
sources are exhau8ted.^>^ 

We shall have a road made from our house to the top of yon- 
der hill. My uncle had his house whitewashed, his furniture^ 
polished, and his garden put in order. A. is said to have (= 
they say that, etc.) acted the part {papel) of (a) spy in this 
affair. It was said (= they said) of him that he had betrayed 
his master. She is said to have been for {ptn^) some time in a 
lunatic asylum. I have been robbed of all I had (= roubda-iUh, 
me tudo quanta tinka. 



Ea 7M sirvo (7 (voail mytdf) com prazer da licen^a que T. 
S* me tern dado. Tu te (f) entregas aos excesses d'um vioio 

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abominaveL Mle m oantentoa com esta somma. F. «*enforcon, 
porqne perd^ra tndo no jogo. Ella ae sustentava como o tra- 
balho das saas maos. A nossa consterna^ao se commnnicon aos 
(to th<m) que estayao fora. I^Ss nos defendiamos o melhor pos- 
sivel. Vas vos considerais como senhores absolutes do paiz. 
Elles se t^m por logrados (= they believe themselves to he cheated). 
Nanca mVrependerei do que tenho feito para dies. Isto n&o 
se chama (is not called) assim em portuguez. Gomo se chama 
Ym<^ ? (what is your name f) Como se chama esta palavra em 
inglez ? Isto nao se diz (you must not say so). Muitos dos habi- 
tantes se refugiiirao no convento de S. Bento. Eu nao me lembro. 
de todos OS pormenores d^aquella transacgao. Elles se esqu9c6- 
rao de levar o dinheiro. Nao vos esquepais da vossa origem I 
Nao ^^esquega (Vm©*) d'isto ! O nosso commeroio «'estende sobre 
toda a terra. Tu te gabas ainda da tua malvadez I Passao-«0 
cousas que fazem arripiar os cabellos (the hair stand on end). A 
Bra. ja se vae ? Diverti-mtf muito. £u m'abstenho de fazer ob- 
servagoes &cerca d^isto. A criada se calon. C&le-se ! Y6s tos 
arrependereis d^isto. De que se queixao elles ? Elle se zanga de 
qualquer cousa. A guamigao entregou-M aos 24 de Outubro. 
Kao se assustem I Seu filho conduziu-«« admirayelmente n^aquella 
situagao critica. JqEo parece-«« muito (is very like) com seu tio. 
Eu me refiro a um facto assaz conhecido. Ditertimo^nos (for 
divertimos-Dos) muito. Consolemo-nos I 

N6s nos (each other) abra^iimos como velhos amigos.. V6s 
vos perseguieis uns aos outros (one another^ each other) com a 
maior ferocidade. Ellas se detestao uma d outra. Nos nos en- 
contramos no passeio publico. Dous partidos poderosos se dia- 
putao a preponderancia. Aquelles dous sujeitos se lograo um oto 
outro. Os Ohristaos e os Mahometanos d^este paiz «'oppriiniao 
alternadamente. Elles se cubriao mutuamente de opprobrios. 
Dependemos um do outro. 

Estes livros se vendem (are sold) na livraria dos Srs. L. e C*» 
(= companhia, L. & Co,), Elle se chama Alexandre. Como se 
chama o nosso novo cozinheiro? Vmo* s'engana (or esta enga- 
nado). Nao s^engane I P6de aer que eu m^enganasse. O papel 
se faz (is made) de trapos de linho. Nada mais se ouviu d'ello- 

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A luz d^este farol ietSA distancia de 20 milhaa. Uma magnifica 
edigao das poesias de 0. se est^ imprimindo em H. sob a direct 
do sabio Dr. B. Calcnloa-se qae elles chegariao Ik em meiados 
de Jiilho. Contao-se mnitas historias interessantes a este res- 
peito. Falla-se moito n^nm roubo mysterioso que teve lugar na 
noite do 15 para 16 do mez passado. As nuvens se formao dos 
vapores aqnaticos que a superficie da terra exhala. A atmos- 
phera que nos rodeia se compoe de diversos elementos. Este 
metal se acha em grande abnndancia na vizinhan^a de M. Esta 
palavra nao s'escreve assim. Aqni nao se paasa ! 

In the examples in A. the object is the re/Uxiv€ and redprth 
eal pronoun; its forms are: 1) reflexive: me, myself, te, thyself^ 
ee, himself^ herself, itself, one^s self (j^our^if, when relating to 
Fwi**, etc.) ; n<w, ourselves, cew, yourself or yourselves, w, them- 
selves (yaufseltei^ when relating to Fwi**, etc.) ; no% and to$ are 
unaccentuated, the o sounding almost like u/ 2) reciprocal: non, 
tfos, se, each other, one another, according to the subject. The 
pronouns here mentioned are in the acctisative case. The re- 
flexive pronoun in the nominative case (/ myself) is eu mesmo 
(or mesma% tu mesmo (-a), nos mesmos (-as), etc., i. e. the per- 
son^ pronoun with the adjective mesmo, which latter agrees in 
number and gender with its subject; f. i. I did it myself, eu 
mesmo (a man speaks) o fie, eu mesma (a woman speaks) o fig. 
Of the emphatical strengthening of the accusative (or fUitive) of 
the reflexive pronoun by mesmo we shall speak further on. The 
reciprocal pronouns (accusative and dative) are the same in form 
as the reflexive pronouns ; they exist, of course, only in the plu- 
ral. For the sake of emphasis, they may be accompanied by um 
o outro (better ao, in the accusative, see Lesson XXXYL), uma 
a (d) outra, etc., according to the number and gender of the per- 
sons indicated by the subject ; when two persons are meant, it. 
must be um ao outro, uma a outra ; when more than two, these 
words must be in the plural. When each other or one another 
are governed by a preposition, this must stand between those two 
words, as : they speak ill of each other, elles falldo mal um do 

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148 LESSON XLir. 

With regard to tbe poHtion of these pronouns, the following 
will snffii^e here (see next Lesson) : 1) They maj stand before cmt 
etfier the verb (in compound tenses, the auxiUai'y verb) ; when 
placed after the verb, they must be united with it by a hyphen, 
as achei-me^ etc.; 2) in the imperatwe mood the pronoun is 
placed after the verb ; 3) also, when the mbject (pronoun) is 
iMnitted; 4) the objective pronoun is generally placed after tl>e 
verb in the infinitive^ but never after a past participle. 

Very often the reflexive verb is used instead of the passive 
form, as: paper is made of rags, o papel se faz <2a trapoe; this 
metal is found in S., eate metal se acha em 8, The same form is 
also employed in phrases where the subject is indefinite, and 
where, in English, either the active form with the subject one or 
they {people\ or the passive form is used, as: it is said of N. (z= 
they say, people say of K), dist-4^ de F,; it is generally believed 
that, etc., aeredita^se geralmente gue^ etc. 

Many verbs that, in English, are intransitive (neuter), are 
reflexive ^in Portuguese, as: to withdraw, retirar-se, to boast, 
gahar-ie, ufanar-eey etc. Also some passive expressions, as: to 
be silent, ealar-sey to be mistaken, enganar-sey etc., and reeipr<h 
ealj as : to meet (each other), encontrar-se. 

I found myself embarrassed on (de) all sides. Thou showest 
Thyself ever merciful. He had committed himself (eompromefi' 
terse) in the revolution of 1848. We had exposed ourselves to 
the just censure of our superiors. In vain {deMde) you (second 
pers. pi.) defend yourselves. They availed (aproveitar) thejo- 
selves of the opportunity (pceasicUi). Spain awoke from her long 
lethargy. I awoke at midnight. Do you not remember the 
date of their marriage ? They will remember this as long as they 
live (= por toda a sua vida). You forget your illness. Do not 
forget tbe pictures. Then I withdrew my consent. We retired 
to (para) L. He withdrew from the theatre. Spring is approach- 
ing. She is gone (ella sefoi, or foise emhora), I will go (vou-me 
embord). When did you get up this morning? I got up a quar- 
ter past three {ds Z e um quarto). We always went to bed (to 

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LE8SOH xun. 149 

go to bed.= deUar-^) at ten o^dodc. I Bhall nerer sabmit to 
these hnmiliating (htimilkante) conditions. Do not meddle with 
(tntrometterseem) the «ffiun of thoee people. Do not complain, 
it was yoor own fault. He repented of having offered his ser- 
Tices to Mr. 0. Mj horse took fright (aumtar'U) at (de) the 
tnmk of A tree that \bj across (atravessar) the road. The 
important docnment disappeared (sumirse) in (de) a strange 

Thej love each other like dog and cat. The two rivals met 
at Mr. B.'s. We missed each other (desencontrar-te). Thej 
fonght (bater-se) with eqnal bravery. Villains know each other 
at first sight They distrust (deteonjiar de) each other. Mr. D. 
and his predecessor accused each other of falsehood. 

It is said of L. that he never slept more than tve hours. 
Brass is composed of pewter and copperr It was generally be- 
lieved that N. had died by poison (:s envenenado). Is it already 
known who stole those jewels? There is much talk (= much 
is talked) of a new invention in aeronautics. Thousands of things 
are now made of gutta-i>ercha, that were formerly made of horn 
and other similar materials. The origin oi these institutions is 
lost in the darkness (tretas, t pi.) of the remotest antiquity. 
Lost {perdeu-tej in advertisements) a gold watch and chain, etc. 
Children under (menores de) 10 years of age are not admitted 
(place the verb first). Heretics are no more (jd tUUi) burnt now* 
a-^ys {hcje em did). This newspaper is published twice a week. 

LESSON xmi. 

A Sra. nao ms conhece? Nao te comprehendo. Alguns 
lobos atacarao o men cavallo e o matarao logo. Ym<^ conhece 
aquella senhora f Ja a tenho visto, mas nao me lembro aonde. 
A quern comprou o Sr. esta chacara ? £u a comprei ao meu 
eunhado. P. se defendeu com muita coragem; eu mesmo o (i0 
vL Vm<^ not tern (take) por.seus inimigos figadaes; n'isto est^ 



150 LESSON XLin. ^ 

muito eDganado« Deos vos recompense. En conhego estes ho- 
mens, e os detesto. Que chaves sao estas ? Nao sei ; o Joac^ 
zinlio as achou na rua. Sim, Vm^* esteve 14 ; en nao (you) vi ? 
Enfui em procuradas Sras. (I went in search 4>f you), mas nao as 
(jfou) encontrei. Nao acho a ohave da minha gaveta. Vmc^ a 
(iQ tera perdido. Aqui esta a sua ohavinha. Aonde estava?^ 
Achei-a perto da escada. Deixe-»w/ (let me alone,) Aonde 
quer Vm"^ que eu bote estas flores ? Bote-a« aoude quizer. Nao 
o digas a teu irmao. Nao sUncommode 1 

Nao posso v6r, = nao posso te-lo (for ver-o). VmcA nao 
devia dd-la (= dar-a) aquelles rapazes. O general queria man- 
dd'los (= mandar-os) fuzilar. Quero vende-las (= yender-as). 
Alguns dos presos pud6rao evadir-se (effected their escape), Pa- 
rec,e que elle nao quer dar-se ao trabalho (taJce the trouble) de 
escrevef. Divertimo-nos (= divertimos-nos) pouco. Zembre- 
mo-nos dos tempos passados I N6s o ignoramos, = ignoramo-lo. 
K68 a vemos, = v^mo-la. Ei-lol (or eilo,/<>r eis-o, here he is/) 
ei-la, ei-los, ei-las! "Enji-lo (= fiz-o) com toSl5"o cuidado. Vos 
o sabeis, = sabei-lo. Elles o ignorao, = ignordo-no. Digao-»o 
OS sabios I (or os sabios que o digao I) Maturao-no ! Dizem-n^ 
OS autbores contemporaneos. 

O cheiro d'estas flores me (to me, me, dative) da d6r de cabe^a. 
Eu te digo que^ nao quero saber d'isso. S. M. el-rei da Prussia 
Ih^ (to him, him) enviou as insignias da ordem da Aguia ver- 
melha. Ella escreveu a sua mai, participando-Z^ (to her, her) 
OS sens embara^os. F. nos fez uma visita antes de partir. Isto 
vos deve provar, quanto (how) sois fracos. O ministro Ihes (to 
them, thern) conceden licen^a por tres mezes. Ym^^ me dir4 
quern Ihe (to you, you) contou isto ? Os Srs. nao sabem quanto 
mal isto Ih^ (to you) fara. Elle me diss6ra que tinba ido a Lis- 
boa. A carta Ihe foi entregue por uma pessoa desoonhecida. 
Quem Ibe disse isto ? Ella nao nos quiz mostrar (or nao quiz 
taostrar-no«) o retrato. O chefe Ibes imp6z silencio absoluto. 
Eu te prohibi isto. Que me querem os Srs. ? (whcU do you want 
of met) O medico Ihe prescreveu a mais rigorosa dieta. En 
voB provarei que fizestes mal. Elles nos propnz^rao uma tran^ 
■acQao mui vant^osa. Nao vas Id, eu tlmploro. Y6s m^acon- 




LB880N ZUU. 151 

sais de trai^ao. £a Ihe envio men filho. Sua irmaa s^ezprime 
com muita eleganoia. 

Ella m'o (= me o) emprestou. Eu Vo {= te o) diase. N6s 
Wa$ mandaremos. Mea sogro m'a deixoa por heran^ O Sr. 
A. wh-loa (= HOB ob) envioa. Eu to-lo (=s vos o) dlssdra. F. 
no-la (= noB a) venden pela metade. Eu «o-foi (= voa os) r.e- 
commendo. Quern Ihe d^raeste poder? EUe m a (s'o) arrogou. 
Kingnem Ihe deu lioen^ para iaao; elle s^a tomou. F. 96 me 
offereceu. IJm individuo u Ihe apreaenton com cartas de reoom- 
menda^ do Sr. oonde de N. Representou-jc-^Aei o perigo em 
que ellea Be achSo. Eu Wo empresto, com a condicao d'entre- 
gar-ww (m'o) no fim d'esta semana. Nao vm poBSO di2^2o. 
AproTeitando-49M do euBCjjo, eu Ihe diase 00 meua penaamentoa 
com toda a franqueza. Ella qob escreve regularmente, dando-iuM 
noticia do que se pasaa no circulo dos nosaoa amigpa. Sendo-Me« 
intimado eata dedsao, ellea tiverao a prudencia de submetter-ae 
sem opposigao. 


Th^penonal (and reflexive and reciprocal) pronouns iire the 
only words which have retained part of their declension; they 
have Btill a form for the dative and accuaative cases. With those 
of the accuMtiw the student ia already acquainted (me, U^ o, a 
[refl. se\ noiy voi, a», oi [refl. and recipr. seQ, The dative forma 
are equal to thoae of the accuaative, except in the third person 
singular, Ihe^ and plural IheSy for both genders (when relating to 
Vm<^^ o Sr,, etc., they are to be translated by to you or you). 
As very frequently, in English, the preposition to, indicatiug the 
dative, is left out, the student should take great care not to con- 
found this case with the accusative ; f. L I told him (him is dat), 
eu Ihe dine; eu o disae means I stud or told it. 

The objective j^ersonal pronoun (i. e. its dative and accusa- 
tive) may be placed either before or after the verb of which it is 
the object, euphony being the general norm for its position. We 
will give here some rules concerning the position of the pronoun, 
which, though not decisive in all cases, the student will do well 
to follow. (It has already been said, that the pronoun, placed 
t^fter the verb, is alwaye united with it by a hyphen). 

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153 LESSON xun. 

a. One pronoun (dat. or accos.): 1) It generally precede 
the verb in any of the tenses of the indicative or sabjunotive 
moods (always in those of the latter), i. e. the finite verb (the 
auxiliary in compound tenses). 2) It ahoays follows the gerund 
(dsjido-lhe, vendo-mf), but never a participle (en Ih^ estava di« 
zendo, elle me tinha escripto). S) It folhtD$ the verb in the im- 
peratite mood when affirmative (the jummu, ordering something 
to be done), but precedes the prohibitive (dizei^m^, ndai me diga). 
4) It generally ^ZZ9fo« the verb in the infinitive mood. 5) When 
t^e subject (pronoun) is left out, or placed after the verb, the 
dative or accusative follows the verb. 6) In interrogative and 
reiatvve sentences it mostly precedes the verb. 

b. 2W pronouns: The dative s^wsjs precedes the BccastAWe, 
except M, which stands always first, whether dative or accusative. 

Euphony demands the following changes, either in the de- 
p^dent pronoun or in the verb : 

1) The e in me, te^se,lhe is generally suppressed before s 
vowel or an A, especially before «, i (he, hi), and before the pro- 
nouns OyOjOS, as; only a practised ear can decide whether thia 
suppression is to take place or not ; instead of m V, m^a, e'ot, rha^ 
etc. some write mo, ma, tos, Uta (like do, da), but this orthography 
is becoming antiquated. 2) The s (in the verb) before nos Is 
suppressed: eonsolemo^nos, 8) The r of the infinitive becomes J 
before o, a, os, as; also tiie s in the first and second persons plu- 
ral in nos and vos, and in the adverb (or inteij.) eis, see here, 
and the z in faz,fiz, d4a, as: amd-h, dizS-lo (mark the accent !), 
sahemo-lo, no-lo (= nos o), vo-las (= vos as), ei-los (= eis os), 
fi-lo (= fiz-o) ; the hyphen is left out by some in nolo, eilo, etc. ; 
for amd-lo some write amdl-o (the former orthography is prefer- 
able, for etymological reasons), or (obsolete) amal-lo, dizU-lo, . 
4) After a verb in the third person plural, o,a,os,as become no, 
na^ nos, nos, f. i. sHo-^no (= sao-o), dizcmrno, 5) The s in Ihes is 
often" (principally in poetry) suppressed before o, a, os, as, fl L 
Woy Was for Ihes o, Ihes as, 


Ton do not know that man ; I called him a (de) villain, be- 



IJBB809 ZLm. . 163 

eanse he is one (o). He knows me too. I did it, becsnse my 
fHend would [hare] it so. She said it in order to rex berooosin. 
Do joa know that A. has died f Yes, I heard (learned, 9aber) it 
an hour ago. We saw her on the promenade. Hiiye jon mj 
gold pen-holder 9 No, I have not seen it to^lay. She was bet- 
ter, when we saw her this afternoon. What do jovl think of 
B.'s last novel ? I read it with great interest. What did she do 
with the books? 8he threw tiiem into the fire. I dismissed 
tJiem on the spot (immediataminU). We did not call them. 
Here are the horses ; who brought them ? The child gathered 
some flowers and gave them to its mother. They thanked the 
ladies and invited them to (a) take tea. Whwe have yon (maso. 
sing.) been all this time t I have not seen yon for an age (iecttlo)* 
They would not say this of you (fem. sing.) if they knew yon. I 
expected to meet yon (masc pi.) at (em) the theatre, but I did 
not see you. Ton (fem. pi.) can not go home (para com) alone, 
. my son is ready to accompany yon. 

Your mother writes me, that yon have made good progress 
(plnr.) in drawing (no detsnho), I told him that this would 
make no difference. Mr. B. makes yon [a] present of his books. 
He was owing us some money. They exposed to ns their mo- 
tives. His countenance did not please me. What do you think 
of that ? (= ^u& Ihe pareee f) This happened to ns on new-year's 
day of 1860. She promised ns her likeness. I proposed to him 
an arrangement which would have been approved [of] by all his 
friends, if he had consulted them. The Judge asked her some 
questions concerning her family, and promised her his assist- 
ance. I assure yon that I have seen her in Paris. We brought 
yon some drawings made by our daughter. God speaks to you 
tiirough your conscience. We lent them our boat. I thank you. 

I refused it him roundly (rddondamente). He gave it me 
williont hesitating. I told you so (= it). They sent it to us 
the other day. The keeper showed it to them. She communi- 
eated it to me in a letter from D. We lend it to yon with one 
ctmdition. Show me the house of Mr. G. Give me a little 
water. Please (fa^ favor de) send me the books which yon 
-have promised me. Explun this to me. Withdraw I Get up I 

Digitize'd by GoOglC 



Give it me! Do not leave me I Do not believe it. Do not 
show it him ! Do not refase me your aid ! Do not answer her ! 
Do not forget jonr cane. If I did not do it, he would do it, I 
have not seen him since his arrival. We had not invited her to 
the ball. He woald not buy them. Thej would receive ns with 
joy. We had followed them to the house of their aunt. You 
.must not complain ; you have no right to complain. I will not 
punish them, because they do not deserve it. To send them (the 
letters) by mail would be dangerous. To deny me this would 
almost be equal (e^uimler a) to an insult. I can not find them. 


Amanhaa hei de eserever (= escreverei) ao men advogado. 
Nao te assustesi nao Juu de perder (= perderds) a tua fortuna 
por isto. Elle ha de responder (= responderd) que nao tem po- , 
dido. JBdvemoi de tSr o que elle fard. Y6s haveis de reeonheeer 
que OS vossos esfor^os forao insufficientes. Os vossos filhos hao 
de agradeeer-vaa um dia por este acto de justiga. Eu nao hama 
de reeommendd-lo (= reeommendaria), se nao pudesse affiangar 
a sua conducta. Nos nao haviamos de aoompanhar (= acom- 
panhariamos) os Srs. tao longe, se nao fosse por causa d^este 
perigo. — Lemhrar-me-hei (= me lembrarei, lembrarei-me, hei de 
lembrar-me) de v6s at6 a hora da minha morte. Etereter-te-^hei 
todos OS dias. Procurd-lo-has (= has de procuri-lo) em vao. 
Nao contentarse-ha com esta vinganga. Limitar'nas-hemos a 
poucas palavras. Arrepender-vos-heiB d^esta escolha. As minhas 
observagoes UmiUtr-ie'hdo ao mais necessario. O nosso filho 
chamar-se-ha Jos^. Occupar-nos-hemos dos tens negocios. Res- 
ponder-vos-hei com toda a sinceridade. Bir-te-hei (far dizer- 
te-hei, direi-te) o que tens a fazer, quando f6r tempo. ' Fd-lo-hei 
i/or faz6-lo-hei, farei-o) com summo prazer. Se eu tivesse um 
s6 amigo, eontentar^me-hia (= me contentaria) com a minha 
sorte. Perder-te-hias (= te perderias) nos immundos labyrinthos 

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LESSON xuv. 155 

do vicio. Dir-Be-hia (one mighty ihauld iay) qae era impoBsiTel 
haver homens tao oormptos, tao imbaidos de todos oa crimen. 
Ohrigd'los'hiama9 a obedeoer-nos. - Campadeeer-wB-hieU de tan- 
tos soffrimentos. Forlo-hi&o em todo o caao. £xivi4-lo-hemof a 
y. Exc^ assim que estiver completo. Faltar-nos-faiao todot as 
recnrsos. Esforgar-me-hei para reoobrar o tempo peidido em 
boiosidade e dlssipagdes. Acontecer-nos-hia o mesmo. A es- 
qnadra destinada para eata ezpedicao remiir-se-ba no porto de 
P. Esta s^rie completar-se-ha no mez-de Agosto. 

Todos elles sao contra mim. A toa felicidade agora depende 
86 de ti. Queria fallar com ells. D. Anna me disse que aqnella 
carta nao f6ra dirigida a ella, Isto 6 para nU t Dependemos de 
f>&e, YmcA vein com ellee t Fui com ellae L casa da nossa av6. 
Uma grande responsibilidade p6za sobre mim. Ym«^ nao tern 
direito para exigir iato d^elle. Dirya-se a elles! Nao qnero 
saber de ti. Elle cbamon sobre ei (himeelf) a vingan^ d^nm 
inimigo poderoso e implacavel. Tom6rao a maior parte para n 
(thsmeelves), O Sr. nao se lembra (think) senao de »i (yauree^f). 
— Venha eommigo (for com mim). Irei eomtigo (= com ti). O 
Sr. 6. levou o menino eemeigo (= com si). Ella foi eomnotco 
(= com n6s) ao baile. Des^ira fallar eomvaeco (= com y&s), 
Leve isto comsigo (with you).-— Ym^ nao ha de qnerer que en 
trabalhe contra mim meemo (or proprio). Isto seria am grande 
infortunio para nos meemoe, EUe nao ama senao a ei meemo. As 
consequencias d^esta trai^ao recahirao sobre v6b msemoe, Jupiter 
meemo nao p6de contentar a todos. Mia meema m^o disse. Fu 
meemo os fiz. Tu meemo nao o p6des negar. V6e meemoe assim 
o quizestes. Os propHoB selvagens nos acolh^rSo com mais hos- 

' A mim me parece que o Sr. nao fez senao o seu dever. Tu 
m£ dizes isto a mim t Longe de perder-no« a n^«, Vm«* perder- 
•e-ha a bI meemo. Elles ee prejudicao a ei meBmoe. 

It has already been said that the fature and conditional tenses 
are compounds of the infinitive and the auxiliary verb Jiaver 
(pres. and impf. tenses, mostly abridged). These forms can again 

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156 LESsoir zunr. 

b« dissolved into their compoimd pants, thus: eufallarei = hei 
defoMar; tufallards ^ has de/allar, etc.; eu/alla/ria :s= hcnia 
de/allar; n^'faUariamos = haviamoB de/aUar^ etc., the ftill 
forms of hater being then always employed. The latter form is 
very frequently used in common language, principally with po- 
lysyllabic verbs. It has the same meaning as the other form 
(faUareiyfaUaria), though it may also signify what is expressed 
by the £nglish auxiliary verb ahallythintld (t i. he shaU go = he 
U to go) ; of this we shall speak in Lesson XLYII. The forma- 
tion of those two tenses allows a very elegant construction : a 
dependent pronoun nmy be inserted between the infinitive and 
the (disguised) auxiliary verb, thus: faHaflMoos-hei (miEffk the 
two hyphens I), for fallareirvos or toa/ctllarei (also hei de foliar- 
mmy 908 hei defaUar) ; eontentar-noe-hemot for vm eontentaremae 
or eontentaremo-noe ; euhmetter-se-hicto for ee euhmetteriSo^ etc. 
in this construction the abridged forms of hacer are retained 
(equal to the terminations of the simple future and conditional), 
but generally written with the initial h. Of course, for wtuUt- 
o-hei we shall say vendi-lo-heij etc. (see the preceding Lesson). 
The verbs faeer and dieer (of trtKer I do not remember having 
seen or heard an instance) retain their contracted forms: dir-te- 

The personal (and reflexive) pronouns hitherto spoken of are 
conjunctive pronouns, i. e. such as are in immediate connection 
with ihe verb, either as its subject or object (accusative and da- 
tive). In A. we have also disjunctive personal and reflexive pro- 
nouns, i e. such as are not governed directly by the verb. Thej 
are in the nominative case the same as the conjunctive pronoons 
(euy tUy elle, etc.), and have different forms only in the accuaa- 
live, the dative being indicated by the preposition a. They can 
only be used with a preposition. 

a) Personal pronouns: 



(coDJ. and disj.) 






- tu 






Digitized by Google 

IJE860H ZUT. 167 

(001^. and diq.) ooqj. di^. 

ella a ella 

n6s nofl ii6« 

v68 vof v6s 

elles 08 eUes 

ellas as ellas 

b) Beflexive (and reciprocal) pronouns: 

elle, ella, elles, ellas se si 

(The other persons are equal to the personal pronouns). 

For the sake of emphasis, the disjunctive pronoun is often 
added to the conjunctive one, as: a mim me distMh, tUa na 
degprtiSo an6i; when the coi\}unctiye pronoun is in the aocnsa- 
tive, the corresponding dierfunctive must be accompanied b j the 
preposition a (see Lesson XXXYL). 

With the prepbntidn e^m, with, the pronouns mim^ ti, 4% n69y 
v6$ become miffo, tigo^ tig^^ noeeoy vcteo (pronounce n^aeo^ v^ico), 
and are written eommigo (sometimes spelled with one m), com- 
tigoy ecmtigOy eomnoaeOj eomv&MO, This is a pleonasm, the forms 
migo, tigo, etc. being derived from the Latin meeum^ Ueum^ ie- 
cum,, fwhiseumy t&hiscutn. 

[In the following examples, the future and conditional tenses 
should be translated in the different ways indicated above.] 

This state of affairs (eouscu) will not last long. They will 
know this. We shaU meet [with] great obstacles. I should buj 
this house, if it were not so far from the centre of the city. 
Your friends would not approve [of] this step. We shall de- 
liver it to its owner. Your fame will spread over the whole 
civilized world. He will remember us. Many persons will op- 
pose (oppdr-se a) this arrangement. I shall write to him about 
this (a reipeito d'uto). You will justify me before (perante) the 
king. They would answer us with insolence. I shall apply 
(dirigir-^ to his father. This narrative will be continued (refl.) 
in the next number. In this case we should apply to the em- 
peror himsdf (em peeeoa). The voice of the people would ris« 

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158 LE880N XLY. 

above the roar of artillery. I shonld consider myself as the 
Yilest of meii) if I were capable of sach an act. They would be 
contented (refl.) ^ith less. I shall tell yon what afflicts me. 
Ot\fi should say that he is the master (senhor). I shall do it 
without murmuring. Kow it will be seen (maatrarse) who is 
right. We shall receive him with open arms. He would have 
done it, if he had had the opportunity. 

What would become (seria, or aeriafeito) of me without him? 
Without thee I will not live. Go with her ! They took it upon 
themselves. For whom is this shawl ? For me. We did for 
you what you would have done for us. The money received by 
me amouilfrto 594 dollars. We went with them to {d eaaa de) 
Hr. B. fixpect nothing of me. They said things of her which 
I cannot believe. Confide in us. Do not forget them. , For you 
too our saviour died. He has no confidence in himself. They 
have against them (= themselves) [a] great number of officers 
of the army. He went with me to (para) see the museum of 
Mr. L. With us this is different. With thee I should be happy. 
They were with me until 11 o'clock. We count upon (com) you 
(second plur.). She took the children with her (refl.). The In- 
dians brought with them an interpreter. — ^To us he said that he 
would return in two days. What do / care (que mHmporta a 
mim) what they say or think I To you it becomes (eompetir) to 
punish them. 


Nao se deve julgar dos outros por si mesmo. Quando se y6 
isto, p6de-«e fazer uma id6a do resto. Kao se p6de servir a doua 
amos ao mesmo tempo. Y^^se logo que isto nao 6 possivel. 
Mais se pensa n'isso, mais complicado parece. Quando se consi- 
dera as circumstancias que Ihe irapuz^rao esta necessidade, com- 
prehende-fl« que elle nao podia proceder outramente (otherwise). 
Onve-M tanto fallar n'aquella inven^ao, que tenho muita curioai- 
dade de a v6r. Admira-M com razao a perseveran^a com que oa 



LESSON ZLV. . 159 

Bonumos exeetttayao todas as cniaa emprezas. Qnando m tern 
trabalhado tanto, o desejo de repooso (descaoso) 6 nmi natural. 
Tem-«0 trabalhado para este effeito, por6m sera resultado satiS' 
factorio. Mai (hardly) $e p6de comprehender a rapidez com.qae 
o regimpnto execntou esta evoln^ao. Nao $€ acredita o qae m 
receia. Acredita-M facilmente o que ie deseja. Diz-M maitaa 
Tezes o contrario do que ie pensia. Pr^udica-«e iU vezes a nm 
amigo por demasiado zelo. Ser pregui^oso 6 lograr-<< a si 
mesmo. Exp6r-^e desnecessariamente ao perigo, nao 6 coragem, 
mas sim uma temeridade culpavel. £ difficil acostumar-M 4 po- 
breza, quando m tern yiyido desde a infancia no seio da opalen- 
cia. Logo que se entra na cavema, sente-^^ nm cheiro snffocante. 
Todos 08 metis irmaos, e duas das minhae irmaas morr^rao no 
espa^o de dous annos e meio. Este livro 6 tneu, mas esta penna 
nao ^ minha. Aquelle bon6 ^teuf Men primo Antonio perdeu 
aeu pai e eua mai n^um mez. Ella fhgiu com as nuu filhas. A 
nosea liberdade nos 6 mais cara do que os nouM bens. Esta casa 
agora 6 ruma, Elle nao ^ dos noeeoi. A voeta misericordia, oh 
DeosI 6 illimitada. Os inimigos lev^ao comsigo os eeus mortos 
e feridos. Vm«* nao me quer vender o $eu cavallo baio? Faca 
favor de m^emprestar a 9ua (your) tesoura. Estes sao seusf (= 
de Vmc*, do Sr., etc.). Esta casa 6 sua (= consider this house 
as yours), A casa do Sr, (or a siia casa) ^ muito mais elegante 
do que a nossa. As despezas de V. 8^ sao mui conuderaveis. 
pai d'elles f6ra condemnado 4 morte. Este jardim nSo 6 d'eUe. 
A culpa nao 6 delta (hers), 6 sua (yours). — Um tneu amigo (or 
um amigo meu, um dos mens amigos) tomard conta (care) do 
meu filho. Elle nao 6 conhecido mev, Isto nao 6 negocio seu 
(or nao 6 da sua conta, this is none of your business), Um criado 
Tiosso nao p6de ter feito isto. Um dos nossos criados quebrou o 
outro dia um espelho que custara 500$000 rs. £ culpa tuaf — = 
Oahi a escada abaizo, e quebrei um bra^o. Me d6e a cabe^a. 
ym<^ se ha de queimar cu maos. Elle quebrou a nuca. Uma 
pedra /A« esmagou a pema esquerda. Os Botocudos se fnrao o 
naiiz e as orelhas com pedacos de p4o. Os selvagens cortArap 
OS narizes e as orelhas a todos os prisioneiros. Eis o que me 
opprime o cora^ao. Eu the conhe^o (/ hnoto that he has) bas- 



160 IJB880N XLT. 

tante ci4>acidade para este emprego* Kesolyi-me finalmente a 
eaorefver-lhe, trazfiodo-M^ d Imbnxk^ os diaa da noesa amizade 
jiiTeniL O lazo e a eabi^ affogajao-lhe &» remorsos. 

£$te$ cavalheiFos viwao commigo. £!ita eenhora yeiu de la: 
Aqudle bomem sabe mais dos noesoa deaigiiios do qae nos con- 
v^m. AqtUlUu redoes abtmdao em metaes inreciosos. E^e ho 
individno que nos trooxe aqnellA noticia. A nossa caaa 6 eata. 
Aquelles forao 06 malvados qne incendiirao a ald^a de R. Qnem 
eSoaqueUesf O Eeu qxiarto h aquelle. Yendera todos os meua 
cayaUofi, menos ctqiieUe, Ene piano tern para si (tn iU faoor) a 
fadlidade da ezeca^ao. E89a$ pretensoes aao ridiculas. JE»sa» 
palavrassao injnriosasl Qne signifioautof £a sei isto. luo 
h demidsl For iaso (thertfore) nao quiz vir. Alem d^isso elles 
fizerao todos os esfc^cos para que en perdesse o men emprega 
AquiHo nao p6de ter inflnenda aobre a nossa decisao. — ^A nossa 
obacara nao h tao bonita eomo a (that) do 8r. G. O men cavallo 
h mais forte do qne o do Sr. F. Nao se p6dem comparar as con- 
qnistas de Alexandre o grande com a» dos Bomanos. Os pin> 
tores italianos sao mais oelebres do qne ob da escola flamenga. 
Os sinos da cathedral sao mnito muores do qne as da igreja de 
8, Pedro. As mas d^aqnella cidade sao bastante largas, princi- 
palmente <u qne correm de Uste para oeste. 

The indefinite prononn one has no equivalent in Portngnese ; 
it 18 snbstitnted by the reflexwe form of the verb (as in English 
often by the pasme), so that the object, if there is one, becomes 
the grammatical ntbjeet, with which the verb agrees in nnmber. 
AH pronouns relating to one, as one's, one's self, are rendered bj 
the corresponding pronouns of the third person singular (se, sett, 
a si tnesmo). With really reflexive verbs, one might expect to 
find se twice, once for the subject, and once for the object; it is, 
however, only put once, f i. without committing one's self, sem 
eomprometter-se. Phrases like ^^ one may commit one's self are 
best translated thus: um homem or uma pessoapode eompromet" 
terse. The indefinite subject is, in English, often expressed by 
we, you, they^ according to the meaning of the phrase; this ia 

y Google ^ 

UC880N XLT. 161 

also done in Portngnese {they is then never translated), with the 
eixception of the second person ploral, which is nsnaU^r rendered 
hj the reflexive form (f. L as soon as jfou enter the caTem, etc^ 
loffo que ee etUray etc.). 

The poeeenive pronouns are already known. They are the 
same, whether conjunctive or disjunctive (meu^ my, o meu^ mine) ; 
the latter always take the definite article, except when they are 
predicate {eete livro S meu, this hook is mine). The coiganc« 
tive possessive is placed be/&re its noun ; hat for the sake of 
emphasis it may he placed after the snhstantive (S culpa tna, 
it is your &nlt), or the disjunctive pronoun may he used (this 
Is my house, eeta eaea 6 minha). Very frequently the possessive 
pronoun of the third person singular or plural is substituted by 
the genitive of the penonal pronoun, especially in order to avoid 
ambiguity, which often arises from the use of mu, tua for vouo^ 
etc. (i- e- de Vm<^y de Fm«*, de Sr.^ doe Srs., etc.). For instance : 
Vm^ achou a sua hengala t means : did you find your cane f If 
it meant : did you find hie cane? we should say : Vm^ aehou a 
hengala d'elle ? Also the dative of the personal pronoun (the, Ihee) 
18 substituted for the possessive mu, tuo, etc., especially in the 
higher style ; t i. this circumstance revived hie hope, eeta eircum-^ 
itaneia Ihe retueeitou a eeperanffa. — ^In English, the names of parts 
of the body or dress are accompanied by tibe possessive pronoun ; 
in Portuguese, the definite article suffices, when ihe poeeeeeor is 
the subject of the verb ; in all other cases, the dative of the re- 
spective pereonal pronoun is added; 11./ burnt my finger, 
queimei o dedo ; a cart passed over hie legs, ttrna earreta Ihe 
paseou por cima das pemae. 

The demonetrative pronouns are also known. leto^ iesoy 
aquiUo are neuters (like o, tudo^ nada). With regard to the dif- 
ferent use of the three demonstratives, it will be sufficient to ob- 
serve that eete corresponds to the preeent, and to ihejiret penon^ 
esse to the time just poet (f. i. speaking of something just men- 
tioned), and to the eeeond pereon (= this your), aquelle to the 
farther poet and the third pereon, [Oompare the Latin Aie, iete^ 
ille.] The same difference exists with regard to place. **The 
former— the latter ^ are translated by aquelle—e^e. 

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One often bears {aturar) with patience a great suffering, 
through fear of the remedy. Yoa> (one) can get (ir) there ^on 
horseback in less than two hours. The more one learns, the 
better one sees how much remains to be learned {=,fiea para 
aprender)^ -One can not believe all that is said. One has 
no right to judge of the motives of others, without knowing their 
characters. One often rejoices more at (de) a trifle than at a 
happy event of considerable importance. One may be kind and 
severe at the same time. One can not believe him, because he 
is a great dissembler. One is often disposed to sadness, without 
«Dj apparent cause. One is not always disposed to .laugh. To 
sacrifice one's self for an ungrateful [person] is to pay what one 
does not owe. To act against one's own interest is either (pu e) 
generosity or folly. To envy one (alguem) is confessing (infin.) 
one's self his inferior. Speaking (infin.) ill of one's family is dis- 
honoring one's self. 

, He went there against my will. Your mother invited me to ^ 
(para) accompany her. He is always the first to laugh at (a 
rir-ie de) his own jokes. I saw her sisters at (em) M. We saw 
that our friends forsook us one after (ap^) the other. Your acts 
of benevolence are innumerable. Our boys had invited some of 
their comrades, and they amused themselves in every way (ds 
todoi as maneiras). Pray tell your father that I could not come 
yesterday as (eovforme) I had promised, but that I shall do what 
he wishes in the shortest time (= o mais hreve) possible. The 
house is not yet mine. Is this your dog? (= is this dog yours?) 
One of our men (= of ours) knocked him down with a blow on 
the head. My house is yours. This is none of my business. It 
was our own fault. The fault was ours. Bis father and her 
mother were first cousins (primes irmaos). Did you know her 
father? Your son and his daughter would make an excellent 
match (par). 

These grapes are excellent ; will you take some ? (= Vm^ i 
servido d^algumas f) Thank you, I have got some (= jd estou 
servido). This man has done everything in order to create dis- 
union amongst us. Which (qual) is yonr hat, this one ? No, 



LE880N XLTI. 163 

0t is) that ODO. These qnesttons are impertinent. This man 
seems to be oat of his senses (juizo). That part of the conntrj 
does not produce wheat enough for the tenth part of its popnla- 
tion. Give me that newspaper. We did this for your sake {em 
abonode Vmc^). This is nothing hnt (nSo S tenSo) humbug. Wo 
spoke of this and that, but did not come to the main point. You 
will repent of this. Besides this I gave him some money and 
clothes. Her voice is even (ate) worse thaSi Miss Anna's (=: 
that of Miss A.). My losses are far (muito) more considerable 
than those of my nephew. Do you not find my bonnet prettier 
than my sister's (= that of my sister) ? This cattle is far supe- 
rior to that which we saw last Monday. 



A religiao christaa manda que amemos aos nossos prozimos 
como a n6s mesmos. Nao me mand4rao (envidrao) os papeis 
que Ihes pedira. Mandei ehamar um cirurgiao. Mande vir sen 
filho. Eu mand&ra preparar a casa para a recep^ao dos nossos 
hospedes. Mandei fazer um collete de velludo preto, e ontro de 
setim branco. Porque nao manda encademar estes livros? Nao 
ctuo dizer o que sinto. Quern ousa contradizer isto t Elles nao 
ous&rao avan^ar. Deixei cahir o men relogio. Beixe vir o sen 
amo I Nao os deizarei ir sem que tenhao satisfeito a todas as 
suas obrigagoes. Elle o deizou escapar. Beize v^r ! Ella deiza 
ir as cousas como querem. Deize as crian^as brincar 1 Elle me 
fee cahir. Isto me faz esperar que elle se emendard. Vmc^ me 
faz rir com as suas burlas, ainda que nao queira. Eu fiz v^r 
(showed^ proved) ao Sr. L. que elle nao tinha razao n'isto. N6s 
OS mnws chegar. Nunca o vejo sahir de dia (in day-time). 
Todos OS dias vemos passar esta senhora. Amanhaa pretendc 
(tenciona) ir a S. Que pretendeis fazer comnosco? Julgo ter 

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164 USBfMm xlyL 

feito o men deven Oreio ter direito a isto. Nao se ouve mm 
fdUar d^aqnelle individno. ContdmoB ir ao concerto. A teste- 
mnnba affirma ter visto o r6o dar o golpe. Nao sei fcufer I'dto. 
Elle sonbe esqnivar-se da responsabilidade qne o contracto Ihe 
impnz6ra< Nao g6sto d^esseis divertimentos. Nao gasto dormir 
li^nm qnarto pequeno. Haver4 homem qne nao gdsU mt riool 
JDesijo foliar com a Sra. sna mai. JPreeisamos eomprar nma dnzia 
de facas. Algnns dos membros admittem ter ha/oido desordens. 
O secretario reetuou entregar os livros. Nao Juma fugir d^esta 
altemativa. O advogado flngiu ter provas positivas. Elle pT<h 
punha ir em pessoa (= himself). En eastumava deita r-me nm 
pouco antes da meia noite. Pareee eer verdade o qne ella disse. 
Men sogro reioheu" aeeitar aqnelle posto. Alcanpdmoe {we me- 
eeeded) mandarse expedir as ordens precisas. Sinto mnito tSr-me 
na necessidade de dar parte dMsto ao sen chefe. ^ 

F. me p^in de ir com elle. En Ihe prohibira de dizer isto a 
qnem qner qne fosse (= to whomsoever). Ella nao dnvidou (hesy- 
tate) de lanpar-lhe em rosto a sna baixeza e perfidia. O dono da 
casa m^offerecen de mandetr nm proprio para R. En Ibe aeon- 
selhel de escrever nma carta respeitosa ao Sr. B. O rapaz pro- 
metten de voltar logo. Aqnelle jornal nao cessa de ataear o 
ministerio. Mens amigos me recommend&rao de esperar M a 
chegada do proximo paqnete. Elle s6 cnrava de obedeeer a tos 
da sna propria conscienoia. Estamos tractando de mndar^nee 
(rem^e) d^aqni. Taes expressoes nao podiao deixar (eauld not 
huf) de suscitar remonstra^oes violentas. A nossa sociedade 
deixon^ de existir. O commandante Ibe ordenon de se retirar. 

O islamismo come^on a propagarse com nma rapidez assns- 
tadora. Mens pais m^ensindrao a eonsiderar a mentira oomo o 
Ticio mais yergonboso. Se continnar a ehoter^ as estradaa se 
tornarao intransitaveis. Aprendi a toear piano com nm mestre 
excellente. Principion a fazer nm frio insnpportavel. Onsta a 
erSr (one can hardly Miete) qne h^ja homens tao cmeid. Elles 
entao tom&rSo a perseguir-nos, Comecei a oomprebender • 
ttdnba sitnaoSo. 

Retirar-ee da sociedade dos homens 6 commetter nm snioidio 
moral. Desejar o impossivel 6 proprio &a crian^as e aoa tolos. 




Fazer yertos ainda nlo 6 ler poeto. Demorar e proceder «ra 
if^mente perigoeo. £ difficilUmo c<mhecer-ie a n m«ima 
Kao era facil calcalar as conseqnenciaa d'este paaso. Vao 6 vir- 
tude morrer pela gloria. Era impoasiyel ir adionte. — escrever 
me cnsta menoa (if Urn d\ffUmU to nU) do qae o 16r. estar sen- 
tado por muito tempa ^ prcgadicial i saade. ezpresBar-se ao 
mesmo tempo com brevidade, olareza e eleganda oSo 6 coosa 
facil. Ao oomecar o ultimo qnartel do termo aangnado aos mor- 
taee, elle achon-se no abandoDo maia oompleto. nao aceitar 
essas offertaa teria sido ama grave ofTenaa. 


The if\finitiM mood participates of the nature of a noon sub- 
stantiTe, and oan, therefore, enter into all the fanotiona of the 
latter. In A. ve see it employed as the object of another yerb. 
To most yerbs the infinitiye (object) is simpljr added without a 
preposition^ as is seen in the first section of the examples in A. 
In English, the present participle (or rather the gerund) is yer j 
often the form giyen to the yerb, when it has the power of a 
noan snbstantiye, bat in Portngaese dlwaye the infinitiye mood ; 
t i. he denies haying said this, eUe nega ter dito i$to. 

The subject of the infinitive (at the same time object of the 
finite verb), when a pronoun, is placed htfore (rarelj ^/ter) the 
finite verb: I saw him come, eu ovi ehega/r; when a substan- 
tive, between the two verbs or after the infinitive : «tt oi as car- 
ruagens chegar^ or eu vi chegar as cannagens. 

There are some verbs which require their verbal object (the 
infin.) to be accompanied hj the preposition de^ others require 
the preposition a. Of the first class (with de) are the verbs 
whidi signify to order, to beg, to forbid, to recommend, to advise, 
to cease; of the second dass (with a) are the verbs signifying to 
begin, to continue, to leam, to teach. These infinitives are nol 
to be confounded with the adverbial phrases (causal, modal, local, 
etc.) or the dative, the construction of which is similar to the 
construction exhibited in this Lesson. 

It has already been mentioned that the verb in the infinitive, 
when it has the power of a substantive, may be accompanied by 

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the definite article ; it sometimes even loses entirely the nature 
of a verb, requiring the preposition de for its subject (£. }. oo 
ronvper do did), 


When do you intend to start? He hopes to be appointed 
secretary of the treasury. I declined to receive him. We wish 
to see your library. She 'feigned being offended. N. confessed 
being the author of the pamphlet. You will make me fall. He 
dropped his pistol. She does not know \how\ to express herself 
I intended to write to Mr. 0. We dared not touch {tocar em) this 
* delicate topic. Why did you not send for me ? (to send for some- 
body, fnandar ehamar alguem). The colonel sent for his horse 
(to send for an animal or inanimate object, = mandar vir). You 
will make the child cry. The minister of finances ordered these 
negotiations to be broken off (= atalhar), I acknowledge haT- 
ing committed an indiscretion. He tried (tentar) to obtain my 
father^s consent. His brother used to visit us in B. They re- 
fused to sign the contract. The defendant denied having struck 
(dar) the first blow. 

When will you cease insulting us? I told him to embark in 
the first vessel that would sail. My Mends advised me to pub- 
lish this. He did not hesitate (duvidar) to say that I had Tobbed 
him. I learned dancing at the age of fifteen years. Where did 
you learn writing ? Learn to submit with patience to your fate. 
If you continue to trouble me, I shall apply (dirigirse) to yonr 
principal. They still continue cheating the people. I shall 
teach him to behave with more decency. This will teach her 
not to confide too much {demasiadamente) in her ability. A 
heavy (grosso) rain began to falL I began to feel the effects of 
my late fatigues. He commenced writing for the ^^ Weekly Be. 
view " {Eevista temanal) in 1845. 

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Nao tau mais Id. Vou acdbar com isto. Vd btaectr ans 
cavallos. Eoje Jki fazer uma yisita ao Sr. F., qne esti doente 
ha tres dias. Ouidadol Ymf^ vcte eahir / KaoTdoahir, Oomo 
Tae o nosso pacieDte? EUe vas in do (paasan do) melhor; elle 
yae melhor. O horizonte politioo ia asserenandoy quando de sa- 
bito a noticia da morte de L. veio amea^ar novos disturbios. A 
CTiada/ora vir o que caasava este barulho. Todoa os seus ami- 
gos tcUhse retirando d^elle. Yao jantar I Va estudar I Vd e$tu- 
dando (= continue estad.)) e nao se occape em ontras cousas! 
£u ia aoompanhando o Sr. B., quando mea pai nos encontrou. 
Que horas sao ? Vdo dar quatro. Von chamar am medico. O 
menino ia passando pela porta da casa do Sr., quando o seu do 
o assaltou e o mordeu na perna. 

Donde tern o Sr. ? Yenho da casa do men cimhado. Isto 
vem de fiar-se com demasiada facilidade nas promessas da gente. 
Veriho (or vim) fazer-lhe uma visita. Diga a seu irmao que 
venha desculpar-se ; senao, elle ser4 demittido. Venha brincar 
commigol Venha ver-nos de vez em quando. A carta veio 
acompanhada per um embrulho. O imperador Tinba acom- 
panhado pelos Srs. generaes A. e B. Isto vem a ser? (thi» 
means f) Elle veiu a ser o homem mais opnlento da provincia. 

Quando acdbard isto? Acaho de dizer (= / heM)e jiat said) 
que isto seri» muito prejudicial para mim oomo para y6s. Aca^ 
hamos de tSr^ no capitulo anteoedente, quaes erao as causas 
d'aquella revolugao. Yin^ jd aeabou de esereverf (= Aave you 
done writing f) Quando tiveres acabado de escrever, d^remoa 
nma volta.— A religiao manda (= ordena) que respeitemos as 
authoridades. Bem mauda, quem bem soube obedecer. Man- 
de-me (= envie-me) o jornal da ter^a feira passada. Mandei 
eJiamar a gnarda. Porque nao me mandarao chamar ? Vm^^ 
p6de manda/r htiscar o seu passaporte quando quizer partir. 
Quando mar^rd Vm«* eoneertar este guardaronpa ? Vou man- 

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168 JJS8SON XLvn. 

dar fazer uma escreyaninha. Maiid« afinar o sen piano qnanfc o 
antes (a« 90<m as possible^ the tooner the better), Qaando os Srs. 
^sdverem promptos^ mandem-me dizer (= eend me ward). Man- 
dei-lhe dizer que fizesse o que Ihe parecesse (= to please). O 
6r. sen tio manda dizer a Ymcd que venha logo em oasa d'elle. 
Vm<* estd certo que elle mandou dizer isto ? 

Naa Tiste a carta que deixei emcima da meza? Nao posao 
deixar-vos ir sem dar-vos algnns oonselhos. Elle nao deix^a 
recado para mim ? O Sr. ja nos vae deixar f Deixe-me ¥^r o 
que fez. Apezar do oastigo que recebeu, eate menino nao deiza 
de dar (beat) no seU irmaozinho. Deixe istol (= let that <;Uone.) 
Deixe-mel Deixe-se d'isso l (=: let that aUmel don't I) Nao 
pude deixar de noe rir (/ eould not help laughing). Deixe estar 1 
(threatening or consoling: wait a bit/ never mind!) YwP^ 
deixou cahir o sea len^o. Elle adoeceu no dia 16, e no dia se- 
guinte elle deixou de existir. ^ ! 

Nao quero que os mens filhos saiao de noite. O Sr. nao p6de 
querer isto. Quer uma laranjaf^^"^ quero ver como elles se 
hao de tirar d^este negocio. Os Hungaros nao qnizerao aoeeit4- 
lo por sen rei. Eu quero bem (as lihe^ love) a todos ellea. 
Qaeira perdoarl Queira acoeitar este fraco testemunho da 
minha gratidao. 

Os callos mUncommodao tanto que nao posso oaminhar. EUes 
haviao de vingar-ae de n6s, se pudessem. Quern quer, p6de. Se 
cahirmos no poder d^elle, seri mao para ii6s. Quaes sao agora 
as na^oes mais poderosas ? Fossa abrir uma janella ? estd fozendo 
muito calor. P6de abrir todas, se quizer. O Sr. p6de retirar-se. 
Nao poderei acabar este trabalho antes de noite. Podendo eva- 
dir-se, Socrates preferiu obedecer &s leis. Isto p6de bem ser. 
Poderia ser falso o boato, e entao estariamos bem arrai\Jado8 (s: 
be in a sad scrape). Eu sei fazer isto. Sabe ler ? 

F. deve mais do que tern. Y6s me deveis respeito e obedien- 
cia. Isto era devido {due) & sua pongao elevada. Quern sao 
osdevedores mais importantes? Pagar as suas dividas nao 6 
uma das suas qualidades. Isto 6 devido (awing) a varias oausas. 
O vapor deve (mtist) chegar hoje on amanhaa. O doutor dia 
que nao devo sahir ainda. Vm^^ nao devia (aught) mais i 



LE8SOK ZLTn. 169 

Ter-lhe. Farei o men dever, digao lA {let them §ay) o que qtd- 

Mnitos ha que nao fuiao o qae Ym** fez. 8e houyease p^ce- 
gosyeatedariaalgons; nuuagoranaoosha. Nio ha qnem nSo 
gO0te d'elle. Hei de fiizer o qne en julgar eonveniente. NIo 
Wimporta se elle qaer on nao qner ir, elle ha de ($haU) ir. Ha 
de foiserHM o qae en digol Elles hio de aprender que nao me 
p6dem insnltar imponemente. Elle Ja havia sSdo ekito. 

Tenho ponooe amigoe, porqne tenho ponco dinheiro. Men 
aT6 tinha por oostnme banhar-se (<Mr o costnme de banhar) todos 
OB diaS) tanto no inyerno como no verao. £a o tenho por igno- 
raDte (= / take, believe him to he iffnoranf). Ella foi ter com 
(went to eee) o bispo. Tenho por mim (in my fa/tor) todos oa 
ddadSos respeitayeis. Tenho-o em poaca conta (= / think Uttle 
of him), ]^e parece ser tido em mnita conta {held in hiyh 
esteem) em certoa circulos. Tenho de eahir logo. Este menino 
diz que tem de fiillar com Ym^. Algnem borroa este manu- 
scripto ; agora tenho de copi&-lo. Ym«^ nao tem nada a fkzer ? 
Sim, tenho que fiizer. O goYcmo tinha a adoptar ontro ezpe- 
diente. Haviamos (or tinhamos) a esoolher entre dous meios 
ignalmente repngnantes. 

Auxiliary verbs, properlj speaking, have the function of 
supplying the verbs with forms which do not exist in the con- 
jugation ; thus, in Portuguese, the verbs ter and hacer supply 
part of the past tenses, and the future and conditional ; eer and 
estar are used for the passive, etc. There are, however, other 
verbs, which, though capable of being used as independent verbs, 
are generally (at least in a particular sense) found together with 
the infinitive of another verb, with or without the preposition 
to (doy a, sometimes em, para). The name of auxiliary verbs has 
been extended over them, and not improperly. They mostly 
signify a toillj power, poesibility, necessity, command, permission, 
intention, futurity (English will, can, may, must, ought, shall, 
have, bid, let, allow, go, etc., Portuguese querer, poder, deter^ 
han^er^ ter, mandar, deixar, ir, «tV, etc.). As the use of these 

-• ' Digitized by VjjOOQIC 


Terbs is as difficult as their employment is imporlant, we will 
give an e^qposition of the ragnification and use of each, and then 
show how their eqnival^its in English are to be translated. 

It and Dtr signify a movement, and therefore, by analogy, an » 
- intention or futurity. Thus, ir is rendered in English hj to go 
or le goingy or simply by the future tense, also hjwill; t i. tou 
eterever, I am going to write, I shall or will write ; f>d traibalhar^ 
go and work ; fui ««•, I went to see ; ^amo9 ja^tar^ let us go to 
dinner, let us dine; i$to vae ccMr^ this will fall, is going to fsXL 
With the present participle it ugnifies a e4yntinuanMy as va escre- 
vendOy go on writing. Venho dieer-voSy I come (in order) to tell 
.you ; ven^ ver'y come and see* Vir a, with an infinitive^ signi- 
fies to grow or become. 

AedHar (inf. wiihde) means 1) to Jiniah something, as acaheids 
escretefy I have finished (done) writing; 2) the neare$tpagt (cor-, 
responding to the neareat future expressed by tr), as aedbo ds 
dizer, I have ju$t sfdd. [This use of the verbs ir^ Dtr, aoabar is 
analogous with that of the French verbs alter^ = ir, venir = vir 
,' and oco^or.] 

Mandar is to order and to send. Mandcur ehamar = to send 
' 'for eomebody ; mandar vir, to send for eomeihing; mandar btu^ 
ear or trazer, to send somebody for (= to fetch or bring) some- 
thing. In the sense of ordering something, it is remarkable diat 
in Portuguese the infinitive of the ctctive is used where in Eng- 
lish the passive is employed, as : I ordered the horses to be saddled^ 
mandei sellar os eavallos; I had a desk made, mandei fazer uma 

Deixar is to leave or let (suffer, allow, permit), as : deixar 
eahir, to let fall, to drop ; deixar alguma eousa arruinar-se^ to 
allow something to go to ruin or to be spoiled. Deixar de = to 
cease, to leave off (as deixar de existir, synonymous with morrer ; 
deixar de fazer algum co^isa = to abstain from something). 

Querer, when independent, is often rendered by will have, or 
want (he would have, or wanted me to say = elle queria que eu 

Fader = to be able, I can or may. 

Dever, to owe, to be indebted for, as an auxiliary verb indi- 
■ i 

Digitized by VjjOOQIC 

' UiSBOK XLV0. 171 

catesA neeemtyj duty ^ or certainty, ssz mtuU Ought^ baing a 
ooDditional form, is rendered by deteria or detia. Sometimes 
dever is followed hj de, when expressing a vifpotition^ as : elle 
• deve de estar Id^ he muit be there, i. e. I have reason to believe 
that he is there. The correctness of this construction Ib, how- 
ever, dispnted by many. 

Haver and ter both may signify a iMMstity, and correspond 
to the verbs to AaM and tlhaU; 1 1 elle ha de tr, he mmt or ehall 
go; elle tern de tr, he mu$t or i$ to go. They always require a 
preposition with the following infinitive, generally de; with a, 
they express a necessity imposed by ciroomstancea. ffaver^ in 
the second and third persona, implies a peremptory order. In 
certain phrases, the pronoun relative que is used after ter^aBter 
guefater, to have something to do. 

.For the translation from English into Portuguese notice th# 

to be, =i wr, e$tar; I am to = tenho de; 

to have, =s ter, hater; tnandar (^ to order) ; 

to let (allow, suffer, permit), = deixar; 

can, may, = pader; sober; 

will (not in the fhtnre tense), = pierer; 

shall, = haver de; 

must, = dever; 

ought, = deveria or devia ; 

to order, get, have, = mandar. 
A remarkable difference between the English and Portuguese 
auxiliary verbs is this, that, in English, many of them are defec- 
tive, but in Portuguese they are full verbs, and that therefore 
the English language resorts to certain substitutes for the forma 
wanting (f. L ndo tenho podido, I have not been able). 


My brother is going to be married (= eaearse) in a few days. 

Go, bring me a glass of water. I will tell you what (qual) is the 

^ reason of his vexation. I was going to say, etc. Do not go and. 

brealc the looking-glass. Where is John? He went to fetch 

the chairs. .Where have you been this morning? I had gone 

vGooQle ' 



to see (v^Uitar) Mr. R. ; from there I went to bay some flowers, 
but did not find any. The child will (is going to) £dl. Let ns 
take a ride (dar urn paweio a cavallo). We are going to have a 
severe (rigaroso) winter. Go to breakfast I Read on I How are 
you to-day? So, so (vou indd), — Those books of yonrs came in 
right time (= muito aproposito), I know very well from what 
part {lado) this comes. This comes from being too kind (ban- 
do8o demais). Come, see what a pretty little bird I have caught 
Don^t come afterwards [to] complain. They came [to] bother 
me with their eternal quarrels about nothing (= frivolo), Where 
is our boy? Here he comes running up {por) the street He 
became (= came to be) a general in less time than it took others 
(dat) to become captains. By their untiring industry they be- 
came the most opulent colonists of the new world. — The mail 
has just arrived. Messrs. A. have just published the first volume 
of Mr. B.^s interesting book on geology. We had just finished 
our dinner (= finished dining), when the thunderstorm, broke 
out The words which we have heard just now deserve the 
greatest attention. Have done with your jokes ! The govern- 
ment will soon put a stop to (= aedbar earn) these nuisances. 

Did you send them those fruits? I shall not send them [any] 
more goods, unless {9e ndo) they pay (fut. subj.) what they owe 
me. Bid you send fur him? We should send for a physician, 
if we thought that there could be [any] danger. You may send 
for your piano whenever it be convenient for you. I have al- 
ready sent for some samples. Have the goodness to send these 
pictures to my house. The Oaliph ordered to give the Jew 20 
lashes. I had ordered the parcel to be delivered to my brother- 
in-law. Where do you get your clothes (ronpa, sing.) made ? 
We had her likeness taken {tirar) about 8 months before she 
(lied. Get this atlas bound. The president ordered them to be 
dismissed instantly. I sent them word that I would' come to- 
wards evening {pela noitezinha), — ^Let me see (or let see) what 
you have written. Let us take a walk ! Let me alone I Let us 
drop (= deiiear) this conversation I Let the dog alone I You 
want to leave us? Let this rest! (=: deixemas uto.) If you do 
not leave off (cease) throwing stones, I shall go (and) tell it t$ 

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jonr father. At last (Jinahnente) he ceased writing. Thongh 
(ainda que) exceedingly lazy, he is not without (ndo deixa de ter) 
some talent I conld not help makiog this remark. — I do not 
want to know who has done this. Do yon want to speak to 
(earn) me? Nobody wanted you (= that yon) to go there. He 
would not hear {iober) of this. Please be seated (serUar-se). My 
father would not have me (= would not that I) study medicine. 
They will be obliged to sell their house, whether they will or 
not (quHrSo ou n&o queirdo). Bay what you may (will), I will 
and shall go.-^ow could you do this to your own mother f It 
was so dark, that I could not distinguish anything (eouaa alguma). 
It can not be that he should obtain (pres. subj.) what he asks. 
May be I May I come in? You may come at any time of the 
day, as I shall be at home from nine in {de) the morning till six 
in the afternoon. Is it possible I This is no longer (jd ndo) in 
my power. In those days the Portuguese were a powerful na- 
tion. Can you carry (= poder com) this big trunk? They are 
too strong for me (eUe$ podem mats do que eu, or eu ndo po$BO 
com elles). — You owe me nothing. I am still owing you the re- 
pur of my watch. His -misfortune is chiefly owing to the weak- 
ness of his health. Give everybody his due (= what is due to 
him). It is to you that I owe my liberty and that of my chil- 
dren. We owe them obligations for the splendid hospitality 
which they showed us last year. You must not do that. I must 
go. I can not help it (= there is no remedy). You ought to 
write oftener {mais veeee). Where can my hat be? It must be 
where you put it. The train must arrive soon. You ought not 
to use this language (linguagem). I ought to have gone an hour 
ago. One can not always do what one ought to do. 

