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Full text of "A new method of learning the French language; embracing both the analytic and synthetic modes of instruction; being a plain and practical way of acquiring the art of reading, speaking, and composing French"

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E-cUa^/T" \TiV. ^^^^^ 






JANUARY 25, 1924 


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imnm: tMrmanm * ALWAXDk ODNBifXAn: mooxBi wiutaob, Km » oi^ 

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We liave publishen Y)r the use uf Teacfaera^ 

*'A Esr TO TUK KxERoiHKs IN Fa8qubllb*8Nxw Frbnto 
Method, with occasional Notes and Refereuces to the Rules, by 
Louis FasqueU«,LL.D^ drc.'' PHceV^ets. Tbe^'Key'^obeseD 
bv mail, by seadiBg the publisher the p riee ia P. O. stamps. 


ERTSasP Meoidliig to Aet of CopgnM, ia Um j9u lOl, 
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Thb Qmrenafitjr of the Freneh hmgi jige ibnushtt suffideiit 
poof of its utiHty. Tlironghout Europe, in many parts of Aaiai 
AinoL^ and America, no education is complete without a knowledge 
of that tongue; which in more than one conntiy of Europe ir 
emphaticallj called ** the langttoffe,^ Its merits are becoming so 
well appredatea in this country, that it is almost unnecessary to 
partiddariae them, — ^to speak of its unsurpassed precision and dear- 
nan, and of iti capability d expresnng eveiy idea in the m i^t 
laeonic and in the most ornamental style. The language of 
PVanoe, that happy compound of the Celtic, the Romanic and the 
Teutonio elemoitB, is equally adapted to the lightest literature 
and to the most profound diction of sdenoe. The ridi mmes of 
Frendi literature, too long but imperfectly known here, offer in 
every department of knowledge treasures equal to those presented 
bj ^e litermture cf any other nation. 

Many works have been published, in this country and in Bag 
land, to fecilitate the acquisition of the French language ; but 
daring his more than twenty years' practice in teaching the mod- 
em lax^ruages, the author of this volume has in vain looked ibr 
the appearance of a book which, like several of the French gram- 
ouffs published in Germany, should unite in due proportions the- 
&ry and practice. To the high merits of several of the iheoretioal 
grsmmaiB, he bears lus ^ost dieerful testimony ; yet, the student 
might go through them, and know but little of the idiomatic or 
practical part of the language. Several of the practical works^ 
duyagh well executed acoordbg to the plans whidi their authors 
kad hud, neglect grammatical rules, if not entirdy, at least, Uat 
Ado much; and the student may, after having devoted a long time 
to <he men memoriang of seBteneea, find hinoself in possesnoo cf a 

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nixiober of set pbraseB, yaluabley-it is tnie, but irom wUch, destk* 
tute of landmarks, the slightest deviation must lead him into 
unknown regions. 

A work which, unit/ng practice with theory, should attempt to 
avoid tlie difHculties mentioned above, had been long contem- 
plated by the auth<M: of these pages, when '^ Woodbury's New 
Method with the German" made its appearance. Finding in that 
work the two systems, the analydc and the synthetic, beautifully 
blended and well ehiboratcd, he had no hesitation in adopting the 
*' New MfixnoD," so sucoessfully applied by Mr. Woodbury to 
the German, as the model on which to construct his long intended 
treatise on the French. The result is the present work. 

The work commences with a comprehensive treatise on pro- 
nunciation. The power of the letters, as initials, mediala and 
finals, is fully explained under the different letters. Peculiar care 
has been taken to render this part sufficiently full, to provide the 
st«..lent with a satisfactory guide and ad\iser, in the prii^npal 
difficulties of the Frendi pronunciation. The words presenting 
pecuIiaritieB of pronunciation, are placed as exceptions to the rules 
given in this part 

In the coQWiencement of the First Part of this grammar*, the 
rules are given in the most simple form, and the idioms are grad- 
ually mtroduced and explained ; copious references to the Second, 
or more theoretical Part, render further information easily attidn* 
able. After the rules of every lesson, comes a resunU of ex 
amples in illustration of them, as also of preceding ones, con- 
taining often new idioms and conversational phrases, llie 
examples on the rules, the resumes and the French exercisea 
to be rendered into English consisting almost entirely of ques- 
tions and answers, combine, it is thought, all the benefits pre- 
sented by the practical grammars, while the rules in the lessons, 
and the ease with which reference may be had to the Second 
Part, present all the advantages of the theoretical treatises. It 
will be easily seen that the teacher and student will find liere the 
practice, with as httle or as much of tbe^ theory ma they may desire. 

The grammatical rules and idioms are introduced gradually, so 
■s not to* offer too many difficulties at once. Care has been 
lakea not to present the rules as aUtact and aiUtniry hi«v«» while 

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flii ruMiUtiiMi m diftffMMi i£ ( 
f»BgnHf(» ii ctu«&iUy pointed maL 

evei7 kiBOA. The nutteriib for them are found in Uie axaiuptev 
to Om nile«» IB tb» rcaiuad^ in fti» Frtivk «MidMt and in dv» 
TocabnUms ppeoedii^ the Muiie. BesidM idi tfak, in McordaHot 
with an admimbla feature of Mr. Woodbuiy's systein, the ftudeat 
IB furnished with/the means of carrying on in conneetion with Che 
r^^ttku' wwm already indicaled, a series of exeicisea in FrtmA 
eompositioB, at onoe eaiy, intereaiHig, and profitable iathe highesT 

The grouping of the tencoe of the Terhe and the clasrificatfon 
of the in^gnlaritiesy will^ it is h^ped, siaiplify this ]«ri of j 
mar. In the former^ the stodent will see that by kamiag a 1 
u one conjugation, he often leans it in the others; in the hrtler 
he will pereeive that the deviations of the irregukv Tsrfaa are 
oftcB veiy trifiiag and confined to partiealBr tenaea. 

An attempt v^ made in the "Praolioal Beenm^'* Lessons W 
and 90, to simplify as much as pessiUa ths aomewhat eonptar 
Kubject of the past participle. 

The rules of the Second, or theoretical Part, aie dednoed from 
the most reliable sources ; they are nearly all illustrated by short 
extracts from the best Frendi authors. This will, it is hoped, 
while giving dassical autliority to the rules, inspire the student 
with a desiro of beconrng more intimately acquainted with tho 
authors from whose works the examples are taken. It will be 
perceived, also, that the sentiments contabed in the extract;, have 
not been overlooked. 

In tlie Second Part, the verbs are given m their fullest farm. 
The irreguUr, defective, peculiar (See § 40), and unipersonal 
verbs are pUced alphabetically. 

The author would here respectfully suggest not with a view of 
offering advice to experienced teadiers, but as a mode which he 
has feund beneficial in practice, that the student commence to 
learn the verbs fi^m the paradigms in the Second Part as soon as 
he has acquired some little knowledge of the p. onundatico, and 
this simultaneously with his learning the lessons of tSe First Part 
The verbs in the French, and in the other, so called Bomaaie 


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liiyiiyii AM aiM6 wmpliMlBd and Mqure moie ftudy iSbtm Um 
▼6rl» in tlie Qennan and other Teatonio langnageB. Bavmg in 
thk nmner aoqdved aome Iroowledge of tbe Terba, die atodeat 
wiU, by die time he, in hb progresa diroiigh the first part^ reachea 
the groupings of the tenses mentioned above, be able to reoogniaa 
the verba aa M frienda, and better to appreciate the dassificatioa 
f the irregularities. This oonrse is advised not aa indispensaUe, 
but as beneficiaL 

The reading lesaons, m prose and in verse, extracted from the 
best sources, and containing grammatical refarenoea to both parts 
of the work, will not be unacceptable to the student A vocabu- 
laiy for these lessons is placed immediately after them. 

Among the numerous works which have been consulted during 
the preparation of this grammar, the author would mention with 
gratitude the labors of the French Academy, Laveaux, Lemare, 
Bescher, Oiraolt-Duvivier, Bonifiice, Beschere^e, Landais, etc 

With a sbcere hope that the present volume mtj assist the 
Ameriean atndent in obtaining a knowledge of tie beantiliil 
hngaage of France, it is respeotftdly submitted. 

Uarrxantr of ICichioak, ) 
Jbm Jbfb&r, Sepi. 160, Itfl. { 


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AbbreTisaoDS, p. 275. 

Accents, Lemon 2. 

Achetor, tobvf,^ 49, (6) ; its goT^ 

emment^ L. 60, 1. 
Accorder, s\ to agree; said also of 

watches, L. 92, 8. 
Active Tert>.^ 48, (2), (80 
Actire Voice, used in French in 

cases where the passive is used in 

Eoglish, L. 86, 2} L. 46 8 • ^128, 


A4}«ctives, i 14. (1). Qua^^'^ine 
adjectives, ( 14, (2). Degrees of 
ngnification, ^ 14, (2). Gender 
and number of, ( 16. Formation 
of feminine of, ^ 16, L. 18. Irregu- 
lar adjectives, ^16. (8). Adjectives 
having no feminine, 4 16, (9.) 
Plural of, i 17, L. 14. Agre^ 
ment of adjective with nouns, 
& 18; ^88; L. 18, L. 14. ReUt- 
11^ to several nouns, ^ IB, (3); 
L. 14, 1, 2. Betermiidng acyec 
lives, ^ 19. Demonstrative, ( 20 ; 
^98. Possessive, ^21; 4 94; Re- 
marks on, ( 96. Agree with ob> 
feet possess^ ^ 21, (2} ; L. 9, 8. 
Numeral acQectives, ^ 22 ; place of, 
I 96. Cardinal a(\jective, ^ 22, (1), 
(2X (4); Variations o^ i^ 28 ; Ob- 
servation on, ^ 24. Ordinal nunv- 
T)ers,(28,(8),(D). Observation on, 
4 25. Indefinite adjectives, ^ 80 ; 
$ 97> Verbal adjectives, syn- 
tax of; ^ 66. Remarks on feu, 
au, &G % 84. Adjective used ad- 
verbUUy, 4 6T, (8); ^ 84, (5). 
Place of. ( 86; ( 86; L. 15. Ad- 
Jective preceding noun, 4 85, (11). 
Adjective different in meaning be- 
fore and after, ^ 86. Reeimen or 
fovemment of, 4 87 ; 4 88 ; ^ 89 ; 
92; L. 79. Adjective requiring 
a different preposition in French 
and English, ( 90. 

Adverbs. $ 67. Formed fh>m adjec- 
tives, ^ 68. Deerees of significa- 
tion, % 69. Adverbs formlnga 
oopparison of themselves, (70. 

Syntax of, (186. Placb of,( 186; 
L. 84; L. 41. Obsenation oi^ 
( 187. Adverts of negation, 


A droite, to the right, L. 70, 6. 

A eauche, to the left, L. 70, 6. 

A fleur de, even wUh, L. 80, 2. 

A force de, by dint of L. 80, 2. 

A r6gard de, wiQi regard to.h. 80, & 

A raison de, at the rate of L. 80, 2. 

Au dehors, outside, L. 80, 2. 

Au dedans, inside, L. 80, 2. 

Au dela, beyond, L. 80, 2. 

Age, avoir used for, L. 20, 6. 

A la campagne, in the cou/nbry^ 

li. o4| o. 

A la chasse, hunting, L. 84, 8. 

A la p&.he,/.tAin^, L. 84. 8. 

A I'anglaise, & la i jmcaise, after ike 
English, Prenchfashi^ms, h, 69, 8. 

A r6cole, al school; k FdgUse, a$ 
church, L. 26, 6. 

A I'endroit, right side out; A Toiw 
vers, wrong side out, L. 69, 1. 

A I'insu. uf^enown to, L. 82. 

Alphabet, L. 1. 

Alier, to go, used for proximate Ai- 
ture, L. 26, 1. Aller trouver, to 
go to, L. 26, 8. S'en aller, to go 
away, L. 40 ; 1, 2 ; L. 47, 1. Aller, 
toJU, to sU,L. 4:1,2. AUerAiMed 
li cheval, en voiture, to walk, ride, 
go in a carriage, L. 62, Bxam- 

Amis (un de mes), a friend of mne^ 

L. 67, 8. 
Amuser, (s',) to take pleasure in, etc, 

L. 88, 6. 
Analogy between many French and 

English words, ( 147. 
Answers in French should be ex« 

plicit, L. 24, 12. 
Apporter, amener, to bring, carrfi 

L. 44. 6. 
Approcher, (s\) to drau near, L, 

Articles, ( 18 ; L. 4, 1, 2. Elision 

of. L.4,2;U8,(7);U46. Oon- 

tractionof : (18. (8) ;L.6, 1;L. 26, 

6. Bngllsn artkae^ or an ( 14| 

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i9). KecapitaUtioD of articles, 
1 18. Syntax of, ^ 77. Use of, 
I 77, (1). (2). (8). etc. Before 
words ustifi in pcirtftlve sense, 
78. (2), (8), (4), (6). (6), (7); 
18 (10); L.6. 1; L. 7,6;L.8, 
, L 12, 8 ; L. 29, 8. Article used 

before words in ^neral sense, 
and abstract noons. ^ 77. (1). (2) ; 
L. 8, 2, 3 ; L. %% 11; L.29 and 80. , 
Article omitted before number of I 
a soverdgn, L. 80, 8. Article le txsed 
before parts of the body, L.68. 5. 
Use of article instead of possessive 
adjective; § 77,(9); L. 87. 1; 
L. 68, 5; L. 66, 8. Repetition, 
of <) 80. Remarks on nsc of, \ 
4 81. Idioms in which the article : 
is omitted, ^ 82. 

Aspirate K, L. 8. 11,— H not aspirate 
in Iidroine, Ac., L. 8, 11, note. 

Asseofr, (s',) to sU dmcn, L. 86, 4. 

Assez, enough, ; its place, L. 84, 8. 

Aojoord'htti, t4hday, its place, L. 

An lien de, insUad of, L. 86, 4. 

Au revoir, till I see you again, L. 89. 4. 

Auxiliary verbs, '^ 48, (8) ; ^ 46. 
Use of, ^ 46. Paradigms of, ^ 47. < 

Avancer, to gain, said of clocks, etc., 
L. 92, 1. 

Avant, before, prep. ^ 142, 1. 

Avoir, to kave, used idiomatically 
with juelque choset cAaud, froid, 
4^., L. 8, 1. With cduiwme, oesoin, 
4^., L. 21. 4. Used for the day 
of the month, L. 19, 6; for age, 
L. 20, 6. Avoir lieu, to take place, 
L. 86, 8. Avoir mal, to have a 
fofn^ etc., L. 66, 1. Avoirdeadon- 
leurs, L. 66, 2. Avoir, to hold, 
L. 66, 8. Avoh> chaud aux mains, 
L. 66, 8. Avoir beau, to be in vain, 
It. 67, 1. Avoir, nsed for dimen- 
sion, size, L. 68, 1, Avoir, nega- 
tively, ^ 47, (2). Interrogatively, 
^ 47, (3). Interrogatively and 
negatively, H7 (4). 

BKiV, bel, handsome, fine, L. 18, 6. 

OiriTiLs, use of, ^ 146. 

Cardinal numbers, ^ 22, 2;.^ 24. 
Variations of, ^ 28. Use of, after 
names of sovereigns, L. 80, 8; ^ 26, 
(3). For the day of the month, 

Cases, ^2. 

Ce, demons, pm. ( 87, (6) ; ^ 108 
i 116; L. 81. Used for he, she 
before 6lre, L. 82, 1. C est mol 
L. 81, 1. 

-, demons, adj., ^ 20, (1) ; L. 10, 1, 2. 

Cedilla, L. 8, 6. 

Ce que, what, L 81, 4. 

Celui qui, Jie who, L. 81, 4. 

Chacun, each one, ^ 41, (2). 

Chaqne, each, ^ 30, f4).* 

Changer d*habit, to change an^s coatt 
changer de maison, to move, L. 68, 
1. Changer, to exchange, L. 6S. 2. 

Chez, prop, at the house of, § 142, (8); 
L. 24. 9. 

Collective nouns, ^ 8, (6), (6). dum- 
ber of verbs after coUectivo nouna, 

Collocation of words, {144. 

Combien de temps, ho2o long; com* 
bicn de fois 1 how often ? L. 44, 1. 
Combien y 9ri-[\lhowfar7 hom 
long sinee 7 h. 57, 4. 

Compai-ison of adjectives, L. 17. 

Compound nouns, { 8, (7). {9: L. 
69. Gender of, ^ 6, (15). 

Conditional mode, { 45, 2d, (8). 
Use of, { 125. Formation and 
termination of, L. 62, 1., 2. Irre- 
gularities of, li. 62, 4. Not used 
after si, if L. 62, 8 ; { 125. 

Conjugation of verbs. First conju- 
gation, paradigm, { 48. Peculiari- 
ties of some verbs, ^ 49. Second 
coi\fngation, paradigm, { 60. 
Third coi\jugation, paradigm, ^ 
51. Peculiarities of verbs ol 
third conjugation, $49; { 62. 
Fourth conjugation, paradigm. { 
53. Passive verbs, paradigm, { 64. 
Rule, { 55. Reflective verlw, para- 
digm, ^ 56. Negative form of, 
^ 57. Intcrrogntive form, ^ 68. 
Interrogative and negative form, 
^ 59. "Unipersonal verbs, para* 
digm. ^ 61 , 2. Terminations of reg- 
ular verbs. { 60. Table of irregu- 
lar verbs, ^ 62. 

Conuaitre, to be acquaintJtd with, L. 
30, 6. Connaitre (jnelqu'nn li la 
voix, to know some one by the voice, 
L. 87, 4. Connaitre de vue, to 
know by sight, etc, L. 87, 6. Be 
connaitre k, to be a judge of, I^ 

OoqibnetiGitt, % 78. Lliti oC 4f7% 

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2). Syntax of, ( 143. Goreni- 
ment of, ( 127 ; ^ 143. Requir- 
ing sulgunctive. ^ 143, (2) ; inflo- 
itive, \ 143, (1); conditional or 
indicative, ( 143» (8) ; bI if, « 126, 
(3) ; L. ^. 6. Examples or ooa- 
juuctions, L. 100. 

ConTenir, Ufbe becomings L. 49, 2. 

Goncher (ae), to retire, go to bed, L. 

Dax*, prep. fn,( 142» (2). 

DavantASC, more, note, L. 16. 

Day of month, week, not preceded 

by preposition, L. 26, 10. 
Degrees of comparison of adjectiTes 

L. 16 ; L. 17. 
Domain, ^mtfrrirw, its place, L. 41, 6. 
Demander, to ask. Its government, 

L. 50. 1. 
DSmettre (se), le bras, dtc, to dulo- 

etae om^s arm, Ac., L. 93, 1. To 

resign a place, L. 93, 2. 
Demonsitrative adjective, ( 20. See 

Demonstrative prononn, ^ Zt, See 

D«p6cher (se), to make kasU, L. 

Devani, prep, before. ^ 142, (1). 
Devenir, to lecemie, L. 86, 6. 
Devoir, to ewe^ expressing Aitnro, 

obligation, L. 36, 6. 
Dimension, etc., L. 08. 
Diphthongs, sounds of, L. 2, 14. 
Dont, pm. of toAom, of vhicA, L. 


Elibiok, ^ 146. Of artMe L. 4, 2^; 
^ 18, (7). Of prononn je, L. 4, 6. 
Of preposition </^, L. 6, 3. Of ne, 
L. 7, 3. 0/ pronouns to, to, L. 

Eloigner (s'), to gofrom^ to leave j L. 

Emparer (s'), to seLee, lof hold of L. 

93, 3. 
Bmpftcher (s*), to Wj», to preveTU 

one's self L. 93, 4. 
Emporter, Emmencr, to take away, 

En, pronoun, ^ 39, (17) ; ( 96, (6) ; 

16, 7 ; L. 22, 3. Before a past 

Srticiple, ^ 136, (7) ; L. 42, 11, 
. used instead of posioMiv 

, En, prep. ( 142, (2) ; L. 84, 6. 6, 7. 

Endormir (s*), to faU asleep, L. 39, 6. 

I Ennuyer, to wary, L. 38, 4. Sen. 

nu3'cr, to become weary, L. 38. 6. 
Entendre parler, to kmr about, </, L. 

Entendre, to «fu&ritefk£,L. 96, 3. Se 

faire entendre, to make one's self 

understood, L.9fi, 4, Followed li^ 

another verb, L. 97, 4. 
Envoyer chercher, to tend for, L. 
Epouaer, to marry, said only of par* 

ties, L. 07,2. 
Essayer, to try mi, L. 47, 4. 
Est-ce-qne, prefixed to the verb, i 
.98; L.26. ^ 

Etre, conjugation of, ( 47, (6). 

Number of 6tre after ee, ^ 1L6. 

Used for aller, to go, L. 43, 6. For 

to belong, L. 47, 6 ; L. 91, 2. Etre 

riche de, to be worlA, L. 40, 6. 

Etre en retard, to be tale, and 

other idioms with dtre, L. Dl* 1. 

Y 6tre, to be at home, in, L. 91,^. 
Euphonic t, L. 4, 6. 
fiveiller (s'), to awake, L. 39, 6. 
Every day, tons Us jours, L. 26. 8. 

FlcHRi (se), to fe or becomis angry, 
L. 40, 4. 

Faire, before another verb, to cause, 
to have, L. 32, 3,4; L. 97, 4. 
Faire faire, to have made, L. 32, 4 : 
L. 63, 1. Faire raccommoder, to 
have mended. Faire la cuisine, 
faire cuire, to cook. Faire bouillir, 
to boil, L. 68, 1. Faire pcur, to 
frighten; faire attention, to pay 
attention; faire tort, to injure t 
fku-e du mal, to hurt, L. 63, 3*. 

, used unipersonally, in speak- 
ing of the weather, L. 33, 6. 

Falloir, lobe necessary, L. 48. 

Feminioe terminations, % 6, (2), (3> 

Feu, a^j., iaU, $ 84, (1). 

Future absolute, ^ 46, (2). Use ot; 
^ 124 Formation of, $61 ; L. 60, 
1, 2, 3. Irregularities of, L. Gl, 
1, 2, 3, 4. Future anterior. $ 46, 
(2), 8. Use of, ^124. Fonna- 
tion of, L. 60, 4. Future used is 
French where the present is used 
in En^ish, L. 61, & 


Gender, (4* By the 
By the temunatlon^ (1 t 


dlirSRAl IVDBX. 


Q4iier, <o ineommod€f irpuNe, &o., L. 
88, 6. Se g^ner, to eons^ain or 
irtmhU one's self, L. 88, 6. 

Gens, people, L. d6, 2, 8, 4. 

Govemment. See Rogimea 

Or6, 101^ Bon gr6, inal gr6, &c. 

Guire (ne;, InU UtOe, L. 17, 6. 

Hater (se), to hasten, L. 40, 7. 
Hier, yesterday, its place, L. 41, 6. 
Hoar of the day, L. 20 ; L. 02. 

Impebatitb mode, ^ 45, 8d, (4). Use 
of, } 126. Terminations of, L. 
70, 1. Irre^olarities, L. 70, 8, 4. 
Two imperatives coming toe^er, 
} 100, (6). Imperative followed 
oy a verb. L, 71, 1. 

Iinperfect of indicative, ^ 45, (2), 2d. 
Use of, ^ 119 ; L. 58. Formation 
and termination, L. 53. Irregu- 
larities, L. 54. 

Imperfect of sul^jnnctive, ( 45, (5), 
^. Use of, L. 75. Termlnationa 
of, L. 75, 1, 2, 8. Formation of, 
L. 75, 4. Irregularities, L. 75, 5. 

Importer; n'importe, no matter, 
qu'importe 1 what matters it? h. 
94, 1, 2. 

In, dans, en, d, L. 84, 5, 6. 

Indicative mode, ^ 45, 1st, (2V 

Indicative present, ^45, (2), 1. Use 
ot, ^ 118. Terminations, L. 28, 5. 

Infinitive mode, ( 45, 5th, (6). Use 
of, ^128. Important rules, ^ 128, 
(4), (6). Verb preceded by an- 
other, put in infinitive, L. 21, 2. 

In order to, ponAr, L. 28, 8. 

Inqui6ter, (s'), to be uneasy, L. 93, 5. 

Inteijectiond, ( 74. 

Intenrogative form of verbs, L. 23, 
9; L.26, 1; ^98, (5), (6). 

Interrogative sentences, form of^ L. 
6,4; ^76, (4), (5); L. 56, 1. 

Irregriilar verbs, L. 24. Table of, 

It, comirig before verb to be followed 
by / & c. L. 81. It used absolutely 
tiefore verb to fe, L. 81, 1. 

jDt^c'od hmofar? L. 44, 8. 
J^Hsq^'a, MntU, as far as, L. 44, 4. 

Lahieu, io lea/oe,to%€gUei, to forget 
to bring, L. 86, 4. FoUoweti by 
•Qvthvr T«rb, L. 97, 4. 

La pinpart, mcst, Number of Terl 

iJter, L. 85, 8. 
Le, meaning so, it, &c., L. 46, 4, 5. 
Le mien, mine, die., L. 9, 6 ; L. 12, 6^ 
Lequel, 4tc., which, L. 18, 6 ; L. 81, 7. 
Lever (se), to rise, L. 87, 6. 
L'nn, Tautre, one another, ^ 41, (10) ; 
L'un et I'autre. both, % 41, (11) ; L. 


Maoame, Mademoiselle, used beibre 
names of kindred, L. 24, note. 
Before tities, L. 29, 6. Plnral of, 
L. 29, 7. 

Mai, sore, pain, etc., L. 66. Mai da 
dents, toothache, mal de t^te, head- 
ache, L. 66. 

Marcher, to vnUk, L. 86, 6. 

Marier, to marry, to ve^form the eere^ 
many, L. 67, 2. 8e marier, to get 
married, L. 67, 2. Etre mari6, to 
be married, L. 67, 2. See l^pouser. 

Measure, weight, price by, L. 68, 3. 

M^me, same, even, drc., ^ 80, (5) : 
^ 97, (2). 

Mener, porter, to tfOce, to carry, L. 

Mettre, to pvion,h. 82, 1. Mettra 
le convert, to lay the doth, L. 82, 1. 
Mettre k mAme, to enable; mettre 

Eied a terre, to aUght ; mettre i 
k porte, to turn out of doors f met- 
tre au ftdt, to acquaint, etc., L. 
69, 1. Se mettre, td dress one'% 
self to sit down, L. 69, 2. 

Mettre 4 llieure, to set a watch, L, 

Midi, minuit, noon, midnight, L. 

Modes, ^ 45. Indicative, ( 45, Ist, 
(2). Conditional, $ 45, 2d, (8). 
Imperative, ^ 45, 8d, (4). Sub- 
junctive, ^ 45, 4tii, (5). Infinitive, 
^ 45, 5th, (6). Participle, ^ 45, 
6th, (7). 

Moi, toi, etc., used instead of nomi- 
native pronouns, L. 17, 6. 

Mon, ma, poss. ad)., agree with ob. 
ject possessed, L. 9, 8, 4. 

Monde, world, people, L. 95, 1. Tout 
le mondo, every body, L. 95. 

Monsieur, used before names of kin* 
dred, L. 24, note. Before titlcsi 
L. 29,6. Phuml of, L. 29, 7. 

MonUi. day oi, L. 19, 6; L. 2^ 

Uwt^falloif, 4bo^ L. 48; ( 62. 


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IfAmi, to bi bomj Je suIb ii6, I was 
iamj L. 48, note. 

Ne, negative, ( 188w Place of L. 7, 
1. Ne--que, onlu, L. 19, 2. Ne, 
idiomatic, ^ 127, 8 ; ^ 188, (4), 
(6); L. 72, 9. Ne— plus, w— 
mww. L. 17, 4. Ne— gaftre, L. 

Ni^ iteMer, nor, L. 7, 4. Article 
used or n^t i^r i»i, L. 8, 8, 4. 

Ni run, ni I'antre, nalhar, L. 84, 4, 5. 

NegatiTO, second, suppressed after 
certain yerlw. i 188 (2). 

Neuter Terbs. % A (6). Their anx- 
Uiary, L.48; ^ 46. 

Nominative. Ste 8nly}ect 

Non, no, Je dis one non, / say no. 

Notre, Toire, our, your, dec, L. 9, 5. 
Le ndtre, onrs, L. 9, fk 

Noon, ( 8. Proper, (3). Common, 
(4). Collective, \ 8. (6), (8). 
Compoond, ^ 3, (7). Taken in a 
partitive sense, \ 18, (10) ; ( 78, 
(1). (2); L. 6, 1; L. 29, 8. 
Taken m a general sense, ^ 77, 
(1), (2) ; L. 8, 2. Gender by the 
' ^, ^ 6. Bj the termina- 

tion. ^ 6. Plural of. ^ 8; L. 11. 
Plural of compound, ^ 9 ; L. 69. 
Syntax of, ( 76. Place of sub- 
ject in affirmative and negative 
sentences, ^ 76, (1). (2). In inter- 
jected sentences, ^ 76, {S), In 
mterrogative sentences, ^ 7o, (4), 
(5); L. 6. 4; L. 66,1. Place of 
rcghnen.^76, (6), (7), (8), (9); 
L. 66. 2, 3. Respective places of 
possessor and object possessed, 
I 76. (10) ; L. 5, 8. Of object and 
Its snbetance, ^ 76, (11) ; L. 6, 4 ; 
L. 6^, 6. Of object and its use, 
U6»(12),'(18),(14); L.69,7. 

Nonveau, nouvel, new, L. 18, 6. 

Nu, hare, adj., $ 84, (2). 

Nul, no, § 80, (7). 

Nuile part, no vAere, L. 26, 8. 

Number, ( 1, (6). See IMfferent 
Parts Oa' Speech. 

Number. See Numeral Adjectives. 
Ordinal adverbs of number, ^ 29. 

Numeral collective nouns, ( 27*. 

Numerals, fimctions, ( 28. 

O^j^^PfPifi^A^^h (4). (6); 

illB; L.86, 1. 2. 
Ordteal numbers, ( 22, (8), (6). Not 

used after nr»mes of sovereigns or 

for days of the month. L. 80, 8 ; 4 
^26,(1), (8). 

Oter, to take off, to take away, L. 82, 2. 
On. or, agreement of verb with 

nouns connected by, L. 84, 2, 8. 
Otti, yes, Je dis que oui, I say yes, h 


pAiADioMs of auxiliary verbs, ( 47 
For others, see Coigugatlons. 

Par o^ 1 which way 7 L. 44, 6. 

Participle past, % 46, 6th, (7). With- 
out an auxUiary, % 66, (8) ; L.42, 
10; L. 98, 1. Accompanied by 
Hre, \ 184, (2) ; L. 42, 6 ; L. 98, 8. 

In reflective Verbs, ^ 186, (1), (2) ; 
L.46,2; L.98, 6; L. 99, 4. In 
neuter verbs, L. 98, 8. Accompa- 
nied by avoir, f 184, (8) ; L. 42, 6 -, 
L. 98, 4. Never agrees with indi- 
rect regimen, L, 42, 9. Neuter 
verbs with avoir, 4 186, (6) ; L. 
99, 2. Of unipersonal verbs, L. 
46. 6; L. 99, 8. Never agrees 
with en, ( 186, (7) ; L. 42, 11, 12; 
L. 99, 8. Followed by an iniSni- 
tive, \ 186, (8) ; L. 98, 7 ; L. 99, 
6. Of passive verbs, L. 46 ; L. 98, 
2. FaU always invariable before 
an infinitive, L. 68, 2 ; L. 99, 7. 
After&|w»,^186, (8). 

- present, ^ 64 ; L. 97. 

Partitive sense, nouns taken in, L. 

6.1; ^3,10; ^78, (1), (2); L. 

Pas, point, not, difference, % 138, (1). 

Place of L. 7, 1, 2. Omitted whpji 

a second negative occurs, % 188, 

(3) ; L. 7, 4. Omitted after certain 

verbs, ^ 188, (2). 
Passer (se), to do without, L. 89, 1. 
Passive Toice, $ 113 (1). 
Passive verb, ^ 48 (4y ; L. 46. Con- 

jugationof,^64. Rule, (66. Its 

participle, L. 46, 2; L. 98, 2. 
Past anterior, ^ 46, (2), 6. Use of 

(122; L.66. 
Past definite, ( 46, (2), 3. Use of 

( 120; L. 61. Its terminationi 

and irregularities, L. 62. 
Past indefinite, (46, (2), 4. Usooi; 

(121; L. 41. 
Past of subjunctire, ( 46, (6), 8. 
Pajrer, to pay, its govemmttit, L. (KH 
Persenne. n0 JM^, (41, (6): L. T.T- 
Persons, (81, (8). 


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Place, respective, of noun, direct 
tnd indirect regimen, L. 56, 2, 8 ; 
4 76. (7). (8). (y). In inteijected 
iientences, () 76, (3.) Of noun iu in- 
terr*)gaHve sentences, § 76, (4), 
(6); L. 60, 1; L. 6.4. Of adjec- 
tive, L. 8 5; L. 15 ; ()85 ; (>86. Of 
pronoun subject or nominative, ^ 
08. Of regimen pronoun, L. 9, 1 ; 
L. 27; L. 28: ^ 101; ( 102. 
Place of en and y,^ 104 ; L. 57. 
Of adverb, ^ 136; L. 84 ; L. 41, 
4.6. Ofverb, vl44. 

Plairo (se), io take pleasure in, L. 
40,6. Usedunipcrsonallly,comme 
ii vous plaira. as you please^ L. 89,8. 

Pleuvoir, lt> rain, L. 33, 8. 

Pluperfect of indicative, ^ 45, (2), 6. 
Use of, $123; L. 55 4. 

— of sutrjunctive, ^ 45, (6), 

4; L. 76. 6. 

Plural of nouns, ^ 8 ; L. 11 . Of com- 

Sound nouns, ^ 9 ; L. 60. Nouns 
aving no plural, <> 10. Nouns 
having no sinsfular, ^11. Plural 
of adjectives, ^ 17 ; L. 14, 3. Moral 
or physical properties of man, 
single in the individual, not put 
in the plural, L. 66, 6. 

Plus de, more Ihany before a number, 
L. 20 7. 

Plusieurs, several, ^20, (9); L. 18, 7. 

Pour, in order to, L. 28, 8. 

Porter, to carry, lo wear, L. 28, 10 ; 
L. 44, 6. 8e porter, to be, to do, 
L. 86, 8. 

Preposition, % 71. Table of princi- 
pal, % 72 Eegimen or govern- 
ment of, ^ 189. Qovemiog with- 
out another preposition, ^ 189. 
By means of de, % 189, 2. By <2, 
% 139, 8. Rules or government 
of, ^ 140. Repetition of, ^ 141, 
Observations on, ^ 142. 

Promener (se), to walk, nde, 6tc., 
for pleasure. L. 86, 5. 

Prendre, to take, its government, L. 

Prendre garde, to take care ; prendre 
le deuil, to go into mourning; 
prendre la peine, to take ike trou^ 
bU ; prendre les devonts, to go be- 
fore t prendre un parti, to take a 
resoiution; prendre da tb6, du 
cai%, to take lea, e>ffee,h, 71, 8. 

Prendre le ih6, to take one's tea, 
note, L. 71. 

Pronouns, ( 81. PcnK>naI,^88. Re- 
marks on, ^ 33. Use ofmM, toi^ 
instead of subject or nonitnalivc 
pronouns, ^ 83, (8). etc. Reflective 
pronoun se, ^ 83, (12). (18). 80%, 
(14). Possessive pronoun, ^ 84. 
Remarks on. ^ 85. Demonstrative 
pronouns, ^ 36. Remarks on, ^ 87. 
Ce, demonstrative pronoun, { 87, 
(6); () 108; $116;L. 81. Used 
for he, ske, L. 82. Celvi, ceOe, ce- 
lui-ci, ulU-ei, ^ 20 ; L. 10. Cferf, 
cda, L. 10; 6. Relative pronouns, 
' 88. Remarks on, ^ 89. Rn. 
39, (17); 4 96 (6); $110; ^108, 

(I). Place of £;/*,$ 104. Y. 4,89, 
(18) ; $ 103 (2). Place of y, $ 104 : 
I 111. DinU, L. 81, 8. Syntax ot 
pronouns, $ 98. Place of subject 
or nominative, $ 98. Repetition 
of, $ 99 ; L. 87. Place of regimen 
pronouns, $ 100 ; L. 9, 1 ; L. 27. 
Respective place of regimen pro- 
nouns, $ 101 ; L. 28. Rule on this 
subject, ^ 102. Repetition of regi- . 
men pronoun, ^ 105; L. 27, 7. 
Rules on possessive pronouns, ^ 
106. On demonstrative pronouns, 
4 107. On relative pronouns, % 

QoE, rel. pm., % 109. Never rap- 
pressed, L. 19. 1 ; L. 81, 8. Qm?, 
interrogative, L. 18, 5 ; L. 81, 5. 

Que, conj., never suppressed, L. 19, 
1. Que, idiomatic. L. 82, 8. 

Quel, which, what, ( 80, (10) ; ( 109 ; 

Que'lque, \ 80, (12); ^7; L. 18, 
7; L.88. 

Quel — que, qnelque — que, govern 
the sutjunctive, L. 88, 8. 

Quelque choso, something, anything, 
L. 7, 6. Require de mfore an ad- 
jective, L. 18, 8. Not used in neg- 
ative sentences, L. 7, 6. 

Quelque part, somewhere, anywhere. 
L. 25, 8. 

Quelqu'un, § 41, 7. 

Qu'est-ce-que. usedidiomaticaQj fbt 
what ? L. 82, 2. 

Quiconque, whoever, ^ 41, f 9). 

Quitter, to leave, abando^k, 6us,t l^ 

Quoi, what, L. 81, 6. 

Qui, who, whom, used aDaoIutely, d 
I 80»(6). 


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osxfsBAi tirosaL 

ta>pe1er (ae), <» remtfuber, receika, 

Bi'Ading leflflons, p. 466. 

B«^*vi»ir des nouvelles, U kearfratn, 

L. 85 6. 
BeAcctire verb9,_J 43, (6). Conjuga- 
tion of, (\ 6C; L. 30. Oaen ii»<sd 

to Fv'efxsh for the English passive, 
L; 86, 2. Its aaxiliary is elre^ L. 
46; ^ 46. Its participle, ^ 186: 
L. 45; L. 98, 6; L. 99, 4. 
Begardcr.toeemetni, L. 94, 6. 
Ketuercier, to tMai^, Je vous remer- 

de, cqaivatent to a refusal, L. 89, 2. 
lUsomi of rules «n participlo past, 

L.98; L.99. 
Bien, noUung, etc., L. 7, 7; L. 18, 8. 

B6sime, regimen or oi»ject, ^ 2. 
fiinjct. ^ 2, (2); « 42, (4>; L. 66. 
2,3; 06. Imlirect,^ 2. (8); ^ 
42,(5); L.66.2 8; $76. 

Bcffimen or goTernmeBt of adjco- 
6w«, ^ 87 ; L. 79. After ifre 
unipersooal, ^ 87. (4); L. 79, 8. 
Adjectiye followed by tfe, ^ 88. 
By d, ^ 89. By different preposi- 
tions in boC» languages, ^ 90. 
Begimen of verbs, \ 129 ; L. 21, 4 ; 
L. 80. Verbs fcSlowed by ijo 
preposition. ^ 130; L. 76, 1. Vy 
d,U31. By *fe. 182; L. 21, 4; 
L. 77. By a preposition in French 
and by none in English, L. 78, 1, 
2. By a different prep, in both, 
L. 78, 8. Begimen of prepositions, 
i 139 ; L. 80. Important mles on 
regimen, $92; $ 138: $ 140; L. 

Regimen of prendre, to take; voler, 
to steal! acheter, to buy; deman- 
der, to ask ; payer, to pay, L. 60, 1. 

BAjonir (se), to rejoice, L. 40, 5. 

Remettre, to set a disiocated bone, 
&c., L. 93, examples. 

Rep^tion of demonstrative adjec- 
tives, $ 93. Of possessive a<|jec- 
tives, ^21. (4). Of articles, § 80, 
L. 6, 6. Of subject or nominative 
prononua, $ 99; L. 87. Of reeimen 
or objective pronouns, $ 105 ; L. 
87. Of adverbs, $ 137. Of prep- 
ositions, $ 141. 

Kester, used unip. to remain^ to have 

R««tede,fe/i.L.85,4. . ^ .^ ^ 

Betarder, to lose, to put back, said of 
wat€be^ &e., L. 92, 1. 

Batoii, i0 know, and Qomiaitre, Co 
be acquainted with, L. 80, 6. 

Seoir, to mil, become, L. 47, 8. Used 
unipersonally, L. 49, 1. 

Servir (se), to use, L. 89, 2. Senrir« 
to help at table, L. 89, 1. 

S'il vous plait, if you jdease, L. 89, 8. 

8i, coiy., ^ 125.(8). Should not pre- 
cede conditional mode, I*. 62, 6. 

Souvenir (so), to remember ^ recoUeclt 
L. 37, 2. 

So, rendered l^ ^, L. 46, 4. 

Speech, parts of, $ 1. (I). 

Stemofa verb, L. 28. 

Sutgect or nominative, $ 2, (1) ; 
^ 42 (2). Verb having several sub- 
jects iu different persons, L. 88, 2. 
Agreement of rerbs with subjects, 
L.83, 1; L. 84; $114; $115. 

Subjunctive mode. $ 45. 4th, (5). 
ifte of, $ 127; $ 143 ; L. 72, 8, 9, 
10. Pre8entof;^45, (5), 1. Ter- 
roination of, L. 72. Sutgunetive 
used after verbs expressing con- 
sent, command, etc., followed by 
que, L. 72, 8. After severaluniper- 
sonal verbs followed by que, L. 78, 
1. After certain conjunctions, $ 
148 ; L. 73, 4. After croire, vspi" 
rer, dtc., iuterrogative or negative, 
L. 74, 2. After another verb, un- 
certain, and preceded by relative 
. pronoun or a superlative, L. 74, 8, 
4. Past of subjunctive, L. 72, 7. 

Substantive. See Noun. 

Saperlative absolute, $ 14, (U); L. 
17, 1. Superlative relative, $ 14, 
(9); L.17,2. 

Syntax, $76. Of noun, $ 76. Artt- 
cle, $ 77. Adjective, $ 83. Pro- 
noim, $ 98. Verb, $ 114. Parti- 
ciple,$134. Adverb, $186. Pro- 

rKsition, $ 139. Conjunction, 

Taiuk, to conceclL.9Q,&. Se talro, 

Tarder, to tarry, to long, L. 58, 8. 

Tel, stich, $ 41 (12), (18). Monsieur 
un tel, Mr. such a one, $ 41, 18. 

Tenir, to hold, used in the sense of to 
keep. Tenir sa parole, to keep 
one's word, tenir la porte ouverte, 
to keep the door open, etc., etc, L. 
90, 1. Tenir un langage, to maki 
use of Umguage^ expressions, etc., 
Iu 90, 2. Tenir. to be aUackod, 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



0io., If. 90, a Fftire tenir, iofnt- 
leor^ L. 90, 6. Be tenir, io re- 
main^ t^ abide if, etc., L. 90, 6. 

Tensed of verbe, ^45. Formation of, 
(^61). iSee Different Tenees. 

Terminatious of regnlar verbs, ^ 60. 
Of indicatiye, L. 28, 6. Of imper- 
fect of indicative, L. 68, 6. Of 
rit definite, L. 61. Of ftitare, 
60. Of conditional, L. 62. Of 
imperative, L. 70. Of sukjunc 
tive, L. 72. Of imperfect of sab- 
Junctive, L. 76. Of infinitive, L. 
21, 1. Of present participle, L. 
28,8. OfpastparUciple, L.28,4. 

Times, number of, in a given space, 
L. 68, 4. 

Tout, aU, etc., ^ 80, (15), (16) ; ( 97, 
(*), (6), (6). Tont, every] L. 26, 
8. Tout, Ike fohole, L. 26, 9. 
Tout, entirdy, quUe^ variable by 
euphony, L. 88, 4. 

Tromper, to deceive y L. 88, 1. 8e 
tromper, to be mistaken, etc., L. 

UN, une, «, an, one, \ 18, (4) ; (11) ; 
L. 6, 2. Not used before nouns 
placed in apposition, L. 80, 4. 

Unipersonal verbs, ^ 48, (7). Para- 
di^ of, ( 61-2. Auxiliary of 
umpersonal verbs, L. 46, 8, 4. 

Valoib, to be worth, h. 49, Z; to be 
better, L, 49, 6. 

Yenir, to come, used to indicate past 
Just elapsed, L. 26, 2. Venir 
trouver, to come to, L. 26. 8. 

Verbal actives, ^ 66 ; L. 97. 

Vfirbs, ^ 42. Subject or nominative 
of, ^ 42, (2). Regimen or object 
of, ( 42 (8). Different sort of 
verbs, ( 48. Active, ^ 43, (2), 
(8) i L. 48. Passive, 4 48, (4) ; L. 
46. Neuter, ( 48. (6); L. 48. 

Befl6ctive,H3, (6); ( 66; L. 86 
2. Unipersonal, ( 48, 7; $ 61-1 
Auxiliary verbs, ^ 48, (8). Use 
of, ( 46; L, 43, 46. Modes and 
tenses of, ^ 46. See Different 
Modes and Tenses. Irregular 
verbs, L. 24. Table of, ^62. Syn- 
tax of the verb, 4 114. Agreement 
of the verb with subject, ^ 114: 
L. 88; L. 84; L. 86. Verb after 
a collective noun,^ 116 ; L. 86, 1, 
2, 8. Number of verb ailer ce, 
^116. Verb after nouns in different 
persons^ ( 117. Use of tenses, 
^118. <SwDiffesent Tenses. Regi- 
men or government of verbs. 
See Regimen. 

Veuillez,lie so Hnd, L. 70, 4. 

Vocabulary to the reading lessons, 
p. 486. -» -* 

Voici, here is, L. 84, 4. 

Voili, there U, L. 84, 4. 

Voler, to rob, steal, its government, 
L. 60, 1. 

Vouloir dire, to mean, L, 82, 6, 6. 

(en), to bear a grudge, &o.j 

L. 94,6. 

Vowels, L. 2. 

What, rel. pm., ce que, L. 81, 4 : fiM, 

, interrogative, rendered by, 

qu'est-ce-que, L. 82, 2. 
Whole (the), U tout, L. 26, 9. 
Will, used in the sense of wtjA, ren* 

dered hy vouloir, L. 60, 6. 
Words, variable, ^1, (8). Invariable, 

^ 1. (4)- 

T AVOIR, to be there, ( 61-2 ; L. 88, 4. 
Used for ago, L. 41, 6. Y avoir t 
followed by the present, when the 
action continues, L. 67, 2. 

T,pm.kadv.^ 89, (18) ; $ 108, (2) 
Plaoeof,0O4; ^111: L. 21, 11 


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iHB innBs. 
Ihe Wmdi alphabet oontains twenty-fire ktten i — 

A a 




B b 




G c 




D d 




B e 




F f 




H h 








K k 




L 1 




M m 




N n 










B r 




8 ■ 



T t 




U a 




V ▼ 
X z 








W, cafled in French <foMU« 

r, might be added, 

asnumy flir- 

dgn irords which ha^ that letter have been adopted into tbo 

mnch language. 

* Like tin jriMMNV. * f lXt§gljVk»€rrtBL€rrwr, 

t NoooneqwodlnffMiiiiidSBBiiglUh. jl Nawrlj like k In ^Itife. 
(llev|f]lkeliaiid4<f in oOi andfra*. The e oT the ctbir M* 
tere hae tfie Hune aovid. 
f kie ^ ff iarvff. 

^ Digitized by Google 

18 IKSSOK It. 

I.E880K a ijx;»N n 


Vo\»eli» are rendered lon^ or short hj certain marks placed over 
Ihem These marks, which are three in number, ans called a jocnta. 

The acute accent (' ) is placed over the e to give it a shaip or close 
sonnd. (See 4, 6.) 

'J'he grave accent ( ' ) is placed over a, e, ti, to give to tliose vowels 
a grave or open sound. (See 5, d.) 

The circumflex accent ( • ) is placed over a, e, t, o, u, to give to those 
letters a long and broad sound.* 

1. a like a in mass, Ex. face^ face; bateau, ioa/; tableau, picture; 

patte, pate ; mdode, sick, 

2. ft like a in bar, far. Ex. ^gc, age ; chdteau, castle ; pdto, pa^ ; 

bid me, blame; crlne, cranium, 

8. e nearly like u in bud, and frequently silent at the end of poiy- 

sylbibles. ,E.t. le, (he; me, me; ie, thee; qce,/^cx/; mfuble, 
piece (ffumilwre ; peuple, people ; rime, rime, 

4. ^ like a in fait, Ex. ^t^ summer ; amitij, frieiiiSkip , ^ev^ 

ratstti ; ^p^e, sword. 

5. d like at in ;»tr. Ex. pin,faiker ; fr^ &rttfA«r ; m^, mother; 

cleve, f ?<pt/. 

6. 6 nearly like e in there. Ex. reve, ilraem ; extreme, extreme : 

cr^me, cream ; crepe, crape ; torii, foresL 

7. i nearly like i in pim Ex. mtdt, midday; tci, here; ft'nt, finished; 

credit, cra/t(. 
d. 1 like ee in 6ee. Ex. ile, island; gite, lodging; ^pitie, eputfe : 
dimoi /(//te ; abime, abyss. 

9. o nearly like o in rofr. Ex. robe, ro&e ; globe, globe • cachot, iip»- 

^eon; haricot, bean. 
10. 6 like o In (one. Ex. depot, cfeposi^ ; prevdt, provtot^ bicnt^t, 

soon; suppot, supporter. 
1. u. The exact French sound of this letter is not found in Eng« 
lish. The position of the lips in whistlings is very nearly the 
position which Ihcy should have in emitting the French u. Ex. 
iiroe, vrn; lime, moon ,- but,atm; tribt^^rtfre; tiibut, /rtliute; 
^Itt, elected. 

* This aceent Indicates the suppression of the letter s after the vowel 
en which It is phuxd, thus: fUe, lite, bUe. were formerly written, fisfe, 
*iste, bettet the s was not sounded, but gave to the preceding v^vwsl tkel 
proloBfed sound now represented Vy the drcumfleft iee s B l » 


by Google 

Lsssoir XX. 19 

12b d 18 the Q with a prolonged sound. Sx. m^re, mulberry ; dH^ 
due ; criky growth; briiler, to hum. 

13. y See 28^ y. 


14. A vowel sormoanted by a disrewa (") cannot ft>nn a diph* 
thong with another Towel, it is pronoanccd separately. Ex. 
IvBkiT — Exception : e at the end of a few words, such as eigne, 
henUock^ is silent| the u being pronounced like ft. — ^E accented 
(e) and followed by a vowel, is pronounced separately. Ex. 
obeir, to obey] geant^ gianL 

15w ai, ei, preceding a liquid I (see Consonants, 13) do not form a 
diphthong; a is then pronounced as in mam^ and e as at in 
pair. The % seems merely to indicate the liquid sound of the 
Z. Ex. patUe, straw ; oretlle, ear. 

16. ai is like a m/aie. Ex. j'a^ / have; je fereu, ItnU make; baie, 

bajf; mai, May; balat, broom. 

'When the diphthong ai is followed by s, d, or t^ it assumes a 
broader sotmd, resembling the French ^ or ai in the English 
word pair, Ex. j'aVats, / had ; je Teraa^ / thould make ; la»t^ 
mOk; laid, ugly. 

17. an nearly like ohi m. English. Ex. taux, raie; chaicd, warm. 

e preceding aa is blended with that diphthong without cbang* 
ing its sound. Ex. b«au^ htmdsome; chlteaw, casOe; tableau, 
picture; eau^ water. 

18. ei neariy like a in fote. Ex. heige, aerge; neige, enow ; mgh^ 

rye ; retne, queen ; p«%ne, eomb. 

19. en approaches the sound of u in tub. Sx. jeu^ piay ; litfu^ place; 

peu, UttU; peur, fear ; chalfttr, heat Exceptions, in eu, had ; 
j'eos, ^, I had; j'eusse, etc,, I might home; eu is pronouneed 
like If alone. 

20. ia nearly like «a in miedidL Ex. il Ito^ ^ baumd; il maty Jiecried; 

dialogue, dialogue. 

21. ie like eeiahee. Ex. Ulie^he binde; U ttudis, hetMiee; haip*% 

harpy; mie^ the soft part of bread, 

22. oi nearly like 10a in was. Ex. opmx, eroee; il boit^ he drinke; 

13. ou like 00 in eooL Ex. ddto, eofl; cdvp, bhw; nous, we; rom^ 
you; coUf neck. 


by Google 


LI880K XL 

S4. wt 

S6. ae 

SO. ni 




La ^ 




D saliio, &e tdhUed; il remtM, ^ moved; 
contiilnia, Ae eon/rt&u^ 

n saliie, he sahOesi il remue, he mooes; 3 
oontrilwe, ^ contributes. 

produit, produce ; condutte, condud ; lu % \»m ; 
bruft, noise; il r^uit, ^ reduces. 

duoj dusL 

when initial, when coming between two ccnsonants, or when 
forming a syllable of itself^ has the sound of the French i. 
Ex. style, style; type, type ; yeux, eyes ; Fpres, Ypres ; y, (here , 
between two vowels y-has the power of two Tf, one of which 
forms a diphthong with the preceding, and the other with the 
following vowel ; the syllabic division taking place between 
the Ts. Ex. moyen, means ; essayer, to try ; nettoyer, to clean ; 
citoyen, citixen ; abbaye, abbey ; these words are pronounced 
as if they were written moirien^ essai-ier, nettouiery citoi4en, 
Mai-ie. The words pays, country ; paysage, landscape ; pay- 
tan^peasanti are pronounced pi-isy pi-isagey pH-san. 


The combination of the vowels with the consonant m or n, 
produces what the French call le son nasals the nasal sound. 
When the consonant m or n is doubled, or is immediately foU 
lowed by a vowel* the nasal sound does not take place. 
Ex. innocent, innocenl ; tmmobile, immovable ; inutile, useless ; 
iiiout, unheard of. The syllables in and im in the words in- 
nocent and immobile, are pronounoed as in English ; the syl- 
labie division of i-nn-ti-le and i-nou-l will explain the reason 
of the absence of the nasal sound in those words. 

ample, ompb; chamhTe^ chamber ; lompe, 
aS any year; banc, bench; dons, vit man- 
'Ei teau, clock. 

§ membre, limb ; emporter, to carry away; 
H trembler, to tremble. 

erty in; dent, tooth; prendre, to tefat; 
reTidre, to render. 


anhj nearly 

like an in 


^ The words enwid^ ewimytr^ emmener.enivrtryenorgueiUir, fonn ezoep- 
tloDS to this rule. The first syllable of ennui, enmnyer, emmeter is nasal ; 
stUorerMorgMeilUr are pronounoed en-niorvr, ei^-orgueUUr. 

t Tnis combination, it seems to us, recders the Freobh nasal sound 
mora accurately than ana, the g gtvfaig as unpleasant twang not < ' ' 
fa the Fmch nasal syllablei. 


by Google 



ti» eo final is aometimM pronovnead like en In ihm, Ex» EcUi^ 

iS. en in the third peraon plural of verba la aflent Ei. fla liaeii^ 
ila port«fit» lis donnent ; pronoonce ila liz^ ila porU ila dbmi. 
'ttmbre, stan^; tmpoaaablft tmpomfrle; tm* 

portant» tif^wrtaiit. 
Itfi, Jlax ; pnty phm ; ertn» hormJutrir ; Yir 

' tombef tomb; eomble, height; aowbre^ dark 
iomher^ to faU. 
mem, my; ton, ihy; aon, his; bond, h&und 
ponif brit^^ 
aomewfaat f hiimble, ktanble; paiftim, petfume. 
* like tm in / nn, one; chaoim, eaeh cne; Importim, iwu 
hunting, [ portutiate. 

U. im 


S6. om 



Iflte an in 



mhf nearlj 

' like on hi 


LBgoN m 


1. A final eonaonant la generally ailent 

S» The lettera e, f; 1, r, however, when final, are gancroBy pro- 

8. Thefinalconaonantof a word ia generalfy carried to the next 
word, when that word begina with a vowel or an h mute. (See 

4. For illnatrationa and ezceptiona, aee the aeveral letters. 

& B initial ia pronounced aa in Engliah. In the middJe of worda, 
and at the end of proper namea,b ia aounded. Ex. aMiquer 
to abdkate^ Jo&, Cale6, &c. B ia alao pronounced in radouft, 
refuting of a veetel^ and rum&, (pronounced romb,) foimt cf th 
eomjMMf. It ia ailent in plom&, had; aplomi^ perpendiadar. 
When b ia doubled, onl j one of theae lettera ia pronounced* 
Ex. bMj abbot; bMslU 

& C haa ita proper sound (k) before a, o, u, I, n, r. Ex. eabane« 
cottage; cou, neck; ^cu, crown; enclin, inclined; Cn^iua, 
Cneius ; croire, to hdievt. 
€ before e and i, and with the cedilla (9) before a, o, or u, haa 
the aound oft; eeci, this; cendrea, tubei; ik^ade, fivni; fli- 
0m fathion; re^UyfVXtvadL 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

tt tfeBsoir 111. 

ch M protiounced like ah in sIib. Ex. cto, ear; d^loii,coafc 

cAangemcnt, clutnge. 
In (he M'ords xermicdU and vioUmceTle^ is pronounced like c)k. 
eh is pronounecd lilte k in a few words derived from the Greeki 

Ex. c/iaos, anacftronisme, c/tronique, patriarcAat, on:Acstrc, &c. 

In iiatriarc/te, arcftevdqae, Ac/icron, ch is pronounced like sh. 

In Blicftel-Ange, Miehael-Angeh, it sounds like L 
c final is sounded, except when preceded by n. Ex. avec, wtth; 

UTCt bow; MCybag; wiejuke; Turc, Turk, 

Exceptions : it is silent in aoeroc» rent ; hroe^ jtig ; clere, derk , 

estomac, stomach ; lacs, snarts ; man:, mark ; pore, pork ; tabac. 

<o6acco— ch is silent in almanach. 
c preceded by n is silent Ex. bane, betKh ; AanCyJimnL 
c is pronounced like g in second, tecoad, and fecoaA,/ruilful 
e final is seldom pronounced upon the next word 

7. D has the same sotind as in English. Ex. dame, lady, D is pro 

nounced in the middle of words. Ex. aJverbe, adverb ; vd- 
mirer, to admire, 

a is silent at the end of words, except in proper names: as in 
Davie/, David; also in the word suc2, south, and in a few for- 
eign words, as le Cid^ the Cid; le Talmuc2, the Talmud, &c 

d final, coming before a word commencing with a vowel or an 
h mute, assumes the sound oft — un grand homme, is pro- 
i^ounccd grand tomme; com^il, does he sew 7 vemUl, does He 
sell ? are pronounced con-til, ven-til. 

8. P is.pronounced as in English. Ex,fi^VTe,feter; fiacre, hackney- 

coach. ^ 
f final is generally sounded. Ex. soi/, thirst; chef, chirf; s,\x\f, 

Exceptions: clef, hey; chef-d'oeuvre, master-piece; 09ii/dar, 
*«^ fgffi CBuyifrais, fresh egg ; baBuyifrais, fi^sh beef; bceu/1 
sal^, salt beef. In the plural of tlie words gbu/ and locu/,/ 
Is always silent. 

The f of neu/, nine, is silent before a consonant, and sounds 
like V before a vowel or h mute; neu/ livrcs, pronounce neu 
Uvres — neu/ hommes, ncii/* enfants, pronounce neu-vomme, 

9. G is always hard (that is like g in game) before a, o, u. Ex. 

gnrde, guard; gond, hinge; sdgu, acute, 
g before e and i has always the soft sound, (that of s in plcisure). 

Ex. ^rbe, sheaf; gtndre, son'in4aw ; g\h\cT,game ; ^ilet, vesL 
goa, gut, gue» gtti, are pronounced gha, gho ghe, ghi^ L e^ tht 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

ikSSOll ttL 


11 gt 

II. a 

■ is silent Ex. fl l^vo, he hequMlhed; \^wm!^ kt u§ 

bequeath; gverre, tear, guiiaiey guitar. 

Sxeeptions : In at^tlle, needk, Gutfie, &c., the two TOwels 

are sounded. The ue ofgue final ta mute, unless a dieeresis 

is on tbe e, as in eigne, hemleck. 

is pr >nounced like ni in ttnion, Ex. rd^e, rei^pt ; peig^ne* 

comb ; daiofner, to deign ; sailer, to bleed. 

Exceptions : Onide, Pro^i^, stagTiant, l^>7iee, &c. 

final takes the sound of k before a vowel or an h mute;—- 

sang- humain, human bloody is pronounced san kumain, 

ia mute or aspirate — h mute (having of itself no sound) when 

preceded by a word subject to elision, Q 146) is treated as 

a vowel-^h aspirate is always imtial, the breathing or aspi- 

ration is very sligh^ but not entirely absent, as is advaneed 

by some grammarians. 

As it is important, on account of elision and of the pro* 
nunciation of the last consonant of a wonl preceding A, to 
know when it is aspirate or not, we will give a list of the 
words which coiumence with h aspirate, omitting however 
the derivatives and a few words seldom used. 



Hagard ^ 









































Havrcsac . 






































19. J is pronounced like 8 in pleasure. £x.your,cI(iy;yamais, never. 

* Thf- k of the other words hanng the same derivation, Urnne, kirv' 
Itme. Hroitpie, &c., \n not aspirated. 

t We say, however, du firomage d*Hollando, ihUek cheetei de la toUt 
d'HoUande, Putch tin$7h. 


by Google 


K BOiuidB like k in Engli«h. Ex. Xnm, kktm; jidlogranme, « 

French tDeight. 
43. L in the combinations il, ill, not initial, but in the middle or at 
the end of words, has the liquid sound found in the English 
word hriUiant, Ex. pat2fo, gtraw; fiUe^ davghltr; bai2, hose 
travail, labor. 

Exceptions: fi2, ikrtad; Br6st2, BrazU; NO, me; mUKmiOit 
ihf'usand; civt^ chil; profU, frofk; ▼iZfe, town^ &nd its derir 
auves; tranqut/fe, tninqutttit6, dtc, quiel^ quietneis^ 4«. 

I is silent in baril, barrel; cheni^ kamd; coutil, tiddng; fiis 
son ; foumiZ, bakehouse ; fusi/, gun ; gril, gridiron ; outil, tool 
j^eml^ parsley. 

II in SuZ2y has the liquid sound — 1 is silent in ponfa, jntlse; and 
genti/shommes, noblemen, . 

The 1 marked as sQent in the words above, is never carried to 

the next word. 
14. M > initial are pronounced as in English. For these letters in 
16. N ) combination with the vowels, see nasal sounds, (page 30.) 

Final consonants after m and n are generally silent Ex. temfs 

toeaiher ; je rom;», je prenis, / break, I take, 
m is silent in condamner, to condemn ; autornne, autumn, 
n final, and not belonging to a noun, is corned to the next word* 

when this word begins with a vowel or anji mute, if the two 

words are closely connected. Ex. un bon enfant, a good child, 

mon ami, my friend; pronounce bon nenfantj man nami 
16. P is generally sounded aa in English. P is however silent in 

bajitdme, baptism; baftiser, to baptize; com/ite, aecounl; 

dom;;ter, to subdue ; exempt, exempt ; sejyt, seven ; septidme, 

p final is silent Ex. coup, blow ; drap, cloth. 

Exceptions: cap, cope; and proper names generally, 
p final is not carried to the next word. 
7. Q qu is pronounced like k. Ex. question, ^ues/ton; qtd^uikt 

^ualit^ quality ;— oie final is silent after q. Ex. pratique, pra 


Exceptions: qu is pronounced as in English in a;^tiqu<3, 

^fuateur, 6^estrc, 6^tation, ^^uation, in-^uarto, li^^fifi, 

^vadrag^naire, ^^adruple, fuadrup^e, Quinte-Curee, Qidiw 

tilien, ^ntuple, ^rinal. 
q final is sounded. It is however mute in co^'Inde, tm^key; 

and in cin^, jSve, when followed by a word commencing with % 



by Google 

tt. k The IVneh r b pmiMmoed with gTMMT IbiM tfatt Ite 
ir ki pranoniieed like r. £k. airber, lo «rrtec; armgirt ^ «^ 

lUeepdons : in the futnre and eoBditionel of aeqiiArir, to aom 

quire; courir, to rtin, end mourir, to die^ the two r'e are dis- 

tinetly eonnded. Ex. je eourrai, je monrru, je covrndi, Je 

moarraifly facquerriue, dco. 
I final is pronoanced when preeeded by a* i, o» n. Ex. ear,/>r ; 

fintr, tofinuh; cor, hunting horn; pur, pure. 

Exoeption: Monsieur, Sir. 
t preeeded by e is genendly sounded in monosyUables. Ex. 

fer, iron; eher, dear. 
V preeeded by e is lulent in words of more than one syllable, 

Ex. perler, to wpeak; manger, eat; chereher, to seek. 

Exoeptions: r is sounded in amer, belvi^er* canoer« eniller, 

6ther, enler, htver, Jupiter, Lucifer, magister. 

The final r of an infinitive is not often carried to the nest 

word in conversation. In serious reading it is generally 

earned to the next word. 
19 B has generally the same sound as fai English. 

a between two vowels is pronounced as in the English wordi 

foae,jwvM«. Ex. base, hose; vtat^vase; paufe,|NR<t0; chose, 


Exceptions : s in words composed of a partiele,or an acyeetfve, 

and a word commencing with s, preserves the hissing sound. 

Ex. para«ol, parasol ; vrai^mblable, likely ; d6sn6tude, dbue* 

tude; preseance, j)rececibice, dtc. 
ae is pronounced as in English. Ex. seandale, soamdal; seienee» 

eeb k pronounced like sA, in the words seMsme, leMsmatiqne, 
scMste, scA^rif, seft^ik, «dielling*-It Is pronounced sk la 

• final is generally silent Ei^. pas, tUp ; mais, InU ; )ut,^tttot 
Exeeptions: s is j^ironounced In aloAs, ahes; atlas, atUs^ 
hh^ns^Uoekads; cent, eeneus; en sut, besides; gratis, gr»- 
^; bpi*! lapis; iris, iris; mats, motst ; mcsurs, manners i 
fvovpeetvLSy prospectus; Rheims, ISAetms ,- vis,icm0; and In 
Latin and Greek names ending in s— D61os, Romulus, Ice 

e Is carried to the next word when the word commences with 
a vowel or an h mute; it has Ihen the sound of s-4>oiis 
amii^fOttiyriiiMb, Is pronounced ^saiiti Ui eonversatlos 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 


• of vmIm m imI gMOfally CMoie^ to the nuA 
M. T i» pnwoBiiced like t in tiib:s. Ex. tord, laU; tfi/rt, yr*mt. 
t has the sound of the English e in cedar^ in the eomhin&Uobs 
/ioi, M, tkdu final or in the middle of words, fix. par/ial, 
jKnioJ ; easeiidel, esaenlial ; observation, ob§ervaium» Words 
in which those terminations are preceded by s or z« are ex« 
eepted; the t therefore hi basdon, qnecfion, million, &o. 
retains its proper sonnd. 
i has the sound of c m cedar, in the words inepde, ^ibsurdUy , 
mmnde,. tnintUia ; proph^de, prophecy ; and in words ending 
in otw, deriv^ed from the Greek, and having in English the ter- 
mination cy, aristocratie, d^mocnMie, &«. ; also in inider, ta 

Ln Other wcwda ending in tie, and in those eodiog in ti6 and 

tier, Uie t has its proper sound. Ex. garande, ^rtMtran/fle ; 

moid6, AoJT; sauMj friendskip ; cbander, dodc-ff^urd; meder, 

tk sounds always like t alone. Ex. tk/kj tea ; ^so, ikesis. 
t final is generally silent. Ex. but, aim ; mof, word ; sor/, fatts 

Exceptions: t is sounded in bnu, chni, correct, do^ direef, 

d§fici^ Uty eauot^ net, pr^teri^ suspect, sixki, ^le, 
i in sq^huit, vingt, is sounded except when it eomes before 

a consonant 
t is seldom carried to the next word ; t in et (and) is always 

fii. V is a little softer than the English v. Ex. viande, meat ; voile, 

d^ W which is found only in foreign words, is jM-onounced like v. 

Ex. Wurtemberg, Westphalie. In a few other words it has 

the pronunciation of the English w. Ex. whig^ tdhisL 
SS. X imtial, which In French is only found in a few words, is pro- 
nounced like gz. Ex. J7lon, eotton^lant ; Jfayier, X&nophon. 

Xante, Xantippe. 

Xecxds is pronounoed gitercest, 
X foUowing an mitial e, and preceding a vowel or an h, is also 

sounded like gz. Ex, ttcil, exUe ; eoramuier, to examine ; ea> 

hiber, to exhtbiL 
t not following an initial e,'bui coming between two voweis, 

sounds like ks. Ex. axe, axis ; loa^ husury ; Alexandre, 

AJkxmnder; maxiae, sisxtm ; sexe, sex 
ff sounds like ss in the foUowing words; six,, fix dix, l«i. 


by Google 

LBM0V tt%^ 


In witee, dBrntat. dwiriiii^ tmmpl, JMmit, Hx-nrnfj 

it is prononneed liiw • in mm. 

fimd is gidnenlly ailent Ex. ^rix^ price; crc>, eroct; Toijr» 

JEIxeepiions: z is sonnded like ks at the end of namei of 

Greek and Latin origin. Ex. AJaar, Styx,. etc. In AixJaXSia. 

pelle it has the same sound. 

The z of -deiKT, sior, dix» coming before a consonant is sflenti 

ezcept in the cases mentioned above ; i. e.| ip dix-aept, di»- 

huit, dir-neuf. 
z when carried to the next word, sounds like z. 
14. Z sounds as in the English words zinc, zone. £z. sdle, sm) , 

zenith, xKnUk, 
s final is generally silent Ez, nez, note; chex, mik^ ^ , 

allezy go, 

Exceptions : gaj^ ga$. In Met;^ Suez» &c. it sounds like ss. 
z final is generally carried to the next word when that word 

commences with a vowel, or an h mute. 

!&cxBCi6k 1.— Tmi Vowkls. 

(a) Table, table ; fable, fable ; chat, eal ; Mtii, apkador ; aibre, 

tree; Uid^Jate; balle, MZ. 
(ft) ftme, $oul; bl&me, blame; bAtir, to bfwSd; pAte, jmMs; ftge^ 

4|g»; xiAi,masL 
(a) me, me; de, <f; que, <to; elle, s&ei malle, nml.; parle, 

fpeoi ; fottrche,yarfc ; salle, kaXL 
{k) pre, meadow ; alle, ^««e ; donne, gkem ; |Mws6, passie, foet^ 

^av6, ratMcI; arm^e, army. 
(A) trds, very ; aprSs, efier ; achate, Auy ; mhf^ mother ; eqr^ 

hope; Uve, ratae; ehdre,/anB; ehivfe,|riMi/. 
(6) mfime, 5am6 ; carSme, Lent ; airfit, flrr«fl.; temp^tBt^ni^ieit ; 

i^\je,liead; bSte, iaoft 
0) lit,M; dit,«itc2; due, Co soy; liie»toi«MM{; UmeijIZe; eire, 

eoasB; rite, rile. 
(i) diner, lo dine; tie, tsfe; dime, ftt&e; abtme, a^af ; 6pltre» 

ejna^ ; gite, lodging. 
(o) mot, iiH>nI; oaehoi, Atf^rean/ repos, t«il; 4Mt, (ntf ; globe^ 

globe ; earrosse, ooodL 
(ft) ttt,aoon; plutM, retOter; rftti, roast meat; dfipftt, Ajpotir; 

pr^vftt, jTCfvosL 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

tt LStSOir III* 

Cu) bUy iftwik; era, btHnei; di, of Ae; #«, 

mtnute; pr6ni,ybf«teefi ; 6ea, erown. 
(t) ehote, fiOl; hrtloU Jktsk^ ; ato, r^; dftmenti ifad^; 11 
f Ot, A« might be ; noiu ffime&i we wen. 

The Diphthongs. 

(ai) Je doiuiai» I gave; je parlerai, I will speak; j'allai^ Iweni; 

je cherchai, I sought; je menai, /ioj; firai, IwUlgo, 
(ais) je donnais, / imm giving ; je parleraia, i wouU «ped(; ; j*allaifl| 

J iros ^oingr ; je cherchaia, / was seeking ; je menaia, J was 

leading ; j'irais, / toould go. 
(an, ean) mauz, evUs ; chameau, come/ ; chevaux, horses ; bean, 

handsome ; noaveau, new ; troupeau, Jbck, 
(eO neige, snow ; veine, vein ; reine, ^veen ; Selne» Seine ; j» 

peigne, / comb ; aein, bosom. 
(en) pea, ZittZe; pear, /ear; lear, 2%tftr; il meort, he dies; aotar, 

sts^er ; ceuf, egg ; laeur, lighL 
(ea) like t^ Peaa, I had; ta eus, <%ou hadst; fl eat, %£ Aotf ; eii» 

(ia) llant, HnJtT^ ; 11 lia, fte bound; partial, partial; H eria,ft« 

cried; il nia, Ae <feniei{ ; il pria, he prayed, 
(ie) garantie, guarantee ; il prie, he prays ; il lie, ^ binds ; il ria 

he may hmgh ; il nie, he denies. 
(oO loi, law ; moi, me ; il voit, ft« sees ; il bolt, ^ drinks ; ro!, 

Mt^ ; droit, right ; il croit, he believes. 
(oa) boat, en({; il coad, he sews ; il mond, he grinds ; coupe, ct^, 

loap, t0o|r; coap, frioto ; eroate, crust 
(oa) noage, doud; nuance, shade; il aaloa, he sabOed; fl romiia, 

%< moved ; fl contriboa, ^ contributed. 
(oe) nne,c2otiif; lue,f. mu^; re9iie,f. received; fl aalne, fte to^ 

lutes; a Twmnet he moves. 
(ui) loi, Atm ; luiaant, shining ; coire, to bake ; cnit, ftofcei ; noire, 

to t9{^'iif« ; prodnire, to produce, 
(y) ihyno, thyrsus ; type, type; style, afyfe; yeiuc, eyes; YTStot, 

YveM; payer, to foy; envoyer, to aeiui; abbaye, 4t5&e|r, 

easayer, to try; pays, oounlry; paysage, lanubM^ ; paysf^ 

RxKWOisK 2^^Thb Nasal SomnM. 

iO> lniioceiit,tftiio0ni<; inutile, iseless; diner, Jti»Mr; 
tsMwrtsJ; iiiie,onf; lone, flRoon; donssi limpiis. 


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L%9nnv III. n 

tl. aa Mib», mt l b e r; chamhnt ekmabir ; AiiMntAdami nrnp^tfU 
enef; nm^waKfiUs lampe»teip. 
«a Unto, mmu; muAma^ do&k; plant fitan; pkachflr, /oor; 

niig» fwnlr; ung^ bloud; enfiuity c&tUL 
•n rampiir» 10 >0; t«ffip1e» UmpU; temps, toestfter; aaiwiiibl^e^ 

auembiy; iitmhleff to tremble ; membra, {ttnfr. 
CB seniir, to feel; teste, f<fi<; pente, iiedti%; je rend^ / roi* 
dtr; je pfende, I take; je eena, I,/^ 
BSL «B emeiit miKn; speeimeii, specimen; ezamen» examauUiorL 
33. en fle donnent, they give; ils pnrlent, they epeak; ila toiTeoti 

ihey write; lie eberehent, i^ seek, 
S4. im aimplet eimpU; timbre, stamp; deim, ieer; fiUm, Ikvi^^cr ; 
impostenr, impostor; important, importanL 
in fin,,;Efie; pain, bread; demain, to-morrow ; erin, horseJunr; TiB| 
wtne ; bain, baih ; teindre, to die ; peindre, to paint, 
J5. om aombre, dark; noro, name; ombre, shadow; tombe, tomb, 
nombre, number ; comble, height, 
on pont, bridge; honte, shame; montre, lotticb; faiatfn, reason; 
maison, house; fondre, to meli; non, no, 
Sd. am tumble, Aiim^2e; j^iom, petfume ; humblement, AtimftZlf. 
nn lundi, Monday; bran, brown; alun, alum; emprunter, la 
borrow; Important importunate ; on, one. 

ExsRciBB 3. — Tub Covbovants. 

(Jk) banme,&a2fam; blesanre, wound; bran, brown; absolution, 
absohaian; abstrait, abstract; abbaye, o^&ey ; Jacob, JoeoA. 

(e) eacher, to cunce(U; coin, comer; d^nple, decuple; cin^ 
wax; ciniyjive; chercher, to sedc; je cache, I conceal; pa. 
triarcbe, |KiAnarc& ; patriarchat, po/rtarcAo/e ; chambre, cAam- 
ber; arche, arch; changer, to change; orcheatre, orchestra; 
eharbon, coal ; aac, bag ; buc^ juice ; clerc, clerk ; banc, bench ; 
HanCjJIank ; aeeond, second; tecond^ fruitful ; tk^on,fashion ; 
le^n, reoetvedm 

(d) daim, deer ; don, gift ; admirer, to admire ; bord, border ; nord, 
north; and, south; Obed, Obed; Talmud, Talmud; grand 
^ge^advancedage; rend^iljdoesherenderJ prendAhdoeshetake) 

(f) foin, hay; faim, hunger; froid, cold; bref, short; Boif^ thirst; 
•uif, talUno; clef; key; chef, chief; chef-d'oeuvre, master^ 
piece; osaT.^g; c^VLh^eggs; <BvdfniBy fresh egg; bcBuf, or, 
beef; boeufa, oxen; nenf maisona, nine Aou^i ; neuf chevaaz» 
ittne horses; neuf amis, nine friends. 

<g) mS!»f <0 to; soaier, Aroo/; gn»er,^aM; fvid^ X«ii»; 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

'so LBf foir tti 

ligae, liagne; il Hgtn^ he leagKed; ne«» ligntfo^wehagv^, 
aiguille, needle; aiguinon, g'lNul; tiga^ hemioekj digii€^ 
Vforthy; r^gne, ir^; Eapagne^ fifpotn; PolofB«» JFVfancI ; 
brugiiOB, necUarine ; sotgnant, toX»f^ core; jmgBaai,jaim^gi 
atagnanl^ ttagnard; rang honorable, ]kofwra&Ze nmk 

(h) h&te, ftofte-; Yioxite, ihame; hmt^ High; herbe, Aerdfl^e; al< 
monaeh, nJmanoc. 

(J) jujabe, j^vbe ; jeune, ycwig ; jvger, to judge ; jortr, to noeor 
joDC, rus^/i ; joindre, (ojoin ; d^ftner, to breeitfasi^ Joi^ Jew, 
jeu, play, 

(1) lame, &2a<fe; loi, 2aio; illegal, t2fii^«^; illioite^ «ni(if^, 
paille, sfrmo; 8oleil,ncn; pareil, eimUar; bail, teii; aaillec^ 
to rail; aontller, to eoil; eaille, quaU; caaaiUe, riMle; villot 
town; Tillage, mUage; mille, mUe, tkausaifd; p6riJ, periZ; 
pointilleaz, punctilious; baril, barrel; fiiail, gtdi; gentil- 
homme, no&JoiMm; genttlahommes, lu^tomn; bontatlie, botUiL 

EacxROUx 4. — Tbb Cohsonahts CoxTuruju). 

(nm) inon,my; marge, nuxf^n; nom, name; champ, /fi2tf; moine, 
moni ; prompt, quick; condamner, to condemn ; {aim, hunger; 
aon argent, his money ; bon app^Ut, ^ooi app^iie ; lien ^troiti 
dose connection, 

(p) partir, to go away; coup, blow; tempB, weai3ier; dnqs eZot^; 
aept, aevra; baptSme, bc^ism; cap, cape; Alep, AZcppo. 

(q) qu4rir, to fetch; quitter, ro leave; muaique, mime ; logique, 
logic ; qwunnie^ forty ; qnoi, what ; aquatique, aquatic ; Qain> 
tilien, QuintUian; cinq,/ve; cinq livre8,/ve bocks. 

(r) ranger, to arrange; errer, to err; arriver, to arrive; Terser, 
to pour; je oourrai, IwiU run; je courais, I was running; 
Jouir, to e7i;oy ; car, /or ; plaisir, pleasure; amer, frt^/er ; parlor 
to speak; changer, to change; for, iron; hiver, winter, 

(■) silence, silence; soin, care; sans, without; base, ftose; rose, 
rose; chose, ^tTtg; observer, to observe; toeoit, razor ; para 
sol, parasol; science, science; schisme, schism; scie, saw 
scheme, scheme; gras, yb^; pas, step; lambris, wainscot; 
Barras, Barras; Romulus, Somos; tous avez, you have; 
nous aimons, we love, 

(t) tiers, third; tiare, iiara; tort, wrong; portion,* portion; 

* T, in the English words eorreqxmding to the French words, in whidi 
ttala letter is pronounced Ukis c in oedar, has generaVj the sound of ib{ 
la In aotSoB, partial, Ac 


by Google 

LBVS'es IT. M 

•anetioii* sanction; essentiel, essential; partlaUt^, jNiftiaZt^; 

MCtion, section; qaestioiif question; iMistloii, bastion; oh^ei* 

valion, observation ; minntie, mimUia ; democsatie, deniocrac^; 

uadti^firiendsk^; JaituUion, inUiation; mot, word; lot, iot; 

Rept, seven; sept livras, seven books; et» and; vingt linea, 

twenty books, 

voir, tosee; yn^go; Idve, raua; lever, to nitw; Ti8Jige,/ac6 

TiTe^ f. iioely,' 

Westphalie, Weimjur, Worms, Wurtemberg. 

xylon, oo0on plant; X^Dophon; eziler, to exile; ezeaser, to 

excuse ; luxe, luxury ; Alexandre, Alexander ; maximei 

maxim; soiximtidme, sixtieth; six, six; sixidme, sixth; six 

Uvres, six books; Bruxelles, Brussels; Aix-lsrChapelle ; 

dix, ten ; Phenix; Ajax; deux hommes, two men; diz amis, 


Md^ teal; lone, tone; xoologie, zoology; toos Iltex» you 

read; nez, nose; Metz; alles-y, go there; venex iei,60fiM 



1. Ik Freoeh the article [( 18, (3.)1 lu«> in the singular, a dia. 
■net oim for eadi gender. Ex. 

le ins, O^ son: La flUe, the daugUer, the girt t 

hdtc^te^tkebrtftkeri htk smvn^ the sister. 

S. fiefora a word conmieneing with a vowel or an h mote, [I* 8» 1 1,] 
die article is the same for ^th genders. [} 13, (7.)] Ex. 

Vaieul, tie grandfather f • VtAerde, the grandmother f 
L'hote, the landlord ; L'hdtesae, the landladi\ 

. 8. There are in French only two genders, the masculine and the 
feminine. [{ 4.] Every noun, whether denoting an animate or an 
inanimate object, belongs to one of these two genders. 

Masc. Vhotame, the mans he lion, the Hon s 

Le livre, the books Le papier, the paper; 

VsLTheii, the trees Ja hois, tke woods 

Fan. la feame,tke woman s La lionne, £&« r&MM»i 

U Uble, the tabu s I* fe«J^l«» ^ W^» 

U plume, Oejmii La portoi Ms ^m". 


by Google 


&>•&«« tt» 




Tons avez, 
Us ont, m. 
Klles ont, f. 

He has; 


You have f 









Has the? 



Avez Tons 1 


Ontilal m. 




6. The e of the pronoau >e is elided when that pronoun comes 
before a vowel or an & mate. [} 146.] 

6. In interrogative sentences, when the third person singular of « 
•^rb ends with a vowel, and is immediately followed by a pronoun, a 
4 calUd euphmiCi must be placed between the verb and the pronoun. 
A-t-ai Hash€? A-1reUel Has she? 


Lt) pere a la viande, vons avez le 

cafS, et j^al I'eau. 
L'bomme ale pain, renfiint a le sel, 

et nous avons le poivre. 

T%e father has the meat, ptm have the 
coffee, and J have the water. 

The man has the bread, the child has 
the saltf and we have the pepper. 


Madame, Madam ; 
Mademoiselle, Miss ; 
Meunler, m. miller t 
Monsieur, Mr. Sirs 
Non, no ; 
Oui, yes ; 
Pain, m. bread ; 
Plume, f,pens 

Qui, who; 
Sel, m. sail ; 
Seulemcnt, only ; 
Table, f. table f 
Thi, m. tea ; 
Viande, f. meatf 
Vin, m. wine ; 
Yinaigre, m. visiegm^. 

Avoine, t. oats ; 
B16, m. wheat ; 
Boucher, m. bvkhers 
Bouliingcr, m. baker ; 
Cheval, m. horse; 
Et. and; 
Farine, f. fUnvr; 
Frdre, m. hrother ; 
Livre, nL book ; • 

1. Qui a le pain? 2. Le boulanger a le pain. 3. A-t-it la farine ? 4. 
Oui,Monsieur, il a la farine. 6. Avons nous la viande ? 6. Oui, Monsieur, 
reus avez la viande et le pain. 7. Le meunier a la farine. 8. Le 
boulanger a la farine et le bl6. 9. Avons nous le livre et U 
plume 1 10. Oui, Mademoiselle, vous avez le livre et la plume. 
11. Le boucher a la viande. 12. Le meunier a la viande et j*ai 
le cafe. 13. Avez vous Teau et le sel ? 14. Oui, Monueur, nous 
avons Teau, le sel et Tavoine. 15. Avons nous leth^? 16. Non« 
Monsieur, la fille a le the, le vinaigre et le sel. 17. Ai-je levin) 

18. Non, Madame, vous avez seulement le vinaigre et ^a viaada 

19. Avex Yom la Ublel 90. Oni, Madame, J's' la tablar 


by Google 


iBlsoir ▼• It 


1. Hsre yott the wheat 1 2. Yes, Sir, I have the wheat 8. ^Vho 
turn the meat? 4. The batcher has the meat and the salt 5. Has 
he the oats? 6. No, Madam, the hone has the oats. 7. Have we 
*Jie wheat! 8. You have the wheat and the fiour. 9. Who has the 
laltl 10. I have the salt and the meat 11. Have we the vinegar 
the tea and the coffee ! 12. No, Sv, the brother has the v]nega» 
13' Who has tho horse? 14. The baker has the horse. 15. Have 
we the book and the pen 1 16. No, Miss, the girl has the pen, and 
the miller haa the book. 17. Have you Ihe table, Sir t 18. No, Sir, 
I have only the book. 19. Who has the table ? 20. We have the 
table, the pen, and the book. 


1. The article le^ with the preposition de preceding, must be eon* 
tneted into iii, when it comes before a word in the ma$euUne siog«* 
kr, commencing with a consonant or an j^ aqpirated. [L. 8, 11. { ll| 
C«.) (9.) 

Pu fi^re, of the hrotheri Du chateau, of tht casUe ; 

Dn htroe, oftkt hero / Du chemtn, «f (he wmf. 

2. Before/emtntntf words, and before masculine words commencing 
with a vowel, or an fr mute, the article is not blended with the pre» 

Pe la dame, tofthM ladys De Tamie, f. of the ftmak fritnd 9 

De I'aigent, m.oftke money ; De Thonnenr, m. of the honor. 

3. In Frendi, the name of the possessor follows the name of the 
object possessed. [\'t^{lO,y\ 

La maison du mSdecin, T%e physician's house ; 

L'arbre du Jsrdin, The tree of the garden t 

La lettre de la soeur, 7%e sisters kUer. 

4. The name of the material of which an object is composed follows 
always the name of the object; the two words being connected by 
tfe preposition de, (tT before a vowel or an }k mute.) [} 70. (1 1.)] 

LliabH de drap, Ilk doth coaig 

La robe de sole, The siXk dress: 

Lamontred'or, lUgeUi ' 


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Lxisoir ^^ 

R£sum6 of Examples. 

L« taiUenr a lluOril de drap da 

Tons ftTea la .ettre de la soeur da 

ThM tailor has (Ac ^ystcuw'f cMk 

Ytm have the baker's sisier^s kUer, 

A-t-Ulaffrndeladamal - Has he tJU lady's book? 

Exercise *I, 

Argent, m. sUver.money ,- Conteau, m. kmi/e ; Porte-crayoD, m. jwao^ 
Bu, m. stocking ; Coir, m. leather ; case ; 

BoiB, m. 1000^ ; Dame, f. lady; Bobe, f. inos; 

Cbtpeaa, m. ha^t DntPi m* c^oU; Satin, m. M(iii;i 

Charpentier, m. caarpeU' Foin, m. ^y; Soear, f. sister; 

ter; Habit, m. coat; Soie, f. 5t2^; 

Cordonnier, m. shoema- Laine, f toooZ, loooilam; SooUer, m. shoe; 

ker ; Mais, but ; Table, f. tabU ; 

Coton, m. cotton; Or, m. ^02<^; Tailleur, m. tailor, 

1. Avez vons la montre d'or? 2: Oni, Madame, j*ai la montre d'or 
et le chapean de soie. 3. Monsieur, avez vous le livre du tailleur 1 
4. Non, Monsieur, j'ai le livre du mMecin. 6. Ont lis le pain da 
boalanger? 6. Ds ont le pain du boulanger et la farine du meunier. 
7. Avez vouB le porte-erayon d'argent? 8. Oni, Monsieur, nous avona 
la porte-crayon d'argent 9. Avons noue IVivoioe du chevall lOi 
Voua avez Tavoine et le foin du cbevaL II. Qui a I'habit de dn^ 
du charpentier? 12. Le cordonnier a le chapeau de sole du tailleur. 
13. Le tailleur a le Soulier de cuir du cordonnier. 14. Avez vous la 
table de boisi 15, Qui, Monsieur, j'ai la table de bois du charpentier. 
16. Ont ils le couteau d'argenti 17. lis ont le couteau d'argent 
18. Le frdre du m^ecin a la montre d'argent 19. La soeurdu 
cordonnier a la robe de soie. 20. A-t-elle le Soulier de cuir? 21. Non, 
Madame, elle a le Soulier de satin. 22. Avons nous le baa de laine t 
23. Non, Monsieur, vous avez le bas de soie du tailleur. 24. Qui 
ale basde cotont 26. Le m6decin a le bas de coton. 26. La dame 
a la Soulier de satin de la eosur du boulanger. 

Exercise 8. 

1. Have you the tailor's book 1 2. No, Sir, I have the phyaidan'a 
watch. 8. Who has the gold watch ? 4. The lady has the gold watch 
and toe silver pencil-case. 6. Have you the tailor*s shoe ? 6. 1 have 
the tailor's olotu-shoe. 7. Have we the wooden table? 8. Yes, Sir, 
you have the wooden table. 9. Have they the silver knife ? 10. They 
have the silver knife. 11. The lady has the silver knife and the 
gold penoil-caae. 12. Has she the satin dressi 13. The phyaioian*a 
deter has the satin dnm 14. Who has the wood! 15. The ea^ 


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L£8»Oir Tt 96 

pentor^B brother hut the wood. 16. Have yoa the woollen stock- 
iDg? 17. No, Sir, but I have the cotton stocking. 18. Who has the 
baker's bread? 19. We have the baker's bread and the miller's 
floiir« 20k Have we the horse's hayt SI. You have the horse'a 
oats. 22. Have we the tailor's silk hat ? 28. Yes, S:r, yon have the 
tail<H^s silk hat and the Shoemaker's leather shoe. 24. Have yon the 
sloth shoe of the physletan's sister I 25. No, Madam, I ha\ ^ the lady's 


1. The article, preceded by or contracted with the preposition cfe^ ' 

•ecording to Rales 1 and 2 of Lesson 5, is placed in French before 

words used in a partitive sense. Such words may generally be 

known in English when $ome or any is or may be prefixed to them 

[} 18, (10.) {78,(10] 

Ba pain, Breads or aoma brtmdt 

De la viands, MeiU^ or tomM meat; 

De I'aigent, Msney, or soms montp, 

3. The French numeral a4jective, nn, m. une, /., answers to the 

Knglish indefinite article, a or an. [} 18, (4.) (11).] 

Un homme, A mani 

Une femme, A woman, 

8. The e of the preposition tk is elided before un and une. [} 148.1 

D'un llvre, m. C^ or from a books 

D'nne maison, f. Of or fiwn a ktut^ 

4. When the nominative or subject of an interrogative sentence is 
a noun, it should be placed before the verb ; and immediately after 
the verb in simple tenses, and after the auxiliary in compound tenses, 
a pronoun must be placed, agreeing with the nominative in gender, 
mimber and person. [{ 76, (4.) (5.)] 

Le m4deoln a-t-il de rar^ent 1 Bos thefkyddam money 7 

Le bottcher art-il de la viande 1 Has the IvteMer meat ? 

Le libraire a-t-il du papier 1 Has the bookseUer fopor 7 

La dame a-t-elle de la soie 1 Has the lady silk 7 

R&3UM& OF Examples. 

Avez vous du pain 1 

VooB avez du pair.| du beurre, et 

Votrs Mrs A-t-il one Uvre de 

Have you bread 7 

You have bread, butttr, euU 

Boi yowr brother a powndtfkMmf 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

LSttOV Tt. 

NOf J have a Uuly*s book. 
Has the physician's sister paper 

Aum rotm !• lin» d'mi Ubndre 1 

Non, J'ai le livre d'une dame. 
Iia Boenr du m£decin a-t-elle du 
papier et de Tencre 1 

5. It will be seen by some of the above etamplea, that tho tf 
tide must be repeated before every noun used in a partitive eenae 


AcaJOQ, m. mahogany s Encre, f ink; Livre, f pound f 

Acier, m. sled ; Epicler, m. grocer ; Moroean, m. piece / 

Ai:doiird'hiii, ^^; Fils, m. Jo»; « Papier, m. paper / 

Beurre, m. buUeri Fonrchette, tfork ; Plume, tpent 

Bi&re, f beer ; Fromage, m. ekeese ; Sucre, m. sugar • 

Boeui; m. beeff Gant, m. glove ; Yin, m. vfine ; 

Gaft, m. coffee} Libraire, m. bookseller i Yotre, yews 

Cuiller, f 5^00111 Lirre, m. &wi(; ; Th6, m. tea. 
P6, m. thimbU; 

I. Avez voua de la viande? 2. Qui, Monsieur, fai une livre de 
viande. 3. Votre fils a^t-il nn morceau de pamt 4. Oui, Madame, 
il a nn morceau de pain. 6. Le libraire a-t-il un livre? 6. II « d« 
I'encre et du papier. 7. Votre sceur a-t-elle une montre d^ort 6. 
Elle a une montre d'or et nn d6 d*argent 9 Le boulanger a4-il du 
vin on de la bidre? 10. Le boulangera du th6 et du cai%. 11. 
Votre frdre a^t-il du fromage? 13. D a du fromage et du beurre. 
IS. La dame Spl^elle une cuiller d'argent? 14. La dame a une 
cuiller et une fonrchette d'aigent 15. Le boucher a-t-il de la 
viande aujourd'huil 16. Oui, Monsieur, il a un morceau de boeuf. 
17. Le charpentier a^t-il one table? 18. Oui, Monsieur, il a uno 
table d'acajou. 19. Avez vous le livre du m^ecin? 20. Non, 
Madame, mais j^ai le livre de votre soBur. 21. Qui a du caf6 et du 
■ucre? 22. L'^picier a du caf6 et du sucre. 23. La s<Bur da 
libraire a-t-elle un gant? 24. Non, Monsieur, mais elle a un livre. 
85. A-t-elle une plume d*acier ? 26. Non, Monsieur, elle a une plume 
d'or. 27. Vous avez le porte-crayon du m^decin. 

Exercise 10. 
I. Have you any tea? 2. Yes, Madam, I have a pound of tea 
8. Who has bread ? 4. The baker has bread, butter, and cheese 
5. Has the tailor cloth ? 6. The tailor has a piece of cloth. 7 
Has the physician gold? 8. Yes, Sir, the physician has gold and 
mlver. 9. Has the lady a silver watch ? 10. Yes, Miss, the lady 
haa a bili^er watch and a gold pen. 11. Has yonr sister silk ? 12. 
Yea, Sir, she has silk and cotton. 13. Have you a knife ? 14. YeSf 
ar» I have a steel knife and « silver fork. 15. Have you meat 
to^y, Sit ? 16. Yes, Sir, I have a piece of b<e£ 17. Hat yew 


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IMBnOW Tib 91 

a mahogmy iftble? 18. Ym, Sir, he has a mahogany 
table. 19. Has your sister a glove? 20. No, Sir, your sister has a 
silk glove. 21. Has the bookseller's son a gold peneil case? 23. 
Yes, ^r, he has a gold pencil ease and a steel pen. 23. Wlio has 
year sister's watch? 24. Your brother has the gold watch and the 
iOk hat 26. We have gold, silver, and steel (See Rule 6.) 


LESSON vn. LEgoN va 

1. To render a sentence n^atitre, tie is plaeed before the verb, an4 
pat after it 

^e n'al pas le cheval. / have not tkt horse, 

V Tons n'aves pas la maison. You have not the koum. 

%, When the verb is in a compound tense [\ 45, (8.)] the first 
negative ne is placed before the auxiliary, and the second between 
the auxiliary and the participle. 

Je n*Ai pas on le cheval. / have not had the horse. 

Yous n'avez pas eu la maison. You have not had the house, 

8. I» will be seen in the above examples that the e of ne is elided, 
when the verb begins with a vowel. [} 146.] 

4. When the words ni, neither ; rien, tiadhmg ; jamais, never ; per* 
Sonne, tio onej nobody^ occur, the word ne only is used, and those 
words take the place of pas, [} 41, (6.)] 

Je n*ai ni le livre ni le papier. / have neither the book nor the paper, 

^CAvez vous qvelquc chose 1 Have you any thing ? 

7QT0QS n'avons rien. We have nothing^ or not any thing, 

yVenoaae n'a lo livre. No one has the 000k, 

yYous B*avez Jamais le conteau. You never have the knife, 

5. A noun used in a partitive sense (Lesson 6, Rule 1), and being 

the object of a verb, conjugated negatively, should not be preceded 

h} the article, but by the preposition de only. [} 78, (7.)] 

Nous n'evons pas d'argent We have no money, 

Yous n'avez pas do viande. You have no meat, 

6. Quelqn*un, some one^ am/ one; [{41, (7.)] quelque chose, s tm^ 

diing, any thing ; should only be used in an affirmative or interroga* 

tiro sentence, or in a sentence which is negative and interrogative at 

the same time. 

Avons nous quelqu'nn 1 Bave we any one? 

Avesvoos quelque chose ? Bamyoumnytkiiuf? 

WflMaooapasquelqneebosel One wt noi eometkimg f 


by Google 

t8 I.S80OH Til. 

7. Ib ft Begaiiv« Motenee, ne— {teraoime, mgmUm fioMy, rwi «fif 
My; and ne-— rien, nothings not any thing. 

Je u'ai penonne. / have no one, not aiMf m/e. 

Voofl n'avez rien. Yem, have nothifig, or not am^ ihmg. 

8. Avoir, to have, in thb Pkesent of the Indicativi. 

NegaJtxody. NegaHvdy and Ii^errogatwdy, 

Jen'aipas, 1 have not} ITaiJepasI Have I not? 

Tun'aBpaSi TMuhastnot: N'astnpasl Hast thou naf 

Iln'apas, He has not i N'art-ilpast Has he not? 

Bile n^ pas, She has not s NVt-ellepaal Hasshtnot? 

Nous n'avons pas, Wehavenot; N'aTonsnonspaslHizMioefui^? 

Vous n*avez pas, You have not / N'avez vous pas 1 Have yon not? 
Os n'ont pas. They m. have not; ITont ils pasi Have they m.notf 

fiUes n'ont pas. They f. have not ; N'ont elles pas 1 Have they t nd? 

RtisuMi of Examples. 

. Le taillenr a-t-U le bonton 1 
Le taillenr n'a pas le bonton. 
U /a ptaip le drap. 
n h'a en nile drap nl le cuir. 

Vous n'avez pas de Tiande, (R. 6.) 
A^ons nons quelqne chose 7 
Nons n'avons rien. 
^Kons n'avons jamais dpLCaft, (B. 5.) 

Has the tailor the button 7 

The tailor has not the button. 

He has not had the cloth. 

He has had neither the doth nor Ik 

Have I meat? 
You have no meat. 
Have we any thing ? 
We hone nothing, or not amy 1/dng. 
We never have coffee. 


Ami, m. friend; Drap, m. doth; Personne, m. nobodty; 

Angleterre, f. England ; Dn tout. ad^. at all ; Qnelqne chose, m. some» 

Auisi, also; France, f. France; thing, any thing; 

Antre, other ; Histoire, f. history; Qnelqu'nn, m. sonu one, 

Chapelier, m. hatter ; Libraire, m. booksdUr ; any one ; 
Ghien, m. dog; Marchand, m. merchant; Sole, f. silk; 

Coton, m. cotton; Mon, m. my; Velours, m. velvd; 

Cousin, m. cousin; Ni, coqj. neither, nor; Voisin, m. neighbor. 
Denx, two; 

1. Le chapelier a-t-il de la sole? 2. Le chapelier n'a pas de aoie 
mais il a da velours. 3. A-t-il du velours de coton ? 4. Non, Mon 
aieur, il nV pas de velours de coton, il a du velours de sole. 5. Ayes 
vous de la viande? 6. Oui, Monsieur, j'ai de la viande. 7. Le m6^ 
deoin n'a pas d'argent 8. Qui a de I'argent? 9. Le marchand n'a 
paa d'argent, mais il a du drap, du velours et de la soie. 10. Aves 
vous quelque chose! 11. Non, Monsieur, je n*ai rien du tout. 12. La 
tailleur a-t-il deux boutons d'argent t 13. Non, Monsieur, il a denx 
boutons de sole. 14. Qui a votre chien t 16. Le voisin a le ohien d« 
non oonsin. 18. N'a-t-Q pas votre eheval aasii? 17. Non, Moniiew 


by Google 

B a 1e cjovat de TOira ami. 18. Atoz vom lliiatoire de Fmaoef 
19. NoDf Madame, je n*ai nl l*hi8toire de Franee ni lliistolra d'An^e- 
tam. 20. NTavez Tom ni le livre ni le papier t 21. Non, Mademoi* 
Mile, je n'ai ni Tun ni Tautre. 22. Qui a dn papier? 28. Le libraire 
n'a pan de papier. 24. Qaelqa'un-a-t-fl nn livre? 25. Pereoniie n'a 
de livie. 


1. Haa the baker velvet t 2. No, Sir, the baker has no velret. 
8. Who haa aUk velvet? 4. The hatter haa silk velvet and a silk haL 
6 Have yon two ailver buttons? 6. No, Sir, I have a cloth coat, a 
■ilk hat, and a vdvet shoe. 7. Ha^^ your neighbor a wooden table I 
8. Yes, Sir, he haa a mahogany table. 9. Haa your couain a history 
of England? 10. No, Sir, he has a histoiy of France. 11. I have 
neither the cloth nor the velvet 12. We have neither the meat nor 
the coffee. 13. Has any one a book? 14. Your cousin has a book, 
a velvet coat, and a ailk hat 16. Have you the phyaician's book? 

16. Yes, Madam, I have^the physician's book, and the lady's gold pen. 

17. Has the merchant cloth? 18. The merchant has no cloth, but he 
has money. 19. Who haa your neighbor's dog? 20. Nobody ha» 
my neighbor's dog. 21. Has any one my book? 22. No one haa 
your book. 23. Has your cousin's brother any thing? 24. No, Silt 
he has nothing 25. Who has your friend's book ? 28. Your brother 
has my cousin's book. 27. Has he the tailor's coat? 28. He has not 
the tailor's eoat 29. We have neither the cloth nor the ailk. 


1. The verb ancir is used idiomatkaliy in Freneh; with tiie w«da 
fuelqae efaose, chaud, froid, faim, honte, peur, jaison, tort, soif, som- 

J'ai quelaue chose. SemeHiing is the maUtr wUh m^. 

II a <Uiaua. He is warm. 

Kile a fitim. She is hungry. 

Nous avons honte. We are ashamed. 

Tons avez peur. You are afraid. 

Us ont tort. They are terong. 

Avez vous raison 1 Are you right 7 

J'ai sonmieiL / am sleepy. 

2. A noun, whether taken in a general or hi a puticttlar 
lii in Freneh, commonly preoaded by the vtkh Zi^ in ita 

U 77,(1.) (2.)] 


by Google 


Z.I08OV ▼fit 

La pain eit n^eesniie. 

II A le pain. 

Brtkdis meesmnfi 
He has the bread. 

8. A noun, preceded by the mrtlcle Uy retains thai article ofl^? ni| 
fi0r, nekhtr ; but a noqn taken in a partitive sense, [L. 6, 1,] takes 
after m^ neither article nor preposition. 

/e n'ai ni Tarbre n! le jardin. 
ous n'sTODS ni arbre ni jardin. 

/ have neither the tree nir the rofSeni 
We have neilker tree fur garden^ 

4. A nouni taken in a partitive sense, and preceded by an adjee* 
tive, takes merely the preposition de. [J 78, (3.)] 
6. The following adjectives are generally placed before the noni . 

Beau, handsome g Cher, dearf Jeune, young g Meillenr, better i 

Bon, good I Grand, great^ large; Joli, pretty ; Petit, smaU ; 

Braye, wrtky; Qros, large; Mauvais, bad; Yieux, old; 

Vilain, ugly. 


Avei voQS auelqne chose 1 
Je n'ai rien, (UteraUy, I have nothing.) 
Votre fr^re a-t-il chaud 1 
n n'a ni fh>id ni chaud. 
Votre soeur a-t-elle fitim on soif 1 
SUe n'a pas faim, mais honte. 
Votre ami art-il sommeil 1 
Uon ami n'a ni sommeil ni peur. 
Avez vous raison ou tort 1 
Avez vous du latt ou du vin t 
Je n'ai ni lait ni vin, [R. 8.] 
Avei vous le lait ou le vini 
Je n'ai ni le lait ni le vin. [R. 8.] 
Avez vous de beau drap et de bon 

Is anff thing the matter with fou ? 
Nothing is the matter vrith me. 
Is your brother learm ? 
He is neither warm nor cold. 
Is your sister hungry or thirsty? 
She is not hungry^ but ashamed. 
Is your friend sleepy ? 
Myfriendisneither sleepy nor afraid. 
Are you right or wrong? 
Have you mdlk orvrine ? 
I have neither milk nor wine. 
Have you the milk or the wine? 
I have neither the milk nor the wine? 
Have you handsome cMh and good 


An oontraire, on the eon- Fusil, m. gun ; Petit, small, Utile; 

trary ; Froid, m. cold ; Peur, f fear, ofraid i 

Bouton, button; Gros, large; Quel, ukat, which; 

Capitalne, captain; Honte, f. shame, ashamed; Raison, f. reason, right t 

Cousin, m. ceusin; Mais, M; Rien, nothing; 

Chaud, m. heat, warm; Marteau, m. hammer; Tort, m. wrong; 

Faim, f. hunger, hungry; Menuisier, m. joiner ; Sel, m. saii ; ' 

Ferblantier, m. tinman; Poivre, m. pepper ; Bommeil, m. sUep, deepy 

1. Qui a sommeil? 2. Mon frdre a faim, mais il n'a pas sommeiL 

8. Avez vous raison ou tort? 4. Pai raison, je n'ai pas tort 6. Avez 
vous ie bon fusil de mon fr^re? 6. Je n'ai pas le fusil. 7. Avez vous 
froid aujourd'hui? 8. Je n'ai pas f^oiu, au contnure, j'ai chaud. 

9. Avez vous de bon pain? aO. Je n'ai pas de pain. 11. N*av«i 
▼iHis pu fUmt 19. Je n'ai ni fidm ni soil 18. Avez vous hontef 


by Google 

i4. 3% a*al ■! kwU oi penr. 16. Atods now da peitro on da tell 
18. VooA a'avez ni pohre ni teL 17. Quel livre av«s toobI 18. J'ai 
to Ihrre de moo eoaaiiL 19. Avez Tons le mtftefto de tet ou le oiar- 
tMn d'afgent ! 20. Jo n'ai ni le martoan de fer ni le marteau d'aigenty 
fai lo marteaa de boia da ferblantior. SI. Area rooa quelqao choet! 
39L Jo n'ai rien. 2d. Avez toos Io grot iivro da libraire f 24. Je n'ai 
ni le groB fivfo da libniro, ni le petit livio da menaiaior, f ai io bcs 
lirre da ca^tatno. 


1. Are yon sleepy, Sir! 2. No, Sir, I am not sleepy, bat I am 
hongry. 3. Hare yoa pepper or saltf 4. I have neither pepper nor 
aalt: I have cheese. 6. Is yoar brother thirsty or hangry! 6. My 
hfother is neither thirsty nor hongiy. 7. Is your sister right or 
wrong! 8^ She is not wrong, she is right 9. Is the good joiner 
afraid? 10. He is not afraid, but ashamed. 11. Hare yoa milic or 
cheese ? 12. 1 have neither milk nor cheese, I have batter. 13. Haye 
yoa the line cloth or the good tea? 14. I have neither the fine cloth 
nor the good tea. 15. Is anytliing the matter with yon, my good 
friend? 16. Nothing is the matter with me, my good Sir. 17. Havo 
yon no bread? 18. Yes, Madam, I have good bread, good batter, and 
good cheese. 19. Is the carpenter sleepy? 20. The carpenter is not 
sleepy, but the tinman is hungry. 21. Have you the tinman's wooden 
hammer ? 22. 1 have not the wooden hammer. 23. Which hammer 
nave yoa ? 24. 1 have the steel hammer. 25. Have yoa a good cloth 
eoat? 28. No, Sir, bat I have a sOk dress. 27. Has the tailor the 
good gold button? 28. Yes, Sir, he has the good gold button. 
99. Who has my brother's gold watch? 30. Some ooe has the gold 



1. The pronouns lo, Urn, it ; la, ^, if, are, in French, placed before 
the verb.* These pronouns assume the gender of the nouns wliidi 
they represent 

Voyez vous le oouteau? m. Do you tee tkt kmfe? 

Je le vois. IseeU. 

YoyoDS nous la fourchctte ? f. Do we see the fork 7 

Nous la voyons. WeseeiL 

* Except in the sscond person singular, and in the flnt and 
one ploral of tho imptiallvo osed aflinutivily. 


by Google 

4S I)tftf801t IJL 

3. ne vmie} of' the protioane le and ]% is dMttd befem * t«i% 

•omsieDeiDg witii a vowel or an ^ route. [} 146.] 

Aycz yotu le baton 1 m. Have you Me stick? 

Je VaL I have it, 

jUroDS nona k canne 1 £ &ai» we tkecaae 7 

Nous ravens. We Aave U. 

8* The posaesaive adjectives mon, m. ma, f. my; ton, m. ta» £ t^y, 

Bon, m. sa, f. his, het, a^rree in gender with the object possessed, thai 

ia with the noun following them. [{ ai» (1.) (2.)] 

Mon pupitre, m. My desk ; 

Avez vous mA lettre 1 f. Have you my leiter 7 

n a son fusil, m. He has his gun. 

11 a sa cravate, t He has Ms cravat, 

4. Before a feminine notm In the singular, commenciiig witti a 
vowel or an % mute, the maaauline fbrm, morit tm^ son fanaml 

J'ai mon tip6e, f / kave my sword. 

G'est son habitude^ t Itiskisorker habit. 

Le g6n6Ma a son aiui^e, £ The general has his a/rmy. 

6* The a^jeetivea nolie, <wr; votre, your; leuTi ^Aetr, ara naad 

without variaftbn beforo a; voui of either gender, in the dngolan 

Notre argent, m» Owr sihor. 

y otre canne, £ Your cane, 

Leur terra, £ T%eir land, 

& The posaeasive pronouns le mien, nt hi mienneȣ mtne; la 
tien, m. la tiennei £ ikine ; le sien, m. la aienne, £ li%$ or hers^ eaa 
never be prefixed to boujbm. The article preceding those pronoun^ 
and fomiog an indiH^^naable part of them, takes the gender of the 
object posseased ; mien, tien, aien, vary for the feminine—- n6tre and 
v6tre uaed aa prononna have the circumflex accent. 

J'ai votre livre et le mien. / have yowr hook and mine . 

Elle a sa robe et la mienne. She has her dress and mine, 

Vous avez voire plnme et la ndtre. Vim have yowr pen and ours, 


Votre ami a*t-n le mouton T 

D Fa, eUo Ta. 

II ne I'a pas. 

ITavez vous pas I'enciier d'argent 1 

Kous ne I'avons pas. 

Avez vous votre f\isil ou le mieni 

Je n'ai nl le vdtre ni le mien. 

fikm 6pouso a-t>elle sa robe oula 

EUo n'a ni la sienna ni la v^lM^ 

Has your friend ike sheep or muttanP 

He has Ut she has it, 


Have you not the siher mkstandf 

We have it not. 

Have you your gun or mine 7 

I have neither yours nor mine. 

Has his loife her dress'or younf 

She has neither hers ntf yMV f. 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

Yatxefi^reiielVtpflpMl f Ma9n0if(mr bntktrUt 


Aniette, f. plate ; Gny^on, m. /mki; ; Parent, vbL reUdim $ 

BiMmit, m. biscuU ; Cnisinier, m. cook ; Plat, no. dvk ; 

Boenf xn. der/* ; Fonrchette, f fork ; Poisson, m. Jlsh ; 

Boncber, m buUker ; Matelot, m. sai^; Porcelaine, f. china t 

Commode, f. ekest of Mouion, ■>» miMon^ Sofli, in. 5o/^a ; 

draversf sheep; Tout, a22; 

'Coatcaa, m. ibity^; Miroir,m. looking-glass s Yean, m. -peoZ, ax(^. 

1. Avez V0U8 la fourchetie d*argentt 2. Qui, Monsieur, je fai. 
a^ Lb OBiaiiiier a-Ul le boBuf ! 4. Non, Monsieor, il ne Ta pas. 6. 
Quel nn^rton avez youb 1 6. Jfai le boa monton et )e bon veau dn 
l>0Qcher. 7. Votre parent a-t-il la commode ? 8. Non, Moneieur* 
fl ne Ta pas. 9. A-til mon poiaaon t 10 Qui a toot le biecoit da 
boalangert 11. Le matelot n'a ni sen pain ni son biscuit IS. 
A-t-il eon couteau et aa fonrchette f 18. II n*a ni son couteau ni sa 
fourchette, il a son aesiette [R. 4]. 14^ Quel jiok sMll 16. H a 
le joli plat de porcelaine. . 161 Avez resa le mien oa Ic nen f 17. 
Je n'ai ni le Ydtre ni le den, j'ai le ndtre. 18. Avez vou? pear, 
Monsieur? 19. Non, Madamoi je n'ai pea peur, j'ai faim. 30. 
Qnelqa'on a^t-il ma montre d'or ! 21. Non» Monaiettr, personne ne 
I'a. 93. Qu'avez vone, Monaieur ! 38. Je n'ai rlen. 34. Avezvona 
lesofa d'acajou de mon menuieier? 35. Non, Mooaieor, je neTai 
paa. 36. J'ai son joli miroir et son bon crayon. 


1. Have yon the silver pencil case t 2. No, Sir, I have it not 8. 
Have yoa my brother's pUte? 4. Yea, Madam, I have it 6. Hoe 
the batcher the good biscuit f 6. He has it not, he has the ^od 
beef the good mutton,- and the good veal. 7. Have you my knife 
and my fork ?* 8. I have neither your knife nor your fork. 9. 
Who has the good sailor's biscuit 1 10. The baker has it, and I have 
mine. 11. Have you mine also? 13. I have neither yours nor hia» 
13. Are you hungry ? 14. I am not hungry, I am thirsty and sleepy. 
16. Are you not ashamed? 16. No, Sir, I am not ashamed, but I 
am cold. 17. Is your relation right or wrong? 18. My relation is 
right. Sir. 19. Has he my china diali or my silver knife ? 30. He 
has neither your china dish nor your silver knife, he has your china 
ylate. 31. Has any one my silver pencil-case? 33. No one has it, 

* The possessive adiective most In French be .repeated before ereiy 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

44 I.S8SOII t, 

bat j<mT brother hat jronr cloth coat. 23. Hare yoa mine or Hial 
SU. I have yours. 36. Haa the baker the mahogany c Beat of draw* 
era? 26. He haa it not, he haa the mahogany sofa. 27. Hsa the 
tinman my plate 1 28. He haa not your plate, he has mine. 2^ 
Whieh sofa have you! 30. I ha?e my brother's aofa. 31. i ham 
ueithar hia nor youra, I have mine. 


1. The demonstrative a^jeetivBa ce, m. eette, f. ikis or thai are al* 
ways placed before nouna; they agree in gender with theae nouna. 

H 30,(1.)] 

Avei Tous ce paraphiie'? m. Have fou this or tkat umhrdla? 

Vous n'avez pas eette bouteille, f. You have uol ikis or that boUU, 

2. Before a word masculine aingnlar, commencing with a vow^l, or 

an h mute, cei takes the place of ee, [\ 20, (1.)] 

K'av«4 Tous pas cet argent 1 Have ytnt nU this or that moneif 7 

V JOB avez eu oet honneur. You kuve had tkU or thai honor, 

3. When it is deemed necessary to express in French, the differ- 
•nee existing in English between the words <Au and ihai^ tlie adverbs 
ci and U may be placed ailer the nouna. [{ 20, (2.)] 

Je n'ai pas ce parasoUci J*ai ce pa- / Aave uat ikis parasol, I have ihaL 
rasol-1^ parasol, 

4. The demonstrative pronouns, celui, m. celle, f. thi» or ihat^ art 
used to represent nouns, but are never joined with them like acyoo* 
tives. [J 3<>, { 37, (1.)] 

J'ai mon parapluie ct cdul de votie / Aatv my umbrtUa and ifowr broiktr*s, 

tVdre, i. e., ihai of paw brolher, 

Vons avez ma robe et celle de ma You have my dress and my sister's^ i. e.^ 

soeur, that of my sister, 

6. The pronouns celui, celle, with the addition of the words ct and 
Id, are used in the sense of this one, that one^ the latter^ the former, 
[} 37, (4.)] They agree in gender with the word which they repre- 

Vous aves celnl-d mala vous n'avez You have this one {the latler), bid you 
pas celui-l&. have not thai one {the former), 

6. The pronouns ceci and cela. are used absolutely, that is, without 
a noun, in pointing out objects. 

Nous n'avoDS pas oed, nous avcais We have not tMs, we .V»c thai 


by Google 

tsMair X 

HAsumA or SxAiiPuu. 

Afw TMH le line de eet hamoMl 
7e D'ai dm son livrep J'ai to mien. 
h& caisinicr a-t-il oe pantpluiel 
II n*a pas ce parapluie-ci, U » oe 

parmpiuie-la. (R. 8.) 
Ares Yoiu oelai de voire fr6re1 

Je ii*ei pas oehii de mon fliie, J'ti 
oeini de ma soBiir, (R. 4.) 

Avee Toiti oelnl-ci on oe1ni-U 1 
Je n*ai ni oelni-ci ni celui-Ii. 
Qoelle robe ayes vousl t 
J*Ai oelle^L 
Avex Tons oed on oelaf (B. 6,) 

Aivtf )ii0« £U< month's i0§^? 
lAave not kUbook, Ihtnemme, 
Has the cook thai umbrdla? 
He Aaswt Ois wmbrdla, Ik.kmt tf«l 

Have you yawr broUiMr'i? (AtU of yam 

I hope not my hroiker*s, I have my 
listor'si L^,iktaofmybroaer,aa 
of my sister. 

Have you tkis one or thalone? 

I haoeneUker the laUer nor (h€ former, 

Which dress have you? 

I have this (jme,) 

Have you this or that? 

EzBRCISK 1*1, 

hetttt, t letter t 
Halle, f. truMtks 
Parasol, m. parasot ; 
Ponlet, m. chicken / 
Plomb, m. leadf 
Vlus, no longer I 

Bnerier, u. inkstMndt 
Etraa^, bl drmig^t 

Paimplnle, m. umkrdtat 
\o]»&i»,t poultry. 

ArdolM, f. tUOe; 
Balai, m.hroomf 
Bols, m. wood; 
BoQteUle. f. bottle i 
Dame, t ladyi 

Fnmiage, m. cheeses .^.. , 

Jaidinier, m. gmrdenerf Salidre, t salt stands 

1. Voire Mre a-t-il son encrier d^argentt 3. II ne Pa pins il a no 
enerier de pIomK 8. Avons nous la lettre de retnnger f 4. Oni» 
Monsieiir, nons avons eelle de Tetranger [R. 4.]. 6. Votre Meur n'ft 
pas son aidoiserinais elle a son cbapeau de satin. 6. Le mennisier 
a4-il Totre bois on le sien ? 7. II n'a ni le mien ni le sien, il a eelvi 
dn jaidinier. 8. Avez vooa mon bon pafaplnie de soiet 9. J*ai 
Totre porapluie de sole et votre parasol de satin. 10. Aves voasnui 
boateille! U. Je n'ai pas votre bonteiUo) j'ai la malle de votre 
soenr. 13. Le domestique a^-t-il cette sali^ref 13. II n'a pas eette 
aalidre^i, U a celle*!^ 14. Avez vous le bon on le manvais poidet ! 
18l Jen'ainieelai-cinieelQi-liu 18. Qaelpouletavezvoast 17. J*ai 
ealtti da cuisinier. 18. Le bonlanger a-t-il de la volaille! [L. 8 
E. 1.] 19l Le bonlanger n'a pas de volaille, il ado lait [L. 7. R. 6.] 
30. Avez vevs votre fromage on le mien 1 31. Je n'ai nl le vMre nl 
le mien, j'ai celni da matelot 33. Qnelqa'un a-t41 faimt 38. Peiw ' 
Sonne n'a fiura. 34. Avez vonsqaelqne chose? 36. Non, Momfeori 
Je n'ai rien. 

ExBHcnie 18. 

1. Haa your brother thai lady's umbrella? 3. MjteothArhasthal 
hdfs omkaUik 8. Hmm yon this psiaaol et that om! 4 I hatvt 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

4A »0#»jr,si. 

neither this (one) nor that (one). 6. Have yoa the stranger's goti 
watch? fi. No, Sir, I have the baker's. 7. Who has mj slate 1 
8. I have your slate and your brother'a. 9. Has the cook a silTor 
aalt stand ! 10. The cook has a silver salt stand, and a silver diuh. 
11. Has the cook this poultry or that? 12. He baa neither this nor 
that 13. Has he this bread or that? 14. He has neither this ncr 
that, he has the baker^s good bread. 15. Have you my cotton para- 
sol? 16. I have not your cotton parasol, I have your ailk pansoL 
17. Has the gardener a leather trunk ? 18. The gardener has a leather 
trunk. 19. Who has my good cheese? 20. Nobody has your 
eheese, but some one haa your brother's. 21. Have you mine or 
his? 22. I have neither yours nor his, I have the stranger's. 28. Has 
the cook this bottle or that broom? 24. He has this bottle. 26. Have 
you a lead inkstand? 26. No, Sir, I have a china inkstand. 27. Haa 
the stranger poultry? 28. The stranger has no poultry, but he haa 
money. 29. Your brother is hungiy and thirsty, sfraid and aleepy. 
80. la any one ashamed ? . 81. No, Sir, nobody is ashamed. 82. If 
your brother right or wrong? 83. My brother is right, and yonrs la 
wroi^. 84. Your aister has neither her aaiin hat nor her velvet hat* 



1. The plnrsl In French is generally formed, aa In English, by the 

addition of « to the singubir. 

Un homme, nne femme, A num. a v»man ; 

Deux hommes, deux femmes, 7\po flie», two wnnm. 

The form Ze of the artksle beeomea plnnl by the addition of §, 

and may be placed before plural nouns of either gender. 

Les hommes, les femmes, 7^ men, ike tOMwu. 

2. 1st ExcEPnoir to Ruli 1. Nouns ending in i, «, » remaii 

WMslianged for the plural. 

Le bas, les bas, 71^ Ooeiinf, ike ttoekk^ f 

La voix, les voix, TV vmos, /A« twttfti ; 

Lc nea, les nes, 7^ note, the nous. 

8. 2d ExcBPTioR. Nouns ending with ou, and sm, take « for tbf 

Le bilsni, les bateanx, T%thMa,1keko^f 

Lo1Is«,)wU««Pe, (|Viriaff,iWjrifm 


by Google 



A, ad JBaoEFXiav. The foUowioff BpmB» mdsBg n Mi»lafct «ibr 

ttie plunlt bijoii,/inoe2; caiiloUijRe&Us; ehmi, cabbage; genoii,lmM» 

biboo, O10I ; joujoa, pi^ yr t iiy . 

Lbb bUou, let caillpuz, ies cboiijk, Tie jewOs, Me jieMfey, <A<? oiAi^tt / 
Lea hibonx, ks genoux, Ies joujoox, 71U 9ta2s, Me kneesj ike playtHngi, 

6. 4th EzcsFTiON. The following nouna ending in ail change thai 

tonniiifttioii into aux for the plorel ; bail, Imu; corail, corai ; ^mail 

miamel; aonpinuly otr-ftofe; soos-bidl, vacfer-tase; travail, 2a&or. 

Lm bans, lee cocaoz, lee emanx, The leaau, the corals^ the enameUj 
LcaaoapiranXylestrayaiiXilesBone- The air-koUs^ the laborij tAe under* 
banx, leases. 

6. 5th ExcsFTioir. Nonne ending in dl form their plural in aux. 

he cbeval, lee chevanx, The horse^ the horses ; 

Le general, lea gen^ranz, The generaly the generals, 

Bal, haUs eamayal, eamhfols chaeal, ^adtalf rtgal, kieai, fbUow the 

7. Cth EzcBmcnr. del, heaven; euL, etfe; and aieiily oiMHtor* 
foim their phural irregolarly. 

Lee deux, lea yenz, lea aienx. T%e heavens^ the eyes, Me amcetior^. 
For fdrUier mlea eee { 8, J 9, and } 10 of the Seeond Part. 


Lee Aqglaia on( lie lea chefanz 

Lee generaux n'ont paa lea bijonx. 
Lea enfanta ont Ha lea caflloux t 
Lee yeux de Tenftnt. 
Lee taUeaux de cette ^liae. 
Ayes yooa lea oiaeaox de ce boia 1 
Aves Toua lea encriera d'argent de 

J'ai lee bijovx d'aigent et d'or de 

Lea roia n'ont Qa paa lea palaia de 



7%e generals have not thejewds. 
Have the children the pebAes 7 
The iAUePs eyes. 
The piduees of thai church. 
Have you the birds of that wood 7 
Have you my sister's silver inkstands? 

I have the gold and si l ver jew d s of ihk 

Have not the kings the mar9k pah* 


EzzROisv 19. 

Barfl. mk. barrel j CMniral, m. general f Heanier, aa. mitterg 

Baa. m. slocking s GUet, m. waistcoat; Moroeau, m. piece i 

Chocolat, m.<&colaie! Qnxid,tLdi. large, great fOlaesai,m, bird f 
«»— m^jetvelf Jardfai, m. gardens Petit, a^J. smaUg 

Joi^oa, m. jdaythingf Paire, t pair; 

L^me, m. vegeladle ; Poivre, m. pepper $ 

Marchand, m. merchant / Qa', qae, what; 

UmMba^VLhiaeksmiihi Rien, nathit^. 

Matrnda^ e, bad; 

,m. cabbages 

Sana, In; 
Xnftnt, m. ehUds 
far, HL irons 
Wiley m. em; 

L ATVS^valeamarteaiizdiicharpentier! 8.Noii8aTonalMiiBar 


by Google 

40 ftsftsoir XV 

tMitdc in nartehal f 8. Les marteluraz out 111 dma huoMkox 4/t 
boitt 4. lit ont deux martMuz de fer. 5. Les g^n^nmz ontik 
los chapeaiu de soie de Tenfant ? 6. lis ont les bgoux et les jo^wa 
de Teafsnt 7. Les enfants ont ils les oiseanz de votre bois 1 8. Ila 
n'onl pas les oiseanz de mon bois, mais ils ont les chevanz de moo 
g^n^ral. 9. Le mar6chal a^t-il nne paire de bas de hdnet IC. Le 
marechal a deuz paires debas de laine. 11. Monsieur, n'ave:^ tous 
pas froid? 12. Non, Monsieur, j'ai chaud. 13. Avez vous d« eaft 
ou du chocolat? 14. Je n'ai ni cafi^ ni chocolat 16. N'avez vous 
pas les chonz de mon grand jardinf 16. Pai les legumes de votre 
petit jardin. 17. Voire fils, quVt-iU 18. Mon file u'a rien. 
19. Avez vous deuz morceauz de pain? 20. Le mennier a un mor- 
ceau de pain et deuz barils de farine. 21. L*^picier a^t-il du cafe, du 
tb6, da chocolat, et du poivret 22. II a du th§ et du cafi^, et le cho- 
colat et le poivre de votn* -^archand. 23. Qui a de Targent? S4. Je 
a'al pas d*argent, nuns f ai du papier. 96. Avez vooa de bon papier f 

28. Pai de manvais papier. 


1. Have yon my brother's horses! 2. I hare nd your brother'a 
horses, I have your cousin's hats. 3. Have the blacksmiths good 
Iron ? 4. The blacksmith has two pieces of iron. 6. Have you two 
pairs of stockings 1 6. I have one pair of stockings and two pairs 
of gloves. 7. Has your sister the gold jewels ? 8. My sister has 
the gold jewels and the paper playthings. 9. Have you the cabbages 
in your garden f 10. We have two cabbages in our garden. 1 1. Haw 
you tihe silk hatat 12. The generals have the silk liats. 13. Have 
you coffee or sugar? 14. We have neither coflee nor sugar. 
16. Is your brother ashamed? 16. My brotlier is neither 
ashamed nor afbiid. 17. Who haa two barrels of flour ? 18. The 
miller has two barrels of flour. 19. Have the birds bread ? 20. The 
birds have no bread. 21 . Has the merchant tea, chocolate, sugar and 
pepper ? 22. He has sugar and pepper, but he haa neither tea nor 
chocolate. 23. Whit haa your sister? 24. She has nothing. 2flL 
What is the matter with your brother? 26. Nothing is the matter 
with him. 27. Is he not eold? 28. He is not cold, he is warm. 

29. Is he wrong? SO. He is not wrong, he is right. 81 . Have yon 
two cloth coata? 82. I have only one cloth coat, but I have two 
satin waistcoats. 33. Who has my brother's letter? 84 Your ite- 
tor has it 86. Year aister baa it not 


by Google 

Lis'^ir xtt 


U The plural form of the pronouns le, km or ii ; Ik, her di ft^h 

Im, ihiemt for both genders. Its place is also before the rerb. 

Tons lea avez. Les avez vonal 1^ haw them, Haive you Mk f 
Hoas ne les aTons pas. We have them net, 

2. The plural of the article, preceded hj the preposition de» of; or 
from^ is des for both genders. 

Des livres, des plumes, Of or from the hoolu, ofthevens / 

Des frftres, des Boenrs, O/otfremthehrotherSfPf the sisters, 

8. The same form of the arlide is plaeed before plural nonni xtM 

in a partitiTe sense. [L 6, R. 1.] 

J'ai des habits. / haoe detkes, 

Yoos aves des malsons. Ytm have houses, 

4. Rnle 6, Lesson 7, and Ride 4, Lesson 8, apply Also t» plval 
nonns used psrtitiTely. 

Noos tt'sTODS pas de Uyres. V^e have no hooks, 

Yoos avea de boos crayons. You kaoe good fencUs, 

5. The plnnd fbim of the possessiTe apcyeethresi men, ton; i»bi$ 

Botrei votro, lenr, is mes, my; tes, thy; ses, hiSt her; nos, wr; roa^ 

H&ur; leurs, Oefr, for both genders. 

Mies fibres, mes sceurs, My brotherly my sitters $ 

Hos ttrres, nos plnmes, Our hooks^ our pens. 

^ The possessiTe pronouns, le mien, la mienne, etc. [L. d^ R. 6^1 
fohn their plural as follows : 

JMu. Fern, Mas. JPVm. 

Les miens, Lesmlennes, smm; Lestteos, Lestiennes, thine'i 

Iissriens, Lesdennes, hiswhersi Lesnfttres, Lesndtros, oursi* 

IiasTdtres, LesTdtres, yours i Leslems, Lesleurs, tketrs. 

Vos maisoDs et les mlennes, Your houses and msnei 

Yob champs et les siens, Your fidds and hue 

Lesneii%iesT6tresetlesnAtrss: His, yours and ours, 

7. The demonstrative adjeetiTes, es, cet, ceUe, have ee$ tot thd' 

06S hommes, oes femmes. These men, these women, 

8. The demonstrative pronoun, eelni, m. this, or ihat^ makea ceux in 

the pluraL The feminine form, celle, merely takea the f in the 


MM^a&deKers(m.)etoeuxdeTos atjt amdietliekt and thm rf pout 

frifes. brothers. 

Yes ^titadMkkit) el esBei denes Tour candles emdtksst^ mat urigf^ 



by Google 

50 LMBBOH Xir 

IUsumA of Examplius. 

Votre frtro o-t il mes chevaus 1 
n n'a ni les votres ni les siens. 
A-t-il ceux de nos voisins t 
II ne les apasl 

Has your brothct my horseiJ 
He has neither Vinton nor Au. 
Has he those of out ndghlon f 
He has them not. 

Ma soar a-t-elle tos plumes on ' Hat my sister your peris ur my cmm- 
^lles de ma coosine 1 I in' s,'t.? (or those of my i^usin). 

Ene n'a ni les miennes ni celles de 

ma cousiiie, elle a les siennes. 
Avons nous des marteanx 1 
Vous n'avez pas de marteaux. 
Vous avez de Jolis crayons. 
Avez vons les habits des enfants 1 
Jo n'ai pas les habits des enfants. 
Vous avez les cbapeanx des dames. 
Avez Tons ceux-d on ceux ]k 1 

She has neither mine nor my cousiWt 

she has her own. 
Have we hammers? 
You have no hammers. 
You have pretty pencils. 
Have you the chUtlren^s dothes ? 
J have not the children's clothes. 
You have the ladies' hats. 
Have you these or tk/ote 7 

ExsROisi 21. 

Aoajon, m. maho^nyt Chandelle, f. candle: Fusil, m. gun; 
Anbergiste, m. mnjteep- Cousine, f. cousin f Laine, f. wool; 

er\ Qriik, m. horse-hair ; Marbre, m. fltar6^ ; 

Blanc, he, vokUe ; Eb^nisto, m. caJnneU Matclas, m. mattress / 

Chaise, f. chair ; maker ; MelUeure, a^- f- ^^^ ; 

Chandelier, m. candle- ^erhlunc, m. tin f Ouvnert vou workman ; 

stick i Ferblantier, m. Hnman ; Voyageur, m. traveller. 

1. Avez vous lea marteaux deu mar^cbaux 1 2. Oni, Monsienr, je 
lea ai. 8. Ne lea avez vous pas! 4. Non, MoDsieur, nous ne lea 
avons pas. 6. L'ouvrier les a. 6. L'aubergiste a^-t-il vos chevanx ! 
7. L'aubergiste n'a ni mes chevaux ni les v6tres, 11 a les siens. 8. 
Le medecin a^t-il des livres ? 9. Oui, Monsieur, il a de bons livres. 
10. N'avez vous pas mes meilleures plumes 1 11. Oui, Monsieui^ 
j'ai Yos meilleures plumes, les miennes et celles de votre cousine 
12. Le voyageur art-il de bons fusils 1 13. II n'a pas de bons fusils, 
11 a des fusils de fer. 14. Le matelot n'a^t-il pas mes matelas de 
crin? 15. line les a pas. 16. Qu'a^t-il? 17. II a les matelas de 
laine de I'^b^niste. 18. L'6b6niate a^t-il des tables d'acajou? 19. 
Qui, Madame, il a des tables d'acajou et des tables de morbre blano 
20. Avez vous mes chaises ou les vdtres? 21. Je n'ai ni les v6trea 
cii les miennes, j'ai celles de Teb^niste. 22. N'avez vous pap som- 
lueil 1 23. Non, Monsieur, je n'ai ni sommeil ni foim. 24. le feN 
Llantier a-t-il vos chandeliers de fer ? 25. Non, Monsieur, il a ceux 

EzKECisa 22. 

1. Have yon my tables or yours! 2. I havA neither y^vis nor 
mine, I have the innkeeper's. 3. Have you them ! 4. No, Sir, I have 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

LS90OV lerri. 61 

ftiMm aol & Bam your Bister my bonesf 0. Yes, flir, ehft hae 
your two horses and your brother's. 7. Are you right or wrong 1 
8. I am right, I am not wrong. 9. Has the tinman my silver oan- 
dlesticks or yours? 10. He has neither your silver candlesticks nor 
mine. 11. What has he? 13. He has the cabinet-maker's wooden 
tables. 13. Has he your mahogany chairs? 14. No, Sir, he haa my 
white marble tables. 15. Have you these tables or those ? 16. I have 
neither these nor those, I have the Cabinet-maker's. 17. Have you 
good pencilrcases ? 18. No, Sir, but I have good pencils. 19. Has 
the traveller iron guns ? 20. Yes, Sir, he has mine, yours, and his. 
SI. Has he not your brother's? 23. He has not my brother's. 33. 
Has the workman my iron hammers ? 24. Yes, Sir, he has them. 
35. Has my brother your pens or my cousin's ? 26. He has mine 
and yours. 27. Have you the children's clothes? 38. Yes, Madam, 
I have them. 29. Have you your sister's hat? 30. I have my 
cousin's, f. 31. Is any thing the matter with your brother ? 33. 
He is cold and hungry. 33. Have you horses ? 34. Yes, Sir, I have 
two horses. 35. I have two horse-hair mattresses and one wool 


AeRXBiiBxrr or adjbotitss — nxaavm of ▲djiotivsa. 

1. The adjective m French, whatever may be its place,* agrees io 
gender and number with the noun which it qualifies [J 15, (1.) (3.)]. 

& Adjectives ending with e mute, i. e. not accented, retain th^ 

termination for the feminine. 

Un gallon aimable. An amiable b<y ; 

Une fiUe aimable. An anUaik girk 

Z, Adjectives not ending in e mute, take e for the feminine. 

Un gar^on diligent, A dUigeni boy ; 

Une fiUe diligente, A diligent girL 

4. ExcEPnoKs. Adjectives ending in e2, ei2, en, ef, on, as, and #• 

double the last consonant and take e for the feminine. 





. fkm. 









• For the place of a4iectlveB see I.. 15, sndBule 6^ Ii. a 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


WQW mttn 

(k A4telivM.«iiAii9iit/diaqgv1te/faitaw7 
ohang* that letter into » fiir the fendniiia 

Ulrhsbit neiif; Une nrtM nettve; 

AnewctitUf Anevdresss 

Un bomme heurenx, Une fsmme henreua^ 

A happy man ; A happy woman; 

0. The adjectivee bean, tokisome; foMy foolish; mou, sq^; nonveam 
new ; vieux, oH become bel, fol, mol, nouvel, and vieil, before a none 
masculine commencing with a vowel or an /^ mute; the last conso 
nant of the latter form is doubled, and e added for the feminine, Ex, 
belle, folle, nouvelle, vieille. 

7. Additional rules and exceptions will be found, } 16 of the 
Second Part of this grammar. 


£111X9 TO ^> 


Is he? 

Are you 7 
Are they? 

RiaxmA of Examples. 

Nous sommes, 
Us sent, m. 





He is; 


She is; 


We are; 

Sommes nous 1 
Etes Tous 1 

You are; 


Sent lis 1 



Ares Tous ua gar^on diligent et une 

Hon gar^on est diligent, male ma 

fille est paresseuse [R. 5.] 
Cette coutume est elle aodenne 1 
Gette coutume n'eet pas aadenne, 

elle est nouvelle [B. 6.] 
Votre plume /. est elle bonne ou 

Ma sosur est trte vive, [R. 6.] 
Yotre maison est tiUe meiUeive que 

la mienne 1 
La maison de ma sceur n'est pas si 

bonne que la vMra. 

Hofoe yon a dSUgeiU bey and ndtk 

My boy is dUagent, bui my da mg k im 

is idle. 
Is this custom andent 7 
This custom is not anemU, itisnem. 

Is your pen good or bad? 

My sister is veryHvdy. 

Is your house bdUr than msne? 

