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3058 5 



KNOWN ^VSBli.l)i 

vniut nnrtcTiTcarniiTiast, Mtt.vr, m vmiom, cimu, nivi 

rftOMTIIBliro^w6UKJi.\ SYSTEMS OP GliOCiuniV, 

jg^ . 11.I.T:BTfiATF.DWmiSIXM\P?, 


ilMnl.&lHto^.f^arr/ulliy c<:rrt.'ttd and rr'ji^ttdi 



i •( J 

Dim^o/^^ luuyhania^ to wit r •' ^ 

E it RE^fE^fBsnD, that on the fourth day of September in 
Twenty-ninth ye^rwaf the Independeft^ of the United States ot* 

lerica, A. D. 18Q4|^1^|ob Johnson <1C^^ ^id District has de- 
ed in this OfKce tneiptleof aBook^fheVigfit whereof he claims 

M. roprietor in the wordt Allowing, to wit : 

" A New System of Modem Geography, or a General Description 
of the most remarkable countries throughout the known world. 
Their respective situations, extent, divisions, cities, rivers, 
mountains, soils, and productions; their commerce, manners, 
customs, . laws, and religion. Compiled from the most modem 
systems of Geography, and the latest Voyages and Travels, and 
containing many important additions to the Geography of the 
United States that have never appeared in any other work of the 
kind. Illustrated with six Maps, comprising the latest discove- 
ries, and engraved by the first American Artists. By Benjamin 

In conformity to the Act of the Congress of the United States, 
intituled " An Act for the encouragement of beaming, by securing 
the copies of Maps, Chai*ts, and Books to the authors and proprie- 
tors of such copies during the times therein mentioned." And also 
to tilt Act, entitled *' Ah Act supplementary to an Act, eiititlct 
** An Act for the encouragemt-nt of learning, by securing the copie 
«)t' Maj)s, Charts, and Books, to the authors and ])ropriet()Ps of suci 
copies during the times therein meniioncd,'* and extendinj^ tlv 
hcnefils thereof to the Arts of designing, engraving, and ctcliiug 
historical ond other prints. 


Clerk of the Disir 
of Pennsiflvc 







O recommend the study of Geography, or a 
knowledge of the terraqueous globe, to the inquisitive 
and enlightened citizens of the United States, would 
be trite and useless. What has been sanctioned by 
the approval of literary men, in every other country, 
has in this deservedly become the subject of general 
cultivation. All that ^eems to be required of the 
Editor, is briefly to premise a few remarks on the 
treatise now offered to the pubUCt With the reasons 
that induced himtb undertake the compilation. 

Observing a frequent demand in the book -shops for 
^ a system of (Scography, more instructive and enter- 
taining than the dry epitomes used in schools as ele- 
' mentary books, and yet less voluminous and expensive 
k than Pinkcrton's, Guthrie's, or Walker's Geographical 
. Grammars, the Editor thought that such a treatise 
■^;2aight be compiled by judicious extracts from these, 

* with the help of Modern Travels and Voyages. Some- 
\ thing more too might be introduced in describing our 

own country, its moral and physical state, than is to 
be found in those volumes, without encroaching on the 

* right, or swelling the treatise to the size, of Morse's 
J American Geography* 

To accomplish this intention, Pinkerton's abridg- 
; ment has been recurred to, principally, in detailing the 
\ Geography of foreign countries ; wilh the introduction 
y of a few interesting articles which more rect;nt publica- 
'■•tions have furnished. This seemed necessary to ac- 
I commoclate the work to the-existing state of E^r'^ipc 
^ and Asia, those leading parts of the system with which 



we now enteitain such frcipieiit commercial intercourse. 

In arran^ng. die 
orde/of Pmke: 
the na^ifte of bw 
The freedoih' 
ting the varioua 
and the charac 
fce esteemed rath< 
truth and justice 
as independence oj 
will be but small. 

before us^ die perspicuous 
beoi adhered to, as closely as 
M permit. 

indulged, in discrimina'* 

of the American states 

^f their inhabitants, will, perhaps, 
suming by some readers ; but as 
been uniiormly.our rule, as well 
gment, we presume the number 
that those few wiU perhaps see 
cause to change thei^.opinions. But should any ma- 
terial errors be discottii^ by readers, which they will 
lie so obliging as to cdmiimnicate^ in the topography 
0r constitutions. of ai^ of %e states, or the character 
of the people^ .they shall be^gcctified in the next im* 
pressicm of the worlc, and flnjuimmunication will be 
accepted irith snu^ aeosibi 

- -IfernwEMfl^^Wltt PC p r efceJc d ».<■! ^.Ak|habeticd 
Catalogue <$ the most commcm Sipies of Ancient 
Cjeography,' ex|d^ed Jby the moaefikiiippenations of 
the same places«*-which can hardly f^to be accepta- 
ble to the readers of ancient history, asit is not to be 
.met with in any modem system that we nbre seen. 



The figure and relative po- 
sition of the earth 

Of the Terrestrial Globe 

Problems performed on the 

Divisionif of the surface of 
the Earth - - - 

Of Maps • 

Length of Miles in diffe- 
rent countries 

Europe, general yvwr of, 
England and Wales 

Ireland . - - 
France •■• • 
Fruisia in Europe 
pAissian Isles 
Austrian Dominions 

Si>anish Isles 
Turkey in Europe 
Turkisli Isles 
Danish Isles 
Swedish Isles 
Portugal • 

German States • 
German States on the 
North of the Mayn 

Page J Page 

13 1 Gorman States on the 

South of the Mayn - 134 
Italy, general descr i ption of 1 37 


17 \ Southern part of Italy 
Central part of Italy - 
20 J Northern part of Italy 






23 I Asia, general view of - 
24 1 Linnaean table of primeval 

i nations and languages 
ibid. I Turkey in Asia 

< Islands belonging to Asiatic 
25$ Turkey 
28 i Russian empire in Asia 
44 i Islands belonging to Asiatic 
^2 i Hiissia 
57 J Chinese Empire 
65 < Cliina Proper . - 
68 I Chinese Islands 

73 I Chinese Tartary 

74 5 I ^land of Sagalian or Tehoka 173 
82 1 Tibet - - 174 
87 1 Japan - - 178 
94 < BiiTnan empire, comprising 

96 < AvH and Piiru . - 185 
101 I Malaya or Malacca - 189 

lM2|S:am . - 191 

1U6 5 0^he^ States of exterior 
112 5 India - - 194 

ll.> I Hindostan - - 196 

118 1 British possessions and 
119 1 allies - . 197 

12.5 J Mara'. ta States - - 1P7 

128 J Sc'ks - 198 

i Gangt'tic Hindostan, or the 
ISO * countries on the Gang(.>s ^5 



Sindetic HindostaOyOr the 
countries on tlU^ Indus 

Central HindostaDj or t^ 

Soutlienf dariMm /tf 
dostan - - • 

Island of CeyUm 

iDdependent Tatary 


Asiatic Isles ,• .>»• 

Australasia, compntkm 
Ne^ Guinea, New bA 
tain and Nev Ireland, . 
with the Solomon isles. 
New Caledonia and the ^ 
New Hebrides, New Zea- 
land and Van Diemen's 
land • ^ . 

Folynesia^ comprisini^ tiie 
V Bslew Islands^ Ladrones^ 
Carolines, Sandwich Is- 
lands, Marquesas, Socio* 
ty and Friendly Islands 

North Carolina 
South Carolina 



Amxbica, general riew of 

North America 


Hudson Bayy • - 


Central parts 

Western Coast - . 

Britjish Possessions in Nortli 

America ' - 
Canada' - - * - , ' 
New Brunswick • 
Cape Breton . - 


Vnited States of America 
New Hampshire 
Massachusetts (including 

Main) - -• - 

Rhode Island 
!^ew York 


Ohio . 

Michigan Territory 
Indiana Territory " - 
Illinois Territoiy 
Mississippi Territory, 
Louisiana - ^ 

Territory of Orleans 
Territory of Missouri • 
; jBpanish Dominions in North 

loan Islands, or West 
including Cuba, 
St-^l^biqgo, Jamalei, 
. PortoBieo, Carribbee Is- 
lands, ii^ the Bahama 
or Luc^llki islands 
South AmeHta 
Spanish Domi||ions 
pdrtugoese Disunions 
French Dominiqp 
Dutch Dominions ^^^ - 
Islands belonging tMputh 
America - V. 




271 i Africa 
276 1 Nubria 
ibid.\\ Bpmou 

277 \ I Fezzan 

278 ( ; Cashna 
279 1 Egypt 
280 1 Mahometan States 
300 \ Western Coast 

I Colony of the Ci^ of 
305 1 Good Hope 
31 > I Eastern Coast • . 
317 i Isle of Madagascar 
322 1 Smallfer Afrioan blands 






435 : 

43f : 

439 - 







Explained by the syrwmfmotLs modem namn^ and arran^d in alpha' 

beHccU order* . 

Acheron^ a river in Albania, now called Velechi. 

Jtctium, capital of Livadia, now called FIgala. 

AcroceravneSf mountains in Albania, now mount Chimfera. 

Adriatic Sea, now gulf of Venice. . 

Albion, now England. 

AUemama, now Franconia and Suabia. 

AUobrogea, now Savoy and Dauphin6. 

Ammon, now Barca in Africa. 

^Angles, ancient inliabitants of Holstein> the progenitors of the Eng- 
lish nation. 

Arcadia, now a part of Zaconia in Morea. 

Armoricjjh now the province of Bretagne in France. 

Armenia Mifor, now Turcomania, in Asia. 

Arbelflf aplace in Diarbek, where Aleximder routed Darius king of 

Aetffria, a part of modem Petsia and Dtarbeck. 

Atho9, a famous mountain of Macedonia, now Monte Santo. 

AtlanHe, supposed by some to be America. 

AuwnUi, now Terra di Labgjoo, in Apulia. * 


JBdbtflon, nowBagdidj the capital of Diarbeck. 

Bactriana, now Zagati, or Usbecks, a province on the borders of 

JSaiearef, now tiie islands of Majorca, Minorca, and Iviou 
Batavia, now Holland. 
Belgium, now Flanders. 
Mithynia, now Becsan^d in Natolia. 
Meristhenes, now the nver Due 'per, in Russia. 
Aepborut Thracia, now the straits of Constantiaopile. 
Byiantium^ now Constantinojpk^ 

viii 1^ Ctmmon Abm^t of MHmM iUt^rapli^. 

BttticOf part of Spain, now coitiiiims^ Gbwiada, Andahisii, part of 

Custilc and Eatnunadura. . ' 
JBri^anieB, inhabitanta of Tf^kahire, Laneaahire, Durham, West* 

morebiul and CiiBibcE|ind (O. £.) 


Campama, now part of CaUbtii^ in tbe kingdom of Kaples. 

Camkt, in the province of Bar^ in. the kkijraom of Naplea, famous 
for the destruction of a Boman amy by uamubal. «• 

Cantabria, now Biacay and Astufiaa 

Cappadocia, now Anuu^ in4fatolia. 

CarthaffOf now ruins, about nine mika from Tunis, in Barbary . 

Catpiafut, Januut^ famous mountain in Persia, near the Caspian sea. 

Caucanu, part of Mount'lCteinis, between the BUu;k and the Cas- 
pian seas. 1L.- 

Chalets, now Negropont, or ine cw^tal of that island. 

Catuellam, people <n Buckingham^^edford, andBertfordshire.(0£.) 

Cataraugiata^ a towa of .Spain, mm San^^osa. 

Chersonese fCtmbric) now Jutland. ^ 

Cherstmese, fTawie J flow Ctmssu '■ ^ , 

Ciclades, islands of the Archipelago. ^^ 

Ci&aa, now Cararoania, in Natolia. "^^ 

Cimbrif the inhabitants of Jutland. 

Comphitum, now A^cada de Heiiares, in Spain.' 

Chisivm, a town of Tuscjuiv, now in ruins. 

Colehides, now Mingrelia and Georjria, in Asia..* 

Corcyrum, now Corfu, an island on -the coast oC,,Albania. 

Creta, now Candia, an island, at the entrance of the ^krchipelago. 

D. ' \ 

JJacia, now part of Upper Hungary, of Transyhrania, Ya^Mttiaand 

Detphos, now CasUia, in Livadia or Achaia. 
Delos, now Sidill^* an island of the Archipelago. 

. .- B. .. 

Ecbatana, now Tauris, a large city in Persia. 

Eieusis, now Le^pina, a town near the Egean a^ fianous for the 

temple of Ceres. / 

JEHdea, that part of Morea, noir called. Belvidere. 
Emathia, a part ef Macedonia. 
Ethiopiay now Abyssimay and Nubia. 
JEtoHa, H part of Livadia, in Greece. 
EtruriOf now Tuscany. 

JSvheta, now the island of Negropont, in Tuikey. 
Euphrates, now Frat, a famous rjver of Asia, on which once stood 

uie city of Babylon. 

Eiaip^ an ann of the leat between Negropont atid Livadia. 

Tht Commw J^amea of AncieiU Oeof^aphy. Ik 


Falenuit a mountain in tlie kinupdom of Naples, now Monte Masft^o, 
once famous for its grapes. 


Galatia^ now Chiangara, a province of Natolia. 

Gallia, now France and Lombardy, divided into Cisalpine and 
Transalpine, a» it was more or less distant from Rome. 

GalUa Cisalpina, now Lombardy, was divided into Transpadana and 
Cinpadanu, as it was on one or the otiier side of the river Po, in 
respect of Rome. Cispadana was called also Tofi^ata, on account 
of the toga, or long gown worn by the inhabitants.^ 

CoslUa Tranaafpina, was likewise divided into two parts, one called 
Coinata, on account of the long ha^ of the inhabitants, com- 
prising the Lionase, part of Normandy, the Isle of France, the 
Orleannois, Touraine, Maine, Bretagne, Franche Comptd und all 
its dependencies, Guienne, Gaaeoigne. Rousillion, Triers, Spire, 
"Worms, Strasburg, Mentz, Toul, Verdun, and all tlie country 
between the Sein, the Maese, and the Rhine, from Coblent z down 
to the sea ; the other calk^ Braccata, on account of the Bracca, 
a sort of breeches worn in that count^^ comprehending Langue- 
doc, Provence, Dauphin^ and Savoy. 

Oadea, now Cadiz, a oity of Spain. 

Garamuntea, now Zara, or Nigritia, in Africa. 

Gennabium, now Orleans, a city of Fiance. 

Getea, people of Moldavia and Vallachia. 

Gnoaae^ now Candia. 

Getulia, now BUdulgerid, in Africa. 

Oramcua, now Lazzara, a river of Natolia, famous fbr ft viatory 
obtained by Alexander over Darius, near its banks. 

Qraeia Migna, now the south part of Italy. 


MaHcamaaaua, now Tobia, a city of Caramania. 

Mannonia, now liainault in Flanders. , 

MeHcon, now Zagara, a mountain of Livadia. 

Mellea/Hmtua, now the straits of Dardanelles. 

Mthetii, the inhabitants of Switzerland, 

ffarulea, a people in tlie north of Germany. 

Maapcridea, a name given by the Greeks to Italy, and by tlie Italians 

to Spain. 
Mircania, now Tarabistan, a province of Persia. 
Hkfimt a people settled in a part of the kingdom of Naples. 
BiipQli9g now Seville^ a tojini of Spain. 

fit €mamm Mmie$ tf JhicUm G^tgrMpkn- 

Iberi^ now Spain. 

Ithtmea, a small country between Jndea, E^pt, and Arabia. 

JUyrta, now Sclnvonia, Duloiatia, and Croatia. 

Jfunbria, now part of Lombardy, towards Como. 

loiiean «ea, washes the western shore of Greece up to the gul 

Itrupta, a umall country, along the river Jordan, opposite Tyni 
Atiu8 porhu, now BoukM^. 4 mu, port of France, the rendezi 

oi gunboats intended &t the iavaaioB of England. 


Lacedemothy or Sparta, now Misitra, a city of Morea. 
LtU9ma, the country of which Sparta was the capital. 
Laodicea, now LJch'a, or laaditiaj in Syria, about 8Cf\-en leagues f 

Latnim, now Cunpania di Ronift. 
Ixturentum, now San Lorenzo, is Campania di Roma. 

Lybia^ now Nigritia and Barca. 

lAbwyiiot a part of Dalmatia and Croatia. 

lAcaonia, now tiie district of C^gni in NstoBa. 

IJ^ria, now the Republic of Genoa. 

Locririy the lake of Avemo, in the kuigdom ef Kaples. 

Lotharin^ria, the duchy of Lorrain. 

Lucaniaj now the Basilicate, in the kingdom of Kaples. 

JLusitamOf now Portug^. 

JLuteHa, now Paris, the capital of France. 


Marathon^ now a village of lavadia, where the Greeks routed 

J\faa8affete8i now Turquestan in Asia. 
Mdrcomanni, peopled the country which lies in the south -wes 

'JIfavritania, <fiow Algiers, Tunis, Fez and Morocco. 
Media, now part of Persia, towards Aderbeitzan. 
Meander, now Mandre, a river of Natolia. 
Melita, now Malta, an isluid in the Mediterranean. 
Mempkis, now Grand Cairo, tlie capital of Egypt. 
Meaopotamia, now Diarbeck, in Asia. 
J^Blehts, now Palatcha, in Anatolia, a town of ancient Ionia, fast 

for its fine wooL 
Mtesia, now Servia and Bulgaria, in Europe. 
Missenia, now St Adrian, a town of Morea, near Corinth. 
Mo^mtia, now the city of Mentz, in Germany. 
Monabia, now the Isle of Man. 
J^tma, now Anglesea, in Wale». 

Tkg Cotmmn ^MtmeM of Andent OHgv^phf, H 


JVicomedia, a city of Natolia, formerly ttie capital of Bythinia^ and 

destroyed by an earthquake in 356. 
JVhwveht now a heap of ruins^ near the city of lfMiiI» on the river 

^oricvm, now part of Austria, Styria, Carinthia and Bavscia 
' ^itrmmtia, now Garrai» upon the Dure, a city of Spain. 
JYumieUa, now B ildulgend, in Africa. 


Ohfmptu a mount in Thessaly, near the gulf of Thessalonica. 
Obfnipia^ im)W Longanico, in Morea^ wh^ the CU3nnpIc games mat. 

Orchadet, novr the Isles of Orkney 
Orontea, now Oionz, or Tarfar, a ri?eroff Katolia in Asia. 


Padus, now Po, a river of Italy. 

Fannoma^ now part oi Stiria, Curniola, Carinthia, Hungary and 

Parthenopet now Naples, in Italy. 
Parthia, now Arac, in Asia. 

Pelopormesusy now Morea, part of Turkey in Europe. 
PehiHttm^ near the ruins of which stands Damietta, in Egypt. 
Phcenicia^ now a part of Suria, or S)Tia, in Asia 
Picemum, now Anoona, in Iiaiy. 
Pmttu9, now part of Aladulia,'in Natolia. 
Propontis, now the sea of M irmora. 
, Ptolamalt, now St John lyAcre, in Syria, famous for the defeat of 

Buonaparte and his eastern army by a handful of English sailors, 

under Sir Sidney Smith. 


MeHOf now the Grisons, aa far as Trent. 

JihodopTis, now B.vsilissa, a mountain in Romania. 

Mhegium^ now Resgo, a town in the [iromontory of Italy that is 

nearest to Sicily. 
Rubicon, now Pisatello, a river that divided Italy from Cisalpine 


MbUuU, inhabitants of the country iipw Campania di Roma. 


Saba, now Zibit, the metropolis of Arabia Foeliz. 

Sag^tntum, now Morvedro, a city of Vakiicia, in Spain. 

SaHmutea, inhabitants of the councry now called Cupitanate in Italy. 

SarmaHa, new Poland, Muscovy and purt of Tartary. 

Anit JitUiaHcu8iipoyr the gulf •f Venice. ^ 

»■ -i 

xU , *Tke Ctmmm AWMt •/ Jineient Oe^n^Jig^ 


Sttenonea^ ancient inhabitants of 

Scandhurma, now Denmark, Norwajr aad Siv^doi. 
5!(ry^Ata, an extennve rmon, ODW Tatary. 
Se^wtni, inhabitant of ftirgogne^ or Friche CoBrte. 
iSk^Mw^rta, part o<Clw»anyacir to wteetfift Main 

tSStd^n, now. said in Syria. . 

i&j^diiaMi, now a part of Tartary, bordf9rin|^ on Penia. 
S^, a fountain in Blorea, the water of whicH itcartieiiMfy ooUL - 
Svevia^ now Swabia, in Germany. 


TonoM^ now the Doo* a riper that divides Europe and Asiiu 
ITiebea, now Stives^ a cityoflivadiay in Turkey. . 

TTtriicia, mtw Romania. 

J'lv/mma, now ihe island offiDi^i 

Tyrrhene tea^ i.ow the seaof ^Itnay. 

7\frus, now Sur, in Syria. ■ v . ,'** -p'l 

V- ■ ■• ■■ ^ 

Vandafia, now that part of Gmiiany whioh liet akmi^ the Baltidc^ 

ViiuleUciy nuw a country between the Danube; the Txok^ and the Al^ ,^- 

Vohci, mliabitants of Calabria^ in the soutib bfM]^. 

Vindebona, now Viennai capital of Austria. 

- ■ ri 




• -^ J 


1 " 

\ . 



.MONO ull the liberul arts andscicnccH tliatarc Uufrht in bcIiooIh, 
there is not one, pcrhupH, that haH nioiv to ivcoinmcnd it to g^cncral 
cultivation than (iXooHAriir, or aknowK'(l)|^* of the globe we inhabit. 

To undcrsmnil the theory of tliis Hcicnci', with nn nuidi oi Awtro- 
iioiny UH rcHpcctM Hw. aimual revolution of our planet round tiu* hvjh, 
:uid itH diurnal motion on itn own ax'm ; to bo ncnuainted wiUi itn 
component partH ; itH yariouH inhabitantH ; its phyHieul and political 
diviHiona ; is a delightful t^tvidy, considered only as a iiul)ject of 

lint if we take into view tlie utility of the Hcience, when applied 
1.0 the purpose! of navigation and conimerce— with tlic knowlcdp^ 
it unfoldtt of the lawH, rellg'ionfl, mannerB, customs, arts, and im- 
{)ro\t*n)entH of our (Mlow-men, in all their vnriouH disperHions, and 
the tendency it has to remove local prejudices, tuul to render tlu^ fa- 
wilitfs of the earth more useful to one anotluT, it will be esteemed 
Ks one of the most usefid branches of a libend education. 

To have a |)erfect comprehension of GKUfHurnT, it is necessary to 
bet^'in the work with a summary view of Astrtmomy, as far at least 
as a knowlc<l|j^- of one is proiK-r to render the other plain and intelli- 


The Solar flysU'm cfjiiKists ol" the Sun, M?ven primary phuicts, 
ten moons, an(I suvtral coiiwts; the number of the latter is not yet 
certainly known. 

Tlie Sim IS p'urtd in the centre of the system, mnd all tJie planets 
move round him, in dl(?> i-t ut times, and at different distances, j^he 
Rnrtik lias one moon, JupiU r four, and Saturn live. The paths by 
which the planets revolvi* round tlie Sun, nnd the moons round their 
K<;vcrul jirim-viiH, ari» culled tiieir orbits. The names of the planets, 
in tlu» order of tiieir approximation to the centre of the Sun, arc 
Mercury, ^'enu8,the Kjirth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the Oeorpfium 
RiduH. 'The two first, bee.uiHi* tlu'y are nearer the Sun, and move 
within the Karth, iu*e called i/i/crjor planets, and the four last, be- 
cause they titttw: ^^ iljiout the orbit of the Karth, arc called CAHiTiav 


The planets »ire moved by a projectile force iniprcsscil on thcni 
by the Deity, at the bcjf inning^ ; which tbrcc would for ever have 
caused tliem to move in strait lines, were it not by the 
attractive power of tlie Sun. This attraction oomptls them to rc- 
\olve about tlie Sun, in the same orbits as they did from the bcjcin- 
ning". Their periods round tlie' Sun complete their years or aimual 
motion, and their rotations on their axes complete their days and 

The times in which the planets make tlieir annual periods arc 
found by observation, ami their com])arttiive distances ft-om tlie Sim 
have been also ascertained by observation. It has been found that 
the squares of the pehmlicai times bear the same proportion to one 
another, as the culx^s of their distances from the Sim do bear to each 
other. Of courst*, Uic attractive power of the Sun, which n^talns all 
the planets in their orbits, decreases as the squares of their several 
distances from the Sun increase. 

The times in which the planets perform their revolutions round 
the Sun, and their comparative distances from that luminary, are as 
follows ; supposing the Earth's distance to be divided into 1U,U00 
equal parts. 

Period, times Comp. dist. 

davs hours parts. 

hipiter 4332 12 52,(K»9 

Sr.txim 10.759 7 95,400 

<;eorg:ium 30,445 270,000 

Having found the comparative distances of the planets from the 
Sun in their respective parts, if we can find the real distance of 
lithcr of tlic planets from the Sun in miles, we may find tliei*eby 
the real distances of all the rest. 

By observations on the late transit of Vemis, tlie Earth's distsT.ce 
from tJie Sun is found to be 95,173,000 Enj^lisli miles. Therefore, 
as 10,000 is to 95,173,000, so is 3871, Mercury's distance from tlie 
Sun in comparative parts, to 36,481,468, his distance from the Sun 
in miles. 

Aj^in, by doubling" Mercury's distance from the Sun of 36,481,468 
we obtain 72,962,936 miles for the diameter of his orbit. Then as 
the diameter of a circle is to its circumference as 7 is to 22, so is 
72,962,936 to 231,574,940 English miles, tlwi circumference of Mer- 
cury's orbit. 

Ry dividing the circumference of a planet's orbit by the number 
of hours contained in his periodical revolution round his orbit, we 
obtain tlie numl^er of miles that a planet moves in an hour : by this 
rule Mercury rcvolves at the rate of 109,699^*^*^ miles per hour. — 
Similar calculations may be applied to all the oUier pknets, but the 
limits of this abridgment will not admit of Uicm, except in tlie 

Venus turns round on her own axis in 24 days 8 hotirs ; the Earth 
revolves in its axis in 24 hours ; Mars, in 24 hours 40 minutrs ; Jupi- 
ter, in 9 hours 56 minutes. The times in wliich Mu'cun', Saturn^ 

Period, times Comp. dist.|] 



parts • 



















aiul ficoppfium turn round on their ax<» nrv UTikuovvn to us; oxyiiij; 
to tlic ru .'.vncss of tlic first to the Hun, and tlic great diiitanci: of the 
two lal ! f M' f i-om him."^ 

In ordi r to hrin;^ all these thinfjs toj^thcr into one view, the fol- 
lowing tabic iH rxuislructid. 


The Planet! receive their ffeneral name from a Crock wonl, tig- 
iiifviiig -wmitlrrerf becauitc thcv are continually chai)i;;'in}jf their po- 
«iti(>nM. They are opaque b<KlieH» of dificrtMit dtMisiticM» ami like 
our Fourth derive their illumination fn>m tiic Sun. I'lioir nami-ii are 
somctimoH expressed by the foUowinj; characters : Mercur>', \l . 
Venus, 9. 'I'hc Eartli, 0. Mars^ %. Jupiter];/. Saturn, I2 . 
fteorgium Sidiui, Jg. . 

The Hplierical tiffure of the Rartli being fully proved by the voy- 
ages of in:aiy navigators who have sailed round it, as well as by 
many otlu*r uell known facts, tlie hypothesis of its motion is evi- 
dently rendereil the more probal>le. Fur if it move not round tlie 
Sun, not only the Sun, but all the stars and planets, must move roun4 
the Earth, witli a velocity that exceeds all conception ; whereas all 
flu* Appearances in nature may he easily explained by imagining the 
l^arth tu move round the Sun m the space of one year, and to revolve 
on \Xn own axis onr^ in 24 hours. 

To form a conception of these two motions of the earth, wc may 
imagine a ball moving on a billiard-table, or a bowling-green : the ball 
proceecli forward upon the green or txd>le, not by sllai ng along like 
a plane upon wood, but l)y turning round its own axis, an imaginary 
line <lrawn through its centre, and ending on its surface. The Earth, 
jti twenty-four hours, revolves on its own axis from west to cast, 
while the ii)h:ibituiiUt on the surface may conceive tliat the sun and 
ht.'u:^ Im'i'.'C fi'om east to west; like men on tlie dei-.k of a ship, who 
ure iiiHL'iisihle of tiieir own motion, and think tiiat the banks move 
ii'om them, in a contrarv direction. This diurnal motion of tho 
liartli cleai-ly conceive u, will enahh* us more easily to conipix'heml 
its annual motion round the Sim. Tor as that luminary seems to a (ilurn.M motion round the Earth, which is ri ally occasioned 
!)y the diurnal motion of the latter round its own uxis, so, in the 
( uiu's'.' of tlio year, lie seems to have an annual motion in the hea- 
\< n :, and to rise and set in diflerent points, which is really causf^l 
liv ihc annual motion of the Earth, in its orbit round tin* Sun, which 
ll completes in the space of one year. As, to the first of tlu'se 
motions wc owe tlic buccession of da}'8 and nights, so, to the 
secoiul we arc indebted for the seasons of tlie year, and the diflcr- 
euct; in tjiQ Icnt^h of da^s and nights. 


Ihit ii is iKccssan* to observe that the axis of tho Earth is not ex- 
actly parallel to, or in a line with, the axis of its orbit ; becau<«i' Uien 
I he same parts of the Earth would he turned towanl the Sun in every 
diurnal revolution, which wouhl deprive mankind o* the gratefid vi- 
• issiluili's of ilie seasons, arising fnnii thedifterence in the length of 
«la\s ami niglits. This is therefori* not the case :....ln the EarlJi's 
whole annual course round the Sun, its axis is 33i degriH-s inclined 

froni a per]>endicular to its orbit Of this we may- conceive .sonic 

iilea, I)) suppo.siiig a spindle put through n ball, with one end of it 
touching the ground; if wc move the l>all forw.artl, whilcr ot\e end of 
tlic fipindlc continues to touch tho ground, and tlic other points to- 


wards some quarter of tlie heavens, we may form an iilea of the in- 
clination of the earth's axis to its orbil, from tJie inclination of Uk- 
spindle to the ground ; and of coarse, may comprehend the cause of 
the vicissitude of the seasons, and of the difference in the length of 
the days and nights. 


By the globe is meant a representation of the different places and 
countries on the face of the Eai-th, upon an artificial globe or ball. 
Geographers have represented the situation of one place wltli regard 
to anotlier, or with regard to the Earth itself, by certain artificial cir- 
cles. After tliat circle in the heavens, wliich is called the equator, 
was known to astronomer?^ nothing was more easy than to ti*ansfer 
it to the Earth, by which the situation of places was determined, as 
they lay on one side of the equator or tfie otlier. The reader having 
obtained a clear idea of tliis leading principle, we may proceed to 
consider the description of our Earth, as represented by the artificial 

FrouRE OF THE Earth. Tliough in .speaking of the Eartli 
with tlie other planets, it may be sufficient to consider it as a sphe- 
rical, or globular body, > et Sir Isaac Newton has demonstrated, from 
mathematical principles, that it is an oblate spheroidyOi that it is flat- 
ted at the poles, and jutted out towards the equalor....andhe compu- 
ted the difference to be in the ratio of 229 to 230....Tlie reason of 
this may be easily understood by a familiar proof. If a ball of sofl clay 
be fixed on a spindle, and whirled round, we shall find it will jut out 
or project toward the middle, and flatten towards the poles. 


tlie best observations, the diameter of the earth has been computed 
to be 7,990 miles, and its circumference 25,038 miles, English mea- 
sure. This circumference is conceived, for the conveniency of mea- 
suring, to be divided into 360 parts, or degrees, each degree con- 
taining 60 geographical miles, or 69^ English miles. These degrees 
are subdivided; each degree into 60 minutes, and each minute into 
60 seconds, and are mai'ked thus d°. m\ s^^. in geographical calcu- 

Axis OP THE Earth. The axis of the earth is tJiat imaginary 
line, passing through its centre, on which it is supposed to revolve 
once in 24 hours. The extreme points of tliis line are called the 
poles, one in the North, and tlie other in the South, and are of great 
use in determining the distance, and situation of places, as they ap- 
proach to, or ij^cede from, the equator. 

Circles op the Globe. These are commonly divided into 
greatevy six in number, and fewer, whioh are only foiu*. The tormer 
pass through tlie centre of the earth,, and divide it into two equal 
parts or hemispheres ; tlie latter are parallel to the equator, but do 
not pass through the centre of the eartli, or divide it into two equal 
parts, their diameters being smaller than that of tlie earth. 

EdUATOR. Tlie first great circle is the equator, or cQuinoe- 
tial line j so called, because the sun, when moving in it, makes the. 


xviu DTTBODUCnON. . ^ 

days and nights of equal leng^ all orer the world. It 
through the east and west pohits of the globe* and divides it iBto 
northern and southern hemispheres, and is itaelf divided into 360 

lIoBizoir. This great circle is represented on the g^^* ^ 
a broad circular piece of wood encompassing the globe, andVlividuig 
it into uptier amr Imwr hemispheres. It is distinguished also into 
9ensible and ratiortoL The first is that which bounds the utmost 
prospect of our sight, when we view the JMAveiis around usy and de- 
termines the rising or setting of the sun and stars, in any poticular 
place. The second encompasses the globe e3uu:tly in the middle» - 
and its poles are called the zenith and nadir g the former exaetly oivor 
our heads, and the latter under our feetv-*Tlie broad wooden eiiele 
cm the teirestrial globe that represents tiM» Inniioa has umnXtAt- . 
cles drawn upon it, exhibiting the signsbf the jBodia^tbe number of 
.degrees in each, the days of tne month. Ice. 

MsBiDiJLir. A meriduuii in geography is ft great circle, tnppamA 
to be drawn tluMUgh anv part on the sutAce of the Earth ml the 
two poles ; and to which the sun is always perpendicular at nooflu ' 
The brass ring on which a globe hangs asdtanw is called the braten ' 
meridian^ and it divides the globe into two parts, eaUed theBastem • 
and Western hemispheres. It is divided into four <{uadrants^ 90 
degrees each ; two (^ which begin ct the equator^ and Increaae . 
towards the poles, serving to shew the latitude of places on the 
terrestrial globe, and the dedinalioit of the sun, moon, ;er stirs, on 
the celestiiU. The oth& two quMhrants begui at the polMf and in- 
crease in degrees towards the equttiv; and these -serftt to elevate 
or depress the poles, according to any assisned latitude. This cir- 
cle cuts the equator at right angles ; and tdnere are commonly 24 of 
these circles mai^ced on a globe, one through every fifteen degrees 
of tlie eqiuitor. As perpendicular lines dnawn ftom the oppoaitet 
por^ts of a globe are necessarily widest apart, at its gr9a(est cir- 
cumference, which is at tlie equator; they most decrease, in thiSr 
distnnce apart; as thev a]^»roach the polet. it is impossible there- 
fore to know the number of miles there ir 4n any degree of km^pi- 
ti!de,Hin^css the latitude 18 also mentioned. - 

Zodiac. The Zodiac is a broad circie, which cuts the equator ob- 
liquely ; in which the twelve signs are represented^ In tne middle 
of this circle, is supposed another called the eeUpHc^ from which 
the sun never deviates in his annual course, ^dvandng 30 degrees in 
every month.— The twelve signs are. 

1. Aries «Y> March 20. 

2. Taurus 8 April 20. 

3. Gemini n--May 21. 

4. Cancer 05 ....June 21. 

5. Leo St- -^"ly 23- 

6. Virgo iijj ....Augiiijt23. 

All the signs ftom Aries to Yirgo are north of the equator, and 
are called northern signs ; while those jfrom Libra to Pisces are 
south of the equator, and ^vrc called southcitLsigxis^ 

7. Lil^n sfis.- .September 5J3. 

8. Scorpio nL.;..October 23. 

9. Sagittarius /....November 22. 

10. CapriccMii l^.„.December 21. 

11. Aquarius X85'— January 20. 

12. Pisces. X ••••February 19. 


CoLURis. If we imaf^ine two ji^at circles, both passing through 
the poles of the world ; one of tliem through tlie equinoctial points 
arics and libi*a, and the ottiei' tlirou";-!! the solstitial points cancer 
fuid Capricorn, we have an idea of the coliires — the one is called the 
equinoctial, tlie other the solstitial colure. — These are all the ^rea£ 

Tiiorics. These are two smaller circles, drawn parallel to the 
equinoctial, distant fi*om it 23^ degrees : one towards the nonh, 
called the tropic of cancer; the other towai-ds the south, called the 
tropic of Capricorn. 

PoLAK Circles. If two other circles arc supposed to be drawn 
at the same distance of 23;^ degrees from tlie polar points, these re- 
present the polar circles. The northern is called the arctic, ajid the 
soutiiem tlie ant-arctic. — These are the four lesser circles. 

Zonk. The Zones are 5 in number : the toirid zone, or that por- 
tion of tlic earth lying between the tropics, which by the ancients 
was erroneously supposed to be uninhabitable, on account of its 
heat^two temperate, or that portion comprised bt»tween the tropics 
and the j)olar circles — and two frigid, tliat are inclosed within the 
polar circles and tlie poles, and are tlie most unfit for human habi- 
tation of any part of tlic eartii. 

Climatks. These are certain divisions of the earth, determined 
by the various lengths of the day ; and there are SO of them be- 
tween the equator and either pole. In the first 24, the days increase 
by half hours : and in the remaining six, which lie between the 
polar circle and the pole, the days increase by months. Georgia 
and the Carolinas arc comprised within the 5th climate, and the 
longest day about 14h. SOm.; tlie middle states within the 6th, 
longest day about 15h. New York and the eastern states within 
the 7th, tlie longest day about 15h. SOm. 

LiTiTUDK. The latitude of any place is its distance from the 
equator, cither north or south, but can never exceetl 90 degrees 
eitlier way, as such is the distance from the equator to either pole. 

Parallels of I^titude. These arc imaginary circles, parallel 
with the equator, which arc drawn to intersect the meridian of any 
place, and to designate its true situation, or distance from tlic 

Longitude. The longitude of any place is its situation with re- 
gard to the first meridian, reckonca toward the east or west. 
Modem globes and maps fix the first meridian in the capital city 
where they are made. In England, tlie first meridian is fixed at 
liondon or Greenwich; in France, at Paris; and in the United 
States, at Philadelphia. No place can have more tlian 180 degrees 
of longitude. The degrees of longitude arc not equal like those of 
latitude, but diminish as tlie meridians approach the poles. Hence, 
i:i sixty degi'ces of latitude, a degree of longitude is but half the 
quantity of a degree at tlie equator, and so of tlie rest. Tlic de- 
grees of longitude are marked on the equator from to 180. 

Qcadrant of Altitude. This is a thin slip of brass diWdcd up- 
wards from to 90 degrees, and downwards from to 18 degret s, 
aud when iiscd, is generally screwed to the brass meridian. Tlic 


uppier part is used todetermine the dittancet of plMM •Athecwtk^ 
the dittancet of celetUal bodiet, their altitiidet» &c. and the kMT 
part, to find the beg^ning, end, and duration of twilif^t 

Ths Bot'E CiRCLv. Thit it a tmall braat circle^ fixod under tlie 
brast meridian, and divided into 24 rqnal parts, conrespoodnK widi 
the hours of the day. It has an index which mores round the axai 
of the globe. 

DBcuiTATioir of the sun, a star, orplanet| b iUdistmee fitwitho 
equator, northward or soutiiward* when the sun is in the equnoe- 
tial he has no declination, and enlightens half of the clobe from 
pole to pole ; as be recedes horn the equinoctial, the mvatkm of 
day increases in one hemisphere, and that of night in fSbt other. 
The greatest declination of the sun is ^ SO' when he is in one or 
other of the tropics. 


Bring the place under the semietrcle of tfie brasen mfridii 
where the divisions begin at the equator, and obserre what degret 
tiie place is under, ana tt is the latitude required. 

3. 7!\» rectify the €H969i9 the Latiiudetf a place. 

Elevate the pole above the honaon till its altitude^ observe^on 
the brazen meridian, be equal to the latitude of the place, and it is 
then said to be rectified to the latitude, and it so far stands right 
for the solution of all problems for that Utitnde. 
3. TnJhdtheLengUudee/aplaeefi'em^hUade^'a. 

Bring the place to the graduated edge of the brazen meridian, 
and observe the point of the equator wnich.lles' under it, and the 
distance of that point firtmi the point where' tfie meridian of Phila- 
delphia suts the equator is tiie loi^tude required. 

4. Given the XMtiiudemuiLengitndetfnplacCfteJMii^here the; 


Bring the given degree of lonritude to the hrasen meridian, and 
then under the given degree of latitude upon ihtA meridian, you 
have tlie place required. 

5. When it ieneenaimigf place ^ttejktd the heur at ai^ ether 

place M. 

Brin^AtotltenMfildiaiwandsettheindextoXIIs then turn the 

globe till D comes under the meridian, and the index wiU shew the 
our at D. If it be not noon at At set the index to the. hour, and 
proceed as beforci andyou get the conespooding hour atB. 


6. To find the distance of Afntm B. 

Brings A to the meridian, and screw the quadrant of altitude over 
it, and carry it to IJ, and you ^et the number of degrees between A 
and B, which multiply by 69,2, tlie miles in one degprec, and you jfct 
the distance required. » 

7. To find the bearing of Bfrom A, 

Bcctify the glo})e for the latitude of A, and bring A to the me- 
ridian, and fix the quadrant of altitude to A ; then direct the 
quadrant to B, and the point where it cuts the horizon shews i3tt 
bearing' required. 

8. To find the Sw^a place in the Ecliptic at any time, 6fc. 

The month and the da^ being given, look for the same in the cii;' 
die of months on the horizon, and against the day you will find the 
sign and degree in which the Sun is at that time ; which sign and 
degree being found on the eclit>tic will shew the Sun's place, or near 
it, at the time desired. The distance of the sign and degree froni 
the equator, either north or south, will shew the Sun^s northern or 
southern declination, if the sign and deg^e be brought np to the 
brass meridian. 

9. At an fiour of the day at J9, to find the place A, to -which the Sun it 


Find the Sun's place in the ecliptic^ and bring it to the brazem 
meridian, and you find its declination on the meridian ; then bring 
B to tlie meridian, and set the index to the given hour, and tiu^ the 
jl'lobc till the index comes to XII at noon, and tlie place under the 
Sun's declination upon the meridian is that required. 

10. To know the length of the day and night at any place at ana 

time of the year. 

Elevate the pole according to the latitude of the place ; find the 
Sun's place in the ecliptic at that time ; whicli being brought to the 
cast side of the horizon, set the index of the horary circle at noon, 
or the upper figure XII ; and turning the globe about till the afore- 
said place of tlie ecliptic touch the western side of tlie horizon, 
look upon the horary circle ; and where the index points, reckon the 
numl>er of hours to the upper figure of XTI, for that is the length 
of the day ; the complement of which to 24 hours is the length of 
the night. 

11. To explain, in general, the alteration of tJte lengths of the day 9, 

and tlie difference of the seasons. 

Put patches upon the ecliptic from aries both ways to the tropics, 
and let them represent so many different situations of the Sun ; and 
then, the globe being rectified to tlie latitude of the place (by 
«rt 2), turn it about and you will see, for north latitude, that as th« 


palr)ies approach the traplc of cancer, tlic corregpondinii^ (litimil 
arr** w ,11 incroase ; and as the p;;tcljts appi-ooch tliir tropic ot* Capri- 
corn, «iu: di'iniul arcs will decrc:u>e ; also, the formi.T iii*cs ax-e gi'cater 
than a semicircle, and the latt<'r less ; ami the patch in the equator 
will describe a semicircle above the iiorizon When therefore tlie 
Sun is in the equator, thr d:tys and ni^^hls are equal; as he advances 
towaixls tl;c' Uopic of cancer, the days increase, and the nifhts de* 
crease, till iio comes to the tropic, where the d«iys ore found to be 
long-est, and the nigiits shortest ; then as he appi-oadies the eqiuitor, 
the lengtli of the duys dimmishes, and that of the niffhts increases, 
and when the Sun comes to the equa^^r, the length of the days aiid 
nights is ei^ual. Then as he advances towards capricom, the dajrs 
Cf^ntinue to diminish and the nights increase till he comes to thiat 
tropic, where the days are shortest and the niglits are longest; and 
then as he approaches the equator, the days increase and the nights 
diminish ; and whi*n he comes to tlie equator, the days and nights 
are equal. And whatever be the latitude, when the Sun is in the 
equator, d;ivs and nights arc equal. To an inhabitant at the pok^ 
tlie Sun will appear to be half a year above the horizon, and habP a 
year below. To an inhabitant at the equ^ilor, the days and nights 
will appear to be always equal ; also, all Uie liearenly bodies will be 
ibtind to be as long above the horizon as below. At the are tic cir- 
cle, the lon^^-cst day will be found to be 24 hours, and the longest 
night 2-i hours ; this appeij^ by rectif) iD,^ the globe to that lati- 
tude, and observing the patches at tlie tn^pics of cancer and of 
r ipricom. Lastly, it will be (bund tliat A\ places enjoy equally the 
Sun in respect to time, and are tquu'.ly deprived of it ; the length 
of the days at one time of the year Ixiing found exactly equal to 
the length of the nights at the oppositt- scitson. Tills appears by 
putting patches upon the cc'^ptic, at opposite points of it, 

12. To find at mty Dav crui flottr^ the Places wtiere the Sun is rUin^f 
tettin^^ or on the .Mendian ; al89, those Places vthich are enUglUened^ 
and tc/iere the TiAlight is bepiiuiing ami entling. 

Find (by art. 8) the place to wliicK the Sunis vertical at the given 
hour, ;ind bring the same te tlic meridian, and rectify the globe to 
a latitude ec{ual to tlie Sim's declination. Then to all those places 
under the xvcst^n semicircle of the horizon, the sun is rising ; to 
those under the eastern semicircle, the sun is setting ; and to those 
under the tneridian it is noon 

Also, all places above the horizon are enliglitened, and all those 
below ai*e in the dark hemisphere. 

Lastly, in all tliose places 18° below the western horizon, the 
twilight is just beginning hi the morning, and in those 18° below the 
eastern horizon, is just ending in the evening. 

13. To find all the Places to -wfuch a Lunar Eclipse is visible at Ofly 


Find the place to whidi the Sun is vertical at any time, and bring 
that phice to the zenith, and tlic eclipse will be visible to all the 

liemisplierc U7ulev the hori.-:' ii. i .-.cuuhe the Moon is thcli opposite to 
UiC Sun. 

14. Tojindtlie Sun^t JHeridian JlUitude at any time, at any ^iven 


Find the Sun's declination, ami elevate the pole to that declina- 
t ion ; bring* the place given to the brass meridian, and count the 
number of degrees 1)ctwecn it and tlie horizon ; these dcj^rt-cs will 
shew the Sun's meridian altitude at tlic given place. 


1 . The surface of the earth contains land and ivater. The great 
collection of water is called the sea, or the ocean ; and this is divided 
into three principal parts ; the JItlantic Ocean, \\ hich dividrs Eujo/pc 
and Jlfiica from JImerica / the Pacific Ocean, or fJreat South Sea, 
which divides Ana from JImerica; and ihe JviUan hca, which lies 
between JIfrica and Malacca, Svmatva, Java, J^^eiv Hollutd, &c. 
Besides tlurse, tliere . 'ire others whicli take thirir mmcs Irom the 
countries against which tluy are situated ; as the Irinh Sea, tlw iiev- 
man Sea. There is also Wm Meditei'vanean Sea, dj\iding /.'i/r6/;<? 
from Africa i the Black Bcvl; the Cartpian Sea, which ih not con- 
nected Willi tlie' oilier Seas ; the Hed Sea, &e. &c. 

2. A hay, or gulfi is a part of the sea running* into the land, so as 
to liuve a consid< rabje proportion of it, more or less accord injj to 
circumstances, bounded by shores ; as the bay of Jfiscay, iUf bay 
of lietiffol, I/udscn*^ bay, Cardiff an bay; the gulf oi Venice, 'ft- jrulf 
of Mexico, the gidf of Japan, &c. &c If th;: cxi<nt inio the land 
be but small, it is calhd a creek, a haven^ or a road. 

3. A atrai', or atraiffht, is a narrow part of the sea nnming* be- 
tween two countries, and connecting two seas ; as the straits of 
JJover, ihc straits of Gibraltar, the straits of Svnda, the straits of 
Magellan, &c. &c. 

4. A considerable bo<lv of inland fresh water is called r lake ; 
as the lake nf deneva, Iftke Ontario, lake of Dervfcnt, &c. &c. 

5. A consirlei*ablc stream of inland water which runs into the sea, 
is called a river f and smaller streams which run into a river, are 
called brooks. 

6. A current ia a stream of water upon the sea. Under the equa- 
tor < he re are some very violent ones, against which a ship cannot 
maki- any way. There is one which carries a ship very swiftly from 
Africa to Aimrrica, but it cannot return the same way. fiovenior 
I*o\'-nal cbseJves that this cunvnt performs a continual circulation, 
setting out from the coast of Guinea, crossings over the Atlantic, 
setting into tlie j^df of Msxico by tlie south, and sweeplnj^ round 
by the bottom of the ftulf, 1\ is.jue.sei^ the north side, and j^(;rs along* 
the coast of JVorth Aivi'ica till it arrives at AV.t;/b7mc//<w?J; whr-re it 
ii turned barl: arir)ss Mm; Athm'ic totiie coast o*' Europf , aiui thence 
flOuthw.'.rd tothepoir'i (ii.n* which it sets oxit — In .SV. Geor/rr\ Chan- 
w/ there is a current which usually sets in castwaid. From tiie 


ttir /hiltir a ciirrrnt net a in(o tlu' ^7mA Channel. It is f^erolly 
:iliii\\« il. that thcri' is alwavH a curivht sfttiiif^ round the Capet of 
Finisti-rn- and Orit |>ul inti> the 1)h\ of HiHcav; and Mr. KethhrllIim 
(lis('o\( IV d that this ctirnMit Ih continued, and panHcs about N. W. 
I)\ W. from tlic c'ojist t>r Franrc, to tin* wt'Mtwanl ui' 8c illy and 
livland. Ill rroHsiu};' tiic Atlantic thm ton- for the Kn^lish Channel, 
he advises tlic navi^^aUir to kwp in the parallel of 4*^^ 45\ at the 
hi}>^he(i', li'st the curnMit 1110111(1 carry him upon the rocks of SciHy. 
l"'n>mtht ij^mranrc of this cum nt, many ships have been lost on 
tliosc rock?*. 

7. A \«'ry i^n-ni extent of huid is called a continent, of wlucU 
tlxTi* are two ; onu contains Hufopc, .^m'u, and ^ifrica ,• and the other 
<*rintains ^imrvicii ,• tlu- fornii r is called the Eattern, and tlic latter 
tile IVtatrvn continent. 

8. A NUiali ext' nt <if land surrounded hy the sea, is called an ItUtnd, 
M \i l;i>>d run oiii from Uie main and be joiiK'd to it by a narrow 

slip — ll'.e fnsi is called a /m'/m/i W«, and the latter an uthmnt, 

10. If luiiil jut <iut into (he sea, without an isthmub, it is called 
A pronitrrifon/, .-nd the point of it is called a ca/.e. 

!M \i s. A nup is a M'piesi iitation of tlu Karth, or a part of it, o& 
a i>l.'iiU' surface. It difli rs from a fflulje in the .same mi'.nn(.r as u pic- 
tuiv does fiojn a •itatue. Tlii f^loln* tndy it ])resc*ntK the earth, where* 
Mb a nt.!]), tx'in^V ^ phuie .HUrfiCv-, cannot repivsiui a bpherical IxxIrA 
The ttivdiHti} ffutnttt'jkT\ llu north, 8<;Uth, east i:nd west. The nortli 
is eon s '.lie 11 r . s ^he ujipor i)art of the U);ip, and the south the bot- 
loH) ; the ( Is <ni tlu ri(:ht hand, and the \\\st on tlu* left. From 
the top lo tlic iMtttein lire drawn uieridi.vns, ur Uriet of tongitvdes 
aiui iVmiu siile to side-, />uruiif,'a of la tt tit tit . T Iiv c.itermost of the 
nieriiiiMi:., iMuI pui'jlk'ls, are in; rlcid wth d(-p< < s of latitude ami 
lonj 'tiu^u', IjyuiiaMM ol which, and tie of iniles commonly 
phircd ill (h«' eorner of th<' map, the situatiOfi, dislaiiee, &c. of places 
ni;«y hi- I'ound, :ls on the artiiieial j;'lobc. 

Ix}i!;th of vnlt'u in tU£cvvnt ctunitrit's ^Is^rcvchh/ to 2)i\ IhiUei/'a 

villi uluuona. 

Thr i:nj,-lish statute mile consists of 52aO feet, 1760 yards, or 8 

'I'lir Kussi:.t\ Verst is little more ll^.'.ii } of an Kni^lisli mile. 

Tlir Tnikish, Italian, and old Roman lesser mile, is nearly one 
Kni;lis!i mile. 

Till" Ar..hian, ancient and hkhK m, is about 1 \ "Ety^Wslu 

Tic Seoteh and Irish mile is about 1^ Kn^^lish. 

The Indian is I'^most o Knjiflish. 

'Vh- Hutrh, Hpanisb, and Polish, is about 33 Vnplish. 

Tli( (i» ii.iim is more 'ban 4 Knjj^lisli. 

Tl, S\v •'. '•, !V.Mis1 , .'ud llunfrai'ian, Im fr«mi 5 to 6 Kn;*:lish. 

Ti r. t.jI.i ii.5'^-.' ••«niHnear3 Kng-lisii ; and the Knfjlisli 
jnari.::* le.'LT:'- h > nules. 








AS Euiio ra i fs the seat of letters and arts, and the greatest exertions 
ofnientul energy in ever}- department ; and is besides the native region 
Ot'the chief modem geographers, it is generally the region first treat- 
ed. But beft)re we proceed to consider tlic sc\Tral kingdoms and 
states comprised in tins division of tlie globe, it may be proper to 
pifer a brief and general description of the whole. 

KxTEST. This part of the globe is smallest in extent, yielding 
considerably to Africa. From the Portuguese cape, called by our 
niurincrs the Kock of Lisbon, in the west, to tlie Uraliun mountains 
in tlie east, the length may be about 3,300 British miles ; and the 
breadll) from the North Cape in Danish Lapland, to Cape Mutapan^ 
the southei-n extremity of Greece, may be about 2,350. The con- 
tents in square miles have been calculated at two millions and a half: 
tlic inhabitants 150,000,000. - 

Li MiTs. Itts situated between 10° N. and 65** B. from London, and 
between 36° and 72° N. lat. On the south, the continental part, is 
limited by tlie Me<literranean sea, on the west by the Atlantic, whicki 
contains the furthest European isle, that of Iceland ; Greenland Ink- 
ing regarded as a part of North America. In the opinion of several 
gcogrujjliers, the Azores or Western Isles arc clearly Euroj>ean, being 
nearer to Portugal than to any other continental land, wlule tlie Ma- 
(leiras, for the same rci.son, belong to Africa. On the nortli, the 
bonndaiy is the Arctic Ocean, embracing the remote isles of Spitz - 
Ix-rgY^n and Novaya Zemlia, or the New Land. On the east, it is 
boun(led by Asia. 

I^ANviTAGK. Tlie languages of Europe are derived from the five 
following ; the Greek, Latin, Gothic (parent of the Teutonic or old 
German^) the Celtic, and Sclavonic. 

RKLToio!f. The Christiiin Ileligion pre^-ails throughout Europe, 
except in Turkey, where however at ley ««t one half of the inhabitants 
arc attached to the Gi-eek church. The two grand distinctions arc 
C'atliolics nr.d ProUsiuuts : the foinntp in the south, where the pas* 


i.1 EUnOP^ 

s*.ipns arc more \vum and the imag'jnation more delighted witli splen* 
i!i)ur ; the latter in the north, where tlie operations of the judgmcut 
J)! (-dominate. 

Climate. This fair portion of the globe is chiefly situated in the 
temperate zone ; Lapland only being within tlie limits of the frigid 
zone ; and freedom from the excessive heats of Asia and Africa has 
contributed to the vigour of the frame, and the eiicrg}- of the miiid 
of the iiihal)itant8. 

IxLAivD Seas. In a general view of Europe one of the most strik- 
ing and interesting features is the number and extent of the inland 
si'as ; justly ifgardcd as chief causes of the extensive industrj- and 
civilization, and consequent superiority to the otlier grund divisions 
of the globe. Among inland sea;* tlie Mcditerraneanciin is justhtsrc- 
emincnt, having 1>een the centre of ciWlization to ancient and mudern 
Kui*ope. The columns of Hercules marked its western boumbir}' ; 
being the mountain or rock of Abyla, now called Ccutu in Africa, and 
Kalpe in Spain, the Gibraltar of modem fame. The length of the 
INItditerranean is about 2000 miles to its fartliest extremitv m Syria i 
but in ancient maps the length has been extended to aLout 2500 
miles. On its northern side open two large gulfs, tl^ of Venice and 
the Archijjclago ; tfie former being the Adriatic, the litter the Egean 
sea of the ancients. From tliis last a strait called the lleUcspont 
conducts to the sea of Marmora, tlie classical Propontis : and another 
now styled the strait of Constantinople, tlie ancient Thrucian Bocpho- 
rus, leads to the Kuxine or Black Sea; which to the north presents 
the shallow Palus Maeotis, or sea of Azof, tlie utmost maritime limit 
of Europe in that quarter. 

The second grand inland sea of Europe is the Baltic, by tlie Ger- 
mans called the Eastern sea. This extensive inlet opens from the 
Germiui sea by a gulf pointing N. E. called the Skagtr Rack ; and 
afterw;irds passes south in what is called the CattLgat, to the S. E. d 
which is the Soimd of Elsinore, a strait where vessels pay a triljute 
of eourtc»sy to Deimiai'k. The Baltic afterwards sprea<ls widely to 
the N. E. and is divided into two extensive branches rolled the gulfs 
of Bothnia and Finland, both covered or impeded witli ice for four 
or five months of the northern winter. 

Tlie third and last inland sea of Europe is that called the "Wliite 
Sea in the north of Russia. 

To the noinh of Europe is the Arctic ocean, the dismal and solitary 
reservoir of myriads of miles of ice ; 3'ct this enormous waste is iu 
the hand of Pjovidence a fertile field of provisions for the human 
race. Here the Viji,t batralion.-j of heiTings seem to seek a refuge 
from numerous foes, and to breed their millions in sccurit}'. About 
the middle i.t* vinter cmrTg-int;' from their retreat they spread in three 
divisions ; oiv towards the west, which covers the shores of America 


vkit loiwji.-- , \fi». t.v/i>u.i\.> vijv »v.-»«., t> i( «.\M v;i a lilt r«tiL>i ca ui .ii;:e 

as far as the Cliesapeak and CiuoVma, while another more piii 
sqiiadron pu;-ses the strait between Asia and America, and visits 

coasts of Kiiintsohatka. Tlie most memorable, tlie central, division 
reaches fcehuul, ubout the beginning of 'Sitxvi 
surpri sine depth and such extent th;it the surf 
i!i*' Jlmcns'-ons of Great Britain and Irt^land. 


RiTERs AND MouNf AiNfi. The chief rivers and mountains will be 
described under tlie heads of the particular countries to which they 

Gov7.RNMEyrs. The kingdoms and states of Europe may be con- 
sidered, 1. As despotic monarchies, as those. of Russia and Turkey : 

2. Absolute monarchies, as Spain, Denmark, &c. or, 3. Limited mo- 
narchies, as the empire of Germany, king-dom of Great Britain, &c. 
Since the fall of Venice, and the subversion of Swisserland and Hol- 
land, scarcely an example occurs of permanent and fixed aristocracy, 
or the hereditary government of nobles. Of democracy, or more" 
strictly speaking", elective aristocracy, a few cities and some Swiss 
cantons may preserve a semblance ; while France at the present hour 
is a military despotism, under the assumed name of the French Eni' 
pire^ and the ferocious tyranny of a daring usui-per. 

At the beginning of the nineteenth century the European states 
comprised in the first orddt are : 1. The united kingdoms of Great 
Britain and Ireland : 2. France : 3. Russia : 4. The Austrian domi- 
nions : 5. Those of Prussia : 6. Spain : f. Turkey : which last can- 
not be so justly reduced to the second order ; for though perfiaps ap- 
proaching its fall, still it boasts the name and we^ht of an empire. 

Under the second order have been arranged : 1. Holland or tlie 
United JPfovinces, now called the Batavian Republic : 2. Denmark : 

3. Sweden: 4. Portugal: 5. Swisserland. In the third are consi- 
dered the chief states of Germany, that labyrinth of geography, and 
those of Italy. The kingdoms of Sicily and Sardinia might perhaps, 
if entire and unshaken, aspire to the second order ; and. an equal sta- 
tion might be claimed by the junctive Electorate Palatine and. Bava- 
rian, and b^ that of Saxony: But as such states only form rather 
superior divisions of Germany and Italy, it appeared more advisable 
to consider them in their natural intimate conn'exion with these 

This ezpknation being premised, th€ first description shall be that 
of the British doaiinions. 




N^AXss. THE Pheniciaiu ore gpenerally supposed to have discoverd 
Great Britain and Ireland at a period of very early antiquity ; and 
some suppose that the name of Britain ori^ates from a Phenieiaii 
word, while others with more probability mfer it tu lisvr b«en an m- 
digenal term derived from the Brets, tribes of which appellation muf 
Ijc traced in Gaul and Scythia. Among the first objects of the Fiie> 
pician intercourse was tin, whence the Greek name of Cassiteridesar 
die iitbuids of tin. 

The name of^Anglia or England is well known to have originated 
from the Angle h, a nation of the Gimbric Ghersom-sc or modem Jut- 
land, who settled in the nortliem parts in the fit\h ceiiturv. 

E\TKAT. I'hc'islandof Great Britain extenils from fifty to fifVy- 
eight and a half degp*ces of north latitude, being of course about 500 
Ideographical miles in length. Its greatest breadth, from tlie Land's 
I :!kI to tbc North Foreland in Kent, is from 1® 50' E. to 5° 40^ W. Ion- 
^Itude, 31}U geographical miles. 

England is bounaed on tlie east by the German Ocean ; on tlie south 
by tlie English Cliunnel ; on tlie west by St. George's ('haniicl ; on the 
r.orth l>\' the Cheviot Hills, by the pastoral river Tweed, and an ideal 
line falling soutiiwcst down to the Firth of Sdlway. The extent of 
Rngland and Wales in square miles is computed at 49,450 ; and the 
populaiiuii being estimated at 8,400,000, the niunbcr uf inhabitants 
to a square mile will of course be 169. 

England proper is divided into forty coimties, and tlic principality 
of \V ales into twelve, thus making the whole number of counties in 
JSoutli Britain lifty-two. 

AxTiaiiTiKs. ' Those of the firat Celtic inhabitants were proba- 
bly, as usual among savage nations, constructed of wood, and of 
coui'sc tlitrre can be no remains. Some rude barnnvs :uul hea])s of 
stones may perhaps belong to the Druidic trilics, hut Stonchcnge, the 
large barrows or tumuli, &c. more pri)i>erly belong to the Bclgic 
colonics. Stonehenge is situated near the capital of the ancient 
Belgae, and tUci*c is a similar raonujucnt, but said to be of far greater 


extent, near Vaimes, a town on the French coast whlcii vas possessed 
by the Rclgae. 

The Itoman antiquities of 'EnghoA have been repeatedly iHiibtraf- 
c(l. Tlie greatest number of Roman inscriptions, altars, &r. has 
been found in the north, along* the great frontier wall, which extcnd- 
€'.{{ irom the western Sea, to tlie <'Stiiary of Tj-ne. The Konian i-oads 
wer(; also striking monuments of their power. 

The Saxon antiquities in Fini^land arc chiefly e<lificcs, sarir-fl or 
secular ; niiuiy clnu'chcs it:main, which were altogetlicr, or, fiir the 
most part, constructed in the SaKon period, and some are extant of 
tlie tenth, or, perliRps, the ninth ccnturj'. The vaults erected by 
C; rim bah I, at Oxford, in tlie reign of Alfred, are justly eatcemcd cu- 
rious relics of S;.xon architecture. 

The JJanish power in England, though of considerable diiratio-i 
in the north, was in the south, brief and transitory. The camps of 
that nation were circular, like tliosc of the Belgae ai^d Saxons, while 
those of Roman armies are known by the square fonn : and it is be* 
lievcd that the only distinct relics of the Uanev are some castles iu 
the noiih of tlie Humber, and a few stones witli Uunic ^nscrifitions. 
The monuments styled Norman, commenced after the conqucsi, 
and extended to tlic fourteenth century ; wlien what is called tlie 
rich Uothic began to appear, which in the sixteentli centur>' was su])- 
planted by the mixed ; and this in its turn yielded to the Grecian. 
In general the Norman style far exceeds the Saxon in the size of the 
<Miifices aiKl tJie (lecoratirm of tlie parts. The churches become more 
extensive and lofty, and the windows larger, and more diversified. 
Uncoi 1 til an imals begin to yield to leaves and flowers. Hiis improve - 
nient is visible in King's CoUegie, Cambridge, and many otlier grand 
specimens in the kinf^dom. 

KKUoioy. Christianity was planted very early in this Tsland, per- 
haps by St. Paul, or some of his immediate disciples; for it is cer- 
tain tliat in the jr-car 150, the professors of our holy faith were nu- 
merous. — TJy degrees, the papal authority, and the corruptions of the 
church of Ilomc spread themselves here, as well as in all the other 
nations of Europe. Jno. Wicklifle, (an Engli-shman) hi the reign oi" 
Ethi-artl III. has the honotir of being tlie first person in Europe who 
had fii'mncBS enough publicly to expose thecoiTuptionsof the Kont- 
isii church. After passing throupii a Hood of persecution, the nt- 
tion at length shook off entin^ly tlic shackles of papal domination , 
and established a religious system, and an ecclesiastical gx)vcrnmert 
for itseir. — Tlie present constitution of the Chui-ch of England 5.'. 
JEpiacopalf and it is governed by bishops, every one of wliOTh has a 
seat and vote in the Imuse of peers', as all their benefices were con- 
verted intf) temporal baronies by tlie Norman conqueror. Ever siu« v. 
the time of Henry VIII. tlie sovereigns of Englaikl are heads of the 
church ; but this is very little more than nominal, as tlie king*j never 
intermeddle in the affairs of the church. 

The Church of England is now, bevond any other UJitional csta- 
bliblied church, tolerant in its principles. No relijcious sect is pie- 
vented fwim worshipping God in that manner which their s 
approve Of course rclit'ioiis sects have multipli<:diicrc be.-, oiul the e:;- 



am nl^ of any ot hrr count rj- in K» rope. But it would certainly be wiie 
jjxilicy in the )?ovemnieul'to provide for the support ol'tlie Episcopal 
cl' ")0", l>y soiiiv othvr means thun by tythcs and chunh rates collect- 
ed by dislniint from disstntcr»; as'they uxv llio source of more just 
a»id l** nor .1 discon-ont m the nution, than any other luw or custom. 
Althouj;:h the j^ital b\ilk of the inhabitnnts ii Protestant : still there 
are many f. niiins in En|^land who pn)iiL-SH the Homan Catholic reli- 
gion, anil •'XeixMse it uniu.*r very mild and jyentle restrictions. None 
perhaps are more peaceable and loyal subjects. 

(i'»> KKNMK.NT. Thc |!jt)vernmtnt i» u, limited monarchy, counter- 
poiscil hy two senates, one of lierediturx peers, the other of reprc- 
scntiitivt'K, who ixm, or oug^ht to be, chosen by the people, [tlmigh I 
am far htmi reconmiendinij;' inuvt^rml sutthigi*, whicli would be the 
greatest scourge that eould befal lliat nation.] 

Tile acknowledged prerogatives of the monarch are chiefly to de- 
clare war and make peace ; to fonn alliances and treaties ; to grant 
commission for le>'}')ngmen and arms, and even for pressing mariners. 
To the king also belong all magazines, ammunition, castles^ forts, 
ports, lia\ ens, and ships of war ; he h;is also tlic special management 
of tile coinaj^", and determines the alloy, weight, and value. The 
prerogative likewise extends to the assembling, adjournment, pro- 
rogation, :in(l dissolution of parliament, and to its removal to anj 
place. The sovereigpi also enjoys the nomination of all officers on 
sea or hmd ; of all magisti*atcs, coimsellors, and oflicei's of aX^te i 
of all bishops, and other great ecclesiastical dignitaries ; and is not 
only the fountain of honour, but of justice, as he may pardon any 
oftlnce, or mitigate the penalty. But he cannot enact new laws, or 
impose new taxes, without the consent of botli houses of parlia- 

This grand national council claims the next consideration. Ori- 
ginally both tlic Noble«and the Commons met in one house, and tlie 
division into two houses, a legislative check unknown in any other 
country, may be regarded as the sole foundation of English iiherty. 
The House of Peers may be said to have existed from the earliest 
period of the English history, but concerning the origin of the Com- 
mons there is a dispute between the toiy and whig wTiters. The 
present constitution of the parliament of England, may, however, 
be traced with certainty, to near the middle of the thirtecntli cen- 
tur}-. Tlie peers are hereditary senators in^^'ir several de.grees, of 
duke, marquis, earl, viscount and baron. AVhcn summoned to par- 
licinont, every peer, in his lawfid absence, may constitute skpt'oxi/ to- 
vote i'uv him, which no member of the House of Commons may do. 

The House of Commons consists of knights, citizens, and bur- 
<»'csses, chosen by counties, cities, and burghs, in consequence of royal 
>\Tits directed to the sheriflTs. The members have certain privileges, 
as exemption from arrest in civil causes, en tlieir journey to par- 
liament, during their attendance, and on their return ; nor can they 
be questioned out of the House for any sentiment tliere utleredf. 
The Commons form the grand inquest of tlie realm, and may im- 
peacli or aecuse tlie greatest peers ; but their chief privilege, and 
upon which tlicii' whole power depends, is the levying of mwiey. In 


which they are deservedly so jealous, that they will not permit tlie 
smallest alteration in a money bill. Since the union with Ireland, 
the House of Commons consist of six hundred and fifiv-eicflit mem- 
bers. A spciker or president is chosen at tlie meeting* of every new 

Acts of parliament are first presented in the form of bilh, and, 
after haviiitr- gx)ne^irough Aiirious and exact forms, gene i*ally ob- 
served \rlth great minuteness, become law on receiving the sanction 
of tlie crown. . Adjournments may happen in one session ; but a pro- 
rogation terminates the session. 

Such are the tlu^e grand coinponent parts of the English consti- 
tution ; but perliaps its most beneficial and popular eflTccts arise 
from tlie mode of administering justice, and otlier i*amifications. 

The Pnvy Caimcil iovmerly possessed creaft power, but at present 
is chiefly employed in deliberations on affairs of sudden emergency, 
on peace and war, and special provinces of the royal prerogative. 

In later times, since the management of tlie House of Commons 
became the chief object of the crown, the Chancellor of the Court 
of Exchequer, as superintendant of the public revenue, is the officer 
generally considered as prime minister. The distribution of fifty 
millions a year, joined with the royal support, has recently carried 
his pow^er to the higliest elevation. 

JrorcA-TUHE A>' D L vws. Tlic judicature of England is wortliy of 
the higlicst ajiplause wi*:li regard to pi-ccision aiul purity ; and bribes, 
so frequent in other countries, being totally unknown, the saving of 
this ex|} must be candidly poised ac^^inst other legal disburse- 
ments. The trial by juiy is anotjier gIt)rious feature of English ju- 
risprudence, liandcd down from the Saxon times, and is justly re- 
spected as the very sale^iuiixl of the lives, liberties, and properties 
of the nation. 

The fhfest 1(1108 relate chiefly to offences committed in or near the 
prccinc'.s of the royal forests, jyfartia! Uvw may be proclaimed by 
tlic king, regent, or lieutenant general of the kingdom ; and even in 
time of peace, though tiie prerogative be rarely employed except 
during war. It is in fact a dictatorial power never exerted except on 
gitiat emergencies. The trials are summary and severe, as the neces- 
sity of the case authorises. 

Among the courts of law the next in dignity to tlie House of 
Lords is the Court of King* a Bench, so called, because the sovereign 
was understood to judge in person. Tlic Court of Chancery judges 
causes in eq\iity to moderate the rigour of the law, and defend tlie 
helpless from oppression. Tiie Coiurt of Common Pleas deter- 
mines, as the name imports, tlie common suits between subject and 
subject, and tries all civil causes, real, pt-rsonal, or mingled, accord- 
ing* to the precise precepts of the law. The Court of Exchequer, 
no termed from the ancient mode of accounting upon a chequered 
board, decides all causes relating to the royal treasiuy or revenue. 

The judges perform their circuits in the' spring and autumn, and 
in the mean v/hile more minute cases are determined In' the justices 
of the peace, v/ho may be traced to the fourth year of Ed^vard III. 
Every three moulhs the justices of tiie county meet at what is called 


the quarter sessions, and the fn'and inquest or jury of the county 
here siunmoned, which inquires concerning^ crimes^ and orders tl 
guilty to jail till Uie ncxi circuit or ussizes. 

Such ure tlie chief magistrates and officers in the country. Citii 
and tuwiis arc geiicrallv rulctl by a mayor and aldermen, or by sin 
lar magistrates under different appellations, whose judicial pow* 
little exceeds that of justices of tne peace. 

PopiLATioar. The population of England and Wales by the la 
enumeration amounts to nine millions tiiree hundretl and forty-thrt 
thousand fi\'e hundred and sevens-eight, containing 4,715,711 Budc 
4,627,867 females, 1,896,723 families, and 1,575,923 inhabiU 
hoiLses. That of Ireland is generally computed at three million 
while that of Scotland lias been lately found to equal one miUii 
six hundred and seven thousand* seven hundred and sixty. TJ 
various colonies in America, &c. will not perhaps be found to aniou 
tu one million ; but the American states boast a British progeny 
six millions, and the English language is probably diffiised to t] 
extent of twenty millions of people. 

AaMT. The army during the late war was supposed to excet 
170,000 men, with 30,000 fenciblcs, and 78,000 militia; the volu 
teers being supposed to be 60,000. 

Navt. But the gfreat rampart and supreme glory of Great «Bi 
tain consist in her nary, in size, strength, and number of ahips, i 
exceeding any exiunples on record. 

There :ire 195 ships of tlie line, 27 fifties, 251 frigates, and 3! 
sloops. — ^Total 787. For this immense fleet tlie number of seam 
amounts to between one hundred and one hundred and twenty tho 

IIkvsnuc. The excise forms one of the most productive branch 
of the revenue, amounting to between seven and eight millioi 
Next stand the ciuttnu, which produce about ha>f that sum. Tl 
stamps and incidental taxes, as they are tei'nied, arise to near thr 
millions. The land^ax has recently becii rendered perpetual, ai 
sold to proprietors of estates and other individuals. But instead 
the land tax, now appear those on sugar, tobacco, and malt, amoui 
ing to two millions seven hundred and fifty thousand pounds ; 1 
other supplies arise from tlie East India Company, lotteries, &c. 
the year 1799 it was supposed tliat the additional sums raised I 
loans, and other metlioos, sweUed the national expenditure to ne 
sixty millions sterling. 

Of the permanent taxes the grater part is emplojTd in dischar 
ing the interest of the national debt, which after the American w 
amounted to more than 239 millions, while the inteiYst exceetl 
9,000,000. At present the national debt is about 480,000,000, ai 
tlie interest about 19,000,000. 

To alleviate this growing burthen, a sinking flind was institut 
in 1786, by n^hich between 20 and 30 millions may be considered 
already rccleemed. 

Manners Aim CrsTovs. The English, generally speaking, arc 
plain, honest, humane and brave people. In manufactures they n 
ingcn'0!is« and- excel all other nations. In navigation and trade, th 


are bold, cnterimsing and liberal. Among foreigners they are ac- 
cused of a cold restrain!^ in tlieir manners, but tiiis perhaps will 
be found to exist, more in appearance tlian reality, on a closer ac- 

The simplicity of tlte English cookery strikes foreigners as much 
as tliat of the dress, which even among the great is very plain, ex- 
cept on tlie days of court gala. 

The houses in England ai'e peculiarly commodious, neat, and 
cleanly ; and domestic architecture seems here arrived at its greatest 

The amusements of the tlieatre and of the field, and ratibua 
games of skill or chance, iu*e common to most nations. Boxing and 
prize fighting, the beating of bulls and bears, still disg^ce the na* 
tion : one of Uie most peculiar amusements of the common people 
is, the ringing of long peals, with many changes, which deafen those 
who are so unhappy as to live in tlie neighbourhood of the church. 

likSftvAon. From the situation of die country, and otlier causes, 
the English language participates of two grand sources of origina- 
tion ; and unites in some degree the force of the Gotliic with the 
melody of the Latin dialects. The ancient ground, and native ex- 
pression originate from the Gotliic divisions of the Belgic, Saxon 
and. Dfuilsh $ but pariicuUrly ivom tlko Boig^tc. as will appear from 
coinpai'ison with the Dutch and Frisic. The languages of Latin 
origin Iiavc, however, supplied a vast wealth of woi*ds, sometimes 
necessary, sometimes only adopted because they are more sonorous^ 
though not so emphatic as the original Gothic. 

The construction of the English language is peculiar, and renders 
the study of it very difficult to foreigners. TJie Cierman and other 
Gothic dialects present declensions of nouns, and otlier correspon- 
dencies witli the Latin, wliile in English all such objects are. accom- 
plished bjj- prefixes. Anomalies also abound, and arc too deep rooted 
to be easily eradicati-d. 

LiTkRA.TURE. The grand feature of English literature is original 
genius, from Roger B.<;con to Shakespeare, Milton, Newton, and 
Locke. The reign of Queen Anne has generally been accounted 
the Augustan age in England. To Uie names aforementioned there 
were adcled in that reign those of Addison, Prior, Pope, Swift, Ar- 
buthnot, Congi^ve, Steele, Rowe, and many other eminent writers. 
But perliaps superior abilities to tliosc wliioh distinguish the reign 
of tlie present king, in almost every dei^artraent nf literatui-c and 
arts, and a more general and liberal patit)nage of intellectual labour, 
were never known in any age or nation of the world. 

Arts. Tiic present slate of the arts in England is worthy of so 
opulent and refinerl n. country, and the progress has been rapid bc- 

{'ond example. Until the beginning of the eiglitccnth century Eng- 
and was obliged to import her chief painters from abroad. But tlie 
patnmage and exertions of tiie ixjign of George III. have not only 
lieen crowiKd wit!i a great perfection of the arts, but has been exu- 
berant in the production of ai*lists of deser\'ed reputation. In paint- 
ing, enj^Tiivlng, architecture and sculpture, England can boast native 
nunius, not inf\irior to the most celebrated in Eiu*ope. 


SmoALA. The c-<lucation of the loM-er clasBes in Eng'land had faeCR 
too much ne^k'cicrcl, botbru tlie institution of Sunday schools. Tbs 
middle and hig^licr ranks of Kn)rti.<ih spare no cxpenttc in tho educa- 
tion of tlieir soiit., I)\ priviite tuior;* ui home, or at what arc called 
d:iy schools and hoardir.j^ schools. The most eminent public scdiools 
are, those of Si. Paul's, Wcsimin^ttT, Kuton, and Winchester; and 
from them have risen some of the most distinpfuished oniiiinaits of 
their country. The scholai-s in due time procee<l to the imiveriitiei 
of Oxford and Cumbridgv ; foundations of an extent and grandeur 
that impress veneration. In Oxford there are 17 ddleivnt collegteay 
Olid 16 in Cambrid}^, besides several hullss or smaller colleges. Of 
the tH'o, Oxford is tlie mon* majestic, irom the ^.indeur of the col? 
legfes and other public buildings, and the superior neatness of the 
streets ; but the chapel of the Kinfi;^ colU'iife at C:uubridge is sup** 
posed to excel any single edifice of the other universitv. 

CiTiKs xyn TOWNS. In giving an account of the cities andtovnt 
in Kni^land, our plan will admit of only a brief sketch of a few, that 
are most noted for their dignity, wealth and population. 

Lo.M)ON, the metropolis of England, is situate<l in an eztentiTe 
plain or valley watered by tlic Thames, and only confined on thA 
north by a few small elevations ; situated in 51° 31' N. lat. and O^tf 
AV. long. It now includes Suuihwark, a boroup^h on the other nde ' 
•f Th:unes, and Wesminster, another city on the west The noble 
river Thames is here about 440 3'ards in breadth, crowned with thrae 
hridg(.>s, crowded with a forest of ninsts, and conveying into JLondoa 
the Wealth of the globe, forming an excellent port, without the dan- 
ger of exposuixi to a maritime enemy. London presents almost evaj 
variety which diversifies human existc*nce. Upon the east «t is a 
sea-port, replete witli mariners, and witli tlie tratles connected with 
that profession. In the centre, it is the seat of numerous manufac- 
tures and prodigious commerce ; while the western or fashionable 
extremity presents royal and noble splendour, amidst scenes of the 
highest luxury and most ruinous dissipation. 

Few cities can boast a more salubrious situation, the subjacoit 
soil being pure gravel ; by wliich advantage, united with 'extensive 
sewers, the housc-s are generally dry, cleanly," and healthy. Provi- 
sions and fuel are poured into tJic cu])ital, even from distant parts 
of the kingdom ; the latter article being coals, from tlie counties 
of Northumberland and Durham, transilrrrcd by sea, and thence de- 
nominated sea-coal. London re<;^uires in one year 101,075 beeves, 
707,456 sheep, with calves and pigs in proportion : the vegetablca 
and fruits annually consumed, are valued at a million sterling. 

The population of London lias by some been exaggerated to a 
million of souls ; but by the late enumeration, it does not contain 
above 885,577. lis length from Hydepark Comer on the west, to 
Poplar on the east, is about six miles ; tlie breadtli unequal, from 
tlirec miles to one and less ; the circumference may be about six- 
teen miles. The houses arc almost universally of brick, and dis- 
posed with insi])id similarity ; but the streets are excellently paved, 
and have convenient paths for foot passengers. Another national 
feature, which is tlic most conspicuotis in the meti'opolis, is the 


:a)iindanrc of charitable foundations ; the multitude and rich dijj- 
play of sliops, the tonxnt of population constantly rolling Uiroug'h 
t he' streets ; tlic swiym of carriivgx s ; and tlic blaze of nocturnal 
iihmiinations wiiich extend even to four or five miles of the « nvi- 
rons, — ^Tlie cluirches and chapels exceed 200 in number. There 
are three noble bridj^cs across the Thames within the limits of the 
Bills oi' mortality . Tliere are 4050 seminaries of education ; be- 
tween 13 and 14 vliousand vessels (besides river craft) arriving and 
departing; vvliicli carry between 60 and 70 millions sterling, aimuaUy, 
to and fi-om this great metropolis. 

York. , Next to the capittJ indignity, Hiough not in extent nor 
opulence, is York : which is not only the ^hief of a large and fertile 
province, but m;iy be regiu*dcd as t)ie metropolis of the North of 
England. Tlie nume lias been gradually corrupted from the ancient 
Eboracum ; by which denonunation it WuS remarkable even in the 
Romun times, for the temporary residence and death of the Roman 
Emperor Severus. This venerable city is divided by tlie river Ousc ; 
and the Gothic cathedral is of celebrated beauty, the western front 
being peculiarly* rich, the chief tower very lofty, and the window* 
of the finest panted glass York divides witli Edinburgh the win- 
ter visits of the norlliem gentry. Its inhabitants, according to the 
late enumeration, amoimt to 16,145. 

Liverpool. But Liverpool, in Lancashire, is now much nearer to 
London in wealth and population. In 1699, Liverpool was admitted 
to the honour of being constituted a parish. In 1710, the first dock 
was constructed ; and the chief mercliants came originally from 
Ireland. Thenceforth tlie progress was rapid, and in 1760 the po- 
pulatioif Was computed at 25,787 souls. In 1773, thev amoimted to 
34,407 ; in 1787, to 56,670 ; and by the enumeration 'in 1801, they 
were f<)iind to have encreased to 77,653. Its increase has been eqtial 
to tliyt of Pliiladelphia in the United States. 

The number of ships which paid duty at Liverpool in 1757, was 
3371; in 17p4, tliey amounted to 4265. Li tlie African trade, a dis- 
tinguishing feature of Livei-pool, tliere was only one ship emplo}ed 
in 1709 ; in 1792, tJiey amounted to 132. In tlie recent act for the 
contribution of seamen to tlic royal na\y, according to the ships re- 
gistered in each, the estimate is as follows : 

London, 5725 Hull 731 Bristol, 666 

Liverpool, 1711 AVhitehnvnn, 700 Whitby, 573 
Newcastle, 1240 Sundcrli^nd, 669 Yarmouth, 506 

BnisToi. is still a large i;nd flotu'isliing city, though mtich of ils 
commerce with the \\c»sl Indies and America have passed to I/iver- 
pool. Tiie trade wiili Ireland lias centered chiefly in this city, it 
is pleasantly situated at the confl«ienceof thcFroo'nie with tiic Avon. 
The liot-wclls in the neighbourhood appear to huve been known in 
1480 : but tlje water was chiefly used extenially, till ahoiit the ycuv 
1670; when a baker drc^aming tliat his diAbetts was i-elieved by 
drinking the water, he triwl the exptrlmcp.t :ind recovered. Since 
that period its reputation ha.s inciTiised, and many commodious and 
elegant erections have conti'ibutcd to reconimcnd these v.clls to in- 

X, r.NC.l.AM). 

vuImU 111 ]7Ar, IfrUtol cmpltiycfl aWit 1600 ru»«tiii|f vcsBfli,aad 
•t 1(> ships rii]r:iK^(l in (nni^ii c«iiiiini>n-('. Itfi iMipiiUtiou in 2801 ^fM 

M iM'i R, f I !. lirii'i fl tor itMi \lrniiivcTtitloiiinanufactuiv,ad 
tlii> intu-i>inr:y o^ \ik\\ ri}<ht, '.n 17(>8(i...UilR-illMit SOOOinluibitMli: 
A1 t'u- prisciit tiiiii'tlu-y iiniiiiin' tfiH;.<jJl). 

M:iiMiM.iitM v.jkH oripiK'.Hy ;i vi)l,t]'.x- >u lon^inp: to » fiinily of tte 
sHiiM- 1 1., lit,' If is iiiiu t':(iiioiiN (i>r iiH varifHiN uiul rxti-naivr MMI* 
lUrtiiifs fit' li!inl\van>, u\u\ i\w\ art-rlrH of iM-n kincl. Ri'tlTCn 
1711 :in(l 17*'0, Kirnnn^iiini hut* t-xpiniiirni :in aiifO^^ittAtionof 73 
Mri< I .. nr i liniiM's, iuiil^^u iiiii:«hiUiit'N : tlir |KtpulatioBilll801| 

aii)o:iM ^-(1 i<i r.^ttro. 

Sir i-i. i.ii, ili'ii!];;1i cli*«tiii);i!i<ilurl :in vhtU n*( the tliirtecilth CCB- 
tiin fcr •<> iiiunn fart lire «>r '*<Mii n, 1 nil nwl i im*!) to itfiy ilrgrce of 
111. i>r'> \ *t'.ll .lU ut tlic niUKiu ol l::.s* iMiiiin. At tliat pcriod»feU 
ii.s ih:.i.iii:.( ii If . •• en* coi<\( vi(i weekly to tlir mt*tro])olift, oii pick 
hoi'M s 111 I'il/i, till- iwipuh.tion (liil not i-xoitl 2152 prrMm% it 
pn-snil It iv i(pi:.| to .il,.!!!. — 'V\u \v ..ii* liikiiy otIiiT iu^ads in Wop 
ihlid of consi(lir:.liU *'-fiif , h\\\ tlin-.i :>*.r<-MlY iii«-Mti(iiii*cllu\' tllc UKMrt 
ili(i**i)iTips}'iil fi»r tiicir i Mt'ns.\«> iruli* hiuI in:.niinirt nit's, ukI thB 

hoUlitK of tJilN ••pitfH.H' 1\ ill IVH JHill.'l MS to'TJJO. 

\\' .• 's, wl.ii'li is :• par« of South llntuin, iiiul )C'Vfs « title to tfal i 
lli-ir iipp.<nir, ts a ri/(n<*n '.liat alxMiiids wltli tlu- Mubliim.* ami hwu 
tifii) ■• .•lurcd of Daturi', but iIih-h not contain niuiiy towns of cqUf ] 
^u\- ijIiIi- iio'i' or nupi.'udi'. V< 1 u may lur U* iiii|>7(»|HT to takB 
iiii'.ri it< (':.i Mi:MVoii«vst«H*in(-dlli('('.iiiH' tu\vi<ot N< rtli WlJtfHaMd \ 
r'uiiioti^ r.>r lhi< K'r>*"tl^'^" *^^' i>H raKtlr, out oi' tin li.OHt nmKtiitlrcflt ' 
in Ki;ii<]K-. litn* v riN Imhii f^hvui'cl II. siirnaiiKti off Cmmun'Oni 
\\\n, \v.iN iiiiinnii:«U'ly rn-.iU-d Pi'.Drc of ^\:ilcKi his f»tlicr liavinp 
,»i-<im.sttl to tliv VI nipiisl'ol \\ olsli pr;iu-c l*>ni in t heir own coun* 
i.y, .Tul who I'oiiliI luit spuik ;• W(»ri! ot K:)i;iish. 

r.iniHv.-*. In .1 hrirl vnunKrition of ihi- princifMil rdificn in 
r.i)^-l;i<ul, till* ifual p.ilna-s ikiiii.tid of (*<»iii'm* the lirst aitviition. 
// f/jf/jrr.r iiLsth , hitiiiittd on ki) i-iiiuu*nc<' tu-ar the Thaimti, Ima nil 
.ippt . r nrv truly ^aiul, :uul woriliy of tlic« <Ii.\K of chivalrj-. The 
\ ii-w i NMuls ::s far UH tiit* t'.tthcdrjil of St. Ciiurs; and the whole 

■ tin •iirnnjih iiiipixvisi .H tlu* rirciiiiiNtai not m so vi\itlly del incut ctl in 
4 r..\*s putlutir Ode on Ktrni Collep*. 'Hiih palure contninM mmiy 
:M>Mf piiint-pp., p;trtind:.i1y the eai'toonM of llnph.ael. //f«wp/«R- 
(V..-'7iKina low Nittintion. oi-naiiH ntril with a(|tiedtict]« fitmi the 

Ivi rColnc. 'i'hiN p.dice is also ivphte with interi'Ntiiipf pictures. 
liu IN Mil p nil us (»f Ki w ;.re lnil\ worth} of a prat and be lent ific 
i>!iiu» : thr |V"'»nifl, thon)>;h levi'l, is divrisified withntiteh art j ami 
till- •I'l'i-rtif-.n of plantN fmm all the itj^ioiiK cil' the known worUl 
fills '.li.' ; iiniii r of naiorr with d^li^vlit •'«< ^1 Mtipri.^e. Thex are ho 
disp. -ril, ih:it e'.i fv pi: i\\ linils, as? it Meiv. its native soil andrliinatc; 
<v» II tl.Jir that |;T<.w on roeks and l:i\a 1. .\inR artificial Nuhslitnteiv. 
The ii\.il p.d'.rc ;it CtrrmwWi has Ken i.'.ii^ abandontd, hut tlir 
ohs(r\ai(.v^ -'ill ilix N eifdit to urienee. It w a phihi edifice well 
...laptol to :! ti-oiMUiie'd oh rrvationK, ami at pri'smt isMl|H*^ntvnd• 
■ ..* ; \' \ •■• ^^ • * 1-.|; ■ J):'. Ill r'U'hili*; r]»N:".'vatriv, ins*«?:»! ''f rp*. 



taiiiiii)',' Ills trlosropo, ij* Mispi'inlfcl fntm it in1h(*oprn.iir,M Slouj;li, 
lU'iir NViiMisitr, wluii- lu- is continiiully cxti-iidiniif the IioiiikIn oi' :in. 

AnioMi*; ilur Kdiisi's (»!' iUv nc>!»ilit\ muI j;vntrj, nr palatt's, :is ifiry 
WiMild Ih' u ['Bui' iMi till' Coiitiiu lit, till- first i':iiiu\ pi-rltups, iH-loii|>fs 
to StowT, Ih ■ srul ol" tlu- Mimpiis <»!' nnrkin:;-li:iiii ; vljirli, !op ils 
fiu'h.'miinji;' j^anli n*», has luvii lunj*" rrhhralril. W lira Mr. Mcck- 
I'oril's n.:i};iutiLHnt rricti«i»s at Fonthlll urc coinpltU'cl, tliul fnnic 
will lu* I'lr siir]^.»ssiHl. Our iutt'ntion, hnwrirr, will Ik- hrttrr ac- 
cM>in])iis!u il ii} :i lirirf cminicvuiion oC some of tlu* most coU'lirutcd 
coiiiitrv si'iiis. "^ 

ll:i|;-U',\, till- si'.'it of l.oi\I l.ittlitoii : tlio l.oaKowvHtif the* liitr* Mr. 
Shi list Dm* i I', iic*:ii* 'runhriiii^-, .*> liuDous suit «>r (In* Hiil- 
iit*}s; \\ aiiiiti'ad, of tlu* K:ii-I of* Tilncv; lllcnhiMni, of liir Duke ol* 
Marlhonm^ch : tlu* srat iif llio K:irl Spi-noor, at \\ iinhU-t<iu ; \\ ochI- 
liiirn AMkv, (.f till' Duke of Hi'dtiinl ; l.n\itlur-li:'.ll of l.(iril l/uiS' 
«l:tli*; Chatsworih* ot* (he Duki* of l)i-\ousluix', aiul many otlu*:* 
AjiKiutid I'ditiri'SyCcpially hoiunirahU* lo tin* couutn, as tn thriropu- 
lout proprirtors. 

.KiiimiKs. 'I'lir hriilj!:i's ai*** worthy llu* superiority of tlu* Knji;"lish 
roads; and a siirprisiii^C rM'rlioii iu this drpurliurnt is, tiic ivi'rnl 
4^onstrut'tion of hritljjvs in cast iron, nn invrntionMuknov. n to all other 
nations. 'I'lu* first i'Xain]>h* was that of ('oalltrt)ok-dali', in Shrop. 
whin', tiiotfd ovi'p tlu' Severn in 1779. Anothi*r slupendous iron 
hrid^t' was lliitiwn over tlu* harbour at Suiulrrlaiul, ahoiit .six \i-ars 
n^t ; tlu* lu'i;.v'>t of which is 100 litt, and iht* span of tlu* :ip<*h 'J;?(j 
It iHConip<»si*il of dv'tarhrd pirci-s, :jiy of which, if dani:ig'i-il, Tna^ hr 
w ilhdraw II, :ind it-placcil hy others. >\ hen vicwctl from hcncath, tjic 
ohjifaucc, r»j;h!ni\ss, aiul surpriijin)^ hcijjfht of the arduevciti* admira- 
tion, and the earri.iii;"es a[)pe:ir as if ]iassinjf amnn^f the clotuls. 

|\i. iM) N vvii.-A'iioN, Theearliest inland navi^it ion that can h- 
ainlu-iitirateil, i.*i the S..nkey canal, l>e|«f:in in 175.i, leadinp^ fnun tlu* 
coal-pits at St. fli'lcns, in l.ancashin*, to the rt\er Mi*rsey, and con* 
Ht rue ted in cmler to convey coals to l.ivrr|U)ol. 'l*he U'nj;th of th* 
canal is twelve miles, with a fall of ninety feet. 

Hut the Duke «)i* Uriduni-water i.s justly veiieratc«l as the };^raml 
foiliuhT of inhiiid navi}i;ation : his .spirit and opulence were happily 
seconded I ly IlrindlrA, than whom a [greater natural }rx>inus in me- 
ch.inic.s never e\isteil. It w as in the year ITAH thai the first act was 
ohtait'.ed tin- these jfi-eat dv*sipis. The first c.".nal(*\tends fiiim NVors- 
le\ null, about sex en com])uted miles t'ltiin Manchester, aiul ivacheH 
tli:d tow n U\ a courst* of nine milis. In this short spaci* alnuist every 
diiliculty ocruri'cd that can arise in similar s(*henu's. 'rlu.'r(*are sub- 
terraneous ]>as:.a]^s to the coal in tlu* moimtain, of near a mile in 
leiifcth, with air-fiiiuuls io the top of the hill, stune of them thlrtx- 
M*T{*n yanls piT|K*nilicnlar. 'I'liis iK'autifiil i*an xilis bi*oui';ht over the. 
river Irwell, b^ an :=reli o{' thirty -nine feet in hei|vlit,and under which 
bai'i^'s p.i.s.4 without lnwi'rin|>- thi*ir niasts. The l)uki*of Ili'idjifeWatei* 
RfKHi ■•"■ rv .mis extendi d a can:>i of t .'.ei)t\ -nine niih's in Icni^th from 
f .0!)qpti»?i!-brid«^c. in l.unr:i»hir^\ to Ilemo^toiurs, in Chv^iliirc. 

■l , 


iir«!rij\ir;lla, :ij.ihi/.-^il,iji:iIi»K":i;n\|Lrimis, &.c. From Africu,pfoMclu;«l. 
i^oi\, jpiMM, 4cf. rn>M 1 lie r. Ill liKllcsan«l China, ti:i, rice, spices, 
tliii.r-. r"i'»'i:*>. mIW. «"n »n. v;ili-|)i-!ix*, nIiumI.s, niul uthcr pmducts olf 
:jc- li "iiii Vi--u\ ill* llr;":-li mUK iucmi'.s in Noiili .\mmc:i, arc im- 
|i»»rliil mi:*-, un.ii- ■•. Mi>i.:i'.li, i!-«Mi; uiul fhim llic vwIdum states of 
Ef'.ri-:' '. iiMMii-.tMi*. ;ii-»'.f!v> n\' li'iliu" iiiul in xun.* 

■ ■ * 

I'm- :iji:r.:.»l i u-inn' tiiCinai Hiitiiir. v% -ts i;<irnnaU-J iM 1799, by Mr. 
ri-.t, ;r hiCjWiJ »,Oui»/. ; auii ini'luilin^ flu- nioncv, ot* which the esti- 
Tn..*f ■«. f.iT iViMii cv.tain, iho uhulc ot' Cireut Britair. may 
|"^i...ips hv caliiilutvil ai more Uian one tlKiiisanil t\i-t> hundivd mil- 

Ill t!i" ^e.^r 1797, ih-"'aninrri •»f*ihc exports, acrojilinj^-toCuatom- 
Kon-r :.. i" fill-, u-as J^^.V 17,- •".»'., an I of tliir imp.cls 'J1,U13«00Q/.. 
y";. 1 i i»ji". .t-* is >i:ppi)Vvi, r!v..rpri»tiis .«:i tori'igi^,toll*c uronunt 
rt" at Ua-t h'.i-iU.'iUU'. 'I'.u- •iMn.Iir of iiKTcii.iiil vc>M.*i» amouiita 
]*r<)b..i)h '■ > lO.JuJ; il i:i culcuia'i.«.<i ihat 14O,0C'J uicu uiul boys are 
rJiip'.-'U'vl li. ill'- n.ivig^siiiii!!. * 

Cr.iMA r\. iM» Si.isii.v*. Tl'c ciin^ate of Cretii Itriiain is very va- 
.iiiiik. i!w \arHiurs of the Atlaniic ()c«-kn Ik":ii![»' opposed to the di^*- 
\}i\^ V. iiuU fi"oin tiie Ka>tcrn Coni'.ncni. The Wcr.tcni cxiusts in par- 
ii(ul..i- art* subject to li-cipieni rains ; and tht.- K.i^^urn pari of Scot* 
uunl U M' a cleariT and dnvr ti rii-*..*r.iUjiv ihaii thai of KngLind. 

In i*.>ii>i.i]iuiiPt of ih>" i>iu'ial>iriiy o'' ilicciiinair, tlicsi^Msonsthem- 
sth^s :in" i»V nnciTtain uiiotir, und' ihc )i;:ir njitjiu pioporly bedivid- 
til into I i^hi m»)ntli-; of wimcr, ami toiirof snnnn;r. What is called 
thi* SpriiijT <lawn.s in April : hut the oasunii prevalent in May 
i eem coTn'ni^.'iinr.r'd I'j rnin the efloi*ls M' vc\ ivin^ naivire, aiuldestn'tv 
ihe j'n.':tii>e <if ihe war. .Tnn<', July, An;';nNl^ :x\\± {September, are 
•isiiaTn warm siinini.r months ; hut a n'.irhl of frost is not unknown, 
»ven in Anjrust, and ^uniciinii-s a cold i.asi wind will blow for three 
Ja\s tojrethtr; j»or of late \ oars are snimners unknown of almost 
<«)nst.,ni rain. The winter ni-y ho >uivl ti) connnenoe with tlie ^- 
iCinnincT of October, at wiiirli time donie>tic fires become necessarvj 
t • ihcTc is *>eldoni any swi-re frost till Uhristnius; and Jamiarj' w 
the m ».st siorn month of tiio year. Yet as oiu* siunmers often pro- 
di:ce specimens of winter, «j now and then g-leatn:* of warm sun- 
>)iine illumioiite the darker nvHtths. March is jrenen.Uy the most 
nnse'tUd nif)ntli of the year. interspv:rse<l witJi dry frost, cold ruing, 
■.'.nd slro:^iJC w iiuls, with storms of liail and sleet. 

Soil AMI AGiircrLTuuK. Tiie soil is jrivatly divei'sified, but in 
livneraHlrtik-; and in no country i» ai;*i'iculttire more tlnirtniifhly 
■mdersiood, (m- pursued in a graniUT style, except, perhaps, in Flan- 
Jera and I .ombai\ly. i mean In-fore tliese coiuuries Weiv visited with 
lie scoui*i;*e of Frcncli frutvrnity. The nohdity and g-entry, mostly 
residing: upon their estates in summer, often retain considerable 
fT'm> in liieir onn lumds, and practise and eneoura|je every ajp'icul- 
iural imju'ovenKnt. 

'I'lie cuUlvaied acres of*land and Wales are computed at up- 
wards of JP.OOO.COO; the uncultiv..ted ..bout 8,000,000. Of the 
J'tlter about half a million is supposed to be unimiirovcable.— 
u«t\k:iiny: is also piu'sucd in li'ifrland with jfreat afrsidiiity ar.d sue- 

e KAnnor inciuiiirnni;nthiu. hov 

•' Brllixli lili>ic.<tDl«nr iTlc I 

ittiU iilrtndy BKoiimitil, Tlicy un- mid i 

IS (toltl liM been diwovcrnl in vntioua pai'ti "f ^ 

r iTr-jMicl the luboui' and uxprmr. 'I'D 

t' Nftrwjrh nn iT 

lifh 1 ■ 

dl, I )»mi in tie «i.ntral, iiinrdtem, tind 

f iil»ri;F •" ^^ norllicra, ttpoiiiid NtwXn^Ui. _ _ _^ 

pmH nnnunlly to I^niJon,uid ISXiTcateU wre cniiiloj-crt in ciin-yia* 

them to thai huT^uii' rdonK UicGafltccnttmut i>r I :. ' . .' ill 

aU» pri>A'W roppcr, so diKia Y>irli«hire anil 

■Wtol io tbuiul in (1>e yh':iti;«1 {|)iiuuluil(.-i; ill t 

of AUfflvKii. Iwnd 13 tiiuMil ilk UL-rbythiiv, 

the verw ft' (;amb«rliiinK The inii»» nt il" 

jdov uhout unit men. 

ViniL-rikni.B :iN)i AwiMit PRonrcTiflni. AUbmwti unimjrtlitiiilik^ 
WBroux itjKcm of vc^ijUilce wliUh «TlJienft(iw-»«r!>fi(iiiti, »WflB( 
WtjwarwJyimy thiit iirpi..l'-'']i'..i^ Ui tli.' «n",(.Ni!rN-f ^m.T --Ir. .itr.n^ 

ntlticH HIV vvmrtii' 

JA .*0 HUKoaKlfltl in rill. 

B>. Their eiinisit i. ,. ,. ,. ^ . , . . 

"rVyneclwnnnf.iv.r Umu ■-!i:-:ncx.\, ..r.d lU.' s^tIw 
, .i^.^t tntmtllnnof (b* i4Mi(l> Tliu' luw aplfvil^ oroCi 
li (^iiH\\ sppIdS [I'V: pliimbx, etwiicB, 0»:ht*, frittOr a 


tarincs, ctimnts, f;Y)08ebciT)('H, ifislK-rries, ami other hnnul.-in pro 
ductioiw gr«)w licrt'. TIk' cvjUt of* IVvoii and llcU't'ordsliire lia 
bci'ii pivfcrrrd Ut Fn'ncii wiiu*. Tlicir kitclun ^aificiLs abound witj 
all sortf» of gn-ens, roots, and sal:uU in iK-rK-ction.— 

Mr. IViiiiant, in Iiis Hritihli ZdhIo)^', Jium tivated tliat subject a 
due extent, and witli liis usual ability. Of* animals, tliat cclcbnito 
author eiiumi rates twenty j^Miera, fnnn the horse down to Uie sea 
and bat. 'I'Jic^ birdi extend to fbrty-ei^ht, the reptiles to four, an 
llio fish to forty genera, licbides the crustaceoiis and sheJl fish. 

That noble and useful animal, the h(>i*se, in found in England o 
nriany ming'lcd breeds, while most other kin^loniM pnKlucc only oik 
kiml. Their racc-lmrses desn-nd fi-nm Arabian staliitms, aiKl tin 
IfiMK-alojry faintly extendi to their huutrrs. 'I'l.c f(;n-atiitren|$lhaiH 
size of the Kn^lish draujfJit-hr)r.wH are drrivi-tl from those of Gcr 
many, Flanders, and lloUteiii ; and other biveds Iia\e been so mtei 
ming'led, that native horses may be found adapted to every purpos* 
of p/>nip, |>leasure, or utility. 

'I'he indigenous jiomcd cattle arc now < nly known to exist in Ncid 
wood-forest, in StafibrcUhire, and at Chilin^^ham^'astle, inNortlium 
brrland. The domesticated breeds of their cattle an* almost as va 
rions im of their horses; iUnsv of Wales and Cornwall ar 
sm:i1], while tlie Lincolnshire kind derive their givat size f^'oxn tbos 
of Ifnlstein. In tlie \<irth of Kn^hind we find kylics, so called fron 
tiic di^ttrict of Kyle, in Scotland ; in the South we find the elegan 
breed of fiuernsey, frcncrally <if a li^ht brown rx>lour, and flmal 
■»ize, but remarkable for the richness of tiu-ir milk. 

The nunilH-rand value of sheep in Knj^laiid may Ijc judged fron 
tlie an('iri]t staple conimr>dity of wool. Of this most useful anima 
wveral breeds appe:<r, jj^nerally denominated from their particula 
ccuMiies or districts. Some are valued for their fleeces, and other 
for their flesli. The mutton of Wales is esteemed, while tlie woo 
is coarse, yet employed in n)any useful and salutan* manufactures. 

Till- f^oul, an inhabitiuit of the rocks, has, even in Wales, for xh 
rrjost [lart yielded to the mow; useful sheep: that countiy btjing 
hk»- Seotl;'Md, n»ore a(].»pti:d to the woollen manufactui*e. Tli 
*)rre(ls of hwii:e are various aiid useful. 

Kr^ir-laTid iilso abounds in bi-eeds of doprs, some of which were cc 
Vbra' "l evin in K'^man times ; nor Iiave their modem descendants 
J c iJiiistjfl" aijd bull-dog-, dj^iierated from the spirit and coiirag" 
.i' tl:cir i-.i!cestors. 

Of their .•«av:if'-e j-.nimals t]je most fierce ixd destructive is th 
V. I'l'.l c.'.t, M'hicli is three or four times as larj^e as tiie domestic, wit] 
.1 flat broad face, colour yellowislj v/hite, mixed with di.»-p Jp'ej', i' 
stre;«ks niiininj^from ablaek list on the b.ick ; hips I'lways bVick 
Viil alternate bars of black i.Pil white ; o'»ly found in ti:c most moun 
^Qinons and woolly parts. Tlie wolf has been long" extinct, but th 
fox abptinds. 

The chief of their bii-ds of prey arc, tlie gtilden onj;le, sometime 
£r)nn<l on Sno'vdoM : the black ea^le h:is :.ppf'.uv<l in Uerbyshirc 
the ospre}', or sl-,". fufrlv, S'jems extinct in England. Tlic peVcji^Tini 
f Ilk on i;reed3 in Wults ; and many kinds of liawks in Enjjland! Ai 



enumeration of the other birds would be superfluous. The nightl/T • 
g'ule, one of the most celebrated, is not found in North Wales, nor 
any where to tlie North, except about Doncaster, where it abounds; 
nor does it travel so fiir west as Ik'vonshire and Cornwall. Their 
poultry- seem to originate from Asia; peacocks from India, phea- 
sants from Colchis ; the giiinea-fowl are from Africa. Thcii* smallest 
bird is the j^oldcn-crested wi-en, which sports on the highest pine- 
trees ; and larjjfcst, the bustai-d, some of which weigh twenty-tive 
pounds, and are found in the open countries of tlic south and east. 

Of fish, the whale but seldom appears near the Eupj-lish coasts, 
tlie poipess, and of^rs of the same genus, are not tmconimon. The 
basking shark appears off the shores of Wales. Numei'ous are the 
edible sea-fish. Some of the most celebrated are the turI)ot, dorco, 
seal, cod, plaice, smelt, and mullet. The consumption of herrings 
and mackerel extends to most parts of the kingilom ; but pilcharcl> 
are confined to tlie Cornish coasts. The chief river fish are the sal- 
mon and the trout, which- are brought from the noi-Uiern pai*ta in 
prodigious numbers, generally packed in ice. The lamprey is chiefly 
found in the Severn, the chaiT m the lakes of Westmoreland. The 
lobster is found on most of the rocky coasts, particularly oft* Scar- 
boi-ough ; and the English oysters preserve their Koman reputation. 

R\-(ii.iBnfsLE«i. In the southern or English cluumel first appears 
tlie Isle of Wight, by the Romans called Vectis ; about 20 miles in 
length and 12 in breadth. The principal town is Newport — and 
one of the most remarkable buildings is Carisbrook-castle, where 
Charles I. was imprisoned by his it'bellious subjects. 

At the distance of about 70 miles from AVight arises the little 
island of Aldemev, off Cape la Hogue ; which is followed by the 
m«)rp important islands of Guernsey and Jersey, Sark being a small 
island interposed between tlie two latter. Guenisey, the largest of 
these isles, is about 36 miles in circuit. 

Returning to the English shore, we fiwt descry Eddistone light- 
house, heat by all the fury of the western waves. This edifice has re- 
peatedly been overthrown, but the pi*csent erection by ^Ir. Smeaton, 
composed of vast masses of stone, grooved into the rock, and joined 
M'ith iron, promises alike to defy accldt ntal fii-e I'ud the violence of 
tJ»e ocean, though the waves sometimes wash over the very summit 
in one sheet of foam. 

About 30 milr.s west of land's end appears a cluster of small 
ishinds, 145 in number, called the islands of Scilly. The hirjivst 
(St. Mary'b) is about five miles in circuit, and has about (S\rO inh-ibi- 
laut". — On the roxst of W-des is Ih? ishmJs of Angii'yea, hAr.i^ ilij 
Slfona of Tacitus; about 25 miles in length and 18 in bre.adtii ; is 
fertile and })'>p\il.)ns, and eiyoj s a considerable trade with Iveh '.id. 

The last Englisli island wortli mentioning is that of Mun — 't is 
ai)out 30 miles in length, an<l 15 in breadth. The soverc IgTiiy 
fomiei 1}' belonged to tlic Jiai'la of Davby, but is now iuiRc.'iotl ic tic 
lungliidi ci-own^ 



dcOTL WD was first tliftcoverril to the Romans !ry A|ifricnU, ntk 

WHS ilisfin^uibhcd from Soutli-Briuiii by Uiv Mpccial appellaUba ol 

This u.imc coiitinuetl to be used till the Koroan power expired. 
Beile, the fiitlier of Gni^lish history, culls the inliufntauts of the . 
countr}' by tlic iLinic of l*icti, which hud alsd been used by thelatCf 
K'iman writers as s\Tionyinoiis with that of Culedwuii. .» . '■ 1 

ThcNC (llstinctioiis continued till the eleventh century^ tnten tfak ' j 
new niiUK' of Scoii:i was taken firom Ireland, its former object, mS '; 
:ip{)lic(l tr> modem Scotland. 

Kytkmt. That part of Great-Britain, called Scotland, is abcmfc 
260 miles in len^tii, by aliout 160 at its greatest bre.idth ; iteztcnAK '; 
fifiin thr j)5ih dej^ree of N. latitude, to more than j8}, and from I* 
to 6° \V ion^citude. The superficial contents have been computed ^ 
ut J/.79.> scia-tiT miles, a little excet-din^ that of Ireland, and con- 
si(i^ )':i!)iy ii)>)re :h^in half that of Kn^land. The ;ropulation bekig 
estin^aTcd ut 1,<>00,UO(\ then will, of course, be only 57 inhabitants 
fii:' t vi I'v S'l'iriiv tnile, a pro])ortioii of about one third of tkat of 
ivlauJ..' This defect of p^tpulation arise.s solely from the moun- 
■ '. !:)!>'. IS nril'.nv of the country, amounting, pcHuips^ to one h&lf, little 
riHrtpiiblf of cultivation. /^ 

i)j VISION-'. Thi' territory of Scotland is unequally divided inti^ * 
t!.»r:\-iiiroe coun«.?es : six of which m:iy be called tlie Northern; 
i-.>iLi-ui.n, the Mi'.lLnd; and thirteen, the Southern division. 

-Anti «ii: ; ti ;:s. Tueri? arc no monuments of antiquity, worth men- 
\', I ;".'.;,.•. oi* :i:i earlier dute than the arri\':;l of the Romans. The 
.••.in;iln.s ol* ih'.se couqucrora appear in tlic celebr.»ted wall, btiilt in 
*':ii: rv ■.."ii of Antoninus Pius, between the Fir'dis of Forth and Clyde, 
.1 I'lc lain-* of whic'i m;uiy curious inscriptions have b^-en found. 
Anoiiur sM-jkiiij^ ol)K'Ct is, a sm:dl edifice, called Arthur's ()ven» 
•-■ip;v>.S'. d If I be a temple of the jro<l Terminus. The most nortlicrly 
li.»:ii:in cainp yet discovered is in Aherileenshirc, the periphery- of 
v.iiiea Is about two Knp^lisli miles. Horian raids have been traced 
:. c msideralde way, in offrotlind. The smidler remains 
of li>nian an'.ifi'tiiy, such as coins, »i-enr>iis, i<c. arc numero\is. The 
pl.'.r. s of judi4-..r nl, or what w-e called Uruidic temples, are to be . 
t: i-Cvd in many pUicei;. 


liELtfiKtTV. Since the revolution, 1688, the EcclcKlastlcul fUj-ovcni- 
nt of Scotlruid is of the I'rcsbytcrian form. The nunihtr ai' 
'ishcs ill iScotlajul is 941 ; contiguous parisheu unite In uliat is 
led u I'ivsbytery, of which dent jiniuat ion Iht-i-e arc G9. The pro- 
rial synud-s aniouiuing* to fifteen, arc conipOBccl of severed adju- 
\i IVisbyti-ries I hui tlic grand Kcclcsiat«tical Courtis ilic (General 
seirihly, xvlueh meets every year, in tht- bprinf>f ; thekiiif^ aiipoint- 
'a commissioner to it^prcsi.-nt his person, while tiie meuihLra nu- 
late their modrrator, or priisiideut. 

['o this Kcclchiaslicai councd l.'iyinen arc also admitted, under the 
ue of Hiding lUdcrs^ and constitulc about one-third of Uiis vc- 
oble b(Mly. Tin's court discusses and judges all clerical affair^ 
I admits of nh a}ipeul, <-xcept to (he ])arliament of (Vreat-flritain. 
Is whatever cstablishnient is eflecteci in a fmt country, opfxjsi- 

I will always arise, the establishment of the Presbyterian systenn 
Is jn the space of one generation, fallowed by tlie secession. 
icU took pl.-ice in 1733. The Seccnlers being the most ri^^id in 
Lr sentiments^ und being animated by persecution, 8(x>n foru*oda 
nerous party. 

klx)ut the year 1747, they were tliemselvcs divided into two de- 
nin.dions. Called tiie K'lrghers, and tlic Antiburgliers; Ix'cause 
divisiou arose conr^'rning the i<gullty of the oallis taken by the 
•gebses of some of the niyul borouj^is ; the former allowuig tlut 
ojitii is pi-opt-r, v/l.'ik *he luttt^r object, 
fany respectible families in Scotland embrace the Episcopal 

II of the Clnirch of Kngland. The other descriptions of reli- 
ns proii ssions are not niihierous. There an- but few Homan Ca- 
lies, even in the remote Highlands, t\w se.lienie of education he- 
excellent, and /generally supported uith liberality; 
SovEUAMKNT. The gfwernment of Scotland, since the union, has 
n bl*'ndcd with tliat of Kri}<laml. Tiie most splendid remriiii^n;^ 
luvc of goveriiment in Scotland is tlie tieneral Assembly, al- 
ly mentioned. Next to nhich may be classed tlie High Courts 
Justice, especially tiiut staled the Session, consisting of a presi- 
t, and fourteen senators. Tlie Loi'ds of Session, as tlu.y arc 
led in See thind, upon their promotion 1o oitice, assume a title* 
erally from the name of an estate, by which they are known and 
ressed, us if peers by creation; whdv^ they are only constituted 
Is by superior interest, or talents. This eoiirt is the last resort 
e\'erat causes, and the only appeal is to tiie p;:rliament of (Jreat 

'be justiciary court consists of five judj»t» s, wl.o are likewise 
ds of Session ; but, wiUi a pi-esideni, styK:d Lord Justice Clerk- 
H is the supi'cme coiu't in criminal causes, which are determined 
Liie 7/ia/Vyr'tVf/ fd' ajiu'v, nnd not bv the fi/mufVm(^, as in Kngland. 
:n' is also a ('ourt of Rxch- f|uer, consisting of a Lord (^hief 
on, and fi^ur liarons ; and a Higli Court of Admiralty, in whicb 
V is only one judge. ^^ 

tkWi. The law <)!' ScotIan<l nmci'S essentially fiY>m that of En^- 
I, being founded, in a i^^reat measure, upon the civil law. Of 
inuju lavv It^-rc is hardlv a trace« while the civil i\iid canon lav.s 

46 scoTK.vyn. 

iii:iy Tie snitl to form the two pillars nf Scottlsli judicature. The 
iiuiili"» f»f' prorriliin.' Iuve, hnw.vt r, the rwlvAnt ujfc of bcinr free 
tn»in tnaiiy of thdsr lc)^:il li-ti ms w!iif:!i dis^r.icc the laws (n some 
othi-r ni'iiitrii's. Tiii.- infrp'mr cnurts an: those of the slicriffi^ 
iii;i;4:ii!r.iU-.'». :tiul juslWvs nt thr pi-tCc- 

I'ltri L.vriOM. 'IMif populittion rit'ScDtliintl, in 17>^5, was coniputal 
:il l,jr'O,00U: acfinlinif to t!ic- (t'K-iirni iits fiimishi'd by SiTtC^iii- 
cLiir\ N\ili>:':rul urrf>uiit, il\c inni'K rs iii ir98. Were, l^^O^ISOi 
:iMiL In thi -^-itvi-niiiu-iit ririiiii'i'itnMi in IS'Jl, the inlubltaii^ Ig^ 
p vin *1 lo um.niiit to l..S99,06S. 

.M ^NNkHsi AMB Ci-fTunB. Tin- iivum'Ts and customs of tilielKbti .* 
b—j;'v\ ti) be murli u^imilali il \vil:i thosi: of the RngfUsh. fACtfiMl 
iv)l.!Lrioii.>» ct'iviii'Miies, ntii.-iidm)f baptism and mamaf(cs, fhcKi% ^ 
-\:iri:iiions arisin^r fi-^iii the I'reabyUi'i.'Ui form, which does not ^ijala^ 
of p)d-fat)Kr.'> or ^'(id-m.»ihi-r*«. '>iiL rt'iidcrii tlic parents alotufan- 
^werahlc f<>r the nlucatiun of thi' child. The clergyiluui d'les^dalr 
attend at funerals, nor is CiioiL- :i:iy rcli.^lous service, but gener^Uj' 
jjreat doci*ncy. 

In ilio luxuries of tlio tablr, iht? v^y. rlor classesrivul the Cnglisft 
si'vor:il dish-.s, ori^^'inu*:!!;; fiiMU the Fi^cnch cooking', 'ux the 

~ot of tU J 
tiofE^ 1 
with aril j 

rc'iiCTt i»f Mary,*^ u»)vv vn!i>;a: o ■ lu-jflcctoil. Thu diet «f 
lowci* rlassrs i>as.S'^s in a g;radii il triii.^!^. «'i iV.jin tlio north 
larid. Th'.' cliiof lood iH /n;/Vt7i, or tlilrk pottaj^*, tormcd ^ 
TTical and water, and eaten with ui i!k, al-, or bitter ; in a hai'd Ivnupjf 1 
fiirni it is railed ^/'.jfi'. With this 'hi* lahnuror is generally qh^^ 1 
teiiU-d twieo or ihriee in a diy, wi'.h i litUe ]>il of in«.ul for Suiidli^a j 
no" dm's he repine at the hacon of the K;i»rlish pi?or, tlierc beings i 
theolr)irical antipathy to s'.viiie, which uUo extends to coIs,_ on IC-' 
count of the s'.-rjx'nt-like liinn. 

'I'lic sobriety of the lower classes is in gjcncral exemplary » ^'^ 
SroPi^^h manufacturer or bbourer is ambitious to appeair with his 
family in d"ceiit clothes on Sundays, and other lM)li lays. This may 
be r. i^aidi-d us a striking' characU,Ti.stir of the Scottish peasantry, 
who jii-efi.M' tiic Lislin;,' decencies of life to momenlary ^atilivatigns. 
To this praise may be ;uldcd tlie diffusion uf education, wliicli luf 
such, even the miners in the soutli possess a circulating library^ 

The I louses of tlie o])ulent have been lonpj erected upon the Engw 
lish ])lan, which c:m harilly be exccwled for interior elegance and '' 
convvnienre. Even the habitatitms of the poor have been creatly 
improved within these few years; instead of the thatchea mud 
hovi 1, there often appears the neat cottage of stone, covered with 
tile or ^>late. .1 

Tlie dresses of the superior classes is the same with that of the 
Enjrlish. The gentlemen in the Highlands, especially in the time 
of WAi'y tise the pectdiar dress of that countr>'. Among the other 
classes, the Scottish bonnet is now rarely perceived, except in tJie 

Laxruaue. Tlie Scottish language falls under two divisions; 
that of the liowlands, consisting orthe ancient Scandinavian dialect, 
bl.Mided with the An«:flo.Saxon ; .and that of the Highlands, which 
'^i Iri^l!. The Qrhnetj Islaiidii being seised b/ the Norwegians^, iir 



tJN ninlli century, the InhabituntR retiiined tlie Korsc language till 
recent times. Tlity now speuk i-einurkably pure Knt^libh. 

SciiooLii. Tiic UKxle of cducution piu'sucU in Scot haul, is liijrhly 
laudiihU^ and, lo judgie from its cficcts, is, ])ci'haps, t]ic best prac- 
tical system pursued in any country in Europe. 'I'he plan ^liicli is 
fgllowid in the cities is n^^arly similar to that of Kn)*-land, eiiiier by 
private teachers, or at large public schools^ of whicli that of KdUi- 
burgh is the most eminent. But the superior advantage of the. 
Scottish education consists in ever>' countiy pnribh poHscssmg a 
schoolmaster, as uniformly as a clergjman; at least the nde is 
general, and the exceptions rare*. Tlu' schoolmaster has a small 
sulary,or rather pittance, which enables him to educate thechihirtn 
at a rate easy and convenient, even to indigient parents. In the 
Highlands the poor children will attend to the flocks in the summer, 
unu the school in the winter. 

The universities of Scotland, or rather colleges, (for an English 
university includes numy colleges and foundations,) amount to no 
less than four ; three on the eastern coast, St. Andrew's, Aberdeen 
and Kdinburgh, and one (m the western, tliat of Glasgow. 

Cities and Towhb. Edinburgh, the capital, is comparatively of 
modern name and note, the earliest hint that can be applied to it, 
eccurring in the Chronicon J'icioritm, about the year 955, where 
mention is made of a town called Eden, as ix'signed by the English 
to the Scots, tiien rulal by Indulf llolyn>od-house was the ti)un- 
datlon of the iirst David. Edinburgh is situated in 56° 58' N. lat. 
and 3° 12' ^^'. long. 

The population of Edinburgh, including the port <»f licitb, was 
in 1678 computed at 35,500; in 1755, at 70,4;)0; and in 1801, was* 
found by actual enumeration to amount to 82,560. 

The aiTivals and cleai'ances at lA*itl» harbour, exceed tJie numlu-r 
of 1700 vessels of various descriptions. Of these 165 Inlong to tin- 
town. The commerce has been stated at half a million annually. 

The houses iir the old town of Edinl)urgh, aiv sonutimcs of re- 
markable height, not less than thirteen or fourteen floors ; a sii:gu- 
larity ascribed to the wish of the ancient uihabitants, of being 
tinder the protection c^f the castle. 

The new town of Edinljurgh is deservedly celebrated for regu- 
larity and elegance' ; tlie houses being all of finestone, and some of 
them ornamented with pillars and pilasters ; and it contains several 
public edifices which would do honour to any capital. 

The second city in Scot haul is (Glasgow, of ancient'Yiote in eccle- 
siastic story, but of sniail acc(Hnit in the :umals of commerce, till 
the time of Citmiwcirs UHuq)ation. The population of Glasgow, 
in 1755, was computed at 23,546, including the suburbs ; the num- 
Inr in 1791, was estimated at 61,945 ; and the amount of the enu- 
meration in 1801, was 77,385. The ancient city was rather vt ner:.ble 
than beautiful, but recent improvements have rendered it one oFthe 
neatest cities in the em])ire. Its C4in)mercc has arisen to great ex- 
lent siiice the year 1718, when the first ship that Ik longed to (;la.«>. 
gfiW crossed the Atlantic. The number <»i* ships belonging to the 
t^lyde^ in 1790^ \^Ji8 476, the tomiage 4-6,51^1; but before 1U<* 

4S sCOTrAM). 

American vnr it wm stipposrd in have nmoiinted to 60,000 ton*:*^ 
Tlioii^li Hic inaimfactiircs Hranvly c-xcr^d halt' a century in anti- 

7nity, thc\ ni\- iv)\v mimrmiis mid inipnrtant. That of' cotton, ui 
7\t\, was <niiipiit((l tfi I'lnploy l.i/KK) JitoniM ; and tlic f^KxIs pr6- 
du<-(d vii-iT suppdscd t(i aniciiiiit to tlic y«'arly vahic of 1,500,000/. 

Nf.'Xt in i-niinriirf :in- thrriiic:* i>f I'tTlli and AlM'niccn, and the 
town rif Dnniifc. I'crtli i.s an anrimt town, supposed to Iiavi; been 
tlir \'iclui'ia uf the* KomaiiM. IJiicn forma the i»t:iplc nianufocttire^ 
to the: aniuuil amount of about Ctf)^(H)()f. Thrh> art* also maniifiic- 
tUi'i-s or hut her and paper, fnhahilaiits M-,8rS. 

About (•i)(lit(.*c'n mjii<« ncnrcT tlic mouth of the Tay, Stands Dundee, 
in the county of Anj^iis, a neat nicMlcni town. The Firth of Tay if 
here lM>tvi-c4'u two and Uin-i* niilcH bi-uad : and tluTe w a griod road 
fbr sliippiu;^ to tlic east of tlic* town, as far as Kmuj^ity-caatle. On 
th<' Ist. of Si'|)t(MnJK*r, 10:il, !)uniUc was takrn by Ktorm by General 
Monk; and l.uiniMlcn, tlic: i^veiiior, pi.riRlic«t amidst a torren^ off 
bhi<jd>lird. The pojndatifm i.s, liowi*ver, now cijual to 126.084; tlie 
pubhr edifirfs are nrat and commodious. In 1792, the veMsels be- 
longing- to the port amoimtxd to IK), tonna(;e 8,550. The staple 
manufactuiv is linen, to the annual value of about 80,000/. cam'aif, 
A.C. about 40,000/. (!oloun-il thread aluo iornis a (XinNiderablc arti- 
tie, coni|)utcd at :I),00<i/. and tanned bather at 14,(XXJ/. 

.Mif'i-dccn first to notice in the eleventh ceulurv* and conti- 
NUfd to b<* cliit-Hy niemorubli: In «-cr)rf«i:L«ttieal story. The popula- 
tion in 17l>5, was computed at 24,•l*^), but the cnumenition in 1801^ 
i-edtired it to 17,51)7. Thouj^h the harbour Ix' not n'mnrkably Com- 
Diodious, it can bo:(.st a con^idcrablr tntde, the chief exportH being 
Mthiioi) and woollen jytKKls. In I7'.>5, the Hrilisb .slii])s entered at the 
porl, Were si\t\-one, the foreipi five ; and ihi- Ki'itish ships cleared 
outw.inis, ;iuiounted to t\\enty-4'ij"lit. The chief manufiictures arc 
\v(N)il( II piixis, pnrtirxdarly .Htockinp^H, tbc annual export of wMch 
is couipuled at 12X01)1)/. 

tiiMiiock, !)y sliarlnj;' in the trnde with (!las)^)W, h:iH risen to con- 
sult r: Idi celebrity ; it contains 17,4-58 inhiibitants. I'aisley, in the 
humr ci)iint\, is fiimiuis for its manufaetur<' of muslins, lawns, and 
}<-nn/AS, to the animal amount of MOyiHMl. l*op\dation 31,000. 
>><'o.l:ii)tl Ii:t.s many other considerable towns, but it would exceed 
our limits to be more particular. 

Kiiu-iri.s. Hcotl.'iud abounds with remarkalde edifices, ancient and 
nii)«l<ni ; we kIiuII only mention a few in the vicinity of the capital, 

Ilopcion-hoiise, the splendid residence of the Karl of llopi^ton; 
I);dk«Mtli-p;i!:iri', ;i seat <if the Duke of lluccleupfh : Newlxitlel, the 
.seat of till :M.(r(|uiN of iMhiati; Melville-castle, the elcKunt vilU 
of the l{t. fliin. llcMi-} Dundas, and the splendid mansion of the 
%I:ir(pii.s <il' Abrirorn. 

Ix.^Mi N ivHiATioN. The most ivmarkalde inlaml navigntion iff 
Scollun<l, i.s tin- excilleui lud extensive canal from the Forth to tbtf 
^:i><lr, eiinnniucirrl in 1768, from a bui^cy by afmcaton four yearf 



" 7'lic tlimcnsions of this canal, tlioug^h greatly conii*acled from 
ihc orjg'inal (Icsii^, are nuicli superior to aiiy work of the same na- 
iiire ill South Britain. Tlic English canals are generally from tla-ce 
to five icet deep, and from twenty to fr)rty feet wide, and thi* lock 
gates from tc^n to twelve feet. Tlic depth of the canal hetwecn the 
]roi*th and Clyde is seven feet ; its breadth at the surface fifty-six 
fet^t : tlic locks are sevcnty-fi\e feet long, and tlieir gates twenty feet 
wide. It is raised from the IJarron by twenty locks, in a tract often 
miles, to the amazing height of 155 feet above the medium full sea- 
mark. There :ire in tlic whole eighteen draw bridges, and fifteen 
aqueduct bridges, of considerable size, besides small ones and 

Tlic supplying tlic canal with water was, of itself^ a very great 
work. One reservoir is above twent3'-four feet deep, and covers a 
sui-facc of fifty acres, near Kil.syth. Another, about seven miles 
north of Glasgow, consists of seventy acres, and is banked up at 
the sluice twcnty-tw(» feet. 

The distance between the Firths of Clyde, and Forth, by the 
nearest passage, that of the Pentland Firth, is 600 miles, by this 
canal scarcely 100. 

CoMMEnrK. The commerce of Scotland, though on a smaller 
scale, is similar to that of England, and partakes of the national 
pros])crity. The chief exports are linrn, grain, iron, glass, lead, 
woollens, &c. Tlie imports are wines, brandy, rum, sugar, rice, in- 
digo, cotton, tobacco. Tlie fisheries ai*e a gi-owing pai't of tlie nn- 
tional wealth. — The principal manufactui-es arc linen of various 
kinds, to tl>e value, it is said, of 750,000/. annually. Of woollens, 
Scotch cai])ets seem to fonn the most conspicuous br:;ncli. The 
iitm miLUufacture^ of Carnm are deserwdlv famous. 

Climatk ami Skaso.vs. The climate of Scotland Is such as might 
be expectcil from its insular situ:ition, and high latitude. In the 
east there is not so much humidity as in Finglaiid, as the mountains 
on the west arrest the vapours from the Atluiitic On the r)ther 
liand, the westeni cotmties arc deluged with rain. Even the winter 
is mope distinguishuble for the quantity of snow, thrui the intensity 
of the frost. In the summer, the heat in the valleys is reflectetl with 
gre;it power. These obscn-ations apply chiefly to the north and 
west. In th(r east and south, the climate differs bat little from that 
of Yorkshire. 

Soil and AoRirrtTUHB. For a minute account of the various 
soils that prevail in Scotland, and tlie different modes of agricul- 
ture, the ix'ader must be referred to the Statistical Accounts pub- 
lished by Sir John Sinclair. For a long period of time, Sccxthmd 
was remai'kable for prwlucing the best ganleners and the worst 
farmers in Eu^opc^ 

RiVKiis. 'I'he three chief rivcM of Scotland are, the Forth, the 
Clyde, and the Tay. The chief souive of th-* F»irth is finmi Hen 
Lonioiul, OP r.itlu'r f»om the two lakes, Con and Aid : and about four 
miles ahov<* StoTl'n;: it tonns a noble strenm. 

Thr; Clyde i- r^m! to ';;sue fmrn n hill in the S. E. corner of 
Twecddalcj called A»Tik Stan*-, whicli is undoubtedly the cL'.ef 


sour<*f of ttu» Twoe«l, ami one source of the Annan ; but the C 
l):iji :i nitiiv romote som-ro in Kirthop, or Uair Mater, risingf a 
six n)ik'9 further to tlie south, in the ^X'ry cxtn-mity of Lai 

The principal soni-ce of the Tay is the lake of tlie same n: 
or tliL- river may hr traced to tlie more w rstiHy siMirrcs ol 
Attrick untl the l)oc))art, ami the smaller btnam of Ixjcv; M 
fall inti> the western extrt-miiy of l/>ch Taj. Tht- stream 
Krirhi ami llav swell the Tav, about nim- niiUs to the nort 
W rtli ; after pastfinpf which citv it n-ci'ives the wmTrtblc stnai 
tJie Ern, and spreads into a witfi- estuary. 

Ni'Xt ill conscquvnc**, and in', is tin* Tweed, a beautiful 
pastoral sU\'am, which, n'C-fivinjf the Ti viol from the south, 
Ki-l>o, falls into the si'a at IWrwick. 

LvK^.x. Scotland abouiKN in lakes, bv the inhabitants c: 
hu IIS : the principal of which are ifie loch Tay, the loch Ijuni 
;ind llu- li>ch Du. They also jfivt* the nanif of loch to an arm o; 
son, of whicii K»ch Tin is one, anil is 60 miles lon^ and 4 bniad 
the top of a hill near l/x:hness, aecountitl nrar two miles perp< 
I'ldur, IS a lake of fivsii water, abtnit sixty vardN hi U-n/i^h, 
ihoiit^ht to lx» unfathomable; this j.iki- never freezes, whereas 
lorh-anuyn, or green lake, uIhmU 17 miles frc»m it, is peqicti 
<*ovrrcd with ice. 

MoiNT.MNs. One of the most strlkinp^ features of Scotlan 
its nu mentis mountains : tiie chief of which are the Ciram 
liills, forminjf the southern boinuLir}* of the Htj^hlands: the I 
land hills; Lamermoor; .'tnd the t'lu'viol hills. Ren Ni-via is 
hi.i;"lu'st niount:><u in (ir^'at Itritain, Ix-injr 4^XM) feet :ihove the ] 
of the sea — and yet this is not much al)ove the <|uarterof the he 
o\' Mount Rlanc. This mountain on the X. K. ])n'S(Mits a preci 
almost perpendicular of 15()0 ii-et in depth; and atforls fn»n 
summit a jfr^uid view of the circumjaceni country, to the extei 
;ib(uit eipfhty miles. 

\K.ii:TAHLK Axn AsiMAL PiionrcTioxs. The soil varies in 
fennt parts of the country. It is not in general as fertile as tti 
Kri^land, but as the spirit of impnnement has spread throuj^h 
country, its aspect is chnnpfinp fast for the better. ]\l:,ny s| 
which were fonuerlv nolhiiur btit barn-n he.itli, now t xhibit thri* 
plantations. Tlie veppetable productions of tlie h>wdRmls are nr 
t he .same as those of Gnji^land, but they do not arrive so earl 
maturity. The ]iig;-h-lands still contain many extensi\c sterile tra 
the soil indeed in many places ^cems only adapteil to the pi-op 
lion of firs. — The animals of Scotland art* pretty much the sum 
those of Euffland. The hij^h-lands are stocked with red-<leer, 
bucks^han-s, rahbit.s, liixes, wild cats, and badgers ; and the li 
in g* ncralj cii-e Cf>ven'<l with black cattle and sheep. Cirouseand 
hciilh-cock, tlie capperkailh, and plaf niacin, arc found here, 
two latter an* esteemed jip-eat flelic;icies.-^Thc horses hi ScotI 
are exceedinjrly small, ainl j^'at j)ains have been taken former! 
in^.prove the hived, by importing'- a largv and more noble kind i 
Lb;: f^JnliJK■nt, but the soil :md climate ajo soi!nfa>o:irable. that 


rattle always ilepfcncraled. — Scotland abotmds in its seas, rivers, and 
lakes, with tisli of all kinds, and contributts fifreat supiilicti to tlu- 
English market, pai'tioularly in lobsters and salmon. 

MiNKiiALs. The chief minerals of Scotland are lead, iron, and 
coal. The lead-mines in the south of Lanarkshire have been lon/^ 
known. Those of Wanhick-head are in tlie immediate neiffhhonr- 
hood, but in the county of IJumfries. Some sli|^ht veins of lead 
have also been found hi the western Highlands, particularly Airan. 
fron is found in vai-ious parts of Scotland; the Caiixjn ore is the 
most known, it is an argil laceoiis iron-stone, and is found in slaty 
massofl, and in nr)dules, in an adjacent coal-mine, of which it some- 
times forms tlic roof At the Cai-ron-works tliis ore is often smelted 
witli tile reil g-rcasy iron ore iwm Ulverston, in LancJlsFure, which 
impai'ts easier fusicni, and 8U[>erior value. Calamine, or zinc, is also 
ibund at Wanlock-head ; and it is said, tliat plumbag-o and antimony 
may )>c traced in Scotland. 

Mut tlie chief mineral is coal, wliicli has been worked for a suc- 
cession of ajfcs. l*ope Pius II. in his description of Eunipe, writ- 
ten about 1430, mentions, that he beheld with wonder black stones 
g'iven as alms to the poor of Scotland. TIu; Lothiuns and Fifeshire 
palinularly abound with tliis useful niineral, which also extends into 
Ayi'sliire ; and near Ii'win is found coal, of a curious kind, called rib- 
bon coai. 