There is not a better man between the poles than your grand- 
father. How many are there? There maybe six or eight of 
them. When shall you have finished your work? I shall see 
what can be done (refl.)* ^ ^^ ^ot hear one word more (= 
more one word) ; you must and shall do what I bid you. — ^With 
whom have I the honor of speaking? During his reign, women 
and favorites held (= had in their hands) the reins of govern- 
ment. He held a high office (posto) during the latter part of 

Digitizsd by VjjOOQIC 

174 LESSON XLYin. 

the reign of the late (defuncto) long. I hold him to be (= f^r 
por) a very honest man. They had to go ba<^, becanse they 
had lost a tnmb. She has some letters to write (s'to write 
some letters). You have to copy what you have written. They 
had to change theu^ policy. Have you nothing to do ? 



A vossa generosidade 6 digna de todos os louvores. Taes 
aocusa^Ses 86 sao dignas de desprezo. Esses homens sao indignos 
da vossa considera^ao. Eu o jnlgo eapaz de tudo. Sou incapaz 
dlsto. 66 agora podemos dizer que estamos livres d^ perigo. 
Kao estoxL eontente de (or com) Vmo*. Tu es eulpado d^tim crime 
ignominioso. Y^-se que ella 6 innoeentt de tudo isso. A igr^a 
estava cheia de gente de todas as classes. F. era muito eelaao da 
sua authoridade. Estou isento (exempto) do servi^o militar, por 
causa da minha vista curta. PrvDodo de todos os recursos, que 
pudera eu fazer? Este livro eatkfarto de mentiras. Cioso da 
sua dignidade, ielle nao permitte contradic^ao. Desconfiada de 
si mesma, ella nao ousou dar este passo. Elle est4 rauito mtu^ 
feito de si mesmo. Deeejoao de conhecer o exito d^este negocio, 
men primo partiu logo para^B. Este author parece ser mais 
avide dos eulogios do vulgo, do que desejoso de promover a cnl- 
tura. Elle 6 mais ambieioso do dinheiro do que da gloria. Esta- 
vamos faltoi de roupa e de dinheiro. O nosso paiz 6 rieo de 
mineraes. IJ[fano doe triumphos que a^ sciencia Ihe alcan^u, o 
homem &s vezes se esquece do sen creador a quern elle os deve* 
Todos estamos aneioeoe de ver Vm«^ succeder.- 

Este arbusto d& uma fruta eemelhante d romaa . Elle se toma 
deeagradatel d todos os seus conhecidos. Attento <to mem tra- 
balho, nao notei o que se passou no quarto contiguo. As circun* 
Btancias actuaes sao ^ncoJhroraveiB ao desenvolvimento da noasa 

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LEBSOlf XLvm* 175 

indnstrU. O qae 6 utU a nma oonsa, 6 mnitfts vexes prefudicidl 
a outra. SMe dSceii ao» preceitos do Eyangelho t Os membros 
d^aqnella Bociedade entretinhao eentimentos hoBtii d religiao. 
Ser obediente ds leis 6 o primeiro dever do eidadao. Fieu d po- 
. litica qne adoptirao, os Bomanos sUntromettlao nos negocios 
^, > d^aqnelld pai2, protegendo o partido maia fraco ^contra o maia 
* ^ forte. Son sujeUo d esta moleatia deade a minha infancia. Elle 
y/^ ae mostroa iruennvel dt minhas remonatraQoea. £I-rei continnoa 
9urdo d$ anpplicaa doa penegaidoa. Este acontecimento fo\ fatal 
ao partido opposto. Isto 6 eontrario d razao e 4 ezperiencia. A 
for^a d*nm cavallo regular (eammon) 6 igual d de qnatro homena 
yigorosoB. Beizemos todos os aasnmptoa alheiot d nossa disoas- 
sac. IJma economia arrazoada € esseneial ao bem-estar d^nma 
familuL F. 6 dado ao Jogo. Aqoellaa nac^ea sao maito affei- 
ffoadas d masica. A aca dieta nao p6de deizar de ser nociva d 
aaude. — ^YmcA nao me i pesado, £lle noi p6de aer util n'esta 
occasiao. Isto me 6 totalmente indifferente. Ella no8 6 indii^ 
pensavel, A nossa liberdade no$ 6 mais eara do qne as nossas 
riqnezas. En w$ son mnito agradeeido, A sna posi^ao the era 
mais eara do qne a sna bonra. Nao Ihei foi pouivel engragar-se 
com o Sr. X. Fico-ZA^ mnito okrigado (= / am tery much 
obliged to you). Esta fei^ao Ihss era eommttm. 

Um bomem de semelbante caracter seria bem capaz de tomar 
tima vinganca tao atroz. Men filbo 6 incapaz de mentir. EUe 
foi nm bomem digno de occnpar nm posto tao elevado. Eston 
andoso de saber noticias d^elles. Receioso de perder nm em- 
prego iao Incrativo, elle B^accomm6da a todos os desejos do sen 
amo. Parece qne o Br. estd cnrioso de saber o qne esta carta 
cont^m. Eston oerto-de ter posto o men cbap6o emcima d^esta 
ineza. — ^A directoria esta determinada a empregar todos os meios 
J legaes para obter a restitni^ao d^aqnelle terreno. A casa estava 
prestes a cahir. Eston prompto a fazer tndo o qne Y. S. man- 
dar. Este mo^o parece destinado a fazer bonra ao sen paiz. 
Yejo-me obrigado a rednzir aa minhas despezas. 


There is a great nnmber of adjectives called objeetke ady^^ 

y Google 

176 LESQOsr XLvm. 

ixvea^ because they reqaire either a direct or an indirect object, 
in order to complete their signification ; the former is indicated 
by the preposition de, the latter by a (sometimes para). The 
object may be a nonn, or a pronoun, or a verb. The verb is then 
always in the infinitive (gemnd in English). When the indirect 
object (dative) is a pr<m<nin (personal), the dative form of the 
conjunctive pronoun is used in sentences where the objective 
adjective is the predicate ; f. i. he will be useful to tUy eUe nos 
$erd utily not util anSs; in all other cases the disjunctive pro- 
noun with the preposition a or para is used. . 

He is not worthy of your esteem. You are unworthy of my 
friendship as well as (tdo hem eomo) of my hatred. I do not 
think (crer) that he is capable of so much falsity. He is inno- 
cent of this man^s death. They are guilty of treason. Those 
articles are free of duty (direitas). In some countries the Jews 
are exempt from military service^ How could he escape, being 
deprived of all means of defence ? Our house was full of guests, 
80 that (de maneira qve) we could find no place for him. N. is 
80 jealous of his fame as an (= d^) author, that he makes him- 
self {tomarse) ridiculous. She is jealous (= ter ciume) of her 
own sister. We are not yet sure of success. Are you quite 
^fem) sure of this f The negroes are very fond (amante) of music. 
I am out (/alto) of money. We are satisfied with your progress. 
' At last we are rid of this tiresome talker. Be not greedy of the 
praises of the crowd. Alexander, thirsting for (sedento de) ven- 
geance, appeared suddenly before the walls of Thebes (Thebas). 

This measure would be contrary to all the rules of equity. 
He made himself very useful to his master. Many of the inhabi- 
tants remained faithful to Christianity, in spite of the cruel per- 
secutions to which they were exposed. Be faithful to your mas- 
ters! Such words are disagreeable to the ears of the mighty. 
The smell of this fruit is similar to that of an apple. He was 
given to all sorts of extravagances. The poor woman was sub- 
ject to epileptical fits. This arrangement will be agreeable to 
all parties.. At last he became insensible to shame. You are 

y Google 

- UE880H XLVm. 177 

^eftf to die Toice of conaeienoe. Fkase send me the dooumeiits 
relative to.onr case. Tour weakness is owing to jom unreason- 
able diet. These things are hidden from (oeettUo a) the eyes of 
men. The strength of this machinerj is equal to that of twenty 
men. This is alien to our purpose. The moment was unfavor- 
able to our enterprise. The new law concerning the service of 
the national guard will be odious to many. Such was the con- 
dition of France anterior to the outbreak of the great revolution. 
The army of the enemy was superior to ours in almost every 
{todo9) respect. Our literature is inferior to no other. The king 
was naturally inclined {propenMo) to clemency, and adverse to 
rigorous measures. His house was open to every stranger. 
Every new invention of efSoient and destructive arms is con- 
ducive to the abbreviation of wars, and consequently, to hu- 
manity. The days following {mdmqumU a) this tragical event 
passed in a gloomy silence. Some of the tribes showed them- 
selves hostile to the missionaries. The company of those young 
men is ii\}urious to your reputation. I will not be a burden (=s 
p€9ado) to my family. 

Tour recommendations have been very useful to me. The 
fate of your relatives can not be indifferent to yon. It has been 
impossible to me to discover the person that brought the letter. 
Yon are dearer to me than life. I am thankful to them for the 
many favors which I received from them during the time of my 
late misfortune. 

He is so enraged that he is capable of committing some im- 
prudence. I know that she is incapable of saying such a thing. 
She was anxious to go to M., in order to see how things (m 
coumi) went. Ton are free to go wherever you please {cumde 
quteer). I am ready to follow you. 


y Google 

178 oassoK ^xnc* 


Tende eompaiscSo dd n6s! 'Ea.teria vontade (=s ./ hace a 
mind) de Ihe dizer tudo. Ha mais de qninze diaa que nao t^nko 
vontade de comer (= appetite), Nao tenho appetite, Nao/a(»» 
Ciuo (do not mind) do qae elle diz. Creia o Sr. que nao tive a 
intenfoode ofTendMo. Elledisse qae nao tiriha tempo de atten- 
dera Ym^, O Sr. nao tem-medo de aahir a estas boras? O me- 
nino tinka vergonha de dizer o que tinha visto. Nao .tenho 
fomye, tenho 8§de. Ym^^ tem-razao. F. teve mnita cnriosidade 
de v^r o qne se passava dentro«. Fago tengao de dedicar-me in* 
teiramente ao estudo 4a8 mathematicas. Tinha vontade (or . 
den-me vontade) de me rir, qnando elle disse isto. O men des^o 
de reconciliar-me com a minha familia creBcia de dia em dia* 
Tenho pena d^elle. O sen pal nao tem obrigagao de pagar as 
dividas do Sr. 

Ningaem tem direito a isso senao n6s. Li attenpSo ao que 
digo. Sr. nao deve dxi/r eredito a estes hoatos. Relseio qne a 
carmagem /apa falta ao Sr. sen pai. N^este caso nao se p6de 
fazer justiga a todos. Nunca fiz mxd a elle (or Ike fiz mal). O 
ar da noite Ihe far4 mal. O carcei^eiro d^ estapula a dous presos 
condemnados a gal^s perpetnas. Milhares d^aqnelles infellzes 
pagarao com a vida o sea apego d crenga dos sens pais. EUes 
sempre t^m mostrado mnita affeifoo de belias letras.- Depoia do 
sen regresso a Lisboa en nanca mais onvi d'elle. Urn dos mais 
poderosos incitamentos d perseguigao dos Jadeus erao as saas 
enormes riquezas. A sua propensdo d crueldade nao encontron 
mais obstacnlo. Acabamos de ver quaes erao os sentimentos da 
nagao em rela^o ds ultimas inuovacoes. Os Ohristaos forao 
accnsados de sacrilegios e offensas publicas d religiao. £sta pa- 
lavra foi nm iruulto d pessoa do monarca. O desprezo 6 a melhor 
retposta'a taes insinuates. O general mostron grande repug- 

Digitized by VjjOOQIC 


nantiaa essas medidas.-^Poiihamos fim a essaa disputas inQteb! 
Os noTos depntados pre0t4fSo jnramento e tomirSo assento na 
eamara. Isto nao diz re^>eito ao Sr. {this does not concern you). 
Respeito 4 yelhice era mna das principaea Tirtudea que os Laoe- 
demanioa ineuIcavSo 4 mocidade. Hzemoa alto 4 entrada da 
villa. Nao posso fazer frente a tSo grande opposi^ao. 

Qaem arrematou aqnelles pr^diosf A arrematafS^ dtk iUu- 
minacao pabKca terd la^r no dia 7 do mez proximo ftitnro (=s 
nexf). £a Ihe pagarei a importancia {amount) qnando a letra 
f5r vendda, nem nma hora antes. O pagamento d^esta letra me 
d4 muito cuidado. B. foi nomeado pagador do batalhao 15. 
Eata anecdota 6 impagaveL Nao ae p6de comparar aqnelles 
tempos com os nossos. Aquelle qnadro nao soffre comparagSo 
com nenhum dos outros. Dizem qne ella era d^uma belleza in« 
comparayel. Nao cotnpre esta espingarda; nao presta. O Sr. 
e<mhece o comprador d^esta ohacara? A compra foi annnllada 
pelo tribunal de commercio. Hmtoa obreiroa agora ganhdo {earn) ^ 
3$(K)0 rs. por dia. £is o gaiilio d'nm mez. Chame algnna 
ganbadores. Qnem ganbou a batalba de Marengo? Nunca 
ganbei n^este jogo. Gkmbaste a aposta f O nosso partido est4 
ganbando for^as. Amai aos vossos proximos como a y6s me»* 
mosi Qoe senbora amavell Os amadores dos bons bocados 
gabao muitQ aqneUe boteL Formon-se n^esta oidade uma socie- 
dade como Dome de ^^Sociedade amante da instrac^ao." Ella 
cbora por sen amante. Por quanto vende ym<^ a libra de came f 
Os vendedores estao contentes. Quando tera lagar a venda {sale} 
dos bens do fallecido Sr. L. f F. tem nma venda {grocery) na 
esqnina d^estii rua e da do commercio. Esta casa nao p6de refy- 
der mais d^nm conto de r6is por anno. Os rendimentos da 
alfandega de B. s6bem as yezes a mais de trezentos contos por 
mez. Oreia-mo que estd enganado. F. reuniu os sens credores 
para Ibes mostrar os sens livros. credito 6 a ajma do com- 
mercio. Ficarei fi el a cren^a em que fui educado. Elles eiFec- 
tuarao a passagem do rio com incrirel rapidez. Eu o vi sabit 
eorrettdo^ O meu cavallo era bom corredor. As contas correntes 
da noesa casa sao consideraveis. Este corredor occupa dema- 
siado Ingar. Acbe: esta corrente de relogio. Doas d^estas letras 



180 LE8B0K XJJXi 

tmeem hoje ; as oatras ja estSo rencidas. O dia do Tencinieiito 
d'estas letras serd um dia terriyel para mim. Se o oatro partido 
▼enoer, n66 todos-estaremos arruinados. Os venoedores entr&rao 
triompha&tes Da capital Guidado que nao se pereaf (== take 
tare not to lo$e your way,) Isto seria a perdi^ao dos mens filhoo. 
Qae homem fingido ! Na bistoria di^ origem dos povos a fiogao 
geralmente toma o Ingar da realidade. A bTpoorisia 6 o fingi- 
mento da yiitude. De$tTuir 6 mals facil do que edificar. A 
destniicao das bibliothecas de Alexandria e do Yaticano foi a 
obra do tanatismo religioso. SentvmM mnito a falta dos Srs. 
Estas daas palavras t^m nm sentido mnito diferente. Este sen- 
timento 6 digno de y6s. A perda de qnalqner dos cinco senses 
k uma grande infortnnio. Elle mostroa-se mnito sentido (afflicted^ 


Tbe examples in A. contain objective euhetantitei^ some re- 
qniring tbe preposition do witb tbeir object, others a, according 
to tbeir nature. F. i., in tbe pbrase *^ tbe loye of virtue, '* the 
substantive virtue is the direct object of tbe sentiment expressed 
bj love; in *^ bis faitbfahiess to bis master," tbe substantive mas- 
ter ib the indirect object of faithfulnees (= being faithful). It 
is often tbe case, that a whole pbrase, consisting ot a transitiTe 
verb and its direct object, is employed instead of a simple verb, 
the direct object of which is then governed by a preposition ; 
thus, *'to have pity on somebody" is equivalent to "to pity 
somebody." Such phrases are numerous in both langnagea, 
though not always corresponding to each other. Sometimes an 
adjective or participle with the verb to be ia used in En^ish, 
when in Portuguese ter with a substantive is employed; 1 i.T 
am afraid, tenho medo, I am hungry, tenho fame. Such phrases 
can only be learned by practice. 

Host objective substantives are derived from verbs ; some of 
them are found already in Latin (amor, eompaixdOy odio), others 
are formed directly from Portuguese verbs, mostly by means d 
the terminations mento and pdo added to the root of tbe verb by 
a in those of the first coi\jngation, by i in those of the other two 
conjugations (espanc-ar, -amento ; mang-ar, -apSo; rendrer. 

y Google 

LESSOir xux. 181 

'imeato; perd-er, -ifSo; deitru-iry -ifdo, etc,) The a£9z mento 
is more ei^presdve of the active^ fSo of the pamte form (thus 
Jkigimento isfeiffninff, L e* the action offeigaing.JUpSo s what 
la feigned, fiction); both are, however, freqnentlj confounded. 
There are some yerbs of which sabttantiYes are formed hj adding 
« or tf to the root, as eampra, venda^ perda^ arranjo^ etc. Other 
snbstantiyes are formed from the (lo^) present participle, as 
mudanfiay'erenfa, etc. {)5ke peneceranpa). Still other formations 
are tonquUtu^ ientido, euidado, etc. The termination dor (tor\ 
added to the past participle, indicates the wbject of the verb 
fr<Hn which the snbstantiye is derived (= English er\ as eamprti-' 
dor (fem. -oray^ bny-er, veneedor, feitor^ etc. The same form is 
used for forming verbal a^ectives, as auuMtador, threatening. 
But most verbal adjectives are formed by the termination eeZ 
(acel for the first coi^ngation, wel for the second and third), as 
amatdy erivel (credible), /we/fenw?.— All verbal substantives and 
Bdiectivea have the same constroction (i. e. the same preposition 
for their object) as the verbs from which they are derived ; and, 
the latter being active and transitive, the object is governed by 
the preposition de. These mles are the same as in English, and 
therefore need no fiirther explanation ; the nse of the different 
prepositions requires great attention, but for our present purpose 
the examples in A. are sufficient to guide the student 

Have pity on the poor! Johnny had the patience to count 
all the rafls of our garden-fence. Are you afraid of going out 
at night? Do not be afraid to say the truth.. Are you not 
ashamed of forsaking {dewmparar) thus your poor little chil- 
dren f I have a mind to tell him what I think of his conduct. 
6he has little appetite. Are you hungry? No, but very thirsty. 
I am so sleepy^ tiiat I can hardly stand on my feet (= flear em 
pi). We miss his company very much. I have no occasion for 
{precUSo de) this. I am in ne^ (Ur prectsOo) of some assistance^ 
in order to carry out {levar ao finC) our plans. Tou have the 
right of saying whatever yon wish. You have no right to this 
property. Who can give credit to what those malicious people 

y Google 

182 ixssoN XLir* 

Bay I They show little affection for (a) their country. I have 
no great confidence in hiB ahilities. My remarks do not concern 
yonr Mendly relations with 0. Any alloaion to the past will be 
an incitement for a new outbreak of their mutual hatred. Con- 
cessions to our enemies, in our present situation, would be proofs 
of our weakness. Their obstinate clinging (apSgo, afferro) to 
such antiquated ideas is certainly (ds eerto) no proof of their su- 
perior intelligence. Some journals recommend the annexation 
of the whole territory of M. to our dominions. This would be 
no great obstacle to my plans. Even the most perverse show 
respect to true virtue. Your son seems to have little inclination 
to ths serious studies. He exhibited great repugnance to the 
adoption of this policy. 

His speech did not please everybody. Our prospects were 
not very (= poueo) pleasing. The green color is tiie.most agree- 
able to the eyesight. H. B. H. (Sua Aliem Beat, S. A. jS.) 
prince Lewis (Luus) passed last night through our city. I feel 
(poMsar) better since your last visit. How have you been (j>a»- 
tar) since I saw you last? (pela ultima oe&) . The passage of the 
river was facilitated to us by the kindness of Mr. K, who lent 
us his boat. His impudence passes all bounds. One of the pas- 
sengers had not paid the fare. The heavy rains of last Sunday 
have made (tomar) some of the streets quite impassable. Worldly 
joys are transitory. The word *^ pastime" is most frequent in 
the mouth of the idler. One can not trust (Jiar-M em) him. He 
has ruined himself by giving security for anybody that asked 
him [for] it. Who is your surety? I knew him very welL 
This author is little known at present. His knowledge (plur.) in 
military affairs is very extensive. He is no acquaintance of mine. 
Are you acquainted with them? I made their i^quaintanoe 
{fazer eanhecvmento com) last summer. Are you a connoisseur 
in painting ? I prefer this little book to a whole library of novels. 
Death would be preferable to such a life. They gave ns the pre- 
ference over more than sixty competitors. His remorses will 
punish him sufficiently for this deed. The punishment of snoh 
orimes we must leave to God alone. 

y Google 


Ufl60N L. 183 


Ea Ihe disse muita$ vuei que nao pos?o nem devo nem qnero 
acceitar essas condi^oes. Par&mos cUguns dioi em oasa da nossa 
tia. Ainda que ea viva cem anno$^ nao qnero maia v6-lo. Esta 
rez pesara einco quintaa. A minlia ultima doenga daroa doui 
mege9 e mtio, Procoramo-y oa ha trei duu, Eate panno cnsta 
8$000 rs. ajarda. 

Fizemos o camlnbo deK^aB.em menos de meia bora. Estes 
lodios fazemas suaa armaa^^tf pedra oq de madeira dariasima. 
Apartimos a nossa eociedade (partnenhip) de eommum acc6rdo7 
Ene era rei de facto, senao de nome. F. sempre estu do lado do 
mais forte. O menino nao fez isto de proposito. Elles nos offe- 
rec^rao de boa vontade tndo qnanto tinbao. O men prime vol* 
ton leve de dinbeiro, por^m rico de maia nma preciosa ezperien- 
cia. Ella estava vestida (£ moda bespanbola. Os pobres soldados 
marcbavao a custo (toitk difficulty) no caminbo pantanoso qne 
conduz para 0. Mnitos d^'ellea obtiverao a sua liberdade d custa 
(at the coaf) dos sens bens. O primeiro batalbao passou o rio a 
T^, OS ca^adores (rifieTnen) o pass&rao mais abaixo a nado. 
Ym«* veio a tempo (a proposito). Nao vendas a tua reputa^ao 
a tfoco de algnns favores duvidosos. Muitos dos negros f^rros 
repassao d Africa. Isto se v^ em toda a parte (everywhere), Em 
poucos annos tndo aqulllo mudou. Qnanto ganba o Sr. par mez? 
Fazei em tempo o^^tendes a fazer. Nao me zango por tao 
X>ouca cousa. Para fazer nma agnlba, precisa-se de mais maos 
do qne para nma easa. 

Algnem esteve aquif Sim; ncU>. £ longe d'aqni 4 sua casa? 
Nao, senbor, 6^«rto. •/<£ d^rao sete boras ? Ainda nao. Vm«* 
devia levantar-se mais eedo. Nao me levanto tarde. G6sto 
muito d^esta frncta. Son poueo dado a esta especie de diverti- 
mentoSk Eston tahez em maiores apuros do qne o Sr. Falle 

Digitized by VjjOOQIC 

184 LESSON L. 

altef Fallem mais iHJtixo/ Gaminha maifl Ugeirof I^ 6 clUo- g 
mente loavavel. EUe cabin felismente emoima d^am montao de Lu^' 
palha. Isto acontecea provavelmente antes do anno 1708. 

IndicationB of place (where? whence? whither?), of time 
(when? how long?), of mode (how?), and of eauee (why? where- 
fore? to what end?) are expressed 

1) by mere tuhetantitee: to live many yean, = viver maitos 

.2) by eubatanUves (or prononns) with a preposition: I did it 
in good faith, fi-lo de boa fe; (these egressions are eaUed ad- 
wrbial phraeee) 

8) by the so-called otZi'tfr^. 

The knowledge and nse of these different expressions are a 
matter of practice and the dictionary ; the following will snffio^ 
for oar purpose. 


a) iimple prepositions: a, to, at; ante, before; gpjg, after; 
atS, til], nntil, as far as ; com, with ; contra, agsAust^'^onforme, 
according to ; de, of, from ; desde, since, from ; durante, daring ; 
em, in, into, on; entre, between, among; para, for^ towards; 
por (per, obsolete), by, for; perante, before; segundo, according 
to; sem, without; sob, under; sobre, over, upon; trae, behind. — 1 
These prepositions govern the accusative case, i. e. they are 
simply joined to their substantive, and require disjunctive per- 
sonal pronoun (mm, ti, etc.); f. i. a meu pai, a mim. Of the 
contractions and alterations which some prepositions undergo we 
have already spoken ; they are mainly the following : a is writ- 
ten in one word with the masculine of the definite article (ao, 
aos), and contracted with the feminine of the article and with 
aqudle {aa = d, aas = ds, a aquelle = dquelle, a aquella = 
dquella, etc.) ; commigo, eomtigo, comsigo, eomnosco, comvosco for 
com mim, com ti, com si, com n6s, com v6s; de is contracted with 
the definite article (do, dos, da, das), and loses its e before a 
vowel or h, especially before pronouns (d'este, d^aqueUe, d^elle^ 

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LSSSOK L. 185 

jjptc.) ; poT with the definite article beoomes pelo^ pehi^pela^ peku 
'^Xtrom the obsolete preposition per) ; com, with the masculine of 
the definite article, is often written and pronounced eV, e*<m Qn 
older writers also eo^ eos) ; em with the definite artide becomes 
noj no$^ noy nas, and n' before um, elte^ este^ aqueUe^ eue, 

b) compound prepoeitiona: 1) para eom^ towards ; por entre^ 
between; d^entre, from among; a traeet^ through; (rfora^ be^ 
sides ; 2) (all compounds with de) ahaiao^ below ; aeima^ above ; 
aeSrea, about, concerning ;^^|||, beyond, besides; antee^ before; 
aguem, on this side; afro^, behind; dehaixo, under; dentro^ 
within; depots, after; detrae, behind, from behind; diante, be- 
fore ; embaixoj below ; emeima^ on, upon ; /ora^ out of, besides. 
— ^Hiese are formed from substantives (or a^ectives and adverbs 
considered as substantivesX which explains the employment of 
de; thus ema means topy and emeima flfo = on top of, on, upon ; 
aeima de = above, por eima de^ above, over. They are, there- 
fore, in reality adverbial phraees; but afthe same time virtual 
prepoeition^y and are often translated, in other languages, by real 
prepositions. Similar combinations are : defronte de, in front o^ 
opposite; perto de, near; lokffe de, far from; ao lado de, near, 
beside; ao lonffo de, along; a or por eauea (raeHo) de, on account 
of^ because of; a pezar de, despite, in spite of; a redor de, around ; 
em lugar (vez) de, instead of; junto a, near, dose U>; ao pi de, 
near, hard by, dose to ; still others are ndo oletante, notwith- 
standing; mediante, by means of; nisto^ considering; also du- 
rante, during ; exeepto, except ; these ^^e require no preposition 
to follow them (because they are participles, and a kind of dbla- 
tivue ahsolutur), 


1) Adjectives (and participles) are changed into adverbs by 
means of the termination mente; this word being a feminine 
noun a mente, the mind (meaning here wiee [compare liiewiee, 
otherteiee] or manner, way), those words must have the feminine 
termination, when they can take it: alto, high, altor-mente, 
highly; christdo, christian, ehriitda-mente, in a christian man- 
ner ; riquiuima-mente, most richly ; but conetante-mente, fieU 
mente, feliz-mente. The comparatives melhor, peior, maior, me^ 

Digitized by VjjOOQ IC 

186 L&SSON L. 

nor can not take this tennination, the ac^ectiye Berving instead 
of the adverb; maiormeTUe or its contraction mSmuaU e ineaxia 
chiefly^ especiall/y. When two or more adverbs are nnited hj co- 
ordination, only the Icut one takes mente^ as: diacorrer sdbia e 
elegantemente^ to discourse learnedly and elegantly. The adverb 
of bom is 6em, of mdo (and ruirn) mat. 

2) Some adjectives take no termination on becoming adverbs, 
especially in certain phrases, as : foliar alto, haixoy to speak lend, 
low; caminhar ligeiro, direito, to walk fast, straight; custar^ 
pagar earo, to cost, to pay dearly ; muito, poueo, salvo (safe, and 
safely) ; the latter, as also its synonym aao, always remains an 
adjective, as : ella chegou $alva, ehegdmos sSos e mUos, 

8) Sabstantives without prepositions nsed as adverbs are: 
um dia, one day, or once; utna vez, once; duos vezea^ twice; 
muitas vezes^ often {tnaia veeea =3 oftener) ; algumoi veees^ some- 
times; outras^i again; esta vez, this time; um pouco, a little; 
and othenr. *"***^ 

4) Original adverbs : a) of place : aqui, ed, here, ahi, ali^ 
Id, aeold, there, yonder ; onde, where ; tionde, whither (or where) ; 
donde, whence; longe, far; perto, nearf b) of time: gttando, 
^hen; ttgora, now; jd, already, presently; ho}e^ to^y; hontem, 
yesterday; (afnajiAaof to-morrow ;) nnnca, never; aempre, ever, 
always; depois, after; antes, before; e) of mode: eomo, howf 
as; asHm, so; tdo, so, as; qtuzsi, almost; a$iaz, hastante, enough; 
tantOy so much ; quanto, how much ; mui, muito, very, mnch, 
etc. ; d) of caused porque, why. 

6) Dmratm adverbs : adiante, before, in front; dbaixo, em- 
taixo, below ; aeima, emcima, above, upon ; etc. etc. 

6) Sentences used adverbially : ha muito (tempo), long ag6, etc. 

The use of adverbs and adverbial phrases is, in every lan- 
guage, rich in idioms, and therefore offers to the learner .great 
difficulty ; the same prepositiohs are not always used in Portu- 
guese and in English, and a literal translation would <^ten per- 
vert the meaning of the phrase. We shall, for this reason, ex- 
tend the three following Lessons, which treat of the adverbs and 
adverbial phrases (and, consequently, of the prepositions) fkr be- 
yond the length of the preceding Lessons, by which means we 

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UE880H LL 187 

Hkewise give thd 0tDd«it an opportunity for reeapitnlating all 
^ the rules we have given until now. 



Onde estao elles f D^onde vens ? A&nde rai o 6r. ? Aonde 
quer Vmc* que eu bote isto ? Venha ed ! Sente-se («0 aqui I 
Que estas fazendo l&f Aqui nao ha ladrdes. O Brazil h um 
paiz fertUissimo ; ali crescem as plantas da zona torrida como as 
das zonas temperadas. Ahi vem o seu cachorrinho. Ym^ nao 
yh a casa que estd acold no oume d^aquelle outeirot Partlmos 
de Cadiz no dia 2 de Janho. Da sua casa eu fui w) niercado^ A 
America k 6 continente mais oomprido ; eztende-se do Norte ao 
Snl, |>dr quatro zonas e mais de 120 degrdos de latitude. As 
minhas primas estiverao dez mezes em Pariz. O rio das Ama- 
zonas nasce 7u> Perti, corre primeiro do Sul para o Norte, depois 
dirige o seu curso pa/ra o Leste. Todo este terrene, deede o rio 
ate aquella serra, pertenceu um dia aos mens antepassados* Que 
elle nao se dir\]a a mim ! Acompanharemos o Sr. af« a ponte de 
B. K'aquella semana morriao do cholera de quarenta a cinooenta 
pessoas cada dia. Mnitos dos fugitives acolh^rao-se a Lisboa. 
Se fosse como o Sr. diz, ainda poder-se-hia oocorrer ao mal. A 
sombra da protec^ao real elles s^entregavao a todos os ezcessos, 
sem medo de puni^ao. A estes successes seguirao-se outros 
ainda mais brilhantes. Ohegue-se mab d meza, para v^r melhor. 
Accresce a isto a credulidade do vulgacho. Isto seria adverse 
aoB mens principios. Os vencedores ftiribundos arrancavio os 
flhinhos om bra$os das mais, e Ihes esmagavao os cr^neos contra 
as paredes dos apose&tos. A m4 vontade que a classe indigente 
sempre tern di classes opulentas, nao tardou a rebentar em.tu- 
multos< As lagrimas da pobre viuva nos mov^rao d compaixao. 
Este boato chegou ao9 ouvidos-do proprio monarca. F. se p6z d 

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testa da empreza. Aparte d^iaso nao tenho motivo de qneixar-me 
d^elle. A casa d^ellea estd oo p6 da minha. Isto se chama trar 
dozir ao p6 da letra (= literMy). Ella estava do lado direito, 
ao lado da imperatriz. Taes erao as circumstancias que o imx>elli- 
rao a esta fetal resolu^ao. Eu obriguei-o a isto. Voltastes aas 
Tossos lares, cobertos de gloria. Os escriptos d^aqaelles aothores 
tendem a perverter a opiniao publica. Nem (not) todos curvar- 
se-hao d vontade d'essa orgulhosa oligarchia. Kao feUe na sua 
carta em consas qne toqnem &a nossas differen^as. Ye-se fecil- 
mente qne a maior prodencia presidia a essas iavestiga^ oes. As 
suas expressdes. induzirao-nos a cr^r qne Vm«* tinha mndado de 
parecer. Becorrestes d adalacao e at6 4 corrnp^ao d'algons em- 
pregados pablicos. Hei de snbmetter esta materia a jaizes com- 
petentes. Nao se qneixe a mim, porqne nao qaero saber d^este 
negocio. Se elle hesitar, refira-se a mim. Deize isto ficar a 
mea cargo. — ^Tenoiono sabir do nosso dub. S&ia d^aqui t (= he 
off.) Esta fortnna me cahia das nnyens. Trago-lbe nm recado 
da parte do Sr. Dr. R. Um passeio ^Taqoi at^ a ponte nao deiza- 
ria de fezer-lhe bem. Abstenbamo-nos de reflezoes sobre esses 
acontecimentos. Retirei-me i'aqnelle negooio, porqne nm dos 
Bocios tornon-se men inimigo. A carteira dasappareoen da ga- 
yeta, sem qne en possa ezplicar como isto era possivel. De qnem 
h a bella casa qne esta de fronte da igreja de 8. Panlo ? Estes 
cristaes vksm de Franca. NiSs todos particlpamos da vossa pro- 
tec^ao. Livre-me <2'este bomem ! O tjranno se desembara^on 
doe sens inimigos pelo pnnhal do assassino. Nao me despe^ de 
Vm®^, porqne ainda bei de rd-los. Isto nao passaria (= wndd 
he nothing more than) <f nma baizeza. Este senbor passa d*nm 
partido ao ontro com espantosa fecilidade. Do sublime ao ridi- 
cnlo nao ba senao nm passo. Preoisa olbar mnito de perto para 
acbar as distinccSes qne o Sr. fez. De longe aqnelle rochedo 
parece-se com a cabe^a e o busto d'nm bomem. Isto nao de- 
^pende da minba vontade. Ft^ao <f aqni ! De nma parte Y . 8. 
tern razlo. Tres cadetes f6rao expnlsos da academia militar. 
Fni demittido do men posto por nao qnerer annnir aos ronbos e 
prevaricacSes do cbefe da reparti^ao. Elle safon-se (tiron-se) 
<f aqnelle dilemma com mnita bonra. Qnem tiron o men \m9 

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LE880K LI. 180 

de notas ^Testa gaveta I O paqoete d6 Londres j4 devia ter che- 
gado hontem. — ^Nao permitto lata em minha casa. Men irmao 
est4 agora em Roma. Urn dos nossos eq>ia8 chegon a penetrar 
no acampamento dos Francezea. Metta este canivete no bolso, 
seDao, receio qne aconte^ algama desgra^a. O pobre do men 
gatinho (my poor little cat) cahia na agna e affogon-se. Os 
n^ros carre^o quasi tndo na {on the) cabe^ O ch4 estd na 
meza. O assassino Ihe deu uma oacetada na cabe^a que fractu- 
rou o craiieo. Quern Ihe metten isto na cabe^ {into your head) ? 
No meio da ponte achava-se uma estatna de S. Nicoluo. CrMes 
y6s em Deos Omnipotente ? Nao estou fallando n'isso. Nia- 
gnem pensou n'isto. Na noite passada sonbei em Tarias oonsas 
pouco agradaveis. Tenbo toda a oonfian^a em Ym^. O orador 
estribouHse na$ palavras do ministro. Tropecei n'uma pedra e 
cahL £m que se fundao essas asser^Ses ? Pegue na outra 
bandal Kao pegue n'este ferro, porque e8t4 muito quente. 
Hoje estive na igr^a. Estivemos no theatre. Os dous partidos 
eoDTi^rao em protestar contra esta medida. Puzemos as uossas 
familias em (or a) salvo. — Sohre elles recahe toda a responsabili* 
dade<r Deitdmo-nos sobre a relva avelludada, gozando da mag* 
nifica perspectiva que se estendia diante de ]i6s. Ponha esta 
cadeira eobre a meza, entao poderd talvez chegar ao tecto. Hm 
dos guardas arremesson-se sobre o ladrao e o segurou, at^ que os 
outros pud^rao amarr4-lo. Uma passagem do nosso author nos 
esclarece eohre este ponto. Gentenares de volumes se t^m es- 
cripto eohre este assumpto, mas sem fructo perceptivel. Urn vio- 
lento temporal desfechou iobre 'a cidade de G. Sohretudo pro- 
oure-me um bom cozinheiro. Mandei iazer nm sobretudo (uma 
sobrecasaca) de panno grosso. O fanatismo prevaleceu eohre a 
caridade christaa. Todas as calamidades pareciao accumular-se 
eobre a provincia Infeliz. Saquei 200Q libras esterlinas sohre 
Londres. Os soldados da guarda langarao sortes sobre a tunica 
de Jesus Ohristo. Conviemos em guardar o silenoio mais pro- 
fundo sobre estas transac^oes. Isto nao p6de deizar de trazer o 
odioso sobre os nossos adversarioR. Uma grave responsabilidade 
peza sobre vos. Traga a sobremeza I A assembl6a ficou sobre- 
saltada, quando tie Ihe annunciou isto. — Emeima da meza estava 





190 LB880K IX 

un bello relogio francez. Um dos tcabalhadores oabia tmeifna 
J'ama pedra. Ainda emeima de tudo isao perdi a mUiba foriima 
n^nm s6 dia. Pendure este retrato aeima do da nossa mat A 
oondocta de F. n'eate negocio est4 aeima de toda a reprehenaao. 
A oomip^ao n^mn estado sempre yem d^emcima. Ykpara eima 1 
(= tfp stairs,) A estrada real vae d'aqui o rio adma (arrriba, = 
up the river). Indo o rio ahaixo (doton the riter), entr&mos 
n-om valle estreito, mas riquissimo em bellas vistas. Trace dnaa 
linhas de cima para baixo. Sob o reinado de Carlos Magoo o 
chrUtianismo come^u a estender-se na Alemanba. Sob estas 
condigdes de oerto (certainly) nao hei de contmnar a seryir aos 
Srs. Aquella instituioao recnperon, eoh a sabia administra^o do 
presidente actual, a sua antiga importancia e reputa^o. Ella 
' communicoa-me ista eoh o sigillo do segredo. P6de-8e connde- 
rar isto eoh doas aspectos. Soh este nome apparecen estes dias 
xxm pampbleto que cont^m uma critica acerrima da administracao 
do Sr. conde de L. Dehaixo do qnadro liarse a inscrip^o se- 
gninte. EUe cabin a eacada alaixo, Cbegnei embaixo (below) 
sem me pisar. Uma grande cobra estava escondida debaixo do 
a^bnsto. Yenba para baixo ! (come doum.) Abaizo de mim es* 
tavao sentados algnns mo^os mens conbecidos. Quem yae 14 ^ 
embaixo ? Estes sao os altos e baixos (upe and dovme) da vida. 
Abaixo de Deos ^ a Ymc6 que devo a minba salyacao. Isto est^ 
debaixo do men caraoter. Elle escreveu isto debaixo da influen- 
cia da sua paizao. Aqnelle principe tinba, segando o testemunbo 
dos escriptores contemporaneos, uma intelligencia ahaixo da 
mediocridade. Debaixo do manto do entbusiasmo religioso elles 
commett&rao toda a casta de ezcessos e atrocidades. — Alem de 
estar cego, elle tinha mn bra^o de menos (= but one arm), 
Alem ^isso Vm^^^ nao tem direito a esta propriedade senao de- 
pois do feUecimento do Sr. sen tio. Estas fazendas nos vem 
d'alem-mar (from over the sea), Isto 6 a mesma consa aquem e 
alem do oceano. Moramos /ora da cidade. Elle estava fora de 
si (beside him^self) de raiva. Fora (Z'isto nao sei nada. Fora 
com elles I Tomei nm passaporte para f6ra do imperio. Venbo 
de f6ra (from outside, from the street, from ike country, from 
abroad). Afbra a sna incapacidade bavia ontro obstaonlo k sua 

y Google 


nomeagao, que era, a inimizade do Sr. marqnez de Y. Mett6< 
rao-no i porta fora. — Sempre tenbo ante os olhos aquella soena 
horrivel. O tinteiro estd diante do Sr. Caminbe para diante I 
AdianU I {forwards I) O meDino s^escondeu atraz de mim. O 
preso tinba as maos atadas atraz. Von traz elle {or atraz d^elle). 
Ha uma grande difieren^a entre os dous irmaos. A distancia 
entre A. e B. 6 de sessenta leguas mais ou menos. EfUre Vmc* 
e ea (^t mim) ha uma differen^a de ao menos doze anno's* 
^^ErUre ovelhas 6 fraqueza ser leao.*' (Oamdes.) Ha um traidor 
entre nos ! — O sen chap^ de sol {umbrella) deve estar dentro 
(Taqaelle gaardaroupa. Os prisioneiros podiao passeiar dentro 
da cidade. A nossa casa estava deniro dae fortificagto. Elle 
estd dentro. V4 para dentro I — ^Dirigimo-nos para L. Vou para 
easa (home)^ Olbe para mim t Para qnem 6 este embrolbo f 
Isto nao 6 para todos. A sua conducia para earn o s sens parentes ^ 
6 irreprebensivel. ym<^ sempre tern sido muito bom para com- 
migo. — Havemos de passar por Setubal. Isto me possou pela 
cabe^a (= I forgot this). Passe por debaixo da mezat Elle 
passeia pelas ruas como se nada tivesse acontecido. Acabamos 
de passar por uma quadra terrivel. Ella passou a mao pela testa. 
A bala me parson por cima {above) da cabeca. Nao podemos ir 
por terra. O cabo rebentou pelo meio. Abrlmos um caminbo 
sanguinolento atra/vez os inimigos que nos rodeavao. — ^F. foi no- 
meado ministro plenipotenciario junto d c6rte de S. Petersburgo. 
Moravamos perto de Pariz. Ao pS da casa estava um antiquis- 
simo earvalbo. Fique ao p6 de mim t Tal id6a esta longe ds 
mim. Um d'entre elks o ba de ser. Caminbei meia bora &s 
apalpadellas (groping) ao hngo do muro. A pedra Ibe passou 
rente d cara. '* A bypocrisia 6 o reptil que se arrasta por entre 
as flores e morde a victima descuidada/' O nosso exercito 
marcbou contra o tyranno. O ferido encostou-se contra a parede. 


Sohre, on, upon, over,'is not often used with a concrete sub* 
stantive ; in its stead emcima de is employed, also em {on the 
table, na meza or emcima da meza). Sob, under, is never used, 
at- least in conversational language, with a concrete substantive. 




its place being taken by mbaixo de or debaiao de (thus Bob e$ta$ 
condipdes, but dehaixo da meza). Abaixo, aeima mean principallx 
lower down, higher up; do eima or d^emcima = from above, 
d'embaixo = from below (but debaixo = under, beneath ; em- 
baixo s= underneath). 

Ante, before, is only used in certain phrases, as ante o» olhos, 
ante a mente. Ferante s= in. presence of (Latin coram), as before 
a judge, tribunal, God, etc. In the common local sense before is 
expressed by diante dej — Entre, between, among, requires, in 
the first sense, two objects; the second of these being a personal 
pronoun, it does not take the form of the aeeueatvoe case, but 
that of the nominative, as : entre elle e eu, not mm. 

Para, towards, for, is in the former sense often synonymous 
with a, by which it is sometimes substituted. — For means 
through or by, as ptuear por uma rua, and poMo/r por uma eata 
ou peseoa, — Bm is frequently used in the sense of ^n, vpon. 

Let us go to mass. Where shall I find rest? Here lies the 
conqueror of many kingdoms. Who goes there? Nobody knows 
whence the wind comes nor whither it goes. He came to this 
city without [the] permission or knowledge of his parents. Why 
do you not show it to Mr. N. ? I returned to the house of his 
brother-in-law. To whom am I to deliver it? You will do well 
to (em) devote yourself exclusively to the study of the natural 
sciences. The new ministry withdrew from (a) the Jews all the 
concessions which they had obtained under the preceding ad- 
ministration. The city council (eamara municipal) bought from 
(a) Mr. A. all his lots (terreno) situated along the canaL Will 
not this exposition move them to pity? They will not dare to 
touch on (a) those ancient privileges of the town. My house is 
at your disposal. We stopped at the door of an old convent. 
At every step one could see the effects of a vigorous spirit of en- 
terprise and persevering industry. — ^Where do you come from ? 
She left (sahir de) the room bathed in (de) tears. The difficulties 
which arose from the new state of things overwhelmed him 
completely. The tyrant fell from the height of power into the 

ze' by Google 


depth of iLe most abject misery. The hurricane tore (arranear) 
the strongest trees from their roots, and threw them down at a 
considerable distance. L. is (dUtar) from 0. 10 miles. From 
yonr negligence will result the min of onr commerce. I must 
have lost it from mj pocket. This depends on (de) circnmstances 
with which I am unacquainted (que me tSo duconhecidat). This 
is feJling fi*om the frying-pan into the coals {da panella na$ 
hrazas),^! went as far ds the new bridge. It was then thought 
impossible to go (pasiar) beyond the equator. He comes from 
beyond the sea.— The steamer will start for Rio de Janeiro on 
the 16th of this (eorrenU) month. She looked at (para) her sis- 
ter, expecting some explanation. They returned towards the 
forest. — By sea it will take us some twenty days, by land more 
than forty. They escaped by the postern gate. He passed 
through our town the day before yesterday. Through a thou- 
sand obstacles we reached at last the goal of our toilsome Jour- 
ney. — ^His testimony will perhaps throw some light on those 
sliameftd transactions. These cares weigh on me since long: 
time. Let us say no more (mai» nada) on this subject. Your 
hat is on that chair. Get (= climb, trepar) on this box. The 
storm passed over our villa, but without doing any damage. — 
Under your ciire we hope for (por) some relief of our distress. 
This is prohibited under penalty of death. Look for it under 
the bed. The hangman entered with a naked sword under his 
arm. He said this, when he was still under the Influence of his 
false friend, Mr. R; That individual i« below you in every 
respect. — ^The Rhine (JRheno) forms part of the frontier between 
France and Germany. These two languages, though of the same 
stock, differ greatly (muito) from each other (= enPre «»). Divide 
the sum amongst you. There is not one amongst us who would 
not assist you in your troubles. I found it amongst my books. 
— She must be in the garden. We went (entrar) into the draw- 
ing-room. He is in the jail. Are yon still in the bed? I went 
{entrar) into partnership with my father-in-law. There is no- 
body in the house ; they are all at church. Breakfast is on the 
table. Who is there within? In summer we do not live in the 
city. Within the city there are five public fountains. Besides 
9 . ' 

Digitized by VjjOOQIC 


tihese instractions he gaye me letters, of introduction {reeommef^ 
dapSUt) to some of the most prominent citizens of B. From ou^ 
side nothing was to be seen. Do not venture outside of the 
town. I flung the heavy inkstand at (em) his head. Six com- 
panies of riflemen were sent against the Indians. 



Hontem e h^e tern feito mais frio do que todo este inMmo. 
Talvez' que chova amanhSa. Anf hontem eu fui & oidade, ^ voltei 
no mesmo dia. Algum dia YmP^ ver4 que eu tive razao em 
dizer isto. Eu estava um dia passeiando na beira do rio, quando 
vinm homem atirar-se na agua. Espere um momenta/ Isto 
durou pouco tempo. Ha um anno que nao vejo o Sr. ! Volte 
logo ! YsLJd/ (go now, go quick.) Jd voltou? (= ha/ce you al- 
ready come haekf) Ainda nao se sabe o que foi feito d^elles. 
y enha logo mais (a little later^ a little hence), Eu voltarei d^ctqui 
um mez. A coda instante ella vira a cabe^. O que poderiamos 
fazer a estas horas t Fiquei com elles ati o dia 27 de Mar^o. O 
Sr. ainda vem a tempo. Jantaremos hoje de 4 horas. Fomos 
para casa d meia noite. Aos (a) 22 de Dezembro o Sr. visconde 
de P. foi nomeado vice-almirante. A final (finalmente) elle 
comprehendeu a necessidade de proceder com energia contra 
aquelles mal vados. A final de contas (in the end ) ninguem ganhou 
com isso. Ao romper do dia ouviu-se o estrondo da artilharia, 
que saudava a aurora da nossa liberdade. Ao p6r do sol tudo 
estava acabado. Ao amanhecer Ievant4mo-nos todos. A estas 
palavras ella estremeceu. Antes da invengao da imprensa a in- 
struc^ao limitava-se a um numero hem pequeno de pessoas. Nao 
hei de sahir antes de meio dia. Ym<^ nao podia vir um pouco 
antes t D^ antes (h^ore this) elle dizia o contrario. Ap6s a fome 
veio a pestilencia. Depots de ter acceitado a proposta do aeu 



LESSON Ln. 195 

socio, o Sr. C. negou o direito d'aqnelle de retirar-se da finoa 
qnacdo quizesse. Vepoit tTisto nao tenho mais nada a dizer. 
Venha depoiil Depoii da morte de Julio Cesar o imperio ro- 
niano tornon-se outra vez o theatro das mais sangainolentas 
guerras civis. Elle p6de chegar d^ma dia para outro. Detde 
aquelle tempo eu perdi toda a confian^a n^elle. Ikide logo (= 
immediately) come^irao as persegni^oes por crimes politicos. 
Este moinbo me pertencedi de^e o dia l^o de Oatubro. AU 
hoje ainda nao tenho i>odido escrever. Qtianto tempo pensa 
Ym<^ que isto yae dnrar ? At6 amanhaal At6 logo ! (= till by 
and by.) Isto deve ter acontecido noi Jina de Julho on nos pri- 
meiros dias de Agosto. Bm meiadot (about the middle) de Feve- 
reiro conduiu-se finalmente aquelle negocio. 2fo eabo ( 
fim) de tres dias elle j4 morrea. Acabarei este trabalho em 
menos de dous mezes. Pelofim (towards the end) d^esta semana 
pretendemos ir a P. Isto fica para o anno proximo ftitnro (or o 
anno que vem, = next year). O ultimo dia do mez passado foi 
para n68 am dia de Incto. Durante todo este tempo fomos per- 
seguidos com nma perseveran^a realmente diabolica. Vm^^ vem 
xnuito eedo hoje. O Sr. queria que en viesse mais tarde f Ac- 
tualmente nao vejo possibilidade de arranjar-se isto. Por ora 
(justs now, M yet) nao sabemos que curso havemos de tomar. 
Por muito tempo estive sujeito a esta molestia. Quando far& o 
8r. o que me prometteu ? Agora nao posso. Elle esteve com- 
migo ainda agora (just now). Que triste mudauQa n^um caracter 
ouVr*ora tao nobre 1 Para ofuturo serei mais acautelada. D^aqui 
para diante nao me fiarei mais em ninguem. Elle foi ineonti- 
nente qneixar-se ao chefe da casa. Tome um banho de p^s abtes 
de se deitar. Nunea me hei de esquecer do que v6s tendes feito 
para mim. Ella sempre foi assim. Logo depots n6s nos despe- 
dimos. Yae immediatamente levar isto d^onde o tiraste I Saia 
no instante! (on the spot.) Jamais se viu semelhante homem ? 
Se eu jamais te visse em companhia com aquelle sujeito, deixaria 
de ser ten amigo. A sua reputa^ao esta perdida para sempre. 
Qiumtas 'cestes tenho de dizer isto? Poueas vezes estive IL Haras 
vezes sdio. Elle foi-se embora n^este instante. Antigamente isto 
nao era tido por crime. De primeiro gostei muito d^elle, agora 



196 LESSON Ln. 

nSa pOBso vMo. De quando em quando {from time to time^ 
every now and then) oavia-se nm tiro de peca. Temos fi^5es umf 
dia sim, outro n<lo (eDery other day), Eu-tinha entOo apenas 17 
annos. N6s nos encontramos de vee em quando (from time to 
time) na pra^a do oommercio (exchange), £ a mesma coxissLeada 
dia. Elles cas4rao ha um mez on seis semanas. For duae harae 
esti^emoa ezpostos a nm fogo destrnctor. F. accnmnlon a sna 
fortnna colossal em menos de oito annos. Para quando quer 
Ymc^ qne en Ihe aprompte isto? Para sabbado, se f6r possivel.. 

The prepositions nsed with expressions of tirne are partly the 
same as those indicating place (a, atS^ de, deede, em, pafa, par) ; 
besides these we have apU, after, antes de, before, depoiM de, 
after, durante^ during. The English preposition on, with an ex- 
pression of time is generally rendered by em; with a date also 
by a (with or without the article). Antes and depais are adverbs. 

When was that? At two o'clock in {de) the morning the fire 
had already consumed the greatest part of the building. By {a) 
this time they must have reached 0. The people of the country 
{eampanha) generally dine at noon. At sunrise nothing conld 
be seen of the vessels. I shall come in (a) the afternoon. On 
the 11th of January there was a battle between the rebels and 
the government troops. What are you doing in the street at 
this hour (plur.) of the night? Did I come in time? Several 
minutes before the beginning of the play a number of suspicious 
individuals entered into the pit. What time {horas) is it? It is 
Just half-past four ; it wants (plur.) 10 minutes to {para, or de) 
six. Towards evening she grew worse (= peiorar). Towards 
the close {fins) of the eighteenth century all Europe went {pas^ 
sar) through a great political and social crisis. Since the earliest 
{primeiro) days of his childhood he was accustomed to priva- 
tions of every kind. Since yonr departure I have not had an 
hour of rest. Since when are you in this country? It is now 
nearly {ijuasi, perto de) 15 years ago since I arrived at Bahia {d 

y Google 

LESSON Lm. 197 

Bahia). How long is it since (= quanta tempo ha or /a9 que) 
Mr. lu died? Almost 11 years. Two months ago nobodj would 
have believed it. Before five o^dock I shall not be able to re- 
ceive you. See if jou can come before that day. It is almost 
dinner-time {har€u M jantar). It is time that you should go 
home. I shall be back (== voltar) before supper. After so many 
fatigues it is no wonder that he should feel (Mentirse) iU. After 
having robbed me, he endeavors to ruin my credit. I have borne 
your insolence for some time, but now I am tired of it. For a 
long space of time those abuses continued to torment the lower 
classes of the people. This will last you until to-morrow. Until 
what day do you intend to stay here? Until next Saturday. 
You ought to go to bed {deitarse) earlier, ft is already late. 
What a beautifal evening I Good afternoon! Good morning I 
(pom dia or hon$ diae.) Good night! (Gk>od bye ^ adeoB.) 
"Will you write soon ? You will soon understand the peeuliarity 
of your new position. Go immediately to Mr. E. and tell him 
to come to me at half-past one. Come here, on the spot I I 
often thought that your friend must have some deep grief that is 
gnawing (at) his heart 1^11 forgive you for this time. How often 
(s= bow many times) have you been deceived by him, and you 
'Still trust himi I went several times to your house, without 
having tiie pleasure of seeing you. This happens very rarely 
{rarienmae vases). How seldom {quda poueae vezee) do you find 
so much sincerity 1 Whenever (= every time that) he sees me, 
he blushes and tries to avoid me. Did you ever hear such music? 
I never saw the like (semelhante coned). Adieu forever I He is 
never at home, when a creditor calls (= comes). 



Ccmo se faz isto? Oomo est4 (passa) Ymc^? Esta palavra 
nao se pronuncia aeeim, A^sim tu traotas os tens bemfeitores ? 

y Google 

198 LE880N un. 

Isto nao podia sncceder outramente. Tni falsamente accusado de 
~ter sido subornado. Elle yingou-se atrozmente das ii\JQrias re^ce- 
bidas. Taes discussoes me sao summamente desagradaveis. A 
Tossa conducta 6 altamente reprehensivel. Felizmente ningaem 
foi ferido. Este boato d provavelmente uma inveagao d'algnns 
especuladores. Os empregados d^aqnelle estabelecimento sao 
liberalmente pages. Essas offertas naturalmente f6rao logo 
acceitas. Urn mensageiro recem-chegado (Jbr recentemente che- 
gado) nos trouxe a infausta noticia do fallecimcnto da nossa ado- 
rada rainha. Encontron-se na esquina d'esta rua e da pra^a da 
Acclamagao uma crian^a recem-naseida, Os refngiados reeem" 
mndoa forao logo intemados. O piano feito por aqnelle enge- 
nheiro ^' demoHadamente dispendioso. Este documento. contra- 
diz elara e positkamente Sis pretensoes dos Srs. O orador esbogoa 
rapida e eUgantemenU a nossa sitna^ao. Isto me parece haatanU 
claro. A scena era asaaz comica. Sao dua% consas inteiramente 
(totalmente) differentes. Quero sSmente dizer qne nao tenho 
provas d'isto. 2fem sequer nos offereceu uma cadeira. Elle nos 
deu provas nada equivocas da sua falsidade. Kao Ihe posso dizer, 
quanta Ihe sou agradecido. V^des agora quao pouca confianga 
aquelles homens merecem? £ difficil dizer, qual d'elles vale 
menos, Creio que elle 6 mats t61o que perverso. Too grande pre- 
sump^ao mereceu um castigo. Que hem feito est& este bordado I 
£ bem verdade o que dizes? Isto vae mal. Passei muito mat 
esta noite. Quem forao os malfeitores? — ^EUe sempre marchaya 
direito ao seu alvo. Nao leia tao ligeiro ! Direi mui alto quo 
sols um traidor. Ella fallou tao "baixo que nao entendi o quo 
ella disse. Paguei caro aquella indiscri^ao. 

Faco isto de horn grado^ porque Vmc^ 6 um homem que mo- 
rece toda a confianoa e estima. Elle de eerto (certamente, por 
certo) nao consentira de hoa vontade a este casamento. Elles mo 
tractao d^ resto {with the utmost indifference). AqueMe matto 
pertence de direito ao municipio de X. Ande depressa / Escreva 
mais devagar ! Eiz isto de proposito, para Ihes mostrar que nao 
sou de hrincadeiras (that I will not le trifled with), Todos se 
puz^rao de joelhoa diante do altar-m6r. De vertuf (indeed? 
true?) Elle vae de mal a peior (worse and worse), Oomo p6de 



LE6SON Lm. 199 

Ym«^ estar de hrafos eruzados (to he idle, to tools on), qnando o 
seu irmao estd soffi-endo estas indi^dades? Ellesiandao de 
mOos dados {hand in hand), Tado e8t4 de pemae para o ar 
(topsy^turty). Gonsinto a isto de todo o eora^dto, De repente 
desapparec^rao todos, sem ninguem saber como. De iuMto tudo 
mndon. D^eeta maneira 6 saperfiuo que eu y& Id. Um homem 
d'estes (of that hind) 6 capaz de todo. Hei de alcan^ar o men 
fim d^oma on d'outra maneira. D^esta sorte Vm«^ nao p6de 
deixar de perder o processo. Ellas estio de Iveto, por causa da 
morte da sua ay6. Hoje estoa de gttarda. O men pai est4 de 
cama (hed^riddeny sick), Elle nao 6 de eeremonias. Todas estas 
medidas forao de todo inutilisadas pela insnbordina^ao d^algons 
subaltemos. Don-lhe isto de grapa (gratis), O casamento foi 
Annnllado de eommum a^cedrdo. F. explicon o negocio do modo 
seguinte. Men padrinbo me den isto de presente, Elle cabin de 
eostas (on his hack), De uma parte nao posso negar qne ella tern 
razao. Este docnmlnto me parece ser do punho do Sr. Joao. 
Foi nma Incta de morte, Na minba sitna^ao de (as) tntor d^estes 
meninos nao posso permitti-lo. Durante essa 6pocba en estava 
de viagem. Elles fizerao-no de boa fe, Os espias serao punidos 
de morte, Nao tome isto de leee (lightly). 

. Ym<^ agora estd bastante rico para viver d sua tontade, Os 
homens alii tnyao d franeeza (i, e, & moda franceza), por6m as 
mulberes conservao o trfge nacional. Ym<^ nao tomard a mal 
(to take ill) a minba franqneza? Elle defendeu-se a unhas e 
dentes, Eston ds stias ordens, A populaya o proseguiu dspedra- 
das, A respeito do nosso amigo nao sei o qne devo fazer. Toda 
a guamicao do forte foi passada d espada (or ao fio da espada, 
put to the sword), Eu fi-lo sabir a for^, O que tendes rece- 
bido a troeo dos vossos sacrificios ? Ao dizer d^elle nao ba bomem 
mais innocente do que elle. Isto ia ds mil maravilhas (wonder' 
fuUy^ famously), N6s todos somos a fator d'elle. As Tossas 
ordens t§m sido executados d risca (strictly), Elles pnd^rao 
faz^lo muito a seu salvo (very safely), porque pertenciao ao par- 
tido dominante. A pretexto da gnerra que pendia^ muitos nego- 

ciantes se declar&rao insolventes. Elle sabiu a occultas, F. 

conbecia a f undo todos os manejos d^aqnelle emprego. Elle 




200 LESSON un. 

falloa a torto e a direito (conftisedly), A porta da estribana 
estara feohada a ehave; mas abrirao-na a/orpa de hra^ {farced 
it open). Elles sempre estao a hra^{qtiarreling) nm com o oxitro. 
Esteja a goato (do not disturb yourself), Ifito parece ser feito a 
ptessa^ £sta menina cresce a vista d'olhos, Nao qnero saber de 
contas; eu pago tudo diuheiro a vista, Creia-me que elle nao 6 
tao pobre como se faz; elle tern diuheiro a premio (interest), 
Sabe piutar a oleot Nao son capaz de tradazir isto d primeira 
vista, Corr^mos a redea solta (full speed, headlong), Os Sra. 
vierao a cavallo^ on em carroagem ?> Nem mna nem outra cousa, 
ylemos a pi. K^esta esta^ao se p6de passar o rio a vdo, Aqnelle 
miseravel nao teve a coragem de accusar-me/ ocg a.fsic e. Foi am 
ciHubate de corpo a eorpo (= JMnd-to-hand fight), Caminbem 
dous a dous / Tivemos de coatinnar o caminbo as apalpadellas, 
A minba casa 6 a primeira d direita para quern vem da pra^a. 
Elle se comporta muito mal, a ponto de {so as to) arriscar a sua 
reputaoao. A principio elle era a benevoleucia personificada. 
Isto nao 6 assim ; aO contrario, Y, sempre foi tido por nm homem 
de bem. A vista {according to, considering) dos preparativos 
gigantescos que se faziao, podia-se esperar nm suocesso brilhante. 
Esta passagem pinta ao vivo a sitna^ao desgra^ada em que o paiz 
entao se achaya. Ymo^ toma tudo ds. avessas, Os soldados met- 
t^rab II cidade a saque, Uma escuna foi a pique n^eetti noite. 
Os inimigos estao devastando o nosso paiz a ferro e fogo. Pro- 
cure obter isto a todo o custo {at any cost or price), Vendemos 
esta faz6nda a 2|000 rs, o c6vado; 6 o prego mais chegado 
{lowest), O principe finalmente cedeu, a despeito da sua propria 
consciencia. Eimo-nos ds gargalhadas {we shouted with laughter), 
y Estava chovendo a cdntaro s, A forpa de perseveranga men 
iL"^*cunhado obteve finalmente a licenga. — ^Vim com alguns amigos 
4 dar OS parftl^ep a ao Sr. pela sua bem merecida nomeagao. Ella 
foi commigo, Quem fere com a espada, perecerd pela espada. 
Estejamos contentes com o ponco que temos. Estou com fome. 
Com medo de perder nm ponco de dinbeiro, eUe perden tudo 
quanto possuia. Eu te prometto isto, coma condigao de ter 
direito ao ten auxilio, quando d^elle precisar. Oomtudo nao me 
quero qneixar da minha sorte. Com brandura se alcanna ^ Yeze^ 

y Google 


mais do que com seyeridade. Com ^eito (indeed)^ nao penaei 
que Ym^^ era tao forte. Ea ctunpro com os metu deveres, e 
ponco m^iinporta o que a gente diz. Nao acertei com a soIq^Io 
d^este problema. El-rei distribuia com mOo larga ordens e titoloa* 
N. nao era homem para prender-se com considera^oes (;= to stop 
to consider), O Sr. L. sempre nsava commigo da maior generosi- 
dadea Taes sentimeiitos nao condizem com o espirito evangelico. 
Ella instou commigo para que en a acompanhasse. Insisti com 
elie para que ifosse mab energico. Acabemos com isto I O pova 
compadecen-se com ob soffrimentos d'elles. — O que fariamos nds 
sem elle ? Sois am miseravel, sem consciencia e sem Tergonha. 
Sem y6s (but for you) eu estaria morto a esta hora. Carlos nao 
p6de estar mn momento sem rir-se. Ella cabin no chao sem vida 
(lifeless), A carta da minba prima continha nm sem-numero (= 
numberless) de anecdotas sobre a vida em P. Que semsaborias 1 

O Sr. barao de M. foi ultimamente nomeado commandante 
em cbefe das tropas na nossa provincia. A igrcja de S. Francisco 
cahiu em ruinof. Rasguei o pergaminho em j7«<2a^. Naoposso 
estar em pS por muito temx>o. Queira acceitar esta pequena 
somma em signal da minha amizade. A sua viuva j'ecebe uma 
pensao, em rasQo (because of, on account of) dos serri^os presta- 
dos por elle ao paiz. Em recompensa dos mens services eu fai 
demittido. Em vdo todos s^esfor^irao para salvar os naufragos; 
todos perec^rao. O vapor de hontem trouxe grande quantidade 
de ouro emp6, A irregularidade das estagoes n^aquelle anno deu 
em resultado a carestia de todos os viveres. Ella se desfazia em 
lagrimas. Todo aquelle barulho deu em nada (was for nothing). 
Guide TM sen trabalho, e nao sUmporte com o resto. Nao repa- 
rei n^isso. Tenho muita satisfa^aoem v^r'que o Sr. esta r^si* 
gnada Elle nao cessa de occupar-se em negocios albeios. Esta 
decisao reverte em men beneficio. O numero das pessoas que 
morr^rao da peste calculou-se em mds de 20,000. Eis a casa que 
D tio da minha mil me deizou em heranfa. Em virtude do nosso 
contracto o men socio ficou com (keep) o armazem e as fazendaa. 
Ella o tomou em boa parte. O Sr. B. foi condemnado nas custas. 