My sister's honm is not S0 good M 

Beau, bel, belle, hand^ 

Bon, m.gooi; 
Content,-e, phased; 
Chmvate, f. eraiMa; 
Bame, £ lady ; 
Xocrier, m. ink sta n eL 
Bxoellaiti-eb tKotOmti, 

Ezx&oisx' 23; 

FUle, f. daughter; 
Habit, m. coat ; 
Heureux,-8e, happy; 
Id, here; 

Meilleur, e. better; 
Neuf,-ve, new ; 
Panq[ihiie« n 

Parasol, m. parasol ; 
Paresseux,-se, idle ; 
Porcelaine, f. dUnmg 
Que, than; 
Vieux, vieille, old; 
; Vif, Vive, quicks Uitly. 


by Google 

1. Csita duM Mt elle eontentof 3. Non, Monuevr, ottto dftiM 
ft'estpos eantente. 3. Votre fiUe est elle'vivef 4. Hon fils esiMs 
vif ei ma fille eat paresBease. 6. N'a^t-elle pas tort? 6. Elle n'a 
pasraisoxL 7. Votre couBine eat elle heareuae? 8. Oai, Madame, ell* 
est bonne, beUeethenreaae. 9. A-t«Uedeaai&ia? 10. Oni, Monaienr, 
eUeadespawntaetdeaamia. 11. A<*t-elle vnetrolie neuveetdevieiiz 
aooliera 1 12. Elle a de vieux sottliers et une vieiUembe. IB. Votra 
fr^re n'a441 pas mi bel habit [R. 6.] ? 14. H a «n bel habit et une 
bomie erarate. 15. Avez Tona de bonne viande, Momieur ? 10. Pal 
de la Tia^ide ezeellente. 17. Cette viande-ci eat elle meillenre q^e 
eelleJif 18. Celled estmeQleare que oelle-lA. 19. Votre ami a4-ille 
bel encrier de poreelame ? 20. Son enerier est bean^ mak 11 v'eat 
paadepoTcelaiiie. 81. Qiietqii*mi a t-il fidmf aa-PenomieiiViiam. 
83. Lea g^6niix sent ila ici t 34. Lea g6n6raiix et lea mar6cfaavz 
aont ieL 25. Pai voa pafaaola «t Toa |MKra]^iiiee, «t eeiK de Toa 


1. la your little aister pleased t 2. Yes, Madam, she is pleased. 
3. Is that little girl handsome? 4. That little girl is not handsome, 
bnt she is good. 5. Have yon good cloth and good silk ? 6. My 
eloth sod* silk are here. 7. Is your sister happy? 8. My aister ia 
good and happy. 9. Has that physician's sister friends? 10. No» 
Madam, she haa no friends. 11. Is your meat good? 12. My meat 
is good but my cheese ia better. 13. Has the bookseller a hand^ 
some china inkstand? 14. He has a fine silver inkatand and a pair 
of leather shoes. 15. Have you my silk parasols ? 16. I have your 
cotton umbrellas. 17. Is your brother's coat handsome? 18. My 
brother baa a handsome coat and an old silk eravat 19. Have you 
relations and fnends ? 20, I have no relations but I have friends. 
21. Is that handsome lady wrong ? 22. That handsome lady is not 
wrong. 23. Have yon handsome china? 24. Our china is hand- 
some and good. 25. It is better than yours. 26. Is not that little 
girl hungry? 27. That handsome little girl is neither hungry nor 
thirsty. 28. What is the matter with her ? 29. She has neither re- 
ktions nor friends. 80. Is this gold watch good? 31. This one ia 
good, but that one is better. 32. Have yon it ? 33. I have it, but I 
have not your sister's. 34. I have neither yours nor mihe, I have 
your mother's.. 

* The article, the possessive and the demonstrative a^JectlYO are i»> 
pealed before every noon. Mon frdre et ma sob v, mf knihtr amd tUUr. 


by Google 

64 hmwBOMXir. 



1. An adjective qualifying a plural noun, or two or more aingoUi 

nouns of the same gender, assumes the gender of the noun or nomi* 

and is put in the plural. 

Les arbres et lea fhiits sent beaux. T%e trees andfiuUs arejine, 
Les fleurs et les plantes sent belles. T^ /Ufwers and platUs arejine. 
Vos Jardins sont tr&s beaux. Yovr gardens are very fiM, 

2. An a4jective qualifying two or more nouns of different genden 

is put in the plural masculine (} 18.) 

Mod frftre et ma soBur sont contents. Mf brother and tuUr are pleased, 
lie canif et la plume sont bous. Tne penknife and pen are good. 

8. The plural of the feminine of a4jectivea is invariably formed by 
the addition of an s. 

Yoos a*, ez de Jolies mateons. You kaoe pretty houses. 

Oes demoiselles sont attentiTes. Those yowng ladies are aUenOve. 

4. The plural of the masculine of adjectiyes is generally formed by 
the addition of an s, 

Gea 6colier8 sont attentift. 7%fse scholars are aiteniive. 

Yos bois sont magnifiques. Yovr woods are magnificmi, 

6. The terminations s and x are not changed for the plural mascu- 

Nos flmits sont mauvais. Our fruits are bad, 

Vos oiseaux sont hideux. Yowr birds are hideous. 

6. To the termination eauy x is added for the plural masculine. 

Vos champs sont tris beaux. Yourfidds are very fine. 

7. The termination a2 is generally changed into aux for the plural 
Biaseuline [} 17 (3.)]. 

Les hommes sont 6gaux. Men are equal. 

8. For more explicit rules and for exceptions, see } 17, Second Part 

9. Prebbnt of the Indicative of btre, to de. 

Negalive^^. Negatively and InterrogaHvdy, 

Jenesuispas, lamnUf Ne suis-Je pas 1 AmlnU? 

Tu li'es pas, Thou art not ; N'es tu pas 1 Art thou not ) 

Iln*c8tpas, He is not; N'estilpasi Is he not? 

Slle u'cst pas, She is not: N'est elle pas ^ Is she not? 

Nous ne sommes pas, We are not ; Ne sommes nous pas ? Are we not? 

Vous n'^tes pas, You are not; N'dtes vous pas 1 Are you not? 

Us ne sont pas m. Thjey are not; Ne sont lis pas rm. Are they naif 

SUes ne sont pas f. T^ohcimI; Nesontellespas) £ Arethiyncif 


by Google 



A-Teis Toot des Aooliers attentifti 
Mcs Woollen et mes icoli&res lont 

trhB attentift et trte studienz. 
Ces demoiaeUet aont elles studi- 

EUes ne soot paa trta stadiexues. 
Oes r^Ies sont elles gi^nirales 1 
Ces prineipes soot gi6n6raiix. 
Lean habillements sont superbes. 
Avez Tous poor de ces chevauz 

Vo8 montres d'or tont ezcellentes. 
Les mienDes soDt ellea meillearei 

que lee rdtres 1 
lies vMres soot meilleares qae les 

Have you aUetUive Kkoiam ? 

My scholars {male and femM) mt 

very attentive and very stfudvf.a. 
Are dose young ladies studious 7 

They are not very studious. 

A re those rules general 7 

Those principles are general. 

Their clothes are su^rb. 

Are you afraid of those restive konu ? 

Your gold watches are excdkni. 
Are mine better than yours 7 

Yours are better than mine 

Souyent, often ; 
Travail, m. labor i 
Utile, useful f 
Velonn, m. velvets 
Vif, re, quickf hvdy. 


Aer6able, agreeable; ManTals, e, badg 
A1116, e, elder; Male, f. mule; 

AUemaode, f. Cfcrmoii; Oisif, Te, idle; 
Jamais, never ; Pantoufles t. sHppers \ 

iDduIgent, e, indulgent; Penoime, m. nobody; 
Laine, f. toooly women; R6tif, ve, restive; 
Maroqain, iil morocco; 

1. Les chevaoz de notre ami sont ils r^tifs? 2. Ses chevaox ne 
Bont pas r^tifs mais sea mules sont trds r^tives. 3. Les chevaox et 
les mules de votre fr^re sont excellents. 4. Vos soenrs sont ellea 
trds vives ? 6. Mes frdres et mes sceurs sont tr^s vifs. 6. Sont ils 
vonvent oisifs t 7. Non, Monsieur, mes soeurs ne sont jamais oisivea. 
9. Avez vous peur de votre fr^re ! 9. Non, Monsieur, je n*ai penr 
de personne. 10. Ne sommes nous pas indulgents? 11. Vous ^tes 
indulgents, et vous avez raison: 12. Ai-je vos livres? 13. Vooa ne 
les avez pas, vous avez ceux de mon frdre ain^« 14. Ne les avez 
vous pas ? 15. Je ne les ai pas. 16. Avez vous une bonne paire de 
baa de laine ? 17. J'ai une belle paire de bas de soie. 18. Avez vous 
!e3 bonnes maisons ou les mauvaises? 19. Je n*ai ni les bonnes ni 
les mauvaises, j^ai celles de ma cousine. 20. Le travail est il agr4- 
able! 21. Le travail est utile et agreable. 22. Avei vous mes 
beaux souliers de maroquin T 23. Je n'oi pas vos beaux souliers de 
moroquin, j*ai vos belles pantoufles de velours. 24. Avez vous les 
panLonfles de votre soeur, ou les miennes ? 25. Je n*£i ni les v6treb 
111 celles de votre soeur, j'ai celles de TAllemande. 

ExxRCisB 26. 
1. Are your brothers and sisters very (Hen) quick 1 (Note, p. 680 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

^0 LMMpOJf XT, 

9. My brothers are quick, but my litten are not qnieL 8.Hayeyo« 
not two restive horses ff 4. No, bnt I have a restive mnle. 6. Have 
yon not two good pairs of sOk gloves? 6. 1 have a good pair of 
eotton gloves, and two pairs of silk gloves. 7. Are yon not afiraid 
of your friends ? 8. No, Sir, I am never afraid of my Inends. 9. I 
am afhud of nobody. 10. Are you right or wrong? 11. lam right 
12. Have yon my beautiful leather slippers, or my old satin slip^ 
porsT 13. I have your old leather shoes and your velvet slippers. 
14. Are those ladies pleased T 15. Those ladies are pleased and they 
are rig^t 16. Has the German lady your father's shoes or mine 1 
17. She has neither his nor yours, she has my sister^s. 18. Has 
your elder brother good houaes or bad ? 19. His houses are better 
than yours and than mine.* 20. Are his houses old? 21. His 
houses are old, but they sie good. 22. Have you them ? 23. No, 
Sir, I have them not, I have no houses. 24. Have you my brother's 
or my sister's ? 25. Your sister has hers and my mother's. 26. Are 
your scholars attentive ? 27. My scholars are very attentive and v^ 
studious. 28. Are those Germsn ladies studious? 29. They are 
very studious and very attentive. 30. Are you often wrong? 31. 
Yes, Sir, I am often wrong. 32. Is labor agreeable ? 33. Yes, Sir, 
labor is agreeable and useful. 34. We have them and you hav» 
them not 



1. The adjective in French, follows the noun much more fire* 
quently than it precedes it [\ 85, (1.)] 

Tons avesE des amis fiddles. Tou have faithful friends. 

Ma Boeura des livres instructif^. My sister has instfudive books, 

2. Those adjectives which generally precede the nouns, have beei 

entioned [L. 8, R. 5.], and will be found [} 85, (11.)] 

Nous avoDS de belles maisons. We have beautiful houses, 

Yotre Jolie petite flile est studieuse. Your pretty Utile girl is studious, 

3. The adjectives which are placed after nouns are : — 1st, All paib 
ticiples, present and past, used a4jectively. 

* Que meaning v^ich and pte ooi\inDCtion are never undcntood in 
French, they must be repeated beibre every noun, pronoun and veitb 
Bee L. 19, B. 1. ^Hee JEtnle 6 of next L. 


by Google 


Nodi sv«m ime hlftoiraiatireannta. We have mmintereftkig Uttagy, 
Tool Kftm des enfknts polio. Ycu kave poUU ckitdttn, 

4. 3d« All such as eiipress form, color, taste ; sueh as relate to 
hearing and tooehing ; sach as denote the matter of vrhich an objeot is 
ecmposed ; as also such as refer to nationality, or to anj defects of 
tLebody. [}85,(4.)(6.)(6.)a.)l 

Kos parents oot dee chapeaoz noixa. Our teUUians kave bku.k hate. 

Vaaa a^ez des pommes aoaces. You kave sweet apples, 

VoUk de la cire moUe. There is iofi wax. 

Gette dame e^agnole a nneniluit Thai Spanish iady has aUmeehSd, 

6. 3dy Afanoet all a^jectiTes ending in a2, oMe, i&2e, ique and if, 

Oes hommesGb6ranx sont almfo. TlUm aberal iii«» are ttrnd, 

Yoila nn esprit ralsonnable. Thai is a reasonable mind. 

7oi]& nn esdave fugitif. T%aiis a fugitive dove, 

6. Some adjectives have a different meaning according to theit 
position before or after the noon. [} 86.] 

Un brave homme, a worthf maa, Un homme brave^ a brave fiura, 

7. En ia used for the English words some or any, expressed er 
understood, but not followed bj a noun; en has also the sense of 
of ilf ff them, thereof , generally understood in Englisli senteneesi 
particnlarly in answers to questions. [} 89, (17.) } 104, { 110| 

<a.) (3.)] 

Atcz tous des soullers de cuir 1 Have fou leather shoes? 

J'ea aL I have same^ I have {pfthtm), 

y otre fils en-a-t-il 1 Has yowr son awif 7 

8. An adjective used substantively, and having a partitive signifiea* 
tion (in a sentenee eontaining the pronoun en), must be preceded by 
the preposition de in the same manner as if the noun were ezpreaeed. 
[See R. 4. Lesson 8.] 

Avez Tons de bonnes plumes 1 Have you rood pens? 

Non, maia J'en al de mauvaiscs. No, but I lave had ones, 

Utawt OF Examples. 

Avez TODS de beaux Jardins 1 
Oul, j*en ai de beaux. [R. 7.] 
Votre fr^re n'a-t-U pas des souliers 

n n'en a pas, maia ma soeur en a. 
K'a-t-elle pas auasl une robe 

blanche 1 
Out, elle en a unc. 
Son, elle n'en a pas. 
Qui en a une 1 

Have foufijie gardens 7 

YeSj I have fine ones. 

Has not four brother Madt shorn? 

He has none, but txy sister heu some* 
Has she not also a while dress 7 

YeSj ske has one. 
No^ she has none, 
WhahoM nam? 


by Google 

i% 1X88 011 XT, 

Has not a£ butcher fitA 

Le biiQcher n trt-fl pas de ]a riande 

fraiche 1 
n en a, il n'en a pas. 
B en a beanconp. 
II n'en a gudre. 
II en a deux livres. 

He has sov^t^ he has none. 
He has wiick {of U\ 
He has but Uu/e {of U). 
He has two founds {of it). 

ExsROlSB 27. 

Amusant, e, amna^ ; B!Jon, m. jewel ; Laine, f. vhhA ; 

Am^ricain, e, American ; Bianc, he, vihiU ; Mademoiselle, f. I^Hss , 

Anglais, e, English; Brave, brave, worthy s Monsienr, m. Sir^ Mf^ 
Arabe, AriUnan ; Gbftle, m. shawl ; Gentleman ; 

Aubergiiste, m. innkeep- Coutean, m. knife ; Parent, dl relation t 

erj Fran^ais, e, FVenchs Soldat, m. soldier g 

Beaaconp, much, «UMiy;Gudre, UlUe, bid little i Terre, f. land. 
Beige, Belgian ; Qoitare, f. guitar ; 

1. Avez Y0U8 une bonne guitare? 3. Oui, Monsieur, j'ai una 
guitore excellente. 3. Avez vous de bona habits ? 4. Oui, Madame, 
j'ai de bona habits noirs et de belles robes blanches. 5. Voire mdre 
li*a-t-elle pas un ch&le de sole t 6. Oui, Mademoiselle, elle en a un 
de soie et un de laine. 7. Uaubergiste a-t-il de bons chevauz 
anglais? 8. L'aubergiste a des chevaux anglais, fran^ais et 
•rabea. 9. II en a de superbes. 10. L'ami de votro fr^re a-t-il dea 
bijoux d'or? 11. Oui, Monsieur, il en a. 12. A-t-il aussi des bijoux 
d'argent? 13. II en a aussL 14. En a-t-il beaucoupt 15. Non, 
Monsieur, il n'en agudre. 16. Voire ami a-t-il des parents? 17* 
Oui, Monsieur, il en a. 18. Ce Monsieur a-t-il une bonne plume 
d'acier ou une belle plume d'or? 19. II en a une d'ocier et nous en 
avons une d'or. 20. Le g^n^ral n'o-t-il pas de bons soldats? 21. 
n en a de tr^s braves. 22. Les Am^ricains n*ont ils pas de bonne 
terre? 28. Ils en ont d'ezcellente. 24. Le marchand a-t-il des cou« 
teanx anglais ou fran^ais? 25. Les eouteaux du marchand ue sent 
ni anglais ni fran^ais, ils sent beiges. 


1. Has your brother Arabian horses? 2. Yes, Sir, he has some. 
8. Has he handsome ones? 4. Yes, Sir, be has handsome ones. 
5. Are the good Americans wrong? 6. No, Miss, they are not 
wrong, they are right 7. Have you a French shawl ? 8. Yes, Sir, 
I have one, I have a handsome French shawl. 9. Has your innkeeper 
your silver knife or mine? 10. He has neither yours nor mine, ha 
bas liis sister's handsome steel knife. 11. Has the Belgian a good 
guitar? 12. He has an excellent French guitar. 13. He has an ex« 
eellent one. 14. Has the gentleman amusing books? 15. Yes, Sir 
he has two. 16. Has the general French or Arabian horses! 17 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 


Ho has neither Frenoh nor Arabian horsea, he has English horses. 
18. Who has Arabian horses? 19. The Arabian has tome. 20. 
Has the Englishman any ? 21. The Englishman has some. 22. Has 
joor friend's sister a good steel pen ? 23. My friend's sister has 
one, bat my relations ha^e none. 24. Are yon not wrong. Sir f 
25. Yes, Madam, I am wrong. 26. Are those knives English? 27. 
Ko, Sir, they are Belgian. 28. Have yon relations ? 29. I have 
two, and they are here (ici). 80. Has the Eaglish butcher meatf 
81. Yes, Sir, he has much. 82. Has ha much money 9 83. He has 
Imt little. 84. Has the Belgian general brave soldiers ? 85. Yes, 
Sir he has good ones. 



Hitherto the stndent has been occupied exolusivrely in acquiring 
fiusta, forms and principles, and in transiatinff^ by the aid of these, 
French into English and again English into French. Following still 
the plan of the work, let him now undertake the jiigher business of 
endeavoring to eompow in French. With this intent, let him take 
some of the words, given for this purpose, in the lists at page 267, 
and seek to incorporate them in sentences entirely his own. The 
words taken from the lists- are to be used merely as things suggeat- 
ive of thought The^brm which, in any given case, the sentence 
ffisy assame, should be determined by the models found in the Le^ 
sons preceding ; for, every sentence which the pupil has once mas- 
tered in the regular course of the Lessons, is or should be to him a 
models on which he may at pleasure build other constructions of hia 
own. Indeed, this constructing sentences according to models, that 
is, shaping one's thoughts according to the forms and idioms pecu- 
liar to a foreign tongue, is the true and only secret of tpeahing €md 
urUing that langaage well. The pupil, therefore, as he passes along 
in the ordinary course of tlie Lessons, should frequently be found 
applying hb knowledge in the way of actually composing independ- 
ent sentences. In this way, he will soon acquire a fiioility and ao« 
curacy in the language, which are hardly otherwise attainable at all* 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1. A^ectives and adrerbs are alwaya compared Ui Freiidh, |M 
lliey often are in English, by means of adverbs. 

Fhis bean, pins eonTeat» More beatOffiil, o/toMr. 

2. Thefint part of the comparison for the degree in quality ia 
made by : 

Auflfli, at, or as much; 

Plus, more; 

Pas aossi, pas si, no^ m>| na< as; 


Anssi grand, a* iaJL 

Pas aossi grand, no< ae iaJL 

These adTerbs come almost always be- 
'ftwe an a4i«<^v^ ^ partialis, or an ad- 

Fiua grand, foOer. 

Moins grand, Uee taU, not ae taXL 

8. For tiie degree in quantity we nse: 

Antant de, ae mu^ a» many; 
Plus de, more; 

Vea fntant dfi^noiae m^eh or of moinr/ 
1|[oiBS de^ keej fewer ; 

Autant de Uvre^ w many J>Qok8, 
Pins de oeuz-ci, more of ifieae. 

Ooming almost always bsftre a 
nonn, an acyeotive nsed *8td^ 
stantivdy, era possessiTe or de- 
monstrstiye pronoun* 

Autant de bons, ae many good pimsl 
Moins des miens, leee qfnine. 

4. The eecond part of the comparison is expressed by : 
Qoe^ Mf than : when it does not precede a word expressing a quantity 
compared with the word following the first adverb of the comparison. 

Autant de livres que votre fr^, 
Tout antant d'or que sa soeur, 
Plus diligent que sa soeur, 

As many hooks as your hroffier. 
Quite ae much gold as his sister. 
Afore diligeat than hie sister. 

Qoe de^ <w, thorn: before a word expressing a quanUty compared witli 
that expressed by the word following the adverb of the first part 

Plus de livres que de malsons^ More books than houses, 

Autant d'or que d'argent, As much gold as silver, 

J^ai tout antant de auore que de Jhaoequ^iptjuBtjasmuGhougaroB 

ca% coffee. 

RteUMft OT ExAMFLia. 

Avea-voas autant de livres angli^ 

que de livres italiens ? 
J'en ai tout autant 
J'ai autant de ceux-<n que de ceux- 


B est anssi henreux que vous. 
Avea Tona phis d'astfettea qua de 

Have you as many Bn^iOi hooks e 

Italian hooks t 
I have Just as many. 
Ihom as many of then as qf those. 

Be is as hojppy as you. 

HMfe votf m/oreplties fksm d^keef 


by Google 

L9980V ZVI. 


J'ld Bins de oenx-cl oae de ceoz-li. 
Bst-fl plus compUuaant qae ses 

Le FraiifttB a-t-fl moioi de Ugmnes 

qne de frnite 1 
J1 a moixis de liyxes que de manu- 

n n'a pas aotant de cenx-ci que 

de oeux-Ui 1 
Ed a-t-U moioB que rotre fVirel 

II ec a toQt antaat 

h he more obliging than his irotktn f 

Has tki Prmckmon fewer vegHmUa 

than fruits 7 
He has fewer books ihan manuscripts. 

He has net so ffUMif of tkem «s t/ 

Has he less (of them) than wow 



Fer, m. iron / ManiiBcrit, m. 

Framaee, m. cheese ; script ; 

Hollandais, m. I>u/cA-Maricbal,m.d^adtjiitaft/ 

ffum ; Modefiie, f. modesibif ; 

Italien, ne, RaUan ; Boie, f. sOk ; 


Conrage, m. eowage ; 

Dayantage,* more ; 

Drap, m. cloth; 

Snneinl, m. enemf^s 

!l^pagnol, e, Spaniard ; Jardin, mi garden ; Trte, very; 

Xatampe, f. eng^ofoing ; Hantean, m. c^ooA; Verre, m. glass, 

1. £te8 vous aassi content que votre fr^re ? 2. Je snia ausai con- 
tent que votre fr^re. 3. Votre p^re e-t-il autant de courage que de 
modestie? 4. II a moins de modeatie qne de courage. 6. Le 
libraire a-t-il autant de manuscrita que d'eatampea? 6. II a plus de 
cellea-ci que de ceux-U. 7. A-t-il autant d'amis que d'ennemis? 
8. n a plus de ceuz-ci que de ceux-lk. 9. A-t-il autant de pain que 
de fromage? 10. II a tout autant de celui-ci que de celui-U. 
11. Le marechal a^t-il plus de chevaux que votre frdre? 12. II en a 
plus que mon p^re et plus que mon fr^re. 13. N'avez vous pas 
froidt 14. Non, Monsieur, je n'ai pas froid, j'ai trds ehaud. 15. Avez 
vous deux manteaux de drap? 16. J'en ai un de drap et un de ve- 
lours bleu. 17. N^avez vona pas plus de verres que d'aaaiettcs? 
18. Nous en avona davantage.* 19. Le marechal a-t-il plus de fer 
que d'acier? 20. II n'a pas autant de celui-ei que de celui-ldu 
21. II a moins de celui-ci que de celui-l&. 22. Les Hollandaia ont ik 
de beaux jardins? 23. Leurajardins sent tr^s beaux. 24. I^ea 
jardins des Italiens sont ploa beaux que cenx dea Eapagnola. 


1. Are you more attentive than your sister! 2. 1 am not so atten- 
tive as your brother. 8. Have you more courage than my brother! 
4 I have quite a8 much. 5. Has the blacksmith as much money as 
von! 6. He hass more of the latter than of the former. [L. 10, R. 6.] 

* Davantage meanasMrs. It can never be placed Mbce a noon; it anqr 
be used histead of plus, at the end of a iwitwwfc 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

6d LK 88 OH XVII. 

7. Has he more moddsty than the Spaniard! 8. He has more. 9. Hie 
has more than your friend's sister. 10. Are you not cold, Sirl 
11. No, Sir, hut I am afraid and sleepy. 12. Has the Dutchman 
more cheese than the Italian? 13. He has more cheese and more 
money. 14. Have you as much English silk as Italian silk? 15. I 
have more of this than of that. 16. Who has more friends than the 
Spaniard? 17. Your friend has more. 18. Has the Spaniard as mach 
of your money as of his? 19. He has less of mine than of his. 20. 
Have we more silk cloaks than cloth cloaks? 21. We have more of 
these than of those. 22. Have you good cloaks? 23. Yes, Sir, I 
have good cloaks, good hats, and good leather shoes. 24. Have you 
more plates than dishes? 25. I have not more plates than dishes; 
hut I have more glasses than plates. 26. Are you* not very cold! 
27. No, Sir, I am neither cold nor warm. 28. Has your carpenter 
wood? 29. Yes, Sir, he has wood, money, cheese and meat 30. Who 
has more money than the carpenter? 31. The Dutchman has more» 
82. Who has more engravings than hooks? 33. The hookseller has 
more of these than of those. 34. Are you as attentive as your 
friend! 35. I am more attentive than mv friend. 

LESSON xvn. LEgoN xm 


1. The superlative absolute is formed by placing tr^s, fort, or bieii» 

very, before the adjective. [} 14, 11.] 

Ces chandeliars sent trds utiles. 7%tse candlesticks are very usefnL 
Notre tailleor est bien obligeant. Our tailor is very obliging. 

2. The superlative relative is formed by adding the article le, U^ 
lee, to a comparative. [{ 14, (9.)] 

Votre neveu est le plus savant de tons. Your nephew is the most learned ofoU, 

3. Encore is used in French in the sense of morct some more^ «Nf 
f?ior«, stilly — used affirmatively and interrogatively, hut not nega-- 

Avez Tons encore du caffi 1 Have yo^i any more coffee 7 

J'ai encore du caiS. / have more (or some more) cofie, 

J'en at encore. / hav^ some more^ or some left. 

4. Ne — plus is used in th£ tense of not any more, and no more^ m 

Je n'ai plus de Hvres. / have no more books. 

Je n'ai pint de choci^tat. / have no choctiaU 1^. 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



ft. No— gn^re means but little^ hUfno^ 

Je n'ai gndre d'amis. 
Je n*en ai gu&re. 

6. The pronounft moi, toi, lui, eux, are used instead of tie nomi 
native pronoans jts to, 11, lis, after the que of a comparison, and when 
the verb is understood. 

/ have but few friends. 
J hem kulfew—bul Utile. 

Vons ^tes plus beureuz que moi 
Vous aTos plus de m^rite que lui. 

You are happier than /. 
Y<m have mare merit than he. 

R£snM£ OF Examples. 

^ >tre marchand est bien obligeant 
T.>iU le meilleur de ces gar^oos. 
Nous avails esoofe des amis. 
Vous avez encore du cr6dit. 
Avez vons encore une piastre 1 
Le ma9on a-t-il encore des briquesi 
n n'en a plus. 
n n*a plus de briques. 
n n'en a guire. 
n n'en a plus eahre. 
Je n*ai gndre de livres. 
Avez vous plus de courage que lull 
II a inoins de courage que moi. 
Combien de p!at.tres avez vous en- 
core 1 

Your merchant is very cNigtng, 
That is the best of those boys. 
We have some more (or still) friends. 
You have stili (or yH^ credit. 
Have you a dollar lejt? 
Has the mason more bricks? 
He has no 7nore—he has none left. 
He has no more bricks. 
He has but few. 
He has but few left. 
I have but few books. 
Have you more courage than he? 
He has less courage tSan /. 
How matiy dollars have you stUL or 
have you left? 

EzxRCisX 81. 

Connect, e, correct; Neveu, m. nephews Soeur, f. sister t 

Qitdit, m. credit s ^ihcOj f. niece ; Qa]Bde, t salad i 

Beaucoup, muchf NouveUes, f. netosg Tante, f. auiUi 

Boyer, Bayer; Quel, vdiich^ which one; Tons, aU; 

Pictionnaire, m. dtction- Savant, e, learned; Villo, f. lawn, city, 

1. Votre dictionnaire est il tr^s correct ? 2. D est plus correct que 
celui de Boyer. 3. Votre dictionnaire est le plus correct de tons. 
4. Quel est le meilleur de ces.jardins? 5. Celui-ci est le meilleur de 
tons lea jardms de la ville. 6. Avez vous encore de Targent? 7. Je 
n*ai plus d*argent»mais j'ai encore du credit. 8. Avons nous encore de 
Ir saiade? 9. Nous n'en avons pins. 10. Nous n'avons plus de 
Tiande. 11. Qui en a encore? 12. Mes frdres et mes sceurs en out 
encore. 13. En avez vous encore beaucoup? 14. Je n'en ai pins 
gii^re. 15. Votre tante a-t-elle plus de robes que votre ni^ce? 16. 
£Ue n'en a pas beaucoup. 17. Votre neveu est il plus savant que 
TOtre niScel 18. U n'est pas aussi savant qn'elle. 19. Elle est plus 
•avante que luL 20. Avez vous encore froid ? 21. Je n'ai plus froid, 
j*ai bien chaud. 22. N'avez vous plus de nonvellest 28. Je u'an ai 
plna. 24 £s |.ves voua beaneonpt 26. Je n'eo ai garret. 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



1. Has your brothflr a yerj good dictionary t 2. His dietionary k 
not very eoirect 8. Haa your Ikther more courage than he t 4. lie 
has maeh mora eonrage than your nephew. 6. Have your brothera 
eradit ? & They have bnt little credit, bat they have money. 7. la 
our aunt obliging? 8. My aunt is very obliging. 9. Have you atill 
ooke, pens, and paper? 10. 1 have no more books, but I have still 
good pens and excellent English paper. 11. Who has still paper? 
12. I have no more, but my brother has some mor*;. 18. Have you 
any news, Sir? 14. No, Madam, I have none to-day. 16. Have yon 
as much wood as my brother's son ? 16. 1 have more than you or he. 
17. Are you still wrong? 18. No, Sir, I am no longer (plus) wrong, 
I am right 19. Are your sisters still hungry! 20. They are neither 
hungry nor thirsty, but they are still sleepy. 21. Is your nieee as 
learned as he? 22. She is more learned than he and (que) his aunt 
28. Have you no news, Sir? 24. No, Madam, I have no more newa 
25. Who haa news? 26L I have no more. 27. Have you them alii 
28. Yes, Sir, I have them alL 29. Has your aunt mueh of it left! 
80. She has but little more of it 31. Has your brother any more 
English horses ? 32. He has no more. 83. He has two more. 84i 
Have you a handsome French shawl left? 35. 1 have no more French 
shawls, but I have an English one. 


LESSON xvm. LEgoN xvm. 

1. The adverbs of quantity, combien, haw much^ hoto many; tro/i 
iM> mueh, too numy; beaucoup, muekj many; assez, encugh ; pen, liu 
tl^tfew; gudre, hut little, few; and the word pas, meaning tio, when 
coming before a noun or an a4iective, are followed by the propose, 
tion de, 

Combien de flenn avez vous 1 Bow manyfiawers have yoi? 

J'ai beaucoup de fleura. / have manyfiowers. 

VouB avez trop de loisir. You ham too miuk Uisute, 

Votre soeur a assez de temps. Yowr sister has time enough. 

2. The adverb bien, used in the sense of beaucoup (muck^ niimyy) m 
fidlowed by the prepoaition da, joined t« or blended with the artiok 
U»la,lea. [L. 6.] ' 

Tons avea blen de Is cemplaii tnce^ Tiw hofoe muek kln^hiao, 
Ble a btea doa amia. AM hm mrnm^frimis. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


t. Qnelqua thorn, tow rtfcw yyiwty Oliy [L % 6.\ and iiwi,'iio<l i iy , 
Ml «ny (Ui^y take ife before an a^jaetiTa. 

Votre ami a qnelqiia dioae d'agr^ Yimrfrimd has mwMnMg jUmmn^ 


ATesTouaqnelqiiechoeedabon} ffave you 4imf iking gwd? 

Je n'ai rien de bon. / kavi lutkimg (nai any tM^g)jgfm4' 

4. Quel, m., qaeUe,/) qnela, i». p., qQattea,/.p., are need inCaan* 

gatively for whiek or what before a noon. 

QaeUeaerrietteaveayoQal WkatcftwkUknofHnJUneyou? 

^oeUes boQEMa TOtre ami apt*fl1 WkaifmrMtkasyomrfiimd? 

6. Qne ia need for toto before a verb. 

Qu'aTesTOiul What U ike nuUUrwUkytm? 

6. Leqael, m^ laquelle, /, leaquela, m. p., leaqnellea, /. p., are 

need abaolntely for the word wKichy not followed by a noiii^ and 

equivalent to vikick one^ uihick one*. 

Lequel Totre fils a-t-il 1 Which {one) has yaw ftm 7 

Lesquelles ayons nous 1 Which {ones) have we 7 

7. Qnelqnea is nsed before a plnral noun for afew^ aonie; quelqnea 
nna, m., qnelqnea nnes,/, are nsed absolutely, with the same mean 
Va^ — Plusieura means Meveral^ and ia invariable. 

La Panois art-il qnelqnea pommea ? Has the Dane a few offkff 
U en a qnelqnes unes. He has a few, 

n en a plnsienrs. He has several 


Combien de poirea aves vooal 
Nons avons beauconp de poirea. 
Kens en avons beanconp. 
Nons avons assea de cerises. 
Noos n'en avona pas assea. 
Vons n'avex gain de paches. 
Votre Jardinier a bien des p^ches. 
N'avez vons pas de p6cbes 1 
J'ai beanconp de pAchea et d'abri- 

Le boucher a-t-fl qnelqne choae de 

D a qnelqne chose de ban et de 

n n'a rien de bon. 
QaeUes pinres /. avea vonsl 
lions avons oelles de votre amnr. 
Quel habit m. avea vons 1 
Nons avons celui dn taillenr. 
Qn'avez vons de bon 1 
Leqnel avea voua 1 
tiesqnels votre frare a-t-fl 1 

How many pears have you ? 
We have many pears. 
We have mawy [of them). 
We have cherries enough. 
We have not enough {of iktm). 
You hone hi few peaehes. 
Your gardener has many jwocJUa. 
Have you no peaches 7 
I haive mamy peaches and 4 

Has the butcher aifiy thing goad f 

He hat JOWUthinM good and AaA 

He has not aniu thing (nothsng)goai 
What cft whuh ^ears have your 
We have your sisUr's. 
Which or whal coat hai9eyou7 
We have the tailor's. 
What have you good? 
Which (one) have you? 
Which lones) has yomrhmHtrf, 


by Google 


liBtsov zrxxi. 


AMoot, m« c^cfft ; Fleur, tfiower; Pommes, t tifjph t 

AnaxtAj m. pineapple ; JAgvLmej m, vegetable ; Pomme-de-teire, f. f»> 

Beurre, m. buUeri Magasin, m. roarehouse; tato; 

Cerise, f. ckemj; Oncle, m. wnde; Pnme, f plum; 

tpicier, m. grocer; Poire, f. pear; Sucre, m. 5ii^f«r/ 

tranger, e, foreigi\ ; Poivre, m. pepper ; T W, m. Ua. 
Jardin, m. garden ; 

1. Combien de pommea-de-terre votre fr^re a-t-il ! 3. II n'en a 
pas beaucoup. 3. L'^picier a^t-il beaucoup de sucre dans son ma- 
gasin ? 4. U n'en a gu^re, mais il a beaucoup de beurre et de poivie. 
5. Votre jardinier a^t^il beaucoup de cerises ? 6. II a plus de cerises 
que de prunes. 7. Les prunes sent elles meilleures que les cerises t 
8. Les cerises sont meilleures que les prunes. 9. Avez yous quel- 
ques poires m(ires? 10. Nous en avons quelques unes, nous avous 
aussi beaucoup d*ananas et d'abricots. 11. Votre oncle a^t-il quel* 
que chose de bon dans son jardinl 12. II a quelque chose de bon 
et de beau. 13. II a de beaux legumes et de belles fleurs. 14. Avez 
70US des fleurs 6tiangdres ? 15. J'en ai quelques unes. 16. Les- 
quelles avez vous 1 17. J'ai celles de votre frdre et celles de votre 
jardinier. 18. N'avez vous pas aussi les miennes? 19. Non, Mon- 
sieur, je ne les ai pas. 20. Qui en a beaucoup? 21. Personne n'en 
a beaucoup. 22. Ten ai quelques unes. 23. Avez vous assez de 
th6 ? 24. J'en ai assez. 25. J'en ai plus que lui. 

Exercise 34. 

1. Has your gardener many vegetables? 2. Yes, Sir, be has many. 
8. How many gardens has he? 4. He has several ^rdens and seve- 
ral houses. 5. Have you many books? 6. I have but few, but my 
friend has many. 7. What coat has your brother? 8. He has a good 
eloth coat 9. Has your uncle many peaches? 10. He has but few 
peaches, but he has many cherries. 11. How many plums has the 
tailor? 12. The tailor has no plums, he has cloth and silk. 13. What 
silk has your friend the merchant? 14. He has a great deal (6eati< 
emip) of silk, and a great deal of money. 15. Has the gardener any 
thing good *n {dans) his garden? 16. He has many pineajplca. 
17. Has he more vegetables than fruit? 18. He has more of this than 
of those. 19. Has your uncle many pears and cherries ? 20. He has 
a few, and he has many apples and plums. 21. Have you a few? 
32. I have still many, but my brother has no more. 23. Which 
peaches has he? 24. He has large (grosses) peaches. 25. Whkh 
(one^) have you? 26. I hav) the best peaches. 27. Has the mo^ 


by Google 

Lxseov SIX 


4iaiit anythiii^ goo« In his warehonseT 38. He has nothing good in 
bis warehouse, hut he has something good in his garden. 39. How 
many potatoes has the foreigner? 30. He has not many. 31. Has he 
good vegetables? 33. He has good Tegetables. 83. Is he right or 
wrong? 34. He is right, bat you are wrong. 85. He has neither 
this book nor that» he has the bookseller's. 



1. The relative pronoun, que, whom, tokiehy that, and the eonjune* 
tion, que, that, are never omitted in French, aud must be repeated he- 
fore every verb depending on them. [} 109. j 

Lea crayons que j'ai sent meilleurs The pencils (wkieh) I have, are better 
que ceux que vous avez. than those {which) you have, 

3. Ne, before the verb^ and que after it, are used in the sense of 

Je n*ai qu*un ami. / have biU one friend, 

3. L'un et I'autre, means hoih ; les nns et les autres, these and 
thm, the latter and the farmer. [(41,(11.)] 

Yoos avez Tun et I'autre. You have both, 

4. Cardikal and ordinal numbers as par as twentt. [§ 22, 23.] 





Un, m. I ne, f. 


Premier, m. e,/. 



Second, m. e,/. 

































































by Google 


tB i.»M4>jr xxx. 

(L Tbe flwdiiud nmnben jve nsfld* in Frenoh} for Iha day of Um 
.month, except the ^rst, lor which the ordinal number premier ia 
•ubstitnted : — 

Le dix aoi^t» le dnq jnUI«b, The Untk o/Augud, tk^JlfiM afj^, 

Le premier dn moii prochein, TheJirU of next mtnUk, 

6. The verb avoir, to Imm^ ia aaed actively, [{ ae, (1.)] for the d^ 
of the month. The verb dtre may alao be used: — 

Qnel Jonr dn mois avons nona 1 Wh/U da/if of the month isUf 
Nous avons le vinft JtistJie tioeniieih. 

O'esta^jonrdlmilediz. TYhday is the tenth. 

7. Before the word onze, the article le or la ia not elided. [{ 146.] :— 
Nona avoDs le onae de d6cembre. We have {U is) the IIU of December, 


Xi'onvrier art-il lea ontils qne voiis Has the workwum the tools which jvm 

aveal have? 

Les maisons que J'ld sont elles anssi Are the houses fohich I have as good 

bonnes que ceHes que vona avea 1 

Combien de francs avez voos 1 
Jen-ai qne dix francs, mais men 

ftire en a plus de vingt. 
Avons nons le qnatoiae da mois 1 

Non, Monsienr, nons n'avons qne le 

Lequel de ces denz volumes avea 

Avez vous la premitoe place on la 

deuxidme 1 
J'ai la premiere, et mon frtee a la 

as those iohieh you have ? 
How many francs have you? 
I have only ten francs, fnU my brother 

has more thorn twenty Mthem), 
Js it the fourteenth day of the 

No, Sir, It is ontiy the 

WhiA of those two vehma have you? 


Have you the first or the second 

I have the first, amd my brother hat 
deuxidme. I the second. 


Ai4onrd*hui,'(<M2ay; F6vrler, m. F^Aruary; Ontll, m. toolt 
Canelle, f. ctiMkim^n ; Franc, m.A-anc ; Onvrage, m. i00rlr/ 

Centime, m. centime — Histoire, fAis^ory; Oeuvres, f. tcorlu; 

the idOth part of a Italien, m. Italian i Place, f. place; 

franc i Kilogramme, m. kilo' Q,'aBxt,m. quarters 

Oombien, how much, how gramme— about two Septembre, m. Bepitm^ 

many; pounds; oer; ^ 

Oravate, f erarati Menuisier, m. joiner; Volume, m. vokMm. 
Demi, half: Housseline, f. muslin ; 

1. Le cheval que vona avez est il bon? % U est n\einenr que ceim 
qne vona avea et qne eelnidenotre ami. 8. Combien d^enfiuits avei 
vona? 4. Je n*en ai qn'nn, maie lltalien en a pins que moL 6. Avona 
Dona le dix aeptembret Q. Non, Monsieur, none avona le nenf 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

fiifrier. 7. 4vm voiis ma eimTate de tote ou mft cnTate de rnomt^ 
liiief & Twl rone et raatra. 9. At«z toub huii kilognuuDM d« 
Munelle? 10 Non, MoiMffenr, je n*en ai qo'iui demi kilognattme. U. 
Combien de fimoea avez vona, Moriaieur ? 12. Je D'ai qu'im.demi frano, 
maia mon ami a nn firanc et demf 13. Votire soiir a^t-elle vingt cinq 
eentimesf 14. Oiri, Monsieur, elle a un quart de frane. 10. N'ayona 
Bona paa le premier aoftti 16. Non, Monaienr, nona avona le six sep 
tembre. 17. Est-ce anjourd*hai le diz ? 18. Non, Monsieur, o'est to 
onze. 19. Votre fi^re a-t-il la premiere place? 20. Non, Monsieur, 
Daladixidme. 21. Votre menuisier a-t-il beaucoup d'outilsl 22. 
Ooi, Monsieur, il en a beaucoup. 28. Get ouvrage a-t-il dix volumea f 
24. Non, Monsieur, il n*en a que neuf. 25. J*ai le sizidme volume 
dea oeuTrea de Moll^re et lo premier volome de llilatoire de Fnmea 
de Michelet 

EzzBOiax 80. 

1. la that cinnamon good! 2. That cinnamon ia better than youia 
and your brother^a. [R. 1.] 3. What day of the month is it to-day T 
4. It ia the sixth. 6. Haa your father twenty francs T 0. No, Sir, he 
baa only aiz Ihmca fifty centimes. 7. How many yolnmea haa your 
woric ? 8. It haa many, it haa fifteen. 9. Haa the joiner read Qu) the 
•eeond Yolume of MJchelet's history of France ? 10. Yea, Sir, he haa 
read the second volume (of it). 1 1 . Haa your fHendiMoli^re's workil 
12l He has only two volumes of them. 13. Have yon my cloth coat 
or my velvet eoatl 14 We have both. 16. We hav» this and that 
16L How much cinnamon have you? 17. We have two kilogrammes: 
18. How many centimea has the merchant? 19. He haa twenty-six. 
20. Have yon the third or the fourth place? 21. I have neither the 
third nor the fourth, I have the tentii. 22. Are you not aahamed to^ 
day t 28. No, Sir, I am not ariiamed, but I am afraidL 24. Hare yon 
aqoarterofafWmct 25. No, Sur, but I have half a fhme. 36: la 
it tibe aizth of July? S^T. Ko, Sir, it ia the fourth of Muwh. 
28. Haa yow node aix ohildren? 29. Noi Sir, be haa only one 
8a Have you ten kilogiammea of meat? 31. I have only five kilo 
granunesb 82. Is the butcher's meat good ? 33. It (eOe) ia not vei> 
good. 84. Hoif many kilogramuea have yon (of it)? 85 I hM* 
•oly tw«H bnt my hiother haa fouv. 


by Google 

To LBSfOV zx. 


1. For the time of Uie day, the verb dtre, is used anipersonallj n 

French, in the same manner as the verb to be is used in English foi 

tiie name objecL The word heure, sing, heures, plur. represents 

the English expressions, dcUxkf or time, and must always be ez 


Quelle heure est ill Whai o*dock {tims) iiii? 

II est une heure. II is one o^clock. 

n est dix heures. It is tm^ it is ten o'clock, 

d. Midi is used for twelve o^cJock in the day, and niinuit, for mid' 
raghty or twelve at night, Douza heures is never used except in the 
sense of twelve hours. 

EstUmidil Estilminuiti IsUnoon? bUmidnigkt? 

3. Et quart, et demie, [( 84, (2.)] answer to the English expre^ 
lions, a quarter^ half-past^ after, &>c 

n est neuf heures ei quart It is a mtarter after nine. 

n est midi et demi. It is half after twelve. 

n est une heure et demle. It is ha^ after one. 

4. Moins uu quart, moins vingt minutes, answer to the English 
expressions, a quarter beforej twenty minutes before, Slo. 

XL est diz heures moins nn quart It wanis a quarter of ten, 
II est neuf heures moins dix mi- It is ten minutes be/ore nine. 



6. The word demi, preceding the word heure, does not vaiy 
Placed after it, it is variable. [} 84, (2.)] 

Une demi heure. Ealfan kawr. 

Une heure et demie. An kour and a kalft 

6. The verb avoir, is used actively [} 48, (3,) (8,)] in Freneh in 
peaking of age, and the word an, year, is always expressed. 

Quel Igo avez vous 1 How M are you? 1 e., R'to ^ge 

J'ai plus de vlngt ans. lam more than twenty. 

7. Plus de, moins de, are used for mare than, less dusn, before a 

Avoos nous plus de diz metres de Have wemt*retkan tenmetres of HUs 

oette toUc d'Hollande 1 EoUand {ffoUand Unen) f 

Tcfos en avei moins desizauneB. You have less than sixelUofiL 


by Google 



RteuMft or EzAMPLifl. 

n *.'•»! p«s encore denz henres. 

Est il OHO lieure et demie 1 

U est midi et quart ou midi etdemi. 

U est huit heureft moins xax quart 

Qr»\ ige Totre ills a-t-ill 

U D'a qoe dix-huit ana. 

Votre beau-fr5re nVt-ilpasplna de 

diz-neuf ans 1 
Ma belle aceur n'a pas mollis de dlz- 

buit ans et demi. 
Bst il plus de diz heures d votre 

n n'est que neuf benres d mon 

Totre fits est il plus Ig6 qne le 

n est plus Jeane que le T6tre. 

Itisnoiyei two c^ctcek, 

2s il half'Tpaal one 1 

His a guarUr or kalf-patt i 

II wants a quarter of eight. 

How old is your son ? 

He is onhf eighteen years old. 

Is not your brother-in-law more tkem 

nineteen years old? 
My siMer-iurlaw isnotlessthan eigkf> 

teen years and a half. 
Is it more than ten o'clock by yom 

It is only nine by my dock* 

Is your son older than mine? 

He is yownger than yowru 

ExxRCisB 37. 

A^, e, olds Cela, that ; Jour, m. da/y ; 

Anne, f. eU ; Cinquante, fifty ; Maintenant, now ; 

Bean-Mre, m. ^0<A<r- Cousin^^rmam, m./rit Mars, m. AfarcA ; 

in-laws cousins Mfttre, m. metre^ a 

Bean-fils, m. son-in-laws Enfknt, m. child s French measure ahtni 

Beau-pdre, m. faJQwr-xn- F6yrier, m. February ; ikree FVenrk feet g 

laws Korlogo, t. dock s Mow, m. months 

Belle-m&re, f. mother-in- Indienne, f. printed cat- Rnban, m. ribbon s 

laws icos Tvrd,t€Ues 

Belle^soeur, f. sister-u^Jeuod^yowngs Yerg^, t. yard, 


1. Votre beau-frdre est il plus ftg6 que le mien ? 3. Le y6tre est 
plus jeune que le mien. 3. Quel ftge a votre belle-m^re t 4. Elle 
a pr^s de cinquante ans. 6. Quelle heure est il maintenant I 3. 
n est six heures pass^cs. 7. £tes vous certain de cela? 8. Oui, 
MoDsieor, j*en suis certain. 9. Est il plus de deux heares d votre 
montre? 10. II n'est que midi it ma montre. 11. Avez vous plus 
de cinq ans, mon enfant? 12. Je n'ai pas encore quatre ans. 13, 
Avez vous plus de six verges dMndienne? 14. Pen ai moins de trois 
mdtroe. 15. Combien d'aunes de ruban votre bean-pire o-t-il ? 13. 
D D*a gnire de ruban, il n'en a qu'une demi-aune. 17. Esl il mid( 
moins un quart ? 18. II est plus tard, Monsieur, il est midi et quark 
19 Quel jour du mois avons nous ? 20. Nous avons le six octobre* 
SI N*est-ce pas le huit fevrier que...? 33. Non, Madame, c'estlehufi 
BiaTSb S3. Combien de jardins a votre cousin>germain ? 34» H n'c^ 
i qu'nn, mais il eat trds beau. 35. D en a pliu de dix. 


by Google 

It irftfoTiT i'i'i. 


1. How old i»7oar brothoMo^Uiw? SL He is fifty ymn oU. 3l 
It your tiBter-in-UW older than mine? 4. No, Sir, my rf8CeNi]i;-Uii^ 
is younger than yours. 6. Is your son twenty-five years old t 6. 
No, Madam, he is only sixteen. 7. What day of the month have we 
to-day t 8. We have the eleventh. 9. Have yon the twentieth vol- 
nme of Chateaubriand's works? 10. No, Madam, we have the 
eleventh. 11. What o'clock is it, Ski 13. It is only twelve o'cloek. 
18. Is it not later? * 14. It wants a quarter of one. 16. It is a quar- 
ter after five. 16. How many yards of this holland (ioUe J^HdU 
lande^ f.) have you 1 17. I have ten ells and a halil 18. I have six 
metres of it, and sixteen yards of Italian silk. 19. Is your mother- 
in-law younger than your father-in-law? 30. She is younger than 
he. 31. Are you twenty years old? 33. No, Sir, I amonlynine> 
teen and a hal£ 38. Are you sure (si^r) that it is ten o'cIocIe. 34. 
Yes, Madam, I am sure of it 35. Is it twenty minutes of ten ? 36 
No, Sir, it is a quarter before twelve (midi), 37. How many houses 
have you ? 38. I have only one, but my sister^m-law has two. 39. 
Have you niine (f.) or yours ? 30. I have neither yours nor mine, I 
have your son-in-law's. 81. Has your mbtheiwin-law five yaids of 
that printed oaUeo? 83. She hato only twy> yaids of it 83. What 
o'elock is it by (d) your watch? 84. It is half-past fo^ by oty 
watfih. 85. It is more than seven o'clock by mine (d la tmenne). 



r. The four dassee or conjugations, into which the French veitw' 
anr divided are distinguished by the endings of the present of the In* 
fidftlve [{ 44]. The first conjugation etads in er ; as chauter, to stig ; 
doHher, to gitt; parler, tb speak; chercheir, to seek 

Hie second conjugation etids in ir ; as, ch6rir, tb cheHsk ; puilir, tb^ 
yanXHih; lAnnir, to provide; finir, toJbvidL 

rhe termfaiation of the infinitive of the regular verbs of the thM* 
ennjtxgation, is Bvoa ; as, devoir^ u> owe^; recevofa*, fo r teem; that of 
ihe irregular verbs itrozR, as vtdoir, to he worth. 

TUe fontth conjifgatSeti endar in sr : aa, reiid^ tb render; fbn^ 
t0 9tilk; tendre, to MtNttJt; vendre, to tdt 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



% A iwb pnMdid by another verb (otber thaQ tlie MndUariit 
•?oir and Atre), or by a preporition (other than en), is pat in the praaeni 
of the infinitive. 

n Ta trayaOIer on lire, Ht is going io vmk tr to rtad, 

8. In French, verbs are often connected with others by prepoaitiona 
not anawering literally to those which accompany the same verba in 
English. They also often come together without prepositions. The 
ctaduit wiU find in { 139, and the following sections of the Second 
Piurt, liata of verba, with the prepositions which they require after 

4. The following idioms are followed by the preposition de when 
they come before a verb : (} 132) avoir besoin, to warU ; avoir coft* 
tome, to be aecuUomed ; avoir dessein, to intend^ to design ; avoir envie^ 
to have a wishf a desire; avoir honte, to be ashamed; avoir intention, 
or,rintention, to intend; avoir le tempa, to have time or leisure; avoir 
le courage, to have courage ; avoir peur, to be afraid ; avoir raiaon, to 
be right ; avoir regret, to regret ; avoir tort, to be wrong ; avoir aiget 
to have reason; avoir aoin, to take care. 

Get enftnt a bern^ de donnir, 
Tons area honte de conrir, 

T%ai child uwUstotletp, 
You are ashamed of running. 


Avez vaas quelque chose k dire 1 
Votre BQBiir tt'a-t-eDe rlen i 6erire1 
EUe a devz lettres & terire. 
A-t-^Ue le temps de les 6crire 1 
Bile n*a pas dessehi de les torire. 
Slle n'a paa T intention de les terire. 
XHb n'a pas envie de lea 6orire. 
Avez vous pear de danser 1 
Je n'ai pas honte de danser. 
Totre cousin a raison de sortlr. 
K'av«E vous pas soin d'tcrire 1 
Aves vous le courage d'aller & la 

Have you any thing to say 7 
I have nothing to say. 

mM^tm wfrw^r ^^^9W rl^^W^Wjj 99 Wmwa^9 W 

Shekastwo letters to foriie. 
Has she ^me towrite them? 
She does not design to write Umi. 
Bhe does not ieUend to mite ^am. 
&e has no desirs to write them* 
Are you afraid to dance 7 
I am not ashamed to danoe» 
Your eousinis right to go ouL 
Do you not take care towrite? 
Have you the courage to go to thew^ 7 


jr, Ubufg Faire, to make; Marcher, towedkt 

ChaoBp, VLfdd / Fatigu6, e, tired^ weary ; Mars, m. Mar^ ; 

Siaiiaer, to donee ; Gasette, f. newspaper ; Ne~^^, natMng / 

]>e borne heure, earliy ; Juillet, m. July / S^, f. page / 

JHmnir, to sleep; Juin, m. Jume ; Seize, siateen t 

Jferire, towriUi Lire, to reads Travail]er,toiMrl;,Mpr. 

1. Votre belle-mte a-t-elle qoelque choae & fkire ? 9. EUe nV rin 
4 fiJK«. t. A-t-elle deux pagea i 6erire1 4. Non, Monaiear, alto 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

74 LBSBOir AXI. 

u'enaqu^une. 6. Avezvousrintentionde lire cette gazetted 0. Oui 
Madame, j'ai rintention de la lire. 1: Avez vous raison d'achetcr ua 
habit de velours? 8. J*ai raison d^en acheter un. 9. Votre petite 
filie lut-elle besoin de dormir ? 10. Oui, Monsieur, elle a bescin de 
dormir, elje est fatigu^. 11. Avez vous penr de tombcr? 12. Je 
n*ai pas peur de tomber. 13. Le jardinier a-t-il le temps de travailler 
"dans les champs ? 14. II n*a pas envie de travailler dans les champs. 
15. Vo3 champs sont ils anssi grands que les miens? 16. Ilssont 
fiVLA grands que les y6tres. 17. Avez vous honte de marcher? 
18. Je n'ai pas honte de marcher, mais j'ai honte de danser. 19. Quel 
Age a votre fils? 20. II a seize ans. 21. Avons nous le deux mars 
ou le cinq juin? 22. Nous avons le vingt-huit juillet 23. Est il 
midi? 24. Nod, Monsieur il n*est pas encore midi, il n'est que onze 
heures et demie. 25. D est encore de bonne heure. 


1. What has your brother-in-law to do ? 2. He has letters to 
write. 3. Does he want to work? 4. Yes, Sir, he wants to work. 
6. Does he intend to read my book? 0. He does not intend to n$ad 
your book, he has no time. 7. Is your sister ashamed tp walk? 
8. My sister is not ashamed to walk, but my brother is aafaamed-to 
dance. 9. Has your cousin any thing to say ? 10. My cousin has 
nothing to say, she is afraid to speak (parler). 11. Is it late ? 12. No, 
MadsiD, it is not late, it is early. 13. Have yon a wish to read my 
sister's letter (f.) ? 14. Have you the courage to go to the war ? 15. I 
have not the courage to go to the war. 16. Is your sister right to 
buy a silk dress (£) ? 17. Yes, Sir, she is right to buy one. 18. Does 
that child want to sleep? 19. No, Sir, that child <loei» not want to 
sleep, he is not tired. 20. Has your brother's gardener a wish to 
work ui my garden? 21. He has a wish to work in (dans) mine. 
22. How old is that child? 23. That child is ten years old. 24. What 
is the day of the month ? 25. It is the ninth of March. 26. Are you 
afiaid to walk ? 27. I am not afraid to walk, but I am tired. 28. Have 
yon time to read my brother's book? 29. I have time to read his 
book. 80. Has the joiner a wish to speak? 31. He has a wish to 
work and to read. 32. Is your son afraid of fiJIing? 38. He is not 
afraid of falling, but he is afraid of working. 84. AVhat o'i lock is it * 
8A. It is twelve 


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Lxvaov jczx^ H 

LESSON xxn. LEgoN xxn. 

1. The expressions avoir beaoin, to want ; avoir soid, to take core ; 

•voir honte, to be ashamed ; avoir pear, to be afraid, require also ths 

preposition d€|^ before a noon. Those idioms mean literally, to hav 

need, to have care, die. 

Aves Tous besoiD de votre frdre 1 Do you tPoaUyour brother f 

J'ai soin de mes effets. / take care of my things, 

II a honte de sa coodaite. He is ashamed of his conduct. 

Bile a pear da chien. She is afraid of the dog, 

3. As these expressions reqnire the preposition de before their ob> 

jeet, they will, of coarse, require the same preposition before the 

(vonoun representing that object 

J'ai besoin de voos. I want you, 

J'ai soin de lui. / take care of him, 

De qui avez voos besohi 1 Whom do you want 7 

De qaoi a-t-elle besoin 1 What does she want? 

3. When the object is not a person, and has been mentioned before 

flie pronoun en takes the place of the preposition de* and that of the 

pronoun refH^senting the object. 

Ave* vous besoin de votre cheval 1 Do you want your harm? 

J*en ai beaoin. / want it, 

4. The expressions 6tre ftch^, to he sorry ; Mre 6tonn6, to heme* 
iomsked ; ^tre content, to be satisfied, require the preposition de bc» 
fore a Doan or pronoun. [{ 88.] 

Je sois ftch6 de son malheur. / am sorry far his misfortiume. 

Je snis 6tonn6 de sa conduite. lam astonuhed at his eendfuU. 

Je snis ocmtent de lui. / am pleased with him, 

fi. Eire fSich^, in the sense of to he angry, requires the prepofitte 

Vota Ates ftch6 contre moi. You are angry with me, 

fi. For rules on the government of adjectives, see } 87, and foU 
lowing Sections. 

RteUMft 07 EZAHPUW. 

Aves vons beaoin d'aiigenti 

J*ai besoin d'ai^nt. 

Je B*en ai pas besoin. [R. 8.] 

In aves vous besoin 1 

^en ai besoin, et mon frftre en a 

beaoin auasL 
Afw TOW besoin de votre ftire 1 

Do you want money? 
I want money, 
J do not want amy. 
Jwantsome^and my brother 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

n LMtOV XZtl. 


De qnoi aves tous betolal 

J'ai bosoiD d'on dictioimairo. 

Avez Tons floln de votre liTre 1 

J'en ai aoin. 

ATes Tons soin de TOtre pire 1 

J'ai win de lui.* 

Votre frftre est 11 flchd oontre moi 1 

D oBt ilcM contare Totre aasva. 

Aves Toos peur de ce chien 1 

J'en ai peur. 

De avd avez toqb hcmte 1 

Je n ai honte de penonne. 

ATei Toiu betoin de qaelqne 

chose 1 
Je n'ai beaoin de rien. 

What da ytmyMuUf 

J vfant a dieUoiutry. 

Do you UUee eatrt of fomr k$0k7 

I tdic€ care of U. 

Do you take care of your f m ihm f 

1 take care of him. 

Is your broiier angry wUk mg? 

He is angry with your suter. 

Are you afraii oftkisdog 7 

lam afraid of him^ 

Of whom, are m, aakamed 7 

I am ashamed of noMy, 

Do you vwni any thing 7 


Beeoin, m. iMfif, needs Fatlga6, e, weary, tiiredsVeaiev, to ^eaki 
Condnite, f. conduct ; Ghir9on, m. boy ; Reposer, te rest ; 

Domeitiqiie, m. servant iJevaie homme, ULyowngBoiikt m. care ; 
lEttl6ti, m. things, clothes; man; TrmXHer, to work i 

BtoimA, e, astonished; Lire, to read; Vienx, old, 

FichA, e, sorry, angry; 

1. Qui a beaoin de pain? 3. Penonne n'en a beaoin. 8. N^avei 
Tona pas beaoin de voire domeatiqaet 4. Oui, Monaieor, j*ai beaoia 
de lui.* 6. Votre jaidinier a-t-il aoin de yotro jardini 6. Oai, 
Madame, il en a aoin. 7. A-t-il bien aoin de aon Tieoz pdre? 8. Ooi, 
Monaienr, ii a bien aoin de luL 9. Votre garden ap^il honte de aa 
eondnite ? 10. Oai, Monaieor, il en a honte. 11. Area vooa poor 
de eecheTal-ci on de celiii-U ? 12. Je n'ai penr nl de celoi-ci ni de 
eelni»li)u 18. Notre domeatique a-t-il aoin de voa eflfeta ? 14. II en 
a bien aoin. 10. Avea vona peur de parler ou, de lire ? 16. Je n'al 
peur ni de parler ni de lire. 17. £tea voua 6tonn6 de cette aflkiref 
18. Je n*en aula paa 6tonn6. 19. En dies voua fteh^l 30. Qui, 
Monaieur, j'en auia bien f9u:h6. 31. Avez Tooa beaoin de ce garyoni 
82. Oui, Madame, j'ai beaoin de luL 23. N'avez Toua paa beaoin de 
■on livret 24. Je n'en ai pas beaoin. 25. Avez youa envie da 
traTailler on de liret 26. Je n'ai envie ni de travailler ni de Ure, 
f al envie de me repoaer car je auia fatigu6. 

EzxBcisx 42. 

1. Do 70U want jour aervantf 2. Yea, Sir, I want him. 8. Does 
jreur brother-in-law want you ? 4. He wants me and my brolher.f 

* The word en ahonld be avoided as mudi as poaalUe in relatioii tm 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

LsesoH xzitL 9t 

A. DoM be not want noney ? 6. He does not wint money, he hat 
enough. 7. Is your Iirother sorry for his eondnctt 8. He is very 
sorry for his condaet and very angiy against you. 9. Does he take 
good flBP care of his books 1 10. He takes good care of them. 
11. How many volumes has he ? 13. He has more than you, h^ naa 
more than twenty. 13. What does the young man want? 14. He 
wants his clothes. 16. Do you want to rest (vous repoier) ? Id 
b not your brother astonished at this t 17. He is astonished at it 
18. Have you a wish to read your brother's books? 19. I have a 
wish to read them, but I have no time. 20. Have you time to work ? 
21. I have time to. work, but I have no time to read. 22. Does the 
young brother take care of his things ? 23. He takes good care of 
them. 24. Is that little boy afraid of the dog? 26. He is not aflraid 
of the dog, he is afraid of the horse. 26. Do you want bread? 27. 
I do not want any. 28. Are you pleased with your brother*s con- 
duct ? 29. I am pleased with it 80. Has your brother a wish to 
read my book? 31. He has no desire to read your book, he Is 
weary. 82. Is that young man angry with y6u or with his friends! 
33. He is neither angry with me nor with his friends. 34. Do you want 
my dictionary ? 36. I want your dictionary and your b vther's. 


1. If the ending or distinguishing charaeterstic of the eo^jugmtiott 
of a verb, in the present of the infinitive, be removed, the part re- 
maining will be the stem of the verb: — 

Chanter Fin-ir Bec^voir Rend-rs 

2. To that iTfrn are added» in the diffennt simple tenses of a reg» 
alar verb, the teiminations proper to the conjugation to which it bf 
onga [{ 80.] 

8. PABnoiPLX Prxskkt. 

Chant-aat Fin-issant Reo-evant Rend-ant 

Smgirig FHTUskiiig Recearing Rtndtrwg 

4. Pabxioxfui Past. 

€amnt4 Ffai-i Re^-u ReodHi 

Bm^ PifUtitd BunMd Rgndm^ 


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5. Tebmikation or thb Pbssxnt of the Insicatiyx. 
chant -e 
pari «e 






fin -18 


ch6r -is 

fourn -it 

pun -f 

aim -ent 


re^ -oi« 


Rper9 -oia 

per9 -oit 


oonc -eTQDB 

d -eves 

dif -oivent 






entend -om 


perd -ei 

mord -cnl 

6. The present of the indicative has but one form in French, ther»- 
fore Je chante, may be rendered in English by, / sing^ I do sing^ or 
I am singing. 

7. The plural of the present of the indicative may be formed from 
the participle present by changing ant into oiu, ez ent, £z : chantant, 
nouM ekanUms; finissant, not» jinusoTis ; recevant, nous rectwms; 
rendant, nous rendons, 

8. This rule holds good not only in all the regular, but in almost 
all the irregular verbs. 

9. Verbs may be conjugated interrogatively in French (except in 
the firfft person singular of the present of the indicative,) [( 98 (4.) (6.)*] 
by placing the pronoun after the verb in all the simple tensea, and 
between the auxiliary and the participle in the compound tenses. 

Do you sing wdL 7 
Have you sung well ? 
Have you not sung well ? 

Chantez vons bien 1 

A vez V0U8 bien chant6 1 

N*avez vous pas bien chant6 1 

[L. 7, R. 2.] 

Ne chantez vons pas bien 1 Do you not sing well 7 

Votre p6re parle-t-il bien 1 [L. 4, B. Does your father speak well? 

6— L. 6, E. 4.] 

10. The verb porter means to carry. It means also to loear, in 
vpeaking of garments ; apporter means to hring^ and emporter to carry 
away; aimer means to lote^ to like^ to be fond qf, and takes the prepo- 
sition d before another verb. 

Quel habit portez vonsl 

Je porte un habit de drap no!r. 

Yotre ft-dre qu' apporte-t-U I [L. 4, 

B. 6.J 
II apporte de Targent a son ami 

What coat do you wear? 
I wear a coat of black cloth. 
What does your brother bring? 

He brings money to his friend, 

11. A noun used in a general tense [} 77 (1.)] takes the article !«, 
la, r, or lea. 

Aimes Tons 1e bosuf ou le mouton 1 Do you Ukebeefor wuUen 7 
Jen'aimenlleboBafnilAmanUm. iUksntWmbsrfmgrwsMMam 


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R£suM]fc OF Examples. 

ChftDtes TOBB one chanson iUr 

Nous chantoDfl des chansons alle> 

Fortes vous oe livre a rhomme 1 
KoB, je le porte a mon frdre. 
Emi)ortez vous tout votre ar^gent 1 
J 'en eroporte seulement une partie. 
Finissez vous YOtre lecon aujoai^ 

Kous la finissons oe matin. 
N'aimes vous pas les enfants atten- 

Je lea aime beaucoup. 
N« reoevea vous pas beaaconp de 

Kous en recerons beaucoup. 
Vendez vous beaucoup de marchan- 

Nous en vendons beaucoup. 
Votre frire aime le.bosuf et le mou- 


Do you sing an Italian sang 7 • 

We sing German songs. 

Do you carry this book to tU flura? 
No, I carry it to my brother. 
Do you carry away all your money ? 
/ carry aieay only a part of it. 
Do youJinisA your lesson to-4ai^ 7\ 

We finish ii this morning. 
DoyounolUke attentive ckilirm 7 

J like them much. 

Do you not receive numy UUtn7 

We receive many letters. 
Do you sell many goods 7 

We sell many. 

Your brother tikes beef and mMtten 

ExzRCiSB 43. 

[We shall hereafter put a hyphen between the stem and the terminaiwn aj 
Vu verbs placed in the vocabularies. The number indicates the conjugation.^ 

Non seulement, not only ; 
Lecture, f. reading ; 
Faille, f. straw ; 
Perd-re, 4. to lose ; 
Fort-er, 1. to carry, to 

Rec-evoir, 8. to receive ; 
Souvent, often ; 
Totyonrs, akoaiys! 

Aim-er, 1. to love, to Donn-er, 1. to give; 

tike, to be fond ofs Pin-ir, 2. to finish ; 
Autre, other ; Fourn-ir, 2. to furnish / 

Aasez, enough; Gard-er, 1. to keep ; 

Chapeaa, m. hat ; Gu6re, but tittle g 

Cher-ir, 2. to cherish ; Habits, m. p. clothes, 
Chercb^r, 1. to seek, to garments: 

look for t Mais, but ; 

Comiwgnon, ul compare Maison. f. house; 

ion ; Marchand, m. merchant ; Travail, m. labor ; 

Dame, t lady; Marchandises,f.p.^M><24;Trouv-er, 1. to find; 

De bonne heure, early; Neveu, m. nephew ; Yend-re, 4. to sell. 
D-evoir, 3. to owe; 

I. Votre m^re aime-t-elle la lecture ? [R. 11.] 2. Oui, Mademot 
sella, elle Faime beaucoup plus que sa soeur. 3. Quel chapeau voire 
neveu porte-t-il ? 4. II porte un chapeau de soie, et je porte nn cha- 
peau de paille. 6. Cette dame aime-t-elle ses enfants? 6. Oui, 
Monsieur, elle lea ch^rit 7. Fournissez vous des marchandises a 
eea marchands? 8. Je foumis des marchandises i ces marchands, et 
lis me donnent de I'argent 9. Vos compagnons aiment ila les beaux 
habits? [R. 11.] 10. Nos eompagnons aiment lea beaux habits et 
les biins livres. 11. Cherchez vous mon fr^re? 13. Oui, Monsieur, 
(e le ehenhe mais je ne le tronve pas. 13. Votre Mre perd41 son 

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temiw. 14. D perd son temps et son ai^nt 16. Peidons nou 
toujoon notre temps f 16. Nous le perdons trds sou vent 17. De- 
Te% TOQS beauconp d'argent? 18. Pen dois assez, mais je n'en doia 
pas beauconp. 19. Vendez vous vos deux maisons k notre mede- 
oin ? 20. Je n'en vends qu'une, je garde I'autre pour ma belle-soenr. 
21. Reeevez vous de I'argent aujourd'hui ? 22. Noos n*en reeevona 
gudre. 23. Yotre menuisier finit il son travail de bonne heuref 
!I4. II le finit tard. 26. 1 quelle heure le iinit ilt 26. II le finit ^ 
midi et demL 27. Nous finissons le n6tre It dix heures moins vingi 

■ ExBRCisx 44. 

1. Does your companion like reading! 2. My companion does 
not like reading. 3. Does your father like good books f [R. 11.] 
4. He likes good books and good clothes.* 5. Do you owe more 
than twenty dollars? 6. I only owe ten, but my brother owea more 
than fifteen. 7. Are you wrong to finish your work early? 8. 1 am 
right to finish mine early, and yon are wrong not \o (de ne pat) fin- 
ish yours. 9. Do you receive much money to-day ? 10. I receive 
but little. 11. Do we give our best books to that little child ? 12. 
We do not give them, we keep them because (parceque) we want 
them. 13. Do you sell your two horses? 14. We do not sell our 
two horses, we keep one of them. 16. Do you finish your work 
this morning (nuUin) ! 16. Yes, Sir, I finish it this morning early. 
17. Does your brother-in-law like fine clothes ? 18. Yes, Madam, he 
likes fine clothes. 19. Do you seek my nephew ? 20. Yes, Sir, we 
seek him. 21. Does he lose nistime? 22. He loses not only hia 
time, but he loses money. 23. How much money has he lost to- 
day ? 24. He has lost more than ten dollars. 26. Does your joiner 
finish your house ? 26. He finishes my house and my brother^s. 
27. Do you sell good hats? 28. We sell silk hats, and silk hats are 
good. [R. 11.] 29. Ho^ old is your companion ? 30. He is twelve 
years old, and his sister is fifteen. 31. Does your brother like meat? 
2. He likes meat and bread. 33. Do you receive youi goods at 
two o'clock? 34. We receive them at half after twelve. 36. Wt 
fMeire them ten minutes before one. 

* Repeat the article. 


by Google 



1. There are in French, as in other laognagea, verbs which are 
cai^led iiregnlar, because they are not conjugated according to the 
iBle» or modei verb of the conjugation to which thej belong. [} 62.] 

2. Many inegular verbs have tenses which are conjugated rego^ 

3. The singular of the present of the bdicative of the uregular 
verbs, is almost always irregular. 

4. In vwbs ending in yer, the y is changed into % before an e mate. 


5. FiuuBirr of thb Indicatitb ok thb Ibbsottlab Ykkbb. 

Aiojea, 1. logo; Bnvotbr, 1. to tend; VsNia, 2. to eMM/ 

Je vais, / go^ dogo^ot J'envoie [R. 4.] Isaul^ do Je viens, / covu, do «Mn#, 

am goings ' tend^ or am sending i or am coating : 

Tu vas, Tu envoies, Tu viens, 

B va, II envois, 11 vient, 

Nous sHoiis, Nous envoyons, Nous venons, 

Vous alles, Vous envoyez, Vous venes, 

lis vont,' Ds envoient [B. 4.] Us viennent 

6. All verbs ending in erdr are conjugated like venir. 

7. The student will find in } 62 the irregular verbs alphabetieally 
ananged. He should always consult that table, when meeting with 
an irregular verb. 

8. The expression, it la maison, is used for the English at Aonm; ttl 

ki$ or her house^ &c. 

Lechirurgien est i]& la maison 1 Is ike surgoon al home ? 

HonfMreest&lamaiBon. Mjf broiMer is al home. 

9. The preposition chea, placed.before <* noun or pronoun, anaweqi 
to the English, at the houm qfj with (meaning ai ike resideme ef)^ 
among, etc. [} 142, (3.)] 

Ches moi, ches lui, ches elle, At my houm, ai his hm»y ai her houm, 

Ches nous, chex vous, chez eux, m. At ow house, ai your houet, at thak 
chea elles, f house. 

That is literally, at ihe haute qf me^atthe house of him, &c. 

Chea mon p6re, ches ma sflsur, Ai my father's, ai my sister's, 

10. The word avec answers to the English wiih^ meamng neitly 
In the company of. 

Tenea avec nous, ou avec luL Come vrith u$, or with hloL 

11. The word y meana to it, at it^ at that fHace. iham. It ia §m m 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

8S tMB%0± XXIT. 

■Uj platted before the verb, and refers always to sometliiDg maa 
tioned. [} 39, { 103, } 104.] 

Votre Keor est elle chez toub 1 Is yow tutor al yow kmue? 

Oui, MoDsieur, elle y est y», Sir^ she is lAere, 

12. la French, an answer cannot, as in English, consist merely of 
an auxiliary or a verb preceded by a nominative pronoun ; as, Do 
you come to my house to-day? / do. Have you books? / have. 
The sentence in French must be complete ; as, / ^o there; I Aom 
toin^. The words oui or non, without, a verb would however soffiet. 

Tenez vous chez moi ai\)ourd'hui t Do you come to my house Uhday ? 

Oui, Monsieur, firal Yes, Sir, I wUL 

Avez vous des livres chez vous 1 J%n» you books at hems 9 

Oui, Monsieur, nous en avons. Yes, Sir, toe have. 

BtajmA or Examplkb. 

Od est le colonel 1 

Q est chez son fr5re ah)6. 

N'est il pas chez nousi 

Noel Monsieur, il n'y est pas. 

Madame votre mire est elle k la 

maison 1* 
Kon, Madame, elle n'y est pas. 
Allez vous chez nous, ou chez lui 1 

Nous aliens chez le capitaine. 
K'est il pas chez votre flire 1 
Kon, Monsieur, 11 est chez nous. 
N'euToyez vous pas vos habits chez 

Je les envoie chez elles. 
N'allez vous pas chez oe monsieur 1 
Je n*y vais pas, Je n'al pas le temps 

d'y aller ai\jourd'hui. 

Where is the colonel? 

He U at his ddest brother's. 

Is he not at-our house ? 

No, Sir, he is not. 

Is your mother at home 7 

No, Madam, she is noi. 

Do you go to our houm, or te Ut 

We go to the captain^ s. 
Is he not at Your brother's 7 
No, Sir, hetsat our house. 
Do you not send your clothes to four 

sisters' t 
I tend them to their house. 
Do you not goto that gentleman* s 7 
I do not, [R. 12.] I have not Hme te 

go there to-day. 


All-er, 1. fr, to go; Horloger, m. woteA-mo-Belieur, m. book-binder t 

krsA, m. friend ; keri Best-er, 1. to remain^ 

As8oci6, m. partner; HoUandals, e, Dutch ; live; 

Capitafaie, m. captain ; Macasin, m. warehouse ; Ruase, Russian ; 

]>eineur-er, 1. to lire, Maison, f. house; Ven-ir, 2. ir, to comet 

dwell; Matin, m. morning; Yoisin, e, neighbor. 

Gilot, m. waistcoat ; Peintre, m. painter ; 

1. Od allez vous mon ami ? 3. Je vais chez Monsieur votre p^ro, 
est il ^ la maison 1 3. II y est ce matin. 4. D'oi^ venez vous 1 6. 
Nous venons de chez vous et do chez votre scBur. 6. Qui est ehei 

* The French in speaking to a person whom they respect, prefix tlio 
word Monsieur. Madame, or Mademoiselle to the word representinf theii 
'-^Aerioentors ralsaons, or fiiends. 


by Google 

Lsssojr zxiv. fi8 

I? 7. Mod Toiun y est aujourd'huL 8. Oii avez youi TinteR- 
tion do porter ces livres ? 9. Tai Pintontion de lea porter chez le fila 
dn tn^ecin. 10. Avez voaa tort de reater chez voua? II. Je &*a] 
pas tort de reater di la maison. 12. L'horloger a-t-il de bonnea 
montrea chez lui? 13. II n'a paa de montrea chez lai, 11 en a dana 
aon magaain. 14. Chez qui portez voua voa livreat 15. Je lea 
porte chez le reWeur. 16. AUez voua chez le capitaine hoUandaiaf 
17. Nona n'allona paa chez le capitaine hollandais, noua aliens ehez 
le major ruase.^ 18. Est 11 chez vons on chez votre frdre? 19. 11 
demeare chez nous. 20. Ne demeurons nous pas chez votre tail. 
leur? 21. Vous y demeurez. 22. Votre peintre d'oii vient iHt 23. 
II vient de chez son associ^. 24. Oi^ portez vous mea aouliera et 
xnon gilet? 25. Je porte vos soullers chez le cordonnier et votre 
gilet chez le tailleur. 

ExsRcisB 46. 

I. Where does your friend go ? 2. He is going [L. 23, R. 6. J to 
your house or to your brother's. 3. Does he not intend to go to 
your partnered ? 4. He intends to go there, but he haa no time to-day. 
5. What do you want to-day ? 6. I want my waistcoat, which (qui) 
b at the tailor's. 7. Are your clothes at the painter's! 8. They are 
not there, they are at the tailor'a. 9. Where do you live, my friend ? 
10. I live at your sister-in-law's. 11. Is your father at hornet 12. 
No, Sir, he is not 13. Where does your servant carry the woodt 
14. He carries it to the Russian captain's. 15. Does the gentleman 
who (qui) is with your father live at hia house? 16. No, Sir, he 
lives with me. 17. Is he wrong to live with yon ? 18. No, Sir, he is 
right to live with me. 19. Whence (d'oH,) comes the carpenter? 
SO. He cornea from his partner's house. 21. Has he two partners? 
93. No, Sir, he has only one, who lives here (iei), 23. Have you 
time to go to our house this morning ? 24. We have time to go 
there. 25. We intend to go there and to apeak to your sister. 26. 
la she at your house ? 27. She is at her (own) house. 28. Have yoo 
bread, butter, and cheese at home ? 29. We have bread and butter 
there. 30. We have no cheese there, we do not like cheese. 31. 
Is your watch at the watchmaker'a ? 32. It (eUe) is there. 33. 
Have you two gold watchea ? 34. I have only one gold watch. 85. 
Who intends to go to my father's thia morning ? 86. Nobody !»• 
tends to go there. 


by Google 

84 LBtSOir XXT 


1. In the first person sin^lar of the present of the indicative of 

almost all those French verbs, which in that person have only one 

syllable, the cosunon interrogative form [L. 23. 9.] is not allowed. 

To render the verb interrogative, the expression esUce qus is prefixed 

to the affirmative form. [} 98, (6.) (6.)] 

Sst-oe que je vends dn drvp'i Do IMdMkl 

Est-ce que je Joue souvent 1 Do 1 jiay often 7 

2. The first person singular of the indicative of avoir, to Aove; 

4tre, to be; aller, togo; pouvoir, to he able; devoir, lo owe; aavoir, 

to krunOf etc., may, however, be cox^ogated interrogatively according 

to the general rales. 

Ai-Je voe monchoirs 1 Have I ytm' JUrndkerckiefs 7 

Combien vous dois-je 1 Hout muck do I owe you 7 

Z. The form fl^l-ce que is slways allowable, and s<mietimes prefe&*« 

able, when the first person singular of the present of the indicative 

of a verb has seversl syllables, [{ 98, (6.)] 

£st€e que Je vous envoie des livres 1 Do 1 9B%d y&u books7 

Est-oe que Je commence ii parler 1 Do I begin to apeak 7 

4. Est-ce que may, in familiar conversation, be used with all Ue 
persons of those tenses susceptible of being conjugated inteiroga- 
tively :— Qu*eBt-ce que vous lisez 1 may be said, instead of^ que lises 
Toost What do you readi 


Allbr, to go, Envotes, to aend. VfiNia, to come. 

Sst-ceque Jevaisi <i0 J Est-ce que J'envoiel do Est-ce que je vfenil de 
gOf warn I going? Isend^oramlunding? leome,ocamIco^mg% 
Vas-tui Envoies-tui Viens-tul 

Vt^t-ill Envole-t-iU Vient-ill 

Aliens nous 1 Envoyons nous 1 Yenons nous 1 

Alles vous 1 Buvoves vous 1 Venes vous 1 

Tout Us 1 Snvoient lis 1 Yiennent ils 1 

8. Tlie article le, preceded by the preposition ^l is contrscttd failo 
M before a noun masculine commencing with a consonant, or aa Jk 
aspirate ; and into aux before a plural noun. [} 13, (8.)] 
AUea vous au bal on au march61 Do you go to ike baU or to mm*et7 

7. A r^glise means a< or to ekurck ; it I'^cole, at otto eckoot^ — 

HoQS aUons k I'lgUse et k TAoole. We go to ckunk and to etkoU. 

a. Quelque psrt, means eomoAer^ anywken; oolk part, no^ 


by Google 

txsBov zzy« 


Yitn nermL 06 est U1 
D eel qnejane pari, 
n n'ert nmie part 

He is tomewktre. 
He is nowhere. 


bt^ce irae je Tais k r6oole 1 
Voos altez a r^glise aigonrd'hui. 
fistrce que je commence mon tra- 

Efi-ce que je park anglaia 1 
£st-ce que j'enyoie oe livre k mon 

ADes vons an march6 demain 1 
J'y Tais apfto-demain. 
Savoyez vons vos enfants a I'Scole 1 
Je lea envoie chez le professeur. . 
Je lefl y envoie cette aprds-midi. 
T08 habits oik sont ila) 
Us sont quelqne part. 
Us ne sont nulle part 
Sst-«e que Je demenre chez Tons 1 
*" » qneje mange tropi 

You go to church to-4af. 
Do f begin my work ? 

Do I speak English ? 

Do I send this book to my brothir? 

Do you go to market ttHnorrowf 

I go there the day afur to-morrow. 

Do you send your children to KhuAf 

I send them to the professor's, 

I serul them there this afternoon. 

Where are your clothes 7 

They are somewhere. 

They are nowhere. 

Do I live at your house? 

Do I eai too much? 


Cnir, m. leather t 
Pepnis, since s 
£cole, f. school f 
ficoUer, m. scholar ; 
Eglise, f. church i 
March6, m. market f 
Noir, e, black; 

Permqmer, m. hear-drt^ 

Point, noit 
Poete, tpost-^jfUet 
Rouge, red; 
Village, m. village g 
Vert, e, green. 

Absent, e, absent; 
Adresse^ t address; 
Banqae, f. bank; 
Baaqnier, m. banker; 
Billet^ m. note; ticket; 
Chapelier, m. hatter; 
Concert, m. concert ; 
Covp-er, 1. to cut; 

1. Ok est-ce que je vaia! S. Voub allez chez le chapeliet. 3. EsUw 
que je vais k la banque? 4. Votts allez k la banqae et au concert 
6. £st-ce que je coupe voire bois? 6. Vous ne coapez ni mon bois 
ni mon habit. 7. Eat-ce que je porte nn chapeau vert? 8. Vous ne 
portez pas nn chapean vert, vous en portez un noir. 9. Voire 
holier v»>t>il quelqne part? 10. II va k T^glise, k I'^cole et au 
mazche. 11. Ne va-t.il pas chez le perruquier? 12. II ne va nulle 
part 13. Ne portez vous point des boties de cuir rouge? 14. Pen 
porte de cuir noir. 15. N'allez vous pas chez le banquier? 16. Je 
ne vaia pas chez lai, il est absent depuis hier. 17. Vieni il k la 
banqae ee matin? 18. II a Vintention d'y venir, sMl a le temps.* 19. 
A441 envie d'aller au concert? 20. II a grande envie d'y aller, maia 
B n'a paa de billet 31. Demeurez vous dans ce village? 2% Oni, 

* The • of ft ia elided before fl, Us, but fai no other case. 
wOf luitenfffi of the elMon of i. 


Thilii th« 

by Google 

86 . I.IB80B ZZTZ. 

Monaieiir, j*jr demenie. 3i. Envoyez vous oe l^Uet i la postot 95. 

Je Fenvoie k son adresse. 

EzsRCisx 48. 

1. Do I wear my large black hat? 3. You wear a handsome green 
hat 3. Does the banker go to the hair-dresser's this morning? 4. 
He goes there this morning. 6. Does he intend to go to the bank 
this morning ?• 6. He does not intend to go there, he has no time. 
7. Do you send your letters to the post-office ? 8. I do not send 
them, tiiey are not yet written (jecriles), 9. Do I send you a note! 

10. You send me a ticket, but I have no wish to go to the concert 

11. Does your brother go to school to-morrow? 12. He goes (there) 
to-day, and remains at home to-morrow. 13. Do I go there? 14. Yoa 
do not go anywhere. 15. Where do you go? 16. I am going to 
your brother's, is he at home? 17. He is not at home, he is absent 
since yesterday. 18. Does your brother live in this vilbge? 19. He 
does not, [L. 24. 12.] he lives at my nephew's. 20. Are you wrong 
to go to school? 21. No, Sir, I am right to go to church and to 
school 22. Do you wish to come to my house ? 23. 1 like to go to 
your house, and to your brother's. 24. When are you coming to 
our house? 25. To-morrow, if I have time. 26. Does the banker 
like to come here ? 27. He likes to come to your house. 28. Is the 
hair-dresser coming? 29. He is not yet coming. 30. What are yon 
sending to the scholkr ? 31. 1 am sending books, paper, and clothes. 
82. Where is he ? 33. He is at school. 34. Is the aehool in the vU- 
Isge? 85. It is there. 


1. The verb aller, is used, in French, in the same manner as th« 
verb to go, in English, to indicate a proximate ftiture. 

Allcz vous 6crire ce matin 1 Are yqu ^aing to toriie this nwrni^g t 

Je vais 6crire mes lettrcs. / am going to write my letiers. . 

2. The verb venir is used idiomatically, in French, to Indicate a 

past just elapsed. It reqnupes, in this signification, the prepositloo 

de before another rerb. 

Je Tiens d'toire mes lettres. / have just written my ietiers. 

Nous Tenons de reoevoir des lettres. We have just received Utters. 

S. Aller trouver, venir trouTer, are used in the Moee of le ^ 1^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


tQ emm its in eomieetioii with nouns or pronoonB reprasenting par* 

Alles tronrer le ferbUmtier. ChtoUu Unman, 

J'ai enrie d'aller le trouver. / have a desire to goto jUm. 

Venez me trouTer a dix heures. Come to me at Un o'clock. 

4. Aller ehercher, means to gofor^ to go and fetch : — 

Alles ehercher le midedn. Ch and fetch the pkysidan. 

Je vaia ehercher du sucre et da cafiS. / am gotitgfor coffee and sugar 

6. Envoyer ehercher, means to sendfor, to send and fetch :-« 

SnToyez ehercher le marchand. Send for the merchant. 

J*envoie ehercher des Mgumes. / send for vegetables. 

6. The first and second persons of the plural of the imporatir* 
are, with few exceptions, the same as the corresponding persons of 
the present of the indicative. The pronouns nous, vous, sre not 
used with the imperative. 

7. Plural of thb iMPsiUTiyE of Aller, Enyotbr, anb 


Allons, let us go i Enroyons, let us sends Venous, let us eowu ; 

Alles, ^; Envoyez, J09K2; Xenez, come. 

8. Tons, m. t jutes, t followed by the article les and a plural nottn» 

are used in French in the same sense as the word every in English. 

Votre frftru vient tons les Jours. Your brother comes every dof. 
Tons allez & I'^cole tons les matins. You go to school every momxng. 

9. Tout, m. toute, f. followed by le or la and the noun in the 
singular, are used for the English expression the whole coming before 
m noun. 

11 reste ici toute la Joum6e. He remains hen the whole da/y. 

10. A day of the week or of the month, pointed out as tho timt 

of an appointment or of an occurrence, is not preceded by a praposi* 

tion in Freneh. 

Tenez Inndi on mardl Cam/e on Monday or Tuesday. 

Tenez le quinse on le seize avriL Come on the jifieenth or sixteenth 

of April, 

11. When the occurrence is a periodical or customary one, the 
article le is prefixed to the day of the week or the time of the day. 

11 vlent nous trouver le lundl. He comes to us Mondays. 

U va trouver votro pdre rapr6s-midi. He goes to your father in the afternoon^ 

BAsuvA of Examples. 

Je ^:als parler k M. votre pdi«. 1 1 am going to speak toyourJMer. 
Konsvenonsdereoevoirdersrfent We have just received money. 
ituveneavonadsftirsl \ What ham yem put danet 


by Google 



Je Tleiii de d6clilrer moo habit 
Yotre fiire va-t-il troover son ami 1 
n va le troQver tons les Joan. 
II vient me trouver tous les landis. 
Allez Tons chercher de I'argeiit 1 
Je n'en vais pas chercher. 
£nvoyez yoas chercher des livres 

JJles Tons ches cette dame Imidi 1 

J*ai I'intexition d'y ailer mazdi. 
J*7 vais ordinairement le mercredi. 
n Ta & r^glise le dimandie. 

/ havtjmt torn my «Mi. 

Does your brotker go to Ain/HnM / 

He goes to him every day. 

He comes to me every MontUty. 

Do you go and fetch vumey 7 

I do not. [L24.12.J 

Do you sendfo?' Araiic hooks 7 

Do you go io that ladiffs koum #• 

I intend to go there on THiesdaiy, 
1 generally go there Wednesdays, 
He goes to c^M^ch Sundays. 

Mardi, m. TSiesdayf 
Mercredi, m. Wednet^ 

day f 
Musique, f. mwie ; 
Prochain, e, next; 
Vendredi, m. PrUaiy; 
Best-er, 1. to rtmam^ 

Samedi, Satwrday ; 
Teinturier, m. dyor. 


Auito, f. year ; Dimanche.. m. Sunday ; 

Apprend-re, 4. ir.toUam; ficotnais, e, Scotch ; 
Aprds-midi, f. afUmoon ; ficri-re, 4. ir. io write ; 
Commenc-er, 1. to com- EnseigD-er, 1. to teach ; 

m/ence ; Excepts, except ; 

Gompagne, f. c0fyi|Mm- Jeudi, m. Thursday; 

ion J Joum6e, f. day ; 

Comuusaanoes, t o^ Irlandats, e, /risA ; 

quaintances; 'LxoAi^m. Mon4ay s 

Demain, Uhmorrow $ Malade, sick; 

1. Qu'allez voua Dure? 2. Je vais apprendre mea lemons 
8. N'allez voua paa 6crire & vos connaiaaances? 4. Je ne vaia 6crir« 
IL peraonne. 6. Qui vieDt de voua parler ? 6. L'lrlandaia vient da 
noua parler. 7. Quand Tficosadae va-t-elle voua enaeigner U mu- 
aiquel 8. Elle va me Tenaeigner Fannie prochaine. 9l V»>t-ella 
eommeucer mardi ou mercredi ? 10. Elle ne va commencer ni mardj 
ni mercredi, elle a I'intention de commencer jeudi, ai elle a le temps. 
11. Votre compagne va^t-elle k F^gliae toua leadimancheaf 13. Elle 
y va toua lea dlmanohes et toua lea mercredia. 13. Qui allez voua 
trouver? 14. Je ne vaia trouver peraonne. 16. N'avez voua pas 
Tintention de venir me trouver demaini 16. J'ai I'intention d'aller 
trouver votre teinturier. 17. Envoyez voua chercher le medecini 
18. Quand je suis malade, je I'envoie chercher. 19. Reste-t-il avet 
voua toute la joum6e? 20. II ne reste chez moi que que^ques 
minutes. 21. Allez vous & T^cole le matin? 23. Py vais le matin 
et Tapr^a-midi. 23. Y allez vous tous les jours? 24. J'y vais tous 
lea jours excepts le lundi et le dimanche. 26. Le samedi je reste ehex 
noua, et le dimanche je vais k Teglise. 


1. What is the Irishman going to do? 3. He is going to toeeh 
8. Has he just conmeaoed his work? 4. Hs has just coJSi 


by Google 

LlttOV XXTXt. et 

BMiMfd it A. Who haa just written to you f G. The dyer has Just 
written to me. 7. Does yoor little boy go to church every day! 
8w No, Sttf he goea to church Sundays and he goea to school every 
day. 9. Do you go for the physician? 10. 1 send for him because 
(jpareeque) my sister is sick. 11. Do you go to my physician or to 
yours? 12. I go to mine, yours is not at home. 13 W^ere is he? 
14. He is at your father's or at your brother'a. 16. Do you inten 
to send for the phyaician ? 16. I intend to aend for him. 17. Am I 
rigr.it to send for the Scotchman? 18. You are wrong to aend for 
him. 19. Do yon go to your father in the afternoon? 90. I go to 
Dim in the morning. 21. Doea your brother go to your uncle's every 
Monday? 22. He goea there every Sunday. 23. Are you going to 
learn music ? 24. My niece is going to learn it, if she has time. 
25. Am I going to read or to write ? 26. You are going to read to 
morrow. 27. Doea he go to your house every day? 28. He cornea 
to us every Wednesday. 29. At what hour? 30. At a quarter 
before nine. 31. Does he come early or late? 32. He comes at a 
quarter after nine. 33. What do you send for? 34. We send for 
wine, bread, butter and cheese. 36. What do you go for? 36. We 
go for vegetables, meat and sugar. 37. We want augar ewrf 

LESSON xxvn. LEgoN xxvn. 


1. The personal pronoun used aa the direct regimen [} 2, (2.) {4S| 
(4.)] or object of a verb,* is m French placed before the verb, except in 
the second person singuUr or in the first and second persons plural 
of tiie imperative used affirmatively. 

n me voit^ il I'alme. Be sees me, he lovei him, 

n nous aime, U vous aime. Be loves ut, he loves you, 

2. The personal pronoun representing the indirect regimen of the 
v«rb, li 2, (3.) { 42, (6.)] answering to the dative of the Latin, and to 
the indirect object of the English with the prepoution to ezpreaaed 
CMT understood, is also in French placed before the verb :^ 

^ The young student will easily distinguish the personal pronoun used 
aa the direct regimen of a verb, by the fhct that there la in Bi^^Usb no 
prqxNrfttoii between the verb and this pronoun. 


by Google 

•9 LS880V ZXVIZ. 

n meiMtrle, il Ini parle. He speaks toine,ke jpcoAs to Urn 

II nous donne une fleur. He givts us afloteer* 

II voos parle, il leur parle. He speaks to you^ he speaks to tken^ 

3. The personal pronoun is generally placed after the following 

rerba: aller, to go; acconrir, to run to; courir, to run; venir, to 

come; penser k, songer i, to think of: — 

n vient a moL He comes to me. 

n peose k voua, a enz. He thinks ofyov^ of them, 

4. In the imperative used affirmatively, the pronouns follow tlift 
?erb: — 

Aimez lea, parlez leur. Love them, speak to them. 

6. The words en and y follow the above rules, except the dd. 

J*en parle, J'y pense. / speak of U^ I think of il, 

6. The pronoun used as indirect regimen, answering to the genL 

tive or ablative of the Latin, and to the indirect object which in 

English is separated from the verb by a preposition other than to^ it 

in French always placed e^ter the verb : — 

Je parle de lui, d*elle, d'euz. / speak of him, of her, of them, 

Je reste avec vous et avec eux. / remain with you and with thnu, 

7. All pronouns used as objects of verbs, must be repeated : — 

Je les aime, Je les respecte, Je les / love them, respect and honor them 

R£suMfi ow ExAicPLBS. — See § 32. 

M*entendez tous 1 

Je ne vous entends pas. 

Les entendez vous 1 

Je les vols et Je les entends. 

II nous aime et il nous honore. 

Me parlez vous de votre ami 1 

Je TOUS parle de lui. [R. 6.] 

Kous parlez vous de ces dames 1 

Je vous parle d'elles. 

Ne leur parlez vous pas 1 

Je n'ai pas envie de leur parler. 

Parlez lui^ — ne lui parlez pas. 

Allez a lui, courez a lui. 
Parlez leur,— ne leur parlez pas. 

Do you hear or understand me ? 

I do not understand or hear yotL 

Do you hear them ? 

I see them and understand them. 

He loves and honors us. 

Do you speak to me ofyowfriendf 

I speak to you of him, 

Doyou speak to us about those ladies t 

I speak to you of them. 

Do you not speak to them? 

I have no wish to speak to them. 

Speak to him or her— do not speak i$ 

Oo to him — run to him. 
Speak tothem, — donotspeaktotheam. 

Aftiire, f. affair ! Oompagnon, m. compan- Nouvelle, f. netos; 

Arbre, m. tree ; ion ; Pens-er, 1. to thinks 

Avis, m. advice ; D6ja, already ; Poirier, m. pear-tree ; 

Qerisier, m. cherry-tree ; Ecri-re, 4. ir. ^ torite; Pommicr, m. appie-4reei 
i lommnniqu-er, 1. to com* Ezemple, m. example ; Respect-er, 1, to 

* The prepodtioQ to is understood. He gives ajtower to tub 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


1. AUez YOiis hii ^rire ? 3. Je vais lui 6crire et lai eommiiniqiier 
eette nouvelle. 3. Allez vous lui parler de moi ? 4. Je vais lui par* 
ler de voua ct de voire compagnon. 5. Leur envoy ez vous de beaux 
arbrcs ? 6. Je leur envoie des pommiers, des poiriers, ct des cenfiiers 1 
7. Ne m'unvoycz vous pas des cerisiers? 8. Je ne vous en envoie 
pas, vous en avez dej^ 9. Avez vous raison de ieur parler de cette 
affaire? 10. Je n*ai pas tort de leur parler de cette affaire. 11. Ve- 
nez k. nous demain matin. 12. Venez nous trouver, cette apr^s-midL 
13. Ailez vous les trouver tous les jours? 14. Je vais les trouver 
tous les soirs. 15. Leur donnez vous de bons avis? 16. Je leur 
donne de bons avis et de bons ezemples. 17. Nous porlez vous de 
Yos 8<Eur8? 18. Je vousparle d'elles. 19. Nenousparlez vous pas 
de nos fr^s? 30. Je vous parle d'eux. 21. Ne les aimez von* 
paa I 22. Nous lea aimons et nous les respei-^ions. 23. Pensez vou 
4 ee livre ou n'y pensez vous pas? 24. Nuus y pensons et nous en 
parions. 26. Nous n'y pensons pas. 

ExsRCiSB 52. 
1. When are you going to write to your brother ? 2. I am going 
to write to him to-morrow morning. 3. Do you intend to write to 
him every Monday ? 4. I intend to write to him every Sunday. 5« 
Have you a wish to speak to hir:^ to-day ? 6. I have a wish to speak 
to him, but he is not here. 7. Where is he ? 8. He is at his house. 
9. Do you speak to them ? 10. Yes, Sir, I speak to them about (de) 
this affair. 11. Do they give you good advice? 12. They give me 
good advice and good exan^les. 13. Do you go to your sister every 
day?. 14. I go to her every morning at a quarter before nine. 15. 
Does she like to see (ootr) you ? 16. She likes to see me and 9(10 
receives me well. 17. Do yOu think of this affair? 18. I think of it 
the whole day. 19. Do you speak of it with (avec) your brother? 
20. We speak of it often. 21. Do you send your compiyilon to my 
house? 22. I send him every day. 23. Are you at home every 
day? 24. I am there every morning at ten o'clock. 25. Do you like 
to go to church ? 26: I like to go there every Sunday and every 
Wednesday. 27. Do you speak of your houses ? 28. I speak of 
them (en). 29. Does your brother speak of his friends? 30. Yes, 
Sir, he speaks of them (d'eux). 31. Does ho think of them ? 89. 
Yes, Sir, he thinks of them (A eux). 33. Does he think of this newsf 
84. Yes, Sir, he thinks of it (y). 86. I love and honor them. 


by Google 

M LBssoar xxmi. 



1. When two pronouns occor, one used as a direct regimen or ob> 

Jeet (accusative), the other used as the indirect regimen or object 

^dative)^ the in<iUrect object, if not in the third person singular or plu* 

fal, must precede the direct object [} 101, (1.)] 

Je Tous le donne. Igiv* it to fou, 

n me le donne. lu gives it to me, 

n noos le donne. He gives Utous. 

% When the pronoun used as an indirect object [datire, Rule S 

L. 26.] is in the third person singular or plural, it must be placed 

after the direct object. [} 101, (2.)] 

Nous le lui donnons. We give it to Am. 

Nous le leor donnons. We give U to them, 

8. The above rules of precedence apply also to the imperative used 
negatively : — 

Ne nous le donnez pas. [R. 1.] Do not give Utous, 

Ne le lui donnez pas. [R. 2.J Do not give it him. 

4. With the imperative used affirmatively, the direct object pr» 

eedes in all cases the indirect object. [} 101, (6.)] 

Bonnes le nous. Give it to us, 

Montrez le leur. Show it to them, 

6. En and y always follow the other pronouns : — 

Je lui en donne. ^ I give him somi, 

II nous y envoie. He sends us thither, 

6. Preskmt of tbk Indicativb of the Irreouulr Vxrbs, 

YoiRj to teeg VovLOiRy to wiU^ be wit- VovYoim^ to be aUe g 


Je Tois, Isee, dosee^ or Jt^ veux, / viU or am Je puis, / can^ I mof, i 

am seeing ; witting ; am oMe ; 

Tu vols, Tu veux, Tu peux,* 

II volt, II veut, II pent, 

Nous voyons, Noua voulons, Nous pouvons, 

Vous voyoz, Vous voules, Vous pouvez, 

lis volenti lis veulent, lis peuvent 

7. The above verbs take no preposition before another verb. 

8. The preposition, pour, is used to render the preposition to, wh«r 

the latter means in order to. 

Je Tsls ehez tous pour parler iL vo- I ro to ytmr house to speak 9o yum 
tre firftre et pour vous voir. orother and to see you, 

* After the verbs poured, to be abtei oeer, to dan lavoir, to kmem 
ttM negative pas may be omitted. 


by Google 


JU batoto d W jj i c B i pour acbetar / immI m&mi§ U {fm mriUi f^ kt§ 
das marclMMidiiei. goods* 

BteJMt OF Etampubs. 

ITaoiei TCV8 acnu le domiBr 1 

Je venz toub le prdter. 

Poarez Tons me lea donner 1 

Je ne pais Tons les donner. 

Vntn Mre pent 11 le loi envoyer 1 

n ne Tent pM le Ini envoyer. 

Qai rent le leur prfttert 

Penoone ne vent Id leor pr5ter. 

Snvoyei les nous. 

Ke Dons lee enyoyes pM 

Bonnes nous en. 

Me leor en envoyez pM. 

8n?oyeB le leor, poor let oonJenter. 

Jt pnla TOII8 Vy envoyer. 


IwiUlendUio you. 

Can you give tkem tonuf 

J cannot give them to you. 

Can yowr brother tend U to hum} 

He vnll not send U to kim. 

Who wiU lend Uta tkem? 

No one wiU lend U to tkem. 

Send tkem to us. 

Do not send tkem to us, 

CHve us some {of U), 

Do not tend tkem any. 

Send it to tkem {in order) to tati^ 

Jean send U to you tksro 


Ckmmls, m. derk ; Qnire, but little ; Polsson, m. fisk ; 

Connuannoe, f. acquain- Marchande de modes, f . Polog;ne, f. Poland t 

tanosi manner ; Prftter, 1. to lend $ 

Croi-re, 4. ir. <» bdins g Montr-er, 1. to show ; Semaine, / vteek ; 
Dotte, f. debt ; Oabli-er, 1. to forget ; Sbuvent, often ; 

D-eroir, 8. to owe ; Pay-er, 1. to pay ; Voyage, dl jomrnay, 

1. Vouiez Tooa domier ce livra i mon frdre I 3. Je puis le lul 
prater, maia je ne puis le ^ni donner. 3. Voalez voiia noua lea eiw 
▼oyert 4. La marchande de modea pent voua lea envoyer. 6. Let 
loi montrez vonaf 6. Je lea voia et je lea Ini montre. 7. Avez vooi 
peur de noua lea prater! 8. Je n'ai paa pear de Tona lea prater. 9 
Ne pooTez vooa none enToyer da poiaaon ? 10. Je ne poia roua en 
eoToyer, je n*en ai gadre. 11. Voalez voaa lenr en parlerT 13. Je 
venz leor en parler, ai je ne Tonblie paa. 13. Venez vona aoavent 
lea voir I 14. Je viena lea voir totta lea matina, et toua les aoira. 15. 
Ne leor parlez vona point de votie voyage en Pologne ? 16. Je lenr 
en parle, niaia Ha ne vealent paa me croire. 17. Est-ce qae je roia mee 
eonnaiaaanoea, le lundif 18. Vona lea voyez toua lea jonra de U 
•emaine. 19. Voaa envoient ellea plna d'aigent qne le oommia da 
notre marchandl 30. Ellea m'en enroient plaa que lai. 31. En 
envoyez vooa an libraire ! ' 33. Je lai en envoie qnand je lui en dole. 
S3. N'ftTez ▼ona paa tort de lai en enroyer 1 34; Je ne pida avoir 
tort do payer mea dettea. 35. Da vona en dcmnent, oi lb voqo wt 
fiilaiii qnaad vona on aves boaoiB. 


by Google 


EzxRCiSE 54. 

1. Will you send as that letter! 3. I will send it to you, if you 
will read it 3. I will read it if (st) I can. 4. Can you Ic nd me youf 
pen ? 5. 1 can lend it to you, if you will take care oflt. [L. 22, (3.)] 
6. May I speak to your father ? 7. You may speak to him, he is 
here. 8. Are you afraid of forgetting it? [L. 21, (4.)] 9. I am 
not afraid of forgetting it 10. Will y >u send them to him ? 11. 1 
Intend to send them to him, if I have time. 12. Do you speak to 
him of your journey 1 13. I speak to him of my journey. 14. I 
speak to them of it 15. Can you communicate it to him? 16. I 
have a wish to communicate it to him. 17. Do you see your ac- 
quaintances every Monday ? 18. 1 see them every Monday and every 
Thursday. 19. Where do you intend to see them ? 20. I intend to 
see them at your brother's and at your sister's. 21. Can you send 
him there every day? 22. I can send him there every Sunday, if he 
wishes (i^U le veil/). 23. Can you give them to me ? 24. I can 
give them to you. 25. Who will lend them books ? 26. No one 
will lend them any. 27. Your bookseller is willing to sell them 
good books and good paper. 28. Is be at home ? 29. He is at his 
brother's. 30. Are you wrong to pay your debts ? 31. I am right 
to pay them. 32. Will you send it to us ? 33. I am willing to send 
it to you, if you want it 34. Axe you willing to give them to as I 
85. We are willing to give them to your acquaintances. 



1. The article le, la, les, as already stated, is used in French befort 
110WIS taken in a general sense : — 

Les iardins sent les omements des Gardens are ike ornaments of vH 
vuiages f ( des campognes. iages and of rural districts, 

2. The article is also used in Freneh, as in Englisli, before nouni 

* taken in a particular sense : — 

lies Jardini de ce village sont sa- T%e gardens of this village are ««. 
perbes. perd, 

8. It is also used before abstract nouns, before verbs and a4Joctivei 
«aed tabetantively :<*- 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 


lA parMM est odieaae. 


Idleness is odious. 


n'est pas toijoiin do- IToutA is not aiwafstracUMs^ 

Le liolre et le manger Boat nfices- fialing and drinking are necessary U 
salres a la vio. ' Ufe. 

4. The article is used before the names of eountries, proTiiiee% 

xivers, winds and mountains : — [{ 77, (3.) (4.)] 

Ia Jrancd est plus grande que France is larger tkan ItabM, 

La Normsadie est trto fertile. Normandy is veryferUk, 

5. The article is used before titles :^- 

Le g6n6ral Cavaignae. 
I^ marichal Ney. 

General Cavaignae. 
Marshal Ney. 

6. In respectful address or discourse, the words, JIfoimeur, M^ 
dttme^ Mademoiselle are placed before titles and designations of 
relatioDship : — 

Monsieur le president 
Madame la comtesse. 
Mademoiselle votre soBur. 

(Mr.) President, 
{ Madam) Countess* 
(Mtss) fowr sister. 

7. The plural of Monsieur, Madame and MademxMeUe, is Measiewn^ 
Mesdames, and MesdemoiseUes. 

8. The student should be carefhl to distinguish a noun taken in a 
general or in a particular sense from one taken in a partitive i 


Cfeneral or particular sense. Partitive setise. 

Nous aimons les lirres, Nous avons des livres, 

We Wsebooks. We have books i. e. some hooks. 

Nods avons les livres, Vous aves 6crit des lettres. 

We hone the ioeku Yon hav^ written leiterSfL e> 


RisuiiA OF Examples. 

la modestie est aimabla 

Le courage est indispensable au 

Les flenrs sont Tomement des Jar- 

Las fleurs des jatdins de be chfttoau. 

Avez Tous rintention de visiter la 

France 1 
^ai rintention do visiter Htalie. 
Le capitaine Dnmont est fl ici 1 
Lo miyor Gnillaume est chez lul. 
Vojes voos Madame votre mArel 
#0 vols Monsieur votre Mre. 
Ite Mra B'aime pas les kmaBfoa. 

Modesty is amioNe. 

Cowrage is indispensable to thegem' 

flowers are the omament ofgarden»$ 

TV flowers of the gardens of lUf 

Do you intend visiting F^-muif 

J intend visiting Italy, 
Is captain Dumn^ here ? 
Major WUUam is at home. ' 
Do you see your mothet 7 
I see your orother, 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

EzxROzsx 56. 

Alm-er,!. to be fond of,l>em!&Ta-%r, 1. ta dvfell,UK;wBM,m,v^g9tmKi4 

UfHkes Huei hxAn^frrf 

Ai>port-er, 1. to bring i fitudi-er, 1. to study; Laudi, m. Mendmft 
Bois, m. wood, forest ; Fleur, f. flower ; Pdche, £ foaeh ; 

Oapitame, m. captain ; Fraise, f. strawberrvf Prone, t plum, 
Caporftl, m. corporal; Framboise, t raspberry / 

1. Aimez voas 1« pain on la viande ? 2. Paime le pain, la viandBi 
et le frnit 9. Avons nous dea ptohes dans notre jaidin? 4. Nona jr 
avons dea p^chea, dea fraises, dea firaoiboiaea et dea cerises. 6. Mon- 
aienr votre fr^re aime-t-il lea cerises t 6. II n'aime gu^re lea cerisesi 
11 pr6f^re les prnnea. 7. Avez vooa dea ISgnmes? 8. Je n'aime 
point les legumes, b. Nous n^avona ni legumes ni fruits. [L.8. 3,4.] 
10. Nous n'aimona ni les legumes ni les fruits. 11. Allez vous tons 
les jours dans le bois de Monsieur votre fr^et 12. Je n*y vais paa 
tona les joura. 13. Votre soeur apporte-t-elle lea fleura t 14. EUe 
lea apporte. 16. Madame votre m^re apporte-t-elle . dea deora! 

16. Elle en aj^rte tons lea lundis. 17. Voyez vous le g6n6ial Ber- 
trand ? 18. Je ne le vols paa, je vols le caporal Duoh^ne. 19. Mea* 
demoiaeliea voa sceura aont elles fatigu^eal 20. Mes aoeura aont 
fiitigueea d'6tudler. 21. Monsieur le president eatJl chez loil 
29* Nom Monaieur, il eat chez Monsieur le colonel Dumont. 23. De- 
meure-t-il loin d*ici? 24. D ne demeure paa loin dMcL 26. Oh 
demeure-t-ilf 26. II demeure chez Monsieur le capitaine Iiebnin. 

SzsitoiSB 56. 
1. Does yonr aister like flowem? 2. My aiater likea flowera, and 
mif brother la fond of books. 8. Is he wrong to like books t 4. No, 
Sir, he is right to like books and flowers. 5. Have you many flowen 
in your gardens? 6. We have many flowera and much iVuil 7. It 
your couain fond of raspberries ? 8. My cousin is fond of raapberriea 
and * atrawberriea. 9. Is the captain fond of praises ? 10. He is noi 
fond of praises. 11. Haa the gardener brought yon vegotablea^ 
12. He has brought me vegetables and fruit* 13. Is he ashamed to 
bring you vegetablea? 14. He is neither ashamed nor afraid to sell 
Tegetables. 15. Is your mother tired? 16. My mother is not tired. 

17. la your brother at colonel D'a? 18. He lives at colonel D*s, but 
he is not at home at present (d priserd). 19. How many peaehea 
have you? 20. I have not many peaches, but I have many plnma. 
81. Doea Capt B. like peaehea? 22. He likes peaches,* plam% 

• ThesfeoAsntniaMaotftiieilbattliearltototoxepeaiMbelbreefViiy 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

» iod Btmwberrief . 33. Are yon gofnig into (dmu) yow 
lirolher^s wood! 24. I go there every morning. 26. Is general L 
heret 26. No, Sir, he is not here, he is at year eousin*s. 27. I>oes 
your friend, General H. live far from here? 28. He does not live far 
Irom here, he lives at his brother's. 29. Have you fine flowers in 
yonr garden? 30. We have very fine flowers; we are fond of 
flowers. 31. Do yon give them to him ? 32. I give them to yon. 
33^ I give you some. 34. I give them some. 35. Give us some. 
ML Do not give us any. 

' ^ "^ — 



1. Acyeetives of nation will, aoeording to R. 3 of the last 
be preceded by the article :— 

n apprend le fVaocais, Vanglais, He teams S)rtnckt SngUtk, Cfermmm 
rallumand et ritalieu. and ItaUan, 

3. Alter the verb parler, the article may be omitted before an ad- 
jeetive of nation, taken substantively:— 

YOreflfi^reparleeqMigttolet porta- Your hratker ipeois Spamitk mU 
gais. PortugwM, 

8. Hie artiole is not used in French before the number which fol- 
lows the name of a sovereign. This number, (unless it h^JttU and 
Moond) must be the cardinal, and not the c^dinal : — [{ 26, (3.)] 

Tons aves lliistoire de Henri qua- You have tke kiOarp of Btnff ikt 
tre. J!\mrtk, 

4. A word placed in apposition with a noun or pronoun is not In 
French preceded by un, une, a or on, unless it be quidified by an ad- 
jective or determined by the following part of the sentence. 

Totre ami est m^decin. Your friend is a pkfiician, 

Kotre fHre est avocat Owr trotiter is a iarrister, 

Yotre ami est un bon m6decfai. Your friend is a good pkffddam, 

Kotre fif^ftre est un avocat o61ibre. Qw frotker is a cMraUd o d oo e t An* 

5. Prxsxiit of thx iNDiCAnrs of tbb Ibrsoular VnM; 

AmaNnas, to&orift; GoNNAtTas, t9l:fi0i0; Savois, I0 linow; 

ra^rends, / Umm, do Je ocvmais, / Mmw, or Je saia, / knm^ m 4o 

liam^wamieamingf do know t knowi 

Tuapprends, Tuconnais Tusals, 

n apfwend, II ccmnalt, n salti 

Vous apprenoBs, Nous connaissoiiB, Nons savea% 

Tons Apprenoi, Vous connalssea, Vous savei, 

Hi apmmsttt Ds comaiasent Ds savent 


by Google 


6. Connattre means to hi acquainted with ; savoir, to hunot is uNI 
only of things. 

Oounaittez voos ce Fran^ais, cot 
Anglais, cet Allemdod, et cet 

Saves Tons le ftan^is, Taoglals, 
i'aHeinapd, et respagnol 1 

Do you know Hat Frtnckman^ I.Ul 
Engliskman, Uuu, German^ ami 
that Spaniard ? 

Do you know French, Enghshf iMr^ 
man, and Spanish ? 

R£8UMd OF Examples. 

Le capitaine O. sait il le fran9ais 1 
II ue le sait pas, mais il I'apprend. 
Counaissez vous le Docteur L. 1 
Je DO le connais pas, mais Je sais oik 

il demenre. 
Ge monsieur est il peintre 1 
Non, il est architecte. 
Ce monsieur est un architecte dis- 

Ce Fran9ais parle grec et arabe. 

n parte le grsc. I'arabe et I'itallen. 

hrez Tons vn Charles dix, frire de 

Does captain O. know French? 
He does not know il^ but learns iL 
Do you know Dr. L. ? 
I am not acquainted teiih him, but A 

know where he Uves. 
Is that gentleman a painter? 
iV0, he tsan archiieet. 
7%at gentleman is a distinguitUd 

That Frenchman speaks Cheek and 

He speaks the Greek, Arabic, and 

Italian languages. 
Have you seen Charles the T^enth, m 

brother of Louis the Eighteenth? 

ExsRonx 57. 

Allemand, e, Chrman ; Hongrois, e, Hungarian ; Qnatre, fimr ; 

Ancien, ne, ancients Langne, f. language; Russe, Russian 

Anglais, e, En^Ush; Modeme, modem i Su6dois, e, 

Chinois, e, Chinese ; Polonais, e, Polish, Pole ; Swede ; 

Danois, e, Danish, Dane ; Quatorse, fowrteen ; Tapissier, m. uphotderer. 

Grec, que, Greek i 

1. Connaissez Yousce Monsieur? 2. Oui, Madame, je le connais 
fortbien. 3. Savez vous de quel pays ilest? 4. II est hongrois. 
6. Parle-t-il allemand? 6. II parle allemand, polonais, russe, sud- 
doisy et danois. 7. N'est il pas m^decin? 8. Non, Monsieur, avant 
la rcTolution, il ^tait capitaine. 9. Avez vous envie d'spprendrt. Ic 
russe t 10 J'ai envie d'ap* rendre le russe et le grec modeme. 1 1. 
Connaissez vous les n> 'ttsieurs qui pcrlent ^ votre sceur? 12. J* 
ne les connais pas. j3. Savez vous oii ils demenrent! 14. lis de- 
meurent chez le tapissier de votre frdre. 15. N^avez vous pas This* 
toire de Louis (\uat«rze, dans votre bibliothdque ? 16. Je n^ai ni 
eelle de. Louis quatorze, ni celle de Henri quatre. 17. Avez voua 
tort d*apprendre le chinois ? 18. Je n'ai pas tort d'apprendre le eht* 
nois. 19. Vos compagnons apprennent ils les langues anciennes f 
90. Us savent plusieurs langues anciennes et modernes. 31. ParUi 
voua angbuaf 32. Je sais Tanglais et je le parle. 28. GoimaiaMB 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

Lftitoir xtzi. M 

vmM PAngljufl que nous vojronftt 94. Je ne le eonnaia pas. S& L 
ne me coonait poa et je ne le connaia paa. 

ExsRCiBS 58. 
1. Does oni physician know French ? 3. He knowa French, En^ 
liafa, and German. 3. Does he know the French physician? 4. He 
kDOWs him yery well. 6. Are you acquainted with that lady? & I 
am not acquainted with her. 7. Is she a German or a Swede ? 8. 
She is neither a German nor a Swede, she is a Russian. 9. Do yon 
intend to speak to her ? 10. I intend to speak to her in (en) English. 
II. Does she know English? 12. She knows several languages; 
die speaks English, Danish, Swedish, and Hungarian. 13. Is your 
brother a colonel? 14. No, Sir, he is a captain. 16. Is your up- 
holsterer a Dane ? 16. He is not a Dane, he is a Swede. 17. Are 
yon a Frenchman? 18. No, Sir, I am a Hungarian. 19. Do yon 
know Chinese? 20. I know Chinese, Russian, and modem Greek. 
21. Are you wrong to learn languages ? 22. I am not wrong to 
learn languages. 23. Do you know the Englishman who lives at 
your brother's ? 24. I am acquainted with him. 26. I am not ac- 
quainted with him. 26. Do you like books? 27. I am fond of 
books. 28. Have you a desire to learn Russian I 29. I have no de* 
aire to learn Russian. 30. Have you no time ? 31.1 have but little 
time. 32. What do yon learn ? 83. We learn Latin, Greek, French, 
and German. 8^4. Do you not learn Spanish? 86. We do not 



1. Qui, used as nominative, may relate to persona or to things :— 
Les fleurs qui aont dans votre Jardin. Thejlowers wkich are in your garden, 

2. Qui, used as the object of a verb, can only be said of persona. 

It is used interrogatively with or without a preposition :— 

Qui Totrc fVftre voit in Whmndoesfour hrolheraee? 

Do qui paries vous ce matin 1 Cfwhom do you apeak tkU morningt 

8. Que may be said of persons or things. It can never be undei* 

atood, and must be repeated before eveiy verb. [L. 19. 1.] 

Les personnes que nous voyons. The persons whom we see. 

Lea langnes qne nous apprenons. Th£ languages which we le^Nrn, 

4. Ce que is employed for that whiclh or its equivalent wto.v— 

Ce que vous apprenes est utile. Thai wkick you team is utMU 

TroiveB vooa oe que vooa chercbes. DoyonfindwheAyeutiekJU t 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


itftsoir xxxh 

& Qqa aiwweri to the Engltili proaoim uJmi^ vaed abaolvCdy W 
foro ft veib: — 

Qne penaoz toiis de oelal What do you think ofikmL7 

6. Quoi, when not used as an exclamation, is generally preeedad 
ly a preposition, and relates only to things :— 

De qnoi youlex Tons parler 1 
A qnoi penses tousI 

Of what do you think ? 

7. Lequel, m., laquelle, €, lesquels, m. p., lesquelles, f. p., tohichy ui 

which one^ [L. 18. 6.] or which cnes^ relate to persons or things. Thej 

may be preceded by a preposition :~^ 

Lequel arez Tons apportd 1 Which one httve ffou ir&ughl 7 

Duquel parlez yens % Of which one do you ipeak ? 

8. Dont, of tohidty or cf tohcm^ tohogCy may relate to persons or 

things, in the masculine or feminine, singular or plural. It can nevor 

be used absolutely and must always be preceded by an antecedent* 

It is preferable to de qui or duquel, &c. 

Lea fleurs dont yous me paries. T%eJUnoers of which you tpeak to sm. 
Les demoiselles dont votre sceur tous The young ladies of whom your ntW 
parle. spooks to you. 


Di-EE, 4. to say. Fai-rc, 4. to make^ to do. Hbtt-rk, 4. to puL 
Je dis, Isay, do say^ or Je fltis, / make or do, J Jemets, Iput,dopmi,m 
am saying. am making or doing. amfipuUi<tg. 


Nous disons, 
Yous dites, 


Yous fkites, 
Us font 

RASUMft 07 ExAMPLxa. 


Nous mettons, 
Yous mettes, 


Connaisses yous le monsieur 

parte k notre cousin 1 
Je connais oelul qui lui parle. 
Coraprenez tous ce que je vous d!s1 
Qui vova a parl4 de cette afikire 1 
L' Anglais dont tous paries est id. 

L'Espsgnol dont la sobut est id. 
Que AUes tous oe matin 1 
Que dites tous k notre ami 1 
Nous fklsons ce que tous nous dites. 
Pour qui fkites tous cet habit 1 
De quo! parWz tous k Totre ttkre 1 
Nous fidsoos oe que nous pouTons. 
Moos parlous de ce dont tous parks. 

Do you know the gentlewtam wkt 

spooks to otvr courin 7 
I know him who speaks to Aim. 
Do you understand what I saytomm7 
Who has sffokon to you of this afirirf 
ne Englishman of whom you spook 

is here. 
The Spaniard whose sistor is here. 
What do you do this moming7 
What do you say to ourfriend7 
We do that which you say tons. 
Fbr whom do you make this €oot7 
Of what do you speak to your krotktrt 
We do what we can. 
We speak of that ofwueh you spook. 


by Google 

tBStov xatzt 101 

BxxBdss 59. 

Antf'et,l.i0mnwtg Habillement, m. inesr, P1aiiir,ir.jAkitw«i 
Avec,iPiU; clothes t Protquo, o^nmu^I 

Cofline, m. trunk; HoIlaDdals, e, Dutch i Rien, wlhing; 

Commftnd-er. 1. to order f Linge, m. Unen ; Soulier, m. mm/ 

fioosaais, e, Scotch s Monsieur, m. gentknumi Vrai, e, true. 
Sofiuitk m. chiidg Mym, m. name; 

1. Qui eonnaistez toqs? 2. Nous connaissons les Hollandius doni 
^ous nous parlez. 3. Quelles k9on3 apprenez vons 1 4. Nona ap- 
prenoaa lea le^ona que voua ndua recommandez. 6. Ce que je TOiia 
dia eat il vrai ? 6. Ce que voua nous ditea est vnL 7. De q«i nom 
paries voua? 8w Noua voua parlous des ficoaaaia qui viennent d'ani* 
ver. 9. Savez vouaqui vient d^arrivert 10. Je saia que le monaienr 
que votre fr^re connaH vient d'arriver. 11. Voa aoaura que font 
elles? 12. Ellca ne font presque rien, ellea n'ont presque rien k faire. 
13. Que mettez vous dans votre coffre? 14. Nous y mettons ce que 
nous avona, noa habillements et notre linge. 16. N*y mettez voua 
paa voa souliers? 16. Nous y mettona les souliers dont nous avona 
besoin. 17. De quoi avez vous besoin? 18. Noua avona beaoin de 
ce que nous avona. 19. Get enfant salt il ce qu'il fait? 20. U salt 
ce qu'il fait et ce qu^ii dit. 21. Ne voulez voua pas le leur dire? 
22. Avee beaueoup de plaisir. 23. Faites vous ce que le marchand 
vous commande ? 24. Nous faiaona ce qull nous dit. 25. II parte 
de ce dont voua parlez. 

Etkrcisb 60. 

1. Have you wbat (ce dont) you want? 2. We have what we want 
8. Is the gentleman whom you know, here? 4. The lady of whom 
you speak is here. 5. Is she just arrived ? [U 26. 2.] 6. She is just 
arrived. 7. Do you know that gentlemwi ? 8. 1 know the gentleman 
who ia speaking with your father. 9. Do you know hia name ? 10. 1 do 
not know his name, but I know where Ins lives (demeure). 1 1. What 
do yon do every morning? 12. We do almoat nothing; we have very 
ittle to do. 13. Does the tailor make your clothes? 14. Ho makea 
my clothes, my brother*s, and my cousin's. 16. Do you know what 
yon say? 16. 1 know what I^say, and what I do. 17. Do you know 
the Scotchman of whom your brother speaks ? 18. 1 know him well. 
19 What does he put into bis trunk? 20. He puts his clothes. 
21. Is that which you say, true? 22. What I aay is true. 23. Do 
yoQ understand that which I say to you? 24. I understand all thai 
you aay. 26. Of whom does your brother speak ? 26. He apeaka of 
the gentkauui whoae aiatar k here* 97. Ia your brother wrong to 


by Google 

UM Litsoir xxxtu 

do what he dotdvf 38. He eannot be wrong to do it 29. What »■ 
yoQ doing? 80 I am doing that which you do. 31. Where do yoa 
put my books! 83. Into (darui) your brother^s trunk. 33. la your 
Arother here ? 34. He is not here. 35. He is at my brother^a, or at 
uy fiither'a. 

LESSON xxxn. LEgoN xxxn. 

!• The verb mettre is used in the same sense as the English to put 

mif in speaking of garmenta. Mettre le couvert, means to lay A§ 

dotk, ortetthe table:^ 

Quel chapean mettes tous 1 What hat do yen put on? 

Votre frAre met son habit noir. Y(nvr brother puts on his blaek coaL 

Le domestique va mettre le couvert The servant is going to taiif the etoilL 

3. Oter means to take off^ to lake atoay, to take out :~^ 

Mod domestique 6te son chapeaiL My servant takes off his kal. 

Otez CO livre de la table. Take away thai book from the taHe. 

N'a-t-on pas 6t6 le diner 1 Have they not taken away the dinner f 

. 8. The verb^faire is used before another verb, in the sense of to 
ftave, to cause. 

Yotre frftre fait il bitfr une maison 1 Does your brother have a house bmU ? 
D en fait bltir plus d'uno. He has more than one bmlL 

4. It may be used in the same sense before its own infinitive >— 

Je ihis fairs nn habit de dn^). / have a doth coat made. 

Vous fattcs fiiire des souliers de cuir. You have leather shoes made* 

6. Vouloir [L. 38. 6.] followed by dire is used in the aense of to 
fiieavi.*— » 

Que vonlez vous dire 1 What do you mean ? 

Votre soenr que veut ello dire 1 What does your sister mean 7 

RfisuMjft OF Examples. 

Ne mettes vous pas vos habits 1 

J'ai peur de les giter. 

Ke portez vous jamais votre habit 

Je le mets tous les samedis. 
Pourquoi n'dtez vous pas votre 

manteau 1 
J'ai trop frokl, J'ai peur de I'dter. 

Faites vous raccommoder vos sou- 
liers 1 
Je fkis raccommoder mes habits. 
le (his ftire one pairs do bottea. 

Do you not put on yo¥.r dotka 7 

I am afraid of spoiling them. 

Do you never wear your black coat 7 

I put it on every Saturday, 

Why do you not take off your doak f 

lam too cold, I am afraid to take tt 

Do you hone yowr shoes mended7 

I hone my clothes mended. 


by Google 



!• IUh ereiaer nn pirits. 

Voire ftrire que veut il dire 1 

Que ret2t dir^ cela 1 

OgU Be yeut rien dire. 

Otez VOI18 vos aoulicrs et TO0 bu 1 

Jo n'dte ni les uhb ni les autres. 
Le dimsi est pr^t ; le domestique va 

mettre le couvert. 
Voulez YOUB 6ter le convert 1 

Je Tais mettre le convert 
Je vaia dter le convert 

/ kaive a loeS duf. 

What does yowr hrether 1 

What does thai mean 7 

Thai means nothing. 

Do you take off your shoes and stoek* 

I take off neither these nor those. 
Dinner is ready: the servant U 

going to toy the clcth. 
Will you take awa^ the things fi om 

I am going to lay the elath 
J am going to take away the thmgs. 

1. to 

Prftt, e, ready s 

Tout-a-l'henre, immedi* 

Uniforme, m. uniforms 
Velours, m. vdvn 

EzsRCiss 61. 

Apothicaire, m. drug-Qit-er^ 1, to spoil ; 

gist ; Gilet, m. loaislcoeU ; 

Apr^f after; Grand, e, large, very; 

Cave, f. cellar: Manteau, m. cloak f 

Creua-er, 1. to dig ; Noir, e, black ; 
Pimanche, m. Sunday; Pantonfle, f. slippers 
Viner, ta. dinfier ; Pourquoi, toAy; 

F&cbd, e, sorry, angry; 

1. Le general N. met il son nniforme! 2. lime le met point 
8. Pourquoi ne portez vous point votre manteau noir f 4. J*ai penr 
de le g&ter. 5. Mettez vous vos souliers de satin tons les matins? 
6. Je ne les mets que les dimanehes. 7. II est midi ; le domestique 
met il le convert? 8. II ne le met pas encore ; il va le mettre tont-^ 
llienre. 9. Le diner n'est il pas pr6t ? 10. Le domestique 6te-t-il 
le convert? 11. H ne I'6te pas encore, 11 n'a poa le temps de r6ter. 
12. Otez vous votre habit quand vous avez chaud ? 13. Je Tdte 
quand j'ai tr'op chaud. 14. Faites vous faire un habit de drap? 15. 
Je fais faire un habit de drap et nn gilet de satin noir. 16. Ne faites 
vous point raccommoder vos pantoufles de velours ? 17. Ne faites 
vous pas creuser une cave? 18. Je fais creuser une grande cave. 
19. L'apothicaire que veut il dire? 20. H veut dire qu'il a besoin 
d*argent 31. Savez vous ce que cela veut dire? 22. Cela vent dire 
que votre fr^re est f^h6 centre vous. 23. Avez vous envie de met- 
tre votre manteau ? 24. Joi Tintention de le mettre, car j'ai grand 
iroid. 25. Je vais Tdter, car j'ai chaud- 

ExsRCiBS 62. 
1. Do yon take off your coat ? 2. I do not take off my coat, I put 
tt on. 8. Do you take off your cloak when you are cold ? 4. When 
I am cold I put it on. 6. Does your little boy take off his shoes and 
stockings ? [} 21, (4.)] 6. He takes them off, but he is going to put 
Unm on agaia (fwmtire). 7. Does that Utile girl lay thoelotfa I 8. 


by Google 

ID4 ifittotf txxtth 

She laya theeloth everydflcy at noon (ffiuK). 9. Docs she taloe awsy 
the things after dinner? 10. She takes away the tilings every day. 
11. Do yoa intend to have a coat made I 13. I intend to have a coal 
made. 13. I am going to liave a coat and a vest made. 14. Does 
yonr. brother have his boots mended? 15. He has them mended 
la What does your son mean ? 17. I do not know what he means. 
18. Is he angry with me or with my brother? 19. He is neither 
ngry with yon nor with yonr brother. 30. Is he afraid to spoil his 
coat? 21. He is not afraid to spoil it. 23. Does the dmggist want 
money? 23. He does not want money. 34. Has your sister taken 
my book from the table? 26. She has not taken it away. 26. Why 
do yon take off yonr shoes? 27. I take them off because they hart 
me (jrinenl), 38. Do you intend to have a house built? 29. I in- 
tend to have one built 30. Does the tailor spoil your coat?. 31. 
He does not spoil it 32. Who spoils your clothes ? 33. No person 
spoils them. 34 What hat do you wear ? 35. I wear a black hat 



I The unipersonal verb is conjugated only in the third person 
shigular of a tense. Its nominative pronoun il, it, is used absolutely, 
i. e. it represents no noun previously expressed. 

n pleut ai\jourd'hui. Il rai?ts to-^y. 

2. The unipersonal verb assumes the termination of the class or 
conjugation to which it belongs. Some verbs are always uniper* 
sonal, and will be found in J 63. Others are only occasionally so, 
and if irreguhir, will be foi^iQd in the personal form in the same } 62. 

8. Pkxssnt Of THS Indicative of ths Unipxbsonal VsKBa, 

T Avota, to be there: Pleutois, to rain : Njeioek, to sn&m: 
II y a, there is, there are, II pleut, U rains^ it is li nelge, it snows, U U 
raining. snowing, 

GaiLBB, to hail. Oeler, to freeze, Dkobles, to thaw, 

n ^le (^ 40.) U haiis, U D ^le (^ 49.) U freezes, H d6gdle (^ 49.) U aaws, 
u hailing. U is freezing, it is thawing, 

4. n y a, means ihere is, or there ore, and may be foLowed ny a 
lingular or plural nonn» [} 61, 2.] 

n y a da gibier an march6. There is game in the markei. 

nyadaspomnMsdaasvotieJardiiL 7%ere are applet mymrgm^m 


by Google 

ittteii zxxixi. 


Al In rdaiioD to tiie weather, the verb fiui* k vm4 xmlipmmmXtf 

In the eame nuuiner as the English verb to ie. 

It is Jim PiMlkgr ir-iof. 
It is warmt it is coU, 

n Ikit beaa temps aujourd'hiii 


Plent il ce matin 1 

II ae pleat fKU, il neige. 

11 va plcuvoir ce matin. 

He g61e-t-il pas ce matin 1 

11 ne ^lo pas, il fait du bronillard. 

Y a-t-il dn sacre chez vous 1 

n 7 en a beanoonp chez mon flr^re. 

Y a-t-il plusleors personnes chez 

D 7 a plus de cent personnes. 

N'7 a-t-il personne a I'^glise 1 

n n'v a encore personne. 


An oontraire, il est trop tard. 

Fait il ft-oid on chaud ac^nrdlini 1 

n fait chaud et hnmide. 

Fait il dn vent on dn broulllard 1 

II fait UD temps bien dtagrteble. 

Does il rain this morning 7 
It does not rain^ U snows. 
It is going to rain this moming. 
Does it not freeze this morning 7 
It does notfreexe^ it is foggy- 
Is there any sugar at yow house 7 
There is a great deal at mybrother*s» 
Are there several persons at nuf house 7 

T%ere are mote than one hundred 

Is there nobody at church ? 
There isasyetTut one there. 
Is it too soon ? 

On the contrary, it is too late. 
Is it cold or voarm tO'day7 
It is warm and damp. 
Is it windy or foggy ? 
It is very 

EzsRClSB 63. 

Assemble, f. assemUyf Convert, e, dondy^ Mannscrit, m. amwi^ 

party; ficurie, f. sto^e ; script; 

Biblioth^ne, f. Ubraryi fipais, se, thick ; Veau, dl veali 

Bronillard, m.fogs Foin, m. hays Vent. m. winds 

Chambre, f. room ; Gibier. ul gam£ ; YolalUe, f. poultry, 

Cinquante, Jlfty ; Hnmide, damp ; 

1. Qnel temps fait il aujourd'hni? 2. D fait un temps snperba. 
3. Fa\ il tr^s beau temps aujourd'hui? 4. II fait un temps couvert 
et hi jnide. 5. Plent il beaueoup ce matin ? 6. II ne pleut pas en- 
core, mais 11 ya pleuvoir. 7. Fait il du vent ou du brouilkrd? 8. H 
ne fait pas de vent 9. Le brouillard est trds epais. IG. Combien 
de personnes 7 a^t-il k I'assembl^e ? 11. II 7 a plus de deux centa 
[L. 20. 7.] personnes. 12. N'7 a^t^il pas beaueoup de manuscrita 
dans votre biblioth^que? 13. 11 n'7 en a pas beaueoup, il n'7 en a 
que cinqnante-einq. 14. Fait il trop froid pour vous dans eette 
chambre ? 15. 11 n'7 fait ni trop froid ni trop chand. 16. Y a-t-il 
beaueoup de foin dans votre 6curie ? 17. II 7 en a assez pour mon 
cheval. 18. Restez vous k la maison qnand il pleut 1 19. Qnand il 
^nt je leate k la maison, mais qnand il fait bera tempa jo vaiii choi 
eonabL 80. Y a.t41 da laviande an marcMt 91. Df «■ n 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 


biUKOs^ 11 y a amal du giUer. SS. H y a d« vean, dn mouton •! 
delavolailld. 23. N*ya-t-il pas anaal des legumes etdes fhuta* 
S4. n n*y eaa pas. 26. II y en a anssL 

Exercise 64. 