ScuTiHif IsLAXDfl. The northern and western sides of Scotland 
are bi'g'irt with numt^rous small islands ; on the west lie the He- 
briiles, or Western Islands ; on the nortii, the Orkneys, or Orcades, 
and still farther north, the islands of Shetland, where the hardy iu- 
habitants deri\'e much of tlieir sustenance from climbinj^ the stu- 
pendous rocks, in search of birds and their nests, which multiply 
tiicre in astonijiliing^ abundance. 


J'FIE larpe and fvrtUe island of Ireland, beingf sitoatedto the wot* 
nf (irtMt Bi'ituin, w;ts probably discovtrn-d by the Phoci^ciaiu as eirly 
ks the sister ishind ; uiid it uppcurii that thcisland wu known to tbo 
Grvi. ks by tlie name at' Juvei'na, about two centuries before the biiik 
of (Jiirlst. When Cxsar made liis expedition into Britain, he de* 
scribt^i Hibcmia a& bein^ about half the size cif the island which h» 
bad explurud. As the countr\- had become more and nore knowa^ 
*?je Romans discuvort'd tliat the ruling people in Ireland were the 
^'coti ; and thenceforth the countr}' bcg:aii to Ix: tcmcd Scotia, an ap- 
p'.*ll.i:ioii retaiiicfi by tlic monastic writers till the eleventh cenUayf 
A'hi'n the n:unc Scotia having' passed to modem Scotland, the ail* 
lent name of Ilibrrnla bejpin to rcassume its place. 

K\T!:.> T. The extent of this island is abo\it 300 miles in lengtl^ 
:ind about 160 at the greatest breadth. The c*mtents in aqtiaie 
miles are about 27,457, wliicb, reckoninfi^ the population at 3,000,000^ 
will b'.' about 114ikt!joiis to a scjn:ire mile. It is situated between 
51° 30' imd SS'' 2fy X. latitude, and between 5° 20' and 10** 15' W. 

ItKLiriiox. The If^al religion of Ireland is that of the church of 
r.n.»-l:ind ; but it is computed that two-thirds of tlic jxjoplc are Ca- 
•'»')!ics ; and of tlic remaining tliird, tlie Pi-esbyterians arc 8UX>poscd 
to ^-'institute one half. 

Th<- ecrl'.'siasticaldisciplineof the established church is tlie same 
i! > ill F^iij^iioul. I'h'J Calliolics retain their nominal bishops and dig^- 
iui:a*ics, w'W.) subsist by the voluntani- contributions of their vota^ 
lies; but nolwitlistandin^ the blind super.stition and ignorance of 
the lattt r, Pi-otestairtism uicrcases every vear. The institution of the 
Protestaiit-workhig sehools lua conU-ibilted much to this salutary 

'J'lie Arch-bisho])ric.s in Ireland are four ; Armagh, Dublin, Cashel, 
and Tuam.— The Bishoprics are eigliteen, viz : Clogher, Clonfcrt, 
Cloyne, Cork, Derr}^ lX)wn, Dromore, Klphin, Kildare, Killala, KU- 
more, Killaloe, Lcighlin, Limerick, Mcatli, Ossory, Raphoe, and 

CovKHVMEXT. Ireland being now happily united with England^ 
the form of government of course is identically the same, except 

in some minute »«nations between the s^tutc and common law^ of 
the two isb^"^' 

GrTr< 13 1 VISION. Ireland is dividec into four provinces, viz : 
Ulster to the north, which contains nine counties ; Conn;iug^t to 
the >»-est, five counties ; Leinster to die east, twelve counticF ; and 
Munster to the soutii, six counties. 

PopuLATiox. Agreeably to the most authentic documents, the 
population of Ireland is about three millions, of which near two- 
thirds are Roman Catholics, although ihese latter do not possess 
one-third of the property real and personal. 

MiLLiTART STRExrrTH. In consc(;iience of tlie late rebellion, and 
the threats of a French invasion, a very considerable military forcfc 
is now kept up iji Ireland, viz. 

Regtilars, 45,839. 
Militia, 2rylO-U 
Yeomanrj' J^j-^Sr, 



Rbventb. The puV* revenues of Ireland were computed by a 
► late intelligent tray^^^ at about one million sterling, or about Ga . 8d, 
I per head, when «A6se of Jilngland wei-e as higfi as 29s. — ^But a great 
K proportion Qf* the emigrants who have made their escape to tlie 
t United St«^f s, and have clamotired so loudly of their opprcssions, 
never p*fd any public taxes whatever in their native countrj-. 

^f ^x.vuns AXD CusTo.vs. With respect to the present descendants 
of the old Irish, they are generally represented as an ignorant, im- 
cinlized and blundering people. Impatient of abuse and injury, 
they are implacable and violent in all their affections ; but quick of 
apprehension, courteous t* strangers, and ijiui-ed to hardships. 
Some of the old uncouth »:ustoms still prevail among them, particu- 
larly thofr funeral bowlings, and the placing a dead corpse before 
thei^ doors, laid out »»n tables, having r\ plate on tlie body, to excite 
the charity of passengers. Their convivial meetings on Sunday 
afternoon, with .iancing to the bagpipe, and more often quarrelling 
among thcms«.lvcs, are offensive to every civilized tmveller. Their 
diet consist chiefly of buttermilk and potatoes ; and their cottages 
arc wretn'icd hovels of mud. — The manners of tlie seperior classes 
of people* iv>w ne:irly approach to the English standard, and will be 
mortf assijnilated by the influence of the union. 

ScauoLn. T!ic literature of Ii'eland has a venerable claim to anti- 
quity. The Anglo-Saxons, in particular, derived their first illuTni 
nation from Ireland ; and in Scotland literature continued to be the 
special province of the Iriih clergy till the thirteenth century : but 
the nation sunk a;;'din into ilie grossest ignorance. 

With four archljisiioprics Iivland only possesses one university, 
that of Dublin. This institution was first pnyectcd by archbishop 
LiCcch, about the year 1311 ; but death having inten*upted his de- 
sign, it was revived and executed by Bicknor his srccessor> and e;i- 
joyed moderate pro.>;ner:ty for about forty years, when the revcnui*'j 


Ill ihc reign or ElizulK-'h the uiiivorsity was Wuiindcd by v 
tury colltribulion, iindtT ^\c uuspiccs of Sidney titt. i^ord Dc 
It cuiisisttf of a i-hanctllor, vicc*<:I>:incclloi', provost, viOM.pp 
twciily-two tl-llows, umlthirv^vi) prolossors of various sciences. 
nuiuK-r ot* students is commonlv uboiit four huiwlrcd, incl 
sevciit; on tHt- tbuntLition. Tbc \)uildinj^ consiaU of two qui 
gli's, an.* it contains a libt.iry of Kunic account, and a printing- 
CiTiLs V.SD Uilitin, the capital city of JrtdaJid, »et 
be the EbL^ oi' I'loUmy. I'lic sii nation is dclijjhtful, in a Ik 
between ran,ii>s of Mils on t\ie soutli and north. It is pervad 
the river JJtty, and by sonic rivulets. Tlic inhabitants liav€ 
estiinatL\l at l\o,VK)0 ; this capitid lK:in(; justly accounted the ■ 
ill the British dommivms. Dublin is situiilcd in So*^ 21' N. la 
6° 6' W. lon^,^ 

In pi-oceediiifc to jrive an account of tlie other principal towi 
cities of Ireland, Cork and «/mievick atU'acL the first uttt 
Cork is a city of consnkr.d>lc in^roitance, situatCil on the sout 
side of the island, and wiipposed to Cjtuiu al)out 70,000 inliab 
It is the grand market of Irish provisioi.^ . m^^ it was compute 
* not less uian a hundred thousand rattle v .p^ here annually 
and salted between the months of August and t-muary. The 
of tlie liarbour, in 1751, were 62,000/. and in ITn^ 140,000^ 
dijcious impi-ovemcnt in twenty-eight years. 

J/imerick unites tlic fortunate situation of being almoct ccn 
the south of Ireland, with an excellent haven, ionned by Hi 
estuary of the river Shainion. The city is accounted tJie t! 
Ireland, and was formerly fortifitil with great care. There ar 
briilges over the river, one of whicli consists of fourteen 
The nundK'r of inhabitiints has bee^i c<>mputed at 50,000 
cJiief exports are beef and otiier provisions. 

(J.alway is a town of considerable note, and carries on an 
slve trade with the West Indies. The pott is conimudio' 
safe, but distant from the city, which can only be ivacl 
Vessels of sntall burden : the number of inhabi\^its is cor 
at 12,000. 

l^jndonderrv is more remarkalile for its ancient and militai 
tlian lor its present commerce, though not unimportant. It 
on tlie river Foyle, over which a wooden bridge cf sin^jl 
.•4t ruction, one thousand and sixty-eight feet in length, was 
iu 1791. 

Belfast on tlie north-east is in tlie centre of the linen m 
tures, and may almost he reg:irded as a Scottisli colony, 
liab^t ants aix; computcil at 18,000. The chief manufactures, 
cainl>ric, sail-cloth, linen» with glass, suj'Mr and c:irtlien-W{ 
maintains considerable intercourse with the commercial 
Glasgow; and the grand exports are to tlie West-Indies and A 

Waterford is a city of considenible i\nportance, situated 
river Suir, and is supposed to have bi'cn founded by the l")ai 
fiiifl'cred greatly in tlic late disordei*s ; and the inhabitants 
now be supposed lo exceed 30,000. The chief expoj-ts ar 


pork, &c. and linen. Packet-boats sail regularly betwixt Waterfotd 

and MLlfoi*d Haven. /. , i 

EuiFicEs. The chief edifices of Ireland are confined to the capi- 
juLi VThe cathedrals seldom aspire to great praise of architecture ; 
ofEnglanar*^.?** ^^^^ nol^ility generally yield in splendour to ihosc 
IsuLNJi NAViGATW**rpf ScoUaud. P„a-laiid fnmi 

inland navigation soon attrac^"^^^^^^^ 
grand canal was begun trom the city or*Si.w.__^__,a*^ ^.^^gj. yij^i. 
non, and was actually coi'ried on to the bog of Allen. Tv^t. ibc 
engineei-'s want of ability occasioned great errors in the originul 
plan and survey ; and the work was interrupted in 1770. 

A canal is completed from tlie town of Newry to the sea, wlilcii 
was, howei^er, intended to have passed that town towards the col- 
lieries of Di'umglass and Dungiuinon. This attempt,, however, to 
supply Dublin with Iidsh coals has hitherto been only successful in 
part, tliough the beds of coals are said to be very abundant. 

Makufautuhes and CoMMEacE. Though we find that Ireland 
was distinguislied at an early period for her manufacture of woollen 
stufiTs, yet the spirit of Industry made little progress, and tlie chief 
Irish manufactures are of recent institution. The annual pi-odui o 
of tlie linen manufacture is computed at about 2,000,000/. sterling; 
and the aveiage of all the exports of Ireland is between four and 
five millions. 

Cli.m ATE. Ireland lying iieai'ly in the same parallel with England, 
the difference of climate c»uinot be sup]}08cd to be very important. 
The mean temperature of tlie north is about 48 ; of tlie micldle 50 ; 
of the soatli 52 of Farciiheit. 'I'he air is often loaded with vapour* 
from the sea. 

Soil ajtd AanicuLTitRE. Mp. Young obscn-es, tiiat the quantity 
of tlie cultivated land exc_-e<ls, in proportion, that of England, 
The most striking feature is tlie rocky nature of the soil ; stones 
generally appearing on the surface, yet without any injury to tho 
fertility ;, even in tlie most liat and Icrtile p;u*ts, as Limerick, Tip- 
pcran'^, and Meath. The cLniacc being more moist than tliat of 
Knglund, tlie verdure never ai)pears parched with heat. Tillage is 
little understood, even in the best corn counties ; turnips and clo- 
ver being almost unknown. The farmers are oppressed by a clas.s 
of middle inm, who rent fiirm-i from tlie landlonls, and let them to 
tlie i-eal occupiers, liinie-sione gravel is a manui*e peculiar to Ire- 
land; having, on uncuitivated lanj, tlic same w^onderfui eflects as 
linte, and on all soil.s it is beneficial. 

UiVEii**. Among the chuf rivers of Ireland must be mentioned 
the Shannon, wlucli rists from the Like of Allen; and passliig 
tlirougU two otiiei- Lj-gc lukc.s, extends below Limerick, into a 
vast cstuaiy oi- firlh, ubtjut aixty miles in length, and from three to 
ten in breadth. TJils n.*hle river is, almost through its whele course, 
so wide and deep, as to ahord easy navigation. The otiier princi- 
pal rivers we llie Il..rj-ow, Nore, Suir, ]{ann, Lee, LifJy and liuyne 

The lak/*3 of Irel.uid are numerous, and some of tliem extensive. 
The diief lake of firih water is that of Earn, which cxcei;d^ t'lii-ty. 

^6 m£LANa 

British mHes in te^f^h, and twelve in its greatest breadth; i%ii 
VMlcd by a iimt<>w outlet frwiu the southern purt into the notih 
of about four miles in len^^th. 

Noxi in niaij^itutic- is Neajrh, about t\renty.two miles m kn 
and twelve in bivadth. Iloih those liikvs are BtU(Uli^«j[„jf|^* ' 
islands ; aiul thi- latirr is said to poKsess a pctrjJ*' :« Ihnuttwm 

Tlio lukc of Cc,rrib. in the lounlv^Vti;. 
niilcs m Icnrth, and from twe_:. i " . i ^ -n i 

Amonff thVN V c •?"- y^^^ ";«S^V^»^!f, ^"^ '^^} «?7 ««« 
the hr>--«-ira> All" mtcix-'stm^!^ Loii^h ot KilLamey in the 8. 
alioundin^r with Homaiitio views, and fringed with the arbutus« 
whore eliic a native of Uie Kritish dominions. 

Mi)r\T4i«ii. Ainonj; tJic hip^hest mountains in Ireland are 
mountains of Carlin)^brd, tho Curlieus, which separate the CO 
ties of SlifTo and Koscommon; those in the county of Dones 
tho Manguton mountains in the county of Keriy ; Croah PatricS 
the county of Mayo ; and the (laulty mountains in the count} 

liouH. These arc numerous in Ireland, and are of different kin 
Sdme aiv }^asii}', in whicli th<^ water iK'iufr concealed by the herba; 
th(>y are extremelv perilous to travellers ; other are pools of wa 
and niiro ; and otfiers are hassocky bogfs, or shallow lakes atodd 
with tufXs of rushes — :ind lastly the peat moors. Ornaments 
};old and other relics of antiquity have liecn found, from time 
time, in tiu- bogs, at great depths. 

Vkurtaiils and Animal PaunrvTioxH. There is little under tl 
]u\ul that is pocnliar to Iniland, her productions bein^ mostly sh 
lar to tlioso of En)>['land and Scot lam I. 

!MiNr.ii.ii.H. The mineralogy of Ireland hius luvn recently ce 
h-aii'd for the discovery of considerable masses of native ^ld« 
the c(nmty of Wicklow, to Ihr south of Dublin. It is rt^ported tl 
a jeweller who lately dieil in Dublin often declared that Gold, tak 
from that spot, had passed throup^Ii his hands to the value 
:>i;,U()t)/. It is now worked tor jyovernment, and it is said that 
vri'v niMssy vein has been recently discovered.— The silver found 
tiic li'isii mines mingled with lead deserves more attention. One 
tlicse mines in the county of Antrim yielded a pcmnd of pure sih'er 
thirty poiimls of lea<l. Irt^laud likewise possi.-sses some mines of C( 
per, and some of coal, the latter perhaps as pure as any in the wof 

Nat^'ral CrniO!4iTiK<t. ^Vhat is called the (Jiant's CauseV 
must he disting^iislied as the most, remapkahie curiosity in Irclai 
This surprising collee lion of hasultie pillars is about eiglit ml 
N. v.. from C.olcraine; and pi'ojerts into tho sea to un unknown < 
•tent. 'V\w. part explored is af>out (kK) iect in Icngih ; the bread 
iVom .?4'.) to 1 >0 feet; and tho height fi-oju 16 to ;U) feet alxn'o \ 
I. ^•el of llie strand. It con.sists of many tliousand pillars, mostly 
:i ])entagonal form, in a vorticel ]>osition, all of Iht-m sepatii 
th.)u^-h close together, so as to form a pavement of gradual usee 

In the days of ijinior:ince, this was considered as a stuivnilous wo 
rt' art, hut it is now more justly viewed as a rare natural phw 



RANGE is deservedly considered umong^t the most eminerA' 
i^pean states. 

XTEBTT. The extent of France, before the i-^cent acquisltiona-t 
computed at 148,840 square miles ; and supposing the then popu- 
m to be 26,000,000, wo\dd render 174 uihabitants to each mile 
uv. The boimdarics were, on the west, the Atlantic ocean ; on 
south, the Mediterranean and Pyrenees; on the east. Savoy, 
iflerland, and Gennany; on the north, tlie Austrian Netlier- 
s, the German sea, and Englisli Channel. It extends from about 
42d to near the 51st deiyrec of N. latitude ; from about the 7th« 
xre of long-itude west from Paris, tij about the 5th on the east ; 
g" in length, from N. to S. about 600 British miles, and irt 
ulth, from W. to E. about 560. 

iTisioBTs. Heforc tho ivfvolution tliis kingdom was divided into 
'^ince.s. The nation.'d assembly, intent on destroying" every a*i- 
t vestige, thought proper to parcel it out into eighty-three de- 
ments. The rectnt conquests have been moulde<l to a simihir 
1, under the name of re-united departments, making an addition 
ightccn, besides the later annexation of Piedmont and tlie isle 
Ubp. Togf tliev they amount to 108 departments. 
NTiatJiTiEs. Severed ancient monuments exist in France which 
ascribed to the first epoch. The Greek colony at Marseilles 
IS to have imparted some degree of civilization to tlie country, 
tlie rude Gallic coins are evidesitly an imitation of the Gi'ecian 


he Roman antiquities in Prance are numerous, and some of them 
icellent preservation. Those at N.smes .a-e i)articularly cele- 
ed, consisting chiefly of an amphitheatre, and the temple called 
tf aison Curre. - 

lie disclosure of the grave of ChUderic, near Toumay, in the 
century, presented some of the most ciU*ious fragments. In an 
tower of St. GeiTnain du Pi 6 are representations of several of 
first monarchs of the Pranks, and m«iny of their effigies were 
ervcd on the'u: tombs at St. Dennis and other places, till tlie late 

f tlic later perio<ls one of the most singular is the suit of 
\stty, prcsci'W'd in tlie Cathctlral church of Ba/eux, representing 


Uic bcginnin;? arid icrminalion of ilic j»rand content between Mi 
^nd II an )I< I, whicli \v.t\ to tin- cuiKiiKiit of KngUind by iLe Xui 

RKLK.iii.N. The ivli^ioii of France i.s the Roman Catboli 
tliL- IJuliic:in clitinit, since its r^--cbtjblishnient bv BonaqKin 
be II cf>i)M«ltr.ihl\ modi lied, and rendered almost wfiolly indepi 
o:: Ui)iii:ui ii.lhK'noc. 

<io\ i;iiN4i.NT. To ;it tempt to describe the present gover 
ttt' FnuKT wci'ilil Ik* ui va;^iie as writinf^ on the sands of a in 
•ccun. ?>jiially niiik- would bo the attempt to describe laws, 
tiu-re is no code; und which fluctuate according to the des] 
or ekint-ncy ot ilic- ruhrs. At present the eovemment, b 
ii;nn ami spirit, is a mere military despot iitrn^ tlie two senates 
the passive instrunn nti ui" tlie conmiojidcr in chief, who has 
himself emperor of Uie Frciich. 

I'opiLVM'i.w The population of France was formerly con 
at ^6,[){)0,nUij, but the recent acquis it i(;!is, if durable, would 
it t(j tlK- iopmwLjMe e\tcnt of 34,00- >,O0U. At all events, Frar 
country lecming with po]ju' .'.ion, ;uid quickly resumes her 
after .<stupi.-ndo«is los^e-;, a.. Kuryp*.- Ii.'.s repeatedly experience 

(>»*,n>iKM. The Fnncli have at p.esent no colonies, and it 
haf/l( iluy Will \}r lost f/>rever, if the war which now rages t 
tinue a .ew }ears: and tjf course the niai'itime importance • 
nfit: ji> wiii he almost annihiiatcd. 

AitMY. The political co!tvul>ii}ns which have agitated tl 
ha])py ('(Aintrj-, and yet n.o;-e tlie de.-jpotism of its rulers, hs 
casionally, within these Tew years, swelled the French armies 
ainu/ln«r computation of of a million. By a stat 
lately publishi^d, in the Etut JSLHtuire, the whole, exclusive 
gineers, miners, &e. foiTiis a force of 4-13,728. 

N*vi, The maritime power of France was fomiidable e^ 
England, till the battle of La Ilogue, since which the Brith 
has reigiied triumphant on the ocean, and the struggles of F 
thoug-h often energetic, have encountered the fixed destiny 
evitable defeat. Great pains are now taking by tJie emperor 
establish the navy. 

Revem-e. The revenue of France was formerly compu^ 
about 30,000,000/. sterling; from which, after deducting t] 
pence of collection, and tlie pa^Tnent of the interest on the ni 
debt, there remained clear about 18,000,000 ; but any atten 
calculate the present state of the revenue must be vague and 
elusive: One half of it, perhiips, is wrung from allies andnei 
the United States not excepted. 

Tlie common current money of France has been compir 
90,000,000/. sterling, while that of Great Britain has been esti 
at 40,000,000/. The late conquests have enriched France, aj 
pecially Paris, with the rapine of many provinces ; and the ge 
vie with the Romans in wealth and luxury ; in a coarse imitat 
their worst vices. 

M AxxEns 4ND CrsTOMs. The manners and customs of the F 
have been often delineated, but with great deviai ion from thi 
likeness. The most pleasing parts of the portrait are vii 


l^icty, politeness, and a Hinjfiilftr disposition towufls social ^njoy- 
nii'iits. On tlie other liurul, ancient and recent events conNp ire to 
affix a Haiip^uiiuiry Htain and u rapacity on tlic national cliararler, 
wliich U.TV. hardly rcconcilcabht to so nnich (gaiety and lic-cniin;;- 
beiKJVolenct* ; their looseneBs of monds, in rcjfuni to the sex, iias 
become pmverbial. Tlic republican form of jjoveninicnt only sprt ad 
the r^ntag-ion wider, nor lias the libeKy of divorce proved any bond 
of clia.stity. 

LAMfirAOK. The French lanfi^a^ is the most universally difTiiNed 
of any in the courts of Kurope ; and tlie consequence is felt in tiic 
variety and extent of their intrij^iea. In variety, cleaniCHH, and 
precision, and idioms adapted to life, business, and pleasure, it 
yields to no modem Hpi>ech ; but it wants force and dignity, and yet 
more sublimity. Tiic French lanf^uagc is a well known con'uptiun 
of the Honian, mingled with Celtic and (iothic words and idioms. 
lint while the Italian remains tJie same frcmi the days of Dante and 
Petrarra, tlirouj^h a lapse of 500 years, the ei>och ot classical purity 
of the French lan^^ia^i^ commences with the reign of Louis XIV. 

1*11 HMf, Schools. The state of education in all the Catholic coun- 
tries was very <lefective till the Jesuits gave ^-eat attention to thi<% 
important di.:p<u'tnient; to which, if tlieir exertions had lK*en solely 
direct e< I, th<-y v/ouUl have«pn}ve<l a most useful IxKly of men. 

At th<' lime when this reli^^iouB onler was suppressc-d Fn*ncc 
bo:ustcd of twenty one universities. Of these the Sorbonne of Paris 
was the most reh;br:ited : but it shewed an irremediable tendency to 
prolong tlie reign of scholastic the^)]ogy. 

The academies and literary societies were computed at tliirty-nine. 
Those of Paris, in paKicular, have been long* known tfi tlie leanied 
world, by eh-g:uit and profftinid volumes of dissertations on the 
Hciences, and on tlic Ih'lles I/'ttres. Nor have public institutions of 
tJiis kind Iwren fiireigii to the consideration of the new government. 

CiTiKS Ayh Towns. The ampU; cxtt-nt of this roiuitry displays a 
corresponding numlK-r of important cities and towns, of wliirh we 
shall notice u few of the principal. Paris, the capital, rises on hotli 
sides the river Serine, in a pleasant and lual'hy sitiiaiion, with de- 
lijChtfulenvirtjiis, beinj? situatexl in 48° .^O' N. lat. and '2'^' 2(/ K. long. 
It is divided into three parts; the town, ville, on the north, tlie city 
in th(! middle, and that part culh:d the university on the south. It 
is mentioned by ('a:sar as being restricted in his time to an islMid in 
tJie midst of tJie Seme. An intelligi-nt t ravel h-r sujjposes Paris to 
be one third smaller tlinn l/Oiidon : and the inhabitants ]m>l)ably 
amount to between 5 andfifKMKKJ. The houses aii* chi"fly built wlMi 
free slxme, from rpiarries like catacrimbs, wliich run in various di- 
rections under the stnvts ; so that an earthqirikc would Ix*. pcciili 
arly destructive, and iiiitflit. completely bui-y the city. The Ipjtn';^ 
of the S<'IiU' iwcsent noble (piays ; and tlu.* public buildings are un\ 
only elej^aiit iii themselves, but are placed in open aiid coininaiidin;;;' 
situations. The liouvre is ari-angt-<i auKmg the Ik-sI spiciir.cns of 
mudcni arrhilecture ; and the church of St. (ienevi<ve, » ow the 
Punthefm, is also deservrdly admiiTd ; nor must the1*huiiUr.e.s, the, 
PaUu Boyalc, and llospitaJ nf JnviJids, be forgotten. Pai'i.s, no 

%0 I'KANCK. 

tloiibt, excf^d:* I/mdon in mag^iiificencc, but yields fpreatiy in 
lintss aiid convenience ; and the street h, gpenentlly without a€C< 
cLitiini tor foot pusiienirvrs, Uuiclly bespeak tlie inattention of 1 
veniment to the miildle and lower claNses of men. The revc 
and its cunsc*quent niplno liavo enlur^l and adumed thepiibl 
lections; and, by cmrichinf;' minierouft individuals, has cnablcc 
to incnmso their favourite city with new and beautiful strcei 

Next to Paris in extent an<! population was the noble city of 1 
which was supposed to contain about 100,000 souls. Ah the 
mnnufactun^ were articles of luxun-, silk, clotlis of golc 
.silver, &c. it was natural that this venerable town should oe 
attached to tJie ancient ariMt<icr»cy, thoug*!! with conscquencca 
culahly fatal to its pn)siK'rity. Durin|^ the infatuate<l reign 
jacol)ins it was lH^iep[e<t, captureil, aiul, after the wildratand 
massaen*s, was doomed to final demolition. Rut as there are I: 
even to rap^e and folly, this decree was (ndy executed ir 
Thoug*!! l«yons will probably never recover its ancient extei 

The third :md fourth cities of France art^ Marseilles and 
deaux ; each peopled hy alx)ut 80,()'.H) souls. MarfK'ille.*i, whi« 
founded 600 years A ('!, renjains worthy (if its ancient fame, tl 
iH'inj:: at the same time one <»f the Ik-si nnd nuist frecucnted 
wliole McditerraneiiJi. Tlie Kxcliang\' is a noble building, ui 
iiew ]iarts of tlie city are biautiful. 

Dourdeaux was a pn>Ni>erous city, but the tnide must ha\ 
♦eixd ji;Teat injury. Ilie ])ort is am])1c and comnuMlious, with 
^:vc fpiays. Tlic chief exports aiv wine ami brandy, particula 
vin de Hounleaux, which we term claret, lH' it isof ack 
transparent red, while tent and some other wines an^ opake. 

FiDiKier.s. Several of the nmst noble edifices of France 
Paris, ajul its vicinity. 'I'o those already mentioned must be i 
the palace of Versailles, nither rem:«rkabie, howe\Tr, fi>r the 
sion of expense, than for the skill of the architect : the parts 
small and unharmonious, and the piMieral i'lfect i-ather idle 
than tnie RTandeur. The bridjfe of Neiiille is esteemed the 
bi^autiful in FiUrope, consisting* of live wide arches of enua 
The ancient cathedrals and eastlcs an* numei*ous, but the latt 
by no means conspicuous for their elep^ance or taste. 

Inland Nvvi<;ation. The inland navipation of France ha 
promoted by several capital exertions. Tlie canal of Hriare, 
wist' si vied ihat of Hiii*pmdy, o]H'ns a coninnmication betwec 
Loire and the Seine, or, in other words, betv/cen Paris and th 
teni provinces. Pa.ssinjjf by Montarps it joins the c; of O: 
and fi.lls into the S« ijie near Fontjiinlde.iu. 

The canal of Pieanly extends fivmi the Sommn to the Old 
p^inv.'.nj;- at St. Quintin, and forming' a convenient intercourse ' 
pr(^vinces in the N. Fi. 

thit the chief work of this dericription is the ceK brated ca 
Tiai'.jcuedoc, ccMnnK'nced and completed in the reig;n «)f Louis 
under tJic auspices of Uiat able minister ColV^rt. Fiiieen ye 

PRANeE. 61 

labour were employed, irom 1666 to 1681. This noble canal bep^ins 
in the bay of Languedoc ; and at St. Ferriol is a reservoir of 595 
acres of water : it enters the Garonne about a quarter of :i mile be- 
low the city of Toulouse. The brcadtli, including the towing paths, 
ia 144 feet; the deptli six feet ; the length 64 French leagues, or 
about 180 miles. The expense was about half a million sterling. 

Maxupacturm Axn Commethe. The articles of commerce in 
France are, its wines, brandy, vinegar, fruits, as prunes, prunellos, 
Jr*:cd ginipes, pears, apples,' oranges, and olives; drugs, oils, and 
chymical preparations ; silks, embroider^-, tapestry, cambrics, la\Mis, 
laces, brocades, and woollens, in imitation of the English ; paper, 
parchment, and toys. 

From this detail some idea may be formed of tlie commerce of 
Trance. By the account of 1784^ which did not include trf)rain or 
Alsace, nor the West India trade. 

Total Exports were 307,151 JOO livrc&. 
Imports 271,365,000 

Balance 35,786,700, or 1,565,668/. sterling. 

The trade witli the West Indies gave a large balance against 

In the year 1788. the average ImO 13 500,000?. sterling, 
ports of France were about 3 

Exports, nearly, 15,000,000 

In tlie same vear "> - « ,w.« ^w.^ 

Imports of Great Britain i^xre 3 itf,wu,uuu 
Exports, ditto. 17,500,000 

Since the beginning of the French revolution tlie ccfmmerce of 
England has been constmtU' inci*e;isingp — while tluit of lier envious 
rival has been almost anniliilated. 

Climate a-,'d Skasoxs. The climate of so extensive a country as 
France may be expected to be various. In general, it is fur more 
clear and serene than that of England ; but tlie norlliei*n provinces 
are exposal to heavy rains, whicli, however, produce beautiful ver- 
duic and rich postures. France may be divided into three climatejj, 
the northern, the central, and the' southern. The first yields i\n 
wines ; tlic second no maize ; tlic third produces wines, maize, and 
olives. These divisions proceed in an oblique line from the S. W. to 
llie N. E. .so as to demonstrate " tluit tlic eastern part of the kingdom 
is two and a half degrees of latitude hotter tlian tlie western, or, if 
not hotter, more favourable to vegetation." 

Soil and AfmirrLTURE. The variations of the soil are verj' con- 
siderable. The N.E. part from Fhaiders to Orleans is a rich loam. 
Further to the W. the l;«nd is poor ami stony ; Brittany grAvel, (;r 
gravelly sand, with low ridges of jyranite. The chalk runs through 
the centre of the kingdom, from Germany by Champagne to Siun- 
tongc ; and on the N. of the mountainous "tract is a large extent of 
gravel, fmt wcv. the numnlainoiLs region of tlie south is gnn rally 
fertUe, tlio;!g!i tli<: Urge province formerly called Gascony prescr.tii 
many level heaths. 

The detlr.t» of Fccncli agricnlturc consist in fi-equent fallows, 


69 FllANCB. 

vbilc the Rngliih fArmrr ohiiiiiiH vxen siipcriof crapa of c 
SI i hai it lit inff turnips and (>tlM*r fp^fn rmp« to the fiulowv; 
iltr t'Icar pnifit from hit rlf>vor, tuniipv, or turrs. In 101116 
prii\ incrs, hawi'\Tr, \\w pUns nf af^jicultnre ccirreBpond w 
fiauiraj fertility of the soil ; aiul others riinplay a nH>st laiidi 

I<ivr.ii«. Amnnp^ the riiTrs of Franco four are most cminc 
S4>iiK', thr Uiirc, the Khonr, and llir* Carmine. The first is 
thr nioNt lM*autil^il Htrfuniii of Kruirc : risinj^ in tlie dcpartr 
Cdte l)*()r, it piirsiR*» iIn r nirM* to the N. W. till it enters the! 
vh:.nni-! at Havre de <;, aftrr u course of about 330 1 

The* l/iin* diTives itn vMiri'e from Mont f»erhier in the N. 
ciciit I /uif^iu'iliK' ; ami aftiT a noriliem rourM* lum^ to the vr 
U'Tuv^ the Dccan u eoiisiilrr.ililc way lu'vond Xiuites, af^cr a co 
about SUO miles. 

Till' |{h')nr sprini^ fmni the lllarier of Furca, nfar the ini 
nf tirunnel in Kwjsserlaiul: and ui't<'i' p:i!it«in|^ the lioautiful v 
iUr Vallai^, and the lake of (■t-neva, bfii<!s its co'irse towaj 
south, and enters the .Mi-riiterraiK'an. I'iie eon^parative coui 
n]il( s. 

'V\iv (iaronne rises in tin* vahM)f Aran in the F\Tenres. The 
«if t!iis river is j^-neraUy \. W, It extends to ahont 250 miles, 
iti jnnrtion with the I)<inlo}^iu*, it assumes the name of the G 
>\ liirh ^fjive itH diHtincli^e appellation to a faction that fell un 
;ri-a of K<)lK-Npi«'rre. 

The prnicipul mountains of France are in its southern > 

Mont Jura, a vanf^iiard of the Alps, forms a boundary b 
I'rajire ami Swisserland. It' Monl Hianr Ik* admittetl amo 
rp-neh mouMtains, the other Alps cunnf)t rival its Rupn*meelc 
Tlie ancient pr')vince of Duiphme displays «ever:.l Alpine br; 
vliirli aUo extend thniugii >freat part of Pnnenee. 

The ]{1^hI chain of the (Jcvennes seems to nm from N. to 
to semi out branches towards the K. and W. The northern ] 
tiie chain is sty led the I'uy de Dome, while the southern is 
tiiat of Cantal. The Monts J)*<>r, which form the centre, 8 
hi>rhcst mountains in France*, lieinjf 6300 feet above the sea. 

The Pyremres remain to iH'deHcriiird. They appear at a d 
like a sbaCTnt' ridj^r, presmting- the segment' of a circle fi 
France, ami <h*scendin;C at each extremity till it disappear 
r>ccan and Mediterranean. Mont Penhi, which is the highest, is 
fee' a])ove the Sea. 

VK(;iiTAiiLK AM) Akimal PHoprrTiows. So pfrest irdeed is 
li'iit and so various the climate of Fritnce, that probably mor 
half the F.»iropean species of plants mav be fbtmd within its 
<l.iries. That countrj', which pnKhices m full and equal per 
wheat and apples, maize .md K^Jipes, or.inf>^*H and olives, the c 
the myrtle, must doubtless exceetl all other FiUmix-nn count 
ri|jial extent in the vai-iety and richm*s» t.»f its \-egt:tabl'? trej 


a hiii'c ciiuineration of tliom would ()crn])y more room th:ai can 
Hotted to them in a viork like, the prosont. 
lie liorscH ut' hVunco do not up{K\'U' to liave been crlobrutcd at 
I>criod ; and it is well known that Uic ancient monarch^ were* 
vi\ to tlir national aHSi'mbliva by oxen. Many Kn)|;liHh liorves arc 
mes ot* iKace imported tor the coach and tlie. saddle. J)ut tiif: 
.ter nunioer of horHCH in France con-siHtH of llidctM, umull aid- 
i of little show, but ^nat utility. Tliu*cattle of Linioi^'B, and 
e otliiT pmvinceH, arc of a beautiful cream colour. The sheen 
ill m:mn|j;ed, liavin);;' in winter only btraw, instead of gi'irn fboci,^ 
n ring-land. Tlie eoUMeiiuenceif aiv, p<x)r fieeC4:s, and Ririty of 
p, Ko that tlie poor are forced to t^at brc-ad oidy, and hu*gi* quan- 
s of W(H)1 arc' miporte<l. Of fi'rocious animals the moat remar-. 
e arc tlu! wild ba;ir and tlie wolf; tlie il>ex and chamois ai-e 
d on the I'^'reneea and tlie Alps. 

[liNXRALH. (lold niinea anciently existed in the S. of France, and 
I' of the rividcts Ktill roll down part ir lew of tlmt ni<:tal. France 
iIho houst of the ailvcr mines at St. M:iric-aux-Mine.N in AlsucCit^ where. The same as well as other districts contain mines of 
)er. Tiu* dulcliy of IK'UX Fonts, one of the fratemi/.ed ae(}ui- 
ns of France on the >\est of the Uhine, is celebrated for nkines 
uirk.Hilver. The annual product of Uiese mines may Ih' eHtlmat- 
t f)7,'J(>0 f)oun(ls of mercury. Two-tl»irds of the le:ul of France 
W>m Ihvtjig'ue, particularly Uie mines of Foullaoucn and Iluel,- 


r)n, that most important and nnivers:tl of metals, is found in 

idanc4\ piirticularh' in some of the northern departments. In 

1 it w:is computed tiiat tiiere were 2000 funiaceSi for[{t;s, &,c. fv>i' 

ivorkingof mm and steel. 

lie coal nunes of France were at the same time estinmtcd at 400, 

tsntly wrouf^ht j and 200 more capalde of beinff wrou^^ht. Nearly 

d to coal is ^|et, an article formerly of jfr^^at consumption, chiefly 

>ain, where it was made into rosaries, crosses, buttons ibr black 

ses, Sic. 

ATirRAL ('rKioHiTiRs. Amonff the natural curiosities of France, 

most wortliy of notice is the plain of La Crau, which lies in 

'ence, not far from the mouth of the Uhonc. This is the most 

id»r stony desert thiit is to be found in France, or pcTliaps in 

>pe. Th<» diumetcr is about five leaf^n^s, and the contents from 

} 25 sciuare lea}^u>s, or aiK)ut 150,000 Fini^lish acres. 

iKNeii ihi.i:h. The isles around France arc so small and un- 

>ftant, tliat thry woidd scarcely be deserving of notice, wcw. 

t for events that hau* takrn ])luce durinif the late war. The 

of (Jorsica must however bo excepted, as it jfiive birth to 

deon Jionap.irte, a military adventurer, and now emperor of 


ic isles callerl Ifyeres, near I'oulon, have at present a barn^n 

naked app<Miranc(*, and only present some melancltoly pines. 

r howrver contain somc> botanic riches, and may claim tne fame 

cing^ IIomer*H isle of (!idypso. 

I the western coast first ciccurs tlic isle of Oleron, about fhnr< 


teen miles long, by two broad, celcbnite<l for a code of mai 
laws issued bv Kicbard I. king of England. To tlie N. is tb 
of K^, opposite Kochclle, noted for an expedition of the Engl 
the seventeenth century. BelliMlc has been repeatedly attacked 1 
Lngiisli : it is about nine miles long and three broad, surround 
stci'p n>ck8, whicli, with the fortifications, render the cor 
difficult. Tiie isle of Ushant, or Ouessant, is remarkable : 
l^rthcttt headland of France, towards the west, being about t 
miles from Uie continent, and about nine in eircumference, 
^veral hamlets, and about 600 inhabitants. Arid St. M arcou, 
by the British during the last war, in defiance of all the po^ 
the great nation, altEoQgh it is ui>Iy tevei) milct from their sbi 


THOSE provinces of tlie NctlicrlancU wliicli were formerly sub- 
ject to the hniMe of Austria have been recently annexed to tlic 
French dominions ; and tliis fertile territory may probably continue 
to be united to France, as to acquire it, was one reason why tlio 
French murdered their kin); and ([iicen, and cstablislied a republic. 

Namrh. The Netherlands in general vrcrc anciently known by the 
luufle of Hclgic Ciaul, and tlierefirc the French, in their new-fangled 
vucaixdary, c^dl tliem re-umtcd departments. These are nine in 

EXTR5IT. The length of the Austrian Netherlands, computed 
fi'om the eastern limit of Luxembourg to Ostend on tlic ocean, may 
be about 18U Hritish miles ; and about 120 in brufidth, from the 
nortliern bounding- of Austrian Brabant to tlie most southern limit 
of Hainaut It is situated between 49° 2(/ and 51° SO^ N. lat. and 
between 2° 30' and 6° '^Qf E. long. Tlie extent is computed at 7,520 
■qijare miles, with a population of 1,900,000. 

UKLi»ro?r, &c. The religion of tlie Netherlands is tlie Roman 
Catholic ; and till the Fren<Mi revolution, the inhabitanta were noted 
for their bigotry. The Metropolitan see was tlie archbishopric of 
Mechlin, or Malines. The bishoprics were tliosc of lirugcs,. Ant- 
werp, Ghent, &c. initumbcr nine or ten. The government and laws 
had many features of freedom. The Joyeitte jiniree was the magna 
charta of Uie Netherlands, a constitutional bond of national privi- 
legcs, wliich Uio inhal>itants foolishly exdianged for FrcncJi fra- 

PopiJLATio.N, &c. The population being oomputeil at 1,900,000, 
ami the square extent at 7,520 miles, tlicre will be 252 inliabitants 
to the srjnare mile, wlule France yields only 174. 

MftyxKas AMD CusTUMH. The mrinners and customs of the No- 
therKmds partake of those of tlK:ir neigh iiours, the Dutch :ind 
French, but principally of the latter, wlileh, together with the 
common use of the French langiugv, paved the way for tlicir sub* 

F. Schools. Tlie Cflncation was nrglrcti-fl i'H \n most r^utholic 
onuntries. The univer.Hitle.H, which h\ iw rountry .ti'c of eqii:-.l irii* 
pCirLance with the nchools, wen.-, liowever, numeni'is, com uderirii;* 
thtfvxtent of the country. Exci inive of T^umuy^ (Oonuck) .wUkn;. 

F 3 

er. \i:tiieklaxds. 

Ikls luon lonp «;\ilijrit to the Frciuli, there were other* at E 
mill Nt. (liner, nnnii iWt]Ui>iitiil l>y tlic Kn^lish Catholics ; an 
lit' si ill jf n-;it« r fi-lfbrily at liuuv^iin, t'ouiukil in 1425. 

CiTir.!* Axn T«>wjrs. The three chief cltieii in wliat were < 
tliv: Austrian Wi'ierUnds, art* Hrusscls, iihent, and Antwerp, 
capital cJt\ ot Dnisselii still contains aUiiit 80,000 inhabitantfl 
is iKruutifiJd l)ya noble s<{uare, one sick- of wJiich is oc^pied ^ 
Vii^t fTTiihlliaU'; and hy nuinenms churc*he8 and fountains. Tl 
]K'rial palace, the wontetl residence of the |^venu)r of the X 
lantU, displavs considerable taste and niag^iific^ce. It is sit 
in 50° 51' x/lat. and 4*» 21' K. lon^. 

<;heiit eontains alxmt 6U,00U miuIm, ami the circumference ( 
widls is computed at 13 inilvs, as it is built on a number of 
isluiuis tbnneil by iiiur rivers, aiKlman\ canaU, and includes gp: 
and e%en HcUN. 

The inhabitants of Antwerp are compute<l at 50,000, the s 
mains of fifreat population and pros|)erity. The streets, house 
churches, are \»*orlliy of the ancient fame of the city. Th 
f->I:lnp^' is said to have atTorded the ]>attem for that of Londoi 
1568 the trade is supix)scd to have been at its greatest height 
rile niinib'.-r of inliabitants was ccmiputed at 200,000. BoQ^^ 
a)\i- en(KuVi.Mirinjf to restore its ancient importance. 

K:iiFii'Ks. In i(\'ner.d it may be observetl, tJiat even at the pi 
day every traveller is impressed with surprise, not only at the 
ber, hut the jfrcal extent of the Vlcmlsh cities, towns, and 
^ illajfcs ; in which respect the Netherlands exceed every ooun 
KiirojH", only excepting the United Provinces. The dbief ec 
:>re the cathedrals, churches and monasteries; together with 
ra-Jilc's belorg'injy to ancient families, or rich merchants. 

Ix^Axj) X.ivj(,ATio7». Idle would be the attempt even U 
nierate tlie canal j which intersect these provinces in all direc 
Some of them d:ite even from the tenth century, and the cana 
Brussels to the Scheld is of the sixteenth. Other important 
extend from Ghent, Antwerp, Ostend, and other cities and t 
of; .^•^ially in the westcm districts. 

^r.ixi FArTrrs ?.« .\xn Commercs. The manufactures and com 
of ihc Netherluid*, for a long* period superior to any in the w 
Eiir(u;e, have suffered a radical decline ; owing partly to the 
powt^rs entering into con;|x.*tltion, and partly to the establisUu" 
Jivcdom in tlic United Pnivinccs ; whence Amsterdam arose 
■.i.e ruins of Antwerp. What little commerce remains is ehie 
iMid to Germany, the excemul employing ven* few native vt 
The chief manufactures are of fine linen, anci laces, at Mc 
llnissels, Ghent, Antwerp, I.ouvain ; which still enrich tjie c( 
iroimd, and induce the fanners to cultivate flax, even on tjie p 

Climate akd Seasons, &c. The climate of the K^tlierland 

:iderably. resembles that of the south of England, and is mo 

markable for moistiu^ than fr>r warmth ; vet the duchv of Li 

b')ur£r produces some wine. Tiie soil is in general a rich sandy 

. sometimes interspersed with fields pf clay, but more of^ 


lar^e spaces of sand. Such lias been, even in di&lant ages, the state: 
of agriculture, that tlie Netherlands were long esteemed tlic very 
garden of Europe, a pniise which tliey still share with Lombard) 
and England. The repeated crops of excellent clover, the cole, the 
turnips, Uie clean crops of flax, barley, and oats, deservedly attract 

RrvERs. The Nctlierlands are watered by so many rivers and 
canals, that it will be sufficient to mention only a few of the chief 
streams. The cliief river is the Scheld, which receives two other 
stix»ams, the Lys, and the Scalpe, the latter near Mortagne, tlie 
former near Ghent. All these rivers arise in the county of Artois, 
from no considerable elevation ; and the whole course or tJie Scheld/ 
OP Frencli Escaut, cannot be comparatively estimated at above 120 
miles. Most of the other rivers yield in importance to tlie canals, 
and it would indeed be difficult in many instances to determine whe- 
ther their course be tlie work of nature or art 

MoDNTAiKA, Sec. Tiiough there be little ridges of hills in the 
counties of Namiir and Luxembourg, the traveller must proceed to 
the distant biuiks of the Rhine, before he will meet with any eleva- 
tion that can deserve the name even of a small mountain. 

VE/jKTABiiK AND AxiMAL PRODUCTIONS. The Vegetable produc- 
tions of tlie Catholic Netherlands diftlr in no respect from tbose of 
Holland, and almost all tlie plants that are natives of this country 
may be met with in tlie sandy and mai'shy districts of the sauth-eas.( 
coast of England. 

The breed of horses and cattle is esteemed for size and strength, 

MiNKRALs. So plain a country cannot be supposed to siip]>ly many 
minerals : yet coal, perhaps the most precious of tliem all, is found 
in sevcrid districts, and the ingenuity of the French has been exerted 
in an improvement of the operations. In the county of Namur are 
also found lead and copper; and Hainaut affords iron and slate. 
From its iron works Luxembourg deriMes its chief v/calth ; and the 
forest of Anlennes is still renowned for the metal of ww;. ^f arblfe- 
and alabaster sjre also found in the eastern districts. 


KTTE5T. BY the filial partition of Poland, Earopean Biu 
cxtencb from the river Dniester to the Urmlian mountjiii 
)Crand chain which naturally divides Europe from Asia; a k 
about 1600 miles, and in breadth above 1000 Eng^Ush miles 
iVom 47^ to Ti^ north latitude, and 23^ to 6S° east loii|^tQdi 
extent is computed at about 1,200,000 square miles, with 17 
tants to OAch. 

Even the European part of t]ie Russian empire embrace 
ancient kingdoms and states ; but tlic chief name, that of 
shall only be considered. 

Civil Ditisioxs. The principal sub-divisions of Europe 
h'iSl are into military governments ; which, though they ai 
changing, and are seldom mentioned by any except native 
phers, it has not been thought right entirely to omit. T\ 
stated at 50 in number. 

AsTiQ,riTiES. Of ancient monuments Russia cannot be si 
to afford ^reat variety. Sometimes the tombs of their pagai 
tors are discovered, containing weapons and ornaments. Tl 
combs at Kiow were perhaps formed in the Pag^ period, 
they be now replete with marks of Christianity. They are lak 
of considerable extent^ dug through a mass of hardened el 
they do not seem to contain the bodies of the monarchs. 

KfiLiniox. The religion of Russia is that of the Greek* 
of which, since the fall of the Byzantine empire, tliis state 
considered as the chief source and power. 

GovEaxMEXT. The government of Russia appears to ha 
always despotic, there being no legislative power distikict fn 
of tlic sovereign. What is called tlie senate is. only the S' 
court of judicature. The whole frame of the government 
pronounced to be milltar}' ; and nobility itself is only virtual 
mated by rank in the army. The first Russian code dates fi 
reign of Ivan IV. and tlie late empress Cathai<ine U. had th 
of drawing up a new code >\"ith her own hands. 

PoppLATiON. The population of Russia is so diffuse, and 
over so wide an extent of territorj', that very opposite opinio 
been entertained conceniing it. Mr. Tooke, presents the 
p<HPuUtion of the empire in 1799 at 36,^55,000. 


>f tliis population Mr. Tooke assigns only about three millioiDi 
. a tiulf to Siberia, or Asiatic Russia, so tliat we might, {icrliup^ 
'W even 33,000,000 for the population of European liussia. 
LRMY. The same author estimates the whole amount of the 
isian troops at 600,000 ; of which 500,000 may be esteemed e(- 

f AVT. The Russian navy consists of several detached flcet^i^ 
e cljief fleet is that of the Baltic, which consists of about thirtj- 
sliips of the line. That m tlie Kiixine, or Black sea, at the 
hours of Sevastopol and Kherson, was computed at twelve shipf 
the line, but not of a high rate, as tlic Eusine affords no great 
th of water ; but there are many frigates, gullies, chebecks, and 
iboats. The fleet of gullies, in tlie Baltic, m 1789, was estimated 

uEVEwuES. The revenues of Russia are supposed to amount to 
ut 50,000,000 of Rubles ; whieh, valuing the ruble at (bur shil- 
rs, will be equal to 10,000,000/. sterVmg. The national debt 2? 
posed to amount to little or nothing. 

^Ianxers and Customs. As the Russian empire comprises sD 
ly distinct races of men, the mamiers of course must be very 

"lie Slavonic Russians, wlio constitute the chief mass and soiil 
this empire, are generally middle sized and rigorous. The 
isian is extremely patient of lumpier and thirst ; and his cure for 
iiscases is the wann bath, or rather vapour batli, in which the 
t is above 100^ of Farenheit's thermometer. — ^AVhen a maiTiage 
roposed, tlie lover, accompajiied by a friend, goes to the house 
.he bride, and says to her mother, "shew us j'our merchan- 
5, we have got monev," an expression which is tliought to refejp 
he ancient custom of buying a wife. In several instances, the 
tsians ibrm a curious junction of European and Asiatic manners-; 
\y of their ceremonies partake of Asiatic splendour ; the great arc 
1 of dwarfs ; and some opulent ladies maintain female tellers of 
s» whose occupation is to lull their mistresses asleep, by stori(*s 
'mbling those of the Arabian Nights. 

lANGUAKE. I'he Russian language is extremely diflicult to pro- 
nce, and not less difficult to acquire, as h abounds witli extraor- 
iry sounds, and anomalies of every kind. The characters amount 
.0 less tlian thirty-six ; and the common sounds are sometimes ex- 
ised in the Greek ch.ipacters, sometimes in characters quite un- 
those of any other language. Among other singularities, tliere 
ne letter to express tlie «cA, and another the 99c/t, the latter a 
nd liardly pronounceable by any human mouth. 
'cHLic Schools. Education is little known or diffused in Russia, 
igii the court have instituted academies for tlie instruction of 
:rn and artists. 

*hc university of Petersburg, founded by the late empress 
liarine II. is a noble instance of munificence, and it is hoped will 
ipe tlie fale of the colleges founded at Moscow, by PcU*r the 
•t, which do not seem to have met with the d«*ervea success 


f 'iTiu ATiu T»w\s. Ill ciiUhlUTiM^ ilu* cliicf cities and tv 
}{ iiHU, Mii^f'iw, the uiuii lit iMpit..!, jiUr.iCU the tint atU 
I liiii illy (iatt s tioin thi* VfiiT l.iiH), .'Hid priur to thv pcstUc 
l.Tl, till,- lioiiM!i ill M'»!^cow Wert' c-fim]>iitccl ut 1J,538, ar 
lMi|»ii).iiioii at iiiit Ifss tli:tii JtM),U()0. M'i.sciiw Is liuilt intlie I 
ni.iiiinT, 111 wliir-)i riii«-H rf>\i-r :i vusi'i* fif ^n>iintl ; lutitw 
^S' \. M\d lull.;-! null- .>r^ .'» ) Vs. IVtrpiimrj^, tlii' impc'n^hl rmi 
t^ villi tit ruiiiujii irv),U<>J iiili.ibit.tnts; and is tlie wcU kiiow 
Mirprihin^, rnctittii oftlir last n-iitiiry. it btaiuiN in a mamhy 
tion on tJu i'lMT Niva, tlic hou.trN \h-\\\^ chiefly uf WikmI. Tilt: 
IiiiiIdiii^-« nrv i'vv/ i uiiil IVliT>iiiii'^ is iDon* (liHtiupiikhcd by lU 
?li;in tiy it.^ .ippraranco nr upiiltiu'c. Tlu* ntiblt.'St public wur 
Uw ({(lavs hull I ut*iK' f^anitc ; lutitiuic 6U^ N aiid lonj 

.\sirar;ui is suppnscrl to Mt:uul m*Xt to IVtcnhur^^ in pn|>u 
This nty, near tlif iiiunth (if the vast river V<ii>fa, was Uic c 
of th<- Tatar kini^l'iin nf (JaiMihak. Thi- cliiirrhcs ure chii'fly of 
u!i<i tlif liouM'K (»t' wimmI. 'rh(* pupidation is coiiiputiil at 7 
Tr .iisi:itlt, :uiil Kolloiu, .ire su|ip<>si-(l carli t(» contain abotit < 
inhabitants. (Jhcrson, u:ul iluUn, arr said rach t(i coniuin 2< 
wtuli- .1 ),00l) an* asrril>i'd tii TiiU, and 27,^)'M) to Ri:^:i, a city c 
■si(i< i-tiblv trade and ronHi-<iurnrc. 

Im.\mi XiviuiTiow. 'rhi- ini.uid navij^Mtion of fliis.sia dc 
niorv alii'rr.i'iii. .Vinmi^ ol!ii*r Lmd-ibh' ininrovi'tii-nis, PoU 
CtitMt t'onik-fl th(* drM};it uf i:Ntablisliin<^ an iiitciVdurso. by 
biiivi t-n l*iii^'shuii^h and Persia, by tlu' (l;ispiaii sra, tlu' Vulf 
-Ml- .ta, ;iiiil iTic l.iki'of Ni)v:^in>d, JScc. but this sclu'ini.' faili'd 
i^Mor.iii.'i- III" thi- 1 ;i|rlnriT.>-. Tin- ccl< hralcd r;UKd of Vishnui 
bh'ik was in s.iin - sli:ipr nmiplctcd !>> IVtrr, no as to form a 
lliiin ion txtwrt-n Astniraii uiul l*i ■tirshup|«f. The* navig-ut 
pcrrnriiH'tl, nr I'ordiii}^ to tin* Nras(»n of the \rar, in fi-om a fur 
to a month, and it is suppo.srd tlial luar 4U(X) veHscls pass uiu 

The ranal oi' Ij:idoj;-a e.\ten(Ls fixmi the river VMk to the Ni 
?p;t('r of 67}, niih-s, luid comniiinicates with the former canu! two iinpi»rtant ranals const jiii nitcrcourHe in mainiaini 
tuii'ii the northern and southern exlrcniitieA of the e; 
Another eanal le:uls fnmi .Moht'ow to the river 1)iin, forming*: 
munication with the Kuxiiie ; and the <'anal uf CroUbirjult fu: 

MANirFAcTnREH AN II CovMKRCK. Hv thcHC mr»n» the inhinfl 
of liiissiu hxs attiiim-d ronsidcrable prosperity ; and tlic value 
exports aii<l iniportM h;.vc* Ixi'U lonjc up<»n'thr increase. S 
niamifartuivsan^ conducted uitli considerable spirit. That o 
/:rla?<s and Kaviar are in a iloiiriKhini^ Ktate. The maniifartui 
oil and soap are also ronsiderable ; and Petersburjf exports 
quantities of c.andleH, besides talhtw, whicli ubotinds in an c 
so Well replenished wilJi p:uituriip\ Salt-petrv is an imiK-rial t 
and some su^ar \s refined at Peterslmr^. Theri' are several 
factuit'sof p((f)er and tobacco, lineu, cotton, and silk : Icalh 
^>nK hcea u btiqilc cvDimuJity. 


issia producer vani quuiiiitics of wax. Iron foimdcries sihoimd ; 

II tlu: northern ((ovciiiinciituf Oloiict/. is a ifraiid foiutdcn* of 


insia is ftuppoHcd to export by the nallic {frain annually lo thn 

: of l70,(HtOl. and hemp and flux, rav and ma]iufactiirc*d, lo tlic 

nil of a inilhon and a halFslcilui^. 

w. commerce of the? Casf)i:tn M-a \h compiitcfl at. 1,000,000 of 

■h, or 200,000/. That of Ihc Kuxhu- is not above onc-lhird of 

ndiie. That with China about 2,000,000 of niblcb. UuhhIvl cx^ 

((<•» licr precion:i SilH-nan furs for tea, silk, :ind porcelain ; and 

ntemal connncrce is very conHKlt-rable. 

iMATK ASH Hkahunh. TUii climati* of Hmtsia in Kiiropr, as may 

:fx-etcd in such a dit'crhity of latitudes, prescntH rwry 

ty, from that of Lapland to that of Italy : ihr Uie newly nc- 

-d province of Taurida may be compared with Italy in cliniatji' 


It A VII AcHieuLTiTHE. TIic soil IS of course alw extremely di- 

'. l*he most fertile is that between the IKm and the Volf(9, 

Voronetx to Simbirsk, consiHtin^of a black mould, stroni^ly 
ff^nalfd with saltpetre. I'uKtura^e is soubimdant, that the 
iow.s are little re^anled, and the aKificial prcKluelion (jf f^rasscs 
ircely known. 

j(ttneral however agriculture is treated with pfreat neg-ligtnre, 
lie har\'ests are abundant. In the north ryi: is most ^^'r-endly 
r^jifed ; bill in the midc'te and the sriuthern n/ifions wheat ; in 
foveiiim<-Mt of Kk'il.'irinoslav the Am.'iutan wheat is beautiful, 
otir yellowish, ifu* ifturn ronnnonly fifteen fold ; nor is Turkish 
t ormai/e unknown in Tuirida. Harley is a p-neral produce, 
•» convert e<Niito meal, a:> Will as oats, of which a kind of por- 

i.s coiri)>o:ied. Millet is also widely diffused. Kire sure.(<-.ds 
in the vicinity of Kislear. Hemp and flax foni^ i.'T<-al objeets of 
liltuFc. Tfibacco also has been pi-odiiced since the year 17()3, 
ly from Turkish and Persian .seed. 

(^Kas. In enunieratiujc the ehief river;s of Kuropean Uussia the 
itteiition is dm- to the majestic Volj;*:!, wliirh forms, throuirh a 
«pac.'», the botindary iK't ween Asir* and Kw rope. Its crtinpara- 
■ourse may be compuied at about 1700 siiih's Tliifi noble river 
;7 no rataracts, and few shoals, is navif{-.ib!e even to Tw<t. 
xtto the Voljj?!, on tli'- west, is the Don, r>r Tanais, which rises 
.1 lake in the government of Tulaii, and falls into the sea of 
, -.fler a couifie of abo'it HOO miles. 

( N'e'p'^r, rir ancient nji'ystfietie^^ rises in the gYivemnunt of 
rn k, about 1.50 miles to ihe smith of the source of the Vrilf^a. 
bo'it 100 to the H. K. of that of the D-.tna, or H«iina, and aftW 
rse o*' about lOOO miles throup^h rich and fertile provinces falls 
he Rnxine. 

c N'-'s'er, or anci'»nt Tyras, now form n the bouiulipy bft ween 
[K»«n Turke>' and U:ts.'»i.i, derivinjif itssoun-e from the norlh si;lc 
V '': q^'iliian mountains, and fidliiijpnto the Rtixihe nt Aker- 

af*f •• a course of about 6(K» mib-s. 
c Dwian f'UU into the giilph of AiTliangv^l, after a considerable- 


• •• 

course of about 500 niilrs. Tlic Onopi closes the list of the 
riverx that flow into the Arctic ocean ; fur thone of OlonAx. 8 
Ilussian Lapland, arc of little cons«iueiice. 

L«KEH. The chief lakes of Kun)i>ettn Russia are situated i 
N- W. division of tlic empire. There is a considerable lake in 
si:ui Lu[>l:ind, that of Imandra: to the south of which is the 
l:ikc of < )ntif;a, which is about 30 miles in len}^h, by a medul hr 
oi' alxiut 30. To the west is the l^udoppd, abciut loO miles in Ic 
by 70 in breadtli, being one of the largest lakes in Europe. 
biis many shoals, and is liable to sudden and violent tempests^ 
1 he i;re:it opeiK'd a canal along its shores, from the Volk 1 

<)n the S. 'W. we find the lake of Pe}-pus, about 6o miles in 1 
'oy 30 in breadth : and to the east is the lake Ilmen, on which f 
1 he ancient city of Novgon)d. The Beilo, or AV'hitc lake, is so ■ 
fiNmi its bottom of white cluy. 

MurxTAixs. Kuropean Russia is rather a plain conntry, tl 
■&onie parts are considerably elevated. 

The most lm]X)rtant chains of mountains in European Russ 
those of the Olonetz in the furthest N. and those of Ural ' 
seja^ate Europe from Asia, The chkin of Olonetz nms in a 
tioii ahnost due N. for the space of 15**, or almut 900 G. miles. 
most arctic poiL retains pcq)etual snow, from tlie altitude of tl 

The immense Uralian chain extends from about the 50th t 
tlic 6r*Ji degree of N. latitude, or about 1000 i^. mil-'s in lengtl 
has hy the Russians been called S<^menoi Poias, or the gi'irdle t 
world. Pa\id:i, one of tlic highest mountains of the Uralian 
is Imported by Cmelin to be about 4512 feet above the level i 

VECJETAnLE ATvn Ammal PnoiaTTiovs. The vegetable kir 
of RuHsla has been but imperfectly explored. The Russian pro 
N. of the Baltic contain the same plants as those of Swedis! 
Norwegian Lapland, which will be hereafter described. Si 
cxient between the 50th and 6(Jth deg". lat. abound princip&Uy 
common vegetables of the north of France and Oermany. Th< 
of most use, and in great<'st abimdance, are, the iir ; the Scotcl: 
the yew-leaved fir ; and the larch ; all of which mingled tog 
form tlie vast impenetr:ble forests, whence the rest of Eui 
principdly su]9plied with mns*s, deals, pitch, and tar. The T: 
a!:o«iids m the onk, both the conimon kind and the specie^ 
prickly cups; tlio black and thewlii'e poplars of unusual size 
alorg ihe margins of the streams ; the ash, the horn lieam, the 
tret, occupy the upland pasuires ; and the elegpau: beech crow 
summits of tlic linie-.sione ridges. O^' the fniit bearing slinil 
trc( s, ^lici-e arc the j^ooscbcrr}-, the currant, the almond and per< 
apricot and crab-clierry ; the medlar ^ tlic walnut ; the muli 
the olive; the Chio turpentine tree; tlie hazle nut; the fi^ 
viiHr iiTul he pomep^ranate. 

The more p/culiar anim Is of Russia arc, the white bear of K 
Zciiilir:, a::d tl^e sousiik of tlic S. In the more northern par 


fbtfnd the wolf, the lynx, the elk ; nor is the camel unknown in the 
lower latitudes. The animals in the centre seem common to the rest 
of Europe. Among* tlie more useful animals the horse has met with 
deservea attention, and the breed in many parts of the empire is 
larp^, strong-, and beautifid. 

In Taurida it is said that common Tatars may possess about 1000 
sheep, while an opulent flock is computed at 50,000 ; those of the 
whole peninsula were supposed to amount to 7,000,000 : nor is the 
rein-deer unknown in the furthest N. so that the empire may be said 
to extend from the latitude of the rein-deer to that of tlie camel. 

Mtttkralo&t. The chief mines belonging to Russia are in the 
Asiatic part of the empire, but a few are situated in the European, 
in the mountains of Olonetz ; and there was formerly a gold mine in 
that region ncjir the river Vyg. 


The small isle of Cronstadt, in the g^ilph of Finland, was for- 
merly culled Kctusrivi, and is only rcmaAablc for an excellent haven, 
■strongly fortified, tlie chief station of the Russian fleet. In the 
Baltic, KiLssia also possesses the islands of Oesel and Dago. 

Novava Zemlia, or the New I.And, uninhabited, is said to consist 
of Ave isles, but the channels between them are always filled with 
ice. Seals, walruses, arctic foxes, white bears, and a few rein-deer, 
constitute the zoology of this denert. 

The remote and dreary islands of Spitzbergen having been taken 
possession of by the Russians, they may be nere briefly described- 
The main land of Spitzbergen extends about 300 miles from the 
soutli cape, lat. 76° 30' to Verleg^n Hook, lat. 80° 7'. It is supposed 
to have been first discovered by tlie Dutcli navigator Darentz m 1596. 
About the first of November the sun sets, and appears no more till 
the beginning of February ; and after tlie beginning of Felmuiry it 
never aeis till August. The only shrubby plant that is seen is the 
Lapland willow, which irises to the height of two inches. Here are 
found polai* bears, foxes, rein-deer, with walruses and seals. 



THE dominions sul>jcct to tlie house of Austria embrace 
aiicK-ni kinj;tloms :ind states, which, for the sake of perspicui' 
liLTf hn)iijrht luidtT one point of view. Tlie herediutrj- dc 
kloiu' of this powerful liouse boast a population of not lest 
:JO,OiiO,OOU. They are situatetl between 45° and 52** deg. of J 
lude, and between 12 and 27 deg-. of E. lonjfitude 

ExTKVT. From the frontiers of Swisserland, to the utmost 
of TransylvMiia, the lenpth of the Austrian dominions maybe 
TCi'J Jlritiih miles ; tlie breadth about 520. The acquisition of 
tian Dalmatia may probabiv soon be followed by the junction of 
Turkish provinces which divide thul pmvince frc»m ihv Austri 
main. The square crmlentsmay he about 184,000 miles. Boet 
estimates tltc inhuhiiants at 108 to a squai*e mile. 

Tlie principal subdivisions of the Austrian dominions are, 

1. The Circle of Austria. 2. The kinjifdom of Bohemia. 3. '. 
via. 4. Part of Silesia. 5. Part of Bavaria. 6. Part of S- 
7. Ilunjfary. 8. Transylvania. 9. Dulmatia. 10. Part of P 
11. The Venetian territories E. of the Adige, and the city c 
nice. The l:;st artic togtither with all the rest of Italy arcnov 
ject to France. 

Towards tlie E. the Austrian dominions border on those of 1 
and Turkey, and to the N. on those of IVussia, Upper St 
B.ivaria, aiid Swabia. On the upmost \V. arc Swisserlund ai 
Italiwi states. On the S. the ltali;in states and Turkev. 

AvTiariTiKs. Vindobona, (Vienna) and the adjacent pa 
Noricura and Pannonia, occasionally display Romaji remains 
the ruins of the celebrated bridge of Trajan, over the I). 
belong' to Turkey in Europe ; it is supposed to have consist 
twenty arches, or rather vast piers of stone, originally suppor 
wooden fabric of the length of more tlian 3,300 English fee 
Hungarj-*, and other parts of the ancient province of Dacia, a 
many relics of Roman power, as militarj- roads, ruins, &c. St 
cisties, churches, and monasteries still remaining, attest the n 
ficence of the founders. The cathedral cliurch of St. Steph< 
Vit^nna, is a €i«thia fabric, of sin^larpomp aud minute decor 

AUSTItLU« Dontaaoss. 7^ 

a«uaiim. The prepomleirrint relifioii of the Aiutriu doniiiiwii^ 
i't Itie Kumuii Ciitllulic, but uttended with u considernble ilFKres ol 
talcrntion. (VoWitnnu of vki-ioTis gecU bm Cnind in llohciniii, 
Moravia, Vienng, TrunsylvuviH. a/id Hungary. VitnnS' tlul not bc- 
• ome a metcopalitun gcc irlj tJie year 1733: tiio itrchbuUop Mk 
jirince of ijii; boly Kotnan Bni|ure. 

(JoTHB>aBBT. ThefonnofguventRiQOtiannhereiUtw^inaRiircliit. 
approichtnfr tu nbsolule poirer. Pi»r thouKh FlungUBy rFUin iti Micitnt 
stules, ur raOier an wiatocrslicil senate, yei tlie)' cotuiat wiUi*taul 
the will of Uie lovcKign. Even Austria nsj Us atntci, uiuiBtiiig of 
four orders, clcr^. peers, knig^bts, bur^«u£s ; the luaeiably fcr 
Lower Austria being held at Vieniu, sndtlut of ihe Upper at Lin*. 
But Uioju: lucal coascitutions can littli; aval] ugatnst liie will of a 
pon-fiTfiil monarch, supported by a numciciiii wray. 

The laws vary according to the different provinoes, almost rvttf 
stale Laving ita pMiuUar ceUc. In general ilie lawi> niity be regarded 
lu tnllil and salutary ; and the Aii^trians in particular are a wall w- 
CuUted and contented people, wtiile the H>ing;amns are afiea dis- 
BUtiBficd, and retain ntucb of tlicir ancteni animoaity agitiiiBt tlw 

Povtii.«Tioii. The general pnpulat^n of the AiitU'inn di^nialoai 
i^ i-.uj.iiiii>^a at About 32,000,000 i that of IIimsat7, TransyUani«, 
Aixl 111'.- Kiio.kovina, being cstimalcd at 7,88(J,(WU. 

Ol ilri i.tJiM chief proTiiiccit, Rubrift'm is wippOMM] to bo)!.. 
?,aiJ(VJfW; jiid Moravia l,3S$,l}0Q- Tbewholt aequieilionsin IV. 
1h:u1 i:ii^uiii '^,797,000; while the ardttlticby vl' Austria it cutiiputcA' 
at l,B2U.OO0. 

A«m. The army ii eftmpnlcd by Boetlichp* at 36S,iSS men, __ . 
136 reg'inienta, of wliioh 46 tiTc Gcrmiui, and only t^vcn Hungv 

nmnra. Tlie revenM it computed at mart than lO.OOOtWW 
•tci-liiiyi to whicl> Atutria contributes utiuut 3,000,000/. tind llui»>] 
£ary a little man- tlltui a tnillion lind a liaUI Tliw tcvenue used ta. 
eioeed tUe espviic«i, • 

Mabhkju uiuCdktomb. VariDiuarclb«inanii£i«andcu9toiQsi>Q 
tLe auntcrutu kjai^domi and proviocea subject t» liw house of Aiii< 
tria. ill Austria pn>|ier the people are much at their casei and tbe* 
farmers, and even jieassnlry, little inferior to thoie of England.'' 

I'lMvcUor* base remarked the abimdaiice of provisions at Vienna, aoj' 
Stui coiuequent daily luxury of louil, accninpaiiictl with great variety . 
•T Wiite*. The Austrian manncra are cuJu, but civU ; the wome&i 
«le)^l, but devoid of mental aceoniplishmcDls. Tbeyoath of rant - 
arucuntntwly >S»orant, andof outime IiHiiglity. An Austrian nobl«- ■ 
■tan or gvnUonian is nrvec seen to read, and hence polite 111er:it - - 
j» oliiuMt unlLnnwa aud niuMilIii'ited. 6i consequence of tliis ig 
vancv tbe lanjcuagc remain* KApnliabed ; siid the- Aostriun speech '» 
i^ne uf llw mesni^al dii>WtH of the German, so that polite peqple aw 
coiHiraiiied lo uae Pr^iicli. TIie lower onLert urc, however, tittle ' 
addicted to crimes or vico«, and punishments art rare i robberies sn$ "i 

ii'ld.iDi cominiHed. andmiirdet little known. When capital piiuiel^. 
mr at become) unavoiJablQ, it is adqtiaistered with great solemnity. 


and accompanied with public prayers, an example worthy of muiierc 
vA imitation. 

The IXnnfi^arians remain to be a spirited peoplet uid affect to de- 
spite their musters. Their drcbs is well kn«uii to be peculiars and 
IS cdpiod by the troops called hussars. This dress, conaiatin^ of a 
tifrhi ve»t, mantle, and iurrul caip, is ^aceful ; and the whiakeft, 
add n military ferncity to the up])earunce. 

Lankuahi. The laiiG^uages spoken in these dominions are variowt 
the (lermun, by the ruling nution, the- Slavonic, by the Poles, pait 
•f the Hungarians, the Dalin::tiun.s, the Rohi*miana, and the Mor^ 
viaiks, and lastly tht' Fiimic, by tiie Hun{7uri.*(ns in part. The Tyrc^ 
Trso, &c. use a mixture of Italian and (»eruian. 

Pi-BLTc Schools. The empress Tftercsa instituted schools Ibr the 
education of children, but none for the education of teachers: 
Hence the chihlren are taught metuphysics before they know Latin t 
and a blind veneration for the monks forms one o'f the first CK- 
rrtions of nacent reason. 

The universities, 1 Jce those in other catholic countries, little pro- 
mote the progress of solid knowlcdgt*. The sciences taught wi^ 
the greatest care are precisely those which are of the smallest utUitj^ 
The university of Vienna has, since the year 1752, been somewhat 
improved. It was founded in 1237, and thitt of Prague in 1347 » 
shut of Inspruck only dates from 1677, and that of Grata from 158ft 
Hungry cnieAy boasts of Ouda, though the Jesuits instituted ac^ 
demios at Raab, and Caschau. That of Buda, by the Germans cslt- 
.m1 OHen, possesses an income of about 20,0QOt. sterling, only MO. 
A' uiiich are applied to pay the salaries of the professors. Tbeit 
■<> a Calvinist college or university at Debretzen : and the bishop of 
Krlau has recently established a splendid university at that city. 

Cities attd Towns. Vienna, the chief city of the Austrianr do- 
minions, lies on the S. or rather W. side of the Danube, in a fetils 
plain watered by a branch of that river. The Danube is here vaf 
wide, and contains several woocU* isles: it is founded on the site oftM 
:)ncient Vindobona ; but was of little note till the tweltlh centotyi 
when it became the residence of the dukes of Austria, and was Si' 
tified in the maimer of that ag^. The manufactures are little reoiarib* , 
able, tliough some inland commerce be transacted on the nobk 
slrciini of the Danube. The number of inhabitants is computed lA 
254,000. The suburbs arc far more extensive than the city, stsn^ 
itifi; at a considerable distance from Hie walls. The houses are gens- 
rally of brick, covered witli stucco, in a more durable manner thsA 
commonly pnictised in England ; the finest sand being chosen, and 
the lime aiior having been slacked remaining for a twelvemontk 
covered with sand and boards, before it be applied to the intended 
uso. The chief edifices arc the metropolitan church of St Stephoi^ 
the imperial palace, librar}', and arsenal, the house of assembly ftr 
tilt states of T^wer Austria, the council -house, the university, gad 
some monasteries. Provisions of all kinds abound in Vienna, par* 
ticul wild-boars, venison, and frame; many small binls n-jected 
lO' us being included among the latter. Livers'of geese are esteemed 

xtjvtvttir -emmmsm. 


IHcae* trjit oMo »*», (Vopi, arnt (fiaiU, rrjecud. It 
18" U ■« I ■ d Iff" 16' R. l-mg. 

\ nawuB Mihn, Ihcinh blUntiof wliirA 

lu 13J m. Tlip Iwn .of Milui wilJ IM 

acq i on of Veniee, suppflned to cnn- 

U.rc hratcd clir, nloE^Wly xitufttcd 

« r p Aitriatlo ■**», iiHil tt'Ciitc't in k 

ryatUt wuven bv fHiFfifir •bonlii, wliirh 

HI on liuLt AAe, run been frciurtitly ile- 

1 Imvp been lately acvewit fruin Ilw liouse 

to t newly formiil klngilnm of Italy. 

rd c y n dl« Ail»tri;m ili>riiifiiini^ ni.i--' V 

opolalionbeinyealirTi.-i'.il pi h^D.imrj Tlil« 

stJindB on both ai'li-g iit" ifn' rii: r Miild^i, 

lie bv dgc of Blonc, l™ iji l.ivr ii.c 

d commonly thipM alr>iLO Ji iitijjlLt^ aiiJ 

p p on conaiSl» ',t Jorr-, 

IT -cat d s .uice, BUndu CrMi, >hn eipiUil, of 

JSOOObo l», Thiicily ttiuwlsonxlw wnM, 

il bf ■ brid^ to w> cstenvtvi) KUbiirb 

y, only conWiTW ibout ar.OOO in- 
d on tht Uwiitbe. .towkrdu tlie 
ig'only about S5 Sritiih mlks U. 
1 liirlcr of tlie FnliMiilnnta »re Ln- 
[ lynlxnrtonctmlforibc; UucMof 

1^ the Gtnntn» r^lIed OfRin, the ancient mctroprilis of 

W h ty f IVsth which PttJUids 0(1 the opposite side 

1 Tf ■« brklp^ orbonlg, may be turn- 

v( public und private huildintr* arc In 

f rtrcu the Kiyul palace in parliculiir is a 

h ni wiekoneAai 18,000, deBenta moi-cpwli- 

I nji Jern fof alongtime tile onl)-sca-jiorlbe)nn(f- 

n » B us ed n « gulph of the Adriutio, and i-iscs 

he 1 nwn^d by a coiile. Tile Bhipping jineeurcd 

nd (le 5 n h UiEirettn lo tlie isle of Zitki j anil' 

i frtt bribe crapi^ss Theresa. The neigh- 

p bt c e rficca are at ViennB, Biidn, -■md 

nor nldeil Venico; biit there are muny 

n»»t r f » in ths «v»r»l fepuns of the Am- 

n M nv of he Hunifar'ran rirttiHily, who hiw vut 

»«r««- ei* I > of c ireup imliny mniinlfie.Tico. 

T HM ND Ci « It f Vituminn-haps^qijiil^ any other 

>rn etiei n nnniuf»o1iirt». which Htc chiefly of silk, 

h« R otlii MockiiiE'- I'incn. rniriVir", jior- 

wi I ie*enil':irticlc« lo brMW IWihriiiia in. 

nss intpnpci", B'lt the commercp of the 

'-' d^peKU upon \\\t'ir lutivc opulon 


Ah^'tki pnipc-r :uul the- southern pruviiicts proiiucin^^ abundaBce of 
h!ir<i- n ^iiiUM'tlf, oirn, tUx. s.itlhm, and variims wines, witbievf 
ral !iii t.iU, p.iriiciilariy (|iiii-k«ilvi-r inmi the mines of Idria. Bo- 
hciiji.i Mu\ Mt)r:i\ i.i arc ulsu rich in oxen and shi'Cp, com, flax, and 
hi-.'np : ill ^^U^.vU they .iiv nv.iLUil by the ilismembcreU provuiDiiof 
ri»l:iiiil. II>iiu:try pri<ii iits ntinuTdUs herds ofcaltle; and thencfe 
ia\oiirtd part"! ut' iliat coiiniiy finKlMi-r com, rice, the rich wines of 
Tuk.iy, aiivl tob:icci> of'un r\ijuistte Kaviiiir, u'itli j^ivui andcelebn^ 
cd inln-v:! tit' various nieuu und niimruU. Till tlie acquisitioa of 
Vi iiiiv, the ehicf expurts were fponi the port of Trieste, coo- 
si<>tin)( (d'lpiieksilvermid other metals, with wmes and various natire 
pnjdiK-t!t: thf v.irious produce of the rich kingdom of Hungary 
beinj; ciiieHy ronvi'\id to the other Austrian provinces. 

(.'LiMiTi. \sh Sbiso^m. Th,.* climate of Austria proper is com* 
m-uil\ mill I and salubrious, thou^-h sometimes exp«)scd to violent 
Wi:uU, und the »>tiiherii pi-ovincesi in ^'ueral enjoy u deli[fhtful tcm- 
periuin-, if the mountainous p.u-is be excepted. The more nor* 
Uu-rn rcf^ions of Hohciniuund Moruvi.i, with the late acquisitions in 
Tol lU.!, can liki-vvise boast the maturity uf the grape, and of gentle 
:ind t'.i\our:i!«l.' wvather. The numerou> lakes, and morasses of 
niiiii^;;ry, a:ul tin- pmdi^ious plains, are supposed to render the air 
dump an. I unwin.Icsomc. ti;c cold of the ni^^ikt rivalling the heat of 
tihe d:i\ ; fniL the'.s <rom tlie|).ttliian mountains serfm in 
Nonu- mca.Mnv to n. nii dy tin se evils, the inii:ibitants being* ratherre- 
inarkaMc (Im- their lieulth and viijfour. 

Son. .vNi» A:.iurri.TiiiE. The soil is upon the whole extremely 

fertile' an. 1 product iv-', in spite of the neichct of indublrv, which 

h:*. ;i Tnr.J'id in:Lny {urtsoi Ilunj^ary, and of the Polish provinceSi 

•o j) s- irjttt wide t«):vsis and mw-shci. Tiie state of a).iTiculture in 

Mi»r.,\ i.i ii s!ip.*rinr ti tlie ivsi, hein|^ improved by Fi«.misli furmen. 

K:\ :.»!•! Ill ri'.unieratinj^ the chit f rivers which perv.ide the Aui- 

triaii <l>.uiii;n".s, tl»e D.mulK' commands the iirst attention. This 

ina»;iiifict lit str<-im rises in Swab.a. Though tite course be occa- 

^ioi.tlh iniiK lied by small f.dis and whirlp.K)iS, yet it is nuvig^able 

■.!ir ni.rh a prodv'"i')Us extent ; and, at'ter w..tering Sv«abia, Bavoriai 

Aus.r;:. t)v»j)t r, Huniifarx-, ami Turk v'\ in Kuivjk*, it joins the Eux-. 

in«-, i>r Filack .>.oaj after a circuit of ;.l>.»ut l.i'K) Mritish miles; about 

»n.' halt* ot* its pi-o;.^rt»ss hein;^;' throu^rh "lie territorus of AiistrUu 

?>ii xt in ci>;iiiiquence is ilie Tuss, wliich arisiuj^ fnmi die Carpa* 
thia'i mountains, and he:iding towards the west, receives m:uiy 
ti'ibut.ry streams fr<m\ that Alpine chain ; and afterwards luniing to 
the S. falls into the Danube, at>er u coinse of uboui 420 mdes. At 
Belg.a'.le thi* Danube receives the Sail, «u* Save, which forms a 
bi)iinJ..jry l)etween Austria and Tmkey. Thai of the D;*au or Di'ave 
cxt.Muls to about 350 milr.s from its sjiurce, in the eastern mountains 
«f Tyrol, till it joins the IK.nube IhIow r.^se^- 

The Inn rises in the K. of S-.visserland, fwrn the mount.iin of|;";<ia In the (iHsons, b<ir.g -i p>int of partition divitling the 
Waters wliie!) run low ;rds tlie IJlatk s. a from those whicn flow into 
the Adriatic. TIjis powerful river is ukuv i^enile near its source 
'hail *Mt'. otbjr Alriiie streams, but soan becomes more precipitous. 


kHw. TUo Uu* ui Uk iiuXruia iluuiiiikai wn lumwawM) 
K of tlieiD of onnmtbu'abU auti' CiriutliU eonuiiw ■ Iw8> 
kJio (Mtfkrtl'ijiiilCUK'TuJ'urli uiiill CvJiiuU iia>iiii(fi Uivl'rluiiU 

juti ifl' tll« Utwr iKKiu UMtui Tiut'c ur Uu- I'luten tttu, rl- 
llnj; i^MUt forty Itvi' Ui illali >i>il<a ui len^ili, tiy 'ittftil la Iim wUli, 
(hiniiiiluiK ViUlHill. TiK lifvilJuli-T Uk^, iUiuul UilrU aidw 
'i. uf ViuHM, i» uIhjul UimKii Mlin m K:U),'lli, by luur w 

liiuaciiiti. B<|flnnlli|t lU llii: wiwl/jiiritrtnnllidi, ilia(|h>liAS 


-. -. ■■'••- '- :- ..-:,... ..fciu'tu-aiij Uw 

II alniiHl a Kradiuil MC«nt, fritin Tiiiit ut Um Itiitlwal 

wruil will) nui'nUnl (luiw. Ni'urilm iflvinr* u« f'xuul ruck 
,,1 viirUiu* uulunri, iukI Ulo iiJlrur ruiKei ut' Uiv 'I'fruluM 
ii.KiMiuiuUiwxif uUvi.capitrj', kul, mtroury, ^m, aluiii, 

Aqilru, nr tJw WNtiini [itti<tf Uim [in>vliK>', coii(»iiv> 
ii-^rvitlilB OMniiilMM, t)>c lil|{lli*al uf wlili>ti la in Utr inikna 
ijicl. Tliwr iu'« iiiuiy uUMr u-wiurm ul iiinuiiUiUii in tbs 
riiiii'itin wurtliy uf luitii'ii, wiiiEdt it wuuiil itcrril our 

1 .1 not limit 111* (tarpuUiiw) niiitinifuiu, iJini gnad 
... ivliich Luiuiui* lliiititwr)' iiii lilt M. iiiul tS. Imirinir 
ll jfitrijiiltv n* 'tir tJprmnm <ln-v orr 'liylril 


VieiTASii 4irD AJvisAL PKiinccTioNii. The forests of Gs 
huvi- beL'ii famoiH thim Uie OkrliL-st uniiquity. The Sylvu llei 
t which extended toid the Ilhinc Ui Su-mulia, from Cologne to f 

f an known to i-vcn* boy who liua read the ancient ciajwica. T 

by lilt' pn)gTe:i.<t of civdization and impnivcmcnt many of 
furt'stsi huvf (»cen rtmoved, tlierc an: titdl ronsiflcrabU* remi 
tlic Hi iCk tbn-st i>f Swubia, and oilier uiicultivalcd tracu.- 
pnncip^l native tni-s aw the rim j the wych elm ; lime tree: 
iu\ 1 ultler ; common and prick lycupped oak ; sumuch ; v 
elKinut and b ■I'ch : honibt* .»ni ; hl^ick iuid white poplar and a 
suramin- ..nd m pie ; the asii ; the pine, the fir, tiie yew-lcav 
aiid the larch. All ilu* common fruiL trecH of Europe jtfu cult 
in :.n l-x tensive mininer. 

The domcBiic animals in tlie Austrian dominions are com 
exci Kent, part icul-irly the cattli*. \l any of the natix'C liorn 
will), and an- void in g^reut ii umbers ai the fairs bi'^inr the 
sufriTrd :uiy subjt-ciion. The breed of catile is mostly of a 
Ur colour, a slaty blue ; and the- llun^-arian sheep reseml 
Wuhichian in their lonjf erect spiral iiorns, and pendant haiiy 
In Uie westeni parts of the Austrian soverei);iiiy, the tuiim 
not siM'.m to l)e distin^tHhcd from tiiose of otlitr jxtrts of iiei 

r<if^i bnttsd of wild cattU*, called IJnis or Uison, is suit 
fbiiiid in the C:u-pathi&n forests, as well as in those of Lithuar 
Caucasus. Amon^ the wild quadrupeds may also be nanu 
b(Mr, the iMiar, the widf, the chamois, tiie marmot, and the I 
Th«' llanulm boasts of some Aslies, seldom found in other 
aninnj^ which is a small and dedicate sort of salmon. 

MiNKRALH. The mineralog'y oF the Austn-n dominions is 
the most various and interesting^ of any in Riirop<r. Tli 
scarcrly a province of tliis extensive tirritury, wliich cannot 
of advanta^'S in the mineral kingvloni ; ev<>n the acquisitions 
land contain one of tlie most remarkable mines in Biiropc, tlic 
cxcavaticms of Wielitska. The mines of Kohemia have beei 
braced from ancient times. Silver is found at Kuttenberg', ; 
Jcichinsthal, on the western fnmtiers towards Saxony j anc 
has boen fliscovcred at Keonstock. One of the most singula 
ducts <if this province is tin, which is found at Zinwald (that 
f tin f:ii"i'st), and other western districts of Bohemia ; where 

found, at ]>rcyhacken, a mine of very pure cnppiT. Ix'ad < 
at Kk-ystadt, in the same quarter. The p^arnets of Dohein 
amon|jr the most beautiful of the kind. The women wash th 
in which the ^^rnets are found; after which they aiv sifted, i 
raii;cid according to sizi*; and sold by tlie pound weight, 
aboul three to ten sliilltnpi. 

Tile iron of Stiria supplies the finest steel, and great qua 
.'ire imported into Knicland : theiv are con.sidi^r:ible lead mine; 
Pejcau on the river Mohr, yieldinfj^ about 5000 tons yearly, 
also aflbrds coal at dlffeivnt places. • 

The quicksilver mines of Idrn are celebrated in natural h 
jpoetry, aad-iWDSBCc. Tbey were discorered in the year 149! 


fkill of Vogelbeig has annually yielded more UuB 300,000 pounds 
fht of mercury. 

ut the principal mines in the Austrian dominions are situated in 
eastern provmces of Hungry and TrraisylTania. About 40 
;s to the S. of the Carpathian hills arc the {^Id mines of Crem- 
: and 20 English miles farther to the 8. the silver mines of 
mnitz : cities which have arisen solely from these causes, and 
ice called mining towns. Chemnitz is esteemed the principal 
' academy here instituted for the study of mineralogy im highly 
•ectable, and only rivalled by that of Freyberg in Saxony. Hub- 
' contains mines of copper at Schmelnitz and Herrengrund ; of 
' rich antimony at Rosenau ; and in different parts, of coal, salti 
allum. But a mineral peculiar to Hung^ar}', and as yet discover- 
1 no other region of tlie globe, is the opal, a gem preferred to 
»thers by the oriental nations. 

ATUEAL Cdriositixs. Amonff the natural curiosities may he 
ed the grand Alpine scenes of Tyrol, the glaciers, and peaks of 
Brenner. In Carniola, near Adlesburg, is said to be a grotto of 
lig^ous extent, displaying spaces Humcient for the en-ction of 
ges^ and containing natural amphitheatres, bridges, Stc. Rut 
chief natural curiosity of Camiola is the lake of Cirkiiitz, called 
)r. Brown the Zirchnitzer See. That traveller informs us tluit 
about two German, or more than eight English, miles inlengftl^ 
3ur of the latter in breadth. In the montJi of June the water 
ends under g^round, through many apertures m the bottom ; and 
^ptember it reasceiids with considerable force ; thus yielding 
pasture in summer, while in winter it abowidf with fish. 



'nns kktiK^lom, which only oAmmenced with the eifhICMth 
i^ry, li.iM by ^railiinl urcrfiiMiiiit not Uic inont lionmiriiblei 
Au i-xU'iibivc, ..H til r.iiik. MiKiii}; tlur fimt pnwcra of Ktirope. 

Tli<- n:inu lit' tin* (utintry itri;;inuli'ii ac-ciinlin}c to some authoi^ 
frtmx Itu- rniz/.i, u SluYontc tiilii-, it« aiicii'iu iiihahitama. 

K\Ti.^r. Kvrliuivc of hiiikII iU-l..rlic(l ti^rriluries, tlie kiiigdan 
wf I'r'issia now ixtfiidit trvtin lltinihurf; hihI the river Oker« in tin 
('•iMMlr> of ILtlinTsludl, till- fiirtliist wonlc-ni roiuu-ctMl dutric^ If 
llic river Mi-iitcl, or atxnil 600 niilfs. 'I'ti'- linfadtli, from t|v 
soutliiTii limit tif Si k'«n Co, cxcviiIm .>U0 miWfi. Ontkl 
«*uii ami soutli, TiuHiia now IxinlriH on the dominions uf RumIi 
niul Ait.stria, ami l<i(* wcnliTii liiiiitH :ifljoin to tfii- bialiopric of Hll* 
cIcnIic irii. Itcfurc thf rcciMit .'u-qiii.sii ioi^ii in PoUml, the niimbrrof 
I'nisM'.n hiihji c'.ts wa.s oiilv conipiit<-(l :ii 5/»J1,AU(>, in a total extent 
of j6,<ll4 i»(|uarc niih-H, tltal t» about H*) inh..bit.iMtB to the KquATC 
niilc. At pn-Ncnt tboy amount tonlHtvc ci^^ht millions, and the kingw 
doni is dividi d into 22 prcjviiirrif. It cxtcndH nearly from 49 to 55 
dt'^ii-cM of N. lat. Mud from 11 to 'Jl dt ];-i*i'eii of B. long. 

Antiiiihtikm. Some Sl.ivonic idoU, eant in bronze, coniiUtMtc al- 
most the oidy pa^an anlicpiitiiN ; and thf raHtlen, and clnircheii 
creeti-d alur tlie intro<liirtion of tlte cbrihtiun reli)(ion» liave few 
.sinindaritirs to attr.ict partirular attention. Tlin Polish coinnge 
bi-^iiiN al)ont tbi' twrlMJi century, and is upon the (iennan mndeL 

KhLiwioN. Thi' ndinf; rdifcion of Pnissia is the I' rritebtant, un- 
der its two ebii-f di^iitionH of Lutheran and CalviniHtic. Rut after 
tJte n*cenl acrpiisitions in Poland it woubl Neeni tliat the greater 
nuiiibiTof tlie iiibul}itanls must Im* lloman (Jatlicdir. The uiiiversal 
tobT..tion which ha.M been wisely enibnici-d by the PniHsian monaitlis 
ha-i liud its tiMiutl effect of abating thi'ologicd enmity, :uid tJte dif- 
fennt wets w*em to live in perfect coiieoitl. 

C;r»vKRnMK'VT, Ike. As uo vcst.'ige of any senate or delegates from 
tli<- pi-o]d(- is kr.r)\vr) in this kiiigihini, it must be prowMtnced an Ab- 
soluti- government ; but tin: hpirit and giHKl sense of the nation 
unite with i]i<- wis<ii)m and niildiu-ss of suc^'esHJve monarcliN, to 
rervlrr tip' sovereignty as conciliatory, and (HThapN more beneficent, 
tbtn if riogigcd with a popular senate. The late great monarch re- 

■d mir •btun at the laws 1 but it cwnoi fc* AguiMd; tl 
r of Ilia EQvemmvnt u-as Uyr militaiy and iL;»poiic:, 
M(i. Tlte iirmy ia auppottxi to amount to uxmt 2371000^1 
ii^ ■bout 4e/lp0 canJry, The tucticsof tile ktealileiormie 
»Ted dialin§[uiBtied repitlation on the Pru»i)ui butUlkma, but 
3kre now ■iippoatd. not to excnd the Austrian, 
1VEK17IS. Belarc the uldition of Poltsli tttn-itofy the rrremw 
estinuted At 3,88t>^D0J. sterling; and the eApenceol' the umy 
275,000f. Frederic n. laudiiblx eifit.nifcd Rbout half Bmillion 
log's jivurly, in ibe improvemeotiif bis dominioiu. "Tti* qniire 
lue of Polund wsu not «»«puted ia exeecd 439M6i- otcThiic- 
e evtn siippoic bulf of tbiii added to the Piuisuii revenuo tlia 
t would nut be irap^rtkart ;' Prusiis, liowtver, iMs no lutioniil 

tynm* xnii Cirirawi. Tbcioiuuiers md eosinmaef a country 

>o>edofsuch vtu-ious inhabibuita must of courK bf distoriUiiL 

SiXom are a lively and contented ptiiple -, the PruMiiinB appear 

und ^toonty. As to the Poles, iheyscBin full of lite undiuttan. 

.iieir fvaiiirm «nd generHl appearaiioe wc rulier Aaintio ihiui 

pcui. " Men of all ranks gvnerally "ireap "hUkers, and siwre 

beuds, leaving only s circle ot tith upuiithe cjoun, "ihe JrcBs 

le hifflier urdera, bolli nen md wtmnen, is commBnly elc^unt. 

. of tbe gentlemen is a waktcnafwitb aleevesi over which ihey 

an, upput tithe ol'a drtfeNOt'Dolntir, whinh reaches down belon 

ana, uid ia fasteinvl ro'iod tlie ymitt wHb i aiftli or giidlf : the 

va of thta uppif giriDfTit are> M mrm weiuhej', tied behind 

■>'inii)(ter»j u sabre uiBnecsKiHry puriof tlteirdreffiasamark 

<i.<\. InBtiavmer, Ibeml>c,!lci:. ifOf Bilk, iatvinterofclotb, 

.. blillt' edged witJifUc Tbcy vonrfitr caps or bonnets, uhI 

'I ytHiw leutbcr, the hc-cis of which aiv pliled wiiL iron 

' The drew of the litdios is a sljitple puloiiaise or lung' robe, 

isiii'ioi. The filling lin^uft of Pnisaia is the GennBU, wbJci 
probable inay in time aiippl^it the foltsii, ui thoK p.j'la whicfa 
iKhjcci to Priissis und AliBtrin. 

IBt.10 3j:wi»is. Thu state of education in Ibi^ couoUy secm» 
[ eiiiwlly neglected as in the far greater part «f Rurupe. 
■CK are liowerer seri^ri universities, such is thst of Frankfort 
w OdcE, fooBilcd by Joacltim elector of Brsndcnburgr, in Ibe 
1516. K'lO^WtE, in Priuaia, was ibundcd iii 1544. 
Ttaw tMn To WHS. Atnoug tlieci'iesof Prus»awe can mention 
• feo of tin cttiof. Biirlin, si^itnted on the bants of the river 
f,. U a fcj^lii-ly forulied city. Jt was foiindcd in the twelfth 
in. by>a^«Ob)"i'fn>ni ttie Nethorlands, sjid contains 143,000 
liunU, bi'in^ Kboiit four llittrs and ahalf long*, and three q'tdei 
. !n" Oiu ineloMire txr moMypLfArm, sud sometimes even 
ii<- nurabw of Imihm is 60JKI. The city a ip^re raosfkoblo 
I :moitof (helHuldiniP UUin Gir its wealth or indualryj 
.1 u.tUi himaesbeinxleliti ttorfrs timeclianict. SitiistcdiB 
p^k;^. lit. and'13*?Q R. lonjt' ^';^'- to Bi?rlm maybumcii- 
Bapl^ihiufS ol' «t«i^ >>"' potiolntint it poniinited at al)«ut 

t_ J 


5^.000. This city was foiindwl in the thirteenth cen^iry, 
Wfll fortified. It maintains u coiiNidtTahle trade by the river 
whit'h floWK into the* pilph nf IVjntzirk. 

Droslaw, the capital of Sdi'sla, h:'S bfcn lone celrbntecl a 
the most bc.-iiiiiriii rities in Cicrniunv. It is fr unct-riain an 
hut was dostn>yi*d by thi* TataiTi in the thirteenth century.' ' 
ptihition is at least equal to tliut of Kcinipibcr^ ; and it has 
mantifuctiires, tlie linens of Silesia being particularly cch 
The ndin|7 relif^ion is that of l«iither. 

Anionic the chief cities of Pnisaia must not be forgotten T 
the former capital of Poland ; and l)ant2ick» an independent 
ancunt f:;me. \V:irKau- stanils partly in a plain, partly on a 
aM-ent rising from the Visiiila, h< it the appearance is mela 
from tile gt'neral poverty of Poland under its former unliappyj 
mer.t. The population Vas computed at 70,000, including- '■ 
Ibrtunate subtirhs of IVaga. 

IKintzick contains alM>ut 36,000 inhabitants, and was kno' 
commercial town even from the tenth century. It was con 
as the chief city of the ll.inseatic ha);iie, and was cnlarg 
adorned by the knif^hts of the Teutonick onler. It must 
considert^d aK the chief staple for the ex])onation of the co 
tlie other piinlucts of Poland ; but its commerce has been to 
time 'in the decline. 

M iifdeburg is supposed to hold about 20,000 souls, and is s' 
f.irtifietl with a cit:ul< i on an ish* in the Kibe. This city ds 
orijcin frt>m the time of Ch.arli inaji^e ; and can boast oft 
?t^*et8 ;ind flourishimj manur.ictiire.s. Tlie Imperialists takii 
.storm m 16>1, a dreadful sLiMirhter ensued, the inhabitan 
peil>hi-d biipji* comp\ite«l at about li),(XX). 

Fi»irir?.«4. Some of the most .spIcTidid edifices of this c 
adorn Herlin, the c;-.pital, such itS ll>€r p.»l.icc ;uid the theatre 
c"'t\ itself i.i al.n»osl entlrel\ buii; witli bnck, thoug*!! the fi 
the ho'.is"S are disjruised with stucco. Tho paliice :M Potsd: 
serve* appL.'.ise; and on ai^ eminenfi n.,\tr .'lo city stands th( 
villa oi' Sans Souci, which Iiowever cnn c?.'i»r. no jjrandvur «»f 
nal a'Thllecture. 1" ironeral this kingdom yields even to R! 
respect to pMl^l'ic edifices. 

MAnri'FvrTrHKs anh Co mkr: k. If we except the linens of J 
the mar.uf.icturesof the Prussian <l)iinnions uit of sm.'dl uiipo 
Yet they afford, for home consmnption, glass, iron, bras.s, 
and \V(K)lKn cloth; and Frederic II. introduced a small manul 
of silk. Kven the expons of Divnizick consist ulmost enti 
tiinlK*r, cor«^, Ijillow, and similar .'irt ides. 

If we except ihc ancient stnple of pp^ain, 99 abimdiuit in th 
phiins of Poland, the conmierce of Pni.«sia is comp.iraii>\ ly o 
consequence. Anil>cr Is by nature constituted a menopoly 
coiintr}', but ftshion has rendered this branch of conmu rce' ii 
fic:»pt, Y' t among thv considcruble ejtports m.».y he Mamed, ex« 
timber of :dl kinds, .skins, leather, flax, and hemp; nor mi 
iinr^is of Silesia Ix* pass-.-d in diUnce, many of whicli are s*. r 
Holland* and sold under thelfiame of Dutdi manuiacture. In 

PRussu. mf 

ua receives wine, and other products of more southern an4 f«- 
;d countries. 

[MATS AND Seasons. The climate of the Pnissian dominions 
ion the whole, cold and moist. Brandenburg and Pomerania 
DC regarded as more free from humidity tlian Prussia proper, 
I has ubout eight months of winter, the autiin\n8 being often 
jed with rain. The northern part of Poland abound^ with* 
ts and marshesy which cannot be supposed to render the air 
rious. The lower parts of Silesia are regarded as the most 
fly and fertile provinces of the monarchy : but tlie southern and 
jrn parts of the duchy, bordering on elevated mountains, long 
cd with snow^ are exposed even in summer to severe freezing 


x Ain» AoRicuLTCBE. The soil of Brandenburg is meagre, and 
the space between Beriin and Potsdam resembles a wildeniess; 
fiat of Prussian Poland is loamy and fertile. The northern ex- 
ty of Silesia resembles Brandenburg, yet tliis province is in 
id extremely productive, and abounds in fruits and culinary 

ricultural improvements are little known, and Brandenburg 
y produces buck wheat and turnips, with scanty crops of rje; 
*russia proper, and the Polish provinces display, every kind of 
, and esculent plant, tliat can flourish under such a latitude ; 
mong tlie productions of Silesia must be classed maize, and 
vines, but the wine is of inferior qualit}'. 
I'KRs. Among the chief rivers of the Prussian dominions may 
st mentioned the Elbe, which rises in the S. of Bohemia, and 
des the duchy of Ma^eburg. Tlie Spree, which passes by 
1, falls into the Huvel, a tributary of the Elbe. The Oder 
>e regarded as a river entirely Pnissian : it rises in the moun- 
of Moravia, and after watering Silesia, Brandenburg, and Po- 
lia, joini tlie Baltic, after a course of about 350 miles. Next 
irs another noble stream, the Vistula, which, rising in the 
ithian mountains, passes Warsaw, and joins the sea near Dant- 
after a circuit of about 450 miles. 

KK8. The lakes in the Priissisui dominions are numerous, 
ially in the eastern part, where among others mav be mention- 
le Spelding See, which, with its creeks, extencls more tJian 
.y British miles in every direction. That region contains many 
lakes, which supjjly the sources of the river Pregei And at 
estuaries the rivers Oder, Vistula, and Memel, present sin- 
inlund sheets of water, in tlie Gennan l^^iguage called Huffs. 
icwTAiwa. The only n\o»intains in the Prussian dominions are 
of Silesia, which maybe regarded as a northern branch (if the 
iiliian chain. This hrancJi extcncL* from Jablunka S. E. to 
berg in lT(3]>er Lusatia, N. W. neai* 200 British miles in length, 
) called Sudetische Geblrg^e, or the Sudetic mountains. In tlie 
western parts of Silesia are also detached mountains of con- 
ible height, as the Spirzberg and Gratzberg. 
uKTiRLK AND Animal PBonucTiovs., Amoug tlic iudic^nous 
abUs of the Pru^ian dominions there do not seem to oe any ' 


^ PRl.*8SU. 

which hAve not tlfeftdybeen sufficirntlynoticeil in the pieoadte 
uocMunts of Britain and Austrii. Tobacco, ori^iuUly ■ native «t 
Anii-rica, uikI proliably alto of the east, having been kng ciiltiTated 
in Pnishia, has at Im^ establialied itself in the loil, and is fimnd 
in tho pk>uKl>o<l ficUU aiul Uedgpea, as a common wecd« 

'11)0 hiTo<lH of hones :ind cattle seem not to have bn|iitaHd 
cra\i;llers with any distinction from those of the adjacent oountrieai 
i«n(l few purts are calculated for excellent breeds of sheep. Tin 
iinis, i)r lan^ and ferocious wild cattle of Lithuania, have idao ap* 
I^oarcd in rnisssia proper, but the race seems nearly extinct. Om 
of its chief Itaunts was the forest of Masavia, not ikr iVom Wanav. 

MiaiEaAu*. The sand and plains of Prussia contain but few hitV^fn 
trraAures. There are some mines of copper and lead. M weilai 
considerable founderies of iron in S^esia. Agatcii Jaspenu and 
i-ock cr)-stal, are also found in tlie Silesian mountaim. C3Qal« a nMM 
useful mineral, occurs in various parts of SileiUi and Um lev^ dili 
tricts sometimes offer good peat moors. 

But the most distin^iislicd and peculiar mineral prodoctian of 
Prussia is amber, wluch is chicflv found on the Samland ahon af 

yearly to the royal levcmie 



■■!■■ ■ !', ! ,i m I ■, 

SPAIN appears to have been known to the Phomicions who irn.- 
ported from tt krfi^e quantities of silver, near 1000 years before the 
birth of Christ From tlie noble river Iberus, or £bro, the countr}' 
was culled Iberia j and iVom its extreme situation in tlie wst it wal) 
also styled Hesperla. The Romans, probably from a native term, 
have fixed and handed down Hitpania / which lias been Kuiuxisl^ 
adapted to the idiom of modem langua^s. ^ 

KxTKST. Spain lies brtwcfn the S6th luid 44th degrees of nortl; 
latitude ; its M-cstem extremity is ubont 9° in Ifmpcitiyle W. from 
Ijondon, hikI its eastern fi-cnitici's about 3 degrees E. The greatt- sv 
lenf::th \V. to K. is about 600 miles; tlie breadth N. to S. more than 
500; thus forniin}^ almost a comprict square (if we include Poriugiil 
in this preneral view of the coiuitn-), and sun'ounded on all sides bv 
the sea, except wherc the Pyrenean cliuin forms a grand nanunil 
ban-ier ai^ainst France. Sj)ain is supposed to contain about 148,00(.* 
fiquarc miles ; which, estimating the population at 11,000,000, yield 
74 ]x?i*sons to tlie mile squui'e. 

DivininxA. The most recent subdivisions of Spain are into four- 
teen provinces, viz : 

I. Galicia. 2. Austurias. 3. Biscay. 4. Navarre. 5. Arrapor. 
6. Catalonia. 7- Valeiitia. 8. IMurcia. 9. Granada. 10. AndaluHia. 
11. Estremadura. 12. Leon. 13. Old Castile. And 14. New 

AxTiariTiEs. The only certain relics of the Carthaginians in 
Spam, are coins, which have been found in considerable numbers. 

TIk- Roman antiquities are, on the contrarj' so numerous, th\t lo 
enter into details on the subject would be prolix, and foreign to 
tlie nature of tliis ^'ork. The aqueduct at Sego> ia is one of the 
noblest of tlie Roman edifices. Mor\'iedo, the ancient Sagimtum, 
presents manycuriousrcmains of Antiquity. Tarragona, the ancient 
Tarnico, also contains several interest mg monuments. 

The Visigothic kings have left few relics, except their coin.9, 
which are stnick in gold ; a met:d then unknown to the other Eu- 
ropean mints, and seemingly native. 

Numerous and splendid are tlic momimcnts of the Moors in Spain, 
of which tlie most distinguished is ,^1/miabra, an imcieut Mot^i'isU 
palace in Granada, finisjhed A. 1). 1336. 

9b TSrAlN. 

KcLitiioM. The relii^inTi of Spain is tlte Roman Catholic^ 
ill this country aiul Hurtufi^al has Ixx-n carried to a pitch of fana 
M!iki\o\vn to the Italian states, or c%'cn to t]ic papal teiriton* ; t 
Die i-vil has biiMi nxciuly bubtliicd in a ci:*.sidc*rublc di'grec. 

riic cK'i'g}' :Jul ivli^ii'iiN in Spain, including the v:irinuit ore 
monks and riiins, are very nimicroits, aino\iiitm||^ to 118,625. 

Tiif archbishoprics aiv eij^lit : bishoprics forty-six. The 
«pulent see is that of Toledo, which is supposed to yield an 
aboMt 9o,UUU/. The Mozarabir Missal, con.posi.'d by St. Isidc 
%hv tlotliic church, atti-r the c(tn\vrsion fruni Arianism 1 
Catholic faith, continued to be usi'd in Spain till the Moor 
SMbdued, wlu-n the Roman form w;is introduced. 

tit»vi:iiN.MK5T. The frovi-rnnunt of Spain is well known 
«lcspotic, the starts or eortvs havlnj^ Iianlly been asscmblet 
<'he *inie of Oiarles V. Rut tiie despotism of the monarchy i 
balanced by tite {MfWcr of the. churcli, 'o which the nobles ai 
missive devotees. It is also tein]K- red by many councils, wl 
respimsible for aiiy unwise or unsuccessful measures, and Uh 
ject is less oppressed by the power of the ci-outi, than in 
ether a^tes where there is a greater appearance of liberty. 
laws MB contained in S'.'vcral ancient codes; the civil and c 
Uw are occasionally used. Such was the political constitut 
Spain before the late French hivusion. TVlierevtrr the Frend 
ni'cv.til, violence and rapine is univi-rSHlly experienced, and in 
parts, wliich art* in the l^inds of tlic patriots, tlierc is from nee 
Jitlle known at present but military law. 

PtuTLATiov. Tiic population of tills kin}:»:dom is cnmpu 
11,000,000, or 74 to a square mile ; wliile th«* kinp;dom of 1 
Is computeil at 201. This strlkinjr defect of pop'daiion ha 
aitributed to tJic expulsion of the- Jews after the conquest oj 
n.ula ; that of the Moors by Philip UL the contag-ious feve 
quont in the southern piwinces ; the incessant intestine wai 
.«evcn centuries carrietl on affainst die Moors; the emifrrati< 
Anu rica; and the Viist mimlx'rs of unmarried clerpj' :ind mon 

Au^iT Axu Navt. The Spanish armies, instead of cam'ing" 
even into the bravest coimtries of Europe, as they did two 
ries aj^o, are now neither dislinpiished byn\m)bcr, nor by disc 
'Hicy are computed at :ibout 60,000. Of late Spain has pui< 
sidcrablc attention to her navy, whicl\ luus however beencripp 
the recent warfare with Enjjfland. The ships of the line can se 
now be computed at less than fifty. 

llEvfixuKs. Tile reven\ie of Spain may be calculated, as 
lieved, at five millions and a half sterling' money ; so that cacl 
son pays ten shiUinj$s to goveniment for protection. In France, 
the old gtiveniment, each person paid near twenty shilling 
Enj»"land at present sixty shillin.irs. The expemliture now e 
or exci' the income ; b\it tlu* national debt is a mere trifle, 
wa.' O'.e state of the public finances and tlie militan' force, I 
FJo!iap:irro set up his claim to the Spanish moiwiTli}-. Roth ar 
•in a state of jeopardy -and disorder. The flc«t has been lo}-al ' 

jMninrd ■hnrv* In ci 

." tniu-ivil m iuniitll', ni Ik i» mljnuitel]r 

'1 Ihcm. TeiDpaancc ii » v irtuc vrhioh tlic 

I with uihrr KiiitLorn notiaiu, In thcie 

thai ilic 

■wi'tiutr}- r«*ouf«(i oC nutiinv ■"ri 'a by tilUt cantinur'iJ cvy/n in tlW 


TliV diief defect in tbc ehaneirr of the SpaaUIi nnbllilf m)A 

.> - - 'tiin! «ntl eotiimcrci-. InMod of 

riii«, wtilch r«riuh Ihe wholr «- 
'litre ii alMMiM cniifiiinl t« the 

i>f Batirbsit, n A'lgflu >1iiidr of 

. xii Willi tlip Sjiuilili mvitj-. But J 

iiiiTH Ihi.i, (i-ii lit'l"- sw;pj , iiiid Uie pii^liibltion of ^Durlicd luW" J 
it lun^ rloidu led to a icrinrut liunvrrctkm. The haii*ri of 1I1& 
IbI ore loiyc tnd cilMchiiM i bill ihi? mttagw* aim! )nnk iii«, oilii 
|tr<inl»Ty, 'mwrrHlito. . r 

mi-ntint' i>rap|p of milk rbk-H)' cnnnwtindilicinriaf H 
e oniUiii Willi l>ull« in tht nnipliitlieHttTT* have Ht^'IJ^'I 
torpf-inhdiu tlicmoal «ti-lkiri{r tbattin' a( S)kiMBh wnd h>ria* T 

liA bnniatrr w ntie of llie thre* SJ**^ 1 
^prmK trnra the tlomui j bu( muiy M til*- 
111 the Vrciifh or nalSuu (tiulcnttlieeBiu* . 
•■ \n.bie, ii-i'd !iy ll.e Moor*. »h« fiw levd^ ^ 

. utiivtTiiiiw, or wther^CMlentw*, in Sphii^ 
■ I . i-f [Wfiity ! of wliidi the mn« nirtnl l». I 
t<i1 in Ihr vHr ItOO, by Alnhatuo nc king' 1 
: ivifiilaK^I h} AlpliOTPK) 1I1V Wur. Th3*V 
r rwriiwl*, hern pompottnl i.i IG.CKKli haffa 
I iiiotlc in iufit and nanitnl philawpli), ^n^^ | 
'hea\ogy, rnnllniir* uniinlated, in ilmt ■ ' f 
; iJiKVBipW to k* mtlcll IpiOfaflMi an W'rof^^ 

• ' V ■•. and a m«t tlhtnl cdutwion ■> »thorf> J 

9iJ M'ArN". 

( i-iilhan:i Vuwikh. Maiir'ul, iiw royul i\:>i<iciice» wlille Sevilk ^ 
is • s*'i Tiiiil tlLc cupitul i>!' S\nA\\, \s at ix<ceiit lunie. PliUip IL fifit 
ff 41., 1)1 !s>uL liU court lit M.ult'ui, :iiul the nobiliLy, in conwqueiice^ . 
«if c/iMiT v.u'.uk ruiih pitlucrsi, tliiti fdriiu'rly obscure town began toai* 
••mil'.- :i'i ..'ir •):'};'i*uutUu" The ceiUi'irul ponition seen« tbv chief ad^ 
*-ii*.t^'is i'H tliv t.:j%lr«iv.^ c.»n boast oriiltk' U-auly or variety, 'fbe 
river luut s ih '.\ ^^ iiiivi* a lorivnT, but dry in summer: orer it 

i*ui-rt:t 4Ur AIimIu, of th'.-ic arcltis, the central beinr 70 feet In 
kii^-lit. '1*1. (- I'iiuiThi's :tiul inoiKisUTii's cuutuin many nobie puiutingii 
jiiiil the- ro\al pahu-c-h disphty eonsuierc^lile ma^lAcence. Hieaew 
puluce prtKen'ib tour tronts of 470 *'i-et in leng^i, and 100 in beigfati 
«nri( IrmI u ilh numerous pillars and pilasters. The foundation wu 
l.iitl in }7.u, three y( ars alter the ancient palace had fallen a UGii« 
fice to the HunieN. Tlie audience chamber is descn'edly admiredi 
keini;- a double cube of 90 ii'et, liunp^ with crimson ^vet« and 
adonud w ith u sumptuous canopy and painted ceiling. ThePradoii 
a sp:irious c«)arsf in which the givat dinplay their elegant equipages 
Madrivl )?. situulcil in 40** 25' N. latitude and 3** 12' E. longitude. . 

N\xt Cadi:'.: the conmicrcc of America formerly centered id , 
Seville. \\;ts at'u>r\vards removed to this city, which is supposed IB . 
•'oiitain :il)out 70,001) souls. The two catltcdrala are grands andthcM 
'..i an iu)N;)ltal Mhicli \\1I1 contain 6000 patients. HTbe hospicio^ 'or 
jj;cneral wurkliousc, is an interesting establishment, containing amo 
rhan rfOi) poor of all aji^x's, who ai-e here trained to industry. 

!^1ala^-:l is esteemed the second port in the kingdom, and is alto 
<i'U hrateil for excellent wines, the rich .Malaga, the mountain, so 
« alUd ^l^»nl tlie hills which pro<1uce the grape, and the tentor tinto, 
so St ylvd from its deep red tin j^. Malaga stands in u valley sur^ 5 
>-o.i::'id witli hills, the houses high, the streets narrow and dirty, i 
rnhat)itants about 40,000; the cathedral begun in 1328 is not yet 
iiuihhed ; the convents are 25, but of' small account. The city 
warms with thieves and mendicants. 

'fov^ards the H. C is the thiixl most considerable port of Spakly 
that of Barcelona. The sti'cets arc narrow and crooked; the 
t'hurchcs rather rich thun beautiful. The hospicio contains about 
M-UO iiulusii'ious pu<n*, ami tliere is a house of correction, which 
sometimes includes even wgmen of r:uik, if guilty of drunkenneu 
or otlier low vices. The inhabitants of Barcelona are computed at 
move than 100,0t;0 ; and industry prevails here, being a native viN 
t\ie of the (^atah.nj^ns : the chief manufactures are silk, cotton; 
'IkI wool, excellent fire-arms and cutler>' ; the chief imports, com, 
tish, and woollen gowls; exfiorts, wine, brandy, cloth, and, leather. 
During peace it is supposed that lOOO vessels enter this port aniuiullv, 
of whicli half arc Spanish, 120 French, 100 Eng^lish, and 60 itanes. 

In the southern provinces appears Seville, famous till the jtar 
ir2*), as \}\*i uiwt ct American trade. The inhabitants arc comput- 

50,00;) ; ftiul the cliurcljcs ami convents are opulent and heauti- 
riio ciiic-f manufiiclui-es arc silk, and rcccnth ttuiifilj (a royal 
>c}iy), not only oi' tiic common SpaniHh, hut rapptT, ;is it was 
tliat iln' latter was smuj^k'd fhim France. Tiiu tobacco «ni- 
12:20 niaiinructurci'S, who are strictly exauiim'd and g-itai'dc**!. 
.' \H c-sti.'<-mcd the chief citit of Spain. Madrid bcin^^ only a 
Li.stin^-uish(-d by the royal n^sidcncc. 

iiadu li:i.s bocn long* cck-brutcd as tlic paradise of Spain, 
h tbc Kduthc-rn ])rovinc(.'.s hv in p^ncral imhcaitliy. This city 
i ill a valv bounded bv liills, bi-yond wliich to tlif south is the 
N\vatla, so called, hccause the mountain.s are covered with 
Luiil snow. 7'i:f inhabitants are sup|>oscd to be 80,000; the 
sii pitl.'ine hcj*e has been already mentioned; and adjoiiiin^^ is a 
: erected by C'harlcs V. The cathedral and convents contain 
ent pictni*es by Spanish masters. I'iie municipal gt)vernmeiil 
:i cori'eg'idor and twenty-fhur ivg-idors. Thci-e arc Ixrauliful 
: walks, and the environs :ire delij^htful and well ctdtlvaled. 
pirK*». The n>ost remnrkablo edifices of Spain are the c^tJio- 
af the several sees, juul the cbui*chcs belon^iuj^ to opulent 
iits. TIjc houHos of the nobility ai-e confmwf, witli few ex- 
ms, to the capital and otlier cities, instead of adorning* tlic 
ry al larpjff as in Kntyland. The palace and monastery of the 
ial have Ijeen described at gn-at len|^)i by many travellers. It 
ted in a deep recess, at tlie foot of liig*!! mount:uns ; and was 
by that hifi^i Philip II. in the stranpfc iovm of a f»Tidii*on, the 
inent of tlu.* martynlom of St. I^iwi-cnre ; upon whose anni- 
y tli<" Spaniards fi^^uned tlie victorj- of St. Quintin. The con- 
is 740 i'vvi hy 680 ; and tlio palace fonns tlie handle of this 
nary pfri<liron. Fhc paint iiiji;^ are cxcc>llent and numerous ; and 
lult contiiining" the royal tomb.s is gi-and and impressive. Hut 
ulaces of Arunjucz and St. Ildefonzo arc greater favourites 
.he court. 

.i.\i» Naviwatiov. The inland navigations of Spain, thongli 
euced upon imited principles of grandeur and utility, have 
jcrmitted to languish through the want of resources, ami the 
measures of the cxrtirt, rather than by any incU)lence of the 
intendants and laboun;i"s. The groat canal of Arragon seems 
lain in a *tate <»f imperfection, though wc are told tliat two 
lies are completed from the Ebro towards Navarre, and have 
attended witli the most beneficial consequences. Another 
was to begin at Segovia, or about 40 miles N. of Madrid, 
:• to extentl to the bay of Jliscay. This is termed the canal of 
e. The canal of (luadar.ima was conducted witli more spirit, 
s probably completed. It was to open near the Escurlal, and 
cii south to the Taju or Tagus. 

NiTFACTraKs Axn (JoMMEncR. IMic manufixtures of Spain arrt 
ierably cheeked by the royal monopolies, 
ny manufactuix's arc however conducted in Spain with great 
Mid ussiduity ; and any failure must not be imputed so much 
:uidolencc of the people, as. to the prejudices of the grcai. 

c^2 srAifi. 

antl the inquisitoriaT power of the eccleaiasticSp vhich a 
7<-iiHis Hiul invention ut' uU kimU, iuul conatruins the mind 1 
kunu pcnieiu.*! circle. Spain supplie* wines, oil, triiiis, silk 
tlur, bpoud cl')th, and oilier Ui tides to muii> European count 
hut lier cliict'trailc is with her own ct)lonies in Anierica. Th 
ot'S|>ain IS exiilitrant ii iIh- prwluclion of siiUpetre ; and the b 
used in making >s'^^N l'*»-'* ^^'^^ *""K cclebmteil. 

hi die veir 17M, the exports fmni Spain to America were 
cx)inpiiU-d in pounds sterling: 

SpuiuMi produce I,y58,b49/. Foreign produce 2,389,23911 


'I'liv: iluties were computed at 170,800/. 

Till- in>ixiris from AnicTicii to Spain were, at the same time 
estiuiateil in tliesamc money : 

Money uiul jewels 9,291 J37i. Merchandize 3,343,936/. 

The duty umounied to more tJian Ii:ilf a nidlion. 

Cu 4ATi; A>'i> SkASoxK. The climate of Spain haa beendeaei 
praised, aj» eq'Lii it not superior to that of ..iiy counirj* in Eu 
in ilie M>ulh the sea breezi-, be^iiuiing' uboui nine in ihembmin 
coniinuin}; till five in the evening, agrce.:hl\ diversiliea the w; 
of the Slimmer; and in the northern provinces the severii}'!^! 
is allayed by the proximity of the obean, which general I3' su: 
gales ratlier humid than frosty. 

Soil AND AGRirrLTiBfc. The soil is gpnc-rally liglit, and n 
on hetls of gx'psum or plaister of Pans, itst*h an excellent m; 
" The common courj.e of husbandry al>out Barcelona begins 
whi-i.t ; whicli being ripe in Juno, is iminc>diately succeeaed 
diiiu eom, hemp, millet, cabbage, kidiiey-bcans, or lettuce, 
second year ihese s;ime crops succeed each other as before, 
next year diey lake barley, beans, or vetches ; which, coming < 
ground before midsummer, are followed as in the former yea 
otlier cn)ps, only changing them according to the season, so 
have on ilie same spot the greatest possible variety." The H 
or rich vale of Alicaiit, yields a perpetual succession of crops, 
ley is so\^'n in September, reaped in April, succeeded by r 
re'apiHl in September ; and a mixed crop of esculents follow. '> 
is sown in November, and reaped in June ; flax in September, \ 
ill Mji\. In the vale of Valencia, wheat Vields from twenty to 1 
barley from eighteen to twenty-four ; oats from twenty to tl 
maize one hundi*ed ; rice forty. In the more southern provlnc 
land is almost equally fertile ; and the sugar-cane is cultivatec 
success near Granada. Agriculture is g^reatly impeded in Sdj 
tlie superior attention paid to the large flocks of sheep, whn 
authorizeil by a special code, the mesta, to travel from one pre 
to anotJier, as the season presents pasturage in the Tales, or < 
mountains. The Merino sheep, or flocks, thus privileged, are 
pured ai 5,000,000 ; and one nobleman has sometimes 40,000. 
flfcce is esteemed double in value to that of other sheep ; bi 
checks j^iven to agriculture by such privileges, unknown to all 
countries, arc incalculable. 

Kiy£Bs. Among the chief rirers of Spain may be name 

•o, which aiu*u»ntly rftnfiTn-tl an uppflhilinn on the coiintn-. 'fhis 
<\v Ntivuiii rise's in ilu mount ains itf AHtitnaN, uiul c-iiu is i>u Mo- 
•rruiicaii sim, ai'iT haviii];- run ahniit I^HU (i. niilfs. Tin (nhrr 
TH i'iiniun]^io ihccast ai-i* ot'h'Ms inipurtaiiri', as thr (:iui(l:i):-.\, 
Xnfai\aiul ihi* Si-jtupa, wliirh rnlivf ns Ilu* UthU' vhUk t)l Mm* 
Towaixls tlu' wrst iirriirn the (tuadahiniviar, tlic aiiricnt li.itiK, 
irh jfavc iwmu' to y]\v pnivincr. 'I'his nvrr <iri);;in.'iti-s in the 
i*ra MoiH'na, and niiu-.s inttitiir i;;ul]>li uf('aili/, niur a ronrm. (if 
r M)0 <i. nnii'.s. Hut Ww cliit rrivrroi' Spain aiul Pri-tn}-...l is ihcr 
<i, OP TapiN, whii'h rises in llji* Wfsl of ArrapMi»ni-ar Alh:irrjifin, 
. sprin)>f called Ahnpi, and holds a roui-Nt* of wbont 4.)i) <•. nih-.n 

* htiuro Hjiriiiijfs near tlu* ruins of :uicient Nuinantia ; and its 
na.- may he eomputed at .'iSO <«. miles. 

IfMMTiivs. *l*lie SpaniNh mountams are arranjfed hv natun* in 
I'l'al diatinrt chains. The most northern is ri'j^'ai't led as a ron- 
lation of the Pyrenees, passinjf on the S. of IViseay aiul the Astu- 
< hi Calicia. 

'he second chain of Spanish muuntaiiiH extends froni neiir Soria 
.he "N. I''., and ]jurs\U'sa M ^V. direclitm t«>\vards I'oilujvjd. The 
il is thai of Toledo, ruimuij;: ne: v\\ p:tr: 1W1 with the last. TlicBC 

v\ iiiral chains sn ni t<i cont;iin ^ri:.i ipi:inl\tii-s of (n'»»"i'i'- 
i\ xt towiirds the S. i.s the Sievni MiMt-u.i, or Ilrown l^l<*tintainii, 
eh are followed h\ t lie most sotithem rid}^*, that of the Sierra 

hi the east thert* is a considcvahh- ehain, which ctimiccts the Iww 
Ind rMj.t-s, and advances toxwirds the Mediterranean in the nnrtli 

i remarkable solitarx mountain, not r::r IvviM llarrelona, niuf<*. not 
Mnittifl. .\t a (Lst.iuee .Montserraf :ij>peaiN like a suj^u-hMf; 

on a n<'arer i.pproM'h kh ms i::ii'j;:etl like a saw, wi'h [tvrainidleal 
llii ; it iS composrd of limestone and p*avel, uniU-d hy ealcace- 

renient ; and is of sueh .1 hei^'lit that fntm its summit iiiay iu* 
•crned the isliuds of M -nivea und M itoit-a, al the (d'AO 
pies. Not far from Mitu'M-rrat, ue:.r ihc vdh-j-.e (U'CiMi'hm >. \h h 

lh»v< nuh'S in circumli renee, winch is oiu* of p^ek s.df, 
;l in the dry climate <if Sp.iin for vases, .smitV-l»o\es, and trnikt ts, 
'our IK-rlnshu-e y|)ar. 
'lie Sp.inish side ^>f the Pyn-nei's has not hecn accurately e\:.inin- 

aiid as I he Fii-mh miiieivdo|V'sis have amply illustr;'td the 
: helonpn^'tfi l-Vance, ;.n Hcctiunt nmiuitains belonpfs to 
descripti<in of that C(«mtry. 

KiiKTAiii.K ANu .Vni\iai. PnoDveTioNH. Thc Koil of Spain wa^ 
leiitlv verv fruitful in corn: hut tlnMv has lately hceiisom • scar- 
, hy the nej;;lect of tillai*;^', throu);;'!! in«lolonce. It prod"ees in 
i> pkices, uhn'^st sponf;.neinisly, the richest and most d' I « ion.i 

♦ h that are to he found in France and Italv ; tu'unj«.\«s, U uioiiii, 
;ns, citrons, alntonds, r.iisins, atjd fij-^s. The wines of Sp,.in, 
.•rally .suek and sherrv, ui\' in hijfh ni-dit antonjr ♦'»>"''jrt"> ■'* ''» 
district of "M^lai-a alone, there are 14,(KM» wine pivsses. Tim 
UP canes tlirivc in fcipain, and il yields ttallron, honey, and nilk ift 

94 SPAI-V. 

I'he riory of the Spanish zouliig}- is the horse, wl^h fa 
fuTuous t'.\ ail af^, probably uri^pnatine from the barb, or \ 
ashl spirittrcl atecd frtim \hv north of Africa, the immediate c 
of the Arabian. The mules are also excellent, anc 
is iuTo nu i^rr.obk* usumul, tliouf^h iu>t cmial to that of Arab! 
hr(\d of sbeen ijas y)ren long ctlcl.stitiit its perhaps superk 
ill the wurliL for the tMicacv uf i!ic iitutton, and the beaut 
fit voe. The piu-iiy of thi air, :»,\\ an>mat;r pusture, bo do 
li'jimte to hothfj'ialities whiclt ii U to be suspected would 
THte on trsm^nor'ation. 

.M I \ L u i L<i . Tiw in i r: . rulopcy of ^^ piiin was anciently of n 
port :ince than in m:)d' Til -inus. Pli'iy, Mtor obsonlnif thj 
w*;»s i/r'UTullv finiiul g-al^na or 1-uil orv«, procceUa to §1 
tho fairest of ull silvi-r, whs foMnd in Spain, where the pits fa 
Ii.;nnibal lasted to hin time, bcini;' kiwiw n by the namea oft 
^inal discoverers. That called Rk1x:1o hud yielded to Hann 
weight a-(lay ; a mountain bcinie: pierced for a'mile arid alialf, 
which the workmen directetl iar^fe streams of ^"ater: so 
phin p>irs\ied .seems to have bf-en tliat culled hiiaUinpp by 
writi-rs. Strabo informs lis that the province of Turditani, 
Aniuilnsla, >\'r.s the most protUiclive of pi-ecioiis metals ; ar 
.•»llwr. bpjiss, wvl iron, no wIioim loimd mow abundant, 
boiTtT q'Uility ; jfolfl \v;'3 in tikr sands of the rivers i 
routs, a kin>^»n attribute of thi* Tagns. 

At p!vscnt almost ilj?» only ^ihcr mines in Spain are those 
dilcMTial, in the Sierra Morena, At Almaden in L?. Manchi 
iMublc minps of quicksilver, w lucli arc chiefly remitted to 
America, and empioy:^.! in itfinin.^T^ *he more precious metahi 
mine appears near Alcuvas ; cobult in llie Pyrenees: antii 
La ^fanoha; copper <»n the front icjrs of Portujcal ; tin in « 
and le:*.d is common in many districts. Tin iron of Spain 
dant, and still maintains its hij^h character : :md coals are 
the (Ustiict of Villa I'^'anca, in Catalonia, where also occur £ 
ver, copper, and lead Amber and jet (in Spanish Azaba 
found togv>iher in the territory of Beloncia in the Asturlas. 


^The chief circumjacent islands belonginpf to Spain are ? 
I^Iinorca, and Eviza. Majorca is about 55 English miles ir 
by 45 in breadth. The N. W. part is hilly : the rest aboui 
cultivated land, vineyards, orchards, and meadow ; the air 
perate, and the honey highly esteemed : there is generally- 
derable military force in the 'isle. The capital, seated on a 
is an elegant city, and is supposed to contain 10,000 inhi 
Majorca was reconquered from the Moors by James I. king 
ragion in 1229. 

Aiajorca is generally in too strong a state of defence to a 
an easy conquest, but Minorca lias been repeatedly seized 

bi^to whom it presonts an adyantagieoas fUtion fi>r the MediJ* 
>an trade. It 13 about 30 miles in len^« by about 12 of me- 
eadtb. The air is moist, and the soil rather barren, being 
calcareous, with lead, and fine marble. The wine is praised 1 
e inhabitants retain a share of their ancient reputation as ex- 
; slin^rii CittadeUa- the capital, baa » totenble haireo, but 
pulation and fortifications are of little consequence. Port- 
1 on the S. S. has an e?(cellent harbour, and received its name 
4ago the Carthaginian general. Eviza la the nearest to Spain, 
1^ mih» long and 12 broad* It 19 jremvkAbIc for its mut»« 
iwdanoc of cxoellimt talt, 


riTK Turkish cnipin% once so formidahlr to Europe, hu 
>\iiik he* tort- ilu- iMiwi-i iii KuNsia. Turkey in Kiii^ipe i» roiA] 
tn coniaiii 1KJ,.56U >((ii.iro niilfs ; un i'xUnt >\liich exci'cdi th 
Spain, or I'vcn Frunrir uiuk-r tin* unriL-nt ni()n:<n'hy. 

Civil l)i\i«iio^H. Kui-(>|H-un Tiirki'V i-nihracvs many ar 
kin>^lums :4n(I n'puhlirsi, wliirh iiom i)ii1\ utiunl a melancha 
nu-inbrancc <it'cl:is>'ical naiiits .tTul «vo;>'.}». 1. Moidavia, part< 
ekii' Dana. 2. Hi.«I/;ic, «*r IU^ss:l^;illl;^ .1 roii;itry of ihc C;ctj 
J' J. \V;4l:«rli.:i, a ppoviiicf ulso of In- '.tiiritmt Dtt 

4. •Jiiijj.ina, whu'li I'inhr.u'i s nciirh ilu; two pn)vincf» of .% 

5. H >incha, orancii-nt I'lir ''i.i, I'lconi:-., Muri'tloni... ami the r 
cm p.irl ot the olus^ical ru'.inny o. *i:vf rv. 6. 'V\iv Morca, ec 
loiu to iheancH-nt l»t'lof>f)imi"»iis. To the W.« f Ronu-li>i cxI 
7. MiMHia ; wa:ch iiirhulf-s tiie kii]}jfil()ni of Kpinib, (JhMoni.'i, 
part of Illyneum. H I)»hii.iti.. ixiauis V.s a>.rieiit ;.ppeliu 
while, 9. Servn, ai'd hi. Hosm:' v piv.^e'it aiicicnl Pannoiiia. 11. 
kish f;r»);itij, the most western piovinn- 01* the empire, also fo 
portion of ancient Pannoniu, witii p. -I< a small ilistrict 

ExTKNT. Tinkey in E';rope ex^t-r.ds ahout S70 miles in Ic 
from tlic norlhei-o hound-rv of .Xfoiciivia, »o ru{>o Mat.ipan v 
Alorrn, or from 36 .049 rieirrees N. i.»titnde. Tne bread^li froi 
river L'nn.L to('onst int.ino]ile, is . hovst fi80 British mdes, or frc 
to .52 dt.irrt.-C8 R. lon;;itude. TI>e eastern and soiH hem hour.* 
are toi-m-'d hy the Kuxine or HLck Se«, tl»c sea of Marmora 
AiT.hipel:igo, luul the Midi teiranean. The utmost nortiicrn 
is now tin.- river Dniester ; hut the western ofttn consists *if . 
bilmry line, and in sometimes supphed by rivei*» or mountninji. 

ANTKirTTiKR. The ancieut mmuments of Europe-»n Turkt 
wo II knoArt to exciH'd in numlK'r and importance those of a;«\ 
ct)Uiitry. Theirmains oFanrient -Xiiiens, in particular, fornu v 
cljoscn seat of the arts, hive attracted the attention ofm:»ny " 
Icrs, an<l h::ve been n'p«' it<'dly di^seribed. A vcnei*: hie moi*« 
of antirpi:'.y, the chu'Tn d'id'r.t'Ad 'o the divine wivd<Mu, or vmI 
Sanct.i Sophia, by i^.e emprvrn- Justtn'-.-n in the sixth erntiKM 
l>cen fori\inatcly pp's.i'ViHijby bein^convcited into a mo.4(pte. 
iritf adorned vrith a profusion of marble coluranK, of vi 


tiful descriptions, the pui'ple Phrygian, the Spartan green, the 

iiui white Carian, tlic Atrican of a sainron coioui*, and niuny otlicr 


>Li»]ON. The religion of the Turks is the Mahometan ; but of 

' subjects, in this division of the cmpij*e, it is probable tliut two 

Is arc Greek Christians. The rcJigion of Muliomet hiis been 

iitly cleared from many erroneous repi-escntations ; but its pen- 

aiscifects urc sufficicntiy visible in the dt-struclion of art and 

sir}-, whei-ever it has made its aj^pearance- 

iie mui'li, or Mahometan pontittj presides at Constantinnple : 

tiis power lias seldom interfered with tlie civil government. 

t to lum in rank ai^ the mouluJis, who, though esteemed digni- 

s of the church, are in fact rather doctors fff the law, while the 

III is also a code of civil observance. Fn^m t!ie inoulali, are se- 

:d tiic inferior muftis or judges through tiie empiie, ami tJie 

lesquiers, or ciiiei justices. 

le next cluss of divines are the imaums, or parish priests, wlio 

jrm ihe service of tlie mosques, while the cadis are judges aii- 

[y uppointed to administer justice in the towns and vilUiges; 

g themselves to be regarded ixs cliurchmcn, who, like the iuou« 

. have directed dieir chief attentiuu to the jiu'idicul part of tiic 


iic Turks have also their monks, at} led dermises, of four various 

n and institutions, cU-d icited hy solemn vows lo religious offi- 

public pra}er, and prcuciiing. 

lie Greeks, along With tiieir laith, retain their priests, bishop.% 

bishops, and patriaicJis ; but their cJiurch is in the lust state of 

'adrttiun, und ita digniiics openly sold by tiir Turks. 