N^aquella loja vende-se tudo por prepos modicos, N6s s6 ven- 
demos J9^ ataeado (wholesale). Eramos trlnta^por todos (in all), 

Digitized by VjjOOQIC 

202 LESSON Lm. 

r. recebeu a cruz da legiao d^honra, por premw da sna coragem. 
O Sr. 6 por demais {too) g^neroso. Por ventura (perhaps) en 
uao sei que elle 6 men inimigo ? O inspector den a obra por 
aeabada {declared the work finUhed). Por ocobo entrimos no 
mesmo momento. Level por engano o sen chap6o de chnva 
{umbrella), Ainda por eima cPisto {besides this) elle quer que en 
pague o cavallo. Por mais {whatever) que en fa^a, elle nnnca 
est4 contente. Aqnella grande expedi^ao tinha por alto axles- 
tmi^ao dos nossos arsenaes. Comprei hoje nm bom piano por 
500$000 rs. Tome isto por norma I Nao tr6co a minha casa 
por nenhuma d^esta cidade. Elle nao 6 tolo; pelo contrario, 
creio qne ^ mais fino {shrewd) do que o sen antagonista. Por 
uma parte {on one side) as vantagens da proposta sao palpaveis, 
mas por outra nao a considero compativel com a sna posi^ao. 
Durante esse tempo Bom Pedro de M. estava por embaixador & 
c6rte de B. Todos elles sao, por via de regra, altivos, crueis e 
^alsos. En acceito isto pelo que vale. Espere {wait) por elle I 
Por mais d'nma vez tu estiveste 4 beira do precipicio. Remet- 
ta-me nma copia por Integra (full), juiz se den (declared) por 
fiuspeito. Um por nm elles sahirao. Deix&rao-no por morto. 
Pe^apofmiml Ningnem pergnnton (eng^tttV^) por mim ? Pas- 
sei-lhe aquelle docnmento por simples formalidade. Honve 
grandes festejos por occasiQo do casamento do principe Dom Lniz. 
— Para ir \k Vm«^ nao precisarA da carmagem. Elle seria nm 
membro nao s6mente inutil, mas at6 (even) prejudicial k nossa 
associa^ao. Nao o achdrao habilitado para aquelle posto. Apel- 
larei para Sua Magestade. Ym^^ nao estava autborisado para 
tanto, Cbegou nm enviado extraordinario com poderes para 
concluir nm tractado de commercio entre as dnas na^es. 

O nosso gabinete pediu explicacoes sobre os acontecimentos 
do ^ 9 de Mar^o. O secretario m'instmin sobre o modo mab 
efScaz para alcan^ar os nossos fins. Porqne nao me oonsnlton 
sobre ts\A negocio? Vm^^ 6 sobremaneira (far too) indnlgente 
para com os sens filbos. Isto 6 obra de sobre-mSo (superficial). 
Elle me commnnicon isto debaixo de segredo. ym<^ v6 isto sob 
nm ponto de vista parcial. 

Os tens pobres passarinbos estao morrendo -de fome, Esta 

y Google 

LESSON un. 208 

notioia os fard dan^ar de alegria. A meza estava coberta ds 
Jlores. Milhares de pessoas morr^rao do cholera, Os mortoa de 
peste forao qneimados f6ra da cidade. O general estava reves- 
tido da mais ampla authoridade. A vida d^aqnelle principe foi 
manchada de toda a casta de crimes. O sea filho havia fallecido 
de morte repentina, nSo sem suspeita de envenenamento. Elles 
erao homens possnidos do verdadeiro espirito evangelico. Estaa 
cousas 8ao conhecidas de todos. Apenas chegado, adoeci da febre 
amarella. A pobre crian^a estava tremendo de frio. Trespas- 
sado da mais profunda mdgoa, participo a Y. S. o fallecimento 
do men melhor amigo. EUa viven por algnns annos b6 da pen- 
sao miseravel qne Ihe d^rao depois da morte do sen marido. 
Qnem estA encarregado <risto ? AfQijo-me de v^r tanta desgra^ 
£lle s^envergonhon de confessar a sna fraqneza. Agora elle 
B^arrepende de ter dito isto. Eston cansado de dar conselhos 
innteis. F. se lisongeia de ter ganhado as afiei^oes de D. Anna. 
B. enfhrecea-se de dSt a pobre victima escapar-lhe. Elle se per- 
suade de ter feito o possivel. Ghamavao-nos de miseraveis, de 
ladroes, emfim, de qnantos nomes ii\Jnriosos ha. — Y. S. estd 
preso por ordem do Sr. general commandante em chefe. Por 
mim (or por minba cansa) nao baja impedimento. Ym«* estd 
maito doente ; por conseguinte nao p6de tractar dos sens nego- 
cios. Por eerto elle negar4 isto ; mas por ieeo nao deixarei de 
fazer o que tenho promettido. Este desenho foi feito por minba 
filha. Ymc* serd punido por sna insnbordinacao. Elle jd f5ra 
processado por estellionato. Nao sncced^mos, por falta de pro- 
tec^ao. Por si sos elles nao serao capazes de fazMo. Ainda 
nao Ibe agradeci por sen anxilio generoso nos mens recentes em- 
bara^os. Oalparao-me por nao ter vindo n^aqnelle dia. EUes 
peccavao, nao por malicia, mas por ignorancia. Favorecia-se 
este curso, por ser o mais breve. Por quem estais snspirando ? 

Os sens bens forao confiscados, eonforme a lei de , . . . Se-- 
gundo o men parecer Ym<^* proceden bemJ Eis os decretos 
dcerea doe quaes bouve tantas discussoes animadas. Os Cbald6os 
interrogavao os astros dcerea doe snccessos (events) futnros. Isto 
de per ei (in or hy itself) era o abandono da causa. 

Diga d'uma vez se me qner pagar, sim on nda. Quero, wm, 




znas rUU> posso. Ifdk> ha ninguem que bSo qneira ser feliz. N%iv» 
guenl qoer saber d'elle {wUl have to do with him}, Nao tenho 
isais nada a dizer = nada mab tenho a dizer. Nunea fallei em 
pat>lioo. . Jdmaia m^esquecerei da bondade que Y. S. se digoou 
de mostrar-me. Isto nada tern de singiilar. Kao tenho mcdo ! 
Hedo n&o tenho, mas nSo vcjo necessidade de ezp6r-me ao perigo 
Bern proveito adeqnado. Kem todos p6dem sacrificar. o sen com- 
modo para salvar urn amigo. Se Ym<^ nao quer ir, eu tioo you 
tampovM (neHhery £Ile nao sabe o que diz, nem o Sr. tampoueo. 
2^ada de historiasi {no nonsense/) Estive nao pouco assustado, 
Nda estou n4ida bom {not at all ireZZ). Isto nao 6 senao uma 

G^sto muit^ de uvas. Ym«« gosta dangar ? Algvma cotLsa 
(= «o, 9o)\ g6sto pouco; nada {riot at aU), Nao yos cntregneis 
em demasia {too much) aos diYertimentos. Custou-me muito caro 
o ter desprezado os yossos conselhos. Isto 6 mui facil a com- 
prehesder. Greio que sou too bom sapateiro eomo qualquer 
outro. A nossa alegria foi algum tanto diminuida por aquelle 
incidente. ^tiar*^ sou desgra^a I ^t^ebonita^I Que bella 
noite de luar t A sua opiniao ^cerca do men modo de pensar me 
6 inteiramente indifferente. A agua estd hastante quente {hot 
enoughy and, rather hot). Tenho estado hastante infeliz {un- 
lucky). As ez^uias da nossa nunca omoz chorada rainha terao 
lugar no dia 20 d^eote mez. Acabo de receber notidas assaz 
desagradaYeis. Estes sapatossao muii^ery, too) apertados. O 
Sr. ^ bom dsmais {too hind). Aquelle edifieio 6 demasiadamente 
extenso para esse fim* £sta casa seria grande (^ too large) para 

A oareM examination of the examples in A. will do more to 
show the meaning and use of the modal and causal adYerbs and 
adverbial phrases (and the corresponding prepositions), than any 
explanations we could give here, as these latter would, of neces- 
sity, be too extensive for our purpose, and yet not exhaust the 
subject. But the preposition por deserves particular attention. 
Besides its local and temporal significations, it mainly indicates 
a cause or means^ and its equivalents in English are hy, through^ 



LE860N Lm. 206 

because or on aec<funt of^ hy msans of, for^ Thos it is liable to 
1)6 confounded partlj wiUi de^ partly (and chiefly) with para. Of 
de foxdpor with the passive verb we have already spoken (Lesson 
XUl,), Fara indicates a direction, a moTement towards some- 
body or. something, and, therefore, a dsstination for the good or 
evil of somebody (dative). In this sense aUme it can represent, 
the English preposition /or; in all other cases ,p^ mnst be nsed. 
Thus we are to say: por ate motivo^ a^radecer ^or, pedir^ per- 
guhtar por, camprarj vender por ipriee)^ trocar por, por exemplOj 
etc , etc 

The comparison of adverbs is analogous to that of the adjec- 
tives (positive, tdo^omo^ as, so-as, comparative, maiSy superlative, 
o mais). For the adverb too there is no proper correspondent 
adverb in Portuguese, except demasiadamentey which, on account 
of its length, is- not often used ; in its stead the following are 
u&edi'demasiadoy demais (always placed after its adjective or ad- 
verb), em demasioy muito or mvi, and often nothing at all is 
added, principally in conversation, the context and tone suffi- 
ciently showing the meaning of the speaker. — Bcutante and assaz, 
enough, rather, slwajs precede t^eir a^ective or adverb. 

How do you feel (achar-se) to-day? Better; mnch better 
than some days ago. This is not so. 80 it is. Thus ended the 
long and cruel war between those two powerful nations. Tell 
me frankly your opinion about my son. This is easily explained. 
All the rooms were richly furnished. Well done! My services 
were generously rewarded. Your precepts wiH be scrupulously 
observed. His remarks are generally based on his own experi^ 
ence. This was a truly heroic action. Our commerce is com- 
pletely paralyzed. Nothing has been heard of them of late (re^ 
eentemente), I desire your happiness with all my heart. Do 
you know your lesson? I know it by heart (de cor). Our 
troubles began afresh (de noto). He made me a present of it (= 
he gave it me as a [de\ present). 60 quick to (em or d easa de) 
Mr. T. and tell him to come here immediately. He speaks very 
slowly. In this manner you will never become rich. I should 

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206 , L£8S0N Lin. 

winingly lend my aid to so humane a work. "Who is on doty 
(de guarda^ de dia) to-day? She has been bed-ridden these 18 
months. For whom are yon in mourning? On a sudden all the 
doors flew open (abrir-te). You belong to the house (= Vm<^ i da 
Jiosd), I know him by {de) name. This is too much! (demais,) 
This young man has too much money (dinJieiro demais) and too 
little brains (Juko de menos). She said it on purpose. My father 
was of opinion that we all should go. I answer for (de) his good 
conduct. You neglected this. We obtained (impetrar) this from 
him with difficulty. Here you are safe (seguro) from all perse- 
cutions. I was on the point of departing (= estar de partida). 
*— Despite all her efforts she could obtain nothing from her 
parents. They said nothing to [the] purpose. Do you think 
that Mr. R. knows this business thoroughly? He obtained his 
position in exchange for his honesty. The first part of the jour- 
ney we made on horseback, the remainder we had tomake on 
foot. You may buy it on terms (a praeo). I was so sleepy, that 
I put on (vestir) my coat on the wrong side (as avessas). This 
article is sold by (a) the pound. My house is at your orders.* 
By dint (a /orpa) of coaxing he at last persuaded his mother to 
(a) give him the money. Under coyer (a famr) of the fog the 
soldiers reached the foot of the ramparts. Considering (= at the 
sight of) the great dangers that threaten us on (de) all sides, it 
becomes (eumprir) us to implore the assistance of the Most High. 
At this signal all rose. — ^I wish to speak to you in particular 
about that affair. She is your equal (= equal to you) in beauty, 
but your inferior in accomplishments. I did not even (= nem) 
dream of (em) this. They dealt (mereadejar) in linen and silk. 
I endeavored to (em) convince them of the danger to which they 
would expose themselves. He hastened to (em) contradict these 
statements. — For whom is this letter? For me. "We have no 
room (lugar) for them. It has been a dreadful time for us. I 
have no money for such nonsense (asneiras). — ^For various rea- 
sons I can not accept your offer. He was surely elected by mis- 
take. He swore by all the saints in heaven that he was innocent. 
Send me the money by the bearer of this (eata, i e. carta). I 
exchanged -my former peaceable profession for that ci a soldier. 



LESSON Lin. 207 

I flhoald not do that for all the monej in {de) the world. For 
God's sake {por amor de Deos)^ save us I Thej toob me for their 
brother. He did not even thank me for this &yor. At last 
(por Jim) he declared himself (dar^se por) convinced. The Jews 
chose for their king Saul, son of Eis. F. was always thought to 
be {tido por) an hcHiest man. We bought this little house for 
2000 dollars. How much did you pay for this garden? What 
reward did you receive for your devotion? For your sake I 
abandoned my friends, my country, everything. My son was 
dispensed for being near-sighted. I know it for certain. — We 
reached the top of the hill with little diflSculty. With whom did 
you dine to-day? The child is sleepy. He is in (com) fever. 
She urged us to leave (= that we should leave) the city immedi- 
ately. My cousin married (casar com) a rich heiress. I was 
vexed (zcmffar-te) with him. There was no remedy but (sen&o) 
to comply {eondeicender) with the repeated instances of O. — 
What could they do, without friends or resources? No (sem) 
doubt he is gone after (atrtiz de) his thief of [a] partner. Ko 
(sjmi, nada de) ceremonies, if you please (fafa favor). This book 
contains countless {um um numero de) errors. — I do not fear 
them. Are you busy? No, madam. This is of no consequence. 
He has neither money nor credit. An apparently unimportant 
circumstance was the cause of all this. This is not fair (Jueto), 
Did you ever try it? I never thought of this. You have never 
been in the necessity of having recourse to those people, there- 
fore you do not know them. They hate nobody more than those 
that have obliged them (= to whom they are obliged). I have 
nothing against' him, except that he is an idle fellow. Nothing 
Is more contemptible than a lazy man. Are you going (s=s do 
you go) to the concert? No, sir. Well {poU hem\ sir; in that 
case we shall go neither. In a certain village the people com- 
plained that the butchers killed only one ox every market-day, 
and that this was too little ; but to kill two oxen would be too 
much ; so the judge (alcaide) ordered the butchers to kill an ox 
and a half on every market-day. This coat is too good in such 
a weather. Such things are too insignificant for his high wis- 
dom. This side of the hill is too steep, you can not get up (suhir) 

,. Digitized by VjjOOQIC 


How lucky you are I How iar is it (quanta e) from here to 
C. ? Three leagues more or less. She does not know how poor 
she is. I will never see him again. Is it not jonr own fi&nlt? 
He can not do it, nor you either. The child is nowhere to be 
found. Nobody can say that. There is nobody in this town 
whom he does not know. 

My father died of apoplexy. I am tired of admonishing him. 
Mr. L. y^M respected and beloved by all who knew him. T^e 
are threatened with (de) ruin. She screamed with pain. We 
were almost dying with thirst. I was sick with rheamatisnu 
His life is stained with many a crime. Are you provided with 
the necessary means ? Their scheme will fail through the want 
of a competent leader. He was offended (refl.) at (de) my indif- 
ference. The poor child shivered with cold. Lisbon was almost 
entirely destroyed by the earthquake of 1755. I knew him by 
hia walk. You will suffer for this. Do not wait for me I 



O homem cori^oso qpffre com paciencia, e o covarde busca a 
morte. Cumpre rigorosamente com os teus deveres, e nao te 
faltarao amigos. Ya depressa, e volte logo. ym<>d nao quiz 
seguir os mens conselhos, soffra agora as consequencias da sua 
vaidade e obstina^ao. Precisa ser reconhecido ; tamhem o sou. 
Elle nSo samente me deu a licen^ que eu pedira, mag tambem me 
fez presente d^um hello cavallo para o passeio (trif), Nda 9b 
nao quereis cumprir o vosso dever para com a patria, «um avnda 
vos tomais traidores. NSa 9b tenho feito para elle quanto podia, 
" nuM atb tenho sacrifioado os mens prospectos, para salv&-]o. Nax^ 
id isto 6 uma mentira, ienSo tudo quanto elle tem dito de mim. 
Ndo id 6 leviano, mat perverse. — Ora quer uma cousa, ora quer 
outra. O exerdto era composto de 80,000 homens^ a ioier: 

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LBSSoir UY. 209 

vinte e dons mil do infantftria, sm mil e qoinhentos de cAyallaria, 
6 mil e qoinhentos de artilharia. Corre o boato (a tos, th$ 
rumor) que aqaella firma vae quebrar, ma» en dnvido que a^ja 
Terdade. P6de eer qae assim seja ; mat nao me lembro do qne 
ea'disse n'aqnella occasiao. Muitos admirao a ^irtude) nuu 
poucos a praticao. Muitos o dizem, mas ea nao posso acreditd-lo. 
Oom mnito prazer eu serviria ao Sr., truu por ora me 4 absolata- 
mente impossivel. EUe era bom homem, porem a sua fraqueza 
o levaya hs yezes a excessoa. Eata palavra existe em Portugaez, 
porim pouoo se asa. Nota-se grande actividade no ministerio 
da marinba, porem at6 este momento nada tranapiron do que se 
est4 preparimdo. Diziao que F. f6ra nomeado chefe da reparti- 
^ao ; isto, porem, nao podia ser o caso, pelas razoea J4 allegadas. 
As consas estao mal ; eomtudo nao perco toda a esperanga. F. 
^ am homem economico e trabalbador, eomtudo custa-lhe arran- 
jar a vida, por causa da sua nmnerosa familia. O successo nao 
^ davidoso, todaoia fa^amos todos os eafor^os. Elles estao re- 
duzidos quasi & mendicidade, nem por iuo (ne9ertheles$) nao 
deizao de participar em todos os divertimentos. Antonio 6 
mnito mais moco do qne tu ; nito ohstante iuo elle ^ mais in- 
stmido e mais prudente. K^aquelle dia en estive em D., por 
eonuguinte nao posso ter dito o que Ym^* asseyera. O nosso 
amo no-lo prohibia categoricamente, portanto 6 inutil dizer mais , 
uma palavra. Ou trabalhem, ou yao-se embora! Elles hao4e 
sujeitar-se, ou nao sei o que ba de aoontecer. Quando um 
yelhaco se ri, &u tem feito uma das suas, ou esta para faz^-la. 
Qu€r yenhao quer nao yenbao, eu bei de ir. Quer tenba mere- 
cido ou nao, o pobre do negrinbo sempre apanbaya {got it, i, e, 
vm9 heaten), N3o bayemos de fazer nem uma nem outra cousa. 
Tractem»me com ciyilidade, eendo eu me retire. P6de muito 
bem ser que este seja o sen ultimo acto de poder ; poU onvi dizer 
que em breye elle serd demittido. Elle nao ira longe ; pots (or 
porque) a gente principia a comprebender que eUe 6 um graur 
dissimo impostor. O Sr. nao me acredita? poia (well, then) ya 
mesmo Informar-se do que ayan^o. Somos cidadaos, por eonae^ 
guinte temos direito a yosaa protec^ao. Nao posso nem quero 
&z6-lo. '8^ coyardia, $eja outro motiyo, elle nao aceitou o des- 



210 LK9801I UV. 

afio. Isto ou 6 uma inven^ao malevola, cu ao menos nma in- 
qualificavel ezaggera^ao. Ou obede^a, ou s4ia da casa. On tado, 
ou nada! F. ou foi feito prisioneiro ou morren. Quer seja yer- 
dade o que o Sr. diz, quer nao, eu desconfio d^elle. 

A gloria e o commodo raras vezes mo camac^das. A verdade 
e a bonradez nao predsdo de alias protesta^oes. Nem onro nem 
grandeza nos /agem felizes. Nem o desprezo nem o escarneo 
Um effeito sobre o avarento. O tea nnico dever 6 obedecer e 
calar-te. O retiro 6 uma prisao para o tolo, e um paraiso para 
o sabio. Elle principiou pelo jogo, e acabou pelo roubo. Aquelle 
acto nao foi nem justo nem pmdente. 

O Sr. B. falla tanto o inglez eomo o francez com a maior per- 
feigao. Elle ensinava aa linguas portugueza e italiana. Quantas 
crueldades se t6m perpetrado em nome da nobreza e dignidado 
humanas t 

Kada d^isso I {nothing of the hind !) F6ra os barulhentos I 
A foroa com os espiasi Qual pae qual (or tal) filho. Quando 
muito elle p6de ter 50 annos. Seria fraqueza da parte d'elle ? 
creio que sim. Estou ccrto que nao. 


Paratwtical conjunctions are such as can only unite sen- 
tences (or words) of the same class ; these conjunctions coordi- 
nate. They are: «, and; ou^ either, or; nem^ neither, nor; mo*, 
but ; porSm, eomtudo^ todavia^ however, but ; pois (porque), for ; 
portanto^ therefore ; tambem, also ; tampoueoy neither ; quer — quer^ 
seja — %€ja {fosee^-fotee)^ ou — ou (quer — ow, HJa — <m), whether — 
or« The nature of these conjunctions is readily understood, «8 
well as the construction of the sentences which they accompany. 
The subjunctive mood of verbs after ow, quer^ seja is caused by 
the conjunction qv^, expressed or understood; thus queira ou 
ncU> queira (whether he will or not) = qve elle queira^ etc 
That in principal sentences this is not the case, needs hardly to 
be mentioned. 

The rules concerning the a^eement of the predicate (whether 
a verb or an attribute with the copula), such as: one subject and 

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two predicates, two snbjects asd one predicate, etc., are the 
same as in English. 

The last section of A. contains some elUptea; their explana- 
tion is easy; their nse can only be learned and acquired by 


Enyy and calumny always go hand in hand (de mOos dadas). 
Seek, and thon wilt find. Abandon this career, or yon will go 
to min. Either this is a false nimor, or my friends have for- 
saken me in a most shameful manner. Either obey, or expect 
to be punished. Whether (que) your proposal be advantageous 
or not, I do not care (ndo mHmporta) ; vhat I want to know, is, 
whether (m) it is honorable or not. An honest man deserves 
esteem, whether (^ver) he be rich or poor. We neither lost nor 
gained by this transaction ; our intention was to extricate you. 
Neither have I said this, nor could I have said it, as (porque) it 
would have been to my own disadvantage. Weak men are 
neither dangerous enemies nor serviceable friends. — She is poor, 
but honest. He is a clever man, but his morals are more than 
doubtful. We readily see pride in others, but we can rarely see 
it in ourselves. What you say is true; however, I have my 
doubts as to (a regpeito de) their real intentions. I will do it for 
your sake ; but I am sure that it will be of little use. All this 
is probable, yet it is hard (= evttar) to believe. I have to con- 
tend with powerful adversaries ; yet I do not despair. It seems 
diflBcult; still there is no harm (ndo fu mal) in trying. You 
have shown the sincerity of your repentance, therefore you are 
forgiven. He is a fool, therefore you ought to keep out of his 
way (= evitar alguem, dar-lhe pcMogem largo). Lukewarm 
friends are as bad as enemies, if not worse. Beware of that man, 
or else (= senck) you will have cause to repent of your too great 
trust. Let the dog alone, or (ienOo) he will bite you. You must 
be cautious, or you will frighten her. I am no friend of his, for 
I know that he has been false to (para com) me. Keep away 
(fugir) from political or religious disputes; for I never saw 
other results from them but (senao) animosity and even enmity. 
She ought to reflect a little before taking such a step ; for she 

Digitized by VjjOOQIC 

213 I.&SSOK LV. 

most know that her repatfttion is at stzike (em perigo). Both 
(tanto) he and (camo) I set (dar) the highest yalue on (a) yonr 
opinion.^ His father and I were brothers-in-law. 





A religiao que ordena o exterminio d^aqttelles que nao a qne- 
rem adoptar, nao p6de ter origem divina. Todos os que haviao 
tornado parte n'aquella revolu^ao, oitforao sentenciados 4 morte, 
on tiverao 4e fugir, A pega que se representoa hontem 6 trfr- 
dttzida do francez. A gloria ^ nma arvore que f oreoe mas nao 
d& fmcta. Desgragada (woe to) da cidade que oppuzesse resi»* 
tencia aos barbaros conquistadoresl Todos vs que o conhecem, 
o estimao. Nao fallo vd'este livro; fallo do que se pnblicon no 
anno passado sobre esta materia, da penna do distincto escriptor 
H. A malber qv^ se entrega ao Inxo em detrimento da eoono* 
mia domestica, se torna altamente cnlpavel ; por^m a qtie se en- 
trega aos: prazeres em detrimento da educa^ao dos sens filhos, 6 
crimtnosa* — Ohegon hoje, pelo vapor Imperatriz^ nm preso de 
importancia, o qual ser4 processado aqni. Reoebi ha tres dias 
nma carta do Sr., ^ qual me foi entregne pelo Sr. sen cimhado* 
Os pids do men novo amigo, oe quaes en encontr^ura ja antes em 
P., acabavao de chegar. Uma patrnlha prenden algnns indivi- 
duos que estayao escondidos n'uma chacara deserta, oe quaee pa« 
reciao ser desertores, £lle foi em procnra d'algnmas plantas, a» 

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' LESSOir LT. 213 

quaei se repntao effioazes contra o mal que o atormenta. Con- 
Tersei hontem com o pai da noiva, o qual me disse que o caaa- 
mento devia ter lugar no dia natalicio d'elle. A mai da menina, 
a qual cheg&ra dous dias depoia, tambem se qneixou amarga- 
mente d^ella. 

O hom&aique vda calanmiai4, esta infinitamente acima de vus. 
Algons dos senhorea que Y* £. oonvidoO) j4 vierSo. All vae a 
senhora ^«e ym<^ acaba de menoionar. Os homena que remos k 
freate d>8te movimento, aao dignos de iodo o respeito. O s^no 
e a esperan^ aao os dons oalmantes que a natnreza concede ao 
homem. . A energia e coragem earn que Ym^* tern trabalhado 
em nosso favor, estao acima de todos os lonvores. Isto 4 urn 
acto de atrocidade, de que hayer& poucos exemplos na historia 
dos poYos ciyilisados* Eis os pontes em que elles mats insistirio. 
A pessoa de quern Ihe fallei hontem, morrea hoje. Men pai, a 
quern a minha sitnagao preoaria dava bastante. cnidado, foi ter 
com o Sr. presidente. Oa mo^os com quern elle se dd, sao todos 
de boa famiiia, e bem morigerados. Bempre lembrar^me-hei 
d'aqneile longo tempo, durante o qual tn foste o men nnico amigo 
e i^oio. !Eis o homem a quern tenho confiado o fatnro da' mlnba 
filha. Comprei o ontro dia cinco mulas, para cada nma doe qnaee 
pagnei nada menos de 100|000 rs. A wsihoTtL' d qual me refiro 
mora em Santarem. — Tal 6 o bomem em cujo poder estd a sorte 
de n6s todos. Este 6 nm livro, eujae tendencias immoraes t^m 
feito nm mal immense & nossa mocidade. As casas eujifi inqni- 
linos tinbao fagido forao saqneadas. Este tractado eatk dividido 
em qnatro capitulos, dee quaes o primeiro cont^m, etc. Arrema- 
tei boje nma por^ao de fazendas francezas e alemaas/ aignmas 
doe quaes tenciono dar ontra Tez em leilSo, porqne ponco valem. 
— ^En, que tenho sofirido mais do que qnalqner d'elles, me calo. 
Assim proced^rao pagEos; e n6s, que professamos a religilo ohris' 
taa, mostrarlapaoB menos beroismo? Padre nos^so (nos^ pai>, 
qu^ estais no c6o, Sanctificado seja o yosso nome. Pais e mais, 
que tendes filbas adoltas, yigiai sobre ellas I Tn, que es o mais 
miseravel dos bomens, queres fallar em gloria? — ^Tado quanta 
tenbo est4 &b suas ordens. Ym^ p6de acreditar tndo quanta 
ella diaser. Nao tenbo medo de todos qnantos sao (of them a^Q. 

Digitized by VjjOOQIC 


V. B. sejEdrva dM^que (oftuch as) Ihe parecerem idoneos. O que 

agradou hontem, p6de desagradar hcje. Julgo do que {Jr&m 
what) vL 


An attribute may be expressed by a sentence as well as by a 
word; such sentences are, therefore, justly called attributive 
sentences or danses. They are, however, more generally called 
relative clauses, because a relative. pronoun (or adverb, as <nide 
= em que lugar^ etc.) connects them with the noun or proDoon 
which they define, or of which they express an attribute. There 
are two classes of attributive sentences, 1) those which cont^ 
an essential attribute, which define or individualize^ 2) those 
which contain an incidental attribute, and which, therefore, 
could be omitted without rendering the meaning of the period 
obscure ; the former are necessary in order to define an unhnawn 
person or object, the latter relate to a person or object which 
would also be Icnovm without them. In attributive sentences of 
the first class {essential attribute) the pronoun relative, when in 
the izeeusative case (either as object of the verb, or when gov- 
erned by a preposition) may be omitted in English (also, some- 
times, when subject)^ but in Poii;uguese never;' and when the 
pronoun relative follows immediately after the noun or pronoon 
to which it relates, it is not separated from the latter by a comma. 
In sentences of the second class (incidental attribute) the pro- 
noun relative (or the word on which it depends) is always pre- 
ceded by a comma. For instance : 1) the person (whom) yon 
speak of is my brother, a pessoa de quern Vm<^ falla i meu ir- 
fnSo; 2) my father, whom I had never seen angry, was in a per- 
fect rage, meu pai, a quern eu nunca tinJia visto zangado^ esiata 

The relative pronouns in Portuguese are : quCy who, which^ 
that; qtiem, who; o qual (a qual, os quaes^ as quaes% who, 
which ; and the possessive eujo, -a (-os, -a«), whose. Of these, 
only-o qual and cujo are variable ; the former agrees in number 
and gender with the noun to which it relates, the latter with the 
noun to which it belongs as an acyective (the person or object 
possessed). Observe the following : 

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LB8B0N LY. 215 

1) Que refers to perBons or objects ; it can be governed hj 
prepositions, bnt only when relating to ohjeeU. 

2) 'Quern is who, relating onlj to persons; it is only used 
with & prepoeition ; therefore, when it is the object of the verb, 
it ninst always be accompanied bj the preposition a (see Lesson 
XXXYI.). As a direct object of the verb, it is chiefly nsed in 
incidental attributive sentences. 

S) qual (always with the definite article), who, which, that, 
is nsed either in incidental attributive sentences relating to an 
object (as quern relating to a person), or in order to avoid ambi- 
guity, when not following immediately after its correlative (as : 
dono d'esta eaea, o qual^ as que would refer to ca8a\ or instead ' 
of quern when relating to a plural (f. i. aqueUee homem^ ao$ quaes, 
etc. for a quern). It mtut be nsed, when the pronoun relative is 
preceded by a numeral, as : essee individuoe, algum (dotu, muiioe) 
doe quaee^ etc. 

4) Cujo, whose, is used for persons or objects ; being a deter- 
minative (possessive) adjective, it naturally excludes the article, 
and agrees with the following substantive (p unhor cuja caea, 
euja agreeing with eaea). 

When the relative pronoun relates to a personal pronoun, the 
verb in the relative sentence must agree with the latter in per- 
son and number ; as : vSs, que sois o noseo amparo, etc. 


A man who knows no interest but (eenda) his own, is little 
better than an animal. What (qual) is the reward of the soldier 
that will be first in the breach ? Some of those that had been the 
most obstinate in their resistance to the introduction of the new 
system, are now its staunchest supporters. Here I bring you 
the man that has witnessed the whole scene. The beautiful 
villa which stood on yonder hill was destroyed by tlie late earth- 
quake. " The virtue which must be guarded is not worth the 
sentinel.^* All the streets that lead (tdo dar) to the arsenal 
were guarded by strong pickets of infantry. The gardens which^ 
surrounded our house were much neglected. I forgot the name 
of the gentleman whom yon introduced (npreaentar) to me last 

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night Some of the ladies whom I met at Mr. D.'s were from 
A. Those are the men whom tJie puhlic voice accuses of thi^ 
murder of poor Mr. B. She is a lady whom everybody respects, 
and whom I venerate like my own mother/ These are facts 
which you can not deny. Here is the key I found on the floor. 
The accident you mention occurred in the beginning {prineipios} , 
of 1860, How old is the boy you hired the other day ? The 
men we engaged for this job are not worth the salt they eat. 

The man with whom I shared everything I had, has deceived 
me. Yesterday we buried the man to whom our city owes its 
prosperity. The lawyers whom you consulted are the best in 
the city. Some of the persons to whom this affair had been en- 
trusted expressed entire confidence of success. The individual 
you allude to is no longer here. The lady you are speaking of 
is my cousin. The zeal and perseverance with which he con- 
ducted tiiis enterprise were well rewarded. You will' lose the 
independentje you enjoyed until now, and which co^ you so 
xnuch to obtain, without any compensation adequate to the sac- 
, rifice. Please tell me the signs by which I may know them. 

Two of the defendants, who could prove an alibi, were forth- 
with released. We sent word {reeado) to Mr. L., who started 
immediately for X. A friend of my father's, whom the latter 
had not seen for many years, sent word {ma'ndar dizer) the day 
before yesterday that he would be here on Monday. The por- 
trait of Mrs. N., which excited so much admiration, was made 
by a lady of our acquaintance. One of the sons of our neighbor, 
who had married the daughter of my cousin, joined (unir-te aj 
us. The father of the officer who distinguished himself at the 
taking of S., had been a poor schoolmaster. 

Those whose fate you deplore are happier than we. I have 
been told that the noble lad to whose courage we owe our lives 
is the only son of a destitute widow. Mr. H., for whose estab- 
lishment the city council ceded a considerable lot in ... • street, 
, has already commenced the main building, which, he says (= 
says he), will be finished in about nine months. Those houses, 
the owners of Which have died many years ago, are going to be 
repaired. — The streets through which (par <mde) the proceaaon 

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LE8B0N LVI. 217 

passed, were decorated with costly carpets and strewn with 
flowers. The district in which (= where) I was bom lies fifty 
leagues farther up the river. You slight me, me, who saved jou 
from ruin ! Oh t Thou that givest the worm its food, look on 
our misery I If you can do nothing, what can we do, we who 
are almost destitute ? 


Nao ha cousa que eu nao/a^ para ti. Para tammanha obra 
nao ha dioheiro qvs ehegue (itiffiee), Nao ha homem tao per- 
verso, qtie nao tenha alguma boa qualidade. Nao conhe^o pessoa 
alguma qtte me passa servir n^isso. N'aqnella loja nao ha cousa 
q%te siroa. Ninguem ha que nao e^engane is vezes. Pouco tenho 
que valha a pena vender. Poucos haverd que paaSo resistir a 
taes tenta^oes. naver4 homem que posea negar seriamente a 
existencia de Deos? Na nossa ald^a nao havia pessoa que sou- 
besse Mr, excepto o padre. Em todo este invemo o impresario do 
nosso theatro nao mandou representar uma so pe^a qve mSiO fos$e 
traduzida do francez. Se eu quizesse satisfazer a todos os tens 
desejos, nao haveria dinheiro que ehegasse, Y6s sois o unico 
homem em quern eu ten?ia confian^a. O homem 6 a nnica crea- 
tura que aaiba que ha de morrer. Nao ha um s6 entre elles que 
nao ieja capaz de qualquer baixeza. Nada se passa na vizinhanga 
que ella nao eaiba, A Biblia 6 o unico livro qtie noa possa guiar 
nas tr^vas que encobrem a historia primitiva do genero humano. 
Vm«^ nao poder4 allegar um s6 facto na nossa historia que prove 
isto. Nao havia um 86 official que nao fosse morto ou ferido 
n^aquella ac^ao. Eis o unico meio qtie hos poesa salvar. 

Isto 6 melhor que Vmc* possa fazer. A melhor carta de re- 
commenda^ao que o Sr. possa apresentar 4quella gente, 6 um 
sacco de dinheiro. Esta ^ a maior impudencia que eu tenha 
visto em minha vida. Vm<^ 6 o homem mais descuidado que eu 
canjie^, A menor resistencia que elle jfizerj chame a patrulha. 

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218 LBSsoier irVi; 

Isto 6 o menos qae Ym^ U10 poesa dar.-<^-^le ^ o maior vefiiado 
que ha (or b^Ja) no mnndo. F. 6 o unico entre «lles que seja 
digno d^esta honra; ao menos elle 4 o unico queftem estndado. 
O cavallo baio. com que ganhei a carreira 4 o melhor que tenha 
tido (hut o melbor qae jamau tenha visto). £ a pHmeira vez 
que isto tenha acontecido entre no3. 

The iubjimctive mood is used in attributive sentences, 1) 
when the attribute is demanded, as : mpkrai-me^ um hamem qtie 
esteja sempre eontente; 2} when a negative precedes, in sentences 
of a general meaning, as : nao ha hamem que n&o se julgue digno 
de melhor $orte ; 8) when the pronoun relative relates to a noun, 
accompanied bj a superlative (or primeiro, ultimo, unico), but 
also sentences of general meaning; as: esta S a maia beUa 
pepa que eu tenha visto representar ; but eis o unico livro que 
tenho. In sentences of the third dass, however, the indicative 
mood is very frequently used instead of the subjunctive. — ^With 
regard to the (^ott^q^ following of tenses [eonsecutio temporum^ we 
will here only say that after the imperative and the future, the 
subjunctive of the present or the future may follow, according to 
the sense of the phrase; thus mande-me (mandarei-lhe) melhor 
que houver Ze£, i. e. of a certain number of objects, but que Jiaja 
3= that exists, i. e. of all objects of that kind. 


They appointed a committee who should watch over the faith- 
fill execution of the measures adopted by the general assembly. 
Let us send them a messenger that shall (pres. subj.) communi- 
cate to them our good fortune. Procure me an individual that 
has some knowledge of Portuguese. Ton want a nurse that ia 
more careful and less talkative than that woman. He will cer- 
tainly not ^accept a place that will not satisfy his ambition. I do 
not know any person to whom you could apply in your present 
diflSculty. Is there anything I can do for you ? Anything (quaU 
que eousa) you may want will be ready in due time. Whatever 
you maff do for them, they will regard as a duty accomplished 

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laSSSON LVtL, did 

by yon^ and not as a favor. Do not loso a word of the instrac- 
tions which he may give joa. There is not one amongst us who 
would not serve you in every way (de qualquer modo). There is 
hardly a newspaper throughout {pvr todo) the- kingdom,' that 
doe» not complain of your administration. Few men will be 
found that approve [of] his conduct. I have not an hour to my 
disposition which I can devote to my family. In the whole 
house there was not a door that was not off the hinges {arran- 
eado doe dobradipai)^ not a window that dosed tight. Should 
there be no person in your place that Mro«f your purpose, I shall 
send you one whom I think fit in every respect. There are few 
authors that ean be compared with C. for elegance of diction. — 
This is the most important invention that ha$ been made in this 
century. Yours is the best treatise that has been written on this 
subject It is the most perfect likeness I ever saw (=s have seen). 
The institute called the Inquisition is the greatest infamy that 
has yet disgraced the history of mankind. Ton are not the only 
man that has to suffer from his arrogance. Our lieutenant- 
colonel was the only officer that survived. You are perhaps the 
first who says that. He would be the last person to whom I 
should confide a secret of importance. The only road that could 
lead us there, will be made impassable by the last rains. 



Quem porfia, vence. Quern se cala^ oonsente. Quern me 
reprehende, 6 men amigo. Quem nao arrisca, nao ganha. A 
maxima d'aquella gente ^ : quem rouba a na^ao nao 4 ladrao. 
Quem tem dinheiro, tem amigos, tern sabedoria, tern belleza, tern 
tudo quanto 6 bom. Quem mora em casa de vidro nao atire 
pedras. Quem diz o que quer, ouvir4 o que nao quer. Bern 
manda quem bem soube obedecer. Quem vem primeiro, k ser- 

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220 LESSON Lvn. 

yido primeiro. ^^Qnem penaa, nSo casa.*' Qaem snbjuga as 
saas paizoes, vence os seus maiores inimigos. — Quern quer que o 
tenha dUo disse uma mentira. Quern quer que o fizer^ ha de ser 
rigorosamente "^MrndLo^-^AquelleB que (os qae, qaem, with the 
- Hngular) querem trabelhar, sempre acharao com que ganhar o 
sea pao. Os que rolao no ouro, nataralmente nao sabem qaanto 
soffrem oi que nada t&m. Os que me conhecem hao de acreditar 
o qae you dizer. — que ^ bom para uns, p6de ser raim para 
oatros, que acaba de se passar em G. 6 quasi incrivel. que 
mais rnHncommodoQ, foi o descaram^nto d^elle, de ainda apre- 
sentar-se em minha casa. que foi util hontem, p6de fazer mal 
boje. Ea sei o que devo i minha posi^ao. Ningaem acreditard 
que dizes. Isto era o que faltaval £ste pamphleto contain o 
que ha de mais absurdo e falso contra, o fallecido rei. 

Nao prezo a quern nao me preza. Escolherei o que bem me 
parecer. Amai €U>» que yos persegaem. Todos os mementos sac 
preciosos para quern conhece o Yalor do tempo, Isto nao 6 nin 
enigma para os qve conhecem o caracter d'aqaelle homem. Para 
quern sabe as difficuldades que tivemos de Ycncer, k facil jidgar 
qual dcYC ter sido a nossa anciedade. Prometteu-se muito 
dinheiro a quern descubrisse o author d^aquelle pasquim. Nao 
tenho boa opiniao de quern me lisongeia. Hei de castigar seyera- 
mente a quern quer que entrar no jardim sem licen^a. Eu nao o 
faria para quem quer que fosse, Di*lo-hei a quern quer que e$t^ 
presente. Ella o disse a qtuzntos o quizessem ouYir. Nao conheci 
ninguem de qtuzntos 14 estayao. F. tguntou quanto dinheiro 
p6de, e desappareceu. Se eu Ihe d^sse tudo quanto tenho, elle 
ainda nao estaria contente. Elle se associaya com quantoe ma- 
landros havia na cidade. Nao tome tudo serio o que elle diz ; 
elle ^ um tanto (a little^ rather) dado a exaggera^ces. 

The relative pronoun quem^ in the examples above, is a com- 
plex of aqudle que (or um homem que) ; it can, therefore, onljr 
be used for persons. The sentences which contain this pronoun, 
may be considered as having the value of substantive nonna (as 
substantive sentences) ; f. i. in : quem se eala^ consente the gram- 

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LESSON Lvn. 221 

matical subject of eonsente ia the demonstrative aqutlliy hidden 
in quern; yet, as this pronoun could not be without the following 
relative sentence (containing an essential attribute), it maj be 
said that the subject of eonsente is quern se eala. In the same 
manner we maj, in the sentence ndopreso a quern me nSo prezoy 
consider as object of prezo the whole phrase quern me ndo preza. 
(a, the sign of the accusative case). The same is the cose with 
sentences containing o que (for objects), where the demonstrative 
(a) is, however, always expressed. 

Quanta, -os, etc., has often the meaning of whosoever, as many 
as. Quemquer (or separated, quern quer) is whoever it may he, 
and requires the subjunctive mood, on account of the following 
conjunction, que, that. 


He that has never been ill does not know the value of health. 
He who commences many things, finishes few. He who owes 
nothing is rich. He that amasses money without using it, sows 
what he will not reap. He who asks (Jazer) impertinent ques- 
tions, must not complain if he receives rude answers. He who 
knows nothing of the past, can not judge of the present nor cal- 
culate on the future. Who admits the premises, must not deny 
the consequences. Whoever has deceived me once, has lost my 
confidence forever. How can I respect a man that does not re- 
spect himself? Nobody will have confidence in him who has 
none in himself. For those that (= him who) come from the 
other side of the hill, the view from the top of it is an agreeable' 
surprise. One can not expect an act of generosity from a man 
(= him) who only looks out for (plhar para) his own profit. — 
What is wicked in one man, can not be good in another. What 
pleases me, may be disagreeable to others. What I say is true. 
You do not know what you ask. He got what he deserved. I 
could not understand what she said. Pay me what you owe me I 
To me they owe what they are and what they have. — They who 
say so, are deceived by their egotism. I will accept no favors 
from those who have contributed to my ruin. Almost every- 
body is satisfied with your explanation ; such as (= those who) 
are not so, have been your enemies long before. 

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Parece qtie vae ehover. Parece que assim 6, Parece-me que 
OS Srs. forao illadidos. Parece-me que temos sido precipitados 
n^este negocio. £ verdade qtte YmP^ 6 nomeado Tice-consol do 
Brazil em Marselhas ? Quasi sempre acontece que o sangue-frio 
lies abandona nas occasioes em que mais jirecisamos d^eHe. £ 
oerto que uma longa experiencia nao nos isenta de commetter 
graves erros. £ sabido que o preso evadiu-se com conniyencia 
de certa authoridade. D^ahi se segue que esta ou foi subomads, 
ou engodada por promessas, ou intimidada por amea^as. Da ex- 
posicHO que V. S. fez, resulta, que toda a culpa d'essas dtfaavengas 
recahe sobre o Sr. seu irmap. £ daro que uma crian^a de tres 
annos nao p6de ter feito isso.— Eu sabia que aquillo era impossi- 
vel. Ytn^ bem sabe que a culpa nao era minba. Creio que 
ainda 6 cedo. Acredite-me qu^ tenho feito o que era humanar 
mente possivel. Dizem que F. morreu d'um ataque de apoplexia 
fulminante. Diz-^e pela cidade que o nosso yizinho, o ferragista, 
vad.quebrar. Creio que^ o Sr. tem razao. Ignorayamos que V> 
S. estara doente. Nao Ibe diga ainda que en ja eheguei. 

P6de ser que venhamos mais cedo. Nao creio que eHe teiihet 
a coragem de mostrar-se n^aquella cidade. Nao acho que fiifa 
tanto frio que ja? se precise d'um fogao. Nao pensei que Vm«* 
fosse tao e&cellente artista. Ninguem ha de cr6r que die 9e}a 
capaz d^isso. Nao digo que ella seja indigna de melhor sorte. 
Elles ncgao que Ym*^ Ihes tenJia participado a chegada do 8r. 
seu padrinho. Snpponhamos que assim eeja: o que cumpria 
fazer ? £ impossivel que elles j4 tenMo voltado. £ ^xcnsado 
(no use, superfluous) que Vm<>6 me diga is&o. £ raro que nSo 
(leonte^ alguma desgra^a n^aquelles dias. Pf ecisa qus o Sr. sen 
pai o saiba, Precisaria que en mesmo^Jww ter com elle. £ sin- 
gular que ninguem satba o que foi feito (beeame) d^aqnelle mo^o. 
Admira (it is strange, surprising) que nao s'eneontte ran vestigio 
d'elle em qualquer parte que se tenha procurado. 6er4 melhor 




que in vd$ 86zinho. Nao 6 possiyel que elld queira isso. Duvido 
que elles tenhOo direito aos joros d'aquelles cabedaes. Seria oon- 
yeniente que Vm«* participate a sua intencao ao sea ohefe. Nao 
me convem que os criados edido e entrtm quando Ihes pareoe. 
Importa que elle mesmo o declare perante o jniz do commercio. 
Para qae nao hiya niais gaerraa, 6 iodispensavel que todos os 
poYOs eitejdo no mais alto degrdo da civilisa^o. £ de snpp6r 
que n'aquelles tempos oe hmnens fmem mais ferozee do que b3o 
hoje. £ mister que elle icfa mnito astnto para illudir a urn 
bomem tao fino eomo o Sr. F. £ tempo que eu va-me embora. 
Beria (era) tempo que in foesee. — ^Nao qnero que Ym^^ toque nos 
mens livros e papeis. En qnero que os mens filbos aprencUto todo 
o qae f6r necessario para assegarar-lbes nma carreira honrosa e 
independente. Elle qtieria que en Ihe eeereeesee iodas as semanas 
(Jbut I did net). Elle quiB que en Ibe esoreyesse sobre aqnillo 
tndo qnanto en sonbesse (I did it). Ella ba de qnerer que Ym** 
a acompanbe. Quiz^ra que tnfaseee mds cnidadoso. O Sr. nao 
p6de ezigir que a sna gente trahalhe tambem nos domingos. O 
nosso general ezi^u que a gnami^ao e'entregasee a discri^ao. Q 
eyangelbo nos prescreye que pratiquefnoe a caridade. Desejo 
que a Sra. eeja feliz. Des^ura que os mens filhos se dedicaeeem 
com todo o zelo ao estndo das lingnas antigas. Tomarei que elle 
tenha (/ ehall he glad if he e&me»). Tomarei que Ym«* melhore. 
Tom&ra que elles vienem (/ utieh they to&uld come). Nao approyo 
que ella ya 14 s6zinba. Permitta-me que en o eirva. O sen cbefe 
nao Ibe permittin que vieitaeee a sna familia nos domingos e dias 
sanctos? Nao sofframos que a nossa liberdade 9e}a oaleada aos 
p^ pornma oligarobia arrogante! Saberei acbar os meiosde 
impedir que elles partdo antes do tempo marc^o. Todos dese- 
jayao ardentemente que Ym<^ €teeitasse o posto offerecido. O 
commandante em dbefe ordenou que qnalqaer soldado qne ron« 
basse a menor consa, /oM^fusilado. Ym^ me disse qu^ eiene (or 
de yir) ^s cinco e um quarto. Biga-lbe que ^enha qnanto antes. 
O islamismo manda que os fieis s^dbetenhdo das bebidas alcoolicas. 
En Ihe mandei dizer que yiesse a meio dia em ponto (precisely). 
A yontade do Sr. sen pai 6 qud o %t.fique onde esti. A inten^ao 
da minba mnlher era qve nos mudateemoe (remote) para a casa 



224 UBSON Lvm, 

m 69. O estado da minha sande nao permitte que eutdia 6 
nbite, Nao gdsto qiie tu vas 14 com taata freqiiencia.vMeas 
'pais Dao desgostao que en estude a medicina ; mas ellee preferirao 
que ea estudasse para padre. Eeceiamos que elle esteja mais 
doente do que quer mostrar. Ea vos imploro qtie perdoeis a men 
filho a falta que elle commettea inconsideradamente. Ella pediu 
que n63 a acompanhaesemos* Pe^a a Deos que Ihe perdoe o que 
Vmc* me tem feito. — Que elle venha ! (let him come.) Que nin- 
guem se atreva a deter-me ! Praza a Deos {or Deos queira) que as 
cousas mudem para o melhor! Ozala que assim sejat {plecue 
God it ma J be eof) Ozala que assim fosse/ (would to God it 
were so !) Seja como o Sr. quer. — ^Estimo muito (/ rejoiee^ am 
glad) que Y. S. est^a com boa saude. 8into (/ am sorry) que 
elles nao tenh&6 succedido em tao nobre empreza. Admira-me 
que elle nao Ihe tenha dito nada dcerca do que combinamos. F. 
prop6z que todos/ossemos agradecer ao Sr. G. pela hospitalidade 
com que nos honrdra. Toma cuidado que ninguem te veja. Nao 
duvido que s^a como o Sr. acaba de dizer. 

Elle insistiu em que todos estivessemos presentes. Muitos so 
queizao de que o novo thesoureiro nao cumpre com as suas obri- 
gacoes com tanto zelo e pontualidade como o fallecido Sr. N. 
Kao tenho medo de que tal circumstancia venha embara^ar-me. 
Temos toda a certeza de que os nossos adversarios recorr^rao ao 
ministro da justiga. Esta considera^ao obstou a que elle tentasse 
de vingar-se. Finalmente men pal consentiu em que eu empre- 
hendesse aquella viagem. Todoa convierao em que F. nao havia 
feito senao o sen dever. Hei de opp6r-me com todas as for^as a 
que esta gente tome a si um direito que nao Ihes pertence. Vm<* 
s'esquece de que deve tudo a sen sogro. Hei de lembrar-me de 
que tu foste a causa da minha desgraga. Tenho grande satisfa^ao 
em que o Sr. tenha succedido. El-rei e o principe Dom L. estao 
interessados em que o nosso piano se execute. Tanto elle como 
n6s estamos empenhados em que Ym*^ obtenlia aquelle lugar. 
Quem p6de dizer que est4 certo de que elle yiver^ at^ o dia se- 
guinte ? 

O Sr. M. nos recommendou (qtte) tractassemos o sen filho 
como se fosse nosso. O general Ihe ordenou (qite) se abstivesse 


LESSON LTm. 225 

de fazer fogb sobre a cidade. Um decreto prohibin aos cbefes 
de pollcia (^»e) proseguissem os fugitiros. Elles pedirao (que) 
Ihes fossem entregaes todos os doccunentos relatiVos ^tiella be^ 

Suh»tahtwe sentences, according to their nature, may be suh* 
ject or object. When subject, they usuallj precede or follow a 
fifiipersonal verb (f. i. it seems, it appears, precita^ etc.) or an 
adjective with to le^ the pronoun it serving as a substitute for the 
subject (it is clear, it is necessary, i mUter^ etc.). The nature of 
these sentences is the reason why before the conjunction que^ 
that (or M, if^ whether, see next Lesson) no comma is used. 
When object, tlie infinitive mood is sometimes chosen in English, 
where in Portuguese we have a full sentence, as: I knew him to 
he idle, = I knew that he wa$ idle, eu mbia que elle era wdto. 
The conjunction que^ that, can not be omitted, as is often done in 
English, except after verbs signifying to order^ heg, recommend^ 
etc. ; this omission, however, though frequently used by the best 
authors, is better avoided by the beginner. 

The Buljunetive mood is required in substantive sentences 
after verbs which signify a toUl or desire (querer, desejar, tomar), 
a demand (pedir, implorar, rogar), an order (ordenar, mandar, 
dizer, mandar dizer, prescrever, escrever, responder), a fear or 
doubt (temer, receiar, duvidar, nSo crfer, p6de ser), a liking or 
dielike (estimar, gostar, sentir), and after a verb in the impera- 
tive mood. 

The elliptical constructions, like : que ninguem ce atreva^ etc. 
require no explanation. 

Intransitive verbs (i. e. such as have their object governed by 
a preposition), also objective substantives and adjectives, retain 
their respective prepositions before the substantive sentence 
which is their object ; f. i. ineietir em alguma eouea^ ineieto em 
qtie Ym^fa^ o que prometteu ; qtieixar-se de alguma eouea^ elles 
se queiado de que eu ndo os eonsidero, etc. In this case, the sub- 
stantive sentence is often substituted by the infinitive, as in Eng- 
lish by the gerund ; of this we shall treat in Lesson LZIIL 

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-:.: O. :.".. 

It seems that we shall have to contend with more disaffection 
than we had expected. It appears that the Pelasgians {Pelasgat) 
were one great nation, divided and subdivided into numerous 
tribes, and that they had attained a higH degree of civilization 
long before history commences. It appears, by what we read in 
history, that great events are often brought about ieffectuar) by 
comparatively insignificant circumstances; but it wouM be ab- 
surd to infer from this, that those great erents are the results 
of these little causes. If we examine the evidence (depinmento) 
of the second witness^ it will be clear that the defeiidant could 
have no knowledge of what Was going on (p<u8ar*ie) around 
him. It 19 certain that no religion- of human origin could have 
doDte for true civilization what Ohristianlty has done. - It Is 
known that yon have been in B. during that time. It is 
acknowledge by all the most prominent geologers that our 
globe is. nittch older than was formerly believed.— Doea he al- 
i^eady know that he has ^ined his law-suit? I tiiink thai you 
are the only one of my relations thai knowd' me. I see that you 
are a better man than you seemed [to' bej. They saw tiiat I was 
poor, and therefore they despised me; I observed {nctar) that 
he turned his head as often as (coda ve» que) somebody mentioned 
the name of Miss Anna. Beliere me that, if ever such a thing 
should happen, I should leare the counlxy. He now compre- 
hends that he has committed himself (carriprometter'te). Tell 
hiin that I shall come at seVen o^clock precisely (on the stroke 
of seven, ds sete em panto). 

Maybe (p6de set, takez que) you will find thft book iii' the 
drawer of yonder table. Do not think that I am capable of be- 
traying your secret. It is hardly possible that he canliave 
arrived yet. It is just that they should receive (pres.) an ade- 
quate compensation, for the sacrifices they have made in our 
cause. It would be necessary that you should comei early. It 
is necessary that you speak to him about your son. I wimt every- 
thing to be (= I will thut) etc.) in order when I come back.* He 
wabted me (s= wotild that I) to go with hini to Mr. 0.*b. We 
all wish that you [may] prosper. I shall pray God that he [may] 

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LB6S0H LVIH. 227 

give you a better sense of your duty. She told us not to accept 
the money. Tell him to come later. My uncle wrote me to 
wait for him at A. Hy &ther sends yon word that you please 
deliver to me the horse he lent you. He entreated his brother- 
in-law to intercede for him. The governor issued an order that 
every person between 18 and 45 years, capable of bearing arms 
{pegar em annas), should report (apre$ent<H^se) himself at head- 
quarters. I wish he was here. I shall not suffer that such a 
miserable fellow be fuund in company with my sons* You can 
not wish that your only son [should] live in poverty. It was not 
at all required that you ^ould' tell her everything that has been 
spoken here. I am very gkd'that he ha& escaped from (a) the 
hands of his inexorable persecutor. I am very sorry that you 
can not siioceed in your endeavors to (jE>ara> obtain employment. 
It is a pity {e pena) that you are not rich ; yon could then carry 
out the charitable sch^nes you speak of. 

I insisted on his making (= that he should make) qxcuses to 
my father. The British consul advised our minister of his hav- 
ing detained the captain and crew of the Neptune. Everybody 
is satisfied that justice has been done to these men. They com- 
plained that others had been preferred to them. He was vexed 
at (de) my getting the advantage of (tomar vantdgem Bobre) him. 
This alone was sufficient to prevent my accepting their services. 
She persuaded herself that nobody knew her to be the sister of 
O. They ought to be contented with our having rescued them 
from bankruptcy. It was arranged (assentar-se em) that we 
should meet at B.^s. In the order of the 22d it was provided 
{proDichM a) that nobody should stay there over night (= per- 
noitar) without previously giving notice to the alcaide. I have 
DO apprehension that he will act otherwise tlian he has been or^ 
dered. Be certain that all this blustering signified only their 
fear. He is very much afraid that I should tell all. Everybody 
was surprised that your brother should have done this. 




N3o se sabe ainda quern foi o mysterioso estrangeiro. Sabe o 
Sr. quem S aqaella mascara? Nao sci qtiem sdk>. Dize-me com 
qitem lidas, e dir-te-hei quern es. Fa^a favor de me dizer a quern 
devo entregar esta caixinha. Ella nao nos quiz dizer de quern 
receb^ra o annel. Ym^^ nao sabe dizer-me quern 6 o dono d^esta 
casa? Nao sei o que eUes querem. Agora o Sr. 8aber& o que ha 
de fazer. £ difficil dizer qual d^elles 6 o maior velhaco. Sei 
perfeitamente bem qual dos dons 6 o verdadeiro calpado. Man- 
de-me dizer qual dos mens cavallos qner. Deize estar, que (for) 
elle ha de saber que caminho elle deve segnir. Digao-me s6 que 
vantagem eu ]x>derei iirar de semelhante arranjo. Ymcd nao 
sabe que homem trai^oeiro elle 6. Sabeis v6s qual ser4 o castigo 
que recebereis por tammanha leviandade? Isto bastard para 
mostrar-lhe qual 6 o caracter do homem a qnem V. S. confiou a 
sua fortuna. Estou de tal maneira embara^ado que nao sei de 
que lado yirar-me. Nao comprehend© com que meios o Sr. quer 
alcan^ar o sen objecto. 

Vm«* nao sabe dizer-me onde estd o sen ii-mao ? Ninguem 
Babe (Tonde elle veiu, nem para onde elle foi. Nao sei dizer 
quando o men amo ha de chegar. Nao sabemos a que horas elle 
sahiu. fi impossivel dizer como ^ quando isto,^tenninar. 
Vou dizer-lhe como foi. Vivemos, sim; mas Deos sabe como, 
O Sr. pdde imaginar-se quantp eu tenHo^soffrido durante aquelle 
tempo de suspensao e receios. Besejo saber quanto ainda Ihe 
deyo. Elles nao perguntao quern es, mas quanto tens. S. M. a 
imperatriz perguntou a pobre diulher, quantos filhos ella tinha. 
menino nao quiz dizer. porque chorava. Que sei en porque 
eBes o querem assimi Diga-me s6 para que Ym<^ quer tanto 
dinheiro? — ^Tenho que fazer, Tenho quern me ha de amparar, se 
eu f6r infeliz. £ verdade que elle gasta xauito ; por^m elle tern 
com que, 

Fa^a favor de v^r se isto esta direito. Pergunte ao Sr. N. se 



* . LE880N IXX. 

elle tern estado doente. Pergn&tei-lhe m elle qneria que ea foAse 
com elle em casa do nosso amigo. Nao sei ie elle Tir6 Loje. 
Nao se podia distiDgnir se a bandeira era aznl ou verde. Diga 
d'uma vez se quer ou nao. Yeremos w 6 verdade o que dizes. 