1. Are yon cold this morning t 2. I am not cold, it is wsrm this 
morning. 8. Is it foggy or windy ? 4. It is neither foggy nor windy, 
It rains in torrents (d verse), 5. Is it going to min or to snow ! 6. 
It is going to freeze, it is very cold. 7. It is windy and foggy. 8. 
Is there any body at year brother's to-day 1 9. My brother is at 
nome, and my sister is at church. 10. Is there any meat in the mar- 
ket! 11. There is meat and poultry. 12. Is it too warm or too 
cold, for your sister, in this room? 13. It is not so warm in this 
room, as in your brother^s library. 14. Are there good English 
books in your sister^s library ? 15. There are some good ones. 16. 
Are there peaches and plums in your garden? 17. There/ are many. 
18. Do you remain at your brother^s, when it snows? 19. When it 
snows we remain at home. 20. Are there ladies at your mother's t 
21. Your two sisters are there to-day. 22. Have you time to go 
and fetch them? 23. I have no time this morning. 24. Is your 
horse in the stable ? 26. It is not there, it is at my brother's. 26. 
Does it hail this morning? 27. It does not hail, it freezes. 28. 
What weather is it this morning? 29. It is very fine weather. 
80. Is it too warm ? 81. It is neither too warm nor too cold. 82. 
Is it going to freeze? 83. It is going to snow. 34. Does it snow 
#very day ? 86. It does not snow every day, but it snows very often 



1, In simple tenses, the adverb generally follows the tcrb, ind la 
placed as near it as possible :~^ 

Votre commis ^crit trte bien. Yowr dtrk writes very leeU. 

Cette demuiBelle lit trds mal. T%ai young lady reads very Utdly, 

2. Wjen a verb is in the infinitive, the two negatives ne and paii 
fte a«id rien, should be placed before it:— 

M» pas partoTp ne pes Ifare. Na to speak, mai ie rmd. 


by Google 

Lsssoir xzxxr. 10) 

8. Th« adTerb anez, enough^ tolerably^ priwedes genemlly Uw 

other adverbs. It precedes also adjeetives and nouns :~^ 

Vous ficrivez asst^z correctement. Ycu write mtUy comtCbf. 

Yous avez asstiS de livres. Ycm havt looks ewntgk, 

Cet enfant est assez attentif. That child is atUnlive enough. 

4. Voici means, here is ; voillL, there is ;— 

Void le livre qne tous aimez. Here is the book which you Uke, 

YtMk le monsieur dont tous parlez. There is the gentleman of wham ym 

b. Dans is used for in or into, when the noun which follows it is 

preceded by an article, or by a possessive, demonstrative, or numeral 

adjective. [} 142, (2.)] :— 

Le crayon est dans le pupitre. 7%« peiieU is in the desk, 

Mettez oette lettre dans votre malle. Put this letter into your trunk. 

6. En renders <o, in, or into, coming after the verbs to 5e, to gOj to 

reside, followed by the name of a part of the earth, a country, or 

province :— 

Notre ami est en France. Our friend is in Prance. 

Vous allez en Italic. You go to Italy. 

7. The preposition & is used for the words at or to, in or into, b^ 
fore the name of a toMm, city, or village, preceded by the verbs men- 
tioned above : — 

n va & Paris le mois prochain. He is going to Paris next month, 

8. The same preposition is used in the expressions, di la campag]ie» 

4 la ville, ^ la chassei k la p6che, &c. 

Nous aliens k la campagne. We go into the country. 

Vous n'allez pas h la \ille. You do not go to the aty. 

Je vais k la chasse et Ula pdche. / go hunting and fishing. 

9. Ikdicatiys Pkessnt ow tbs lRR£auLAB Verbs, 

CoNom-as, 4. to conduct. ficai-RS, 4. to write. Lz-se, 4. to read. 
Je Gondnis, / conduct^ i^ J'teris, / write, do write^ Je lis, / read, do read or 

conduct, or am con- ox am, writing ; am readings 

ducting i 

Tb conduis, Tu ^cris, Tn lis, 

n conduit, II 6crit, D lit, 

KoDS conduisons, Nons 6crivons, Nous lisons, 

Vous conduisez, Vous ficrivez, Vous lisei, 

lb condnlsent lis icrivenk Us lisent 


Votre parent Mii U bieni 
XI tait assez bion ot asses vlte. 

leva ttvODS assea da Uvies. 

Does yew relation write weU? 

He writes well ementgh emd ryiii% 

We hene ho$ki em^K 


by Google 



VOQS MMBOI UMt irttOltlft 4 MM 

Voila la demoiaelle dont vous parlez. 

Voire cheval n'est H pM dans le 

champ 1 
II n'y est pas, i1 est dans le Jardin. 
Allez V01U en France cette aim6e 1 
Noiis aliens & Paris et k Lyon. 
Ou condoises yom oe Jeune homme 1 
Je le condais en Alleraagne. 
Demeurez vous a la ville 1 
Nons demearons k la campagne. 
Allei Tons souvent k la chasse 1 
Nous alloDs qaelquefois a la p6che. 

There is tJu yaun^ ladf of lekm jwti 

h not your hcru va ike fiild? 

It is fu4 there f Uisinike garden. 
Do you go to Pranee tkis year? 
We goto Paris and to /jyons, 
Wher< do you take this young wimnf 
I take him to Qermany. 
Do you live in the town 7 
We live in (he country. 
Do you go often kuniing? 
We sometimes go fishing. 

Anoctt, m. partner f 
Canif, m. penknife; 
Campagne, f. country; 
Chasse, f. hunting ; 
Commls, m. derkg 


Port, very; 
Pdche, tjlshing; 
Prusse, f. Prussia; 
Rapidement, rapidly; 
Bend-re, 4. to return; 

Bxdaae, f. SkrtlxerimUi 
Terre, f. /arm, estatoy 
T\\\e,t town, city s 
Vite, quUkiy; 
Voyage, xa.jowrr^. 

1. ficrivez vous encore la m6me leyon ! 3. Je n^ecris pms la m&me, 
j*en 6cri8 nne autre. 3. Votre eommia 6crit il rapidement 1 4. n 
^rit fort bien, mais il n*^rit pas ylte. 6. N*avez vona paa aaaei 
d*argent pour acbeter cette terre ? 6. J'ai asaez d'ai;gent, mais j'ai 
rintention de faire un voyage en France. 7. VoiU votre livre, en 
avez vona beaoin? 8. Je n'en ai paa besoin, j*en ai on autre. 9. Avez 
T0U8 encore beaoin de mon canif? 10. Je n'en al plna beaoin, je vaia 
▼Otts le rendre. 11. Notre cousin demeure-tol & la ville? 12. II ne 
demenre plus k la ville, il demenre k la campagne. 13. Aime-t-il k 
aller k la chasse? 14. II n'aime pas k aller k la chasse. 15. II va 
tons lea joura k la p6che. 16. Notre associe eat il & Paria ou ji 
Rouen? 17. II eat k Marseille. 18. OOi avez vous Tintention de con- 
duire votre fils? 19. Je vais le conduire en Italic. 90. Demeurez 
vona k Milan ou k Florence? 31. Je ne demeure ni k Milan ni k 
Florence, je demeure k Turin. 23. Votre ami demeure-t-il en Suisse? 
83. II ne demeure plna en Suisse, il demeure en Prusae. 34. Votre 
domoatique eat il ^ T^glise? 36. Non, Monsieur, il eat ^l T^cole. 

ExsRCisx 66. 

1. Doea your clerk write aa well aa jour bob? 3. He writes toler- 
abij well, but not so well as tny son. 8. I^ave jou books enough 
in your library? 4. I have not books enough, but I intend to buy 
flome more. 6. Here ia your aiater'a letter, will you xead it? (X. I 
intend to read it 7. Doeayonr aim Uke togoMiing? 8.Ba1ikat 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

U gB nMng mod kmitiog. 9. When does be like to go fiehiiif t 
10. When I am in the country. 1 1. What do you do when you are 
in the eity ? 12. When I am in tlie city, I read and learn my leasou. 
13. Do yoQ intend to go to France this year? 14. 1 intend to go to 
Gennany. 15. Will yon go to the city if it (s'il) rains? 16. When it 
isins I always remain at home. {R. 1.] 17. How many friends liave 
yon in the city? 18. 1 have many friends there. 19. Are there many 
English in Fkanee ? 20. There are many English in France and in 
Italy (Xfoite). 31. Are there more English in Germany than in Italy ? 
93. There are more English in Italy than in Germany. 23. Is it fine 
weather in Italy ? 34. It is yery fine weather there. 25. Does it 
often freeze there? 36. It freezes sometimes there, but not often. 
37. Does that young lady read as well as her sister? 28. She reads 
better than her sister, but her sister reads better than L 29. Is there 
any one at your house? 30. My father is at home. 31. Is your 
brother-in-law absent? 32. My brother-in-law is at your house. 
33. There is no one at home to-day. 


1. The indefinite pronoun on has no exact equivalent in Engiiao. 
It may be rendered by one, toe, ihey^ f0op2^ ^^v according to tl% 
context On has, of course, no antecedent, and seldom refers to a 
partiealar person, [; 41, (4.) (6.) } 113.] :— 

On doit hoDorer la vertu. We should kcmor virtue. 

On nous apporte de I'argent Money is brought to %s. 

2. As may be seen in the l&st example, on is often the nominative 

of an active verb, which is best rendered in English by the passive^ 

U 113,(1.)]:- 

Cm dit que votre 6poufle est ici. tt is said that your tnfe is hert. 
On raoonte des bistoires singulidres. Singular histories are reUUed, 
On r6colte beancoup de bl£ en Mu£h wheat is harvested (grown) m 
France. JFYance. 

8. Avoir lieu, answers to the English exptession, to tdke fiace >^ 

Ccla a lien tons les Jours. That takes place every day, 

4 Aa lieu de, answers to the English, instead of. The veib whidi 
MItfwa it must, warding to Rule 2, L. 91, be pat m the iBfinitm>— 
AvHrad'MwIier.flJoiie. HtteadeftMying,kefUty$, 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 


L«8B0R XZXr. 

6. DoToir, to ove^ is used before an mfinittve, like Ihe Engfifih Teib. 

iobeyio express obligation :^- 

Je dois III! 6crire domain. I am to wrile to Mm to-momno. 

Nous devons j aller domain. We are to go there to-morrow. 

6. Recevoir des nottvelles, means, to hear from : — 

DercE voos recevoir des nouvelles Are ^ow to kearfrom your sister? 
de votre soenr. 

7. Entendre parler» answers to the English phrase, to hear cf oi 


£ntendei Tons sonvent parler de J>o you often kem of yemir fritmisf 
V08 amis'? 

RfisuM^ OF Examples. 

Qnc dit on de nous dans la tUIc 1 

On ne parle pas de tous. 

Ne mange-t-on pas tons les Jours 1 

On mange qusnd on a faim. 

On trouve beaucoup d'or en Cali- 

Dit on (|uelque chose de nouveau 1 
On ne dit rien de nonreau. 
A-t-on re^u des nouvelles de Qeoigel 

On n'a point entendu parler de lul. 
On n'a point recu de ses nouvelles. 
Devez vous 6cnre a notre ami 1 
Je dots hii 6crire demain. 
Le concert doit il avoir lieu ce soir 1 

U doit avoir lieu ce matin. 
Je viens au lieu de mon fVdre. 
II danse au lieu de marcher. 

What do they say of us in the city? 
People do not speai of you. 
Do not people eat every day ? 
People eat when they are hungry. 
Much gold is found in California, 

Do they (people) say any thing new? 

Nothing new is said. 

Has any thing been heard from 

Nothing has been heard of him. 
They have not heard from him. 
Are you to write to our friend? 
I am to write to him to-morrow. 
Is the concert to take ptaet this i 

It is to take place this morning. 
J come instead ofrmy brother. 
He dances instead of walking. 

Part-ir, 2. ir. to depart, te 

set outt to leave ; 
Prochain, e. next ; 
8av-oir, 8. ir. to knowg 
Voyage, m. j(wm«y. 

ExxRCiSB 67. 

AfHque, f. Africa ; Foum-ir, 2. to furnish ; 

Alger, Algiers ; Habits, m. p. clothes ; 

Apport-er, 1. to bring: Malade, sick ; 

Pemain, to-morrows Mois, m. months 

Piamant, m. diamond ; Or, m. gold ; 

1. Vous apporte-t-on de I'argent tous les jours? 2. On ne m^ea 
apporte pas tous les jours. 3. Vous foumit on des habits quand 
vous en avez besoin ? [L. 22.] 4. On m'en foumit toutes les foia 
(ecery iimi) que j'en ai besoin. 6. A-t-on besoin d^argent quand on 
est malade t 6. Quand on est malade, on en a grand besoin. 7. 
Avez vous re^u des nouvelles de mon fils ? 8. Je n*ai point re9n de 
sea neuveCles. 9. Ne dit on pas qu'il est en Afrique? 10. Chi dit 
qu'il doit partir potur Alger. 11. Quand doit il conunencer son 
voyage t 13. On dit qu'il doit le oommeocer le mois proehain. VL 


by Google 


Ce manage a*t-il liea a^jourd'hiil on demAin ? 14. On nous dit quU 
doit avoir lien cette aprds-midL 16. ifaura lieu k ciDq heures ot 
demie. 16. Avez vous envie de venir au lieu de votrefr^re? 17. 
Mon frere doit venir an lieu de notre cousin. 18. Avez vous Tin- 
tention de lui dire ee quMl doit faire? 19. II sait ce quL doit faire. 
SO. Savez vous ce qu'on dit de nouveau? 21. On ne ditriende 
noQveau. 22. Trouve-t-on beaucoup d'or en Califomie 1 23. C^n y 
en trouve beaucoup. 24. Y trouve-t-on ausai dee diamantaf 26* 
On n*y en trouve point, on n'y trouve que de Tor. 

Exercise 68. 
1. What do people say of met 2. People say that you are not 
very attentive to your lessons. 3. Is it said that much gold is found in 
Africa ? 4. It is said that much gold is found in California. 6. Do they 
bring you books every day ! 6. Books are brought to me [R. 2.] 
every day, but I have no time to read them. 7. What should one do 
(dnit anjaxre) virhen one is sick ? 8. One should send for a physician. 
9. Do you send for my brother ? 10. I am to send for him this 
morning. 11. Do you hear from your son every day? 12. I hear 
from him every Ume that your brother comes. 13. Does the sale 
(ven^ f.) take place to-day ? 14. It takes place this afternoon. \h. 
At what time (Aeure) does it take place ? 16. It takes place at half 
after three. 17. I have a wish to go there, but my brother ia siok. 
18. What am I to do ? 19. You are to write to your brother, who, 
it is said {dit on\ is very sick. 20. Is he to leave for Africa? 21. 
He is to leave for Algiers. 22. Do you come instead of your fiiUier ? 
23. I am to write instead of him. 24. Does the concert take place 
this morning ? 25. It is to take place this afternoon. 26. Do you 
know at what hour? 27. At a quarter before five. 28. Is your 
brother coming? 29. My brother is not coming, he has no timo 
80. Are you angry with your brother? 31. I am not angry with 
him. 32. Is any thing new said? (Is there any thing new?) 33 
There is nothing new. 34. What is said of him? 86. Nothing i 
■aid of him. 


REFLECTIVE VERBS. (§ 43, (6.) ^ 66.) 

1. A verb ia called reflective or pronominal, when it is conjagaled 

vitk two proaonna of the tame persony i. e., the vsiuil nominatlfe 

d by Google 

Digitized t 

lis isitoir iszTL 

pronoQn tnd the pronomiB me, te, se, &c. [} 66.] la tlMM Torbt tUt 
aubjeot is represented as acting upon itself: — 

Je m'applique a r^tnde. / apply (mfself) to study, 

Je me propose de voyager. J propose {to myself) to innd, L e. 

is my intention to travel. 

In these verbs, the second pronoun is in fact only the objective 
pronoan direct or indirect, which, according to Rules 1 and S, Lesaoa 
27, is placed before the verb. 

2. The reflective form of the verb, which is much more frequently 
used in French than in English, oilen answers to the passive form 
■o common in the latter language :*- 

Oette marchandise se vend (kdle- Thai merchandise is easily sold. 
menk ( Thai merchandise sells itself easily, 

CelaseihitamsL [Thai does itself so. 

8. The verb se porter, literally to carry one^s self, is used idiomati* 
eally for to do or to be in speaking of health : — 

Comment vous portes vous 1 How do you do 7 
Je me porte trds bien. / am very weU, 

4. S*asseoir, [4. ir. see { 62.] to $it down, is also a reflective v^>« 
Voire flrdre s'assied. Your brother sits down. 

5. Se promener means to wdBct to ride, &c for pleasure, or health :^ 

Je me promine tous les Jours. I take a walk every day. 
Je me promftne k cheval. / take a ride. 

6. Marcher, aller ^ cheval, aller en voiture, signify to walk or ta 

ride, when we wish to express simply, the manner of progressing >— 

Marches vous beaucoup tons les Do you walk much every day? 

Jours 1 
Je vais k cheval et en voiture. I ride on horseback and in a carriage, 

7. Conjugation of the Prksknt of tbb Indicativb of tbs 

Rbflectiys Verbs, 

8s POKT-BB, I. to be CT Br promen-eb, 1. ^woMrS'AssB-oiBi 8. ir. t# Ml 

dj f or rides down ; 

Je me porte, lamotdofJe mo promftne, I take aJe m'assieds, I sit down. 

walk or ride; or am siUing dawn / 

Tu te portes, Tu te promtaes, [( 49.] Tu t'assieds, 

n se porte, II se promine, II s'assied, 

Nous nous portons, Nous nous promenons, Nous nous ssseyons, 
Vous vous portes, Vous vous promensz, Vous voos assejes, 

nsteportoit. Usee prominent Us s'asieient. 

t. The fiflMtivv proaomiB in Um imptoMv of itflaetiFe verpi^ 


by Google 

Aittoir zxzTL 


' Eola 4, of L S7 aiid Riil«i t, 4, of Lmmb f8 and alM, 1 100. 



A 4«ol Tou sppU^Mi ▼<ms1 
Je m'oQcnpe do metaffidrM^ 
Je m'sdrene a mes amis. 
Tons adrenez toub k Totre pirei 
Je m'adMM ahi! [% 100, (i.)J 
Comment w porta Monsieur votre 

n M porte paasablement bien. 
Ponrqnoi ne vom asseyez voos pas 1 
Je m'aasieds qnand Je suis fatign6. 
Je n'ai paa 1e temps de m'asseoir. 
Yons promenez vons tons les Jours 1 
Je me promdne en yoitnre an- 

Vos amis ae prominent lb k cheTal 1 
ITaimea vom pas a marcher ^ 
J'aime beanooup Waller k chevaL 
Aimez Tons a yous promener 1 
Asseyons nous, s'il vons plait 
Ne nous aase jons nous pas 1 
Ne noQs aaaeyons pas, U est trop 

Combien ce drap se Tend H la* 

verge t 
U se vend vingt-cinq fhuics le 

Comment eela a'appelle^t-H 1 

Comment vons appelei [( 40, (4.)] 


niffkai do fm apflf f fm tOf f 

Iafieumfmf.il/wuk mifajfamt^ 

I apply to mjf/ritndt. 

Do fou appip to f/ourfaiktrf 

I oppbf to hM, 

Bino is yowr faiktr7 

He is toUraUy wdl. 
Why do you not sit dow%? 
I sU down ieA«j» / am weary, 
I have no time tosU down, 
Doyou take a walk every day! 
I take a ride to-day (in a earriagf). 

Do your friends take a ridef 

Do you not Uke walking? 

J Uke riding muck. 

Do you Ukewaiking {for pUaoure) 1 

Let us sU down^if you pleam. 

Do we not sU down? 

Let us iwtsU dowUf it is too lato. 

How much is thai elotk wld dymrdf 

It is sold iwenliy-Jlve frames tha 

How is that eatbd? What i$ tk$ 

nasneof that? 
What is your nam$? How do you 

call yourself? 


Banqnier, m. banker i Hagnifiqne, magyuJUenti Pied, m. foot ; 
Comment, howg Matin, m. momingi Port-er, to awry, wemrg 

Cheval, m. horse f Mieux, better t Qnelquefois, somotisnai 

Drap, m. doth ; Oblig4, e, obUged ; 4oitt-er, 1. to leave ; 

f adgn4, e, weary, thred ; Part-ir, 2, \r, to sit end i Voitore, t carriage. 

1. Comment ee monsieur s'appelle-t-il 1 2. Je ne aaia comment 
. s*appelle. 8. Cette dame ne s'appelle-t^Iie pas L.? 4. Non, 
Madame, elle s^appelle M. 0. Monsieur votre pdreseporte-t-ilbicn 
ee matin t 6. H se porte beaucoup mieux. 7. Fait il beau temps 
tnjonrd'hai? 8. H fkit an temps magnifiqne, n'allez vons paa voaa 

* TheSQdlibaor«»belbrea 

if rendered into FranehbjflM 

by Google 

Digitized t 

114 LSSftOll ZXXTXl. 

promenarl 9. Nous n'aTons ni cheval ni voitare. 10. Ne pouves 
votts marcher ? 11. Je suis trop fatigud pour marchei. 12. N*allez 
voas pas k cheval tons les matins? 13. Je me prom^ue toua lei 
matins. 14. Comment vous promenez tous? 16. Quelquefois h 
pied «t quelquefois en voiture. 16. A qui vous adressez vousquand 
Tous nvcz besoin d'argent? 17. Je m'adresse & mon banquiert 
18. Ne voulez vous pas tous asseoir? 19. Nous vous sommes bion 
oblig6u. 20. Ce drap se vend il fort bien T 21. II se vend fort cher. 
22. Ne devez vous pas aller k Ja campagne, sHl fait beau temps f 
.23. Votre frere doit il quitter la ville aujourd'hui ! 24. 11 doit partlr 
demain matin. 26. Ma sceur se prom^ne tous les matins. 

Exercise 70. 

1. Does.your sister walk every day ? 2. She takes a walk every 
morning. 3. She likes riding on horseback and in a carriage. 
4. What is that little girl called ? 6. She is called L. 6. Is not that 
gentleman called L. ? 7. No, Sir, he is called G. and his cousin is 
called H. 8. How is your brother ? 9. My brother is very well, but 
my sister is not well. 10. How are your two daughters 1 11. They 
are tolerably well to-day. 12. Will you not sit down, gentlemen! 

13. We are much obliged to yon. Madam, we have not time. 

14. Does that book sell well? 16. It sells very well. 16. Howls 
that silk sold an ell (Vaune) ? 17. It is sold six francs an ell. 
18. Is it fine weather to-day? 19. It is very fine weather, will yon 
not take a walk? 20. I have no time to walk. 21. To vihom does 
your brother apply? 22. He applies to his brother. 23. Is his 
brother at home ? 24. No, Sir, he is at Paris. 26. When does he 
intend to go to France ? 26. He intends to go to France in one 
month. 27. Is your sister to leave to-morrow morning ? 28. She 
is to leave to day if (s'U) it is fine weather. 29. What do people 
say of this ? 30. Nothing is said about it [L. 35]. 31. Are you too 
fflueb fiitigued to walk? 32. I am not too much fatigued, but I have 
no wish to walk. 33. Do you like walking or riding? 34. I like 
Eidiug, when I have a good horse. 35. I do not like walking. 


1. The reflective pronoun is often used to express possession, in- 
stead of the possessive a4jective. In such cases the article takes th« 
pkoe of this a^jeotivei before the noun. [{ 77, (9.)] 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



VoLB chaHflfes Tons les pieds 1 Do ym wa*m ytmr fstt 7 

Jd mc cbaufib les mains et les pieds. / toarm my hands and feet. 

a. Se souvenir [2. ir. See \ '62.], se rappeler [\ 49, (4.)]i eorrespond to 
ihe English verb to remember, Se rappeler takes a direct object, tluit 
lb, no preposition intervenes between the verb and its object, if the 
I be a noun or a pronoun : — 

Vons rappeleas vons oes demoisellesi Do you remember those young Indus f 
Je ne me les rappelle pas. I do not remember them, 

3^ Custom seems, however, to sanction the use of the preposition 
6e between the verb se rappeler and an infinitive : — 

Nous ce nous rappelons pas d'en We do not remember having been de* 
avoir £t6 privis (Condillac). prived of it, 

4. Se souvenir, takes the preposition de before a noun or pronoun 
as well as before an infinitive : — 

Tons sonvenez vous de cette afikire 1 Do you remember that affair? 

Je DC m'en souviens pas. / do not remember U, 

Je me souviens de lui avoir 6crit / remember having written to htm. 

6. Se coucher, corresponde to the English verbs to retire, to go to 

Je me couche de bonne heure. / retire early, 

6. Se lever [} 49, (6.)] means to me, to get up,*-^ 
Je me 16ve au poipt du jour. I rise at the break of day» 


Vous eoupez vons les ongles 1 

Je me coupe les ongles et les che- 

Vons eoupez vons les doigtol 
Jo me coupe souvent les doigts, 

quaud je taille ma plume. 
Tous rappelez K) 49, (4.)] vous les 

maiheurs du frdre de votre ami 1 
Je me rappelle ses maiheurs. 
Je me les rappelle distinctement. 
Je me rappelle de I'avoir vu. 
Vons souvencz vous de cela 1 
Je ne m'en souviens pas du tout. 
A quelle heure vous couchez vous 1 
Noas nous couchons tous les jours 

an coucher du soleil. 
Runs nous levons de meilleure heure 

que vous, — au lever du soleil. 
H oe live a cinq heures djx matin, et 

il se couche a dix heures et de> 

mle du soir. 

Do you cut your nails? 
I cut my nails and hair. 

Do you cut yowrjMgers ? 

J often cut my finger s^ when 1 mena 

my pen. 
Do you remember the misfortumet of 

your frhemCs brother ? 
I remember his nUsfortunes, 
I recollect them distinctly, 
I remember having seen htm. 
Do you remember that ? 
J do not remember it at all. 
At what hour do you retire ? 
We go to bed every day at sunset. 

We rise earUer than you^-^ ftM* 

He rises at five o^dock in the fMm- 

ingj and goes tobedai half afle^ 

ten in the eventng. 


by Google 

lie trB»fto« x^xrtu 


AnocIA, m. ;NKfifi«r; De meilleare henre, Terraqiiier, m 

Boh^m.woodf earlwr; dresser j 

Boucher, ULhUckeri Doigt, m. finger; Po61e. m. steves 

8«» brikl-er, 1. re£ <o Fer, m. irani Pouce, m. thwnh; 

bum one's wdf. Fen, m. fire ; Proroesae, f. promiut 

durpentieryin. carpen- Main, f. Aa»</; Be souvenir, t& renun» 

ter. S'oocaper, 1. to occupy ber hoe Veiur,(63.}i 

Bo chauff-er, 1. re£ to on^'s sdf. Travaill-er, 1. io wort, 

p^rm one's self. Parfaitement, perfeeOfg 

1. Lo pemiquier ae ooupe-t-U le ponce ? 2. Non, Monsieur, 11 ■% 
eoupe les chevenx. 3. Le eharpentier ne se eoupe-t>il pas la main f 
4. U ne se coupe poa la main, il coupe le bota. 5. Ne vous nippelex 
vons pas cette dame ! 6. Je me rappelle cette dame et ces messieurs. 
7. De quoi vous occupez vous ? 8. Nous nous occupons de nos af- 
faires. 9. Vous sou venez vous des fusils qu'a votre p^l 10. Je 
ne m*en souviens point du tout. 11. Cette petite fille ne se brille-t- 
elle pas? 13. Elle ne se brdle pas, il n*y a pas de fen dans le po^le. 

13. Pourquoi le boucher ne se chanfTe-t-il pas? 14. Parcequ*il n'a 
pas fVoid. 15. Ces enfants se Invent ils de meillenie heure que mot! 
16. lis se couchent de bonne heure, et ils se Uvent tons lea matins i 
■ix heures. 17. Vptre associ4 ne veut ilpas s'asseoir? 18. D n'a 
pas le temps de s'asseoir. 19. Vous souvcnez vous de vos promca- 
aes? 20. Je m*en souviens parfaitement 21. Ne vous chauiTez 
Tous pas quand vous avez froid? 22. Je ne me chaulTe presque ja- 
mais. 23. Ne se couche-t-on pas, quand on a sommeil ? 24. On ao 
couche quand on a sommeil, et on mange quand on a fium. 25. 
Quand on se porte bien, se I^vo-t-on de bonne heure? 26. Quand 
on se porte bien, on doit (should) se lever do bonne heure. 


1. Do yon rise early when you are well t 2. When I am well, I 
rise every morning at five o'clock. 3. Do you remember your cousin 
L.? 4. I remember him perfectly well. 5. Do you go to bed early? 
6. We go to bed at ten o'clock. 7. Doea not the tailor bum his 
fingers? 8. He does not bum his fingers, his iron is not worm. 9l 
Does the carpenter cut his thumb? 10. He cuts neither his thumb 
nor his hand. 11. Why do you not warm yourself? 12. I do not 
warm myself, because I am not cold. 13. Is it not very cold to-day ? 

14. It is not cold to-day, it rains. 15. Doea your hair-dresser rise at 
•onrise ? 16. The carpenter rises at snnrise and goea to bed at saa- 
Mt 17. Doyonriaeearliwihani* !& We ziae evory morning aS 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

fh9 hnak of daj. 19. Do yov out your li»ir oftoa! M. I snt ny 
nair and my nails every month. SI. Do you remember tliat gentle* 
iimii 1 22. 1 remember him very well. 23. I do not remember him. 
24. Do yon snt yoar fingers when you mend a pen? 26. I cat my 
band when I work. 26. Do you remember what you learn ? 27. 1 
do not remember all that (tout ce que) I learn. 28. Do you know if 
your father is well? 29. He 'is very well to-day. 30. Is not yovr 
mother well? 31. She is not very well. 32. Do you remember 
your friend's misfortunes? 83. I remember them. 34. I remember 

LESSON xxxvm. LigoN xxxvm. 

1. The verb tromper, conjugated actively, eorresponda to the Ei^ 
liah verb to deenve ;^ 

U trompe tout le monde. Be deceives every My. 

3. Conjugated reflectively, se tromper means to be mistaken ; lit** 
rally, to deceive one's self: — 

On le trompe bien souvent One is often mistaken, 

8. Ennnyer, [{ 49, (2.)] used actively, means to weeury the mindi U 

tease^ to bore :— 

Cet homme emmie ses aaditeurs. 7%at man wearies Ms hearers. 
Yons nous ennuyea par vos do- You teaee^ or vieary us by your pies* 
mandes. tians, 

4. S*ennnyer has no exact correspondent in English. It signiftM 

generally, to be or to become mentaUy weary cfany thing or fiaee >^ 

Kous nous enanyoDS id. We are weary of being here. 

Yous ennuyez vous k la campagne 1 Are you weary of being in the eawUry 7 

Je m'ennnie partout I find no amusemerU anywhere. 

5. Je m'ennuie means in fact, l«tm menidUy tdeory, I want change^ 
eanusement^ oecupation, dec. : — 

6. S'amuser, answers to the English expressions, to amuse ont^s aajf 

to take pleasure tn, to spend tmis time in^ to find amMsement tn, It 

e^'oy one*s self: — 

Nous nous amusons Ilia campagne. We ei^ oursuves in the ce%msrf» 
Yobs vous amusei Sides bagatelles. You spend yeoi time in iri^ 


On se trompe souvent soi-m&me en 

diereha&t k tromper les autres. 
Totre oommis ne setrompe-t-U pas 1 

We often deceive eurstives tMuv sssth 

ing to deceive others. 
Is noi your aerk mistakenf 


by Google 


Lit toir xxxrttx^ 

Ne Tovs trompes tou pu (Mqaem- 

Aiont 1 
Tout le mondo est scyet h se trom- 

Ce niarchaod trorape tout le monde. 
0a cotivcraation nous ennuie. 
Vous ennuyez vos amis par vos 

Est-oe que je ne voos ennuie pan 1 
Vous ennuyez vous chez nous 1 
Je m'ennuiea la ville et Je m'amose 

& la campa(^. 
A quo! Tons amnsez vons 1 
Je m'amttle k lire Talleniand* 


Every oneiscpltobe lAislaken. 

Thai merckanf' deceives every body. 

His conversatum wearin us. 

You weary your friends ky your com 

Do I not weary you 7 
Areyouweary of remaining witk us f 
J become weary of the city and find 

amusement in tke country. 
In what do you amuse ^ouiseif? 
I amuse myself in reading Ckrman, 

ExsRCiSB 78. 

Apprend-re, i. ir. to Entend-re, 4. (<t ^ar ; Qnand, irAe>»; 

team ; Ennnyer, 1. Siee ( 49, (2.) Quelquefois, sometimes / 

Banquler, m. bankers Langue, f. language; Reo-evoii, 8. to receives 
Client, m. client^ cus- Malade, sick ; Kev-enlr, 2. ir. to corns 

tomers Mimoire, m. bill s back; 

Demeur-er, 1 . to dwell ; Pr6ftr^r, 1. io prefer ; Tromp-er, 1. to deceive, 

I, Aimez vous k deraeurer 4 la campagne? 2. Je pr^f^.re la cam- 
pagne k la ville. 3. Vous ennayez vous souvent k la canipagne t 
4. Qaand je m'ennuie k la campagne, je reviens k la ville. 5. Refoit 
on des nouvelles da Gi.n§ral L. ? 6. On n'entend pas parler de luL 
7. Vous trompez vous quelquefois ? 8. Tout le monde se trompe 
quelquefois. 9. Le banquier trompe-t-il sea clients? 10. II ne 
tat)mpe ni ses clients ni ses amis, il ne trompe personne. 11. Ne 
vous trompez vous paa dans ce m^moire ? 12. Je ne me trompe pas. 
13. Vous amusez vous k lire ou k ^crire? 14. Je m'amuse k ap- 
prendre Tallemand et le fran9ai8. 15. Avez vous tort d'apprendre 
leslanguest 16. Tai raisou deles apprendre. 17. Vous ennuyez 
vous souvent? 18. Je m'ennui^ quaiid je n*ai rien k faire. 19. A 
quoi vous amusez vous quand vous ^tea k la campagne ? 20. Noua 
nous promenous le matin» et nous travaillons le reste de la joum6e 
31. Vous portez vous toujours bien? 22. Noua aommea qoelque* 
fkM maladea. 23. Envoyez vona chercher le mddecin 1 24. Nous 
Teniioyona cherrher. 26. Je vaia le chercher. 

ExxRCiSE 74. 

1. Are you not mistaken! 2. I am not mistaken. 8. la not tht 
banker mistaken? 4. He is not mistaken, but his clerk is certainly 
(certainement) mistaken. 6. Does he not decuve you? 6. He does 
not deceive me, ho deceives nobody. 7. Are you not wrong to d«- 
etiveyourlklher? 8. I do not intend to deceive him. 0. Doaenot 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

toe mereluuit make a miataket 10. He makes a mistike in Uie bill 
whieh lie writes. 11. Do you like the country or the city? 13. I 
prefer the city ; I soon become weary of the country. 13. Does not 
Ihateliild weary you by his questions? 14. Dees not that long story 
(rieit^ m.) weary yon? 15.' It does not weary me, it amuses mo. 
16. Do yon amuse yourself when you are in the country? 17. I 
amuse myself, I learn French and Italian. 18. Are you not weaiy 
of remaining at your uncle's? 19. I am never weary of remaining 
there. 20 Is your brother often mistaken? 21. Every body is 
sometimes mistaken. 32. Does his conversation weary you! 28. 
On the contrary, it amuses us. 24. Is your brother heard from ? 
26. Nothing is heard of him. [I* 35.} 26. Is your sister well ? 27. 
No, Sir, she is sick. 28. Do I weary you? 29. You do not weary 
me. 30. Ami mistaken! 81. You are not mistaken. 82. Is he 
often mistaken ? 83. He is often mistaken. 84. Do yea not riae 
late! 36. No, Sk, I rise early. 


1. The reflective verb, se passer, ia used idiomatically in the Sevte 

of to do wiikouL It is followed by the preposition de, when it 

fomes before a noun or a verb :— 

Tous passes vous de oe livre 1 Do f&u do wUkavi thai book 7 
Je ne puis m*eu passer. / canmU do wilhout U, 

2. Se servir [2. ir. see { 62.], to use, also requires the preposition 

de before its object : — 

Je me sers de votre canif. / ute yaw penknife, 

Je ne m*en sers pas. IdonoineeU. 

8. The second example of the two rules above, shows that, when 
the object of those verbs is a thing, it is represented in the sentence 
fay the pronoun en: — 

Je m*en sers, Je m'en passe. I use U^ I do vriikoul U. 

4, The pronoun* used as indirect object of a reflective verb» if rep» 

leaenting a person, follows the verb [} 100, (40] : — 

Je puis me passer de lui. I can da teiikaut Aim. 

Je m'adrease a vous et k elle. / appfy to you and to her, 

6. S'endormir [2. ir. see } 62.]; to faU asleep^ an I s'^veiller, to 

, are also reflective. 

• The rule does not apply to the reflect ve pronoun, whVcl is i 
an indirect old«iet 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 


liSllftOV KXtiM. 

Je tn'uveille k six henres da matin. / owolw a/ sir o^doek in the manung, 

6. S'approcher, to come near^ to approach ; a'^loigner, to draw back, 

to leave, take the preposition de before a noun. Their object, whea 

a pronoun, is aubject to Rules 3 and 4 above :— 

Votre flls a'approche-t-il da feal Does your ton draw near the fire f 

n ne 8*en approche paa. He does not came near H. 

U a'AIoigne ae moi e( de toob. Be goes from mc aindfrom |iMk 

BAbumA of Examplb8» 

Vooa aertes Tona de ce conteau 7 
Je ne si'en aera paa, il no coupe paa. 
De qaela conteauz voua aervez voual 
Noua noua servona de couteaox 

Pouvei voua vooa paaaer d'aiigentl 
Nous ne poavons nous en passer. 
Vous passes voua de votre miitre 1 
Nous nous passons de lui. 
Vous adressez vous a ces messieurs 1 
Nous nous adreasons a eux et k 

Vous vous endormea fiiicUement 
Je m'6veille de trfts bonne heure. 
Pourquoi vous approchex voua da 

Je m'en approche paroeqoe J'd 

Nona nooa Aloirnona da fba. 
Noua nous en fioignons. 
Koua noua approcbona de notre 

Nous nous approcbona de luL 

ExxRCiSB 75. 

Aoiai, «b»; .. ^Bocre, f. »»l:i . . 

Au8sit6t— qoe, as MmFen6tre, f. windows 

ast Feti, m./f«; 

Canif, m. penknife s Fourchette^ f. fork ; 
Demoiselle, ffoung lo/fy; Heure, f. houTy o^doeks 
Domeatique, m. jcr-Moins, leu, before i 

vanii • OhllgB, e,oU(f^edi 

1. PoQvez vooa voua paaaer d*enera? 3. Nooa poavona nont mt 
paaaer, noaa n^avona rien k ^rire. 3. Voua aervez vooa de vote 
plume 1 4. Je ne m'en aera paa ; en avex vooa beaoin ! ft. Ne vouIm 
vooa paa voaa approcher da fea I 6. Je voua aaia bien oblig^, je ii*ai 
paa froid 7. Pourquoi oea demoiaellea a*61oignent ellea da la feaA- 
tte! 8. EUea a'en 61oignent pareeqo'il y fWt trop frpid. 0. Ctt 
a a'adreaaant ila paa 4 vooa^ la Ik t^adfaaaant k m/d 

Do yon nse thaiknift? 

What knives do yon urn? 
We use steel knives. 

Cam ytm do wiihout wioneyf 

We cannot do wilkoul il. 

Do yon do without your teaeker? 

We do without kirn. 

Do yon appby to thorn gentlemen^ 

We apply to them and to yon. 

Yon go to deep easOy. 

I awake very early. 

Why do yon eonu near tkefireX 

I come near ft beeaiuM I am eeid» 

We go from the fire. 

We go from U. 

We go near ou/r father. 

We go 


Plume, f pen ; 
Pourquoi, fsAv; 
Pr6t-«r, 1. to Undt 
Quart, m. quarter ; 
TaiU-er, 1. to mend. 


by Google 

•I i mom Mn> 11. A quelle lieiirs toob 6Tei]les tou U matint 

15. Jem*^Teille ordiniiirement & six heares moint un quat IS. 
Voiis leres vons anssitAt que voas vous 6veillez I 14. Je me Idre 
AuaeitM que je m'6veillQ. 16. De quels livrea tous aervez voua* 

16. Je me lera dea miens et des v6trea. 17. Ne tous senrez voaa 
paa de eeoz de Totre fr^re ? 18. Je m*en sen auaal 19. Lea plnmea 
d^nt [Lb 31. R. 8J voas voua aenrez aont ellea bonnea t 20. Pour- 
qiioi votFB ami a'61oi^e-t-D du feu! 21. II s'en 41oigne parcequ'il 
% trop chand. 22. Pourquoi Totre domestiqae e'en approche-tol? 
28. n a'«D approche povr ae ehaoffor. 24. Vona enniiyez vooa iait 
•& Je ne m'ennnle paa. 

EzBBom 76. 
1. Will yon lend me yonr penknife ? 2. I cannot do without 
M^ I want it to mend my pen. 8. Do yon want to use my book f 
4. I want to oae it, will you lend it to me? 6. What knife doea 
yoor brother use ? 6. He usee my father's knife and my brother'a 
fork. 7. Will you not draw near the fire ? 8. We are much obliged 
to yoUf we are warm. 9. la that young lady warm enough? [L, 34» 
8.] 10. She ia very cold. 11. Tell her (diUs lui) to come near iht 
fire? 12. Why do you go from the fire? 13. We are too waroL 
14. Doea your brother leave the window? 15. He leavea the win- 
dow because he ia cold. 16. To whom doea that gentleman apply ? 

17. He appliea to me and to my brother. 18. Why doea he not ap- 
ply to me? 19. Because he is ashamed to apeak to you. 20. Do 
you awake early every morning ? 21. I awake early, when I go to 
bed early. 22. Why do you go to sleep? 23. I go to aleep becauae 
I am tired. 24. Are you afiraid to go near your father? 26. I am 
not afraid to approach him. 26. Can yeu do without ua? 27. Wa 
cannot do without you, but we can do without your brother. 28. 
Do you want my brother's horae? 29. No, Sir, we can do without 
it 80. Do you intend to do without money? au. You know very 
well that we cannot do without it 82. Ia your brother weary of 
being here? 83. He ia not weary of being here. 84. Come near 
Haa fire» mr ehiUL 


1. The verb aller (1. u*. } 62.), eo^jngated refieetively, ai^l ff 
by the woid fl(D, L e. a'en aller, eoffe^onda to ike Bn^lih enk 
ia#a «*^ ^ tevtA— 

• Digitized by Google 


unsupM \h 


Je m'en yais, 
I'a t'en yas, 


Tnou art going _ Ions, 

listen Ta, 

away I 
He goes awa/ff t 

Noas D0U8 en al- FF^^tf aieayi 

VonsToiueDallefe, Yo% arc goii^g 

Sb B'en Yont, 7%0y go awmf, 

3. Thx SAMS Tbnsx Conjugated IivTBEROOATivKLr. 

Est-ceqndje m'en Do I go away! Nons en allons Do we go away? 

TidB 1 nona 1 

l^'en vafttill Art thow going Vomi en aOes Dofimgoawa^f 

away? toils 1 Are they goimg 

S'enTa-t-il1 Jb he going away? B'enrontils? aicay? 

4. Se ftcher, to be or became angry^ requires the preposition contn 

or de before the noun or pronoun following it:-^ 

Be flche-t-il oontce Totee frdre 1 Doe* ke geta/hgrywUhycv/rbroih&rf 
il se ftche oontre lui He is angry with him. 

Y0118 Tons fichez d'un rien. You get angry at nothing. 

5. Se r6jouir, to r^oice^ is followed by the preposition de : — 
Je me r6jouie de votre bonheur. / r^oice ai your happiness. 

6. Se plaire [4. ir, see^ 62,] to take pleasure^ to delight in any thvng 

to like to be ina plaoe^ takes k before its object : — 

/ Uke to be in the countfy, 

I take pleasure in studying ^ in reudmg, 

7. Se d6p6cher, se hiter, to make haste, take de before their ol^ 

•ect:— . 

D6p6chez Tous de finir vos lemons. Make haste to finish your lessons, 
Poarqnoi ne vous d6p6chez voua posl Why do you not make haste ? 

R£8uicfi of Examples. 

Je me plais k la campune. 
Je me plais a 6tudier, a lire. 

fce marchand s'en ra-t-Il at^Jonr- 

. d'huil 

Nons nons en allons demain. 

Je m*en vals qnand Je snis fatignd. 

Ponrquoi Tons fSUihez vous contre 

ti so plait h. jouer, il n'6tudie Ja- 

y cos plaisez vous chez vos parents 1 

De quo! tous rijouissez vousl 

Nous nous r^ouiasons de votre 


Nous nous en r6}ouIflsoQS. 
Pourquoi tous d6pdchez tous 1 
Nous nous d4p^chons d'6crire. 
Nbvs nous pkisons en Angleterre. 
Kqiis bo ncUs plaisons pas a Paris. 

Does the merchant go alway khiay? 

We are going away to-morrow, 
I go away when I am tired. 
Why do you get ^Mgry with him? 

He takes pteaswre in piayingj he 


At what do you rejoice? 
We rejoice at your success. 

We rejoiu at it. 

Why do you make haste? 

We make haste to write, 


We dona like to be in i^Kn»^ 


by Google 

VoDS plaiaei toos a New Yorki Do yim like to be in New Ymll 
RoQi nous 7 plaisoDS. | WkWutoheV^ere. 

Bcthmubh 77. 

Ambuaodenr, m. am- Joner, 1. topUn/; Prochaln.^, neaoii 

li«lh€vr, iL rn hfauhme j Betouni-^r, 1. to n 

Arriv6e, f. omeo^; W^xa^bttUr^ ' SemaiDe, f/iosei/ 

Aatnii, m. others ; Midi, iimw; Tante, f. aunts 

Cour-ir, 2. ir. <0 run; Paroeque, because s Tore, turque, Turkiak, 
Jamais, ii«iwr; 

1. Vou8 en allez vons bientAtI a. Je m*exi vais la semaine pro- 
ebaine. 3. Povrquoi toqb en allez vous ? 4. Paroeqne je ne me plait 
poa id 6. Vous plaisez tous mieux chez votre tante qu'ici? 6. Je 
m'y plais mieuz. 7. N'avez vons pas tort de vous en aller si t6t t 
8. Pai laisoB de m^ea alter. 9. Ne vo«8 vejouiBez vons pas dea nsd- 
henrs d*aatrui? 10. Nous neBOua ea WtjoaiaMna poiat 11. €dt 
hdnme aa Atohe-t-il contre to Jaidinier ? IS. U ae ftohe oontre Ivi ftnm 
qu*il ne vent pas se d^p^cher. 13. Se f^Lche-t-il ^en Boav«nt1 14. II 
ae Hu^be it to«t moment^ il se fiche d*nn rien. 16» Ne vona d^ptehez 
vons jamais? 16b Je me depiohe toujoors qnand j'ai quelqne ohose k 
fiure. 17. Ne vous plaisez vous pas ^ courir et k joaer ? 18. Je me 
plais ^ joner et mon frdre se plait ^ lire. 19. Vons r^ouiasez vous 
de Tarriv^e de rambassadeur tnrc ? 20. Je m*en r^jouis. 31. Ne vous 
plaisez vona pas en Am^riqnel 92. Je m*y plais beancoup mieoz 
qn'en Fraaoe. 33. Votre 4colier oe ae plait il pas chez vons f 94. 11 
ae plait chez moi, mais il desire retoumer ehez son p^re. 96. I>6p6* 
chez vonai il eat dlj^ midL 

EzsRonsx 78. 

I« At what hour does jovr frieiid go away! 3. He ^ms away 
ereiy monting at nine e'elock. 3. Do yon go away with (omct) him 1 
4. I go away with him when I have time. b. Will you make haste 
to finish your letterl 6. 1 make haste to finish it 7. Ooaa the gaiw 
dener get angry with his brother? %, He gets ai^fry agaiaat him when 
he does not make haale. 9. lliak« haats, my friend^ it is 4en o'doek 
10. WlijydoyoanoimakehaBU? 11. 1 like to j^, but I do not lika 
to study. 12. Do you like to stay at my bouse ! 13. I like to stay 
there. 14. Are you rejoiced at the asrival of your mother? 10. I 
njoice at it 16. Is no4 your brother wrong to go away so soon ? 
17. He is right to go away, he has much to do at home. 18. Do you 
rejoice at other people'a misfortune8b?v 19. I do not rejoice at them, 
10. I j»j«iee at your auooeas. 31, Does not your brother draw near 
thefiM? 33. He goes from the fire, he is too warm. 98. DMa4faat 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1S4 ^iBfBOir XLL 

jrom^ lady get aagiy against yen! 24. She gels angry at liitei (i§ 
rien). 26. Do yon like to be in Paris? 26. I like to be there. 37. 
Can you do- without me to-day? 38. We cannot do without yon- 
make haste to finish your work (mtvrage). 39. Do yon want your 
penknife? 30. I want to use it 31. Make haste to rise, it is six 
o'deek. 33. Is it fine weather? 33. No, Sir, it lainsw 34. Is yrvur 
frther wen this morning? 36. Yes, Sir, he is very weU. 


TBB PAST INDSFimTB. [§ 121.] 

1. The past indefinite is composed of the present of the indicatrre 
of one of the auxiliary Terbs, avoir and ^tre [} 46, (8.)], and the paiw 
tkiple past of a verb. See the different paradigms of verbs, } 47 and 
following sections:-^ 

J'al parI6, Je suis arrivii. - / have spoken, I am orrivetL 

3. The past indefinite is used to express an action entirely com* 

pleted, but performed at a time of which a part is not yet elapsed, 

or at a time entirely past, but not specified. [} 121, (1.) (2.)] :— 

J'al vn votre p^re oe matin. I have seen your faiker tku mormng. 
Jene vousai pas encore par]4. I have nai fsi spoken to fon, - 

8. The past indefinite may also be used, when the time is ipecl* 
fied [t 121, (3.)] ^— 

Je Itti ai 6crit la senudne demidre. I wrote to Mm lad leeek, 
Je lul at envoy6 une lettre le mois I sent him a leUer last month, 

4. In this tease and in other compound tenses, the adverb is gene- 

ndly placed between the auxiliary uid the participle [{ 138, (3.)] '^— 

Vous nous avez souvent parl6. You have often spoken to «f . 

Je ne Tai pas encore vu. J have not yet seen kim. 

6. The adverbs aujourdliu], to-iay ; domain, to-morrow ; hier, yeHer* 
day ; polysyllabic adverbs of manner ending in nisitf, and long adverba 
generally, do not come between the auxiliary and tiie participle, but 
follow Rule 1. L. 34. See } 138, (6.) >* 

Tons area lu demiAremeni Yon read latdy, 

8. The unipersonal verb y avoir, [L. 38. R. 3. 4,] placed before a 
word expressing time, corresponds with the English word, ago:^^ 

J'ai rofu une lettre, fl y a huit Jours. I received a later eight days ago. 
Tonsavosachet6unemai8on,ilya Yonbenightakanseaymirago^ 


by Google 

hMBBOM Silt. 


RfiflVMft 07 EZAlfPLXS. 

V<M neTimx nous out parl6. 
Nous EYons parl£ a votre pdre. 
Le Ullleur a-t>a fidt mon hubit ? 
La bonlsnger a mis sod cbApean. 
Le oordonnier a 6td ses aooliers. 
Voire fVire a dit quelque choee. 
Votre WBor qn'a-t-elle dit 1 
ITaTes TooB rien dit a mon oonsin 1 
Je He lui al rien dit 
Je ne Tai Jamais reDcoiDtr6. 
Je ne lenr ai Jsmais parM. - 
Qn'avei Tons fUt anjoord'hoil 
Eier, nons n'avons pas trayaiI16. 

» 186.1 
Lenr en aves Tons souTent parU 1 

Je lenr ep ai souvent par16. 
Je ne le lenr ai pas encore dit 

ITaTei Tons pas asses 6crit 1 
n m'a 6crit, fl y a longtemps. 
noos a r6poDda, il j a nn mois. 

Your nephews s^kt to ui. 

We spoke to ytmr J'alker. 

Has the tailor mail mf eottif 

'ne baker has pui on kskaL 

The shoemakerkas taken Ms thm$ eg, 

Yowr brother said something. 

What did yoiiw sister soy? 

Have you told miff eonsin notkmg 7 

I have told him nothing, 

Ihaveneu. ^Hhim, 

I never spoke to them. 

What have fon done to-day? 

We did not work yesterda/y, 

Bave you often ^ken to them mbmtt 

I have often spoken to them about U. 
I have not yet said any thing to them 

about U. 
Have you notwritten enough? - 
He wrote to me a long time ago. 
He replied to us a nSnth ago. 


Gar^on, m. boy ; 
Hier, yesterdays 
Jomnte, f. diiys 
Ln, from lire, read ; 
Ministre, m. mimsUr; 

Mis,yr0m mettre, put on 
Plant-er, htoplintt 
Poirier, m. pear-bree t 
Sooiier, m. shoe ; 
Yxij firom Toir, i 

Arocat, m. barrister s 
Cela, eed^ that, this I 
Pit, from dire, saidi 
fitndi-er, 1. to study; 
Qtaxt, UL glove ; 

1. Qui Tons a dit eela? 3. L*aTocat me Fa dit 3. Lni avez vou 
parl6 de ceitte affaire ? 4. Je ne lni en ai pas encore parl6. 6. L'avez 
vons Tn demi^rement ? 6. JeTai vu il y a quelques jours. 7. N'avez 
Tons pas toit hier 1 8. Nous aTons la et ^rit tonte la jomii6e. [L 
36, (9.)] 9. ITaTex Tons pas 6tA vos gants et tos souliers? 10. Je 
n'ai pas M mes gants, maia j'ai 6t6 mon chapean. 11. Le taiUeur 
n*a-t-]l pas mis son chapean 1 12. Oni, Monsieur, 11 a mis son oba^ 
pean. 1 3. Qu'avez tous fint iL ce petit gar^on ? 14. Je ne lui ai rien 
fiut 15. Ne lni aTez tous point ^t que je snis ieil 16. Je ne le lui 
ai pas encore dit 1 7. Qu'aTCZ vous ^tudie ce matin 1 18. Nons aTons 
4tndi6 nos lemons et nons aTons In nos liTres. 19. Le jardinier du mi- 
nistre a-t-il plants le poirier ? 20. D Ta plants 11 y a plus de hni: jours. 
91. Atcz vons achet6 un habit de drap noir? 22. Ten ai achet6 nn« 
98. L'avez tous port6 aujourd*hui1 24. Je ne Pai pas encore pork6. 
tf. Noos s;Tona mis nos soullers et nos bas ce matin. 


1. Have you studied to-dayl 2. We hsTo no tin« to stndj, w» 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 


]uiT» mad a page. 8. Have yon not written to my brother? A, I 
have not yet writton to him. 5. Has not the German written to my 
mother? 6. He has not yot written to her. 7. Have yon told (d) 
my mother that I have taken (prit) thU book ? 8. I have not yet 
teen your mother. . 9. What have ypa done this morning? 10. We 
have done nothing. 11. Have yon taken off your coat? 12. I have 
not taken off my coat, it is too cold. 13. Has the book8ell<;r writ> 
ten to your brother? 14. He wrote to hfim a long time ago. Ifli 
Did he write to him a month ago ? 16. He wrote to him more than 
A year ago. 17. H^ve you planted a pear-tree ? 18. We have {Wanted 
several 19. Is it too cold to (pour) plant trees? 90. It is too warm. 
91 . What has the gardener done to your little boy ? 29. He has done 
aotiung to him. 23, Has any one done any thing to him ? 9i. No 
one has done any thing to him. 26. Is any thing the matter with him ? 
96. Nothing is Uie matter Mrith him. 27. Has your father put on hie 
black hat? 28. No, Sir, he has not put on his block hat 29. What 
has yom brother said ? 30. He has said nothing. 31. Has your sis- 
ter told you that? 32. She told it me. 33. Did you not work yes* 
terday ? 34. We did not work yesterday, we liad nothing to do. 
86. Your little boy has done nothing to-day. « 



1. The past participle, whkh in Freoeh forms apart of everycom* 
pound tense, [{ 46, (8.)] is susceptible of changes in its termination. 

9. The student will find in the table of the terminations of the 
vegnlar verbs [} 60.], the different changes whksh the past participle 
of those verbs undergoes. The feminine tenninations of the past 
participle of the irregular verbs, will be found in the alphabetical 
table, \ 62. 

8. The last latter of the feminine termination is always an e mute. 

4. The plunL of a past participle not ending with an s, is formed 
by the addition of that letter to the singuUr, masculine or femi* 

6. The participle past, aooompanied by the auxiliary avoir, nevtf 

agrees with the nominative or subject [( 134, (3.)] :— 

Lea demoiselles out chants. The young ladies sang, 

0eBttenfeuzsoiit]atoute]aJoitn]6e. Tk^egitUkmenrtadSk^oMeimk 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

XB880VXL1S. 117 

A ne partfdple pssft, haviDg ^tre aa its aiudlUay, aasinnM in ite 

toimiiiation the gender and number of the sabject [j 134,' (3.)] ' — 

Ma flUe est arTiv6e ce matin. My daughter arrived this nufrtDingf 

Nos frdrea ne aoot pas vemia. Our brothers are not come, 

7. Tlie participle, accompanied by the auxiliaiy avoir, agrees in 

gendei and number with its direct object or regime direct, [{ 2, (3.) 

1 42, (4 )] when that object precedes it [} 134^ (4.)] :— 

Let dames que nous arons vues. The ladies whom we have seen. 
lies lettres que nous avons lues. T^ letters which we hope read, 

8. When the regime direct or objective (aeeueative) follows th« 

partieiplei no agreement takes place [{ 134, (6.)] : — 

AvesTOQs vules dames 1 Huite you seen the ladies? ' 

▲voosnoaslules lettres 1 Ha^wereadtkslitters7 

0. A participle past never agrees with its r6gime indirect, or indi« 
net object (dutive or ablative) [\ 2, (8.) } 43, (6.)] :1- 

Lea dames 4 qui nous avons parU. Tlie ladies to whom we have spoken, 
10. The participle past used adjectively, that is, without an aux 

iliary follows the rule of the adjective, [{ 66, (3J \ 134, (1 ) | :— 
Des livres bien imprim^ WeUyrinUd hooks. 

. U. The participle, preceded by the reUtive pronoun en,, remains 

invariable, although the en should relate to a feminine or plural 

won [} 135, (7.)] .— 

Avez Tons apportd des plumes t Have you brought pens 7 

J'en ai apport4. / have brought some. 

18. The presence of en does not, however, prevent the agreement 

of the participle, when it ia preceded by a direot regimen [} 185| 


Les plumes que j'en ai iq[>port<es. The pens which I have brought fromii, 


Yos Boeurs ont elles 6crit 1 
Elfes n'ont pas encore 6crit 
Les lettres que nous avons 6crites. 
Avez votis 6crit vos lettres 1 
le les ai lues, je les ai Sorites. 
Lee aves vous apporties 1 
Jo ne les ai pas apport£es. 
Aves vous appeld ces dames 1 
Je ne les ai pas appe14es. 
Qui aves vous vu ce matin 1 
Nous avons vu ces demoiselles. 
Nous les avous vues. 
Kous ne leur avons pas parl6. 
^TW vo«B dee Uvnis relite 1 

Bave your sisters written? 

They have not yet written. 

The letters which we have wrtUen, 

Have you wriUen your letter t 7 

Ihttveread them, I havewnaen them. 

Have you brought them ? 

I have not brought them. 

Have you caUed those ladies 7 

I have' not called them. 

Whom have you seen this marmngf 

We have seen those young ladies. 

We have seen them- 

We have not spoken to tkta^ 

Bave fim bofmd bookiJ 


by Google 


Arei vma achett des pomnMt 1 
J'eD ft! flehet6. 
Koiu en •▼ons acfaett. 
Nous 1m «a wroDM jMrraidte. 

catferSj) books. 
Bav€ you bought appia? 
I Have bought samt. 
Wo have wmghl mmm, 
Wt ha/fM firsiuadtd (ktm cfU. 


A6het-er, 1. to buf, [^49, Doim-er, 1. to givos Ckvd-er, 1. to kttpt 

(5.)] VM^ from Dire, 4. far. OraTure, f en^ainn^ / 

Apport-er, 1. to brvM; udd; Onbll-er, 1. toforgHf 

Appellor, 1. to eaU. [V^, Entend-re, 4. to hear ; Bec-eToIr, 8. to roowKi 

(4.^] £xamin-er, 1. to oxomr Reli-er, 1. to binds 

Brocn-er, 1. tostUeh; ine ; Reveiiiis, m. p. vnamet 

Bonne, f. pwntf Exprfts, on purpose i Tasae, f. eupf 

Cass-er, 1. to break ; Flepr, f. JUwer ; Vu, from voir, 8. Ir. aem. 
Commiaaion, f. errand; 

1. Nona avez yova apport6 noa habita 1 2. Nona ne lea avona paa 
encore apport^a. 3. Lea avez voua oubli6a 1 4. Nona ne lea avona 
paa oubU^a, maia nona n'avona pas en le temps de les apporter. 6 
Ponrqnoi n*avez vona paa appeI6 lea marehands 1 6. Je lea ai appelea, 
mais ila ne m'ont paa entendn. 7. Avez vons entendu cette mu« 
aiqnet 8. Je Tai entendne. 9. N'avez vona paa vn lea jolies fleura 
que j'ai apport6es? 10. Je lea ai vnea; ^qni lea avez vona don* 
n^eal 11. Je ne lea ai donn^ea ii peifeonne, {e les ai gardes ponr 
vons. 12. Avez vona bien examine cea gravnrea? 13. Je lea ai 
bien examin6ea. 14. Lea avez vouaaohet^ea. 16. Jene lea ai point 
achet^en. 16. N'avez vona point regn voa revenns? 17. Je ne lea 
ai point encore re9ns. 18. La domestiqne a-t-elle caaa^ cea taaaea? 
19. £lle lea a caas^a. 20. A^t-elle caaa6 dea tnaaea expr^s? 31. 
Elle n'en a paa eaaa6 exprda. 22. Avez voua achetS des livrea re* 
li^a on broeh^a. 23. J'ai achet6 dea livrea retina. 24. Noua aves 
voua dit cea parolea ! 26. Nona vons les avona ditcs, maia voua lea 
avez onbli^ea. 26. Je n'ai paa oubli6 votre commiaaion. 

ExsRCiSB 82. » 

^ 1. Have yon aeen my cupa ? 2. I have not yet aeen thesL 8. 
Have you brought me my booka ! 4. I have not forgotten them» I 
have left them {laiss-er^ 1 .) at my brother's. 6. Has your mother called 
your aiatera ? 6. She has not yet called them. 7. Has the servant 
told you this news ? (mmveSf.) 8. She has told me this news. 9. 
She haa told it me. 10. Have you forgotten my errand 1 11. Wis 
have not forgotten it, we have forgotten your money. 12. Where 
liave yotf left your puraet 13. We left it at the merchants 14. 
Have you boi^t the beantifti} (fteOw} engrt ringa wbieh I «Mf it 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

&BftOS XhUh It^ 

jpowbookaaHer'sl 16. 1 hftT« not seen tlMiii. 18. Hw yoir moihflr 
bongfat tbem 1 17. She has bought books, but she has bought no 
engiuvingB. 18. Has that little girl broken my cups? 19. She has 
broken them oo purpose. 20. Does that lady receive her income 
erevy month t 31. She receives it every six months. 22. Is the 
house which you have bought large? 23. I have bought no house. 
24. Did you receive a letter from your father yesterday ? 25. I re- 
teived a letter f^m him four days ago. 26. Have you spoken to 
those ladies 1 97. I have spoken to them. 28. Have you given 
them flowers! 89. I have given them some (en), 80. Are the 
bodu whieh you have bought bound? 81. No, Sir, they are in 
paper eoYers. 32. Have yom eiamined that house ? 33. I have not 
•Tsmined iL 84. Your brother (an) has examined several (plimeuri) 


ms or TBM AUnT.TARIBS (( 46). 

1. The active verb [{ 43, (2.) (3.)] that is, the verb which haa 
or may have a direct regimen or ol^eot, always takes avoirt » ^ta 
■Miliary [({46,(10] :— 

Koua aroDs terit a notre banquier. We have written to our hoinker, 

2l Almost all neuter verba, i. e. verbs which cannot have a direel 
eljeet, take the auxiliary avoir, when they express action:— 

Nous avoos oouru, march6, parM. We have run, walked, spoketi. 

8. The compound tenses of a few neuter verbs, expressing action, 
are, however, conjugated with ^fv— aller, 1o go ; arriver, to arrive ; 
ehoir, tomber, tofdU; decider, mourir, to die; naltre, to he bnm; 
vemr, to come; parvenir, to succeed; devenir, to heoome; revenir.lb 

A quelle heure Ates vous venu 1 At what hour did you come ? 
Je snis * n6 en France. / was bom t« FVaaue, 

4. A few neuter verbs [( 46^ (a)] take avoir, when they 
aotion, and 6tre, when they express situation : — 

* Otaenre thai when the person spoken of is ttiw, the FrsBoh use ike 
pnseoi and not tl^ past of the auxiliary with the past partidple of 

batre, to be bom f^Cfette dame es< n6e en Angteterre. i%al lady (is) 
mm bom umglamd;^Uimfk^nes$ri6€afnooB, MfbtM^{k)mm 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 


hMBkOS XtllS, 

Voire fttto est ilB>rti1 J$ your broikgr gone aia? 

5. The past indefinite of the verb ^ire, [4. ir.] (Pal 6t6, iio) k 
used instead of the preterite Indefinite of aller (Je suisall^j) when 
speaking of a phu^e where one has been : — 

he mMedn a 6t6 li Paris. Tie pkyddan ku been mi Pans. 

J*ai 6td a Tiglise ce matin. / toe^U to church this monUng, 

6. When, however, we are still in a given place or on the read 
towards it, the expression, Je suis all^ &g^ is used >- 

Le n^dectn est alU k Londrea. 
Votre 8(Bur est aU6e a I'^lise. 

1^ fh^fsiekH is gene te Lendem 
Your sister is gone Ic ckiureh. 

RteuiEit or EzAiTPiBS. 

Avez vons 6t6 an bal bier an soir 1 
Nous n*y avons pas 6t6. 
OtL oette demoiselle a-t-elle 6t61 
£lle a 6t6 chez son fiire et chez 

Ot votre stenr est ette sH6e ce 

matin 1 
£Ue est aI16e troaver ta consine. 
N'avez vous pas sorti aigourd'hnl 1 
Je n'ai pas encore sorti. * 
m est Monsienr le g6ndral 1 
Jt ne sais pas^ Monskenr, 11 est 

Od ce monslenr est 11 n6 1 
II est nA k Paris on k hytm, 
Yotte nidee *-t-eUe StA voir son 

SUe a €t6 Id vofa* hier. 

SUe est all^e le voir hier. 

Did you go to the haU lad evening? 


Whither did that yewng lady go? 

Ske went to her brother's and to aw 

Where is your sister gone this mom* 

iSke ts gone to her musin. 
Did you not go out to-day? 
I have not yet been out. 
Where is the general? 
I do not Jbmo, Str^ he is gone Ml.. 

Where was that gentleman bom? 
Be was bom in Paris or Zjyims. 
Didyourmeoe goto visit her bnther? 

She went to see hxm yesterdav (and 
isbacky '^ --s^v 

She went to see him yesterday (and is 

£XBS0I8JB 83. 

BQoaterie, f. jewdryt Ma^on, m. mason t Orftvre, m. goldsmith t 

Chapelier, m. hatter ; Magasin, m. warehouse ; Part-ir, 2. Ir. to set emti 
fit^i (from 6tre, 4. ir.)Malade, ^iot:; Eetonm-er^ \, to wo' 

been ; Marchandise, f mtr(hanr turn ; 

Bspagne, f. Spain ; ^se ; Sort-ir, 2. ir. to go out ; 

Horlsfec, m. watch^m4^JSi^ from Naitre, 4. Ir.Vena, from venir, % 

ker; to be bom: ir. come, 

i. A quelle heure votre soBor est elle venue 1 9. Elle est vesiM 
k'iaui beores mollis un qtnrl 8. €es demoiaellea soul eUw ndos i^ 
Bonen on ^ Caen? 4. Biles ne sont n^es ni i Ronen id i Cua^ 
•Um sont A6eaitStraaUHUq8f- ^* I«harl<)ger oatll oh|^ luif . 6. Jfoo, 
Honsieur, 11 eat all6 k son magasin. 7. A4^ M k9^A^ 


by Google 

ainfie ! 8. Oui, Madame, 11 y a 6te. 9. Y a^t-il achet6 des mareliaii« 
diaea ? 10. j a acbet6 de la bijouterie. 1 1. Aves youa M trourer 
mon pdre? 12. J'al 6te 1e tronver. 13. Yotre chapelier a-t>il aortJ 
aiijottrd*hiii? 14. n nVi ]»» aorti, il eat malade. 16. Le ma^on eit fl i 
lamaiaon? 16. Non, Madame, 11 eat sorti. 17. Quand est il aorti f 
18. 11 eat aorti il y a une beure. 19. Votre chapelier est il arrii6 
anjourd'hm ou bier? 20. II eat arriv^ bier ^ quatre heurea du auttin. 
91. Notre taitlemr a-t41 M Toir aon p^ aigourd'hoi? 9Sl D eat 
parti pour Lyon. 23. L'orfdvre de mon coaain n'eat 11 paa parti 
pour rEapagne? 94. Nod, Monaienr, il eat retown^ en AUemagae, 
25. Ma acBur a 6t6 ^ T^gliae ce matin, et elle eat all^ k T^colOt 11 y a 
nne demi>heare. 

EzsftciSB 84. 

I. la the pbyaieian at home ? 2. No, Sir, be ia not at homo ; he la 
oat. 3. Have you been out tfaia morning! 4. No, Sir, I have not 
beao out; I am aick. 6. Ia your aister'a little girl ontl 6. Yea, Sir, 
she Sa out, ahe ia at my brother'a. 7. At what hour did the hatter 
arrive! 8. ifis arrived Uet evening at nine. 9. Did the jeweller go to 
Paiia or to Lyona tfaia year! 10. He went to Parle aix moatha age« 
bnt he ia baek (dls retaur). 11. Did you go to my brother or to my 
■iaterf 12. 1 have not had time to go to tbem. 13. Where waatha^ 
gentleman bom ! 14. He waa bom in England, ia Exeter or in Porta* 
month. Ifi. Waa not your aiater born in Paria! J18. No, Sir, ahe 
waa barn in Madrid, in Spain. 17. Did yon tell me that yov brother 
haa bought a good houae ! 18. He has bought a very good houae in 
London. 19. Do you know at what time the watchmaker arrived ! 20. 
He arrived this morning at a quarter before five. 21. Haa be brought 
much jewelry ? 22. He haa not brought much jewelry, bnt he haa 
bfougfat many watahea (montrey £). 23. Haa he be«i in Franco or 
in Germany! 24. He haa been in France, in Germany, and in Swlt- 
serland (Suisse), 25. Ia your aiater in (d la matson), Sir? 26. No, 
Sir, ahe la out; ahe ia gone to church. 27. Did ahe go to aehool 
yesterday * 28. She went to school and to church. 99. Ia ahe thpje 
now ! 80. No, Sir, ahe ia back. 31. Ia the hatter arrived! 32. Yea, 
^ he ia arrived. 33. When did he arrive! 84. He arrived yeater- 
iaj At nine o^cloek in the morning. ; 


by Google 


tlttOV X&IT» 



1. Combien de temps corregponda with the Engtiah ex|icef«ioi^ 


Combien de temps ayes Tons de- Howhng ^dyimlivem MUUff ^ 
menrS en Italie % 

9. Combien de foia answers to the English,' hmo cfient hmo nua^ 

Combien de Ibis y stos toos 6tA1 Bow mamnf Hmetlumfom htmUtemf 

5. Jnsqn'oti is used for howfoTy what Hsianeej &o. 
Jnsqn'oJi ayes Tons 6U 1 Bnofar ka/ve f9u been 7 

4. Jnsqu'i quelle heure (JtiU what hour^ meana also, haw late, 

Jnaqa'd, quelle heure area tous at- Bow late did you waU7 

6. IVoii means whence; par oQ, whidh way^ in u^utt Hreetian, 
lb*otL yenez Tons mon ami 'i Whence d» you came, my friend 7 
Par oOi yotre ami est il aM 1 Whickway is your fiienagone7 

6. Mener [{ 49.], porter, to take, to carry ; amener, apporter, to bring 
l9 take with one ; ommener, emporter, to take, to carry away. We uao 
mener, amener, emmener, for to take, to bringy to take away, in the 
sense of conducting, hading,' guiding, on foot or in a vMde. Porter 
iqiporter, emporter, mean to carry, to bear, to carry away, 4^ 

Menez yotre soeur k T^cole. Tiake your sister to sekool. 

Portes oe livre li yotre scrar. T\tketkishoak to your t ' 

RfisuMft OF Examples. 

Jusqu'oii yotre flrftre est 11 all4 1 
Jl est aU4 josqu'a Paris. 
Combien de temps ya-t-il y rester? 
n ya 7 rester juBqu'au printemps. 
Combien de temps avoz yous 4o- 

meur6 a Londres 1 
Nona y ayons demeur6 six ana. 
Josqu'oik ayes yous 4t4 1 
Nous ayons 6t6 juaqu'auz Champs 

Jnsqu'^ quelle benre ayes Tons 

J'ai 6crit Jnsqu'a minuit. 
P'ou yiennent ces Allemandes 1 
XUes yiennent d'Aix-la-ehapelle. 
Par oh sent elles yenues 1 
SUes sent yenues par Brozelles. 
*^ TOOS oette petite fflle k 

How far is your brother gone7 
Be is gone as far as Paris. 
Bow lon^ is he going to stay tkere7 
Be is going to Say SerewUil^mng 
Bow long did you Uve in London^ 

We Uved there six years. 

Bow far did you go ? 

We went as far as the Champs ESy* 

Bow late didyouwrite7 

I wrote until midnight. 
Whence come those German kuUes7 
They come from Aiz-la-chajMe^ 
Whuh way did they iXfm€7 
They came by Br%Mds, 
Doyau take (lead) that liUk gki Is 


by Google 

i¥»tov xhtr. 


est tn>p petite pour marcher. 
Ameoez voiis Toe enfknis 1 
Portes TO u une lettre a la potte 7 
J'emmftne moD cheval, j'emporte 

na monfo. 

I do nU lead her ihtn^ / amy hm 

there; she is too itnaU to walk. 
Do fou bring four children? 
Do fontake a letter to the pwtt^iffia? 
I bring away my horse, J bring awaif 


ExSBOisx 85. 

IcJ, here; Pi«d, m. foot ; 

Loin, yar; Quitt-er, 1. to leant; 

Magiuflqae,fiui^t/ceii<; Soieries, f. p. silk goods; 
Midi, iu»99i; VoMxix^, t. carriage; 

NouYeUe, f. news; Voyagenr, m. ^oveAfr. 

Bmit, m. noise; 
El&re, m. pupil; 
Pils, m. son; 

1. Le jenne homme est il all6 loin 1 2. H n'est pas alld bien loin, 
il n'est alU que jusqn*^ Paris, 8. Vos eofants font trop de bruit, 
poorquoi ne les emmenez vous pas! 4. lis sont malades, ils ne peu- 
rent marcher. 6. Comment les avez vous amends ici ? 6. Je les ai 
amends en voitnre. 7. A quelle heure amenez vous le medeein t 
8. Je I'amdne tons les jours k midi. 9. Combien de fois par jo or 
menez yous yos 61^ves ^ Tcglise? 10. Je les^ m^ne k I'^glise deux 
fois par jour. 11. Combien de fois y avez vous ^t6? 12. Ty ai k\Jk 
plasieurs fois. 13. Par od ces voyagenrs sont ils venus ? 14. lis sont 
?enus par Amiens et par Rouen. 15. D'oCk apportez i^ous cette nou» 
telle t 16. Je Tapporte de Cologne. 17. D'oi^ avez vous amend 
ees superbes chevaux ? 18. Je les ai amends d'Angleterre. 19. Si vous 
quittez la France, avez vous Tintention d'emmener votre fils? 20. Tui 
rintention de Temmener. 21. Qu'avez vous apportS de France? 22. 
Nous avons apporte de magnifiques soieries, des draps fins et des cha- 
peaux de Lyon. 23. Avez vous amene votre fille 3l pied ou k cheval ? 24. 
Je I'ai amende en voiture. 25. Vos fr^res nous ont apport6 des livres. 

EzsRCiSE 86. 

1. How long did your son Uve in London t 3. He lived thort 
ten years. 3. How far is the physician gone ? 4. The physician 
is gone as fiir as Cologne. 5. Has he taken his son with him f 0. 
He has not taken him. 7. How have yon brought your two little 
giris? 8. I brought one in a carriage, and I carried the other. 9. 
Is she too little to walk? la She is not too small to walk, but she 
is sick. 11. Have you brought your horse] 12. We have brought 
two horses. 13. Have you brought the books which you have pro> 
0iiaed me \promis) ? 14. I have forgotten to brmg them. 15. 
Has that lady brought her eldest (mni) son? 16. She has brought 
lU her children. 17. How did they come? 1$. They came in % 
eaniage. 19. Which way did your brother come from Gcrmaaj^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

194 LSBSOV XL?. 

BO. He cama hy Aiz-lit-Chapelle and Brassels. 21. Do jt*n intend 
to take your ^loo to school Uiis afternoon ? 32. I do not intend t« 
take him there, it is too cold. 23. Is that child too sick */> walk t 
S4. He is too sick to walk, and I intend to carry him. 35 Why do 
you not take him in a carriage? 26. My brother has taken my 
horse away. 27. Have you brought the physician 7 28. T have not 
brought him, no one ia ack at our house. 29. Will yo« take this 
book to ehnreh ? 80. I have another, I do not want it il. Hav« 
Tou taken my letter to the post-office ! 32. I have forgotten ik 
83. How late did you write ? 34. I wrote until midnight (imnuiO* 
V^ Whence do your sisters come t 36. They come from Paria. 


(See Lesson 86.) 

1. The reflective or pronominal verb always takes dtre as it^ 
auxiliary [} 46] : — 

Voire cousin s'est promen6. Tour cousin has taken a walk. 

Nos amis se sOnt flatty. Our friends kaveJUiUered themsdves. 

2. Although the past participle of a reflective verb be conjugated 
with ^tre, it agrees with its direct regimen, when that regimen pre- 
cedes it, and is invariable when the regimen follows it The student 
should be careful to see, if the reflective pronoun be a direct or an 
indirect regimen [{ 135.] : — 

Voos voua 6tes flatties, Mesdemoi- You have fiaUered yourselves^ young 

selles. ladies. 

Elles se sont donn6 la main They have given (to) each other the 


It will be easily perceived that se in the first sentence is a dtreei 
regimen, and that the same word in the aeoond represents an indu 
reel object 

3. Verbs essentially unipersonal, L e., verbs which cannot be ooOi 
jirgated otherwise, take avoir as an auxiliary :— 

- U a plu, H a neigA, Q a ge\€. It ratned^ it snowed, UJrosx, 

• 4. Verbs oci^aionally unipersonal, take 6tre as an auxiliary:— 

II lui esl arrjvg nn tnalheur. JL misfortune has happened to him, 

5. Faire [4. ir.] used unipersonally, and Y avoir, to be theret ttk» 

the auxilkry avoir : — 

t|^ fUt bc^ti temps te mois pa8s6 1 Was UJlne weather last menA? 
M en beaueoop da mondel Were mere many peopU tker^f 

^ Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

istfiio'lr tLT/ 


4. I^w particfple {Mttt of a nnipenonal rerb k always fnvaiJiM* 
[J 135,(8.)] :— 
htt ploies qull y a ea cet 6t6. T%e raint which we have had tkb 

BiamA ov ExahplkSp 

Im ItaUemiea ae aont elles prome- 

Om, Hondeor, ellei le aont prome- 

Notts nous sommos apei^ns de cela. 

Votre mdre a'est eUe bien portte 1 
Yos sceurs ae aont elles assises 1 
Oeite marcbandise s'est elle bfen 

Vos en&nts so soot ils appUqn^s k 

Yiiude 1 
nsiTysont appI!cni6B. 
Nous noDB somnief dofanft da la 

peine. [4186,(1.)! 
Qael temps a-tril mi ce matin 1 
N Vt.fl pM fkit beau temps % 
Qaal uiattioiir Tons est U arrh€1 

Yens est il arrive qaelque chose 1 
n ne m'est lien atriyd. 

Did the ItaUan ladies waik? 
yke, SiTy they have taken awalk. 

thai, wweiook naUee 

ef IkaL 
Has yowrmother beeniDtU? 
Did yov/r sisters sit dcvm? 
Did that merchandise sell todl 7 

Did your ckUdren ofpkf ta study ? 

T%ey applied to U. 

We gave (J9) oumhfes wmch tnmlk» 

What weather was it this morning 7 

Was it mot fine weather7 

What misforlnime has ha^fpemd ta 

Has any thing happened to you 7 
Nothing hashappened to me. 

ExBROiss 87, 

Adar, m.j£fe2; Chti-er, 1. pec eoAoflf 8atn»np»er, 1. nClsli 

ffadrsaa-a^l. letteop-HoQaDdalSye. ZhcAcA; mistaken: 

fiys Neig-er. 1. pec to snow; Se serv-ir, 2. ir. ref tp 

l^apero-eroir, 8. ref. <9 Peine, f. trovUes use; 

perceive ; Pin, fitm plenvoir, msa- Se Tandnre, 4.n£.ia§dL 

S'asse-oir, 8. ir. ref. to ed; 

sit down; Plume, tpen; 

8'emray-'er,l.pec[^9.]8e port-er, 1. ref. to he 

to grew weairy^ or doi 

1. A qui T08 aoBnra se aont elles adress^es? 2. Elles se sont 
adress^s ^ moi. 3. Ne se sont aUea paa tromp6es? [L. 38. 1.] 4. 
EUea so aont tromp^es. 6. Yons dtes voos aper^u de votre erreurt 
6. Je ne m'ei^ enis pas apergu. 7. Youa ^tes vous ennay6s & la 
eampagne? 8. Nons nous y sonunes ennuy6s. [L. 38. 4.] 9. Ces 
demoiaellea ae sont ellea eimuy^ ohaa ▼oos? 10. Elles s'y sont 
ennnySea. 11. De qnoi vous dies vous servie pour ^crire, Mademoi* 
sellef [L. 39. 2.] 12« Je me suis servie dhine plume d'or. 13. 
Caa ^eoli^rea ne se aont elles pas aerviea de plumea d'acierl 14. 
Elles 86 aont servies de plumea d^argent. 15. La HoUandaise s'eat 
i% 16. Ella ne a'aat point aaaiaa. IT LiU eat i* arrive w 


by Google 

IM- tBttoir xhrv 

aa&enrt 18.IliielmeBtTie&aniv6,eUeneMportopAiUao» 10 

No ft*e8t elle pas donn6 [} 135, (1.)] de la peine pom rien? 9a 
Cotte Boie ne a'est elle pas bien vendue 7 21. £11e s'est tr^s bien 
Tendne. 2d. NVt-il pas fait beau temps toute la journ^f 23. 
Non, Monsieur, il a plu, il a neig6 et il a grel6. 24. N*e8t41 rien 
«rriv6 anz deux dames que nous avons vues ce matin ! 26. Noih 
Madamei il ne leur est rien arriv6. 

BzsBOiSB 88. 

h Has it rained to-day ? 2. It has not rained, but it has bailed 
and snowed. 3. Has any thing happened to your little boy t 4. 
Nothing has happened to him, but he is sick to-day. 5. Did yoni 
lister sit down at your house ? 6. She did not sit down, she waa 
lick. 7. Did that cloth sell well 1 8. It sold very well, we have sold 
it alL 9. Did you perceive your error (erreur) ? 10. We perceived 
it. 11. Were not your sisten mistaken in this affair? 12. They 
were not mistaken. 18. Were not your cousins weary of being in 
the country? 14. They were weary of being at my brother's. 16. 
What have you used to write your exercises? 16. I used a gold 
pen, and my brother used a silver pen. 17. Have yon used my pen* 
knife (canif) ? 18. I have used it 19. What has happened to you 1 
20. Nothing has happened to me. 21. Has your mother been well ? 22. 
She has not been well. 23. Did your brothen apply to their studies, 
at school t 24. They applied to their studies and have finished their 
leesons.. 26. What weather was it this morning ? 26. It was very 
fine weather. 27. Has your sister taken much trouble in this affiurf 
28. She has taken much trouble for nothing. 29. Did the Dutch 
ladies walk ? 80. They walked this morning. 31. How far did they 
walk ? 82. They walked as far as your brother's. 33. Have you 
given each other the hand? 34. We shook handa 36. Those ladiea 
flattered themselves very much (beaucaup). 



1. The passive verb is conjugated by adding to the verb ^<fe in aQ 
ita tenses, the past participle of an active verb. See model, { 64 

% This participle must agree in gender and number with thu ^b- 
JMt U 184, (2.) L. 42. R. 6.]: — 


by Google 

ifiiftoji xhrv 


Cm TMItidff font nipeetfo. TVir M fMn «« iwjmcM. 

Cm enfanti tont ttaoM de tout to TVsr<AiUm»arv20Vfi<^fMr3fM||^ 

8. Tfaa feniuB of the French language Beems to prefer the aeti?e 
to the passive voice. Many expressions which are in the passive Ift 
English, are accordingly rendered into French by the active or m 
flective [t 138, (6.) { 113, (1.)] :— 

Cette maison est k loner on & vendre. 

'Ifa iosnr est & pbdndre. 

Get homme est k. cndndre. 

Get homme s'appelle H. TL. 86. R. 2.] 

Oet homme se trompe. [L 88. R. 2.1 

Qnditqaecelaestamsi. [L. 86. R. 2.] 

On nons a dit oela. [L. 86. R. 2.] 

'that house is to be l€i arttU, 
That man is to be hand, 
T%at man is eaUed H. 
Tkat man is mistaken. 
It is sidd that itisse. 
We have been told that. 

4. In an answer to a qneation [see L. 34. R. 13.], the pronoun la 
eoneq;N>nd8 in signification with the English word so^ or «^ expr o a o ed 
or understood. Le refers then to a noon not determined (not pre* 
eeded by an article or a possessive acyeetive), to an acy active, to a 
veib or even to a whole sentMice >— 

Ges enflmts sont Ha dfanfel 
Bs ne le scot pas. 
Ges demoiselles sont elles scenis t 
EUes ne le sent pas. 

Are those ehilaren loved? 
7TI<y are not (so\ 
Are 'those young ladies sisten? 
They are not. 

6, When le refers to a determined nonn, it often corresponds in 
■igniOcation to the pronoun ke^ sAe, or ihey^ which may or may not be 
expressed in the English sentence. Le must then assume the gender 
and number of the noun to which it refers. 



Are you the stster qf miy fiiendf 
J am (she). 

RtauMft OF Examples* 

Lenr coodnite est elle appronv6e 1 

Rile n'est approuvte de peisomie. 

Gette dame est elle estlmte et res- 

Slie n'est ni estim4e nl respect6e. 

Ges marehandises sont k vendre. 

Ges cnfknts sent bien k plaindre. 

A-t-on dit quelque chose a mon frftrel 

On ne lui a rien dit. 

Savez vons comment cda s'appelle 1 

Madame, btee vons maitresse ici 1 

Je ne le suis pas, Monsieur. 

Etes Yous la maitresse de la mal- 


Is their conduct approved f 

It is approved by nobody. 

Is that lady esteewied and tespettsdt 

l^ is neither esteemed nor respeded. 
Those goods are to be told (for as<f> 
Those children are to be pitud. 
Has any thing been said to my brothel 
Nothing hasoeen said to him. 
Do you know how that is called? 
Madame^ are you mistreuhere? 
I am not («o), Sir, 
Are yo^ the mistress of the kmmt 

I em {she). 


by Google 

EzEROiss 89. 

B'Appel-er, 1. pec ta AfCroi-re, 4. ir. to bduves Pim-ir, 2. to^^umAi 

called [^ 49, (4.)] ; £ooUer, m. sckalar; Barementi selfUmt 
Auteur, m author ; Jardin, m. garden ; Helieur, m. bookbinder ,' 
BUm-er, 1 . to blame ; Lou-er, I. to let, to praise; Boa vent, often ; 
Oar, foTf Mftra, f. moiier ; Us-er, 1. to laear ou$$ 

Condoite, f. conduct; Pareaseuz, se^ idle; Yend-re, 4. to sell, 

U Voire m^re eat elle aim6e de aa aceurl 3. £Ue eat atm6e db 
■on fr^re et de aa aoBur. 3. Lea Italiena aont ila aim6s dea Frangaia 1 
4. Yoa teoliera ne aont ila paa bl&m^a t 6. ILb aont bllm^a qnelqne* 
foia. 6. Sont ila aonvent punis ? 7. Qa aont rarement punia. 8. 
Par qui dtea vona pani quand voua ^tea pareaaeuz ? 9. Je ne aaia 
Jamaia pnni. 10. Sa conduite a-t-elle M appronv^e? 11. Elle a 
4t6 ufipfowhe de tout le monde. 12. Elle a 6t6 approuv^e par* aea 
amia. 13. Get auteur eat il eattm^ ! 14. D eat eatim^ de toot le 
Buonde. 16. Le jardin dn ralteur eat il k vendre ou k louerT 18. 
On dit qu'il eat k loner. 17. Le menuisier ft-Uil iait Cure un habit I 
18. U en a fait faire deux. 19. Lea Imbita que voua avez acliette 
aont ila ua68 (room out) t 20. Ila sont us^ j^en ai fait faire d'autrea. 
21. Dit-on que noa amia aont aimds de tout le monde ! 22. On ne le 
dit pas, car on ne le croit pas, 23. Lea dames que nous avons vuea k 
r^glise hier au aoir, aont ellea soBurs ? 24. Elles ne le aont pas, on 
dit qu'elles sont couaines. 26. On dit que Toffic^er qui Went d'ar* 
fiver a'appelle 9. 


l.Aie yoa blamed or praised? 2. I ap neither blamed nor 
praised. 3. Is not youreouain esteemed by every body! 4. She ta 
esteemed by nobody. 6. What has been said of my brother? 6. 
Nothing has been said of him. 7. Do you know if your broth'v'a 
house is to be let ? 8. I have been told (on nCa dit) that it is to be 
sold. 9. Is not an idle person to be pitied? 10. The idle man is to 
be pitied. 11. Is your son sometimes punished at school? 12. He 
a always punished when he is idle. 13. Are your scholars praised 
when they are diligent {diligent) ? 14. They are praised when they 
are diligent^ and they are blamed when they are idle. 16. Is that 
lady esteemed and respected? 16. She is loved, esteemed and re- 
spected by every body. 17. What has been told you ? 18. We have 
been told that your brother is respected by every body. 19. Madam, 
are yoa Mr. S.*a aister? '20. No, Sir, I am not. 21. Madam, ara 

« The prepositions (20 sad par are used Indiflbrently after many pasriv* 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

LBSSbir'XIryiL lt# 

f oil pleased with your son's conduct ? 5^ No, Sir, I am not, for he 
b blamed by every body. 23. How is that large (gros) man called ? 
24. It 18 said that le is ealled H. 26. What is your brother's namet 
36. He is called James. 27. Have you been told that my brother 
is arrived? 28. We have been told so. 29. Are the goods whicfi 
your brother has brought, for sale 1 30. They are not for sale. 31. 
Has the bookbinder had a coat made t 32. He has had a coat made. 
38. Is hit other coat worn out ! 34. The coat which he bought last 
year is worn oul 


1. In the compound tenses of the verb s'en aller, to go awa^ 
[L. 40. 1, 2.], the pronoun en will of course keep its general place, 
after the other pronouns and before the auxiUary. It must nevec 
eome between the auxiliary and the participle: — 

Jem'ensmsall^, /lam^otMy; Nous nous en WewefUawayi 


Tut'enesalM, 7\m loenteU Vonsvoosendtes YouwejUawaijft 

aufoy i allte, 

n s'en est alM, HiwefUauHUff Ds s'en sont all^s, Tl^f loria «iMHr 

Les dames s'en sont all6es. Tki ladies are gone away. 

Les messieurs s'en sont all^s. The gerUUmen are gone away. 

2. The verb aller when referring to articles of dress answers to the 
English toJUy to sit : — 

Hod habit va bien. My coal fits or siU vdk 

3. Seohr [8.ir. see UUe { 82.] a&swers to the English to mit^ to 

Ge chspeau ne vous sled point. That hat does not become you. 

4. Essayer (^49,) corresponds in signification to the English to 
try on: — 

rai essays mon gilet, 11 me va bien. / have tried my waieteoat, U /ts ma 


6. ttre is often used in French for appnrtenir, to belong [{ 108, 

% , , ^^ , . i 7\f wham does that house belong f 

Aqoieetoettemaiseiit \ Whose kamee is tMf 

FlleestiiiuoDOOUsia MUmy0nsisi>'s, 


by Google 


LBdtov xhriu 


A quell* boiire tobs en dies Tons 

Je m'en rais aU6 & neaf heures. 
Tons en dtes yons aU6ee trop tdt, 

Nous noofl en lommes alltee trop 

Cette robe yone yft-t-eUe bieni 
Elle ne me ya pas bien. 
Get habit yons sied il fort bien 1 
Je Tai essays, maia il ne ya pas 

n liii ya bien (r6^me Indirect), 
n me gAne, il me serre tiop. 
Cette robe ne lui ya pas bien. 
Ces Uvres sont its a yons ou a moi 1 
lis ne sont ni a moi ni & yons. 
A qui sont lis done 1 
Len liyres de qni, ayez yons appor- 

J'ai apporti oenx de mon tk^xe. 


I went awof at nine $^cUek. 
Did fou go awaf too Moon, ladkif 

We wtnt awtuf too late. 

Does that dresfJU you wdl7 

It does not Jit me wOL 

Does that coat become yon venfWeAf 

I have tried u on^but it does not ft 

nfls him VfeU, 

R hurts me, it presses me too mnek. 
That dress does not fit her toeB. 
Are those books yours or mine? 
T%eybetong neither to me nor to you. 
Whose are they then? 
Whose books have youbrougkt? 

I ham brought my brother't.^ 

Nenf, ye, newf 
00^ where; 
Serr-er, 1. to press # 
Ten-ir, 2. ir. £0 hoUt 
Vers, towardSj about. 

ExsBClBS 91. 

Bean-fbdre, m. brother'in- Fono6, e, dark ; 

laiwg Cttn-er, 1. to hurt, 

Botte, f. bootf press; 

Olair, e, Ught; Gilet, m. waistcoat; 

Court, e, short f Large, widet 

Etroit, e, narrow, tight; Mieoz, better; 

1, Yoabottes ne yont elles pas bien? 2. Elles ne meyontpaa 
bien, elles me serrent trop. 3. Sont elles trop ^troites ? 4. Elles 
Bont trop 6troitcs fit trop courtes, elles me g^nent 5. Le cordonnier 
&*en est il all6 1 6. H ne s'en est pas encore all6. 7. A quelle heure 
les compsgnes de yotre soenr s'en sont elles all^s? 8. Elles s'en 
aont all^s yers six heures de Taprds-midi. 9. L'habit que vons 
tenez, est il ^ yous on ^ yotre iHre ? 10. II n'est ni ^ lui ni 4 moi, 
fl est i mon beau fr^re. 1 1. Lui yspt-il bien ? 12. II lui ya fort bien, 
et il lui sied bien. 13. Oii Pa-Ul fait fiiire! 14. II I'a fiiit &ire en 
France ou en AUemagne. 15. A qui sont les livres que lit Made- 
moiselle yotre scBurl 16. lis sont It moi. 17. Yotre gilet va-t-il 
mieux que celui de yotre beau-fr^rel 18. II me ya beaucoup mieux. 
19. Yotre habit ne yous g^ue*t-il pas? 20. II ne saurait (cannct) 
me gdner, il est de beaucoup trop large. 21. Ayez yous essay^ yotra 
habit neuf ? 22. Je Pai essay^, mais la couleur ne mo sied pas. 
28. Est elle trop claire ? 24^ EUo est t x>p foncM. 26. Lea eonloim 
fone6es ne me sitent jsmak 


by Google 

LSttOV rXTIIL 141 


1. An ) our fH« ids gone away ? 3. They are not yet gone away, 
fliey are still here. 3. At what hour did your mother go away ! 4 
She w«iit away early this morning. 5. Did yonr little sister go away 
late T 6. She went away too soon. 7. Does your sister's new dresa 
beeome her? 8. It does not become her. 9. Why doe& it not be 
come her? 10. Dark colors never become her. 11. Do light colors 
become your brother's vrife ? 12. They becdtaie her very well. 18. 
Are your new boots too narrow or too widel 14. They are neither 
too narrow nor too wide, they fit very well. 15. Does yonr brothei^s 
waistcoat fit him ? 16. It fits him, but it does not become him. 17. 
Light colors never become him. 18. Does yonr coat press youf 
19. It does not press me, it is by fiur too wide. 20. Whose house is 
that? 21. It is my father's and brother's. 22. Whose books have 
yon brought this morning? 23. I have brought my brother's and 
my sister's. 24. Whose dresses are those? 25. They are my mo- 
ther's, my sister's, and my cousin's. 26. Are not thoee Germaii 
books yours? SH. They are not mine, they aro my friend's. 28. 
Are those pens yours or mine ? 29. They are neither yours nor 
mine, they are my brother's. 30. Does this hat fit you? 31. Yes, 
Sir, it fits me, but it does not become me. 32. Is your hat too 
small? 33. It is too large (grand), 34. Are your gloves too laige* 
36. They are too small, I cannot put them on. 


1. The verb lalloir [3. ir.], to he necessarfy is always eoxjugated 
nnipersonally. See table, } 82. 

n fiint, 11 a tkllu. Bisneeessaajt it was or kat Asm n^ 

D fiiut etudier tons les Jours. His necessary to siudf everf daif, 

2. As faUoir has slways a unipersonal pronoun for its nominative 
or subject, a pronoun In the indurect regimen (dative— me, te, luit 
nous, voos, leur), plaoed before the verb, will oe equivalent to the 
proDoon used aa nominative to the English voibe muai, to k 
Miged, &e..'— 

U me fknt 4crire nn thime. i m/iut wnie m^ atmsu 

OftMiistatllallert Wkmmmdmgof 


by Google 


J,MBIiOW -fihrilh 

B. Falloir 11 luedin the signifieation of to want, $o medftoU umim 

the necessity of having: — 

n me faui an livre. / need a book. 

n lui fkut de I'argent Be is in want ofmoiuy. 

4. When must is used in the last acceptation, and has a noun ae 

its nominative, the noun in the corresponding French sentence should 

be in the indirect regimen preceded by d : — 

n fant on Hvre a ma soeur. Mv sister must hixve a bcok (naeA « 

RteUM£ OF Examples. 

Pour apprendre une langne 11 fkut 

n (kut aUer k I'^ise et a Fficole. 

H fkat rester k la matson. 

n ne flmt lire an boo livre * 

n lui fkut aller voir sa mdre. 

Que nous faut-il faire 1 

Que leur flrat-il lire 1 

Que tear fant-il 1 

II leur ikutde I'argent ou dn credit 

Tons firat-fl dnqoante ftancs t 

D me faut cinquante-oinq francs 1 
Combien d'argent faut-il a votre 

n lui en fhut beaucoup. 
Nous avons oe quil [R. 8.] nous faut 

To learn a language it is necessarf 

to study, 
B is necessary to go to ciurck aetd t» 

It is necessary to remain al home, 
Iwust read a good hook. 
She must go and see her mother. 
What must vfe do? 
What must they read 7 
What do they wani or need? 
They 'need or must have money or 

Do yarn umU or must yen have Jtfiy 

J must have or Ineedf fly-five francs. 
How much money does yowr faiket 

He wants mtuch {of it). 
We have what we want. 

Aller trouyer, to go to a Dayantage, nurre ; 

Fort, very, very mucki 


IMsir-er, 1. to wish, de- Modisle, milUner; 

Chirargien, m. surgeon ; sire ; 
Contime, m. IQOthofa Dette, f debt; 

fruThc; Snyoy-^, 1. ir. [^49, 

Combien, how much, (2.)], to send; 

how many ? Fin-ir. 2. to finish ; 

Ouvrage, m. work; 

Peine, f. troiMeg 
Quand, when, • 

1. Que faut il faire aujourd'hui? 2. Aujourd*hui il faut travailler. 
8. A-t-il fallu travailler fort pour finir Touvrage ^ temps? 4. D a 
flilln trayaiDer toute la joum^. 6. Quand faat il 6crire k notre 
ami ? 6. II iatit lui eerire aujourd^hui. 7. Me favt 11 aller trouver 
Mon p^rel 8. II vous faut aller le trDayer,il d^re vons parler. ii 
A-t-ti besoin de qoelque chose 1 10. II lui faut des livres, des plamoa 
et de Tencre. 11. Ne lai faut il pas aussi de Targent! 13. II hu en 

* Another oonstnustioa of these scatenoBS will be iomd Lomao SSL 
1, SL ^ 


by Google 

tot teneonp pour payer tea dettea. 18« Yoiib faat-il eaeore qvelqu^ 
rhosel 14. II ne me faut plus rien, j'ai tout ee qu*ii me fkut 16. 
Ne iaut il pas du papier k votre soeur? 16. II ne lui en faut paa da- 
yantage* 17. Que faut il envoyer au chimrgient 18. II faut lui 
ettvoyar de rai|s«iit^ il en a grand beaoin. 19. La modiste a-t«ll€ 
tout ee qn'il lui faut? SO. EUo n'a pas tout ce qu'il lui fan! 91. 
Conbian voas faut il? 22. U me faut cinq franes. 23. Ne voua 
faut il pas davantage ! 24 11 ne me faut pas davantage. 25. Que lui 
tot il poor aa peine! 26. II denande un franc vingt^cinq centimes 


1. What must we do ? 2. You must bring your book and leani 
your lesson. 3. Is it necessary to wnte to your brother to-day ? 4 
It is not necessary to write to him. 6. Has it been necessary to 
apeak to your father? 6. It baa been necessary to speak to him. 7. 
Is it neceasary to go to D. to^y ? 8. It is necessary to go thera 
Of), 9. Must I go to your sister? 10. You must go to her, she 
wif|iea to speak to you. 11. How much money must your brother 
have ? 12. He must have ten francs fifty centlmea. 13." How many 
books does your sister want? 14. She must have many books, she 
reads (lU) much. 16. What will you send to the surgeon ? 16. We 
must send him our horse ; his own (le sien) Is sick. 17. Must he 
not have paper? 18. He must have some ; he ha» letters to write. 
19. Must he have much? 20. He must have a quire (maint f). 21. 
Do jrou want any thing move? (See No, 18» in the French exercm 
above,) 22. I peed something more. 23. I need nothing more. 
24. Mna^ yon have one hundred francs? 26. I must have ten dol-. 
lars. 26. What does the aurgeon want? 27. He must have money 
to (pour) pay his debts. 28. Has the tailor all that he wants? 29. 
He has. not ali that jie wants. 30. The milliner has received all that 
she wants. 31. Wh^t must you have for your trouble ? 32. Ijfow 
much do you want? 33. Hof much do we want? 84. What must 
Id)? 3d. You must write a letter. 36. What must she writel 
87. She must write four jiages. 38. She must go to church. 


1. The verb seotr [3. ir. LeaMm 47, B. 3.], is also used unipai^ 
■onaily:^ — 
D ne voQs sied paa de parler ainsi. Jt don not beeomt fou to ^eak tku, 

* TUi a4Terb can never be plaaed befhia a lubstaatiTa. 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



5. The T«rb eoiiTenir [d. ir. i« } 02.], to tuUy it at timea i 
penonolly. It then MgDifies to he iuitable^ advisable^ &c. t— 

n coovieDt de lai 6crire. li i$ advisable to wrUe to km. 

3. The irregalar verb valour [see table, { 62.] correeponda in ■!§• 
nification to the English expre88ion».to be worth : — 

Cettemaisonvaatclnqmille francs. T%at house is worth Jive iknuand 


4. Ne rien valoir meana to he good for notidng; ne paa valoif 
grand'chose, to be worth Ultle^ not to be good for fMich. 

Ce drap ne vant rien. 

Notre maison ne vant pas pnnd'chose. 

6. £tre riche de . . . meansto bewcrtht to possess; when a 
ia the nominative of the verb, valoir is never used in thia sense. 

Gette personne est riche de dnq 
miUe* piastres. 

6. Valoir mieux, conjugated unipersonally, meana to be better: 
▼aloir la peine, to be worth the whiie >— 

n vaut miens travaHler que d'6tre It is better to labor than to^ idle, 


n ne vant pas la peine de parler It is not worth the while tospeak ukm 

quand on n'a rien a dire. one has nothing to say, 

Steuicft OF Examples. 

T%U doih is good for nothing. 
Our house is not good for much. 

That person is worth Jive thousand 

n ne vous sled pas de nous faire des 

n ne vous convient pas de parler de 

la sorte. 
n ne nous convient pas d*j aller. 
Combien votro Jardin vaut il 1 
II vaut beaucoQp plus que le vdtre. 
11 ne vaut pas autant que le mien. 
Notre maison ne vaut rien. 
Votro habit ne wut pas grand'chose. 
Cela ne vaut pas la peine. 
Ce ehAteau pent valoir cent mille 

De combien votre onde est il riche 1 
D est riche de deux cent miUe francs. 

Ne vaut il pas mieux lire que Jouer 1 

It does not become fou to reproach «a 

It is not suitable for fou to speak ee. 

It does not suit us to go there. 
How much is your garden i(wri47 
// is much more vahtable than youew 
It is not worth so much as mine, 
Owr house is good for nothi$tg. 
Your coat is noigoodfor mtuh. 
That is not wor& the while. 
Thai villa may be worthone hundred 

thousand frana. 
How mmch u your undo worth? 
He is worth two hundred thoutastd 

Is U not better to read than to pimff 


As8ur-er, 1. to aseuee g Cass-er, 1. to break t Conteau, m. knifsi 
Att Juste, j^reetaefy; Centaine, f. abouiahue^ Harch6| ol eunMi 
Autre chose, something dred; Ittrit^F, 1. 1# ' 


by Google 

ltato». £ imM; F«nP0ir» S. ir.40 A« «0le/7a«t m {Ana, M mmii 

Wiiaeonco, t ntgleet f Reproeh-er, I, to m- Ta^/r^m tIlor,<9 j^/ 
H«gocUnt» merc/umt s proack t Vi&gtaine/. dftiwir tiMi4r. 

1. Vowtsied-il de nous reprocber notre n^Ugmeel 3. H nw 
fried de yoqs faire des reproches quand voua le m^ritez. 3. Vons 
eonTieDt il d'aller trouver mon fr^re? 4. II ne me convient paa 
i*«Uer le troaver, j'ai aatre chose k fiure. 6. Combien ce champ 
peut il Taloir! 6. Il peut yaloir one vingtaine [J 27, (2.)] de mille 
ftanes. 7. Valez tous mieux que votre frdre. 8. Mon fr^re vaat 
beancoup mieux que moL 9. Ce conteao ne vaut 11 pas plus que le 
v6tre? 10. Lemlen est meilleor, il vaut davantage. il. Combien 
Totre montre vaut elle? 12. Elle ne vaut pas grand^chose, elle no 
Ta pas bien. 13. De combien le n6gociant, est il riche ? 14. Je ne 
puis vons le dhre au juste, il est riche d*une centaine de mUle frtAies. 
15. Ne vaut il pas mieux rester ici que d'aller au marchS? 16. S 
vaut mieux aller au march6. 17. Votre chalne d'or vaut elle plus 
que la mienne? 18. Elle vaut toutautant 19. Elle ne vaut pas 
grand^chose, elle est cass^e. 20. Cela vaut il cinquante franca! 
21. Cela vaut tout au plus deux francs I 22. Aves vous demands 
•a maiehand oe que cela vaut 1 23. Jene le lui oi paa demands 24. 
II jto'nwMre qve cela vsnt une centaine de fianea 


1. How nraeh is my house worth? 2. li la worth about twenty 
thousand franca. 8. Is that horse worth as much aa this one? 4. 
lUs horse is worth two hundred dollars, and that one three hundred. 
5. Is it worth the while to write to your brother? 6. It is not worth 
the while. 7. Is it^worth the while to go out when one does not 
wish to walk? 8. It is nbt (n'en) worth the while. 9. Does it suit 
you to write to my brother to-morrow ? 10. It does not suit me to 
write to him. 11. Does it become you to reproach me with my neg* 
lect? 12. It becomes me to blame (JMmer) yon when you deserve it 
18. What is thai nan worth? 14. 1 cannot tell you exactly, about 
fifky»thousand francs. 15. Is that cloth good ? 16. No, Sw, ft is good 
for nothing. 17. Is your gip worth as much as mine? 18. Ves, Sij, 
it ie worth more. 19. Will ^u go to my father's? 20. No, Sir, I 
have something else to do. 21. Is it better to go to market Obrly - 
than kte? ^. It is better io "go early. 23. How much may Vour 
kenebewnrtli? SM. It^ is not worth much, it is very oU. 2k I» 
your watdf belter than ndne? 26. It is not worth miieh, it doMTnol 
«a. 97. Is that^liook worth two franeaV 28: It is wortli eiie,«l 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

110 tMtov U 

most 99. Have yon asked Toor rieter what that book ia worth' 
80. I have not [L. 24, R. 1Q.'l 46, R. 4.] 31. Wliat muai I dol 
32. You must apeak to your father. 33. Must he have money ? 34. 
He must have some. 35. Has he npt sold his horse ! 36. lie has 
•M it, bat it was not worth much. 


1. When the verbs prendre [4. ir. see } 62.], to take; voler, to rob 
to steal; acheter, to buy; demander, to asJ^for; payer, topatfj are fol- 
lowed by one regimen only, or by several regimens in the same rela^ 
tion; these regimens, if nouns, roust not be separated from the verb 
by a preposition ; if pronouns, they take tho form of the direct rcgt* 
men, le, lOy les :— 

Avez vous pris 1e livre ? Have you taken the book 7 

Avez vous pay£ le libraire 1 Have you pai/l the booksdfer 7 

Avez vous demand6 votre argent 1 Have you asked for your money 7 

li'avez vous demaud6 1 Have you asked for him 7 ^ 

2. When the verbs above mentioned are accompanied by several 
regimens holding different relations, the regimen representing the 
thing or object will be direct, and come under the above rule, and 
that representing the person, will, if a noun, be preceded by the 
preposition d, and, if a pronoun, assume the form of the indirect 
regimen : lui, to him, to her; ieur, to them : — 

J 'ai pris le livre a mou Mre. / have taken the book from my brolhet , 
J'ai payi !e livre au libraire. / have paid the bookseller for the book, 

Je le lui ai pay6, dtc. / have paid him for U, 

3. Demander is used also in the sense of to inquire for^ to cuft 

J-ai demands oe monsieur. / asked for thai gentleman, 

R£6Um£ or Examples. 

Vous a-t-oQ vol6 vos livrcs 1 

On me le« a voMs [L. 85. 1, 2]. 
A>t-on pay6 les souliers au cordon- 

On ne les lui a pas encore payto. 
QuVt-on pris k votze p^re 1 

On lui a pris son ai^gent. 
Ne voQS a-tron rien pay 6 1 
On m'a pay6 presque tout. 
J'ai acbett des lines aa libraire. 

Mas any one stolen your book* fiem 

you 7 

Tney have been stolen from me. 
Has the shoemaker b^tn paid far the 

shoes 7 
He has not yet been paid for them,. 
What has' been taken from yau)f 

ifis money has been taken fivn Alsf 
Has nothing been paid you 7 
I have been paid tUmast aU. 
I bought booktfr&m ike bntkidkr 


by Google 



Qid 9,re% rooa demani^l 
^'•i dcnuuide mon fViru lUn^. 
Avcz vous demandi dc Targent a 

votix; ami 1 
J« ne lui en ai pas demands. 

Wham have ^ou asked for f 
I inquired fvr my eldest brotknr. 
Haze you asked your friend fm 

money 7 
I haw noi asked JUm for Qmi9* 

Exercise 97. 

CliapcUer, m. kaUers 
Crayon, m. pencil; 
]>cniear-«r, 1. ta dvx&s 
Fcnetre, f. window; 
Frapp-cr, 1. to knock; 
L6jfume, m. vegetable; 

Renseignements, m. p 

in/oTmation ; 
Revenn, m. incowuf 
Tout, 6, all; 
Yoyageur, m. trofodler. 

Loyer, m. rent ; 
Pantoufle, f. slipper; 
Paysan, m. peasant; 
Propri^taire, m. land' 

Rend-re, 4. to return; 

1. Que V0U8 B^tron prist 2. On m*a pris mes livres, mes crayons et 
mon eanif. 3. Savez vdus qui vous les a pris ? 4. Je ne connais pas 
eehii qui me les a pris, mais je sais quMl demeare ici. 5. Avez vous 
demand^ vos livres? 6. Je les ai demandes k mon cousin. 7. Vous 
les a-t-il rendus t 8. 11 me les a pay^s. 9. Vous a-t^on vol6 beaucoup 
de fruit cette annle? 10. On m'a voI6 des legumes, mais on ne m'a 
point vole de froit. 11. Avez vous pay6 votre chapeau an paysan? 
12. Je ne le Ini ai pas pay 6, je I'ai pay6 an chapelier. 13. A qui avez 
vous demand^ des renseignements ? 14. Pen ai demand^ au voyageur. 
15. Savez vons qui vient de frnpper k la porte ? 16. C'est M. L., qui 
vous demande. 17. Qui avez vous demande? 18. Tai demand^ votza 
fir^re. 19. Voire fr^re »-t-il pay6 toutes ses dettes? 20. II ne les a 
pas encore pay^s, parce qu'il n'a pas re9u ses revenue. 21. Lui avez 
vous paji;,e ce que vous lui avez achet6? 22. Je le lui ai paye. 23. 
Ne lenr avez vous pas pay6 votre loyer? 24. Je le leur ai pay6. 26. 
Ub nous ont payd notre maison. ^ 

Exercise 98. 
1. Have you paid your landlord? 2. I have paid him my reut 8. 
liave you paid him for the windows which you have broken ? 4. I 
have psiid him for them. 5. Has the hatter paid for all his hats ? 8. 
He has not paid for them, he has bought them on credit (d eridil). 
7. Do you pay whait you owe, every day? 8. I pay my. butcher 
every week. 9. Have you paid him for his meat? 10. I have paid 
him for iU 1 1. For whom did you inquire this morning ? 12. I 
kiquired for your brother. 13. Why did yon not inquire for my 
father? 14. I know that your father is in England. 15. Has the 
hatlcr been paid for his hats ? 16. He has been paid for them. 17. 
Han yonr money been taken Arom yon? 18. My hat has boon stolen 
fh>m me. 19. Have yon asked your brother for your money? 20. 
I hove asked him for It, but he eaimot letam H to me. 21. Has 1m 
M money f 92. He has just paid all his debts^'SBd he has no moaey 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

149 LflASOir 1.1. 

left (is nm). tB. Hare you asked yonr hAhn fbr money t ML I 
imve not asked him for any, I know that he has none. 36. From 
what bookseller have you bought your books t 36. I bought them 
from your bookseller. 27. Are you wrong to pay your debts? 38. 
I am right to pay them. 29. Who is inquiring for me ? 80. The 
physician is inquiring for you. 31. Who knocks? 83. Your shoe- 
maker knocks. 



L The past definite may be called the narrative or historical tense 
el the French. It is used to express an action entirely past, definite 
and complete in itself. The time must be specified, and evei^ por« 
tion of it must be elapsed. One night at least should have ooeuired 
■inee the action took place. 

Hon ft^re partit hier pour Paris, iify bndher left yesiardaiffor Paris, 

3. The student will bear in mind ti»t the past indefinite [L. 41.] 
may be used for the past definite. The past definite, however, may 
never be used for the indefinite. In conversation the indefinite b 
often preferred to the definite, as the latter would at times appear 
too formal [} 131, (8.)] :— 

8. The past definite may generally be rendered in English by the 

simple fbrm of the imperfect, or by the same tense- conjugated with 

HtL The past definite can never be rendered in English, by the par* 

lieiple present of the verb preceded by was, 

J'aUai k r^gllBe hier matin. I went, or did go to ckmrch ynterdmf 


4. TvBMiirATZONs OF Tms. Pabt Dsfinitx of the Fouu 

CoNJUOATiONB. See L. 23, and ^ 60. 
Je chant -al fin -is re^ -us rend -is 

TtL pan -as di6r -is apero -us vend -is 

noUai thtritkedtt prniecnMM »Mmt 

D donn -a foum -it per^ -nt tend -it 

gw flmn$ktd gu$k€Mi tmdti 

Nous cherch4me8 pun -imes oon^ -iJUnes entend-imce 
Torn port 4tM bsIs -ites d -^^et perd 4ioa 

ns aim -erent uu -irent ddc -urent mord -iient 
6. ItwiUbe seen that tbetetniiiaaona c/theteoond andlbutk 


by Google 

&««§«v %u 149 


Ob DOM pirift 46 rom hier. 

Le banqtder nooi domw de Taifeiit 

l*aDn6e dernl&re. 
Le banqnier nous « domift de Var- 

Le profesfear aooi parU de roue 

TanDfie dernlire. 
D none a parM de les amis et des 

Pendanl notre Toyafe, U nou ra- 

ooDta Mf aventaraa. 
D none a racontt Phiatoire de la 


7%e bamiktrgam nt m^^Ud |iMr. 
The banker hat given ut menep. 

T%e profeetoT ^pnfce te «# ^AemJt fern 

last year. 
He spoke to w efkis friends ami of 

During our joumeiy ke relaied to m 

his adventures. 
He related lowihe history of his 1^. 


Aiii6, e, dder^ ddesis Se lev-er, 1. ref. to rise; Rcmerd-er* 1. to thmUti 
Avec, wUk f Loncioe, when ; £Uyoar, m. stay: 

8e ooadi-er, hrttto jr^Nenf, ve, new ; Semaiaei C weekt 

to bed; Ordinairemcnti general^ Boldat, m. soldier $ 

Dernier, e, last ; ly ; Tard, late $ 

B'6ehapp-er, 1. re£ I^Petxlant, dm/ring ; Trap tftt, too toon. 

escape ; Pri-er, I, to beg; 

Habniement^ m. dress ; Propri6t68, f. p. property; 

1. Le iMuiqnier re^ut il beaucoup d'argent la aenmine dernidTO? 
2. n en re^nt beaucoup. 3. AusaitAt que vona apercOtes votre fr^re, 
ne Ini parl&tes vons pas? 4. Dte qne je Taper^ua, je lai pariaL 5. 
Arez voiia d^jk port6 vos habillements neofa? 6. Je ne les ai paa 
eneore port^a. 7. Quand il vons donna de I'argent, hier, le remer- 
ci&tea vons ? 8. Je le remerciai et je le priai de voua remercier. 9. 
Avez Tons troav^ voa livres? 10. Je ne les ai paa eneore trouv^a. 
11. Lorsque voua vlntes noua voir ne finltes vons pas vos affairea 
avee mon p^ ? 13. Je lea finia alora et je le payoL 13. N'avez 
vons pas vn voire scBor ain6e pendant votre sljour & Lyon ? 14. Je 
ne Tai pas vue. 15i Ne vous couchfttes vons pas trop t6t hier au 
oir 1 16. Je me coucbai tard. 17. A quelle heure vons dies vous 
ev6 ce matin? 18. Je me suis lev6 a einq heures; je mt l^ve ordi- 
nairement de bonne heare. 19. Ne cherchites vous pas k voua 
kbapper de votre prison I'onn^e demi^re 1 20. Je n'ai jamais eherch6 
k m*echapper. 31. Avez vous vendu vos propriet^s? 23. Je ne 
lea ai pas venduea. 33. Qu'avez vous donn6 an soldat 34. Je ne 
lui ai rien donn6. 36. Pendant son a^iir k &« nona hd donnAaea 
livft oe quHl vonliit 


by Google 

IM i.a««os tiik 


iT Wbat did yoa leeeive last week ? 2. We received fifty fronot 
from your friend, and twenty-five from your brother. 8. Did you 
take your son to church with you yesterday? 4. I did not take him 
there (y). 6. What did you lose last year ? 6. We lost our moneys 
our clotlies and our horses. 7. Have you looked (dterclUs) for them I 
8. I looked for them, but did not find them. 9. Did they speak of 
your brother yesterday ? 10. They spoke of him and, of you. 1 U 
What did the physician give you? 12. He gave me nothing. \X 
At what hour did your sister rise yesterday? 14. She rose at five. 
o*clock. 15. Did you rise early this morning? 16. We rose aV 
half-past six. 17. lias your cousin sold all his property? 18. He 
has not sold it, he has given it to his eldest sister. 19. Has the trav- 
eller related his adventures to you ? 20. He related them to me. 21. 
Did tliat manliy {eJiercW) to speak to your father ? 22. He tried to 
speak to him. 23. Did tho professor speak of your brother during 
his stay at your house ? 24. He spoke of him. 25. Has your friend 
worn his new coat ? 26. He has not worn it yet 27. Have you' 
thanked your brother? 28. I have thafiked him. 29. What have 
you given to your eldest sister? 80. [ have given her nothing,^- 
have nothing to give her. 31. When your brotlier gave you a book 
last year, did you thank him ? 32. I did Jiot thank him. 33. Is it 
late. 84. It is not late, it is only six. 35. Is it fine weather or bad 
weather? 86. It is very fine weatlier. 


1. The terminat^ns of the past definite of irregular verbs, are sel- 
dom arbitrary,* but an irregular verb of one conjugation will some- 
times, in thid tense, assume the terminations of another eonjugntion. 
In a few instances the stem [L. 23.] of the verb is enUroly changed. 

Avom, to have ; 

Ktbb, to be; 

Voir, to see / 

Lire, to read; 

r -us 

f -us 

V -is 

1 -us 

Tu -ns 

f -us 

V -is 

I -ns 

11 e -ut 

f -nt 



Nous e -i^raes 

f -Cimos 

V -imes 

1 -i^lnes 

Vous e 'Mm 


V -ites 

1 -i^tes 

Us e -urent 

f -urent 

T -irent 

1 -ureni 

« This termination is arbitraiy only in verbs ending In enir in whUk 
n r, eomm afUr the t of the terufaiation : vbmes, /Iimms, A& 

,/^Digitized by CjOOQ IC 




± Avoir and dtre, t will be percaiTed, take in thia tense a new stem, 
» as, /-us; 6tre and lire, though belongin"^ to the 4th conjugation, take 
the terminations of the 3d, and voir, a verb of the 3d, takes the toiw 
minations of the 4th. 

. 3. In other instances, the stem of the verb drops sdme o{ its letteni 
and sometimes adopts others. This may be seen in the verbs 


to fear ; to know ; to condiuL 

craign -is conn -us condnis -is 
crajin -is conn -us conduis -is 
craign -it conn -ut condnis -it 
craign -imes conn -Ames conduis -Imes 
craign -ites conn -Ates conduis -ites 
craign -irent conn -urent conduis -irent 
4. Like vcnir, are conjugated all verbs ending in enir ; like crain- 
dre, eonnaltre, and conduire, those ending in indre^ ailre and uire , 
and like prendre, those composed of this verb and a prefix : as, com- 
prendre, surprendre, dus. 

6. We wonid at all times refer the student to the table of irregu 
lar verba» { 62, for those tenses of the irregular verbs with which ha 
18 not familiar. 

R£8um6 of Examples. 



to come; 

to take; 

Jo V -iDS 

pr -is 

Tu V -ins 

pr -is 

U V -Int 

pr -it 

Nons V -inmes 

pr -Imes 

Vous V -intes 

pr -ites 

Us V -inrent 

pr -irent 

Ne condafsites vons point votre fils, 

en Ssqpagne l*ann6e demiire 1 
le Vy conduisis et Je I'y laissai. 
Aussitot que vous vites votre (Vdre> 

ne le reconnAtes vous pasi 
Je le reconnus aussitot que Je 

lie pbarmaden no vint-il pas vons 

n vint me voir ; il Ait bien 6tonn6 

de trouver chez mof, un de ses 

anctens amis. 
Ne prites-vous pas cong6 de vos 

amis, hierl 
Je pris congfi d'enx, ct Je les priai 

de m'6crire. 

Did you not take four son to Spmn 

last year ? 
J took Urn thUker and left him. 
As soon as you saw your brother, did 

you not recognize him 7 
I recognized him as soon as I per- 

ceived him. 
Did not the apothecary come to set 

He came to see me; he was much 

astonished to find one of his oU 

friends at my house. 
Did you not take leave of your 

friends yesterday ? 
I took leave of them, and begged 

them to write to me. 

Exercise 101. 

Accompagn-er, 1. to a«-De men mieux, as irrf/ Histoire, f. history; 

company; as I anild; Inform-er, 1. to inform* 

A la fin, fli last; Be d6p4ch-cr, 1. ref. <oNotairo,m. fwtary; 

Amicalement, kindly; make haste; Lu, from lire, 4. Ir. to 

Arrivec, f. arrival; Dds que, as soon as; read; 
Aitend-re, 4. to waiifor ; ficolicr, m. scholar ; Peintre, m. /wwtor i 
An seconrs, to Vu a«ii-S'ennuy-er, 1. pec. to i^Sans, wWumlt 

iance; come weary; Becour-ir, 2. Ir. to Ms- 

Congfi, m. leave; Be htt-er, 1. iwf, to €9ur. 

ffour-ir, 2. ir. to raw; hmsint 


by Google 

169 1.1#«0« ttL 

1. Nos tayOen •^ennnydrent-ils hier, d*atton4rB d longftemptf 
t. fis Ibrent oUig^ d'attendre si longtemps, qu'k la fin Us perdirent 
IMdeDco. 3. Ne re^&te&>voi» point votre parent amicalement lors* 
qa*il vintTouavoir? 4. Je le re^us de mon mieux. 6. NelOtes-voua 
paa la lettre de votre fir^re avant hier ? 6. Je la liia et je i'envoyai ^ 
mon ooele. 7. Ne courCitea-voua paa au aecours de yolre fr^rt 
aasaitdt que vous le vltea en danger ? 8. Je me h&tai do le aeeowir. 
ft Ne votts dtea-voQS paB dep^ch^a de venir ? 10. Nona nous sommea 
d^pdch^a. 11. Att88it6t que vous eOtea aper9u mon fr^re ne ilfin- 
fonnltea-vooa paa de son arriv^e! «12. Je voua en informal. 13. A 
qudle heure votre aoeur est-elle venue aujourd*hui? 14. Elle eat 
venue i midi. 15. Voa compagnona vinrent-ils hier vous prier de 
les accompagner ? 16. lis viurent me voir, mais ils me quittdrent 
Bans me parler de leur voyage. 17. Ne peignltes-vous pas un 
tableau Tannee demidre? 18. Je peignis un tableau d'histoire. 
19. Le peintre italien a^t-il fini son portrait? 20. II le finit hier. 
SI. U Ta fini ce matin. 23. J>hs que j'eua re9U cette nouvelle. 
j'envoyai chercher le notaire. 23. Ce jeune iiomme a^t-il pria cong£ 
de son p^re. 24. D a pria cong6 de luL 25. U prit coxig6 de lu! 


1. Did the notary accompany you yesterday? 2. He accompanied 
ne aa far as (Jusque chez) your brother's. 8. Did your companion 
ta}ce leave of you yesterday ? 4. He took leave of me this morning. 
6. Did you read yesterday, the book which I have lent you? 6. I 
read it the day before yesterday (avant hier). 7. At what time did 
the painter come this morning? 8. He came at half-past nine. 
9. Has he finished your father's portrait? 10. He painted all day 
yesterday, but the portrait is not yet finished. 11. Did you not run 
to your father's relief when you aaw him in danger ? 12. I hastened 
to succour him. 13. What did you do when you came? 14. At 
Boon as I came I sent for my brother. 15. Did you take your aiater 
to Germany last year? 16. I took her there this year. 17. Did you 
take your children to school yesterday^ 18. I took Ihem to my 
brother's. 19. Do you paint a historical picture ? 20. I painted last 
year a historical picture. 21. Did your sister beg you to accompany 
her ? 22. She begged me to accompany her. 23. Did you send for 
the notary as soon as you heard from your father ? 24. I sent for 
him. 25. When did the notary take leave of you? 26. He took 
leave of me this morning at nine. 27. Ha9 ^he apothecary finished 
Ua letter? 28. He has not yet finiilMd it 291 Wtn jon not 


by Google 

LBSSOV bit]. 15$ 

utonialiisd yeeterday to see that lady! BO. I was not aatoaiafacd to 
•ee her. 31. Did you make baste to read your book last n!gbt 
{hier au 9oir) ? 32. I made haste to read it. 33. Have you finiahed 
it? 84. I have not yet finished it / 


THB DCPBRVCT. (^ 119.) 

1. The imperfeet or simultaneous past tense may be called tho 
deseriptive tense of the French. The action which it represents, or 
the situation which it describes, is imperfect of itsel£ This tense 
leaves the beginning, duration, and end of an action undetermined. 
It may often be rendered in English by the auxiliary tMs, dte. and the 
participle present of the verb [{ 119, 120.] : — 

J'6crivaiB oe matin quand vous dtos / was wrUing this morning token you 

entr6. coMe in. 

Je passais hier quand vous m'ap- / was passing yesterday when you 

pelites. called me. 

2. The imperfeet is also used to express an action which is cus- 
tomary or often repeated. It may then be rendered in English by 
the word, used to, pUeed before the verb :— 

L'ann^e demi&^, j'allais tons ks Zast year, I went {used to go) every 

Jours a Tecole. day to school. 

Quand nous demeuridns i la When we were (used to be) in the 

campagne, nous nous couchions country ^ we used to go to bed at nine 

ordinairement a neiif heures. o^clock, 

8. The imperfect can seldom be rendered in English by the past 
tense which takes <lu2* as an auxiliary. The past d^nite never 
eorresponds in meaning to the English imperfect composed of the 
auxiliary ** wu^ and the participle prtsent. It cannot be rendered 
by the verb preceded by " used to,^^ ^:^ 

J'allais k la chasse hier matin I wasgoidtg hund-ng yesterdaiy mam- 

quand oons nous rencontrlmes. inig when we met (did meet). 

J*uuai a la chasse hier matin. / loent (did go) hunting yesterday 


4. The imperfeet is formed from ihe participle present, by changing 
oitf into oti, die. } 61. It may also be fbrmed by adding au, etc. to the 

♦ BxoBpt when, In Interrogative sentences, did is used as an anzflkry 
to mmi Is eKprscid or undersiood. 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 


LB8809 till. 

«tem of the verb for the 1st and 4th conjugations, itsotf, etc. foi 
the 3d, and ecais^ etc for the 3d. 

5. Tkbuinations or the Imperfect of the four CoarjuoA* 


Je chant -ais 

/ wat tingimg 

Tu pari -ais 

Tkou watt speaking 

JX douD -ait 
Nous cherch -loos 

W§ were eetking 

Voos port -iez 

Teu wereeartjimg 

Us aim -aient 
7)l4f w§reU9ing 

fin -tssais 


ch6r -issais 

wast ekerieking 

foam -issait 

was furnishing 

pun -issions 
were pnnisking 
sais -issieis 
were setting 
nn -issaient 
were mailing 

rec -evais 
apcrc -evais 

waet perceiving 

perc -evait 
was gmtkering^ 
cone -€vions 
were cmumvii^ 
d -eviez 

were owing 

d6c -cvaient 

were deceivit^ 




vend -an 

wast selling 
tend -alt 

was tending 

entend -ions 
perd -Tea 


mord -aieot 

RftsuMt OF Examples. 

Je chantais qoand on m'apporta 

voire lettre. 
J*aimais autrefbis & lire les pontes 

J'itais dans votre chambrc lorsque 

vous dtes entr6. 
Comment votre pdre se portait-il, 

lorsqae vons domenriez enFrancel 
Aves vous pay6 a mon pdre ce que 

vous lui deviez, et ce que vous lui 

aviex promis? 
Je parlai hier toute la matin6e. 
Je parlais hier k votre pdre, lorsque 

votre ami nons rencontra. 
Je cherchais votre p6re. 

/teas singing when tkey brought wu 

your UUer. 
I used to like formerly to read tki 

English poets, 
I was in yqur room when you cmM 

How was your father when you Used 

in Prance? 
Have you paid my father what you 

owed him, and what you had prom" 

ised him? 
I spoke yesterday the whole morning, 
I was speaking to your father w&k 

your friend met us yesterday, 
J ioas looking for your faXhar, 

Exercise 103. 

Autrefois, yvrmerZy; ficolier, m. 5cAo2ar; Presque pas, ahnasi 

Brun, e, brown} Noir, e, btack; nones 

Chambre, f. rooms M6ritrer, 1. to deserves Betrouv4r, 1. to find 

Crayon, m. pencils Pantonflc, f. slippers again s 

Demeur-er, to live,dweUsVsirchemin, m. parch- Thhrne^ m. exercise s 

De nouveau, again s ments Vert, e, green. 

1. De qui parliez-vous ce matin quand je suis venu vons trouvcr? 
2. Ma cousine parlait de son fr^re et je parlais du mien ? 3. N*aimtoz« 
vous paa roieux le bceuf que le mouton, autrefois? 4. J*aimai4 le 
boeuf, mais je n*ai jamais aim^ le mouton. 5. Ne vendiez-voua pas 
beaucoup de livres, lorsque vons demeuriez ^ Paris? 6. J^en vendaia 
beaucoup parceque j^^taia libraire. 7. Le llbraire a-t-il vendu beau* 
eoup de crayons ce matin? 8. U a vendu beaucoup de crayoni ao- 
joord'htti. 9. Vendiez-vons beaucoup de parohemin lorsque voua 
4ties libraire t 10. Je n*en vendaSa presque paa. IL Votre ti^ 


by Google 

LBS809 LXII. f5d 

portait-fl un habit vert loraqu'il demeurait ^ Londrea? 12. H portait 
Bn habit brun et des pantoutles noirea. 13. Que chercliiez-vous? 
14. Je cherohais mon livrc. 15. Depuis quand Taviez-rouB perdu? 
16L Je l*avais perdu depuis hier. 17. L^avez-voua retrouv^t 18. Je 
Tavais retrouv6, mais je Tai perdu de nouveau. 19. Co boulanger 
V0U8 fouraiasait-il de bon pain ? 20. U noua en fonmiaaait d*excel* 
lent 81. Puniaaiez-Yous aouvent voa deoUera? 22. Je lea puniaaaia 
quand ila le m^ritaient 23. OH etiez-voua ce matin quand je voua 
dierehaia? 24. Tetaia dans nui chambre. 26. Je finiaaaia mon 

ExERCias 104. 

1. Who waa at jour houae thia morning! 2. My friend G. was 
there, and waa looking for you. 3. Were you looking for me this 
morning! 4. I waa not looking for you, I waa looking for your 
aeholar. 6. Did you apeak to my father yeaterday ! 6. 1 waa apeak* 
ing to liim when they brought me your letter. 7. Did you uae to 
sell much meat when you lived in B. ! 8. I sold much meat becauae 
I was a butcher. 9. Did your father uae to wear a white hat when 
he lived in London ! 10. He uaed to wear a black hat, and my brother 
wore a black coat. 11. Were you singing when my father came! 
12. No, Sir, I was finishing my exerciae. 13. Had you loat your 
pencil thia morning! 14. I had loat it, and was looking for it when 
you apoke ta me. 15. Has your brother paid all that he owed? 
16. He has not paid for hia coat 17. How waa your mother when 
ahe lived in Italy ! 18. She was very well. 19. You uaed to like 
reading, (la lecture), did your sister (use to) like it also! 20. She 
liked it also. 21. Where was your sister this morning when I waa 
looking for her! 22. She was at my mother's. 23. What aong were 
you singing this morning! 24. 1 was singing an Italian song. 25. 
Have you been afraid to speak to me ! 26. I have never been afraid 
to apeak to you. 27. Have you brought my book ! 28. I have not 
brought it 29. Of what were you speaking ! 30. 1 was speaking of 
nothing. 31. What were you giving to my brother! 32. I was not 
giving him any thing. 33. What were you carrying! 34. I was 
carrying a tree. 85. Where were you carrying it! 86. I waa carry* 
mg it home. 


by Google 



1. The impeifect of the indicative of every Freneh verb» regular 99 
irregular, ends in ats, ais^ ait^ ions^ ieZf aient, 
3. No verb of the first cox^jugation er, is irregular in this tense. 

3. The only irregularity found in the irregular verbs of tiie seeond 
Cf^i^ugation ib, is that, to form the imperfect, the stem of these verfoif 
takes at5, du;., instead of issais : as, ven-ir,^> ven-ots, cour-ir, Je ecu* 
rats; cueill-ir,^e cuet7Z-ats. Exception: Fuit, to fleece fuyais' 

4. The irregular verbs of the third conjugation oir, change thai 
termination (oir) into ais, etc, like the regular verbs of the same: 
as, 8av-oir,j'e sav^is; av-oir,/iiv-ats. Exceptions: se-oir, to become^ 
voir, to see, and their compounds, and d^choir, [see } 62.] 

6. The changes which the stem of the irregular verbs of the foorth 
conjugation undergoes, in this tense, are too various to admit of a 
complete classification. We, however, ofier the following : — 
PscNDac, to tak«, ficaias, to wriJU, Cbatndrb, tn ftar, 

Je pren -ais, etc. 6criv -ais, etc. craign -ais, etc. 


Connaiss -ais, eta Gonduis -ais, etc. 

6. Like prendre and 6crire are conjugated, in this tense, those verbs 
In which frendm and cn'rs appear in composition : as, comprendre, 
j$ comprenait ; souserire, j'e gouscrivais. — ^Like craindre and con« 
naltre, those ending in indre and aUre; teindre,jre teignais ; parattr«» 
j^pwraisuris. — ^like conduire, those ending in tre; as, lire,^> lisais ,- 
Uxtty j€ fatiaais ; luire,ye lutsatM; dire, ^e dtsais^ etc. — ^Exceptions: 
rire, traire, ^rire, and their compounds. 

7. Mettre and its compounds, and £tre are regular in this tense. 

8. The participle present from which the French grammarians de^ 
ma the imperfect, presents of course the same irregularities, as; ve» 
lumt, valant, prenant, 6crivant, craignant, connaissant, conduisant 
Kxeeptions: avoir, oyan/ ; savoir, sac^a^^ 

R£sum£ of Examples. 

De quel notre ami avait-il peur 1 
II n'avait peur de rien. 
N'avie?.voii8 pas besoin de mon 

Nous avions besoin de Ini. 
Le marchand n'avalt-il pas besoin 

n en avait grand besob 

Of what was eur friend cfrcid 7 
lie was afraid of nothing. 
Did you not want my brother? 

We wanted kim. 

Did not tke nurckani wamt wionty f 


Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



Quell* Tfl^^sn ooBdiiiii«i-T(mB 1 

Pour qui me prenlez-Vons 1 

Je renais vous tronver quand Je 

Tons reDcoutmL 
A qui teriviez-Tona ce matin 1 

rteriTab k ma soenr et i mon 

IF%a< cemiagg w€n feu drivmg? 
Fbr whom were you taking me 7 
I was coming to you when I met you, 

T\> whom were youwriting this mert^ 

I was writing to my sister and to my 


Autremcnt, otherwise; 
CMv-er, 1. to break; 
Chasse, f. hunting g 
Dire, 4. ir. to say; 
Montre, f. watch ; 
Moins, (an) at least; 
Mort,e, dead; 
Offens-er, to offend; 

ExsRCiSK 105. 

Oubli-cr, 1. to forget ; Telnd-re, 4. ir. to dy^ 

PAche, f. fishing; Teinturier, m. dyer; 

Peind-re, 4. ir. to paint; Toito, f. linen doth; 

Beven-ir, 2. ir. to re- Rencontr-er, 1. to maet; 

turn ; Y al-oir, 8. ir. to he worth , 

Sav-oir, 8. ir. to know ; Yen-ir, 2. ir. to come, to 
Se tromp-er, X. to be have just; 

mistaken; Yite, quickly, 

1. Ponrquoi n'toiviez-Youa pas plus vite ce matin ? 2. Parceqa* 
favais peur de me tromper. 3. Ne craigniez-voos pas d'offenser 
eette dame ? 4. Je craignais de I'offenser, mais je ne pouvais fsire 
antrement? 6. Que peigniez-vous ce matin? 6. Je peignais nn 
tableau d'histoire. 7. Votre teinturier que teignait-il ? 8. II teignait 
da dnip, de la sole et de la toile. 9. De quelle couleur les teignait 
il ? 10. II teignait le drap en noir, et la soie et la toile en vert 1 1. 
Conduisiez-vous le jenne Polonais k T^cole lorsque je vous ai rencon* 
tre? 12. JecondniaaismonfilsainS^r^glise. 13. Que lisiez-YousI 
14. Je lisais des livres que je venais d'acheter. 16.. Ne saviez-Tona 
pas que ce monsieur est mort? 16. Je I'avais oubli6. 17. Combi«ii 
la montre que vous avez cass^e yalait*elle % 18. Elle valait au ndlM 
deux cents francs. 19. Ne valait-il pas mieuz rester ici que dialler ^ 
la chasse ? 20. II valait beaucoup mieuz aller i T^ole. 21. Votra 
ami que vous disait-il? 22. U me disait que son frdre est revenn 
d'Espagne. 23. N'alliez-vons pa» k la chasse tous les jours laraqne 
Tous demeuriez k la campagne? 24. J'allais souvent ^laptehei 
25 Mon fr^re allait tous les jours k T^cole quand ii 4tait id 


1. Were you a&ald this morning when you came to our house ! 
2. 1 was afeid. 3. Of what were you afraid? 4. I was afVaid of 
the horse. 5. Was not your friend afraid of falling? {de tomXm^ 
Sse L. 21. R 2, 4.) 6. He was not afraid of falling, but he wan 
ilkaid of making a mistake {de se tromper. See 2. in Exercise above), 
X Were y 3a not afraid of offending yonr brother! 8. I was afraU 
•f edkodJOBLg him. 9. Were yen ^jJung yoor son to sehooU 10. 


by Google 

168 LISBOir LT. 

was condacting him to school. 11. Was the dyer dyeing yonr eoat 
12. He was not dyeing my coat, he was dyeing silk. 13. What color 
was he dyeing the silk ? 14. He was dyeing some red and some 
green. 15. Was he dyeing his linen cloth black or green ! 
16. He was neither dyeing it black nor green, he was dyeing it 
pink (rose), 17. Were you aware {suviez vous) that your uncle is 
dead? 18. I did not know it (imperfict), 19. What was the gen- 
tleman reading? 20. He was reading a letter which he had just re- 
ceived. 21. Were you cold when you came here ? 22. I was cold« 
hungry and thirsty. 23. Were you not ashamed of your conduct 
(coniuite), 24. f was ashamed of it 25. Were you not in want 
of money? 26. I was not in want of it 27. Did you not want 
your father 1 28. We did not want him. 29. Whither were you 
going when I met you? 30. I was going to your house. 31. Were 
you driving your brother's carriage ? 32. I was driving my own (la 
mienne), 33. Were you writing to me or to my father? 34. I was 
writing to your friend's cousin. 35. Your friend was taking me for 
your eldest brother. 