BVBHX^iK.vT. The siilUn js a <l"sp.)".if sovereign ; but he is him- 

strictly subject to tiie luws of the Koran, whicli, including also 

lAtional religion, ruis;.- sucii obstruct Ions to h;s absolute wdl, 

an intellij^n'i tr.Aeliwpru'ioujjced ma.'»y Cln'istii«n sovei-eignties 

2 despotic. Hence it a])pears that iJn? power of the monarcii is 

iceilbya religious aristocracy, wliirij, together witli the mu- 

H of the Juiiizuries a^idthc insurree lions of the pruvhtciul piiChas, 

;rc;tily weakened Uie sovereign auihoiity. 

tie Turkish laws, as has been ulre:idy mentioned, are contained 

e Koran and its commentaries. 

>pCLATio3J, Turkey in Europe has been computed to contain 

^fi)[)i) of iniiabiUuits ; and the exteir being supposed 162,660 

re miles, tiie uiliii.ment will be 4J to liie mile square. It is 

. Lblt ih*t this number r.ilher exceeds the tniih, when it is con- 

.trd that these rcgi'iiis are intv-rsectcd by many mountainous and 

-n tract :i, and thnt the popuUt ion even of the best pwAMices 

¥sses ii-avellers with a striking d'tect. 

UM r and X \ vft TJic Tiu*kjsli army :tnd navy muy deserve mon». 

icul.n* cons ule:'u: ion under Uie lip.d of Aiin'iic Turkey, as the 

fs-uircei {aii under tliut division, ft nK.y here be brie Hy nt- 

cei tliul there are .-biv- . 3 J snips ni' ilie ; w-iile the army 

jcnrcely c-.e^ 'l 13 ),'jfyj men, ill disciplined, and dispirited by 

«h»ive dWMKters.. 



1:. \ !:\-rr.4. The irvi*imcs of'Oie whnlt* Tiirkisfh empire ar 
puti'tl at hIidiiI 7,0'J(i,->0(> htcrlin.7, wiiilc i\\c iisu^l oxpence d 
I xi'." •! I'm'- Tlwi irviMiue is partly clcplvKtl from the capital 
i> I tii^ ■!>' vers, :\\\d tnnn the z^vrlmt (-r cusitonis ; but prin 
fiM:n till t:i\ on l.^ii.i, iiniDUEitiii^ tu uhdiit six shillings an aci 
\\li-.ili is c.ilU'fl thi-./V :;"/■. 

M \NM:iiti AMI Cihtom-. Thr m:niiVs?r.s uiul rtistoma of the 
;.»■ • ilisliiii^iiviiil liy the ]n:(*uh:u*ity (if thi*ir n lij^ioii from t 

• I'.lu i* Ktirup' :in ii.ilions. On \\w liirth nf a child the father 1 
vriv: ■! tiic n:iMi(s ])nttiT\j^ at thr s:mic time a {craiii of salt i 
inixiih. In (lirl thi-Turki arc i-xtrrmi ly mtxlcrato, aiul tlieii 
■Mv iii^,Kitih'.-d with jL*ivat hasU*. Ilico is the favouriie ibod, 

• hi'lly ilri'ssi'l in tln-rownxs; the pil.iii, bt)iKil with mu 
fowl : I ho kipp.i, oi' iiKTr hiklKd y\cv ; ami the ichorha, a k 
hioth of tlu> same vi'i^tahlc The nu-al is usually spi-ead oi 
xM.i.ilin table, :iiul ihe ni.ts^ r of the house pmmmnces a sbor 
•T. The rrnj^ril n-pasJ is follow(,'<l by fntits and cold water, 
:u«' .:iiccei*<li:d by hot cofue and pipes with tobacco. The d 
ihi ".r wi)!i;en diliirs little fnim that of the mm, tlie chief dist: 
lieiiij^- ih I- 1 scad diN*ss ; that of the fair sex cons'stinjf of a I 
(iuflt/adof a lurbait) like an inverted liaNket, furmctl of past 
row :*id with cli)!li of gxild, or other elegant materials, witl 
exU-ndinj^ to tlic eyebrows, while a fine hamlkercbief conee 
under part of the face. The amusements of the Turks part 
tht ir indolent apatliv, if we except huntinp^ and those of a ir 
descrinlio.i. To recline on an elejcant cai-pet, or in the liot set 
the si(l«' of a stivam, and smoke the delicate tobacco of Syru 
I )e ivjv.uilod as the ii" chief amusement. With opium they p 
what they cull a kief, or placid intoxieation ; during" which t 
< y ff»i*ms a tliousand apveabU* images, but when the dose 
pr>tcnt these aiv succeeded by irritation and ferocity. 

L(>'(;i-Ai;p. \M» Schools. The Turkish language is of far i: 
iv])utati(>n to the Persian or Arabic, being* a mixture of i 
fliulects, and possess inj;;' n«i*. her the force, elegance, nor pii 
'iiosc two celeb:Mted oriental t(mjyues. The desif^n of estab] 
I prijitiiij*" press at Constantinople has been op])08ed bv the 
ists, wliu inferidl tliat this art would deprive them of their 
Till ro :»re in tills c:(])ital several public libraries, but none 
^ lej^ant as that founded by the grand vizir Rag^hid, which is ' 
built of marble, in the midst of a square court, niid is fillec 
hoiiks chiefly theoloj^'ical. A librarian constantly attends, am 
; Tc convi-nient seats M'ith carpets and cushions. In the neij^hboi 
is a school founded by the same vizir, in which about 100 be 
tau^^it to read and write. The market for books is extensiv 
taining many sliops well supplied with oriental mfnuscripts. 

The state of education among" the Turks may be conceivetl 
very low, and ignorance is indeed a chief part of the nation 
r.jclcr. Tlic only profession vfhich requires a shadow of Icar 
that oftlie law, which, as before explained, is intimately con 
witlillic:!]: thcolo^'. The celebrated doctors have disciples 

tuhkey in. EUROPE. vy 

:rainecl up to that ricpartnient : but tlierc seems nothini^ tiiui 
cl< '^crve the name of college or uiiivtrsity. 
iTiKH Axn Towns. 'Hie cliicf city ofEuropcnn Turk^'y, ."mini 
Turkish empire, is Constant inoi)lc, built on the site oil he :ii:- 
t, iU'/Mitiuni. The julvanti-f^'cs of the silu'.ition cim hnicily !.<• 
reeled, and the aspect from tl.c sea is peculiarly jrniud ; hut nu 
;u"er approach, the wotHltn hnvclsaiul narniw streets di.v; ]>p()iiit 
splendid cx|)ectations of the spectat<ir. TJiis capital foruifl rji 
[ual trian.^k*, beini^' about twelve or fourteen Knp,iis]A miles ii. 
umfcTcnce, inclosed by walls', ;.nd on two sides by I lie .se.-. and 
lour called the CJoUlen Iloni. Tlic inhabitant ■> are eonipuled at 

000, inchiding* the four subiu'bs, (lalata, I'era, 'I'ojjfiana, antl 
ari. Of these 200,000 arc Turics, 100,000 Greeks, ;;nd the n- 
)der Jews, Ai'mcniaiis, and Frank:*. 'I'hr- most celt bnited edi- 

are the Scraj^lio, which comprises a larf'-e spfce, crowded with 
IMS buildings of mean architecture ; and the mosque uf Sancta 
lia. The principid entrance of the Serajoio is styled C.':iin, or 
Porte, an appelh.tion which h;»3 p issed to the I'urkish court 
situated in 41** N. btitude, and 2o^ 55' E. lenrriludc. 
ext in dignity and exttnt is the city of Adrianopi'.', liivmerly the 
Dpean seat of the Turkish dominion. This city, which sudidft 
it 140 British miles to theN. W. of Constant inojdc was fou]uU(i 
he emperor Hadriim on the site of ilie ancient OrestLis. Thi*; 
nd city of EurotK.:ui Turkey is of a circuh«r i<)nn, and ai pre* 

imfortifud. \lniiy of tlie houses an* res:pi ctaMe, hut the 
2tsure narrow and mdirect. The .Sir.'i.'=;lio is in a ples-nitnt biti!- 

1, separated fj-om the city b}" the river Arda, and commanrlin|> 
Jitensive view of the coisntry, whicli is fertile, and lemarkiibl'- 
excellent vines. Several of the mosques are of celebrated spleu- 
% and the crmimerce of the city, by the river, is not mcoi;- 

he city of Sofia, situated in a low conntiy N. W. frem Adriano- 
is of consider.iblc trade, but meanly built : llie hihabltunts are 

piitca at ro,ooo. 

listrin in Ilulj^ria, on the river Dunubc, is computed to contain 
00 5>oul» ; and i)uch:ircst, tlic chief city of "NValachia, is etlima- 
M the same number. 

»l^'ade, the capital of Scrvia, repeatedly disputed between the 
Lrians and Turks, is now destitute ol' fortifications, bui is sup- 
d to rctain about 25,000 inhabitants. 

tlic more southern provii^s tiic chief city worth notice is Sa- 
ja, computed at 60,000, a city of considerable commerce, seated 
noble gulph of tJie Arc]iipelaj»o. 

lUi-icKH. All that deserve a pluce in this work have been already 

ASd'FArTiTiKs A'Kti The native manufactures ex- 
ed from European Turkcj- are inconsiderable, ])eir.f; chiefly car- 
, und a lew other artirles ; }»ut the lude products are fu* mori; 
crvMiK, asciin-ants, fi.q-H, .sj:fii*on,8t:;tuaiy maible from Puros, silk, 
dnigs ; engrossed chiefly by foreipuTs. 
ij5LATji A.NJ) Seasons. The extensive regions comprised within 


the limits of Europesin Turkey enjoy, in general, a delicfalii cliailftei 
piir. liir, :lik1 rt'^tlur stiMsons. In Walitchia tlie air ii lo tempcMli 
th:i* \im'M un.l melons prospcT. In the mountainons parts' of iM 
in«):v t'HiTiK-ni clititricis the t(.-ni|x.Taturf must purUke of theeolA 
iMiivi i*!i:il in such ek-vatcd rcg-inns ; but the product* of Macednii 
iin<l (irrcrr, rice, \'\i\c6, and ulivcs, shew that the climate retaall. 
c}.iim to i»M .mcient pruiM*. 

Soil avi> Ar.HirrLTrHE. Tlie s(»il is generally fertile ; thenoith" 
crn purts pnidncinff whrat uiul rich pastiuv, the middle andaonlli- ' 
rrn ;.hiir(!unre of nee. But aj^iculture, like every otlier art aid 
sc'.^ncf, is iiei^lcetcd by the Turks ; :ind thut soil mutt be truly fo 
till',, uiuk-r their sw.iy,ran support its inhabitants. 

HuKiit. Anmii)^ tlie rivt-rii of European Turkey must first te 
named the iXmuhe, whicii from Dei^^rade to Orsova divides Serrii 
froTii 1 lie Hunnut, a space of near 100 miles : and afterwards beeoOMI 
a Turkish stream for more than 4^)0, being in some places a wSBt 
in brvadth, and present in^, if possessed by an industrious people, al 
tiie fell vunlii 1,^8 of a Mcditerrancjn sea. 

Next perhaps in importance, though vcn- inferior, is the Bfaiiti^ 
or anci'.Mit Ilebrus, which rising in a chain of mountains anciently 
called II xmus, and running towards the E. and 8. &lls into tli 
^gc :in s('», after a course of about 250 miles. The same sea at tlie . 
irulpli of Sahmica receives the Vardari, the ancient Auxia^ wliiA 
rising in Mount Scardus, a Mt*stem branch of tlic samechaiRp pur* 
^iies a S. E. course of about 200 miles. 

Mountains. The ciiains of mountains are numerous and eztofr 
:-ive. To the W. of Moldavia and tlie Buckovine runs N. and N. W. 
for about 200 miles, part of the grand Carpathian chain, ancicflll^ 
^led the Bastamic Alps. 

On the S. of the Danube appears the grand range of the Hkoih. 
This chain is de8er\-edly celebrated by tlic ancients, being of^taA 
trlevation aiid extent, as appeurs from the numerous and lai^ nreis 
which devolve from its sides. The chain running to the S. has bsf 
ny classical appellations, as tlie Acroccraunian, Pindus, &c. Tfas 
ll and S. of (Greece are also crowded with small chains of mountaiM 
KTid solitary hiUs, such as Olympus, Ossa, Pelius,and others. MoobI 
Athos, a detached summit in the X. E. is of considerable height, but 1 
\ias cliioHy attracted observation from its singular form, to much ! 
lesemhlin'g that of Montserrat in Spain : and from the many moQaSF I 
tnrios and churches on the declivities of its picturesque pinnacle. ^ 
VF'iEr.MiLE Axn A2rTM.\L PuoDucT^Trs. The forests of Greece^ ' 
i:ie Greek islands, and the provinces bordering the Archipelago Id 
^.le north, consist of common and yew-leaved fir, the larch, the cedar, 
the ilex, the kennes oak, the common oak, the oriental plau&-tree. 
The maple, the sycamore, the walnut, the chesnut, and the beech. 
The princii)al fi-uit trees are the oli\'e, considerable forests of which, 
:nixed with the broad-leaved myrtle, adorn the shores of Crete and 
Attica ; tlie orange, the fig, the vine, the pistaehia tree, the mastiek 
tree, tl.c nudbcm', and the pomegranate. Of the shrubs and small- . 
er trees iho most worthy of notice are the bay-tree, the laurel, two 
kinds of arbuttis, tlie cypress, the oleander, and the caper bush. 


,e zoology of European Turkey piv«eiita few peculiai'llies. 'I'hc 

I, iVequent in ACi'ica and Asia, I.-* not unkjiowii in these rt*- 

; .ukL aniong^ tile l)ca.sts of burden niu.u be classed the eanicl- 

Turkisli horses are celebrated for spirit and tuiin ; and tJiose 

;'l.icliia deserve particular pr..ise. Tlic breeds or qualities of 

cutiK' have been httlc ex])lame(L The sheep dlstinguislied by 

.line of Waluchian, have spir.;! horns ofsinj^ulur elej^ance ; but 

i\cness of tlie fleece would be a more useiid distinction. 

NSHiLs. Thf mincralo^}- of these provinces is also a baiTen 

; for the indolence and ig^noraiiee of the Turks luivc p;eiierally 

cted this branrli of opulence ^ though from the mines in the 

♦ lit ivpons of Hungary and Transylvania, and from tlie ancient 

mis, tluiv u'oiild be moni to expect great mineral treasures. 

^Id ni::Hs n!" F'liilippi, about 80 miles to the east of Salonica, in 

me Kil' I'i.ilij) <)i* Macedon, pruchiced yearly ai)out 10,000 talents, 

,000/. .^lerling ; and silver mines were found iu Attica, Mid 




IE classicul Islimds of ancient Greece have been so repeatedly 
ibed, tliat little more than an enumeration may sufHcc. Tlie 
8t is that of Crete or Candia, which is about 180 British miles 
igth, by 40 at its greatest breadth. A chain of higli mountains, 
I the White Mountains, from the snow, penrades a great part 
length. The inhabitants are viG;t)rou8 and robust, and fond of 
ry. This isle abounds witli cattle, slieep, swine, jjoultr}', and 
, all eicellent ; and the wine is balmy and luscious. The siege 
iidia by the Turks in the middle of the seventeenth century is 
*kablc in modem history, as having continuc^l for 24 years, 
—1670. This island h.-td before flourished under tlie Venetians. 
St IS Negropont, anciently called- Euboea, about 100 British 
in length by 20 in breadth, a large and important island, which- 
»elonged to tlie Venetiiuis to a late period, 
c other isles arc gcneiiilly of a diminutive size, and were divi- 
y the ancients into separate groups, namely, Lemnos, or Siali- 
,' lying on the north part of the Archipelagoi Segros, the Cyela- 
1 cluster of small islands lying round Delos, which may be in- 
d in the number, l^ixia, IVIelos, and Santorini. To these may 
Ided seven islands in tlie Ionian sea, erected recently into an 
endent republic. 



riir. Si'vrn Ini It'll l*rii\iiirrs win', ii» niu'icm tiinoSf vhivflyp U\ \]\v llaliivi, u proplc hi^'hty n-lrliratt-d liv Tuc'iIun ; rc 
\ iii^ :iii aurinit nuiiii-, tiio l-'n-itrli Ikiic itTriitly Klylcil llicni th(^ I 
):(\Ltn l(i|)iililii'. Tih-v \v4-iv i'Drniiily liilUil tiir Uc|uihUc ofH 
Inlid, fniii) tlir ii:«iii(- of tin- rliiri proviurr : so r:ilU*<l I'min tlic G 
iriuii wiiniH iioftf, «-iiri*cN|)(iiul'rii);- with lit«' l'<n^lisli wiint hollow, a 
r:nil : iiiiplMii:^ n «'nrir;ivi- »)r vrry low coiintrv. It h:is liwii rccc 
ly iiir«irp,ir:i(t'il with the I'm it* h niipiit' uiid (livi(K-{l into ck'pi 


I'Wir.M". Thi-M' pwjviiiri'H I'Xliiul, I'lMmi ih«* N. (»f(2mninji^ 
Aiisin:iii riiiiuliTN :iiHi llmhiiut, hhoiit l.'»() llrlliNh inilcH ; ulld 
Krr.iilth, iVitiii wliut is rullf-il Ihr North Sta to thr cirrlcofWc 
i)h:ili:t, :ihi)iit lOOIIri'ish inili-H. Tht* uiiiiiIkt of Sc|Uiiiv milfl 
cMiiipiiti il at lO.OOO. 'rh«v lire siliiutril hctwivii A 1" JU' and 5o° 
\. l;ii. ;in.l hilw.iii ;J" ;?()' i.nd 7" K. hmjr. 

|)n isioNM. 'V]ir iiMCK'nt dixiNiou oi* llolhind w:in into Hwcn p 
v'lkit't-.H, llolhind, /« -idaitd, l'i'irsl;uiti, rinrht, <^ronin^^'li, (•iiirld 
l;nu!, Ov.rv^si'l. Tlifsi* h;»vi- n'rriillv Ik'^'H divided into filtcrn 

Anthiiitikh. 'IMu' rhioFivtn.'iin orthiOfoniun p«Tic»d iH the 
iiu'd to\\i,r ni'ur (J:«1wii"k, aliout six niih'N N. W. ir«>in LcvdiMV 

• ■ ■ 

till* :inrif:it MiuMth of tli<* IMiliii'. In iht' iniddK* ot'l.cydcn, ti| 
. M ;iri:ru'i:d hill. s1;nids a round Ihwit, fahUd to liuvr bi'm built \vh(i tir.^l l«d tlu' S:(Xoii.s to Kn^land. 

it! i.ii:i(i\. Thr rrotrslanl nUipon, in ilio <'alvinistir form, | 
vuils thnni^h ihc'LiiilicI I'mvincis. 'I'hi' Ktatrs of Holland, In \h 
pfOpoM'd tJiM niiollur fiiiiii of worship shonld btt toliTutcd ; 
litis r»" »hitlnn was wi^rly rrjnMidj and wny rc'li^jion iN)K'nnitt 
III! t'ondii ion lli.d il do not oppose the t\nul.'ttnental httv.s, or tt*; 
iAity d'lrlrinrM snl)viTsive oftlir Mtuti* ; yvi (•niplr)ynu-ntH of any c 
-cipii-iicr (ui) oidy he lillcil hy ProtrKtants. 

'I'hr I It h'siastiral p»thom:; ;nv ron.sidrn il as dividid into f 
;-i\iks, pn>t«'NNors at inilviTsitii's.. prcarhi'i-s, rldrrM, and d«':iro' 
liiid till- pivrrnnunt of threhnivh \n MdnnMiMleivd hy conriiNtor, 
t I.L'Mi";, -ind sviMids. 

'I'Im* i:«.nian('atholicH ar<* supposed to have XM) rhtirrhri, Wi" 
^v "IJO privsU, ('xelusivcol'sDnic in ihc cvMUjinTi'd liTrittiiy. 'J 


rAni' -tr/.-iurc tin: I.!itlj<rans, lli'r lUrmoitstrants, or Arniirii.'ins, 

r i.A'iniv. 'I'lic [jo[jtiI;ii'on oitlic I.nit<-cl Proviiir/-*, Ims b'-'-ii 

l_v .;'/iiii>u'Ml;il llJfJH/ioJf avA tU". i-sUuini' xUl u-.yr'ttnry in 

>■ ni,U:s h' in;;' Hu;j;jo.s'r«l 10,0'JO, Onrcwill bf. U7.'> \'<n- r:ii:\i 

.'j'l If. 'I lie |)ij]>iilation of" lioilaiul, llic cW.fS pr^\ in*;..-, is 

i.'iMts, 'ri.i; DiiV.h, h'.Uvr, for .1 ron»i<lfiMol<: tim*-, ihf cliicf 
Iifi" powvr ia Ki;r'j;>':, ih'-ir''o!oriii-ho»r*: wcw: ii>iiiicr()its ; but 
rjLM, u\\ h*:t'.\\ if.thu'cti by the Kni^lisli. 

>i I t \» N t v». Tli<r iiPfTiy wuH conipiitcil nl abrmt .3fi/XKJ, but 
o'.v iri<!0!7yor;tr(l wiili ihnt of Fivuicu*. 'I'Jif* navy, which iisc-fl 
\H:si offo/My biilps of iht Jiiic, b:is by thcf:vc:iits of the lust war 

t tot.'iiiy (Ji-*.'lp|JC£iI'r(i. 

fc'f:v»;»;. The rfvirmc Was almut tlin'f millions anil a h-'ilf 
ijfj hni Wis ifr^atly fXcjcAvd by tli<: rrX{K:n(iititi-<f ; so that XU*- 
lal tirbt was ronipnti'd at about 1 3$,000/X>fi/. «*crliiijf : but 
,W0/. Wert; uuiiually rc-c<;ivc<l as the intirrcht of Uiitns to other 

c political importance uiA rr-l'ii'ioiis of tlu; l.'nitcd IVivinces 
piv.'.cnt eouipleteiy inimerf^*-*! in thost- of Franre ; she huvin^' 
foi-ccrl to contribute in her own anniiiilation, ami the a^^g^run- 
jcnt of lu-r euf ini<-s. 

i.v.%j.ri:i Astt Cahtomh. \ s1ranj(ier visitini' Holland isHui-pri-sccl 
- exlr<'ifie rleanlines.H obser^abie in the JiOUseM and streets; 
hamlets inbabit('<i by p'K*r fishermen (li.s]ilayinf^ a ri*'a*n' ss and 
ie.v<, whleh forms a striking conlrast witb the MjuaLd appear- 
of the (i'-rmaii villaji^es. 'J he air beiiij^ always moist, jiU'l 
/ (-old, the Dutch firess is e;rrcwlated for warmth and i:ot for 
nee. The people ai'e of a phlegmatic tempemmeiit; and ilieir 
i(f at M-a i» rather obstinacy tjian ardour. The love of ntoney 
"amount in the mind of almost evrrry Dutchman, 
eir dress ib lilih- alllctrd by fashion Th<- opulent m'-rcliantK 
lit in thi-ir villas nv.d ^fanlens, in whicrh p-rhaps one tulip root 
t ctfsi S'J tfujifeas. lu the winter, skating is a favourite amusc- 
t and the panals are erowd<'d '.vitJi all ranks, from the i»<-:nator 
le milk-maid with her pail, and tlie p«'ah:mt with his c|rj(^. 
pf;ss(-hs wimi* v.'ditable eolUrctioiis of paint iiif^s and priutx, 
1 ikhit have \H'.c.onu: an article of corn merce and avarice. 
S'ii: AUK. The Dut<:1i lau^ua^r v: a dialect of the Cierman. 
HI.IC .S«:nor)T,H. TiW. ni'><l'- of education pursued in thoM; pro- 
s v.'euis to havi- bi-en ffatlv inferior to that use<l in S<:otland, 
ntry ' njoyinjc an ecrl'siastical j^oienrnjent somewhat simiiar. 
f)ut'ch youtJr. bc-iiij^ rhi'fly alIott«fl to a scafarinjc lili-, tin re 
lot ifidf'fd y fiir niimerous paitjchial schools, arid con- 
TUt diffusion of common knowledjfe. The most etrhbra^'*! I.a- 
licKds W'Teat Kottr-rdam, Hi-c^la, WiddU burjf, <;i-onin..:«i!, &e. ies are fivf ; Leyden, Uti-^clit, Harch-iwyek, IV.uuek- 
.d (;r»/n:i.:«:en ; with two inferior col U:ffes at AmsUrd:.m and 
nter. 'I'hereis an acsiclemy of w:ienres a* M.iurlem. 
riiai A5if Tu\v\s. Anistcrditm, tlic chief city of Ilollaiid, i^ 


upon the ■mall river Amstel. The ha^-en is not ilitrtinyriiihi 
natiirJ advanta^s, bill lub Ixcii imprurttl ami secured hy 
anil I lie ukIi- foit.'st of mavis iiuprobsctf every traveller witu ai 
mcnt. Tlic pfiimlation iH con:piiUil ut about 212,UUt'. The a 
arc* )7L-nt.T.iny iiarruw, ami .he canuls tcciikni. 'I'hc housa 
thf Common air oi'ncatiKss picuiiar to iImik* oi die Dutch. 
chici'idiiices arc ilu> .st:iti--housi', fiiumlcil 0:1 pitca at an imx 
ezp<. nci* ; till I xrhanj^c and \\iv posi-ofHce t but some streets 
till' cl I R-ft' canals display iiousis of anirvrm gr-indour. Some s 
able walks occur in tlic iiiurior ot'thc city; but the cnviroj 
chk-fly visited by water ; vet to the S. Uicre is an agfreeabK* re 
OiuUrkirk tliroujirlt pleasant i^ardcns and groves. It is situa* 
52° 2/ N. lat and 4^ 51' K. lonj^-. 

l^',\don is csticnic-d \hv next city in population, containing 
50,LHkj Miuls. ll 18 the Lui^uniiin Batuvomm of antiquity, i 
distin^'uiblted by its university. llt.-iv tlu aiicii-nl Rhine almo 
pins in a nuniU-r of small channels, which are passed by so 
hnd^'s that (he number ius btin compiiiL'd a* more than oik* 
dnd. T)>(' meadows and ^.utlens around Leyden are remar 
pniductive, and there is a daily intei course, by canals, wil 
other chief cities and provinces. Tiic fiiir is still much freque 
but the university has declined. 

Next is U'jtterdam, with a popidation of about 48,000 fn 
Tliere is a noble quay, with bouses as handsome as any i 
squares of London ; and the great length of the streets is cl 
teri.stic of Dutch cities, and even towns ; yet they are gen 
nari"}W, and the i()ot pavement iiionly distinguished oy a 3ea 
i»f bneks In the market place stands the well known stat 

ll:t:u lem is computetl to contain 40,000 souls ; and, like Le 
is ♦oil fied by old brick walls. The great church is esteemed 
largest in the province of Holland ; but the celebrated or| 
more I'emarkable for pow.-r than sweetness. 

T).<..- Hague is only esux^med a village, tliough the inhabitar 
computed at 36,000. Tlie court or palace, contains several t 
bers o Hotted to the different branches of government, beside 
apartments of tlie Stadtholder. The states-general meet in a 
wliich contains twent\-six chairs, for the usual number of the : 
bers. The cabinet of natural history has been can*ied to Fi 
and probably the most curious books an(f pictures. The Hag 
distinguished by its pleasant situation and tranquil grandeur 

Inland NivioATiojf. To enumerate tlie canals of the 12 
Provinces would be infinite, for they equal the roz.ds in 

MAxuFACTraEs AXD CoxxEBCE. Thc chief manufactures oi 
land are linens ; pottery, and painted tiles, especially at S 
leatlior, wax, bnuffj sugar, starch, paper, besides some artic 
wool, cotton, and sUk. But the most precious branch of comi 
consisted in spices and drugs, brought from the settlements i 
East Indies. The fifhery in the Northern Seas, and even on 
own and the English coaetsy was also an object of great gosdum 

HOIXANlf. 105 

>rtance. Latterly, perhaps -ne chief advantage was derived 
HolluncVs lx*in«^ tJu* »;Taiul deposit of comnicrct. betwet-n <- eat 
lin and the continent, partiruiariv (German) ami JPVance. The 
d trade with CJcrman;. , bv the c:;ijals and the Rhine, is ,.h:.ost 
inly branch which has escape d the i\.vapes of war. Of tins tlie 
remarkable feaLuix- consists in the vast floats of timber brouj^ht 
I the Rhine. Thi. kr.gth of these rafts is from 700 to 100\) tict, 
>rcadth fi-om 50 to 90 ; 5U0 lal)oi!iers direct the floating island, 
h is crowned with :t viUuj^v of iir»ii)er huts for their reception. 
.rnAT£ ANii Seasons. Uiiutidiiy und cold are the chief charac- 
tics of the climale of iJu* l^ritct] Provinces. The general face 
e coimtT}' is tliut of a lurf»:e niursii which has been drained ; the 
Is, and even the sea, look in|>f pale und discoloured by mud. The 
e country may be said to display an intimate combination of 
and water ; and the few elevations commonly consist of barren 

rL AJSit AftnicFLTuRE. The agriculture of such ]irovinces can- 
»e expected to be consi<ierablc, the land being mostlv under 
irage, except a few crops of madder, and tobacco, wliich are 
vated wilh great predilection. The pasturages in the north of 
uul, especially tliose of Bemster, ;uid in Fricsland. supply such 
titles of excellent butter, as to become a staple article of coia- 

yxBs. The chief rivers of the United Provinces are the Rliine 
iie Meuse ; the latter hei-e receiving at its estuary the Aa« 
d with the Domel trom the S. and from the N. with that great 
^ of the Rhine called the Waal : near 40 Rhtish miles farther 
e W. the second grand outk-t of the Rhine, c<dled the Leek; 

the Meuse ; after wliicli but a small stream passes by Leyden 
e German ocean. Tlie principal river f:d ling into the Zuyder 
M the Issel, which rises not far to the S TV. of Munstcr, and 

receiving the canal of Dnisus near Duisberg beoomes a con- 
able stream. On the N. of this is the small estuary of Wecht, 
h rises totlie N. of Minister. 

seETABZK AND AiTiMAL Phoducttoitb. Thc quantity of g^ain 
need here is not sufficient for home consumption ; but by 
linjP their bogs, thc Dutch have m:ule excellent meadows, 
b fatten lean cattle from Germany :md Denmark to a great 
; and they make pi'odigious quantities of cxcelU'.nt butter and 
9e. Their country produces turf, tob:«cco, some fruit, and iron. 
r have a good bree<l of sheep that is highly valued, uid their 
^s and horned rattle arc* of a larger size than wnv in EiMipe. 
r shores aboimd with fish, particularl}' turi>ot and soals. — But 

eiiief finbery is that of Wrings, on the coaat of Enj^and and 


fiirrVTlOX. Hi nm:irk, inclu.Vrncr n..Utim ami Xorwa 
•onl, l: 111 .SV lU'tori® N hitit.iih'*. :iiul TrDiH A® 1')' lo l::* 
Idd^i. iido J ri>n*;uninjr ''»:Ji"tlK'r 1.>0,«)»K> sfjii.-in* milrs. 

Kv i::nt. Vxtmi \\w rlvrr Kll» •, in \hv miuIIi, to the north( 
trci'.iily fit* Danish L:iT)latitl, x.\d tl.o wild rriv.vnnH oFtlic river 
Mi.y !k' compuUtl, j.rtt'i* evln»lin;4f ihi- m r.jn'i* «»f thr l).il 
i'\'i Ml of ni/i Iihs iIkim 1-J0i» Hl■l^•^ll mills in Ii'nir*^'* l>y -i 
h:- . i\:\ of I in! \ I'nK Of i Ins ;:i\:-.: 1vm^,';Ii, U-niiuirk orr»:pjcs 
'Jo iuili s Nvluli- :Iu* iir!i!urn!i'r !>■ I«>n;rs t«» Ni.rwiiv. 'I*«i dii 
\hc n.iU'sli jirovi:ii"c of Molstrin hnnl'M-s f:\ tin-. unU* ti^rriti 
IIiTiMMiiy ; t»n tin i.'st, >\--;j«, : »; I nuiili, ')''ii'n.M''o. i«* siirivMii 
t'u- s,-:i. 'I'Ik f:i^I. Til limits .if \nr\v;r. an* rh'u'ily iii'lii-aU' 
lon^" rlr.tin of iiio'ininins, p;l^•^iM!.'• !i.-iM-i'f:i tln-.t oui'iln nnd 8 

I);\imii\4. Thi- 1. :'rili.ri« s Mi'jiil tt> ihr cii-v. M iiilhMmi 
tliv'ii!- «1 into tliii'li'i'ii pi-ii\ ii.'-. •., v./. : 

J'lvv in Denmark proper, slvih in Norwny, and one in 1 1 

.\>"Tni,«'iTii:«i. The :ii*.ri\'i.t niJ-niiiivnls of IVnnurk ;.nd ? 
^r; cliit ily what art' ealhd Il'iirc ; thoiijrli it hv not I'lcar i 
pi-'i'ut thr uso of thr IvMiiir rInp;M*\?Ts i-xtcndi'd An tar U» 
rirdi's of npric^it slivu'.s arc common in all liir Danish ilttii 
In h'rland tluiroriK"!" is pirfi-rlly i'sciTt;'.uu«l, as scmic woiv < 
»'v.Mi in irt'i'n. times of llu- Tcvlaiiillr pi pnhlir^ luinj? called 
hrir.'.f, or t'iprirs nf. lud^ment. Monum-nt »: ini (icour (ifth 
i<>i'ms inn^ined hy oar ant iciuarics to he Dnildie. 

liKl.l(:H»^. The pelijrion of Denmark and Norway is ihel.ii 
Theie is no archbishop ; hut the bishoj)rlcks an* twelve; 
l)<Mimark, tour in KorwAy, :ind two in Iceland. Theehirf wm 
of Zealand, which yields :il)ont 1(HM»/. a vcar : the other cler 
ders aiT provosts, «ir aiTlideacons, jiarish priests, and ch 
The parochial clerjjy are maintained by their jjlehes, tith 
fiurphis fees ; hut in Jutland stontc of the livin^y do not exci 
a yenr. 

fiovr.nNMKXT. Since the ivyolution of It^fit), the Dumish 
n\i'ni has been im absi»luie monurcli\. That revolution was 
c\ I by the obtitiiucy of ibc nobility, uud consequent ciuiiiiy 


ind burgesses, who perceived no other means of humbling' 
versuries. . 

Dunisii govcnimejit lias however been generally co iductcd 
ildnrss and modciiillon ; as all their regal acts puss llinxigli 
ouncils, who carefully observe the legal foi^ms. The laws 
ifiy comprised in the code of Christicm V. who reigned iu 
L of ihe seventeenth century. 

LATioN. The ]>opalation of the Danish dominions is compu- 
:wo millions and a half; though theiv seenis little room to 
I at it yielils to that of Sweden. If we suppose the square 
;s to be about 180,000 miles, tliere will only be 12 inliubi* 
) the square mile. Norway is not supposed to contain more 
>0,000 sou Is, nor Iceland above 50,000, tlie former only yield- 
, the latter one, to ilie square mile. 

r, &c. The army of this kingdom is computed at r0,000 
* which Ik^nmark supplies about 40,000, and Norway the 
:ler. The navy, prior to the late engiigement wilh the Eng- 
Copenhagen, consisted of 33 sliips oftlic line, manned by 
.1,000 seamen, and 5000 m:u*ines. 

'jivk. TIic annual ixvemie is computed at about one million 
Alf sterling, being superior to tliat of Sweden. Denmark 
utes 543,554/. Norway 290,000/. Sleswic and liolstein 
)/. the West India islandi 263,000/. the toll levied upon sliips 
rthc Sound 122,554/. Altona 3,150/. The expcncea of tlie 
nount annually to about 1,050,000/. and it is burthened with a 

TIERS AM) CusToxs. The manners and customs of tlie supe- 
nes differ little from tliose of the same classes in other parts of 
i. The peasantry continue in a state of vassalage, except 
►f the crown. They are of course idle, dirty, and dispirited : 
contrary, the Norwegian peasants are spirited, frank, open, 
daunted, yet not insolent ; usual dress is of a stone colour, 
id button holes, iind white metal buttons ; and the women 
ppear only dressed in a petticoat and shif\, with a close cdUar 
their throat, and a black Their usual breail, like tiiat 
Scottish peasantry, consists of flat cakes of oatmeal ; wliich 
i9 of great scarcity is mingled witli tlie white inner rihd of 

Laplanders are of a small size, generally about four feet, with 
black hair,' narrow dai'k eyes, lar^e heads and high cheek 

a wide mouth an<l tliiek lips, an<l a swarthy comi)lc*xion. 
da the shore they build huts ; and on tlie mountains U!::e tents 
itly conic form, and divided by several rude partitions into 
leuts for themselves, their sen'ants, and cattle. The rivers 

salmon, and other fish, a considerable part of the U-iplandic 
but at a festival aR* s<.en muiton, or rein deer^ and niead.^ 
len wesu* conic red caps, lined with fur, and a kind of robe of 
)r skin ; the pnov sometimes using that of the sahnon, which 
•s like a white shrpfreen. Till recent times tliey were immer- 
» paganism, regarding particular mountain* ^rnd rocks as 


LA]nirio& If we ezcq>t the I^ponic, the langvages sp< 
the D.Jii8h dominions are all sister dialects of Uie Gothit 
Jcfifiiiiic is tlie most ancient und ^'cncrable, bebi^ esteei 
most pu If dialect of tlie Gotliic. 

EiiiTATios. The silence of travellers and j^'Ographers c 
ing' tiiemtxles of education pursued in difTfrent countries h: 
TXiiin: than once regretted in this work ; but the materials 
e(jually deficient concemini^ Denmark. Each parish is p 
with two or ibrce schools, where children are taught to n 
write their native tongue, and the principles of arithmet 
jchool masters are allowed about 12/. a year, with a house, ai 
other advantages. There are besides many Latin schools, m 
ed at the royal expense ; 16 mi Holstein ; 11 in Sleswic ; 19 
in:irk proper, or Jutland, and the isles : hut only four in tl; 
extent of NorA'ay ; and two in Iceland. There is also a 6p<\- for the Laplanders at Bei^*n ; and at Soroe, Odeiu 
Altonu, there uix superior academies of education. 

The universitifs ure at Copeniiaf^n and Kiel. The rota 
my of sciences w:is founded in 1742, but bus been more disti 
cu in national aiitiqidties, than n.itnr:;! Iiisioiy. In 1746 was 
ed the society tor *ht* in.pi-'jvcment of northern histor}', aim 
the I'tJNul society r** IceUindic literuture. There is another] 
a1)lc itK-it .iiTlon ut Dmntlieim, styli^l Uic royal society of » 
TO'.it* iiiuiidritionH confer honour on tfie Danish governmer 
will doubilcsM contribute to djffiise science, .ind inspire emul 

(;rriLS AMI Towns. Copi-nlu^cn, tlie chief city of Dc 
.stands on tin- eastern siioi-e oi ifjchirgc and fertile isi^iul of 2 
about 2 J Hriti.sli lUjlcS to thi* soiitii of* *ho noted sound wl 
vessels that vis A liic K:iltic p.vy i*. small tribute to Denmarl 
th- built oily in ihe nortJi ; i".*r, thoiip;-]! Petersburg 
m'iw Slip lb t(!ir'.:>:'s, \et Cop'.'niiagen is mme unjfojm ; the 
being mostly of Li .i k, nith a lew of frees n;i»o from Germam 
sti\ I ;.s aix; rather'ow, but well ]\'.vtd. It is regularl 
f.ed, ■ circjmf'Tence Kin;;," bel\v''.':n riiur and five miles, i 
irh;Ji''.tini:» . :»oul VJOjOJ.fO. The )ii.i'i».var is spacious and com 
1ki. iMi? on liie y. utl? tne isle of Ain.ik, peopled by the desc« 
of i' col;>ii\ tr.)m Ficisl fYitsl.tnd. lo whom the island was gra 
Ch; is lei'i* II. U) si.i>pl' Ipj qsurn with ve.getables, cheese, a 
ter, .. d stjii.-.i ^)M S'.:li vr vined. It is sj'.uattd in 55^ 41' N. Is 
ami i-° i^S' K I-i.uc.trde. 

N X , ; d;j;'ii;<".Mioi!;^h not in popiiLtion, is Rergen, the 
of N >.'v'. uv, .{ju'rl-.d ill ihe yt\ir i'»70. It is seated in the cen 
vuiicj , •; ri.i''^;.t sc:: r^vti: i-(»vnrl a small gulphof the sea. 
\mi i .-. '■"■'■ • J d. ^ !i(k d by moti:».t;« •\ir, ; and on the olher by se%'C 
till'./. J:. Vii i;ie el'.iUThes hikI m .ny of the houses are o 
Tr ; .«. .! .'.id c.»1heii:\ii arc n.m rkable edifices. The chit 
is vi 11^ ., .0 •?;'. inb-.M*, S-c. Ti:i population is computed at 

Ti." h;.d ciw.^f lK*:iin;.'V, -aul .ndeed the second in pop! 
is A) .In on I J'.; K)be, v/ithm i pqin-uhot of H-.mhurgh, ony: 
vill. ;,t:(jf the r. :»:«. v»^ (>'..'« cP..'«en ; but in 1640 it became sul 
Dennuu'k, and v.- >. '•o:istiUjteda city in 1664. In 1713 it was 

. rely reducM t» uihrt by il 

^Hnls HI/ iiiucli fiiBtcrt-il liv 

Itkiiiiill >iiiT»[ei(iii, HI II iliihiniK ' 
^mipuLcd lu cofttiuii 31.000 inlia* 


aba w 

ituh a SI) h 

livt at tufi ntdSi tir 

u mlnut vt<asi>Ui Ix) 


'nuinitrk !• 
w iti Hit nunit «C i 
fhl le Jth the rirtf f 
en oCthiiimpnri ' 
laJ d bnuuiih lOO 
ltd pJ> W bou flAKt, » 

'I mu C mioirK A Ci^ nJutOcn WC wbat ■ 

\ ul iniinitliic.turtii, in wliich Ur, MAnlull *Dya thai 4. 
niployeil, troiii Uit^ (incut, wiirtllm doUi uud at enurt 
liy tlir nolilwry OAit nuaiiifuctum have «!»* b—^ 
urifnil bt tlir cmwn, wliidi tun paid morOBttci 
! ). I I I t in Id llir *rt* uul »clencei. 
i> 1 tofnativiifinMliirta. .lulUnd u 

H K'="c*'4' expurtei'c to ncu _ 

I ^jikI Ftitilt (il'tJia Ulbsr provino^v 

I \ r T-liii-CpmiluelB of' Nurw«j' M^. J 

■.1.1 'I Hiivcr,cop]ier.«ndL ■«>("«' 

. :;i'rntly iinprnvrij ii[nGa ■ 
I V I '.... <•! t1« Kid n»vig»iio(b 

I Lilroi H in tliL t^^t jii I \\f' uiUu'i uliti) RUppiy tulDO rCKUUT- 

Cldutc iKD Sano** Ttic kiiipli.Tn of IViimurk proper, may 
■ rinsideird u r''*<-'"'i'iK ■ 1""ni(l wid ruUicr tcnipm^tt^ cliniaU. 
k 1 liir w niw 18 ULrjtiuuiikUy nt ixlTtmi* iitvtir)tr> luitl tlic sc* ia 
^ I ' ill ice Norway, cbicfly HXtMiding aluiig Uw wf it aide 
I s 4 (1 iwTiMi Alp», r^ipuM-sl to Ui« vafiuunitivni Itie Atli>nti<v>-J 
' i r lid A region M niiffbt be conceived. Fimiurk iniIwX 1 

\--i-. I inioit rigour oTwinteri while ill leelHDd, on Ihc contrKr^J 
UiiiB j> n I* unejpccteiUy Tn«krjtP,*o «* generally to pertnittnt, J 
nuiiuni u> cut uirfLVon in Jmukltv In LHplMiidtliu aun is uliiiHit titfja 
7 wmJui t«gothcr, y«t Frnm tu m tk« funmrum t« 1 inUiunAcnid'Hv'l 
tlu-rc 11 H kiiii) of tviTitiit, iia tliit otic inny read urithout a cuiill«/fl 

8«ii, LKii AARiccLTLUf In Uolsii-On luid ilit mnith of Jm' "' 
111- »jp- cullurt m«J be CWnparciL "lili llidl iilK,ii|.,l;iriil ■ lli* li 
I Ml iIJi I llw liedj{e»»tiddit(;htji 111 I m l!,-i T i.i.j. J, .i:l1 M.iwii witfrj 

tin ai.liu-nips FurtiiM U. tin nwili.r i .i:..,, ,. l. ..Ji pcriVct^ 

t hgr^ .1 liii pariiunol iir^bkiiTu ! ii >-i r.i\\, ai..l l;ii' fi'ain *■ ~ 

iw-ril lo syjilily U.C coiisiuiiplnui. Vlml ni.jiii"Mj"iii..Li- country 
hrKwpvtr nlnriidiuil in piuturt- Btid calUu ; ivliitli, a" in Si^iiuwrljud, 


much cncounigeil agriciilturi', lliai witliin tlicse fifty years e 
have risen nc:ir one thiiil in vuhie. 

RivKR4. Ill the kin^jfiloni of Denmark pmpcr, the rivulet 
iiunu rous ; hut scarcely u river of any note except the Eydax 
ancient Ijounclary iK'tween IXMunark and fiermiyiy. 

The chief river of NorM-:*y is the Glom or (ilomen, which 
navip^ahle, hut full of cataracts ami .slioais ; yet alKUit 50,000 
atre annually floated upon it to fYcdcrickstadt. It springs fro: 
hike ot Oresund on the north of tlio Fcsmund, and runs nearly 
ahout ;>00 Uritish miles. 

In rinmark the most considerahle river is the Tima, which 
low ed hy the Altcn ; hoth rising in the mountains to the nor 
SSwedish i^phuid, and flowing into the Aixtic ocean. 

l^AKKs. The lakes in the Danish dominions arc numeroiu 
most extensive hcing hi the south of Norway. The lake of '. 
is about 60 British miles in length, but Uic breadth is in genet 
tic considerable, except towarcls the centre, where it is from 
18 miles: it contains an island about ten miles in circumfei 
fertile in com, pasture and wooil. Next is the lake of R*r 
Uands-Sion, which is neiu* flfly miles in length, but not mort 
two in breadth. The lake of Tyri is a beautiful piece of ^ 
alwut fifteen miles in lengtli and breadth, diversihed with 
hays and creeks : the environs are delightful, consistuig of 
fields, fertile meadows, and hanging forests, backed by loity i 
tains towering above each otlier. 

Mountains. Norway is almost wholly an Alpine countiy 
southern part of the Scandinavian chain nnniing nciirly N. and I 
terminating at tlie province of llomschd, is called Lasmfiall, • 
J>ong Mountains, llcnce the part called Dofrafiall extends to 
the east, ending above the lake of Aursund or Oresund ; wh 
again proceeds almost due north, ijei-c also a considerable lb 
proceeds by Swucku, &.c. towards SwcdQQ. The third part < 
range, from tlie north of Oresimd and the ^^.^J^ity of the o 
mines of Uoras, is called the cliain of Kolkn, e.^i^^ding be 
Norway and Swedish Lapland, and afterwards benditiQ jj^ the 
of a horse-shoe, on the soutli of Finmark. . 

The height of these mountains has been extremely exagge 
Swuckustoct, which is one of the highest within tlie bord 
Norway, is 4658 feet above I^e Fsuiund, and that lake is tli 
to be 2* or 3000 above the sea. 

VEnr.TAiiLK AXD AftTivAL Propfctions. Tlic l>otany of Der 
proper docs not materially difter from that of the nortli«Ti pro- 
of the (icrman empire, which has already been slightly sketcl 
the accoimt of Prussia. Tlu»t of Norway will be incorporate! 
the vegetables of the rest of Scandinavia, under the article S\ 

Therc is a great diversity in the animal productions of the I 
dominions. The horses of Norway and Iceland arc as remai 
i'ov diminutiA'c size, as tliosc of Holstein are for the contrary qi 
Among the more peculiar animals may be first named the rein 
common ui Finmark and throughout Lapland. Tliis animal i 
bL's the stag, but is stronger ; and the deep division of his h< 

cd til trctdonthe biiow, bcinicjiuited bv PmviJcnceto »eaU 
U-, u Uk ounrLU to the hot duncrt 'iV cUt u a mow umiili. 
limkl, nnd wimeClmrN ^ipcur* In Voryftf, wbtoh in iDll-ded by 
uf, tliu wolt^ *nil llif Ijnx. The Icinining, ur NurwrKuin 
-, pruooed* fiwni the riduo nflEolcn, ami aunu'tiTiica apn-ucU 
itiuii like ttui Itwutt. IhcW oiiimata apppor in vust Mimhfrii, 
ciling Ttom tlio moiintiiiiui toward* Uic nr.-i. wiul ilivniiriiicr ivc- 

Kluct of the soil : it would sreni thni 'jii> '' < ' 'i I'f i< i v 

e&UblcIa.tlielFcnnnK', titcy >rlMt (I^-<u< iii:< 

Ur rjeittlN iDrnf ureildlali cdour, ;iu,: . ■ . . m 

1, Noi'WHy »lau l«utit of cagteh an'l iKr.i,.,:^ > ■.,!:: d 

ililest and nii^t spirited ofuirvyKiintpe. i hi.- i>ul<ii.iii uup 
» eoiinidcrublepiirt oi'thr tapuojer'ti food i nrid vbbI iiuiiihem 
•aatfiiittd on refn deer from tijp tlinnu (if the "nitw. Hiin 
iQ cofflfnnn in ihm rcmntc region, as vrfU tu i|ic Iimt, lynx, 
iX I nor uii lJ» frlilttori uiil IIlc )ic:ivct' uidtnuwri, Alxmt Ro- 
Norway tlie Saflvr animni i« sirtnetimr* found whito. ^ 
■Muu. Aboiitlhr year IfiiJ numc^ld nre wm fbomlTCiM' 
li, of which ducald wrtr itrtitk, The BiiiwM DrRnnK*lvr|C, 
W Ilritlril milei totlic S, W. of Chriminna, linvlne been Iiniir 
"< <ltr'rich*«t InF.iU'npei nnd iini*TniiHHof nMive iilvrt hi Uib 
^■",1 wagliK 4011 BiM-fc", Ijcin* worth :JtHK) n»-<loUiiPs, fjr 
. iL-iiuyf ineUlM«(V"tnIinlfmi inch 'o nrni* Ihsn (w* 
iikntM. Thnw nilrir»w«n> dJHcuw-ix'd iii 1633 liy twa 
aw vorked by 36 dinfTK, itnd n>cd to jrrU bhout 
■, when *)liii mm were rruptojrd j bnt rretiitly 
rnrni>vril t» Iha onbalt miiir* ai I'tiunm, SUinilcs » the 
i >t i< wipiMiacil thai Ihi prndiice of llieiiilvrrinintabnn:); 

,,|ii>niinli;i>ppor miooK of Harm, about S9 Brif'uh miten S. 
i ) 'iriihcim, wei'v diieovercd in 1644. 'the vein* are frum sis 
' i<) nix Clin in thickneiK -. nnd thi- are of n pule jvllew. In 
.'I ilic mine* of HoiMMVvriy productive, anaasowreof con- 

: mlnM nf wsbiUt at Fosmim arc s rcociit ili«cnvepy. ThU 
yuddoamili, op powder bin*, imed in pninlunj, pottery, and 
|abi. And in eokiiiring aiitrc!i ; mid the mine is Mippviwd lo 
[tieaelvarwuitiil rrTeniie to thecmwcof about lj,e0(rj^ 
llheironmino ofNcii-wByaw^MtMrnaJ the most ppotHablr 
appuri in the viciniiy of Kiing!>l>cJ'g i and thrre are nlum 
t nrav Chmtlana. 

maiit.CiiBiax'nui. ThcnoKlicm profinees iiFNnrvny iJforA 
tingtiilar fbalureH- Tliti Mulxtrom, is n remiriiuble wliirllKiol 
e klujn: uf Nurtiind, wliii:b will involve boats, aiul even sluim ; 
« hGllowiiiB •tram!** of the while ha™ riot ulways redefined 
!h>in tlic dingrr ; Uic botlcim a Aill nf cragvy ipires. nnd the 
tftily tremcndcAKi. Thv volcanoes of Icelaiu) may ulwi lie 
k1 unong' 111'- )cnndc)t tlraturci of iiutnre. Amnn); llieHe, 
It Hekhi IB tlie ino<l rema Asblc i it rises to tlic helRlit of abi.ut 
fiietiibo*etiiciie», Tlic nuwinlit is covered witli anow, txcept 
ipatf vhet«tlieheittprtdnniiuittih TbccratemarcnnmetoiiE, 


but the ernptions rtrc ; there having only been ten horn Htu 
1104 to 1693, after which it remain^^ quiet till 1765, when it 
ted Hames aiid la^-a. The boilinf^ :ipriiigs of Iceland present ] 
(>;iilar plienoincnon ; that of Geyser to tlie north of Skallholdt 
ini)si remarkable, risin}^ from an aperture 19 feet in divneter 
springing at intervals to the height of 50 or even 90 fbet. 


THE prime seat of the Danish monarchy having ever been ; 
isles of Zeelaiid, Funen, Laland, Fj^stcr, and otiiers of that g 
they have been considered in the general description of the ir 
<*hy. In the east, the farthest isle belonging to Denmark is t 
Bomhelm, a small but fertile spot, 

Offthe west coast of Jutland are the isles of Nordstrind, 
Syl^ Rom, Fanoe, and others. 

The Norwegian coast presents one continued series of sma 
unimportant islands, most of tliem indeed uninhabited. 

The Norwegian isles are in general mountainous or craggy 
the corresponding coast, with precipitous rocks, and a sea m>] 
to oOO fathoms deep washing their bases. 

The Ferroe isles are an appanage of the Danish crown : thi 
seventeen in number, and not unfertile, producing some barle 
abundant pasturage for sheep. Small j unipers, stunted willow 
birches, alone bear a diminutive image of trees. They were • 
vcred prior to Iceland, in the ninth century ; and export fea 
eider-down, caps, stockings, salted mutton, and tallow. T 
habitants do not exceed 5000. 

Tlie large and celebrated island of Iceland may be regard 
260 British miles in length from tlie most western cape to the 
isastern, and about 200 in breadth from N. to S. but the inhab 
do not exceed 50,000. The government was an aristocratic ref 
tbr about 387 vears, till in 1261 it submitted to Norway. ! 
middle of the fcurleenth centui-y this isle was greatly depopi 
hy a pestilence called tlie Black Death. A volcanic island re< 
arose to the south of Iceland, but afterwards disappeared, 
fceland a colony passed to Greenland, a short course of aboi: 
miles ; but the Danish colony in Greenland has been long exi 
in vain, the ea«terQ 9oast on which it irio settlid bemg unoe i 


SITITATION". Sweden is situiitiHl Ixitwccn 56 and 70 degixfiB uf 
nortli latitude, and 12 and 30 dc|:»Tees of <.*ust lonj^itiide. 

RxTBWT. Tlie king-dom of Sweden is of very considerable c An(« 
being from the most southern promontory of Srom- to tlie northtni 
extremity of Hwedish Ijjipland, not less than 115U Ilrltish miles in 
Icngtii, and in breadth, frrjin the Norwegian Alps to the limits of Uiis- 
Ilia, ftbout600. The contents in square miles have been computed 
at 208,912 i and the inhabitants iM^ing some years af^o KU]iiK>scd 
%977»345, tiierrt will be 14 to tlie square mile, inrludinf^ Swedish 
Pbmerania, computed at 1440 square miles, and 10.},345 iiilmbi- 

piinsioNH. The provinces of th« Swedish monarchy are 28 in 
nunil>er, and may be arranged in the followiiig* manner : 

Five in Sweden pwjx'r : three in W. E. and S. Gotiiland ; six i» 
West Norland ; one m West flothnia ; six in Swedish Laj>land ; 
two in East ISotiinia ; four in Finland ; and one in Swedish I'ome- 

AvTiaviTiEs. Tlie ancient monuments of Sweden consist chiefly 
(if judicial circles, and otlier erections of unliewn stone, foUowrd by 
tbe monuments inscribed with Runic chui-acters, none of which caii 
•afely be dated more anciently than the cleventli eentury. 

RxLXsius. The relig-ion of Swe<lun is tlie Lutheran, and tJil^ 
kingdom lias retained an archbiKhopric witn thirteen preJuries. 
The parishes amount to 2,537. l*he priests are computx;d at 1378 ; 
with 134 vicars, and 192 prepositi, or iniip<*ctor«. Some of i\io pa- 
rbhes are vcnr extensive, as that of eastern Itothnia, which is about 
150 miles in length by 48 in bi-eadth ; and auethcr pai-ish in l^p- 
land is still larger. 

C;ov F.RjvxavT. By the act of union, 1789, the constitution of 
Sweden Ixrcame an absolute monarchy ; Uie monarch having arro- 
^tcfl not only the riglits of iKract; and wsir, and tlie admini.stiation 
of justicyr, but tlie imposition of Uxen, wilhruit the consent of the 
cii<-t, which c:mnot deliberate on any subject till it be propos<{I by 
tlie tt'ivereifJTU. Tlie diet consLsts of nobles, and lai»<h<l jc'm' i*>ncn, 
clergy, burjresies, or deputies of towns, uiul those of tlie pei'Saniry. 
Kach of the four states has a speaker ; tlic archbishop of Upsal be- 


Ill SWK.bKN. 

ill}; hltrays ihc speaker of Uic clcrjo', while the king noiniiui 

\\\ llic prc'Viilrnrc of rrt-ncli inlrijfuo llic Iv^'A soviTcipi 
ctntlv lu-iii <l, anil ul)li};i d ui fly inMi» Ir.H iluiuinion! 
Ihf i;m|)o»ur «•;■ KrMue I»;us siiccotilrtl iii placin^c oik- (»f hi*» fa 
ffviu T,iU :it tiic I'.t-adof the p:i»VfnmR-iit, uikIct the tittcof 
Hi-j^f nt (;iS Weill n. 

l'tn'ri.rni>s. WiuMi til*' j.;;rr:i« oxtont oftlw Switlish Ictt] 
coTiRidcivil, tin- |M.j)ul.tiit»ii m ill apix-iii* comjwnilivrly hinall 
ciiiiiHTunct' wris.ii;^' m pari iVoin thi- ii)t)\intuinoiis nature of tin 
tr) , I'liil ill p;.ri fn>iii llu* >f^in* climotc of the iiorthrrn di- 
Swelli^ll L.iplaiul IkIm^' .siip])os<.(l Tir>t to contain nunv thun i' 
iiiil)itAn*N. Yrt :U jnvM'nl the popiilution of ihe king^doiii is t 
to txrcetl .>,inM),()U). Thi' noliiliiy ure so niinici-ous ;is tu 1 
putrd at alxiiit 2,500 fainiru-s; while the peasants, tlie most 
cMiM class, amount to alKtut 'J,UOO,UUO. 

Ar^t. .The S\vc(li.>h army ctinsists of nationul troops, 
i<)iVi)(n infantr}-, tlic.hi'cUr heing^ computed at uhout I'J.OUC 
tiital i.n)ount of the armv ni.'i) he 4H,000 ; ami the sohlicrs 
(liHiiujpiishcd valour and !iardiliood,andelateil witli the iorm 
iif the Swedish arms. 

Xavy. So liital were the iiuval operations of 1792, that th 
ilisli fleet, which consisted of JO ships of flif line, cannot n 
play :il)(}Ve half that nuniher. In the Ihdtic, wiiich is full 
eoastb :ind shoals, gal lies of a flat con>tiuction an- found mc 
vireai>le than ships of war, and of course jn^-at attention is 
l!)( ir e<juipmer.t hy Sweden as well :ib INissia. 

nKVKMK. The revenue of Sweden is computed at aboir 
1": i:i and a half sterlinj^, which is e(|ualled hy the expenccs 
i;o\ ernment. The iKitioiial debt cannot be much less than 10,0 
5t( rlinj;'. 

I'oLiTirAT. iMPOHTixrK ksii Rklationh. Tlie political 
taiice and relations of this kingilom are much diminish#Kl s 
^loriotis reijjn of (iustaf Adolph, and the beneficent sway of 
M. Prior to llic late revolution in France, Sweden had bi 
dupe of tliat crafty cabinet. Of late tliis alliance seems to I 
ficed to a more useful C(mnexion witli Denmark and rnissia 
cm alone g-uard the north of Kuropc from the pnigress oft] 
^ian pivp<Mulei'ance. 

\Un NFiiK AMI Ci-BTOMR. Tlic manncrs and customs of tl 
rior r lasses in Sweden, and even ofUie peasantiT, have 
KrenehiHed (a fatal symptom wherever it apijcars), that th 
been styled the Ki-cneh of the north. The men ari* commi 
l)Tist and well formed, and the women slender and clepant. 
tives of the westi-ni province of llalecarlia n*lain manv anci< 
toms, and have Ixen distl?ijfiiished for their courage and 
ijnce the time of (lustaf AVase. 

Lanu r \i; k. The luiiLni;.ge of Swe<len is a dialect of the 
hi-iiijr a sister of the l)unuih, Norwepij-n, and Icelandic 
Boiith of Sweden, which contains the chief mass of populatic 
tieniiaii and Frencli words have been adopted ; while Uic ] 

SWEDEK. 115 

lian on the N. esteemed a ])cculi:ir duilcct, jxiiiaps only be- 
cause it contuins more of tlic ancient tenns and idioms. 

EnrcATiON. The university of Upsal is the most ancicni and re* 
nowiied, containing about 500 students ; while tliat of Lundcn pre- 
sents about oU'J. A third is at Abo in Finland, froqiiented cvtn by 
students from Iluysia ; and the wliolc number is computed as i'(|ual- 
ing- thut of L'ps:il. Tiiere arc besides twelve literary academies, 
nio.>t of whicij publish memoirs of ihcir transactions. The library 
at Upsal is richly furnished with books, remitted by Gustaf Adolpli 
wliei! his victorious arn\s penetrated deeply into Germany ; Swtdcn 
having" thus acquired by war the first materials of hor httrary fame. 

Cities atso Towrsfs. ' Stockholm, tlie capita] of Sweden, stands in 
a singular situation, Ijctween a creek, or inlet of the Raitic sea, and 
the lake Mxler. It occupies seven small n)cky islands, and the sce- 
nery is truly singular and romantic. Mosi of the houses are oi'slone 
or brick, covered with white stucco : excejit in the suburbs, where 
tevcL'aiai'e oif woo<l painted red, as usual in the countr}- of Sweden. 
This city was founded about the middle of the tliirtcenth centary ; 
and in tlic seventeenth century the i*oyal residence was tmnsferred 
hither from Upsal. The imtrance to the harbour is throug^h a nar- 
row streif^ht, of somewhat difticidt access, especially as there are 
no tides : and for four months in tlic year is frozen. It is however 
deep, and capable of reviving- a great numlx:r of vessels. The royal 
palace stands in a central and high situation : and there are a castle, 
■n arsenal, :ind several academies. The majiufactures are few, of 
glass, china, woollen, silk, linen, &c. J^y tlie hitest i^ccounts the 
population of Stockholm ma}- be estimated at 80,000. It is situated 
in S9^ 20' N. lat. and 18° 4' K. long". 

Kext in dignity is Upsul, the only archbisIJO])ric, and formerly 
esteemed the chief city of the kingdom ; but at present tlie inhabi- 
lants, exclusive of the students, do not exceed 3000. 

Gotheborg", or Gothenburg, in the province of West Gothland, 
18 esteemed tJie second city in Sweden, having a population of 20,000, 
though it was only founded by Charles IX. or rather bv Gustaf 
Adolph. Besides considerable' commerce, the herring fisliery con- 
tributes to enrich Gothenbm-g. The streets are uniform ; and the 
circumiei*ence is computed at near three miles. 

EuiPiCEs. Even including the royal jwlaces, Swc<len cannot 
boast of many splendid edifices. The roads are m general far supe- 
rior to Ihose'of Deimiark and Norway, which seem unaccountably 
neglected, good roads being the very stamina df national improve- 

l-VLAXD NAVtoATioy. Of late a laudable attention has been paid 
to inland navigation; and the chief effort has been to form a canal 
between Stockliolm and Gothenburg. The intention was to corduct 
an inland route from the Meier I^ke to tliat of Hielmer, and thence 
to thatof Wener ; and by the river fiotha, an outlet of tlie latter, to 
the Sltager Rack and German sea: This gi-and design is already ui 
some measure completed. 

MARrFACTi-RRR ASH COMMERCE. TlieSwcdish mainifactures are 
hr from being numerous, consisting cliicfly of those ol" iron and 


steel ; with cloths, hsts, watches, and nil cloth. 
turvH of cupper and hrass, und tlic cdnstniction of shipi^ al 
py many haiidb. In 178J, it was comimted that 14,000 v 
p'lf)\ud in tiiosc (if wool, silk, and cotton. Of native prod 
ported, iron is the most considerable ; and it is said taat ' 
ers in the kinj^om arc about 25,600. 

The commerce of Sweden rests chiefly onthe export of the 
products, iron, timlnrr, pitch, tgr, hemp, and copper. 1 
also ff>rm a considerable article, ^he cliief iniport is com 
•us kinds, particularly r^-e, Sweden rarely anordlng a su 
for her own consumption ; with hemp, tobacco, sugar 
drugs, silk, wines, &c. Mr. Coxe has published a table of t 
dish commerce, whence it appears that the exports then ai 
to 1,368,830A 13«. 5J. and the imports to l,00s,393/. 13*. 
that the balance in favour of Sweden was about 360,000iL stc 

C LI HATE Axi) Seasovs. The different parts of Sweden 
considerable varieties of temiJeratiire. The ^Iph of Botl 
comes one field of ice ; and travellers pass on it from FinlaiK 
isles of Aland. In the most southern provinces^ the climate 
oompared to that of Scotland, which lies under the same f 
but tlie western gpalcs from the Atlantic, which deluge the ! 
Ilig^hlands with perpetual rain, and form the chief obrtacl 
prove ment, are little felt here. In the north the summer ia 
tlie reflection of the numerous mountains, airid the extreme 
of the days ; for at Tomea, in Swedish Lapland, the sun is 1 
weeks visible at midnight ; and the winter in return presen 
weeks of complete darkness. 

Face of tre Cocxtrt. Soil asd AeRicuLTras. No cou 
be diversified in a more picturesque manner, with extenaivi 
larpfe transparent rivers, winding- streams, wild cataracts, 
forests, verdant vales, stupendous rocks, and cultivatCMJ 
The soil is not the most propitious ; but agriculture is coi 
m'ith skill and industry, so as much to exceed that of Germs 
Denmark. Even Finland presents many rich pastures, am 
few fields of rye, oats, and barley. 

Rivers. Sweden is intersected by numerous rivers, the 
of which are in the native language called Elbs, or Elfs. Tl 
considerable flow from the lakes, without any great length of 
such as the Gotlia, the only outlet of the vast lake of Wener, 
peded by many rocks and cataracts. The most important 
river Dahl, consisting of two conjunct streams, which risi 
Norwegian Alps, give name to the province of Dalam, or Dal 
and, after a coui*se of about 260 British miles, enter the ] 
gulph ; not far from its mouth is a cataract, esteemed little 
to that of the Rhine at Schaffhausen, the perpendicular hei 
ing between 30 and 40 feet. Tiie surrounding scenery also 
llie eflect, which is truly sublime. 

Lakki?. Few coimtries can rival Sweden in the extent an 
ber of lakes, which appear in almost every province. Of tl 
most important is the AVener, which is about 80 British o 
length by ;^ut 50 in breadth, in great part sunoimded v 

s^YEDEN. irr 

and rocks of red granite. It receives 24 rivers, abounds witk 
nd contains many romantic isles. 

:t is tlie Weter, a lake of equal length, but inferior in breadth, 
seldom exceeds twelve miles. This lake being siurounded 
loiintainsis particularly subject to storms in the stillest u'eu- 
ivhence arises many popular tales and superstitions. 
; lake Meier, at the conflux of which with the Baltic is found- 
city of Stockholm, is about sixty British miles in length by 
en in breadth, and is sprinkled with picturesque isles. Ani 
S. W. is the lake o&Heilmar, more remarkable for its propo- 
ilify in tlie inland navigation than for its extent. 
TNTAisa. Sweden may be in general ragarded as a moimtain- 
imtry ; in which respect it is strongly constrasted with Den- 
iroper, or Jutland, and the isles. The chief mountains are in 
levated chain which divides Sweden and Swedish Lapland 
Norway ; from which successive branches run in a S. K. di- 

STABLE AND AsriiTAL Pboductios-s. Under the direction of 
Ucges established for the improvement of agriculture, the 
ta have, at length, in a great measure, corrected the natural 
y of*their country ; and, in favourable seasons, they now 
rain enough to supply tlie wants of the inhabitants. The 
SI summer are covered with a beautiful verdure, enameled 
owers, and produce great quantities of cuiTants, rasbcrriei^ 
lerricf and other small fruit. Ostrogothia bears large crops 
, wheat, barley, odts, beans, and peas, 
imber trees tliere are but few species ; the most common, and 
vhich constitute the wealth of Scandinavia, are the Norway 
and the fir : the wood, from its lightness and straiglitness, m 
*nt for masts and yards, and various domestic purposes ; tlie 
as tar, turpentine, and pitch, is almost of equal value with the 
and the iimer bark, mixed with rye meal, furnishes a coarse 
in time of scarcity. The mountain ash, the alder, the birch, 
varf bircli, and several kinds of willow, are foimd in the whole 
ula ; the lime, the elm, the ash, and the oak, though grow- 
th ft-eedom in the southern parts, are incapable of withstand". 
: rigours of a Lapland winter. 

S^i^ish horses are commonly small, but spirited ; and are 
Fed, by lying without litter, fiim some of the nimierous dis- 
jo which tliis noble animal is subject. The cattle and sheep 
seem to present any tiling remarkable. Among the wild 
a may be named the bear, the lynx, the wolf, the beaver, the 
the glutton, the flying squirrel, &c. The rein-deer of Lap- 
brieiSy described in flie account of the Danish monai*chy. 
n also presents one or two singular kinds of falcons, and aa 
» variety of .^me. 

;sB 4iJ». Sweden has some gold and silver mines, though they 
t highly valued. Its copper mines are rich : the chief are in 
>vince of Dalocarlia. On the castof the town of Fahlun is a 
u>ppcr mini", supposed lo liave been worked for near a thousand 
The metal is not found in vtins, but in large oasMS ; and. 

lis aWBDHX. 

the mouth of the mine presents an immense chum, neariy tkiee quar-' 
ters of an Kn^lish mile in circumference, the perpendicular d^itk 
being* about 1020 feet. About 1200 miners ore employed. Copper is 
also vrrf)ug-ht in Jemtland ; and at Ryddarhytte is found iron. Nop 
is Suvdcn (loficicnl in lead : but iron forms the principal prodncta 
and tlu: mine of I).inamora is particularly celebrated for the superi- 
ority of tlie metal, which in Rng'Iand is called Oreg^md Iron, be- 
cause it Is exported fi-om Oreg^und, an adjacent port, where the 
Ilothnic ^ulph joins the B<dtic. Ber^nan (k^cribes the iron loine 
ef Taberg-, in Smoland, as consisting of beds of ore, of a blackish 
brown, separated by bctla of mould without any stone. This enor- 
mous mineral pile is rivalktil i>y an entire mountain of inm ore netr 
Tornea, in Lnpland; and at I<uleo t!ie moiuitain of Clellivar fbrmsa 
mass of lich iron ore, of a bhtckish blue, cstcnding* in an irregqh» 
rein for more than a mile, and in thickness fix>m 300 to 4f00 faUuiBi^ 


Sweden possesses many islands, scattered in the Baltic 
gEiilph of Bothnia. RugtMi, Lhe most southerly, affords as it 
pass.i;^* to tlie Swedish possessions m Pomerania. It was annetfil 
to Swixien by t!ie treaty of Westphalia, and it is not a littli-i prodiw* 
tive in (z^r.un and cattle. Further to the north east is the lonj^ idlaiA 
of Oland, or Oeland, in Icr.g'tli about seventy miles, in breadth aboM 
six. The horses are small, but strong', an<f the forests abound with 
deer, nor is tlie wild boar unknown. Next occurs the isbmd'df 
Go', hland, about seventy miles in lenp^h, and twentv-four in breudtfri - 
a fcriilc clistrict, remarkable for an excellent breetl of sheep, ftm 
isles of .Viand m.irk the vnir^jice of the Bothnic prulph, deriving thor 
name fi^om the L;rg-;si ; which is about forty miles in If-ngtli, taut 
iift(*e:i in bre..dth, containing about 900i) inhabitants, who spea^ tiid 
Swfdiflk language, though kcluUed xd the gov«nmw»t wf Fiirtronil 



'UATTOX. Portugal is Hiluatecl between 37 and 42<Icgfees 

Iat.and between 5" 4U' and 9° oO' of W. lonj,^iiudc. 

PBXT. Poi-tug^al extends uboul 360 UnliHh niilcb in kTi|^h hj 

t breadtli ; and is supposed to contain al>out 27,28U square 

, which, with a |X)pidation of l,8o8,879, will yield 67 inhabit 

U> the mile square. , 

iTHDAaiM. It is bounded by Spain, in tlie north and east, and 

e Atlantic ocean, in tlie soutli and west ; being the most wea- 

kingdom of Vuropc. 

TiQ,uiTii8. IVr antiquities of Portugal consist cliiefly of Ro- 

monuments, with a few M(M)rish remains. In tJie fartheat 

is an extensive tmrfg^n of arches, foimerly a liomun aqueduct. 
»g the antiquities of \}ie middle ages may be named the noble 
«tery ofllatalha, in Poituguesc Kstramadura, alM>ut 60 milen 
3 north of Lisbon, founded bv Jolin I. at the close of i lie four- 
h century, in consequence »/ihc great victory over the king of 
le, one of the most noble mmuments of what is called tlie 
ic style of architecture. 

unios. The religion of Portugal ;» the Roman'Cathollc ; and 
ict observance of its duties forms cma of the national charac- 
:ics. There are two iu*chbishopncH, a»fl ten rpiscopal sees i 
iiere is besides a patriarch. The number ^fpanblit-s approach- 
iir thousaHd. 

lYKRKMKNT, &c. Tlic Constitution of PortugiJ U a monarchy, 
lute and hc-reditnry ; yet, in caHCof the king's demise without 
: issue, he is succeede<l by his next brother ; whose sons h.ivc 
iw.T no right to the throne till confirmed by the states. The 
"articles ot'the constitution are rontained in tlie statutes of* Iia- 
ly issued by MphoMso I. in 1145. The laws have fi'W partieu- 
its : thry aiv U'liient in cases of theft, which nuist be repeated 
times bi'fonMleath be thepunisliment. 
viRioKR AND I'oFi LATioN. Portugal is dlvldcd into six provin- 

Two being on the north of tlie kiui^dom, two in the middle, 
two in tlie south. The population ot the whole is, ;.c('oi-ding to 
tichtrr, 1,838,879; hut by Murphy's st at emnit, iJ,.^88,470. 
RMT, Lq. The army is only con»puted at al?oul 24,000; and 
nilitta might pf:rluips amount to as gKat a number, Tke nuval 


power, once considerable, is reduced to thirteen sail of theline« ftnid 
Hrti*<-n trigputes. 

U£> kM Ks. The rcvenoc is calrulutcd ai 2,0uu,000/. sterling, and 
the ^Id ot BrHzii mostly patises to tliigiuiid in return for arUclea of 

Mannkrs axd CrHTOMS. The manners and customs of tlie Par- 
tug^icse urc' discriminated into those of the norihcni aiKl southeni 
provinces, 'the former being more nidus rious and sincere, tlie latter 
more polite and uidolcnt. In gencnd tlic Portuguese are an elegant 
race, With regular features embrowned by tiie sun, and durli ez« 
pressivc eyes. The prejudices of nobility are as common and per* 
, nicious in Portugal as in Spain ; nor is that gcQcral interoourM 
found which imparts knowledge and vig. lur to society. Ludiesof 
rank still imitate the industry of tlieir ancestors in spinning flax 
from tlie distafl : and tlie oriental manner oi silting on ciishxoiu m 
the Hoor is oflen practised. The dress resembles tlic Spanish. Tk^ 
peasantry remain miserable vassals of tiie Hidalgos, or gentlaneo. . 

Lanouase. The Portuguese huigiiage is more remote from th^ 
of Castile than might be expected from the circumstances. As tk 
royal race was et Frencli extract, it is supposed tliai many of 1^ 
words are derived from the Limos in and other dialects of the & of 
J'^rance. It is a grave and solemn speech. 

I'vHLTc SciiooLH. Educatioii seems {j^reatly nes*^^^ in Portugds 

though the imiversity of Coimbra be ot ancient date. That of Evon 

•was founded in 1553 ; and u college at Mas^A in 1772. The nxpl 

academy is of recent erection, and tlie des)^ aspires to conaideruJe 

public utility. 

CiTiKs ANB Tow3?8. Llsbon, tlie capital city of Portugal, wm 
calleil Ly the aiicicnts Ulyssippo, it-id the fountiation fabulously M- 
cribed to Ulysses. The si tuatior*s grand, on the north side of ih^ 
mouth of tlic Tago, and is sheltered on tlie N. W. by a ridge of hiUi. 
'i^hc haven is capacious and e>^cellcnt. The population is computed 
at about 200,060. The eai^iquake of 1755, a dreadful and memora- 
ble epoch among the inlip^itants, has contributed to the improvement 
of the city, Uie new streets beuig broad and well paved, resemUiDg 
those of the west eivl of London. Tiie patriarchal cliurch is singu- 
larly magnificent, and the revenue is computed at 114,000/. The Eng* 
lisli have an open burial gi'ound. The royal monastery of Belcm, 
ibunded by king £mai\uel in 1499, stands about five miles S. W. of 
Lisbvii ; and to tlic north is a noble modem aqueduct completed m 

The next considerable and only town we shall notice is Oporto ; 
seated on the N. side of tlie river Douro, about five miltHi from tlie 
sea, upon the declivity of a hill, so that the houses rise like an am- 
pin tJieutre. The streets are however luirrow, and the houses ill 
constnicted. The churches are of littlb note : the Dritlsb factory 
is a large and neat building. The chief exports are wine, oranges, 
lemons, &c. and Imcn cloth to tiie American colonies in Rra/.il. 

Kuipir.Ks. The chief edifices of Lisbon are tlic catlicdral, and 
monasteries, foi*merly mentioned. The nobility, as in Spain, cro^d 
to the ca^ntal; whence the country is little decorated with Tillai. 


ffndeT this head may be also classed a noble aqueduct of two leagues, 
which conveys waletfrom the rock oV Liquor for the use or the 
city. Under the grand arch of tliis beuutiful edifice, a frig^aie might 
pass in full sail. 

IsTLAXD NAyiGATios*. Poi*tugal scciTis to havc paid noatteniioii 
whatever to the construction of canals ; nor perhaps arc they foiind 
nccessaf}', in a country abounding* witli rivers, and bordered with 
an ample extent of sea coast. 

Maxufacttxes ax© CoMMEitcK. Thc Portujj^uese niaiui^lKtures 
are few and unhnportant; hats and paper huve been iate)\ i;ibr;ca- 
ted at Lisbon; but the chief niunufuctories are those of woollen 
ck>t]i at Covilham, Portalegre, and A/eituon. 

A considerable connnerciul intercourse subsists with EiiL'lund ; 
but the balance in favour of thc latter appears u) be about -ir.;, j ;07. 
iterlii^ : and Ireland gains by her exports about 63,OuOA anii<i. ily 
TheFiumoiith packets bring frequent rcinitiunces of bullion, e^m. 
diamonds, and other precious stones; and for a considerable iiiiic 
die Portugese gold money was cniTcnt in Kngland. Besides wool- 
lent and hardware, England transmits to Portugal large caivocs of 
Baited and dried fish, Uie last article to the annual amount ot about 
300,000/. 'Die exports of Portugal are chiefly whie, oil, oran^-es, 
ICBonSf fig's, Ekigar, cotton, cork, drugs, and tobacco. 1'ortugal 
riao maintains a considerable trade with her flourishing colony in 
Brazil, the inhabifcmts of which are computed at 900,000. The ar- 
tidea exported to America are cliiefly woollens, linens, stuHs, gold 
aid silver lace, lish dried in Portugal, hams, sausages, &c. witli 
glaas manufactured at Marinha. Brazil returns gold, silver, pearls, 
precious stones of viu-ious descriptions, rice, wheat, maize, sugar, 
molasses, ornamental timber, and many other articles rather curious 
than important. The drugs, spices, and articles used m d}'ing, must 
not however be omitted. The trade with tlie East Indies is incon- 
aiderable ; and tliat with tlie other Eui*opean nations scarcely de- 
serving^ notice. Some trade is also carried on with the American 

* Clitcatx awd Seasons. The climate of Portugal is familiarly 
known to be most excellent and salutary. v\t Lisbon the <lays of 
fair weatlier are computed to amount to 200 in tlie } ear ; and those 
of settled rain seldom exceed 80. The medial heat is generally 
about 60**. 

RivEBfi. The chief rivers and mountains of Portugal have i>ecu 
already enumerated in tlie description otSp. in. 

MocxTvivji. The face of the com. try is mviuntuinous, or Trither 
rocky, for the mountains are j^encrally barren. The chief are ihosc 
tliat djvitlc Algur\c f:om Aleiitejo ; iht>so ot'TraSos montcb, Arra- 
bida suid Montejunto, in EstramI dur.i ; EiU'olla, in Beira ; Ossa, in 
Alenteja ; and (.'intra, near Lisbon. 

Vegftablk Axn AxnrAL Piionr'. iij vs. The vcf;ctab'.e and ani- 
mal productions of Portug.J may be regurded as tlie MiUic with that 
of Spain. The horsv.'s are liowevcr Tn:tch iiil'.rior. Thr: sheep arc 
also neglected, and fur.from numerous ; but sv'inc abousd, and are 



fed with excellent acorns, so tliat the Portugraese hams 'are 
vedly esteemed. 

Mi 5E1IAL8. The mineralogy of Portugal has been almost ai 
neg'lccted as the agriculture. In the two nortliem provinc 
seen immense mines, supposed to have been worke<l by then 
The mouth of tlie largest, cut through the solid rock, is a m 
an half in circumference, and upwards of 500 feet deep ; at tl 
torn it measures 2,400 feet by 1,400. Many subterranean pa 
pierce the mountain like a lali^Tinth, and the whole works 
the grandest scuic. Small veins of gold liavc been observed 
mountains of Goes and Estralla ; and it is still found in the si 
some streams. Under the domination of the Spaniards, a n 
silver was worked, not far from Bragfanza, so late as the yeaj 
Tin was also found in various parts of the northern provinces, 
arc lead mines at Mursa, Lamt^go, and Cogo ; copper is foun 
Elvis and in other districts. The iron mines are neglected 
deficiency of fuel j though coal be found in different parts 
kingdom, and that of Buarcos supply the royal founder}* at I 
Emery is found near the Douro ; and many beautiful marbles a 
in this kingdom. Fullers earth occurs near Giiimerans. Po 
also boasts of antimony, manganese, bismuth, and arsenic ; an 
Cas(ello-Branco are mines of quicksilver. Rubies have been 
vered in Algarve ; jacinths hi the rivers Cavado and ficlUa ; bi 
aquamarine in the mountain of Estralla. 

Nattrit. Curtosittks. On the north bahk of the river Dc 
a high massy cliff, with engraved letters or hieroglyphics, i 
with Vermillion and blue : beneath which is a grotto suppof 
abound with bitumen. 


SITUATION. Swisserland is situated between 46 and AS de- 
grees, north latitude, and between 6 and 1 1 dc^ccb of cast longi- 

ExTKTfT, &c. In lengtli from east to west, Swisserland extends 
about 200 British miles ; and in breudtli, from iiortli to south, 
about 130. The contents in square miles Jiavc btt-n estimalfd at 
14^9t>U ; but the greater part is lost to liuman industry, consisting 
of vast rocks, partly covcn'd with eternal ice «nd snow. Even of 
this countrj', the boundaries are rutiier arbiir;»ry than natural ; 
thougii on tfie west mount Jur.. forms a grand division fi-om France ; 
and on the south tlie Pennine Alps, a partial barrier frcmi Italy. On 
the east lies the Austrian tirritor\' of Tyrol, and on tiie north is 
Bwabia, contuining', as it were an excrescence of Swisserland on the 
ether side of the RluiK*, the smuU canton of Schaifhauscn. 

DrvifiioNs. The Swiss league, before the Frencli invasion, con- 
nisted of thii*teon independent confederated cantons, together with 
their subjects and allies. Six of the cantons are Protestant, and 
seven Roman Cattiolic. 

AwTiauiTiKM. The ancient monuments of Swisserland are not 
numerous, consisting- ciiiefly of a few remains o\' the Romans, at 
Aventicum and Vinciernissa, and at B.»<len, of the ancient Tl:ennw 
Helvctic3e. Of the middle ages are many castles, churches luid 
monasteries ; among tlie latter ihat of tlie abbey of St . Gul, tlie li- 
brary of which supplied tlie manuscripts of tliree or tour classical 
authors, no where else to be found. 

Kp.LKriox. The religion of the Swiss countries is in som.e, the 
Roman Catholic, in others, ihe Reformed. Of the former |>ersua- 
sion are Uri, Sehweitz, rnderw.iden, cantons which fornded ihe 
liberty of the countr)', with Z'lg, Lucerne, Friburg, Sr)lothui-n, 
part of Glarus, and Appenzcl. In these are tViund six b:sl;oi>rics9 
and one metrojJolitan sec. The n.-formed cantops ai-e of the Culvi- 
ntstic or Presbyterian persuasion ; being the rich and extensive 
canton of Rem, with Zurich, Hasel, Schafniau^en, *iie greatest 
part of (ilanis, and s<tmo portions oi'Appenzvl. Tiie country of the 
Grisfins is chiefly Protestant; and Valla is, an :dly of tlie thirteen 
contonp, once was the scene of atrocious persecutions on account of 


its disofTrction from the Catholic faith ; but iil general the V 
suasions live now in the most amiable unity and moderation. 

(lUVKRNMEXT. Tlic |2;t)vemment of Swisserl:ind has been s 
tliL-mc of discussion. The most |>owcrftil cuntons of Bom, 1 
l^ucfnic, and Friburp;', had I'elaineil much of the teudal ar: 
ric fonii. The other cantons were more democratic ; but 
oent su!)Vi'rsion (►f tho jyovenunent by the French has for son 
reduced Swisserland t(» a dt'ixndent pmvince, with new d 
and arranj^ements. The laws formerly j^artook of the natun 
g*o\v'.iuT)ent of each canton ; and under the aristocracies wei 
cicntiv jealous and severe Yet Swisserland was till lateh 
the liap|)iesl countries in Europe, and ivcommended itselt 
most iutt-nip'nt obseners, equally hy moral and by physici 
deur and beauty. 

PoprtATioN. The population of this interest injf country i 
vally computed at 2,(JUO,000, or about 130 to the square mill 
so Iurp:t^ aportion is uninhubltable, that on a subtraction c 
parts the nun\ber might he about 200 to the square mile. 

Ahmt. The mi litjuy force was reckoned at about 20»00 
in the late struft*K:le with Franc; this force appears to have 1 
vidid, and little effectual. The Swiss repments in foreign i 
mostly tliat of Pnince, were computed at 29 ; but they n 
\veaken;-d in frame and morals, and seldom proved service 
tlie Siate. 

UrvhM'E. The ruinous effects of French extortion cnnno 
rined, but the revenue of Swisserland was formerly comp 
somewhat more than a million sterling", arising' fi-om modcn 
Ht ion, from tolls, national (1uniaiu»i, and foreign subsidies. ■ 

AI.vNN.wis AND Or'^iTOMs. Amtdst the general corruption * 
iitTs, those of llie Swiss have long- excited appluuse, fron 
moral uniformity and frank indepemlence. The liouses are gc 
<:onstructcd of wood, in the most simple form, with stairc 
the outside ; yet their ap])earancc singularly coincides with 1 
turesque character of the country'. The dress of the l^^wer i 
little subject to the laws of fashion, and in many cantons tli 
regulations to prevent idle ornament. Among the superior 
the manners may be considered as partly German and partly F 
huttlie latter have too mucli preponderated. In general, th 
are i-cmarkable for an intense att:ichment to their native cc 
and there are few who do not return there to terminate thei 
once. This impression is almost irresistable, and liable to h 
kened by tlie most minute circ\imstances. Hence in the Fre 
mies the tune called the Ranees dcs Vaches, often sunjyby th 
milk -maids when they went^to the pastures, Wjts carefully intei 
because it melted the rough Swiss soldier into tcai-s, and 
failed to produce desertion. 

Lanouaoe. The language of Swisserland is a dialect of tl 
man ; but tlic French is nuich diffiised, and is often emplr 
their best authors. In the most soutlxcm p>arts, bordering o 
the Italian is the common tonpfuc. 

I'utcATiow. TUe importwxt subject of education has beei 


rated by tlie travellers inio Swisseihind ; but as they testify 
surprise at the knowlcdj^e |jcucr«il} pi'cv.iLiit amoii^ the pea- 
y, tliere is reason to infer tliai this useful jirovintc i^ ii:m n.-- 
ed. There is an university of some rt-puu-.ion .it lnwic v., uud 
ler ut Basel ; wiih coUcg"es at Heme, Ziuucn, .aid J^iu-eine. 
riES AXD TuwN's. Ih enumerating ilie chiet cities a. ul tu\vns 
tvisserland, according to the comparative bt:tnd»rd oi pw{)ida- 

Basel will engajL^e tlie first attention, being suppo:> u. oou- 
L4,000 souls. This city stands in a pleasant situaiioD u])()ii tho 
s of the Kbine. It crowns both banks, and is uniteil hy a 
pe. The cathedral is an ancient Gothic edifice, containing 'he 

of the great Erasmus ; aod the university has produced many 
rious men. 

rn claims tlie next rank to Basel, possessing a population of 
t 13,000. This city is of singular neatness and beauty, the 
ts being broad and long, and Uie houses of grey stone rcsting 
xades. There are several streams and fountains; and tlie 
Aar almost surrounds the cit}-. Bern contains several libm- 
xid collections of natural curiosities . 
rich is the tliird in rank among tlie Swiss cities, situated on a 

lake, amidst a populous and &tiic country ; which produces 
lance of wine for domestic consumption. The college and 
\}i' education are respectable ; and tlie public libraiy contains 
curious manuscripts. 

isamie contains about nine thousand inliabitants, and is dcserved- 
ebnited tor the beauty of its situation, though in some spots deep 
Ligged. The church is a magnificent Gothic building, liaving 
a catliedral, while the Pays uu Vaud was subject to the house 

iFicEs. The chief edifices of Swisscrland are in tlie cities, and 
been already noticed. 

MMJincE A 511 Maxufactubes. Commei'cc and maiiufacturea 
it much flourish in this inland i*egion. Cattle constitute the 
produce of the countr\' ; and sonic of the cheese lorms nn cx- 
of luxury. The chief linen hianufactuiYS were at Si. Gal. 
ed cottons and watclies also fomi considerable ai'ticles'of sale, 
re silk manufactures unknown in Swisserland. 
iMA*E AJTD Seasons. The climate of Swisserland is deservedly 
rated as salubrious and delightful. From its southern posi- 
ronsiderable heat might be ex[)ected ; but this, tliough snfK- 
to mature the grape, is attempered by the cold gales from the 
and glaciers. When tlie sun descends beyond Mount Jura, on 
imer evening, tlie Alpine summits long reflect its sploiidnur, 
he lakes for near an hour assume the appearance of burnished 
The winter is however in some parts extremely severe ; and 
immcr heat in the deep vales often oppressive 
^ERs. . The rivers of Swisserland ai*e numerous ; and among the 
sublime scenes of this country must be classed the sources of 
Ihine :uid Rhone, two of the most important streams in Europe. 
e Rhine rises in the country of the Grisons, from u glacicr upon 
immit of mount Badur, at the head of a valley, called tire 

L 2 


RhinirwaUl. From its sDurce the Khinc pervade? or horde 
si-rLiiu'., i' r :i^'»H*. IIk- ot*2U0 Ilriiish nnle^, niniim;. 
llu- lako nf Coi>t.inCL', whiuce it benil> W. to Basel; where i 
its lii'K- ..ortlu-m rmirso. 

TIk- \:ir arises in ihc Alp callcil the (Irimscl, hendiii^ it 
to tI.'- N. W. till "it arrives near Aiberg", ii ai\"rwurils turns 
ci-ivis iliL- K.-U'i-i Mill ihc I/urin a, »nd jo:ns thr Khiiie opp 
\V;imIs]»m*, afu t a c-i'irs- tif aho«:T loU Kriush niilus. 

'llu.' U^rU'S, whjol» d>i«l'.s S\vjj.>,orl;md into two ulmo! 
parts f*. st.-rn und Wiiit-.r«, sj)rinj;s fixmi the lake of* Lucendi 
^. W. # r St. lititli.rd. The Ueiiss joins ihe Aur, atUn- a c 
uhoiit 80 Dritish milef. 

The Uhone, a noble strer.m, can f»nly be rejjpaiiktl as a Swi 
prior to It 3 entfrrinjr the lake of, after a com*8e of: 
British miles, througli that extensive vale called the Vallais 
river rises in mount Fiirca,ihe source beinj^ i-ather warm, ar 
5400 feet above the sea. 

Lak>:4. The lakes of Swisserland are numerous and int< 
The most considerable are those of Constance on llieN. E. 
neva on the S. W. The former is about 45 British miles ir 
and in some places 15 in breadth. 

The laki* of Geneva extends in the form of a crescent, z 
British miles in lonjjth, and nine at it».^freatest breadth. T! 
ties of this lake have been celebrated by Rousseau, but ^ 
consi*ler;ibly increased if it were sprinkled with islands, 
these are the lakes >f apfg"iorc, and Lug^ano, the lakes of Ne 
and Zurich, and some others of inferior note. 

MorvTAixs. The mountains of Swisserland are the most 
ted in Europe ; and are supposed to yield in heig-ht to none 
those of South America. Inagvr.eral point of view the Alps 
ill a kind of semicircular form, from the jrulf of Genoa throu 
F.erland, which contains their centre and highest pai-ts ; an 
nate in the Camic Alps on the X. of tlie Adriatic sea. Th 
«'f this vast course of mountains maybe computed at about 
tisii miles. Of all these stupendous works of nature Mont 
:ho highest, being 15,662 feet abo%-c tlie level of the -sea. 

VEGr.TABLK AND AxiMAL PBODrcTioxs. In uo countrv, c 
!»o great a pn)portion consists of lakes and mountains, can 
tare be carried to a great extent. But tliere is no want of i 
Jind the grain seems sufficient for domestic consumption. 
is cultivated even to the edge of the glaeiers ; oats m regie 
tie warmer ; r\-e in those still more sheltered ; and spel 
warmest parts. Yet in general the produce does not exi 
fir one ; and it has been foimd necessary to support publi 
ries, in case of any deficiency. The countrj' being fitted b 
for pasturage, the chief dependence of the Swiss is on h: 
A considerable quantity of flax is also cultivated, and tobf 
Heen lately introduced. A'ines are cultivated in some of 
'ricts. There is also abundance of fruit, apples, pears, plun 
-OS, filberts ; together with mulberries, peaches, and otl 
v\rU of a warmer rlunate. Ln the Alpine valleys, and a 


course of the torrents, vcj;"clation assumes a stately appearance ; 
the juniper, tliesavine, the, aUniL'-pine, and alder, broken In nature 
into iriL'^iilar thickets, diversify tlie scene. 

On tile dccliviues of the mountains commence the ftifists of 
larch, of pirn:, and fir, intermixed here and there witli the \tw, tlu: 
mouiiiiiui ash, and ilic birch. 

TIk- horses of Swisscrland are esteemed for vi^^ur and spirit . 
and the cattle attain j^eat size. Amonj^ tlic animals peculiar to 
the Alps may be first numed the ibex, or ifick ji^oat. This animal 
resembles the commbn jjoat ; but the horns of the male are extrcnu- 
\y long" and thick. The haii* is long", and asii coloureil, with a black 
list along the back. 

Another singular animal is the chamois, which is commonly seen 
in herds of twenty or thirty, with a cenlind, who alarms them by :i 
slirillcry. The c/)lour is yellowish bi*owFi ; but tliey sometime^ 
occur speckled. The marmot is common in the Swiss mountains. 
In summer tiicy feed on alpine plants, and live in societies, di^K'ing' 
dwellings in tlie ground for summer, and others for winter. AfxHit 
the beginning of October, having provided hay, they retrcrat to their 
holes, where they remain tc>r])id till the spring. The size is between 
that of the rabbit and the hai-e. Among Alpine birds, may be na- 
med the vidture, called also the golden, or bearded vulture. It in- 
habits tlic highest Alps, forming its nest in inaccessible rocks, and 
preying on the chamois, white liui'o, marmot, andiiometimcs on kids 

MiSTKRALs. The mineralogy of this Interc^sting country is not so 
important as we might I)o led to infer from its mountainous nature. 
Gold, copper and lead have been found in small quantities ; but the 
chief mines are those of iron in the country of Sargans. In the can- 
ton of Bern, there are valuable quan*ies of ruck salt : and it is said 
that coal and native sulpluir ai-e not miknown. Ilock crystal form.i 
pertiups the cliiif export of Swis.serkiud, being sometimes found in 
such large pieces as to weigh seven or eiglit hundred weight. 

Natl'hal Curiosities. To enumerate the natural curiosities of 
Swisserland would l>e to describe the countr)-. Tlie Alps, the gla- 
ciers, the vast precipices, the descending torrents, the sources of 
the rivers, the beautiful lakes and cataracts, are all natural curiosi- 
ties of the greatest singularity, and most sublime description. Of 
late the glaciers have attracted particular attention ; but those seas 
of ice intersected with numerous deep fissures, owing to sudden 
cracks which resound like Uumder, must yield in sublimity to 
the stupendous summits clothed with ice and snow; the latter 
oftun descending in wliat arc called avalanches, or prodigious balls, 
which, gatliering as tiiey roll, sometimes overwhelm ti-avellers and 
even villages. 

On the north of Swisserlan*! the Rhine, near the village of Nau^ 
ha.sen, descends in a cataract of 40 feet amidst black and hon-id 
rocks. Numerous rills, which descend from the mountains, oftfii 
fall in ca.scades of great beauty, among which tliat of Staubbach is 
computed at 900 feet, over a rock as perpendicular as a wall. 



hirr ATFON. f ;rrTnany i.s situatrcl botwocn 4i^ GO' nnd 55* 3(K 
North lulitiidr, and iiiM wt-i-n 6^ hiuI If/' K:iNt loiififitiiclc. 

Hill Ml III I i.M. [I IS liDiiiifictl in t lie north, Ijy the (icrmui ocean, 
Df-ninark, uixl thr iiultic ; in the t^uMt, hy Jhisiiu, I'ulund, and Huiv 
)^;ir\ ; in thi* Mdiith, by the Adriutk-, Italy, Mid SwiMscrluid ; and in 
thf uiMi, hy France. 

K\-i-i.NT. ( HTinaiiy, conMidc-ird in it; modem limiU, citendl 
ahull t (HMJ Hritihh niilcH in leuf^tli, from the isle of Kugcn in the 
north, to thr soiithiMii limits of the circle of AiiMtriu. The modern 
hn-.-idUi, from thr Kiiine to tin* eujileni iKMiiidury of Silesia^ la about 
5iK> Itntihli mill's : anciently the hreadtli extended l>eyond tlie Vif> 
to hi, alMiiit 'JtXJ miU-M more to the cnst. 

ANTKii'iTiLN. Tiie antiquities of ftermany consiKt chiefly of 19 
fcvi KoiiriU n-mainH hi the H. and W. It would be endless to eiKl* 
nu-rau- the rhnit-heH founded hy Charleniafrne ; or the numettMiB- 
castlfs i-rt'cied hy powerful princes and han)n.H. 

UKi.iiiMix. The relig'ion of tlie {greater part of (icrmany may be 
pn)iiounced to Ix* the Kefornied, first introduced into Saxony bj 
l^nthrr. Vet the south contituien firmly attaelicd to 1ll(^ Iloniail 
Catholic faith, now chiefly supported by the liouiie of Austria. 

iiu\ KiiNMiiNT. 'I'he );t)venunent is that of an aristocracy, which 
elrrts a monarch, who niu) he of any family, Catholic, Lutheran* or 
ralviiii-.t. '|\i consider the constitution at length, which has been 
eallid hy :i (German writer "a confusion supported by providence," 
Would hf foivipi to the nature of tliis uork. The f^>yemmcnt is 10 
eoiiipli-ttly luidf-r the controul of Fnuice at ))rescnt, that it can 
lianlly he arcounti-d indf'peiident. 

p.nM i.iTioN, Ikv. The popidation of Ciermony in fifoneral is com- 
pulrd at lit lie more than :2.i,0(J0,(KK). Tiie maiinei'M, customs, and 
diahi-ts vary arrordiii^ to tlie dillerent states. The Saxon is ac- 
<-oimti(l the [xirrst and most classical idi(mi of the (jtrnan tongue i 
and till* Noutluni dialects of Swahia, Uavaria, und Austria, the inoat 

In tlir dcMcriptions of the Au.strian and I'riissian dominions are 
coiitaiiH-d many of tlie eastern provinces of (ienn.iny. The part 
which remains is the wostcm half, naturally divided into two poi^ 
•ioii.'> hy the river Mayn. 


m. Both partiuiiM hit watered by numerous niul important 

III liic north, tho KIIk- is tlic most disiiM};!!!!*])^! .s>it-:ini, 
n Ihi* Sudetic mfxiiituin.s of Silesia, and entering; the mm iii-sa* 
'I'll, after u com|>urativc course of more tiiaii 5u, i{:.tiah 

Tlic; chirjcitiet on the baiilcK of t!ic Kihc art* DrcMin . ^Icis- 
iltfiibcri^, Mugdeburi^', from it runs almost a .-»:>.. lary 
tV> liainhurfi^. 

far to I lie west is the mouth of the Wcscr, which itrst iv(-( ivcu 
one when it's two sources, the Wemi and the Fuhi.i join. 
nf^ tile Werra, its cliief branch, it flows aljiMit 27^ Hntish 

'I'iic principal tr>wns on tliia river are lievern, Mih.U'ii, luid 

KMirces and moiitlis of the Rhine liave been ahvady de.scribcd. 
blc river forms the ^frand ancient baiTier between France 
'many ; and its cotirKC may be computed at about ()\){) British 

The Rhinef^^iti is not only celebrated fur its wines, but fur 
antic Hp{M'ar:uice of the country, the river running' through 
rks crowned with majestic castles. 

.! soiitliern part of Ciermany the most important river is the 
, which, accordinf^ to the rfmtm<m opinion, rises near the 
wii of IVinaiiNchiiigen in Swabia, or a little fartlu-r to tho 

TliU noble river becomes navigable a little above Ulm, 
it receives the Her. 'i'he next tributary stream of coiise- 
ifl the Lech, which comes fn)m Tyml, a streum distin^'.'uished 
eat of tile recent M'ar; as is tlie Ik<t, proceeding fnmi (-piier 
.. The Oamibc runs about 250 miles through this part of 
ly, passing by Ulm, Ratisbon, and Passau. To Orsova it 
considerd as an Austrian river for about 550 miles ; thence 
rki.^h foralx>iit480 to the Kuxine. 
Sfecker is a tributary streum of the Rhine, rising in the Hlack 

and running about 150 Hritisli miles, through a countiy 
:mL with vineyards. Aiiotlier and grander ti'ibutaiy streum 
Riiine is the Mayn, which, after n*ceiving tho Rediiitz and 
iiisiderabU; streams, joins the Rliine to the S. of Mentz. 
iVii is u muddy stream, but abounds with trout, c:u-p and 

H. (Germany presents few lakes, the larp^st being in the 
f Mecklenberg, where the lake of iMau (:xt(nds, under va- 
mes, about '2b ftritish miles in Icngih, b^ in breadth. 
iTAiNs. The most northern moiinlains in ( Germany are those 
lartz, called the Jtroeken or Hlocksberg. 'I'he highest al)out 

le.ssian territories may !)e regarrled ns generally mountain* 
Jecially towards the north. Thence S. W. towartls \hv. 
ne several coiisidei'able hills, among which may be ini ntion- 
L" in the west of V\ Cttcr u, and the s<'veii hills, ii'-nr the 
almost op[)osil4' to AndemaiTli; togctjier with the ridge <)f 
, which pr'jt'-cts the vines of Rhlnegaii. 

le most celebrated niouniains, in that part of (»i'rin:Mi;.' which 
lie N. of the .'M;ivn, are tin- Krzgcl.M ig, or Mc t; l-«: Monn- 
Uickrise to tlic N. K. of the t'ichtelberg j runnuig between 


Bohemia and Saxony, but supplying^ both countries wl 
and other meals. 

Among^ thf Orman moimtains to the S. of the Mayr 
namod the Rerjf stress, u ridj^ )):i8sinf; from near Ma 
vicinity of Frankfort. Tht- mountains of the Black F< 
man Schwurizwald, extend from nour Ncuenburg', in 
ries of Wu»'temb<'rjc south, to the four forest towns < 
The southern part is called the Hi^h, and the noKhci 
forest. : the lenf^th being about 80 and the breadth 20 '. 

The south *!ast of this portion of Germany is boi 
liigh mountains of Ruvaria and Salzia, or Snlzburg ; b< 
•r continuations of the Swiss or Tyrolcse Alps, but wi 
appellations. The Alps of Salzburg exceed in heiglit tl 
ahain, or tlie Pvrenccs, and only yield to the Swiss 
Alps, tlu^ highest summits being computed at more th: 
above the sea. 

Vr.nETABLK ATfii AiriifAL PaonucTioxs. As Spain i 
ed by its groves of cork tret s and ilex, and Scandin 
wocxls, so is Germtmy remarkable for its deep and nt 
trable forests of ouk : not, indeed, tliat this is the inva 
teristic of the country, for in an empire of such great* 
so varied a surface, it must needs happen that toe na* 
productions on Uie shore of the German ocean shoul 
derably frofn those in the Black Forest, or on thefron' 
Thei^ is however on the whole more uniformity than 
pecterl, and though perhaps few plants are absolute 
Germany, yet the abundance of some species, and t 
•thers, forms a striking feature in tlie natural history < 

The zoology of this western half of Germany cc 
much witli that of the Austrikn and Prusbian dominif 
need be added. The German horses ai*e generally mo 
for weight than spirit. The German wild boar is of s 
and those of Westphalia are in particular estimation. 
Germany, tke lynx is sometimes seen ; and the wolf is c 



Saxontf. — Brims-wiqk.'^Lmienburff.'^Hettia. — JHecklen 
of Bnmrwick. — City of Hambtirg. — Smaller States 

IN this division of Germany tlic elector of Saxor 
garded as tlie chief potentate, his territories being 
11,680 square miles, the inhabitants at 2,104,000, ar 
at 1^00,OOOA sterling. 


■»« countries n Wf ilic;-.r ; 'v" Sn.ronu^ ar ■. he 
»v, so, \ui^h«i..iMl, L-.N. . . . . iki \: . . »: .« ^. .., \Mtli 

■ I-' Mi.^lll.. uliU IL-liilH ■};■; 'H'! »•;• .: :i !i^ ■■ • . K. ill W . .ibuut 

iln .si) ntiU's, una »■• :m", lii: .4 n. N. o ^ • ..».; l.»v). 
'iK.' religion 4S Uu" !'■■ • =. :i .vliicli u .-. u. i\- iiKniihn*. il l>y 
hiT; ..lul .m'lf ;pi' ■ Ai !-.--(»|)r t>«, Mji'mIu'i^ ami \ iiiiiili'ii'i;" 
'j'oivi'HiW'w/ .s, ;isuN';..i . Mi.Mg; lie* 4icrm..ii pniuTs, rcarlv :.iiM»- 
, bill cun«lucU'tl w.t'i iii(KUr..i.i)U ihruu^-li dill'Li-c-nt cdi.ucils. 

llu-rt- are s;.iH*n g^M'.tral of lutbies, cleri^', aiiil burj^i'.sis, rom- 
\\y 4tf»crobleU ewix ^.x'Jl yiMr to regulate tlu* tAxutuiii ; :uul the 
•n?t^\ c^n issui* no laws without their eoTiMiu. 'I'he army is 
it 32>UUU, Miui till.' ;)()!. weiji^ht of Saxui)} in tins [u^'X of licr- 
y, is next totlia* ot IVuNbiu. 

ik* langittige ami htfuititre of Saxony are the most di^iinijruished 
11 Uerniany, most uf uie writers wlio h.ivc n'fincd liie lai>[cuagi^ 
ntf been Iwni, or h*kVing- resided in tins CMiiitry. 'I'licre are 
ysdiools, collet's, und ocudemies; anionj^: ilic luiur, the min»> 
<ic academy of Kn-ybergf, instituted in irt>i, is esietnied the 
JJig" icluxd of tluit seience. The cltivj atu is IhtraUen, on the 
% of celebrated neatness ; and alxiut dU,uuU inhabit;uitii. The 
i{facture* of Saxony are thread, hnen, laces, riblH)iis, velvets, 
letn, p^prr, coh)urs derived from various minerals, f?l.»ss, and 
xkin uf remark;ible beauty, and vuru>us works in strrpenline 
le. The country is also nel'i in native pi-oducts, both afrncultu- 
JKlminend, and* Ix^auliUi I pearls are tinnul in tlkC Elster, in RhelU 
lit six inches longf. With such udvaniages, Saxony mainiainsa 
iidt*rablo mUnd commerce ,• and Leipsig- is eiteemeil one of the 
:ftrafliii^ towns of (lerniany. 
lie ctimate is so favourable that wine is made in Misnia. The 

of the country-, especially towards the south, is beautifully di' 
itied with hill and dale ; and its richnirss between Meissen and 
idcn is esteemed to rival that of tlic north of Italy. Tbe land 
fU culiivuti-d ; the products, all kinds of )p-ain and vegetables, 
1 hops, flax, hemp, tobacco, saffron, madder, &c. Chiff rivert, 
Elbe, tlK* Saal, or Sak, tlie Mulda, the Tleissi-, the Elster, with 
Spree of Liuatia. Few coiuuries can boast of such fobsd upu- 
e as Saxony. The mines of Johngeorgensiadl, produce silver^ 

bismuth, mang:jicse, cobalt, wolfram, &c. At Schiieckeiistein, 
* Averbach, in the Voightland, appears the topaz rock, luuque in 
kind. Tlie tin of Saxony is not only u rare product, but is ex- 
ent. Jet is also found ; and abtmdance of tine porcelain cUiy, 
I fullers* earth, marble, slate, serpentine, agates, and jasper. 
Text in conseqtunce is the electorate of Brunswick Lunenburg^ 
;iH often styled from the capital, the electorate of Jiajwrvr, con- 
ling about 8224 square inlles, with &5U,000 inhabitants, and the 
iputed rcvenuc 96. ■,. 5UU/. jstcrling; while the nulitary torce is 
mated at 25,970. It is situated in the circle of Ijover Suxony. 
r countries comprist d in the electoral e of Ilanovu* areehufly, 
duchy of i^unrnburg, Di-eme:), and Verden, and S;.xe liauenh.irg', 
Acent to llolstein ; with the countries oi" Calenburnh and (iru- 
hagen, in the soutli, and tliosc of liiephoU?: -uid lloyu, in t)ie 


west, and that of TV-mncbcr.;^. in the cast. It may be com] 
the t iMipaci p.irt at' liic ilanovrriiiii dominions cilenda 
vM*i lo >v<.st, ..hoi It 180 niilo.s : und in hrculih N. to S. 
inil h' : wh.K* th. (iv'iMr he d duchy or' Griihi tihui^r^-n, witJi 
f;;.i.'nbiii'y:, or Mif ctjuiitry ni' f;uiiiiii;i-n, is ubiiui 8j milei 
by ,>.) .11 :'•» i^?«.»*.r^«i hn*;.dth. 

* T I rf'tyntti :^ ".Ju- Ltnli- ran. Tlu» government is now 
bv a coiiiic:! of if^^-i iicy, and tiici\.- arc pi-ovinci:d state 
rai-trly siinimoncd. The litciMtiiri' uf >h)s count n* has dest 
9idi-r.ih.c :'.ppl.-ius^\ sinci* the instiUUion of the tmivcr&ity 
g^iM) by (i^i»r}ri' 11- I* ^^'as fouiidt-d in 1734, and solt-mi 
1737.* Tlu- chiffcky ts llanot^er, silua'cd on \\w rivt-r Ix i 
numerous ^.inU-ns and vilhis. It i.s sli^^btly fortified, an« 
about 1 j,j'JU inhabit:' nts. In the new city, un tlic leK of 
i.s a libi'.iry, particularly rich in lNK>k.<> ot'historrund polit 
imtnufuctiirt'H • lul row/zMTCffof this elecl orate are pretty cm 
in met rnm the Hartz, linnenf cotton, some broad c 
The silver fabrics ot Zell are celebrati-d in (icrmany. Tb 
pons are, mcials, coarse linens, timber, peat, with so 
und )^in. 

The atrriciitttinil ftroducfg M'c, wheat, rye, barley, Qati, ; 
cots, and pot-herlis of all kinds; with abundance of potui 
fniit.s, flux, hemp, tub.icco, madder, 8tc. Wood abound 
fuel and architecture, and affords considerable qutmtitiea 
pitch, lices arc particularly attended lo. iloraes, ct 
Bhcep are numerous. Tlie chu\fiiver is the Elbe, towanls 1 
:uid liie Wescr and Leine on the west ; with the Allep am 
in the centiv. Tiie minrralo^t is rich, consisting of silvc 
Ie:id, iron, cobalt, zinc : with marlile, slate, coal, turf, and 
the l:Lst purticularly from tiie hill of KalkberK, near L 
Two curious mineral substances, i)oracite, and staurolite, < 
t he fonner in the Kalkberic, the latter at Andnasberg, in t 
which region likewise presents several singidar features < 
na the CAvcni of Blackcnbuiir, the termination of which 
been explored, and the cave of llameleii. 

The bishoprick of Osnabruck, in Westphalia, may Ix; c 
as an ajipanap^ of Hanover, adjoining to the caunty of 1 
Its inhabitants about 1L>0,000 : irvenue 26,250/. 

Having thus described, at some length, the two chief ar 
principalities on the North of the Mayn, a few others, tl 
power, may be !)riefly mentioned. 

In Ibis secondai'v view of tlie nortli of Germany, the fi 
must be assigned to HesHtif a cotmtry of no mean extent 
Some districts, as usual, being assigned to princes of the fi 
niling stale is denominated //<•»«? Ctissel, so called from tl 
'I'll is teiTitorv is about. 80 Ilritish miles in i.jngth, and n 
same in brcailth : miles square, 2760, witli 700,000 inhabit 
VitAry force 12,000. This countiy is gcnendly mountain 
tliere art; many pleasant vales, sometimes containing viney 
fields fertile in com and pristumgo- It abouuils in game 
and there are m^ny fossils aiid minerals ; the sands of the ] 





1 ci.r ^l' tlMnbtrf m^M 
ft-meU *th1wo 

Uurmstudl rubd 1 

£ iBuie litwn tlte nutural [ k 

it^ djt 

lot) hits swdi hbh he 
^ li « I 

Tltriw/ tft,.. 

! 1 [Ice*' 


I -Kn B til MX nil 


e matttifiicn r» on 
ec partfj by HjmbH , 




irtrnobs Bw^aTcrrtton'of I4rSBqiar mki 

U mlmb Uui s the ch ef cilj Ik j. 

> k 1 ck 


b t h a erritwy s 


vnol fur lesjinji 


d i-turutc of Uan 

jt (lUttlirtil m flhpL Ou- 
rallv»BfiKt-H ftUfiutiUv 


nan Uarfi 

the* ho 

tffB«.4..-vbeBniittcd^be.nKi.ft« Vienna nd 

U c 

f ™.v «,rf.p^^f 

oontB . lOCyWU 

t asMa *\ u 

10 oil r <.x -pi 

MBj-n contMi m w tU jO lOO 

»Und) nour n 

mile brooJ t J e 


tl c ■« »re ft« R <■ 
unt of tl c f 1 J- 

4 ff th Kiiac u 

« -MO IwrlK 1 l*nt 

laiv of jT* nof n 

IB Uw form be 4, 

lire eon. derol lo 

K K gw wrtli Mn 

nw ufscturei! 1 

a J^cdt cimaatMl of I ntna wtwUcnt 
* n rltti» toi>iiM t mbcr ieathtt cob 

"ilt, r 

tm Bi 1 

t pn ami It u the grwt r 

n»rl of il cnn 

Uruai * 

lt«« g tlic continent 11 

b«t\k vaofoMiKf 

niMoufi IJjrar M df honour 

lotlc tutteoftlu 


•nTuiIiilJLiiis. lis chk'f ilcpcmU'i-.cks arc the rivi-p of A 
ba'Dlageot* IImii, sunic isles uiul lo'-vhimU on tlu* YAhv, 
Willi .wiiietliNLrU-ts^ic^uirwl frtjin Hdl.U'ln, ihc huilli.i)^- o^ 
Jcl, on tlic no'lli of Uu* <l!icliy of Hrtuicii, iiicliKlinijr lli 
(,-nxli:ivcii, and i!io Ulc ralktl Xiucuvrk, siluaa'il oppos! 


{■\ iliis norlluni half of Cicrmany ihoro ar». s-x or si 
smaller priiicipalitios, containing toj^i'liui* ahoor iialf a 
1>ropic; Iwsitii'S the three eccli*sia«tiral electorates o 
Trvves, aiul Colof^ne, which r<.nt:.ji i-.hout oO<),000 iiili 
♦ •aei», anil six or seven hishopncs of from 7'J,0'JJ to 200, 
'>in some of ihobe have been partiiioncil between Fi 


!'\\'tot'ate of Jiavafiiit conjoined tcith the PaUitinute.^^ 
II 'urtemburif^—^ inspac/i.-^iSufzia. — Smaiier UttUes.^^J" 

In the «!outliom division, Austria cxcoptwl, the elector 
ria and the Palatinate is the chief %yi all the 
!iis dominions l)eing computed at 16,176 miles bC[Kii 
i,9.)4,000 inhabitants. The Fn*nch havini:^ seized moi-e 
of the Palatinate on the lefl bank of tlie jihine, the remaii 
on the r«i;ht bank of the river, is about C4 Itritish miles 
by the >anie at its utmfisl breadth; but contains the best \ 
principality, pervaded by the river Neckar, producing 
«vines, and enriched by tlie cities of Manheim and Heide 
1693, the Palatinate was rendered almost a doseit by the 
rava^'s of the French. In the hist war, at\er manj^Iing th 
they claimed it as their own. 

The duchy of Bavaria is divided into Upper and Lower, 
is called tlie Higher Palatinate, (or that of Havaria). T 
inmi N. to S. is somewliat interrupted, but may bcaboui 
visli miies. and the breadth about 120. Upper Bavari 
great degree, mountainou.s, and covered with forests, inl 
with large and small lakes. Lower Bav.iria is more ])laii 
:ilc. The chief mineral riches of Bavaria consist in the s.« 
at Traiuistein, which occupy many people in productive 
The religion is the Roman Catholic, which, as usual, i 
spirit of industry ; and ihe TnuiuiCictui*es are of small ac( 
ohief exports iK'iiig com and cattle. The revenue is cor 
1,166,600/. and the military fiirce at 12,000. The chief c 
iiich, esteemed the most elegant in (;eim;my, with 38, 
ijitants; in Lower iiavariu, are L-uidsliut an<l S'trauiion. 

Tlie next potcnt.ite in the south, is the d'lke of Wui 
whose domuiiont! ui*c cuirputcd ut 3,200 square miles, wit 


itunts. His rc\'enue is computed nt 245,000/. his militnn' force 
\)00. This duchy furins the ntost con!»tdci'al)le :imL fi-rtiU* i):irt 
: circle oi'Swabia; and is, indtvd, jdter .SuXmn, am- of tht- lust 
} empire. The chiof p^rain is si)ell, and sonu* l)apky and w h«'at. 
Hux,«&c. and the fertility sufHces even for export. Thr wlius 
« Ncckcr :u"c not so abundant as to supersede the iisi of eyih-r. 
?!iief river is the Nt'cker, whicli, with ihe Nap^hl, and its 
ti*il)ntarv sircums, enlivens and ferlili/t-s llie dueliv. 'I'h« 
? consisi of foiu'tc-en superior clerjj^-, and iIk* d«.pnties t»r sixty- 
towns and bailliag^es The rdi^'ion is ilu* l/.ilheran, with 
C&lvinists, and .some colonicH of the >'audois. Theix-aiv manu- 
res of pottery, {;|^;, woollen, linrn, and silk ; whieli witii the 
'u\ products of the countr}', supply a eonsidi r.ible export : the 
Pis arc by Frankfort, on the .Mayn. Thecbief rit\ i> Smtj^ard, 
My siUutcd onanvulet wiiich flows into the Ncckcr, and tiu: 
. rCsicknce since the year 13i?l. 

lon^ the secombiry powers, m this southern divl9ion of (lerma- 
nust first be nunurd Anspach, or Onol.^b.'irb, wbieli, wiili \\:\. 
, m;.intains a populauon of 320,000, on '2,30U .Mjiiare iiiiha. 
: wyions are inoiuit^iTio'.is and sandy ; bul nvar t!u" M.iyn yitld 
winc-H. The ciiief inims are oi'in»n, the others biinj^ neglected. 
L* country of Sal/, also oiillod Salvia, and the arclibislioprie ot 
urj^, is acon)p;i(*i and iiiUivstinjjf ri'i^ion, about \'M) i-nj^l'sli 
in leiij^h, and fuMii iis .irit' bi-iadili: conipuii'd ai J,i*"'SO 
e miles, aiida p :j)ul:ition of :J.50,tK»0; by Uoeck's aitMun', .)nly 
00. *l'be :.rebbisl>'ij) is primau' of ail <ie!!nan}\ tlu-.>»(e luiiiif 
ed by Si. Unperl, an Kufcli!-':"^''*^** inIK). Si.lzburi;- has :.*m 
rsity. wiib about Ju.'.i)'.) 'Vhv Honian (■ath<>r.c 
n has banished Tiiynv iiulusti ious ipl!.:bll;inis, who hiiw tbicllv 
refu^'X* intl\c l*.'.:ss;:»n diuninums. The salt works at Halle:!, 
. twcho mlli-.H S. «»»".s 1 1 /Jul r:-:!!, an' very l;:cralive. 
is j;r.ind so!itliii*:i ilivisiop. ot' CiinianN :dsi> contains ihe terrl- 
. of tiic .M.:r^r:iVi' oi f».u!.n, lI.VJ si|i-:iU' r.iiles, wldi -TOij.OOU in- 
mts ; tl:e laiid-i -if nv.-sM' iy»nnst.tilt, bi'lon;.';i!jj:: to anciilier 
inj^ b:anoh of tlu- Iviiiser-f lb s«ji:i ; ihe iiiipvvi:.l city of N'.i:i ni- 
whicb has consid4Tubly li.ciined, b'.it st'.il rontains :'.bout 

.Miuls, wbili- rlnil::.siioi alnnv Ii.dfth-ii nund»er. To enu- 
e other sn-.:;il secnbir prireili.'ilities ^\«»uUl only obstriirt ibo 
.ion «if this dcserip: ion, v»-|iieb i^ to intpnss on the uuniory tli-j 


1 Hs I be intention % )a« ''"l.-rrt/lij ;• the nuniert^u-* errlisiasticd 
orith in (iirroaiv. , s<i ni.-. '.:> be the jiolitics «if the d.iy, it nsay 
jp<'r tc» :idd l«en\ du' na"".. s, at bast, of tin* elii'/l' sc'»*s \t» ilu; 

of the M:iyn. 1. The i. ■•hi^i'-bcprie of Sul/bu!-^*, wbieb has 
alri-atly ileseribi\I. ,\ Tlu' larj^' bisbo]>rie of \N urt/bnr}^, 
cliii rty on the r.-utb of the .Mayn, has been nientionrd befon*. 
niburc. 4 The bi'jlijpric of Speyr, «)r, as the l-'ninii '-all ii, 
: one balf<jf '.vl.:»*Ii "> nov.- subji-otto Fr.iure. 5. Tbi bi.-lioprie 
rbstvtt, in the soutii.niextivnjlty t,f i'i-;i!:<-onia. (>. Tb«>' larj^o 
puient bl.-bo])rl'' of Aiij;vlniii;". ' *'. t)rc»ii-h.t:;nr«*, A\bosen !■^i- 
. :ds:M-x'ea«l into s*\ ". ^^.^i••■e.. I' ^ j.-.' •> ■':"•■' '^■•■■" ''■'.bi»n. 


! ](• of Strasburg. 9. The large abhatial tcrrit«.rjcs oi' f 
ISuchan, and IJndau ; with the prioiy of Ellwangcn, in t] 

p;!rtnership ; it wonUl be a^ isf in sojnc of the small pai 




aibm. — MoumUt t 'im. — Ej-fm t . — Pvt^Ht -nt l*oh u/ntio n .• — Fucr f,f //. ...• 
Caunti'if. — Hixtci'H. — Lukcu. — JMouiUaiiiH. — Jiutunu. — '/.uu-'m'-ii. 

TUATION. Italy is situated between oH and 46 acj^rec^ N. 
ikIc, aiid bct\vooi\8 ami l».j dcj^^res E. l<iiij^itiidt;. 
iviKio.NM. Italy may be i-e;'iirdetl us liuviii*'' Ixi-ii, in all :.[fi» of 
«y, dividctl inlr> tlirce parts, the sowtluTu, tli<- fcnti-al, :ii.d tlic 
u'ni. Till- southtrni jiart having' ivccivcd many Lrci-U eiilniiii'-, 
lloiioun.*d with the ancient a]i{)cllat ion of Map;ii:i CjMcia : \\u\ 
re Wttb tJic atai of* lioinan and Etruriiui powir ; wiulc the iiuilli- 
vuH the Cisalpine (ianl. 

II NiiARiKK, &c. 'I'iic botindarieti oi' this ivnowncd coinitry aiv* 
ly inipres.v(.'d by the hand of nature, in tlic Adriatic :ind .Mcdi- 
jiean .seuN, in tiie east, south :uid we^t ; and the j^rand bitri'ier (iT 
U|M, which divide it iWini France, SvviM.serhmd, and (lerinany 
e north. The leuf^'ih of Italy from inuunt li'(».sa, the hij'iust 
liit of the Italian Alps, to thv.- (::ipc de Lc'iic.i, is about G?tj \\v'\ 
milea; while the iiieclial breadth betv.KMi the Adriatic :ind Mi-' 
raiiean, isab<uitlOO; but from the Adit^e, th(> reecnt limit iri' 
rian l*owcr, to thr eusiern iWmtiei:* of the new French dc p.iri- 
.H of Liniuu and .Mont hlano, (fm-iiierly S;ivo\), the bre.tJth Im 
t20UmdeM. It is almost siipei'fluous t<* add, that tlw- ''W^*-,^., 
e Koniaii Catholic, 'llie present /4ffju!i:t/on of ltv/>, wiiji th,^ 
lIs of Sieily and Sarduiia, cuiioot be estimat(.-d at more than 
iO,0(J0. Tlie kin^-doiii of N'uph -i ami Siellv, contains abuut 
i,0OU; the central pari about .i,';(»U,00'Jj andtlie nortlnrn about 
The uuiniwrH, ciiHtoius, and tltulnLtH, .ire vuriuus AUtl <lise(jjtl 
hout^h theK^neral ianjfusij^ be the Itabun, esteemed the pure.-? 
meiuiy, while tlur eitti[ieiation is moat peii'er.t at l£om<-. 
ei: OK THK (;oi:.N riiir. italy jiiv^mls a variety of sc:enei \, dee.o 
. with noble airiuVfTtore, :ls villas, \cnr rablc reinriiiihoi aiieii nt 
imidst a climate ^nu-raUy seren<*, ili(<M}';U liuMe. to violni! 
in the norih, the huldinie scen«.ry of tli<' Alps, i:. contrasied 
fertile plains. In the centre, tli' re are niuny marshes and 
linif waters, which occasion ii jiernieiou . dia'empi.ratui-*- of ih'i 



air. A p:!*oit psrtof t!u- kin^^Inm < • ^ ■!''•■ J i-^ mountamous ; hut 
th( i-Mitii'n, p.-iKT:ilIv lirHUiirui : Vft »» ailii'l:4i!i Ui thi? ii.'i-> crUp- 
lituiMi;\ i'su\i;is aiiJ .I'.imi, ii m exp-isiil to llio l« ivlilr it!crt of 
•fTvin: n^ i-;jri!», iinci ilio i-iUTv:i»injr sirtuxu, :i S. K. v. iiul. 

I<i\in^ 1::iU' is iiiti-rsicU'ii wilh nviTs in :t linos ; tvi-r}' direc- 
tion, ot wlticit \\ir I\> !.«• l\v tkr tl>c most larjjc :iiut cxiciisivc. Thii 
ni>Mi* rivor, rullfii l>y ilu- Mu-icnis P:itlu.s uml, rises on 
tlir vrj-y ooiiluic* of Franci" uiull'.al) . Tims ilc^ctMiilinfj from the 
UL-iiiP- I'Vtlir wc.^tfTii Alps. It I'iassi's to tlic N. K. of Siiliiz/o, toTii- 
riii . n I't'ivini^ cvrn in tills Nlinrt >p:ioo many rivers, :is tlie S'aritta, 
M.tiiM, anil (iranu, from tlu* S. ami fmiu tlu' N. tin* rdicc, Sigon, 
nii.l (I'.luTs. After Uaviniijilu" xwills of 'I'lirin, Uu* l*o receives iimu- 
nu'r.i!il(' rivers ami rivuUts frotn the Al;>s, in ilu* N. und the Apen* 
nim s lU till' S. Anionh;- the fonm-r, may Ik* named like Dona, the 
'I'l sliio, the Adda, tlur l))^ru), ilu* .Mine io. From the south, tlie Po 
fir>t r*.reivi!« ihc coi)ions Alpine river 'l\inar«>, itself swelleil by Uic 
IKliia, Hnrniula, und o'Iut streams. The eourse of tlie Poniay he 
* iin»p ivjtixeh estinKiteil al;d»out .»U() Hvitish mileR. 

Thv- uthor rivers of the north of liuly, as the Adi^*, the Rrenta, 
r!i( riuAi, and the Tufcliaim-nto, must now mllier be reg^aixlcd as 
\u .irlan .streMiu*. 

1:1 the rent IV, first a]>pi\ir!* the Arno, which pises in the Apen- 
iiiM.v. and floAxs hy Floivnce :uid 1'isn, intt> the ^jj^ulf of Genoa. 
file Till!-*', an i«nniortal stream, is hy far the most considerable in 
.■ niMi'ile, or >.Milh of Italy, risinfj mftr the source of tlie Arno, 
>. v.. vw'St. Marin«>, and ]iassinj:j by I'erujfia, and liome, to the Medi" 
K "IMP! an. V, ir.i'h it joins alter a course of ahotit 150 British miles. 

1.\K:-*i. Italy contains many heautiful lakes, particularly in the 
•:<i-.Mhi n» divi.sion. The I.aj^o Magtriori", is alnrnt twenty- seven Bri- 
• : h mil -s i;i levj^^ih, hy three of nuHlial hi-eadth. This lalte former- 
i, a.lj'./nu'il to tlie Milanese territ(»ry, and contains the l>eautiful Bo- 
inmein isli'w. Celebrated hy many' tnivello;*s. Still further to the 
.'.. .1 is the lake of Oomo, which is about thirty-two llritish miles in 
It'.li, bill ti:e mcilial bnvidth, not ulxive two :ind a half. Yet far- 
'iu-r to tile e;;st is tl:e nublo !.ai;*o dl Crania, an expiinse of about 
Iiir:y Mrit'-sli miles in len^ih, hy elpfht in bivarlth. There are a 
! w. uiIuT lakes in ]taly, hut they an* of smaller dunenst ions. 

Miir>-rAi>8. The mo^* imjv^rtruit mountains of Italy, are the 
Alps, ahvudv in a j^val > icasniv deserilK'd, under the article of 
^wisserland. The niaritin:" Alp* rise from the sea to the west of 
< htej^lia, and uri* ^■nee^ eded hy other tlenominatiuns, extending*, due 
r..nih til Mont liUun. ti,c anr'.eni boumbr\' of Savov. The most 
i emarkahlc pas.wj'e thnMi^rli the mapiliir.e Alps, is the Col dcTenile, 
and nuumt fcnis is a U'Kcd iMtfiuip^e to Turin. In {^^ncnd, the western 
Alps rise, in successive eWvaiion, fn^m the sea to Moi\t Hlanc. 
Irom Moni IManc, the jyrand vhidn of the Italian Alps bends N.E. 
.jvesenUn,;^ the hi^'h summits of the peat S* »ornanl, mount Mau- 
vllt, and iiK.unt Kosa, t!ie last noari_\ u])proachinj^ .^£ont Blanc itself, 
■^ liei^vliT. 

liom motmt Kosa, this jrrand chain c<iniinues its prop^ress N.E. 
Tpv ^:in])lo!:, thn>up:!i the f duntry of the Grlsons, to the g'lnciers of 
1 ■>! "d, tct:n»ini4iinjj in llic Sal/.ian Alps- 

ITAl.TVN STATE??. 1^9 

lie next pframl clmin of Italian mountains is llmt of Iho Ai^on- 
s, whirli are at first a hrjnu'ji of ilu- Alps, separaliiijr tlu* pluins 
'ic<lii)ont. fmm llu' sia. 'riu-\ hc^fin Ui'ur Ornivu, in tlkat hi)|r|i 
l', wliich now forms i\\v l)oinuiar> of tho Krcncli tU]>:i:MnK'nl of 
naritimo Alps, ar.d .stivtch witliuul an} intrnuption alont,"- lM>tli 
i of thcj;iilfof *ionou, at no jfix'at (l.»ianr<: from tlir sra. In 
ioutli of tho territon" of Modrna, tluy pniccid ainuisl «li;c rasT 
o ccnvir of Italy; tluncr S. K. to its cxtitniilivs, pfcfUTaliy ap- 
clnng- neanr to tho Adriatic, \lum to thr Mciliurranran. 
Lvinpf tluiN hriclly consiiUrt^cl the chief ridp-s of Italian moiin- 
, tliose stiblinu* fcatun^s of liio c.onnlry, ihi* volcanoes, nuur 
be omittccl. Vesuvius, is a conic UeUiclud mountain, ahuul 
) feel hij^h. The lei'Pt)rs of ant nipt ion, the sjuhicrrancan thiin- 
, the thickening smoke, the rutUly ilaniew, the stony showers, 
cd to a prodi(j:u)Us iieij^ht, amidst the cctrruscutioris of native 
Jiiiig', the throes of the mountain, the eruption of tlie, de- 
[lin^^in ahoi*rid and copious strt^un of ilestruction, have exerci- 
he poWiT of many writers, but far < xceed the utmo.^t enerjry 

.t Vesuvius, phuxnl by the side of .lltn.n, wouUl seem a small 
:ctl hilJ, the whole circuit of its base not exccfilinj^ 30 miles, 
c. iEtnacovers a space of 180, ami its heig'ht ulmve the sea, iii 
7Utedat^bout 11.000 feet. This enonnous mass is surnumd- 
y sinaUer mountains, some of which eipial >'esuvius in size: 
i'hilo tlic lava o( the latter may devolve its stn^am for seven 
s, ^l^tna will emit a licpiid fuv, thirt\^ n.iles in len^c^h. The 
IT of Vesuvius never exceeds half a mile in circumien nee, while 
nf Jcitttii is commonly three, and sometimes six miles, iiiiicl) is 
heifflitof .)-itna, that the eniptions rarely attain tJie summit, 
more ustially break out at the sides. Near the crater lupfins 
region of perpetual snow and ice : M'hieh is followed by the 
ly ix'tfion : cons'.htin^ of oaks, beeches, firs, and pines, while the 
T, is almost dostiluto of vegi^tation. 

coKTABLK Axn Ammai. Pnone«Tio>s. Amonp: the trees, be- 
r the common one» of llritain. we fnid the (divi>, the date plum, 
itoras tree, the bead tn'c, the almond, the ]K)megTanate, the 
;>k' plum, the pyr.icantha, the carob-tree, the ilex, the pistachia^ 
namia-trei\ the cypress, tlic d.ate palm, the lemon, the orange, 
\fff and the vine. 

the southern pnrts, cotton, rice, and the su^r cijne, indicate 
ertilityof t]ie soil, and the warmth of the climate; and the 
s, and pastures, as far us they have been exr^mined, bear a stri- 
resemblance in their native products, to those which ha\e been 
.dy raentioiH'd. a«* enliveninjr the southern provinces of Spain. 
ic Ital'ian li<;rses are of little reputation. The cows oft he I .ode- 
Tvliere the noled cheese is now niatle, which w:is f<^rmerlv produ- 
icar Parma, are describtxl, by Mr. Vounfr* «s K^nerall}- ot a blnod- 
»Iour, hmpr, lank, and ill niatle. The buffalo is in Kiirope al- 

pecidiar to Italy ; an animal, though time, of fenH'ious a>pect, 
IS difTerent fnmithe bull, as the ass is from the horse. In man- 
» he somewhat resembles ths iio^, beings fond of wallonUi!; in 


miul. Ilia flesli is coarse, and Iiis hide, though light, is so fi 
have supplied the buif coat, or armour of the seveatecuth 
Originally, as is supposed from Africa, he is little adapte 
cold climate. The marmot and the ibex, are alsu reckoiK- 
the animals of the Apeiinmes ; and the crested porcupine u 
cd pec\iliar to th« south of Italy. 

Note. Till' whole of Italy now obeys the sovereign of F 
has been erected by iiim into a kingilom ; and is i^venied 1 
his %-ice-roys, under the title of tlie kinfj- uf Italy ; but we 
&cribc it under its ancient geo^aphical ilivisious. 


Tontains the ancient kingdom of A'aples and Siciftt, togel 
a ff w adjacent isles. 

Naples is situated between 37 and 43 degrees N. lat. and 
13 and 18 degrees E. long, being bounded in the N. W. by 
clcsiasiical States; in the S. and W. by the Meditcrrane 
in tlie E. by the gulf of Venice. 

Sicily is about 170 British miles in length, by 70 of 
l^readth: while Naples exceevls 300 miles in lengtli, b\ 
hivadth. Square miles 29,824, with six millions oi^habi 

Tliough the religion be the Roman Catholic, the inc 
)ias been cai-cfully excluded. Few men of distinguishe<j 
hiivc recently appeared in this portion of Italy, which is 
witli priests and lawyers : but among the latter, Giannone 
li.iirnished himself by his spirited history of his country. 
arv.Mio less than 20 archbishoprics, and IZ6 episcojial sees; 
university of any reputation. The ecclesiastics ai-e com] 
i30(.>,000; iuhI it is supposed that about one-half of the la 
tlieir jwssession. The government is nearly despotic. T 
aie contained in the Codex Curolinus, published in 1754. 