Minhas primas mandao dizer que ndo podem vir hoje. Quern 
disse que era eu quem divulgou o segredo ? Dizem que algumas 
pessoas morr^rao hontem do cholera. Alguem nos disse que o 
nosso yizinho ia casar brevemente. En Ihe assevero que uiugnem 
tern a culpa de todos esses desarraujos senao o Sr. mesmo. Minha 
sogra m^assegurou que nao havia o menor motivo para receiar 
uma mudan^a desfavoravel em sens negocios. Diga que nao quer, 
nao, que nao p6de. Eu sempre dizia que F. era um homem probo 
e incorruptivel. O Sr. R. nos escreveu que estava muitissimo 
satisfeito com o nosso sobrinho. Respondi-lhe simplesmente que 
o seu pedido nao tinha lugar (could not he granted). O rnstico 
contou que fall&ra com o proprio rei. Vm^^ nao negard que ella 
6 mais bonita do que a irmaa d^ella. Pensei que o Sr. ju tinha 
ido a X. Provavelmente ella pensou que era eu. Teu pal nao 
te disse que elle havia de vir hoje? Bem sabiamos que elle nos 
lograria. En Ihe prometti que faria o que era possivel. Era facil 
prever que o seu descuido traria resultados fataes. 

In A. we have examples of that kind of substantive sentences 
which contains the indirect quotum and the indirect speech {oror 
tio oUiqua), The latter are objects of verbs which signify to 
•fly, tell, write, answer, relate, think, etc. ; they have their verb 
in the indicative mood. Indirect questions are objects of verbs 
signifying to ask or question, doubt {not to hnow, not to he sure, 
etc.); also to tell, know, imagine, etc.; they have also their 
verbs in the indicative mood. The oratio ohliquu is always in- 
troduced by the conjunction que, that. It is to be noted that 
after the verbs mentioned {cerha dedarandi), in English the con- 
struction with the infinitive is often used, but in Portuguese 
generally the full sentence. Indirect questions are introduced 
either by the conjunction se, if, whether, or by an interrogative 
pronoun, adjective, or adverb. The interrogative pronouns are 

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^wm, who, o que (or que alone, bnt much less frequently), what, 
qual (without the artide), which (of a certain number of objects), 
what (= what kind of), and qru^whtX^ what a (prohoon adjec- 
tive). The verb $er, in these sentences, generallj precedes its 
subject (setbeis o que i um reptil f). 

Can anybody tell me who is that Mr. B. ? Nobody knows 
who he is. If he knew who has played him this trick, he would 
make him pay for it. Do you know witti whom you hire dined 
at the hotel in P. ? I can not tell who it was. I did not know 
whom they called by that nickname. You ask f7i« with whom 
you are to associate? Only few know to whom the' author re- 
fers in this passage. Can you tell ine ^-hose house this is? He 
asked me whose son I was; Probably you do not know whom 
you hare offended. Be so kind as to tell me whose children 
they are. Guess whom we have invited for dinner! I could 
not discover to whom she alluded. Do you know what this is ? 
I do not know what you mean. Why did you not ask him what 
he wanted ? I know what this signifies, as well as you do. Yraj 
tell me what time (horcu) it is. We want to know what yo^ 
have done with the will of our aunt. Tell me first what you are 
speaking of. They could not make out {deecubrir) what it was. 
Nobody could tell us which of the two brothers was killed. It 
is not easy to tell which of the two singers is the better one. If 
it were known by what means they have got their money, they 
would not be so much sought after {proeurctdos). We now know 
what kind of man you are. Please tell me in what street is the 
pffice (eseriptorio) of Mr. J. ? I asked him what his trade (officio) 
was. Who knows how much the poor lad may have (ftit. ind.) 
suffered under such a master. Can you remember how much 
yon have paid for this book ? You have no idea of how much he 
is altered. I know where he is. The mob shouted that they 
wanted to know where L. was. Did you not ask her when she 
intended to come back ? A^ ydur father when he will favor us 
with his visit. Do you know how this is madefy At last no- 
body knew how the quarrel had be^un. Can any of you tell me 

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LE6S0K UX. 231 

how this flower is called? They oonld not even Bay whj they 
had done it. He will probably ask yon why you did not come. 
I did not know what he wanted me for. 

We de not know whether he has come or not. 6he asked 
the boy if he belonged to Mr. D. One does not know whether 
he tells the truth or not Please let me know (let know = par- 
ticipar) if yon can come, and when. Do you know whether the 
mail'Steamer has arrived ? You should have asked him if he was 
willing to accept my offer. — Gsesar said that he would rather be 
the first in the smallest village than the second in Rome. jDid 
your father say you might go? Did I not tell that this would be 
the result of your foolish obstinacy ? I told you beforehand that 
he would treat you with contempt. He said it was absolutely 
impossible. Tiberius used to say that he wanted his sheep to be 
fleeced, but not flayed. They say that our sovereign is goin^ to 
' abdicate in favor of his son. How often do we say that we can 
not, instead of saying that we will not I I wrote on a slip of 
paper that I had come at the time appointed, and that I should 
return within an hour. The Egyptians asserted that they were 
the oldest people, and that it was from them that all other na- 
tions, especially the Greeks and Bomans, had their knowledge 
and civilization. There are historians that say, aqd pretend to 
prove, that Romulus has never existed. I assure you that I had 
not the remotest idea of your wishes, or else I should h^e as- 
sisted you in every way. Anybody could have told you' before* 
hand that you would not succeed. It has been prophesied that 
the world would not exist two thousand years after Christ. The 
King of N. had declared that he would rather die than surren- 
der; but he did not die, preferring an ignominious exile to a 
glorious death. He swore that he would maintain tbe^constitu- 
tion and laws of the country, even while he was meditating on 
(em) the means of treading both under his feet: I thought you 
had finished your work long ago. 

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3n qualquer parte que eitejaSj respeita sempre as opinioes 
dos ontros. Bm qualquer parte que eu /oese, elle husistia em 
' acompanhar-me. Hei de encontr&-lo, aonde quer que elle estiver, 
Preoisamos de dinheiro, venha d^onde vier, Onde quer que eattja^ 
elle nao poder& escapar k jnsti^a. A qnalqner cidade qne f&r- 
mos, sempre precisaremos do Sr. Elle nao aceitou cartas, 
vieeaem ^onde meesem (or de qualquer parte que viessem). Far 
onde quer que poMassemos, nao yimos senao semblantes tristes, e 
todos OS signaes d^uma miseria profunda e prolongada. Em qual- 
quer parte do mundo que eu estivesse, sempre achei as mesmas 
^aquezas, as mesmas virtudes, os mesmos vicios, apenas com 
uma differenca dos degrdos. 

Quando os yicios nos abandonao 4 n6s, a nossa vaidade diz 
que n6s abandonamos os vicios. Quando a pobreza entra pela 
porta, o amor sahe pela janella, Quando vejo este retrato, nao 
posso deixar de me rir. Cada vez que o vejo, fallo-lhe n'isso. 
Quando a fructa est& madnra, ella cahe no chao. Emquanto 
tenho dinheiro, tenho amigos. Precisa bater o ferro emquanto 
est& quente. Emquanto fizer tanto frio, nao podemos pensar em 
viagens. Nao posso sahir emquanto minha mai estiver em pe- 
rigo; Como eu io passando pela pra^a do mercado, notei um 
movimento singular e inexplicavel nas nuvens. Quando tiver 
50 annos, retirar-me-hei do negocio. Quando Ym<^ ainda era 
crian^a de peito (bdfyy\ eu j& era homem. Nao hei de socegar 
emquanto nao achar uma occupa^ao para o 8r. Quando a occa- 
siao s'offereceu, tu nao quizeste fallar ; agora j& 6 tarde. Em- 
quanto eu tinha, eu dava. Emquanto eu caminhaya, nao sentia 
tanto o oansa^o. Gorrige-te emquanto f6r tempo. Amm que 
elle yier, tenha a bondade de me avisar. As$m que ohegou o 
yapor de C, eu o fret^ para H. Aseim que um entra, outre 

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sahe. Logo que chegnei, fui ter com o Sr. K Logo que estiyer^ 
mos promptos, iremoa ao encontro dos Srs. depatados. Entre- . 
^ae-Ihe esta carta logo que elle vier. Sahi logo que tinha acabado 
de escrever. Vm«* p6de ficar comnosco quanto tempo qnizer. 
Durante que estavamos occapados com o arra^jo da qninta qae 
tinhamos arrendado, elle yinha todos os dias para ajndar-nos. 
Emquanto isto se passaya em Pariz, scenas analogas tiverao logar 
em quasi todas as proyincias. Isto aconteceu durante que ea 
estaya dormindo. Deede que nao ha mais fogaeiras, acaburSo-se 
as feiticeiras. Nao tenho oayido fallar n^elle deede que estoa 
aqtti. Desde que a saa mai morrea, ella nao teye nm s6 dla de 
descan^o. O pobre do Joao tern est'ado doente de^ que o 
conbe^o. Depots que men pai foi para Londres, bouye tres fal- 
lecimentos em nossa familia. Depoie que choyen, os mosquitos 
come^drao a tormentar-nos. DepoU que F. esteye doente, elle 
mudou completamente. Ya antee que s^a tarde. Antes que ea 
podesse acadir, elle j& tinha ido ao fando. Precisa aoabar este 
trabalbo antes que yenba o amo. Ficarei atS que Yrn^ yoltar. 
Espere ati que a chaya aoabar. Todos esperayao ati que os 
musicos yiessem. Escreyi ate que nao podia mais y^r. Fic&mos 
em D. ati que nao hayia mais perigo em passar a fronteira. 

Ad'oerbial sentences, as their name indicates, haye the same 
functions as adyerbs and adyerbial phrases, i. e. they indicate 
the circnmstances of time^ plaee^ eause^ and mode. In A. we 
haye local and temporal adyerbial sentences. The principal dif- 
ficulty for the student is, to know, when he is, in these sentences, 
to use the indicatiye or the subjnnctiye mood. The subjunctive 
mood is required: 1) after em qualquer parte que, onde quer que, 
quando quer que and similar expressions ; 2) of the future tense 
. after quando, when uncertainty is to be expressed ; 8) after the 
conjunctions of time denoting futurity (as ate que, until, em- 
quanto, as long as), unless an accomplished fact be stated ; f. i. 
etperei ati que elle yiesse, he did not come, — ati que yeiu, he 
came at last. 

Logo que and assim que both mean as soon as, but the latter 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

231 * LB§801f LX, 

implies a more immediate succession (alinost equal to no mo* 
mento que). Desde que and dep<ns que^ since, after, differ inas- 
much as the former denotes the beginning, the latter the end of 
a period. Durante que and emquantOy while, differ in this, that 
the. former means the whole time that an action or condition 
lasted, the latter indicates contemporaneousnese without regard 
to the exact duration; f. i. elle se ria, emquantoeu cTuyrava^ not 
all the time, or perhaps all the time, or longer ; durante que eu 
eecrevia, o menino nd4> se mevia^ i. e. the whole time. 

Wherever you may go, you will always find that riches alone 
do not make a man happy. I shall follow him wherever he may 
go. I have traveled thousands of miles, over land and sea, but 
the remembrance of that face haunted me wherever I went. 
Wherever he staid, he was sure to gain the esteem and affection 
of almost everybody. On the whole route the victorious troops 
were received with unbounded enthusiasm, and wherever they 
halted, the population offered them the best they had. Our but 
was so ruinous that, when it rained, there was not a dry place 
where we could make our beds of straw. When the Khan of 
Tartary has dined, a herald cries out to all the other princes of 
the earth, that they may dine if they choose (se Ihes parecer). 
When I was a boy, I had a very clever little dog;^ whenever 
(coda vez que) he had done anything for which he knew that he 
would be punished, he absented himself from home for several 
days. When the boys saw their master, they escaped over {pof 
eima de) the wall. My uncle had some queer habits ; when it 
was cold, he would drink water incessantly, saying that it made 
the blood circulate more vigorously ; and in summer, when the 
thermometer stood at 90 degrees in the shade, he put on thick 
woolen clothes, saying that, what was good «^inst the cold, 
was equally good against the heat. We shall go ta the circus 
when there will be lesd people than to-day. When we go, we 
shall take (leioar) you with us.' Do not interrupt me when I am 
speaking with somebody. When you are (fut.) tired, you may 
go to bed. Dissensions will cease, when there will be only one 

Digitized by VjjOOQIC 

LB88QN LZ. 235 

man in the world.- While aU others were engaged in saving 
whatever they could, the owner of the factory was seen ritting 
(sentado)^ with his arms crossed, and looking on with the utmost 
indifference. The house couid not he whitewashed while I was 
ill. Stay here, while we go up (whir) the hill. Her death 
occurred while she was staying with Mr. P. We can not think 
of leaving this place, while this state of things lasts. As long as 
he was poor, he was a hard-working man ; now that he has in* 
herited some money of {a) his uncle, he ia lazy and indoleni 
Ton may read while I write. I shall rememher this as long as 
I live. We can not expect any rain, as long as this wind hlows. 
As the troops were crossing the river, the scouts reported that 
a large hody of cavalry was coming down {de$eer) the road. As 
I was going out I received your note. He oame just as (as$im 
que) we were going to dinner. The moment they stepped on 
shore {p6rpS em terra) they were arrested. As soon as a sol' 
dier was seen in an embrasure, he was shot down (derruhada 
peloB halas de) by our sharp-shooters. I shall visit him as soon 
as I shall be able to go out. Please send me the boots as soon 
as they are ready. 8ince you left us, our house'seems deserted. 
She is more quiet; since she knows where her child is. Ever 
Mnce I can remember him, he treated me with the greatest kind- 
ness. Ever since she had that attack, her health has been de^ 
clining. He recov^^ after we had gone to B. After several 
members had spoken, Mr. V. rose. This must have occurred 
before we went into (para) the country. Go before it begins to 
rain. He was an old man before you were bom. Wait h^re 
until I come. You shall not go out with me until you behave 
better. They ahouted good-bye until we could no longer hear 

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LB880K LZL^ 
2) IfODAL. 


Kao darei am passo n^este negocio, gem que Yia^ me d^ in- 
strac^oes por escripto. Entrdmos »em que ningnem nos perce- 
i>esse. O Sr. nSo Buccederd sem que sen pae Ihe ijade. Nao 
poderemos fazer nada 9em que elle esteja aqai. A mnltidao se 
disperson eem que honvesse o menor distnrbio. IJm amio inteiro 
passon eem que tivessemos noticias d^eUes. ym<^ me reprehende 
eem que en saiba porqne. — Oomportai-vos de maneira que nin- 
gnem T08 po»a taxar (tachar) de rudeza. Escreva ao menos de 
eorte que en o possa ler sem microscopio. Procedei de modo que 
ningnem tenha motiyo de qneizar-se de injnsti^a da vossa parte. 
Farei eom que (or de modo qne) todos estejao contentes de mim. 
Fa^ao earn que estejao promptos para as qnatro boras da tarde. 
Precisa distribnir a sonmia de eorte que chegue para todos. EUe 
se comporta de maneira que ningnem gasta d^elle. Arrangei tndo 
de maneira que a cada nm tocou o qne Ibe era preeiso. Vm^^ 
escreve (de maneira) que ningnem o p6de l^r. — Como as folbas 
seccas vdao diante da tormenta, assim fugirao os inimigos diante 
d'este her6e. Isto ser4 como Deos qnizer. Seja eomo o Sr. qner. 
Seja eomo f6r (however that may be% eston certo de qne nao me 
faltM*ao recnrsos qnando as consas cbegarem a este ponto. Fosse 
como fosse (however that may have been), a cnlpa sempre ficaya 
do lado dos nossos adversarios.. Como d'nm grao diminnto nasce 
nma arvore gigantesca, aesim o cbristianismo nascen de origem 
bnmillima, e vein a estender-se sobre todo o mnndo civilisado. 
— Os mais dos homens yiyem como ee nao devessem morrer. 
Aqnella gente se condnz como se nao bonvesse nem leis nem jna- 
ti^a no paiz. Elle me tracta eomo »e en fosse o sen escravo. A 
bala atravesson a parede eomo se esta fosse de vidro. 

Desonbrin-se na vizinhan^a de B. nm manancial de agnaa 
mineraes tOo qnentes, que nm ovo ficon cozido em menos de cinco 

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ninatos. Ob nossos gnerreiros sao tanUfi que as soas flechas 
escnrecem o sol. Estamos too habituados 4 yossa companhia, 
que 1103 cnstard muito a deizar-vos partir. O teu irmao falla 
t&o alto que quern passa na rua deve peDsar qae esta brigando 
com algaem. O parrieidio parecia aos antigos Romanos urn 
crime tdo desnatm'al, que nem tinhao oma lei qae Ihe marcasse 
o oompetente castigo. O medo das malheres era tanto {or tao 
grande) que estremeciao cada vez que se abria uma porta. A 
penrersidade de certos homens 6 tammanha que aJt/^ fazem alardo 
d^ella. O habito tem tanto poder sobre nos, que mnitas yezes 
Ihe sacrificamos nao 86 os nossos interesses materiaes, mas ainda 
a propria yirtude. As dividas d'aqnelle homem sao tarUoi^ que 
nao as poderii pagar com dez yezes o dinheiro que tem. F.. en- 
redou o processo de tal maneira, que nem o proprio juiz tinha 
uma id6a dara sobre o que se tractaya. A sua posi^ao Ihe d^ra 
uma preponderancia tal que os eefor^os reunidos dos seus adyer- 
sarios erao impotentes contra elle. — ^EUe nos recebeu tSo bem 
camo era de esperar. Luiz 6 tdo estupido eomo o seu pai era 
sabio. Nao me restabeleci tdo oedo eomo esperaya. Este muro 
nao est4 tSo alto eomo eu desejaya. — Tanto m'alegra saber que 
Y. S. estd gozando de boa saude, quanta m^affligi por saber que 
a.Sra. sua mai est4 enferma. Estimo tanto ao Sr. qtuinto des- 
prezo a sen irmao. — ^Elle 6 mate rico do que quer dizer. As 
criangas obseryao maU do que geralmente se suppde. O suicidio 
6 menog frequente hoje em dia do que nos tempos antigos. Creio 
que Ym<^ estima aqnelle homem maU do que merece. Isto era 
maU do que eu podia aturar. Ella s'affli^u d^aquiUo menoe do 
que era de esperar. Ym*^ me pergnnta maie do que eu sei res- 

Quanta mate eu me zangaya, mate elle se ria. Um d^elles 6 
tao teimoso eomo o outro ; quunto male um insiste n^uma cousa, 
menos o outro cede. Orian^as sao assim ; (quanto) mats se Ihes 
d/i, mats ellas querem. Nao sei eomo ^ ; quanto mats eu leio 
- este liyro, menos o comprehendo. Quanto mats eu quero poupar, 
maU ella quer gastar. O homem 6 tanto mais rico, quanto menos 
des^a.— J. medida que a civilisa^ao progride, as supersti^oes 
desapparecem. Sereis pagos tegundo tiyerdes trabalhado. 



tES80» LXt 

• B. '■ - . .. 

The adverbial sentences in A. are modal. The conjunctions 
$em que, com que, and eoffio ee always require the euhfunctive 
mood ; also de maneira (aorte, modo) que, tal (t&o, ianto, etc.) 
qiie, when a v>i»h, an order, a necestity is expressed ; f. i^ precisa 
distribuir o dinheiro de sorte que chegue para todos (that' it may 
suffice), huteUe distribuiu o dinheiro de sorte que chegou, etc. (it 
did suffice) ; escreva (de sorte) que eu o possa I4r, but Vm^ es- 
creve (de sorte) que ninguem o p6de Ur. 

I shall not give you the money, unless I know in what yott 
will spend it. You will obtain nothing from Ijiiqi unless you im- 
portune him every day. Our embarrassments will not cease 
unless we introduce a system of reasonable economy/ He oflSered 
vme the necessary sum without (sem que) my ^king it.- In. this 
manner he was enabled to make the most scandalous eirtx>rtion8» 
without anybody having the right to interfere. Johnny climbed 
on the chair without anybody assisting him. I will not have you 
go out without my knowing where, you go. Why do you not 
arrange your papers so that at any moment yon are ready to 
give account? When you ^ve alms, give them so that your left 
hand know not wlutt the right hand gives. Hang up this pi^ 
ture so as to be seen through the door of the next room. There 
are authors who seem to have written on purpose so that no- 
body .should understand them. The windows of those horrible 
dungeons were exceedingly small, about 18 inches by 8 (deaoiU 
pollegadas de comprido a oito de largo), and so arranged that the 
prisoners should see neither earth nor sky. He told the story 
so that everybody believed (julga/r) him to be innocent. You 
speak so quick that nobody can understand you. Our fat neigh- 
bor snores so loud that one can hear him in the next street. All 
these circumstances m.ade that (fazer com que) we could hardly 
keep (Jlear com) what we had. The poor [man] lives as he can, 
the rich {man] as he may. He will die as he has lived. As the 
sun disperses the douds, so truth destroys falsehood. As the 
warmth of the sun calls forth (foe desahroehar) innumerable 

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flowefs, %> joj and happiness awake kindness and beneyolence. 
— ^You speak of your journey to N. as if it were^ a trip oi ten 
miles. I remember him as if I saw him standing before me. I 
felt as if I were going to diet. He went home as happy as if he 
had gained a fortune. This is just the same as if you said that 
he who fired (dar) the shot has nothing [to do] with the person 
whom the ball hit. As if envy were not the source of all this 
talk ! — She had grown so thin that she was as light as a baby. 
The night was so dark that yon could hardly see three steps 
ahead. I was so surprised that I could not utter a single word. 
I have so much to do that I do not know where to begin. Your 
remark vexed him so much that he said to me t?iat he would 
never come to yonr house again- They made so many condi- 
tions, that it was clear they had no wish to help us. He has 
always so many things in his head that he forgets them all. The 
rain poured down in such force that many branches of the trees 
were broken off. The enemy attacked us in such numbers, that 
we were obliged to retreat within the entrenchments. The gale 
became so violent as to make even our harbor unsafe. K. tells 
his stories so well that one is actually inclined to believe them. 
The looking-glass was so -dirty that J could not distinguish the 
color of my shirt. Make the fence so that the chicken can not 
get (pasaar) through it. — She is as well as can be expected under 
the present circumstances. We have never been so poor as we 
are novr. You have as many protectors as he has enemies. An 
honest man has as many enemies as there are rogues about him. 
I have as much interest in your success as I have in my own 
welfare. I have as little faith in his constancy as in that of April 
weather. Take as many books as you want. No money is so 
welcome as the first earned by ourselves, — ^Why he has taken 
such a step is more than I can tell. This problem is more diffi- 
cult than it seemsat first sight. Lions are less frequent now in 
the north of Africa than they were at the time of the BomanSi 
"We had more income than we could spend in our little town. 
Those village girls dress with more taste than is seen in many 
city ladies. ^^ We see the past better than it has been ; we find 
the present worse than it is ; and we hope the futjare to be hap- 

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240 LESSOli LXII. 

pier than it will be.^^ The longer we live, the shorter life ap- 
pears to ns. The logger we wait, the greater will be oar danger. 
Mj disappointment was the greater, the more I advanced in 
years. The more he swears, the less I believe him. The higher 
a man. stands, the more he is exposed to envj and censure. The 
less yon want, the happier yon will be. — ^As (d medida que) we 
advance in years, onr confidence in men decreases. The scenery 
changed as we came nearer (to come near = apraximar-se). 



Qnantos homens sao infelizes, porque na sua mocidade per- 
d^rao-o tempo em prazeres futeis 1 Desistirei do men intento, 
porque vejo qne as vantagens nao valerao o trabalho. Kao pa- 
demos atravessar o rio, porque a correnteza tinha arrebatado a 
can6a. ' Tome! este criado, porque vein recommendado pelo Sr. 
D. Nao g6sto d'elle para caixeiro ; nao que o julgae poaco fid ; 
mas elle me parece nm tanto dado 4 vadia^ao.— r^Ss 6 verdade o 
que dizes, en procnrarei nma pessoa qne me mere(^a mais con- 
fian^a. 8e Ym^ esteve em Londres, deve ter visto a celebre 
cathedral de S. Panlo. Se elle quer vir, qne venha jd. Se qneres 
succeder no mnndo, escnta muito, vl mnito, dize ponco. ' Se 
fosse verdade o qne ella diz, creio qne ella nao estaria tao soce- 
gada. Elle o teria feito, se fosse possivel. Vm«* poderia gozar 
de mnito mds tranqnillidade, se huscasse a sna felicidade no seio 
da sua familia, em lugar de bnsc&-la f6ra. Se ym<^ ticesse tido 
um pouco mais paciencia, nao teria agora de sofirer estas perdas. 
Se amanhaa j^ser tanto Mo como hoje, teremos de comprar nma 
carreta de lenha. Se tivermos tempo, daremos i;ma chegada 
(call) em casa da nossa tia. Se acreditarmos a Xenophonte, 
Oyro, o fandador do grande reino dos Persas, foi o modelo doa 
principes^ — Yh comprar nma libra de ch& verde no armazem do 



LESSON Lzn. 241 

&r, A. ; 0090 (t. e. no caso) qtie_mio. o teuba, va no armazem quo 
esta ao p6. 2fo com que que Antonio est^a doente, Vm*^ tor 
jnara o lugar d*ell«. — A ndo «r (= se nao fosse) iato, eu havia 
da acompanbar a Ym<^ com muito g6sto. Seja que eUe tenba 
mais talentOy si^a (ou) que estade com mais applicaQao, o facto 6 
qne elle esta mais adiantado no piano do que a minba filba, Quer 
s^do ricos quer (pu) s^do pobres, os pregoiyosos sempre sSo des- 
preziveis. — ^Don-te licen^a para aahiTj eomtanU> que primeiro 
acahea as tnas tarefas. Nao m^importa nem o tr&balbo nem cs 
despezas, eomtqnto que alcance o men fim. Da nossa parte nuQ 
haY6r& iEOLpe^mentOyeomtanto que Ym^^ entrem com a metade 
do cabedal. Muitos se pfferec^rao a tomar parte na nossa ex- 
pedi^ao, comtanto que padessem Toltar quando Ibes pareoesse. — 
Ainda que elles o wuhessem, eu nap teria medo de que fariao o 
que elles amea^arao. Ainda que eu s^a pobre e elle rico, en 
nao quizera trocar com elle. Ainda que fosse como o Sr. diz, o 
sen procedimento nao deii^a de suscitar grayes suspeitas. £a Ibe 
darei o que pede, lem que eu mesmo est^a algum tanto embara- 
^ado. Aquelle, poema, embora tenba algumas passagens fracas, 
^ uma das mais bellas produc^oes da nossa literatura. F., em- 
bora fosse bomem falso, tinba algumas qualidades estimaveis. 
Posto que Cesar anbelasse o poder absolute, elle nao ousou 
aceitar a dignidade real, tao detestada dos Romanes, ainda no 
tempo da sua mais profunda corrup(^ao. £u Ibe recuse! a licen^a 
que pedira, posto que soubesse que elle se queixaria de mlm ao 
Sr. presidente. Apezar que nao bavia abrigo Id onde par4mos, 
res()lv6mo-no3 a esperar por nossos companbeiros. 

Qualquer que s^a a minba sorte, bei de esfor^ar-me a mere- 
cer a estima dos bomens de bem. Nao aceitarei desculpas, 
quaeequer que sejao, Todo o bomem de educa^ao merece con- 
sidera^oes, qualquer que seja a sua fortuna e posicao. Quaesquer 
que fossem as mais condigoes que elles quizessem imp6r-nos, a 
esta nao pudemos assujeitar-no^. Rejeitemos todas as ofFertas 
d'essa gente, b^oo quaes forem, A nossa situa^ao,/o»«« qualfosse^ 
nao nos for^ava a uma paz ignominiosa. Quem quer que o tenba 
dito, tudo 6 falso. Nao falle mal de quem quer que seja. Seja 
elle quem f6r, elle nao tem, por certo, o direito de passar pelo 

Digitized by VjjOOQIC 

2^ LESSOK Lxn. 

nosso terreno sem a nossa lioen^a. Quern qner que venha me 
procurar [caXlfcr me), diga que me 6 impossivel y^r pessoa alga- 
ma. O que quer que seja (= Beja o que f6r), receio alguma trai^ao 
da parte d^elles. FoB^e o que fosse (= o que quer que fosse), 
ninguem me oonvenoer4 de que nao tenha havido jogo falso 
em tudo isso. — Por mais que (however, hawsoeeer) aquelle homem 
B^egf&ree a gajiLar e a economisar, com uma familia como a d^elle 
nao ha possibilidade de emdquecer. Por maU que eu o tenha 
estimado, nao Ihe posso perdoar o ter-me calumniado aos mens 
proprioB pais. Por mais innocente que seja uma palavra, a ma 
Tontade sempre 6'capaz de fazer d^ella um crime. Elle est^ 
tao enfraquecido, que nao p6de levantar um peso, por mais leve 
que seja. Por mais agradavel que fosse a sociedade d'aquella 
gente, eu sempre sentia um nao sei que de oppressive, quando 
estava com elles» Por mais que elle fallasse a fSavor do sen piano, 
elle nao p6de convencer a ninguem da exequibilidade do mesmo. 
Por maiores que sejao as honras adquiridas na guerra, ellas nao 
p6dem oompensar a perda da feliddade domestica. 

Pois que todos os Srs. querem retirarnse, eu tambem voa-me 
embora. Seja, pois que Yrn^ absolutamente o quer assim. Jd 
que ym<^ me obriga, vou-lhe dizer tudo. Eu mesmo desej^a que 
tiyessemos outra morada; mas, jd que nao achamos outra, pre- 
cisard contentar-hos com a que temos. Os inimigos do Sr. pre- 
sidente pretendem ter provas da sua deshonradez ; por^m, eamo 
nao as produzem, ninguem Ihes dd credito. Oomo nao havia 
occasiao para dar-lhe esta noticia pessoalmente, eu Ih^a participo 
por esta (L e, carta)« Se o dono da casa estivesse aqui, Ym<^ 
seriao bem acolhidos ; mas com4> nao estd, os Srs. devem deacul- 
par-nos. Como nao sabemos onde ella estd, precisa esperar st6 
que yenha. — Ym<^ p6dem ir deitar-se, visto que as malas j4 estao 
feitas e tudo estd prompto. Essa nomea^ao seria illegal, visto 
que, segundo as nossas leis, um magistrado deye ter passado a 
idade de 25 annos. Isto j4 nao 6 practicavel, visto que o prazo 
marcado pela lei j4 expirou. 

Ezp6-lo-hei ao patibulo da in&mia, qfim que todo o mundo o 
conheca e desproze. O astuto ladrao fingiu-se doente, (xfim que 
OB sens complices ganhassem tempo para escapar. Porque nao 

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LESSON Lxn. 248 

Ihe esereve o Sr.^ para que elle soiba a quern se dere dirigir ? F. 
fez esfor^os incriveia para que sea filho fosse nomeado chefe 
d*aqaella repartif ao. Fara que o Sr. veja que nao &II0 sem fun- 
damento, voa-lhe mostrar nm papel assignado por aqaelle si^eito 
mesroo. Foi precise sacrificar uma parte da carga, para que 
o nayio padesse safar-se do banco em que tinha encalhado. Ar- 
range tudo d^antemao, para que nao higa demora qnando quizer- 
mos partir. 

The adyerbial sentencea in A. indicate eaumlity (oanse, con- 
dition, concession, motive, etc.). The coi^jimctions (conjunc- 
tional phrases) nOo que^ ea»o que, a nOo $er que (unless), $^a que 
(Suer^ <m), eonUanto que (provided), quandoy emhora, ainda {po^ 
to, hem, apezar) que, quern quer and qualquer que, por maie-que, 
qfim que and para que require the euhjunetive mood ; m, if, re- 
quires the tubjunetive mood when the condition mentioned is 
supposed not to exist, or to be doubtful (se uto fosse terdade, if 
this toere true ; te elle vier, if he ehould come) ; this conjunction 
can not be omitted, as in English. 

I would not take the book, because some leaves were want- 
ing. Because you hate him, you want us to do him injustice. 
They were dismissed because they were found unfit for service. 
He gained the law-suit, because the opposite party could bring 
no decisive proofs of his having {de elle ter) promised to pay the 
whole sum on the first of March. — If she is ill, how can she have 
gone out? If you are all of the same opinion, I shall say no 
more about this. If you will not tell it him, I shall. If there is 
a man that knows it, it is Mr. N. How can I assist you, if I am 
myself embarrassed on all sides ? If you knew all the harm they 
have done us, you would certainly not take their part against 
us. He would have much to do, if he wanted to settle his af- 
fairs in so short a time. Many a young man would deem him- 
self happy, if he had had the opportunity which yon have lost 
If there be anything within my reach with which I can serve 

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2AA LBssoN um* 

yoa, pray let me loio^r it. ^ Should thej have gone already^ 
come back as f&at as possible. If she were to die without mal^-: 
ing a will, all her property would revert to her sister. Should 
you wish to see the botanic garden, I shall be very happy (terei 
muito praur ^).to accompany yon. If we consider. the gremt 
age of those gigantic monuments, we can not but think that 
there was a period of high civilization in those times in which 
we are accustomed to see nothing but barbarism and darkness.-^ 
In case that my presence [should] be required, please send for me. 
In case they should refuse to come, you will show them this 
letter. We shall start this afternoon, unless (a nao. ur que) you 
wish to go with us. The money must be in the drawer^ unless 
some of you has taken it out {t%T(ur\ — ^Whether he was ill, or 
feigned to be so, he refused to obey. Whether you depy the 
charge or not^ I hold you to be (= por) the author of these dis- 
turbances. You may leave the house whenever you like,.pro- 
vided you pay the rent first. I shall deliver the papers to yon^ 
provided that you make yourself responsible for their preserva- 
tion. Though ypu were richer than Croesus {Creio\ yon could 
not buy this man for your purposes. Though I could pay you 
now, if it were absolutely necessary, it would inconvenience me 
greatly. Although the river was much swollen by the recent 
rains, we attempted to ford it. Although it were as you say, 
what inference can you draw therefrom (d'ahi) ? They would 
have silk dre^s, though their little brothers and sisters went 
(andar) barefoot. You will not foDow the advice of persons 
that are more experienced than you are, though you have seen 
the evil consequences of your obstinacy more than onoe. I dis- 
like her, let her be (enibara seja) more beautiful than Venus. It 
was a mean trick, whoever has done it. Whoever may believe 
this, I shall not believe it.. In whatever situation you may find 
yourself, remain the honest man you have been hitherto. What- 
ever he may have been in his youth, he is now a respectable 
man, and beloved by everybody. Remain faithful to your 
principles, whatever may be the consequences; You are in such 
8 condition (sitttagdUi), that you are forced to accept their terms 
(fiondifdes), whatever they may be. However this may be^ xnany 



LiEssoir Lxm. 245 

people consider him as^an accomplice in the great robbery of 
last week. — ^Howeyer great was his desire to obtain the post of 
commander-in*chief, he could not bring himself (pettuadir'Se) to 
ask the assistance of his old antagonist However small your 
means may be, it never is qnite impossible to do some good to 
your fellow-men. However poor yon may be, you will yet 
(sempre) find some one who is still poorer. This fortress will 
resist any attack, however formidable it may be. 

As there is no other way of obtaining his consent, do as yon 
said. As we found nobody in the house, we went back to the 
hotel As the night looked (ter vm <upecU>) threatening, we re- 
solved to put off our departure till the next day. As I have 
neither relations nor Mends in this place, I feel (senttr-^e) rather 
lonely. We went to bed early, so that we might have some rest 
before our intended trip. He wrote the letter in Spanish, in 
order that, should it faXL into the hands of D., it should not 
commit him before he finished his operations. Hide yourself^ 
that nobody may see you in my presence. Do not Judge, that 
yon may not be judged. Do your best in order that your sisters 
may come with you. 



O menino achou na esquina da nossa rua nm embrulho que 
e&ntinha (eentaining) um numero de cartas e algum dinheiro. 
Recebi hoje uma carta gtte asaevera (atating) que o cholera se tern 
mostrado em yarios pontos da capital. Em toda a bibliotheca 
nao ha dez livros que valhdo (worth) a pena de 16r. Os vic^antes 
avistarao algumas mulheres que levatdo (carrying) jarros grandes 
na cabe^a. Um homem morador (= que mora, Uving) na 
yizinhan^a de M., diz que viu o meteoro cahir na lag6a. ~ Nq 
sitio de Vienna, a artilharia dos Turcos lan^ ava balas de pedra 
quepezavSo (weighing) cinco quintaes. A nossa cavallaria perse- 

Digitized by VjjOOQIC- 

246 LBBSON LXin. 

gnin o inimigo qve $e retirava {retreating)^ at6 a ponte de B« 
Vmc* acboa o livro quefaUaxM (mMwn^)?-:-Um negociante recem- 
ehegado de L. nos dea a notieia de que se receiava uma grande 
crise mercantil. Algumas pessoas eindas d^aquelles Ingares ik>8 
tontao que all houve uma terrivel iaunda^ao que devastou mui- 
tos oampos e arrazou algumas ald^as. Tiramos isto d'uma carta 
recdfida pelo Sr. N. Publicon-se hoje uma petigao dirigida a 
S. M. a imperatriz, a favor do novo asylo das orphaas desrali* 
das. Fizerao-me hoje presente d^uma carteira riquissima de mar- 
roquim, hordada pela Sra. D. Maria X. 

A Buspeita de eu ser o author d^aquelle artigo, 6 por demaia 
estupida. Basta ser-es (tu) amigo meu para que elles te odeiem. 
A notieia de elle ter sido ferido nos vein por pessoa de confian^a* 
Basta Ber-moB (n6s) pobres, para que elles nos desprezem. A glo- 
ria de ser-des (v6s) o Salvador da patria vos sirva de esci^do contra 
as malignas aspersoes dos vossos inimigos. A sua esperan^a de 
ser-em (elles) mais felizes n^esta especulacao fnndava-se princi- 
palmente nas promessas do seu amigo, o Sr. barao de L. A 
probabilidade de ganharmoB o processo ia diminuindo cada dia. 
Estais tao seguros de encontrardes apoio na na^ao? Por medo 
de perderem a metade elles perd^rao tudo. O unico motive de 
termoB regeitado esta condi^ao foi o nao querermoa pedir nm 
favor ^quelle homem arrogante. £ preciso tomarmoB medidas 
mais energicas. E tempo de te eorrigireB. O unico modo de 
arranjarmoB isto satisfactoriamente 6 o de obBtermo-noB (or de 
nos abster) de toda e qualquer ingerencia na administrate do 
institute, ate a convoca^ao d^uma assembl^a geral dos accionistas. 
Todas essas accusacoes fundavao-se unicamente no facto de 
terem-Be achado, no escriptorio do Sr. A., cartas dirigidas a elle 
por um aiionymo, as quaes, por6m, pouco ou nada continhao que 
podesse aggrava-lo. A principal ofTensa que Vm«* deu foi o ter^ 
Ihea lan^ado no resto a . sua baiza origem. No caso de Berem 
verdadeiras as accusa^oes levantadas contra elles, cumpre pnni- 
los com todo o rigor. A ci^usa de todos os embara^os 6 terem-Be 
demorado tanto os apontamentos que Y. S. promett^ra. Seria 
isto um meio de elles j^z^^m com que n6s sejamos excluidos das 
prozimas elei^oes? Na hypothese de nao qttererem elles aoeitar 



LE8B0K Lxm. 247 

estas. propostas, Yin^ p6de prometter-lhes nma indemiiisac2o 
eqoividente ao pre^o doa predioa em qnestao. Longe de ae 
obrigarem a isto, aqnelles senhores at6 recnsarao pagar a impor- 
tancia da obra que f6ra feita por sua ordem. Kao preciaa termoi 
ricos para vivermos contentes. Afim de conheeerdei o mal que 
fizestes, mostrar-Tos-hei os effeitos fataes da Tosaa loucura. Mui- 
tos moradores d^esta rna forao mulctados hoje por terem lan^- 
do o Cisco no meio da rna. Isto seria punir-nos por terfno§ 
.ganhado uma batalhal A16m de terdst offendido ao yosso bem- 
feitor, tendes emperigado a vossa reputa^ao de homens de bem. 
Elle diz Mr pobre; mas eu nao o acredito. Muitos affirmao 
ter tUto um cometa do lado do soeste. Creio ter feito o que 
devia. F. pretende §er descendente dos condes de 0. Elle nega 
Mr casado. As testemunbas declarirao s6 ter outido dizer que 
OS assassi^os de M. hayiao sido pagos por alguns inimigos d^este. 
— ^Para alcanparmoi o nosso objecto, precisaremos d*um cabedal 
de ao menos cem contos de r^is. 86 o fa^o para nao /altar a 
minha promessa. D^este modo nao ficar6 tempo para o Sr. 
acabar a tradnccao que comecou. £is a tua puni^ao por tere9 
violado as leis da bqmanidade. A vossa maior recompensa por 
terdes salvado a yida a tantos infelizes sera a lembran^a de tao 
bella ac^ao. Nao se poderi proceder sem ierem ouvidos os 
p areceres d^estes dous senbores. Antes de proeedermoi d leitura 
d'estedocumento, seja-n oe j[)ermittido de fiizer algumas observa- 
^oes 4cerca da sua origem e bistoria. Antes de »er caixeiro na 
casa do Sr., eu era empregado no correio. Depots de tereah- 
jugado as Gallias, Oesar oonduziu o seu ezerctto fiel e aguerri- 
do contra Pomp^o. J4 vejo que elles bao de tardar at^ nao haver 
mais tempo para darmcs o nosso passeio. Sempre ba gente 
n^aquelle jardim durante a noite, apezar de terem sido mulctados 
muitos ihdividuos por serem abi enoontrados depots das nove^ 
boras. Sem sermos ricos, gozavamos d^uma fortuna mais que 
BufSciente para darmos aos nossos filbos uma educa^ao oonye- 
niente d sua presumptiva posi^ao social. 


Subordinate sentences often appear in an abridged form, 

Digit^ed by VjjOOQIC 

248 "" LESSON Lxm. 

either as a participle^ or as a gerund^ or as an infinitize; rela» 
tive (attributive) sentences are represented hy partieiplesj which 
then take the nature of an adjective ; substantive sentences are 
represented by an infinitive^ adverbial sentences either by aii 
infinitive or a gerund (-andoy "endoy -indo). 

1) BeUztive sentences ; they are, according to their nature, rep- 
resented either by a participle present or past The original forms 
of the present participle {-ante, -ente, -inte) having nearly* died 
out (see Lesson XVII), this form of abbreviation, in Portuguese, 
can not be employed, except in very few cases where the old form 
of the present participle has survived (f. i. um homem temente a 
DeoSy = um homem que teme a Deos) ; therefore, the English pres- 
ent participle (not ike gerund) is almost always, in Portuguese, 
rendered by (or rather dissolved into) a relative sentence ; thus : I 
saw a man carrying, etc., vi um Jumem que carregava, etc. The 
past participle (which represents the passive voice) exists in its 
full extent in Portuguese, and is, in that langoage, ratiber more 
used for the abbreviation of rdative sentences than in English. 
The rules of this construction are so obvious that they need no 
further exposition. We shall see, in the next Lesson, that the 
past participle also sometimes represents an adverbial sentence. 

2) Substantive sentences are represented by the infinitive 
mood, as : elU diz ser pohrcy = que i pobre; in most cases, the 
English language employs the gerund (pres. partic). When the 
substantive sentence, in this abbreviated form, is the subject of a 
verb, the infinitive is generally accompanied by the definite article^ 
f. i. substituir a um anciSo respeitofcel um mdneebo ainda na 
idade das paixdes violentas fora um erro mui grave. In English, 
the subject of the verb (in the gerund) is converted into a posses- 
sive pronoun, or, being a noun, put in the possessive case, where- 
as, in Portuguese, it remains in the nominative case ; f. i. the 
statement of his having been met, etc., a noticia de elle ter sido 
encontrado. The subject of the infinitive precedes it, when there 
is no auxiliary verb ; and it may be placed aj^ the auxiliary 
verb in compound tenses. 

8) Adverbial sentences, when expressed by the infinitive 
mood, always require a preposition to accompany and govern 



tJSfiSON Lzm. 249 

the latter^ this preposition (or an eqaivalent) is always oon« 
tained in the eanjunetion which would introdaoe the adverhial 
sentence; when it is a real (original) preposition, qne is, in the 
constraction with the infinitive, suppressed (£. i. para que^ por- 
que^ sem que become para, por^ sem) ; in all other cases qu6 is 
substituted by ds (thus depoi$ que, afim 'que, antes que become 
depoia de, etc.). 

In order to avoid the ambiguity which may arise from the 
omission of the aubjeet of the infinitive, and very frequently also 
without this motive, the Portuguese language resorts to a pecu- 
liar form, which may be called the flexible inflnitive, being in- 
flected, like any other tense, according to person and number; 
the terminations are those of the future subjunctive, added to 
the infinitive of the present tense {$er eu, aer-ee tu, aer elle, aer- 
moa noa, aer-dea wa, aar^em ellea). The pronouns are generally 
omitted, e^rcept in the first and third persons singular, on account 
of the similarity o£ the forma. For instance : a probahilidade de 
ganharmos o proeeaao; eta a punifSo par teres mentido. When 
the subject is the same as that of the preceding verb, the simple 
(inflexible) infinitive is preferred : ohtvoemoa licen^ paratender^ 
moa, better pao'a vender. When the infinitive is directly depen- 
dent on anodier verb, it is always infiexible, as preeiaamoa (quere^- 
moa, temoa de, temoa a) eompra/r; but e preciao eomprarmoe. 

Friendships formed in youth are generally more lasting than 
those formed in mature age. On the socket of the column there 
was an ii^scription in Arabic, but so defaced that none of us 
could read it. National power, based on conmierce alone, may 
become very great, but it can not be lasting. The king wore a 
costly robe of purple silk embroidered with gold, reaching to 
(deacer ate) the feet. There is, in this part of the province, a for^ 
est extending over more than two hundred square miles. Some 
cases containing arms and ammunition were yesterday seized at 
the custom-house. His father was killed by a falling tree. A 
rolling stone gathers no moss (pedra que gyra nOo cria holor). 
They were making a deafening noise. He was a very promising 

Digitized by VjjOOQIC 

250 LE880N Lxm. 

boj (= a boy that promised much). Between the two doors 
hung a large picture representing the coronation of Qneen Yio- 

Traveling in those parts (lugaresj is attended by great ex- 
pense, hardships, and even danger. His hope of being appointed 
tax-gatherer was founded on Mr. S. haying expressed a good 
opinion of his abilities. Our apprehensions of being surrounded 
(s= the apprehensions of our being surrounded) proved ground- 
less. The idea of his being inade a general is ridiculous. The 
certainty of being beaten in the next elections must not deter us 
from exerting ourselves in behalf of our party. One of the con- 
sequences of your refusal will be the loss of (= your losing) the 
patronage of His Excellency. She talks of going to L. This 
would be equal (= equitaler) to obliging us to leave the city. 
Being obliged to pass through C, we could not help calling on Mr. 
V. It is necessary that w« be (infin.) more cautious. We have no 
proofe of his having been an officer in the navy. Far from com- 
plaining, they even declared to be satisfied with their lot. All 
our efforts for obtaining his pardon were in vain. They will not 
do it without being forced to it. Mr. B. is such a skilful and 
amiable talker, that you can not leave his shop without buying 
somethihg from (a) him. She offered it to us without our ask- 
ing for it. After having given his word not to gamble any more, 
he never set his foot again into that house. Immediately after 
having signed the contract they began their operations. "We 
will not judge of this opera before having heard it again. Be- 
fore embarking on board of the steamer our passports were de- 
manded (= they demanded, etc.). We received orders to (para) 
be ready on the 21st of April. Many emigrated to {para) Amer- 
ica, in order to enjoy political and religious liberty. He fled, in 
order to avoid the fate of his predecessor, who had been put 
(metter) to death by the infuriated mob. In order to compre- 
hend better the effects of this measure, let us consider the cir* 
^ cumstances under which it was taken. I do not blame you for 
entertaining such an opinion of me, but for denying me an oppor- 
tunity of {para) defending myself. He was- vexed at {per) my 
saying this. Their spite against us for not assisting them in 




.their wicked speculatioiiB Increased everj day, as they saw how 
fortunate these were who had supplanted them. This act, bo- 
sides being wicked, was ybtj stnpid. Without being painters, 
we may judge of the merits of a picture, and without being poets 
we may be able to criticize a poem. 


Vimos muitas pessoas eorrendo em varias direc^oes, sem 
podermos ezplicar o que siguificaya este tumulto. O menino 
Toltou para casa ^orando, Deix&mo-los jogando, Eile sahia 
jurando que havia de vingar-se. O que fiizes aqui, olhando para 
as moscasf (= looking at nothing^ idle). Assim Tiviamos, con- 
tentes com a nossa sorte, e divertindo-noi do melhor modo que 
podiamos. 0. morren lamentando a ruina da sua patria, e iiwo- 
eando a yingan^a divina sobre os tjrannos que a opprimiao. 
Encontrei-a na sala, esereiendo & sua mSi. Finalmente elles par- 
tirao, despedindo-se com visivel reluctancia. 

Tendo vivido por muitos aunos n'aquelle paiz, creio ter um 
direito de expnmir a minha opiniao &cerca d^elle. Esta posi^ao, 
offereeendo-lhe maiores rantagens do que a outra, oondizia tarn- 
bem com o sen genio um pouco pachorrento. Sendo-me impossi- 
vel chegar em tempo, pe^o a V. 8. queira tomar o men logar, 
para o que mando Ihe com esta (i. e, carta) uma procura^ao 
bastante. Nao tendo ontra ocoupa^ao, elle se divertiu a emendar 
todos OS erros typographicos (as erratas) de quantos livros havia 
na sua bibliotheco. Sahcndo que era possivel, nao hesitei em 
encet4-lo. F. fallecen hontem, faltando doas dias para complex 
tar noventa annos. Tendo tornado o reraedio, o paciente passou 
a noite mais tranquil] o. Nao havendo ontra entrada, tivemos de 
passar a rasto pela estreita abertura na muralha. 

Ihiiinando apprendemos. Jos6 esperava melhorar a sua sorte, 
easando com uma rica herdeira. Muitos ganhao a, sua vida Mn- 
dendo objectos de curiosidade que s^encontrao ali com grande 




sbimdancia. Ella defendenHSd dllegtmdo que f6ra for^ada a esto 
easamento por sen padrasto. Fallando d^este modo Ym<^ 86 
poder4 offender a seds melhores amigos. Algnns dos prisioneiros 
qoizerao salyar-^e, aueoerando qne haviao sido for^ados a en- 
trarem no exercito dos rebeldes. O navio foi a pique, sahandih 
$e a cnsto a tripolagao e os passageiros. Encetamos esta em- 
preza, contando com a vossa protec^ao. O Sr. commetteu nma 
perigosa indiscriQao, cammunicando o sen segredo a nm parente 
do sen adversario. 86 vendor com os mens olhos hei de acredi- 
t^lo. Talvez qne, fazendo-lkes algnmas concessoes pouco im- 
portantes, Ym^^ sncceda em persnadi-los a nnirem-se com o Sr. 
Viajando dia e noite, poderemos chegar all no dia 24. O mo- 
mento era destavorayel, sendiMne impossivel arranjar o necessario 
cabedal. O nosso m^yor cahin mortalmente ferido, nma bala 
teruUhlhe atravessado o peito de lado a lado. A casa qne alngnei 
me cansard mnitas despezas, tendo necessario dermbar nma das 
paredes interiores. Eatendo en probibido qne se fechasse esta 
porta antes da noite, como 6 qne Vm^* se lembra de fecbd-la 
agora? Tendo-u introdnzido este abnso. durante a minba 
ansencia, a responsabilidade • recahe sobre o Sr. Verificando-te 
o que ym<^ allega, tomaremos medidas efficazes para que o cnl- 
pado seja desenberto e severamente castigado. Sendo die o qne 
Vm<^ diz, nao me admira que Vm®* o deteste. N"ao Undo os 
meios para continnarem a viagem, mnitos fic4rao em M. Algnns 
dos nossos companheiros tendo cahido doentes, vimo-nos obriga- 
dos a parar em R. por algnns dias. Um dos nossos criados foi 
mandado levar a carta, recommendamdo^se'lhe qne a mostrasse a 
ningnem senao a pessoa a qnem ella era dirigida. 

Acdbado (= sendo acabado) este trabalho, en farei nma via- 
gem a Lisboa, para v^r scesta fard algnm bem k minba sande. 
Covfirmada a sentenga, os criminosos forao ezecntados no dia 
segninte. Chegadas as consas a este ponto, nao era mais possi- 
vel retirar-me. Dado o primeiro passo no caminbo declive do 
vicio, o homem avan^a com rapidez progressiva, at6 ser-lbe im- 
possivel parar. JPaasados dez a doze dias, nenbnm de n6s estar4 
mais aquL Dctdo o exemplo na capital, facil 6 prev«r qne as 
provincias bao de imiti-lo dentro em ponco tempo. Jvlgado% 



LB880K Lxnr. 258 

samiDiiFiameiite, elles forSo todos enforcados. Presot ofl candi- 

lho8 do motim, o resto se disperson logo. Tomada esta resoln- 

i^iao, el-rei ordenon qua ella fosse ezecntsda immediatamente. 

Letado perante o jniz, N. tentou negar a accusa^ao. PaUo o 

caso que en qaizesse desamparar-te, o que farias tu para yiver ?. 

Morto o rei, os validos apossarao-se do palacio e da cidadella. 

Dados certas circnmstancias, a ezecn^ao do sen piano nao me 

parece difficil. Attentas as tendencias d'aqnelle partido, nao 6 

de admirar qne elle seja fortemente sostentado pelas classes 

opnlentas. Suppoito isto, as dedac^es sao mni faceis e clat-aa. 

AtientoB os sens serri^os, elle mereceria nma reconipensa mais 

libera/. SuhmetticUu as dnas tribns mais poderosos, as ontras 

Tierao pedir a paz. 

Mnitos grandes homens Tiy^rao na miseria, sendo o sen meri- 

tb reconhecido s6 depots de mortos. As nossas tropas, apezar 

de destituidiu das primeiras neeessidades, continndrao a defender- 

so heroicamente. AUm de enfraqueddo pela grande perda de 

sangne, elle soffiria d^res crneis no estomago. Greralmente 6 

mais facil impedir nm hegodo do qne des&z^-lo depoie decon- 

cluido, A casa 6 espacosa e conmioda, posto que nm ponco 



The nse of the gerund {^andOy -endo^ -indo)^ which in many 
cases takes the place of the now lost present participle^ is nearly 
the same in Portuguese and in English ; the principal diiference 
is^ that, in Portagnese, no preposition can accompany the gerund 
(with the exception ofemj which is sometimes used to denote co- 
incidence). Adverbial sentences, represented by the gerund, are 
either ^emjE>ora2 (tendo aedbado = depots de ter acdbado)^ or eattsal 
(sdbendo isso = as, because I knew this). The subject, being a 
pronoun, is generally not expressed in English, but frequently in 
Portuguese ; it must always folUm the gerund (pres. part.), as 
sahendo eu^ guerendo elle. 

^Sendo, connected with a past participle, is very frequently 
omitted ; f. 1. morto el^ei, the king being dead, or having died, 
eoneluido este negoeio^ this afEair being concluded; ouvidas as- 
testemwthas. In the same manner, the infin. ser may be omitted 

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254r LESSON uav.' 

after depots de^ antes de, aUm de, apesar de, as depoie de mortas 

=z>d^oi8 de ser mortM = depois de termorrido; antes de eon" 

demnadas^ etc. The elliptical oonstrnction with pasto que (or its 

Bynonyms hem que, ainda que), though, although, is also used in 



Descending from that hill, you will see a rivulet winding (= 
which winds) round its foot. Sleeping and waking I think of 
you. Seeing that kindness had no effect on them, I threatened 
to bring them before the tribunal. At last, finding that there 
was no possibility of escaping, they surrendered. Where is 
your sister ? She is in the parlor, embroidering a pair of slip- 
pers for papa. Smiling at her ingenuity, he answered negative- 
ly. Thinking that it was too late to call on yon, I went to the 
hotel. She remained longtime in the room, weeping over the 
corpse of her husband. The picture represented Hercules spin- 
ning amongst the women, and lole wearing the skin of the lion 
and the terrible mace. The spy was seen creeping down the 
hill. Thus we spent a delightful day, singing, playing, dancing, 
and doing all kinds {toda a casta) of funny things. 

By asking his pardon you have of course acknowledged your 
guilt. I obtained what I desired by threatening that I would 
write to our minister at Berlin. On showing my certificates I 
was at once appointed as civil engineer. By adopting this course 
we are sure to gain tlie affections of those who are now opposed 
to us. On hearing this he became frightened. Augustus, 
[when] dying, exhorted his step-son Tiberius not to extend the 
^oman empire, foreseeing that its very (proprio) greatness would 
be the chief cause of its ruin. Being a near relative to (de) Mn. 
L., I beg to be excused (pepo queirOo excusar-me) from giving an 
opinion in this matter. Having served under him for more than 
twenty years, you must know him better than I do. Receiving 
no answer to my letter of the first of May, I conclude that yon 
have left Paris. Some of the regiments having suffered severeljr 
from the fire of the fort, the general ordered them to fall back, 
in order to bring up the reserves. Everything being ready, the 
grand ceremony began. Tlie bridge being destroyed by the in- 

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LESSOK Lxnr. 255 

nndation, we bad to cross the river in a small boat. The house 
being too small for us, we hired an adjoining building. The 
chnrch being full, many persons were obliged to remain ontside; 
and many of these, not being able to stand (JUar em pe) so long, 
sat down on the grass. By adopting this system you are sure 
to fail, as I am going to prove. This was impossible, my father 
having declared that he would rather die than submit to these 
degrading conditions. As he did not know (= he not knowing) 
who yon were, yon must excuse him. As I had nobody to con- 
verse with (com quern eonvermr), I took up (pegar em) a news- 
paper and began to read. Thb being indispensable for obtain- 
ing correct information, we furnished him the means for this 

The sermon [being] finished, the cofSn was deposited in the 
family vanlt. This letter [being] finished, I shall write no more. 
Hope [being] lost, life becomes a bnrden. This fact [being] ac- 
knowledged, we want no further (mats) argument. The passage 
being paid, we embarked on board of the Margaret. That great 
man being dead, the hostile neighbors recommenced their preda- 
tory incursions. War being declared, the army passed the frontier 
in .three columna. 

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•dv. • 

•rt • 


p. p. ■ 

af gniflefl ' ^eetlre. 
— adverb. 



— ^ feminine. 


r- masculine. 

- past participle. 

- present participle. 


pron. • 



V. intr. 
V. tr. ' 
V. refl. 

signliies pInnL 
I^positloii. " 

- pronoun. 

- sulMtantire. 

- verb. 

- Intransitive verb. 

- transitive yerb. 

- reflexive verbi 

Note. AeeenU are placed only where the majority of good writers nsn- 
ally employ them. Syllables or letters befween brackets, soter a Portu^iese 
word, indicate pronunciation. The tonic accent of a word, when diflering 
from the rules given in the introduction, or when doubtful, is indicated 
thus : (1) means that the accent is on the last syllable ; (2) shows the accent 
to be on the periuU or second syllable from the end ; (S) on the antepentdt 
or third from the end: t i. harharo (3) = b&rbaro: eoUmo (2) = eolonoi 

In the Portuguese part, many words are omitted, their meaning beine 
easily known by their similarity with their equivalents in English ; sucn 
as nouns substantive in (oo, mento, dade^ adj. in oso^ al, etc 


0, f. of the def. art, the. 

a, accus. sing, of the pers. pron. ella, 

= her. 
a, dem. pron., that 
a, prep., at, to, on. 
dbaixoy adv., below, down. 
abandono (2), s. m., abandonment, 

neglect; -ar, t. tr., to abandon, 

abertOt p. p. of abrir, open ; 4uraf t, 

aperture, opening. 
•hominavel, adj., abominable. 

dbragar^ r. tr., to embrace ; -^j s. 
abrigo (2), s. m., shelter, protection. 
ahrir, v. tr., to open. 
absolnto (2), adj., absolute; 'iitmo, 

8. m., -tista^B. m., absolutist 
ahsolver, v. tr., to absolve. 
abster-gg, r. refl., to abstain. 
abusOf 8. m., abuse; -ar, y. intr., to 

abuse, misuse. 
acabar, y. tr. and intr., to end, finish ; 

-com, to have done with ; -de diaer^ 

to have just said. 
aeademia (2), 8. f., aeademx- 

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Kcampar, v. intr., to encamp ; -amen 
to, s. m., eocftoipment. 

acautilado, p. p., cautious. 

acgaOf s. fraction; share (commer* 

aeceitary vide aceitar. 

ncdonistay s. m., share-holder. 

accommodar, v. tr.^ to accommo- 

accordar, v, tr. and intr., to awake. 

acobrdoy s. m., accord. 

ixocumular, v. tr. and intr., to accu- 

aecusa^f y, tr., to accuse ; -acao, s. f. 

aceitar, y. tr., to accept (also ace ). 

acerrimo (3), superl. ofacre, 

acertar, y. tr. and intr., to hit, guess 
( — com), 

ackar, v. tr., find ; -w, v. refl., to iind 
one's self, to be found, to be. 

a(Of s. m., steel. 

acompanhaTf v. tr., to accompany. 

aeontecer, y, intr., to happen; -ci- 
mento, s. m., event. 

aeo9tttmary v. tr., to accustom. 

acre, adj., sharp, violebt, sour, tart. 

acrimonia (3), s. f., acrimony, etc. 

aerediiar, v. tr., to believe, credit. 

acto, s. m., act. 

actor, s. m., actor (fem. •4riz), 

actual, adj., actual, present ; -^nente, 
adv., at the present time, now. 

aeudir, y. intr., to hasten to assist- 
ance, to flock together. 

adeoe (2), adv., adieu, farewell, good- 

adequado, adj., adequate. 

adiante, adv., forward, on, before; 
-or, V, tr., to advance, to further ; 
'ado, p. p., advanced ; -amento, s. 
m., advancement, progress. 

admirar, v. tr., to admire, to sur- 
prise; -ae, V. refl., to be surprised. 

to wonder; -Ofoel, adj. ; -o^do, 8. £, ' 
admiration, surprise. 

admiUir, v. tr., to admit ; adim$tdo, 
s. f., admission. 

aioecer, v. intr., to fall sick. 

adaptor, v. tr., to adopt. 

adorar, v. tr., to adore, worship. 

adquirir, v. tr., to acquire. 

adular, v. tr., to flatter; -^fdo, s. t, 
mean flattery ; -dor, s. m., flatterer 
{adtUdLo, s. m., fam., toady). 

aduUo, adj., adult, grown up. 

adversario (3), s. m., adversary. 

adcertidade, s. f., adversity, misfor- 

adverso, adj., adverse, disinclined. 

advogar, v. tr., to advocate ; -ado, s. 
m., advocate, lawyer, attorney. 

afastar, v. tr., to remove. 

affeigdo, s. f., affection, love; "Coado^ 
adj., affectionate, loving. 

afirmar, v. tr., to affirm. 

affligir, v. tr., to afflict; ->•€, v. refl., 
to grieve ; afflicffdo, s. f., affliction, 
Tezation; affiicto, p. p., afflicted, 
, grieved, vexed. 

affrontar, v. tr., to affront, brave ; -a, 
s. f, insult. 

afiangar, v. tr., to answer for, give 

afim de, conj.,. in order to ; — que, in 
order that, that, so that. 

afinar, v. tr., to tune. 

afogar, v. tr., to strangle, to drown ; 
-et, V. refl., to be drowned. 

afbra, prep., besides. 

agenda (3), s. f., agency ; -iar, v. tr. 
and intr., to manage, procure, ne- 

aggratar, v. tr., to aggravate. - 

aggredir, v. tr., to aggress, attaclr 

agigantado, adj., gigantic. 

agora (2), adv., now, presently. 

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agradar, r. intr., to please; -avet, 
ad]\, agreeable, pleaaant. 

ogradeceTf y, intr., to thaok; -idoy 
adj., thankful, grateful ; -einierUo, 
a. m., thanks, thankfulness. 

agrieuUura (2), s. f, agriculture; 
-ior, 8. m., husbandman, fJEumer ; 
— , adj. agricultural. 

agu€i, s. f., water. 

aguerrido, adj., accustomed to war, 

aguia (3), s f., eagle. 

agulha, s. f., needle. 

My adv., there. 

ainda, adv., yet, still ; —que, thoagh, 

ajudar, t. intr., to aid, help, assist. 

alOf s. f , wing (of an army). 