1. The past anterior is formed from the past definite of the auz* 
Diary and the past participle of the verb : j'eus parl6, / had spcken^ Je 
fus venu, I had come. 

2. The past anterior expresses generally a momentary action, 
which took place before another action. The latter immediately 
follows the former, and often depends upon it The action ex- 
pressed by this tense is not a customary one. The past anterior is 
often preceded by k peine, scarcely; dds que, aussitdt que, as soon 
as; quand, lorsque, when; [{ 122. } 123, (3.)] 

06s que J'eus flni ma t&cbe Je m'en As soon as I had finisAed my task 
aliai. toefU away. 

3. This tense partakes of the nature of the past definite. 

4. The pluperfect is composed of the imperfect of the auxiliary, 
and the past participle of the verb ; j 'avals parle, / had spcken, j'^taia 
venu, / had come, 

5. To this tense might be applied nearly all the rules on the use 
of the imperfect The action which it expresses, or the situation 
which it depicts, is iVeqmnty a onatomary one, or on« often rs 


by Google 



DIs que 


le J'l 

'ETsIt fin! ma tftche Je 

iU soon as my taskwujhrisktdl used 

to go away. 

R£suii£ of Examples. 

ArioA-TouB en soin de vo6 efiets 1 
J'en araia eu so'm. 
N'ariez-voas pas eu besoin de moi 1 
J'avais en beaoin de vous et de votro 

K'aviez-voos pas en riQtentioD de 

me parler 1 
Kons avions ea enrie do dormir. 
Dds qne vous eAtes fini Totre lettre, 

De ia port&tes-vous pas a la poste 1 
Dis que 70us aviez fini vos lettres. 

ne If s portiez-vous pas a la poste 1 

Dte que TouB r&tes arrive, ne oom- 
men^tes-Yons pes a dcrire 1 

Dds que vous (Sticz arrlv6, ne com^ 
menfiez-vous pas k dcrire 1 

Had you taken care of your ikhgs? 

I had taken care of tkem. 

Had you not wanted me ? 

J had wanted you and your brotkmr. 

Had you not intended to speak to msf 

We had had a wish to sleep. 

As soon as you had finished youtr letter 

did you not carry U to tkeposl-ofieef 
As soon as your tetters were Jlnuhed, 

did you not (commonly) take tkem 

As soon as you had arrived did you 

not commence writing ? 
As soon as you used to arrive^ didyou 

not (generally) commenu wriHng f 


Arr^t-er. 1. to stof, ; 
Bal, m. baU ; 
Boarsc, f. purse; 

figar-er, 1. to mishys 
Invit-er, 1. to invite; 
8e lev-cr, rcf. to rise; 

Perd-re, \. to lose; 
Bemont-er, 1. to wind 

Be ooucher, 1. ref. logo Malade, sick; Betrouv-er, 1. to fmd 

to bed; Mnsicien, m. mttsioan; again; 

Dangereusement, dan^ Oubli-er, 1. to forget; Sort-ir, 2. ir. to go cut g 
gerously ; Partrir, 2, to set out; Spectacle, m. p&y. 

Dmer, m. dinner; 

1. Ne saviez-Tons pas oil le musicien 6tait aU6t 3. Je savaia 
qifil 6tait all6 ^ Paris. 3. Ne vous avait-on paa dit que votre fr^re 
est mort? 4. On m*avait dit qu*il 6tait dangereusement malade. 6. 
Ne Tons couchiez.>vou9 pas ordinairement, d^s que vous aviez fini vos 
lemons ? 6. Dhs que je les avais finies, j'allais an spectacle. 7. D^s 
qne vous eiktes fini vos lemons, que fltes-vous hier au soir? 8. Aus- 
8it6i que je les eus finies, j'allai au bal. 9. Cette petite fille n'avait* 
elle pas envie de donnir? 10. Elle avait plus envie de dormir que 
d*etudier. 11. Qu^aviez-vous fait de (vfiih) votre livre qunnd je vous 
Icdcmtmdai? 12. Je Tavais^gorc. 13. Oi!k Taviez-vous ^gar6 ? 14. 
Je Tavais oublid dans le jardin. 15. Pourquoi votre montre 4tait- 
elic arr^t^e ? 16. Parce que j'avais oublie de la remonter. 1 7. L'bor* 
loger ne I*avait-il pas remont^ t 18. II avait oubli6 de lo falre. 19. 
N*aviez-vous pas perdu votre bourse ? 20. Je Pavais peraue, iiiais je 
Toi retrouv^e. 81. Votre coasin ^taitol parti? 22. D n'eUit paa 
•neora parti 23. Etaitpil aortit 24. U 4tatft aorti avae m 


by Google 

160 LBtt^V LTL 

3d. Oh 6tAit.il alMt 96. 11 6tait alU ehez mon Mn, qui r«fa| 
invito u diner. 


1. Had you not intended to speak to my brother? 2. I had in- 
tended to speak to him, but he was gone. 3. Did your sister go t^ 
bed lost evening as soon at she had read (lu) her book ? 4. She 
went to bed as soon as she had read it 6. Did she usually go to 
bed as soon aa she had read her book ? 6. She generally went to 
bed as soon aa she had read six pages. 7. Were you told that your 
sister was sick? 8. I was told that she had been dangerously sick. 
9. Did you know what you had done with your pen? 10. I knew 
that I had mislaki it 11. Had your sister mislaid hers? 12. She 
had left (laissie) it in my room. 13. How many of your books have 
you mislaid ? 14. I had mislaid five, but my brother has found them. 

16. Where had you left them? 16. I hod left them in the garden. 

17. Was your brother's watch stopped? 18. It was stopped. 19. 
Why was it stopped ? 20. He had forgotten to wind it up. 21. 
Had he not lost his key? (clef, f.) 22. He had not lost it, 23. Had 
you wanted my father or me? 24. I had wanted your little girl. 
25. Was she out? 26. She was out with your brother. 27. Waa 
she gone to my sister's ? 28. She was gone thither. 29. Waa the 
dyer gone ? 80. He was not yet gone, he intended to leave at five. 
81. Had you spoken to him when I oaaM yesterday? 32. 1 had 
spoken to him. 33. Had you told him thiit my sister is here? 84. 
I had told him. 85. Is he still here ? 86. No, Sir* he is goi«e, h» 
wiant this morning at six. 


1. We have given [L 6. R. 4, and { 76 (4.)] a rule for the place of 

the noun, subject or nominative of an interrogative sentence. T« 

avoid confusing the student, we have hitherto refrained fVom intro* 

dueing another constmotion which is often used by the French^ 

instead of that given in the rale. When a sentence commences 

with od, where; que, tahat; quel, tohieh; combien, how muchf how 

nutny; and quand, when; the noun may be i^aeed immediately aftat 

the verb. This construction is rimilar to that of the English int«v» 

rogative sentence when the verb has no auxiliaiy [{ 76, (6.)] :— 

M sent nos amis etnos parents 1 meremaow/nerMMUnMiMWl 
4D'4erllTotvseonespoiM«it1 Wktt vmim fmm t mntfmUbiUf 


by Google 

iBtt«M f.Tt. 161 

fl. Wkm ^bm[% an in a Fraicli atntMica ^« ngia^as of a^^ 
length, tha direetahaiild praeada tha indiceat [{ 76, (7.)]:^ 

Atm-toiis doniii lot Jonats 4 Ten- Have fou given ike ckUd tke plofm 

ftnll things? 

ATet-Tooa doiiii4 cetta lettra k Have yai^ given Human that UUer 7 

rhomma 1 

3l Tha r^ma indiract precedes tha direct, when the latter is fol- 
lowed by a relative pronoun, or by other worda qualifying it, and 
rendering it much longer than tha indiieat [} 76, (8.)]. The indirect 
regime should alao precede tha direct^ when tha aantenea would 
otb^rwiaa be equivocal [} 76, (9.)] :— - 

▲Taz-TOusdonnA k Tanfiuit, leajoueta Bmse ym jrtm the ekUd, ike pUegm 
^ueTousloiaTiezpromisl things which you had premted 



How M is tkai fetmg laif? 
What do those gentlemen mean 7 
Where are your brothers gone 7 
How matvy children kea tkaigetiA^ 

QwBl ige a eette dtfuoiaelle 1 
Qua Teulent dire ces messieurs 1 
Oft sont aU6s messieurs yds IVdres 1 
Combien d'enflmts a oe monsieur 1 

Atcs tous pay6 cet si^geni au mar- 

chand 1 
J'ai payi mon habit au taiUeur. 
Vous aTez payA au taiUeur, le gilet 

que vous avez achet6. 
K'avlez-vous pas demands cela k 


Have you paid the merchant thai 

J paid the taiiorfor mm eooL 
Ym have paid the tailor for ike coai 

which you have boughi. 
Had you notasked theckOdfor thaif 


▲ocompagn-er, I, toac- Chalne, f chain; Dernior, e, tof ; 

company: Chapeau, m. half bon^'Pr^, near, neaHy f 

Aiai, e, etdest t nets Rend-re, 4. to rrtera 

Ajsoci6, m,;ioKntfr; Cinauante, f. >S/2]f; QemneTj UL locksmith g 
Aohersiste, m landlords Clef, f. keys Serviette, f. napkin, 

Boateifle, f. bottle / Commis, m. derk ; 

1. Od etaient vos parents I'ann^e demidre! 3. Hs 6taient an An* 
gleterre. 3. Od sont restSs les messieure qui vous accompagnaient 
ce matin ? 4. Da aont rest^s chez leura associ^s. 6. Que lisaient 
vos amies lorsque vous lea avez quitt^ea? 6. Biles lisaient les non- 
velles qu*elles venalent de recevoir. 7. Que dit monsieur votra 
p^.'e ? 6. II ne dit rien. 9. Quel &ge a ce monsieur! 10. D a pr^a 
docinquante ana. 11. Quel Age ont vos enfants! 13. L'ain6 a dix 
ana, et le plus jeune a aix ana. 13. Avez-vous demand^ votre ehalna 
d'or k ce monsieur? 14. Je la lui ai demand^e. 16. Avez-voua 
rendu an commis, ]*argent qu'il vous avait pr^t6 ? 16. Je le lui al 
landu. 17. Aviez-vona anvia d^ai^voyar voa clefa auaamciert 16. 
Pavaia aniia da laa lal anToyar, aar allaa aoni taaaiin Id AviM' 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

Tons oubli^ de payer fotre habit an tailleur? 20. Panus Dublin da 
le lui payer 21. VidaiUl la peine d'envoyer ces plumes k V^eoMotl 

22. U ne vtdait pas la peine de les lui envoyer, il en avail d^autrea. 

23. Valait-il la peine d'envoyer ces bouteilles a Taubergiste ] 24. 11 
valoit la peine de les lui envoyer, car il n*en avait pas. 25. Avez* 
vous demande des serviettes k voire p^re ? 26. Je n'al pas voulu 
hii on demander. 

1. What does the tailor mean ? 2. 1 do not know what he means. 
8. Where is your eldest sister? 4. She is at my brother's, or at 
my sister's. 5. What was the locksmith saying to youl 6. He was 
saying that he has brought my key. 7. How many letters have you 
carried to the post-office ? 8. I have carried seven, three for you, 
and four for my father. 9. Have you given n^y sister the letter 
which I have written? 10. I have not given it to her, I left it upon 
my table. 11. Where is the gentleman who has brought that pen- 
knife? 12. He lives at my father's, do you wish to speak to him? 

13. I wished to send him a letter which I brought from England. 

14. Have you returned to that man the money which he had lent 
you ? 16. I have returned it to him. 16. Has your moUier paid the 
milliner (modisle) for her bonnet? 17. She has not yet paid her for 
it 18. How old is the shoemaker's eldest son? 19. He is twenty- 
one. 20. Had you a wish to send your brother the key of your 
room ? 21. I had a wish to send it to him. 22. Was it worth the 
while to give your brother that book ? 23. It was worth the while 
to give it to him, for (car) he wanted it. 24. Was it worth the while 
to send these bottles to the druggist (apothicaire)! 26. It was 
worth the while to send them to him. 26. Where is the landlord ? 
27. He is in England. 28. Is your sister at home? 29. Nc Sir, 
she is gone out. 30. How many children has the locksmith ? 31. 
He has ten. 32. How many books has the physician ? 33. He has 
five hundred volumes. 34. Have you given the gentleman that let* 
jcr ? 35. I have forgotten to give it to him. 


I. The French avoid placing the verb at the end of such scntencM 
m the following, when Uie nominative is a noun : — 

Dites moi ou demeure M. H. 7WZ me lohfre Mr. ff. lives. 

Je no sals ou est mon pire. i do not Itnow where myfatMer is, 

8aTea-T*iis oil est Qmi* 1 Do fom kitom wUre Gifgt tf7 


by Google 

LBttOV l.Tft> 


S. Li cpeaking ot a state, condition or aetion, eommenoed in the 
past, b>it still continuing, the French iihc the piusent of the indica- 
tive. The post is commonly used in English in similar cases : — 

Ck»mbien de ten ps y-a-t-il qu'il est Haio long has he been ken 7 

H 7 a dcnz hcures qu'il £crit. Ik has been writing these troo hours. 

n y a un mois qu'il demcure a Paris. He has lived in Paris tme nunUA, 
II y a deux aiis qn'il est mort lie has been dead these two years. 

8. When however the state no longer continues^ the post may be 
used in French, in the same manner as it is used in EngUsh : — 

Gombien de temps avcz-yons de- How long did you live in L, ? 

meur6 a L. 1 
OombicD de mois aves-yons appris Uow many months did you team 

rallcmand? German? 

II y a unmoisque je ne Tai vn. I have not seen him this month, 

4. Combien y a^t-il . . . Combien de mi]*es y a-t-il . . . Quelle 
distance y a-t-il ? answer to the English expressions How far , , , 
How many miles is it , , . What is the distance^ d&c. 
Combien y a-t^U de Paris k Londres 1 How far is it from Paris to London 7 

RfisuMfi OF Examples. 

Combien de temps y a-t-il qne vons 

aveK cctte maison 1 
n y a deux ans que nous I'avons. 
Combien de temps avez-vous eu 

cette maison 1 
Noiui Tavons ene dix ans. 
Combien de temps y a-t'il que votre 

fr6re apprend le grec 1 
n y a six ans qn'il I'apprend. 
Quelle distance y apt-il de Calais d 

Boukignti 1 
n y a Imit lieues de Calais h. Bon- 


How long have you had that house ? 

We have had it these two years. 
How long did you have that house 7 

We had it ten years. 

H010 long has your brother been 

learning Oreek? 
He has been learning it six years. 
How far is U from Calais' to BoU' 

It is eight leagues from Calais to 



AiRche, f. ^iff ; J)emx, o, half ; Morceau, m. ;yteer ; 

An, m. ann^e f. year ; Fatigu6, e, lircd; N^, from naitre, 4i.tobe 
Atteiid-rc, 4. to expect^ to Imprimeur, m. printer ; Horn ; 

waitffT; Linne, f.' league ; Ynrger, m. orchard i 

Comimgnic, f. company ; MsLinUimkni, tww : Vicnno, Vienna 
Copenhague, Copcnha- Mois, m. month ; 


1. Combien de temps y Srt-il que M. L. demeure k Parist 3. B y 
a 6ix ans qu*il y demeure. 3. N*a-t-il pas demeur6 k Lyon ? 4 H y 
a demettr6 autrefois. 5. Pouvez-vous me dire oA est !e fila dii 
mftaixf. ^ D y a un an qn'il eat en Angleterre. 7. Savex-vooa oi 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

IM tattoir LTSL 

dMisure 1LR1 8. OdeibeiinitMitMfob I^Rofaeii; je M«aispMo& 

demeure laaintemmt 9. Y tMl longtemps qn^ vons ^tes ieil 
10. 1) y a plus de deux moitqne nons aommeB id. 11. Combien de 
tempB y A-t>il que voas avez ce veiger! 12. U yannaii que noua 
A*avona. 13. Od cet imprimenr est-il ii6? 14. II eat n6 k Falaiae. 
46. Savez-Tooa combien il y a de Paria k Vienne? 16. H y a tr^ia 
cent aix lieuea de Paria & Vienne et deux eenta lienes de Vmne h 
Copenhagoe. 17. Y a-t-il longtempa que ia oempagnie est Teoue I 
18. II y a plna de deux heurea qa*eUe eat icL 19. Y a^t-il leng* 
temps qne vona avez lu oette affiche. 20. II y a plus de troia 
heures que je Tai lue. 21. N'y a-t-il pas plus d^nne demi-henre que 
votre sceur lit ! 22. 11 y a si longtemps qu'elle lit, qu'elle en est 
fiaigu6e. 23. Y a4-il longtempa que vous attendei ce morcean de 
mnsique ? 24. II y a plua d*un iln que je Tattenda. 


1. How long has the printer been here t 2. He haa been here 
more than a year. 3. Do you not know where my father lives! 4. 

1 know where he lives, but I have no time to go to his house to-day. 
5. How long has the physician lived in Paris ? 6. He has lived there 
ten years. 7. How long did he live in England t 8. He lived in 
England six years and a half. 9. Can you tell me where the lock- 
smith lives 1 10. He lives at my brother's. 11. Have yon been 
waiting long for this book? 12. I have been waiting for it more 
than a year. 13. How long has your son been learning Greek ? 14. 
He has been learning it these two years. 15. Was not your sister 
bom in Falaise ? 16. No, Sir ; she was bom at Paris. 17. How long 
has your brother had this orchard ? 18. He has had it more than 
six months. 19. How for is it from Paris to Lyons ? 20. It is one 
hundred and pixteen leagues from Paris to Lyons. 21. Is it farther 
(plus loin) from Lyons to Geneva than from Lyons to Turin ? 22. It 
ia farther from Lyons to Turin than from Lyons to Geneva. 23. 
How long did your father live in Germany ? 24. He lived in Ger- 
many two years, and in England six months. 25. How long have yon 
lived in Paris t 28. We have been here six months. 27. How long 
did you live in Rome? 28. We lived there more than a year. 29. 
How long has your brother been gone? 30. He has been gone 
these two years. 31. Have you been learning German more th^m one 
fear ? 32. I have been learning it more than four '"eaia. 83. Yoni 
aiater baa been leammg mnaie one year and a ftalt 


by Google 


LEssoir Lvm EE50N tvin. 

h Changer [1. fee}49, (DliUaed in the aenseof toc&m^«,lo26A» 
om iking for anoiher, is followed by the preposition de: changer 
dliabit, de ebapeau, etc^ to jmi €n another coat, hatt ^. ; changer 
d'avia, to change ant^s mind; changer de maiaon, to move, to chang 
fcoH^et; changer de place, changer de pays, changer de dimat^ to go 
fc another jfkux, country, climate ; changer de nom, to change emit 
name. The student will perceive that the nonn following t^hanger, ia 
sot preceded by a possessive adjective, like the noun of the Engllah 

Toulez-TOQS changer d'babit 1 WiSl fan change your coat 7 

Ce monsteor % chimgfi de nom. T%al gentteman has changed his name, 

2. Changer contra, means to exchange for ; changer pour, to change 
for^ to get change for : — 

Voules-Tons changer votre chapean Will you exchange your hat for wUae f 

centre Ic mien 1 
Cbanges co billet poor de Tai^nt ChangethatM for siher, 

3. Tarder means to tarry, to he long in coming. Tarder, used 

miipersonally, and preeeded by an in&eet object, means to long, to 

wishfiir: — 

Votre BOBur tarda bien k venir. Your sister is very long eemisig. 

D me tarda de la vofar. I long to see her. 

BMuuA of Ezamplxb. 

{Tavvc-Tous pas ofaangift d'apparte* 

Kbus avotts change de rnalson. 
Votre Mm a chang6 de oondnite. 

Cette dame a changft de religion. 
CoBtre qnoi avez-vonschang6 votre 

J'ai besoin de moonale, pouvea-vous 

me changer cette pi^oe de vingt 

fhines 1 
Ce garden a beaucoup taid&. 
n nous tardait d'arriver. 
n leur tardait de revdr leurs amis. 

Have you not taken amtker < 

We have chanaed houses. 
Your brother has changed his eot^ 

T%at lady has changed her reUgioti, 
For what have you exchanged yomr 
• horse? 
I want change, can you dkange nm 

this twenty franc piece? 

T%at boy tarried very i 

We longed to arrioe. 

They Smged to see their frkoA 

J long to see F^ranoe ogam. 

Umfr tarda de revoir la Fnmoe. 


Ahr, m. airs Blanc, che, wkUei Chis, e, grayt 

Avis, m. mMi awM- Combat, m. eomtet / €hdiife,f.giriM»# 
m^ Caadui^Aawdi m; Umm^.yoamgs 

Digitized by VjOOQ I 

m tB«80V I.TtlL 

Mattre, m. master f PaaaA, e, pott, last; Vie, f. life, imdiad t 

Manteau, nL c^mii;; Pays, ra. cmin/fy; Tisa^, m. efniii/tfiMiih;^ 

Monnaie, f. change, Buiitr-cr, 1. to come in face, 

Mo\x\\l6, e, inet ; again; 
Parccque, because; 

I. Get homme n*a-t-il pas change de viet 3. II a chang6 do con- 
duite. 3. Cette grande maison nVt-elle pas change de maiUef 4. 
Elle a change de mattre, le capitaine G. vient de I'acheter. 5. Voos 
£tes mouille, pourquoi ne changez-vous pas de manteau? 6. Patce* 
que je n*en ai pas d*aatre. 7. Voire cousine ne change-t-ello pas 
souvent d^avis? 8. Elle en change bien sottvent. 9. Pendant le 
combat, ce jeune soldat nVUl pas chang6 de vintage? 10. II n*a 
point change de visage. 11. Ce malade ne de\Tait-il pas changer 
d'air? 12. Le mMecin lui reconimande de changer de pays. 13 
Oi^ est voire cheval gris? 14. Je ne I'ai plas, je Tai change contra 
nn blanc. 15. Avec qui Tavcz-vous change 1 16. Je *ai changd 
avec le jeune homme qui demeurait ici le mois passe. 17. Le mar- 
chand peut il me changer cette pi6ce de quarante francs? 18. II ne 
saurait {canmt) vous la changer, il n'a pas de monnaie. 19. Avez- 
vous la monnaie d*une guinee (change for a guinea), 20. Combien 
de schellings, y a-i-il dans une guinee? 21. II y en a vingi-et^un. 
22. Votre petit gar^on ne tarde-t-il pas k rentrer ? 23. II iarde beau- 
coup. 24. Ne vous tarde-t-il pas d'aller en Italic ? 26. II me tarde 
d'y aller. 


1. Why do you not change your coat ? 2. For a very good rea- 
son, (ration, f.) because I have no other. 3. Has your father changed 
bouses? 4. -No, Sir, but we intend to do so (de le /aire) to-morrow. 
5. Has thai child changed his conduct ? 6. He has changed his con* 
duct, he is very good now (mainfeyiaTit). 7. Have you changed your 
religion ? 8. No, Sir, I have not changed my religion. 9. Do you 
not change your place very often ? 10. I change my place when I 
am tired. U. Does not your sister change her mind every day? 
12. She does not change her mind every day. 13. Was not your 
broilier afraid, did not his countenance change? 14. His counte- 
nance changed, but he was not afraid. 15. Have you not changed 
rooms (chambref f.) ? 16. I have not changed rooms, my room is 
very good. 17. Do you not long to be in Franee? 18. I long to 
be there. 19. Does not your mother tarry too hng? 20. She is 
very long in coming. 21. Have you changed the forty franc piece? 
22. I have not changed it yet 23. Why hove you not changed it? 
SM. Because your fiitiier has no change. 26. flave you the ehaagv 


by Google 


for a gniBMif 36L No, Sir, I have only twelve ahillinga. 97. How 
many cents are there in a dollar ? 28. There are one hundred. 29. 
Has that gentleman exchanged that horse 1 30. Yes, Sir, he has cx- 
ehangcd it for a warehouse. 31. Will you exchange your hat for 
miiie ? 32. No, Sir, your bat is too smaH for me. 33. With whom 
hare yon exchang<!d your horse? 34. I hare exchanged it with my 
bnther. 35. I have exchanged it for a white one. 


1. We have given, in Lesson II, rules for forming the plural of 
nouns, but have in accordance with our plan of not presenting too 
many difficulties at once, deferred until the present Lesson, the rules 
for the formation of the plural of compound nouns. 

2. When a noun is composed of two substantives, or of a substan- 
tive and an adjective, both take the form of the plural : un chef-lieu, 
des chefs-lieuz, a chiefpiace^chirf places; un gentilhomme, des gentils- 
hommes, a nobleman, noblemen [} 9, (1.) (3.)]. 

3. When, however, two nouns are connected by a preposition, the 
first only becomes plural: Un chef-d'oeuvre, des chefs-d^oeuvre, « 
masler-pieee master-pieces [{ 9, (2.)]. 

4. In words composed of a noun and a verb, preposition or advqrb, 
the noun only becomes plural; Passe-port, passe-ports, jxissporty 
passports [}9, (6.)]. 

6. Words composed of two verbs, or of a verb, an adverb, and a 
preposition, are invariable: un passe-partout, des passe-partout^ 
master-key^ master-keys [} 9, (8.)]. 

6. We have seen [L. 5. R. 4.] that the name of the material al- 
ways follows the name of the object, and that both are united by the 
preposition de. The name of the profession or occupation also fol* 
lows the noun representing the individual, and the same preposition 
4e connects the two : un maltre dWmes, a fencing master ; un mattre 
de dessin, a drawing master ; un marchand de farine, a dealer inflour 
[{76,(120} 81, (4.)]. 

7. Tlie name of a vehicle, boat, mill, ^., always precedes the noun 
describing the power by which it is impelled, or the purpose to 
which It is adapted; the name of an apartment, that of the nse to 
which it is appropriated. The connectinf preposition is d : un monlin- 
iovapeur, a steam mill ; un bateau-3uvapenr, a steamboat ; on moaUn- 
A^eao, a waier-miU; la 8alle-St.4iiaiiger, the iimng'Toovn [} 76 (18.) 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

viPM0y »f& 

Rfisuict OF Example*. 

Lille et Arrf « soot los cheA-lieuz 
des d^partcments da Nord et da 

lies chemSns-do-fer et lea bateaux- 
ci-va|)ear sont trte nombreox en 

CdttemaisoQContieatun salon; one 
8aIle-4-manger, one Gaisine et plu- 
sioors chambres-a-coacher. 

ItQB nfoulina-i-Feiit sont plus corn- 
mans en France que lea moulins- 
. i-eau on Orvapear. 

Li3l€ and Arras are tU ( 

of Ike deparlmenls of lite J 

efike Pas^dt'Cakus. 
RaibrotuU and sUamboaU atte tMry 

numerous in America. 

T%U house conidins a drm$ingyre&mf 
a dining-room^ a kileken^ tfnd m*- 
ral bed-rooms. 

Windmills are more common ui 
FYance than water or steam^miUi. 

Armes, t, ^ 
Bit-ir, 2. Uf 

BonteiWe, f. bottle ! 
Cabriolet, m. gig ; 
Chat-bnant, m. ovA ; 
Gbaovo-souris, tbats 

ExsaciSB 115. 

Des8in> m. drawif^ ; Ordinaii«, ^tsmait 
BDgaf^, 1. to engage , Bone, f. tohed ; 
Falre bit-ir, 2. to hitve Voya^-er, I. to travel t 

bmU; Voile, f. salL 

8e munir, 1. ref. to proi- 

vide one^s sdftoith; 

1. Faut-il avoir un passe-port pour voyager on Franee ? di II &at 
en avoir un. 8. Les Anglais ae mnniasent-ils de paase^porta pout 
voyager en Angleterre? 4. On nV pas besoin do poase-port en An- 
gleterre. 6. Aimea-voua ii voyager aur les chemina-de-fer? & 
Paime mieox voyager but les chemtna-de-fer que aur lea chemint 
ordinairea. 7. Avez-voua a|^rte voa passe-partout? 8. Je n'ai 
point de paase-partout, je n'ai que dea clefa ordinairea. d. Votre 
fr^re est-il venu dana un b&teau-k-vapeur ? 10. II eat venu dans un 
bAiteau'^voiles. 11. Avez-vous une voiture i quatre chevauxl 12. 
Non, Monsieur, noua n'avons qu'un cabriolets un cheval. 13. Votre 
fr^re a^t-il bMi un moulin-k-vapeur ? 14. H a fait b&tir deux moulina, 
Tun k vent et Tautre k eau ? 15. Votre compagnon »-t-i1 engage un 
mattre d*armea ? 16. Non, Monsieur, il a dej^ un maltre de deasin 
et un mattre de danae. 17. Combien de chambres-^^coacher avez 
voua? 18. Nous en avona deux. 19. Avez-vous une bonteille de 
Tin ! SO. Non, Monsieur, mais j*ai une bouteille-^vin (mne-botUe) 
[{81.]. 31. Voyez-voua les chata-huants ? 22. Non, malt je toIi 
let chauvea-aouria. 23. JTai une voiture k quatre roues. 

I. Is your father in England? 9. No, Sir, he is in France wftb 
my brother. 3. Have they taken paasporta ? 4. Yes, Sir, they have 
taken two. 5. Is it necessary to have a passport to travel in Amer 
feat 9. No, 8lr, but it is neeeasaiy tb have one to travo) in Italy. 
% U there s' cteaaboat ftoni OUdr to Dover (Dauvm) 1 8. TImm 


by Google 

liltSOV LX. IM 

m a0f«nL d. U th«n» a nihroad from Paris to Bnisaab (Am. 
JMlfet} I 10. Ther0 is one from Paris to Bnissela, and one from Pufo 
io Tours. 11. Has your brother bought a wind-mill! IX No» l^« 
bat he has built a steam-mill. 13. Are there many wtiMl-fliflls in 
America 1 14. No/ Sir, but there are many water and steam-mills. 
lA. Have your sisters a dancing-master ? 16. They have a daneing- 
BMater and a mnsic-master. 17. Does your cousin learn drawing ? 
Mw He does not learn It, he cannot find a drawing-master. 19. Is 
the fencing-master in the dining-room! SO. No, Sir, he is in the 
dwwing-TOom. 31. Is your cousin in his bed-room ? 32. No, Sir, 
he is out (sorti), 28. How many rooms are there in your house. 
84. Five ; a kitchen, a dining-room, a drawing-room, and two bed- 
rooms. 86. Are there owls here ! 86. Yes, Sir, and bats too. 87. 
Have you seen those master-pieces ! 28. Yes, Sir, I have seen them. 
89. Have you sent them to the chief place of the department ! 80. 
I have sent them there. 81. Have you a two-horse gig! 88. I have 
a fourJiorae one. 33. Has your brother a two-wheel carriage ! 84 
He has a two-seat carriage (d dnus iUges). 



1. The future of every verb in the French language ends with nri, 
rss, ni, nifu, rex, nmt 

8. This tense, in all the regular verbs, as also in the irregular verbs 
not mteitioned in the next lesson, may be formed from the present 
of the infinitive by changing the r of the Antt and second conjug»> 
tions, and the oir and re of the third and fourth, into the tenniBatieui 
already given and here again repeated. 


Je ehante -rsl flid -ral reoev -rsl rend -rsl 

wa^kif wiUJbuah wiUrtesht wiUrmtitr 

Tu parie -ras ch4ri -rat ajpetoev -rss vend •ras 

wUttpmk wUtekeridi wHt f tr emw wUt jttt 

n dcone -ra tinirtA ' -ra perosv -ra tend -ra 

OiMgi— wUifmwUk wai0€tkm' wiU t§Md 

Vovscfaerehe-rooi puni -rons conoev -rons entend -row 

wa9mk thMytmisk wiU tmmim wiUktar 

ToMporle -rea laisi -res dev -res perd -m 

mUlumn wlUstis$ wiU§m wOtUM 

Di afane -fciit uni -root d4oev -rout moid -foal 


by Google 

4. The ftiture anterior is merely the past partieiple of the Tetb^ 
conjugated with the fttture of one of the auxiliaries avoir, itre:''^ 

J^aami fini; Je me serai flatt6. I;shaU havedoTie, I skaU kene JLatieren 


5. The student, when rendering Bngh'sh into French, should be 
careful to distinguish wiUy talcen a*! an auxiliary, from the same word 
employed as a principal verb. In this latter £ase, it is always equiva- 
lent to the verb, to wish, or to he unUing, and should not be rendered 
by the future of the verb, but by the present of vouloir : — 

lie vooles-voua pas lui 6erire 1 WiU j/im not {an yon not mlUng) to 


BAsumA of Examples. 

Quadd parleres-vomi h, ce monsieur t 

Vous foumlra-t-fl des provisions 1 
lis ne recevront pas leurs revenus. 
Ne vendrez-vous pas vos proprid- 

Que voules-vous avoir t 
Que veut lire votre frdre 1 
Apportere^-vous des pommes ? 
Nous amtaerons nos enfknts 
Vous apporterea des legumes. 

When wiU ytm tpeak to that gmU^ 

WiU hejymish you provisions 7 
They will not receive their income. 
Will you not sell your property ? 

What do you wish to have? 
What will yowr brother read V 
Will you tiring appUs 7 
We will bring our children* 
You will bring vegetables. 


Abrenvoir, m. watering Ohfttcau, m. 'trilla ; Men-er, 1. \^ 4tf, (6.)J to 
pla4X ; Colporteur, m. pedlar, take^ to lead; 

Appel>er, 1. [% 49, (4.)] hawkers Se promen-er, 1. rof. 

to call ; Bonner a manger, to [^ 49, (6.)] to walk or 

Apr&s-midi, f afternoon ; feed ; ndefor jdeasiire ; 

Avoine, t oats ; ficurie, f. slabU ; Ricoltrer, 1. to harotsl ; 

B16, m. wheat ; Foin, m. hay ; Sem-er, 1. [( 49, (d.)| to 

Cacliet-er, 1. ft 49, (4.)]Geler, 1. [§ 49, (6.)] to sow. 
to seal,. freezes 

1. M^nerez-vous vos enfonts ^ I'^colet 2. Je les mineral & 
'6coIe et ^ r^glise. 3. Le jardinier app^rtera-t-il des legumes aa 
march6? 4. II y en apportera. 6. Oi^ indnerez-vous ce chevalt 
6. Je le mineral & Tocurie. 7. Lui donnerez>vous k manger? 
8. Je lui donnerai du foin et de Tavoine. 9. Lui donnerez-vous d: 
I'ean ? 10. Je le m^nerai & Tabreuvoir. 1 1. Paierez-[} 49, (2.)] vous 
oe que vous devez f 12. Ne voulez-vous pas vous promener ? 13. Je 
me prom^nerai cette apr^s-midL 14. Vous prom^nerez-vou? a pied 
ou k eheval 1 16. Je me prom^nerai k cheval et ma scmr se prom^ 
nera en Toitnre. 16. Maioherec-vooa beaueoi^ dans vobre voyagt 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

lB«tOV t.SI. Ifl 

I^IWtf 17. NoM ne maieheroiM fiAS da tMt It. ITqpptllflma. 
[{4d,(4.)] TOW pu, 1« colporUnr? 19. Je m rappellani pa& 
90. H'aeheteres-U 4ft» (5.)] vow pM oo efafctcwL 81. Nous Tach^ 
terons ti nous poiinNM. iKL No gMori*t.iI piw [{49, (6.)] cotto 
Doitf 23. Je ne le crois pM» il fiut trop ehaud. 'IL No •(^norox* 
[} 49, (6.)] vow pw tout le bl6 fno vow reeoltorozl 25. Je a'en 
■dmeiai qn'mio pwtio, je vendni lo losto. 26. Jo OMhettemi nee 
lottreo ot je loo portoimi & la poote. 


1. wax not the gentleman call hia ohildiont 2. Ho will eall hia 
children and his aister'a. 3. Will you not bring your children t 
4. I cannot bring them. 6. Will you not take a ride thia afiomoon ? 
8. We will ride in a carriage to-morrow. 7. Will yon not buy my 
' fathor'a horses t 8. I shall not buy them ; I have no money. 9. Will 
you not call the p^lar ? 10. I do not wish to call him ; I do not wish 
to buy any thing. 11. Will you pay the tailor? 12. I will pay him 
for my coat 18. Will it not freeze to-morrow I 14. It will freeze 
to-morrow; it is very cold. 16. Will you not sow oata in this field 
(champ) 1 16. I will not sow oata ; I will sow wheat there. 17. Will 
you take your sister to school? 18. I will take her there this after- 
noon. 19. Will you not take your son to market? 20. I will not 
take him there. 21. Will not the gardener take his horse to the 
watering pbce? 22. He will take him there. 23. Will you give 
oata to your horse? 24. I will give him hay. 26. Will yon bring 
your son with you? 26. I will bring him to-morrow. 27. Will he 
bring his horse ? 28. He will bring hia horse and carriage. 29. Why 
do you carry that little child? 30. He is too sick to (pour) walk. 
31. Will your brother sell his property ? 32. He will only sell part 
of it 33. Will not your servant carry the letter to the poat-offieo t 
34. I will seal it and give it to him. 35. Will you feed my horae? 
36. I will feed him and give him some. water. 

^1 o ■» 



I. The two irregular verbs of the first conjugation alter, to go, and 
tfivoyor, to gend, make in the f^iinre firaUferaerrai [lef } 62.] ^— 

& All the verba of the second conjugation, whkh end in enir^ chaago 
tttti tanDinatien into teNtfrea» 4m., ibr the fntore: «% tnii^ lo koH 


by Google 


tenlr, to amm ;/f tiaidraitje viendraL Aequftrir, to mcquin ; eonqvMr 
lo conquer ; reqn^rir, to require ; monrir, to die ; and^ eowir, to rwn^ and 
its componndB, doubli) th« r in the fatore 'j^aeqtum^jt mownoi^ 
/e eawrroL Caeillir, logather^ and its eomponndiiB, eiisnge the t pi^ 
eeding the r into 0.'-^6 cueUJeraL 

5. In the third conjugation, s'asseoir, to sit doum, and aeou*, to n^ 
makeytf nCaseiirai and je siiraL Fallotr, to he neceseary^ Youloii, to 
be wUUng^ and yaloir, to be worthy make U fauira,je voudrai, and Jo 
vavdraL Voir, to see, and reroir, to see again^ make je verrm, jt 
reverrm. PouToir, to be aMe, makes je poumn^ and pourvoir, to ffro- 
rideje pourvoiraL Saroir, to knowt and avoir, to have^ makeje saurmif 

4. &tre, to be, faire, to make^ and its compounds, are the only verba 
of the fonrth eonjogation, which are irregoUr in the fotore :— ^e sera% 
jeferaxy && 

6. The fotures, simple and anterior, are used in French after an 

adverb of time, in cases similar to those in which the English use 

the present and perfect of the indicative, with Kfuiure meaning:— 

Qoand vous verrez ces messieurs . . Whxn you see those gentlemen . . . 
Pds que vous aurea re^u oette As soon as yon Mve reotwed tkU 
lettre ... letUr . . . 

IUsumA of Ezamplxs. 

Irez-vous en France cette annie'l 
Nous irons en France et en Italie. 
Nous vous enverrons chercher. 
Ne viendrez-vouB pas nous trouver. 
Ne nous assi^rons-nous past 
Quand lis viendront, j'aurai ma 

Cela vaudra-t-il la peine 7 
Get habit ira-t-U bien 1 
D fbudra leur envoyer de raigent 

SiaU you go to hyante this yeor? 

We shaU go to Pra/nee and holy. 

We shall send for fow. 

WiJOL you not cotne to us? 

ShaU loe not sit down? 

When they comSf I shall have my k^ 

WUl that coatJU weU? 



AveC) vrilk ; Lentement, slovfk ; Permett-re, 4. Ir. I0 per- 

Bientdt, soon g March-er, to toalk, to go mU; 

Connait-re, 4. ir. £9 on foot 1 Plaisir, m. ;40«wr«/ 

knows Md-m6me, myself s Pr6t-er, 1. to lends 

Demeure, t dwdUng ; Oil, where ; 8ort-ir, 2. Ir. to go out. 

Fraise, C strawberry s Part-ir, "Z.ir.to set ouly 

Onitarei f. gtdtar ; to leave ; 

1. Ne viendre7*vous pas nous voir domain! 3. Pirai vous voir, si 
le temps le permet 8. N'enverrez-vous pas chercher le m^dedn, 4 
▼etre file est makde? 4. JeTirai chercher moi-mdme. 5. Quand je 
■end iktiga^yjemaicherai plus lentement 7. Quand voua oonnaitrea 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

umtBom hXh 178 

m deaenre irei-TOiM le Toir? 8. Tini le Yoir anBsitAt que jo laiiiii 
oA il demeure. 9. Ne le venrez^Tons pas anjoardliai ? 10. Je le 
femi eette aprd»-midi. 11. Ne pourrez-vous point nous accoin- 
pagner ? 12. Je le fend avee beaueoup fi» plakir. 18. Ne lenr eii« 
verrez-Toue point dee fraisesf 14. Je lenr en envernil quand led 
miennes aeront m&rea. 16. Ne faudra-t-il pas leor 6crire bient6i1 
Id Quand nooa aurona re9a dea nouvellea de lenr parent, il fkudra 
lenr terire. 17. Qne feronfr-noua domain? 18. Nous irona k la 
ehaaae. 19. N^z voua paa ohez votre p^rel 20. Nona irona eer- 
tainemeni. 21. Qjoand votre guitare sera arriT^e, la prftterez-Tonaff 
22. Je ne pourrai la prdter. 23. A quelle henre partirez-vous ^ 
main? 24. Je partirai k cinq heures du matin. 25. Ne sortirez-TOUS 
paa oe aoir? 26. Je ne aortirai pas, et je me eouoherai de bonne 


1. Will you send for the physician? 2. I will send for him thia 
afternoon. 3. Will not the little girl go and fetch apples? 4. She 
will send for some. 0. Will you not sit down when you are tired? 
6. We will not ait down, we have no time. 7. What will your 
brother do when he is tired? [R. 5.] 8. He will do what [ee que] 
lie can. [R. 6.] 9. Will it be worth the while to (de) write to 1dm t 
10. It will not be worth the while, for (car) he will not come. !!• 
Will it not be necessary to speak to the merchant? 12. It will not 
be necessary to speak to him. 13. Will it be necessary for ua to 
take passports? 14. It will be necessary. (U lefaudra.) 15. Will 
not your little boy walk more slowly when he is tired? 16. When 
he is tired, he will sit down. 17. What will your sister do to-mor- 
row ? 18. She will go to church and to school 19.. Will she not 
come here? 20. She will not be able to come. 21. Will you walk 
or go on horseback, (Irez vous A pied ou d chewdt) 22. 1 shall go on 
horseback. 23. Why do yon not go in a carriage ? 24. Because my 
carriage is in London. 25. When will you see them ? 26. I shall 
ee them as soon aa I can. SH. Will they come to our house to- 
morrow? 28. They will do so with much pleasure. 29. When you 
see that gentleman, will you speak to him ? 30. I will not speak to 
him. 31. When you have written your letters, what will you do? 
32. 1 shall come to your house. 83. When you have read that book* 
frill you send it to me ? 34. 1 will send it to you. 35. Will you send 
tt to-day? 3a I will send it to-morrow. 87. They will come to yon 


by Google 


tB«S09 LSIt. 



1. The conditional present may be formed from the future, by 
displacing the terminr»tion8 at, as, a, ons, ez, onlt and aubstituting 
those of the imperfect of the indicative, ais, ais, ttit{tonSy iez, aienL 

2. Every verb in the French language, regular and irregular, haa 
in this tense tiie above terminations. 



Je chanter -aSs 
Tn parler -ais 

n donner -ait 

K0U8 che. Cher -ions 
wmld t§ek 

Vous porter -ies 

aimer -aient 
mmUd la94 

flnir ^ia 

to0iiU Jhtith 
cbirir -ais 


foumir -ait 


punir -ions 


saisir -lez 

unir -aient 

recevr -ais 

rendr -ais 

wvmtdgt ptrceive 
percevr -ait 
coDcevr -ions 
wnUd e§neeiv» 
devr- -iez 


d6cevr -aient 

vendr -ais 

W9»Udtt Mtf 

tendr -ait 

perdr -lea 

mordr -aient 


4. The irregularities of the conditional appear not in the termina* 
tions, but in the stem of the verb. They are precisely the same as 
those of the future. Those irregularities will be found in the last 
lesson, and need not be repeated here. The conditional of any irregw 
nlar verb may be formed by placing after the last r of the future, the 
terminations of the imperfect of the indicative. 

ft. The conditional past is formed from the conditional present of 
one of the auxiliaries avoirs ttre, and the past participle of the verb 
[J 126,(2.)] :- 

J*aurais 6crit, je me serais flattS. / should have vrriUen^ I should kavs 

JUUlered myself. 

6. The two futures aiid th<) two conditionals should not be usee 
after the conjunction si (if). But in such case, the present and thf 
roperfect of the indicative should be used : — 

B'il pouvait quitter son p5re, il vlen- If he could leave his father, he womU 

drait. come. 

8i J'4tais k votrs place, j'hfais. If I were in your place, I would go, 


Vons irions k la chasse, si nous I We would go hutUing if we kadU m 

avions le temps. | 

^ttr^,slJ'avaisdesUvresid. 1 1 wouU read tf I had books here. 


by Google 


/tinieralf mleiu ftller & pied qii*a 

7otre miro se portenit mieox a 

Kous nons passerions fiicilement de 

He vandrait-tl pas mienx lai€crire 1 
Nc laadrait-il pas lui terire 1 

Jc m'assi^rais si J'itais fatiga6. 
Cet habit m'irait blen, sll 6lait 

I would prefer walking to ridimg. 

Your mother would be better in Pans, 

We vUghi easily do wiUuriU that book, 

Would Uiufi be neeetsary to write to 

J would sit down if I were tired. 
That ohU would JU me well if tt were 

broad enough. 

Exercise 121. 

ffamns-er, 1. ref ta Interromp-re, 4. ir. (0 Se tromp-er, 1. raCltf Ac 

amuse on^s sdfs interrupt; mistaken ; 

B'^proch-er, 1. lef. <plii?it-€r, 1. to inviUs Se por-ter, 1, rtt to be 

come near ; Mett-re, 4. ir. to fnU on; or do f 

8'61oign-er, 1. ref. to ^oMoaiU-er, I. to wet; Voyage, ULJowneff. 

from ; Ot^r, 1 . to take off; 

BVnnny-er, 1. ref. [( 49.] Peat4tre, perhaps g 

to be or become weary ; S^ch»er, 1 . to dry ; 

1. Quel lialNt mettriez->voa9 si vous alliez iL la ehasse? 5L Je 
mettrais un liabit vert 8. N'6teriez-voa8 pas tos bottes, si elles 
^taient monill^es? 4. Je les 6terais, et je les fends s^her. 6. Si 
▼ous aviez froid, ne vous approcheriez-vous pas du feu? 6. Je m*en 
approcherais certaiDement. 7. Votre petit gar^on oe s'en 61oigne* 
rait.il pas, s*il avait trop cbaud? 8. II 8*en ^loignerait bien vite. 9. 
Vous ennuieriez-vons ici? 10. Je ne m*ennuierais pas, je m*amuse- 
rais ^ lire. 11. Ne vous tromperiez-vous pas, si vous faisiez ce cal- 
eul? 12, Je me tromperais peut^tre, si j'etais interrompn. 13. 
Viendriez-vous si on vous invitait? 14. Je viendrais avee beancoup 
de plaiair. 16. Ne vous porteriez-vous pas mieuz, si vous lisiez 
moins? 16. Je me porterais beaucoup mieax. 17. Ne fiiudrait-il 
pas lui parler de votre affaire? 18. II faudrait lui en parler. 19. 
Combien d'argent vous faudrait-il ? 20. II me fitudrait mille francs, 
si je faisais ce voyage. 21. Ne vandrait-il pas mieux lui parler que 
Ini ^crire ? 22. II vaudrait mienx lui ^rire. 23. Si vous 6tiez \ 
ma place, que feriez-vous? 24. Si j*etais 2L voire place, je lui paierais 
•e que je lui dois. 25. Si j'avaift le temps, je porterais volontiers 
vos lettres '1 la poste. 

Exercise 122. 

1. Would you not read if you had time? 2. I would read two 
hours every day if I had time. 3. What coat would your brother 
put on if he went to church ? 4. He would put on a black coat 6 
Would you* put on a black luu 6. I would pat on a stew hat 


by Google 



(chafemt 4e vmOe) if it wu warm. 7. Would yon not draw [L. n% 
6. ] near the firs if you were cold ? 8. We would draw near it 
9. Would you not take off your coat? 10. I would take it off, if it 
were wet. 1 1. Would you go to my &ther's if he inyited you ! 12 
I would go to hia house and to your brother's, if they invited me. 
13. Would you put on your boota, if they were wet! 14. If they 
were wet, I would not put them on. 16. How much money would 
you want, if you went to England! 16. We would want three 
thousand firaoca. 17. Would you not be better if you lived (i29. 
meurer) in the country ? 18. I should not be better. 19. Would 
it not be better to write to your brother ? 20. It would be better to 
write to him. 21. Would you read the book if I lent it to you ! 22. 
I would certainly read it. 23. If you were in his place, would you 
go to school ? 24. If I were in his place, I would go. 25. If you 
were in my place, would you write to him? 26. I would write to 
him every day. 27.- Would your sister be mistaken? 28. She 
would not be mistaken, she is very attentive. 29. If you rose every 
mommg at five, would you be better? 30. I should not be better. 
31. Would you prefer going on foot ? 32. I would prefor going on 
horseback. 33. Would you not sit down ? 34. I would sit down 
if I were tired. 


1. The verb faire (4. ir.) is used in the formation of a number of 
idiomatic sentences. See L. 82. R. 8, 4. Faire iaire, to hate maie^ 
to bespeak; faire raecommoder, to have mended; fiure la cuisine, to 
cock ; faire euire, to ooak, to bake ; faire bouillir, to boil ; faire r6tir 
to roasl ; faire chauffer, to toarm (in speaking of food) ; faire bonne 
eh^re, to live weU:—' 

Nous avons fldt fUre des habits. We have had dMa mad*. 
Vons avea fait raecommoder vos Youkaoe AadyowrwauteoaUmeiukd 

2. The past participle of faire never varies, when it precedes an 

Les Uvres qua voua avez fait venir. 7%e books wHch fou have sent for, 

3. Faire peur, to frighten; faire attention, to pay aOenlum; faire 

tort, to injure ; faire mal, fiure du mal, to hurt^ take d before a 


Nous avoDs fkit peur k ces enfknts. We have frigktefud ikosi ekUd^m^ 
Vona leur avea fkit mai Vm kam kmri Mmi. 


by Google 


4. The kst example wiU Hhow that, when a noun pteeeded by 1^ 
■iprceaed or understood, is replaced by a prononn, ihat*pronoan wiU 
take the form of the indirect regimen (dative). By an exception to 
the roles for the place of personal pronouns, when fatre attention 
has for its indirect object a prononn r^resenting a person, that pro- 
noun follows the verb : — 

Nous fhroDS attention k lui. We ioiU pay aUenUon to him» 

6. In speaking of the parts of the body, the French use the article 
le^ Is, fefy &c^ instead of the possessiTe adjectiTe [} 77, (9.)] when 
the poesesaion is expressed by a reflective (JL 37. R. 1.) or other per- 
sonal pronoun or by some other word in the sentence : — 

Vous m*aTez fidt mal k la main. Ybu have hurt my land. 

Le bras lui fidt maL EKs arm hfiurts or pains Mm, 


WiU fou lUwe your Mkees mended? 

Feres-Toas lacoommoder tos sou- 

Je fends ftiire un habit si J'aTais do 

n ne sait pas ihire la cuisine. 
Ates-voos fidt cuire votre Tiande 1 
Ferez-Tous chauffer Yotre bouillon 1 
Vons lui avez fidt mal an coude. 
Vons m'aTes fidt mal an pied. 
VoQs arez fidt peindie yotie mai- 


I would bespeak a new coat if I had 

He does not understand cooking. 
Have you cooked yow meat ? 
Will you warm yow hrotk 7 
You have kwrt kis elbow. 
You have hurt my foot. 
You have had your house painted. 


^tr\r, 2. to Mid ; Gravure, f. en^ot^-Poignet, uli^HM/ 

BoniUoii, m. ^<i^A; ings ThtOjt head g 

Bras, m. arm; Ma^on, m. «kz«m ; Tout-lkrl'heure, by-amd' 

Cnisiuier, m. cookf March-eri to step, tread; byg 

SpKoiie, t. shoulder r 0^, where; Travafl, m. work^ Uh 

GigoMe-mouton, m. k^Plod, m.fooi; bar. 
of muitoni 

1. Quand ferez-vona bflitir une maison? 2. Jen ferai bitir une 
Pann^ prochaine, si je re^ ois mon argent 3. Avez-vous fiut bouil- 
lir ee gigot do mouton ? 4. Je Tai fait r6tir. 6. Le cuisinier a-t>il 
ikit chaufier votre bouillon t 6. ne I'a pas encore fait chauffer, mala 
Q le fera tout-^rheure. 7. N^avez-vous pas fidt venir des livrea? 
8. Nous n*en avons pas fiut venir, mais nous avous fait venir dos 
gra?ursa. 9. N'ayez-yons pas fait peur & cea petifces fiUesT 10. 
Nous leur avons fait peur. 1 1. Ferez^vous attention k Totre travail I 
13. Py &rai attention. 18. Avez-vous fiut nud ^ cette petite fillet 
14 Je ne lui ai pas fidt mal. 16. N'avez-vous pas &it mal ice 
•hieni le. Jeloiaifhitmal. 17. CM avez-vous fait mal itolra file f 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


1& J« Ini al liyt mai aq bnt et l U mtin. Id. No lai avei-TOiis pu 
fiat mal an pied! 20. ie lui ai fait mal 2l I'^paale. 31. A qui ct 
ma^en a-t-il fkit mal t 29. fl D*a fait mal k, peraoime. 9S. Vouaai-ja 
fttt mal aa pied? 24» Voua m*avez march6 aur lo pied et vena m*avei 
fait mal. 26. La t^te, P^paule, le bnw, le poignet et la main me font 
mal. [R.6.] 


1. Wni yoQ have your coat mended? 2. I will not hare it 
mended. 3. Will your broths have his houae painted ? 4 He will 
have it painted next year. 6. Will you not have a coat made ? 6. I 
would have one made if I had money, 7. Have you hurt your 
brother? 8. I have hurt him, I have stepped upon hia foot 9. 
Does his arm pain him? 10. Yes, Sir, his shoulder, arm and wrist 
pain him. 11. Will not your son pay attention to his work? 12. 
He will pay attention to it, he has nothing else (rien auire chote) to 
do. 13. Have I hurt your hand or your elbow? 14. You have 
hurt my fingers (doigis), 15. Does your cook understand cooking? 
16. He understands cooking. 17. Has the cook roasted that leg of 
mutton? 18. He has boiled it 19. Has he not warmed it? 20. 
He has not had time to warm it 21. Has the physician sent for en- 
gravings? 22. He has sent for books. 23. Have you hurt hia 
elbow? 24. I have not hurt hiselbow^but his hand. 26. Have I 
not hurt your fingers? 26. You have hurt my wrist 27. Where 
have you hurt your son ? 28. I have not hurt him. 29. Would the 
cook boil that meat if he had time ? 30. He would not boil it, he 
would roast it 81. When will he warm your broth ? 32. He will 
warm it by^nd-by, if he has time. 33. If yon had stepped upon 
my foot, would you not have hurt me? 34. I should certainly have 
hurt you, if I had stepped upon your foot 


1 . Faire connaissance, to become or get acquainted, takes the frtfpo* 

sHion avec before ita object Faire un mille, &c, faire nn voyage, 

tairo un tour de promenade, mean to g<s or travel a mikf dte., toge 

en ajmnmeiff to iiAe awalk:-^ 

Nona ftvona fkit vingt millea k che> We travdled twemim mln #» hane^ 
val back, 

% MnaeaMdiaiiz,fiuMiiMienplette8,lhimdMpiogrte,lk^ 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



/ bidfareioeU to my fdatUms, 
Havt you made a Jin in my nam I 

^iifl«tioiiB, fiire da fen, correspond in sigBification to the Enfiliah 

ezpresfiionfl, to hidfaretoeU, to make purchases, to improve or progrese^ 

to ank questions^ to make a firt i-^ 

VsX fait mes adieox i mes parents. 
ATez-TouB fait du fea dans ma 

3. Faire aortir means, to send oviy or to order otU; faire entier, to 
let tn^ to bid come in ; faire attendre, to keep toailing :— 

Toos lea area fait eatrer dans ma You made them ame into my twmi. 

Yous avez fait attendre mon pdre. You made my father wUL 

4. Faire son possible, to do <m£s 6est, takes the preposition pour^ 
Faire semblant, to pretend^ fiiire usage, to make use, are followed by 

Nous avons fiiit notre possible. We have done our best. 

RtBiTM^ OF Examples. 

Nous aTons fait connaissance avec 

Yoofl avez fait vingt lieaes en dlx 

Nous ferons on tonr de promenade. 
^e Ini ai fiiit plnsiears questions. 
Us nous out fait lears adieux. 
Vous nous avez fait attendre. 
Get enfant fait semblant de dormir. 
Yens fkites semblant de lire. 

Nons ferons notre possible poor le 


We became acquainted with them. 

You iravdled twenty leapsee in ten 

We shall take a walk. ** 
/ asked him several questions. 
They have bid us farewell. 
You have made us wait. 
T^M child pretends to be adeep. 
You pretend to be reading, ot do as 

if you were reading. 
We loill do our best to see kim. 


Aise, glad; 
Aliment, ULfbodi 
Itaand-er, I. to ask; 
Dorm-ir, 2. ir. to sleep; 
Rtnde, f. study g 

8e fich-er, 1. ref to be- N^gociant, m. merekamt; 

came angry; Quart, m. quarter i 

Faire I'aumone, to give Rarement, seldom t 

alms ; Rinas-ir, 2. to succeed ; 

LaiBR-er, 1. to leave, let; Biz, m. rice. 
MendJant, m. beggar; 

1. Seriez-vons bien aise de faire connaissance aVee ce monsieur? 
2. Pen serais bien aise. 3. Ce cheyal fait-il nne lieue en nn quart 
d'henre? 4. D a fait ce matin une lieue en douze minutes. 6. Lear 
avez-vous fait des questions ? 6. Je leur en ai fait.* 7. Quelles 
questions leur avez-vous faites? 8. Je leur ai demand^ s'ils avaicnt 
fiutdes cmplettesi 9. Vos dl^ves font-ils des progrds dans leurs 
I ! 10. lis Q*en font pas beaueoup, ils viennent rarement iL Pfoole* 



by Google 

180 iBtBOir txtw. 

II. Si Tons ^dez ehez tom, fmecTOUs lembUmt de d^mirt 15L J« 
ae fenia oertainemeot pas semblant de dormir. 13. Poarquoi iM 
faites-vous pas entrer ce mendiant ? 14. Ma m^re vient de lai tain 
raiim6ne. 16. Le n^g^ociant falt-il usage de son credit? 16. II en fiul 
usage. 17. De quels aliments ee malade fait-il usage? 18. fSnt 
usage de riz et de bouillon. 19. Faites-voiis votre pofsible pour 
r^ussir? 20. Je &is tout mon possible. 21. Avez-Tous fait entrer 
ees enfants, ou les avez-vous £ut sortir ? 22. Je les ai laisa^s oH lis 
6taient 23. Vous avons-nous fait attendrel 24. Vona nous avex 
fidt attendre plusieurs heures. 26. Si vous faisiez aUendre ees 
dames, elles se f^cheraient 


1. Does that child pretend to read? 2. He pretends to read. 8. 
Does not that gentleman pretend to sleep? 4. He does not pretend 
to sleep, he sleeps really (riellement), 6. Will you take a walk this 
morning ? 6. I would do so with pleasure, if I had time. 7. Have 
you become acquainted with the physician ? 8. I have not yet be- 
come acquainted with him. 9. How many questions have you asked 
(d) the child j 10. 1 asked him many questions. 11. Have you asked 
him if he had studied his lesson? 12. 1 did not ask him. 13. Will. 
not that little girl do her best to learn her lesson ? 14. Sh'e will do 
her best to learn it. 15. Of what food do you make use when you 
are sick? I16. We make use of bread and rice. 17. Have' you for« 
gotten to bid ikrewell to your mother? 18. I had not forgotten it; 
I intended to go to her house this afternoon. 19. With whom have 
you become acquainted? 20. With the bookseller. 21. Do you not 
keep those ladies waiting ? 22. 1 do not keep them waiting, they are 
not ready (pretes), 23. Do I make you wait? 24. You do not make 
me wait 26. Have you left your children in your room ? 26. ( have 
not done so (le). 27. Have you sent them out ? 28. 1 have not sent 
them out, I have let them remain where they were. 29. Have you 
made purchases this morning? 30. I have made none, I have no 
money. 31. Has the servant made a fire in my room ? 32. He has 
made one. 33. Will you do your best to come to-morrow ? 34. I 
4riU do my best to come early. ZS^ We trsvelled yesterday forty 
\ In sixteen hours. 


by Google 

I'sttov zxr. 




1. Faire is also used in the tense of playing tiie part q^, wprHmi^ 

D fUt le giraad seignenr. & plays the great lord, 

± Faire also means to matter^ to ooncem^to hdp>^ 

Cela ne fliit rien. T%at is no matter, 

Cela ne Tons fldt rien. THatisnotJdngtofou, does not eotueru 

Qa'eitp«o-qTie cela nous ikit 1 mat is that to us? 
Je ne puis qn'y &ire. I cannot kdp it. 

S. Se fairo mal conjugated reflectively, means to hurt on^s se^. 

8e fiure is osed refieetiyely in the sense of the English verbs, to &»- 

come^ to turn. It is, also, nsed with the signification of the words 

estfse, have, get, ^c Se fiure takes etre as its auziliaiy. [} 46. 


Ihaioe become a pkysidan. 

I have had a pair of boots made fee 

I have had my board shaved. 
We have had our hair cut. 

Je me suis fiiit m^decin. 

Je me suis fait fliire nne paire 

Je me suis ikit raser. 
Nous noQs Bommes fliit oonper les 

Je me sois fait mal an dolgt 

/ have hurt my finger, 

4. Besides the instances mentioned, [L. 83. R. 6.], faire is used 

onipersonally in many idiomatic expressions :— 

nfaitjonr, Ufaitnnit. 

n ikit de la booe, U fait de la 


n ikit eteir de lane, il fkit obscor. // is moonlight, it is dark. 
n Ikit boQ Id, il fait Cher id. n is eomfortabU hen,it is dear here. 

n is dayUghtj it is night. 
jB is muddy , it is dusty. 


Oe Jenne homme ikit le savant 

Cela ne me fkit rlen. 
Que ponvoDS-nons y fkire 1 
Hon flr^re s'est fait orf^vre. 
Ponrqnoi vous ikites-vous raserl 
^e me feral couper les chevenx. 
Je me sais fait bfttir une maison. 
Nous nous sommei fait mal IL la 

n commenoe k se fkire tard. 
Fsit-U Cher vivrei Paris 1 
U hH beanoom de 

T%at youmg mat^plays the »mimet 

7%at is nothing to me. 
What can we do to U? 
My brother has turned goldsmitk. 
Why do you get shaved? 
I vriU have my hair cut. 
I have had a house built fot Mt, 
We have hurt our heads, 

R is beginning to grow laie. 
UU dear lioSigta Pmi$7 


by Google 


EzsRCisx 127. 

Absolnmentk absouUily ; fitadiant, m. student ; Peintre, m. patnterf 

Artisan, m. mechanic ; Fou, foUe, /<wj, smp2e- Penonne, m. nabodfi 

fiUoutier, m. jewetteri ton ; Tannenr, m. tanner; 

Bon march6, cheap; Impertinent, e, imper- Vigneron, m. vine-dtm 
Ciiag:rin6, e, vexe^; tinenti ser. 

Penr6e8, f. p. provisions ; Oayrier, m. toorknum ; Vitrier, m, glazier. 

1. Pourquoi cet ouvrier fait-il le malade? 2. II fait le malads 
parcequMl n*a pas envie de travailler. 3. Cet 6tudiaDt ne fiut-i] 
paa le savant? 4. li ne fait pas ie savant, il fait le foa. 5. Sied-il 
9i ce jeune homme de faire le maltre ici ? 6. {1 ne sied k personne 
de faire Timpertinent. 7. Cela fait-il quelque chose? [R. 3.] 8. 
Cela ne fait absolument rien. 9. Cela peuUil faire quelque chose 4 
CCS vignerons? 10. Cela ne leur fait rien du tout 11. N*&tes-voiiB 
pas bien chagrines de cela? 12. Nous en sommes bien ^h6s, mais 
nous ne pouvons qu'y faire. IS. Votre associe ne s'est-il pas £ut 
bijoutier? 14. Non, Monsieur, il s'est fait peintre. 15. Cet artisan 
ne s'est-il pas fait vitrier % 16. II s'est fait tanneur, et son fr^re s'est 
fait soldat 17. La modiste ne s'esUelle pas fait couper les cheveoz f 
18. Elle se les est fait couper. 19. Ne vous levez-vous pas aussitdt 
qu'ii fiutjour? 20. Qui, Monsieur, je me Uve de tr^ bonne heure. 
21. Ne fait-il pas clair de lune ? 22. II fait tr^s clair, mais il ne 
fait pas clair de lune. 23. Fait-il bon vivre en Am6rique ? 24. D 
fait tr^s bon vivre en Am^rique, les denr^es y liOnt ^ bon march6. 

ExKRCias 128. 
1. Does not that gentleman play the learned man! 2. He plays 
the lord and fool at the same time (d la fois), 3. Does not that boy 
pretend to be sick 1 4. He pretends to be sick, he does not wish to 
study his lessons. 6. When you have no wish to work do you pre* 
tend to be sick ? 6. I never pretend to be sick. 7. Is it muddy to* 
day! 8. It is not muddy, it is dusty. 9. Will it be moonlight this 
evening? 10. It will not be moonlight, it will be very dark. 1 1. la 
it comfortable here ? 12. It is very comfortable. 13. Is it too warm 
or too cold? 14. It is neither too warm nor too cold here. 1ft. 
Will you have your hair cut ? 1 6. 1 had my hair cut yesterday mom* 
ing. 17. Will you not go home, it is beginning to grow late ? 18. 
Is it not very dark out ? (dehors,) 19. It is not dark, it is moon, 
light 20. Has not the glazier turned goldsmith? 21. He has not 
turned goldsmith, he has turned soldier. 22. Does that concern 
^our brother? 28. That does not concern hun. 24. Are you not 
- iony for thatt 2ft. I am sorry for it, but I cannot help it 26. Why 


by Google 

io Ton get iluiTedt d7. fieeanae I eannot dwra mjtM, 98. liava 
70a not hurt those children! 29.. I have not hurt them. 80. Have 
yon hurt year arm! 31. No, Sir, but I have hurt my head. 33. 
Haa not yoor aiater hurt her hand ! 83. She has hurt her hand, and 
my mother has hurt her elbow. 84. Have you not hurt your head! 
85 I have not hut my head, but I have hurt my hand. 


1. Avoir ma], means to have a pain or ache^ a tore. When used 

in relation to one of the limhe, it means generally, to have a sore^ a 

hruisey a eutj &c. The name of the part of the body is preceded by 

the preposition d and the article [Seeh, 63, R. 5. { 77, (9.)] i — 

N'avez-vous pas mal au doigt 1 Have you not a yrrefi-nger 7 

^ n'ai pas mal a la tAte. JIfy Mead does no^ mckt. 

3. Avoir une douleur, or des doulenrs, corresponds to the Engliih 

to fttfre a fain or pains :— • 

TtX une dott!3ur au bras. / have a pain vn my arm. 

3. The construction mentioned in R. I,i8 used aAcr avoir, taken in 

the sense of tenir, to hoU and after avoir froid, and avoir chaud [L. 

63, R. 6.] :— 

YoQS arez les armes k la main. You have your anns in your hands. 
J*ai chaud aux mains et auz pieds. My hands and feet are warm, 

4. The article 2e, &c., is used before words indicating moral and 

physical properties, in cases where the English use a or on, or omit 

the article. When, however, an adjective precedes the nonn, tm, vne^ 

or dcj deSt are at times used : — 

Cette dame a Tesprit juste. T%at lady has a correct mind* ^ 

Votre sceur a les yeuz noirs. Your sister has black eyes, 

6. A moral or physical property, which, in the individual is single, 

is not put in the plural in French, though the reference be to a num 

ber of individuals ; — 

Cos dames ont Tesprit Juste. Those ladit *ave correct minds, 

Ces garfons se sont flut mal ^ la tdte. Those boys u ^e hM-t thatt heads, 

RteuiiA or Examples. 

ITavea-vous pas mal au pied 1 
Cette demoisene a le mal de tftte. 
If 'a i v o av o ns paa mal anx dental 
Mod Mrs a le mal de denta. 
If on ooostn a mal au 06U. 

Have you not a sore fool? 
Thai young ladf has the i 
Do not your teetk ache? 
M^ brother has tho toothache. 
B^ consist hu a pain in his mdo. 


by Google 


LBsaexr i.zrz. 

n a des dovleon da poitrtna. 
Oa'arez-youa k la main 1 

Je n'ai lien k U maiiL 

J'ai chaud anx mabui et fMi aux 

Vos MB1IT8 out le co&t d61icat 
Ces meisieiin ontle nez aquilin. 

Be haspaimiin kit ekut, 
' What have you in your immd f 
What is the nutUer with wm 

I ' / have nothinft in my hand, 
< Nothing is tks matter with wtf 

My hands are warm and «y fm 

Your sisters have a ddicaU taste. 
Those gentlemen have Roman nam. 


Mai de gorge, m. sore Pied, m. foots 

throat: Presqne, almost; 

Mai d'oreflle, m. ear- Teint, m,eomiplexionf 

aches Vuage, m^face; 

Nitee, f. nieoes Ywa^from ail, eyes, 

Noir, e,Uaeks 

Bleu, e, bines 
Bouche, f. mouths 
Dent, f.<o0a; 
Gorge, f throat ; 
M^moire, f. momorys 

1. Ce jeune homme a-t-il mal k la gorge? 2. Oui, Mooaieor, U 
J a deux joara qu'il a le mal de gorge. 3. Avez-Yous soavent mal 
k la t^te ? 4. Pal le mal de t^te presque toua lea jours. 5. N'avez- 
voua pas mal au bras 1 6. Tai mal au bras et k la main. . 7. Voire 
amnr a-t-elle le mal d'oreille. 8. Oui, Madame, elle a le mal d*oreille 
et le mal de dents. 9. N'avez-vous paa froid k la t^te. 10. Non, 
Monsieur, mais j'ai froid aux doigts. 11. N'avez-vous point froid 
au visage. 12. Non, Monsieur, je n'y ai point froid. 13. Ce mon- 
sieur a-t-il le nez aquilin? 14. II a le nez aquilin et la bonche 
grande. 16. Cette demoiselle a-t-elle de belles dents? 16. Elle a 
de belles dents et de beaux yeux. 17. Ce petit gargon a-t-il lea 
pieda petits ? 18. II a les pieds petits et les mains grandes. • 19. Vo- 
tre ni^oe n'»-t-elle pas les yeux bleus? 20. Non, Monsieur, elle a 
les yeux noirs. 21. Vos ^oliers se sont-ils fait mal au visage ? 22. 
lis se sont fiiit mal k la poitrine. 28. Vos filles ont^lles une bonne 
m6moire ? 24. Elles ont la m^moire excellente. 26. Cea Italiennes 
n'ont paa le teint frais. 


1« Wliat 18 the matter with your hand ? 2. I have had a aore hand 
theae ten days. 8. Has your brother sore fingers? 4. He has soro 
fingers and a aore hand. 6. What haa yonr brother in his hand ? 
«. He has a pen in his hand. 7. Haa your little boy a aore tlu^Mit ? 
8. He haa a aore throat. 9. Haa not your elcleat slater the tooths 
aafae? 10. She haa not the toothache^ but ahe haa a aora finger. 
11. Why does not the soldier walk ? 12. He cannot walk, ha haa a 


by Google 

attov KZTtt tM 

■on foot 18. HftTO yoQ not sore foot! 14. My foot are not oore. 

16. If your fingeiB were tore would yoa write? 16. If I had aoro 
fingers I should not w;^. 17. If yonr brother had the headache 
would he study hia leaaon f 18. He eouLl not atudy his lesson if 
he had the headache. 19. Haa not that gentleman paina in hia ohest I 
20. He haa paina in hia chest and in his side. 31. Haa your little 
girl bbck eyes or blue eyea? 82. She has black eyea and a fresh 
complexion. 28. Haa not your daughter the tooth-ache! 24. She 
has the tooth-ache and the ear-ache. 26. Are not your hands and 
feet cold? 26. My handa are cold, but my feet are warm. 27. Haye 
not those ladiea aquiline noses? 28. They hare aquiline noses and 
a £ur complexion (le ieirU beau), 29. Haa your sister large hands f 
80. No, Sir, my sister haa small handa. 81. Haye not those little 
girls hurt their heada t 32. They have not hurt their heads, they 
haye hurt their faces. 83. Tliat little boy haa black hair (ckeveux). 


1. Ayoir bean— Vons ayes bean, corresponds in signification to the 
English expression, ii u inwrin farfouta It must be followed by 

Tons ayes beau dire, fl ne yiendra Misinvainf0rjfmtaspuU[,kiwitt 

2. fipouser, marier, to tnarry, have, in French, a diiforent mean- 
ing. JMorter, conjugated actiyely, can only haye aa ita nominatiye 
the person performing the ceremony, or giving one or both of the 
parties in marriage; ipouier takes, aa ita nominative, the contracting 
parties only, and must always be followed by a direct regimen. Se 
marier, to get tnarried, and marier, conjugated passively, take the 
same nominative as ipouser, 

M. L. a mari6 sa fllle aveo M. Q. Mr. L. lUu married ku dtmghJter te 

Mr. G. 
M.G.a^ua61afi]le deM.L. Mr.a.hasmafrUdMr. L.'sdamgk^ 

M. G. et MU«' L. soDt mari^ Mr. a. and MUsZ^mre married, 

Man frftre va ae marier. Afy indker ie going to be marri^ 

8. Un de mea amia, ia equivalent to the English, a friend cf 


Tobe ami a 4poiia6 vne de mea Towrfirimd hoe married ^fiimdef 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 


LVtsair &XTIL 

BAsumA ov Examples. 

Of ont Ixan dire et bean faire, fls 
tie rempAcheroiit pas de ae mi- 

Vous avez beau lui faire des re- 

Ii'6Ydqae de B. a marU ma acenr. ' 

lie capitaine G. a 6poas6 ma coa- 

Qaand il se mariera, U nous inTitera 

a la n6ce. 
Totre coosine est marine avec mon 

Voire caQsine a ipofisi nn de mes 

Le colonel a ^pousA une de mes 


Whalever they may say or d^^ Aey 
will not yrevofU iU martfmg, 

II is in vain for you to rejnonstr^Ut 

with him. 
The bishop of B. has married «f 

Captain O. Has married my cousm. 

When he marries^ he will iiwite «# 

to the wedding, 
Yow cousin is married to myc&usistk 

Tour sousin has married aoousin of 

The colonel has married a sister of 

EzsBCiss 131. 

Aiii6, e, ddery eldest; Devoir, 8. ir. to owe^ to Parent, o, relation f 
ArcboTdque, m. archr be about; "PnnceaaOj f. princess ; 

bishop; fipouz, pi. couples man Prochain, e, next; 
Cadet, te, younger; and wife; Savoir, 8. ir. to know; 

Demoiselle, f. young Infanterie, f. infantry; R6giment, m.regimenlf 

lady; fivdque, m. bishop; VioiUard, oidr— 

1. Votre nidee Be va-t-eUe pas se mariert 2. EUe se mariera 
Tann^e prochaine. 3. Qui ^pousenut^lle 1 4. EUe 6pouaera le fils 
aia6 du g6ii6nd M. 5. Savez-vous qui a marid ces deux 6poax1 
6. L*archev£que de Paris les a mari^s. 7. N*iut-il pas aussi marie 
Mile. L. ? 8. II I'a mariee avec M. G. 9. Qui votre demoiselle a-t- 
elle 6pous^ ? 10. EUe a ^pousS M. L. capitaine au 2d*m« regiment 
d'infaQterie. 11. Ce vieillard n*a-t-il pas tort de se marier? 12. II 
n'a pas tort de se marier, mais il a tort d'^pouser cette demoiselle. 
13. Quand ces princesses vont-ellea se marier? 14. Ellcs se ma- 
rieront le mois prochain. 15. Qui les mariera? 16. L'^v^que 
d'Arras les mariera. 17. Qui doivent-elles 6pouser? 18. L'aince 
doit 4pouser M. W. et la cadette M. G. 19. Le capitaine G. nVt-U 
pas 6pous6 une de vos parentes? 20. Oai, Monsieur, il a 6pous6 
uoe de mes cousines? 21. Qui est cctto demoiselle! 22. Cost 
une de mes soeurs. 23. N'avez-vous pas un de meslivres? 24. TtX 
un de vos llvres et une de vos plumes. 25. Je viens do parler k uoe 
de vos sodura. 

ExsRCisx 132. 

1. Is your brother goiog to marry Miss Lf 2. Yes, Sir, it is in 
viin for us to speak to hin^be wiU marry her. 8. WUl not yow 


by Google 

Mmt BMtfi^ /onr siater to Mr. G.f 4. No, Sir, he will mtawy h&r 
to Mr. L. 6. Is Captain H. married? 6. No, Sir, he ia not yet mar- 
ried, but he will be married next year. 7. Whom does he intend to 
marry 1 8. He intenda to marry a eouain of mine, who ia at my 
hr&ther'a. 9 Who will marry them ? 10. My eldest brother intenda 
to marry theoL 11. Ia your youngest aiater married? 12. No, Sir, 
ahe ia not married. 13. Ia she going to be married] 14. She will 
marry when ahe ia [L. 61. 6.] old enough (assez agie), 16. Whom 
did Colonel J. marry ? 16. He married a aiater of mine. 17. How 
long have they been married [L. 67. 2.} ? 18. They have been mar* 
ried two years. 19. Is not that young lady wrong to get married? 
SO. She ia wrong to marry, ahe ia too young. 21. Who married 
General S. and Miss N.? 22. The bishop of Arras married theoL 
23. Did not the arehbishop of York marry tliat couple ? 24. The 
archbishop of Paria married them. 26. Will not your aunt marry ? 
26. She will not marry. 27. Is not your sister at home? 28. No, 
Sir, ahe ia with (che%) an aunt of mine. 29. Is your brother at your 
house? 30. No, Sir, he is with one of my relations. 31. Is he 
married? 32. He ia not married. 33. Is Captain H. married? 34 
He was married laat week. 36. He married Miss H. 



1. The verb avoir ia used in expressing the site of an object The 
preposition de precedes the noun of dimension. When there ia no 
verb in the sentence, the preposition must be placed before the Bum 
ber, and again before the noun of dimension :^- 

Cette muraille a dix pieds de That vnUk is Unfed high. 

Ce puita a cent pieds de profondeur. That v)dl is one hundred feet deep 
Une table de quatre pieds de Ion- A taltle four feet Umg. 


2. In sentences, where sizes are compared, and the verb 6tro ia 
used, the preposition de is placed before the number expressing the 
ixeeis : — 

Vous 4tes phxa grand que moi de You are talkr than I iff two inches, 

3. When the price of an artide ia mentioiied, the article le is uwi 
helbra the nonn expreasiiig the m^aanre, w^;ht| &o. Whaa Um 


by Google 


LSlflOV hXYtlL 

iCBiuMratioii, or renii &«. for a definite apeee of ttme ie Bentfone^ 
the preposition par (per) is need ;— 

Le beurre te Tend nn iVmiic la livre. BuUeriswidafraincapaMmL 
UsafiHieiix francs par jour. Mt earns six froMcs per dof. 

4. The same preposition is used, wlien we speak of the number cf 
times any ooeurrenee takes j^aoe in a given space of time >— 

Je Tais ^ la posts deux fois par IgotoUepott^q/Uekrieeadof, 


La esneUe se vend deux francs la 

Oetie soie vaut six francs le mitre. 
Ce docher a dnq cents pieds de 

Oat €tang a huit pieds de profon- 

Une chambre de quinze pieds de 

loD£:neur, sur dix-liuit da largeur, 

et huit de hauteur. 
De quelle taille est Totre frere 1 
8a taille est de dnq pieds huit 

Notre ami est-fl grand on petit 1 
n est de taille moyenne. 
Votre maison est plus haute que la 

mienne, de cinq pieds. 
Je vais k T^cole deux (bis par jour. 
II nous paie huit francs par semaine. 

dimamenis sold tmofrtmaa p m m L 

That silk is vorik six francs a Wietre, 
That steeple is Jive hundred feet high. 

That pond is eight feet deep, 

A room ffleen feet long by eighteen 
feet broad and eight fiet high. 

Hew taUis your brother 7 

Bis height isfivefeei eight inches. 

is our friend taU or short? 

His height is middling. 

Your house is higher than mine h§ 

Jive feet, 
Iro to school twice a day, 
^pays us eight frattcs a week. 

EzERcms 188. 

Profondeur, t, depths 
Pouco, m. inch; 
Semaine, f, weeks 
Taille f height, sixes 
Veige, t perch, y^d, rod. 

Bon march6, cheap / Grandeur, f nze ; 
Cassonade, f brown jv- Hauteur, f. heights 
gar s Largeur. t breadth ; 

ftcosaais, e, Scotch; Longueur, f. lengths 
fipaiaseur, f thieknesss Loyer, m. rent ; 
fitoffe, f. stuffs 

1. Votre maison est-elle grande! 3. Elle a dnquante pieds de 
long et vingt-einq de large. 3. Combien de longueur votre jardin 
a^Un 4. U a vingt-einq verges de longueur et douze de largeur. 
A. De quelle grandeur est celivre! 6. n a dix-huit pouces de longueur, 
treize de largeur et trois d^^paisseur. 7. Votre maison est-elle plus 
longue que celle-d? 8. Elle est plus longue de deux pieds. 
9. Quelle profondeur a ce puits ? 10. De quelle hauteur est ee 
elocherf 11. 11 a trois cent einquante-trois pieds de hauteur. 12. De 
quelle taille est eet oiBcier! 13. II est de haate taille. 14. De 
eomlnen eet ftcossaia est-il plus grand que son frire? 16. II estj^ua 
gnod de tonte la tAte. 16. liTAtes-vons pa^ de beanooup plus grand 
que molt 17. Je enis plus grand que vona ds trois poneea 


by Google 


I& CooMen eeftle Hoft m Tond^Ue la TWgef 19. Elto m t«id 
trois francs 13 mdtra. dO. La caaaonade ne le rend-elle pas ebetf 
SI. Eile 86 Tend k bon march^. SS. fombien de lettiea toiTes-roiia 
pv Mmainet 28. Je n'en teii que aix par ■emaine. S4. Combien 
pafes-TOBs par aemaine poor Totra loyerf 86. Je na paia que diz 
fbnea par aemauid. 

BoEHOias 184. 

1. How large is your fkthei^s garden! 3. It ia twenty-Are roda 
feogand ten broad. 8. Is your coushi'a honae large 7 4. It ia fifty* 
liz feet long and forty broad. 6. Ia your bonae larger than mine? 
d. It ia larger than youra by ten ieet 7. Do you know how deep 
that well iaf 8. It ia twenty^five feet deep and six feet broacL 
9. How ia that eloth aold a metre ? 10. It ia aold forty-five fianca a # 
metre. 1 1. How much do yon receive a week for yoor work ? 12. I 
receive fifty fmnca a week for my work. 18. How much doea yoor 
friend pay a month for hia board (pension, t) 1 14. He paya aeventy 
franca a month. 16. Are yon taller than your consin? 16. I am 
taller than he by the whole head. 17. Is not your nephew taller than 
your aon ? 18. He ia taller than my aon, by three inchea. 19. How 
large ia thia room! 20. It ia aixty feet long by forty. 21. What 
lize ia your brother? 22. He ia tall, he ia taller than I. 23. How 
many booka do yon read a week? 24. I read ten volnmea a weeL 
26. How ia butter aold a pound ? 26. Butter ia aold two franca a 
pound. 37. Do you know how much your aon eama a day? 
28. He eoma aa much aa youra, he earns ten franca a day. 29. How 
Bmeh ia that ailk worth a metre ? 30. It ia worth aix franca a metre. 
31. Oar friend^a atatnre is middling. 82. Do you go to church twiee 
a day ? 88. I go to church once a day. 84 Doea your aon go to 
the post-ofliee every day ? 86. He goea thither aix timea a day. 


1. Mettre (4. hr.) forma, in French, many idiomatic expreaaieiia. 
Metfre k m6me de, to enabUe ; mettre pied k terre, to alight, to land; 
■lettre le pied, to Met oiyit fool; mettre \ la porta, to (tent ottf </ 
iwn; mettre au fiut de, to ac^tiatitf loitii; mettre \ Tabri, to Mbbet^ 
iNttre ^ I'ombte, to jnK m tiU aknfe; mettre nn habit i reBdroit, i 
Wen» to ^ on a oMtf r(gM mU oitf , wrmg $ii$ omi 4«. ^- 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

IM iivatoir ftziz. 

OAltre la tMU. 
n a mis cet iiisolent a la porte. He turned thai imoUnt person out 

« of dmrt. 

3. Mettre conju^ted reflectively, i e. «• mettre, means to plaoi 

mt/?$ tetf^ to dress on^s ulf; se mettre H table, to tit down to table i 

se mettre en colore, to become angry^ to jnU on^s self into a passion » 

n 86 met k Tombre, an Bolell. Be places himself in tke shade, in the 


S. Sa oMtlNv followed by an infinitive, means to etmmenoet to he- 

Ha se mirent a plenrer. TIU^ eemmtneed foeqring. 

A Panglaiae, k la fnui^aise, are used elliptieally for k la mode 
llnm^se, k la mode anglaise, tfier the Freneh, after the Engiiek 

lUsUlfi or EZAMPLSB. 

Ce cavalier a mis pled k Isrre. 
Vons n'osez mettre le pied chez loi. 

Mettez ces enAmts & Tabri de la 

Vous avez mis votre mantean k 

Oe monsiemr se met toqJoarB k V$tk- 

Hier nous nous mimes k table a diz 

Pourquoi vous mettez-Toiis a Tom- 

Ces cnfants se mirent a rire. 
Ponrquol ne vous mettez-vous pas 

k I'ouvrage 1 
Je vab me mettre en pension. 
Nous allons nous mettre en voysge. 

T%U horseman is came damn from 

his horse. 
Yon dare not set your foot inside his 

Shelter those children from the r 

Yon have put your doak inside out. 

That rentleman always dresses after 

the SrigUsh fashion. 
Yesterday we sat down to taUe at ten 

Why do yon go into the shade? 

T^hose children commenced laughing. 
Why do yon not set yourself to work f 

IwiU commence boarding. 
We are going to commence our jmt- 


A ritalirane, o^ the Mf^nd-n, 4. to forbid i fitndi-er, I. to study i 

Italian fashion ; Effbts, m. p. things g Mlse, f. mettre, dressed ^ 

A merveiUe, exceedingly £ntr-er, 1. to come in ; Pluie, f. rain ; 

wells fitonrdi, e, giddy per- Rire, 4. ir. to laugh g 

Gouvert, See L, 82, 1.; song Tablier, apron. 

1. Avez-vons d^endn 2l eet homme de mettre le pied chez vona I 
8. Je le lul ai defenda. 3. Avez-vous mis ces effets ii Tabri de la 
plnlof 4. Je lea ai mia k I'abri de la pluie et dn vent. 5. Avez-voM 
miavotrefr^aQ&itdftooUeaffidraf 6. Jonel'en aipaa mis an 


by Google 


ftit 7. Ne rsrez-TOUB pas mis ^ m6me d'^toaierl 8. Je Fsi mis 
i m^me de s^nstraire, 8*il desire le faire. 9. V^/iiles-vons mettre 
eela de c6te? 10. Je vais le mettre aa soleil. 11. Voire ami nVt-il 
ptsTOttIa entrer? 12. II n*a point voulu mettre pied a terre. 13. 
Votre teioturier nVt41 pas mis son tablier k renders 1 14^ Noi^, 
Monsieur, il Ta mis k Tendroit 16. N*avez-voaa pas mis oet ^toordl 
ft la porte? 16. Nous loi avons ferm6 la porte an nez (in kis fau), 
17. A quelle heure toss mettez-yons k table? 18. Anssitdt que le 
eouven sera mis [L. 61, (6.)]. 19. Get homme se met-il bien? 30* 
D se mel toujonrs k Fanglaise on k Titalienne. 21. Ces enfauts ne 
•e mircnt-ils pas k pleurer ? 22. An lieu de se mettre k pleurer^ ils 
se mirent ^ lire. 23. Pourquoi ne vons mettez-vons pas k 6crire ? 
24. II est temps de se mettre ^ table. 25. Ces Siciliennes sont-elles 
bien mises? 36. EUes smit mkes k merveille. 

ExKRCiss 136* 

1. Did the gentleman aligbt this morning! 2. No, Sir, he would 
not alight, he had no time. 3. Have you put that insolent person 
out of doors t 4. No, Sir, but I forbade him to set his foot in my 
house. 6. Did you shelter those little children from the lUn? 6b I 
sheltered them from the rain and the wind. 7. Have you enabled 
your son to study medicine (la m6decine)1 8. I enabled him to 
study medicine, if he wishes to do so. 9. Haye you put on your 
eoat inside out? 10. I hare not put it on ioside out, but ri^t side 
out 11. Did you put yourself in a passion! 12. No, Sir, I did 
not become angry. 13. Did you sit down to table at four o'clock 
yesterday ? 14. We sat down to table at six o'clock. 16. Do yon 
mtend to csommence boarding? 16. I intend to board with Mr. L. 
{eke% M, Xk) 17. When do you commence your journey ! 18. We 
commence our journey to-morrow monung. 19. Did your son com- 
mence langhing? 20. No, Sir. he commenced weeping. 21. Why 
do you not commence working ? 22. Because I am going to com* 
mence reading. 23. Does that lady dress after the English fashion 
24. She dresses after the Italian fashion. 26. Are those ladies wol. 
dressed? 26. They are extremely well dressed. 27. Will you not 
place yourself in the shade ? 28. I will place myseU in the sun, I 
am very cold. 29. Is your coat inside out? 30. No, Sir, it is right 
side out. 31. Is this the right side of this cloth (Cendroit) ? 32. It 
b the wrong side (renters). 33. Are you not dressed after the Eng- 
lish fashion? 34. I am dressed after the Italian fashion. 36. Yoi 
■re well dressed. 


by Google 



1. CoNJueATXov or nn LmBAnvx of thx Rboulab Vi 
Chant -• flu -is re^ -oia rend 

nmg Jtnisk newH rm itr 

Qa*ll pari -e cb6r -laM ap^r^ -oive vend -« 

uonn -ons fourn -isaone perc -eTons lena -ons 

Cborch •«£ pun -iaaes oonc -erei entend-ez 

Qn'flBport -ent Bsis -usent d -oivent perd -enl 
UttUmemrr9 l$ttktu9tU$ McAmimm UttUml^M 

3. The second penon ungolar, and the first and second persons 
piaral of the imperative, are the same as the first person singular, 
and the first and second persons plural, of the present of the Indica- 
tive. The pronouns are dropped. 

Je parle, park ; Je tn%Jinis. I speak, ^eak ; / finish, finish, 

3. Exceptions — ^Avoir, to have, makes in those persons of the im- 
perative, ate, ayons, ayex; 6tre, to be, sots, iotfonsj sayez; eavoir, to 
knowj ioehe, aachons, sachez ; and aller, vo, and vos before y not fol- 
lowed by an infinitive. 

4. Vouloir haa only the second person plural, veuillez, have ike 
goodness to. . . . 

5. A third person singular and plural is given in the imperative by 
most of the French grammarians. These parts, however, belong 
properly to the subjunctive, as they express rather a strong wish than 
a command. The English expressions, let him speak, that he may 
speak, are rendered in French by qu'il parle. 

6. A droite, 2l gauche, corrrespond in signification to the Engliah 
tc the right, toihel^ 

AUez a drdte, k gauche. Ch tc the righi, totheUfi. 

7. For the place of the pronouns in connection with the Impend 
tive, see L. 27. R. 1, 4 ; L. 2a, R. 1, 9, 3, 4. 


Let US takeOe first siree^iotherigkL 

Frenons ia prvmito rue it droite. 
Ke cherches plus it le tromper. 
Sachons nous contenter du nices- 

Faftes bien attentioc k oe <|ue vous 

Dites toiOours la v6rit6. 
Ailoos! Messieurs, d6pAchez-vou8. 
Tenes, Monsieur vuiliL votre argent. 
VeoUIea acoeptai oe present. 

Sede no longer to deceive him. 

Let us know how to content onrsdioet 

with neoessaries. 
Pay great attention to what you say. 

Always tOL ike truth. 

Come t gentlemen, make haste. 

Here, Sir, here is your money. 

Be so kintt as to aeeept tUem/weeKt* 


by Google 

tMB$o}r xxt, HM 

Bznom 187. 

Ckf,f.keyt Pronett-re, 4. Ir. <« pi0- ]l«DTOj-er, 1 l» amd 

CimjoB, m. jwaeC; nutt bmckf 

Iwtitatrke, f. te«Aer / Bappoit^er, 1. to bring Sftos tkoto) wiikmUfmli 

Ob6-ir 2. to ok^; tad:; 8e Berr-ir, 2. reC to icj« / 

Partie, f. foH; Remett-re, 4. Ir. to ^Tien, m. M«nf; 

PMoeptour, m. MMir«^ Uoert Verres, 8. ir. /m» roir, 

tor; to «e. 

1. Envoyez chereiMr le m6deeiii, votre petit gur^on est malade. 
S. Nona TaToua d^ji envoys efaereher. 3. Vona nVex pea beaoia 
de Totre crayon, pr6tez4e-moi [L 27. R. 4 ; L. 28. R. 4]. 4. Je no 
aanraia rona le prater, je m*en aera. 6. Donnez-le-moi on me lo 
prdtez [{ 100, (&)]. 6. Je Tai promia k rotre inatStntrioe. 7. K 
▼one ne le Ini avez paa dit, di tea-le-lui auaaitdt qne poaaible. 8. Ne le 
Ini ditea paa eneare. 9. Parlez-lni-en [} 39, 17.] la proohaine foia 
qne vona le venez. 10. Ayez patience, mon ami, votre pdfe ne tar- 
dera paa i ▼enir. 11. Ob^iaaez k votre pr^ptenr. 13. Jo Im 
ob^ia tonjOnra^—Donnes-lni-ennne bonne partie. 13. Je Ini en ai 
dej^L donn6 plna dea denx tiera. 14. Avez vona port6 cette clef an 
aermriert 16. Pal onbli^ de U Ini remettre. 16. Portez-la^lni aana 
lante cette apr^a-midl 17. Veuillez me dire' oil demenre M. G 
18. Prenez la premiere me k gancbe, il demenre dana la denzi^me 
maiaon & droite. 19. Allona, Meademoiselles, d6p4chona-noua. 20. 
]fenez-lea-y le plna t6t poaaible. 21 < Ne me lea rapportez paa. 22. 
Renvoyez-lea-moi domain. 23. Portona-lea-y. 24. Ne lea y portona 
pea. 26. I¥dtez-lea.]ni, maia ne lea Ini donnez paa. 

EzBROiss 188. 

1. Give a book to the yonng man. 2. I have already given him 
one, and he doea not read it 3. Lend it to him, if yon will not give 
it to bun. 4. I will not lend it to him. 6. Make haate, yonng U- 
dies. It ^B ten o'clock. 6. Have the goodneaa to give me a pen. 7. 
I have givep one to yonr brother. 8. Obey your father, and apeak 
ko yonr aiater. 9. Will you not aend for the letter! 10. 1 will aend 
ibtr it 11. Send for it aa aoon aa you can. 12. Do not do ao (to), 
but write to my couain. 13. Pome, children (tnes enfiBmis\ learn 
jonr leiaon. 14. Give him aome [} 89, 17], or lend him aome [( 100. 
(a)]. 16. Do not make haate, we have (k) time. 18. Have pa. 
tienee, my child, the merchant will aoon come. 17. Send it to him, 
if you cannot g*ve it to him. 18. Write to him thia afternoon witb> 
Mt fiuL 19. I would write to him if I had time. 20. Let na take 
lU IhnI atreol to the loft 21. Take the aeeond atreot to the riglO. 

^ Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



S3. Pay attention to what yonr brother says. 23. Let as tell the 
truth. 24. Let us read that book lo^ay. 26. Pay Jour debts as 
soon as possible. 26. I^t us obt7 our instructor. 27. Carry the 
key to him. 28. Bring me back the books which I have lent yoa. 
29. Do not bring them back to me, read them. 30. Let us have 
patience, we Bbail soon have money. 81. Let us speak to them, they 
are at my father's. 82. Tell them that I intend to write to them to* 
morrow morning. 33. Go to church this^aftemoon. 34. Bring me 
buck my letters. 86. Do not canry them there, but bring tbeo to 
mn aa soon as possible. 



1. A verb following another verb in the imperative, is pat in toe 

inlinitivC) (according to general Rule L. 21. 2.) The conjunction 

which olien comes between the two verbs in English, is not used in 


AUez psrler an musicien. Oo and speak to ike wundank, 

Alles &ire votre ouvrage. Go and do your %oork, 

Courez voir ces messieurs. Run and see those genllemen. 

2. Prendre garde, to take care, to take heed; when followed by aii« 
other verb in the infinitive, means to take care not to:—^ 

Prcnez garde de tomber. Take care not to fall. - 

3. Prendre le deuil, means to go irUo mourning ; prendre la peine, to 
take the trouble ; prendre les devants, to go on before ; pi^endre an 
parti, to take a determination^ prendre du cafe, du the, &c., to Uiht 
cojfee, tea, Alc 

Rj£sum£ of Examples. 

Envoyez cbercber le tapissicr. 
Allcs chercber votre parapluie. 
Courez voir votre i)irc. 
PrenoDS garde de uous blesser. 
Prcnez garde de dichircr vos habits. 
K'avez-vous pas oris le dcnil ? 
Prenez la peine ae vous asseoir. 
Prenez du th6 ou da cai^. 
Quel parti avez-vous pris 1 

Send for the upholsterer. 

Go andfctdi your umbrella. 

Run and see yourfalher. 

Let us take, care not to hurt eurtetpu 

Take care not to tear your dUk^ 

Rave you not put on mourning ? 

l\ike the trouble to sit down. 

Take tea or coffee. 

What resolution hate you tahtn ? 


Attend-re, 4. to expect, Gftt-er, 1. to spoil; Robe, f. drejs; 

to wait fort Qonvenieur, m. govern- 8t>ln, ro. care ; 

Choooiitit, m. ehocolate ; or; ...... 

Gourrier, m. courier ; Lorsque, when ; 
Crol-re, 4. ir. to believe ; Port-er, I. to toear; 
D6cbir-er, V to Hart Quelquefols, 

Tomb-er, 1, /«>U{; 
Tacher, 1. to ^tom, It 

t 8etai-ie,4.lr.ftfciflML 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

JkltftON LXXI» IM 

1. AHei roir moB Mre, 11 a qnelqiie cboM i Tom eomiiiiiiii^Mr. 
2. Courez tcnr dire que jo les attends. 8. Moa fi^re a bten prii 
garde de declurer eea habits. 4. Votre coustne a-t-alle f«ris garde 
de tacher sa robe 1 5. Elle a pris garde de tomber, car en tombent 
elle Taurait g&t^e. & Ces petites iilles ont-elles pris le deuil ? 7. 
ElJes vienncnt de le prendre. 8. Pour qui prenez-vous le denil ? 9. 
Je porte le deoil de ma mSre. 10. Prenez-vous du th6 ou du caf& 
le matin? 11. Nous prenons du the et du cafe. 12. Ne prena^ 
^ous pas quelquefois du chocolat? 13. Nous n*en prenons que lofa« 
que nous sommes malades. 14. Quel parti le gouvemeur a-t>i] pris 1 
16. II a pris le parti de se taire. 16. Prendrez-vous mon parti (my 
fkiri) ou celui de votre fils? 17. Je prendrai le vdtre, si je crois que 
vons avez raison. 18. Pourquoi ne prenez-vous pas la peine de lire 
aa Icttre ? 19. Parce qu*elle n'cn vautpas la peine. 20. Votre conr* 
rier a^t^il pris les devants T 21. II n'a pu prendre les devants. ^ 22. 
N'avez-voua pas tort de prendre son parti ? 23. Je n'ai pas^ort de le 
prendre. 24. Avez-vous pris le the* (your tea) ? 25. Noos n^ayona 
pas pris (our) le the, nous avons pris le cafe 1 

ExxBCisx 140. 

1. Has your brother taken care not to spoil his hat? 2. He has 
taken care not to spoil it, he has only one. 3. Go and speak to your 
sister, she calls you (appeUe), 4. Will you not take a cup (iasse) 
of tea ? 5. I have just taken my tea. 6. What have you said to 
your little girl ? 7. I have told her to take care not to tear her dress. 
8. Let us take care not to tear that book. 9. My son has just brought 
it 10. Has he taken his tea? 11. He has not yet taken tea, it is 
too early. 12. At what hour do you take tea* at your house ? 18. 
We take tea at six o^clock, 14. Do you take tea* or coffiee for break* 
fast (d xotre d^e&ner) ? 15. We take coiTee. 16. Is your eourier 
gone on before? 17. He has not been able to go on before. 18. 
What resolution have you taken? 19. I have taken the resolution 
iO study my lesson. 20. Have yon taken care not to teaz your 
lK)oks? 21. I have taken care not to stain them. 22. What has 
your brotlier determined ? 23. He has determined to remain silent 
24 Have you taken my part? 25. I have taken my brother's part 
26 Are yon right to take his part? 27. I am right to take his part, 
because he is right 28. Are you not afraid to take his part? 29. I 
UB not afrud to take his part 80. Will you take your ■istei's part 

• jMibk,tkMm€4U€aUtdUag du th4, M« Jmmmvs caflW Im» 

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or Brino? SI. 1 will take my Bistorts put. 83. Go and nod jtrnt 
lK>ok, yon do nofc know yow leaaon. 38. I know my leaaon, aJid 
I know also thai you are my fiiend. 84. Let ua go to onr father.ho 



1. All the French verba, regular and irregular, end in thia tenaa 
with ^ es, Ci tont, iea, ent:-^ 


Qneje chant -e fln -iase re^ -oIto rend -9 
Thatlmtiif&img mmif Jbtitk maifreceht awy r miiar 

Que tn pari -et cb6r -issca aper^ -olvea vend -ee 

ThattMaumdfcrtwpmk tiUftst ehetitk wUfeMtptreeim wtmffut §9lt 

Qn'il donn -e foam -ifise per^ -oive tend -e 

Tkatkemofgn* muf finmisk wtmgptrtnv^ wutftmd 

Que nous cherch -iona pun *ia8iona cone -eviona entend -iooa 

Tk»t\ffiUf»^tk wuif funisk mM^fc^uenve Mcy Jkaar 

Que T0U8 port 4ez sais -issies d -eyiez perd -lei 

7*A«<yMi«Mf Mrry «MfM<r« nicy mm «M|r/«M 

Qu'ilsaim -ent nn -iaient di^ -oiTent mord -ent 

Tk»t tkqf mmif h99 VMywute wiap itemv mtif biU 

8. In the firat conjugation, the subjunctiTe ia in the aingolar, aimi- 
lar to the preaent of the indicative. Eicception : aller— je vaia, qui 

4. The firat and aecond peraona plural of the subjanctire, in the 
fonr eonjngationa, are the aame aa the correaponding peraona of the 
imperfect of the indicatiTe. The third person plural ia like the cor* 
reaponding peraon in the indicative preaent Exceptions: avoir i 
aubjunctive, noua ayonsy vout aye%y Usaient; aavoir: noia gachions, 
vous MacMetfUs saehenl; ^tre, nous soycns^vous soyeZf Us soiaU; fair% 
%ous feunons, vous fiutiex, Us /assent , aller, t^ €nUefU ; vouloir iis 
veuiUent ; valoir. Us vaiUenL 

6, The aabjonetive may alao be formed from the participle present, 
by changing ant into ^ es, e, tons, tex, en< ; aa, chantant, je c^nte; 
finiaaanti^e fiwuse; reeevant, je regoive; aaehant, je sache; eimi. 
gnant, je cntigne. 

6. llie verba preaenting exeeptiona to thia laat rule are the foU 
lowing, which the student will find eoiyugated in the Second Pftit 
of thia gnuBinar, } €8 }--- 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

I.IR«8X»lf IrKXIX. 


Aeqntfrir Coneeyoir Monrir Prendre, 

AOer Dteevoir Moavoir (and 

Aperoerolr Deyoir Percevoir its com- 

Avoff Etre Poa^oir poondi) 

Boire Fftire Pomrdr Recevolr 

Swroir Yenlr 
Tenir (and (and 
its oom- its oom- 
ponnds) jponnds) . 
Yaloir voulolr — 

7. The past of tlie subjanctiTe ia formed from the aubjiiiietife 
present of one of the anadHaries, ownr, itrty and the past participle of 
a verb [} 46.] :— 

QiieJ*ide paitt, qneje sols Tenn. Thai I mofhuvi spoken^ thai I auqr 

hace cotM, 

8. A verb ia pat in the sobjonctive, when it is preceded by the 
eonjnnetion que^ and another verb expressing consent, command* 
doubt, desire, sniprise, want, duty, necessity, regret, fear, apprehen- 
aion, dtc. [J 127, (2.)] :— 

Je Tenx qne roos Ini parlies. 

Je d6sire qne toos arririez a temps. 

I with you U speak ia Am». 
/ wish ftm to arrive in time. 

9. When the first verb expresses fear or apprehension, the verb 
preceded by ^ue, must alao be preceded by ne^ which, however, haa 
no negative sense [{ 127, (3.) { 138, (4.) (6.) (6.)] >^ 

Je crains qn'il ne tombe. / am afraid lest he faU, 

19, After craindre, to fear; apprehender, to apprehend; avoir peufy 
to be qfrmid; trembler, to tremble, pas is used in connection with the 
ne, when we wish for the accomplishment of the action or occur* 
rence expressed by the second verb [} 138, (7.)] : — 

Je tremble qn'il n'arrive pas i i tremble that he foajf not arme im 



Le m^decin veut-fl que Je boive de 

Je eonsens que vons alliea le voir. 
Nous dontoos que vous arriviez k 

Je crains que votre midtre ne vous 

Jd crains que votre maitre ne vous 

punisse pas. 
Je m'Stonne qa*U ne sache pas cela. 

J'ezige que vous lui donnies oela. 
Toalez-votts qu'il aiJle a la chassel 
Que voules-vous que je dise 1 

J'aiae mie-ix que voos me 

Does the physician vish ms to drink 

I consent thai you go to ue A»ia. 
We doubt your arriving in time, 

I fear lest your master maf punish 

I fear thai your master may not 

punish you. 
I am astonished thai he does not 

know that. 
I require yfu to give him thai. 
Do you wish him to go hunttrnM. 
What do you wish me to ^hai i 

/ w oul d rather ham ym k jMy 


by Google 

196 LSttHV I.ZXIL 


Arilwi. m. m xkame ; SmpAch-er, 1. to prevents MoiiIin-a-«cie, smw^mQl 

Atelier, m. workshop ; Fortement, vtrif miu^ ; Ob6-tr, 2. io obep ; 

An demA, above i Force, f. sUenfik ; Rempl-ir , 2. to fiUJU / 

Bracelet, m. ^race2e^j Maeasin, m. K?areA/m«; Rue, f. x^tw/; 

D^Ja, already ; Mabain, e, vnheaUhy ; Tomb-er, 1. to faU. 

1. Que Yonlez-vouB que nous fassioos! 2. Je desire que Tout 
Ikssiek attention k tos Etudes. 3. Ne craignez-voas pas que la plaie 
ne vous emp^he de sortir ! 4. Nous craignons fortement que la 
pluie ne nous emp6che de rcmplir nos engagements ? 5. Doutez-vons 
qu*i] soit chez lui maintenant? 6. Je doute qu'il y soit, II est ddjii 
dix iieures. 7. Exigez-vous qu*il parte de bonne heureT 8. Je 
m'etonno qu'il ne soit pas dejk parti. 9. Aimez-vous mieuz que 
je vous rende ees bracelets t 10. Taime mienx que vous me les payiez. 
1 1. Votre voisin craiLt-il que son enfant ne sorte ? 12. II craint qn'51 
ne tombr dans la rue. 13. Ne d^sirez-vous pas que vos ^l^ves vous 
ob^issent? 14. Je souhaite qu'ils m'ob^issent et qu'ils ob^issent i 
leurs professeurs. 15. Ne craignez-vous pas que cet artisan ne 
tombe malade? 16. Je croins qull ne tombe malade, car son atelier 
est tr^s malsain. 17. Ne regrettez-vous pas qu*il soit oblige ^ tra^ 
vailler? 18. Je regrette qu*il soit oblige de travailler au dessus de ses 
forces. 19. Ne dSsirez-vous pas qu*on lui apprenne cette nouvellet 
20. Je desire qu'on la lui npprenne le plus t6t possible. 21. Votre 
pdre ne veut-il pas que vous nehetiez un magasin ? 22. II vent que 
f achate un moulin-^-scie. 23. DSsirez-vousque je vousquitte? 24. 
Je desire que vous restiez avec moi. 25. Je veux que vous parties 
ce matin. 


I. Do yon wish me to speak to the mechanic ? 2. I wish you to 
tell him to (de) come liere to-morrow morning. 8. What do yon 
wish me to do ? 4. I wish you to bring me a book. 5. Do you not 
wish me to read your letter? 6. I wish you to read it and (que) 
give it to my sisters. 7. Does not your sister fear lest the min may 
prevent her going out? 8. She fears that the rain may prevent our 
going out. 9. Do you doubt that your father be at home now ? 
10. I doubt his being there. 11. Do you require me to do my work 
now I 12. I wish you to do your work before going out (acaiU dt 
sortir), 13. Do you not regret your being obliged to work? 14, 1 
do not regret my being obliged to work. 15. Are you not astonished 
that he knows thai? 1& I am astonished that he knowa eli 


by Google 


17. Bfi you raqQve me to pay him to-day ? 18. I wish yoa to pay 
bim to-morrow. 19. What would you have me do (See N<k 1, of 
the abne exerciui)'! 20. I will have you pay him immediately. 
SI. Do you fear lest the master punish your son ? 22. I fear that he 
may not punish him. 23. What would you have me say? 24. I 
vrould have you say the truth. 25. Does not your father wish you 
to buy a house 1 2& He wishes me to buy a storehouse. 27. Do 
ycu wish us to leave you ? 28. I wish you to go away to*morrow 
29. Do you wish me to stay with you ? 30. I wish you to stay 
here. 31. Do you wish me to tell him that news? 32. I wish you 
to tell it to him. 33. Do you wish your children to obey their 
teacher? 34. I wish them to obey him. 



1. A verb' preceded by the conjunction que and one of the uni- 
personal verbs, il faut, it is necessary; il importe, i^ maUerSyit is 
importani ; il convient, it is proper, becoming ; il vaut mieuz, it is 
better ; il plait, i7 pleases^ suits; il se pent, il pent se faire, it may be^ 
il est juste, it is just ; il est bon, it is proper ; il est n^eesaaire, i7 is 
necessary; il est important, it is important; il est temps, it is time; 
a est indispensable, it is indispensable ; il est k propos, it is proper ; 
O est fiicheux, it is sady it is a pity; il est urgent, it is urgent^ or by 
another verb or expression implying necessity, will, or propriety, 
must be put in the subjunctive [i 127, (4.)] : — 

II faut que vous rcstiez ici. Ytm mutt remain here, 

II est juste que vous soyez ricom- // is just you be rewarded, 

2. The unipersonal verb, il est, governs the indicative present or the 
future, when it is used affirmatively, and followed by que^ coming 
ai\er one of the adjectives, siir, sure; certain, certain; vrai, true; 
demoutre, proved ; incontestable, incontestable ; Evident, evident, and 
others having a positive and affirmative sense: — 

n est nrtain qu'il vicnt ou qu'il It is certain that he comes or will umte, 

3. When however the verb, U est, used in the above eonnection ia 
3egative or interrogative, it is followed by the subjunctive :— 

D n'est nnUement certain qu'il Bis by no mta>n$ certain that kewO 


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4. Aftff* eirtaiB eonjvnotioiis, afin qiia» m cfitr AM; ^aoiqva 
cttJk<n^A, 4«. [fe»/ii22 Zu<» { 143, (2.)] the sabjonctive Ualwaytiiaed 

Qaoiqii6Toii8iSuries,qaoiqiie70fis WkMevtr ypu fltajf <29, i0*««cwr yM» 
diues. may My« 

6. Otber important rales on the i^yeniment of eonjiinetione wiD 
be fonna in aaid } 143. 


Qne fliut-D que rotre bobut tkase 1 

Fsat-il que je Ini icrivel 

II egt D^ceasaire que Tons lal 

II est temps que youb lui domiiez 

SOD argent. 
N'est-il pas ftchenx qu'il soit arriT6 

B O0t certain qn'il est arrirA. 
n n*est point certain qa'il se soit 

Bestez ici jnsqn'i-ce-qn'il arriye. 
PouTU qne toiis flnissiea a temps. 

What must jfowr stsUr iaf 
Jtisntcessaryfifryouto wrUetokmL 

It is time that ffou should give Jdm kU 

Ms U not a pity that he arrived so UtUf 

It is certain that he is arrived. 

It is not eeriain that he has hurt him- 

Remain here until he com/es. 
Provided that you finish in time. 

Exercise 143. 

Affliire, f. affair ; 8e ler-er, 1. ref. to rise; Point, m. point, degree / 

Ainsi,fAtts; Lingo, m. linen ; Pourvn qne, provided 

CHsmAst, m. creditor I Manqn-er, 1. toioant; thatf 
Be conch-er, 1. ref. /^Ntoessaire, m. n^oesso- B£gl-er, 1. to regulate; 

retire ; ries ; Satisfai-re, 4. ir. to «tfts- 

Emprnnt-er, 1. to ior-Ordre, m. order; fy; 

row; Onbli-er, 1. to forget; Tcttei «««*. 

Fonm-ir, 2. tofwrnish ; 

1. Que fiint-il que je dise 1 2. II fiiut que vous disiez ce qne vona 
ayez entendu. 3. Ne fant-il pas que je iinisse cette histoire ? 4. II 
n'est pas n^essaire que vous la finissiez. 5. N'est-il pas & propos 
que je satisfasse mes cr^anciers ? 6. 11 est k propos que vous lo fassicz. 

7. N'est-il pas juste que je vous pale ee que je vous a! empruntS t 

8. II est juste que vous me le payiez. 9. Se pent-il que votre fr^re 
ait oubli6 sa famille? 10. II ne pent pas se faire qu'il I'sut oubIi6e. 

11. Est-il certain que votre fr^re se soit oubli6 & nn tel point! 

12. 11 est certain qu'ij s'est oublic. 13. II est bien f^cheux qu'il se 
Boit oubli6 ainsi 14. Resterez-vous jusqu'5-ce-que j'aie mis ordre 2l 
mes affaires. 15. Je resterai jusqu'^-ce-que vous les ayez rdgUes. 
16. Ne faudra-t-il pas que je foumisse des provisions & cette 
famiUe? 17. D faudra que vous lui en fournissiez pourvu que vous en 
ayez. 1 8. Ne vaudra-t-il pas mieuz que vous lui pr^tiez de I'argent, que 
de le laisser manqner du n^cessaire? 19. II vandra mieuz que iK>nt 


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. «l en {v^tioBB. SO. Que faQi-il que nova fiwskmB 1 21. II tkai qn^ 
vom portiez ee linge ohez moL 23. N'estdl pas temfNi que je mm 
eoQche? 33. U est temps que voos voua couchiez. 34. Fant41 que 
je me l^ve T 36. II &ut que 7008 vooe leviez. 

Exercise 144. 

1. Wliat muBt oar iHend do? 3. He most remain at our house 
lintL I come. 8. What must our neisrhbor do t 4. He must put his 
aflbifs m order. 5. Is it not right that you should pay your eredi« 
tors? 6b It is right that I should pay them. 7. Is it time for your 
little boy to go to school ? 8. It is time for him to go to school, it is 
ten oVlock. 9. Must I write to your correspondent to-day or to- 
morrow? 10. You must write to him to-morrow morning. 11. Is 
it not a pity that your brother has torn his cap (casquette) ? 13. It is 
a pity that he has torn it. 13. Is it necessary for your mother to 
finish her letter ? 14^ It is not necessary that she finish It 16. Is it 
certain that your son has forgotten his money ? 16. It is certain that 
he has forgotten it 17. It is by no means certain that he has for- 
gotten it 18. Must you furnish money to that mechanic? 19. 1 
must furnish him some, he has none. 20. Whatever you may do 
you wjU not succeed (rSitssir). 21. Whatever your brother may 
siqr« nobody will believe him (crmre, ir.). 33. Must I write to you? 
S3. You mast write to me. 34. Do you wish me to be sick ? 36. 1 
do not Trisb you to be sicL 36. Do you require me to tell you 
that? 27. It is necessary that you tell me alL 38. Do you wish 
me to go to your house? 39. I wish you to go there. 30. Must I 
get up? 31. You must rise immediately (d Finstani). 33. Must 
your brother retire? 33. He must go to bed immediately. 84. It 
is time for him to go to bed, It is twelve o'clock. 



1. The verbs croire,to believe; dire, to say; esp^rer, toAope; gager 
and porier, to bet ; penser, to tJiijik ; sentir, to feel; voir, to see ; and 
others expressing affirmation or something certain and positive, are 
(when they are conjugated affirmatively, and have que after them) 
followed by the indicative present or Aiture [{ 137, (3.) Note] :— 
leperae, Je crois, Je dis qufl / think, I heUms, I mjf ikal kt wO 


by Google 



2. The above yeiis, when used in the same eonnectioii and eonjo 
gated negatively or interrogatively, are followed by the aabjvnetivt 

J6 ne crois pu qnHl vlenne. I da not bdieve he wiU come, 

8. A verb, preceded by another verb and by a relative pronoun, it 
put in the subjunctive, while there is an Idea of uncertainty, and In 
the indicative, when the idea is certain [{ 127, (2.) Note] : — 

J*ai un homme qui me rendra scr- / have a man who wiU oUige me, 


J'ai besoin d'un bomme qui me / toanl a ma» toko mil (moj/) obiigt 

rende service. me, 

A, A verb, preceded by a superlative relative, or by the words, U 

muly le premier^ le dernier, is put in the subjunctive [{ 127.] :-« 

YoWk le seal cbapeau que J'aie. Thai is ike otilif hot i have, 
Yoila le meiUenr homme que Je There is the best man J know. 


Je crob que le concert a eu lieu. 
Je ne pease pas que notre ami 

J'espdre que vous apprendrez cela 

par ccBUr. 
Je ne pense pas qu'fl puisse appren- 

dre tout cela par coeur. 
Je crois que oe marchand s'enrichit 

aux dftpens d*autruL 
Je ne crois pas qu'il s'enrichisse a 

Je ne crois pas que vous riussissiez 

at gagner votro vie. 
J'ai une carafe qui oontient un litre. 
Je cherche une carafe qui contienne 

un litre. 
Je vous pr6te le mellleur chapeau 

que j'aie, a condition que vous me 

le ^ndiez demain. 

I bdieve that the concert took piaee, 
1 do not think thai ow friend wiA 

I hope thai yon will Uam that hy 

I do not think that he can learn mB 

that by heart, 
I believe that this merchant grows riek 

at Ike expense of others, 
I do not believe tJuU he enriches Jlm- 

selfat your expense. 
I do not believe that you will succeed 

in earning yowr living, 
I have a decanter which holds a Utre, 
I seek a decanter which holds a litre, 

J lendyou the best hailhate, on eon- 
dition that you loill reium Utowu 
to-morrow. ' 

Exercise 145* 

8*asse-oir, 8. ir. ref to Fort, strong; Rentr^r, 1. to tome in 

sit down ; Litre, m. litre, about a again ; 

Compt-er, 1. to depend j quart; Sorte, f. kind; 

Cristal, m. crystal; N€gociant,m. merchant; SufH-re, 4. ir. to tujicet 

Deb<)Ut, standing; Pa.'::9ol, m. parasol; Tanneur. m. tanner t 

Dur-er, 1. to wear^ last; Portier, m. porter; Tard-er, 1. to tarry, 

1. Pensez-voua que ce drap dure longtemps? 2. Je croia qvll 
dwrera bien, ear il est fort 8. Croyee-vous que notre portier taida i 
lentrer t 4. Je crois qu'il ne taidera pas. 6. D6airaz-vou8 que nirai 


by Google 


vesttotts debout? 6. Je desire an eontraire, que Tons Tons «§• 
lejiez. 7. Croyez-vous qae ces etadionts puisseot appreodre cinq 
pages pur c<Bur en deax heures ? 8. Je crois que c^est impossible. 
9. Espt&rez-votts que no tie ami arrive de bonne heure ? 10. Pesp^re 
qu'il amvera bientOt 1 ]. Quelle sorte de carafe vous faut-il 1 12. h 
m*en fnu*; unequi contienne un litrn. 13. J'en ai une de cristal, qui 
•sxtient deux litres. 14. Pensez-vous que ce n^gociant s'enrichisse 
k vos depens? 15. ie sals qu'il s'entichit aux depens d'autrui. 16. 
Quel parasol pensez-vous me prater? 17. Je pense vous prater le 
meillcur que j*aie. 18. Le tanneur r6ussira-t-il ^ gagner sa vie ? 19. 
Je ne crois pas qu'il y r^ussisse. 20. Pensez-vous que eet argent 
anffise k voire p^re? 21. Je crois qu'il lui suffira. 22. Croyoz-vona 
que cea meaaieurs eomptent sur moi ? 23. Je saia quMls eomptent sur 
vous. 34. Pensez-vous que le concert ait lieu aujourdliui ? 26. Je 
crois qu'il n'aura pas lieu. 

Exercise 146. 
1. Do you believe that tlie concert has taken placet 2. I believe 
that it has taken place. 3. Do you believe that yonr siEter's dress 
will wear well ? 4. I think that it will wear well, for the silk is very 
good. 6. Do you believe that our friend will succeed in earning a 
livelihood ? 6. I believe he will succeed in it (y), for he is very dili« 
gent 7. Do you think that the tanner grows rich at my expense! 
8. I think that he enriches hiq^self at the expense of others. 9. 
Does the merr.hant grow rich at my father's expense? 10. lie 
grows rich at your expense. 11. What kind of a house must yoa 
have (cotts faut-il) ? 12. I must have a house which has ten rooms. 
13. I have a good house which has twelve rooms. 14. What kind 
of a decanter do you seek ? 15. I seek one which holds three litres. 
16. I have one which holds two litres, I will lend it to you. 17. 
What coat will you send met 18. I will send yon the best I havoy 
take care not to stain it. 19. Do you think that the student will 
learn all that by heart? 20. I do not think that he will learn it 21. 
Do you believe (that) he will comet 22. I believe that he will 
«dme ^on. 23. Do you think that your father depends upon met 
24. I kno V that he depends upon you. 25. Does not that gentle- 
man depend upon met 26. I think that he depends upon your bro- 
ther. 27. Will the porter soon come in again t 28. I hope that h« 
will not tarry long. 29. Will yon not lend me your umbrella t 30, 
I will lend it to you with pleasure. 31. Does my brother remain 
standing t 32. He does not wish to sit down. 33. Do you wish 
me to sit downt 34 T wish you to remain standing. 85. I wiah 
thai he may come. 

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TSB DCPSRrscrr and plupbrfbct of thb scjbjuncrits. 

1. The terminations of the imperfect of the subjunctive mre in til 
the verbs, regular and irregular, of the four conjugations, sse, net, U 
isions, ssieZy ssenL 

3. The vowel preceding the i of the third per8<^n singular always 
takes the circumflex accent. 

3. Conjugation of the Imperfsot of the Subjunctxys of 
THE Keoular Verbs, 

Que Jd chant -esse fin -isse re^ -usse rend -isse 

Tkat Imigkt nng nt^fht Mmitk might mrive m^gU tmim 

Que tu pari -asses ch6r -isses apcr^ -usses vend -iases 

Thai tkiv^ migktut tfeak mtigkte$t ekeriMk myrktest peneiM migkUgt nU 

Qu'il donn -&t foum -it per9 -ut tend -it 

TiMtlumigktgiv might /kmUh might gather might tmtd 

Que nous cherch -assions pun -issions 0009 -ussions entend -issiona 

That io€ might teek mifht punish might conceive might hear 

Que vous port -assiez sais -issies d -ussies perd -issies 

That yra might cearrjf might seize m^ht ewe wUghl leee 

Quells aim -assent un -issent d69 -ussent mord -issent 

T%at a«y might lave migkt tmate might deceive might Hta 

4. This tense may be formed from the past definite [L 61.] by 

changing, for the first conjugation, the final t of the first person 8in« 

gular of the past definite into sse, jses, etc., and by adding se, fes,ete. 

to the same person in the other three conjugations. This rule hat 

no exceptions. 

J'allal, failasse ; je finis, je finisse. I went, I might go ; I finished, I mighi 


6. All the observations made Lesson 62, on the changes of the 
stem of the irregular verbs, in the past definite, apply equally to the 
baperfect of the subjunctive. 

6. The pluperfect of the subjunctive is formed from the imperfect 
of the same mode of one of the auxUiaries avoir, itre, and the past 
participle of the verb. 

Qu3 J'eusse flni ; que Je fuase venu. That I mighi have finished, Ihat I 

might have cmne. 

7. All the rules given on the use of the subjunctive in the three 
preeeding lessons, apply, of course, to the imperfect and pluperfect of 
the mode. 

8. In the same manner as the present or future of the indicativ^e 
of the first part of a proposition, governs under the aborrv-mention<Ht 
rules, the verb of the second part, in the present or past of the su^ 


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M ill* impeifeet and other pMt tensM of the indieativo 
■nd the two cooditionaUi, govern the verb in the second part of the 
propoaitioD, in the imperfect or pluperfect of the aubjunetive. 

Ne fklMt-il pas que Je lui parlane? Was U not necessary that I should 

11 Aiudrait que Je lui doniiaase oe li- iZ VMmU be necessary forwu ta gim 
TTB. him thai book. 

RteCM£ 07 Examples. 

Voudriea-rona que Je donnaase un 

coup de biton k cet enfant ? 
Je Toudraia que toub tirassiez ud 

coup de fttsu Biir cet oiaeau. 
Exigericz-Tous que nous revinBsi- 

OD8 de bonne heure 1 
Que Tondriez-vooa queees hommes 

Assent 1 
Qne youliez-Tons que Je fisse 1 
II fkudrait que J'euasc mon argent 

Je ne roulais pas que vous mourua- 

siez de froid. 
SDe craignait que tous ne mourus- 

aiea de misdre etde faim. 
Voudriez-Tous que Je jetasse un 

coup-d'ceil sur ces papiers 1 

Would you wish me to give thai chUd 

a blow foilh a sHck? 
I would wish you tojire your gu^ 

upon that bird. 
Would you require us to return early ? 

Whai would you wish thou wun to 

What did you wish me to do? 
It would be necessary for me to ham 

my money, 
I did not wish you to die with the cold. 

She ftartd lest you might die will 

waTU and hunger. 
Would you wish me to east a glance 

upon these papers ? 



Banib, f. heaUhs 

1, to re 

Exercise 14*7. 

Ivrogne, m. drunkard 
Mer, f sea ; 
Li^vre, m. hare ; 
Perdrix, f. partridge; 
Postc, m. post ; 

Se rend-ro, 4. ref to re- Tir-er, 1. toJlre, shoot, 

fiicasse, f woodcock; 
Bord, m. shore ; 
Ghaig-er, 1. to load; 
Coup, nk. blow; 
Coup-de-fusil, m. shot ; 
Coup-d'CBil, m. glance; 
Demi-usa, half-worn; 
Fouet) UL whip ; 

1. Vottdriez-vons que j'achetaase un habit k demi-ua^? 2. Je von* 
dniis que voua en achetaaaiez un ueuf. 3. Voulait-on que ee aoldat 
malade ae rendit k son poste? 4. On voulait qn'il ae rendu k aon 
r&giment 6. Fandrait-il que je demeurasae an bord de Isl mer ^ 6. U 
fkudrait pour le rc'tablissement de voire sant^, que vous vous ren- 
dissiez en Suisse 1 7. Ne pensez-vous pas que cet enfant ressemble k 
sa m^re 7 8. Je ne pense pas qu'il lui ressemble. 9. A qui ressemble- 
t-il! 10. D ressemble & sa sceur ainee. 11. Consentiriez-vous que 
Totre fille 6pous&t cet ivrogne. 12. Voudriez-vons que nous mou 
nuaions de misere? 13. Je cmtgnaia que cea damaa ne moumssent 
[f 197, (3.) L. 72. 9.] de froid. 14. Ne vonlez vook paa ttrer an ea 
Mvtal 16. Je timaia aor eetta bteaMO aa mon Aisfl 4tait chaig4 


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16. Oombien de coups de fasil ▼oiidriez-voas que je Unmel 17. 81 
▼0118 aviez de la poudre, je voudrais que vous tirasslez eur cette per* 
drix. 18. Voalez-vouft que je jette un coup d^ceil eur cette lottrel 

19. Je voudraie que vous la lussiez. 20. Que vouiriez-vous que je 
fisse? 21. Je voudrais que vous fissiez attention k vos etudes. 22. 
Faudrait-il que je sortisse ? 23. II faudrait que vous restassicz h la 
maison. 24. Que voudriez-vous que je fisse k ce chevail 25. Je 
voudrais que vous lui donnassiez des coups de fouet 

ExsRciss 148. 

1. What would you have me dot 2. I would have you east a 
glance upon this letter. 3. Would you wish me to give that dog 
blows with a stick ? 4. I would wish you to give that horse blows 
with tt whip. 6. Would you require us to return at five o'clock! 
6. I would require you to return early. 7. Do you think that your 
brother resembles your father 1 8. I do not think he resembles my 
father. 9. Whom do you think that he resembles? 10. I think he 
resembles my mother. 11. How many shots have you fired? 12. I 
have fired five shots at that woodcock. 13. Would you not have me 
fire at that partridge ? 14. 1 would have yon fire at that partridge, if 
your gun was loaded. 16. Where would it be necessary for me to 
dwell ? 16. It would be necessary for you to dwell on the sea^shore. 

17. Would you hav« me die with hunger? 18. 1 would not have you 
die of hunger. 19. Would you have your brother die with cold? 

20. I would not have him die with cold or want 21. What would 
you have your son do ? 22. 1 would have him learn his lessons. 23. 
Would you have him learn German ? 24. I would have him learn 
German and Spanish. 25. Have you fired at (sur) that hare ? 26. I 
have not fired at that hare. 27. Would it be necessary for me to go 
out? 28. It would be necessary for you to go out 29. Would it be 
neeessary for me t4> remain here? 30. It would be necessary for you 
to go to church. 31. What did you wish ? 32. 1 wished you to write 
to me. 33. Did you wish me to buy a coat half worn out? 34. I 
wished you to buy a good hat 



1. Many verba come together in French without prepo«tioa». 
wfaieli are in English joined by them. Many .others are connected in 
fVeneli by prepoaitiona different from those eonnecting the ooitm* 


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ponding verb« in English. No satisfactoiy getieral nilea can be 
giT« I on this point. We have ^iven in the Secomi Part of thia gram- 
mar [} 1 30, 1 31, 132.] copious lists of the verbs in general use, with the 
prepositions which follow them, when they come before otiier verbs. 
We have also hitherto noted the prepositions usually placed after the 
verbs introduced in our lessons. 

2. The student will recollect, that a verb following another verb 
(not avoir or ilre) or a preposition (not en) must be in the infinitive. 

3. The following verbs, extracted from the list, {130, although 
they, in English, take a preposition before another verb, do not take 
one in French :— 

AHer, 1. ir. to go 
Compter, 1. to intend 
Courir, 2. ir. to rvn 
l>ai^er, l.todet^ 
Bi^irer, 1. to destre 
Devoir, 8- to owe 
Snvoyer, lAr.tosend 
Espdrer, 1. to hope 

Falloir, $.\r, to be ne- Savoir, 3. ir. to know 

cessary Souhaiter, 1. to wish 

Mener, 1. to Uad, take Valmr Dueux 8. ir. t» he 

Penser. 1. to think beUer- 

Pouvour, 3. ir. to beaUe Yenir, 2. ir. to come 

Pr6teDdre, 4. to pretend Youloir, 8. ir. to vritk^ 

Pr^ferer, 1. to prefer wilL 

titsvuA 07 Examples. 

Gomptez-vous diner avec nous 1 . 

Je vais diner chec mon p&re. 

Ne voul€»-vous pas donner k man- 
ger iIl ce chien 1 

IMsurez voos monter dans ma cham- 

Je pr6ftre desccndre chez votre p&re. 

]>emenre't-iJ en hant on en baa'} 

Pr6ftrez-vou8 demeurer an rez-de- 

Je d6sire demeurer an premier etage. 

Nous piiiSrons louer )e second 6ta§e. 

Nous c8p6rons louer une chambre 
au second. 

Do you intend to dine wilhus? 
I am going to dine at my father' m, 
mU you not feed that dog? 

Do you wish to go up to my room? 

I prefer to go down to yowrfaiher*$. 
Does he live above or bdow? * 

Do you prefer to live on the ground 

Iieish to live in thefSrst story. 
We prefer to take the second story. 
We hope to rent a room in the second 


Exercise 149. 

Cabinet, m. closet ; Bn baut, up stairs^ above; Salle, f parlor ; 

Compter,!, to cipher I Faisan, m. fAeosan^ / Touch-er, 1. to touchy 
Demain, to-morrow; Jou-er, 1. to play; play; 

XX^Jodn-er, 1. to break- Lon-er, 1. to rent, to 2?/ ; Troisidine, third story; 

fast; Vinc-er^l.toplay; Violon, m. 0iof»9». 

Bn has, down stairs, ^Plaisir, m. favor f pUo' 

lou ; sure ; 

1. Combien de ehambrcs comptez-vous louer? 2. Nous eomp^ 
tons loner anesalle au rez-de-chaoss^e et deux cabinets aa troisidiiie. 
8. Ne pr4f&rez-voQ8 pas loner une chambre-dMsoneher an seeond? 4r 
Nona pr6l&rons demenrer an rez-de-cb^oss^e. 6. Ne ponves-voua 


by Google 

MB i.»#]0Oji iizzvi:. 

mater 4 diner aveo notia aujourd'hai ? 6. Je vouaremeieie, je pift* 
f(^ Tenir demain. 7. M. voire p^re Tiendra^t-il demaio d^jeOnei 
fivfo noas? 8. 11 eompte venir demain, de bonne heure. 9. Que 
Toulez-Tous lour dire? 10. Je veux lee prier de me faire oe plaibir. 
11. Comptez-voua faire ce plaisir k mon fr^re? 12. respire le lai 
faire. 13. Preferez-voue demeurer en haul on en baa 1 14. None 
pr^ferona demenrer en baa. 16. Que pensez-vona iaire de ce jeuie 
laiaan? 16. Nona penaons TeDvoyer 4 M. votre beaa-fr^» 17. 
Ne aavez-YOua paa joaer dn violon? 18. Je aaia en jouer. 19. 
W^ votre conaine aait^lle toucher le piano? 20. EUe aait toucher 
le piano etpihcer la harpe. 21. Ne aavez-voua paa 6crire? 22. Noni 
aavons lire, 6crire, et compter. 23. Savez-voua jouer de la goitarel 
24. Nous ne aavona paa en jouer. 25. Nona aouhaitona trouver un 
fq^partement au rez de chauaa^e. 


1. Doea your brother-in-law intend to rent the ground floor? 2 
He intenda to rent two rooms in the aecond story. 8. How many 
rooms doea your son intend to take? 4. He intends to take two 
rooms in the aecond atory. 5. Does he prefer to live on the aecond 
floor? 6. He prefers to live on the ground floor. 7. Doea your 
father wish to come to dinner with ua to-morrow? 8. He intenda 
to come to-morrow at two o'clock. 9. Do you prefer to live up 
ataira or down stairs ? 10. I prefer to live above. 11. Does your 
aiater know how to play on the piano ? 12. She knowa how to play 
on the piano. 13. Where do you intend to live (demeurer) ? 14. 
We intend to live at your father'a. 15. Will you go up to my 
room? 16. I will go down to your father's. 17. Do you wish to 
live on the ground floor? 18. I wish to live on the second floor. 
19. Is it necessary to stay here? 20. It is not necessary to stay 
here. 21. What do you think of doing with (de) your book? 22. 
I think of giving it to my son. 23. What do you wish me to say to 
that gentleman? 24. I wish to beg him to do me a fkvor. 25. Do 
you wish to send that pheasant to your mother? 26. I wish to send 
it to her, ahe is sick. 27. Cannot your sister play on the violin? 

28. She cannot play on the violin, but she can play on the guitar. 

29. Does your ^i8t6r wish to live up stairs ? 30. She prefers living 
down stairs. 31 Will you not do me that favor? 32. I will do it 
with {Measure. 3d Cannot your brother stay and dine with ua to* 
day? 34^ He haa , -omiaed my father to come and dine with hia^ 
8&. Our tn^nd knowa now to read, write, and cipher. * 


by Google 

lilllOV t^XfhU 




1. Many verbs, in Freneh, are joined with other Terbe follow: n;, 

ay means of the preposition de, cf^ where the eorrespondinif nrbe 

n English either take no prepoaitiony or one other than of. Besidei 

avoir besoin^ dec. [L. 21. R. 4.], the foUowin|r verbe extracted firoa 

list, i 132, belong to this class : — 

Dispenser, to dispense N^llger, ta n^ket 

Smp6cher, topreveTU Prier, to beg 

Kviter, to avoid Promettre, toffromim 
8e flatter, toJUUter ^on^s Proposer, to propose 

self Refhser, to refuie 

Jnrer, to swear Supplier, to entreai 

Manqner, tofi^ Trembler, to tremUe 
Menacer, to threaten 

Achever, tojktisk 
BriUer, to bwm, to long 
Cesser, to cease 
Comnuuider, to eon- 

CoDseiller, to advise 
D6fendre, to forbid 
Dire, losof 

RfisuM£ OF Examples. 

Ponrqaoi n'schevez-yona pas d'ap- 

prendre oe m6tiert 
NoQs brdloDs de continner nos 6ta- 

D ne cease de nons tonrmenter. 
Me d6fendea-Totis de ikire du bien 

k cet homme 1 
Ne nfigliges pas de Ini faire nne 

Me promettez-Yons de fkire nne 

Tifflte k mon ami 1 
Je Tons prie d'aller tont droit ches 

Te vons conseille de venir par le 

Ne manques pas de hd fkire mes 

L'avcz-vous menac6 de le fhipper 1 
J'ai refns6 de lui ftlre cr6dit. 
Me proposes-Toiis de Ini confler cet 

argent 1 
Je Tous conseille de le Ini confler. 
J'6vite de lui repi'ocher ses fkntes. 

Why do fon not JSnitk homing tkett 

We bum to contmme our tktdies. 

Bs does not cease tormenHng us. 
Do you forbid my doing good to tkM 

Do not neglect paying Mm a mttL 

Do you promise me to pay a visit to 

my friend? 
I beg you wiU go straigbt home. 

I advise you to come by tke railroad. 