The chief city is Naples, esteemetl, after Constantino 
most beautiftil cajiital in tlie world ; the inhabitants lu^ e( 
at 380,000 ; it is situated in lat. 40° 50' N. an<l long. 14° .ir 
kTmo, in Sicily, is supposeil to contain 130,000. Messina \i 
ly destro^'etl by an earthquake, in 1783 ; but Kari is siiiil to 
30,0\^ soids, and Catanea 26,000. Besides excellent wines, i 
olives, rice, and flax, this kingdom abounds in cattle ; ar 
parts are celebrated for the produce of manna and siiffro 
manufactures, particularly those of silk and woollen, diitc f 
reign of Ferdinand I. of Arragon ; and these, with the nati 
ducts, constitute tlie chief articles of trade. Iron macu 
have been recently instituted near Naples, but the mines 
ugricidture, ivre alike neglected ; and Sicily, anciently sti f 
grain, is now of little account. The revenue is comp 
1,400,000?. sterling; and ilicTarmy at.40,000. There are ab 
ships of the line, and four frigates. The mountains have 
ready mentioned, in the general description of Italy, and tli 
ai"^ inGonsiderable. The natural curiosities of these region;! 

rr\i,iAv BTA^ 


I ntf pi(tii»(»icil l>v till IlciiiNli, ami ur* iif no 


J I' ttiC Cliurell, Mil (bo 

u^iijic iiriiiCitiaUly i>f 
iifHiml Orbilello, lie- 


Rome is siippOMfd to c(tMt:iin lfi:2,8o:} iMli:<*5; : and > 
J<J,f};j. Till* ri:vonMi' arisjnj; ln»ni tlK- papal UMTs'cr; , w.ts c 
tfil 111 il'oiit J ju, Kj;'. < If rl'iij;- ; bill by tct.u'hiii' in fo:»i;jfi 
tru's, niLiiti t'j al'Oiii tSi}lJ,OUO/. Wl tlii-ri* w. •» u \:%.T'^l 
boariii;^ ci>cl*t |>**v ct ni "uitiTost, a sun.- pniofort'i- wmit iit' iii 
.iiKl prospi-ritv. lt«>i:ii' is in ihf hit. of 41"' 5J' N. muI l<»nj^. 

'I'iif ^raml :lurhy, imw kin«^lom of Tiisranx, luis ln'ijr Ik-c 
bp.ilril till- ihi' arts : aiul Florence is n-j^-ardcd u. 'lu' Allicii-s 
dcrn Italy. 'VWni pi'iiu'ip.ilit\ is about 120 Ilriti .!i iiii'cs in 
hy [)\) in biv.'tdlli : i»ut «>u 7,1' IJ >qii.iiT niilis, cn.i :iiii*« a^v>p 
oi" :il>imi l,J.»0,(|(.»O. Th.s i-li:4i'niiMjj country iuis luuip-'n! 
prinri- <if S])ai!i, ubo wields Lis vr;but:iry M'cp'rcot' Klrr.riu 
iIji- pnitcrt inn of i In* F;t-nrh republic, 'i'hi* nvrniic is coi 
nl liliuoi b:ilt' a niidii>n htcHinfC; biil the forces du I id cXcc 
8,()ii0. 'I'uscuny i'* one of tbi- most beautiful and ft-rtilc reg\, with a ti-nipcratt' a;ul bealthy cHiiialr. It ubntinds i 
.Old cMt tic, and pnulucc.-i cxcolknt wlm.s ami t'ruit. Floicii 
♦■cii'iN ah.nit H<J,(/{)U inbabit:niis, and I.iv.irr.o, (corrupted by r 
■iTurslo Lcj^fboni,) 43,UUU. 'I'be niunit'.iotnivs of hllk anti 
\«ir«- roiinorly cclcbiMtcd, anil still maintaiii ivputation. 

'I'h<- ."*ni:ill republic <»f Lnrcu^ is supposed to contain ". 
pwi.'|ile, on 288s(pia!f iniK-.",; of \vhic!i Kncca holds itboiit 4'.»,- 
-ssisnud inclfpi.n U nee in 1.)ru, :irid in llie recent rcvolul 
I*..';. , this state ad(tj>led :i ron«.iiUilion similar to t'a- KiMicli 
l.iir-.iiiese aiv the most industri<ius peojilc ol' I<>ih» and no 
.UTiund i!» nc';;ii cfed, tbi- hills bein.cjf covc'.'id wi'.li vlnch, oUvr 
;iui, arid mulberry ti-ees; mIiIK' the nioi.doiVH ni ;ir ibe roast ' 
nu:nv:ous critth-. (Jil and silk arc l!ie cljief exports «)f l.acc 
li*ii.!;:i!!Vc republic of .V/. .)/i.r«/.;, has l.\- •» ceb-braled Iv 
■ibli- w.iter.s. 'I'lic inhaiiitants <if tjie vill y\- I'.id mount;. in a 
pu\il al .iOOO. It is surroundid by tlie ':i'.'.rin.(»ns of the P<i 
.'la.iMa his pu)ti*c.tion. 

Tliv principality of i'ionibino, cuMsjsiii jr ,,t*a Muall ]>'>rtioi 
It.'tiiun slioiv, and tbcoppodi'.e i^le of Kib.i, ints recent 1> bee 
fd to the French rt.'pnblic. l*i«jinb::'o is a >iuall lu-^-U-cUi 
lh«' princes bavinj;' i;'i-nei"ill\ n-.iided at Uoie.e. The of 
about nine miles in len;;".h, Mul thive in biT-adth ; und has ! 
m:iik:tble from early aniirpiity,f'»r in m. t..ll:c prfKlueti»»ns; ] 
larly, ix'autiful on's of inui, oficncri.stali/.ed, and mingled \ 
live Prussian blue • 

U t;.cu S.I, another sni:dl comuKrcial rep"i!»lic, thou^^h situ 
'Jji* «:i.stcrn shore f)f ihe .\(lri:iiic, i.s ofn^n coiiNidcn d as ai^. 
-tiite. I' has a poj-iiil .'.on of iil>i>ui 56,UO(», on J:j'2 j-(|Miir. 
'J'he rili;4*io:v J.s tlie (,\-th:»lic, jii'.d ihe speech t!i" Slavonic, bi 
• >f I'le '.ijU:i'j!fin:-k spe;.k iLliaii. li is an :.r:*i.' •• .Ii 'p/.c. w 
suifr..^;.!!:;, and irs omnuire is consider:!de, .s it s'lpj)! 
Tiiikji with several kinds uf merchaiidi/e :u\d amuiuuition. 

'>inel til VmiU'o, atHl ibr Unx ut' RunliniK. »Ufa MiImi jind j 

I'-iifT'K )-v 10(1 ..1 ll.'.l»l (.fiiilttjL ■WUill- tilt 


i wlwirt, miuK«, 

-■.^■' nblll'IKtwltll 

pit-ill |i!iii m iliPfilitvliWCiir- 
liinuliiiwi, >■ imu-tlwit with 

copper mine* in tt)r iliieliy 
,» pUon tllU inuUl 1! 


iB-n, mil, nil iluiibt. br tnnrtiU'il liy ttic pivw 

of Fniiicp, 
, tin Unpe- 

■ ■ |.iiblii! I" linle rite tlim « pmvinei 
luMViiic™ 111' H.imn(pi«, IIhIqi'iu, sill 
■ Ibc I'll, Uii' Jucliy ul' Minkns witE Musa CufTM'! 


fixTEiTT. Tf IIS grrat ilivision of the earth extends in longt 
!Ae f Eellespont to whut is called the East Cai>e ; that is ,iroin 
the 26° of lonjjfitudf 9 cast from London, into the other heml 
to near lyO degree- s of cast longitude, or 170** west from Lc 
bcin.c^ MO less tlian 164^, or (taking* the degree at a medial lat 
more than 6500 ji^eo^aphical miles. Fwim the southern c! 
.\ful:.ccu to tile cape u\' Cevero Vostochnoi, which braves 1 
of ilie Arctic ocean, thebrtadlh extends from about S^'toabo 
of northern latitude or nearly 4500 j^ographical miles. If^f 
^uke v)t' a rude an<l merely compiirativc calculation, one-sixth \ 
.uUled for the diflerencc bct\*ecn the statute and geogrra 
miU-f the len]2:th of Asia in British miles would be about 75^ 
i\iv breadth 5250. 

Ii IS now well known tliat Asia is limited on the east, by a 
;vliicl I divides it from America, of about 40 miles in w'idti 
which, in honoiU'of the discoverer, is called Beering's Strait, i 
the Pacific ocean. The northern and southern boundaries a] 
.\rctic and Indian oceans, in wJiich last many larg'e islands, p; 
larly that of New Holland, now more classically styled by 
Austrulatia^ ai!ord a vast additional extent to this quarter > 
globe. The western limits of Asia arc marked by the eastern 
of Europe. 

OmniNAL PorrLATioy. The population of Asia is by all a 
Mlowcd to be wholly primitive and original; if we except t 
the TechuckSjOr Tchuktchi, who, by the Russian ti*avellcrs ai 
T«oke, are suppesed to have passed from the opposite c< 
America. With a few trifling" exceptions, Asia presents a p: 
ous orii^inal population, as may be jud^'d from the following 
wliirh will be found mure clear than any prolix discussion 



Ordo, Getmt, Species, 

CAs'iYnans, Chddee. 

I. AsFjTians. < A ral) iiins. Hebrew^ &c . 




V ■, 

d:^ \ 






"^ ■ 

» \ 

» - 



\ ) 





» V 




ASIA. 1*^ 

0rd9. Genue. Spectti. 

Armenian!. 1 he Peni 

PersxaM. aiid ZtvA are cor- 

Q/.*-4k- « J Scxtliiiais. nate with tile Gotfl- 

bc>nhiiins.-^ Iiitru el extra ic, Greek, aiid La- 

Im.ium, Sec. tin, :-.ccflfdifig 19 


sir W. Xiaies: 

C Modes. Georg'ians. 

\ i*:irthluiis. Circassiuiis. 

^''^'- Hindoos. Northern and Southr 

Sinst C Chinese. These ha\-e aTataric 

^ Ja{)anese. foi-m or face. 

AS Tlioii^h Asia cannot vtc with Europe in the advantMes of 
;d sr.ius, yet, in addition to u shurc* of the Mediterranean, il pA*- 
;s the Kvd Sea, tiic Ar^biiiii Se.:, ;j-:d ^\\f of Persia: Uie b;iys 
len^'^d 4Uid Xankin ; und other gulib wiiich diversity the ooas'j 
h more than those of Ai'rLca nr America, und have doubtless 
rib-itcd rreatlv to the early civilization of this celebrated divi- 
ofllic earth. 

le ttcd Se;i, or tlie Arabian ;rnl*' of antiquity, constitutes the 
d natural division betu'een AsKt ui^d Africa ; but its advantages 
cliioHy been tilt by ihe latter, whicli is entirely destitute of 
r inlund sous; K;7ypt and Abyssini«, tu'O of the- most civilized 
tries in that divibKn, having- di-rivtd irreat benefits from this 
)rat<.-d g'ulf, wltich the straits Cff Bubelmandel to Suez ex- 
i ab<mt 'Z\ de-cpt s, or ;'i-ro Hritish miles : terminating not in 
squ.iI br^incJif s, as ilihricattd in old maj.s, but in an extensive 
L-ni branch, '.v:ale viie ca^ttm ascends litile beyond the parallel 
iount Sinai. • 

le Persian ^iiif is anotlier noted inland sea, 'dbout half the length 
i- fDrmer, bt- inir iJie ^Tuiid receptacle of tliose celebrated rivers 
Snplirivtcsand the Tigri'?. 

i<* O'her gitlts do no? ailbrd such strong features of vhat are 
t-rly I'.'rnied inland sor.s ; if the Euxine be excej^ted^ which lu^ 
dy bci-n brietly described in tlie ^-ncral survey of Europe. But extent of Asia contains SL-as totally dttached, and of a dif- 
t description from any that occur in Eurojje, or other quarters 
:e jrlohe except N. America. Pucli is the Caspian sea, extend* 
ibf.Mt 10*^, or 700 miles in lenjrth, and from 100 to 200 in 
hh. Rebides herrings, salmon, and oilier fish, with porpoises 
tals, thi.s se-.i prt.diices sterkt, and j^at numbers of excellent 
V:ori, uhich last in p;iriicul:ir iiicend the Volefa, and supply 
ir and otl-i-r articles of exp-iriativ^n. The best haven in the Cas- 
is that of liakii : that of lX-rl>ent is rocky; and that of Ensili^ 
ii^ili not coHimodious, though one of the chief ports of trade. 
lOUt 100 miles to the east of tlic Caspian is the sea or l:>ke of 
which is about 200 miles in kngtli, and 70 miles in hiv:<dth. 
sea t'-'nT'"«irrnnij<]cd with sandy deserts, has bt en V.ttl-- ♦.xplor. 

ii& ASIA. 

ed ; but it is sftit like the Caspian, and thei-e ape nvny small saline 
lukcs in the vicinity. In this quality they both difier from the 
Ameriean lakes, which ai*e fresh. 

Another remarkable detached sea is that of Baikal in Sib^a, or 
Asiatic Russia, extending from about the Afty-first to tJie fifty-fifth 
'Icgrec of north latitude-, bcuig about 350 Britisli miles in length, 
^ut its greatest breadth not above 35. 7'hc M*ater is fresh and trans- , 
parent, yet of a green or sea tinge, commonly frozen in the latter 
eiid of December, and clear of ice in May. The Baikal is, at parti- 
cular perio<lii, subject to violent and unaccountable storms, whence, 
as terror is the parent of superstition, probably springs the Hussian 
^ame of Sreotie More', or tlie Holy Sc:(. 

The religions, governments, rivers, mountains, 8ic. of this quar- 
ter of the globe will be illustrated in the accounts of the serenl 
countries into which it is divided. 

Tike principal states which divide this quarter of the globe, are u 

Tuikey in Asia ; the Russian dominions in Asia ; tlie Chinese eiB* 
pire, including China proper, Chinese Tartary, and Tibet; Jupani 
the Binnan empire i Malaya, or Malacca { Siam, ind other smaller 
states ; Hindostan ; Island of Ceylon ; Persia ; Jhidependent Tart*i- 
yj; Arabia; sundry Asiatic islands; to which wHl be added ^Iw 
> "wlv discovered islands in the Pacific ocean. 


'UATION.. ThUpai*! of the Turkish dominions is situated 
sen 28 and 44 degrees N. latitude, und b<;tween 26 and 45 de- 
E. longitude. . 

rxMT. R extends from the shores of the iEeean aca, or Archi* 
Oy to the confines of Persia; a space of about 1050 British 
The boundaries towards Persia are ratlier ideal than natu» 
kough soniewliat marked by the mountains of Arrurat and El- 
. hi the nortl), the Turkish territories are now divided fronL 
uBsion by tlie river Cuban^ and the chain of Caucasus in the 
a they extend to tlie junction of the Tigris and tlie Euphrates, 
I last river, for a considerable space, divides the Turkish pos- 
1118 from those of the Arabs. From the river Cuban to the 
ioii of the Tigris and Euphrates, may be about 1100 British 

riBiom, This extensive territory, which in itself would con- 
e an empire, could it resume its pristine population, is di- 
into nine or ten provinces, viz. Natolia, Caramania, Eyfa<;o 
£, or Chaldea, Uiarbec, or Mesopotamia, Turcomania or Armc- 
3urdist:in or Assyria ; Georgia, including Mingrclki, Imaretta,. 
art of Circassia; Amas'ia, Aladuliu, 3yria, and Palestine, 
cse provinces are subdivided into g^ivcmmcnts arbitrarily ad- 
tcred b)' puslias^ wlio fleece the people, and often i-cvolt from 

IGI5AL PoPVLATiQzr. The original population of tlicse regions 
tied chiefly of Scy Uiic nations, mingled with a few As.syrians*. 
the south. At present the ruling language is tlic Tiu'kisli, 
U) which may be placed tlie modei*n Grt'ck ; but tlie And>ic« 
1, Pcraian, and Armenian, with various dialects used by the 
I on the Black sea, indicate a great diversity of i)opulation. 
TitiviTiKs. The antiquities of Asiatic Turkey,, once the chosen 
)f the arts, are numerous and important, but have bi-cn so re* 
dly described as u> have become ti'ivial themes, even to tlic 
ul reader. The most splendid ruins are those of Palmyra, or 
H)r, in tlie desert, about 150 jmiles to the S. E. of Altrppo, at 
urthcm extremity of tlie sandy wastes of Arabia- 
ibec, the ancient llelxopolis, is about 50 miles to the N. W. of 




Damascus; the most rCTharkablo mm tK'ing tliatof a temple^ sup 
cd to have been cledic:ited to the sum. 

Recent invcfltiguiion h:u disriosed Anot)ioi' remarkable seen 
kiitiqulty, in tlie silo and celcbiMted plain r»f 'J'roy. The toml 
remritf antiquity havinpf been constructed like the large barrov 
our British ancestors, iii the lasting^ turm of small hills, they v 
stood the a!>sautts of time or avarice; and late travellers indie 
with some plausibility tJiut of Hector, beldnd the site of Ti 
those of Achilles, and Patroclus on the shore ; and a few others oi 
Homeric heroes. 

PopuLATio?r. The Turkish empire in Asia is estimated at 470 
square miles ; and the population at ten millions ; which, allo^ 
ei^ht for the European part, will render the total 18,000,000. 

Maxttsrs aicd Ccstoms. In general, the mobt striking featu 
manners and customs, in the l\irkish empire, is, that b:df the 
pie may be considered as somewhat civilized, while the other 
are pastond wani^erers ranging over extensive wastes. This 
;-umst:tncc renders travelling ven' unsafe, and has proved a f 
'impediment to any exact geograpliical knowledge of these r^ 
(Jndcr a wise and enei^tlc gvivemmcnt, industry and the artsn 
/.gain visit this classical territory. 

Cities a.vd Towns. The capital of the Turkish empire has 
already described. Next in dignity and importance ib the ci 
llalcb, f>r Aleppo, supposed to contain about 250,000 inhabit 
This city is constntcted with some elegance, and the tall ey\ 
'roes, contiastcd with the white minarets of numerous mosques, 
■ t a picturesque ;;ppearance. The biiildings and population see 
f'.nvj })eLn on the increase, but the adjacent villages are desertei 
i » .situated in 35° 1 1' N. lat. ami 37® 10' E. long. The chief langf 
;ire tlie S\Tian and Arabic. The manufactures of silk and cotto 
in a flourishing condition, and large caravans frequently arrive 
Bagdad and Bassora, charged with the products of Persia and I 
Consuls from various Europrxn powers reside here, to attend t] 
terests of the respective nations. 

Damascus is supposed to contain about 180,000 souls. It 
:')i'inerly celebrated for the manufacture of sabres whicli set 
fiive been constructed by a method now lost, of alternate thiu h 
yt iron and steel, so as to bend even to the hilt without brea] 
while the etl;r- v.'ould divide the firmest mail. The mamifhcf 
now consist of siik and cotton, and excellent soap. From the 
di+crrunean ai-e imported metals and broad cloths ; and tlie can 
of Bagdad bring Persian and Indian articles. This city also inc 
I*?, the Py.shalik of Damascus is esteemed the first in Asia. Ltf 
4j'N. andlong. 3r*'E. 

Sm\-ma may be reprarded as the third city in Asiatic Turkey, 
raining about 120,000 souls. This flourishing seat of Euro 
iiommerce is the chief mart of the Levant trade, but the fre^ 
\]«;;ts of the pestilence greatly impede its prosperity. 

Prusa is a beautiful city, in a romantic situation at tlie iKKri 
bottom of mount Olympus. By Toumefort's computation of 1 
'ies, the inhabitants may be about 60,000i 


Angora may contain 80,000 inhabitants. The trade is chiefly in 
Vum, of wliich our slialloons are made ; and in their own maimfac- 
Xure of Angora stufis, made chiefly of the fine hair of a particular 
treed of e;t>ats. 

Tokat IS also a flourisliing place. The inhabitants are computed 
&t 60,000. The situation is singular, amidst rugged and perpendi- 
cular rocks of marble, and the streets are paved, which is a rai-c cir- 
cumstance in the Levant. Silk and leather are manufuctures of 
Tokat ; but the chief is that of copper utensils, which are sent to 
Constantinople, and even to Egypt. 

Ila.sra, or Bicssora, on the estuary of the Euphrates and Tigris, 
contains 50,000 inhabitants, and is of great commercial consequence, 
being frequented by numerous vessels from Europe and Asia, and 
the seat of an English consul. 

The ^eat and njmantic Bagdad, the seat of the Califs, and the 
■ceneof many eastern fictions has now dwindled into a town of about 
S0,000 inhabitants. Not far to the south are some ruins of tlie cele- 
brated B&bylon, which have been ably illustrated m a recent work 
of ACajor Kennel. 

Many an important city of antiquity lias sunk into a village, and 

." even the village often into a mass of rubbish, under the destructive 

domination ofthe Turks. The ancient and celebrated city of Jem- 

; ' nlem is reduced to a mean town, chiefly existing by the piety of pil- 

•-' glims. 

t ■■ Mavufactciies. The chief manufactures of Asiatic Turkey have 
[. been already incidentally mentioned. These with rhubarb, and se- 
\ Teral other drugs, may be regarded as the chief articles of com- 
1 inerce. 

I Climate and Seasotts. The climate of Natiola, or Asia Minor 
\ has always lieen considered as exciellenl. There is a peculiar soft- 
ness and serejiity in the air, not perceivable on the European side of 
^ the Ardiipelago. The heat of the summer is considerably temper- 
ed by the numerous chains of high mountains, some of which are 
said to be covered witli perpetual .snow. 

Viort'ARLE As^n A'XiMAx Pkoucctions. The general appearance 

of Asiatic Turkey may be regarded as mountainous ; but intermin- 

■■ gled with large and beautiful plains, which, instead of being covered 

. with rich crops of grain, are pastured by tlie numerous flocks and 

herds of the Turcomans. The soil, as may be expected, is extremely 

Tuioas; but that of Asia Minor is chiefly a deep clay; and wheat, 

berief , and durra, form the chief products of agriculture. But ex- 

csellent g^pes and olives abound; and tlie southern provinces arc 

. fertile in dates. In Syria, the agriculture is in the most deplorable 


Rttebs. The principal river of Asiatic Turkey is, beyond all 
- comparison, the Euphrates, which rises from the mountains of Ar- 
-■ inaua,afew miles to the N. E. of Erzeron. It chiefly pursues a 
B,W. direction to Semisat, where it would fall into the Mediterra- 
nean, if not prevented l>y a high ridge of mountains. In this part 
t of its course the Euphrates is joined by the Morad from tlie east, ' 
•ticam almost doubling in length that of Euplirates ; so that t 


latter river mif ht more justly be mlkI to spring from mounl 
about 160 Britiah miWii tu the east of tbi.* imputed source, 
misat, tbe sncient Saniosata, tiiis noble rii-er Asitumes a soutl 
rtxtioii; then runs uii cxiensivc course to tlie S.E. and : 
ceiviiiff the 'ri^rut, falls by two or tlirce mouths into Uie 
l*i:rsia. 'I'lic cuiii[>araiivc course of tlie Euphrates may be 
ced at about l^A) lii-aiiih miles. 

Next in iniporiaiice is tlie I'i^is, which rises to the nort] 
Medan, about 150 miles soutli irom the sources of tlie Eu 
and piuvues nearly a regular direction S. E. till it join the Ei 
beiovr Koma« about 60 miles to tlie north of Bassora : afVcr a 
rative course of abtiut 800 miles. The Euphrates and tbe T: 
bo til navigable for a coiibiderubie duitancc: trom^the sea. 

The tiiird river in Asiatic Turkey is that called by thi 
Kizil Xrmak, tlic celebrated Halys of antiquity^ rising in moi 
rus, not far Irom Erekli, but by other accounts more to 1 
und piuvuing a winding course to the north, nearly across th 
of Asia Miiior» till it join the Euxine sea on the west of the 
Sunsoun. The river Suciirih, tlie ancient Sangarius, or S 
rises about 50 miles to tlie south of Angora, and rumiin( 
N. \V. joins the Euxine, about 70 miles to the east of Constar 

In the next rank may be placed tlie classical river of Al 
risiing to the nortli of tlie ancient city of .ipamia, and nmnL 
winding stream, about 250 Uritisli miles. The Minder, 
Turks call it, not tar from its mouth, is aDout 100 feet broai 
a swif^, muddy, and extremely deep current, having receive 
sideruble accession of waters from tlic lake of Myus. 

The Sarubat, or ancient Ilermiis, renowned for its goldcr 
iouis tiic Arcliipelago about 90 British miles to the nortl 
Minder, after a coursi' of similar length. 

The chief river of Sjria is tlic Orontcs, now colled Oron. 
rising about 80 miles to tlie N. of Dumascuu, and ruMhini 
dim nortli, till it suddenly turns S. E. near AiUioch, aiW v 
bocjn joins the Mediterranean. 

Lakkh. Asiatic Turkey also contains numerous lakes. ' 
Van in the north of Kurdistan, is tlie most remarkable^ bein| 
80 Rritisli miles in len^iftli, from N. E to S. \V. and abou 
breadth : it is said to abound with fish. 

In Syria, wliat is called the Dead Sea, may be regarded a 
of about 50 miles in lengtJi, and 13 or 13 in breadtJi. The 
I&ut'kama, to the south ofllilla and the ancient Babylon, is a 
miles in length, and flows into the Euplirates. 

Tuwurds the centre of Asia Minor, there is a remarkabli 
lake, about 70 miles in len^^th, ami a mile or two in breadtl 
the Tatta, or Palus Salsa ot D' Anville's ancient geography, 
are a few other small lakes of less note. 

Mountain 11. These are famoiu in sacred as well as prof;; 
tinjrs. The most remarkable are Olympus, in Natolia, es 
the liighcst in Asia; the 'J'aui-us, an extensive range be, 
in Oaramania, and running nearly through Asia; the Caucas 
tending from thie Cubw tp new tbe Caspiaasea; Ararat, a 

ItmKEr IN ASIA. 153 

the east of Arminia ; the Libanus, or LebMiony between Syria 
destine, and extending from the Mediterranean sea to Arabia; 
e Hermon, situated between the Mediterranean and tlie river 

STABLE jLsn AxiMAL Productioits. The mountains in Asi' 
urkey are often clothed with immense forests of pines, oak^ 
.*s, elms, und other trees. 

ong* the indigcnoiui trees may be distinguished the olive tree, 
ling thronghoiit tlie whole Archipelago and the sliores of the 
t; tJie weeping* willow, graceful with its slender pendent 
ics, which has adtimed the banks of the Euphrates from time 
norial; the wild olive, bearing a small tweet esculent fruit i 
lite mulbeny ; the storax trc-e, from which exudes the fragrant 
esin of tJie some name ; the pomegranate ; ainiOnd tree, and 
tree ; the cherry, a native of Poatus, whence it was brou^^t 
ne by Lucullus ; the lemon and orange ; the mjrrtle, growing 
ully by the side of running streams ; tfie plantain tree; the 
» a perfectly wild state, climbing up tlie highest trees, and 
g verdant grottos among its ample festoons ; the mastich i 
turpentine; and pistachia nut tive; the cypress; and the 
a few large trees of whleh still remain on Mount Lebanon, the 
ble relics of its sacred forests. The fig tree and sycamore 
»und in Palestine and other pjrts of Syria ; to which we magp 
le date tree, the prickly cupped oak, from which are procured 
est Aleppo galls ; the oriental plinc tree, hi^dy esteemed for 
dy teiTt-like canopy of foliage ; and tlie menispermum coccu- 
e berries af which, commonly called cocculus indicus, are 
ased by the natives for taking tiali, on accoimt of their narco* 
Tal dying drugs and articles of the materia medica are im- 

from' the Levant, among which may be particularized, mad- 
bip, scammony, sebcsten, croton tinctorium ; the ricinus com« 
, tlie seed of which yields, by expression^ the castor oil ; thfl 
ng cucumber, coloquintida, opium poppy, and spikenard. 

Mst horses in Asiatic Turkey are of Arabian cxtr:<ct, and 
iringly led with a little barley and minced straw, to accustom 

abstinence and fatigue ; but mules and asses arc in more 

1 use ; beef is scarce and bad. The mutton is superior ; and 
1 is a favourite repast. 

viatic Turkey appears that king of ferocious animals the lion, 
rarely roams to the west of the Euphrates : large tygers seem 
estrictcd to the wastes of Hindost:;n. Tlie hyaena, and the 
Mur, are known animals of Asia Minor, tog^'ther with troops 
tahf which raise dre.idful cries in the nitrht 
ibex, or rock ^'oat, ap])ears on the summits of Caucasus. The 
>f Angora h.-sve been .ilready mentioned. The common ante- 
else an inhii!jii:int of Asia Minor, with numerous deer and 

KBALs. The mincralosrv of those extensive and mountainous 
ces remains in a <leplordble state of imperfection. Ancient 
nraa liunou3 for the production of gold; but in modern tim<!n 


no mines ■eem to be indicated, except those of copper which 
I'ok^it ; lead, and c jppcr ore, with ruck crystab, have been cA 
in tiie ishuul of C} prua. 


THE chief iflUnda in the Arch ipehigo, considered as bekm 
Asia, ure M}tilenc Scio, Samos, Cos, and Riiodes. 

M v'lilene, tlie Mncieiit Lesbos, is tiie most northerly and hu 
these isies, bcine about 40 HritLsh miles in length, by 24 at it 
cat hi-oadtli. The chniatc is exquisite : and it was ancaentl, 
Ibr wines, and the beauty of its women. 

Sciu, the ancient Cliios, is about 36 Uritisli miles in length, I: 
about 13 in medial bread ih. Tlie Chian wine celebrated t>)' 1 
reuins its ancient fame. Tlie Grccju here enjoy considem 
dom and ease ; and display such industry that the country rei 
a g^.tnlen. This pariicuLAr favour arises from the cultivation 
niuiiiic tree, or rather shrubs, which supply the gum, so ace 
to the Ldies of the sulun'n seraglio. Toumefort observe 
tamt* partridges, kt^pt like poultr}' ; and ChantUer saw nu 
groves of lemons, oranges, and citrons, perfuming tlie air « 
odour of tfieir blossoms, and dtliprliimg the eye with their 
fruit. Tlie inhabitnSls are siippoaeil to be about 60,000. 

Samos is about 'So miles in len^li, and 10 m bread ch. 1 
fcrt computes tlie inhabitauts ai 12,XK), ail Greeks. The 
of Santos was anciently excellent ; but at present, moat bran 
industry are neglected. Pitch is pix-parcd from the pine ' 
the north part of the ibiand, und the silk, honey, and wax 

Cos is about 24 miles in length, by three or four in breodtli 
covcrtd wjUi groves ni' lemon trees, and tlu»rc is an orienti 
tree, of \ast size ■ the ciiief trade is m oi'anges and lemons. 

Kliodes :s about 36 British miles in length, by 15 in bi-eac 
is fertile in wheat, though the soil be of a simdy nature. Th> 
lation is computed at about 3u,v>00. The city of the same 
in which no Christian is now permitted to dwell, was ancien 
ted fur a colossus ni bronze, about 130 feet high. This isle 
two centuries possessed by the knights of St. John, of Jen 
thence 8t}-led knigfits of Rhodes, till 1523, when they were 
ed by the Turks. 

Along the southern shore of Asia Minor, there are 8om« 
isles ; but they are of no moment when compared with tl 
and celebrated island of C>-pru8, which is about 160 British i 
length, and aboi it 70 at i ts greatest breadth. In tlie fif t eentli c 
this isle was possessed by the Venetians ; but in 1570 it was 
by the Turks. The soil is fertile, yet agriculture is in a ne 
state. The chief products are silk, cotton, wines, turpenti 
tinkber. The wine of Cyprus is deservedlycelebrated. The* 
are excellent ; and tlie mountains are covered with hyacin 
anexDonies, and other beautiful flowers. The Cypriots are a i 


ek^nt race ; but the chief beauty of the women consists ki their 
sparkling' eyes. To the disgrace of the Turkish government the 
|K>piil:ition of this extensive island is computed at 50,000 souls. 
So populous was it under the reign of Trajan, that the Jews inva- 
ded the island, and slew ^240,000 of its mhabitants ; since which, 
ft Jew is not suffered to enter the island. It was once so rich 
as to tempt the avarice of the Romans, who sent thither, to 
fleece the inhabititnts, Cato : he raised a contribution of 7000 ta- 
lents, equal to 2|100,000 crowns. In order to convey this vast sum 
lafely to Rome, he divided it into small portions^ which he put up 
in sevenij boxes, of about two and a half a talents each ; and to each 
Vox he fastened a long rope with a piece of cork at the end of it ; by 
vhich, in case of shipwreck, the treasure might be seen agtiin. 
There is not one river in the island, that continues its course in 
^ ^ summer ; but there are many ponds, lakes, and l^ens, producing 
^ , 4 damp and malignant air. Tlie chief cities aie Nieo8ia» the capital 
'^ ad residence of the governor, and Famagusta. 



i:vTT.wT. THIS large portion of the habitable globe, exte 
iiii.)}<i :lir wbo'e lcM;,-th of Asia, horn about thc37th dcgriH: • 
j^itiiilc cjist (>t London tn intirc than I90^f or thi' ei«steni boi 
of Ar»i:i. As the nortlicrn latirudc is viTv hig^, the di'pTci 
Miily be :4S.^uniLU ai 30 iii:k-s, anti tlie length may thus be con 
M iihnvx 4000 (fiojrraphical miles. The greatest breadth fn 
r:i;H :>f rivcn) A osTochnoi, culk*il in some maps Tuimiira, 
Alt.i'.un cli:iin of mcMiiituins on the south of (Tie sea of Bail 
fn-ni jO to 78 dej;-'-' < X. L.ti-.i.tU, may l)e 28*" or 1680 fycogn 
?nil«'s, an cxtcTit \\\\. '» will he found to excfi-d that of Europ 

ISorNDi.iiKH. ''''h' lurthi'st < astcm bfiuniiary is that of As 
the ^:is of K. ti-.M .♦Va arH Oeltotsk : a hik* tlie northern is tl 
tic f)ccai^ ')i; ^I»i \\ :*i\ i" o f"i*on<ifroC«'.'iV'<n'ind with those b< 
A-j.u am' EuMpe. The i ivcr C.i^.io, p:%ri of the Caueasian 
ami an iilral li* ^-j divides t'ln Iliissipn terril(»rY from Turk 
l*er>i.i on llie aoiith. The h' then ascemfs tlirough t 
fiert of Isr*".m, till it nu-ot- :iic vast cn-^pjrc of China; the liir 
tween lipssia and Chinese Tatary U m/v partly, ai: ideal lin 
parily, tlic river Ar^m, whieh joined with the Onon cons 
ili«' ^»Teat river Amur. 

ANTiariTi »s. The most nirious ;.!ttiijuities seem to be th< 
iom))s which .'\lN)und in s<.me steppes^ particularly near tlit 
Venchci : repn.*senT ing^ in mdo scul]iture human faces, camels, 
men vvitl) lances, and other objects. Here arc found, besides ! 
hones, those ofhorii«. sand oxen, with fragments of pottdry an< 
meJits of dress. 

HKLir;io!>r. The Cpccian system of the Christian faith, wl 
cm I traced by the Russians, has made inconsiderable pmgi 
their Asiatic possessions. AInny of the Tartar tribes in the 
are Mahomet anr, ; others follow the 8U])er8tition of the Dalai 
.vid Oic more eastern Tatars are generally adclicted to the S 
ivlif^ion, a system chiefly founded on tlic self-existence of ms 
i>]>iritu:il wnrld, :did the gvneral restitution of all things. 

The arch:(-])i.<'ropal see of Tobolsk is the metropolitan of B 
Asia in (he north, and that of Astracan in the south. Tliero 
other see, that of Irkutsk and Xershink, and perhaps a few 
of recent foundation. 





V'tiixMENT. Siberia is divided into two jrreat jjovernnicMits, 
>f Tobolsk in the west, and Irkutsk in the cast. Jn \hv S. W 
: jjovernmcnt of Caucasus, with one or two other dlvision.s, jn- 
njrlijijr liui-oiJe and Asia. At a distance from the capital lUr 
iinietit becomes proiM)rtionably kix, and some kind ot" tribute 
: chief mark of subjection. 

pi'LATiOTir. Tlie population of Siberia cannot be computed at 
' three nullions and a half; so tliat E»irope can in future have 
to apprehend iVom the Tataric swarms. Small Russian colo- 
lave been established in several of tlie distant provinces and 

JTXKHS A?rD CusToxs. Tiic manncrs and customs of Asiatic 

a vary with tJie numerous tribes by nhom tJiat extensive region ^ 


K manncrs of the Tatars, who are the most numerous^ and tls'* 

people with the Hims of antiquity, are minutely dcKcribcd by 

authors w)k) have delineilted the fall of the Roman em])ire ; 
to which period they seem to have been absohitely unknown 
; ancients. The Monguls are wholly Nomadic, their herds con- f 

g of horses, camels, oxen, sheep, and goats The women tan 
■rr, dig" the culinaiy roots, prepare the winter pi*ovisions, dried 
Ited, and distil the koumiss, or spirit of mare*s milk. The men 

tlie numerous beasts and gi^mc t^^at roam tlimiigh llie vast 
. Their tents are formed of a kind of felt, and in some parts 
erect lijtle temples, and the priests have also wooden Ijovels 
id the temples. The Kidmuks are divided into three ranks ; 
obility, whom thej- call wliite lK>nts ; tJie common people, wlio 
ondmen, and termed black bones ; and tJie clerg)', descending* 
both, who are free. The power of the Tuidshn^ or chief prince, 
sts solely in tlie number and opulence of his subjects, territory 
' of no estimation in so wide a region. The tribute paid to the 
e is about a tenth part of the cattle and other property ; but 
e first summons everj' man must appear on horseback before 
rince, who dismisses those who are unfit for the futiguts of 

Tl»e weapons are bows, lances, and sabres, and sometimes 
nns J and the rich warriors are clothed in mail of inUrrwoven 
, like that used in Europe till the fifteenth century, 
e Mongids are ratlicr short in stature, witli a flat visage, small 
ue eyes, thick lips, and a short chin, with a scanty beard ; the 
)lacK, and the complexion of a reddish or yellowisli brown : but 
jf tlie women is clear, and of a healthy white ami red. They 
surprising quickness of sig^lt and apprehension, and are docile, 
table, beneficent, active, and voluptuous. " Industry is a virtue 
:ly female, yet great, and accompanied with jxirpetual cluep- 
ss. Tlieir religious books are in the dialect of Tangiit, i>r 
t, and there is a schoolmaster in every imak which is eompose<l 
•out 200 families ; and h^ Imparts more knowledge to the boys 
would be expected. Animal food is abundant,. and sometimes 
rl with vegetable, while the general drink is water; but they 
times indulge in sour milk, prepared after the Tatarian man- 
jutter milk, and koumiss ; but mead and brandy arc now greater 



t j\-«>iiriLrs. When paslurngt' bofi^ins tu fail, \(-holc tribes strike ' 
U'lttSy ^ncrally from Ilii to tit^iH-n timi-s in the year; procee 
in \\\v. hiiiiiiDcr to tlic northern, aiul fu Uic winter Xo the sout 

Such, \\\\\\ sonic slight shades of (lifFcrencc, ai-c ;dso the mar 
of till* Tatars uiid .Mandsiiitrs. 

'I'hc thric* distinct barbaric nations of Tatars, Monp^ls, and ' 
.s^N, s or Mandr>ljur.s, arc by far the most iuteix'bting tribes in 1 
niivUilc re[;ions of Asia ; as their ancestors have overturned 
.fl^ :itcst empires, and repeatedly infincnced the destiny of hall 

LANuriGK. The langTiagcs of all tliese ori|i^inal nations ar 
dicaliy diHerciit ; and among* ttic Tunguses, Monguls, and Ti 
''hi re arc some slight tnires of iiterature, and not a few manusc 
in tlicir several langnages. In the Alongul lanji^ge there are 
many books, written in the various countries to which their 
conquests extended. 

< :iTii:s AMI To wNrt. In Asiatic Russia the principal city is A 
^an, at tik: mouth of the \'olga, which is supposed to contain 7i 
^nliat>ilunts. The wooden houses liave exposed it to frequent 
Hagrarions, aiid attempts have bt-en vainly made to enforce tin 
' t' brick. Tliere arc twenty -five Russian churclM}s, and two 
M-uts. The Armenians, Lutlieraiis, and Papists, have also 
places of worship -, and even the Hindoos liavc been permittc 
(Tect a temple. The chief trade of Astracan is in salt and fish, 
Ticularly sturgeon and kaviar from the \'oi|^{ and it also alt 
-onu- })ortion of oriental commerce. It is situated in 46^ 22f K 
:ind 47^ 40' K. long. 

TIic cliicf place after Astracan is Orenburg, founded in the 
ir-tO, to protect the acquisitions in tliese parts, and promote 
commerce. Nor liavc these views failed, tor Orenburg is tlie sc 
u considerable trade with the tribes on tike east of tlie Caspian. 

On passing the Uralian chain, first occurs tlie city of Tob 
whicli only contains about 15,000 soids, but is esteemed tlie ca 
(^f Silx'ria. Tobolsk is more distinguishe<l as the residence OJ 
Kovi:nior and archbishop, than for the importance of its coniin 58® 12' N. and long. 68® 25' E. 

On the river Angara, which issues from the sea of Baikal si 
Irkutsk, su]^]K>.sed to contain 12,000 inhabitants. There are se 
churches and other edifices of stone, and the wooden house 
large and convenient. Irkutsk is tlie chief mart of the comnn 
hetweon Russia and China, the see of an archbishop, and the sc 
Mi]>renie jurisdiction over eastern Siberia. 

On the wide and frozen Lena stands Yakutsk, with some t 
cl lurches, but the houses arc mostly of wood. The Lena is 
:i])()Ut two leagues in width, (tliough about 700 miles from its moi 
but is greatly impeded with ice- 

Manufactciies a^d Commerck. There arc some manufacti 
particularly in leather, at Astracan. Isinglass is chiefly mam 
tiired on the shoix.'S of the Caspian, from the sounds or air bla 
of the stiu^on, und the beluga. Kaviar is the salted roc of 1 


ere is a considerable fabric of nitre, about 40 miles to tlie 
Astrucan. Near the Uralian mountains arc several manu- 
in iron and c6pp<s*. 

lief commerce of tliis part of tlic Russian empire consists 
, and other valuable ftira, which are cagjerly bought by the 
who return tea, silk, and porcelain ; that with the Kirguscs, 
d on by e>Lch:uiging Uussian woollen clotlis, iron, and 
d articles, for UorjKis, cattle, sheep, and beautiful sheep- 
)n th2 niack Sea there is some commerce with Turkcv ; 
rts being furs, kaviar, iron, linen, &c. and the imports wme, 
lee, silks, rice. In the trade on- tlie Caspian the exports arc 
, but the rctuni chiefly silk. 

ris AND Skasovs. In Asiatic Russia the climate extends 
to 78® N. from tlic vine at the bottom of Caucasus, to the 
ichen on the rocks of the Arctic ocean. The general cli- 
r more justly iHi roganled as frigid than temperate. The 
nate in the eastern parts seems to Ikj that of Daouria, or 
nee around Nershinsk; and the numerous towns on the 
incc the groat superiority of what is cjiUcd Chinese Tatarj', 
comparatively a fertile and temperate region. 
XD Aonirf'LTrnK. Many parts of Siberia arc totally inca- 
agricultiire ; hut in the southern and wostera districts the 
remwkable fertility. Toward the north of Kolyvan, barley 

yi'"kls more tlian twelve fold, and oats commonly twenty 
ick-whcat, in this black light mould, is apt to run into stalk, 

in the pooi*est spots yields from twelve to fifteen f()Id. Es- 
r winter wheat, most of the usual Europoaii <^ rains prosper 
rn Silieria The best rhubarb abounds on the banks of the 
)aik, in the southern disti'icts. 

«. Home of the largest rivers of Asia belong to th(* Btis- 
ire. The Ob, including its wide estuary, may he said to 
mjiarativc course of 1,9(W British miles', wiiilc that of the 
B about 1750, and tliat of the licna 1570. 
!j is navigable almost to its source, that is, to the lake of 
id abounds with fish, hut the stui'geon of the Irtish are tlie 
■emed. After it has been frozen for some time, the water 
foul and fetid, but is puriilcd in the spring by the melting 

3 tlie Ycnesei, which is considered as deriving its source 
mountains to the S. W. of the iiaikal ; but tlie name Yenc- 

impartcd till many sti*cams have joined, when it holds its 
most due north to the Arctic ocean, 
stof these large rivers is the Lena, which rises to the west 
a of Baikal, and, till near Yakutsk, ptirsues a course fi-oni 
.to tlie N. B. From Yakutsk tlie course is nearly duy 
ic channel being of great breadth and full of islands, tturli 
ree largest rivers of Asiatic Uussia ; others, though of voii- 

magnitude, we must omit. 

In the north of Siberia the most considendde lake is tha^ 
isko. In tlie south the sea of llaikal is fresh, but the ex< 
acceding tliat of uny other lake. Uetwccn the river Ob 

. V :> nussi AN £^n'^tE in asia. 

:ii'.J the Irtitih is :b.lar|rc lake, about 170 miles in length, <3ivi 
an iKbud into two parts, ciillLHl the lakes oF Tchany asid Sou 
?lils qwurtcr there aiv nianv smaller lakes, andotliers to tlieJi 
■ he Caspiais soini.* ot* wliieli are salt. 

\Ior\T\iNs. The l.-ruliiiu mountains havel>een already d 
d In the account «jf Kiiropoan UussiiL The grandest chain 
*)i-riA is calle<l thu inountaiiis of Altai, which, accorc 
I'alluM, cn)ssin}-' tht* liL'ud of vliu Irtish, presents precipito 
•mowy Ninnmits bciwi-en that river and the sources of t 
I 'hence it winds in v;irious courses, and under difierent nai 
rhr cMstcni oxtik^niily of Asia. 

The mount uins af NoPMhink, or Russian Daouria, send bi 
ow.irds the isehn^a, and the Amur, in Chinese Tutary. 

The C:iUca><iM forms a piirti;d limit between the Kiissian i 
and thobo of Turkey and IVrsia. Between the Euxine a 
C:is])ian the Caucit-iiiUi chain extends for about 400 Britisli 
The summits urc covoivd wilh eternal ice and snow ; and co 
asual of jfr«'"i^^'» succeeded by slate luul limestone. 

S rKi'ps. One of the most remarkable featui-es of nortbct 
:iTC IhosL* extensive level ])lains, culled Step|3S. They Arc aoi 
■similar to :iu* saiuly deserts of Africa, but are not mute so b: 
% oj^etaiion ; being- mosUy only sandy, witli scattered patches 
j^rass, iuid at wide intervals a stunted thicket. 

On the ea*<teni side of the Voljya begins an extensive 
fonncrlv called that of the Kalmidts, from tribes who used • 
tliere, till they withdrew frovi the Russian dominions in 177 
vast desert est-^nds about 7<00 British miles from E. to W.; 
breadth d^K.» not exceed 220 in some parts. 

The stepp of Rarabin, N. W. of Omsk, is about 400 n 
length, and oOO in breadth, coiitaiiling a few salt lakes, but i 
I'al of a good black soil, interspersed with forests of birch, 
of Issim aspiri'ts but rarely to the uamo miality : and hi b 
ibund many tombs, inclosing* the remains of pastoral cliiefs, 1 

The vast space between the Ob and the Yenesei, ftom tlii 
of Tomsk to the Arctic ocean, is reg^ardcd as one stepp, beui; 
diprious level with no appearance of a mountain, and scarci 


gard to its >'eg^tablc production, is divided by nature into 1 
equal portions : The smaller of these is bounded on the wes 
Don and Wolp^a, on the east by tlie Uralian mountains, and 
south by the Caspian sea, and the Turkish and Persian fr 
The. climate of this district is delicious, and the soil fertile, i 
towurds the south, and is protccte<l from the northern blasts 
mountainous ridges ; the cedar, Uic cypress, the savine, red^ 
beech, and oak, clothe the sidf-s of the mountains; the almr 
peach, and the fig, abound in the warm recesses of the rod 
qaince, the apricot, tlie willow-leaved pear, and the vine, an 
quent occurrence in the thickets, and on the edges of the 
Tiie olive, the stately wide-spreading eaateinjplanc tree, the 


ly, and lauriistinus, f^viAV in :il)iiiuluiice nii tlic bliorcs of iUo. 
' kzi)t\ nixl the CaKpiuii i uiid tlu: rumantic vules cif the (Jaii- 
areiH'rfiiim.'cl and en livened with tlic Hyrini^a, the jaMiniiic, the 
, unci tiic CaiictiHian ro-ie. 

fur the hirt^r purt of the Riissiuii (himinions in Asia is the 
L'Xpanse of Siheria, idoptn^ towards tlie nortli, and .shut up on 
nth hy tlic snowy sunniiitH of the Altaian, ami other muiin- 
is cliains. Ah the winters ait: of f^eat Ivnf^th and aeverity 
l^hout the whole of this trad, nonie hut the hardiest vej^tahlis 
inul to inhahit it. l''rom this deHcriptlon nmst he excepted thr* 

of the ini^'hty rivci-s of Siberia; aa tiiey are lx>rdeml with 
tnstihle foirsts oi' various timber trees. 
he greater part of Asiuilc JCussIa the rein deer, which extendi 

iitrthest east, ])crfornis the ortice of the horse, the row, and 

eep; if we except Kanisch.'itk;i, wliere dog-s are used for car- 

Hnt tlic south may ])erhaps he (-onHidered as the native oonn- 

Ihat noiiht unimal, the horae, heinff thei-e found w ild, as well 
iccies of tlie ass. The terribh; nrus, or bison, ia yet found in 
.ucasian moinitains ; ami tlie ar^^ali, or wiUl shee]>, is limited 
;ria. Tlie ibex, or roek f^Kit, is frequent on the (Caucasian pro 
1 : and lar^e sta^s oe.cur in the mountains near the liaikal, witit 
jflk unimal ; the wild hoar, wolves, f(»xeb, and heurs, of vurioua 
and deHT.riptions, are also found. That kind of wea/el, culled 
ibltr, affords a vahiahle traffic by its firs. Sonic kinds of 
appear, little known in othei* ivgions ; and the castor or l>cavcL* 
iimute of tlio Yencsei. 

horses of the Mong'ids arc of sing-ular beauty, some beinf^ 

like the (i^:r, and others spotted like tJie leo])ard. I'Jie nos- 
r the foals ui*e commonly slitted, that tliey may inhale more 
Lhc course. The adrm, or stud of a noble Monf^l, may cou- 
rt wf:en threr an<i four thousand hrirses and mares. TJic cat- 

of a middling^ size, and pass tlie winter in the stepps or 

FRRikLfi. The mincralo|;^y of Siberia is equally fertile. Petcr 
cat, who directed l»is attention to every objeet of utility, wa-s 
It who ordere<l these remote mines to be explored. 

chief pold mines of Siberia are thos<; of Catherinhui/^ oi- 
rrinf^burg-, on tlie eitst of the Uraliiui mountains, about lat iLudr 
iiere an oHice for the manajjement of the mines was instituted 
). The mines of various sorts extend to a considerable dis- 
m the N. and S. of Catherinburj?-, and the foiuidcries, chiefly 
»I)cr and ii-on, are computed at 105. Hut the ^hl mines of 
f, in this vicinity, were of little consequence tdl the rei|fii of 
eth. The mines of Nershinsk, discovered in 1704, are prin- 

of lead mixed witli silver and^ild; and those of Kolyvan, 

in the Schlungt-nljerg', or mountain of serpents, so called by 
rman niiners, beg'an to be worked for the crown in 1748. 
tiic iron mines of Russia are of the most solid and lastinf^ini- 
-.e, particularly thost which supply tlic numerous fr>undvric^ 

L'raiian muuntuins. 



Rock ult if chiefly found near the Uekt not far firom On 
Coal is learcely known ; but sulphur, alum, sal-ammoniac, 
nitrt, and natron, arc found in abundance. 


THESE were formerly divided into the Aleutian, Andrcnovi 
Kurllian groups, with the Fox isles, which extend to the pron 
of Alaska, in North America. Of the Aleutian isTes, on the 
Kamschatka, there arc only two worth notice, Beering's i 
Tooper isle, llie Amlrenovian islet may be reji^arded m ih 
with the Fox islands, being the western part of the same raB| 
form a group of six or more isles, about 500 miles to the 
Bccrinff 8. 

Tlic Kurilian isles extend from the southern promontory < 
sehatka towards the land of Jesso and Japan ; being suppose 
about 30 in number, of which the largest arc Poro Musch 
!Mokantiuni. Several of these isles are volcanic ; and some 
forests of birch, alder, and pine. MoHt of them swarm wit! 
of various colours. The iiuiabitants of the Kurilian iaiet i 
!}? of similar origin with the Kamc!>adftbfc» 



■ W Ihr Ittwl rcJittify thr Chlncm' f mfirrnfii, of tin* MniuUUiif rmrq* 
«itcnilcil iliiii Yv-idr ompirr owr nmny wcntcrti rtmittfim, hihiibilfu 
Cy WHtMlprin^ linnlrn u|' MotiKXilH, MniMlnlutni, Hitd THtitrn) utul 
..ciUlili«li(*«1 Htu'ti Onii inlturiu'r nvrt* Tilirt, tliat thr fjhiiinir rmpim 
*tlMy n(»w hv (*.f)nr«i<1pird mh rxlnuliti^ riimi (hone pMi'U of tlir l*Mrillr 
iircNni nMllnl tht* Chini^Nn iiiiil Jnnmur nruMi to tlir mvm Niiniiiuii mul. 
flllmti in the* wmt, it («|mrr of HT, whicli, tttkitiff thr innllnt latilmlo 
nf .K)**, wUUtitDiiiit to n< Hrly 4,'J0() ifroKiniihiout, or 4,m)0 llritinh 
tnUmi. Khim N. to H. thin vumI rmpiiT ttinv he riimpiifrtl fVotn thr 
Unitliin mountitiun, lut. .Mr. to thr Monthrrit |/rirt <»{' Chitm hIkmH Int. 
9P, l>riii|f 'J!) (IrKirrN of tntitudf. ir40 gntf^rnphlrHli or iirmiy 
'JitXiO llritiNh nillrN. It iimy t»c dividnl Into tlitrr pHrtN, vl^. Thiiu 
|m)|irr, thr trrritnt-v of tht* Miin|(iih uiut IMulcNhum, mul ttir t|t- 
icriur vuuniry vf 't'ittct. 


I'M IS ilistinipiislicd rrgion'is, by the natives, styled Tchon-Kouc, 
which si)>piifies the ceiUrc of the earth, as thev proudly K^rd other 
roiintrics as mere skirts and tfppeiidag^s to tKcir own. 'Fhe origin 
uf the name oi* China, or Tsin, seems uncertain. The Mahometan 
tnivelltTs of the ninth centur>* rail tlus country Sin, butthcFer" 
bians pronoiinro it Tchin. 

(;hin:i l'n>{)cr e\tiiuls t'mm the pfrcat wall in the north, to tl)« Chi- 
iH'sc si*:i in llio south ; or (rom 20 to 42 degrees N. latitude, about 
i l-M fj^t'o^niiphical, or l.).3U Kritish miles. The breadth fixim tiiB 
nIku'i's ot thf Paritic to the frontiers of Tibet, or from 98 to 123 de- 
j^ivfs K. longitude, may he computi'd at 884 jjeojn'aphical, or near^ 
1 (».)0 Itrit isU miles. In square miles the contents have l^een estimated 
at l,2<)r/.H)i). On the east and south the l>ouiidaries arc maritime, and 
to thi- north ihcy arc marked by tlie great wall and the desert of 
ShuiMi); tljf confines, with 'I'ibct, Indqx^ndent Tatary, and the 
Uiissian territories, untlic west, seem to Ik* chiefly indicated by ideAl 
lines, though occasionall}- more strongly marked by mountains and 

Anti viTiKs. The chief remain of ancient art in diina Is that 
stupendous wall extending across tlio ufirthern boundar}*. Thii 
Work, which is deservedly esteemed among the grandest labours of 
art, is conducted over the summits of high mountiuns, some of 
M hieh rise to the height of 5225 feet, across tlic deepest vales, owr 
wivle rivers l)y means of arches ; in many parts it is doubled or tre- 
bled to command ini]>ortaiit passes ; and, at the distance of almost 
every Inmdri'd yards, is 'i tower or massy bastion. Tlic extent is 
computed at loOo miles ; but in some parts of smaller danjjer it is 
not etjUuUy strong nor complete, and towards theN.W. is only 
a rami>artof earth. Near Koopeko Uie wall is 25 feet in height, 
.ind at the toj) about 15 feet tliick ; someo!* the towers wbicli are 
square, are 48 f ci't high, and about 50 feet wide. 

When this stujiendous wall was erected is uncertain; some au- 
tli(»rs say it has been standing 'JOOO years, and others only 600. 

KklH'Ion. Acronling to i)u llulde, the ancient Chinese worship- 
ped a sj|iniiie l)eing, whom they styled Chang Ti, or Tien. I'hey 
Also worsliipiHxl subaltern spirits, who presided over kingdoms, pro- 



•* t u T vers and nu nt cm. Uiidtf Hum qvtem iBcrUea 
ff miinm .of « 

of V wtti iTitniducrJ iWo Chin* r«iiii 
met* arc lluiu of tlie tlinduiw, amonff 
lit or ti-Biikilion nf lauU ihiin dim; mu- 
B nrv lenonunnlcd fionicji, And To u »q>.- 
r> fi our alicint Id Mtnervuntii, 

ur) iniin> UiitiCM litcnili have «nibniri4 
k dgca Ml univcrtul |n-iiJo'>pU. nndw 

n H □ corrciipund ifith tlic nuul uf thv i 
\t tuliwtiptra Tiw CJunuc believe ii,l«e' ta a 

p <iLlv[ In m ru c Mt» <>( evil, orgwiiL Tliey- 1 

adm unns c and iho f hinrjn tMnplaa ur klwujw i>p«^ < 

no w nnnysu d VHWDoftleitionthkniiwn lii tlir rountrr. 

Go ■nHHtiT Tbn guvrrnn cnt «rchini ii wtll kiuiv-n lo li« p 
ttiBceJjl ihevaperar i ncfeod afaMlMci butilw esumiitM i . 
Ip-sn a rr aahr Rtnu^ht oMgkrd liiipx^le u hbtHiUdrce, * 
MX t avM All he oftLcmnf froVeriiirK'iit PW» tliraurh* 

iTt n and u profrnta of nuJc t koUt of whlrh are iipM 

end Ol hiwv oflT i-r* Wlm huvc IicMi called mindurini, - 

.■ of goven n K miMlni, likr that of mcdid , _ 
1 rvm 1 u 1 uUili^ ihe impcrlil Ib)-<in» Unlh , 
( dibrce tl r«n)a>td«rvrt))i:mndtii>Qi)unueiiu 

■ havr: g:rc»t and almi^c p»w«r, 

_ , . iiore fiiir iiUlW 
e prnc »« 1 I 1 c amaiiBK paptiUtiou, aiid th* 

■e |« n tnc H kv iiiniiy otliern, 

HnWryiaalnnannnivermlvleri 4 

JD irntl i lufip neiui f tbe jintplc^ evince that the tiliniDitr- 

ra n go im n -fl uiwt h tnorc b««ofiaciil tlian any yot j 

utD n iin "It 111 u b il * 

Kgrc M a ubk iiuliMrd by air G.SUUutun, tlwK arc in 1 

■* Btt PfoiHT la inwYiticea, l„9r,Q99 aqiiarc m'lkn, und 33S.OM,O0a H 


z amy ha« beenronipiiti'a at I.OOO.OOOof infantry, and MftttW i 

-T| anil tlio rcvciiiatN iit almtit tkirtr-tix tnilUonn and a half «( j 

,^t orMiHtcaof ailvcr.or ulioiit ninoroillionii )terUaf[i b«U 

» and other grain arc oImi puid iu kiwi, it ""ly ''« ilifficult to ei. , J 

tinille tilt" prcciac atnuunt, or rdaUvc valuu compared wit* Rmto- , 

ia C. ScuanWn eatlmatca Um rcTCmic at 3Ul)/)00,00O ouiiM* rf | 

I, ;sainttlto6S.000,«KH.a10rIiiiEi tiulvidulnir J 

..V. -. Ave iib*dllna:s, fJK) amount is SO.BOO.QIKir. 

it> Vvnovt. Thp diintac U*ln|tn peopl^ Hi tlie liigh- 

aiJ:n^ia»,t^»wl■mannor«at«^cKatMBam^slltI*qUl_te^ J 

---n i tlic Umita nf tlii. w«* irill mdy adoiil a few limtaj A 

EM jioria tUere l« an appr«oi>M of frwid ai>d dinliwiMts i bin H V 

. .-.■ liipiMiwrf llinl M.i* ia not tlio ([cncrBl ehwaclrr. The indB<> 1 

It of the upper clawc*. who art cwn fed tn Ibtir Wrvwita, aiA i 


♦.hi- nabtlncss of ihe lower, v»lu) cat almost every kind ot" anim 
wiia:rvfr way il may lia%e d'sctl, are also strlkiii}r defects; occi 
ril. perliaps, by din.- ncr«-ssity in so populous a country. To the 
■■..m<i* may he Imputt-d the exposition of the inf^mts. On tlie i 
haM'.I x\w charactLT of t!ie Ciiine^ic in mild and lAtnquil, and ui 
^a\ .iff.thility is vi-ry rarely intt-rnipted by the sll^litcst tinctti 
Uur.N!mc>s <ir passion. The f:^c!U*ral drink is tca,of \%'Iuch a largi 
«it:l is prepared in the morninji;" for the occasional use of the t' 
dMrinjf the day. M:irri;ij;vs aiv conducted solely by the will of tl 
rents. a!Kl pcih j^imy is idlowed. The bride is purchxscd by a pi 
•o her parents, and is ne%\r seen by her husband till after the cci 
:;y. Ii is not porniitted to bury in cities or towns, and the sepul 
ari» conim »nly on barren hills and mountains, where there is no c 
:h:i'. a;;'i'icul!ure will disturb the dead. The colour of raoum 
while, that pers'.#nal ncjj^lect or foj^t fulness mav be tlie more 
rent. The walls of the houses are sometimes of brick, or of ha 
ed clay, but more commonly of wood ; and tliev generally a 
•nly of a ground flot^r ; ihouj;h in those of merchants there is : 
tiiuts a Sircond stor}', which forms the wkreliouse. The dr 
\o'v^ with h.rjce sleeves, and a llowinpf gutUc of silk. The shii 
drawers vary^rdin»j to the seasons ; and in winter the use o 
is irinv-rul, from the ^kin of the sheep to tliat of the ermine. 
he.i.l is covered witli a small hat in the form of a fHnnel ; bu: 
varivs amou;^ the superior classes, wlmse rank is distini>:uish 
:i larije head on the tup, diversified In colour according t 

i^ANiii AOE. llie language is cstee:nod the most singular c 
ftce of the i^!nlx». Almost even' svUable con.stitutes a wore 
tliere aiv scarcely 1.70'.) distinct sounds ; yet, in the writtei 
giiatce there aiv, at least. 80,0(>U characters, or different for 
ieiters, so that every sound may have about 50 senses. The le 
rh:iractei*s are denominated keys, which ai*e not oi^ difficidt ac 
tion. The language seems originally to have been liicroghT)! 
But afterwards the sound alone was considered. 

Editatiox. The schools of tH.lucation ure numerous, bu 
chikh-enof thepoor are chiefly taught to follow the business of 
fathers. In a Chinese treatise of etlucation published by l>u I 
the foUowIng arc recommended as the chief topics. 1. Tl; 
\ irtues, namely, prudence, piety, wisdom, equity, fidelity, cor 
2. Tlie six lauduhle actions, to wit, obedience to parents, k 
br«>thers, harmony with relatioas, aflecti»n for neighbours, siiw 
with friends, and njcrcy with regard to the poor and unhapp; 
The six essential points of knowletlge, that ot religious rites, n 
archery, horsemanship, writing and accompts. Such a plan s 
well c.'dculated to make goo<l citizens. 

Cities AND Towns. The chief cities of China are Peki: 
Nankin, or the northern and southern courts. Pekin occuf 
large space of groiuid ; but the .streets are wide, and tlie h 
seldom exceed one stoiy. The length of what is c:dled the ' 
city is about four miles, and the suburbs are considei'able. B 
bcstinformatioa which the recent embassy coidd procure, the j 

^"^"^ emxA pROPKR. 

I was computed at 3,000,000. The huuKs, iodc«(l. in nciihu 
nor numtTOiia ; hiil it in cwntBoll i;i> fiiiil llute (euerationa 
fJt tbFir wivca and diitdrrn under one roof.u thBV cat in vom- 
iknd ane room caniJiins main bctls. lie wbU* m thU cafiitiil 
r eonsidenlile «ir(.'ng;tb ufid thickness : and tbc acne jptUt tit 
it »rshil«lurc. Strict police and vig-iUiice art i^iMirv- 

id the St 

■e crowded uitli pnsaenraa knd carrUpn. ilic 
Lest edifice i* the imp triul palitcc, wliioli consista of nuny n(c- 
que biiUiJines, dispersed over a wide atid greatlj divcnued 
:of ^TotiluiEl, u>ias to present tbe appewniucc of eocbintnicnt. 
J9° 54* N.'long. 116° 2^8. 

idun, which was the izsidence of ttic- coart till the fiflrrntb 
ly, ia a yet more extensile city thun Fekln, lod ui reputed (tip 
it in the empii'c. The wslls are eaid lu be about neveiitecn 
Ji mites in circumference. 

etjbief edifieesare tlLegatfs, witli a few templet; and a tele- 
1 tower dotbedwllh porcehtin, about 300 feet in height j winch 

I to have been eliiflly erected as a memorial, or 141 Qmiuwnt, 
he Grecian and Roman coUitnns. 

tbo American reader oneof ilip most jntcreating citic» ivCan* 
ildch i« aaid to contain aDilllion and a halfof iiuntbitunt*! an- 
ts families residing in barks on the river. The diief exp«K 
t of tea. of whie h it is said that abnut IS.WUiUOO ol (itiunds 

II are consunied by Great Britain and her depi-ndeucics, atiiiul 
S,rJOO by the peit of Europe, and about 3.000,000 by ihe lljii. 
iutca. The imports from EngLiiid, cliieJij woollens, wilh IcN^ 
irs, and other nrticlea, arc supposed 10 exceed a million j and 
qiorts kinilt ion and a half 1 besides the trade bptwven China and 

Iiifiii posieBsions in Hindostan. Otliw niilioiii wrry to Uaiilin 
le of iti<iutaW,0O0i. and relurnwilh article* lo tlie value uf 
SOOyOOOf. So that the balaiioe in favour ol Chin* may be coiu- 
I M a million sterling, 

BOtbei'lai^ cities of Chin;^ are alma5l innumerable | SHAmar 
'the vdlueeB are of aaurprising size, 

YiC«. "niE most striking' luiu peculiar cdi^es in CtHWUTO 
igDdaa, or towers, which soflictimea rise lo the iMii^itoFjunc 
», ol" more than twentj ftet c«cJi. Tbetenipies, on iMcon- 
ai-e rommoidy low buildjngi, always open to the dcioul wor- 
f in of polyiheism, 

ion. The roads are ^craliy kept in excellent order, with 
nient biidgcs. That near the capitalj is thus dEscribpd by sir 
>e Statinlon : " Thia rood forms a magnificent awnue ii> i'c* 
ur perAin« and eomnxoditieii bcund fur tltat capital, tftm the 
mdlrtim Uie soutlL It is perfectly level: thccentie, lo itie 
ofabau(2D'e<;'t, is paved with (lagl offrranitc, tn'ouglil fmma 
lerable distance, and of a size from six tosiirlcen fbtrtin lenKtha 
iboot fitur (feel broad. On uach side of this granite purrmiml. 
lad unpaved, wide enough for caiTi^-h to cross npon it. Tb« 
i« bonlned in many pl-c 

vibiTioN. Thecanab of China lave lac '"^tiWd Ibc 
" " ^ ' wit ^aA, ^ 

and wmnkr of other nutionB. The in^rial canalt w 


tiiility and labour, rsroi ds the ciKirninii.s wall, is suid to hm 
lu'pin in ihr tinth riiUur>- <it'th«- ('!iristi:ui rra, ;iO,(JO0 nu'H 
b*-i n iiiiplojfd tor«l.i yiaivs in its conipli-tltin. 

The s:tnu' autlior (li'sri^K-s tliisc:in:(l:ishi')*'iiiniii}^at 1/m-si 

V. luTi' it joiiiK tin* nvi'i" r.ii-lu), :iiul I'Xli'iuliiijr l<> Han-cluMi-fo 

rrr^u I :ir inu- t>J uhoiit iUU inilcN. \\ lifir it J4>ins tin* liuar 

.tlicw Kiwr, it is aliout tliivi' f|uarivM's iifa miU' in lirfudth. 

M\M'FA(Ti'iii:i \M»(;oM.M>;iui,. Thi* niHJi\ifarUiri's«f (-hill 
TtuhitUrJoiis a.s In fiiilirace almost cvitv arliclt* of iiulustr) 
niohi iiotcd nianurartuiv is that iii* pon'clain, and is tb How 
' vtnmu'rciaii view by tlioKc of silk, cotton, ])a|u.T. &.C. 

Thi* in!i!*i:al (.'i)niTTUiT<' of C'hina in innni-n»e, but the c 

*rado uninipoi'tunt, considtrinji^ ihr vastncss (»f the rmpirci z 

irtrrciiursc o\ists> with Kns.siu and Japan : hnt the chief v: 

that 4)f toa, A'h'.ch is sent to Kng^hmd to the value of about one 


('i.iMArr A\» SKASo^f^. The r«iiro|)ean intercourse with. 

T>v inj^ chiefl\ conlined to the southern part of the empire, 

niatr is j^MUTally considi'red as hc»t ; whereas, ut Pekin in tli 

hi" avcragt' depve of the thernumu'ter is under VO® in th 

Itirinj;- tile winier utonths ; and fVcn in the day it is coiisi 

ht h»\v ihe freezing' point. 

J'^Ai K ut -riiK c;ui-\Tiir. The face of the c.nintn' is infin 

ler^ilied ; and though in a ^'niTai view it Ik: flat and fertile, 

MTMCted with ninneronu larj;t* riviTs anvl canals, yet there ar 

■rniountain.s :uid other distnrts of a wild and savagt' nature 

The soil is various, and aj^rieidtin'r, fiy the aeeoinit of al. 
IvVs, is carriiil to ihe utmost tlejfirc of pcrfictiun. 

" WMurt- thf fari' of the hill or moinitain is not nearly p< 
t nl.irt<» tin* Icvtd surface of the earth, the slope is convvrtrc 
inimlKi- of terraces, one alxive another, each of which is su 
In mounds of stone. Ity this mana}>;'i-nient it is not luicon 
.-ii' tht whole face of a nuiuntain completely cultivated to I 
mit. Pulse*, ^rain, yantv, sweet [Kitatoes, onions, carn)ts, 
and a variety of other cidinary f)lants are produced upor 
\ reservoir is sunk in the top of the mountain. The rain-w; 
M'cted in it is conveved hv channels successively to the diflei 
}aceu pi'iced up(»n the inotmiant s .sid<.n. 

'* Tlie ^ixiiX ijhject of Chinese ajjriculture, the prfnluc 
r^min, is j;enerally ohtainitl with little manure, and witlunit 
tile land lie fallow. Irri^^'at ion is practised to a very j»T\'at 
The liusl>andry is hin|;-ularly neat, and not a weed is to 1m* se 

KiVKHs. In d> senhiii^ the rivers of this ^rcat empire, ' 
Nv'ell known to deserve particular attention, namely, the lloai 
*iu- Kian^ku. The soiu'ces of the first, als«) called' the Yello\ 
fruin tlie (plant ity of nnid M-hich it <lc%olves,ure two lakes,} 
;i!><Mit theo.'iih'^ of north latitude, and alwuit 97th** cast from 
v, !ili. This |)rodi^if)Us rivi-r is extremely winding- and de 
Its course, and dischar>rcs itself into the Yellow Sea. Its 
r.i\i\»- course may beestimatetl at alxuit IHOO liritibh niili 
jti velocity equals seven or eijrlit miles in tlic hour. 

) in tluT rkiiiilj' «>' llMooorcrinf the UnAnJm, 
lurfu iliFWi'illiMtlu' ll(Hiu-lH>i|<.c*lutlti'riur«k 
inUi afNniikiiiil enters Ihc oca iil»ul lOOtmlri 
limi-boi lialMi^i ucvtinalad st abuui £:0O 
i'w \n a rircn msT be comidtitd a* ttu: lanfput 
MKi litcv rcruinly djiulirthrjdonntcKiaeil, 
III.- Vni! iiiSuLlh Al.ici-li», 

Mill*, wliicli at .« iii|[iial I'ridi Ihc 
i>! iti* wToitel'tn^rieMip tht cuur- 
rdiitii ^TWpvit wi;Jiin ilif ir biUs, 
.1' ilir'ir |)r^, excqil wlmt the mu- 
ii tlitm fdC eocouMgtmcnt unl t'liod. 

■ j-cl Wen gnrn. 

II 3 rstciit map of A«a, it itppean, Uiat a tnu- 
niU ftmn ibMRmcciiU-iilAsia, nirtninE iHitiiJi 
'rwn grtad rinj™* ninning E. nnd W, intcr- 
< I nipirv, Ecirniu|gl> Qu>iUiui«lionK otiiit enar- 
III tlic sotttlicin p-lrt of Ckiun iLe priiiciput 
ticoo y. Ui 8. 

•■ifH, l>BODi:eTiB:i>. AracujC the tivc* ar.d 

I rjrtlculariiHitl (1i«lhuyft oricnUli*, M clepiiil 

:ior ttv«, whiwc wikkI miikta >n e:(vdl^t •nd 

u ihc rouLi ul' n^hicli tUtit I'ritKTfuit tab' 

'I' roc^Ui the wvtpiiiir willowi Sp.m 
I'' IVvil trM« (lie Iblliiwinff urc llic principal : Cbina imnf[H 
K tltf; the URixriOili tJtc jwliito uMt pupiT rndbmy 

-iHj , ;^d kJcind of cliitli ki'c mule. Xur d' 
' icu Irve bE tcft nnnniienl, wIumc Ivuveo c 
cUon nf Ihi' F.un>p(iin Imilc wlili CliiiiB. 
ere ue (i-w Inlwalfi jiwuliiu' lo the Uhlncnc tfirilncj, Dii 
! MHem thul the lion u o olrmigw tp this eountrj' i Uut ilicre , 
nn> bulIUiw*.ikl'ili]tl>uu')>hiiLrii riu'ioC'iniit'i, ci.mrli, itvcv> 
Jhcntiak)lucf i»*iiiiK<i1u luiimnl ol' China lui wtllui Tibtl. 
I|rilicbiriji>,ma»yarr reiiiorkBblr {nv their bci>iitifuli<"'RH)uiiit 
ni, ill itblchtltcxu'vr'ivkllcdbya viirlvty afmDih>»ii>)biim^ 


copper, md hierciny ; tog^tlier with lapis lazuli, jasper, rock oys- 
tal, I'jad-stone, gTsiiute, porphjT}', and various marbles. 

In niaiiy ot* tJio northern provinces coal is found in abundance. 
The common people generally use it pounded witli water, and dried 
:n tlu" form of cakes. 

IVkin is supplictl from hk>:h mountauns in the vicinity, and tJie 
iiiinob seem inexhaustible, tliough the coal is :i general fiicL 

Tutcnaf^, which is a native mixture of zinc and iron, seems to be 
a pt^u liar product of China, and in the province of Houquang there 
is a mine M'hirh has yielded many hundred weight in the course of 
a few da^ b. 


Numerous i.sles are scattered along tlic southern and eastern coist ' 
nf China ; the largest being those of Taiwan, also called Fonnosa, 
and that of I lainan. Fonnosa is a recent acquisition of the ChkieM 
in the Litter vnd of tlie sevententh centur}'; the natives being, hjf 
tho Chinese accounts, little bt^tter than savages. 

The sontht-n) part of Hainan is mountainous, but the northei* 
nioi*e level and productive of rice. In the centre there are mmesoT ; 
«^\d ; and on the shores are found small blue fishes, which the Cbi- | 
ncso esti-cm moi'e than those which we call gold and silver fish. 

TIic Isles of Lt*oo-keoo, between Fonnosa and Japan, constitute 
a little civilize<l kingdom tributary to China. These ialei were dii- 
covered by tlic Chinese, in the seventh century ; but it wu'hot tiB 
ihe fourteenth that they became tributary to Qiina. 


IS extcDsIre region might more properly be called Moi)goI|f\, 

! gi'eater numl^r of tribes are Monguh ; or tliu western part 

be styled Tatary, the middle Mongolia, and the eastern 

ihuria. The two latter are the objects of the present dcscrip- 

'xxT. This wide and interesting portion of Asia, which tuut 
edly sent forth its swarms to deluge the arts and civilization 
■ope, extends from tlie 72d° of longitude east from Greenwich 
145th°, a space of not less than 73 of longitude, which at the 
1 latitude of 45°, will yield about 3100 geographical miles. 
ircfldth ftt}m tlie northern frontier of l*ibet to tlic Russian 
ss ii from 35 to 5S degrees N. or 1080 geoRraphicid miles. 
iGiOH. Tlie religion most iiniversuUy dimised in this part of 
8 what has been caUed Shamanism, or the belief in a supreme? 
■ of nature, who governs tiie universe by tlic agency of numer* 
ferior spirits of great power, 

BESMENT. The govcmment at present is conducted by prin- 
10 pay homage to tlie Chinese empire, and receive Chiitesc tU 
' honour; but many of the ancient forms are yet retained. 
fh WTitin^ be not unknown among the Monguls, yut the lawa 
r to be chiefly traditional. 

iTLATioy. Of tlie population of these regions it is difTicult to 
ny precise ideas ; but perhaps it does not exceed six millions. 
isiojrs. The country of tlie Mandshurs is by the Chine.^ 
d into three gfreat governments. 1. That of Chinyang, the ch !ef 
is Chinyang, still a considerable place, with a mausoleum of 
i, regardecVas tlie conqueror of China, and the founder of the 
ig family. 2. The government of Kiren-Oula, wliich extends 
the N. E. Rirem, the capitiJ, st:ind8 on the river Songari, and 
e residence of tlie Mandshur general, who acted as viccci*t}y. S. 
wcmmentof Tsitcliicar, so called from a town recently found- 
thc Nonni Outa, where u Chinese garrison is stationed, 
lis division may also be mentioncuCorea, which has for many 
ies acknowled^d the authority of China, and which boasts u 
crable population. 

:hc west of Manshuria arc various tribes of Monguls, whose 
'y may be considered under tlu^e divisions. 1. That part 

\l . 


..\\M Qi*e, u-hich some re^^rd as the country of tbe ancient Utf* 

a,.-.-i2e. J. Little BuchjU'izs so calkd to distinguish it from the 
•'i.iaUr r.Mf'ta: the people of Little Rucharia arc an industrioiis 
..u'l' ot' .1 ri.«uiict ^^rij^iu, who are little i^in^led with their K»li»Hfc 
tr M')ri;;iil I'lnU. ."? TJit- countries of 'I'ursan to the north of the 
'.'IV*- ruJli-d [.(ik N'or, and that of Chamil or Humi, to the east; it* 
■/.'n,-* tiiut art- iitilo known, bfing- siuTdundcd witli wide detierts. 
A Pi M Y . A numerous horde of bai-barbarianj, unskilled in modeim 

MivNr.H^ Asn CfSTo^ji, LA5nrA&£ axd LiTxmATTRs. The 

.ci's and c•lsto^)^y laiif(ua{;e and literature of the Monguls, haTC 
iKVA ahc'U'iy briefly descriK-d in the account of A;»iatic Russia. 

t'lriT'i ASH T'l'A'xs. T.i:s *-x*ens'.Vf portion of Asia contaiw 
^tvir.:l cities and t(iu-n>, j^enirally constructed ot woodland of 
i'tUc :iiiti(iiii:y or dur.;tio?i. Tl.ey are mostly uiconsiderable^ and 

J u:ii:il! n 't'Rjf to the Americ-.n rtiider, to be enumerated. 

Til A :iL. The principal tnule of the Mandshur countt}' consists 1| 
:.i<:v?n< and ptarls, found in many rivers which fall into the Amv. 
^'Acellunt I.oi'ses may uUo be clashed amon^ the exports. Cashgrf 
.'.:■■' tVri-T.rly c« ■itbru* c d for mu-k and gt)id. CVn>ea also prbduicei 
;;>>ld, cll\«.:', i:'o!i, b.-;iUtiful yeili>w vanii&ii, while phper, and gflh 
r .•:»-■; V. ita F:;i:dl Inrsv'. about three feet hijr'i, furs, and fossil ssll^ 
ri.e 'tvj.^-r 'owns are i-aihcr stations fur nscrchan is than seats of 

Uli^'at:, C-;'*. Though the parallel of central Asia corresptBd 
-' .:!i tlKit of France, rmd part a* Spain ; yet the heights and snows of 
7l!-.* ni juntaiiious ri<l^^s, occasion a degree and continuance of coUi 
Ir.'le to he expected from otlier circumstances. 

FitE OF TiiK CocxTRT. The appearance of this extensive icgiflB 
]•« dl\ersiticd with all tlie g^and features of nature, eztenHiTe clipiMl 
f;f mountains, l:u-ge rivers, and lakes. Uut tlie most singular fieatnt 
is that vust elevated plain, supported like a table, by surroundi^ 
mountains. This prodigious plain^ the most elevated contigiKflV 
reirioii on tlio globe, isiniersected by some chains of mountains, sni 
by the vast desert of Gobi or Sliamo! Destitute of plants and ^ntftf,^ 
it I'i danprtrous for horses, but is .safely pnssed with camels. Uni j 
desert exteiuU from about the 80t))^ of E. longitude from Gteesf : 
wirh to about the llOtli^, being 30° of longitude, which in the llt^ 
tKth of-l^^, may be 1380 geographical miles. 

A'iKii rLTi-RK. Amonir the soutliem Mandshurs, and tlie peo- 
]>\r- of Little llucliaria, agfriculture is not wholly neglected, nor is 
v,li.:it an unknown harvest. The .«i<ill of so extensive a portion of 
tiic earth may be supposed to be infinitely varioiB ; but the pzed^ 
minating substunci; is a black sand. 

UivERw. There arc many considerable rivers that pcrrade oen- 
• :• il A.sia. but the most important is that calletl by the Russians the 
\mur, \v\y.rh is deservedly classed among the largest rivers ; rising, 
i:car tlie Vablonoi mountains, and pursuing an easterly course w 
of about 1850 Hritish miles. 

LiKKs. Son\eofthe lakes are of great extent, as those of Bal- 
tiH !i or Tci)\;i<, and Zaizan, each abcvirt 150 miles in length. Kex*- 


Kuko Nor, by some called Hoho Nor, or tiie blue lake, wliich 
name to a tribe of MongiilH. 

cNTAiNfi. On the west, tlie great chain called Imaus by tlif* 
its, the Beliir Tag>, or Dark Mountains of tlie nati\xs, runs 
lorth to south. 

he eastern coiuitry of Uie Mandshurs, tlie rid^s of mountaim; 
d down in tlie maps in the same direction, 
the northern mountains of Tibet, and the sources of the Gan- 
lur knowled^ retmains imperfect. Still fainter lig^it falls on 
^d^s which nui in an easterly and westQdy direction to the 
of the g^reat desert. 

re are some forests near the rivers ; but in general the ex- 
elevation and sandy soil of central Asia render ti^ees almost 
: as in the deserts oi Africa. 

.MAL8. The zoology of tliis wide portion of the globe would 
an infinite theme, ni which the camel of the desert might ap« 
ith the rock goat of the Alps, and the tiger witli the ermine. 
e wild horse, and the wild ass, and a peculiar species of cattle 
grunt like swine, are among the most, remarkable alngularir 
The wild horse is generally of a mouse colour, and small, 
mg sliarp cars. 

KBAI.O. The mineralogy of central Asia has not been explore 
1 of course is little known. 


thifl large island was explored by tlie unfortunate navigator 
txiae, it was supposed to be only a small isle at the moutli of 
nuF. It is now round. to extend from the 46tli^ of N. latitude 
54th°, or not less than 480 geographical miles in length, by 
SO of medial breadth. The natives seem to approach to the 
c form ; tJieir dress is a loose robe of skins, or quilted Nan- 
?ith a ^rdle. Tlieir huts, or cabins, are of timber, thatched 
rass, with a fire place in the centre. The people are highly 
I by La Ferousej as a mild and intelligent race. 



I III*, iianx of '/W/j which is probably Hindoo or Pcrsiar 
tii<.- ciHintry itsolfy and in Ucngxil» pnmduncod 'I'ibhet or llbt. 
t!:-.' native apiK'Uation \a Pit'e or J'ue Koacfum, said 4o be d 
I ' oin y'ur»si};'nitying norlhcm, and IjHichiniy snow, lliat is, the 
vj3:"ujn of Uic north. 

r.xTEST. Acronlin|ir to the most recent maps, Tibet « 
iVoin about the 75tli to the 101st degpee of E. lonj^itudr, wl 
I lie latitude of 30° may be alMiut 1350 geographical miles. 

I .owt-r. I'ppcT Tibet chiefly comprises the province of Naga 
M' homble rocks, luul mountains covered with etenial snow. 1 
Tilu't contains Uio pntvinccA of Shang, Ou, and Kiang: Whi 
piovlnoes of liOwer Tibet «rc Takbo^ Congbo, and Kananr. 

To these must be added, tlie wide region of Amdoa, it it 
(fie same with Kuliang, but it seems more probably to embra 
..-ontines t(»\v:irds (Muna,as the natives arc remarkably ingenion 
> peak the Chinese language. The X. E. part was, with the C 
{lA^. ince of Shcnsi, before tho great wall was extended in thi 
:iT, the celebrated Tangut of oriental histor\' and geograph 
iIk- v/ostern side, high mountains, covered with perpetual snc 
v.'ith all the terrible avalanches, and other features of the Swis 
ii:ive in all ages prevented the Persians and the conquerors of! 
i la I'rum invading this country, and have also prevented tra 
il-um penetrating into that quarter of the globe. 

UcLiuioiT. The religion of Tibet seems to be the schisi 
otTspring of that of tlie Hindoos. It bears a very close affini 
ihe relij^ion of Brahma in many impoi-tant particulars, but 
materially in iti ritual, or ceremonial worship. Tibeti:ms as 
;n chapels, and \mit*? together in prodigious nui)bei;|) to p 
their religious service ; which they chaunt in alternate vet 
«nd chorus, accompanied by an extensive band of loud and pc 

Ci(»VERNME?iT. Tlic ruling government is the spiritual, 
tke la:uu was accustomed lo appoint a tipa, or secular regent. 

TIBB'F. 173 

was probably passed to the Chinese emperor. Tlic laws must, ' 
he religion, bear some affinity to that of the Hindoos- 
>VLATTosr. No estimate pf the population of Tibet seems to 
been attempted ; but as the country may be said to be whoUv 
tainous, and the climate excessively cold, even under tiie 2rtfi 
e of latitude, the people are thinly scattered ; the number cif 
. far exceeds that of females ; and of course the latter are hi- 
d in a plurality of husbands. There is every reason to sup- 
tiie population is inconsiderable. 

VENUES. The revenues of the lama, and of the secular princes, 
to be trifling; nor can Tibet ever aspire to any political im- 
tice. In a commercial point of view, friendship and free inter- 
e with Tibet mifht opncfh new advantages to the British settle* 
( in Bengal ; and In this design repeated envoys to tiie lama 
sent by Mr. Hastings ; a governor who possessed tlie most en- 
i and enlightened mind, and an active attention to the interests. 
I country. 

imACTBH, &e. Mr. Turner represents the character of the 
utts as extremely gentle and amiable. The men are generally 
, witli something of the Tataric features, and tlie women of a 
r brown complexion, heightened like the fruits by the proximity 
e sun ; while the mountain breezes bestow healtli and vigour.* 
"he ceremonies of marriage ^ne neither tedious nor intricate in 
. Tlieir courtships are carried on with little art, and quickly 
;ht to a conclusion. Ttie priests of Tibet, who shun the society 
imen, have no share in tliese ceremonies, or in ratifying tJie ob- 
3n between the parties ; which, ii seems^ is formed jndissolubly 

i% is the respect paid to the Lama, that his body is presen'cd 

: in a slirinc ; while those of the inferior priests are burnt, and 

ashes preserved in little hollow images of metal. I)ut in gc- 

the dead bodies are exposed to the beasts and birds of prey. 

lied areas ; and an annual festix-al is licld, as in Bengal and 

I, in honour of t)ic dead. ^ 

vauAOR. The origin of the Tibetian speech has not been pro. 

investigated. Tlie literature is chiefly of tiie religious kind, 

ooks bemg sometimes printed wiUi blocks of wood, on narrow 

of thin paper, fabricated from the fibrous root of a small shrub. 

s practice they resemble tlie Chinese ; while the Hindoos en- 

: tLeir works witli a steel stylus upon the recent leaves of the 

Tra tree, affording a fibrous substance, which seems indestnic- 

by vermin. The \\Titiiig runs from the left tq the right, as in 

inguages of Europe. 

nw Asm TowxH. Of the cities- and townji' of Tibet little is 

n. The capital is Lassa. 

is capital is situated in a spacious plain, being a small city, but 

lOUses arc of stone, and are spacious and lofty. The notc-d 

.tain of Putala, on'whidi stands tlic palace of the l^ima, is 

: seven miles to the east of tlie city. 

iFicKH. Among the edifices, the monasteries may be first men- 

i. Mr. Turner describes that of Teshoo LooiIidoo as contain ' 

ir^ TIBET. 

\n^ three or four IiiindFcd houses, inhubiled by monks, besid 
pies, mausoleums, ami the palace of the sovereign poiitifl 
bnildin||fs are all of stone, nonu less than two stories in heigh 
flat roofs, and parapets composed of heath and brushwood, 
of the palaces and fortresses are described and delineated 
TurnLT ; and the architecture seems respectable. The roads 
the rocky mountains i*esomblc those or Swlsserland, and ai^ 
rularly clan}jpcn)iis ai^r ruin. 

AlAxi-FACTinEs, &c. The chief manufactui-es of Tibet » 
be sliawls, and some woollen elotlis ; but there is a general \ 
industry ; and the fine undermost hair of tiic goats, from 
shawls arc manufactured, is chiefly sent to Cashmir. The pi 
exports are to China, consisting of gold dust, diamonds^ 
lamb skins, some musk, and womlen cloths. Man^ of the C 
imports are manufactured articles. To Nipal, Tibet send 
s.'dt, tincal, or crude borax, and gold dust ; receiving in retui 
sliver coin, copper, rice, and coarse cotton cloths. Through 
rs also carried on the chief trade with Bengal, in g^ld dust, 
.-tnd musk. The returns are broad doth, spices, triidcets, em 
>npphires, lazulite, jet, amber, &.c. 

Climate. <* In the temperature of the seasons in Tibet 
mavkuble uniformity prc\-ails, as well as in their periodical di 
and return. The sprmg is mtu'ked, from March to May, h\ 
riable atmosphere { by heat, thumler storms, and occasional] 
ivfreahine showers. From June to September is the season 
midlty, \vlien heavy and continued rains fill the rivers to their 
which nm off fmm hence witli rapidity, to assist in inuudatinj 
gal. From October to March, a clear and uniform sky sue 
st^hlom obscured eitlier by fogs or clouds. Tor three months 
season a degi'ee of cold is felt, far greater i^erhaps- tlian is km 
piVA-ail in Europe." 

SuiL AND CrLTiTATioN. From the same intelligent tra^iill 
}c:irn that Bootan, with all its contused and shapeless mounts 
covered with eternal verdure, and abounds in forests of lai^g 
lof'ly trees. The sides of the mountains are improved by the 
of industry, and cro-wned with orchards, fields, and villages. 
Proi)i.T, on the contrai)', exhibits only low, rocky hills, witlioi 
visiliie vegetation, or extensive arid plains of an aspect equally 
Vet 'I'ibet proiluccs great abundance and variety of- wild fov 
f]:ame ; wltli numerous flocks of sheep and goats, and herds o 

tie, and is infested by many beasts of prey. 
KivKRs. The chief river of Tibet is, Ix^-ond all 


tlie estuary of tlie Ganges, after a farther course of about 40 
lisli miles. ^ 

Many other considerable rivers are believed to deri^'e their sr 
from tlie moimtulns of Tibet, which may be styled the Alps of 

l.vKKs. Tliose Alpirtc rejj^ions contain, as usual, many lakes 
.T.ost contfid;C.:M;*!e being represented under the name* of T< 

; 30 Bi'itiah mSt^s In lenph, and 35 hratS. So greU k the sf- 

' of tile cold, thai eien t}te smaller l^ea in tlie imith uf Tibet 

IT are in \be winter frozen to, ■ E***' depth. 

•inrrirsB. The vuslrangesorTibclianmomituashaveiilrendjf 

repeaitedly mentioned ; biit there is ito accuAte geogriipliicul 

jatjon oF their course and estent. 

im.lHbse great ranges many brunches extend N. and 8. as in the 

. and their names may perhijS be twfced, but with littk accii* 

ift thegtnerel map of Tibet, and atlaa of the provinces. 
fnttu. Ill 0ootin &vr wild HHimala ire observable, except 
:ies! but Tibet abounds with g'ame ef various descnptioas, 
IbraCE aiv of S small aiie, hot apirited. The cnttltf are also 
lOtive. The flocks of xh^cjl arti numerous, comnionK- small, 
black heads and le^ ; tha ivool so^ and tbe Tnutton cireUenl. 
L pccidiatity of the countiy that the Isttcr fi)od is genei-ally 

raw. When dried in tlie frosty aii', it is aot diMgrcesble i» 
tate to an Riiropeiui pidaie. 

e ^tiMs KK numerous uid celebrated for producing' a fiue liair, 
i a iD3mi(Jicl.iired into shawls, asd vAixb lies beneath the ex- 
' cofttsi coat. Not inust the «ing;ut«r breed oC ctttle be for- 
n, cilled Tak by the Tatitra, eovei^ with thkk lone hair ; tbs 
..w, r- ppouligrly flowing and giossy, and wi wflcle of luxury in 
"■here it is used la drive away the flits, and sometinKs 

I iik iter delists in intense cold. The musk, whii:li is 
. . L in the mole, is formed in a little tiimoui' al the navel ; 
!;eniiii>e and aiithtiilic article sa ityled, being comnKHiljr 
I t divided by iLjn cuticles. 

. iLa. Tlie mineralogy is beat kiioivn Froni Ihe accnlitlt ap- 
1 Mr. Turner's Jouriiej in 1763, from which 11 appears tlist 
0? not probably contain any metal, except iron, and u small 

■ I' cupper; whife Tibet Proper, on"the contrary, icems to 

■ .'.hridftninerala. Gold ia found in great quantUic;, some. 

■ lio fcrtn of diat, in thel»eds of rivers, sometimes in large irreg^dar veins. Thta-e ia attend mine, two davs journey 

< izaiioo Lumbfio. Cinnabar, rich in quicksilver, is alfiDtound i 
hcK are strong indications of copper. 

iBBioHt iKculiar product of Tfliel i» tincal, or crude borax, 

I in » laJte a^t fifteen days jrtumey from Teshoo Lumbou. 

cincal is deposited or formed in the bed of the lakej andtlioie 

''■■ collect it dig it up in large maases,tvLichtheyafterwapda 

■ ■ '■mall pieces for the convenience of carriage, exposing' it 
til dry. rt ia used in Tibet for lalderingr, and to nr<im»te 

Lof gold and silviY. Buck salt U univtrsxlly ined fur all 

.{lurpoKE inl'ilKt, llootai'i uid Niffsl: 




THE kin^^m, or, as it is by some styled, the empire of « 
has, by must geographers, been classed among the Asiatic isk 
may in somo measure be compared with Great Britain and Ir 
forming u grand insidur power near the eastern extremity of 
)ilco tliat or the British isles near the western extremity of £ 

M:trco Polo, the fatlier of modern Asiatic greo^phjr, me 
Japan by the name of Zipangri or Zipungn. The mhkbitants 
selves call it Nipon or Nifon, and the Chinese Sippon and Jep 

KxTRXT. This empire extends from tlie 30th to the 41st i 
of N. latitude; and, according to tlie most recent maps, fro 
15 1st to tlie 142il dfgree of K. longiUidvf from GiTcnwich, 
/•hull pass over many smaller isles, as by far the most import 
chat oi' Nipon. The grand isle of Nipon in in length from 8. 
N. K. not less tlian 750 British miles ; but is so nan'ow in prop 
iliai the medial bi-eadUi c^iniiot be assume<l abovx: 80, though 
projecting parts it may double that number. These isuuu 
divided into provinces and districts, as usual in the most cii 

To the N. of Nipon is another large isle, tliat of Jesso, or C 
*A'hicl), having received some Japanese colonics, is generally re| 
as sul)ject to Japan ; but being inhabited by a savage people, is 
:onsi(Icrcd as a foreign conquest tlian as a part of this cii 

Kr.Lioio^. The established religion of Japan is a pplvt 
joined with the acknowledgment of a supremo creator. The 
two principal sects, that of Sinto and that of Dudsdo. Th 
acknowletlpe a supreme being, far superior to the little clair 
worship of men ; whence tliey adore tlie inferior deities as 
ators, the idea of a mediator being interwoven in almost e\'er 
of religion. They abstain from animal foo<l, detest bloodshe 
will not touch any dead body. 

The priests are either secular or monastic ; the latter alone 
entrusted with the mysteries. The festivals and modes of w 
arc cheerful, and even gay ; for they regard the gods as being 
i>uic'ly delight in dispensing happiness. 

JAPAN. ir$ 

Y believe in the mctcmpsychosU or transmifpntion of souls, 
:ked bcind" supposed to migntc into the bodies of animals, 
y have underlie a due purgation. 

I after tJic discovery of this country by the P'jrtugucse, je- 
missionaries arrived in 1549 ; and their successors continued 
ihe their doctrine till I66B, when 37«000 Christians were nuis- 
, and the relipon prrMcribed. 

KRnt NENT. Die Kubo, or secular emperor^ is now hereditary 
in monardi of the country. Yet occasionallv his authority 
Ml controverted ; and Japan has been ravuecl by many civil 
I'hc ccclesiaHtical dignities werc^ of six owers, some belongs 
larticuhir officeH, others merely 'honorary, 
le is also an ecclesiastical emperor, styled Dairif wlio Isolds 
rt at Mfaco, but it is chiefly occupjerl abi>ut religious and 
' subjects. This arch-priest was tormerly the head of tlx: 
p and lie still retains a considerable portion of his ancient 

goycmment of each province is intrusted to a reai<lent prlner, 
strictly respnnsil>le for his axlministration, his family remaio- 
die emperor's court as linstages ; and he is himself obliged 
e an annual appearance, tlie journey being perfiirmed with 
omp, afid accompan icd with valuable presents. Tlf^ emperor, 
le feudal times of Europe, derives his chief revenue from his 
tate, consisting of five niferior provinces, and some detached 

iberg infoTRts us, that tlie laws are fbtv, }iut rigidly enforced, 
t regard to persoas, partiality, or violence. Must crimes are 
9d witli dcatl) ; but tJie sentence must be signed by the priv-y 
at Jedo. Parentj and relations are made answerable for the 
of those whose moral education tliey ouglit to have supei-- 
id. The police is excellent, there not only being a chief ma- 
of eacli town, but a commissary of each street, elected Iiy 
idiitanta to watch over property and tranquillity. I'wo inba- 
in their turn nightly pal role the street to guard firf^ 
beat prooC that the laws ore saiutai^ in, tliat few crimes are 
Ltedy and few punishments are inflicted. 'The brief code, iic- 
p to Thimberg, is posted up in every town and village, in large 
on a spot surruunded with rails. 

rLATioir. All travellers agree tliat tlic population is surprig.. 
boiwfa a great part of tlie cr)untr>' is mnuntainf>iis. ThunlxTg 
!Sy that the capital, Jedo, i» said to be 6.3 iiritish miles in rir- 
enee, and at any rati: rivals Pckin in size. Kxmpfer says thai 
ober of |icoplc daily travelling on the higliways is incuncclv- 
id the tokmdo, tlie chief of tlic seven great roarls, is noMw- 
Aore crowded than tlic most frequented stref^ts of Kiu^>pean 
k The population of .lapan is slated at ti{),()OO^H)0. 
T, &c. Tlie army has been estimated by Vareiiiiis at more 
df a million ; and tlie character of the peoiile is singularly 
ndresolutc. Thenavy, liketltatof other oiirmlul powerajin 
1 notice. The Japanese vessels arc open at the stem, so ♦.Uai 
juiot bear a boisti-rous uca. 

-« JAPAV. l«^ 

FAaK. Tliunbcrff has published u ciii-ioiis vocabulan- of tho 
c lung^iagne, whicYi secmN indeed to have little connexion wiOi 
losyllabic Rpeech of the Chinese. Thcit arc ulsu dictiunaric:- 
ip by tJic Jesuits. 

RATUBE. In the sciences and literature the Japanese yield to 
iic oriental nations. Tiiis sensible people study house-keep* 
doxnestic economy, as an indispensable science ; and next to 
;ry Japanese is versed in the iiistor}' of his countr}'. Astro- 
) cultivated, but has not arrived ui nmcli' perfection. They 
H'ith tolerable accuracy ; and tiieir maps arc as exact as their 
:ct instruments will permit. Tiie art of printing* is ancient, 
y use blocks, not moveable types, and only impivss one side 
mper. Some of their arts and manufaetuif;s even surpass 
r Europe. There arc excellent workmen in iron and copper ■ 
K) eastern countrv do thcv ^ield in manufactures of silk ami 
while ill varnishinpf wood thcv arc well known to have no 
Glass is also common ; and they even form telescoiics. I'he 
in is deemed superior to that ol China. 'I'lieir swonls dis- 
wmparable skill ; and many varieties of paper are pi^-'pared 
e bark of a species of m\ilbcrry tree. 

e 9TQ many schools in which the children are taught to read 
le ; tlieir education beinj^ accomplished witliout tlie dejj^ra- 
>f personal cliastisemcnt, while courag-e is instilled by the re- 
I At songs in pniise of dere:u>ed heroes. 
MAJTD Towns. The capital city of the Japanese empire is 
entrically situated on a bay in the S. E. side of the chief island 
The houses never exceed \\vo stories, with numerous shops 
I the streets. The harbour is so shallow that an European 
mid be obliged to anchor at tlie distance of five leagues. A 
•tiened in this city in the year 17r2, which is said to have con- 
UX leases in length, and three in breadth : and earthquakes 
5 fiuniliar, as they are in other regions of Jap:ui. The em- 
palace is sun'ounded with stone walls, and ditches with dniw- 
fformingof itself a consider-iblc town, sal<l to l>c five leagues 
imfeiencc. L.atitude 35° '3'2' X. and longitude 140° K 
!0| the spiritual capital, and second city of the empire, is 
in an inland situation about 16U miles S. \V. fi*om .ledo, on a 
ifaii Vet it is the first comnierci d city, and is celebrated for 
feipal roanufactui*es. It is also the seat of the im])crial mint: 
i JJftiri's court being literan-, all bcxiks arc printed here, 
pr informs us, that upon an enumera* iou taken in 1674, the 
ints were found to amount to 405,642, of w lioni weiv males 
l|' and 223,572 females, without including the numerous at- 
■ of the Dain. 

rcn. The imperial palace, like those of the Chinese, consists 
y dwellings, occuj)ying an immense space. The saloon of n 
imats is 600 feel in length by 300 in breadth. Then- is a 
uare tower whirii consists of several stajjes ricldy decorated ; 
Bt of the rcM)is ai-e ornamented witli golden drngons. The 
Old ceilings are of cedar, eamplior, anil othtr i)reeioiis woods i 
only furniture consibts of white mats, Irinj^d with gf)ld. As 



Rftsxtcs. The rcvemies of tbis cmpU'e are stated b) 
nt 28o4 ton4 of gold, on the Flemish mode of computa 
taking: the ton at only 1U,000/. sterliDg, the amount 
::8..34U,Of)OA slcrlinjf, bcbides tlie provinces and eiliea wlil 
m* diutt'ly subject to the emperor. The emperor, bosidea 
rcvcnucs'of his provinces, has {inconsiderable treasure in 
fiilver, disposed in chests uf 1000 teals, or tliayls ; each be 
in value to a Dutch riz dollar, or about four sJkillmgs and i 
Enf^lish mone}*. 

Ma^itkiih AvnCi-sTOMs. " The people of this nation 
made, actK'i', free, and easy in their motions, with utout 
thouf^h tlieir strcn^^h is not to be compared to that of thi 
inhabitants of Europe. They are of u yellowish colour 
sometimes bonler'>ng on bniwn, and sometimes on white 
distinction, who seldom go out in the open air witliout be 
cd, are perfectly white. It is by their eyes, that, like the 
these people are distinguishable. These origans have no* 
tundity wiiich those of other nations exliibit ; but are oblo 
and m simk deeper in the head ; in consequence of v/\ 
p<'opU' have almost the appearance of being pink-e\'ed. T! 
are in general large, and their necks short ; their hair blai 
and si lining, from the use they make of oils. Their nose 
not flat, arc vet rather thick and short." 

This highly civilized jx-ople are.sup]K>sed to be free from 
tricks of the maritime ('liinese. Tliry use great varietie 
and sauces. The niastci- or mistress of the house is not 
tvith the tniublcof cur\'ing, the meat being previously cut 
|)i<'fi-3,*J;erved up in basons of porcelain, or japaimed wc 
l^'nend drink is sacki, or beer, made of rice ; which last a; 
supplies the place of bread. They use many kinds of vegc 
fruits. The use of tea is also universal ; but wine and 
licjuors arc unknown. The use of tobacco seems to have 
Inwhiced by the Portuguese ; and the practice of smokii 
come gtneral. 

Hie houses of the Japanese are of wood, coloured whiti 
rt'scmble stone : ami though roomy and commodious, iiev< 
two stories in height ; the upper serving for lofbs and garret 
.seldom occupied. Each house forms but one room, wliic 
divided into apartments at pleasure, by moveable partitior 
in j^*(K)ves. They use neither chaira nor tables, sitting 
mats, the meal being screed apart to each, on a small squai 

The (Ircss consists of trowscrs : and what we call nigl: 
or loose ro])c*s of silk or cotton, are univei'sally worn by b< 
'J'licsc arc fastened by a girdle; the numfier being increase 
injc to the coldness of the weather. Stockings are not u 
llie shr>rs are commonly of rice straw. 'J'he men shave i 
Inini llie fos-ohead to the nupe, but the hair on the sides is t 
and fastened at the crown of the her.d : conical hais made 
are worn on journeys, but the fashion of wearing the liair 1 
common economical covering of the licud. 

■« JAPAV. IS; 

crAOF.. Thunbcrff has publislicd a curious vocaLulan- of tlj<* 
:8b language, wliicTi seems iiKlced to have little coniicxiou wlOi 
>no.syllabic speech of the Chinese. There are also diet iuu uric. - 
up by tlic Jesuits. 

Kn ATURE. In the sciences and literature the Japanese yiehl to 
the oriental nations. Tliis sensible people study house-keep- 
* domestic economy, as tai indispensable science ; and next to 
r'cry Japanese is versed in the history' of I) is countrj-. Astro- 
is cultivated, but has not arrived al nuicli' perfection. They 
r with tolerable accuracy ; and their maps are as exact as tlieir 
Tcct instruments will permit. Tiie art of printhig* is ancient, 
ey use blocks, not moveable types, and only impi-ebs one side 
paper. Some of tiieir arts and manufactures even surpass 
3f Europe. There are excellent workmen in iron and copper . 
no eastern country do they yield in niainifactures of silk and 
: while in varnishing wood tlicv arc well known to have no 
. Glass is also common ; and tliey even form telescopes- I'lic 
uin is deemed su|)erior to that ol Cliina. Their swords dis- 
icomparablc skill ; and many varieties of paper are pr«.'pared 
he bark of a species of mulben'y tree. 

re are many schools in which the children are taught to read 
rite ; tlieir education being accomplished without the degru- 
of personal cliastiscment, while courage is histilledby the re- 
m of scmgs in praise of deceased heroes. 
rESAXD Towns. Tlie capital city of the Japanese empire is 
ccntrically situated on a bay in the S. E. side of the chief island 
. The houses never excee<l two stories, with numerous shops 
Is the streets. The liarI>our is so shallow that an European 
ould be obliged to nnchor at the distance of five leagues. A 
ppened in this city in the ye^ir 1772, which is said to have con- 
\ six leases in length, and' three in breadth : and eai*th([uakes 
re familiar, as they are in other regions of .r-ip:in. The em- 
I palace is suri'ounded with stone walls^ and <Utch<'s with draw- 
's, forming of itself a considerable town, said to be five leagues 
lumferencc. Latitude 35° 32' N. and longitude 140*= E. 
CO, the spiritual capital, and second city of the empire, is 
L in an inland situation about 160 miles S. \V. from Jeclo, on a 
>Iain, Yet it is the first comnierci d city, and is celebrated for 
incipal m:uiufactui*es. It is also the seat of tlie im]>erial mint: 
le Jiairi's court being lileraiy, all b(M)ks are printed here, 
fer init)rms u.s, that upon an enumera^icm taken in 1674, the 
»ant« were found to jnnount to 405,642, of wiioni were males 
'0; and 22.5,572 females, without including the nuniei-ous at- 
its of the Dairi. 

pirKs. The imperial pahice, like of the Chinese, re )!isists 
ny dwellings, nrcupying an immense space. Tlie saloon of u 
cd mats is 600 feel in length by 300 in breadth. Then: is a 
quare tower whirh consists of several singes richly decorated ; 
ost of the root's an* ornamented with golden (h-ugons. Tli<» 

.and ceilings ureorredar, camphor, and other i)rerious woods ; 
e only furniture crmsibls of while mats, friiifTed with gold. As 


Dii^lit be expected amon^ so industrious a people, tlie roads 
to be muintaiiHrd in excellent order. 

MANiFArTURKB A?fD CoxxEHCB. The inUuid commeree is YOf 
considciahle, being free and exempted from imposts. The hariioiiifl 
arc crowded with large anj small vessels ; tlie high toads with nr 
rjous goods ; and the shops arc well replenished. Large fiiifs are 
ulso held in difTerent places, to wluch there is a great ooncoune of 
{)eople. The trade with China is the most important, consisthig of 
mw silk, sugar, turpentine, drug^, &c. while tJie exports are cxMBt 
in bars, lackered ware, &c. The Japanese coins are of remarlnple 
ionn, tile gold being called Kobangs. The silver called Kodnna 
sometimes represents Ilaikok, tlic g]od of riches, sitting upon tWQ 
bari*els of rice, with a hammer in his rig^it hand, and a sack at hi 

Cli m ate iiTT) Sraso!! H. Thc heat oFsummer is in Japan extrem^ 
A iolent, and would be insupportable, were not the air cooled by thf 
sea breezes. Equally severe is the cold in winter, when the wipid 
blows from the north or north-east. There are abundant fiiUs 6 
rain, especially in the rainy months, which begin at midsummer 
;ind this is tlie'chicf cause of thc fertility or Japan. 

riiunder is not unfrequent ; and tempests, hurricjmes, and earA 
ijuakes :ux' very common. The greatest degree of heat at Nagaaak 
was 98°, in thc montli of August ; and tlie severest cold in Jamiai] 

Tack of the CorxrmT, Vegetable Axn Animal PHonreriMri 

Though there be some plains of considerable extent, yet tliecountq 
in general, consists of moimtains, liilh, and valley's; the coast beihC 
nioslly rocky and precipitous, and invested M*ith a turbulent sea 
The soil in itself may be said to be rather barren ; but proUft 
bhowei's conspire with lal)our and manure to overcome even this ph* 
>tacle. Agriculture is a science in tlie highest estimation with thil 
sensible people, so that, except the most barren and untractabk 
mountains, the earth is universally cultivated ; and even most of tli8 
mountains and hills. ^ If any portion be found uncultivated, it mi^ 
be seized by a more industrious neig^ibour. Manure is laid upoB 
Uic plants, when they have attained tlie height of about six inched 
so tfiat they instantly receive the whole benefit, and weeding is ctf^ 
ried to the utmost degree of nicety. 

Kice is thc cliief grahi ; buck-wheat, rye, barley, and wlieat, be- 
ing little used. Tl»e sweet potatoe is abundant ; with several sorti 
of beans and peas, turnips, cabbages, &c. The rice is towii in 
April, and gatlicrctl in November: m wliich last month the wheil 
is sowni, and reaped in Jime. The barley also stands the winter 
Trom the seed of a kind of cabbage lamp-oil is expressed ; and le 
veral plants are cultivated for dving". There are also cotton shrtlbs 
and mulberry trees, which last teed abundance of silk worms. Tin 
vaniisli and camphor trees, tlie vine, the cedar, the tea tree, am 
the bamboo i*eed, not only grow wild, but are planted for numerou 

Rivers. The rivers of Nipon have not been delineated witli mud 
cai-e. Among the few named are the Nogafa, the Jedogawa, and th 

^ JAPAN-. 1^ 

iva ; of V. iiicli we knon- little more than the names ; the last 
of the lar^*»t and most (lioigcrous in tlie countn*, tliougfi not 
:t, like Uie otlicni, to swell during riiins. 
iCH. One of the chici lakes seems to be that of Oitz, v-i;ich 
t\i'o rivers, one towards .Miaco, the otlier tov/ards Uiiilu, ari.-f 
lid to Ijc fifty Japanese leagues in length, each about a;i liour*.^ 
:y on liorsebetck ; but tJie breadth is inconsiderable. 
cxTAi!rs. Tlie principal Japanese mountain is tliat of Fu«>i, 
:-d with snow almost throughout the year. The Fakfjnie raoun- 
iTC in tlie same quarter, surrounding a small lake of tiic same 

J* the lake of Oitz is the delightful mountain of Jcsan ; which 
«med sacred, and is said to present not less than 3000 temples. 
; ETA HLZAjiD Akmmal PuoDi'cTi o.^s. Thc giugcr, the soy-bean, 
pepper, sugar^ cotton, and indigv), tliougli perhaps natires o1' 
ore southern regions of Asia, are cultivated Iutc with grcai 
IS, and in vast aJ>undancc. Tlic Indian Uiirel and tlic riiniphor 
re found in the high central parts of Japan, as is al^o the rUvn 
, from the bark of which exudes a gum reftin, that is sup- 
l to be the baisis of tlie exquisitely beautiful and ininiitablc. 
varnish. Besides the common sweet or China cji'ange, anotlM-r 
8, the citrus j.'iponica, is found wild. Two kinds of midberry 
et witli, both in an indi^^cnrius and cultivated state ; the mu: 
)le as the favourite forxl of. the silk worm, tlic otlicr esteemed 
e wliite fibres of its inner balk, which are manufactured int<i 
. Hie larch, the cypress, and weeping willow, the opium, 
, white lily, and jalap, are found tiere The tiiimi^et'nowcr 
mia catalpa) is common to this part of Asia and Peru ; in 
circumstance it resembles the vanilla, whose berries form an 
; of commerce, being largely used in tlie preparation of choco- 
Thc tallow tree, tlie plantain^ the cocoa-nut tree, and two other 
, adorn the wood-land tracts, especially near the sea-shore, by 
riety of tlieir growth and folia^. 

ther sheep nor- goats are found m tlic whole empire of Japan ; 
tter being deemed mischievous tf> cultivation, while tlic ahun- 
of cotton recompenses the want of wool. Swine arc also 
id pernicious to agi'icultiu'e ; and only a few appear in the 
tx>urfaood of NagasjJci. Hie number of horses m the empire 
computed by Thunberg as only equal to those of a single 
ah town. Rtill fewer cattle are seen ; as the Japanese neither 
eir flesh nor their milk, but employ tliem only in ploughing or 
ig carts. l*he food consists almost entirely of fish and fowl, 
'egetables. Ifens and common ducks are domesticated^ chiefly 
ount of their eggs. A few dogs are kept from motives of su- 
:ion ; and the cats arc favourites of tiie ladies. 
re arc some wolves and foxes : these last being universally 
ed, and considered as demons incarnate. 
rxBALs. . *' That the precious metals, gold, and silver, are to be 
in abundance in the empire of Japan, hais been well known, 
the Pdrtug^iese, who formerly exportetl whole ship loads of 
«nd to tlie Dutch in former times. Gold is found in several 

1S4 JAPAN.. 

parts, And perhaps Japan may in this respect contest the p) 
the richeHt country in the world : but in order that this m 
not lose its vaUie, by becoming too plentiful, it is prohibit 
more than a certain stated quantity ; not to mention that nc 
mine, of any kind whatever, can be opened and wrought wi 
t ni]K'ror*s cxpi*C8H permission. 

** (.'oppcr is quite common in every part of the^empir 
vichly impregnated witli gold, constiUitmg the main soun 
w culth of many provinces. It was not only formerly ex| 
amazing aiiantilies, but still continues to be exported, bol 
Dutch una Cliinese merchants. 
'* Iron si'cms to be scarcer IJian any other metal in this c 
*' Itrimstone is found in great abundance in Japan. Pitco 
V. jbc to be met with in the northern provinccf.** 




ns rmpii*c wlilcl) inrhulos Ava, Pegii, 8(c. derives its ntkXfit 
the Dirmans, wlio liuvc I)(H>n lotijjf known »s a warlike nation in 
cffion formerly styli'd Imma iiKroTrn thk Cianqkh; the eApital 
>f their kin)^oni*l>eing' Ava or Awa. I'ej^i is by the natives 
il Tlag^ ; Innng* the country situated to the south of the former, 
ustly inferred to have been the Golden Chersonese of llie an- 
il, f 

TjsKT A?n» DoimTiAitiKR. It is diiFieuU to ascertain with prcci- 
Ihc Imundavies of the Dinnan empire. Mr. a}Tnes informs us, 
•• it appears to include tlie space bc»t\veen tlie 9th and 26Ui dc- 
of norl!» latitude, and !>etween the 92d and lorth degree of 
tudc east of (ireenwieh ; about lO^SU gt'o^aj) miles in 
h, and 600 in medial breadth. 

' the north the Itirmim empire is divided by mountains from 
», ft coimtry little visited or known ; and farther to the east itr 
•rs on Til>et and China. (>n the wrst a range of moimtains and 
ttle river Naaf divide the Uirman posjiessions fi*om the IlriCisli 
ninns in Dengal ; and the limit is eontinued by the sea. But 
>uthem and e.isten\ bounflarii*s still remain obscure. 
Liriiox. The Birmans follow the worshinof ifindostan. Tlicy 
•c in the transmigration of souls, after which tin* radically bail 
>e condemnetl to lasting pimishment, while the j«^w)d shall enjoy 
nl Iiappiness in the mountain iVreru. 

ws 4Nn (;o vxRNM KNT. " Tlic DinuaH system of jurisprudence 
•Kte with sound morality, and is distinguishinl alwve any other 
K) commentary for perspicuity and good sense ; it provi<fc» spe* 
lly for almost evcrj* spi'ei<»s of crime that can be committed, 
dds a copious chapter of precedents and decisions, to jBTuidc 
experienced in cases where there is doubt and diflicult)*. 

^ U3 


It •-;;:.-{.'. T.:n - r • .ivr mmeiit be detpotic, yet the king CCMi*' 
suI'M a n .viiiiMjbles. There arc no hereditaiT dignitief 

r.or c-ni] >:* >y ihl ;> s : uii tlie demise of the possessor, they revert to the 
ci-owi*. U.tnk is also denoted by diaint, with various diFisioop 
(3, 6, 9, or 12) and by the form and roateriid of various articles a 
common use 

Puri'LATinx. Colonel Symes states the population of the Bimun 
dominions at 17,000,000, confessedly, however, the result of a ^-lajr 
\ agile estimate. ' 

Army Axn Navt. Ever}' man in the empire is liable to militiry . 
service, but the regular army is very iiicfmsiderablc. During wv- 
the viceroys raise one rtxniit from ever>' two, three, or four housp i » 
which othcru-ise pay a fine of about 40/. sterling. The faonily of 
i})c* soldier is detained as hostages, and in case of cowardice or de* 
sertion, suffers death ; a truly t\Tannic mode of securing allegiance. 
But the war boats form tlic chief military establishment, consistiiig 
f^ about 500 vessels, formed out of the solid trunk of the teak tree. 
'rhey carry from 50 to 60 rowers ; the prow bcine solid, with a flat 
t-urface, on which a piece of ordnance is mounted. Each rower it 
provided with a sword and lance, and there are besides SO aoldiet% 
;irnK'd with muskets. 

Uevenues. The revenue arises from one tenth of all praducc^ 
rmd of foi-eigii goods imported : the amount is uncertain : out it ia 
>upposed tliat the monarch possesses inunense treasures. 

Manners and Cl'stoxs. The general disposition of the BimaM 
':% as strikingh- contrasted with that of tlie Hindoos, as if they had 
Iit:en situated at the opposite extremities of the globe. The Bir-' 
mans are a lively inquisitive race, active, irascible, and impaticDti 
f he un worth}' passion of jealousy, wliich prompts most nations of tin 
'jast to immure their women within the walls of an hararo, seems to 
have scarcL-Iy any influence over the nundsof this extraordinary and 
more libcTul people. Birman wives and daughters are not concealed 
from the sight of men, and are suffered to have as free interconne . 
witli each other, as the rules of European society admits bat m ^ 
other respects women have just reason to complain of their treat* 
ment ; they are considered as not belonging to the same scale of the 
nation as men, and are generally occupied in the labours of the laom. 
In war the men display the ferocity of savages, while in peace tbegf 
caa boast a considerable degree of gentleness and civilization. They 
ai'e fond of poetry and music, and among their instruments ia tlw 
hcem, resembling the ancient pipe of Pan, formed of sereral reeds 
neatly joined together. _ i 

Langface and Literature. The alphabet represents 33 simpla 
sounds, and Is written from left to rig^t, like tlie European, lltt 
Birman books arc more neatly esccut^ tlian those of the HindooH 
and in every hioul^ or monaster}-, there is a library or repository at 
books. Colonel S}'mcs was surprised at the number contamed in 4ie 
royal librar}-, in wliich tlie large chests amounted to about 100. Tba ' 
books were regularly classed, and the contents of each cheit wtn < 
T^Tittcn in gold letters on the lid. ) 

OiTixs. The D^w capitid Uxninerapoor8> with its s^resj turtelib ! 


i "id lofty obelisk, denoting' the royal presence, seems to rise like 
' Venice, from the waters ; being placed between a lake on tJie S. B. 
•Rd a large river with numerous isles on the N. W. The number 
[ tnd singularity of tht boats moored in the lake, and the surrounding 
1 imphitheatre of lofty hills, conspire to render the scene g^and and 
I interesting. The fort is an exact square, with public granaries and 
\ Itore rooms ; and there is a gilded temple at each comer, nearly 100 
"^ feet in height, but far inferior to others in tlie vicinity of the capital. 
In the centre of this fort stands the royal palace, with a wid$ court 
m front, beyond which is the Lotoo, or hall of council, supported by 
77 pillars, disposed in eleven rows. 

Ava, formerly tlie capital, is in a state of ruin, and so is Pegu, 
once the capital of another kingdom ; havhig been razed by Alompra, 
in 1757, the praws or temples being* spared ; and of tliesc the vast 
pyramid of Shomadoo has alone been reverenced, and kept in repair. 
lYadition bears that it was founded about 500 years before Christ. 

One of th^ chief ports of the Birman empire is, Rangoon, which, 
thdug^, like tlie capital, of recent foundation, is supposed to contain 
SOfQ/So souls. The g^id river Ii-rawady is bordered with numerous 
towns and villages. 

EDiTirEs. Tlie most remarkable edifice is the Shomadoo before 
mentioned. Colonel Symes has publislied a view of the grand hall 
of audience, perhaps as splendid an edifice as can well be executed 
in wood. His reception at the " golden feet," such is the term used 
fixr the imperial presence, was also remarkably grand ; the pomp in 
some degree corre'sponding with that of tJie ancient Byzantme em- 

Maitufactuiiks. The Birmans excel in gilding, and several other 
ornamental manufactufes. Tlie edifices and barges are constructed 
with singular oriental taste and elegance. 

A considerable trade is carried on between the capital and Yunan, 
the nearest province of China, consisting* chiefly in cotton, with 
amber, ivory, precious stones, and betel nut ; the returns beuig- raw 
Old vnrouriit silks, velvets, gold leaf, preserves, paper, and some 
utensils of hard ware. European broad cloth and hard ware, coarse 
Bengal muslins, China ware, and glass, are imported by foreigners. 
The Birmans, like tlie Chinese, have no coin : but silver in bullion, 
and lead, are current. 

Climate asv Seasons. The vigorous health of the natives attests 
the salubrity of the climate, the seasons being reg^ar, and the ex- 
tremes of heat and cold little known. 

Soil and PRonuci:. " The soil of the southern provinces of tlie 
Birman empire is remarkably fertile, and produces as luxuriant crops 
of rice as are to be found in the finest parts of Bengal. Farther 
nortliward the country becomes irregular and mountainous ; but tlie 
plains and valle}'s, particularly near Uie rivers, are exceedingly fruit- 
nii ; they yield gpood wheat, and the various kinds of small frrajn 
which grow in ilindostan; as likewise legumes and most of the 
CKulent vegetables of India. Sugar canes, tobacco of a superior 
quality, indigo, cotton, and the dinerent tropical fruits in perfection^ 
A]^e idl indigenous products of this ^youred land." 


UivERA. The g^og^pliy of the rivers is yet imperfect. The 
chief river is tlic Irruwady, wliich, probably passes by Mogiian; to ' 
Ramoo, und thence by Umnicrapoora aiid Promo towards the aea, ' 
Avliich It i(>in9 l)y maiiy mouUis, aflcr a comparative course of near 
1200 Hpiiish miles. 

MoiNTAiNs. It is probable that the highest rangie of moimtaiiiB 
is on th(* fi-onliers of Tibet, of which, and the ^tlier ranges, we have 1 
no satisfactory delineations. i 

Vkgktahle aki) Animal PaoncrTioxA. It is in those parts of the i 
torrid zone that aboimd with water, and wliere, from the influence 
of the monsoons, tlic country is extensively flooded evezy year, that ' 
vegetation assumes a vigor.r and sublimity wholly inconceivaUe by 
the natives of more temperate climates : everlasting verdure, gno^ 
and majesty of- form, height, and amplitude of growth, are the dis- 
tingiiishing attributes of their trees ; compared with which the mo- 
narch s of our forests sink into ve(ct*tables of an inferior order, l^e 
same exuberance of nature is conspicuous in their slunibs and how 
baceous plants, in tlieir blossoms and their fruits ; whose vivid bA 
liancy of colour, singidarity of shape, aromatic fragrance, and e» 
sited flavour, reduce to relative insignificance tlie puny pffoduoe <if 
I'^iiropean summers. 

The animals in greneral corre8p>ond with those qf Hindoitift 
Elephants principally abound in Pegu. The horses are small bA 
spirited. A kind of wild fowl, called the hcnza, and by the ffiih 
doos, the braminy goose, has been adopted as tlie symbol'of tbec»> 
;)ire, as the eagle was by the ancient Romans. 

Mix era l». The mineralogy of tliis region, the Golden Chersonese 
uf the ancicnUs, is opulent, and some products rather singular. The 
rivers of I\«ijvi still continue to devolve particles of gold t and their 
sands must in ancient limes have been }'et more prolific of that pre- 
cious metal ; as is evinced by tlie ])ractice of gilding the roofi and 
s])lres of temples and palaces, and this splendid appearance milkt 
iiuturally [ii'ive rise to the classic:d appellation of the county. MmH* 
of gold, silver, rubies, and sapphii-es, are at pi*cacnt open on a moim** 
Jain called A\'oobolootaun, near the river Keen Duem. Amber ako^ 
< xtixmely pure and pellucid, is dug up in large quantities. 


S tieninsula appended to the Birman territories on the south in 
Malaya or Malacca. 

Portuguese are regarded as T*ie first discoverers of Malacca 
9, to which they were led b> the vain idea of findine the 
I Chersonese of the ancients. L\ 1511 they conquered the 
ula, and held it till 1641, when it was seized by the Dutch, 
modem limits arc not sti-ictly defined ; but Malacca is ubout 
560 British miles in length, by about ISCL miles of medial 
h, a territory sufficiently ample tor a powernil monarch}-, had 
ive productions con'esponded with its c:;!ctent.. 
6UA6E. Tlie Malayan language has been called the Italian, of 
Bt, from the melody of frequent vowels and liquids. 
Arabic character is made use of. Tliey write on paper, using 
their own composition, and pens made of the twigs of a tree. 
DUCTS. The indolence of the inhabitants has prevented the 
y from being explored ; but it produces pepper, and other 
with some precious gums and woods. The wild elephants 
• abundance of ivory ; but the tin, the only mineral mention- 
y perhaps be the produce of Banka. 

city of Malacca, which seems to have been founded by Ma- 
U18 in the thirteenth century, in the last century was supposed 
tain 12,000 inhabitants, of which however only 3000 dwelled 
the walls. Not above 300 were native Portuguese, the others 
% mixed race of Maliometan Malays, accounted among the 
nerchants of the east. Latitude 2^ SO' N. and longitude 101° 

eneral the Malays are a well made people, though rather be- 
e middle stature, their limbs well shaped, but small, and par- 
ly slender at the wrists and ancles. Their complexion is 
their eyes large, their noses seem rather flattened by art than 
i and their hair is very long, black, and shining, 
des the tiger and elephant, Malacca produces the civet cat 
3ed by Sonnerat, who also mentions that wild men are found 
peninsula, perhaps the noted Orang Outang. 
y are restless, fond of navigation, war, plimder, emigrations, 
58, desperate enterprises, ddventures, and gallantry. They 



talk incessantly of their honour and their bravery, whilst tliey 
iinivorAaUy considered by those with wh.>m they have intercourse as 
tlie m(»st treacherous, fcro**ious people on the face of the elobe ; and 
yet ttu*y sfHMk the softest lanj^uufce of Asia. How much are they 
like a certain well ktiowni Kuropcan nation ? 

'I his fcnxr ity is so well known to the Kuropcan navigaton that 
they universally avoid takin^i^ on boaAl any seamen of that nation, 
except in the greatest distress, and then on no accoimt to exceed 
two or three. 

Op[>osite tu tJic coast of Midacca, thouf^h at a considerable dis* 
f ancc, are the islands of Amlaman and of Nicobar. The lipreut An> 
daman is alxiut 140 Dritish miles in lenpfth, but not more than 20 in 
the cfreatest bn.*adth. — The people of the Amlamans arc as little 
civirized as any in the world, and arc pmbably cannibals. They have 
woolly heads, and perfectly resemble nejcrocs. Their chau*acter is 
truly hnital, insidiuuii, ami ferocious, ami their canoes of tlie rudest 
kind. A British settlement has been recently formed on the Greater 
Andaman, and some convicts have been sent thith^ from Bengal 
The natives, about 2000, have already profited by the example of' 
lilnt;:-i:sh industry'. 

The Nicobars aiv three; tlie larp^est bein^ about five leagues m 
circumference. They prcxluce cocoa and aree^ trees, with yam^ 
and s vvci^t potatoes ; and the eatable birds' nests, so higfhly esteemed 
in (-liina, abound here as well as in the Andamans. The people ne . 
nf a copper colour, witli sni:dl oblique eyes, and other Tatar ftft* 
turcs. Ill their dress, a small strip of clotfi hangs down behind^ 
■mil hence the ignorant talcs of seamen which led even Lannietis 10 
afcr that some kind of men had tuUxs. 



EKT JLTTD 6oTnn)ARics^ THE extent of the Siamese dominioTiB 

be accurs^tely defined. On the west a chain of mountains 

to divide Siam from Pegu ; but the northern provinee -of 

an would appear to be in the hands of the Birmans, who here 

extend to the river Maykang. To the south and east the ^* 
loundaries are fixed ; the ocean, and a chain of mountains, di« 
Siam firom Laos and Cambodia. 

leng^ of the kingdom may be about ten degrees, or near 
*iti8h miles ; biit of this about one half is not above 70 miles 
ial breadth. ' 

leiojT, Laws aitd GovKRmrENT. The religion of the Siairi^se, 
at of the Birmans, resembles that of the Hindoos ; and the 
lirration of souls forms an essential part of the doctrine ; but 
nitate the Chinese in their festival of the dead, and in some 
rites of that singular nation. 

government of Siam is despotic ; and tlie sovereign, ^s among 
rmans, is revered with honours almost divine. The succes- 

1 the crown is hereditary in the male line- 
law^ are represented by all writers on this country, as ex- 

Y BCvere ; death or mutilation being punishments even of un- 
:ant ofiences. 

(n.ATio]r. Concerning the population of Siam, there are no 
ite document». Yet Loubere assures us, that, fix>m actual 
ration, there arc only found, of men, women, and children, one 
1 nine hundred tliousand. 

rr. The army which may be occasionallv raised, has been 
ted at 60,000, with not less than 3000 or 4000 elephants. 
T. The navy is composed of vessels of various sizes, some 
Lch are richly decorated. Hence, as in the Birman history^ 
ngagements are not uncommon ; and the large rivers of ex*' 
India are often reddened with human gere. 
rKXBS AivD Customs. Slam having embraced a branch of Hin« 
ith, the mamiers of the people are assimilated in a great de- 
women are under few restraints, and are married at an early 
rbe espousals are concluded by female mediation ; and on the 
dsit the parties are oonsidercd as wedded, after the exchange 

39J! SUM. 

•f a few presents, without any fartiiei* ceremony, ciril or { 
I'olytcatny is allowed ; but ratlier from ostentation than an} 

The Siamese funerals considerably resemble those of the CI 
'rtic hiHly is inclosed in a wooden bicr or vamislied coffin; ai 
monks, called Tulapoins, sinjf h\'mns, in the Bal7 tongue. A 
solomTi procession, the body is burnt on a funeral pile of pr 
\\'(M)ds, erecte<l near some temple. 

The common nourishment of the Siamese consists in rice ar 
both which articles are abundant They also eat lizards, rat 
several kinds of insects. 

I'lic liouscs arc small, nnd constructed of bamboos upon | 
to p;iiar(l against inundations so common in this country*. Ev 
])alac^'s only exceed the common habitations by occupying a 
(■xtensive space, and being of a greater height, but tjiey ncv 
coed one floor. 

In person, the Siamese are rather small, but well made. 
figure of their countenance, both of men and women, has leas 
oval than of the lozenge form, being broad, and raised at the 
tlic cheeks ; and the f billhead suddenly contracts, and is aim 
])ointcd as the chin, their eyes rising somewhat towards the tC 
livv small and dull : the mouth is vcr}- lar^^, with thick pal 
:«nd teeth blackene<l by art. The complexion is coarse, being 
mixetl with retl, to wliich the climate greatly contributes. 

The dress is extremely slight, the wai*mtli of the climate i 
lug clothes almost unnecessary. 

Tlie Siamese excel in theatrical amusements. They liav 
races of oxen, and those of l>oats, combats of elephants, cock 
ing, tumbling, wrestling, and ropenlancing, religious ]>roce 
and illuminations, and beautiful exliibitious of iire-wbrks. 

Li>f}r Ac; K. In the Siamese language tliere are thirty-seven I 
all consonants; the vowels and diphthongs constituting a d 
alphabet, 'i'he words seem mostly monosyllabic, like the Chi 

LiTKRATriiK. In literature the Siamese are far frxmi beii 
iicient. At the age of seven or eiglit years, the children are 
])laced in the convents of the Talapoins, where they are insti 
in reading, writing, and aceompts. They are also tauglit pn 
of morality. Tlooks of histoiy are not unknown, :md tthie is i 
coUent code of laws. Poetn', talcs, and mythologic fables, sc 
constitute the other departments of Siamese literature. 

CiTTKs AM) Towxs. Tho capital city of the kingilom has 
called Siam. It is situated in im isle formed by the river Mi 
The walls, in Loubere's time, were extensive ; but not above a 
part was inhabited. Its condition, since it was delivered fro; 
Hirman conqucsi \\\ 1^66, has not been described, nor have m 
recent accounts of their other towiis ; but in general they wei 
collections of hovels sometimes suritMnwled with a wo<xle'n sto< 
and rarely with a brick wall. Lat. 14° 20' X. long. 101° 20' li 

Km KICKS. At Siam there ait; two remarkable edifices. Tli 
is the famous pyramid called Puka Thon, erected in memor 
victr.ry there obtained over the king of Pegu. 



The second edifice consists of two squares to the east of tlie citj-, 
acfi surrounded with a fair wall. TJiey contain many temples, cou- 
•cnts, chapels, and columns, particularly tlie temple of Berklam; 
nth a grand gate ornamented witli statues and other carvings. 

Majotfactures. Though the Siamese are little skilled in the fa^ 
irication of iron or steel ; they excel in thaUof gold, and in minia- 
are painting. The common people are mostly occupied in procuring 
ish for their daily food, while tlie superior classes are engaged in u 
rifling traffic. 

CoiTM ERCE. The commercial relations are chiefly with Hindostaiii 
9iina, Japan, and the Dutch. 

The productions of the country are prodigious quantities of grainy 
otton, beniamin ; sandal, aguallo, and sapan wood^ ; antimony, tin, 
eady iron, load-stone, gY>]d, and silver ; sappliires, emeralds, agatesj 
rystal, marble, and tombac. 

CuMATE AND SEASONS. The two first months of the Siamese yeaTi 
rhiok correspond with our December and Jaiuian'j form the whole 
rinter of this country ; . tlie third, fourth, and fiilh, belong to what 
I OAUed their little summer, wjiichis tlieir spring j the seven otliers 
D their great summer. Autumn is unknown in their calendar. The 
nater is dry ; the summer moist ; the former is distinguished by 
he course of the wind, which blows almost constantly from tlie 
iiA, lefiredhed with cold from the snowy mountains of Tibet, and 
ne bleak wastes of Mongolia. 

'S«T£ AMU PaoBucTioNs. This.countr}' is a wide vale between two 
1^ ridges of mountauis, thus somcwJiat resembling Egypt on a 

'The 8oiL towards the mountains is parched and unfertile, but an 
^ shore of the river consists, like that of £g}l>t, of an extremely 
nch and pure mould, in which it is even difficult to find a pebble, 
md produces exuberant quantities of rice. 

j^ftums. The grand river Meinam, a name which signifies the 
Hotter ^ vaterf, reigns supi^me shnong the Siamese streams. It is 

Bdeep and rapid, always flill, and, according to Kxmpfer, larg^i^ 
the^Elbe. Tlie inundations are in September, after the snows 
Nc greatly melted in the northern mountains, and the rainy seasoa ' 
Ml commenced. In December tlie waters decline, and sink by de? 
(its to their former level. The water, though muddy, is pleasant 
Nl salutary. 

AxiXATA. The chief animals of Siam are elephants, buffidoes, 
4 deer. Horses seem little known or used, though found wild in 
Qtet. The clcpliants of Siam are of distinguished sagacity and 
innty; and tliose of a white colour are treated with a kind of udo- 
Uan, as the Siamese believe the souls of such are royal. ' Wild 
^n, tigers, and monkies, ai*e also numcitnis. 
i^ivkhals. 'lliere arc some mines of gold, and otbera of cop- 
Ifc; but the mines chiefly wrought by the Siamese are of tin and 

^ear Louvo was a mountain of load-stone : fine agates abounded 
i the mountains, nor were sapphii'es unknown. 