€Uacndad€t s. f., alacrity. 

alardo, s. m., muster, show. 

alcaide, s. m., a magistrate, bailiff. 

alean^r, t. tr., to reach, obtain, 
overtake ; -<», s. m., reach, power. 

aldia, s. f , Tillage. 

dUgre, adj., merry, joyful, gay ; -ia 
(2), gaiety, jojr ; -«r-*«, t. refl., to 

alim, adv., beyond ; — de, prep., be- 
yond, besides. 

aUmdOf ad^., German; AlUmantia, 

dUrta (2), adr., estar dUria, to be on 
the alert, wide awake. 

alfaiaU, s. m., tailor. 

alfandega (3), s. f., custom-house. 

algu^m, pron., somebody. 

alguniy adj., some, any. 

alheio, adj., alien, belonging to an- 
other person. 

aU, adv., there. 

alUgar, r. tr., to allege. 

€UHvio (8), s. m., alleviation, com- 

aUudir, v, intr., to allude. 

alma, s. f.,. soul. 

alnUrarUe, s. m., admiraL 

almofo, s. m., breakfast ; -ar, r. intr., 
to breakfast. 

aUar, s. m., altar ; — mor, chief altar. 

aUerar, r. tr., to alter, change. 

aUemar, r. intr., to alternate, take 
turns ; -adamente, adv., alternate- 
ly ; 'tiva, s. f., alternative. 

aUivo (2), adj., proud, haughty ; -vez, 
s. f., haughtiness. 

alto, adj., high, tall, loud ; — , s. m., 
top ; fazer — , to halt, stop ; aUo I 
halt! 'Ura, s. f., height; -eza, s. f., 
highness (a title). 

alugar, t. tr., to rent, hire ; let ; 
-gad, 8. m., rent, hire. 

alumno, a, m., pupil. 

ahigaras (8), s. f. pi., a reward given 
for good news. 

(Uvo, 8. m., aim, goal, mark. 

omanMa, adv., to-morrow. 

amor, t. tr., to love; -avd, adj., 
amiable ; -ante, s. m., lover; -odor, 
8. m., lover^ amateur; amor, s. m., 

amarello, adj., yellow. 

amargo, adj., bitter; ^gura, iL t., 

amarrar, v. tr., to tie, fasten, bind. 

AmaeonagfOriodas — (oToAm^Xthe . 
river Amazon (Jfaranhdo), 

ambicdo, s. t, ambition, greediness; 
-ciow, adj., ambitious, avariciona. 

amhoBi adj., both. 

amist^, (2), s. f., threat, menace; -or, 
V. tr., to threaten; 'dor, adj., 

amigo, s. m., friend; -eade, s. t, 

amo, 8. m., master, landlord, princi- 
pal, employer. 

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amparajr, t. tr., to proteot, aid; •«, 
8. m., protection, prop, aid. / 

amphibio (8), s. m.,^ amphibious ani- 

amplOf adj., ample, vast. 

analogo (8), adj., analogous. 

afiehora (3, pronounce dncora), s. f., 
anchor; -ar, v. tr. and intr., to 
anchor, to moor. 

ancido (pi. -dof), s. m., a (renerable) 
old man. 

anctotOf adj., anxious ; aneiedade, a. 
f^ anxiety. 

andar, y. intr., to walk, go ; ^, s. m., 
walk, gait, floor, story. 

aneedota (2), s. t, anecdote. 

anhelar (pr. an-^ktr\ r. tr., to desire 
anxiously, to strive eagerly after 
something. « 

animalj s. m., animal. 

animar, t. tr., to animate, encour- 
age; -9, s. m., courage, spirit 

anjoj s. m., angel. 

annaeSf s. m. pi., annals. 

annel, s. m., ring. 

anno, s. m., year; —horn, new-year; 
dia de anno$, birthday; hoJ€ fa^ 
annot, to-day is my birthday. 

annuiry r. intr., to assent, consent 

annuneiar, t. tr., announce, adver- 
tise ; annuncio (3), s. m., adver- 

annttUar, v. tr., to annul, declare 

anonymo (3), adj., anonymous. 

antagoniski (2), s. m., antagonist. 

ante, prep., before. 

afUemdOy adv., 4* — , beforehand, 

aniepassadot, s. m. pi., ancestors. 

anUSf adv., before ; — de, prep. ; 
— que, conj. 

unfhonUmj adv., the day before yes- 

ofUiffo, adj., ancient, old, former; 
-quidade, s. f., antiquity. 

anzd, s. m., fishing-hook. 

aonde, adv., whither, where. 

apagar, v. intr., to extinguish, put 
out, blot out, erase, to quench. 

n^Mdpar, V. tr., to feel, touch, sound, 
try; dt apalpadellag, groping, 

apanhar, v. tr., to catch, seize, over- 

apartar, v. tr., to separate. 

aparte, adv., apart, aside. 

apiffo, s. m., attachment, aiTection. 

apdlar (or app.), v. intr., to appeaL 

apifias, adv., scarcely, hardly. 

apertar, v. tr., to clasp, tighten, hold 
fast, squeeze; -a mao, to shake 
hands ; -ado, p. p., tight, close. 

apetar (or apezar, or a p.), adv. ; —de, 
despite, in spite of; —qtte, conj., 

apoderar-fe, v. refl., to seize, take 
hold of. 

apoio, s. m., support, prop, protec- 
tion ; -ar, v. tr., to support ; -te, v. 
refl., to lean upon, to rest. 

apofUar, v. tr., to point at, to note ; 
•amentoi, s. &. pi., notes, instruc- 

apopUxia (2), s. f., apoplexy. 

apoeento, s. m., inner room, bed- 

apos, prep., after. 

apaesar-se, v. refl., to seize, take pos- 

aposta, s. f., bet, wager; -ar, v. tr. 
and intr., to bet 

apparecer, v. intr., to appear. 

appetUo (2), s. m., appetite. ' 

applaudir, v. tr. and intr., to applaud. 

c^liear, v. tt., to apply ; -add, p. p., 
diligent, studious; -^do, s. t, ap- 

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apprekffudo, s. t, apprehension. 

approvar, v. tr., to approre. 

apraeeTf v, iutr., to please. 

aprender, y. tr.» to learn. 

6pre8entar, v. tr., to present, intro* 

. apromptar, y. tr,, to prepare, make 

aproveitoTj t. tr.^ and -m {d$), y. refl., 
to profit (by something). 

aproTsimdrf y. intr. (and refl.), to ap- 
proach, near. 

t^rOt 8. m., embarrassment, scrape. 

aquatioo (8), adj., aquatic. 

aqudle, pron. d^m., that. 

aqvSm, ady., on this side. 

^ui, ady., here. 

or, s. m., air. 

arbusto, s. m., bush, shrub. 

arehitectOf s. m., architect; -um, s. 

- f., architecture. 

ordeTt y. intr., to bum ; -tnUf adj., 

arZa (or -010)^ s. f., sand. 

creoZ (or drea), s. f., surface, ex- 

argerUeo (3), adj. (poet.), of silyer. 

atfna, s. £, weapon j ^1., arms ; -ar, 
y. tr., to arm. 

armazem (1), s. m., magazine, store, 

artxibalde, s. m., suburb. 

(irranear, y. tr., to tear off, root up, 
snatch awaj. 

arranjar^ y. tr., to arrange; -^o, s. 
m., arrangement 

arrastar, y. tr., to drag. 

arratd (2), s. m., pound. 

arrazary v. tr., to raze, level. 

arrazoado, p. p., reasoned, reason- 

arr^^ator, y.,tr., to snatch. 

arredar, y, tr., to remoye, put back. 

arrematar, y. tr., to buy at auction. 

arremestar, t. tr., to throw, flings 

arrefidar, y. tr., to rent, lease. 
arrepender-ge, y. refl., to repent; 'di- 

mentOf s. m., repentance. 
arripiat'y y. intj:. {os cabellos), (the 

hair) to stand on end. 
arriba (2), ady., above, upward, up. 
arrucaTj v. tr., to risk, endanger. 
arroba (2, 6), s. f., a weight of 32 

arroganUy adj., arrogant; -cia (8)^ 

s. f., arrogance. 
arrombary v. tr., to break' open, force. 
arroZy s. m., rice. 
arruinary y. tr., to ruin. 
amnaly s. m., . arsenal. 
arUy s. f., art; -Mto, s. m., artist. 
artigo (2), s. m., article. 
artUharia (2), s. f., artillery. 
arvore ^8), s. f., tree. 
(uneirOy s. f, ^nonsense. 
anpecto (2), s. m., aspect 
a^«ro (3), adj., rough, harsh. 
aspertaoy s. f., aspcFsion, slander. 
(UMUaVy y. tr., to assault; -o, s. m. 
astaseino (2), s. m., murderer; -cv,, to assassinate, murder; -inia 

(3), s. m., murder, assassination. 
a$8az (or a«4«), adv., enough, rather. 
OBsegurary y. tr,, to assure. 
assembliay s. f., assembly, meeting. 
(usentOy s. m., seat; -ary y. tr. and 

intr., to seat ; {-em) to resolve, 

agree ; -m, v. refl., to sit down» take 

a seat 
asserffdOy s. f., assertion. 
asserenctry y. intr., to clear np. 
cusevsrar, y. tr., to aver, assure. 
atdgnary v. tr., to assign, sign ; -tura,' 

s. f., signature. 
amnhy adv.', thus, so; —qu^ oonj., •« 

soon as. 

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assistir, v. iatx., to assist, help, aid ; 1 
-€neia (8), f. f, assistance, help. 

assoeiarsef t. refl., to associate. 

cesucar (2), s. m., sugar. 

assujeitar^ v. tr., to subject. 

asgumptOf s. m., subject, topic. 

ofifwtar, V. tr., jto frighten ; -^, adj., 
frightening, startling ; -m, t. refl., 
to be frightened, startled. 

asiro, 8. m., constellation, star. . 

agiitio (2), adj., astute, shrewd, cun- 

asylo (2), s. m., asylum. 

alaear, t. tr., to attack ; —quet s. m., 
attack, fit. 

tUoTt T. tr., to tie, bind, fasten. 

(sUt prep., till, as far as; — , ^^^-t 
even ; —qu^ conj., nntiL 

atirar, r. tr. and intr., to throw, 
shoot ; 'doTy a. m., sharp-shooter. 

atmotphera (2), s. f., atmosphere. 

atordoaTf t. tr., to stun, deafen. 

aiormentary v. tr., to torment. 

airavez (1), adv., across, through ; 
airavesaoTf y. tn and intr., to tra- 
verse, cross, pass through. 

(UraZf adv. ( — de, prep.), behind. 

atrever-sef y. refl., to dare, venture ; 
'ido, p. p. and adj., daring, saucy ; 
-vimento, s. m., daring, impudence. 

atroZf adj., atrocious, cruel; -cidadet 
B. f., atrocity, cruelty. 

attender, v. intr., to attend ; -fdo, s. f., 
attention ; dor — , to pay attention. 

aUenlOf adj., careful, attentive, con- 
sidered, attended. 

aUrahir, v. tr., to attract ; -fdo, s. f. ; 
-ctivOf adj., attractive; — , s. m., 
attraction, charm. 

att7*ibuir, v. tr., to attribute. 

aturaVf v. tr., to endure, bear, suffer. 

audag, adj., daring, audacious ; -dacia 
(8), 8. f., audacity. 

auffmentOy s. m'., augmentation, in- 
crease ; -or, v. tr., to increase, aug- 

aureo (8), adj. (poet.), golden. 

aurora (2), s. f., dawn. 

atUkor, s. m., author, plaintiff; -idade, 
s. t, authority; -iaar, v. tr., to au- 

aitxUio (8), s. m., aid, snccor. 

avangar, v. tr. and intr., to advance, 

avarerUOy adj., avaricious, miserly; 
-«sa, 8. f., avarice, greediness. 

ar«, s. f., bird, fowl. 

aoelludado, a<y., velvety. 

averio, adj., adverse, disinelined ; 
-iooy s. f., aversion, disinclination. 

avessasy 6» —, the wron^ way; Uh 
mar — , to misconstrue. 

avido (3), a(!y., covetous, greedy; 
"deZy s. f., avidity, covetousness. 

avUar, v. tr., to advise, warn. 

avistary v. tr., to perceive, see. 

dvOy s. m.j a noun added to cardinal 
numbers, to indicate a fradiouy as 
trea ome dvos = Vu* 

avo, s. m., grandfather; avoy f., 
grandmother; avoiy m. pi., ances- 
tors, forefathers. 

azay s. f., wing. 

azeiU, s. m., oil; -t^ma, s. f., oliye. 

amd (1), adj., blue; -ado, -^'o, adj., 

hailet 8. m., ball. 

haiOf adj., bay. 

baioneta (2), s. f , bayonet. 

hairrOy s. m., ward (of a town). 

haixOy adj., low, deep, mean ; -flf , ▼• 

tr. and intr., to lower, go down/ 

'tsa^ s. f., meanness. 
haloy 8. f., ball (of a gun). 

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laldar, t. tr., to frustrate. 
laneario (8), adj., banking. 
' hancOy s. m., bank, bench. 
handay 8. t, side. 

landeira, s f., banner, ensign, flag. 
bandOy s. m., gang. 
banho, 8. m., bath; -ar, v. tr., to 

hardo, 8. m., baron ; f. haroneza, 
borate, adj., cheap. 
bafita, 8. £, beard. 

harbaro (8), s. m. and adj., barbarian, 
barbarous ; -^dade, s. f., barbarity, 
barrUy s. m., barrel, cask. 
barulho, s. m., noise; -tnio, adj., noisy, 
((wfar, y. intr., to suffice, be enough ; 
-arUe, adj. and adv., enough ; — 
alto, pretty high. 
baUdha, 8. f., battle; -Sa, s. m., bat- 
bater, y. tr. and intr., to beat, strike, 

hAer, y. tr., to drink; -ida, s. £, 

drink, beyerage. 
beira, 8. t, brink, margin, bank. 
belladona, s. f., belladonna, deadly 

bellOy adj., beautiful, fair, handsome; 
'OB letra», belles-lettres, fine arts ; 
arts; -esa, s. f., beauty. 
bem, adv., well; — , 8. m., good; 
Um, pi. m., estate, property {-de 
rai», real estate, landed property) ; 
-^[u$, coDJ., although ; — estar, s. m., 
bemfeito, s. m., benefit; -or, s. m., 

bernquUto, p. p.^ beloved. 
benefieio (8), s. m., benefit, benefice. 
benevolo (8), a<iy., benevolent; -Unda 

(8), 8. t 
bmgaHa (2), s. f., cane, walking-stick. 


bibliotheea (2), s. f., library. 

bico, 8. m., beak, bill. 

bUhde (2), 8. m., billet, note, ticket. 

biographia (2), s. f., biography. 

bispo, 8. m., bishop. 

bisteatio, adj., bissextile; oono — , 

boatoX2), 8. m., rumor. 
bobo, 8. m., booby. 

boea, 8. f., mouth ; -40, s. m., mouth- 
ful, a little, a bit. 
boi, 8. m., ox. 
boha, 8. f., purse, pocket. 
bom, adj. (fern. 6oa), good ; \ondade, 

8. t, goodness, kindness; bondouy, 

adj., kind. 
bonacho, s. m., a good-natured man, 

bonS, s. f., cap. 
^on^o (2), 8. m., doll. 
bonito (2), adj., pretty, handsome. 
border, v. tr., to embroider; -ado^ s. 

m., embroidery. 
bordo, 8. m., a — , on board. 
borracha (2), s. f., Indian rubber. 
borrar, v. tr., to blot. 
bota, s. t, boot 
botar, v. tr^, to put, place, set 
bote, 8. m., boat. 
bra^o, 8. m., arm. 
branco, adj., white. 
brando, adj., soft, gentle; -wra, s. f., 

bra'vo, adj., brave, fierce, irascible, 

breve, adj., brief, short; — , adv., or 

em — , shortly, soon; -idade, s. t, 

brevity, shortness. 
briga, 8. f., fight, quarrel; -or, v. 

intr., to fight, quarrel. 
brUho, 8. m., brilliancy, lustre; -or, 
y. intr., to shine. 

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brineo, ■. m., ear-ring, plajthing; 

-or, V. intr., ta play, jest, trifle j 

-deir^. f, plaj Jest, tiifle ; -qutdo, 

8. m., plajtbing, toy. 
buUr^ y. tr. and intr., to "move, stir. 
luraoo (2), 8. m., hole. 
hurla, 8. £, jeat, joke ; -taeo, a^j., bar- 

bwear, r. tr., to seek, fetch. 
huto, 8. m., bust 

ed, adv., here, hither. 

eeJKtna (2), a. f., hat, cottage. 

cabeca (2), s. t, head. 

eabetUU, s. . m., capital, priocipal, 

caMlo, 8. m., hair. 

caber, r, intr., to be contained. 

eabo, a. m., end, extremity, handle. 

eaffa, s. f., chase, game; -or, r. tr. 
and intr., to chase, hunt ; -dor, s. 
m., banter, rifleman. 

caeeU, s. m., dub, cudgel ; -ada, s. f., 
blow with a stick. 

cachorro, s. m., dog. 

edda, adj., every, each. 

cadHra, s. t, chair. 

cadela (or -ella), s. C, female dog, 

eademo (or quad.), s. m., qoire, copy- 

cadete, s. m., cadet. 

cafe, 8. m., coffee. 

cd^ado, 8. m., tortoise, turtle. 

eaX»r, t. intr., to fall. 

ai«za, 8. f., box; — , s. m., cashier; 
'OO, large box, chest; -eiro, s. m., 

cat, 8. f., lime. 

calamidade, 8. f., calamity, misfor- 

eaktr-H, r. refl., to be sOent 

adcar^ r. tr., to tread upon. 

calfot, s. f. pL, pantaloons. . 

caleulo (8), s. m., aocoant,calculation. 

caldo, 8. m., broth. 

eallo, tf. m., com (on the feet). 

calmo, adj., calm ; -anU, s. m., sooth- 
ing medicine. 

eahr, s. m., heat, warmth. 

calumnia (8), s. f., calumny, slander ; 
'ar, T. tr., to slander. 

eama, s. t, bed. 

eamara (8), s. C, chamber, council. 

eamareiro'mor, s. m., great chamber- 

caminho, s. m., road, way; -or, y. 
intr., to walk. 

camiaa (2), a. t, shirts 

eampainha, s. £, (little) bell. 

eampanha, s. £, country, campaign. 

Mfn|N>, s. m., field, camp. . 

eanal, s. m., canal, channel. 

eanario (8), s. m., canary-bird. 

catUvcte, s. m., pen-knife. 

eanba, s. f , canoe, boat. 

eantar, r. tr., to tire; -ofo, a. m., 

cantor, y. tr. and intr., to sing, to 
crow; -or, s. m., singer; -o, s. m., 
song, chant. 

cantaro (3), s. m., large water-pot; 
choter a -o«, to rain in torrents. 

cd4>, 8. m., dog. 

capaz, acy., capable; -cidads, s. £, 
capacity, capability. 

capella, s. f., chapel. 

capitdo (pi. -d^), 8. m., captain. 

capitulo (8), 8. m., chapter. 

aira, s. f., face. 

caracter (2), s. m., character. 

oar<jer<*ro, s. m., jailor. 

carecer, y. intr., to want, lack. 

carestia (2), s. f., dearth, scarcity. 

careia (2), s. f., face, grimace. 

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earga^ s. f., charge, load. 

cargo, s. m., charge, office. 
. Carlosj prop, n., Charles. 

came, s. f., fleah, meat. 

cameirc, s. m., sheep (male). 

cara, adj., dear; caHdade, a. f., chari- 
ty ; -Uativo, adj., charitable. 

carpinteiro, s. m., carpenter. 

carregar, v. tr., to bear, carry, to 

carreira, s. f., career, race. 

Garr€ta (2), s. £, cart. 

^rrofa (2), a. £, wagon. 

camutgem (2), s. f., carriage, coach. 

carta, s. f., letter ; -teira, s. f., pocket- 
book, portfolio, writing-desjc. 

carvaVio, s. m., oak-tree. 

caaa, s. f., house. 

catQca, 8. f., dress-coat. 

casar, v. tr. (or -«e, refl.), to marry ; 
-menio, s. m., marriage. 

caHmira (2), s. f., cassimire. 

ca80, 8. m., case ; — qu4, conj., in case 

casta, s. f., caste, race, species, kind. 

castigal, s. m., candlestick. 

castigar, r, tr., to chastise, punish ; 
■4go (2), s. m., punishment 

categoria (2), s. f., category; -orico 
(3), adj., categorical. 

cathedral (1), s. f., cathedral. 

caudUho, s. m., chieftain, ringleader. 

causa, s. f., cause ^ -ar, v. tr., to cause. 

cavalheiro, s. m.,caTalier, gentleman. 

cavaUo, s. m., horse; -tftro, s. m., 

horseman, rider, knight. 
. civerna, s. f., cave. 

tia (or ceia), s. f., supper. 

ceder, v. tr. and intr., to cede, yield, 
give up. 

Cedo, adv., early, soou. 

cego, adj., blind. 

cegonha, a. £, stork. 

celebre (3), adj., famous, celebrated. 

cemeterio (8), s. m., cemetery, chorch* 

cem, adj. num., one hundred. 

cento, s. m., a hundred ; -tenor, s. m., 

ceo, 8. m., heaven, sky. 

cerco, s. m.; siege ; "Or, v. tr., to be- 
siege, to surround, inclose; 

cerc;a (2, i), 8. f., cherry. 

eeremonia (3), s. t, ceremony. 

certo, adj., certain, sure ; por — , cc^ 
tainly, to be sure ; -eea, s. £, cei^ 

cerveja, s. f., beer, ale. 

cessar, v. intr., to cease. 

cM, 8. m., tea. 

ckaeara (3), ft. f., a farm, country- 

chaU, 8. m., shawl 

chamar, v. tr., to call. 

chdo, 8. m., ground, soil, floor. 

ckapeo, 8. m., hat, bonnet. 

eharlatdo (pi. -oef), s. m., charlatan, 
impostor, quack. 

cJtave, s. f., key. 

che/e, 8. m., chief, principal. • 

chegar, v. tr. and intr., to arrire, ap- 
proach, to suffice (iito chega, = 
this will do); -se, v. refl., to ap- 
proach, draw near; -ada, 8. t, a^ 

cheio, adj., full. 

cheiro, s. m., smell, scent, aroma; 
-or, y. tr. and intr., to smell, soeot. 

chieote (2), 8. m., whip. 

chimera (2, pr. quim.), s. f. cbimers, 
idle fancy. 

China, s. f., China; -nes, or Vhim, 
8. m., Chinese. 

cholera (3), s. m. {-morhus), cholera. 

chorar, y. tr. and intr., to weep, ciy, 

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ehoupanaf 8. t, hut, cottage. 
ehover, ▼. impera., to rain ; -tSwar, to 

drizzle ; -isea, 8. f., a drizzling rain. 
ChriUOt 8. m., Christ; 'tdo (pi. do»), 

8. and adj., Christian; -tianitmOy 

8. ID., Christianitjr ; 'tandade^ 8. f., 

ekumbOf s. m., lead. 
chtumaf 8. f., crowd, gang. 
ehdvaf a. f., rain ; -mo, adj., rainr. 
eiaUriz, s. f., scar. 
ddade, 8. t, citj, town; -i^ (pi. 

'do8)f 8. m., citizen. 
eidadella (or e»/.), s. f, citadel. 
eincOf adj. num., fire. ' 
eioio, adj., jealous. 
dreulo (It), s. no., circle. 
cireumsAaneia (3), 8. f., circumstanced 
cirwgidOf s. m., surgeon. 
c£mx>, 8. m., sweepings, filth. 
citUmOj 8. £, cistern. 
c»t<m« (2), 8. m., jealousy. 
eitUt adj., civil, polite ; -ddade, s. f., 

civility, politeness ; -ittar (or -tzar), 

Y. tr., to civilize. 
elaro, adj., clear, light, fair; -«ki, s. 
, £, clearness, perspicuity; -idade, 

B. f, light, gleam. 
clasie, s. f., class. 
classico (3), adj., classical, classic. 
eUmmcia (3), s. f. , clemency, mildness. 
climaf 8. m., climate. 
dubf 8. m., club, society. 
eoberto, p. p., covered. 
cobra, 8. f., snake. 
eohrar, v. tr., to collect debts. 
eobre, s. m., copper. 
cohibir, v. tr., to cohibit, restrain. 
caiiado, adj., miserable ; eaitado / = 

poor fellow! 
cblera, 8. £, anger, wrath. 
c«>2A«r (-ir\ a. f., spoon. 
colher, ▼. tr., to coUect, gather^ take. 


collector, ft. m., collector. 
colUga (2, 0» >- m., eoHeague. 
coUegio (8), 8. m.; college. 
co^Ztfi^ (2), 8. m., waistcoat. Test 
coUigir, t. tr., to collect, gather; 

'Ucfdo, 8. f., collection. 
colostal, adj., ooIossaL 
com, prep.,with ; — ^1M» eonj., so that. 
eombaU (2), 8. m., fight, combat ; -cr, 

r. intr., to fight. 
eome^ar, ▼. tr. and intr., to begin, 

commence ; -fo, s. m., beginnio|^ 
conudia (8), 8. f., comedy, play. 
comer, ▼. tr., to eat ; -ida, s. f., food, 

repast, meal; -ildo, s. m., glutton. 
oometa (2), s. m., comet 
comico (8), adj., comiciil; — , 8. m., 

actor, comedian. 
commatidar, v. tr. and intr., to com- 
^ommercio (8), 8. m., commerce, trade. 
commeUer, ▼. tr., to commit. 
commodo (8), adj., convenient, com- 
modious; — , 8. m., commodity, 

conrenience, leisure. 
commum, adj., comifion. 
como, adv. and conj., how, as, like. 
compadecerse, t, refl., to have pity ; 

-cimenio, s. m., compassion. 
compaixdo, s. f., compassion, pity. 
companhia (2), 8. f., company ; -eitv, 

a. m., companion. 
compcopQT, Y. tr., to compare. 
compcnsar, y. tr., to compensate. 
compUto (2), adj., complete. 
complice (8), ■. m., accomplice. 
compor, Y. tr., to compose, to settle ; 

•pon^, 8. f., composition. 
comportar-te, y. refl., to behfive ; 

•mento, 8. m., behavior. 
comprar, y. tr., to buy, purchase ; -a, 

8. f., purchase ; -dor^ a. m., buyer, 


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tomprtkendtsr^ t. tr., to comprehend, 

«wipc»efo»auij., long; -mttUo^ t. m., 

tomprimir^ ▼. tr., to compress. 

eompronuUiTf ▼. tr., and -«<, refl., to 
compromise, commit; --mmo, s. 
m., compromise. 

eoneeder, ▼. tr., to ooDcede, grant, 

eoncerCar, ▼. tr., to concert, to repair, 
mend; -to, s. m., repair, concert. 

eoncluir, ▼. tr., to conclude; coneht- 
tSo, 8. f., conclusion. 

conde, s. m. (fem. •€sa)t count. 

eondemnar, v. tr., to condemn. 

eondifSOf s. C, condition. 

condizeTt ▼. intr., to agree. 

eondueta (2), s. f., conduct, behavior ; 
condugtrsef r. refl., to conduct 
one's self^ to behave. 

eon/easar, ▼. tr., to confess, avow. 

eonfioTy ▼. tr. and intr., to confide, 
trust, entrust; -a^pa, s. t, confi- 
dence, trust. 

eonforme, adj., conformable ; — , prep, 
and conj., according to, as. 

conforto, s. m., comfort 

eonfundir, V. tr., to confound. 

confuuo (2), adj., confused; -«ao, s. f. 

eonheoer, ▼. tr., to know, to be ac- 
quainted with ; -ido, s. m., an ac- 
quaintance ; -eimerUOf s. m., knowl- 
edge, acquaintance; -dor, s. m., 

connivencia (3), s. f., connivance. 

conquistay s. 1, conquest; -tar^ v. tr., 
to conquer; -doTf s. m., conqueror. 

consci&neia (8), s. f., conscience. 

conseguir, v. tr., to obtain; 'inUf 
adj., consequent (por — , conse- 
quently) ; 'queneia (3), s. f , conse- 

eatudho (2), s. m., advice ; -eiroi a 
m., counsellor. 

cofuefOir, v. intr., to consent ; -fnerUOj 
8. m., consent. 

coMoloTf V. tr., to console, comfort; 
-$6, V. refl., to be comforted. 

coMtruiTf V. tr., to construct, con- 

consul (2), 8. m., consul 

ootUa, 8. f., account, bill ; -or, v. tr., 
to reckon, count ( — cam, — upon), 
to relate, tell (from canto). 

conUmporanea (3), s. m. and adj., 

catUcrUCf adj., content, satisfied, glad ; 
•Utrse, V. refl., to be contented; 
'•mefUOf 8. m., contentment 

canter, v. tr., to contain, hold. 

conUudo (&), s. m., contents. 

cofUiffua (3), adj., contiguous, ad- 

continue (3), adj., continual. 

eonta, s. m., tale; — de riis, one mil- 
lion of rees (= 500$). 

contra, prep., against 

contracto, s. m.; contract 

contradizer, v. tr., to contradict; 
'dicgdo, 8. f., contradiction. 

cantraria (3), adj., contrary ; pelo or 
ao — , on the' contrary. 

eontrihuir, v. tr. and intr., to con- 
tribute; •buiffdo, 8. f., contribution. 

convencer, v. tr., to convince. 

eonveniente, adj., convenient 

convenio, s. m., convent 

convidar, v. tr., to invite; -iEdo, s. 
m., guest; -vite, s. m., invitation. 

convir, y.. intr., to become, be fit or 

copia (8), 8. f., copy; -ar, v. tr. 

ccpo, 8. m., glass, tumbler. 

cdr, 8. t, color ; -or, v, tr. and intr., 
to color, blush. 

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«5f, 8. m., memory j de — , by heart, 

by rote, 
corac&o, I. m., heart. 
eoragem (2), s. £, courage ; ^o«>, adj., 

coralf s. m.j coral. 
eordat s. f., cord, rope, atring; dor — 

ao r«loffio, to wind ap the watch 

or clock. 
coranelf s. m., colonel. 
corpOf B. m., body ; — a earpo^ man 

to man, hand to hand. 
eorreelo, adj., correct 
tarreiOf s. m., courier, post-office. 
correr, ▼. mtr., to run ; 'dor, a. m., 

runner, race-horse, corridor, pas- 
sage ; -mte, adj., running, current; 

— , 8. C, current, chain ; -eza, s. f., 

current, stream. 
. corriffir, v. tr., to correct, punish ; 

•iff ▼. refl., to mend, reform. 
eorromper, r. tr., to corrupt, spoil ; 

•rupto, adj., -fSo, s. m. 
eortar, t, tr., to cut. 
ccrU, 8. f, court; -esr, adj., courteous, 

polite; sia (2), a. f, courtesy; 

-too, 8. m., courtier. 
eorti^ (2), s. £, rind, bark, cork. 
eoseTf T. tr., to sew. 
catta, 8. t, coast, shore ; -at, pi., back. 
eostvme, a. m., custom, habit; -ar, 

r. intr., to use, be in the habit, etc. 
costura, s. f., seam, sewing; -reiraf 

8. £, seamstress. 
causa, s. f., thing. 
ebvado, s. m., ell. 
eovarde (or oo6.), s. m., coward. 
cozer, r. tr., to cook; boil ; -inJia, s. 

t, kitchen ; -«Vo, s. m., cook. 
craneo (or -io), s. m., skull. 
crear, r. tr., to create ; -dor, s. m., 

creator; -tura, s. f., -fflo, s, f. 
^ei«fo (3), 8. m., credit, reputation. 

erir, ▼. tr. and intr., to bdiere, think, 
-■dor, 8. m., creditor; aren^, s. t, 
belief, creed; endulo (8), adj., 

erueet, t. intr., to grow, rise, in- 

eriado, s. m., man-senrant. 

criar, ▼. tr., to create, produce, breed, 

ratse; -at^fo, s. f., diild, baby. 
erim€, s. m., crime; -nUnoto, adj., 

crtH, 8. £, crisis. 
erittal, s. m., crystal 
erUiea (8), s. f., criticism ; -co, adj., 

critical ; — , s. m., critic; -car, t. 

tr., to criticise. 
croeodilo (2), crocodile, 
cni, adj., raw. 
entd (1), adj., cruel; -dade, b £, 

tfruiB, 8. f., cross ; -or, ▼. tr., to cross ; 

-ado, 8. ra., a coin worth 400 rees.' 
cttbifa (2), or eob,, s. f, cupidity. 
etthico (8), adj., cubic. 
«iM> (or cob,), T. tr., to cover. 
cuidar, r. intr., to think, to take 

care ; -ado, s. m., care^ carefulness, 

sorrow ; -doto, adj., careful. 
culpa, 8. f., fault, sin, guilt ; -or, t. 

tr., to accuse ; -ado, s. m. and adj., 

cuUura, s. £, culture, civilisation. 
««m«, 8. m., top. 
eumprir, t. tr., accomplish, fulfil; 

eumpre, it is fit, proper. 
cumulo (3), 8. m., height, top, pitch. 
cunhado, s. m., brother-in-law; -a, 

8. f , sister-in-law. 
curat, ▼. tr., to cure. 
eurioto, adj., curious, nice, singular. 
(n«rA>, 8. m., course. 
curto, adj., short. 
curvar, r. tr., to bow, bend. 

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€Uiiar, t. intr., to eost ; -a, 8. £, cost, 
ezpeoM, charge; -o, Si m., cost, 
difficultjr ; a ctuto, with difficaltj. 

dama, b, f., lady ; -oSf pi., draughts ; 
— tFhoHOTf lady of honor. 

iamno (dano), s. m., damage, 

danffo, B. f., dance; -ar, ▼. intr., to 

tUtVf ▼. tr., to give, strike ; dadOf p. 
p., given. 

dtf prep., of, from. 

d^ixo, adv., — tie, ptep., under, un- 

ddKUe (2), s. m., debate. 

deeidir, ▼. tr., to decide ; -mo, s. £, 

<20c2<9« (2), a^., sloping, downward. 

decrdQ (2), s. m., decree, order; 4arf 
r. tr., to pass an order, a decree. 

dediear, r. tr., to dedicate, devote. 

dedo, s. m., ^ger. 

defender, ▼. tr., to defend; -eor^ s. 
m., defender; de/eza,8. f., defence. 

defervr, ▼. tr., to grant, to defer, put 

deffrdOy s. m., degree, step. 

deitary v. tr., to lay, put ; -w, v. refl., 
to lie down, to go to bed. 

deixar, v. tr., to leave, let, let alone. 

demaie, adv., moreove)*, besides, too, 
too much. 

demasia (2), s. f., superfluity ; em — , 
excessively, too ; -ado, adj., exces- 
sive ; -adamenUt adv., too. 

demitUr, Y. tr., to dismiss ; demissdo, 
s. f, dismissals 

demora (2), s. f., delay ; -or, v. tr., 
-*«, V. refl., to delay, tarry. 

detUe, s. m., tooth; dor de dentee, 

deniro, adv.^ within. 

i)«M(ori>«w), s.m.,God; -<a,B.£, 

de^rtameniOf s. m.,~department 

depender, v. intr., to depend {de — , 

depoimento, s. m., evidence. 

depots, adv., after, afterwards. 

depreeea, adv., quickly, quick. 

d^utado, s. m., deputy, representa- 

derivar, v. tr., to deriva 

derruhar (or derribar), v. tr., to 
throw down, overthrow. 

deeqfio (2), s. m., challenge, defiance ; 
•or, V. tr., to challenge, defy. 

desagradarj v. intr., to displease ; 
-avelf adj., unpleasant, disagree- 

demmparar, v. tr., to forsake. 

desd^jparseer, v. intr., to disappear. 

deearmar, v. tr., to disarm; -arfo, p. 
p., unarmed. 

deaarranjar, v. tr., to derange; -jo, 
s. m., derangement, trouble. 

desoftre, s. m., disaster ; -oeo, adj. 

desaven^a, s. f., discord, dissension. 

deecansar, v. intr., to rest; -to, a. m., 
rest, repose. 

descarado, adj., barefaced, impndenl 

deecer, v. tr. and intr., to come down, 
descend ; to lower. 

deeconfiar, v. intr., to mistrust, sus- 
pect; -anga, s. f., di£5dence, sus- 

deeconhecido, adj., unknown. 

deeeubrir, v. tr., to discover, detect ; 
-euherta (or cod.), s. £, discovery ; 
-brimerUo, s. m., detection. 

deecuido (2), s. m., negligence, care- 
lessness ; -adOf adj., careless. 

deeculpa, s. f , excuse. 

deide, prep., since, from; — que, coqf., 

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itt^f 1. m., denn, wish; -far^ t. I 
tr., to wish; •/O0O, adj., desiroua 

dettmharafar^ t« tr., to disembar- 
rass ; -(o, s. m., disembamssmeot, 

desenganar, ▼. tr., to andeceire. 

deser^t »• »»•» design, drawing; -or, 
T. tr., to draw, sketch. 

desenvolver, ▼. tr., to develop; -ri- 
tnenio, s. m., development. 

deserto, s. m. and adj., desert, de- 
serted ; -ar, r. intr., to desert ; -or, 
s. m., deserter. 

deseapero (^), s. ra., despair. 

d€^avoravel, acy., onfarorable. 

d^azer, ▼. tr., to undo; -se tm l{h 
grimaa, to melt into tears. 

dtfftcho^ s. m., the unraveling of a 
plot, issue, result. 

desffOitOt s. ro.,disgnst, trouble, grief; 
•Ofo,. adj., disgusted. 

desgra^y s. f., misfortune; -ckfo, adj., 
unfortunate, unhappy. 

deah&nnn, s. f, dishonor, shame; -adOf 
adj., dishonored, dishonest; -deZy 
s. f., dishonestj. 

detigniOf s. m., design, plan. 

deHfUeressadOf adj., disinterested. 

desittiTf ▼. intr., to desist 

deenaturaly adj., unnatural. 

detnecestario (8), adj., unnecessary. 

detobedeeer, v. intr., to disobey; 
-dUtUe, adj., disobedient; -^riCMi 
(8), s. f., disobedience. 

deaordem (2), s. f , disorder. 

deepeda^ar, ▼. tr., to tear or break to 

despedir, t. tr., to dismiss; ^, ▼. 
refl., to take leave; -ida, s. f., fare- 
well, leave-taking, dismissal. 

d€ipeUo, s. m., spite; a — , in spite, 

iupesa, s. f., charge, expense. 

dttprmar^ v. tr., to despise; -«9, fl. 
m., oontempt; -e»9«2, adj., oon- 
.temptible, despicable. 

deapropotUo (8), s. m., nonsense. 

deHaearf v. tr., to detach ; -hmh^, a. 
m., detachment - 

destino (2), s. m., destiny, fate. 

dedntir, v. tr., to destroy ; -vi^, a. 
f., destruction. 

davalido, adj., deatitute. 

deter, y, tr., to detain, stop. 

detroMy adv., behind, after. 

ddrimeiUo, s. m., detriment, disad- 

demgar, adv., slowly. 

devastar, v. tr., to devastate, Uy 

cffVtfT, V. tr., to owe, to be indebted 
for something; — , v. auz., must, 
shall; — , a. m., duty; -dor, a. m., 
debtor; 'ido, p. p., owing, due. 

deg (i), a4i. num., ten. 

dia, s. m., day; — de aiiAM, birthday. 

dieiboUeo (8), a<i|j., diabolical, devil- 

dianUt adv., before ; em — , hence- 

diario (8), adj., daily; — , s. m., 
diary, journal. 

diecionario (8), s. m., dictionary. 

dieUi (2), 8. f., diet 

diJUa (2), adj.. difficult, hard ; ^eut- 
dade, a. t, difficulty. 

digno, adj., worthy; dignar-ee^ v. 

« refl., to deign, vouchsafe; -nidade, 
a. f., dignity. 

dilemma, t. m., dilemma. 

dimenedOf s. f., dimension. 

diminuir, v. tr. and intr., to dimin- 
ish, decrease. 

dinheiro, s. m., money. 

direiio, adj., right, straight; — , i, 
m., right, duty (custom). 

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dirigir, r. tr., to direct, address; 
•reetoTf b. m., director, fem. -tora 
tor 'trizf direcfdo, s. f., direction. 

diseardia (3), s. f., discord, strife. 

discrdo (2), adj., discreet; -criffdo, s. 
f., discretion. 

diseursoy s. in., disc6urse, speech. 

dupendio (8), s. m., expense; -osOf 
adj., expensive. 

dispensaf s. f., dispense, leave, ex- 
cuse; -or, T. tr., to dispense, ex- 

dispenar, t. tr., to disperse, scatter. 

dUpoTf v. tr. and intr., to dispose. 

d'Uputa (2), 8. f., dispute, quarreL 

diuatU/eUo, p. p., dissatisfied. 

dittar, r, intr., to be distant; dit- 
tanU, adj., distant, far; -aneia (2), 

didinguiryT, tr., to distinguish ; -eto^ 
adj., distinct, distinguished. 

distrieto (2), s. m., district 

dii^rbio (8), s. m., disturbance. 

diversOf adj., divers, different, vari- 
ous ; -OS, pi., several. 

diveriirse^ v. refl., to amuse one*s 
self; -tnento, s. m., amusement 

divida (3), s. f., debt. 

dividir, v. tr., to divide, part, share ; 
'Sdo, s. f., division. 

divino (2), adj., divine; divindadef 
8. f., divinity, deitj. 

divulgaTf v. tr., to divulge, spread. 

df)brOj 8. m., or dobrado, s. and adj., 

doeey adj., sweet, soft ; -«, s. pi., 
sweetmeats, confectionerj ; -surc^ 
8. f., sweetness. 

docU (2), adj., docile. ^'< '- ^^-^ - 3 

fifotfr, V. intr,, to ache, pain, hurt; 
-enU, adj., ill, sick; -e»pa, s. f., 
illness, sickness, disease. 

iomy 8. f, ^ft, talent. 

dom, 8. m., don (a title of honor, = 

sir, lord). 
domegtieo (8), adj., domestic, tame. 
dominaiiUf adj., dominant, ruling. 
domingo, s. m., Sunday. 
donde (or tPonde), adv., whenoa. 
dono, 8. m., owner, master; -a, s. f, 

mistress (or miss, before names of 

d^, 8. f., pain, grief. 
dormitt v. intr., to sleep. 
dotar, v. tr., to endow ; -tftto, p. p., 

doudo (or doido\ adj., mad, insane; 

-ice, 8. f., madness. 
dou8 (dais), adj. num., two. 
dotUor, 8. m., doctor, physician. 
drama, s. m., drama, play ; -atiea (3), 

adj., dramatic. 
duque, s. m., duke; -esa, f., duchess, 
rfwrar, v. intr., to last; -nie, prep., 

during; — que, conj., while. 
dure, adj., hard ; -eea, s. f., hardness. 
duvida (3), s. f., doubt; mi» — , no 

doubt ; -«r, v. tr., to doubt ; -oso, 

adj., doubtful. 
duzia (8), s. f., dozen. 
dynasUa (2), s. f, dynasty. 


€, conj., and. 

economia (2), s. f., economy; -ieo (8), 

adj., economical; -tsar, v. tr., to 

edipao, s. f., edition, publication. 
edificio (3), s. m., edifice, buildfing. 
educar, v. tr., to educate, bring up; 

-fdo, 8. f., education. 
€feUo, 8. m., effect; cam — , indeed ; 

'tuar (or effectuar), r. tr., to effects 
^/icas* Ad^,, efficacious, 
m, Interf., 1o, behold, there is, etc 
elegants, adj., elegant ; -eia (8), 8. £ 

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degcr, ▼. tr., to elect; dei^, s. f, 
election ; -tor, s. m., elector, Toter. 

devar^ t. tr., to elevate, raise. 

d-rei (or elrei)y s. m., the king. 

«m, prep., in, into, on, at 

tmbaixada, s. £, embassy; -dor, s. 
m., embassador. 

embaixo, adv., below, down, down- 

embara^arf t. tr., to embarrass, en- 
cumber; 'ffo, s. t, embarrassment. 

embora, ndv,, be it so, never mind, 
away ; — , con}., although. 

embnUho, s. m., parcel, packet, bun- 
dle; -aTf V. tr., to pack, wrap. 

emdmOf adv., above, on top, up- 
stairs; — de, prep., upon, on. 

emendoTf v. tr., to amend, correct. 

emfim, adv., at last, in fine, in short. 

etnpenho, s. m., pledge, endeavor in 
favor of another ; -artep Y, refl., to 
pledge one's self, endeavor, etc. 

emperigar, v. tr., to imperil, jeopar- 

emprego (2, e), s. m., employment ; 
-tfr, V. tr., to employ; -ado, s. m., 
ojQicer, clerk. 

emprehendery r. tr., to undertake; 

. -pressd, s. f, enterprise. 

emprettaTf v. tr., to lend ; -timo (8), 
s.' m., loan. 

emquanto, conj., while, as long as. 

eneademar, v. tr., to bind (books). 

enealhoTt t. intr., to run aground. 

mcantaTy v. tr., to enchant, charm ; 
-itor, adj., charming. 

encamado, adj., red. 

eneamifodOf adj., furious, raging. 

gnearreffOTf v. tr., to charge ; -««, v. 
refl., to take charge, undertake. 

tneetarf r. tr., to try, undertake. 

encon^ro, s. m., encounter, meeting; 
-or, r. tr., to meet, to find. 

mteotlar, t. tr., to lean. 

4ncubrir,T, tr., to cover, conceal, 

energia (2), s. £, energy; -gieo (8), 
adj., eneigetic 

en/eUar, t. tr., to adorn, trim. 

e^ermo, adj., sick, ill, sickly, infirm. 

en/arcar, t. tr., to hang. 

ef^ragtteeer, r. tr. and intr., to enfee- 
ble, to grow weak. 

enfurecer-te, v. refl., to become ftiri- 
ous, enraged ; -cido, p. p., enrag- 
ed, infuriated. 

engano (2), s. m., mistake; -or, t. ir., 
to deceive, cheat; -m, r. refl., to 
make a mistake, to be mistaken. 

engenkeiro, b, m., engineer. 

engodar, v. tr., to allure, entice. 

engragado, adj., pretty, nice, grace- 

engra^r^€y v. refl., to ingratiate 
one's self. 

engulirj v. tr., to swallow. 

enigma^ s. m., enigma, riddle. 

Mormef adj., enormous. 

inredo (2, i), s. m., intrigue, plot; 
-ar, V. tr., to entangle, intrigue. 

enriqueeeTf v. tr. and intr., to enrich, 
to grow rich. 

ente;o (2), s. m., occasion, opportu- 

frmnaTf v. tr., to teach ; -Hrio (2), s. 
m., instruction, teaching. 

entdo, adv., then; — f well? 

tmUndift v. tr., to understand, to 
mean ; -imento, s. m., understand- 

enterrar^ v. tr.» to inter, buiy ; -to, s. 
m., burial, funeral. 

entraTf v. intr., to enter, go or come 
in ; -oJo, s. f., entrance. 

erUre^ prep*t between, among. 

Miregar^ v. tr., to deliver, give up ; 

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-«, T. refl., to Bufrender; -^a (2), 
8. £, delivery j — gue, adj., delir- 
mOrettr, t. tr., to eotertain, to amuse ; 

-UMmento, 8. m., entertainmeot. 
envelkecerf ▼. intr., to grow old. 
enttrgonhart t, tr., to shame ; -w, ▼. 

refl., to be ashamed, to blush. 
envioTy r. tr., to send; -adOy s. m., 

enxergar, r. tr., to see, perceive. 
enxa, 8. f, addice or adze (a tool). 
tnxugar^ v. tr., to dry, to wipe; -iUo 

(2), p. p., dried up, dry. 
epilepsia (2), s. f, epilepsy; -eptieo 

(8), adj., epileptic. 
^focha (8), or 4poeaf s. f., epoch. 
equadoTt s. m., equator. 
s^tHodUTf T. intr., to be equal or 

equivoeo (3),- adj., equivocal. 
era, s. f., era. 
erguer, r. tr., to raise. 
erigir, v. tr., to erect 
errar, v. tr. and intr., to err, miss, 
to wander; -o, s. m., error, mis- 
take; -adOf p. p., mistaken, wrong; 
-Ofuo (3), adj., erroneous ; -atas 
(2), s. f. pi., errata. 
eaho^ar, v. tr., to sketch. 
esedbroBOf adj., rugged, craggy. 
esoaeear, v. intr., to become scarce. 
escadOf s. f., ladder, staircase. 
escalaTf v. tr., to scale. 
escandah (3), s. m., scandal. 
escaparf v. intr., to escape ; -via (3), 

s. f., escape. 
escaramu^ (2), s. f., skirmish. 
> e^eariatina (2), s. f., scarlet-fever. 
escameo (3), s. m., contempt, taunt ; 
-eery v. intr., to scoff, rail, mock at. 
4800880 f adj., scarce, scanty; •«!, s. f., 

etclareeerf v. tr., to clear, to enlighten. 

09cola (2), s. f., school 

iseolher, v. tr., to choose; -a, a. £, 

eseotuUr, r. tr., to hide, conceal; 

-dri^'Of s. m., hiding-place. 
eeoova (2, 6), s. f., brush. 
etcravo (2), 8. m., slave; -viddo, s. t, 

eacrever, r, tr., to write; -aninha, s. 

f., writing-desk; escrtpto, p. p., 

written; hi, s. £, writing, copy; 

escnpioTf s. m., writer; -orio (8), 

8. m., desk, office, counting-room ; 

-vra (2), s. f., Scripture ; eserivSo 

(pi. ae8), 8. m., scrivener, secreta-. 

ry, clerk. 
eserupulo (8), s. m., scruple. 
esctidOf s. m., shield. 
eteulptor, s. m., carver, sculptor; 

'tura, s. f., sculpture, carving. 
eseunOf s. f., schooner. 
€8curo (2), adj., dark, obscure; -eer, 

V. tr. and intr., to darken ; -iddo, 

8. f., darkness, obscurity. 
escutarf v. tr., to listen. 
es/or^f s. m., effort; -for-H, v. refl., 

to endeavor, try, strive. 
esfHaVy v. intr., to grow cold, to cooL 
esmagar, v. tr., to crush, shatter. 
egmola (2), s. f., alms. 
espn^ (2), s. m., space, room ; -090, 

adj., spacious, roomy. 
espada, s. f., sword, sabre. 
espalhoTf v. tr., to spread. 
eepantOf s. m., fright, astonishment ; 

-ar, V. tr., to frighten, astonish; 

•080y adj., astonishing, amazing. 
especis (3), s. f., species. 
espeetaculo (3), s. m., spectacle, play. 
especular, r. intr., to speculate; -pSo, 

8. f., speculation. 
espelho, 8. m , looking-glass, mirror. 

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mptraTy r. tr. and intr., 1o hq;>e, to 
wait, to await, expect; -tra (2), a. 
f., waiting {^atar 4 — ^, to be 
waiting for); -an^ a. t, hope; 
-^080, adj., hopeful. 

eqna (2), s. m., or ttpidc, spj, scout ; 
-or, T, tr., to spy^ pry. 

eepingetreUtf s. t, gun, musket 

etpirito (8), s. m., spirit, mind, ghost 

eepUndido (3), adj., splendid. 
- €9potb (2), s. m., bridegroom, hus- 
band ; -M, s. £, spouse, wife. 

esquadray s. f., squadron, fleet; -do, 
s. m., squadron (of earalry). 

etqueeer-Uy t. refl., to forget; -ei- 
mento, s. m., Ibrgetfoloess, ob- 

. liFion. 

esqueUto (2), -s. m., skeleton. 

esquerdOy adj., left 

esguina (2), S.J1, comer (of a streeit). 

esquiparse, ▼. refl., to shun, to escape. 

e»e, «Mi0, pr. dem., this, that 

tsaenda (8), s. 11, essence; -o^, a<i|j., 

estdbeleeer, ▼. tr., to establish, set up. 

€8t€i$do, 8. f., station, season. 

ettadOf B. m., state; -isto, s. m., 

estalagenh (2), s. f., inn ; -jadeiro, s. 
m., innkeeper, host. 

egtanhOy s. m., tin, pewter. 

edar^ t. intr., to stand, to be. 

estatua (3), s. f., statue. 

esUf eeta^ pr. dem., this. 

igUy s. m., east 

estdU&natOf %, m., stellionate, unlaw- 
ful transaction. 

estender^ ▼. tr., to extend, spread. 

mteril (2), adj., sterile, fruitiess. 

eeterlina (2), a^., Ubra — , pound 

. sterling. 

isUma (2), s. £, esteem; -ar, ▼. tr., 
to estimate, esteem, to rejoice. 


etUmago (8), a. m., stomach, v 

§&toqu€t 8. m., rapier; UngcHa d$ —, 

idradOf s. f, high-road, oausewaj. 

ettragar^ r. tr., to waste, damage, 
spoil ; -o, 8. m., damage, devasta- 

adrangeirOy s. m., stranger, foreigner. 

edreUo, adj., straight, tight, dose. 

utrefMeety r. intr., to tremble, shud- 
der, shake. 

isMbo (2), s. m., stirrup; "aria (2), 
s. £, stable ; -ar-ae, t. refl., to de- 
pend on, confide, to Imso one's self. 

estitdarp ▼. tr. and intr., to study ; -o, 
s. m., study; -anU, s. m., student 

mtupido (8), adj., stupid, dull ; -dea^ 
s. f, stupidity. 

mUogio (2, or dogio), s. m., eulogy, 

^ropa (2), s. f., Europe; -m (2), 
adj., European. 

€vadir, t. tr., to erade, shun ; -««, y. 
refl., to escape. 

wangdho, s. m., (losp^l. 

evUar, ▼. tr., to avoid, shun. 

exaggerar, v. tr., exaggerate. 

€xamef s. m., examination. 

exo^to, adj., except ; -tiar, t. tr., to 

exceasOf s. m., excess. 

exelttir^ t. tr., to exclude. 

excvrsdo, s. f , excursion, trip. 

exeeravilf adj., execrable. 

exeentar, t. tr., to execute. 

exfmplOf s. m., example, instance; 
-ar, adj., exemplary; — , s. m., 

exemptOt adj., exempt, free. 

exequias (8), s. £ pi., obsequies, fn< 

exequitel (2), adj., feasible; •■iilidadi, 
s. f., feasibility. 

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txereito (8), B. m., vrmj, 
exhalaTf y', tr., to exhale. 
exhibir, ▼. tr., to exhibit 
exhiortar, ▼. tr., to exhort, admonish. 
esBigitf r. tr., to exact, demand. 
€xidir, T. intr., to exist 
exUo (3), s. m., event, issue, result 
apeUir^ t. tr., to expel, drive out 
experiencia (8), s. f., experience. 
fX^HrimentOf s. m., experiment trial ; 

•tor, V. tr., to experience, tiy. 
expiar^ v. tr., to expiate. 
txpirar, v. intr., to expire, die. 
ixpUeaty V. tr., to explain. 
explietto (8), adj., explicit 
expbr^ V. tr., to expose. 
ixpresaar^ v. tr., to express. 
exprimiry v. tr., to express, state. 
es^UOy p. p., expelled, driven out ; 

-taoy s. f., expulsion ; -ar^ v. tr., to 

expel,' drive out 
exquidto (2), adj., exquisite, nice, 

curious, strange. 
extentOf adj., extended, extensive. 
exUrminio (8), s. m., extermination. 
extremOj adj., extreme ; -otOf adj., 

tender, loving, doting. 

fahrica (S), s. f., fabric, factory; 
-ar, V. tr., to fabricate, manufac- 
ture ; -anU, s. m., manufacturer *, 
-pdo, s. f , manufacture. 

foibuUi (3), s. f , fable. 

facay s. f , knife; -ada^ s. f , stab. 

/(3k», s. f., face, cheek. 

facU (2), adj., easy. 

Jadiga (2), s. f , fatigue, toil, weari- 

faUaTy T. tr. and intr., to speak, 
talk;/aZZa, s. f., speech; -dor^ s. 
m., talker; — , adj., talkative." 

falUeer, t. intr., to die, decease; -idn^ 

p. p., defunct, deceased, late; 

-m«ntOt s. m., decease, death. 
faUoy adj., false, deceitful. 
foMar, Y. intr., to be wanting or 

missing; -a, s. f., want, need; -o, 

adj., wanting, lacking, deficient 
familia (8), a. f., family. 
fanaUeo (8), adj., fanatic; -tiamOf s. 

m., fanaticism. 
far^y s. £, farce. 
farinha, s. f., flour, farine. 
faroly 8. m., lighthouse. 
farto, adj., sated, full. 
fataly adj., fatal ; -wto, s. m., fatalist 
faUa (2), s. f., slice. 
faw>r^ s. m., favor ; -rtcery v. tr., to 

favor, protect 
fazendat s. f., estate, farm, fortune, 

wealth, finances ; -of, s. £ pL, 

fazeTy V. tr., to do, to make; -«, t. 

refl., to become, to feign, 
/e, s. f., faith, trust 
ftlbr€y s. f., fever, ague. 
fechavy r. tr. and intr., to close^ 

shut, lock ; -dura, s. f., lock. 
fei^aOf feature. 
feio, adj., ugly. 
/Hray s. f., fair, market ; tegunda — , 

Monday, ier^a — ^ Tuesday, etc. 
feiUgo (2), s. m., fetish, charm; 

-ceiro, s. m., sorcerer ; -cHra^ a. f., 

sorceress, witch. 
feUzy adj., happy, lucky, fortunate ; 

-eidadey s. f., felicity, happiness, 

luck ; -cUaTy v. tr., to eongratulate. 
femtay adj. and s. f., female. 
feriat (8), s. f. pi., holidays, racft- 

/<fr*r, V. tr., to strike, hurt, wound ; 

-iday s. f, wound. 
ferozy adj., fierce, cruel, wild. 

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ferro^ s, m., iron; -«> (8), ai^., iron, 
of iron; -agentj 8. £ pL, h«rd- 
waro; Okferro •fogo^ with fire and 

ferrolho, s. m., bolt ; -ar^ t. tr., to 

ferUl (2), adj., fertile. 

ferver, ▼. tr. and intr., to boil. 

festa, 8. £, feast, festival ; diade^, 
holiday, saint's day; -e/o, s. m., 
festival, festivity; -Jar, t. tr., to 
feast, celebrate. 

Jiar,'Y, tr. and intr., to spin. 

^fiar-te, t. refl., to trust-; -n^, s. f., 
security, bail ; -dor, s. m., securi- 
ty, surety, bail. 

Jkar, r, intr., to stay, remain, to be- 
come,-tunr; — com, to keep. 

fidalgoy s. m., nobleman. 

Jidtdigno^ adj., credible, reliable. 

fidelimmo (8), superL of fiel ; ttta 
magestade -a {SL Mi F,), title of 
the kings of Portugal. 

JUlt adj., faithful; -dade, s. f., faith- 
fulness, fidelity. 

Jigado (8), s. m., liver; -^tdal, a^j.; 
inimigo — , bitter enemy. 

Jlgura (2), s. f., figure; -do, s. m., 
tall stout man, prominent man 

JUhOf s. m., son', -a, s. f., daughter. 

JUho, 8. f., omelet, pancake. 

fimy 8. m., end, intention, aim. 

Jinal, a^j., final ; -fnente, adv., final- 
ly, at last, at length. 

fingir^ v. tr. and intr., to feign, in- 
vent; -ido^ p. p., feigned, dissem- 
bling; -tmtfn^, 8. m., feigning; 
JUgOAy 8. £, fiction. 

fiOy s. m., thread, string, wire, rill, 
edge (of a knife, etc.) ; pastar ao 
— da eapada^ to put to the sword. 
firma, 8. f, signature, firm. 

frfMf adj., firm> steady, fast; -«Mt, 
8. £, firmness. 

fiUif 8. f., band, ribbon. 

flagdlo, 8. m., aconrge. 

fiamengOf adj., Flemish. 

fiaokgyttar^ v. tr., to flank. 

flecha^ 8. £, arrow, dart 

flbr^ 8. £, flower, blossom ; •«0«r, t. 
intr., to floarish, bloom. 

fogoy 8. m., fire v/o^er — r, to fire; 
-do, 8. m., stove; -giteira, 8. t» 
bonfire, pile ; 'gua4, s. m., rocket 

/o^Ao, 8. C, leaf, sheet 

/O0M, 8. f., hunger; ettar com — , ter 
— , to be hungry. 

fora, adv., out, without, outside, off; 
— de, prep., out of, without, be- 
sides ; de — , from abroad, from 

foreoy 8. f., gallows, gibbet 

forga, 8. £, force, strength ; a/or^ 
by strength, by dint, by force; 
far^r, v. tr., to force, compel. 

forma (d), s. f., form, mould. 

forma (o), s. f., form, shape. 

formiga (2), s. £, ant 

foTMctTy V. tr., to fumbh, provide. 

forrOf adj., free. 

fortaUzat s. f., fortitude, fortress. 

forU^ adj., strong ; — , s. m., fort 

fortificaTt v. tr., to fortify. 

fortuna (2), s. f, fortune, fate^ luck. 

foZj 8. £, mouth of a river. 

fracOf adj., weak. 

fraeturart v. tr., to fracture, break. 

fradey s. m., monk, friar. 

fragata (2), s. f., frigate. 

Fran^ s. £, France; -e», adj., 

franco, adj., frank, sincere; -gueza, 
s. f., frankness. 

frangOf s. m., chicken. 

fraqtuza, s. f., weakness, feebleneaai 

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freguesj i. m., pariahioner, customer ; 

•M (2), 8. tj pariah, costom. 
frtnUy a. f., front 
frtqutnU, adj., freqncDt. 
fre$eo, adj., freah, oooL 
/reU^ a. m., frcigbt; -tar, v. tr., to 

freight, chor^. 
/ru>, adj., cold. 
fronU, a. f., front; de — , in front, 

frowteira, a. t, frontier, houndaij. 
ftudaifoitfruta), a. £, fruit (of trees); 

-to, a. m., fruit, reault. 
fruir, r. intr., to enjoy. 
frwtrar, ▼. tr., to fruatrate. 
fugiTf T. intr., to flee, fly, run away ; 

'ida, -Oj^t, flight. 
futano, a. m., such a one, so and so. 
fultninanU, adj., fulminating. 
fumar, r. tr. and intr., to smoke ; 

-o^, s. f., smoke. 
fundOy adj., deep ; — , a. m., l)ottom ; 

a — , profoundly, thoroughly ; -or, 

T. tr., to found; -^y a. f,. founda- 
tion; -doTy a. f., founder; -mtfiHto, 

8. m., foundation. 
furar, r. tr,, to bore, pierce. 
furia (3), a. f., or furor, a. m , fury, 

rage; -m>«o, -^bundo, adj., furious, 

A^^7 (2), adj., futile. 
ftOuro (2), adj. and s. m., future. 
fusfHo (2), s. m., sheet-lightning; 
' -ftr, r. intr. and imp., to lighten ; 

— , T, tr., to shoot 

ffobar, ▼. tr., to praise ; -m, v. refl., 

to hoast, brag. 
gaUnete, s. m., cabinet, private room. 
gado, s. m., cattle. 
gale, a. f , galley. 
galUnha, s. f , hen ; -o/r, pi., chicken. 

I gaUo, a. m., cock, rooster. 
ganhoTy t. tr., to gain^wio, to earn ; 

-o, a. m., gain, earnings; -ador^ a. 

m., day-laborer. 
'ganso, a. m., goose. 
gctrgaUiada, s. f., loud laughter. 
garrafa, s. f., bottle. 
geutar, ▼. tr., to waste, to spend. 
goto, s. m., cat. 
gaveta (2, ^), s. f., drawer. 
^6^, a. m., frost, ice; -ar, r. intr., 

to freeze. 
gemeo (8), a. m. and adj., twin. 
general, B. m., generat ' 
genero (8), a. m., gender, apecies; 

-oe, pi., goods, wares. 
generoso, udj., generoua. 
genio (8), a. m,, genius. 
genro, s. m., son-in-law. 
gente, a. f., people, 
p'eo^raj)^ (8); s.m., geographer; ^na 

(2), s. t, geography. 
geral, adj., generaL 
gigante, a. m., giant; -efco, adj., gi- 
gloria (8), s. f., glory. 
golpe, s. m., blow, stroke; — de vi9- 

gordOytAy, fat; -ura, s. f., fat. *" 
gostar, t. intr., to like; -o, s. m., 

gota, s. f., drop, gout. 
governo, s. m., government 
goxar, ▼. intr., to enjoy; -«, s. m., 

gra^, a. £, grace, favor; -aa, pL, 

grac^o, s. m., jest; -ar, r. intr., to jest 
grade, s. f., harrow, grate, bars. 
grado, mao — , despite; de bom — , 

grammatica (8), s. f, grammar; -o^ 

8. m., grammarian. . 