Do not fail to present mf eompU- 

mentsto Mm, 
Have you threatened to strike kim? 
1 refused to give him credit. 
Do you propose to me to trfut him 

toUh this money ? 
letdvise you to trust him withU. 
I avoid to reproach him unth hii 



Arros-er, 1. to water ; Qard-er, 1. to keep ; Tont droit, straight ; 

AiT08oir,m.«o^mi»^-^; Jardinier, m. gardener f Bend-re, ^.todOfto rm^ 

An eontndre, on the Lendemain, m. next ders 

contrary ; day ; Veille, f. eve, day before / 

Corrig-er, 1. to correct ; Onbll-er, 1. to/orget ; Voie, f. cowveyance^ way, 

Faire parti to cMuntmi- 8e rend-re, 4. red to w mode a 

eoU; tnairs 



by Google 

410 ^MBB01f LXxriL 

1. Pourquoi ne eessez-vooB pas de lire ? 2. JTaarais tort de < 
do lire avant de fiavoir ma lc9on. 3. Avez-vous defendu k votra 
jardinier d'arroser ces fleura? 4. Au contraire, }e lui avals com- 
mande de ies arroscr. 5. Pourquoi a-t-il neglige de h faire? 6. 
PareequMl a oublie d'apporter Tarrosoir. 7. Que desire faire M. F. ! 
8. II iNriile de contlnuer Tetude de la m^decine. 9. N*avoz-Tous paa 
tort de faire des visiles A ce monsieur ? 10. Paurais tort de *e n^ 
gliger. 11. N'avez-vous pas refus^ de rendre ce service k voirt eo- 
nemi ? 12. J'aurais eu tort de refuser de le lui rendre. 13. QueUe 
voio nous avez-vous conseill^ de prendre? 14. Je vous ai conseiU6 
de prendre la voie du b&teau-Si-vapeur. 15. Avez-vous menac^ de 
frappor cet enfant? 16. Je Tai menace de le corriger. 17. Avez* 
vous reAis^ de vendre des marchandises 4 mon fr^re ? 18. Tai re- 
fuse de lui en vendre ^ credit. 19. Avez-vous dit k mon fils de ae 
rendre k la maison? 20. Je Tai pri^ d'y aller tout droit 21. Vous 
proposez-vous de venir la veille de Noel ? 22. Nous nous4>roposons 
de venir le lendemain. 23. Votre compagnon se propose-t-il de 
garder le secret ? 24. D se propose de faire part de cela i tout la 


1. Have you forbidden my cousin to speak to the gardener ! 2. 1 
have not forbidden him to speak to him. 8. Has your mother ordered 
the gardener to water her roses (roses) ? 4. She has ordered him to 
water them. 5. Has he forgotten to do it? 6. He has neglected to 
do it, he has not forgotten it 7. What conveyance will you take to 
go to Paris ? 8. I advise you to take the railroad. 9. Have yoa 
told (d) your son to take the steamboat? 10. No, Sir, I liave told 
him to take the stage (diligencef f.). 1 1. Is not your brother wrong 
to neglect paying a visit to his brother-in-law? 12. He is wrong to 
neglect it 13. Does not that young German long to read that letter 1 
14. He longs to continue his studies. 15. Do you propose to trust 
him with that money? 16. I propose to trust him with it 17. Do 
you neglect to reproach him with his faults ? 18. I avoid to reproach 
him with them. 19. Have you threatened to punish your son. 20. 
I have threatened to strike him. 21. Do not fail to present my com- 
pliments to my sister*s friends. 22. I will not fail (je rCy manquerai 
pas), 23. Have you refused to sell him goods? 24. I have refused 
to sell him goods on credit 25. Which mode of travelling do yoa 
advise me to take ? 26. I advise you to take the railroad. 27. Do 
you forbid him to come? 28. I have forbidden bis writing. 2d. 
Have yoa failed to pay yoor gardener 7 80. I have not faUed to pay 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

Litton Lxxrith <ll 

mo. 81. I have f jigotten to pay yon. 89. Do not negloct to write 
%o me. 33. Tell him to go to my father. 34. Do not eeasA to work. 
^. Tell him to come Christmas Eve. 86. I have told him to eom« 
'iie dav after. 

LESSON Lxxvm. usgoN Lxxvm. 


1. Many French verbs reaeh their object by means of preposition^ 
while the corresponding £ng1ii»h verbs govern their object directly, 
that is, without intervening prepositions. Otlier French verbs reach 
their object through prepositions dilTerent from thoM used in English. 
We give here a few verbs coming under those two classes, common* 
eing with the first : — 

2. Verbs which have a preposition before a noun, in French, bat 
have none in English : — 

Abnscr de, to abuse Joair de, to enjop Plaire il, to please 

B'approcher de, to op- Manquer 4, to offend^ to Be souvenir de, to re» 

pnacA fail memJber 

Coiiveiiir Ji, to suit M^dire de, to dander 8e servir de, to use 

Deplftin; &, to displease So ro^fler de, to mistrust Resscmbier a, to resem* 

IMsob^ir a, to disobey Obiir &, to obey Ue 

Douter de, to doubt Pardonner a, to forgive Survivre &, to rttrvive 
fichappcr a, to escape 

3. Verbs reaching their object through different prepositions In tha 
two languages. 

B^Migerde, to grieve for Louer de, to praise for Bcmercler do, to t^mUt 
F6liciier de, to congral- Profiter de, to profit by for 

uUUe Penscr a, to think of Rirc de, to lau^h at 

QdrnxT de, to grieve for Se passer de, to do vnlhr Rougir de, In blush si 
S'iDformer do^ to inquire out Son^r a, to think of 


R£sum£ of Examples. 

Have you not abused ourpaiunee^ 

Iravc35-T0us pas abus6 de notre pa- 
tience 1 

Nous en ovons abns6. 

Vous avu7. d6.sob6i a ros psrents. 

Vous pardonnerex a vos cnncmis. 

Voiis {Kiuscruz constamment a vos 

Vons y penserez constamment 

Ke riez-vous pas de nos erreurs 1 

Nous n'en rions point. 

Ve reMemble-t-il pas k son pteel 

H'c hare abused it. 
You have disttbeyed yotir parents. 
You will forgive your encmieu 
You loill tkink conslanUy of ym 

You will think of them eonstmnUf. 
Do not laugh at our mistakes, 
Wedonot laugh at them, 


by Google 

tit tlBSQV LXXYtll. 

EzxBCisl 153. 

ArnuigeQioDt, m. ar>C<Bnr, m. Acsri; No— pliiA fi9 iMry 

rangemtiUf DeYoir, m. dulf f Noaifelle, f. im^ii 

GirconstADce, f. drcum^Fwitid, tfavU; Peintre, m.paifUe'* 

stand f B'infon&er, 1. rat <0 fn- Prochain, m. neigkk^r / 

Condnite, f. eandua 9 quire ; SeUier, m. 9addkn 

CompUdsanoe, f. AiiMl- Blalheiir, m. mbfor'%QodbA,m,moom. 
nessf tenc; 

1. Get anangeTnent Tona conTienUl ! S. H ne me eonvient paai 
mais il eonvioiit §L notre parent 8. Celaned6plait-il paaau peintre t 
4. Votre eondoite lui d^plait beaneoup, 6. Ne craignez-Tona paa 
d'abnser de la patienne de votre ami 1 6. Jo craina d*en abaaer. 7. 
Ne penaez-voua jamaia k vos devoira? 8. Ty pense tons Jea joora. 
9. Avez-vou9 penad k votre Mre aujourdliui ? 10. J*ai pens^ k lui, 
el je me aaia souvena de aea bont6a. 11. A-t-il en aoln de aon p^re, 
et lui a-t-il ob^iT 12. II lui ob6it conatamment. 13. Ne lui a-t-il 
Jamaia d^sob^i? 14. H lui a d^aob^i pluaieura fota, maia il g6mit de 
aa faute. 15. Ne lea remerciez-vons paa de leur complaifiance? 16. 
Je lea en remercie de tout mon coeur. 17. Le sellier voua a-Uil 
felicity de voire auoc^at 18. II m^en a f)&licit& 19. N^avez-voua 
pas ri de notre malheur? 20. Nous n'en avona paa ri, nous ne riona 
jamais des malheura d*autruL 21. Ne vons sonvenez-vous pas dea 
nouvellea que je voua ai apprisea % 22. Je ne m*en souviens plus, 
23. Votre p^re ne vous a-t-il pas d6fendu de m^dire de votre pnK 
chain ? 24. II me Fa defendu. 25. Nona nous aommea inform^a de 
toutea lea circonstancea de cette affaire. 

ExBRCisx 154. 

1. Have jToa not abused jour fnend*8 kindness t 2. I have not 
abused his kindness, I have abased his patience. 8. Does not your 
condact displease your parents t 4. My conduct does not please 
them. 5. Why have you not obeyed your father? 6. I have obeyed 
him (lut). 7. Have you not laughed at my mistakes 1 8. I have 
not laughed at your mistakes. 9. Has the young man laughed at 
the painter's mistakes? 10. He has not laughed at his mistakes. 
1 1. Has your saddler laughed at your cousin's misfortunes ? 12. He 
has not laughed at his misfortuiies. 13. Do you ever laugh at the 
misfortunes of others ? 14. We never laiigh at oui neighbor's mis- 
fortunes. 15. Do you remember the lesson which you learnt yes* 
terday ? 18. I do not remember it (jen), 17. Does that young lady 
reremUe her mother? 18. She does not resemble hr mothac 


by Google 

&S8«01I LXYIX. fit 

19. Kiv« yon thanked ycnr friend for his kindnMs? 90. I hsvt 
thanked Ulm for it 21. Has your mother forbidden you to read 
that book? 32. She has forbidden it (mc To). 28. Why do you 
not forgive your enemies t 24. I forgive them with all ihy heart 
26. Do yon not think of your duties? 26. I think of them (y) every 
day. 27. Have you congratulated your friend? 28. I havecongrato* 
lated him on his success. 29. Have you not slandered those gen 
tlemen? 80. I never slander my neighbor. 31. Does that house 
suit you ? 82. It suits me, but it does not suit my father. 33. 
Doea that house suit the painter ? 34. It suits him very well, but it 
is too small for me. 85. My father has forbidden my speaking to 
that gentleman. 


BxoiMBN or Asjsonyss. ({ 87.) 

1. The regimen or complement of an adjective is generally a 
noun or a verb completing its signification. This regimen is usually 
connected with the adjective, by means of a preposition. 

2. lliat preposition is often different in French from that connecting 
the corresponding English adjective with its regimen [J 87,(1.) (3.)]. 

8. When an adjective follows the verb itre^ used unipersonally, 

the preposition de connects that adjective with its regimen [{ 87, 


n est n6oe8ish« de travafller pour Jt is necessary tc labor in order Is 
vivre. Uoe. • 

4. The following adjectives, extracted from lists, { 88, 89, 00, reach 
their regimen through prepositions, different in French and Eng 

Amoureux de, if» love M6oontent de, displeased Propre k^JU for 

wUk toUh ReboUe k, rebeUious tow* 

ChAri de, belooed by Reconnaissant d»y grate- ards 
Content de, pleased wilk ful for Bon pour, kvnd towarde 

I>6tol« de, grieved for BempU de, fiUed toith Insolent aveo, insolefU 
FachA de, sorry for Bon &, good for tmoards 

Inquietde, wieasy about Cruel k, eruel toufords Poll ennrers, peUte to 
Vm^^intoxieaied with Exact k, exact m 


N'Mee-voos pas content de vos pr> 

^en suls fort content 
totre domestique est-ll exact h 


Are you not pleased imtk ymm pro* 

I am very metek pUa$ed wUk U, 
Js yonr serwwl exact in fMObag 






Ana^TOTU rempll de Tin oette boa- 


Avcz-voii« rempli d'argent votre 

Jo Tea ai rempUe. 

I] e)»t trds fucile de bUmcr les ac- 
tions d'autrut. 

11 <*sl glorieux de mourir pour sa 

II est plus arable de voyager en 
6t6 qa'en hiver. 

Hare ifon JUled your purse irilM 

moneif 7 
i have JUIedil Kith it. 
It is very easy to blame t}e aclitnu 

cf others. 
II %s gioruna to die far ime*s countt f . 

// is more agreeable to travel in 
mer than in winter. 


Abatt-re, 4. ir. to cit/ Bois-&-briller, m. ^rv-Nettoy-er, 1. to cfean; 

dawn; wood; Vew^\e, m. people ; 

Achat, m. purchase ; Chagrin6, c, vexed; Ponimier, m. apple-lreg; 
Arraeh-er, 1. to imtf Encre, f. nU' ; Trunhr, m. plum4reei 

up ; Fendre, 4. to deave^ split; Roi, ra. inng ; 

' ' --..-. Sci-er 1. tosow; 

Tonneau. cask. 

Aubergisto, m. iiniifcttjp- Ololre, f.^lary; 
er; Libert*, f. liberty; 

1. Ce h^roa n'6tait-il pas amoureux de la liberty et de la gloire ? 
2. II en 6tait amoureux. 3. Ce roi n'etait-il pas cheri de son 
peuple 7 4. II en 6tait ch^ri. 6. Ces negociants ne sont-ils pas 
contents de leur achat t 6. lis n'en sont pas contents. 7. N'^tea- 
vous pas chagrin^ de ne pouvoir nous accompagner t ^ 8. J'en suis 
dosole. 9. Savez-vous de quoi Taubergiste a rempli ce tonneau 1 
10. II I'a rempli de vin. 11. De quoi ferez-vous remplir cette 
bouteille, qnand vous Taurez fait nettoyer? 12. Elle est dejai 
remph'e d^encre. 13. N'^tes-vous pas bicn t^\\k d'avoir fait abattre 
vospomroiers? 14. J^en suis blen content^car ils n'etaient bons & 
rien. 15. N'e«t-il pas n^essaire de faire arracher ces pruniers* 
16. II n*est pas ncccssaire de les faire arracher. 17. Est-il possible 
de fcndre ce morccau de bois? 18. II est possible de le fendre. 
19. Etes-vous exact k nettoyer vos habits ? 20. J'y suis tr^s exact 
21. De quoi avez-vous rempli votre bourse? 22. Je Tai rcmplie 
d'argent. 23. Est-il ndcessaire de faire scier votre bois-&-br(iler 1 
24, U est n^essaire dele faire scier. 25. N*6tes-vou9 pas reconnaissant 
dea services qu'on vous rend ? 26. Ten suis tr6s rcconnaissant. 

Exercise 156. 

1. Are you not grieved with having lost your money ? 2. I am 
vexed that I have lost my purso. 3. With what will you fill lUat 
bottle ? 4. I will have it filled with ink. 5. Is it not necessary to 
have our wood sawed? 6. It is necessary to have our fire- wood 
nwwL 7. YoorfudraktoonudltUitnotiiiMMMUCjtobaveMiae 

' ^ Digitized by Google 

LXB80V LXXZ. 311^ 

ftmii-tiees palled ontl 8. It is necessary to have some plum-tree* 

cut down. 9. Have you filled your friend's purse with silver? 10. I 
have filled it with gold. 11. Arc all your bottles filled with vino! 
l± Tii^y arc all filled with ink. 13. Are you sorry to have filled 
your bottles with ink 1 14. I am glad to have filled them witli ink, 
for [ want ink. 15. Are you pleased with this book? 16. I am 
pleased with it 17. Is that land good for any thing ? 18. It is good 
for nothing. 19. Is that lady beloved by her children? 20. She is 
beloved by her fneuds and by her children. 21. Are you grateful 
for those services ? 22. I am grateful for them. 23. Is It not possi- 
ble to split that piece of wood? 24. It is not possible to split it. 
25. Is it agreeable to travel in winter ? 26. It is not so agreeable to 
travel in winter as in summer. 27. It is easy to blame others. 
88. Is it not glorious to die for one's country ? 29. It is glorious to 
live and to die for one's country. 30. Have you filled the inkstand 
(encrier) with it ? 31. I have filled it with it. 32. Would it not bo 
oecessary to pull up ail those trees ? 33. It would not be necessary 
to pull them all up, for my garden is very large. 84. Heniy tba 
fourth {quatre) was beloved by his people. 

-, — ^ •»■ 



1. Some prepositions govern the nouns which follow them, without 
the aid of other prepositions. Avant, before {at an earlier period)^ 
[j 142, (1.)] devant, before (opposite place\ [} 142, (1.)] derri^re, 
hehijid; chez, at the house of; concemant, touching; except^, except; 
outre, besides; selon, according to; voici, here is; volU, there t«, cte 
[5 139, (1.)]. 

2. Others, being rather prepositional phrases, govern their objeci 
by means of the preposition de : — liors de, out of; loin ^^^ far from , 
& fir.ur de, e\:en with ; & force de, by dint of; k I'egard de, with regard 
to; k Pinsu de, without the knowledge rf^ unknown to ; k raison de, at 
(he rate cf; an de^a de, this way of; an deli de, that way of [} 139, 

3. Others take k — quant i, as far ; jusqu'k, as far as, etc. [} 1 39, 3.]. 

4. Two or more verbs, adjectives, or prepositions may in French 
flftve a regimen in common, provided they gorem in the same masam 
•r case [} 92, (1.) (2.) \ 140^ and { 133.] :— 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 


LC886ir LXXX. 

We loot and fndm 0itr ddldmL 

That garden is vsefid and agrteeik 

to imrfalker, 
WUkin or without the kingdom. 

VcroM aimoiif et nous loaona not 

Ce Jardin est utile et agrtoble k 

Dotre p6re. 
Au deduis oil an dehors da roy- 


6. When, however, two or more verbs, adjeetives or prepositions 
coming together in the same sentence, do not govern their regimen 
n the same manner, thej cannot have a regimen in common. The 
regimen must be repeated, or replaced by a pronoun, or another turn 
must be given to the sentence. The following sentences could not. 
therefore, be translated literally into French : — 

That man is useful to and loved by kis family-^I write to and recfivi 
letters from my brothers— TT? be exposed to or sheltered from the rain. We 
must say: — 

Oet homme est utile k sa famiUe, 

et 11 en est atm6. 
J'Acris des lettres k men frftre, et 

J'enre^ois delui. 
Eire ezposA 4 U pluie, on en Atra 


T^at man is usrful to his famHii^ and 

he is beloved by them. 
I write letters to my brother ^ and re- 

ceive same from him. 
To be exposed to the rain^ or to be 

sheltered from u. 

Utile and aim6, 6crire and recevour, ezpos^ and k rabri, take di& 
ferent regimens. 

Nous sommes arrives avant la ba- 

Vous vous asseyes to^Jours devant 

lies avez-vous plftc6s sur la table 1 
Je les a! plac6s dessous. 
Je les ai mis sous la chaise ou des- 

Us demeurent derridre notre mai- 

J'ai louA une chambre de derri^re. 
Nous occupoDs le devant de la mai- 

Je les ai rencontrfo derriftre votre 

Vous avea achet6 oette terre k 

Vinsu de votre pdre. 
J'ai pay6 ce Jardhiier k raison de 

d'^^K fVanos par Jour. 


We arrived before the batUe, 
Yon always sit before me. 

Have you placed them upon the toNef 
I have placed them wnder. 
Jhuveput them under the chair or 

upon it. 
7%ey lived behind our house. 

J have rented a back room. 

We occupy the front of the house. 

I met them behind your garden. 

You have bought that estate withoH 
the knowk^e of your father, 

I paid the gardener at the rate efbma 
francs per day. 

ExBRClSX 157. 

Assiette, f. fOote ; Dehors, MOitd^e, wifibM^; Dessous, under^ widfr 

0o4t«r, \. to cost; Deniteo, del back g Ut 

JMssm^ tntidtt wiihim Devant, m.>ViMU/ Vmm, ahove, ufon U $ 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

i»it«oii hzzh tlT 

■^nrWMr. 1 * h $m $ Bon. ^tUf ^mtmt dt Un% t §^ 

rich ; Plat, m. disk ; iato; 

Hectolitre, m 100 2i/ref ; Snr, iipm, «ImiI. 

1. N^avez-voas pM feno6 la porte de dcTantt 2. Nona TaTODa 
ferm^c, maia Doaa n'lvona pas feim^ la porte de derri&re. 3. Qui 
eat arrivS avant moi ? 4. Le monsieur qui est assis decant la fen^tre. 
6. Qui demeure derri^re votre maison ? 6. II n'y a point de maison 
derri^re la nAtre. 7. Ne p^sez-vous pas qu*k force de travailler, il 
■*enrichirat 8. Je ne crois pas quUl s'ennchi&se, s*il vend sea mar- 
chandises ^ ai bon marche. 9. Apprend-il la musique ^ Tinsu de sea 
parents? 10. II Tapprend k leur insu. 11. Vous ^tes vous mari^ 
k rinsu de votre soeur? 12. Jo me suis marie ^ son insu. 13. 
Notre ami n*est pas dans la maison, il est dehors. 14. U n*est paa 
hors de la ville,il est dedans. 15. Avez-vous de I'argent sur vousl^ 
16. Je n'ai pas d'argent sur moi. 17. Demearez«voua aur le der- 
H^ on sur le devant de la maison % 18. Nous demeurons aor le do* 
vant 19. La cuisini^re a-t-elle mis lea aasiettes sur la table oa 
dessous I 20. Elles a mis les aasiettes, les plats, les cnill^res et lea 
fouwhetiea sut la table. 21. Combien cea pommes-de-terre Toua 
eo&tent-ellea 1 22. Je ?es ai achet^s ^ raison deeinq franea ThectA- 
litre. 23. Ayez Tooa &it r^parer le dedans oa le iahora de la mai* 
eon 1 24. Tai fait reparer Tinterieur et rext^rieur. 

ExxRCiBx 158. 

I. Have j%vi bought that house without your father'a knowledge 1 
S. I have bought it without his knowledge. 3. Have you forgotten 
to shut the front door 1 4. I have shut the front door and the back 
door. 6. I have brought all my books except two or three. 6. Doea 
your brother occupy the front of your house ? 7. He occupies the 
back. 8. Whom have you met behind that house ? 9. 1 met nobody 
behind the house. 10. DoesUhat gentleman live behind your house! 
11. Nobody lives behind our house. 12. There is no house behmd 
yoon. 13. Hare you a knife about you ? 14. 1 have no knife about 
ne. • 15. Do you carry a knife about you? 16. I never cairy |i 
knifb about me. 17. Haa not your brother money about him? 18. 
He haa no money about him. 19. Will you put these pencils upon 
the table» or under it! 20. I will put them in the drawer (jLiroir)* 
21. How much have you given for that whcj^t! 22. 1 bought it at 
the rate of twenty*ftve franca the hectolitre. '*28. la that Iidy*a konae 
>nt of the city ! 24. It ia not out of the city ; it is within. 25. liae 
m4 your aiat»r placed the plaM'' upon the tabic ! 26. She haa pot 
Iho plalcn mfm tiie tables and tiie apoone under it 27. Have y«n 

*^ Digitized by Google 

tli LlSiOV hXXXL 

bad your bouse repairad! 38. I hare had the inaida repaived, Vat 

Dol the ontaide. 29. How much d(>C8 that silk comI you f 30. J 
have bought it at the rnte of live francs thv metre. 31. Did you 
marry wilhoui your father's knowtedgu ? 32. I married wiiliout hi« 
knowledge. 33. Have you sold my books without my knowledge^ 
84. I sold them without your knowledge. 85. 1 sold them without 
my aiater'a knowledge. . 



1. The pronoun ce answers to the English pronoun t^, used before 

the verb to fo, in such sentences as, it ia l^it is ihtm, die. The latter 

pronouns (/, thau^ die.) are rendered by moi, toi, lui, elle, nous, vous, 

eux, m., elles, f. The verb remains in the singular, except when the 

pronoun following it is in the third person plural; in which case it 

nay be put in the plural or in the singular [} 116, (2.)]. If the 

pronoun is followed by quij the verb is better in the plural, and, if 

followed by que^ in the singular : — 

Cost moi, c'est lui, c'est elle. It is /, il is Af, il isshe, 

Ce sont elles qui parlent // is iJiey who speak, 

O'est elles que nous cherchons. U is they whom %c€ seek. 

2. If the relative pronoun qui and another verb follow ttre^ this 

aecond verb must agree in number and person with the pronoun 

preceding the relative : — 

C'est vous qui avez fait cela. R is you have done that. 

C'est nous qui avona d6chird cette II is we who have torn that sUk, 

8. Ce also renders the English pronoun it, used abaolntely, bat 
not unipersonally before the verb to be [} 108, (A.)] :— 

Ce fut en Allcmagne qu'il trouva It was in Germany that he found w 
BOO ami friend. 

4. Celui qui, celle qui, ccux qui, m., colles qui, f., are equivalent U 
the English pronouns, he who, she who, they vAo— eelui que, oeile que 
eeuz que, eelles que, render he wkom^ 4«. 

Celui ou celle qui cbante. He or she who sings. 

Bi&BVMt OF Examples. 

Bat-ce vous qui nous avei avert! de | A i^ you whohatewamed uso/Aief 
oelal I 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

itSBSoa tuxtv 


t ^pA TOW 60 ftrons ftTSfti. 
^t-ou vouH, moifUames, qiie uous 

ttv«HiK ivni*oiitr64.fi 1 
Cc iruttt |Miit nous, c'ost eux quo 

vous awx vna. 
Ue u'em |«» voos, co sont eux qui 

out fait cvla. 
CTeat en Anglcteiro que Je vona ai^ 

Connaisscz-voua oos deux Fortu- 

Je comiaia celai qui parte & M. L. 

is U yim, ladies^ wkom we have met? 

a is notice; ilis ikeywhtnn you Atfut 

It isnoiyoui UisiheyiBka hn^ dem 

Risin England tkal J tarn you. 

Do you know those two PoHu^^uesi 7 

i know km who tpetUu to dtr, L, 


Gonnaissance, f. aequain- De temps eu tempa,/rvai 
tance ; titne to timeg 

Expliqn-cr, 1. toexptain; No. number ; 

Guerre, f. v:ar; Phrase, f. senlewces 

De-jour CD jour,/r<nii^yPr61ud-er, 1. to prelude, 
to days 

Appel-er, 1. to cdU ; 
A-toute-force, by all 

Avert-ir, 1. to wami 
Blcmure, f wountl; 
Cooibl-er, 1. to over* 


1. Est-ce tous, Madame, qui avez appeld votre domeatique? 2. Ce 
n*esi paa moi qui Tai appele. 3. Eat-ce voua man ami qui voulez 
k toute force aller en Espa^e? 4. Ce n'eat paa moi,c*e8t mon couain. 
5. N*cst-ce pas lui qui a avvrti ce matelot de aon danger ? 6. Ce n*eat 
paa lui, c*eat moi qui l*en oi averti. 7. Eat-ce noua que voua atten- 
dez de jour en jour? 8. Ce n*est paa voua, c*C3t eux que j^attenda. 
9. EaWe voua, Madame, qui nous avez combleea de bienfaitat 10. 
Ce nVat paa moi, Madame. 11. N*e8t4*e paa en Italie que voua avez 
fait connaiaaanoe avec lui ? 12. Ce n'eat pas en Italie ; c'est en Ruaale. 
13. Eat-ee voua, Meadames, ou vos cousinea que noua avona vuea an 
bal ? 14. Ceat nous, ce n'eat paa noa cousinea que voua avez vuea. 
15. Ne connaiaaez-voua paa ceadeux meaaieura? 16. Je connaia celni 
qui parle a Madame L 17. Eat-ce vous qui avez re9u une bleaaure 
k la guerre? 18. Ce n'eat paa moi, c'est mon voiain. 19. N'eat-co 
paa vous qui noua avez explique cotte phrase? 30. Eat-ce voua, Men* 
aieur, qui demenrez au N**- 18? 31. Ce n*est pas moi qui y domeure^ 
22. Entendez-vous cea musicienn? 33. J*entenda celul qui chante. 
84. Je n*enteuda poa bien celoi qui joue. 25. Nona entendons ceu . 
qui preludeuU 

ExRRcni 160. 

1. la it you, my friend, who have warned me of my danger? 2. It 
b not I who have warned you of it 3. Is it they whom yon expoet 
finxa day to day ? 4. It U not they whom we expect 5. la it yoa 
wiM> have done thia? & It is not wo ; it ia yoa who bave diNM it 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

% Was It In Engbnd that ]roa bought this hat! •. Itwas iNrtni 

Eng^lanil ; it u as in Germany. 9. Was it not in Russia that yoii be- 
came acquainted with himl 10. It was not in Rusnia; it was in 
Italy. 11. Was it you who were calling us? 12. It was not wo: H 
was Ik. 18. Are yon not acquainted with the two Poles who are 
reading 1 14. 1 know the one who is near you. 15. Is that (es^-ce U) 
the bdy wliom you expected? 16. It is not (she). 17. U it you, 
gentlemen, who have loaded my brother with kindness? 18. It is not 
(vi*e). Sir; we have not the pleaaure of knowing him. 19. Is it yon 
who have been wounded in the (au) arm? 30. It is not (}), 31. Do 
you not hear those two Udies? 23. 1 do not hear the one who sings. 
98. i hear the one who plays. 24. Was it you who came to oar 
house this morning? 35. It was not I; I was in London Uien (alon). 
36. Was it you, Sir, who did us that favor? 27. It was not (I) ; it 
was my sister. 38. Was it your son who wished by all means to go 
to London ? 39. It was not he ; he is now in Germany. 30. Is it you 
who wrote that letter? 81. We have written no lotter. 83. Who 
lives at (au) No. 30? 88. 1 live there (c'est moi). 84. Is it we whom 
you havo seen? 85. It was not you whom I saw. 


I. The pronoun 00 (and not the pronouns r/, ^Ue^ ^bc), must b« 
used for he^ sfte, tkey^ coming before the verb to fe, when that verb m 
followed by a noun, or an adjective used substantively, ffreeeded by 
the, a or an, hj9ome or any understood, or by a jk-^sssesrive or denun^ 
Mlrativeadjeclive. Wlien the word used in apposition with ee is plural, 
and in the third person, the verb is pot in the plural, although e$ r^ 
mains unchanged [} 108, (3.) (8.)] : — 
Cert mi Polonais. He it a Pdt. 

Ce soBt dcs Anglais. 7%ey am EngUskmen, 

C'est cotte dame qui m'a parl6 de vons. // is thai lady who tpoU U ma tfymk. 

3. Ce is used as the nominative of the verb 6tre, in sentences JUo 

be foOowing, and the conjunction que is used idiomatically after iL 

Tho verb in this case is not put in the plural :— "^ 

Qu'est-ce-que oes enfknts 1 What am thou ekiidrp^T 

Qu'estrce-que I'ltalie 1 Whnl is Italy ? 

Qn'cst-ce-qne le Jardbiage ? What u gardening ? 

8. Qu4 is used idiomatically in a number of senteneea. In tht 

following it gives greater force to the expression : — 

Ce tODt de bons llvres que les v6tres. Yours are indeed good IwaJhl 
JoMqoeovl; JecrsisqQSMBi ieagfeti iStlitmm$ 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

hUBumn hMtxii. 

R£sum£ of Examplks. 
Qui soDt ces lueasieun qui uarleut 

a M. L. 1 
C« Mmt tnes ooasins, qoi vienneiU 

De quel imys sont ces marchands 1 
Cesont des Poiooato} ila viennent 

Ua Qe aoDt pas pokmaia; IJi aont 

€e ne Mmt pas des Poloiiali ; ee lODt 

Qn'e9t-oe que la Tonrainol 
Cest le Janlln dc la France. 
Voire fetidtre ne d<mix>-t-ene pas 

■aria rue 1 
Kon, c'cat sur la eear qa*e]1c donne. 
Je ciois que oui j Je cruis que uon. 

W/i4f are ike gentiemen wht spe^ i§ 

Mr. L. 7 
l^eff are my causinSf who mt pai 

Of lehal country are i/uttewmekanti? 
Tliev are Potest tkey tffv imi ar- 

T&tjf are nal Poie$i tUp eon. Bit$^ 

Thejf are not Polet ; ikef e^rt Jftu- 


His the garden of France, 

Does not four window Mt on Hk 

NOf U looks on ike yard, 
J believe Uf; I believe not. 


Brif-er» 1. io break ; fitranger, e, foreign ; Soiarict, f. p. t3k Uygki 

Charron, m. wAeelwrigkd Fenitrc, f. window t Bucre, m. sugar i 

Confiturcti, t. p. fre- Lyon, Lwms; Suisse, Siciss; 

serves f MouchoLr, m. Aafu&ter- Surprend-re, 4. ir, 10 

Doon^r, 1. to give, looks chief; caUh, surprise ; 

ficonais, o, Scotch s Boae» f. wheels Vol-er, 1. to steal 

1. Connoissez-voua ces ^traDgerst 3. Oni, Monsieur, ce aont lea 
fr^rea de notre voisin. 3. Ne sont-ll pas dcossois? 4. Non, Hon- 
lieur, ila aont saiases. 5. Ne sontce point des ficossais qui voua 
ont fait present de cette casquette ? 6. Non, Monsieur, ce sent des 
Suisses. 7. N'estpce pas voire domestique qui vous a vole du vin! 
S. Ce n*eat paa lut, c'est son fr^re. 9. N'est-ee pas hii qui a pris vos 
confitures? 10. Ce n'cst pas lui; ce sowt aes enfants. 11. Ne 
•ont^ce pas 1^ lea enfimts que vous avez surpris k volcr votre sucre I 
12. Ce sont leurs fir^res. 13. Ne sont-ils pas cousins 1 14. lis ne 
sent pas cousins; ils sont fr^res. 15. QuVst-ce-que ccs soierics? 
16. Ce sont des marchandises qu*on vient de nous envoycr. 17. 
N^est^e pas une belle villo que Lyon? 18. Cest une grande et 
- die lille. 19. N*est-ce pas la le mouchoir que vous avez perdu I 
10. Jeerois que oui. 21. N*est-ce pas sur le jardin qne donncut vca 
fendtres? 22. Oui, ^lonsieur, c*est sur le jardin qu*elies donnent 
23. N'iestrce pas notre eharron qui a fait cctte roue? 24. Ce n*est 
pas lui qui Ta faite. 25. Ce sont nos amis, qui Tont bnsee ti e^eat 
la menuisier qui Fa faite. 

ExBROiss 162. 

L Is thai liCdy your firiend's sister? 9. No, Sir, sht is a atraagcr 
I' WlioamtiMtwocaDtieiiieiiwhdareapsddngto jr«iirrislarl 4^ 


by Google 

tat tatiox txxxttu 

They nre Swtss gentlemen. 5. Are those the gentlemen whom toq 
have invited? i. It is they (eux), 7. Do you not know that m.in^ 

8. I know him very well ; he is the man who has stolen my wine. 

9. What is Italy? 10. It U tlie giirden of Europe. 11. Is not th«l 
the letter which you intended to cxu-ry to tlie post-oflice? 12. Noi, 
Sir, it is another. 13. Is the city of Havre fine? 14. Yea, Sir 
ilavre is traly a large and beautifnl city. 15. Is not that the ma 
whom you have caught stealing your fruit? 16. It is not, it is an 
other. 17. Is not this the cap that you have bought ? 18. Yes, Sif, I 
believe so. 19. Do not the windows of your room look on the street! 
30. No, Bladam, they look on the garden. 21. Do not the windows of 
your dining-room look on the yard (cour) 1 22. No, Sir, they look 
on the hike (he). 23. Is it that litt!'* child who has taken your pro- 
servos ? 24. It is Ills brother or his sister. 25. What arc those en- 
gravings ? 26. They are engravings which I bought in Germany. 
27. Are those gentlemen Scotch ? 28. They are not Scotch ; they 
are Italian. 29. Are those ladies Scotch? 30. No; they are the 
Italian ladies who came yesterday. 31. What is h irseille? 32. It 
is one of the finest eities in (de) France. 33. Is it *ot youi tailor 
who made that coat? 34. Ills not he; it is an En^ di tailor who 
made it 35. It is your friend who broke my watch. 


1. In French, as in other languages, when a verb has two subjects 
in the singular, it is generally put in the plural [} 114, (2.)] : — 

L*onclc et la tante sent arrivds. 7^ke unde and aurU are arrived, 

2. Wlien a verb has two or more subjects of different persons, it 
is put in the plural, and assumes the termin.ition of the first person 
nitlic! than that of the second or third, and the termination of the 
second in preference to that of the third : — 

Vons et moi irons demain d la chasse. You and I viU go kwniing It^^mmrow. 
Vitus -.^t lui irez demsiin a I ecnic. Yon and he tniUgn tnsrjiikti fit-mon.nff. 
Ba indru i>t moi nous avons 6crit Ills mttLkcr and I have written UuU 
cutttt Ictti-c. letter. 

3. The above examples will show, that, when a verb has sevend 
ftubjeets, all of them pronouns, or partly pronouns and partly nouna^ 
the words moi, toi, lui, eux, are used instead of je, tu, il, ils. A pro- 
noun reciqiitulating the others, may, as in the Ustexamplei be placed 
immediaUly Ufore the verb [{ 33, (10.) (U.)]. 


by Google 

&I880V &ZXltIL 

4 Fw farUw/ rnlea on this subject, see { 114 and 116, and also 
Dj) next lesson. 

6. Gtoer eorresponds in signification to tlie English to twubk^ to 
twommodef to disiiarl^y to be in the toay^ and to hurt (in speaking ef 
ikon mid garmenis). Se g4ner means to constraint or troubU md$ 

Sst-ce-que je vons g^nel Asi^Iin ftntr wcy? 

R^suicfi OF Examples. 

on irea-ToiiSy Totre irftro et tous 1 

Ini et moi irons en Angleterro. 
Vons, eUe ct lui, vons acLdtcrez da 

Biix et moi, nons sommes fidt mal 

a la tdte. 
Tons et lul. rons dcvriez vons pra- 
ter aux circonstances (se pr4ter}. 
Lni et moi, tous gftnerons sans 

Ma consine et moi, nous craignons 

de vousgAner. 
Je ne me g6ne Jamais ches aes 

Ne V01IS gftnez pss; mettez-vous & 

votrc atse. 
Nous n'aimoDS pas k gftner les au- 

Nous n'aimons pas & nous gdoer. 

When vriU you go, your krwtim mid 

He and I nf ill go to Knglani, 
You J she and & vrill buy wheat. 

They and I have hurt our heads. 

You and he should adapt yoursdves 

to circumstances. 
He and I wilt without doubt ineom^ 

mode 1JOU, 
My cousin and I fear to be in yous 

I am never under constraint with my 

Be under no constraint ; place your' 

self comfortably. 
We do not Wee to incommode ethers* 

We do not like to incommode ouT" 


A perte, at a loss; Nullement,^ n^ means t Prodigue, prodigal, Imh 

A profit, with a profit f Pardon, excuse Tne ; ish ; 

Bras, arm; Porsist-er, 1. ^ jperju^ ; 8ociet4, f. company^ so* 

D6rang-cr, 1. to disturb; Place, f. roam ; dely ; 

ficonome, economical ; Tous deux, both. 

1. Si nous rcstions pins longtemps ici, nous craindrions do tous 
g^ner. 2. Vons ne nous g*nez nullement; votre societ6 nous est 
tria ngr6nblo. 3. N'avez-vous pas ete trop prodigucs, vous et votre 
fitre? 4 Lui ct moi au contraire, nous avons cte tr^s 6coiiomcs. 
6. N'awz-vouH pas tort de goner ce inon.situr? 6. Nous n*avons 
DuIIemcnt envie de le geiier. 7. Esi-ce-que mon bras vous gSne, 
Monsieur? 8. Non, Monsieur; nous uvons assez de place, vous ne 
me g6nez paa. 9. Ne devriez-vous pas vous prdter anx cireoo- 
stances 1 10. Nous faisons, elle et moi, notre possible pour nova y 
plater. 11. Ce jettoe homme persiste-t-il dans sa resolution f ISi 
Nans J peraiatoasy lui at moL 18. Peiaist6ft>yoiis tons deoz & mt 


by Google 

%m Ml 14 HmiM y p«ni«toiis torn deox. 19. C0I h^MM etM 
g6n6 dans tea affaires (uncomforlably silua'^d, haily o/f)t 16. F. 
Malt 9606 dans sas affiiires il y a un an. 17. Ne voua ^nez paa, 
Vonsianr. 1$. Je ne me g^ne jamais, Monsieur. 19. Est-er^que 
aon Mrt tons derange f 20. Non, Monsieur, il ne ne demnjre paa. 
SI. Je ne voudrais pas vous deranger. 22. Pardon, si Je voos d^ 
lange. 29. Vous ei votre associd avez vendu vos maiehandises 4 
perte. 24 Vous et moi nous vendons toujours k profit 25. Voire 
p^ra, Totre ir^re et moi nous avons achet6 des marchandiaes. 

Exercise 164. 
1. Do we incommode you, my brother and I? 2. No, Sir; yon 
do not incommode us ; we are very glad to see you. 3. Arc you not 
afraid to disturb your friend ? 4 We are afraid to disturb htm ; he 
has much to do. 5. Is my foot in your way, Sir? 6. No, Sir ; your 
foot is not in my way. 7. Will you and your brother go to Ger- 
many this year ? 8. We intend to go there, he and I. 9. He, you 
and I, should write our lessons. 10. ShoiiU you not, you and your 
friends, adapt yourselves to circumstances % 11. We should do so^ 
if it were possible. 12. Do I not disturb ^nu, Sir? 13. You do 
not disturb me by any means. 14. Does vt:^ my little boy disturb- 
you? 15. He does not disturb me. 16. He Vsturbs nobody. 17 
Does'not your partner sell his goods at a loss ? )i \ He never sells at 
a loss. 19. He and I always sell at a profit. 9^. Do you persist in 
your resolution? 21. Your friend and I persist > our resolution. 
22. I never feel under constraint at your house. ^^ Be under no 
constraint (make yourself at home). 24. Are you rrt wrong to in- 
eommode them? 26. I do not intend to incommode tV««i. 26. We 
do not like to incommode ourselves (to put ourselves out of the 
way). 27. My little boy and I will, perhaps, be in yoe- vay. 28w 
No, Sir; we are very glad of your company. 29. Do I dis^rrb yout 
80. No, Sir; you do not disturb us. 31. Do I disturb your Hther! 
82. No, Sir ; you disturb no one. 33. Excuse me, Sir, if I Ji^Mirb 
ou. 34 Have you not been very lavish? 3A. No, Sir; I ouiiue 
ou, that your son and I have been very economical 


I. When a verb is preceded by several nouns not connected by ci; 
il agiees witii the last only, provided the nouns are in some nvay 
i^onyiaoua» «r the laiod dwell* more ibreibly upoa the last >«• 


by Google 

&S«B0X *%ttir. 


■ His Uve, ha ttndemets fsr Mis dM^ 

enfknts est comiQe de toot le. drenj are known k/ every be dy. 

Tos amis, roe pRrentt, Dion roos Yottr friends^ your rdatives, Ood 

rftcompuiserft. mli reward you, 

3. Wben two or more nonns are united by the conjunction ou^ the 
verb agrees with the lost only : — 

Charles on Qoorgo 6crira a votre Charles or Charge vHU wrils to your 
ami. friend, 

3. Wben a noun and a pronoun, or two or more pronouns (not be« 

big al] in the third person), ore joined by ou, the verb is put in the 

plural : — 

Vons on moi iiartirons deroain. You or I wiU go to-morrow. 

Votre sfleur oa vous irez a T^glise. Your sisltr or you wUL go la ckurck 

Youaott Ittiftveispaseidsooiiimettre You or ke aiene kavs prokMy €anh> 

cette action. mitUd Ihis act, 

4. When two nouns are joined by ni repeated* or wh«i fd Tun «i 
Paulre is used as nominative to a verb^ the verb is pat in the plural if 
the two nouns, or the two persons represented by ni fust ni VasUref 
pisrform otr may perform the action together: — 

HI ran ni I'aatre ne linmt NeWUr the am mr ike other wiU fsod. 

6. When, however, oniy one at a time can petform the aetlon, the 
verb is put in the singular: — 

Hi l*un nl I'autre ne sera nomm6 Keither ikeonenorthe other mUbe ap^ 
pii6fei dace department poinied prejket of iMat dipurtmsnk 

B£sum£ of Examplss. 

Hi l^m ni Tautre n'ont troav4 le vin 

Ii'an et Tautre ont trouv6 le diner 

Comment se trouvent Mevieurs vos 

Ki hin nl Vautre ne se trouvent bien. 
L*an et I'autie se trouvteent auren- 

Ni Tun ni Tautre ne sera 61u presi- 
If on oa rautre y troavera h, redlre. 
Lni on vous avez trouv6 quelque 

chose k redlre k notre conduits. 
Ml loi ni rod n'avons trouvi a redire 

k la cooduite de vos en&nts. 

Neiiker iksomnartksatktrfimmd tfr 

wins good. 
Both found the dinner bad. 

Haw da yauf bfethsrs^mdihtMSUtttf 

Neither Jtnd themsdves wdl, 

T^ey both found thamsskfes at thsrew 

Neither will be elected president. 

One or tht other wiUfind fault with U, 
He or you have found something to 

blame in yur condtict. 
Neither he nor I have found any fauU 

with your children's conduct. 

Aatemvm. author i 
j^roir, h l dutyi 

£ZSRCI8£ 165. 

Ell-re, 4. b.&x^ft:/; 
Expoft-er, 1. to expose } 
imAret, m, interests 

Fiat Alt ratksrs 




by Google 

fikcr&Uire, hl jeorvtory f Be troaT-er, 1 . ref. hfind VefDer, 1. 19 

TrouvMjr, 1. to Jittd, to one** sdf; to be |>re#- Vic, f. U/e, 
Uke^ to fancy i ent. 

1. Remplissez-Tous bien votre devoir? 2. Nous ne lo rcmpiiasoni 
ni Tun ni Tautre. 3. Cherchcnt-ils Tun etTautre ^ s'expoaerl 4. Ni 
I'un n' Tautre ne cherchent k exposer leur vie (La Bruteke). 6. IL 
Totre p^re et M»«* votre m^re, ae trouvenUils mieux aujoard*hui ? 6. 
Ni Tun ni I'autre ne ae trouvent mieux. 7. Avez-vous trouv6 k re* 
dire k mon 6criture ou k celle do mon aecretaire? 8. Je n'ai trcu76 
k TfAlie ni \ Tune ni k Tautre. 9. Get auteur ne trouve-t-il pta k 
redire k tout? 10. U trouve i redire k tous lea liiTea, IK Y 
trouvez-TOUs quelque chose a redire ? 13. Ni lui ni moi n*y trouvons 
rien & redire. 13. Lui ou moi, nous veillerona k vos intSreta. 14. 
Ni lui ni moi ne ceaaerona de vciller k la conduite de votre fila. 16. 
Noua y vei Herons plutAt que d^y trouver k redire. 16. Lui et moi 
uoua trouvimes ensemble au rendezvous. 17. Vons y trotlVerez 
vooa i*UQ ou I'autre? 18. Nona nous y trouverona Tun ou Pautre. 
19. L'un ou Fautre aenut-tl 61u president? 20. Ni Tun ni Tautre 
ne aera 61u. 31. Comment tronvez-vons ce r6ti? 33. Je le trouve 
excellent 38. Je trouve ee livre bon. 34. Je ne le trouve pas bon 
26. Je trouve ceU bien fiiit 

ExsRciSB 166. 

1. How do you like that book? 3. Neither my sister nor I like 
it. 3. Did your brothers find the dinner good ? 4. Both found it 
very good. 6. Did the professor find fault with your conduct ? 6. 
He did not find fault with it 7. Neither he nor my father find 
fault with my conduct 8. Do they both watch over your conduct 1 
9. They both watch over my conduct and over my interests. 10. 
Have you both fulfilled your duty? 11. We have fulfilled it 12. 
Have you not both criticised my writing? 13. Neither has criticised 
it 14. Do not your two sisters find themselves better to-day ? 16. 
One finds herself better. 16. The other does not find herself so 
well 17. Do not those ladies find fault with every thing ? 18. They 
find fault with nothing. 19. Will either be elected prefect of the 
Dej'artment? 20. Neither will be elected. 31. How do you like 
this bread ? 22. I find it very good. 23. Did your two friends ar- 
rive in time at the appointed place ? 24. Neither was there in (d) 
time. 26. Do you find fault with that (ccla) ? 26. I do not find 
fault with it (y). 27. Will you both expose yourselves to this dan- 
ger? 38. We will not expose ourselves to it 29. Do yon find fault 
with my aeeretaij'a condnat ? 80. I do not find faolt wUb it 81. 


by Google 


Do ymi ffni firalt with his writing? 32. I find fiiuU with it; for fit 
b very bod. 33. Will you not watch over my interests 1 84. Mr 
brother and I will watch over them. 85. We will not cease to waleft 
over Toor interests. 


1. A verb having, as its subject, a general collective noun [{ 8, (6.)] 
fioeeded by the article, agrees with the noun [} 115, (1.)] : — 

La funle des paurres est grande. 7^ crowd of Out poor is great, 

2. A verb preceded by a partitive collective [{ 3, (6.)] takes the 
number of the noun following the collective, unless attention be papu 
ticulariy directed to the collective itself [{ 116, (2.)] : — 

Une foule de panvres resolvent A crowd of poor people receive assut-^ 
des secours. ance. 

3. The words, la plupart, mast ; un nombre, a number, &e., and 
the adverbs of quantity, pen, assez, beaucoup, plus, moins, trop, tanti 
eombien, belong to this class. 

4. Rester is often used unipersonally in the sense of to June left. 

The adverbial expression de reete is often used in the same maimtr 

m the English word left : — 

B me reste deux fVancs. I have two francs 2^/1— or literally 

There remaiM to me twofranes. 
Nous avons cinqnante tens de reste. We have fifty crowns left, 

5. Devenir (2. ir.) to become, with 6tre as an auxiliary, correapooda 

in signification to the English to become, followed by cf. It is also 

Englished by to become, or simply to turn : — 

Qu'est devenu votro frftre 1 What has become of jfowr brother 7 

II est en France, ct est devenu He is in Prance^ and has twmed lat^ 
avocat. yer. 

R£suMfi OF Examples. 

Most of my hours are devoted to laftor. 

lift plupart de mes heures sent 

consacr6c8 au travail. 
I«a foule des humains est voute au 

La plus grande iiartic des voyageurs 

le diseut, ct le r6pdtent 
Ke VOU8 resto-t-!l que cela 1 
YoUi tout oe qu'il me reste. 
Je no sals oe qu'ils sont devenus. 

it M tab oe que vons devlendres. 

T%e mass of mankind is devcted to 

The greatest number of trtneOert 

say it, and repeal U, 
Have you only that left 7 
ThaiisaUihail hMoeUfL 
I do not know tohat has become ef 



by Google 

n§ »t»i0* ^MUKV. 

ExsRczsB 1G7. 

g'appUqiter, U raf. <»Cbemin,m.iM3r,fMJ; Hahne, ifc^i 

a|i;i^v; g68ol-er, 1. to dfSoUUe; Maigre, /Aim, ^mm; 

Appreiiti, m. apprmUee ; £gar-er, 1. ^ nuijay ; NaUsance, f HriX $ 
Avuufile, blind ; Eniplettcs, f. p. yurcha- Rue, f. sTrw/ ; 

Baeatelle, f. iriJU ; ^ '^ ' Savant^ a, le an wrf . 

Boiteux, 06, lame ; Etat, m. trade g 

I. La plopart de Toa parenta ne aont-ila paa T«niia wua Toirf SL 
Beaacoup sont venua. 8. Que aont devenoa leaantreat 4. Je na 
aaaraia voua dire ce qu^Oa aont devenaa. 6. Que deviendim ee Jeine 
liomine a*il ne a'l^plique paa k F^tude t 6. Je ne aata paa oe qxCfl 
deviendra. 7. Je aaia qu'il ne deviendra jamaia aavant. 8. Comblen 
de franca avez-voua de reate ? 9. II no me reate qu*un franc. IOl 
Combien Toua re&tera-t-il quand voua anrez fait voa emplettea! 1 1. 
n ne me restcra qu'une bagatelle. 12. Get apprenti est-il devenu 
habile dans aon 6tat? 13. D y est devenu habile. 14. Ce monsieur 
eat-il aveugle de naiaaanee, on Test-il devenu? 15. II Test devenu. 
16. Savez-voua ee quo sont devenua cea jeunea gena? 17. lis aont 
devenua medecins. 18. Ne savez-voua paa ce que aont devenua mea 
livreat 19. Da aont.^gar^a. SO. Ne deviendrez-voua paa boiteux si 
Toua marchez tant? 31. Je deviendrai boiteux et moigre. 23. La 
fonle ne a^eat^lle paa 6gar6e dana ce boia? 33. La foule a^y est 
Igai^ et n'a pu ratrouver aon chemin. 34. Une na^ de barbarea 
d^aol^reni le paya. (Acad.) 25. Une foule de eitoyc^na ruin^ 
rempliaaaient lea mea de Stockholm. (Voltaiks.) 

EzsRCXSK 168. 

1. Hati) not most of your friends become rich ? 3. Most of them 
have become poor. 3. Has not that young lady become learned ? 
4. I think that she will never become learned. 5. la not the Ameri- 
can army (armSe) very amall 1 6. The American army ia amali, but 
moat of the American aoldiera are very brave (braves). 7. Can yoa 
tell me what has beeome of that gentleman ? 8. I cannot tell yoa 
what has become of him. 9. Is your brother blind by birth (wai 
your brother born blind)? 10. No, Sir, he has become so. 11. 
Were you bom lame ? 13. No, Sir, I became so three years ago (rl 
y a). 13. Are not most of your hours devoted to play (jeu, ni.) ? . 
14. No, Sir, they are devoted to study. 15. How much of your 
money have you left? 16. I have only twenty-five franca left. 17» 
Do you know how much I have left? 18. Yon have only a trifle 
Wft 19. How much ahall yon have left to-morrow? 30. I aluil! 
anlr bava aix ikaiioa lafi 31. I ahall osly have two fraaaa left wImmi 


by Google 

»M9«ir itt«««. •» 

I hn% aadft ny fmnhmtn. UL What has beeone of y«w 
OMT T SS. I have mislaid it 24. Do yon know what has beeoma 
of my htoti a& Yoa have left (kdste) it upon tba table. 9a WiU 
•ot that gentleman beeome blind? 37. He will not become bh'nd» 
bot lame. 38. Has your son beeome skilful in his trade ? 39. He 
has not beeome dcilful in it. 80. What has become of him 1 81. 
He has lost his way in the wood. 33. Did the crowd lose its wa^ ! 
8S. Most of the soldiers lost their way. 84. A elood of locnste 
(mnUtteOeg) desolated our eoontiy. 


1. The articie, the demonstrative and the possessivo a^jeethrea, 
most be repeated, as before said, before every nonn or adjective used 
aobstantively, which they determine [} 80, 93, 31]. 

3. The prepositions d, ie, and en, are repeated before every word 
which they govern [} 141]. 

8. The verb quitter, to leave (to quit)^ is said of persons an4^ 
plaees, and also of things in the sense of to abaiidont to give up : — 

Tons aves qaitt4 vos parents et vos You have left your rtUUioni one 

amis. friends. 

Hons avons qaltt6 nos 6tnde«^ We have discomtiwiud ew i N d iH 

4. Laisser, to leave, to let, is generally said of things. It is, how 
ever said of persons in the sense of to euffer to remain .*^- 

Tons aves laissi votre livre'sur la You left your hook upoik tke toMe. 

The examples below will illustrate the use of those two verba. 


JTanrea voas psa qnittA^ votre mai- 

J^ai quitft4 mon pays et mes parents. 

J*ai hiis86 ma biblothdqnc en Eu- 

Ne vonlcz-vou9 pes laisser votre flls 
ici 1 

Je n'aime pas ii le quitter. 

J'ei laiss6 votre lettre a son domes- 

lion pk« m'alaisitdnquantemille 

Baiee fou nU kft year keem? 

I have left my amnlry amd f fMlen 
I left my library in Europe, 

WiUyounot leave your son kef e? 

I do not Kke to ptit km, 

I left your letter wUk hie stevmeL 

My f taker left me fifty iUueuue 



by Google 

H kms 9f l«Ls86 la chnnp libra. 

Oe malade a quitbS le lit. 
Votre fVdrQ a quiU6 le barreao. 
Je Tons laiflferai ee chapeaa ji oe 

/ have kfi tkem a free ekmee ( Jht 

room). ' 
ThxU sick man has le/l his bed. 
Your brother has left the bar. 
I wiUletfou hax-e that hoi eAtim 


EscsRciSB 169. 

A bon a)mpte, cheaps Mativais, e, bad; .^ Pension, f. hoardings 
' Qarte. f- card; Moins, ksss school; 

fip6e, f. swordf army (fig- Noyau, m. fruU-^Ume; Portier, m. parUr 9 

uratively). Pourquoi, wAv ; Prix, m. price ; 

Habitude, lA^^i/; Pa vie, m. aingsUme- Robe, f. ^oirw ; 

Jiige, m. judge ; peach ; Service, m. service^ earmf, 

. 1. Vos oncles, vos cousins et vos neveux, ont-ils quittS le com- 
merce? 2. lis ont quitte le commerce, et sont devenus medecina. 
8. Le capitaiD') G. nVt-il pas quitte le service ! 4. II a quitte la France^ 
mais il ii'a pas quitte le service. 5. Oi^ avez-vous laisse voire fiis? 
6. Je Tai laiss6 dans une pension. 7. £st-ii trop jeune pour quitter 
•es etudes ? 8. II est trop jeune ; il n*a que douze ans. 9. A qui avez« 
TOtts laiss6 voire carte de viaite? 10. Je Tai laiss^e chcz le {jortier. 

11. Pourquoi ne le laissez-vous pas parler? 12. Parce qu'il est temps 
que nous vous quittions. 13. Me permettez-vous de lui communiquer 
cela? 14. Je vous laisse le champ libre -^ cet egard. 15. Ce jeuae 
bomme n'a-t-il ptas quitte ses mauvaises habitudes? 16. II les a 
quitt^es. 17. M. L. nVt-il pas quitte la robe pour Tdp^e? 18. Oui, 
Monsieur; il n^est plus juge ; il est capitaine. 19. Ces p^hes quib 
tent-elles facilement le noyau? 20. Non, Monsieur; ce sont des pa- 
vies. 21. Je vous laisse cet habit pour cinquante francs. 22. A 
quel prix me le laisserez-vous ? 23. Je vous le laisserai pour dix franca. 
24. Je vous le laisse ^ bon compte; je ue saorais vous le laiaser \ 


1. The son, daughter, and cousin, have left Paris. 2. My iather, 
mother, and sister, have left me here. 3. Do you like to leave your 
country ? 4. I do not like to leave my friends and country. ^ ft. My 
pai'ents do not like to leave me here ; I am too young. 6. Why 
does not your brother let his son speak [L. 97. 4.] ? 7. Because he 
has nothing to say. 8. Have yon let him alone? 0. I have let him 
alone. 10. Why do you not let me alone? 1 1. 1 will let them alone. 

12. Has your friend left his bed? 13. He has not yet left his bed 
he is yet very sick. 14. Has Captain 6. left the army ? 16. He has not 
left the army. 16. Has not that gentleman left the army for the bar? 
17. He has not left the anny. 18. My friend has left the Vur. 19l Al 


by Google 

LBt«j»ir XXXSTtL Mt 

WktA f riee \n\} you let me have this silk ! SO. I will let yoa hare it al 
two fnuies a yard. 21. Can you not let mo have it for less? 22. 1 lei 
you have it cheap. 23. Will you let me have that book for twenty, 
fisviee. 24. I will let yon have it for twenty-two. 25. 1 con Id not let 
you have it for less. 26. With whom (d qui) have you left my book ] 
27. 1 left it with your sister. 28. Why did you not leave it w th my 
servant? 29. Because he had left your house. 30. Do you like to 
leave your friends ? 31. I do not like to leave them. 32. Where 
have you leA your book ? 33. I left it at my father's. 34. Has that 
merchant given up commerce ? 35. He has not given It up. 86. Those 
peaches do not part easily from the atone ; they are clingstone peachea. 



1. The nominative pronouns je, tu, il, elle, nous, vous, ils, elles, 

must be repeated, when the first verb of the sentence is negative 

and the second affirmative, when the verbs are in different tenses, 

and when the different propositions are connected by conjunctions 

other tlian et, ou ni^ mais [} 99. 2.] :— 

II ne lit pas ; il 6cnt He does not readf he writes. 

EHe ne vicndra pas ; eBe est partie. Ske will not come ; sAe is gont, 

2. Tlie pronouns of the third person are often omitted before the 
Mcond verb in cases not coming within the above rule. The other 
nominative pronouns are also, sometimes, omitted. We should, 
however, not advise the student to omit the latter pronouns. It is 
always correct to repeat the nominative pronouns. 

3. The student will bear in mind, that the objective pronouns must 
always be repeated. 

4. Connaltre k answers to the English expression, to knowhy:^^ 
Je le connais & sa d-marche. / kntno him by his walk (carriage). 

5. Connaltre de nom, de visage, de vue, mean, to know by name^ by 

6. Se connaltre ii quelque chose, or en quelque chose, corresponds 
in signification to the English expression; to be a judge ofswnefhing, 
Vous Tons connaisscz en picrrerics. You are a judge of precious stones. 


Jo le eonnaia, Je Taime, et je liil / tnoto him, love Aim, and do jusUes 

rends Justice. GassssT. to him. 

Q s'^coute, 11 le plait, 11 8*adooise, He listens to himself ^ is pUastd wilh 

U s'aime. J. B. Rovssbio.' Aiifisf^, admns iimsdf Urns hia^ 




isit#s ts«jrrff% 

A <|Mt C0BM]n68-T0llt 08 SUNI* 

siour 1 
Je 1o connais a son habit noir. 
Je lo connais de vue. 
J'ai rocoonu ma mi^ k la roiz* 
A qnot vous cc«iiaisaez*voiis 1 
Je me connais en marchandises. 
Je ne ni'y connais pas. 
II ne s'y oonnait point da toat 

I! 8*y coDnait mienz que mot. 

^ m^ Qonialt mm! bleii que loi. 

By ttbit db «m. InMt iAat , 

I kntno him by Ms black coat, 
I kTuno kim iiy sighl, 
I recarnixed wy wolker hy her i 
Of vfkat are you a judge 7 
I am a judge of goods, 
I am Wit a judge of U {of <.Wai). 
BeiswA tht Uatt judge f*J U [tf 

He is a belter judge of it (of tkem\ 

I^masgatda^tdg^ef Ui^/tkmH 

EzxRCiss 171. 

Artisan, m. mechmiie ; fi toifes, eUOhs of all kinds; Grain, m. grain ; 
Blond, e, Ught ; Falnicant, m. manufae- Orf^re, m. gotdsmtti^ i 

Boucl6, e, curfe^^; ' turer f Oeuvre, f. work i 

Clievelure, f. iead ^Forgeroo, m. dfocibrnt^; PoHie, f. iNvtry ; 

hair ; Oostes, ra. p. gestures ; Tout, quiJU. 

C^eTenz, m. p. hair: Gracieux, se, gracfful ; 

1. Ne reconnaissez-voos point votre amie ? 2. Je la reconnala k 
aaclievelure blonde. 3. A quoi reconnaisaez-vous cette demoiselle 1 
4. Je la reeonnaia k sa demarclie graciease. 5. rTauriez-vons point 
conoo votre ami k la voix ? 6. Je I'y auraia re^onnu. 7. A l*oeam 
on connait rartlsan (La Fontaias). 8. Ne le reeoniiAltrez»Tous point 
iicea majrques? 9. Je Ty reconnaltrai. 10. Get orf^vre ne ae con- 
nait-il point k cela ? 11. D ne a*y connait point du tout 18. Voos 
y connaiaaez-voas aueai bien que le foigeron? 13. Je m*y eonnaia 
tout ausai bien que luL 14. Ne vous connaiaaez-voua point ea 
po^sie 1 16. Je ne mV connais gu^re. 16. Le fabricant ae connait- 
il ausai bien en ^tofiea qu'en .grain? 17. II ae connait beaueonp 
mieux k c«lAea-l& qn*k celui-cl 18. Ne connaiaaez-voua. paa ce non- 
aieur ^ sea geates v^titoents? 19. Je le connais ^ sea cbeveus 
boudea. 20. Ne vous dtes-vous paa fait connattre (toid youf name) ^ 
21. Je me auis fait connaltre. 22. Ne nous ferons-nous pan con* 
naltre ? 23. Vous vous ferez connaitre. 24. lis se fcront cAunaltre 
par leurs vertua (they toiU make themselves knoum), 


1. Do yon not know that man ? 2. Yea, Sir; I hnow him bv his 
targe (gnmd) hat 8. By what do you lecogntze me? 4 I reeog* 
nize you by your walk. 5. Do you recognize my friend b^ hia gya* 
tuea ? 6. No, Sir; I recognize him by hi« black coat X Do y«it 
kaow him well? 8. I know him by sight, but I have never epuWai 


by Google 

toMM. a AieyMftJo^of ironf la Mo» Sir ; tht bhdMmHh 
b a judge of iron. 11. By what will you ^nov yoar book T 12. 1 
thall know it by thoao marks. 18. Hare you not known yoar fnend 
by her vuieo ? 14. No, Madam ; I knew her by her light hak. 1 A. 
Ilave yon told yottr namo? 16. I have not told my name. 17. Did 
you kaow your sister'a friend by her eurled hairt 18. I knew her 
by it 19. Is the merehant a good judge of doth t 20. He ia a bet 
Isr jndge than I. 21. laiie a better judge of it than the maoulao 
1u er ? 22. He ia quite aa good a judge aa he. 23. Is not the gold* 
■nitli as good a judge of precious stones as you? 84. He is a better 
judge of them than L 25. Of what are you a judge! 26. I am a 
judge of nothing. 27. Are not your sisters good judges of poetry ? 
28. They are not Che least judges of it 29. Do you not know that 
young ^y by her dross (robe) ? 80. I know her by her graceful 
earriage. 31. Have they made themselves known ? 32. They have 
made themselves known by their merit (nUrite). 33. Is not the 
workman known by his work ? 84. The workman is known by hia 
work 85. He is a judge of it 


1. Quelqne, tohaisoetert however^ wmt^ any^ followed by a nouti 
taices the form of the plural. It is invariable, when it is followed 
by an adjective or an adverb [} 97, (1.) 2. 3.] :-^ 

Quelques livres que voos aycz. Ulkatever bonks ytm mof have, 
Qnekiue bons qnils soient Howeter good they stay U, 

$. Quel que, followed by a verb, is written aa two words, the first 
(qud) agreeing in gender and number with the nominative of that 

QneUes que soient vos vertua. Wk/aUver fowr wimu mmy be. 

8. The above examplea show that quolque— que and quel— qM 
govern the subjunctive. 

4. Tout meaning entirely^ quiie^ nothing hui^ though an adverb^ 
Tariffs through euphony before a feminine word commencing with A 
eonsonant or an ft aspirate : 

It'eiBfosnee, UnUe trompeuso quelle Ofpe, deeeUfid as U is, serves at ktut 

eel, sert au uoins h nous mener i to amdud ustotks UrmhusUun oj 

la fla de la vleper «a chsmin Ul9hy m ly ie s Mg m t i. 
(La BavTtaa.) 


by Google 


LBta«9 vxTxrtti. 

A. Tke in>Td gr6 Bignifyina; amsenlj leiUy meanings ^ 
number of idioms ; — 

Je !u! sais fsavoir, 8. ir.] bon gr6 do 

cetto action. 
U uous sail mauvais gr6 de cela. 

/ am thankful to kim (i. e. owe Am 

geod-wilt) for thai acUitm. 
He is disjtUased trilA us for that. 

RgsuMfi OF Examples. 

Ne 1e ferez-vous pas dc bon gr6 1 
11 a'est mariA coutre le gr6 de sea 
• pansnts. 
8« chi?clure volti^e aa gr5 de vdnt 

Je sals nianraifl gr6 & Totre fVdrede 

vouloir ae mdler de mea affiiires. 
Je lui en ttais bon gr6. 
J'c8{)dre c|uu vous no nie sanrez pas 

niauvaiti gr6, si Je ne vous 6cris 

C'est k mon gT6 le meillcur enfant 

du moudc. 

WUl you not do it vnHlnglif? 

He married agaiftsl the wiii of ku 

His hair fluUers at the wiU of tie 

I am displeased vnlk tfmtt brother fff 

wishing to interfere with wtp afiaru 
I am thankful to him for it. 
I hfipe thai ytm will w*t Ite displeased 

with me, if I do not write to ymu 

He is, to my thinking, the best ehiOa 

in the world. 

Exercise 173. 

Bon gr€, mal gr6, wUHng Men-er, 1. to take, to lead ; Secret, m. tecret ; 

or not wHling ; Non-er, I. to lie, to fasten; Silence, m. silence ; 

Cbambrc, f. roam; Obliger, 1. to obliges Suite, f. consequence t 

Oard-cr, 1. to keep: OflTrc, f. offer f Voler, 1. to fly. 

Lit, ui. bedi Becommand-er, !• to re^ 

Malgr6, in spile of; commend ; 

1. Savez-voas mauvais gr6 ^ votr|p oncle de ce qu*il a dit? 3. Je 
ne lui en saia aucnn mauvais gre (Voltaire). 3. Ne me sauriez- 
vous poa bon gre si je vous mcnais avec moi ? 4. Je vous en saunua 
lemeilleurgredu monde. 6. Ne Icur savez-vous pas bon grS d'avuir 
garde ce secret ? 6. Je leur sais bon gr6 de Tavoir gard6. 7. Ne 
leur aveZ'Vous pas recommand6 de garder le silence ? 8. Je leur ai 
fecommande de le garder. 9. Ce malade garde-t-il encore le lit) 
10. II ne garde plus le lit, mais il est encore oblige de garder bi 
chambre. 11. Votre clievelure est-elle blen nouee? 12. Non,Mon. 
sieur, elle vole ayt gre du vent 1 3. Gardercz-vous votrc domcstique * 
14. Jo le garderai,!! fait tout a mon gre. 15. Quelques oflruH qu^on 
lui Tissc, il ne veut pas me quitter? 16. Quclque bonnes quo soicnt 
ce.s duuies elles ne stont pas 1 mon gre. 17. Quelles que soieiit les 
suites dc cettc affaire, je vous sais bon gre de vos intentions! 
18. Timte belle qu*elle est, elle n'est pas ^ mon gre. 19. L'avez-vont 
fait malgr6 vous? 20^ Non, Monsieur; je Tai fait do bon gr^ 
31. Bon gr6 mal gr6, il partira. 22. Me garderez vous le secret! 
98. Je voQB le garden!. 34. 11 change d'opinlon an grS doe 6y6n^ 


by Google 

hmnsom ixxxim 

ExxKciss 174. 
X. W*/ le iD^rry ngftinst his iathcr*8 consent! 3. He wiV M4 
mtury a^rjust hi*', parents* consent 3. Why are you displeased iritk 
nie * 4. J am n^t dii«p1eascd with you. 5. Is your little ^rPs hair 
tied ? 6. Vs is Ml tied ; it waves (JloUe) with the wind. 7. V.Hial 
do vou thidc r>f my book ? 8. It is, in my opinion, the best book 
tluil I havd tutA [L. 74. 3> 4]. 9. Will you not be displeased with 
mc, if I do r.O /.ome to-day I 10. I shall not be displeased with you. 
11. Will yc\*. rot read that letter? 12. However well written it may 
bo,I willnctrfudit. 13. Are those ladies handsome ? 14. However 
landsoroe ani good they may be, they do not strike my fancy. 
15. Are you displeased with my brother? 16. No, Sir, I am thank- 
ful to him for hi^ intentions, whatever may be the consequences of 
his conduct. 17. Will you keep this secret (for me}? 18. I will 
keep it willingly. 19. Does your sister keep her bed willingly t 
80. She does not keep her room willingly. 31. Willingly or not, 
she must keep her room, when she is sick. 33. Will you keep silent 
on tills point ? 33. I will willingly. 34. I am tlmnkful to you for 
your good intentions. 35. Are yon thankful to him for this {^ 
eda) t 36. I am thankful to him for it. 37. Will the judge keep hia 
servant? 38. He will k^p him. 39. Does he do his work to hia 
fancy? 30. He does it to his fancy. 31. Is your brother obliged to 
keep in the houso ? 33. He is obliged to keep his bed. 33. Has he 
not loft his room ? 34. He has not yet left his room ; he is too sick 
to leave iL 35. I should be under the greatest obligations in iknb 
work! to you, if you would do this. 


1. Servir [3. ir.] is used in French in the sense of the English 

expression to help to :-— 

Que TOILS ser\iral-je 1 7^ trA/i/ ifuill 1 help ymi, ? 

Voii5t xerviitii'Je (It; la sonpc *? ShiUl I ktip ytnt f4t »mie vmp 7 

Vona n'avez |ms servi monsieur. Yuu hate nU helped ikal gentleman. 

3. Je vous remeriMe, / thank ynu, said in answer to an oflc*r, is in 

French always a refusal. This phrase is never employed like the 

English expresiiion, / thank you for {this or <ha/), to signify a request. 

The French make nae of other forms:-— Oserai-je vons pher de . . • 

Qaend-je vogs demander . . . Je rons prie de • . . Je vone pviend 

<e . . . >— 


by Google 

&Sn09 ISMtX. 

OmnAJBrmm denmder mw afle 
dc cette voUiUo, im morceau de 

3. S*il voua pinit, corresponds to the English, if you pkase, Tht 
vorb is used unipersonally in that sentence and in the fuliowing :— 

Coflime il vous pltira. As you please. 

II no roe plait |ias d'y aller. // does not suit or please me logo tken. 

Que Toua plait-il 1 What would yarn fieasi to ktne ? 

4. Aa plaiair de vons revoir, an revoir, adieu, jaa'ia'au reroir, meaa 
riU I hate the pleasure afeeeing you again^ till I tee you agaiitt iic. 


Qn'aaral-Jc Ic pldsir de vous servir 7 

Jo Tous demaodoral unmoroeau de 

Voiis oSHraMe un morceau de ce 

Je vous remercie, Monsieur; fe 

prcndrai de pr6ISrence una alle 

de cetto volaille. 
N'a-t-ou pas encore serrl 1 
Je vous sotthaite le boa soir. 
J'ai 8oahait6 le boiyour a Madame. 

Ayes la 



ooaplaisaiiee da roua as- 

aycz la complaisance 

TV tehal shall I hmve the pleasure sf 

helping yon? 
1 wiU Ihunk you or J unUtnmlk yam 

for a slice of that Aam. 
SAo/f / offer you a slice of this rousi 

I Ihank you^ Sir ; I usntld prefer « 

tping oj thai fowL 


I wish yofi good evening, 

1 have vrished the lady a good m&n^ 

Hmve the goodness to sU dem^ 

Genllemenf have the kindness to lealk 


Adieu, m. adieu ; Grices, f. p. thanks : Fri-er, to heg, to denre t 

Aile, f. Ufivg; Jamlion, ni. ham; Rcnierciment,m«MaNjt9 

Attend-re, 4. to wait for; Ldgnmc, m. vegelabU ; R<'»ti, m roast meal g 
Bouilli, m. boiled meal, Mett-rc, (sc) ir. ref. 4. to Sou()C, f. sirup ; 

beef I sU down ; Siillisamment, adv. sufi 

Con£6, m. leave f Ortolan, m. ortolan; fidenlly; 

Cotelette, f. cuOet; Perdrlx, f. partridge; Tranche, f. slice, 

1. Monsieur, qu'aurai-je le plaiair de vous serx'ir ! 2. Je voua de* 
manderai une tranche de ce jambon. 3. Je vous prie de scrvir coa 
mcftsieura 4. Oserai-je vous demander un morceau de ce bouilli ? 
0. Vous ofTrirai-je une tranche de ce rOti ? 6. Je voua rendu <*!^cei 
Monsieur; fen ai ' auflisamment. 7. Mademoiselle, aurai-jn i'iioii- 
Bour da voua aervir une aHe de oette perdrix 1 8. Je voua li'imrcieb 
Monsieur ; je prendrai de pr^fsrenee un de eea ortolaua. 9. M oiiaiuiub 
▼oua enverrai-je de la aoupe t 10. Madame, ja vow prie de aarvii 
ttademoiaellek II. Je voua ea demandeiai apr^ 1% Jma, pr^ 
eantex eette eetelette ^ Honaienr. IS. Cea 16gum«i aont d«Uae«^ 


by Google 

t4. MoitMcur, J9 tub Men aiae !)«• vvns Itstrsovicvboiit. II M«» 
■ieur, ne voulex-vonn pas voiis asseotr? 16. Mille remcreimvntt, 
lloiiftieiir. mon pi^re m^attend & la mainon. 17. Ne leuravM-vou»pat 
souhuite ie bonjour? 18. Je leur ai soabaiU le bon aoir. 19. Leur 
avez-?o!» dii adieu ? 20. Taidit adieu k mon fr^ro. 31. J'ai pria 
eonge d^eax. 22. Lea avez-voua pri^a d*entrert 23. Je lea on ai 
pri6a. 24. Meaaieitra, on a aervi. 26. Ayez la eomplaiaance da 
fooa mettio ici. 

Exercise 176. 

1. Madam, to what ahail I help you? 2. I will trouble you for a 
tliee of that ham. 3. Shajl I send you a wing of this fowl 1 4. Noi 
8ir, 1 thank you. 5. I thank you, Sir («'t7 vous plail, Monsieur), 

6. Sh*, shall I have the pleasure of helping you to a slice of this ham ? 

7. I thank you, Sir, I would prefer a slice of the partridge. 8. Shall 
I oifer you a little of this boiled meatT 9. I thank you, Sir; I have 
some. 10. Madam, shall I send you a little of this soupt 11. Mueh 
obliged to you, Sir [see No. 16, in the above exercise], 12. Sir, will 
yon have the goodness to help this young huly? 13. With much 
pleasure, Sir. 14. John, take this soup to the gentleman. 16. These 
ortolans are delicious.' 16. I am very glad that you like them. 17. 
la the dinner on the table ? 18. No, Sir; it is not yet on the table. 
19. It ia too e^rly. 20. Does It please you to go there ? 21. It does 
not please mo' to go to his house ; but I will go, if you wish it 22. 
fcihall I go with you? 23. As you please. 24. Will not your friend 
ait down ! 26. He is much obliged to you ; he has not time to-day. 
96. Have you wished your friend a good morning 7 27. I wiahed 
him a good OTening. 26. Hare you not bid him farewell ? 29. 1 
have bid him farewell. 30. Have the goodness to sit down here. 
81. I have taken leave of them. 32. I have taken leave of all my 
friends. 33. Madam, have the goodness to walk in. 34. We are 
much obliged to you, Sir. 36. Our father ia waiting for na ai home. 



1. The verb tenir [9. ir.], to hoU often eorreaponda in aigniiieatiea 
lotheEngUahverblotep; tenta'nn hdtel,loXDnp«Aaiift* tenir Ubk 
evverte, tokegpt^f* iM$ ; tenir aa ehambre propre, &e., iokup OM^a 
roomdmn; tenil' la porte,^lea fen^trea oovertea, fa ftatp (&a^eor,lAt 
t€pen; leair leayiiiK ettverta,fefiii4a,lotwydiii^f lyiirifiiii^ 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 


9hU; tenfr lit t^te draite, 4i(e., to kmp m^s head ttfrigki; tanir ■• 
parole, to keep one^s umW ; teuir compagnie k qoolqu*un, to Ua^ oi 
remain with strme or any one, 

*X Tcnir an bingage singulier, teiiir des propos . . ., dea diseours . . ^ 
would be rendered in Cnglisih by to make use of wingvlar language 
to use pectUiar expressumSy to advatiee thitigs, d&c 

Ce jecne homme tient des propos TIM young man saysfooUtk tUngs, 


3. Tenir is also used in the sense of being attached to^iohe iem^ 

eious of:—' 

Je liens a mon argent, k la vie. Ival%e (i. e. hM to) wy money ^ m^ 

Je tiens a mon opinion. / am tenacious of my opinion. 

4. Tenir is also used of a color which is foul or not: — 

Oette couleur tiendra ou ne tiendra 7%u color is fast (i. e. holds) or noL 


5. Faire tenir is used in the sense oftofoncard, to send:^^ 

Faites-lul tenir cet argent, cette Forward him this money, this Idler, 

6. Se tenir, or s'en tenir, conjugated reflectively, may often be 
rendered by to remain^ to abide by, to be satisfied with : — 

He remains standing, sealed, 
J am satisfied with your opinion. 

II se tient debont, i 

Jo m'en tiens a votre opinion. 

R£8UMfi OF Examples. 

M. L. licnt nn hotel snpcrbe. 
Votrc petite fllle no tient pas sa 

chambre bien proprc. 
Pouniuoi tenez-vous les portes ou- 

vert<?8 1 
n fait si chaud que nous tenons 

toutes les Tendtres ouvertes. 
TenfZ la t^te droite et les yeux 

ou verts. 
Pourquoi ue tencx-Tons pas votre 

}Nirolu ? 
Tenez compagnie a Totre sceur; 

elle est mala<le. 
Votre ami tient des propos bien 

' Vous tenez des disconrs bien l^rs. 
La couleur de votre drap ticwlra- 

Lni avez-vons fkit tenir ce livre 1 
A quoi vuus vn tiendrez-vous ? 
Je ni'en tiendrai a ce que J'ai dit. 
Pourquoi so tientril toi^jours do- 

■ 11 

Mr. L. keeps a superb hold. 
Your liUle girl does not. keep her 

very clean. 
Why do you keep the doors open ? 

It is so warm thatwekeep ail the win' 

dows open. 
Keep ymir head upright and fear 

eyes open. 
Why do you not keep your word? 

Stay with your sisters she is siek. 

Your friend makes use of very single' 

tar expressums. 
Ymi use very tight language. 
Is the color of your cloth fad 7 

Have you sent him that book? 
What mil be f/tmr decision ? 
I shaJJ abide oy what I have said. 
Why ioes he always reesenn stains 


by Google 


» 1*611 tiendn-^il an pri- 

aeal^ qui doit fluir deniain ] 


Ike preseiUt wkuh is to end U/^nwr^ 

Recomroand-cr, 1 t§ 

recommend t 
Regard-er, 1. so looki 
Rue, slretl ; 
8av-oir, 8. ir. to knowt 

ExBRCisx 177. 

Cocher ra. eowAman; Gens, pi. people; 
Deboat standing; liidisi|iose, e, indisposed 

Hikodrbf 4. tojforlrid: Insolent, e, insokrU; 
i>e prte, dosdys L^cu, place; 

Sn dehors, ouiy outside; Malade, sick; 
ffcnrhtimer, 1. ref. toget Parfaitcment, perfectly; Vie, life. 
A cold; VrtUiT-eVf \. to prefer ; 

1. Quel h6tel votre fr^re ticnUl? 2. II ttent IMidtel de l^Enrope, 
me de . . . 3. Votre petit gar9on se tient^il bien propre ? 4. .11 so tient 
hien propre. 6. A quoi voas en tiendrez-vous ? 6. Je m'en tiendrai 
& ce que je voas ai dit 7. Ne savez-vous pas ^ quoi vous en tenirf 
8. Je saisf parfaitement i quoi in*en tenir. 9. Pourquoi vons tenez- 
Tons debouti 10. Parceque nous n*avons pas le temps de nous 
asseoir. 11. N*avez-vous point d^fendu k ces jeunes gens de tenir 
de teh propos? 12. Je le tenr ai dSfendu. 13. Votre cocher n*a*t-ir 
pas tenu un langage bien insolent? 14. N'avez-vous pas peur de vous 
enrhuroer, en tenant lea portes ouvertes? 15. Nous prefererions lea 
tenir fennees. 16. Votre maltre vous reeommande-t-il de tenir la 
tite droite? 17. II me recommande de tenir lespieda en dehors. 18. 
Pourquoi votre ami ne vous tient-il pas compagnie? 19. Sa aoeur est 
indisposie; ii est oblige de rester avec elle. 20. Votre oncle ne 
voas a-t^il pas tenu lieu de p^re? 21. U m*a tenu lieu de p^ et de 
m^re. 22. Regarderez-vous de plus prda ^ cette affaire? 23. Noo, 
Monsieur; je m*en tlendrai k ce que j*en sais. 24. Ce m^deeln ne 
tient-il pas i son opinion ? 25. II y tient plus qu'il ne tient k la vie 
de aes malades. 

Exercise 178. 

1. Docs that gentleman keep open table ? 2. He keeps a hotel in 
Paris. 3. Why do you keep the v^indows open ? 4. We keep them 
opor. because we are too warm. 5. Has not your friend kept hia 
word. 6. He has kept his word ; he always keeps his word. 7. Have 
you :iot told your scholar to keep his head upright? 8. I have toh 
him to keep his head upright and his eyes open. 9. Why do you 
not stay with your sister? 10. Because I have promised to go to my 
eoQsir/s this morning. 11. Have you forbidden your little boy to 
nake use of these expressions? 12. 1 have forbidden him. 13. Ooea 
he make use of insolent language? 14. He does not 15. What iriy 
bt your decision? 16. I will abide by what I told your fiither. 17 


by Google 

*46 &!••#» S«l. 

IbTtt yMi flhriTftHM dMtt m6Mjr U your MMiAt !•. IbMtMlyal 

forwarded it to him. 19. Will you forward it to him to-morruw} 
80. 1 will forward it to him, if I have an opportunity. 31. Why do 
you not keep standing? 23. Beoaiite I am weary. 23. Do yoo think 
that the color of your coat is faat? 24. 1 think that it is iaat; it (elk) 
appears very good. 25. Will yon not look closely into your broUi«r*s 
afiairst 26. 1 shall not look closely into them. 27. 1 will be aaitisfied 
with your opinion. 28. Are you not tenacious of your opinion? 
29. I am not too tenacious of it. 30. I>oea not your physician ad> 
here too tenaciously to his opinion? 31. He adheres to it 32. Does 
that lady hold your mother^s place ? 33. She is a mother to me. 84 
Oar cousin is a father to na. 36. That phyaksian does not valu« the 
life ef his patient. 


1. The verb 6tre forma t great BiaDy idioms besides those which 
we hare already mentioned : 6tre en retard, to be late, to tarry ; ktn 
en (M^ Sl m6mo de^ to be dfle to ; dtre en peine do, to be uneasy about; 
Mre eo via, lo fte tfUes, to liee ; ^tre en chemin pour, in be oa the way 
to ; Mrs au fait, au conrant de, to be familiar wUi; dtre k la veilie dfl^ 
to bean (he eve of ; Mre de trop, to be unneeeeeary, to be in the way; 
Mre bien avec, to bean good terms mtk; 4tre brouillS avee, tobeom 
had terms with; 4tre auz prises avee, to be in open rupture^ quarrd or 
hattk with ; dtro d'avis, to be cfopimont ete. 

2. ^tre, as already said [L. 47. 5.], is used in the sense of appai^ 

tenir, to belong. It is also employed in the sense of to behoove^ to bo^ 

eome. In the latter sense, it takes generally the preposition de before 

another verb : — 

Sst-ee k vous de lu! ikire des re- ihes it beeme yon to etut (smIO n 

proches 1 preaehet vpon him 7 

O'est k vous d parler. R is your iwm to speak, 

t. Y dtre ia often need tor lobe at haam^ to be in:^ 

Vo«repkii7«Bt.fi1 AyeOffatiwredkemf 


If' sommca-tioiu pas 6a trop lei 1 Art we not in the weof heref 


mare/amOiar with aU that. 

_. I pas do trop lei 1 

H ons ne sommes pes Wen af<eo 

Vsas sommes aaeesaeal detont 


by Google 

XJIB4B0V %0t, 


Umikh ipto6deifttSar«iM4ift 

KcMis 9ommtB bronQUs. 

Ua BODar est 4 k reilld de ae 

KoQB sommes d'ayis qae rous 

alllez lui fitire des excuses. 
Ce n'est pas a lui de nous re- 

procher notre bontA. 
A qui estK» a lire ? 
O'est 4 ma soeur a lire ce matin. 

Cette maisoa eat 4 lui et 4 mol. 
£l]e est a moi, elle est 4 lui. 
Ces soulieiB ne sont pas 4 nous, 
lis appartiemient 4 notre (thn, 
lis lui appartienncnt 
llonsieai^ n'y est paa. 
Madame 7 est 


My sister is an tkt €t9 ef ker m«r> 

U is W opinion that fou skauld g9 

and apologize to him. 
It does not Seamu him to repraaek m 

vritii ova- kindness. 
Whose turn isUto read ? 
It is my sister's turn to read thiU 

That h4mu is kis and mmm. 
, // is mine J U is his. 
These shoes are not ours. 
They belong to our hothar, 
ney Mang io him. 
T%e gentleman isnoteU 4om# 
TV lady is in. 


Achet-er, 1. to buy; Gravore, f. engravings Part-ir, 1 Ir. tesktri, «i 

Arriv-er, 1. to arrive; Hdte, m. host; out; 

Cofrespondant) earres-Ubn,\re,m.boekseUeri Pn^piMCidn» M. imU^ 

pondmt; Moia, m. month; lard; 

Craind-re, 4. Ir. to fear ; Montre, f. watch ; Punir, 2. to punish ; 
Der-oir, t. taawt, beobtig- Mori, p. p. from rnonrir, Yeille, f. eve, dmy b^ 

ed; to dse; fort» 
Bmbarau-er, (s*) 1. lef. 

to emboirk; 

i. Y a>t41 loogtemps que tobs dtea brovili^a I 9. U y a pl«s d*qii 
mois que j« asia broui1l6 avec lui. 8. Votre ami eat-il encore en vie f 
4. Non, Mooaiear; U y a dix ana qu'il eat mort. 6. Votre eorre^ 
pondant eat-il en ehemin pour Paris t 6. Je crois qh'il doit 4tm 
anriv6. 7. Ce jeune homme n'est-il paa en retard? 8. Ooi, Moa» 
aienr ; il ne vient jamais 4 tempa. 9. Cea gravnrea sont-elles 4 vona 
on 4 votre libraire \ 10. Elles aont 4 moi ; je viens de lea aoheter. 
1 1. Ne craignez-voua pas d'4tre de trop id 1 13. Nona aommes trop 
luen avec notre h6te pour craindre cela. 13. A qui eat^oe 4 aller 
ebereher lea livraa t 14. C'eat 4 moi 4 lea aller ehercher. 16. Esi-ca 
4 vona de le pnnir, qnand il la m^rite ? 18. Cest 4 moi de le panv« 
oar je lui tiena lieu de p4re. 17. Cea maaaons n*appartiemioni*eUea 
paa 4 notre propri6taire? 18. Ellea ne lui appartienncnt paa. It. 
JBllaa aont 4 notre coirespondaai SO. A qui aont cea lettrea f 91* 
Ellea ne aont point 4 moi« elles sont 4 ipa coaaine. 23. Cette m<»tn 

«, Mi firilowed I7 aname, am cenerally 1 
r and mlatraaa of tlie house, the beads of llM OoBilr. 

1* Digitized by Google 

249- I.S880V zorL 

est k lui. 23. K*4te8-T0U8 point k la veflle de partii ponr (jondres* 
24. Nous sommes k la veille de nous embarquer ponr Cadix« 2ft. 
II y a longtemps, que nous Bommes aux prises. 


1. Are you able to pay him ? 2. I am not able to pty him ; T have 
not received my money. 3. Are you on good terms with your book- 
seller? 4. I am not on good terms with him. 6. I am on bad terms 
with him. 6. How long have you been on bad terms with him? 7. 
It is more than a month. 8. Are you not able to satisfy my friend^s 
demand? 9. I am able to satisfy it (eTy saiisfaire), 10. Are you 
on your way to Naples? 11. No, Sir; I am on my way to Rome. 
12. Is not your physician on the eve of starting for Montpellier ? 13. 
He is on the eve of starting for Paris. 14. Am I in the way here? 

16. No, Sir ; you are not in the way. 16. Whose turn is it to speak ^ 

17. It is my turn to speak and to read. 18. Is it my place (d rnoi) 
to make apologies to him? 19. It is your brother's place to apolo- 
gize to him. 20. Does it become you to punish that child ? 21. It 
liehooves me to punish him. 22. Do you hold the place of a father 
towards him ? 23. I hold the place of a father towards him. 24 
Is that coat yours? 25. No, Sir ; it is not mine ; it is my brotlier'a 
26. Have you broken openly with him ? 27. We have been quar- 
relling two months. 28. Is not that large house yours ? 29. No, 
Sir; it is not mine; it is my sister's. 30. Does it become your 
brother to reproach him with his kindness? 31. It does not become 
him to do it. 32. Whose turn is it to go and fetch the books? 83. 
It is my place to go and fetch them. 34. Is the gentleman in! 
85. No, Sir, the gentleman is not in ; but the lady (of the house) 
is in. 


1. Avancer, retarder, correspond to the English verbs to gavi, to 
•ose, tn piU ftjrward, to put back, in speaking of a watch or clock, &£. 
The pieposition de is placed before the word expressing tlie van- 
ation :-^ 

Ma montie rctarde d'une demi- jlfy wJdi m ktdfan hour toe sbm. 


La mienne avanco d'mi quart Mine is a quarter of an hour too fast. 


J'ai avaTic4 cetie horloge d'une ite thatdodihiUfmikmMrfprmm^ 



by Google 




a. Metlro [4. ir.] & rheme, meant to ut r^A^ to put righu te 

Mettez ootto montre 4 rheore. Set that watch right, 

S. S*aecordor, toagreej is said also of clocks, watches, dto. 

R£sum£ of Examples. 

Votre montre va-t-clle Wen 1 

£lle retarde d'une demi-hcure par 

Elle avaiico d'on qnart dlienre par 

De combien avance-t-elle 1 
Je Tiens do mettre ma montre a 

Bi Totre montre retarde, pourquol 

ne ravancez-vou9 pas 1 
Ha pendule avance ; Je viens de la 

Qnelle hcuro cut-il & votre montre 1 
Mon horloge sonne lea heores eties 

J'ai oubli6 de la mooter (or remon- 

Voire montre est dirvngSt, 
II fiiodra hi fairo nettoyer. 
La sonneric en est d^rang^e. 
Votre pendule et ma montre ne 

8 accordent pas. 
Les pendules a rcssort vont mienx 

quo Ics pendules a poids. 
L'borloge a sonn6 deux heures. 

Does your watch go well 7 
It loses half an hour a day. 

It gains a quarter of an hova a week. 

Haw much has it gained ? 
J have just set my watch rigU. 

if your watch loses, why do ytu not 

set it forward? 
Mv clock gains ; / hofoe just $et U 

What o*dock isithy your wata^? 
My clock strikes the hour and th ha'/ 

1 have forgotten to wind it tip. 

Your watch is out of order. 
It will be necessary to have it deaned, 
7^ striking part is out of ordsr. 
Your clock and my watch da nai 

Spring clocks go better than weight 

The clock has struck two. 


Droit, e, straight: Ressort, (grand) m. 

F6\€, e, cracked ; nuUn-^pnng ; 

Justo, right, correct ; Secondes, (montre a) 
pendu- Matin, m. mami'M ; watch wUh a second 

Perfection, f.«n;/«c<t(ni; hand; 
Plat, e, flat, thin; Timbre, m. bdl of m 

R£gl-er, 1. to regulate; dock; 
R£p6Ution, (montre k) Vite, quick, qmday. 
t repeater; 

h N*aTez-vous pas nne montre k r^p^titionl 3. J*ai ime moniK 
i'or, 4 doable boite. 8. Va-t-elle mieux que la mienne t 4. Elle ne 
va pas blen, eile retardo d'une heure par jonr. 6. Est^se nne montre 
4 aecondesl 6. Cost une montre k secondes et k cadnm d*or. 7. 
Votre horloge ne sonne-t-elle pas ! 8. Elle ua sonne plus, le iimbf 
•a eat eaas^. 9. Riurquoi eea pendules ne s*aooordent-eUM paa* 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Aignille, f. hand; 
An^trer, (s*) 1. ref. to 

Balancier, m. 


Boite, f. watch-^ase; 
Cadran, m.face, dial; 
Cass-cr, 1. to break; 
Doable, double; 

t44 1.BSSOV zoii 

10. Pgmsqm I'vne sfinee ct I'Mtn rotaidew 11. ITavM tqwi foM 
mm6 le grand rMsort de votre montre t 13. Je Pai eaiw^ «d la le- 
nontaiit 13. Votra pendule e«l elle juste? li. Oui, MoMienr 
•lie est juste ; je viens de la faire i^gler. 16. La sonnerie de eotli 
pendule estnelle d^nngi^e t 16. La sonnerie en est ddrsog^et le 
timbre en est ftl6. 17. La petite aiguille de ma montre plate est 
cass^. 18. Le balancier de votre horloge n*est pas droit! 19. Do 
eombien votre pendule ayance-t-elle ! 20. Elle avanoe de cinq mi- 
nutes par jour. 31. La perfection d*une pendule n'est pas dialler rite, 
mais d'etre r6gl6e (Delillb). 33. Votre montre s'arrdte-t^lle 
Bouyentt 33. Elle s'arr^te tons les matins. 34. Votre pendule 
s'est arrdt6e. 


1. Does jwaar watch gain or lose ? 3. It does not loie ; it goes 
▼ery well. 3. It loses twenty-five minutes a day. 4. Does your 
dock gain much ? 6. It gains one hour a week. 6. How much 
does your son's gold watch lose ? 7. It loses much ; it loses one 
hour in (en) twenty-four (hettres), 8. I have put it forward one 
hour. 9. I will put it back half an hour. 10. Does not your clock 
strike the half hour? 11. No, Sir; it only strikes the hour. 13. 
Have you foi|^otten to wind up your repeater! 13. I have forgot 
ten to wind it up, and it has stopped. 14. Is your silver watch out 
of order! 16. It is out of order, and it will be necessary to have it 
cleaned. 16. What o'clock is it by your watch .^ 17. It is three 
o'clock by my watch ; but it gains. 18. How much does it gain a 
week ! 19. It gains more than five minutes a day. 30. Is your 
watch right! 21. No, Sir; it is not right; it is out of order. 23. 
Does your dock strike right! 23. It does not strike right; the 
striking part is out of order. 34. Have you broken the hands of 
your clock! 26. I have broken the hour hand and the dial. 36. 
Has the clock struck three! 37. It has struck twelve. 38. It has 
stopped. 39. Does it stop every morning? 30. It does not stop 
every morning ; it stops every evening. 31. Your watch does not 
agree with mine. 83. Have you not broken the main-spring of your 
Drother's vratch ! 33. He has broken it in winding it up. 34. Mj 
hmhk^B wateh is right ; he has had it cleaned and regulated. 


by Google 

Lxsaov xeiti; 


LESSON xcm. 

Lsgoy xcm 

1. 'Se d^mettre [4. ir.] le bras, le poignet, corresponds to the 
English expression to dislocate oniz army torn/, to put one^s arm^ wrist 
ma if jwM. In this sense se d^mettre takes no preposition before 
its objeet>— 

Je me snis dfimis r^paole. / haios dis loca U d my shdntlder. 

fl. Se d^mettre, used in the sense of to resign, togtse upf takes 
the preposition de before its object : — 

n s'est d6mls de sa place. He has resigned his jdace, 

S. S*emparer, to seixey to lay hold of, takes de before ita object >— 

II s'est empare de ce chapeau. He seized vpon this hat, 

4w S'emp^her, to prevent one^s self, toforbear, to help, takes cfe be* 
fore another verb : — 

Je ne pais m'en^)6cher de rire. 
Je ne puis m'en emp6cher. 

/ cannot help laughing, 
I cannot hap doing so. 

6, S'inqui^ter answers to the English expression, to fte or become 
uneasy, to trouble one^s self; it takes de before its object, be this ob- 
ject noun, pronoun or verb :— 

Je ne m'ioquidte pas de cela. I am not uneasy about that, 

6L Se comporisr aaewera to the expressions to behave^ to deport 
tmds self, 

7. S'attendre means to mim^, to expect. It takes d before ita ob- 
ject- — 

Je ne m'attendais pas & cela. I did w4 expect thai, 

Je ne m*7 attendais pas. / did not expeU it, 


Vcnis etes-vons dimis r^paulel 
Je me la suis dSmise [L. 46. 2, 

Cette demoiselle s'est d6niis le poi- 

Qui le lu! a remis 1 
Le Dr. L. a remis r6panle & ma 

Voiis dtes-vous demis ^e voire 

Je m'en snis d^mis [% 135. 7]. 
Nous ne pouvious nous empteher 

de sounre pendant ce r6cit. 
Vous Ates-vous empari de oe livre 1 
le m'en suis empar6. 
De quoi vous Inqniites-voos 1 

Have you dislocatsd your shouldtr? 

That young lady dislocated her wriff . 

Who set U for her? 

Dr, L,setmy sister's shoulder. 

Have you resigned your situaiien 9 

J have resigned it. 

We could not help smiUng dmneg 

that narration. 
Have you seized that book? 
Why dfi you tremHU yousadff 


by Google 


ivttoir xcixL 

Jc DO m^tiiqaiAte de rien. 
CommoDt ce jcone homme se com- 

porte-t-il 1 
D 80 comporte comine il faut. 
7e no m'attcQdaU pas k une tolle 

Jo ae m'y attendali noUemont 

/ trouble myself ahofut MClti 
H&w does thai young i 


He behaves properly. 
I did iwt expect such an 

IdidnotexpeU U, by any means. 

K I'aTonir, infiUurei 
Bras, m. onn; 
Cas£wer, 1. to break t 
Droit, e, fy;ht ; 
Dnrant, during! 
ficritoire, f. inkstand! 
Eimomi, m. enemy ; 

Exercise 183. 

Gauche, left ; Paysan, m. peasant i 

Mieox, betUr ; Prasse, f. Prussia : 

Monde (tout le), every Q^iowr, m. stays 

body! Traitement^ m. imai^ 

Oh\\e6, obHged I mentf 
Pareil, le, nmilar, such; YUle, f. ciiy. 
Part, f. part ; 

1. Ne V0U8 6tiez-voas pas d^mis le bras? 2. Je ne me Tetais pat 
demis; je me Totals casse. 3. Si vous alliez en Ameriqcc, tous d6- 
mettriez-vous de voire place ? 4. Je serais oblig^ de m*en d^mettrtd ? 
6. Y a-t*il longtemps qae votre coasin 8*est demis de laaienne? 
6. II y a un mois qu^il s'ea est demis. 7. Uennemi s^est-il empare de 
la ville! 8. 11 s'en est empar^. 9. Votre fils se comportera-t>il 
mieux k Tavenir? 10. II s*est tr^s bien comports darant son s^joor 
en Prusse. 11. Vous attendiez-vous k un pareil traitement de sa 
part? 12. Je ne m*y attendais pas. 13. A quoi vous attendiex- 
vous? 14. Je m'attendais -^^tre traits commell faut 15. Pourqad 
vous £tes-vou'} moqu6 de lui? 16. Parceque je n*ai pu m*en emp^ 
cher. 17. Si vous laissiez voire ^critoire ici, le paynan s'en empare- 
rait41? 18. H s'en emparerait certainement 19. Votre associd se 
comporte-tril bien envers vousi 20. II se comporte bien envcrs tout 
lemonde. 21. Qui aremis le poignet a votre sceur? 22. Le Dr. 
G. le lui a remis. 23. M. votre p^re ne s'est-il pas d^mis le brat 
^it ce matin ? 24. II ne se Test pas demis ; il se Test cass6 ce 
* rrtm k cinq heurea. 

Exercise 184. 

1. Has not Dr. L. resigned his place ? 2. He has not resigned it 
). He would resign it, if he went to Germany. 4. Are ybu obliged 
to resign your place? 5. I am not obliged to resign it 6. Has your 
cousin dislocated his arm ? 7. He has not dislocated his arm, but hit 
shoulder. 8. Who set it for him? 9. Doctor F. set it for him. 
10. Has not your mother dislocated her wrist? 11. She has not 
dislocated her wrist ; she has broken her arm. 12. Has the enemy 
seized the town? 13. The enemy has seized the town. 14. WUi 
not some one lay hold of your h9t» if you leave it here t 16. Some 


by Google 

LXSSOll xoiv. U1 

oiM wQl lay hold of : t 1 6. How has your son beharcd tl/w morning f 
17. He behaved very well. IS. He always behaves properly. 
19. Do you not trouble yourself uselessly (iniUileme7U)1 20. I do 
not trouble myself at all (du Unit). 21. Did you expect such treat- 
ment from (de la part de) your son t 22. I did not expect such 
treatment from him (de sa part). 23. Does that young lady behavo 
well towards her mother? 24. She behaves well towards every 
body. 25. Will you behave better in future? 26. We will behave 
well. 27. Have you broken your finger (doigt) ? 28. I have broken 
my thumb (pocice). 29. Could you help going to sleep (de dormir) 1 
30. Wo could not help smiling. 31. My sisters could not help 
laughing. 32. Why are you uneasy? 33. Because (parceque) my 
sou does not behave well. 34. Did your father expect to be well 
treated ? 35. He expected to be treated properly. 36. We did not 
expect such an answer. 


1. N'importe, an ellipsis of U iCimportey answers to the £ngliaU 

expression ** no mattery^ it does not matter^ never mind ;-— 

Donnez-moi un Hvre, n*importe le Give me a book, no maUer whkh. 

2. Qu^importe? answers to tho English phrase what matter^ 
What does it matter ? When that expression is followed by a plural 
eobject tho verb importer is put in the plural : — 

Que nous importent leurs mur- Wh4U do we care for tkdr mitrmwrt? 

3. N'est«e pas % corresponds to the English expressions, U it watt 
i$ he noty d^l do they not 1 following an assertion : — 

II fait fVoid; n'est-ce pasi U is add f isUnot? 

4. N'est^e pas ? frequently precedes the assertion : — 

STest^e pas que votre fr&re est Yovr Ifrother is come ; is he not 7 

6. Regarder, to look at^ is used in the sense of to concern :— 
Cela rcgarde votre frere. T*hat wncerns your broth^-. 

a En voul-oir (3. ir.) 2l quelqu'un, ^ quelque chose, means to haie 
B design, against or upon ; a grvdge against any one ; to be angry with 
ene on account of something ;— 

n en reut inotre vie. ffe has a design agasnU our 4ft 


by Google 


LXtffOS X0IT, 

SmbouA of Eiampubs. 

Ponrvn quo roos renies, n'importe 

par qa«I chemio. 
FourvQ qu'fl le ilunOi tt'inqxirto 

Apportes-moi qnelqne diose, u'lm- 

porto quol. 

'«n moiuTai ; n'importo. 

1 B'est pas satSafait; qa'importel 

'1 feftue DOB prtflenti ; qn'importe 1 

^ae noTU importe cetto affaire 1 
Qae VOU8 importe son arrfv6et 
Vous Tiendrez ; n'est ce pas? > 
li'est-oe pas que vous viendrez 1 ) 
Estroe que cela me regarde 1 

Cela ne regarde personne. 

n en Teut k nos bfens. 
II en yeut k nos amis. 
Tela vous rogarde-t-il 1 

i^rovided you comtj no ijffl i r wkiek 

Pnmded Mm 4hs U, wawatfsrjbw. 

Bring fM s6midhing^1uf matUr wkJL 

ItkaUdieikroMMh iig nomaUer. 
H€ is not sa^/Ud vith Ui wkM 

matters it? 
Ht refuses owpre$nU$; itkatipetU 

What do ice care for tkat affair? 
What is his arrival tons? 

You will coTne; vnllyounat? 

Does that concern me? h that anf 

thing tome? 
TVuit concerns nobody. That is na^ 

body's business. 
He has a design upon our p r operty. 
He has a grudge against our Jrien '4, 
Is that your business? 


Accord-cr, 1. to grant ; Hasard, m. chance ; Pouv-oir, Z. \x. to h$ 
Approuv-er, 1. to ap-ltoiu,far ; able; 

prove; Moqu-er, (te) I. reH to9a.ng, m. Hood t 

Auteur, m. author ; laugh at ; yti,Jrom aller, togog 

Bien, very ; Murmure, m. murmur ; Velours, m. velvet ; 

Condamn-er, 1. to con-Ten, UtUe ; Vers-er, 1 to pour, shed g 

demn ; Plainte, f. complaint; VU, o, vUe ; 

Demande, f. request ; 

1. Qne voua apporterai-je de Londres ? 2. Apportex-nons ce que 
Tous pourrez, n'importe quoi. 3. Lai avez-vous dit d'apporter da 
velours ? 4. Je lui ai dit d*en apporter, nMmporte de quelle quality. 
6. Pourvu que quelqu'un vienne, n*importe qui. 0. Que m*importe 
qu'Amaud m'approuve on me cohdamne? (Boilbau.) 7. Voua 
accorde-t^il votre demande? 8. II refuse; quMmportet 9. £at41 
■atisfait dea efforts que voua avez faita? 10. II n'en est paaaatisfait; 
qu*importe? 11. II n*a pas voulu nous reccvoir; peu'm'impoita 
13. Qu'importentles plaintes et les murmures des auteurs, si le public 
s*en moque? (F^raud.) 13. Qu'importe qu'au hasard un sang vil 
Boit verse ? (Racine.) 1 4. Cela vous regarde ; n*eat«e pas ? 15. CeU 
ne me regarde pas. 16. Cela ne regarde que moL 17. Vous leur 
avez dit que ees affaires ne les regardaient pas; n'est.ce past 
18. Vous m*en voulez; n'est-«e pas? — ^N'iriporte. 19. A qui en 
vonlez-voua? 20 Nona n^en voulona i personne. SI. Nooiimtom 


by Google 

Liftoff JtOT. • U9 

Ml Toal«iir8 pas. 9S. Vont m'en Yondrez; n'eil ee pas? 38. Ed 
Yonlez Tous il la vie de votre ami ? 24. Je ii*eii Tevz pas & aa ?ia. 
25. II m'en Teat; quMmporte? 36. Va, C^sar est bien loin d'ea 
Tonioir & sa vie I (Voltaire). 

EzsBCiss 186. > 

1. Which way will your brother come? 2.^*rovided he comes to* 
morrow, it does not mattei which way. 3. Will he write to your 
brother? 4. He will not write to him; but it is no matter. 5. 
Will yon not lend me a book ? 6. Which book do yon wish to 
have 1 7. No matter which. 8. Shall I bring you some silk from 
Paris ? 9. Bring me what you can ; no matter what. 10. Does 
that concern your brother? 11. That does not concern him, but it 
eoneema me. 12. Does he refuse to write to us? 13. He refuses 
to (de) write; but what does it matter? 14. Bring me a book, no 
matter which. 16. Your brother will come, will he not? 16. Has 
he been willing to receive your brother? 17. He has refused to re- 
ceive him, but no matter. 18. He is pleased, is he not? 19. He is 
not pleased, but it is no matter. 20. Is that your business? 21. It 
is my business. 22. It is my brother's business. 23. I have told 
you tho^ it is nobody's business. 24. Has that man a design against 
your father's life ? 25. He has no design against his Kfe ; but he 
has a design npon his property. 26. Are you angry with ns on that 
account? 27. I am not angry with you for this. 28. Have yon a 
grudge against my friends? 29. I have no grudge against Ihem. 
80. That concerns you, does it not? 81. That concerns me. 33. 
Is that^our business? 33. It is very warm this morning; is it not* 
14. My sister will come this afternoon; will she not? 35. If she 
ioes not come, it does not matter. 36. What is her coming to ns? 


1. The word monde, toorld, is often used in French in a restr]eto4 
sense. It has then the meaning of peopUf eompanyt reiirme, iervania^ 

T avait-il beacconp de monde k Were there many peopk at church? 


le meUant iila t^te de son monde, il Placing himself at the head of iUf 

OBvrit Ini-m^me la porte. po^^i ^ him&dj lyefmed the door. 


3. Hm word gens also meana jMopZe, and » of the maseniis^ fui» 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 


LX8809 SOT. 

d«r ; buti by a wngular anomaly, the adjectives which precede gen^ 
are put in the feminine, while those which follow it mast be in the 
masculine gender >— 

Ce soDt les meillenres g^ens da monde. 7^ are the best people in (he toarld, 
Ces gens sont fort dangercux. TTiose people are very dangerous, 

d. The words toat, tel, quel, certain, not preceding immediately 
the word geru, are pat in the mascaline, except when the woi^ 
coming between is an aiiyective having a different termination in the 
two genders : — 

Tons ces gens 14 ^taient-ils chr6- Were aU those people Christians? 

tiens 1 Pascal. 

Teas ces geas Ik sont sottcment All those people are foolishly ingenU 

ingfinieax. J. J. Bousseau. ous. 

4. The words toat, tel, quel, certain, are put in tlie feminine whea 

they precede immediately the word gens^ or are separated from it 

by an adjective having a different termination in tlie feminine :~- 

Quelles eens fttes-vous 1 Quelles sont What people are you? What is 

vos affaires 1 (Racine.) business? 

Qnelles bcmnes et dignes ^ns 1 What good and worthy people f 

R£suMd OF Examples. 

Aprto s'Atre ikit craindre de tont le 
monde, il craigoit tout le monde 
aossi. FUEcHiia. 

II dit da mal de tout le monde. 

Toot le monde le dit. 

Aves vous amen6 beaucoup de 
monde 1 

Le monde n'cst pes encore arriv6. 

II n'y avait pas grand monde. 

II y a da monde avec luL 

II a congedi6 tout son monde. 

Ce capitaine a tout son monde. 

Yoild de sottes gens. 

n s'arrAte chez les premieres bonnes 

gens qu'il troave. Boiste. 

II y a ji la viUe, comme aillears, de 

• fort sottes gens, des gens fades, 

oisifls, d680ccup6s. La Bruy£re. 
Quels braves gens ! 
Quelles viles et michantes gens ! 


After having inspired every I 
fear^ he feared every body. 

He slanders every body. 

Every body says so. 

Have you brought many people f 

The company is not yet anne. 
T%ere were not many people there. 
There is some person with him. 
He has discharged aU his servanti 

That captain has all his crew. 
Those are foolish people. 
He stops urith the first good peopk 

that /te finds. 
There are in the cifyt as ^sewkeri^ 

very silly people^ tedious^ idle, wt^ 

employed people. 
What loorthy people t 
What vile and wicked people t 


Aocommoder(s\) 1. ref. Campagne, f omn/rf/; Gens d'6p£e, miUtarf 
topiU up wUhf to agrei Ddm6l-er, 1. to settle] ar- men ; 

wUht range; Gens de lettres, men tf 

Attend-re, 4. to await j to Oto que, as soon as: letters ; 

9eeti Squipsgo, m. etino; Gens de robe, lawyers g 

i (k\ M> boardi BveiU-er, 1. to aoake ;. Patron, n. pitren eaud 


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Pofd-re, 4. to lose* Beven-ir, 1. ir. to r«tKr)» ;Voyig-er, i. [( 40.] io 

Basdembl-ar. 1. to bring Salon, m. drawing-room; travel ; 
together; Serv-ir, 2. ir. to Krw; Terre, f. land^ s.\ore, 

1. Avez-vous rassemble beuaconp de monde chez vous? 2. II n'est 
venu que peu de monde. 3. A quelle heure servira-t-on le diner an* 
joord'hui ? 4. On le servira d^s que noire monde sera venu. 6. Le 
capiLiine a-t-il tout son Equipage k bord? 6. Non, Monsieur, il a en> 
roye du monde il terre. 7. Vos gens se levent-ils de bonne heure * 
6. II faut que tous les jours j^eveille lout mon monde (Moli^ee). 
9 Les Moscovites perdirent trois fois plus de monde que lea 
Suedois (Voltaiee). 10. Ou est Madame votre m6re? 11. EUe est 
dans le salon, il y a du monde avec elle (company). 12. Tout le 
monde pent voyager comme raoi (X. de Maistee). 13. Ainsi va le 
monde. 14. Elie attend pour quitter le monde, que le monde Tait 
quittee (Fl^chiee). 16. Vos gens sont-ils revenus de la campagne? 
16. Nous attendons nos gens aujourd'hui. 17. Y a^t-il ici une society 
de gens de lettres ? 18. Non, Monsieur; il n*y a qu^une societe de 
gens de robe. 19. Connaissez-vous ces braves gens? 20. Je crois 
que ce sent des gens d*6p4e. 21. Tels sent les gens aujourd'hui. 
22. Telles gens, tels patrons (La BEUTfiRs). 23. Tous mea gens 
sent malades. 34. II faut savoir s'accomuoder de tootes gens 
(L'Acab£hie). 26. Que pouvez-vous avoir & d^m^ler avec de 
telles genst • 

Exercise 188. 

I. Are there many people at your brother's? 2. There are not 
many people there. 3. Docs that young man slander every body ? 
4. He slanders nobody. 5. Have you brought many people with 
you? 6. We have4)rought but few people with us. 7. Is there com- 
pany with your mother? 8. There is no company with her. 9. Who 
has told you that ? 10. Every body says so. 11. Is the company come I 
12. The company is not yet come. 13. Has your mother discharged 
iw< servants (domesliques) ? 14. She has discharged all her peoplo. 
15. Do you know those people? 16. I know them very well; they 
are very worthy people. 17. When he travels, he stops always with 
good people. 18. Are there foolish people here? 19. There are 
foolish people everywhere (partout). 20. Do you awake your people 
every morning? 21. Yes, Sir; I must awake them everyday. 22. 
What can your brother have to settle wh\\ those people ? 23. They 
tro the best people in the world. 24. Were there many people at 
cfauich this morning? 26. There were not many people there. 86L 
Are your people sksk? 27. Yea, Sir; all my people are sick. 28» 


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151 LXiioii xoTk 

Tliera it here a Boeietj of learned men. 99. There are in Parti 
■everal aoeietiea of lawyers. 30. What worthy people I SI. What 
^od people ! 83. Do you expect your people to-day ¥ 83. We ex 
pect them this wening. 34. So goes the world. 85. Haa your cap* 
tain all hla erev T 36. He haa all his erew on board. 


1. When property or possession is affirmed of things inanmiate^ 

the relation of possession is often expressed by the relative pronoun 

en [} 96, (6.)] :— 

VoiUi un bel arbre; le fruit en est That is a fine treeg iUfruU is wxcA- 
excellent Vtnl, 

3. When, however, the inanimate possessor is the subject of the 
same clause, the possessive adjective is used [} 95, (4.)] :— 

Cet arbro a perdu son fruit TtuA tfte has last its/ntii. 

8. Entendre, to hear^ is used in the sense of to underaUmd, It 
is also used reflectively. It means then, to be understood, to under* 
stand one^s self^ or one another, or to agree unth one another. It means 
also, to be expert in any thing. In this latter sense it takes d before 
ita regimen. This regimen is at times replaced by the pronoun y :— 

Comment entendea-rous cela 1 How do you understand thai ? 

Cela s'entend. T^hat is understood. 

n s'entend aux aflaires. He is expert in business, 

4. Se faire entendre corresponds to the English, to make on^e $eff 
understood, to make <m£s self heard i — 

Nous nous sommes (ait entendre. We made ourselva understood, 

6. Taire [4. ir.] means, to eoneealj to keep to onis self. Se taire. 

ref., to be sHenL 

Taisea-rous. Taisons-nous. Be sUerU (hold your tongue). Ut «i 

be silent. 
Dites-lui de se taire. Tell him to be silenL 

R£8um£ of Examples. 

Ii'auteur d*UD bienfait est celui qui 
«n revolt les plus doux fVuits. 


Votre Jardin est maguiflque; les 

arbres en sont superbes. 
Iia vie a seB plalsire et scs pelnesw 
If'Atvde a see cbarmesi 

T%e author of a good deed is the one 
who receives its sweetest fruits. 

Your garden is vu^uifieentt ii% trUf 

are very beautiful, 
Lifehasits pleasures anditftrnUe^ 
Sfud9 has its iharm% « 


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txaaoir lorL 


InlMideft'Vow Man le lattait 
CetaYOtt6 n'e&tend riea auz afikires. 

n Be 8*7 entend |>a8. 

Je loi ai doimd & entendre, qu'Q 

6tait de trop icL 
Qn'oDtecidez-Tous par la 1 
U 7 avail tant do bruit, que nons 

n'avons pn nouBfaire entendre. 
Taisez le premier, ce que tous you- 

lez qu'on taise. Latin Maxim. 
Pourquoi ne voos taiaez-voua pas 1 
Kous Tayona fait taira. 

Do y$u fmienumd LttUn wdl7 
Tkat atiamey has no knewUdge of 

Be is not expert in this. 
I gene hiin to understand thni it 

was in the way here. 
What do you mean by that ? 
There was so much noise^ that wm 

could not make ourselves heard. 
Keep to yourself thai wJUeh yoti would 

wish to have kept secret. 
Why are you not sUent? 
We made him hold his tongue (<i- 

lenced him). 

ExBRCiss 189. 

AgremeDt, m. pleasure ; Cbirurgien, m. surgeon ; Manche, f. sleew ; 
Avantage, m. advan- Conaent-ir, 2. ir. to con^ Mdl-er, 1. to mix ; 

tage; serU; Muet^ te, <2«iii^, 0t«te ; 

Baaque, f. skirt of a Court, e, shorts Pays, m. country i 

coal! Force, f. force, poioer / Raison, f. reason / 

Brare, worthy; Fort, very; R6us8-ir, 2. to succeed. 

1. Eat-ce un habit neuf que voire fila porte? 2. Ceat un habit 
oeuf, le drap en est tr^s fin. 3. Lea manches n'en aont ellea pas trop 
courtea ? 4. Je crois que lea manches en sont trop courtea et lea 
baaquea trop louguea. 6. La campagne n'a-tpelle paa aea avantagea ? 
6. J^aime la campagne ; j'en connaia lea avantagea. 7. Paris a sea 
agr^znents. 8. J'aime Paria ; j'en connaia lea agr^ments. 9. Ce chi- 
rurgien a'entend-il & la m6decine? 10. II q'7 entend rien du tout. 
11. £ntendez-vous la m^decine. 12. Je ne m'7 entanda paa. 13. Je 
ne I'entends paa. 14. Je n'7 entends rien. 15. Avez-voua r^naai jL 
voua faire entendre ? 16. Noua n'7 avona paa reusai. 17. Mon voi* 
■in eat un brave homme et je m*entends fort bien avec Ini. 18. Faiia 
taire certaines gena est un plua grand miracle que de faire parler lea 
mueta (Balzac). 19. Savez-vous de quel pa7a est cet homme t 
20. II tait son pays et sa naiaaance. 21. Par la force de la raiaon, 
elle apprit Tart de parler et de ae taire (Fl£chier). 22. Voulez* 
vous vous taire impertinente, vous venez toujoura m^ler voa imper 
tinerces h toutes chosea (MoliSre). 23. Qui ae tait conaen 



1. Have you a very good garden ! 2. We have a ver7 large otie^ 
Imt its aoil {terrej f.) ia not good. 3. la 70ur brother'a eoat newt 
a. Ha haa a new coat, but ita aleevea are too ahort 6. Are not ita 
aUrta too long? 6. No, Sir; ita akirta ara too abort 7. Hava |oii 
Mihaaid tkat praaebar(|»r^^M<aar) ? & Tbara w«a aa smcb nolaa 


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that I could not hear aim. 9. Does not the country have its plas 
sures? 10. The country hoa its pleasures. 11. Does not your br^« 
ther like the city ? 12. He likes the country ; he knows its pleasurosL 
13. What does your brother mean by that? 14. H3 means what he 
says. 15. Is your father expert in business ? 16. My father has no 
knowledge of business. 17. Does that young man understand Eng* 
lisli well? 18. He understands French and English very well. 19. 
Do you agree well with your partner? 20. My partner is an honest 
man [J 86.] ; I agree very well with him. 21. Does tliat young 
man conceal bis age ? 22. He conceals his age and his country. 23. 
Docs your father understand medicine? 24. He does not under- 
stand it 25. He has no knowledge of it. 26. Be silent, my child. 
27. Tell that child to be silent 28. Silence gives consent. 29. 
Will you not be silent ? 30. What have you given him to under- 
stand? 31. We gave him to understand that study has its charmSi 
32. Have you silenced him? 33. Yes, Sir; we silenced him. 84. 
Tell him to be silent. 35. I have already (ci^'d) told him to be si- 
lent 36. Let us be silent 



1. The present participle is invariable, and ends always in anl. ft 

expresses action, not situation. It cannot be rendered into English 

by an adjective, but is rendered by the participle present or by the 

present of the indicative preceded by a relative pronoun. The pros* 

ent participle has often, or may have a regimen. [} 64.] 

Cos hommes, pr^voyant le danger, 7%ose men^ foreseeing the danger, 
8*enfuircut. fled. 

2. The part of the verb used after the preposition en, is always tb 
present participle : — 

En ficrivant, en lisant In writing, in reading. 

3. When the word ending in ant, is used to express the qualities, 
properties, or moral or physical situation of a noun, it is a verbal 
adjective, and assumes in its termination the gender and number of 
the noun which it qualifies. It must in this case be rendered ioto 
Knglish by an adjective :— 

Ges hommes eont privoyants. Those mef^ «v cantimu, ffmaidmL 

4. The veriM entendre, to Ikesf ; £dre» to ctfiue, to mdi»;1ala8er.loJM^ 


by Google 

fcSBaoir xoYii. 


iEe^ foilowd by another verb completing tbeir meaning, are not ia 

French separated from that verb. In the corresponding scnteneea ic 

Bnglisli, the two verbs are usually separated by other words :— 

J'ai laisB6 toraber roon coateaa. / have let my knife fall {dropped), 
J 'ai entendu diru cela. / have heard thai said. 

R6SV1S& OF Examples. 

Je oonnaia des personnes dormant 
d'un sommcil si profond, que le 
bruit de la foudra ne lea r6veille- 
rait pas. Brscher. 

Les eaux donnantcs sont meilleures 
pour les chevaux que les caux 
vives. BupFON. 

Nous avons trouT6 cctte femmo 

Cette fomme mourantdans la crainte 
de Dicu, ne craignait point la 

On est beureux en se contentant de 


il vez-vous 1ais86 passer ce roleur 1 

Je I'ai lai886 passer. 

Pourquoi avez-v.>w3 fait ikire un 

habit 1 
Je n'ai pas fait (kire d'habit. 
J'ai las86 tomber quelqno chose. 
Lui avez-Yous entendu dire cela 1 
Je le lui ai entendu dire. 
Je Tai entendu dire. 
Je Tai entendu dire a ma soenr. 

/ know persons J sleeping (who sleep 
so projotindlijt thai the noise ofthun' 
der would not awake them. 

Sleeping {still) waUrs are better fei 
horses than living waters. 

We found that woman dyirhg, 

7%fd woman dying in the fear of 
God, did not fear death. 

Oiu is happy in contenting one's stV 

with little. 
Have ifou lei that thief pass ? 
/ let htm pass. 
Why have you had a coat mads f 

I have had no coat made. 

I let something fall. 

Have you heard him say that 7 

I heard him say it. 

I heard it said. 

I heard my sister say it. 


Appliqu-er, (s') 1. ref HAt-er (sc), 1. ref. to Pr6venant, e. obliging i 

to apply; hasten i Preven-ir, 2. ir. to eoh 

Bcsoin, m. iMii< ; Lecture, f. rica^ifi^; tidpate; 

Changement, m. aUera- Obligeant, e. obliging; R€p£t-er, 1. to repeat; 

tiott s Plai-re, 4. ir. to please / Suivant, e, foUotnng ; 

Emouss-er, 1. to blunt ; Pointe, f. point; Suiv-re, 4. Ir. tt follow t 

Empdcher, 1. to prevent; Pleuv-oir, 3. ir. to rain ; Voyant, e, bright, shyisy. 

Essayer, 1. to try; 

1. Ma cousine ost-elle aussi obligeante que la vdtre? 2. Elle est 
aussi obligeante, et bien plus charmante que la mienne. 3. Vos en- 
fiints sont-iU prevenants ? 4. Mes enfants, pr^v^nant tons mes be* 
Boins, ne me laissent rien ii d6sirer. 6. Lisez bien attentivement los 
pages aoivantes. 6. Ces demoiselles, autvant Texemple de leur m^re, 
8*nppliquent i la lecture. 7. Les couleurs voyantea ne me plaiseni 
point 8. Mes acsurs voyant qa*U allait plenvoir, ae h&t^rent de re- 
rcoir. 9. Qn'avez-Toiit laiaa^ tomber T 10. J'ai Uiaa6 tombor na 

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HM LBSSuir xerttu 

plnme; lapointe en est toouss^ 11. Les aTez-vous faltfarkrf 
13. Je les ai fait parler, mais avec difficult^. 13. Avez-voue fait Aire 
dea cliangements dans votre maisonT 14. J'yen ai fait (aire. Id. A 
qiioi en avez-vons fait faire ? 16. Ten ai fait laire JL la aalle ^ maik 
ger et an ealon. 17. Avez-vous lalss^ passer cet homme? 1& Je 
n'ai pas essayd de I'en emp4cher. 19. A qui (wham) avez-vous en* 
tendu dire cela ? 30. Je Tai entendudlre & mon p^re. 21. Je le lid 
ai entendu rep6ter. 32. H vous I'a entendn dire. 33. 11 voas a vo 
faire cela. 34. II vous I'a vu &ire. 25. Je Tai vu passer. 

1. Are still waters good for horses? 3. Buffon saysttiiat they are 
better for horses than living waters. 3. Are your sisters eautionsf 
4. They are not very cautious. 5. My sisters, foreseeing that it was 
going to rain, brought their umbrellas. 6. What have yon let fall t 
7. I have let my knife and book fall. 8. Do very bright colors please 
your brother t 9. Very bright colors do not please him. 10. Have 
you read the foUo wing pages? 11. Have you seen the dying wo- 
man? 13. Your sister, dying in the fear of God, was very happy. 

13. Your sister, following your example, appli'*:. herself to study. 

14. Have you made them read? 16. I made them read and writa 
16. I made my brother write. 17. I have had a book bound (rdier). 
18. Has your father had alterations made in his house? 19. He has 
had some made in it 30. In which room has he had some madef 
21. He has had some made in my brother's room. 33. Whom have 
you heard say that ? 33. I heard my sister say it 24. Have yoa 
heard him say that ? 26. I have not heard him say it 26. Have you 
seen my father pass ? 27. I have not seen him pass. 28. I have 
Heard him speak. 29. Make him speak. 30. Let it fall. 31. Do not 
let it fall. 32. What has your brother dropped ? 33. He has dropped 
nothing. 34. Whom have you heard say that ? 35. I heard your 
brother say it 86. I have heard you repeat it 37. We have i 
yon do that 



The participle past is variable under any of the following ooi^ 

1. When employed as aa adjeetive; in which ease H agreM te 
gcndMr and number with the now whieb it qnaiUlee ^— 


by Google 

OatliTMliaprinlf. FH$U$db$oks. 

Om tanoMt paraiiwiit Uen abaf- 1^^$ womm appemr vnf dtftckd. 

S. When used in the fonnatioii of the tentet of pMiive ywh^i 
wImb it always agieea with the tu^tei of the propoiitioii >^ 

JSDn sont Uea xe^uet de toat le Thef mrt wU reetivtd hf €fptn§ 
noado. hodiff, 

S. When employed m fonning the eonfponnd tenaea of neuter 
verba having Urt aa an aiudliary ; in which pbee, aa in the preced- 
ing eaae, it agrees with the subject or mnninative :— 

Yotre aoBur eat partie ce maUn. Your sister went away tkU morning, 

4. When employed m forming the tenses of active verba having 
amnr aa an anxiliary ; in which conneetion it agrees not with the 
subject, but with the direct ob/ect or n^guncn, provided that objeet 
prseeies it :«- 

Les maisoDS que noos avons ache- The koutet vfkiek we k€ve hengkt. 

5. When nsed along with itre in the formation of the compound 
tenses of reflective verbs, wherein the reflective pronoun is the direct 
object; in which position it sgrees with that pronoun or dire€$ 
cbftet : — 

Ges dames se loot flatties. 7%ose ladies have jUdlered iknmkeee, 

& When used along with tlrt (aa in Rule 6.) in tiie formation of 
the compound tenses of those reflective verbs, in which the reflective 
pronoun is not the direct, but the indirect object of the proposition ; 
in wliich event it agieea with the direct object^ provided (aa in Rule 
4.) that object precedes it : — 

Les bJstoires ({n'eiles se soat rsocB- T%e stories whkk ihtf retmted to eaek 
tees. . / other. 

7. When fonning part of a compound tenae of a verb governing a 
succeeding infinitive, it is at the same time preceded by a direct ob 
jeet which ia represented as performing the action denoted by the in 
finitive ; in which condition it agrees with that direct object:— 

Les dames que J'ai entendues chan- The ladies whom I heard sing {sing' 
ter. ing). 

8. When in a sentence containing the pronoun en, the participle is 

preceded by another object or regimen which is direct ; in which case 

It agrees with that direct object: — 

Je les en ai avertis. t hate warned (km of 0, 

Tens lea en avea teftmis. Yosk ham tnformed tSem of #, 

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B£8um£ of Examples. 

Voof avez drs livren bien rolite. 
VoB lilies hont cstituccfl. 
Ces (orms sont bieu lalK)ur6e8. 
Mcs voUines sont toinb^es d'ao- 

EUes sont venues noos trouver. 
La victoire quo nous avons rem- 

Lcs champs que vous avez 1abour6s. 
Vous vous ites rcpentis de Totre 

£lle s'est sonvenue de sa promesse. 
Les soldats que J'ai vus passer. 
Les musiciennes que J'ai enten- 

dues jouer. 
LMndiscr6tion que nous nous som- 

mes reproch6e, 
Les evcn^mcnts qu'elles se sont 

Lcs fruits que J'cn ai recus. 
Les nouvelles que J'en ai apport^es. 

Yott have wdl bound AoMb 
Your daughters are esAeer^i. 
Those lands are well ploughed. 
My veiffhbttrs have come to tm* «» 

T%cy came to us. 
The victory which we have gaintd, 

me fields which you have pUmgked, 
You have repented {you) of yom 

She remembered her prifmiae. 
The soldiers whom 1 saw f^issing. 
The musical ladies whovi I ieari 

The indiscretion with wA.. .i «v rs- 

proached one another. 
The events which they relatea, 9f» 

The fruits which I received frwoK -« 
The news whi^ J brought from u . 

ExBRCISE 103. 

Arordinairo, iutt«va2; Flenr. f. y2<7tMr; Reprocb-er (ae), 1. refl 

Avert^ir, 2. to warn ; Malaae, sick person ; to reproach one*s s^s 

Boue f. mitd; Merveille (a), wonder- "BLX-re, 4. ir. to laugh; 

Coutume (dc), lutta^^y, fuUy, perfectly ; B6rieuX| se, xnViu; 

usual; Parven-ir, 2. ir. to 5m^- Souri-re, 4. w.tosmiU; 

Caeill-ir, 2. to gather ; ceed ; Buivaut, according to; 

Decliiffr-er, 1." to <fea-Port-cr (se), 1. to be, i<?Tomb-er, 1. to fail; 

phcr; do; Tronv-eVj to find; 

D6coiirfig-er, 1. to dis-Vlus tot, sooner, earlier ; Vol-cr, 1. to steaL 

courage i 

1. Cette demoiselle ne se trouve-t-elle pas bien fatigu^e? 2. EDe 
est fatigu^e et d^courag^. 3. Votre aoeur est-elle all^ i Fegliae 
BuivanC sa coutume? 4. Ma m^re et ma aoeur y sont allees. 5. 
Votre aoeur est-elle revenue plus t6t que de coutume. 6. Elio esl 
revenue plus tard qu'k Tordinaire. 7. Cette pauvre malade cst^lle 
tomb^e! 8. Elle eat tomb^e dans la boue. 9. Ma m^ro est^lie 
parvenue ^ d^chiffrer ma lettre ? 10. Elle n'y est pas parvenue. 11. 
Quelles flcurs avez-vous cueillies? 12. Les flcurs que j*ai trouveea 
Bont plus belles que celles que vous mVvez envoy6ea. 13. Votre 
tfousine no e'est-elie pas bien portee ? 14. Elle s^est portee b. mer- 
veille. 15. De quel livre vous ^tes-voua servie, Mademoiselle f 16. 
Je me suis servie du v6tre. 17. Nous nous sommcs servies dea 
nitres. 18. Quelles fautes votre fils s'est-il reproch^es? 19. Le« 
fiatea quMl s'eat reprochtea ne aont pas B^rieuaes. 30. Les avet* 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

VOQS TQs rirel 31. Je l«s ai vvs sonnre. 32. Les avex-foua ▼«• 
7olor des fruils ? 23. Je les ai vus volcr dcs pommes. 24. Les btm- 
rous avertis de Iturs fautes ? 25. Je les en ai avertis. 26. Je ne lea 
en ai pas avertis. 

1. Are jour books well bound? 2. They are well bound, tind 
well printed. 3. Did not your little girl find herself discouraged 1 
4. She found herself tired, but not discouraged. 5. Have your sis- 
ters come to an understanding ? 6. They have not come to an un- 
derstanding. 7. My brothers have come to an understanding. 8. 
Who came to you ? 9. Your friends came to us. 10. la not your 
Bister gone to church? 11. My sister is gone to church as usual. 
12. Did your sister return sooner than usu'-d? 13. My sister re- 
turned later than usual. 14. Are the fields whicJi you have ploughed 
large? 15. The fields which I have bought are very large. 16. 
Where are the gentlemen whom you saw pass? 17. The ladies 
whom I heard sing are in their room. 18. Did your poor sister fall! 
19. Did that poor sick woman fall in the mud? 20. Did your sister 
succeed in reading that book ? 21. She succeeded in reading it 22. 
Have you wanied your sisters of their danger? 23. I have warned 
them of it. 24. I have not warned them of it. 25. What pen has 
your mother used ? 26. She has used mine. 27. Have not those 
young ladies used my book ? 28. They have not used it 29. Has 
your mother been well? 30. She has been perfectly well. 31. 
Has she remembered her promise? 32. She has remembered it. 33. 
Have you seen those boys laugh? 34. I have seen them smile. 35 
Have you seen them play ? 36. I have heard them play. 



The participle past is invariable ?— 

1. In active verbs, when the direct regimen follows the participle :— 

Mes niices ont 6tndid leurs le9ons. Mif nieces hare studied *Mr lessons. 
£lic8 ont D6glig6 Icurs fitudcs. TAey kave negLded their studies. 

2. In neuter verbs conjugated with avoir : — 

Mes cousincs ont dispam. JMV cousins kace disappeared, 

Les cinq heures qu'elles ont dormL Ttejhi hewrs which Mcy A«t« slepk 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

29D ftiffov xcii. 

In tiM Iflttor MBtoiii^ tbt «wd juniiaiit is luidsntood alUr 
4<ifrv9.*> — 

I1O0 cinq henres vendmU Us fMflif Tie j(m Amci dmring wkiek 11 
elles oQt domu. depk 

8. In uniperaoiud verbs, whether ooi^jiigated with 4tre or wi 

avoir :— 

Lei chalenn qn'ila (kit ceCte ennle. T%t kuA (ksn has bam tka$ jpmt 
n est arrive bien des malheun. Many misfortwna Aow kappnt 

4. In reflective or pronominal verbs, of which the second promHI 
is an indirect regimen, whea no direct regimen precedes ^— 
Bile s'est propos6 de partir. She prepated to kendfio kmce, 

6. When the participle precedes an infinitive, and ia preeeded by a 
direct regimen, and this direct regimen is not the actor, bot the ob- 
ject acted upon. In this case the infinitive is generally rendered hi 
English by the passive voice: — 

Lea chansons que J'alentendachan- The song vkUk I heard (being) 
ter. sting. 

6. When the direct regimen preceding a participle la noi the object 
of this participle, but of a verb following* — 

La r6gle qne Je voua ai conseilU The rule which I advised fou t» 
d'6tudier. study. 

7. The participle of faire, faitf followed by an infinitive, is always 
invariable : — 

Je les ai fait raccommoder. / have had them mended. 

8. After the pronoun, en, when no direct regimen precedes :— - 

VouB a-t-OA donn6 des flenrs 7 Have they given you /lowers ? 

On m'en a donn^. They have given me {some) of then 


7^ have given us good adviee. 

Biles nous ont donn6 de bons con- 


Elles nous en ont donnA. 
Les trois Veues qu'il a ooiim. 
Les annies que ces Miflces ont 

La belle Joumte qu'il a ikit hier ! 

O'est U plus beUe Ate qa'fl y ait 

II s'est pr6sent6 deux de vos amis. 
Ces demoiselles se sont nui. 

Les Asiatiques se sont (kit une es- 
ptee d'art de I'^dncaUon de I'ei^. 
phant. Bmrrox. 

7^ havegvoen us some. 
T%e three leagues which he ran. 
The years that those edUices kam 

What a kautiful day it was yesto^ 

It u the finest feast that there hat 

There appeared two of yaw friends. 
Those young ladies kave inpmd ems 

The Asiatics have made the edmemUmt 

of the etephMU a kind of art. 


by Google 

rtussir. • succeed. 

Les fniits que J'al tq Toler. 

Les soldato blQ8a6ii que J'ai ra por- 

La duuMon que J'al entendu chan- 

Les pommes que Je todb a! diAmdn 
de OMiiger. 

Je lee a! fkU partir. 

Biles m*ont apportd dee oranges. 

EUes m'en oot apport6. 

ThefmiU which J smt ieing <Mnk 
T%e foounded sddiers whom I j»w 

{peing) earned. 
The song which I heard sung. 

7%e appUs which I forbade fwi to 

I obliged ihem to leave. 
They have brought me oranges. 
They have bronghl ma {some) of ihem. 

EzSRClSB 195. 

Atiberge, tisi^g Joa-er, 1. to play ; Piftoe, f. piece t 

Bien, m. good; Habill-er, 1. to dress; BacoDt-er, 1. to reUUof 

Dernier, e, last;. ^ Porm-ir, 2. to deeps Eeven-ir, 2. Ir. to r^ 

Pisparait^re, 4,ir.toi2£s-Lion d'Or, m. Golden twms 

appeotr g LUm ; Soieries, sUk goods. 