.)n(l ihvy lie la the £. of Siam aiid Uie Birmon empire, from the 
iMtitiKlc of 10 to 23 ckgreet N. and the centre of tiiein about 105 
(icp^cs E. from London. 

1. L\n>4. Surrounded witli forests and deserts, and of diflkult 
u' cess by water. The soil is represented as fertile in ricei produc- 
tive of the hi'st Ix*n/.nin and iacca, exquisite musk, with some gold 
and rubies. 

'J. (\iNni»i»rA. I'his countr\-, like Siam, is inclosed by mountaim 
on tlie e:)st and west, and fertilized by the river Maykaung*, which 
begins to inundate tlie country in June. It is tliinly peopled, and 
tlic capiliil, railed (Jamliodia, consists only of one street, with a 
:iinfCl<> temple. The most peculiar pn)duct is the substance stykd 
jr^mlK)}^', or rather raml>og^ Cfuni, yielding' a fine yellow tlnL 
Ivor}' also :-.hounds, witli scvcraA precious woods: and some add 

.'>. SiA^iPA. This Hmall maritime tract is to the S. E. of Can* 
bodia. Tlie ]KK>ple are large, muscular, and well made, the con- 
plexitMi is reddish, the nose rather flat, the hair is black and kN|;» 
• he dn-ss very slig'ht. 

4. (-oniix ViiMM. This country prcscnta an extensive range of 
roast , .in J has been visited bv many navigators. As the shores aboUBd 
with ii.'iviim, the canoes and junks arc numerous. 

The bUiK-rior ranlcs are clothed in silk, and display the poltteneM 
iii Cliinese manners. The dress of both sexes is similar, being looie 
!■( bcs with large long* sleeves; and cotton tunics and trowsers. A 
kind of turban covers the head of the men ; but no shoes i«op afip- 
pcTs arc used. I'he hous€s are mostly of bamboo, covered with 
ruslies or the straw of rice, and stand in groves of oranges, limeib 
plAtains, and cocoa trees. The rainy season is durinf^ September, 
OctolHT, and November ; and the tliree following nrKHiths are also 
C'.ld and moist, presenting* the semblance of an European winter. 
The inundations only last two or three days, but happen once a fort* 
night in the rainy season, l^farch, April, May, form a delickNit 
spring; while the heat of the three following months is rather ex- 

The ])roducts of agriculture are rice of different qualities, yanii 
^woet ])otatocs, green pumpkins^ melons. Su^ar also abounds. 
Ciold dust is foimd in the rivers ; and the mines yield ore of singu- 
lar purity. Silver mines have also been lately discovered. TiKen, 
<le])hanls, and monkles, abound in Cochin China; and those ediUo' 
i>ir(ls' nests, esteemed a luxury in Chhia, are chiefly founfl in this . 
country. i 

5. Trxarix. This country was only divided from the former by J 
a small river, and may at present be considered as incorporated witB 1 
it by conquest. The inhabitants reSemble their neighbours, the j 
Chinese, but their manners are not so civilized. The products ftie 


)Us, and seem to blend those of China with those of Hindosr 
The rivers in tJic rainy season, from May to September, inun- 
e adjacent country. Kcsho, tlie capitid city, is described by 
2T as approaching tlie Chinese form, with a considerable popu- 

le gulf of Tunquin and adjacent Chinese sea, the tuifoons, ^a* 
s, are tremendous. *' They are preceded by a cloud which 
s in the north-east, black near tlie horizon, edged with cop- 
our on the upper part fading into a glaring white. It often 
s a ghastly appearance twelve hours before the typhon bursts, 
lasts many hours, blowing from the nortli-cast, attended with 
il claps of thunder, lai'ge and frequent tiaslies of iighttiihg, 
:e5sive luird rains." 



1 1 IN DOS'! AN. 




M n^ridx AND Kite NT. IIINI)08TAN im aitUKlccl belweeo 8 and 
i.'i (li>}rivi's of N(ji't)i laiitiuU', uiul bci\vi*c*ii 67 and 93 lii'pfrccg of But 
fijiiiL(-itiult> : lu'iiit^ ulKiut 1890 miles in leii)^h, by 16S\J in brradth. 

Itiif N iM It I i:s. It Ih houiulcd in t)u' N. by U.sU'C Tatun', uxtti Tibet i 
III tbv K. by Assam, Arnu^an, and the bay of llcnppal ; in tlie S^bythc 
Iiuliuii (M' ; and by the same ocean, and Persia in iJiu W. « 

M:ijt)r Koiiiu-11 describes llindostan in four sections : 1. Thatpirt 
oonipu-d by Ibc (ian(>iiii And its principal br.mchrs : ^. Tliatoccu- 
pit'd by tbc course of the Siiidc, or river Indus : 3. Tbc tract situated 
iK-tvi'ceii tbc river Ki^itna, and llie two former divisioiia: 4. The 
countries to. the south of the Klstna, or what is perli.ipH improperly 
calUd tlic soiitlieni {Hrninsub, as no part, of liindostun mn be stylcu 
a Iieninsula, in tlu* modern acceptation of bcin^j^ nearly surrounded 
by the ft^a. 

(Ir.MKHAL DiviHioMK. T\w. (ianpfetic part of llindostan includes 
the space from the ronfines of Tibet tu the sources of the Chumbttl 
and Si|)pra, and fr.jin tlie mount.iitis near Aghneru and Abugurhillft 
to the most eastern boundary of iriiidustan. 

'i'ltut portion w:ili-ri*d by tlie i5ind6 or Jndus, and its subsidiary 
stnuiiiM, may in like maniuT be termed Sind^'tic llindostan; andii 
:i sup])U imiit to this division m:iy 1h* considered the country of Sir* 
hiiul, and other tracts to the west of (inni|[vtic llindostan. 

The si;«itli(Ti) part is encompassed by the sea, except on the norfhf 
whei-c the rlvt-r Klstnaand itssubsiiliary slivanis ibmi the boundary. 
This portion \v-:i:; styled Ilt'ccaii, from a native tcrni implvinfr tlio 
KoutI), and coMipriscs all the country sit* lated to the south 01 tbe 

Thai portion on tlic north of the Klstnn, rouchin|)f to (langpetic 
Tluidostan (III tile nortli and east, and the Slndetie with its supple- 
nvntary proviiiies on the north :u!d west, may be stylctl lnt(*rior or 
i.\-iiti-al !liiulns*:ii). 

Ill this arraii.^^cii.ciit tbe (lanf^i tic part wlUincludtt lSen|fal, llBhar* 
Allahabad, Owile, Agra, and a part of IXdhi and Ag'inierc. Tlic 
Siiidctir contaMis Iviitlorc,Ua3hiair, ('abwl| C:uidaliar, Lulioct^ Muul* 
Un, and bint! J 


The central division represents Guzerat, in the west, with Can- 
eish, Berar, Orissa, the Sircarsy^the chief part of Golconda, Visla- 
our^ Dowlatabad, and Concan. 

The southern division includes a small portion of Golconda, 
lysore, the extensive region, called in modern times, the Camaticy 
ith Madura, and other smaller districts ; the western coast being* 
illed that of Malabar, and the eastern that of Ck>romandeL In 
lis part is naturally included the island of Ceylon. 

Political Diyisioirs. The British, the Marattas, and the Nizam, 
my be reg^arded as the three leading powers, to which may be added 
n the west, or on the Sindetic division, the Seiks, and Zemaun Shah, 
r whatever prince holds the eastern division of Persia. 

The foUowhi^ table, extracted, with a few alterations, from Major 
lennell's memoir, will convey a more complete and satisfactory idea 
f this important topic. • 


1. Bennil and Bahar, with the Zemindary of Benares. 
3: Northern Sircars, including Guntoor. 
5. Barn-Mahal, and Dindigui. , 

4. Jaghire in tlie Camatic. 

5. The Calicut, Palicaud, atid Coorga countries. 


1. Azaph Dowlah. Oude. 

2m Mahomed Alii. Camatic. ^ 

3. Travimcore, and Cochin. 


P9ona Maratttu, Tributariea. 

. Mfllws. 1. Rajah of Jyenagur. 
. Candeisb. 2. *— - Joodpour. 
.PMtrfA«ediiagUP,orDowl». 3 Ou^pour. 

: Visiapoor. . 4. Narwah. 

. Part.of Gufeerat. S. -^ — Gohud. 

. Agra. 6. Part of Bundekund 

. -— — Agimere. 7. Mahomed Hyat. BopaltoYi 

. AUahaMd. 8*. Futty Sing. Amedabad. 

. Shanoor, or Sanore, Bancapour, ^9. Gurry .Mundella, &ci &c. 

Darwar, &c. situated in the 

Dooab, or country between 

the Kistna and Tdtnbudra 


Heraf Maratta^- . Tribtaary. 

• Berar. Bembajce. 

: Oriaaa. 




1. foWmla. bnm) and Candicotta (o 

J. Aiiiungubail. jeoolta.) 

\ lUiUr. 7. Part of Gooty, Adoni 

4. r..ri iif' J'd'iU". Canoul. 

5. Adoni, Uachore, ar.d Ca- 8. Pare of the Dooab. 

nnv.l. [9. Other dis^tricts ftc< 

^' C-uMupali. Cummum (<jr Com- 1799.] 

. V. SKIXS. 

LJioi'O, Moultai), and the western parts of Dellii. 


\ i tlie otlic r p^rcat poM'rt* chiefly extends over Persia, it n 
-; ;^-.iri)fd :is foivigii. Ti^ oiher states of Hmdostan are smaJ 
■.^f III) preai importance, either {political or geographical. 

TI:e Hritibii possessions prior lo thefidl of Tippoo, 1799, wen 
p .si (i to contain 197,496 sijuui-c British miles, being about t 
:r-:v ilian comprised in ihe unittil kingdoms of Great fi 
:'.!hl Irchiiid : tlic wumbtT of inhabitants ^ras computed at tei 
'ions. 1 he accpiisition in 1799 prt^hably adds 15,000 square 
:.'ul the population subject to (.ii-eat Britain is supposed to be 
i-»*,U<rj,UOO. Tlie not nvenue exceetlcd three miliions befoi 
* : isions by Tippoo, in 175-? ; the latter being cuirputed at 40i 

The Marattas are divided into two^tates or empires, t] 
V(;.. na, or tlie western, and Bcrar, or the eastern; each ruled 
i.'.:nl>erof chii fs or irrlnccs, who pay a nominal obedience 1 
j>al>li\va, or sovcrei^Ti. Tlie Sciks, a new religious sect, 'fir 
iv:.ri»;l in the middle of tlie seventeenth centurj*, and have gnu 
^ecun.e fiirmidable to the neighbouring states. The JatA, or 
wore a trih^* «?f Hindoos, wh«) about a century ag^ erected a 
.-.round ilie capital Agra. The AfgTians, another peculiar p 
'. .■iL:i:i:ited from the mountains between Persia and India. 

Xa^v. Tlie name of this celebrated countrv" in the ancient 
icrit language is Bharata. That of Hindostan seems to have hfi 
p(}54.>d by the I'ersians. It was long known by the name of tl: 
pjreof il:e Gr^^nt Mog»il, b* cause it was then subject to M 
cmpe." »;•?, successors of Timur Btc. 

A > r 1 F-N T Mo V r >: y. n'ts. Some of the most remarkable monu 
Kre cxcrivuted temples, stauies, relie\'OS, &c. in an island near 
r..-.y. The idol? ivprcsente<l seem clearly to belt-r.g to tlie p. 
v.At]u)locr>*^* Hindostm; but at what period' these edifices 
T.O(loll».d, whcth«.r three hundred, or three thousand yeai-s ago, 
:>c left in the darkness of Hin■■llV^ chronolocrv, 

MrTKoiofJT. Though the m}iholonfy of the ]I:!;uoos may pi 
to givr.t antlquit}-. yet their present form of relirion is suppoj 
van- considcraidv irom tliC ancient. The artful J*:vmins have 
duccd many innovation:^, in onier to increase th-. .• < \vn powc 
iiifiutrice : Lut it app;uri Uia; the fubric rests on ■.-:..i almost u 


sU m tjf the cast, the belief in a supreme Creator too ineffable 
ublinie for human adoration ; which is tliercfore addressed to 
or, but g-njat and powerful divinities. 

LiGiux. The rolit^ion of the Hindoos is artfidly interwoven 
the common oiHces of life ; and the different cast^ are suppose d 
g-iiuite from Hratnna, the immediate agent of creation under 
uprtjnu.* ]Jower, in the following* manner : 
(2 Jinilimin, from tlie mouth of Brahma (wisdom) : his business 
pray, to read, to instruct ; and this seel; has had art enough to 
itsejf above all tlic rest. 

c (Jhchteree^ from his arms (strength) : To draw the bow, to 
to govern. 

o JSiHccy from liis belly or thigiis (nourisiiment) : To provide 
;ces:iaries of jlfe b}' agriculture and traffic, 
e Soodefj from his feet (subjection) ; To labour, to ser\-o. 
VBRXMEXT. Mindostan is now divided into many governments, 
irm of which must be considered in describing the several 
I. Suffice it here to obscr^'e, that tliough the Drum ins are the 
dignified cast, jet iliere do not seem to have been one or more 
priests, as in tlie surrounding coiuitries. The sovereignty was 
Loned to the m'ditary cast, and th.c monarch wus ]n*esumed to 
e proprietor of all the lands, except tliosc belonging to the 

ws. The laws of the Hindoos are intimately blended with 
religion, and the curious reader may consult the code, trans- 
and published by the direction of AV. Hasthigs, Esq. 
ruLATio-s, The population of this extcnsi%'e ))art of Asia is 
»ed to amoimt to sixty millions, of which tlie BritisJi posses- 
TDay now perhaps contain a quarter. 

NERAL Rkvlnues. Thc general revenues of Hindostan wei'e 
uted, in the timex)f Aurunzeb, by a precise calculation of those 
c several provinces, at tliirty-two millions sterling ; equal per- 
Gonsidering tlie comparative price of products, to one hundi'cd 
izly*millions sterling in modei*n England. 
lSVVrs iND CrsToxs. The manners and customs of tlie Hln- 
are intimately blended with their ixligion, and are universally 
AT; witli a few exceptions in the mountainous and other pecu- 
listricta. One of the most singular begins to expire, that of 
^ the liring widow to tlie same flames witli her husband's 

floon 09 a cliild is bom, it is carefully registered in its proper 
and astrologers are consulted concerning its destiny. A lira- 
mposes thc name. The infant thrives by wliat we wouhl call 
ct ; and no where are seen more vigour and ehgancc cf form. 
Mys are generally taught reading and writing by Uramins, but 
iris are confined at home till their tv.'clflh year. Poly^Jinw is 
ised, but one wife is acknowledged as supi-eme. Tiie Ilir.doos 
itrcmely abstemious, and wholly abstain from animal food and 
icating liquors. Thc houses are built of earth or bricks, co- 
■ with mortar, and sometimes witli excellent, with nf> 
jws, or only small apertures. There is generally only a gi-ouud 

200 llINDOSTAy. 

floor, inclosing a court, with a snull gallery suppsrted hy 
wooden pillars. 

L%>n(-Afi£s. The general ancient language of Hindottan k be- 
li<!.-vcrl to have been the Sanscrit, an original and refined speech, oaiB- 
pariid by Vir William Jones, with the Greek and LAtin. The more 
rommon dialects used in these eatensiTe regions are very 
not fcwiT thui nine or ten. 

LTTERATrBE. The literature of Hindostan doubtless 
several val'iuble and curious monuments ; but their epochs sze «]^ 
tremcly uncertain. Hence little else than confusion and contmdi^ 
tj(jii ure to be found in the numerous accounts published of Hindoo 

The most important books are the Vedas ; there are also unt 
epic poems which pretend to contain fn^gmcnts of genuine liistOKy. 
It is probable the oldest was not written above seven hundred yon 
agu. — It IS a great singularity that the old Hindoo grants of umdf 
many of which liave been translated and pubiishcdy are cxtranclf 
long, aiul in a strange poetical or inflated style ; some of the co^ 
IMjiiiul words consisting of not less than one hundred and fiify sj^ 
lablc's ! 

The Hindoos are ignorant of the Chinese art of printing; they 
are nevertheless in general highly civilized, and of the most gentfe 
and amiable manners. But perhaps in no art nor science are thcf 
fr|ual to the Chinese or Japanese ; and in most are con&saedly in* 

The chief university in the north is that of Benares, a : 
bi*ate(l and ancient school, now included in the English 
In the Deccan, the academy of Triciur, on the Malabar coast, ii.j 
in great repute. " At Cangifniram^ in Carnateg there is still^a cele- 
brated Brahmin school, which, according to the testimony of Ptole- 
my, existed in the first century of the Christian era ; and its mei^ 
bcrs are certainly equal in celebrity to the Brahmins of M em arta ^ 

Mam'factcres. The manufactures of Hindostan have been oefe- 
ovated from early antiquity, particularly the muslins and odier ftbrics 
from cotton. Nor is Hindostan famous at this day lor any naflii&e- 
ttire, except those of muslins and calicoes ; the other exports oca^ 
sist of diamonds, raw silks, witli a few wrought silks, spices, dr«n, 
^c. Tile shawls of Cashmir are also deservedly esteemed ; *' 
Uiere wo\ en from a material chiefly supplied by Tibet. 
an<l sculpture are in tlieir infancy; yet ttie temples are 
rn.vjcfitic and solemn. In most trades veiy few tools are employed. 
The simpl^! loom is reared in the morning under a tree, and catried 
home ill the evening. 

Nai ivK PnonrcTs. But it is the ahiuidance of native prodncti, 
which ]i:'.s in all ages rendered Hindostan the centre of great trade. 
Diamonds, and some other precious stones, are products almost pe- 
ciilUr ; ar> well as many spices, aromatics, drugs, rice, and sugar. 

Climatj; ami SRAS03is. The climate and seasons are considcrsbly 
(livers ifiL-d by diHerence of latitude, and local situation. In Bengal 
the hot, or diy season begins with March, and continues to the end 
cf May i the thermometer sometimes rising to 110^^ This intense 


s Komctlrncs interrupted by violent thunclf r stornis fmm the 
-wcMt. — The ruiny Hcason coiitiniieH from June to Sc'iiltrnilKT : 
in;c last moiithH of iJic year art^ generally pleasant ; but exre.s- 
r)f^H often prevail in January and Febniary. The period ir:ai 
arc felt in Kindctic IlindoKtan, and tlie rest of tlur country i.s 
it deluf^ed by tliem. They descend like catarartH from Xlic 
s, and the (ranfj^cs and other rivers spread t^) a wide extent ; 
ninrlation ceasing in ScpU^mber. " By the latter end of July 
c lower parts of Hcn^al, contif^uous to the (iangcs and Hur- 
ooter, ai'e overflowed, and form an inundation of more than a 
*cd miles in width. NoUiinpf appears, but villa^'s and trees, 
it here and there the top of an elevated spot, the artificial 
<lof some deserted village. 

:he Houthom division the chains of the Gauts, or moimtains of 
)ar and (Joromanckrl, sunportinf^ a liig^h table land in the centre, 
epttlie p-eat mass of clouds; and the alternate S. TV. and 
wiiuls, called the Monsmnis, occasion a rainy season on (me side 
: mountains only, is, on the windwanl side. The ninnsof »n 
n the N. K. from Ootofcer to April ; and from May to Sepleni- 
I the opposite din:ction. In {general, March, April, May, and 
are the dry months. 

^iisivc rains, or excessive heats, form the chief varieties of the 
and produc<; a, luxuriance of vegetation, almost unknown to 
ther coiuitry on the {^lobe. 

1m The soil in some places is so excellent as to consist of 
vegetable mould to the depth of six feet. Rice is the chief 
; and, on the dry sandy L'uids of tlie coast of Coromondcl, 
industry is displayed in watering it. 

iae and the sug:ir-cane are also favourite products. The cul- 
m of cotton is also widely difliised ; and this plant particularly 
s ou the dry coast of Coromandel. 

'CRN. The rivers of llindostan are large and numerous, but 
mits will not permit us to describe many of them. 
i Ganges must still be considered as the sacred sfivrreign of 
indoo rivers. It receives such a number of important trihu- 
trcamsy tliat its magnitude exceeds what might have been ex- 
d from tlie comparative length of its rx»urse ; which may how- 
>e estimated at abmit fourteen hundred Dritish mihrs. Tief-* 
iler has laid down the latitude of the noted (vangoutra, or 

mouth, in lat. .*>3®; being a celebnited cataract where the 
!B is said to pass thnmgh a vast caveni in a mountain, and to 
to a largr* bason which it has worn in the n)ck. At about two 
-ed and eiglity miles to the south of 'this place the Ganges en- 
he wi<le pLiins of llindostan ; and ])ursues a south-east direc- 
>y the: cities of (;:utoge, Allalmb.'ul, Benares, I'atna, &c. till di- 
f in*fi many grand and capacious mouths, it forms an extensive 
at its egress into the gidf of Bengal. The oxtit-mt? mouths 
; 4 ianges arc intersected with isles, called the SunderbiUMls ; 
I are overgrown witli tall bamlimts and oilier hixuriant vegcta- 
ihe impenetrable liaunts of tlie roval tiger aiul other i^easts of 

On tilt westernmost oui hi of the Ganges, railed Ui« Hoogley, 


or lyii, stuids Cfilcutta, Uie capital of British ITindostan. Thi^ 
Mill iht' iiio^t eastern wliicli i-crcivcs the Uurrampooter, ue tfae 
M -.d.^ u:ul mo^-t inijHirtaiil brunchfs. 

The I H. -hi est lril>!itury ot* the Ganges is the Durrampooter. 
This riviT nn'.s t\^riljur IjundrcdmilL'sthroujjh tlic British territoriri 
.'Jill tor thv liist 6j mill's liL'torc its iiinctiosi with the Ganges^ it is 
fKiTii t'.iup ;o tive mik:s wido. On their union l)eli)w Luckipour^thej 
t'-.Tiu ;i of riiiininjr trosii waier, roscmblin^ a ^ulf of the ■«, 
'i.iiv:?.pei'>'/il wiih islund:^, some of which rival in size and fertili^ 
\\iv Kit' (ii Wii^iiL III the mt.uihs of Iho Gang^es and tlie MepHi 
ti.-.' s\idd.'.i it tins of the* tide will rise ii^tantaneously to the hei|^t 
o:' tr.»;ij ilve ti> twelve tcct. 

'Die c.)uri>e of the Hurrampooter is supposed to be nearly eqvalk 
I'-ii.jT^ii to of the Gangt?s. The sources of these great riven ne' 
sTited \y be very near, yet they separate to the distance of moie thH) 
a iliousur.d miles, and afien^'ai-ds join in their termination. 

The Iridus is by the natives called Sinde, or Sindeh, and ii sop- '-\ 
posed to huve its source in the Bolur Tag, or cloudy movntaina. Its 
coniparitive cf>ursc may bo about a thousand British miles, when H 
tjrm< a vl'.'lia in ihe province of Sindd ; entering by many mouths in- 
to t'.i. I'vlian SAi. 

Tile ! >jcran, or most southern part of Uindostan, is considered as 
bou!'..K-.L and e:iriche<l bv the Kistna, and its tributary streams, tlm 
Ki&tn::, :i .srcred river, rises at Kalisar in tlic chain of Sukhien,* not 
fiic t > :he soutli of i'oona, and tbrms a delta near MasuHpatam, after 
a c';!n;):iv^tLve course of about five hundred British miles. Tin 
river rivals any Iiulian stream in tlie fertility diffused bv its inunda- 
tions ; and T-lie ricliest diamond mines in tlie world are m the neigh* 
boLir-ng hills to the north. The chief tributary streams in Inst 
quarter are the Hecma, pa.ssing near the diamond mines of Visile 
pour; and the Mu:^i, or Afoussi, by those of Golconda. But the 
TO<i>:t considerable river joins the Kistna from the south, called the 
Toonibuilf Ira ; on the banks of which have been recently discdfoed 
many potiulous provinces, and flourishing towns. 

Lam.-:. Ill this extensive portion of Asia the lakes seem to be 
few, and of small accoimt. The country of Cashmir is supposed to 
have been originally a large lake, as reported in the native traditkins ; 
and a considerable expanse of water still remains in the noroiem 
part of tlii.s delightful coimtry, called the lake of Ouller, or Tal, be* 
ing about fifty -tliree British miles in circuit. 

MoLNTAix's. The mountains chiefly celebrated by the Hindoos 
may be said to be only visible from their country; being the noitii- 
ern cliain of the Tibetan Alps, covered with perpetual snow. 

In the centre are the important diamond mountains of Golconda 
and Visiapour. 

A ridge called tlie Bundeh mountains runs parallel to the Goda; 
veri in the south, but at a considerable distance fi-om that river. 

The t^auts, peculiarly so called, are ranges which run alongp the 
western and eastern coasts of the Dcccan. The former is by the oa- 
tlvcs called tUp mountains of Sukhien. 


?sc chuins rise abruptly on each side, but particularly the west, 
igas it were enormous walls, supporting a high terrace or table 
n tlie middle. Kxclusivc of a gap, the mountains of Sukhein 
•1 from Cape Comorin to Siirat, at the distance of from forty 
enty miles fmm the shore. 

»ETABLK AND Ammal Phojiuctio!7h. A morc fiTtile soil, anA 
le better adapted to tlie most profuse luxuriance of vegetation 
.he well watered tracts in this vast peninsula, cannot possibly 
md in any part of tlic known world. Double har\'ests» tW9 
of fruit from miuiy of the trees, and from most of the rest a 
us and regular supply, during tJic greater part of the vtar, are 
isis tliat support its swarming population ; while its timber oi' 
qualify, its plants of medicinal virtue, its numerous and ex* 
c: dying dnigs, and its cottons and other vegetable articles of 
ng, oiler to its inhabitants the materials of enjoyment and 

3 most distinguishing feature in tropical landscapes is the mul^ 
: of lofly trees of the palm kind. The cocoa nut tree, pia'h;>p8 
ost widely diilfiiscd of any, is fimnd in abimdance on the coasts 
dabar an(i Coromandel. The areca palm, the smaller fan-palm 
:inguished for its broad fau'-shaped leaves, which are used for 
ig on, and for thatcliing. This although a large tree is far in- 
to the greater fan-palm, which aboimds on the lower moiui- 
of the Carnatic ; each leaf of tliis vast tree is capable of co- 
f ten or a dozen men, and two or three of tlicm are sufHcient 
>f a cottage. * 

the^tlier fruit lx?aring trees there are, the papaw fig, remarka- 
r the sweetness and rose flavour of their fruit ; tlie pillaw is a 
f equal singularity and use ; frum its trunk and larger branches 
XMluced fibrous bags, sometimes of the weiglit of twenty -fivr 
|j, which are filled with nuts like the chesnut, and resembling 
mond in flavour.' The mango however is I'eckoned the most 
site of the Indian fi*uits, and is found in considerable abundance, 
nrild and cultivated, tlirough the whole peninsula. 
the trees whose produce is usfcl in medicine or the arts, the 
worthy of notice are tlu* casaia fistula; the tamarind; tlie 
ogia ; the laurus cassia, whose bark is a common substitute* 
nnamonj caesalpina sappan, a i-ed wood used in dying; sandal 
, &c. The chief timber trees urc tlie teak, used especially for 
luildinff ; tlie ebony ; and tlic ferreola, tlic hardest of all the 
I woocb. 

tw other trees require notice* from tlie size or beauty, sucli a!i 
uiyan tree and Indian fig ; tiic hibiscus ficulncus is remarkable 
magnitude, and the profusion of its elegant bloss(;ms, and is 
culiar value in the trnpii^al climate, as hardly any insects are 
under its shade. TIk: cotlon tree rises with a thorny trink 
?en f'/et in circtimr<reiiee, to the height of fifty fce.t without a 
h ; it ilwn throws out (iumcn)U8 boughs, which are 'adorned in 
liny season with purjile blossoms as large as tlie open hand, and 
arc succeeded hy cafibulcs filled wlUi a fine kind of cotton. 


The niimei^us e&r:dn- wtiich furm the armlefiof the Hiiiooo {trauM^ 

ini]>lv ;rrcut numbers f)t' horses ; and tlie breeds most celebrated aii 

those of liuUon.' und Turkistan, but the grandees are supplied froicis 
Persia und Xruhm. 

Tiic catiic of Hnulostan are numerous, and often of a large size, 
witli u })uiu-li on the .shoulders. The sheep are covered with hair in-' 
sli':i(l of w(K»l, except in the most northern parts. 

Anu-ii»pfs abound, of vij-ious beautiful kinds, particularly that 
i.'iUrd the Nilgau, which is of a considerable size. j 

The Arahiuii cimel, or that witli a single hunch, is not un&eqmt 
:i!)nni Patna. The elephant )ias been frequently described; the 
lisiul liL'iprlit of tills intelligent animal is about ten feet. Apes and 
^luinkies uImmiikI in various i*egions of Ilindostan; and the onii| 
r.utan^r is suid lo be found in the vast forests on the W. of the Sir* 
<. ai's. 'liic (logs are generidly of tlie cur kind, witJi sharp erect eaib 
:uul ]);)intcd no^es. Tlie other animals are wild boars, bean, wolm 
\\)\vr., jackalU, hyenas, leopards, paniJiers, lynxes : in the norn, 
ii.i\>k weasels, und many other q\iadnipeds of inferior sixe. 

t'he lion Mt-ms to have been ulwavs unknown in Hindostan. The 
■oval 'rijjTci' of Uengal is however a far more terrible anijnal than the 
^io>ite>t lion. Such is their size and strength tliat they are laid to 
t .'irn ofl' bullocks, the height of some being said to be five feet, and 
• he leMp;lh in proportion. Wild peacocks abound in Tibet and 
( 'rv Ion ; our common fowl are also found wild in the juqg^e** 
*\ Itenre tliey are calle<l jungle fowl. 

I)ut of f;ir Inferior quality. 

Next in value to the diamond, arc the sapphire and the ruby,whi 
are cliiefiv fotmd in the II irman territories ;. but the ruby also occia 
in Ceylon, which likewise produces au inferior kind of sapphire, tl 

u^paz, and other precious stones. 

An-.r^ng the metals, gold is found in the rivers which flow 
rilx't into the Oanf^es and Indus ; but no gold mines seem ever 
have been knov^n in Hindostan, which has rather been celebrated 
attracting' this metal in commerce from other countries. 
sci'nia rare in general throughout tlie oriental regions, and there ^ 
Ko indication of tliis mineral through all India. 

N'atl'kal Cthiosities. Among the singiilar features of nature 
may he mentirjiicd the appearance of the provinces on the rtvcrtf 
dui'ing tlie si ason of inundation, when access is opened bvnumeroiis 
rhaniicls to places before inhind. The grand aspect of tlie northern 
mountains coverc d with snow, and the wide desert on the east of. 
the I'ltl'is, b.u\C( n 4 an<l 500 miles in lennh, and from 60 to 150 in 
IjitaUh, are alsf) j^Tand features ; as is the higli table land of M^-sOTCi 
supported by natural bulU"cs.sc5 of mountaiiw. 


Gangetic Hindostan; 




isn PosRESflioxs. BENGAL, Baliar, with Benares, and some 
istricts to the west, forming. the chief basis and ccnti'c of 
' power in tliis coimtT}', it is proper first to consider them 
nd tlien proceed to some account oi"^ the other pi-ovinccs. 
it is]) settlements here extend about 550 miles in leng^th, by 
Dreadth, in tl;cmselves a powerful kin^loni. The native po- 
1 is computed at ten or eleven millions of black sulijects, ex- 
of tlie Englisli, whose number seems not authenticated. 
SUE. The revalue of these Britisii provinces is computed 
),000/. sterling"; tlie expense of collection, military and civil 
I, &c. 2,540,000^. so that the clear revenue is l,6?ly,UU0/. 
•e well situuted in respect to security fi-om foreign iiiv^ision^ 
zc thev were in possession of the British have enjoyed more 
llity than any part of Hindostan has known since the reign 
iKx.HEXT. The p^ovemmcnt of Bengal and its wide depciT- 

was first vested in a govcnior-gencral and a supreme coiuicil, 
ngof a president ami eleven counsellors; but in 1773 tJicse 
stricted to four, with Warren Ilasiiugs the g-overnor-g-t iieral ; 
they dii-ect all aflairs, civil and military, in the kingdoms of 
, Bahar, and Orisia, and controul the inferior ;^vcniments of 
I on the E. and Bombay on the AV. with BeneooLn in the 
if Sumatra. The court of judicatiu'e coi^sibts of a chief jus- 
l three other judges, with civil, criminal, naval, and eccle- 
1 jiirisfliction. The llindoos arc goveir.etl In' their own laws. 
r. The militaiy establishment in Bengal is always resp( cta- 
L varies acconling to the situation of aifairs. The Jiritish. 
are supported by the Sepoys, a well trained native militia. 
i» 13ID Towns. The chief city of Beng. 1, and of all tJie 
possessions in Huidosti«n, is Calcutta. The latitude is 22^ 
ii, and the longitude 88® 28' east from Greenwicli. 
lerally speaking, the description of one IndiiiU city is a de- 
n of all ; thev being all built on one j>lan, with exceedingly 

confined, ancf crooked streets ; with an incredible number 
n-oirs ancl ponds, and a great many gardens intersi)ersetl. A 
the streets afc paved with brick. The houses are variously 
)me of brick, others with mud, and a still greater ])roportioi-i 
mboos and mats ; those of the Uittcr kind are invariably of 
rj', and covered with thatch. Those of brick seldom cxeccA 
irs, and have flat tcn*aced roofs and are few in nun^ber. 
cutta, is, in part, an exception to. this nile of building: for 
le nuarter inliabited bv the English is coniposid enurely of 
uilaings^ many ofwliich liave moi-e the appearance of palaces, 

206 lllNnOSTAN*. 

tluiM of private Iioiisos : but the remainilcr of the city, JUid bj 
tiu- ^iv.itcst p-irt, is built im above doscribtd. Calcutta is tl 
iKiriiiin iif IK-u}^.il, :»nd \\\v srat of the (iovi-ifior (tt-iuTal of 
It i-. :i it-ry c\Mi>lvr :iii.l popiiloiiN ciiy, W-'m]^ supposed at | 
ti< c-'inuiin at ]':ist 6U0,iM)</ iiiliabitanls. ( Calcutta is situated 
wiiti 111 nrm of the liiiiipv.s, at about one hundred mili'S frr 
>ra ; am! the riv^r i»i \\n\ ij^ahU- up to the town for the hirgcsl 
t !ial 1 i.-.i'. India. 'I'he ritadel is superior in every point, as to si 
and rurn I'lncss of|;'n, to any fortivss in Iiulia. 

In this);!':ind r:i]):t:il of Itrilish Asia the mixture of pcnp 
tnruiniu".-! prest-nt". a pleln!\»-i|Uf and interesting" scene. The 
iliiuloo, thi- filive-rtdoured Moor or Mahometan, contrast w 
fa.r .'ind Horid rountenanres of the Knj^lish ; ami tlic charms 
Kuif ipian (huiihcl ren-ive a foil frr)ni the d.'irk Hindoo beautie 
the hixuivs (»f the * siatic an' added the elcpfancc and science 
Kni^li.-h lifv. Kvi-;i ihe ne\vsp;t])''i"H .are drawn up with car 
|)pit»ted \^ith elejfaPtv' ; and tlie Asiati*- So«*it*ty, instituteil 
l.iK* ailunrablr .Sir \\ iUiam Jones, forms a noble monument of! 
VI IK «1 itiiMt country. 

Tlje eoiMinirce of Cidrutta is very gfrcat, in salt, sup^r, i 
silks, ar.d nnisliiis, &.e. The line muslins are chiefly fahricatct 
»:»lii;. srason front M;iy to Siplember, and, with calicoes, form J 
part of the exports to Kun»pe. 

In ihcf'astern pari of the Uritish possessions the most consi( 
liWu is D.icc:!, Ix-yfrnd iJic principal stivam of the <ianges. 
is cilebratt'd for nianufaciurcsof the most delicate muslins, w 
ii rrfpust in tlie Kuropean market. llfKij^lcy, or l^gli, is a 
f'ul asuii-nt eiiy, al><)Ul 26 miles above Calcutta, on the f^arA 
l-.rn ImmucIi of the (Iai;;;-es, which thence rcceivej its name. 

Tatra is the capital ot the province of liahar, situated abo 
i:"iles \. W. from Calcutta, h^ing tolcTuhly fortified, and a p 
considerable trade ; most of the sall-petiv, in particular, ex 
to Kng-land is made in the province of Hahar. 

Hcninvs approaches to the western frontier of tho British | 
sions ; the district having: been ceded to the Kast India Comf 
i!>e year ITT 5. It is a rich, populous, and compact city, • 
«ior;lurnhank of the <jang^s, about 4C0 miles from Calcutta. 

On K'uviiijr the liritisli possessions, towards the west, first 
Allahaliad, a city belonjjiug' to the nabfth of Oudc, but of lilt 

Luck now is the present cnpital of Oude, having* supc 

'I'iif fi.vat an<l p;^>od emperor Acbar constituted Afj^ra the i 
ot" tl\e Mo;nil «nij)irc about A. I). 1566. ll has rai)idjy derlir 

'f'o th'' N. W. of A<^'a, mar the confines of Sindetic Him 
stir.ds the celebrated city of Delhi, the M*ihometan capital ol 
I W.-i luetropelis moy Ix? said to be now in ruins. 


Sindetic Hindostaii; 



NT. THIS part extends from the nortlicni moimtuins of 
r, aiul the Hindoo Koh, in the north of Cubul, to the iiMnith 
ndns, a len<;th of ahout 900 Jirlti&h miles, :uul about ooO in 
bi-Ciidtlj. * 

' C-iTiKA A-Nj» Towns. The town of Sirhind is ])I:iced l*y 
maps on the river (;:ig-^ai', whlcli M:ijor Uenni'Il .sup|M>st s U\ 
detaehed course into the p^ulf of Cutch : Ik.t!iu])s li may b'/ 
lie great s:uicly desert. 

*e, now Uie capital of the Seiks, was the residence of tke 
ihoiiietan con<|nerovs before they advance. d to ilie uuin? c^u- 
ts ; and, incluvli'i{;' the Riih\n*l)s, supposed to lu* thite 
in length. I'\*om Laliore to A:.- ;ra, neur 5U0 Kn;;'lj}ih mih-s, 
lis an avemje of sliiuly tr^^'S. I'lie river Itauvee i» by 
being the Ueva of the Hindoos. 

St due nortii iVimi Lahore, at t!ie suppo.ied distance of about 
tisli miles, stands C';:iihin!r, tlie capital of the delightful pro- 
o cidlcd. " The city expends about Uu'etr miles on each side 
ivci* .Talum, o^c^ \^hlelj aiv t(>ur or five wooden bridges, and 
8 in some part of its hivruidi, wljieh is irregular, nl><)ut two 
The houses, many of tiiem two and tlirec stories high, ai*e 
built of brick and n^ortar, witli u large inteiiuixture of tini- 
n a strong roof of wood is laid a covering of ihic eavtii^ 
lielters tlie building from tlu great quantity of snow th:»i 
the winter season. In tlie su^uiner sc.tHon, the tops of tlj.- 
which are planted with a variety of flowers, exhibit at a di.i- 
le spacious view of a* beautifully checj,uered parterre. The 
arc iiarn)w, and choaked with the filth of the inliahitants, 
; proverbially unclean." The country of Cashinir is a deli- 
ile, extending in an oval form, about 90 miles from S. E. to 
llice is tlie common product <if the plains; while the sui- 
g liilU yiehl wheat, barley, anil otlicr cn^ps. The celebrated 
IPC only manufactured Iiere. The pric«.^ at tlie loom is from 
)/. and the revenue is transmitted to the Afgan capital in thi:* 
Tlie Cashmirians are stout and well formed, but their fea- 
icn coarse and bi*oad ; even those of the women, in this 
vpart of India, are of a deeper brown than those of .soutliern 
iir Spain. The dre^s is inelegant, but the people gay and 
ittd fond of parties of j)lcasii:e on their delicious lake, 
vide s])ace from Cashmir to Cabul is more remarkable for 
us streams and mountains tlum any otiier circumstance ; but 
ntry is diversified with gentle bill's, fertile \ali s, and stately 
(ihizni was the scat of the first Mahometan conquci'orR, 
aiicicut capital of the country. The city of CabiU is the 


capital of tlie dominions of the Persian Shah, usuallv style 
r:ii!iduli:4i', wliiis^- dominlonH cxterKl wesiward beyond then 
r;(!i. C 'ubul is estLc-ined a condUkTublc city, in a romantic an 

Muiiltun, tlie ciipitul of tbe province so callctl, is about 
f.sli milt s t(i ilic sdJitli of Alidck, on the riv-ji* Cliunab. It 
rily, and i)f little coii>ci|uciicc-, except for its antiquity ai 

TIk* last remarkable city on tlie Imliis is Tatta, the capi 
province of Sindi, and situated within the IX'lta; the upp 
whicli is well cultivated, vliik* the lowii- pj-escnts onlv In 
\iyhk1, swamps, and lakes. At Taiia \.hc hoatii areso violeii 
winds fr(»n) the saJidy deserts on the K. and N. W. so pemic 
many precautions are used, 'i'iio manufactures of tbi^ci 
V ooi froDi Kerman, and cotton, ha\c greatly declined. 

Central Hindostan; 


THE :miui)Li: pkovixces. 

BouxDAiiir«. THIS division is chiefty baunded by Ganj 
dbstan on 'Jic norih, and on the west by the sandy deser 
9cean. The souih-.rn limit is tlie river Kistna, with its 
stream tlic Becm:-. : v.hile the east is washed bv tlic bav c 
The leni^lh E. to W. is little less 12UJ British miles ; 
medi:il brcudth is about 4 JO. In it are comprehended the 
of Ori-^ia, with part of Golcond.i, Kcrar, I>owlatabad, 
6uzerat, and other districts of inferior name ; and on tl 
shore ai-c the British provinces of the Sircars. 

Cifir.r Cities. The chief city of Guzcrat, Amedabady 
dcrahlc, and well fortified, taken b\' the Enp^lish under ger 
fl ud in I'SO, i-estored to iho .Marattas in 1783. Cambay, 
tance of more thim 60 miles, is a handsome city, and fc 
jfi-cat trade in spicv , ivorj-, silk, and cotton cloths ; but is 

.Surat was formerly more celebrated as tlie port whence 
hometans of India emliarkeil on their pilgrimage to ileccj 


Bombay at a C(»n*iiderahic distance to the south is a w( 
Enirlish settlement, on a small island about seven miles i 
containing a ver\' ^u•ong• ca]):icioiis fortress, a large cit; 
yard, jmd a marine arsenal. Ii was ceded to the English i 
the Portuguese, as part of tlie dower of the queen of Ch 

On leaving the shore and proceeding towards the ca^t < 

^ HlXnOSTAN. juy 

Stan, first occni-s the city of niirlKinilJOiiE, rif .sninll note. 
\Huir is of considt-rahU' iiaporlaiicc, liciii^- llie cliicf clly of 
Nag-iioiir i« tin- capital of llic casU-rii cii vision of tlu: Sl:-.- 
•inpii'c, us i'ouna is of the #c'stLiMi, Ijcin;^ a ni'Akrii ciiy i>f 

ttirnini^ towards the west, few places of note arise, c\(,' ni 
ig-abad, a modern city, <U'rivini^ its naim- from Anriinjr/Ab, in 
\lnic. il was tlu- capilul <;f Ihc Urccan. Near this ci'y is Ihtw - 
d, which pvcs name to ll»e province, witli a bingntar f(.rlI•e^s 
eakcd rock. 

iter times tlic southern part of this coast was nniarkahle njioii 
•I* ari'.oiint, \ni\\\\!; the chosen i-esidence of (hirin;; pirates, 'rlicy 
'ilcfl on a small scale the piratical states of Jiarhary, and u snr- 
j of ^/tnifriaa wixs continued till 1756, when iJic JJritish vei/iJ 
ill, the principul forti*ess. 


TVDARiEfl. THIS part, which may also Ix: called the Deccan 
111, is honndcd l)y the river Kistnu, and extends from the lati< 
f Bombay to the southern point of (3a|M: Comorin, about 8:10 
I miles in" length, and about :5,50 of medial bivadth. It con- 
early HAPwliole of the province of Visiapour, and the most 
lant part of tbfit of Tiolconda ; with the central kingdom of 
e, tlie lon^easleni jfrovincc of the Caniatic, the principalities 
ijore, Traviincoif, and the Saniorins of Calicut, the pepper 
>f Canara, and other districtji. 

riHii PosKr.HsioNH. in addition to the district around M:«draSj 
itish power was, in 1792 and 1799, extended over wide pn)- 
in the »r;uth and west of Mysore, and Sering'apatam the ca- 
i also in their possession. 

:f Cities. In recent times Serin|^apatani may be rcgiirdcfl as 
4it important city in this portion of IIindf)stan. It is situated 
lie, surrounded by the river Caveri, which is even here about 
»t<lecp, and runs over a n)cky channel. The length of this 
about four miles, and the breadth al>out a mile and a ludf ; 
stcnf'ijde Ix-injf allotted t<j the fortress, distinf^iished by re- 
tut-works, magnificent palaces, and iofiy mosques. The en- 
are decorated with noble {gardens ; and amonfc the means of 
; was what is called the bonml liedge^ ccmsisting' of eveiy 
tree or caustic plant of tlie climate, phjitcd to the breadtn 
1 thiiiy to fifty fc-et. 

is central territory the Ilritish also possess several consiclcra- 
oiH, Salem and Attore, in tlie east; Dindigid, Coimbctf)re, 
irl, on the south ; and on the western coast, I'aniany, Femka- 
dicut, Tellicherri, Alangalore, and Carwar. In the Carnatic 
ive lonji^hehl Madrass, where they settled sfi early as 1G40;. 
! fortress, which is strong", and includes a reg-tdar well built 
of modcTH date. Unhappily tliei-e is no j)ort, n<;r is there in- 
10 luven for large vessels, from tlie raoutU of the Ciangcs to 


Triiict>mali on tlir i :istem side of Ceylon ; which renders ll\i« 
of slnjfularbei\cfil U* iheir cdniim-ife. 

Not I'mf fwm the western fnmlicr of the settlement at Ma 
staiulh Arcol, esicrninl tlio capital of the Carnatic. The ? 
ftfti-n resides al Madrass. In iiis d(nninio?^s there are several 
br;.ted temples, visited b) niimeixius pilgrims; in icenemlthes 
em parts of HiiulosUm display more numcruus ctlitices, and 
marks of civilixation, than tlie northern. 

'I>an(jiiebar is a noted Danish settlement in the kingxium of 
jore, wiiieh embraces the wide Delta of thcCaveri. Tliissetth 
Vas formed abr>iit 1617, and h:LS been chiefly remarkable on ac 
of t!ie Liilhenin missionaries, wlio i-e.^orted iiiiher to convex 
l(indiu)ri. I'oniiicherri was the principal settlement of the F) 
ffHintU-d ill 167-1, and befoi*e tiie war of 1766, wasA lai*}^ and b 
ful city. It is now possessed by the Rnp^lish. 

On tlie western coast, or that of Malabar, st:inds Cuohin. 
rity remained subject to the Portuguese till 1660, when it was 
by the Dutch. 

To the north of tlie Dritish territories first occurs Goa, for 
a capital settlement of the Vortuff«iese, and a !ioted seat of thi 
cpiisition. This eitv, once magniheent, stands on a small isle 
midst of a beautiful bay. The harbour is ranked among thef 
India. ' . ' ■ ir 

Visiapour in the Maratta territory is a considenSwcity. 
vicinity aiv celebrated diam^ond mines. 

Mydrabad is the metropolis of the Nizam's tcrritorj', and 
eularly of Uie celebratetl kinf^ilom or prw'incc of Golcond: 
$eems* otherwise little remarkable. 


L'ATiox. CEYLON is situated between 6 and 10 dt- grccs \ 
ie, and between 80 and 82 degrees E. lougiliule. 
rE5T AX I) Nasse. This island upproachcb to the size of Ire- 
being generally supposed to be about 260 British miles in 
I, by about 150 in breadth. It is the Trupobana of the an- 
; and the people are doubtless of Hindoo origin. The Por- 
sc sei£e<l it in 1506, and retained possession of the shores till 
1660, when ihev were expelled by the Dutch. From the 
I domination of the Dutch it has recently passed under the 
liberal banner of British power, to wliich it was ceded by tlie 
of Amiens. 

jciox. The religion of Ceylon is the ancient worship of 
1, whose images appear with sliort and crisped hair, because it 
Led that he cut it with a golden swonl, which produced that 
. The W()i"ship of Boodh is supposed to have originated in 
n ; and thence to have spread to ancient ilindostan, to exterior 
Tibet, and even to China and Japan. 

Ti.ATiuar. I'lierc does not yet appear to be any authentic in- 
mce concerning the population of Ceylon. This island is only 
tant in a commercial view, from its celebrated products of 
Tion and gems. 

NXKiis ANM Customs. The natives of Ceylon, called Singa- 
kre not so black as those of Malabar, and have a few manners 
ustoms distinct from other Hindoos. It is said tliat se^'eral 
sw may liave one wife in common, as in Tibet, but the polyga- 
' males is also allowecL 

trsta. Tlie native town Kandi, in the centre of the isle, seems 
of small size and consequence, and probably only distinguish- 
a palisade and a few temples. 

: chief towni of the Portuguese, Dutch and Englisli posses- 
is Colombo, a handsome place, and well fortified ; the resi- 
of the governor is elegant, but only consists of one flwr, 
L balcony to receive the cool air. At Colombo there is a priut- 
vss, where the Dutcli published some religious books. 
» grand pearl fishen* is conducted in the gulf of Manar, near 
itchey^ which supplies iucxhaustiblQ stores of this valued pro- 

:ij CKYLOX. 

The har!joiir of Trincnmiili opens at ilie mouih of llie 
(•;»M««fa, an J was tKtl:;<.U-(l !)y u str(»Mjf fortress. 

IJ'ii the siiii:li«.'"ri Mil- «it <\vlon lias been cMoflv vi-^itcil, al 
imjl;- \v:th ^cni". :\vA otiK r ricli prtKlirclions. .tl.ttura v.-.cs u 
tiutfivy wilt IV ixiilUnt kln-ls ot" cir.nanion weiv collected, m 
i'i- iii:>or pix'cioMs >ii'nes uImhukI in tho vicinity. Galle is a 
Minu- tuwii siroiiftly tortitiinl, on the pi-ojecting- ung-le of a roci 

MAMTirTinK»j, ivc 'I'iieve is little mention of uny ma 
tiireN cumliirtcd in t]n> isLiiul. The Dutch ships used to sail 
Ciulle» laden with ciiUKUiion, pepper, and other spices; with 
:»n(l pRH'ious stones. The colorabo wood, a bitter in recer. 
foil: id !iere, receives its name iVom the capital. 

(mm vrr, &c. The climute and seasons corresjwnd in some d 
w ill> ilie adjacent continent : yet the exposure on all side's to t 
ivnders the air mon- cool and salubrious. High mountains, : 
,i;ioMs forests, full of aromatic tixxrs and plants, and many pit 
I- i vers and stivains divci*sifv this countrv, which bv tlie Uiiidt 
< sieemed a second paradifre. Ti)o valvs are of a rich fat soil 
v.hen cleared, amai:ingiy fertile in rice, ami otiier useful veget 

Tlie mountain termed Adam's Peak is esteemed the higbest J 
island ; and is in Sanscrit called Salmala, Boodh being* fabl«d tc 
;u»ivnded from it to heaven. 

A \ I M .\L<. Tlie elephants of Ceylon supposeil only to yi 
be.tiity to those of Siam, ami chietiv frequent the southern pi 
the i.s'land. Uullalocs are also tbiyid in a wild state, while the 
an.' used in iiiral economy. The wild boors are numerous an 
trcmoly fierce; nor is tJie ty^r unknown. Boars, Chakals 
munv tribes of deer and monke\ s, are also natives of Cevlon. 

• • • 

alliirator, frequent in the Hindoo rivers, here sometimes reaclM 
length of eiphieen feet. Am<mff a vast vai'iety of elegant bird 
peacock, that rich oroameat of the Hindoo forasts, swarms ii 
beautiful island. 

The pearl fishery bcprins on the N. W. shore about the midc 
Febniary, and continues till about the middle of April. Th< 
laj^'H.- of Condatchey is tlien crowded with a mixture of thousai 
people of different colours^ countries,. casts, and occupations; 
numerous tents and huts, and bazars, or sliops ; while the sea 
sent.(i many boats hastening to the banks, or returning with tfa 
peeled riches. The divers are chit^fly Christians or Moslems, 
descend from five to ten fathoms, and remain under water abou 
minutes, each bringing up about a hundred oysters in his neL 

Othlr IsLLs. There are no other isles of any consequence 
the coasts of Hindostan. Those called Lacadives and Mali 
scuiTcly merit a particular description in a work of tliis genert 
ture, and the Andaman and Nicobar isles properly bebng^ to ext 



iTioN. PERSr.V is .situated belwccn 21 ami 4? deffivcs jy. 
, and betwicn 69 and 45 dcgiivs K. loiiptmlo, tMn laming 
J0,00() square milc!}. 

•UiTin. Tiiia ancient and poworfvil monaroliy l»a!«, d»irinjr \\\c 
purl of lasl centurVi been in a n\os\ distiMC.rd ar.d dividol 
in, and iho inliabitants, t'onncrly ivnowncd tor \visd«ini und 
y, have Ixoi'n dogradcd by civil discoitl. This t inpirt' sithim 
b, in sonic do^itv, to bave soitlod into two tliviMiuns, the 
and tlio wositrn; wbile tbe jirovincos near the (.';l^pian, sc- 
y mountains and fastnesses, ftave asscorted a kind of indipm- 
The eastern is called ilif kini^dcnn f)f tlondabar. 
:. Tile name of Persia spre;«d from ibe pi-ovinee of Par^ or 
rougboul t bis mighty eni])lre : but it has Km. n liMle kiiown 
alivcH, will) in ancient and modem times, bave termed tlieii' 

NT. rroTTi llic mtmntaiiis suul deserts wbirb, with tl'.e river 
*onstittite ib<* ejisleni fitMilicr towards Hindustani Persia ex- 
ore tban 1200 mile.s in knfi^tb, to tlie western mo\uitains of 
, innl other limits of Asiatie 'I'urkey. Krjnn ^outh lo norib, 
.* deserts on the iTuiian sea, in all ajyes U'tt to ibe Irbtbyoplia- 
iUL lril)i's of Arabs w1j»» liv<! on fisb, to ibe other de.»;erts near 
of Aral arc about !()(.)() Hritisb miles. 

KNT MoNrMf-NT". Of ibcse the ruins of Perse pol is, are the 
Icbratc^l ami remarkable. They are siuiatcd at tlie bottom 
luntain, fmntinir S. \V. al)«)Ut forty miles to the north of 
TIic ruins cxbUjit inscrijitions in a character not yet ex- 
tbc letters of whieli somewhat jviemble nails, disjwwjl in 

rox. The n^lijirion of Persia is \tell known to be the .Malio. 
vbieh was intn)duced by the swonl, and has been toll(»>\id 
<iial elVeets, the di'siriirtion and de])Mpnlation of ihe eomi- 
'1 the Pei*sians adopt a mihler system of this eivcd than is 
1 by tlie Turks and .\ral»s, whence they aiv n-.c^arded by the 
abtnnetans us beret icks. 

e Parse«*s» or «i^* lent worshippers of fiiv, there seen\ to br 
lins in Persia, except perhaps a few visiUn-s of the tier\ 
18 of Naphtliu near Baku, on Uic western shores of the 


«"..<pi;i:i. These inn^r-iit ".iliiluVirj, iiuvt- \ ■.i\r.\ri>i csiirpatc 
M;il..! taTKitici^n;. Tht y wi.rsliip \\i;- c^ ».. I .s'injij fire 
I? .kii, :.^ u:> iiiili! '»ii -if 0:-iii*i/vl. iv *iu' iiuiVablc C'pc 
wliiU' till- ».-\'l ]»r;!'.'.,pL- h» livvitl to lu\e hrz-iiri^: rVom muttei 
-".^Ir'.l -Vii/iiii I'l. T'l'-} ■•^'il :i!>i):;r.«i M.-^r H-iiiiLMv, \v!»riv <!iei 
IT! ' •:• :.. I i- tit .-.;.:■. ;!ii:'i- t-w'/c- a '.eMiun. us liiri i-x;>(>iio liK'il 

■ ■ ■ I.' • :i •• .'1 4v\i:- »1 U' -■ ill-.- u'!iv-:- 1-!;- .v. 1 !u.t:';\>. 

I", ^li- .M..I1 riiv^t'i s-.c- i\w:\- .rr w..'n\:v'vA\c nviiiks f" ^ 
h* -r-.l;. '.- ■,: :avs c.lU-d \SL.:>; v. !i :, uiuU-r ilio pi.-uxt of itl 
tw'i.p. I 'li^ ].^ |il*- ; ! i:«ui!..a:.i ilii'iTi in '.dit*r:i. sk. 

o-i'. :..i .>'.i: ■>,;■!)};■. j'.'s t(» ii,.Vv." I\i-n ;!l\v.*\«. vU.-i>:«i:r; 1ml i 
i:iiii'-«':-.i".i.:i isi »• '«'.t.'n IVr'^'ui, <ji* ilu- k-'-ir-i'^Ki of C:i:vl::li.»r, 
pri •■. \i :i^ inill. Th.- Kii::;!:: :i:\- >!i-i>,tinii'; ir ■'•» i:v'»rs o 
v]!i( I', s )'iH*'.i:».s 'i:\\y ^.j^sc-ss.);*" • f >n\iil i!..s*.j;":'s, i.iul prcli 
Ji-iVii I .»■; siu< v>>".i»ii: tlK'U^'Ii :lK-y :i:v I /'u- t > bt put to tic. 
t!.!' :ii-I)"..v.i!T hi iV 1 »it- i»r til'- > ^i:'-. '-Ti. 'I '■'» .::".v;it Khan> aro 
tiiT\(«5 s:>1iil l5..^-iv»''j».^^>; ur.'l .". li:. «• •.:' w .-■. >CTilurs, or ^ei 
Tii -s.- wiio 4«iiiiiii:iii'.'i li.ios a;'v: c 'iiiiiionl;. ^'ij-lcd Darog'.iS 

r- .; : .TM- . Till- ppM-u s'.ati- of l!u' populut'-i of b.i! 

' I*' :■ ■'.. " .1 '.'.■,■ he j:is:ly e.-iiiriai.iK '»i;; it p«.:-iia;)s link- o.vcotc 

«.-." ^ '..-/ii- i'ii:-k.-v, wiuc'-i Ims i>.Ln c-jniTJUUd at un mUiioriS. 

N IV V. I'j;. Wci\' !;;.\vT a i'.)uriilrr.e pi»ople. The 
r. ■•••<'■■ .!! '.'.I:- l:5.!ian r.Cii::i, iib wvll as 011 tiic Caspian sea, hnt 
:ii». ;.'. . .Ii'i.-Iv ♦.Mnilictt'il h\ \]ic Amu lians, a luost indiislrioi 

■ • • ' 

i\ -v.tialjli- pi'.plo: the n.if.vt •<, \vi»h f.-iituil pritle, att 
":lii .;• "i »»"si s :■:!'[ tht- r'-'.^v*, and li ; :i uiiat is railiii tlic I'fe of 
tl-. i::. =1; luiihi-r i:n}i:-'./.infr llicir own irAJDcrtv nor ihe cu:u 

IJ :. . H-. vrc. T^.. uciual revojir.f-s f.f l\f-.i:» it is impossible t 
M. V ; 'jiii ilu" r'li.Miis siaU- of ilic c'«»M!itn' nmst render it ' 
cuv^'.'.r. Thi' m-inarcli of Cani I :ihar -may perhaps draw fro 
A'.j'.'ii', ap.d ixti'usivt* provihcrs af»oUt ihsvt- niill.ousslei'linjj; 
Av«.>:-rn i'fj'sia sraici-iy supplifs two iiiUlloiiS. Chardin sav 
I'l'- ain*i(';».t rcM-niu' con.sistc«l partly in conlrlbutions in kinil: 
tiiilai), t\rr instaice, funiislic d butlor, wliik- licorpa supplied \ 
• l-.ives ; and it parlh hv!)sc i'wim tlic i*<»yal domains, with a tl\ 
.'lutais, precious ^idiu-, and po iris, with a K*\v duties and tax 

-MwNK.Hs A\n CrsT IMS The Persians still pride tliemse' 
uni^v.l•s;l pollnnc-ss, and ipl* h<)snilable, not however v.-ithoi 
t'xpi'ciatj.jn oi' |>rvsi-nts in ivtujn. Thoy .-.ecm to considoi* 
?»ei\\s as m«)ri- v. isi- and sajracimis than other nations. Of 
jTuine t.mpiTanKiit, both rich and poor aix? generally g'ay : ar 
ir.odi-rato niirlh will succetid the most violent quarivls. Th 
exircmt'ly attaciicd to the fair sex, and not averoe to wine. 
ponc-ral cojnj)li*xion is fair, somewliat tinp^^l with olive : but 
'in the soutli al)out Shiraz, in Candahar, and the provinces to 

'lia, aix; of a dark brown. They arc ccmmonly fat, with 

PERSIA. 515 

lig-h t'owhcad, aquiline nose, full cliccks, and a largpe cliin, the 
>t' Uic countenance l/C'inpf tifquently oval. The nien :iiv gt:- 

• si roup;' and i*(>bust, and nidin«.d to martial exercises, hut th-.y 
rliculurly subject to disorders of the eyes. 'I'hcy j;'t lu rally 
till' head, and wear hig-h crimson honneth ; hut the beunl is 
, and tended with f^re.'.t cure. They often wear three or lour 
tresses, (Mie above the other, fasU nod with a bell ai.d ttixtsh- 
ley are fond of large elo: ks of thick clolii. Tlie \\onien wr:.p 
A their hcj.ds pieces of siik of diileirnt colours; and their 
ai-e rathe." shoiter than tijose of llie men. The IVrsian.s eat 
or thrice a d;.y, dining* about noon, bnt the chief ri'p:ist is the 
r, as with tJ)e ancienl Cireeks und Jiouians. Tiie most usual 
i boiled rice variously |)ivpand. The meal is boiled to ex- 
nd the meal is enl.irgi'cl wit Ji pot-herbs, roots, andffuit.><,Ci»lces, 
ggs, anil above all >weet meals, of which they arcr extrtmely 

'I'he}' aiv remarkubU for cleanliness, both in th.eir persons and 

•riages are conducted by female medhlion ; and th.e pomp an«l 
onies Komewhat resembh: the U.issiun. Polygaiuy is allowed; 
e first marrii'd is the chief wile. The tombs of the rich are 
^^rand, as are the cenotaphs of the twelve Imams, or vicars of 

rciiiARK. The language of Persia is perhaps the cehbratcd 
the Oriental IfMigues, ibr slr^gth, beauty, and melody. The 
ent work of Sir Williiun Jones on oriental poetry, (li.seloses 
f the treastires to be f )und in this lanjyuage. In general the 
j\ literature approaches nearer to the Eurojx'an, in fiolid good 
and clearness of thought and e.xpitsslon, than that of any 
Asiatic nation. 

. the sciences in general ai*e little cultivated by the Persians, 
re lost in abject superstition, and fond l)clie\ers in asti-ology. 
education is chieflv military. 

IK8. The capital cKy of IModern Persia is Ispahan. fneUiding 
burbs its circuit is computi^d by Chardin at al>out twenty-four 
and the inhabitants at 600,000. It stands on the small river 
TUiL The walls are of earth and ill repaired, with eight gates ; 
le streets narrow, devious, and badly paved. Hut the royal 
-• and its grand market, the palace of Ihe Sefi, and ihosc of ilie 
.i-cs, the mosques, the public baths, and other edifices, ai-e for 
oat part splendid. The suburb of lulfa, or Vulfa, is very large, 
KKsessed by tlK' Armenians. This capital was .so much reduced 
Mr. Hunway visited it, that not above hve thousand houses 
nhablted. Ispahan is situated in :^2^' 2'/ N. and o2° 5«/ E. 
r second city, at least ui funu", is Shira/, wiiich has been re- 
visited and descrilx-d. This capital oJ' F.irsi>t.»n, or Persia, 
aled in a fertile valley, about twent}-six miks in length, and 
:• in breadth, bounded on all sides b;. lofty nmunlains : tlu* cir- 
f the city is about four miles surround'il wi\h a w.tll tweniy- 
et hig-hjand tin thick, with rtuind towers at the? distance of 

• p.ices. The citadel is built of brick ; i-.nd bef<MV it is a great 
I.-, wil4j a park of niisera-ble ai'tillej^-. TL«: n-.osk ef tUe htc 

'J I'* rnn&iA. 

K' I'.m is splemlM but nnfinislu-il. AT.'iny snnimf-r I)0U5C», wji 
.!• lis, ill tlic virmrv of Sliira/, wi-n* I)iiih liy tin- late rvj^inl V 
tin- jiluiitatuiMs l« liij^ a\«'niKb of cypress ii'.ul -yramfirt'. lra«l 
partrrivs of rio.vcrs, anil ri-fW-shfil wjili fdiiiitains. TIii* m-ijc 
i' ; f'j IiIn t'.v fv rtili- in r\<\ , \vln'Jit, anil barK-y, the liarvisl l)c»( 
"I'l M.i), aiul t-Mtlin;^ ill the iirnMU* <if" .Inly. Pitivisions art* 
a!ii! •!»■• iiiutrui exeilhnt. Tho faiiinus horm-s of now 
^ri'.Mll) tf» tliose of D'lsli ri»»'..4ii, a ppjvini'e t<»the S. W, A\ 
th« i'«- i-% a ;;lasi inannfaclury, hui w«>olk'n ^i^ocul i and silks arc bi 
f-.»ni Vi/«1 ami Ki rniun, (-fii/pir from Tuuriz, sM"')nl-hlacies 
K'.Mi. Ahn Sl.i-iiar, in" Hw .!if r, supplies Intlian ii'lick"*. 'VUv c 

• J" rhis ri K hr..ti .1 cily i.-« ilihi-ou.s, partifularly in the sprinjf, 
I 'i!M-r)n«» Muwtr-i pi-rfuTne the an-; an«l ♦hf n'>'*lbu), or <»; 
n.^^Ii'.n^^-.ili", th-j j(".>!{|fiticl», IniSKt, and other warbltTS, dcli^ 
ca r." 

IVrtli/, the ("ipiial of (;eor«;ia, i«; r. I'tr^e and ptipulou? tow 
vneaiii} huih. Ii is .iiippi>s(*d to contain -20/,'Ou inhabitants, 
:h .■■! half hein;^ Armenians. 

X'.'ts- wanl on tlic 'rurki<.h fmntier, standi the city of Eriv 
■•■.isMcrahle exlenl, ])iit the hor.'is are incanU built, like m 
^h'l.v in l\r»ia. I'lO". i^l.ris an- ]>L*ntifi:l, and gt>od wine i: 
■Ii- . ■! iti f !!• iK-*;j^'"lih'»»irho'i'I. 

I hi p.'iiv.n'-'- of r<mt;%ins few places of note f 
r.j'irl/, !i considerable c'.t;, , whose- b'izars or market place: 
itii' :• I'.iMic tdiliccs, are ;;'and ani! sj-.a'-.iou^. 
KdMi, or Khnnis, w as visii<-d Ijv (Hi.irdin in the scventcentl 

* !•». : hr ri pri'senls it a. r» cojs^id^raMi- ci'y; the houses wen 
]•■.': -l a* fi/tii-n th')'.is:'iKl ; and ilie chirf iMiiiudUcturts were 

I a.: I.. I wart-, .-.oa]), and s..oril-hhi(lrr>. Ur-j-e are iht; snperb 
'A' SA\ I. :"id Abas II. " 

'i'ov.urrl*. ih..- Turhi'.h Ir-inlivr, one of Ihe l.»rg<?<.t rivers of I 
■ I..- Aliwa/, or ancient i:\(^\..]n.s, Hows into t!ie Tigris; but t: 
»h' ariCi'.-n' .^';.-.:i il-.-coiated it.s hank.-;, tlu- mo(I».-rn to\ins of Ki; 
Vv.- 1/, ai-e of '^mall aconnt. 

liaiider Abas:-i, now (lonibroom, was a port opposite to the 
' ).nius. The trade, once considerable, is now jfrtatly declined. 
I'n;^li.-»h Maple is HMss'.ra. 



il«.:.ert of Ai^ani.'jtan. or ;h»- cni.Uy of the Afpans. This cit 
Mje capital of Corasaii, till i\ic' of Persia ti-aiisferrei 
r.'ink to the northern city of .Me.>.h.d, wiiirh contained the loi 
Muza, Iiis snpposcd uyxluUtw and o!ie of the twelve tn-eat Ims 

t I .">;a. 

r.;.iricr.s. In the recent desr.laf.on of the countr>- many < 
nui.-.- "ipli-ndid edifices are hi-rr.rtK ruinous; the lute Kerim ho 
di corated Sliiraz witli many heu'.itiftd buildinjp*. Ife also imp 
J-.'j rokdb in th<; vicinity ; hut in IVitia, which maybe culled a 

mounuunt, Oe n»il» sa 

)t only difficult, bin kept in bad 

I'walin niMntf«cli>re» nnil totnmeKc in tlie RE\-tmlKnUi ccn- 
irK csU-iniivc unU flouvishliiff. 

lixr. PcnuA which licibrtu-crivUMlaiitiiclMDf 35"andtS° 
bn^n said to be ■ eoantry of tbree dimtlct. '(lie iKirtlicm 
WR un ttie Caipisn «m .eDmpxrUivrly coM >wl moiil. In tin 
nf bii^ kiiig;ilrini die vhitpr Iiealni in NorGniber, and con- 
ill Mnrcb. onmmailj' severe, viin iceaari «t)AW. FWint Marel* 
liiffli wiDiIii>itilWqiiu>E4 but IhuiiCf toStpiwnbcrihesi-'- 

tvtraiiliril bv brcmn-H in t!ir riiffht. rrom ^|>tirfnlwr to Kit- 
Xbc finds atpan pniaii. In flir f -' -' ' ' '- '- 
ly dlj'.lhunotr 

: in tile tping-. 
onmntnicn sufTiiCiiti 
km^bccillcil u 

centre uml mtifilt tlir 

" " but iiiui II on«» 

a tiut w iiiit ciUlctl 

ami whrrc gfvM 
t rrmnrJtBlilc Sm- 
t 111 ill. nortl), nnd 

i.iiiiuriVi'Ai^t in wl<ti>>l, u)<^ii iapXMllMlt 
> < r-«l aliiiivnr. Butey *ik1 mUlct uv tita 
I. .11, and (he (troiiQdmen;iv«era(cl»cd, AtWr 

I lacd, to I'omi the gniiiiu! into tquuiv*, wWi 

wtajn l!n- walw, Tlie dung' is ehieWy Iiu- 

; ■ - mniirtal wlUi cwth, Uid prMtrved for two 

ircf lill litAlera tlicMtuMyof lbi-Ti(rriit 
lli.H ^rmilobc theG)iHle>(if litrodo 

r ].-r»ble in PfMio. ' 

I :i..- I.I ilic K.K. several rWtT% of ahnrt 
pill. ixM-af .tiivmoBt eons idcnibto being; 
jwin tlie muutli ijf.thnt gulf. Thu rivers 
t»idcmVI•^ courx'. 1» ibn Krenk tmd trk- 
m tbe river or Mend, au called I'rom « 

Tn(i«i or Ted^-cn, the inclMW Oebu*, 

ii .il.<ii rrcRifcm ntativ tiiuill itrv^ina 

,. Th<-Ki*4llttMi.orSttfldRud 



irtliohpai- ■l.-rikhi-BVCil n 

Atai«9. I '. '1i tikE •billed ■ 

pn, uhI n :.m .. . trcain tirita the 

CkJlMl tlwK'ir.'"- 

Ttic liirf^'>t and (niwl rtWirk^v iDlmul rivetf w Ih* H^ 
Uw Aiwhicc of 9»fp»t«i, Wliioli riM* ttwn l«a w«Mj> 
»wircM, ThwT Mniani- i.vt. ..m I...- '- il.<^ E, ..r Bo.', wl 

Tit ftoA M 

the sail Ukc of Blikni^n, >bnut fiftir niib-t C. nf « 

Kaonti'ct in tlie mapb :■£ ibuut fitrly nritMb miltii iii l«i 
.H(!tli>huut ten. 

For to tlie K. W, qipears Uw lurgc laW >af <-'nni» 
ahuuf fll1j> llritiati nDei in tn)gti>- l>? ^'•"■■t l>>lf ihc In 

Mn<Tmti<t«. The t(rstoly|fct,«r«iiin>ibortaraiiuit nfifacH 
■ivn niQHiitiihifl, mum be tn xmtM Ui« ilireelion of (lie ehwf cl 
n aecnt ttini (he Cineawan rictgc rslcndi to tbc wutnftaiBB. 
Kuutli of MnBendrsji, till it eipirp in ConuBD, on xbt S. K. tf^ 
Caspian sea. • J 

The liouiliemnrast chiin is tlescribtd m running p«nllcl witb4 

Persian ^If N, W. and S- R. ut about the ilialaiKi; i)l 3U A n^lM ' 

' A Ibim mage of mounUrns of very gt«iit height. <ns>G lo «Mi 

E in the sarae Uirectioii with this list, lu tht 8. of ihi: Ub* i>< 

LIU, where it n coimectni with the Caucauan rtdgv. TKis i* ll» 

Ltlfbt roiig« of mouotains in Pcrsia- 

pnrallftl ridgie on (he W, called by the Tieks Aixghft T«|^ m- 
IiaralrsAEs)-!^^ from Media. Mount Ararat ii rp)ih>'>twl«(^>tini- J 
in^ solitary in the midst nf i vide plain, but miglii rxtiior bE<liMfll f 
wilh'ihe r-^^ of Cinicasus. 

Hetzardaru, or the Qtousaad mouniaJiiB, fovm n 
noMli of Purs, and ddc part of tt^ 'Which fives rise 
fepahan, is called Roh jicrdeh. l^ 

ItasEBTH, The deserts roust ant'be preaed in nnnpM« d)H 
though few wards mny suffice. t»\ th« esat of Tigri» fat 33? • i 
siderable desert commtnceB.andextendsiotheN ofSkmttr. ■' 
deScrl n»y be about 140 3. miJea inlengtb, B, to W.ilkdtbebl 
shout at). It Is now ohteHy possessed by the WMMlewnc iiA 
Ar:,bs, caUtd Belli Kiab. * 

T\\e fireat Saline UcsrH extendi) fram the neig^iboiirtiuod dl 
totliat of Uieseaof Zurro, in a line ft'omE. (d IV. of shout « 
milnt ; the brfidth from N. to S. may be 350 ; but 1» the luttcr 
t^r it may be said to join with the great dwert of Kcaman, ' 


idurcd us itmlcUtir N. W, uitd K. F.. for a «]i«ce of kb-iiil TOO 
1, by a medui tnv^U) o( nlwut 3110 1 ihim int«ncetin^ tlii* wide 
m mto two iieariy eqMftl piirliuiu. This vnit cxtmt u iimiiTf[- 
1 wHh nitve and oiturr uHs, wliidi tuiut tlie ntnghhoun*n)r IiiIefh 
rivers, lu tlM kouU of M»trwi ami vfartU t e Indiii. arc 

KUKTiiai \ In prr OKI On tlic nMinUiwHK 

»ii<li''<' Ml tlic mncM U ,.ii<i 

r-Aluil. tlelovcrUUHkiul l 

■ri TiW ahu Jilw c i < 

i'<-'-' i I mini rslwoli vuJ 

■ ■ inPer»«,u I ora-. 

u TudcubU' 

il pi.wl wid 

ptm tlv wild urc ran 

■ uA tV <le T> uwi 

•(I u t p ul »rlv ft^oowb t > Q cuU 

o « uuth bo 11 ru <jn unil r gt nn. wti- 

opui a d iLCoo liniF 

fbe vldu& brutnS 

iTlvniitniro x n dlho 

(J lie uotbu OF 

ngwti u vatu DO It The 
1) til n bcMU ut p CT 10 as Ui I 

\inoiir ht cluct na t^l car (is I >• rauat 
f nii{)l tba, u p -r mck I It iJ ' uci^- 
c wciitcrn coaa ot tJ r Laip I|> n l tkrly 

220 PfiltSIA. 

rocky, and there arc several smull ancient temples, in arc ol 
near the altar, a large hollow cane is fixed in the ground, a 
Uic end issues a blue flame, sccminfi^ly more pure and gen' 
<hut produciil by anient spirits. Prom a horizontal gup in 
joining rock thenr aUo issui.^ a similar flnme. 

" The earth rtmnd tlic placi* for above tn'o miles has this si 
propiTty, that, by removing two or three inches of the surf! 
applying a live coal, the part Avhicli is so uncovered imm 
tdkca fire, almost before the coal touches the earth : the flam 
tlie soil hot, but does not consume it, nor aflect what is nca: 
any dogiw of heat . 

'" If a cane or tube, even of paper, be sot about two inclic 
gi-oiuul, conflned close with tlic earth below, and the top « 
touched with u live coal and blown upon, immediately a flamt 
iritliout hurting eitiier tlie cane or puiXM*, pn>vided the cd« 
Vercd with clay ; and tliis method tlwy use to light in \heir 
wliich have only the earth for the floor j tlirt^e oi four of tliese 
canes will boil water in a pot, and thus tliey dress their victual 
flame may be estiiiguislied iu the same miuiner oa that tf t^i 



HOUGH the de^rlptions already given in this ^'olume of 
Russia and the Cliinese empire, comprize the far greater 
what geographers by a vagiie term denominate Tatary ; yet 
: of Independent Tatary becomes unexceptionable, when con- 
tlie bounds of the present description ; for the Uzbeks and 
s are of undoubted Tatar origin, and their country must stirf* 
tied as independent of the great neighbouring powers^ Chini^^, 
and Persia. 

lTIOn- ajb Extent. The extent of territory possessed by 
ibes, may be measured from the Caspian sea to the moun* 
Belur^ a space of not less than 870 B. miles. From the 
ns of Gaur in the south to the Russian boundaries on the 
' the desert of Issim, may be near 1500 B. miles ; but of this 
g^reat pai*t is desert. It is situated between 31® and 52® N. 
> and between 55° and 70° E. longitude. 
rs. In a country inhabited principally by wandering tribes 
ot expect to find many considerable towns. The niost noted 
larcand, in Great Bucharia, once the seat of the formidable 
iie ; Cashgar, and Yarkand, in Little Bucharia ; Balk, in the 
t of Balk ; aiid Chialish, the principal town of Songaria. 
lOH, &c. The prevailing religion is tlie Mahometan, for the 
conquerors, though tliey retamed their idolatry,, were tole- 

opulatton cannot be extensive, and is supposed chiefly to* 
if original Bucharians, who are described as of a swarthy 
ion, though some be very- fair, and of elegant forms. Tliey 
tabe polite and benevolent, and their language is probably 
id the Zagathian ; which is the same with the Turkish, that 
Aving supplanted their native tongue. That the chief popu- 
original seems to be allowed, though there be a great mix- 
Tatars, or Turcomans, and a few Kalmuks. The dress of 
doe& not reach below tlie calf of the leg, with girdles like 
di. The female raiment is similar, with long ear-rings like 
Tibet : the hair is idso worn in very long tresses, decorated 
sons. They tinge their naila with henna. Both sexes wc»' 



often consists of mincril meat; aiul, like the Russians, th 
siTvc ilu'ir \ iciiiiils fiH)/tMi tor a consUlcrable time. Tcu is 
norul drink. Tlie w ive^ nrv purchased ; and the ceremonies 
riaj^e, J^c difrlp little fiiim those of other Aluhumetans, tlie r 
or ])r"iests having ii^nvit iulluence. They have small copper 
Init weijjli ifoUl aiul silver like the Chinese, with whom the; 
taincd a cr)nsiderahle commerce before the Kalnuik invasio 
which U now pnibuhly more ]>Poduclive than ever, by theii 
undi-r the sami- sovi.Teigii. They are nut warlike. Their chi 
are the lance, sKd)re, and bow, while the rich have coats c 
The coimtry is very productive of man>- kinds of fruits, ani 
cuLirly >:;rapes. Tiiey ai-e said to have many mines of gold 
%'er. On the melting of the snows abimdance of gold is fi 
tile torrents, which they carry to China, and c%-en to Tob 
Silieria. Pi\'ci(nis stones, and evtn diamonds are also foun 
one of the pro<Uicts is musk, probably from the soiitliem mo 
near Tibet, in which last country the animal that yields it al 
III eonii-adiction to the usual course of nature, tJie southe 
bordering on the vast Alps of Tibet is colder than the nc 
vhich is protected by the inferior ridge of Alak. As the c 
ehicHy cotton it is probable that the plant abounds in the cm 

KiiifirsKs AMI I'SiiEKs. Aboutouc half of Independent T 
ocrupied by the Kirguses in the north, a people of undoubt 
tiu-ic origin, and ilio T/lKks in the south. 

.STKir OP IssiH. The givat stepp, or desort of Issim, 
tius- Kirgiisf's from Sii)oria : Imt tliis extensive plain mustn 
< \ er ijc regarcletl as a meiv desert ; as it is said that many 
♦ombs occur In its wide expanse, :is well as in the Karabiniar 
between the Inibli, and tiie Orb ; which last consists of a tc 
soil, and presents several f(jivsts of birch. 

The Kir,Tiisesare supposed to be so called from the fc>ui 
ilieir hord; :ind have frtun time iniincmoi ial lioen here class 
«ler three divisions, of lireat, >fiddle, and I^Mrr, uiul are su 
t«) r<»inp(«se a popul.ition of about 720,000 soids. 

M VN N r.Ks, 8cc. The Kirguses have gradually move<l from 1 
touiirds llie west. Their tents are of a kind' of felt; theii 
kuniiss* made «!' acidulated marc's milfc The Great Hord 
s'.dend as the source of tlie two others. Tliey lead a wai 
1 1 to . Kac 1 1 hord i jas i I s pari iculap Khan. Their features ai« 1 
with the ^lat nose ami small eves; but not oblique like those 
.\I(»iiguls and Chinese, riievhave horses, camels, cattle, she 
g(mts. It was asserted that'some indivitluals in the Middl 
«uul each 10,OOU horses, :^,00 cumcls, 3 or 4000 cattle, 20,00C 
and moi-c tlian '3000 goats. Their dromedaries fumwh a ccir 
ide (|uunlity of woolly iiair, which is sold to the Russia 
nurluiiMans ; being annuallv clipped like that of slieep. 
chief h)od IS mutton, and so exquisite is the lamb that it 
ii-om Orenburg to rctu-sburg fur Uie tables of the palace 



Uhl U« Ike moil «ci«l>«(l after thati of Biieliirin, luint; 
Bed » it were by clnutUiDe tXm litOr uiinul iii cmrne linen, 
; wool '>r Ibe nIici^p 1* ookTM. I'lic iteppi tupply tlicm witli 
I tif the cbMC,. wnivtH, foxn, budget-*, ontelniu:*, prmiiici, 
ii, miLTinMii, Ice. rri the foitlhRvn vnd tMulimt lu'tuiuaiti* arc 
ivild itlutp, llM or nf Tibvt, which ■ccm* to dcliglil in vinvry 
with ctUttjioU, chnCalit, tjcrr*, oiul wild ute*. 

Hxvft whuffl UiCT i»kt in th(Ti' infflinilflrn. Their i(r*r«i lit tlte 
m I'aljirie, witu Urg* tr«wi>Fri> nwi riouiivd tMuti>, The 
<imainent Uwir luuda with Uit nodtit of Woiu, diii(ioiinl like 

I'll rinifcn «iiU cuiwiunto 
■ iiulB-oftlieCupnUb 
..(uri: from which tfaeJ 
..urtil countrin. of tli»^ 

K Ooffl ()i» (iilion or 

' . iliv N/MidS. by wide 

. . ■ i.iii Micicntl/ UrKhenz. 

, . ....■■.'■ .,y.j i... ,.,, I,,:..... .,, i iigih iind briMuiiiii md 

■ m!" ZinKH win u pa'.viirinl kidjfdnm. 

ot thin utiKe U nlinoit rciirioi«d to Oie dlitrici of Khivi, 
■ I i.f wbicli may he perii>nni;d wi horwbaek in tJirw ilayn. 
iiiii Hrp wullfil ciliei, or mthfr tnWim, wjtlriii liaU' u Aiy'm 
^^ each ntlitr " TlkC kluin in abaalute. afid <nlii'Ulv IbSc- ^ 


-T, csec-pt ibeMiillu D^hIi'iiW tii^i priNt; 

_, The inluUrilKHts difl'iT iwy link from 

lac Kifgiud t the Utter live in lentg, wliilii tin' I'm i^kv mliitb,! 

rjiiw Jiid villitsei. Their wily inkfci* wiili ''• 

wbithtT llirj- cam cikltlt, furv^unl b'liU*. nil 

Kitj^Do mhI I'uriconiitn Tntari, The pUc. 

more tlinn ciittoii. Iamb f\ini i^f a vtiy tnruh 

qllM1til,v fif r*w Itltit, DoOIC iif which tilivmj'n' 

cif Khlv» stiuuj* on 1 rtsiiiR snjiuiid, wlui tllic-t j;.iti ■ , i.mi ;i win.iin 

wullul' i;!^!!), ngiT thick, nifiilmiicti higlMr lliaii liic-; tlwrr 

»ru turreU i^ amwl ilt«tiine<-i. viit » laruid ilf'!' <<i'<-l' t'uil uf water 

II occupicB a eotinidrnltle tptre, will panrai»i»l« ■' |)lr^H-iii fin»pn-l 

uf ilip udiiLccnt ptnlrvi wliidi ttic indiutry uf ilw iiilist>iual> Iim 

ri-niltrcd VpiyftiaUr; bu(tbcK(iiiMiarclou*,m<»tty buill with tiiud, 

the roofs flaU and cowr««l wiUi ew'tli." 
M tho mcrcliMn^ nf Kliiva broui^it p>U wid jrciTi> to Astnkui, IVum tlic tTfO Hilfhnri;.t, hH iliii wi<> Mi|.7j,i.-iil.-ii In IVi.-r 

liiutin-iitlhuUicK |>i'<-< " . I '. ' ,. ' 

Ire ill oiiiigo(HtcliW »"' '■'■ 

imintK-i- 1.1' 3000, wli'iiii: r. 

'Jilkll Bfc.lttwitj.lit" :.■■ 

('DKirRvruiiiK. li;l-..:... .. -i., ■ 

T*irii')r 1e ™ini»i»cd nmlcf <hr H'u"; v( <lit ■' 
of tile 'I'oiiriin of the slicient Pmune, wirl 

lilt (iri'cks iind Uomoiu by the names eT Sr.v.i 

., 'Ul,'i,1 I,-' i.!lli..r:,hi.,iit3,»i UiQiiP«iherc);'!.-(tiiimi.M . ■ i.;/ ,,■. 

■ I! \ '.:■ IV ri!i' rn bdiindary appc«« to be Ll.c imiuii' :'i- i,i 

.\i. II-, 1,,. n. .wfn side til! i-iViT Amii und derieit- 

f|| . II '■ .11 Mi,i,Mii nml CurniBn: while on the S. :.u,l 1-: ih.- 

nii'iii'.,,!' .,r K .iir, or pArOpaminnit, Ui« HiihUiuKoh, ui<l U,,- r|j:iii> 
of Ucltir, jht perpetual barriem. i 

HinTom. The orig-inal population of llriK cotinlij' was Serlhiiui, 
likelh&tof fertiia-, and xlVM 'jnc« pCrltapn lliescnt oed soutmuT 
(he nioit nncidit Persian motiarcli)', Tfijj repion wm not inndi 
kiv'i'-n 'ill iif'^h- ill" Mniiiimetjin contiuest of IVi~is. in the ■jpvetilli 
r.-iiii,ri In i .■; ; SiiH;m Baber, a descend alt nf ■I'nimc, v ,. » itli 
li'- ■.,. .: ! I'nim GfeW Bnclioi'iii, ami |"iii iirio 

II II, led tllC Mogul power. Tin." in-lnM, 

i-.ili'. f .i.i:,,.. ■. iMIslied 11 powerful monarcliv in ri -."iii 

siici-SMV^ tlijiislieldtbe sceptre fH™ 1494 K) IMS: •- !■: 

whicli period this gre»t and feftarClnintrj- appeiT* to liiii I 
*ided into Beversl dominations, ynder bctcthI ktuutn. (n . i 
ficiency of recent accounts, it can on^fce conjcotured llm' ''■■ 
powei'a of Ifa'is couutty are the klun ot Bulk in the 3. nnd ni 
Gind in the N. 

Keudios, &c. The relifrlcm of theUtbekssnJBudiariAMiftlK 
Mahometen, aiid the government of the khans la despoUe. MgA 
is no [jretine e*'idcnce of the slate of the population, whlehcon*iOi 
uf the Tatars and of the BucliBHimn. It Ih pnibable thM vfs " 
•mefEciicy an nrmy mi^it be muttered uf 100,000 int^oUMz 



? 1^ no statement or tiic annual revenue of Uw£c (vrtj\e pro- 
^ ii cau ^ardlj eifced half a ntiUiori Hlcrlin^' 

i^EBsiJuiCusToMB. The manners intl CuMoQis of thc U^lwki 
□lilar to thoH: uf' the nther Tatnr!i : but- Ihej- OK siipfKiicil (o' 
t most spiritaj tuiU liiduslrioua uf tlicse biirnirians. Tbnugh 

reside in teuls in tim summer, yr\. in winter tliey inhniiil &e 

I and vilUpji. Tlujse ol' Balk are the moBt civUiivili Mid oairy 

awsiderable trade witb IVraio und nindoslAn. Tb* naii^e 

arians, ot Tyilw, arc ciMnparaliirely fujr.i »nd carmstmml ia 

nee «f fvrm uid lentiue*, witli tlwae of Utile Buchiriii, wbon 

Jm) resemble in the mode of driM. The DudiviBnii never 

irma. TJie Uxbeks, «ii Xiic eontnuy. an iii) ilningcra to Ihe 

' iVmiuket; Hiidll isauil tlut even their vomen sutni^limc* 

'1. ir husbands to tlic fipl2 'f he |xngiui«r of Ibe Budiariiuii 

I'.'.-n miTSlltfuti!!!, thoogtl it be probably Peisijin, (illlc 

.•'inami'i but iiitei'iDiiigled witb1'urki«l>,'Moiignlliui,juid 

The diief city uf Oreitl Buctuu-u. Is SiLmaicaod, aa Xhc 
li.iiik of llic rlvt'P Siigil. . 

' I flebnitcd RRpit&l lacte 1h no teeent account, but ti cccms 

h3VK declined since the time of Timur, Tovardfi tlie be- 

r The l^t cenlurT, it WHS liu-titied nitli rampart) of lurt^ 

being moatl}' of bardened clav. thou^^h sflme were of 

qiuuT es n (he ne ghboud ood TI » klvm at Uiv*t 

n ittoDlv encamped a the a Ijjcent meadows, the castle 

n he '•ame r r has t-^keatcdl^ con c« £(1 the incirtH 

ty t til StaUi c d Wl en s Icil by tiie F.iwlith 

41 C vnsaliiTii'Qiindpai louti c subject to its )ntuii 

fcU buttJcnume is mo>qu » fbcick. Thecilj- 

I nd cfliim and the d icf products were 

f om tl c kalmuks ihey recc ved rfiubaili 

Inkali frccioui itone 

J c t> Iho r vcc ULhiish n bt: licginning 

C la ti pikTt ubir kliu of the LTzbeks : 

ler I) of nil re Ur|fc and popu- 

c^lle Of palace con- 

l, Boijniig mountains. 

Tstura nail bcautittd 

ountt) it bebg; llio 

« Uiiulastim, 

Itr-u s il c r « ot 1 okjrt a n the leighbourhood 

J vere nch j mea of Up fclnz \ i subdtancf with which 

Btn:l aru secou uli Hy to 1 avo auppbed the anc cnl and mo- 

T \tniviii Ibc last ccntiuywas tmalt, but 

racEPEvneKT tatabv. 

It only flmuahuiK Oirir mrn proilucii but iiihtrt So« H 
amtcn c^nirvcji tu wluui iluiy trulc> 

CiiaM'K. Tlir clitnMlfl lo gtaexJi «(>jy«p- '■■ '■- ■ ' -.n— • 
bml rvm uf tbc ■•ullicm pruriorui bviiiK " ' 
■KHinUina cupw^ wilU |>FrprtU*l wiiiw. 'i 
ntrnui rivert, hilU, itnd iqduhuuu. iborc i' < 
of iv>.jj , h.Li) rii'^ Ihc riven Uie toU i* »ir( i 

nii-r. Ill' Indniioudtfiv 'tatarvMr Uu> 

I luiiuiiuiiiu rd nditr, mutr iluii 300 8 
'': ':.>.it>>wi,niuilii11i intu thrMBdC Anal, • 

TIk RitT, or riicr of l^iaih, ■Iio rum Ib die mounuku at Bd| 
Nul f»Uii in'n ttiu eMi«rn tjcle uf tbc c«a of Anl, aT 
About iSO llrltiili mild, 

111 Uiu roiiriln- iwntMeil by lie Three Ilnrditiir K 

•tbtronii>iiJcnd)le*lreBIDi, (UiK aUcurn, litLtN ' 

toryar ZinKUuid biiuitL-nutnni nlnw lUircL 

ta till.- M.brU»'(jMpjiu,ttirf miLM'usilthcjrcatifpl 

LtKw. Tltc muKt onuidEa^k' l-Ju is ih? nn of Acali mbu 
Uw Tnip-ii. wbieh kttu U near 14U llliliali nule* ik len^,J 

Mui-irr^i**. Thi- priti'tji-jl miw "^ ' 
•hU:l..Jir^'>..,lu,-.,„-,fl „■. -,, -, ,- 

on Hi. I 

iniUllwfrwpl'irtS .H.'lU'i-iM in, 111 <!■::■ \. 1 I., 1 

TUe eh.iin t>f Bdtr, wliich wasliic ■ooivnt Imun 

111' I ;■■■■■■ Ii co«l. The 'entmlife- (i 

Arnbim (Ti-oeTjptiy, I'Jju lliiikal. Nan cnmproniitcil forth* pBWI 
ItiN infnmuilion I'cupcctinjf iiulnrnl limlun', by nn wiilnMvil ctmr 
itf tlie people, vhieh mu lie itn* iiitniduood m » rdk-f B 
ilrvii('s» of Burnt; of tlic iVuflw, 

'• Such »re (he (^werom^ «td (iberalilj' of the Inhsbitanta, 1 
no one turn* asids tram Uta ritM of bo^Itatltjr : lo tbU • r— 
cniilvniplutiiig Utem in tbit li^t vrould imiifinr, Mii(a(fl4<^ 


e liind -xere but one house. When a tniveller arrives tlierc every 
m endeavours to uilraci !iim to himself, that he niuy have op- 
inities ofptrforminj^ kind offices for the strangfer : and the best 
' of their hospituble and j^cnerous disposition is, tliat every 
int, though possessing but a bare sufficiency, allots a ])ortion 
s cottagt for the reception of a guest. On tlie arrival of a 
ger they contend one witli another for the pleasure of taking 
to their home, and entertaining him. Tims, in acts of hospi« 
i they expend their incomes. ** 1 liappentd once to be in Soghd," 
tlie Arabian geogruplier, " and there 1 .saw a certain palace, or 
t building, the doors of which were fastened back with nails 
ist the walls. 1 asked tlie reason of this, and they informed 
liat it I was an hundred years aiid more since those doors liad 

sliut; all that time they had continued open, day and night; 
igers might arrive there at the most unseasonable hours, or in 
lumbers; for the master of tlic house had provided ever}- thing 
bsaT>* both for the men and tor their beasts ; and he appeared 

a delighted and joyful countenance when the guests tarried u 



rrpun mmv li)^!/ cek^atrd Ihui prceut'ly known, u^- 'ii- > 
cirnli it WM divniM inlu ibw imcgual portboB, V<iir- 
Slcuity, a imoll pFcninco ui> (lie N- «[ dt» Rcl wh. U-tv . 
and Pafealinci no culW fmm iLthsrrgnuiilicroclu ur^l > . 
thcmoat rcmarlcabtE of whicli ft Sinaij AraKj.i rir-s,.' 
i!»sU'm p»ri, sn br BB kiin«n to IIip iiih"'i ' 
H»ppv campnsrd Uip S. W. on tb« thonn •<> 

)lDt'si>ABt*a. "Hio tMnaidants oil tlie \\ 
tlir Red ico, th« l«hmu> nf Sin^z, the Ar^il . 
•ncuii while tbe I'CMlin ?iilf extenda acuri^.' 
nnd tliii boiindu^ is oaniidcrod «s eofltiruipd bv ^> 
weti or xhe Kiiplirstea, TheHorUicmUmiUTini: W „ „^. 
>n hundred tnilcs to the E. of Kaltiiyra. ThKiiR« Uift ItM p 
S. W. to the S. E. anrl^ of Ibc Mctmcmncm. bring the n 
boniiditry of Anbia Petrso. It cTtcnd* Ihini 13 lii 32 di 
N. latitude, and from 36 to 60 ilcgtiees of B. Iiiii|{itmle, 

Frum tlie cape of Unbclmunileb to tiu rjitmne uiij^o o 
F.uphrtktcs. tlie length is not lent; tboti 1800 Britiili niki ; wbiia 
mFcUii] brcuJth m»f be about SOO. 

RuiniON Brfhrctht tjmcot' M;ihaine1 I. 
to hnvr li«n offered bj the nrtives of thii r 
tlirir brcthr-i-n tJie BymnaandCai-thuf>inian^. 
Spread fmrn Chaldea. Nor wu iM OirUii.Lj 
forp tbe nppcurance oFMahonict- About tij 
tury ■ Shrikof Vemeii, caUtd Mohfawni. cstal.licli- ,1 u kindif^ 
sect of Mahometanism : uid ulxiut ibe snme {Ktiud wbkt mi 
culled u new religion vm cumineiiceil in the province El Are 
Abdul Wuhheb ; wbich by the Intwl acccunis bpffliiB to m^ 
sldernble progress under bis succusors. lie ii mid ta have t 
*'"""" "D Rionc ihould be sidoped und inrot'tted : while tJw HM 

gbm, and tliis sopentiiiou still prcvuls over ihugIi Uie KtcaUr ri 

. . JbU conwryi* divided Mnooj n 

ilf»»iul Bhciki. 11u!tiiliiarAi<iiii1mpl];in)i;ViiwrofMalii>inei, 
MaKtir! wliSlcUx' MiillunrcxltttKiiixcuuH of juiticc, xnd 
ftlilrnd:.. ^M.r„>^.ri<>iM v\ih CMIi/.iu^l Eni' Et Muttieuin. or 

Mil' 'In l"ii[liii:i "II., ii.i; i-ir.r B«'V«nimFrti« MwcotiduolviJIiy 
I. !i '' r <•-•■' I I'll i.ij: iiMflwi), lull] necin^ ««!}■ to]affleil 

I ihri.iiii ul Vl'iuct] !■; Iji'iTiliUiry j and ike Iin«in, or Emir 
wlwlt-T" "" iiipi-i-iiir in npirituul or tcmjw»l afikirs. He ptm- 
the prerogutWi.- of pci«c AirtWar, but cAiintit br cnUcd (lcipi>- 
« hrniinnoidrin-irervpnaAw, oraPaiiUiof life. Tllncuu** 
betrWl 1i.-r,.,.- IV v,i|,iTm.' lrTi,»i# of 8»lr», eoi»)»liri(r of 
' '""I ■': IVJuti uiEniir »htnni a 

■ ■ .. 'il, T!jcn«l in mnk 
t ■ ii to denoW Eentlemcn. 

■.'■ndijnil tbe'Turtikh 

iinwn oillcil Emir, Mid 
I'll.' i« utiri aCwIii who. 
■ ,■ and civil »trair»i In 

„..|..;..,t. lib Brnty, in pMCc. 

'I: . ..iL'l lOuL' i-ftvnli^i thR ■oldici's be- 
'1 .III'. Ill iuiiifanB>. Thtrc In no navv, Mid 
■ '.II <-,My wWitniulisJi tllO)* nt Vrniui 

« ncgicctrd. bciny junokud vitlicr in the Tui* ub i 



no ARABIA. J^tJKM^^m 

ktuTe, III ittlH' U*** ihc JiP u flikT b oom a Urce piKa < 
Lwi. wiM"Ur d«ai0»l U kMp u* Ik iii<i. Tte had 
■Bern* MfKaMvr, cMn>bnM( «r >mnlbonai''i,friiin tmuil 
■«nc of iMiat. i>tWfM>r o«n«i m4 waelk*. Ui* ii>iuii«>l bum 
nAl]' cMfamiiiernlwHhKDUt «nl anwtidtUii n»>iiiiu(Urfb 
M «Tui|wil, wtwt dir; o^l * gfft^ ^^^ * '"K^ I'icn; nT tl 
«iUl mitKC* of «ak<>rgtiU. whjphhin-rtltrtifwtritiil Tfirl 

Mid UHlL P«l', 

ppoKil in mtp*. 

Ii rrtw* >>( tUik or gnhl, i 
*tiwi tlidf mU) nd, MidtW 
Willi belin*, tlW«)«lMfae* 
ntbcf vfioMal tonalrim Ml 
bniii iMC* Mid ' ' 
itinwKlwal til ' 

I.t*Mijoi 7W 1 ■it'it! <rf ^i' Ante wu, «m n i 
Italia, dmdfd intu *e*n«nbl«cU, ■• nmy br nufircwd An 
wiiSrtblltlMrn. Cmi io r«q«ii tiWTCM* «><>>l^<w 
|M(WtoWciiiUIW*it'MncubanhiWlll»- lalmr 
nf UwKnrjn toiniUBtmitlhMn ihamnUr 
'\l m tMlgbl m IIk •tallv^ tlirTr, u tito I < 

EncriTiii'i. K-lucatiiit) i> mn vhcitly i 

u ilM ehiUMi .if ttwpauf.l- < 

■ttran'mi;, utlnilog}'. pliiln»<i{''i' . 
kiujcUtflii of Ycmm imn an trru 'iil'' 

Cinn iMD Tuirrf. Amhl« la< brni 

iIk cLii. . 


K4tLr, .1.^.. 

«ji,i^ i;i .......,...,, „„., , 

Uif Prtwaii t;uU, Ok-j ;.-v Itj-. 

KuplkFftlc*." "In Qu: murkri < i 

cif Otnui Rlid A(l«n, llir ouiit I . 

u pri'ciww caivi) of itruniutics ; .1 , ' ' ' 

wni piimliiutnlln llw fUn nf nii>iii. a«) li-< 

aebmuft diflf^Mil (ikmy and rtctu:* in ilte • 

-.t.|>ii(iii (i( Ik 

itf tu UiK rcjirwiiuu- 

Kiiuiituliia •( Voitwi il"-w 1" " IV- 
iw trf Juni' hi llin nul "I 'ti'irtiifti- 
Iv nWn'il villi M<u>il> 1«> IWuM^' 
•ha iTiiialiulw >il' llio nor •Uhmil 
t, ■ml otlirr lilonrt, l)iii IwrlwllvU 

imiM nm. la the pUint of Ttnvr'l i 
tvhoirivu: ■lid ir' i-i- i— " »■■"" 
H-hilr nr S^fiR in ilii 

raUnf Sanicl 

■ QpiiUlJ ili!s:rl 'it . 
.n Africa t irhtk >l< 

-liorvi ol llir *a>. w 

t.liarlrv. ■ 

iiTiTor Krlan flowiB-om M»Ib-v1i inif>tlii 
uiBV add, tvo DT ikrec Ivnoki iii Ocnoii. 

tl» Jin-r'i -'■,■:■■: 

vrliichnfliird union! 

■!ic pwMnl tribe F> M. 

the TRllera, nnd ami: 

■iipctinr lu (he rcDi ■■; 

secin to contend Willi cKti uih. . 

tioiu. Miiriy of tha Itiiluio o': i 

tlicir bMiitynr uao, have bcin 

uikI »nr now r.ntriLl in a (rulv n 

(•.»e w'rlti ttie tKnwrinil, llu > 

banynn tT»^ ar In(]u(n Hg^ thi- s 

lunblc speciei uul Viirtttiesnl > 

ii'ets, hnwevM, uc the peciill.i: '<%; |{ninillMdicil(t1viit«I»n>i . 

tV.iin which ig proc'iwfl llio h:i,iii> i.i .•mtu, lii 

losily „r all \]k gum ivsiJiii. 01' An swlfu*, .1 


>coa nut, and the g^*eat fan palm. The sycamore fig", the plan- 
:hc ahnoncl and apricot, the bead ti'ce, the mimusa iiilotica and 
hra, and the oran.v;-e, noarly complete tlie catuioti^uc of its na- 
nd cultivate<l trees. 

; horse is the glory of Arabian zoolog)-. They are berc divided 
wo great classes, the Kadishi, or common kind, whose gonealo- 
s not been preserved ; and the Koddani, or noble horses, wliose 
has been ascertained for two thousand years, proceeding, as 
iible, from the stalls of Solomon. These will beai* the greatest 
.es, and pass whole days without food. They are said to rush 
be with impetuosity ; and it is asserted that some of this noble 
.vhen wounded in buttle, will witlidraw to a spot where theip 
r may be secure ; and if he fall tliey will neigh for assistaniie. 
are neither large nor beautiful ; tlieir race and hereditary qua- 
being the sole objects of estimation. There is also in this 
Ty a superior breed of asses, approaching in form and qualities 
mule, and sold at high prices 

8 region seems also the native coimtry of the camel, emphati- 
styled by the orientals the ship of the desert. 
: breed of sheep has not been particulai'ly illustrated ; but it 
. appear that both the wool and mutton are coarse. T\\q rock 
s said to be Ibund in the mountains of Arabia Pctrea. The 
animals are the jakkal, or chacal ; the Iiyena towards the Per- 
ulf ; niunerous monkeys in the woods of Yemen ; the jerboa, 
of Pharaoli, in Neged : there are also antelopes, and wild oxen, 
roives, foxes, and wild boars, and the large and small panther. 
itrfeh is no stranger in tlie deserts. A little sLiider serpent, 
baetan, spotted with black and white, is of a nature remark- 
oisonous, the bite beuig instant death. The locust too is nu- 
8 : but the natives esteem tlie red kind as a fat and juicy food, 
ev it iK*ith no more aversion than shrimps or prawns ore be- 
y us. 

nBBAU. Having no native gold, the people are still addicted 
infiituation of alchymy. Nor is silver found except mingled 
sad. There are some mines of iron, but the metal is brittle. 
agates called Mocha-stones, arc brought from Surat, and the 
frnelians come from the gulf of Cambay. 
s. Resides several isles of little consequence in the Arabian 
here are two island;^ which deserve particular notice. Socotra, 
MO British miles from the southern coast of Arabia, api)ears 
iges to have belongetl to tliat country, and to have been cele- 
fijr the production of aloes, still esteemed superior to any 
The inhabitants are clearly of Arabian extract. Frankin- 
ambergris, and coral, are found in the neighbouring seas. The 
Bahrin is in the Persian gidf, near the Arabian coast, and re* 
9le for the great pearl fisher}' in its neighbourhood. 



T'NDF.n tk'i* Ikcut u« catBprwcd, SWktr*, Mil llK Mh a',!*"' 
ini D'iniTO, lU.t ih« Cclebuun uikai Wtt lliaipfili**. 11111 m 

Spice isluiuui. 


They ciktcnrt fran S' N. to 10" S. Utthult -. «u\ fWiiu 06° lo OB* 

C. longitiulc. 

ThU divUioii nf tbc A«latji! 'i»\m eomprlMi SutiuUn* J«ra. lUUii 
LninlHik, SUmh^va, PUmM, wd Timurt witb w*nvl ialca of \m 
HOW in ilifi viciniM f^ 'ti-ne. 
* 8i)<t«ru U an tilmd uf gtvRt cstmt. bdng nnt lata than 959K< 
tUii milcM in imfih, by Abuut 300 in lirMitU. T1m> en^h Mtb' 
nwnt of OrticiMM)!. ia tli« 8. E. pnrt nf (hit islund. has ouuulairi 
puliouliT ntli-ntuni to itit nkliirc und produetien*. It wa 
uakiuvni to Ihc Hncicnta. The Arab* ••MS to hnvc been i 
with it in iliR iiiiith century, but it brcuni: flntknntmto 
in tlu' hlxlciriith. A chxln nf mouiitaiiiit ninit tEirouR^ the 
uiki but tliu hviKht, thoiigli t(rrt,l, in not *o ciin>lclt-nilJc an .— -_ 
tain mum. MniMt Uplitr, imtnedintvtr ander thr cquimieiialHIi^ 
in 13,643 <''v< tbow ihe kk, uBiy ^icldm^alxiul 3tK>& tVtcl UiTOaujit 
ItUuc. Tliiin.' orr iniuiy riven on tltc WMtiMn tMkM, bttt cmtiaumij 
iiiiptiii;tl hy DunJ-bMik*, m> ■■ ta prentnt few iiMiini of luvigatist. 
lii(1i«Tnidaluf urtutttxcallod th« Toirld 'iear, tbc tliccOKnaoltt 
uldopii riBc^ above Bi*, while hi lltii)^UtUbuiwl()l*i invJ th( in 
bml inbabitunta of tha mr)«iitauU luc fiivt to <1>»P<-1 thu munilii| 
oold i yet fn>iil,«nciw, >nil liail. ar* unlauwir. Thiindur uiir) lt|^tTriq^ 
MB froqueiit, partienlurlviliiniij,' 'hcN.\V. iii.)ii"ii'>ri ''"■ ■ ■ '— 


.-u.l iiffiigHar'ma Hit night. Thoioit U gwntnlly ■ atifTrvd- 
I l.iy. r.ovrred wllB a. hiypT of Uach manld, tbc nouro; of per- 
il K'vilui'rx bill iJw*'' <)uiirl»n> (if tile Itlf, erpcciullj lownrcU 
iriipili, jiriweirtiui imurrvioiw IoniI. Tliert »c«nw to &r luniiy 
n of grild mixed wlui onpper. At' iron nnd nU^; but tin i« one 
le chief txporti. Thetv un iKi-tnil volcwiic moirnUitiK in Su- 
«,H inmoMlof the ntlicr Ulan^^f the oMaitul *Kl»|ida)R>, 
implioti,-! »« uiifn-fiuciii. Thf Ni-a irnut in rjlkfly cie«upKilbr 
H»liiy«, who HTfin 1(1 bf rrr-T^m ^r1tVi-o, and thKif WllgXUigt Ik b 
et "f a »pe«li ii"i-i "^''.l', ■ -i. nJf.l, frtmi Miilin:» ■teirlj'aii 
i» lilt werteni <■'■-' ■:! ',.,1. .■.-.,, Hiniiiffh (lie iimuniwiiblp 
(b of the Pucjiii II, ■ . i,i. ( I, ..hid MivrtTiRnty U Uwt of 
itif[C:ilM™, Imr (I.. I.' , ■ ii' ■■ ■■! tjiii ttc- pureul t«cc and 
I'.i I'-r- tJiu nwi of liifmitB 
'-■■"■ ■' 111" tyirt we Jarli «nd 
' . I'cing witliout liie red 
,>■■■■ "luuri l«it Ihc iiiiiCThir 

I.I ., :.:, „ :.. „i,, ..!;., ...,i.;,,„.,^_, ,ij' uol UtipkuiflK COIllltC- 

< "I'ltrinftlctntbin); in nioda Ot itw inner bark of trro*, m in 
' lU-; liitl thcdni* af.iiiv MaUya ooiuitti of ^ vnat, a roh?, 
. ..lul .,f iiiiif.tlp, witl) B Kihllc, 111 nliicTi it tli ■.■■■;■<■-■., oi; liuffinr. 

JB liibcui'. AniiiDK |i>nl>-, llic iiumulnui i>i* Argus pliciiiiliiV i> nf 
nguttitiril bckuty. Tli<r ,tiiii|^fow]> or wiltl pDulti7, aim »p- 
. InMuU »f nil kJniU iwarn), purtiDuUrlj Ihi- deittruclivc tcr- 
a. The iiioiC lutniuilKiit article i» pcpp«r, tliif ubjtwl of t1\« Qri- 
uUlvtMiit I 1}tiii|^ |iru(liicc(l by ■ cUmbinft pbDt rcwttibling; k 
. TltDwIiitrpep^c u pHttiireil by «ti-ipping Ihe outer .hii«k 
ttiie ripe drain*. CnmpboT' 11 unothcr rtmurfctblc vacctaUe 
!iuit|Uid«NwiB,B nnkMpkind of uiimiimnn, Ik found in theccq- 
pttU nf tbc etiuntty. The lUk euttoii (bombMx ceiba) i* hIko 
I mi>t witii 'm tTjtry V)\]u(^ . Thia a to uppniMiuic, oiie uf tho 
\ bcautifVil nw nuLi«[Jikb itic I>»h1 nf nainreliu preMnied 1 but 

uid China. The Aliiliya cxerl 'u> i^^iltl it\d nWvvr lillnf^i?, mid 
e«vinRiiitk iind rnttmis but the m»iiiifiiuUinr!i uro imjiirfcol, 
Ihc ncieiieea little ciillivmwl. Rven the ni-lrsL trib,:- of Smiia- 
.Ril tliF cithiT Aiiiitic iilri, ns fur as th? uiniuNt tioimil> <if this 
liiin, dinplav n ciTl»iii di-jtrcp of cirllijiutitio. Tlii- [iiinjiTBii or 
it pnHiidca'»vci' many maifbitnitct 1 but bio govaniiivni is Um>*- 

&bta pswer (■ _ 

■Ir cMiipcOMial b; i <■ 
at cucIm ud <)nj>iU i> 
gHhn- vllti iluKO, '.I 
olIritfltT, Iml tBKt;. 
Buck, bf Uu- Wi»riv ■ 

J. Tib 

i>l>k, Inii u rrtmikkbte ftr 

■■.luiii of Mk Hmdh' pfiuein 

T! ,' 

J. will fcpou. Mil prracnti 
.. iii<fr>.i-l'->lliv.nilcr«f mi 

ii,-i ■. ■ ■, 

lIWIi nuirn ' 

lunHiumiil 1 

of 111.- ml.'! ■ 

V ' 


U U (bnp-rT>i.., to wilk out- Tile ' 

beine nmrly vertical>''>i>'< ">■! » -' ...„....■ 

but tile noctimul rtpoK U cli»nirl«(! Iiv mu^k^iini. I» : 
fnm t'lX to Dine, pirtirt are furmnt, Hnd mi< n 
pounnafthe climate. The wiier it nlwi "< 
ibnrt. U>r lir it to unwholntomci &nm fcliil <. . 
ihiil uj'w.'ntrKiK »n(l pmtid (erenideitroTcn^ii 
<i( lluie nellleni it ui rjpe tlwt one tiut-lWo tin- ^ i i.-. 
onuan bcffini wift DvixmlMT, and luti till M-fvJi. 
abound in ihc riven, w in mnit of ihi: oriental iilci. 

or MaJnra, Salli, Lombiik. SiiunbaTn, whI Plom, Itllte !• Id 
TliTi»r van ilbeoverrd in ISTi, hy the comjianluiui nf V ~ 
wlin fbuiii! ill <1 alone the whit« miiiIuI wihkI. The I 
after ■ Inn^ airii|Wle, tftiKtiKl a B«ttl«aiMt» biu woiv rxpclli _ 
t!ic Dutcli III l<il3, «4ia r^gmnl litis ide w » kind uf iHHriiT at d 
»pi(* IPuiie. Timor in n^arl; aOO milf » in lenKlli liy 60'In *•— »• 
oiut ilis bihabittiuu ue utc^nml tlie bntreat ui tlie Orim 




_. tnand is ropQti^l tiie,Urg«*t in Ih* worU, eiec|>i Net 

M k to ^Kiiit 900 milei hi V^h, by (ilK) nt Its g^^otni brvtuIVhr^ 

idetVom 4» S. lo6° S. longituile from lUi" lo 119° E ^ 

■ --■SIil^^1la«Sof tliegreal idandof Bumei are Ijttk-Juimj ■^*" 

wnBidOTable river flowa from the c^Btee of flie tourilry 

.[liith, fnnoing the, hartoii; of Bender Maauin. Li 

.jreaud tn r'ae in Uie iniddip f^ tbe blund- muiy 

iiri afteij occaskiu tremeacliiui eartliqmikej- The tjo 

[Ht iin post* fined iTi»fis,vliioh a[« moored to Ihctli 

< Ik- nat[i*e9 in the intericii' ure bteckv, wilh' li 
<>:.v. feeblei and inuctive : but Uietf ft*)' 

il' iiejfropa. Peppei' abotuiils in ' ' ' " 
■ I r.illed ili:i|p>n's Iiloaili campliui 

tCL-tli rtf tigtrs, a real bodgt of knig'hthood o 
'f'lnii ihoneck. The town called Borneo oMhu 

I titree thousund Luuhcb, fliiutin); as above 

ily &*qor»tpJ by Uie Chbiese, w!j(i probably 

I it' U'MEen to.BomU' 
'■ !• ii I rrutiQtlrd «iih minyaiDftlHiIt^, wbicli, from 
II tfitnpawitJve ooiitincM, maybe tcnncd Bonienn 
ie of itniJl lecount. 


■'f--,:- itroup wuB iliacovir 
. (bo ircbipdnjia uf S 

'i milcD ill lan^tli, by 

<ir ilslemiliibyaeliaiii 

r-ipjKjy an4 iWi "* 

■ I - 1 iiporlco t4 be mw*"*- 

I'riiilfiil I'll" nntiir'H, wlio aii^ of a mild olmmcter, nuem lo 

inlay oriKiii, Tbcy mre tall and well made, wear'uiB "illy a 

' ilhirbi wiUi lofjKe drmnsrs s btit the ilregs of the wDiin-n H 

ft« niaiitl'-, nnd tlicir blank and beauliful li»irj»'innHime» 

I Ibe jcTOiMid; tlleir coinplesionn beings deep la\»ny. Tbe 

arc of biiiiiboo coverttl with pairo leaves, nused on pUlaw, ■ 

ta Uw hriRht of clf^kl or Uut kt. Tbc QUtr faod u tiM aj 
ilk TiK poUon M iir DMuliu Inaulwi «id Uie ii«||w M 
0IBII1 tucEitfir nbjocUflT iui<> f.<mitf^ Thr cSly oT' 
whIehiatlHRlpiura ' . , ... - - - 


WatllMiwb M>it.1waii,u1><-^' I.I 

Inri, voknnic jiLtM, (ulphur, uid bat tpringi. 


arcoiint nt" iftp Filoy •env > 
vembcr ull iintth. TW-' ' 



V. Tl 


'iHlutod iMi- 1li«i linp, ml tlnxit 1X1 ibpm P, fen^;. 

hirl' kfnrp iituDil* lire Cluitn CiMtw, im>l ttorvi. With 

'.M,,. M.-.U. llm „,., llu,, of Ajf,,„»i. Md lllririwipflf 

j> iip|>rrninuUr ntnrrr lA llieieli.iin_lli 

1 .:ruiiciiuini »ii iiMij(UNmin|r iiiuiiir IBB 

, , . . ■. ■ ■ ... ,r^ 

.■.ii^.<Iirr, md Wild (icrffHi 
' 1^ trtc|ilriil m (itiulo. witli 

. ■.!.■ urn. bdng- mI.™b .» 
■ ■■:p ft nr!Hiuee» clave lntci( 

inllKH In li-nRth, bv .10 tii farvidili. Iliio »tr 
la Il.< b^t.K ol'T.niX . bul ill jecW iJir Diiteb 

' I'liita. Iliectvet u'cuMil i>, 
krioim. W>rtayu>ubiiii' 

■^.Ii}« these 


„.,...,.. ,,n.-lv«. .It-.,, .^U ..;.,„,„. 

^f-,l,i«r..., »,.., h.,.ll.".*" 


. i^.i^nlby tUlhilElmlKfUt 

< ' k' i-l>l> npnlint conunerM, 

. , MolUFeM. Amlwyim, wui 

:.,, u-^..-... u, ImVP one IliinI C^ llir pr». 

lao iJiU'J«i ukIi cuatiibntlng n similar pr»> 

1 Uiu UuUit 

pnrtion la dofriul Iha Ulaiula frun 4n>Mltn. Diil in Uie th 
at thm yon ifar OukrJi, aMusMd t^ Uicir miilttble n 

tcnnliiril I.* lilt ">f-f ill -.till" -J IT..1.IH, lo fffe tlicniH^Ire' 

«"■«■'' ' 

cas, UiQugb il i' ■ 
In IGSUtKr Uni. 

Hscou iTc nctuliUii. .. .^ ^ . . 
TcniUandTlilQrciuc wxtJ, 
ulsta cbicfiv of b!gh Inn). . 
from th« clniuly peaks, i >i 
and hnip, and tlu- binii un 
1]ie'tiuit;G).hFr, c)l>UH^I in ^. 

HMtivrs llir ^roddfM. Il' < 

fuiind, uf tlw bn^lli <if !l 
nnd ennatricUiai is rcporti lS 

EtjiwUt dtslingutihcil ni <- ' I 
Dois* Mill BitiiDi, cloves bt'ing now i-osinolid, - 
■mrieii cmiltl effect, to Amboini, wid nutmepi t 
bufnit wa« dbcovrred by tile fortugutae iilMim 151^ blH-i 
srizod till 1564; and was cunqucred by Uio Dutch ■boi 
TliU celebrated i»le is ttlxnil 60 Rritish tmlcs in Im^) ^an 
and on the weal aide tticre il ■ large bay, qbidi diviilei it | 
InnW or peniniuJus. On tbc c^usiern siiU^ ia luutticf bay, s^ 
hnrbourj where tljc Portuguese OECled their cliief fehtq 
lorii. TLe lawn of Ambnyjia, tlM capilal of lllc isle, Ma^ 
the S. "W. eirtre mity, and is neatly built i the houses, OI4 acl 
the frccjucnl earthquakes, addwn exceed <iae flimr. Tho fig 
ialunj u beauliTuI : woudv niountuna UhI verdant valts bcii 
spcTsed witli humlets. and enriched bt cultrfati^ ~' 
KTona to tile height af about forty or fifty ftei 
DTancbi -* ■ • . . . . . . . 

> fi.r » 

w-ancbes ai4 long pointed leaves. 

In deep lilieJtered tkw 


tffef s \^\\\ produce Uiirty pounds uxMffht annually, the chief crop 
being from November to February', 'flic soil is mostly a rcddisli 
cla)', but in the vales blackish and sandy. When Amboyna was ix • 
cently seized by the Enp^lish, it was tbund, with its depeiidencii^s, to 
contain 45,252 souls, of wlucli 17,813 were Protestants, the rest 
Mahometans, except a few Chinese and savages. The Dutch nrf^ 
tolerably polished, this being the next settlement to Ratavia iu 
wealth ai\d consec^uence. The sugar and coffee are excellent, and 
Among many delicious fruits is tlie mangostcen of Hindostan. 

I1a!<IIia, or Laktob, is the chief isle of a group which comprises 
six or seven others ; it does not exceed eight British miles in length, 
W. to E. and the greatest breadtli at its eastern extremity may be 
^ve miles. The nutmeg tree is the principal object of cultivation 
in these isles. V^lien tlie English seized these isles in 1796, the aU' 
fiual produce was about 163,000 pounds of nutmegs, and 46,000 
pounds of mace. The nutmeg tree grows to the size of a pear tree, 
the leaves resembling those o? tlie laurel, and bears fruit from thcr 
■«ge of ten to one himdrcd years. The nutmeg, when ripe on tlie 
tree, has both a very curious and beautiful appeai'ance : it is about 
the size of an apricot, and nearly of a similar colour, with the sam& 
kind of hollow mark all round it ; in shape it is somewhat like a 
pear : when perfectly ripe the rind over tlie mark opens, and dia- 
"*ovcrs the mace, of a cU ep red, growing over and covering in p^rt 
the tliin shell of the nutmeg, which is black. 





1. THE central and chief land of New Holland, with any isles 
which may Ik» discovered in the adjacent Indian ocean, twenty dc- 
[pms to tlic AV. and between twenty and thirty degrees to tlic E. 
ineluding ])arttcularly all the large islands Uiat foUow : 

2. Papua, «ir New Guinea. 

o. "Kcw Hritabi ai'.d Nt-w Ireland, with the Solomon Isles. 

4. New Caledonia, and tlie New Ilebrides. 

5. New Zealand. 

6. The large island called Van Diemen's l<and, rx'ccntly di-scovefr 
•d to be separated from New Uolhuid by a strait, or ruthcr cbann^^ 
called Bass's strain 


•.*! w 



S^)Mr. suppose thut this cxtcnsivi* rcjfion, when more llior 
rr.i-.5ii^:iUcl. willlH* titinul to cdiistst ot' two, tlini*, or mo 
islaiiils, iiitrrMctccl by n:»rrt)\v seus. However this be, the n 
rrni unci uuiheiitu! churls still indicate New Holland as a « 
tull> entitled to the appellation of a cont inent. The lenrthl 
til V\ . is about 4.) lU^ives of hmg-ilude, in the medial latil 
^j", that IS abotit i?o4U i;e(ip:r:iphical miles. The breadth fi 
tri s. esieiuU fmni 1 1° to M*^' S. luiitiide, bcinsf 28 dep^rees, 
miles, which is one fiuarter less than Kuropc, tJie smallest of 
eieiit euntinents. 

The first civilized people to whom it was disclosed vn 
Spaniards or Port ii^^iiese, the earliest Kumi^ean nHvig^utors 
portion of the j;iolK\ 

'I'hc I'tirtuj^uese beinpf supplanted by the Dutch, the latter 
j^anled by president Des Urosses as the chief discoverers of i 
lasla« between the year 1(>16 ami 1644- The first disruveiy h 
in tlie month of October, 1616, M'hen the western extremity i 
plored l>v ILirtop^. 

Ill 164 J I bat celebrated navig'utor Tasman, leavinpf • Batavi 
two ships, ]ierformed almost a ciiTuit of Australasia, and disc 
the southt'Vii land of Itin Ihtmcr,^ with New Zealand, and son 
of less consequence. •• 

Tile eastern coast liavin^jf been carefully examined by Yor 
justly appouring-of ^TX'at importance, was formally taken pos: 
of in the name of the kiiijjf of (Jri'at Kritain, imi; and was 
• d b\ j^wernment as a proper phico of transportation for cri 
^e^tenced to that ]ninishment by the laws of their coimtrj' 
first ship sailed fi-om Spithoad on the :>Oth Januan*, 178r, s 
'ivi'd on the :2(Kh of the same month in the following yciir. '. 
Hay beinjj fo\ind to bo a station of inferior advantaees to wlu 
rxjiectcd, port .fackson was pivferred, on the souUi side of 
at a sjwt called Sidney C'ove, the colony was finally settled. 
.lackson is one of the noblest harbours in the world, extending 
fourteen miles in length with numerous creeks or coves. 

The most recent accounts seem to authenticate the floui 
.^tute of the settlement. The mode of cultivation has been xvai 
coal and rock salt discoveivd ; and there is room to expect tfi 
wide territory will not be found deficient in the usual ric 

Inii vBiTANTs. Krom the accoimts of various navigutors, t 
room to infer that this extensive tract is peopled by three c 

I aees of men ; those observed in the S. W. iH'ing described 

II rent from those in the N. and both fn)m those m theK. with 
alone ^^ e are Intimately ac<juainted. These are perhaps in tli 
early staj^e of SiHriely wliieh has yet been discovered in any | 
<)ie }»lol)0. They are lueivly divi<leil into families, the senior 
Nt>led Ke-ana, or Father. One tribe, numerous and miiscul: 
< he singular prcrogiitive of exacting a tootli from young , 


•otiior faTnilics, tiic sole tokon of ^rovcrmncnt or fiubnrdinalion. No 

rcli}rioii wliatrvcr is known, tlioiip^h they Ikivc a tuinl ulv.u oi* a Ai- 

tunr exist cure, and think that their ^Moplc return to the clouds, 

whence ihey ori)j^inalJy Icll. They arc of a low stature, ami ilL 

macle; the aiTTis, lepfM, and Ihij^hs, beinjy remarkably thin, i-'ish is 

the onlv food of those on tlie eoasi ; while a few in the wcmds stib- 

aiHt on Buch animals as they cun rutr.h, and climb trees for honey, 

flyinj^ fiquirrelH, and oiiossunis. The foatui-es of the women arc not 

iinple:uiant, thuufrh approach inp to the negro. The libek bushy 

i»c'ard.s of the men, and the. hone or reed which they thrust Ihroug'h 

tlic eartil.ig'e of tlie nose, f^ives them a dis]vustinfca])pcaraiice ; which 

is not inipi'oved by the practice of rubbini^ fish oil into their skhi.s, 

as a pn)teetion from tlic air and moskitos ; so tliat in hot weather 

the stench is intolerable. '!' hey colour their f:.ces with white or rvd 

clay. Tlie women are marked' by the loss of ihe two first joints of 

tlic little finji^-r of tlu* lef^ hund ; as tlicy were sup])osed to l)e in the 

way when they coil their Wishing' lines. Some are lU'arly as black as 

African negroes, while others exhil)it a copper colour; but tlie hair 

is lonf^, not woolly like the Afi-lciui. Their noses are lh«l, iiostriK 

wide, eyes sunk, brows and li])s thick, ami mouth of a prodig'ious 

Width, but the leetli white and even. " Many had very prominent 

jaws ; luid iheiM was one man, who, luit for the gift of speecli, might 

very well liave passed for an ourani^ outivnj;-." 

The huts aro constructed of the burk of trees, in the form of un 
oveii. the fij'i' being at tlie entrance. Here they sleep pii>n!iscuousl\ , 
Fish are kilk-d witli a kind of prtmcr, or taken by tlie women, with 
lines of bark and iiooks made of the motlur of pearl oyster. Tin: 
fish are often broiled on a iiiv. laid on sand in the canoe. Iteasts 
are taken in a kind of toils. Caterpillars and worms ai-e likewisr 
articles of food. Tlie canoes are made of bark extended on a tim- 
ber frame. 

These poor savag.s aiv tlic al>iect slaves of superstition, l>elieving. 
in maf^ic and witclioraft ami ghosts ; they Irive also spells agaiuM 
timndcrand lightning, and prete.nd tc) foretell events by the met(;ors 
called falling' stara. Young |H'o|)le arc buried, but tliose who hav 
passed the middle age are biu'nt ; a rude tumulus being erected by 
way of tomb. 

IfAVuuAOK. The laii^agc is reported to be grateful to the eai-, 
expressive and sonorous, havhig no anah)i^ with any other known 

Cu-VATF. Ax» Skaso!<7h. From its f?ituation on the southern sido 
of the equator, the st'asons are lik(r those of the southern part of 
Africa and America, the reverse of those in Kurope ; tlie summer 
corresponding with our winter, and the spring with autumn. Mr. 
Collins ftnmd the weather in December very liot, but the climate 
was allowed t« be fine and salubrious. The rains wei'c heavy, ap- 
pcarinfif to fall chicHy about the full and change of the moon ; and 
at intervals theiv were stonns of thunder and lightning. 

The general aspect of the count i-y seems hilly, but not moun- 
tainous J partly coveivd with tall trees, clear frt)ni underwood ; on 
the shores large swamps also occur. The soil amund llotany l)uy 

..r.n. il .1.1- il>i«*k-li r.iil pl:i:ypii>, tlic jaw's bviiip^ elongated a 
•:i.;>;> 40 l>iil fit' :i l)ir%l. AiiKiiip: tilt* bJnls are the bi'own eaf 
• :- il i.ilt'iiht, :iiui nia'iy i-lei;':int parrots ; there are uUo bustai 
■ :.:t-i'l.''-^i v.ii'i siiii.c pi^iMiii-: A new kinduf cassowary m 
">.• n.'ti.l, s;.Kl •■• I)*- -ivcn i\\\ in lt.n;fLJi : it is not uiicommi 
il. i) -,ii i:.s:i-<i ]iki- Ij..v!* Aiii'iM^ tit..* aquatic binU are the 
.4iiii / ,r.i-.j:ic pi'licvi*;. '\"\:i\- .■.u: also peculiar ducks and 
.r;'i tli'j black dWan is a i-urc pi'u,;\:iiy of the iicw contineut. 


t-vlltuilc from tlic Equator to 10 (U-.srn?es S. longitude, fron 

10 liV W. 

THIS country is one t.f tin* most, intcnrstinj^ in Aiulrala 
piri.ik«n:j rit' till* "j)iiU'!U'o of tlu* Mohicca5, and thvir singu 
r":<' its nf pl.i'its und animals. It wjs first discovered by S;i: 
:\ S;i:niish (.'aptain, in 1.5 J8, who Ii:i<l sailed fnim Mexico by th 
ni I'ld of C.cirie/, lo explore tiie Spire islands. This ixtrn.sivi 
?.\ is still f:u" fmm liclti^" oomple'rly invesLig-uted, but 19 con 
fj) }}'} a vasit islunil uf more tli:ji 12ui> mllei in length, by a : 
bri-.'ultli of p:Th:ips TiUJ. 

OiiHiiNAL I'cuTLiTiojf. On tliis exten^ivc tcmtorj*, in asil 
s'j ]ii.ridy favoured by nature, and priil>.i!>Iy enriched with her cl 
ii:'(/liiction>?, iheiv is no Ku;"o])ean sct'lement. The inliabiti 
lite Uii-jljern p.irt arc called r'ajxius, whence the name of the 
i;'v. Tiii:y are black, and even said lo have the wixilly hair 
zeroes. In ilie int.-rinr is a r.icc called liaraforas, who live in 


. their necks the tusks of bimrs. The heails of tJje M'onion aro 
s si/e than those of tlio men, and in tlieir left cur tiny N^car 
brass rinpi.** 

; chief commerce is with the Chinese, from whom they piir- 
their instruments and utensils. T!H*ii* returns are umber<i*i», 
se-shell, small pearls, binls of paradise, aiul otJier binls, wliich 
Apiians dr^' with ^reat skill. Some slaves are also exported^ 
bly captives taken in intestine wars. 

e natural history- of this country- is little known, b\it the zoolo- 
striking und i-omantic. Papua is tlie chosen ivsidence of the 
:lid ami sinpdar birds of paradise, of which ten or twelve sorts 
uimeruted by Mr. Pennant. They alight on the liiiifhest trees, 
nc: to feeil on berries, and, according to some, on nutmegs and 
.'Hies : and they are eitlier shot with bluni arrows, or caught 
liinMime or nooses. The bowels and breast bone lacing ex^ 
d, they aiv dried with smoke and sulphur, sold for nails or bits 
n, and' exjwrted to Handa. Papua also boasts of par- 
while the crowned or g'ig:miic pigeon almost eqiials a turkey 

ne of the small adjacent islands are better known than the 
lami of Papua ; as AVaijoo, or AVadjoo, which is an isleof con- 
ible 8l:^e, and saitl to contain 100,U(>0 inhabitants. Salwatti is 
er popfdous island, gt)vemt»d by a r:ija. The pw]'»le of these 
irge islands rv\semble those of the main land of Papua, Iwing 
:ulair, of horrible apjx'ai'ance ami great ferocity, l*hey 
>n fish, or turtle, and sago: that tree abouinling in Papua, 
;h tlic substance is chiefly pn^paretl by the people of Waijoo. 



: are sci^arated from New Cuim'a, in the N. E. by a stnit called 

Dampicr^s stmit. 

,W RRITAIN was first explorcil and namc<l by Dampier in 
In 1767 Cuptain Carteret passeil thmugh a channel between 
Britain and New Ireland. In tliese parts the niiimeg tree is 
abundant, being perhaps the most remote regl<»n towards the 
jf that valuable plant. Dampier visited a bay in NeAV Britain, 
i Port Montag\ie, antl found the land mountainous and woody, 
ntcrspersevl wiih fertile vales and beautiful streams. The 
ry seemeil verj- populous. The chief products .si«emed to 
coa nuts, but there were yams, and otljcr L\)Ots, ]iarticularly 

ABiTAXTs. C.»ptain Carteret found the natives of NVw IreUnd 
lostile, having lances headed with flint. Their fr%ces were 
:ed wiUi white, and their hair daubed with powder of the same 
i\ They are black, and said to he woolly IkmiUhI, but without 
lick lips or flat nose of the negro. Some uf the c:ui«»es of New 
td wcK ninety feet in length, formed out of a single tree. 


• 1 


riw >iil<tnhii\ Ikl.iiiilH i|iM*ii\i fill !i\ MiMulun.ii in l>f.», aiv a Ur^ ^ 
jr;ti'i;>. » \l. .iilm.;: tn»»u l.«»nl AnM.nV ibU: '»\ thr N. >\ . to tho i«c ' 
. ill. I K.nii'Mt ».'. i'M\, :vV iit \\\r S. K. Stnnrof the iKiti\cii \vci\ of 
.1 r •;>;>( r « oi>>nr, n'iii is •>!' .i ilci |i hlark, willi u wrapper ot liiHli 
.11- 'i:iu{ t!.. 'I t..i, \«hilc tlii* lu-ik was i>maim*iiti'il willi liltlc U*A(I» 
fit .,i'Ki I 111 r.iMiics wvw Miiull, tun hcinf; rniiuiumiT iantenecl to* 
p .It' i- 111 t .i^ktt.N of jKiliii li.(\i.'!i tlu*y cam u kiiul of bread nuufe 

• 1 V > -'s 


Tlir.NF. ivjrinn.s wt'xv ilisriiVfivcl hv (^iptuin (>U(>k in 1*74; licinf 
-.i'"..'««I I'l'iin uImmiI l.i l«» JA dfj^nv.s K. liitiliiiU'. 

\' u C'tltrloiiiu is a lurj^ii* iNlaiitl, ami the natives arc suiil to be i 
1. is( r.ii-i*, of a deep hmwii eoiiipK-xitiii, reKciiiblinif tliuse of 
N\ '.\ /. -.iluiiil. 

I'll' ^M>inin an* more chaste than in the other ihIcb of the Pacific 

III- h ••-.•. s ..i-r r.i-ut, ^'iine having eaniHl iltMir poHtM, and tlieV rixeill 

' • : •v:)i nf .1 lur hi%i\ w.uin hut full of smoke. The drciM isi 1 

\.\\U\ V. ;-..p;\ ;•; and the hair which ifl fri//.led, not wcxdlVy is omii 

> *' I w I'll a ennih, uliile the Ivard i.s worn short. They siib>ilt 

■ If .•>. .m.! t\s\\, the rouulry heinjf very liarren :uul rocky. 

I ! ! '•111.1, oMi- of tlu* \ew llehrideH, theiv i.s » rcMiiarkuble vdi- 

.-r>. -.x ;'. Ii H.iiiu- hot springs. Ilei\- arc found planlain.s, sugarcancsi 

..: ! -■ \cr.4l kimis i.f fruit tivcH. 

\ . WAX ZKAl.AND. 

['\U^ r Mi:j!:v was hrst disc<ivired liy Ta.snian in lfvl-2, huthcdiil 

.: I.i: ii. I.i^iiiide ah.»iil '10^ .S. ;mil li'mjfitude about 180" K. 

Oi«r T. ;;• ii.iv^valnr t'uok cNplnred these n»)fions in 1770, anddift' 

•-. Ti il :i si-.Mit V. Iiieii di\i<!e.s tile country into two Urge islaiidi. 