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^ran or grdo, gHUt, abbreT. of 

fjfrande, adj., great ; -ego, 8. f., great- 
ness; Gran'Brdanka, Qn9i Bri- 
tain ; ffrdo-duque, grand-duke, ate. 

ffranffear^ r, it., or se^j, refl., to ob- 
tain, gain, to gather. 

grdo, 8. m., degree. 

grdOf 8. m., grain. 
_ ffraiiddOf 8. f., gratitude. 

gravef adj., serious, grave. 

0^0, adj., Greek. 

ffrei, 8. f., flock (fig.). 

griiar, r. intr., to cry, shout; -o, 8. 
m., CTj, riiont. 

grouOf adj., big, thick, coarse ; -uro, 

' A^J-» gi'oss, coarse, rough, rude. 

groza, s. t, gross. 

ffuarda, s. £, guard, watch; — , s. 
m., watchman, keeper, guard ; -ar, 
T. tr,, to guard, watch ; — livrvB, s. 
m., book-keeper* 

guardaroupa, s. £, wardrobe, press.* 

guamigdo, s. £, garrison. 

guerra, s.. 1, war; -«tro, 8« m., War- 
rior; -ear, t, intr», to war. 

guiOf 8. f., guide. 

habil (2), adj., able, clever; -idade, 

s. f., ability^ cleverness. 
habitar, r. intr., to inhabit ; -^inU, s. 
- m., inhabitant. 
Aa^ito (8), 8. m., habit, custom ; -war- 

se, ▼. refl., to accustom one's selt 
hanseatieo (S), adj., hanseatic. 
haveTy V. intr. and aux., to have, 

shall, etc. ; ha, impers., there is ; 

si, V. refl., to behave. 
heranga, s. f., inheritance. 
herdar, v. tr., to inherit; -eiro, s. m., 

.keroe, s. m.,hero. 
Ut'coy 8. f., htse^, grass. 

heritor, T. kitr., to hesitate. 
Hupanka, s. f., Spain ; -d^, adj., 

Spanish ; -^ s. m., Spaniard. 
hidoria (8),«. t, history, story, tale; 

-dor, 8. m., historian. 
%'«, adv., to-day. 
honum, s. m., man. 
honra, b. f., honor; -or, t. tr., to 

honor ; -ctdo, adj.. honest, respect* 

ed ; -deg, s. t, honesty. 
honUm (2), adv., yesterday. 
hara, ■. £., hour. 
hortzofUe, s. m., horiton. 
horror, s. m., horror; -ttv^ (2), adj., 

horrible, frightfuL 
hospeds (8), 8. m., guest, host 
hoapUal (1), 8. m., hospital; -idade, 

a. f, hospitality. 
hoBtU (1), 9^,, hostile. 
humano (2), adj., human, humane. 
humido (8), adj., damp, moist; -iioJ^, 

8. f., dampness, moisture. 
humilde, adj., humble, modest 
hypocrita (8), s. m., hypocrite; -ria 

(2), 8. t, hypocrisy. 
hypothec (8), 8. f., hypothesis, sup- 
position ; na — , supposing. 


ida, 8. f., going, departure. 

idade, s. f., age. 

idea (2, (), s. f., idea. 

idioma (2), s. m., idiom, language. 

idoneo (3), adj., apt, proper. 

ignominia (8), s. t, ignotniny, shame. 

ignorar, v. tr., to ignore, not to 

know ; -ancia (8), s. f., ignorance. 
igr^a (2, i), s. f., church. 
igual, adj., equal ; -ar, v. tr. and intr., 

to equal, to be or make equal; 

-dade, s. f., equaliiy. 
ilka, 8. f., island. 
UUmUado, adj., vnlunited. 

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iUudir, ▼. tr., to illude, deoairt. 

{UunUnar^ r. tr., to Uldmino. 

imagem (2), «. f., image; -ttior, r. tp., 
aod -M, ▼. refl., to ioMgine. 

tmhuir^ T. tr., to imbue.. 

imitar^ ▼. tr., to imitate. 

immediato (2), adj., immediate. 

immeMO, adj., i m m ense. 

immundOf adj., undc^ui. 

impagaoelf adj., priceless. 

imffidir, t. tr., to impede, hinder ; 
•fnento, s. m., impediment, hin* 

impelUTf T. tr., to impel, drive. 

tmperadorf s. m., emperor; 4r»0, s. 
f., empress; 'trio (8), s. m., em- 

imperdoavel, adj., unpardonable. 

implaoavel, adj., implacable. 

implorar^ y, tr., to implore, beseech, 

impbr, t. tr., to impose. 

importar, y. tr. and intr., to import, 
to amount (to ss. em) ; — , v. im- 
pers., it is important or necessary ; 
nqo m*importa, I do not care; 
-ancia (2),s.f.,importance,amount; 
importer s. m., amount 

importuno (2), adj., importune, trou- 

impomvel (2), adj., impossible. 

i/nprensa, s. f., press, printing. 

impresario (8), s. m., undertaker (of 
a theatre, manager). 

impressOf adj., printed; -too, s. f., 

imprimir, r. tr., to print 

improprio (8), adj., improper. 

impune (2), adj., unpunished; -fn«n/tf, 
adF., with impunity,'' 

inabalavd, adj., unsbaking, immor- 

. able. 

ifMUffurar, t tr., to inaugurate. 

inoapdgf adj., incapable. 

inetndio (3), s. m., conflagratioii, fire, 

inekar, r, n., to swelL 

incUar, t. tr., to incite; -mm^, a. 
m., incitement, inducement 

ineommodo (8), adj., inconyenieiit ; 
— , s. m., inconrenience ; discom- 
fort, trouble, illness ; -^w, ▼. tr., to 
trouble, inconvenience; -ado, p. 
p., unwell. 

ineontolavel, a^j;, inconsolable, not 
to be comforted. 

ineontiMnU, adr., on the spot 

inerivd (2), adj., incredible. 

inculear, r. tr., to inculcate, recom- 

ineuria (8), s. f., negligence, care- 

indemntMtCao, s. £, indemnification. 

India, B. f., India; -as ariwtass^ 
East Indies; -to (8), s. m., Indian. 

indigente, adj , indigent, needful. 

indigno, adj., unworthy; -idade, s. 
f., indignity; -afvM, ▼. refl., to be- 
come indignant, angry. 

indiserOo (2), adj., indiscreet; in- 
ditcri^y B. £, indiscretion. 

indimduo (8), s. m., individual. 

indigivel, adj., unutterable, unspeak- 

indwtria (8), s. f., industry. 

industry v. tr., to induce. 

inertM, adj., unarmed. 

intvitavd, adj., inevitable. 

infalUvel (2), adj., infallible. 

infame (2), a<y., infamous; -ia (8), 
s. f., infamy. 

»»/an^, s. m., infant, infante (title 
of the king's sons) ; -eia (8), a. £, 
infancy ; -aria (2), s. f., infantry ; 
-ticidio (8), s. m., infanticide. 

infautio, adj., unlucky, unfortunate. 

infdisj adj., unhappy, unlucky. 

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in/Mter, T. tr., to infest 

infiiiiio (2), adj., infinite. 

inflvmda (8),> f>» influence ; ffi/fv- 
tr, T. tr., to influence, inspire. 

infcrlunio (8), s. m., misfortune. 

ingerir-te, v. refl.» to interfere, med- 
dle ; -encia (8), s. £, interference. 

ingrato^ adj., ungrateful; «<m^, s. 
fl, ingratitude. 

inimigo (2), s. m., enemj ; -MJe, s. 
f., enmity. 

injuria (8), 8. f., injury, insult 

innunuro (8), adj., innumerable. 

ingualjfieav€l, adj., unqualified, un- 

inquUto {2\ adj., restless, tronUed. 

inquUino (2), s. m., inmate, tenant 

inquinffdo, s. f., inquisition. 

iMcripffiiOf s. £, inscription. 

truiitirt r. intr., to insist. 

tfwtor, ▼. intr., to insist urge ; •fifo, 
s. m., instent ; -aneia (8), s. f., in- 
stance, entreaty. 

inatnUr, r. tr., to Instruct, teach; 
ifutruccdOf s. f , instruction, learn- 

inieiro, adj., entire, whole. 

intenfSo, s. f., and inientOf s. m., in- 

inUrfuet s. m., interest; -adOf p. p., 
interested, greedy. 

int&mar, v. tr., to send into the in- 

interprete (8), s. f., interpreter. 

ifUerrogar, ▼. tr., to question, ask. 

inUrramper, r. tr., to interrupt 

ifUimo (8), adj., intimate, innermost 

tnirarmtavelf adj., impassable. 

intriga (2), s. £, intrigue, plot; -an^ 
adj. and a. m., intrigant plotter. 

intromeUer-Me, r. refl , to meddle, in- 
terpose ; -ddOf p. p., meddling 

inundofdOt s. f., inundation, flood. 
inuiil (2), adj., useless. 
inwaditf y. tr., to iuTade. 
iuv^'a (2, €),*a. f., enyy ; -Jar, t. tr., 

to envy ; -joao, adj., enTipus. 
inv^tUoTf T. tr.j to inrent ; -fOo, a. £, 

invemo, s. m., winter. 
fftvoMr, ▼. tr., to invoke, 
ir, T. intr., to go; -ie, t. refl., to go 

away, to ieaye. 
irmdo, s. m., brother ; -da, s. £, sister. 
trrqfrehentivd, ady., irreproachable, 
iiento (or ^), adj., exempt 
ftM9, pron. dem., that 
fite, pron. dem., this. 
Itaha (8), s. t, Italy ; -mao (2), adj., 


jd, adT., already; — gue, conj., as, 

Jacaranddf s. m., rosewood. 
Jamait, adr., ever, never. 
«/bfM»ro, s. m., January. 
JaneUOf s. £, window. 
Jantar, r. intr., to dine; — , s. m., 

JardOf s. f., yard (measure). 
Jardim, s. m., garden ; -ntiro, s. m., 

jarro, s. m., jar, pitoher. 
ya«r, V. intr., to lie. 
J^um (1), 8. m., fast; -uaPt r. intr., 

to fast 
Jemu (1), Jesus. 
Jodo, John. 
^oeMo (2), 8. m., knee. 
JogOf 8. m., play, game, gambling ; 

•ar, V. intr., to play, gamble ; -tfdfor, 

8. m., gambler. 
Joia, 8. f., jewel. 
Jornali s. m., journal, newspaper, 

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dUi7» mgn; •'eiro, ■. m., daj- 

Joti, Joseph. ... 
jwem (2, ^),^j. and b. m., joang, 

yoathfol, joaih. " 

Jud40 (2, i)t s. m., Jew; -JiOyfl. U 

Juu, 8. m., judge; ^, s. m., judg- 

ineDty ressoD. 
Julffor, T. intr., to judge, think. 
Julko, 8. m., Julj. 
Junear, t. tr., to strew. 
JunAo, 8. m., June. 
Junta, 8. t, joint, assemblj, board. 
Junto, adj., joined; -m, together. 
Juror, T. tr. and intr., to swear ; -ado, 

8. m.« juryman ; -msnU}, 8. m., 

oath; Juro8, s. m. pi., interest 
Justo, adj., just, fitting; -iffo, s. £, 

jnstice; -^(^r, t. tr., to justify. 
juvenil (1), adj., juvenile, youthful 

Id, adv., there. 

Ida (or 2an), s. t, wool. 

lafo, s. m., noose, snare, tie, lasso. 

lado, s. m., side. 

ladrdo, s. m., thief, robber ; -oHra, 

s. f, robbery, swindle. 
ladrar, t. intr., to bark. 
lage, s. f., flag-stone ; -edo (2), s. m., 

lagda, s. f, lake. 
la^iirima (8), s. f., tear. 
ktmpedo, s. m., lamp. 
lanfo, 8. £, lance; -ado, s. f., thmst 

with a lance; -ar, v. tr., to fling, 

tapi9 (2), s. m., pencil. 
laranja, s. £, orange. 
/arM, s. m. pi. (household gods), 

hearth, home. 
targo, ndj., broad, wide, far, rast, 

large; -^ra^ 8. £, breadth, width; 
•■ar, T. tr., to let go, to cast loose. 

laOm^ 8. m., Latin ; -ino (2), adj. 

latir, T. intr., to bark, yelp. 

USo, 8. in^ lion ; leda, s. f., lioness. 

Uffor, r. tr., to bequeathe; -ado (2), 
8. OIL, legacy, 

legiao, s. £, legion. 

J^tMi (8), 8. t, league. 

2ei, >• £>* Iaw. 

leU&o, 8. m., auction. 

2«i^ 8. m., milk. 

UUm', 8. m., reader; -whi, s. £, leo- 
ture, reading. 

lembrar, t. tr., to remind; fue, ▼. 
refl., to remember, recollect; -anffo, 
8. t, remembrance; mandar,daf 
"Ot, to send, give one's love. 

lenfo, 8. m., handkerchief 

lenha, s. C, fire-wood, fiiel. 

leda, 8. £, lioness. 

lit, V. tr., to read ; lenU, a. m., lae» 
turer, professor. , 

2e<fo (or FeaU, esU), s. m., east 

letra, s. £, letter (of the alphabet^ 
bill of exchange; -<», pL, litera- 

Uvantar, t. tr., to lift, raise, erect ; 
-9$, T. refl., to rise, get up. 

levar, r, tr., to carry or take away. 

leve, adj., light. 

leviano, adj., light-hearted, thought- 
less, trifling; 'andade,a, £, thought- 
lessness, levity. 

liberdade, s. f., liberty, freedom. 

libra, s. f., pound. 

ligao, a. f., lesson. 

licenfa, s. f., license, permission, 
leave, furlough; -eiado, s. m., U^ 

li<ia, 8. t, toil, social commerce; -or, 
T. intr., to toil, to have kiterooursa 

%Mm,a4j., light, fast; quick. 

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limiU (2), 8. m., limit; .or, v. tr., to 

limpo^ adj.» cleao, neat; -«a, s. f, 
cleanness, cleanliness. 

Undo, adj., pretty, beaatiful. 

Ungua, s. f., tongue, language ; -agem 
(2), s. U language. 

Unha, s. t, line ; -o, s. m., flax, linen. 

Lisboa (2, b)\ Lisbon. 

luonJOy 8. t, flattery ; -tar, v. tr., to 
flatter; -eiro, adj. and s. bl, flat- 
tering, flatterer. 

fcrr«, adj., free; -ar, r. tr., to free, 

Uffro, B. m., book; -aria (2), s. t, 
book-shop; -Hro, s. m., book-sel- 

lobOf a. m., wolf. 

logo, adr., soon, by and by, imme- 
diately, presently; — mats, in a 
little while ; — que, conj., as soon 

lograr, t. tr., to cheat, to disappoint. 

lofa, s. f., lodge, shop, store; logitta, 
8. m., shopkeeper. 

long^ adv., lar. 

longo, adj., ^ong. 

louQa, 8. f., crockery, china. 

lottoo, adj., mad ; -itra, a. t, madness. 

louvar, T. tr., to praise ; -avd, adj., 
praiseworthy, laudable, commend- 
able ; •t>r, 8. m., praise. 

lua, 8. f., moon; -or, 8. m., moon- 
shine, moonlight 

luero, 8. m., gain, profit; -ar, y, tr., 
to profit. 

lucto (Juto), 8. m., mourning. 

hida (Juta), s. f., struggle, wrestling; 
-ar, Y. intr., to struggle. 

lugar, s. m., place, spot ; em — de^ 
instead of; -^o, 8. m., little place, 
litUe town. - 

luva, 8. f , glove. 

hixo (x — eh), 8. m., Isxniy, extrarv 

Ituf, 8. £, light ; dor 4 — , to publish ; 

-es, pi., intelligence, learning; -tr, 

y. intr., to shine. 
l^rieo (8), adj., lyrical 

tn6, fem. of mao, 
mofda, 8. f., apple. 
maehina (8, pr. mdguina), s. t, ma- 
chine, engine. 
maeho, adj., male. 
madeira, a. t, wood, timber. 
madrtigada, s. £, dawn. 
maduro (2), adj., mature, ripe. 
mageetade, s. f., majesty. 
magieo (8), s. m. and adj., magician, , 

magidrado, s. m., magistrate. 
magnifieo (8), adj., magnificent 
ma^oa (8), s. f., grief, sorrow. 
magro, adj., meager, thin, lean.^ 
mdi, 8. f., mother. 
Mdio, May. 
maior, adj., greater, larger; uZoitf 

— , full age. 
mate, adv. and adj., more; ao — , at 

the highest, at the most 
major, s. m., major. 
mal, adr., badly, ill, scarcely ; — , s. 

m., evil, illness, sickness. 
mala, s. f., portmanteau, mail. 
malandro, s. m., vagrant, good<for* 

malevolo (3), adj., malevolent 
malfeitor, s. m., malefactor. 
maligno, adj., malicious, wicked. 
malvado, adj., perverse, wicked. 
manandal, s. m., spring, fountain. 
mancebo (2, i), s, m., youth. 
mandM, s. f., spot, stain ; -ar, v. tr., 

to stain, defile. 

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mandar, ▼. tr., to send, to order, bid, 

tnaneira^ s. f., maoner, waj ; de — 
qutf 80 that. 

man^o (2, e\ s. m., maDagementy 

manga, s. f., sleeve. 

mofMa, B, t, morning, morrow. 

manobra (2, 6), s. t, manoBuvre. 

manUiga, 8. t, batter. 

marUo, 8. m., yeil, mantle, corer. 

manvtcripto, s. m., mannsoript. 

mSo, 8. f., hand. 

m40f adj., bad, ill, wicked. 

mappa, s. m., map. 

mar, s. m., sea. 

maravilha, 8. f., marrel, wonder ; da 
mil •«», wonderfully. 

marca, 8. f., mark, brand, note, to- 
ken ; -or, T. tr., to mark, stamp, 

marcha, s. f., march ; -or, ▼. tr., to 

Jfarso, March. 

marffem (2), 8. f., margin, brink, 
bank, edge, rerge. 

marido (2), s. m., husband. 

marifiha, s. f, navj; -Hro^ s. m., 
mariner, sailor. 

marUimo (8), adj., maritime. 

marmore (3), s. m., marble. 

marquez, a. m., marquis. 

marquiza, s. £, marchioness, bed- 

marroquitth (1), s. m., morocco. 

mas, conj., but. 

mascara (8), s. f., n[iask. 

maatro, 8. m., mast. 

ma^r, y. tr., to kill. 

materia (8), s. f., matter, stuff, sub- 

matJUmaUeaa (8), s. f. pi., mathe- 

I mairie,a,d).,iffrefa — ,mother-chiirchy 

chief parish church. 
matte {mato), 8. m., bush, wood, 

maxima (3), s. f., maxim. 
maximo (8), adj., highest 
medico (3), 8. m., phjsician; -cina 

(2), 8. t, medicine. 
mediocre (2), adj., mediocre, midd- 
medir, t. tr., to measure ; -idd, s. £., 

medo, 8. m., fear; eatar com — ^ ier 

— , to be afi-aid. 
mtia^ 8. f , stocking. 
meiadoa, s. m. pL, em — <20, in the 

middle ot 
mno, adj., half, middle; — , a. m., 

melkor, adj. comp., better; -o, t. 

t (or pi. Hu), improvement (in 

health); -or, r. tr. and intr., to 

ameliorate, to grow better ; -mMta^ 

8% m.) imprevement 
membra, s. m., member, limb. 
memoria (3), s. f., memory. 
m^nfSo, 8. f., mention; -eionar^ t. 

tr., to mention. 
mendiqo (2), s. m., beggar; -or, t. 

intr., to beg alms; -iddade, a. t^ 

menino (2)) s. m., boy; -a, 8. 1, 

girl ; -iee, s. £., boyhood, girlhood. 
menor, adj. comp., less, minor, under 

age ; -oa (2), adv., less ; oo — , at 

menaageiro, a. m., messenger. 
mentir, ▼. intr., to lie ; 'ira (2), a. ^, 

lie, falsehood ; -roao, adj., lying, 

mercado, a. m., market 
mereaniU (1), adj., mercantile, i 


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vureBf s. t, grace; Vnv^ s «0Ma 
merci (pr. vo$m*ei), joor grace, 
title of civilitj given to any per* 
aon (= yon). 

merecer, v. tr., to merit, deaenre ; 
-imento, or meiHto (3), a. m., merit, 

mesmOf adj., selC 

fn^$f 8. m., maater, teacher ; -a, s. 
f., mistresa. 

mdade, a. f., halt 

mekil (1), a. m., metaL 

meUoro (2), a. m., meteor. 

meUer, r. tr., to put, aet, place. 

mtftt, £ minha\ pron. posa^, my, mine. 

msg, a. m., month. 

97i€»i, a. f., table. 

fm'or, T. intr., to mew, miaul (of cata). 

microteopio (3), a. m., microscope. 

mUf adj. num., thouaand ; milhar, s. 

m., one thousand; -eiro, a. m., a 

, thousand (of cigars, orangea, etc.). 

vUktgrt (2), a. m., miracle. 

milMy a. f., mile. 

milhdu>f a. m., million. 

milhOf s. m., maize, Indian com. 

mUUar, adj., military. 

minhOf fem. of meu, 

mimdro, a. m., minister. 

nUnnto (2), a. m., minute. 

miseria (3), s. f., misery ; misero (3), 
and -avelf adj., miaerable, unfor- 

inisericordia (8), a. f., mercy, pity. 

mi«Ki, a. f., mass. 

mister^ s. m., want, need, office, bu- 
siness ; e — , it is necessary. 

mOf s. f., mill-stone. 

fnoQO, adj., young ; ~, s. m., youth, 
young man ; ^^ a. f., young lady ; 
-idade^ s. f., youth« 

tnoda, a. f., mode, iaabion. 

moddo (2), s. m., model. 

modieo (8), ftdj., moderate. 

modo, a. m.» mode, way, manner; 

d4 — ^uty 80 that. 
moeda (2, ^), s. f. , money, coin. 
fnainho, a. m., mill. 
moUdia (8), a. f., trouble, sorrow, 

molhar, r, tr., to wet; -adotf a. m. 

pL, liquors. 
monarea, 8. m., monarch; -^hia (3, 

ek = ^), a. f., monarchy. 
monffef a. m., monk. 
numianhat a. f., mountain, hill ; mot^ 

Uf s. f., mount ; -d^, s. m., heap. 
montar, t. intr., to mount ' 

tnor (contr. of maiar), adj. comp., 

chief, principal, first ; •rnmtd, adr., 

morar, v. intr., to dwell, to live ; -dor, 

s. m., inmate, tenant, inhabitant ; 

-ada, -adia (2), a. f., dwelling. 

mordeTf v. tr., to bite. 
morigerado^ adj., hem — ^ well-bred, 

morrer, v. intr., to die ; m&rtOt adj. 

and p. p., dead, killed. 
miyrU, a. f., death; -a/, adj., mortal, 

deadly ; ^andade, a. f., slaughter, 

tnotea, a. £, fly ; dharpara as mofoae, 

to be idle. 
mosquito (2), a. m., mosquito, gnat. 
moUrar, v. tr., to show. 
moUmf a. m., mutiny. 
motivo (2), 8. m., motive. 
mover f v. tr., to move ; -w, v. refl., 

to move, stir; -im^nto, s. m., 

movement, motion. 
mudar^ v. tr. and intr., to change, 

alter, to remove ; -m, refl., to move 

(to other lodgings); -an^, 8. £, 

change, alteration. 

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mudo, acy*> mute, dnmh. 

muUo, adj., much ; — , or mtU, •Av., 
much, rerjr, too. 

fiittZa, 8. t, mule. 

mtOcto (mti^ta), s. f., fine, mulct 

mulher, 1. 1, woman, wife. 

muUidOOf a. f., multitude, crowd. 

mundOf a. m., world. 

munifdOf a. £, ammunition. 

munieipio (3), a. m., town-corpora- 
tion, townahip ; -palf adj. ; eamara 
— , citj council. 

munir^ r. tr., to proride, furnish. 

mureho, adj., withered, faded; -or, 
T. intr., to wither, fade. 

muro, 8. m., wall; muralha, s. f., 
wall of a fortress. 
' muMO (2), 8. m., museum. 

mttsica (8)j s. f , music; -o, 8. m., 

mutuo (8), adj., mutual. 

myope (8), adj., shortsighted. 

mytterio (3), s. m., mysteiy. 


nagStOf a. £, nation; naeioncUf adj., 

na^, 8. m., nothing. 
nadar, v. intr., to swim, float; a 

nadot swimming (pattar a nado, 

to swim across). 
ndOf adv., no, not. 
ndOj 8. f., ship, man-of-war. 
narisf, s. m., nose. 
natcer, r. intr., to be bom, to arise, 

spring, come forth, proceed ; -en^ 

8. m., east ; -imentOf s. m., birth. 
natalt adj., dia — , Christmas; -Ucio 

(8), birth-day. 
natural, adj., natural, natiye; -eza, 

a. f., nature. 
naufrago (3), adj. and a. m., ship- 

wrecked; -or, t. intr., to4rreck; 

-ffio (8), 8. m., shipwreck, 
nawo <2), s. m., ship, vessel; hom- 

^ar, v. tr. and intr., to navigate. 
neeeuario (8), adj., neeessarj. 
negoTf v. tr., to denj, refuse. 
'negligmeia (8), s. f, negligence, 

negocio (8), s. m., business; -anU^ s. 

m., merchant. 
negro, adj., black ; — , a. m., negro. 
nem, conj., nor, neither; — , adv., 

not even. 
nmhum, adj., not one, no, none. 
«ew, 8. f., snow; -or, v. intr., to 

ningttem, pron., nobodj. 
ninhiO, 8. m., nest 

nobre, adj., noble ; -asa, s. f., noble- 
ness, nobility. 
noeioo, adj., hurtful, injurious. 
noiU, 8. f., night. 
noitOf 8. m., bridegroom; -a, 8. £, 

name, s. m., name; -or, v. tr., to 

name, appoint ; -OfdOf a. £, nomi- 
nation, appointment 
nora, s. f , daughter-in-law. 
fM?rma, a. f , norm, rule. 
norte, s. m., north. 
notto, pron. dem., our, >>urs. 
noiOf 8. £, note, blemish ; -or, v. tr., 

to note, observe, perceive. 
notieia (8), s. f., notice, news. 
novef adj. num., nine. 
novo, adj., new, young ; -idade, a. £, 

novelty, news. 
n«, adj., naked. 

nuca, 8. £, neck, nape of the neck, 
nwnero (8), a. m., number. 
nunoa, adv., never. 
nuvem (2), 8. £, cloud. 

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0, deT art m., the; — , pen. pron., 

. biiB, it{ — , dem. pron., that, he. 

ob^deeeTf y, intr., to obey; -diencia 
(8), B. t, obedience. 

olffeeto (2), a. m., object. 

obra, 8t t, work; -or, t. intr., to 
work, to have e£fect; -iwv, a. m., 

^brigarf r. tr., to oblige, force. 

obteqnioX'^), a. m., favor. 

cbtervar, t. tr., to obaerre. 

cbttar, T. intr., to withatand, stand 
in the waj, hinder; -anU, prea. 
p., hindering {nSo — , notwith-' 
atanding); -aculo (3), a. m., ob- 

obier, t. tr., to obtain. 

oeeatidOf s. f, occasion. 

ceeorrer, t. intr., to ocoar, to meet. 

cecupar, t. tr., to occupj; •«, t. 
refl., to follow a pursuit or trade, 
to buaj one's self. 

deioBOf adj., idle; -idade, s. £, idle- 

oeeano (2), s. m., ocean. 

^du> (3), s. m., hatred; •or, t. tr., 
to hate ; -0*0, adj., odious, hateful. 

oetUy 8. m., west 

oJ'endeTf ▼. tr., to offend ; -w, s. f., 

o^erecer, v. to*., to offer ; -eriaf s. f., 

qfieio (8), s. m., o£Sce, employment, 
profession, trade, official note ; -o^, 
s. m., officer, journeyman. 

{fiiifj adj. nuiii., eight 

oho {Z)f s. m., oil. 

olhOf 8. m., eye ; -ar, r, intr., to look ; 
— f 8. m., look. 

oUgarehia (2, ck = qu\ s. £, oli- 

Mfftf^^, T. tr., to omit, leave out 

I WMUpaUnUp adj., almighty. 
tnida^ a. f., wave, biUow. 
ond€^ adr., where. 
OMM, adj. num., eleven. 
(>pintdo,~B, f., opinion. 
oppoTt y. tr., to oppose ; opptntOf p* 

p., opposed, opposite. 
opprimir, r. tr., to oppress. 
opprobrio (8), s. m., disgrace. 
cptimo (8), a^j. superL, best, very 

opulerUo, adj., opulent, wealthy, 
oro^ adv., now. 
oroffdOj 8. f., oration, prayer, sentence 

(gramm.) ; 'dor, a. m., orator, 

ordem (2), a. f., order; -«r, t. tr., to 

order, dispose, to ordain, bid ; 

-adoy 8. m., salary, income. 
ordinario (8), adj., ordinary, mean. 
orelha, a. f, ear (the outer ear). 
off^ (2), orphSiO, a. m., orphan. 
orgdo (2)) s. m., organ. 
orgulhOf 8. m., pride; -<mo, adj., 

orienUf s. m., orient, east 
origem (2), s. f., origin. 
ornaTt v. tr., to adorn, deck. 
0690, a. m., bone. 
ostrGy 8. f., oyster, 
otf, conj., or, either. 
<wro, s. m., gold ; hum (2), s. m., 

owar, ▼. intr., to dare; -cwfo, adj., 

daring, bold ; -dia (2), s. £, dar 

ing, boldness, audacity. 
ouUirOf 8. m., hill. 
outono (2), si m., autumn, fall. 
outrOy adj., other, another; — fanto, 

as much more; outra vtz, again, 

once more ; -tMnU, adv., otherwise, 

OuMrOt October. 

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cwrir, Y, tr. and intr^ to hear; 4nfoy 
1. m^ hearer; -ido, s. m., hearing, 
ear (inner). 

avtlha, a. t, sheep, ewe. 

090, B. m., egg. 

oxM, inteij., would to God ! 

focharrny a. t, sluggiahneaa ; -«ito, 

adj., sluggiah, phlegmatio. 
jfociencia (8), a. 1, patience. 
jHtdrado, a. m., stepiather. 
jMkff«, a. m., father, priest. 
padrinho, s. m., godfather. 
pagdo, s. m., pagan, heathen. 
^Ktgar, r. tr.^ to pay ; -menio, s. m., 

payment ; -dor, a. m., paymaster, 

pa4, a. m., father; -t, pi., parents. 
/Mits (pa-vf^B, m., countzy, land. 
paix&o, 8. f., passion. 
palaeio (8), s. m., palace; -ct^ s. 

m., mansion. 
pcilavra (2), s. f, word. 
palhOf 8. f, straw. 
folUdo (3), adj., pale; -dtz^ a. f., 

palpavel (2), adj., palpable. 
jHsmpMtto (2), a. m., pamphlet 
.^oftftd, a. m., doih. 
pantano (2), a. m., swamp; -oto, 

adj., swampy, marshy. 
pSOf a, m., bread, loaf. 
pdo, s. m., wood, stick ; paulada, s. 

£, a licking. 
papa^ s. m., pope. 
papai (1), s. m., papa. 
papd, 8. m., paper, part 
paqueU (2), s. m., packet 
par, adj., even ; *-, s. m., pair, 

para, prep., for, towards, to; — , 

conj., in order to ; — ipu, conj., in 
order that 
parabeiu (1), a. m. pL, congratnla. 

paraiso (2, para-uo), a. m., para- 


parar, t. intr., to stq), stay. -^ 
/wfxMP^ (1), a. m., umbreUa. 
pareuU, adj., partial. 
pareeer, ▼. intr., to appear, seem, to 
look like (com) ; — , s. m., opinion, 
judgment; ndo,^, p., resembling^ 
pariicuiar, adj., particnlar, private. 
parede (2), a. f., wall. 
parenU, s. m. and f., relation, rela- 
tive; 'tesco, a. m., relationship. 
parir, v. tr., to bring forth, bear. 
parridio (8), a. m., parricide. 
pari€, a. f., part, share ; dor — , to 

participar, v. tr., to participate 
communicate, impart; — , v. intr., 
to partake, share. 
partir^ v. tr., to divide, sever, cut in 
two ; — , V. intr., to break in two, 
to depart, start, leave ; -ida, a. £, 
departure; -ido, a. m., party. 
pasquim, s. m., pasquinade, UbeL 
pauapoHe, s. m., passport 
patsaro (8), a. m., bird. 
pa8to, s. m., paas, step, pace ; hit, t. 
tr. and intr., to pass, cross, pierce^ 
to- go beyond, outstrip, etc. ; eomo 
passa Vm^f how are you? -ado, 
p. p. and a. m., past; -^iffem (2, a. 
£, passage; 'Hftiro, ac||., passing, 
transitory; — , a. m., passenger; 
passatempo, s. m., pastime. 
patenU, s. f., patent. 
paUmo, adj., paternal. 
paUbulo (8), a. m., gaIIows> pilloiy. 
pato, a. m., duck. 

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paUia (3), ■. t, natire coantrj. 

pairulAa, s. t, patrol. 

paa, a. t, peace. 

pi, 8. m., foot ; ao — de, near, close 

pegUf 8. f., piece, trick. 

peeeadOy b. m., siii ; -t^, 8. m , sin- 

peeego (3, ^), 8. m., peach. 

pedant 8. m., piece, bi^ firagment 

pedir, r. tr., to ask, beg, praj, de- 
mand ; 'do, 8. m., or ^da, a. t, de- 
mand, request, entreaty. 

pedra, a. f., stone ; 'Hw, 8. m., ma- 
son, bricklayer. 

J^sdro, Peter. 

peffor, T. tr. and intr., to take, seize, 
lay hold of, to stick. 

peior, a^. comp., worse. 

peito, 8. m., breast. 

peixe, 8. m., fish. 

pdls, 8. f., skin. 

pena, s. £, pain, trouble, pity, pen- 
alty, panishment. 

pender, r. intr., to hang, be sus- 
pended, to impend. 

pendurar, r. tr., to hang up. 

pentirar, r. tr., to penetrate. 

penna, s. t, feather, plume, pen. * 

pensdo, 8. t, pension. 

pentar, t. tr., to think; -minio, s. 
m., thought 

penU, B. m., comb; -ear, y. tr., to 

pequeno (2), adj., small, little. 

pera, s. f., pear. 

ptratUe, prep., before, in presence of. 

p0red)€r, v. tr., to perceive. 

percorr^, y. tr., to trarel through or 
over, to peruse. 

perder, y. tr,, to lose ; •«, y. refl., to 
lose one's self, to Jose one's way; 
;da, 8. t, loss. . 

pmUg, 8. f., partridge. 

perdooTyX, it,, to pardon, forgive; 
-ddo, 8. m., forgiveness. 

pereceTt y. intr., to perish. 

perfeito, adj., perfect 

perjiio (3), a^j., perfidious ; -4^ (8), 
8. C, perfidy, treachery. 

pergatninko, a. m., parchment 

pergunta, s. f., question ; -or, v. tr., 
to ask, inqnire. 

perigo (2), s. m., peril, danger, haz- 
ard ; -0M>, adj., dan^rous, perilous. 

periodo (8), s. m., period. 

ptrmiUir, v. tr., to permit, allow. 

pema, s. f, leg. 

perola (3), s. f., pearl. 

perseguir, y. tr., to persecute, pur- 
sue ; '^do, s. f., persecution. 

personificar, y. tr., to personify. 

pertpeeUva (2), s. £, perspective, 

penuttdir, v. tr., to persuade. 

periencer, y. intr., to belong. 

perio, adv., near. 

per^ 8. m., turkey. 

perterao, adj., perverse, wicked. 

perverier, v. tr., to pervert, corrupt 

peaar (or peear), y. tr. and intr., to 
weigh, to grieve, a£3ict \ a '— de, 
prep., in spite of, despite, notwith- 
standing ; — qite, conj., although; 
-ado, adj., heavy; peto, s. m., 
weight ; papel d$ — , letter-paper. 

peesimo (3), adj. superl, worst, very 

peuoa (2, S), s. f., person ; -al, adj., 

petifdo, 8. f., petition. 

pharol {or far.), s. m., light-house. 

p?imomeno (8), s. m., phenomenon. 

physiognomia (2), s. f., physiogno- 

piloto (2X B. m., pilot, mat». 

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jfifUar, T. tr.> to piint; 'Or, «. m., 
painter ; Hffo, 8. 1, painting. 

pipa, s. t, a pipe (= 2 hogsheads). 

j>i^iM, t. m.j tr a — ^, to sink (of ves- 

jpuar, Y, tr. and intr., to tread, to 
hurt, hroise. 

jfiiada, a. f., a pinch of eaxdL 

plamta (2, i), s. m., planet. 

piano, B. m., plan, scheme, project 

plaUa, 8. t, pit. 

po, 8. m., dust ; poi, pi., powder, 

pobre, adj., poor; -«i», s. f., pov- 

podtr, Y. aux., to be able, can, maj ; 
— , s. m., power; -cwo, aiy., pow- 

^ erful, might. 

/>0(2r«, adj., rotten, putrid. 

pceta (2, Oi s* °^*> po«^; '^^'t* ('2)> >• 
£, poetess ; poema (2), s. m., poem. 

J70M, ady., well, why, then ; — «ao, 
certainly ; — que, conj., as, since. 

poUgada (or poll.), s. £, inch. 

policia (8), s. f., j^olice. 

polUiea (3), 8..f., policy> politics; -o, 
adj., political ; — , s. m., politician. 

polvora (8), s. f., gun-powder. 

ponU, s. f., bridge. 

poniifice (3), s. m., pontiff. 

potUo, s. m., point, stop. 

potUudl, adj., punctmd. 

populaga (2), s. f., populace, mob. 

por, prep., by, for, through. 

por, T. tr., to put, set, place. 

porfSOf 8. f., portion, share, 

porcelanOf s. t, porcelain, china. 

poreo, 8. m^ pig, hog ; -aria (2), s. 
f., filth, dirt, uncleanliness. 

porem, conj., but, yet, however. 

porfia (2), 8. f , obstinacy, persever- 
ance ; -ar, v. intr., to persevere. 

pors%t4 (1), adv., why. 

porreU (2, B), s. m.» cudgel ; -ada, 8. 
m., a blow with a stick, a beat- 

p&rta, s. £, door. 

portanto, conj., therefore. 

portdo, 8. m., gate. 

porto, 8. m., port, harbor. 

ponfSo, B. t, position, situation. 

po^vd (2), adj., possible. 

powu^^ T. tr., to possess, own. 

potto, 8. m., place, post. 

potto qw, conj., though, although. 

potavel, adj., potable. 

povco, adj., littie. 

poupar, V. tr., to spare, save. 

pow, s. m., people, nation ; -or, v. 
tr., to people; -a^, s. £, village, 
small town. 

pra^, 8. f., place, square. 

praga, s. f , plague. 

praia, s. f., shore, beach. 

prata, s. f., silver, plate. 

pratica (8, or praet.), s. f., practice ; 
-co, adj., practical ; -ear, v. tr., to 
practise, do. 

prato, 8. m., plate, dish. 

prazer, s. m., pleasure ; — , v. intr., 
to please. 

praao, s. m., term, instalment. 

preeario (8), adj., precarious. 

prtcedenU, adj., preceding; 8. m., 

preedto, s. m., precept, mandate: 

prtcipicio (8), s. m., precipice. 

preeipiteifdo, s. t, precipltation,ha8te^ 
hurry ; -ado, adj., precipitate, has- 
ty, hurried. 

preciso, adj., precise, necessary ; -«r, 
V. intr., to want, need ; preetMo, it 
is necessary ; -do, 8. £, preeisloiiy 
want, necessity. 

prego, 8. m., prioe. 

pndiUeto, adj., &vorite. 

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fr«Mo (8y €)t 8. m., fium, lot, lumM- 

pr^eritt v. tr., to priefer« 

prego^ 8. m., nail ; -or, ▼. tr.^ to nail. 

preguifa (2), a. f., idlenesa, laziness ; 
-090, adj., lazj. 

fr^udicaTj t« tr., to prejudice, in- 

-jnre; -«»a^.adj., injorioua ; ^rff v- 
izo, 8. m., prejudice, dafnagf>, loaa^ 

prtmio (8), 8. m., premiuin, prise, 
# prenda, 8. t, talent, aocompUshment; 
-ado, adj., talented, accompliirtied. 

prendetf ▼. tr., td arri^t 

ftreparory t. tr., to prepare ; -tivw, 
B. m. pL, preparations. 

preacrevtr^ v. tr., to prescribe, ordain. 

pre^^ndar^ t. tr., to be present at, 
to witness. 

prtsenUj ac^j. and s. m^, present 

preHdir, r. intr., to preside. 

pretOf p. p., arrested ; — ,8 m., pris- 

pr$8»a, s. f., haste; a — ^ hastily. 

prusao, s. f., pressure. 

/retiar, r, tr., to lend, give j — iervi- 
go8f to render senrices; ^Juramet^ 
tOf to take an oath ; — , ▼. intr., to be 

. iMsrrioeable ; itto ndopreda, this is 
good for nothing, this will not do. 

pretUSy adj., ready. 

presumirt ^< ^-r ^ presume. 

prMuntOf 8..m., ham. 

prttendtr^ t. tr., to pretend, claim, 
to intend. 

pretexto (« z=^«), s. m., pretext, pre- 
tence ; -tar^ t. tr., to pretend. 

preio, adj., black. 

prevtUeceTf v. intr., to preyail.' 

previr, r, tr., to foresee. 

pret>io.i^\ adj., previous. 

prezoTt T. tr., to esteem, ralue. 

primavtira (2), s. t, spring. 

pnmeiro, adj., first 

pHmOf 8. m., cousin ; •«, s. f., female 

primor, s. m., consummate skill. 

prineipe (8), s. m., prince; -ceea, s. 
£, princess. 

prineipio (8), a. m., principle, be- 
ginning; "iar^ T. tr. and intr., to 
begin ; •'OmU^ a. m., beginner. 

pritdOf a. £, prison, imprisonment ; 
pritioHiipo, t. m., prisoner (of 

pHoar, T. tr., to deprive ; -«<f«, adj., 
private ; -fdOf s. f., privation. 

privilegio (8), s. m., privilege. 

probUma (2), s. m., problem. 

probOf acy.» righteous, honest; -idadtf 
8. £, probity, integrity, righteous- 

proceder, v. intr., to proceed, be- 
have ; -dmetito, s. m., proceeding, 

processot s. m., process, law-suit; 
-«r, V. tr., to try. 

proelamar, v. tr., to proclaim. 

proeuroTf y. tr., to procure, to seek, 
look for ; -fdo, s. f., procuration ; 
— hadanUf full power. 

prodtufiVf T. tr., to produce. 

profetBor^ v. tr., to profess ; -fiuao, 
8. f., profession, trade. 

progrediff r. intr., to progress, ad- 
prohUdrf t. tr., to prohibit, forbid. 
prqjecto, s. m., project, plan. 

prcmeUeTt ▼. tr., to promise ; -fnef«a, 

s. f., promise. 
promoveTf v. tr., to promote. 
prompto {protUo), adj., ready, 

pronuneiar, t. tr., to pronounce; 
-foo, or pronuneia (8), ■. t, pro- 

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yropoffor^ r. tr., to proptgtte. 
propenao, •4j-i indined ; sSo, %, f., 

propkda (2), R m., prophet 
pnjpor, T. tr., to propose; -potkt, s. 

£, proposal;, -poHto (8), s. m., 

parpose; w o — , to come on 

purpose, to oome at the right time. 
propria (8), adj., proper, very, own ; 

dU — , himself; — , s. m., express, 

messenger; -iedatU, s. t, propertj. 
prorofftper, ▼. intr., to hurst out 
proMguir, t. tr. and intr., to pursue, 

to go on. 
proipeeto, s. m., prospect, riew. 
protpero (8), acy., prosperous. 
proteger, t. tr., to protect, patronize. 
prova, 8. £, proof; -or, ▼. tr., to 

prove, to taste. 
provHto, s. m., profit, gain. 
provtr^ (8), s. m., proverb. 
provineia (8), s. f., province. 
proQsimo (8), acg., near, next ; — fu- 

iurOf next coming ; — pastado, last 
pubUeo (8), adj., public 
^Wor, V. intr., to leap. 
punhdlf s. m., poniard, dagger; -a</a, 

s. f., stab. 
punhOf s. m., fist, hand-writing. 
punir, V. tr., to punish. 
pvro, acy., pure ; -tsM, s. t, puritj. 
pvxar, V. tr., to polL 

guademo (or e<k2.), s. m., copj-book, 

quadra^ s. f, square, block, season. 
guadrcufo, adj. and s. m., square. 
gwtdrOf s. m., picture. 
guiU, pron. rel. and interr., which. 
! guaUdade, s. f., quality. 
gualgutr, pron. ind., any. 

Igwm^, adv^ when; — mmto, at 
moat; —imeniOi, at least 

guanUa (8), s. £, quantity, amount 

^vaiito, adj., how much ; — a mim, 
as for me. 

gvdo, adv., how. 

quartdf s. m.,quarter, barracks, quar- 
ters; — general, head-quarters. 

quarto, adj., fourth. 

guarto, s. m., fourth, quarter, voom, 

gvaai (2), adv., almost, nearly. 

quatro, acy. num., four. 

gve, conj., that, than ; ^, pron. reL 
and interr., who, which, that, what 

qwbrar, v. tr. and intr., to break, to 
fiul,^beoome bankrupt ; ^ado, s. m., 
fraction ; qud^ra, s. £, breadi, fiul- 
nre, bankruptcy. 

quSda, s. f., fall. 

queifOf s. m., cheese. 

queimar, v. tr., to bum. 

queixaru, v. refl., to oomplsin; 
gueixOf s. f., -ume, s. m., complaint 

^«#m, pron. rel. and interr., who. 

qu&nie, adj., warm, hot. 

quer, conj., or, either. 

querer, v. tr., to want, will, be wil- 
ling; — hem a algvem, to like^ 
wish well, mean well to somebody, 
to love ; -idOf p. p., beloved, dear. 

quesidOf s. £, question. 

quieto (2, £), adj., quiet 

quinhao, a. m., portion. 

quinta, s. f., country-seat, farm. 

quinUd, s. m., hundredweight, gai^ 
den (about the housed yard. 

r&a, s. f., frog. 

rabeca (2), s. f., fiddle, violin. 
rabo, s. m., tail. 
rofa, s. £, race, kind, breed. 

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raeioeinio (S), s. m., reaioiiing, ar- 
rainka, s. t, queen. 
raio, 8. m., nj, thanderbolt 
ntiva, a. £, rage, fary. 
roi0 (1), 8. f., root; b&tu de — , real 

eatate, landed property. 
ramOf a. m., branch, bongh, boaqnet, 

rapatt, adj., rapaeiona. 
rajHU^ 8. m., hoj, lad; -fjida, a. m., 

great, big boj ; -riga (2), a. £, giri, 

fti;»i{2o (Z\ a^., rapid, quick ; -deg, 

8. f., rapidity, yelocitj. 
rapoia (2, ^), 8. f, fox. 
raro, adj.^ rare, scarce; -amemUf adj., 

rarelj, aeldom. 
rasgoTy v. tr., to tear. 
tast^art r. intr., to creep ; d€ rado, 

a — , creeping, bj force, dragged. 
ratOf 8. m., rat, mouse, 
rosdlo, 8. f, reason ; a — <£«, at the 

rate of, in proportion ; rasoavel, 

B/^.f reasonable. 
re, 8. f., T. reo. 
realt adj., real, royal. 
real, s. m., ree (an imaginary coin). 
nhanko, 8. m., flock, herd. 
rdfdde, s. m., rebel. 
r^Miar, y. tr. and intr., to break, 

reeadOf 8. m., message, errand ; tnan- 

dar — , to send word. 
reeahir, t. intr., to fall back, to re- 
reeeber, r. tr., to receire, get ; reap- 

foOf 8. f , reception. 
receiOf s. m., fear, apprehension ; -ar, 
. V. tr., to fear; -cso, adj., fearful, 

reeenie, adj., recent; reeem = re- 

eenUmente, adr., recently, newly. 

neoirar, t. tr., to reooTer. 
r^eompensa, 8. 1, reward. 
reeoneiUar, t. tr., to reconcite. 
neonheeer, r. tr., to recognize, to ac^ 

knowledge ; -ido, p. p., thankful ; 

-mtnto, 8. m., gratitude. 
rtoordart r. tr., to recall, remind; 

-M, T. refl., to rect^ect ; -apd^ s* 

1, recollection, remembrance. 
reeorrer, t. intr., to have recourse. 
reereio, a. m., recreation. 
reeuar, r. intr., to recoil, draw back, 

recfuperar, v. tr., to recover. 
rtcunOy 8. m., recourse, resource. 
recutar, v, tr., toTcfuse, deny. 
redadOTf s. m., editor (of a journal). 
ridtOt 8. f., rein ; d ~ iolia, full speed. 
redobrar, t. tr. and intr., to redou- 
redando, adj., round. 
redor, a. m., ao — , round, about. 
redugir, t. tr., to reduce, bring down. 
refem (1), s. tn., hostage. 
rfferir, t. ^., to refer, relate. 
r^flediTf r. intr., to reflect ; -asdo, a. 

f., reflection. 
refuffiar-^, y. refl., to take refuge, 

to flee. 
regidOf s. f , region. 
regosf^fOf a. m., enjoyment, joy ; -ta^ 

M, T. refl., to rejoice. 
reffra, s. f., rule. 
regre890f s. m., regress, return. 
regular, adj., regular, middling ; — , 

▼. tr., to regulate. 
rei, 8. m., king ; -no, a. m., kingdom ; 

•-luir, T. intr., to reign ; -ado, s. m., 

riUy pi. of real, rees. 
rejntar, v. tr., to reject. 
relacSo, s. f., relation, intercourse. 
rdmnpago (8), a. m., lightning, flash. 

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rdcgio (8), s. mi» dock, wateh ; 'J<h I 
giro, 1. m., walchmaker. 

rdva, ft. £, greeoftwardl, grftss. 

rmneddo (8), s. m., remedy, medicine ; 
'OTf r. tr. and intr., to remedy, 

remtUer, t. tr., to remit (money). 

remiiUr^ r. tr., to remit, pardon. 

remorwOf a. m., lemorse. 

remover^ r. tr., to remove, displace. 

reruucer, r. intr., to be bom again. 

rendOf a. £, lace. 

rendOf b. f., rent, income ; -^, t. tr., 
to yield, to rent; -fnnUo, a. m., 

rente, adr., close. 

ril^, s. m. (fem.rO> defendant, ac- 

rtparar, v. tr., to repair ; — , y. intr. 
{•em), to observe, pay attention; 
reparo (2), s. m., repair. 

repatUr, r. tr., to divide, distribute ; 
'-fdo, s. f., distribution, department 

repaaear, t. tr., to repass, recross. 

repente, de — , suddenly ; -ino, adj., 

rtpeiir, v. tr., to repeat. 

rqnear, t. tr., to ring (the church- 

repUcar, r. intr.j'to reply. 

repoueo, s. m., repose, rest 

reprehender, r. tr., to reprehend, re- 
primand, blame, reproacb. 

r^eeeniar, t. tr., to represent, to 
play (at the theatre). 

reprimirt r. tr., to repress, restrain. 

reptUf s. m., reptile. 

repubUoa (3>, s. f., republic. 

repvgnar, r. intr., to be contrary or 

requereTf v. tr., to require, request; 
•mefUo, 8. m., request, petition. 

reHdir, r. intr., to reside, dwell, lire ; 

-eiUe, adj. and s. m., residing, d«u* 

reeittir, r. intr., to resist, withstand. 
reipeito, s. m., respect, esteem, re- 
gard; -ar, y. tr., to respect; -^tota, 

a^j., respectful. 
retponder, y. tr. and intr., to answer, 

reply ; reepaeta, s. f., answer ; -m- 

vel, adj., responsible. 
rettdbdeeer, y. tr., to reestablish \,-8e, 
, y.refl., to.reooyer. 
redUuir, y. tr., to restore, return. 
rteuUar, y. intr., to result; -ado, s. 

m., result 
rtUrar, y. tr., to withdraw; -«, y. 

refl., to retire, withdraw, retreat; 

•Uro (2), s. m., retirement, retreat 
retraeto {retrato), s. m., likeness, 

portrait; ror, y. tr., to draw from 

life, to make a portrait ; -ista, a. 

m., portrait-painter. 
reunir, r. tr., to unite, gather. 
revet^er, y. intr., to revert 
revedir, v. tr., to clothe, to invest 
revogar, y. intr., to revoke, repeaL 
revoUa, s. f., revolt, mutiny. 
r«f, s. f., head of cattle. 
rezar, v. intr., to pray. 
BhenOj Rhine. 
rico, adj., rich, wealthy; -UffO, sdj. 

and s. m., very rich ; -^ueea, s. £, 

riches, wealth. 
rigor, a, m., rigor; -oso, adj., rigor- 
ous, severe. 
rinchar, y. intr., to neigh. 
rio, s. m., river. 
rir, v. intr., or -w, y. refl., to laugh ; 

•eo, s. m., -tada, s. f., laughter; 

-adinha, s. t, -tittering.^ 
rieca, s. f., dash, stroke, stripe; & — , 

literally, punctually, to the letter; 

-or, v. tr., to stripe, to strike out. 
rieoo, s. m., risk, danger. 

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roekedo (2), s. m^ rocl^ clif^ cnig. 

roda, a. f., wheeL 

rodsar^ r. tr., to smrouiid. 

roer, v. te., to gnaw. 

roffo, 8. m., entreaty, request; -or,, to pray, entreat 
rolar^ t. tr. and intr., to rolL 
romda, s. f., pomegranate. 
romper, y, tr. and intr., to break, 

rend, to burst; o — do dia, day- 
fYMo, 8. £, rose ; -Hra, au £^ rose-bosh. 
rottOy s. m., face. 
roubaTy t. tr.^ to ro|l>^ steal ; -o, s. m., 

robbery, theft. 
raueo, adj., hoarse. 
roup<iy s. £, clothes. 
rouxinol, s. m., nightingale. 
TfMy 8. £, street. 
ruW or ruHm, s. m., ruby. 
fWtf, aoy., rode, rough, ignorant; 

-eza, 8. £, rudeness, ignorance. 
fn<»/» (2), adj., bad, worthlesf ; nUna 

(2), s. f., ruin^ destruction. 
nuUco (8), adj., rustic, boorish; — , 

8. m.., rustic, clown, boor. 


sabbado (3), s. m., Saturday. 

sabety v. tr., to know, to hear or 
learn ; — , s. m., learning, knowl- 
edge; -doria (2), s. f., learning, 
wisdom; tabio (3), adj., wise, learn- 
ed ; 'dor, a(y., acquainted with. 

taeary r, tr., to draw, pull out, to 
draw (mercant). 

ioccoy 8. m., sack, bag. 

taeii/kio (8), s. m., sacrifice; -car, v. 
tr., to sacrifice. 

9acrilegi$ (8), s. m., sacrilege; -go 
(8), adj., sacrilegious. 

»adio (2), adj., healthy, robust, sound- 

iqfar-M, v. refl., to escape. 

iOffog, 84j., lagaeious^ ehrewd. 

ta^rado, a^j.* aacred. 

tahir, y. intr., to go or eome out ; 
•fdoy 8. 1, egress, going out 

B(dy 8. m., salt ; -ffor, t. tr., to salt. 

talOy 8. £, parior; -do, a. m., saloon, 
drawing-room, ball-room. 

taUiodor, 8.m., highwayman, robber. 

dalttbr€ (2), adj., wholesQme. 

talvar, t. tr., to save ; -dor, s. m., 
aaTior ; -vo, adj., safe ; a teu talto, 
safely, without danger. . 

wneto (iarUo), mij. and a. m., holy, 
saint ; 4idad€^ a. f., holinesa ; 'fiear^ 
T. tr., to sanctify, hallow. 

•angu€^ a. m., blood ; —-frioy & m., 
cold blood, sang-froid, presence of 
mind, oalmness; -^noUnto^ adj., 

aSo (fern. «da), a^j., sound^ safe, un- 

«do, abbrer. for ianeto, 

sapato (2), s. m., shoe; -«tro, s. m., 

saque, s. m., plunder, pillage; vuUer 
a — , or taqueaPy v. tr., to sack, 
pillage, plunder. 

8ardinha, s. £, sardine. 

satU/azery v. tr., to satisfy, to please; 
'/eito, p. p., satisfied, pleased, con- 
tented ; 'fqcpdo, 8. f., satisfaction, 
account; -^orio (8), adj. - 

saudadsy s^ £, longing. 

MKM/or, T. tr., to greet. 

saude («), s. £, health; -aw^, acfj., 
healthy, wholesome. 

Mudoto, adj., longing, yearning;. 

fiC^iMZ, 8. f., scene. 

scieneia (8), s. f., science. 

sey conj., if, whether. 

M, pron. refl. and recipr., one's sel^ 
himself, eto., each other. 

sSy s. C, seat, see, cathedraL ^ 

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to drj ; -coi, b. nu pi., groceries. 
9ecretario (8), s. m., secretaiy. 
9eerao (2), adj., seeret. 
Meu^ (8), t. m., eeotuij, age. 
Mda, 8. f y silk. 
«€<2e, 8. f., thirst; esUsr eom — , ier 

— , to be thirstj; -enio, tudj., thirstf , 

thirstiog for. 
te^redo (2), s. m., secret 
§effuir,r. tr. and intr., to follow ; -inU, 

adj., next, foUowiog. 
teffundOf adj., second. 
tegundo, prep., according to; — , 

coDJ.y as. 
seffuro, adj., secure, sure, certain, 

safe; — , s. m., insurance; -ar, r. 

tr., to secure, hold fast, to insure ; 

-Afipa, 8. f., safetj. 
seio, s. m., bosom. 
ms, adj. num., six. 
tellar, r. tr., to saddle. 
advagem (2), adj. and s. m., savage, 

$an, prep., without; — - que, conj., 

•emana (2), s. f., week. 
umblante, s. m., face, figure, counte- 
nance, aspect. 
temear, r. tr., to sow ; -enU, s. f., seed. 
•emslhante, adj., similar, resembling, 

like ; -anffa, s. f., resemblance. 
sempre, adr., always, ever. 
temsaboria (2), s. if., insipidity. 
t^nado (2), s. m., senate; -dor, s. m., 

eendOf conj., if not, else, bnt, but also. 
tenhoTf 8. m., lord, master; -a, s. f,, 

mistress; -ta (2), s. f., lordship, 

tenso, 8. m., sense. 
ierUarse, r. refl., to sit down ; -ado, 

p. p., sitting; etUtr — ., to sit 

I aenimfo, 8. f., sentence, judgment; 

-tor, T. tr., to sentence. 
teniindlii, s. f, sentrj, sentinel. 
serUir, r. tr., to feel, to griere, be 

sorrj ; -m£o, p. p., grieved, offend* 

ed ; — ^,8. m., sense, meaning, care ; 

famar — , to take care, faeed; 

-mento, s. m., feeling. 
teparar, v. tr., to separate; -m, t. 

refl., to part. 
9^9«Uar, V. tr.,4o bury; -tura, s. £, 

grave; -cro, s. m., sepulchre. 
Hquer, adv. ; nem — , not even. 
MT, V. intr.>and aux., to be; — ,8. 

m., being. 
iereno (2), 8. m., night-dew: 
ureno, adj., serene, clear; 'issimo, 

adj. Buperl., title given to princes 

and princesses. 
nrie (3), s. f, series. 
serio (3), adj., serious, earnest 
terr€t, s. f, saw, range of mountains. 
iertdo, 8. m., interior, inland. 
eervir, v. tr. and intr., to serve, to 

help ; -iffo (2), s. m., service ; -^do^ 

8. f , slavei^. 
tete, adj. num., seven. 
setimt 8. m., satin. 
seu (fem. tua), pron. poss., his, her, 

its, their, hers, theirs, one's. 
tigiUo, 8. m., seal. 
tignalj 8. m., signal, sign, mark. 
ngmifieaTf v. tr., to signify. 
HUneio (8), s. m., sflence. 
Mm, adv., yea: ^■ 
9imfU$, adj., simple. 
Hneero (2), adj., sincere. 
iino, 8. m., bell. 
ntio (8), 8. m., siege; -ar^jr. tr., to 

tUuoffdOf 8. f , situation, site. 
«$, adj. and adv., alone, only, but; 

"tnente, adv., only, scdely. 

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400^^, 8. m.y floor. 

mw, T. intr., to sound, ring. 

9ob, prep., under. 

Mberbo (I), adj., ph>nd, hangbtjr. 

sobre, prep., orer, npon, on ; -comko, 

8, t, overcoat ; -meco, a. f., dessert ; 

-idltado^ p. p.» startled, surprised, 
' amased ; -tudo, adr., abore all ; 

— , s. m., orercoal. 
soMnho, 8. DL, nephew ; -a, niece. 
toeegQ (2, 2), 8. m., quiet, repose; 

-or, T. intr., to be quiet 
iodo (3), 8. m., partner, associate, 

member (of societies) ; -edade, s. £, 

iofrer, r. tr., to suffer, bear; -ivd, 

adj., tolerable ; -mento, s. m., suf- 

ioffro, s. m., father-in-law ; -a, mother- 

tolf a. m., sun. 

addado, s. m., soldier. 

«o^, 8. m., paj, hire. 

$oUar, T. tr., to let loose, nnfiuten, 
release; 4o, p. p., loose, released. 

mfUeiro^ adj., single, unmarried. 

tohtTt T. tr., to solre. 

tambra,s, f., shade, shadow, protec- 
tion, shelter. 

tombrio (2), adj., dark, gloomj. 

tomma, s. f., sum. 

sono, 8. m., sleep. 

sonoro (2), adj., sonorous. 

idpa, 8. f., soup ; -mto, s. f., terrine 

torprender, r. tr., to surprise, aston- 
,ish ; -prega, s. t^ surprise. 

torrir, ▼. intr., to smile. 

9orU, % f., lot, chance, fate, sort^ 
kind, manner ; <fr — ^tM, so thai - 

wrUmeniOf 8. m., assortment. 

$bnnho{ot apg.\ adj., alone. 

tuGf fem. of Mtf. 

MOM (8), mQ., soft, sweet 

tttidito (pr. «iiiito), 8. DL, subject. 

M(6»r, T. tr. and intr., to go or come 
up, to mount, rise; -ido, acQ., 
high ; -ida, s. £, ascent 

iubito (8), adj., sudden; ift — , on a 
sudden, suddenljr. 

ati^^ar, r. tr., to subjugate, subdue. 

iublims (2), adj., sublime. 

iubmetter, r. tr., to subject, reduce ; 
•M, T. refl., to submit 

iubomar^ ▼. tr., to bribe; -o, s. m., 

««dfo7(pr. fv^Q, adj., subtle, shrewd. 

8ubtrahir-ie, r. refl., to aroid, escape. 

tucetder, t. intr., to succeed, to hap- 
pen ; -MMO, s. m., success. 

MM«wm5t>, T. intr., to succumb, sink 

tuetUf s. m., south-east 

tvjficienU, adj., sufficient, enough. 

tufocar, T. tr. and intr., to suffocate, 
smother, stifle; -atUef adj., suffo- 

tuieidio (8), s. m., suicide. 

iuJeitOf adj. and s. m., subject, per- 
son, fellow ; -M, T. refl., to submit 

tujo, adj., dirtj,- nastj. 

ml, 8. m., south. 

tumir^f T. refl., to ranish, disap- 
pear. ' 

mmmo, adj., highest 

eumo, 8. m., sap, juice. 

tvor, s. m., sweat perspiration. 

tuperfieie (8), s. £, surface. 

tuperfiuo (8), adj., superfluous. 

tupplica (8), s. f., petition, prajer. 

tuppor, T. tr., to suppose. 

tupprimir, r. tr., to suppress. 

iupprir, t. tr., to supply. 

tupremo (2), adj., supreme, chiet 

turdo, adj., deaC 

muetiar, r. tr., to excite, rouse. 

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§tuio, s. m., frigiit, 

ifvtoMi (2), 1^ OL, qriteai. 


tah e UiHo (pL •^), a. m., notaiy. 

iagartla (2% s, £, Ulker. 