Enterr-er, 1. to bwrys Mori, e, deads 

1. Quelle auberge vous a-t-on recommand6e ? 2. On m'a reeom- 
mtoAh I'auberge ^n Lion-d'Or. 8. Qnelles nouvelles avez-vous 
apport^es? 4. Tai apport^ des nouvelles arables. ^. Vosvoisines 
■onUelles habilltesl e. EUes ne sont pas encore habill^es. 7. Ont- 
ellea bien dormi la noit demi^re? 8. EUes n'ont pas bien dormL 
ft Qoand aont^lles anivdes? 10. Elles sont airiv6et k qoatre 
heures et demie. 1 1. Ont-elles dormi plus de cinq heures? 12. Les 
siz beures qn'ellea ont dormi leur ont fait beaucoup de bien. 1 8. Voa 
MBura se sont-elles amus6es ? 14. En jouant elles se sont fait mal 
an bras. 15. Se sont^Ue^ raeont^ notre conversatioii ? 16. Ellas 
ee la sont racont^e. 17. Vos amies ont-elles dispam! 18. Elles 
n'ont pas disparu ; elles sont revenues chez elles. 19. Les soldats 
qua vous avez vus partir; sonUils revenns? 20. Ds sont morts; 
je les ai vn enterrer. 21. Ne les avez-vous pas fait^tudier? 22. Je 
les ai fiut lire. 28. Avez-vous apportd des soieriast 24. Je n'en ai 
pas apport& 25. Les soieries que j*en ai apport^as sont superbaSb 

EzsRCiaB 196. 
1. Have you not recommended my nieoeaf 2. Ihavarecommandato 
Uiem. 8. Have you brought me good oran^s ? 4. I have brought 
yon^aome. 5. Have you given any to my two daughters \ 6. I have 
given them soma. 7 I would bave given tham some, if I had had 
many. 8. Have you not neglected your studies? 9. I have not 
aai^aeted them; I never neglect them. 10. The years which that 
•faareh has lasted, speak m ikvor (en faveur) of the aichit^^ 
11. Tha ten miies wliieh ha haa nm, have iktignad him. 12. Htvaf 


by Google 


LS690ir o. 

yonr Bisters injured each other ? 1 3. They have flattered therasehea 
14. Did my friends present themselves? 15. Th«re came three of 
your sisterd. 1 6. What did they imagine ? 17. They conceived the 
idea of reading Tasso {Le Tasse), 18. Have you seen them (m.) 
steal my apples? 19. I saw them steal your peaches. 20. Have 
fou hciird them (f.) sing? 21. I have heard tliem sing. 22. The 
songs which I heard sung, are not new. 23. I found in your room 
the books which I had forbidden you to take. 24. The peaches 
which I have forbidden you to eat, are not ripe (mUrex). 25. Have 
you seen those soldiers ? 26. I saw them pass last week. 27. I saw 
them carried to the hospital (d VhopUal) this morning. 28. Have 
you brought oranges from France ? 29. I brought some. 30. The 
oranges which I brought from it (en) are good. 31. Have you 
brought silk goods? 32. J have brought some. 33. I have brought 
none. 34. Are the silk goods which you brought from that placOa 
good ? 35. I brought but two pieces. 





II D*en fera rien, a moins que 
vouB De lui parlies. 

A moins que vous ne preniex blen 
votre temps, vous d'cd viendrez pas 
Quel indigne plaisir peut avoir Tava- 

£t que sert d'amasser, a moins 

qu on ne jouisse f Boursault. 

He mil do nothing of the ittRc( 
vnless you xpeak to hUn, 

l/nlfM yoti choose your time teell^ 
you will not accomplitJi it. 

What unworthy pUantra can av»> 

rice offer t 
What t« ilie use of hoarding fg> «c»- 

leMwe enjoy f 


Aussi, lis n*ont aucune force pour 
^ posseder sdrement Pascal. 

Ma douleur serai t trop mediocre, 
9i jo pouvuis la d^peincfre ; aussi Je 
ne rentrcprendrai pas. 

Mmk ns SivioNi. 

Therefore, they have 10 ttrengtk 
to poeeees it safely, 

Afy grtff would be too trUlinq ifl 
could depict it; to that I will wot 
undertaie it. 

Cest ce qu*il J a de plus sage ; an 
^ jMte» c'est aossi ce quil y a de plus 
' JQitiu ^ Marmontkl. 

This it the witett way; hetU^ U 
it alto the mottJutU 



- ^^' 


tBsaov e. 


VoUa les pdrils. void 1c moyen de 
les ^viler^, car eniin, 1e bras de Dieu 
nest pas raccourci. Masbillon. 

Le peuple se figure utie felicity 
iDingtmure dans les situations 61e- 
v^es, oti il ne peut atteindre, et il 
atiit (car tel est rhomme) que tout 
ce qu^il ne peut avoir, c'est cela 
n)6me qui est le bonheur qu'il 
clicrcbe. Massillon. 

Thote are the dargen, thU it tks 
way of avoitUn^ tfuM ; for JtiUilfiff 
the iu/vence of God if- not leu 

The people pieture to tkemwlvn 
an imaginary hnpplnes* in f^evate 
atationt which tfuy car. not reach 
and tfuy believe {for eueh it man 
that all that which they cannot ob 
tain, formt that very happinet 
which tfiey teek. 


Conime rambition n'a pas de 
frcin, ct que la soif des nchesses 
nous consume toua, il en rdsulte, que 
le bonbeur nous fuit k mesure que 
nous le cbercbons. Th. Corneillk. 

La reconnaissance est le plus 
douz, oomme le plus saint des de- 
Yoirsw Thomas. 

Comme il sonna la chaise, il 
Sonne la retraite. La Fo^iTAurx. 

AA atnbition hat no limitt, and 04 
tJie thirtt of ric/iet devoum 7it all, 
the retult it, that happinett avoidt 
tit, at we proceed in our tearch after 

Oraiitude it tJie tweetett at well a» 
the holiest of duLiet. 

At he tounded the charge^ to ht 
toundt the retreat 

Voire maltre voua aimc; done, 
fous devex Taimer. 

Je »uL<, done, un t^moin de leur 
peu dc puissance. Racine. 

Et cToti peut done venir ce 
cbai^enieot extreme ? Voltaire. 

Si ce n'est toi, 0*081 done ton 
fitrc. — Jc u'en ai pas.— C*est done, 
qucluu*an des tiens. La Foxtajne. 

Allons done I r^pondit on, et la 
transactioD n'eat pas lieu. 


Your matter lovet you; therefore, 
you thould love him, 

lam, therefore, a wiineu of their 
want of power. 

Wlu-nce, therefore, can thit extreme 
change proceed} 

If it it not you, th*n it ft your 
brother. Ifiavenone. T/ien it inuti 
be tome one of your family. 

" WeU doner replied they, and 
the affair did not take place. 


De m^nie que le soleil brille sur 
la terre, de m6me le juste brillera 
dans les cieusL L*acadAxik. 

At the tun thinet tyxm the earthy 
to will thejutt thine m heaven. 

CTest 6t73 faible et timlde que 
d'etre inaccessible et ficr. 


T7do famille vertueuse est un yais- 
seau tenu pendant la temp6te par 
deuz ancres, la religion et les nuBurs. 


Qnd carnage de toutes parts 1 
On ^'^oige k la fois les cnfants, lefl 

7b be inaeeettible and proud, it ti 
be weak and timid. 

A vittuout family it a vettd 
tirengthtned during the tempeU by 
two anehort, religion and tnorelt. 

What carnage on all tidet ! 
They murder ai once the ehtldren, 
the M men, the tiUer and the brUh' 


by Google 

fcKM*ir 0. 

£t la fiUe et la m^re, 
Le fils dans lei bras de eon p^re. 

#r, tkt dtmghUr mid <A# molWt (&• 

«o» til <Ad armj ofku/atk&t. 


Loriqua llnnooenoe habitait la 
Vrre. Bossuvt. 

Qnnnd vous me halriez, je ne ro*en 
(ilaindrais pas. Kactke. 

Quand nous n^aurions ^ard qu'au 
r«>po9 seul de Dotre vie, (^uand nous 
n'aurioDs point d'autre int^rftt ici- 
bas que de nous preparer des jours 
heureux, quel bonbeur de pr^venir 
d'avance et d'6touflfer dans leur 
naissance tant de passions violentea 

C*^tait d^jA la puissance imp^- 
riale au'on lui a vue deputy mais 
avec rassentiment universcl des 
peuplesi, arec dee formes moins 
royales, mais plus dignes peut-dtre. 

Lliarmonie ne frappe pas simple- 
ment Toreille, mais resprit 


CTest un parti sage a la guerre dc 
de se tenir sur la defensive, mais oe 
B*est pas le plus brillant 

La Rocuefougautj). 

n n'j a point de mais qui tien- 
ne ; je ne auonerai point ma fiUe & 
00 muat BauAva 

tHhMitd tk9 

When innoeenct 


If even you huted me, Iwmlo h<«. 

If even 100 eontidered meniy tkt 
repote of our Uvea, if etfen toe had 
no other interest here than to pre* 
pare for ourselves happy day*, VDhoA 
happiness it wmld^be, to p r e ven t 
beforehand, to stifle in their Inrtk^ 
80 many violent passion*. 

It toax already the imperial j 
of which we nave since seen hisn 
possessed, but with the consent of the 
people, with forms less regal, bul 
perhaps more worthy. 

Harmony does not only Hrik$ th§ 
ear, but tJu mind. 

To keep on the defensive is « ( 
resolution in war, but it is mat 
most brilliant. 


There is no ' but in tht ma 
I will nof give my daughter to a 

Hettreuz celui qui salt se conten- 
ter de peu! Son sommeil n'est 
trouble ni par les crainces, ni par 
les d6iirs honteuz de Tavarica 

Tead. d'Ho&ace. 

Vous perdez ainsi la oonfianoe de 
▼OS amis, sans les ayoir rendus ni 
meilleurs ni plus habiles. 


On n'est jamais si heureux, ni si 
malbeureux qu'on se Timagine. 

La RocHEFoucAULn. 

Cette loi sainte neconnait plus, ni 
pauvre, ni riche, ni noble, ni roturier, 
ni maitre ni esclave. Massilloh. 

Sappy is he who can content AsH" 
self with little I His sleep is dis- 
turbed neither by the fear, nor by 
the sliameful desires ofc 

Tou Ume thus the eonfUknes t^ 
your friends without having render- 
ed thim eitfter better or mere ekilfiiL 

We are never so happy mor a» wsr 
happy as we fancy. 

That holy law knows no 
either poor or rich, noble or 
master or slave. 

Or nw, mettoDS nous It rouvi^gv i yow tAen^ let us go io m»A 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



iaifliB|Mi^tai«Blhiiot€rtjMM. I mm om Jidiy , ** <A« ItNM ^ l^sir M<l^ 
Lb Saox. Aootf if Q9§r.* 

]jt frfftone, nit booae oa bimi- 
fMM^ soil iMi—ighni ou oooitaDte, 
M peal litn tiir 1 4iim da nge. 


Ia liberty de miblier ms pooste^ 
MlalibarM de Ja prane, doit Mre 
HgMe rar ]* libartA mtene d'agir. 

B. JIB 9t. PlBEBS. 

Les grands homines entreprennent 
de gnindee choees parceqn'elles 
•ODtgnndes^ei lee fous parceqa'Os 
ies croieat fiieilee. VAUYxiiiAOUBi. 

tnmmmt^r imwim i i , ktu nopomir 
ofmr ika 9oml of the mte, 

7%€ liberty of pMiMng on^§ 
ikmiaki*^ or ih$ lUiriff of tkimrMt, 
9komtd be rtffuhied %tpom tko Hborty 


Great men undertake ffreai tMinae 
becauee they are great; and fooU^ 
beeauae they believe them eaey. 

Beery ihina there ie bemttifid, be- 
every tbny ii tnte. 

Lk toot est been, jMioeque toat 


Le style le moins lioUe a poor- 1 I%e lemet elev a t e d etyle haa^ mmer 
tent sa noblesse. Boilxau. | thdeea, tto elevoHon, 

Peopqaot le demuider, poisque 
▼oos le ssvei f RAonnE. 

Ne Toos lesees jamais d*examiner 
lee eapsss dee gnnds cfaangements ; 

a Todre instmetkm. Bosauxi. 

Poisqae toos le Toides» je Taia 
chaBfer da style. BonuAir. 

Jamaie OD ne tit mi si grand exam- 
ple, qoe la eooraga n'eet point in- 


Nene a'atxins qoe pea de temps li 
▼ma, et Un d'en proftter, nous ne 
eberdioas qu'k le perdre. Latxaux. 

A ||aat TOOS seirira d'aroir de 
reeprit» si toos ne I'emplo^es pas, et 
qqe TOOS ne toob apphqmez pas f 


TootafiBaqaesert-il de mejusti- 
iert Raonx. 

QdH fiuse oe qn'il Ini plainL 
<toe le monde est grand! Qu'il 
«t magntfiqne I JCassiuxw. 

Qoe de beaoz Joars a'oot pas de 
beaoxsoinil Boistb. 

Baas to qoekjiie chose da plust 
OblquAddL BauxTs. 



Never be weary ofexamininjf into 
the eaueee of great chanyee; for 
notkiny wiU ever beof eo m m ch sirr- 
viee to yom" inetmetion. 

8ime you wUl hem ii vo, I witt 
chnnye my etyle. 

Never was eaeh a eirUriny emm^ 
pie ve^ ^at eome^ %• not iwdsm 
patible with e0eavinney. 

We have bat little time to Uve, 
emd inetead of improving it^ we only 
eeels to watte it, 

Cfwhat nee wiU be yow wit, if 
you do not ev^^loy it^ and denotaiy 
ply your$elvee f 

However, wW ie the u$e 4/JnttO' 
fying mipdff 

Let hem dowhat h^pleaeee. 

Sow great ie ihe world f Sow 

Sow memy fine daye heme not 
boautifol evening* ! 

Do you know eeey thimw miyn9 



by Google 


LX0BOH 0. 

Cast one inaUdie d^Mpritk que de 
•ouhaiter dos choaes impossibles. 

II n'j aura jamaia de meilleur di- 
racteur qua rfvangile. 


La y^ritable oonTemioo du eoeur 
fiut autant aimer Dieu qu'on a aim6 
ke crdatoreB. Pasoal. 

Orois ta qne dans son ecBur, il ait 
jur6 ta moitt Racins. 

Ce n'est pas que yeuase mieuz fidt 
que Toua. Mme. mt SiviQvt, 

II a iaila que mea malheun m'aient 
iDBtruit»pour m'apprendre ce qae je 
ne ▼oulais paa croire, Fi^Alon. 

a dUea$e of the mmtL 

Titers mil never be 
gmdB than tkt ChtptL 

The true comeereum cf ih» heoH 
Wkdkt9 ue love God ae much ae ve 
have loved the ereeOuree. 

Do you believe thai he hoi mmth 
your death m Am heari/ 

Itienot that I ^ight have dome 
better than you. 

It uae neeeeeary that my mi^er- 
tunee ehouitd inetruet me, to teach 
me what I would not believe. 

QDOIQUX— QDOI . • . qD& 

Qaoique Dieu at la nature aient 
ibit touB lea bommes 6gauz en lea 
Ibnnant d'une mdme boue» la yanit6 
humaJne ne peut souffiir cette €ga- 
yt6. B06BUBT. 

Qu(n que voua toiviez, 6yitei la 
baaaesBe. Boileau. 

Quoi qua ca aoit qu*ella disa, elle 
ne ma penuadera paa. 


Although Chd and nature have 
made all men equal infonning them 
from the eame earth, human vanity 
eaimot bear that equality. 

Whatever you may write, tufoid 

Whatever the may toy, Ae will 
not pereuaJe me* 

81 TOua la Youliez, nous partiiioDa 

Si Tous le prenez but ce ton, je 
me retire. 

Nul empire n'est sftr, 8*il n'a 
Tamottt poor baaa. RAciir& 

S'il le fiiut^ notia partirona. 

Votre esprit a toujours en r^aenre 
foalque si, quelque mais. 


J/ you wiehed it, we would go Uh 

If you go on in this way, I with- 

No empire ie eafe, unleee U hat 
affection for its basis. 

If it must be so, we wUl go. 

Your mind has always in reserve 
some* if; some *hxA: 

Sa r^poodirant^ qu*il fkllait r& 
teblir r^uilibre europ4en rompu, 
quil fidlait le r^tablir sinon sur le 
eontinant^ oh il 6tait tout li fait 
d6tniitk au moma anr TOc^an. 


T^ey replied, that it was necessary 
to re-establish the disturbed Euro- 
pean balance ; that it was necessary 
to restore it, if not on the continent^ 
where it was entirely deetroyed, ea 
least on the Ocean. 

boit qu'il le fsmt, aoit qu'il ne le 
fuae pa& 

Sott la bardiessu de Ventrepiiae, 
B(iii la aeule prtenoe de oe grand 

Whether he does it, whether he 
does it not. 

JBe it the boldness of the enter- 
prist, be it the prese nc e aUme ^ ikea 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

XiBfltOK e. 


^MitbipntMstfonTiriUe dn 
cial, il ^toDDO par mi rteoliitioiL 


Soit en bran, wiii 6q BMU,moD tmi, 
1ft prudenoe dil» quTil fiivt numneBt 
JDrar tor Tappareiice. OBikOir. 
Vow le ▼oolei f ftiiin ioit il 1 
Un mal f UBsste ei oontagieiix te 
r^pandit dans lea priodpalea Tilles 
da ia Normandie ; soit ^ue FiDtem- 
pMe dea aaiaons eti lauad daaB lea 
ain qoelque maligne impreatfion, aoit 
nu'un commerce filial eftt apporte 
daa pays ^loigii^ avee de fragiles 
lichesses, des semeocea de maladie 
et de morty soit que Fange de Dieu 
eftt 6teDda la main jwur frapper 
oetfce malheureuse proriDce. 


fffwaiman, be it ^ eMUt orotoa* 
turn ofhtis9B^ h$ eafonltAM ey kit 

Bt U forgcod^be it for mril, my 
fiimdf pruatnc0 says, thtU we mutt 
rarely Jvdae from appearamcea, 

YouwUlhaveit §6f 80 be it! 

A fated and eontoffitma dieeae 
wread in the principtil eiiiee of 
^ormandjf; be tt that the inelemenr 
cyofthe eeaaon had left in the air 
tome malignant trnpreetian, be it 
that a fatal eommeree had browht 
from dtttant eountriet, with perxeJtr 
able richee^ the aeedt of diteate and 
death, be it that (he angel of God 
had ttretehed forth hit hand to tmitf 
that ynfoftmnatt promnet^ 


Tbe words in the following lists are given, as before intimated 
(page 69), as syggestive of thought In conducting the exercise, the 
Teacher selects a particular word, as Relieur (Bookbinder), and re- 
quires each pupil to compose a French sentence containing this term. 
The pupil is duly notified, that he is at liberty to take any thought 
suggested by the word, and to produce a sentence of any form found 
in any of the foregoing Lessons : regard being had all along to all 
the Rules, Notes, Exceptions, &c., that may bear upon the case. 
Thus, adopting as a model the sent^ce. Voire marehand est bien Mi- 
geant (Lesson 17, Resum^), or, Le Danois a4M qudques pommesf 
(Lesson 18, R. 7) dtc. &c, let him endeavor to produce others of the 
like kind 

A little practice will render the exercise both easy and interesting. 
It will soon come to be easy to incorporate not only oTie, but two^ 
Arm or more of the words t^en from the lists. 

].— Peormions bt MAimis. 
Aeiew, m. aetor, 
Apotfaicaire, m. apothtoary. 
Artiste, m. artitt, 
AumoDier, m. dutpkdn, 
Auteor, m. au^Jior, 
BarVier, m. barber, 
JKjoatier, m. jeweller, 
B&ncni»g*iiee^ t watJi 
Boacfasr, m. o^ttehtr* 

FaomsioifB and Tsadm^ 
Brasseor, m. brewer, 
Brodeuse, f. embroiderer. 
Chaibonnier, m. eoal^man. 
Charlatan, m. ptaek. 
Oharretier, m. eartmem, 
ChaudroDnier, m. copptrtmitk 
OhimrgieD, m. turgeoeL 
Oofdier, m. rc p em aktr , 
Oorroyeur, m. cnrrttr* 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 


LIST 09 iroftDa. 

OcNiTrMir, m. iUa^r, tUmr, 
Oar^ m. •Mir. 

Fftodiear, m. i 

Gtntiflr, m. plover, 
GimTeur, m. styrmm'. 
Horioger, ol eMi and 
bittitatoiir, m, Institutrioe, £, ickool" 

Lnprimear, m. jifritU§r. 
JoMllier, ttLJmoelUr. 
Ma^oii, m. MMtm, hrieklayef. 
Kaltre d'^cole, m. tehoolmatttr. 
ManoaTrier, m. da^-labonr. 
Mftiduuid-deK^TaaZi maqnignnn^ 

m. hor$6-d9aUr. 
Mar^clial femmt^ m. farrier, •hoe- 


U— L'HoioiB. 

Aaeltrai^ m. p. oncealorM, 
Arrite^e-petit-nli, m.mat'ffranitotL 
Beaxk-ttk,m. mm-inJaw, tUp-mm. 
Bean-fr^ m. (ro<A«r-t n-Zoie. 
Bean-ptete^ m. fatktr-i^-Umt tUp-fie- 

BaUe-fiUa, I da»ighier4nrlaM, tUp- 

Bell6-mto«^ t motkef4n4aw, ttep- 

BeUe-tOMur, t $%MUr4n-laiio. 
Biflaleul, m.area;^-grandf other, 
Bni,£ dtt/ughUrHfirUtm, 
Deaeendants, pL ducerubnUi. 
B^uoe. £ cAtMood 

IVuniUa, t/amay. 
Fmnine, £ w o m— » wifi, 
Fiaa^ailki, £ pk iifroMM^. 

nL— La ooftn soiUDr. 

Ontew, BL arolar. 
Oiftm, BL ^olcf «n4 fOiir aaitt 
Papa, m. MM. 
Pfctre, BL dfcy J brtti i 
Fwru^uiflrt nx Amub 
PbUotopba, m. ;»A«lonpA«r. 
PoMoaniar, la, FtoMaoniiitee, £,/i4 

Fk^6dieateQr» BL jMiiadUr. 

PMti^ BL priaiL 

BafBneur de aoere^ da ael, rn^fm 

^ft'f^^TMWir da ^wiinin^fla, vouohiBMn 

Rdieiir, m, hvoiMnder, 
SaTBtiM; m, cobbler, 
Scolpteor, m. eeulpion 
SaUiar, m. fduUftfr. 
Sanrurier, bl Icekemitk. 
Tapiauar, bl iiphoUterer. 
Tamtnriar, bl Oj^, 
Tiaaarand, bl weaver. 
ToDoaliar, bl oocper. 
y itriar, bl gUmer, 

Wba%t bride, 
Gandra, bl aoM-tnpZow. 
Grand-pte^ bl grandfaiker, 
Orand'mtoA £ grandmother. 
imaD% bomma, bl young mem, 
Jauna filla, £ goung womem^fk/L 
Jemieflae, £ youth. 
Jomaau, dl, jumalla, £, twm. 
ICamuDe, £ gotbnother, 
Uati, m. hueband 
Naiaaaooa, £ birtk 
Noorrioe, £ nuree. 
Nouvaan maii6, bridearoom, 
Nouralla marine, bride, 
Oq)ll^^o, BL, onp^line, t, 9fphmk^ 
Ftimn^ m. godfather, 
Patita-fiUe, granddm^kter. 
Van£ BL widomer, 

I Boadia, £ Mi«a. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

hlUt 09 W0»O& 



Cosar, m. kiart 
Carp8,m. body. 
Cent, m. neck, 
Coade, m. el5oMi 
Crtne^ m. iMIL 

Doigt, hl/i^IW. 
Boa»m. iodb 

£pine (da dos), £ Mint, 
Favorit, m. p. fghuhtn, 
Fde, m. Itper. 
Front, uk/oi'fhtad, 
Qenchres,/. p. ^imm 
OenoUyin. imee, 
Qorge, £ <Ar«M<. 
HaiMii«b £ A^ 
Jambe, £ ^. 
JoQO, £ eA«db. 
LuMpae, £ toi^piML 
L^vre, £ /tp. 
MemlMre, m. limh. 

. IV^— MALAinn^ mmmtiM, ma 
AUaqne, £ attMk^JU, 
Baume, m. baUam, 
B^gaiement^ m. stmnmtr inff , 
Blessore, £ tecund 
C6dU, i blindnesM. 
Chancre, m. cancer, 
CK&ind, £ 9ear. 
CoHqae, i edic 
CoDtosioii, £ brtriM. 
Crampe, £ ercm^ 
Dislocaiioii, £ dUlocaJtUm, 
Em^tiqae, m. rnneiie, 
Enfinre, £ moelling, 
Kironmfliit, m. AoofMiMta 
Entora^ £ main. 
EpHepaie, tepiUpde, 
ETaDooiflsement^ uufakUinff, 
"Fitrre, tfner. 
Eiftyre Derreiise, £ ner9&uifner, 

y^ — HAnLunoan. 
Algiulle da dwyens, 1 Mr^in. 
Bf^iM, £ fiiy. 
Bml IB* ttot^nffk 

MoiUa^ £ nHutow. 
Muscle, m. mmieiU, 

V&tf m. IMFMa 

Kei^ m. fioM. 
Ongle, m. M«<£ 

Pfllais, m. poi^fite. 
Pkupiire, £ tyv^tdL ^ 
Peau, £ Aibjn. 
Fraoe, m. iAiMift. 
PoQinoD, m. hmg*, 

Rainfl^ni. jx /btna 
Sapg, ntbood 
Sein, 6otoMk 
SoonsilB, m. p^ ^ytf^TMoa 
Squelette, m. «Mi<Mi» 
Talen, m. Am/. 
Tmi^m, ecmpUxion, 
Tempee, £ p. tempU$. 
TTtdif m. feature, 
Yeme, £ vein. 
Visage, hl/om. 

Kaladhs^ iHvnuaiiMi Bta 
Pl^yre scarlatme, £ eearUtfetmr 
On^risoD, tcure, 
Ooutte, £ ffout, 
Hjdropisie, £ drop9y. 
IndispositkiD, £ tfufii2Msie»si»i 
Loacne, adj. f^KtiiHw^. 
Malaise, in. tn^t'mofiKofk- 
Mutisme^ m. dunumeet. 
OrdoDoance, t preteripHom. 
Onffuent, in., pommade, £, miIm 
Petite-vdrole, £ emaU-fox. 
Pulxnonie, £ coiwumpfton. 
RemMIe^ ia remetfy, 
Rhnme, m. «oUl 
RoQffeole, £ meaalet, 
Soratd, £ d!0a/*9i«M: 
Tonx, £ cough. 
Ulcere, m. iUcer, 
Vertigo, m. dUdnem, 


Basb, m. dmiiy, 
Batbte, £ comMet 
Bijoirterie, t Je we lr y, 
Boonei^iiL MHk 


by Google 



'Baatiid,t lock of hair emrl 
Boudes d'oreillea, £ p. «ar-Hi^ 
Buune, £ |MirM. 
Bracelet^ m. bracelet. 
Bretelles, £ p. 6ra€tf«, iiMpeiufert. 
BroflM, £ brueh. 
Brosse-k-denta, £ iooiMnuk. 
Cale90o, m. a. c&rinBirt. 
Oeinture, £ aaaK heii, baad. 
CfaaunoDS, m. p. fod^ 
Cirage, m. blaMa^ 
Ciseauz, m. p aeiuon, 
Collet» m. eoUar. 
Collier, m. neddaee, 
Ooiion, m. eoUon, 
Cravate, £ eraeai, 
Crdpe, m. crape. 
Diamant, m. diuMidfMi 
Dentellc^ £ lace. 

ouUure, £ Unifig, 

crin, ID. eaiket,jewel'ba», 
^p^e, £ award 
Speronei m. n. ijpvra 
Spingle, ipifL 
Qtui, m. needU-cate, 
ilveotail, m.fan. 
Flacon. m. eaulUng-boitU 
Founrure, f,/ur, 
Vnc, m, dresa-coat 

VL — liA. YTLLM, LA lUnOV, Bia 

Anticfaambre, £ oMtectonfrtfr. 

Ardoise, £ t^o^ 

Aneoal, m. armud. 

Banc m. 6^iiM, teat 

Barrite^, £ ^oto. 

Biblioth^ue, £ library, 

Bourg, HL borough^ email town. 

Bourae, £ exchange. 

Bric^ae, £ brick. 

Capitale, £ capital cify, mHropalie. 

CarilloD, m. chime of belle. 

Caserne, £ barrack. 

Cave, £ cellar. 

Chambre, £ cAomW, room. 

Chambre 4 ooudier, £ bedroom. 

Chapelle, £ ekapeL 

Ch&teaii, m. eowUry'hauee, mUa. 

Chauioiiire, £ htUf cottage. • 

Chauz, £ lime. 

Cheminte, £ ehknnag. 

Cimetitee, m. bwrgUtg-groaetd^ 


Oanutore, £ trimmkigk 
Gilet, m. veet, wntiooat 
Grenat, m. garnet 
Guitres, £ p gaiiere. 
Habit, m.coaL 
Ivoire, £ ivory. 
Linge, m. Ito/en. 

Manche, £ eleeee. 
MousaeliDe, £ mtiaSNi, 
Pantaloo, m. sing, pmkiedeome, 
Parapluie, m. umiXrdla. 
Parasol, in.jMtrMoJL 
Peigne, ULccmh. 
Pendants-d'oreilles, m. p. 

Perle, £ pearl. 
Poche^ £ pocket. 
Pominade, £ pomahan^ 
Redingote, £ great-coat. 
Robe, £ dr«M, robe. 
Robe de chambre, £ dnttinggmm^ 
Satin, m. Mttfi. 
Soie, £ eilk. 
Tablier, m. apron. 
Taffeta^ m. tafeta. 
Veloors, m. ftelvet. 
Teste, £m«. 
Voile, m. veil, 

ToVN, Horai^ BNL 

Clodier, m. church-etcepla, 

Clocfaette, £ email beU. 

Cloltre, m. dcieter. 

Cour, £ yardy court. 

Couvent, m. convent. 

Cuisine, £ kitchen. 

Douane, £ cuetom-ltouee. 

Bcurie, £ atable. 

Environs, m. p mvtroM. neiahbar 

Etnge, a m. etcry^Jloor. 
Escaller, m. staire. 
Faubomg, m. auburb. 
Ferme, tfarm. ^ 

Fontaine, tfounldn, %M. 
Four, m. oven. 
Goutti6re, (.gutter. 
Grand chemin» } . .^.._ 
Grand'route, ^«n-*V*>*^ 
Grenier, m. garret, 
Haie,t hedge. 


by Google 



B6tel-de-yille, toum-hmte, cUv-koute, 

ffuild-hall, cUy-htUl, tawn-haU. 
Meable, la piece o/fumUure. 
Meubles, iXL-p./umUure, 
Moonaie, 1 mini, 
llortier, m. mortar. 

MiiraUlc,! f*"*^ 

Palais, m, palace, 

Paroisse, t paritk, 

PaT^ m. paetment 

P^pinidre, £ nureery oftreee, 

PeFBienne, blind^ opem ehMere, 

Plafond, m. ceiling, 

PlaadM £ hoard. 

PlaDcheTi m, floor. 

Po6le, m. etonte, 

Pdmpe, £ pvmp. 

PoDt, m. bridge. 

Porte, f; door, gate, 

Poste, tpoet, po 

Poutra, £ beam. 


Allumette, a £ match, 
Allumette cfaimique, £ fridicmr 

Amadou, m. tinder. 
Armoire, £ cupboard. 
Baril, m. caek, barrel 
Baasin,!!!. bowl, waekbomL 
BaMtnoire, £ warming-pan, 
Beroeao, m. cradle. 
Boite-k-fusil, £ tinder-bo^. 
Bougie, £ taper. 
Briquet, ULflre-tteeL 
Caud^labre, m. chandelier 
Caaeerole, £ sauc^Mm, 
Cassette, £ Aoc, catkeL 
Chandelle, £ candU. 
Charbon de boie, m. chetrcoal, 
Cbarboo de tem, etone coaL 
Chau Ji^re, £ boiler, 
Coffre, m. chest. 
Commode, £ eheti of 
Corbeille, £ baeket 
Crible, DL mew. 
Onxha, t pitcher, 
Oa?ier, m. tsib. 

Prison, £ /Miaou 


Quartier, m. quarter 

Bampe (d'escalier) balutirade ^ t 

Res-de-chauflfl^e, m. growndfloor, 
Sacrtstie, £ veetry, 
Saile, t. parlor, eitting-room. 
Salon, m. drawing-room, hall 
Serre, £ conservatory, 
Serre-ehaude, £ Ao^AoMf . 
Serrure, £ lock, 
Sonnette, £ belL 
The&tra, m. theatre 
Tott» m. foof. 
Tour, £ tower, 
TwHe^t tile. 
Verger, m. orchard, 
Verrou, m. bolt 
Vestibule, dl hall, entry. 
Viffne, £, TignoUs^ la, vinegmd 
Villsge, m. milage, 
Vole^ mndow-elMter. 
Voote, £ vavlL 

£cumolre, £ tkimmer, 
Entonnoir, m.fwfmeL 
Essuie-main, m. ^ows^ 
Per it repasser, m. iroeu 
FoxstgOD^m. poker. 
Foyer, m. hearth. 
Lampe, £ lamp, 
Lanteroe £ latUem. 
Lit,m. bed 

Lit de plume, vbl feather bed, 
Lumitoe, £ light. 
Lustre, m. sconce, 
Marchepied, m. footstool. 
Moucbettes, £ p. snnjfere, 
Mortier, m. mortar. 
Moutardier, m. mustard^fOL 
Nappe, £ tablecloth. 
Oreiller, m. pillow, 
Panier, m. baskeL 
Paraveut, m. screen, 
Peiuture, t painting^} 
Pelle, £ shoveL 
Pierre it fusil, t flint 
Pincettes, £ p. tongs. 
PoAle, m. s^ooii 
PoAle, t frying-pan^ 
Poivridre, £ pwper^om, 


by Google 


t»t e# iro«»«. 

Btfiftre, f. MftMffar. 

SftTOO, BL fOM. 

Serriettc, £ mmki tL 
8oaffl«t» m. MfoiML 
Siicriar, M. nyr H tk 

BooOli, m. doOti 6m^, MM 

Bonilloo, m. frnidL 

Ooofituree, t p. p r w mwi . 

Cotdette, £ euM. 

Oigot de moutoo, m. Uff tfwmUdm, 

JamboD, m. ham, 

If outoo, m. muttoiL 

OBut m.ego» 

Omelette, { mmML 

Tore, m. pork. 

IX.— Ltouim, QmADT, Bfa 

Ail, nL, pL anlz or miz, fforiio, 
Asperge, £ aaparfiguM, 
Aroine, £ oatt, 
Betterave, f beeL 


Caroite, £ carrot 
O^eri, m. edery. 
ChampigDon, m. muakfoom 
Chou, m. cabbofft. 
Ohouflenr, m. eamlifiower, 
OoDoonibra» m. cu ct mi bm r. 
OreMon, m. cTMa 
Epinardfl, m. pL ipiiM^ 
' Vbre, £ 60811. 
Oraio, m. kem^L 
Herbe, £ herb, 
LentiUe, £ UnHi. 
lialB, m. moiM. 

X.— Abbeh nunim% i 

Abnoot^ OB. opftcoim 
Abriootier, m. opridoMfw 
Amaiide,in. olmoikL 
Amandier, m. i^imotidirm 
Ananas, m. jntuappU, 
Areline, tjubert 
Caiitaigne, £ dkMMil. 
Oitnip, PL, eUrom^ U mtm. 



Tuw-boaehoD, m. c0rA« 

Tiroir, m. dm mtr . 

T^Tanin, m. boUttr. 

UatMMilea de eaUm^ m ^ kU tkm 

y «re, m. ^faia 

Rafraiphiiaqnmnt% m. pi nfim k 

Btaane, f. iommgo, 

Soape» £ coiip. 

Soape maigre, £ »ty»fiHi MiipL 

Tarte,f rort 


y ermioeUl, m. MrmMNL . 

yolaille, £/(Mrf. 

Mniet, m. ffiO^ 

Naret, m. Atmtjx 

OgnoD, m. ofiton. 

Oige, £ barley 

Oaetlle, £ torrwt. 

Fanaia, m. partmp, 

Perail, m. partUy, 

Phakie,t plant 

Po&^m. t>Mk 

Racine, £ roof . 

Radis, BL fvuliiA (iumm)* 





Ihym, m, thffma 


Faun Tbbs, FnaOL 
IVaiae, £ <<rai060rry. 
FVamboiae, £ fv^p&nty. 
GroaeOle, £ goomhtffy. 
Melon, m. ifM/ba 
Mure, £ mii/60rrsf. 
K^fle^ £ m«»ar. 
Koiaette, £ HomO-wU 


OFBiiffe,£ o r aiie a 




by Google 

frlftT OV WO»»f» 


Pomme, £ «f9>£r. 
Pommiar, m, ly y fa < ni< . 

XL — ^Aebeh 

Boaleau, m. birch, 
ChAne, m. ooA; 
Eoorce, tbark. 
Enble, m. mop^ 
Frtnerin. ociL 
H^tre, UL beech. 
Htitee, m. /ordL 
Qnne, m. tffai. 

XIL— Flbdb^ xra 

Anricnle, £ ourieif /a. 
Ohtfdon, m. <Am(<0l 
Ghftyre-feuille, m. hone^mieisk, 
6irofl6«^ £ ffillif/Umer, 
Jasmin, QLJiiiMMMAM 
lia, m. /t/y. 
HMguerite, £ dlstiy. 
MaaTuae herb^b £ ifMdL 
Ifyrte, m. myr^ 

Xm.— Omm 

Alle, £ wif^. 
Aloaette, I lark. 
Autoor, m. AomI^ 
Aatmche, £ ocfridk. 
Bec^m. beak. 
'BAausBe, t woodcodt. 
BdcftflsiDe, £«fiteA 
Bergeromiette, £ Mj^fiA 
OaiS»,t quail 
Canard, m. duck. 
Ganari,m. canarif'Hrd, 
C%ardonneret, VLooU^lmok 
OhAnTe-floiina» £ SaL 
Cigogne, £ rtor*. 
OcMombe, £ dove. 
Carbeaii,m. raeen. 
Comeille, £ tfrma 
Coaum, m. cuckoo. 
C^gne, m. twan, 
Dmdon, m. turkey, 
YuBOHy m. pheaeamt 

XEY.— QoADBuriDM. 


OMtor, PL heat nr . 

y igoe, £ vtiM. 


Peoplier, m. fcpUtr. 
Rameau, m. iottj^A, 
Saule, m. wiUom 
TUleii], m. ^Mid^fri 
Tremble, m. ojmii* 
TtcKM^m. trwiCk. 

Peo86e, i forge t me - noi. 
Pled d'alooette, m. larkafm 
Primey^re, £ cimlip. 
Tourneaol, m. aui^^foMr. 
ToUpe, £ f«/to. 
Viofette, £ vtoUL 


G^eai, m./adb({mft 

Griye, £ thruth. 

H^ran, m. heron. 

Hbrondelle, £ Mxa/ZoMb 

linoite, £ lifmtL 

Merle, m. blackbird, 


Oisean de pniie, m. iM ^jmfk 

Pama, m. |>0aooeik. 

Paaaerean, m. fporroia 

Perro^nei, m. parrot. 

Ferdra^ t patfridga, 

Pie, £ ma^7»ie. 

Pigeon, m. jM^^tfon. 

Poule, £ hen. 

Ponlet, m. chicken, 

Roitelet, m. wren, 

Roeeignol, m. nighHngaie. 

Rouge^rge,m. redbreatt 

Serin, m. canary-bird. 

Toorterelle, £ iurOo-dem. 

y aatour, m. wdtwre. 


Cauypoia» PL ctoi w fc 
ChtiTre, £ ^Fotrf. 
Obeyreiiil, m. r o ehmk . 
Eeoraiiil, m< t^mrrvL 


by Google 


ttlST OV WO»OS» 

Kurat^ BBL fwfftL 

Lapin, rfi66it 
Ii6Tr«b m- Aoiu 
Lion, m. /ton. 
lionp, m. wdf. 
Mule, £ mti^iL 

XT.— PomomL 

Anguille, f. m2. 
Baleine, t wkaU, 
Brochet, m. pike, 
Carpe, t eon, 
Cheyrette, £ tkrimp, 
EcreriMe, £ eram^fuh, 
Eftorgeon, m. ttirg^on. 
Hareog; m. herring, 
Hareng aaor, rtd htrrkig, 
Homard, m. loUUr^ 


Abeflle, £ Ue, 
Araign^e, £ ^rid^. 
CheniUe, £ eaterjnllar, 
Gigale, £ ffnuMhopper, 
OoolettTre, £ adder. 
CdOMOf m. ffnat 
Crapand, m. toad. 
EMarbot, m. UetU, 
Fonrmi, £ a»iL 
OriUoD,m. eridbeL 
Grenouille, £/fiog. 
GuApe. £ looip. 

XYIL— OimLi 
Balance, £ aeo^ 

Broeae, £ Intah. 
Bronetta, £ wheelbmrrmf 
Oachet^m. moL 
Carabine, £ rijte. 
Charrae, £ phugK 
Cheralet, m. eatel. 
Oire, £iM«. 
Ooffn^e, £ hatchtL 
Gofie, £ glu$. 
Oompas, m. eampoMtt, 
Eofaa&adaga, m. m iffcld 
Endome, £ coMtL 
Etati, m. vide 
Taadlle, £ tidUtf. 


PoiilaiiiyiiL «oft 
Pooroean, m. hog^ into a 
Renard, ni./MB. 
Singe, m. wigw J fcuj fc 
Taope,£ mo^ 
Tigre, m. tigtr. 

Merlan, m. v>hUi%§» 
Morue, £ eo(ffi§k 
Percfae, tptrck 
Reqiiin, dl ahari. 
Saumon, m. io/MMk 
Tanche, £ <endL 
Tortue, £ twrtU. 
Turbot, in. etirftoC 

L6sard, m. /tsan£ 
limacon, m. maiL 
Mouche, tfy. 
PapilloD, m. buUw/if, 
Pace, IJUtL 
PiuuuBe, £ bug. 
Sangsue, £ leech, 
Santerelle, £ loeuit, 
Serpent, m. eerpent, 
Teigne, £ motk 
Yer, m. foorm, 
Yiptav, £ viper. 

HaGlie,£ ax. 
HamefOD, uLjUk^oak, 
Herse, £ harrom. 
Houe, £ hoe, 
Ugne, £ /tiM. 
Lime, £^S2«. 
Meole, igrindaUme. 
Pain 4 cacheter, m. w^^r 
Pelle, £ <Aove2. 
Pince, £ crowbar, 
Pincean, m. hnuk, petmL 
Poulie, £ pulley. 
Rabot, m. plane, 
Rouleao, m. roller. 
SabUtoe, £ Mtu^^eii. 
Serriire, £ lock 
Tenaillea, £ ^ pi mttn, 
TmeUfl, £ fi^wil. 



by Google 


A. p. A protester. 

K. S. P. Accepts BOOS protAt 

A. S. P. 0. AooepU eous prot^t poor 

ft^ Bbtod. 
0^" Cheyalier 
C*^- Comteese. 
DF Docteur. 

fy- M"- Docteiir-m^deda 

J.-C. J^ufl-Cbrist 
LL. AAa II Leura Altenee Impd- 

LLu AA. RR Lbutb AlteMee Roy- 

LL. AA. SS. Leun Alteaees SM- 

LLu Em. Leurs £ininenoe& 

LL. Ex. Leon EzceUeDcee. 

LL HH. Leun Haateaees. 

LL. MM. Leun Majesty 

LL. MM. XL Leun Majesty Imp^ 

LL MM. RR. Leun Majettdt Roy- 

M. ou M'* Monsieur. 

M»«- Maltre. 

M. A. Mabooaasurte 

M. A. C. L ItfaisoQ aesur^e oootre 

M<i- Marcfaand 
W^ Marchanda 
M"*- MademoiseUe. 
Mf* Mooseigneur. 
M**" Marquis. 
M'"^ Manpse. 
MM. Messieurs. 
M">^ Madame. 
Mst Mannscrit 
K. B. Kota bene. 
N.-D. Notre-Dame. 
N.-N.-E. Nord-nord-est 
N.-N.-0. Nordnord-ouesi 
N"- N^godaot. 
N*^ N^gociaote. 
No- Kum^. 
9. & Notre-Seigneor. 
K.a J.-a Notre-SeSgnrar JMoi- 



Accepted under proUeL 
Acetified under protui 9m 


OkewdUr, knight^ eir. 




Doctor of medicine, 


Jetue ChrieL 

Their Imperied Biffhneeeee, 

Their Royal Higkneuee. 

Their Most Serene JBighneeeei, 

Their BmMieneee. 
Their SmeeUeneiee. 
JTieir ffighneeeet. 
Their Me^ettiee. 
Their Imperial Mi^etiiee. 

Their Royal MqfeetieM, 

Sir, Mr. 


Ifouee ineured. 

Houte ineured offoenet Jim, 

Dealer , ehopkeepeTt OL 

Dealer, ehMpkeeper, t 


My lord, 



Meeere. Oentlemen, 

Madam, Mre. 


Nota Bene, 

Our Lady, 



Merchamt, m. 

Merchant, I 


Our Lord. 

Our Lord Jem$ OkruL 


by Google 


*/• Poor €6Btk 
0.-K. 0ll6ft4M(d. 

0.-a OoMUud. 
p. a Po«t«criptiim. 
R. P. R^y^reod pte8k 

a sud. 

a A. I Son AHave finpMJa 

S. A. R. Soo Altene lUmde. 

8. A. a Soa Altene S^rteMm*. 

a-R Snd-est 

a Em. Soo EmiiMoot. 

a Ex. Son EzoeUenoe. 

a G. Sa Grandeur. 

a H. Sa Hantene. 

an. SaMajeeM. 

a M. B. Sa Majesty Britanuque. 

a M. C. Sa Majeet6 Catholique. 

a M. L SaMajert^ Imp^riale. 

a M. R 8a MajestA Km^e. 

ana SaHajMMSaMolfle. 

a M. T. a Sa Hajeet^ IVte OM- 

a M. T. F. Sa MaJetM IV^a TidMei 
a-0. Sndronest 
a P. SttntPte«. 
SaPP. LaeSaial 
as SaSaintet^ 
a-a-JL Sikkiid^l 





BU or Ear Impmriai Eigknnk 

BU or Str Roffid jSmtAmhi 

HU Mott Bermi Higimm, 



Bi$ SxeMmey, 

SU Grace (to a BidiopX 

ffu Stghns$9 (tha TuOMl taptt 

EU or Eer iMeMy. 
BuorHtr BinUmmm MaktiM. 
BU OaiMie Mmett^ 
m» Jmp€rMljAi$9tjf, 
jaU Royal Mineiy, 
SU Sw&cUth Mi^ut^, 
Bu Mo$t Chruti4m M^gm^ 

Bu Mo9i FmOfld Mmt^ 

BU BbUne$$. 


by Google 



§ 1. — FAxn OF Sfuoh. 
(1.) Thsbs are, in Franeh, ten sorte of words or ptrti of qpeoeh. 
Noaas or SnbstaatiYM, Partldplea, 

ArticlQ% AdTorbts 

Adjectiveii Prepo6itioii% 

PrononiiB, Conjunetionsi 

VerlM, Interjections. 

(9.) These are divided into variable, and invariable words. 
(3.) The vamhle words aro those the terminaaon of wUeh atU 
ttits of various changes; by these changes various modifiealionB ot 
SManing are ttzpreased. Thevaiiable words are of six kinds: 
The Noun, The Pronoun, 

The Article^ The Verb, 

The Adjective, The Partidple. 

(i.) The invariable words are those the termination of which 
never changes : 

The Adverb, The Conjunction, 

The Preposition, The Inteijection. 

(6.) AH variable parts of speech have two numbers: the singtiUtr, 
which denotes but one^ and the plurai^ which denotes more than ene. 
(6.) All variable parts of speech, except the verb, have two gen 
ders: the nuucuiwe and the/mitntne. 


The eases adopted by French grammarians are : 

(1.) The nommatif or sisrW; answering to the nominative or sub- 
ject of the English, and to the nominative of the Latin. 

(S.) The r^me iireeiy or direct object of the English, aecuaalivis 
of the Latin. 

(aO Th«r%i«ieMini:r,iii&ect object of th»l^^ 
the oblique cases of the Latin, tko gMiMw, dirtivi% nd abtottvi. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


aXHBBB.— -§ d, 4» 5. 

§ 8. — Tex Noun or Substantivx. 

(1.) The noun or mbsianHve k a word which serves to 
person or a thing; as, Jean, John; maison, house, 

(3.) There are two sorts of nouns: proper and comaum. 

(3.) A proper noun is applied to a partieulBr person, or thing] at, 
Napoleon, Napoleon ; Paris, Paris. 

(4.) A oonunon noun belongs to a whole class of objects ; as, liTre, 
bodk; homme, man, 

(6.) Some common nouns, althou^ Angular in number, present 
to the mind the idea of several persons or things, forming a eollee* 
tion : they are for this reason denominated coUectute nouns ; as, tronpe, 
troop; peuple, ji6op2e. 

(6.) Collective nouns are general, or partitive : generalj idien they 
represent an entire collection ; as, Tann^e des Fran^ais, the army cf 
ike French: partUivey when they represent a partial collection; as, 
une troupe de soldats franQsis, a troop of French soldiers, 

(7.) A common noun composed of several words, as, ohef-d'cBuvrei 
masterpieoef avant-coureur, forerunner, is called a compound noun. 

(8.) Of the two properties of nouns, gender and number, we shall 
eomnience with the first 

§ 4. — GSNDXB. 

(1.) There are, in the French language, only two genders: the 
masculine and the feminine. 

(2.) The masculine belongs to men, and animals of the male knid 
as, Charles, Charles ; lion, lion, 

(3.) The feminine g«ider belongs to women, and animals of the 
female kind; as, Sophie, Sophia; lionne, lioness. 

(4.) Through imitation— often on account of derivation, often 
without any real motive — ^the masculine and feminine genders have 
been given, in French, to the names of inanimate objects : thus, pa- 
pier, paper, is masculine, and plume, pen, is feminine. 



(1.) Male beings; as, homme, 
r/Mn ; lion, lion. 

(2.) Objects to which male qua^ 
titles are attributed 
genie, genius (a spirit] 

(3.) The names of the seasons: 
le printemps, the spring, dtc ; and 
of the months, Janvier, January ; 
ftTiiar, February, Sic 

(4.) The days of the 


(1.) Female beings : as, fenmie, 
tooman ; lionne, lioness. 

(2.) Objects to which femae 
qualities are attributed : tb^ fairy ; 
lune, moon. 

(3.) Virtues :Uicharit4,cian'<y; 
except courage, courage ; mbnibi 
merit, which are masc. 

(4.) Vices : la m6ehaneet6, wiek^ 
ednees: eioept PofgaeO, 


by Google 



.ucdl, Monday; mu^Tiutday^ 

(&) The namefl of the cardinal 
poinU and the winds: as, Test, ihe 
East;Vo\keAX,lheWestyiic [See 
exceptions opposite.] 

(6.) The names used in the 
French decimal B3rBtem : as, cen- 
time (hundredih part cf a franc) ; 
kilognunme (1 000 grammts^ abatU 
two pounds) ; mdtre, dtc 

(7.) Metjds:lefer,tron;racier, 

(8.) Colors: le vedfgrten; le 
;aime, yellow, 

(9.) The names of empires and 
^ii^pdoBM when ending with a eon- 
^nant: le IXuiemazo, Denmark; 
e Bresili BraxH 

(10.) MonntaLis : le Jnrajtfbuitf 
Jura , le Puy-de-Dome, (*) the 
PuydeDome; le C^nis, le St Ber- 
nam, JMoim/Cenu, Mount St Ber^ 

(1\.) The names of rirers when 
enoing with a consonant : le Rhin, 
theMme; le Nil, the NUe. 

^19.) Trees, shrubs: le chtoe, 
iheoak;\e frdne, Ae ash ; le rosier, 
the roaeJnah. [Exceptions op- 

(13.) The name of a language : 
as, le fran^ais, French ; Talle- 
mand, Qerman, &c. 

(14.) The letters of the alphas 
bet: un a, an a; un z, a %, 

(16.) Compound words formed 
of a veib and of a noun, either 
masculine or feminine, or of a 
pronoun and a verb : porte-feuille, 
pocket^fook ; rendez-vous, rendez- 

(6.) Festivals: kSaint Jeamie 
la £bte de St Jean, Sl J6kn*9 
day; la Chandeleur, Candlemas* 
except Noel, Christmas^ mase. 

Biae, a poetical term for North 
wind, Tnmonianet a term amaiied 
on the Mediterranean to the North 
vnnd, Brise,. breeze; mousaonsy 

(5.) The names of countries 
when ending in emute : la France ; 
I'Espagne, rAm^riaue, &e, 

£xc Bengale, mnovre, Me- 
xique, Pelopon^se. 

(6.) Chains of mountains in the 
plural: les Alpes, iJte Alvs; lea 
Pyrenees, the Pyrenees; les Yo* 
ges, les C^vennes, dLc. 

^) The names of rivers when 
Dg with e mute : la Seine, the 
Seme; la Loire, the Loire, 

Exc Le Rhtoe, the Rhone; le 
Danube, le Tibre, le Cooyte, mase. 
(8.) Aubepine, hawthorn; hour- 
dame, black alder; 6pine, thorn; 
hidble, dwarf-elder ; ronce, brier ; 

(9.) Garde-robe, 
perce-neige, spring-crocus ; peroe- 
feuUle, hart^s-^ar. 

It applM Is a I 



by Google 

ttaiTBSK 8T turn tmmUiWAtlOM^r^ d» 

bm andiag with mm: d»»nfcM% 

(IC) NovBfl, pronoiuuH yitIm, 
fte.»nBed sttbatontiyely : l«boire 
d le maoffer, eating mUdrinking. 

(17.) Namben— cwdinal, or£- 
nal, and proportional-^tued rab- 
itentiTely: le dui» the Unih; le 
nenviftme, the nmtk; le tiers, Ae 
fUnL [Bxceptions o]»poBite.] 

§ 6. — GsirnXBy BT TBB TBUinrASIOF. 

(1.) The exceptione to the mawcnline will be found oppooite tbe 
termination, in the feminine column ; and the exceptions to the ftn* 
bine, in the masculine column, also o^osite : 

(3.) ComonanU. 
Terminatkms. Feminim 



JDWIM. 'JSJ*' Amu 

BB Horeb, 


OB radoulH 


MB plomb^ 



40 sac, 


BG beo. 


10 mastic. 


00 soo, 


vc due, 


BO tronc, 


BO clero, 


ac fiso. 


BD pied, fooL 

n> nid, nett. 

op tripod, tripod, 

.m Tslmud, Talmud. 

KD marchand, merekant. 

BD bord, border. 

w ehe( 

ir snif^ 


BT eeatt, 

m rsBg 


Ba oi d e f , Joy; ■•( tkf^ 





by Google 




















nrt frecM by is or gi^ 
Slaaon, blaxoiL, 

biwii, hieon; hoiizon, ho- 
rizon; oiaMkf goeUng; 
poison, jpoisen; tiaon, 




bastion, hasHan; bastion, 
figure-head if a tiMp. 

dnq^ chik 

galop, foOop. 
eonp, Ko««» 


Exow-*^ ainl; main, tout 

Ezc— chanaon, aoi^; eiiia> 
SOB, baking; oonteo* 
fii^mi, eoumerfe it n^ ; 
fiiQon. mods; moisson, 
kariest; movasons, trade* 
wMff; nn^on, 

maiaon, ibiiae. 

Ezceptiona oppodte. 

region, region. 

pension, peneion. 

queation, queetion. 

r&Ottdon, r^/Uoiom 

OQ aoq-dlnde, t«rfay» 






not preceded by e, 
asnr, onine; 

bonhenr, happineet ; eoBor, 
Aasrt; choBor, chorus; d6- 
nominatenr, denoimnsfor; 
diaboananr^iKsibonQr; 6qni^ 
tsur, equaier; eittitoiir, 


Fifn.1 fwfflar, 
efaair, jinl. 
Ezc— lonr, Umer. 



by Google 


MtueuHne Terminaiions, 
exterior; honneur, honor; 
inUrieur, interior; labeur, 
labor ; malheur, misfor' 
tune; multiplicateiir, mul~ 
Hplier; pleure, tears; re- 
ffulateiir,r^^v2ator; venti- 
Uteur, venitkUor, 

E— Continued. 

fefnttttne Tvrfiuiutft0iilL 
stn&— Contmued. 

Exoeptiona oppodle. 











aBiaryms,amaryttit; bra 




bis, sheep ; fois, time : SOB- 




lis, ffiouje; vis., screio ; oa. 




sis, oont. 












for«t, forest 




niiit, nv^ 




dot, dower. 








dent, /axA; gent, people, 
jument, fiutne. 





part, s^rv; )a pinpart, ih§ 











£xG.— croix, cross; noix, 
nut; ^sHx, jfeace ; voix, 
voice ; ^rdnx, partridge , 
poix, pitch. 

Exc— chaux, lime; fanx, 








scyUie; tonx^ cough. 












A acacia. 

Eza — ^vinula, a sort ef eaU 
erpiUar; sepia, ispta. 

A complete dasofication of nouns ending in e mute (a majoritj of 
wbicfa are feminine) would be, from its len^^ of little practical nee to 
the Undent, who would find it easier to apply to hit dictiooarj thsn to 


by Google 

»aB]>s&B BT tax tmtbMtWAtiov. — § 6. 

MehaUrt. We viU gm hm the 
aooordiAg to their g^eoder, and pUcii 
gi^en for the terminations, inetead 
opposite column. 

Ma$cuUne Terminations. 
ABB astrokbe, agtroiab, 

Ezc. — Souahe, Svalna; 
Byllabe, tyliable, 
ACUE miiBcle, miracle, 

£xc.— debacle, breaking 
up cf the ice; maelet a 
ACRE sacre, consecration. 

£xc. — ^nacre, mother cf 
■ AAX eoanige, courage. 

Exc—'UDagtjbiu^ ; race, 

rage; page»|M^« of a 

book ;cAgei cage ;nigef 

swimming; plage, beach. 

. AI«K aahure, saltmf. 

£xa— -affaire, affair ; aire, 
Joor; glaire, white of 
egg ; grammaire, gram^ 
mar ; paire, potr ; ju^- 
hair-doth; chaire, jntU 
pit; serpentaire, smke^ 
root; parietaire, peUu 
tory, and a few other 
namea of pl&nts. 
▲BS hectare, hectare (a 
ASTRB cadastre, roister. 
AVKK chaume, thatch. 
£xc. — paume, tennis. 
t not immediately preceded 
by t or ft.' abr6g6, 


coU^ge, ' eoOege, 

BJxc. — ^Norvdffe, Norwaif. 

ear^me, IbtiL 

Kxa — cr^me, cream; 
br^me, bream; bir^me, 
trireme, galley wUh two 
or three rows of oars. 

Sr^tre, priesL 

xc. — ^fen6tre, window ; 

guAtre, gaiter. 

vmiRB beurre, butter. 

muM cidn^ dder* 

principal tcnnfaiatkiQi» elaamig tham 
ig the exceptions mider the aKaiaplea 
of putting them, as hitherto^ in the 

Feminine Terminations. 
ACS gr&ce, grace. 

£xc. — espace, spaoe. 
ADE parade, parade. 

Ezc— stade, stadium 
frsAe^ grade. 
AiB haie, hedge. 

AJfCB importance, importanee. 
AJfSB danse, dtmee. 

AS8B masse, mass. 

Ezc. — Pamasse, Patm 
ia nu^e, cloud. 

£zc.-*4pog6e, apogee; 
athee, atheist; camee, 
cameo; colisee, cdu* 
seum; coryphee, cory^ 
pheus; emf>yr^highest 
heaven; lycee, lyceum; 
mausol^e, mausoleum; 
musee, museum; hy- 
men^e, marriage; p4« 
rigfee,|ier^cc; pygm6o, 
Vyg^i troch6e, trochee ; 
trophi^e, trophy; spon* 
d6e, spondee; scarabee, 
EiHE baleine, whale. 
EBCB cadence, cadence. 

£xa — idlence, sHenoe. 
XHHB antienne, anthem. 

Exc. — ^renne, reindeer. 
XNSE offense, offence, 
ESSE tristesse, sadness, 
IE charpie, lint. 

Exc— g6nie,g^8nti»; p4ii» 
h^liBj perihelicn ; incen- 
die, conflagration ; panu 
pluie, umbrella; pavie, 
clinkstone peath. 
liEB chaudidrci, boiler. 
IRE doctrine, doctrine^ 
IQT7E pratique, practice, 
IVE rive, share. 

issE coulisse, sU^^ng-shmUsr^ 
LLE paille, straiw. 

Eza— -intervallt* tnlsrwrf; 


by Google 

mmm^MB^^ 1 


JMU priama, ^f^Mi. 
nqUB risque, riik. 

Exa— -bisque, soup, 
nrx ib^idste, cabin d ma ke r . 
£xG. — ^batiste, oamMc; 
vos refuge, 
cmxB arbustiii 

venniedH; noloneeUej 
vioUmuOo; cfaeTmi 
fettiUe, honey-suekki 
portefeuille, fodtoi^Mk; 
yandefiUe» ii«iufen2le. 

boeee, hunch. 

£zcw— colosae, eoUmmui 

m tuppe, tahU^cML 

BBS not pieeeded by «. 
tene, land. 

£»>— lieire, ivy , psrtene, 
fiower-garden ; tomwReb 
tender; pMlonoetn^ 
l^thtnxng'^Tod / Tetrti 

«i amiti6, fneniMp. 

TTl P&tte, fOM. 

£xa — amulette^ omtfte; 
sqaelette, MeUm. 
VBX nature, iiafiirs. 
v» ezense, exciise 

UTB OBVe, iM&i 

1 midi, Yuxm. 

Bxc— foi,/aiA; fonnni, 
ant; aprto-mkii, t^ltr^ 
noon; iol» Jaw; land, 

V revenu, revenue. 

Ezc. — ^bru, daughler-h^ 

law ; Tertu, tirtue ; glu, 

hirdJime; eau, water; 

peau, simi ; tribu, A-tA«; 

^ 7. — ^NauNe MAsouuirE ik oin aoobptaixon, amb FsMnnn 



Barbe, Barbara korte, 
Oarpe, wm< {tm4tUimy\ 
Oartoodie, omamenU {tmlp' 

Auna, e(r. 
Barbe, Uard. 
Oarpe, e«i7». 
Cartouche, aaftri^^ 


Oouple, apahr^ irate, um 


by Google 

PftV1L4b OF VOrVir*4 ^ 








0|^ ofcUrh of t 

danUal ehonL 

memoir, hiU. 

















>t^p, we^^ 

tour, tiini, tHck, 
9ptiee, empHneii, 


E«e mpl% 





a mineral 














literary werk9 

the ' 

parallel Umt. 

period, epo e h* 



of rMfteix^ ihe n 









§ 8. — ^FoBMAnev 07 ths Plural Nomre. 

(1.) The plural in French, u in Engliah, hi fonned by th« adMM 

Bh^g^lUw, PlwraL 


▼ille, towfi; Tillea, 

($) lVriit«aKq9<ioiiw-*NMUMM4iiiglDth8 
hKv» the auBe fbnn in the plana: 


by Google 

9M PLUBAL ov voimB.-^ 8. 

BImffulmr. Plvnl 

nn,no$e; nei^iioMt. 

(8.) Secofui exception.— Nouns ending in the lingular with te mJ 
«!(, taJce dp in the plural: 

Singular. PluraL 

chapeau, htU ; chapeanx, hait, 

fea, fir0 ; feux, firtt, 

(4.) Tfttni exception. — ^The following nonna ending in ou'take * 
In tbi5 plural: 

Siitgular. Plural 

btjou, JetoeZ ; bijoux, Jewels, 

caiiloo, pebble ; cailloux, pebblei, 

cfaou, cabbage ; choux, eabhagee. 

geoou, imM ; ffeooux, htuee. 

hiboa, ow/; biboux, owU, 

ymyniy plaything : ' joi^oox, fUaylhinge, 

(p.) Fourth exceplicm, — ^Tbe following noons ending in at2^ changv 
that teimination into aux in the plural : 

Singular. Plural. 

bail, leaae ; baux, leaue. 

oorail, coral ; coraux; ewaU. 

ktaaS\ enaund; 6inaux, enamdiu 

Boupirail, atr-Ao/tf; tonpiraux, atr-M«ff. 

8ouabail,iiiu29r4iai»; aoos-baux, wMlfr^MMM 

travail, labor; travaux, Ubofre. 

(6.) JF^ exceptioTL — The following nouns form their plural irreg- 

Singtdar. PluraL 

hilt garlic; sux. 

b^taa, eaOle. besdanz. 

Bercail, sheep/old^ has no pluraL 
(7.) Sixth exception. — Nouns ending in the smgular with al^ chshg* 
that termination into aux in the plural :* 

mngtdar. PluraL 

g^airsA^aeneral ; g6ja6rKax, generaU 

dieval, Aotm; chevaux, AofMa \ 

mal, eoU; mauz, evUs. 

(8.) Ciel, oeil, aieul, travail, have two plurals: 
Singular. Plural. 

eiel, heaven; deux, heavene. 

.^, j Utter of a bed; .. • j teetere of hedi. 

"•* i ekyofipicture; "^ \ ekiet </piciwe$. 

*Ba],M^• cmamrwX^eamiptU; duMlJaekal; t^gal, treat, kSltwi^ 


by Google 


qbO de-boBQ^ ova/ window ; ceOsHle-bcBii^ ova/ w wrf oMfc 

aleul anee$tor ; aleuz, anceMtort, 

MJ^ni, erund/ather ; aleu]a» ^an^^i^Aora. 

traTiul, lobar; travauz, /a6or& 

tntTtil, iriMw; traTEilB, Itovm. 

§ 9. — ^Plural of Compound Nouns. 

(1.) When two nouiui form a compound subetwitive, both take the 
phiral ending: 

Binfftdwr. PlwrcU, 

chef-lieu, ehief place; chefr-lieux, chief plaeea 

fieatenant-coioiie], lUmtemuU' lientenantB-colfineLii lietUmiank- 
colonel. cciUmcU, 

(2.) When a compound noun is fonned of two sabstantives joined 
by a preposition, the fiist only takes the plural ending: 
Smgtdar , PlwraL 

ar&«D-cid, rotn&ov; arcsren-eiel, raMoiM. 

ebe^cBuvre, maUerpiece ; ehefa-d'oeuTre, maeterpiceee. 

'FhB words t6te-ii-tMe and ooq-k-r^ne (an incongruouidi9dowree)t remain 
tttcfaaoged in the pluraL 

(3.) When a noun and an adjective form a compound noun, botn 
«re varied in the plural : 

Singvlar. PluraL 

genlilbomme» nobleman ; gentOBhommee, noblemen. 

fOgie<odi^m, carriage-door : portee-ooefatoes, corrM^tfwIoori. 
baflee-cour, poultry-yard ; DaaBes-oourB, pouUry-yardi, 

(4.) For the sake of euphony, the mark of the plural"^ is cnaHed 
li. the adjective of the following compound words: 
Singular, Plural. 

grand'mftre, grandmother ; grand'mires, grandmothen. 

grand'mesBe, kigh-nuae ; grand'mesees, HigKmaeeee, 

(5.) The words, Monsieur, Svr^Mr.^genJI^leman; Madame, Jfrntoii 
or Mrs. , MademoiseUe, Miu^ fonn their plural as follows: 
Singular. Plural. 

MoDsienr, Sir, etc. ; Me88iean» Mrt, gentlemen. 

Madame, Madame etc. ; Mesdamee, /adS^ etc. 

Mademoiselle, Miat, etc ; Mesdemoiselles, young ladUe, etc. 

(6.) Ill words composed of a noun and a verb, a preposition, or aa 
■dverb» the noun takes the form of the plural ; provided, however 
there is plurality in the idea. 

Singular. PluraL 

paM.port,jMW9>of<; passe-porte, |>«Mpor<t. 

Avaoigarde, wmgua/rd; avantgardes, voM^narda 

• ThemarkoftbefiBmiiikiealia 

Digitized byCjOOQlC 

tM TtVMAh or VOHt.^ Up llf IS. 

(7.) Gompomid nouBa ef whieh the NOMid word 
littly* taki t in the rfBgohr iod plmil : 

eure-denta, a tooth^k ; enra-dtnte, i9M^ffuk$. 

CMta-ooiMttes, fMil<«rMJbfn; oMte-noisettai^ fAil*«nicfaVlk 

(8.) Worda composed of two yerbs, or of a verb joined to au ajU 
Teib, or a preposition, are inyariable : 

Singular. PluraL 

passe-partout) matter-key ; passe-parUrat, nuuUr-kevt, 

ponr-boire, eoaickmiam!9 fit ; ponr-lioife^ coaekmmCt fit, 


(1.) The nouns of metala eonsidered in themeelTee: as, or»^otf , 
aigent, silver; plomb, 2efluf ; 6tain,|iewler; fer, tron; eniyte, copper ; 
Sargent, gutcXctiZrer, dtc. 

(9.) Aromaa: each as batutte, Maem; encena, tnoenae, iu, 

(3.) The namea <ii ▼irtnea and vieea, and some names rekting to 
pnyafcal and moral man: as, la jenneaae, youth; la beant^ hMuiff; la 
bonte, goodness ; le courage, courage, 

(4.) Adjectiyes used snbstantirel^ : as^ le bean, ^ hemt^ ; IHitileb 




SOriMSf MSfNIll 











ArrMs («tre avtz), Id 6« lifkln- srrwtiL 























mtm ytat^tprtttntt. 











jtweltt diamambk 





S 12.-^PitonR Kamxs. 

(1.) Proper latties, when not need Hguratirely, are hiTarinble^ 
when preceded by the plnral artfele, lea.(*) 

L'Espagne slioiiore d'aToir pro- 
duit les denz AmlyiMc 


ifijpeiii vrJdst 
ffivtm hitik to «Ai 

« QAsn used by the Aewh belbre Hie I 

I oCeelebcated indiTidvda 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

TBB AETIOLl,— § !(. )|9. 

Locke, Momtnqtiim, /. / Bom' 
Mav, at /A^y <in)M tit iAirofM, m<M 
tipon fUMCsm nnHoiu to «Mtm (Am* 

!«• X«dK 1m JfoHtetquUu, Im 
/ / JicM$$emf en se kvani en 
Smope, appelerent lee peuplea 
nodernee k la liberty. 


(3.) When proper OAmee are used figiintlvely, they tek« tk» fotm 
La Franoe a en ses Chan et see | France ka$ Aenl iU (hmmn Qm4 

That is, generals like Pompey and Cnsar. 

tin eoim d*OBil de Louis enfao- 1 A glanc$ firmm lanrit pnimMiJ 
UiXB dee OomeiUe$, Dxlill& | OomtUUe. 

Ti)«i J8, poets like Comeille. 

§ 18. — Tbb Amnou. 

(1.) The article is a word prefixed to a noun, or to a word iim4 
anbstantiyelyy to determine the extent of its significatioB. 
(2.) Modem French grammarians recognize only one artiele» 2e» 
(3.) This article, contnusted with the prepositioB de^ is often OMd 
before a wotd in a partitive sense. [} 78.] 

(4.) The words wi, masc^ tine, fem^ answering to the indefinite 
article a or on in English, are now very properly* classed wit^ 
the nnmeral adjectives. We shall, however, for th» sake of oontei^ 
ience, devote a few lines to them under this head. 
(5.) The article Ufthe^jBla for the feminine, and les for the plnraL 
(6.) The article is subject to two kinds of changes: diiion [{ 146] 
and contraction. 

(7.) Elision is the suppression of the letters c, a, which are repUoe^ 
by an apostrophe [ ' ] before a vowel, or an h mute [seeL.8 (11)] : thusi 
ToBprit, the mind, instead of le esprit 

Tamitid, the friendaMp, " la amxtiA. 

lliomme, the fium, * le *»<*«<Myfct 

Hiumanitd, AtfliMittty, * lahnmanit4i 

(8.) Contmetion is the union of the srticle fe, lu^ wkh ooe of ths 
prepositions, d, de. Thus, we say by contnetion : 

an livre, to the book, instead of it le iivre. 

aux fruits, to the/ruite, " k]m fruits, 

dn livre, of the book, " de le livro. 

des fruits, (/<A«yrii<Ci^ " deUsfiruiti. 

(9.) The contractions ou, <{i«, are not used before masculine words 
eommendng with a vowel, or an Jb mute, nor before feminine words: 

^ 1 ■ . '^M I 'i H ' II . II II ■■■■ ■■■■■■ ,. .■ Ill I I . !■■■ Ill - ■ 

* Ko diffBrenee can be made in rendering Sqgiiflh mto Frendi, between 
a sad one, so tint in French tut homme means a man, or ome man. Hhm 
«tfaer numeral adjectives might with at much propiiety have bem eailei 



by Google 


tBB ABTXOLS. — § 18. 

k Hiommfl^ to tke i 

k rami, to thefrUhd, 

de lliomme, of the maoL, 

de rami, of the friend. 

(10.) TKe arti< le used before words taken in a partitive aeofle QTS 
(1)], comes in connection or contraction with the prcpcisition d!^; it it 
londered in English by somt or any^ expressed or understood: 
du pain, m. eome kreadt or of the bread (a peart ef\ 

de rar^ent, m. money, eome moneif, of tlte monej (a part of) 

de la viande, f. meatf tome meat, of the meat (a part of} 

lie Targenteriei t rilver-plate, some silver-plate, of the silver- p]ate(a pariefy. 
des livres, m. hooke, some books, of the books (a part of), 

(11.) The English indefinite article, a or an, is rendered in Freacb 
by un for the masculine, and taifi for the feminine ; when those woidt 
are connected with the preposition die, the e of the prepoahioii Is 

Masctdine, Feminine. 

nn bomme, a man. une femme, a vnman 

d'un lK>mme, of or from a man, d'une femme, of or from a \ 
a un bomme, a< or to a man. - k une femme, a/ or to a i 

Resumi of the above Observations. 

le, before a mascnline word, ^ commencing tnth 
la, bef<H*e a feminine word, 
r, before a word of either 

les, for the plural, in all cases, 
du, before a masculine word, ( eommencinff tnth 
de la, before a feminine word, ( a consonant, 
de r, before a word of either ( eommencina icith 
, gender, ( avowelorhmute, 

des, for the plural, in all eases, 
au, before a masculine word. 
It la, before a feminine word, 
a r, before a word of either 

iMiz, for the plural, in all cases, 
un, before a masculme noun, 
une, before a feminine noim, 
d'un, before a masculine noim, 
d'une, before a feminine noun, 
H un, before a masculine noun, 
H une, before a feminine noun, 

Ze ptoe et la mfere sont au d&- 
■espoir. B. db St. Pierre. 

X'amiti6 dans nos oceurs verse un 
bonheur paisibla DBMousnsa. 

Xlionneur auz ^ands co^urs est 
phis cher que la vie. Corneille. . 

Zes fines ot les ffar^ons chanttoent 
mk cboBur. & ds St. Piiau. 

a consonant, 
1 1 commencing with 
( avowdorhmvte, 

[ oommendtig witl* 
\ a consonant, 
commandng vith 
[ avowdorhmute, 


from tks^ 



0, on, one, 
' of or from a, am, on 
^ at or too, an^ oiu. 

The father and fnother orv i i 

JfViendship pours a peaeeftU A^ 
piness ifito our hearts. 

Honor is dearer ^an life ton* Vi 

The boys wd^firU sm^itkthtr, ^i 


by Google 

TB« ADJBOTITS.^ li-1, g 14-& 


Bar 2m rives dbi Qange on Toit 
ienrir r^btaa. IhEULiA 

Zm vioietto se eaebe timldement 
mm miliea <Im filles ir Tambre. 


Ld remordB m rfiyeille au cri de 
Is nstnrB. Dk Billot. 

La moiti6 dsa hamains Tit mtx 
^Ap&MdeFwitte. Dmouoioa 

iks ebony in hUim, 

Th€ vwlet eoneeaU Kttmif iltmH^ 
t« the nUdtt of the daughters of th$ 

JUmorse ii oromed by the efy of 

The half <f mankind Ikm at tkt 
expense of the other. 

§ 14-1. — Tbe Abjiotivx. 

(1.) The adjectiTe Benres to denote the quality or manner of being 
Of the noun. 

(3.) AdjeetiTea are of two aorta : qual^ying adfectioes and dOertim* 
tng at^tt t vocs* 

' (3.) WecaUfua^i^t^AJ^ecftoefthoaewhlchaddto theideaofiha 
objeet» that of a quality proper to it; aa bon, good; noble, nobU; 
eonragenz, eourageoia, 

(4.) Determining a^'ectives are those which add to the idea of the 
object that of a particular limitation or determination; aa quelqne, 
some; tont, aU; autre, other; mon,my; nul, no; un, one; deux, twok 

§ 14-2. — QuALnrriKO Adjbotivm. 

(1.) These adjectives may express qualities: 1. Simply; 2, "Wltil 
comparison ; 3. Carried to a very high degree. Thence the three de- 
grees of qualifieation: the positiye, the comparatiTe, and the superUu 

(2.) The positiTe is nothing but the adjectiTe in its simplest signi- 

Moi, je tds k Tana, irieie, pauore, 
fwelue, BoiLSAUi 

At Parii I am ead^poor, and it* 

(3.) The comparative is the adjectiTe expressing a comparison be* 
tween two or several objects. There is, then, between the objecti 
eompared, a relation of equalilyj superiority^ or inferiority, 

(4.) The comparison of equality expresaea a quality in the same de- 
gree in the objects compared; it is formed* by placing aussi, as^ on 
autant, as mticA, before the adjective, and the conjunction que, ms^ 
after it: 

L'AIlemagne est otMm peupl^e Oemuiny is at populous as France 
fiM la France. Voltaixs. 

A lour tAte eat le chien» superbe At their head stands the dog, at 

aaitmt ^atilcb Dblixja noble as hm/W. 

* In French, adjectives cannot be com p ared, as in English, by means at 
shanses in the temunatioo : with the exception of mMJUaxat better ; main* 


and pirfl^ worse, all comparisons mutt be fcimed I7 means d 

by Google 

Digitized t 

Lm afitioDtioot plm maetaw qut 
let pATolet. Mlu. vm SonoDi&T. 

L9 pied dn oorf est mtanx fiut que 
eelui du boBol Bufton. 

((L) Tbd nbtkui or oampari«on of noperioxitjr ezpreues a quifef 
Sn a liigher degree in one objeei than in another ; this compariaon to 
fonned by pbefaag ^oa, more^ before the adjeetiTe» and qno, Aon* 
after it: 

Aetiont 9f mom tincmr^ tMttm 

Tk$ foot of ih$ stag %M UUtf 
formed than &at o/thtox, 

(6.) The compariaon of inferiority expresses a quality in a lower 
degree in one object than in another ; it is formed by placing moinsi 
k$tt belbre the adjective, and qua, (tot, after it: 

Le naufrsge at hb mort soot motiM Shipwreck m%d death att Uu/ttel 
nnastes qm les plsiiirt qui atta- thtm thorn fimmt ru whUh attmek 
quent la yerto. VtsiuM, virtue. 

(7.) We have only three a^jectivea which are comparativea of them* 
■elvea: meilleur, better^ moindre, leu; pire, worte. 

Meilleur, instead of plus bon^ which ia never used in the aenaa of 

B n'ast fMiUeur ami ni parent I We Aatw no better friend^ we M- 
que loi-mAme. La Fomtaxms. | tor relation than ourielvee, 

Pire, instead of plus mauvaiSf which may however be naed: 

Lerembdeestparfoisjnreqnele I The remedy is at times worse than 
aaL liixoBLi. | theevU. 

IkUundre, instead otphu petU^ an ezpreaaion also in nae : 

Oen'eat pas «tre petit one d'etre | Bemgi Ussihmnffre&tisnetbeii^ 
moindre qu un grana. Bonn. | email. 

(8.) The syperiatsve^ or third degree of qnalifieation, eipreaMa tbo 

quality carried to a veiy high, or to the highest degree ; thence thara 
are two aorta of superlatiyeB: the relative and the absolute. 

* Jfieox, better; p&i» worse; Bioinfl» less. The Eqglish wonls better, 
woise, less, are sometimes adverbs, and when they are so^ should be le^ 
dered by liie several words placed at the commencement of this note. A 
practical way of determining the nature of those words in English is : 

1. To chai^ the word better into the expressioD 'in a betUr maimer.'* 
If this change may be made without diangmg Has sense, the word better 
h an adverb^ and must be rendered by mse%ig: 

He reads better {in a better man- I II lit mMua; que son frtee. 
mer) than his brother. \ 

2. If you can change worse into **ina worse manner P it should be traaa> 
lated pis, or, more ebgantly, plus mal ; 

ffe reads worse (in a wares man- I U hi pie (plus mal) que aoB 
ner) than his brother. \ frtoe. 

8. When you may substitute " o emaller amount or quemtetf* for IJba 
wotd i«M, it riionLd oe rendered aiof MS : 

9ereaieleee{a emaller a m tms O I H lit metiM qne eon ftin. 
^an Me brother. | 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

»aiii»in or AftascnTSi.-^ I8» ttt. tW 

(9l) The gnpeiktiTe relative nuiks a very faigb or Hie Mghiit de- 
gree relatively^ or with eompBrieoii: it is formed by plaeing le^ la, le% 
&e ; mon, my ; too, thy ; son, his ; notre, our ; votie^ your ; lerir, lenrBi 
fftctTy before the companitiTe of superiority or inferiority : 

A bemtfU received %• the mmC tO' 

Un bienfidt re^n eat la plue eaerSe 
da toutes let dettea Mio. Nigkkb. 

La probitd reconnae est leplvesOr 
de tool les aemieiita. (Tbs baib) 

AeknawledgedjpwobUy ie the moU 
eecure of all oathe, 

(10.) The words 2e jihuy U mom, must be repeated before every ad* 

Ce soot les livres lee plue affr6- 
aUes» Ue pl%u vnivenellemeiit liis» 
et lee plue fOUee, 

BxaxAKViN DB St. Pb&bs. 

Theee booke are the moaf agfee* 
the moet ueefuL 

(11.) The superlative absolute expresses also a very high degree* 
but, absolately, without compsrison : it is formed by pU»ing before 
the adjective one of these words, irHyfortt vnfinimenly extrhnementf dto. : 

n y a a la vlQo, comme aflleun, 
6b fort sottes gens. La Bauriaa. 

Je vena prie de croire que je ne 
•ouge qa'a vooa^ et que vona m'etea 
omMmemeat ehire. 

Mm. m SivioNi. 

There are in eiiiee, ae eleeakere, 
very eilly people. 

1 hea you to hdieve that you are 
my only thouyht^ and that you are 
extremely dear to me. 

§ 15. — Gender and nxtmbxr or Adjbotivbs, 
(1.) The adjective has, of itael( neither gender nor number ; it nraal 

the gender and number of the noon to which it belongs. 
(3.) The termination of the adjective varies aoeording to the gender 
and munber of the nona which it qnalifies or detenainee : 

Un homme prudent Une femme jinid m fa 
A prudent foan, A prudent wwnan, 

Bea hommea prudente, Bea femmea prudentee. 
Prudent men. Prudent women. 

g 16. — ^Formation or thb Fsmininb or Adjxotivxs. 
(1.) AH acyeetivea ending with e mute^ remain nnchanged in the 
feminine : 

Vn homme aariable. 

An ayreeaole i 
Un mar eolide. 
A ttrongwoXL 

TTne femme aariable. 

An agreeable wtman, 
ITne maiaoQ eolide, 

A etrong {weU bmlt} hauee, 

(3.) Adjectives not ending in « mnte form, their feminine by the ad» 
iltion of «: 


A diligent boy, 
V^hoauaia poU, 


Una file daigenU, 

A tUligent airl 



by Google 

9BHt)ttwm or A»«ienT»i.— S'16. 


% -# - ■ 



' il' 

XLLX, tel. 1 

telle, tmK 


KiLUE, pareil, 

poreille, UkM. 


Cfhanffe ihote 

xvvB, andeD, 

Mi4?iff"fift. ettcJMil 



xm^ muet, 

nnette, wwU, 



' fwtlufemi-' 


bonne, poeti 



▼X, neui; 

DeuTe, neu. 

8X, heureux; 

pwae. /at 

(4.) The following, altlwiigh ending with these tenninatioui»form 

their fesumneotfa 









' make in tktfeminifU' 







^ repute. 




«t7/y, ofij maX;tf tn Me- 





•eA iieee*, 1 

^ douce. 






maki in tktfmmku 

rouflse. ' 





(5.) Adjeetives ending in eilr, as also some snbstantiTes of the 
same termination, have three several modes of forming the feminine: 
' IsL Those wliich are deriyed from the participle present of a 
French verb by dropjdng ant^ and substituting eur^ change tiie final 
letter (r) intoM^as* 

Pre$. Part Mueulim. Feminim, 

daxuantf whence danamr; and thence danseuM. 
trompafU, " tromp«tfr; " trompeosA 

Here, however, note that chanteur^ when rignifying a professional 
HngeTf taices for the feminine eantatrice. like anomalies appear in 
the following: 

amboasadenr^ amhassadoTf 
bailleui*, lessor^ 
chasseur, hunter, 
demandeur, plaintiffs 
dSfendeur, oxfendanU^ 
devineur, guesaer, 
enchanteur, enehanUft 
gouvemeur, governor , 
p6cheur, tinner ^ 
serviteor, effrvoiii; 

make in ike 


IdL Those endingineniraadderivedfromtheLatin,aad,eoiiMqiMBt» 


by Google 

a$ntiim9 or a]>'>otit««.-:5,io. 


j» not fklling xindet the nue (IK) Jnat given, foim. tbeb feminine bf 
changing ieur into <rto^ as, 

Matndine, Fkminine, 

actenr, aetor, actrice, aetnu. 

admirateur, tubtiirtr, admiratrice, acbnirer 

Kxceplions to thia, however, are the following: 

d^Kiteor, debtor, 
ex^cuteor, executor, 
inspecteur, intpeetor,, 
inyenteiir, itwerttoTt 
pen^uteur, peraeetUor, 

make in the 


3dL Thoae ending in ^rteurj alao mu^eur^ mtnettr, mBiQeuT^ toWfom 
the general mle, that la, add e to form the feminine ; as, 


ext^rienr, exterior, 
snp^rionr, superior, 
majeur, of age, mtgor, 
mineor, minor, 
maUlMir, better. 

make in the 


(6.) Adjectivea, as also nonua, indicating occapation ehiefly ey»N 
daed by men, are alike in the maaculine and the feminine ; aa, 
antenr, author ; litt6rateiir» literary pereon. 

(7.) The following adjectives having two forma for the ] 
form their feminine as followa : 

Maeeuline before Maaeuline before 

a eoneonanL a vowel or h mute, J^hninine, 

bean. bel, belle, 

|Sra» fol, foUe, 

moo, mol, molle, 

DoaTean, nonvel, nouvdle* 

vJeuz, vieil, vieille, 


IrregiUar A^'edives. 
(8.) The following adjeetivea form their feminine ixregnlariy . 


Mbralque, used onlj of tt« 
Hebrew toogoa 
jqiivaf asB (ohsekW), a etripUnff^ jonvencaUa. 

ab»cu8» absolved, 
b^nin, benign, 
blanc, white, 
caduc, decrepit, injlrm, 
coi, ^iet, 
difflous, diseolvedf 
f&YOTi, favorite, 
fnia, freth, 
franc, free, frank, 
gentil, oref /y, genteel, 
grec, Grecian, Oreek^ 
n6brew, Hebrew, 


by Google 

JiniiMii,Mis fattnlle. 

long, Um^, «tM% loDgue. 

mtAtre, matter, maaUrfy, maltrMM, 

malin, cunning, nudigmmt, maligne. 

mnlitre, mulatto, mulitre or 

mxmcat, muieai, mmeadAi 

nul, null, nom, nolle. 

dUoog, obhnff, obloDgos, 

yah^ public, pabliqat. 

rfieooB, molvid, tk mff td^ rtelnii 

Nc, dry, barrtn, ttehe. 

■ot, niiy, Botte. 

traltre, iraitar, trHtehcroua, tnAtnmt, 

tore, TurincK, ^?!1^^ 

(9. The following have no feminine : 

artiMn, mcehanie. partUtm, jpnimn. 

diitein, ehemut color. Umoin, witneaa. 

dispoe, active. 9ili$i, rellam, of wll— ■ 

§ 17. FoRMiLTtOK OF TRX Px.tmA.1 OF ADJSOTmKft. 

(].) Otnend AuZe.— The plnnd of adjectives is foimed by fli» flAi 
dition of « to the mucnline, or to the fenunine tenninatik>n : 

Singular. PlmraL 

grand, great, grands ; 
petit, ifRa/A P«titi; 

Singular, Flurai. 

gmde, grandeii 

petite, petitee. 

(t.) This rule has no exceptions with regard to the feminine ter- 

(8.) With regard to the masculine terminalion, it is sul^eet lo the 
three following exceptions : 

First £xce^toR.— Adjectives ending in the singular with s or «, d» 
not change their form in the plural : 

Singular, PluraL 

beureux, happy, heorenx 

douz, cwcet, $oft, doux. 

Second £a:c0pfion.— A^'ectives having in the singular the tennlna. 
tion e0ii» form their plural masculine by the addition of « ; 
Singular. PluraL 

beau, handnmc, beautiful, beaux, 

jomeau, twin, jumeaux 

nonveau, new, nouveaux. 

Third ESxoeption, — ^Adjectives ending in oZ, form their plural m^ 
SttUne by changing al into aux: 

Singular. Plwral 

)Sb6ni,Hberal, Ub6raiB. 


Digitized byCjOOQlC 

AQMMMUkM'i OV JlBlBefftTSa— g 18. fit 

Wii quote from Dotehonili^ OrMMMnrt iMfinMb^ tbo a^fMliM 

wUeh fonn their plnnl in d!$: 








f^^i^A*^^ •^ 

Ditial, im/toi, 


labial, /o^io/, 


matinal, early. 


medial, fi»«M» 




pascal, /MMcAo^ 





(1.) Hie adjoetito mooi Agroe, In gendor and Dunbei^ vith tlM 
loan or prononn wUch it qualifios : 

MatcuUmB. fkmMm, 

Singviar. Plvral BtnguUxr, Plural 

ie Im« jaidiii, lea Womb jarditt; kM2«maiaoiv ImbMrnnrnmam. 
tktjimeaarden, ihejlne gturdtm; thejlne houg$, the Jine houMt, 
Ugrtmd^m% lae^nnMif liTrea; la ^rflndi «aiia^ laa^flmdlct cartas 
ike large book, tMe large booke ; the large map, the large mope, 

(3.) Thia agreement mnat take place, not only when the a4]yectiY0 
immodktely precedea or followa the noun or pronoun, but alao when 
H ia separated by other worda : 


Bingular^-^Tlmae k Dieu de te 
rendrs asses Am poor m^ritcr la Tie 
heursuae 1 Ftaitunf, 

May Ood render thee m^Uimtfy 
good to deeerve the bleteed life, 

Plvral,^ taoau, en qnoi qua oe 
puis«e dtre les m^cbantB ne soot 
lone k rien de bon. 

J. J. RoOiSBAV. 
The wicked are never, in any eir- 
eunutanee$,JUted {good) to perform 
amy thing good. 


Singular.-^JAiaaDem de 
poor bonne I'empeehait de ae' 1 
trer mammee, Mabitaqk. 

The honor o/j^aemigforaoodprw' 
rented her ehowwg hereelf bad, 

PlwraL — Loin da nous raidir coo- 
tre les indioations qui aont 6oiiii«^ 
il Ikut les Buivre poor serrir Diea 

Mxa. DX MADfTBfOlK. 

Far from rtneHng oar good inell- 
noHone, we ehould follow them in 
ordertoeente Ood, 

(B.) When an adjective relates to two or more aubatant&vea, 
whether in the singular or the plural, and all of the same gender, it 
must agree with the nouna in gender, and be put in the plural ; | 

UridieetrindigsBt,riinFnKkBiHI Tk$ Hok emi iho poor, ^ w^ 
lasags^ \ p r v dm i and the wiae, being 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

ABllOTITSa-^ 19^ %ik 

\B9df6ei tatk^i 
•ort J. B. BoOMBAU. I the gamefaU, 

(4.) When the words which the adjectii^e qualifies are of different 
genders, the adjective mnst he pat in the masculine plural : 

I try to render happy, my wfit 
my chUd, and mpm my eat emd my 

Pitblie order and tUtltty 
the fruite of crime. 

Je tftche de rendre heureux, ma 
liBmine, moo enfant^ et m6me moo 
diat et mon chien 

Bxaif ARDiN Dx St. Pisrsk 
L'ordre et rutilitd pitbliee ne peu- 
vent 6tre le fruit da crime. 


For special rules on this point, -see ( 83. 


There are four sorts of determining adjectives — ^the demonslntivs^ 
the possessive, the numeral, and the indefinite. 

§ 20. — ^DBMommuTivx Adjsottvxs. 

(1.) The demonstrative adjectives are used, when an object is to 

be psrticnlarly specified or pointed out They are never, in F^nelii 

used substantively, that is, without 'the nouns which they determine: 


MamtUn$.^'-X)e, thie or that, placed before a word eommenemy with m 

* Oat, thie or that, pUoed before a word eommeneing with a 
vowel oranh mute, 
jnminine, — Gette, thie or that, placed before all eorit o/noune. 
Cea/or both yenderi, 


Jfaeeuline eingular, 
ceadldat, thie or that eoldier. 
set ami, that or thie friend, 

est honame, thU oe that i 

Feminine eingular. 
cette femme, ihU or thai womem. 
cette €pbt, thai or thie eword, 
cette harpe, thie or that harp. 
ees hommes, theee or thoeemen; cea femmea, theee or thoee women. 

Voyez ce papillon 6chapp6 du tom« 

8a mort fat mi aommeil, et aatomhe 
uuheroeao. Dxlellx. 

.... Get admirable doo, 

Llnstinct, pans doute eat loin de 

I'augnate raiaoo. (Tbx aiicx.) 

Lit, eette Jeone plants en vase dis- 

4Ugaate seeneiUs la 

See that butterfly eeeapedfrom the 
tomb; hie death wa$ a dumber, and 
hie tomb a cradle. 

Thai admirable gift, ineHnet, «» 
doubtleufar beneath m^eetic re^ 

There that young plant prepared 
ae a vote, reeeiim the dew tn Ha 


by Google 

qm 1» TnlgaJM ad- 


|t6yeiUeDt-fls les mprts an Bein de 
monumeots f Souui. 

Jh them h<mon^ aJmir m i ly tk§ 

vulgar, awake the dead /ram tkeh 

(a.) When it is necessary to make, in French, a difference simiiar 
to that existing between the English words ibis and ihaty the adverb* 
€t and ^ must be pUiced after the nouns : 

oe livre-d, this book (here), 
oes liyres-ci, tltete hooks^ 

oe livre-l^ ihait hook (tiiere). 
oes liyres-la, th/oee books. 

§ 21. — ^PoBSESSivB ADJXcnyss. 

(1.) The possessive adjectives, which are always joined to a noiin» 
relate to possession or property; they are: 

Singular. Plural 

Masculine. Feminine^ for both genders. 

man, ma, me% my. 

ton, ta, tea, thy. 

SCO, ia, sea, his,her,it$. 

notra, notre^ nos, cur, 

Totra, Totre, voe, your. 

lenr, leor, leurs, their. 

(2.) In French, these adjectives take the gender and number of 
the object possessed, and not, as in English, those of the possessor* 

Mase. sing. Fern. sing. PL both genders, 

man frire, my brother, ma soeur, my sister, mes coosins, my cousins. 
too livre, thy book, ta plume, thy pen, * tea maiaoos, thy houses. 

iOQ papier, Am or her sa table, Am or Aer <a^ sea habits, Am or her 

paper. He. clothes. 

notre cheval, our horse, notre vache, our cow, noa prairiea, our m e ado w s. 
votre Kt, your bed, votre chaise, your chair, voa crayoDS, your pencils. 

leur foin, their hay, leur paille, their straw, leurs fermea, their farms. 

SobffiM dans toute chose. 

Mo% ami, c*eat Tart de jpuir. 


Ma main de qnelqud fleor ea- 
quisae la peinture. Castkl. 

Mes aeoa aont glRc6a d'efirol 
J. R Rousseau. 

De son propre artifice on est aou- 
vent victime. 

Colin d'Harleville. 

A sa vocation chaque 6tre doit 
r6poDdre. Fa. de X^ufchatbau. 

Il faut de ses amia endurer quel- 
que choae. MoudbuL 

Notre vie eat one maiaon, 
r mattre le feu c'eat folic. 


Sobriety in all things, is, my 
friend, the true enJoymenL 

My Jiand sketches the picture of 
same /lower. 
My senses arefrosen with fear. 

One is often the victim of his own 


Every being should fui/U his vth 

Wemiustbear eometkimg from met 

Our life is a kemm; ^ mi Uem 


by Google 

irVMSMAl. ▲ 101 set IV KB.— f St. 

■# Vcttlprtlit MfttI Uk 
ilMttg« {Mttllte. OAltB.. 

Liun fleurs soiiToiit met pM, til 
rfcrdant ma Tue. (Thb bamk.) 

andpUaae mjf tiff ML 
(8.) The adjecdvM mon, my ; ton, % ; son, his or Aer, are need in* 
■toad of ma, ta, aa, before feminine woida eonmiencing with a rowel 
or an ^ mnte, in order to prevent the meeting of two Towebi or of a 
rowel and an h mmte; thus we say: 

men ^p6e, my tword, and ntver ma 4p^ 
ton dpoose, thy im/», imUadoftA Spouse, 
■on ann^ hii arwuy, bmi immt aa anode. 

Cflo eat fidt, mon beure est Tenae. I All t« aver, my hour U com$, 


(4) The posaesaive adjectives must be repeated before eveiy 

Hon IMre, ma wtiat et mea oon- 
m iont a Pans. 

My hrotk$r, riiter, and eomsmM mr$ 


(1.) There are two kinds of numeral adjeetiTes: the eanynal and 
tiie ordinal. 

(3.) The cardinal nnmbers indicate eimply the number or ^oaatftf « 
without any reference to order: aa, nn, one; deux, tw^ &e. 

(8.) The ordinal numbers mark the order or rank which persona 
and things occupy: aa, premier, ^rs2; second, teccndt &e. 

We shall, for the purposes of eompaiison, place the **Hinnl aad 
ordinal numbera in parallel eolumna: 

(5.) Ordinal JTMrnbtrt. 

(4) Oardlnai ITumbiri. 

xxHtfinUnim una, 






















deuzi^meorieccndC/.itooBde^ td 







































by Google 

•Vi<a*fc& ABjri«tfTi0.'-^ M. 






trente-et nn, Acl, 






quaraoto-et-uD, Ac, 














aoizante-deTiz, Ac, 




























quatra-Tinit-doQny ^ 






















§ 23. — ^VAMATioirs OF 

























THS Oardikal Numbbbs. 
(1.) The following cardinal nnmbera vary: 
(S.) Un, anef a or on, takes the gender of t le noun to whieh H l 

im Uvre, a book ; un» feuHle, a Uaf, 
When need mibetantbelyt tm takes, at timea» the form of tht 

ITmo. Lea imm at Isa antrea, Thut^ and tho$a, 

l>km. Las HUM at las antras, (J%e oneM and tk» oHUn^ 

(S.) Vingi and ceni^ when moltiplled bj one number^ itid not tdU 
lowed by another, take the fonn of the ploral : 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Yingi-danxitana, Ac, 













soȴanfrfHf'T* ^^ff>, 
























deux-miUa-cinqnantiAme, 2060th. 

miUioDitoka, 1,000000th. 

Man Uv6$ Mgkij^ pmn, ih$ Af 

LlKnme Tit qumre^inaU ana, 
!• cliiea n'en Tit que iix. Buffow. 

Qa m'app irta chez moi, douze 
othi* fraDcs. J. J. KocssxAU. 


Ttuy brought me, at my kouat^ 
twelve hundred fianes. 

(4.) Vingt and i eni, however, when multiplied by one number, and 
followed by another, or, if not followed by a number, used to indi- 
cate a particular epoch, do not take the form of the pluraL 

(^uatre-vtn^^dnq hommea, eighty-five men, 

cinq-«#n/-dcuz hommea, five hundred and two men. 

Charlemagne fut proclamd em- 
perear d'Occident, le jour de Nool, 
ea huit cent. Voltaire. 

Charlemagne was proclaimed e$n- 
j^eror of the Weei, Chrittmaa'dajh 
in the gear eight hundred. 

(6.) Mille — (thousand) For the date of the year, reckoned from 
the commencement of the Christian era to the year two thousand 
of the same, we use the abbreviated form, mil 

L'an mil huit cent dnquanta, I The gear one thousand eight Am»- 

1 dred andfifig. 

(6.) With regard to the years which have preceded our era, and 
those which will follow our present thousand^ we write the fall fonn, 

Lapremi6re irruption des Gauloia, 
eut lieu sous le r^e de Tarquin, 
environ Tan du moude trois mille 
quatre cent aeize. VsaTor. 

The first irruption of the Gavls 
took place under the reign of Tbr- 
guin, about the gear of the world 

(7.) Million, billion take the plural form. 

§ 24. — ^MiBCSLLANEous ObservatioIns on thx Cabdikal 

(1.) In French, in computing from twenty to thirty, thirty to forty 
&«., the larger number must always precede the smallei. We may 
not say, as often in English, one and ttoenty, but always wigUeUun^ 
vingt^deuXy dLC. 

(2.) The conjunction ef, after vingt, trente, Aui., is only used before 
un : thus, we say vingt-et-un, troentg (and) oncj and simply vingt-denx; 
twenty-iiDo, &c. 

(3.) The word one frequently precedes in English the words hwi^ 
dred and thousand; it must not be rendered in Frencn. We say : 

mille hommea^ one thousand men. 

cent frjuica, one kundred francs^ 

C4.) When the words cent and miUe are used substantively beforo 
the name of objects generally reckoned or sold by the hundred or 
thousand, in number or in weight, the word un may be phiced befwt 
them; the name of the object being preceded by the pnpoeU 


by Google 

t IT»0tiil»imiBflb(miUier)deMqM% 

Cm« Auiifdmi^ oim tho%uand (of) 6ndkk 
Un cent (uo quintal) de sacre, 
Oiu huni'ed {weight) of w^ar. 

(6.) The words septante, seveiUy; octante, eighty; and nonantei 
rwety, are now nearly obaolete, being used only in a few provinces 
of France. They are, as may be seen in the preceding table, repjaced 
by awkward expressions soixarUe^iXy sixty-ten ; quatre-vvngtMy foop- 
tictrUies (four score) ; quatre-vingUdiXt fonr-scoie-ten, dtc. 

(6.) Before the words onze, eleven, and onzi^me, eleventh, the arti- 
cle is not elided. We say le onze, le oTtzUme, la <mzQme, In pro- 
nunciation, the 8 of the plural article les is silent when this articJb pre- 
eedee <mze or oTizQme, 

§ 25. — Obbkbyationb on ths Obdikal Numbsbs. 

(I.) It will be seen that the ordmal numbers, with the exception of 
fremier and jeeoTid^ are formed from the cardinal — 

1. By the change of/ into vUme in nsuf; 

2. By the change of e into vihne in those ending with that vowel; 
8. By the addition of vikme in those ending with a consonant: 

4. Cinq requires mhne to make dnquihne, fifth. 

(2.) All ordinal adjectives may take the form of the plural. 

(3.) Premier and eecond alone vary for the feminine, and make 
premise, seamde. Sic, 

(4.) Uni^Tne (Jtrst) is only used in composition with vingt, trente, &e. 

(6.) Second, deuanhne, (seoondy—Deuxiime supposes a series, a con- 
tinuation ; eecond merely indicates the order : 

let We may aay of a work which has four or more volumes : 
J'ai le deuxihne (or le Hcond) vo- | / haive the teeond volume of thet 
home de eet ouvrage. | teork. 

2d. In speaking of a work which has only two volumea, we should aay * 

I have ths ieeond volume ofBv^ 
eherelUM dietUmary, 

J'ai le teeond (not le deuxiim^) 
volume du dictionnaire de Bescher- 

8d. Under the ordinal numbers may be placed the folbwing WQrd% 
which are often used substantively : 

Trentenah'e, thirty, of thirty yeart^ hratum; 

Quarantenaire, forty, of forty " 

Cinquantenaire, Jlfty years old, of fifty " 
Sexag^noire, sexagenarian, of sixty * 

Septuag^oaire, septuagenarians, of seventy ** 
Octog^naire, octogenarian, of eighty * 

Noni^oaire, nonogenarian, of ninety " 

Gentenaire, centenarian, of one hundred 

4th. Trentenaire and quarantenahre are law termst 

1 trentenaire, quanato- 1 Tkktyt fo rty f eet re ptm m t tm, 


by Google 


jrvHsEAt jLbjiottttfl.^ 


S<k or Om otbm, tMigteiiie, wptiMgi^^ 
in frvquent qw : 
Un oetog^oaira pbDtatt, Ae. | AmmieigkiifymnMwtiMfUmi 

La FoMTAm | ing trwi, 

§ 26. — ^RuLES. 
(1.) In speaking of the daje of the month, the French nee the ear* 
diwdi not the ordinal nomber ; 

le (JMhMpf aTril, 
L*oa?ertare des £tata-g6D€rai]z 
•at lien le dnq mai, 1789.— Tbise8. 

(3.) We must, however, say: 

le prmnier (not Pvn) juin, 
(80 The cardinal miraben are also esiployed in speaking of aoym 

the MiMfUMitiA of April* 
Ths opminff of the StaUa^entral 
took pU^ OM (he fifth of May, Vl9*. 


Churlu th$ ThUk. 
LtmU the EightemtK 
LemU the Eleventh woe tMrtf^ki 
ywre old vihm he aeemJed th^ 

did not eximffuM the fire whieh h$ 
had kindled. 

Ijoiou dix-hitit, 
LoniB ofict avait trtDte-hntt ani, 
qnand il monta sur le trOoe. 

La mort de Grfeoire eept n'^tei- 
gnii pas le lim qa'u aTait allnm^ 


(4.) We must say, however: 

Henri j»r«mMr, Mmr$ the JPlrtL 

(A.) Deux and second are, in this caae» used indifferently: 

Oharlet ifriKB, Charles «i0owl Ohmrlee the Second. 

(6.) In ^Making of Charles the Fifth, of Germany, and of the Pop« 
fitetas the Fifth, the obsolete word futitf (fifth) is used : 

Oharlesymn^, Charlet the FUiK 

Sizte^wtii^ Sixiue the Fifth. 

We shall, in order to render referenoe eaaier, place here some •)»• 
serrations on nouns and adv^bs of number. 

§ 27. — ^NuniiAL NovNB. 
(1.) The numeral nouns in use with the French axe : 

couple, paire, 







eoupU, pair ; 
trio, three; 
half dozen; 
eight daye; 
nine (nine,day$ of 

ten, htdfaeeore; 


fiffe/en, joftnejgni ; 

trentahie, thirty; 

^uanmtame, tteo More; 

cmquantaine, fifttfi 

soizantaine, nxty; 

qoatre-Tmgtaine, eighty ; 

1 centaine, hunth^ea ; 
deux centainea, Ac, two hnndroi; 

1 miUier, one thm mm d; 

deu m^Bie, fiM ikouemdi 

1 vmriade, et m w i m i f 

ImDliim. mmUUon. 


by Google 


•f niimlwr i • wfiibakal to tlM Ettgttrii iiMie, In mma Uk« tlie foSoU^ 
fug: I httre mim tvwity books, i & aboat Inrailr bookh J'ai «m 

tingiaine do livroo. 

§ 28»— ^Fbaotioitai. Numshalb. 

un quart, otuquarUr: mi diM)iiitoie^ on*. 

deiiz quarti^ I10O fnarfan ; daox cmqoitaMii two] 

trois quarts, tUrw§ ommrt9r9 ; on lixitene, etc, om# 

lotim, tk$tkthi; qb doiftaM^ ato, anf Imf^ifa; 

4aaditiai% tm^tkMb; ha aantiftma, mtkum^rtitMj 

lamoiti^ (htkcdf; on milliteno, ana lAaoMMMb 

(1.) It will be seen that, with tho ozoeption of tiorii quart and mol* 
mtheoomunberatakotliolbrm of tho ordinal nomanb. Tha^maj, 
thtrafofOt tako tho fwm of tho plnial when noeaaaaty. 

(2.) The word demi^ when used adjactivelj and praooding tho novBi 

fliia iCmUJiaiiro £, Aa^on Aaiif ; 

una etant-aiina £, hJfim ttt, 

(8.) When comings after the noon to denote an ^dUtional half^ U 
a g r oo a in gender with the noun: 

ana hanro at dlanif^ mukmrtrndrnM/f 

una auna at tUmis, ana M and a ktUf, 

(4.) When naed aubatantively, demi may take the form of tho plvnl : 
Oatta h(vl<^ aoima let hauxatat 1 TkU dock $irikm th$ kmm md 
lea dbatel | HU hatf-komn. 

§ 29. — OrDIKAL ADTXRTf?. 

Qnatritanamant, fowrihiy; 

{Vi Fremiteement, \ in thi/rtt 

^Djiuitoiemattt, Afi^f' 

. . *«ft«j?-, . ftapCiimamant, mmtMf; 

SecoBdement, \ ••*>^>^9> DIsitaMment, tmUhly. 

TroiiiteiaBeDt, UM^y; 
(2.) These, like adverbs of manner, are formed by the addition ol 
ment to the feminine form of the adjectivo. 

§ W.-^lmxnvm AMsonrxa. 

(1.) The hidefinite adjectivea are naed when any tiling ia to bo 
repreaonted or referred to in a general or indefinite sunner. llieir 

aooan, noi any, net mte; 

mu. 110; 

pkiaaiin, MViraf; 

qnal, wAaf; 

qnaleotiqao, M*a i wwr; 

UH, mtk; 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 


iVDByivxTB iLnjmfltiym%.**^^€Of 

y%) AVGini is gteaeMllf followed hj a nova, wMi wkioh It inHl 
agree. It is followed by ne when it eomeo beforo a verb : 

miemn homme, nd ifum; aucune femme, no wamoiL 

^uemn chemin de fleun necoodrnt 
fa la gloire. La Foktaikb. 

On m^prido tons ceux qui n'oot 
avetme vertu. La RocaKFOucAULa 

Nofiowery path leadt to fflory 

All thote uiho hone no virhu <hv 

(3.) Aucun is by the French authors sometimes used in the plural. 

They con hear no legiUmaU <fe- 
nUnion^Betno bomntU to their c ni wiy 

Hi ne peuTtiii touffirir sncan em- 
piro Ugitime, ne metteni aueunee 
Doraei a leors attentata 


. Aucun and md ahould be put in the plural only before sneh words 
as are not used in the singular, or have in the singular a different 

(4.) Ckaqub is of both genders, and is used only in the ringnUa\ 
It always precedes the noun, and cannot be separated from it by an 
adjective or by a preposition. It should never be used without a 

Claque kge a sea plabirB, ehague I ^ery age hoe ite pleaturee, OHff 
iUi a sea channea. Dbulu. | eiluati^ it$ charme. 

(5.) Miu, placed before the noun, has the sense of $amet in 
English. Placed after the noun, it meana, generally, htmse^, her$ey^ 
iudfy or themselves. It may often be rendered by the word everu 
When mhne is an adjective it may take the form of the plural, but 
does not vary on &co sunt of gender : 

c^est la verta mSme; 
it is virtue itedf. 

The people and the great have 
neither the tfume virtuee nor the game 

The barkeven of vegetables is in 
harmony with the temperatwre of the 

c'est la mhne vertu ; 
it is the aame virtue. 

Le people et lea grands n*ont ni 
lea moMss vertua, ni lea mimes vicea 
Les ^corces mimes dee v^tauz 
•ont en harmonie avec les tempera- 
tures de TatmoBphire. 

BKBNAaDiN DB St. Pnaas. 

(6.) It is at times difficult to diallnguiah meme an adjective from 
mime an adverb, which is invariable. . [See \ 97 (2,) (3.)] 

(7.) NuL is a stronger negative than aucun. It agrees in gender, 
and number with the noun which it qualifiea like aucun, when re 
lating to the aiibject of the sentence, it requires ne before the verb 

Iful boBiBM n*est henreuz; nuUe 
diaaenepeutlerendreteL Bonn. 

JVulle pais poor Vimpie; il la 
cberdie, elle le Mt lUann. 

1^0 man is happy; molking eem 
render him so, 

No peace for the 4 mp isms / Atatals 
ii,Ui " " 


by Google 

ivDaxiHiTs AmimoTirMBr^ ao» 

ijk) NmI k amnnfimefl paed aloae^ in tii» aenga of no oag? 

■i mtomtent de son esprit. 

Mice. Dishocubilis. 

nor duplea&id with kis hwh wk. 

(9.) Plttsteurs iBy of couTse, always in the plural. It does not 
%ary ita form : 

Jl faut bien qu'il y ait plunewn There muH nMeuarUy h€ teveral 
*«t8ons d'ennoi, quand tout le monde reasont/or ennui, witen all agree in 
««t d'aooord poor bailler. FLoaiAN. yawning. 

(10.) Quel takes the gender and number of the noun to which i( 
r<)latea. It is sometimes immediately followed by its noun, from 
which it may be separated by one or several words: 

What a ddightful pietwre th$ 

Qiiel tableau raTiseani pr^ntent 
lea campers I Dkulul 

Quelle uiTiaiblo force a soumis 
ruDiyers f L. Racine. 

Queie sons hannonienz, guele efifbrts 

De la reconnaissance ^galent les 

accents t 

country qfer$ I 

What invisible hand ha$ eon- 
fuered the univereef 

What harmoniout eounds, what 
ramehinff etraine, equal the wiee of 
gratitude f 

(II.) QuELCOKQXTS is slways placed after the noun, and varies only 
for the plural : 

Toutes les jouissances sont pr^- 
Mi6ei d'un travail cw«^<m^ti«. 

Mux. Camfak. 

Deuz points guelconquee 6tant 
donnas Thb Agaoskt. 

All enjoymente are preceded by 
tome $ort of exertion. 

Two pointe of eome kind beU^ 

(12.) QuBLQUB in the sense of som^ (a certain number)^ or tehaUver^ 
a0Eee» in number with the noun : 

n ]^ a du m^rite sans 616yation, 
mais il n'y a point d'ASvation sans 
quelque m6riie. La Roohevougauld. 
Quelquee rtins lauriers que pro- 

mette la guerre, 
On peut 6tre h6ros sans ravager la 

terre. Boilxau. 

There i$ merit without elmation^ 
hut tltere is no elevation without «wm 

Whatever vain laurele war may 
promieef one may be a hero without 
ravaging the earth. 

(13.) Quelque having the sense of about or some or however^ is in- 


• Quel ige aves-voos? Yous aves 
boo visage I Eh 1 qudmie soizante 
ana Racine, let Plaideurt. 

Alexandre perdit quelque trois 
cents hommes, quaiia il vainquit 
PMnoa D'Ablanoouet. 

Quelque m^ehants que soient lea 
htanmes^ ib n'oseraient paraltre 
fliiM«i»d* la yeriu. 

La RoannooavLD. 

Sow old are you f Toulo^weU, 
Oh I tome tixty yeart, 

Alexander lost tome three hundred 
men when he vanquithed Porva 

JSowever wicked mon wmy be^ theyi 
do net dvr§ to appem emmi/t^ of 


by Google 

f ■« rmovooii^^ SI, «1» 

(14.) Tb. mkm la th» taMM aOt; in 
Irit; Ib the pluii ftminiat, <i0et. It agnes wilh ihm noaa wbMi II 

id Utto^ mmA dooifc; telU leitre, tiM4 2«tt0r; 

teb liTre% «ie4 6ooX» ; Mm lettrea» mek Uti§n 

(16.) Tout meaniiig every, ia of course always in the BiDgiilar, 
bat Taries for the feminine: 

Airy eUi Mm 9komld Mm* Ait 

2W citoyeB doit Mnrir mo paya; 
le soldat de mq aaqg, le pr^tre da 
sen sft]& La Mom. 

En tma$ dioaa, U fimt oooaid^Nr 
hi fin. Lk FQMTAXII& 

eoutUrv; the mtldier with kis bloody 
thsprUH with hit r~' 
Jn m/mr% 

(16.) TmUf in the aenae of aU, agrees in gender and nmnher with 
the noun to which it rehitea : 

taui rargent^ all th§ moi^; Umte hi toUe, off tkt dotk 

^^ieh form all th4dmrM€ndmdk$ 

n 6tait aa-daania da tami caa 
taina ol^ata qui Ibnnant Ipuf lea 
d^aira et Umiea lea eap^ranoea daa 

See i 97 (6). 

§ 81.— The Peokouh. 

(1.) The pronoun^ in Freneht aa hi other langnagea, ia a worn 
used to repreaent the noun, in order to prcTent ita too frequent 

(2.) The pronoun serrea alao to designate the parts which eadi 
person or thing takea in speech. This part ia called permn. 

(8.) There are three peraona: the first, or that ^i^ich apesln; ihm 
jsaond, or that spoken to ; the thini, or that spoken o£ 

ft.) There are fire aorta of pronouns : 

Hm perMDal ; The demooatratiTe ; 

The poaaeanye ; The relatiye ; I 

The indefinite. \] 


(1.) The personal pronouna are ao called becauae they seem I* 
dsaignate the three peraona more espeoially than the other pronouan, 
Theae pronouna are: 

iSTomtiMifiM Fi»rm. JUlaHve Farm, 

Bmp U ar. PlmtaL Bimffylar. PlmaL 

1. Je, /; noafl,«M; me, nugtdf: hoom, omtAm; 

% to, ikm; yma,yaHtf$; ta^ th^ftdf; voo^ y iM rtrf a ii / 

(0, iU; l^m.;mm.<A^; _. ihimad/! 
(dS%, alKftpf; eIlea,£<A^. ^ (Urnif: 

d by GoOgI 

Digitized t 

rmnBo»A% rmpwcvv§^% Ml Ml 

(a) ZNnor 

i|iMidMbr«lheT«rk WlMik plMod aT to a nrt^ 

SL ttt, Mm; TOUfl>yow; toi, (Am; Tous,y0«; 

(3.) hidweei regimen^ or DetfM 
WhMi |dM«d b«fon tbt verb. 
Singular. FlmraL 

1. me, tome; nous, toiw; 

8. te, to thee; toub, to you; 

{Sfr (bothgMllW.> 

Whan jdaced ftfter tlM Terh. 

Singvlar. JPluraL 

noi, 4mov CtfifM; nonfl, fcnoai^ few, 

tfli, 4ioi, toikot; ^nntLt Iltoik^ tpyMi; 

>«-.U51Ut:: >-. It :£,•?(*•«- 

(4») Indirect r^imen ; Oenilive and AbUuioe. 
Always placed after the verb. 

BmguUar. FlwraL 

de noi, o/orfivm me; de nooa, of orjromfu; 

detoj, ** thee; de toub, * you; 

delui, * Am; d'enz, ** them,nL, 

##00, • A<r; d'ellM, «* <A4m,l 

§ 33. — ^Remarks on ths Pxiuional Pbokouks. 

(1.) The French, as well a» the English, use the second petaon 
fhnal for the seeond peivon singular, in addresaing one person. . 

(3.) The second person, however, is need, as !a finglish, in address- 
mg the Supreme Being : 

Gfsnd Dieal te» jugementa sent I (SfrMt €MI ihif ptS§mmU mn 
remplia d'6quit^. Om BAaasADX { fi$ll of equity. 

(8.) It is also used in poetry, or to give more energy to the diction. 

^ O men aouTerain roi 1 
He Toid done tremblante et seule 
derant toL ftkoaat, Esther, 

O my eoeireigH Innii I 
Mere I am, tremhUitf^ and edom 
before thee. 

(4.) It is used by parents to children, and also among Intimata 

(fi.) The pronoun U is used nnipersonally, m the same maoxiar as 
tiie Eif^ish pronoun tf. 

t/ pleut, t< rdwfu; Ug^Ufreeaet, 

((.) Obaerre thai the personal pronouns of ihb third person am 
not lied ibr Um Mireet regteen to rcpreMBi inaninste objeela 


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llie xeiatiTe pronouns bh, of oryrom if [} 89 (17)], t, to & [ J » (1«)I 
m Qsed instead of the personal pronoons. Thns, in epeakiBg of ft 
house, we do not say, Je lui ajonterai one atle» I wiU add a wthg^ tt 
tf. We most say : 

J'y ajoaterai nne atle ; I will add a wing to U (tkereio). 

In qieakiog of an author, we may say : 

Que penies-Toua dtlyif What do you think of htmf 

But in speaking of his book, we should say : 

Qu'm pensez-Tous t What do you think of it {thoreof) f 

(6.) The word mime, plural m^mef , may be used after the pronoun 
in the sense of self, selves : 

le roi lui^mSme, tho king himoM 

la teine Me-mtoM^ tho quoen herself 

left princes eux-mhtus, the prinoes themseloes> 

lea prinoesaes elUs-mimes, the prineesses themteloes, 

(7.) The pronouns moi, foi» lui, eux, are often used after the verbb 
to give greater force to a nominative pronoun of the same person, 
in those eases where the emphasis is placed on the nominatiTe in 
English, or where the auxiliary do is used. 

jftf le djfl, mot, I say so, or I do say so, 

t/ le dit) lui, he says so, or he does say so. 

(8.) The same pronouns, moi, iot, ltd, eux, are used instead of the 
nominative pronouns, ^e, tu,%l,%ls, for the English pronouns, /, thou^ 
he, they, when those pronouns are employed without a verb in an 
answer, when they are used by themselves, or liave a verb nnder- 
stood after them : 

Qui est arriyd oe matint MoL WTu) arrivedthis morning f I, 

Lai et moL Vous et eux. He and I. You and they. 

VouB 4cnyez mieux que lui. You write better than he, 

Yottft Uses ansai bien que mot. You read as well at I, 

j[9.) The same pronouns are used in exclamations, and in those 
^aaes where the English pronouns, /, thou, d&c, are followed by the 
relative pronoun who ; also after t^tst, t^Stait, &c. 

Moi Ini o^dor 1 / yield to him t 

JSux aller k LoAirea I Th^ go to Londonl ^ 

Moi qui sois nudade .. Iwm am sick.. . 

JaU qui est offider. ffe who is an ^cer. 

Eux qui soot saTanta They who are Tsamed^ 

O'est mot ; c'est lui. It is I; it is he. 

Oe Bont eux. It is they. 

Pte61ope, sa femme, et mot qui 
<nift aoQ nlft, nous avons perdu Tes- 
p6nnoe de Is revoir. FibriLON. 

Penelope his wife, and /who «m 
his son, hose lost the hope ^ ssssn§ 
him again. 

(10.) These same pronouns are also used ins^^ead of the nomi* 
Mtlvesi/eb te» ^^, when the verb has aeyera! eobjeoto wnieb.troall 


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:^6«0i08ttt pft^totnrii.H9 ^* ^^^ 

Tomr fcUker mtd I wert « hmg 
£ica and I are, ptrhapa, ikefitgL 

fmoviui or pftrQy noima and partly pronomn. The T«rb may ihtii 
be Immediately preceded by a proBOnn in the plural, reprenenting ia 
one word all the pieoeding eubjeets. 

Votre ptee et mot, nous avooB 
^t6 loDgteED^ eimemu Tim de 
Tautre. FivixoN. 

Rica et moi sommes peni-Mre les 
pemiera. Montxsquiku. 

(11.) The recapitulating pronoun and theyerb eometimes eome 
4T8t in the sentence. 

Nout avoxiB^ nom et mot, besoin 1 Ycu ondlhaveMed o/toUramet, 
de tolerance. Yoltaiub. | 

(12.) The reflective pronoun se, himself^ &c, is used for both 
genders, and for both numbers; for persons and for things; and 
always accompanies a verb. 

Les yeox de ranuti6 m trompent I The eye$ offriefuUkip are eeldom 
nrement Voltaibb. | deeeioed (de^ve thenuetvei), 

(13.) The same pronoun has sometimes a reciprocal and sometimes 
A reflective meaning, according to the context ; 

lis ee flattenti they flatter thenuetvea. 

ils ee flattent, th^ flatter one another, each other, 

(14.) Soi, hinuelft itself, ^., is of both genders and numbersi 
and is applied to persons and things. It is used in general and inde- 
(enninate sentences; having conmionly an indefinite pronoun for the 
Bominative : 

On a soaTeni besoin d'un plus 

tit que tot. La FoMTAnix. 

II depend toujours- de eoi d'agir 

petit que tot. La FoMTAnix. 

II depend toujours- de tot d'ag 
hoqorabiemeot Gibault-Duvitikb. 

. Etre trop m^oontent de tot est 
une fiublesse. Mxb. db SabiJ. 

We have often need of one moro 
humble than ourtelvee. 

It ie alwaye in our poieer to ad 

To he too much diepUaae d mth 
on^e edf it a weaknue. 

For additional rules on the personal pronouns, see Syntax, { 98, 
md following. 

§ 34. — ^PossBssiTB Pronouns. 

(1.) The possessive pronouns, which are fonned from the personal 
pronouns, represent, in the radical part, the posseswr, while m teimini^ 
tion they always agree with the thing posseesed. Some relate to one 
person, some to several 


The object poeeeeted being in tho~^ 

Binffular, PluraL 

MdMUhu. Fminne, Maeetdhu, Hkmmine. 

1. le mien, la mienne, les miens, les m i ennea^ mtiM; 

flLletien, latienne, lestienfl, lestiemies, <Atiit; 

twleaisn, lasienne^ lessiens, lesaiemies hiSthm^iU 


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(3.) Two Oft voBi PkMom: 

le ii6tre, la n6te«b 
le T6tre, * la T6trfl^ 
k kiir» k kor. 

k6B6trti^ mm; 

I ai^.r-*BttUBtt ov m PoflSMflZTB Psonoviiig. 
(1.) It may be aeen from the aboye tabk tiuil» aa befoFe aakl» iStm 
4«miiMtion of tha poiMMive pranooii agraea in fendar and amnber 
with the objeet posaeeeed. 

Votre canif et U mien. Voire plume et a< ^ mUniM, 

Tout penknife emd mimM. Tcwr pen and mine. 

Vo8 freres et lea miene, Voe soBon et lea mienne*, 

Yeut hrvthere and mine. Tom tietere and mine. 

On Toit ks maux d'autrui, d'on 
antre osil ^ne ks eiena. Coen blu. 

Lm mimstres da roi lenteiit que 
kur gloire, oomme la menme^ eat 
daoa k boolteur national. 

BxaiTAaoiN na St. Pnaaa. 

We eee the mirfcrtemu ef oiken 
differenily from ow own. 

The minuter* of the kinpfeeithUi 
their glory t like his omn, w in mi- 
tional happinui. 

(9.) Theaa prenoima ehould relate to a ao«n piavioualy axpniaii 
lik mk k ijken viokted in meramtik aonraipoiideiioa: 

J^ai re^n la vStre en dAte du, etc, I received yomre dated the, Se^ 

k incorrect It ahould read thua : 

J*ai re^ii Totre lettet en dftte do, eta, I received yowr letter dated, dbe 

(3.) Thece prononna may, howeyar, be naed abeolntely when w» 
mean thereby onr lamily, near iiriativea, or intimate fiienda : 

Thane my family or friendtf the 

court, thepoaple topleate. 

Moi, fai lea miene, k cour, le pea- 
pk a oootenter. La Fomtado. ^ 

]CaUietirenz....qiuporieohe2ka Wretcheduhet 

giene k glaive et lea flambeaux. hiefelloehcitieene the eword and tSe 

OoLAansAU. torch. 

Ceet a nona a payer poor ka We metet hear the penaity of tk 
WtomdaanMrm SAflDnt \erimeeafow family or people. 

(4.) Le mign and le tien are also used absolntely as the words mtnt 
and Oiine in Englkh, in the sense of ponoeonion, property : 

Et le mien et le tien, denz frteea And mine and thine, two punetiitF' 
pointillenz. Bohxau. one hrotherc 

Le tien etle mien, BauHcemmroBB Mine and thine (memn and tmmm) 
de toatea ka dlTiaiooa et de tontea are the mmrcee of all dieieione ami 
ka qoereUea OiaMwr-Deymn. j y uan -a / a 


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•BMOVftTftATIYX PBi>NOirve.-»{| M» SY. tit 

g 90. — ^DnKHimnuTivB Pbosoow. 

e«hii» oeUe, 



lA4i(, cenz-li^ 

oe. it, thi^, 

AUolute DemtmttroHv PranaumM. 

ced, ^fi^ ) not uwd in the 

oela, that, ) plimL 


(1.) The deaonstmtive pronoiuiB edidt odk^ Si^ MnuM tho ( 
der and number of the noanB which thej represent: 

Je oe eooDAis d'averice permiae 
qiie edU dn tempa. 

Stjuhslas LsooinKT. 

Lm aeidei lonaiiges que le ocBcir 
dooiM, flont mUm que U bontd i^at- 

tira. liA88ILL0N. 

(2.) These prononns are aometimee need absolutely before qui, qua 
iantf etc^ in the same manner as the English personal [M^nomis he, 
they, &c, before uiho, whom, &c. : 

MahinkM no wMtria i# &lhmM$ 

Ths cnlyprmat wMcA tkt hngri 
^fMt are thorn wkieh goodman db- 

Cehn qtd rend un service doit 
r<mbUer, idm qtd le re^cnt^ s'en aoa- 
renir. BARTHALxmr. 

Aimer cnuf gm Tons halwent amx 
eiii Tons jMrstentent^ c^esi la chants 
on Chretien, ^ast resprit da la reli- 
gioBL BonuuLOUi. 

ffe who rtndtTM a ierviee thoM 
/orff€t it; ha foko raceiaei it thoM 
remember it. 

To loae thoae wAo hate jfMK tkaae 
whoneremmta pm, ia the akmitjf ef 

the vhriatiem: '- ' ' 


it ie the^'ipirit efro' 

(3.) C!eUc^ceZZ»«t,etc; oehit4d,ce2Z»^are oaedwhen it k da- 
drable to denote the comparative proxindty or remoteneaa tiipraiMHud 
m Engliah by the worda ius and that: 

eabi-ei» tM» am, ertol-la, that ama» ^ 

(4.) Cdui^ oeJui-Zd, etc^ are often nsed to eipress eentrast or 
eomparison. They are then equivalent to the English expreesiona 
^formart iha latter; this one, that one: 

ITBibagistrat int^gre et un brave 

eelut4d fidt la gnerre anz ennemis 
domestiques, eiwM boos protege 
eootre lea ennenlia estMeqrs. 

Tel est Vavantage ordinaire 
Qtt*oiit sur la beant^ les talents : 
ft na sfplaiseBt dans tons lee temps; 
Wi e /d o'a qn'un temps ponrpbiire. 

An ypright memetrate and a hraae 
effimr Ore eqmaug eetimable: the 
firmer makee tear againtt domaetie 
enemiee, the tatter peiteete ne agaimat 

8u«h ie the ordinary adaamiage 
which talents poseeee over beaata: 
the former pleaee at nU tbnee; me 
hitter hoe hut one time to yfeesa 

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ifk4 BSLATXYl PBOKOUN8. — § 88, M» 

(6) Can, eeZoy fisTe no plunl, and are need only of tfatnga. Tbty 
do not refer to a nvord ezpreased before, but aervo to point out oljecta : 
ptBDes 90^, take thit. doones-moi e^/o, give me ihaL 

J^ai d^^ dit co qu'il faut fsire, I have alreacfy tdid what should 6§ 
quand un eofimt Teut aroir e&d et done when a cAt^d will have thie swd 
eelek J. J. Boubsxau. that. 

(6.) Ce, a pronoun, must not be confounded with the demouatra- 
tiTe adjeetive ce. The pronoun ce is often used without an anteoe* 
dent, as the nominative of the verb etrt in the same manner aa the 
English pronoun ii r 

c'est moi, it i» I c'est toqs, ii ie youL 

Oe n'eat pins le jonet d*une ilamme 

Cest Fjrrrhus, c'est le fils et le 

rival d'Achille. Raooe, 

Ji it no longer the sport ef am 
unworthy JUame. 

It is Pyrrhus ; ii is the son ani 
the rival of Achilles, 

For particular rules on this pronoun, see } 108. 

§ 88. — Relative Pronouns. 

(^1.) The relative pronouns are so named on account of the inti. 
mate relation which they have to a noun or pronoun which precedes^ 
and of which they recall the idea. The noun or pronoun so precede 
ing the relative pronoun is called the antecedent 

(3.) Table of the Relative Psonoims. 

qui, uhOf which; (sujet, noooinat} de qni, of, /n>m toAom, ) Regime l&«S' 
que,»Aom,ia&toA; (r6g.dJrect,acc) dont, of, from whom; [ JSg^fflSST 

which; J «"■**»"'• 

a qui, to whom; (r6gime indirect, dative.) 
leqnel, who, which ; oomposed of the article and quel 
Singular Plural. 

MaeetUnu, AmtfnsM. JUasadne, AmsMm. 
lequel, laqnelle, lesquela, lesqnellea, who, which; 

dnqud, delaqnelle, desqnels, desqnellea, offromwhi^; 
' auquel, & laqaelle, auzqneli, auzquellea, to which, 
y, to it, of iiy etc en, of it, of them, etc 
quoi, what, which, why, etc. 

§ 89. — ^Remarks on the Rblativb Pronouns. 

{i^ Qui, whoy tohichy is generally the subject or nominative. It U 
vsed for both genders and numbers, for perspns and for things. (See 
No. 6 of this {.) 

(9.) When used for things, qui cannot be preceded by a prepost 
tion. Its use, in this respect, is restricted to the nominative. 

(3.) It is used relatively and abso^^vely. 

(4.) It is used relatively when it has an antecedent expreased : 


by Google 

ftSLAVlTX PftOVO0H8.^'m. 


Jm uaniar' ynj fat mi, fiit vn 
ptoe aai»& Adbbkt. 

Love MiwM eagerly all thai /at" 
tere iL 

L'amour ayidement croit toat oe 
pd le flatte. Raoimx. 

(5.) It IB need absolutely when it haa no antecedent ezpresaMt 
It then offers to the mind a vague and indeterminate idea. It ib ren« 
dered in English by Ae whOf ahe who, they who. 

Qui Tent pailer rar tout» sonrent 
parle an hasard. Andsixdz. 

Lftciie, qui veut monrir, ooorageux 
qui pent Tivre. Raodtx, Jmi. 

Qvt na frit dea henreux, n'est 
pas digne de Tdtra 

Who {he who) wiehee to tpeak om 
every eubjeet, neake often at random. 

He who withe* to die ie a coward ; 
he who can eupport life heu courage. 

He who doee not render othere 
happy ie noi worthy to be 90. 

(6L) Qui is also naed absolutely when it is interrogative. It may 
then be nominatif or regime : 

qui parle t who epeakef qui voyez-vouat whom do you eeef 

(7.) Que, whom, whatf which, stands generally for the regime direct. 
Thb pronoun is used for persons and things. It is of both genders 
and numbers : 

lea lettres que j'ai, 

lea hcnnmes que j'ai tob, 

the lettere which I have, 
the men whom I have eeen. 

(8.) It is relative when it has an antecedent : 

Olory lend* a charm to the horror* 

La gloire pr^te un channe auz 
horreurs ^*od a&oote. 


Des lois que nooa suivons, la pre- 
miere est lluxmeur. Voltaiex. 

which we face. 

Of the lawe tpfttcA we foUow, the 
Jiret ie honor. 

(9.) It is absolute when it has no antecedent, and signifies qneUe 
chose! what thing 7 quoi? tchatf 

que voulea-vout t wAa< will you (have^ f 

quediirOii\ what do people eay f 

(10.) QuQi, what, is invariable, and said only of things. It may 
be used absolutely and relatively : 

J'ignore etf d ^Mot il pense, I am ignorant of what he thinka. 

In the above sentence it is relative, being iMreceded by its ante- 

(11.) Quoi, when absolute, means queile chose 7 what thing 1 and is 
used mostly iu interrogative and doubtful sentences : 

n y a dans cette affiure je ne salt 
quoi, que je n'entends naa. 


H y avait je ne eaie quoi dans Bet 
yeuz per^ants, qui me faisait peur. 

There ie in that affair I know noi 
what, which I do not underetemd. 

There 1001 1 know not what in hit 
piercing eyee, whM iei e p i redmetrifk 


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ftSLATiTJi FBOirovira.<«*«S M. 

(IS.) J^oHTy ^^tht&tf ^ vMchy iow0M| It wd Mr Wlii ( 
Bunben; for peraont and for thingB. It ii alwmya emplojed nla> 
tivelj, and ia, therefore, always preceded by an antecedent: 

to f«pm<, can nmtr he a pmotful 


We muMt pU^f the fauef that urn- 
fyrtymaU yrmce, wkoee kardemtd 
heart hoe never forgieeH, 

(13.) Dont is preferable to de qni, of tpJbm, and duqnel, cf whidu 
When, however, the pronoun has the sense ^ from liftem* LOi, when 
used to denote a transfer, «fe ^» is better : 

Un plaiar SmJi oo est SMar6 de 
se repentb- ne pent januus dtre tran- 
quille.- Mm. ds La Valusex. 

n &nt plaindre le tort du prioce 
mfiDrt«ii6, dont le coBor endurci n'a 

jamait paidoiind. 



lUr ftcm 

Le Bbraire de otM J*ai reca oes 

(14.) Leqnel, laqnelle, lesqnelles, who^ tOadi, shonld only be used 
In the nondnatiTe, and in the direct regimen, in order to avdd am- 
bignity. They may relate to persons or things: 

(Test on effet de la divine Provi- 
denoe, leqM attire I'adnuratimi de 
tout le monde. Bosu-RASimir. 

Hie an act of tKwine J^revidemM, 
tekieh {act) attraOe ^admiraiion 
of everyone. 

(15.) Lequd^ preceded by a preposition— that is, duqudt auqud^ dmu 
kijuelf &C., most always be nsed for tilings in tiie indireet rsgimen. 
The word ^t, as has been mentioned above, cannot relate to things 
in the oblique cases : 

That w&M beaewimu hook la 
^ehieh not a f a i e e h o o d were /owm d 

The Seine, inthehedof mhM the 

Tonne, the Mmme, and the Oiee 


Un Ixvre cnrieoz serait oelui dlamt 
Ufuel on ne tnmverait pas on men- 
■oDge. NAPoiioir. 

La Seine, dans le lit db laqueUe, 
Tiemient se Jettr T Toons, la JNEarae, 

(16.) Leqnel, in all its modifications, may be used absolutely or 

leqnelt 10AM mm/ doqael t of ^Meh anof 

ie^Mrf veyes-vous t which one do yen me f 

(17.) Ev^qf Uf of them. This pronoun is of both genders and 
numbers, and relates almost always to animals and things. It is often 
used for the English words, some, any^ when employed absolutely, 
or even when understood. It is slso used as an indireet regitawn 
in rdation to tlnngs, and sometimes, but not often, in relation to 
persons [{ 92 (3)], instead of the personal pronouniB fui; eQsi» «ii«| 
•0BS. Ul03»Rttlel.] 

VouB en paries, you epeak 0/ U. J*m ai, / hone $mm of Ii 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

tjri^B9i9itB Fm*ao0St^*-^ 40^ 41. 


Am 4U wtHk: A$ <m* 

Lliypocrii^ em m^dit, et lliannAte «pMii» ml of U, and ihi worthy 

haiotxM en um. Dsulli. man uaee it 

J4S limitaadM tdencataoatcom- The ImUU of enUnee mt like the 

me lliorizoD ; pliu od en approdw, horuon, ike more we t^ 

plus ellM recojent. IAm& ifnaooL (them), the more they recede. 
Ia Tie «tt UD d^pM oonfi^ par le 

del; L^e tea trust eonlUed by k 

leer en dispoier, <fett Aire GrimmeL to dare to diepoee of tit ie a orime» 

(18.) Y^toitfio ihem, thereto^ ofit^ &c. This relative pronoun, of 
boftk gtndenvid nviibini, ia naed faiatead of a 7iii, d eOe, en l«i, &e. 
It ia naed of tiunga, and alio advvibiaUy in the senae of there. 

Ty doDDe met taum, Ijeeote my 


I think of it. 

J'ai eoum la aaalbem', et fy mub 
campAtir. Gcioouia 

N'^ aongfioni plu% clier Paulin; pine 

Flui je eeos fhaneeW ma craelle 
cooaUaea. RAonre. 

Yone a¥ea pen da Uan; joignaa 

y ma fortime. Doeat. 

£a quelqne paya que Jaie 6t6, fy 

ai T^ea oooima « feoata dt y _ 

ma vie. MosnisQUixu. 

/ haife known mieforiune, emd 1 
east eympathiMe with tt 

Let ue think no more ^ Uki^ demt 
Paulin ; the longer I think of ti, the 
more I fed my eruel eonetemey w rn ter. 