< > - is r.ot Ic^s than 600 llrilisii miles in U-n^th, by aixiut 150 in inc- 

• !. .1 i)rra.l;ii . anil the other is liilh* htferior in si/e. 

Oiii- iif tiuM- appears to he far more fertile than tho othiiri 

•"»';i !• I'll li.i >.A a t< inpt-rate • liniate, similar to that of France. The 

.iiM . V. I'l- «il:sir«.etl to he of a hrown complexion, little dc!t*prr 

liiii till- Sp.uii li, and some aiv even fair. Tliey etpial the talkvt 

1 ..ii>;.i-.\:i . IP. -.taini-i'; and tiieii* feuturcH aix* conunoidy rcf^ilar and 

pli .(M...;-. It i-; '.iiitrui:ii- to oh.scrve xueli a diversity bi*twccn them 

•nd tlic p. s nt" .\f\v llollar-id, when tlieory wouhl expect to find 

.'uni the sunir race id' men. Sii far a.s present dise.overica vxtcitdy 

ln' n;.tiM>< of N.w llidlantl and Papua .seem Xu d i.splay nn African 

%iriy;iM : w iiilf most of the other islands in the Pacific appear to ha^ic 

.!»• M iKojdeil InMii Vsl.i. 

.MvNMHN \Mi (.'isioM.s. The \ew /ealanders inter their dead; 
'■' \ ah.i» l>i Ilive that tlie tliiril d.iy after the interment thehe.-ii*! sc- 

• •■iiut'^N iisilf from the corp.';e, and is c;uTied to the clouds by x\j[pi »f» 

• • it'Iaiii .s|);ri» 



licide 15 ren' coma&on ixni^^.^ tLe New ZisklkXiMTi, lavl ".1.1* iLtj 
I commit by h&ng-in^ t}j?mMJ%'«i> c«n tJie sligiitest rjcckswui . ihut 
man who hhs btsen bekten by }K:r bu&buid will ^isrlu'.p!' uari^ ije-r- 

K-v likve no other division of time tlma tJie rtnojir ior. '.r 'Jut 
1, until the nuiriber unounts to one btmdred, wjilch Ui^-y -'•rnr. 
.-iee E-tow," tLjd in one Eiow, or hundred moonk^; Vid it ib 'iub 
count tJjeir agie, 2ind calcuhLtx; kU otljer events. 
le natives have no morai, or pUioe of worship i but the prksti 
? addreias the jc^^^ ft^*" prosperity. 

iC flax of New Zealand hk» excited particular alientjon, being 
beautiful siVky SLfspesa^inc^^t aijd tite plant remarkabjr tidl. Titf: 
ire has been attempted botli in France and Efiji'land wit^iout buc- 
; perhaps from some remarkable difference h* bo'il, <tr the entirrr 
■sion of seasons. It is not a little remark^Jile, tijkt in tfai$ ex- 
ve land no quadruped was obsewed, except a few rati, and £. 
log, which is a domestic animal with iLe natives. 
le general dretss is an obl'.n^ gvment mitde oy kriottlng the hUtj 
tbdr ears are omameiiuul with bits of jad or ^Jtstdh, tjte fL.<.<^: 
f often beBme:ared with a red paint, Tlie hi.bitatiy»is are iir su- 
MT to those in Xcw lloUand ; and titc boats are well built oi 
is raised upon each ottier, and tastened with strong withes. 
e are fifty feet long, and so bi oiui as to be able to sail witiiout 
it-riggery but tlie smaller sort commonly have one, and they 
I fasten two together by rafter?. I'he large canoes will carry 
y men or more ; and have often a head ingeniously carved, 
jr weapons are spe&i*s aT:d javelins, with the pa-too, a kind of 
or rode battle-axe ; and m combat thev distort tlieir features 
demons. I'he yet warm bodies of their enemies are cut in 
3^ broiled^ and devoured witli peculiu* satisfaction. 


lUS is the last great division yet discovered of the wide expanse 
.DstralaBia. Tlie name was imposed by that eminent Dutch na- 
bor Tasman. It has been recently disc/ivered to be an island, in 
brm of an oblong square, about 160 British miles in length, by 
that breadtliy being divided from New Holland bv a strait, more 
thirty kagiies wide. The natives were entirely naked ; of a 
Hon stature, but ratlier slender, the skin being black. ^uid the 
IS woolly as that of any native of Guinea, but their lineaments 
\ more pleasing than those of African m^rocs. Tlie hair and 
iSy and of some the faces, were smeared witli red ointment. The 
1b resemble those of New Holland; but sometimes large trees 
loUowed out by fire to the height of six or seven feet, so m to 
k a rude habitation. 







TIIF. r;)U»)Winp.irr the rliief siibilivisions comprised under tin 
•M-<iiitiiiii:iMon ot* l*iilviU'sia. 

1. Ilu' IVUw ImUs. 

? riu- Ludruius, u rliaiii oxtemiiinf in a nnrtlierly (iirectkm. Thl 
•iiii:ill isiaiuls in tlu* P.icifir sioiii to luMnostly the suimnittof rwgCI 
t>r ^11 iu|)<« tif iiKHiiitaiiis. 

.. I'h.- Ccrolinos, a lonfj ranjjp r\t»*mlinjf frcim E. to W. so aspl^ 
U.ips. iM stni-tiu'SK, to iiiciuiU* thl* IVIcws. 

4 Tlu- Sandwich Ihlcs. 

.». 'I'lic Manpu'sa!*. 

6. 'I'hi- Siiciity Isli's, so named in honour of the Royal Socielyt^r' \ 

7. Ihv I'Yiindly I.slcji. 

TIhmt .ipi- bisidi's, many islos srallcwd. in difTcrcnl dircctionii 
%\liir!i it v.iiuld 1)1* ditlicult to connect with any {^^up, ami indeed 
Mwiir iif iIk in, yi't discovcriil, aiijK'ars to bi* o!" any eouscquence 


J l.i \ an- sitiiutt'il ahout 10 ilt'yfiiH's V. of the Ecpiator, in or about 
tiK* h>n)^itud<.' of M-U** R. from l<oii(hm. 

THIS j^'oup ivccntly atlracto«l considoraMc attention, from an m- 
:;'i-ni(ms unil pK'asinj^ account of them, drawn up by ^Ir. Kcate, froB 
ilu- piijuTs of captain Wilson, who sufftTinl shipwreck on these 
L*«l.iiuls in 17^.5 '1'Ik* narrative is doubtless heig1)tcm.*d, but Hm 
p.«>plv' :ipi)f:ir lo lie a most piule and amiable nice, tlie gay JOid in- 
ii.s(\'ni rhilthvn of nalun*. It is a peculiarity, in the oriental ar^ 
pila;;-'-, il>at the small isles aix» the chief seats of comparaiive civili- 
-at inn, hy ihe roncentration of sijciely. Where there is no room for 
. iirrissii.n. the sot ie'y iKTomes as it were one family. 

ri).- ;*.Uwans art i si. nit well made people RitlKT above the mid' 
v.ile slut iii't'. Their coPipU'xi<ms are of a far dee]>er colour than wbit 
U inuLr.siood l)\ the co])pv r hue, hut not black, and their hair is loitf 
ami ll.iwin};*. The mm are etuirely naked, while the women onjf 
rt-e:ir two littK- aprons or rather frinp^'s, made of the husk of tM 
ro( (»:i nut. IJotli st'Xe^i .ire t.i'.oood, and their teeth art' <lyed blacfc 
Polxi^aniy is alloxvi'd, :inil thediad are interre<l. There 'Rt*em8 aft 
appearance of reli.ufion of any kind, though tliey have an idea thit 
thl* sdiil survives the body. 

Tlu* y;o\ornmcnt is in the hands of a kinp, mulor whom there are 
•■w//»./A\v, or chiefs, wlu» aKo ronHiitntea kind of nobles. The pro- 
peii) of all tiic land is supposed to be vested in the sovervi^ i 


it of the people id only personal, as a canoe, weapons, or 
iclcs of fnrnituve. Our domestic poultry are here wild in 
Is, and were neglected by the natives, till taiig-ht by Xh6 
tliat they were proper for food. Their chief nouribhment 
to be fisFi ; but they make a kind of sweetmeat from the su* 
, which seems to be indip^enous. The chief drink is iho 
the cocoa-nut. They commonly rise at day-light, and im- 
y go to bathe in fresh water. Their houses are raised ou 
tnes, about three feet from tlie ground ; being constructed 
i and bamboos, with a fu'e-])hcce in tlie middle, secured witli 
bish. There are large mansions for public meetings. la 
their articles i*esemole tliose of Otaheitc, and other Lsl^9 
lutii Sea. I'he weapons are speara, darts, and slings : and 
es ai*c formed of tlie trunk of a tree, neuily ornamented. 
yony tree is ibund in tlie forests, and the bread fruit and 
ee seem to abound, with sugar-canes and bamboos. No 
prain was seen, nor any quadrupeds, except gome rats in the 
nd three or four cats in tlie houses, 


appellation implies the Isles of Robbers, and was give* 
distinguished navigator Mngalhaens, wlio first discovered 
mds in 1521. 

Kir, speech, manners, and government, they considerably r** 
he people of the Philippines, before the Spanish conquest, 
les were tlien very populous. Ciuam, the largest, is forty 
)f circuit, having thirty thousand inhabitants, 
adroncs are computed to be twelve or fourteen in number ; 
bore thi-ee or four are inhahite<l. Tlieir vessels, calleil flying 
we been esteemed singular specimens of naval architecture* 
le seas is tlic stupendous rock called Lot's Wile, rising in 
of a pyramid, and thus described bv Mr. Meares in hit 
•* The latitude of this rock was 29** 50^ north, tlie Umgitucle 
, east of Greenwich. The waves broke against its rug^ged 
th ft fury pro])ortioned to the immense distance they had to 
re they were interrupted by it. It rose almost peniendicular 
ight of near three hundred and fifly feet. A small mack rock 
just above the water, at about forty or fifty yards from the 
edge. There was a cavern (mi its soutfi-eastem side, into 
Lc waters rolled with an awful and tremendous noise. In 
^ this stupendous rock, which stoo<l alone in an immense 
e could not but consider it as an object which had been 
«si8t one of those great convulsions of nature that change 
form of those parts of the globe which tliey are permited to 


t ronsisi 01 two niijuniaiiis, a lar^r aiiu ai siiMtucr, juirieu i 

r V row ridj^ ; and the inliRbitants are entirely confined to t 

fifl roasiN; as the natives croud to the shores for fishy their c 

' nifiu. 

Nt-ar tlic central summit of the large mountain of Otaheit 
111 circumference, though not in height resembles £tna, t] 
ciii'irius lake <»f some extent r but no river appears, there be 
'h ulets, which spring from the skirts, und pursue a brief c 

■ « 

V, fi f )r ihrto niiles to the ocean. 

Inhahitaxtsi. Tlie natural colour of the inhabitants ia o 
rlining to copper. The women are only a shade or two dee] 
:in Kiiropcun brunelt'». The} have fine black ej-es, with wh 
\vv\\\, soft >kin, and elegant limbs ; while their hair is of 
>iluck, perfimii'd and ornamented witli flowers. But with : 
a<lvautuges they vield infinitely in beauty to the women of t, the face lias a broad masculine appearance. 

The chiefs are taller than the people, few being under a 

- ' and as personal size and strength are tiie chief distinctions 

society, it is probable that their ancestors were selected fi 
advanta^s, which have been continued b\ superior (bod a 
The dress of both sexes is nearly the same, except tliat 1 
wear the maro, a narrow piece of cloth ^Tapped round tl 
:.p.(l passing between the thighs ; an oblong piece, cut in fhc 
to admit the head, hangs down before and behind ; and anoth 
i& wrapped round the middle, and a square mantle is dirb' 
all. Both sexes wear garlands of flowers and feathers ; ind 
T^^:T\ usc a kind of bonnet made of cocoa leaves. Parturition 
and the infant can swim as soon as it can walk. 

r ' Their voice and speech are soft and harmonious ; and ti 

lect is the Italian or the Pacific ocean. Their rude manu 

n^— ±. 

..1.. .. l.-XL.l 1 : .L- 


) ; a curious instance of ferocious supttrstition^ mingled with 
ncss of character. 

STUALH. The chief animals are hogs, but they have also dog^ 
poultr}'. The bread fruit tree abounds ; and large plantations 
nude of cocoa trees and plantains. The soil of the low lands, 
jf the vales wliich intersect the ridp^e towards the ocewj, is re- 
Lably fertile, consisting of a rich blackish mould. In tlie north 
larvesl of bread fruit begins abfiut November, and continues 
he end of January ; while in ihe soutliem part it often begins in 
arv and continues till Novemljcr. The lake alwve mentioned is 


tr) be tatliomless ; but its shores are well peopled by an indus- 
5 race. The cliief harbciur of Otaheite appears to be Matavai, 
le north side of the island. 

le next island in regard to size is Ulitea : but tliis and the 
•s of this g^oup, are. of fur mierior dimensions to Otaheite, and 
ly claim attention in a general description. 


ilS group extends chiefly from S.W. to N.E. including the 
ie Isles, those called the Navigators, and several detached isles 
more northerly position. Tlie name was imposed by captain 
:, in testimony of the disposition of the people ; but they had 

discovered by Tasman as early as 1643. The inhabitants are 
*iU9ted with those of Otaheite, as being of a more grave and re^ 
? behaviour ; and the power of the chiefs more despotic A 
'er security of property has also superinduced more ingenuity 
ndustiy : but in gcnend their manners and customs approach 
;arly, dftat a farther account might appear repetition, 
wording to latest information Tongataboa, the chief bland, is 

universal and surprising state of cultivation ; the whole island 
isting of inclosures, witli i-eed fences about six feet hij^h, inter- 
<1 witb innumerable ronds. Tlie \vlu»le is such a picture of 
itry, as to form a reproach to nations wJio call themselves ri- 
sd. The length of Tongataboo is only about sixteen miles, by 
t eight at its greatest breadth. The commodities are, as usual, 
, bread fruit, cocoa nuts, and yams. 

me missionaries were left here, who imparted some useful arts 
»e natives, but rats were very destructive to tlie European 


om tlie acountsof La Peroiise, it would appear that tlic Islands 
lYiGATORs are by far the most important in tliis large group, 
[aotina, one of the largest of these inlands, captain }ie Langle, 
uion, the naturalist, and nine seamen were massacred by the in- 
ants, the captain having unadvis<.'dly given beads to a few of tlie 
s while he neglected others. At Miioiinu the irigates were 
undcd with two himdred canoes, full of dlflTerent kinds of pro- 
is, fowls, hogs, pigeons, or fruit. The women wei-e very prct- 
d licentious ; and the men of remarkable stature, strength and 



of tp^' — 

b Tir I «19|;<-: nr <M)i!4iTAith ii^'tkird fil7^| 











.'!•'. cMMr 11 )\* t.i irraf oC a oout incut of \*«!l oxttiit arul Ttrlilit) . 
•li • n! .i.s.-o.t r< «! cj.i;.rur t»t ilw ti.nM(H!t iMis :^!i! t .>f\ 
iv. •• ^ii' ■. t! I f':i:* pH ;.!i'r p.".»'l ri'nt:iiii> ;»• ho ivc!"*l tVou. ;i - . ..'o 
i.»tu:*c. f^t'V ]:'•» 'n.scs u\ n v .ir«l the li..iul ot ir.iius\i\ is lilur. il\ 
ilh* 1 »«i liif i!;i»;\ aTU'uir. ili^ isuili> ; and »«» ju'i'iiuco tvi ills :%% 
4iy orpl.uv iM ilic u';» "1' itviliz.iiiiMi Mul iiiipnucniont \\\ 
liiip tliiN |»orti.M\ cit' jrvo^i".»p:.\. wt- will jmrsno ncurU 'lie Naiiu: 
'ijjt nu'iil a»« Jii vlu'. li"»N };•*!»»• 1 1 tort* 

\ rrxT The M>\iUKni l'.n<.;s oTihv* V'r.ciiiMn contiiiont is rh:ar- 
<i|mialc(l iri)Mi ilw <!r.ut « t* M-iiraUva-n*., or, :uvt»r%!i!i}r t»» the 
tell ilopra%".«tioii of !i l'.«rtuc-iic>o iiriuu'. Majiviljtii. U'lt tho 
lurn cMc'Ht i< !)■»! ;i».i'« riaincu W'tU icjti.»l prociMi'n. It'llaOinV 
rralh cNist, the jMvihiTH limit niu> rxteiul ti» So »h'jri\,'i's, op |H'r- 
i i<i llic ptlo. Ihit amidst lUe rem..inirj5r inu\rtainty, it will he 
ciont tc» o>iim;ai* ihe loMj»;th ol' \mtrira from the T'2t\ degree of 
h lu»i;u«lt tti thi* slrai^^ht »»f Magalliaen*:. or the A-lth dtfvjn e of 
h l.itiiiidi : a j«paee of IJ6 <lej;Tees, or T^'iCiO jreopfrRiJlueal mile's. 
I South .Vnuriea, the jjriatrsl brra«llh is from ca|>«' Itiaiico in the 
:, to that of St. |{iupie in ihc ; whleh. accoTdimj to the Iv^t 
H, Is AH ihirr^.V"«, or 28.S0 p'ojfrnphiral mile^. Miit »i the north. 
Ima«ltli may lut eomptited fnun the pmmon levy of .Musku to the 
I ea«t« rn pi»iiil of l^ihrador, ov c^en of IJivitiland, which nvoiiIJ 
!i\<»iH' tie.n a third p.tri to the e>tim.i»e. In llritish miles the 
tl. of Artier ea maj lie e-lim.-.tid at 8H«H\ and supposing tin: 
•Ml of North Xnur* ■. .^t'iO jj|;x»ogrrtphical miles«. it will, in Uri- 
iiiilc>, he a^t'.nl 44i* K 

iii surrnimdeil «Mi :»!! s\Us hy the sea, exei |it in ihf tiorth, 
li h:is ui ver Uen i xploiril ; heing- KnmdiHl in the K. by the At- 
i« , in tlu" \V. h\ the l*s*'.hc mean, and in the S In Iniih. 
:hio%-»iii, &.e.. ^\ li<»tlur thi'» ipi.irlop of the glolv v as first pr»i- 

fn):u \ho Mortli-N^esi .•-•.de ef Kiiropi*, the eortli-east of \.si.-», 
I* short s nf AfVieji that approach* st to the of Ura/il, 
••»in .»il lline, wilJ piHiaps al\*i>vs n.main the «uhivel of conjee- 
I'l.ere is e«Mi*iideraMe plaiisihlliu ni tr:'.cii>g the Aherignus 
K- N« w W.irld to :.U nf these mhuvcs, a- llure ij» a sittlieient dil- 
uv i'l the r:-fs.«j-, la 'ijnage. aud customs v\' the \.iru»n«-. Nav- 
irdv.N, divH r'Ci' o\er tins cMcnhi^c continent, to warrunl all oj" 

•I Amrrtot, ri tttUidlf BMM u 
*- -V bcfiii"'"'- ■■' ■>•- fin — •'• 

iTcpiicha 4r Amrricbii dli«6Tcry of rniiinc urn: 

'iliMiil, ihut lait jjnKuf LHluiului-tii'N«irliHti«llu»I,*itIu 


. ijiiiiKiVfiiUiit Hikbiu uMi;ie>o»cl tlic Ainc- 
', .'11' wi nir u* V'irgitiia: Uiit, ling kuiil furminf menj/ mi »li- 

u '.'' itin withtn, li« rL-nimcU Lu Kii^'li'iitli 

?0C. C'ortedc HcbUm PorUi^uCiH! optuia.innirchiM' u niirUi- 

t pli*saK«, di«e<ncr«d LabruiIuF. 

5I3, f^idi wu cliBCOvtrrcil by Podev, a Siuitikli luptaiii. 

' I "■" ■ ■. TiLrtiM diE canMowjd/T, uii ilic7 d*j' of 

vnul ptiC kiul river, lo wliich Uc 
I u Uie fiillowiii|5 year 4iii «ileU *liout 
.11 tu* gnmt mUnictibuilt uttKi^jfiJ 

>a' l'Kiin|>hi-('y (•jtk'n ubtoiard a Mtvnt.fbi' wfUkurlamt* 
I I'lii, In IStU liK cUfAwerud uid UmIc |mmm>wuii at ilia liai-- ■ 
. St. John, Mid the cauntry to the wuUi, faui wwi Imt uu liit 

■ - ■4' llrBfce murad tli» world *orv(%i 1ft Itintllu Ikrt en- 

)">:.:liitlii Mill iUlalfh obUinEd M l>M(n< siieiliL- In 

. .:i vp-i9i:l>i di'upitdtcil hv iiiM)()i iiiii'Drlun»tcln 

I r«Inii^iimkr ihu Gamnwdd -of Sir 

' ill Ak nAv Iff Moannktt u i»ri«t in- 

■ ., v. i„.,ir« i1k-v rtiinnwd in 1J86, Tht 

■ ■ ' iltli cxwllcnl vftiitK, Wilt 

tto taaAu imwr iinniR' 

. uiul ufieFwimU reaigiied 

contfrwd ^i'Ji J notiy 

' >>. i61j3. Uicre van not tme 

. II ki'iUril 111 .\<>i!:<'ii::i : iiiil li'C ^pKiiiiMli ond .^uriUKtwiM 

mtly tKLtKniH >i>tioliull(>i-iiuH.tii»y i:iMliU*bniait on thil vi>t 

■ xliuultt partiikc 

'il' ni«ik of ruik 

■ 'I ■■ ;t,.„«..1 bj' Jsmrtll, 

iU:r(,ni«,ioiu, that 

I i i:irpif& The 

1, \i; uSi-ww^'iia iiu^illalicii ui tu^ouuiit of Iiia vayaget, (IIm- 
' t .-niii'kiJiIc tpirit, pcTH-vemnu, uul eniterprue : yet «u licftn- 
1 inmmvidnit were tbe ulMnUrcii in Kcneral, and ao mutb 
■. j.iifcr.'d In contcquciice tticrcur, lluit tlicy """c alioiit to 
a Ikiirlund l/i lOl'J, whenl»rd Uc-Io-niu- vrtvu^l ivitii a i;oii- 

I- will Bltluiii|[ti' U« Imirf re^iliw-d. in Uie| 

■nr, }tK \Lit pruJatil cimdllKt gtit aiub II 

.1.., M Hnll u ku tlie nibcr nriUib cnt^ 
r \Jtrn neUM of when wg tantt to ikwo 


•ituulKiilnpapulMltinof fti)HgI>- atMininiliunpv. 



I |l.?j^OKTH AjMJ^HIct-lgTfe; 




Tttl»iItvisibA oTlheqcw iw«ancrit bt;tqun(!):d III 

■ 111 Ur ivi' nil the wral bv the Great, tW-Pacific 

1- ] xkI to rttend to ■ tW Ficinitv of 

( \ r t 1 Ining DiiivcrSuUy CDii«idi:ix-a as 

^ i iLiti limitc Ijikvc not heal dearly 

I Ji»taiJ(porlwB].unibeN.W. 

1 the iiorlh, (be limit may pro- 

In iht meiiu lime 72 di'grMe 

' the sgutlicTii^ baundary, aboUt 

■ ■ il" Ljicrui, filers will be 641 dc- 

■ ISi.'O Britelv Tlie bremdifi fi-om " 

. (ii 'hf cxtreipe point of tabnidor, or 'hB 

■ '.seeedtho liriigth. ICiuSliould be Jisttw 

'ifbin-ci tn the B«iic land* 'if America, tu 

:.tnc<r, to Aii^ both tlic Ieng;th aiul brtadtb 


^ . . Lh nivulvdl 
ol' the, iialive nations il( AMcrIca 4i«t>l*ys 
:si irace nr uit oblique eycsj aOi ptiier retnuffwUt- fta- 
fllicli tlie iiib;tbilanta of saBtcnt Asia are diflin^iabeit. 
tills, Pallas, LJeecps, Toaki;, and olher^^ilful inquin-n, 
lounc^il tliat tbe Tcchubs ^d Knvluks undnublciUT pro- 
uDi Amtricii, i» the; hire not one Aiitttic I iii«a>ent : or we. 
QiM»iHukt UicHt Asiatic tribes have<Bii^iitcd (p AniMicv 1 
id iliul tticii- Hjtiiiirt- was nncc i-ciy popubua, And it now | 

... -1.1. I , ,_ larinns. The. Rnropi'in sclile. 

' -i- s(i«enil molbea.ciiuiitrlra, in 

II i:: lo Ub n-BrellcS tluit nr^ilhcr 

• I . ■ lunEiiig>iS 'if the tutiies bren 

■ I ■ . u- care and iwecialiin. Ti'u^pI- 

.-icr, jnltic inti.nul p^irt.'i ill" N. A. p»rl.ieiil»rl.v 

!r. MBMt ^^Bt there aw but fimr motiier tongues among 

s,ilis|>B*iedfh3niLaliroilor to Florida 1 vii. tliiwc 

Tli'u kinil of fem nfibnniriRcrUiecd to Uip 
(•li>^ nunc fav which tkfi Auxuvraa '(lbt^igv'--r 

The e»iSU of ^s^iLOi 

onldom lIuttboM u ti:u dtym yrf after a tatitJ iln)', .Ikmci 
:r hftk in aiu ijg'ht (hhii tilliil ividr ip.-. Tlii'nn ini-piUiiiir r-liua- 

v d»-);r")>. 'if 
. , ■\,:..Ur,e 

I .>tn 

Oiy «-^ ,A r. .,.^<Li r;ii. .,u^i,...,:m.! «-ai.r .-; a-.^ ■■' 

lilt* Ukc. Ir II f .uioi 

Ilie iiaviplion i 

ufaiiyoiher, tli-^i 

_ _jc ititut ri»fT St 1 Jiwi^-ik 

TlK'|iikeot'Wiii"ipi)c.oi- Whinlplt, my uliiOMpntA i) 
ol'mi inlMid keHi lint it ricUs coiKhWrnli^ m the ip««t Dl« 
ur ru,iJil:F sett " ri7'*'i>l tlittcnvRr^', fivm whieli ll|i>lunih^« i* 
t«n<U its cutu-te to Uw Arvtiv of-tsfi- TIm> 81»«« »««, *«e*— 
AmmunilV'i niKfs, it about 2W fllilvs iu UnX\-\> 1^. IW Kt jU 

Tliu smaller Ukmhall br hr^cflv ilMcribol^ltbw fl 
ttiriltrr)- \o whlnli thi'y ttorc lUttC'V l>ct'*ll- 

BiTins. ^(Icr (hl« liFid «viiliiU Iak<' imtlM of tho (T 
tu. IdwrMiee and MiisUaipiii, n-ienfinfr 'Itc nUitrpriucI] 
t^ tlie states in wtich they ant DiosikKowii-^Tiw nver 51. i, 
wliich rises in bhf Oiit*i-ii>, Bnd,runnitig llimiirh Inwrr 
vniplirK into agiilf of its ouii luime, ii utiivenifJh' rr;^ril<|i 

C'lid in North Amcrlcu ; being nnt l^i; ihaii 9Q inilui WjJ 

lircadUj, imd itt Monlce*! tram two to loaf. Abuve tbb i 


wiiioli iriulrr the navi^ution (huif^crous; but id boats it niuy 
isccl to iiL-ar Kiii[^stoii on lukf Onturui, 74;» mili-s l'nm\ Ihf sea. 
ic iifivig'.'ttioii \H inti'n'uptccl scmtuI iiiontiiK in tiiL'M'arby tbc 
I' cold of the clinKitc. Tlu' J/mm//.yi/ Is the larjyist rivor 
■i known in North Anicnea. It is ihc };-ixiit rhaniU'L that iv- 
the waters of tlie, tht.* IUin4>is, unil their miniironK 
u'H fi*oii) the oast, anil cf the Mi.sssom'i, the Akan/.a, and 
ivcr; and other iidrrior hire:. ni«i on i hi- west. "I'hi" noi-lht'ini- 
and most distaiU hr.ineh of its Sduree is in lat. 'l*j" :>?', an»l 
)4° 51', \V. from l.(;Mdon. Us IiM^cth to its eiuiiiiue into llni 
>f IMexieo, is supjioscd to he .>()IM) nji!<"s. hi this rivfi* in 
]f^ iW aiv the falls of Ht. Anlhony, wIil-iv tlu* stiram, nion* 
350 vanls wide, falls perpendiiMilap ahoiit ;>0 fl-et. Miit the 
iiri is NO niueh lar|:fer and hoUkr than the Mississippi when* 
.nite in lat. ;>9**, that sonu' have rMipp(i:.eil the foinu-i* in 
rineipal slrram. It has Ihhmi asrendvd by I-Vi-neh traders op- 
of IvJOO miks, and tVoni its drpth and brcadtli, at that dis- 
upjM arcd to he navijruhle nnieh hij;hfr. In lat. 47** '>i2', and 
101° '25', it makes a ronsidepal)h! IkmuI to thf .south of west. 
irNTAiNM. 'rhr mountains of North America are far thim ri- 
»• the Andes of tlw South. Some irrej^ular rani^es pt-rvach' the 
LIS, but it seems mere theory to consider thein i-onneeted with 
Kles, as thev have neither the same charartor nor direction. 
* wc^st of the I'i*ovnice of Darien, a eon.siderahle chain passes 
I 8. which ma\ be considered asanatiual bouiulary between 
and South America. 

1. ' west, so far as discovered, a rauffe* of mountains prococnls 
^ew Mexico in u noithern dui'ciion, and j)aHsin;»'on the west 
' hikes, joins the ridjfe called the Sto!iey Mountains, which 
I to the vicinity of the Arctic ocean. The Stouey Mountahi.i 
id to be alifiut .».iOO feet aljove their base, which ntay ])crhap« 
30 feel above the sea. In j^'eneral, from tlur aeeount of uavi- 
who have visiteil the \. \V. coast, it s^-enw to resemble that 
•w.iy, Ix'inj^f a wiltl alpine country of }^r<:«t extent ; wliile the 
ph'senta innumerable civek : ar.d ishu .U. This tract, from 
lucy mountains and Maeken/.ie's riv. r wi'stward to th<' j*(»uree 
Orejfan hnd Heerinp's slraii, ma\ jM-jhaps l>e found to crmtain 
^hest mountains in North Amerie.i, \\]ui\ ccnupletely explorod 
eye of sci<'uc«*. On th<' north-easf, (in-cnhind, Labrador, and 
|^ltri^'S aifiund Hudson Sea, present irref;ular nias.-es, covered 
ternal snow, with black naked p ak^, r-sembHr.;;- h\ form the 
ofthcMdps, but of far interior elevation, mountains |«-enerally 
ksinjf in height t«)<\\irds tlu* pol«'. 

most cell brated UKMUitaiMS in North .\mei ica are those call- 
.• \palarhian, passiuij: thiouj»'h tlse tiiritory oi" tlie lulteii 
fl*<»in the S. W. to the "N.K. Accnrduij; to the be>( majK, 
{>mn\rneoon the north of fSeoiiiii, wheie ilu v ifive source to 
rivers runmii}< south to the y;\\\i o!" Mi xico, and t(» olheis lun- 
ortli, which fall into thr Ohiv There ai-e severtd CvjUateral 
, HHthe Imn w Hald Mcmn-ains, the ulnte O.ik Miiuntains, .S.e. . 
tcrior Hkirt on tlu X. \> . b,*i«.:^ du- (:»:n»berland Mountain. 


• 1 Ik- A:, .l-icliian rliain tlienco oxtomls tliroiij^h tlie westcm territt 

fit' Vii-ri'iMf acrunipanic'il with its colhicrul riilgcfl ; tlie brtradll: 
tl.i uii!-.- iiciiijj nWvn scvtntv niilcM. It pn^ecds througfi Pi* 
.sy]\;«!r..i, 'lull pusses ihuUon nviT, :liii1 uiicrwards rises to g^res 

' «K v:tiii'n, hii' MTiii?; ii» ixpirc in tho coiintry of New Rninswick. 

I'lir A]):(l:ii-lii:iii rliaiii may thus t-xtciul aUnit 900 gt'ographi 
lui'i.-N ; :i i( nj^rtli iinrlvalhHl by any r.uni]H'an mountains, except 
Niirwi-i^iaii alps. In no chuin perhaps »re tiio colltitcTal rklj 
nimv ili^'.inrt ; and a naturalist would at once pninouncc that 
central, or In^hfst, must 1k' granitic, the nixt schistose, and ' 

! cxti-rii'i- In lis, ralcurfrtus. 

' lUtiTi- \u- nvicw thr Knn>pcan possi-ssions and the United Sta 

ttf Ni-rili Ain..rica, it will not Uv amiss to take some notice of i 
n«irilicrn extrvmity, and the central ])arts of this cjiiarter of ^ 

'. j;liihv, wliicli remain under the dominion of the native tribes, a 

t arc}et vi-ry iniiK-rfectly known. 


TIIF. diseowry of this extensive ivjjlon, whether continental 
insular, 'Aas ellerUtl hy tlu- people of Iceland in the tenth ccntui 
llie disi.-.nce, aeeonliu}: to the best nia])s, lieinjr about ei}^ht degr 
of'.ude in hii. 6lV-', or nearly 2uu j^. niilts. The mtercourse 
Iwi". n this colony and Denmark was maintained till the beginiuiu 
tiie 1.11 1. Mill century, the last of seventeen bishops beings namea 
1-H»<'': and in that century, the cohniy appears to have been cc 
\'\u \\ inj])risoned by the frozen ocean; while on the west a rsi 
I if iniMiis^ahle mountains and ]dairis, covered by perpetual ice, p 
ch.ded :lII :tcces<. The anciiint settlement contained sc^'eral cburd 
:okI !r.>.-;i:tslerieh, the n:imes and positions of which may still 
trui •. il. On the west some ruins of churches have al.^n been dis 
\i. .id. A pious Norwepan clorjrj'man, named Kgetlc, iK*in[^ dee 
ini])ns.-\ d with tlie melancholy account he had heard or read of t 
ei)l«'n' , in ITJl pwcecded to tlie western shon*, where he eontint 
till irS.s preachin)^ the gfiv-ipel to the natives — ^Ins benevolent ■ 
an.jiie liu\ inj; been since lolUmed by several missionaries. The s 
■ :«A'.-. v' Moravians their settlements abotit thirty years afi 
li U ' .i:(l ihat the country is inhabited as far as TCP : thc'Dunish i 
Mt>;- .vian siUlenunts aiv chiefly in the S. W. 

This dreary country may Iv saiil to cont^t of rocks, ice, i 
sni:\\- ; JMit in the southern parts thcix* are some small junipers, x 
lows, ii..i liircli. 'i'here are rein-deer, and some dogfs resombl 
wolvv s, w ith arctic foxes, anil ])olar bears. Hares are common j 
V. ilrus and five kinds of seals trt^ueiit the shores. The birds, p 
III uL.rly M-a and water fowl, are tolerably numerous; as arc ' 
iish : ;.nd t lie insects exceed ninety sjJecies, '*' 

The slwut ■.uuuner is ^ ery w:d'm, but fopj)(>"; and the nortlu 
ll;^li:j» Jl\ei-sliy the jjloom oi' winter. AVhal' Is called the fr 


ko bursts from cracks in the frozen ocean. The natives are 
•t, with lonp: black hair, small eyes, and flat faces ; beinff a 
ich of the Iskiniaiix, or American' Samoieds : it is supposed that 
,' do not now exceed ten thousand, tlie number having been pi-catly 
iced by the smulUpox. Tiicir canoes, in which one man proceeds 
ill seals, are of a singuhu* construction, and have sometimes l^een 
ted as lar as tlie Orkneys. I'he hi>yhest mountains are on the 
t side ; and what is cidled the Stages Horn is visible from sea, at 
distance of forty or sixty leae-ues. The winter is very severe; 
tlie rocks often'burst by the nitensity of the frost. Above 66°, 
sun does not set in the longest days, and at 64°, is not four hours 
jath the Jiorizon. 


'HE inland sea commonly called Hudson's Bay was explored in 
3 ; and a chru'ier for planting and improving the country, and 
ying on trade, was granted to a company in 1670. Tlie Hudson's 

Company lias since retained a claim to most extensive tciTito- 
, on the west, south, and east, of tliat inland sea, supposed to 
ind from 70° to 115° \V. ; and, allowing the degree only tlurty 
;s, the lengtli will be 1350 g. miles, and the medial breadtlv. 
lit 350. 
1 the south, James' iiay strctclies inland about 300 miles by about 

in breadth ; and the most valuable settlements are in that vici- 
, as Albany fort. Moose fort, and East Main factory. P'arther to 
south, and on the confines of Upper Canada, are Brunswick 
se, Frederick house, and some others, which, perhaps, belong to 
North West Company. In the North, Severn house is at the 
ith of a large river, which seems to flow from tlie lake of 
inipic. York fort stands on Nelson river ; and still farther to the 
h is Churchill fort, whicli seems the farthest settlement in that 
ction. The mt»st important rivers are the Nelson and Saskasha- 
, and the Severn; the comparative course of the latter scarcely 
ceding 400 British miles, but of gi-eat breadth and depth. In 
soutli the Albany, Moose, Abitib, and Ilarricana, are the most 
liderable ; but ail the rivers are impeded with falls and shoals. 
* sea of Hudson commonly presents bold rocky s]ioi*es ; but at 
rvids there M*e marslics and large beaches. 
ven in lat. 57°, the winters are extremely severe ; the ice on the 
1*8 is eight tet-t tliick, and brandy coagulates. The rocks burst 
I a horrible noise, equal to tliat of heavy artillery, and the splin- 

are thrown to an amazing distance. The aurora borealis dif- 
« a variegated splendour, which equals tliat of the full moon ; 

the stard sjiarkle with fiery redness. The northern indie^nes 
Iskimiux; but there are other savap^s in the south: and the 
nries are visitcrd by several tribes. It has been said that the 
c to tliese regions' might be made more profitable to the nation^ 

Gi'ir Hlup«, anJ 130 tcnmoi in tlir irn.ku Tlu^y cspori 1 
tuti munuuciuni tn ihitaiBuuitl nf ia,UOIit aoA iin|>i>rtf 
f'lM ti. lilt v:,liic tif iWWOt ««*tlii.f , 

THIS Lu^ exlest of cwut wu k> oiiiki! bj* ibePwiUKvaea 
nlur who madn tlie fiiil Asonverr. Tliiai; w«r. 1-ere (,r ' 
tactorin, til) the B(Mu*isR clerjiy tormcd Iitil< 
eullrlyat Nain, «bout l74>4. Tliv natlVfK ^^< 
maux, and their OMnnrr* are vctv fillliy. It- -. 
the manners of hrira ti):iy licrr inulwnpir nu'i-: 
net. Eurruundnl with aliWii, spruvm, fir*. l;in:]i.. ., ...,^„, .. 
iiian<r aalmon MCcnd, and tlie MU'o uscmlilc in numbci.i .. 
their favourite' prcr. Some dive aTtrF the fixh, and do raot •) 
sjiaiii till at the lUrtwee «f Kveniir .ir eighty v«nU ' 
oouDtetl Uiirty-Ivro YrbHc btai», una i1ifb« blick uiw*, 
also aboanil, and their reniMn i> exctlknt. Su fir aa i. _ _ 
Laiicadur is p^cralhi hilt}'. w"l e"" tnoutii.iinoua. The ^ 
coast eiUibiu ii iMM'bftTMO mad Iron tiomid jippcariiiec. 
hroaki, lakes, podi, and pouda, an iil;u>ir!:jit, iifl. In flrii, > 
Itietited byinmimciihlebitd*. lnl»iiil ihi- n'w nii.Li.irf; lb 
aiiasy fieen, and ^mc aymptonii of t't'rtiliii'. l ' 
'~-e]f ry, scurvy -graaSf sornrlj and Indian sal:id- 
luon toarciic Kgiifns, itfid lh<? aiun»l» are trii>.-' 
ktiit). Tlie uaiiTcs arc mount-tineere wd Iskii 
wmbtinsgypsieE.tnthsoineH'luit «f Pieitdi fciim- ^ inun in 
sf CjinodiaD blood. TheycIueSvlivcoii.n'ni-iltei-, uiU aUu kiU idwj 
martins, and beavers. They Iiv« in wigwwns, h kjiiil of tc 
'•orered wrtli deer nkin and bkcJi buck; uml aiT 3 >i"rt of Krir 
■Iitholioc, iKing' xnxiout lo visit the priestn ut (l>icbce. Tb 
louis arc llti? smae pem\c vrTtix the Oncnlandcr!i. Tbeyiat t) 
•IrBWDbyUogtjiiiiii.isia. TlttDnlvattcmptxhithcrloinwlebV _ 
tr^ile, haa been in tbe.fiiihery, Tbe rlpiirts annaatly ta Qnrt ^ 
lain, and oliler parts of Europe, JUlwUiit to 49,Q0«'. sl«»llllp. J 


IILl. the joiimey of Mr. Ueame, an nfficer of Uk llutlwxnil 
Company, in 1771, and tbe more difficult atid Inbiiricius aneti 
nt Mr. Madceiuie In 1769 and 1793 ; lluie n-ai kiuwn ctiofc 
''•I? interior parts of Nnrlh America- 
Mr. Hesmc perfijrmcd liig journeys lo the North in tt* J 
:>-y— I7rii (tut hit (wok did tiot sppenr tiU 1795. 

NOUTI! A MKUIC A . 26i/ 

i Fori Vrince of AVulcs or Clmrcliill, :iiul explortn.! a RTXUip of 
H, culled Doobunl :inil otiior namos, near (/hcNlcrficKl inirt : ami, 
itT to tlu' wosl, a lake t)f t^i*c:it extent , which he culls Atluipuft- 
, the centre belnp^ in lonj^. 1?5'', lal. IVJ^: M'hirh probably is the 
»■ lake of Mr. %rackei\/.ie, ir. ilie same latitude, but long". 115'"'. 
lie 14th (♦T* July 17ri» he arriMnl at the Copper river, and on the 
he was within sij^ht of the sea. ** The liiU' bein.^ out, the water 
»e river was perfectly firsh ; but 1 ain"cerlain, says our traveller, 
s bein^ l!ie svi\, or some branch of it, by the cpiantity of whale- 
aud Sv':d-.skins which the Iskimaux had ut tiioir tents, and also 
K* number of steals whtcii 1 saw on the ice. At the mouth of 
nver the .sea is full of ishuuLs :uul shoals, as far as I ^oiild sec 
the assistiiuce of a g-oml pocket telescope." lie fbimd the 
naux heiv of a dirty copper colour, and rather sh(jr'.er in sta- 
than tiiiise to the south. 'Die kettles arc made of lapis ollai Is, 
mixed bivwn and while : and their hatcliets and knives are of 
»er. rhe <lo;.vs l:.»\e erect ears, pointed nose.*^^, and bushy 
, bi>ing>a fine breed of that sort Miuiy kinds of .sca-l()wl were 
rved ; and in the ponds and marshes, swan.H, ^»ese^ curlews, aiid 
era. The «jn;i«n*u]Htls are musk cattle, r^'indeer, bears, wolves, 
ereens, k»x.-s, tdpino hares, squirrels, ermines, mice. I'oppor is 
d herv' in lumps, and is b^-aten out by the help of fiiv and two 
L*8. Upon his i-eturn, Mr. llearne passed farther to the west; 
on the 'J4ih of Dv'cember, ITTl, he arrivetl at tiie north side of 
freat lake of Vthapuscow, j.bout I'JO leujyues in lenp^th, fmm 
to West, and JO wide. It is stored with vjreat cpiantities of pike, 
t, porch, barbi l,ai\d two other sorts of fish, called by the natives 
niej^aiul met by. On the southern shore of Athnjni.scow, ilicrc 
nany wild cat t hi and nujosedeer, the former, T)artieularly the 
I, being: larj*tT than the Kn^-li»;h black cattle, 
r. Mackenzie's jom*ne}s were of yit more conseipience. )n 
: I7fc»9 he embarked in u canoe at fort Cliepiwian, «)n the south 
le Lake of the Hills, and pn>ceedeil alonjj:the Slave river, c:dled 
;t*arne, \thapnse(»w. to the Slave lake, wlKuee he i-nteixnl a river 
called at^iT his own n.ime, pui*sulnjf it till heivaehed the Arctio 
n. The Hla\e lake he louiul covered with ice in tiu' nu nth of 
', and »he eliief lish wi in' earj), white fish, ti-oul, and pike. The 
IS were eovei 111 with »jpiuee, pine, white bii-ch, poplars. On 
llth of July thf st:n lin.'tl all nij^fht considerably above the 
ion; and so:>n alC'-r 1-- si'<jns to ha>«" ivached the sea, in wiiieli, 
tlie wide estiiupv of iho river, lie observcil several wliaho. 
iijfli So far to the nortli, tli»re se-'ui ti> be other savajyis besides 
naux; audit \>oidd aiipear from their rcpupt that, there is an- 
r large river mu tlie v.cs' rn ; iile of the Kock}* .Mmnitains, wiiich 
joins the Aretic Oc«'au. On the I*3th Septemb»r 17»Si), our au- 
tinished his iirst \oya^\ which had occupie<l one hundi-ed and 
ilays. A completf cnnfirmal ion thence arises that then* is no 
ficm communie.Jion b'"lw<\u ilic Atlantic and the Pucifjc; e.\- 
at Kohljifh a'tiuh', liiat i! must ))eiru]K>ded by {H'rpetual ice. 
pially imix»rl:;i5T .iiul iii'rrehtiniv wua Mr. Maekcn/le*s sec«ind 
g^e. •>np * :.t;--; "".-'.ijr 'ravrller Iff': furt L'hepiw iau en l^e J- 'l, 

/ V 


Ucti>lK'r, 17\)2t and pr(K:ecdc(l by laiul and wutcr till he Kftched the 
rlvrr Ort-^tn, (k)luinbia, or the Grcal River of the West. After pro- 
r'H'irni)^ a cdiisiflcruidi' way lie returned a^piinst tJie stirain, and then 
ti*avoll(il to tho Pucifir Ocean liy land; iuid reached one of the nu> 
nu'rtiiis iiiicts in lut. jj^ 'J(/. On the west of the Unji{^ beautiful 
scriicry observed, interspersed with iiill and lawnj with ffrovei 
of poplars, and eidivened wilh vast heixis of elks on the uplanda» 
uiid of biitraiois on the plains. Tliat fierce spL'Cics called the grizzly 
bear was also been. The cold was often extreme, rutlier from tlie 
hei^Iit of the ^-neral level than that of the mountains, which does 
not exceed 15U0 feet. Amonj^ the birds obsen'ed were, blue jays, 
yellow birdN, and }>eautiful himmiinf;' birds. Coa^'ers are common, 
and track:^ of moose deer were remaiked. Towards the Pacific the 
natives are fairer than in the other parts of North America { and 
cnc man was ut least six feot i'our incucs in height. Their tyea ire dark, like those of the other Indians, but gre^', with a tinge of * 
n-d. The nicn \i-eur only a robe made of the bark of the ^edar tree^ 
n-nderod as iiiio as hemp, sometimes with borders of red and ytU 
I'lW tlnvads; and tlie women add a short apron. Some of tlieir 
enu.K-s arc fnrty-fivc feet in length, the gimwalc being inlaid with 
the t'.vth of tlie'sea otU-r, not wiih human teeth, as Captain Cook 
H'lpposcd. In Se])temi>er, 1793, he returned to fort Chepiwian, after 
Ml a')»«eiu*e of eleven months. 

\\\ ih^' tr.iditions of tlie western Indians, they came from Sit^ia; 
\Unl(> intclli^^'.'iit traveller, on the contrary, considi*r the Tcchuks 
»> priKU'eding in)m America: but such interchanges of nationi are 
ri,)t iinfrerjiu'nt in bai'bannis periotis. The tril)cs near the source of 
tiic Missouri aiv i>aid to l>e ii-om the south, and tlieir progress J7. W< 
fi^bably retiriii|C fi'^>m the Spanish {)ower. Tlie language of the 
N.itrlie/, audf)tlier nations in tlie Spani.sli territory, has been siyiR- 
<-l(>iitly illustrated; and in the isthmus the dialects are said to be 
various, and radically distinct, yet probably, on a nearer and moit 
j-kilful examination, would be found to approacli the Mexican. 


TIIK Ui;:,sians maybe regaixlcd as tlu' ftrst discoverers of the 
ii-jiili-\\c.>»tfrn shores ol' America. The isles between Asia and thil 
;onthunt in tluir most iveent ma])S are styled the Aleutian Isles. 

Tills coast seems to be chiefly alpine; in whidi respect, and is 
.ts nuniei*ous en-eks and isles, it bears no small resemblance to Nor- The most r(*inai*kablc mountain sc«>ms to be that called St. 
Klias Yiy the Russian navigators ; and which, it is aflinned, has been 
i.Nilileat sea :it no less a distance than about sixty leagues. At 
/'../•/ (li'.i Fvtfncoiftf hit. 38° '37\ La Pen)usc rtliserves that the sum* 
Milts are covi red wilh perpetual snow, and immense glaciers wind 
iln'oug-h the c.ivlties. The lofty mountains, which La I'erouae oom- 
putcd at mure than ten tltousand feet in heiglit, terminate at Cross 


; but the alpine ridges continue, though of smaller deration, 
obably extend with few interruptions as far as California, 
ackcnzie in lat. 53^, and Vancouver in a more scjutbern lali- 
bund tile same mountainous appearances. 



do.*— JVc?w JSrun8'afick.''^JVova Scotia.'^Cape Sretom-^JVeif;'' 
foutidland.-^^The Bermudas, 

3SB parts of North America which belong to Great Britain 
tensive, and of considerable importance ; though so thinly 
dy and in such a disadvantageous climate, that they sink into 
ifiicance, when compared with the great and flourishing. dSlr>- 
ilon^ing to Spain, or with the territories of the United States. 
khabitants of the former liave been estimated ut seven millions, 
ose of the states at six ; while those of tlie British possessions 
ly exceed two hundred thousand souls, and the far greater par|. 
ench and natives. 

isioN-R. The chief of these possessions is Canada, now divid- 
D two provinces, called Upper and l^o^ver Canada ; the former 
tlic wtjstcm division, on tlie nortli of th^ p^at lakes or sea of 
a ; while the lower division is on the river St. Lawrence to- 
the east, and contains Quebec, tlie capital, and the chief city 
; British settlements. 

the east of Cunaila, to tlie south of the river St. Lawrence, is 
Scotia ; which in 1784 was divided into two provinces, that of 
Scotia in the south, and New Brunswick in the north, 
at it called New Britain comprehends the most nortliem parts 
ds Huflson^s Buy, and the coast of Labrador. The large island 
wfbundland ; that culled Cape Breton ; and the neighbouring 
:. John ; complete the chief dcnominaticms of the British ter- 
'H. But in the English maps, while Greenland is assigned to 
ark, ull thcr other most northern parts of America, on tlie east 
1 the west, as far south as the port of Sir Francis Drake^ are 
Bsed with tlie colour of British territory. By the right ^ 

prnpii|rsitioii . 

t» |>n?'!itrvc B gmii;r»l iim muiij, Uiltl Vu ill.|HlV ' ■ 
r»itp<T:l for fivil ■li''ii'''i'y. 

Tlir j{oveninT"f"t ui cnwwlie. while il n ifmi 
foi-m limir.f, ui to wmlwihi- r'p"lil'-- "ec'iii' m -' 

rivil nifKu — TVl* i« ™i ;;■'>■ m..>i , , ,1 -: i 

Br'i<L>li |>[>>n'iiiunni In \--\ 1 1 ^ .. 

csfli 111' llic four iitiMni . -., 

linli..-vi-nrirHJ()ejmn(li n . ■ ■ : ■, 

by Ml ictorparliMii-ii, .-. ! I- i..: I ;v ■ '■ I 

ho" s liruii'H'ini '■"■■ ' .1 i ■ ! 


•n the rl»CT SL Uwrfiwi' — Wwtlj 

III i..r ri,,(>,rt:MRift^ 
luul fnr t.[iwiii' l^DDwli, at QnetHi*: 

-hU f4a. pbIIaiI iiiiirtliiif Twmiial? 

■(■, callei! i-utiKiirf reqna*! 


jlcl by two justices of the peace, who have cognizance of all 
nds under eight doilars. — ^I'hcrc are also district courts, held 
three montlis, in which u judu^e presi.lcs, and trials are by 
of twelve men, without appeal, in all causes not exceeding* 
dollars. All sums above tliat value arc determined before the 
justice, and tw^o associate judges, who make Jui annual circuit 
gli tlie province — and from this judicatory tliere maybe an ap- 
o tlic governor and council — ^Tlie people manage all their own 
concerns, such as the election of constables, path-masters, and 
town officers. There are no duties on goods imported or es- 
j, except a light impost on spirits, winuts, and a few ot!ier 
ies; no quit-rents; and no taxes, except an inconsiderable 
y rate. In short, it is a well known fact, that the British na- 
oes not derive a revenue from these provinces equid to wkat is 
dcd in protecting and governing tlie same. — The population is 
sing rapidly, as there have been, and still are, great emigra- 
itom tlie United States into Up|)er Canada. — Tiic onl}- revenue 
2f to Great Britain from this colony, seems to pi*occcd from an 
tagcoiLs commerce, which is said to employ about seven thou- 
ons of shipping. — ^The expences of tlie civil list arc supposed 
25,000^. of whicli one half is paid by Great Britain, and the 
by tlic provinces, from duties on the importation of spirits, 
and a few other articles. — The military establishment, witk 
s of forts, &c. is stated at 100,000/. and the like sum for pre- 
to the savages, and salaries to officers employed among tliem 
ide, &c. in Upper Canada. But tlie advantage.; of the com* 
}, which increases annually, ai'e thought to counterbalance tliese 
ces. The exports and imports have increased sixfold in about 
years ; tlie former being principally, if not wholly, of domestic 

syERS AMD Customs. The manners and customs of the set- 
n Canada are considerably tinctured with the French gaiety 
*b2Uiity. The Fi'ench women in Canada can generally read and 
and m this respect ai'e superior to the men ; but both pre- 
tUeir ancient superstition, and are devotetl to their priests, 
universally use the Fi-ench language, English being confined 
acts »f government and the few British settlers, but will 
' become prevalent. 

J chief town is Quebec, built on a lofty point of land, on the 
•west side of the great river St. Lawrence; which in the 
Murhood is sufficiently deep and spacious to float more than 
mdred sail of the line. The upper to^vn, on a rock of lime- 
is of considerable natural stix:ngth, and well fortified; but 
•wer town towards the river is opiin to every attack. A 1arg« 
on is maintained ; but five thousand soldiers would be neces- 
o man the works. The inhabitants are supposed to be ten 
md, about two thiitls being French ; and llie presence of the 
nor, courts, and frarrison, conspire to lender it gay and lively, 
3wer town U mostly inhabited by trailers and mariners. The 
s are commonly of stone, small, Vigly, and inconvenient ; but 
;W part of tlie governor's house, for tlicre is no citadel, is upon 

: » i».!{i risii iM)>NS in n. America. 

Ill ini;^r<)\' >i vlan. Tiic M >M.ister!e.s un* ulmiist extinct; yet there 

.iii -.i..-. • : :! • ' ■•.- 1 Ik- luiikct is wtU supplied; and llic littk 

. t:-s 111 ■ ..t" . 1 1\\- .\'- :\ :>y «Imj^s. TIu- vii.'inity pivsents most sublime 

!iil I' . fi <v.'\\ r. : :i'kI till' fiills of ihe river Montmorencl ire 

M'.»"i' .. s .1 ni-.»« • )\vn. /«! t!i«.' oast si»L' of a onsider&ble islnndf 
r.» i!> ".lu- ;ivi r S I . ^u ivnco 'kX iis junrtion with the river 
I -...w..^. w-.icli IS il.v- bi>\ Iniwc'i-n LmUlt and Upper Canada, 
!-v , !» ii'T iiiilrs :i!v.\»- (^'i.Ikc. Vt sscIs of 100 tons niav na- 
\\ •«. I'ltn r-* nnUs tn l.iki- Oiiiurlo; hut fir hirj^e vessels the 
'•. N ;... ' •■ '\ IS ii'diuip -.ill ir.thiult. This* town contr»ins about twelve 
Ir-Mil:* ■! ''ojisi's, MJil prc'i. i>l> six ihousanil.*- j'lls ; with six churches, 
fniiv .if V. iiuli :'iv IlMiian CuilioUc, and four convents. The rhief 
truil'- iv 11 fuT", \\l.\!t :'.rt' iht-nct* sent to t^nrb'»c for England. 
Cun.iO". :iri- ( l.-i :!;. iiii;)l(i;..'{I on the L'tawas, whence the fur traders 

A* •111' >ri"*''"l c;;"ics^ i,r tljf rlvtT St. I/iM'n.'nce, on the lake On» 
tar'.i. i.vUi- wh.ii is lulKd liio Inki- of a 'iumsnnd ishuids, stands the 
tf.w I of KinirMon, ri-niarkabli' fn»:n its position as well as the rich 
svivlrinrnt in its xlcini'v. Tlu' f'»iMs oT Nia^waand Detroit belong 
to till' Southern or Anu-riran s'uk- of the lioundar}'. The little town 
of Tivii.. Kivii'ivs, or Thivt* Kivcrs, stands Ijelwccn Quebec and 
Mon«ri':tl, and is cliicfly riMnarkable iov the resort of the savagci: 
i)ut tlmn.uh it contains littb inoro than 250 houses, it has alwap 
hi'iMi i'o-.isiili'i\il ::S ;; place of importance. Sorellc was founded ill 
irsr tor th'- Aniorican loyalists, nut contains only one hundred scat- 
tered house*; : it i.s at tile distance of fifteen leajywt's from Montreal (-iuelxo ; a?v.l the eliief business is ship building. 

Ma M r v( rruKs ami (Jum heiuk. The principal exports are wheat, 
flour, furs, and peltries, wiih some fisli : ])ot:ish, and American gin- 
sen'.- riie im];:Kis are s])iriis, wines, tobacc<i, suijfar, salt and provi- 
sions i\>r tlie troops. IXcept some linen, and a few coarse woollen 
cloths, manuftciured articles vlvc chiefly imported from Knf^land- 

(;m m vtk a>i> Seasons. The extremes of heat and cold are ama^ 
/inj^; the thermometer in July and Auj^aist rising to V6, while in 
winiiT the mercury freezes. The snow lx*gins in November; and 
in .T.inuan' the fi*ost is so intense that it is impossible to be out of 
door> for any time without the of what is called a frost bitCi 
wliich endanj^Ts the limb: and the warm intervals only increase 
the sensation and the jenpartly. But winter, as at Petersburgh, is 
the season of amusement ; and the sledges, drawn by one or two 
horses, aflonl a pleasant and speedy conveyance. Several stoves are 
plaeed in the halls of tlie houses, whence flues pass to the apart- 
ments ; and (here are double windows and dooi*s. On gouig abroad 
the whole body is coviTcd with furs, except the eyes and nose. In 
May tlie thaw j^'uenilly comes suddenly, the ice on the river burst- 
injv wiMi the noise of cannon ; and its pas.«}agc to the sea is terrific, 
espiH-ialiy wlien a pile of ice crashes against a rock. Spring is 
.su'u'.ner: and vec^'taiion instantaneous. The month of September 
ii one of the most plea* 


kCE OP THE Cou.NTnT. TJie face of tlic country is genoi-ttlly 
ritainoti.s and woody; but there :irc KavaimuH, :uid plains of 
t beauty, chic^fiy towards Upper ('anada. In tlie lower pro- 
■£ tile soil mostly consists of a loose, I>luckish carti), of ten or 
v(; inches, incumbent on a cold clay. Tiiis thm mould is how- 
very fertile, and manuro was sehlom or never usctl by the 
ch settlers; hut of late marl lias bcnn cniployKi, and is found 
Misiderablc quantitii-K on tht slionsof the river Si.l^wrence. 
:tle tobacco is cultivated tor private u.te, with many culniaiy 
fables, and considerable cmps of jjrain, wlu-at h' ing- n^ckoncd 
t;«M he exports : a kind of wine .s ii.di|^enous, but ihe gi'npcs 
nur, until touched by the frost Jt-ispberries ait* all mdigt'rious ; 
there: are g^iod curiants and g<^js(:berries. A j^ieat vai n-ty olf 
I is ftiund in the forests ; iKeeh, oak, elm, ash, pine, sycamore, 
nut, walnut, &c. 'J'he t^u^.^r nmple tree also abounds, and the 
r is j;-(.nendly used in the country. 

he great river St. 1 4:1 wrc:r celiac been already dcscrilx'd in tlic gt:- 
t view of North America. The l"iav/:is is ilu- most important of 
ts tributary streams, issuing' Irom various luken, towards tlic 
re of Canada: its waters are of a bright greenish coh)ur, while 
9t. Lawit-'nci; is muddy. .Many rivers of smaller consccpience 
into the river St. Lawi-ence from the north. The mountains 
not been examined by any getdogis^ wh(» oowid indicate their 
tB or illustrate their stmctiiit.. The chiif rid^e seems to be 
ic northern part of the province, in a direction S. W. and N. E. 
1^ source to the many streams wiiicli fl(jw S. K. while a few 
to Hudson's Jlay. There anr man/ mountains between t^uebec 
the sea, while towanls tlie lJL:.Was otdy a few .'ire scattered, and 
IC S. W* there are ample plains. Tlie ciiief singularities in 
ogyare tlie m(M>se, tlie beaver, and some other animals, for 
;U Mr. Pennant's Arctic ZooUigy may be consulted. The rein- 
appcurs in tlie northern pai't, and the puina and lynx are not 
lown. Ifoth the Canridas ant mucii infested with rattle-snakes, 
humming^birtl is not uncommon at (Quebec. The mineralogy 
' little consecjuence ; and even iron jwems to be rare. Tliere 
laid to be lead mines which produce some silver; and it is pro- 
c Uiat copper may be found, as it apjx'ars on the S. W. of hike 
jrior. Coal alxiunds in the island of Cape Itrcton, but tliis va- 
le mineral has not been discovei'ed in (y'anada. The chief natu- 
'.iiriosities seem to he the grand hikes, riv(rrs, and cataracts, 
jng* the latter the celebrated fails of Niagara an* chiefly on tlie 
of Upper Canachi, tin; river being there WJO yanls wide, and the 
142 fctit. A small island lies bet.weeii tiie f.ills : aiul that part 
:h is on the side oY the States is .350 yards wide, whihi the 
'lit is 163 feet : from these falls a constant cloud ascends, uhich 
sr>metimes be seen at an incredible distance ; and the whole 
le is truly treni<ndous. About 2 miles al>ove these falls, a spring* 
been di.scoveri-d that emits gas, or inflammable air ; which, when 
ined in a pipe, and a flanu; nppliecl to it, will boil tlw waN.'r in 
a kettle in lH minutes. Whether this maybe applied by ma- 
lery to useful time will detci*mhie. 

3* BRfTifiH i'<i!»sf.BSK»f8nes. -orenir^ 


THE nndnit province df No** !<CJ>tia mu tfTMatrd by ii 

Irobly I xpiriiifc at the ^It of St. I^i 
rick-Uiwii nn ibe rlvcp KL John, iilu » 
SL Ann'* is alnuvt oplMMllu'i unil Un i 

McHrordir buyir VinMli, wllhaforl rm.'.r It 

uf siivap;s ill the »icitiily c»ik>cl Il» MnncinWw, irilimilLvtrBf^ff 

fi^ititig meo. The chief firudiicUim limber undfidi. 


TUlBiinmnoeMnbairt SOOin)Te*inlcnf!*]i. U ..i-.,m . 
dial bivatltli, b«»r inAsTinr hi xiie 1o Nc« ]tnin»\ >. ^. 

niivi;5»W« &\«m inilo*, ftif 'Itip* of 100 tan-.. T'n'- h-iy 
bolwcrnNew RnaMlvick wH NuvaSnilin, txini.l t-Vn | 
IflBili tht ct.bjudlflowiitffor tbn lido heiti]^*Hi'i ■ 
f«t. Thp cnpiul U lltli&t. <m tUr bay f>f CI. ■ 
(or tht ftBltiry, wilh comnumicMinn*, fay \Md .'■' ■ 
^SaS^shI'.Uiis p^wineel and ^'ew Bmnawiek 1 :. 
!>aur. wUerc u situU •qiuilren of nliipH of WMr, > r: ....... . 

iiip the fisLin^ Te&id*, is laid ufi in Iti* wiiii' r I'lii.' <i 
trviu:)KiI with forta of iMifaei', nnd ii«aMto contain frflem or six' 
IlininuijrltnluilHbanfiraBi^ietiartuiptdatinn'rn tliKl nf Qiii^ipc. 
Ijiirrr, towj.itlt UltS^'W. once cniitoincd itlsHlUldivJ fiin>4lio i 
b>.ii)' lUnutSSO. 'Hie fcurlKHtr of Annopoliii U mrvU'dii Ijh... ., 

nil Kirim'iilFi'ublo liarolet; Darinf; a g'mitj»i'l-i>r'lW- ^mrillii'^li^ 


r and unhealthy ; and for four or five months intensely cold, 
e are many forests ; and the soil is generally thin and barren, 
^h fertile on the banks of the rivers, in grass, hemp, and flax ; 
applies of grain are sent from England. The MicmacSj an 
n tribe of about 300 figliting men, dwell to the east of Hali> 
Britain sends to these provmceb linen and woollen cloths, and 
articles, to the amount of about 30,000^. and receives timber 
ish, worth about 50,000^ The chief fishery- is that of cod on 
ape Sable^oast. Near cape Can go there are remarkable difik 
lute gypsum. About twenty -three leagues from tliat cape is 
ile de Sable, or of S;tnd, consisting wholly of tliat subsuuice, 
1 with white transparent stones, t!ie hill< being milk-white 
I, and some 146 feet above the sea. I'Uis struMge isle has ponds 
38h water; with junipers, blueberries, and crunbemes* and 
grass and vetches, which sen'e to support a few horses^ cows, 
iiogs. Tlie bay of Fundi presents an infinite variety of pic- 
que and sublime scenery. 


nS- island is attached to the province of Lower Canada, though 
ed from Nova Scotia only by a strait of one mile in breadth. It 
Mit a hundred miles in Icngtli ; and according to tlie Fi-ench 
ITS was discovered at a very early period, about A. D. 1500, by 
Tormans and Bretons, w1k> liavigtited these seas ; and bein^ sup- 
l a part of the continent was culled cape Bivten. They did not 
;ver take possession of it till 1713, when they erected ibrt Dau- 
: the harbour of which beinj^ found difKcult, Louisburg was 

in 1720, chiefly by settlers from Eiu^pe ; as the Acadians, or 
ch of Novu Scotia, did not choose to leave that country. Ii 

Cape Breton was taken by Gen. Amherst : and has sin'ce re- 
ed subject to the British crown. The climate is cold and foggy, 
•nly from the proximity of Xewfoundl:>.nd, but from numerous 
\ and forests. The soil is mere moss, and has been found unfit 
p'iculture. The fiu- trade is iricunsiderable, but tlie fishery veiy 
rtant, this ishind being esteemed the ahief scat; the value ot' 
J'ade, wliiie in the Frencli possession, was computed at u mil- 
sterling. There is a very extensive bed of coal in tliis island, 
lorizontid direction, not more than six or eigiit feet below th- 
ee; but it has bcin chiefly u.sed as ballast; in one of the pil.«» 
; was kindled by accident, and remains unextinguished. 
le island of St. John is ut no great distance to the west of Cape 
3n, being about sixty wiles in length by thirty in breadth, and 
ached to the province of Nova Scotia. The French inhai)itimts, 
t tour thousand, surrendered, with Cape Jsreton, in ITjH. It is 
to be fertile, and has several sinams. A ll^uccnaul-j^overnor 
cs at C-harlotte-town; the inhabitants of »1 o island uu; cnin- 
tl at five thousand. 

A A 

\=r i^Uolof VtniiiunUwali*. 

nor) li«T« Will Wt..lrri. tiw.iJ, lU. u.lubilwiu .J Oi.. I .. 
iinvinit ihe niDi: privilr||p|i u brblK' Uialr ilult^nulft" . 
pi'climiiBu'lei of UctiJier imi.innftnnilisprivilrffuiii . 



IlKV Mv faur iii nuTnl)cr,-Miil were Uin^oveRKl by the itinmiknln 
:r John UunikudMi. i|i XSIT t hut Wliijr' itft«rwnv|ii w i-l'dcd i\^ 
n, llwy VgH tffm (UnilMad W^ie Hhl"w■^i.-t nf R..' r:,.^iT^- 

rJKV rut! 

cr John UunikUOMi. Hi 1S37 i KUt Mllljr' a««rw»f In w Ij-I'cIfiI h\y 

n, llwy «|» IgiUn (UnilMad ^^iB Hhl"w■^i.-t nf R..' r:,.^iT^- 

r be U em wreverMjvd w th itum 
At nnd It4° tV IrtRp Horn London i 

U f TT 

o1 a a a f «& • 
andUowor ■) 
puvcn or ( uncH 

keel tire ■>( B ^1" y 

k ;g 1 t,ll «1 pt t tl cu cu. u-i I. U.3 idi 

a ind tlic W*tt md c(. b-wiiuldipu xribnt tJn.gc 
V «n nl nb ted when Bnt aettlctl by Xiw ^t^o-h 


ETuUi kluon tlul ll 

Sttdi B re^ 
prvnti. AlVt ikn cXpiMoa a: . _ 
ulrs hwl prvpraBnl ruiidly in cmnmcrc*. wi;iiidi, obiI | 
ini] had iUt DTuokod U)e IcKitlaUvi.- Foiiricliaiuui' iitlit' 
iviliii, ton^Dcfijrc they cmtituncJ to uiinm'- Uum. 'I'lir^ j 
tbt Amenctin niercluuit aiul Ibc riiri.: . 
t[ti»\> pMliwiMiiit lu.d betii »t VJU-1U11 
vliedicr tiK crisii ww liMtotwd !>> 
on Imtli »iilc» of tJu- AUuntJc, or In 
Icm in On; parent to ubriUge tlio jiwi n 

((ucation Iliit liati been aritatcd with ^.._ .. _ ., 

Had ix best left to the im^artjiil dmsion of 3taxtcr>l)r. VaOk 
howeror, cun be tnore certain, than tJtiit, next tn ii<temai husu , 
it is of the first impnrtBnoF to both ciHintrics lo culilvMc peace ■ 
iiTuity by mutuaJ justice and gi. j4 fiilli, nod ta);tiiu^>lnctl3'<|r~'~ 
iltc mactuDations of tjieir cutninoD cneiny, viliu wiJl alw^a « ^ 
vuur to destroy that guod Uinlentimding, whicU uppusn a t*'s'^Wl 
bar to hb ambitious projecta. 

Siro*TioM jJTD Brrijrr. W^cn the v .. __ 

rloied by a deGnitire tmty at ptrace^ between tbo Klnf of G 
Britain and tlie United States of Ametica, on thi^ 3d of Sefiten 
I7S3, the boundarieaof tLcse Slates were declared In extend f 
the river St. Cruix ia tbe hay of Fundi, and an Jdul Line 
soured, to the high hndi which divide the WBlei-i rualiiiis 


i\tt 5t. LawTvnec Troni Uiniw UiKt fM into Uu: AUantic octfui 

iiifig lIiQse liiglilnnilji to ihctioilIiweelerTrnwBthciidol' CuniKdiciit 

'I: r, atid'lowii lEiB DiidiUnufUiat fiver U -the 451)1 ^^rue of nortli 

■ ii I -Ic ■ tlu^nte by a ilue wi'st linp to iIid river C«Ur»qni ■ nltmg 

I iv\.T till it aiMtt with luki- ()nt»r < , hjhI b^ an Hienl Mm nin 

1 1" oui-li ihc micMle <it i li ii likt, >t lilum Fnn nnil Sim*rior, lo 

L I I ( « 1.I11 ™llrll\ iIk Viitivii iaf liu tcH uiciiet by 

It cum^r of tbij lake to the 

I itcnrn the niiditic aV Ihc Mja 

I Ixliiiide, wJiurc 1( inucla ilie 

1 J till- ( (i\ a ii< h iwjwiy i|u« 

U« nixJdlD li Mill 


lof 11iE«xtcniivc 

rtiiU itnd wnrhlcc 

\ 1 li! m 11 t 11 Ji 1 iufi r arc ilmotf cxlinct 

r nithEuropeanibu e\erljcaibiU<^ultiiUDi; Tiliznt 

nil parts of tJre globe It u, sup|>u»ed that Uictc m« " 

1 this (levoied moB rciumimiy wiilim tlu? nctmsuic 

I c United btates rb« Induitii iiion ituooTt-rvd » 

ituaufl liquoM, i^iih whidi unilrtnclpl'^ tradus 

u suppl} tjiem l>> tilt excMBlve tuc rif ilic'C, ilii'ir 

OS incroaseit, U«l) pufiOM influncd, Mlif llitir 

rrl I bi ll n t ^ 1 I iLl j itri>. 

i ltd ut 

U«, -, 

LX( r i ill , ) li L L M »tali.B 

i raim Ami i^ tbe clil«f hittoncnl tntmlt. of tlic 

list hi clHMnlllKiF i-csmotlvc oi^iiiH, wliich nt 

kcatllert tigcil<-i with Qic kulins' uccurraice* in 

il uDiv»i "Inch I«iD iwueiJ in iliic [(vjepeBdenct of tite United 

1 1 1ll* Sump Ml, pii>w»l III ITVA, u ciniinitcTril «■ tb' first ftl> 
" n luTaiae « »itiip\(- "jf Britsb rewnoe from N u ih \niriricii 1 it 

^ tbl(i domarfcttlon tli-r* nmieiira nomir i^rror. fbi- isle d'ncovc- 
tave pnivcd tint » uvxtufti tine front tlic ItJie of tiic \Voads 
a,>itriken(rp»nuf tUPivrr MiMisiijini; of course iliis jmt- 
It Uie irentcm liiniH i«tii»nrs undefinixL 
k ttjirr. oomer of UiKlatoe'of tlie Woods is in bt 4'J" aT ST. 

Inng. W 31' W. 
bvTUnniil bruKCli of Miviissippi, at iiaiioiLrcc,ia tii 47' SBfU- 

, long. «» ff W, 
-"- - "-nd of tht: Miiwuri ii in 47" 32' N. long. 101' 2? W 
■a it bcndi lt> the wuili of w*si f' 


i lu tlicir amlKisMilars md p " "' 
roily aiM) giiintiiBpJurbdictlanj to 

wc stafesj bct«i-<ii chizena of di 

U' e IiiiBiing' under dilTet-ent ntxles t tind tv » 

tlie ^lUil Stitci are a pirtf, Tlie laws 

witb UuMC 'if Engiand, hihI Ennisll ["eporU ai 
tliority, IB iilmcHt. ^ cues. The slated cavrt 

1, v.Iiitli iaMd twice a year at tbe seal of B' 

coiirl, held four times a year in euclis „,„_ 

i.-il lixlii easKnt) mid'lle, loiI southei-n wt ere otic of lln m 
jmlt-eB of the siiprfme court nl i s prea iks 

■ Island, and Conncctiaiti tbrMtd 
Penngj'lvunia, Ddftware, tin'd Ohgo -, and h ' 
lajid, \ irginlo, Kentucky, Norili Cure um So 
and Teiiiie«e. To these States belong tile ifcir* 

■■■•'•■^ (.'NITKU STATES, iBd 

;t of.CuluDibia: of cuehor lhen«i-e ihtll gire m ftill hiieccouim. 

our nu'row limlu will permit. 

The pnpulillnn af Uia>ec3n«nHiv« tcrritorlcf, cstinibtrd bygrflar 
ConBreai In tTM, wm TmitA U Tm 3.839;JW, Mrlntiv* <.f tUt 
■bil»nnN.W.oriln.-OUlD,«30,0». li U inii riv.] 
t lUe number ig tlunblnl «v*r* 28 1-3 yvan. By iht ciiiikiK <>(' 
», it hs.1 increased to 5,303.6«, hj th»t t.f 1910, to 7,53e,A'.^ ; 
vhoM one fiftlt were Macks ur mulvlorii, u>d *bout l,3OU,0(W Hhrn. 
c pop-jlation ia aliout S 1-3 pcrixnu ta a wile luuiue, >nil uitoii 
-6 ncm of impruvcil lind tij h prnuii. About Wr ftlMm ol tUc 
abitanis ijiiy be tcrnicJ Mffioulttti'iiiU. The ramiiu-i niuy he 
imateil alwut l.OOO.OW. iTie niuka wit number Amttm bjr 
' "(0 ThnsQ of sixiccn yoarii ftnd iq>w«'iU .exceed Uicjounger 

' '>v M.QOOtMdlhoMtoftS years Bud upwordi ure to the 

I " <]>utjitiMl n( 13 I^i H bUTulicd 

' ill niil>t«i7 force itniuiitajn^in'.timcof pciici>, eniitUtine 

■ rt-trimcniB of aitjiiui'v, l"iiv nl' int'anlry, one at luurintt,, uid 
• f omp»nie» of .ii-n ■■.! n'.' ■ . .Im . r.i- tbc dcfem-c of ibt fliW- 
e>. But a -.tiiii^ilii. '" umputUile with the repub- 

m Bdvcmniciit -.:'■• ■ '\v. nates i« oamputcd ttoifl 

■mihlia, wU\ih .■ ■ ■ 'i.iiOOl wllich ia n numbQ- 

Ikientl)' tiiFiiii<l.:ii i>. -< ' I . i;i< .Jicilc- cnntitwit, and to Mt 

Tl e vy of th In Ictl Slstna i« Sttll of little eoDM- 

Uet''>f »' pn were c<)upp«l'liir ^ 'Iw «wnt iibort 

til rrunee In tb cm we of « eeut ly o- '■"■ ■■• '" "-■ - 

limesp rtuf Ibcirpropjcn on will be displiq^ 
au fi el ur 11 r val imj in Europe Al nrwent it 
^t ftipitei tlir-tur fuur al<Miiii, Md \ smidl 

. . . „.itJriCTtM lur-e-or f ■- '"^ 

f gU iHlBt*. 

TlwKVtn e fHuUdtedSUle* 
rs n mpgrted niereliuiiditF Mid 
»r W pel" cent nd viilorcin, uid 

IniWr 1^ lerett on tlic natioiiBi 

II (I H llic dcbta. dameitic 

ur* ni Ithuxinkin^fund 

i. xhI* coiaiimed xn tlic 

ir83— SJiibuvlfiftymll- 

Tl e Du nber of plcKJuie 

V. J j40 ) eldingxrevcime 

a ctuod flnil been lupiiKcd by an 


1 re jpi 4l rmt M t elber th» otw be 

Kuwral ^ndrwice uf Uk rejl oLrtn^h and importance 
Atco ■ peMitM un 4i«t out) g cui drive them from 
I pursu t» of the e»*TyiDs; f m Ic ■ inc rtiiin. Itispro- 
iiiit none of tlinin i-iew^ wrth uidiilbrennT ■ flHtionof triiuers, 
I >.] iicover no tyniDiiUiy in tlio conruliioni uT a wtiotc coaiinent. 


uNrrm stattj. 

Uu*.d> 1-1 H 

minoi I people, 4nd f^; 

■alty borr"" 
winuy tliftrt 
Imn, Inreni- 
lotitUj' fill' ti. 

IW psrta of flic 001111(17, yrt »bc doiiiirBtic iwftnlatKi 

ncTs of cliililren andTDUtk U nirt Ailv ppf-inlfd. 

BWl iscilUivxtorfirithglTat isdiiln:!' ■ 

towns, and most, in Uie Oimrap '>t ' 

Ifpcater portion of Uet irlnbe lli.'i" . 

Uie cbusiciil lutlinn -ix titc Bn^li?) > 

Amcritu, miinv of them liaw pisiwl tjhvjiikti ni-vi 

tt-hh great el^snceu^d correctneH, Aluij- wntc 

mLTit have KX'isen in th« United Statejt. LitFmy « 

(lieir Innsactions, ntiile mug's Eiiic!i, aiut iliJWS-fMpM* tf 

ber, coMHbute In tlip difiiisimi of uoefii) sr'nm " ' 

pcrUh, it will not be by ■" \rant of knowleitgv," 

, nonly understood. 

Skhisiribk or 'LttM.msn. Education seem) 
tion <€ ubites 11a «^ as IndivijAaile. In chix't, it 
MUKtrmics, colle(^>*nd nfiiterstlies, ajps SifinAti in i-n-ry 1111111 
«f iheiiBion; those of New Bn^Isnd, New Ywrt. wd MiB " ^"^ 
«W til* moil iliatuigwriiKl I but t>f tliese st -■ " 

icitlu ootloe, under Uiv bead* a! tlic MvemJ tUUB wber* 

iiii-ri, wiURQtnc more PTffuliiriy iiniler ilic l>t»i!» 

l.-nilcd (etTitiH^r* 1' 


la toutu, UmI cultivated fuTtDi , 

_. e inland imh, and boundleW k.. 
haunu of Axt* ■nd boAHli 
affrriit varklvnf «>l)s, >^li 
lies.I. or i-,l«j>«"i*e»»ion- i 
iln.'d milfH rrum tlw <'< 
rtinfitiF'* of Flo 
of «)ip bxnki lu 
colors, nnd c>< I. 


black mould ; in others, a brown loamy earth, mixed with 

and towards the sea shoi*e, sandy and fittest for r}'e and Tii- 
coni. There are niurshes of consideniblc extent, along- the 
ul rivers, wliich the hand of industry is every vear reclaiming 

the waters, and convert inpf into rich nieacfows. Hut tlic 
in the middle states is miicli broken by ranges of moiinUiins. — 
farmer is improving every year in the science of agriculture, 
by the cultivation of clover, and a pniper rotation of crops, 
recovering liis worn out fieltls from tJicjr unproductive stale. — 
ng the numerous products are whe:it, rye, barley, buckwheiit, 

beans, pew>c, potatoes, and Indian corn. — ^In Carolina and 
^ia, rice, cotton, indigo, and tobacco, ai-e cultivated with 
. success. Turnips are raised only for culinnry pui*poscs ; the 
rican farmer is not yet acquainted with the use oF tliis vc- 
de in feeding cattle. — Orchards arc immer«)us, and cyder a 
irite liquor, but from some cause, wliether ignorance or nc*g- 
ce, or a change in the climate, apple and peach orchards arc 
iroduetive than they formerly were, llie latter are perishing 
^ly by the devastations of a grub wliich attacks the roots. 
iGETABLJi ANii AiNiMAi. Pii«i»ucTioN8. Tile Ijotaiiy of the 
k1 States, including the Floridas, or in otlier w<irds, of the 
e region extending eastward from the Mississippi to tlie ocean, 
Bouuiwonl from the river St. l^wrence, witJi its lakes, to tlie 
of Mexico, may be divide<I into those vegetables which are 
non to the wliole coimtry, and tliose that occupy only p:ur- 
ir parts. 

le most generally diifused species among the timber ti*ees arr, 
rillow-leaved oak, growing in Uic swamps ; the chesnut (Kik, 
b in the southern states attaiits an enorinous si^se, and is almost 
duable for its sweet farinaceous aconis as for its wood ; tJic 
» oak ; the red and the bhick oak. Next to tJiese in rank are 
iralnut, and tlie hickory. The tulip tree rnul sassafras laurel, 

impatient of cold than tlio preceding, app«:ar as shrubs on the 
dian borders, rise into trees in the midland slates, und on the 
1 banks of the Altamaha, attain the lull perfection of sLiteli- 
and beauty. The sugar m.iple, on tJie contrary, is seen only 
[e northern sides of tlie hills in the .soulhern states, and in- 
«8 both in si/e and frequency, in tlie more bracing climate of 
sylvaiiia, New-York, and Vermont. Tlie sweet gum tree, the 
wood, tlie American elm, the pophu', and the tacQamuhiicca, 
ar in everv state in the Union where the soil is sullable, wiihout 
f much ani'Cted by variety of climate. The light sandy tracts, 
wet and diy, are principally iiihabited by the iniporti-hl and 
|1 family of ]>ines; of these tlie chief species arc, the IV:..isyl- 
in fir, the coimnon and the hemlock spruce fir; the ytll .■', th..- 
5, and the Weymouth puie ; and the larch: nearly a lilt d to 
h arc the arbor vitx, and the red cedr.r of Anieric;* 'I'hc: 
ler trees and shrubs, that are dispci*sed in all parts of the 
ed Stales, amuiig a multitude of others, eonsist/jf the iollow- 

l!ie I'ringe trie, the red-maple, the sumach and pols«>inuk. 


; ml nulbmy, Iht periinUMm plum, unil tbe thfde-lki 

■ riil{(cs ua iinl mlftcientlv liiifk tn he itehl 

Itttui inuuiliciaic« vf tlic I'niiii-i'iit, (bnaU, and the « 
uKit of Uu itcMntnt kwainpx, nffn in ilie utrnu ' ' 

of ibc botanitt rivry iliii>i:, 'Imi I'v 'viliuir, hy fr^yrnBie^^ 
Ibrtn, nm d<41ciit ibc ■ i 
I'lic low rul|p;i ni . 
rlTvn, and m>iii|; froi.. ■ 
(wcllui); liillB, ira eino ' 
ucc|ti wticTF tliey iut<. !'. 
of the iitlubluiitf. Ill (litic ocli tr.iriN |^rini« i 
Um! evPTgrccn Mki Uic swcti h«jr. the bvi«M liHirft , 
Iwin^l, Utr wide •liudinK Uroom pinr, and Itit: ""• j 
»tr«l(pit »llvi-ry cnlumiti nf tin: ji^ipjiiv flj;, riniu 
twortj ftiri, hjkI cr<-i'-ik ' '■ ■-'' ■■■■■■■ 

form n tirikiiiK hirtiivi 
Iniit and fragnuit Wuii' 
diUonnof tAe]^v«9 ■•' 

lllfM! U the loWcTllltr "I.I ■ ■ 

rkb murlcj «oiJ. it ri.t. ..^c^ , . 
erect iruiik, luppontnif mhady '" 
flBin tiir r(>iitr« of tli« vnngnm "i I 
es, enpnnili. a l«pjf* r(t»e-*lm|wd 1> 

oorxl rnl culouri tund i1i»f fBlliiiy- tiuiii 1lK-ir t'l 
■renil duft luspvluled fWim ll.t hmkIvi-bwI by » «iUty 
indscs or moot m leuglh , lo Umt. wlmlwr in tfaUsbOK 
jmm, il U second to miiie for p'Mideur nod liCHti'> . 

The l«»tJ ]il»iii>ibii tHc al.tM of rrirn, nm! 'I ' 
In 1 floudt'it ^i.iti' Jiiriiiy thi: tvhok miii) 
VkniiHS, Tint ItCLH Ihut f»W lipoii Ihcm nru 

piwicului'lj' ilit-bciier irofi »f"l Anicricwi 'i 

MiUy riihiM' liiifflc or grouppd lojp-tlitir Idto jt.j : ■ 

tlic liii'giir pun i,[ tiip mciuloW i» ovcrtiniwn !■. nii t-n^^ 

IioHm^', iiiicrmixcd <nith ihniiki wid piwta. 

Thi- Bwiiiopi urn «t all limon. ciuii i" tie liciffht af 'm. _ 
tlic mu*t i«rl under Wnter, mid aru dliUnpiii'liri' fV«n tnp' p 
ilii? tiiuntn liy the orowdpil «enu uf tiiv M'"-, '' '■ ''-' *""'"■ 
ilie tupplii'ttyT, the t«eiiniii]iBce», »nil Hi- >'!■ 
li ]R'rli^{)* Ilic indirt piRttircsnue tree in nil >' 
I'jKiriniiiu ImllrMwa, or nub pilliira, rlir : 
imlti- il kind of iirdi«t th^hi'iifhtofnljomi:' V 
triiiiv ihtrp ipi'iiiffj It sir»i|t1'l toliinui I'ijj-liii ,1 


houl a brsinch : jt*then spreads into a flat umbrella-sliapcd top, 
ered with finelj' divided leaves of the most delicate green. This 
:f(>rni is tlie secure abode of the eap^le and tlie cmne ; and tht* 
' seeds contained in its cones are the favr)uritc I'cpust of tlic paro- 
:ts, that are constantly fluttering around. 

.'lie domesiic zoology of the United States nearly corresponds 
h that of the parent countrj', with some few shades of diflcr- 
e ill size and colour. Among" the larger wild animals may be 
itioned tlic bison, large herds of which used to be seen near the 
iisissippi, and tlicy were once very numerous in the western parts 
Virginia and Pennsylvania. The musk bull and cow only appear 
he more western regions, beyond the Mississippi. Among tlie 
Tials now lost is classed the mammoth, whose enormous bones 
particularly found near the salt springs upon the Ohio. The 
Jse deer are become extremely rare, and will probably in no long 
e be utterly extirpated, as the wolf and ooar have been in 
tain. The American stag rather exceeds the European in size, 
. is seen in great numbers, feeding in the rich savannas of the 
isouri and Mississippi, where there are also herds of that kind 
led the Virginian deer. 

lears, wolves, and foxes, arc found in most of the States, to- 
iler with a few rapacious animals of tlie cat kind, impitipci-ly 
led panthers and tigers 

The beaver is well known fi*om the fur, and the singular fonna- 
1 of his cabin, built in ponds for the sake of security. This in- 
iirious tnimai is now rai*c in any of the ancient States, and is 
icwhat imitated by ihc musk rat, who likewise builds his hut in 
llow-strcjtms. Some kinds of monkeys arc said to be found in 
southeni states. The morse or sea cow, and the seal, used to 
liientthe nortlicm shores ; and the manati, common in South 
k-rica, is said sometimes to appear on the southern coasts. 
Lmong the birds tliere are many kinds of eagks, vultures, owls ; 
. numc-rous other sorts called by European names, though geiie- 
y of distinct species. The turkey is peculiar to America, and 
'Unds in the nortli. Tlipy were broug^l^ from Mexico to Spain, 
I from Spain to England, abi)Ut 1524; ihe African poultry, or 
eaffvidea of more ancient authors, being fJuinca fowls. Virginia 
'unds with beautiful bii-ds, and it may l>o conceived that vast va- 
.ies of aquatic birds crowd the nunuTous lakes and rivers, the 
jest being tlic wild switi, wliich sonieiinies weighs thirty-six 
ind'i. Some of the frogs arc of remarkable size ; and tlie tor- 
le or turtle, supplies a delicious food, while liie alligator is 
pient in the southern rivers. Of serpents, the various kinds 
nd in the united territories, particularly in Virginia, are very 
neroMs. The rattlesnake is the largest, being fi-om four to six 
: in length, and is one of the most dreaded. Among th'* fish 
most of those which ure esteemed in Europe ; and that 
f>eculiar to the countiy, there may be mentioned a large kind 
wh)*e trout, found in the lakes, of rock, perch, and cat fish, 
unding in the western rivers. 


rmntd - tad ihcTt n >>>uiuij-< 

JtiBM KhW. mid to liavr •' < 'J tt 

•nj fiflt. QmI al*a> nbuiiu-i -'tnp 

"* — -J nttatilDyh i»«lf lUfhn ". ^ ..Ui. 

'^-""'ij onfj from VifitiiiM, n[..-r< 'I. 
I •* comninn'ni nuMot Uk Si.' 
ich vein* or nurble, nf variim^ 
. •nlitiird cryctulj, *T*> lliw tom' ' ' ' 

._. _. Jl l»e»o«cJ by* lmigr"Igeof liLiiniiiu-. m n "ic 
It dlrrelioo, hwt no tnin«r>t« •eem to huie boai dueam 
(p-tritiHT pxrath of tJte Ohio, what ii etUnl simk cdsI i* ( 
CitmhmAaid mmpitain*, nr eroi IaqM T\t\fp. Salt i 
nuiurruiu [hrtiiiir)i mo»l oTiiit wnltrn c(innl». In ! 
Iian ibcfc •»« aaiit lo br iippeanincM if vlvvr *nA Irtili 
•Iknee af Iron att, uid quirrko uf ffrcMvnr, (rrarsia 
•iiiitVn) *tUr, Is ofa rl^ vuil ■ h\it, except h bank uroj 
■tn<^ milrii f>i>in t})« Heii, tliere icciiia to be lui mtnei 

Misnui WtTKii", Thci* 4rc »PTcr»1 mincn] watcn 
virliieii, m different provlnwa of the IJuiWit Siiitca. fci 
Vennonl, IliewU aP«n«rluMe.iilphurioiis»pringr. wM 
luttfo iwtliKif ftin, iiul bunitii oil! in siioiW \>liCc. 
-<ianti>pi uiil R^illBtowii, in tlip stiie cf Tfrw-Yurk, i:< 
oiipuni*. and iiirmunibi] wtOi linpilnr pe(ritiic'i')^ 
Ti'irml i» by the wnlttiy tmm the buuiIicpo estrci'i' 

tJNITfiD STATES. 29,- 

d States will appear more properly under tlie heads of the re- 
ive States. 

luk's the {^eat lakes vi'hich ft)rm tlie northern boundary, and 
I have been already mentioned in tlic general description of 
I America, there are Bome consklerable lakes in the northern 
of the United territory. Those on the M-est have been little 
red. The small lakes, called Cedar, Little Winni]ie{^, and 
I, supply the sources of tlie Mis.si8.iippi. On the east tlie 
important lake is that of Champlain, re.sembltn^ a wide river, 
1 flows into tliat of St. Lawrence, and supplies an easy com- 
sation with Canada. The Cliamplain is the boundar}- between 
ates oF New-York and Vermont, being" in lengtli aix>ut 7^ g". 
, while the breadth seldom exccetis four or five; awl it ter- 
es in the broad river c&lled Cliambly or Rtchlieu, which falls 
1 the limits of Canada. Lake George, at the southem c.x- 
ty of Champlain, approaches within a few miles of tlie Ilud- 
ver, so tliat a canal mig^it he opened at no gi'eat expense, 
es many small lakes that lie S. W. of the Champlain, tltere are 
I in t!ie fctute of New-York, as tlie Oneidu, the Cayuga, and 

pxTAiKK. The chief mountains have been likewise noticed in 
snerul view of North America. The AVhile and Green moun- 
in the norlliem parts, and the F.:uid*s Height, wliich bounds 
istrict of iMaine, may be regardcti as elongations of the Apa- 
in chain ; but tlicse, and s<mie othere of local denominations, 
all describe more explicitly elsewhei-e. 

lEHTs. Aboriginal forests are so minierous throughout the . 
d territory, tiiat ncme seem to be particularly distinguislied. 
; does not appear to exist, on the whole continent of America, 
r those .«:»!( ly deserts which are so remarkable in Asia ard 
I. There is, o'l lli:^ contrary, an exu!)erance of water even in 
est torrid rcgioi\s ; v.'hich might be added as a proof of the 
r, that tills con^iiiont has nioi-e recen fly emerged. Even the 
loes in South America often pour down torrents of water and 
and no whcio occur ilie sandy ruins of plains, after tlie fer- 
oil has been tjtuily lost, or the rocky skeletons of ancient 
tains. T!i*i hirge irart in tJie eastern part of Virginia and 
I Carolina, calkd th' DIsmiil Swamp, oc*:"pie.s about 150,000 
; but it is tnlirc-ly covtved v.ith trees, j>!ni[)er and cvpi-ess, 
c more moist pins, urA <m the drii.r, whi«e and re<l oaks, 
I variety of pin'j'<. 'f h'-'se trees allain a protligious size ; and 
g them lluri'ii is ^ftv!« thick Inushwooil. so as to romler the 
p impenious: wliii." niauy other fore&i;; in N<irth \?nerica uiv 
aratively free from mi* njiwuod. Cane i c-.ds, and tall rich gniss, 
futten the cattle r.f tlic vicinity, \\hi':li are tait'^ht to return to 
nus of their own ar^'ord. In tids 8v;ampy foi-r^st, hilars, woUts, 
And wilda ul^rial.,, abound. Some parts are bo dry as to 
a horse, some are overflowed, and others so iniry, thut a man 
I xink up 1') the i;eck. A canul has b.-t n led through it; and 
in the dr\- parts, wat' r, of the colour of brr.iidy, guslied m at 
ppth of idiree ftc*. In the n(;i'tl»cr?i part, tin- iin>ber supplies 

arr r .illcii b\ ihrm, tiic daughters of Uie siui. These iskaiui 
sa.<I T>i ho % runinaiit of sui aiicicnt tribe, nearly exterminatm 
Crii k.>. 

l"L4Mi4. The principal ibl:tnils U'lunj^ing to the Araeric 
fi-'Urarv ai*e, Nuniiicket, attuchttl Irrthe State of Alassac; 
<ii!u:i;r(l alMjut ci^cht Kagiies south r>f Cape Cod, remarkable 
i-\p' ri and eiitcqjrisin^ seamen, and containing- about sis tl 
if'.h.tliitaitts ; a;ul I<(Mig liiland, which is separated from the S 
C'wp.ncct.ciit and New York, by the Sound and tlie East rivei 
uhoiii 14'; iTiih*!» in U n^tli, witli about 10 miles of medial I 
It !«. hi^^hly cultivaud, s'lpplying Xew York market with 
!>.irt of itave^eiablcs, and contains upwards of 30,000 inha 
W iiut is caiK.d the n'.ute of Rhixle Island is chiefly contimai 
tl ■ <>tli«.-r islundx, subject to the Federal Gotemmcnty are c 
I'W si rijis of hind I\ i:ii^ along the coast of the Carolinaaand C 
(.r flispfrscil throuf^h ilie various bays and lakes, and are < 

»ni>:irative value. 



At this time the Sagamores of Penecook, Pentucket, Squamihat, 
and Nuchawunack, by a deed under their hands and seals, conveyed 
to the Rev. John Wheelwright and his followers, all that tract of 
land tliat lies between the. rivers Piscutaqua and Merrimack, from 
their falls to the ocean ; on condition, that every township should 
pay annually, for ever, to the chief Sagamore and his heirs, a good 
*' coat of trucking cloth," and to the " said John Wheelwright, his 
heirs, and successors," two bushels of Indian com ; reserving to 
themselves the privilege of fishing, hunting, and planting, in any 
part of tile same. But these sachems were proprietors of part only 
of the country now styled New Hampshire ; for in Hubbard's his- 
|pr>' of the Indian wars, that occurred i^me years aftei'wardsr, we 
JSave the names of several other tribes who desolated tlie English 
settlements, as the Taranteens, tlie Sacos, tJie Indians of Amascog- 
gin, Penobscot, Piscataqua, &c. 

Mexorable E vests. 1. The discovery of New Hampshire by 
Captain John Smith, who ranged the coast from Penobscot to Cape 
Cody and in the course of his voyage ascertained the mouth of the 
liver Piscataqua. 

3. Grants made by the Council of Plymoutli to Capt. John Ma- 
son, and Sir Ferdinando Gorges, in 1621 — 2, of two large tracts, 
which conTprise all the lands from Salem to the Merrimack, and 
thence to the Sagadohock, and back to the lakes of Canada. It was 
under the authority of this patent that tlie first settlement was made 

3. Wheelwright's purchase from the Indian Sachems in 1629. 

4. The Council of Plymouth resign their charter to tlie King in 
1635, reserving the riglits of Companies and individuals to all the 
lands they jusuy claimed ; which claims were mostly confirmed to 
them by the crown. 

5. In 1637, tlie Rev. John Wicelwright was disfranchised and 
banished by the govenunent of Massachusetts, for his adiierence to 
Mrs. Hutchinson, a female schismatic ; but being a teacher of con- 
siderable credit, he drew with him great part of his' congregation, 
and they founded the tovm of Exeter, in New Hampshire, having 
first bought the soil from the natives. 

6. In consequence of the divisions and animosities that (^stracted 
this infant colony, for it was torn at one time by no less than four 
discordant governments, the people solicit the interposition of Mas- 
sachusetts. The application was well received, and by a formal act, 
dated 1641, they resigned the jurisilicllon, and became united with 

■ 7. New Hampshire is separated from Massachusetts, and erected 
into a distinct government by the crown of Great Britain, in 1679, 
and Mr. Cutt appointed the first govenior. 

8. A destructive Indian war, which bi*oke out about the year 1692, 
checked the progress of population and improvement, in Npw Hamp- 
shire ; many of the inhabitants being killed, others carried into cap- 
tivity, and their grain and houses destroyed. 

9. A4png existing controversy respecting the divisional line be>- 

kr-n- UAMPSUtRK 
twMn Krw flMiMliin 

«i«ac«i *fi|v.>'i'i'U bfH 

(i...i"i>"Hi'=v »*»« i - • - 

II. rwo(1»l(WB«Ma|i|ia>nt'^toSKet U)eC.\Ki(k3cntalC 
niiturlcttiliM. Jill)' 21, 1174. 

1^ The Folrnl CiHHttiiHl iiM ntiBeit, iuac '.'I, intS, li]r*H 

li. Tbe pnmimi ■Raii' CnovtiUMaU Aansil uBil irinilW w i 
Umliis S, ir9d. hitui^ >fi anicidawiU' iil' ■ p>«oolili|' laii|u)a 

and Uiciw aKiuii into towiuliipi i iitcnriiittg to Oir lul rrtua 
ill 1 010, lher« were iipvAnkoC 'Juil LMtTuhipi, tile lui*9-|p 
ai-t milo w^iiwc i ednutoiiig JI>,4(iu luhalnfciiiu. '" 
or All iiiciirpi iruUiL 

Mii^mi i>.DCv«T.iiitii. Th* tH">plcnf UiUalkt 
■omiW r«>ni I'.h'iflidli iJiiB^i-rtOt", 'I'Ihj »!'■■ » •*> 

Dr. Dclknip lumcnls Uitir i'". I'r ■■ i'"!'!!!-'')!". at ■jiiriti^ 
but ibu wiui cril tur, [M. 1 -i.J», Ikoia 

oliinaleuvd Ihcoooiip.i' ' ;<el'liap«-lf 

ifijiif ioiu. They tUrr rj< I 

Ci'riiB.Taw.'>s*ii.i tu-... »h : 

of 4iJ<'4J', N. ij Ihclu'ist.-i.lU.stL 

on lllc CiAC 11 tiiii}iii( river, .ibout in<j >'< 
«Olltiii)H.-(l 69.>4 iiihibitHnla. JU pi;' : 
fliur aiJuiol liOLiarSjU. wark liituBc, uiil '^ ; i . . 
mntup. Tli^ twrboiir U erosHeiil, lunl iIlc i>a 
inir. Heri' an- two Bunks. 

liixTu u one of tbe mnst luinienL tanms i 
bytiie Bev.Ji>lin Wl»eriwri{^itiindhisbri>0itr,4ii l&W. Itia 
on ilic Mlilii lide of Exeler river, uhout liS milcairaflLSl'*" 
xod ooutAlni xbout SUtWinhBbiiouU. lu i^raviHu v 
tbe rcvaliitiaa«rv «ur, before wliidi it cAWud aa ■* 
ail cxUoiivc uale. It hw nna Hunk. 

CniDoBii. Thi* in aji inktmltown, hiuI the oi — -> 

tnule Mil intci-cminu. It is tiil(ut»d nd ihc !dtrritnaA A ,_ 

sew of Uie sutc g..vepnmcii(, and bus abaut a5(» inknhitnteC 
sIMc hiiM niuiy i«hw tJinvuij; towns amd viUagv", bnl Ihaavw 

Butoa .i;iiiI«i.ixdN>(iu>tii)k. Ill a rnuiitrj' lik« Ktv I 
dure, but thioly peopWi there jins not muny IuikU Io be tpw 
Bukinj; uFtJfipial roacU or cuniils. 01' llw Utter. Ibcre ii ooe 
tlirou)fJi ilic marahoi JEum Humpton to ihu ritcr .Ucnimuk, 41 
cieiit for tile pii39ii«e of lu.uletl tmUi. fov about A miiei 1 umI If 
i>anotliFrunderlakeii,nniul tlicfiill'* nl'.Merrinuicti.ncar Amn*^ 
nhicb is iw4rly csmplekd. 


isrcFACTtnnu and Coxmkrcf.. The principal manufaclurc is 
building, as the state abounds with excellent timber for the 
ose. Portsmoutli is distinguished for liavin^ built the only 74 
ihip tliat was ever completed in the United States ; which was 
;nted during tlic war of independence to our great ally, l/ouis 

of Franco. 

the year 1791, the shipping of this state amounted to 19,000 
: the product of the fisheries was 25,800 quintals, and the 
mt of tlie cxporu, in 1802, was 565,394 dollars. Tiic princl- 
rticles sent abi*oatl are lumber of various kinds, masts, yards, 
pars, horses, cattle, pot and pearl asiics, salted fisli and provi- 
A considerable part of tlte produce of this state is shipped 

the ports of Massachusetts or Connecticut, and it is sent |>rin- 
ly to Great ISritain, or the British West India ishmds. 

there is a general rage in the United States for speculating in 
:s, and other paper institutions, New ILimpshii'e has not escaped 
iiection i but tlie principal Dank of discount and deposit is at 
imoutli, inco]'porated in ir93» and possi'sscs a capital of 60,000 
rs ; which may lie incr(*ascd occasionally to 2,200,000. 
IXATE Asn SkIsons. The air of New Hampshire is in general 

and salutar}', subject ncrertJieless to as sudden changes as in 
liddle and southern states. Rut as it contains in its bosom and 
ity'many lofty mountains, whose heights arc covered with snow 
ce, a givat part of the year, tiic winters are long and intensely 
The heat of summer is :is intemperate, hut being of short 
:ion does not imbrace tlie vigorous frames of the h:»'rdy imiabl* 
The extremes of heat and cold, are from 20° bi*low, to 100* 
1 : tlie medium about 50° of Fahrenheit's thermometer. 
iL A9D AoHTcuLTUBE. The land of this state is broken by nu- 
ua hills and mountains ; . of course then? is a great deal unht for 
/ation. The sea coast is light and sandy ; but, for about 30 
. from the ocean, there are many rich vallies, wiiich, enjoying an 
d alluvion from the mountains, ai-e very productive, and yield 
srant crops of wheat, ne, Indian com, barley, hemp, hops, &c. 
climate is friendly to fruit tn^s, and orchards of ix'ars and 
» are cultivated successfully by even farmer. 
rs, RivEKs, AlM) Lakks. As this state h:is but 18 miles of front 
e ocean, it cannot present many bays or rivers ; indeed, the only 
tliat deserves to bi? mentioned is th.Mt of Piscatuqua, whicu 
da from Kxeter to Poi'tsmouth ; and the only conslderiibic river 
runs wholly througli the sUite, is the river of the same name, 
rincipal branch of which, called Nywichwannock, springs fn^m 
outliemmost of Ijovell's Ponds, about 40 miles from the sea. 
harbour of Pi.scataqua ?s nuicli enlarged by the junction n. four 
iary streams, uniting about eight miles above the town of Port s- 
h. There are some remarkable pou'ls or lakes in tlui s^aie, 
ml>agog, near the north-east comer i>f the state, Nud Win- 
ioket', near the centrt • the latter is .ibout 20 inil'-a long, and 
3 to 8 broad i but tlu .i' are many otlicr small bodies of stand* 
faterof lesser consideration. 

kr b* » •«««« an altqiu^r 
la thtyv'* lr<l9<«lukrrtliiT |m- 

Dhlii^ to Iwvn 
hoiiiiil br Uw to c> 

hi» fiirmrr ie»«Kt' 

to lender \lie form 

bUnof to Uttt of \' 
variikUtHU. Tlw i- 


resent have a power to convict. In all other respects, tlic 

I of the two houses ure eqiud ; jointly they appoint ull the 

i o^' jfovrmmcnt, not otherwise provided for . * l *he jiidf>fes 

Stipn-rnc Court are appointed by the (i^vemor and council, 

{^)(«d behaviour : their salaries cannot be diminished while 

•c ifi office.— —All male white inhabitants, of the age of 31 
who have paid taxes, have tlie right of suffrage at elections. 
at these elections are received by a 'moderator and the select 

II the towns and parishes, and in all oiher places, by the tax 

i Ntate sends two senators and six representatives to Con- 

The senators arc appointed by a concurrent resolution of 

ouHcs, and the representatives are elected by tlie i)cople at 

jLATios AND Militia. According to the census taken in 
Jiis state contained 214,360 inhabitants, umonj^ whom there 

slaves. Tlie increase is a duplication in about 33:|f years, 
the age of 16 years, tlie males are most numerous, but above 
pe, tlie females' exceed, in the ratio of 47 to 45. It appears 
pretty accurate record, tliat one in seven live^ to the age of 

1 one m 14 to tJic age of 80 years. Of the present injiabi- 
those of 26 vcars and upwards are about one-third, and tlioae 
and upwards about one-sixth of the whole number. The 
ition is about 21 persons to a mile square. The militia 
% of twenty-seven rcgunents, forming together about 30,000 
ire men. ._ 


Mill ,i° .;6' «>l l.ill([. t'TOBt fli.l."ii ll-l..», .11- 71' jj' -i»l i 
Iponi 1/iuilon, and eonuiiUi uhnit K,UO(f mjum« miles, > 
pi'i-Hiiii* Ion mile vquws. 

nriUji. t . . 

SI»aBti>i.K F.vism. t. ThegTwniof alw^lnwlof hmbl 
S. E. of Vertnont wat mode by the gfiin-iil court of Muatdv ~ 
in or about the ycat 1716, but no atlllFmciit w^a cllVcttd t 
building' Of fort Dinnmrr in IT^S': as tlii^ cmAilryj briWk A 
was niurli FijHKict) to the iCAtiiiiig knives uf tbc I^ni^e^ «B 
Kava};e ollk's, it» hnproTcTncDt was rcr}' tlov. 

3. A dh-is<.n«l line «m iiin in 1741, between t)ie«(i. _ 
sacbiiBetts nnd N«w RanifiibiK, by which il appewi t]fa 

Uhln wlui W8* tlipii iJunij-ht i(* I« Uie jiiriidtbiifni n. 
lin, and vfii» wcwrditiKly nUiimeil u a p»rt ff ilmt jl 
made, 1T49, by Reniiiiij; 'W'tiilwovthignin'Tnor orSwH 

everj pwcctK of laiut tclwceri tlip Camm'ticttt ki 

suTi rivers, und u townphip of sii milct iquuv lud oul, cktlrd D 
iiinijion, in alliiiioii lo Ilic govcrtwr'* luune. 

3. The commeniement at UoslUil'res by the Ppcndi, in | 
stopped improvements, and pot the iohftbitimt* to AtKlit 

4. After the Burnmdct' oT Monircal, in Jr60. Uiii < 
came more generally known, wmI, in iliecoiu'seof-.m 

ing, trot less than 60 lownsliipa wore liUd wit bj tlic ,._ 

New Hampshire. Tbc cultivatjim Ineicuscd nlili auiprisii. 

5. Vermont claimed by the provlnpc nP New Vork, by rirt. 
nn nbuiletr ^ruit finim f^iiirUs U. ti) hl> hrolller Uic Duke of V 
n proolianation uaoeU ly ^ivvnuir ColUcn, iu IfOS, inndr''*'^- 

I wven bj KeiT Ilunpsf uk i uid In 17M Um ctaiin of New York 
BJuriidictionrlnrttioI to tlicsoil, wiui eanflrnicclby ibe cmm 
net of tlic llritWi ^\Driirncnt, bowcvcr witl intendctl, ru 
>tl ly Ibe yavNnin^ii of New Vork : vticnipta bdnf nuJe lo 

the 1*11^ V &!«« iif Amu, « ctv il witr rnmurd. 
Tlia blh^iIUni* pcxtHifiigil Ihc crown rnr iivoUttiin. uul »■ 
ml KTST', GCMRe lit dUprpotcd Ui slop l hi \ lolent luncml W 
en Tntk.bulWitlMUtfUllrfti 1 I \~i I r goteiiiorni hew 

isDKit u [>tucl,uiMtiun, « I liutb uT 

Jiu. Srlli^laniVT und «« \cnncnl 

piiblul '■li a euULiter dec! r icneit * lo 

iiH rfpi H V Biiv pirson or |> lurv, or uny 

.tn L I thf ukinir ol It I MnfuKioa 

lolil ibE brc 1: 1 g > f ibr rc^olutiomuy 
It* ivnouiKi ) ollif iMicc l« rvtiy givri-ern 

frannd Julj 4, 1'Sft teVWeJ ^nd amended 

' j'.d CuiiBiituliun raltficd by a ^r<V»t Wnjuritji, JuniiAry 10. 
1. 1 1 tied xss member of tbc Amcricaiv CuntHkracy, Mwcli 

.1. !:■ :|i[*urt of tilt cftTgy, ani for fiiiilj- 

1 . II > ■ '. I ' ■ i^ 1 . 1 1 i 111- goyeninidit 6f tlii« utate in moTC 
. . :iiiii \i%ii irHX lu rL'i'iiiiimend it (o the Imltatltm of wLtc 
fi..i> ^iriy ullicr m llin IJriioii, I'hir cxccutlfc inwcr U vi'itgd 
I. niiT.dwwiianjiuidlj by tlic people, hj-umwrirUy of votw. 
I'll roiieurwinifl of Ibe i-iccutivc council, of whicb Ut ii pre. 

■lloJlirluwluntottlWwihi ii.m.I-iI. in u n r. nut Elici.ainl 

■ii"ii»,'«ccptftirtrcii«t"i, ■ ■' ■ ■■! iiiiiJ^-afl.irrtiii. 

i>--.|»tunce nf tlip .(iiilK'- ' ■ , i . * .jmm, («■ m.-ij 

'oul-.l i^ii' '■■ ■ ' " ■ --u.i b) lU peuplv «ii- 

f , in r-"r ■ ■limed, liiey Mpituim all 

riiitl|>.i I !ii.-cniiiie(llof two thirds 

Wi.nn i ■'imiiniU. Tlie ooim* 

Wof :, VI.' I iiiK.1. tutui.l. ov.T rlio 

.■ndt-rcoilllh ... . I. .. ..I 1 ,,:ui.ii.-- 

K ftwrnan wliu I, - ■■ i , ■ ■ ■ of 


ii<' UicreuT ibuli hi 

nwVEl «*ra mlln i> Itw Vi«iMhipMWlM> Uic Utt «ci>. i : 
m UD jmr MiO tin la1uiMti*t> or V«nwH« MMontvil < < 
no ■!■*!«. The iiKm*« Ml )l>ii iMt prmJinir I<l vnr* wu 

veil irmlnrd, Thar fimn iwn illvUkici, inrlwlm^ Ktoi I* 
oar nn llir WI^'.T^wl Itw iilfc'-"-' •*«■ •■.■! ^I'lci-' 'lir iii«un1 

rittiing uwleoiy M MliMUIiurj-, am) liix ' 
kn li9l <liB Kovtninirnt (intf^i] an uri for • i'< ' 

lluiliiiu'oii. "11 ^1'^' VS\3L«tp\iiin, for Ihc Kii;.!. 

i^. ' "' !iii*t b(fen id apiipt, li.>lil[- 

I .iinc>|»l lOWn* of lliis lUlc « 

v> ., i-acl. of irtri" H.f hi'iifi uf « 
liiUrr, al(rr>i..i.-U, il„ 1 , 

Int. Ncyetlhrln), itoniHttie mMiiil^uturaR U* 


■t )>r. 

<it miKle w much m VJW lunx, 
Lil, pLjflWy.tiirw; fmnlUwi ohIj- |>r.. 

mr Tlicir nriwipal tiimHWt'iil 
1. Thr anHmiU-orUK-iT >'> 

' ...... .t«S%»t.>»n. A.Vcnr 

■III I ■! mil a liTKvpurt or tUt !'• 
I- ' ■ ■.uslli"ffldtliui[.i..i . 

MBuii. wiiliimi wij iiluutfliing- 
'cigi, niiluiHlly tiiHit to rich ijMt. 

wUmI, ryr, Wley. luul I'Uias 
iiinnlly, niv vtry ci]nildcrable( 

-Mill lli<. i^xwillli of llUld CMS 

. |< ...:. Ill' ilit-wr at-tlcie!> have 


1.1 I- !■ I. HI- »*' the tinw»t itrrami in Vrrmont. but iidiw of 

I .ii..iii'il tni ii«vi^lilv, evan by hnil», iriorr thnn M 

iiiii' ~ ii'im >« lunutli. Ou ili« »Mt kiiId tlie rirm *ra nM M 
I irj, , lull i,rr mure oiinwrmu tliHti nn Ilii' wpiti tlie latfimt. uc 
W'l'tl rivrr, Wlvirc riv«F, wtul Viinutoetn-Muak- Conncctiout rivn-, 
into which ilie liut mciilloiu.'il cirFuni* lUI, ftirnm tlie Miiiwn boun- 
lUn- nf tlir irtRW. utd U onr nf tlie ftnctt itNiuni in Kev BngUnd. 
I'biH river, vliifiU tIki b tlii> mniintniiui thai dlvule C'UUkIu ftesi 
llic llnilnlSlitrii, >kAci-i'i!niiinB'Rbnut40llniileii tliruurti lh« ceun- 
ivv, ami ulTonUnK a nui l|[iiti«n Ibr viMneli nf 100 Innii tiurthen, finy 
' ''i-tflMni llituuuih, iLiKbsi'^lnio th«a<:cM*t SftyliraokinCinn 

and UKuvcn m ami thm miit* wi-ir 

HiwvTim. A eluin id tilgit m.>in^kiTi 
awl wH<ilt,d>viaMlkUaiatBali»>i: il.' N ' 

tfcc nUier Tte OriMnd (rmtli ..r 

■qtfUcr. iiiul otb«r rmr-fTOOH ; b-"'" 

peanniT. 0%! iM tliil ■e^dani 11 oil'-'' -I 

V'-l M inl, of Hraco Mmitittin- 'V- •••^ir rlriatctl nut 

■» vlir mo* l\r» miwf- KillinKV-n Pnk, tfb'i 

■I • I' l'i it p«n>, faain^ ojinpi-tvd 1o bcSWifc^ iIitfTT -. 

Cunipvwu Am luiitBil "' 

_niHciait priufwrt ; .' 
nrl nt' Vmilant, ihn'itv I . 
Ilnitii in nutnliLT or thr_-.>- «l '^ 
■mu FiMnnrai and atefiiL The in ' 
rioui ipcclM, nuple, lurarJi, oih, i |i< 
poptsr, and witlou'. Or the A-uii i 
tltekindi ire niunritMui, ai plitmi n' _ 
PS, intilbcrnr, gnntbtrrj, mrrnnl, liln.ikb. ! 
MHy, and KVtmJ tumb of fF^pM, ln|[«tlMr v 
ulklf^ uf (Jin TcRtiible klnj^tm, wliieh m u'- 
qtU(lr<ipcil>( V<rmi>nt roiiUuui 31 iliffci- nt .| i. 

mCltxllcUlTllirinDIIM!, EWtf, W"!!, < 

hue, rvIiMt. tiiHinvL &«' her JioikU 
mink, iiml iitiori »nil nuiit of Iln- r 
Ibun.! lirrF. llwi nrcmmmon in "' 
■ ■ _. ,_ . '-'JsWeJj 





le districi of Maine, constitutes one of tJie United States,) is 
led on tlie north by Vermont and New Hampshire ; on tlic east 
e Atlantic ocean ; on the soiitli by the Atlantic, Rliodc Island, 
^nnecticut ; and on the west by New York. This state (Maine 
ied,) extends from 41° 13', to 45° 45' N. latitude, and from 1° 
I 10° 15' east longitude from Philadelphia, or from 67° 15' to 
5' AV. fi-ora London ; and contains about 40,OOU square miles. 
reiKAL PopcLATiox. Til is state derives its name tix>m the bay 
aaaachusetts, and that from a powerful tribe of natives, the an- 
proprietors; though the Monegujs, Narraganzetts, and Pe- 
s, are names of frequent occurrence in the early liistory of the 
ry, and probably possessed u portion of it at ijje time when 
nglisli laiuled : for it is known that the tribes wei-e many, and 
of them contained any great number of ])eoj)le. Although 
?rritA)ry was granted b\ King James, as early as 1606, to a cora- 
of wealthy men, with Sir Jolm Popham, Oiicf Jusljce of En- 
,at their head, all thcML- exertions were feeble and unfortunate, 
ligion animau-d aome of the English dissenters to settle on tliis 
111 continent. The first successful adventurers \v ere a religious 
y who hud rted from England, and seated themselves at Leydcn, 
[land, under the direction of John Robinson, their pastor : but 
[J that their communitv vvus like to decline instead of increase 
r the Dutch, tlicy petitioned King James for permission to 
3ort themselves aiul faniilies to New England. Meeting witli 
sliglit encouragement, one hundr<"d and twenty pers<«»s em- 
d in a single .ship, an<l landed in November 1620, at a 
'ards called Ph mouth, in Plymouth countv; which is still 
tmorated as the cradle of the New England C(jlonies. 
Mon.iiiLE EvKNTs. 1. A patent granted by the Plymotith 
:ll to Sir Henry Koswell and five others, in 162r, for a vrry ex- 
e tract of country, extending three miles south of Ciiarles- 
and tliree nortlt of Merrimack, and from sea to sea : but this 
ment conveyed or:ly a right to tlie soil, none to the govern- 

C e *J 

uaiiUat*, Bad (line cWl teaai un^t); tlicmu-lves, a pn 
dcjM^ n)«>tiiir, vba diunid hMe (Iw power ut' making' 
:^ — >. .t — rri court, Uie (reel* 



h p HHwr tut 
bi K and I 

oral allien wwc g; i*en 

Ao gsie to be arcd tw4ea b 

Abo h pf hxl 6J6 hn« le schMm 

h 1st htiTcli wMw ncd b Mn H h noa n< 
|[cr ^iHkms, Uwy wt*e bnnishtd, sod be^n Ibe >"■ 
new enkmy in Hhode lilMid, wbere they atpeHcncti i 
riiifi frciu Uie MVOKf H ihuit from the bi^ts nf Mns> > 
7. Emi;*r;i<ii)ii Id N'tlv EngUnd (WBScdslioltt the :• 
RepUhV.t ■-■■ '--"-■' '.:- - A 'he asccndwt in old Rn. 
ft 111 ''■ ■ ■ . mi-mbers of tlie chiiiv 

*H<\ Pi'i.'i . .!■ i-jl eoHrt rorlhercstt 

riglilfl . .- lUnhcj weretMi.l 

Mt uIi. '■ ■■ . . -riilal, loid bouiifl hr 1 

ltir)-h)«U.,lr™,--:-iit,-ih i..r .vhidi Bcl they Were ^ 

M\S9\0HU8KT1S. 31)7 

aat number Wi-ro wliippnl, witl tmtiruaneil ; mrw Iikd tlicir 
Uo Uited, and tout H'cro tiuiEtd. 't'liraiBiI prmikH of lime 
niastii hud riien to luch nn nlnrramg lirighl, that Kiiij; Clmrlcii 
pTcr cduimiBOToncpi, In 1S(!5, lo Uko liit- Injicsil autl'oritj out 

tiuidv of tbft cxixtititr ailnihiiMtraiiflii, ann lorMaMUli • mililti- 

. About: lh(r yMr 1674> bruko not an oliHtiiMlE mid blaady w«- 
iba memffit, called Iji the Nrw Rngland miiuilo, PhUip'i vu. 

1 WW Was ooemiioiiccl, in nonic tiujmuw, liy im Bittnitil to tulrfu- 
tilt WUns Co tlic bu'H vf 1li« eolaciTi kud to uvat their king 

■ubifct] aBiRin<"iiug'l)im'&nd otlpcrcltiErs Id I^lllur before the 
idhI* nr tliF Milnnv. It ragvd n■it^ var\<)iit *u«aciM fur MTcral 
»; bLiiirmi)mi.-.i Ml tiiffiiioccM (rfti-KiBngrllab. Sotnc t>f the 
■ ■ ; .1- ■ ■■ : ■ ■ ..' i \ei!iit«d. himI uUitm w«rc aold m 

uliTv^vdi and n iicw one abtHincd 

' ii ^l.p »|)po!>itniDHt of fiuvrriuir was 

:,ii(i ewTi' iiilinbitiiiil i>f 4(M. Kl^inK |»rKinitil 

' "> vi>U'ii>crv)ireii«atM>vrtt. TbAncu-diartei'In* 

I rlymotrth, uid Uia Piwinec of Maine, uridcr 

ii, at well ita tlic I'TDvinecnf Kava SciitliLi but 

.ti.irilsm|)urMcd, andcrecicdlntoad'owcljui'b' 

rUis\™rttjKilli,liiij!uisbcd by ftPcviTalof'Uenixi'atfiimst 

It, whidt lliimed with rvdoublasd violanot.'' Hiuit&tdi nerc 

. iL'^iJ man; condcmacil uid ■•seciitfal foi- varlou* inu^uy 

. .n-. -II •■.-.t made id-riblt havtK uatmg tkf InhiibitanU 
i.i.i'.ic 1 introduced by Dir. BiiyUtmi, Ucntiiwi'iE 
, I mi. reprobated viithrf1i)^kitl« lii]rrurb}fttp.'at 

■ I iir LuuMbiiTf {in c»pe lJn-t(jii)l)l«wirf wii 
. ., -.i;y. Liy forces f'tnui tlioSi-w F.uflaiid pruvino«. 
i'LLiii;!i liuke cnerondiKirnt* en lllit British coloiwi, cx- 
' >HV(i^'a triiMiTder tlic tnbalilun<«, in ITSi, Mwaavhu- 
iiun>iiMUriti*t)|^vrniKicnlforsucci>tiFt deseribin; tbrir 
ed oimimttiDctM," autk iiu^Lilv, tg " tnitiiiUin ■ farec tie- 
■!■ iWwWrtviter." 

' -. - ri,-i in irflJ. The«tiijwpu*ininiHipning,tLehfll» 
.it printed witli n ilr^iib'* linil ifliud to it. und 
- L r.niii nf Unaton. 'Itic MX, jind Uio i^RgUa of 
.:<, Iiuntt in the public pbcoh The a«t repealed 
li^iiiiMitiA li'OC 

.v'.>nnblrt>r'MaatDcbuH'tM writr r.Irculor ledera 
. .. iniiiliiif tlnmi ti) unite in oppoaing the acta of 

i/nreof o alonp laJeti witb winea, in orderlo w- 
.;,.... , ,..i; thcnwi. lit fK-ipb-, iif 8«alon biirol a boat 
; W tlir CijllwtW, peltctl tlic cuinmiitatuncr»with atOim. M* i 


i arc appointed for seven years, but uU tlie jiulieiarv officers 
}<i removed at any tinic by an inipeacliinent, on a cinnplainl j)re- 
d to tlio gt)vcnK)r, by a joint vole of bolli of lej;jisla- 
— This state sends two senators and '30 r('|)ri'sv:ntatives to the 
*al congress. Skjnators arc appointed by roncurrent ballois of 
wo branches of the fjenorul court ; repiiseiitiitives are eU.cled 
: districts by a majority yf votes. Tiic eonnnon hiw of Bn^lund 
* rule of judicial prort^dinc^s, ixci'pt when it is opposed to 
specific law of the state. 

riftioNs, I'oi'i'LVTii>N, A>fii Mii.iTi\. Thc conunonwoalth of 
achusetts (proper) is divided into 12 counties, and subdivided 
155 townships, whirli in IKIO cont;iined 472,040 inhabiUuits, no 
s; increase in ten years 50,000; population about 68 persona 
tquaix; mile. From thc l)e^innin}^ of the American revohition 
3 time, the proj^ress of population has been slow. In 1773 it 
omputed that there were .J00,000 inhabitant.^ in this province. 
90 there wcn^ 378,787, whieh gives a difierence of 78,787 in 
een years. Vvom 1790 to 1800, the increase was 44,05-'^, wliich 
11 less in pniportion to tlie number of peopU*. Hefoi-e the rc- 
ion, the ratio of increase was much pi»eattT. In 1751 the inha- 
t8 were computed to l)e 164,48'i; m 177.'> they had ri.sen as 
! mentioned to 300,000 tlie difierence 135,516 m 22 years, or a 
cation in alxmt 26 years. i-Vmales to males 1 hroiighout the state 
> to 100 ; in Koston as 12 to ll. Of both sexes, in 1810, under 
ars, there weixj 187,747, and above that age 228,646. 
e militia of Massachusetts is very tvspcct able : by tlie returns 
to the gtivernor, they were computed at about fiOjOOOelfective 
completely armed and disciplined ; in which number there is 
proportion of cavalry and artillery. 

iWNKiiM, (jiTHTOMs, AMI isKTtdVMiF.. Tlic mcn of tliis statc ar<^ 
ally tall, stout, and well proportioned, and many of the wo- 
londsome; they Iiave generally fair, fresh, and healthful conn- 
ects, mingled with a considerable degix^c of delicacy and in- 
tion. Tiic inhabitants of New Kngland have been nnnarked 
eir hcspitality, as wi-ll as for a degree of, wliich 
r»' on imperii incnce, and, before the war, for a scrupulous ob- 
icc of thc Sabbath, which had the appearance «)f superstition 
igotry. This reverence for religious institutions introduced 
reservinl among them the custom of annually celebrating fasts 
lanksgivings ; and has luen the means of preserving in New 
iikI more, at least o1' the appearance of religion, than is ob- 
)le in the middle or soiitiiern states. As thc inhabitants are 
t universally of Rnglish descent, and a general attention has 
>aid to education, tlur Knglish language has been preserved 
' fiTe fi"om corniption: among some of the country i)cople 
ar«' a few provincial idioms, and a peculiar enunciation, wliich 
giiish them fioni their neif'hboiirs — but this is monr or less the 
n all other <'ountries. 

riN viiii:*J OK IiK\n m \<i. M.issachu.S( tts has been distinguished, 
its e.'U'liest pi-rio'l, f«*r a wisi- atlnition to the cultivation of 
I knowUih-"':. Hv a \i\\ »if th- c"U'"i»nvvealth. v\cr\ town 

Crt I «r 'ibe Mote, filp «c xilu--v; BiirUi Nid tfcnctaa U 
tia Ixiuas, ■* weU tm 4irtbelilKnl «ru *tid i^ 
vWJi ate wA ^mrol, lad lu a aouruhiiir lUtc -! 
Cniv Tbw«» Oiuiin s tit: c^UJ. »•! oolf of II 
b»[ur;JlIf#vEnyl«HL. lis Uili in u crj tnCfn" 
■ inwaaliL at Un liiiUum "f M*«acJuiKtU t*j ,- ■: 
)nw iHMlAf (MOMS, Md 3J,ajO bWhuuu. T..r 

**d lir|« (Doaefa to nriieHMD 5iW tlujn •> ftoctun ■>:. „. 

oC antinr. hsquajv anl vlunei uv (Oj <v<iicniiaic i iM 
Uttvr czlaida ao yMil* uilu Dw Imv, u*4 r?r •i^^pd* »; 
•trvotun! <if Uk fcimi ill ll«t U<i><'-) >i'^i-> l^'- r,r,i. ..» 
buihUiusarc, ttalisu buu*, f'~ >' 
bMuu. iirMmrll. ami .iMm (.1- 

UuiiC n)l£M ■» tpWIItUf HhI rl 
WUf Ifjftunlnlbi-aruik, .'i -^ 

rfhmv^-urlill. ■:->'. ',.■,■■■1, . 1 ,, 

400$. Bui il,.,^i.r, ■ nil,-.! 
«>no lo ^u-u th'iuianU iFiliAbtuiit.. 

auiT enUrprnlnir anU iiitluitnuiu in 

of Ihr iiiiUxt. iui.i «n? »!■,' iiiiHiiy II 

of N«*tnc!:.t.i'',-m, ;-T^.!-, M-:-'-.. 

GkliiTiei. iHiii-'i ' ■'■ ■ .-!■■■■ ■ 


diotiiW^ ^rmierti csudUir Md h 


I sometimes intense*, Ivit nol of \on{^ cdntiiuianee, a« the pre- 
•;' winds are from the west and north-west, the clexatul n-f^ioit 
st rind snow. The extrcnu's of and rold uvc from '30 he- 
I too nlxive in the. oprn air — the medium ahoiit Mi. Aee^inl ■ 
(»h»'rv:iti(m« nu.dc -it oJlnhrid}:^^ in 1784 ami 1788, the fall oV 
;s .innnall) nhnut 'Aj l-'^ inelK-s. 

L AMI Aoiiiciri.TunK. M'hute%'er is the cause, the soil of this 
las btH*n tx)o steril to produci* wheat for mor«» than a eenlury. 
jRiin was nnseil in larcfe cn)ps till the year 1664, when it wa*- 
'his'ed ** This is n*pn'sente«l us an uniisual thmjf at the time, 
uniinued more or Ifss for divers year?* toj;rther, until thi- 
f wt'iv disrouraf>ni'd from aowing*;" and al prrsent most of th« 

flour eoiisiimcd in the state is imported. On t he sea coast 
md is h>w, and mostly sandy. A houi thirty miles from the 
the soil improves, and Ix'twecn the mountains is cultivated tu 
tope, exhibit injf pieli nK'a<h»ws, valmddc frops of flax, vye, 
I com, and othrr sunmirr ^fi'ain. Orchards are also nume- 
md very productive of liie choieest fruits. In short, the far- 
[>f Massacliusetts live in plenty and indepeudenet*, and arc rc- 
:d for their hospitality. 

xuHf Hath and Iskaniis. Massachusetts is irrl^^atcd by nu- 
18 stwams. One of the larjjest is Merrimack rivc-r, which 
throug'b the northeastern part of tlu* state, and dise.Jiarp^'S 

into tlie sea alxmt tw<> miles below Newhuryport. Charles 
, which rises from several sources in TI<ipkinton and Ilolliston 
J, passes by Cambridge, and falls into Hoslon harbour. Taun- 
\*cr, risinf^ in the blue mountains, ])asses nearly in a strait 
-west course to Tiverton on Narrajyansett-bay. Concord, 
c, Mc<lford, IX'tTlield, Ipswich, and Wcslfieid, are all rivers 
is state, but of inferi«»r note. The principal Iwys are Itoston 
Cape Otxl, and Huz/anVs bay ; and the «»nly isl'^nds wtjrlhy of 
? are Martha's vineyard, ami Ni.ntncket : the laiter is prinei- 
inhabitcd by fishermen, and has prcwlueed some of the most 
■t and enter|)risinij^ whalemen in the world. Tlu* soil i» vir\ 
lietter than u sand hea]>, and tlu; inhabitant.s amouii( Xo aboui 
I: they are chieHy of the society of l-'riends, and are distill- 
led for'the peace and h.irmony that prevails unun gf them. 
K'NTM^s. The principal rnnj;es of mountains :iiv in the wes- 
f>art of tlie state, and furnish most of the sprinf»>{ that k-ed 
ecticut river. Theiv are none remarkably hipli, the ninHt 
ted, ealletl^Waehesset, Ix'injr Jdxnit 3(M>0 fe<'t .fliove the level 
\Q sea. They run pn-tty nearly in a north and .smuh direction, 
.y parallel with tin- course of the river above nienlioned. 
'^iKTAiii.!-., Ammai. anu Minkhai. pHonrrrioNN. The forest 

of Massriehusetts are the sann* as those <»f Vermont, :ind tlie 
• New r.nt^laiid states. Most of the valuabh; fruit trees HourisJi 

liarticularly the apt de, the pear, ami tin* |Kaeli, thr)".ij>fh the 
I- liassuflireii, as it lias in most of the other .slates, irom \\iv. 
yi'S of a lyrnii that attacks its mots: and in Mime situ- iions by 
■asiern >\inds. The priiiei|Val j^raii'is that aiv pnnluced ajv In- 
corn, rye, barley and oats, and some* wheat from the new lundp, 

llir AUantit I Mill '■!■ 
lijjt iLUnit-£!8,ru,J :. 

■Ctiport, CDIlUiHlDit -.1 
in fit!) and luniUr 

jinir. mraiti, which " . ■ 

■f!T»t«irroii. ■■ 
tliclt tn-ii'i. 
or nil tl>' 
liigLmo..,,' ... . 

irr lie sumniwi ifxi li:o[ii.t:i 



XTKNT ANTi Hov isiiARi Ks. 'J'lIIS stfito incliiclcs wliat was for- 

ly called I<1>0(I<> iHland and I'lwicNMirc plant at iuius, and is situa*. 

bi:t\vi.on 41* and 4J^' north latitude, and U'twrfU S'' and 4* 

lonp^iludt* from IMiiladcljiIiia, <»r about 71" >v«'.si fruni I^)n- 

Ix'ing' in Icnjrtli 47, ami In-cndtli .'>7 nilks; in s»ip?i*Hoi:ii 
onts about U^Ui) squuiv indcs. 

KiuiNAi. l'«PirL4Tio!v. kluuU' Isluud was originally \\\r hnnlin;;" 
liNhin)[f p^round of tin* Nan'ajjansrtt Indians, and was f.onv.yrd 
icni, In'twitMi tlir Trai'H l()o4 and 16J8, to crrlain Kn^^lish set 
., wlio fli'd billuT from tlu* inloU'rant spirit of the MaK.sac])u- 
i rukM'H. Those puritans, who, rathrr than conform to ilic 
tl of tijo Episcopal churchy had fled to the wilds of Anu'vica, 
; no KooHCT invented with power than they j)Cr»eruted all wfm 
d not. Hwallow their fonnularv, with luoiv rruellv than tiuir. 
.•8 had suflered und<T the mitred higx>tH of Fin^-land. Rojjir 
liuniN, a ver}' ivspwtuhlc rlerj»^\man, beinj** con<U'.nmed for 
in|f a varitty of speculative ern)ra, wa8 banished fi-oni %f.'Lssa- 
elts, and afterwardH from Plymouth. He 'hen ren.oved to 
idunco, without the precincts of MassHchusetts f;;orernmei^ 
was entcrtaini'd with j^reat hoHpitality by the natives ; who 
ted a tract of land to him and his brother exiles, about twent} 
imber. These were fJ»llowc<l soon aftir by another bmall eoni- 
, who settled on lihode Island, with the best of liiU-s, the i'wr 
lission of the ahorif^inal pn)priel<»rs. 'I'lie first rlTn f niajjfis- 
' of tlii.s little romni'inily was a Mr. (lorldinprton, who wa?: 
x^\ by the peciple, and, in eonsideraii«jn of his disting'uish*.-i! 
les, was invchted with a |>atri:trchal authority. 
i;.MoHAin.i: Kvfvth. I. The settlement of the Rev. R«)|;i'r Wil- 
"* Bn<l his foUowers at rrovidrnre, in 16.14- — 5, and of Sir. ('od- 
ton Hii4 his cumpany on Kl'i«>de Isl.'md. 

An apnt from the comp.nywas sent to Knprhuid, in J(»-k;, 
obtuined a parent for the provinee, IVdni the ciu'l of U arwiek 
council, v.n(U'r the title (if, " A i'v *' ami absolute fbai-ter of 

incoi'})or.itiiin, for Piov.dv 1 er I'lautations in Narr;ii;unsell 

As the inhabitants had felt the i*«»d of persfrntio-i, tin -y were 
enouf^h to istablisli a five tolrruJion, and a jn-rMrt 1 r(nulUy. 
e year 1G44 tlu' liaplists built a meetiiii^ .1* I'lv.Mdciui-, 
unother eonj»'rejjfat ion of the same m-ct was fon:n »l in Jfij.; 
Jieaetable (■Quakers also fluind in tbi^ r'l'ni;. an :..;} iuin, \^l/ull 
vfusi-d to them in ir\cry otl.n- pa:t i.J" N« ,•. I'.i.sila'iU 

I) u 

9. [i> 

■■ iiimnitisi oil tlie C 

•ciiaoncr [(■■l"i"i,iHn,7;i-> lii 
la prereni ■moKjfiiBg. 