<a{, adj., soch. 

talento, s. m., talent, aoeompUabmeni. 

tefilor, T. ir,, to cot. 

ta/Aer, 8. m., knife and Ibik. 

talv€9, tAr,, p«rtui^ 

iambem (IX «dj., alio, too. 

tammanAo, adj., so great, so large ; 
— , a. m., sise. 

tangue, a. m., tank, pond. 

tatUo, a<y. and adv., so macb. 

tdo, adr., so. 

tap€t€ (2), a. m., carpet. 

tardar, ▼. intr., to tarry, delaj. 

tor(^<, adj. and adr., late; — , a. £, 
aflemooD, evening, 

/ar^a (2), a. f., taak. 

tar^a (2), a. £, tariff. 

toor, T. tr., to rate, tax, to accuse. 

teeer, t. tr., weare. 

Ucto, B. m., roof, ceiling. 

UimOf s. f, obstinacy; -otOj adj., ob- 
stinate, atubbom. 

temer, r. tr., to fear, dread; -or, a. 
m., dread, awe. 

Umeridade, a. f., rasbness. 

temperadOf adj., temperate^ 

Utnpettttotp, a^j., stormy. ^ 

^«m^, s. m., time, weatber. 

Umporol, a. *m., storm, gale. 

Una»^ acQ., tenacious; — , s. £, pair 
of tongs. 


\ T. tr., to teaqvl^ to atteBpt» 
tiy ; -^, a« t, tampAation. 

<(00r, a. m., tenor, osbataneebpiivpoti. 

<ar,.T. tr. and aiu:., to have, to bold. 

terfeiro {ter^\ a^l** ^bu^ 

Urtdo (3), a, ii^» tcroetto, trio. 

faum'i i T , T. tr..aiid intr., to termi- 
nate, end, to pot tp end. 

tervM^ a. m., term, conditioii. 

<0Tia^ a. 1, earth, land, soil, groond. 

Urrmu4o (2), a. m., earthquake. 

tentniO (2), a. m., groond, piece of 

Umrirtj adj., terrestrioua, earthly. 
UrrUiOrio (8X a, m., territory. 
terrivd (2), adj., terrible. 
Uaoura^ a. £, acisaora. 
Uda^ a. f., forehead, fh>nt, brow ; & 

— 4i0, at the head oil 
UttameiUo^ 8. m., teatament, wilL 
tuUmunha, %, t, witness; -o, & m., 

teatiniooy, eridence. 
t€u (fern, tua), pron. poaa., tby , Ibine, 

your, yours. 
ihetUro (2), s. m., theatre. 
theologo (8), a. m., tbeologer, divine; 

-ia (2), a. £, theology, divinity. 
^Aefottro, a. m., treasure, treasury; 

-eirOf a. m., tieaanrer. 
Ugr^t a. m., tiger. 
tinnir, r. intr., to tinkle. 
tirUot a. f., -dye, tint) ink; -€in>, a, 

m., inkstand; -o, a^j., dyed; otnAo 

— , red wine. 
Uo^ 8. m., uncle ; -a, aunt. 
tira^ 8. f., strip, slip; -^tr, t. tr., to 

draw, pull, to take away, remove ; 

•o, 8. m., shot; -dor^ %» m., rifle- 

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Utulo (8), s. m., title, right. 

toear, r. tr., to touch, to plaj (piAno, 
ete.) ; tocenne, I mm eotiUed to, I 

todavia (3)^ codJ., nerertheless, how- 
eyer, yet 

todo^ adj., all, whole, eTerj. 

tolo, adj. and s. m., fooliah, silly, 
fool; -iee (2), a. t, folly; -«»rdo, a. 
m., great fool. 

iomary t. tr., to take. 

tarmeniar (or atorm,), r. tr., to tor- 
ment, teaze; -o, a. f., torment; -a, 
a. f., storm. 

tartuw, T, tr. and intr., to torn, to 
retnm, to turn, become. 

torre, s. t, tower. . 

torrido (8), adj., torrid. 

tortOf adj., crook<%d. 

tctaly adj., total, utter. 

trabalho, a. m., work, labor, toil, suf- 
fering, trouble; -ar, r. intr., to 
work, to strire ; 'dor, s. m., work- 
man, laborer ; — , a^j., hard work- 
ing, laborious. 

trc^ar^ r. tr., to draw a line, to trace, 

tradar, v, tr. and intr., to treat, use, 
take care ; -ado, s. m., treaty, trea- 

tradtudr^f. tr., to translate; *^«tf^, 
s. f., translation. 

trqfieo (8), or trdfego^ s.* m., traffic, 
trade (especially slave-trade). 

irahir, r. tr., to betray; traidor^ s. 
m., traitor; -pdo, s. f., treason; 
foeirOt adj., treacherous. 

ttxt;e (traffe, trajo), s. m., apparel, 
costume ; -ar, r. tr., to wear. 

tranquUlo, adj., tran(|ail, calm. 

iran9aegd4>j s. f., transaction. 

tro^y s. m., rag. 

tr<ut€y s. m., piece of furniture. 

Ur<m, prep, and adr., behind. 

traur, t. tr., to bfing, to bear, wear, 

tremett r. intr., to tremble. 

Uru^ti/Si, num., three. 

tretpaatado, p. p., pierced, over- 
whelmed, overcome. 

trhoM^ 8. C pi., darkness. 

tribu (2), s. £, tribe. 

trigo^ a. m., wheat 

triplOf adj. and s. m., triple, treble. 

tripdagdo, s. £, crew. ' 

truie, adj., sad, poor, wretched, mis- 
erable ; -tzOf s. t, sadness. 

troeo, s. m., change ; a — </«, in ex- 
change for; -or, v. tr., to exchange, 
truck, barter. 

tropa, 8. £, troop. 

tropt^r^ V. intr., to stumble. 

tropico (8), a^j. and s. m., tropical, 

trovdu>; s. m., thunder; -^art v. intr., 
to thunder ; -voada, s. f., thunder- 

tubardo, a. m., shark. 

titdo^ s. m., all, everything. 

tutntUo (8), s. m., tomb. 

^«m«2^, s. m., tumult, uproar. 

tunica (8), s. t, tunic. 

^«^«^ (2), s. f., guardianship; -or, 
adj., tutelary ; anjo — , guardian- 

tutoTf s. m., tutor, guardian. 

tj/ranno, s. m., tyrant 

ufano (2), adj., vain, proud, glorying 
in ; -ar-M, v. refl., to boast of, glo- 
ry in. 

vUimo (8), adj., last. 

tM7», adj. num., one ; — , indeC art, 
a, an ; vns, pi , some. 

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unha, s. t, nail (of finger or toe), 

wtido, «. f., nnion. 
unieo (8), adj., onlf , soie. 
MntfamUf a, m., uniform, regimen- 

unir, T. tr., to nnite. 

nto, a. m., nse, nsage, custom; -or, 

T. intr., to use. 
titil (2), adj., useful; -idmU, s. f., 

utility, usefulness, 
ifoa, 8. t, grape. 

taeea, s. f., cow. 

9adio (2), adj., idle; — , s. m., Tagar 

bond ; -iar, r. intr., to be idle. 
tfogabundo, s. m., yagabond, ragrant. 
vagOf adj., vague, vacant, unoccu- 
pied ; haras vagtu^ leisure hours. 
taidade, s. f, vanitj. 
V€dv€n8 (1), s. m. pi., vicissitudes. 
valenU, adj., valorous, brave; -ia (2), 

8. £, valor, bravery. 
vaUr, V. intr., to be worth ; -ido (2), 

s. m., favorite, minion ; -or, s. m., 

valU, s. m., valley. 
varUagem (2), s. £, advantage^ profit ; 

•yo«o,'adj., advantageous. 
rdOf s. m., ford ; pasior a — , to ford. 
vdo, adj., vain, idle. 
vapor, s. m., vapor, steam, steamer. 
vario (3), adj., various; -os, several. 
vaso, s. m., vase, vessel. 
vegdar, v. intr., to vegetate. 
vela (or veUa), s. f., candle. 
c«^, s. f , sail. 

velhaeo (2), s. m., rascal, villain. 
velho, adj., old ; -ice, s. f., old age. 
velludo (2), s. m., velvet. 
veloz, adj., rapid, swift; -cidadey s. f„ 

, velocity, swiftness. 

tmeer, r. tr., to vanquish, conquer, 

gain; — , v. intr., to be due (of 

bills of exchange); -dor, s. m., 

victcM', conqueror. 
vender, v. tr., to sell ; -a, s. f., sale, 

small grocery, or liquor shop. 
veneno (2), a. m., venom, poison. 
venial, a^j., venial. 
vento, s. m., wind ; -ar, v. intr., to 

vir,T. tr., to see. 
wrSo, 8. m., summer. 
verdade, s. f., truth ; -eiro, adj., true, 

verde, adj., green, unripe; -ttra, 8. f., 

verdure; -at, pi., greens. 
ver^onAa, s. f., shame; ^ — -, to b« 

ashamed; -oeo, adj., shameful. 
verificar-u, v. refl., to be verified or 

vermelho, red; fiear (tomar) —, to 

blush, redden, color. 
vedir^ v. tr., to clothe, dress, wear; 

'Se, V. refl., to dress; -ido, s. m., 

t>«, 8. f., time; vma — , once; duos 

vegee, twice ; de vezes, sometimes ; 

muiUu — , often. 
via, a. f., way, means. 
viagem (2), s. t, voyage, journey, 

travels; -jar, v. intr, to travel; 

-jante, 8. m., traveller. 
vice-almirdnte, s. m., vice admiraL 
vicio (3), 8. m., vice. 
vuMma (3), s. f., victim. 
victoria (3), s. f , victory. 
v»(2a, 8. f., life. 
vidro, 8. m., glass ; -^a, s. f., puie^ 

vt^iar, T. tr. and intr., to watch. 
vigoroeo, adj., vigorous, strong. 
vU, adj., vile, base, dastardly; -€ 
8. t, baseness. 

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vimda, s. t, coming, aRinl; -imra, 

mdj,, ooming, future. 
ftmgar, r. tr., to ayenge; -m^ t. refl., 

to take revenge; -anga, s, £, re- 

Tenge ; -itUvo, adj., TindictiTe, re- 

vinhOt a. m., wine; -a, a. f., vine. 
vitUe, aty. num., twenty. 
9inUm, a. m., Tintin» a coin =t 20 

riit (nearly a oent). 
ftiolar, T. tr., to riolate. 
eir,T. intr., to oome; — a ur^ to be> 

wror^ T. tr. and intr., to torn, ehange; 

'■my T. refl., to torn roond. 
vitgea^ a. L and a^j., rirgin; mmo 

— , an nnparalleled caae. 
viriude, a. t, Tirtne. 
vi$e(md$, a. m., viaooant. 
vinia (2), a. t, yiait, caU. 
viHvd, a^., riaible. 
eic^ a. £, sight, view. 
ihUo que, oonj., oonsidering, aa, ainoe. 
viuvQ (2), a. m.y widower; -a, widow. 
vivtr^ y. intr., to liye; -«f (8)» a. m. 

pi., yictuala, proviaiona. 
tivQy adj., aliye, liye, quick, brisk, 

abarp; oo — -, to the qoiok, liyelj. 

VMMJb, a. m. and adj., neighbor; 
-«fi^, a. 1, neighborbood. 

voor, T. intr., to flj. 

voleSo, a. m., yolcano. 

fwAor, T. intr., to go or come back; 
-a, a. f., return ; idar de — i to be 
back; dor uma — > to take a walk. 

vonUuU, a. t, will, wiah, appetite. 

99990, pron. poaa., jour, youra. 

eoe, a. t, yoice. 

mj^, a. m., yulgar, mob; -odlo, a. 

asittfli, a. m., ahilling. 

Monffor, r. tr.^ to yex, annoy; -««, t. 

refl., to fret, to be angry, yezed. 
§elo, a. m., leal; -«to, a^j., lealooa, 

mmbar, r. intr., to joke, to jeer, 

mock; -aria (2), a. f., mockeryi 

tama, a. f., lone. 
mtnir, y. intr., to hum. 

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X' ■ 

abandon, abandonw. 

abbreriation, abbreviafdo. 

abdicate, abdiear. 

abjoet, alffido, vU, 

able, haHl, Mpm; to be — ,poder; 

ability, AtAiUdade, aqfoeidade. 
about, pr^., eerea de^ detrcOf ao6re. 
abo7e, adT., acima ; — , prap.> aeima 

absent, adj., au§enU ; to — one's 

self, afiMMi/ar-M. 
absolute, ahaoluto, 
absurd, ab$urdo, . 
abundant, abundanU, 
accept, OMiitor/ -able, oceiiaveL 
accident, aeddenU, 
accompany, aeon^nhar, 
accomplice, eompUce (8). 
accomplish, eumprir; -ment, te2e»- 

to,prenda; -ed, talentoto, prenda- 

do. . 
account, eonCaf taUsfiigdo/ on — of, 

par eausa d6. 
accuse, aeeutar, 
accustom, aeogtumar, 
ache, T., doer; — , s.,</<dr, f. 
acknowledge,' reeonheeer. 
acquainted, eonhscedorf Bcibedor; to 

be — with, eonheeer; -ance, eonhe- 

eimento; (a person) eonheeido. 
acrimony, aerimonia (3). 
across, atrateg, 

act, T., obrar, proeeder ; — , s., acta. 
adequate, adequado, 
adieu, adeot; to bid — , diur adeot. 
adjoining, ^'tt^to, peffodo, 
administer, odmitMrar ; -ator, 


admire, admirar,^ -ation, -ciffdo, 

admit, admUUr, 

admonish, admoettar; -itioui -apdoi. 

adopt, adopUw; -ttoli, -;do. 

adrance, adiantar, 

adrantage, vantagem, t ; -geons, 

adrersarj, <idwr9ario (8). 

adverse, adzerto, 

aeronautics, deronauUca (8), t 

affair, negodo (8). 

affection, affei^ / -nate, -i^xiio. 

afflict, affiigir; -tion, -tf^. 

afraid, to be — ^, ^ fMdo^ tdar com 

after, adr., dipoU; — , prep., i^^poit 

^, o^ros (itf / -ward, d^foii, 
afternoon, tarde, f. 
against, contra. 
age, idade. 
aggressor, iiggrenor. 
agile, o^ (2). 

agree, conoordar; -able, offradaveL 
agriculture, agrieuUura; -al, 'CuUor. 
ahead, adiante. 
aid, T., ajvdar, atMiir; — , s., <^ 

^ (2), OMu^ncia, a«x»^ (8). 
aim, aho. 
air, an 
alibi, alibi. 
alien, alkdo. 

all, adj., <<m29 / — , s., tudo: 
allude, dUudir ; -sion, -ado. 
almighty, omn^po^m^ fodi9po<2eroiMw 
almost, ^woM. 
alms, stmola (2). < 
alone, «6, «(9n»;^. 
along, 00 2on^0 d4. 

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alter, aUtrar, mudar. 

although, poito qu4(, oinda gu4, bem 

alwajs, Afinprtf. 
amass, u^ntar, aecumular, 
ambitioa, omHsdo; -ious, <«»0m, 
amiable, amavtk 
ammitfiition/ mtf Ji^^. 
amount, a., «M9ima, im^foiianeia, «m- 

porte, m. ; quanUa (2) ; — ^ r., m- 

amuse, diveriir; -ment, -Ummto^ 
an'archj, anardUa (pr. -^la). 
ancestor, ovo; -a, ooaf,.a«<^paMi^. 
ancient, atUigo (2). 
and, & 

animosity, animondadi, 
annexation, annexagdo. 
annul, annuUar. 
anonymous, anonymo (S). 
answer, v., rtapondir; — , a., fWQWVto. 
ant,/onn»^a (2). . 
antagonist, antagonutOrBL . 
anterior, anterior, 
antiquated, antiquado, obfoUto (2). 
antiquity, anUguidade, 
anxious, anciaao ; -iety, -eUdade, 
any, qualquer ; -thing, qualquer cou- 

m; -body, qwdquer, quemquer; 

•where, em qualquer parte. 
apex, dpiee, m., eumulo (8), ctfiiie, m. 
aiK>plexy, apoplexia (2). . 
apparent, apparente. 
appear, pareeer, apparecer, 
appetite, appetite (2), m., vontade, t 
apple, maffda, 
B!pp\y, appliearf reeorrer. 
appoint, apotUar, n^mear ; -ment, 

apprehension, apprehenedo, reeeio. 
approach, q^mKBtmor-M, ehegar. 

Arabic, arahieo (a)^ 
argoment, arqumento. 

DS, artnae, £ pi. ; to arm, < 
armistice, trigoa. . , 

vsmj^ exereito (8). 
around, em roda d^, €» redor de, , 
arrange, arraf^; -ment, ^jo, 
arrest, 'i,,prender; — ^ a,,priBSo, 
arrive, eheqar; -^i, -ado, 
arrogance, arroqaneuL 
arsenal, areemal, m. 
article, artiqo (2). 
artillery, arUlkaria (2). 
ashamed, to be -«, ^ txf^onAo. 
ashore, em terra, . 
Asia, Aeia ; -atic, -^r^Miiv 
a8k,fMi*r; (a question) jMfv«ntor. 
asleep, darmindo. 
aspect, aepeeio. 
assembly, OMtembUa, 
assert, aueverar^ avanfor ; -tion, 

assist, amUUr, ajvdari -anc^ otn*- 

associate, oModar-eey lidar, 

assortment, eortvmenio. 

afisure> aategurar, 

astonish, admiayir, paemar; -ment, 

admiraf&o, eotpreea, 
astronomy, aetronamia (2); -er, -mo 

asylum, a^lo <2), 
at, Of em, 

Atlantic, aikmtieo (8). 
atlas, o/^. 
attack, ▼., otoAir, aeommetfer; — , s., 

oto^tM (2), m. 
attain, attinqirt cheqar a, aZioafipar. 
attempt, r., tentar; — , s., ^tfnta^vo. 
attribute, r., attribuir/ — , s., -i«<o 

auction, leildo, m. 

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andienee, muUencia. 

ftuthor, oMar; -iie, Hiar/ -itjr, 

aroid, evitar. 
Awake, aeeardado, 
awaj, embara {^)tfira. 


baby, manfci (<20/w«fo). 

baek, a., eoataf, f. pL 

back, adT., de toUa, atrtm: to stand 

bad, mdo, ruim (2). 

*>««g«g«» hagaifem (2), £ 

baloonj, haicdu>^ m., taeada, 

ball, ia»2<, m. ; (of a gun) bah; (for 
play) ^fo. 

bank, banco; banking house, eaia 

bankrapt, quebrado; -cy, qtubrot 

banner, bamUira, 

barbarous, -ion, barbaro (S); -ism, 
-ismo, -idatU, 

barefoot, de&xUfo. 

barracks, qttarUl (1), m. 

base, adj., baixo, vU^ ordinario. 

base, 8., bate, t ; — , r., batear, fun- 

bath, bat^ ; -the, r. intr., bankar-te, 

battalion, baialhdo, m. 

battle, bakdha; -gnmnd, eanyM de 


bear, s., urto, 

bear, t., aturarf sqfrer. 

bear, r., parir; to be bom, naaeer. 

beard, barba, 

beast, AMto, animal. 

beat, fto^, Air «», veneer. 
. beanty, hdUza; -ful, bMo, bonUo, 

because, />0fYiM. 

become, fomor. 

bed, etuna; -room, qwnia (da dor* 

mdr); •ridden, de oama; -stemd, 

before, adr., aniet; — , prep., anU$ 

de, dianie de, -hand, d^amiemdo, 
heg,pedir, roffar,pedir etmola, met^ 

digar; be^^^, mendigo (2). 
begin, frinc^^iar, eomecar; -niDg, 

prineipio (8), eomifo; -iktc, priik-' 

behalf abono (2). 
behaTe, AMn{M>rter^ eondumr-$e ; 

-ior, cofNportemm^. 
behind, adT., a^raz; — , prep., oCraa 

beHere, erir, aaredUar; belief «rM- 

belong, /Mrf«ii00*. 

beloved, querido, bemquieio. 

below, adr., embaixo; — ^, prep., em^ 

baixo or akuisw de. 
benevolence, benevolenda, 
besides, dim de,fbra de. 
bet, ▼., apoeUtr; — , s., apooku 
betray, trakir. 
beverage, Uhida (2). - 
beware, tomar eentido, 
beyond, aUm de, 
Bible, biblta (8). 
bid, mandar, ordenar. 
big, qroeeo, grande, 
bill, 0911^ 

bird, a/ve, t,paMaro (8). 
birth-day, dia nataUeio (8), dia de 

annoe; to<lay is my — , hjfje/a^ 

bite, mordtr, 

black, /wvto, «M^. 

blame, r., reprekmder, w^por. 

blanch, branquear, 

blind, 0^. 

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bloeaom, %,tJU)r, t ; — > T.,Jhreotr, 

blow, T., aofror^ v€iUar. 

blow, 8., fjfoipey pancada, 

bludgeon, eacde (2), m. 

bine, amU. 

blnsh, earar, 


boat, bote, m, 

board, on — , a hordo. 

bodj, eorpo, tropa, 

boil, T. tr., coter; — , r. intr.,/fr9«r. 

bombard, ftomdoniflar/ -ment, -</«a- 

. bonnet, ehapfo (ds ^enhara) 
book, ^0110/ -keeper, gwurda-Uwoa ; 

-sbop, Uvraria (2) ; -seller, ^t 0- 
- rwv. 
boot, Ma. 

botanical, botanieo (8). 
both, om^. 

bother, ineomtnodar, utxar, 
bounds, Umiiei (2), m. pL 
box, caixa, 
bo J, fTMAtiio, rapag; -hood, ffMntn*- 

<», f. 
bracelet, puUeira. 
brag, gabair-99, 
brass, 2(tfao, m. 
brare, r., afrotUar, deaafiar, 
brave, adj., valetUs, brav^; -erj, 

ViUefUia (2). 
breach, qvabra; (milit.) ftreeAa. 
bread, ^?do, m. 
break, quebrar, ronipar, infringir; 

— ont, romper, prorompeTf rebentar. 
breakfast, s., aXmb^ ; — , ▼., oimogmr. 
brick, ii^clo (2, h\ 
bride, noiva; -grroom, noivo, 
bridge, ponie, f. 
brilliant, brUhante, 

bring, <mMr/ —op, (Lesson UOY.), 

/OMT oraftfor. 
Britain, JSrekmha; -ish, britkuUeo 

broad, for^o. 
bronse, 6nmM, m. 
brother, irmilo; «in-law, eunkado. 
brow, <e«fo / (of a hill) mme, m. 
brush, eteova (2) ; (of a painter) 

pineel (1), nu 
bud, botdo, nu 
build, «i|^Mr, eondruiTf/ater ; -ing, 

«/t^c»o (8). 
burden, /Mfo. 
bum, T. tr., queimar; — , r. iatr., 

burst, rebetUar. 
bury, enterrar; -ial, enterro, 
bust, &tMto. 
bus J, oeeupadOf aetivo; -ness, im^o* 

but, ma«, porim, 
butcher, «arfifM»ro. 
buy, oofnprar. 

cabinet, goHneU, m. 
calculate, M^^or/ •tion,«a?ctf{9 (8). 
Caliph, M^a (2), m. 
call, ehamar; to be called, ehamar* 

ee; — on, vtsUar, ir vir; — , s., 

vieiia (2). 
calumnj, calumma (8). 
campaign, eampanha. 
canal, canal, 
cane, bengala (2). 
cannon, catMo, m., ^jMpa d^ar^ilha- 

cap, ^ne, m. 
capacity, ec^Huddade. 
capable, ec^KUf, 
cape, M^. 

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eapHd (d^), copUaly I; — (wmtj), 
eabedal, m,; —, adj., wpUal, «b- 

eiqytain, ecgntdo, 

ean,B.,ctiidado ; ~^,T.,imidar (<m); 
I do Dot — , fido m'imparta; -fol. 

cMnirorons, carrUvaro (3). 
carpet, ^c^pe^, m. 
carriage, earruagem (2), t 
carry, narrtgoTy Itvot, 
cart, earrela (2). 
case, <Mwo. 

case (box, etc), MtfBO. 
cash, dinheiro 6 vida, 
cashier, Mtgeo, m. 
cast, atirar, limsar. 

catch, qpafiAar. 
Catholic, cathoUco (8). 
cattle, ^(ufo. 

cause, B., eoMa ; — , r., -or. 
cautious, aeavtelado. 
cavalrj, eavallaria (2). 
cave, eavtfma. 
cease, c«war. 

celebrate, ceUbrar; -ed, ce^aftre (8). 
^ censure, <;«n««ra, rvprekeruda ; — ;*V., 

c«iu»rar, reprthtnder, 
centre, cefUro. 
century, teeulo (8). 
ceremony, eeremonia (3). 
certain, ccr^/ -ty, -tega. 
certificate, aUettado, 
chain, corren^^, f. 
chair, eadeira* 
champion, eampeSo. 
change, t., mudar^ trocar; — , s., 

mvdanca; (of clothes, etc.) muda; 

(of money) troco, 
f h»pel, eapeltck 

chaplain, taptEUio (pL -d^). 
chapter, eaq^Uvlo (8). 
character,-MitM^ (2)* 
charge, a., Mvyay — , r., eourtgigt^ 

charitable, caridoao, carittsbho. 

Gharies, Oarht. 

cheap, baraio (2). 

cheat, lograr^ enganar. 

cheese, quei/o. 

chest, eaixaOf m. ; /^tto (breast). 

chestnut, eattanka; -tree, -^ira. 

chicken, gqlUtika,franfa, 

eidetf s., c%^tf, prineipal; — « adj., 

child, <TMm^ £; -hood, -OM (2), 

tfl/aiMna (8). 
china, lottfOy paredana, 
choice, eaeolha. 
choose, eteolker, 
Christ, Chritto; -ian, ehritido; -ity, 

ckriftianitmOf chridandada^ 
christen, haptiaar : -ing, haptitado, 
church, igr^ 
circle, eirculo (8). 
circulate, cireular, 
drciunstance, areundaneia, 
circus, eireo, 

dty, eidcuie; -sen, -dido (pL -^^ 
dvil, c»«i^, dem eriada; -iaation, 

class, c^osM, t . 

clean, limpo, aueiado; -liness, Um^ 

clear, daro. 
clemency, cUmeneia. 
clerk, caixeiro, 
clerer, Ao^ {%\iahio (8), 
climate, c^ima, m. 
climb, irfpar, 
dose, ▼., feekar; — , adj., jp«rA», «» 

cloth, /Hinntf/ -e, teUir; -es, tvtyNk 

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elab, dub, m. 

club (stick), ^nofOf t» porrds,.m.i 

eaeeU, m. 
coach, Mg4, t earmagtmy t. . 
coastf costcL 

coat, oaaaea (2)r robtcda, m. 
coax, Utongectr, minumar. 
coffee, eqfi, m. 
coffin, (Uaibde, m. 
coin, moeda (2). 

collect, €oUi^ir; -tioo, coUtefSo. 
collision, eoUitdo, 
colonel, eoroneL 
colonjr, 0p2o««Is (8). 
color, K.,eor,t; — , r., comr. 
oolamn, eolumna* 
comb, s^fpenU, m. ; ~> r., jwn^Mr. 
combat, «om6a^ m. 
come, vir/ — np, sMr; — down, 

detcer; — back, toUar; -» ont, 

aahir; — in, entrar, . . 

comet, com^ (Sj), m. 
comfort, T., eoft/artar, wnaolar; — , 

8., eonforio. 
commatfd, T,^comfMndar;.-^r, -dante, 
commerce, comm^vio, 
commisaion, e(nnm4699o. . 
commit, r. tr., eommeUer ; — , ▼. refl., 

committee, eammisedo 
common, eommum (1). 
commmiicata, cammuMeaTf paHiei- 

company^ wmpanMa (a>; -ion^ -»Atf»- 

compare, eon^pararj -atjve, rcHw; 

-ison, -0(00. 
compensation, ccftuptiuagSaf indem' 

' competent, etnnjfiUnU, 
competitor, eoncurrenU/ -tion, •#»- 

oomplain, qneixat^ ; A, fueun^ 

queix/ums (2), m. 
complete, at^., compUto ; ^, t., ^at^ 
complicate, eompUear. 
comprehend, eomprehendtr, 
comrade, camafxuhy m. 
concerning, eonctmetUe a, a rstpeito 

concert, eonoerto, . 
concession, €anctt9do, 
conclude, eonduir, 
condemn, eondemfiftr, 
oonduciTe, eonduufUs, 
conduct, s., conduciay' — , t. tr., 

condusfir; — , r, refl., condv9ir-0t, 

confederacy, conftdeta^, 
confess, confesaar, 
confide, ctn^r, fiar^ ; -ence, «m- 

confirm^ eonjirmar, 
confound, eonfvndir. 
confusion, co^uaSOi, 
connoisseur, eonkeeedor, 
conquer, veneer, wnquidcir ; -oft 

eon^idador, vtneedor / -quest, 

conscience, eomeieneia; -tious, -eioao. 
consequence, aotuequencid; -entlj, 

por eoimffvifUe*' 
consider, eonnderar / -able, -avek 
constant^ conftanU; -cj, -eta (8). 
constitution, eorutUuifdo^ 
consul, consul, 
consult, cofuultar, 
consummate, ctmiummado. 
contempt, deeprezo ; -ible, -ivel, 
contend, contender. 
content, v., contentar ; — ,, or ^, 

adj., eontenie, eaiitfeUo, 
contingency, eonUngenda, 
continue, eonUnwir ; -oos, -el, -^to 


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eontnet, r., conirMr; — > §., coH" 

contradict) eotUradiger; *tioDy -diC' 

contrary, wwtrario (8); on the — , 


contribute, eontrtbuir, 

convenient, eonveniente, 

convent, conteiUo, 

courene, tonttnar; -ation, -hqOo, 

conrtnoe, etmwnoir, 

cook, T., cotinhat ; — , s., -«wv. 

copper, oobre, m. 

copy, «., copia (8) ; — , r., -tor. 

comer, eon^ / (of a street) esquina 

coronation, eoroa^o, 

corpse, eadctver (2), m. 

correct, adj., wrreeto ; — , t., wrri- 

correspond, corrtspcnd^t / -ent, 

•tniU ; -enee, -tneUi* 
cost, T.,.etutar/ — , s., etMto/ -ly, 


cotton, algod^^ m. 

cooncil, cofodho; city — , eomora 

count, 8., wrM; -ess, -am. 
count, T., eontor / — upon, — com, 
conntenanoe, rw^^ tmnMante, m., 

phyHognomia (2). 
country, /Mris, m., Urra, eampanha ; 

native — ,p<Uria (S); 'house, Mo- 

cara (3). 
courage, eoragem (2), f., &r»o. 
course, eurtOf deeuno ; of — ^ natu- 

court, «3r^, f. ; — martial, eotudho de 

cousin, prima, 
cover, eobrir. 
coward, edbaird€ (or eov.\ 
treate, etmrf -tor, -ifor / -tion, -affio, \ 

credit, s., emUSto, m. ; — -, t«, oerMtf* 

tor, ifar credUo, 
creep, nsdiyar, 
crev, iriptitifda. 
cricket, ^r»0o. 

crime, m«i«, m. ; -al, -mtnoso. 
crisis, eriw, £ 
critic, ert^MO (8); ^XB/bp-Uear ; -ism, 

crooked, torto, 
crop, wlheUa, 
cross, s.,cnis, £ ; — , v.,crtt«ir, a<r9- 

crowd, mvUidSOf t 
cry, v., pT»iter, chorar; — , s., ^ri/o/ 

to — wiifproelamar, 
curious, eurioto, exquitUo (2); -ity, 

custom, cottufMf m. ; — house, alfan' 

cut, eortar, talhar; — ctt, inUreq^' 



dagger, pttnhal. 
damage, ettro/go (2). 
dance, s., dan^ ; — , t., -or. 
danger, ^er»^ (2); -ons, -ceo. 
dare, outar; -ing, a(y.,-Afo/ 

cwadia (2). 
dark, esevro (2) ; -ness, -ttfilo. 
dash, arrojar, 
date, s., <fato / — , v., -or, 
daughter,;^C^ / -in-law, nara, 
day, Jia / — before yesterday, amf 

hontem (2) ; daily, dtario (8). 
dead, tnorto ; death, mor^ £ 
dea^ turdo; -en, otofYfoor. 
deal, 8,, por^&o ; a great — , mvUo ; 

— , v. intr., Mffociar, 
dear, CKift> / dearth, caredia (2). 
debt, <^«i^ (8) ; -or, dev^dor, t 

deceive, ^nganar. 
decrat, deeente ; -ej, -cSa, 





decide, deeidir; decision, dseistio, 

decUre, dedarar, 

decline, reeutar, deeaMr. 

decorate, deeorar, 

decrease, t., diminuirf deereaeer; — , 

8., dinUnuifd9, 
deed, ado,/affanha» 
deepf/undo, frofundo^ 
deer, vtado, 
deface, fiqxigar. 
defend, drfender ; -ce, drfeta (2), or 

dtfeza ; -dant, reo. 
degrading, dt^fradanU, 
degree, degrdo, 

delay, r., demorar; — , s., demora (2). 
delicate, deUeado, 

delight, 8., deUiie, m. ; -fol, ddidoao. 
deliver, livrar, mUreffor. 
demand, r., exifftr; — , B.fpedido, 
denf , neffar, 

depart, partir ; -nre, -ida, 
depend, depender (de). 
deplore, dq>lorar, diorar, 
deposit, s., dipotUo (8); — , r., -tar, 
deprive, privar, 
depih,/vndOy profundidade. 
depntj, deputado ; -ation, -afdo. 
descend, detomder, dwoer ; -ant, 

deacrihe, diserever; description, det^ 

desert, n.,de8«r(o; — , r., -or; -ed, 

detarto / -ter, 4or, 
deserve, merteer, 
design, dengmo (3). 
desire, s., de»^o ; — , v., -ar, 
desist, dmdir, 

despair, s., detespero (2) ; — , r,, -or, 
. despise, detprtzo, 
despite, apsxar dey a detpeUo <2«. 
destitute, desUtuido, duoaUdo (3). 
destroy; didruir. 

destruction, dairmfSo, 
diadem, diadmna (8), m. 
diamond, diamcaiUf m. 
dictator, dictador. 
diction, die^. 
die, morrer, 
diet, dUta (2). 

different, difettnU; -enee, -pa. 
difficult, difica (2) ; -if, -wldade. 
dignity, dignidade, 
dine, Jantar; -ing-room, tola de Jan- 
tar ; dinueTf Jantar, 
direct, adj., direiic; — , v., dirigir ; 

-tor, diredar. 
dirty, ««;©. 
disadvantage, detvantagem (2), f., 

pr^ito (2) ; -geous, pre/udidal. 
disaffection, desqfeif&o, md wtUade, 
disagreeable, deaagradavel. 
disappear, detappareeer, 
disappointment, deteiigano (2), denl- 

disaster, detadre, m. ; -rous, -roto. 
discover, daevbrir ; -y, -6«rto. 
disgrace, s., verganha, di^awr ; — , 

v., ififamar, 
disgust, detgoiiOf ncjo; -ing, n(>;ent0, 

dishonor, deahonrar, 
dislike, s., aversSo; — , v., de$gottar 

disobey, ditobedeeer; -dient, -^ienU ; 

-ience, -iencid, 
dispense, disperuar, 
disperse, dispermr, 
dispose, diapbr ; -al, -sition, disposi- 

dissemble, disfar^ar, 
dissension, diatenaaOj diseordia (2). 
distant, diitante ; to be — from, 

distar de ; 'Ce^ -eia. 
distinguish, disUnguir / distinct, 

dUtindo ; -tion, -cgSa, 

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distress, inforiumo (a). 

distribute, didr^uir. 

district, didrido, 

disturb, didurbar / -snM, 4o (S). 

disuDiOD, detunido, 

do,/aMr / to have done with/aoaftar 

docament, do&umetii(K 
dog, eSo, tachoTTO^ 

doll, hWMCO (2). 

dollar, iol2a«*, jMfoodk), m; 
dominion, d^imvMO (8). 
door, poHcL, 
doubloon, doklOy onfo, 
doubt, s., duvida (8)^ — , t., -or; 
-ful, -<1{M9. 

down, prep., abttixo; — •, adr., «»»- 

(aixo / -fkll, q^da. 
dozen, (2ima (8). 
draw, tiroTf puxar, detenhar; -ing, 

detei^; -rooiti, iola d* vwUat; 

-er, goMta (2). 
dreadful, terriv^ (2). 
dream, s., ionho; — , r., soA^ar. 
dress, s., 9€dido (of ladies); <rq^/ 

— , T. intr., vedir-te, 
drink, heber. 

drive out, eatpeUir, expuUar, 
drop, s., ^oto, pingo; — ^ v., <2«taMir 

drug, ijfv^a. 

drunken, bibado; -ness, bebedice, f. 

dry, adj., mckjo / — , v., -or, enxugar, 

due, devido, veneido (of bills of ex- 
change); -tj, i20Mr, ^jtrmto (on 
merchandise, etc.). 

dynastj, dynadia (2). 


ear, ordha (exterior), owndo (inte- 
early, eido. 

earth, terra ; -quake, Urremoto (2). 

etmjy/aeU (2). 

eat, 0(mMr. 

educate, tducar ; -ioo, -fdo. 

eflfeet, s., efeito; — , r., ^edwtr, 

efficient, ^fieag, 

effort, €^<M^ffo, 

egotism, cgaismo ; -ist, -tifo, m. 

Egypt, Egypto ; -ian, -<jw (8). 

either, conj., <w, j«<r, «/o / — , adj^ 

elapse, dteorrtr, 

elect, deger ; -ioo, ^jf^'^ 

elegant, degants; -oe, -«»& 

element, tf2a»«n^. 

else, adv., ^v^raffMnfo/ somebodj 
— , outra penoa; -where, iCawtra 
parU. . . . 

embalm, embalsomar. 

embark, emibarear. 

embarrass, embaroffar; -ment, -^ 

embrasure, /»o;^tfiMa (2). .. 
embroider, bonktr ; -y, -^ado, 
emigrate, emigrar ; -uai, '<uUe, m. 
emotion, emofdOt t 
empire, imperio (8); emperor, wi»- 

p$rador; •€ss, --airiM. 
employ, fmpregai^; -ment, wiprego 

enable, capaeitar^ kabiUtar, tamqr 

encamp, aeampar, 
enclose, enoerrar, eeroar* 
encounter, s., eneonira; — , v., -or. 
end, s., ^, m. ; — , r., aepbar, Ur- 

endeavor, s., uforfo; — , r., -gar-ge, 
endure, sqfrer, aturar, 
enemy, inimigo (2); enmity, i 

energy, mergia (2) ; -etie, -gieo (8)l 
engage, €ngq;ar. 

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eogiiMer, inffmhtiro, 
England, Jnglaterra; -iBh» inglm ; 
' -man, IngU», 
engraving, eOamfa, 
enjoy, gcwr {de) ; -meni, (jfoeo, rego' 

«Va (8). 
enormous, ^inortM, 
enough, hastanU, <mtm, 
enraged, raUtoto, tnfwf^Mo, 
ensign, cUftru (2^ 
enter, ewtrar; nranoe, -oda, 
enterprise, mnprwi, 
entertain, eidiMUr / -ment, -<Mi»fMfi- 

entire, MiMiv. 

entreat, tmp^orar, rogar ; -7, fv^o. 
entrenchment, <rMc4Mm. 
entrust, eonjiar, 
enrjr, tnv^ (8, ; -ious, -jcio, 
epileptical, tpUeptico, 
equal, a4j., inffial; ^, v., igualar. 
equator, equadcr, 
eq-iitjr, ^quidads. 
error, $m>m 
escape, tteapar, 
especially, tptdalmtnUf parUefUar" 

establish, ettahdeeer; -ment, -eimti^ 

estate, proprudadSt sdoMia; real 

— fbeMderaU. 
esteem, s., egtima (2) ; — , r., -on 
e^mal, «^0m^. 

Europe, Eurcpa (2) ; -ean, •^. 
CTen, adr., m^fmo, <i^. 
erening, tardet f., fioi^ £ 
eyent, acontecmento, 
ever, jamais ; worse than — , ^wior 

^«0 4»«fkHi/ — since, de»de etUdo, 
every, coda, todp ; -body, ^ocieM, todo 

o mundo; -thing, tudo; -where, 

exact, aty., exaeto; — , v., ubi^. 

exaggerate, txaggirar. 

example, memplo. 

exceed, sxceder; -ingly, nc^rsmaffMii- 

except, v., exeeptuar ; — ^ a4{.,.«BM)p- 

to/ -ion, •^fdo, 
exchange, s., troao; — ^ r., -or/ — , 

s., MM 1^0 wmmerdo; bill gf — » 

excite, «Be»fiir. 

exclude, €X^uir/ nnve, -mm (8). 
exoorsion, txcunSo,paMieio, 
excuse, s., dmeulpa; *-, v., -or; to 

make excuses, deBculpar-ii, 
exempt, a4{., «Bem|ito» isM^/ — , v., 

exert, v. refl., e^orfor-ie/ -ion, €t» 

ejdiibit, txhiiUr ; -ion, -^, expoH- 

exhort, €xhortat; -ation, -Oj^. 
exile, txilio (8) ; (a person) exulado, 

exist, €xuiir; -ence, -aicm. 
expect, «p<rar. 
expense, dstpeta. 
experience, s., txptriencia; — , v., 

explain, expUcar; -ation, -fdo. ^ 
explode, rAeniar; explosion, txplo- 

export, €XpOfiar; -ation, -fdo, 
expose, expor ; -ition, -^ipdo. 
express, exprvuMUfy expreuar. 
extend, eaUnder ; -t, -sion, exUrudo; 

-ded, esc^tfiMO. 
extortion, extorfdo, 
extravagant, extravagante ; -ce, -cm; 
extreme, extremo (2). 
extricate, txtricar, t<nfar, tirar, 
eye, oM^ / -sight, vida. 

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/mtrcardaa (2); — ,t., 

faeif/oetfp/ in — , d4 — . 
faetoTj,/g6r»Mr («). 

Ikir (iiMrket),/N#«. 
iair, a^j-t A«Uo» IMb/ (of eomplez- 
ion) etaro; (of hair) lowrOfjido, 
fidth, fi, f,;4ai,JUl (1); -fuliiew, 

fiJl, T., eiMr; (of riTon, etc) baiay 

or; — , M^ guida, tambo, 
fijae, faUo; -iij, -idade ; *hood, 

/dUot menUru (2). 
fame,/aflna/ -oua, -mo. 
lamil7»/anMi^ ($)• 

fne, pataoffem, t 

faat, {^VMV (ss quick); 9iffuro (2). 

iat, adj., gordo; — y a., -tino. 

fate, apfie, t 

father, /Hi» {or pat) ; -in-law, m>^tv. 

&tigae,/dH%a (2). 

fault, eulpat faUoy «to. 

&Tor, %,, favor f •— , Y,y fawrtoer ; 

-able, -oe^I/ -Ite, -tfo, vaM<fo (2). 
fear, a., medoy rteeio; — ^ r., ^mmt, 

iousiy/ttta; fisatiTal, -itj^fttUvidadey 


feed, tuUerUar; — upon, -9$ de. 
feel, HnUr/ -ing, -iiMnte. 

fellow, mftUo ; -nan, proximo (8). 
female, /bnM. 
fence, etfop. 

feroeioQa,/sro0/ -itj, -cidadt, ' 

fetch, ^iifoar. 

him, fibre, t 


field, Mmpo. 

fight, T., oombaier, pel^far, hrigat, 

fill, eiMA«r. 

financea, Jlnanffa9,/a9enda publico. 

find, odlor, emmi/nir. ^^ 

fine, •di.,Jino, bttto, bonito (2). 

fine, a., mtUda; — , r., -or. 

finiah, oeaftor, <«rm«iMir. 

fire, a., fogo; — ^, r., /omt /lyo/ 

-worka,/o^ ari^icial. 
firm, a., jSrmo, mm (<20 eafliiB€r«>o). 
firm, 9d),,JSrme; -neas, -esa, 
Ant, primeiro, 
fit, a., atague (2), m. 
fit, m^.,proprio (8), teiMMO (8). 
fl<^J> ^olar, 

fleece, ^ff<^ f ; <o#dk>, m. 
fling, lanfor. 
floor, Moi^o (2). 
flower,.^, t 
fly, war. 
fog, cerroffdo, 
follow, M^tttr. 
fond, to be — of, godar di, 
food, aUmento, muUiUo. 
fool, 2(Hwo, <o^/ -iah, icio ; isSij^ 

toUee (2), £, lotteura, 
foot, pi, m, 
fat, para, por, 
ford, T.y pastor a vdo; — ^ ■., tdo, 

foreign, ttiranho ; -er, utrangmro. 
foraaoe, prwir* 
forest, /onsifo, fiMrfto. 
forerer, para umpru 

forget, M^fMMfVM iff. 


y Google 




fbrmer, pnvio («), anienar^ aqvdU; 

Aj, aiUa, aiUigtanenU. 
IbrmidAble, f&rmidaeeL 
forsake, abandonarf d^tamparar. 
forty/orfo, m.; -re8S,/orto^«M. 
fortnight, quinze diat. 
fbrtane, foHuna (2), faamdd ; -ste, 

fbundt fundar ; -er, , -icMlor ; -atioii, 

fundamento, alicerat^ m. pL 
foantain, manancial, m. 
tngBaeikt,/ragmento,p€daffO (2). 

firaak,y»UM»/ -ness, -^u^ki. 
Frederick, Frtderieo (2). 
free, «w«/ -dom, UbenkuU, 

frequent, •dj.t/raquenU ; — , t., -tor. 
friend, amvo (2); -Ijr, -^a»«/ ; -ship, 

fright, «iM^ ; -en, aiuuUar, 
from, </«. 
front,/f«n^, £ 
frait,/riMto,/rtiefo (of trees, etc). 
fni8trate,/y*tM^rar, baldar, 
fugitive, /tf^t^tva, /oragido, 
full, cAeio/ -fill, eumprir; -ment, 

fun, brincadeira; -nj, divertido. 
funeral, «i<env. 

furniture, mobiUar, trade$, m. pi. 
future, adj.,/t(/tf;v / — , s., -^tpomr, 


gain, 8., ganJio ; — , ▼., -«r. 
gale, temporal; m. 
galleys, ^a^<, £ pi 
paahief Jogar ; -er, 'dor, 
gaxdakfjardim, m.; -er, -neiro. 
gather, eoUigir, oolker. 

gate, poffdo, m. 

gaiette, ^UEwte (2). 

generous, gtnsroto; -itjr, -m^mU 

gentleman, eavalheiro, senior, 

geology, geologia (2) ; -er, -^ (8). 

German, alemdo; -j, Alemanha, 

get, reedier, tamar, Jicar; — up, 

ghost, eqnrito (8) ; cf ifen^ m. 
gigantic, giganUsco, 
girl, menina (2). 
give, rfor/ — up, a£<uk2Mar. 
glad, cofUenU, tatitfeito; I am rery 

— , eatimo muito, 
gladiator, gladiador, 
glass, vidrOf copo (drinking-glass). 
globe, globo. 
gloomy, eombrio (2). 
glory, gloria (8) ; -ious, -ioto. 
gnaw, roer. 
go, tr/ — away, ♦>•-« (<m6ora)/ — 

on, cofUinuar; — out» eahir, 
goal, alvo. 
God, DeM. 
gold, ouro, 
good, ^om/ -at/ageiidat / -nesBfboi^ 

dade ; -bye, ckfMiL 
govern, governor ; -or, -arfe>r / 'ment, 


grand, grande^ grandiOBo; -father, 
090/ -mother, ovo; -son, neto ; 
-daughter, neta ; -duke, grdodugue. 

grape, itva. 

grass, A^rvo. 

gratitude, graUd&o, 

grave, adj., ^raw, #«rM> (8). 

grave, s., tumulo (8), eepulero, 

great, grande; -ness, •«!». 

greedy, awdo (8). 

Greece, &r«<rui (8) ; Greek, grego, 

green, iserde, 

grey, ^ntentOf hraneo (of hair). 

grief, magoa (8). 

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ground, ragSo, ehSo, Tbl; Atu, $em 

grow, crMctr, tamar, iormir-M, 

guard, «., gvarda; —, r,, -or. 

gasMBf t^Mnkar. 

guest, kotped€ (8), eonvidado, 

guilt, culpa; -y, --odo, 

guinea, guitUo. 

gaXf^gtifo, . 

gun, ttpingarda^pefa {SarUlharia) ; 

-powder, polvora (8). 
gutta-percha, gyUa-pereha, 

habit, habUo ($), coKtumt (2), m. 

hair, eabello. 

haff, adj., meioj — , a., nutade 

halt, o^ / — , r.,/azer alio, 

hand, «»do. 

handle, m^a. 

hang, pendurar, enfarear (a crimi- 
nal) ; -man, carrtuea, 

happen, aeonUeer. 

happj,/eluB ; -ness, -cidadt. 

harbor, j)0rto. 

hard, duro; -Aip, /adiffa (2), <ra- 
halho; -Ij, apenas; — working, 

harm, maZ, m. 

haste, />r«Ma / -en, aprtuar-9e» 

hate, o<iuir/ -red, <m^ (8) ; -ful, -Oio, 

hanui, fr^ueniar, perjuguir, 

have, ter, 

head, <»^^ (2) ; at the — of, & testa 
de; -quarters, guartd general, 

heap, 8., tnoni&o, m, ; '-',T,,amontoar, 

hear, ouvir, 

heart, eorofoo, m. 

heat, eahr. 

heaven, ceo ; Ay, celeste, 

heavy, peeado. 

height, altura. 

heir, herdeiro. 

hemet, d^aquif -forth, d^agui para 

her, ecu, eua. 
herald^ oratf^. 
here, aqiU (1). '- 
heretic, kerege <2). 
hero, keroe (i); -ine, -*»«/ .-ism, 

hesitate, heeitetr, 
hide, §.,pelle, f., eouro. 
high, a2fo. 

hill, tfomoro, <nUeiro, colUna (2). 
hire, aiugar, 
his, Mtf , nto. 
hiss, eibHar, aetobiar. 
history, hittoria (8) ; -ian, -iador. 
hit, aeertar, bat€r,/erir. 
hold, ^, eegurar. 
hole, frurotfo (2). ' - 

holy, soncto. 
home, adv., para eaea; at — , «m 

honest, honesto, honrado ; -y, -<2m. 
honor, konra; -able, A^nori^ (8). 
hope, v., etperar ; — , s., -an^ 
horn, como, eJdfr^, m. 
horrible, hwrivel. 

horse, cavallo; -man, -nr*/ -whip, 
cAicate (2), m. ; on — back, a «a- 

hospital, Aoepital, m. ; -ity, •tiicHEs. 

hostile, A<M<i; (1) ; -ity, -idade, 


hotel, hotel (2), m. 

house, MM. 

how, como; -eTcr, por£m, 

hum, gunir, 

human, -e, humane (2) ; -ity, -idade, 

humble, adj., hunUlde; — , v., hu* 

humbug, impodura, 
hunger, fome, t ; -ry, eefa&mado ; 

to be — , Urfcm$, 

y Google 




faurricanef/Knoedo, m. 

husband, marido. 

hat, aiftona (2). 

hypocrite, hypoeriia (8), m.; -sy, 


idea, iied. 
idle, vS4>tpreguifO90 / -er, «a<<>0 (2) ; 

-neas, vadtofSo, jpngui^a, 
idolater, idolatro (8); -j, -«a (2). 
ignonuDy, tgn&minia (8) ; -ious, -ioBO. 
iU, acy.f doenUf ineommodado/ -nen, 

doenca, incammodo (8) ; — , adr., 

illude, Uludir. 

imagine, imaginarss; •ation, -offdo, 

imitate, imitar, 

immediate, immediaio ; -ly, 4amenU. 

immense, •ifMMiuo. 

impassable, ifUrarmiavel. 

impertinent, imp^riintnU. 

importune, tA},^ impwiuno (2); — , 

impossible, impotswd (2). 
impostor, impottar, cAarlaido (pi 

impression, impr^sssdo. 

impudent, insoUnte^ deaaverganhado ; 

-ce, intolencia, 
in, aik 

incessant, tiuMMn^ 
incident, incidenU^ m. 
incite, ineiiar, aU^ar, 
income, fvii^fimm^, m. pi. 
incompatible, incompaUvek 
inconyenience, ▼., inwmmodar, em- 

incorrect, ineorreeto. 
increase, T~auffmefUary creseer; — , 

8., ttuffmento, • 


incursion, incurtdo, 
indefatigable, incanQavd. 
independent, indtpendenU ; -ce, -eio. 
Indies, Indiat; -ian, -^t^ (8). 
indifferent, indiferaUe; -ce, -eta. 
indignation, indignofdo, 
indiscretion, truluerieClo. 
indispensable, indupentaviL 
indiridual, a., individuo (8) ; — , adj., 

indolent, indoUnts, 

indomitable, indomateL 

industry, induiiria (8). 

ineritable, ineviiavtl. 

inexorable, inexaravd. 

infamy, i^famia (8); -ous, infanu 

m&ntiy, if^aataria (2). 
infer, i^ferir, eondvir; -ence, «»- 

/ereneiaf eonduido. 
inferior, inferior. 
infirm, enfermo ; -ity, -idade. 
influence, if^umda. 
inform, in/ormar ; >ation, -ofSo. 
infringe, infringir. 
infuriated, et^ureeido. 
ingenuity, ingewuidade, 
inhabit, kabUar ; -ant, -an/tf. 
inherit, htrdar ; -anoe, heransa. 
injure, infurictr,pr^vdiearf e9tragar; 

-y, it^ria (8), pr^uo (2), damno, 

ink, ittUa ; -stand, -Uiro, 

inlaid, ineruttado, 

innocent, innocenU ; -ce, -«»a. 

innumerable, trnivm^ro (3). 

inquisition, inquiai^. 

inscription, inseripfdo, 

insensible, intenaivel, 

insinuate, innnuar ; -tion, -^do. 

insist, iruittir, 

insolent, iiuolenU / -ce, -eta. 

y Google 




ingUno, tn ti ma ia^ mmiph. 
iasteot, «., tfutewM; A^^ im k mt a nM 

ML tlM IMb inatant, no 

insiead, mn itifmry -mm wm. 
institute, t., imUMr; ^f m^A^Oo 

(2); -tioi^^HHAk 
iiutract, imitruirf -ioo, Hi^^d^ 

integritj, iiUegridad6y pnbidad4* 
intend, UncUmar^ pMUndtrf -tiao, 

intercede, iiU«reeder,4nintmdUr'm, 
interest, inlertn^^ nu; •ing, -tfnte/ 

— , 8. (of moiiej),/iirM. 
interfere, iwUnit^ 4t^ff$rir-^ utire- 

interior, »^,, inUrior; ~, a., ittU- 

rioTf ierUtOf m. , 
interpreter, •n^^}?)*^ (S). 
interrupt, inUrromper; -ion, -rt^ 

into, «m. 

intolerable, itUoUropel, imoffrivd, 
intrenchmenta, trinekeiroM* 
intrigue, s., tniriga (2); — , ▼., -or, 
introduce, in^rMJuatr, aprueiUar; 

-tion, ifUroduefSo. * 
inundation, inundofdo. 
inrent, inventor; *iotf, invetifda. 
invincible, in/ven/ewd, 
invite, convidar; -ation, convUe (2), 

* issue, 8., exito (8), resuUado; — ^, v., 

ivory, f»af:/?i» (1), m. 

jajly prisSo, cadia; -er, eareereiro, 
jealous, doio; -j, eiume, m. 
jeopardy, /wvo (2). 

Jew, t/iM^fo (fern., 4a) ; -iah,yfM2aia0 

jewel,/^, a{/aia. 
job, eneommendOf nsffocia (3X 
John, JoSo. 

joke, ^ira^, MfMO^Mro. . 
Joaeph, «/oii^ 

journal, /0ffMi2, diario (8). 
journey, piagmi^ (2), t . 
joj/alifna (2), fi^poi|fb (2). 
judge, a^>i«»>' —, T.,/i«^«r. 
jvnp, jnctor, Jocttor. 
June, Junko. 
just, a4i.nftMto ; ~k wir.Jtttiamenit / 

-ice, jutHfa (2); -tify, -iifiear. 

keep, ^riian2ar, /oar «9m/ -er, ^tM(r> 

ifo, m. 
key, eiav€, t 
khan, £Aafi. 
kill, mtUar, 
kind, a., «QM(^ (8), £,«>r^ t; — ^ 

adj^ 60m, bondoto; -ness, hondade, 
king, fw, d-rei; -dom, retAo. 
knave, c^/Amo (2), jhi^i* (2). 

knock, 6a^/ — down, derruhar. 
know, foft^, conhectr; -ledge, eMJl#- 

eimetUo, iaber, ' 

labor, a., #ra&a2^; — , r., -or. 

Uce, f0«u2a. 

lad, ft^posL 

lady, MAJ&ofOL 

lame, maneo. 

lamp, toap^do, m. 

land, a., terra; — , r., detembarear; 
-lord, atalqfadeiro, dono da caaa : 
— owner, propridario (8). 

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m. y Unfuagtm (IS), t ■ 

Urfgt, graode*- 

Uah, ehibatai a . • . l. r" •< - 
last, adj., t(/^«iiio (SXjMiMMbi ('£).• 
last, T.y durar; -iiig^ ^nrviovnou- 
late, a4i.| <<mfi^ d^imdo^ falUeido ; 

— , adr., tareU ; AjimUimamtiUe, 
latter, tiZ^tfiM? (2), «<«. 
laugh, rtr, Wivm/ -ter, ffM, ritmUi, 
law, 2m, 1; -yer, adttofado^ - 
lead, a., cAum^/ -peiieil, kipiif n. 
lead, Y., eorubmr^ Utar; -tr, «(i%a, 

m., eapUda, 
leagae, 2tj^tMi (<).'• 
learn, «y»nM«*, «ci&^ (mwb, etc); 

-ed, adj., m6*o (8), dovia; -isfir, 

leave, 8,, Ueenfa ; take *-, detped^ 

$e; -^^r.tdeixar, 
left, uq}t€rdo» 
lessoD, H^. 
lei, deiacar, oiuffar, . 
lethargy, UOeu^ <2). 
letter (of the alphabet), letra, coarta ; 

— ^pw,pt^d4 carta or depuo^ 
liberal, liberal, 
liberty, Uberdade. 
license, Ueemfo. 
lie, T., menUr; ~, §., nuntira (2); 

lie, ▼., utar deiiado, ettar. 

lieutenant, Un$nt€. 

life, vida ; -leas, tern tida, 

light, adj., Ieff4, 

light, a^ 2tfj, f.; -en, fuMxr; -ing, 

/t/«^ (2), rdampago (8). 
like, ▼., pMtor <{«. 
like, a^jv umdhanUj parecidof —, 

ad?., coiiM/ -ness, retrato, 
linha, JtiOa. 
' linen, HnJtOt rmipa. 

lion, Mb/ -iMM, Ub^ 
lip, M^> ^a&*0 (8). 
liquor, Ucor. 

literal, literal ^ -ly, fmenU^ translate 

— , tradwriir aopida letra; -tttre, 

little, /w^iMM (2), jwtMO. 
Hye, viver; (in a hooae, eta), momr. 
lock, y^^feekar; — , a.,/wA4M{icra. 
locust, ^af»A0f0 (2). 
long^ lomgo^ cmmfrido (of objects), 
look, T., dkar^pareeer; — , s., oUutr; 

*ing-glaas, sqm^Ao. 
UnutfjHrdtr; loss,f€r^ 
lot, AOfis, C, <o<tf, m., terr^no (2), 

ten^, eoTd, tiieia. 
loud, aUo, 
low, 6atxo. 
luck, fartWM, dorte; *y, /iWs, ^i^or- 

tuiMdo. • I 

lukewarm, momo, tibio (8). 
lunatic, lunatieo (Z), doudo, laueo. 

mace, OTO^ia. 

maehine, machina (8, pr. tndfuimay, 

-ery, flMoaniniitf. 
mad, dfHfio, 29tt«9/ to go -~, enlou' 

madam, MM^dfYi. 
magnificent, fiMf0^ii{;609 (8). 
mahogany, mogno, 
maU, moZa/ — steamer, paquete a 

mBiu, prineip<U, 
maintain, manter / -tenance, manti' 

male, macho. 
malice, maUeia (8); •4ooi, -»m0, mo- 


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mftn, Aamem (2) ; -kind, ^tntro (Z) 

mania, mama (2). 

manifest, acy., man^esto; — , t., -or. 
manner, maneira. 
masiMon, palaeeU (2), m. 
manufactoiy, /abrica (3) ; -ture, /a- 

marble, mannof€ (S), m. 
march, a., mareha; ~, r., 'Or. 
March, Matrfo, 

mariE, a., tnarea, oho ; — , ▼., mofMir. 
market, mtreofh ; — place, profa do 

marquis, mor^iMS. 

many, Mior {fom) \ -iage, -mtnito. 

master, tenkor; (teacher) medre / 
(employer) amo. 

materials, fiMtcrKMi. 

matter, maUria (8), nsgoeio; what 
is the — f o gtu kaf what is the 
— with him? o que tern eUef 

mattress, eolehdo, m. 

mature, maduro (2). 

mvjtpoder; — he, pods Mr, tahetf. 

May, Maio, 

mean, adj., 5a»sB0, ardinario; -ness. 

n, T., tignificar; what do jou 
— f ^«^ ^twr Fm** dizerf 
means, meio, 

measure, r., medir; — , s., nftia. 
measles, 9arampo, 
meddle, erUremetter-ee, 
meditate, msditar. 
meet, t. tr., eneofUrar ; — , t, recipr., 

melancholy, s., melaneolia (2); — , 

adj., -colieo (8). 
melt, derrettr, 
member, memJbro, 
memory, mtmoria (8)i 

merchant, A«0ro0Kiii<«. 

mercy, mertH, t, mi$erieord4a (8), 

ffrofa; •fvH,mUeneordio§o. 
merit, s., flMrito (8), meredmetUo; 

— , T», 1Mf€C€l*» 

message, metuoffem (2), t, ueado; 

messenger, mefuageiro. 
midnight, meia noiU, 
might, poder; -y, -oto, 
military, mUitar. 
million, milhdo, m. 
mind, menis, t, etpirito (8), altna, 
minute, minuto (2). 
miscreant, mdhado (2). 
misery, mueria (8) ; -able, -avd, 
misfortune, in/oHitnio (8), infeUti- 

dadA, detffraffa, 
miss, s., ienAora, Dona (2>.). 
miss, T., fioo aehar, MtnUr a faiUa 

missionary, mitUonario (8). 
mistake, s., engano (2), <rro/ — , v., 

enganof'Se; to bo -en, /mffanarsi, 

ukw enganado, 
mistrust, t., deecqnjlar {de) ; — , s^ 

mob, vtd^, popular 

modem, modemo. 

modest, modtdo; -y, 4a (8). 

moment, momtifito, 

monarch, monarca; -j, -chia (2, pr. 

money, dinheiro. 
month, meg, m. 
moon, lua; -light, htar. 
moral, moral; -s, moralidadi, 
morning, monAdo. 
mother, mat; -in-law, togra; -of- 

pearl, madre-perola (8). 
motive, motivo (2)* 
mount, T., tMr, moniar (a cavaUo), 
mount, morUe, m. ; -ain, m&nfymha. 

y Google 




m6nni, t,, eharar, ktmerUar, lucUw ; 

-iDg, lueto, 
more, movm' ; (to another place) 

mndar-8e ; -ment, monimtmbo* 
mach, muibo, 
multitade, muUiddo, 
marder, t., maiar, asaaannar; — , 

8.» asmuHnio (3) ; -er, aatasiino (2). 
murmur, y.y murmurar; — , s., -no 

museum, mttsio. 
music, tnmica (8) ; -iao, -co (8). 
must, dever, haver de, 
mutual, mvtuo (8). 
my, tneu, fern, minha, 
mystery, myOerio (3); -ious, -vm. 


naked, n{L 

Naples, ^a;H>^ (8). 