I whaleeer eauntry I hene been, 
oa if I wee to epemd 

Ton ham hut imie p ro p erty ; jeie^ 
my/oTtwM to it 

fn whatever eon 
I Heed (there) a$ 
my life in it 

(19.) AKhoogh mimeroae inatancea maj be fonnd in whfeh Freadi 
anthora have naed y with regard to persona, theae are licenaea wh^ 
ifclanotdeaimble to imitate. 

§ 40. — IsDmsuM PAOVomrs. 

(1.) The indefinite prononna indicate persona and things will mt 
particniarlring them : the j are— 

rmi raotre, 
Ywoi et Tantre, 

aatm^ othere, 

chacmi, eeeryone. 

on, one, people, they, 

panoone» no one, nobody. 

qoelqa'ttD, aoiiM one, eomebody. 

eeery thing, vMle 

§ 41. — ^Rbmakkb on the Ikdkfinitx Pbonouks. 

(1.) AuTRxn, others, Thia prononn ia applied only to peraona. It 
kta no ehaage of form for gender or number, and ia need only aa an 
mdireet regimen. 

LlM30D6te homme eat diaoret ; il 
lamarqna lea d^fimta d^euirm, maii 
Hn'eoparlejamaia. StETmnrosfiK 

Ne ukia pent 4 oMfnrf oe qoa tn ne 
vondraia paa qn'oa te flt^ 

77ie yenileeum ie diiereet ; heeb" 



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IVfiXriVITB PBOVOUV0>-§ 41* 

(S.) Gbacuh, eMfy om^ codk one. When this pronoim is abeoluti^ 
•nd meaiiB every cme, everybody^ it is invamblo : 

Le moB ccmmun n'est pas dioae 

Ckacu» poortant^ croit eu ayoir 

asses. VALAiicoocniiL 

Chaeun est proetem6 devantles 
gaoa heureaz. Distodohbb. 

(3.) When chaeun is used relatively it may take the form of the 

Common mhm u no 
tkiny, ikough mtery one b^iowet k$ 
kM enough of U, 

Beery ome borne before the for 

OhoBwne de Dona (das femmes) ae 
r^tendait sap^rieure aux autres en 


Eeery mm ^ «t (womaii) ikomf^ 
hereelf empertor in bemgty to the 

(4.) Oh (onej peopUy (hey) is always in the nommative ; and although 
always construed with a verb in the third person singular, it conveys 
most generally the idea of plurality. It is commonly used in indefinite 

On ^ people eay^iheyeay^itieeeAd, On "ptjrle, eomebody ^mJU, in. 

On garde sans remords oe qu*<m 
■oquiert saaa crime. Coexkxlle. 

On reUt tout Racme : on choisit 
dans Voltaixa Dxlujjb. 

On ne sonnonte le vice qu'en le 
Ihyant FiNALON. 

We {one, peopjU) keep wUhmU re- 
moree that which we (one, people) 
aemtire without erime. 

We {ne<Mle, they) read again and 
again aU Aaei»ie : we (ilfee.) eeied in 

We conquer vice only by aooO' 

(5.) On^ coming immediately after the words et^si^on, que^ and qu^ 
b generally preceded by the article f, used for euphony : 

That whi^ one underetande weH, 

Oe one foil coofoit bien, i^ez- 
nrime dairement Boiuau. 

CTest d'un roi que Fon tient cette 

nuudme augoste, 
Que jamais on o'est grand, qu'antant 

que Fon est juste. Boilbau. 

he clearly expreteee. 

It i$ from a king that we derive 
this auguet maxim^ that one is only 
great in proportion as he is Just 

(6.) PsRsoNirs, no one^ nobody, used as an mdefinite pronoun, is 
always masculine and singular. When used as nominative to a verb 
expressed, it is followed by ne: 

n n'est personne qui ne cherche k 
se rendre heurenz.— C%tne«e thought 

Persowne ne veut dtre plaint de 
ses erreur& Yadvinaiioues. 

There ie no one who does not seek 
to render himself happy. 

No one wisnes to be pitied en 
account of hie mistakes. 

KoTB.— The word persomtet used as a noun, and meaning a particiilar 
penon, is of the feminine gender. 

(7.) QuELQu'xm, somebochf, some onef any one^ anybody^ used 
lately, is invariable : 


by Google 



qutimiyn c^««t a'atouer 

toniniSrieur. Bxli. dx L^Espinassb. 

QiMi/^'iMi a-t-il jamais doutd 
i6rieuflement do VezistetiGe de Dieu ! 

telf hi9 inferior. 

Ha» any oim «v«r had mtioim 
dofubU on the eMtitence of Qadf 

(8.) Qyeiqu^im, nsed relatively, changes for gender and nnml>er. 
has then the sense of some qf^ some one cf: 


Coonaiasex-TOUB quelgu*uns de oes 
dames qttdqttes-UTis de ces mes- 
■enrBl OiaACLT-DuviyiEa. 

Do you know any one of iko$ 
kuUe$f any of those gentUtnenf 

(9.) Qoiconque, tohoevery whosoever^ b generally masculine, and has 
no pluraL It is only said of persons : 

Qvieonque flatte ses mattres, les 
trahit Massillon. 

Quioon^ue est capable de mentir, 
est indigne d*dtre compt^ aa nombre 
des hommes. Fix^LON. 

QmieonqtieeBt soap^onneuz, mvite 
la trahison. Voltaulx. 

Whoever fUUters his masters be- 
trays them. 

Whoever is eapaUe of falsehood is 
unworthy to be counted amanff the 
number of men. 

Whoever is suspicious, invites 

(10.) L*un Tautre, one another^ each other, the one and the other, 
Tbis i^onoun makes in the feminine Ftme Vaulre^ and in the plurat 
Us uns Us aulres. Us wnes Us autres : 

Tout le monde se oonfiait Fun d 
Tau^rtf cette confidence. Rulhixbxs. 

Tout le pNBuple soiyit Virginie, Us 
mns par cariosity, Us autree par oon- 
nddnition pour Icilius. VutTOT. 

U y a deux sortes de mines ; tune 
FouTrage du temps^ Fautre TouTrage 
des hommes. OHATKAUxaiAND. 

Everybody confided one to another 
thU communication. 

All the peopU followed Virginia, 
some through curiosity, some through 
respect for Icilius. 

There are two sorts of ruins; one 
the work of time, the other the work 

This ezpresdon 

(11.) L'un et I'autre, les uns les autres (both). 
may be used of persons and things : 

Za Condamine traveUed over both 

La Condamine a parooum Fun et 
Fautre h^misph^re.* Bufpon. 

X'tm et Fautre consul suivaient 
ses 6teDdart& Cobneillx. 

Sous Fune et Fautre ^poque, il 
p^rit un trto grand nombre de ci- 
toyens. Babthklemt. 

UB se rdanissaieDt les unt et les 
•ntres oontre rennemi eommun. 


Both coneide followed his stand' 

At both epochs a large number cf 
citizens perished. 

They united with one another 
againet the common enemy. 

(12.) Tel, telle, feminine, such, many a person, many, ia an indefinite 
pronoun in the following and in similar sentences: 

* The noun is in the singular, because the word hhnisphire is under* 
itood aftv the word Fun. This rule is observed by the best Frenoh 


by Google 

TBBBa.*-*§ 4S. 

Td teiw» ^ piMM maSm, qui 
ifobl^ ]>enoiiiie. Coekxillb. 

Td tariUe ui eeooiid nog, qui 
t'^dipM an premiec. Vouauu. 

Ttl Mt pris qui crojatt prendre. 


TdU, Bans aoeon attrait pour la 
retraite, se oonaacre au Seigneur par 
pure fiert^. JAAuaLtjom. 

TeU que Too croit d'lnutiles amis, 
Dana le besoui rendent de boot 

IthotU obliging any otu. 

Many a narmm may Mm» l» <Aa 


Many art eatight vkiU attempting 
to eateh othert. 

Many [a ftim] for wkom rvfrraf 

uif to tks Lord tkr<mgh mere pridt. 

Many friends vAom v)e think um- 

leu render kj, in our need, valuabia 

(13.) Tel, in connection with Mondevr, Madame, &C., aa Mcnsieur 
floi tdt Madame une UHU^ Mr., Mrs. auch-a-one, ia used aubstantively. 

(14.) Tout, ewry cine^ evary tking. This word, employed absoltttel/y 
b iBTsriable. 

▲ la settle vertu, aoia eftr que 
tout prosptoe. F. na Nwowquatkav. 

Tout n^esipas Caumariin, Bignon, 
bI d' Agueaseaa Boilcau. 

SoQ grand gteia ambiataah UmL 

Be auured that it ie with fdrtma 
alone thai every thing proapere. 

Every one ii not Oaumartin^ 
Bignon, nor dAgueetean. 

Hie great gemue embraced eaerp 

§ 42.— VlRBS. 

(1.) The verb ia that pari of speech whieh ezpreasca an action 
done or snfifered by the subject; or simply indicates the condition of 
the sabject 

(2.) The subject or nominatiTO of a verb is the person or thing 
doing the action, or being in the condition expressed by the verb. It 
replies to the question qui est^x^i? whol for persons; and gu'es/- 
oe quil which f uihatf for things. 

(3.) Verbs admit two kinds of regimen : the JSrect r^imen and the 
indirect regimen, 

(4.) Tlie direct r^men, or immediate object, is that which com- 
pletes in a direct manner the signification of a verb; that is to say, 
without the aid of any other intermediate word. It answers to Uie 
question quit whom? for persona, and quoiJ whatt for thinga. 

(5.) The indirect regimen^ or remote object, is that which completes 
the signification of the verb by means of an intermediate word, such 
as the preposLtions a, (fe, pour^ avec, dans^ die. — ii qui ! to wham 7 de qui 1 
tf or from whom? pour qui? /or whomt avec cui? &c., for perscns; 
and 4 quoi? to what? de quoit of or from whatt dtc, for things. 

(6.) Verba are regaUu', irregular, or defective. { 44 (3). 


by Google 

riBBfe.*^ 43. 


§ 43. — ^DlFVXSXHT 80BI8 OW VlRBS. 

(1.) There sre five torts of verbs: active, passive, neater, reflective 
•r pronominsl, and anipersoiud. 

(a.) The active verb is that which expresses an action performed by 
the subject, and having some person or thing for its object This ob* 
jcet is the direct regimen of the verb. 

(3.) Every French verb after which qudqu^uru some one, quelque" 
e^se, something, may be phiced, is an active verb. Thus, in the foU 
lowing sentences, frotegtr^ changer^ ehanier^ dec, are active verbs, be- 
cause we may wyproUger qu/dqy^un^ to protect some one; changer 
(wHqvechotA, to change something: 

DwafffQt^ llDBOoeiioeu— Raodti. 
L'habit cbang* lea masan, 


Lea cygnea ne cktmUnt paa laor 
SMirt Bvwwon. 


Drw chang€$ the nuamtn, 


(4.) The passive verb is the contrary of the active verb. Tlie aetive 
verb presents the subject as performing an action immediately directed 
towards an object; whereas the passive verb presents the subject at 
suffering or receiving an action. Tlie passive verb is composed ol 
the past participle of an active verb and the auxiliary ^fre, to be. 
(See i 64.) 

Koa campagiWB MontfirtUitSet par 
la pluic UAOALiMnL 

U Hait gui<U par la force de aon 
gillie. Massilloh. 

Lea ])etita eaprita 9ont trop bUnh 
dea petitea chosea. 

La BocBxrouoAULn. 

0%ar JSdA are fniUtMed hff f4a 

He woe guided hy the farce af M 

LittU nUndt are too much wexed 

(6.) The neuter verb marks, like the active verb, an action per 
formed by the subject; but this action can only reach the object in* 
directly ; that is, by means of a preposition. Hence it is that the neu* 
ter verb never has a direct regimen, and that the words quelqu^un and 
quelquechoMe cannot be placed after it. A neuter verb can never 
be used in the passive voice. 

8<«3rate paaea le dernier jour de 
aa vie a meetmrir dtf rixnmortalit^ 
de Tame. L*AcadAmie. 

Le feu qui semble ^teint, dort 
aoovent soua sa cendre. — CoaifEiLLs. 

Lea Plat^na citerent lea Jj^ie6d^ 
Okooiena a comparaltirc devant laa 
Ampbyetiona. Lx Gknuxb. 

Soeratet epent the laet day ef his 
life in dUeoursing upon the immor^ 
tality ofthetouL 

The fire which eeeme extinct sleepe 
often under its athes. 

The Plateana cited the Laeedtm^ 
nieme to mppear before the A mph^f o 

f6.) The reflective or pronominal verb ir eo ijngated witn two ikr«- 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

oojiiir«ATxov8 or rftftBs. — g 44, 45. 

QomiB of the sune person; je me^iuteiUse, nous notci, wiu wus, «7t 
je. (See { 56.) 

j€ me fla^^e, IJlaUer myaelf. Vatu vow fSlmiez, ftm oomffrmht 

late ycurselvee. 

n ne tBLUi pas $e flatter^ les plus 
expdriment^B ont fait dee foutes ca- 
piUle& BoesuxT. 

Les peuples se fUidterorU d'ayoir 
nn roi qui loi reasemhle. 

U ne faat paa permettre k VhoBcmB 
de te miprUer enti^rement 


We ihould notfiaUer ovreeivee : tke 
moet experieneedhofoe committed «ap 
ital errors. 

The nations mil eongratulate them- 
selves upon having a king who ro- 
sembies him. 

We should not allow a man to de 
spise himself entirely. 

(7.) The onipereonal verb can only be used in the third penon an- 
galar: D plent, it raim; il gdle, it freezes; il tonne, it thunders, 

Pook' bien juger ks grands, ilfanU To judge properly of the great, U 

les approcher. Aubxbt. is necessary to approach them, 

Ufaut rendre meillear le pauyre We should (it ts necessary to) vn^ 

qa'aa soiilage. Saiht-Lambbrt. prove the poor whom we relieve. 

(8.) There are two verba called anxiliaiy, because they serve to 
conjugate all others. They are — avoir, to have ; and 6tre, to be, 

§ 44. — CoirjuoATiONS. 

(1.) The French verbs are divided into four large classes or conju- 

Ist. The jSrst conjugation comprises all verbs of which the present of the 
infinitive ends in sa ; as parler, to speak; aimer, to love, <bc. 

2d. The second conjugation embraces all those of which the infinitive 
ends in la ; as cfa^ir, to cherish ; punir, to punish, <S:c. 

3d. The third conjugation ocntams all the verbs which, in the infinitive, 
end in out ; such as recevoir, to receive; pouvoir, to be able, ^ 

4th. The fourth conjugation comprises all the verbs terminating with 
ftE in the infinitive; as rendre, to render ; prendre, to take, Ac 

(2.) The verbs are again divided into regular, irregular, and defeo* 
tive : 

Ist. The regular verbs are those which, in all their tenses, are ooojugated 
like the model verb of the conjugation to which they belong. 

2d. The uregular verbs are those which are not conjugated like tha 
model verb. 

8d. The defective verbs are those which want certain tenses or persons 

§ 45. — ^MoDEs AND Tenses. 

(1.) There are six modes : the indicative, the conditional, the iiii< 
perative, the subjunctive, the infinitive, and the participle : 

1st The indicative, whatever may be the tense, indicates or declares 
in a positive, absolute manner : j'abandonne, / abandon ; j'ai abaadomid, 
/ heme nh^^^nned ; j*abandonnerai, / will abandon. 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

IfOt^SS AKD TBN818. — § 45. il2§ 

9dL Ifie eondkioDftl indieates a oonditian or a suppoutioti : j^aUmdon- 
Beraifl si ... . Iwndd abandon if..., 

8(L The imperative is uaed to express a command, prayer, or ezhorta- 
lioD : abandonnez cet enfant, abandon that child. 

4th. The subjanctive is used after propositions expressing doubt, con- 
tingency, or necessity : il est douteux que je rabandonne : iti^not csrUtin 
that I may abandon him. 

6th. The infinitive presents the signification of the verb in an uilimited 
manner : abandonner see enfants, to abandon ont^s ehUdren. 

6th. The participle, while retaining the power of the verb, at the same 
time partakes of the nature of an adjective : abandonnant ses parents, 
abandoning hiM relaiivet; abandonn^de ses enfants, abandonea by ki§ 

(3.) The indicative has eight tenses: 

Ist. The presea: : je parle, J speak ; je donne, Iffiw. 
2cL The sunnltaneous past, or miperfect : je porlius, Iwat tpeaking. 
8d. The past definite : je PvlAi* / fpoite, / did •peak. 
4 th. The past indefinite : j ai parl^, Ihave spoken ; j'ai donn4, Ihavegintki, 
5th. The past anterior, Teus parl^ I had spoken. 

6th. The pluperfect, I'avais parl^, I had been speaking. 

7 th. The rature absolute, je parlerai, I shall, wHl speak, 

8th. The future anterior, ) v,„^.; ^^u r •*>,// *>...- m^i,^ 

or future perfect, \ jaoraiparl^, I shall have spoken. 

(3.) The conditional has two tenses : 

Isl Hie present or future, je parlerais, J should, wouid speeJe. 

2d. The past, j'aurais parld, / should have spoken. 

(4.) The imperative has one tense : 

parle, speak. 

(6.) The subjunctive has four tenses: 

1st. The present or future, que je parle, that I may speak. 

2d. The imperfect, que je parlasse, that I might speak. 

8d. The past indefinite, que j'aie parl6, that I may have spoken, 

4th. The pluperfect, que j'eusso parl6, tJuUJmig/ithavesp Jttn, 

(6.) The infinitive has two tenses : 

1st The present relative, parler, . to meak. 

2d. The past, avoir parl6, to have spoken, 

(7.) The participle has three tenses : 

I si The present relative, parlant, speaking. 

2d. The past active, ayant parl6, having spoken, 

Sd. The past or passive, parl^, spoken. 

(8.) Tenses are simple or compound. 

1. Simple, w'len they are expressed in a single word: je parle, f 

a. Compound, when they require the assistance of the verb aT<Mr or 
Itre ; j'ai parje, / have spoken ; je suis arrive, / am arrtteM 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


g 46. — ^Usx or TBB AusuABT Vbbbs ATOni ▲»> 

(1.) The acudliwy avoir is uaad : 

1. In the conjugation of its own componnd tenses: fai en, JfttfM 

3. In the eonjagstion of the componnd tenses of the verb him 
f ai et6, / have been. 

8. In the compound tenses of the active verbs : J'ai aim6« J havt 

4. In the eofflpomd tenses of most neuter verbs ezprssdng an 
action: fai mareh^ I have walked^ [See exceptions to this rule (8) 

6. It is also nsed in the eonjugpstion of verbs which are always 
nnipersonal : il a pin, it has tamed; 11 a gr61^ H has haXLedt dtc. 
(2.) The verb etre is nsed in the conjugation of: 
1. All the tenses of passive verbs : je snis aim4, lam Uned, 
. 9. The componnd tenses of all reflective or pronominal Terbs : je ma 
snis f!att6» / have flattered myself; je me suia promen6, / have VHtOced, 

3. The compound tenses of the following neuter verbs, thon^^ the 
samO) express action : 

aller, to^o; naltre, to be bom; 

arriver, to arrive; tomber, to fail; 

choir, to fall; venir, toeome; 

dMd&r, todeeeoM; parvenir, toeueeeed; 

mourir, to die; devenir, to become; 

revenir, to return, 

4. A few unipersonal verbs, which are not always but occasionally 
such : il lui est arrive un malhenr, a misfortune has happened to hitn. 

(3.) A certain number of neuter verbs: 

aoooorir, to rtm towards ; entrer, to enter; 

dirparaltre, to disappear; earijac, 'to go out; 

emiitre, to grow; passer, to pass; 

cesser, to cease; V^^* to depart; 

pCrir, to perish; Tieillir, to grow old; 

mooter, to mount to ascend; grandir, to grow; 

desoendre, to go down; rester, to rmmn, to dmeU^ 

take sometimes avoir ^ and sometimes Hre, 

1. They take avoir when we have in view the action expressed by 
the verb; 

SL And Hre when situation or condition is the principal klea which 
we wish to express : 


WUhkToau n^inua 

JEDe a diipsni •obnemenl fille est dispame depnis quins* 

Bhs disappear^ suddenly, fike Mas been oo%e afsrinigkl 


by Google 

AVXtliIAll¥ TBEBf.-^ 4d. Mt 

I* iHmm m t9m6 Uer. La fUbrre ut c$Mi% dApok ^mI- 

C|Qe temps. 

The fever eea$edye»terday. It i$ w/m time nne$ ih§ fmfer 


lie tMuromMn a deaeendn de HeH defloenda depois una bewra 
pliuiour* degr^s eo peu d'heurea. 

The barometer went dmm eeveral He hat leen down one Hotir. 
ftegreee in a few houre, 

11 • paM6 ea Am^rique en tel Les chaleuie eont paM^en 

lie went to America at eueh a time. The heat ie paeL 

Le trait a parti ayec impetuosity. Les troupes eont parties dopuis 

L'aCAD^IS. six moil. ii'AOADXMIX. 

The dart went with impetuoeity. The troope have been gone eix 

Lb mog avait eesa<§ de coaler. Ce grand bruit eet cess& 

BoisTS. Mmb. di SAyigx^ 

T%e biood had ceated to flow. That great noiee is over (Aoa 


(4.) Rester and demeurer, meaning to dwells to reride, take the 
tnziliary avoir; when they mean to remain, to be lefU they take itre: 

▲Tom. irai. 

Tai T%M plus d'un an en Italle. EQe donnerait ipoot toqs sa Tie, 
Moiimqinxu. le seul bien qui lui eoit restA. 

/ redded mare than a gemr •» She would give, for you, her life, 

Italy, the only poeeeseion which remains to 

n • demenrtf deux ans H la cam* Deoz cents hommes eont dtf* 
pagna L'AOAniMEi. niear6s sur le champ de bataille. 

Be lived (dwelt) two years in the Two hundred men remained on 
country. the field of battle. 

(5.) £chapper, to escape, to pass wmolioed, to be forgotten^ takes the 
aoziliary avoir. In the sense of, to say inadvertendy^ it takes iire» 

ATOIB. Aixs. 

Oette difii6rence ne m'a pas 6chap- Ce mot m^est 6chapp6 ; pardtumos 

p6. BomaiAU. ma franchise. VoLTAiai. 

That diferenee has not escaped That word escaped my lipt; excuse 

me. my frankness, 

J'ai retenu le chant, les vers Ezcusez les lautes qui poarront 

vConi ^cham)^. Voltairk m'Hre ^chappdes. Boilbau. 

I retained the tune, but the verses Excuse the faults which I may 

hesve escaped my memory. have committed inadvertently. 

(6.) Convenir, to become, to suit, takes avoir. When it is used la 
the sense of agreeing, or setting upon a price for an article it takes 

Ostte maison m*a «tMiv0nic NuasMMfMtcooTennsdu pri& 


That house suited «a We agreed upon the price. 


by Google 


AUZIlimT VMRBS.-*-^ 49* 

§ 4?. — Takadiqmb of thb Auxuxiat Ybbbs. 

To fkmiliarize the student with the frequent use made by th« 
PrBDohf of the indefinite pronoun an [} 41» (4.)], we have iatrodwed 
k in our conjugation of the verbs. 

Ihdigatxyb Mod£. 
bimpub tkv8b8. oompouhd 










11 •. 







Nous ETons, 


Nous avons eu, 


Vous ayes, 

mm have 
they have 

Vous avea eu, 

you have had 


Us ont eu, 




was hAvkig, or I %utd 
to have 

J'avals eu, 


Tu avail, 

Tn avals eu, 




11 avait eu, 


On avait, 

one had, people had 

On avait eu, 


Nous avions, 


Nous avions eu, 


Vous avies, 


Vous aviez eu, 




Ss avalent eu, 





J'cus eu, 



thou hadst, etc 

Tu ens eu, 




n eut eu. 



one had, etc. 

On eut eu. 


Nous eiimes, 


Nous ei^mes eu. 


Vous eiltes, 

you had 

Vous eAtes eu. 


lis eurent, 


lis eurent eu. 





J'aurai eu, / shall, will have haa 

Tu auras, 

thou vnU have 

Tu auras eu. 

thou Shalt have had 



11 aura eu, 


On aura, 

one will have 

On aura eu. 

one will have had 


we shall have 

Nous aurons eu, 


Vous auroB, 


Vous aures eu. 




Us auront eu. 

thovwOl have had 


by Google 

▲ irk It. I AST 'H BBS ti-^^ '40^ 
ComnrmAL Modx. 



KouB amioitt; 
V0118 aariez, 
St auraient) 


thou couidst have 

he would have 

€ne wtnUd have 


you would have 

tkey would haoe 

J'aarais en, I should have had 

Tnaamisou, thou wouldst haioe had 
II aarait en, he should have iad 

On anrait en, one should have had 
Nons anrions en, we should have had 
Vons anriea en, you should have had 
Vb anraient en, they fhauld have had 

Impbbativb Mode. 


Qn'U ait, 
Qn'on sAt, 



lei one. people, them, have 


have ye or you 

let them have 

SuBiuxcTtv£ Mods. 

One tn aies, 
Qn'U ait, 
Qn'on ait, 
Que nons ayons, 
Qne Yons ayez, 
Qn'ib aient, 


that tkou mayest 


that one may 

that we may 

that you may 


Qnej'aieeii, UuAlmay 

Qne tn aies en, thai thou mayesi 
Qn'U ait en, that he may 

Qn'on ait en, * thaJl one may 
Qne nous ajons en, that we may 
Qne yons ayez en, that you wiay 
Qn'ils aient en, thatthaymay 



QueJ'ensse, thatlmiSght' 

Que tn euBKB, thai thou mighlest 

Qn'iletlt, that he might 

Qn'on eAt, thai one mtghi 

Que nous ensslons, that we might 

Qne vons enssies, that you might 


QneJ^ensseen, thatlmsfhi 
en, thai thou 



It, ihat they mighty 

Inruiixxvjs Mode. 

to have \ Ayoir en, 


Que tn 

mightest ^ 
Qn'ileMeu, that he might J 

Qn'on eAt en, that one might I ^ 
Que nons enssions en, that wefs 

might "^ 
Qne Tons enssies en, that you 

Qn'ils enssent en, CiWrfiA^M^At 


to hare had 


having I Ayanten, 



by Google 

AirsiiitAmT T•ft»^•.~^ 4I»' 






Je n'ai pts, 
Ob n'a paSi 
Nous n^aYons pas, 
Voiu n'ayes pas, 
Di n'ont pas, 







theif have not 


Je n'aTafs pas, 
Ta n^avau pas, 
n n'avait pas, 
On D'arait pas, 
NoQs n'avioDS pas^ 
Vous B'aTte pas, 
Us tfavaieMt pas, 


tktm kadst net 





9AMt OBFItrmk 

Ja n'eos paa, 
n n'eut pas, 
On n'ent pas, 
Tons n'e^tes pas, 
Us n'earsiit tMUB> 




mt had not 




Je n'ainml pas^ 
Tu n'auras paSk 
D n'aora pas, 
On n'aura pas, 





Kaasn'aaroospas, we shall not 
y ons n'aorea pa% ^en shall not 
Ob ii'auront pas, they will not^ 


Je n'ai pas eu, 
Tn n'as pas en, 
n n'a pas en, 
On n'a pas eo, 
Nona n'aYons pas ea, 
Tons n'aves pas en, 
Ds n'ont pas en, 


they have) 

onehas \ 


Je n'arais pas en, / had"" 

Tn n'avais pas en, thou hadst 

n n'ayait pas en, he had 

On n'ayait pss en, one had 
Nons n'avions pas en, we had 

Tons n'sTiez pas en, fou had 

Ds n'aTaieat pas en, they had^ 




Je n'ens pas en, / had 
Tn n'ens pas en, thou hadst 

II n'ent pas en, he had 

On n*ent pas en, one had 

Nons n'eumes pas ev, we had 

Vons n'eAtes pas en, inim had 

lis n'enrent pas en, they had 


Je n'anrai pas en, / shall' 
Tn n'anras pas en, thou shall 

n n'anra pas en, he will 

On n'anra pas en, one will 
Nous n'anrons pas en, * wewiU 

Vons n'anrea pas en, fou will 

Us n'anront pas en, they will^ 


Je n'amais pasi / should 

Tn n'anraispas, th^m wouldst 

n n'anrait pas, he would 

Ob n'BBimit pas, one would 
Nons n'aniions pas, we would 

Veas n'anries pas, you • 

Ds B'ammlent pas, Aeif \ 

Je n'aorais pas en, / should 
Tn n'anrais pas en, thoushouldst 
n n'anrait pas en, he would 
On n'anrait pas en, one would 
Nons D'anrioos pas en, we would 
yonsB'BBrieBpasen, you would 
Dsn'aiizmleilpif eo. theywouU 




by Google 

biwuisTB Mods. 

N'ajoDfl pas 


let on€ not imm 
have nU fe Qt ym 

SoBnnMxfn Modi* 


SJa n'aie pas, tkatlfnay 
ta n*afea paa, thai thou 

Qollm'altpas, tkatJUtma^ 
Qa'oB n'alt paa, tta4 one m«y 
Qna noai njooB paa, <Aa^ wf 

Q119 Toiia n'ayes pas, tJUU fm 


Qa'nsn'aleiitpas, tJUaiheymay 

Que ta nV 




I pu, that thatt 

Qn'il n'e^t pas, thatke migkt 
Qa'on n'eAt pas, that mu might 

Que nous n'aoiBioDS pas, that 

Que Tons n'enssiei pas, that you 

QnHs n'aiiMexit jfu, that theff 

might , 



Qaejen'aiepaseu, thatlmof 
Qae td n'aies pas eu, that thou 

Qailn'aitpasea, thathemof 
Qn'oD n'ait pas en, that one may 
Que nous trayons pas eu, that 

Qua roQM n'ajai pas en, that 

you may 
Qa'fls n'aient ^ en, that they 


Qua Ja n'ensse pas eu, Wa r 

Qaa ta n'ansses pas aa, Mat 

CAtftt mightest 
Qn'Hii'ett pas eu, Oo^ £ might 
Qa'on n'etit pas an, that one 

Que nous n'anssioiis pas ea, that 

we might 
Qua TOQS n'ensflieE pas eii, that 

you might 
Qn'ilsn'eiissant pas eu, Ma4 M^ 

Ihtuu i ivb Mods. 




««( ^ Aovf I N'aVoIr pas 00, neiUkmMkad 


ii0<U9iiv|K%7intpaae«i» usi l <a<nf JuU 

Past or pAsmn. 
ao. MW 


by Google 

Ihdicatiyb Mode. 



AyoDB-nons 1 
Ayez-Yoiu 1 

have I? 





Avait.il 1 
Arailron 1 
Avaient-ils 1 






had you? 



£aft-j6 7 




Etkmes-noiis 1 







had we? 








Anroiu-noTiB 1 

Anres-vouB 1 


skaU thou have? 
shaUoTU have? 
shall toe have? 
will one have? 
shall they have 


A-t-on en 7 
AYOD8-nou8 eal 
AYez-Yons eu 1 

have r\ 
has one Y'^ 

havewe I '^ 
have you I 
have they] 


Avids-Je en, 
AYa&8-ta eu, 
Avait-il en, 
Avaitron en, 
AvioDS nous en, 
Aviez-YOUB en, 
Avaient-ils en, 






had you 




£us>tu eu 7 
£ut-il en 7 
Eat-on en 7 
£ Ames-nous en 7 
Etktes-Yous en 7 
Bnrent-ils en 7 


had you 



Anras-tn en 7 
Aura-t-ii en 7 
AnroDs-nons eu 7 
Aurez-Yous eu 7 
Anront-ils en 7 



Conditional Mode. 

Anniit-il 7 
Anrait-on 7 
Airions-nons 7 

should thaoe? 

shouidst thou have? 

should he have? 

would they have? 

would we have? 

should you have ? 


Aurais-tn en 7 
Aurait-il en 7 
Anrait-on en 7 
Aurions-nous en 7 
Auries-Yous en 7 
Anraient-ils en 7 



would he 



should you 


(♦) See Lesson 4, Rule 6. 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

AVXthlAKY TKmVft.-i-§ 49. 



Ihsicativs Monx. 



ITa-t-on pas 1 
N'avoDs-Doc8 pat f 
N'avez-votis pas % 
N'odUUs pas 1 

hav^ Inot? 

kast tJUnL not? 


has one not? 

have we not? 

have ffou not? 

have they not? 


K'avait-on pas 1 
N'avioDs-Doos pas'? 
N'ayiez-Yous pas 1 
K^avaient-ils pasl 

had J not? 





had you not? 



N'eAmes-nous pasl 
N'eiites-voiis pasl 
N'enrenUils pas 1 




had one not? 





N'anTai-Je pas ? 
N'auras-tn pasl 
R'aura-t-il pas 1 
N'aura-t-on pas 1 
N'auroDS-nous pas ? 
N'aurez-rous pas 1 
N'anront-ilB pasl 






shall you 



N'ai-j e pas eu 1 have r[ 

N'as-tu pas eul hast thou 

N*art-Upaseu1 has he 

N'a-t-on pas en ? has one 

N'avoDs-noQS pas eu 1 have tee 

N'avez-vous pas eu 1 have you 

N'onUils pas eu 1 have they 


N*avais-Jepaseur had n 

N'ayais-tn pas eu 1 hadst thou 
N'avaiUlpaseul had he 

N'avait-o& pas eu 1 had one 
N'ayioDS-nous pas eu 1 had we 
N'aviez-vous pas en 1 had you 
N'ayaientril pas eu 1 had they^ 


N'eua-jepaseul had I 

N'eu»-tu pas eu 1 hadst thou 
N'euUilpasenl had he 

N'eut-on pas eu 1 had one 

N'etkmes-nous pas eu 1 had we 
N'edtes-voQS pas eu 7 had you 
N'euient-Us pas eu 7 had they 




N'aurai-Je pas eu 7 shall Jr\ 

N'auras-tu pas eu 7 shall thou 
N'aura.tril pas eu7 shaU he 
N'aura-t-on pas eu 7 shall one 
N'anroDs-nous pas eu 7 shall we 
N'aurez-vous pas eu7 shall you 
N'auront-ils pas eu 7 shaUthey 

CoHDinoHAL Mode. 

iraurmisjepas7 shatild r[ 

N'anrais-tu pas 7 shouldst thou 
H'aurait-il pasl should he 

ITaurait-on pas 7 shotdd one 
K'aurions-noos pas 7 should we 
N*auriez-yons pas 7 should you 
N'auraienMlipasl ^ouUthey 

N'anrais-Je pas en 7 should JTi 
ITaurals-tu pas eu 7 shouldst thou 
N'anrait-il pas eu 7 should he 
N'aurait-on pas eu7 should onelL 
N'anrioDs-nouspaseu7sibH^i0« ( § 
ITauriezvous pas eu7 should you ^ 
N'auraieo^ils pas eu7 should 1 
\ they 

Digitized by V^jOOQ 

AVZILIABT TB»9if g 4% 






On est, 

Nona fominei, 
Voos Ates, 



MM if 





Now ^tlooa^ 
VoQfl 6ties, 




NoQB f&met, 



/mu or luted to he 






one V as 





To fens, 






IloQB ■eiiooig 

III wraleiiti 


Nona aTOBi M, 
Voiu aves 4t6, 

Il8 0Ilft«t6, 

J«aTml8 6t6, 
Ta arais 6f6, 
n avaH 6tt, 
On avail 6t6, 
Nona aviona 4tf, 
Vona aviez 6t6, 
Da aTaient 6t6, 






^e% hdtoe been 






we badbeem 

PAST nmnoK. 

Ta ena 6t6, 
IX eut 6tb, 
On eat 6t6, 
Nona eikmea 4t6, 
Voaa eiltea 6t6, 
Ha eorent 6t6, 


be bad been 


we ntuL been 




J'aand 6tf , 
Ta aaraa 6t6, 
n aara 6td, 
On aatm 6t6, 
Noos aarona 616, 
Vooa aares 6t6, 
Ila aarant 4t6, 


CoRDtTuniAL Mods. 









J'aorala 6t6, 
Ta aaraia M, 
n wirait «t6, 
On aarait 6t6, 
Nona aarfona 6t$t 
Vooa aariex At^ 






onewewa » 


jontbffM I ' 

by Google 

AVSiLiAftv ▼imsfl.^l 4lT. IM 

Bolt, lettM 

Qa'Uiolt^ kiUmhi 

Qa'on 8oit| la^nehe 

Sojonsi M«f Ar 

Soyez, beptw «» 



loo Je sols, 
|ao tn sois, 
1)a'a soit, 
Qae HODS soyiyiw, 
Que Tons soyei, 
4ii'i]s soient. 

ttof Imaybi 

(hat ikou nuiyat be 

that he may be 



thatyoumay be 

that they may be 


Quejef\]tte, that 1 might be 

QoetaftuMiy that thou mighteU be 

Qo'il fit, (Aa< A< might be 

Qa'oofftt. liWKmem^iUte 

Que nous Ibsskmr, Ma< im m^A^ be 

Que TOO! ftwtoi, (M)NWfl^grA<^ 


QneJ'ale 6t6, thatjmay] 

Que tatAes€t6,tkat thou moyest 
Qa'nait^U, that he may \ 

Qn'on ait, 6t6, that one may 
Que nous ayons 416, (Aot iw siay I 
Qno Yons ayes 6U, that you may 
Qn'fls aient 6t6, CA«< d^ » ' 


Que J'ensse 6t6, that I might 
Qne ta ensses «U, Ma< ttM 

Qn'a eAt 6M, Ooi V might 
Qn'oneAt^tf, that om might 
Quo nons enssioos 6t6, tAa< io» 

Quo Tons enarifis €U, that you 

Qalls eossant 6i6, tt«< thiy 




bfUixi'fE Modi. 


PAiT m pAsntx. 



by Google 



§ 48.— Beckjlak Vjubs. 


Ihdicativx Mods. 


Nous chantoDS 
Votui chantei, 
Ds chanteut^ 

To chanUia, 
Noua chantioDB, 
Vooa chantiei, 
III chantaieiit» 



you sing 

Je chantaii, / was singing, or / 
used to sing 
thou wasi sin^ng 
he was singing 
one was singing 
we were singing 
you were singing 
t^ were singing 

Faff uu iMiTa. 

Je chantai, / sang or did sing 

Ta chantaa, thou sangest 

D chanta, ke sang 

On chanta, one sang 

Nona chantftmea, we sang 

Vooa chanUtes, you sang 

IJa chantdrent, they sang 


J'ai chants, 





ke kassung 

On a chant6, 

one has sung 

Nous aTons chants, 


Voufl ayes chaiitf, 

(key have sung 

Ub ont chant6, 


J'aTaiB chants, 


Tu avaia chants, 



11 ayait chant6, 


On avait chanU, 



Nous ayiona chant6, 



Vons aviez chantA, 

you had 

Db avaient chantd, 

they had ^ 

PAR nrraaiOB. 

J*eiis chant6, 


Tn eoa chant6, 

thou kadst sung 

n ent chant6, 

he had sung 

On eat chantt, 
Nona eikmes diaat6, 

one had sung 

we had sung 

Voua etktes chant6, 

you hdd sung 

Da eorent chant6, 



Je chanterai, 
Ta cbanteraa, 
II chantera, 
On chantera, 
Kooa chantcronB, 
Voua cbanterez, 

I shall or will sing 
he will sing 
one will sing 
we shall sing 
you will sing 
they will sing 

J'aarai chant6, 
Ta aaras cliant6, 
II aara chant6, 
On aora chanU, 
Nona aarons chant6, 
Vona aorez chant6, 
Ub aoront chants, 










Je chanteraiB, 
Tu chanteraiB, 
n chanterait, 
On chanterait, 
Nona chanterioDB, 
VooB chanteries, 
Da chanteralent^ 

shauldf wovldsing 

thou shouldesl sing 

he should sing 

one should sing 

we would sing 




J'aoralB chantd, Ishould^ 

Ta aoraifl chant6, thou wouldest I 
II aarait chant6, he would | 

On aarait chant6, o-ne would 
Nona aarionB chants, tw imicM 
VooB aariez chant6, vou would 
Da aanient chants, they would 




by Google 

mS0UI.AB TSBBt*— §48, 

Junnxim Mods, 

Qn'il chante, 
Qa'on chanto, 
Qa'ils chantont, 

SuujuMcrivji Modi. 


let U9 sing 
let i^iem sing 

Qae Je chmnte, that Ima/ysing 

Que ta chantes, iluA ikim mayest sing 

Qn'il diante, that he nunf sing 

Qa'oQ chante, that ow may sing 
Qae noiiB chantioiis, that we may sing 

Que TOQS chantieB, that you may sing 

Qu'Ub chantent, that they may sing 


Que je chantaase) that I might sing 
Que tu chantaaies, that thou mightest 

Qu*il chanUt, that he might sing 
Qu*on chantttv that one might sing 
Que nous cbantaadoDS, that we might 

Que Tous dumtaMJea, that you might 

Qn'ils chantaflsent) that they might 



Que J'aie cbantt, that t may 
Que tu aies chants, that thcu 

Qu'U ait chant6, that he may 
Qu'on ait chant6, that one may 
Que nous ayons cliant6, that we 

Que vous ayes chants, that you 

Qu'ila aient chant6, that they may 


,Que J'eusse chant6, that I might' 
Que tu euBses chant6, that thou 

Qu'il eAt chants, (hathemijght 
Qu'on e At chant6, that one might 
Que nouB euaaioiiB chantt, Sukt 

we might 
Que TouB euBdes chant6, that 

you might 
Qa'ils eussent chanti, that they 



IllFllliTlVK MODX. 




to stng I Avoir chant6, 



smgvng I Ayant ebasM, hkvimg 




by Google 

•M raoutiAm tim»fl.^| M 


OF TBS First Conjuoatioh. 

(I.) In Torbs ending in ger^ in order to retain thf soft pronnnoifr 

tlon of the g^* the e of the infinitive is preserved, whenever the g 

wonid eome before a, or o .* 

Nous msngeoDS, v^mit instead ef nmuwumfonsi 
Je Bumymi, I did eat; ** jemangan 

Ji^eenft, pulgtngt fugmO. 

(9.) In verbs ending in yer, the y ischanged into t, before «, ss^enlf 

and s (fio( oocenteflOt followed by r, and one or more vowels : 

Jepaie, /fay; instead of J*P^s 

nseiaaient, thejitfy; *' Usessofm^f 

Jepaiesai, JwOlpofi " jepm^feroL < 

(8.) In verbs terminating in cer^j to preserve to the e its soft pfo> 

onneiationt a cedilla (() is put under it, wben it comes before a or o .* 

(jommen^ani, conuMficfii^ $ tnstead of omMi^iMMil / 
NouspU^ODs, veplactf " nouspiacons, 

(4.) In verbs ending in eter and efer, the < or Z of the infinitive is 
doubled, when it comes before e^es^ent and e (not acceraei)^ followed 
by r, and one or more vowels : 

J*appeUe, /oifl; Instead of favpdt; 

Jejetterai, Iwatkrowf « Jejeteraii 

J'appellerais, IvxniUcaUs " fappdtrtd*. 

{fi,) The following veibs form exceptions to the last rule : 

Acheter, to kwft 

Boumler, to torment ; 

Coqgelsr, to'ttngmi; 

CoUeter, to collar ; 

Coqneier, to coquets 

D6oeler, todeteetg 

I>6geler, to tJUno, 

Decolleter, ioMmemmriketkeoJt 
Etiqueter, to tkket; 

Geler, tofimxo $ 

Haroeler, to teaze ; 

Peler, to pod ( 

Soraebster, toomrhitf. 

In the above verbs, when the t or Zeomes before e,es^ eitf,or • (ser 
steetitel) followed by r and one or more vowels, a grave aeeent Q} 
Is pnt over the e, which precedes the t or Z: 

Jepile, Ipedf Jepilerai, JwiUmdi 

J*acheto, J buy: J'acheterai, ImriUtrnf. 

(6.) A grave accent is also used in verbs ending in 

ener, ever s 

• See L. 8, 0. 

t This rule applies also to ^ and « in veibs of the thhd 
esdliv in noir^ Je re^ois, irteeioe,' J*aper90is, iporodu. 


by Google 

MMmVUAn VB«Sft.«*-S Ml 


md Ibe aovteMeent of tbe infinitive of thoM ondiqgiB 

loer, £gler, 61er, irer, 

ikhvtT, 6^er, 6m«r, 6ter, 

6cheri ^grer, 6ner, 4trer, 

Mor, ^er, 6qaer, 

% ehanged into a grave one, when the eonsonant following the fini 

• of these terminationB, comes hefore c, es, erU^ and e (not aecenUd) 

followed by r and one or more vowels : 

Je seme, / sow ; Je m&ne, / lemA / 

Je c61dbrerai, IwiUodAraU; Urftgnera, kivriUreign. 

(7.) In the tables of peculiar, irregnhur, defective, and nnipersonal 
verbs, we will place a model verb of each class embraced in the pre- 
ceding remarks, and also indade in the same table the names of the 
principal verba coming under these remarks, with referenees to the 

§ 50.- Reoulab Vkbbbw— CoNTnnrxD. 


* Irdicativb Mode. * 


Past iicnBFijfiTS. 










VoQs iinissei, 




Tu as fini, 


On a find, 

Nous avoDs fini, 





he kat finished 

one hasjmished 

we havejimshed 

you have JhUshed 

they hitveJMMhed 


Je finissiUs, IwatfoUOing, or used 

Tu flnisaais, than waafaiisking 
n flniisait, he was finishing 

On flnisBait, (me was finishing 

Kous flnissions, we were finishing 
Vous finisttes, fou werefinishiaig 
lb ibOssalent, they were finishing 



J'avaisfinI, IhadfieUshed 

Tu avais fini, thetL hadst finished 

n avait fini, he had finished 

On avait fiiU, one had finished 

Nous avioDB fini, we had finished 

Vous aviea fini, tfou had finished 

lis avaient fini, iheyhadfimOed 

FAST &2«TEaiOR. 

thMdidd finish 


me did finish 





J'ens fini, 
Nous e^Unes fini, 
Vous efites fini, 
lis < 


i\eu hadst finished 


ent had finished 

they hsulfinitked 


by Google 

ftaoVLAB TKRBt.-*-§M> 








Nous flmrons, 

Tons floirai, 


hi vnU finish 
one wiU finish 
we shall finish 
jfouvriU finish 
they wiU finish 


«raanu flzii, / shaU hazt 

Tu aana &d, iho% vnU kave 

n aura flni, he shall have 

On aura fini, one will kave 

Nous auroiis thii, we shaU have 

YoQS aures flni, you wQl have 

lis anront flni, they shall have^ 





On flnindt, 
Nons fintrions, 
Voos flniries, 
IIa flniraient^ 

I would finish 

thou shouldst finish 

he would finish 

one might finish 

we wmdd finish 

voumigki finish 

they shcntld finish 

J'aarata fini, 
Tu anrais fini, 
n anraH fini, 
On aarait flnl, 
Nona anrions flni, 
Vona anriez fini, 
Da auT'iient fini, 

J should 


he might 

one shmUd 

we would 

ffflu might 

(key shmdd 

Ihpxeativb Mode. 


Qa*!l finisse, 
Qa'on finisse, 
Qn'ils flnissent, 

finish thou 
lot him finish 
let us finish 
finish ye OF yo¥ 
let thorn fini^ 

SuBJTTNcnvE Mode. 

Qoe je finisse, that tmay 

Que tu finisse^, thai thou mayest 
QqII finisse, that he may 

Qu'on finisse, that one may 

Que noos fin issions, that we may 
Que Yous flnissiez, tAot you may 
Qa'ils finiasent, thai they may) 


Qae je finisse, that I might^ 

Quetu finiases, that thou migMest 

Qa'il flnit, that he migU 

Qo'oQ finit, that one mi^ht 

Qoe nons finissions. that we might 

Que Tons flnissiez, that you might 

Qa'Ui finiswBt. that they ft ,gUj 


One J'aie fini, that 1 may') 

Qne tn aiea flnl, that thou maytst | '\ 
Qu'il ait fini, that he may 1 

Qn*on ait fini, that one may W 
Qae nous ayons fini, that we may j 
Qae voos ayez fini, that wm may I j 
Qu*i]a aient fini, that they may) 


Que j'ensse fini, that I mioht 
Qae tu eusaes fini, that thou 

Qn'il eAi fini, (hat he mi^ht 
Qa'on eiit fini, that one might \ » 
Qae nons ensBiora fir I, that we i ^ 

Qae Tons eoasiez fini, that you 

Qn'ils Cfosseut flni,Ma< they mighty 


by Google 


toueiTivB Modi. 







Past ok Passite. 

§ 51. — ^RsauLAR Verbs. — Co n t im u kd . 



Indicative Mode. 



Nous reoeroBS, 
Voiu reoeTes, 
lb re^irent^ 



he Ttctwts 

one Ttotvoes 

you receive 
ikejf receive 

J'ai re^u, 
II a refa, 
On are^a, 
Nous aYoos re^ a, 
Voiu ares re^ii, 
Hb oDt re^ a, . 

I h&o€ received 

tkoH had received 

he hat received 

one hat received 

we have received 

yon have received 

they have received 


Nom reoerfoM, 
Vous receviex, 
k receyaientj 

was receivingt or / 

need to receive 


he was receiving 

one was receiving 

we wete receiving 

yon were receiving 

they were receiving 



Xayak refa, I had received^ 

Ta arais re^n, thou hadtt received 
n avait n^% he had received 
On avait ro9ii, one had received 
Noos avionfl re^UtWe hadtvceived 
Voufl ayi«z re^n, you had received 
Ub BTaient re9ii, Aey had received 


Tn ro9iiB, 
On re^ot, 

Voas re^Atea. 
tb re^uient, 

1 recctved or did receive 

thou receivedtt] 

he received] 


we received i 

received i 



J'ens refill 
II ent re^o, 
On eat re^u, 
Nous eilmea re^n, 
Voos eiltes re^n, 
lis enrent re^u, 

I had received 

thou hadsi received 

he had received 

one had received 

we had received 

yon had received 

ihty hiul received 

•8oeiioCetM9>(8.) Abo,ififi. 


by Google 






Nods receTroDS, 
Yoos reoeTres, 

tk^u wiU nceioe 
ke MkaU receive 
ome wiU reeefoe 
feu vriU recevoe 


J'aiml re9ii, / skaU km^e 

Ta aoTM re^Q, tkmwiUkaoe 
Ilaiirare^a, iawiUkave 

On anra re9ii, ene wiU have 
Nona auroDS re^n^ we skaU hene 
Yoiu anres re^n, «9« wiU hone 

Conditional Modb. 



Jereoemis, /U^vZiireeave 
Ta reoeyrmifl, thm wnUdst receive 

n reoevrait, he skovU receive 

Od reoeTialt, m^ iii^il4 fveeiw 
Nona receTiioDS, you shmM receive 

Vous noeTriez, ifo« «t^A< raomw 

Ik reoeTFaient, uiey ihaidd receive 

J'anrais 1690, / tkmM 

Ta auraifl re^ii, 

n anrait refU, 

On anrait re^n, 

Nona anrions re^ii, 

VoQS anriex re^o, mm wiigkt 

lis auraient re^a, (key shmUd 


iBfPSRATivE Mode. 

Qn'il re^oire, 
Qa'on re^oiTe, 
Qn'ilB refoivent, 

receive tkau 
lei him receive 
lei one receive 

receive ye or you 
let f^ 



Qne je re^oira, that J may' 

Que ta rofolTes, that thott mayest 
Qa*il refolTB, that he may 

Qa*on resolve, that one may 
Qae nous recerioM, that we may 

Qne Tons reoeyies, that you may 
Qa'Us re90iTent, that they may 


Qne Je rt^vaut, that I might 
Qna ta ro9aflBe8, thai thou 

Qall re9ilt, that ke might 

Qa'on Te9At, that tne m^ht 
Qae noos refasidona, thai we 

Qne Toas re9afl8ie8, that you 

Qn'i]sre9nMentk thattheymigkt 

Qne J'aie re9a, that 1 may 

Qne tn aies re9a, that thou mayest 
Qn'U ait Te9a, that ke miy 

Qa'on ait re9a, that one may 
Qne noos ayoDS re9n, that we 

Qne Tons ayes 1690, that mm may 
Qu'ils aient re9a, that ihey may 


Qne J'ensse 1090, that I mi^ht" 
Qne tn ensses Te^% that tkeu 

Qn'fl eAt re9n, that he m^ht 
Qn'on eAi re9a, that one might 
Qae noas ensBions re9a, that we 

Qne Toos eosidez 1090, that you 

Qails eoMent ra9«, O^tkay 



by Google 

BS««»A« TSBBI/-! '81,M. 








Hy Atfw fwcrind 


rin OE TAmm. 

§ 62. — Remarks. 
(1.) In tbe iFerbs of this eonjagation, ending with cevoir, in oite to 
preserve to thee its soft pronunciation, a cedilla (() is pnt nnder it| 
when it oomes before a> <h « : — 

Jere^ois, Jrtetivtg J'^terpois, Iftralm, 

(2.) There are only seven regular verbs in this conjugation. Tboy 








to receives 







§ 5B. — ^RbGULAB yBEBS.-r-OoNnNUXD. 



Ihdicativb Modb. 

Je vends, 
Tu vends, 
II vend, 
On vena, 
Nous vendons, 
Vons vondei, 







Je vendais, Jvmu mUingf or used to 

J'al vendn, 
Tu as venan, 
II a vendn, 
On a vendn, 
Nona avons vendn, 
Vons aves vendn. 
Us ont vendn, 




one has told 

foe hdive»ld 



Tn vendais, 
Kons vendioDS, 
Tons vendlex, 

thou wast setting 



wewere sdUng 

ffon were setting 

thoff were setting 


Jfavais vendn, J had foU or Ami «B- 

Tu avals vendn, thm hadst sold 

n avait vendn, kt had sold 

On avait vendn, one had sold 

Nona avions vends, we had sold 

Vons avies veodn, yev had sold 

Ds avaient vendn, i^fhadssld 


by Google 

tit BBftVLAB ▼ 
sniPLB 1SN8B8. 






J'enftyendn, Ihad$oU 
Taeasyendii, thaukmdtiiM 





neatyendn, hekadtoid 



On ent yendo, imehadtM 

Nous TendtiiieB, we toid 

Nous eAmes yendn, we had told 

Yons yendltos, 


Yous e^tes yendu, fou had sold 

Ds Tendireni, 


Useurentyeudu, ikefkadeoid 




J'aurai yendu, / tkaU have told 



Tuaunsyendu, thou wiU have toU 



n aura yendu, ke tkail have sold 



On aura yendu, ^ne wiU have told 

Koos yendrons, 


Nous auroDs yendu, we shaU have sM 

YoQs yeudrei, 


Yous aurez yendu, ytm wiU have told 

I]8 y«iidroirt» 


DsauTont yendu, iheythaUhaoetoU 

CoNDincnrAL Mode. 




J'aunis yendu, Ish4mU^ 
Tu aurais yendu, thouwoMett 





11 aurait vendu, he might 




On aurait yendu, one thmUd 

Nona yendrioDB, weskfiuldseUl 

Nous aurlons yendu, wethould 

y OQS yendrioi, 


Yous auriea yendu, wmthovid 
Us auraient yendu, theythould^ 

Imfebatzvb Mods. 

Vends, satktm 

Qa'flyende, IHkimsdl 

<hi'oay«ide, letaneseU 

Yendons, ktusseU 

Yendes, seUyeotf^ 

Qa'ils yendent, 




Que je yende, that I may tell 

Que tuyendes, that thou mayett teU 

Qa'n yende, tMat he may teU 

Qu'on yende, that one may tell 

One Bona yeadionB, tkatwemaytea 

QneToosyendlei, that you may teU 

Qu'ilsyeiidMil, that they may tdt 

Que J'aie yendu, that I may 
Que tu ales yendu^ that ikou 

Qn'il ait yendn, that he may 
Qu'on ait yendu, that one may 
Que nousayoDS yendu, that we 

Que youa aywr yendu, that yon 

Qu'itaaientyeDdii, thatiheymay 



by Google 

FAvmvB VB&as. — §54. 




Que Je Tewliflse, tkai J might seU 
(hie in vendlflses, that tkou niightest 

Qa*U Tendit, tJuU he might seU 

Qu'oD yendit, that you might sell 
Que DoaB TendiasioDs, thai we might 

Que vooB Tendiasiez, Ma^ fou might 

Qu'ils Tendiflsent^ (A«< they might $01 


Quej'eusseyenda, thatJm<gkr 
Que til eusses yendn, that tAou 

Qu'Q eAt rendu, that he might 
Qu'on eiltrenda, that one might 
Que nous enssions yendn, &at 

we might 
Que TOUB eussiez yendu, Mot 

Qu'ilfl eiusent yenda, that they 



Imfuhtivk Mods. 




ta um I Ayoir ypndo, 


»Miig I Ayant yendu, havmgMt 


Venda, seltd 

§ 54. — Conjugation of a Passivk Vxrb« 


In>CAnyE Mode. 


Je lois ftim^y m. aSiii6e,/. 

Ta 66 aiiii6 ^almte, 


Elle est aimte, 

On est aim6, 

Nona flommes aimte ^ aim^es, 

Yens Ates aim^ or aim6ea, 

Us sont aimda, m, 


he is loved 
one is loved 
you are loved 
they are loved 


T^ttM 9\m6y m. alm^e,/. 
Tn 6ta[8 aim6 or aim6e, 
n «toit aim6, 
Elle 6tait aixute, 
On 6tait aim6, 

Kons 6tioD8 aimte or almto, 
Votu 6tieE aim6a or aimAeti 
Ua «taieni ainiAa, m. 
Bites Ataientaimta,/. 

/ tooj lovedf was heifuf loved 
thou wast loted, wast being loved 
he was loved, was being &ed 
she was loved, was beinf loved 
one was loved, was being loved 
we were loved, were being loved 
you were loved, were be&g loved 
they were lovedf were being hvsd 
they were loved, were being loved 


by Google 


VASatlTB TSBlfl.— I 54» 


Ta All aimft ^r aiiato, 

11 tat aim4, 

Bite Alt aini4e, 

On fht alm6, 

KooB f&mes aimta «r ainiiei^ 

Voiu f&tes aimte ^ 

Us furent aimtfs, m. 


Om least lM«tf 


one was html 
tkiy toere Icved 
they wert loved 


J*ai M aims 4fr 9hn€e, 

Tn as 6t6 aim6 <w aim4a, 

U a 6t6 aimd, 

Bile a 6t6 aimfie, 

Od a 6t£ aim6, 

Nou8 ayoDs ^U aim&i ^ aim6e8, 

VoQS arez 6t6 aimte 4fr aimftes, 

lis ont 6t6 aimia, m. 

Biles ont 6t6 aim^es, /. 

I hofoebcm uvid 
thou hast been hvU 
he has 6em loved 
she has been loved 
one has been loved 
roe have been loved 
you have been loved 
they have been loved 
they have been loved 


J'eos 6t6 aim6, m. aimto,/. 
Tu ens 6t6 aim6 ^r aim^e, 
n eat 6t6 aim6, 
Bile ent 6t6 aim6e, 
On ent 6t6 aimd, 

Nous e^mes €t6 aimte i^ aim6ea, 
Yous e^tes 6t6 aim68 or aim^es, 
lis enrent iU aim6s, m. 
BUes eorent 6U aim^/. 

I had been loved 
thou hadst been lovtd 
he had been loved 
she had been loved 
one had been loved 
toe had been loved 
you had been loved 
they had been loved 
they had been loved 


J'avids 6tb a{m6 or aim6e, 
Tn avals 6t6 aim6 or aimie, 
n avait 6t6 airo6, 
Bile avail 6t« aim6e, 
On avait €tb aim6, 
Nons avions 6t6 almte or aim6ea, 
Vons aviez <t6 aimte or alm^es, 
lis avaient 6te aim^s, m. 
BUes avaient 6t6 aimftes,/. 

I had been loved 
thou hadst been loved 
he had been loved 
she had been loved 
one had been loved 
we had been loved 
you had been hved 
they had been laved 
they had been loved 


Je serai dmi, m. aimAe,/. 
Tn seras aim6 or aimi6e, 
D sera aim<, 
Bile sera aim j^ 

Nous serons aimte or aimtes, 
Vons seres aimte or aimftea, 
tb seront aimte, m, 
BUes seront aiaate^ f. 

J shall or Vfill be loved 
thou shaU or wiUb4lovi 
he shall or will be loved 
she shaU OTwill be loved 
on£ shall or wiU be loved 
we shall or win be loved 
youshall OP will be loved 
they shaU or wiU be loved 
they shall or wiU be hved 


by Google 

^AttlTB TBBBS^ 54. 


J'anni M tam6, «i. aimte, /. 
Ta auras 6t6 aim6 m' alinia, 
n aura 6^ aimd, 
EUe aara €t6 aimte, 
On aura 6U aim6, 
Nona aaroDS 6t6 aim&i or aimSaa, 
YouB aores 6tA aim&i #r aimtea, 
Us auTont 6t6 aimte, », 
Ellei annmt «t6 aimte,/. 

/sAafl, wiU kane 6$en hoed 
tkou thaU, io(U Move been iotmi 
he shall, will kave been lovsd 
she shall, will have been l4ned 
ow shall, wUlhave been loved 
we shall, wiU have been loved 
yon shall, will have been loved 
they shaU,wmhmfe been loved 
tkey shall, wiU have been loved 


Je serais aim^, m; aimte,/. 
Tn serais aim6 or nlmlo, 
U serait aim6, 
EUe serait aimfie, 
On serait aimA, 
Nous serious almte or axmivB, 
Vons series aimte or aimtes, 
Us seraient aim6s, m. 
Slles seraient aim6es,/. 


/ should, would, could, might he 
thou shouldst, amidst, mig&est be 
he would or might be loved 
she might be loved 
one could be loved 
we should or would be loved 
you would or might be loved 
theymight or should be loved 
they vSght,could, should be loved 

J'aurais M aim^ m, aim^, /. 
Tu aurais 6t6 aiai6 or almte, 
n anrait 6t6 aim6, 
On aurait 6t6 aim6, 

Nous aurioDs <U aimte or ( 

Vous auries 6t6 aini6s or aim6ea, 
lis auraient 6t6 aimte^ m. 
EUes auraient 6U almtes,/. 


/ should, would have been loved 

thou wouldst have been loved 

he would have been loved 

she would have been loved 

one wouldhave been loved 

wemight have been loved 

yon would have been loved 

they might have been loved 

they should m might have been kwd 

Sois aim^, m. aim6e,/. 
Qu'il soit aim6, 
Qn'on soit aim6, 
Boyons aimte or aimfes, 
Soyez aimte or aim^es, 
Qu'lls soient aimte, m, 
Qu'elles soient aimies,/. 

Ibfbsatitb Modb. 

let her be loved 
let one beloved 
be ye or you loved 
let them U loved 

SuBJURcnvB Modb. 

Que Je sois tAm%, m. afmte,/. 

Que tu sois aim6 or aimte, 

Qu'il >oit aim6, 

Qn'elle soit aim6e, 

Qn'on soit aimi, 

Que nous soyons aimte or aliii6es, 

Que reus soyes aimis ^raimiSei, 

Qu'ils soieni aiiB6s, 

Qu'elles sotet aimiet, 


that I may be loved 
that thou mtwest be loved 
that he mayoe loved 
that she maybe loved 
that one may be loved 
that we may be loved 
that yon may be loved 
that they may be loved 
that they may he loved 

1** Digitized by Google 


Qa6jeftu8Qaiii6,«i.«liii6e,/ • thai J miglU i€ yo§i 
<iue tQ Auset alm6 or aimte, that thou migJUn^ it yo§d 

Qu'il mt aim6, thai ke migkl be lomd 

'Qa'eUemtaim6e, iJUU ske migkt bi immt 

Qu'on fit aim6, tkaiomtw^^U be loved 

Que nouB fturioos aimte ^r aimtes, UuU we migJU beUmd 
Qae YODs ftmiei aimte 0r aimies, tkai you migU beUved 
Qu'ils fVufleni aimte, m. thai they n^JU be hmi 

Qu'eUes fViasent almteB,/. <Vit ^ m^A< fo hved 

Qae J'aie «tf aim6, m. aimto,/. <Aa< Inunyhave been laved 

Qa9 tu aies 6t6 a!m6 or mlm6e, <Aa< <4<mifiayeitAatw d«n» loved 

QaH Ait 6t6 aim6, thai ko may have been loved 

Qa*eUe ait 6t6 aini6e, tkat ske may ham been loved 

Qa'oa ait 6t6 aim6, tkaione may have been loved 

Qaenons ayoos 6t6 aimte ^raimtes, thai we may have been loved 

Qae TOTU ayez 6t6 aimbaor aimtfes, <*a< y^u may have been loved 

Qu'ilfl aient 6tb almis, m. that they may have been loved 

Qu'elles aient 6t6 aim^es,/. i&<i^ M«y may have been loved 


Que yenaae 6ib aim6, m. alm6e, /. that I might have been loved 

Que tu eusses 6t6 aiin6 or ailnto, Ma< thou mightest have been 

Qu'il eilt €16 aimd, <Aa< Ae vtight have been lomd 

Qu'elle e^t 6t6 aiin6e; M^ sA« nSght have been loved 

Qu'on eilt 6t6 aim6, iAot one might have been loved 

Que nous euBsions €iA vSmU or that we might have been loved 


Que TouB euasies M alm60 or that yeumi^ have been lemd 


Qu'ilfl eussent 6t6 aim68, CAo/ <A«y mi^AI have been loved 

Qu'eDes enseeiit 6t6 aimtes, that they might hme been loved 


fitre aim6, m, a{m6a, /. to be loved 



lEtant aini«, m, aimte, /. beinig loved 


Ayant6t6aim<,m.aiin6e,/. hmring been loved 

AToir 6U aiai6, «. aimte,/. t^ ik«MlMi» JpMtf 

§ 65-— RuLK.^ 

Hiere is only one eonjngation for paaaive verbs. It is foimed o/ 
the anziliaiy l(fv in all its tenses, simple and eonqioiind, and tiM pa» 
tisiple paat of the active verb wtuch we wish to eonjogate in the pa* 
iiTevoiee. Seei48,(4.) 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

S 56. — CoNnroATioN of Rbflkotivb Verbs [§ 48, (6.)]. 


iMDiCATiyx Mode. 

/e me flftUe, liUaUr JMfsdf 

Tuteflftttes, thm fiaUemt tk^sdf 

Oseflatte, ke JUUters Mnueif 

On 86 flatte, ow Matters UmaAf or mm's jh^ 

Nous nous flattons, vxfiatter owrsdves 

Vous Tons flattei, fouJUUter yowrulves 

lis 86 flattent^ iheyfiaUer ihemktoes 


J6 me flattais, JvasJUttiering or lue^l toJltUef «|Pi 


Tu te flattais, Mw toast flaUering ik^sdf 

II 86 flattait, A« v)m JUUterin^ himself 

On 86 flattait, one was JUUtering one's tdf^ JUwuAf 

Nous nous flattionB, toe toerefiatiering ourselves 

VotBs Tons flatties, fou were /ottering fourselves 

lis 86 flattalent, they vereJUUtering themtselves 


J6 me flattal, IfiaUered or didJUsUer mga^ 

Tn te flattas, thou didst flaUer tlofsdf 

II se flatta, hejlattered himself 

On 86 flatta, onefiaUered one's sOf, kimmif 

Nona nons flattAmes, wejlaUered ourselves 

Yons T008 flattttes, you flattered yourselves 

lis 86 flattdrent, they flattered tkemsslves 


Je me sals flatt6, m. flatt6e, /. I have flattered myself 

Tu t'es flatta or flattie, thou hast flattered thyself 

II s'est flatt6, he has flattered himself 

Elle s'est flatta, she has flattered herself 

On s'est flatt6, one has flattered himself or mm*! st^ 

Nous nous sommes flatt6s or flatt6es, we have flattered oursetoes 

Vous Tous Ates flatt68 or flatties, you have flattered yowrsdves 

Us 86 sont flattto, m. they have flattered themselves 

Elles 86 sont flattdes,/. they have flattered themselves 


Je me fus flatU, m. flattie, /. I had flattered myself 

Tu te ftas flatt6 or flatt6e, thou hadst flattered thysdf 

n 86 Alt flatta, he had flattered himsOf 

Slle 86 fht fiattde, she had flattered hersdf 

Onseftitflattf, one had flattered himself, oti^Sitff 
Nous Doos fames flattte or flatties, we had flattered oursetoes 

Tons vous Mtes flattis 0f flatties, you had flattered yourselves 

Bssefarentflattis, m. they had flattered themmttet 


by Google 




Tn t'«tai8 flatU «r llattfe, 


sue 8'6tait flattfe, 

On B'itait flatU, 

Koufl DOQt 6ti<MM ilattte m* fiatttet, 

Vovs Tons 6tie2 flaKto or flattAei, 

lis 8*«taient flattto, m. 

EUes ■'6taie&t flatttet,/. 


one kadfiaUend Mms^, 9mit fflf 

<w kadfiaUered o u r mk f n 

ftu had jUUUftd yowndnu 


ihey hadfiaUertd tkenudva 


Je me fUttenu, 
Tate flatterai, 
Uee flatten, 
On le flattera, 
NofiB HODS flatterans, 
Yons TonB flattereXi 
Df M flatteront, 

thou shaU or wiUJUtUer fiftOf 
one wULJUaUr klM»df, tmift wiii 


fou wiUJUUter fonnelveg 

they wUlJlaiter tkiwudves 


Je me terai flatt6, m. flattie,/. J thaU have JUttend mfgtdi 

Ttt te aeras flatlA or flattie, Tlum wiU haoeJlaUemd tknOf . 

Il8eeeraflatt6, • HewUlhavejUueredkivubf 

Slle se sera flattie, Ske wiU haveJlaUereAene^ 

Oo se sera fiattA, One wiU havefiaUered kimMf 

Nous Doos serous flatt6s or flatt^ea, We vriU haveJUutered ounehes 

Vous Tons serez flattte or flatties, You will havefiaUered yowrsdves 

Us se seroiit flattte, m. They will haoe fieOUmd tkemaOveB 

SUeaseseront flatties,/ They vriU have fiaUend (km$ebm 

GoimmoHAL Mods. 

Je me flatterais, 

Tn te flatterais, 
II se flatterait, 
On se flatteralt, 
Nous nous flatterions, 
Vona Tons flatteries, 
Us seflatteraient» 

J should, would, cmOd, mighi fioMm 

he would flaUerhims^^ 
one would fialier htmkfj em/it wCf 
we would Aaiterouirsdipet 
youwoulifiaUer y o m rmhu 
they would fiaiterthemtelva 

Je me serais flatti, m. flattie,/. 

Ta te serais flatti or flattie, 
n se serait flatti, 
XUe se serait flattie, 
On se serait flatti, 
jTons nons serioDs flattis or 
VoQs Tons series flattis or 
Us se seralent flattie, m, 
"^les se seraieal flattiea,/ 

/ should, would, could, mighi km 

thou wouldsl hanefiaUered tkyee^ 
he would havefiaUered kimsd/ 
the would havefiaUered hersdf 
one would havefiaUeretl em£e je{f 
we wight havefiaUermt ourmbm 
you would have fiatteredyountbm 
they would havefiattermt i' 
they wouU have fioMerHi 


by Google 




Qu'il se tette, 
Qn'oD te flfttte, 

Jf fff fur t\mdf 
JolUmJuSr kmtdf 
let ont fatter on^s ttlf, 
let us fatter aunOoes 
JIatter ftmrtdves 
let them /otter tMemtekm 



Qne Je me flatte, 
Que in te flattee, 
Qa*n se flatte, 
Qa'on se flatte, 
Qne Dons nous flattlooi, 
Que Toos Tons flattlei, 
Qu'ils se flattent^ 


Qae ta te flattasses, 

Qn'il se flatUt, 

Qa'on se flatUt, 

Que nous ikDus flattassionS) 

Qne Yons yous fiattassiez, 

Qa'ils se flattassent, 

that JmofJUater w§M 
that one majfifatterkimeaf 
that we mayjtatier oiurMlvet 
that you may JIatter fourstha 
that they mayJUUter themtelmi 


that Imight Matter nmmU 
that he might flatter hime^^ 
that one might flatter kimedf 
that we might flatter oursdvei 
that you nught flatter yowrsOoei 
that they mtght flatter themsehet 

Qne Je me sois flattf , m. flattte,/. 

Qde tu te sots flatU or fiattAe, 

Quil se soft flatt6, 

Qu'elle se soit flattie, 

Qu'on se soit flattd, 

Que nous nous soyons flatt6s of 

Que vous YOUS soyez flattte or 

Qu'ils se soient flattte, m, 
Qu'eUes se soient flatttes,/. 

that thou mayat have flattered tkym^ 
that he may have flattered himsdf 
that she may have fluttered hanif 
that one may have flattered himself 
that we may have flattered ourselves 

that you may have flattered your$dve$ 

that they may have flattered themselves 
that they may have flattered themsdves 


Quo Je me fhsse flatt6, m. flatt6e,/. 
Que tn te fhsses flattA or flattto, 

Qu'il se mt flatt«, 

Qu*elle se fdt flattie, 

Qu'on 86 mt flatti, 

Que nous nous fbssions flattte or 

Que vous vous Aissiea flatt6s or 

Qn'Us se fliMent flattte, m. 

fK'ailaa •• Atssent ilattta,/. 

that I might have flattered m^ndj 
that thou mightest have flatted thy 

that he might have flattered himsdf 
that she might have flattered hersAf 
that one might have flattered himself 
that we might have flattered ourstlvsi 

that you might have flattered youe^ 

selves , 

that theymight Wot Uttend them 

tktU they night Ams fluttered IAsm- 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



iRTXBiriTB Mode. 


8e flatter, topObw tme's self | S'Atre flfttt6, ^0 haveflaUend ^n^s «i{f 



feflattoiit, JUUtmng one's sdf\ ^'h\Kki^Bl^,kamMgJUaUnd<meitai 


FlAttf, m. flAtt6e,/. flattto, m. ji.flaUdea,/. jr. faUered 

§ 67. — ^Negative Form of the Reflective Verb. 


IivDiCATiVE Mode. 


Je ne me flatte pas, 
Tu ne te flattes pas, 
n ne ae flatte pas, 
On ne se flatte pas, 
Nous ne nona flattens pas, 
Vons ne Tons flattes pas, 
Ss ne ae flattent pas, 
Ac dec 

/ do not /oiler myself 
thou dost noifiaJUer thyself 
he does not flatter himadf 
one does notfiaUer himself 
tew do notfUUter ourselves 
fou do not/Uuter yowr selves 
they do notfiaUer themselves 

We will add a compoand tense and the imperative conjugated ta 
this form. 


Je ne me ania paa flatte, m. flatt6e,/. 

Tn ne t'ea paa flatt6 or flatt6e, 

U ne a'eat paa flatt6, 

Xlle ne a'est paa flattie. 

On ne a'eat paa flatt6, 

Nona ne noos aonmiea pas flattte 

or flattiea, 
Vons ne vooa Atea paa flattda or 

Cla ne ae aont paa flatt6a, m. 
fines ne ae aont paa flatties,/. 
Ac dui. 

I have notJUatered myself 
thou hast not flattered thysdf 
he has not flattered kimskf 
she has not flattered hersdf 
one has not flattered himse^ 
we have not flattered oursdves 

you have not flattered yourselves 

they have not flaUeredthemsOves 

they have not flattered themsOvet 

4^. ^. 

Imperative Mode. 

Ve te flatte pas, 
Qu'il ne ae flatte pas, 
Qa'on ne se flatte paa, 
Ne nooa flattona paa, 
Ne Yooa flattez pas, 
Qu'ila ne ae flattent pas. 

do not flatter thysdf 

let him not flatter himself 

let one not flatter himsdf 

let us not flatter ourselves 

do notfljUter yoursehes 

let them notflitier themtOm 


by Google 




Ihdicativs Mode. 


M« Ilatt6-je1 tr* est-ce-que Je me do IJlaUer myself? 


Te flatfces-tn 1 doU ikouJlaUer thyself 

Beflatte-t-Uit does he faUer hxiMaf? 

Se flatte-t-on 1 does oneJUUter Jdnuelf? 

Nous flattoDfr-noiu 'i do vfcJUUIer omrsdves? 

Tons flattez-voQB 1 dofou flaUer ymnelves f 

8e iUttent-ils 1 dotheyfiaUerthtmadoesl 
dtc. Ac 4^, ^. 


Me Bni8-1e flatU, m, flattte 1/ 

T'es-tu flatt6 or flattte ? 

S'est-il flatt6 ? 

S'eat-elle flatt6e 1 

S'est-on flatte 1 

Nous sommes-noiiB flatt68 or flat- 


YooB Atea-Toos fiattte or flatUea 1 
8e sont-ils flattds 1 m. 
8« sont-ellea flatties 1 /. 

have IfiaUered mysdf? 
host thmtfiaUered thyseU7 
has heJUUtered kmself? 
has skefiaUered herself? 
has cnefiaUered himself 9 
have vfefiaUered owrseives 7 

have youflatUred yourselves? 
have UieyfiaUertd themselves 7 
have they JlaUered themselves 7 
i^, 4<. 



iMDicATiyE Mode. * 


Ne me flatt6-Je pas 1 Eilroe qneje do IwAfiaUermysdf? 
De me flatte pas 1 

Ne te flattes-ta pas 1 
Ne se flatte-t-on pas 1 
Ne now flattoDa-nons pas ? 
Ne vmu flattea-Tous pas 1 
Ac Ac. 

dosi thounotJlatUr tkysOf? 
does he notjCaOer himtelf? 
does one not flatter ktmself? 
dovfenotflaiter oursdves ? 
do you not flatter yourselves? 
do they not flatter themselves 7 


Ne me sais-Je pas flatte, ai. flat- have I not flattered myself 7 

Ne t'ea-ta'pas flatt6 or fiatt6e 1 

Ne s'est-U pas flatte 1 

Ne s'est-elle pas flattie 1 

Ne s'est^n pas flatte 1 

Ne nous sommea-nous pas flatt6s 

0f flatties 1 
Ne Tons itea-yooi pas flattfs or 

Ne se sont-Us pas flatttel m, 
Ne so aoBit-elles pat flatties?/. 

hast thou not flattered thys^? 
has he not flattered himsdf? 
has she not flattered herself? 
has one not flattered himself? 
have toe not flattered ourselve$7 

have you not flattered yovneivtt? 

have they notflattered themsehes? 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

^ 60. TABLE 


— . 













e, ifui5. 







1 «e,/m. 

i ^' 





8 ^'«^- 


g WW, 


te, ffUU. 










. 1 



it mas. 






g • 

^ l6,/m. 




S Plur. 

. 1 

S itfOM, 


to, ffUM. 

1 ^ 









. 1 



a, mas. 























. 1 










6 ne./m. 











by Google 






















1 erm, . 

i emit, 


fe ^ 



g erobs, 

g erions, 


a assioM, 
























b irons, 





C irioDS, 

5 isSODS, 

S issioDS. 

C iasfaHii, 
























8 teei, 

m evroDs, 

A evrait, 
S evrions, 

A. oire, 
S evoos, 

J oive, 
« enons. 


























52 ODS, 

g Of 



g FOBS, 















by Google 



(1.) Tbe tenies are ample or compoond. 

1. We call those riiiple tenses, which do not borrow one of the 
teases of the auziliariea avoir and etre, 

% We call those compound tenses, which are composed of the 
tenses of avoir and itrst uid the participle past of a verb. 

(2.) Among the simple tenses, fiye are called piimitiye, beeanst 
they serve to form the other teases. They are 

1. The present of the indicative ; 

a. The past definite ; 

3. The present of the infinitive ; 

4. The participle present; 
6. The participle past 

(3.) The other simple teases, called derived tenses, are foimed 
from the primitive. 

(4.) 1. The present of the indicative forms the imperative by sup- 
pressing the pronouns : as, je chante, chanle ; nous chantons, voua 
chantez, chanUrn^ ehantet. It will be seen that the third person of 
the singular and plural of the imperative, is properly the third per- 
soh of the singular and plural of the subjunctive, used imperatively. 

(5.) The past definite forms the imperfect of the subjunctive, by 
changing t into sse for the ficst conjugation : as, je ehantai, que j% 
ehanUusej and by addmg se for the other conjugations : as, je finis, 
qitejefimue; je refus, ^i«e>« T^u9$e ; je vendis, queje vendisie, 

(6^) The present of the infinitive forms : — 

1. The future absolute, by adding ai for the first and second con- 
jugations: as, chanter, j« ctotfenn ; finir,ye jEntrat; and by chang- 
ing oir and re into mi for the other two conjugations : as, recevoiTi 
Je recevrai ; rendre, j's rendrau 

. 3. The conditional present is by French grammariana formed from 
the future by the addition of 5 ; as, je chanterai, je ehanterens ; je 
^ni^jejinirais ; je recevrai, /e recevrais ; je vendrai, j> vendraie. 

(7.) The participle present forms : — 

1. The imperfect of the indicative by changing arU into ais : as, 
chantant, je ehantais ; finissaot, je Jlniseaie ; recevant, je recevait ; 
vendant, je vendait, 

3. Tlie present of the subjunctive by changing emt into e: w^ 
chantant, queje chante ; finissant, quejeJlnisK; vendant, queje vende. 

Exception: In verbs of the third conjugation the terminatiott 
I is changed into oive : as, recevant, gfueje recak>^ 


by Google 

Y ATOtB. — ( 61-8. 856 

(8.) This formation mut not prevent the change of y into t, ae- 
cording to Rnle (3.) } 49. 

(9.) The participle past forms all the compound tenses of Terbs 
with the aid of the auxiliaries avoir and itre : tui^foi chanti^je $uis 
mmiyfowiM ehanUffSiais aUnL 


Tkdicatiye Monx. 


Dya, iAen is i then art in ytken, then has been f tktn kmM 



Dyayait) there wu g t^ere were \ Iky unit eOf th£re had been 


flyent, there was ; there were \ B j eat wi, therehadbeen 


n y aura, there wUl be\lLj aura en, there will ham been 

CoKDinoKAL Mode. 


n y anrait^ there would fe [ II y auralt en, there wautdhavebeen 

Imfbbazive Mode. 

Qn'ilyait^ Lettherebe. 

SuBjuHCTivE Mode. 


QoHl y aft, tha there may be \ Qn'il y ait en, Ma< there may ham 



QnH y eAt, tkcU there mdght be | Qn'il y eilt en, that there migiUkaae 


Ihituhtive Mode. 


T STOir, to be there \ T aydr en, U have been «lcn 


febsbht. comfodmo. 

r iyant, there being \ Y ayant en, theie kaoing been 




by Google 



•n t 44, «u (S.) 

IteflfamplsMd ■AvflMlnfliiitfTvortlwTHtf 

n* taMM not glf«B ii 






ABATntB, 4. t» 





Amoudbb, 4. 









tu absolvals 

anx. avoir 



il abflolYait 


n. absolvons 
Y. abBolYes 
ils abeolvent 

n. absolYiom 
Y. absolviez 
i. absolvaieot 

AsmHiB («') 


Je m'absUens 



2. toabsiMH 


reC feeTENiB 

Abstrairb, 4. 

abstrait, /. e. 








acooum, / e. 







to increase 

aocrA, f, e. 

see croItbb 

also reflec. 





(0 t0e2eom« 

accaeilli,/ e. 

tee cubilub 








achet6, /. a. 


aoz. aroir 

il achate 

♦ 49, (6) 

n. achetons 


Y. achetez 
i. achAtent 








aeher^, a. 

ta ach^Yes 

avz. ardr 

U acb^Yo 

♦ 49. (6) 

n. Mchercm 


Y. achevez 
I achftvent 

AcanfiRiB, 2. 








tu acqn^rais 

ta aoqQ*B 

aux. avoir 


il acqtt6rait 

il acquit 


n. acqctdrons 

n. acqa6rioDB 

n. aoqiiimes 

Y. acqa^res 

Y. acqa6riez 


i. acquitoeiit 


ils acguiienl 

Abioindbb, 4. 







AmBITBB, 4. 









by Google 



t 48, BULB (7)«od$40, 

Mieato the ooqJoestlooBio ivlilch theyMoiv 

IhU T&ble we not used. 














ta abaoudrais 




U abaondnut 

q. abaolTe 

il abaoWe 

0. abaondrons 

n. abaoadriona 

n. abaolviona 

T. abaoDdreas 

▼. abaoudries 


T. abaolvies 

1. abaondront 


q. abaolvent 

i. abaolvent 

Je m*afaatieii. 

Je m'abaUen- 
























in ach^teras 

tn ach&teraia 




11 ach&tera 


q. achate 

il achate 


n. achAteroDB 

n. achiteriona 


n. achetioDB 

T. ach&terea 

T. achAteriez 


▼. acbetiez 

lis ach&teroat 

i. ach6teraient 

q. achitent 







ta achireraia 




U ach^Tera 

U achAverait 

q. achive 

il achftye 

n. achiTerons 

n. ach^yeriona 


n. acheyioDB 

T. ach^Teres 

V. achiveriez 


y. acheyies 

iU acbdTeront 


q. achivent 







ta aoqoerTais 


to acquidrea 

ta acqniMaa 


{] acquerrait 

q. acqniire 

il acqai^re 


IL acqaerrona 

n. aoqnerriona 


XL aoqa^rioDS 

IL acqaiaiiQiil 

n. acquerres 

T. aoqalerriez 


y. acquAries 

T. aoquiaaies 

Ua aoqueiToot 

L aoquerraient 

q. aoquttrent 

i. aoqaiArent 











by Google 


Dsnomn, PMniOAB, 





Past. IlBnro 

Allbe, 1. <0 






aU6/ 0. 

ta vas 











r. aUei 


y. alUtes 




AMENSK, 1. |0 





ibiONCBLBB, 1 

ameni /. e. 

S *». («^ 





amonceM /; e. 







to appear 

apparu /. e. 

SM paraItrb 






t9 belong 

appartenn/. e. 


Appbleb, 1. to 





anx. ayoir 




4 «, (4) 

n. appelons 


▼. appelex 
ib appellent 

Apprendrb, 4. 





<0 2ftini 

appris /. e. 


Apputbb, 1. to 






appuy6 / e. 

ta appales 

t appayais 


aax. BToir 

11 appaie 

il appuyait 


♦ *\(2) 

n. appnyons 

n. appnyions 


T. appnyez 

Y. appayies 

aBsafllant , 

lis apptdent 

i. appuyaieni 




ta assailles 





i. aasaiint 

D. assailloiiB 

n. asBaillions 

n. assaillimef 

T. aasaillez 

▼. BMailliez 

y. assailites 

il8 aasaiUent 

i. assanUdent 

i. assafflireDt 

Abseoib, 8. to 





tet something 


xe e'abseoir 

down! to weal. 

Asseoir,(b') 3. 

s'asfleyant . 

]. m'assieds 

je m'asseyaiB 

J. m'anis - 

to sUdovrn 


t. Vasrieds 

t. t'aaseyais 

t. t'assftB 

anx. Atre 

i. s'assied 

i. s'asseyait 

t. 8'assit 


n. n. asseyoDB 

n. n. asseyioDs 

n. n. aMlmet 

V. T. asseyez 

▼. T. asseyieE 

y. y. assltet 

i. a'aaseient 

i. s'asseyaietit 

i. s'wsireat 






to omipel 

astreint,/. e. 


Attbindre, 4. 






atteint,/ e. 


Atteler, 1. to 






atteW,/. e. 

4 49 (4) 





attrait /". e. 

see TRAfRB 

Atenir, 2. to 


il avient 

il ayenait 


Atoir, to iUtw 



iiwa kapjfea^ 



by Google 












ta allasses 


11 iralt 

q. aine 


11 aille 



a Mods 

n. aUions 

n. allassiona 

T. irea 

▼. Iriei 


Y. alliez 

▼. aUassies 



^ aUlent 

1. anient 

1. allassent 





















ta appelleraB 



t. appellerals 


tn appellea 


il appellera 

i. appelleralt 

q. appeUe 

i. appelle 


0. appelleroDfl 

a appellerions 

n. appellona 

T. appellerez 

y. appelleries 


T. appellea 

L appelleroDt 


q. appeUent 

1. appeUent 










t appuieras 

t appulerais 


ta appuiea 


i. appaiera 

i. appulerait 

q. appnie 

11 appule 


IL appnieroiia 

a appnierions 


n. appuyloDs 

T. appuierez 

V. appnieries 


T. appuylea 

i. appuieront 

L appuieraient 

q. appnient 

lis appuient 




t. amailliraa 

t. assaillirais 


t aieailles 

t. assailllasea 


L assaUUrait 


i. aasaille 


n. aBsailUrons 

a assaillirioDS 


n. aasaillloDS 



Y, aasailliries 


Y. aflaaiUles 


i. asaailliroDt 




i. assailllssent 






Je m'aasMmi 

J. m'a88l6ral8 

Je m'aaseie 

Je m'asfllsse 

t t'asfii^raa 

t. t'a88i6rala 


t. t'aneles 


L s'asBiAra 

1. B'assUralt 

q. s'aaaeie 

1. s'assele 

1. s'assit 

a a aaaitrona 

a a a8ai6rioii8 


n. a aaseylona 

a a assisaloiii 

Y. T. a88i6rez 

▼. ▼. arai6riez 

asseyes ▼. 

V. T. aaaeylez 

y. y. asslsslez 

I s'a88i6ront 

1. s'aaai^ralent 

q. s'asaeient 

1. s'asaeient 

1. s'assissent 
























i^ioU. Aofprn 

U mg^. happen 

•• Mkv* HUp^K^ 


by Google 












ea (unip.) 

tJiereu, are 

t^ere was, were 


Battu, 4. to 


je bats 




battu, /. e. 

tn baU 











Y. battes 

Y. batUez 

▼. batates 


1. battaient 

Us batttreat 

BmB, 4.<0 



Je bnvais 





tn bovais 






n. buTOOs 

a buTions 

a bAmea 

y. buyes 

T. buTiez 

T. bdtea 


i. bavaient 

ils burent 

BooiLUft, 2. U 



Je bouillais 



bOQilli, f. 6. 


tu booillais 



U bottillaii ; 

il bouillK 

a bouillons 

n. bouillions 

n. boullliiiMi 

v. booillez 

▼. bouilliez 

y, bouillltes 

i. boniUeni 

ils bouilUient 




Je bowT^le 




bovrreU,/. e. 

^ 49. (6) 

BftAiu, 4. to 




Bbuiner, 1. to 


il braine 





U drizzles 





BSVIBB, 4. to 


U bruit 





ils brujaieni 
ils bruissaien^ 

Cachbter, 1. 



Je cacheUis 





Ceindre, 4. to 


Je ceiDS 


Je oeignxs 




tu ceignais 


aoz. RTolr 


n. celgnions 

a eeigninet 


n. ceignons 

▼. oeignes 
lis celgnent 

▼. oeigniez 
ils ccignaient 

T. ceienites 
ib ceignirent 

Chancklbr, 1. 


Je chancelle 

Je chanoelais 


to stagger 

cbanoel6, /. e. 

4 49, (4) 


Cbanoer, 1. to 


Je change 

Je changeals 

Je changeai 


cbaog6,/. e. 

tu changes 



anx. avdr 

il change 

il changeait 


4 49, (1) 

n. changeons 

n. changions 



v. changes 

T. ehangiez 


ils cbangent 


lis chai^raBl 



Je ciroonscris 

Je droonscri* 

J. circiOMcrirli 

4. to drcum' 

ue iteRiRB 






J. arooDfieDi 

le dxcottf^ 


1 todretm- 






Digitized by V 


Avb wrxptaMOtua. 







II y aara 

i1 y aurait 

fl y ait 

fly eat 

there laiaU 




jo battrai 

J6 battrals 

je batte 


ta battrais 




11 battra 

il battrait 

q. batte 

fl batte 

ii battit 

a Uattrons 

n. battrions 


n. battions 

n. battissions 

T. battrcz 

V. battriez 


V. battiez 

L battront 

i. battralent 

q. baUent 

i. battent 

i. battissent 


J. boiraU 

je boive 


tu boirais 


tu boires 

tu busses 


il boirait 

q. bolYO 

fl boive 


n. boiroDS 

n. boirioDS 


u. buvlons 

n. bussions 

T. boirez 

V. boiriez 


V. buviez 

V. bussiez 

L boiront 

i. boiraient 

q. boivent 

i. boivent 

ils bussont 

Je bouilHrai 

Je bouilHrai^ 

je bouifle 

je bouillisse 

tu bouilliras 

tu bouillirais 


tu bouiiles 

tu bouiliisset 

U boaillira 

il bouillirait 

q. bouflle 

fl bouUle 

fl bouillit 

n. bottillirons 

n. bouiUirions 


n. boufllioDs 

n. boniflissioiH 

y. bouillirez 

▼. bonilliriez 


▼. boniUiez 

▼. bouiliissios 

« bouilliront 

i. bouiUiraient 

q. boulllent 

fl bouiilent 

i. bouflllssent 

je boorrftlerai 



je bourrAle 

je bourrelasse 

fl braira 

il bralrait 

Us bralront 

lis biairaient 


il bruiDerait 

q. braise 

q. braiufi 


Uwm drizzle 

U vU drizzU 


a may drizzU 


Je cftcIiottArfti 



Je caehette 

Je eacbfllMW 

tn ceindraa 

Je oeindrais 

Je ceigne 

Je cefgnisse 

tu ceindrais 


tu ceignes 



fl ceindrait 

q. ceicine 

fl ceigne 

fl ceifliit 

n. ceignissioQg 

n. ceindroQS 

n. ooindrions 


V. ceindrez 

▼. ceindriez 


T. ceigniez 

Y. ceignissies 

lis ceindroDt 

ils oeindraicnt 

q. oeignent 

Us oeignent 

i. ceignissent 


Je cbanoelle- 


je chanoeUe 



Je changerais 

je change 

je changeasss 



tu changes 



q. cliange 



il cbangeit 


q. cbaugent 

▼ changeassieai 

Je droonscri. 

Je drconscriTO 

Je cUtx>nscrl* 





!• AOQBViflQ- 

Je oiiooiifioi^ 

Je drooiiff" 








by Google 


mdtoinjut, ranoma, nouui* 

innw Tiv«. 

Parti cirLKs. 



Ta^t. DvrxniTa 

0(.ORK: 4. to 

je clos 



til clos 


il clot 



Je crJI&te 

Je colletais 

je coUctai 

to collar 

coIlct6. f. e. 

4 49. (6) 




Je combats 

Je combattais 

Je comUtUt 


combattu, /. e 




Je commets 

je commettais 

Je oommis 


oommis, f. e. 



Je comparais 

Je comparais- 


4. to appear 







Je complaisais 

Je complos 

to kumor 


see PL A IRE 



Je comprends 

je comprenais 

Je compris 

4. t0 under- 

compris,/ e. 







Je oompromji 





Cjnclcre, 4. 


Je c6nc1n9 

Je conclnais 

Je conclns 

to conclude 

condn. /. e. 

tu ooncltts 

tu concluais 

tn conclns 

aox. avoir 

il conclut 

il concluait 

il conclut 


n. concIuoDs 

n. concluions 

n. concldmes 

V. conclaez 

V. conclniez 

V. conclutcfl 

i. conclnent 

i. concluatent 

lis conclurent 

Goncovrir, 2. 


Je concoars 

Je concourais 

Je concourus 

|0 cmcttr 

concoura,/. e. 

see coDRiR 



Je condnis 

Je conduisais 

Je conduixis 

to conduct 

oon^nit, /. e. 

tn cfyndais 

tn conduisais 

tu conduisis 

aox. avoir 

il conduit 

il conduisait 

il condnisit 


n. condnisons 

n. conduisions 


V. condnisez 

V. conduisiez 

V. oonduisit^ 

lis condnisent 

i. conduisaient 

i. conduisinnl 

GONFIRB, 4. to 


Je confis 

Je conflsais 

jo conBs 


tu confis 

tu conftsais 

tu con5s 

auz. avoir 

il conflt 

il confisait 

il confit 


n. conflsons 

n. confisions 

n. confimet 

V. confidez 

V. conttsiez 

V. coDfites 

i. conflsent 

i. conflssicnt 

ils conHrent 



Je cong&le 

Je congelais 

Je congelais 

to conceal 


§ 49, (6) 


Jo coi\ioins 

Je conjoignais 


to conjoin 

conjoint, f. o. 


C«wnaItre, 4. 


Je connais 

Je connaissais 


to know 

connu,/. e. 

tu connais 

tu connaissais 

tn connns 

aux. avoir 

il connj^ 

il connaissait 

U connu t 


n. connaissons 

n. connaissions 

n. coonAmea 

V. connaisscB 

V. connaissiez 

V. conniitiai 

i. connaiRsent 

i.connaissaient i . connurent 



Je conqniers 

Je (jonqu/rais 

Je oooquia 


conquis. f. e. 

see ACQu^RiR 



Je oonsens 

1c consentaif 



consenti. f. e. 


by Google 

Aim trniPiMovAL mtm. { n 


Je clonii 
tu cloru 
II clfira. &c. 
Jo colldterai 

J6 combettrai 

Je ocmmettrai 

le comparmi- 

Je oomplairai 



Je coDclurai 
ta conclnru 
n conchira 
D. omiclurons 
T. conclurex 
lis oonclnront 
Je coDcournii 

Je condairai 
tn conduiraa 
U oondiiira 
n. conduiroDS 
T. oonduirez 
Ua condniroiit 
Je confirai 
to conflraa 
il confira 
n. conflroDs 
T. coDflrex 
i. confirout 
Je eoDg61erai 

^e conjoindrai 

«Je eoimaitrai 
Ri coniiaitras 
il connaitra 
n. eonnaitrons 
▼. connattroz 
Hi connaitront 
Je eouquerrai 

|e eomentlral 

ikmrnnowAU IiirK«*TiTB. Bowpvcmm. Xxnaiaer. 

je cinrais 
tu clomis 
il clorait, etc. 
jtt collaterals 


je commet- 

je comparai- 

je oomplairais 

je compren- 


je conclnraiii 
ta conclurais 
il conclorait 
n. ooncluriona 
y. conclaiiea 
je concourrals 

je coDdnirais 
tu condnirais 
il conduirait 
n. condiiiriona 
V. conduiriez 
i condalraient 
je conflrais 
tu conflrais 
il conflrait 
n. ceofirions 
V. confirioz 
lis oonflraient 
je cong6Icrais 

je conjoin- 

je connaitrais 
ta connaitrais 
il connaitrait 
n connaitrions 
v. connaitriez 
'je oooquerrais 









q. conclue 
q. concluent 


q. condoise 
q. condoisent 

q. confise 
q. confisent 



q. connaisse 
q. connaissent 


je collate 

je combatte 

je commette 

je compa- 

je complaise 

je comprenne 





je complosse 


je oonpro- 

je conclae 
tu conclues 
il conclue 
n. concluions 
▼ . conclttiez 
ils concluent 
je concoore 

je conduise 
ta condnisea 
il condalse 
n. conduisions 
V. conduisiez 
ils conduisent 
je conflse 
tn conflses 
il confise 
a conflsions 
V. confisiez 
I oonflsent 
je congAle 

je conjoi|;ne 

je connaisse 
tu connaisses 
il connaisse 
ils connairsent 
je oonquiAre 


je oonclnaw 
tu condnssea 
11 concIAt 
n. conclussiona 
ils condussent 

je conduisisso 
il conduisift 
tu conflssea 
il oonfit 
je congelaase 

je coi\|o{gciiM 

je oonnusse 
ta comiassea 
il connAt 
n. oonnussioni 
v. counussiea 
lis connossent 

Jo 31 


by Google 

lUPIHI'tlf ■• 



Tamt Dr««ht& 


const ntl«iit 

Je coQstniis 




construit,/. e. 



je oontiens 





see TEKiB 



Je contrains 


Je cooCraigBii 


ooiitraint» /.e. 



Je coDtredii 


Je oootredis 



ta contredis 



MX. avoir 

il contredit 
V. contredises 
i. contredisent 



Je controfUs 

Je contrefki- 


^, toeowUer- 


oontrofUt,/. e. 

see FAIRS 



Je contreviens 

Je contreve- 

Je ooQtreviM 



see TENiR 


ComrAiNCBB, 4 



Je coBvain- 

je oonvainqoil 


convaincQ,/. e. 





Je eonvenais 



ooDvenii,/. 0. 



Je coqadte 

Je coqnetais 


to coquet 





je cofronpit 


Gorronipn,/. e. 


COUDRB, 4. to 


Je ootids 




OOUBO,/. 0. 


tn consaii 

tu oonslB 

aux. avoir 


a conssit 



n. coiuons 

n. oooslons 

n. coosimea 

V. cooses 

V. consiev 

r. eottsiteg 

ils consent 

ils consalent 


3or«m, 8. to 








tn courais 

ta counis 

aux. avoir 

il court 

il conrait 

il coantt 


n. conroDfl 

n. cotiriofis 

V. coures 

V, couries 

V. oonrAtet 

Ils courent 

ils conralent 


Coirntm, 2. to 






couvert,/. e. 

see ouvRiR 

Craindbx, 4. 





eraint, f. e. 


Croibe, 4. to 




Je crus 


ere,/, e. 



ta enm 

fox. avoir 


il croyait 



D. croyoQS 


V. croves 


lis croient 

ils croyaient 


OboItrb, 4. to 


Je croissals 



vt,* •. 

tu crois 


ta erila 

anx. avoirs 






Q. croissions 

n. rrftnw 

faiegnlar. | 

V. onnssei 

V. eroisBiei 







by Google 











Jo conatmisb. 


Jo contieii. 

Jo ooDtrain- 



Jo coQtiniM 


Jo contraigna 











Ukt oiaa 

q. coatredbe 




Jo oontrefluw 


jt eootrevleD- 

Jo eontrerlen- 

jo oontroTbiK 









Jo cooraiiiqiio 

Jo oonraln- 

Je oooTieiidnu 


Jo eoquitorais 



jo eoBTbmio 




Ja coquotasia 


JO oonooDprais 




Jo 001180 



tn ooudrais 


tu couBoa 

tu coussisMa 


il eondrait 

q. ooQso 



n. ooiidrons 

n. coudrions 


D. cousiooa 

n. oousiiisioiia 

V. coudrex 

V. coudrioB 


V. coQsiea 

▼. cousissiea 


i. condraicnt 


i. cousent 

Jo coumi 





ta eourrais 


tu courei 



il connaU 


il couro 

il courOI 


n. coarrions 



D. coumiBioni 

T. eonrrex 

Y. couniea 


▼. conrioa 

y. conmssioa 


Us counniont 

q. ooQueiit 

ib courenl 








Jo craigDo 


jo croind 
tu croiras . 


Jo crob 


^!i croirab 


tu croico 

tu crusaea 


n croirait 

q. crob 

il croia 

11 crflt 

n. crairons 

n. crofrions 


a croyiona 

n. cruwiona 

▼. croiroB 

V. crolries 


V. croyioa 

V. cruasiea 


ib croiraicnt 

q. croiont 

ib cnunent 

til croftRM 


Jo croboe 

Jo CTtm» 

tu croltrab 




il croitiait 

q. crobw 



B. croltroDS 



n. croanoBa 





t, orterfMi 



q. moiwimi 



Digitized^y VjOOQ IC 

nuttootiABi mnotiYBi raoouiB 





Pmy. DBrnnra 




>> MeillaiB 



cueilUj: e. 

ta cueilicB 

ta cuclllais 

tu cueiltis 

2 cueille 


U cueillift 


n. eneillons 

n. cueillions 

n. cueilHmeB 

v. cheilitis 

V. cueilUeB 

V. caeillitea 

Us cueillent 

ilB cueillaicnt 

ilB caeiUircofc 

Cui«R, 4. to 





OtUXf coohy ^c. 

cult,/ e. 


Mmk-mut, 4. 




Jo d4battia 

to debaU 





Jo d6cachette 

1. to MnsetU 


4 49, (4) 

DicHoiB, 8. to 


jo ddcliois 

je ddchoyaiR 




tu ddchois 

tn d6choyais 


anx. avoir A 

il d6choit 

il d6choyait 

il dichut 


n. d<^chojODt 

n. d^choyioos 

n. dtehAmea 



V. dochoyex 

V. d6choyicz 

V. d«chAtet 

ib dechoient 



IMEcouMiB, 4. 


je d^couds 

je decottaais 


to rip 

dccoiixu,/. e. 


PicoUTRIR, 2. 


Je dicouvre 

je dteoQvraia 


/<9 discover 


see ouvRiR 

MCEIRE, 4. (0 


Je dficris 




dicrit,/. e. 

see icRiRB 



je d6di8 

Je d4diBaiB 





jXDUIRfi, 4. to 


jo ddduin 

je d6daisalB 



d6duit, /. «. 

see coN'DuiRB 

P^PAlLLIR, 2. 


il dafaille 





n. d6railloii8 





V. dcraillez 
ih d^failluot 

D£PAiRfi, 4. to 



je ddfidsaU 



dt^lU.t,/. e. 

MX Pairs 

It^UKLBR, 1. to 



il d^lait 



d6gol<S, /. a. 
dcoint,/. e. 

I)bjoi!«drb, 4. 

Je dcjoins 

jo dijoignaiB 

je d^joignli 


see CKiNDRB 

IXmrntir, 2. 


Je d6niens 

je dementais 

je d6mentlB 

tif telie 

ddmenti./. e. 


Mmkttrb, 4. 


Je ddmuts 

Je dtoettais 

jo dtoia 

tu difjifinl 

d6mis,/. e. 




je d6i)uin9 

Je d6peignai8 

jc ddpeigniB 

l4t depict 

d6pcint, /: e. 

see irBINDRB 



jc d£plai8 

jo d<Splaisais 

je depluB 

to dispUase 

diphi./. e. 

see Pi.AiRB 



jo dciuip- 

Je disappre- 


DRB, 4, to itn- 





see pRRxnaa 

Pehrrtir, 2. 

Je dcaseTS 

je dessenralB 



DiTBIIflttB, 4. 

doBservi, /. e. 

Me Bsavia 



je dateienato 


<# rflwrff 




by Google 

.«» vnnuMOVAi tsus. § 6S 



jc caetlleni 
tu cuiMlleras 
il cucillora 
n. cueillerons 
Y. cucillercK 
ik caeilleroot 
}e ciuriu 



Je dteherrai 
In d^clicrras 
il d6cherra 
n. d6cherron8 
▼. d^cleirez 
ilt dicherront 
Je dicoudrai 

Je cuelilerais 
ta cixolllenifl 
il caeillcrait 
n. cueillerioDs 
V. coeilleries 
i. cuoillcraient 
Je coiials 

je dAbatiiais 

Je dicachet^ 
Je d6cherrais 
tu dicherrais 
il dicherrait 
n. d^chenioDS 
V. diclierriex 
i. d6chenraient 
Je dicoudraU 

Je d^oouTrirai jed^conTrlrais 




tee BescherdUf 


a d«gftlera 

Je d^ifoindrai 

Je d6meBtirai 

Je dimetlrai 

Je d^peindrai 

Jo d^plalrai 

J< d6aappren- 


Je ddcriraiB 
Je d6dalraia 

Je d^feraf 

il digdlerait 

Je ddJoindralB 


Jo dimettrais 

Je d^pondrais 

Je d6plairais 

je diaapprcn- 



q. cucille 
caei lions 
q. cneillent 





3. ddchoie 
q. d6cboient 






q. d6g^le 




jo cneille 
tu cue! lies 
il cneille 
n. cneillions 
y, cuoilliei 
{. cneillent 

Jo dfibatte 

Je d^cachette 

je d6choie 
tn d^clioies 
il ddchoie 
n. d£cho3ions 
V. dtelioyiea 
ils ddcboient 

Je dAcouTre 

Je dtorlTO 

Je dddise 




Je dijoigne 

Je d£mente 

Je ddmelte 

je d£pcigne 

Je d^plaiso 

je disappren- 

Je desserre 

Je cneillisse 

tn cueillisses 

11 cneillit 

n. cneilllss4oDi 

y, cuellliwiei 



Je d^battlsM 

Je d^chnsse 
tu ddchnsses 
n. dSchussioni 
V. dddinsslei 
ih ddchnssent 




Je dddnisisM 


Je d^joignlwt 
Je d6mis80 
Je dipcignisaa 
Je d6plnsse 



by Google 







PATf Dsn*m 

PiTRNIR, 2 io 


Je d«tieiM 

Je ddtenais 



ddtenu,/, e. 

me TKNiR 

Dirsumc, 4 




Je detroIalB 

io destroy 

d*truit,/. 0. 


l^eVRNIB, 2. to 


Je devlens 

Je derenais 



darenu,/ e. 

jee TENiR 

UvtritL, 1 to 


Je ddvAta 

Je ddvAtaii 


<^tta^ , 


see yferiR 

^ I>iBc,4.to 



Je disais 





ta disais 



11 dit 

il disait 



n. dlsona 

n. disiou 

n. dimes 

V. ditcB 

V. disiez 


ils disent 

ils diiiaient 

ils dirent 

IhscotrBTR, 2. 


je diacours 

Je discomais 


to discourse 


see couRiR 



Je dis]>araui 

Je disparais- 


4. to disappear 

disparu, / e. 

set connaItre 




Je dissoiw 

Je dissolvais 

to dissolve 

dissons, /. te. 


IhSTRAlRE, 4. 

distrait, /. e. 

Je distrais 

Je dlstrayais 

to divert 


' - DORMXR, 2. to 


Jo dors 

Je dormais 

Je dormis 



ta dors 

ta dormais 

tu dormia 


il dort 

il dorroait 

il dormit 


n. dormoDB 

n. dormions 

D. dormimea 

V. donnez 

V. dormisR 

V. dormttes 


ils dormaient 

ils dormireDl 

ficHOIK, 8. to 


il «choit 

il debut 

/a// due 


or W debet 

ficLORB, 4. to 

il dclot 



ficONDUIRB, 4. 








^ ficRIRE, 4. to 







ta dcris 

tn 6crivai8 

tu dcrivis 

anx. avoir 

il 6crit 

il dcrivait 

il dcrivit 


n. ftcrirons 

n. dcrivions 

n. dcrivlmei 

v. derives 

V. dcriviea 

V. dcrlrlteR 

ils ocrlvent 

ils 6crivaient 

ils dcrivirent 

Slirb, 4. to 






«lu,/. e. 

ste LIRB 







«mis, f, e. 


Xmmsnrr, l.to 





toile awaif 

emmen6,/. e. 


see MBNBR 

fiuoUDRE, 4. 





dmoulu, /. e. 


Smoctotr, 8. 






toll, / e. 


















by Google 




Je d6truiimi 

Je deTiendni 


ndim , 
D. dirons 
T. dires 
fls diroDt 

Je disimimltni Je dispant 

Jediasondnd * " "• * 


Je donnirai 
tu dorroiraa 
n. dormrrons 
V. doftnires 


je ddtiendrais 


Je devtendnds 

je d^vAtirab 

je dirais 
ta dirais 
il dirait 
_. dirions 
y. diries 
ilfl. diraient 
je diaooumiii 


je dinondrais 

je distrairais 

je dormlrais 
tu dormiraia 
il donnirait 
n. dormirions 
y. dormiriez 

lis dormiront ils donniraient 
St ^.u u ^chermit 




tu dcriras 
il 6crira 
n. 6criroDft 
T. 6crirez 
Qs ficriront 










q. dlMDt 






qa'il donna 



q. domMnt 

U telorait 


tn 6crirai8 
V. 6cririess 
lis teriraient 








q. icriye 

q. 6cri¥eiit 






SuBiVNcmra. Inrmmrmar, 

je d6tieime 


je devieime 


tu diaes 
n. diaiona 
▼. di«l«8 
ila disent 



je diatraie 

Je dorme 
tu dormea 
n. dorraiovM 
▼. doiviieK 
ila dorment 

q. 6clo8e 


il 6criYe 
n. 6criviona 
y. 6criyiea 
ils ^crivent 







Je devinaae 


il dft 
n. disdons 
V. dissiea 
lis dissent 
Je diaoouniaaa 


je dorniiaaa 
tu dormissea 
n. dormissioM 
▼. domisslea 
ils donntssent 


tu icriyisaea 
il 6crivit 
a teriyissioM 
y. ^criyissies 
ila ^criyisaent 



by Google 



IiiniiinirB. pASTicirLBs. 

Encix>»b, 4. to 

Encoukie, 2. 

to incur 
Endormir, 2. 

to i-uU asleep 
Enduirb, 4. to 


4. to infringe 
Bnpuir, (s') 2. 
' to run away 
Enjoindre, 4. 

to enjoin 
Ennuycr, (s') 

1. uf be weary 
EftaciRiR, (s') 

2. to viquire 


DRB, 4. to un- 

2. to entertain 

Emtrkvoir, 8 
to elimpse at 

EkVoter, 1. to 

anx. avoir 


4. to be smU- 
SsMArBR, 1. to 

fiTBiWDRB, 4. 

to extinguish 
Etincrlbr, 1. 

to sparkle 
EriauBTER, 1. 

£trb, a. to be 


to press 

EXCLCRB, i. /i< 




cnclos, /. e. 
encouru, /. o. 
endormi. /. e. 
cDdait,/. e. 
enfreint, /. e. 
enfiii. /. e. 
enjohit,/. e. 
enimyfi,/. e. 
enquU, /. e. 
entremis,/. e. 

entrepris, /. e. 

entrevu, /. e. 
enToy*,/. e. 

6pri8,/. e. 


e8say6, /. e. 




6tincel6,/. e. 





6treint,/. e. 


ezcla, excltiM 


•xtralt,/ e. 



see couRiE 


see coNDures 


Je m'cnlVils 
see puiR 


Je m'ennuio 


J. rn'onqniers 
see Acau:iRiR 
J. m'eDtremets 




see TENtR. 
tu envoiea 
il cnvoie 
h. envoyons 
V. envoyez 
ils enYoient 
Je m'6prend8 








4 47, (6) 








iHrBRricr. Pact. Danjara. 





J. m*enfayab 


Je m'ennayais 
« 49. (2) 
J. m*eiiqu6rai8 

Je m'entre- 




tu envoyais 
il envoyait 
a envoyioDs 
V. envoyies 
ils envoyaient 
Je m'6preiiai8 


J 49. (2) 



^ 49 (4) 
J 6t]quet«is 

4 49, (6) 




Je in'enftdi 
Je m*eiiimyal 
Je in'enqniB 
J. Di'eDtreiiili 




tu envoyas 
il coToya 
n. envoylmet 
V. euToyfttM 
ils envoy^rent 
Je m'6priB 




by Google 

Am wnnataaAL tsrbs. § 93 






fendulrai ' 


Je m'eDfuirai 




J« m'entre- 




tn envcrras 
U enrem 
D. eoverroni 
V. enverres 
Us enverront 
Je m'foreii- 








Coin»moiiAL. Ihpreativi 
jo m^enfuirais 

je m'ennuie- 

je m'enqiier- 

je m'entre- 




tu enyerrais 
il enverrait 
n. enverrions 
V. enyerriez 
Us envcrraient 
jo m'ipren- 



















q. enroie 
q. enyoieiit 











je m'enftiie 


je m'ennnie 

je m'enquiAre 

je m*entre- 




tu enyoiet 
il enyoie 
n. enyoyioos 
y. enyoyiez 
ito enyoient 
jo m'iprenne 









je m'eniViiflae 


je m'ennnyas- 

je m'enqnttM 

je m'entre- 




ta enyoyanea 
il cnyoyU 
y. enyoyan^iei 
Je m'ipriaae 




by Google 





PAVf Damma 

Faiiiir, 2. Ut 


J6 Iklllis 

Je fkilllMlB 





set FiNiB, % 60 

(New form) 




Je fklllla 

fltill UBbd\ 



tu faiUais 

tu fkfllls 



il faut 

a faillait 

U fkiUit 

n. fklUons 

n. fitillioiiB 

n. IkilHinea 

T. faillei 

T. faillies 

V. fkilUtea 

il fiiillent 

Us fltiUaleiit 


- — fkm,4utoiio. 



Je fliiftain 


to miki 





aus. avotr 

il fait 

il faisait 



n. fkisoDS 

IL fkisiona 


T. faites 

T. faiaiex 

▼. ntea 

lis font 

ila fu'isaient 


... FiLLom, 8, to 



il fallait 





FB19tDR£,4. to 


je ft;iiifl 

Je feignalfl 



FiCELBB, 1. to 

feint, / 0. 


Je ficelle 

Je flcelala 



flcel*,/. e. 


4 49. (4) 

FftiEB, 4. to 

Je fris 









Je niyals 


y^ Jkt 



tu AiyaiB 

tu Hiia 


il ftiyait 



n. fuyioDS 


V. Aiyes 

V. Aiyiez 

y. fultea 

lis Aiient 

lis ftiyaient 


Oblkii, 1. to 





ff0tS9, Ulip. 

ArfiB, 2. to ^ 




tu gisais 
il gisait 



n. gisioDS 

T. gtsez 

V. gisiez 


ila glsaient 

Grabbbtkb, 1. 



Je grawcyala 




we APPinrsB 

§ 49, (2) 

OuiLSB, 1. to 





Aot/. UDip. 


GitisiLLEB. 1. 


11 grfeQIe 

il gt^sillait 

llgrftsfflft ' 

to s^Mf. unip. 


Je hais 

Je hafssaii 


---^ Aflto 

hai, /: c. 


tu haissais 


anx. avoir 

il bait 

il halssait 

il bait 


n. haissons 

n. haissions 

n. haimea 

V. ha'iasez 

y. hafasiez 

y. haites 

1. haissent 

ils haiasaient 


IUbosleb, 1. 


Je haro61e 





% 49. (5) 



by Google 









Jo foiUirais 





Je fkndrais 



tn (kiidras 

ta faiidrais 



11 fliadn 

il faudmit 

n. fAudrons 

n. flindriong 

▼. ikttdrei 

T. fandriea 

ill fiiudront 

lis faudraient 






tu feraU 





il ferait 




IL ferons 

n. feriona 



u. fissions 

▼. feraa 

T. feriex 


V. ftssiez 


Os feroQt 

ila feraient 

q. faasenl 


ils Assent 



q. fldUe 




Je IbiDdiai 




Je floelleni 

Je ficelkraifl 






tu frirais 



il ft-iralt, te. 

Je Aiirai 

je Aitrais 



tu Axlras 

tu fuinifi « - 



tu fhisset 


il niirait 

c|. fbie 




n. fuirioDB 

n. fbyioDS 


T. fnifes 

T. ftiiriea 


▼. fhyiea 



il8 fttiraieat 


Us Aiient 

ils fbissent 



qu'U g41a 









U grtleraii 


qu'U grtle 

qu'U fTilAt 


il grAsiUerait 

q. 8r6siUe 

q. grCsille 

q. grCsilUft 

tu halraa 

Je hairais 



tu hairais 


tu haisses 

tu haisses 

11 Iraira 

il hairait 

q. haiflse 


U bait 

n. bairoDs 

n. halrions 


L. haimions 

a baissiona 

T. hurea 

V. haii-iez 


v. haissiea 

V. haissiea 


ils hairaient 


ils haissent 

Ils haissent 


Je haroftlerais 





by Google 







Past. DcviRnv 

Imforteb, 1. 


il importe 

il importait 

il import* 

to vuUter. 
Inouirb, 4. io 


U mailers 







see coNoaiBE 

Inbcrire, 4. to 

insert vant 





inscrit./. ©. 

see ^RiRB 

^ Instruire, 4. 





to inslruct 

instruit,/. e. 


Intkroirb. 4. 





to iTUerdUt 

intcrdit,/. e. 







4. to interriLpt interrompu /le 


lKrTKRVKNiR,2. intcrvenaot 




to inUrvene intervenu./. e. 

see TRNiR 

Introdoirb, 4. introduisant 




to iiUroditce 

introduit, /. e. 


Jetkr, 1. to 



je petals 




tu jettea 

tu jetais 


aus. avoir 




\ 49, (4.) 

n. JotoDs 
V. jetez 

n. jettons 
V. jetiez 

n. jetlmei 


its jetaient 

ils Jetdrent 

-— JOINDHE, 4. to 

joint. /.e. 

je joins 



'-Lire, 4.(0 




je lisais 



lu, /. e. 



tu lus 

aux. ayoir 


il llsait 



nous lisons 

n. lisions 

n. Idmea 

vous lisez 

V. liaiez 

V. latet 

ils lisent 

ils lisaient 


Lntmc, 4. to 



je Inifwifl 




MAINTENim, 2. 


Je maintiena 

je maintenais 

Je ffi>^f"t1'*ff 

to maintain 

maintenu,/. e. 

see TENiR 

Malpaire, 4. 



used except 

in the 

io do wrong 


Macdire, 4. to 


je mandis 

je maudissais 

Je mandis 


maudit,/. e. 

tn maudifl 

tu maudissais 


aux. avoir 

11 maudit 

il maudissait 

n. maudissoDs 
V. maudissez 
ila maudlsaent 

n. maudissions 
V. maudissiez 



je m6coDnais 

je m^connais- 

je m^comwi 

4. to disown 

m^connu, /. e. 

see connaItre 


M<DIRB. 4. to 


je ni6dis 

je pi4disais 






MiPAiBE, 4. io 


je m6faia 



tf ENER, f. to 


500 FAIRS 






men6,/. e. 

ICehtib, 1. to 



Je mentaia 

Je mentis 





by Google 

f e9 


U importera 








tu Jetteraa 
n. JotteroDS 
Y. jetterez 
ib Jctteront 
jc jolndrai 

tu liras 
n. lirons 
Y. lirez 
ils liront 
Je luirai 

Je maintieQ- 


like DiR£ 

Je m^connaS- 




CoMOiTior %u 

il importerait 





tu Jetterais 
il jtfttcrait 
n. JetlcrioDS 
V. Jettericz 
Us jetteraicnt 
y\ Joindraia 

tu lirais 
il Hrait 
n. lirions 
V. liriez 
il8 Hraient 
Je luirais 

Je malntien- 

Je mandirais 

Je mtconnal- 
Je midiraiji 

je mitbiais 

Je minerali 

)) mentinli 


q. importe 









3. Jette 
q. Jettent 



q. lise 
q. lisont 


q. maudiue 
q. maudiasent 





q. importe 








je Jette 
tu jettes 
il jette 
n. ietions 
V. jetiez 
lis Jettent 

tu liset 
n. lisions 
V. lisiez 
ils liscnt 
Je Inise 

Je maintieime 

Je niaudisse 
tu maudifises 
il maudisse 
n. maudissions 
y. maudissiez 
ila inaudiBii^t 

Je mediae 




q. importit 











n. Jetaaaiona 

V. jetaaaiez 



Je luaae 
tu luaaca 
il lilt 
n. luaaiont 
r. luaaiez 

Je maudiaae 
like Diafi 

Je mSconmiifi 


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Pait iMviam 


se m4prenant 

J.m. m4pr6ndi 

J. me m4pre- 


(le) lo mis- 




take, ref 

MsrriiB, 4. to 



Je metUis 



mis,/, e. 

tu mets 

tu metUis 

tu mis 

aoz. AToir 

11 met 

11 metUit 



n. metUms 

u. mettions 

n. mioMa 

V. mettea 

T. mettles 

V. mites 

Us mettent 

lis mettaient 

Us mirenft 

MOUDU, 4. t9 


Je mouda 

Je moulais 

Je moulns 


moulUi/. e. 

tu mouds 

tu moulais 

tu moulus 

tax. aToIr 


11 moulait 

U mouluft 


n. mouIoDS 

n. moulions 

n. moulAmes 

▼. moulea 

V. moulles 

V. moulCites 

lis moulent. 

lis moulalent 

Us moulnrenl 




Je mourais 


mort,/. e. 

tu meurs 

tu mourais 

tu mourus 

max. 6tre 

il meurt 

U mourait 

U mourut 


n. mourons 

D. mourioDs 

n. mouri^mea 

T. mourei 

T. mouriez 

V. monriites 

ik meurent 

Us mouraient 

Us moururest 

MOUTOIE, 8. to 



Je mouvais 

Je mus 


mu./. e. 


tu mouvaia 

tu mus 

aux. aToir 

11 meut 

11 monvait 



n. mourons 

n. mouvions 

n. mAmei 

T. mouvez 

V. mouviez 

V. m4tes 

Us meuveni 

lis mouvaient 


MouTOia, (le) 


Je |ne meus 

J. me mouvais 

Je me mus 

8. tomffve. 

mu,/. «, 






Je nalssala 

Je oaquls 




tu nalssais 




U naiaeait 




n. oalseions 

D. muiuimes 

T. naisses 

▼. naiasiez 

▼. uaquites 

Us naisseut 

Us naissaient 

Us naqnlreai 

NiOLfORE, 1. 





Neioer, 1. to 


% 49, (1.) 



tnow. unip. 


KlTEUEl, 1. to 


Je nivelle 




ni^I4./. a. 

4 49, (4) 

NCIRB, 4. to 

je nuis 

Je nulsala 





Obtenir, 2. to 






obtenu,/. e. 

see TENiR 

Opfrib, 2. t0 






offert,/. e. 

see ouTRiR 

OiNDRI, i. to 
















Cull, 4. lb 


iMT. die 




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tu wettrM 
11 metira 

. mettroos 

. mettrez 
Qfl mettrooi 
Je moudral 
in mondrM 
il moudra 
n. mondront 
Y. moudres 
ill mondroDft 
Je mournri 
tu mounras 
il mourra 
n. moiifroas 
V. mourrez 
Us raourront 

Je xnoiiTrai 
tu monvras 
11 roouvra 
n. mouvrons 
V. mouTrez 
lis mouTront 
Je me monvrai 

Je naltiai 
-tu ualtras 
II naltra 
n. nattrons 
▼. uaitrex 
Ds naitront 
Je D^Iigeiai 

11 nelgera 

Je nlTellerai 




f otndral ^ 


Coir»moii*ii. IiinKATnrB. Boaiviicnrv. 

je mo m6preih 

Je nettrali 
tu uettraia 
il mettrait 
u. mettrioBfl 
V. meltriei 
lis mettralent 
Je moudrais 
tu moudrais 
il mondrait 
n. moudiioiis 
T. moudriez 
ils moudralent 
Je mourrais 
tu mourrais 
il mourrait 
n. mourrlonS 
V. mourriez 
ils mourraient 
Je mouvrais 
tu mouyrais 
11 mouyrait 
n. mouvrions 
T. mouvriez 
Ils mouTraient 
Je me mouv- 

Je naltrais 
tu naltrais 
il nattrait 
n. naf trions 
T. naltrlez 
lis naitraient 
jo n^ligerais 

il neigerait 

Je nlvellcraii 




J'oindrais . 



q. raetto 
q. mettCBt 

qu'il moole 
q. mouleut 

q. menre 
q. menrent 

q. mewe 
q. meuTent 


q. naisse 

q. naisseni 








je mette 
tu mettes 
il mette 
n. mettlow 
V. mettiez 
ils mettent 
je moule 
tu moulet 
il moule 
n. moulioDS 
▼. mouliez 
ils moulent 
je meure 
il menre 
n. mourions 
V. mouriez 
ils menrent 
Je meuve 
tu meuyes 
il meure 

V. mouviez 
ils menrent 
je me meure 

je naisse 
tu naisses 
il naisse 
n. naissions 
y. naissiez 
ils nais«ent 
je D^gUge 

qn*il neige 

Jo nivelle 







tu misses 
il mlt 
D. missfeiv 
y. missies 
je monluss* 
tu moulnsset 
11 moulet 
D. monlnssiona 
y. mouluBsieg 
lis moulussent 
je nionmsse 
tu monrusses 
il monrdt 
n. monmssions 
y. monrussiez 
lis monmsseDt 
Je musse 
n. mussioBS 
y. muBsiez 
ils mussent 
jo me musse 

Je naqnisae 
tu naquissea 
11 naqnlt 
n. naqnissloDs 
y. naqnissiez 
ils naqnissent 
Je Digligeasaa 

q. nelgeAt 

je nlrelassa 






by Google 


attdwvuB, ranoim, notnuB 





Past. Dananm 

N^ OoTBfB, 2. to 






ouvert,/. e. 

tu ouvres 

to onvrais 

tu ouvris 

anx. ftvoir 

il ouvre 


11 ouvHt 


n. ouvrons 

n. oavrioiMi 

n. ouvrimoB 


v. ou\Tez 

V. ouvriez 

▼. oQvrites 

ilB ouvrent 

ils onvraient 

ils ouvrirei^ 




je iMissaia 



tu iwis 

ta paiasaiM 

•nx. •voir 

il pait 

il paUntait 


n. paissons 
v. paiueB 
il8 pai8i«ent 

n. paisHions 
V. paissieB 
ils paissaient 



Je parfaifl 





see PAiRB 

setdom used 

PARAiTRfS, 4. 


je paraia 

je paraissais 


to appear 



Paicouiii, 2. 


je parcours 

je paroourain 


to go tkraugk 

}Nircoura, /. e. 

see couBiB 

Parti R. 2. to 


jo para 


Je partis 


parti, /.o. 

see aBNTiR 

Parvknib, 2. 


je parviens 



to suca!ed,4^. 

{Mtr^'ena, /. c. 

see TENiR 

PAYsm, 1. to 


je paie 

je payaia 





je peig^nais 

PlSlNDRB, 4. to 




PfiLBB, 1. to 

peint, f. e. 







pel6,/.e. ' 

() 49, (6.) 



je pemiets 

je permettais 

Je permis 

to permit 

permis, /. e. 

see mi:ttre 

Plainpre, 4. 


je plains 

Je plaignals 


to pUif 

plaint,/, e. 

see ceinork 

Plaindrb, (se) 

80 plaignant 

Je me plaina 

Jc me plai- 


4. to eompiain 

plaint,/, e. 



X Pl.AlBB, 4. to 



je plaisais 




tn plais 

tu plaisais 
il pfaisait 

tu plu» 

aux. avoir 

il plait 

il pint 


n. plaisona 

n. plaisions 

n. plAmct 

y. plaisez 

V. plaisicB 

V. plutcs 

its plaisent 

its plaisaiont 

ils plurent 
il plut 



il plcut 

il pleu\'ait 

to rain, unip 


POINDRE. 4. to 

il point 

r/i2ir». def. 




je poursuivaiB 

Je pourstiiviB 

to p»r.w<f 

lioursuivi,/. e. 

see BvwKR 

Pour VOIR, ). 


je ponrvois 

je pourvoyais 

Jo |)onrvu8 


poarva,/. e. 

tupourvois . 

tu pourvoyais 

tu pourvttS 

anx. avoir 

ii poarvoit 

il pourvoyait 

11 pourvut 


n. poarvoyons 

n. pourvoyions 

n. pourvAmeg 

V. pourvoyei 
Ua ponrvoient 

V. ponrvoyies 

V. pourr^teB 
ils poarniniii 


by Google 

Am manmomut 



ta oiirriras 
II ouvrira 
n. onvriroDS 
V. ouvrires 
ill OttTriront 
Je iMitrai 
11 paitn 
D. paitront 
▼. pftltrcz 
il8 pAitront 
je parfend 

Je paraitmi 




tu ouvriraifl 
il onvrirait 
n. ouvririons 
V ouvriries 
lis ouvriraient 
Jo paitrais 
ta paitraU 
il iMii trait 
n. paitrions . 
V. pa! tries 
lis paStraient 
Je parferais 

Je paraitrais 

Je parconrrais 


Je panriendraiijeparTieodrais 

Je paicnd 



Je pcrmettrai 



) plaiiH 

Jo plairai 
ta plairas 
fi piaira 
n. plairoDS 
▼. plalrc;6 
its plairont 
il pleurra 

II poindra 

Je poursuirrai 

Je pourvolrai 
(q pourvoiras 
11 pourvoSra 
n. poanroirons 
▼. ponrvoirez 

Je paieiais 

Je peiodral 

Je pMerai 

Jo permettrals 

Je plaindrais 

Je me plain- 

je piaira 18 
ta plairais 
il plairait 
n. plairioos 
V. piairiez 
its ]»lairaient 
il pteuvrait 

q. oavre 
q. oaTrent 


q. paiaaent 












q. plaiae 
q. plaiscnt 
q. pltfUTO 

II poindrait 


Jo pourvoirals 
to pourvoiraia 
il poanroirait 
T. poiarTolries 

Ha pomroirnQtl LpowToiiaieiit 



q. ponrvole 
q. pouiToleiii 


to oavrea 
n. otivriona 
r. onTrfes 
ila dxvrent 
Je paisao 
ta paisaea 
il paiaae 
n. paiwlona 
V. paiaaies 
ila paiaaent 
Je iMirfaeae 

Je paraiaae 

Je parconre 

Je parte 


Je paie 



Je permctte 


Je me plaigne 

.|e plaiae 
tu plaiaea 
II plaiae 
n. plaisiona 
V. i>laiaiea 
ila plaiacnt 
q. plcave 

Je ponraaiye 


tu ouvrisaes 
il ouvrit 
n. ouYriaaioDS 
y. on^riaales 
ila ouvriaaent 









je permlaie 


je me plai- 

Je plnsae 
tu pliiaaea 
il plut 
n. plusaiona 
V. plusaiez 
ils phiaacnt 
q. piat 

Je ponnrofe 
tu ponrvoio 
il pounroie 
n. pourroyiona 
T. pourroyieK 
Hi poanroieiit 

Jo ponrauivia* 
tu iK>urvuaaea 
il pourvAt 
▼. pounruaalat 


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tEBS«vtA% wnwmcttTMf rmcvhiAM 




Pasv Danma 


le ponnroyam 

Je mc poar> 

Je me p«xp- 


8. M propide. 




PovvoiB, 8. to 






tupeuz * 

tu poavala * 


aiix. avdr 


il poQvait 



n. potivcma 

n. poartons 

n. pAoMB 

V. pouTei 

▼. poQvlex 

V pHUm 

ila penveni 

Ob ponvaient 


pRiDms, 4. to 








PKEimiB, 4. to 







tn preoaia 


aux. avoir 


il prenait 



n. prenoQB 

n. preniooa 

n. primca 


V. prcniez 

V. pritca 

ils prcnneat 

its prcnaient 

ib pnrcnt 

Prrscrirk, 4. 


Je prescris 



to prescribe 

prescrit. / e. 

see 4cRiRR 



Je pressentaiB 

Jo prcBsentls 

to foresee 

pryiwenti,/. c. 


PltivALOfR, 8. 


Je pr6%'aux 



to prevail 


see VAI.OIR 

Pr4tbnir, 2. 


Je pr6vieii8 

Je prfiTcnais 


PrIvoir, 8. to 
Prodoirr, 4. 

prtvenu,/. e. 

see TRNiR 

prtvii,/. e. 

Jo pr6voi8 

Je prtToyala 
Uke Yoin 

tike Toia 


Je prodais 

Je prodniaais 


to produce 

produit. /. e. 


Projrtkr, 1. 

Je ppojette 

Je proJctaiB 


to project 

see JKTRR 

4 49, (4.) 

pROM»rrTRB, 4. 


Jo pron>et8 

Jo promti 

to promise 

promis,/. e. 




Je promeus 

Je proroonTais 


8. I^f promote 

promti./. e. 

Me MouroiR 



Je proscris 
see icRiRK 

Je proscrivais 

Je proscriTxa. 

to proscTwe 

proecrit/. o. 



Je proviena 

Je provenaia 


to proceed 

provenn,/ e. 
only need 


except in the 

Rabattrb, 4. 


Je rabata 

Je rabattaia 

Je rabattia 

to abate 

rabattn,/ a. 


fiACRBTRR, 1. 


Jo rachdte 

Jo rachetala 


to buif again 

racheU,/ o. 


« 49, (6.) 

Rapprlp.r, 1. 


Je rappelle 

J© rappelaia 


to recoil 


see APPRi«ER 

4 49, (4.) 



Jo rapprenda 

Je rapprenais 


to learn again 

rappris. /". e. 



Je ratteins 

Je rattelgnais 

Jo ratteigDii 

to reach, again 

ratteiiit,/. e. 

Rbbattrb, 4. 



Je rebattais. 


iobeat again 

rebattu,/. e. 



Je recondtiia 

Je recondiil- 


4. toan^dma 

moBdaH./ a. 





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AV» ir3rtv«»to*Aft^s»»«. f el 



Je HM ponr- 

tu pourru 
II {N>arra 

Y. pourrejE 
Qb ponrronl 

Je prendrfti 
til prendras 
U prendra 
n. prendrons 
V. prendre* 
lb prandronl 


Je pr^Taudni 

Je pr^Ttendrmi 

Je pr^Toirai 
tike pouKTOim 

Je projettera! 

Je promettnd 

Je promoiiiTei 


je proTieodral 

oikir verbs 




Je ntteliidnil 

Je lebettmi 

J« nepoof- 
tu ponrrais 
11 pi nrrait 
n. piHinioiis 
T. poarries 
ilfl pourraient 
Je piMInk 

Je prandrais 

tn prendrais 
n prendrait 
n. prendrione 
▼. prendriez 
lie prendraieiit q. 
Je preacrirais 





q. prenne 

Je preasentl- 
Je prfiTaadrals 

je prtvien- 

je pr6Toirai8 
like pouBTota 
Je prodnliais 



Je prometi- 


je proTlen- 


















il puisse 

fleaieiNiTiv e. 



▼. polniei 
lis pnlisent 

Je prepna 
ta prennes 
il prenao 
n. ptenkns 
T. pfcfites 
lie pfenneiifc 
Je preterite 




V. ptueiei 

lis puflsent 



▼. priviea 
lis piriflflent 
je preflcri?ifl99 





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iBKBcviAa, »srBeTtTi^ rsevLtAB 





Pait. Dsffumm 



je reconnais 

je reconnaiit- 

je reoonnoa 

4. to recaanize 

rtNM>ntiu /. «. 





jo recoiiiiuiors 

je reconqn6- 


2. to cffH^uer 

reconquu/. e. 

soe ACatiRlR 



je reoonstmia 

je reconstniir 

ie leoonatral 

4. to recoil 





Bkcoupek, 4. 




to sew again 

reconsu,/. e. 



je reoours 


je reoonma 

to have re- 


see couRia 


Rkcoutrir, 2. 


je recoaTrais 

Je recovrrii 

to cover again 

reconvert/, e. 


Recukillir, 2. 


je recQ«ille 


je recaeillia 



see cuRiLLja 

Eedirk, 4. to 





soff again 

redit f. e. 

see DiRR 

BiouiRR, 4. to 


je i^dals 

Je r^duiaals 



r6dnit, /. e. 

see coN'OUiRS 

RF.PAIRE, 4. to 


je refais 

je rcfkiaaia 


make again 

refeit,/. c. 

see PAiRR 

Rejoindre, 4. 


je rejoins 

je rejoignaia 


to rejoin 

rejoint, /. e. 


Bblirr, 4. to 





read again 

relii /. e. 

see LIRE 

Brluire, 4. to 


je reliiUi 





see LUiRR 

Kemrttre, 4. 


je remets 

je remettaia 

je rcmia 

to remit 

remis, f. e. 


Brmoudre, 4. 


je remouds 

je rcmoulaia 

je remouloa 

to grind again 

reinonhi, f. e. 

see Mou»RB 


je renals 

je Tenai«saia 

je rcnaqoia 

to revive 

ren*. f. e. 

see NAiTRB 

Rendormir. 2. 


je rendors 

je rendormais 

je rendormla 

to tuU to sleep 

rendonni./. e. 


Rrntraire, 4. 

je rentmis 

je rentrayaia 

to darn 

rentralt, /. o. 

see TRAiRB 

Renvotrr, 1. 


je rcnvoie 

je renvoyaia 

je renToyaia 

to sen/i back 

renvojrfi. /. e. 

see ENTftYBR 

^ 49. (2.) 

Bepaitre, 4. 


jo repais 



to feed 


see PAiTRB 


Rbpartir, 2. 





to set off again 

reparti, /. c. 

see aENTia 

Rkpbindrr, 4. 


je repeifM 



to paint again 

repeint,/. e. 

see CRtNDRR 

Eepkntir, (se) 

se repentant 

je me repens 



repenti. /. e. 

see ■ENTiR 

Reprkndrr, 4. 


jo reprcnds^ 



to take again 



je rei>rodiita 

io rerrodoi- 







by Google 

Aa» OVIPIBSO^AI.- TB»Bt. § «» 



je rocounai- 
Je raoonqoer- 

> rccoostrni- 



jo r«comiai~ 
jo recoiMjuur- 

Je recoDstrni- 

je reeoadraiB 


Je recenvrini je reooavrirais 
je recueillerai 

Je rejoindrai 
Je rclnirai 
je renaitrai 
je reotrairai 
je renverrai 
je repaitrai 
Je lepoindrai 
Je me repenti- 

Jt npiodviimi 


je recneille- 

je rtdalrais 

je referais 

Je rejoindrais 


Je relnirais 

jo remetirais 

je remoudraia 

je renaitrais 

je rendormi- 


jo rentrairaia 

Je renTerrais 


je repartirais 

je repelndrais 

je me repcntJ- 
je reprondrais 


Inpkii ATirs. 






















Sovjuncrrra I IsmitrvcT. 


je reconnaiase 
je reconquiftre 

Je reoonatiti- 



je r6daiae 
Je relise 
je relaiae 
je remette 
je rendorme 
je rentraie 
Je rexiToie 
Je me repento 


jo rcco&niuM 


je recoQsiaae 


Je reoGorriai^ 
je rocoeilHaw 
je i<6dQiaian 
je rejoigniaae 
je relulaiaae 
je remiaae 
je remonliiaaf 
je reoaqniaae 
je rendormisae 

j6 renTo^aaat 


je reparttoe 

Je TOpeigniaao 

je me repen- 

jc repiodiii*- 

by Google 

xmsevii^By •srscfiT^ vsev&iAm 


to rtqture 

B^tOUMB, i. 