10. T«o ilrlniaic'i ^painled tu idcgI tlicfn^l c<~. .- 
l't>i1jHlclH><~. A>iKii>t to. 1774- 

tl. Pixlml Cunfttitiitian mli&eil bv » MIuU nuiur.L, 

Bxi.Tkio*. Ill itis >t«le alt rclig-'Kiiui Boalii ue oa j :.i; 
fret i.-qii]kli4f . The peopk p»y no lii«« fur llic »iipp(ii i 
flomiilkUnn-. Ow aiiniatiersdq>-mi ulii.Uvi.ii iIil lil.. r_ 
Iic*rwi."ror»»i|>porl, asnocaiiii 
liW-. The nuMM Minif reus sec r 
liiviilnl into Cntriniatic, Amui:. 
Kniiilkti. All tOKcthcT the) < 

MnnvUMi fcc. 

l>oT»I>1>1»T k«i) Ltwo Tllia SWteiuiiICoiinec: 
onTr twft tlat nrtained Uwr uiflicnt fcrms of pwtrn ! , 
revoUtUnn— TIii^clij.i'iffr»inf(lSr khiRCfiJi-lr-i II -,; ■! 
H-HitklrJ ^- "■-■". V' -';'■■ '-■•: ;■ ■^•~ f- ■^vsi shM 


awanl new trials in courts of judicature. — There are fivi- 
if the Supreme court, who hold their offices during* good be- 
This court extends over the state and is held twice a year 
county theiv arc courts of Common Pleas and Quarter Scs- 
:ld also twice a year fiir the trial of inferior matters. Rhode 
?nds two Senators and two Representatives to the general 
s. Senators are. appointed by a joint ballot of the two 

Representatives are elected by a majority of the people. 
lONB, PorrijiTiosr, axi» Militta. The state of Rliode Island 
es five counties, which are subdivided into thirty townships, 
iig together 76,9.31 inh:d>itants, of whom 108 are slaves. Of 
1,847" arc under 1(> years, and 35,591 above. The population 

53 persons to u square mile. The increase of inhabitants 

tate during the last 10 years is about 8000. The militia is 


7AG1J, Man.vkhs, Axii CrsTOMs. The language of this hh 

dl the other North-American States is English. The urba- 

hospitality of the Rhode Islanders, have often been noticed 
praise. The women are distinguished no less for their do- 
''irtues, than their fine persons and delicate complexio'is. 
le being largely cngiiged in commei'cial pursuits, tne man- 
the men have receivt^d tliat polish which is the general ri»- 
Kimmercial intercousc. 

TARiKS ov Lea uy INC. The principal seminary is a college r.: 
nee. It wits incorporated in 1764, by an act of llie general 
y, framed upon the most liberal principles. A due propor- 
the trustees are to be clioscn, in perpetimm, from the various 
lotions of ilaptists, Friends, Episcopalians, and Congrega- 
s, with this single distinction, th.'it the president must al- 
' .1 Baptist. The number of fellows is 12 ; the profisssors 
=rr ofHcere of insti-uction are chosen promiscuously out of 
rious denomination. Tiie eilifice is situated on an eminence, 
ast of the town; it is built of brick, four stories high, 150 
2: by 4G vide; and contains 48 rooms for students, besides 
r^i.'r fines for public uses. Nearly all the funds of the insti- 
re plnred at interest, in the treasury of the state, and amount 
: 2000/. 

; is also a flourishing academy at Newport, where the learn- 
lagcs, English grammar, geography, &c. arc taught. But 
•iters have observed, that the education of jouth has not 
ended tr> as assiduously in Rhode Island, as in the other New 
L states. 

• Towns. The only towns in this state worthy of notice, are 
t and Providence. Tlic iirst of these, which was formerly 

of i^vernmcnt, was fomided in the year 1639, almost half 
•y before Philadelphia The situation is beautiful, and its 

one of the finest in the world, capable of containing a large 
4afe anrhorage : but though it possesses these natural advan- 
nd iince flourished m arts and commerce, it is now visibly on 
ine. Tilt- houses amoimt to about 1000, which are princi- 
■ wood, and the inhabitants 7,907. It lias nine edifices fof 

I'l N W (.f>'p«pon. Aceordi-i, 

. ■i.f.tnr.U firw tT.nrr Ihwi IIJ.WJ1, . 

cOHiidrrj: i. 

:':I-1H1 trtula. h^ 

^ '!!• cKb 

blllWmK. .: 


iViih cottoa ihreMt*. J 

e wliitJi Rhode Iiliiul uijDj'ett, while under iln 
t, hu been tevervly felt, 'u U M-ideMu-tl Ijy 1i>> 
omigMtions of )U udubtUlttii. 

CimiTii *«D SunDHk. Tbt air tif lUiodc I^Uid in rem 
oalubriout. Newport lixH long bcai ttu rciim of vaJetiUti 
luriiciilarly fromaQ llw Muliicm aUtc*. botUlkciif Mid ooli 
moderated hf the gruit body of turroundlne ult wsmt. 

Soil sod AeHiriii.Tinu. The wil of dli« lUU HVms 
■diptciJ, in eencril, tor pnslimtliul ror^^rain. U isnured 'J 


early in a north and south direction, and encompasses several 
islands, particularly Conamcut and Pvmkrjice, both of whicli 
id considerably by the depredations of the American war. 
jNTAfNg. The only remarkable eminrncc in this state is 
t Hope, within tlie precincts of the to>vn of Bristol, which 
ice the royal seat of Kinp Philip, and the i)lacc where he was 
; after having waj^^d a destructive war for ni:my yeai's against 
rly settlers of New England. 

>£TABLE, AxixAi^ .iVH MiNriiAL PRoiaTTioxs. Besidcs the 
of common grain, such as wheat, rye, and Indian com, of 
this state produces sulHcient for home consumption, it is dis- 
shed for its rich meadows, and productive orchards ; its large 
, oikI excellent dairies, and its cyder, superior to most that is 
in the United States. There is a part of the state remarkable 
>r breeding a race of fleet pacing horses, as valuable for their 
, as for their hardiness in enduring the fatigues of a long 



PENT AM) SiTrATioN. THIS State extends from 41^ lo 42'' 2' 
latitude, and from 1® 40', id 3° 25' of E. longitude fioni Pliih- 
ia, or from 71° 30' to 73° 15', W. from London ; being boundvd 
: north by MassucliUbc-lts ; on the east by Rhode Islurnl ; on t! e 
by the sound wliich separates it from Long Island ; and on i!ie 
by the state of New York. It contains about 4074 squa/e 
equal to alx>ut 2,960,000 acres. 

eiSAL PopTLATioN. Tliis territory, the ajiciejit patrimony of 
2 tribes, among wl.ich those of tlie Pociuod nation were the 
powerful, appoars to have been first planted by the Hollanrlers, 
as claimed by them as long as tliey held Munljattan, or New 
Before the arrival of the English, a coni|)aj»y of Dutch ti*?.- 
anded, and built a small fort at Hartford, which they fortified 
.wo caimon, but tht-y were soon expelled by a part}- oi' eii^,- 
» from Massachusetts and Plymouth. 

O 1)' 2 

CO^'NECTICV'i . a 19 

Tlie government of Connecticut claimed a large tract of 
»n tlie Susquehanna, within the limits of Pennsylvania. 
4. Connecticut company purchase a piece of land of the 
atlons, at Wyoming m Pennsylvania. 

«unty formed, and courts established in Pennsylvania, under 
itlionty of Connecticut. 

12. Settlements made in Pennsylvania on Connecticut titles. 
'6. Four deleg'atcs nominated to attend the general Congress 
iladelphia, Jmic 3, 1774. 

>2. The dispute witii Pennsylvania submitted to Congress, 
etermlned by a committe against Connecticut ; they reported 
ill the lands in dispute were within the boundary of Pennsyl- 
But as tlie settler.4 on the Connecticut titles claimed the 
of thd soil, they refused to remove, and the dispute remains 

J6. The state of Connecticut still claimed lands *\vcst of Peiin- 
lia, within tlieir northern and soutliem limits, but made a ccs- 
>f the whole to Congress, with a reserve of about half a million 
res which has licen disposed of for the benefit of the state. 
leral Constitution ratified January 9, 1788, by a majority of 


Lioioie. The religious establisliment very similar to tliat of 
Rchusctts. The (Jongregationalists the most numerous, and 
to these the Kpiscopalians. Tlie state is divided into parishes, 
1 arc all incorporated, and choose their own ministers, to whose 
Usnance all the inhabitants are obliged to contribute. 
VKBNMKifT AJTD liAws. The royal charter granted by King 
les II. is the basis of the existing constitution of this state. 
It 18 a tacit confession that it is well adapted to the temper and 
<i of the people, and that they had lived happily under it before 
evolution. Ry this constitution the executive power is lodged 
governor, who is chosen nnnuidly by tlie people, but liis power 
■y limited : tlie principal officeis of the government arc either 
inted by the general court, or elected by the people, and they 
ve their commissions only from the govemor. He i>resides in 
hamber of assistants and has a casting vote, when there is an 
lity. — ^The legislature is divided into two bi-anches ; consisting 
'elve assistants, called tlic council, chosen aimually, and a house 
pres^ntatives, or deputies, elected semi-annually, by the several 
». Tliey meet twice a ycai", at Hartford and New Haven alter- 
y. Each house has a negative on the other, but tliis has very 
y interrupted tlie jirocedure of public business. 
1 the towns are incoi*poratedj and <-lcct titeir own municipal 
?rs annually ; among these are tlie select men, who are a very 
il Ixnly, Ix'ing designed to superintend and regulate the manners 
le people. 
.1 the qualifications required in an elector, or the highest officer, 

I residence in the state, full age, and an estate in freehold worth 

II dollars per annum, or uny otlier pi-operty to the value of 134 


A ailbjret wfiKli hns Uni too mocb itrgii-' ' 
MuUicm iiMiM 

There lin.' nuiij i..:.ii. tii,i-, um' i^^mnui - 

at Hlsinti I . 

In irW), -1. ,.. . .. ,,,,.„..,■,;: .,:,c .i L_t 

b«ine- 100 fr'ri ni^:^. 'Ill I'ri'T .l,-!,. t!.r«t' ,t.>rl;s l.l-li. ■»£■ 


>laces of public worship, three of which belong to the Con- 
ationalists, and a state or court kouse : it is a tliriving" com- 
:ial and manufacturing town. New Haven lies at the head of a 
1 bay that makes up from the sound : in 1800 it had 500 houses, 
^ipally wooden buildings, but neat and commodious, and 5772 
^itaiits. In the centre of the city is a public square, rouud 
h are erected the principal part of the public buddings, viz. 
; house, college, chajjel, and tlirec or four places of public wor- 
; round the squui-e, and in many of tlie streets, trees are plant- 
urhich add much to the beauty and rural appearance of this 
: metropolis. It must be a very healthy situation, as only about 
>n 70 or the inliubitaiits die annually. 

•w- London stands on the river Thames, formerly the Pequod 
', a name derived from a powcrfid tribe of Indians who for- 
y lived on its banks. This tribe is extinct, between three or 
hundred having been destroyed by the white inhabitants by 
ind sword in one engagement : the to\\'n has about 3238 inha- 
its. Norwich is at the head of the river Tliames, about 14 
3 Above New London, and contains about 3000 inhabitants; 
Vf iddleton on the river Connecticut, has about 2000. The other 
is and villages in Connecticut are less considerable, though 
:y numerous, and generally consist of neat wooden buildings. 
AjruFACTUREs AND CoMMEucE. Although the farmers of Con- 
cut make both linen and woollen clotlis, for the use of their 
Lies, the inhabitants of the cities and towns are cloathed prin- 
ly with foreign manufactures. But they manufacture con- 
'ihle quantities of bar iron, nails and nail-rods, cannon, an- 
5 and hollow ware, paper, powder, and wool cards. The 
try is famous also for wooden wares, such as bowls, dishes, 
ind for large dairies of excellent cheese, some of it superior 
hat is made in any other state. 

le principal external trade of Connecticut is maintained with 
ster states, and with none so largely as with New York. It has 
rtheiess a foreign trade with the West Indies, and some few 
:1a that sail to the East Indies and the Mediterranean, llie 
'articles exported are beef, pork, and live s.ock, butter, cheese, 
IS, potatoes, flaxseed, and pot and pearl ashes. The value of 
pt» in 1802, was 1,606,809 dollars, and the amount of shipping 
>r tons. The greatest part of the supplies of foreign goods 
« through the channel of New York. 

.ixATR, Searoxs, Soil and AnRicuLTCRE. The climate and 
ms of Connecticut differ not much from tliose of Massachusetts. 
: has a considerable extent of sea coast, the variations of the 
her are rendered more frequent thereby. In general, tliis state 
m a clear and salubrious air ; many of tlie inliabitants live to a 
old age, one in thirteen to the age of 80, and one in thirty to 
kge of 90. The longest day is 15 hours, and the shortest 8 
B 58 minutes. As the face of Connecticut is broken by nume- 
hills and mountains, it abounds in streams of water; tlie land 
rious, some thin and ban-en, but mucli of it strong and f«rMle, 
adapted to grazing and dairies, for wliich this sX^Xq is famous. 

Tf~ 'rrfi^lw itnJ Dwno' ptoihcllfii of Cocinnrticiit ■ 
uitii'.-.r ^D llioM of MMuduitella, alrvKdf detcribtd. 



tCiTtn *«D HiTvi'riaif. TIII.IbUU lim tiel'M*^ : 
44' N Ulitiidr^iKul Ivtwrrn i° W. tivl T 3V E If^n. 
PhitmlelpliiK. "r liriwtrn 71" mvl fif)'' W fmrn I.,,,,,. 

• •nat-tBuiorrt. riildUllic Uiilfh huiLla Imh >uri>r AUtii- 
I li itun callcil Fort Oriiiigf, uv\ the SUtcn Gentn.l (rranied 
< I In ihn WMt Indlk ronipmiy, («r hH i>xcln«lv» ti-mle i>l> the 

■- lumcytar, llity w •«.»:■< , ii m ...|. i-r iii, .,,,.1, r h 

..i..ufr.>ui thegovwdiir ,. - ^:„^- 

I to tUc kiiifr <irin-^.i I :■ ' ..„•(■(■- 

I ■ iiiiliy wan {rBiiteil liy the' 

< ' :i< u ii wot (Umndcreil lo llic 

'^ il.i'enmliif; tTiAt]' of pviiM 

■ ■!' >"'iah Aimricn, 

.„iij..i-.i.,vux>i jjimcsBionof the KPuntry, by 
KiiKl'''>k I < HI mm 1 1 ill- 1', tnitafUr ll>«y had Inlil 
montliK, >i rciu-lril nuce nxire tn llic F.ugliiii, wu 
Iha in-uty 111 WoMniin*l«ri itul vontitiuciJ under their 
lil Uic AimrJ-ionn rnvolutitin. 
'" ir>g,^, titc a(iv«r»imitv ifiis vvntctl in tJin dukn of 
' kin^ Juin«lCi)uii3aJl th«goreniiiM received their 


! dlanatlafUd witli tlic KlmhlmratiOH oC i"-"'' 
■■■Wlfr. u poriiiUp i-liiilTict«riimonit\hem, fnuo'l 
■:■■:,■ \\.ii,..,„ ..:ui ijii,-rn MM/, ill 16H9. 

.liilirll hy ■ Iwnlj of HilVfcftCI, 

I iiiiT, kjtd hcnetTftlud u fuv 

' ■■ .MiK>t,IIaTi(. iFi thHr hrilM.1i,i 

iiiireheN anilUie nuinmuuiM of cpia- 
'•I [r»n*rtl iliuuitiifiieliQii (nionif the 
. ["-B hnil act the rxampk' in Muu* 

lltdil iil.'nn Uie countiy ul'terwiiriii cullwi thf lirrnu 

itH «»d Jeitiiilii, 
111 ibt prurinc«. 

,„..,. rpmlmiwi 
kiiglaiul thitn (In 

mmiyof ttliODi 

.><.i> ?Ui. 

n -Wi-it V.;^-t ttiil Vr 

I'l I?:*, Nrui -lorPL p^itwi * law i|.TUnii|t illc'i 
.il'f*. to ii]ipo« iV pnTTumcnl Ifj (lit-*. 
Ciir ikl«(t»tr» frirt Uie oilj W fUil Of Ihp ('- 
iiuri! I.) lUMt (lir pTiewJ CJnjrrCMi « I'luluilclTrtiln. 
>"^ic tpnalltutlnn tramcrf April 30, 17T?, nthed i'> 

r, roMtituilwi wifM Ji>lv<{5, ITOB, %; » Til 

"PI""'" ■ ■■ 

TlK fplsi ]. 
Uit Uic I .. 

lliirda of Uu; iii 

Ids worlli IQOf. •■• 

^ NEW YORK. 3»* 

ET house vliictilits 70 members, and is elected once a year: 
tlte Srmiic, cowistini; of 24 mrmbcTs wb& ue elected quk- 
ikUj', wiih in ■nnual rotation of ooe fourth. — b the choice of 
Aon, none but fraeboMere worth lOv/. are entitled to vote, but 
It election of HSsembly, evtrj man who has resided sis months, 
1 taxes, and a rent ut 40>. per annum, possesses the rij;bt of 
r»^- — The statute snd common law of England »re declared to 
be law of the slate. — Clcrffl-men are universsilj exempted from 

be judges uv appninted by tlie gcnvrnor and council of wi- 
iiment, snd hoJd their oflicea during good behatiunr, until the 

"t", when the conitiititinn requuts iluni to resign. — The 

'■ cnurt is composed of the Sraiute, iJie c!icio<eUor, and tbe 

■I'Jg*, who are eiupuwuvd to by impeicliments, ami to 

'Ire errors of inferior tribunals, Tlieri- is also a court «f 

. II alilchthe chancellor presides : a supiv me court, wliich 

- !>?lween New YoAaiid Albany: and coiiiit]> courts, held ill 

y onnlj of the commoTiwealth, for the administratioa of jus- 

in mmtnoo casc?a. — This state sends two Senators, and twenly- 

Depreaentinives lo Congress. Seulors are appolntnl bv a an^ 

•Fttr voie of both houses i if they disagree, by a jrmi ballot 

ijrR.^ntslives by a plurality of tlie people «i districts, 

' > i~in:is, Popn.iT)oR, jisn Miutia, The commontFcidth of 

. . 't is divided into 4J counties, snd 4i2 townships, wliich 

possessed a population of 059,330 persons, of wh(>in IS.UOO 

.u^. Tliis onasiuftce of 44,000 square miles, is sbr>ut 

< . i-> mile. Since the close of the AmcHcaii war, 

■•cd tunaxing'ty, owing' to an exlrxtirdiitii'j' vnti- 

■".. (ind the eastern s'atciJ. Bttwtcn that i>erii>d 

' the number of iiihabiumawu doubted. One 

I I'm ii undcf 16 years of i^, and tikc male* rx- 

...■riJ(--if all ages by almost 32,UlK). The militia of Uic 

■ he jear ISIin-as 95,8S6 infi>ntr}', besides cavaliy andar- 

• ■■1'. r^sTll^I■', iso hutaciLBs. Thc Rngliih tanguuge i» 

vrip'ed in the state of New York than in wjyotluT, 

.[III idioms, though this tuifai-onrablediatincUwi 

". vear, bv the iiicreiue of Rnfrlishivchnols, and 

:i'or uutlonal prejudice. Stilt liiftv areaettlc' 

. miles of tile city of New Vorlt, wliere th« Bng- 

I's"*- I' ne'er spoken, except by tr-velk-rs puisin^ Ihmit^ 

M liny of The d^endants of llie orijrinil Dutch innabitanls 

■ ii ciiuy thc language, but the mnnnei-s, tlie euatnms, and 

rirtcr of ihtir ploiidinp ancestors, n'ni art habitually shy 

.lag with llieic EngUili nei^bnurs. But Uii'se mylilicei^ 

■:.-;.snuil part of the popiiiaiVm ; tde ktcjh Hwji.rity uTe 

., Soulch, wid Irish, and tlieir dcsctT^i.Tiis. and are Ken* 

. ■ rili^hfco|d tod hospitable people, well insir 

I ""1 slctfiint intprovetneots of polished Kucieiy, 

■^1 il rii Ibe pursuits of commerce, n|Ticul'ure, c 


niyul i-lwrli-r, HntI WW < • 
tUuii, ami K^ioU )i} fli' \ 

Hritltli urniy, a . „, r— - 

Tlicprincipiilliiiildili^ar*, llw t'ilf Iiull, liniv iif-.n'ly roiutilplTd 
wlini ftniiJu'il will «uitNuiii'iKi> alliHrlmlUi'iciirititttliMlinAnH 

\K\V YOUK. .J2r 

wot Miftcr by a comiiarison with those of Kimipe ; it is 
with a haiuUoiiic while mai'})lc, nnd is judiciously situuted 
injv tlic I'ark, an open space of g^niuiid in u central part of tlic 
the hospital, the custom house, the tontine coffee-house, the 
IV, tlie jail, twenty sevcn^ liouses of religious worship, some 
em larj;e and splendid, and the stale prison, at the nortl: end 
e citv. — Tlio next in rank is Albany, which is on the Nortli 
. about 16u miles above New York. This city is nearly as an- 
as New Y'oi-k, iK'injj one of the earliest posts established b\' 
Lolhmders. It was incorjiorated by jfovenior Doug^n in 1686. 
inliabiti.tls in 1810 wrre 9o56; and it has lately been pre.feritHl 
;; seat of j^)Vernment, on account of its o^Mitral and safe situa- 

c inhabitants arc a mixture of many nations, but principally 
inders and their descendants, who are said to be deeply tine- 
I with the Dutch character. In many of the old houses the 
h slyle of architecture is conspieiioMs, having* the ffiible aid to 
tree! ; there ai*e however many handsome private buddings prin- 
ly construe tc^d of brick, and covered with tile or slate. TIk* 
: huuscy a handsome structure, which has been recently eix'Ct- 
S situated on a considerable elevation at the upper end of the 
ipal or sUitc stivet, and affords handsome accommodation for 
jg-ijiUturc of the state ; beside this building" there are several 
's for public purposes; twelve places for religious worship, a 
\c hbran* and reading room, theatre, and thr*.*e banks^there ik 
a Slate arsenal, in which a large deposit of arms is generally 

Excellent w.itor is introchiced through pipes from a spring a 
. dirit:Jice from the city. The cit\ is well situated for trade, 
;; tile staple of the produce of ati extensirc find flourishing 
trj', and will ]r.\)l)ablv b-come. a place of great imporlanee. 
only otiier remarkable town we t-hall notice is HiuImhi, built 
lie same river, abv)ut thirtv miles below Albanv, which has 
distinguished as (mh* of the mo.^t thriving towns in the United 
IS. Vvmxi the year ITH*!, wIk.i Uk' iirst house was erected, to 
■ear 1810, the Inh.ib.tar.s had i irreascd to 4048. The river is 
i\ a niile wide opposite the town, and navigable* for the largest 
•nant ve.ssels. The advantajji'ous situation, joined to a spirit 
kilustry and enterprise in th« inhabitants, has already rendered 
own ot Hudson a formidable rival of Albany. 
ANiFU'TiKKs iM» CoMMKucK. 'iMie commerce of New Vork Ik. 
;ledly the greatest of all the states in the union, but this is 
ly owing to a great portion of tlie import and export trade of 
UTtirul, Vermont, tiud New Jersey centering here : otherwise 
either ix'S]>ect would it ecpial IVnnsylvania. Her ex])orls, in 
J, amounted to l.>,7i)2,*Jrfi ilollars. This was a spring tide. 
r years Ivfore the.y wer*' but *,53.5,790 dollars, which is but a 
: more than they were four years prit>r to the American revolu- 

Her principal exports of native pn)dticc are salt pnivisions, 
:, tlaxseetl, l)iitter, cheese, pot antl |>earl ashes. — The manu- 
ires of the state aiv confined chiefly to articles of home con- 
ntion, such as wheel c.irriages, loat* sii rr. sIkk's, boots» sad- 

■n«l»«luar,lL-..-,.u»lim! Jtp„.'l:n ii. 

vrry cotwiilcrablr pui 
■inunUliM, ali't brtWf 



n tlial liF* cm the tee*t of tl 
llirmwil thr Utu*. la « 

siduftriiMi ^iimnry. The old in'i ' -• . > 

INduM^ ihr Eatt rirrr.-und the ^<" 

nilyccl Itt frvqueAt uid ludiien rh.i 

tiM riim UT verf Brldom frnji-i, 

Vorli. owioB tn iht visinjly .rf t.l., . 

vilh iUK* liiM^'o "{ Aoatuiu im, 

Siilt. •.!•» Auvir-i'l^mt. In a ii < 
ot Utiiudr, ujtliuicilciuiTe lei: ' 
uid mouniiuni,Uu;iiMl >ad«iilln.i 
It light and Btndy, Iwi Uw grentt-vt ^. , ..^ 

cmin : the Vflem eoitnlirit eotitniii a si^mijj ruli f-iiL, 
«m luTnrbnl enip* of (he «iBpl« artida of wheal. Th£li 
iiniii»K tlir ttijfh UtKtu, bgntoin^ on tlic Hudaan erra-, ooMi__ _ 
(iKci'lkiit dainta ami gnalnjr fants. AllUougli a oanayenbkl n 
of LoniT I"l"r>ii ta a atcrilr «jimU It liaa been cuulcKd reij pr 
'«<■ b)- liif plodding indiuliy of it» InhabitBita. 

ElfUR, DiT>, LxKM, «Mn lau^lDB. TIm iitiwm nf H^ .1, 
nrc niimcroua, and Oioit af llinn iuivig|iLh]e : bcudca tbi! HudWB^ 
Konb rivar, whicU rim in the mnuntaiiu nr Coiiulu, tni.iitVm 
nin£ a couric of 2J0 miltM Ihimi^ thv wbuk lcn<(!> vt 1b»iUl 
■lisdumfl iudf inlu th« Vork bay; Ibera a aioStoi «aniids«lb 
ei-nr callnl the MUUwk river, wliicb s|>riiiKi in tbe S. Vt. ]>Ht 4 
T}|r ntatr. Mid after a wmne nf 110 mjlea, mn»)(|% a fenibcgBlT' 
[luiin its tributurji water into the tlud9<in,a ftv milca aJmnsABi 
Itriid^s UiFW, tlit^ u« Back River, Ohwcico, ami Gcniic 
ihni purine an opposite course aiid unftw wit)i l^kr Ontario;— _ bay» are York hay, wbithwprtsdii up ti/ tlie city ef X 
Torlc, 19 fi.rine.1 by th» waters of the Eaat oiid Nurf 
pnsicn into the ocean at a strait r.lllcd liie Ji'w 
it thclKkl nf b]ce Chumplaio, uniting' with t ,1, 

'I'iconderajfo, There are five or Hi* lukci' » i! ! 

Ntw York, but uone of them large i the mu . 

Ontida, about 2.5 mile* in length 1 but perhaps i.. 

ii Salt liike, near tliu western confines of tlie sure, irliich funiiil 

nil the oiTcumjaceM countTO- with the indispensable article 4 

inlv ieliuub tniiier the jiiriadiction of thla slat^ £ 
■ ■ Island, " 

e wDi-tliy bf nnliee, aiv, York Island, Long bland, and fttati 

iilanil. The first of these is joined to the main land hjr RinRf 

BrldgT, and on the point of it ia built Ibe citj of Kew YoA. TK* 
j-luid Is ubout fifteen mllei long and hardly a mtJe iride, but the I 


of it is in tlie highest state of cultivation. Long Island is 
ited from the continent by tlie Sound and tlie East river, ex- 
[g in length from Montock (its most eastern) point to the Nar- 
aboiit 140 miles, with a medial breadth of 10 miles. It con- 
:hree counties and several handsome villages. The whole is 
advanced state of improvement, and contains about 50,000 in- 
nts. On tliis island is an extensive plain, called Uampstcad, 

is 15 miles long, by seven or eight wide, and is appropriated 
imon for horses, sheep, and cattle. It is also famous for being 
ene of the first field battle, fouglit between the American 
mder General AVashisotox, juid the British army under gene- 
• W. Howe. Here the illustrious American first learnt the 
r of opposing^his undisciplined troops to the veteran bands of 

Britain, as well as tlie facility of escaping from his enemy 
he wjis beaten. Here he also discovered, that his antagonist, 
h able to conquer, was too indolent, or otherwise indisposed 
irove his victoi-y : otherwise it is not improbable tliat this first 
ement in the field would have been tlie last between the two 
u Staten Island, which lies to the soiitlMvest of New York, 
>ii the shore of New Jersey, is comparatively small, being only 
.68 long, and about 7 miles broad, containing about 5,500 inhar 
8, who are principally descended fi:*om Dutch and French an- 

CNTiiirs. Along the banks of the North river, as high up as 
mi of Hudson, tlie land is broken witli numerous hills and 
Ains, particularly a romantic tract of 16 miles, called the 
lands, though none of tliem vciy elevated. But beyond the 
lany mountains, a ])ai't of which passes through the state 
north and south, the countrv exhibits a rich and extended 
if excellent land. 'Pljc LJgliest ridge in tlie state Is called 
Kill, a name derived from t!ie ancient Dutch colonists, and 
incipally in Green count}-. 

BTAB7£, Animal, ami Mingbal PaonurTiONs. The indi- 
s vegetables and animals of tliis state diflfer but little from 
nf New England. The staple produce of the improved land 
at, which is culti\ atcd witli |?:rc<it success, particularly in the 
>unties ; of this article near a million of bushels have been 
£d in one year, l)esides the shipments of bread and flour, 
rops also of' barley, rye, peas, oats, and Indian corn, not only 
' the home consumption, but lai*ge quantities of most of them 
;portation. Besides all tlie common domestic, animals, the 
•m parts of New York, wluch remain in their natural state, 
iU tenanted by their aboriginal quadrupeds: bears, foxes, 
18, several species of deer, and a few beavers, still aflbrd em- 
ent for the hardy sons of Nimrod. Nor is this state deficient 
jcral riclies, tliough iron is tlie principal ore ; as indeed it is 
Ml useful, that has hitherto been manufactured. The mineral 
I of Saratoga are well known for their many medic in;d quali- 
ind are become the resort of numerous visitorp, for health, or 


■ a^ Ud «" 34'». k_^ , __ 


..^.,. ;..u o..,...^q ui.ilpd Up the Oelsmin, uiil |>ai-tJu' 
MLtik.^^iillLt Wid uii hi>l]i tutcHof Uw riwr, frumlli« 1..1 
Mil; antltiitr'hvHvrrNew-SwKluluiUMTtrKni. 

lenu. Ific Dutch biiiU ilrirtBiLewi».towii. tb«n r*l 


d all the Dutch plantations ; an<i in the same year he sent a 

r force to take possi'svion. 

>4. New NelliprLands divided into tw^o parts, viz. New York 

few Jersey; the latter being convcyc-d by tlie Uukv of York to 

Berkley and Sir Geo. Carteret. 

'^. The title to soil and g;oveniment confirmed to tlie English 

e twaty of Westminster. 

'6. The prr>vince divided itito East and West Jersey : Loi-d 

Icy sold West Jersey lo the Friends. 

)2. The proprietors surrender the government of the province 

; crown, it iiaving been under a pi-oprif:tary guvennnent to this 

from tlitf year 1674. 

'e delegates appointed to meet the general Congress nl Phila- 

litt July X^, 1774. 

^te Constitution framed July 2, 1776. 

deral Constitution ratified IXc. 19, 1787. N. C. 

LWioM. All religions are tolerated, but none are admitted to 

« except Protestants. The most numerous sects nre the Fneiids 

Presbyterians : tlic former in West, and the latter in EumI Jcr- 

But the Episcopalians, Metluxlists, and Baptists, compose 
' very respectable congregations. Ail partake equally in the 

ri^ts and immunities of the state ; tbey cbn elect, or he 
ed, if they imjshcss the legal qualifications. 
•TBBsrjiKMT anuLawh. The legislature of this state connists 
ro brandies; viz. u legislative Cotincil, comi^osed of 1.1 meni- 

and an Assembly of 39 members ; hoth chosen aimually by 
teople.— Tlie assembly has tlie sole right of originating money 
I in all otlier respects the powers of the two branches ai*e cr{ui- 
nt.-^— IMie executive authority is vesteil in a governor, who is 
ed annually by a joint vote of coimcil and assembly. His 
fications ai'e not define<l by the constitution. He is ulwavb 
dent of the legislative council, and lias a casting vote in that 
. His power of pardoning criminals extemls to all offences ; 
le commonly acts with the advice ot* his prtv3ll|^uncil, which 
MtB of tliree meml>ers selected from the legislative council. — 
council and assembly appoint all ihe jiulgcs, exci-pt ihose of 
)igh court of erroi-s and appeals, already nieiJ ioned.— The 
Biof the supreme court are appointed for .seven years, the iii- 
r judges for five years; but tluyare all removable by iui- 
limcnt hcfoi-e the legislative council.^ — Justices courts ai-e held 
leutly for trial ot causes under liA— Courts of common pleas 
quarter sessions are held quarterly, in every county; and a 
sme court, whode authority extends over the staLe, is held fr/ur 
s in tlie year.—All fi-ce men, who are of fnll age, worth 30/. 
luve resi<led in tin- state one year before the election, arc en- 
i to tlic riglit of suirrage.— The common and statute laws of 
and arc .adopted, except when they interfere with tlie constitu- 

or some special law of the state.— The delegation to f'on- 
I consists of two Senators ami six Representatives. The former 
ippuinti-d by a joint vote of the two houses, sometimes by 
t, at others, viva voce,- aiid the latter arc elected by a phi- 
f of the people. 


. Had he remained in his situation till the morning", his whole 
and himself would have bcrn cither slain, or made j>risoners. — 
loxt in rank is nrunswirk, distant about 35 miles from New 
on the river Hiiriton, over which is eonstructed a h;iiids<>nie 
w'li bridge. It contains about '2000 inhabitants, a moiety of 

lure descended from Dutcli families. Burlington, on tiic 

^irc, is 20 miles above Philadelphia, and was for many years 
at of government. This is a very ancient town, Ix'ing founded 
•year 1677, and was then called New Ueverly; but it has in- 
xl slowly, its present population not exceeding 15 or 16 hvm- 

souls. Aniboy, designed by nature for a sea port, has an 

lent harbour that lies open to 8andv Hook, and may be up- 
hcfl with any wind. Some feeble eflorts have been made to 
luce commerce into this capital of East Jersey, but they havo 
s failed. At the end of the American war, a lai'g^ botly of 
sts applied to the state for permission to settle in Amboy, but 
petition was rejected. Most of them were commercial men, 
eat enterprize and capital, and, had tlieir prayer been granted, 
I liave enriched the cily, and soon made it the emporium of aa 
sive foreign trade. 

.xuFACTFEEs Ajih CoMMKucc. Tile maxiufacturcs of tliis atate 
jt very considerable. An attempt was made by a company, in- 
rated ill 1791, to establish a large factory of cotton and linen 
I at Patterson^ ami a large canital was subscribed for tlie pur- 
but it soon ended In loss ami aisuppointment. The farmers 
coarse linen and woollen cloths, iur the consumption of tUcir 
es, and there are some tanneries und p;tpcr mills, but tlic prin- 
mtnufacture is that of bar and pig iron, hollow ware* and other 
igs. Some parts of the state abound with excellent <jre, and 
If of timber. Morris county alone contiiins between 30 and 40 
^ furnaces, rolling and slitting mills. The wares are spread 
:hc countr}', for the uise of the inhabitants, and conveyed to 
York and Philadelphia, for sale. The export and import trade 
la state passes principdly througli the channels of those two 
L staplen : there the Jersey farmer finds a ready market and 
price for all the produce he has to span*, as well as an easy 
y of all he wants.-— —The numerous stages running betw^een 
oelphia and New York, which pass so great a part of their 
8 through this state, must introiiuce a great deal of money, as 
:eommodations at tlie inns are extruvug^antly dear, and Ameri- 
ravellcrs are not the greatest economists. The consumption of 
^ spirituous liquors alone, in the year 1786, was valued at 
00 dollars, and since that time it has been nearly doubled. 
[.VATS ANi» Skahoks. The northern counties of this state, a.«J 
erdon, Sussex, IMorris, and Hergen, aiv a high mountainous 
ry, and experience severe cold in winter, but the southern 
lies, particularly those which extend along the sea and the bay 
?laware, being less exposed to the bleak nor them winds in win- 
nd being fanned in summer by temperate breezes from the bay 
be ocean, appn)ach nearer to an ecpial tem])cratui'e, throughoui. 
?ar. The inhabitants of the fiat lands, near tl\cse wateri, arc 

opdMtaMjMpmMM rtcKcit * o 



Iioui'uul llMini,-4i l)»v», f.iru.c.l by !, 
ttM! buriton Mitl NcwKrk liay<, «taicl> 
of the riven ILtfiUi ukI Puiuic. 

wMdi Ihm brcn worked witli '-.. 


rr in tli«1«in 



IT AWD SiTUATioy. PENNSYLVANIA is situated between 
iTid 42*' N. lulitude, and 0° 20' E. and 5« W. Jongitiidc from 
phia, or betwetn 75^ und 80® W. from Ixtiidon : it is bound- 
e norih by luko Erie and the State of New York ; on tlie 
the river Deluwaru ; on tiie south by the State of Ik-bware, 
rt of Mai->iuiid and Virg-iina; and on the west by ihc State 
, ami a pan of Virg'inia. It contains about 46,000 squai-o 
r about 29,000,^0 of acres, 

KAL PopLLATiii.N. Ddbrc tlie arrival of Kiiropcuns, IVnn- 
was tlie favourite hunting' ^ound of the Dehiwares, Shawa- 
isquehanucs-, NcsiianKnios, bliackumacksonft, Minquas or 
jpoes, MiniSiiiks, Nanticokes, and many other b!irhurous 
all of whom were s»ibj« ct to tlie Iroquois op Five Nsdions, 
rcised a fierce dominion over all their brother suvaj^es, from 
timplain to the borders of Oarolma. At present (here is 
cabin existin|^ witlim tJie hniits of tlie state of Pennsyl- 
lat bel(m)[^s tg^ony of these ancii nt lords of the soil. 
BAHLK EvknTh. 1623. It appears that the Dutch sailed up 
.WaK river, to winch tliey gave the name of Smith Jii%er, a.s 
the year 162;>. 

The Swedes arrived, and, liiiu1inf>; at C'ape-Inlopen, pur- 
\f the natives thc.Jajids op both sides of Die river from ita 
D tlie falls, callings the country New Sweden. 

They erected forts near Wilniinf^lon, (Chester, and on Tini- 

The Dutcli built Fort Cassiniir (now New C:ihtle) and cx- 
IMwetles fnini this settlement, lleceivnig' a reinPorcement 
• se\'en vessels tlie year following, they reduced ail the other 

' The Dutch were in their turn obliged to .submit to tlic su- 
>rCe of tlie JEnjf iihh, tmder the conduct of sir 11. Carr. The 
granted by tkiBg' Charles II. to his brother the duke of York, 
*xed by the latter to the government of New York, which 
wise submitted to the Uritish arms. 

William !*eiui obtained a chavter for Pennsylvania, from 
iries II. Thii-e ships, fi*eighted with emigi-ants, arrived this 
the Delaw:ir« , and wi-rt^ received by the natives with uu- 
hospitalitx — liy reciprocal justice ancl benevoleiicr, a foun- 
/as laid of peace and frieiulaliip, which lasted for seventy 
iihuut the aid of guns or paliisadoe forts. 

_ . «■ -Wr:' 

v h> PiiU^idclpli'in, 

iriJi. II" i.M.-iTLl.U T'.ni«-d (0 tcrunt . wim. i... 
tm*ii.t..- I'.T.tlerofSlcwVoFk. I. 

liun IV < U-Cxin lit rmbukc i ' 

lUwi' r ' ■ ■> '"."iiili <t laji fiiini-- . 

fotQ... ,1 .. .. ..-iM liM H,.- Am.-!.. 

TLf pro.,i,^,.-» ■■-' ■ ":■-. -I- ' 

17J2. "l^e pn.[ : 
riDcr lu qnccn Am . ' 
jilrxj ir*i ppnciitc.i ! 

1718. Gpvwnor (rtn.k.ii n-rm-il tu qi.«lil^n.ii . 
•ifflcciirjudicool' ihc peaces 1131 tiin-.vifWi> 1 : 
lin-Ti Keith, *!«■ WIS one nfttie ni'B-i inii»iliii' gv\: u . 
fillrdlhccXcCliliTcduur in IViiiiaylt^iTiN.. 

iri8. WiHlwi Pi-nn dird »l Uu^cuiiili, in Hut-. 
(O. E) 

I73j. The fiTBt Fitkbiiahncnt nf k K^fttol lotinr.: 
emission of 45,O0DJ. in [iqier eurrcncyi^B' th«i i 
etnisgian Win toliowed by mmir alhcrs, to tlie gencr.i^ 
colW}, villiaut my stfniiUe dtpt^ciiilKHi. 

1726. niepopuliirKfithWBS mnoveil. and buctci , 
Gordon, Esq. TItis.year the unt ol an aftitmstior : 
oalli) wbicli hniT b«ii ipIeiTupted, wns c«niirnieid I ; 

Ifjfi. (tovcnror Gmdon died, und wan sucoeededl 



prevailed to alienate the iiiinds of the natives from their an- 
iends and allies. The cxinnses of su]i|)urting so lon^ a {leuee 
c Intlians had eost the province 1200/. per annum, for .several 

Govt-rnor U. Hunter ^forris pid>libhed a proelamation of 
linst tiie Indians, and olfeivil u price for Indian sculps; con- 
» ihe opinion and advice of the lej^islalure. Hitherto the 
i composed a jfri'at majority of the Assenihlv, but heiup: dis- 
1 with the war, and the j^cneral conduct o^ their j^nenior, 
r them declined all public offices, from about tliis time. 
. Massacre of the Conestoj^oe Indians, livinj^ under the faith 
^mmcnt, by the white inh;:hitaiit8 of Poxtanij — a settlement 
frontiers of I'cnnsylvania, compo.sed principally of emig'rants 
■eland, and their immediate descendants. And it is as me- 
e, tliat these murderers escaped impimished, under the ad- 
'ation of John Penn, a grimd^on of the f^r^t propvivior, while 
ne of I'cnn was slill venerated hv the Invlians for hunianitv 

■ • 


1. Petitions to the king* from the asr-embly and sundry inha- 
, prayingf him to rele:ise them fnnn proprietary jurisi I let ion, 
establish a royal jj[x>vernmeni. K is eipuilly sinjjii'Mlur, that 
lition should Ik* advocated by tlie Quakers, as that it i>Iiuuld 
oseil by tlie Pi-esbytenans. 

I. Seven deletfutes appointed by the ^ifenenJ assembly to meet 
neral congi-ess at Philadelphia, Jidy ;?0, 1774. 
}. Act of the assembly xo vest the t."»t;ite t»f the Peim family 
commonwealth of Ponnsvlvania. For assistance rcndiTtd the 
•y-^eneral by a certain wt 11 kn«^wn man of law, to wlutewash 
t, the assembly voted him one huiidreil pounds. 
'. Federal Constitution rallied, December 13, bv a mujorltv 
to 23. 

>. State Constitution revised and amer.ded, Sept. 2. 
leiOM. Tliat political equality anioiijj^ 1 1 lig tons sects, which 
■ enjoyed in niost of the American .sii.tes, was <nice tlic j)ecu- 
ivdegc i»f Pennsylvania ; emai:atuijf frt)ni tlie i^enerons mind 
(bunder, and e.-^tablished as the first of its charter ri<^hts. 
tjiiality is now exlendeil to all who befu ve in tlu- ixisiencc 
s God' Tlic most nmnerous sects in the ""tate, at this |)e- 
irc the Knglish .Uid Herman (*alvini.-its, (»f varioiis (Un.mwna- 
the Quakers, Kplscopulians, Lti'iherans, IS; jitisls, ri.)m;in Ca* 
I, and Methodists, 'i'iiere are several other religious societies. 
It quite so considerable : :ts the AKnonists, iSwenkfelders, Mt>- 
s, and DunkaitU. MU'in}; thetiermans: aiul among- the Engl ish, 
:ceder.s, Unit;.riu!is, l.'n'.\ors.ilists, and Deists. 
• KB.vvKXT am; I.vw.x, 'Mif Icicislativo auikoritv of this state 
.ded into two branches, a senate and of represtntativcH. 
are elected by the people: the former for four years, with an 
1 rotutiiin of one fi»urth. an*! the latter annuallv.^The number 
>;esentatives cannot exciitl 100, nor t!:at of .senators 34. — The 
»entatlvcs propose all bills for a revenue, and possess 
jwer of impeaching"; th.- sen:%'.e ;rv imptac'iments, and two 

1 • I 

Thr Jcant* of III* (mprtTOc uul cotMitf wuiW i 
tSos M4I MtitcUnsl 1^ the ooniliiulwii ki liol.i 
OuringJ*"*! ***""*»■. Till* (imrti. ui jicliv ..r 
■ MpRWM CoUIrt, wlioK j'lr ■. : 
comphwng* chief judge - ■ ' 

.of »fnir» whI »iipral«, cdi.%likJ i.wi'i.- ^v 
.^. AU juditml p«>c<nJi"g» M* trgiilHI*'') b\ ■ 
■IMuie iaiv-i of Ri^lind, ctctpl when tiieau coiiii ■ 
lutum or vnnc furliiulxr U«- of iltc Mtniuciiiu < -u 
wnd* twu »;(mU]n anil iS fcprcwnlBlh'rs Ui lliir ^.uc: 
Stsuloni iirr ■PpoinU'd mt« ifliV, b^ njoint nt^ulw 
pmrrrtalive* hy Ihc pFoplc in. lUntricU. 

UiKwniS ''"TT.iTioB, in. Miti-riL I'cDSsylrtn 
ni<<i tj co»niic»i Mul ih(^ uv lubdividril into a nun 
■Up* of vviinw ilinMnHlona. Three fniirihi of tl>< 
Icim farmeil wiw tbe rivr^lulion i twi hi-Quitc \.'\<- 
inwMi^inlJmtproptii'fKiii, Imt lii (jkUt t4mu1ii; ■ 
hriiw courts «n*l<iounl»ou»r»iiB»reT to (heir do.ji - 
< he Kcncnl ceiuiuc* uf 1790 tiiul 1810, at tlit fii^i , 
4o437'3 (wrwnn, aiuUt the last )>IU,D91 (or sbo<>: 
ml!.-) whicti ifltwU b diiidiattmn in 36 yew* i bi i m 
uxwinlilj' itnil Uic provineiiLl ubeiitntena, Uie iuv,i'< 
•IbI hoi cxcctd 1U.O00, iu \75l w«Te abou' il.vii.'i 


i-nui, ii n gt>ji(:iikl fiiviiurito, wUich th« muster of tht 
. Rlieerfull]' to nyvry viuitor i but Ut ftrm la bull}' dii- 
nillc [jour, iiud liii Wii iini! fencM In wreftlnnl ctmiH. 

I,.,ii.,- .:<r« Diiirli fA,-ni,c Is .ninniM^...,.. but wlUoa. 

. f.ivii^ r. ■■;. li. r.illv .11 i;...,.l ..i-.(.-r. r,n,( !,ll lii> '■i.Ulc-llw* 
1) i!;. ,,- ,, .,riy ,..-iL, r^i! ir.ii iii I lii' i !i ,n,tttT (if tire 

.!i .1 Irii.i ->( l.ii, ri, ;,ni| llfc ilKll vHlll ilulf naUlWlliSll. 

■I'' ilif ntulcii timndot/d bj; x flcimlol' 

' inlicni dtatei, luul fWiilvot iVom 
' '">'<- cgntrllwtoil much ta awelUW 

■ ■, !.:■■ I. nlii'ly fisuiulc uc«denri«l^ 

M ,.,„•■. I III-. i'..;;>i^i'< ^1 1'luiiKk', LxiKuster, uuLYoric 
^lii'iiiKEVvral-*!"'^' villu^-ui, undular^-brmrilinKNahM 
. 1 from \.he city, (-n-cl^cl by I'rlcnihi tad i^-pM^ of ae 
.' 200 diililrcn', Tie^r IiutuihikUs iMtimoiiy tu tliu e^ 

at thr ktMir Witliilalure. 

Tbe n«iiT fihic* wotxhy af nntfce Ig taricaiifr, x'l 
milc» lo llie wMlwufd nf Pliilwlclptiin.'Tliis wai 
ATAi of till? sutc KOvtnimnK; wid coniiiim nbnui 


rnacr", nainic unnuKtliJil.OOO Innx of piy* 

"" ■■■-■ ■'■ ' ■'■'■■ '"nrt'ijffi com. 

■ iri of llitTluml hi l"enn' 
>.i. wlim ivowi nut by liwl 

!■ iiiU'nlui-iinn ot' 

V TJji; ervt convi'lcmblc olnuii <hM prnunfl' Itvcir, 
n Oic harinon, it the SoiiUi maoiitHiiii dlitanl tlrom 

it U^a. i!,ti.ulcofJitw Jlii,;, 
of New York. It* eoureo it i' 
about IMO niiti-»i (hcpvilcrp 
by^flu hoti<ini((l bo»U— 1 i. 
llic oeejii. or SO atUt'M above F 


liies below Philadelphia. Tn Schuvlkill, tlic tide flows but 
iles above its mouth, being' stopped there by ii considerable 
of rocks ; but it is navig^ated by bcils and setting poles Sixty 
venXy miles farther.— -The Susquolianna lius its principal 
;> in Northumberland and Luzerne counties. The two brunches 
una this river unite at Sunbiu-y, about li^O miles fcom tlie im^- 
is : thence the main stream flows in a soutli direction thiiou^i 
^Ivania, to within a few miles of its outlet ; wlicre meeting 
le of Maryland it enters that state, and empties into the 
peake, near the head of tlie bay. AlUiout^h the length of this 
8 about 250 miles, the tide rises but a short distance, owing 
sral considerable ledges of rocks that render the navigation 
rou8 except m freshets. Should the rivalry between Penn- 
ia and Muyland rise high enough to excite sensatioas of hos> 
letwisen tliem, the navig^ation orthe Susquehimna will become 
atce of contention ; as that of the Sclield Ibrmerlv wa^j be* 
the House of Austria and the United Provinces ; being ter- 
id only by tlie intervention of a stronger claimant, without 
jht, who wrested the jurisdiction from both.— —The Juniata, 
runs through some of the western counties, and unites with 
uquehanna, about 10 miles above Harrisburgh, is a bold 
l» uiiinterrupted by falls, and navigable by large boats 50 or 
KB . O n tlie western side of the Allegliany mountain is the 
)hiOj and its two auxiliary branches, the AUcghany and Mo- 
bela^ one of which pursues a north, and the other a south 
^ Uirough the frontier counties of Pennsylvania. All these 
If .together witli some others not noticed, arc so Iiappily dis- 
f. and approach one another in Uieu* ramifications in so many 
, as must, in a few ye:irs^ with the aid of canals and turnpike 

l)ecome the soiu^e of incalculable wealth to this centnd and 
ikiQg states— There are no bays within the limits of PennsyU 

as that of tlie river Delaware wiushes the shore of New Jer- 
Kta on one side, and that of Deluwure on the other. The 
western corner of Pennsylvania is bounded by lake Erie, j)art 
jKrefi>re may be said to belong to this state. This angle has 
been formedrinto a new coisnty, denomiiv^ited Krie, and con- 
17SA inluibitants. 

1 tVirrLcnn*. OF iW « 

ail kpfmnbigt: of rmnitrlTAiiiii. btfoagiw I 

Vt;; ■ "-' ■■-"■ ■■-;- ■■■'■, 

DKLAWAllK. ol.) 

rr.HNMKST ksii LiwK. TIk" rivil code of the* state varies bui 
from that at* Pennsylvania. The j^ovemor has noi even a siis- 
ijf negative on the making" of hiwa. — Tlie menibt rs of the 
? ai'e elected but for throe years, and of conrbe the rotation is 
>f one third of the ninnlK*r annually : hut the ((ualiiications (;i 
embers of both houses are more jndioiousiy detined. A S(.i.a- 
list be 27 years of aj*'e, and p^.ssiss a fiveliold of 'JOO acre.-. v>i* 
or other estate worth lOOU/. ami a ivprescntative must be 2-i 
of ag^e, and he also a freehoUler. With the consent of the 
nor, unci three fourths of lw)th liouses, any alteration may be 
ui the constitution; but a state convention cannot be culled, 
» the retjuisition has l)een expressly voted for by the pe<)i>!e, at 

;ral election. In this as in most of the states llie clerpy are 

idified to hold any civil office in the commonwealth, \vhich 
ps is a wise rejyulation. The state sends two senators and one 
icntative to Conpi-css. Senators appointed by a joint ballot of 
.'o houses : representatives elected by a plurality of the people. 
'TSioxii, I'oi'ULATio.N, AM) MiLiTiA. Tlic State of Delaware is 
id into thi'ce counties, New Castle, Kent and Sussex, all 
ling eastward on the river of the same name, and these agaui 
ibdivided into Hundreds. The number of inhabitants accord- 
• the last census was 72t67-i ; 41*7 of whom weiv slaves. The 
ation is about 36 persons to a s({uare mile. 'I'he increase in 
iars, about 8000. The militia of the state forms one division 
I ting of three brigades. 

NNEBR, Ci'HTOMs, AM) liAiTouAfiK. TliC inhabitants of tliis 
are principally descended from English ancestors : there are a 
wedish families ; and a full proportion of Irish extraction, as 
of the emigrants from Ireland, who land at New Castle, settle 
IN Rfalft, althonfvh they hitend at first to go to Penosylvaniu. 
J an* but few CicrmanH ; and tlie language and manners m gene- 
■e assimilated with those of the Knglisli inlinbitants of Penn- 
lia, retaining a considerable portion of the sedate and orderly 
cter of the original settlers, averse from innovation aiul riot. 
ii?r\HiKs OF There is an academy at Wilmington, 
nother at New- Ark, in the state of Delaware : the latter is 
' well supported. I*rivate schools are sufficiently numerous 
!ry part of^ the commonwcalih ; nor has the legislature been 
iitive to the general education, having appropriated a sufficient 
for the support of public schools. 

;kf Towns. The principal town is Wilmington, in New Cas- 
imty, situatetl on the north bank of the river Christ ianna, about 
nile's from its junction with the IX'laware, and contains about 
inhabitants. It supports a consid'*rable fbri'ign as well as do- 
cirade; has two hanks of discount and deposit; and when 
.•and canal between D-'liware and Clicapeak bays is perfected, 
:own M'dl become the dep»)t of .i givat m:uss of produce and 

landise. New C-as-.U', about .').*> u»iles below Philadelphia, 

e IMawarc.. is an iiu(jjiyid'*'':ihle <Avn, tliough the .seat of the 

y courts, and the most ar.cien to'vn on the river, luivingbeeii 

by the Swedes about th** yea** 16'^7 It contains about ^'» 

loUrjv luyt. it»»tni 

pTDilueci 11 
(J til? plan 

iM tile suae as in Pduisylnnb 

•nd pinet, whkit grav with gr. 

meadows yieU heavy CTOjie of a coaJ^e;J pr;.s^ 

Riini* IBB Bits. Tbete is no t'errr willitn the i 
■tatr but the OIK which eiics it ■ name, and wsiln ■ 
boiuid«7- It i> irrigateil by numerwis sioaDtr iirc ■ 
mosi note are (hs BnudyvinTi theChrisli«nii*, J'uii-> 

AfAnvi-Axn. 34: 


CATiojr AXB Exts:tt. MARM^VND is sitiuitcd between 37^ 
cl 39° 44' nortli latitudes, and the lon|fitiidc of m d 4® 30' 
Tom I'liiludeipliiit, or of 75° and 79° west from London. It 
mded on ilie east by the Atlantic and ihe slate of IX-iaware; 
J north by Peiin.«iylvania ; on the sou;h and west by the river 
lac, which separates it from Virp^inia, »nd an ideal lineextend- 
jtti the mouth of that nvtr m a due eastern direction lo the 
tic ocean, containing about 14,(JU0 square nides, or about nine 
US of acres ; nvuv a sixth water. 

oi SAL Population. Tiie Susquchannock and Potomac Indians, 
rave tlieir names to the two great rivers v/hich in some mea- 
bound the state of Maryland, wer<» am«:n:;- \ho most noted 
e tribes that were the original lords of this territor}'. Fmm 
of these the first English adventurers who settled here, pur- 
i a considerable tract of land in the spring of lo33, when 
aid the foundation of a town which tlic}' called St. Mary's, 
he mouth of the great river Potomac. 

xoBABiK Events. 1632. The grant from king Charles to 
us Calvert, lord Baltimore. 1633. The first emigrants, under 
induct of loixi Baltimore's brother, arrive and sctlL* ai St. 
'8. In the same year the Virginians complain of tins gr..nt as 
ncmberment of their colonv ; but Raltimore's patent i.s con- 

4—5. The first a.*Jsembly convened, consisting of all t' * 

9. In consequence of the rapid increase of the colony, prin- 
y by Koman Catholics, a legislature is composed of the reprc- 
ives ot the fiTcmen, called Burgesses, and of others sum- 
i by the governor's special writ : they were afterwards divided 
wo distinct branches. 

'2. An Indian v.*:ir which lasted ^vcral years, and did great 
lief to the colony in its h^fant .state. 

•5. An insiiri'ection in favour of Cromwell and the Ptirliament, 
' the conduct of one C lav borne, bvvhlch Calvert, the i^oval 
nor, V. ;:s forced to fly to Virginia for protection. Calvert, 
Ing afterwards to submit to the Parliament, returnetl, :\nd gov- 
lU peace till 1651 ; when fresh contention broke out, aiul i*ose 
gill to a civil war. Tlie governor with s.-me of the Koman 
ilics in oM'.gt.'d once more to desert the pmvinre. Tlu* ^ icto- 
party, being cliiet^y Presbyterians pxssed a law to proscribe 

Irnj-mK NH- ;^mriniui " .i. Lilt- ppDpll:, Or thtpH-' 

•l^u-, itii-KLilinij iHuny Mid givnl Mif^nta 1'' ' 
lami^, oaiilI<>cat«il tlw pn^nctur> t'«uici '^'^lucri u' 

State ciDttilnticm frnmcil, Alipml IT/it Alri r.ii 
m irSSJ, '»i Jijwl'99. »Wfmil coiutiluij. i 
Ir8». I>y a m.ifVitj' of 61 ta IS. 

tl> 1.11V1OS1, As ihe fir*! jiropriclfff of ' 
([ml pirtof tlic fii-tt Kttlrn, wtrc Hiiiujh i 

if ■ biihup of rrry Tti'pectMg character' 

they tuvefrum the ou-livil fKTioiI mairii'i m> 
which oui^tto bccomnietnunitcilto thi-it )<<te.n,:.I',ly„rrifi*.ts.,.:l ■ ■ 
miillijilurt " I ■ ;-,..'t oC Ibe 9taie. I 1. ■ 

»i;r>- r. *!■ ■ ■ ■ - i>f Episcopalians, I' 

QuikfT.-, . ■ ''sts amB«g the En<l . 

tif LiiUii-' ■ 1); the fiermaiKt A il 

belief ui ill' ■ ii i-. rtfquireriof »11 theoffw- 

eniment; bin im^iri rv '<■■• i": can beuiadf, of moWI^H 

'Jl. M 

•lwUr« of tile tenatc ■■ 

tO)f» its officicy M «chc_.., .._ . . ^ _ , _ ^^ 

m» rciiiletl ont ^ear in Ihe cniinty, and in wortli 3(il. has a rij;)it 
jflruKt:— «ind Ui mid ii> ike evU, vnica arc ^ircti u'ru rgc«. — The 
nwri who 't» Ihc chief executivE: mageiiraU, i* elccicd hjr 'Ivt 
Jiturt, nnnrall)', not! it rc-elig^ble tlirtfcycurB outuf srven. Ho 
bepToiicGuml in a. court of law fnr mlacondaci, and ilitjiLaced 
loSAet. — Hi* powers are very kmiied. He is Myled cutninandcr 
liefl but witlimit the oonourrence nl'lheixecunvecotincil.con- 

nf ar 6re- nitiiiWra, he can neither psrrluiw nor rcjiTi«v*«, 
"ppaiiit «r ftinove ofliccr* of govemmeni — nor baa he wiy ntgi 
n the law]i. — 'iltc principal jwiiciaryoHiccn, an^ h cliancello] 

■c oAiceni of govemmeni — nor han he wiy nera* 

lie principal jwiiciaryoHiccn, an^ « cluui«ellor, 

I. »»<[ juaticea of the pewiet uii» arc appointed hy th« ^ovcr- 

1, and hold th<;ir offices cluriiig^riMd behaviour.— This 

.il^ two Bwuitora and nine rcpreitjjtuiivp* to thcffewmleon- 
■-■■ iiatora arc uppninttO by * joint hallniof batliliaiisea; t]i« 
' i>in!iv«e elected by aplurali^of tlicpcoplt in iliitrioti. 
,. ..i..«Fi, l^H•l-t*TH^s, Asn MiLirii. Marj-Iand ia divided Inw 
McD oouatics ; eight on the iwiteni. antl eleven on ilic iveaum 
eof Cbfsnpeali imy. Tile number at' liihabilanl* iit IStU waa 
M&. of \>hUiU ncai'l; onc-tlilrtl were elaves. 7'iic napulattoti 
il ^ patoOM to a aquiiT; milci Alttiiiugih thi* itnta Iwii g7>own 
idlUSUtly tn wealth, ami eomnicrce, aincc the rcvnlution, ita In. 
Kof lohabitanta Jiax betn vuni inadctjiiaie, not one per centuiu 
iaUu fhr ilie limt ten yeara, Tli« mUitia muy be about 40,1)00 
•"ibe male*, lOr.ISO— lUtto fcmalea, BS.srj, In ihc year 

tfUy fbf 
. mil 

>viio,almo*tcv<:ry wlKK,batcipccinllyintheintited&Uili->, 
■■- iWff'ealinaiaof popuUthm. Iiiihe larp: trading tnwii* 

''>i>n. thefe i*M B¥cat umilarity ol oharactcp, piuilueed by 
' nitcrenuiwiand tbc aonmuui' g^iijut of cnmmeroc^ Uwir 

n K*iiiu« o 

^ ile||^i>rc llicir mannara, arc mouldinl iii 

■■•■■i[ (btnm. . Uut amoiiK ^^' pcaaoatry, who llvv more milnU 

'l>oae|wcullarfvatiirta are more dljitinctljr marked, ^htrK 

"111 abailcii uf difl'cTcnuBt and thcu itiadc* begin to abew 

' lo mora acnakbly l« (It* eya of an inaLilattive travTllui', aa 

' . '<-•£« aDuiiiwiuxl. It* nn Inn)n:r luholda ae pvat a proper- 

lurdy, iiidnalrioiia, km! hcallhnl ytnmuaj, \mn\; on (emi> 

,i.i.Jiir and imlt^pendencei thitir dnmeatiD ceiniDinf netit Mid 

tiii'iuUi!} ilicir farffiB well stoeki-d. in gotid onlor; wid. llicir 

Ic ahok and (lirivinf . On ilie cuninu) t ■<* illacviven 4be fiuin- 

ttanur* tliinlyactuvred, aumr of ihi-ni miaerablc hotcli; tl>e 

•Jiti at ITU <r pnipriFt'iiH, irlm aiv Inn Indolent or IjiO pcuud ta 

■■■ •■.. rv ■■■ ,' f.-r- :: ■-•■I, t .if<wn-fudder, amlUie "ottle 1'm*- 

r.i rx. A HrwmiU's diatiuit perhap« he 

I ■!..■ iiiiiprrtvrrfilw Umlortwooriiiroe 

.iin<!c(l by io or iW ncpoJiirt 

in I Ilk *IMe, wliicli (vAecl laliiflumr Mn <li 
MlwiU lIB■[■^i^^^lrM^.^>^Bn«r:•■l^«>^«■^ 

CIniijT.'v... ■ 
iiipolin, in Aiiu-A.' 
unu. Altiiiiu^!i I 

been (ckctpdia tii 
Fcvctlutiai' Th- ' 
pOHi'ile trom Ulii! 
IS UoliirooR, on f' 

«f th>- 1- ■ 
Fell', !■ 



rlHt ix rUMMl in tlip wealcm cntiiilies of Pmnsj'lvanik. — The 
iot llii! exports truin tliis BUTt, In llie year I81I, wv9 valued Rt 
fr/»0,OU(l of dollars, Tlic imporlii are nciirly to ilie sBTn<? 
iimt, from Burope, the EssI niid West Indies i thouch tlir mnjur 
L'of thMcweitlitare-Mported, or disptpsed, byland, inlothein- 
or of (he ne^hbourin^ atutci. 

UMtTi jIvu S1UOK4. Theie is t-eonaidenible diversity in tlie 

^sphere of tills atatf. All the Eastern sllore, nnd > considemble 

..r 1I1E Western, enjo}!! n mild and temjipriile Air; but it being- 

\i iih cxliulstiiins liiini t^e Cheiupeak, nnd the numemus 

n'liicb irrigate Ihii level comitrj,priidueeaiintuirilyuBickt)i 

jiiierniittcnl), FKdericI: uid Washington equities, in the 

. '.letn extremity of the *titt«, enioy ti nKira Mlilbrioui atr, be- 

• I'cjiiifylraniH, voriepted withliiUa attd dnlei, «nd sbaund- 

'< ^t linlMonw water (nxTi iipperMKlnotlicPipvlags.— Accord- 

ix'ifQroloeicul obsRnuliolis, made in tbls staif, tUt' mercury 

I : I'.ilirr-iifn-ii'a thermometer, from 5)3" to !0°. Tfie medial 

■ '^1-° frnnj S24 nirmorimdiims In the vciir« 17J3— l,thc 

^ W., 72S. E.,nE.,a»N. B., ic and iVom -iM 

!■■ PnUier, in the Banie yeMs, lljwe wftt 3U fa-P 

The Chesapoak bay, which we bdM had tT- 

. I i-cjdy, dividei tbis siitv iuto witut sr« oiled ttic 

< 11 shuieH, snd is the Inr^tt in Ibe Unttcd 8ttt«ii, 

1-. 1115 tributury rivers. Tliia expansive hiuon c«n. 

ilsUeries, uiid is Iht eomivon highway of a rery 

■ ':c)m<nerce- — The principal rivws of Moryland 

' >v, are the SiisqtieiiDJinu.ib'etdy described under 

. ivanitt.- the Pittiipeeo, »n inconsldcraMt atrcsm, 

\ nnUwidr, R tmall distanee titoTt. tlic luiiiiin, on 

' cltv .'.r liaitmorei the i^tiixeol, which riscb 

' t!ilt>. inia IliE bay, n taw milM nnrUi of 

-<< wliinh washc* tli« walls (if Annupn- 

' tho Clinitet', ChoplaTilc, nKamMte. 

. .ilfrublraUviiniK, and Ihi^chvniwli of 

' I ' . 1 1 t lie »ci iri'l cniutiea of this wcaltliy 

.; [. *>r till- l'(iicpiti:.r.-, Mc will take Atrther notice, srlieii v,e 


MJVrc t>t\A Konh Caiolirn, 

■Hitrt in VirKtniji,inttir WOT, tlijNmtintn, "frurii ■ 
ID Uic itinunbiiiw, anil iV " ' ' 

Ibc miMl pontrriil." 1 

•Innc cuin^ebetiilrd idi< ■<,-■-, 

Mlaiila. ThetO mimcraiiv trllii-\ an all nc.ilv ■I'lwt , 

iloni mid ii|]<»BnIi, Ihrrc we hanlly fnitf prrKoni letl t'l - 

faincflil lirOgfCM nt KiiropC*n clvUlrulir^n. 

fatoiifrom queen Rlinbcth, icni ili^ ii- r .-,.i.-.rii i.^ \ .1 
tbc ontunitna or Ainirlu wuIBnrli 
iabnil in AllinnirlR unind 1 but '| 1 : 
Wttrr riircrd (n null tlie cnnntn , 
Tlit'v cMr'i^d wita tlicm the llnii <<>'. 

EnKimitl, anil taii|r)il llw u 

ISVL Sir W. BalFiti^i ulipxid !■« pul-Jii 

I6i>r. TheileBignrfiwivedr lOi wdvGtitiir 
port cnlcred Jamci river, eml wIIIrI upon i 
whidi lliey «ftcrwirrdi culled JMiie»-TciH-ri. 

■■Plwr \'in(iIMIA. 

Jfe, a vcTT rtif e^taiile pUnCcr, ttutiricd the Indian pdticwis 

K at til 1 fimtr the luwl \voii flr»tdiviije)l mlo lU^ (tin! Kt-mtwl 

I I ) II p MiKTtt Jl bflving be»t| cUlliwUil bttow bv 

It prtid ic» CilTicl into eummwl iiUiit |j junrn 

1 il Uw piiili«'» giv til to prencrx; utaxt 

I I ut tubiu'tni iitmiori wjiJi imUuliy 

i|,c 1 1 V K " <iTiiiii if liuielite l>irtki ttut ttrluoiu rHruc 
niporlLti to ill ),T««t Itunilii [>t llmcolom, midilic incrcaao of 
■ inliiltiijiiui 

e 1) itUi lampA mill a ctrgo ut Irkck tJuves. tlM firit UklC 
1 1 icid into tilt Ikitirh uoIimiich, and Mid tlwm to the 

I !icfii*t MEsmbly of lafinMiltatikci met tn cnvt Into 

il nth 11 Il)|]in<lara fbr tobiitcD util tindliS 

ml IT 

uiiir tu Eagliuid 

noitof the tiTl w ST in Bn(rl*ii.l, 

I { L HMHirrcetiun csui il on tht ilmlli iif Hue in, the pun- 
4lca Sn \T BMklev,llic le];itiiittit<. (T'^ortioi, i* rn- 

I ntn iktid Mur; collfct 
U (ni|Ki»t.uiuiuin«ib' 
11 «l™rg*i 

luluiscmuiuniett c 
ml ennK'CM at Wittft- 

jui. d fidy 6. 1 ?*> 
talLALd June 2S, irSS by ■ nujorltv or SSi 

HirIi cliiifch liiKoirj lunril In Viricmu lur mar a 
l\irioln)y «* l'n-»l))irrii.n inH ,>!ice flamed in Ni'm Enj-- 

pern). I* tlut uf l*n:iib;1cnHB; 

to be jii.iiceattd for 

to JoU&n in value; In < 
*tei-Ung, nr *licrc ihr ii 



irimuB*. Purut(.tio)i, and Mihtll Yifu-iiiia is i^vLdcd intu 

Jimlics. and tbcM arc furmcti into piriihes of Turiaiui ditncu' 

I, dependent on tlie numbvr iind situaiion ol' the cpUcopal 

die*. A^t«i-»biy to the ctnslis of 1810, ihia state «mt»iiied 

5112 Intwbitant*, wliich gives abAut 14 pmons to Asquirp milc^ 

Iiese ubove two-fifths were ilaves, mostly bLck. Iiickuc in 10 

.. fwm 1800 to 1810 wa» 88,473, which is »gtaA &l|ihg ciff (Vom 

>ni«re)is of population about ILe middlt; oT ihc eightccatli ccn- 

. Th? inhnbilAnts in the year 1756 were eatimuted at 173,316, 

in 1774 at 300,000, lacreaK in IB years Ua,684, or a doplica- 

m i^ ye«i3. Males whiles J8U.038, femules 3ri,41^& By the 

(«Iutna made to cangreas the mililis amounted tu about 60,000, 

(lie iDUsliels to 14,000 stand, and 150 pieces vT unlnsuce. 

t«is^an<i, LiKociee, Ann. Costoiis. We hare xary little to add, 

r his h d lo in r preceding observHtians on the monnera, cuH- 

r- and n^ sf^ of Mar bu d If the plinlers of Virgiiuu dilTei' 

^| n K'hbourB a a s in poiKessinf; more hauuur, as 

ne n dumui n, and cili:iciiB of h more influential 

ccpub ican spirit of commerce. But all 

ad apply chiefly to the iiihabitunts liTiog on 

t H d^ the wetiem part of the twe has 

hour ng wbilei, in nroportioo j being' »ei- 

n grantu from WmiBylvaniu and New 

[fMai'yal ... ^, _._ 

g William and queen Miir>-, unA ei. 

mv. agra f 30,000 acres oT kiid, and a penny a 

tl u V on tol>al:co aft w U ai ^ome eOnaidFr^Ic prrrileges. 

dssemb fur h ennehed tlie iiMtiiution by a, dutr oil Liquors, 

rm kin a d fii po d the joint produce of tbese funds 

H ds o JOOOL Gurr per annum. — The buildings, thougli 

i^Li-ucttd in a(i elegant style, are itf biicfca, and brge enoiii^h 

.iimmlateotB hundred aludenls; thnli^ there are seldoni 

iiii-lyor fimy educated « anyone time. — There is another 

■ II Prince Edward EOiinly, as Mvll n scvenil academies in 

.rtsof tliestate, uiat Alcxttndriii, Norfotki HBiK>v(;r, ttc. — 

I tif counties are furnibbed with common Eiigilish achooU, 

l.tldrentTG taught to read, write, andcMt accouutB. 

■ ciTiBs Asn TowH9, The inhubitanti of Virginia are em- 

> riicii,t1y in agricvKuKil pursuits, and their foreign trade behig 

ilid among several seaports, owing to the many navigable rivLxs 

, inttT-icct their country, tbey have no oomluergiblc capitn! — 

: krgest town irv iht state is Alexandria, situatrd on the Poio- 

i, »bout ten miles Wow the city of Wailiington. II is a lUiiv- 

aomtnerriul place, bia a bank, and cnnUin> iibout 7000 intiabi- 

li.«-But tile prinjipal mori of furtjigii commerce, and th« moBt 

ifing tea port in Virginia, is tlie iinfoiigh of Norfblk i lying 

r Oie entrance nf tlie ChesapCak, Uic nnvigation to it i» always 

H: The inhabitants ut the Unie of the lost censui «rere about 

1— Kichmoiid. wbich is siluated on the JanWa river, and i« '* 

rti»», Va<t Mtiswof TTOunttliu plette Ifirouirh the w*i1. 
r.f 1hl» •tiUp, MitAy In u. JJ. R. and S. W. illrr-ction. Th* 
[irr-nrnls lurlf w nntlc- is lli« liluf rlilpri-. t)i(r hij;h»t I)e«.lt 

■■'■■ ■!' "">" ' 'i-i"i I'- t'1-r- ■ f'-r" ^.-vnnri till* riilire 

' ■ ■ '!■ ■' !■■■ I ■■■(l.-n mnuilUln, 

' .1 '<J Etulca, uiil 

<.r ll 

il inQuntiiim. wlncli 

Ilia i^rrjil riil^t tra Ihe tjilirel 
.roien 10 ihr- iirMtm cqnAiiei 

:.-:,.■ fnim the 
, licTii[i, Hui, 

Uie <lhiai tike Mlii' ) 
fiir in 91. (^mtiiu. ' 
■rldcMtunuutti. t' 
•apcnLlr olMtnwAii 
P».d.r|k ..r wtl u* . 

uiTli h-*ml UthiT 1- 



.. ,«B»»»r« In ino. This colonywn.i cctticd byihc 
N of Soulii Curoliiii (of whkii it win tlren ■ pan) wiTh an 
[«r IQii B«re* of Iwid tnr ever; niAa, wamin Hiid cliild, 
- 11 IM ihc first iMi fctn. 

lony tru alinast extCTminitted b} the Cortes and 
: Wnk iCBCueit from lotil deslrucltoli by » reinforce. 
nublyfrotn Cli:irtestsn. The Mrnr currlnJ mi7< Ilift 
jjr.'irl slaujfli'er amimg iJie ToBearoras, witt u rim- 
■ .,li,.>.. .. icmave toihc Obio, Abnui ant, vimu 
1= s noted nndexvflus of pir»tw, 
. ■. . i from Capf Fear by tlie brnvi- POn- 

N'.. ■■! jii' 'jf ilic proprlciDr!! of Carolina ai*! 

., it3 lo tile rruv II . irpiin which <:iirnlins ww divMsilinifl 
. Litl South, loul boih ert^tcd tmo ntyul nvMnmenia. 

IhiE-cigbib of ih« priiprietarpdilp \Aich wa* rcimincU by 
' ..'[i-ivi. WHS IdidoA', ui(l (IfrscMlwA w eXt^iHting }^tn lite 
.' <J"3i* .>*' lolKe MiuOitrn hnundnf Virfartii-, KiiafromiljB 
.. lolht Piu^uncwui.ciiinprdtendin^gTen tturl orttii^ state 

' Tlie iiit»ibiti>nlsi".t;ni;.trAaL4J,<IOUs;>ut>. 
! Tlw sijciely of Oiiiteit Bnlhren piirplinm tl .if Loril GfiD)' 
■ni.COO acres of itnA, in Surry county, Whn^^l ilie* rii nomi- 
^t :chi>*iiL. )r Unow, 1X04, atiuputoao Hdthfmmt, mM u-JlU 
. uid wtU cultiviiinl litmis. 

■iclppiii^! uppoioied'to meet tLe (ii«l t-rnenl Congress at 
.1.1.1... *..p»l iS, lr74 

-n framed Utcember 18. I?7(3. ttdenl Constilu- 
■ 21, 1789, i)y 19J M 75-TOteii. 
leilie American nvoluuoii, moiv thxn onr liJf 
if tToi'lh Carolina were oF the chlu■c^ uf SlE- 
Mii^ IVmiulBd uri pBopltil mo)it sf iJir Ko piK 
I k'clWTition of indtpcmlMii*, Iheap vitw lAtT^Y.'"^ 
'■ t-.i' alle|jrlaTiee to Great Britain, or to ilenrrAiicir 
licm chme '^elaiier, particularly 'lie cifvgi-, (.ne 
■ -.[iii;!]. I', is prnbahic miitl of the livings v.- tit 
. ii-'lly a «in)i-lu KpiRcopul fiHigii'^tiiin 
"n A tnimecMM Ijody «r prt-j'lt in 
I lirHit Bnyof Ihe BCWmHl act* iif re- 
■ iMKrhmBOr M^!1l)Mi■l«llIl\'•Mlll(■l:1- 
..... , .., .■ .iit cjvinooiJal ftW. Thfiie deem are 

nrCToiJ" ilirtAiglwUl Uk swtf, tliefiiTniet posntsiting sc*M»l of 

^ wnttBTn cnuntita ulmotit entipely. The trllleittent of Man- 

lUi'MWr hsve nli«ndy nb»n-ri-d, is very [lopiilowi, luld diatin- 

i»L:.U.: fi.L- iLa'ovum anil picly. 'I'lic FtJentfs have likrwlse 

.■■lilt, miml in tiuillurii «nd' the mljacem coun- 
" utKo KRiw Baptitti. 

II LiWft, Tilt conititution of Wtwih' CiiWlin* 

. n cB« in the smtic inoiihJ onUKWBiif Mwyl«nil 

1 1 '. . J a HoaU v»i>iBiiou in iomB of thr niHiiiti; mem- 

^N-TliL- yiiii-nior ia chosen unniially hy the airrmily, »nil may 

KUry ot lie •<■('-— V 

, Uxl-COUUltll 

■■■.•■ji, r-.-pritwiiUliti-a ■ 

j^.JUU Will, (about dm; tlunt*! 
oKling tn Uic onunicntum of 16tU. Tbr inilili«slt;«all 
a15U,O0U aicii. The [luiiulutian ii ■b'nit II pctmmm tiia* 
aiil- White ooltn ie8,&i3, f<.-miik* l»2,77ti. 

Mtxiuu, Ccwnji*, (Nil l.iSautOK. I" it,. . . 

of Ihii caiamoQireulUi, Uif luiguii][c aOiltlti-L 
mm assimibile in • st««t drfpcc Ui liiMF ni ^ 
Snny tiifU, UicM we Ruut expect Co titut ii 
u»l,InK, vrherv uni: Uiinl oT the mlliibiUiits .i- 
tUc Tc*l. wa must cspcct ta fiiut )>ulotence uikI 
the giwil inSux of HeciunicK wid CitUui* fr' "I I 
*incc tbc rc?«lutiMi. and Who bt\t carried .iln 
hitbiu of incbiitrf uid cMiKimyt i.cb»i>);r of < 
wncd to hue ^radiialK t«k«u ;iUcc wi lh< •■: < 
of punUiiig^drtnkiiii;, bone-rKHie,. cock%l'i ■ 
Tail to lliAt .^i«ai depve wliudi ihctttid Uiii' 
western parti of ths ittAtFiBpTiiicipii'h tetilt.i 
I'dUisylvuiik and NcW Jeriry, bv unWilJonf, I ' . 

IlcJnnd and Scothuid, ond olio bj'iif.enl bcttlrittciit. ^>|' ukIh.^i 


EF CiTiss AHD TowNs. There i» no considerable town in 
Carolina : we shall mention the prmcii>al.->Newbem, situated 
confluence ut the Neuse und the TreTit, is the lai-gest, and has 
nhabitants. The private houses are built of wood, the palace, 
)i^opal church, and tlic goal, of bricks. The palace is a hund- 
edifice, and wa»- the ixrsideuce of the governors before -ih«.: rc- 
nn.—— Wilmington is built on a branch or Cape Foar river, 
«3U miles from the ocean, and was almost destroyed by a con- 
lion, in the year 1786: Inhabitants, 1689. — Fayette, ^n the 
stream, about 100 miles above Wilmington, contains 1656 in- 
Jits.— Edenton, on Albemarle sound, has lo2'2 inhabitjints. 
Jid Raleigh, an inland town, in Wake county, which is noticed, 
lecause the state hi-s chosen it for the seat of government. 
nuFAGTVRKS AiTi) CuMMKHi'E* Tlic State IS HOI deiicient in iron 
, from which they manufacture bur iron and hollovv ware for 
itic use. Every farmer has a field of cotton, which he cleans, 
and weaves, for the consumption of his ijimily. — Great part 
; exports of this state are ciuried tlirougli Virg-inia and South 
na: they consist chiefly of tar, pitch, turpen tin", rosin, Indian 
boards, scantling, sli ingles, tobacco, furs, pork, liees wax, &c. 
kting, in tdejei^r 18U2, to 650,000 dollars. — ^Almost the whole 
of North Carolina is faced with a dungerous sand bank, afibrd- 
ily a few narrow inlets to its principal sea port towns, and 
MtJ navigable only by small vessels. 

MATE AND Se^soxs. Tlic low saudy ground which extends- 
100 miles from tlie sea shore, and tiie numerous undruincd 
es in the lower part of this state, together with extreme heat 
>undani exhalations, pi*oduce :>nnually an exuberant crop of 
i and intermittent fevers ; this is indiciited by the sallow com- 
n of the common people. Not more than one |)erson* to ten, 
ling to tlie last enumeration, had reached ilic age of 45 ; where- 
he New England stJites the proportion of this age is generallv 
iS to 100. This then is not the habitation for those who wish 
lI old Parr or Jenkins in heallli and longevity. — llui thei'e is 
finer climate, within tlie extensive limits of the United Stales, 
he western counties of North Cai'olina: liere the countiy is 
fCted by a range of mountains, and diversified by hili and 
nor is the cold intense enough to oblige the i'ai'mer to fold liis 
in winter. 

L A!f« AoRicuLTCRF.. Grcat part of the sea coast of N.)rth 
na, as we have observed, is covered witli barren forests, wuh 
nd there a glade of rich land. Tlic banks ot tlie riv( rs are 
uniformly fertile, and are generally well cuHvated. Rut the 
• lands, on the east side of the mountains, and a very exicn- 
nct on tlie west, are tlie pride of tliis state, aboundhig witli a 

ate, l)eing consumed principally in the aliment aixl cloaui* 
its inliabitants, and may bo termed the staple article of Nortk 





. f 











I incn)Ui licitU of cattlf , Uiat are brccl, aiul live Uiruiigb 

ihttte cxWiwive foresU ; wlicncr the)' arc collected and 
niimbrrii to the nortliem druven.— The princi)ui] miiic 
this state are its iron mines, unless we include tlie medj 
At' Warren, Rockinf^ham, and some otlier places, that i 
their healing virtues, and the resort of invalids. 

MoFXTAi?cs. The principal ridf^ that runs through 
lina is ( ailed the Apalachian mountain ; a name dcriv 
- Apaluches, a nation once ver^' numerous. It appcan 

another l(»cal name fur the Allegheny mountains, being' 
the Kame loft) ridge, that extends from the Mississip] 
] Lawrence. 

Swamps. But we must not omit tlie sWamps of this sti 
there are two ver}' ivmarkablc : one calleci the Orecn I 
the southern line, and the other, with emphatic proprie 
Gi't'ut Diamai, whicli co%'crs more tlian 600 scjuarc mile 
se%vrul lakes, and conmmnicates with Alligator ri\'cr an 

RivEHn A!fn ROi'TvDs. The sounds are arms of the s< 

the continent aiul a rhrtin of .tand banks, stretched in 1 

> state, almost its whole length. The most noted arc tli 

mnrlc and Pamtiro: X]u first extends 60 miles from tl 
the land, witfi a nudial breadth of lO mries, and receivi 
of tlie Roanoke ;iikI Melierrin rivers : the oilier atretcl 
sliftre one hundred miles, with a vnrious breadth, from 1< 
and receives the Pamtico and Neuscr riveis.<^The onl 
f ' serving notice, besides thew, is C:jpe Fear river. Thii 

luviguble wattr in the state of N<irth Candina, and was 
(-:irl\ (lute as the nMUiezvous of pirates. The two branc 



'ATioir AMD ExTsirr. South Carolina is situated between 32^ 

^ 15' N. latitude, and the longitude of 4® and ^ W. of Phi- 

lia^ or 78** and 83° 4(/ W. of London, and contains about 

square miles, equal to about 13,000,000 of acres. Its bounds 

e Atlantic ocean, on the east ; North Carolina, on the north ; 

e river Savannah, which separates it fram Georgia and Ten- 

, oDthe west and south west. 

«3f AL Populat:io2t. The most noted among^ the Indian tribes, 

»re the original proprietors of this country, were the Stojioes 

estoes, the Sarannas, the Apalaches, Congarees, Esaws and 

lees, on the east and in the centre, who are now either extinct 

^led with other tribes ; and the Catawbas, Creeks and Che- 

, on the west, who still retain their name, and a local habita- 

n the frontiers of the state. The ancestors of the present in- 

its were a mixture of many European nations, but the first 

iirers came from Great Britain. Under the auspices and at 

)ense of that government was the colony founded. 

lORABLE Events. 1662. Patent granted by king Charles If. 

1 Clarendon and seven other noWemen for the province of 

la, extending from 29° to 36° 31' N. lat. and from the Atlan- 

the Pacific ocean. 

. The first colony, under Gov. Sayle, seated themselves at the 

lOW called Charleston. The first embarkation cost the pro- 

8 12,000/. sterling.* 

. The first constitution framed bv the celebrated John Lotk. 

laniards attempt to destroy the colony, but finding it in a state 

mce retreat to St. Augustine, without doing any thing. 

■. A price given for Indian prisoners, who are sold as slaves 

(^est-India planters. 

. The government endeavours to restrain the iniquitous prac- 

id to regulate the trade with the natives, but are opposed by 

f the leading planters. The practice continues. 

. The people dissatisfied witli the proprietors, but most with 

quit rents. TheYb?.nish their gtjvemor, and raise one of 

wn faction to the otfice. About this time rice was abcident- 

Foduced by a brigantine from Madagascar ; and to cultivate 

s were found necessary. 

. Episcopal clergy established in Charlestoni with a house, 

and perpetual salary. 


171^. A p»il»l'C hank i-stuMlshtd, and bills issued t 
I ef ri.U Ki/. bv which ihc \irwc of produce \v:ts raised 

^ ill tMclvf inoiiths. 

r- J J ■ f 171-1. A vitb the Yam;isRt*es instippatcd by th 

H=.v. fr.vrn <.f Its .1 Piw.iftl of JA fir even' Spanish 

j pn u'lit !iis b^iui: bn^clnTftl hy Wir Indifiii*. 

) -^f 17J''. In con** t J n. ••:(•» of u siTits "f ii'sr)rders, tlie c 

I - ." pr<iT>r.'. '.nrs "U rl;irL-il tu bt- forfeited, and the colony ei 

I _ ' ni;. :il )fnvir:'.!Ti»-n». Whrics 14,'JUO, Nff^mcs and Indiai 

. ' 17*H. Summrr r«im:i!k".iblydry and hot, followed in 

luirrii\.iu*, uliich K-vellwl tliousunds of trteB, and di 


: I7.?r. Thi* SpaTiiariN incite the slaves to run awa 

. : * arni«>, :t:^il march them to Charleston to cut the throat 

•. re*.li\ 1 ni;.st<»rs. A ^cni-ral insurrection among* thp sla^ 

ir-;0. An rxp-wdilion i.^'-ainst Florida, which proved 
fcrt- »lt»stnivs SjC iiOMsei at Ch>.pleston. Parliament g] 
!•» •■ji' •iufR-rei'j*. 

ir*k\ Th«' !>l.ivcs outnumber their masters 3 to 1. 
finirj^s aj)ply to the ci-own for 3 independent compani 
tlk m ng-ainsi tlieir own slaves. 

17->5. Indi.;;(i found to be a native plant, a]id first i 
bouiity of 6il. per lb. p-anted by parliamciit. 

175X^ Summer extremely hot: in the fall a hurrican 
v.atcr rose 10 feet above hig^h water murk ; city o%'< 
lilKd with the ^Tecks of shipi and houses. 

1754. Imports 200,000/. sterling^. Exports 104,682 1 
•i inili^ry 216,924 lbs. Total value 242^50^/. sterling. 
?. * 17.^6. AVar with the Cherokees, which was continuec 


ivEHNMCKT AND Laws. TIic Icjfislatlve povrer of the state is 
xi ill a g^eneral assembly, consisting of two branches, a senate 
lOUse of representatives, botJi elected by tlie people : the ior- 
contains 37 mtinbers, and are chosen for four years, with a 
lial rotation of one half; the latter, 124 members, and are 
ed for two years, which is a distinguishing' feature in the con- 
tion of this state. — The representatives originate money bills, 
possess the power of impeachuig; the senate try impeach - 
a ;-— to impeach, or convict, tlie concurrence of two-thirds of 
members is required. In otiicr respects the powers of both 
es are equal.--Co«jointly they elect the governor, lieutenant- 
mor and council. They appomt judges, commissioners of tlie 
ury, .secretaiy of state, and suncyor-gcneral, and possess all 

)rivileges that are common to a legislative assembly. The 

itive authority is lodged in a governor, or lieutenjuit'-govemor, 
a council of nine members, of whom the lieutenant governor is 
-•—They are elected for two years, and may be recliosen after 
tervalof four.— He is commander in chief of the militia, when 
ailed uvto the service of the United States ; he may remit fines 
brfcitures, except when restricted by a special law ; grant re- 
es or pardons, except in cases ot impeacliment ; and embargo 
sions for thirty days.— Agreeably to the constitution the judpni:s 
tlieir commissions durmg good' behaviour, and their salaries, 
11 as that of governor, are unalterable diu'ing their terms ot* 
. — Ever\' fi*ee white man has a right to vote at elections, who iy 
11 age, has resided two years in the state, ami six months in 
listrict, and hiis paid a tax there to the amount of three shil- 
,— Uy a particular law of this state, the evidence of a slave 
>f be taken against a white man, and if a master kill a slave, 
punishable only by a pecuniary mulct, or an imprisonment of 
ear. lUprescntation in general Congress, two bcnators, and 
representatives. Senators appointe<l By a joint ballot of both 
»s; representatives elected in districts by plurality of tlie 

^isioxfl, PopuLiTiox ATD MiLiTiA. Thc latcst division of this 
has been into districts, of which there are 23 m numlxr ; and 
are subdivide<l into counties aiid parishes. The number of in- 
iints in 18lU was 415,115 (nearly one half slaves) which gives 
: 17 persons to a square mile. Increase in 10 \ei:rs 6y,5'i4 equal 
liipiication in about 50 years. AVhitc males 109,587. Kc nudes 
aj9 The militia may be estimated about 5U,0UO men. 
i!CNi:H8 AND Customs. Hei-e, as well aa in every other country 
i slavery has prevailed, it luis produced its peculiar train of 
, pride, indoleitce, and cruelty. Thc Carolinians, those I mean 
' maritime parts, are nevertlieless remarkable for their polisli- 
d agreeable manners, and their d hospitality to stran- 
Among the higher classes the plea^Ui'es of society are cuiti- 
eagerly, but gaming, that inlet of numerous crimes, is genc- 
dlscouragcd. Hunting and horse r.tcing are favourite sporta 
y men w fortune. Youth are introduced early into company, 
uuiy of them discover a happy and natural quickness of a))prc- 


J li. ! *...«i. I'iiis <iHr.iii:»ry was inuiuWd '.i> ivmove ihe 

•.f .i.ij^- \ .isii: b» Ki'.'Mp^' u« limipleti- iht ir ciliicalion, 
j l.-!^ b .• i i!».' fiT.iir.. II jiructlcf in vvalthy families, and 

i Mi .': .. •■.Misiil.r./tli ili^rii-. HowwiT, thtiv are ut pre: 

' -i" o ^ ■ ■!•: ;.c:«Uii.:i ^ '.n f^,i> s.uTc, tiunipfli none of vol 

r.. . ■ "Iff r(»llip'.s ijMst k.i'iwn a:v \r.» m* of Charlesi 

I .• ■• •.;. . <'..'n'»riiUv. ;tml IU:int\'Vt, uml h f.iese, as wel 

I .»-.!.. r J.-..- . , '.\.K :v an- .f.\uU'mii-s, ami oilier private srI 

. .. ' ; >■''.■]: f.jMr-i.a, K):vJ:ich 5\.s('00 dolLu-s has b 
• '". >»i- >-:•!¥ luiiKl.niTs. ul ll.e scat of jrovc: 
• u ■!. ;■ •«. . tl-illarN pir annum, for tlic support of 
" in-.' "j: •11. i.a"<ll\ oiimplftOil. 
< . ■ < '.H i«r»'rn\\Ns. The prim-ipul tBwn in Si 
. ..», ..■•■{ .• }'. . '• '1! 1 .v ];. was the seat of piivernntent, is 
• -'..i I a? \\.: I- .?iiu-" re of Ashley and (.'■oo]>cr rivei-s 
... .. .:».i\v S..i;\.',;\ i^laTul. It is built with j^i-eat 

li ■ - .^i'> l\i!i<- 1:,-\ anil Mi-sl run in u straight line fr 

.i^.i\ :i!'.l aiv tir.j.i-liLd \* IJi sui»terr:»ne:;ii drains, ftr 

*'.• I. I'-, ^ '.". riu >.■ ,;!\ ii.: ''Nortvd '.;. others, near 

;•.!.., '. •.. '.ihirh il \'niK l!u- t,»v. :i into . u'linbe" of haiidsoi 

— T.ii- i.ou e> .i-r r!iiirt\ ;>i-i. ,•: bricks, and many of 

ill . .. ".v --Ti".'. ;)'j!>!!e * dificis aie, :.n ixch.injrc, a siate-h 

o.'.ix-. -.'. 1. . A, a-^. 1 a ::'. M-«- ..Ims-hoHNe, witlu i^^-htee 

I;.- ■ . i' '-i l..;i MS \\«vsi.":| . — 'I'lie "."il'- ". '>es fi\!n« s.x to 1 

. '.::.r M '.!.■ wharvi'i. and vessels (:-..\vinj:^ 17 feet 

•.:■ f!::i. — \' I'.e linu- oi" last uiunR ration the inhah 

11, I., .i! 1\ on* half sl.ivts. — Tlu re are two banks of d 

• .. •> •!.■.■ ei:\. Vhx' oilter nrlneipal towns aiv, Ge< 

i .'.:.!■. .-: Iviiil 'JCuO inli.ibju.nts ; it is a sea por 

: Ml ■ :• 1 > 1". ■• n«»t. f. itiil n.».!-.4*»vr rvr I>.-\t ♦ .T>,,f ] 

> < 
I ■ 


ceo, furs, peltry, tar, pitch, turpentine, rosin, lumber, strives, 
m com, soal leatlier, ret ds and Cai-olina pinknK)t. — ^The articles 
KftediLTe, flour, bread, cheese, salted fish, potatoes, onions, oats, 
*r, beer, and cyder, from the northern states ; and from foi-eig-n 
Lets, rum, sug^r, coffee, cocoa, tea, brandy, wine, ijin, unci a great. 
;ty of package goods from Gi-eat Ilrilain and other nations^ The 
ice of trade is generally in fiivour of the state. 
Ainount of exports, in 1771, was 7a6,u00/. sterling, equal 

3,;160,0U0 dollars, 

in 1791 - - 2,693,267 
in 1802 - - 10,690,000 
bsaels that sailed from Charleston 1787, were 947, measuring 
18 tons. — In 1801, there were 1243 pleasure carriages in the 
i that paid duty. 

.ncATE Axji Seasons. TIic climate of the low country of South 
lina can hardly be styled temperaU^ although it is near the 
Ue of the temperate zone. In summer, the air is warm in the 
sine, sultry and suffocating; in winter dry, and sometimes 
siiiff cold, though snc^w is very rare. Tlie i ifluvia from a great 
\ of stagnant water, in all seasons of the } ear, renders the ^r 
the sea humid and uinilastic, and of course impif^pitious to 
Ji. Tlie fall is accounted the most unhf\d<hy part of the year, 
e flooded rice grounds, therefore the wealthy phmUrs mostly 
e to the city in that season. Thunder storms .ire frequent fnmi 
1 to October, and often very tremendous. Ai Charksuni, five 
es, two churches, and five ships, were struck b}- iir^-htnin^^" on 
saniti day. The greatest variation observed by Fahrenlieil's 
nometerhas been fi*oni 101° to 10° in the sha<le.* 

le mean diurnal heat 64° in Spring, 79° Sum. 72° Aut. 52° Winl. 
Nocturnal 56 75 68 46 

annual fall* of W'ater (taking the mean of six yeai's) is nearly 
inches : the greatest fall in 12 hours \v:us 9.26 inclicn. The 
ge, olive and peach trees sometimes blossom in tlie beginning of 
iiary, generally about the middle. As to tlie upper ccnnitrr, 
cialiy beyond the first ridge of mountciins, it is freer from the 
emes of heat and cold, and bein^^ irrigiitcd witli slreunib of 
iesome water, is as healthful a re|>;ion as iiny p.a't of the U. 

•iL AKnAfJurcuLTunE. On the plains of South Carolina, tli*^ 
is generally sand), interspci-sed with marshes, and g-i'mind tha*. 
ca.sion:dly*rtoode<l As you advance into li^e country, you find 
ixed with loam and clay', till you rerich tlie moiwitairii;, wliere 
agreeably diversified with hill and dale, and ni.ji} exu-nsive 
le tracts.— T.:e staple produce of the maritmie countiT are, cot- 
rice and indigo, with many of the tropical fruits, such as 
ires, len\ons, figs, olives, peaclies, and an exuberance of the 
'St melons. — The interior tn.cts are more de-voted to grain of 
MIS kinds, where they ai-e produced in great abund.ince Ca-.tle 
leviT housed n» winter, and constitute a considerable item in 
ye9\X\i of the country. 

AnMtii m ViairrASbt PnaniicTWIi- 
MtMilcucnu alTBulj' mMioeiJ M Iht fruiU (if Ki 

.„,i...;.»;.i;j.Jii. i.,_„;if. ,.r..|.r,n, nri^-w , 

p>K.Ai TlwV'W, bru\M, 
lliirr. wnlr. Bu, wiUI i- 
^iiHitnilwill The oniinir. .- 

dUiit ifwr-iii thai lit Im puiiiido-i*. 

MiiiTiTiilr^. TIh.t« ure iin numnltiliia In iblt (Ut^- WitUnSt 


It the prinoipal, and 

t>]><. ."'Mch f;>rn»iiiri 
mtnij; (tu- CumtjerLinil 
hriiticlifH, fmm llic 

*"*■ iof'J^.'l 

■vhicli nm* tlift wholff deplb 

(mlli.ii ..|, I « 11. till"-, Ttuvi 

rilUivriU-.! »-,lhp-,-w 
nlierftnl cn'p* of cni 

GBOKGU. 369 


SiTVATioir ASH) ExTXNT. This State is situated between 31^ and 

|5° of North latitude, and the longitude of 5^ 45' und 10** 30^ W. 

mm Philadelphia, or SI*' and 86° W. from London. It is boiinded 

-' on the east and north, by the Atlantic and South Carolina; on the 

^' westy by the Mississippi territory; on the south, by East Florida ; 

E(' ami contains about 50,000 square miles, equal to 32 millions of 

OuftiiTAL PoFULATTox. Thc most mcmorable Indian tribes among^ 
the aborigines of Georp^ are, the Chickesaws, Chactaws, Ci*eek^ 
Cherokees, Nutches and Allibanious. A part of these retain a 
small portion of their ancient possessioos, which lie between the 
territories of the United States and the river Mississippi; but all 
of them arc much diminished, and some reduced to a hamUul of 

> nen capable of bearing arms. This colony was planted by a so- 

k ciety of Englisii g-eatlemen, with a view not only of extending thc 
/ British empire in America, and securing Carolina from the inroads 
•f their Spanish neighbours, but to relieve the industrious poor of 
', tlie old world, and to extend to the new the inestimable benefits of 
' religion and civilization. The province of Geofrgia of course re» 
'' eeived more liberal aid from thc parent state, than any other colony 
* in the western hemisphere. 

Mbyoiiablk EvBjrrs. 173?. A patent gr:uited to a corporatloa 
■ of 21 persons, for settling- a new colony' between Carolina and the 
8p:uiish dominions in Florida. In the same year general Oppelthorpe 
embarks with 117 fellow prussengers, passage being paid and neces- 
tarira furnished to a large* amount ; they land at the plice after- 
wai'ds called Savannah ; ptircliasc a tract of land of tlie Crei'k In- 
dians ; and lay the foundation of their first settlement in an act of 

, 1734. Additional aid of 36,000/. sterling granted by parliament ^ 
130 Highlanders settled at Nt*w Inverness on the Alatamaha ; fol- 
lowed, in tlie same year, by 170 Gci-mans, who wei-e seated in another 
part of the province. 

1735. The English parliament granted 10,000/. sterling to erect 
fortifications. Georgia fortified by pfcncral Ogclthorpe. 

1737. Small progress made in cultivation, which the Georgians 
attribute to the want of slaves to work for them ; though it was 
expressly stipulated in the original contract that no slaves should 
be introduced into the colony. Ogeltliorpe's regiment sent from 


Ks.^l.iM I '.I ill ti Ti'.l ilio colony. The Spaniards corrupt tliesoldien, 
uiiil « .I'l^i- '!u 111 lo niu'ii'v .igainst ilicir g^-neral. 

ITl'i \V.iiTcrKUl\ o plan housie founditl^ for the educitionof 
pi ..I- i-|i.Mi-» i\. 

17 i J. <•!■<. rjTiH iiiv:«lod hv ilie Spaniards, the people of Carolina 
rofuv lo :i«»» ihc'ir iu:i)^hbours : defcndeil by O^flethorpe's regi- 
vnv'.\\ w'lli ihe a:»sisUtnce of the miliiia, and the Spaniards re- 

ir;r. a clorg;\nian (named Bosomworth) who had married a 
wfiinan lit' the ilwlk nation, pretendeil to govern the country in her 
t-ight, am! lo dijijM assess tlie Knglish settlers. 

17.^2. riir 'rii4ie«-s siirreader their charter to the crown. 

iTfyi. 'I'lic colon\ bcipin to flotir'sh. 

1773. Kx|yirts amoimtt>d to 121,6771. sterling. 

ITHH. January 2d, Tli^ federal constitution ratified unaniniously. 

1793. May 3Uth, State constitution revised and annended. 

Kiki.i«iiuN. Though the propagation of religion was a leadte 
motivt* u'iih tlic generous founders of this colony, and it partooK 
larfi^ely, during its infancy, of the zealous labours of George White* 
Held aiul his disciples, this important interest is at a low ebb, at 
teast in I he old settlements. The pursuits of trade, agricvdtur^ 
fxihiio, and land speculations, engross the principal attention: 
tlu-n- are nevertheless some serious people in the western countiy, 
of the llaptist, Prc-nbyterian and Metliodist societies ; and in 'Sa- 
vannah, Augusta, and a few other towns, there are edifices for pub- 
lic worship, sup]K)rtiNl by several religious societies, where the 
Ibrms, at least, of relig'ion arc prescr\'ed. By the constitution of 
the st.-ite, ;iil christian sects partake equally in the rights and privi- 
le^cv.s of citizens. 

GovEHi^MF.xT AND Laws. The government of tliis, 'like tbat of 
«nost of the oilier states, consists of three departments, executive, 
legislative, and judiciary. But in all the states that are on the aouth 
of the Susquehanna, this division of autliority is little more than a 
shadow, for most of tlie essential powers are confided to the iegis* 
lalive branch : it appoints, anil can remove the otlier two, ad libituai, 

by impi'achment.s. Agreeably to the constitution, as revised and 

amended May 1798, the governor is elected by the general assembly 
biennially, and is rc-cligible— He has a negative on laws, unless 
two-tliiixls of both houses concur to enact ; he may grant pardons, 
except in cases of impeachment, treason, or murder, in wbichht 
muy respite execution till next session of assembly ; and he may ap- 
point to vacant offices, ad interim.— -The general assembly iscom- 
loscd fjf two ch.imber.s, a senate consisting of 23 members, and 
representatives of 51, who are elected by the people annually.——' 
v'onj'iintly they appoint governor, judges, secretary, treasurer, and 
surveyor general, (all of them, except the judges, fi)r two years) 
attorney :ind solicitor general, for three years, and all the general 
officers of the militia. — The judges of the supreme court are ap- 
ptuntfd fi)r three years, and inferior judges during gdbd behaviour.— 
Justices oii' peace are nominated by the inferior courts.— The courts 
of law ic'i, a superior court, which has exclusive jurisdiction in 

nKf)R(aA. 371 

»1l crinitnal caies, find (I'lKputcR about the tiller of'land. 1'hc county 
courts decide on inferior controversies. A .siiif^lc judj^<' sit8 in the 
superior court to determine tiie most important causi-.s, and often 

exercises the power of a cliancellor. All w l»ile males, 21 years of 

age» who have resided six months in du> st: to, and paid taxes tlicTC- 
in» have the ri^it o^' votinjf at elections, Wiiich is ix-i'/ornoed xriva 
voce. ' The state mmkIs two senators and six representatives to 
coni^ss. Senators are a))pointed l)y a joint baHot of the two 
bnuiches : representatives by a phii-ality of the people at larf(c. 
' Divisfoifs, I*i»PiiLATiON, AwiJ Mif iTi I. (leorgia was foi merly di- 
vided into parihhts ; it is iw)W parcelled into counties, of which the 
number was tlurty-beven at the period of the last entimerat ion, and 
the total of inhabitants 252,4J3 (about 5 to a square mile) of whofh 
more than two fifths were sliives; white males 73,845, females 
09,569. fncreiisc in ten years was 89,747, which is very near a du- 
plication in the same time, owinj^ to extraordinary emigrations."— ~ 
In a recent report rctunied to congress, the militia was estimated 
«t 1 6^154 men. 

Manners, Customs, Amn l^AvovAar.n. (leor^^in was peo])led from 
its infancy by men of several nations and lang-uag^'s, though the 
tnain and goveniin^ part was Kn^^'lish. Those of the same nation 
who settled tof^ether, in the same parish or county, still retain a few 
distinct sliades of orip^inal character; but a gradual assimilation is 
takinff place. From the infltience of climate, and a n>srmblnnce in 
their domestic economy with those; of the other southern states al- 
ready described, we caimot suppose that there is any great diversity 
in the general mass. The we.(lthy ]}lanterM, 4vho own numr-rous 
familieji of slaves, study ease and luxury, and dissipate a part of 
their affluence in acts of hnspitriity, and the ph^asiu'cs of society. 
Cardi, horse-racing, cock-figh;in)^, and, amon^thc more active, the 
chigoe, for which Cteorgia is wull adapted, are lavouriti- amus<'ments. 
But land speculations, though noi peculiar to K\\\s state, have bi'on 
pursued with uncommon avidity, which has forced the gMveniment 
to aomc very extraonlinaiy measures, in order to limit their exten- 

SxuKfiTARris or LKAnwiNfi. As it is but about 40 years since 
Georgia rose af>ovc the first great difliculties of planting a wilder- 

neas, it cannot bt; justlv expected that education has long had a 
•hare of its attention ; out schools have, latterly become the subject 
of legiflUtivc provision. A valuable fund in lands has been appro- 
priated to support one university in the sta'xr, as well as an academy, 
in every county where Uie population would admit of it; and that 
this extensive plan might be execMte<l with energy, the legislature 
has instituted a hoard uf literary men, to Kuperintciid and animate 
the whole. So there is a prospect that (iieorgia will in a few vears 
rival some of the older states, in cidtivating tlie variegated fields of 

Chikp CiTiKh AZf D Towns. There arc not many towns in Cieorgia, 
th«t duserve to be noticed in a geofrraphicid epitome- The pi^cipal 
is Savannuh, situated >ie-ir tlie moutn of the river Savannali, formerly 
the scat of govcmmenti and still tlic principal scat of its fo 



wfu'fi >«> imicli .'tin:iiti> l«» !>c ciilt;v.r.fcl, :ir<l wiw ii tl 
iiiuik- t r.T :ill it> jiniici|Ml piiJsliK ti'ii .^ theTe Ctiino 
SiOi r.ii'lc iuumii. < .i\-- — I'.k- |Mii:i pai an* iiuii^i. ■« 
ii!'m, ; hill t:.i- I inii!n.-.(c l)t iips a fun p.opori;on ii-j 

wm \u\\ ;r.i*Jl/. -icil'inj^, !iafl iuck:!-;'-'! .i 1, T.i ti> 1 

I '. >i- . \.' r s c. insis* tit' ooltni;, nw, i. 'ligu, to'::icc 
r? ?i ''. '. ", H.r;>' iiliiu', lii'tia i c»»rn. ind Vi-nt :is oiln 
ri -.ii :. fi . '1.. Ni' till \ :iOrivi- \hv w ■ ^\^ :ii:il m;uu:fairtij 
as \w ti .•> i!ii- pnnliitMiiiii*! nf ,iu r. «. .^I'l V";-i»". Inoic 
(■■ I -.Kit: \Mi Si^si-.rt. T'li- I r.:?i,,.-.^ a:ui st-a^di 
il.t.i f i'lr i.;tU Iron: ^i.i»si' f.i" ^ * ■ ,('-. itJvt. lUi'ij- 
iii-;u'\ r thr » i|i;, liif > n.rAx ts .i:*c- \ r \\ aiu: m-* 
I Ik- ij-i pii'.il iruit'* t.i ■.n;.*iii"it\. \\\ ilii* ofi^fi-vaUnni 
KIi.>, lh:r ni('rcui\ st«» -u .^t 1 J- m i!k* sluulf, oi» the 
it 1):«»1 PiS n iwicr tn Tl.r .sam.- Iii:>-)»t ; si'Wl'ul tinivs 
t'lii- in _\ liaxs t«-.jcitlu'r 1: si. n- at ^o", !W-tll;p,g' ai 89 
T' in.iiJ.niauts of S.iVa'u> .h, .ts ihc sainc author sup] 
as inv. a!i au- as wwy pt'(i|jl«- nw ; but iLc town, \ 
u\\ a s..iul liill, is ^cii'.-r vf iiiiliii<'il, ami of Ci)ursi\ nH»ri 
thi lov. ^i.»»u\il thai 5urrotuuls it — Thv varlaiiosj-* ii 
s«inu ht.n vtry roiu:'r!::ibl(.-. The morci-y has 
l'» U' . s hi^h as So® .)n iht- L/lh i*!* IK^ccmh^r. :in,t iia 
a«: .^S'" «.;i .ho ilu. ; i: r.isvts jif iirraUy tVom "6*^ to 9 
aii.l i'ii»!i: '\ip 10 6u** in Winter. Sut-h .«udi1cn chan'^*s ii 

KENTUCKY. " 3/3 

5S rise in the ridge kbove noticed, and, after running in a S. E. 
on through the state, discharges intb the ocean a few miles 

the metropolis. To the southward flows. the ogechee, a 

iconsiderable stream ; and next, the Alatamaha, a long and 
iver, but obstructed at its outlet by sand banks, whicli di- 

into several branches. Lastly, St. Mary's river, -which 

the territories of the United States in this quarter, from the 
8 of Spain, and joins the ocean at Amelia sound. — The coast 
state is lined with several small islands, which contain some 
■ichest lands, producing indigo, Indian com, sweet potatoes, 
as cotton of the finest qufJity; and being esteemed more 
^ than the continent, afford agreeable retreats to many of the 
ants ki the sickly months. 



rATiON ANn ExTEJTT. Tliis State, which was formerly a part 
l^inia, and ceded to congress in 1792, is situated between 36^ 
i° N. latitude, and between 8° and 1 5° W. longitude from 
?lphia, or from 83° to 90 W. from the meridian of London, 
ains 40,000 square miles, and is bounded on the E. by Sandy 
ind a line running from its head waters along tiio Cumberland 
tins in u south westerl) direction to tlie slate of Tennessee ; 
N. by the river Ohio, separating it from the state of Ohio and 
iiana and Illinois Territories ; and on the S by an imagituuy 
the middle of the 36° of N. latitude, dividing it from the 
f Tennessee. 

iiNAL PoputATioN. From the earliest accoimts we have of 
untry, it was long the. subject of dispute, as well as the 
of bloody conflicts, between several Indian tribes, and wag 
»re called by them the " dark and bloody grounds." TbAt 
hich lies north of the river Kentucky wns probably claimed 
Five Nations, and that on the south bv the Cherokees. 



M » ^'o:; \ n r t. K\ i.nt«4. irJ»4. Kt-ntuckv visiicJ bv James M*Briiie« 
\ '■"•■nl part of k\\v roiuitrv, uHil at tlio mouth of Kentucky 
. . .• k il .4 tivr witli till- i! Itials c»t* his nunic. 

IT' ■ r.\j>lM:itl t:ir*I:iT hv (Colonel IKNino ot* North Carolina* in 
r I,;,., \ V. .-Il ..'III r |H*r>f)n»;. All» txnpl BiMme, citherperishtdor 
\% • :•• '■,<. r- •!, i.v' rtnMiniiijr in ilu- country ulone till the year 177l| 
\\\:' '. \,f :-vtii:-iu«l l«> rari>liiiu. 

177 •. I'lV'.i pti-ni:iiuiit >«'t!lo!ncnt mudc by H-Hjne and five or six 

•1 1 :■ 1 uiisl'.f^ fnmj IViwrll's \ .illo>, in North Carolina. Thisga« 

i!M. r.^' • ••• 'lu' liuliuns, as an intVactidn of the treaty of ir68, made 

'« .'. '. • :i :hi-ni and the Kn^lisii, by which this ground had been{l•^ 

:.« '.! •:•!;.• r- ^' v\vt\ fnr hunliiij^'. 

177^ \'«-.ii'. ilii.s tinu* CoUmcl Donaldson, in behalf of the prO' 
\ M I'f \ n\Lr:M-a, piiirha^nl of tlit' Five Nations, for a specific sua 
;!i ^^:- r t\ :.ll ;ii:*t part of Kentucky which lies between the groU 
h :i..a;i\ :»nil Ktnt\JCi\\ rivers. 

1 . 'I.i- ".ill » \iar t'»)h.nel IlendiTson (of North Carolina) purcbu- 
Hi Ml •!,. ( !irnkii> tl'i' other moieiv of Kentuckv, that lies OB 
;1 V s -I'.-.h ,if Ku.tuck) river, whieli he afterwards conveyed to the 
[>:-i \:' i\ ,« r ill-, slate) nf \ u*j;inia. 

17-." I'll- inUihitants formed a constilul ion for their own gtff- 
ir-'it:;., and were adniitled into the confederacy as an_UKkpen- 

17-.V *^'ate C(»n»«titutiim revised and amended. 

Km.I' i"N. The nunu'ro'.is Christian sect is d^at of theBip* 
::v's. who in ilu- \nr 17tS7 had sixteen cstablislied congrcgatioitt 
iM 'J:. ' •^•..•^■. riie rrtshytcrians and .Methodists are next in poiot 

• if i:Mn ■)■ r. un.l tl.riv are some KpiM't^palians : but there existgoo 
tl:>'in' :i'M uiiatever with respect to civil rijylits. 

(;o\ 1.1! nvi NT vM» !.\ws. Thc executive authority is vested iB 
•a pi\; vsi'T, wli'i is ilcctcd h\ tl»f people, once in fbiir years, aid 
Is ip-liiTible fur lie next seven. Hr has authority to grant repneves 
inil ]\iril<M'S, except in rases i>f impeachment ; and to negative bills 
unies< a majoriiy of hoili lumsts should concur. He appoints 

• 'k '.'.:';>, }^> ^i ketln^- ohe «iui of two persons recommended, in &A 
...'i.*;., :'. li.e count) ciuiris ; and, with the concurrence oi the 
s'-- .\ . i.e .i>p.)lnts jnsiic.'s of thc peace, and all other oiBcersnot 
I'ti ^ :'A ^e lesipuited by tlie constitution. — The legislature, vluch 

V si\l,vi tl:o jrent-r;;! a>seir;'>ly, consists of two branches, vix. » 
'«'■na^• -i' 21 members elect: a by tiic people quadix*nnially, subject 
*•» an ..;-nvi:il nnovi.tion of one ri)urih ; and a house of representA- 
fives of 4' lueiuhcrs chosen annually. — The ivpi*esentntives oria> 
r^.ate mo!.. \ b.H-;, liave j^owci' to impeach, and to recommend sheri£i 
i"oro!u "s. aiul justices of tlio peace, in all the new counties,—- 
Tiic sta!o treasurer is appoinied by a concurrent vote of both 
Iinu<^-. Tiie juiljx'es of tlic bupcrior ami inferior courts are ap- 
I'xiir.'.vl I»y The )j:o\<rnor and senate, during good behaviour, «m 
.'!•;' V. :' >.-;hlo by impeachment, on complaint of two thiixls of the 

...^.M.!\ Tlieri* aro courts in>iituietl in ever}- county, which 

:.»'rvi e ";!■': '■;'>ce of all actions in hi'.v; and a superior court," or court 
■ t u]\k:'A <y co-cxiensive with the stale, that has appellate juris- 


3n only. — ^Every white freeman who has resided two years in 
tate, and one in tJie county, has a right to vote at elections, 
h is always done viva voce. — The state sends two senator:* and 
•epresentatives to CJongres^ Senators appointed by a joint 
t of the two houses : representatives by a plurality of votes in 

Yjsiosa, PopuLATTosr, ATTD MiLiTiA. This state, which bi the 
1790 contained bnt nine counties, and 73,677 inliabitants, at 
time of the last census, enumerated fifty-four counties and 
)54 inhabitants, which gives about ten persons to a mile square. 
iiese 80,561 were slaves. The white males 168,h05, females 
^32. Previous to tlie year 1794, this state had been almost 
tantly engaged in defending itself against the surrounding In- 
tribes ; it can muster a large body of hardy experienced^ rifle- 

The militia is estimated at 45,000. 
iinsTERs ANn Customs. It will be more difficult to comprise 
haracter of our transmoimtain brethren under one g'eneral de- 
tion, tlian tliose of the old states, the population being col- 
d from almost every state of tlie Union, and from various 
tries of Europe. — The early settlers of this state were mostly 
Virginia ; but the fame of its fertile soil und salubrious cli- 

soon attracted a great resort from all of the other states — 
aps tlie largest portion of its population is of Virgioian ex- 
ion. — Although slavery prevails here, it has not yet so visibly 
ted the mamiers of the people as in other Slave States, though 
^ils are very apparent. — The slaves are better clothed and treat- 
lan in the Southern States, and are generally governed .by their 
5rs in person^ a number of whom engage in the labour of the 
The Kentuckians ai*e ixMiowned among their Atlantic neigh- 
9 as a h.rrdy and enterprising people. — Many of the first settlers 
isted of men, who removed liither to purchase estates and to 
J provision for tlieir ^unilies, which they could not do in their 
e distncts, and were distinguishable for youth, spirit and en- 
ise. — Being principally in the vigour of manhood, and having 
long accustomed to the hardsliips and privations attendant on 
ettlement of a forest ; with one hand directing the plough, and 
the other grasping a weapon of defence against a savage foe ; 
have transmitted, in a considerable degree, a bold, enterprising 
ndependent charaQjter to their immediate descendents. — ^But as 
fh has been rapidly accumulated, and acquired with great ease 
moderate application, it is not surprising that many vices should 

increased among them. — A propensity for gambling, a too 
al use of spirituous liquor, and a disregard for the duties of re- 
D, are very apparent among a considerable portion of the 
te ; tlfere is certainly gi'eat room for improvement in many of 
'outh, in habits of industry and temperance. — ^The luxuries and 
Hnents of the older states have spread and are extending ra- 
.- in all ihe principal towns and settlements, with the increase 
l^iculture and commerce. 

jnv ARIES OF Leav.vtkg. The principal literary uistitution is 
Trtnsylvania Univeraity, incorporated by the state of Vir- 


.70 KEXTrCKY. 

k,irii.., .«ik1 (n«!o\voil with 8000 acres of raluable land -. its annoal 
.iH-i'ii" is lU'A :iUive JiOO iliillars. — Attached to the University is a 
I *>;-:ir\ rnnt.iii.i::^ ulnnit 1.500 voliinie$, and a small philosophical ap- 
j,..:- .ti'„ — ria n :i!\- srviral ixspcciahlo AcauL-mics, and many good 
pri\.i'r si-hiioU •Jiriiii)^^h tht- slate* in all uf which an accomplished 
rcl»u-..ti.'n r,ui l»r oliiaincd. — Si»cial libraries have been formed ia 
i:, .i.\ lit tin- pri'K-ipul towns. — The printinjr offices are numenxis, 
..■i<l liLiVr :ilri:idy isiMicd MVcTul original historical and philosophioJ 

( ''(I w ru\v\<(. Ahhoug-h this country was so lately a wildenieiib 
ni.L!i> ilinii.ii; iiswn*! have already risen through it. — The lax^gesc if 
l.i\iii^'iit:i. s.uiutid in the cc-ntrc (*f a krge body of excellent lti4 
exUini:' im di}!;.rfnt din-ctions ub«nit thirty miles; it \s sixty-lbv 
uiiK > tri>iii \\iv Ohio rivrr, and about twenty miles distant-from the 
Ki ;.ti..*ky v\\\r. — It contains near 45C0 inhabitants. — ^The houses tie 
itiittlv i><it' brick, and aro p:cnorally handsome, some of tbem 
r!(,£aiiv — '1 IitTf is a bank incorporated, with a capital of 100^000 
d'tiLi^-. and a branch of the state bank. — The manufactories con- 
^!^l i.t" :ibt>ut '.wcnty, tor convertinjj hemp into rope yam and cotton 
baii^iiic, a sTrani paper mill, a cotton spinning manufactory, whk 
upu.*:-!- 'it" (Mji; spindles; jicveral machines for carding cotton and 
wii.'l. .ii.! all tlic usual mechanic artist^, as saddlers, hatters, cab> 
lu '. :»..ikv:s, d.ii h uiaki m, S».c. kc. and several printing olRces, which 
is^ui il.:e«' newspapers wetkly. — The market is not exceeded in its 
ab'.iihla!'.re nr variety liv any distant from the seabord.— >This town 
iv I'.L- ^f.ii «.:' the Trans\lvania I niversitv. — Frankfbrd, the seat of 
.c-..vfi-iinie'it, is siiuaied on the Kentucky river, twenty three miks 
N. .if \\ . from l^'xin^tni. ; its populaiion'is 1100. The public build- 
ii .s AW, ;i lujulsonie slonQ state house, the state bank, one or two 
l.o'i.>(M 'if public worsliip, and the Pcnetentiarj- of the state; there 
are several manufactories for hemp.<^U is coutemplated to build I 
<lia:i bri'l^v across the Kentucky river at this place, and one stone 
pier of eij^hiy feet height is already erected. — The otber toMTis are, 
L )uisville at the falls of the Ohio, a verj- thriving place, containing 
about MOO inl:abitants. — Sholbyville, Rairdstown, Danville, Win- 
ehestt", Paris, Washington, George Town, Russelville, &c. Seethe 
lati( 1' ])lare is in the south part of the stale, and has risen veiy ra- 
pidly : a branch of the stale bank is here. 

M\M:\(Tr«KS vxii C'oMMEncE. Hvmp, for the last few yean* 
has be n vlie principal article of manufacture and commerce in this 
stall-, ii is chirrty formed into rtjpc yarns for cordage, or wove into 
ha i^jjfi nt;' f 1)1* cotton. The other manufactures of tlie state are nu- 
morou.-i and \aluable. The principal articles of export are, flour, 
whiskiy made tVom Indian a>rn, nacon, ]K)rk, tobacco, salt petre^ b.enip, as iK'fore noticed. The most of these articles are floated the Ohio and Mississippi rivers in flat bottomed boats toWew 
i>!-l«'ans, wliere ihey are shij)ped to the northern Atlantic pnrtti, or 
< \portf.l to the West Indies and Europe. Large droves of horses, 
iinnu il c:.ttK and hoirs, are annually driven from thi> s'ate, Rira 
Tuarkt', intn Vir^ihin, Marj'land and Penn.sylvania. A correct esti* 
ni:.'i' "f tb«.' v;duc of exports cannot be made. In 1810 it \i*as asccr- 


thftt 1.4^^0,000 p6un(ls of rope yarns and hemp from Kentucky 
llirouj^U I'ittsbiirf^, lU the head of ihc Ohio river» (K-stmcd for 
.■Iphia and Hultiuiore; it is most likdy thai \\\ tht- *:amc year 

ihut (quantity descended the Mi?.,sisslp])i lo Now Orleans, 
manufactured in almost every quurU r <>i" the st.i'e, sufficient 
domestic consumption. Salt l*etrt» uJmi forms a very im- 
: item of the mttnutactui*cs ; caves arc fomid iu the souherii 

Uie state, containinif eurih hifi^'hly "Imprei^^naitd will) nitrp ; 
extracted by tbrmin)>^ a ley ami boiling' it tlown u) a certain 
h Ar consistency, when il is j)laced in troui;hs to chri.stalizc. 
if tlie caves arc very extensive — the larjjest yet dihcovcnxl 
le bank of (ireiMi river, and is said to be above eig'ht miles 
tli; upwards of 5U0 pounds of salt pel re ape daily made 
-The imports of this state, are mostly irom LMiiludelphia and 
ore, consisting" principally of a general assortment of British 
; these, aiv transported in waggons SOO miles to Pittsburg", 
lieiici^ they desccnil the Oliio river. iSugui*s and many other 
irticles aiv ivceived froin New Orleans hv watc r. Tiie <lo- 

iiuuitifacturc of coarse woollen cloths, and of the various 
fabrics, is very exti nsivo, an<l assist greatly in civatiuflf a 
alancc of trade in favour of this state, which has recently 
ed more rapidly in wealth than most of her neighbours. 
lATB AND Sk.\sonh. Tile climutf of this inlerior state may 
>c styled temperate. The winter cijmmences olK)ut Clirist- 
td continues about thrt'<' months.- -Vegtrlation begins near a 
earlier than in IVnnsylvania or New York. Neitlur the same 
us of heat or cold, w)ii<.'li arc felt in t'.ose statt s, is t xperienc- 
!. Ill Summer the merruiy in Fahrenheit's thermometer sei- 
ses above 90°, and ran-ly to 9.5", and in wintt r "seldom <le- 
helow 20*. The most prevailing' wiiul througlioiit the year, 
\ western, oflen^M'txlueing in snmnur heavy storms of rain, 
tunui is adelightlul season, bringing with it three months of 
nMie weather. 

.\Ni) A(}ii(i'i'i.TrHK. Til no district of the Ignited States i.s 
I more diversified : some of it is too rich to prtKhiee good 

until it li:is Ix-eii vednciHl by preparatory ci*ops « Indian 
lemp, or tobucct). I.nnds thus cpiaMied, as well as 'h ».,e of 
Olid rate, will yield tioin twenty to forty bushels oJ' s heat 
e : but thei\' are cons.ili'r.ible tracts of an inferior kli:.i, some 
.ty be sty!«>il harivn, other't inount:iinous : id ine,i])al)le of 

particularly n<ar the spring-i of the Ktntuck_\ Mid other 
ivers.— The articles prineipally cultivated are, v, Irdiaii 
obarc(., Ilax hemp, and jleUl abuiuheit nops with- 
ch lubour with th(* plough or harrow. 

i.iL ANii Vi:oKT.\ni.i. I'uonrcTiuNs. lU'sidi.s all the wiKl iiiid 
ic .:iv;:i;ils e«)mmon to Mie Atlantic states, K ntucky st-ll 
es e •Msiderable henls of deers, b<*ars, and pantlurs: the 

abound with li.^h, some of uncommon magnitude, as the 
he ]iereh and eatlish. The ]}lains and ihe inor.n'.uin.s are 
I wiU) the fines! timber; Oie maple rich W'th a s.irchariaie 
:hcl<icu^t, the walnut, the magnolia, and the oak, the mul- 

I I J 

boujhjAnr kT tbo atxit, tim Kttimkjr liekJr,. 
tatif \htf-iglU it MtHf from taM I* w«*t, tnd x},,-. 

eiMemrJ tkU iWtVvnan^ iliiaauelfj a 

nmntlu of tJie jcsr : tlie ■oil ijfUf <*rry •riicfc i 
limoVinc, tbc WAtrr iiiuli a puai^ Ui llic inlcntk 
mkI Kntdually d<M|>|K't*- '^ cuitiiaUon sdranct 
ronM inuwMt. — Tha uit tfiiniip, i>r Ikka, m U>«y si 
oT wkich Itiov art KTernl in <lii! otuift, yield siit sd 
fnr the i«tKfta^ onaiunplian, ItiH u supplr ilic nn. 
ilrmcaU wall k Dcra«MrT, vliicli tbcy wnuld oihcru 
•» triawMiK lirao* 'Ik Allwuic lUtes, at &n «ncinD<n 


jm EmxT. THIS slale. wUii 


LeMORiiiLe KvKNTH. Tlir luMtory of a country so recently re.' 

w.i\ from a wiMcrncSM cannot cnibru<'e many incidents wortiiy 


^40^1750. The w<;stcrn part of North (^.irolina cxplc)^^! by a 

puny of ScolcJi gfentlcmcn, who hnd ot)tainc<l patcnt.t from tiic 

:iifth jfovcnamcnt for cxU-nsive tracts. Home Hcaticrcd »ctllc- 

itH CHlabliDlicd nnder their patronn^^c. 

T54. i*h<7 Kn^liuh inhahilanth '.itv. mnrdcrcfd by the French and 

anUf w\h:u the colony wuh entirely destroyed. 

/65. A new settlement comm<nccd, which liaH cr>ntinui^l to in< 

IMS to the preHent linie, thou ^^h not without frequent interrup- 

by the Inilianii. 

THO. Many familieH mif^ati^d under the comluct of (jeneral 
lertfon, and HeAti'.<l tkeniHeivev in the nei^hbourhoo<l of Naaho 


78.3. Part of thiM torritorv wan allotted to compennatc the ofli- 
( luid NoldierH of the North Curolina reu^imeiitH, who hafl nerved 
he American war. Tho\ni;\i thib was like MtHing* the bcur-Mkin 
)rf: the beast waa shot, the coimtry acquin»d thciH-by a f^rcat ni- 
ite of inhabitantH, cither of the military or their aMsi^nceti. 
785. A HeccHKion from the f^ovt^rnmcnt of North (hirolina, and 
ittempt made to cbtahliHli a new Ktate, under the popular name 
Lhe Htati: of Franklin. ThiH cauHcd a couMiderable ferment In 
rth Carolina, which did not wholly »ub.sicle till the year 1788. 
789. (^tled by N»>rth Carolina to the i^eneri.! Conf^resa, and 
Sted into a txMTitorial c^ovcrninent. 

796. Ileceived into the union uh an inde])endent Klate. roiiHti- 
irm formed and appro v-d. 

iHLUiiuM. 'I'he reli^^ious (lenoniinatioiiM of TenneSKee are various, 
. the FrcKUytcrianH perhaps .are tlie moht numeroun; while there 

Hfveral coHf^re^atu/UH of Hupli!«tH and .MetlxHllbtK, and u i'v.w 
tlie peoph: called (|uakr.rH. All enjoy equally the rip^ht.s and 
v'ilcjfes of fi<*e cit.izeim. 

iovKUNMKNT A.N1) Lawh. The fu'st (xecutivc maf^ibtrali', 8tylcd 
'emor, is elec^ted by the peoph: fo»- two yeari*, and in re-elif^ibh: 
years out of every term of ei^ht. He hati hut i'vw appointments ; 
V f^^rant reprieves and pard</ni, except in caHCH of impeachment, 
[ fill accidental vaeancieK in oilice, till the next session of absem- 
.^-The kviNlature \h clionen by the people biennially, and con- 
la of two brancheH, a henate and rrpreHc;ntalive», who are atylcd 

g'eneral tiKRenibly. They upfMiint the judf^eii of the courts, tlie 
te tetlorney, and mr»r>t of tiie other clvu oHir^'rb of {government; 

1 they possi-SH the ])0W(rr of iiii peach iiii^ and removinf^ either the 
/crntlr or jud^'ea, in case of official ini8e^)tiduct.— ^Thc judjfea 
d their conuTiissions durinff I^oihI liehavionr; the sherifFa and 
vmers :<t<' appointed by the county cohiIs, and are r ommisaioncd 

tlie j(y>V( riior for two years. I'Wrry freehfdder who is 21 year* 

np*, and has resith^d six months in th^ state, has the rifcht of 
Yr.ivf. — '!*h<' /governor's salary, which is 750 dollars per anrujm, jm 
sd by the cnnbtltutlon till the year 1804, as are the balarieH of the 
Igcs, the becretary, treasurer, btate attorney, and inciiibera oi' 


.<. iknm-.smkk. 

,. .,_ .., — r',1'-!;.;^ «':\.K IM'» Niu:iit>i*s ami six ivpiSpAOiil 

■..1 . , ;•'.'• ■ \ .1 p!ii;..liTy ot" iIk* Irronu'ii. 
1Ii.-;m .. I' ■ m • \ I :■•% »>n Mil ji I %. In IMU tliis stall 
^ • I -i-n •.. . \ • I *i\'\ •.. .j»,l !l;i iijli «i)i;.uiis Were 

,. •.,..• ^ -I ;. ■ *■ •- I'- "»•■ •» ii u \i:ir«t .if^Ur : win 

M%>^»!iN. C-ri. ^, \\:i I..N.i\'.i. "rii'.TU-.ssiv is st'ltl 

■ "i 1\ 'x « iiii^'.-.iI.'h I. i:, f r '.,..■, \ .ixir.i.i :iiul llu* < ':»rnl 

• ... ... ■. ^1 i;,i lis '.i.c .. ■:•., ".i !! al I'l.tN.-tVs <»r ihoM' st:iU> 

•-.i: .' ;v»s<, sNis .1 li.r.itri- ;•!••.«.••. !«'M»r \(Mitli :inil t irtTiii 
...i- A sif iili ■• •".' !i ».■'.. ■•.! •• >'. \i,.N '..i.n\ Axn olliiT (it'llu* slav 
l\' !«t .u ;'•»■ U \v ti>\i-.«i. t... .r iiMu'.f III" liviiiji* aiul llu'ii' 

•ii. i-H ..: .• 111-! •■. liii'.-r .r.. .:.iu 1 -■ • i!«-..i.'i|»- hut iilipolislKHl. 
.«. 'f.. .. :. •.".il l.ii.jTii..^*.- ill ''V.\..-K- ;.s Will as ]niblu* transact 

*^}^ iN .. !'- i» 1.! •::\.'»«. rii»".'" is a l.iW ot llu* ^tal 

■ ' .\ .: ' . :• il.i' r-t-'i'i.i; i* • \ \\\'.\\' colU^'i^ and llu-iv u\t 

..'i;" r." .•;•.' i 'iiiii'". I'.ii rii^ii •mIi,.»iIs m ilu* prinri])al low 

• I-. '. . . » .i.l\ '■) 'ii« k \\k- :;.'.. I li Inn: iVi-ni ' ir.tant sci 
I "i s. ••,.;■ t .c Hi '-1 .'I'.illiix ;.ri' siin inl-.> \lu-oKl b^utt^s i 

t ii li'w \> Til ■•.111 p:-,ii('|».;l town.t iiPi", Kmiwillc 
.'. • !,.«N» i ::!iifi.t, -.1 ■ ( ■ il «M llu* lli«lsi«'i.. :j It 'i:!-!! of I 

• '. ■ « ■ v.". .1 «■ !.■ . > ]''•»' i.l'ilM'.iiii.i. — \;i-ln :ik on i] 

•. '. : r.X'-r, .• !.• ■; I'-; i:i.i-s lU r.-niliii-nri* Willi \\ 

'^ :•' ;... •. ■•: >v i: im' i. iMi-Mn'-nl. m.iI is I'no nius; ihuiri.sliii 

•! i'u- - ;. -Il i-oij:.;... . ;.:.ii\f .I'll luiUsr.N, in;sii;' of llu-n 

• ■ ■ ; -iI I. ..>•. .s nv'rt" r».- •■■:■!: i'l I'iar.d r ill'.'!*;*,' 1.; Iumv, : 

' .'-k. il.i'/".;-l i:i ill.- s:.,k. -1; ;-. i;i ,i(i- N l;il iliiilf, am 

• i ■, > W nt' I.-.-v:! ^MiMi K !i*i;.lv>, an.l 8.k> S. W . ol' V 
: ...1. I !u p- .i!<" ii:.i.'\ n'.luf ttjwns in liu- s*. ;U\ l)\ii nonv i 
' •' I". 

>; '.M I vi-n ;!!s VN" »'«•■■: M HI r. 'llu' ch'xl' nianiifartii 

, il;. i\- '■'• :ij;' s«'N« .'.M In!";';' "I .uui rurn.u'fs, salt i*rt>n\ tlu 

". s..!; IuUn, :uu1 *m.i""«-; i'«;ton ol.Jth- (in* lu>nK* consul 

. i. !i JJi' ot" citl'.'i- r'' |M«rli»l. C'otion was fornuTlv til 

:• -.1 .i.:\ ''f' r\|) M'l, I'l:' i.i 'lip ha.s l)«.'in lately c\lcnhi\c 

V .-, ' -I ;-ji' wi'sKi-n furl t-i' 'he state. The princip;il expo 

. •■ '? * '.'I-, t ■'■u>n, \\li»slve_\, sulr pet'v and tobaccc*.- 

. •■•i»* • ! r.i : Iv' .!!■ ■ i;.i«<od ;i;h1 :iii'.iM:.lh i!fo\o to t'le K:is'.\\:i 

ii.i'; .11 i\ !• .Si \vi,>«. 'ilie rliiiKite in liie i::>iern part 

.I'.i- 's i'; :•■ nil- il' ^?\c atlle'.vvl !»y t!i.' !n(»ii:Uaiii"i:s ilis. ru't 

.: ■■Miii.U> urn » ,1) _!■•»•!, v-nt I helcrnuvl nel.l ar..l h.ailh' 

■■i.iiiaU- ot I'll \. iM.j;, J,., It is :i liule diflervnt, lie he.vl ol*". 

o^. in.rrali. '.'v.-.x:. :\ ;. •,.! \\. • -.rx* iMy of the winter .soniew ha; 

X • :\ lii;i«- \..- .. .'i is I. ••.i»vij- pe5re>.ed helweeti the cli 

i'l.- ,s!;,u- iiiii K< :r»;i k\ . 