Napoleon, NapoUSa, 

narratire, narroffdo. 

nation, naffSo ; -al, naeionaL 

native, natural; — country, patria 


nature, wUureza; -al, natural. 
avy, inartn>&a. 

eaT,perto; -ly, ^«a» (2) ; -sighted, 
myope (8). 

needle, agtUha. 

negative, negabivo, 

neglectfnegUgtrfdeeeuidar^de; neg- 
ligence, n«^;^«nda, <2m0vm2o (2). 

negotiation, negodagOo, 

negro, n^ro / -ess, negro, 

neighbor, vizinAo/ -hood, -anfo. 

neither, conj,nem; — , a^j., n&- 

nephew, toMnho, 

nerve, nervo ; -ous, -oeo, 

net, r«20, t 

Netherlands, JRitzet-B^ixoe* 

never, fufnco. 

new, ftot^ / -8, notida (8), novidadef 
-paper, Jamal ; — year, anno bom, 
next, proximo (3). 
nickname, o^nAo. 
niece, M6r»nAa. 
night, not^, f. . 
nightingale, rouxinol, m. 
no, adv., ndo; — , adj., fMiiAtffii. 
noble, nobre ; -mwatfidalgo, 
nobody, ninguem (1). 
noise, banUho ; -y, -enio, 
noon, mWo <^ % 

north, norte, m. 
not, ncU>, 

note, ftoAi, H^Ae^ (2), m. 
nothing, nada, 

notice, a., nofieia (8) ; -^, r., o&Mroor. 
novel, novella. 
now, o^oTd (2). 
nowhere, em nenhuma parte. 
nuisance, ineommodo (Z),praga. 
number, numero (8) ; -ous, "Oto. 
nurse, amiL 

oak (tree), ear9€ilAo, 

obey, obedeeer; obedience, obediencia. 

object, s., obfeeto. 

objection, c^ecffOo. 

observe, obeeroar^ notar. 

obstacle, obttaeulo (8). 

obstinate, obetinado, teimoto; "WOj^ 

obetinaffao, teima. 
obtain, obter. 
occasion, oceaeido, 
occupy, oeeupar; -ation, ^agdo, 
occur, occorrer, aoonteoer. 
ocean, oceano (2). 
odious, odioao. 

offend, offender; -oe, -m. 
offer, v., offereeer; — > s., offend" 


y Google 




officer, qficidl (in fhe mrmjr) ; tmjifrt^ 

often, muttof •«««. 

oil, OMtfo, m., oUo (8). - 

old, w/Ao. 

olive, ateUona (2). 

omnibuB, ommu6cm (8), m. 

00, prep., m, trndma ds ; — , adr., 

once, ama 9€Z /at ~, (2« f^peiiAt. 

one, tfiA. 

only, adj., vnieo (8), •o'/— , «dT., 

open, v., ahrir; — , adj., oS^rfo. 

opera, opera, 

operation, operofSa. 

opinion, opiniSo, 

op^Ttamij^ppp&riunidadet oceatido, 

oppose, cppor ; -iUon, oppotiffSo, 

opuXtnif opttUnto ; -ce, ^cia: - ' 

orchard, ^pomtfr, ^tttnto. 

ordain, ordehar. 

order, a., ordem (2), f ; in — to, 

para; in — that, ^ora ^w/ —-, t., 

ordenar, mandar, 
origin, origem (2), f. ; -al, -ginoX, 
ornament, omamento^ adomo, tff»- 

orphan, orphSo (2), fern. -d». * 
ostrich, avutruz, m. 
ought, deveriOf devia, 
our, noMo. 

ouiy/ora; — otyfira ds, por, 
outbreak, erupfdo, rompirMrUOf re- 

outside, prep.,y3rB de; — , ndr^/ora, 
orer, tobre, aeitna ds, 

overtake, o^ccm^r. 

qyerwhelm, acabrunhar, 

owe, dever, 

own, T., pomuir^; — ^- adj., propHo' 

(8); -er,/>rt{pfi<forib(8),'iond. 

packet, jMtjtM^ (2), m. 


pain, <lor, £ ; -a, «»td«kf^. « 

paint, pintar ; -er, -<or >* -ing,' -^iciu; 

pair, par. 

pale,iMi2U<e9 (8). 

pamphlet, jMWipAM^ (9). 

paper, jM^ (1>»' «n- ; — mo«^, «o#- 

<f0<^ — , 
paradise, pctrawo (2, 1). 
paraljTte, poroJ^WV*. 
parcel, tmJbruth^^ banda {of persons), 
parents, ,;kim, m. pi. 
parish, jMifi0«AM (pr.jpaf^0^iiAiy 
pariof, <o2a. 
part, parU, t; -j, 'ido (political, 

etc.), parU (in law) ; -ner, 9oeio 

(8) ; -ship, toeiedads, 
pass, pauar; -age, -agrnn (2), 1; 

corridor; -port^ patgc^MniCf m. ; 

-enger,|KM»a^0tr^ - 
passion, jMtzdo* 
pasteboard,/MipeMo, m. 
pastime, pauaUmpo. 
patience, paeieneia ; fti-U^- 
pAtxioifpatricia^fiy, ^iBrnt-Utmo, 
^tktroTkfProtedor ; -age, proi^etorado, 

protect ; ^ saint, padf^tirtK 
pattern, amodra^ modtlo'ii,y 
pave, «Uffar; ^meut, -gadifi 
P*J, r.,pagar; ^ E,,^oldfi; -DMOt, 

pagofnento.' ■ «. • 
peace, /mw, 11 ; -able, paef/Sea (9). 
pear, jMra.' 
peasant, lavrcuhr, 
peculiar, parUeular, pruprioj -itj, 

pen, ptfniui / -holder, MiMte^ (8^ • 
penalty, |MfMr. 
penetrate, |M>M<lr0r. * < 

y Google 




people, jM>«o» iftnU, f. 


perhaps, talv€3k 

peril, jMrij^<S). 

period, periodo (8). 

permission, licenftu 

^nmt, fiermiUiTf dor lie$iifa, 

persecute, peneguir; -tor, -ifttidar; 

perserere, pene9§rar; -iDg, -fMittf/ 

-Mice, <mekL 
person, ;^«Moa (2); -al, -oo/. 
perrade, /MTWuftr. 
penrerBe,/MrMrM/ -itj, <4i<Mlc» 
pestilence, jMifo, t ; -tiferons, •/j/Vrv 

(8). ^ ' 

pewter, ettanho, 
physician, nudieo (8)* 
physiology:, fkyH^logia (2). 
picket, jy»^0fo (2), n. 
picture, jvAJrp. 

piece, p€daffo, p€f9^ moeda (coin). 
pike, dkfpo. / 

pinch, j)tto2(i. 

pipe, pipa (= two hogsheads). 
pipe,.<XM&«m^ (for smoking), 
pistol, j»M<o^ (2).. 
^it, pliUia, 
pity, s., eompaix80f jMna; — *, r., 

«0fn|NR2Mcr-M 00m, ter compaixdo 

place, s., h^forf take — , <«r — .;— , 

T., coUoear, metUr^for* 
plan, ^no, prt^tdo, 
p\9neiy plamia (2), m, 
plant, BsfplatUa/.T^f r^ -or. 
play, B.,jo^, upeetaeulo (theatre); 

— , ▼., jogar (cards, etc); to«ir 

(piano, etc.); Mmot (ai children 


please, ogradar, ofr^mer ; — , imper., 
foQafoiwr; -ant, agr^daufdi -ure^ 

plot, 00fM2»»ra^. 

pocket, io^, (OgHMra; -hook, cor- 

poem, poema <ft), ». ; «ei» jKMto (2) ; 

-teas, -tftsa/ -tiy&iwffia (2). 
point, /wfi<9. .. 
poison, 8., vmieno (2).; —^ t.. 


polish, ,^0^. 

policy, iwMiM (8); -tics, 4ka; -oal» 

poor, fo^nt. 
population, pcpiUofSo, 
portion, iiorpdo, f., ^iffiUdo, m. 
portrait, retrod (2); — painter,* r«- 

position, iM»»(^. . . * 

possess, jMMvtr/ -ion, p^tteudo-; to 

take — , <Ofn«r/w«M. 
postern, posUgo (2). 
pound, ^tftro. 
pour down, «aA»r. 
powder (gon.-)^ pQlwfra (8), |^, m. 

pL (medie.). 
power^ pod^r ; -ful, -os0. 
praise, r., {^ttvtfr/ — , s., -vor, Mt^ 

pray, oror, rttar; -er, ora^. ■ 
preach, />rfyar/ -er, -Oiior. 
precaution, /w^Mav^, atfUela (2). 
precede, preceder ; -ing, -^n^ 
precept, />r000«to. 
precious, preeiottK 
predatory, pndat^rio (8). 
I predecessor, j)re(C0Mii0r. 
] prefer, prf^4frii*. 

y Google 




premiseB, premittoi, 

premium, premio. 

prepare, jnyparar ; -etion, -^iffSo, 

-ativo (2). 
present, adj., jtretenU; — , T., e^M^ 

aentar; -ce, -fa, 
pnaerre, pretervar, guardar, 
preside, prendir ; -dent, -derUd, 
presnppoie, pretuppdr. 
pretty, banito (2). 
prerail, prtvaleeer, 
prerent, imptdir. 
preyiona, previa (3). 
price, prego. 
pride, orgulho, 
priest, iocerdoU (2), padre, 
prince, />ftiic^ (3); princess, j>rjf>- 

principal, principal, 
principle, prineipio (3). 
prison, priado, eadia; -er, preao, 

pritioneiro (of war), 
prirate, particular, 
privation, privasSio. 
'^TiXtfSfitprivUegio (3). 
probable, protavd, 
'proceed, proceder; -ing, -der, -dimcn- 

prodoce, T., produgir; — , s., -dudo; 

-duct, -^uelo ; -tion, -<2«epdo. 
profession, prqfiesSOf qfieio (3). 
professor, profeteor, 
profit, pnnfeito, lucro ; -able, Ziiera- 

^90/ profit, T., aproveHar-M, lu- 

profound, pro/undo, 
progress, s., progrttao ; — , ▼., pro- 

prohibit, prdhibir, 

promenade, pasaeio, 

prominent, j^nwitfMfi^ 

promise, t., promcUer; — , s,, pro- 


proper, propria (8); 4j, -^edade; 

proprietor, -torto (3), dono. 
pTopbesj, prophetiaar; <j, prapAe- 

eia{2)i -et, -^to (2).^ 
pTOpoBe,propar; 'dX^propotta; -ition, 

prospect, proapecto, 

prosper, proaperar ; -oas, protpero 

(3); -itj, -u2(k2«. 
protect, prcUgar; -tion, •«{^So/ -tor, 

proud, adbeihOf arguHyoao, 
prove, T. tr., pravar; — ^ r, intr., 

provide, /ameeer; -ed, oonj., amm- 

prudent, ^TfiM^en^/ -ce, -mo. 
public, |>ttiZt09 (3); -ish, -osr. 
punctual, pontwd ; -itj, -idade, 
punish, punir, caaiigar ; -ment, ptmi- 

gOo, eatiUgo (2), p^mi. 
pupil, diedpulo (3), alumno. 
pxapUy purpura (3). 
purpose,/m;!poM/o (3) ; on — , <2« — . 
put, pdr^ botar, metier; — out, eq^h 

gar, ^^^ 

qnalitj, gualidade, 

quantity, guantidade, 

quarrel, s., diaputa (2), hriga ; —^ v., 

'diaputar, brigar, 
quarter (of a city), hairro, (arithm.) 

queen, rainha, 

queer, eingular, exquiailo (2). 
question, pergunta; to ask a — ^ 

fazer uma pergunia, 
quick, %«tro, dqfreaaa. 
quiet, ^Mte (2). 
quire, mSo, 
quite, «ft^niin«ii/«. 

y Google 




TwdietA, radical, 

rage, roiva, 

nil, barra; -road, aiminho de/erro. 

rain, a., ^uva; — ^ r^ ehover; -j, 

rampart, baluarCe, m., muralha, trii^ 
- eheira^ 

rank, quaUdade, eUute^ f. 
mt, rata, 

rather, anU$, ftmpouco, hadamU. 
ray, raio, 

reach, s., alcanee, m. ; —•, r., -far, 
read, Kr/ -er, Uiior; -ing, Mtutxu 
readj, pr&mpto (pronto) ; -DeaBy -^ 

real, rmZ, wrdadeiro ; -itj, mU/dad^^ 

reap, 0o2A^. 

reason, razdo; -able, roeoav^/. 
rebel, s., rebeUU; — , ▼., rebellar, 
rebuke, r., eenturar; — , a., -ura, 
receive, reedier, 
reckon, eontar, 
reclaim, reelamar. 
" recoil, reeuar, 
recommence, tomar a prindpiar or 

recommend, reeommendar ; -ation, 

reconstractfon, reeotutrucfSo. 
recourse, reeurto, 
recover, reeobrar, rettabeleeer-se ; -y, 

red, eneamadOf uermelho, 
refer, refpir» 

re^et^r^/Uetir; -ion, r^UatHio. 
, refuse, reeutar; -al, fismM^. 
refute, r^ti^or/'-ation, -opdio. 
regard, ▼., considerar, dhar para; 

— , 8., eontiderapdo. 
regiment, regknento,' 
regret, s., ^u^Miia (8) ; -^, t., -«•. 

reign, e., rwio; — , t*, -or. 

reins, fwiMM (8), £ pL 

r^ect^ r^feUar. 

rejoiee, reffo^yar-ie, 

relation, rdofdOf (a p&man) partiUe ; 

-tive, adj., -ivo; — , a.,,pafvii^ 
release, doUar, 
relief alUvio (8) ; -re, -for. 
religion, religido; -ous, -mo. 
remark, r., pbeervar; — , a., 'O^ ; 

-able, notavel, 
remedy, s., rciMciio (8) ; — , ▼., -for. 
remember, lembroT'^ (de) ; -ance, 

Umhranfo, memoHa (Z). 
remorse, remorao, 
remote, remcio. 
render, render^/ager, 
rent, t., alugar; — , §., •^tM^(l), m. 
repair, s., rq^aro (2), eoneerto ; — > Y.» 

repeal, revogar. 
repeat, r^petir. 
repent, arrepender"^ ; -ance, arrt* 

reptile, rtptU (1), m. 
reputation, rynita$So. 
require, reqverer, exigiry neeenitar. 
rescue, ▼., nhar; — , s., -a^, 
reserve, s., reterva; — , v.," -or, 
resist, retisUr; -ance, -tneia* 
resource, reeurw, 
respect, s., retpeUo ; — , r., -or f 

-able, -ofoeL 
responsible, respotuavel. 

rest, s., detcanfo, rqnnuO ; — , f., -or. 
result, v., retuUar; —, s., -add* 
retire, retiroT'ee, 

retreat, v., reUrar-ee ; — , s., retirada, 
return, s., voUa. 
return, ▼., toUar, rtttUuit* 
revert, reverter. 

y Google^ 



raward, a., r ^eompe m aeuf — ^ r., -«r. 
rhetorie, rhtioriea (S). 
rtieninatisiii, rA«iMM<uni«. 

rich, fieD. 
richM, rt^tMJM. 
rid, to get — of, Kwrar-m is, 
ridieoloos, ridieulo (S). 
riflemaD, atirwUfr, eafodor* 
riffat, adj. cad a., iitf«ito. 
ring, «i»wi (1), m. - ' •• ' 
riot, moUm, m., iummHo^ 
rise, Uvamiar^; (a gfow) ertteer; 
(= go up) wMry (of the aan, etc.) 

rival, rtvo^ 

river, rio. 

rirulet, WocAo, frtMhx 

road, oiflitJiAa, <i<rtMi& 

roar, r., m^. 

roar, a., atrondok 

rob, roubar; -ber, 2a({^fl0, MlUador;' 


robe, vulidOy vedimnUa, " 

rock, roeludo (2). 

Twktif/offwte (8), nu . 

rogue, «WAao0 (2). • 

roll, ro2^. * '• 

Borne, Roma; -an, -aiitf. 

roof, telkado. 

room, e^Mipo, Zn^w, fwHo, tola, 



route, derrota (2). 

royal, rflo^ 

rode, HMfe, fromeiro ; •Deaa, nuteo, 

^ r o u e ri a (2). 
ruin, a., r«»«a (2) ; -^, t,, 

-oua, Hf IfKMO. 

rule, regra, 

runy>r, Aoql^ (2). 

mn, carrtr; — vwwjffugit. 

8abre,'«9Mi(Ia(2); -eQt,.4(9«id«f0i. 
aacrifice, a., aaeri^fcjo (S); —,-1:,, 

aad, truie / -oea^,. -<i«. 

aall, a., veto; — , ▼., paHir, fsur 

vda ; -or, marmkeirtK 
aaint, asiiefo, «do (before namcft). 
aake, eoifia. 
aalarj, mlario (8). 
salt, a^ M2,.in. ; -^, ▼«, m^ttr. 

sample, omoitra. - - , 

aarcasm, sareatmo /oastie, ^oiMico (8). 

8«ti9fy» mUtfuMtt t -lactioB, "focf^; 

-fled, ;f«tfo. 
aarage, w2M|^<m (2). 
save, m/vot, povpar^ eetmomim^; 

-ior, aahadar, 
say, <<iMr. 
scabbard, kuttila. 
scandal,. eMoikiiaX^ (8) ; -ona, •oto. 
scar, cieatriZf t 

scarce, mro, etauao ; .4y, lOiiaMM. ~ 
scene, teena ; -ery, aofjiaHo (8), WMa. 
scbeme,jpr(2;«eto. ':..■« 

aehool, meola (2) ; •fellow, comori^ 

tTeieoki ; -master, nutkad^iteoia. 
science, '«0MiPi0ia» 
scissors, iesaurtL 
scorbut^ eaetrhuio (2). 
sconndrd, ^|/« (2). 
icourge, eatii^ <2), |»r«^ 
scout, tf^pta (2), m. 
scream, griiar, . 
scrupulous, stengnilom.^ 
sea, fiiar, m. • 
season, «fo^. 
second^ itgundo, 
secret, s^ ugniio (2) ; — , adj., leer*- 

io (2). 
security, «;7«naiif«,;faiif8. . 
see, T^ «^, MMpyflr, 

y Google- 




seek, hitear, proenrtr, 

aeenii jwnojT. 

seixe, o^orror, pegartm, ctn\fUeat, 

8eU»«0k2N'. - - 

•end, tfMiar, flteiMiar. '. < 

seoMUiiuiy ««fi«vd«. 

BOOfe^ tfUo^mMa^ $eiUimeiUo (Les- 

sentinel, Mn^tiM^jc, ... 
sepamte, ^, h^miw, for^tr / — » adj., 

September, Seiemhro. 


senre, urvir ; 4c^ -^ (2) ; *ioe«ble, 

tervifol; •tnt, criadcu 
set, /i0r, M^mr (of the sun). • 
settle, T. tr., turat^ar; — ^, r. intr., 

utabeleeer-ie ; -meot> m^piim (ft), 
sever, jMP^ir, wrtor, 
seyersl, waiM (8), <fi9«W0i^ . 
severe, twro (2), rig9ro»9 f -ity, 

sw€ridade, riffor, 
sew, oomt; 4ng, Si, «0i<tiMk , 
sliade, shadQw, jeniAm. v 
shake, t. tr.^ tqknMMr, ^Uniiar; -^, ▼. 

intr., tremer, eitremteer^ 
shame, verg<ynka; -fuly <M9y ^kss, 

share, s., ^n^do, m«^ ^-v v., jwr- 

sharpshooter, ^lUndatf coftuhr.: u 
shawl, eAa2«, ra. 

sheep, ovdha, . » 

sheet ' (paper), /ofi&a/ (bed>) len^, 

shield, Mratfo (2). 
shilling, xeUm (1), m« 
shine, Mlhar, ht&ir. 
shirt, MiTiiM (2). 
shiver, tnmer. 
shoe, M^crfo (2) ; •maker, -Uiro. • 

shoot, aUroTyfutUar ; sfao4» #mv.. 

shop, ^a/ •keeper, logida. 

short, eufio, ftriM/ -en» cttffsiir. 

shont, s., ^rifo/ -— , T., -or,. 

show, fiMf^rar. 

shrewd, lutnio (2). 

sick, ioenUf -ness, 'ffipo. 

side, 2»fo, tefulo. 

sight; «ute. 

sign, ▼., omgwur; — , 8.,'-al, s^waL 

silk, sMfa. 

silver, /mite. 

similar, MiVM/JlaMfo. .■ 

ain, peeoado (2) ; -ner, -^« 

since, prep., <<m{0/ ~, 001^., wmo, 

sincere, aJiMMW (2) ; -1^, ^iMU, 

sing, cantor; -er, -4or. 

single, wfiMa (ft), s^. 

singular, HnfftUar. 

sir, MnAor. 

sister, irmda; 4n-Iaw, cunhada, 

at, €itar tentado ; — down, tetUar-^ ; 

•ting, MnUido. 
situated, tihtado^ tUo; *tieii, miuar 

Bine, tammanko, 

skiU, habiUdade; -fiil, halUl (2X 



slacken, r€tardar, 

alave, «Mra«o (2); •ry, -vmI(I9. 

sleep, tono; to. be -j, ettar com or 

slight, a^j., lev€; — , r^ menotcdbmr, 
menotprttar; — , s., ffMiMMooda (2). 
slip, <i«i. • ' 

slippers, ginslloB. 
slow, va^aroio; Aj, devagar, 
small, pequena (2). 
smell, s., eheiro; — , r., -oiv 
smile, v., torHr; — , s., $orri$o (2), 
smoke, r.,/umar; — , n.^-^maca. 

y Google 




snake, 000110. 

•DOW, a., neu, t \ ^, r., iMvor. 
Bonff, rapi, m. 


society, soeUdade, 

totket, p€d€tiaL 

sofa, $o/d, m. 

aoft, Irando, d^ce^ maeio (2) ; -neaa, 

krandurOf doffura, 
Ml, terra, 
soldier, aoldado. 
some, alfi^m ; -bodj, alguetn ; -thing, 

aoa,JUAo/ -in-Iair, j^tnro, 

soon, df«9«^ «» JKHM9 tempo, 

sorrow, mo^oa (3), affliefdo, 

sorry, Mn^icfo / to be — , MJi^tr. 


soul, alma, 

sound, s., wm; — , t., toar/ — , adj., 

sadio (2). 
source, mananeial, ULf/onte, f. 
south, «tt2y m. 
sorereig^, eoberano (2). 
sow, semear, 

space, eepoffo; -ious, -jxmo. 
Spain, .ff^poftAa / Spanish, -lard, 

spare, jM>u^r. 

speak,/a/tor .• -er, oradar^preeidenU. 
species, eepecie (8), t 
spectator, eepectador, 
speculation, eepeculaffoo; -tor, -dor. 
speech, orofdOf /alia, 
spend (monej), gadar, (iXme) patfor, 

spirit, eepiriio (8), af»imo (8). 
spite, deepeUo; in — of, a — de, 

apeaar de. 
splendid, eaplendido (8). 
ftpoil, egtragar, arrvinar. perder. 

sponge, tiponfa. 

spot, ^vpror (place). 

spot, s., mancka; — , t., matuikar, 

spread, etpalAar, 

spring (season), primavera (2), t 
(water) manamcial. Mo ^agua, 
(of steel) mola ; — , r., soAor, 
^tor (jump), (burst) r»6«fi<ar, 

' abrir, 

spjf eepia (2), eepiao, 

square, adj., ^uadrado ; — , s., pra^ 

stain, s., maneha; — , r., -<rr. 

start, .pcnitr. 

state, s., etUtdo; — , r., mmmiw, 
(f^pdr/ -ment, cuMrpdo, ^^^omjmr^. 

statue, edaiMa (8). 

staunch, /mM. 


steal, rottW. 

steamer, vapor, 

steep, ingrems (8). 

steeple, torrf, 1 


step-son, enteado. 

still,, adr., ainda ; — , adj., guieto (2) ; 

— , conj., eomludo (2). 
stock, ra^/amiUa (8). 
stoic, ^»C0 (8). 
stone, /M<2ra. 
stop, parair, 
stork, eegofiiha. 
Storm, s., temporal, trovoada, tempeh 

tade; — , r., aesaltar, tomar par 

story, Mstoria {d), 
story (or -ey), andar. 
straight, direUo, teeo, 
strange,^ edranko ; -er, ettrangeiro, 

street, rwo. .. 


y Google 




strike, bater, dor em, 


«tadj, •., sdudo (2) ; — , r., -or; -ent, 

stnmbldy troptfor, 
stupid, e$hipido (8). 
Bttbdivide, mbdividir, 
subject, B., ti^eUa, auumpio, gubdiio 

(8); —,T.,m^eiiar, 
sublime, tvUime (8). 
snbmit, whndter^ tufeUar-M, 
suburb, arrabalde, m. 
succeed, tuceeder; -cess, -cuto ; -fnl, 

sudden, mMte (8), njpeMno (8) ; on 

a — , or -1 J, mUtonMiiic, <{« r^tfiile. 
suffer, 9ofrti^f -ing, /rMiien<o. 
suffice, battar; -cieu^ ^t^^feMii^ 
sugar, ocftMor (2). 
sultan, iokldo» 
'Sum, womnut. 
summer, verdo, m. 
sun, $al, m.; -rise, fuiMo* ild §ol/ 

'Bet,pdr do toL 
superior, wperior. 
superstition, iuperdif^. 
supper, ceia, 
supplant, supplatUar. 
support, s., apoio, tuttento; — , t., 

apaiar, muteniar; -er, apaio. 
suppose, suppdr; -ition, -patifdo, 
sure, §eguro (2), «0rfo/ A,j^ fiador^ 

surprise, s., «o;2wvsbs, odmirofSiO ; 

— , T., tarprendeTf admirar. 
surrender, r. tr., entregcar; — , t. 

intr., -M. 
- surround, rodMr^ eerear, 
BunriTe, iobrtvivtr. 
suspect, tuapeitar; suspicion, 9Ui- 

peita / -cious, iuspeito, 
sweur, Juror, 
Sweden, Sueeia (8). 

swell, inchar, 

awim^ nadar; — acrofs, jmmmt • 

sword, «9Ki^ 
sjstem^ eydsma (2), m. 

table, 1 

tailor, a^aiaU (2). 

UXt^faUar, eofwenar; -«r, -mior; 

-atiTe, "Odor, 

Tartarj, TbrioTM (8). 
taste, s., gotto ; — , t. tr., "Vt^pfftwt; 

— , T. intr., mUbtr, 
tax-gatherer, eoUsdor da§ rmdoi, 
te% ehd, m, 

teach, ttuinar; -tr, medn, 
tear, s., lagrima (8). 
tear, t., raagar^foMr empedaffoi, 
tedious, ahhorrteido, 
temple, templo, 
temptation, Unta^, 
terrific, temhd (2), UrrivtL 
territorj, Urritorio (8), tdrf«»o (2). 
testimonj, UtUmunho. 
than, f««, do que, 
thank, agradeeer, dargrofos; — God, 

grofoi a Deot ; -s, o/grodteimtMJtOy 

gntfost t pi. ; -ful, agradeddo; 

-fulness, -metUOf graUdSo, * 
thal^ pron. dem., agueUe, agviHo; 

— , conj., que; — , pron. reL,*^. 
the, def. art, o, a, 
theatre, theatre (2). 
then, entdo, 
there, Id^ alt, ahi (1). 
thermometer, thermometro (8). 
thick, grofito. 
thief, ladHh. 

thin,^fio, (of persons) magro, 
thing, couea. 

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thirity M€ft; to be -j, «ftar oMAor 

Uiifl, tiU, ido, 

though^ otnia ;im» 9jpwxr pte, hem 

qu4, podo que, 
thoaji^t, penmmmto, 
thorongfalj, afuikdo. 

thmt, omM^ (2) ; -en, ^for. 
throne, ihrono. 
ihroiigh, por, a^rovor . 
throw, alimr^ lanfor; — doirs, d#r^ 

rubor, alirar no ekdo, 
thmider, ▼., trvft^ar; — , •., Am^ 

on. ; -Ktorm, troWKuia. 
than, oaram (1). 
tiger, %r«, m. 
tight, t^HHado. 
till, fo(;rar. 

time, <«Mpo, MS, C ; this — , uia Mi. 
tire, MAfor (or MUMf^j •tome, a6- 

XOjO, . \: . -r.',r J," _ 

to-daj, *d/fc 
together, /tfn^of. 
toil, irabalko, canaofo (2); -lome, 

token, j»roea, to^MtviiAff. . 
to-morrow, o/nanAdo. 
tone, torn, 
to-night, eito noiU^ 
too^ ooDj., temdtfm (1); — , adT.,i20- 

tooth, dente, m. - 

top, cume, m. 

topic, topico (3), osftfmpfo. 

torment, a., tormewto; — , t., aior- 

torrent, <oiT0n^ m. and f. 
touch, tocar em; -ing, *aft^ 
towards, para. 


tr%de, prqfisado, qfieio (8), ^iyi/Em (S), . 

<»^<^ (8); — , T., trqfiecur^ negih 

tragical, tra^ico (8). . 

train, trem, m. 
traitor, ^ratdor. 

transitory, tranMitori»{Z)tfauaff€iro. 
translate, iradnmr; -ion^ iradfucgSa^ 
trarel, viajair; •s^ iwigwir(8V^ P^-t 

-er,<^aiii^ . 

treacherous, Irafyaetw. ■ r- 
tread, iPMsr, Mfeor {oMpU). 
treason, tra/i^. 

treasure, *y^ rt e wt iw/' •ien:«fvjra. 
treat, iractar; «iBe, ^ji -ta^ ; nneni^ 

tree, oTMnf (8X>£ * 

tremble, tremer, edrmumr^ - 


trick, ^(Xi. 

trifle, hagatdta. 

trip, fOMano* 

troop, Iropa. 

tropics, ^iv^MM (8); -ealf -«9. 

trouble, s., incommpdto (8); — , t., 

woommodar; -som^.^Atflw (8). 
true, verdadeirai -th, verdade. -■ 
trunks Mt&, m.^ <ronMt (of a tree), 
trust, T*,/en"^N^.e0«9iar/^r*v^ <>m>- 

try, «qMrjfli0fiAifi ; 

Turk, -ish, Tureo; -ej, -^ims (8). 

turn, vottar, Wi(«r> ^prnor. 

twice, dua$ veeet. 

twins, ^dflMM* ' : 

tjpo|;raphj, tjfpoqraphia (8). ^ 

unbounded, ^wA«tedi». 
uncle, Uo, 

undeniable, innegaveL 
under, debaixo di, $oL 

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nadenUBd, eniendir; -ing^ hUsmih 1 

uod«rUke»^ miffrekMider f -&Bg/ «M» 

niiexpeeted) iiuytiiirf g. . k, > > • . . 
vofaTorable, <i^^aiwfvw2L 

nsfortonate, d«$£iforiuMmdc, im/duk 
nogratefuly tN^noto (S)^I9mi4 ayvtfil»- 


nnimporfauit, |iotico •m^wrtan^ iir- 

unite, ▼. tr., unir; — ^ r, intr., -m. 
imiTenUy, <mttn m rf< rfg. 
unless, Mm ^M, a fido Mr fM. 
lUMicciipied, €t€toeetipimi(K 
pnreMOPsble, .de$r«^omHL ' 
unripe, venU, 

until, prep., ate ; — , cooj., — pi4, 
«otiriog,«iiaiiuav«l» .*■•■■■ >* 
unwholesome, intoMn (2). ■ 
nn worth J, indigno. 
urge, impeUir, 

me, 8., mOfUrtifo; •— , ¥., iMor i!s,: 
- «M^i/in<ir/ -fal,tf^<2); -fulness, 

utmost, ^Miremo (2), tUtrnmo. 

Tacation,/iriM (8), f. pi. 

Tsln, vdo ; Tsnitj, wtidadt, 

Talue, ».^ volar; ^, t., pretar, t&ti- 

Tsrious, vario {zy 
Tase, va9f>. 
Tsnlt, Mhada (8). 
vegetation, vtgitaf&o. 
venerate m>miw*. 
irengeiiMe, vln^sufs. 

Tenture, s., mm^iimi/ ^^, t*^ fli'i'HUfti*' 

Ter][, m^.fpropri6; — ^ adr^yiMM^ 

▼essel, fia9t» (S). . 

▼ex, ««Dar, iiMMMiiMiar, 

▼ice, «»0»0 (8). 

▼ictorj, tidoria (8) ; •ions, -Mio. 

▼iew, vitk^protptete^ opuUdo. 

▼igOFOUS, VtffOtOttK 

▼ilia, tkacara (8). 
▼iUage, o^o. 
▼illain, /alif«, W Ni attg . 
▼ine, tinha ; -Tird, vmAo. 
▼iolin, fti6i0a (2) ; -ist^ -ftfiife. 
▼oioe, fM»„ 1 
▼dcaoo, «o20do, m. 
▼Glome, t6lum4 (2), m. 
▼owd, vogalt t 
▼ojage, MOf «i» (2), L 


wake, daperiar; — up, aee&rdar. 

walk, ▼., MWMiiilar, andar^ patmar ; 

to take a -^, liar ttm/wiwiV. 
wall, pairtdB <2), £-, mfnvy ->» M«ra- 

waltz, voilM. 
want, %,,faUaypneUd/o,fuemndad$; 

— , ▼., preeUar <fo / .to be wanting* 

war, guetrof -rior, -fWrou 
warm, guenU; -th, M^n- * 
warn, OMior ; -iog, iwrim (2); - - 
waste, ▼., ffottar; -^ a4i., desftio; 

watch, B., rtlogio (8) ; ^, ▼., ^wonfar, 

water, agua, 

wave, 8., ttiufa; — , r,tj(uctwtr, 
waj, tfomlnAo (= manner), mandrOf 
iorte, t 

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wttkffiaea; -Bats, -^imbni. 
wealtli, opvUneia, riqftsta; -j, opu- 

weftpoDy orffML 
wear, trazer, inyar^ tatir, 
weather, tempo. 
week, Mmama (2). 
weep, eharar, 

weigh, iMaor/ -i^ peta (peto), 
wdoome, wdj,, bemeindo / — , t., 

welfare, hem-edar. 
well, adr., bem,poi», 
well, B.,pofo. 
whale, da^o. 
what, ^iM, ;««. 
wheat, tri^o. 
when, fuando. 
whence, d^onde. 
where, <mde, aonde. 
which, pte, o qvoL 
while, conj., emquanto, durante que; 

It is worth — , vaU a pena; — y ■., 

mofnewtOt dlgwm tempo. 
white, Iraneo ; -wash, eaiar. 
whither, €umde, para onde. 
who, pron. rel., que/ — , pron. interr., 

whole, inteiro, todo. 
yrhjf porque {\). 
wicked, mtfo, malvado (2) ; -ness, 

maldade^ malvadeg, f. 
wide, largo. 

widow, ffiuva (2); -er, -«o. 
wife, mulher, esposa (2). 
wild, eelvaqem (2), bravo, hravio (2). 
will, T., querer; — •, s., tontade, tee- 

Williain, GuUherme. 
willingly, de boa votUade. 
win, qanhar. 
wind, 8., vento. 

wind vp (a watch), dar corda (ao 

windmill, moinAo de vento, 
wine, vinho / red — , — tinto. 
winter, interna. 

wipe off, enxugar; — out, apagar. 
wise, prudente, eabio (8); -dom, ea- 

wish, •., det^ (2) ; — , r., -or. 
with, 00m/ -in, dentro; -out, Mm^ 

withdraw, ▼. tr., reUrar; — , r. intr., 

witness, s., teetemunhaf t.\ — ^ ▼., 

woman, mulker. 
wood, p&o, madeira; (for fuel) /«• 

AAa/ -en, <20 madeira, depdo. 
wool, 2da/ -en, de Ida. 
word, palavra. 
woTk, 8., o^«, trabaiho ; — , r., <ro- 

balhar; -man, -cifor, obreiro. 
worid, m«4M2o. 
worm, f^tfmM, m., fticAo. 
worth, B., «a^/ -y, digno; to be 

worth, va^. 
wound, T,,ferir; — , s., -itfo (2). 
wretch, -ed, mieeratel, mieero (8). 
write, eterever'; -ing, eecripta; -er, 

wrong, 8., infuria (8) ; — ^, adj., «r- 
rcuio/ you are — , Vm*^ eetd en- 
qanado, ndo tern ratdo.^ 

jBTd,pateo (3), (measure) /aria, 
year, anno ; new — , — bom. 
yellow, amarello. 

yesteraay, hontem (2); the day be- 
fore — , anf hontem. 
yet,adr., ainda; — ,coi\j.,«e0i<«Mi0(2). 

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yield, eedtr, dar,prodv»ir. 


jonder, adj., aqyuHU ; — , tdr., Id^ 

jouog, mof9, fivem^ (of animals) 

iiovoy — man, mo^; — ladj, hm^^ 

JOOr, «OM0, MIM. 

youth, ino«MM«. 

seal, flwZo/ -ona, -mo. 

zoology, toohgia (2); -col, -/m9 (8> 

Digitized by VjjOOQIC 



1. Definite article : sing, o, m., a, f. ; plar. m, «; 

2. Indefinite article : urn, m., umay ti 


• I. Number: The plural of nonns is formed by adding « to the 

Exceptions: 1) Nouns ending in s do not oliange ia the plu- 
ral, except deos, pi. deoses ; 

2) m is changed into n (ham-emj honhens) ; 

8) nouns ending in r or e take es (mavy mar-e$ ; vos, vosh-es) ; 
except edliz (cdlis^ edliee)j which does not change ; 

4) those ending in al, oly ul lose' the I and take es (ean^l^ 
can-aee) ; except eonsul, pi. eonsul^ee, maly pi. tnal-es; 

5) el is changed into ei$ (pap-el^ pap^is) ; 

6) il is changed into U (fun-ily fun-is) ; 

7) (lo becomes des (nap-do^ nap-des) ; regular (pi. -M) are the 

aldeSOy villager, cidaddto, citizen, 

anOOy dwarf, cortezdo^ courtier, 

ancidOy old man, gmiSLOy hawk, 

henpSoy f., blessing, grSOy grain, 

«Am^ Christian, irmdOy brother, 

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AppEnnoiz. 831 

«ub>, f., hand, . ' rdbOo^ hone-radish, 

6rJ&o^ orphan, totao, room on the ground-floor, 

6rg30y organ, vUldOj peasant; hoor. 

pagOo^ pagan. 
The following change So into de^: 
AUmao^ German, eharlatdo, qnack, 

Cataldo^ Catalonian, escrhSo, Bcriyener, clerk, 

cae, dog, pSo, loaf; 

eapdULOy chaplain, tabellido, notary. 

capitSo^ captain, 

IL Gender : Names of males are nuueuUnef names of females 
are feminine, Exceptions : UeUmunha^ witness, gente^ people, 
tripolaffdo, crew, pteHie^ Common people, eanalha^ mob, yillain, 
gentalha^ mob, rabble, perwnagemy personage, are feminine. 
Masetdine are : 

1) Nouns ending in i (except grei^ flock, lei^ law), in o (ex- 
cept ewco^ adze, Jilhdy pancake, mo, millstone, ndo, man-of-war), 
in u (except tribu, tribe) ; 

2) those ehding in I (except cal^ lime), m (except ordem^ or- 
der, and those in gem), r (except colAer, spoon, ear, color, dor, 
pain, ./lor, flower), and «. 

Feminine are : 

1) Nouns ending in a (except dia, da^, gttardaroupa^ ward- _ 
robe or press, mappa, map, most of those in a, and a number of 
words of Greek origin, as elimoj idiomoy tyetema, planeta, corner 
ta, etc.)- 

2) most of those ending in dk>, e, gem, e. 

Masculine nouns, being the names of males, are made femi- 
nine according to the following rules : 

. 1) Nouns ending in o change this into a (as lob-^o, wolf, lolhct) ; 
except reo, defendant, ri; 

2) those ending in do change this into 3a (aseidad-^, citizen, 
eid€id'Sa); except leSo, lion, leda; mU&Oy boor, villSa ; ^hardo, 
haroTkyharoneza ; 

8) those ending in r add a (as leitor, reader, leitora)] some 

Digitized by VjjOOQIC 


nonns ending in dor or tar make their feminine mtriz^ ts actor, 
aetriz; imperadar^ emperor, imperatrU; director, direetriz (or 
-tord) ; 

4) nonns designating nationality, ending in z, add a : Inglez, 
Englishman, Ingleza; also Hupanhol, Spaniard, Eetpanhola; 

6) all other nonns do not change in the feminize, except 
gigante, giant, f., giganta; infante, infSEtnt (title of Portngaese 
and Spanish princes), f, infanta; mestre, master, teacher, mez- 

6) irregnlar formations are : 
aibhade, abbot, ahhadezsa, ladrSo, thief, ladra, 

and, grandfather, aw, . ma/rquez, marquis, nuMrqueza, 

eonde, oonnt, eondezsa (or -eza), prineipe, prince, prineeza, 
deoi, god, deosa, rapaz, lad, rapariga, 

. dom, sir, lord, dona, rei, king, rainha. 

duque, dnke, duqiuza, 

Y) to names of animals which have no proper form for the 
feminine, the acy. fnaeho, male, or femea, female, maj be added. 


L Number : 1) A^jectiyes form their plaral according to the 
same roles as the noun ; 

3) those ending in dk> take z (as tSo, pi. «do«) ; 

8) those ending in il, this syllable not having the tonic ac- 
cent, change it into eiz (as fdcU, pi. ficeis) ; except penzil, pL 

II. Gender: 1) Adjectives ending in o change this vowel in 
the feminine into a (as beU^, fem. bell-a) ; 

2) 3o becomes Sa (as vSo, fem. vSa) ; 

8) tiu)se ending in or add a (as eneantocZor, fem. 09u;aiito<2(»ra) ; 

4) those ending in z, denoting nationality, add a (as portu- 
guez, fem. porttiguezd); also Ae^j^anAoZ, fem. he^anhola; 

5) 5<>m makes 5<mi, moo makes md ; 

6) all other adjectives remain unchanged in the feminine, 
m. Comparison: 1) Adjectives are compased, a) in thejMti- 

Utz by t&o — eomo, as — ^as, so— as ; b) in the eomparativz hjmaiz, 

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more, or menos, less; c)'in the $u^ 

perlative by o tnaUy a maU^ 

etc., the most, or o menas, the least 

2) Irregular are : 

P«w Compar. 


bom, goodf mdhor, 


moo, bad, Ul, peior. 


grande, great, mauyr, 


pequeno^ little, tnenor, 


muitOy mach, maif, 


|Mnw, little, menoi, 


8) Irregular forms of the superlative absolute: 

acre, sharp, 


amaoel, amiable, 

amigoy friendly, 

%mw9w WV w99wwwwVm 

imtigo, ancient, 


tuperoy rough, 


&<M», good, 


eeU^ey celebrated, 


faeil, easy, 


fdu, happy, 


Jiel, faithful. 


./We?, cold. 


ffrande, great, 


humilde, humble. 


mrfo, l?ad, 


mitero, miserable. 


nobrej noble, 


peqtieno, little, 


proiperOy prosperous, 

«a5io, wise. 


tagradoy sacred. 


salubre^ healthy, 


dmpUs, simple, 


y Google 




L Cardinal nuniben : 

1, am, t ama^ 

2, data (doii)^ t dua$^ 
8, tru, 

4, ^tia^, 


7, w««, 

8, otto. 

9, nove^ 

10, de^ 

11, <^nf«y 

12, douy 
18, tr^ 

14, quaton&f 

15, ^UtllM, 

16, detamtf 

17, deiauU^ 

18, deimto, 

19, ({e«aii09^ 

20, 9tnt«, 

21, Vtnfo « ffllly 

22, «in^ « d&Uif 
28, vinttf A ^«ty 

80, trinta, 

81, ennta « um^ 

82, trinto « ^Z^vi, 
40, quareTUOy 
50, (»*n«oen^a, 
60, testentOj 

70, utentOj 
80, aitenta, 
90, novmfa, 
100, eem, 

101, C«nto # Kllly 

102, emto « deuiy 
108, emto « trA, 
104, cento e quatro^ 
110, cento 6 deZf 
116, titfuto e dezateiiy 

120, cento « vintCy . 

121, Mnto « vinte e um^ 

122, Mfito e vinto e dous^ 

180, cento 6 trintOj 

181, cen^ e irinta e um^ 
140, cento e quarenta, 

146, eento e quarenta e cineo^ 

199, cento e rmenta e nove^ , 

200, dtuentoi, t wu, 
800, treeentoiy t -<£», 
400, quatroeentoty t -agy 
500, j'tfin^sntoff, f. -oe, 
600, $eiecento$, t -«m, 
700, Mfecentof, fl wu, 
800, oitocentoe, t -oc, 
900, noveeentccy f. -oe, 

958, noteeentoM edneoenta e oito^ 

999, no«tfMnto« e notenta e note^ 

1000, mily 

1001, i9it7 e vfft, 
1010, mil e dee, 

1027, mil e vinte e eete, 

1688, mil mseentoi eoitenta e tr99i 

1700, mil eeteeentoty 

1862, mil dtoeentoe e eeeeenta # 

2000, (2otf« (f. ^tMu) mily 
2591, <20u« miZ quinhenta e no- 

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8000, iramtl^ 

4000, qtuUro mU^ 

5000, einco milf 

6000, 9eis mil, 

*t060, uU mil^ 

8000, oito mil, 

9000, nov€ mil, 

10,000, de9 fnd, 

11,000, <mge mil, 

60,000, eineoentamU, 

61,000, cineoenta e um mil, 

68,000, eineoenta e oito mil, 

100,000, eem mil, 

120,000, eenio s vfnUiuil^ 
200,000, dvMentpi mil, 
800,000, treuntoi mil, 
500,000, quinhmtoimU, ... 
900,000, wneceuta mil, " 
1,000,000, vm mUhOo (um amtc^ 

onlj used with rHi), 
1,200,000, um milhao dutentoi 

2,000,000, daui milhdes, > 
16,879,824^ quinu milMe» {con- 
t0$) treeentoi e ieterUa e nave 
mil citocentoi $ vinte e quatro. 
IL Numeral iiib^taniicei : unidade (imit), deuna, eentena, 
milhar, desend de mUharet, eentena dfi milhare$ (these are mostly 
used in arithmetic) ; uma dugia (a dozen), um cento (a hundred), 
um milheiro (a tiiousand), uma vintena (a score); eentenaree 
(hundreds), milharei (thousands), 
ni. Ordinal numhen: 

18, deeimo oita/oo, 
19$ deeimo none, 

20, vigeaimo, 

21, tigeeimo primeiro^ 

22, vigesimo eegundo, 
28, vigeeimo terceiro, 
24, i^erimo quarto, 

80, trigeeimo, 

81, trigedmo primeiro, 

82, trigeeimo eegundo^ 

1, primeiro, 

2, eegundo, 

8, tereeiro (tergo), 
4, quarto, 
6, quinto, 

6, eexto, 

7, eetimo (s^timo), 

8, oitavo, 

9, none, 

10, deeimo, 

11, undeeimo (deeimo primeiro), 40, quadragesimo^ 

12, duodecimo (deeimo eegundo), 60, quinquagesimo, 
18, deeimo terceiro, 60, sexageeimo, 
14, deeimo quarto, 70, Upttiageiimo, 
16, deeimo quinto, 80, octogedmo, 

16, (Ze<»«k> wa?ea, 90, nonageeimo, 

1 7, <?«J»«w wtwwo, 100, eenteeimiO, 

y Google 

* 336 


lOlf emtaimo prmeiro^ 4My quadringentuitno^ 

102, eentaimo 9egundo^ 600, quingenUmM^ 

103, cerUetimo terceiro^ 000, iexeenUtitM^ 
110, eentenmo de&itno, TOO, i^tingenteHfM^ 
137^ cmtenmo trigeHmo setitnoy 800, oetingentuimo^ 

199, eff»<eniii« nanagenmo nano^ 900, nangetUuimo^ 

200, ducentesimoy 1000, millenmo^ 

201, <{ttC0n<0n9fM primeiroy 1927, mUtenfM nongentenmo w- 
288, dueenteiimo cetogmmo cU guimo uttmo^ 

tavoy 10,000, ^00iii»^ millmmo* 

800, trtf0«7if«nm47, 
rV. Fraetiam: 

um meiOy a metade; a^J. «teM», 1 -<i| 
«m ttfr^ (wna or a t^r^a parU\ 
daui terfos (duos terfos parte$\ 
urn quarto^ 
tres qttartoiy 
urn quintOy 
urn iextOy 
urn ietifMy 
urn wUvDOy 

urn onee om (a undeeima parted 
nove anee acosy 

urn doge aw (a duodeeima parU\ 
um vinte aw (a %%gmma pairU)^ 
trege Hnte aoosy 
nove vinte e einco aeoSy 
quarenta e um cineoenta e quatro aw>9f 
um eentmmOy 
•pfVir ^^ miUesimOy 
iffr ^^ ^^^ trezentot e oitenta e ieU ciU> mU qui' 
nhentoB e quarenta e eete aoae. 
y. MultijplieativemmkeT&is: 

uma vezy once ; duae veeeSy twice ; tree veeeSy thrice or three 
times; quatro veeesy four times, etc. 





y Google 


YL Proportional nxuneitila: a) acQectives: 
iimplety simple, 
duplieSy dobradOf doable, 
triplieey triplieadOy triple. 

b) substantives: o dcibrOj duploy doable; o triplo^ o quadru* 
plo^ quintuph^ deeuph (tenfold), eentuplo (hondredfold). 


L Pergonal: 

ett, I ; tUy thoa ; elle^ he ; eUa^ she ; not, we ; «5«, jou ; elleSy 
ellas, they. 

m€y me; U^ thee; Ihe^ to hhn or her; fuw, as; vo^, yoa; lhe$^ 
to them. 

miniy me ; iiy thee ; o^ him ; a, her ; m, a«, them. 

n. Beflexwe and reciprocal: 

The ^«t and mc^iuI persons singalar and plaral are the same 
as the p&nonal pronoan ; third person m, fi, himself^ herself, it- 
self, one^s self, themselves, each other. 

in. Poaemcc: 
- meuy f. minhay my, mine. 

teUy f. tua^ thy, thine. 

HUy f. tua, his, her (hers), its, one's. 

710990^ f. 9UMM, OUr, OUTS. 

DOMO, f. vi»Ma, yoar, yoars. 
seuy f. «ua, their, theirs. 

IV. Demon$t/ratite : 

eatCy f. «ata, this; atCj f. ewa, this, that; aquelUj t aqueUa^ 
':&at, yonder; iUo, this; tM?, this, that; aquiUoy that 

V. Interrogative: 

quern f who? ^w.^ oquef what? ;uaZf which? 

VI. Relative: 

que, qucfUy o qual, who, which, that; eujo, f. ««;«, whose. 
Vn. IndefinUe: 

alguem, somebody, ninguemy nobody^ 


Digitized by VjjOOQIC 



putrem^ another, 


every, each, 

nadoj nothing, 

eadawoiy each, ^ 

tudo^ all, everything, todoiy all, everybody, 

quemqner^qualquer^anyhodjy autro^ 


algumy t wi, some, 


autre, both, 

nenhumf t wi, none, no, vm ou autro^ either. 

todo, all, every, 


n. Conjugation. 

III. CanjvgatunK. 




Preeent Indicative. 
















em ^ 


Preeent Subjunctive. 



















Preterit Deeeripthe Indicative. 







, ava 









&vao (avam) 



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Preterit HUtorieal 









eu (eo) 

in 00) 







4rao (4ram) 

^rSo (4ram) 

IrSo (iram) 

Preterit Perfect <?r Plupevfeot. 
















4rao (iram) 

«rao (dram) 
Future Indieatite. 


















Futwre Subjunctive. 






eres ^ 














Digitized by VjOOQ. 




















eriao (eriam) 

iriao (iriam) 







Present Participle and Gerund. 


Poet Participle. 





Euphonic and orthographical changes of the character of veri>8: 

I. Ooiyagation : c and g^ before e, become qu^ gu (as to-coTy 
torque; pa-gar, pa-gue) ; p and j, before e, become e, g (as tra- 
par, tra-^; viekjar, mthgei); e becomes ei in the whde singa-, 
lar and in the 8d person plural of the present indicative and 
snbjnnctiye, and in the corresponding forms of the imperadye 
mood (as rod-ear, present indicatiye Tod-eio,-ei€u, -eia; ploral, 
rod-eamoB, -eais, eido; subjunctive, rod^^i^, etc.; imperative, 
rodrda, rod-eai) ; in the same forms % is changed into ei in the 
following verbs: abreviar, to abridge, abbreviate, ageneiar, to 
to manage, procure, alumiar, to light, eopiar, to copj, mediar, 
to mediate, odiar, to hate, remediar, to remedy, premiar, to 
reward. . ^ 

IT. Conjugation: e and ^, before a and o, become p, j (as tor- 
cer, tor-po; prote-ger, prote-ja), 

in. Conjugation : g, before a and o, becomes j {aafu-gtr^fu' 

Irregular verbs : 

N. B. — ^In the following list the regular forms of the differ- 
ent verbs are not given; the irregular forms are given in this 

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APPENDIX. ' 841 

order: present indicative and snbjnnctiTe; preterit descriptive 
or imperfect ; preterit historicfd md its derivatives, a) pluperfect, 
b) imperfect snbjanctive, c) fatore subjunctive; future indica* 
tive ; past participle ; for the derivation of tenses see Lesson 

Itnt Conjuffatian, 
dar, to give; dou, d^ d&, damos, dais, dao ; dd, dSs, d6, demos, 

deis, ddm; dei, ddste, deu, ddmos, d^tes, d^rao; d^ra; 

dSsse; der; 
estar, to $tand^ he ; estou, est&a, estd, estamos, estus, estSo ; e^^ 

teja, estcjas, etc,; estive, estiveste, esteve, estivemos, es- 

tivestes, estiverao ; estivera ; estivesse ; estiver. 

3eeond Cifnjugation, 

1) crdr, to helieee; creio, crSs, cr6, cremos,credescrSm (creem); 

creia, creias, etc, ; 

Idr, Uf read; leio, 16s, Id, Iemos,lede8 16m (l^m) ; leia, leias, 

2) perder, to toee; perco, perdes, perde, etc, ; perca, percas, etc. 
valer, to he toorth; valho, vales, vale (val), etc.; valha, va- 

Ihas, ete, 
8) caber, to hold^ to he contained ; caibo, cabes, cabe, ete, ; caiba, ^ 

caibias, etc.-; coube, coubeste, coube, ete.; ooub^ra; cou- 

besse; couber; 
saber, to know; sei, sabes, sabe, etc.; saiba, saibas, ete,; 

soube (pr. sube), soubeste, soube (pr. 86be), ete, ; soub^ra ; 

soubesse; souber; 
haver, to have ; hei, has, ha, havemos, haveis (hemos, heis), 

hao ; hi^'a, hi^as, ete, ; houve, houveste, houve, ete, ; hou- ' 

v^; houvesse; houver; 
jazer, to lie (defective) ; jazo, jazes (both little u$ed)^ jaz, ete, ; 

(pret, hi$t,) jouve (obsolete), 
poder, to he able, can; posso, p6des, p6de, podemos, «^«. ; 

possa, possas, ete, ; pude, pudeste, p6de, pudemos, etc, ; pu- 

d6ra; pudesse; puder; 
prazer, to pleaee (defective ; third person singular^ praz ; 

preterit historical, prouve ; prouv^ra ; prouvesse ; prouver 

(aprazer^ to please, is eonj^t^ated in the same man'ner) ; 

Digitized by VjjOOQIC 


4) dizer^ to ^oy, teU; digo,^diM8^ dis^ disemos, ete. ; diga, digas, 

0tc; disBe, diiaesto, disse, eic; diss^ra; dissesse; disaer; 

direi; dita; 
faeer, to molx, do ; fayo, fazes, faz, fazemos, etc. ; fa^a, &- 

(as, etc.; fiz, fizeste, fez, fizemos, etc.; fiz^ra; fizesset fi- 

zer; fam; feito; 
trazer, to bring; trago, trazet, traz, trazemos, etc,; traga, 

tragas, etc.; tronxe (jtr, tniBse), trouxeste, trouxe (pr, 

tr688e), tronzemos, etc.; trouz^ra; tronzasse; troazer; 

6) qnerer, to wi$hj mil; qawo^ qneres, qner, quweinos, etc.; 

qneira, qneiraa, ete^; qnia^ qoizeste, quiz, quizemos, etc,; 

qiiiz6ra; quizesse; quizer; 
ter, to have; tenbo, tena, tern, temos, tendes, t6m (teem); 

tenha, tenhas, etc. ; tinha; tire, tireste, teve, tivemoB, etc.; 

tiy^ra; tivesse; tiver; imperatite: [tern], tende ; 
Ber, to he; soil, es, 6 (he), somos, sois, sao; seja, scjaa, etc. ; 

era, eras, etc,; fui, foste, foi, fomos, fostes, forao; f6ra;. 

fosse; f6r; imperative: [s6], sMe ; 
v6r, to aw; vejo, vte, yfi, Temos, yfides, T6m (veem)^ veja, 

yejas, etc ; yi, yiste, yiu, etc. ; yira ; yisse ; yir ; Tisto ; 
p6r, to put; ponho, pSes, p5e, pomos, pondes, poem ; ponha; 

punha; pnz, puzeste, p6z, puzemos, etc.; pnz^ra; puz^esse; 

pozer; pondo; posto. 

Third Corrugation. 

1) medir, to meaaure; me^o, medes, mede, etc. ; meca, me^as, etc. 

pedir, to heg^ ask; pe^, pedes, peda, etc. ; pe^ pe^aa, etc.; 
onyir, to hear ; on^o, onyes, oaye, etc, ; oti(^a, onQas, ete, ; 

2) parir, to bring forth ; jpairo, pares, pate, etc ; patra, pdras, 

8) esinr^io/aU; caio, cahes, cahe, etc. ; caia, eaias, itc.; 
sahir, to go or come out; saio, sahes, sahe, etc.; saia, saias, 
. etc. ; 

trahir, to betray; traio, trahes, trahe, etc.; traia, traias, etc; 

i) sentir, to fed; sinto, sentes, sente, etc.; sinta, sintas, efo. ; 

4n thfi same tanner are conjugated ^ foUetwing^ 9erb$: 

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APPENDIX, \ 843 

advertir, io apprise^ warn; digerir, to digett; ingerir-fle, 
to meddle ; despir, to undresi^ ^y off; ferir, to hit^ wound ; 
preferir, to ft^er ; deferir, to defer ^ cmd other derwtUivei 
of the Latin fero, ae referir, proferir, conferir, ete, ; mentir, 
to lie; reflectir, to r^fUet; repellir, to repel, and other eofn^ 
pounde of the Latin pello, a«, compellir, impellir, etc,; 
preyenir, to apprize^ warn, provide; progredir, to progren; 
aggredir, to attach; segoir, to foUow, and ite compounds; 
seryir, to eerve ; repetlc, to repeat ; vestir, to drees, and its 

5) cabrir, to cover; oubro, oobred, cobre, cubrimos, cubria, co- 

brem ; oabra, ete, ; past participle, caberto ; in the same way 
are conjugated: acadir, to come to assistance, bi^ir, U^ stir, 
meddle; oonatrair, to construct; cospir, to spit; destrnir, 
ta destroy; engolir, to swallow; fogir, to flee; aaoadir, to 
shaJfc ; anbir, to go or corns up ; smnir, U^ take away ; aur- 
giT, to anchor ; taaAr, to cough ; 
dormir, to sleep ; dnrmo, dormes, dorme, etc, ; durma, dnr* 
mas, etc, ; 

6) oonduzir, to lead ; condnzo, condnzes, condtiz, condozimos, 

etc, ; so also indnzir, reduzir, introduzir, prodozir, etc, mid 
lazir, to shins ; 

7) rir, to laugh; rio, ris, ri, rimos, rides, riem; ria, rias, etc 

8) Vir, to corner Tenho, vens, vem, vimos, vindes, v6m; venha, 

Tenbas, etc, ; vinha ; yim, yieste, vein, viemos, yiestes, yi- 
6rSk); vi^ra; yiesse; yier; yindo; yindb. 

9) Ir, to go; you, yas, yae (v«), yamos, ides, yao ; yd, yds, yi, 

yamos, yades, yao; fni, foste, foi, etc; f6ra; fosse; f6r; 
imperative: y9A(Y9X),\dL^, 

Verbs with a double past participle. 

First Conjugation, 

aceitar, to accept aceitado acelto 

completar, to complete c(nnpletado' complete 

entregar, to deliver entmgado entregne 

enxngar, to dry enxagado enzato 

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exceptuar, to except 



expulflar, to expel 



gastar, to tcaete, epend 

gastado ' 


izentar, to exempt 



pagar, «<>^y 



professar, toprofees 



salvar, to $ave 



soltar, to reUaee 



(rtgeitar, to gubject 



Second Conjugation. 

absorver, to dboorb 



acender, to light 

' aoendido 


corromper, to corrupt 



eleger, to elect 


' eleito 

envolver, to invoice 



escrever, to write 



incorrer, to incur 



morrer, to die 



prender, to arrest 



romper, to hreah^ tear 



suspender, to suspend 



torcer, to twist 



Third Conjugation, 

abrir, to open 



affligir, to afflict 



cubrir, to cover 



exhanrir, to exhaust 



expellir, to expel 



exprimir, to express 



extingnir, to extinguish 



frigir, tofry^ hake 



imprimir^ to print 



incluir, to include 



Babmergir, to submerge 



snrgir, to anchor 



Digitized by VjC 




Verbs witii constractions different from their equivalents in 
English, (sb. == somebody, sth. = something.) 
with A. 

aeofuelhar, to advise 

acquie$eerj to acqniesce in 

aereditar^ to beHeve sb. 

agrada/Ty to please 

agradeeer^ to thank 

ajudoTy to help 

arranear^ to snatch, wresu from 

atsegurat. ) ^ 

> to assare 
(U9ever(xry ) 

asgiitir, to assist sb. 

attingiVy to attain 

camprary to buy from 

erutary to cost sb. 

defOiTy to owe sb. 

duputoTy to dispute 

etmnary to teach sb. 

e$eapwry to escape from 

tsquivar-sey to shun, eschew 

fuffiry to flee from 

herdavy to inherit from 

igualary to equal 

inv^aTy to envy sb. 

negary to deny, refuse 

ohedecevy to obey 

with DE. 

ahundar (de or cm), to abound ijAamar, to call 

edfUMfy to abuse 
alegrar-sey to rejoice at 
ameoffOTy to threaten with 
ormar ((2^ or com)y to arm with 
(ttavia/ry to adorn with 
earecevy to want, lack 

o^tor, to hinder 
oceorreTy to meet 
oeeultoTy to conceal from 
ordenary to ordain, bid sb. 
;pfl^<w, topay 
j^ir, to beg sb* 
perguntoTy to ask sb. 
permitUry to allow sb. 
prendivy to preside over 
|>r<H}iet^r, to promise' 
quereTy to like sb. 
recmaTy to refuse 
renstiry to resist 
reQKmicr, to answer 
retirary to withdraw sth^ from sb. 
rogoTy to beg sb. 
ratibary to rob sb. 
MtisfazeTy to satisfy 
««rctr, to serve 
BobreviteTy to survive 

^^^ J to take from sb. 
focar, to concern 

confiaty to trust 
^on«a2ar, to console for 
eubrivy to cover with 
dependcTy to depend upon 
deMonJwTy to mistrust 
deteuidar-sey to neglect 
ciafar, to endow with 

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346 - -^PENDIX. 

encortegat^ to charge with funir^ to punish with 

eiquecersej to forget rapander^ to answer for - 

fruir, to enjoy rewstir, to invest with 

goear^ to eiyoy rir (or rirse)^ to langh at 

gaalar^ to like Mroir, to serve as 

, lembra/r-se^ to remember taehwr^ to charge with . 

fnaneh4Ji/r^ to stain with tractar^ to treat as 

marrer^ to die with or of tremer^ to tremble with 

mu^^r, to change triumpha/r^ to triumph over 

muniVy to furnish ««ar, to use 

participaTj to participate in viver, to live upon 

preeiior, to want, need 0(?m5ar, to mock at 
prover, to provide with 

with ooM 

(tbra^gar-M^ to embrace da/r^ to find, meet 

acabar^ to finish, have done faUar^ to speak to or with ' 

aeertar^ to hit, find - ^^ to urge sb. 

vtfowar, to marry offender-se, to be offended at 

eompadecer-ie, to pity parecerse, to be like 
eumpriry to fulfill, accomplish 

with EM. 

(mentar^ to settle, decide on |>^ar, to seize, take hold of 

ealeular, to calculate at pensar, to think of 

eotmr^ to agree on reparar, to notice 

cuidar, to take care of ^onAor, to dream of 

/(dlar, to speak of trdb^VMry to work at 

insistir, to insist on tropepar^ to stumble against 
oeeupcMT'sey to occupy one's self ' 


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