Ressbntie, 2. 

RlStORTIR, 2. 

(se) to remain 
ber. ref. 


4. to rei^rat j» 
Ektknir, 2. to 

Bbtrairb, 4. 

tc redeem 
Brvbhib, 2. to 

BicTtriB, a. to 

Rrviybr, 4. to 
live again 

Bbtoia, 8. to 
set again 

Bibb, 4. to 



anx. BToir 

PumciruBt. iMMCATirB. 

BOUTBIB, 2. to 

BAIU.IB, 2. to 


to satisfy 

0ATOIB, 8. to 




requiB,/. e. 
rtsolu, rtsooB 
reiM»ti, /. e. 
ressorti,/. 6. 
86 renouTe- 
sonvemi,/. e. 
restreint,/. e. 
retcna,/. e. 
retrait,/. e. 
revenu,/. e. 
rerAtii,/. e. 
reTu,/ e 

rompa,/. e. 

roiivert,_^ o. 

satlsikit f. e. 

Bu,/ e. 

Je requlera 
see Acautf BIB 


Je itsssens 



see 80BTIB 

Je me reasoa- 
je restreiiiB 


Je retieos 
see TEirm 

Je retrain 


Je reviens 
see TENiB 
Je rey^ts 
je reris 

Je revoii 
see TOIB 
n. rions 
V. riei 
ils rient 
Je romps 
ta rompa 
il rompfc 
n. rompoM 
V. rompez 
je ronvre 
see ocnrmm 
il aaflle 

je satisfkifl 
tee PAiBB 
n. aaraas 
T. aares 
ils aaTml 


farnHvacT. ^AtPs 

Je vtoolvaia 


Je VBflaortaia 

Je me reaatfii- 

je reatrei- 


je retfajaia 





ta rials 
n. rf iona 
▼. riies 
Ha riaient 
tu rompaia 
n. rorapiona 
T. rompieB 
ila rompaient 



ta aavaia 
n. aaviona 
V. aavies 
ila aavaient 




Je TfiBprntia 





je rerlDB 


JereTftcw ' 


n. rimea 
tu rompia 
il rompit 
n. rompimet 
V. rora{4teB 
ila rompirem 


n. attmea 
▼. aatCB 
ila attrent 


by Google 



Jo ro^ipflmi 



J61K16 resson- 




J6 Fcrlfindnl 

Js VBTifttini 

Jo vevlvnd 


fl rim 
n. ThtmB 
T. rires 
lit lirout 

n rompim. 
Q. romproDt 
T. rompres 
lis romproQi 
Je rouTrirai 





J6 ra<|iioi'nu8 
Je ressefntinii 
Je refliortiimiB 

▼. Mnres 









Je rerieiidnis 


Je TeYiTrAiB 


tXL rimis 
U riralt 
n. rliioDS 
▼ ririez 
tu romprai* 
n. wHiiprioiis 
T. rompries 
ill romprsient 



n. aanrioQA 
▼. sauries 
Je seconrrais 







q. rieat 

q. rompe 
q. rompeoi 





Jaiididiil jesldiilrtis 




Je r68ohe 






Je retrale 

Je reTiemie 



Je reroie 





r. riles 
ta rompes 
a rompions 
▼. rompies 
Je ronvre 

q. saille 

Je satisfssse 

Je sache 
va saches 
U sache 
n. sachloDs 
▼. sachies 
tif aachfii^t 




Je lesti el' 

Je ref^tlsw 


a lit 




T. TompkMiSB 
Us rampiMeii 

by Google 

XEUBf^uLAS, nsrsefiYB, TmovttAm 





Past. Danatrac 

Bembk, 1. to 




je aemai 

s^w. pec 

semi,/, e. 

8S2«TIR, 2. to 


Je sens 

Je aentafs 

Jo sentia 



tn sens 

tn soDtaiB 

tn sentia 



il sentait 

il aenm 

n. sentons 

n. BentioDS 

n. aentlmet 

V. sentcz 

V. aentSoE 

T. aentilea 


ilB Bentaieot 

iL5 aentirem 




U Beyait 




8£RYIR, 2. to 






servi, /. e. 

tn sera 

tn Berrais 



il aervait 


n. servobs 

n. aenrioQB 

n. aen'imes 

V. senres 

V. servies 

T. senritea 


lis aenraient 

ilB aomreiit 

BORTIR, 2. to 



Je aortaia 



8orti. /. e. 




Je BonflfVais 


stifir . 

Bonffert,/. e. 




je aonmets 

Je Bonmettaii 



Boumis,/. e. 


BOVRIRE, 4. to 







see RiRB 

BoUfCRlRE, 4. 



Je BooacriTaiB 




see tfcRiRE 


soostrait, /. e. 

Je BOQstrala 

Je Bonstrayida 





Je sontiens 

Je Bontenaifl 



aoatena,/. e. 

see TENiR 


re Bouvenaat 


je me aovrtLt 


souvenu,/. e. 

see TENIR 


BuBTsmR, 2. 


Je stibviens 

je snbyeoaiB 


U relieve 

subvenu, /. e. 

see TENIR 

BorriRE, 4. to 




JeaaiBa . 




tn snfBsats 

tn Buffla 

I MX. RTOir 


il Buffisait 



n. auffisoDS 

n. suffisioDB 


▼. sufHses 

▼. Biiffisiez 

V. anffitea 

iU snffisent 

lis BuflSsaient 

lis saffireDt 

BlTITRE, 4. to 


je suis 

Je BufvaiB 



BOiliJ. 0. 

tn suis 

tn Bnivais 

tu anivia 

wax. avoir 

il suit 

n Buivait 

il snivit 


n. snivons 

n. Buivions 

n. Bul\imea 

V. suivex 

T.- sniviez 

V. Buivftca 

ils snirent 

il9 Buiraient 

lis anivirent 



Je snrfais 

Je BurlkiBaia 



BUriklt,/ 6. 

see FAiRR 



Je Burprends 

Je Borprenali 


4. to fNfyrtof 

§ttrpiiB,f,t, . 



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-Alri» C»X»SBBO«AL Ta»>& (M 






je iteerals 




fe fentimi 

je Bente 


tu sentinls 


tu BCntCB 



il senUrait 

q. Bente 

il Bcnte 

il sentit 

D. S6DtlroilS 



n. Bcntions 

n. sentiBsiens 

T. icntires 

V. sentiries 


V. Bentiex 

▼. sentisBiei 

lb tentiroat 



ils sentent 

ilssentissent * 









tu seryirais 


tu series 

tu BeiTisses 


il servinrit 

q. Berve 

il serve 


D. wnrirons 

n. aeiririons 


n. servions 

n. BerriBsiooa 

V. serrxriez 


V. servies 

▼. servissiea 

III Berviroot 

ill terviiaient 

q. Beryent 

ils seirent 

Us BerviBBent 





Je lOttflHrai 









Je sonffVe 


Je Kmmettrai 





je Kmiiraif 

Je Bonrie 


Je MUBcrirfti 

je BOUBerifui 



je soQstrainuB 



je soQtlenne 




je me soQvieB- 



je nibTien<- 







je subvienne 

je suuvinsse 


je Buffise 


tn snffiraifl 


tu Bufflses 



il sttfflrait 

q. Buffise 

il Bttffise 

il rafftt 

D. suffirona 

n. saffiriona 


n. suffiBions 

n. snffissiont 

T. sufllres 

▼. raffiries 


▼. rafflsies 

T. sufflssiez 

i)t MiiBroDt 

ill raffiraient 

q. BuffiBeni 


ils suffissent 


Je raivrals 




tu sniTTais 


tu Buires 



il Buivrait 

q. Buive 

il Buive 

il raivit 


n. BuivrioDs 


n. suivions 

n. Buiviflsfons 

▼. BoiTres 

T. raivriez 


T. raivies 

T. Buhrlssiei 

lis nilTTont 

IIb rairralent 


Ils BttiTent 

lis rafrlsBent 




je sutftfcBse 


)• MupreiidTal 


je swpireiuie 




Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

88$ XEM#1TVA.«| l|r»t8«»»^'% MOIHlAm, 



MX. ftT<^ 




Tairb, M) 4. 
TbibtdrE) 4. U 

. Tbnib, 2. t^ 




TomvBR, 1. to 

ikiMder, nnip. 
Tbaduirb, 4» 






se taisuoA 
tu,/. e. 
tenu, /. e. 







t0 iratucribe 

4. to transmU 


- VaHCCRK, 4 <0 

BOX. Bvoir 

^ Valoir, 8. to 
BUZ. BYoir 

Tbmibi X A. 





trBOsmis, /. e. 




▼Binoa,/. ew 



▼wwij/. e. 

tn sarBois 
il snrsoit 
n. ianoyoDt 


Je sarvieBfl 
je BonrtB 


Jeme tBiB 
jae PLAiRB 
je tefoB 
je tiens 
n. tenons 
▼. tenez 
lis tiennenft 
il tonne 



ta trais 
a trait 
n. tiayoQB 
y. trayez 
je transcris 
see icRiRB 
je transmets 




je YBinos 
n. Tainqnoiis 
▼. TBinqnez 
ilfl yainqnent 
tu vanx 
U vant 
n. ybIohb 
▼. tbIob 
Je Tiens 


to snxBoyaiB 
il sniBogfEll 
B. sofsoyioiiB 
Us BUBoyaieiit 




n. tenions 
V. tenies 
ils tenaient 
a toonalt 

Je tradnlBBiB 


to trayais 



▼. trayies 

ViE trayaient 

je tranacriTBlB > 



T. sarslteB 
ilB snniraiil 
Je sarriiiB 





to tins 



T. tintflB 




Je treBsailUdfl 

tn vainqnalB 
il yainquidt 
B. TBinqnioBB 
▼. vainquifiB 




n. vaHoBB 

T. TBlles 




Je' TainqiiiB 
to YBinqnla 
n. TainqniiMB 
T. TainqniteB 

ils vainqoaie&t ils vainqnlron 

Je yalns 

to tsIbb 







by Google 

As» ••ifikftotr^l Titftt. f H 



ta sureeoiras 
U turaeoim 
XL mnedtrou 
T. saraeoirez 
Os snneolroat 

Je ffuriTral 


is ttcndnil 
TO tiendru 
B. tiendrona 
T, tiendrea 
Us tiendront 
II tomiera 

Je tmdnirai 

ta trairaa 
B. trairont 
▼. trairea 
Je tramcriral 

Je tranamet- 
Je tteaaalUini 


Je yafaicrai 
n. TalncroDa 
▼. yaincrea 
Hb Taincront 
Je vaudiai 
ta vaadnu 
tL Taadrona 
▼. vaadrez 
Ha Taadront 

Je ntraeoirait 
ta saraeoirais 
il saneolrait 
n. aaneoirioos 
▼. saneolriez 

Je lanirraia 


Je tehidraia 

Je tiondrais 
ta tiendrab 
n. tiendriona 
y. tiendries 
!la tiendralent 
il toimeraH 

Je tradoirab 

tu trairaifl 
a. trairiona 
V. trairiez 
ila tndraient 
je iraDflcrirala 

Je traoamet- 


Je yafncraJa 
ta yaincraia 
D. Taincrioiia 
y. Taincriez 
ila yafncraient 
Je vaadrais 
ta yaadraia 
il yaadrait 
n. yaadriona 
r. yaodriea 
iia Taadraient 

q. saraoie 
q. sonofe&t 



q. tiena6 



q. tieime&t 

q. toime 


q. trafe 
q. traient 




q. Tainqne 
yainqaona « 
q. Tainqnent 

q. Tafflent 

Je saraoie 
ta saraoies' 
il sanoie 
n. aaraoyloiia 
V. sanoylez 
ila aanolent 

Je Biurvive 




je saniMe 
tu saraiaaea 
il surslt 
n. sarsittioDM 
V. aaniaslea 
Ila saniaMiii 



Je tetgne Je iAgdbm 



n. '^nniooa 
V. tbiaaiei 
ila tioaaent 

ta tieonea 
a. teniona 
q. tonne 


Je traie 
ta tndea 
fl tnie 
n. trayiona 
V. trayiea 

Je tranamette 


levafaiqae - 
il vafnqae 
n. vainqaiona 
▼. Tainqaiez 
ila yainqoent 
n. yaliona 
T. Taliez 
Je Tienne 




Je tranamiiae 


ta TainqniaBes 
H Taioaalt 
y. yahoqaiflaiei 
i Tainqaiasenl 
Je yalosBe 
ta valaaaea 


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BM imKB«vxAai dbvbctiti^ FSoir&tAB 





Past. DsmRia 

ytn», 2. <• 



Jo T4tala 



vdta,/. e. 



tu TAtia 

aux. aroir 



il TAtit 


n. vAtons 

n. vAUona 


V. vAles 

V. vdtfea 

T. vAtitca 


ila vAUiont 

ila TAtireot 



le mo YAta 

Jo movAtala 


l^eftfOc one*! 

T6tu./. e. 




tdf. ref. 

Vrro, 4. f9 










fl Tit 




n. virona 

n. viyiona 


V. rivei 

V. viviea 

T. YAcAtea 


ila TiTent 

ila viTaient 


Tom, 8. t0 



Je voyaia 

Jo via 



to voia 


ta via 

anx. aroir 


il voyaii 



n. Toyona 

n. voyiona 

n. vtmot 

V. voyiea 

T. vitea 

ila voient 

lis voyaicnt 

ila viront 

TouLora, 8. &» 



Jo Toulala 

Jo TonliyB 





tu Toolna 



il Tonlait 

11 roalot 


n. Tonlona 

n. vonliona 

n. voiildnMs 

7. Tootes 

V. vonliex 

r. Tonldtei 






by Google 

▲"«]>. VirirtESOllJkL TBftBB. 






BDBJimc nvB. 


je vdtirai 

je vdtiraia 


je vAtisse 

ta v6tiras 

ta T6Hrais 


tu v^tes 

tu vdtisses 

U v6tira 

a vdtirait 

q. T^te 

11 vdte 

il vdttt 

n. v6tirons 

n. vdtirions 


n. vdtioDS 

n. vdtissionf 

T. Tdtirez 

V. vAtiriejs 


V. vdtiez 

V. v6ti88iez 

i)8 vdtiront 

ils vdliraient 

q. v4tent 

ils v6tent 

lis vMisseni 

je me Yhtkai 

je me vAtiraia 

Je me vAte 








je Yimis 

je Vive 



tu vivraia 


tu vivei 

tu vteusset 

11 vivra 

U vivrait 

q. Tire 

il Vive 


D. vivroDS 

n. vivriona 


XL ViviOM 

n. v^cussioDs 

T. y\vnz 

r, Tiyriei 


V. viviei 

V. v^cussiez 

lis vivront 

ils Tivraient 

q. TiTcnt 

lis vivent 


je verrai 

je verrais 

je voie 


tu Terras 

tu verrais 


tu voies 

tu visses 

il verra 

U Terrait 

q. vole 

il voie 

11 v!t 


n. verrioDS 


a voyions 

n. vissions 

V. verrca 

V. verriez 


V. voyiez . 

V. vissiez 

Sl8 verront 

ils rerraient 

q. voient 

ils voient 

ils vissent 

je roadrai* 

je voudrais 

. . ' 

je veuiUe 

Je voulnsso 

tu Toiidras 

tu Toudrais 

v<- " ' < ' c 

tu veuilles 

tu voulusse* 

il vondra 

il voudrait 

il venille 

il voumt 

n. Toudroos 

n. youdrions 

n. voulioDS 

n. voulussiona 

T. voudrei 

T. voodrlea 


V. vonliei 

V. voulussiei 


Us ToudraieBt 

Us veuUlent . 


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M3' wmn FA^Aficxf iia<-^ia,M»M,M. 

2 69.— Tat PAsnoiFLs. 

(1.) T%» partidple is so-called, Tieeanao it puticipatM of the a^ 
tore both of the verb and of the adjeetiTe. It pertaikee of the natare 
of the Torbi in' heviog its signifieation and regimen, and of the Da« 
tore of the wiQective in relating, like the latter, to noons attd pro- 

(S.) There aie two sorts of participles; the present and Hie past 
§ 64. — Tm PAanoiPLi Pkrssjo!. 

(1.) The participle present, which denotes conlSmianee of setion 
answers to the English participle in vtg, 

(3.) This particii^e is invariable ; alwajs teiuiiiBlifaig in «nf ; aa, 

Shantaat, ttngv^ ; finissant, /itM^if^ ; reoerant, reetiving ; vendaat, 


nne dame marehmUj a laiiywOcmg; 

des hommes marchml^ men walHng, 

Jkavt seen ike winds r fo rim g mmr 
those superb karoestSf rwi «jp ikt 
grain, and contend for tke ' 

J'ai vn lea Tents grondani snr oas 

moissona auperMa, 
P^raciner lea bI6s, ae diapnter lea 

gerbea. Pelille. 

§ 65. — ^Ybbbal Amsotiteb indino in ant, 

(1.) The verbal adjective in ant ezpreaaes merely the condltion» 
the manner of being, the quality of the nonn. It never denotea ae> 

(a.) Thia adjective variea in gender and number. We give below 
ezamplea of the same worda, uaed aa participles and as adjectives:-^ 


Une ftmme obiigeante eat aimie 
4s tout le monde. 

An obUging woman is loved by 
wery person. 

lies tribua errantes de T AfHqne. 

The wandering (vibes of Afnca, 

^pX aoient proprea k Tdtude 

nature. Beenabdin db St. Piebrb. 

AJedunuUe natwres {disposiUons) 

mUy, are JU for the siudy of nabiiire. 


Une femme obhgeant tout )e 
monde eat gen^ralement aimde. 

A woman obliging every body u 
generally loved. 

Lea tribua errant daua rAfVi^ne. 

The tribes wanderiTig in Afnca, 

n n'y a que lee natures atmantes Lea naturea aimant la aolitade^ 
de de la ' aiment g6n6ralcment r^tude. 

Natures {dispositions) loving sdi» 
tude^ are in general fond of study. 

§ 66.— The Pabticiplk Fast. 

(1.) The participle past denotes the completion of the action, 
(a.) It is susceptible of variations for gender and number. 
(8.) The participle past, used without sn auxiliary, agrees in gen* 
dsr Mid number with the nonn which it qualifies, whether tlie aomi 


by Google 

preeedes or foDowv. In short, all that wa baTO uad of the agre^ 
ment of the a4ioetiTe with the noon, may bo a|yplied to thla par- 

desenlhntBeMKi^ bdovedekOdnnf 

dea fbinmea esfm^ . esUtmed^wpmin t 

Comme una lan^e d'or dana ramr LUx a goldm lamp iu^endtd m 

mspendvet the azun wnitt, the mooit Mmntn 

La lone se tMdanoe aoz borda do hendf in ikt eoiifinet of ike kmaiont 

lOtoriaon; her wt a kmed rmys aUep m tkt imf, 

Bea rayona afniHs dorment sor k 


(4.) For fbrthorraloa on the partteiplepaat^aeo Syntax, { lH«i^ 

g 67.— Ths Adtxr^. 

* (1.) The adverb ia an invariablo woid Joined to verb% dQeetiTea^ 

or to other adTerba, to modify their signification. 

(SL) Adverba are divided into aeven elaaaea: — 

1. Of manner; doooement, softly ; Mement, trigdf ; dee. 

9L Of order; premidrement, JMg a'abord, aiJMt enmilte, ^ 

tenMrds; dba 
9* Of phwe; ici, ken i od, whent Ik, Umef affleon, ab»- 

Vfkereg dpo. 

4. Of tfane; bier, yesierdof! wj^oarA'htA, Uhdofg detiiain, to- 

merromt &o. 

5. Of qnantlty ; pen, HUkg trop. too wmtokf tani» eo mtMl; Aa 

6. Of 60ii4»ri8on; plus, wtom moina, lessf trie, veij, 

7. Of affiimatioii, ne- ooi, fee ; oartea, eertaktlfg non, no ; naOeaMn^ 
gation and doubt; bff no m t m nt g pent-tee, ^fr^pi; ne, pea, >otot> 

noig dte. 

(8.) A fbw a4}ectbea are aometimea uaed adverbially. They aio 

then invariable >^ 

chanter /MSte, to timfin iume ; 

ooAtercAcr, toeoddean 

parler hmU^ to speak loud. 

(4.) Several worda united together, and having the force of an ad 
forbt are called an adverbial phraae : — 

tont-lir-ooap, suddentpg 
pen-arpen, by degrees ; 

tont-il-llieiire, immediately g 

de-tempe en-tempe, now and tken, Ae. 

§ 08. — ^FoRMATioir OF Advxrbs vrom Adjxcttvxs. 

(1.) Adverbo ending in manf, may be finrned from a^jeetiveektho 
following manner >- 

(8.) When the a4jective ende in the ttMevlifte witl a voweli wm$ 
n added to form the advtib9— 

^"^^ Digitized by Google 

AdjeeHve, Adoerk. 

QtUe^ useful i atilement, utefuUfi 

poll, polUes polimont, poUtet^t 

9ia6, easjfg ahdment^ easiiy, 

(3.) Exceptions, 

bean, beautiful: bellement, * beofuHfuUfi 

foa, fooUaki follcment, fooUMiff 

moQ, «;/{; moUement, sofUvs 

noavean, uewf noaTellemcnt, newif r 

teaitre, treaekenuii traitreosemeiiti treackeromdf, 

4.) When the acy^^^^® ^^^ ^° ^^ mascaline with a conaonan^ 
the ayUable maU is added to its feminine termination : aS| 
masc. fern, 

boo, l)onne, good; bomieinent, m a good mtmner f 

donz, donee, toft; doacement, MofUy; 

henrenx, heurense, luippp; henrensement^ kappUy, 

(5.) A^eetives endrng in itf, change that termination into awiotf >-i* 
pradent) prudeiU; pnidemment^ prudenUfg 

616gant, digmnl; 6l6gamment, degatUhf. 

lent, sbw; lentement, dowlyi 

pr£flent, present; prfisentement^ presently, 

(6.) The following adverbs require an acnte accent otw the a pN» 
ceding mentt which e is mute in the fu^'ective :— 

avengl6ment, bUndhf; 

eommod^menti eommodioudy; 

commun6ment, commonly; 

coo(bnn6ment^ confrrmMy; 

coiifbs6ment» eoyusedty; 

diffus^ment, digusdy; 

teorm^ment) enorvumdy; 

ezpresrtment, expresdy; 

importun^mcnt, tmportumeeUiy t 
inooipmod^ment, incomm odi ous g 

obacurftment, obsoMrdy; 

opiniatr6ment^ obSt i naUiy / 

pr6ci86ment, preciseby ; 

profond6ment^ profoundly. 

§ 69. — ^DxoRsxs or Signification in Advsbbs xNDXNa nr 


(1.) Adverbs ending in menly are, like all the adjectives from which 
fhey are formed, susceptible of three degrees of signification \ the 
positive, the comparative, and the superlative. 

(2.) The first expresses the manner simply. 

(3.) The second expresses it in a degree of equality, superiaritf, 
or inferiority, by adding to the adverb the words, si, so; aussi, «f , 
plus, more; moins, less, 

(4.) Tlie third, by the addition of the words bien, tr^s, fort, verf^ 
eanies tliat significi^on to the highest degree. 

§ 70. — ^AdvSRBS making of THXMSELVBS a COMPASISOV. 

S??2^ \i^ iks seme smu* I ^^ S^^' 

d by Google 

Digitized t 

»BSP0tXTf0 9S«^72, 


Moms, las,-. 

Mieiuc ' btUa-f 

Pta, irtfr« / . 

Trte, vtnt; 

Ni plus ni moinf, neMer mort %ar 


Pour le plus, 
Tout an plus, 
A qui mieux 

Do mienx ei 



t vying wUkmii 
I anatkers 

§ ^1. — The Prkposition. 

(1.) The prepoaitioD is an invuiable word used to express the M« 
lations of things. 

(3.) The preposition conreys by itself no distinct meaning; Thft 
preposition and the word whieh it governs, form what is called an 
indirect regimen. 

g 92. — ^Tablb of ths P&incipal Pbzpositions. 

• A cause de, 
Attends, Tn, 
Anprto de, 









Bn dcfi de, 

Do de^i, par 

A Pdgard de, 

to, aif in; 



on aeeonni ofg 


aioulj around i 

before {earUer) / 


at the houti off 



fromr, afters 


of, from, wUh / 

ieyond, on thai 

since, fort 
behind s 

before, opposUe; 
in, at,tO} 
"k this sides 


S towards; 

about $ 






Loin de, 

Le long de, 












\%ntil, asfatroit 

far from s 


in spUe ofs 

by means of s 

nojwithttandit^i ' 

besides s 

by, through s 

before, {lawtorm}t 

amot^, amongsis 



neaTt dose by i 

Proche, proche de,iitfar by; 











Vis-arvis de. 


according tos 
according tot 
iupon, on; 
towards, tag 

(2.) The prepositions are divided into several elsises. 
(8.) Among those denoting phiee are^ 

r Ce n'eit qa'mUaar de faii que vole la vlotoira^ 


M^l^^^gmJ ^^mm^ ^M^^^M &rfM^Hff# MAJKA0Sff 

^■v^VIW MUM MfVIW MV^PtV vl^Vr^. 


by Google 




ObM, inM; 

iflD, «A«r lii eMtleni tat Mran foii lnoQ» 


i ilnu^ Ckruiiam,Ji9uiayy ih» manmen Ofv iiHMeral. 
Chez moD ptee, o^ myfatkn's k^ue. 
Rome n'e^t pliifl itoiu Kome. Couibilu. 

Rome U no tongff in Romg, 
^Parmi les'rocfien, vers le mSUeQ de ow m<mUiCM« 

e8Cftrp66t. Ptfi^MMi. 

iiflum^ titf fwdkf, tMMTds tke mtddU of tkom Jtay 

L'autel oovfwt d9 feux, tombo et fWt, imu ta 

terre. Voltamb. 

TIktf Attar «Mir«4t wUkfin^faUi mU Umppmrs «»- 

Lea riches ne Kmt jiir ta teire que poor fUre d« 

Uml Finiunr. 

7)U fifii «rv jri«af4 #» tff Mr<4 «cr«i|r <^ 4* /r«iML 

(4.) Some, denoting time, aro— 

Portnt^ (iliiri«r- (l>t<')Mi^tamdt^eQen'apolBldonBL Ooucbiua 
Pendanl» ) *^Y» \ During the nigki ski has had «# jIm^ • 

(6.) Some mark plaee and time, aa:*- 
V^from; CDteOrMana; MiBaMoroe. L' 

%i at the 
nam, in; 

Van, fiwardlf ; 

floua, wulir; 

Trma Orleans ; ^ma ito jMMve. 

ii'bomme, <2a< ea naJMance, a le lentiment dn plaUr 

et de la donlenr. MAasuxoN. 

Man from his Hfth has the sensation o/pUasnre and 

fUMMk 4^mm^ . «i.^ . \^ France 8^4tend dejnds le Bhin jasqu'a rOoten. 
'V^fSLi\^ t'AciiAaa. 

^'■**'^ I JVa9u»otead:i/rYm(A</2iUMt0lAeQ0iai». 

En Orient, en Ooddent, depvis denx mifle ana on 
H /iiMcA ne parle que d' Alexandre. MAiaiLLON. 

\nmgg} ' inthe Sast,inthe West, since tmo tkousatid ffsan^ 
^ they speak continuaUy of Alexander. 

Dttu, en, aona, vers, die, may alao be placed under thia head. 
(6.) Some prepoaitiona mark order; aa:— - 


(at an earUer timef)4 

Satie, htiwseng 
VflRiiirei bMndf 


La copaciepce novaaTertit, en aaal, awuU de nona 
pnnir. Staxooljm, 

, Consdenee foams ns, as a friend, before ptinishing «f . 

' Je crahia Dien, et apris jMeo. Je oraina principale- 
ment oelnl qni ne le eraint pas. Sadi. 

Ifear Qod, and, after God, Ifea/r p ri n cip a lly the mam 
who does not fear him. 

'Lliomme eat plao6 libre entre le vice etla yerto. 


Man is placed free between vice and wrtue, 
'11 ae met Untfonra derriftre oebii qoi parle. 

Li BauTfiaa. 
£Rr places himsdf aUoays behind the speaker, 
Faia aMudier devant ioi Tai^ ezteimfaiatear. 

,9tnd h^sn thee the mimmimKfimg ongeL 


by Google 

tmiLF^MlttOWi^ fS. 

(7) T!it pfepoatCionB marking unioa, are, 

Oatre, Aouicir; 

JbnepU, except ! 



Je yeuzTivre avec elle, avec elld ezpirer. 

^/ urtS livewith her, die icUh her. 
Oulrt restime de 8oi-m6me, IlioimAte hcnmiM 
pondde eneorid Testinie et la confiance unhwiw 

Belles. IfARMOMTHi. 

BesUeiKff-edeem.the honest mtm possesses waveruii 
tskemand cot^^uitnos. 

(8.) Thcwe of Bepaiation, exception, are :-- 

11 traTaOle tonte la semaiDe, excepU le dkaaaebi^ 

He works ike whole ideek^ except Sunday. 
Hbrmu toi, tout le monde est content. 
AU are pieased^ except yoti, 
Nol n'ania de I'esprit, hors nous et nos amis. 


No one skaU have wU but ourselves and ewrfritnds. 
Point de verta jov religion, point de Donheiif 

sans Tertn. Diderot. 

No tirUu without religion, no happiness without 


On pent tout sacrlfler k ramiti6, stsuf llionnAteti 

et la Justice. M aetmontbu 

We may sacr^UeoQ to fiioTidship, except honesty and 

(9.) Tka prepoiitions of opposition are :— 

Le travaU est nne meillenreressom'ce umln renanl 

que le plaisir. Trublbt. 

iMor is a tetter resource against ennui tham 

Nona soivrons nuUgri nons le Tainqnenr de Lesboa. 

We shaU fiOow against our wiU the conqueror cf 

La y6rit6 nonobstant le pr^ogi, Ferrenr et la 

mensonge, se fkit jour & la fin. Marmontbu 
TYuthf pr^udice^ error and faJMfiod notwOhstandm 

ing, comes at last to Ught. 

(10.) The prepoaitionB of conformity are : — 

La terre, cette bonne mdre, mnltiplie sea dooa 

sdon le nombre de ses enfknts. FtficiLON. 

The earthy thai good mother ^ muiUpUes her gifts ac 

cording to the nwmber of her children, 
Les talents prodnisent suivant la cnltnre. 

^ Talents produce according to their cultivation, 

(11.) Several woxda phoed together and performing the part 9i » 
preposition, are called a prepositional phrase : — 

1 regard da^ wUkngmrdtof 

rfkvtnt de, in favor ^t 

la reserve de, rsmrpingf ^, 

Digitized byCjOOQlC 


Kooobstant) notwUk- 



§ 78. — ^Thb Conjunctioit. 

(1.) 3onjaiictl >xia are invariable words whieh serve to eonnetl 
words and sentences. 
(3.) French grammaiiam divide the eonjonetiona into oiiie 

I Copulative: 

et, and; ni, nor; que, that ; de soite que, m 

that; ^10. 
vaia, but; qaoiqne, thovgh; cependanti 

yet; dwj. 
ouy or ; on Ijen, else ; ni, neither ; dtc 
aavoir, namely; comme, as; c*est-di^-direi 

that is to say; dtc. . 
qnaod, lorsque, when; pendant qne, loAtZe, 
si, ^; sans qnoi, vriihmd which ; aappos^ que, 

supposing that ; iiu^ 
car, for; puisque, einoe; ponrqnoi, tpAy, 

wherefore; dtc 
or, done, therefore ; ainsi, tikm ; d'aiUeiii% 

hesiAes; iic 

^ qtte,/fta^ 


(8.) We here present a list of the conjunctions and conjonetive 
phrases most commonly aaed in French. We ^dll divide them iote 
two classes. 

1. Conjunctions and conjunctive phrases which may be plaord la 
the first or in the second part of a period :— 

% Adversative, 

8 Disjunctive, 
4 £2xpIanatory, 

6 Circumstantial, 
6 Conditional, 

"} Causal, 

8 Transitive, 

8 Determinative, 

A cause que, 
A moins que, 
Aussitdt que, 
Au cas que, 

Ainsi que, 

Aprte que, 

Attendu que, 

Afin que, 
Au rcste, 
Avant que, 

Cependant que^ 
De crainte que, 
De m6me que, 
Pe peur que, 
Dopnis que, 
Desorte que, 
Durant que, 
En cas que, 

because i 


as soonas; 

in case tkat^ if; 

after that; 

asy as well as ; 


in order that ; 


before that, sooner 

for fear that, lesti 
in the same way as; 
for fear thaif test; 
since that; 
so that; 
in ease thai; 

Jusqu'& ce que, 
Ou bien. 
Outre que. 
Pendant que, 
Parce que, 
Pourvu que, 


Sans que, 
Sit6t que, 
Soit que, 
SI ce n'est que. 
Suppose que, 
Tant que, 
YA que, 

if when; 
OTf dse; 
besides that g 
provided ; 
since ; 
if when; 
although, thought 


provided thai; 

supposing that; 
provided that; 



by Google 

IV9B8JS0T10S8ir--| U. 

8. Tlie eoDJiinctions and conjanctire phrases which nsaally cpiM 
between two parts of a sentence, or at the commencement of a dii* 
i momvatarily interrapted» are ^-^ 

Anssi bien qae, as well as ; 

Aprds toat, neveriheless t 

A condition qne, on condition (hatf 

Au snrplnSi 
C'est ponrqaoi, 



£n cfTet, 

Et puis, 



Par con86q«ent» 


Sans quoi, 




besides i 
that is to say: 
that is; 
for, becofULSe; 

See (iesson 100— Examples on the different uses of conjunctiona» 

in fact; 





however ;[ 

unless that; 

to wits 



§ 14. — ^Intkbjbctions. 

(1.) The inteijections indicate some sudden affection or emotion 
of the mind. They are exclamations which seem to take the place 
of entire propositions. 
(S.) Some imply astonishment :^ 

( Beanx arts, eh I dans quels lieuz n'a?e»-voas droit 
AH I *ii I A« t de plaire. Dblillb. 

Aa.eni«c i Fine arU, ah !in what place have fou not aright ta 

1 please, 

(3.) Some express derision, irony, distrust, die. :— - 
iMB^akOndeedi ( Ouais I ce maltre d'annes vous tient big w OBur. 
Ooi da, truly, dec. lA^Undeed! this fencing master di^ileases yon wick. 

(4.) Others express contempt, aversion and disapprobation : — 

VA(n I n»iUL'u w/A A^ S Foiu du loup st do sa race I La Fontaimi* 


ToatheiLXil softly! j Tout beau, monsieur; tout beau I 


\SufUy, sir; softly! 

(6.) We shall cany no further this classification, but content our* 
selves with giving a ust of the most usual interjections :^- 

Ah! ah! Oht oh! 

AMI eigh! OuaisI aJi,indeed! a»,$ol 

Bah! bah! OufI eigh! 

Chut I silence! hist! Paf! crack! 

Shi eh! St! hist! 

Fi! fy! Sust quick^f! 

Oare! taleecaret ZestI quickly! 

Ha! ha! Fidonct fytheni 

H61as alas! Ho 9a! hoUa! 

Heul * Idas! H^bienl now then! 

HoUl hoBa! Bhbien! weUthmt 

Hoi ho! Ouidal tnOy! 

Hem! hem! Or9&! quidilfi 

Hdn! • €h! Tout beau! tofUy! 

HnnI hmmt Bflenoe! Faix! WMf 


by Google 

^.,'. ♦-'• 

(1.) Syntax treata of the agrcementi gOTenmienti aad i 
of words in twtonces. 

(3.) One word is said to agree with another* when it takae the 
same modifieation of gender, nnraber, and peraon. 

(3.) One word govema another, when by the iniknue of tlw 
former the latter ia made to aaanme a particular form or place. 

(4L) Thi^prbper arrangement of words conaisU hi plaong them m 
the order aanctioned by grammatical rules, deduced ftom the best 
reputable cuatom. 

(6.) For the cases adopted by the modem tVench grammarian^ 
the student is referred to ( 3, and ^ 4a, (2.) (8.) (4.) (5.) 

§ 16. — ^Thk Nouk.-^Placs or Nouirs. 

(1.) In French, as well as hi Engliah, a noun used m the sab|eet 
or nonunatiye of an affirmative or negative seottenee, gepinliy pfo- 
ithevetb: — 

takes ^p^ 

.Vkomme le plus obsenr aims la 
liberty. Ghatbaubkiand. 

VejpSrance tient lieu des biens 
q^u'elle promet La CHAxrsstfE. 

(SL) In poetry and in elevated prose, the subject is 
pbced after the verb: — 

Ome takes the flact aftk$ bn^ 

n n'est point de noblesBe, oik 
manque la verttL CntauA/ns, 

La fortune est k cralndre oik 
manque la aageste. BouasAULT. 

Wktrt wisdom is vanitmg, for' 
Ums is to Ufiared, 

(8.) In intoijected sentences, that is, in sentences which we^ 
while repeating the words of a person, ihrcitD among other sentence^ 
to indicate that person as the speaker; the subject, in French, nuul 
always follow the verb : — 

Heureuz, disaU Mentor ^ le peuple 1 Happy, said MetUor^ tko poopU 

qui est conduit par un sue roi ! I who are governed by a win king, 

(4^) In intorrogatiye sentences, the noun generally precedes the 

verb which must be immediately followed by a pronoun eorreqK>nd» 

Ing in gender, number and person with the noun : — 

ItfflMriest-cBf unmall LatTtej IsdeaJtkwi^ ewU7 bUfralmn^ 
est-«Uf unbieni CsisiLLON. 1^7 lAUnXLj, thath^isUamevdi 

(6.) When the aenteaee commences with one of the followh^ 
wvwds, oA, tD&erv; que, what; eombicn, haw wmA; qiurd* uihm^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

%T»»4|C #F m^VM%'-ri1ik 


jtwdiMe with tlM latt nik^— 

aftor th« Mrik w to ae. 

Mertyttrefdf*? or 
Ot Totre ^^ est-il 1 
Mail que lert «» low rignt, k 
' qmil oe aoit beaaf 


Of vkai Kjv ii a Zmt mifik Imi- 

<e.) Th6noiin,iiaedaaadii«etregj«Mn»haatiiaauDefkeaiiitlia 
aanteoff} in Franeh aa in English:— 

La fi»oe fbnde, ateod et main- 1 Power fimnds, extauU amd wum^ 
tiant nn cMfirv. Savbin. | taint an emfire. 

' La malheiir ijovie vn 

btstm k la gloire dea grandu horn- 

mea. Tistaos. 

ATea-Tons donna let Uvres k men 
Mrel QiEAULT DuTirxsa. 

(7.) When there aroi in the same aentence, two novna, oi^ need 
aa direet, the other aa indJreet regimen, and thoae noma with the 
arorda qualifying qr modifyiag them»are of equal length, the dbreet 
legiaien ehonld precede the indirect :— * 

gUfry of great mei^ 

Bow fim gwen ike hooks to mm 


(8.) When, however, the qaalifying or explanatory woida render 
the direct regimen longer than the indirect, the r^gune indirect ia 
placed first:--* 

ATea-vons donna d num frdre les 
Uores qne Tons lui ayiea promis 1 

Les hypocrites psrent dee dekors 
^'UrexiXL les meet ki plus konieux, 


Have you given my trotker tki 
booitf WMck you had promited km? 

ffypocrUet adorn loUh the appear* 
once of virtue, the vtott thameful 

(9.) The indirect regimen precedea the direct regimen, when tha 

meaning would otherwiae be doabtful :— - 

Tichez de ramener par la dou- 1 TYy to hrinf baek^ by miidiMfl^ 
eiuir oes esprUt igarSs. I these erring spiritt. 


Any other conatniction would render the sentence oquiToeuL 

(10.) In English, the name of the possessor frequently precedes 

the name of the object possessed; and the two are connected by 

veana cf 'a (the old Saxon genitiTe termination). In French the 

order ia ahraya diflTerent The name of the object precedea that of 

the possessor, and the connecting link ia a prepoiition : — 

LealbresdenMmaasL I My friend^t books. 

Tons ayea tu la montre de ma | You have teen my titter^s vatol. 

• TftdsmMlalBobel 

Iha i«#Bsa diraelii shfirtat fkm 

by Google 

Digitized t 


MtSrXX 09 tBS JLKTtOlt.-*-^ 7T. 

(11.) The name of an object always preeedea the taaine of Hn 
rabataxjce o# which it is fonned, or which it contains. Tho prepoi^ 
tion de comes between them >— 

A marble tdUe. 

Pranu has many marUe quarria. 

Une table de marbrc. 
La France a beaucoap de ca 
riftrcs de marbre. 
Un boutcille de Tin. A botOe of i 

(13.) The word representing an individual always precedes that 

describing his particular occupation, or the meichandlae of which he 

idisposes: — 

Un mattre de dense. | A dancing master. 

Vn maitre de langnes. | A teacher of langiM^es. 

Un marchand de drap. | A draper , or dealer xn doth, 

(18.) The name of a vehiele, boat, mill, etc., always precedes the 
noun representing the power by which it is impelled, or the purpose 
40 which it is adapted. The connecting i»eposition is generally d .«'— 


A mstrmUt. 


A steam carriage. 

A steamboai, 

A two horse carriage, 

(14.) The name of an object precedes the noun representing its 
particular produce, use, or appendages, &c. A generally connects 
these nouns :— - 

Un moulin-a-vent 

Un monlin-a-fariue, 

Des moiilios-a-eau. 

Une voituro-Qrvapeur. 

Un bati>an-&-vapeur. 

Uno voiturc a deux choTaux. 

Le goAt du iVnitde Varbre d pain 
reasemble celui de I'artichant 
Bernasdin de 8t. Pierse. 

lie nom de vertu, dans la bouche 
de oertaines personnes, fkittressail- 
lir comme le grelot du serpent d 
sanneties. Mme. NacKaa. 

Les bUes d comes ne sont pas si 
nombreuses que les bites a lauie. 

La 8slle4i-manget. 
Du bolvd-brikler. 
Un verro-i-eau. 

See ^ 81, (2.) 

7T^ taste eftkefnat of the bread- 
tree resembles that of the arUehabe. 

The name of virtae in the motUk 

tsertain persons makes one shud^ 
', like the noise of the raUk-snake^ 

Homed animals (neat cattle) tsn 
not so numerous as sheep {wool ofii- 

Tne dining room. 

Fire wood. • 

A water glass, L 9. glass for wattr^ 

§ 77. — ^Ths Article. — ^Uss of the Articls. 

(1.) The article* must be used in French before every noun eik 
ployed in a general sense, or denoting a whole species of oliiiects; 
although in similar cases, the article is not used in English. Ex. >-« 

* The student will recollect that the French have only one srtide, k, 
the woid iM being by modem French frammaitons, veiy properly tHam^ 
ed with the numeral a4iectives. 


by Google 


Lcr biciifltitf peitTwt ftont snr 

■nc ime bien o£e. Vultairs. 

L'honneur, aux ^nds €0sar8, est 
pliiH jher qae la vio. CoRKEiLrji. 

La honto suit toi^ours un liche 
d^vespoir. CRiBiLLON. 

(2.) The article is used in French, as in English, before a noun 
denoting a particular object, or taken in a particular senoe >— 

Bene/Us am o/i p&mmfid wlA • 

loeU disposed mind. 

Honor istoUh maffnanimous kearti 
more precious than life, 

Skam/s always follows a cnnurdljf 

' i> bonheur des m6chant8 comme 
vn toreui 8*6coule. Bacins. 

Ii-arbrissean lo plus sain a be- 
■oiB de culture. 


/> moment du p6ril est celui du 
courage. La Habpb. 

TV happiness of the wicked nmi 
away Uke a torrent. 

ne hfiiUMfit dt^vb needs nfffiwi 

Tie time ef perU is ike time fw 

(3.) The article is used before the names of eountries, provineesi 
rivers, winds and mountains:— 

La Franco est bom^e an midi 

rr ks Pyr6n6e8 et la M6diterraD6e ; 
Test par la Suisse et la Savoio ; 
an nord par la Belfiqae et k Tonest 
parrOo6an. Bes pnncipales riYidres 
•ont la Meuso, U Rhin, la Seine, la 
Loire, la Qaronne et le Rhone. 

Franceis bonnded en the south hf 
the Pyrenees and the MediierrO' 
nean: on the east by Switzerland 
and Savoy; on the north by BeU 
giuMj and on the west by Uui Onean, 
lis principal rivers are ike Meuse^ 
the Rhine, the Seine, the Loire^ the 
Garonne and the Rhone, 

(4.) Those countries which take their name from their capital, or 
•ome other city within their boundaries, take no article: — 

?iapUs est un pays d61icieux. 
Venise 6tait un 6tat puissant 
New York est un €tat sain. 

Naples is a deUghtful country 
Venice was a powerful state. 
New York is a heaUky staU. 

(6.) The French use the article before titles prefixed to names i^ 

Le g6n6ral Cayaignac 
Le president Bonaparte. 

General Cavaignacf 
President Bonaparte* 

(6.) The article is also used before the names of dignities, of cer- 

tain bodies, systems of doctrine, and with other words mentioned 

l>elow: — 

Lamonarchie, monarchy f A I'^cole, at schools 

Leparlement, parliament; Aucolldge, at college; 

Le gouromement, government ; Au march6, at, to market t 

Le christianisme, ChrisHamty g Aulit, mbed. 
L*6piscopat, episcopacy; dec dec 

Ar^gliso, at church; 

(7.) Bdfore the names of the seasons, and the following 

L'annie prodialne, next year; | L'autonme dernier, 
Ltaite deinttre, lad spring; iLaapnai 
Lspriatempsprochafai,iMai<j9PriNf /] Ae. 



by Google 

HM • #Tir f AX ojr fl ks jlmit toi. i.*^ H&. 

(8j Hm mums of Mvwd cities Uko the nMo. 
have genertlly^ a meaning, and indieate often natural ob|eeta »— 

Le Hane, Jbvw; I LaBaobeUe, BoeUBet 

La Hale, TkeHmgUie;\ Le Detroit, Ddrnttt 

(9.) Inapeaking of the parte of the body or of the qualities of tbo 

mind, the French uae the article in cases where the English use a 

possessiTs adjeetive, or the indefinite article >^ 

Votre Mrs a Us cberenx w(An, Yow brdker kasHaek Uir, 

IlB'estbleMAilamain. Be has kurt kis hand. 

Charles a ia m6moire excellentsw Charles has ism exeeOsnl sirasf|r. 

g 78. — Vsm OF TBM AjmciM bbvorii Words taksh nr ▲ Pa»- 
Tinvs Sbjmi. 

(1.) A word, when used to denote sn entire oliject or elsss of o1^ 
jeots, ia said to have a general sense ; when, however, it is emplojfed 
to indicate a part of any tiling or class of tilings, eonsidsrsd in releiw 
enoe to the wkoUj it is ssid to have a partitive sense. Before a woid 
taken parthively, the word some or amfy is, or may, in Engliab, often 
be employed. If^ for example, I use the words coun^ and wood, 
abstractedly, I take them in the general eense : but if I say, give nm 
loood, your brother has courage^ I use them in the partitive sense, that 
is, I ask for a part of that substance called toood^ and attributs to your 
brother something of that quality called courage. 

(2.) The article accompanied by, or in combination with the prep- 
osition ife, called by some grammarians the partitive article [} 13| 
(10.)] is used before nouns taken in a partitive i 

. Du petal et ds Teau Ini suiBseni 

Bread and water are ei^fieientfir 
himt that is, losie ^mki. 

Bring us a$U and vimegars that 
is, somesdlL 

My native land has aksays (mm) 
charms for me, 

(3 ) The preposition de only is used, when the noun tsken in a 
partitive sense, is preceded by an adjective :— 

Apportei-iwus da wol et tf» vi- 

Totyours la patrie a des charmes 
pcur moi. La Hasps. 

n-possdde de belles maisons. 

ProposoDS-noos k nons-mAmes de 
grands examples k imiter, plu- 
t6t que de vatais mt&mes k snivre. 


Lei ns propose to o a rs d ou rather $s 
low vain systems. 

. (4.) When, however, the noun preceded by the a^jeetive^ ia eoik 
oeeted with it, and the two form a compound noun that noun takei 
the artide aooorduig to rule (2.), as, 

i| 4ttgnMrislMNm.j nmgpeepiei groat fmm{mml^ 


by Google 

• T»TAr a» Yss ABrrof»-s^M(Mi 


ride MB 



(6.) The prepoaition alone ia naed before « noun, when it Is pi»i 

ceded hf a c^llecliTe word er lyy am adveib of qwrntltj :— 

ITne midtltado de peoples. 
Beanoonp de penonnes. 
A qnoi boD taut d^amia 1 
Unsenl noaa suffit s'il noufl idme. 


A m/umude of nations. 
MStowf ftfwon$» 

Of what me are so many friends' 
A single one suffices ifMl&otsus, 

(6.) The article, howeTer* ia need, when the nom preceded hy a 
coIlectiTe word, is limited by what follows. The worda la plnparty 
the most ; bien, mamy ; and infiniment, infrntdy^ form also exceptions 
16 the preceding rale : — 

Un arand nombre des penonnes Many cf the persons wham I ham 
qttsj*aiyiiea. NoBl. 

B me reste pea des liTres qel 
m'ont €t& donnfo. KoSi«. 

Les mtehantsoBtbien dela pefaie 
k demenrer nnis. FiniLON. 

(7.) The prepoaition ie used alone before a noun plaoed after a 
▼erb eoRJvgated Mgalively, but not interrogatively at the^amt 
time:— "^ 

I have few lefi, of ike Mb wk k k 
have been given me. 

The wicked have mnck temMe ia 
remain wiUed. 

Jt ne TOQS ftrai pas de leproches. 

L'on ne dit Jamais que Ton n'a 
pofait iTeniit. Boursault. 

On ne ikit Junais de blen d Diea 
en ftiaant dn mal anx horames. 


(S.) The commencement of rule (6.) will also apply to this sen- 
tence: — 

I shall cast nifon yonmo iipnwKAsa 
Wsnefoer sasf^thaiwehavenfOwiL 

IW never eon wf geomln tesfselta 
CM, by doing evSL t» mm^ 

He doonea Jamais des oonseils qn*fl 
soH dai^eienz de soiTre. 

OttAm^T DuTiTica. 

I Never give advifis which U is das^ 
\ gerons to fbO&m, 

§ 19. — fiROLwn ImsFnriTB Aanois A oa Av. 
The French nnmend adjective an, fnoae. ane, fern, aasweit to th 
Uqfikh aitiele a or oa ({ 18» (4-) (H*)]* 

The restiietioDS to ita me are specified in the lemarin en the aiw 

§ 80< — ^Ripmnoa of thb AanoLB. 
(1.) Oxnutu» KUI.X. The article* ia repeated befbre eveiy aoui 
and every word used ae a noaa, havhig a eepaiate meaning >— 

o This rale HVUes to the detenninattve a^Qecdvea, men, ton, son, cib 


by Google 

Mtmtxx ov «■» Amtso&s.-^M. 

. Ltoamr, Ve&ptitt 'x moMnv, tout Tke kettri, tkt mind, tAv i 
gtrae 4 U cttUnre. eveiy tJUng imptwes hv eulHvttumi 

Le fiArc ct la mftre serDblaientez* 7%e /o/ik^ ««!< molker named U 
citer luur ]>etite compaene a B*en «rcf/c Mnr litUe eomptmio^ U fma 
rci^itre U premiere. Bufpon. j upon iljlrsl. 

(3.) The article will, therefore, be repeated, when otie<of tvo ad- 
jectives united by the conjanetion e4| qnalifiea a noun expreaaed. uid 
the other a noan understood >— 

Lliistoire andeDne et la modeme. | AndaU and modem kistmy, 

that is, rhistoire ancienne et rhistoire modeme. 

Les philosophet andens et les mo- 1 Andenl €nd m&dem ^Mcmpken. 

denies. I 

Le premier et le second 6tage. | Thejirst and second stories. 

(3.) Should, however, the two adjectives quHliQr the 

pressed word, the article must not be repeated. 

7%e wise -and pious FcnehnkssmeU 

Le sage et pieox F6D61on a des 

droits bien acquis a Testime g6n6- 

rale. Girault Duvivibr. 

▲ ces mots il lul tend le doux et 

tendro ouvrage. Boileau. 

(4.) When two nouns are joined by the conjunction ou, and tly 

Pis merely a repetition or explanation of the first, the artid 
not be repeated. 

est a b li s he d rigkis to general «ii- 
M these words he presents to Ata ikt 
sweet and tender book. 

l4ts Joues eu c6t6s de la tAte du 
condor, soni oonvertes d'un duvet 
noir. BuppoN. 

On distinguaft parmi les nobles les 
palatins ou gouvemeurs des pro- 
vinces. J. J. Rousseau. 

Tie cheeks or sides of the head eftL, 
amdoTi aire covered witkblaek down, 

T%ejf dtsUnpiished among the noUes 
the palatines or go vernor s ofproV' 

§ 81. — ^Miscellaneous Remarks on the Use of the Aktiolb. 

(1.) I'he article is not used before numbers placed after the names 
of sovereigns, to designate their order of succession [{ 26, ($.)]• 
Louis diz-hmit, Charles diz. \ Louis the eighteenth, Charles thetentk, 

(2.) The French put no artide before nouns placed in apposition 
with, or explanatory of,,other preceding nouns : — 

Louis treize/25 de Henri qnatre, tat 
bton diiftrent de son p^re. 

Le Tartufe, com£die de MoUdre. 
Lamartine, c6l&bre po&te et prosa- 

teur fhtn^is. 
Je suis fVan9ai8, Tons Ates am^ricdn. 

Louis the thirteenth, the son of Bnurf 

the fourth^ was very different from 

his father, . 
The Tartufe, a comedy ofMoU^re. 
Lamariane, a celebrated 'Prenek poti 

and prose writer, 
I am a FVenchman, yon eere em 


(8.) If the explanatory word be itself qualified or rcftr*etttd \f$ 
•tfaer words, the vn is then pUced before it>— 


by Google 

mri^f AS OF TMM' A%^tCVM.-^9i^ 40T 

CM honmiA mt «• Fran^li 
d'nne'ftmille illostro, mais malheii<« 

Ci^ inostieiin sont des marchanda 
dtt Lycu. 

T%tU num is a Fyaukmtm, df mp 

T%Me gentlemen an m e rcka n i i 

from Lyons. 

(4.) Under the second rule of this Section may also be placed th* 
words menUoned in { 76, Rules (11.) (12.) (13.) and (14.) -^ 

une moDtre d'or, a gold watch; 

un maitre de dessia, a drmmi^^muLer $ 

un moaliD-a-vapeur, a Ueam mill; 

une chambre-d-coQcher, a bed-room. 

(6.) Some exceptions to rule (3.) will be better explained by ex 
amplea than by precepts: — 

un magasln & fohii a kgyMii 

une bonteille k Tin, a untte-loUle, 

aie a loft intended for hay, a bottle intended for wine^ but not adn- 

ally containing hay or wine. 

un magasin au foin, ^ a kay4ofi ; 

la bouteille au Tin, tke vfine-ioUle. 

That is, the loft actually used for hay, the bottle now used for 


un magasiniie foln, aloft \ j^,jj ^r S hay : 

une bouteille ^ Tin, aboUUi-^^J \wine. 

(6.) Proper names of persons do not receiTO the article, unless it 
forms It part of the name ; as, Ldiruny Lamarline^ La Harpc, Lik 
FonUgine; as also in some gallicised Italian names;, as, Le Tatset 
Tasso, Le Danle^ Dante, dtc. An adjectiTO, howeTer, coming before 
proper names, is generally preceded by the article. 

i> ban et naif Ia Fontaine. I 'ne good and candid La F\mUttne, 

Le pieux F6n61on. | The pitms Fenelon. 

(7.) It has been seen [{ 12, (1.) Examples] that the plural article is 
often placed in elevated style before the names of renowned indi> 
viduals : — 

Nous aTons tu ii la foil h. la t^te We have seen at once at the kfioi 
dc8 escadrons impiriaux, les Mnrat, 
les K^Uermann, les Laasalle, les Mod- 
toma Lc CM NiaAL For. 

(8.) Names of kingdoms and provinces, when preceded by the 
prepoaition en, take no article: — 

En France, en Am6rique. In FVanee, in Americt. 

(9.) No article is placed after en preceding a noun used Indetou 
minately; or after the word m standing before a noon, whidi is th» 
iireet d^giinMi of a Terb» praeeding thei imgatiTa >m 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

of the imperial squadronSy Mwrat^ 

ftlfyr^s or TSB A»Troxi . i ftt t 

Now n'ayoiiH ni or ni argent 

11% tUU'fo im • 

You art tn tmrnkk. 

We have neither gM nor 

(10.) The article is omitted before plus and moin$ in companllf% 
•enteneea, where, in English, it would, in the corresponding piece, be 

Plas une action 
lie est lona'jle. 

est utQe, plus I 

Tke laam utefid an mdlxam U^ ike 
wufre praisetporihjf U is. 

(11.) The article precedes plus and moin$ to express amiparium 
in the highest degree, and agrees in gender with the noon : — 

Yotrs sosnr no plenrait pas, quo!- 1 
qif elle f&t la phis affligto de tontes 

Your sister did not weep, although 
she was the most grieved of oXL those 

(13.) The article remains invariable when it stands before a so* 
perlative, in which, however, no direct oompuison is intended >- 

Yoftre BQsnr ne plenre pes lort 
mdme qn*elle est le plus amigte. 

TbttT sister does not we^, SMIS' 
when she is moat grimmk 

(18.) To give more force to the diction, the article is often omitted 
in a i«pid ennmeimtMn of individnals :•— 

Citoyens, strangers, amis, emie- 
mis, tons le r6vArent 

Citizens, strangers, friends, s»^ 
mies, all reverence him. 

8 82t- 

iljoirter ibi, 
▲voir besota, 
Avoir chaud. 

te give fidtht 
to be warms 

Demander pardott,fo beg pardon r 
Donner avis, { . .va— . 
Fairepart,J «*»V*^; 
Entendre raiUerie.* to bear wJtes . 

Avoir contnme, 

to be acciutomed s 

A:^oir dessefn, 

to intend,' 

Faire attention, 

to poa OMemee^mZ 

Avoir dispute, 


Faire bonne obta,t0 Uve wdlf 

Avoir envie, 

to wish, to desire ! 

Faire crftdit, 

to give credit s 

Avoir appMIt, 


Faire envie, 

to excite envVm 

Avoir ftdm, 

to be coils 

Faire honnenr, 


Avoir ih>id, 

Faire horrenr^ 

to inspire horrert 

Avoir honte, 

to be ashamed; 

Faire peur, 



to have a pom; 

Faire mentiott, 


Avoir patioBoe, 

to have patiences 
to be a/raids 

Faire naufVage, 

to suffer shipwredii 

Avoir penr, 

Faire place, 


Avoir piti6, 


Faire plaisir, 

to oblige, 

Avoir raison, 


Faire prteent, 

to present: 

Avoir sommei^ 


Faire inflexion, 


Avoir soif, 


Faire tort» 


Avoir soin, 

to take cares 



Avoir Bidet, 

to have reason s 

Mettre ordre, 

to arranges 

Avoir tort, 

to be wrongs 

Perdre courage, 

to laee comrage i 

Chercher fbrtnne, <0 seek on^e- for- 

Porter envie, 



Porter malheur. 

to cause mideem 



Prendre congit 


« Rntendie to raillBttotsallNr said, l«tHttstaiB#*i 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

•rvtAX^w TBS AJ>jsoTiTa~9.«a, 84 4M 

^^ fca, tQiMtekfins Tonirliaei, to Ukt the pUm i 

Prendre Mrde, U tola cart ; Tenir parole, to k$ep mie^swordt 

Prendre n«l«ifio, io iake healk ; Tronver moyen, toJSndmtmui 

Prendre mMecine to take medicine ; Avec ardeur, Ac., wUh ardor t 

Prendre racine. to take root; Par d^plt, Ac., through smUs 

Rendre eorapto, to account ; Pour rdcompento.as « tnoardt 
Rendrcjnstice, to render justice; Ac., 

Eeodre Berylce, toobUp; Sans peine, wiXmd diOcuU^i 

Bendre Yisito, tovml; Sans soad, without torrow «r 

Tudr coinpa|;nie, to accompany ; care. 

§ 83.— TflE Adjbotivx. 

(1 ) We have seen [} 18, Rule (3.)] that an adjeetive relating to 
two Bubatantives of the same gender mast agree with them in gender* 
and be put in the plural : 

(3.) And Rule (4.) that an ad{eetiTe> relating to two or mora nomn 
of different genders, must be put in the masculine pluraL 

^3.) When, however, nouns, united or not by the coxy'onction et^ 

are somewhat synonymous; when the writer wishes aetually to 

qualify only the last ; or when the mind, more particularly oocupiod 

with the last noun, seems to forget the others; the adjective will 

assume the gender and number of the last noun only. 

Toute sa vie n*a €i6 qu'un travail, 
qu'une occupation continuelle, 


Je ne connais point de roman, 
point de com6dio espaf(nole saos 
combats. Florian. 

Le fer, le bandeftu, la flamme est 
iouteprite, Racinb. 

continual labor and occupation. 

I know no romance, no 
comedy, without combaU, 


(4.) Sometimes the adjective preceded by two or more aubetan. 
tives joined by the conjunction e/, qualifies the last only. It i 
then, of course, agree with that noun only. 

Le bon goi^t des Egrptiens lew 
fit aimer la solidity et la rtgularit6 
toute mie. Bossmrr. 

The rood taste of the Bgyptisau 
made them like tolidity and %m» 
adorned regvlariiy. 

T%e sn& is a mark of good-wiB, 
of apptamse^ amd of inward sati^ao^ 

Le sonrire est une marque de 
bienveillance, d'applandissement, 
et de satisikctlon intincure, 


(1.) The affective feu (2a2e, deceasei), is invariable, when placed 
before the article or adjective determining a nonn. but vaiiea whan 
plaeodt tfter the determining word : — 

J%l oal dfre'i/n» ma scsur, que i J ham heard my late Mar my, 
m file ei vol Moplmes la mtaie thai her damgkkr amd i wma ham 
wmfU. jfoRmsamKU. I Iks mma ymr. 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 


AVir»4X QlV THS 41>JS«VZTS.-^M. 

J^dnede. . . doit& la MenyeQ- 
lance dont VhoDorait la fevm reiqe, 
Ics bonnes griccs de I'einpereur. 
D£ Salvandy. 

7^ iifiltf of . , , noe$ l# ttc^M^ 

w/tt of the uUe ra««» lamardi Aia, 
/Af ^''0O(^ grace* of ike empervr. 

(3.) The adjectivea nu, AoTM 
placed before the nonn : — 

n 6tait i»»-t6te ; lee picds chanss&i 
de pctites aandales. Voltairs. 

une denu-\i%wn aprto avoir quitU 
le yai88eaa,Je fonlai le sol am6rl* 


and demi, half; are iiiTariable frfatea. 

He was bare-headed ; he 
feet small sandals. 

Bdlfan hour after kacr 
ship, Itrod the American 


(a) The acyectivea mi and <femv when coming after the n*iin 
agree with it : — 

Aooontamee tos entantsa demeii- 
rer 6t6 et hlver, jour et nuit toi^jours 
lAte mu. J. J. RousiiEAU. 

Opimlas paya la t^te de Cains 
Qracchns, diz-sept livres et demie 
d'or^ YjcaTOT. 

Aceustem your ^Udren to remm% 
summer and vrinler, daif end night, 
always bare-hecuted. 

Opimiui paid far the head »f Caius 
Gracchus, seventeen pounds and c 

(4.) The acljectives excepts, erctfpr; pass4,pa52; y-compria, tnelzol- 
ing; ci-joint, ci-inclus, crmieoree?, tnc^oieci; franc-de-port, |ws2£^e/m; 
come under the two last niles: — 

Yons tronverez ci-joint la copie 
da la lettre qua M. . . m'a 6crite. 


Le dessin de cet oiseau m'a €il 
•nroyi d'Angleterre, avec la des- 
eripUoQ d-jointe, Bcffom; 

Yons tronverez d-indtis, copic de 
ma lettre. Dombrgues. 

Jo vons recommande les cinq 
lettres d-induses, 


J*ai re^Uj/ranc-de-port, une lettre 
aaonyme. J. J. Rousseau. 

Le Contrat social est imprim6, 
et vons en recevrez dome ezcm- 
plaires, francs de port 

The same. 

You will find annexed the copy of 
the leUer uAidk M. . , has wriUen 
to me. 

TJie drawing of that bird came to 
me from England^ with the descrip-^ 
lion here aniiexed. 

You toill find inclosed^ a copy of 
my leitiir. 

1 recommend to you the Jive kUers 

I received^ postage free^ an anony- 
mous letter. 

The Social Contract is printed, 
and you will ^ceive twelve oipiesfrm 

(5.) An adjective nsed adverbially, that is, modifymg a verb, ia of 
eonrae invariable [} 67, (3.)] : — 

En Laponie, nne peau d*hermine 

oonftte qnatre ou dnq sons; la 

chair de cet aniaud sent tr&s maU' 

vais. Regnaro. 

De ma vie Je n'ai entendu des voiz 

monter si haul. 

M"M. DC SiviOMi. 

In LupUtnd the sJnn of the herwnn 
oasis four or five sousi the fksh of 
this animal smells bad. 

Never in my life hove M 
women's voices enmd m. Intd* 


by Google 

• T»vA» er mm Ajcxmcmyf^^ m*. All. 

§ 85^ — Vlacm ox thx QpAUFzzKa AwKcaxvx* 

(I.> No tnvariitlile rble can be gmnr fbrihrpiflee' of tii^ii^eeihv 
ii» French, althongh it foUows the nottti much more freqiteBCijr*liuni 
it precedes it: — 

(3.) The adjectives which are generally placed after flie noim are :«» 

1. All participles present and past used adjectively ; 

xaaQuenanDoreconnaUsanUf a gralrfui penm g 

nne liistoiro amusanUf an amusinr kitUny i 

on enfant cheri, a beloved cSUd # 

de la viando rdUe, roaU meaii 

2. AUadjectivesexptesaiBgtiie form, the shape; 

une table ronde, a round taNe; 

une chonibrc. Carrie^ a square room ; 

(3.) Adjectives explaining the matter of which an objeot is eon^ 


acide ndfturiqu^y mdfkime add ., 

corps airien^ atrial body ; 

(4.) Thoseezpressmg color, taste, or folatiiig to heaiingaiidtoaeli 


rni- habit noir, a Hack eoat t 

du flruit amtr, biUerfruU g 

des sons karmonieuz, harmonunu pmadig 

de la cire r.MUe, tofl waxg 

(5.) Adjectives which may be used substantively; 

an homme riche, a rich mang 

une femme aveugle, a blind wonan g 

(6.) Adjectives representing nation ;* 

une granomaire fran^aiae, a F^mck grammar g 

une dictionnaire ailemand, a Oerman dieUonaryg 

(7.) Adjectives expressing the defects of the body and mind; 

un homnie boiteuz, a lame man g 

un esprit ali6n6, an unsound mindg 

(8.) Almost all adjectives ending in a/, able, ible, ique and if, 

un homme liberal, a liberal man t 

une nation paisible, a peacefiU nation g 

un esprit fnnatinue, a fanatical spirit g 

Utt loldat fugitif; ajugiUve soldier. 

• Tlio French often um the name of the country instead of the ad> 
|ective of nation ; particularfy when speaking of the produce of tte 

De la kine tPEsptfne, • 5nntMft wooL 

Da fronage d^AngkUnr§f Bnglitk 4km 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


ttirtAatoy vaa ApjnejMrn^^ 9$. 

(9.) It must not be inferred from the rales above that the a^jeetlTt 
always comes after the noon. The deviations are quite frequent; and 
no other reason t/ian taste ean be assigned for them. We give a 
few examples, in which the same objective is, by different authors^ 
placed before and after the noun :— 

Before the Noun. 
Jamais nous no goAtons de par- 
kuie ailfipresse. Cohnsillb. 

enjoy per/ed {wnaOoyed) 



U fallui r6vdllcr d'un frofond 
Mouneil cet autre Alexandre. 


Ml was necessary to roust from a 
ffofownd sleep that second Alexan- 

Craignez, d*un vain plaisir les 
trompeuscs amorces. Boilbau. 

Fear the deoeUful aUurements of a 
vain pleasure. 

After tie Noon. 
Qu'a-t-n dit, qu'a-Ml Gtit, 
Qui ne prometta i Rome un eo^ 

pereur parfaU? Bacinb. 

IVhat has ie said^whal has ke dome 
which does not promise to Rome a 
perfect emperor? 

bans un Bommell profond fls out 
paaae leur vie. Bou^bau. 

T%eif spent their life in a profound 

Le mottde est une figure trempeuae 
qui psflse. BurroN. 

like world is a deceilfnl picteere^ 
which passes before us, 

(10.) We find, however, in our best writers, few examples of a long 
adjective placed before a short noun ; although they often place the 
adjective before the noun to give variety or force to the diction, they 
never, for instance, would say (in prose) d'imaginaim 26is, for dea 
lois imaginaires, imaginary laws, 

(11.) The following adjectives when used in a literal aonse, geiie> 
nlly precede the noun : See { 144, Note : — 










Those marked with an asterisk are included in the following table. 
§ 86^ — ^LisT or Adjecuvxs bavino a Diffbbeitt MbanikOi 


fine, handsome s 



orave ; 


















tin bon homme, a simple^ artless 

Un brave homme, a worthy man; 
Une oertaine histohe, a certain 

un Cher eniknt, a dear child; 
0Be cwmwwne voiz, a 

Vn homme bon, a good, beneveleni 
man (un homme de bicn) ; 

XSn homme bra^e, a brave man ; 

Une histoire certatne, a rekabk 

Une robe ch^ro, an eagwumw dnm 

Une voix oomaiiM, mi mdimmrf 


by Google 

•TWAX 09 tsa A»jactxTt^ ft. 


fro enwl liomme, « tiresome wum; 
lift denii6.'Q Aiiii6e, Me last fear (of 

a series) ; 
Udc fatismc clef, a false- key; an, inU- 

Un furiuux mentcar, an exceuixe 

liar ; 
Un gaUat homme, a jf«ii<toiuu»; 

ITn grand homme, a .i?rea< man ; 

Le erand air, the air of good society ; 

he liaut ton, a kamghty torn ; 

Un honndte homme, anhonutmang 

Le Jeune Pllne, wung Pliny! 

Un malhonndte liomme, a dishonest 

Manvais air, awkward appearances 

Un ni6chant livre, a poor book ; 

Morte eaa, lowest tides; 

Un noovcau livre, a new book^ {ano- 
ther book); 

Un paavre historlen, a wretched his- 
torian f 

Un plaisant homme, a ridiculous 

Un petit homme, a man of small 

Mc8 proprca mains, my own hands ; 

Un seui enfant, a single child ; 

Un simple sokiat a private soldier; 

Un triste horomo. a pitiful man; 

Un unique tableau, a single pic- 

Un vilain homme, an ugly, unptea- 
sant man; 

Una naio histoire, a mere ftory; 

Un homme crnei, a erud memg 
L'ann6o dernidre, last year ; 

Une clef fknssc, a key belonging it 

another lock^ {the wrong key) ; 
Un lion furieus, a furious lion; 

Un homme galant, a man atteniim 

to the ladies; 
Un homme grand, a tall men; ^■ 

L'air grand, a noble appearances 
Le ton hant a loud tone; 
Un homme nonndte, a polUe man # 
Pline le Jeune, PLiny the younger t 
Un homme malhonndte, an unpo&§ 

L'air mauvaia^ malieious appeear* 

Un livre ro«ehant, a biting, camsHc 

Ean morte, stagnant water; 
Un Hvre nouveau, a book recenHy 

Un hbtorien pauvre, a kistarkm 

without pecuniary means; 
Un homme plaisant, an agrteabk 

Un homme petit, a mean man / 

Mes mains propres, my dean hands s 
Un cnfUnt seul, a child alone; 
Un soldat simple, a foolish soldier; 
Un lioramo triste, a sorrowful ntanf 
Un tableau unique, a matchless pie» 

Un homme vilain, a sordid, miserif 

Une hlstobe vraie, a tnu history. 

§ 87.— Reoimsn or Adjeotivbs. 

(L) The regimen or complement of adjectives is a noun or a verb 
completing or defining their sense. Between the noun and the ad- 
jective comes one of the prepositions, 2i, de, dans, en, sur, &c. :— • 

Get homme est digne de louange, I T^his man is worthy of praise, 
Cc gftndial ust digne de commander, | 7%U general is worthy to command. 
In tliti fir:»t phrASC, Inuange^ in the second, commander, is the regi- 
men of the Adjective digne, 
{'I,) The regimen is not always necessary to the adjective. It la 
i to it only to give it a paiticuUr limitation : — 


WUhimt a regimen^ 
O0t homme n^est pas content 

With a regvmen. 
Get homme n'esi paa oo^limtii 


by Google 

Digitized t 


M^HrtAX VT ts« 'A»y» (n ' A V Jt* {tg i. 

(V) As nmy be mm in Ihe last vsntniee, an sdjeetive isnot «1- 
ways, in French, followed by the same preposition as the correspond* 
big a4ieetive in English. Tbas, aflt^ the. adjective rotuent^ the 
French use the preposition de {of), while after its English represen- 
tative {flea$ed)^ the preposition with must be employed. M. Bes* 
«lie»lle and aeveral other Fieneh grammarians, while acknowledginf 
the difficulty, give us the consoling assurance, that ** L'usage et lea 
dictioumurcs les feront connaltre" (use and dictionaries will make %» 
acquainted with them) ; that is, with the prepositions required after 
the adjeetivea. As the student will scarcely be satisfaii de teta^ we 
Ifhre a rule or two on this difficult subject, and add lists of a«||oetivw 
with their proper accompanying prepositions. 

(4.) When an adjective follows the verb ttre^ used unipersonaIly« 
ihe preposition de is placed after that adjective, and before the vevb 
following: — 

Jt is sweet to die far fme*s amnirp. 
It is easier to be wise for another thm 
for one's self. 

It is more glorious to conpur mm's 
self than to courier others. 

II est dotix de monrlr pour son pays. 
II est plus aise d*6lre sage pour les 
antres que pour soi-mdme. 


n est plus glorienx de se vaincre 
tof-mtoe, que de vaincre les 
antres. ScunisT. 

(6.) It shonld be recollocted, that it is only when the verb itre m 

imiperaonal, thai it thus seems to influence the choice of the prepo* 

sition. In other cases, the adjective must be followed by the prepo> 

aition proper to it See { 88, 89, 90, 91, 93, below. 

Cela est doox au toucher. I T^at is soft to the touch, 

Cela n'est pas iUs6 d fairs. I T%at is not easy to be done {easily 

I done.) 

§ 86. — List of Adjsctives requuong thb PitSFOsmoir Dm, 

Absent de, 
Ambitieux de, 
Amoureux de, 
Avide de, 
Approchant de, 
Capable de, 
Cbiri de, 
Complice de, 
Content de, 
Cnrieux do, 
D68iiT ax do, 
DCdaigneux de, 
Pi8ol« de, 
DiffiSrent de, 
Digne de, 
Bntieux de, 

ambUious of 
eager for 
approaching^ near 
eapaJbte of^ to 
beloved ip 
accomplice in 
pleased with 
curimis to 
desinnts to, of 
disdaininf^ to 
grieved with 
different from 
worthy of to 
ewnous of 
remote iftvr from 

Exempt de, 

Fach6 de, 
Fatign6 de, 
Fler de, 
Fort de, 
Fou de, 
Olorieus de, 
Honteux de, 
Ini{Mitiont de, 
lucapablti do, 
Inconsolable de, 
Indig4ie de, 
Indign6 do, 
luquiet de« 
Ivre de,- 
Mecontent de, 


sorry for 
tired wilh^ of 
proud of 
excessive*^ Jond of 
proud of 
ashamed of 
iiuapable of 
unworthy of 
indignant wiSh 
uneasy about 
intoxicated wUh 
weary of 
dispieassd wiA 

by Google 

tftVTAx ot ¥»t A]>jfteTirie.-^M,M. 41t 

Pleio cU, /tiS 0/ 

Ravi do, glad to, of 

Bassasid de, salialed with 

Reconiuiufiftst de. grateftUf&r 
Bcmpli de, )£^// wi/a 

Kedovable de, iwidttedfor 

Qui vit content de ricn, poss6de 
tOQCe chose. Bojleau. 

II o'c3t pas do Romain, 
Qui ne fioit disireux de vous doimer 

la main. Corneille. 

Solg:iMiiz de, 
86r de, 

Sarpris de, 
Tributaire de, 
Viclime de, 
Vide de, 

sure of 
surprised of 
triSutary if 
victim tOf of 
void of 

He who Uves corUent wil\ a hitk, 
possesses oiL 

There unoRomantkatisiiMde$i^ 
ous to reach you his hand. 

§ 89. — Lun OF Adjbotivss Rsquiuko thb PaBPosmov JL 

AcceasiVle k, aceessiUe to 

Accoutumi &, accustomed to 

Adhircnt a, adhering to 

AgT6able a, aereeaJUe to 

Ajnsti a, filed ftn 

Anf6rieur &, prior to 

Ais6 &,, easy to 

Ardent &, zealous for 

Asskln &, assiduous to 

Attentif &, attenUve to 

Bon a, good for 

Cher A, dear to 

Coofbrme &, similar to 

Contraife &, contrary to 

Crne] a, cruH towards 

Plfficile a, diJficuU to 

Bnclin &, pro-ne to' 

Stranger &, a strainer to 

Bxact &f e;z:a£< m 

Facile it, easy to 

Favorable &, favorable to 

L*ignorance toi^ours, est prlte d 

i'admirer. Boileau. 

InsensiUe d la vie, ifuvn^i^^ d la 

U ne sait quand il yeille, U ne salt 

qnandil dort Racine. 

Formidable &, 
Faul a, 
Importnn &, 
Im{)^n£trab]e &, 
Indispensable i, 
Intdress^ &, 
Invisible k, 
Insensible &, 
Natarel ^ 
Niceflsaire &, 
Nuisible &, 
Odieux a, 
Posterieur a, 
Prif^&raUe &, 
Propice d, 
Propro a, 
RebeUe &, 
Redoutable a, 
Semblable d, 

fermUahte %o 
importunate to 
impenetrable to 
indispensabie ta 
interested in 
invisible to 
insensible to 
natural to 
necessary ti» 
hurtful to 
odious to 
posterior to 
9 preferable to 
propitious to 

formidable to 
similar to 
subject to 

Ignorance is always ready to ^i^^ 
mire itself. 

Insensible to Ufis.ineensibU to death, 
he does not know when he is awakOf 
or when he sleeps. 


French and in English, not included in the above List, 


Bon pour, kind tmoards^ de- 

voted to 
C6hbre povLT,^T,celebrated for 
Oivil enters, pUile to 

Qnand on est bon pour tout le 
mocdo, on ne Vest^&i^r personne. 
C. Brlavignb. 
n fht o6tthre par sa doctrine, aik- 
im foejMir BB iMtiaitDoe. 


Igjiorant en, not versed in 

lndu1gi;nt pour, intlulgent towards 

In84>Ient avcc, insolent to 

Poll envers, pcUte to 

When one is devoted to evorf hod§ 
one is so towards nobody. 

Be wasceU\ratedfor hu daOrtm^m 


by Google 

41i •T.VVAS •W tHB ASlB^tlTa^Vlin^f^ 

^ § 91.— RSMARX. 

It mnst not be forj^tten, that when the verb itre is used aiiip«r* 
■onally before the adjeetives contained in the two preceding seetioiis-. 
these adjectives become subject to rale (4.) } 87. 

n est indispensable <f 6tudier 1 ItisindispenuMelottndfmuek^k 
tenooap poor defenir MTant | becamt kam€d, 

§ 92. — ^Importakt Rules. 

(1.) A noon may be followed by two or more adjeetires, having 
•ne and the same regimen, provided those adjeetives require th« 
aame prepositions after them ; thus we may say :— 

Ce pdre est utile et cher d sa fa- ThaifaJther is utefid and dear U 

Biille. QiRAULT DuTivisa. kU family. 

La religion est n^cessaire et na- Religion U necessary and naimrai 

torelle d Phomme. Anonymous. to man. 

These two sentences are correct, becaase the adjectives, ic/tZe, and 
eker, in the first, and rUoessairt and naiurel^ in the second, require the 
aame preposition, d. 

(2.) We could not in the first of these two sentences, substitute 
the adjective chim (beloved) for the word cher, and say as in English, 
Thai father is useful to, and beloved bt his family. Such a construe* 
tion in French, is never admissible. We mast say, That father is use^ 
ful to his f amity t and is beloved by them ; because the adjective cherif 
requires the preposition de^ or its substitute, the relative pronoun en 
[{ 39, (17./].* Ce p^re est utile k sa famille et en est cb^ri, i. & eat 
•h^ri d*eUe. 

§ 98.— Detbrminiko Ai>jectivb8. — ^Demoksteatitx Anjxc- 


The demonstrative adjective, which must not be confounded with 
the demonstrative pronoun [{ 36.], always precedes the noun, and 
must be repeated before every substantive. It assumes the gender 
nd number of the word which it determines [} 20, (1.)] : — 

Cet- air pur, ces gazons, cetie votite 

mobile : 
Id tontplaitaucceur, toutenchante 

les ycuz. Castel. 

T^at pure air^ that turf thai dkaiu^ 
tn^ vaiUt ; here every thing picam 
the heart and cknrms the eyes. 

* The rale with regard to the rcalmen of verbs is equally imperative. 
We could not say in French, as in £nelish, Every veek I write letters tO| 
and receive letters raoM my brother. yTq must say, Evety week I write leb* 
iers to my brother, and receive some from him. Tontes les semainea J'teili 
das lettres 4 men fr^, et j'en le^ de Ini 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

iTirVA'Z or TSS A»JSCfITSdr-«|M,MI^ 41) 

S 94. — ^AoRBXJiisKT, RxPEnrioK, and Place of thb Posaich 

81 VB Adjective. 

We have aaid [} 21, (3.)] that the possessive adjoctive assamea the 

gender and number of the object possessed, and (4.) that it must be 

repeated before every noun. The place of the possessive adjeetivo 

is the sane in French, as in English, that is, before the noun. These 

adjectives must' not be confounded with the possessive pronouns 


Mon Dire, ma mftre ot mes soBurs I Mvfatker, malMer, and titSmrt an 
lont anivis. | arrived. 

§ 95. — RSMARXS. 

(1.) It has been said [} 77, (9.)] that the French use the article in- 
stead of the possessive adjective, when alluding to the parts of tiM 
body. This, however, must only take place where the possession to 
otherwise sufficiently explained. We must say, for instance :— 

J'ai mal k la tAte. I M^ head aches (/ have a fain tn 

the head), 
Charles 8 W cas86 2e bras. | Charies has broken his arm, 

because the possession is sufficiently explained by tlie pronotmi^tf 
in the first sentence, and se in the second. But, we must say, 
Je vols que mon bras s'enfle, I see that my arm swells, 

because without the mont the possession of the arm would not b# 

(3.) The English expressions, a book oftntne^ a etmsin ofhiSf can* 
not be translated literally into French. We must say an de mee 
amis, one offnyfiierub; un de ses cousins, one cf his cousins. 

Glnna et Carbon, undeses lieuiej^ 
anis, se campdrent tnr les bords dn 
Tibre. Veetot. 

Cinna and Carbo^ a HentenasU tf 
his, eiuamped on the banks of $k$ 

(3.) In familiar or jocose style, we sometimes use the possessivs 
pronoun, mten, ften, lioi, without the article, to express the same 
relation :— 

Through a meadow of mine « 

A travcrs d'un mien pr6, certain 
Inon pasaa. Racine. 

Un mien cousin est Jnge-maire. 
La Fontaine. 

young ass passed, 
A cousin of mine is judge and 


(4.) When the possessor is an inanimate object, the adjectives * oi^ 

Mt, set, leurSf can be placed before the object possessed only whm 

the possessor is the subject of the same proposition - — 

La nampsfrne a ses sgrSments. 
Oss langues ont leurs beantte. 

The country has its j 

Those languagts hofsetkesr i 

IS Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

4lt •TVVAS ov turn Anrw99trM^ t^ ft. 

(5.) When the (ituasmuUe) pMsetsor is not the subjeet of fbm 
proposition, in which the possession is expressed, biit of a preceding 
one, the article and the relative pronoun en are need [{ 39, (17.) 


Ce lirre est bien imprlniC, U pa- 
pier 9H est excellent. 

J 'habile la campagne; les a(T6- 
meuts en sont sans nombre. 

Ces Ungues sent riches, J'en ad- 
mire les beaat6s. Noel. 

That book is veU-priitUd, Us paper 
(jtke pamr of it) isexoetietU. 

I inkeJbit tke country i ilspUesum 
(lAe pleasures of it) are wiUumt nvm^ 

Thos^ianguages are riek, I oisitrv 
ikeir deauUes {Ike beauties of th£m). 

(6.) Exception. The possession may be expressed by son, m» ses^ 
Uurs^ although the possessor be not the nominative of the same 
proposition, when the object possessed is the regimen of a prepo- 
sition : — 

Paris est une ville remarquable ; I Paris is a remarkable city, foreign* 
les ^Strangers admirent la beauts de I ers admire tke beauty ofiis edifices. 
ses Edifices. MofiL. | 

g 06. — ^NCTMSRAL A]>JECnTS§» 

(1.) The cardinal number used simply to indieato number^ ntl 
order, precedes ihe noun. 

(3.) When used to indicate older Q 36, (3.)], the cardinal nunbei 
generally follows the noun (ezc^t when indicating the day of tim 
month) [{36,(1.)] :— 

L6on ^ix.— Ghapitre dix, Leo the tenth,^ Chapter ten, 

(9.) The ordinal nomber is placed before the noun ^-— 
La dixikne anB6e. Tke tenth |war. 

(4.) It follows the words d^ptfre^ Uere^ atlidgj ftige^ ^iee. is tt» 

LIvre sixUme, chapitre dixiiine. Sixth book, tenth dieter. 

§ 07. — ^Iin>ErarrrB Adjiotiyss. 

(I.) Quelque is written in three ways : — 

1. Followed by a verb, it is written in two words, qtiel que ; the 
first, quely which is an adjective, agrees in gender and number with 
the subject of the verb, and the second, que, which is a eonj unction, 
is hivariable. 

Mids quels que soient ton culte et 

Dors sous ma tente avec 86curit6. 
Qeibamme quelle que ttit nn fbr- 
tone ou son mArite, ae put rlusrir 


But, fohatever ma/y be iky reHgien 
or tkycoueUry^sk^ in security undee 
my tent. 

his merii might be, emdd nei . 


by Google 

BTVf AX oi ras AtijsoTtrx.-^ 97. 410 

3. PoYloTred by a noun, it is then an adjective [ij 30, (13.)], and 
iigrees in number with that noun : — 

Princes, quelques raisons quo vous i Princes, whatever reasims you fnojr 
pni&siez me dire. . Racink. | give me. 

3. Quelque followed by an adjective, or an adverb, is invariable. 

Games of chance, kotoevet tnfUng 
they may seem, art altoayt expentivt 
and dangerous. 

Les jeux de hasard, quelque m6- 
diocres qu'ils paraissent, sont tou- 
Joors chers et dangereux. 

Mme. DE Genus. 

(3.) Mtme is an adjective or an adverb : 

It is an adjective [\ 30, (6.)] : 

1. When it precedes the noun, and means 

Vous retombez toujours dans lea | Yau always fail into ike mmi ifN 
wiimes alarmes. Racine. | prehensions, 

2. When it follows a noun or pronoun, and has the sense of "kim^ 
tdfy herself themselws^ even, very, and cannot be turned into de k 
mtoe mani^re, in the same manner :-— 

Les dieux enx-mimes devinrent, I The gods tkemsdves became jealoui 
Jsloux dtis bergers. FiN^LON. I of the shepherds. 

Ces mnrs viintes, seigneur, pen- 1 These very wdlis, my lard, may have 
vent avoir des yeux. Racinc. \eyes. 

(3.) It is an adverb and is invariable, when it modifies a verb, sn ad- 
jective, or a participle. It has tlien the sense of aussi, aiao ; qnoique^ 
although^ or de la m£me mani^re, in the same manner:— ^ 

Frappez, Tyriens et mime I8ra61- 
lies. Racine. 

Lenrs vertus et mime leurs noms 
Ataient ignor6s. 

Brrnardin de St. Pierre. 

Exempts de maux r6els les hom- 
mes s'en ferment meme de chimin- 

Strike, 7>rums ai^ IsradUes aht, 

Tktlr virtues, as weU at tktir 
names, were unknown. 

When exempt from real misfor^ 
tunes, men create to themselves imagi* 
nary ones. 

(4.) We have seen that toutj when an adjective, that is, when aigw 
nifying evefy^ ally is variable [} 30, (16,) (16.)]. 

(5.) Toutf when it means entirely^ quite^ nothing butj is an advaibt 
nd, as such, invariable :-— 

Le lion est tout nerfs et muscles. 


n montra pour rimer des chemins 
teut nouveaux. Boilkau. 

Lo chieii est tout zdle, tout ardeur, 
tout obeissauco. BirrpoN. 

77ie Hon is nothing but nerves and 

He showed us, in poetry, palhs en* 
tirely new. 

The do^ is nothing but zeal, ardoi 
and obedience. 

(6.) But, here, is the same invariable word, variable by euphmny 
before a feminine word, commencing with a consonant or an & an* 
pirate:—- « 

Les pUisanteries ne soot boDnest Jokes are anif good, wkm Cli|f mi 
fue onand ellss sont servies teuUsx served up quUe tmr m 
ehaades. Voltaibs. 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



Tha followiiur extract (for the bwtorical accuracy of vliielLwe 
cannot voneh) offen an example on the lost rale» waA on the < 
lion :— 

La vanity est sortie touU parte de 
la t6te des femraes comme Minerve 
est sortio tout arm6e de la t6te de 
Jopltcr. Saint LiMBsaT. 

Vaw'fy isstud guUe mdom€d from 
vD07iian^$ headf as Minerva issued 
quUe armed Jrom tkt head ef «M- 

§ 08.-*Tbb PaoNouN. — ^Plaob of tbs Pbbsohal PBOVotm, 


(I.) Personal pronouns, used as subjects of verbe, are in French 
as well as in English, placed before them in affirmative and negative 
■entenoes: — 


J'inventa! des coulenrs, j*armai 

J*hit6res8ai sa gloire; il trembla 

pour sa vie. Racins. 

/ invenied ee/Urrs^ I armed caU 
unny, I touched his glory ; he Im^ 
bled for his Ufe. 

(3.) In affinnative or negative sentences commencing with au 
motns, d pfftne, ^ncors, feiUMre^ en vairty du motnf, comhient &c^ the 
pronoun may elegantly be placed after the verb, although this con- 
struction is not imperative :— 

Peut^tre vrez-vous raison. Norl. 
PentF^trQ vous cntretiendrai-^ 
anssi de Tastronomie. 

Combien (lliomme} perd-i^ do 
X, combien fait-if de pas t 

La Fontainb. 

Perhaps, you are right. 
Perhaps, I will converse with yem 
on astronomy. 

How many wishes 
many steps he takes I 

he toms, tef 

(3.) Li exclamations, the nominative pronoun is often plaoed after 
the verb in French, as well fa in English :— 

Pmssi-je de mes yenx y voir torn- I May I with s»y own eyes tee the 
berlafottdre! Cosneu^lc. \ thunder cmshU! 

(4.) In interrogative sentences the nominative pronoun is placed 
immediately after the verb in the simple tenses, and between the 
aoxlliaiy and the participle, in the compound :-— 

Ob. sa\i-je7 qu'ai-^ fait 1 que dols- I Where am I? what have tdamef 
je fkire cncorel | whdt have lyet to do? 

(6.) In interrogative sentences with verbs having only one* sylla- 
ble, in the first person singular of the indicative present, and with 
some verbs having more than one syllabic, but in which that person 
•nds with an s preceded by a consonant, the pronoun ^'« is not placed 

* We may say, however, suis-Jel am I? ai-Je? have I? fAvJe 1 do i 
mahefMMi^lshouIdJToughi /7 volsjel do i see? ^\^je1 da i go? 
SBtc&ds*Je1 dot hear? 


by Google 


<]m verU In uneh case another constroetion must be gbftn 
to tho aentenee .«— 

Est^tg'Pie je coan 1 

Esl-ee^que je dors! 
EsA^e-queia comprendal 

2>r' / run? litenlly, ii U tkai J 


Do J understand ? 

(6.) The same construction is admissible, though not deiiirahio 
mith all the peraona and tensea which may be uaed intcrrcf utrvelT 



(1.) It ia proper to repeat the personal pronouns ^ Mb ti, iMm% 
Us, before every verb >— 

Je lis, /6cris, je me promtoe. | / read^ wriUf and walk, 

(2.) The omission of the pronouns je^ <», t^ nousj voum^ iZs, before 
the aeeond or third verb of a aentenee, is a matter of choice and 
•ubjeet to the following restrictions :— > 

Those pronouns must be repeated : 

1. When the verbs are not in the aame tense :— 

Jb pretends et je pr6tendrai tou- 1 I maintain and uriU oZaMfS mmt^ 
Jours. I tain. 

3. When the first verb ia in the negative and the aooond in tha 

afSrmative : — 
Je ne pliepas et je romps. | I da not bend and 1 break, 

S. When the propositions are connected by oonjanctiona othet 

than et, emd ; ou, or ; ni, nor ; mats, hui .' — 

Nous ditestoDs les m^chants, par- 1 We deteU tke tricked hecmtu we 
eeque ncfue les craignons. | fear tkem. 

(3.) Although we would adviae the student io follow the 1st mlo 
of this {, particularly with regard to the pronouns je^ tu^ noua, vouSf 
and thereby avoid all uncertainty, we give a few examplea, whore 
tiie pronouns after the first are<— 

Repeated : 
Je vcux qn*on diso un Jour aux 

peiiples cffray^ft, 
12 IVit des Jttifs, U Ait une Insolente 

race. Racinb. 

t wish that tkey may one day sajf to ike 

fngktened nations, there were ^ws^ 

ikon was an insoUnt race. 

11 s'arrache les chereux, se roule 
sur 1« sable, reprocho aux IMeux 
Icnr rigueur, appelle en vain i .son 
secours la cruelle mort. 


He (Tielewiackus) tears Hs kair, 
rolls an the sand^ itpniaekes ike Ood$ 
witk tkeir rigor ^ and ea/h mi vani, 
cmtl Dea$k it ku aid. 


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4&t SrifVAZ Ot* TAB PROirOITlf. — § IM. 

L'Bternel est son oom, fe 

est son ouvrage, 
n entend Ics sonpira de lliumble 

qu'on outrage, 
Juge tons les mortels avec d'^galei 

lois, ^ 

£t du haot do son trAne interroge 

les rois. Racine. 

Tkc Eternal is his name^ the wcHd 
is his work; he tistens to tke sighs 
of the humble oppressed, judges all 
mankind with equat laws^ and tV 
terrogates the nughiy from his lofif 

-Placi of Personal Pronouns used as RsoistENS ov 

(1.) The personal pronoun used as rigime direct, (direct object or 
accusative) [{ 42, (4.)]) and the pronoun used as regime indtrecl, (indi- 
rect object) with the preposition to, expressed or understood, in Eng* 
iisb, (dative of the latins), [} 42, (3.)] are in French placed before 
Ihe verb : — 

B t^beoutt, il se plait, il s'adonise, 
U 8'atmc. J. B. Roussrau. 

He listen s tt» himsdf, he adorns him- 
sdf he loves himself. 

yaus avoDs dit, et nous allons 
proQver, qu'il n*y a pas de bonheur 
aans vortu. BeAcziis. 

We have said, and we are govn^ to 
ft eve, that there is no luippiness 
wUhmti virtme. 


Direct Regimen, 
Je vous vois, / see you; 
Vous les Toyez, you see tkem. 

Madame, enfm le del prte de 
vous me rappelle. Bacinb. 

Madam, at last heaven recalls me 

Panvre science bumaine I 
Un fil «'arr6te hdlas, comma le 

Bu bon Jean La Fontaine. 

AiMfi Martin. 
' Poor human science ! a web stops 
thee, like the gnat of the good Jean La 

(2.) 1st Exception : When the verb is in the second person stnga- 
lar, or in the first or second person plural of the imperative nacd a^ 
firmatively, these pronouns must be placed after It: — 

Indirect Reeimen. 
Je vous parle, / speiut to you ; 
Vous leur paries, you speak to tkem, 

A ce prix je leur permets do 
vivre. Racine. 

On that condition I allow them to 

II fiiut compter snr Tingratitude 
des hommes, et ne laisser pas do 
leur fairc dn bien. FifiiLON. 

We should expect ingratitude from 
men, but not cease, on that account, to 
do them good. 

ParIez4CT<f , speak to them. 
Make me a Christian and free, J 

submit to every thing. 
Let us divest ourselves from a vain 


Go, conduct her into the next roem^ 

Xoyez-les, see them, 

Rends-mot chr^tienne et libre, a 
tont je mo soumets. Voltairb. 

D6pouillon3-7Km5 auss! d'une value 
flert6. BoiLEAU. 

Allcz, conluisez-Zii dans la cham- 
bre prochaiue. Racine. 

(8.) Renutrk: Bat if the verb in those persons of the impcntivs 
be used ne|atively, ths pronouns will bo placed sceording to 
Rule (1.) :— 
Te les Toyei pas, do not see them. | Nelnirparles v^B/lo nstspoaktotkewL 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

9*tittAX or f BB FBOBOVlTir^ lOa 


01 1 on TOQB pmpoM de fkire nne 
manvaiar action, dq ia ikites pas. 
Dis8i|io tea doulenre, 
£t ne ms troublo pas par cea in* 

digncs pleura. Boileau. 

If ike^ propose to fon^ to CTrnmU 4 
bad action^ do U not. 

Dissipate thy grief, end trovhU mn 
not by these unworthy tears. 

(4.) 2d Exception : With reflective verbs, when the r%ime in^ 
direct'*' is a person, the pronoun representing it moat follow the re:b 
Tbia mast also be the case with the following verbs:— 

Aller h.,togoto^ towards. 

Je m'adrcsse d /ui d eux, 
Je vais d vous ou d eux. 
Yous courez d lui ou d eUe, 
Slle vient d moi ou d vous. 
Vous pensez d nous on d jia. 
Us soDgcnt d etu; et d vouj. 

(5.) The pronoun used as the indirect regimen of the French, 
which answers to the indirect object of the English preceded by a 
preposition other than t<^ and to the genitive and ablative cases of 
the Ltttin, is always, in French, placed after the verb, and preceded 
by one of the prspositions de, cf; pour, /or; avec, wiih^ die. 

Yenir 4, to come to, 
Boire d, to drink to, 
Penser a, songer A, to tkmk of* 

J apply to him^ to them, 
I go to you or to thern. 
You run to him or to ker. 
She comes to me or to you. 
You think of us or of him. 
They think of them and of you. 

Je parle d£ lui et de vous, 
J'dcris pour lui et pour eUe, 

Qui rit d'autrui, 

Bolt craindre qu'en revanche on 
rie ausal de lui, MoLifiaK. 

I speak of him and of you, 

I lorite/or him and'for her. 

He who laughs at others, must fem 

that in their turn, they may also laugh 

at him. 

(6.) When two imperatives, used affirmatively, are joined together 
by the conjunction el, the pronoun regimen of the second may bH 
placed before it, or after it, as in English : — 

After the Verb. 

Sortez et laissef-nkTi dormir. 

Go ou/, and let me sleep, 

Marche. et suis-nous du molns oil 
rhonnenr nous appdle. Bon.BAU. 

March and follow «3, at least, where 
honor calls us, 

Cessez, vous dis-Je et laissez-moi, 
Madame, executor les volontos du 

roi. Racine. 

Cease, I toS you, and suffer me, 
Maitanj to execute the commands of 
IlW king. 

Before the Verb, 

Sortez et me laissez dormir. 

Go out, and let me steep, 

LahaeK-moi cette chaine, ou m'arw 
rachez le Jour. La Ha aps. 

Leatt ivbr this chain, or dcp^ve mM 
of life. 
vous attendez le roi; parlez ct Im 

Gontre le (Us d'Hector tous les Grecs 

conjures. Racinb. 

You expect the king: speak and de- 
pict to him all the Oieeks conspiring 
against the son of Hector, 

* Object of the Terb preceded in SqgUsh by to, ezpreased or 
Hood, dative of the Latfns. 


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STytAS OV TBS r»ov«vv.«^10L 

S 101. — ^RxsPECTivx Placx of toe Protcocns when two ocash. 

vnrn one Verb. 

{},) Whon two pronouns occur, one regime direct (accusative) and 

the other regime indirect (dative), the pronoun regime indtreet, if not 

in the third person singular or plural, mi^at precede the pronoun v^ 

ime direct :— 

li nu le donnera. 

II i€ le prAtera. 

III nous ksB montreront 
Vous notu le direz. 

Qnand je puis obliger, ma Jole est 

Pour n'attendro jamais que I'on, 

me le commsnde. Boursault. 

Je voHS U dis encore, vous n'aurez 
Testlmo des borames que par une 
solide vertu. M<u«- De Maintenon. 

ffewillgive U to nte» 


Tliey will show them to us. 

You yjiU say it to us. 

When I can oUige, mywif isgraU 
enougk, vfUkont my wiAmg to w^U 
until tkev command me (C e., Ocy 
command it to me.) 

J repeat it to you: you can oUahs 
the esteem ofm€n only by real virtue. 

(3.) When the pronoun regime indirect is in the third person aingu. 
lar or plural, it must tbon be placed after the regime direct:-— 

On te lui donnera. 
Vous le hU pr6terez. 
Nous ne le ieur prftterons pas. 
Vous le Ieur Genres. 
Le plus sikr appui de lliomme est 
Dleu, et vous voulez le lui rmvir. 


They will give it to kim. 
You will tend it to kim. 
We wUl not lend it to tkem. 
You wilt write it to tkem. 
Tke surest support of man is Ooa, 
and you wish to dqmee him of it. 

If men think iU of each other, at 
least they do not say tt to each other. 

(8.) Remark: The reflective pronoun te, used as an indireet regU 

men, makea an exception to the above rule, aa it takea precedenet of 

the direct regimen :— 

81 les hommes pensent mal les 
mis des autres, du moins lis ne je 2e 
disent pas. Anonymous. 

(4.) The Rules (1.) and (a.)« ^^o the Exception (3.), apply to tiM 
imperative used negatively ; but Rule (1.) cannot apply to the impem* 
tive used affirmatively. 

Examples of the Imperative used N^aiivdy. 

Ke nous le donnez pas JRnle (\M. 
No le Ieur pr^tez pas [Rule (2.)1. 
Qu'ils nesele disent pas [Remark 

Do not give it to us. 

Do not lend it to them, 

Ld them say it to Ihemsetsfes, 

])n sang de tant de roSs c'est Tn- 

nique heritage; 
He me Tenvies pas, laksea-moi mon 

paitage. Voltaiss. 

(A.) When the hnperative need affirmative^ baa two regliimi^ 

Of the Uood of so many kings, U u 
my onlv inheritance; do not envy H 
(to me% kaoe me my portion. 


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•THT4Z ow tmm PEovovir^ IM^ 1081 49$ 

the ^rtMiovn regime dlNct preeedM the r^ghne bdiieet in all the 
persons >— 



QaHls le lui donnent 

Moatxez-^ff-MM, oo^ mortel privi- 
.^e. Ballanchr. 

MotMJe-Ud dans Tesprit ; qui fait 
muiX, trouTv maL Amomtmoos. 

SeTid it to me. 

Give it to us. 

Let tkem giw U to Mm. 

Show kirn to me, thai privileged 

Pujt this into tkjf wundi hi wh0 

§ 102.— B(7LS. 
When two pitmonns in different eases, representing rational be- 
fogs, occnr, and the pronoun in the r^me direct is in the first, or in 
the second person, this pronoun mnst be phused aecordmg to the 
general rules ; and the pronoun in the regime indirect mnst follow 
the verb, and be preceded by the proper preposition : — 

11 nous a recommand^s d eux. 

U Tous a pr6aent6 d die. 

Nnl ne pent se comparer d Ivi, pour 
iaire en pen de temps, un travail 
fort inutile. La BaoTfias. 

He has recommended us to them. 

He has presented you to her. 

No one can compare himtelfto Mm, 

for doinjg in a short Ome^ m verk 

useless piece of work. 

§ lOd.-— RuLS« 
(1.) The personal pronouns Zut, e22e, etur, e2Ie«, used as indirect re- 
gimens of yerbs and preceded by a preposition, can only reUte 
to persons, and not to things. The expressions q^or fram it; of of 
from ihemf when reUting to things, should be rendered by en [} 39, 

J'€fi parle; j^en donne. 

J'aime trop laTaleur, pour en 6tre 
Jalouz. La Hasps. 

Cehii qui est dans la prosp^rit^, 
doit cndudre d*en abuser. 


/ ipeak of it, of themi Igive ofii 

IprizevalortoQhighlf to be jealous 
of it. 

He who is in prosperity should feae 
to abuse it. 

(8.) The relative pronoun y [} 39, (18.) { 111], is need in French 
bi relation to things, yor the indirect n^'m^ expressed in English by 
mt or to (dative). It means at or to it ; or to them ; (hereto, &c :— 
J*y songeral, / wiU think of iL \ Faites-y attention, Pa) aUentwn to U. 

C'est lorsque nous soromesiloign^s 
do notre pays, que nous sentons 
surtout rinstinct qui nous y at- 
tache. Chatraubsiand. 

Tons noe jonrs vont a la mort, le 
domier y arrive. Montaignk. 

Lea chof es de la tenre ne valent 
fii qu'cn h*y attache. Nicout. 

It is when we are far from our eoun- 
try thai we feel^ above all, the in* 
stinct which attaches ustotL 

AU our days travel toKords deaUk^ 
the last one arrioiS at it (reaehea 

- tot' 


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•Tttil ow TBB tkotorv.— S 104,105; 106L 

§ 101. — Placs or Eir aitd T. 

^1.) TU^ place «f«ii mid y is the same as that prescribed by Rah 
(1.) M^> ^^' ^® peraonal pronouns. They are also subject to Ex« 
ception (2.) and Remark (3.) of the aame }. See examples above. 

(2.) En and y are always placed after the other pronouns H* 
gimes:^ — 

n neus en a parU. 

II ^' ei» a dit quelque chose. 


Ne wnu en paries pas. 

Jeryai reBvo}'6. 


JNe nous y rcnvoyez pas. 

He has spoken taus cfU. 

He has told him anuMmg of%k 

Speak to him of U, 

Do not speak to us ofU. 

I have refencu him to U. 

Refer, or send %s back ioiL 

Do not refer usto U, 


These pronouns must, in French, be repeated before every verb 

Ah 1 mon enflint, que Je vondrais 
Men vous voir iin pen, vous enten- 
dre, vous embrssser, vous voir pas- 
ser. Moe. DsSdvioNi. 

Jo veux U voir, (0 prior, le preiser, 
rimportuner, le fl^coir. 


Ah! my child, how 1 ioouid Wbe tm 
me you for a short time, to ktar yM^ 
einbrace yon^ see you pass. 

I will see him, entreat him, frm 
him, importune Aim, bend Aim. 

§ 106. — ^Thx P08SB8SIVX Pronottv. 

(1.) The possessive pronoun, in French, is always preceded by 
the article [} 34, (2.) (3.)] which, as well as the pronoun itself, agree* 
in gender and number with the noun represenud [} 35, (I.)] : — 

Neither ambition nor smoke haoa 
power on snch a heart as nine. 

Instead of bewaiUng the death iff 
others, I vnm to learn from you htm 
to render my own holy. 

L'ambition ni la ftim6e ne tou- 

chcnt point nn cceurcomme 2? mt^n. 

J. J. Rousseau. 

An lieu de diplorer la mort des 

autres, Je veux apprendre de vous 

k rondre la mienne sainte. 


(2.) The pronouns le noire, le voire [} 34, (3.)], &c., unlilce th« 
a^ectlves notre, votre, &c., always take the circumflex accent :— 

La musique des anciens Qrecs 
ttait trds diterente de la notre. 

7!W music of the ancient Greeks 
was very different from ours. 

(3) When the English possessive pronouns, mine, thine, ftot 

eome after the verb to be, they are often rendered into French by thi 

Indirect pronouns d mot, d toi:-^ 

Ce Bvre est d mei. \ T%at bwk a mine, 

Ces plumes Mat>s06ad«Mwt | Ah these pens fmrsf 


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«nT'^:ilS Of tftft ^ubK^v'to^Wr. 4n 

§ 107. — Turn Dbmonstrative Pronouit. 

(1.) Th3 demonstrative pronouns [} 36] eon never bo placed be- 
fore nouns. They merely represent tliem : — 

T%e beU kt$m u thai ^fijuuMfia. 

La meillvare le^on est ctllx des 
exempies. La Harpk. 

K'oublie Jamais les bienf aits quo 
ta as re^us; oublie promptemeat 
ACKo: que tu as accord^s. 


Never f&rget the heneJUst itkUh Uum 
host received; forget qvSekly thaM 
VfhicA thou hast wiyferred. 

(2.) The pronouns ce/ut, ceUe^ cetix, ceUes, as has been said [} 37* 
(2.)]f Af® 0^^^ u^ absolutely, not only in the nominative, but also 
in the regime8,direct and indirect They have then the sense of h9 
uha, kirn wham^ of whom ; thai whieh^ ofvhieh. They apply, in this 
tense, as well to things as to persons ;-~ 

Celm qui comi^te dix amis, n'eD 
a pas un. Malkshbrbbs. 

On Be saurait forcer tdui qui ne 
veut pas. 

L'harmoDie la plus douce est la 
▼oix de ceile ^*on aime. 

La BamrftRE. 

Be who reckons ten friends^Xas not 

T%B sweetest harmony is the voice 
of her whom loe love. 

(3.) The French use celuit eelJe, ceu±, eeUes, Indifferently for this^ 
(hot When they institute a contrast or a comparison, they suffix the 
adverbs* ci (id) and 2d to the pronouns [} 37, (3.)] :— 

Oomeille nous assi\)ettit h ses 
caractdres et a ses iddcs; Bacine 
se conforme aux nutres. Celui-fd 
peint les hommes, comme ils dev- 
raient 6tre, oeluirci Ics peint tela 
qu'ilssont. La BauYtas. 

ComeiUe subjects us to kis charac- 
ters arid to his ideas; Racine con- 
forms himself to ours. That one {tks 
^foTTner) pahUs men as they shotUtt be, 
this one (the loiter) paiiUs them as 
they are. 

(4.) Celui^iy ceUe-cij cettx-cij ceUes-cij may be used absolutely in 
French in the sense of thisom^ thsU one, &c. : — 

On la vit, toutes les semaines, ea- 
suycr les larmcs de celui-ci^ pour- 
▼oir aox bcsoins de celui-ld. 


Every week^ ske was seen wiping 
the tears of this one^ providing for the 
wants of that one. 

(6.) Ceci and cela are always used absolutely. They serve to 
point out things only. Tliey can, of course, never be prctixed to a 
noun [} 37, (6.)] : — 

* The same adverbs produce the same difference in meaning with the 

iemonstralive adjectives ce, cct, &c They are not placed immediately 

' after those ac^ectives, but after the nouns which they determme : cet 

iomme-ci, this man, cet homme-l&, thai man. The commencement of 

aumark (8.) applies also to the s^ecthres c«, eei, oetU^ aei, Ae^ 


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•TirtAX ov VBS »to«oirir.«^10& 

Tnt quo 1e kmr eit long, fl gronde 

entrc ses dents, 
Fats ceci, fnU oio, va, Ticng, monte, 
desoeiKU , Bkisn a r p. 

Jo suU un pea sorprw de tout ced, 


Voos n'arez pa dteavoiier ccU. 


Us teeiA, 4a this, tU iUl, g; cmmc^ 
g0 «/», sssie down. 

I tma UUU iurpriMi: €U tOl ttu. 

Yau have n^i been obk to ttiattwm 

§ 108. — ^Rbmarks oh the Dbmonbtratits Prokolai Cs. 

(1.) Ce, when used as a demonstrative pronoan, is almost alwayi 

construed with the verb ttre^ or followed by a relative proiiuun :— 

C^est an poids bicn pcsant qa'nn 
frand nom A sontenir. 


CSr qui me plait c'est sa modestie. 


Agrtainanu is a very kumf weigU 
to sustain. 


(3.) Ce is used for fte, she^ they, preceding any part of the verb to 
he, when that verb is followed by a noun, or an adjective used snb> 
stantively and preceded by <ft€^ a or on, or a possessive or demonstra> 
live adjective. 

(3.) Observe^ that the verb clre foUowinj^ the pronoun oe» Is put io 
the plural, when the noun following that verb is plural. The pro- 
noun ee, however, remains unchanged. 

Cest un trompeur. 

d»i la femnie que je cberche. 

Cetaient mes amis. 

Ce sersient paroles exquises. 

Si c*4tait un grand qui paritt. 


N'itaient-ce pas les mAmes hom- 


All those sentences are elliptical ; a noun being understood alter 
the ce ;— 

I T%at man is a deeeitfid me 

Thai woman is (Ae woman wham M 

He is a deoeilfiU man. 

She is the woman whom I seek, 

T%qf were mv friends. 

l\ey would be exquisite words. 

If a great man were to speak then. 

Were they not the same men 7 

Cet homme est un trompeur. 1 
CetU fcmme est la femme que Je 
cherche. | 

(4.) This t5, that is^ theee are, iho$e art^ may also be rendered by 

iest icif ee sont ici :-— 

Tiki J is the place. 
7%tse aremny children, 

Voici^ vtdlilj are, however, to be preferred to cV^'tct, die:— 

This is the place. 
T%>se are my children, 

(6.) Ca answers to the English pronoun t^ when this latter wurd 
\ the nominative of the verb to 6e, without defjiite referenei 

Cest id la place. 

Ce soul la mes cnfants. 

Void la place. 
VoildL mes enfants. 


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trvfAx p9 tai ri|ovov]r^i(Mi 


d n'ett qne ptr In wnB que Vline 
fciii f 'iostruiio. Fontanb** 

Ce Alt d'uno retraite de |4lrc8 ct 
d'avoiituri ore, que aortiront leu con- 
qnftmutii de rimiyers. Rolmn. 

C'est UD difltiil QApital qu'il faut 
MtoT dans quelqae fiujec que u soil. 


mind can receive indruetigi, 
il was/ram a refuge far ske]tkerdt 

and adventurers, thai emerged tks 

amqiurort of Ike world. 

T^tM is a capital defeeltrhiekekovtd 

be avoided in ichaUver subject U may 

(6.) When the verb e/r?, however, is used nnipeirsonally, and fol 
lowed by an adjective [( 87, (3.)]» the pronoun il is not rendered by 
ee, but by the pronoun used with all unipersonal verba (U) :— 

// est n6ce8tiaire d'6tudier. Jl is necessary to stndif. 

It est pins ditBcile pour les na- 
tions que pour les individus, de re- 
oouvrer I'estime de leurs voisins 
qwuideika Tout perdue. Boistc. 

II is more dijficuU for nations ikon 
for individuals to recover Ike esteem 
of their neighbors^ mhitn tkef ham 

The jnraises {which) me five^ have 
always in someway arelalion ta omr- 

§ 109. — Taz Rblatiyb Pronouv. 

(1.) 1 He relative pronoun que, whomt tchiehj can in Freneh nerer 

be supp/Msed like the correaponding English pronouns :*— 

Les W ranges qne nous dounons, 
se rap^portcnt toi^urs par quelqne 
chose ft nous-mAmes. 


(^ } The pronouns quelj que^ quoij leqwd^ repretent the English 

lir&qoQna whkh or what uaed interrogatively. 

I. Qiie{ is used before a noun in a detenninalive sense :— 

Quel llvre llrons-nousl I What wwhiek book shaU we rmdf 

Quel est done votre mall What then is your ai tm en i t 

MoLifias. I 

8. QtM is used before a verb:-* 

Qwrdites-vonsi | Whatdefonmnyf 

IL Qtioi is used as an exclamation : — 

Quoit est-cevousi | Whallisityauf 

4. Lequdt used interrogatively, means whieh cm :-* 

Volcl deux phimes; kjitettr vou- 1 Ekre are two pensf which {whuA 
les-vottsl I on^ will yon have ? 

(3.) Qui is also used interrogatively for the regime direct, an 

preceded by a preposition, for the regime indirect It then means 

whomf qfwhom^ to uikcnit whoee^ dtc. :— 

QiM aves-vous vu 't I Whom have von seen 7 

Voqtti tenex-vous oetle nonvelle 1 Prom whom have ym this nernf 

A gut est oe livre 1 | Whose book is this? 

* The eoidunctioa,<U<, is often omitted hi Bq^lsfa; Iti equtvaknt fM^ 

talwaya'be expressed in 
JecroisfM' fleet Id. 



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4W sTMAroy iv»8 «^»«D«tva^SUt^ia 

g 110.-*.Tb» PROPOUir Bir. 

(I.) Wo have already [} 39, (17.) } 95, (6.) { 103, Rale (1.)] 
■evcrni remarks on Uiis pronoan 

<9.) En signifies ff id, from ii, tc«A tf, about it^ tfthem^from fhem 
&«., expressed or understood. Though en u by some French w riten 
. oilen used in relation to persons, their example should be imitated 
n sncfi cases only as that presented by the example [} 92, (S.)]- 

(3.) £n, used as an equivalent for the English some or any^ ex- 
pressed or understood, preserves its nature of an indirect regimen^ 
and has, in the same manner aa the French article placed before m 
noun used partitivcly, the aeose of of U^ of them; t^ woid fortk 
being understood >~ 

Avcz vous des pommesl | Have fou appUs 7 

That 18, Mome^ or rather, ofikey a fart (ftht appU*, 

J'en sL I / kaiee, I kaoe some; I kave ef 

I tJUm or Ikste {apart) efikm, 

(4.) En sometimes recalls the whole or part of a pr^^iositton :— 

L'on ne saurait voir, sans en 6tre 

Poeseder par on autre un b!en qa*on 

a roanqu6. MoLitaE. 

N'en disputons plus ; chacun a aa 
penafie. MoufisK. 

We cannot see, vitiofU being 
pifued, anoiAer person in possession 
of^ goods which we have faited in 00^ 

IM US no longer argue aboul then 
every one has his otsn opinion. 

§ 111.— Tms Pronoun Y. 
8ume remarks have already been made on this pronoun [{39i| 
(18.) { 103, (2.)]. Y means to ii, at it, to them, at them. It is seldon 
used in relation to persons or animals, but frequently in relation to 
things :— 

Jo Fe9oi8 votre lettre, ma ch&re 
enfant, et J*y fats rlponse avec 
precipitation. Mn>«. dk SsviGNtf. 

Tirvr vanity de quelque chose, 
r.*est prottver, qu'on n> est pas 
accouturad. Boiste. 

Cbargez-vous de oette affaire; 
donucz-y tous vos soios. 


/ receive your letter ^ my dear chila, 
and answer it (make answer thereto) 
in haste. 

T^f feel vanity on account of any 
thing, is proving^ that we are not 
accustomed to it. 

Take this affair upot^ yem^t 
give all your care to it. 

§ 1 12. — Placs of Tn« Pronouns En and T. 
See i 104,(1.) (9.) 

§113. — The Ikdefinitr Pronoun On [§ 41, (4.)"|. 
(1.) On, which is very extensively used in the French hiflguage, m 
taid only of persons. The verb, of which it to always U e nomim- 


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■ T9VAX 09 TJIX 9S0II4^Xr«.^U3. 


tive, miiift he in the dngalar. This pronoun is of the masenline 
gend<Hr. [See (3.)] On is nsod in French for people^ one^ stnne me^ 
loe, fkey^ whenever these words have a general and indefinite meaiiiiig, 
had do not refer to any portivalar word:-^ 

On pardonne aisiment le mal 
involontaire. D£ la Boptraye. 

O:* cherche les rieurs, et moi Je 
•9 cvlle. La Fontaine. 

We, {people^ they, <^c.) easily fir» 
give invobuUary injuries. 

People (theff, ice) seek laughing Of 
merry people, and I avoid Hum, 

Anotlier translation of the above sentences, will show us that thd 
pronoun on often enables the French to make use of the active voicoi 
which they always prefer to tlie passive.* Thus the two examples 
lost given, may be rendered as follows :— 

Active Voice in F'rench. 

On pardonue Ois^ment le mal 

Oil cherche les rieurs, mais moi 
je les 6vite. 

Passive Voice in EnglisX. 

luvoUntary injuries are easily jor* 

Merry c/r joyfidpeople are genernliei 
sought ; for my part, I avoid them. 

A few more examples, from some of the best French anthorsi 
olucidaling the use of this pronoun, will be useful to the student :— 

Qaand on est chr^tien de quelqne 
sexc que Von soit, 11 n'est pas permis 
d'etre ISche. FisiLON. 

On peut 6tre honndte homme, et 
filire mal des vers. Moli£bb. 

On aime peu celui qui n'ose 
aimer personne. Dklillb. 

A'tron Jamais pleur6 d'avoir fait 
son devoir 1 Champort. 

Quand on a mdme but, rarement 
on s'accorde. Lebrun. 

Aitistos, 6crividns, podtes, si vous 
Tous copicz toujours, on ue vous 
copiera jamais. 

Bernardin db St. Pierre. 

A Christian of whichever sex he masf 
be, is not allowed to be cowardly. 

One may be a weeihy mae^ amd 
make bad verses. 

We fed but UtOe love for him who 
dares love nobody. 

Have we ever grieved or, account 
of hating done our duty? 

Those who have the same aim, 
rarely agree. 

Artists, writers^ poets 1 if jnw at- 
ways copy each other, no person wiU 
copy you. 

(2.) If the word, on, denotes definitely a fbmole, the adjective re* 
lating to it, takes the feminine termination : — 

Qnanl en est bdte, on ne I'ignore I When one {a lady) is handsome, 
paa. L' AcAO^MiB. \ she it not ignorant of iL 

(3.) The pronoun, cji^ must be repeated before every verb:— 

TTiey raise the anchor, they depart. 

On Idve I'ancre, on part, on ftilt loin 

de la terre, 
On d^convrait d^il les bords de 

VAngleterre. Voltair*. 

they flee far from the land, already 
they discovered the shores ofE^iglema, 

* On dit, 4)^ 15 said; on rapporto, it is related f on craint it is feared, 
*«. (U^W9M%$llmA,monnj, that mates iieey^ thus, Ikai is mOeisktl^ 

■i ■ M II I ■ ■ Am 



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■TyTAS or TBS Yaft&t*-glli» 

I 1U.— ThB V£RB.- 

-AoRSBiCKBT OF TBS Vkbb wrrs 


(1.) Th« verb agrees with its nomiiiatire or enljeet, wfaetlMr thit 
Mminative precedes or follows :«- 

VhMMM ai vk poar r^gner wax 
Urns les animaas. Voi.ta i be . 

Ijs% komma toni eoeore enfanU k 
■oixante ana. Aubest. 

Par cet portes wrUdnU lea fi6ros 
Ugimu. Saint Victob. 

Man is bom to rtign over oil im 

Men ore sUU ckiUreu (mm) ^ 

nrokgh tkoee gales issued ike 
pvud legions. 

(3.) When a verb has two or more singular nominatiTOseonneeted 
by the conjunction €f, the verb is put in the plural :«- 

La eolire et la pridpiUUion sonl 
deux choses fort oppoi^es & la pru- 
dence. FfKiLON. 

La rnoUnee et la wrtu ne pcnvent 
rien Tuna sur Tautre. Pascal. 

Anger and preeipUation are Hm 
things very m««4 opposed to pr^tF- 

Violence and virtue have no power 
over each other. 

(8.) When a verb has several singular nominatives not connected 
by et^ it is put in the singular or in the plural according to cireum* 

1. It is put in the singular, If the nominatives are in somo way 
synonymous :— 

La donoewr, la bonU du grand 
Henri, a £t6 c6l6br6e de mille 
lonanges. PiLissoN. 

D'oa peut venir cet ennui, oe 

CouK d'Haslevillb. 

T%e mildness, the goodness of tie 
great Henry, has been odebraUaby a 
thousand praises. 

Whence can proceed that enrnd^ 
thai disgust? 

9. When, In a series of nominatives, the last has more foiei 
or interest attaehed to it| and therefore, makes us, as it were, overlook 
the others:— 

Ce aacriaoe-— votre Vhiktbi, votre I This saerifice^-four intered, your 
honneur, Dieu vous le commande! \ honor, Qod commands it t 

8. The verb is put in the plural, when the affirmation is Intended 
to be made of all the nominatives taken collectively, and not of < 
In particular; — 

La douceur, les soupirs de cette 
(Wmme infortun6e ne ptirent Ic 
fltehir. Wailly. 

Saves voui, si demaln, 
Ba Ubertd, ses jours, seront en votre 
' 1 1 Bacine. 

The sweetness, the sighs of that u%^ 
fortunate woman could not wwv§ 

Do you know, if to^morrow^ 

his liberty, his Ufe, wiu be in yew 

(i.) Ob tho Ibms of tho vuba wboa 



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BtntAS OF TBP TBS9.-^ llff| 114 

§ 115.— NnicBBB OF THX Vkbb aftsb a CoixionvB Vovn. 

(1.) Every verb having, as its sabjeet, a general eolleetivo nom 
H h (6.)lf preeeded by the article, such as ki taUdiU^ Tin/Mlit &e^ 
takes the number of that noan : — 

TV amy of tke ii^ideU wu m- 
Ur^ destroffea, 

i%e miUtaude of thtpod tkingi 
wkuk we find in a work, makes ui 

JUarmie des faifidMes>< enti&re- 
Bent dfttruite. L'AciotfMiB. 

La muUiMe des bonnes choses 
que Ton tronve dans nn ouvnge, 
laU perdre de vne la multipUdM 
oas manvaises. Camikads. 

(a.) When a partitive collective noun [} 8, (6.)] oeenrs as the snb> 
ject of a propositioi:, the verb agrees with that noon, if it oeenpiea 
the first rank in the thought of the speaker or writer. 

The verb agrees, on the contrary, with the plnral noon following 
the collective word, if the collective acts only a seeondaiy part, or 
if it is employed only to add an accessoiy idea of number : — 

Agreement with tke foXUnoing Nmm. 

Une troiqM de iiefmphes conroB- 
nftes de fleurs, nagtiieiU autonr de 
son char. FiMiLON. 

A tnop ofyowng mympke, crowned 
wiik Mowers, were ewtmmmg around 

Une nute de baeiares dSaoUrenl Is 
pays. L'AcAD^MUB. 

eomntrf , 

Cette esptee de ckiens qu'cn ap- 
pelle chiens de Laccmle, ne vivenl 
que dix ans. Bon.BAV. 

That sfedes of dogs wkuktkeifeaB 
Laeonian dogsjice onkf Un yean. 

Agreement wUk the CoOecUve. 

Une troupe d'asiassins erUra dans 
la chambre de Coligny. 


A gemg ef aesastins entered Co- 
kgnf^ ckamier, 

Une nmSe de tails okatreU Fafar. 

A doudif arrows darkened the air. 

Cette espiee de paoos Mroi^ avoir 
6prouv6 MS mftmes eiibts par la 
mftme cause. Buppoit. 

ham experienced the same ejfects 
through the same eamm. 


(1.) The verb itre preceded or followed by oe^ as the gnunmatiesl 
subject, takes the number of the noun placed in apposition with tfesi 
pronoun [{ 108, (3.)] ."— 

Ce sont les umbuts qui ftmt la 
bonne oompagnie. La CfHAUssis. 

Sont-ce des reliaieux et des pr6- 
tres oui parlent auuil sont-^ des 
efartftiens 1 Pascal. 

n is wuraU whiJi form good eom* 

At tkejf monks and miests who 
speak so? arethep Chrimams? 

(i.) The verb itre may also be put In the plursl, when the pva- 
■ou&s sii« and iibt are put in apposition with the pioDona ca This 
fsle, howsverv la c^ptiimal, as the exanples will show. Beftwe mm 



by Google 

434 BTVTAX OF TBS TB&B.— { 117, 118. 

tnd vmu similarly placed, the verb is always in tlie singnkr: c^tH 
nous; cVsl vous: — 


CeU cox qui anl biti oe siiperbe 
Ubyrinthe. Bosnuer. 

// is tkey who havt buiU that stir 
firb Ubyrinth. 

Ce simi enz qui vieiiiMtnt 

li is they who came. 



A verb having several subjects in different persona, is put in the 

plural, and assumes the termination of the first person in prcferenct 

to that of the 8econd, and tiiat of the second in preference to that 

of the third. It may then be preceded by the plural pronoun of the 

person preferred, recapitukling, as it were, all the other subjects : — 

Votro pftre et mn, nons avons €t€ 
Iongtem|)B ennemis Tun de Tautre. 

Allez; vous et vos semblables 
n*iUs point ikits pour dire trans- 
plant6s. MoifTESduiEU. 

Yimr father and J hate long been 
enemies to each other. 

€fo; fou and SMck as yon are nai 

JU to be Iranspianted. 

§ 118. — ^UsB OF THE Tenses. — The Present of the IxDirA- 

• TIVE. 

(1.) This tense denotes what exists, or 4s taking place at the time 
we spedk : — 

Je lis ; vous paries. | / read ; yoii speak. 

(2.) The French have only one form of the indicative present :^- 

Je lis means, therefore, Jreadj do read^ or am reading. 

(3.) Tlie indicative present is used in French, as well as in Eng. 
Ksh, for expressing things which are and will always be true -.— - 

God is eternal, his power is bound- 
lesSf and his clemency is great. 

Dieu est itcrnel, sa puissance est 
sans homes, et sa c16mcnoe est 
grande. QiraultDuvivies. 

(4.) It is often used to express a proximate future : — 

/ shall be back in a momenta. 

Je suis de rctonr dans un mo- 
ment. Moi.iKre. 

8i Titos a parl6, s'il Vepovse, Je 
pars. Racing. 

(5.) riie present is frequently used for the past, to awaken atten- 
tion, and plar': the event, as it were, before the reader:— 

If TMus has .yoken, if he mmrfim 
her, I go {will go). 

J*ai vn, Skn^iHMir, j*al vu votre 

malhourenx tils, 
TrafnA imr Ics chevanx qae sb main 

a nourris: 
Q vent les rappeler, mids sa voix 
^ Im effraie. Eacins. 

/ saw, my lord, I saw your unr 
fortunate son dragged by the horses 
wAiek his own hand has fed; hi 
wishes to recall JAcxt, but iis vaUe 
frightens them. 


by Google 

■ TVTAZ 09 TBS TBBB^ 119. ISO. 48# 

§ 110.— The Imperfect. 
(1.) The roperfeet, or simulUneoas paat^ is used to ezpreas some- 
thing which was in pi ogress, while another thing leas taking place. 
It leaves the beginning, duration, and end of an action undeter* 

J^ierivais, quand Je re^us rotre | / was wnling, t«Ac» / rtoewtd 
lettro. I yow Utter . 

(2.) The French imperfect^ as may be seen in the above example, 
represents the English past tense formed of the auxiliary to be^ and 
the participle present of a principal verb. 

(3.) The imperfect is also used to express repeated or customary 
action. It may then often be rendered in English by the infinitive 
of the verb preceded by '* used to" : — 

When I icas in London^ I walked 

Lorsque j'etots a Londres, jfaUais 
me promener le matin, ensuite Je 
dinais, et Je passais le reste de la 
Joumde a lire et a terire. 

{used to walk) in the maming^ after' 
wards dined {u^naliif dined), and 
spent (usnaitif) the remainder oj the 
day in reading and writing. 

(4.) The use of this tense will be further explained in the next 

§ 120.— The Past Definite. 

(1.) The past definite indicates an action performed at a time en- 
tirely past : — 

/ wmt to London, where I saw 
your father; I finished my business 

TaUU a Londres, oHJe vis votre 
p^re; Je finis mes ainiires dans 
eette ville, ct revins aussildt let 

in that city, and returned hither 

Mr, snci-a-<me wrote last evening 
sixversesto Miss such^a-one. 

M. un tel icrivit hler au Boir un 
sixain k MadeuK^selle uno telle. 

(2.) Tlie past definite can only be used, as we have seen above, 
when the time at which an action took place is entirely elapsed. 
We cannot, therefore, use it in connection with the words to<tay^lhi$ 
mornings this week^ ihie month, this year, dtc. [See { 121, Past Indefi- 
nite.] We may use it in speaking of yesterday, last wedc, last yearf 
&c. :— 

Jo ▼ous envoie, mon cher flrire, I I send you, my dear brother, a let- 
une Icttrc que yicrivis hier pour I ter which I wrote yesterday for Ma- 
Madame de Laval. FisftfLON. | dame de Laval, 

(3.) The imperfect may almost always be rendered in English by 
Uie pArtieipic present of the verb and the auxiliary to le; or by pre- 
fixing ^used to*" to the infinitive mood. The preterite dttfinito eaa 
Mver be so rendered. 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

4M trVTAZ 09 TSB TBEl-^T-l IMi 

(4.) The impeifeet might be oalled the de$enftim teme of Urn 

(6.) TIm pest definite roif ht be ealled the nwrstiTe tenae. It es> 
p t egs e o that which took place at some time fhlly past We will 
endesTor to illnstimte this difference between Aeae two teneea. — A 
traveller has entered a wood and discovered a retired cottage ; he 
wishes to describe what he saw there, and makes use of the impels 
feet or descriptive tense ; he says : — 

Un vieiOard se promenaU sons lea 
arbres ; U tenaU an livre & la main ; 
de temps en temps, il UevaU les 
▼eux vers le del, ou les ctmvraU de 
la main, et setnilaU s'abimer dans 
nne profonde reverie. Devant la 
porte de la cabane iUtU assise une 
iemme qni dergaU on enflmt snr ses 
pnonx ; elle SlaU pAle ; ses ehevenx 
MiaitTU an gr6 du vent ; dee larmes 
cmlaiaU le long de ses Jones, &c. 

AnM man was %Ddlking under ike 
trees; he held {vmu kddin^) a hook M 
his hand ; from time to time he teased 
his eyes towards heaven^ or concealed 
tkem with his hand, aetd seemed io 
sink into a profewnd revery, JDefere 
the door of the hut, sat {was sitting) 
a female rocking {^howas rocting\ a 
cJuld on her knees i she was foles ear 
hair waved (was waving^ ai tik 
marep of the wend; tears jQwed (wsrv 
fiofoing) down her cheeks. 

The traveller has here drawn a picture of what presented iteelf te 
his eyes, as he approached the cottage. Not content with re^<e>ent. 
ing merely the then present situation of things, ho wishes also to 
narrate what took place. He has described the theatre on which 
the occurrence took place, which he is going to relate ; he now pro- 
ceeds to the narrative, and uses the past definite or narrative tense :-« 

Je m'approehai du vieillard ; lors- 
qn'Sl m*aperguJLy il s^ava/nfa vers moi, 
me salua, et me ftria de ne pas trou- 
Uer cette paisible retraite du mal- 
heur. n tetewma a la cabane, prit 
Tenfiuit dee bras de la &mme, et 
renira ; eUe le siUvU, &c. 

I approached the eld man ; when ks 
perceieed me he came towards mm, 
greeted me, and beseughl me not te 
disturb this peaceful retreat of fhs 
unfortunate. He returned to tie cot- 
tage, took the child from the woman's 
arms, and wetU f»; shefoOawed him. 

Another example mj|^t be taken from Ia Fontaine^s well-knowB 


Mattre corbeau snr un arbre per- 

7)mai< en son bee un fromaee / 
Maitre renard, par Todenr ifitehe, 
hoitieUk pen prto ce langage. 


Master raven perched upon a tree, 
held (was holding) in JUs beak a 
cheese; master fox, attracted by the 

lowhig words. 

Here the poet uses the imperfect of tenir in describing the aitn*- 
tien in wfaieh tae f jx found the raven, but in relatir^ the action of 
fhe foB, Ia Fontaine usee the nanative tenae of the same twK 


by Google 

TIm eommeDeemmt of the first book of T&kmaquu^ offers tn ex- 

sellent illustration of what we have here advanced on tbe im of the 
.mperfect and the past def nite. 

§ 121.— Ths Past iNDsniriTB. 

(1.) The post indefinite expresses an aetion entirely eonqileted, 
but performed at a time of which some part is not yet ehipaed» as 1^ 
day^ this nunuh^ this year^ &p*. 

The kimg app m nii d «w fmimy 
arckbiskop tf Cam^Of, 

This morning I found tke dreH » 
sUppetyf thai I UumgU in eate 1 
haipptMd to fcM on my right tmn^ I 

'* I have forbidden tha a knndred 

Umes to scrape thf wretched vioUnf no- 
verthdess^ 1 heard thee this morning" 
*' This momingt Do yon not f«- 
coOectthat you broke il to pieces ye$» 

Le rot m'a nemmi autoard'hui 
archeTlque deCambray. FiNtfLow. 

Ce matin j'at trouvi le paT6 si gUs- 
sant, que yai pensi que si Je Tenais 
k tomber rar le bras droits Je serais 
tout 4 fkit d£sempar6. 

Bernardin OB St. Piebrb. 

Je Vai difendu (see (2.) below) 
oent fois de racier ton m6cbant 
violoD ; oependant, Je Vai erUendu ce 
sM/in— Ce matin 7 Ke vons souvient- 
U pas que vons me le mtles [( 120 
(2.)] bier en pieces 1 Palaprat. 

(2.) The past indefinite is, slso, used with regard to a time en 
tirely past, but not specified : — 
Les fimits de U teire ont M\n 

premiere uonrrltnre des hommes. 


Les Franfais omit gagni la bataiUe 
de Marengo. 

The fruits of the earth were the 
first oHmeiUs ofmankind. 

The FWnch gaitted the batHe of 

(3.) When the time is specified and entirely elapsed, the past in- 
definite is by many of the best French writersi used indifferently 
with the past definite: — 

Past De/iniie: 

Hnit Jonrs aprto son depart, U 
m*icrivU nne lettre. 

Bernardin db St. Pierre. 

A week after his departure, he wrote 
me a letter, 

Je fus bien flch£ hier, ma chdre 
coosine, de vous avoir qnitt^e aveo 
tant de pr6cipitation. FiiciLON. 

/ was very sorry yesterday, my dear 
eeusin, for having left you tn so much 

Past Indefinite. 
Je vons ai ierily 11 y a qnbiie 
Jonrs. THsBAiia. 

I wrote to you a fortnight ago. 

Hier en travaillant k men qna- 
tri6me dialogue, J'ot iprouvi nn 
vrai plaisir. Mirabbau. 

Yesterday ^ whUe working at my 
fourth dialogue, I experienced real 

(4.) When the first verb of a sentence is put in the past indefinite, 
every other verb of that sentence, and of the senteaeea refeiring to 
it| ahoold be in the same tense : — 

Ok avesf-Yoxm iti } 
Tai d'abord M d r«^ise, eMmifte 
fs enis venu diner. 

Where have you been f 

I firsl went to ehmekf mid i 


by Google 

48t •TVTAZ aw IBS TBKB.-^ 122, 12S, 124. 

§ 122. — ^The Past Anterior, 

The* paai anterior expresses what took place immediately before 
another event wliieh is also post: the latter event being nsiially the 
rrsult of^ or dependent upon the former :»- 

J^ken I MadjKreeived sty emr^ 1 
was askamed of wof hmd aitd%ci $0 

Qiiand feus namnu mon erreur, 
le fiw honteux de maavais proc6d6s 
que J*avatt cos pour lai. 

QiaAULT DmrrriEB. 

8m (ft.) of the (below. 

§ 123.— The Plupebitect* 

(1.) The pluperfect marks on event not only past in itself bat •■ 

pest with regard to another past event : — 

yacms d6jeAn€, quand vons I / had breakfasted, t^ien fou ame 
Tintes me deniander. lo inquire for me, 


(2.) Tho pluperfect having as its aoxiliary the imperfect of the 
verbs acotr, or itre, partakes of the signification of that tense. It 
may, therefore, often be used to denote customary action :-^ 

D^ que yatais lu quclques pages, | As soon as I had read a few pages, 
je me promenais. | / used to take a walk. 

In such cases, it generally precedes or follows another verb in the 

(3.) WhoFi the action is not a customary one, and the sentence 

eommences with one of the adverbs quand^ lorsque, aussiiol que, dit 

que, die., the past anterior is generally used :-— 

Dis que J*eM lu quelques pages Je I As soon as I had read a few pages, 
•ortis. I / wetU otU. 

§ 124.— The Two Futures. 

(1.) The future simple is used to signify what will be, or will take 
place, at a time not yet come :~- 

Votre fWre partira demain. | Your brother will go to-morrow. 

(-2.) The future is used, iu French, after an adverb of time, in caaet 
where the English use the present of tho indicative : — 

Qnand vous viendrez, vous appor- | ll'^en you come, you will bring wnf 
tcress mon livrc. | hook. 

(3.) It has sometimes the sense of the imperative in sentences like 
the following:— 

Croira qui voudr% llilstorien Ca-