•Ml. vM \..;-..i -..I .;.. I!.;.!, part of the M:.te east oK 
' !■■ ■•"•jr ill. < .::i.' c :-1;:.k: i!i. ii'.';.i:\s has rather a li^^hl s 
■••■• •■ .ive .soim f, i-iilv- \;i'l'«.s ;.i.l rl»-fi holtoms on llw ri\ei-j 
v.e-.t. fi pa,-: ,.t t;,. ....;,. ^-..mjnn.s lt:ve bodies of U.c fines 


ling a great increase' to the industrious cultivator. — The prin- 
; crops of grain are Indian corn and wheat ; the former is con- 
;d in supporting* stock, or converted into whiskey. — Hemp and 
»n are raised in considerable quantities ; the latter finding a 
y market in Kentucky and Ohio. 


s of Tennessee are numerous and productive, having been 
ied for several years to a considerable amount, and tliere arc 
". indications of lead ore. Tennessee possesses all tlie quadru- 
that are common to tlie other states, and her rivers abound 
a great variety of the finny race. The extensive forests are 
i wiUi timber of a luxuriant growth, adapted to all the purposes 
lel and architecture ; while the undergrowth in some counties 
ists of cane of uncommon height, with angelica, ginseng, snake- 
valerian, pink-root, and many other medicinal plants. 
DUHTAiHS, Rivers, and Springs. The mountains of this coun- 
re high and extensive, and intersect it in various directions ; 
a;h the Cumberland, the great Iron, and the Bald mountains^ 
El are the most conspicuous, extend principally from north-east 
mth-west The summit of a part of Cumberland exlubits a 
table land, of near 50 miles in breadth, and is covered with a 
iling soil, which will be very valuable when vacant land is 
ie, aa it must afford some of the most healtliy situations in the 

ict.' ^The Tennessee and Cumberland, witli their severid 

:he8^ are tlie principal streams that water tliis state. That 
b gives its name to the state is a very considcmble river. It 
jg^ from the custern range of mountains that divide the state 
North Carolina, and runs in a south-west direction to near the 
3le Shoals ; thence its course is nearly north till it reaches the 
It may be nnvij^atod by largu vessels 250 miles, and is boat- 
four times i|if distoi,ti\ TI.e piinrip; 1 sprirps of the Cum- 
nd rivuj- rise in the nL'dibourhood rtf Pt.-^eU's mountain; and 
lUgh it Waters a consiucrabic tract of ibis slate, its course 
[ulilly through KciiUi l.y. wijei-c it ur.ites with ihe Ohio about 
ire miles above the 'I : esscf . It is n;>.vigable bv lar^e vessels 
'ashville, whirh •» y. ■ r. l 11. '.v, ai id twice Oie distance by small 
%. The Bait springs ut' tins state are numerous, and yield all 
alt that is wanted for domestic consumption. 


Srrr.Treir »>.ii B«T«sT. THIS rtale uiiti»lcdbe»we« J?Wl4l 
43'<)rn(inh Unnid»L Mul the longimdf of 4'Mid9" wtrtfrom Phi 
delphin. «]iul II* rO* and 84° wcat frum t^iou. It <■ bciundcil 
■he cut liy PtnnaylvuiU i on tht ncirtli In liikr Krie kiuI itj tB 
mdwoi timMiuAiA]; tlie*oiit)n.-rmaBt jM>int •tf'l;ik': Mi<;!ii|>»ii 
ihn ■oulh >n<l MMiUieutt by tlic river Ohio, vhv.: 
Vir^nu ami Kentucky i and on iIk wot b; i 
oiguiliof UiefTVM Mhnnl to iu northcm Ihr' 
Indian* territory— «ontiii"in(f"nm« of abou' ; 
Oniiiiau. PoMiiTtoH. This lexn'ofy ».■' 
Ijy Ihi- United 5t«ln of levciwl bdinn tribw, ' 
prirtori : unoitff tbe«« tl«i mot iaSiienliil n < ■ 
vM'i. OtUtnu*, PnuIcwvtamiRt, Wynnikilli .' 
ihc rlow of Uie AiDalenn war ihrw puient n^ 

l.y iiimr «t twwltv, hy other* M t'lJt^- tllWWMHl otiiN ; tr.r p rcwli 
snimiiiratkin hardly «xt(«da three or four huiKliwL IniempemM 
tUMucit, icurcKv of g:»n«, and the puvnt or all tli«3i« V^t, W 
■qtprozimaiioii orilit' wliitM, hut either iktimycd, or driven ihtn 
oMTlIie lakHi 

KkbiDtOK. ThrTB will be ftwid a RTeat vnrietj- of rfligiinn 

that part of the Union where Hw public iltitiM at rtliffivm arc xtJiKifr 
ly inculcated. Tlw MWldling »ecls it* Pn-iiln t. iiunn, Unptjiiti, 
Friemla. and M«tllMi«l«- There ia a icttkmciil nf tlw Shaken 
near Lebanon on the tittle MiamL > 

Goi-tBS!«ia«T, llth »wt* waa adtnlKixl into the Union in I80| 
pi-cvioiu to that time tt was tinder a territorial Kworiwiet)!. jyM 
a part of what then wnstitiiU-d liic North-Wasteru Ttrritury.^iSv 
eoniiiitution is caat in the ^'ticrul mould of the AmFrioan CoiMMq* 
wealthi I it is fbiind tn cintiiiii nut' imJimvcTiiciit ovcrtome IhalJM'' 
cedt>d it,— It not only der.larcs that " AH man -Bre bom ctjnally 4«* 
and independent," but "pursuing lUls noble wntinicnt, il«food 
Clares, mere ahsdl he neither Blnvety nor involnntitry eenitiKte'^.— 
tliis state, otliertrise than for the punistiinent of crimes.*' TlME 
legisUtive authority is vested in a eenate aiHl hoiiac of "■" 

lives ; the supreme executive power ia a governor n! 

The nnrlhci^ part (if the 
om tlie NeW'En^Und state 
morality nnd industry of that qnai 

mlETants from tlie New. England states, who 
ihi^ili of ■'■ ■ ■ • ■ " -•--- -- 

hat quarts 

OHIO 383 

liis section of the western country. The lower parts are set- 
rincipally by large emigrations from Pennsylvania and the 
rs, and some from Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas ; it 
'^s, tlierefore, thatagi*eat diversity of" character and customs 
exist among the difterent districts in which they reside ; but 
there is evinced a great degree of hospitality to strangers. 
riBiovSf Population and Militia. The state is divided in- 
ty counties, and contained at the census of 1810, 2oU,768 
itants ; in 1800 the population was about 45,000, having in 
lars quintrupled its inliabitants. 1 he states of Virginia and 
icticut claimed, agreeably to their Royal charters, the princi- 
irt of this territory ; but soon after the peace of 1783 ceded 
rights to the general government. The former reserving the land 
«n the little Miami and Sciota rivers, containing near 4,000,000 
res, for the purpose of satisfying grants for military ser- 
rendered in the revolutionary contest. Connecticut reserved 
jt in the nortliern section of the state, extending about 120 
west from the Pennsylvania boundary line, bounded on the 
"by lake Erie, and south by the parallel of the 41® of north 
de. This tract contained about o,500,000 acres, and has 
been sold to a company for 1,200,000 dollars. This reserva- 
W)w contains upwards of 17,000 inhabitants. There is yet 
ie tract of country in the N. W. part of the state, to which 
idian claim remains unextinguibhed. The state sends six re- 
ntatives to congress. The militia in 1812 numbered above 


iHUFACTliRiis AND COMMERCE. The manufacturcs are yet in 
infancy, and are confined principally to those of a domestic 
iCter. Carding and spinnine' machines have been introduced, 
he domestic manufacture ofcotton and woollen cloths has ve- 
uch lessened the importation of tliat description of fabrics, 
e quantities of maple sugar are annually made ; agreeable to the 
n made in 1810, the quantity manufactured in that year was 
s. 3,000,000 pounds. Ii*on abounds in various districts, but as 
tw furnaces or forges have been established. The principal 
pts are flour, whiskey and pork, which are sent to New- Orleans, 
;attle and hogs driven annually into Pennsylvania and Virginia, 
hnports consist mostly of the necessary articles of British ma- 
nure, and are procured from Philadelphia and Baltimore, 
is made in various parts of the state, but large supplies are ob- 
d from the salt works on the Kenhaway river in Virginia. 


:ely be said to be any mountains in this state. The hills along 
)hio, river are of considerable elevation, and in many places ex- 
interiar a number of miles; the country then assumes a more 
appearance. Many extensive plains or praries are interspersed 
igh tlie state, aflbrding excellent ranges for cattle*, or yield a 
recompense to the industrious farmer. Th( country may in 
ral be styled agreeably uneven, excepting a few small districts, 
•h. approach rather to the mountainous. A great proportion of 
loil 18 of good quality, some of it not exceeded by any in Ame- 

Cumra *» HutoM. 1 1- 
Uei the uunr* m not gnv i 
it» mifUIeAibatioUin 'i ■ 
■nil mtJittlim ihe Coimecfi' 
lciDt«r>iiiK u till! «iM«n jt..' 
Uim, frnm tile StbU In Ihc i> ' 
diitia'r, aMiiiillUing itut »1 i 
mboul tWbwttktUier inf-i" 

Cma Tbwv*. The ttiwii" i' 
natiiilhc Ura«rt; it iiiiiun' 
Kiwiau!IliUe Mluni rtvi'-. 
•rtaic- It runtnnt »l>ovc3o,'" 
•if lirick ud frtmCf uitl wv >; 
the ■itiuUaa ii <dnKidci«iI > 
■piritul Rultuirv vndcntcTpri ' 
Ibr h|>ln)un|; *ui <mv!n|; ci>!i. 
fbr anrufiiq; graun, lir« lir< 
nil lb(f bnuiclie* of uwTul Ir 
copprr *aihU%, iibt* inullih, ■ 
of uic pl.i« a/c viery ci^Tmiilii-..' 
ton* bniilii-n AK i-iigv^t inn ■■' ,, 
fKrm Oiencc i>u|tarH, hiilei, uiid ^.i-thh' >■- ■ 
diw. Tvnj bulks (ii'e Mlnblulied litrt, ; 
prlBiiiirciUKinili theit et'Tntnei'aiul eDEi.i'. 
proFniH>*ti>l KiivtntntMI, is *cat^ un i 
fibovv III mouth , it lithe cMtU t«wn m iIh 
unoutii lo neir HVi. It Nm ■ bi.nk, b«v<' 
rivs, uid 30 mercMilIle itocci Stancnrilli', ni 
CO mile* aboTC il« <wnllii«iTCc "ill tlie Ohio, 
seat ofgoTermnenI, It 'cOiai'"\130fj H<h:i 
was but »pii[iriLition<tf half -' ■> "il'niwr, m 

inhabitants amount to 900. There is also a bank here* The 
r towns and villages are too numerous to be included in this 

vsES. The state is well watered with handsome rivers and 
ler^treams. The most important is tlie Muskingum, about 
^ards wide at its moutli, and navigable for bouts above 150 
s. It enters the Ohio at Marietta, about 90 miles S. W. from 
iburg ; from its head waters there is but a short porterage to 
2ayafioga river, emptying into lake Erie. The Sciota river is next 
tportance. It has its course througli an extensive body of fine land, 
ia also navigable for boats a great distance up ; trom tlie head 
I boat navigation, there is a sTiort porterage to connect it w^ith 
Sandusky, also emptying into lake Erie. At the south western 
&r of the state, the g^at Miami discliorges its waters into the 
; it is about 150 yards wide at its mouth, and is navigable at 
! seasons of the year for boats and canoes ISO miles. A por- 
reofa few miles connects it witl) Uie Miami of the lakes. Jjie- 
i these rivers, there arc several otlier smaller streams, as the 
€r» Hockhocking, Little Sciota and Miami, &c. all discharging 
' waters into the Ohio. The principal rivera running into lake 
are the Miami cf the Lake or Mauame ; tMs river rises in the 
ma territory near the boundary line, nearly interlocking with 
Vabash and the great Miama : it has a N. E. course into lake Erie, 
is boatable above 100 miles. Ports Wayne and Defiance are on 
kead waters of this river. The Sandusky and Cayahoga are the 
TS, and derive their principal importance from their connection 
the Sciota and Muskingum, as noticed ul>ove. Thi!» volumes of 
lese streams are lessened very much in Uic summer season, and 
r boated any considerable distance above their moutlis, e^ceptingv 
e spring and fall of tlie year. 

ircATiox. Large tracts of land- have been reser\Td tor tlic sup- 
of schools in this state, amounting to near 7OU.0OO acres. — A 
ersity has been ibunded at Athens on the Uockliocking river. 
raiosiTiEs. This country apirc.trs to have' been peopled :it one 
>d by a race of men, of whom neither liistory nor tradition can 
18 with any information.— In almost every direction ol the state 
und mounds of earth and th<; remains of apparent ancient forti- 
ions —The mounds are of a conical figure, varj'ing in height 
I twenty to seventy five feet ; no appearance is discovered in their 
lity, from whence tlie earth of which they are formed is coU 
d.— Many of them have been dug open, but nothing has been 
)vered that would lead to conjecture for what purpose they 
erected; tlie general impression is, tliat they were used as 
?s of burial for their dead, but to tliis opinion many objectiorts 
been advanced. The fortifications arc in many pluccs very e.vlcn- 
and the situations well chosen for militai7 positions— Trees 
animals petrefied have been discovered at considerable tl!.;' 
:s below the suriace of the earth. 

K K 

&tmrra«, Bat*n*aT ask Errnrr. THAT ba^i 
f ween Ukei llunm nul ArtcUijrui it tailed MtdiigMl^ 
ubauodol.un tJu iwnb b) bot)< ilinM UkM, on cta»B 
Michlfwt; brbke Huron ukl Uh- witrr* tlAt cocftnii 
Era tn Uk i^mI, >>nd on the noutb by on easi and mttt li 
rmm Itic «outli cikI of Uke Hidngwi tu blv K*i^ <ri)a 
Irvni Ohki uul Indian* IVrritorj.— II conuioi about 3! 
<, tun ihirdaof which n mill clawed MnfaebuiiiK- 

Satt t»itCiu»*T»,Tnw»»,8iTri*«K!rn, ftc. T(>e ■ 
■Ued uwri Tour diitricta. — In IBOO the inhabiunia an 
in 1810 tbcv munb«i«d 47&I; lyoiieh siualk; pri.ii 
tlttti in «air nlhcr western State or Territ.' ' 
Jiulgcf OCE uppointeil by the PrtSHlirnt, v .■' 
Senati.-, — The coaintrr presents » level upp- ^ 
m tbc fciiire, but noiliin? like mountai'ii : < 
Tli«*>ilini{«sienU"t8gDf)J,but the Killricv ' . . ' ■ . 
of the Ukc* iUxL some of tlie riren. — Being i.lni3il siir 
lar^ bodies of Vntrr, its climate \a mildei- tlwn its Kf 
wvuld indinlCi tli« winters at Detroit are aaidia be wwt 
Fhil^>del(3lii«^-The onljr ton-n is De7t>it<~ situated on tfci 
of ilw Btrait (luit coBoecia lake 9t -Ciair with lake Erit^ 
w-ai burnt in 1303 ; S now coiiiiins sboui !0i) hraiici, ■ 
hibiKinls. — The Uniteil States have a ftirl here, Ln vlui 
garriac-n ia kept. — Port MTchiliniiickliise la in tliii din 
amiit island between lakes HuruTi sod Michigsn : it i( 
nurthem miliUiry aialion belonging lathe United &tab». 



rvirftAMT, ExTEST AND SiTUATioiT. THIS teiTitory is separated 
Ohio on the east by a meridian line, extending from the mouth 
e Greaft Miami to the south boundary of Michi|fan Territory.—- 
le'South i# is bounded by the Ohio nver^ dividrng it from Ken« 
jr.; on tlie west, it has the Illinois Territory^ from which it is 
ed by the Wai)a8h river, from its mouth as far up as Vin- 
i»f. and thence by a meridian line to the boundary between the 
td States and Canada. — On tlie north it is bounded by Michig^ 
itory and lake Superior. It is situated between 38^ 41' N. lati- 
and 10^ and 12^ S(/ W. longitude from Philadelphia, and con- 
about STfOOO square miles. 


Aim CzjMATE, RiTEBs, &c. The Territory is divided into four 
Lies, and at the census of 1810 contained 24,520 inhabitants. 
00 they amounted to 5641, including Illinois Territory.— There 
tso several tribes of Indians inhabiting the northern part of the 
itory, from the Wabash to lake Michigan, but they are rapidly 
sising, either by disease or emigration, and in a few years tlie 
5 country will doubtless become the property of the- United 
s. The territory is governed by a governor, secretary, three 
;s appointed by the President of the United States, and a legis- 
5 chosen by the people. — The legislature appoint the other 
officers of me Territory, and enact such laws for its internal 
nment as they may think proper, subject to the controul of 
"ess ; they also elect a delegate to congress, who has the right 
bating but (not of voting in that body. — ^When the population 
nts to 60,000, it will be entitled to an admission into the Union 
independent state. The face of the country resembles very 
the state of Ohio ; there is much uneven country, though not 
tainous.— The savannas or prairies are extensive and numerous, 
oil is in general rich and well adapted for the cultivation of hemp, 
i, Indian com, tobacco, &c. The climate is represented as bein? 
xcepting in the vicinity of some of the low grounds adjoining the 
, but this evil will no doubt be overcome when the settlements 
le more numerous, and the country drained by the extension 
riculture. The Wabash river rises in the N. B. part of the 
tory near tlie boundary- line of Ohio ; its course is about S. W. 
t equally dividing the territory.— It is a large stream, an4 re- 
i several important tributary waters, the largest of which is 


WktU r'lnr.— The Wafauli cnlen tfae OUo kboui ISO milta ilwc 
ll«Junetk»i)iihlhcMlMttiqi|i^udU above 3U0ywtla wiikniM 
Hkouib— It a >uv>|tkMr fcr boats of fiftten toiui burtlKO ncir 3M 
Miha, Dul far those of a Umct <lmi|;tii MO milea fiirlhori uncaf 
)li htad houichr* ccnnccii, by > nbort porlengtf, with ibe Mian of 
1h« kkit roipiyin^ into lAc Crk. 

TsVia, Cawtuai, lu^ Tbe arincipal t<nm !• Viuecnoei, ibt 
(Ml «r gOTcniDugiL It b (ituktcd on Ui« Wahaali hvFr, abmi 150 
IMlm«bo*« il»i«»th,li.<.tod«38"SW'N. lonptnJcir'W.orFhi. 
InhlfU^ ti cMtrina l» hoaiM md mO >nlabit>nt> ; the isn 
WW bn wHM I7 CnwdUn Vrtnch u Fuly aa 173J : they me 
Mpcacntod hy Vriney, win* WaileJ than in 1797, m " mnp*^ 
Unrny, and poor •• Anibs 1" bat it nov wean a iliflmm w}act; 
the popuUilm hat teen iitcn^Awd bv enirrprUiii^ emignnti&oa 
■he ncigtabotiriag and tutrra atntn, uid ihr (cvi n 'a Smaiia^'- 
It i« the emporium ef iradr lor iht' Tcrrltnn, cunHiitmK' fi-iiicii^ 

•f pelU7 and fim. CDnrdon, 'JcHerwwvilie. Lmrrrnr ' ' 

nlarkminc art lb« oUwr (own* 1 thty are alf ikjU < : < 
pxpcrtiof itiel'erritDrv U^Itmilli tbe inbAbiUinti. 
of the iniclei of life tban it wwiint Ibr (be domesij'.- 
of the country. There la a Mtllement of Swi» cmj|.T . 
Obifli'ii'eTabonlninetvmileabelawCincinnatti, whntinr'' brm 'ur.- 
RrnAU in cultivating tW vine— The viDlaee of 1 81 3 produccil >l:iiii 
JOOO italkini.— -Tlw ^rciei principally euWated n the Cnnai*ob> 
or cape Krapc : the Muloira grape l> also cultjvilni. In a fcir n>» 
tbit will undfiublrdly pretcnt an article of es[Kirt to the Ailirilii 
pOTti; atpiramt th^ AndnodlAiculty inobtaininif ■ marbot inih 
nn^buiiriHK tuwna at one dellar and twenty five oem* per ^■1'"' 




;ory in 1809 was separated from Indiana. It is bounded on the 
by the Ohio river; on the east by Indiana . Territory, firom 
it is divided by a meridian line, commencing at Vincennes 
t Wabash river ; on the north it has lake Superior, knd on the 
the Mississippi river. — It is divided into two counties, and 
ns ao^ording to the last census 12,282 inhabitants.— Tiie gov- 
tnt is the same as that of Indiana. 


^Tiozr, &c. The counti*y is in general pretty level ; the praries 
tcfnsive and occur very irequent It is well watered by several 
tant rivers and their tributary streams.-*The Kaskaskias river 
eft into the Mississippi about ninety miles below the Missouri, 
iirse is tiirou^h a fertile country, and is navigable for boats 
iles.* The Ilhnois river is one of the most important in the 
»|y, interlocking by a porterage of three miles with the Chica- 
a short river, wliich empties into lake Michigan near - its 
an extremity.— It is navigable above 400 miles, and is the 
cliannel of the fur and peltry trade from the country N. and 
lakes Superior and Micliigan, to St. Louis in Louisiana. It 
I the Mississippi eighteen miles above tlie mouth of the Mis- 
Stony rivor is a navigable stream about 200 miles. The 
ondin is the second river in point of size ; it is a fine naviga- 
ream, and interlocks by a porterage of one mile with Fox 
emptying into lake Micliigan.— The soil is in general fine, the 
are skirted by extensive fertile meadows. As the Territory 
les many degrees of latitude, it must be supposed to have a 
y of climate ; the southern part is represented as being mild 
le ; .in the northern part the severity of the higher latitudes 
erienced. In both this and Indiana Territory tlie land is prin- 
Y claimed by the Indians ; the Winebagos, Kickapoos, Dela- 
, Miamij and various other tribes. 

K K 2 

rrn Tcnsn-ORv. 


Srrr*THi», ErruTT, i«iF4ot p»tiitC<irirrft». TIUS icrriu;, 
xhidi WBirurpncrl}! ib» w»wmp4rtBf GcorpU, t*»iiui«lbttn* 
.71' mid W of (iiirtJi Uiiniilt, »mJ litii^yn 'J^ in.i li* uf (n^ 
\ude ncit rram Phibilclptiw . vrF'T ~ o Lwi4iA 

11 i> !ioutiii«i OH Uic E. by tfc rl^ ' i / iIAm 

t;(v,ri,-Lx; on Uie N. bvUie«t»U .1 i\ 1^ ll* 

Miu».miili uulDn tbc 8. (1/ \V' 
r I'l W. al»>iil 33» milra, antlio lir: . ' 
an area nf «boul gci.bOO Mjiutf mi1<.->. 'I'lir jr: 
Icniiivc feponiji tiill llie [irgprfly iif llii' (>. ■ 
i.i», and ChtroW IndiuM, twuot'ier jiotm' 
mil Nuiclii-*, liaTriiyhsndutn^il l>y M'ATs, ii 
'her iiiti' ihc wwier" fopcitt. 

Till' fini Rur(i|wan vttldntiM in tlib miinirj- irw 
1 ii Ficfi. fiMtn Ni-w Qffc«m or Ptoriila. As lung loicc u Uk'mT 
17:t. *)t<Ttr wuBoaloqyori'nocljnimwltlnlatapluco caMlM 
NnuJiri. but ihrv were moatl^ moiiwcrcd bf tiir n>iWr«. I " 
vc«r 17();»cnn«i;i»Mblcbo.Jyor\eji<lUin» remm-i-.l I.ilber, I 
Iki:ii r^ptllnl fli.DillivIr fomw hIioiIt •ii-KtiviiScotinbj'ibeBlK 
l>i>ti, forukifitr pMrtWLtli llj«il>cuiuilr«ineii in Uib wu wMdt tH 
jiiM eniiinn--nccil, Rni \ttiile Ibii IrmiotT rcnuiincd iioJcir 1tti» 
minimi of Ihr Pr.-"-li l^'^ ini[ir-"Tinrnl« were »i»Jr Wartlt tM " ' 
either inli'ill.l.i' ■ ■ ■■■!■.- ii.,,.; ii.,- n.Ah (i-t tlicy «xc«l > 


The ■.! ■■■■ .-..■■.>■■:. i,-. the tmilli 
fS'einivi- Icvpl, wtilc nvmiFii.;. hihI f.ire.U of i 
iKilliijt ;^f moat of tlic Kpi'CK-i ihiit am liut\i 
;iirr ; Rrni"i({ «ti)cli Oir pitu', ihc rr/il and wliii 
T(i«»rd« liii: iioHli rasl ihi '" 

pinvnl by ullx^n, tl 

niUii-r more broken, btinK pciiclrntpd lyspuii 
- '—- *~ ■'■" — ■■■— - -' the tlitiber' is 

.iiuiiti. In the northFrii purt the tlmbrr u [Fi'incipxllj wfc, 


eiiltivutiwl, proUuce* grrat crupi of jfrain, cotLaig !*■ 
and tobfteco tif a (uptrior quullty, 
— " UtviMoM AMI forcuTiOM. Tlie 'IVriti 

BDvr-riK'J in IhnunM mtiiiierft* the twepreccdinfTi Applicatian' 

Men nuidu to wnprws for the adminion of the tHJiilhtm part i 

111 e Union Man indt^pendmt tlate.— It UdWidnl intoclncai coiuk 

lie-, mihI 111! > popnUtiun of *(W33 inhjihitimt*. two fifths lUvo*. ' 

Hi«BJi, TlieTirritotrU well Watered bvrivrn,,tli(iuai> in MM' 

•lintricu it is deficient of imallw strcami. Oii tb« went it ia mubtJ 


he Mississippi abovo 400 miles. The I'ennessee has its course 
nsulerable distance thi*oiijj^h the northern part ; at tlie Muscle 
a\» it is only a few milgs from the head waters of the Tombigbee, 
at some futuiHi period will form a most important connection in 
outlet to the ocean, for the state of Tennessee, the south wes- 

corner of Virjjhua, and the north eastern portion of this ter- 
cy. The Yazoo rises in the north west, and after a course 
•jy south west, enters the Mississippi near the walnut hills ; it 
ivieable for larc^ boats a number of miles, and bus its course 
•xifflx a lar;j;t* body of rich lands, famous for a speculation which 
•n its name from this river. The To^nbigbee or Tumbekby runs 
•ly a south course through tlie centre of the Territory ; it ro- 
es the Alibama coming from the north cast, and rising in the 
hern part of Georgia. After tlieir junction, which is at Fort 
Ldard, about twenty miles above the Florida line, they take the 
e of Mobile river and discharge into the bay of the same name. 

sloop navigation extends to Fort Stephens, about seventy miles 
re Mobile, and for lM>ats it is navigable several hundred miles 
licr.— The other rivers are, the Pascagoida and Pearl, to the 
t of the Mobile and the Chatahouchy on tlie east; the latter is 
bomulary between Georgia and East Florida. 
LiMATK, Soil ami PnonrcTioNs. TIr* climate of the country 

be called fine. Fitnn observations made in the southern part 
OCB not appear to hav<» greater extremes of heat than is expe- 
ccd in the states much iartheT north. In July 1807, tlie mer- 
' in Fahix nheit's ihermometor did not risi; above S/4® ; the mean 
. of thut month was 86.° From the same obsei^vations it appears 

tlie gnmtest degree of cold in the year 1808 was hi February ; 
thermometer then sinking to 4o°. Vegetation commences from 
middle of March to the iirst of April. The soil, as has been 

rn part, ap- 

great body 

.., ^ . , 4th forests of 

luble timber, and can(» brafces. The principal crop is cotton, 
zU is the only article of export of importance fmm the: Terri- 
. Indian corn is raised in suiiicient quantity for the consumption 
he country, but wli<':it does not thrive well; the inhabitants 
lering on the Mississippi receive their principal supply of flour 
1 the Oliio waters ; in some of the low grounds of tlie south 
is cultivated, but not to any gn'at extent. 
OWNS. Natchez, is the only town of importance in the Tcrri- 
. It is sitiUited on a high bluff of land on the Mississippi; it 
ains about 300 houses, principally built of wood, g«»nerally one 
y high, with Uiany w indows an<l doors ; the population is a mot- 
mixture of, French and Spanish Creoles, Mulattoes' 
negr'ies. aiul amounts to near 1.000 souls, ^'es8els of 400 tons 
11(1 the rlv<r to the city. It is 300 miles above New Orleans, N. 
:ude JJ°.J.J'; lor.gitude 16® 13' W. of Philadelphia. It con- 
H no j)ul)lir, ])tiiMings worthy of notice. There are several other 
iw, f)ut all of them small ; Wa'^hington is the largest, contain- 
ahoui 4.50 inhuhitriit:., one thirtl shiv"*. 

(w tlw Uniied State* Irem »hr Kmperor of FV-jtic. <- 
It >• briundol in the E. f>r tlic nvcp Klutiisippi nn 
in thr S. bT (b* ipilf of Mfiitrt, in the W. by Scv.- • 

th« N, by tnillMi ■ --' — 


in urrt««bly n'ttuated between ihe «3irrfntkof W' 
uui thif &« (jthc coontrj- ii jtrcs'lj diversified, Tlie « 
in the hifheit dej^Trc, ikRfintinfr wiUi little kbour ftU tbe 
of life. In the toolh, (he ImkI Inloff low It ;n t 
flowed. TnwutdJ the north it ii m"'v eicvatrf. » 
■nil towirdt tlie Wnl >t ri«c* into liift)' niouiiiiiira. It tn 
nteiwvt prairie* uf natural mnvlnn'i. the huiuil* of wi 

The nteM art auttvaoM, anil mnie of them the Ufp 
foimd in North Anwrieii. Tlic Mi»w>i»i|ipl tfhidi '■'■ 
e»>tem bAunJurj', flows upwards ttf SOOO mitcH, .<i> 
the nilf of Mexkii, war the latitude of 30" N 
vhidi ti the hl^at liruiwh of the Mi3ii(lip[ii, \r.i-- 
innrv thjui 3000 miles fnim it) mouUi. and yet iiv 
itnesploMiL At 183B miles froni its '>ut1elirui42riur> 
curroit deep uid rupul It jiiini the Mistinaippi in Ijii 
Zh" if N. in > b'lld tuid rapid stream 7(KI yiim* broiul^ 
miut coniidcrable tributary witten arc, ihe St. fnuici 
Wliile il>d Bed wers, Colemdu. B. del Sard, and Sabii 
di»il)i'_n[L^lui»illnafrDm^ew Meiticv. 

l/>uiiunii vm tim diccavered b^- IJie Spaninrds in 
finding no gold minims to sitiate thetr cupidity, and me 
favourable reception frnm the natives, tliey soon desert 
was afterwards more liJly uiploi-ed by the French, in 

LOinSUKA. 3fe 

n« under which government it remained till 1800 ; when it was 
nyeyed to Bonaparte, First Consul of Francej in exciiange for 
kingdom of Etruria ; ,and by Buonaparte it was sold to the 
jcd Statesj as has been just mentioned. 

3uisiana is said to abound in valuable minerals, but the lead 
ps near St Crenevieve have hitherto comnianded die greatest at- 
ion. It appearsL that a considiiable part of the banks of tha 
sissippi, tiie [lortion best known, will for ages to come, be in- 
ited with periodical floods, and be uninhabitable. The rivet 
flows its banks at least once a year, when the water rises fifty 

above its common level, and the torrent bears along with it 
» and « prodigious mass of rubbish, which, being checked Inf 
Sulf stream in ^eir passajg;e to the sea, fi>rm shoals at the moutk 
le river. These alluvia, in the course of numberless years, have 
luced'a considerable tract of land, part of which constitutes 
island of New Orleans, and divided the mouth of the river into 
nl channels'. Some of these are dry at low w&ter, as the chan« 
»f Ibberville, although at flood it convey^ a part of the Missis- 
i to lake Maurepas, and thence, through lake Ponchartrain is 
lea. The principal branch below Orleans, which is called Ba- 
s, and is the ship channel, has commonly but sixteen feet of 
ir. About seventpr miles above Orleans, there is a channd ob 
west side of the river, called by the French la Fourchet which 
*y, except in freshets ; and about one hundred and twenfy milss 
ler is another that is boatable at alf times, and which unites with 
iMjjr of Mexico at St. Bernards. On this last mentioned branch 
e IS a considerable settlement. 
1 the east side of the Mississippi, for 200 mikf I'^mjCH^ the 

is very low, bein^ formed by the alluvial ^J^ ^ eo***^© 
r, and is inexhaustibly rich ; as it is also on "^ ► fh^h^JL 
It 150 miles : thence to the mouth of the Oh *0W^^ J™, 
dated eveir year to the extent of thirty miles » ^^SSIll 

. a depth of water of from two to ten feet Northwai^ ^*W 
med lands the elevation commences, the country is interst:^. . 
lountains, and exliibits the most stupendous prairies, or natural 
lows, that are any wliere to be seen. 

tie principal settlements are on the island of New Orleans, at U 
xhe, Gfaaffala, Ibberville, Pointee coupee and Red River ; bein|^ 
oied principally to the banks of the streams, ai|d seldom ex* 
Inif above one mile from the water. 

bis very extensive country has been divided into two gpoveni* 
ts, which are denominated the Territory sf Orleans, and the 
itovy of Louisiana. 

«• Um lliline rifor. wtikk «{»»>«■ ■< 
nlutlcarjM" W^Ttc MolUiVTirur >' 

digH, ooUDik Mai auftW- Tbr UtUr liM ■ uliiA k Im ' 
gtatlf, ■ml vin nvy *aM tie wilclMn ut Miiiiily if 

li ewrtiiWii il • pofwUiiim li ^\^'<'> iu I'Wj, bale 
dWiderilnWIwthvMMUt" i> mL 

PbUra) CbImi, bminc :!< .>i«l 

•inBtfln, uii]HH>np(T«i^! ~ '■If 

TW AfifUl of thi* "•■■ ■., I 

«■■( alik at Ilka MiMiu>i»" ' ^' 

•f 90" W, Avn the mrri i 
ktbitutu TMaport if" 

biiUry tnien. Its oumn^'i' ' "< ' 'i-i ' 

iffiiOfiVi in Ihc VP«r 1BI7. 

TRnnrmsv nv 

'nnv nir nrtMBH 



:ry around St Louis for fifteen miles is one extensive prairie^ 
lich vast herds of cattle graze and fatten by the luxuriance of 
3il. About sixty miles S. W. are the celebrated lead mines of 
liana. — Theire are several other small towns in this territory, as 
Madrid, Gerardeau, St. Geneveive and St. Charles, but neither of 
so populous as St. Louis.— The inhabitants, agreeable to the 
IS of 1810, amounted to 20,845, including 3,011 slaves. — The 
imient is conformed to that of the other territories belonging 
s United States, the fotm Ibeing prescribed by an especial or 4^- 
j of Congress. . 


f'ijmn idmrcnoNs 


lODxsimRs. IN calimatiftg Ihc txttttX of that hrtt tail, 
bh inir poasr^sions it will be nccttuHrj, in ihe ArM pbatt WlH^ 
Bidcr ibr boiiDdiriei. TaWknls tlif (i. B. Veruji^ia is ()M(iUd|f fl 

tui pTOV^fiti <il North Auitrio. Timtj^ die norOi ibe r ^ 

^ mil rtailiJ} uMiit ui m bouiiil»ry : but even bm 
Engli«Iinwp» itmrendu Wi th« Tunk- kks, one ftl 
tbc MiihiBHipiii. 0» ihe weit the Rnj[ti«lt lArciallj cbim llirp 
of "ir Frgncia Dntkr; and mark llic SpwUn boiiniUn' kl fMI I 
Frincisco, lo ihv N. 'ifllw iuw» of Muntprpf , Upnn ihe wImIc ll 
Kjurcct ol til? Uiii Bravo m^ he Msumcd u « mcilinl bowMJhi: 
there Mc several mimII S|>MUih sctilcmcni* (n tbi-nunhafB 
Fe,tliut igibout Ut ^il>': while Uic wiiilhon iNxitd^ij it . ' 
l»t 7° 3iy hence * IcDgih nf thin;-t»n (lr|m'ci>>fr 1930 f. i 
But the breadtli VA\\t curn'9piind» to tliin pradiKWU* leuetb < 
Htory; thouglrjn untpUcc. irum th« Albuitk Hhorr ot'Eaiit 1 
to those i)f Califbrniaen tlic PuciBc, it amount i tn«bmit tb|«tq 
ters of its length, biit the nan^wMt part of tin- iMhnxi* i '" 
is not above 2S B, mituj in^ncrnl llic mrilukl hmitih < 
ly he computed U more llian 40(1 g. Riilra. 

Oflliia vidcempirv, the chief piiTt in ili*ti"i.'<'>'Kr-fI }< 
•f Miiico, orNxv Sriijij th** puvinces in ^ ■ 
south to the north bring Ven^a, fknta Kia, 
n*, (wi'h the Mosquito Ehorc claimed liy thi \ 
■nil Verapaz.Chiapa, Tabasco, anJI the peniii^ul., 
aca, Mexico proper, iaGludinfcsulxliviniaiii , hLib ru-u «..j 
cay. and Leon, with Ibwf ^ubdiviak.n- 


I'he provinces fartlier to the north are Cinaloa and others on tlie 
f of California, witli that large Chersonese it^lf ; New Mexico 
.udes tile most northern central settlements on tlie Rio Bravo : 
lie towards tlic east Louisiana and the two Floridas complete 
chief dominations. But the j^cat divisions are pi-opcrly only 
fe: 1. The two Floridas.* 2. New Mexico, whicli contiins Coa- 
lla, New Cstrcmadura, Sonora, Texas, New Navarre. 3. Mexico, 
Tew Spain, which includes the other provinces, and seems to cx - 
i to the river of Hiaqui, but the boundaries between Old and 
r Mexico do not seem to be marked with any precision. 
iRiorNAi, Population?. The original population of these exten- 
: regions was various, consisting of Mexicans and other tribes ( 
siderably civilized m th<' centre, while to the north and south 
y were savage races. The orighi of tlie Mexicans, as well us of 
other aborigines, remains in great obscurity, after the fruitless 
arches of many ingenious and learned men. But if we arc not 
; to trace the origin of these people, wc can ascertain their ama- 
f reduction, in the dark history of the Spanish concj^uests. 
[iSTORicAL Bpociis. The historical epochs of Mexico have been 
ittle moment since it was conquered b^ the Spaniards, in J521, 
n its last monarch Guatimozin perished ; Montezuma having 
1 in the preceding year. "* 

lie extensive peninsula of California was discovered by Cortex. 
536, but was so completely neglected, thai in most charts it was 
■esented as an island. The Jesuits afterwards explored this 
^ince, and acquired a dominion there, as complete as in Para- 
y. In 1765 a war broke out with the savages, which eiided in 
r submission, 1771. During their marches the Spaniards dis- 
ired at Cineguilla, in the province of Sonora, a plain of fourteen 
ues in extent, in vvluch vast quantities of gold were found in 
e lumps, at the depth of only sixteen inches. Bei'ore the end of 
year 1771, above two thousand persons were settled at Cinegnil- 
ind other mines, not inferior in wealth, have been discovered in . 
;r parts of Sonora and Cinaloa. 

vrmuiTiKs. Tnc' ancient monuments of the Mexicans seem 
fly to consist of a few symbolical paintings, the colours of 
;h are remarkably bright, but tlie designs rude. Some of tlieir 
silsand ornaments have also been preserved, but they are coarse 
uncouth. Their edifices appear to have been little superior, be- 
meanly built with lurf and stone, and thatched with reeds. The 
t temple of Mexico was a square Kiound of earth, only ninety 
wide, partly faced with stone ; witli a quadrangle of thirty feet 
!ie top, on which was a ahrine of the deity, i)robably of wood : 
in ti'uth, the Mexicans appear to have little exceeded the in- 
tants of faster Island in any of the arts. 

CLiGiO!r. The religion of the Spanish settlers in these provin- 
t8 well known to be the Roman Catholic, which, with tlie char- 

The United States claim that part of West Florida west of the 
lido River, as a p.irt of the Louisiana purchase, and have taken 
«ssion of tlie territory. 

^H^^ af-Am&H DOMINIONfi. 

«*MM, into whicit wc Ibroirn over tbc wall* Ibr jMor vtCtchM ih 
arc cvo^ionKl Ui )>c burnt klitc. The Spknisli inhfthibuu u. 
ra<nnM<ut} cltUicil In lilk, ilwur b»)» itrjig aidkMurf 
roM i'<l mw* uf d'umuniU . cm tin; ui**!:* h*TC kncrk:'* Ml , 
nccklaon '•* gold, ■i)i«j', p«»rli, and fptaa. Tlii? Udics ue l Ui li * 
nWicil fiir l)T.->»tv iiixd ipilluilTj-. Mriitc^ tboufh inUnd, m td- 
mxlot Knit fommcrn tKKrrcn \m Cmt on the n»I, umI M( 
tNleoD Ibc wcM; uhI Um ^opH duplkji it, protusuiniWpitil, lilii^ 
and kwi'Ii. In nujrnificcDi rmUrirjr it yivlij* i» r«>r cKiei«i« 
m ihp wclent eoiiiuicui .'— — Tlierr air vuiiiy uiScr eomiihuMt 
town* in <be Spwali^ d">>unioiu in Kortli America. Even ihfe U? 
rkircititi contain, wRulwrtninobscnai a tiijienor popailMiam 
tbCHK of Niir otbcr RxTOpraii iiaiiur in 4iiieric&, tlut nf AngdIK 
Wm^ nimpulail al 60,000. ui J thai of Guid^&su-a at 30,000, ef^ 

Emilru, llie chief edifiocs uv the cxtliedrals, chmrtiFi^ soA 
o(in*r4it>, u nuy be expected where the clergy arr so pradomiiiMt; 
that citii archilt-CUirQ und civil Hffain arc aJoiCMt entirely negtecnL 
Vart of what iMy be calied tile Iiieli European n»d frota Veru On^ 
D Mciico ii tolenblif traooib and pleaunti Ihe oihers sFepnU 

biy nt-glcetrd, and (it eniirse, in «t mountainous a country, tbej la 
nmgh tinil precipitooii. biUnd nav<{pktion aeema utduioo^.iMl 
pcniaps iiiinccetsajy. 

MAitTTtcTrmM in Caxiiuri, New Spain is sin^Urir JWa^ 
Kuiihed fay lh*e multiltiiiE and v»picCy of its product luns. CocUlllw I 
and cocoa, with a little silk and cotton, ionn articles of eZp«R( 
but the chief ire i^Id, ailver, and precious itnnes. There wi* atate; 
bnted fair at AupulcB, on the anniul arrival of the ship* tmaVOK 
and Chiti -, aAir wlutA Iha noted italleon, luden with UtC areillbfl 
America, pursued bcr course to ManiUn, OlhcT iirrangBinenu Mt 
nov followed, and tmdlo' vessels have been employeaiiHce ITtt 
In 1764, inoiithly packets were establiEhed between Cani^aMC 
Havanna, whence smaller vessels pats to Vera Crux, uhJ to PortOk 
bello, in South America-: and an intetchange of pnidDCtkHS by 
these vessels is also permitted. In tJie following year the u»4*t4 
Cuba was laid open to all Spain i and the privilE^gv was aAcrwdl 
extended to Louisiana, and the provinces of Yucatan and Cbunpe^ 
thy. In 1774 free inlcrcourse was permitted between the UMe 
liceroyalties of Meiico, Peru, and New Granada. Occasionalty A(f 
open some of their ports to American vessels ; uidat tbe doae of ai 
European war, those that happen to remain there arc seized, u 0M>- 
cemed in iclaiideidine trade- 

CuatiTi »HD SuBORB. In Florida, chiefly consistntj cif Imr 
founds, the climate is insalubrious in the summer, but the vii- 
tera are mild and healthy. The climate of Louisiana Iseold in the 
nortbcm parts. In California epidemical distempers seem to te 
frequent; but the country has not been sufficiently examined by sci- 
entific obBtrvefg. Moisture seems to predominate in the icthmnii 
hut not tu aiich a degree as in the 8oulh -American province of In- 
rien, where it may be said to nun for nine months oithe year, lie 
maritime districts of Meiico are hot and unhealthy. The inbwl 


ntains, on the contriiry, will sometimes present white frost and 
n dog- days. In other inland provinces, the climate is mild and 
jn. There are plentiful rains ; thunder is frequent ; and the 
iquakes M»d volcanoes ai*e additional circumstances of terror. 
VEiiH. The streams in the isthmus are of a short course, and 
I remarkable in any respect. The principal river of Sparisli 
h America is, beyond all comparison, the Rio Bravo, called also 
^orte, or of the northern star. The course of this important 
', so far as its sources can yet be conjee tui'ed, may be about 1000 
lies ; but its whole circuit probably exceeds that of the Danube. 
?xt in consequence would seem to be the Rio Colorado, on the 
of the Bravo, whose comparative course may be about 700 B. 
i. Towards the west is a larj^e river which flows into the gult 
ilifornia, calltd Colorado de los JMartyrea ; but the main stream 
s ratlier to be the Rio Grajide de los Apostolos. The course of the; 
r may be computed at 600 B. miles. 

KEs. The cn,ief lake h) Spanish Nortli America, so far as yet 
>red, is that of Nic.uagua, which is about 170 B. miles, in 
:h, N. W. to S. K. and about half that in breadth. This grand 
is situated in the province of the same name, towards tlie south 
e isthmus, and has a great outlet, the river of St Juan, into the 
of Mexico ; while a smaller stream is by some supposed to 
from it into tlie Pacific. In the hands of an entei'prising peo- 
this lake woidd supply the long wished for passage, froni the 
itic into the Pacific, and in the most direct course that could 
?sirefl. Nature has aheady supplied half the means ; and it is 
ible that a complete passaga might liave been opened, at half 
xpence wasted in fruitless expeditions to disco\ier such a pis- 
by the nortli-west, or the north-east. 

»uNTAiN8. The whole of the Spanish territories, in Nortli 
rica, may be regarded as mountainous. Tlie i^rund chain of 
indes seems to terminate on the west of llie gulf of D.irian in 
li America, but by others it is supposed to extend to the lake 
icairagua. . ^ 

\ the north of the lake of Xicnragua the main ridges often p.is8 
and west. In the ancient kingdom of Mexico, winch extended 
near the lake of Chapalu iu the north, to Chir.p;s on the river Ta* 
), in the South, the summits rise to great height, : s being ihe cen- 
)arts of a range wh.ollv ui connected with t^fe Ande.s. The nioun- 
of Orisaba is said to be i1k^ liii^liost in Mtxico ; and lis snowy 
nit is visible from the cipital, a distance of six'y mdes. This 
irated mountain is to the S. K. of Mexico, not fsir fiom ♦he road 
ira Cruz : it became Vv)lcanic in 1545, and continued so for twen- 
ars i since which time there has been no arpea.ance f»f infianijna- 
Though the summit be clothed with perpetual snow, the ' 
are adorned with beautiful forests of c*V.ais, pines, ai'do'dur 
. From Mexico, the rang^- e\'Ci<l» in a N W. dirccti'ii tb- 
.s Cinuloa, and is rolled the SeriaM.»da, or Mothtr R.mge, 
he Sinning Mountains. It is afl^irwards, :iC<.onling to iht best 
iy joined by a ridge running N. W. from Louisiana ; and after 



•nd Campeachjr ban hcni cclcbnilcil, from (heir very Ei 
r<f,Soriliar immcnM f>rcKUof ni>1iiig»ny and logw« 
oeilliibonttuirid of Giulinkla ii duiHiiKUiitlifd fur its in 
f^vaciiTD, (be wtnafru, and tumuino, llie cocoa nut 
chocoUie nul Uve, knd ■ vurictv of olbcn. which are In 
'( efijH- Wcm loJjun iaunilii, enrich uiil ndorn I 
'«. The pnir ■Pf'^ fFTftfa wild iu tb« woods, " 
riicky uib are intubiU'd by the ruious spixtes of i 

Anioiij tliF OIMI sin^ilir uiimals U the Melical) or 
<V>K> > kiml ol' porcupine; gjid so.ncotiien described 
•lal lira lint). What is culled tlic ti^ ■eems » specie* e 
unil somriinici gruW! to a g;rc»t slie. But Cluvigero m 
lATgeil qiuuimprd is the uper, which it amplubuwB, and 
ncrt re*emble« ilic hippopoianius. Tike bison is fbui 
Mciieo. In Ciililbmia there arc said to be w'lW aherp. 
arNe* Spain are particularly numerous and cunofiu. 

MinnuLvoT. The minenluKy fif the Spanidi einp'tf 
Air.Tieii is equal, if not superior, to ^at of Pent, '.am 
•outl>em provinces. Kven in t!ic nurlhom parts nubite I 
ed lier ti'Ciisiii-t't : Ihe abundance af gold niund in the ] 
Sanom hus b«.'en already meiittuiied ; and Culifornia is si 
eonlain rich minerah. The chief silver mines are 
north-west of the caiMtid, wbei-e lliL-Fe is a town called | 
tosi, more than 200 1). miles ftimi MeWco. Ttiese mini 
to have been diwoverod soon niter ttiuse of I*otoii, U4. 
in a consideraUii nnge of mountain!, which give source i 
of Painico. Amber and aspluM likewise occttr in Nev 
well as dismondti snK'Uiyiits, Hnd tilrquoises. CntgK* 
abound in sume dik^^ct-i, tiilhe west of the capital, vnm 

THE . ' 




THESE islands, so important to commerce, are Cuba, St. Dorain- 

- m>i Jamaica, and Porto Rico, all of considerable extent ; followed 

fay the distinguished group called the Antilles, Caribbee, or Lee* 

- ward Islands, but more properly, by the French, Windward Islands, 

^•ma being towards the east, the pomt of the trade wind. To the 

'< . vouth of this nx)up is Trinidad, a recent English acquisition : to 

■^ .the west of which stretch the Leeward Islands of the Spaniards. 

. In the N. E. of this grand assemblage are the Bahama or Lucayos 

* Islands, narrow and barren strips of land, formerly frequented by 

. purates, till subjected to the legal power of England ; but chiefly 

^ vemarkable »» having beeii the first discoveiy of Colon. We shall 

beg^n with the largest, viz. 


THIS noble island is not less than 700 British miles in length ; 

but the medial breadth does not exceed 70. On his first voyage, 
^ after exploring tlie Bahama Isles, Colon discovered Cuba; but 
& he soon abandoned it to proceed lo Hayti, afterwards called 
P Hispaniola, or St. Domingo, where he expected to find a greater 

abundance of gold. While Hispaniola was selected as a factory to 

secure the acquisition of gold, it was not certainly known wltether 
* Cuba was an island, or part of the contiiient, till 1508, when it was 

circumnavigated by Ocampo; and in 1511 it was conquered by 

three hundred Spaniards under Velasquez. 

^^^^^r &MNT nOMIKGO. 

TW iadulry nf tbr Hiuobnl* ia B.r frntn (ieiil)r p 
•oeh u ilir rrriilitt ni lliibo, iliai ii nM> tir tcgitnlicd bl- 
porubi i-^d(iujafliui);t*'i*'*''''o 'nii'i|twnltty of Migarj| 
*falr: uullnr imoco uaUvmol of a Biorr r(i[<iUi(«^ M 
that iiT anf iiilifr jurt ol AinrriiU- Thu, will) the «tberkmq 
Mis, «CTr alw calM Uu: t.n^>l AnuUo, Wn) tlicj bvk abici XnMi 
bjr die n^ne ol -yn ljra^r<i hiaatU, li contrulutiitclMia to Ika 
Imv fK«'P anntl H'lrJmFd liLimh- lUiaana, the npitd. 
nmpowl >■-> «(HiCiki tOudUu iiJiibiiuntf , WM Ixiil) inist^; Aiidra< 
lakrn m 1669 lij Murj-n. •ceUOmlul boteaniwr. t; tgi,n u.'-' 
Jonl lu UK !■ Jith ai irSl, uhI u«»Mire» irtrv (tv.l.I .,( m 
■iPMinv Thtc^llnuivr ntind ■■ilitsilcil bv n ili.-iiti iif muuadia) 
pMtinf B. tml W. lite i-utt* srr o( Rliurt ctjiir*', Iwt ibor n^ 

•ine of tite Gnni in the worlil Among the pRxIucls niuttiltDl 
redumcii EUi([cr, long pepper, mantic, oiciii, nuinioc, mnI Ak 
Thete ure mliur* ol friccUFitt coplMT, whicli ■uN>l)- tbe Olbcr ■'' 
nirtt rulonici wilb duKKitic uimul)', anil gulA is iml wiuiM 
ttw ri*tn. Ttielbrot* •bound wiUi «iU cattle qjmI itwain 
■itioiTg the ino iiK- givt-n ebony anil mahngniiy. Itnw ia ■ 
niw-fc-irwrol, ;iim1 n^r<ccn juriidieiioni »i* f^T<ri«d bj 4iM 
mugiktrniiv The 'mluiiil tiiilory of ihis lu^ u '•viydi 
iivr, III it the cair with all the Spuiish piKsciiiiDrK.— Tbia bIW-. 
iboui TS oiilek N. of Junmira, uid Uie i^ipiul is sitUkUl to^ 
Iw-gitudt of tU" ly W. iwl l«tiiude of Oi" 12" S. 



This isIuihI, tjie Mcand 'n the Anit^ricun urchipeligri, anmitlfi 
vhic.Iiis Uburped bj' the insurgents, is itbuii I 4<Af Bdtu^wV 
in leiigih. bj 1,.0 in hre-JUv l^iMler Ibc luimr vf hitafm 
it w»a ihc fir=t Spiuij-Ji Ktiilement in the new woi 111, IV ri>^ 
ciilonj cJer'ivc^l its oi-jyin f i-oiii a fxirty of bueckucepi., mMtly IM 
of Xoimuiidj, tuwAitii ite middle of the gcvciiu*eiilU ceniurj; 
the wi;stern piu-i was fbruierly ctded to yi'aiice by the piKS oT 
Rviwitk. So inilUiiU'ious mA fluurisliin^ WM Ui'ui Fccncli oilunf, 
that It H'us Termed the jiaradise of tiie W est Jndk-s : am) B«ronluig , 
to Mr. EdH..Mla, in 1790. iJiF popuUiioii amoiUittd (o JCytji uhilot J 
and aboui4aO,000 m™ slkvcs; ijjc luulatlues, or «*»,■ )>»uplr4«l 
colour, bciiiK siipposi J Kj be 24,0lJOj while the tiHnl vaUie vf ti/U 
ports in tl.e the Various .rticle* nf su^w, Coflie. Cottun, indrpvl 
mo liases, rum, siid liide*. amounted ',o 1?1,344,668 lines, MnrV 
equal to 4,763,liQ/. Btet.'ing money uf Great Bnluiil, " 


This invaluable colony is lost to France for ever, by a series of the 
most impolitic, cruel, and perfidious conduct; the particuiurs of 
which must 'be fresh in the memory of every reader. Smct it has 
AUien under the dominion of tlie blacks, little has b«en done to im- 
ptovcp but much to destroy the improvements of former years. 


Situated about SO leagues W. of St. Domingo, and nearly the 
distance S. of Cuba. 

^THIS island was discovered by Colon, 1494, during his second 
-voyage ; but was little explored till his fourth and last voyage. In 

1655 it fell. into tlie bands of the English, by whose industry it has 
^li^iCome one of the most flourishing ot the West Indian settlements. 
-*fil size, it is the third isUnd in the archipelago ; being about 170 
.-■Sritiah miles in length, by 60 in breadth. St. Jago, or Spanish 
' Town is regarded, as the capital ; while Kingston is the chief sea- 
'"^orL The number of negroes is computed at 250,000, and^the 
.whites are probably 20,000, the free negroes and mulattoes, 10,000. 
.The chief exports are to Great Britain, Ireland, and North Ameri- 
' car in sugar, rum, coffee, indigo, ginger, and pimento ; valued, in 
.1787, at 2,000,000/. The imports were computed at a million and 
.alialf, and slaves from Africa formed a considerable article. There 
[ht a poll tax, with duties on negroes and rum, yielding more than 
•^ lOUyOOO/. annually } and the ordinary expences of government in 

1788 were computed at 75,000/. The government consists of the 
, €aptain<general, or governor; a council of twelve, nominated by the 
. w>wn ; and a house of assembly, containing forty-three members, 
'elected by the freeholders. The climate, though tempered by the 

fea. breezes, i& extremely hot ; and the days and nights nearly of 
^•equal duration. A ridge of mountains, from east to west, divides 
' tnie island into two parts ; and the landscape often boasts of pecui- 

liar beauties. Towards the interior are forests, crowned with the 
' blue summits of the central ridge. What is called the Blue Moim- 

'tain Peak rises 7431 feet above the level of the sea. There are 
. about one hundred rivulets, of which the Black River, running to 

the south, is the most considerable. The bread fruit tree, with 

other useAil plants, have been introduced by the exertions of Sir 
' Joseph Banl;^ ; than which none can be more beneficial, or more 

.inorthy of applause —Kingston is situated in 17^5d'N. latitude^ 

nA 76° 52' W. longitude. 


• I 

flru}^, fruits, and 8weetnie*u : and the northern part is 
taiM mines of gold and silvirr. Purto Rico was dutcovei 
in 1 i9t< ; and was sujugated by Ponce de Leon, the firs 
\\ '/ J Florida, about 1509. The SpuiiiBh voyugcn and aut 

' ' — imaifinution m:t;rr.itiL'd even* it*aiure of the new world, 

^ n:iiive at 6UU,(XKi; while perhaps a real 

■ li mig-lit Iiuve rcdiici-d them to 60,000, if not to 20,000. J 

\ )*S R.i\iMl thepFi'soiit |M)puluiiun does not exceed 50U0, 1 

.t of xvliicli are sUv^i.. — The capital is St. Juan^ siuute^ 

I 1 W. and lal. !«« xV N. 




THIS rang^ extentls from Toba^, in the south, U 
Ishnuis 111 the north. The Ciribbee islands are of noted 
commercial .id vantage, the ciiicf possessors bein^i^ the 
Frcncli. llarbadf>es, Antigua, St. Christophcr^s, Su \ 
minicu, (ironada, Moniserat, Ncvis, Tobago, St. Lucie, 
gin Isles, are British ; and Bai'badoes is b^' far the mos 
:is it is supposed to contain 17,0U0 white inhabitants 
others r trely exceed 2000. The French Caribbee islar 
were culled, are Martinique, (laudaloupe, and two ort 
but these also belong to tlie English. The Danes possess S 
Thom;i8, and St. John, which belong to the Virgin grou] 
Swedes hold St. Bartholomew, and tlie Dutch St. Eustal 
whole group, Barbadoes and Gaudaloupe appear to be t 

rtrvrfonf . an/l fKo lacf- iit/.1ii/l mrr l^iMtrtrl nr<*i.*io nn<1 Do*. 




• 7 



• t 

« > 

ntWH, » mrcf was mmu iruiii nn^^iaiiu m Miomir mi m : 
rt'ifiibr ciiliiny estanlislioil alxmt ITJ'J- TJie K"ir»ish 
ma isl.tnjl? an- compiiti'il a\ 'hnvnr tlmr '!».«««»: nl ; h.i 
t\vi\ tM Ppn%iilrnrc, whi-n- tlu-n* is a for' c-tUo-l X -i^iai, 
linr!'«iHr 'Viw ti-w rxp«»r!< art' t"«'t*«n, i\\% 'nj>- wimkU 
am!* Tlu" M»il MTiUH !•» lu"', tUv ba^i'tu : .iiiil 
li-n."-"!! iiftlii-so islfs, niM- ', njmim'iI *n '\iv Uk-^\ aiitl u in 
lor "li'ir ivimp.iritlvi- m"»..M,!',c;inci- "in this ^raiid comnn 
;„ i .^o. — I'p.vuli !irc lies akml L'UO niik-s E. of Florida 



T. Tins division of the new continent extends southward 
mountainous boundary bctwc'en the provinces of Vera- 
'uiuma, the latter pnivincc bclong'infip to South America, 
jid uflerwanlH ancendin^ couKidcrably farther to the norths 
I n\ust be computed from about 1 j" of N. lut. to 54° S. lat. 
pther if tlic Terra del Pucfjo be comprised. The length is 
Kty-six defi^recs, or j960 ^. miles ; while the breadth, from 
[ue to cape lUanca, as already mentioned, is about 2880 g. 

iL Population. The orig'inal population of this lanpe 
f the eartii remains obscure; but may most probably 

from Africa, where coppered coloured nations, with long 
t been recently disclosed. I'he constant trade winds^ 
om east to west, could scarcely fail to impel some rash 
mriners to the American shores. Oihers seek the origina* 
e N.E. parts of Asia, where the shores of the two conti* 
3Ut 40 miles apart, with numerous isles inti-rspersed. 
»v. The religion of South America is in general the Ro« 
>lic, with the exception of tlie small Dutch territory, anA 
• tribes. 

B AND Seasons. In these extensive regions the seaions V 

I. The southern extremity is exposed to all the horrors 
arctic frosts ; and Terra del Fuego, in the S. lat. of Sii'^f 
XiBcd to the almost perpetiud winter of Cireenland in N. ^ 

On proceeding towanls the north, tlie great cliain of the . 

'angely contradict the theories of ancient gt^graphera ; [ 

nconveniences of tliis part of the torrid zone being extreme .' 

e mountains, and extreme moisture in the plains. On the" 
, winter begins in December ; which in the plains is tlie 
h of summer ; and a journey of four hoiu*8 coriducts tile 
rom one season to another. 

ral, tlie confmed regions on the west of the Andes are dry, 
I being arrested by their summits { while the wide coun- 
le east of that chain are exposed to torrents of rain, from 
*n or trade winds blowing over the Atlantic. In Brazil 

aeaMn begins in March or April, and ends in August, 

M M 


v^SSSSl^^^^^ \ 

Wli<T> llie »prin(r brfini, or mthei- Ui» •iimfner ; Ite iliilinctioiti 
being niilv U'twven wet und An louonih 

I. lit!.' No part nf ihc )tl™^ '''*rl*T* *'> Crral ■ numbtrnf U' 
irn»i»c l»KM u Kortli AmrriOi ain! tftt »ouUiem pwt of Uwnc« 
rnnlincnt »)«rii«pa«iuim7 rfmnrkJiblr liy ihcit f«ritv. MMiym^ 
pomi Ukr* onljr eitat durinf (Iw minual inuiiilatiou*, u'liirli an w 
a iVr icnndt-r Kik thmi tl >«te <>( tkc < jangcs, and may Ik taid id 
4c)<i^ whulc |)Tovii<c«i 1« ill* mini noTlllcm ptirl, itie tsgooii »f 
MavTa«*ba u mnirkablF ; Wlrtg ■ tiniuUr huanii ..iIkfIii lUU B. 
mile* in diuncUir, r*cpi»in(r niinwrom rii*n awl rki-lw*, arij «m»- 
IBuiiirjIinit with Uie «r* hy a tranuderablc cnwk. The crlcbnMl 
lake pHriWii, citled also P»r»ni^iltac», or Ihc W hltc So. i> rrpre- 
•cntnl h^ L> Cnu u inurr ilian I'JO B. idiIm iii lcn|[ili, by JU in 
farcultli . but thia ii IhouKlit In Iw Jtn cM)n^r(tii>n. 

The lakcof Titic«e». in thf kiiiniliFiii of iVru, in repinlt'l m *( 
BMut imnorUnt in Smith Amtma. Ullm mym ihat it is of an ovtl 
figuiT, tbc citviaDDinnicc about iVi milet, and the depth 70 or W 

Itivm. Th« river of Anutona, or Mannon, in cclebratfil U 
the rniMt (lidiiieuUhnl river, nal (nd>- >n South Atncrici., but in tb 
wholr wwW. Tte Imph ni»y b« catimaliMl at about 2300 mibA 
Tlic breadth at Um PurlUKUric bouiiiluty i* wiiil lu be a ImguctiUtit 
b gcncrallv about two idiIcbi nnd no buUoin is fuuntl at 103b- 
tbrnu. Thcdlcctorth* tiik<iUpcrorJvablrt(ithcUi«taiiceQ(6n 
mile*. I'h* bank* arc gmrndly cnvned wiUt Tut Ibmt* of lattj 
tarn, imiin)* wliioh arc muiiy of a rare unci nnlteiMl ruiiure. S0- 
pcnta of pRxligioiiB aUc uTt iiiund in the monilm, unil alligvtal 
arealaucummon. Anirit lia.iirriTrtlihc itl>in{pi,t)ie brvailih&tfl 
•bore ta ihore otnnnt Im fliscuveml by th? av«. Near its ntoulb 
ihc Bore ruea from iwdvi; tu fifteen tc«t in liciK*^! i and (lie namit 
• thiaiirupiinniahctutlHt thcdistATiceof twolraguri. 

1'lie Riu lie 1a PlatH, orrivcrttf StlTcT, ialhe eonjuncl Ranid 
Ihe Parajtuay, the Pilco.i»*;n. the Pamna, »i\d the Umcnay. fit 
naiii itrcams arc the Pwaguny and llie Parana i and it wauld « ^ 
that the latter is the longtat uitd mofl cuaitiiierablf*, riainjc in 
great mine aiauntaini of Bra/11, lliii nobb rii-er i> also atiiddrl 
will) DumerDUi ialoiitt') und NpunUh vcsacls navigttte tn tbe lotn 
of As^umptinn, about 400 leagues fmrn the aea: ita li'itifUi ii 
B«imi.ied at 1200 milei. The breadth of Hi. ettuMTy ia lueti, thit 
the land cauiiut be iti«cavered flom a ihip in tlic tiuddlc of ' ~ 

lliethirdfTivatriTerinSiHtlh AmrricaiatheOrlnoco, ol' a in„ 
Angular and perplexed euurse. It riiica in>tlie amull bdcr of Ipar^ 
K.Ut. 5"3', Hndratcra the Atlnntic i>ccan by an extcndtd •It-liaeP 
poaite to the ialp of Trinidad; bul tli« chief t-stuaq' ti. ^^lnKld^■^Bbi)r 
to the S. £. of that islund. It hiia been ascertained Hint i bci 
three communicoiiona between this river and the rJver Ami^y,,H,^, . 
circiimatuuv which, in t|ia posaeaalnn of an liultutriiiiis ptupk. 
Would opaianioBtejtten<iive inluidiiavupiitioii, ■udl'mdiri' (Julaoj^in 
Nciv Andalusia, one of tluf nwit SewUbiiif; couiilriw in the w«rli 


louiTTAiNB. Tlie mountainH of South America constitute some 
the j|^rrmclc»t objects in natural f^rt)jp'aphy, being- not only the 
It lofly on ihc face of tlie irlol)c, but intermixed witJi volcanoes 
:h(Mno4t sublime ami terrific description. Tlie extent is also 
dijfioiiH, tlie And<rfl btretchinff in one line from the capes of Isi- 
, j*nd Pilares, in tlic southern extreVnity of tiie continent, to tlie 
;t Huh^ of the p^ulf of Daricn, a space of not less than 4600 miles, 
Lhey pfcnerally follow the winding's of the coast, at the medial 
aiicc of about one h'indnd miles. Chimborazo, the highest of 
9e moiuilains, about 100 H. miles to the S. (^f Quito, and about ten 
es to the N. of Kiobumba, was coniputi'd to be 20,280 feet above 
leVfd of the sea, which is about 5000 feet, or one quarter hig^her 
1 Mont Hlanc. Thit part of Chimborazo which is covered witk' 
|>etual snow is about 'l^)() feel below the summit, 
'he nt^t in height i.. s'lpptiscd to be the vol'^.ano called Cotopashlj 
m.atpd at about I8,6r;0 feet, and situated about twcntv«five miles 
he 8. K of Quito. Other j^rand summits ^re Fachinca, a few 
es to the N. K. of Quito, ♦he Altar, rmd Sanga to the S E. of 
m^borazo. Tliese American Alps, ch>thed witii (Mirpctiiai snow, 
ut two degrees to tlur S. of the equator, are not above one qiinr- 
tlietr orig-inal ficight, and farther to tike south tliey also greatly 
rease in elevation. 

i practical Cierman mineralog>ist, employed for some jAars in 
mines of Peru, informs us that the eastern spurs.of the Andes 
letinies present red and green granite and gneiss, as towards 
dqva and I'ucuman ; but the grand chain chiefl> consists of ar- 
aceous schistuH, or various kinds of thick slate, on whichi in 
\y places, are incumbent strata of limestone, and large masses 
'eniginoiis sandstone. Amid the argillaci'oiis •chistns, the me- 
sometinies occur in veins of quartz, sometimes in allurial iay- 
of sandstone and iron sand. Near Potosi are irregular beds of 
pe bullets of granite ; and the celebrated mountain so rich in sil- 
orc is cliiefly composed of a firm yellow ar^pUaceiius slute, fuU 
/cins of ferruginous quart/, in which some of the best ores are 
nd. In passiiifj^ the highest ridge of the Andes, between Potosi 
I/ima, Helms still foimd arjj^ilIaex>ous schistiis the predominant 
stance, covered in some places with alluvial layers of marl, ra>« 
I, limestone, sand, fragmr^nts of porphyry, and even rock salt; 
rich silver occurs in abundance. 

■|I4 srwisH DoisnyiuNs run. amerka. 

talk, uv) Vicnn* wool. But Uv chief rspoKii ate fVom tlic 
|*rQin llir ••Airul MMteti it tpptm ll.a: itit couiage in S|unifl 
Amrrina. t'runi >llC nnl lUv uf jHiiat^' Li III-: la«t da)' uT UkokM 
17tM>, wi*uli>llow>; In pild ■J,47U,I1I3, uiJ in ulvrr 35,V<."^ 

CoHBiKci. llie number or inineakt wuifciu (licviccnviJtKj 
BueuiM A)m w\onc unounu to jUofguUI, 37of atlTcr, Tofca 
3 of tin. Hut 7 of Icail. 

Since iIk [lii«aiklii>uittir« of Um gullcnni untl thr (prat flirt 
Puuuna ami Piirto Hcllu, itit commerenoT Peru tiu b«eD uiKtw.. 
((1 liy ihf KrriVul of rorKijuirt vvsmU fttnii 8|Kiin, by the wijrrf 
Ca]>r Horn. Ak the HptiriiuMi buvc iu> ■citlement* ill Africa, (be 
Ruairniu* ni-t^w* in ilicnr Ariii.-ric(tn calc>al» wcrr cbit:^ r^ipplied 
by tlic Uutcb, and br (lie l-lntjUli, under whai ■* c«U«l Uw Au>*n- 
tD or Coiitwcl. wttlcil in \hc rcijfii of iiu««n Ajww. 

A9IOAI.AMU ViniTAntH I>niiinii,-Ti<iM«. Tliougli borm >»du. 
ttDWcj«i>ri|;in*lW unknown to tbc new conliQont,s»ri>rUini(beid> 
IUv« hfni iwiliitHicd from i few thul vcM tutnrd ktota by iht: fiw 
MKltfni the <;killcan: hiininl tnotx'ly on nccnuniof Ihehida, and 

Ew loB sreutriw. Ilicir niiinlitr Iim luii'lybcenUiinntdby liit 
iiUhtlcM sTkrirc of Uic liunlt". llonwFi are rn-y mimrrouii 
Mid iiiiilv* bcinfr iiidiiiwiuHlik in Ilii.- vIpiiH: counirien, wlitiT I'u']' 
eiiiiiut Iw rvtiti:^, abost iBftily ihoiiwiwt urr. uinuitlly iirnt tbim t(i« 
pl.iiiii uf P,irjKUJi}i la IVru. Tli<i llamui, or murv properly Puns, 
or I'cfiviiui di-rp. wbicb rcacinbk* «^ tnudl cunct, willnu'ryaRy 
UiMit uiuliT « humlred wctrht. The vicum ii louMwhai tmalUr, ' i*ii<ltltnf lii-il. Tf.c Duannca.on thr contrikry, ii a 
Ini .,!,.. r I ]■ M^i- . I tVn ■,)![■ nina, arid clitcfly unplowdiu 
'I '■ ■ ■III r unim:Jii cuuldnot ptun the pit. 

til' ' r, or lipyj nndtllrCOilifai'.or ttn 

Ai.i \ ; AioofBrriix-cillhOMnifPiiraBua^ 

in \!i II -in iljtpm jii'ld in mwniUidc lo 

il" ■ ' ■ ' ' ■ . - . r- miys, tlic skill of one killnl wm 

III-' ' ' -I It, oi-i-qiinl til thatuf « Uiwoi. 

'Ill' ■ ■.. . u . 1 . ii I I li.irsi-ji. Ill the great riv«r Man- 

Koa i;i,.. .j-i.- ..I-. ;.i li-j .j..^ ., i, iiHiijipopuliiuiiUi. In tile Alp*. (<>■ 
warili. ■riicuiiiiiii, iliv cUiiuiir, Uit Im'^ki birdtif tlic Vulture tnlw, 
M no; un&eqiienl. The Mtrkll in uUfi thund in the wide plains u< 

Tlienciiiity uf llic co^ial |m)iWi-ii many iif tU.- Inipioal liiiiu uinl 

nut, ll.l-C,/'.' . , '! , ... ' , . .|.!,.|,,: :,, ,.,-.i.,'. 


MiiTKttALii. The miticralo^ of these extensive regions ifi univer- 
•ally celebrated,, as the most important in the world. In most ac- 
oounts the mines of silver have been described at great lengtli, 
vhile Brazil is considered as the chief country of American gold. 
JBut the latter metal also abounds in the Spanish possessions hcrCy 
as well as in Mexico. Near the village of Angamarca, in the juris- 
dicticm of Latacunga, was discovered a mine of prodigious value. 
Gold is also found in the sand of many rivers that flow into the 

The celebrated mountain of Potosi has presented, for two centu- 
ries and a half, inexhu\istible treasures of silver. This mountain, 
of a conic form, is about W H. miles in circumference, and perforin 
Xtd by more than three hundred rude shafts. Of a peculiar daric 
reddish colour, this mountain rises void of all vegetation, blasted 
bv the numerous furnaces, which in the night form a grand specta- 
cle. This surprising mine was discovered, 1545, by Hualpa, a Pe- 
ruvian, whf> in pursuing some chamoys pulled up a bush, and be- 
held under the root that amazing vein of silver, afterwards called 
la rica, or the rich, lie shared this discovery with lus friernl Hu- 
ftnca, who revealed it to a S|»ani;ird his master ; and the mine was 
formally registeretl 21st April, 1545. 

Another celebrated mine is tliai of mercury, indispensable in 
amalgamating the precious mct:il8. While Mexico is supplied from 
^pain, Peru has the native product. 

Platina is chiefly found in the mines of Choco and Barbacoas, in 
the viceroyalty of New Grwnada. Tin according to Helms is found 
at Chayanza and Paria ; sind there are also si'Vrral mines of copper 
and lead. The chief copper mine was at Aroa ; but the Colonies 
are mostly supplied from the mines of Cubit. In the time of the 
Incas, emeralds wei^ also commAn, chiefly on the coast of Manta } 
where it is said that there arc mines which the Indians will not re- 
veal, as they must encounter the labour of wdfking them. 

Natural CuttiusiTiKs. The natural ciiriosituts of ail descrip- 
tions arc numerous and grand- The volcanoes, the Andes, the in- 
tersection of the chain by the l^iuricocha, or false Mar:iiion, and 
numerous cataracts, one in particular, of twelve hundred feet, are 
among the various scenes of these regions, which are variepited 
with every feature of sublimity. 


THE dominions in South America, held by the small kingdom of 
Portugal, extend fi-om the frontier of Dutch Guian.i, lat.3°N. to 
Port St. Pedro, S. lat. 32°, being about «100 geographical miles: 
and tiie bread i)i, from ciipe St. Roque to the farthest Portuguese 
settlement on the river of Amazons, called St. Paul de Omagiias, 
equals, if it docs not exceed, that extent This vast territory, ri- 
valling the empires of antiquity, is still more unknown than the 


I WunrimaAoKs m ». A^tcEntcA. 

■• the lUrpliu. 
iv^ilnr, wliich )hui »iiKic TKUcd ui Rio Janeiro, 
xrr F:>rii Jul OU, nt*r (br estiLMy of llw ManrlDti, with t 
k'TiiU i«nilcmeiKB on Uuit mer. l^inninb'iDo, ISirrgippi^ Pi*. 
Villi (irK,ule, &c. ih« citief KtUenienu of ilta: Pcu-iu)pia« b 
onl) ttiiiil> «ctttirTrd»li]n|[ thcihora, 

" Uui lU tbc prtiTtnceii irr ktowidk Tut intii o)iut«K« and 
uicr. Tbty iDiinu&ctuntl ^( ktc wvcraJ ■>■' tbe man n 
•riicki Tor tlicirown coinuinpliun; unil tbf tr prnliioe ur> 
siiltTAtilc 'hit tilt bMhoM of trade bc^n to be a^<eiSy ■ 
vour. Tlir giupulniion nf ilns laige porbon iiT Nouth .imenca li. 
not bmt K'tiiMielv deuUr.!; but it woiiM xn-ni tint ifw P^iM 
^uri? wil ilicir JttoeniUniaRUiiHA Htfinimilii bOt'd m'lllinn, vhilr j 
nuimi may be ihrw or (imr iniUiimt The diunooil luinc* 6 " ' 
eicliitii-cly to ilie crutro j and o!ic-6rth of ibc jpM u 
'I'tii::-!- Are hIm numcrou* taxci and i(ni>(iiitiim«) vlikk, kiiMi-*il t 
Ftil.irpng l]i« rcvVaitc*, iTc tbr ^njid ciiiite* «) iu diminatiuni t 
lliF FSiKOn's tir etif eninwnt con«um« nboitt ar»-tkinl of tlw ni '" 
stcrliiig', wliicb lfr..xil is suppOKd to jinld to IHwtunL Thi 
fciiu iinil nuinutcrio arc numerous, and the manufHciartM 
L^oiir is chiclly petfominl by ilftves. >bciul 20.0iXi nrnoci 6e 
■nniiiiUv inipori«Vi evQii tlii- munkii and clergy keep itLck >U< 
Tlic iniiigpnes are mid to b« tr™<J»ini»'>lc skvuges, under Tlw m 
die Kui', musctiltr tnd utivt i of ■ Iigtit brown ciirDplExian, v 
■iFiii^t bluck hklr wk! loiiff djirk eyei. They cll'icfly sul^at ^ 
on tlic co^ist bi^iween jKneiro^nd Suit SaWitdor.*' 

Tlie harbuur uf Bio Juiejru is capiicious nnd excellent -, miA ii 
gurrounJcd by a fertile country. It i» protected by (he castkof 
Saiiti c;ruz, erecti>d on a hu^ rock of granite. On 'the weai i> lb 
city nf 9L S(:bus(ian, cummonly culled Rio de Jiuiciro, butit iini 
tongue of lunil ; the hills and roclca beliind beillK' Crowocvl with 
w.irHis, cniivcnts, houses, and ohurches. On u small ntigbbourmf 
isle ure x dork-vurd, mu^uitKs, uid naval atnrc famun- 'Ct« 
s'ltcts JTC generally straight and Weil paved. WmIw u supplit^J 
by jn :iquL'duci on Ibe Rofflivn plan. Yet ibo situiitian of this bi 
tifiil rilv i> i^aid to be 'uihealtliy, owing to eshala.tio'is Ircmlhtpl 
tilt iiiliuid fiiresti. There wc miuwfacttwfes of sii^vr, rum, 

eocliiiie»t ! aiid sever-J fiistrldla produce cotton, indi^, eol^, e 

or chocolate, rice, pej^)er, and the noted Braziliul tobiicco. TIleM 
nr Br.L/.ll w-ood is the pri'perty of the crown. 

Mivts. C')Bceming' tiie crfebrated minesi of BrBrjl there is lilJ 
tie infurmalion. The dimnoitd mines *re near llin little rii-erfl 
Milbuvcr-dt, not far from Villa nova do Pi-incipe, in ibc province n 
Serro de Krio. Tills substance i* not certainlv known v 
be ppodiiced in any otht-r part of the world, except lliikjloslnni I 
tlie ai.Lmonds of Rrazil ure not of go Btib a WMter at, tlwie of S 
dostan, lieing of a brownish •obaciiiw hne. lo (tic no^cm tl 
voices or Rn,,iil there are iiuinCTouBhcr«U of wild cuUb, wUcha 
slaughtered for the sake of tbe hiiet. 


YsesTABLE Productiuits. The esculent plants are such as are 
'fommon to all the tropical regions of America^ among which may be 

". distinguished the plantain, the banana, the cocoa nut, the chocolate 
But, uie yam, potatoe, casssava, togeUier with numerous species of 

- '^JDelons and gourds. Of fruits, the number is scarcely to be reckoned ; 

■ tbe principal of them are common to the East and West Indies. 
-The warm aromatic plants that are found here are, the ginger, the 
tumeric, several species of pepper, American coffee, capsicum, or 
'Goin^ pepper, and the wild cinnamon, or canella. Several medici- 
nal plants of high estimation grow here spontaneously and in abun- 
dance : these are the contrayerva, the Indian pink, the mechoacan, 
.the jalap, the tree yielding th« gum elemi, and the guaiacum. 
Woods for ornamental cabinet wok, or for the use of uie dyers, 
which are at present chiefly furnished by the Dutch, French, and 

^Cnglish colonists, from Guiana and the W. Indies, might be procured 
In equal perfection and variety from Brazil. 


THE French settlements in Guiana were first formed about the^ 
year 1635, and extend from the mouth of a small river called Ama-' 
90f W. to another called Aracara £. containing 350 B. miles in 
length, by 240 in breadth. The chief town is on a small isle called 
Cayano, whence the whole territory is commonly styled Cayenne. 
The soil and climate in general seem unexceptionable ; but the si- 
tuation ef the town being ill chosen, in a swampy isle, its disad- 
^rantages have been laxly ascribed to the whole possession. In the 
town are about 1200 white inhabitants, exclusive ef the garrison. 
The Cayenne pepper is a noted product of this country, and other 
products are, sugar, cocoa, Vanilla, and indigo. The country is 
most noted as the place whither the French government has baiusU- 
ed conspirators and other criminals. It has lately been redaced by 
the Portuguese. The French at present have no foreign jk»mb- 


THE Dutch possessions in Guiana commenced in 1663 : bat four 
years afterwatds they were expelled bvthe English, whose descend- 
ants form part of the colony resumed by the Dutch in 16r6. Dutch 
Guiana is to the N. W. of the French settlement ; and is often caUed 
Surinam from a river of that name, on which the capital is situated. 
The length S. E. to N. W. is about 350 B. miles, along the shores of 
the Atlantic ; but the breadth is only 160, The chief towns 


fftramaribo on ih« WMt hmk b(' Ihe Suriiiiini, bikI n 
nrar ih« N, Vf- ciiremit) at thv calwiv ^ D<; 
Ml a rirrr nf tlikt imnr. TW vhile Dth^hilunia i; 

c»inp->'«<] 11 >>UU. The lufTUi merUthc &u{iii 
■ml C'lrcntui u« >I<H> caaiidcrxltlr river*. The w> 
^irrnt'r, eiKh fK'thr>.fni«nihs. TlieiuitiTaiircorn 
^ «r eiip;ii-rci>law, like thcmhw Aioericwi ti-itM-«. ' SaisaeBreciM^ 
IkiUi bill. Ibr Aintwikt jre dnUitgurabBd hv elcjf^ncr of lbmv*t ' 
«i'll M liv miMncH of diHpnaitidn. The? brliei^ irj 4 lupreme deity, 
wmI i'l in^Tior milisn vpiriia, cAtln) Ydv^ihio*. 

All the >i<-u»l tn^Mcal pmductiont, t^rrlit Uiose Uiot delight in 
4i7 .iiiil uiwty tricti, hiv loiiiid here in fisl prrrcvtion. 

B<-a'ii-» ihc Giiminoii uprcitii of pnliiii, there jire two wliieti «» 
TVekniurd almuit prculiU' t« ttiU part of A.-ncpica One ol' tlii^e, olt- 
•d \hr cakur-ilAi p»tni, is irnurkHble for its hard i]dinlrr7 wood, of 
whi;li 'h-. »injiU pnisonuU arroniii arc construe led. The oiher, iht 
Binieolr pJm. ^''01*1 mil; in tlie dteprst und miwt fertile wilr 
Vbi-re it iltaiiia (he hi^ig^t of ftfty feet, yrhUe its stem in the tliii^V - 
itiit p Tt IS acarctly niiw >nclie« in diameter. The Kniinttn smrn • 
btr liFre in iu fiivoiiritP climite, u sppiMra from its mai^nttudi 
frtivth iiTid brilliancy ofculoiir. Thf quusia, wlioae inceiue bii ' 
Hens is became of Iste builWbfilnilhiT to Kiiglisli paLiles, iDd il. 
simiroubR, ■ medicinal drag of grfM efficacy. We natives of Hi 
Couniry ; nor .-imong' the materials which t|ie healing art dem 
from 9urin»rii, nujfhi wt to omit the rieimis or castor oil nut, tl- 
eas^ia, tlie pilm oil, the cnwhag«,tlie hulstm of capivi, and iprnv 
euunha. An herbaeeoiiB plant, called troolies, grows here, wJiow 
leavrs are the largcti of any yet known : thi'j' He on the ground, H ' 
have b;-en known to attain the almost includible leng-th of tliifi 
fiH:t, bjF threv feet in width : most of the houses ttre thatched v't 
>t, ud it will Inst seme yean witliout requiring repair. 


These shtll be traced from the west towards the east. Tbt 1 
•f Juan Fernandez, 90 called (ram the first discoverer, is only a1 ' > 
four leagues in length, wilh an anchoring- place on thenorlhi'r 
coaat, which in diversified with m^uiy beatitifiil kinds of trees. I: 
has bcdi ci'lehrated in tlie voj-agc of Ansoii. Situated about 3i* S 
Ut and 7P W. l-ing. 

Tliere are two remarkable archipelagoes towards the soallirrr 
eitremilyof IhiscBntineiii. Tlic most remarkable isle in imr ri 
*ai .,f chiloa, about HO R milea in len^li, by 30 in brexdth. J !. 
chiifhurbour is Chacao on the IV. ^-^il at Gulbeico there U a roi - 
piilr.;-. nnminatfdhy the president of Chili: there ure also two m 
asti I ,,., ::iid a church. The isle of Chiloe ia snid 10 be well [n 1 
Jled with Spaniards, mulatloes, and converted savages. lo Ihi- «i- 
Wnd archipehtgo, which approachei the uiUrttic ^(MtSi it ^' 



*■- ' island of St. Martin, in uhfth tbere seem to be some Spanish settlc- 
"■ ments or factories; and not far to the S. begins'that broken series of 
wintr}' islands, called tlie Terra del Fuego ; so named from two or 
.". more volcanoes, which vomit flames amidst the drt^ury wastes of ice. 
^' In the map of La Cruz, the Terra del Fuego is divided by narrow 
" straits into eleven islands of considerable size. This dreary region 
••'■ is not however so completely oppressed by winter, as iias'by some 
' . ken imaginecl, the vales tfeing often verdant, and enlivened with 

* brooks, whilela tew trees adorn the sides of the hills. The inie call- 
ed Statenland is divided from the TeiTa del Fuego" by the 6 trait of 

' LeMaire. Here also captain Cook observed wood and verdure. 
So much more severe is the cold in the antarctic region, that these 

* countries only in lat. 55®^ or that of the north ^f England^ are more 
- frozen til an Lapland, in lat. 70°. 

"* To the N. E. are the islands called Falkland Islands. In 1764 
*. Gommodore Byron was sent to take pos&ession of these islands^ 

* wlii«h were undviubtedly first discovered by the English ; and a 
-■ Iktle establishment was made at a place called Port Egmont, but 
-', being found of little or no vylue they were in a few years ceded to 
'^ Spain. The soU is mj^rshy, iind even in summer there are perpetual 
'; storms ; aiKi the Spaniards seem only to retain a small factory in the 
|: north. They are situated in about ^2^ S. latitude^ and 60^ W. Ior- 



VfUN^irm— Biftrni. — OWfuuiJ AiAaAiAnJt.— ilr^M^— CbMt" 

AFRICA III bounded HI UiF N. hi the MG<Iiiernui«sD, in Ibe V 
the AtunliC ; in Uic E bv tllc iithniUB of Suet, tlic Veil So, I 
Uwr Initiu) ocf >n i ind in uie fi. bT ibt- Snuthern occau. 

Tli;s<'>intincnt i*, after Asii tuid Amtric*. ilie tliinl in tizt; I 
III lioiilica) »ni rlhlul i-»liro«llnil ia (he last mil amncjt of I ^^ 
Siiir RTe»i ^viiiuiw of the i:»Hli. Prom tlir awillwm cnrnDllrl 
ibc Mcdltrri'^nton arc ubuut 7U ili^gK^ oT Utiliule, iIihi is, MM 
;JJ**S io3i*N latitude, (IT 41UU ^ ini]iM. Itit brcHdih, &dio IT 
weit to 51' eut, ma} be assumed on the etjualor M 4140 g. milri ' 
The central p»M» on the aouih appear lo be the tuiivc rcrioMtf 
the negrucs, wIuik colour, fealiim, aiid hair, distinpuiao ths 
trotn all tli« other r-^ces ol iDinkind In ihe northent piutB tb« 
have b«en many Eiicceiiiotu ol inhikbiiaota. to wit, titKgjrnim 
and AbyNsiniana, who were of Arabian exlraci i wJiiJe (arOKr _ 
the west, the Carthaginians passed liilher frmn 8>Tia ; and, accord- 
ing lo Sallust, who refers to Pumc muiitucripts, oUirr nuritiiM:' 
parti were peopled bv Medvs, Pcnians, and Armcn iatlg : all rf' 
wbom appear to have £>c^, in all ages, radically diitinct from thft 
■egro race, and were divided from them by the rrcst dcscn oF 
'!aara ; in the eastern parts the latter wer« j'el farther rrprllcil (« 
an Arabian colony, which settled in Abyssinia. . 

TIk Romana appear Lo have explored the north of AfricaBl&r' 
as the river Xiger; and they estabLalied flouHshinc OoltllUM \a, 
many parts. Upon the fall of their Gmptrtr, the Vjndala of Spala 
pwksedinto Aftica, A. D. 4^, and establiahed n kinpliiin wlii^ 

stitute a great part of the present popiilatit 

Hklioiot. The ruling religion of this continent m thr Maliom» 
tan, which hns unfortunately penetrated &rlher into Ike inientf 
ftan was at Ant conceded ; uui has presented ■ gml obiUcie to 

■Me (.r (VtaariMf; Uit^ itvirT;,ir rt(;«iiii nf aituui ■ 
l^rard, liMc«. PMftr an.] Ibrnciaui, tiairikrov 
rhc p-J>irnqAj nf the* urBjrT; n^guiii. 

In ■mnginK the loUnwLj|( b^el rfrKntiUcui \>f 
htClil with Uwl nf AliyHini*, u it t» tlm CliWI i 


ruATiox. AHYSSTNl A is «itu.ilcd between 6* and 20° N. lali- 
, and Ixitwcn '26® and 40° K. longitude. 

KTLNT. I'his kiiiLrdoni, which exceeds in antiquity and stability 
»thcr of liic African stutofi, extends alKMit eleven de{p*ccs in 
\\f from nf)rth to sottth, that is, about 660 K^o^aphical miles, 
inecliul bri'udth is about ei^ht de^ptfes of longitude, in lat. 10*^ 
'2 a. mik's. On the cast, tiie chief boundury is. the Red Sea: 
licii inuy bt* added the kinp^lom oF Adel, separated from it by 
(■id line: on tlu? south, mountains and deserts seem to part it 

(■ingiro and Alaba, while on the west and north, mountains 
bri'sts roiiKtitutc the bamers towards Korrlofan and Sennaar. 
;livi(I('d into pi-ovinces, of whic!) Tigri is remarkable for the 
it oC comnH>rrc to tho Arabian gulf; Gojam for tlie sources of 
Utapiis or fabled Nib- of the Abyssiniuns ; and Dcmbea for a 
I lake, and Cioiidar tlu; ca])ita1 of the monarchy. 
iifriNAL ['oiTi.vTioN. It seems sufTiciently establishe<l, that 
isinia was peopled, at a vcvy early period, by a colony from tlie 
site shores of Arabia, as the people, though darker, still retain 
ian features. As the Arabs impute every thing marvcUoUB to 
Hon, so these their descendants, in frequent habits of inter- 
ne with tlieni, have udojited the same idens, which a]*e strength- 

by religious fnbic and ti*adition. Ilence the Abyssinian kmgs 
I a descent from that monarch, in the same mode of reasoning 
e ArabH <leduce the noble genealogy of their steeds from the 
i of Solomon- In the sixteenth century they carried on some 
; willi C^'vlon, and the N'egu/. , or king of Abyssinia, con- 
t'd the Arabian mfHiarchv of the*' llomorites in Yemen ; and a 
an ainlja^tsador appeared in the royal city of Axum^. 
;MiiioN, Stc. 'I'hc iX'Ugion is the Christian, being derived from 
iroek rhiirch \. I). . >.'?;}. The gwernment is absolute and he- 
ary, but with a kind oF election in the royal family; and tliA 
is sahite<l with prostration. A strikmg and romantic sing^i- 
f was, that tlic princes wci*e educated on a lofly and solitai;) 

f «tUe. ^kkiimn nWB.r-, 

I AsiuD: to) i-»<i<a wiih a 
W Wins «>niT^ 'n>c ■•«>» 

n fona. tt^l, ! "-i■^ tfA^.-h 

1 cbiircho m «i . ..r^ . ■ - - 


tJiniiv wcnii lu tiiiU I">^ 

^^|kI, 4 mant*, unl tLr urictlt 

tina hH«l» hcfiifr ihc ■ 

unknu...-. onir.Tifi Ow v i 

' ITlL...' 

' vv 

1 Whll.,,. ... .,, 

.-nl«sl oHu vu-ioM a.»lccti It U probably tOl.r ' 

f l^iplUnapMMnit rroniliivnunJiorMicJent Ai . 


i E;:' 

J Dcoilic:! \iii.». liir Kiicifnl chfiiL.l, li ,1111 ki^.,» 

'. ' niin«. .owing which m ro«iy nbelbks of Riwiite 
hieniffK^ics. The other towns bi« few wid unimpt 

1 hrltifT rliittlly confined to Musun on the Red wa. 


>f the Red sea, but the first is said to be lost in the sands of 

fl. The chief lake is that of Tzana, also called Demboa, 
circumjacent province. This lake is'pervaded by the Nile 
ircular progress, as the lake of Parinia is by the Orinoco, 
bout 60 B. miles in length, by hiUf lliat breadth : but the 
liffers greatly in the dry and wet seasons. 
TABL£ AND AxiMAi PiioDucTioNs. The sycamorc fig, the 
id, the date, the coffee, a large tree used in boat-building, 
>y Bruce, rack, and two species of acacia, though probably 
principal ti-ees, are almost the only ones that liave hitherto 
ascribed. The arborescent euphorbiae are found on some of 

mountains. A shrub, called in the language of the country 
oos, is celebrated by the British traveller for its medicinal 

in dysenteries. A large esculent herbaceous pLmt, analo- 

the banana, is largely cultivated by the natives as a substi- 
• bread. The papyrus is found here in shallow plasiies, as 
pi ; and the trees that yield the balsam of Gilead, and the 

are represented by the above mentioned traveller as natives 

horses are small but spirited,. -as usual in alpine countries. 
and buffaloes arc numerous. Among wild animals are the 
it, rhinoceros, lion, panther ; and it is said the giraff or 
pardttlis. The hyena is also frequent, and singularly bold 
ocious, so as even to haunt the streets of the capital in the 

There are also wild boars, gazelles or antelopes, and nu- 
, tribes of monkeys. The hippopotamus and crocodile swarm 
lakes and rivers. Among tlie birds is the golden eagle of 
ize, but water fowl are rare. The most remarkable insect 
ge fly, from whose sting even the lion flies with trepidation. 
5d is found in the sand of the rivers. Fossil salt is found 
contines of Tigri. It is said that there are no gems, and that 
le roysd diadem is decorated with imitations. 

W K :2 

un the buiki >4 tbe Kilo whI oUkt riten, tlw Uu^ 

MiviBN* tHiiCimtiix. The iDbubitMiu mwe H 
driitt -r-i .fM.!l rr-unil «,,!fJl"! J-^ Tbeifhfi 

pliuiti trrlli, r.imt, Biiil • 
cipolly m •laTT* 


mis is an extensive country of blacks, bounded on the N. W» 
Pezzan; in the N by the desert of Bilma; in tlie S. E by Gash- 
ami in the S W. by Nubia; extending from 12** to 22* of E. 
g^itude, and from 17* to 21® of N. latiitude. The northern part 
oor, but all the rest is well watered, which renders the countiy 
iiiic in com, g^ass, and fi*uLts. — The climate is excessiTely hot^ 
. the tempests of thunder and lightning most tremendous. Yet 
f have a season of serene weather, which begins the middle of 
nber.*— The inliabitants are black, but not of the negro .species.— 
rir dress consists of shirts of blue cotton,' a red cap, and a 
Lte muslin turbun. — Tliey cultivate Indian corn, beans, cotton, 
op svd indigo.— Horses, asses, mules, dogs, homed cattle, goats, 
ep, and camels, are tHe common domestic animals. — Their wild 
mals are, the lion, leopard, civet cat, w^lf, fox, elephant, anti- 
e, camelo]$ardalis, crocmlile and hippopotamus— They have 
rt> different dialects, and the reigning religion is Mahometao^*- 
e govemment is an elective monarchy, though the choice of a 
ef is made from among the sons of the deceased monarch.^^ 
e Sultan generally keeps a numerous seraglio.— The manners of 
people are courteous and Itumane, and they are passionately fond 
play.— The capital of the kingdom is of the same pame. 


l»tiruilr. Ii 1* Ml eitrniivc [ilnln, rnconnwdned bj. ir — "-* — ~" 

crpi !■) ilic woi. lUin i* -« liulr knuwa here >• in 

^ n tlie (pringi »re m BbunilaEi:. ihm Tew rrgipu in 

Alrlc* exiitbti > rithtr i i-gvuitiiiiL Tbt buibmdm 

j^iuiid fmfn velb, wlileh uo »umeniiM. vui IniiB eif 

J'Tji- Tlw product* MiJ ihit aniirnlji c.i Uit- ^liuoin 

oariic 3* thvat of BiinioU'— Ttlu I'' ■•' ' 

. .._ _ , [l«i:p twwOiy eompi'-i' — i'< 

OiU of ibc MLwnof Hai'liu'v la Uicu cijiii<:' 
diiliiicttniw of runic Hccm lo br foriraitcn. *I''i 
mjliurly,wvrv)l;u>>»t Kill] drink tuKrtUor. Tl<i < 
n jrueroiui Hnd huapitabke^— liolil ilutl la thr i < .' 
truf&t. In rrliKion tlitv an; MibiinlM^it'- I'licir ;^io <'r>peni n^ 
momiTchienl i hul it is niliAblttcred witit uicli iv^tnljia tlw hapf^ 
tKn nf tile penpte, that UiKy art ■rdentl)- uudicrf to thf if •yv^ 
rci;^ — MDurwofc U the cijiltul. 1 


AN eiteniive empire of Afrin. part of llir rcxIonulM J*eJ 
groUndi buunded is tlie K. by Pm^n «nd Z^lwrai iqilica.t" 
the Nigfir: »nd iii Uic G. b)' Z^mphva and Bornoii, ll nuecnbl 
tiie laller in olimalo, «niJ. aiiU (tKMluclmn*; at wdl M in tlw Ci. 
lour, ^TiiuB, rclijpon, ainl govri'mnciil of llMpt^ple.— Amuug ttiai 
wnuJi, monkeys and pwroti ure iiiimer'Jiw— A Ihouaand uiAhi 
Slid villap;s ape iiud to be- included in tttii viupilr t whlilh lilte 
■loti cnniitu of difToTKnt iribn or luikui*, all Mliittd to one I'ukuif 


ITUATIOK AFD B^uNDABixs. EGYPT IB sltuated between 23* 
and 32f^ of N. latitude, and between 29° and 37® of E. longitude, 
ig bounded in the N. by the Mediterranean ; in the E. by the Bed 
and the istlimus of Suez, in the S. by Nubia ; and in the W. by 
srts to the E. of Fezzan. 

iZTKSTT, &c. This country, celebrated from the earliest ages 
intiquity, and recently a distingnished scene of British valour, 
1 by sea and land, is about 500 miles in length from north to 
th ; and, including the greater and lesser Oasis, about half that 
idth. But this appearance is merely nominal ; Egypt being in fact 
irrow vale on botli sides of the river Nile ; bounded by parallel 
%s of mountains or hills. It seems to have been orig^ally peo* 
I ffom the northern parts of Arabia, or from S3rria ; the Eigyp- 
8 and Abyssinians having been in all a^es wliolly distinct from 
native nations of Africa. A late intelligent traveller remarks, 
: " a strong resemblance may be traced between the form of vis- 
in the modem Copts, and tliat presented in the ancient mum- 
8, paintings and statues. Their complexion, like that of the 
bs, is of a dusky brown ; and is represented of the same colour 
he paintings in the tombs of Thebes.** 

Lsueiox, &c The ruling religion in Egypt is the Mahometan ( 
there are many Christian Copts who have their priests and mon- 
Tics. The government is at present unsettled, but will proba* 
return to the aristocracy of the Beys and Mamlukes. Mr. 
wne estimates the population of Egypt at two millions and a 
*; of whom the city of Cairo may contain 300,000^ . The revenue 
er the Beys might perhaps be about one million sterling. 
lANif ERS AND Cdstoms, &c. A general similarity pervades the 
iners of Mahometan countries, as the Koran regulates most of 
springs of human life *. the fanaticism against the Franks or 
"upeans was extreme, but may perhaps be somewhat moderated 
Lhir recent terror of their crms. The Copts are an ingenious peo- 
, "ind have gr?at skill in business ; whence they are generally em- 
^'ed by the Mahon>t* ; ns as writers and accomptants.— -The 
tofthe climate enforces AD abstemious diet; and the hoi 


tal ttwir, KTiil tbr RnuiarT "I 

«t*MinoplE. Alexindni wtA ilv chirf tr>l of K«r 
wtiidi tfaeoce ntwcd lir Rwrjinl in Csim rariieuJur 
earlhamniiuM ■meaiinJ ■Ihuii ri|{t>i liunihvtl bals 
brmd cloth wcfe Inipnrml. Tim (nUt i-f DaoiiHla te. 

•jplin>«neiiiM T^H 

EGYPT. 431 

iding to the Arabian ^If, abounding with marble and porphy- 
it almost destitute of water, and oftly inhabited by Bedouliis 
le west, the hills lead to a vast sandy desert, where arc the 
)a5cs, a name applied to islands situated in sand. Except in 
lelta, tlie lands are generally watered by machines. Accord- 

a late traveller, the soil in general is so rich as to require 
mure. It is a pure black mould, free from stones, and of a 
tenacious and unctuous nature. From Cairo to Assiian, or 
if a distance of about 360 miles, the agriculture is of tlie sim- 
kind, the chief article being wheat, with bai'ley for the hor* 
oats being scarcely known in Asia or Africa. In the Delta, 
8 the chief grain, with maize and lentils. Tlie lands chiefly 
g to ihe government, or to the mosks. 

viBs. The only river of Eg}'pt is the Nile, already described 
i general view of Africa. Its greatest breadtl), even here, is 
L one third of a mile ; and the depth about twelve feet. The 
p is muddy ; when it overflows, of a dirty red ; and cloudy 
in April and May. The river begins to rise about the 19th of 
, and it ceases in October. 

XEs. There ai*e several extensive lakes in the northern parts 
;ypt, the largest being that of Mcnzala, which communicates 
the sea by one or two outlets. Next is thatof Berelos, follow- 
that of Elko. The lake of Mareotis, on tlie south of Alexandria, 
ecome almost dry. The Natron Lakes must not be forgotten, 
; so called from their production of natron or mineral alkali, 
are situated in the desert, near a remarkable channel, siippos- 
have been anciently a branch of the Nile, and still called the 
Belame, or river without water. 

iuKTAi!7s. The mountains have been already described as 
ng along the banks of the Nik, but chiefly between that river 
he Red Sea. 

»£TARL£ AND AxiMAL PnofiucTiosrs Thc lotus and papyrus 
always been the appropriate decorations of the god of the 
: the former of these is a species of water lily, which at the 
at of an inundation covers all the canals and shallow pools 
its broad round leaves, among which are its cup-shaped blos- 
of pure white or cxrulean blue, reposing with inimitable grace 
e surface of the water. The papyTiis, saci'ed to literature, after 
ig long vanished from the boi'ders of the Nile, has at leng^ 
again recognised, on its banks and in the shallow plashes of 
lelta. The arum colocasia of ancient fame is still cultirated 
Cypt, for its large esculent roots. The Egyptian sycamore figy 
late palm, the pistachia, the oriental plane, and the bead tree, 

1 the shore, and are cultivated, in the vicinity of most of the 
s. The cypress overshadows the burial grounds, and the ca- 
ish roots itself in thc ruins of Eg}'ptian, Greek, and Roman 
zation. Thc senna, tlie mimosa nilotica, and the hennd, the 
nd, the orange, pomegranate, fig, peach, apricot, plantain, 
r-cane, and cotton^ are cultivated hei'e wiin g^at assiduity 



icsc are Tripoli, Tunis, Algier, and Morocco. Of these ^ri^ 
a most extensive, and the lestst known. The territories reach 
the gulf of Cabes, the lesser Syrtis of antiquity, to th^con- 
of Egypt, being chiefly the Africa proper, and Lybia of the 
nts, but a great part is desert. The name of Tripoli does not 
ar to be ancient. It was beyeiged by the Egyptians, A. D. 877, 
V. D. 1050. In 1146 it was Hcized by tlie Normans trom Sicily, 
held this coast till 1159. The power of the Turks is recent, 
dating from 1514, when Barbarossa seized Algicr ; but it has 
mued more peculiarly at Tripoli, where the Bey has been con- 
ned as immediately subject to the Porte, a Tiu:kish Pasha 8U« 
itending his conduct ; and the combined taxations have efiectu- 
ruined the country The town of Tripoli is in a low situation, 
x) tlie S. are plantations of date trees and verdant hills, which 
vc the tameness ot the scene. It is in a state of rapid decay, 
;ely four miles in circumference, and thinly peopled ; the an- 
: castle, though still the residence of the reig^iing family, ig 
ruinous condition. There are olive and date trees, white 
n, and Spanish broom ; but the fields of grain are few and scan- 
Towards Mesurarta the vegetation is more luxuriant ; but of 
incient Cyrene, an interesting spot, tb<:re is no recent account, 
ext on the west is Tiaiia, the central region of northern Africa, 
srestempart of the proper Africa of antiquity, and formerly the 
f seat of Carthaginian powcj. In the middle ages Tripoli was 
ect to Tunis, being seized by Barbarossa in 15J3. The chief 
: is Uie Mejcrda, the Bagrada of classical repute. The cattle 
small and slender, and the horses have degenerated. The 
p ot Zaara are as tall as fallow deer. There are lions, pan- 
s, hyenas, chakals, and other ferocious animals. The manufke* 
8 are velvets, silks, linen, and red caps worn bv the com 
)le. In general tlie Tunisians are rcno^nedLAS the most pv» 

O o 


MAuoMki'WrairAraiiNTBftMOMii. ^ 


\yMn-i.\ *Nii»>K th' MahoingUu' 

■ iif \lrin. TliC UiwB of 'ftt'B 

TtmUDDA. h 1 jU ilTr^ttidH 



.1 '^lihZ« 

.lr.r»«.l, lli- 

' . ' . mit« Wd » 1 

ulTin ebcnii, wlillc Uw'^^^f 


^.. Lii,i;K..^n-.J u, mow llwn , 

bl> liiU Uiil i.uiTiW wiiU bi iicuirr (lie niili. Il u ludtcTuSI^H 


Id lliiB p»«-pr Etutiiie iribiilt iTOm Uir muiunu^ atnv^H 


ilcudoln, wtiilt two ililp* i.f 1 

rHr, muintuinnl uv ttiem^^H 


ice, mWht block iip Uupwi, 

llw piruty Til* lLiTi)til"in cii' M . 


oa ilM 8. by (iitulU imcl tlie ch > 


Ainmw. Tlic pwdiiciifnn .:i ■ 

«rf Huu«. ThciWMt m-i" -ill ■.. 



Bp-ocw. or lire iiw-'- ■■■> ■ 


iinull kiiig\liani». w ilu- ■ ■ ' 


^KMffiWtft tllrli. i ■ 


.1. Tiif hm),tk<iii:'i i 



ir luimU ,.l wi u»U..Im..,., ;.. 


t«tUllicwJ'<w"»iilMu'>k u"!" i 

ut' policy, the wcaicm liari" 

blocked up witliMili)| uMi. 

' ' '''t^^^^l 

tilt) 1, 


iH tcnijiered by brootw Iruni 

AUiu, ^Wk^^^^^l 


IP 11...0™ of the tttwBJI src *'>Oic 

vrliiil cjyiluuj. parttciJfi}]^'^! 


Knlih- cl»-.,. w^J ,i,e «-„„ler 

iii,^ Ai-kiit Itiiijiiubl^ Mils-^^l 


fi i.1- Hrebcv'v w|,;.v-...i--,.^mr 


ltr«C<.llbc>»CKn. „■...,- 

coiteUtiny or biUi o)' p. 


t«ritien co)iuiila', untl . u..' 

tCl- 111 

..Wlioll M* JUtl-M.i , 1. :. . 1 

'' '"' ."'''^mI^H 

sttiii ui.J ilic laatwrcli.—'l'Iivd'iir 
m liiDiff '>r Biiropo, excc-piilit: < 
(B'ifnifsa Bre pnworcd (VinH Uu 
Miioll, but well Aavoiii-n] 1. luwi« iin 
nirc, uul gctiic uiid twki;)'! unki 

anumo^ l>eii)|{ rr«e Tcaw inuli:M*;J0)i.— 


of Morocco is situated in afcPtilcplain, variegated with clumps 
aim trees and shrubs, and watered l^y several lucid streams 
tlie Atlas : the extent is considerable, surrounded by very 
if^ walls of tabby f a mixture of stone and mortar, which becomes 
ird as a rock. Tlie chief buildings are the royal palace and 
mosks; and there is a considerable ictoi^j or quarter inhabited 
5WS. The palace CfjiiHints of detached pavtlions, as common 
e cast ; and even the mosks ore squares with porticoes, like 
of Mecca, the climate not rcciuirinf^ a covered edifice like our 
clies^ or the Turkish mosks^ often originally (Jhristian edifices, 
dress of tlie Moors is rather sin^dari and tlic ladies not onW 
: their cheeks and chins with deep i-ed, but make a lon{p black 
: on their forehead, another on the tip of their nose, and sere- 
a tlie cheeks. The ^vnmen of the haram arc ignorant and 
ish, their employments being ciiatttng in circles and eating 

soKTABLT! AND ANIMAL PaonucTiONs. Thc territory now occu- 
by thc Bur])ary or piratical states, exlcnding frrjiii the firon- 
of Egypt to the Atlantic ocean in one dirert'roii, and from the 
itcrranean Sea to the (rrcat Desert in the other, includes a tract 
untry proverbial in better times for its never failing fertility -— 
soil partaking of the pfeneral character of Africa is light and 
f witli intervening rocks, thoHgh the vales of Mount Atlas, and 
B small streams that descc-nd into tlie Mexliterranean arc over- 
xl with a deep rich well-watered mould. Thc dry and 

f intervals between the valleys of the interior 1>ear a near re- 
lance t?> the heaths of Spain ; like tlicsc they abound in scat- 
groves of cork trees and ever-green oaks, Ix;neath whose 
* the sage, the lavender^ and other aromatic plants^ are found 
iantly, and in high perfection.-— The valleys and glens are 
ise of beauty and fragrance j besides the bay, ihe myrtle, the 
!granate, the olive, the jasmine, and oleander, which arc com- 
ft>th to Africa :ind the south of liurope, we find here, in a truly 
state, the Aleppo pine, the red juniper, the date-palm, the pis- 
a, the orange, and, superior even to thc orange blossom ii» 
r, the white musk rose. 

' ; iVincc*, iml tbv Maaon 


Mofi, FouMit, aud other 7ViA^ff.— /Jfw'w.— /.oan^.— Cohj^o. 

N this sido of* AtVica, so fur as hitherto explored, urc innumcra- 
tribes, as little meritinpf purtieulur descriptijii us those of 
L-rica. The »lulors or Yolofs and Foiiluhs, arc tiie chief race:* oil 
rivers Seiie)jf:d and (iambia ; w hile (iiiineu, divided into the (irain 
nore proixTly Windwunl coast, Ivory coast, and Cjold cuustj 
fly Mipplies slaves ; a trade which commenced in 1517, by a pa- 
iroin the empemr (-harles V. obtained at the msiance of Laa 
IS, the noted protector of the American savajjtJS The sett k» 
ts in Guinea art* chiefly I'orluj^iicse. The slaves from the rivcp» 
;g-ul are called Murulinj^os, from an inhnd country of that name, 
te those fr»»m the j^old eoasm are c.dled Koi-omantees ; and 
e towaals Benin Khnes. Fop the>e slaves Hr it ish goods have 

I exported to the annual value t»f 800,t'00/. ^The forts and 

iiries iK'lon^in^ to Europeans are ;ilH)Ut forty ; 15 Dutch, 14 
lish, 4 Poriu^iese, 4 Danish, 3 Fri-nch. \i\ a late act of the 
ish Parliament the tr;ide in slaves is pnthibited. 
he countries of Benin and Cah'bar, \vh\ch seem to afford the 
.•si access towards the interior, are followeil by other sa^agfc 
*s. The kin)i;tl(tnis of Conj^ and Anpila are celebrated in 

Uffuese narrations. ^l^o the south of these there is ileep ob- 

iiy till We arrive at the n:itioniror tribes called (ircat and l/iitle 
lakas, and Katfers or Koussis, on the north ot the European 
ny of the Cape- ot («(MuI Hope. 

he ri.*peatcd description of the manners of r.ejrro tril>es wouUl 
w* interest the n\uler, and only a tew peculiarliies shall be rc- 
ked. The Yuloi's are an active and wurliki- race, and esteenied 
Host handsome of the negroes. T he Mandutgos are widely 
Lsed, and of a mild and sociable diMposition. Thi y wear cotton 
ks of iheir <iwn manufaeuu-e; but their bats and furniture arc 

tie simplest kind. The Foulahs, near the river < iambia, are 

fl\ of a tawny complexion, with silky hair and pleisini^ fea'.urc:», 
^ probabh tribes that fleil from .Mauritania. The Fotd;ths of 
u.'. aiv ot ., ver\ different description, and the ulcntity of name 
It to have Ucn avoidt'd.*-^— Teembo, the capital of the latter, 


I VErrajw COAST. 

coauio* kbmn TWO "nihtMUnf i wmI Oiere ar« ii 

bv vavim. bctidM Mne nuKufaCturc* in liln-r. Wixul, ind hrallw^ 

TlirK FMlJit, it it Mid, uui briM iiiM llic Krl>) i--.^— 

lfl^0Wt»»»lr7 , •nJ bdiiK »iin«iint)r4 liy twciii} Kiiir I „. _^^ 

(or triU-s, tbaH BUiomcUiu nevtr tniute tu tn»lu war fbrik 
uti ufpiDCViaitvUvn.^— Ta tkc otMI of 1lie*c fbulaha i* it 
Bagtiili MUrrumt tf Sictn l<nne, fbrmcd iu 17V7, tor Ihc bvooi 
•Wnt^irpoK orp<T>nuitln|( Afrietnciviluitiiin. 

The kinfiJoin orilwiiii la wwertcJ to be very or>inidet«bie. Tl 
inhibilulla arr mid to acknowlcdgv a luprvme brnrvoUnt dvltg 
wlioM wmlMi tlicy d*«m Monftuaiv^ w b> oo neither be infh 
tncfd, otnfKil, noruppeucdi butlhc^'oHcr wcriKeca to tnttrig 
and matipMnt i])!^^!^, in onlcr to lontlic their enmity. 

Louipi itiicoitiiti^of mi BTitiil rxtcnt, on the N. of Congo. Til 
people an iiidiutrTaua,H llKre ira mavm, imilhi, pollcrt, en 
jienlcn, and nnken at Eanuei,, and b«adii. the exfnn tt 
eli'pliunt'i teeth, cnppcr. tin, laul. Iron. Tlie cwmntim (Mnplr u 
held itiukin.lar»Uyery,botmui}'emlgnte, Rven tbs KKiURUii. 
arc uf mm cUy, witlioiit rook or atone : and llie riTCta that in 
froni themdo not iiicrcMe in th« ri.injr *eii4an. ilie iuil aetDu 
be wboUy R c^mpict city, which mioetimea uplitH tniu van abfM 
VcK«t*tiini howewT nmirWin i and amiinit tbr- treat wn tlw coo 
bamiu, orange, Icman, i^ffiento, with th* cotton ^nibs, «nd (14 
cane. The {i<Jm vin*, * favourite Afl-ioiui Iicvenire, ia praeui 
ffrf piwcing \ht tree, where the fniit bei^ni to ■wriT. 

In Cnnn.OetnliernMy be called ihe)priru[nuiath, but hocvjrit 
conlinkie tbr two €tt Ihn-r miNitlii'. Ahum (lie end of Junuw^ «i 
harvi'nti and in Ma.rdi nuirr Kriillo ruinacwnmcncc and comln 
till Ma7,«rtien iliaraii a nerond dry anion orluirveit 1 ilwiiriioiL 
ilal winltr Iwxirminir in Julv.— The hoilitc* an toiind ttmtcliud h 
vrla, <ron in iji. . Ii 1 . , 1 . ,ii. ,, si Salvador by the PnrtujnicK' 
The t'rm)f(«— 1 ■ . 1. ur, uiUmnt llie ftaturea, v ' ' 

(■ailiitr pc-fiiiiii. I ' .'i- lomrlimci of tidi-ep r« 

bi-oH-ii, jind n' . 1 ., ir.. r ipu colour. Onco ayur ilj 

prove, urc upnnJ. uial liir i,i,.i.itii >ir Imnca lUnorate'L Thi» cK 

tom kicm* peculuc to Africu and America. CcingQ pnidao 

■niU< t, tiiaiir, and csccUmt thiita : with Hk augar-ciukc, and TWI 

til ■ Ul till puliH. 

Vi.rKT.i.ix PuunuoTioxa. Thia cout apmri in ffanmt Oi I 

fiiHicM.iiiU "cU "jiieri-d, and accoi^iii(fly bf»i-» » Binkiiig reus 
bl.iii^-.. 11. .1.. ii-^.i ihlf proililclifini. In the (■pjmi.iu- ahtiTc oT ll 
Airi ■lie I" mil' 111. nx Hi't intml [OaiitB fiiuiiil m ihr tropieal climaiL 
nil- i.hiiilI lu-ii- 111 iifiirciiuu luid in Krem almndance. rho In 
dlinrcKiTl' till- rn^'i-n, :ui Tar ■> tlir tide nwcliM, lU'c bcuttemi wil 
innnjcfovoii i"ul l);niil)oo.') 1 the luxuriant UuJiiciht»m, tike atif 
cane, f^iriKer, lumurie, and UWOU 11UI, with v^ritiu* other qMClU 1 
pilmi. rijiit thtanielVM in the tnout deep aoila ^Idi|fo and m'H 
ofa »u[tt'i-iii' cinalitv aro met with, both irild and cnllival«4l. "*' 
■wvet CMMiva, tUr " 

nvxr, niinls. and „, 

tliu InniuutiuHi, onclprobAhly are indiKV" 


or THE 


mis territory, upon the recent English conquest, was found to 
of more considerable extent than huid been supposed, being 550 
fl^lish miles in len^h, and 233 in breadth, comprehending an arei^ 
120,160 square miles. The white inhabitants, exclusive of Cape 
wn, do not exceed 15,0Q0, and tlie whole may be about 20,000.— 
e Dutch settlement was formed in 1660.<— — To the 8. R. of Cape 
wn are some small vineyards, which yield the noted wine called 
istantia ; and even in remote districts there are plantations of 
ious kinds ; but large tracts are irrecoverably barren, consisting 
ranges of moimtains, and level plains of hard clay sprinkled 
Ji sand, commonly called A?arroo«.F— The country is more fer* 
• towards the Indian ocean than towards tlie Atlantic, a character 
ich seems to pervade Africa, as on tli^ast is Abyssinia, while 
the west is the Zaara.— The chief resorts of trading vessels are 
se Bay on the 8. and Table Bay on tlie N. which opens to Cape 
wn — ^There are some wolves and hyenas, and various kinds of 
elopt^s ; and among birds, eagles, vultures, kites, crows, turtle 
^('S, &c. More inland are all the wild and ferocious animals of 
*ica, and hyppopoliimi abound in the rivers. 
/'k&ktaulb and AjfiMAL Productioms. The botany of toutheni 
>iea is more rich and peculiar than that of any other country, and 
St of the singular and beautiful inhabitants of our sloves and 
en houses have been lience procured. Tlie cIhsm of bulbous* 
ted plants alone might be selected, if we had rodm for the enu- 
riition, as peculiarly characteristic of the Cape, for no where 
- are they found so abundant, so various, or so splendid ; white 
h of tliem as assume the height and character of trees, nixed 
h the weeping willow and minosue of various kinds, overspread 
iKuiks of tlxe temporuy torreatt. Tho intMU furnish te mm 

tW'uCtle Mid fvimcilul C>r-'-- T,:: r ;n 

tnwn, IMC fiv Ibe OihrinuK, I- 

■Lire* ur IlldlKtl Mil) b(biil<': ',:>':. 

Ihcv an- liknruw kepi >• an . - .-, t 

an hntpiliil filr tbr »-il ir- ! , i,. K--1 | 

Tl» inliibiun*.* :- !., ',-,,1 ,.,t. 


htal, Xajffraria, Mocaranffa, J^/fozambic, JkTelinda, ^del, ifc. 


)N leaving the colonial possessions at the Cape, the first country 
i presents eastward is the Coast of Natal. This territory lies 
B. of the Cape, and is inhabited chiefly by the Boshman Hot- 
X)ts, the most savage tribe of this people. — Their country u 
mtaiuous. — Their habitations are often bushes and clefts ui the 
ics, and being* totally ignorant of agriculture, they wander over 
B and dales s^ter certain wild roots, berries and plants, which 
f eat raw. Their table however is sometimes composed of 
^rpillars, locusts, grasshoppers, snakes and spiders. In short, 
\f appear to be the lea,st removed above brutes of any of the 
dan race. 


*he Coast of Natal is followed hi the N. by the bay of Delagfoa 
. the country of the Kaffres, or more properly the Koussis, 
)se dominion is extended over a larg^ interior territory, 
^e of the chief rivers which enters this bay is the Masumo : 

the natives on the northern and southern banks follow distinct 
toms, the men on the former wearing singular helmets of straw, 
the southern sides are fourteen chiefs, subject to a king called 
elleh, whose dominions extend about 200 miles inland, and about 

on the sea shore. Cattle and poultry are abiuidant, and may 
Purchased for a trifle ; the favourite articles being blue linens, 

clothes, brass rings, copper wire, large glass beads, tobuccOt 
2s, &c. I'he fish are numerous and excellent, and turtle is taken 
Deer Island.— The soil is a rich black mould, sown with rice 
oaize in December or January j the dry seaso^i UstiD^ troift April 


tU Octobv. Tifcrt trt maajr frwli Wrtt and uaiHiil pliMi, jtb 
tkil^rll Ihf *iNC>r-<aM i hill niAuncs, uk>, ntir buflUiKH— Tt 
iiriUi KiiBuI* uv the tiga, rtuniiti-jfliu, iititrli>i>r, innr, r:'" 
haa. *.ih iruinc* ham. pvUidgcs. •ju&lb, nM $km-, ' 

Tfa« OMMI cMliaed •nil pomrAd kingdom arcmi la t« Uw < 
Maeanagti, ifaBUTcUy called Munomotau. Tlic miil iil'Ui'a cowiU 
is Mid ti b(! fttlil^ ttitnisti ibn ploiin^ b* acputcd to great ' 
The pefif>tc arc alnmat. nakcil, and, likr iboM of tliu we^icr 

1 IK pefif>ic arc aimoM. naKcii, ana, liar looM ul thu we^icm couk 
tinicntilKHiHljr afVaul of m^^^ic*) chMmi. According ta the donbb' 
fill accAuiit* ijf Uitt oounb7, the kui]; ;Oii ilaji dT ccrcmnay, «>arr' 
• liiilr r^wte haa^in^ fcj hia ■ili^ ■■ a* csUem at ultimitMb- 

niccMUivi «f Uit-ercat aw niaiUiMl atoourt m twirtaCMt'Mri' 
ltakMcw*dinmalIranafRaBrtotb«pr«vlnc<-st w1iCTil£ep«jll. 
tc^ify licit fiddly b^Mlianiabkif-tlitiran*, uid kntdlmrinlBf ' 
Aon theoAcer'aWKh.— TkuampaoT'i ru*i4 i> (udto coiukA-'' 
— ■P*" l^OlT itrmoil.— Th» PmtiigtiefC TUto here l*a (brtnM 
aad aiinttarr itatiiin anr llie miHiMAins of J'u:% whkk ara wii 

llii' kir>j(i)>Mt nf Moaufsiara or HoiambiM h> feaitaidrnrf « 
•abjeci U, i)>(- PortufpwM), wIid Iwd a MnaidivablF town »f «i 
•amc name, tituaud in an iile, ike ^vcmur being dgrmi^nt et 
lh(< viceroy of Goi^— ZutBiTtiiAK ia Huid to b« a manuiy aiicl uii' 
bulUiy tountry, bitt abundant in FVrplianta : ii is chicRj' iiilulittiil 
by ihc Mnciua, partly Piinna, pailly MAomctaiu.— The liille 
kinrdom of i)riLOt ig a]Hu dependent on Ihe PonuipiiefH-, Willi tli« 
of Mosatij, ft<>m wbicli Aty irCK expelled in 16.Tl, bill irninrd 

their piMsessioiiK in 1739- Mmitni, a Mahonif^Uin statv, u alto 

parllj dependeiil on the Portiieripse, o'ho havp a rorti««] ia tbof 
•iTr,.and •ereral ehiuxbe*.— Ilie coast of An> i» elnfftf ll»- 
tMinetan, and carrtM on »«on»itkmMe trtnle in ivui7, mnbifrpll," 
and goH.— B»ir», a lilUe ariatwracy, pay* tribote (o the t^ 
tupirse, who have net tiem able lf> encraaeh on Mi»tDi«KH, oruo 
the kin^nm of .Kb*S, wbioh Uat wtu depenifent on Abjninb, uid 
i» Hid to be a fertile roiimry. The Ust «t*lft um DHiiuIcd by ■ 
Mahiitnelan prince at the beginning i.T itit aixtmntb eenttirv. iht 
Capital (winy Aiizapiret, standint on an emim-nec nt«r iV tntt 
ftwMt, which comes from Abyssinia i and EciU, wi Hie AralMbf 
fulf, la a comiderabte port btloiiguij to the lanw pnnr*. 



[■njATioN. MADAGASCAR is situated from 12** to 25*^ of S. 
,ude, and from 47° u> ij® i> E longitude. 
UiA noble liiiand la iic.viiy 9uu ^. niiieu in lengtii, by aoout 230 
uc'diai breadth, and lies ..bimi 40 leagues E. of ihe comment of 
ca. It, seems to h.^vc bt«.M unknown to tbe ancientb; for the 
certain mention oi M<idugascar is by Mai'co Polo, in the thir- 
itli century. At this iime it would seem diat the Mahometan 
^on li&d made some progress there. 

ochon informs us that this island may contain about two hun« 
I millions of Acres of excellent land, watered by rivci-s and riv- 
8, from a long cliain of mountains passing in the direction of ;he 
id, and separating tJie eastern trom the western coast. The 
lery is diversified w'.tli precipic ^s, cataracts, and immense for- 
. The fiax, from the description, seems to approach that of New 
land ; other products are, sugar canes, coc-.i^i mit8» bananas, 
icco, indigo, pepper, gum hccu, benzoin, amber, aonbcrgris, Su;. 
the variety of valuable pumtsiS pic'-gious. — Cattle, bufialoes* 
sheep abound. There are no lions, tigers, elephants, nor hor- 
— Man} of the most valuable minerals ocpur, among whicli are 
i ot" pure rock crystal, gold ore, with topazes, sapphires, eme- 
5, and spotted jaspers, commonly colled blood su)nes.«-The na* 
s are rather above the middle stature, and are of various ori- 
i; some being neg^roes, others tawny or copper coloured ; but 
complexion oi the greater part is olive. The I'rench settle- 
it of Port-Dauphin is in the S. E. extit;mity of the island. Al- 
ii all the villages are built upon eminences, and surrounded by 
rows of strong palisades, witliir. which there i& a parapet of 
h, four feet in Height ; and sometimes there is a ditdi, ten feet 
readth and six in depth.— Theu- cliiefs are only known by their 
caps, worn by the common Moon*. Their authority is incon- 
Table, yet they are sometimes rega.dv.'d as proprietors of the 
I, and receive a small quit rent. — Writing is not unknown, and 
*e are some historical books in th^'ir native tongues, with Ai'ubic 
ractcrs.— The paper is made of papyrus, and the ink is tl^ 

M. Hie fruil 


p-Miiiuui, Tlic ■p4eca uu] o' 



Pemba^^Comoraj— Mauritius and Bourbon.-^KergueleiCB Latub^ 
St Helena. — Ascension. — Cape Verd Islands. — Canaries, — Mo' 


THE islands of Pemba, Zanzibar, and Monfia, are opposite ta 
tile coast of Zanguebar. Pemba is said to be about 100 miles in 
circumference, pfoverned by a king, who pays tribute to Portug^ : 
to which power the two others are said to be subservient. 

The islands of Comoro are four in number. Tliat of Anzoan has 
a convenient harbour, sometimes visited by ships passing to India. 
These isles are ^vemed by Pagan or Mahometan chieftains, tribu- 
tary to the Portuguese ; and are reported to be very fertile in rice, 
Orangfes, lemons, sugar, cocoa, and ginger ; the natives carrying on 
some trade with the Portuguese of Mozambico. 

To the east of Madagascar are the Islands of Mauritius op France, 
and Bourbon, French settlements well known in the commercial 
world. Tiie Isle of France has a tolerable port, the centre of the 
oriental force and commerce of the French. The Isle of Bourbon, 
colonized in 1654, is about fifty leagues in circumference, of a 
circular form, rising to higli mountains in the centre ; and there is 
a noted volcano, difficidt of access, the eruptions of which are fre- 
quent. VLauritiiis, or the Isle of France, was first possessed by 

the Dutch, who abandoned it in 1712, and the French settlement 
began to acquire some stability under Bourdonnais in 1734. — There 
are two crops every ye'Ar of wheat and Indian com. but munioc^as 
the food of the negroes.— The Isle of Bourbon produces sugar ranes,. 
and in both the cattle are numerous — In 1766, M. Poivrc, author of 
the Voyage of a I'hilosopher, was governor of these isles, and the 
advantages of appointing men of science to such stations was evi- 
dent from his introduction of tlie bread-fruit tree, and also of the 
nutm* g II nd ciimamon. — These two islands have been recently tur> 
rendered to the English. 


c iMith He* KetfTirI^<> Luul, w) caBeA fitiH ■ mb 

t^ad) nniKalw It >• •ji.-icntieJ In the laM voflfG of C«(*,i 
wliith l^ curummdiT i.rcfrrT«L 

The Afriun uUndi 1)".^ i<i thr AUmUc ocnn, monthtl 
euut, aniM (nUmn ' St IbWia ii n branuriil UUnd, (nnoMd' 
abwt lltiTT hrlu"i*eii Knpl-tt C«milir», '.h" »rn*»rn'w>t^rilipin»l 

with • H>ftlt fkrram.- 'l'*>.Tf •it I'lirr. ui'll arl'<in'll. init^ 

T»tl«T— tbr IiJjaum 1'. . IjoB*. 1 

ClUyi but whan Ejm ' 
« ta«*m:— TTiU lt>''' ■ ■ 'I 

p«M. •hoM.lrtoflll V „t I 

BO •eUkmmt *hr» ili^ r .r.n .iiwci 

1600— Thm i* «iilv >.i<: . . ;. .I.lboiknf 

The itie nf Aicriuisn, hi . '. ' ii^nfil, u*a d 

in l}08i ind hu un r<'> . r. ''ncuteil by 

bound tliipi, whabcR tii-i i n-il- i - i ■ ■- 'nil 

On approtctiins tlio M'ncnn tlinn 1r> itic north nf CooM i 
pwiinft St- M»ttlicir, where tbt I»oinu(f»p»e huva k (auirtru 
mcnt, fint Dppuini the bic of AiuuboB, tnllawil h>v -SI- TIiiA 
Frinr<-'* NIr, uxl Ihftt nf fVrniivIa Pa. Tbe late of Bx. TIiim 
WW iliiroxTtTl itn.1 •rtrlcd by tli* riiruignaw abu«t IMa 1 
null 19 rciDwkaUjr Btnnt^ unii reriito, •lM»i>lie' aniiiMli >Iud 
:inil ll« pnxliicr of iiupiir n prvdiiriutu). 11ia« it b hiiliup. • 
ii ■ (uffraj^ii Drtdnbaii- Thv tvwn PRTuiiCan U rni ibc caiiam* 
of Itw ulwd. i>niioe') bUnd i> bIw ftrliV, vith ■ giMd h«ta 
indft town of kbout twn Iiundnd lu>u*e>un ihc nortMrft tkvo 
ii inhabited bj* ubuiit ibrly PDrliitriior «nd .'lOWl luripii iib*«v. 

'I'bc Cipc ^ crd iales Were diarnvrni! hy the PurlU^Hvr ikH 
Thcv fit icn in number, thMwii la<-) bring (li»tor Si. Jwni 
UwSlLiuid St. Anthony in Ihn N. IV. Thr u*ut hot Md « 
hrallhy, tuiil mma of the Isltw itonf and buTMi i llw clikr tm 
being in s»lt oihI goat vkini. Sunu produce ric«, maisc, buaot 
Ifmoni, orun^m. citnnui, withcattun and sui^ nurs j »nd liM 
ii Kbuotknce of [loultry. Itibin, the chief too'D ocmI bMlu^tt, 
ia St. J ago. 

Fur to (he north, tlicCKnar)' blAndu, (n'yi>rluru1«:> bl>nik«f t 
ancients, (brw an tMf rtating nmgo from htsI io cMt, They ■« 
conquered by the Freoeh in 1402 undcf tbccelebntcd JcMidcl 
UuncouTi, afiern'sniJi atiied fcing of the Caautci- The bIcBtrlCI 
c«lltd Ciuiiry ii ■ln*Uc^' than Fuerta Viuitura and Tcncritll^ 
others of the ■nmu groiipc Th« litltir U Ihr mint nmiarfEabbi 
acccxmt of ita peak, which WHa tuui'd 10 be I74Z tow* aImmc I 
Icvrl uf the KL-B, or Hbout 1000 liwt lower thwi Mnnt IUnuc Ii 
wid to be Tiaililc Bt Um dialane* of eiffAij/ leiguM- Tliia wiebnl 
nuuntiin cunnut he *4ictuded, an iccounL nf thr nuiwa, «c( 
fioroibc middle uf Jo)^ to tlie «iid of August. The^ntmmltB 
ualy he asccwled Iw » xifT-UK pBih nn the tnuth. The eold la 
Ircme; IlieoitUof theipavellcrbecnmc bbck, and the baunUi 
feat itt]l In the ntiddle nf the -uniniit U a ijecp nvM»- ' 
CAlIed t]ic cuulilrun, about fifty fndiumt in dtun>-ter, 7'hc 
AiofflW U«rlli bw^ ftbout 150 f«e& Arotuid (n uuuij hltlc i 

m ir> <Uun«-l<-r, in wiililn tlm fnftrP, f xhlilW «^i«wi|l Skf. 
Miawmy; ot il Iwll, aiid Uic kmi>ki;^ii> m IiqE. «r ■uUnlljr li> 

riiyul aiiiliencc. <>( 

im,ii> tho Ulr ol'Ciinuiyi Wt%fflejfll ii Tlii^ mnit popiiluu 
ii>lii>l>it(mtii »rc coinputed^"'""""' -'--■■--•'•'■'■"'-■ — 

iiiliencc. of which tflKDrriil'kril, i| fitiibli»W(l ut IM 
\:anu\-y. Thii vine. iTvlMv e«pnrlcd hyVlff F.n(tl(»h. 
iTMiKoloiic-.. fMm 111.- Lie or i:wiiiFy. wicM'Uml'ilfTtMVriitura, 
i;.rmai. Brlirln-if inillir. ■ </V 

Jk- IkIuiiiI fif Jfcilclra, wliicli liiH 240 miliilkltllw k' dT Tcne- 
, M .^lii.iH)' iTniarki>l)U: fnr i-trrll. iil ijk\ tA^g ihuut IS 
lies in hngMt by H-Trii in biviullli. JHh: cBI^I^iiiirIuiI, tliemil- 
:l- !•( Die iciivinmrklHl lu^ip, iHlli ■ frrtiU vdic, >Ki the xoutll 
■if tlHi iili-, n littndiiiiiqflAC Willi ahiMil 1 1,IKXI iiUiKbitanlji, 
n IkIiik aivxil n4,IKMI l« tlurdholc iRUml. Ilx: diitf tmle ■• 
1 tlic Kiif^liiili, whftcxfKirl aM% ten <ir twelve ilHiiiiund jllpea 
vine uiiiiiully ; ilii: rRTNBiiiiliir, iJmiiiI Mivrn Ihiiuiuiiul, hn'uiff ccm* 
nl in the i:iiiiiili7. 'Dii: richcHl nirrchaiiti nn: Riifflith up Iri«b 

I ih>^ iliMann* at Blmiit niim (IcKm!)), (ir 34(1 (■■ nii1i-j, In tlie 
W. or Mukira, Kre tlid lalHwU «i: Axim-M, of which ihr cli«r 
»t. Mir.lii-1, -|-iTR(-r*, INiiu ar tlin VttJi, :ki'I Tnyal, willi two 

ir ull (IiiMii>viTml hy Ibc IVirluipKiF iK-lbn- tti'J ; wli'i kbvt then 
iiimir rniiti thr niimlKr nf j(iiiduiwkli, wliich tllrjr ohM-rviil IwK 
nrkiililf t^inu>, tlien: liclii|{ lu-illiur iiiuii ii<ir (iiiiulrn|icd Ui be 

1. hi iA6li\ln- l^irtiiifiiew) kin|[ irnvti tlii-m tu liii niatcr t)ie 

ihm or llurKiiiiily. Tlii-y Wrn: rulinii/nl liy yirnnuffi aiK] 
iiiiuia, 'I'Ih-h- lain Krr mwriilty nii>imlBiiiuii"i uifl «:i)iiiiie(l la 
lic|iiiik<-ii mill viiiliait WiiiiIh -, yvl tht'y pniitiiRi: wlimt, wiiWi 
la, atal ahiiiitliiiici- nrwaul.— 'I'liu cliivl ialantl la I'crcvr*, and 
rajniij l»wii Anirrj. 

lu: luirhuLir iil' Fuyal |in;ai'nU a iK-aiilini) aiuplilllwiilK ekilh«4 
I Irix-n 1 llip iiiwn liwi .VHKl iiiliabiliiiilN, liiil iiiaji tw aawt tii con* 
''.liii-fly nf nnivciilN, Tin: Rliitiair imd auil an; i:xci'lli-iit, iliere 
IK no iHiRHniini riirfiK in llip wintrr. Tlir trei'* an: wulntili, 
imilii, wliitc tiiiiibn, aiul [uriiriilarly lliu arimtiis ur drawlier- 
riT, ilu' iinmr iirt^jfiO in ihr KirtiiipiuH' imptyiiiK a ntniwbrrry. 
;ni, Ihi! rnpiial iif 'I'trrri*. and Miat of wivrnininil fill' thcM 
•'In, i* ■iiiwlMl in Uw Iwufitiule OfSfT'tf. and Utiludc of